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gF Th« tpadoui ftnd eenTenisnt Station of th« Oompany in Gumcn Btroflt, City, in th« immadtote Ti«ini(y of tk* 

Bank of England, Royal Bzohangs, Ao., is no«r Opened fur Traffic 

Short Sea ft Express Mail Routes to the Continent. 





Via Folkestone and Boulofnet Ut and 2nd Clou, 

Marseilles -in 2Sk hours. ] Swltserland (Bale) in 27| hours. 

Bordeaux 38 „ I Italy (Turin) 60 „ 


Tor Hottxb or DsrABTiTRB (which ake Vasiablk) of the aboys Sebvices, see TntB 
Book, Bills, and Bbaobhaw's Guidbs fob the Cubbent MoKtu. 


Via Cologne or Paris, &c. ^ 



IiMTixur Okarlns Orosi and London Bridge at 7 25 a.m. and 8 30 p.m., daily, via Calais; also at 7 25 a. m 
and 830 p.m. (Son dayB excepted), via Ostend. 


( Wltli a flree allowanee of SSlba., eaeh Paaseaaer). 

TO jam raxm thk 




A mew B7Btem of Tlironirli RaU»B for Parcels «p to £00 1Im». Welarlit, via Folkestone 

and Bonlosne* for Pans* I^ons. JHarsellles* and other Prlnoip*! Towns in France, from London and 
tb« Lar|« Town* of the United Kingdom. The Faroels are alio now forwarded with Inoreaied rapidity. 



a. n.*./-N V ^ !i. ^' ^ 















^ ■ 













LO!n)ON»— W. J. ADAMS. 69, FLEET STREET (E.C.); 

LIVERPOOL: T. FAIBBROTHKR, 18, Oahviko Placb; -~---i 

■OUrMIBpi^ JOHN MEHZiEB. fl, Hiurovn Srun ; GLASGOW : JAMBS BEID, 144. Abotu Stbeb- 
DUBLIN: A. CAB80N, SI, Gaattok Srsjaer (Comer ot Btephen'a Ctoeen) ; ' 

l^*iu W. JlAiraNA NI h Q tf%. Beidiag Boom, library, «e.. SM, Bus m Brvou ; L. KICiQ\r& '^se&ILKS.^^^sm^ 
BssmlniOU t V* CLAVBT, n* Bouiatawd BoKn^NomrsLU (ChMmttbdA liatitnt^v, vs^Viib Ksifi!t»w)!ik^<&^-axvik\ 
^^ ^ « ^ ^ BKUaaBM : lb. nATTAU. Buouullx^ koa-VMWU w ul V>omv- , _^ 



Sttirtn ia ^laxtnct: 






This Hand Book to Italt is in continuation of our series of Onides, 
and embraces the whole extent of the Italian Peninsula, according to the 
new territorial divisions established since the Treaty of Yilla&anca. 

It offers to the Traveller or Eesident, in one moderately sized volume^ a 
complete description of every place and locality of any importance — with 
a particular account of all the Galleries, Works of Art, Buildings,. 
Sights, IS'atural Scenery, and other objects of interest ; and, throughout, 
it is adapted, as usual, to the latest development of the Railway system. 

We shall esteem it a favour if those who use the work will have tha 
goodness to forward any corrections or suggestions for improving it, to 
59, Heet-street, London ; or Albert Square, Manchester. 

The ftivoui'ahl^ Vortanti; pxperieneetl hy th*. ROYAL ii exhihiled Ay the Diaffram, which fhoim the 
. NUVBEK otif ttf H-hlvh 0>K ha» rfirif at inch Arte up to the end of tin- i/nn' WA, coinparetl with 
the NuMiiKR trhich htul fteeti Km'Ki tkd hp tfir TahUx. nii<l further coittraUed with itt Ejcperi' 
euee up to the end O/1830, aud vith the " Comt/nnd experience o/Secenteen Ojfflceit." 

" I COKFINE myself to the c.\iH'rioiu»«» of the Sovfijitoon OJHcos publiHliod in 18i3J A few words will 
snfflce to show the partieul'ir iiml {/cueraf lulaiitation of tliis fluurc to its intended purpose. 

To exhibit tho llrst of tlu-so quiilitics, l<>t it he stijtjxisod that tlio niKjuiror wishes to compare the 
Mortality experienced by the n'spoclive Ollh'<'s luiined, on Lives njied 1(» years. 

By dmwini^ his flnser carefully alons? the horizontal line 44), to the points where the several 
onn-es cross tho said line, and following with his eye the vertiojil lino at those respective points to 
the top or bottom of the pi^:o, he will learn that 

Tho " Royal" expected that l out of about 80 would die: 

Btit, by Adjusted experience to 1805, only i out of abotit inj) would die ; 

And by ditto to 1839 1 .. » 101 would die ; 

Wliilst by the combined experience . . 1 „ „ 97 would die. 

Little will be required to show the general n(lai)tatlon of the Diagram to exhibit the »ueee8» of the 
Royal in its Mortalit}/, and the Benefit thus ouxaiked by tue Assurer with rASTiciPA- 
Tiox OF Profits in that OUlce. I refer here to the flict that every point on the left of the OO0 
curve, whicli it must ho observed represents the Mortality expected by our Tables, shows more or 
less gain according as it is removed from or approaches thereto- Now, as tlie curve OO^ and tlie 
one painted red, respectively depictiuj! the a<lju^ted mortality of the Royal up to 18s0 and up to i«Ot, 
are entirely on the left of the O0O curve, and some portions of them at a very marked distance, it 
is at once evident that everything in the fast experience of the Company, as respects this im< 
portant subject, has b«en more favourable than could have been reasonably hoped fur." 




XOtH) ••• ••• #•• •■• ••• •#• ■■• «wlOJy/u^ 

|(}QQ ••• ••• •■• ••• ••• •#• ••• ^\^^i mii\ 



XoOO §■• ttt ••• ••• ••# ••• •#• Ji^Of ^o^A 

igQQ ■•• •■• ••• «•• ••• ■•# 1c#Of5wO 


loots ••• •«• ,at ••• ..r ••• ••• A'lir'jfXD 

lOOO •" ■•• *** •** ••• ••• O^Oy/^O 

1866 EXCEEDS 1856 HY NO LESS THAN £730,030. 

Amount added to the Life Funda in the year 18G6 alone, after payment of all Losses and 
Expenses, £124,165. 

The increase for the year 1S(?7 filono, hoyond lh(» amount at the close of the year 1886, 
will also show, when the accounts arc completed, a further amount of over £l20,000i 
making the total Life Funds nearly £1.000.000, in addition to tho File Keaerve Fimd and 
Capital. The accumulated funds of the Company being thus nearly 

ONE Mn.Li«^\ AM> A 1 1 M » STF.HLING. 

Uie Actnary in his late Valuation Eeport stated his opinion that nO lesS than £100.000 
would be added annually to the Lite aud Annuity Funds, for the next ten years. This anticipa* 
tion baa so far been more than reali7,ed, U3 the'Fund.s in hand at the end of 1B67 will show vi 





Vmrnwrnvnt xNFOiaaTioN: 

Carriage Travelling m..m.«......»...i..m.m. 

Churches » m..... m... 

Coina» Italian, witli reiatiye value in 

English Money 





. Postufe 

Post TraTeUing 

Ballwi^ In Italy 

Bootes to Italy 


Weights and Measures 


Ancient divisions of Italy ... 

. Army 

Baths and Mineral Waters.. 


Coast LinOM.. M.....M.. 


Income......... , 

Islands .m......m.m. 




















JLianguage .*«.*i«i*<M«tM«it*miM«(MiM*.*.«... xxv. 

Mountains m zziU. 

Natural Features zxUL 

Navy xxlL 

Plains xxiv. 

Political Features m xz. 

Population xxL 

Ports, principal xxiv. 

Products xxiv. 

Rivers xxiiL 

Volcanoes ^ „ xxilL 

Winds M. xxiv. 


Alphabetical List of Italian Painters, 
Sculptors, and Architects xxviL 

Architecture xxviL 

Books xxxi^ 

Chronological List of Important Events, 
Roman Emperors, Popes, Sovereigns, 
Doges, Artists, etc zxlz. 

Distances of the Principal Railway 
Stations from Florence xzzvIiL 

Painting zzvi. 

Schools of Painting zzvi. 

SJieleton Ronte to Turio zzztU. 


lottiL Page. 

I. Tttrln to Sosa, Monte Cenis, and Monte 

Gendvre 5 

9L H to Pinorolo and the Waldenses, or 

Vaudois Country 6 

It M to Saluzzo and Monte Viso, Cuneo, 
Baths of Valdieri, Col di Tenda, and 
Nice. 7 

A ,1 to Alessandria and Oenoa, through 
the Ligurian Apennines; and to 
Alessandria and Placenza 8 

Ik IV to Chivasso, Vereelli, Novara, Ma- 

gsiita, and Milan....*...*.* 10 

Ronte. Fifdi 

6. M to Ivrea, Aosta, the Great and UtUe 

St Bernard, and the Mont Blanc 
District; and to the Castellamonte 
District U 

7. „ to Biella, Varallo, Lake of Orta, and 

the Upper Novarese IS 

8. „ toNovara,Arona,andLakeMaggiore 17 

9. Nice to Genoa, by the Riviera di Ponente, 

or Comiche Road ^ 18 

10. Grenoa, by the Riviera di Levante, to Spezia, 

Lucca, Pisa, Leghorn, and Florence 3S 

1 1. Milan to Gallarate and Lake Maggiore 37 

12. „ to Como » 84 

13. „ to Beivamo, Brescia, Solferino, Lake 

di Garda, Peschlera, Verona, Yl- 
•enzsi Padua) and yenice.....M..... 88 



Koate. Page. 

14. M to the Certosa, Pavia, Alesandiia, and 

Genoa. 49 

15. „ to Piacenza, Parma, Modena, and 

Bologna ~ 51 

18. „ to Tre^lio, Cremona, Mantua, aud 

Parma 57 

17. Verona to Trento «. 68 

18. „ to Mantua, Parma, Reggio, and 

Bologna 59 

19. Venice to Treviso, Undine, and Trieste 63 

19. (Continued). Venice to Vienna 80 

70. Venice and Padua to Arqu2^ Este, Rovigo, 

Ferrara, and Bologna...... ^ 81 

91. Bologna to Florence 90 

SBi „ toBavena, Rimini, and Ancona 90 



9S. Rn to Empoll and Florence.M..........*...«.M 101 

34. n to Lncca and Florence ....m »... 105 

aft. „ to Leghorn, Cecina, SaUne, Volterra, 
Elba. Qrosseto, Clvita, Vecchia, 
and Rome 108 

56. Florence to Empoli, Siena, Asciano, Chiusi, 

Ilcnlle, Onrieto, Bolaena. and Rome 111 

57. „ to Arezzo, Perugia, Aaaisi, Follgno, 

Spoleto, Temi, Orte, and down 
the Tiber to Rome 183 

38. Ancona to Fano, Fouombrome, Urbino, and 
over the Apennines to Arezzo, and 
Florence; or to Fossombrome, CagU, 
Sigillo, Nocera. FoUgno, etc., and 
Rome —• 141 

39 „ to Rome via Jesi, Sigillo, Nocera, 
Foligno, Spoleto, Temi, and the 
Falls, Orta, and down the Tiber... 144 

!• „ to Loreto, Fenno, and Pescara, on the 

nUto FoggiA aud TrA&iM.uf lH 

Route pa^ 

81. Temi to Aquila, Popoli, Cblett and Pes- 
cara; or to Popoli, Isemia, Capua, 

and Naples 148 

32L Rome, description of ...............^......m... 149 



32. (Continued) Rome to Naples, by railway, 

rid Ciampino, Albano, Velletri, 
Frosinone, Ceprano, Presenzano, 
Capua, Cancello, etc. ; or by road, 
via Terracina, Fondi, and Oaeta, 
and the Coast 313 

33. Pescara to Chieti, Popoli, Isernia, Capua, 

and Naples; Across the Peninsula 216 

34. „ to Termoli, Foggia, and Manfre- 

Qonift ................................. M.... m 

35. Naples to Nola, Montfort, Aveliino, Bene- 

vento, Ariano, and Foggia 243 

36. „ to Eboli, Muro, Melfi, and Foggia... 244 

37. „ to Eboli. Potenza, Oravina, Bari, 

Brindisi, and Otranto 245 

38. Foggia to Canosa, Cannis, Trani, Bari, 

Taranto, Ostuni, Brindisi, Lecce, 

Gallipoli, and Otranta..M.... t 245 

89. Bari to Taranto, Castrovlllari, and CoSenza 248 

40. Naples to Eboli, Anletta, Castrovillari, 

Coeenza, Gloja, Reggio, and Sicily 258 

41. Palemio to Messina, by the North Coast, 

via Bagheira, Termini, Patti, 

Milazzo, etc 359 

43. n to Etna, Messina, by the South and 
East Coasts; Marsala, Mezzara, 
Girgenti, Terranuova, Syracuse, 

Catania, and Taormina. 2^1 

43. „ to Messina, across the Island 2b'S 

4i. Porto Torres to Cdfrliari 270 

4a. La Maddaiena to daiiaii .^ - 273 



Aesn. 111. ilt 

Ad Cj.ilelld, 2S9 
Acl RmIo. 2Sa 
AcqiLaWflL, 1 ns. f M 
Aeqnilagm, lU 

BitmainUo, W 
Bugnen, 3W, 16S 

Bimbolo, IDS, lia 
~ iUoni.att 

Biltlpaglu, 237 

BoaU, na 
BeLitm, VU 

BelliDiuo. IT 
BctlnnD, 81 

Bdzuo, 13 

BLlccglie^ US, Ut 

BngtaeUo, 1«, 311, 28, IM, 
Borglo Fui[e«Ie, M 

BDTgD-l-BllgglUlS, lOB 

BDrgolDTU, (13 
BorgD Fnflco, lA 
Borgoretto. » 
Borgo B. Dnlnitliti, 8 
Bsi^3.MuUno, It 

BargD Vtrcdll, 10^ 11 
Borgo e. Dsnlno, SI, III 
Borgo S. Etapolao, 143 

Ciduubbl*, H 

Ci«U, 141. I4> 
Cagllkrl, 370, ITS 
Otmello, 311. 314 
CiIeUSidI, 363 
CiliUKibelu, Mt 

Cilou, II 

CuEplgUs, lU 
Cunpiobbl, 1S8 
-~ "^ 317, Ml 

CiBtilitiia. • 

CidUivi, lU 
Cipiccio, i31 
Cipt Bon. 3e 

Opt 3c)il». ; 

CuaTlgiu, 2(7 
CudinUe, lU 
Ciremi IS 
Ctrlnl. Ki 

Cunn, IS 

Cua d*1 Piun, t» 

Cut-broctin^ tO. BT, lU 
Oiioo dl CUraei^ aSd, 

CuiegglA 10, Bl 
CuM Ardour IH 
Ciutct BuHgnuo, SS 

(UMd BOlOfDMB, W. ei 

ouKteiMifts CI, es 


CutlgUoBi FiorenUno. 

OUIi, » 


I, til 


.crUJdo. 117 



Chioggla. b, U 

Chliuu. 10, IS 
Clgsglou, M 

CIIU dl CuUHo, lU 
Cinu CWBlUiu, 13^ 
C'Viu d'Antiu, ait 

CiTlUViceiili, IDS. Ill 
Cl*litlli del Tronto, 147 

Codifiio, SI, a 

Corr^jio. 3S 
Conldelli, es 

Cwuh 2J0, an 

Cugll.ri, «1 

niiiaiu, 31t 
II. I« 

Eboll, »«. 2U, W 

Funii. Ml H 
Fuio. »0. SS, Its, lis 


FojMlO, 114 

Follgno, itt, lU, 141, 



UIElrtl, 2M 

Fundi, «l] 

II., 30, 





FouDmbTDB*. 141, 111 

Fnna'Uli, U7, U7, iU, 

Oenoi, e, lli M 


li, 368 


261, 368 
245, 218, 253 
L 259 

lazzo, 245, 248 
ti, 261, 263 
lova, U4, 147 
te, 10 

X>t36, 36 
no, 13 
UK). 235^ 
lona, 17 

lano, 80, 81 
ito, 108 
1 Ferrata, 205 
jnmare. 144, 147 
> Minarda, 243, 244 
3Uo, 36 
o, 143 

Tadinoi IM 
0, 144 

. 183 


^ 148, 216, 217 

idi, 270 
laria, 270 
reja, 110 
Pi, 241 
ise, 60 

glione, 268 
nica, 110 

1 di S. Paolo, 218 
I Soperiore, 17 

t« Chrifito, lit 
Ida, 243 
Ma. 270 

Vivara, 242 

Vulcano, 269 
Isola del Cantone, 8 
IsoladeSora, 213 
Isoletta, 211, 314 
Itri, 212 
Ivrea, 13 
Ivrognie, 15 

Jcsl, 144 

La Cattolica, 96 

Lacco, 242, 243 

La Duchessa, 245, 250 

Lag;nasco Salazzo, 7 

Lagonegro, 250, 251 


Alban, 205 

Averno, 240 

Bolsena, 134 

firenta, 64 

Celano, 148, 213 

Como, 34 

Di Garda, 35 

Lentini, 255 

Lucrinus, 240 

Maggiore, 17, 27 

Nerni, 206 

Trasimeno, 135 
La Maddalena, 273 
Lamolli, 142, 143 
Lancenigo, 80 
Lanciato, 217 
Lanusei, 272 
La Potassa, 110 
Larino, 218 
La Rotonda, 251 
L'Arricia, 206 
La Salle, 15 
La Sarre, 14 
La Storta, 131, 133 
La Torre, 6 
La Torncella, 217 
Lavagna, 26 
Laveno, 17 
La vino, 51, 57 
Lauria, 250, 251 
Laareano, 253 
Laviano, 244 
Le Capane, 90 
Lecce, '^45 248 
Lecco, 36 
Leghorn, 25, 108 
Legnano, 34, 43 
Leonforte, 268, 269 
Lentini, 261,264 
Leri, 11 
Lerici 26 
Le*''»''e, 235 
Levane, 133 
Levanzo, 263 
Licata, 261, 264 
Limito, 35 
h'lmpostOf 131, 183 

Limone. 8, 59 
Lipari 269 
Llvemo, 10 
Loano, 19 
Locate, 49 
Lodi 51 

Logo Santo, 278 
Lometto, 49, 51 
Lonato, 35, 39 
Loreto, 144, 145 
Lorrigo, 35 
Lovere, 36 
Lucca. 25, 105 
Lucera, 21S 
Lucignanc, 127 
Lugignano, 53 
LugUano, 107 
Lugo, 90 
Luzzaro, 63 

Macaluba, 264 
Maccarese, 111 
Macerato, 145 
Macomer, 270, 271 
Maddalena, 7 
Maddaloni, 211, 219 
Magadino, 17 
Magenta, 10, 13 
Magione, 135 
Maida, 232 
Majori, 236 
Malamocco, 80 
Malpasso Vecchio, 263 
Manerbio, 69 
Manfredonla, 217, 218 
Manganaro, 268, 269 
Mantua, 58, 5;^, 60 
Mapelio, 36 
Marano, 35, 144, 147 
Marciano, 236 
Marengo, 9 
Marettimo, 263 
Marino, 205, 211 
Marlia, 107 
Marotta, 97 
Marsala, 261, 262 
Marsico, 251 
Martano, 245, 248 
Martina, 247 
Marzabotto, 90 
Mascall, 263 
Massa, 26, 27, 110, 236 
Matera, 245 
Mattarana, 25, 26 
Mazzara, 261, 268 
Mede, 49 
Melegnano, 51 
Mem, 244, 245 
Mellilt, 266 
Melza, 35 
Mentone, 18 
Merago, 144 
Mercatello, 143 
Mercenasco, 13 

Messagnee, 245 

Messina, 259, 260, 261 

Mestre, 35, 48, 80 
Mignano, 211, 214 
Milan, 10,11, 27, 84,51 
Milazzo, 259 
Mileto. 253 
MUis. 271 
Millesimo, 7 
Minor!, 216 
Mirandola, 90 
Mlsilmeri, 268, 269 
Modena, 51, 56 
Modica. 264 
Modugno, 245 
Mogliano, 80 
Mola, 247 
Mola de Gaeta, 212 
Molfetta, 245, 346 
Monaco, 18 
Monastir, 270, 272 
Moncalieri, 7, 8 
Moncalvo, 11 
Mondovi, 7 
Monfalcone, 80, 81 
MonopoU, 245, 247 
Monselice, 81 
Monsummano, 107 
Montagno di Celle, 107 
Montaguto,243, 244 
Montalbano, 249 
Montalto, 13,111, 251 
Montanaro, 13 
Montebello, 35 
Montecatina, 105, 107 
Montefiascone, 131 
Monteleone, 250, 252* 
Montelupo, 105 
Monienotte, 9 
Montepeloso, 245 
Monterchi, 143 
Monterosi, 131, 183, 181^ 

Montesilvano, 144, 148 
Montevarchi, 133 
Moutfort, 243 
Montolino, 146 

Astronl, 238 

Baldo, 40, 59 

Cacnme, 218 

Camo, 213 

Cavo, 305 

Cenis, 5 

Ciiaberton, 8 

Cimino, 131 

Cimone, 90 

Circello, 213 

Cocuzzo, 251 

Corno, 217 

Cortonenses^ 181 

Dauphin^ 7 





Ifonts — Continued. 

Etna, 266 

Genfevre, 5 

Gibilrossa, 269 

Grand Sasso dltalia, 

Grifone, 269 

Gnalandro, 135 

La Catini, 110 

Laco, 189 

Madonia, 255 

Micella, 216, 217 

Meidaasa, 7 

Mort, 15 

Kero, 143 

Nuovo, 240 

Oliena, 271 

Porzio, 206 

Potenze, 107 

Pourri, 15 


Biparossa, 351 

Rondini^o, 107 

8. Giuliano, 262, 869 

Solfatara, 239 

Soracte, 140, 205 

Splneto, 251 

Teja, 147 

VeUino, 148, 217 

Vemecca, 105 

Vteo, 6, 7, 8 
Konza, 84 
Morano, 251 
Mores, 271 
Morgen, 15 
Mori, 58 
Morl9, 53 
Morreale, 258 
Mortara, 11 
KotebeUo, 43 
Kozzecane, 59 
Kagnano, 243 
Morano, 79 
Mosignano, 111 
MuBocco, 84 
Mutignano, 144, 148 

Naples, 211, 216, 819 
Nami, 134, 140 
Kas, 14 
Navacchio, 105 
Kepi, 134, 140 
Nerano, 236 
Kettino, 211 
Nicastro, 250, 253 
Kice, 7, 8, 18 
NicbeUino, 6 
Niooiia, 269 
Kocera, 143, 141, 336 

Noli, 19 
None, 6 
Norcia, 147 
Norma, 211 
Noto, 264 
Novara, 10, 13, 17 
Novl, 8, 9 
Nubresina, 80, 81 
Nulci, 273. 274 
Nuoro, 271 
Nara, 273 

Ofanto, 244 
Oimenelta, 57 
Oleggio, 17 
OUveri, 259 
Oliveto, 244 
Oncglia, 8, 18, 19 
Oppido, 2)5, 258 
Orbetello, 110 
Orciano, 108 
Ordica, 264 
Ordona, 244, 245 

Oristauo, 270, 273 
Ormea, 8 
Orta, 12, 245, 246 
Orte, 133, 140 
Orvieto, 113 
Osilo, 273, 274 
Osimo, 144 
Ospedalletto, 35 
Ossaja, 135 
Osteria Bianoa, 127 
Ostia, 207 

Ostium Tibemam, 207 
Ostuni, 245, 247 
Otranto, 245, 248 
Otricoll, 134, 140 
Oalx,5, 6 
Ozieri, 271 

Padaa, 85, 46, 80, 81 
Padula, 261 
Pato, 237 
Pagni, 236 
Palagonia, 264 
Palermo, 256 
Paiestrina, 206 
PaUdoro, 111 
Pallazolo, 35 
Palinuro, 251 
Palma, 216, 261, 264 
Palmi, 250, 253 
Palo, HI 
Pantellaria, 263 
Paolo, 251 
Parabiago. 34 
Parma, 51, 53, 58, 63 
Parona, 58 
Partinico, 361, 263 
Pasana, 7 

Pasian Schlavoneseou 80, 

Passignano, 134, 134 
Paaso d'Orta, 246 
Pasteuza, 237 
Patemo, 267, 268 
Patti, 259 

Paulitatino, 270, 371 
Pavia, 49, 50 
Pcdaso, 144, 147 
Pegli, 19 
Penne, 216 
Pentima, 216 
Perchiem, 35, 40 
Perera, 6 
Peri, 58 
Perouse, 6 
Pertengo, 13 
Pertosa, 250 
Perugia. 134, 185 
Pesaro, 90, 96 
Pescantena, 58 
Pescara. 144, 148, 216 
Pescia, 105, 107 
Pescina, 216 
Pessione, 8 
Pettorano, 217 
Piacenza, 10, 51, 53 
Piadena, 58 
Pianello, 216 
Pianzano, 80 
Piave, 80 
Pietro, 19 
Pietro Santa, 26, 37 

Pieve Albignola, 49 
Pieve-arNievoIe, 105 
Pignataro, 211, 214 
Pinerolo, 6 

Piombino, 110 

Pioraccos, 146 

Pisa, 26, 37, 101, 105, 

Piscina, 6 

Pisticcio, 249 

Pistoja, 90, 105, 107 

Pitecchio, 90 

Pizzighettone, 52 

Pizzo, 252 

Plaisano, 253 

Pofi, 211 

Poggio Renatico, 85 

Poggibonsi, 127 

Pojano, 35, 45 

Polesella, 81, 83 

PoUcastro, 251 

Policoro, 248, 249 

Pollgnano, 246 

Polistena, 253 

Polla, 250 

Pomaretto, 6 

Pompeii, 232 

Ponte Centesimo, 148, 144 

Pontassieve, 183 

Pont Boset, 13 

Ponteeagnano, 387 
Pontecorvo, 214 
Pontedecimo, 8, 10 
Pontedera, 105 
Pontecurone, 10 
Ponte della Maddalena. 

Ponte di Bovino, 243, 244 
Ponte oi Brenta, 85, 48 
Ponte Felice, 140 
Ponte Galera, 111 
Ponte Ginori, 109 
Ponte Lagoscnro, 82 
Pontennve, 51, 58 
Ponte S. Marco, 35, 86 
Ponte S. Pietro, 36 
Pontremoli, 26 
Ponzana, 10, 12 | 
Popoii, 148, 216 
Populonia, 110 
Porcari, 105 
Pordenone, 80, 81 
Porrero, 6 
Porretta, 90 
Porta Nuova, 7 
Porta Palo, 265 
Portella, 213 
Portici, 233 
Porto, 207 

Porto Civitanova, 144 
Porto d'Anzio, 207 
Porto Ferny 0. 110 
Porto Maurizio, 19 
Porto Recanati, 144, 145 
Porto S. Georgio, 144, 

1*6 ^ , 

Porto Torres, 270 
Positano, 236 
Potenza, 245 
Potenza Picena, 144 
Pozzo d'Albero, 243 
Pozzolengo, 40 
Pozzuoli, 339 
Pracchia, 90 
Pragano, 237 

PriO&°o« 286 
Prato, 105, 108 
Prato Antioo, 183 
Prato Fiorlto, 107 
Preganziol, 80 
Pr^ St. Didier, 15 
Pretola, 343 
Presenzano, 148, 311, 314, 

216, 217 
Priyemnm, 311 
Procida, 243 - 

Qnadema, 90 
Quarto, 273 

I Bagalbnto, 

lapolaiio, 127 

IcfMiiia, 90, 91 
Beematl, 146 • 
Xboool 86 

Icgalboto, 968 
B^ 61, M, S50, 

Bessttto, 85,36 
BlUH 10, 18, 84 
Baxdo, 211, 214 
(Bieti, 148 
Sigmmo, 138 
Ximini, 90, 95 
]Uo name. 111 
Skmero, 217 
Bipafratta, 105 
! B^mlta, 217, 218 
B^Mitransome, 147 
P^merando, 110 
Bitorto, 250, 251 
', Biya,6,58 
I Bivalta, 60 
I Bivarolo, 8, 15 
Bivers — 

Acqna di Cannlgnola, 


Abissio, 265 

Agogna, 12 


Anio, 206, 20T 

Ann 111 

Arno, 104 113 


Aterno, 148 

Bardonnl^che, 6 

Baieno, 249 

BeUce, 255, 263 


Bey^ni, 8 

Biaenxinio, 105, 108 

Bomiida, 7, 9 

Biadano, 246, 249 

Bruno, 110 

Bnaento, 251 




Cedna, 109 







BItcw— C baffti i wl . 
Crestolo, 68 
Bora Baltea, 11 
Era, 105 
Esino, 97, 144 
Filime Freddo, 268 
Fiamidno, 94 
Foltrino, 217 
Fortore, 218 
Oesso, 8 
Giaretto, 255 
Lagoon, 48 
Lamone, 94 
liUgono, 58 
Lato, 249 
Lete Morta, 146 
Lima, 107 

Magglore Grande, 12 
Magra, 26 
Marecchia, 95 
Marro, 252 
Metano, 96 
MoQtone, 91, 94 
Mosone, 145 
Naviglio Grande, 12, 50 
Negro, 250 
Ofanto, 245 
OgUo, 86 

Ombrone, 105, 107, 110 
Onabala, 268 
Oreo, 10 
Paglione, 8 
Panaro, 57 
Parmignola, 26 
Pellicof 6 
Pescara, 217 
Piano de R8, 7 
Pisciatello, 94 
Plataiii, 255 
Beno, 85 
RigUo, 53 
Rigosa, 84 
Riviera, 8, 9 
Ronco, 91, 94 
RubicoD, 94 
Sacco, 213 
Sagone, 6 
Salso, 265 
Sangone, 6 
Savena, 90 
Savio, 94 
Savoiia, 9 
Sieve, 133 
Silaro, 90 




Tiber, 111,137,143,154 


Tonaro, 7, 8, 9 

Tronto, 147 

Uso, 94 

Voltamo, 217, 218 
Rivo, 244 
Rivolta, 251 
Robecco, 12 
Robedietto, 12 
Robilante, 8 
Rocca d' Evandro, 211 
Roccabnmo, 18 
Roocaraso, 216 
Roccasecca, 211, 214 
Rocco Cambio, 148 
Rocco di Papa, 205 
Rooco Imperiale, 248, 249 
Rocco Valloscuia, 148, 

216, 217 
Rodallo, 13 
Rogeredo, 49, 61 
Rogliano, 250, 261 
Rome, 149, 111, 181, 


American Chnrch, 149 

American Consul. 149 

Aqueducts, 157, 195 

Arches, 195 

Baths, 196 

Benevolent Institn- 
tions. Hospitals, etc, 

Bridges, 54 

Capitol, The, 186 

Carriages, 150 

Chief Objects of Notice, 

Churches, 160* 

Ch urches outsideRome, 

Circuses, 197 

Colleges, 192 

Colosseum, 197 

Columns, 198 

Diligences, 150 

English and American 
Bankers, 160 

English Church, 149 

English Club, 150 

English Consul, 149 

English ReadlngRoonM, 

Excnrrions from Rome, 

Forum, The, 194 

Forums and Basilicas, 

Fountahis, 157 

Galleries, 150, 151 

Gates, 158 

Holy Week, 161 

Hotels, 149 

Libraries, 198 

Idst of some of tha 
oldest Chorobes, 168 

Money, 149 

Municipal Districts, 158 

Obelisks, 155 

Omnibuses, 149 

Other Churches worth 
Notice, 169 

Painters, 161 

Palace of the Ccsan, 

Pantheon, 200 

Phjnsician, and Aocon- 
cheur, 150 

Pontifical Palaces, 179 

Population, 160 

Post Office 149 

Principal Chnrdi Fet- 
tivals, 161 

Private Palaces and 
Villas, 187 

PubUc Clocks, 150 

Quhinal and Lateran 
Palaces, 186 

Railways, 150 

Remains of Andent 
Rome, 194 

Roads, 159 

Saddle Horses, 150 

Sculptors, 151 

Seven Hills, The, 152 

Squareit and Fountains, 

Steam Conmiunication, 

Streets, 155 

Telegraph Office, 150 

Temples, 201 

Theatres, 150, 158 

Universi^, The, 192 

Vatican Palace and 
Museum, 179 

Villas, 151, 191 

Walls, 158 

Weights and Measures, 
Ronchi, 80, 81 
Rondglione, 181, 132 
Ronco, 8, 10 
Rosamo, 250^ 262 
Roseto, 250 
Roverbella, 69, 60 
Rovcredo, 68 
Rovigo, 81, 82 
Rovinazzo^ 68 
Rubbia, 80 
Rubiera, 66 



8. Andrea del Lido, 80 
8. Angelo-in-Vado, 142, 

8. Antonio, 6 
8. Arcangelo, 90, 94 
a Ben de Tronto, 144, 

8. Biagio, 252 
B. Claudio. 146 
6. ClementI, 280 
8. Donnino, 105 
8. Elsidio, 144. 146 
8. Filipo d'Argiro, 269 
8. Giorgio, 15, 85 
8. Giovanni, 133 
8. Giovanni Manzano, 80, 
8. Gialiano, 105 
8. Giustino, 142, 143 
8. Giosto Moote Graoaco, 

8. Ilario, 61, 56 
8. Lazaro, 80 
8. Lussurg^o, 271 
8. Martino, 85 
8. Pedro, 261 
8. Pier d' Arena, 8, 10, 19 
8. Pierino, 105 
8. Piero, 105, 108 
8. Pietro in Casale, 67 
8. Qoirico, 10 
8. Remo, 18, 19 
8. Romano, 105 
8. Severo, 217, 218 
8. 8i8to, 251 
8. Stefano, 12, 18, 19, 51, 

8. Tedoro, 249 
8. Vincenzo, 108, 110 
8. Vito, 217, 218, 245, 

San Bonifacio, 85, 43 
San Chlaffieddo, 7 
San Damiano, 8 
San Gennano, 10, 311, 

San Giovanni, 6 
San Lorenzo, 19 
San Marcello, 107 
San Martino, 109 
San Nicolo, 10 
San Sepolcro, 143 
Santa Agata, 212, 259 
Santa Caterina, 263, 269 
Santa Croce, 148 
Santa Elena, 80 
8anto Eafemia, 252 
Santo Maria degli A jgeli, 

184, 135 
Santa Maria de Capua, 

211, 315 . 
Santa Maria di Ucodia, 

Santa Marlnetta, 111 
^sit^ jffer<era. Ill 

St. Giorgio. IS 
St. Martino. 6 
St. Pierre. 14 
St. Remy. 15 
St. Valentma, 316 
St Vincent. 14 
Sacile. 80. 81 
Sagrado. 60 
8alarco, 127 
Saline. 108, 109 
Sa!a. 250 
Salerno, 237 
Sallussola, 11 
Salo, 59 
Saluzzlo, 10 
Saluzzolo, IS 
Saluzzo, 7 
Samasst, 270, 273 
Samozzia. 51, 57 
Sangiorgio. 216 
Sandigliano, 15 
Sangone. 6 
Sannazzaro, 49, 51 
Sanseveriuo. 216 
Santafede. 244 
Santhia. 10. 11 
Saruara, 270, 273 
Sardinia. 270 
Sarno, 216 
Sarzana, 26 
Saasarl 270. 271, 278 
Snssinole, 57 
Savigliano, 7 
Savignana, 90 
Savignano, 244 
Savona, 7, 9, 18, 19 
Scafati, 236 
ScaU. 236 
Scaletta, 268 
Scara d'AgnunI, 261 
Scarena, 8 
Scaricatojo, 236 
Schieggia, 143 
Schio, 45 
Sctacco, 261, 263 
Scigliano, 252 
Scilla. 253 
Scoglietti, 294 
Secu?nago, 51, 62 
Seddori, 270 
Segeste, 261, 263 
Segni,211, 213 
Selinonte, 261 
Seminara, 253 
Senegaglia, 90 
Seregno, 34 
Seriate, 86 
Serravalle, 105, 107, 

Serra S. Qnirico, 144 
Serrara, 242 
Serravalle, 8, 10 
Serrcntl, 270, 272 
Sestri di Ponente 19 
Sestsi X^vante, 2 

Sesto. 31. 105, 108 

Sestc Calende, 84 

Setia, 211 

Seitimo. 10, 13 

Settimo Vtttone, 18 

Sezze, 9 

Sicily. 250. 255 

Siculiana. 261, 263 

Siena, 127. 128 

Sigillo, 141, 143 

Sijrna, 105 

Siliqua. 272 

Sinalunga, 127 

Solarolo, 90 

Solero, 8 

Soiferino. 35, 89 

Solino. 254 

Solmona, 148, 216, 217 

Somma Compagna, 85, 

Somona, 34 

Sora. 213 

Sorbolo, 56 
Sorcsina, 57 

Sorrento, 236 
Sospello, 8 

Sottovicari, 268 
Soveria Manelli, 251 
Spadafora. 259, 260 
Sparanise, 211. 214 
Spargola. 211, 218 
Spello. 138 
Spezia, 25, 26 
Spoleto, 184, 139, 147 
Spotemo, 19 
Spresiano, 80 
Spezzano Albanese, 251 
Storta, 134 
Stradella, 10 
Strambiuo, 13 
Strevi, 9 
Stromboli, 252 
Sabiaco, 148, 207 
Saimona, 143 
Sasa, 5, 6 \ 
Syracuse, 261, 263 

Taormina, 261, 268 
Taranto, 245, 243 
Tarquinil 111 
Tarsia, 250, 251 
Tavazzano, 51 
Tavemelle, 85 
Tempio, 273 
Tenda, 8 
Teramo, 147 
Termini, 259 
Termoli, 217, 218 
Terni, 134, 139, I48 
Terracini, 211, 212 
Terra Nova, 261, 264, 

Terra Nuova, 258, 358 
Tiiiolo, 260, 253 

Tlvoli, 206 
Tocco, 148, 813 
Tolentino, 146 
Tolvi, 245 
Torazzo, 10 
TorceUo, 80 
TorcoTano, 59 
Torralba. 270, 273 
Torre a Maro. 248, 249 
Torre Annunziata, 233 
Torreberettt 49, 51 
Torre de Confini, 212 
Torre del Greco, 232 
Torre del Lago, 26, 27 
Torre Masdea, 150, 263 
Torrita, 127 
Torrito, 245 
Tortoli, 273 
Tortona. 10 
Toscanella, 111 
Trani, 144, 217, 245, 246 
Trapani, 261, 262 
Trappeto, 259 
Tres Nuraghea, 271 
Trebissacce, 248, 250 
Trecate, 10. 12 
Tremosine, 69 
Trento, 58, 59 
Trevi, 139 
Treviglio, 35, 57 
Treviso. 63. 80, 81 
Trieste, 63, 80, 81 
Trino, 11 
Tronsano. 10 
Trixza, 261 
Troja, 244 
Truflarello, 7, 8 
Turbia, IS 
Turin, 1 
Tursi, 249 

Udine, 80, 81 
Undine, 63 
Uras, 270, 273 
Urbania, 142, 143 
Urbino, 141, 143 

Vaglio, 245 
Valcimara, 143 
Valenza, 12, 49 
Valeggio, 69 
Vallelunga, 268 
Valleys — 

Angrogna, 3 

Anzaca, 17 

Ansa, 95 

D'Aosta. 13 

De Challant, 14 

De Champorcher, 1 

De Perousc, 6 

Di Hove, 267 

Di Chiana, 136 

Di Diano, 260 

Di Sugana, 46 

Durance, 3 



yil l t w Contintied, 

lAcemft, 6 

Ombrone, 90 



PoloeTerra, 10 

Pnigelas, 6 

Boja, 8 

8ftn Bfjulino, 6 

Vado, 19 

▼ennena^a, 8 
▼almadonna, 49 
▼almoDtore, 211, 218 
Valvo, 244 
Var. Pombia, 17 
Varighotti. 19 
Varaszi, 19 

Vasto. 217. 218 
Velleja, 68 
VcUetrl, 24 
Venafro, 216, 217 
Vendfro 148 
Venice, 35, 49, 63, 80 
Venosa. 244 
Ventimiglia, 18 
VerceUi, 10. 11 
VerdeUo, 35 
Verirato, 90 
Verg^asco, 15 
Venia, 11 
Verona, 35, 40, 59 
Verola, 213 
Verrea, 14 

Vettica Maggiore, 23? 
Vettica Mlnore, 23? 
Viareggio, 26, 27 

Vicenza, 85, 44 
VIco, 235 
Vicovaro, 207 
Vienna, 80, 81 
Vietri, 236 

VIetrl di Potenxa, 215 
Vigevano, 11 
Viggiano, 251 
Villa Bonoris, 38 
Villa Marlis, 7 
ViUa Maggiore, 49 
Villa S. Giovanni, 250, 

Villaro. 6 
Viliarosa, 268, 269 
Villasica. 6 
Villastelione, 7 
VUUnoTa, 8 

Vinafrtnet, 9, 69 
Villanrati, 268, 269 
V'.liennve, 15 
Viterbo. 131 
Vittoria, 264 
Vittnone, 10, 18 
Vlvara, 242 
Voghcra, 10 
Vogog^a. 17 
Volci, JU 
Volta, 69 
Voltaggio, 10 
Volterra, 109 
Voltri, 18, 19 
Vorallo, 15 

ZaSarana, 268 
Zcuuco, 49 


To Face Page. 

Florence, Town Plan oC 112 

Italy, Map of Title. 

HOan, Town Plan of 27 














Ancona, City ot » 108 

Catania, SicQy 108 

v/iTua veccnia «»»««»««««»«»»«««»«»»»—«« ■««»»»»«« xvo 

GaSU « 108 

Gtnoa. 20 

VIEWS '.-^Continued. To Face Page. 

Lago Maggiore .....'. 20 

Leghorn. 108 

Naples 220 

Palermo ^ 108 


Castle and Bridge of St. Angelo 197 

Colossenm..... 197 

Pantheon. Tbe 197 

Bnins of the Temple of Satam 197 

Temple of Vesta ; 197 

Salerno, Piazza di Solofira m.^..... 108 

pcylla .»»««#.»»««».»•»•»■■»■■»«»» »»««»! «.»»—•€«.»..« 108 


F(^al Paltce.>*t.«. ..•••».•••*•• •*••.•• 30 

Place Vittorio Emmanuelo ....*...m.. 38 

Venice •.••••.••••••••«••.•.••••••..•.••■■••.•••••.• Z30 



T OniDB (pnblljhKl iBontliTy. at M, 

ke freiineat itUnnst to lis coi 

hod. Oil iLneDt, M 
Btnst, London, mil 

dU ot Sfadahat^t Coit- 

inderUk« to procDn Uifi Pj 


bti In Oct > MnagsI^oiiTd ol bitrodncUoa to all i 
BSdal wiBld on ttae conttnnit On leaiBg Rot 
panpon* moet be ilgued by tbe CodboI and want 
tfgned by tbe Government ; toul feei, 6«. 4d, Wt 
cJun^Off for CepranD> OQ Iba NaplBfl llQD, yOD I 
nude to pay 10 tiiijacclil mora. 

Koner.— CIrcnIir ootea for £t and £10. uyiblp 
■Itbfl ptincJpal townitiuy be oblalned InLoDdoo 
(Ha p. uiSi or BnufrtoK'i CMfouMiil Ouids). 
EngUsb cala shoiiU iilinyi be ehaoctd Ibi the cur- 

>l the ceantjy, i 

V ■ tUUoc coDMunlr moybig 
»y tnna lU, to SOe. ■ day i 
iTlni. aid algblKalng. 8ov«> 

mcluBged In England at aM. 10c 

ly, Sapala)n(paai.iniRh Wl. or lOi. 

ilialenl fiw a Aue In Italy, if (he "lln 

a Ihnhbig. 

t4Mea of Itb franu, ) (ranoo. a and ftfn 
Iieaa<itft,10,20fti>itchl. OUdoltan. 
aw dlaappeariua;. There ta very llttla piper money, 
OneponiKi Bterll.itc tEngU?h)=SS lire and !1 c»n- 
».^_. „._„__, ._ <.n ., ^^,-, ^-g ibllllng 

t. atallan 

Oncla (ei^)=3 docatl .... 

H ordlDArio. Tbe i 

As to tlis p iBpr Wj of miUng » birnila btfiv 
bud wllb tin lun, lbs fotloiring b (be uliln 
•o aiptrienDtd mieller. Ur. T. A. Tnllope. " 
li •giio and agiln wiicteo In the gukle bnoki, wl 
nferenca to Tarlooa boitelriei, 'Hnks yoar bi 

fUiniobb ycrur comfortj uidjn nowSie profit toue 
purH. KeithcT Impglnd tJiat Any ecunomj wlU Lo 
■clilvnd (oiacpt In Die one ef the giest dUci 
Then pcconnDodatDb of dlff^ent degreu of iDxary 
It pRiTlded It »o(Knlipd 4nd Avowedly dlffetEiiL 
•uOes of cliargM) by Umlllng your dBDUiodg Xu 

yon In iwlnl of rooaa ind fare. Tell Ibe bott BOKl- 
natunxllf nod chaerfidlj todo thebnt b< un ftir you 
n both nqncti i not nuniilii^, of coon^ to InollIdA 
bitU* 'boat* (oteign wlne^ or uch «tt« niUclui 
at are onppliAd onl joft ipeciid denuud. Baymitidni;; 
..__. . ■-- -1 broojM In. It ■ 

l>*n cnoniooau oi 


mure ttain leu tlun tbe obiolDMly ibicl 
bo dou BDOd faBnmiredly and quietly, ana mi 
erUlciit knowlsd^ of wbat the cbergea oogbt to b 
the tnTeller will bnd that It wUl alwaye be aceedt 
la with a good gnoe, and Uiat tbe opentloa ir 
not be attended by the dln^ncablej InieparAb 
from tbe work or maklD; a bargain for your ent^ 
talQnieiit on sntarlng the hoaee. Tbt etrlking oD 
thli ara OD the bill ongbt not to be done u It ti 

en to ■ traToljei In Italy rtoBld 
txj cilled fori « el» to Uie c 

adopted In Italy In Aa|^jt,teei. It it werQi nallc^ 
ihui it »Ba ih» innile iieniilialvo In England (by Act 
St. IS Vic, up. 1 ni la IcM, 

ie Italian nvnce. '-(h" taheatheplauof "k," 

(,. v.i — 1,— i)y „i,jc|, ,11 dlttano* 

I "h" u dioiiped, aila 

mdBn an UwOUlk 

iTietH, n«T]y. 

(To tam ahU. Into mliei. Derly. mnlt^y by ■ 
IHara (hectare) = 2t ac 

■ 2 biuLelJ,3peck*.0 OTTpbUa 

mma = ■tSU dnchnii eTdn!nr"h. 

TO [Utre) = HBOa plnla = SlDiM cubic ischW 

10=: lOH yardi, bt == 3 f«L S'SIoaincbet, ot 

(To tun mairl Into yaidi, add 1-I0(h.) 

Ulla (fcallin, or 

yard. = LSI 

una (KeapoUtan) 

Ktographlcal) " 

r='2.e»' jaidp 
'sua yanla. 

PaCno =l(i( Incho*. 

Poit (old) Tariea from <| to II 

Qimit (imperlsl) = 4-M UttrL 

Quintal (Tuoan) = 1 DO Fnican ; 

„ (troy) = 873-24 eramuia. 
Tomota = 1 quarter. 
Yaid s -tm metri, or abont 8.1l>tb« 

(TotnniraidilBto BUttl, tBkaoSl-|t|M 

Kum lud a (w tyun (M(n> 

Br Out mhil directory tt will be 
■■r ba iwcbcd Ihrnaiih France a 
tHD-BDA-frtulf to thne diyi (or or 
oute) 1 

CI IDs. 

A lOi., tint cluH. Lcf honi« ^o 
Wfdqrhlor£eil>»to£l) IOl r idisdcv. id inr 

<flHoaltniTelllnf),rorje»Io£lI. Home, in (ui 
ttlin itjM, tor em IOk to £18, or »fiiiy hon 
Bnviani'. Nul«i, tour to ave-aiiil4-)uiU day 
Cll IOl to £18. 
Hia dinet liind rontM in Ibma ttinngh Fnni 
I; Indlnntly, thiongh tbe TyroL 

m BHiuorluidMndl 

1. To P«rt»,Lpjni. Kurirtllt 
OnBa, Ixgnam, CItIU Vecc 

S. To Pull, Gene™, Mmtlgny, OtMt B«lnt Ber- 

urd. Amis, Turin. About tony bouri of ■ 

tMnlltn;, to Msrllgny, under Uont Hlano. 

o rrAs.T—tiSLWxtt, 

Chainlwr (or tbe hnprorement of tba port. Th» 
wlinle illitarice dy raUwtj aaoM Eurou irom Boif 
lugua w Ucindlil ii ibont 1,8U milu^ M folknn : 


r eiehiy 


BallwATi In TtalT.- 

dalcrrato.;; and "fcnovL, 

dlManca, fani, etc SDm 
Ibiei to Sum. Caneo, V 

See fimdiAw'j MunMf 
omplete lilt, with tiDiia, 
ean >liii>lhiei>-utbi 
tri, etc The oldeu ]t 
opened aOth KuTBnbB, 

ilam of Piedmont an. 
TninM. About S.ODO 


lonly hi the mru 

cMt. aeo.iioDiora 

bclni; made, Uld 

whia, byl8B6-7. 1 

llanaia to Ll Calb 

»ltallin Railway tablee the ptlTM "preii 
lilancM -iiOiaM.- In "ehUomeipl," or kfla 

g«tta In ore," thne In ho 

I. Atoni tht BiTloa, bum HIm ta Oanoi, nl 

a. Cero Id Savona. on tb* RWera. 

Carapohun and SaplM. 

110, ud tbnagh Calibrfa, te 
■ini 1 to meet the niplM ifau^ 

lieggio. ojipoiLtB. 

ritaUaMdliaE polatfbithe ..- , 

NdlS. bl^nttosmmneinev^rtoAleiandrla. H. In BldHy— Utulna to Catu^ alci tomHt 


Lnooicrs, "EffettI di viaggiatore,** may be booked 
and forwarded, by rail. In the Papal States a coaple 
of pauIs will save trouble in the examination. 

Steamers mn from Marseilles, Genoa, Leghorn, 
Civita Vecchia, Naples, Palermo, Messina Ancona, 
Trieste, etc See list in Bradshato's Cfontinentnl 
Guide, and the English Railtoay Guide. From 
Liverpool tiiere is direct steam communication with 
Italy, every 10 days ; to Palermo, Messina, Corfu, 
Ancona, and Trieste. From London by the boats of 
the London, Italy and Adriatic company; 14 days to 
Kaples, toncfaing at Qenoa and Leghorn. From 
Southampton there is indirect commnnicatiion by 
way of Malta ; and thence to Messina, Palermo, etc. 
Small steamers mn on the Italian lakes. See Brad- 
$haw'» Continental Guide, 

GABltiAGB Travelling. — "Vettnrino," is the 
driver of a " vetturo," or two-horse carriage. It 
takes four in and one out, and will do 25 to 30 miles 
a day, at a cost of about 80 to 40 francs a day, 
besides 3 or 4 francs a day " buono mano,** to driver. 

A " Calesso," is a vehicle for two persons ; charge, 
about 8id. a mile. "Calesshio*'— "carettino**— 
"corricolo "—are names for a light vehicle. 

Post Tbatkllino, costs about 9d. to lOd. a mile, 
including postilion and ostler. A post is from 7 to 9 
tniles, English. 

CouKiKRS, are " corriere." 

FoBWAEDiNa LuGOAOE.— Passengers are recom- 
mended to apply to Mr. George Catchpool, Custom 

House and Forwarding Agent, €3, Great Tc 
Street, London, Agent to H. R. H. the Duchei 
Cambridge, to have luggage, furniture, and et 
carefully, expeditiously and cheaply forwarded t 

GmDES— called " Ciceroni" (after Cicero), "< 
missaij," "facchini," etc For 6 or 6 francs a 
they will show all the sights. 

Mr. Laing says,— "A Valet de place, ciceroni 
bear-leader, is a very useful personage, provide 
is intelligent, and provided you never take him * 
you. If you do, you are the party fairly entitli 
be paid for the day's work; for you have the &t 
of listening to a rigmarole of names and phrases 
would tire the patient ear of any of his mt 
statues. But consult him in the morning before 
sally forth, as a kind of two-legged dictionary; 
aU the information you can out of him about i 
you intend to see, and the way to it; pluck him 
leave him at home ; and the goose is worth his pi 
•—Notes of a Traveller {Travellers' Mtrary). 

Churches, which are generally the principal ob 
of notice, are usually shut from 12 to 3. " Chv 
is a church. " Custode," a person in charge *'l 
coteca,** a picture gallery. ** Palazzo," a pa 
or fainily town house '* Piazza," an open ( 
»• Si afitta," means "to let" 

Turpentine is a good antidote to the sting 
wasp. Vinegar dropped on a hot poker is goo 
bad smells. 


ITILT, OT "L'lTALiA," between lat 4ei" N. In the 
Alps, to 86i* in Sicily, and between long. 6i* E. at 
Mont Cenis, to 18}* at Otranto, is a boot-shaped pen- 
insula, stretching about 500 miles into the Mediterra- 
nean Sea, fh>m the basin of the Po; which forms its 
northern division, and lies between the Alps and 
Apennines, in a trough, 250 miles by 50 miles. It is 
hordered on the west by France, or " La Francia," 
and the marithne Alps. On the north by Swit- 
»Brland, or "La Svizzera," and by the Swiss and 
Tjrrolese Alps. On the south and east by the Medi- 
terranean Sea, "Mare Mediterraneo," and the 
Adriatic Gulf, "Mar Adriatico." Part of the Medi- 
terranean, l)etween the mainland and Sardinia, is 
the " Mare Tirreno," or Tyrrhenian Sea ; and that 
part at the mouth of the Adriatic is "Mare Jonio," 
or Ionian Sea. 

'* up to mid thigh I statid, nor ever stir. 

Deep in the water, yet am Just as sound : 
Tm good for sporting goxl to we«r ihe s[)iir» 
As m«n> asses ^o their cost have found. 
All stretch'd compact and firm by vigorous needl*. 
Wltb bem at top, and veam straight down the middle.*' 

Giusti's H Stivale (the Boot,) tramhated 
in Macmillcm's Magazine. 

The territories of geographical Italy, as dls- 
tffjffolsbed ttom political Italy, are encroached upon 

by its neighbours. The province of Nice 
absorbed by France, 1860. Parts of the £ 
Cantons of Tessin, or " Ticino," and the Grisoi 
" Grigione," stretch down the Italian slope ol 
Alps, to Lake Maggiore, etc. Tyrol, or " Tii 
belonging to Austria, comes down to Lake Grc 
and Austria still holds the north-east comer, be 
the Quadrilateral Corsica, which is geographi 
a part of Italy, belongs to France; and Malt 


Before the revolutions of 1859-60, the divisio 
the Peninsula were as follow, comprishig 12 
States, and 7 principal Governments. — Sasdi 
States; Lomeabdo-Veneto Kingdom (fron 
Ticino eastward) ; Ducht of Parma ; DuoH 
MoDKNA and Massa Care ASA; Tuscany and Lc 
States of the Chubch, including the Bonu 
Marches, etc ; Kingdom of Naples and Scic 
Principality of Monaco ; and Republic of 
Maeino. The principal Governments are 
reduced to three, viz., the consolidated Kingdo 
Italy, the Pontifical Territory, and Austro-V« 

The Austro-Veneto territory, by the treai 
Villaf ranca, is confined to the tract firom the H 
eastward to the Adriatic, including Mantua, Ve 

sraBGDUonov— psoyncES— FOPuuLTioo; 


Tknsa, and Padua. The four fortresBes of Mantua, 
Pesehiera, Verona, and Legnano, lying near together, 
Vmatitnte the Quadrilateral 

The Papal States, "Stati Pontificli,** are now 
restricted to the Delegations of Rome, Comarca, 
Yiterbo, Civita Vecchia, Velletri, and Frosinone ; a 
l^ace about 100 miles by 40, with an estimated 
population .of 600,000 to 700,000, and an army of 
8,000. The Pope stiU pretends to claim his old pos- 
•eairiona— Umbria, Komagna, and Marches, which 
made up a total population of three millions. 

The Kingdom of Italy, under the constitutional 
nle of Victor Emmanuel, is formed by the union of the 
Sardinian States, with Lombardy, Fanua, Modena, 
and part of the Papal States, added in 1859 ; and Tus- 
aany, Umbria, the Marches, Naplea, and Sicily, added 
tn 1860. The Italian colours are red, white, and 
green, with the white cross of Savoy. 

Population.— The new kingdom thus eonstl- 
tnted, and including the islands of Sardinia, Sicily, 
Elba, etc, numbers 59 Provinces with their popular 
tion as under; the whole divided into 193 Circondarii 
or Circuits, 1,599 MandimentI or Delegazioni, and 
7,719 CommunL 

I.— Old Sabdinian Pbovihcbs (Mahtlaiio axd 


Alessandria •••.....•....•••.••..... 637)629 

Alessandria, AcquI, Asti, Casale, Novi, 

Bergamo 346,540 

Bergamo, Treviglio, Clusono. 
Brescia 476,345 

Brescia, Ghiari, Breno, Salb, Castigllone, 

Cagliari (in the Island of Sardinia).......,.... 863,218 

Cagliari, Iglesias, Lannsei, Orlstano. 
Como M. 454.651 

Como, Varese, Lecco. 
Cremona. ». m.......... 834,760 

Cremona, Crema, Casalmaggiore. 
Cuneo 607,111 

Cuneo, Alba, Mondovi, Saluzzo. 
Genova (Genoa) 648,380 

Oenova, Albenga, Chiavari, Levante, 

Mnano 910,711 

Milano, Lodi, Monza, Gallarate, Abbiate- 

Vovara m. 573,392 

Kovara, Biella, Osaola, Palanza, Valsesia, 

FAvia ...M 410,146 

Pavia, Bobbio, Lomellino, Voghera. 
FortoMaurizio » 121,020 

Porto Maurizio, San Remo. 
ieaaari (in the Island of Sardinia) 209,903 

BaaaaiL Alghero, Nuoro, Ozieri, Tempio. 
J igMp, In the Valtellina 105,922 

Vnteo<rmrln) 924,862 

Tom, Aosta, Ivrea, Plnerolo, Snsa. 


Bologna ................................................ 885,799 

Bologna, Imola, Vergato. 
Ferrara 194,160 

Ferrara, Cento, C^mmachlo. 
I: oru. •..••..■•.••«..»••. ..•....•■.Ma.M.*.*..*.**........ 318,438 

Forli, Cesena, Rimini, 
jia s sa anu \>arrara •••.«•«.•....•••....•.•..•.•.•... 147,889 

Massa-Carrara, Caatelnovo di Qar&gnana, 

Modena mm....... 865,808 

Modena, Mirandola, Pavullo. 
Parma, 258,508 

Parma, Borgo, San Donnino, Borgotara. 
Fiacenza^. .....^.mmm 310,988 

Piacenza, Fiorenzola. 
Ravenna m.w.m« 206,018 

Ravenna, Lugo, Faenza. 
Reggio MM.M.MM........ 280,246 

Reggio, Guastalla. 

nL— Mabchb— Thb Mabchbs. 

Ancona ............m......... m.m 256,231 

AscoU ^ 202,898 

Ascoli, Fermo. 
Macerata m 239,411 

Macerata, Camerino. 
Pesaro and Urbino m.....m 204,039 

Pesaro, Urbino. 

IV.— TJmbbia. 

Umbria «. „ 491,744 

Umbria, Perugia, Spoleto, Rieti, Fuligno, 

v.— Toscana— Tuscany. 

The Provinces are called Prefetture; and the 
Mandamenti are Delegazioni. 

Arezzo ...^.......m...... 222,654 

Hrenze (Florence) ^ 701,703 

Firenze, Pistoia, San Miniato, Rocca, San 

Grosseto « m^..^........ 85,540 

Livomo (Leghorn) •..•m*.....(m.«....m.m....... 113,809 

Leghorn, Elba. 
Lucca M. M.............M...........*....... 363,542 

Pisa MM...... 335,618 

Pisa, Volterra. 
Siena .» m....*m.... 193,888 

Siena, Montepulciano. 

VI.— NsoPOLiTAV FBovnrcEfl. 

Abmzzo Citeriore (or Chietl, 839,148 

Chicti, Lanciano, Vasto. 
Abmzzo Ulteriore-Primo (or Teramo) ...... 340,965 

Teramo, Penne. 
Abmzzo Ulterlore-Seoondo (or Aquila) 889,519 

Aquila, Solmona, Avezzano, Cittaducale. 
P''sllicata (or Potenzn) .,.„„ 521,189 

B«rWTBiK«i CwtMD, Ban BsTlDlemn 

Cilabrii GltBFtm (or CoMDH) 

CaMirU IHwnan^imo (or ReggU).... 


Hsnril (Nip 

S*I«nin, Ball. CampigiH, Valla. 

... BT<,4«« 
,. 8T7.12D 
.. M3,317 
.. t8S,in 

dl trtMBto ;dr Len*) .. 

Hadoii. Cutnii«U*, PMU, UiitntU. 


... 42B,073 


Paltcmo, TenulDl, CtAiUl, CftriMn*. 

lupanl -._.._ «_ _ S14,HD 

TnnuiW Alcaaw, Uruim. 

U to (ha population of Ibe oaw KlD^om be added 
«*mt three miUIoDB mom, *U., ft* TisEiii, 
Z«W,<IIKi(iiuleulDf flvemlllloiii): PAriL3TATE«, 
1lM,i)M0U(«>dDf ttaramlUloiiDi iirottnceof Nm 
(BOW JUpei UarlKnia, anneiad to France along 
Mlb Sa«7),t95.tMni and'atHntlMua For ilK Utile 
pilnelpallty orMoHjtco and repabDc oT StK lUBiKOi 
Uie popnlallMof tlie irtiola luliin lenlioiy ianeuly 
XimilUani, la atnnt 11S,0DD iqaare iBlUe. 

a. irlth Iti Italian poinlatloii of ■ qoirter ot 


mna, Bolo^i (9T.0D0),»en(tia CIM, 117V 
lib a populBIIon exccsdlng 6O.U0'-i. 

irma (45,673). imd AleHMiiiria,' Bergjuni^ 

'orli, Ccuim, Jilmlnl. Uodeni, Piacenia, 

relo,<lDlheEDillla|, llCKglo(lnCalitHU), 

ltI, Uodica. TiaiiauLaad Maruja: tba 


.—Income ot the Kingdom ot Ilair for 

If ^ mlllioiiii making a deficit or S 
ini^cooacd fay bad tarllfi and BiDUtTgUn^ 
ailed ft« porta. The cellMilon of tha 

»M,iM tons ot ablpplng, oi about =a,UU> tmhIi, 

Army.— The resniar annynmnben abont 3K.0Ba 
aea; iDcladIng Se baltaUaw of beriagUerl, or light. 
Infanlry. recrnlledlntbeAlplnavallefa; STtflmeal' 
-1,00(1 eaeblofcaynlryi and Hballetiwof ai"' ■— 

Leva," means the coiucrlptlon. 


n in,Mii, Caiiuilala1)ull9bedli;aialuWliilHi. 



Om «fltot of the eoosoUdatlon of the diAerent 

gvanmaite, and the removal of the custom houses, 
a been a liae in the price of provisions, in con- 
' oeqaenee of the increased demand. House rent, 
•uo, in Florence, Milan, etc., has increased, in 
•ome toatanoes, as much as one-third. At the same 
ttme new villaa are qninging up near the towns ; 
«ll lamps are giving way to gas; old houses are 
lieing repaired and cleaned; and grass if disappear- 
ing fiom th» n^leeted streets. 

A society for draining the southern provinces has 
Iwen formed under the Duke deUaC^era. Bri- 
fandage unfintunately still prevails in some quar^ 
ters, in spite of the vigorous eflbrts of the authOTities 
to put it down. A great drawback is the want of 
xoads. In 1861, out of 1,850 communes in the 
kingdom of Kaples, iuxy4hirdi were without roads. 
At Maples, the lazaaroni are made to work on the 
rail; and the focchini, or porters, here and else- 
where, are put under better regulation. Provision 
Is made for the gradual supiHession of all the mo- 
nasteries and convents, where the inmates are 
not employed In preaching, education, or the care 
of the sick. 


HOTintal&S.. — ^The Alpt take various names, as 

the Maritime, Cottian, Pennine, Graian, Rhelian, 

. Camic, Noric, and Julian Alps, ranging f^om 4,000 

to 15,000 feet high, in a circuit of 600 miles. Heights 

la round numbers of the chief passes and peaks: 


Cold! Tenda, near Nice .....^ 6,840 

Houce Yiso 13,640 

Mont Cenis 6,770 

Little St. Bernard « 7,120 

Mont Blanc ^ 15,740 

Great St. Bernard .m m....... 8,150 

Matterhom ^ 14,470 

' ■ Pass 10,940 

Monte Rosa ^ 15,170 

Siunplon ..„„ 6,590 

Oin vocoarQ ................................. Oi>7o0 

''emnarciiu*. ...••..•«•..... .*•*•••... 6,970 

Splijigen ..» 6,940 

fitelvio „ 9, 100 

Order Spitz 12,852 

Brenner ....».« .» ^ 4,650 

An the Lakes lie at the foot of the Central Alps, 
bettieen the Gothard and Brenner Passes. 

The ApermiaeSt or "Apennino" mountains, begin in 
the ifaritime Alps, hug the coast of the Riviera, 
near Genoa, and &om thence run down the middle 
of tlM peninsula, to the end of Calabria ; a total 
length of 800 miles. Average height, 2,000 to 6.00U 
feet. The hif^hest points are Monte Como, or '*Gran 
fiasso,** near Aquila. 10,200 feet high; Monte Majello, 
t,150 feet high; Monte Cinnone, 6.970. At tUe back 
of Genoa, wiiere they are only 2,560 feet high, they 
take the name of the Ligurian Apennines, and form 
-. the south border of the plain of Lombardy. Some 
if tfae passes are Pontremoll, 3,420 feet; Collina or 
naeehia. 3,350 feet; Pietra Mala, on the old Florence 
* 449Q t^ii fod ctbwi o^ar Borgo Sepolcro^ 

Fabriano, etc, of lesser importance. The Apennines 
are generally limestone, covered with grass, but 
without trees, except some chestnuts here and there. 

Volcanoes.— Traees of volcanic matter are found 
nearly all over Italy. In the North, near Vicenca, 
Padua, and the Euganean Hills; in Tuscany, and 
the soil about Rome ; but especially in the Campagna 
and round Naples, where Vesuvius lias for ages been 
in a state of activity. It threw out a new crater 
this year (1865). Etna, in Sicily, threw out sqpie 
about the same time ; and Stromboli, which is always 
smoking, was also affected. The peak of Isohia is 
an extinct volcano. In July, 1880, a submarine 
volcano, called Graham's Shoal, Isle Julia, etc, 
appeared above the sea, near PanteUaria, and dUsp* 
peered the same year. 

Rlyeni.— The principal rivers of Italy are ithe 
Po, Amo, and the ^ber (Tevere). The Po 
rises in the Alps and Apennines, and runs to .the 
Adriatic, by a course of about 160 leagues. Its 
affluents are the Tanaro (fed by the Stnra and 
Bormida), Trebbia, Taro, Parma, Seochia, and Reno, 
on tlie right or South bank ; the Clusone, Doria- 
Riparia, Doria-Baltea, Sesia, Ticino (from Lago 
Maggiore, etc.), Olona, Lambro, Adda (from the 
Valtellina), Oglio (flx>m L. Isco), and Mincio (from 
L. Garda), on the North bank. Near the Po are the 
Adlge, Bacchiglione, Brenta, Piave, Tagliamento, 
etc, which rise in the Alps and runs into or near to 
the lagoons of Venice. 

All the other rivers have their source in the Apen- 
nines, and are for the most part mountain torrents. 
The Amo runs by Florence and Pisa, to Leghorn. 
The Tiber, about 80 leagues long, runs by Perugia, 
Orte, and Rome The Secchla runs past Lucca. 
1'hc Garigliano and Voltumo run into the Gulf of 
GaSta ; and some smaller streams of little note, into 
the Gulfs of Salerno and Taranto. On the Adriatic 
side aretheOfanto, Pescara, Trento, Chienti, Metauro, 
Rubicon, and many others, firom 20 to SO miles long, 
which make almost a straight course from the sfepe 
of the Apennines down to the sea. 

Baths and Minercd Fateri— At Caldlero; Valdierl, 
near Turin; Acgui; Abano mud baths; Porretta, 
Lucca, Volterra, Solfatara, Ischia, etc. 

Islands.— The two largest islands are Sardinia 
and Sicily. 

Elba, between the Tuscan coast and Corsica, with 
its neighbours, Capr(\ja, Gorgona, Pianosa, Monte- 
cristo, Giglio, Gianatri. Another Capraja, betweea 
Corsica and Sardinia, is the residence of Garibaldi 

Off the Gulf of Gaeta— Fonza, Fahnarola, Zanone, 
Ventolunc, etc 

In the Hay of Naples— Ischia, Prodda, Capri. . 

Lipari Islands— Lipari, Stroiobolii Volcano, FlU* 
curl, Alicuri, Saline, etc 

Ustica is off Palermo. 

Ecati Islnnds— Otf MaiBsIa, induding Levanso, 
Maritime, Favignano, etc 

PanteUaria, between Sicily and Africa. 

The Tremiti Islands, with Pianosa, Pclegosa, ete.* 
off the Gargano Promontory, are the only islaiMlS' of 
any consequence in the Adriatic 

Coivicaisaonexfid to France, aodValU to Eofilan^ 



^e Coast Line fs estimated at 8.350 rafles, one- 
foarth of which belongs to the islands. In this 
rentect Italy has an advantage over Fi*ance or Spain, 
and holds a position which qaalifioi it to l)econie a 
first-rate maritime power, and to command the 
Mediterranean. The scenery of the Riviera, or 
fhore of the Gulf of Genoa, of the Bay of Naples, and 
the Straits of Messina, is proverbial for bgauty. 

Principal /\>rte. — Turin, (}enoa, Spezia (royal 
dockyard), Leghorn, Civita Vecchia, Naples, Faier- 
ma Messina, Ancona, and Venice. 

L8ik68. Lago—LagkL^XJnder the Alps are Lago 
Maggiore, Orta, Yarese, Lugano, Como, Iseo, Garda, 
•11 remarkable for the high quality of the sur- 
itnmding scenery. In central Italy — ^TrassTnene, 
Bolsena, and Bracciano, shallow and uninteresting, 
«zoept for their historical associations. In the 
Apennines— Celano or Fosino. On the east side — 
Lesina and Varano. 

The Plaitu are, the Great Plain of Lombardy, 
the "pleasant garden of fair Italy," in the north ; 
the Campagna, near Rome, remarkable for its herds 
i^ buffaloes, etc. ; and the Campania, towards 
Nicies, both on the west coast; with the plamof 
loggia, on the east side, on which vast flocks of 
sheep are pastured. In summer they are driven up 
the Apennines. 

W1&id!».— The eight principal winds are :— 
N. -Tramontana ('* from the mountains **)• 
N.E.— Greco. 

E.— Levante (" Sun Rising"). 
S.E.— Sirocco, the hot wind. Of any thing dull, 
the Italians say "Era scrittaintempiodell^rocco"-- 
It was written in shrocco weather. 
S.— Mezzogiomo ('• Midday "). 
S.W. — Llbeccio (" Libyan," or African). 
W.— Ponente (" Strong "), 
N.W.— Maestro (the "Master;" called *< Mistral," 

at Marseilles). 
Products. — Among the chief products are:— 
Iron, lead, Sicilian sulphur, Carrara marble. Com, 
in Sicily, etc ; rice, in the plain of Lombardy ; olive 
oil, about Florence, Naples, etc. ; oranges and lemons, 
in the Riviera, etc. ; cotton, sugar, figs, and other 
fhiits, in S. Italy and Sicily. 

The growth of Cotton is promoted by a royal com- 
mission. The coast of Campania is favourable to the 
best, or Sea Island. From Salerno to Torre del 
Greco, at Terranova, Patemo, etc., about 10,000 
bales are raised. The total quantity for Italy and 
fiicily is 90,000 bales. 

A'tt— Healthy cocoons are Imported from all parts 
of the world, to renovate the breed at home. The 
annual yield is worth about 12^ millions sterlhig. 

The metayer system is universal in Italy ; that is, 
the produce of the farm is divided equally between 
the tenant and the landlord, who receives his half 
for rent 

Manufactures:— Silks, woollen, gauzes, porcelain, 
artificial floweis, paper, hats. 

A more complete notion of Italian products will be 
obtained from a list of articles in the Italian Court of 
the International Exhibition of 1862; among which 
trere the following : — Lead and copper, from Palanza, 
Jfprjs» vw, inm Bard, in Via d'Aost«i 

Copper, from Bisano, near Bologna; and from 
Ollomont, near Aosta. Sulphur from Trapanl and 
Bologna. Slate, from Cliiavari, near Genoa. Statuary 
marble, from Fivizzano, in Massa-Carxara. Man- 
ganese, fh>m Fontanaccio, near Lucca. Antimoy 
and lead, from CagliarL Steel, from Lovere, near 
Bergamo; and copper and lead, from Valsassina. 
Mineral and marble from Messina. Statuary marble 
from Monte Altessimo, near Florence — once worked by 
Michael Angelo. Borax from the Lagoons, near Vpl- 
terra. Mineral deposits, from Baths uf Lucca. Rice, 
from Novara, Imola, etc. Figs, raisins, almonds, 
olives, etc, from Trani. Indian com from Arezzo. 
Pistachio nuts, Cagliari. Pickled olives, smoked 
mullet, salted eals, honey, etc, from Oristano. 
Tobacco from Messina. Gin and spirit, extracted 
from the arbutus. Wax, from Savona. Olive oil, 
from Florence, Genoa, Bari, Calabria, etc. Coral, 
fh>m the coast of Sardinia. Raw silk and cocoons, 
from Parma. Merino wool, Grosseto. Cork, 
sumach, castor-oil, etc, from Cagliari. Castor 
oil Trani. Hemp, Ferrara. Cotton, Cosenza and 
Trani. Cotton stuffs, fustians, damaslc, woollen, 
yam, and hats, from Milan. Floss silk, from Lucca. 
Organziue and velvet, made at Turin. Galloon and 
silk ribbons, at Portici, near Naples. Straw plait 
and buffalo hides, from Leghorn. Bonnets, from 
Parma and Teramo. Gloves, from Naples. Clhairs, 
from Chiavarl Rice, Indian com, sorgho, bamboo 
cane, sugar cane, etc, fh>m Florence. Collection of 
121 siliceous stones employed in the Pietre Dnm 
mosaics, made at the Royal Factory, Florence. 
Brooches, in scagliola, in hnitation of Florentine 
mosaics, from Leghorn. Pistol and gun barrels, 
and cutlery, tVom Brescia. Cutlery, from Campo* 
basso. Coral necklaces, brooches, etc, from Naples ; 
and red coral work from Trapini, Sicily. Doccia 
Porcelain, and imitation Majolica and Delia Robbia 
ware, from the Ginori works, Florence. Porcelain 
from Faenza. Coloured mosaics from Venice. 

Roman States. — Smalts from the mosaic manu- 
factory, at the Vatican. Indian com, from the Pon- 
tine Marches. Inlaid tables and pavements, in 
imitation marbles, breccia, etc. Statuary, from 
Rome; including a Pietft, by Achtermann, th. 
the Roman " Christaro," or Christ-maker; Story's 
Sibyl and Cleopatra, Gibson's Venus, and works by 
other foreign artists. 

Wine— from Campobasso, Asti, Cesena, Mental* 
cino, Flumini (near Cagliari), Cosenza, Tnmi, 8iena» 
Comacchio, (^hiavari, Sondrio, Imola, Mazzara 
(Sicily), Benevento, Omano, Isola, Acqui, Regg^o 
(in the Emilia), Caluso, Messina, Lucca, NaplefL 
Genoa, Salerno, Parma, Ferrara, Orvieto, Rieti, and 
other places. Annual quantity of wine, is aJbonft 
850.000,000 gallons. The Muscat wine of Sardinia 
is imported to the North of Europe. About Florence 
the country is a "mass of orchards," prodnoinar oil 
and wine. Usually in Italy, the vine is tained to 
elms and poplars, in picturesque festoons.^ 

"After having tested the growths ftom Tarl* 
ous qualities, I must say I have not seen one 
that is fine. Vino d'Asti is praisedi but very 
mideservedly, I think. Lacryma Chrkrti is usually 
coarie, in tturto wd fla^ow. M9Bt^^«U&t 


•0 Uglily pnlMd by Sedl, Is iweet, but not to be 
eomp«rad to Fkontigiuui or RiTenltM. Thronghont 
ttao whole eonntry wines are made; and better 
qudities conM not be pndnced in any part of Eu- 
npe ; bnt where wine is so abundant that all may 
dimk it, little money Talneis attached to it, and it is 
eoQseqoently neglected. Good wine demands skill, 
experfenoe, patience, and cai^taL Infloential Italians 
are'now directing thetr attention to this source of 
wealtb, and, if they desfav to gain a reputetion, 
woiUd do weU to getsome intelligent Tine-growers and 
wtne-makers and cellarmen from France and Ger- 
many.**— T. G. Shaw's Wbit, tht Fine, andtfu CeOar, 
2ndEdition, 18M. 

CUmate extremely Tarfons, as indicated by the 
mean temp«ratiu», ranging from 55* at Milan and 
Veniee, to 60A>r Borneo and 68* at Palermo. Dr. 
Lee (Br^mmt Coa^pamon to the C<mHiunt) says— 
in the plains of CaUbria, and in Sicily, 
which lie between the 87th and 89th degrees of lati- 
tude^ the thermometer rarely descends below freezing 
p(dnt; whereas, between the 48rd and 46th degrees, 
as In the higher parts of Lombardy, it frequently 
descends to 10* below aero, which Is an immense 
diffefence for a distance of 6* to 9*. A correspond- 
ing difference is (riMerrable in the productions of the 
earth— from the pine of the north, to the palm tree 
and plants Indigenous to wanner latitudes, as also 
to the physical and moral qualities of the various 

Another charactsristic of the climate Is the general 
dUnision of Malaria. ** Italy contains, in proportion 
to Its extent, more marshM than any other country 
in Europe. Many of them, moreover, are saltwater 
marshfts, being upon, or close to, the seashore ; and 
their insalubrity always bears a direct ratio to the pre- 
vailing humidity, heat, and siroccal ventilation." 
"When, in addition to these circumstances, we take 
into consideration **the extent of sobmeiged or iiri- 
gated land ; the beds of numerous riven occasionally 
overflowing, at other times more or less dry; the 
lakes, the lagnnes, eta ; there will be no ground for 
surprise at the quantity of rain which annually folia, 
or at the partially existing malaria in the summer 
and autumnal seasons." 

Dr. Lee adds, "the transition flrom spring to 
summer is flrequently abrupt In Italy. In May the 
sun acquires considerable power. The great beats 
prevail from the middle of June to the middle of 
September. At this period it rains only occasionally, 
and during the prevalence of storms. The ground is 
niualllyparched, and the roads laid thick with dust. 
The towns In the interior, as MUan, Florence, etc., 
are generally hotter than those on the sea-coast, where 
the heat is somewhat tempered by the sea breeze." 
This 6*Bv sea breese blows lh>m noon to sunset, 
and Kb influence is felt for miles up the valleys. 

••If you wish to keep your health in Italy," says 
the author of Roba di Roma, ** follow the example 
of the Italians. Eat a thhrd less than yon are 
accustomed to at home. Do not drink habitually of 
brand^pQrter, ale, or even Marsala, but confine 

Jooradf to the lighter wines of the cojntiy, or of 
ranesk 0s not walk much in the son; only 
o • 

Englishmen and dogs do that, is the proverb goes; 
and especially take heed not to expose yourself 
when warm to any sudden change of temperature. 
If yon have heated yourself with walMng in the sun, 
be oanftil nottogooutat once, and ene^illy towards 
nightfldl. Into the tower and shaded strei^ which 
have begun to gather the damps, and are kept cool 
by the ^h thick walls of the houses." Buy a skull 
cap to put on your head when you enter the churches 
and cold galleries. With this precaution, and taking 
care to cool younelf before entering such buUdhigs, 
or on coming into a house, and generally not to ex- 
pose yourself to sudden changes, you may live fbr 
twen^ years in the country wiUiont a fever. ** Shut 
your windows when yon go to bed. The night air 
is invariably damp and cold, contrastUig greatly 
with the warmth of the day; and it is then that 
miasma drifts in upon the sleeper.** Do not indulge 
in ices and cold drinks.** 

LangnagV.- The ** Italian** language Is the 
Tuscan, as written and spoken by|ts educated popular 
tion, eqiecially at Florence and Bome^ and as settled 
by the great writers of the 14th century, or TVeoeiKifft, 
vix., Dante, Petrarch, Boccaodo, SacchettI, Villani, 
etc; succeeded by Lorenzo de* Medid, Puld, Bojardo, 
etc., in the 16th century; and byMachiavelli, Guiocl- 
ardinl, ^osto, Bembo, Vasari, B. Cellini, Guarini, 
Tasso, Bandello, etc., called dMqwcentisti^ or 16th 
century writers. The principal dialects are the 
Milanese, Venetian, Padnan or Lombard, Mantnan, 
Piedmontese, Genoese, Bolognese, Neapolitan, Cala- 
brian, Sicilian, Sardinian (or Island dialect). A fisw 
useful words and phrases are given In the Vocabulary 
at the end of the Special Edition of J^nutiAaw's 
CowtinimM Guide, 


The North of Italy, above the river Maera (now 
Magra), near Spezia and the Eublcon, near Eimini 
(both about Ut. 44*), was called Gallia Citerior or 
Gallia CitaHpina. The remainder of the peninsula, 
to the South, was Italia proper, styled Ansonia, 
Hesperla, etc., by the poets. 

Cisalphie Gaul was divided into CIspadana and 
Transpadana, by the Padus (Po) or Eridanus; and 
more particularly as follows:—!. Ligdeia— con- 
taining Genoa and Nice. 2. TAtmiNA— AboutTurin, 
Aosta, etc. 8. Imsubbks— Milan; Pavia, where 
Charles V. defeated Francis L 4. Cknomamni— 
Brescia, Cremona, and Mantua, near the birthplace 
of YLrgH 6, EUOAVBX— Verona, the birthplace of 
Catullus. 6. ViVKTi — Padua, where Livy was 
bom; Aquilel, FriulL Venice (named after this 
province), had no real existence till the destruction of 
AqoUeia, a.d. 452. 7. LiHQONSS— Bavenna, where 
I the Emperor kept his court, and also Theodoric. the 
Goth, after defeating Odoaoer. 8. Bou— Bologna, 
Modena, Parma, Piaoenza. 

1%e andent divisions of Italff proper were as fol- 
lows:— 9. Etbuxia, between the Ma^ and Tiber, 
firom which Ni^oleon borrowed his name of thA<i- 

Pisa, ¥toTOTM», li8^^Tl^^^»»m^^^ssas*>^to««^- 



Pengia, Mtr Lake ThKUiymem,. wIubml Huinlhai. 
defiiftied Um Ronuuia for ttift thinl time; Ckukunr 
tbe eity d Poriein; ItaqvinU, of tbBrTarqiiiBi^ 
12^ and otbar £tnuea&eitifit( and Gl vita YeeeU«. 
lOi. UMBBUr-Btmiiil;. Uibbuv (he birthpIaaBr of 
Baphael; Spolelo; Teal, the Urthplaee- of the 
Bmpeior Tacitnst and Taoftna, the bistoriaD; NaniL 
IL PzcBHUv— Anooaa, Loaretot Asooli; Bidme^tlie 
birtiiplaee- of Oiid;- Gelano^ ia the ceantcy of. tfa* 
Hasii; Beale, intbe-ooantzyoftbeSabhiei^lawhieh 
Ve^Muiaawaabom; AmUermm, thftWrthpiaflfteflSafc" 
lost ;.and Hovaee's VUla» near TUvnlL. 

la. LATxint— Bome, oa tbeTibeig in Uie Gao^ 
pflisna; Tiwll; Fraioati, or Tiuetilm^i\ Albano^ 
Oatia laL GiafniMXA— Capnaf en the YkdUuno ;■ 
VenafiD, Cumm, 3at«r, Pateeli,. Naplea; Pompeii,, 
under. VeBBvina ; SAlernOr and the islanda of laehia,. 
Procida, and CaprL 14. SAiaami^hitbei^lNHnnineBi 
— Benevento, and the Caudine Eorks. 15. Abulia 
— Foggia, SDEmfredonia ; Ganoaa, near Caanm^ tiie- 
eosoa oi Haoni1)al*s fturth great victory; TesQsa» 

the Urtlqdice of Banmv and Bari, eatitttW! by 
Bobert Qniscasd, 1067.. lA; GALABBia: (in the heel 
of the* Boot, on the Adriatferfde; but ttae name was 
■aftemraxda tranrfterad.tothetoe on tiie SicQtanlBlde) 
•^Brhidiei, or Bnmttuimmiitt old portof embaxlca- 
tion for Greeee; Otraotb, OalUpolii ami Tarento, 
near the Urthplaoeof Ehnla^ the poet 17. Luoania 
Ok>w BaailiaBta>*-HeaudeB; Sibaria, the city of the 
InzniioM Byfoadritea y Psatam, and Ita ruins. 18. 
Bsnrn (non? GataAda Gitm)— Goaenaa; Soilla or 
SeyOa, o^poatts Chaiybdia<;- B^ns^o* and Golrane. 
The lait ■Ofl Be e- yau v hiMBy wiMh their flooilshing Gbreek 
colonies, constituted Mt^poa Grsecia 
■ 20. SiexuA.(or Tri^acriajy ccmtained fho anotent 
Greek, cities of Mestona^ or Messina; CktUmOf or 
Catania, under Monat Etna; iSlrranMO^ or Syracuse; 
Jgrigfintum,. or. GixaenU^. JDniMmiim^ at Txapani; 
near Marsala;. Poaomtw, <Hr Paieime;i ^geiiOf or 
;EgeBte, under Hbmit JSiy»r with the.igeWai JwsMfar, 


lachoolfl^jnaitod by-dSlfeMnceB of style and oeUmr, 
wUfih are eaaily anparsot-to tiie pnctiaed con^i 

' ScbOOlS of Painting. — The priadpal'. am 
inamed firom the places: wherer aoaaei of their best 
warkaam to be.fiMUid, » specified is the boirof 
Gtao*-»B.. del Vagfu 

: MtOai^ t/tLombatdi^IMaij PMaocMi Cfa«vaegl » 

- AkfiMt— DKantegna. 

I JSerroro— Garofate, Bu DoasL 

I ifoii*»-4)k Bemanoi Frtmatlcclo. 

WJ'WW— P.' Veronese* 

VmeticBik'-^ BeSOsd, G. da Coneriiiaa, Giotglenfito 
K del Piombo, P. Veochio, Titian, Moreito,.6o>donew 
Tintoretto, Baasaoo, Falma Gievaaa^ PadovaoiBat 

Parma— Goneggio; ParmlgiaiiiBO, 

A)2bsnMH*fVaDc!a, Fontana, the ffaiteGoraeBi, 
Qaido. BarbieiA, Gueretno, Laaflraneo; 

PZbrsnee— Masaccio, Masolhio, Era Ang^Bco, F. 
LIpFi, Pollajuok), VeroccUo, Brooslno. 


iVm^toor 9n«6floN»i»Pef«glim, Baphad; 

ilomoifr— If. Angela, CftrraccI, Pomenlchlho^ F. 

Albani,. A. £accbi, Baiood,. GigeO, AlloirL 

Napie§''-43k Penni ^filattoze). Spagnoletto, & Ibil^ 
L. Giordano. 

The nttnea of some of the most eminent arttatf are^ 
plaeed in the duonologlcal UsI below about the time 
they flourished. 

Spedmens of very ancient painJIngs are to b» 
aeen on the wtills of the Palace of Titus, at Rome, 
the houses at Pompeii, and on the Etinseni yases, in 

The.Fbe Artareachedthrirgreatesi pes& 
liily, in tibe lith, ISh, and' 16tb cenniriea, wiieii 
she .waa. moat 'wealtby and prosperous; and. when,. 
aftera.MadodofidarnieaB and n^^t,.the remaiufr 
of. easiler.tUnes began to he collected, and used aa 
modds: Vast snma were figra^ematiraDy iqjient onr 
tbe-cbordieB and.palaee8,.which.l)erlMst Architects 
wereemplfijed tooonatructt and. her Painters and. 
Senators combined to adorn ; the three prefiBSsiona, 
being sometimes united in the same person. These 
edifices still remain; and though Italy is no Ipnger 
distinguMied ft>r TprodkKbig artists, yet the man of 
cvdtiTated taste and the student, must always- be 
attmotedby thedch treasnsea she poseesses o^ past 
aeea» Pagan and Cbriatfan, in her putiUe andfirivate. 
bidldlogi^ eqiedaJIy at Borne and fldireDoe. 

A-pavttuidiu' aecomlr 'of Hiem: Is ^Aven noder* the. 
respective places in the bedjrof tiie uandobook, but 
a few of tbe-mostpraminBnli maybeflnsotioned^heis. 

PUnJiUig.— Old mosaic^at Bavenaa; St SDuk'Sr 
Veqica; Hbareale, atBalecmou. 

F]fflBcoBS>— The earliest maabers were-Cftnaboe; 
Marfailtooe d'Arezze, Gnido, Gimita & Pisa, Giotto, 
the mend of Dante, S. Memmi, Gidttini, Orcagna^ 
Solari,- Fra AngeQcoi Squerdone; etftrwho executed 
thefresooes stiU exiMIng atSiisna, Flotencei Flsa, 
Asalsi, Aveaso; Bayemn^ Bologna, Padna, and 

on palhtlhg was discovered, or perfected, Dy Tan. 
Byck, called John of Bruges (Giovanni da Bragia), 
and Us pupil,' Bug^eri. Antondkx da Messina^, is 
also clauned as a discoverer or revfrer. Sir G. 
EaaUato-pIaeQa me oUaat oil pafatbig 8t FbtraBae, 

littm tsOfr paUMn were aacceeded by otber 

JBS0(mi% in A-oKom: aad: cOi^. wZicb nnaac the 

j^jmugw of 09 zuiBm pmatg, tbmd$i rariOM 

iTBhltactnie.— TS( 


t!f1!B0D1JCn01l«**LI8T OV ARTISTS* 

••••••••••• ••■ V" 

••••••••••a IfraV f'\ 

















^ BIrllL Deatlu 

GniuOtt], F. >«»« » »«— »>w«f 1 1 1 m>«— M> 1569 1639 

Iaiioeeii«>cUiIinoUt....^...........t... 1480 1550 

Lufranoo, G. .....^...................m.. 1581 1647 

I i BHr fttlf Jta*********************************!** ••• louO 

Uppi, f1«F...... 1412 .1469 

LcMDbardi, C (a).......^..^........^..* 1559 - 1620 

Longfai, If. the elder, (a) m. - 1600 

„ „ tlM younger (a) ............ .^^^ 1656 

Longhi, O. (a) .M.... m.....^^. 1569 •..%1619 

JiX)reiizetto \/f*f ......m**................. *•• 1580 

i^nOj 1a..m««.*..*m««*m*m«**.m.. 

liuini, E. ..................w... 

Mademo^O. (a) ^ 1566 1* 

Mademo, a (f.) ........................... 1576 ^: 

MaJano^B. dA(()........M.M..... 1^42 

Majano, 0. da (a) ....................... 1407 

Mantegna, A. • 1480 

Haratta, GL 1626 

MargarttoneM..*.....M...M.M.....>....... 1236 

Maauocio m..*»m........ «•.....• 1401 

MaaoUno 1403 

Maaueeio, the second (a «.) 1391 

M aaaa oli (a)............... ...m. 1644 

Memnii 1885 

Mengs 1728 

Hichael Angdo (painter, acolptor, and. 

architect) m. 1474 

jnicDeioxziy aa« ................ .............^ ioVq 

jftiiizia. jr. (0/ .............. ....•..••.«. ... 17«9 

■U0lO| VI..........M.............M.........M.. 1616 

jMoncOTaoii \$/ .......•...........•*••••..•.. ... 

Moretto ...M.amM...........w 1500 

MoiTea]e8eM....»............................. 1603 

Mnrfflo ».... 1618 

Moziano^ O. 1538 

jaanxinif &. (*•) .............................. xoi4 

Nanni, G. (d'Udbie) ...m^m............ 1494 

Nolai G. dl (ck i.)............ ■«.... 1476 

NottI, G., delle (or Honthont).....^.. 1592 
oroagna..... ..a....... ....... ...*..*.......... ... 

Fadovanino 1600 

Palladio (a.) ....^..^............m... 1518 

Fahna Gioyane^...... 1644 

Palma Veochio«M.....M.....M........M... 1500 . 

Farmigiantaio .«.. 1505 

Paaaeri, G. B. ............................ 1610 

Fasalgiianit IX .••..•M.ra...M.....M....... 1550 

FeUegrinL F. (a.) 1522 

Feniu, G. F. (Fattore) .................. 1488 

Forranlt, C. (a.) m.m...........^.^...... 1618 

Femgino ....m.*.... 1446 

Ferozzl, B. ^tafaiter and architect) .... 1480 

Pintelll, B. (<i.)..»m«.««m....... 1420 

Fintnricchio, B. m«m«....m.m......m.... 1464 

Fiombo, S. del.M«.«^MM.M.........M.«. 1486 

Xipply vr*. ........ ..Ml. ............M....M... X^SrSt 

Jrisa. Sit oa v^*^.....*.......*.. .............. ... 

Fisa, A. da (<.).«.....•• 1270 

Jrua, G« oa \a«).««»«» w ........«.. .■«■«■■•> ... 

Fomerando ....««w.#.»»m.... 1553 

FoUalnolo, 8. {a. t.)«**M«MM.»..M.MM«. 1454 

J(*OnElO, F. (&) ...•.M.M.MM...M..W..MM -1565 


'»»»»»»* m0 rm»0»» m »9M»rtmmmmm—0»«m 







































Fprtft| Q. deuA (fl. a) ••••.•.m*..*«..m... ... 

Ji JWUi aa. ........... ....M*.................. 1013 

PrimaUodo, F. ..*M.M*aMM................ 1490 

Frocaccinli A. •••• 1490 

Foutfn, N., called Fnssino by the 
Avauana ......m**.*.... ..*..•■*. .**..*•■... i^ya 

Fozxi^ A. (a.) M....... 1642 

uoerdai w. ooiia ........................... ... 

Bahialdi, C. (a) 1611 

Rainaldi, G. (a) m......................... 1570 

Raggl A. (a.) 1624 

Baphael, or Baffaele (painter and 

architect) .........^.m............ 1483 

Bembrandt ...^....m...................... 1606 

Bouellini^B. (a.) .....m................. 1410 

ItOHl A. oe (a.)....M..M.....*.....M«.a.... 1671 

noasif G. A. de (<i.).m*«..........m. 1616 

*»»CCI| U'..*.Ma....*..... ................ .....•• iOof 

m cvi^ o*.............*... ............... ....... Joov 

RiodaxeHi, D. (di Volterra) ............ 1500 

Robbia, L. deUa .....m.....*. 1400 

KonuuieiJif fjr. ........ .....*.........•.....• loif 

Rosa, 8 „.. 1616 

Boaelllni, B. (&) .....••.......*..•.».....• 1410 

Bnbens ....»........................m....... 1577 

Sanaovino V. (a. a.) m..... 1477 

Scamozzi, V., (a) 1562 

Signorelli, L. (da Cortona) 1441 

Sidvl, N. (a) » 1699 

Sangallo (the elder, a.) »..» 1443 

oangauOf a» yOj •.......•...*.....*........ ... 

Sanunicheli, li. (a)..... ». 1484 

Babbathii, A 1480 

Saochi, A. .......^...............H. 1600 

SaUmbene, V. 1677 

Salviati, F. » 1610 

Sarto, A. del .mm. 1488 

Saasoferrato ...m.m *- 1605 

Seanellhio 1551 

Sehidone, B 1570 

Sirani, E m... 1638 

Sodoma......M m.. 1479 

8ettignano D. da •• 1457 

Solano, A. (Zingaro) 1382 

Solarto A. di((}obbo) 1458 

SoUmena, F. 1657 

ispauA ....*..........•..............•... .*••*... lOio 

Spagnoletto (orRibera) 1588 

OQ1IftrCiOIl9| !;• •■••e*««*««a«e«e«*e«««««e***a« Itfilv 
XclOCft \**/ ••••••et«*«eeeaMaee«***aee**e««**** ••• 

Taaai A.. ...... ....M 1666 

Tempesta, A. .« 1565 

icniers, Vm ...........*........•........•... xoav 

Tiarlni, A. .•».» 1577 

XjOpOlO} \jt» I3« ••e**««e*«*e«««*«a««a««ft«««*«* Lwfm 

Tintoretto ...m.m » 1612 

Titian m...... . 1477 

ji rBviaianif'' J? t .^.. ................. ......... Jiooo 

vaccaf Ct yftf .....•**•...••..*.....••....•. •*. 

Vaga, P. del (Bnonaccorsi) ............ 1500 

Van Eycic (Jolm of Bruges).. m. 1870 

Vandyke 1592 

Vannl, F. ,„ 1565 
























































Birth. Death. 

VABTitalll, Lb (0.) ........M. M*— 1700 1773 

VaMri, G. (Author of the ** Lives of 

* wnters / ••..^•••.••••••••••••••••••m lol« loT4 

VUUUUt SQL. «.«»».»»»w.»*»t»»« «■■»«««.«*.« ••• Ivov 

▼eiocciuo v^J .••••••.*•••••••••....•••••••• •*• JiwXf 

Veronese, P. 1532 1588 

Veronese, A. » 1580 1648 

Vinci, L. da (painter and architeet).^ 1A62 1519 

Volterra, F. da (a.) ^ 1588 

Zampieri, D.. ..».•«.••....•••••••••« 1581 1641 

Zaccari (or Zoochero) F. m^..m....... 1543 1609 

Zoccari, ir. •••.••■••.••••••••«••*••••••.•..• lo«9 ivCo 

See Kagler'8 "Handboolc of Painting/* 9 toIs., 
translated by Eastlake: Vasaii's "Lives of the 
Painters," by Forster; Lanzi's ^'History of Paint- 
ing," 3 vols., by Boscoe; Hits Farqahar*s **Catalogae 
of Painters;" Fergosson's **Illastrated Handbook 
of Architectoze," 2 vols.; Stseet's " Brick and Marble 
hi the Middle Ages" (Horth Italy). 




N.B.~Many of the earlier dates of the Roman 
Bishops or Popes are doabtftd. The Popes marked 
thus * are Romans or Italians by birth. 

753 Borne foonded by Romnlos, first King. Fes- 
tival kept 2l8t April 
716 Noma Pomp%ia 
673 Tnllos Hostilius 
640 Ancns Martins 

616 Tarqainios Priscos > 

578 Servins Tnllins 

534 Tarantaiias Saperbns, last King of Rome 
509-10 Expulsion of the EUngs, Republic founded, 

and Consuls histitated 
501 Dictator appointed 
494 Tribunes institnted 
491 Coriolanns exiled 
459 Volscian War 

451 Decemvirs instituted, Twelve Tables 
448 Censors created 
S96 Vdi taken by CamiOns 
390 Rome taken by the Gauls 
340 Latin War 

298-90 Third War with the Samnltes 
264-41 Roman Supremacy hi Italy; first Fnde War 

Hannibal, 247-183 

Cato, 234-189 
231 Conquest of Sardli^ and Conica 

Sdpio, 219-185 
216 Battle of CannA 

Terence, 195-159 
146 Destruction of Carthage 

Cicero, 106^43 
111-06 Jugnrthine War 

Casar, 100^44 



86 Death AfaJOnftv 

82 Sylla, DicUtor 

74-63 Second war with Mithridates. Cicero at 

Virgil, 70-19 
66-2 CataUne's oonspiradet 

Horace, 65-8 
63 Cicero Consul 
60 First Triumvirate between Cmar, Pompeyi ancE 

59 CiBsar Consul, first time 

Livy, B.a 59—17 ▲.D. 
58-50 CflBsar's Campaigns in Gaul 
49 Cssar Dictator 

48 Battle of Pharsalia; Death of Fompey 
44 Cffisar assassinated 
43 Second Triumvirate; Lepiduft M. Antony, and 

Octavlan (Augustus) 
— Death of Cicero 

Ovid, 43 B.a to a.d. 18 
42 BattieofPhillppi; Death of BrutUf 
31 Battle of Actium 

80 Death of Antony 

27 Augustus, fint Roman Emperor 


Seneca, 2-65 
14 Emperor Tiberius. 

Martial, 29-104 
33 The Crucifixion 
37 Emperor Caligula 

Lucan, 37-65 

41 Emperor Claudius 

42 "St Peter," Bishop of Rome. 
54 Emperor Nero 

Tadtus, 61-110 
65-66 St Lbins, Bishop of Rome 
69 Emperors Galba, Otho, Vitellins, and Vespaidan* 

Silius ItiUicus, about this time 

78 St Anadetus, Bishop of Rome 

79 Emperor Titus. Pompeii overwhelmed— Death 

of PUny the Elder 

81 Emperor Domitian 
Plutaroh, 85-^120 

91 St. Clement* Bishop of Rome (sometimes 
placed before Lhms) 

96 Emperor Nerva 

98 Emperor Trajan 

Pliny the Younger. Died about A.D. 110 
100 St Evaristus, Bishop of Rome 
109 St Alexander,* Bishop of Rome 
117 Emperor Hadrian 

Juvenal died ▲.d. 123 
119 St Sixtus L,* Bishop of Rome 
127 St. Telesphorus, Bishop of Rome 
138 Emperor Antoninus Pius 
138 St Hyginus, Bishop of Rome 
142 St Pius I., Bishop of Rome 
156 St Anicetus, Bishop of Rome 
161 Emperor Marcus Aurelius 
161 Emperor Lucius Vems 
168 St Soter, Bishop of Rome 
177 St Eleutherus, Bishop of Rome 
180 £n|>eror Commodus 
185 or 193 St Victor, Bi8ho\{ of Bacba 

j^Z '&mp«EtOT'PQC\3a!AX. 

13 Empenr Septbnliii B 

lis EmpenwHsUciKiilnM^W.SbunlldU 
SE12 EmpcRir AnTeUiu, or Alex. BoflBnia 
S1T-91S St. CiUxtiu L* Bishop of Buu 
131-219 St. UiJua^*,BIilu)poCl(am> 

330 BL FonUuias,* BUlMp iJBoiih. 

331 St. Anibenu. Blthop-DUoBS* 
33tl Enroeror Mmlillinm. 

23S BL Fiblim.* filihup tf Bama. 
S38 Empenm Qordtoii, L and It 
313 £mpeiuf Ullfi. 

392 StTcumeUiu,* Blibop DtSoBia. 

3i3 NoratUn, AnUpope. 

Ii2 Sl Liicliii,»Bllhonof Eomft 


rO at. Fgllx L,< BMiop of.Bove. 

m Empenr Canu. 

SSS SL Calog. BlihDp of Boras. 

m Emptron DioclMUit tnaifat hnl M a 

W SL HuaUiDU,* Blibop of Boon. 

)Q4 St. lOcceUiu,* BMat olBoaa. 

CmwUdIIiw 'tin QcMti flat RhriitlRi 


114 SL SvlTcater,' Blibop of Konu. 
*» atJluk !• nihiip of bmm. 

m BL SnlliB t* BUiiv of Bnvs. 

SSI St. t^^ I*. Btdiop of Rmu: 

»1 EiiwHOTJhUan,.tbj«Mtali. 

■M Eamero[>Vi1enaidan-l.,iiiTilanbind.anti*e 

869 St DunuoB L, BiBbm et BonUi 

M8 Emperor The«U»iBitt«^ — 

MS (WMt) BnipmltTl" 

JSafEmllF — 

>§4 St BlrlL ___ 

■9S CWM) Empww I 

toMAlarlolboOoBi . 

Ml SL Innoont L, Blibop ei-Saam. 
toa tttiU) BmperorTlusJMuJI. 
110 Alulc uckaBcaaa. 
411 SL Zoiluiiu.'BUiop «nut». 

dM at RmutMlr* ssMb^-^Ham 
'•t otivaae zT^^iap elSiiam. 

US tWesO V»lsnUn!ini lYL 

VM SL Sliuiini..- Bishop of Rom. 

JSa TheodoaUn Codo pracUimed. 

440 St. Lso L the Great, Dlntiop orBooi 

AttllB and tho Huiu Biiler lUJj. 
4U (West) EpipiToc Avitiu. 


^ (Eut) Empeioi JiuUuiaji, AiiUiot .of Uie 
BoDlfiKD n.,* GUhop of Romo. 

AM St eUvailDi, Bkhop of Sorm. 

IS VltlM, K 

iT-9 BoliMrto 

ID ^glUui 

I, Kingot "ItaJy." 
i Aririo, KJvaf "Hal;." 
ITotsla, Kligofltalri'-totatu 
.7 BellHrlDi lamkta Boms. 
i3 Tela, lut OHnigoth Slug of " Itat 
i3 Ijansa, Duka at Jtalj .mte U 

16 Pelaglua L, 'Biahnp ol Ronu 

3 St. Benedict I,.' Bishop of Rome. 

3 Cleoiih DT Cl«iihla. ElngurtniiiOmiilrdl 

S St.felajVwll.," lUitiat lA^eob. 



S78 (E«8t) Emperor Tiberias IL 

^2 (Bast) Emperor'Maarttlinu 

684 ^tharis, Dnke of the liombcrltaL 

584 Sinaragdas, Exarch of ^srennSi 

590 St Gregory L* (the Greal!), Blshpp^tinfiame. 

590 Bomanas, ExaitSh of Bovenim. 

501 AMLnph^ Duk^ of fhe LombaarCUk 

597 (mUinicDS, SzAxeh-of 'Barema 

6fi^ (Cast) Enqieror Phocas 

603 Sinaragdas, Exarch of Ratwma (ft a ecO Pftll me) 

604 Sabiniiuiiis! Bldiop of BomB 
606 Boniftce nin^P^ (iU>QSt this ffaXB *11» 

Papal power begins) 
608 Boniface lY., Pope 

610 (East) Emperor Bttidlin 

611 Johai0ieaI«mUtQai-Ezarehof SflivinnB 
615 DeodAtns,* orAdeodatns L.Tope 

615 Adawald, King (tf liombardB 

616 Eleutherius, Exarch of Rovennft 

618 Boniface V., Pope 

619 baac, Exarch of Bamsft 
625 Honorlns X, Pope 
625 Ariwald, King of LombarAi 
628 Dagobert the Cbreat, King Df' Fraaoe 
636 Botharis, Diike of BreacSa, or 'King of 


638 Plato, Exarch of Aayenxui 

639 9eTerin«8*, Pope 

640 John ly., -Pope 

641 Theodore I., Pope 

648 Theodoras L, Sxaroh Of Bavemm 

649 St. Martin I., Pope 
649 Olympios, Exarch of Batemm 
652 Bodvald, Kfaig of the Lombsrdi 

652 Theodoras, Exsrch of Bavemu (a nesDft tbD^ 

653 Aribert L, King of theLoaUnsUa 

654 Eogentos L, *PDpe 
657 Vitalian, Pope 

661 Pertharitas, Khigof'fheTiOnfbaras 

662 Grimsald, King of the Lombasda 
-666 Gregory, Exarch of Bairenns 

670 Adeodatns IL,*Pope 

671 Pertharitos^ King of the liombcrOi (fi feoond 

675 Dommas tor Donas) L,*Tope 
678 Agathon, Pope 
678 Theodore U., !Bxsa:di'Qf 'Sstomft 
682 St Leo XL, Pope I 

684 Benedict IL,* Pope 

685 John V., Pope ! 

686 Conibert, l^g of lionflwrdi 
685 Peter,.Anth)oj;)e i 

685 Theodore, Ant^;x>pe 
HM PaschaLAnt^pope 

686 Conon,rope 

687 Sergias L^ope 

687 Johannes Platon, Dzftrdi- OTRayuufia 
697 Bepublic of Venlee fbimded; Paolo Lotio 

Anafesto. first Doge 

700 Loitpert, Ktaig of the ijoalbaat&B 

701 Bagimbert, lung nf the Unnbifai 
701 Aribert n., Khv ofthsljonlbsrAi 

701 JohnVL, Piope 

702 Theopbilactaa, £xardii9f BaTtniA . 
705 John VSLyPkve \ 

708 Sishiias, Pope 

708 Constantinas, Bope 

710 JehannsB Bizocopfni, flxareh«f Bavana 

711 Eatychias, BxarcbofBsvennft 

712 Ansprand, King of the Lenbards 

712 Loltprand, Khigof ttie LomboriB 

713 Scholasticns, Exarch of Bsvtmm 
716 Gregory XL,* Pope 

727 Paid, Exareh of kavenna 

728 Eutychins, Exarch 0tfUs9eDmf{umKmA time) 
731 Gregory IIL, Pope 

741 ZadiariBS, Pope 

744 Hildebrand, Khig of the Lombards 

744 Batchis, King of the Lombards «Ad l>A»of 

746 Chilperic IL (or Chllperie HarteD, Xtag tf 

749 Astolfos, King of tte Lombftfds 
752 Stephen IL,* Pope 
752 Stephen lu.,* Pope 
752 Pepin, KingofFmooe 
756 Desiderius, King of the Lombtrdf aart'Dafce 


756 Pepin gives the Exaidnte tD ft» Pofie 

757 PaalL,*Fope 
763 Stephen IV., Popo 
768 Theophylact, Antipope 

768 Ck>a8tantine IL, Antipope 

758 Charlemagne, King of the ftanks 

769 Philip, .^tipope 

772 Adrian L* (of the Colonrm ftunily), <Po{^ 

774 Lombardy, etc., taken byCharleinagne 

795 St Leo III.,* Pope 

800 Egbert L, Ktng of England 

800 Charlemagne (CarlomagnoO tho Frank, Empe- 
ror of the West Fnnn this time tiie Boman 
Pontificate was flnilly eeperated ftom the 
Eastern Empire, and oeme under the infla- 
ence of the Frank or German Empin 

814 Loois L, Emperor of tba West 

816 Stephen V.,* Popo 

617 Pasdud L,* Pern 

824 Eugenlos IL,* Pope 

826 Zinzinus, Antipope 

827 Valentmos,* Pope 

827 Gregory IV.,* Pope 

828 Boniface L, Marqois of ToeoBiqr 
840 Lothaire, Emperor of the West 
844 Sergias IL> Fope 

846 Leo IV.,* Pope 

(Legend of Pope Jeaa, or John ^^M 

847 Adelbort L, Duke of Toscany. 
855 St Benedict IIL,* Pope 

855 Louis IL, Emperor of tbe We 

855 Anastasius, Antipope 

858 Nicholas L,* Pope 

867 Adrian IL,* Pope 

872 John VUL,* Pepe 

872 Alfred, lUng of England 

876 Carloman, King of France 

880 Charles HI., King of Italy, ftld Sopiror^l 

882 Martin II , Bspa 
8S4 Adrian IIL,* Pope 


uniMiiNntov.— un at mmoM, ntta, vjiaa, iro. 

««S Bennur.Diikaorrrliill 

n» «uy. Data d[ Bpolilo, fclnff <rf lUlr ; Ud 

Emurocor Qtfiiuny.S93 
MS Amuir, Empgrcr o( Ouiuiiy 
no Adilben II , Dakt D[ Tutumr 
Ml TornKiiuii* Papa 
m aareloa III , AiiUiwpa 
SM T-imbnt King of lulf, ud ElBp«Or 
SSI BHdTica VI..' Pops 
07 BlapfaiiB VII ,• Pnfe 
■fl BotDuiiuL, AKiipopg 
MT Tliwilm IL. Fopo 
MM Loda tha Blmd. KtDE of Ibti 
Sn Lao T., Papa 
(OS CtartiUiiber* Antlnopa 
«04 Bartlu III., •Fop* 
— ■' -- ,f luiy; EmponSU 

■It A 

ti BefangiT, King of 

111 III.,- 

^«. or Lando. Popo 

•l>i Gov. Diika ofTiueany 

m Rodolph, King: Df Iiily and Bi 

93S Uagh. King ol I11U7 

•M L« VI . •Popa 

K9 BUphFn VIII.. •Pops 

K9 DiMon, Marqula of Tuactny 

M» SUpbn IK, Fopo 
MBUuIlDlIt,- Pope 
Ma AgipatoalL.'PDpe 
ssn Bereoger U ind Aito 
W« Jobn XII • iContO, P' 
Ml Bugbtba Great, Duki 
Kl Ilaly unltid willi Ci 

1, Kiiti or luir 

any, iiod« Empuor 

U OUh> IL. EmpetDr of Oetmany 
I* BonKua VII , Anlli^'^pc 
It BancdJci VII .' (Caaii), PD;a 

an Jobn XVII . Aiillpopo 
HI Blatter II , I'opo 
ItDl Adalben III.. Dulie of Tc 
'DM Hooiy Km Bmrnror of Gi 
lOPS John XVIII.. Pope 

m XI.,- (or jDlm XIX) , Pppo 

.... „jlf»ca,Dult8uiTiiiMiiy 

lOSl Domenico FUtbanaco, Uoje si Vcnin 


Sylvenorlll., AnUpopa 
.— I(»rym,BinT»forofaaniiuiy 
IMS WilL BraraU-tofo, Coonl of Apolto 
BiMiltoConturiiaL, OogeolVeolsa 

jnani ir.'Popa 

IMt Dnfo. Count Dl Apulia 

'"- "-ipator Msnry III. Uapoiaa UiKO Popat 


no Ofwolo, Doge of Vi 
lu. IV..' rope 
!diclui Vlll .• iOmtn. 

_, . Genmny 

IWI StopheiilUPope 
'— BeDedict X,» IConliX Aollpopo 

King of F 
1.. li^ of » 

IDCT F«il«iickl.,LordofFonara 
1011 Domenico BUvio. Do«a ul Venice 
low Boger I., Connl of Bkily 
' IIS aregoi? VIL- {UiUtlirimi < 

or III.- <£pVani), Pope 

Theodurlc, Ai , , 
Onlilafo FAlleio, Doge 
IMSvlier '-- 

^..Jlor m.Au-r.r- 

llOt HM17 v.. Emperor of Germmy 
line AmadeuiII, fiutCvuUolSuvQ* 
— ■ --'- VI., KingorPrance 

tiLeo MIcheQ, Doge oI Vsniw 
ui IL* Waibmil, Pong 
ry VIIL. Anllpope 

onnoDOonoi.— U8I or mPKBOBs, Fopm, xnos, sra 


1119 Conrad, Dnkt of Tiucanf 
1128 Ninth Council of L«tenui 
1134 Honorius 11., Pqpe 

Celeitine II., Antipope t 

1125 LoUudre II., Emperor of Germany • * 

1 126 Rinaldo, 11 of Montferrat 

1130 Innocent II..« (iteMrrMcM), Pop* 
1180 Silk brought into Italy 
1130 Anacletus IL, Antipope 

1180 Pietro Polant, Etoge of Venkse 

1 181 Ramprest, President of Tuscany 
1 188 Henry, Connt of Tuscany 
1188 VkJtor IV., Antipope 

1 188 Conrad IIL, Emperor of Germany 

1139 Ulderie, Ifarquis of Tuscany 

1140 WilUam IIL, M. of Montferrat 
1148 Celestine II.,* Pope 

1144 Lucius IL* iCaeeianemid), Pope 

1145 Engenius IIL* {PaganOU}^ Foot 
1148 Domenico Moroaini, Doge of Venice 
1150 Taurello, or TorelU, Lord of Ferrara 

1152 FVed. Barbarossa, Emperor of Germany 

1158 Anastasius IV.,* Pope 

1153 Guelpli, Duke of Tuscany 

1164 Adrian IV. (Breofapeore), Pope; bom at Ab- 
bot's Luigley, near Watford 

1154 William 1., King of SicQy 

1150 Vitale Micheli IL, Doge of Venice 

1159 Alexander IIL* (Bandindli), Pope 
1159 Victor IV., Antipope 

1 1 64 Paschal IIL, Antipope 

1167 William II. the Good, King of SicQy 

1169 Calixtus III., Antipope 

1173 Sebastiano Zlani, Doge of Venice 

1178 Innocent IIL, Antipope 

1179 Orio Blastropiero, Doge of Venice 

1180 Phillip Augustus, King of France 

1181 Lucius III* {AUvdgnom. Pope 
1185 Urban IIL* {CrweUi>, Pope 

1187 Gregory VIIL* (De Morrah Pope 

1188 Clement IIL* (Seofon), Pope 

1188 Conrad, Montferrat 

1189 Tancred, King of Sicily 

1190 Henry VL, Emperor of Germany 

1 191 Celestine lU.* (finM), Pope 

1 192 Boniface IL, BL of Montferrat 

1 192 Enrico Dandolo, Doge of Venice 

1194 Emperor Henry VI. (Suabia), King of Sicily 

1195 SalingnerralL (TbreW), Lord of Ferrara 

1196 Philip, Tuscany; elected Emperor, 1198 

1196 Azzo VL iStU), Lord of Ferram 

1197 Frederick, King of SicUy 

1198 Innocent I1I> {Conii), Pope 

1198 Philip, Emperor of Gennany 

1199 John, King of England 
1205 Pietro Zlani, Doge of Venice 

1207 William IV., Uarquls of Montferrat 

1208 OthoIV., Emperor of Germany 
1208 Florence, a Republic, till 1531 

1212 Aldorrandini 1. iEtt$\ Lord of Ferram 
1212 Frederick IL, Emperor of Gennany 

1215 Aasso ViL (^HsK -Lord of Ferrara 

1216 Honortaui m.* (M«e0O, Pope 
1224>74 St Thomas of Aqninas 

1225 BpJDtlfiMvXIZy Hmuig ofHoat£tn$t 

1296 St Lonis IX., King of Franoo 
1227 Gregory IX.* (CoiXO, Pope 
1229 Giaoomo Tiepcdo, Doge of Venice 
1242 Celestine IV.* (CoMtigiiome), Pope 
1343 Innocent IV.* {Fieaehii, Pope 
1244 Giacomo (TbreUO, Lord of Ferrara 
1349 Marino Morosini, Doge of Venice . 

1360 Conrad L, King of Sidly and Emperor of 

1253 Ranieri Zeno, Doge of Venice 

1254 Alexander IV.« iConiSi, Pope 

1254 William V., Marquis of Montferrat 

1255 Conrad 11., or Conradin, King of Sicily 
1257 Martin della Torre, Lord of MOaa 
1259 Manfired, King of SicDy 

1261 Urban IV., Pope 

1264 Obizzio IL (EsU), Ferrara 

1265 Clement IV., Pope 

1265 Napoleon della Torre, Lord of Milan 

Cimabue, the painter 
1367 Charles L (Jb^ou), King of Sicily 
1268 Lorenzo Tiepolo, Doge of Venice 

1270 Salinguerra IIL (2bre«0« Lord of Ferrara 

1271 Gregonr X.* (FueontO, Pope 

1278 Rudolph of Hapsburg, Emperor of Germany 

1275 Giacomo Contarini, Doge of Venice 

1276 Innocent V., Pope 

1276 Adrian V.* (Fietchii, Pope 

1276 John XXI., Pope 

1377 Nicholas IIL* (Onini), Rome beeomei In- 
dependent of the Emperors 

1277 Otiio Visconti, Milan 

1279 Giovanni Dandolo, Doge of Venice 

1281 Martin IV., Pope 

1282 Charles^oTAnJou, King of Naples 

1283 Pedro 1 (Araffon), King of SicUy (SicUiaa 

1285 Charlea n.. King of Naples 
1285 Honorius IV.* {SavOU), Pope 

1288 NichoUis IV.* {McueO, Pope 

1289 PietroGradenigo, Doge of Venice 

1292 John I., Marquis of Montferrat 

1293 Azzo VUL (Este), Lord of Ferrar 

1294 Celestme V.* (JforrofM), Pope 
Giotto, the pahiter t 

1294 Bonifkce VIH. (Caetoni) Pope 
1395 Matthew I., Mi'an 
1296 Frederic II., King of Sicily 
1298 Albert L (of Austria), Emperor Of Germany 
Dante exiled firom Florence, f (Bom 1265, dies 
1803 Benedict XL* (Boeetuim) Pope 

1305 Clement V. The Papal Court moved to 


1306 Theodore Paleologns, Marquis of Montforrat 
1308 Fnlke^ or Folco (SsU), Lord of Ferranr 
1809 Robert, King of Na|^ 

1311 ConncQ of Ten, at Venice. 
1811 Marino Giorgl, Doge of Vevtice 
1811 GioyanniSorazo, Doge of Venice 
1814 Louis rv.. Emperor of Germany 
1316 John XXTT., Pope 

t Tb«» en!^<^«t 1plas&«v«<*wv^9<fc>^«^''^*K^ 

isn BoDBido 01^ m. Bd juiftBtaL. b 


S FiaucBDo DindDlo. Dogi of Vnin 
19 IjoultOmagi'L, LmttllitMat 


IWa-Aldovimdl lii^Xvd u 

go FaUeio, Dsge of Tado* 
" -iOale--" ■- 


13 IL, TlKtlBDUtf Jl 


_. IS Olorannl DolSii. Dogt __ . 

IKS ftMluiiA m, KlM of BlcUr 

1550 Ony, Lord of Urumt 
1S61 NtchoItuIL, Lord or Stann 
USl LomuoXMilDageolliEailBa 
1K3 Crbu y^ Fop* 

ISSG Huco OoTDUo, Duent TBOtn. 
1M7 AiidmOoiilariM.Dciegof'^iiIoe. 
laee Looii a. Lord of Hutuii 
mo QtegoTTXI. S;nw«)PwB. SbtTifClCII 
■oca back to 'BoBB 

— TiOUioM.or— ■■ ■ 

VL .. . -,..__. 


., _, ftuoen of iWJy 

IST8 John Gtileu Vlsamtl, JOikaof lUu 
ins Wencealu. Boipeniiiif iSsnaui]' 
USl Tbeodon U., MDqoJa of UoBtfUnt 
1>31 HldieU HorotinS, Dam of Tenka 

1551 Anlonlo VbdIho, Ih«e af Vades 
13S1 Fnudi X^ Lord of Muuna 

Usa TommuD Alblul, Lord ot floimcB 
Uaa CharlEBin., KUiRofNapiia 
1»BB Ls^UbIsb, KJnE °f llaptei 

' "' "^.p Anlt"3poat Artgaon 

UTS Hut I^ 

UST Claocoi V. 

yr JobaFnuicUI..]laqiiiiofHwtu 
M Almnfler V. (ya»i a rT| »^ ,.PBf» 

Fn AngElIco, UWfBhilK 
LD JohnSXUL* (Cte*^, FM 

10 Slglmmmd, rniMint iir CmiiWij 

11 Phui^u^nteBfinu 

It TomauuD HaMolge, Don at V«dia 
■" ' " ^ueo»of»«^ 

i«mcL UnqoliofaaMhi 
1 Vnl, Klogitf Abm* 

UI3 FrucaDo FDboI, Dag* of T«dM 
14» ChnMDt VOL, ftnUiiiftili-ilpini 
"" Risildo AUbs, LhOioI 'nsmiao 

lUO Bono. Dnka of „_ 

1*50 FrsBdi 6lnM,DiitootMiiK 
lies ConatuiUiioiKs takan liy flu 1 

iiu CUxtiuin. tAnM Fopa 

IWT Pauimtaltilliteo, Domnt 1 
14eg FiD9 IL> mwloort^j IW 
1*93 Foidlund L Khig of Ki^ 
1460 Qaj ObIb— " * 

ForuglnD, tbap^atv 

a, Lori oT Fl w o w o. 

WUUun TL, Jbiq«to of JlaUfW] 
WaBobi Tna«,3>o« of Todn 

OhlrlmdAlOt tlwfuts 
1419 Nkcab HuiBlla, Dat*i)l ^Woa 

1474 Flotm HocsoiCDrDaasof TonlDa 
1414 Fmdlnud u3 IwMb, ElBC •Dl 4 

J47B Tnhn fltli Mm. Batotf HQm 

1475 Frederick L. Uuqult gfttoM* 

1484 luKnot ^DL* i1IIUi,Xafa 
14S4 Jobn FBB*,Hnid*o(SMrtm 
14U Hun ButMtff*. BM4f Vidlw 

I4BS AgDaUiK>BubBl«D.£n*(it VeAm 



1493 Alexander VL (A>nHki), Jfpp^ 
U9a Fietro II. Loitl Of Florence 

Colombus diacovera America 
1493 ItfaxiniillaQ I. Emperor of Qenmaaj 

1493 WUUam VII. Marqais HontClBRat 

1494 Achilles, Goant of GoastaUa 
1494 Alfonso IL Elag of Naples 

1494 The Medici axpdied flrom Florence 
1494 Loois-Bfary, Doke df Milan 
1500 Louis XIL of France, I>nke nf mian 
1601 Leonardo Loredano, Doge of Venice 

1502 Fietro Sodorini, Gonfieaonier of Ftorenee 

1503 Fius IIL (Pt'ecotominOi Pope^ 
Leonardo da Vind 

Falma Vecdhlo,!nter 
1503 JuUus IL {ffiuliano <kUa Jtovare),JPas^ 

1505 Alfons o LD nfce of Vetnn 
1509 Henry Ym, King of England 

1512 Giuliano de* Vedld, Lcfrd ot Florenoe 

1512 Maximilian Sforza, Duke of Milan 

1513 Leo X.* (Medict), Fope 

1515 Francis L, King of Francis fOid DokB «f iOtam 

1516 Lorenzo IL, Loxdof Flormce 

1518 Boniface V., Marcpils nf Muulft s mtl 

1519 Charles V., Gfecmany and Sjptda 
1519 Frederick IL, Doke of Mootn 

Micliael Angelo 
1519 Giulio de* Medid, Lord of Florence (Pope 152^, 
1521 Antonio Grimanl, Doge of Venice 

1521 Francis-Mary, Doke of Milan 

1522 Adrian VL, Pope 

1522 LonisA Torelli, Gonnt dt. Gnastdlla 

1523 Andrea Gritti, Dqgeof Venice 
J523 Clement Vn.* {Oiulio dt' Medid) Pope 

1530 John George, Marqois of Montferrat (United 

to Mantua, 1536) 

1531 Alexander, Duke of Tlorenoe 
1534 Paul in .♦ (Famcie), Pope 
1534 Hercules IL, Duke of Fernaa 

1537 Ck)smo the Great, .(de'VedicO€hsndBtike of 

1539 Ferdinand deOonzaga, Count xtfvGoastaQa 

1539 Fietro Lando, Doge of Venice 

1540 Francis IL, Marquis of MaBtoa 
1545 Francesco Donato, Doge of Vjenice 
1645 Peter Louis Faraese, Doke of Famm 

G. Romano, the painter 
1547 Octavius Famese, Dnke cfTTanna 
1550 William L, Duke of Mantna 
1550 Julius HL* (CVoeeftO, Pope 
1558 M. A. Trevisano, Doge Iff V^enioB 
1654 Francesco Veniero, Doge of 'Venicei 
1555 Marcellaa IL (C2er&6if)» JP^pe 




1555 PaiilIV.«taiin«1tt,aPq|» 

1556 LoimoJnlill^'PMe^irftaiapt 
1B&7 CsmrT, %ard tit GaastObi 

1558 EUzabettirQaeen <$f England. 

1558 Ferd. L, Emperor of Germany 

1559 Girolamo Prinii, Doge of Veoic* 
1559 Pius IV.* {Medici), Fope 

1559 Alfonso IL, Duke of Ferrara 
1564 Max. IL, Emperor of Germany 

1566 St Pius v.* {CfhitlierO, Pope 
Tintoretto, the painter 

1567 Pietro Loredano, Doge of Venice 
1570 Luigi Moccnigo, Doge of Venice 

1572 Gregory XIIL* {BwmeffmfieigTa), Pope 
P. Veronese, the painter 

1574 Francis, Grand Duke of Tosearry 

1575 Ferd. IL, Dnke of GnaBtaUa 

1576 RodolphIL, Emperor of Germany 

1577 Sebastiano Veninro, Dog^ofVeai 

1578 Nicolo da Ponte, D(^ of Venice 
1685 Sixtus v.* iPereiH), Pope 

1585 Pasquale Cieogna, Doge of Venice 

1586 Alexander Famese, Duke of Parma 

1587 Ferd. L, Grand Dnke of Tnseony 

1687 Vincent L, Dnke of Mantna and MoBtfisrnrt 

1689 Henry IV., King of France 
1590 Urban VIL« (Castagna), Pope 

L. Carracd, the painter 
Ag. Carracci, the painter 

1690 Gregory XIV.* (i^/rondaiOt Pope 
An. Carracd, the painter 
Caravaggio, the painter 

1691 JnnoctatlX.*{PeKdttnett{),Fape 
Domenichfaio, the painter 
Guide, the psdnter 

1502 Clement VHL* (Aldobrandini), Pope 
1592 Ranutio L. Duke of Parma 

1696 Marino Grlmano, Doge ofVenlce 

1697 CsBsarL, DokeofFerraxa 
1605 Leo XL* (ifedieOt Pope 


Guercino, the painter 

1605 Paul v.* (Bargheae), Pope 

1606 Leonardo Donato, Doge of Venice 
1609 Cosmo II., Grand Duke of Tuscany 
1612 Francis IL, Duke of Mantua 

1612 Ferdinand, Duke of Mantna 
1612 Matthias, Emperor of Germany 
1612 M. A. Memmo, Doge oS Vontee 
1615 Giovanni Bembo, Doge of Vcniae 
1018 Nicolo Denato, D^e of Vmice 

1618 Antonio Prinii, Doge of Venice 

1619 Ferd. IL, Emp«x)r of Germany 
1621 Gregory XV.* (Ludaoisi), Pope 

1621 Ferdinand n., Grand Dnke of Toscn^ 

1622 Edward, Dnke of Parma 

1623 Urban VIH.* {BaH^erittS), Pepe 

1623 Francesco Contarini.Dogeof'Vtenioe 

1624 Giovanni Comaro, Doge of Vonkie 

1625 Charles L, Khig of England 

1626 Vincent IL, Dnke of Mantna 
Dedication of BL Peter^ls, (fbnafledlAfi^ 

1627 Ch. L. DukeefMantaa 

1629 Franelfl L, Ooke of liodana aifl I 

1630 CanrIL,D«kaofGnMtalla 
16&0 1^\!Co\o CoT!taeM^;S><3i«^^'^«aAsxi 



1632 Ferdinand IIL, Duke of Gnastalla 
1637 Ferdinand IIL, Emperor of Oermaoy 

1687 Ch. II. and IIL, Dnkes of Ifantua 
S. Bosa, the painter 

1633 Ch. Emanuel II., Duke of Savoy 
1644 Innocent X.* (Pam^O. Pope 
1646 Ranutio IL, Duke of Parma 

C. Dolci, the painter 
1646 Francesco Molino, Doge of Venice 
1653 Cromwell, Protector 
1655 Alexander TIL* {CMgO* Pope 

1655 Carlo Contarlnl, Doge of Venice 

1656 Francesco Comaro, Doge of Venice 
1656 Bertncd Valiero, Doge of Venice 
1658 Leopold L, Emperor of Germany 
1658 Alfonso IV., Duke of Modena 

1658 Giovanni Pesaro, Doge of Venice 

1659 Domenico Contarani IL, Doge of Venice 
1662 Frances IL, Duke of Modena 

1665 Ch. rv., Duke of Mantua 

1667 Clement IX.* (Bospigliosi) Pope 

li. Giordano, the painter 
1670 Clement X.* (AUieH), Pope 

C. Maratti, the painter 
1670 Cosmo in.. Grand Dnke of Tuscany 
1675 Vict. Amadous 11., Dnke of Savoy 

1675 Nicolo Sajrredo, Doge of Venice 

1676 Innocent XL* (Odescalehi), Pope 
1676 Luigi Contarini, Doge of Venice 

1678 Charles, Duke of Mantua and Gnastalla 
1684 M. A. Giustiniani, Doge of Venice 

1688 Francesco Morosini, Doge of Venice 
1639 Alexander VIII. (Ottoboni)^ Pope 

1689 William and Mary, King and Queen of Eng- 


1691 Innocent XIL* (PignateUi), Pope 

1692 Vincent de Gonzaga, Duke of Gnastalla 
1694 Frances L, Duke of Parma 

1694 ReghuJd, Duke of Modena 
1694 Silve^tro Valiero, Doge of Venice 
170O Clement XL* (Albani), Pope * 
1700 Alvise Mocenigo L, Doge of Venice 
1705 Joseph L, Emperor of Germany 
1709 Giovanni Comaro IL JDoge of Venice 
1711 Ch. VI., Emperor of Germany 
1718 Charles IL, King of Naples 
1715 Antony Ferdinand, Duke of Gnastalla 

Canaletto, the painter 
1718 Victor Amadeus IL, King of Sardinia 

1721 Innocent XIIL«(C7(m<0« Pope 

1722 A. S. Mocei^go, Doge of Venice 

1723 John Gastone, Grand Dnke of Tuscany 
1723 Carlo Ruzzini, Doge of Venice 

1734 Benedict XIIL* {Ortini), Pope 
1727 Antony, Dnke of Parma 

1729 Joseph, Duke of Gnastalla 

1730 Clement XIL* (Cortini), Pope 

1730 Ch. Emmanoel III., Khig of Sardinia 

1731 Don Carlos, Duke of Parma 

1736 Charles IIL {Bourbon), King of Naples 

1735 Lnigi Pl^ani, Doge of Venice 

1737 Francis IL {Lorraine), Grand Dnke of Tos- 

can*: /JElzQperor of Germany, 1745) 
^/KT -FiTUJiOr m, DakB of Modena 

''^^Beneaict2aY.*(Lana^tinih Pope 



1741 Fietro Grimanl, Doge of Venice 

1742 Charles VIL, Emperor of Germany 
1745 Francis I., Emperor of Germany 

1749 Don Philip, Duke of Parma and Guastalla 
1758 Clement XIIL* (Betzonieo), Pope 
1769 Ferdhiand IV., King of Naples 
1760 George IIL, King of England 
1762 Marco Foscarini, Doge of Venice 

1768 Alvise Mocenigo IL, Doge of Venice 
1765 Peter Leopold, Grand Dulce of Tuscan 
1765 Joseph IL, Emperor of Germany 
1765 Don Philip, Duke of Parma 

1769 Clement XIV.* (Oanganeai)^ Pope 

1773 Victor Amadeus IIL, King of Sardinia 
1775 Pius VI.* {Braschi), Pope 

1779 Pablo Reinier, Doge of Venice 

1780 Hercules, Duke of Modena 

1789 Lnigi Manin, last Doge of Venice 

1790 Ferdinand IIL, Grand Dnke of Tuscany 
1790 Leopold IL, Emperor of Germany 
1792 Francis IL, Emperor of Germany 

1797 Modena, part of Cisalpine Republic 

1800 Pius VIL* iChiaramonti), Pope 

1801 Louis, Grand Duke of Etruria (Tuscany) 

1802 Victor Enmiannel I., King of Sardhiia 

1803 Charies Louis, Dnke of Etruria (Tuscany) 

1803 Parma united to France 

1804 Napoleon L, Emperor of France 

1804 Francis IL of Germany becomes Emperor of 


1805 Bacdocchi, Prince of Lucca 

1806 Eliza Bonaparte, Grand Duchess of Tuscany 
1808 Joseph Napoleon, King of Naples 

Murat, King of Ni4;)le8 
1814 FenUnand IIL (restored), Grand Dnke of Tus- 
1814 Maria Louisa, Grand Duchess of Parma 

1814 Francis IV., Duke of Modena. (Massa and 

Carrara added to Modena, 1829) 

1815 Ferdinand IV. (restored as Ferdinand L of 

1821 Charles Felix, King of Sardinia 

1823 Leo XIL* {Genga\ Pope 

1824 Leopold IL, Grand Doke of Tuscany 
1824 Charles Louis, Duke of Lucca 

1829 Pius Vm.« {CoitiglimiU Pope 

1830 Louis Philippe, King of France 

1830 Ferdinand II. (^'Bomba"), King of Naples 

1831 Gregory XVL* [CapeOari), Pope 
1831 Charles Albert, King of Sardinia 
1883 Isabella, Queen of Spain 

1835 Ferdinand, Emperor of Austria 

1837 Victoria, Qaeen of England 

1846 Pins IX.,* Pio Nono {MastaUFerrettiit Pope, 

16th June. Bom, 1792. 
1846 Francis V., Dnke of Modena 
1848 Francis Joseph, Emperor of Anstria 

1848 Republic in France 

1849 Victor Emmanuel II., King of SardinU 
1852 Napoleon III , Emperor of France 
1859 Francis IL, King of Naples 

1859 April 27. Leopold IL leaves Tuscany 

EnBtmvmoa.— soou— BODTK v 

, JnneA Dentil of Ommr 

19 Ifn Mth. FVhwhb, Ibg nsw eipUil of Itdy. 

TbB MOth ■nnlnnu]' of Duoa, oliMrraiL 
Victor EmniMiiHl, mKOrgn sRMhb * " 
poet (^7f "*lt it BiTnuu). Id f n 

Book!.— AmooB tbe boiA* moM lo Oia body of 
tbo liillui Band-lxxik, oi daiBivlug U» n-'—"' 

RCH*! " LitUn ham tlw North of Italr," 1 V 

LWfo™, in Itnir-" 
Beckford'i"L«ttenmini Italy,"! toll. ISOI. 
Idlng't " Notoi of ■ TnTcUel In Itdy," ate (1 

-rtOeftlAitnj). M6t. 
"lUIy," tn Lord Biaaghton (Sir J. C. Hobhsn 

WUttdda'* "Italy Id Uie IINh Cvilnry." IBEO. 
Anhort ■• Italy r--'^—'"--" '"" 
"'')Bon'»"Miile«.. _.. . 
« Ontton'i " En^idii 





"BketcUiig BiWiMf in th* Atcn- 


iToIt 18M. 
Dr.W«dnninh'a'>TnirlBllaly.''>Tiili. IMS. 
Umdolaolm'* " Lotten from Italy." 
OaUngn'i " HlMory of nedntont." a toIi. lau. 
aallaiga'i " Canntry Life in FtBdmon." 
^_M.. ..™_.j .^_ ., jji juj c„tiil Alpi" 

HofiMr't "Centniy oi Deipotiini li 

Itie Tun 

AdalnlllnDdy^"FilinnauilKqlN.'> IH8: 

tha Abnud nid Nafila.*' 

BrydoH'a^'^aranDi^SlehindHalta." inO- 
Foitater't " lUunblM Id Sudlid* and CairicK" 
MDmr^ ffmtiniirfc odldoiLof "Byron'a Potma." 

Tha note* to tlia 4ih oulo of - CldUt Hnvld " 

•n> by Lad BrooglitoD. 

..__.. ... — . itothoconttooil," 

Bndalmr*a "Continflntal Bj 

atHoDtCcola. A dally intmiatlDnal ihrongh aarrle* 
la now eilabliitaed In thla direction ; and to Gnun, 
for BwltHilud. ajmlli tbatworontapnnliici^ 
mcoo, on Lytna caHirey .««._« „.. ITtnflci. 

[Gtaent m mlla.] 

SMI „ 

iir«0 ~ ~ - 4IIT „ 

acb over Hint Geola or Hoota CnUo^ 

'Ml „ 

Leare F*UB Btatbti In Bonlfvinl H. -.._. 

Fan Bercy wiiw uona, and anspiaaloD brldg* <» 
.JO BelH. ud Tladnct oo the Hudb. Channtan, 
AUist TeiedDUy College, and Tinonnu CaMle, to 
tha laft, an In Tlew. 

ViLUinnFTi-ST.-Q(inoca.»liidle^«i IbeBtln* 

idTtiH. B<diay,onhiUlotbe1alt 

BujioT. WalllDfftoninaDakeofBrnDoy. Bttt^ 

nnta-Bobert cbmdi lo lh< left 

XUEi.— ^lultal e< dapannent Bei«Mi>V>iiiD. 
Pcvalttioa, T.OiM Lnrgi old dmidi of Si, Atpali. 
■Dd Onthhi belfry. Qreat Hook of DctenUmi on aa 
* ' Anreot, who tianaliled Plutarch, a 

'B word In tha Old church -f lia 
nere ay Charlei the DanpUii. 
-prefectura. Old gn 

Xlhby^ "ItlsarulD H Boma.' 

Sloiy^'^MHdlllomm'-lTota. is», 

ir ..,. .."jnun„ ,j^ mntM la the Two 

. .._. _.. calhedial, ii . 

mllre, etc Hotel da Villa. IleDiigiiy ct 



iiiTBODucTioif.— 'Boxms TO iUAUff i mnjannor 


St. FLmtENTiN:— OntiieArmaafQa. Good 
Canal de Bourgogae. and aqoednctr Ghuxolt of ttie 
Xiy. century. Ervy castle to the left 

TomrKBBB.—BaGRat for refteahmeat. Ekras-pre- 
fectnre of 4,500 sonlg, in Bongnndy wine district. 
Ricta hoqiltel founded by St Loai«:8 eiater-in-law, 
Margar^ Old cfafttean, town walla, etc St Pierre's 
Oothie Ghorob. To the lie^t CbabU% noted fbr 

Tamlat.— ^ne chfttean ofltar Tdnlay l! 
renafaaanoe style. 

Lezinb. tiumel, 1,740 feet Fassx tnimelj 8|280 

MoKTBABD. Pretty place, In department Cdte 
d'Or. Bnffon's chfttean, where he wrote Us** Natural 
Qistary." Semur, on a rock to the right 

Lis LATwra.'— Aliae abbey, and sulplwr apring 
near'; faUly ooontry, and fine viewaL 

Thrset.— Old chiteatb St Seine dnirch, in deep 
pass, to the left 

Blaist Bas.— One of13ie most remarkable tmmeb 
in France, 2) milea long, at the highest part of the 
line. A saccession of tmmels and viadacts hence to 

MAXxoK^—Coinbe-de-Fain fladnct near this, 147 
feet high, on a double row of axiches^ 

DuDsr.— Chief town of department Cdte4'0r, 
old capital of Bnrgundy. Buffet fett reCresfament. 
Population, 28^000. Cdted'Or hills in view. Cathe- 
dral, with taU spire, 828 feet hig^ Old cathedral 
chnrch. Ancioil Palais deaEtata,, with ducaleffifi^a, 
etc. L ag garpiBfectnra and theatre 

Chalons, on the Soanc SotuHweflMtore and) u 
Boman atatfoa^ Two chnrohes. Old bridge and 
Hospital. HererNi^joe, one of the French inveBtoa» 
of i^tograpby, waa bors;, 

ToiTBNus. Suspension' bridge^ on t!ie Saone,- 
Boman pillar. Grena'ji paintings in the church. 

BCACOir. Chief town of Saone-et-Loira^ and a 
biahopHi aec Modem cathedral; and towera'of the 
old one. Lamartlne bom here The xiver feUowa 
the mainline to Lyons. 

Our branch to Camb^iy crosses tho Saone on a 

BouBG. Chief town of A3x, foonded ISth cen- 
tury. Semi-Gk>thic church of NStre Dame. Lorin. 
museum at Hotel de Vine. Fine chnrch of Le 
Brou, built by Margaret of Austria. 

Font: d'A^n; Sn^prasion bridge on the Ala. 

AuBSsnu., at the foot of the Jura hills. 

Artbkabb. Moat Gelinnbier, 6,600 feet hfgh. 

Cttloz. On the.Bbone. Here the branch line to 
Geneva parts ofif ; about 42 miles long. 

AixtLbs-Bains. In Savoy, now annexed to 
IVancc A watering place, visited for its mineral 

CHAKBBKr. For this aad the remainder of the 
road to the Italian frontier, over the fine-seenery of 
Moirt Cmis- to Sasa, see Bonte 11, in tha vjpedBl 

fhrongh the Alps, called MimtCiiiiUtimml IsafetaAUy, 
jl4 miles from it, anoeaCrolFrejjaflf between Modane 
and Bardonnk^c It will b* Aout & milea long, 24 
jto 26 feet wide, wiHi tha ends a,9M leetaod 4,844 feet 
above sea. At tSie preaent rate of progress it will be 
finished by 1875-8, at a. coat o< 65,4)00,000 francs; 
Franco to pay twoxthirdfi and Italy one-third. In 
tha meantime, . Messrs. Braaaey have eonstracted 
several miles of an expariaaental line designed to 
croaa tiie Paas itaelf, In fheordinary way, at very 
steep gradiients. TMs is dome by addiag extra driving 
wheels, which " bite^ on botii aides of a middle rail 
raised some inches higk It is rq>oFted to work 
snecessfnUy; and. the eatiflBated coat is £83,000. a 

SnsA to Tdbik, by raH Sse Roate 1, page 5 

Distances firom Tiirin by rail to 

Milas. Miles. 

Gtenoa 103 I Bologna.^..M»M^. 220 

Milan » 89 Florence 292 ; 

' Venice 26&fAncona... 346 

*]^ For the approaches-to Italy through Switzerland. 
sea the Itinerary of the Alpine Passes and Lak^ 
and Routes 2, etc, in the special edition of Brad- 
shau>'$ ContutentcU Guide; or see Bradshaw's Hand- 
book u> auntarland. For ronte «f6 Macaelllea^ aea 
JBrad^tauf^s French Bsndbodk, 


or kilometres. 

' N.B.— For miles, noIUply by 9, and dlvideby fi. 

Jvcerra «••«..•(••••••.••• atta- 

Acqoi M.............. 410- 

Albano 466 

Alessandria .M*MM.... 3H& 
AifOONA, •^...M.i^Mi. 886 

Acquino 674 

Arona »...»■«—».—...— 48& 

Arquata •••■ 410 

Asciano»..«Mi«»»...» 180 

Asti .-..^ill 

Bari .^..^..m. 784 

BERGAM0..........«iM. 400 




BOLOfiNA ...M. .182 

Borgo S. Donnino m. 244 

Borgo Ticino 426 

Bbescia »• 449 

Brindisi 895 

Camerlata 893 

Capua .M...WMMVM.M 654 
Caravaggio ...t^..... 887 

Carmagnola » 470 

Casale 409 

Caserta ..^... 665 

Castel Bolognese m. 174 
CasteUODMre ....tttM 725 1 


Cecina .».—».■.«,»«»•»»< 150 

.Oertaldo ».>«■...■<...» 58' 

Certosa...»MM....*«.*. 3891' 

Ghamb^ry ...m.m..*. 699* 

Chittsl »•••• 187 

Chivasso .......«».«.. 470 

Civita Vecchia ...«. 85S 
Conegliano .»»«•••••• -678- 

CBBlCONA*.Ma«*«»...»*a 44o 
viUneO- •..«..«.••••••••• wl7 

Desenzano ..m...m.m 477 

jsiPon ........... . . ........ f f9 

£nQ>oli •M........W..... 37 

Faenza...M.......M.>>. 182- 

fano *...••..».••...•.•••• «ov 

JrjBiBRABA .««...»..—»»■» 149 

Ficulle ..M.».... ....... 204 

Foggia .»......»..i....M 662 

FoUonica M......«i..... 208 

f oru •*•...•...•...••..... Xtiv 

Fossano ............. 494 

Frasoati ...m.m.m*..* 45T 
Frosinone........M..... 534 

Gallarafae ..........•.«>• 389 

Gbnova (Genoa) ... 452 
Grosseto 244 

Imola .„MM,...M..M. 167 


TTTii : 

Chll. 1 

rrea......*... 503 

Legnano 377 

LivosNO (Leghorn). 98 

Lodi ^... 315 

Lonato 473 

Loreto , 360 

JjVcca ., 78 

ILngo 188 

Magenta 863 

Hantova (Mantua). 554 

Mflssa 122 

Melcgnano 331 

lilestre 625 

UlLAKO 348 

BdODENA 169 

Uoncalieri 459 

Munza 361 

"Saiou Q^aples) ..« 698 


Nola .7.7..... 689 

Kovara 398 

Orbetello ............... 382 

Osimo 353 

Padoya (Padua) ... 596 

Parma 322 

pAsiai (Paris) 1279 

Payia 370 

Pesaro 277 

Pescara. 482 

Peschiera. 492 


Pinerolo » 505 

Pisa 80 

Pistoia 34 

Poggio Imperiale ... 619 
Pompei »... 721 

Fo&feed«fiU»o mv»— ^39 

Fonte Lagoscnro ••. 184 
Portici ....«....M...... 708 

Potenza Ficena ...... 873 

Fracchia 60 

Ravenna 216 

Reggio 194 

Rimini ^, 243 

Riva ». 501 

RivoU .................. 484 

Roma 439 

Salerno...... 756 

Salozzo .«..». 497 

Barzana •..».....•»... 14« 

Siena 97 

Sinlgaglia 311 

Spezla M« 156 

Susa 520 

TQWa «iei.^«MM...... 633 

: Chfl. 

Teimoli 576 

ToBiNO (Turin) 467 

Tortona 864 

Trani. 742 

Trevigllo ...» 380 

Treviso »... 646 

Trieste 834 

Udine 751 

Vbnbzia (Venice) ... 633 

VerceUi 420 

VXROVA .....i, 518 

VlCENZA 566 

Villafranca 425 

Yillanova 437 

Voghera 388 

Vom «» isa 


Ailirilk M *■ aifiMM^paga teuUi ntjieu iiKnine ipcetol ■» 

TUBIH (Todno, ta ItiMn). 
PapiliitliiD, inpOS. ItifilMiaisndcItylntUlf 
forpoiiiilMioa : IbltotUwprofliiiieiiMI.BgS. 

BtUtr~Ftitr. CoMndi Pnncbco dl S. , 

s fint^liM apluliiot*!, IDA hl^r iHommaKiUbla. 
Tbe pmiifMo, W. Ftder, kauH u b«al of Ibe hou 
iua»MO«Dtu, ud tbaHoEdde FnuxsUNlUi 
Da b Ufsrii, ■ tht goad, eomloiuble lioM. iinil 
modenteiturgM; Dal'Sinipe, Plui du Chatau, 
oppodla Ua iStfi jtita. Fnpileton. M. Bmnttl 
and CaoISCEla. 

In mon ^Uh botdi (Mcond dan), rooina fnim 3 
n S 0*.; Ikble d-Ute, 4 to * fti. 

Onmitaia belon|lng ta Ihe dlKmnt hottli eonriy 
nuMOtMi to uid bom the nlltn>7 MaUso. rue. I (y. 
Town HonlliafM, ftom om axtniid^ or tbt citr to 
tlia otbR, II eatt. ClltidlDl, 1 ft. lor oss omiH, 
■od 1 ft. (0 Mota., I17 Itu boor. 

CVth — Su Ciilo. In Pluu 8. Culo: Flonle. 
FUln bnOAtt (T ooflta. etc, eo coiti. 

"-" '■"nhvnoi D FMgn; Dmi 

Cob of mtud ooffaa and 
— cehartno." dniDk b«n miv 
tilid. TlM dKb« in ■ Dditare 

iVnut and Aalid ^potAlun.— BmicnllL IIL 
'^1 dl FnncHU di Piolo. 

OvTioiKt of tntf Uad Ibr cmdng Ibnmt Cm^ 
In tfae d*7 Urns (trran Bnu la St. Ulchsl. u mil 
u Iram St. Mictiel to Sow), apply at Turin, Hotel 
di rEarop*: at Soia, Holal do Fiaacsj at St 
HIchel, Hotel do la Foata. 

Bkcciie TOarif/t <Mbm In tha «■•-. Crf-iin 
adjDintiv tba Foretga OIBa. Duf 
to England, FTanc^ and Gamunr- 

BaSiia^ t- "— ■" '- "■— 


iretgaOIBa. DupUclm fOnraidad 
- - andOancumy. 

Plnarok^ CuDoo, QtiLOa, MOan, 

Pauen^ra are booked ttuon^ from ToHci to 
iiDD d'OuoU, wbere they moat take « fteili ticket 

fbrpasalDgthe BimplaiL 
Id ILAly Ibe locomotlrea are called Alfiaii. Danle^ 

Tuio, Volta. GilEeo, Uanionl, and la on, aflar 

rL — Tha Opinione la tfaa leadloK paper; 
beAuTHiiio.thellalUnFgnclii AioMl*,- 
le otein or the Jeniici ; and A»fw ^AimUi. 

(oad Iwet and vaal ; ttcnt. tench, lampnya, horn 
tba Fo; irhUa trnOei. The wjim an Baiben, 
Banlo, CaLuot AiU, end SodM; llqr — 
nnnoM *ad elixir de inlu, taken btfb 

Jffliiwi— Itia oW *"""■"'■ " 
calledt— ■ — '- 

Tbe Acl 0/tii la ritutad In the Falaxio Carlft- 
-n.. !.._. 1. — »^ poaUog French and 

[ Papal for Rome, 
fiottt— End . - - 

'aiifO^aO -. 

talloj K]ng:'a Falue; Armonry; Falaiso Waa^fti^ 
and ndor* Qallerr I Carifnano Filac* : CbudiM 
ofS. Fllippo. Corpoa Domini, Hadn dl DIo. Bnoarta. 

...j-i n — -^iio Convent; Unimilly; Thealra 

Home. ArcfaJtoUuni by Gnuint 

Eaelieb IMI«n la 8 30 p,m, 

nie Aaixea or ourlipa ply Ibr 
Ca>Mlo,*iid anemr *• nail la 


_ Otarak ■■ AwlaiKl Arrfot la paribnued 
Sonday at 11 ■.■■, nd ■ , In tha ehifid 
tha J^BdoMOhB^nndaMSe. Batn 


limit pchlt, Ml wUcli tha Saperg* itindi, !• about 

It UkM uiH fmB t)M IlnrM In am]1!a Clulplni, 
•flat whom tlrt RODUU CUcd It Anffvrta Taipiao- 
mm. Bat topj (w mtlqoJUe. ta™ been ftpund 
*M»I ttae t«n(ta aotmrtbe oonnla md princei of 

MhouieofSiiToyMiliitwItt. ind M lenftbniade 

Ttaa Fnncb took It In IMD, [n Slcbelleu'i time; 
bedeged K In ITW, wben Kit; wen def«u4 b; 
P^oe EugBDO; and held Lt ftorn HSfl to IHi, u 
part of the FitDA Empln. In all pnbUo ptpert kC 
It inled tho ■' lUonriouB aty," " CohdUm of 
O^ljlieo," ana " Lady of Belnasco." 

aboDl 4J miles. It la 


Added bito rii 

AiJty. and turbulent atream, 
le of tiie apring aoode. Of 

TO. ud Ibe eatabllibnieiit of 
oelbiall). B^retfila,?!^ 
Dit DrteM-riddan comnliiei ia 
I dlta le the Hotel de THIS, 
' - uVL naiudlS. 

>n Bselj tinnliut* 
Unei, fbumrlni the I 
(tbow tot imd «a 

kIH oT ui Americi 
[vctlun of the carft 

Ugh, ud boin ol brick, but wltb a plalnnni of atyle 
wfaiob la rather moi»toiH>n^ Arcida abeltar woie 
oftlualreala and aasans, which an really aiaare, 
or It leaat yay rogolartj' thspod. The itreele are 
Utirith gaa, and an kept clean by letting the watera 
of tha Don, *t idgtit, into the gntlan wblch ran 
down tha middle. OMnlta Inmwaya are laid for 
Tabkks. ABtronsfoDc^ildaddtwlDl, one-thirdoTs 
nllB in dtamatir, iDtrntrly defended tt on 

iw covered with broad an 

Than woe ftmcarly ft« 
Ui^iBmMbshlDd; flnP 

leC^oS^ P 

ftltlMtorlinaof at 

to Bun Tlttorlo Enuunula, (opsalt 
>nillUdn<leDto Chnrch,wtth Iha 
diitaiue. TUi brtdga la (rranlts. on nn arch' 
saf«tapan,andwaabeguaby Hapolaon. It 

Herb tfaiket), 

(itT la abtatoed from the Cap 

UdtathetlBfat Rom the 

callad OaWradadltaBa or Doia QimaMkea north 

ttnoCb PUia* da Koraiui* niibarto to tha Mdn 

■■ tba Dan, wldch ia ana aalld craidta ardk, 1« 

ItatwUawdWIira^hnllt by^aao*; ud' — 

TlMB S. Onlo to Porta Hi 

Carlo t»uU 
* Pfaiza Castello la Uie largeflt sqnara, being 3Sft 

Sirdi by 3«i. and BO ciUed (rom the old canle of the 
ui™ of Bav™ where the Henata, or Chamber of 
Peas met Ull IS&.andthe Po^OI 

himam •CiBCani 

Khtg'a Falan, Mm 
north lUa, tbeTb 
The Cufli or ■Palam II 

" " *" i»-H«UDB.wbaV 

Barat OoUtm tf PalM»f (Na& taa Is In0 U 
eigbtaenroonHt ddefly (f tha Udaa lad IlimUi 

palDtan and acboola— aa tha Fla^ioiit rsoD), Bi 

lamiAed, Hk 
__ HbDniaMua 
< 3wm, I««L Tte 

— — oftho Dnho ot 
In H) waa benn ll ' 

A Molat*, nafaxM 

14ia^ and hn^OTM 1« Om 
"-' — — amliiu 


a. Ferr 
Olovanooe'B Ban 

n, Tlrsbl and ChM. 

OaaTotftaASt Aolbooy and (ha Child, VbRlB and 

Kaphaara Kadonna dalU 'hnda. 
Onido'aSt Cathartoa. 
OoBotaM'a TlKln and ChUd. Prodigal Son. 
n D .. . ,■_ "Id tha Father. 

OautUtachra Annnnnlallon. 

lUian^ Panl IIL, ititBmj to "f—rrr. itmtioa 


Velaacinea'a Philip 17. 

Alhaoo'aBiflhor Venn; F«rt(ao(Tal«iai Ooea, 
JiBo. and Vina; Ftw Ekmeoti, with goddwa, 
nymphi^ coplda. eta. ^• 

TaaAika^ Ohntca nml* (ADdno, VbA aa( 

La^ CiamweO and hia 

HollHln'a LMhar aad U 

lUm'i Cbun OIL tta (ftoM. 



Mnattiv^ Clntot** I^usloo. 

Hnthont'feSMDna and the tiOMtaii. 

P. Pottei^ Cows in a Held. 

Soifida^ Hondag the Stag; 

BorgognDne*B Battlepieceib 

A. DUrarli Lowering ot the Otom. 

C. Lomdne's Landioyee. 

H. Yenief ft Cario Alberto (1884). 

There are many portndtft and landMapes, etc., by 
Claude, O. Pomafai, Tenters, Vandyke, etc, besides 
iMttiepIeces and paintings on porcelain, by Constan- 
tUiSk One of its two oU t(mea is used ae an 

27ke *Roiai Palace (Ptdaaeo JReode^ls a laiige bat 
not remarkable pile, bnfit by Duke Carlo Enuuraelo 
n., from the designs of Castelhunmite, with the 
jlfardfniB behind, towards the Dora. Ftastaig through 
it yon see the martde equestrian statue of his fadier, 
TIttoilo Amadeo L On the staircase, a ridi coUec- 
tkm of China and Japanese vases, battlepieces by 
Azegllo, etc; portrait of the Duchess of Burgundy, 
busts of the Princess Clotilda and the Queen of 
Portugal; sculpture by nfTetti On the grand apart;- 
ments); handsome chandeliers; the royal library 
of 30,000 vols, and 1,800 IfSS., including letters of 
Doke Emannele Ftliberto, Prince Eugene, Boni^parte 
imd his generals, etc ; 2,000 designs, among which 
are 20 by Da Yincit several by Rahpael, Correggio, 
and Titian; a collection of Chinese miniatures and 
insects on Cliinese paper. 

2Ae *Bofal Armouiy (Arwieria Rect^), formed 1833, 
is a good ocdlectimi, containing Emanuele Filiberto's 
arms. Prince Eugene's sword and pLstola, and much 
ancient and modem armour and weapons, very pic- 
turesquely arranged, some being equestrian figures. 
There is also a colleotion of medals, and Sardinian 
and Italian pieced of monev. 

Close to the palace, on the west, and fronting the 
Piaxsa di & Giovanni, is 

7%e ^CfaihedrcO^ or Doomo of S. Giovanni Battista 
(John Baptist), on the site of a Lombard Church of 
the 7fh century. It was rebuilt by Archbishop 
Bovere, 1498-1505, but has nothing striking about it. 
The portal Is ornamented with pilasten, and the 
pHlaiB axe wreathed with vine leaves^ It eontidna a 
marble tomb of a princess of Piedmont, and a statue 
of the patron samt, and the altar is very rich. In 
one of the six side chapels are Le Gros' St Theresa 
offoring her heart to God, and another of St Theresa 
with the Palm of Martyrdom. Behind the high 
altar, and lit by a stained glass window above it, is 
Ouarini's Del Sudario chap^ etiiefly of black polished 
muble, with six windows In it, and a cupola on 
columns, at the top of which is a marble crown. 
Among the monuments is Bevelll's, of the laic Queen 
0664), and another by GazzinL Though ornamented 
with white marble monuments, brcmzea, etc, the 
dark ooloar of this chapel gives it a very sombre 
wauaaee. It takes its name from the Santo 
Budario, or holy ntpkin, on the altar, whidi tbey say 
was tbrooght ttom ow Lord* s tatda. 

Some good lealptara and spedmem of the great 
masten ofpalnUngsn totelMod in tbo liO Aordui 

and chapela (diiut) of TorixL Thoie most worth 
notice are the following : — 

OonsokUa Churchy hi Constxada della ConaolatB, is 
lightly ornamented, though irregular in its shape. 
It Includes an old ohapel of the lOtfa e e utmy. Jbi 
the Piazza, facing it, is an image of the l^i^^ with 
a votive marble column plaeed here after the dicAera 
appeared in 1835. Besides the ex-votos are two good 
kneeling figures (by Veda) of Q. Maria ThM«sa and 
Maria Adelaide. " A poor man prayed to the Ma- 
donna to reveal to him some lucky nimdi)era f«r the 
lottery: he had a dream in which, ae he fmagfaied, 
she suggested to him a trio of numbers. Henadehis 
purchase accordingly, but they tnnied oat Uanks. 
In revenge for this delusion, he attadced the image 
of the Madonna della ConsoIazicMie, wiien Ikmbo si 
procession through the city to the Bapergk, and 
mutilated it with a hatchet The nob w« 
and would have torn him to pieces if he had i 
rescued by the soldiers, and he was uiwai ed as a 
madman to a lunatic asylum.**— ^Ckmoii W&rmmorth. 

*3. Fittippo Neri, in Contrada S. FIUppo, near 
Piazza (^sriignano, is one of the laivest and most 
imposing of the churches, begun by OuariBi, wImmo 
vault fell in 1715, and rebuilt from Ginvara*8 designs. 
It has a fine portico of fluted columns, with pafaitings 
of the Saint in one of the chapels, and of the Aseump* 
tion over the high altar, which is rkb in piedons 
stones, bas-reliefs, and carvings. 

S. Lorento^ in Piazza (^teUo, is eight-dded, witli 
chapels round it, and a dome over the altar, ocm^wsed 
of two round cupolas, one above the otter, and 
painted with frescoes of the Four Evangelists. A 
marble group of the Assumption is worth notioe. 
The ehnrch is a work of Gnarini in the 17th osntazy. 

*Corpus Domini^ in the Piazza of that name, was 
built in 1607, by Vitozzi, and decorated with a 
profusion of ornament by AlfierL That of S. Spirito, 
next it, is said to occupy tlio site of a temple of 
Diana, and may bo noted on acconnt of Bonsscau's 
abjuring Calvinism here in 1728. 

Saala Tere^m, in Contrada di S. Teresa, was bnOt 
1635, by Duke Vittorio Amadeo L, and has a later 
facade by Aliberti (1764), with some alabaster groups, 
piuiitings, etc 

8. Carlo Barromeo, in Piazza S. Carlo, built 1619, 
by Duke Carlo Emanuele L, from Vidpci^a's designs, 
is a structure of some taste Near it is Giuvara*s 
church of S. Cnstina, wi.h a very tasteftU firont 
Facing these churches, in the square, is Maroohetti*s 
bronze statue of Duke Emanuele Filiberto, with 
bas-reliefi9 of the batUe of St Qoentin (which he 
won, 1557), and the treaty of (JhAteau Cambresig 

The JeauiW Church was built 1577 from PsUegrini's 
deigns, and is very rich in marbles and bronzes. 

S. Tommcuo^ one of the oldest iu the city 

S. Francisco de Paolo^ by Pellegrini, is a good 
church with a bust of the sculptor CamolL 

aoMia 3iaria MIm Piatxa, one of the mostandent, 
was restored 1761 after Vittone's design. 

8. Dominko in that street^ ma tauadnLVOA., va&. 
coatitoaQtvMRta)A'%'BmKl> ^ -^—L^ 

& 2km with ■ dOnM. looluda ■ rrant by Beri*, 
AbiM CrauW. on tbg ninulo Bosd, las Tinto- 


idllin,<(<>. AUmHlatlitC^DchlB Churdhof B 
Hontl, ommuDdlBe > Bne Tlew of thi^ clly and tl 
pUlo or (ba Pot but a man utnqdnl pniapect 
fMalmd (him tlis Celltgt of Ch Supttva, od s hidil 

Ths Hauls Fill 

ng. >* Stud ye 

cot brink, bnlll 1^ Ooirtnl. Uia lUUin Oumtwi 
DaaUM bahl Ibelr aluiaga bsn tUI 18&1. 
AitiiH B(pa0D d< Jtorinn wu bolli by Gluvni 
MlB» i>im) hM 10 axceUtnt i>lciare gall 
Mnta.) Tbe Palu» Cuio Fallce la ocu 

Tb* ■ TtiBOr* Btfat (T«itn> RcsId) ct Oe 
Honi^ In Piilluo CuUHo, wu bnlll by Alfiorl, i 
ll »IM of tiM lugut In lUly, with erery reiulilIF 

to buck or bona. H (Ml ; dnplh o[ Huge, lOU I 

t, KUM. : 

It place, la lappuned by 

■oabwt ibmu LKKI gtndenli, ODdec 40 nr i^o pro- 
tavon. It ll a Ibi^ well pUnoed buUdldFf ivtlb 

3nd— CoUhI tf AaU^aaia (Mum d'Aniicblu) 
BgyptUn, amdin, Roiun, md Binuoao, beddn 
cdB of 11,000 models uTuigod by connErloL 
AnuiictlMawiUeainCBiild •iMplBC In thaUan'a 
Skin, B«d of AntUuw atnua kiHm of dohIii 
(OipkBu wd Ut I^n) fonnd « firnmpm^ ITM; 
BAaj fiomtn and othor brDniei, tsh fonnd it 
IWouD, iHuti or ^Kf, JnUjin, ate Tbe egfpil»i 
Jftmam ftnudad on Ibe ponAuie of Droroitl'B col- 
iMtfoo ti IBai. by Oirio FfOoa, la tbtj ricb and 
Miatratad, iMieg amoDK othar olt|»ci> ataitnea oT 
Oarnndr (!> iMt blrf), Tbottaowi I. and IL, 
^uunA* U /or IfMUUD), BamcKa IT. (or 
J^™*-* * «»"*» «■ fraaab also Esypllm 
'wa^n BnamaaH deaaulo Mithlea, muaiinies. 

,. , „lBU>lo(Imilb>aadl 

r BOBV, by Ibo Conitabla Bonrtna}. a- " "'- 
--tof ths Um CBntoiy, ""■ 

Refot AoMdtmf of 10 memban * 
i/au, and haa pubUabad aomemamcdrL jtaunu 
on Ibe Ool del Ainadamla, vltb laotora rooaa 
laboratoriea, obL, altacbed. 

An Acadmii ^ Fdu Arii. oppoiiu (ba Taatro d* 
Aigenne^ baa a gallery of AJbano'e worka, bcddts 
worka by Blphael, A. DUrer, Vandyke a lMol,«& 
Open dally t^ (^plication to the keeper. 

del Inlamo, or " Woods and FocEtt" olBef^lDFlaaa 

IL, with a riding adiool, *< . 

alio a Beala Sodeta Agnria (Royal AgricnUnnt 
Bodaty) wlioaa garden la onMde Iba Porta tlaani 
al» a Phllbannonle Bodety, ecboola tar Ibe Uiri, 

Among tba benercdent faMKntloEa ue tb« lUknr. 
ing:— Hoapltal of SL Jobn (S. OkiT. BaUJ, aa cM 
a> Ibe 14lb oealnnr. vltb about lOnr hoitdnd b«da, 
and an aaatomlcal acbooi founded by CarioAlbarte; 
ft ia (B Immeiua boUdlng, In the Contiada dd 
O^edala. Ho^tal of St Hanrica and Idiaru 
asm, tor vMlm, ttc; Uaniconico, or hoapUal Ite 
tbe Inaana (172S); Spedal* dan* Ualendta, fiir 
lylng-bi women and Infanta ; Spedale dl CaiUa, Rw 
<3illdi«n and Iba tmi, tn tba Conmd* del Pa. A 
Reala Albarso de Tlrtn (or Honae of Indoatry) ma 
tonndedlfiSft ftirUebeneatotibepoor, andra^ied 
In ISill : Ha InmaUa work at nriMU Indas. Opera 
dl 8. Idlgl Oontan (ITM), fiir poor and InenraMaai 
llen£dtyBafn|«,niindad lUS; Ibe Etatln, fDnnded 
ITU, by Bona uoTDn^ lOr poor glria wbo an[^ori 
thamaehw. At the Prorldence, bunded Ulb caa> 
tnrr, aboat ItO yaong ladisa of tdrth an •dnealed. 
ThBoiaainl>4nanaB«l Honla di PMb, or pabUa 
pawn Bbep, wMcb aems aa a k»n hod. 

•atArmmaliiaa lbs Plaau d'Arml, waa baciit 
by Carlo Emannale I- and Impnrad by Oaila 

Ibaadiy, laboratoiy, plana of fMttBoaHona, iAdoI 
of meCallnrgy, and a oaUnst of Malnnl HUon. 

Tbe Ottnmeil IWa«« AcEoryti near the Plazia 
^turio Emanuale, A oaoieteiT la *l Ibe Campo 

Banto,bcyon4tV»wiiii. W — "" ' 

CoUlpn anbuiViabBia. 



ngrfifl^imbardy. By 
into, or 
ttted on 
»e reac- 

In 1863 
1 power 


M*V*t¥niiMf -SuJii itf m ^ vat «••-' i 


^led by Omoar, Mtnhno d'Aaeg^ and othew. I™^ i 1.--^. 4Kb ivm te 


> hoiirSi 
» JTtnor. 


— .... 28 
M.... 821 

n leaves 

• with a 
in. 1732, 
»e batUe 

Be, with 

Opo fieet 


Ik Cento) 
' IxoUow, 

fr •CO feet 



r lOants 

18 54 



>«»•«« 26i 
*••.* 881 

1216, the fa9« 

S.Boeeo "« 


a modem, cl 
nori, to coi 
Hottte to Ta 
the Pantbeo 
pillars, etc 
Monti, com! 
pluin of the 
gained froi 

tain beyonOi 

Qenoa raili 
ning. "Sti 
At Paicua 
enft brick, 1 
DMsuties b« 
pajaszo 1 
Pala2«> ■ 
The ♦^n 
House, in * 
is one of tn 
the public 
to back of 
cnrtsdn, &< 
^natro i 
columns, ' 

The U* 
1466, and 
numbers < 
feasors. ' 
gn arcade 
2nd— C<* 

one of 
Among ti 

many B< 

0»£^ 0» feet WA 'p^gS!^ ^ "SSUSmI&SSS 

Sm^Tta /»sw^^«^ 'j^'rsiJi i«»2^i^l 

^f^iTMBa, oa Oatm Xoao b9iaf r^ 


The ^Supnv^ 1* 4 miles distant^ on a hill about 
2,500 feet above the sea It is a striking object 
fiom any point, and consists of a college annexed 
to a drcolar chapc^ with an octagon dome 60 feet 
in diameter, biUlt bv Giuvara, in consequence of the 
vow of Vittorio Amadeo before the battle of 1706, 
and his victory over the French. It is regularly 
designed with a portfeo, side towers, etc., and is 
"very cleverly arranged, so as to give sixe and 
importance to what otherwise would be a small 
church ; but in doing this, the church and convent 
are so mixed up together, that it is difficult to tell 
where one beg^ tatd the other eaia."^FerguiMm. 

Many of the royal family are buried here, indudhig 
the founder, and his son Carlo; also, Vittorio 
Emsnnele I., and Carlo Alberto, the late king, who 
died at Oporto, 1849. There are also marbles of 
Vittorio Amadeo making his vow, and the Birth and 
Assumption o[ the Vir^, with pictures by RiccL 
In the gallery of the college, from which Uie best 
view is obtained, are portraits of Vittorio Amadeo 
on horseback, and all the Popes as tax back as St 
Peter and Jesus Christ! 

An annual festival is held here on the day of the 
^ctory (8th September), which the Court attends. 
Omnibuses go twice a-day as fSur as the Madonna del 
Pilone, within an easy walk of the Superga; the 
ascent of which may be then done by asses (soma- 
reUiJf which are kept here. 

The King has country seats at Vigna della Re^na, 
on a hill by the Po, built by Vittorio Amadeo's son- 
in-law, Maurice ; at Stuplnigi Forest, on the Sagone 
(four miles off), built by Giuvara and Alfieri, with a 
good parte ; at Montacalieri (5 miles), Rivoli, etc. A 
Boyal Riding School is at La Venerria (8 miles). 
This is the king's favourite seat, where he turns out 
to hunt at 4 a.m. 

The climate of Turin is hot in summer, and cold in 
^R^ter, and, on the whole, unfavourable to invalids. 
#See Bradshaw^s Companion to the Ckmttnent^ by Dr. 
Lee). In Strado di Basilica, an inscription marks 
the house in which Tasso resided for some months, 
in 1578. It was at Turin that the French authorities 
arrested Forsyth, the traveller, in 1803, as a British 
subject, and sent him, with many others, to Valen- 

Among the natives of Turin are Lagrange, and 
Gioberti, the famous priest, at one time (1848-9) 
Prime Minister. He is the author of the Primato 
Morale e Civile cTJtalia, advocating a free Italian 
confederation of states, under a free Pope; an idea 
which Pio Nono attempted to carry out till he fiell 
back into the arms of the Jesuits, whom Gioberti 
liad attacked in another work. His return to Turin, 
after several years banishment, in 1848, was cele- 
brated with public rejoicings. The late excellent 
Count C. Balbo followed up the efforts of CHoberti 
'li his apefxmta tPJtdUa, and by the establishment 
ot the Riiorgimento (Resurrection) newspaper, as- 
sisted by Cavour, Masdmo d'Aieg^ and ottiers. 
D'Azeglio (the unde of the present ambassador 
to England) is apafaiter, novelist sddie^ an4 statea- 

Albert, and afterwards governor of Lombardy. By 
the influence of these great men, the Statutoi, or 
ftmdamental law of the kingdom, promulgated on 
4th March, 1848, was preserved through Uie reac- 
uonary period, and constitutional government settled 
on a firm basis in Italy. Father Fassaglia Is a resi- 
dent, under sentence of excommunication. In 18^2 
his address to the Pope against the temporal power 
was signed at Turin by 9,000 of the Italian clergy. 

The country round Turin is very fertile, and ytoUt 
two harvests, and three crops of hay annually. 



By rail to Susa (opened 1854) in two honrs, 
ascending the river Dora, or andent Dwia Minar. 

The stations are 


(Tollegno 6f 

Alpignano 8 

Rosta .M 12 

Avigliana 15 

Ambrogio 17i 


Condove ......m.^.^. 19§ 

8. Antonino 2l| 

Bergone 88| 

BussoUno 28 

Susa » S2f 

Near AlplgXUUlO Station, where the raO leaves 
the plain, is 

Rivoli, a small town (population, 5,672), with a 
castle in which King Vittorio Amadeo died in 1732, 
after his abdication. The Rivoli where the battle 
was fought, is on the road from Milan to Inq>mck. 

Ambrogio station, a little walled place, with 
a population of 1,300, and an eight-sided chnrdu 
The old convent and castle of Sacra di S. Michde 
are seen on Mont Picchiriano, about 2;000 feet 
high. The castle was restored by Carlo idberto. 
There are granite quarries near this. 

Snaa station, a small dty (population, 8,655), at 
the Junction of the Monte Cenlsio (or Mont Cenis) 
and Mont Genbvre routes, in a picturesque hollow, 
on the site of the Roman SegusiOj founded by 
Aug^tus. A small triumphal arch, nearly 50 ibet 
higb, dedicated to hhn in the jrear 8 B.C., remains. 
The cathedral of St Just is of the 12th century. 
Near this Is the ruined fort of Brunetta, donolidied 
by the French in 1798. The rocks here, '* exposed 
to the full force of the sun, support many i^ants 
which are rarely seen so far from the Meditenanesn.** 
•^BaWs Ouidt to the Wettem Alpt, 

From Susa, over Mont Cren^vre to Brian^on, is 54 
kilometres, or 84 English miles. By diligence flnom 
Susa in eight hours. It is lifted to and flrom the 
Une, witbout changhig carriages. The distances are 

Exines «—.•—«•.«—....« 7g 

wUlX. .•#••.....•.. ....••• XV 

Cesana 20 

The road ascends the Don to 

Mont (3en%vrBM.»»MM 
Brian90ii ...... 


mu^MUiamnBk jfeipasfrfinftHinlsMff toCttia»^t\\nV>l^^j^ l^sSQ^aaa«&^\{MW 

BRADB^W^ lunanuTED 

OOUC If Ml* (Mt W 

It ttUDon PopulUlDD. 
Wiiiliartiiii Deu v'lUi irtn be the KoSTa 

*MVlaeoanaof couUnnlaD, and to beoui 



BBiM 1^ tt* anfOraa of fliiiMinwi Q^' 
Onma BoAwllta, ad oOni MnA Of tt* TnSdlS 
Ihb-kttwlutocattd (papakdob VU) of On 

i» i w i j iill j. nabtSf ■boatirilMk dMiQnM 
MrtlMMDpuMNiiliiUttnll^i,on tiM Aw<tf 
'^"■?'!**''^<*°°> *l>^ »>« dBlTCttUlr BUHI 
— ^lAili In Fimch flhe tingWe of their nnloe) 
VdlBM In ItiUui, TuidA la Oet own diiUecl, aU 
McliBtlnr In Tallin ud mtudni dmlla* In tbs 
Mfkn. n< nUajv •retbcHtJtbs Lagan or 

TM pilBdpal *niKi^ nat ta la Tm ((K Ia Tour 
rln LtsHiMl, an Bt. OIoTuid, Aninifiit, BobUo, 
vVlmm, PyMuH m Bt HaniiBrVHlHKai, ' *i^ 
Pgian. Ku* vDliM tua K (Anreb aad nJws), 
beddn k cfeapd Itn BmiaB oitiwUa, of whom &e» 
mroabaat^Wt. lAtHiisMMIanitDWbVitatbCT'inn 
■ii4«M to bytlwDakiarf Bnoy, Hlmiilricd by 

I. tntl5rb>£ai;toeiraMorlud-s ndBkii, muUr 

CrommU, tad to HOtan't toaoM hiukv^ 

The partlculiin of thne pimenlbHH, of their 

-'— - IwitMriMiil, mid tbeii dsrine 

mnlabiB, undei Huuy Amaiid, 
ilitid In Olllf'i "Kiiuirakiiii wiuDg 
* Under the pmsiic happy ayitfiio all 

Tbs T&nd«i dlKlmt li a mlitsn at Fnwih and 
Itollan. neatly the ume u Uiat ot Ou "Oobla 
l<>y^a." Uidr aoDlent coatailoBi cftUlh, eompoHd. 
in th* 19th wirtHfy, wb« liBy wars, m they had 
li.«i] (mni time Immenioi^ tsdeiHalent ot Qa 
ChoKharRome. It be«ta»— 

" O Fraym, entUe, ana nobhi lennni i 

That la, ■* O. Brethmi. it 
ii^t ottm to intcb and 
etn an tally ixrmpleled >bi 

bi the nel^bonrfioad 

as yon aeceod (two and a bilfboUB) to 

BOBSio. vhlch ia S.Ka (M shore aea krd ftupn. 
Inilon, 2,K6). At C(d de la Cmli ta m fflDbank- 
nicnton the PeDlce, «r«eteil nlthagnnt made by 
GcomvrelL Hen Henry AmanddelVatedfliaPrsKTi 
ill IC89-90, FromhanmltlafiivFbtmnioOoUiillen, 
which coFDmuida a raagnlflcflnt proiLpeet of Sbmte 
ViM.— Sea BalTi OtHOe to Watrm Jilpt. 

Fmu FlnaDlo. bp the Tal de Fennae and Vil 
rra^ehu, on the Closone, It la 13 mllei Is 

pEBOUn. paat tba Vabnaggie qoanlcs of hcUd- 
\Bg atoD^ ohiefly tnelaai with maaaea of BtUtt aad 
wi n aw lna. 8«nnl uhh8 meet hen ; laltba fine 
andmBttwiy awniafi. II la fin to Mx he«n to lA 
ToiT^ thnagk Tal Aipoffm and the ^aanmae 
dieta af Fn del Ttor, Iba aoow of k TadafarlctoiT 
' -">;iAtI)(mraraatForrero.ln7al04 

n ftcpaMfen. !.«*) 

aNawilan. leOB 

■B boon amw^^'d^lIlsMtU "waMrild^ 

Ctiua, on thoDm: J 




By ran f xom Porta Kaorft temhuu, to Balnzzo 
■ndCanao. ThtdistaBOM are as follows:—- 

•»••••»••••• o 

Tru ffarBHio *..••••••••• S8 

vniasteUoM... ^^ 12i 
Csmiaf^iuna*. •••••••.•• 18 

Bacoonigi 23} 

CaYsllennafi^ore ... 28 
Branch to Bra ...... 7 


Ssrlgllano .m 82 

Branch to Lagnasco 

Salnzzo 10 

Foasano 99f 

Maddalena 44 

Cantallo 47 

Cuneo 54 

HoncSrUeil or Moneaglieri Station (population 
10,181), on tbo Po, is tbe nsaal sammer residence of 
the present Kiagr of Italy, in a castle restored by 
Vittodo Emanaele L (who died here 18*23), and built 
by Tolande, wife of Amadeos of Savoy. It Is the site 
of the ancient Testona. 

TmfliBXellO station (population, 1,242), where 
tlie line to Alessandria and Genoa parts oS. 

VlUasteUone station (population, 2,564), near 

Cabioraito, on the Fo, which gives a dukedom 
to tbe royal house. Population, 7.912. It has three 
drarcjhes, one of which, Santa Mnria, contains the 
tomb of ^anca Palaeokgus, wife of Charles of 

CarmajEIlOla station, a town of 12,894 inha^ 
bitants, was formerly defended by i^alls and towers, 
one of which serves as a clock tower to St Filippo 
<9rardL It gave the surname of Carmagnola to F. 
BusBone, a soldier of fortune, who was born a swine- 
herd, and became one of the first generals in Italy. 
After serving Philip THsconti, Duke of Milan, and the 
Tenetian republic, he was beheaded in 1432. 

Baceonlgl station (population 10,415) was tbe 
iiiTourite seat of the late king, Carlo Alberto. 

Oavallermagslore station (population, 5,61^. 

[Here a branch rail of 7 miles leads to 

Bra W. Vittorla station, a town of 12,945 fai- 
babitantit on a hillside. Near this is Pollenso castle, 
on the river Tonaro, on the site of the Roman 
PoUaUia. Jjower down this river is Alba, the 
andent JUba PompHa; near which the Emperor 
Pertinax was bom, the son of a charcoal dealer. He 
lived at Villa Martia, which he adorned with fine 
buildings, leavfaig his own oottage nntooched. Going 
up the stream is Cherasco (population, 11,000), 
where tbe treaty of 1796 was sighted between nance 
and Piedmont] 

SaTlgUano station, on the Macra. Fopalatioo, 
18,91L A town contabiing two dmrches. a theatre, 
tbe Taflini Palaee painted by Uolineri or CarracUio, 
and a tdunpbal arch erected when Victor Amadeo 
married Christine of Franca 

(Hera ih» bnoflbliM «r U aIIm tuitt qO, fto 

SalVBO fitetkm (to SSttkmtMl. 
Gtosaa. Population, lfl.814. It Is the oapUal of a 
pvovinea, fbrmeriy the Marquisaita of Salvsao, and « 
fief of Dauphine, which Henry IV. exchanged for 
La Breasa, etc. TheoU eastla^ now a penitentiary, 
oommaads a fine view of tbe plain of Piedmont, 
Monte Viso, etc The Cathedral, bnilt 148fli, waa 
restored in 1844. From this you ascend the Fo, to 

Paksaka, 14 miles, a fine spot, l,7t8 feet high, 
whence a path onrer the hills leads to La Torre, in 
the Vaudois country. Population, 6,457. ■ Tlie 
scenery improves at. San ChiafBeddo, where the 
Se pt em b er festa attracts a large gathering; and also at 

Cbisbolo (population, 1,025), 8 miles, the Ughest 
village hi the valley of the Fo (4,544 feet), and a 
good station fbr making the ascent of Monte "Vlso. 
The scenery is of eui Alpine character. Within a 
short distance are La Balma di Bio Martino, a 
celebrated stalactite cavern, in the d<domite; tho 
Col del Poreo, 9.604 feot high ; the Piano del Bd, 
tlie largest of the head streams of the Fo, andMonto 
Meidassa, 10,991 feet high.. 

Col dblla Travbbsbttb, 7| miles firom Crissolo, 
on the shoulder of Monte Visa, to the boundary be- 
tween Dauphin^ and Piedmont It commands a 
view as far as Milan in fine weather. Below the 
crest is a remarkable tunnel, cut in 1480 by the 
Marquis of Saluzzo, to open an easier oommunicaUon 
with Dauphin^, at the height of 9,500 feet It is 
frenerally filled with snow, down to Jidy. IVom 
this po^nt there Is an easy descent by the ciA paved 
way, down the valley of the Gull, to Mont Dauphin 
(36 miles), and Embrun.— >(See Bradtha»*$ Hand- 
Book to France). Abri^s, the first village, is fiva 
hours fh)m the foot of the mountain. 

Momrs Viso, the ancient Mens Vesulas, in tiie 
CSottian Alps, rises tier on tier, to the height of about 
12,640 feet It was thought to be inaccessible tin 
ascended by two members of the Alpine Club, in 
1861, and again in 1862 ; in both cases fhmi the Ytd 
di Vallanta, on the south side, above Sa mpe yre. 
Tbe whole range of the Western Alps from Provence 
to Monte Bosa is visible In 1839, Professor J. D. 
Forbes made the complete tour of the mountain in a 
hard day*s walk of 14 hours ; a most interesting 
excursion, including more varied scenervthan can 
rarely be found in one day.— See Bair$ Ouide to ^ 
Western A^b,} 

The next station to Savigliano, on the nudn Une^ it 

FOBSano station, on the Stura, and so called from 
Fonte Sano. Population, 15,844. It has reauina of 
a castle and old walls. [Hence there is a way over 
the hills to Blondovi and Savona, on the Biviera of 
the Mediterranean. 

MoNDOVi, 27 kils., is a dty (population, 16,952), 
and the capital of a province, 1,980 feet above seai 
celebrated for a French victory in 1796. 

CxvA, 24 kns,, on the Tanaro. Population, 4,586l 
Henoe by wav of Milleshno (about 1,550 ftet high), 
on the Boimida, where the Fi«nch beat the Anstrlans, 
1796, and Altare, on tho north slope of the Apennhies, 
and Cadibona, at thehr munmit, yon oome to Savona, 
oatlieiaa|80kil8.lhMnlfU]«imo. C6««Bnn«!^%V 


OnaLU(SSkai.),oBthaBlTl«n. <B«Iiaiit«8).] 
FnHii FWuno, tbUoiriiig Ibt Buln Udb, DP tha SQin, 

Boctl—Bim di Yarra. 

A ImiUInB town (popnlitloii, 29,(10), M tl: 
tarmlani of ih« Uoe. nod lo tha fBrthM amier i 
tba nllay of Lhs Po. Btronglr fbrllOcd down I 

£aMj<i^raidierl,DplheGeao,il2SfMilbigh. An 
oomUnii nina thlihcr dail;. Tba icoxnnwditlaD 
.... J t — „ ji^ Sirlii abileU, mud thsy ua 

, vbicJi growl iD hi>t B|qiiigi^ u a 

at IXf, and tormt a geliUnou man, 

DWful in bat appUathiDa to the body for in- 
old Hiiimda, etc Ths GeaH dl 

ptetomqae nUey of tba 

■ bydiop 

, ntapot; tnd an (xeunlon nay ba 

sad* lo tlw baadof Iha TannanagnB, in ■ wild glan, 
nd M» JMrna, S,1H Itat ht^ At limona Uw 
■not tf Ih* Col bisim evar tha Haritiaw Alpi, by 
■ iMIimr wbdirR carrbga road, fnll rf dmp ils- 
■aga, guda bj Titton Anadeo IT. Tha anmmU la 
■boatd,ltoibatUili, ud oommuidi a fineTlnrot 
tba WaMern Alpa. witta a gUmpaa of tbc Ued!t«^ 
TUMH. Ben la tlie Umlt of the Apennlnta on < 
Bld^ coTOTcd with ^T«en to tbfllriiiinmlta,andof ' 

alg-Eafla leada down from tba Col thno^ 
oTthB^a, to 

TnsA {popnlatlon, l.TM), An old — 

SaautedlTud^ nu* tba old Kbb«r and bjrdro- 

Runiolo p. 




le, and opened tbnneb- 

Uoaoaliere Btstioa 


TroirU'eUo (pDindallon, 1,243), wa lam tha 
Dneo line. The Saperga and the Alna to the north 

, wltti gUmpiei of the Uultiais Alp). 

' on both itda la part of the old Mar- 

SdHM of lionlfem^ which marged. Into tho 
nchfoTBamylalSa)- A little to tba left li 
Cmai (popnlaHon, 11,1138), wlib 11a laija gothle 

JUU, the u»lent ffoo. fflnprti, on ^ Tanan>. 




ipuUlng white 


Ibo dAall, both 

dt«l, on tba me alia of 

> templo 

e Gothic Calhe- 
tt Diana, buUt 


IMS, with palatiagB by Carloni, Possi, etc; fhe 
dmrdiet of 8. Pietro in Ooncava and 8. Seeondo; 
and the Trinoo, Massetti, and Alfleri palaces, in the 
last of which .A(^feri, the poet was born, 1749; they 
abow his room, with his portrait and aatograph. 
The aite of the old walls and 100 towers of Asti is 
now covered with gardens. It is so ancient as to 
hATe been taken by HannlbaL 

Ftilzzano Station, on the Tanaro. Farther down 
this stream which it crosBea by a viaduct on 15 
arches, is 


Aboat half-way to Genoa, and the centre of varions 
lines which strike off to Novara, Favia, Milan, Piar 
ceasa, and AcqnL 

JETofeb. — Albergo Nnovo, L'Universo, L'ltalia. 

Population, 54,3M. 

This is the cai^tal of a proyince, a city, and a 
fortress of the first class, on the confines of the 
Marqoisate of Montfetrat and PaTezano, at the 
junction of the Tanaro and Bormida, built by the 
Xiombard League of firee towns, 1168, as a barrier 
against the Ghibdine party of the Emperor Frederick 
Barbarossa. It was named after Pope Alexander 
m., the head of the Guelph party. When the 
Emperor tried to take it in 1174, his soldiers nick- 
named it Alessandria della Paglia, or Straw Alex- 
andria, because its houses were covered with straw; 
but it was able to drive them off after a four months* 
riege. It is still one ..of the sttongest military- 
forts in Italy, though nothing but the Great Citadel, 
built 1728, by Vittore Amadeo II. remains; the 
fortifications added by Napoleon, having been razed 
by the Treaty of Vienna. The flat country around 
Is often inundated by the rain, and can be put under 
water by the duices of the Citadel A new covered 
bridge crosses the Tanaro. The Citadel, like the 
houses, is built of brick, and its ramparts serve as a 
promenade, for the April and Octotter foirs, when a 
good deal of business is done. During the present 
xeign, and since the war with Austria, great pains 
have been taken to strengthen this fortress. The 
other buildings are a Cathedral; S. Lorenzo's 
Churdi, with its paintings by the Pozzi, Town House, 
Theatre, Hospital, and the Gbilino Palace, belonging 
to the King, and erected by AlfierL 

**I ehsnced to pass (says Connt Arrivabene) 
through Alessandria, so full of glorious recollections 
for a Bonaparte, on the day on which Louis 
Napoleon made his entry in 1859. Triumphal 
arches had been thrown across the streets. At the 

Ste of Porta Marengo, which leads to the fiunous 
Id of battle, made iUustrious by the first Consul, 
an ardi had been erected, on which was emblazoned 
in tri-coloored letters,— STo th» deteendant of the 
Con^pteror of Marmgo. Victor Emmanuel had gone 
to meet theBmperor. l%e gay and busy appearance 
of Alessandria at that time contrasted singnlarly 
with the stern sever i ty of its old juj^aces and hau- 
decayed mediiBval ehmdiea" 
Bataaad, the ftateimaii, if a native of this town. 


The site of the battle which Bonaparte lost and 
won, 14th June, 1800, is 2| miles east, on the wide 
plain of S. Giuliano, dotted with willows. At three 
o'clock, he was beaten by the Austrians, and their 
old General, Melas, had come to Alessandria, after 
sending off news of his victory; when, at this crisis, 
Desaix arrived with 6,000 fresh troops, attadced the 
enemy^ and, though mortally wounded, turned the 
day. Kellerman,byabrilliantchargeofhiseavalry,cnt 
the Austrian infantiy in two, drove their cavalry in 
flight to the Bormida, and took Zach, who was left 
in authority, prisoner. The total Austrian loss was 
12,000; and that of the French, 7,000; but the Con- 
vention of Alessandria, a few days later, put than 
in possession of all North Italy. A building has 
been erected on the site, which contains a Musoun 
of every object of interest found on the field of 

For the raOs to Novara. Pavia, and Milan, and te 
Piacenza (see page 10, and Routes 14 and 15). 

[From Alessandria, a branch rail ascends the Bor- 
mida, following the track of the Via Aurelia Post- 
huma, to Acqui, 38 klL, or 21 miles, in one honr ten 
minutes. The stations are— 


Cantalupo ff 

Borgoratto m. 6j 

Gamalero...N. 84 

Sezze M« 10 

Casslne •••••••••• 


Acqid Ml 




Station, on the Bormida, is the Roman Acqum 
StatUUa, so called from the tribe of Statielli, 
whose town it was, and from the hot mineral springs 
which are still found useftl in curing gout, rheu- 
matism, paralysis, etc. Population, 9,850. There 
are some arches of an aqueduct; with a Cathedral 
of the 12th century, and a theatre. 

In the middle agree Acqui was the capital of Upper 
Montferrat; a district rich in com, wine, silk, cattle, 
etc., and giving name to the country dance, called 

Passing Bisti^o, where the two heads of the 
Bormida Johi, follow the road for 47 klL, to 

Dego, where Bonaparte beat the Allies, in 1796, 
after defeating them at MonUnoUe^ near the Col of 
that name, tiigher up ; over which the old road to- 
Savona used so pass, until superseded by a more easy- 
one constructed in 1800, between Altare and Cadi- 
bona. By this the descent of the Apennines is made 
to the Riviera and Savona, about 25 miles from 

Leaving Alessandria, the next station on the main 
line, is 

^nigarolO station (population, 2,494), near 
which is the richly endowed Benedictine Abbey of 
Bosco, with its sculptures by M. Angelo ; but the 
country Is flat and duU. 

NOTl, under the north side of the Apennines, la 
a retreat fbr the Ctonoese merchants in autumn, and 
commands from its old tower and country houses a- 
fine aspect of the distant Al\i8» PoyulstMM^VV^Miw 



U» mtiim lUk It of exoelleaft qaaltij. Here the 
AsMh wen dflftetod by tlie Awtrtun tod Soirimf, 
in 17M, and General Joobart Ultod. 

Item NotI, befiwe tiia raflwuj was made, the old 
SMd went over the LIgiirtan Apemifaee, by theOol 
dailaBoebetta, past OaTi and Voltagglo, and a soe- 
eaMlon of goiyoi and ravines. The highest part of 
the CM Is about 2,060 feet above the level of the 
M e dtUuia nean. Is mm crossed by the IVeneh, fai 
1996L The valley of Fokeverra, between this and 
a wild and desolate spot tin reclaimed by the 
is now covered with groves of chesnu^ 
Sac, arbntas, vineyards, gardens, eonntry houses, 
Umigh ft is apt to suffer fiom floods. The ralhray 
inxn Novi passes 

0eri&TaU» Statian,onto 

Arquata station (population, 2,795), where the 
tiumeb or galleries, end viadoets, for penetmthig the 
Apennines, begfai, at the snnuntt level of the Itee. 
Between this and Bonoo are, first of all, an embank- 
ment hi a ravfaw, 83 yards high ; then, Pietra 
Bisdaxatonnel, 750 yards; a viaduct, 830 yards long, 
88 high, croasing a mountain torrent, 44 yards wide; 
Isola del Cantone viaduct, 275 yards long, and 28 
Ugh ; then two tnnqels, of 922 yards and 484 yards, 
and that of Villaveofaia, in the heart of some roman- 
tic seenery. The next stations are 

B0&tf6 Station (population, 8,104), and 

BnsaUa station (population 2,734), a small vil- 
lage, where the Giove tnnnel, the greatest on the 
line, begins, 8,410 yards long. The rise from AUea- 
tandriato Arquata is 293 yards, and the fall hence 
to Genoa is 879 yards. Two bridges, four tunnels, 
<» galleries, thxoogh Monte Armkotti, bring the line 
down to 

POBte Dectmo station (popolotion, 8,870). in 
the Polceverra valley, on tlie Mediterranean side of 
the mountains. Here, as dsewhere, strong embank- 
ments are used to protect the rail from the effects of 
the tonentSL llie traveller now finds himself in a 
new and Italian climate, under which oranges, 
peaches, aprieots^ and myrfles flourish in e«i^ 
spring, with a nnny, dondless Aj, It panes S. 
Quirico, etc., and Sampierdareaa, or 

8. Her d'Arena station, wift a population of 
18,395. A handsome adorned churdi, and the Si^n- 
ola, Sanli, and other palacea. Then by the S. 
Lazsaro tunnel, or gallery, under Mbntefi. Benigno, 
to the suburb of Delia Gnusie, and the 

Obnoa tenndnns, dose to Phizza Acqnaverde. 
See Boute 9. 

From Alessandria to Piacenza, the rail passes as 

JLvNoaa ••■•.•.•••••.•• io# 
Pontecurone.....a*** 12| 
Viogbera ..^^.m.. S4i 
Caste«io .^«.^... 29| 
&GiiiUetta ..^.„. 82 

jsroni. ..«•••••••••«•••• v7j 

StradeHa 89{ 

AnnaPo «»— » ■.«».«» 4! 
San lli e cl o «»»»««»«»«— 


•»•*••»»— a 

^^^'i^AimmaarlM, flieiEiwemgmttoSflriTiiito 

TOfftana StaHoB (pobbIiAhi, V^^M^x ftMsh(m«t 
see, en a faffl te a ftjrafe pilain,witha cathedral, a 
new theatre, conege, and several chnrdies. The 
cathedral contains an andeot bas-rettef of tbe-domi- 
fall of Phston, with faiscrfptions In Greek. It vras 
the andent /terfona, and Joined the LombardX<eagne. 
Here a branch to Novi, on the main line towards 
Genoa, falls in. The fleld of Marengo is to the 
west (see page 9). Pass the Coroae to 

POBteenrone station Oimpulatlon, 2,579). 

Voghera station (population, 13,201), another 
bishop's see, and the ancient Fiettt /Hoe, near the 
borders of the old Duchy of Piacenza. It was bought 
of the Poszo family by Carlo Emanude I., and is 
now in the provhice c^ Pavia. The cathedral is a 
good building of the 17th century, and has paiottags 
by S. CrespL 

CaatemflO station (jiopulation, 3,214), near the 
Coppla, a oranch of the Po, was the andent Ctos- 
tfdittfii, a Roman town bnnit by HamUbal, whose 
name is perpetuated in one of the town fismitidns. 
At Montebedlo, near tiiis, Lannes fbught the battle 
of 9th June, 1800, against the Aurtrians, flma which 
he acquired the title of Duke of MootebeUo. 

These and the next places** 

8. Gtnletta station, 

BrOBl station (population, 4,814), and 

8tradella station Oxypulatiim, 6,977), all stand 
in a well cultivated though flat oonntry, planted 
with mulberry trees for the silk wonn. The borders 
of the old Duchy of Parma are dose by. 

Arena Po station (popnktion, 8,426) is Mowed 

8ail meolO station and 

Piacenza station, at the Junction with the mala 
lino towards the south. (See Konte 15). 





Settfano 1\ 

Brandlzzo. lit 

Ohivasso .M..M*».. 14i 

TorazBO««»— ««— — — 18s 

SaUnggia ..........^ Slf 

Uvemo ••.•••••*•••»• 26 

Tronsana .^..^Mt.. 31^ 

Santhia .^ 38 

SanGermano ««.. 87i 

kiL, in four to five hoars. 


Verodli 45 

Boigo Tercelli 48f 

Pouzana ..m..m.*»« 02^ 

Novara (Buffet) .^ 69 

xxecate «—«—<»..■,— ew^ 

Magenta MM^maM** 'T2 

Vittuone •••m«mmm 7T| 

KnO «—«#«»»»«»■»»>»» 

i wi i an •••••••••••••••••• 

Tills route IbllowB (he north side of the Fo, as fitr 
as ChiTSsso, and Is at the fbet of the Alps all the 
way. Leavfaig the Turin terminus, the Superga is 
seen on the right, and after crosshicr <he Stnra, in 
leidi the station of 

SetUsiO, or Settimo Torinese (popnlation 8,661), 
the Roman ^d Aspttmom, at the seventh mUe fimm 
AugwtaTMirlnonuD. CIrots the Oreo before reaching 

[Hsn *l« ■ road WIfeM off donn tlM Pa ID daU t 
111 MIkii Xh* flat plica oTtivlniportuKsli 

a, aner ttombig the Dot 

Sad, hu dlBiBitU br tbe Fnixh. 

Tum, IS kiL. la ■ tact or m, iwi 
Indt haa ■ popolatka of V^l. mi 
KtoUUsiodliuiai dm tbe Fo b 

Btatka, BHtnlhilof Uh piwrlm ud oldUaiqai- 
Mta <tf Kant&Rit, ud > nmns mntury pin. 
oonUbilng Uh uDlait duals or ftitlflsl iHmH 
of lJi« Aminy fnim wldcb it getalta juaie, and iht 
Orolodo Taws. It MuHtaimtbecnHnitlKivHii 

jjtpa of tbalftli MBluiT, n 

GatBtniL^s ClniTc)i and Iti pahiCInn ; t 

(oondsd by the Ttir—' '— " • 

ben; ■ tWlTK pi 
mOMm, Ie-^"-- ■ 

nAwUbr.ikB 9ddilslIorUn(pD|iulatlon. 6,SM), 
ftDTpsMionfliecnaanfl fmnKonnts Alnnn- 
<bh. Hara ■ gbott nil Ibllowi lb* road to Viinmiro 
(pondMba, 14,0011), wUeb hu ■ Ootbic aihednd 
and eiS oMe. Cma Hu Tkcno u> Abblit^mto 
ai poit), In Looibudy, onr nonsreil to Italy; 
ttaaiMe I^Oaggiaiio aDdBoioinHtoHUaB. About 
lOmllea uMb-wta of Cndc, la 

HoscaLTO ftopnlaUon, 4.1X17), tin bIrtli-plaM o( 
Caee ia, th« jHUater, loma of wboaeworka are at the 

Alter OMiiiiat, on tta man raDwar, m cron . 
Hw Don Baltea. OBitaariibtcrr tbe Pati Montea i 
ddPo^ IbaMaof ae RomBi Aifuir^f, on a bill, I 
nd iooB aOar Moata Boat and Knit Cervln "-^ ' 
Into tbvbi Iba AlE* on ttiB left. 

jUIbil mr lUa, ma tba coiDrtrr aeit oT C> 
toiiyft laialfcaa ^db hla mlgiatloa bi I 

ftao JprtaTTK^H. na. at 3 aja.. Bid 
daaMUUnrlattai^ MM Id Mb Gom, and i 
naaiTad liwiwi ar aaaaallua irttti the mu» 

BoMi — Lune d'Oro. La I 

rice fields at IheiiuicllonofU 
with a floe prospect of the AI 
by F. Itnialdt In the leth « 
added by Alfleri. »as resloi 

rOuEplne Gail, scar 

'Bprifl hi lAtJn, by 
I ofBI. CtMafomI 

founded In I2l»-t2, by Cu- 
1 Unto lo King John of 
led Sell lover, a 

polnlcd arch apinm in tbe ni 

nearly tba oldfH ^cefanan of th 

to hare been deelgDed by an 

wlUie, the nmDfranetna Uliig ainniai id nuuaww 

and KIrknall Abbeya Then an a (own booH, 

tbeHln, large old ho^Ilal, tbe Tlnln^ Motta, 

AaljtllBno. and Qaltlnan palacee, vUb Ibclr pMnIEa 

In ISM. aa earl; u Itae (lb of Hardi, QeiiHal 

nuineroug ttoapshere.onlherlEnbankortbeSeiu. 

tnnn o{ Toio); Ihey also ouupled Trlnn and datll- 
nera, with tiit inlenllon of geUlnr poeaesilen of 
Turin by a coup dt main. In iblj tbvy vera frne- 
truted by Iba coneenlnUoD of tbe allied Fienob and 


Vwcelli, which 

_ __ _.]d had been (tn . 

AualTian general, Zobel, on Both ! 

Blopea down to* 

Ih twenty field idecea an 
w'uo^ The gioand being atUI mnddy fmn tba 
nln of the prerlona ntf^I, It ma dlfflollt to take tha 
pualtian Iqr aaaauK. Bowerer, alter a hadfiAtof 
tvo booia and a half. It was carried at the pant itf 
lb* bayonet; and (bo Anatrlau wan ronUd,asa 
mmpeDed to iMnat on Bobbb and KRtai^ wUi 
Che lo«a of two gnna and many uoed and monilod- 
ThnalhPlr "Brat battle ma Uielr lint ttetorr," ai 

day aflgr, but <aaa again thoToiighlrbaata n ^tha king 

ths ■cHml B«T«nJ of Um offiar 

Pflimgo .„. 

[XL, (popull 

Bed by two mllM otr»nip«rt», siill ratii™ lome i 
muiliarillviiUiuidtinnn. The Duoma wai 
eadjr Lombud buUdlBg, m the ilu of i bulUci 
Mmplt, bn It hu baea mncti alMred Id the i»i 
of neCHiktL«K Tha portico which repUca 

Uriitm contalna Hvenl Innrtptlgne ; latbsviadl 

li tba monmMit of 0. Solul or Gobbo. Tbe bsp- 
Ortn li elght^Ued (ad onwned wUh ■ do~ 

Wl^a m TlwimiUieD'i ugdi (nt tho olt*^, 

pllntlngg by O. FCrmI, Bordon*, etc SL Bui- 
dentki'iChnnh.nballt taoib cantorr, by P. Felle- 
Stlnli ku fmeogi etc b; Fem4 Cittit, eto. j' 
a. Pfatn ■! Boaulo udS. Uino, m mski 1 
FnKKcInl tnd othan. 

Ibe Ftdino dl Gloitlili wu bnlK 1S4S. Tl 
BelUol, Leonwdl, Glovaaettl, Fih»iw PtOun ■ 

I, Napsleon'i mlnle- 

JT the bttUoot 23rd 

sh Ridetxky, mltfa SO.OOC men 
Bd Ghana ilbert, vlioMnnm 

...— „, iballnrntaj, wnhthalouof 

HOMIuneduidinmDdcd. Ttak delMt led to ihe 
Ubff'ttbdlntliBthBeaiiH orcntDg, In the prgMnca 
of hi* wm mi nnenli. In bnnr of TlDt«r Em. 
Bumul, then Dgta of SiTOy. He left the coanUr 
bmnadlaUlT wHk ooly on* nmot, and ratoioed to 
Oporto, wlMi«hedMltthJBly,lS4g. Seteralofhli 
— ' — mm bM ibdkMHl In Uhe manner, lunong 
meTMarAiudaii>,ialT8D; CharleaBm- 
IT^lB lMltuidVliitarEmmuiaBl,in IBIL 
lao oeWmled (br the TlBtDTT (Tilned by the 

Loa end French Zoutea orer the Anitrlana, 

noM^ UM vUtt obUnd Ibw lo qpnttMo 


TalU dl Hennas w 

prlaaa the SgbalptBe dlatilet betweeo ths S«U, 
lidno, U«o UaMtore. and tba Alpa, all (berim* of 
Thkh Bow iDCo the lake. [Prom Nonta, I^a 

Treeate (wpnltOoo, AMR), ■ amen tows 1 attar 
irtiioh the Tldno, the oil boDndlry of Saidlak ud 
AuMia Lomhatidy, la eroaHd by a Tladnct, not t*r 
froDi the Ponte Mdsto bridge lu the poat road, 1,009 
feet long, on elevfla atone arcbea, bepm by the 

ttia tntUe of KigmU 

flora Grande, a cuaL .. _-, -.^ 

lAgo Hagglor« to Uilan; then foUowa 

FopDtitlon, ^B00. llieBnfdant jraniitla,(harit« 
thebmoDibatUeDtlth JniH^lUti amomment 

deacrlbsd by COBDt 
^'If, ODcnualngtli 
the eitniDlty of the blU| 

the Tldno, we ^aoa ootaiJna at 
' hiU» of BnlTidom, th( 


whoae anoiT wonld be the nad. On each Ma of 
thlaioadtlM ground la corered with comllildi^ Tine* 
yaida, and Eroree of tnoa, lad Inunoeted by aaiferal 
atreama wluch poor their watera Into the meadpwa 

relieved agalnat the bad^oand of the Alp^ 
which lift thdr majgatie haada on tba ruhoriaan. 
'- "■- -ralley. the road it derated twenty or thirty 
ore the Belda, and flaaa atOl higher on in 
h to tba eaMom alopea. Eloally It nachea 
* land of the Lombard aida. on the border of 
I oairfad Iba Havl^ Qraode, whoae walen 
«at paialU wltb tb* Tldno. Oo approach- 
log (hia plataaiL the railway la aeen emef^ng f^oja 
tba hank, about halfa mile to tbe ilfht" 

MMoa o( tboAnUauoonU 

„ bytba oaatial road abom«uD> 

tloDOd, theiaUwaroD the iVtt, or byanadaomv 
tolhaWl^tawardaBtlidiirai and eonldwM bai 
manded at ay polat. Tbe Anatriaoa had SI 

ii hid ben pirUir OtMiejed bj the AuiDluu. 
M AoMriu nuiii body »u M Um TlllMga uid 
• u- ^. ... .- .u^ po^t K'Miliim, 

or (it Aiutriau. 
Atleatt)iM'II*liin]cilB«il byEaploUH sUb 
Iha front of Uk AoRrlu line batmen Migenu 
Font* Nairn. TtaerUlinHuitMniediUKliw 

tboogb debDded iBcb bjrlooh bylbe Aotrlini, 

wmoVUgtiUiifnwir, OfiililBudeHlutefibrt 
to nuke BnSilDn brtdge, tn order to cnt oD tliB 
FrsBdl ZouTet. bat mt uinaocairii], ud a.t lengtb 

_ 111* Ft«Bc(( JoM int 111 

raanded, unl' 4,000 tilun 
TO ttngt- t.coa kuimcki, 

-_ , — eibjthB Ftench. Botb 

•tdta bid Bboal WUW meo ud tbe Oeld. A irtdte 
^Dir nuiki the ^ot irbere Ee|itiiMBe ML At 
uother epM 1.000 cotji h rnra burled. Oa tba tth, 
Lonlt Napoltoa Axed hli hatd qurten U UiEeot*, 
■nd onUed Hllebon ■ Xudul and Dikeor l£ 
noM, to IbeOald, wUdbahid b ikOftdtf mn. 
The ttmiU of tb* Th^tay wb, that IDIu, tbe 
lifUil of Idiiibai<*v. wi* ancDMSd by lb t AnitrUu 
tbeMoeder, ud Viaot Zmmunel pnKUmed King. 
Be twatred ttw UUu depaMlfcu on the field oT 

IT KueiiU a 
ho, ittian tb 

UlLU TeRnlnni li neu the Porta Nnon, whlcta 
du Mcra the Como line. See Bonte 11. 




. Fop(diik<a,SMS- 
Epmiia, giuvdiag tbe month of 
■ m u nuHM, luu 1 HsU bnlli town, phHamMHly 
sealed on ■ blU eldei hariw en old maiili»l*ted 
cutle. ud ■ uitaednt, on the ilts (4 1 temple of 
Apollo. Itp»diio«<sbeeie,cattoauidiia,iuidhu 
a tTAde In cbeeovi COftOe hmu nnd olbv pndnee of 
the dlitrlct. The women itiip lump eU day long- 
To Aoeu, bf dUIcence, In nliH honn, AMenfing 
the nlley by the Don Btdtei, the Bnt place la 

II(HiTUTO.oTHo>nBtuno(papulitIaii, T.SStI). 
> amill iHlase wftb a Ibudal caaOe, one of Bereral 
by wUdi tbk iwUB wn biuMmL Tho mooJUaia 
SOEDer; IncnMM In btanty erery mlla. 

>ilHhlUli»i. ARUuTeld-AoeUla »■ 
1 IbiM (o the eye of emr combination of 
I, rock, rlnr, toreaC, and cuUed bdita^ 

rat glKia* end nowy peaki, while U Ih*- 

nlly leeml with the ricAeit producft"— (XlniV 
^Soa ralUn 1/ Oh Atpi.) hiiK of aU UnSt, 
pHOpUna. uecbet, detlclooi fifta. eu., abound, bi 

ri of tbe laiy and aniklUill atyte of cnltlvatlon. 
y of the proprleton an DOiHnidenL AlCarenm, 
< ligbt, a good pole red wine, like objuopaine, 

1 Boerr (j»piila<!aii, lOS), a pretty Utile t[U 
illta a rained CBille on IbeheWia, clota to a 
a bridge of oiw aich. at tbe nvrnthorTalSeia. 
loiidi np <a Qmonay (ili booi*) ud to tbe 
iftbeLyi torrent, onder Honte Koaa. 

lEAz (popnietlan, l,lSi}, doae 10 ■ paai cot In 

Uu rook by tbe Romua. 

Fan BikD, a (brOfled post In Um mllMla of a 
deepfOTK on a naialTe nek. It «w captnied la 
lUl bj Amadeo of Butor, a>d by Nl^oleaa in hie 
mirA down St. Barnard In IHO. It waa nbnitt 

ud li noir alBoN ImpregnaU^-UuM Mav 

being ent off br the riTer, and tbe foartb 
M tba Tanay) BUed im wUhattong an 
■'-' been cumlated that tbr ™'"'- — 

thrangh the gortre of Hoot Jont, alaiig Hi 

St. VwoFt (popoliBao. S,186), In n 
Aimm and mlnnl tn*« ia ■ nUtvplM 
tor in Diiixnl iron ■!);»>((, caUed Fooi 

• IiMB tUired tfl Jth tyhc 

^ nh. flnt (HBiwllBlbadxUi 

CbltoB dTlaeUe, in 

OTBtUDw*. The gudeni, vlneyirilL «i 
UoalhaldlliiHiiil/tatliairiiuDmits— a,«oa Kt 
Tht aU eutli Mongi to tHa Entrtm 
CUtBu deCliallain, tbelirgeit praprleio In th I 
_,. ■... — . . .^Qdj tnna. riig 

HAon. fifMenhanndTiiiTiorlh. Thauw 
lMt«r ta im the deftls ol Ttl Toirnuuiobii, ta 
r>TliWi nod OTQT 3. TheodulA pua. 

itla Praioria, or Jn^iuJa Ma 

TO St Bernard muM moK. 

BtM—Eea de TaLiU. 

If jpaLeonfl m CAtled " U arcDgoa " [n thh vtiley 
Thia la IhaeipitAl of an ^d DDCh)', a la 
Raman In 111 plan and tha irran^mcnt nf Ui 

•Uldnad on Uio anaih-weat o[ ttielonn. u 

■boot » (eet high, imd furiiaed by umu. 
Oat*, oeir the ull eunpanlle or the old cho 
Oon, wu the old Parla Pi-auria, i mual ttni 
tn«, 4D (nt b; SS. pttired hv IhrH nrchea, 

titfdgg on the Uuihlur la'mnt, nlileh ha hi tti 
chafed Ita cdokc ud lalt a mnrklo Itom* bihlfe 
to the tut, high and drj-. Here liaiul*, hn bnM 
la Ibe tftll. tho trlninphul "Arch erected b> tto 

orMimnliaforaAugiiJIua hulll Ua Roi to 

a alBgle ant, vIolMlr hu •alidly hidU, 

an cal ed nona (idne). Dian la a 

Ih DT lipreox. or Idpcr rower. 

lien La lUkn vba Und at 

eua. wulCnwrliBBomaiiHoik 

9 alL The Heml^ 0[ Bt. Gnt 

mouta] oqt^a (be (owiL Iv tbe di- 

Beeca Hidml Rnlt lad wto *n Uie 

ta Ottilia loraly not, along -with gnltn, 

(ti an u dlnjBUhigly fttqnaat u Id ke 

lie of I the retfdeola i >a Jnana] n- 

mdlMant, 1IU84 

^.SOil IMt llbim ttie ai^ loe niaacH « mo 
M, and OilToU, In VU dt Cogu, 11,308 



8sk FlBBBS.-*Here is a fllie cMtle, rebuilt 1680, 
Aoare the cliarch. 

CbIxkl Abgsht.— Near this is a steep mole petti, 
Bk* Mpe, on the fine (tf tiie diffs, for bringing iron 
flveftvn CJogne. 

YnuoDraTB 0;>opnlat!on, 847), a pretty place, neer 
nstnee, or iron forges. The ore is brooght by 
and men, as well as mnlea, from the works 
$tk Cogae, 8,850 feet high. Here the valleys of the 
TPihiw and Savaranche unite. The houses hare 
flMfar irindows barred with iron gratings. 

ITBOQTTK is noted for good wine. 

ATm Castlb, opposite &nma»jiear Val Grisanche. 
Between this and 

Foot Bo<\ Mont Blanc comes into view, at tiie 
head of the valley, like a brilliant alabaster walL 
The road here winds round the predpitons face of 
a ctfff, ofver the abyss of the Dora. 

liik a*LU was a town of the SalassI, and has 
■imBiemains,and an old castle. 

Mosan (population, 1,116), among vfaieyaids, 
ptae ftnsla, and water&lls, is near the valley to Col 
#e la Sevana, leading up to the Great St. Bernard. 

Psft Sc DiDiBa Qpopnlation, 869), 25 milee from 
Aoata, near the Junction of die ThuUe and theDcna; 
wharo tito road parte off to 

OomouTBint (population, 1,813), and to the pasies 
df AIMe Blanche and Val Ferren, under Mont Blanc 
ODuimayeur consists of ten small hamlets, in a fine 
ImOow of the mountains, so sheltered that com ia 
grown to the very edge of the ice. Mont Blanc 
Sere xiaes iq;> like a vast wall, 12,000 feet high. 

I. AoflfA, over the Little St Bernard, to Bonrg St. 
Maurice, 46 m&es, in fifteen hours, walking. Thia 
was the pass taken by Hannibal, according to Poly- 
Mas, who tzaveUed over it si^rty years later, 
oqwesaiy fat the purpose of tracing it It was the 
way most familiar to the tribes in alliance with 
HannibaL—mnsr** luUim VaUeyt €f the Alps. 

Several chAteaoz are passed in ascending this bean- 
tiflol valley, the richness of wMch contrasts with 
the ** poverty, filth, and cretinism** of its resident 
popnUmon. La Thuile is at the mouth of the glen 
n to the Buitor Qlader (11,480 feet). Hence to the 
Hoqpfce^ bieiglit hours, the pass being 7, 123 feet high. 
It is the boundary of Savoy, and has a column of 
Jnpiter, and a Druid circle. The descent through 
St Gtarmain to Boui^ St Maurice Is made in 8| 
hoon^ with the fine peak of Mont Ponrri in firont 

% AosTA, over the Great St Bernard, to Martlgny, 
47 ndles, in sixteen hours. 

At GKgnod, the Val Pellina branches off on the 
right, towards the Matterhom and Zermatt, which 
is twenty hoars walking fhmi Aoeta, through mag- 
nifioQot scenery. The Col at the top ia 11,687 feet 

DT. Bxiir (population, 859), a poor place, where 
ttie Itdian caatom house is passed. Hence it is a 
wtte riteep road to the Hospice of Great St Ber- 
]m4» where seventy or eigh^ trav^en may be 
Mm Item 16,000 to 20,000 croas this pass, whioh 
u ^181 jibathigli, and has its mean annual temper- 
atans at alioait fkeexbig point. ThehiilMithMKoa 

either side of pan, there is a very fine vivw of the 
Mont Blanc range. Crom thia down to Martigny 
station, in the VaUais^ ia 10ft houra. 

8L From Coiwo (aeepage IS), on the IvreaHae, a 
branch rail to CasteUammU passca in tiie Section 
of a navigUo or canal ot the 18tfa oentmy, to 

AsUa Station (populatian 3,566), near a lofty 
caswand park of the Dnchess of (}aioa. 
8. QiorglO Statkm (popnlatlDn, 1^496). 

OastaUamonto station, at theteziaiaED& Hie 
town (population, 5,621), is the head place of the 
Canaveae district (or district of Ivrea), the aoi of 
which are mostly carpenters, who emigiate yaaily 
for employment It stands on a hill, 600 feet above 
the plain, commanding a fine view of Turin, Monte 
Vise, the Maritime Alpa, and the Alps to tiie nortii. 
Much silk is made; itisalao mtedlbr itspigsatt^ 
or pots. For several years in succesfrion the vaUeys 
in this neighbourhood was deaolated by vinediaeaae. 
(^asteUamonte was the head quarters of Mr. A CUd- 
leaga, when writing his entertaiiyng Counhy Lift in 
Piedmont, in which he describea how the counhtyiDen 
of his forefathers lived ; tbehr aimplidty, boepitaHty, 
sturdiness, love of huddling in towns, indiffinwiee to 
diet, industry, and other n^zed qualities. 

KxvABOLo three mQea distant, baa remains of a fiae 
Boman bridge. At Font, hi Val d'Oroo (where the 
river is called L*Acqua d'Oro, on aeoennt of its water 
power), seven miles off, is a cotton iJM^toiy, en^ph^. 
ing 1,200 hands. Tlie path to Conrgne, and up to 
thia rodcy Val, passes Looano and Ceseiolo, to the 
house of our Lady of the Snow, near the t(q> <^ If ont 
Iseran (18,271 flwt high), on the border at Saviqr, 
near the head of the iMre Here Vittore Emaauele 
comes occasionally to hunt the stambeeeo^ a gigaattc 
diamois or wild goat 

The winter Is bitteriy cold under the Alps, bat 
beautlftd in its Idnd. "The effects of li^t and 
ahade,** says Gallenga, "on the high polished, 
mirror-like surface of the vast surrounding A^Ine 
chidn, would drive poets or artists attempting to 
paint them to distraction. Such golden risingB and 
rosy settings the sun never displays at any other 
season of the year, even in Ituy; its light grows 
keener as its face waves colder ; distinctness of out- 
line and depth of ground impart new grandeur to 
the subBme picture of the boundless UU-range and 
interminable plain. Then the revelry of the moon, 
stars, and planets in the night ! eveiy fawthinjg can- 
dle of the sixth magnitude peeping fiorth a uonin- 




By ndl to Santhia, as in Route 6, and theaae to 
Biella, as follows :— 

^VetmaiGo «• 


M 6 ICanddB 



The line passef thnmgh a highly fbrtile coimtry, 
intersected by nomeroua canals, for irrigating its 
com, rice, hemp, and other fields; the system of 
"wiiich was much praised by the late Colonel Baird 
Smith, the Indian engineer. 

Biella Station, at its terminns; a bishop's see, at 
the month of Val Andomo. Population, 9,800. It 
contains the Cathedral of S. Sebastiano, a Tribnnale 
for the province, and Uie Cistema Palace. The road 
from this to Ivrea Is lined with walnuts, and mnl- 
1)erry trees are numerous; sUk and woollen are 
manufactured. The men here are masons and 
builders, just as those of Ivrea are carpenters; all 
travel from home yearly for work, and many acquire 
wealth. Coaches run hence to Yarallo. 

At Biella is the house of a Piedmontese hero, 
Pietro Micca, still preserved with gpreat care, which 
Ovribaldi visited in 1869, when it was occnpled 
by his descendant of the same name, the Sindaco 
of the place, and a hatter by trade. On the 6th May, 
Garibaldi after organising his staff with his small 
army ci Cacdatori della Alpi, left Biella to join 
Cialdhil at Casale, where ha took part in the action 
«f the 8th. He received an autograph rescript from 
"Victor Emmanuel, as Dictator, to enlist volunteers and 
Impose contributions of war for his daring operations 
ag^nst the Austiians in Upper Lombardy He was 
left to follow ont his own plans, the King remarking, 
**Go where you like. Do what you like. There is 
<aily one regret, that I am not able to follow you.'* 

About 4 miles north-west is the Graglia, a sanc- 
tnary, on a hill, overlooking the plidns of Piedmont, 
where good lodgings may be had, except when 
pUnhns are here. 

About 6 miles north-north-west is Oropia, another 
aanctttary, dedicated to Ithe Madonna, on the top of 
Ifonte Bfietcrone. The church has a new image cut 
from a cedar of Lebanon, and some curious paintings 
by Ferrari and Luini. Hence there is a path over 
Col de la Balma, to Fontainmoire, in the Val 
Gressonay, which leads up to Monte Rosa. 

From Biella to Yarallo there is a carriage road 
skirting the hills, by wayof Cossatoand Rognagnono, 
' in ax hours , but for the pedestrian another route is 
by Andomo, Mosso Santa Maria, to Borgo Sesia, on 
val Sesia, 7 miles below Yarallo ; or a more inter- 
esting route ia np Yal Andomo to Pie di Pavalio 
(fSrom which a path over Col de Torion to Issime in 
Yal Gressonay), CampigUa, and Cima de Bo, by the 
aide ct which is a path into the head of Yal Sesia, 
down to Piode and Scopa, or Scopalla, Scopa is 
eleven hours firom Gressonay, np the valley, under 
Monte Rosa, and eleven hours from Ponte Grande, 
to Yal Anzasca, not far from the Simplon Road. 

From Scopa it is two and a half hours down the 
Sesia to Yarallo, at the junction of Yal Mastalone, In 
the ndghbourhood of fine scenery. 

Hotels.— Alhergo d' Italia, part of a suppressed 
convent; LaPosta. 

Popnlation, 3,500. 


3%9 em^M ot Val Sesia, and the centre of mneh 
fo^rmgaa aad iavitiag aaenery In this and neigh- 
^'(nCqr wmOiywi It eoDUim uumj old hooMt. 

Popnlation, 8,270. The people of Yal Sesia tie 
house painters. At the Church of S. Gaudenzfo laa 
fine altarpiece of the Marriage of St Catherine, etd, 
by Gaudenzio Ferrari, an artist of celebrity here. 
At the Santa Maria delle Grazie, annexed to the 
Minorites Convent, are his frescoes (1507) of the 
Circumcision, and Christ and the Doctors; and his 
greatest work (1518), called the Twenty-one Mys- 
teries, or History ot the Saviour, pahited on tho 
choir screen, 34 feet by 26. Ferrari's house is in 
Piazza Ferrari. There is a school of design at the 
Barolo Palace, where wood carvings are sold. 
Another palace is that of the Adda family. An old 
bridge crosses the Yal Mastalone, near the church of 
S. Pietro Marthre, at the month of the Yal; it has a 
firesco by FerrarL 

On the Sacro Monte, a hill 270 feet high, among 
forests of chesnuts, is a| celebrated sanctuary, 
founded 1486-90, by B. Caimo, a pilgrim from the 
Holy Land. It is composed of a church at the sum- 
mit called Nova Gerusalemme, copied from the Holy 
Sepulchre, and forty-six small chapels and oiatoricSa 
on the ascent, built by P. Tibaldi, and adorned with 
f^-escoes and terracottas, by Ferrari and other artists, 
with subjects or mysteries from the New Testament 
The most remarkable are the Pietk, Adoration of the 
Magi, Transfiguration, f and Cracifixion; the last 
containing 150 terra cotta figures of life size. One 
of the chapels is dedicated to St Francis. A Santa 
Scala, or stairs, which the devout pilgrim mounts on 
his poor knees, leads to the three crosses on the top, 
which commands a fine prospect^JiCtn/< VaUeya^ 
the Alps, 

At La Rocca, 1} miles from this, on the Sesia, 
are the works for the rich nickel mines of La Balma, 
situated on Pic de CasteUo, four and a half hoars 
distant, and 5,200 feet high. Yarallo prodnces good 
truffles, wine, and potatoes, besides chesnuta, etc 

From Yarallo, np the beantifhl Yal Mastalone, it 
is an easy way of about 20 miles to Ponte Grande. 

From Yarallo to Pella, on Lake Orta, it is 4 hoars' 
walking, through magnificent scenery, crossing the 
Col di Colma (5,000 feet), about half way. From 
the top is a view embracing all the Monte Rosa 
range. A boat crosses the lake from Pella to Orta, 
on Uie eastern side, in half an hour. lAike Orta is the 
most attractive of the smaller Alpine lakes, combining 
richness with boldness of form. It is about 9 miles 
long, up to Omegna, at its head, at the month of 
Yal Strona. A boat to it costs two francs. There 
is also a good road. 

The little town of Osta (Albergo S. Ginlio)i8 dose 
to the sanctuary of Monte Sacro, with ita 19 chapels, 
dedicated to S. Francis d'AssissL Population, 1,001. 

Facfaig the town is the picturesque Island of S. 
Giulio and its church. Orta is 12 miles from Arona; 
or it may be reached by raU and omniboavidNovara 
(see Route 5). A few miles from Omagna Is Monte 
Motterone, close to the Simplon Road, overlooking 
Lago Maggiore, and embrachig one of the fineat 
ptinoiaauA Ux tha Al^->B«irt QvSOs Co Mf Wukm 




Tbe lUtlimi from Nonin (»e Santa S) ■»— 

m (popalMIon 3,1 B7) . ni 

livH iTclno. hUO 

Azona ButlDii, Bt the lermliiiu of the rail, neaf 
ths IwUoin of tha lake. Fopulalion 3,133. 

Boia d'ltaUi. 

Thit la k HDilI tomi on tha Slnmton Bead, con- 
Ulllllf Butt Hirll'B cborcb, tai whtcb in painting 
b^O. FeiTUi,aDdBiiolddaaanedw>tortha Boirn. 
sua tkMlly, nmiAibla a* Ui* blith-plu* or at. 
Cuta BORomw (inS). Kan thli ti lift gnU meli! 
atatooi Itatiiida om « hUl, oamrnudlne ~ ~ 
Ttow orthaUke. udD M feat Ugh. baridu > 

h ilioreiof the itie, and al 

I^om Aiciu. b; dllgenca (tm honn), lo 
Batxho. JWk — FoifA. A cluinDlnf Tllls^e, nndcr 
loDUrona, or Montoriino, nhieh l» i,VKI fiet high, 

-owyAlpa. Tbereurr' — ■■ — ■"-' 

ofhliHii>rhliiuae, Itiru 

Wlian GwlbaHl mtI™1 hen 
jiltmi bdla had bean ranv la ■ 

tntpUaortha AaaCrJuiylnt , 

plHl tbem In bun. LMttDg tba people of 
Mian ha ma golos to nmdn ttun^ b- < -" - 
)iT nl^t wtUi hif vQbintaBia, and 

CattalaWD Tldne. loaplteofthaAiul 

«niUngonthelika,be mfeir Uudail Ui Caodi 

snthaAnaWMitidaotaiaTicbe,: " ' 

lUld ID Iha svanlnB at tha aSrd, I 

Ti»4 In tha mldft «f ftiialeBti 

pwaliUiai tantad out to welooaM their UbasUT 
After baliw baitl^ (Mtiled. It iniaattaAid by Gen. 
Urban'a dlvWon, i,<m itioag, bnt thav vera beiten 
off haim>l>t Haloita by tbSTieloiloDa OiitilMldlana. 
la nut dtoonhr.wlthUMkaoC IDO man on Gul- 
bikll'a ilda. Among these wu > membar of Iha 
Calmll faallr, drom Park, the head of which, a 
hi^i^nbided widow, nTaharfbnrBoaatoQuidaldL 
OnewaakUled In tlda idjni, anolhet died hi tha 
SoDtham Campaign, and tha remahiliig two wua 
mitUalcd bf woonda racalTed at Fikimo. 

Tha head of the lata ii at 

MuADna — (Fonilitlon, TTt.) BeUI BalTedare. 
Ti^ttitei can be bad bare at modaimte cha^pEa, Ibr 
the paiaage oTBt Gothard or (be Bernardino. 

TUi town la becomhig of eomldanble hnportanea 
from Ha imnal iltnuloa attbemDiUhofiheTldno. 
It b one of tha mou Edotanaqne apott on the route 
(nmBdUiaauto Hfian. Aa fit then la no good 

to pTOoged Id Logaaot LoiarBo, la Fallen 
pnfavaea to atl^^ig hoa. 

-Uia alaunar pUaa tkiaa Urnai • day h 
Uagadbw ud inaa, ImBttg tmmsta 

tall Jtater. Then are also l^ecoes lod pictnree bj 
aiotgion^ BawinD, FrocacclnL, Schldiuil, TaiMMt 
Tempaeta (an arUU who klUed hla wUft and fled 
hither Ctr prManlon), with moniUDaDta In tha 
chapel, and a theatrfr ThealdComiChada "great 
paailoD ftir the drama, andalwajawf"' ' ' 

impany of pl^en la hli tn 

Ilka. Tbil 

.!««» la 11 . 

Como and Milan. 

Fiom LlTOuo a direct road 

From Baveno aacaod the Mmplon Road to 
OuvxiLova, Gmllei from tha beantUal Lahsof 
Orta (eee Bonta T). 

VooooHA. /m— BalU Corona. Ths T(« b»- 
emea oaTlgabla tor bugea. There li an old cutie 
abcre It Ben the beaotlTnl Vil AnzaKa btglna. 



softened down by an ttallftn sicj. In common -wffh 
other valleys here, the people are of Germaa ortgln. 
It is about two days* journey to Visp ; Uaeogaa^ 
Mngiudf way . 
Ajoend tlM Val d*OM0la to 

Dodio i>*08SOLA.(popuIat]on,2^). /nftt— Alberico 
deSpagna; An^^elo fAngel) ; Post A lively little 
town, near the Tosa, in the Eschen or Ossola valiey, 
quite Italian in its chanuittf, with some of the Itouses 
supported by arcades ; most of the stoeepi in Paris 
come from this town and nclghbourliood. **The 
vines in the neighbourhood trail round low pfflars of 
granite, put on the tops ot walls, a disposition which 
sets the picturosque at defiance.** This port of Pled- 
nMut belonged to the Duchy of Milan, but is now 
iBOorponted with the Kingdom of Itaiy. It Is an 
eitoellent ^Aarttng point fbr excursions in the valleys 
aroaod. For CKamirie ;— one may be taken ttirougfa 
the t«mK)e-shaped and fertile Val Fnrmazaa or Pom- 
mt, fwt the fine Tosa Fall, «bove Andennatt, on 
the Fratt, thence over the glaciers of the Qites (7,780 
feet Ugh), and through Bgfnenen-Thal to Ober- 
GesMen (en tbe RhOno), in the Yalais, a distance of 
16|8tufden; orftom Upper Tosa yon may go by 
Yal Bedretto to Alrolo, on the St. Gotluud Boad, 15 
stunden. Another trip from Domo d*OaBola1s by the 
road to the east, through Val Vigezsa, or OentovaUi, 
past Masera, Bajiesoo, Tnmtana, Riva (near« Fall), 
Malesoo, Olgia (the highest part, 3,020 fiset), under 
Monte Cridone (7,060 feet), Borgnone, Vesdasio^ 
latragna (at the mouth of Val Onscrsone), across 
Pante Brotta, on the ICaggia to Leoamo (10 hounO, 
at4he<faead of the Langen-See, or Lago liaggiocc. 

Hence fit is 7^ hoars to the Simplon Pass. (See 
Ml^9dUtaw's Swiss Mmd-BookJ, 



About S06 kils., or 127 mOes, or Uli posts. By 
ffllgenee, in 24 to 38 hours; 32>>*. and 40 t^. It 
m!Qrbedone in 16 hours by steamer, but as it goes 
hy night, all the beauty of^ the scenery is missed 
This n one of the routes wldcih riiQidd be wa&ed 
over to e(t\}oy it in perfection. 

The malle post towns are 


xHTDia ,«•••,•« t •••••••••• JbO 

Kentone >•<•••••••«••«• 31 

Yentiniiglia.......«... 42 

8. Bemo ..........m~. 69 

8.8tefano 71 

Oneglia .............. 86 

Aiassio »»— ««>«»««« n » 108 
Alben£^....M«>M«MM U6 

Finale ........m^o. 134 

Savona •».•«»•.••••. 159 

BaUtoCienoa......... 4106 

Bar VxQB, Bee Bretcbhsno't &md-Boot ;qf Fkwtce, 
or the Continental Guide. 

The road to Gtenoa, by the Rfvlera di Ponente (t*. 

western edge), as this side of the Chilf of <9enoa li 

ttilad, is In the direction of the "^a Fiamkda, and 

jfP and d own hill aU the way, past a snoeesslon of 

^w«oww«w towoB mad rOageB, and never flw from 

^•J^fOSamoMa, wMt Ub MMtiftil ivtedioff bays 

and headlands on Me tide, &ad the Bf atf Ome Alps 
and Apennines on the other. Mulberry, orangey 
lemon, oUve, and other trees are abundant. 

Leaving VillafWrnaa Bay on the right, the road 
ascends to a point 2,100 feet above the sea, and then 

EsA, where there was a temple to Isis, to 

TuRBiA, called Trof^um Augtisti by the Romans, 
from a trophy, or tower, which marked the boundary 
of Italia and Oanl on this side, now a ndn, with 
some GK>thic additions about it To the ri^ lithe 
little principality of Monaco (population, 1,300), 
belon^ng to the Grimaldi fiunily, with ita mined 
castle, on a penhisula, in a beantiftal bay, tiM aite of 
a temple to Mereule Monacus. The piinoe keqis a 
public gaming table. On QooA Friday the aoenea ot 
the Passion are acted in the Cathedral, in tb» tMe 
of the old miracle plays. Down to the retvoinnon 
Of 1848, this principality indaded 

RocwABBUHA, or Rochebmne, on« bolddoikfock ; 
and also 


A qniot winter residence fbr faiydids^ In ft fine bay, 
now annexed to France. 

Motets —Hotel et Pension Angla* se, a oomtortaMO 
family hotel; Hotel de la Grande Brets^e.modarate 
and comfortable; Grand Hotel d*Angletenne. raoom- 
mended i Hotel de la Mediterranee, Avanaa ViotMr 
Rmmanuel. first-ciass, comfortable, and etoaa. 

Diligences to and from IHee, thzeetbiMe ft day; 
flffes, 2 and 3>H. 

Doefors.— Dr. Henry Bennet, fiHoMeC, and Mar- 
riott Dr. Henry Bennet, of Qrosvenor Stoeet, realdea 
at Mentone fbr his own health, from the end of Octo- 
ber to May, and jpractises as a London j^yilafaHa.— 
See his work on "Mentone, the RivioFa, Gonloa, anl 
Bianfts, as winter eUmates." Second edItlML 

Bomeeopnfftk jDoetor.— Dr. Capper. 

'SngNA Chttrehf in the Western Bay— Obiffada, 
Rev. W. Barber, M.A., Incumbent of St MaatK 
Leicester; in the IBastem Bay, OhaplalB, Ber.fii 
F. Morgan, B.D. 

It consists of long nam»w, steep a to e e t a , inflag 
to the Cathedral of St. Giorgio, which is hang ^iiltb 
silk damask. It is a cnrfous old town, soma of the 
honsee being nine stories iiigh ; and has thna iptoa 
^nrdies. Mountains shelter it all ronnd. Afttlit 
back is the valley np the river OoreOle^ to OlPllf- 
lione, and La Mont^ 

Proceed over the new French ftontter, aadalaiigft 
beauiiftd road to 

VKNTnaouA, an ancient town (popnlalS0B,€i«t8S), 
the Roman AUHum /nterm^Nifm, on a alope, wMh a 
castle above it, at the month of the river Roya, 
wldohcoaieaidown from the Col di VeMla» aond is 
orosBea by irieornnrow (bridge. It liia • Gothio 
oathednd. - ^ wm j j uin aaa ift astoa a a ficoai tba -Aiire- 
Uan way hsre beenf onad. 

BoRDXGHsaA, a fortified poet (jprnvMiOB, 1.481), 
on a hill side. In this nrfghbomhood tlw jtaUipftlTni, 
used in the ceremonies or Holy Wedc, at r 

EDwn, the exdnsive .privilege «f ■tfnWfllir' 
ling beea fstao^^b^ SestM T. 

Aw a«M rbii, I« Pibu), on llH itMp rids «F a 
bai, •MlH' Cud Mho. nmilsts of faouHS hiuUl«l 
UgetlnT, *adntblCM>a«T*rtba«ll»ri onnnwd at 
top by Uh UinnltBH of Bt Bamiliu, uul ■ huM- 
— « Ooiblo cbnnh, *)iicli tw Iba piItIIwb gf 
ilgiaaa Fopululm, 9,iU. A mir boM «nd 

InJnlgiiKiai Fopuluk 
IwanDu bnwe liw 

Tka nad •Kenila C^a Vodg u 111* eliipel oT 
Ifaidoiiu dalli OanRll*: ttam iown to lb* tbv 
TmbI*. put Auio, ind dAVU Smuo, ■ lUting 
Tllli^iuil&iM LgiwnD,MHdJbTlb oUvN MUl 

POHTD bmizio ([upnlUloil, (.OU). m i^cId- 
nniia old place, not neck of luil, with » new 
Mtfiffllral, oTerlMHng the Imrboiif. tnm whirli 
tflTsolk lithogiai^lcniinta.etc,ueespoited. 0>¥i 
■ aoBpengkia biidge, on tk< Impuv, la 

OnouA ^populMtlon, A,4>B), whan Andrea DoHa, 
thahinaiuOenwHiutiDlndwutxim. Itnubunii 
bf ibe Frgnch. In IIU Itg flgl an celabrBUJ. 
Pua anothoT cape 10 

Diiio lLuMiu(iiapal*thB,3.Ul).>iid a caiUe, 
PS ■ bar. In tba UiaUB TiUq'. DpC*p<>deUeHe]<>, 


Kltrf aid fcotparsua tovii ( 

poat, a utlf«, wbo ti burtsd In B. DImudm) d) 

and the Dondilaui obudi, c 

Adondon o( Uh Xagl, u - ' 

Aluho fAfl .' Id B«Ua Itallt, m old pabuM), wt th 
a lUtlc hulKiar. Ita Kg* arailie bat m thta cout. 

n, <,18f), ■ bea- 

ibBpias and ozwiki 

fiomi. It WM 111* Bonaa 

■n antiinilile: 

In froDt of It i 

. OSM DOtad for a bntd of foirii 
m CniA!.!, hair of whoae popnla 

<; and FlIIBa; tl 

iMMIfBliOlfiMali, m 

irllWTBiBaof GhM OaTona, and Uie 
' 1 Tba> pndae* tha diUdoiia ipillg 

wl^or JfahCar*,boMBioltwaB 

abmiuof ChadetULatSpahi. Itaui Umn^ ji 
■MUaUanoloriaUaytaTuuaon^ and 

Mauandlt*culla,dnBbaT ofthoiama name, 
Ihaailaolnnim. PinlUbn, l.TU, oUefLir Oih- 
onnea. MoUa CalalartilUt t« tbalA. Naxt, pn 
to sronuo, with Bfrfaitl U*9l and It* ebareti 
rofna In f rool ef It OcMa ouBp Ua vlaw. Pau 

"— — -' "-*i.**«((fiiaeH»diWd», to 

ei dl, Sanaa pmdncM good ponery and pone- 

lain, wilta eioaUsnl tniU, peidiai, uitlcola, oramta. 
OnwBt teotM, wblLo wiM, QIC; uM huixtaT TU 
d<aui>;ed by lbs OoBoua. Cloaa to 11 la a idataa 
of the Virgin, with a rbymiwhich 1> oniallyi 
u an example of laUier Itallun oi Lalln :— 

A etc- The next pla«lii 
e RoTerefamily, nuchana 
V. add Jullns Jl. 

when obuninod they aro lonod to be dirty and 
rnloona, tbclr presant condition «■hlll^^^TtJ a atrang 
contrau with Uialr fimur paodenr. 

Toltll Station (pappIatlDii,II,22S) haiaonufln* 
chnrcbe^mUa. paper miUi, and lulplinriprlnga. A 
raUwny of 8 mUia mni to aeaoa, paU 

Toga StallHi (popnlalloQ. 4.144). Here an 
VIUbs Grlmildl. Itoria, and Pallaviclnl; Iho last a 
show-placo fill alghtacm. Tlckale at Genoa, lee 

pagea L'3, as. " 

Seitll dl Foneilta atatlon, the lait town (popn- 
latlon, 6!jm) belim Genoa, la which the iplandld 
Comlche Eoad Icada by a line of churchea. cuiilee, 
iillacei,aMlanuiti7ieats. Here ara Villas S^nola, 
Lomalllaa, eta 

OornlgllailO Stallon rpopnlallon. 3,4991 near the 
FalaiiaavTaTViita Dataaio, etc, and the Jondion 
ot the oorlliflm railway from the rolce/etra Valley. 

8. Flar d'Aieita Sutlon (popiilatlon, TO.asG), 
In Ihe inbnrba of Genoa, which comeg Inio tIbw 
nllei the Lanterna tunnel The lormlnnfl la near 
Aeqoa Verde, oferlookloir tbo beantlful harbaor of 

Oraol, called Otaowi by the Italiuii, SAut by tha 
-Rnch.ffenvaby thaGeTmana; all from the LlllEW 
HoM da Franoe, Qnal KeahL— A new hotel clM* 



little white Uancheitt^ vrith a delicate roee tint 
Pies, some ot the best In Italy ; good macaroni ; 
mnshrooms firom the Apennines, called boleti when 
red, furi when blade, and imported in the dry state ; 
Ji9V \p Piazza de FonghL Snails are sold in tlie 
marfcet Good preserrea and fruits, and delicioas 
green figs and oranges, dtrona, apples, peara; French 
and Montfcrrat wines are the beat ; of the oomm<ni 
native white wines that ofPokevera is the most agree- 
able. One of the Uqueois la aqua d" <tmarina (from 
the cheriy) ; tueehero mtata (roee water) is a oon- 
aerve, which mixed with water, makes a refireshing 
drinic Tobacco is a gorenmient monopoly, bat 
real Havannah cigars may be bought at tlie Cnstom 

English Conntt.^-'HL Y. Brown, Esq. 

Banters. — Messrs, Gibbs. 

Physician. — Dr. A. Milling^, 664, Strada Carlo 
Alberto ; S. Tomaso, 3, Piano. 

Filigree TForits.— In silver and double gilt Wo 
recommend the manufactory and depOt of Mr. Emilio 
Forte, 156, Yia Orefici, Prize Medal awarded, London 
EzhibiUon, 1862. 

Vetturini are plenty and good, and ply in the 
Piazzi della in Pazo 

Post Qfice is situate m the Piazza del Fontane. 
JjCtters arrive daily, and are distributed at 9 a.m. 
Boxes close for English letters, etc., at 2 p.m. 

English C?turch,—The Rev. A. B. Strettell offidates 
at the English church, where divine service is regu- 
larly performed on Sundays. 

Scotch Presbyterian CAurcA.—- The Bev. James 
Collie, Minister. Divine Service every Sunday at 
11 a.m. and 6 p.nL, in the Waldensian Church, Via 

Conveyance*.— Diligence to Nice, daily. Omni- 
buses attend the trains at the railway station, 
which is in the town. The street omnibuses for 
each course^ 80 cents. The street calashes, called 
clttadine, 80 cents, the course, or 1 fr. 50 cents, per 

The tariff for boatmen is fixed at 1 fr. for each 
person, induding an ordinary quantity of baggage, 
either for embarkation or disembarkation. 

Steamer almost daily, to various parts, as Mar- 
seilles, Leghorn, Clvita Vccchia, Naples, Palermo, 
Malta (see Bradshato's Continental Quide). Boats 
for lite, the first hour. 

Population, 119,610. It is divided into six sestiere 
or sections. 

•C^K/' OldectB of iVb^ic*. — Strada degli Orefici, 
Palazzo Ducale, Palazzo Serra, Palazzo Pallavidni, 
Palazzo Brignole, Cathedral, Churches of St. Annun- 
data, St Stefano,St Ambrogio, St Siro, Santa M. 
Carignano, Villa Fallavichii, 

The renowned dty, which the Italians call La 
Snperba (i e., the Proud), is a free port at the 
top of the gulf of Genoa ; head of a Duchy, and 
of a province; seat .of a governor, archbishop, 
university, etc. It stands in the best part of that 
beautKblstripof the Mediterranean called the Riviera, 
in a pure and healthy climate, sheltered by the 
X4$7uiao AjDennines. The city proper lies east of 
tAe Asrboar, along which la a noble range of fine 
^ooiuan 2 or a m^Om long. From this it rises in a 

magnificent nmphttheatre, with palnces, gardcni, 
churches, etc. stretching in every direction, over a 
space of three square miles ; only one-sixth of which 
is totally levd. It is defended by a double line of 
fortifications, the outer one being 7 to 8 miles in 
circuit, and commanded by detached forts on the 
highest points beyond; as the Diamente, Due 
Fratelli, Quezza, Santa Tecla, etc. It is flt>m these 
points and firom the harbour that the dty should be 
seen. The Provestant Cemetery and the Negri 
Palace are good stand points. Many of the houses 
are painted in fantastic coloun. and adorned with 
statues, columns, festoons, etc. 

The streeu are generally narrow, ■taepand irre- 
gular, mere lanes in fact ^> and down fanl, with no 
foot paths, and encroached n^ton by projecting upper 
stories. They are often lined by tail w^ built 
houses, and marble palaces, five, six, and even nine 
stories high, with light slate roofk,and courts Aragnmt 
with orange trees, etc. Some of the b(»t streets are 
Balbi, Nuova, Nuovisslma, Carlo Feliee, Carlo 
Alberto, Santa Giulfa. Sedan chidrs for ladies, 
bullock carts, asses and mules are in general use; 
and there is a constant succession of priests, nuns, 
soldiers, monks, veiled women, and porters carry- 
ing bales strung from poles over thdr shonlders 

An inscription in the cathedral aflSrms that the 
town was founded by a grandson of Noah, named 
Janus. It was called Oentta in Livy*s time, stand- 
ing on the Via Aurelia, and, as an ally of the 
Romans, was destroyed by Hannibal's brother 

After suffering firom the Guelf and Ghibeline 
fiustions, the first Doge, S. Bocanegra, was elected 
in 1389. Charles VI. of France hi 1896, Fran- 
cesco Sforza in 1458, and Louis XIL in 1499, were 
for a time successively masters of the republic, 
which again acquired its independence undfT tiie 
famous Andrea Doria, in 1628, and lasted till the 
French invasion of Italy, when it was annexed to 
the Ligurian Republic in 1798. In 1800, Masaena 
sustained a siege of two months agahist the Ans- 
trians and the English fleet and only yielded after 
the loss of 15,000 men by famine, etc. In 1814, it 
was taken by Lord W. BentUick, and finally united 
to Sardinia. 

Two moles of solid stone protect the harbour, 
which has plenty of deep water and is lined by a 
marble terrace throughout Molo Vecchio, on the 
east side, is about 1,250 feet long, and Molo Nnovo, 
on the west. side, near the Lazaretto, abont 1,009 
feet with an entrance of nearly 1,600 fiset between. 
Outside the new mole stands the tail Lantern or 
lighthouse, built in 1547, and looking like a slender 
pagoda ; it is ascended by 365 stepa 

The Darsena, within the port, was begun in the 
13th century, and Induded, till lately, the Marine 
Arsenal, with its magazines and workshops, small 
docks for the Sardinian navy— now moved to 
Spezia,— 'With the Bagnio for convicts, near the 
Bisagno torrent. A marble terrace with a carved 
portico and shops below it about 440 yards long, 
and begun 1839, leads hence past four pontes or 
stone jetties, to the Porto Franco, a coUecton qf 
eight pttes of waxeYk.oTMfia^'wYAx^ fswySaaxeetored ttt9 

* '. 


♦ « * 




of daty, except for bohdlniT' The/aceA«nt or portent | SanseTerino ; but women an allowed to enter it only 

on aobount of the narrowness of the streets, are in 
srreat request here. They are or were a privileged 
class, exclusively from Bergamo, and stili form a 
rather dose corporation, like the FeUowsliip porters 
of London. Near the Porto Franco is the Man- 
draccio basin. 

The Dogana or Custom Hnnse, hard by, is the 
old hall of the Banco <U & Owrgia, which was 
founded 1315, and plundered by the French in 
ISOO. It was this rich trading body which gave 
liic to the commercial enterprtoe of ancient Genoa. 
Round tiie liall are statues and inscriptions to Its 
most eminent men, and over the g^ hung a 
piece of the great iron chain which was brought 
from Porto Pisauo in 1299, but was returned to 
Pisa in 18^0, out of fraternal regard under the new 
order of things. Another Lazaretto stands at the 
east end of the port, beyond La Fuggia dockyard 
and the river Bisagno. 

Tlie Exchange^ or Loggia dl Banchl (or Banchiri), 
in Santa al Ponte Reale, is a fine hall, by Alessi 
(of the 16th century), resting on columns. A little 
Above is the 

*Strada degli Or^fici, a bustling street, where the 
goldsmitiis' shops are found. Over one of them is P. 
Plola's picture of the Holy Family, covered with glass, 
and belonging to the Guild ; nearly opposite is a bas- 
relief of the Nativity. Here, little silver arms, legs, 
etc., are made for ex-voto offerings. Up this street 
and through Santa Luccoli, you turn (behind the 
hospital) to the fine promenade of the Acgtuuola^ 
where the band plays on Sundays. Above is a hill, 
whence there is a splendid view of the city and the 
sea, ftY>m near the railway station ; and another 
point is near the Piazza di Acquaverde, where the 
new statue of Columbus stands. 

Another walk may be taken on the ramparts and 
by the acqueduct, which supplies all the town with 
water, from a distance of 14 or 15 miles. The Ponte 
Carignano, a bridge across a ravine (about 500 feet 
deep), rising above the houses, is also worth visit- 
ing. It was built 1718-20, and joins the Carignano 
and Sarzona hills. 

The most remarkable buildings are the splendid 
palaces of the old nobility, and the churches, in 
some of which a Saracenic variety of the Gothic 
may be noticed. All the church bells ring at 8 a.m. 
for an honr, and again in the evening. 

S. Lorenzo's Cathedral, or *Duomo^ in Piazza S. 
Lorenzo, in the Gothic style, was mostly built 
about 1100, and restored in 1300, and has a triple 
portid witli deep recessed pointed arches; above 
which are two or three rows of arcades, a small 
rose window, and a tower (with a little dome at top) 
200 feet liiglL Over the sonth comer, above the 
middle door, is a bas-relief of the martyrdom ot the 
patron sabit (St Laurence), and other curious 
carvings of monsters, are visible. The interior is 
inliOd witii black and white marble, and has been 
improved by AlessL It includes a bronze Madonna, 
with paintings, bust of Columbus, etc., in the side 
chapels ; one of wtUch was Indlt in 1596, by Doge 
Senarega. Another (St John Baptist), in the 
Gothic Btyle, by Delia PortOf has statuei by 

once a year, because a woman was concerned in 
the Baptist's death. Some good bronze work, by 

Zal)eilo, is seen in the choir. In the sacristy, they 

show the Sacro Catluo (basin), a six-sided piece of 

glass, brought from Cseisarea, in 1101, and reported 
to be that which held the paschal lamb at the Last 

Supper. It was given out to l)e a pure emerald, till 
the mistake was detected by a scientific judge. It 
may be seen for five francs. The Archbishop's 
Palace has frescoes by Cambiaso. 

*3, Siro (St Cyrus) one of the oldest in Genoa, 
but modernised by a Grecian front low dome, 
etc, was that in which the Doges were chosen in 
public assembly; and is highly ornamented with 
marbles, bronzes (by Puget at the altar), paintings, 
etc It is supported by 16 tali white marble pillars. 
The painted vault by CarlonL 

Santa Maria dei Vigne also rests on 16 columns 
of marble, each being a single block. Paintings o 
the Annunciation, the Presentation in the Temple, 
etc; high altar by Puget; the Virgin Chapel, riclily 
adorned. Marogliano's Clirist on the Cross, in 
wood; and Seiko's bas-relief of the l^rgin and 

*L'Annunciata at the comer of that Piazza, was 
built by Puget for the Somclline family and has 
been lately restored. It abounds with marble 
works, gilding, etc., in the ceiling and every other 
part It has a cupola; the front is good and is 
adorned with the Last Supper, by Procaccino; but 
the dome is small and unfinished. Fergusson praises 
its pure design. " This church is a iMuillca of consi- 
derable dimensions, being 82 feet wide, exclusive of 
the side chapels, and 260 feet long. The nave is 
separated from the aisles by a range of Corinthian 
columns of white marble, the fluting being inlaid 
with marbles of a warmer colour. The walls through- 
out fr^m the entrance to the apse, are covered with 
precious marbles, arranged in patterns of great beauty. 
The roof of the nave is divided longitudinally into three 
compartments, which prevents the awkwardness 
that is usually observed where windows of a simi- 
circular form cut into a simicu-cular vault Here it 
is done as artistically as it could l>e done in the best 
Gothic vaults. The one defect that strikes the eye 
is that the hollow lines of the Corinthian capitals 
are too weak to support the pier-arches, though this 
criticism is equally applicable to all the original 
Roman basilicas of the Constantinian age; bvt 
nevertheless, the whole is in such good taste, so rich 
and elegant that it is probably the very best church 
of its class in Italy." 

*8t. Ambrogio, Strada del Sellaj (Sadlers) built by 
the Pallavicini family, is as rich as the last, but lias 
better pictures; as Rubens* Circumcision, and lioe 
St Ignatius (over the altar, which rests on blfick 
marble pillars 26 feet high), and Guide's Assumption. 

**In such churches as S. Ambrogio the criticism 
of the architect must give way to the feelings of the 
painter, and we must l>e content to be charmed by 
the richness of the colouring and astonished at the 
wonderful elaboration of the details, without in- 
quiring too closely whether oc not It is alLisLtb.<^ 



*8anta Maria di Cariffnam or Church of the 
Aasnmption in that Strada, is one of the flnett in 
tlie city, and stands conspfiitioasly on a hill close to 
the Garignano Bridge which crosses a ravine, at the 
top of 250 steps. Bant by Alessi for the Sauli 
family in the 16h century. It is shaped like a 
Greek cross, 165 feet each way, with pilasters in 
front, a dome 4<t feet diameter over the centre 
(whence there is a noble prospect), and four towers 
at the comers. Within are four statues by Puget 
and David, under the cupola, the best of which is 
Puget's Sel>astian ; rich bronzes by Soldain on the 
altar; a fine organ; Procaccini's Virgin (with St 
Francis and St Charles); Guercino*s St Francis; 
paintiogs by the Piolas and others. The walk ftom 
this church along the walls and ramparts of S. Chiara 
gives a splendid view. 

St. Matteo (Matthew), in that street and Place, 
Jb a Ck>thic church of the 13th century, by the 
I>oria family ; one of whom, Conrad, humbled Pisa, 
1290, and another, Lamba, defeated the Venetians, 
under Dandolo, at the naval battle of Curzola, 1296. 
The interior was restored by Montorsoll, who built 
Cin the crypt) the tomb of the great Andi-ea Doria 
to whom Paul IIL sent a sword, now kept in the 
sacrishr. The picture of St. Anno is by B. Castello. 

8t. Sebattiano has the Martyrdom of that Saint 
and St Clement, by the Castclios. 

St, Mary <tf(he Schools has nine marble ba8-rellc& 
by Schiaffino and Cacciatore, with Guide's Passion. 

Santa Maria di Castello^ a very old Gtothic church 
of the 11th centm^ built by the Costclli family, 
having three rows of granite pillars. Near the altar 
are two curious pictures on wood — ^AU Saints, and 
the Annunciation, by L. Brea, a native artist of the 
15th century. Another worth notice is Greghetto's 
Virghi ; but the best is the St Sebastian of Titian, 
in the sacristy. 

St. Carlo contains a good marble statue of the 
TTrgin. by ParodL 

St. FUijop-^ de yeri is well worth notice for Its fine 
Vln^n, by Puget 

j$^ Francesco di Paolo^ outside Porta S. Tommaso, 
commands a fine view over the city and port, and 
contains several parti-coloured marble pillars, fres- 
coes, and paintings, especially the Adoration of the 
Shepherds, by Cambriaso, which tlie French carried 
off to Paris, but were obliged to give up again. 

*Santa Maria delta Consolazione^ one of the largest 
and handsomest churches here, has a dome and a 
beautiful altar of black marble, veined with gold. 
One of L. Breads old fiishioned pdntings is here. 

^. Sttfano dbUa Porta, at the top of Santa Giulia, 
is a small plain old Gothic church, containing a cele- 
brated work of art, the Marty dom of St Stephen, by 
Rapha^ and G. Romana It was the gift of Iico X., 
and has performed a journey to Paris. 

There are upwards of sixty churches and chapels. 
Beyond the walls are those of the Cappudni and 
ZocoolanteifFrandscans). The Protestant churches 
are five. Tne English church is at Casa Itocca, in 
Via AsarottL The lartre Vaudois chnrdb is In the 
same street Dr. De Sanctis, formerly a priest, is 
BOW miidster of the Chieeea Evangeliiia Italiaxia, 
m-J/allaa SyaageticaJ cburcb. He pabUabiBB «n 

AJmanacco, which haa a sale of 70,000 to 80^000 


"Genoa (says Canon Wofflsworth) Is O&e of 
the most inter^ting cities hi Italy for old ia m v eMu aA 
buildhigB. Ton pass out of a busy street, by om of 
those long, narrow, and rather Steep th uruu g lrfki ea, 
brilliant with gold, jewellery, and silver filigree 
work, and coral ornaments, and traversed by long 
tridns of mules, tied to one another's tails; and 
muzzled with corded nosebags ; yon enter a tiye-lane, 
and come into an old cloistered qoadranglo, shaded 
with orange trees, with an old monastic weU in the 
centre, and you see walls engraved with venerable 
andent Inreriptions, or adorned with medlttval 
sculpture. Such are the cloistered retreats of St 
Andrea, and of the church of St Matteo, founded in 
the 12th century, with its Interesthig records of 
the Dorias." On the front is an inscription recording 
the victory of Lamba Doria over the Venetians at 
Curzola, 1296 ; and the cloisters contain the remains 
of a colossal statue of Giannetto Doria, the vletorof 
Lepanto, 1571, which the Genoese mob overtnmed in 
1797. One-half of the old Dominican convent is 
turned into a barrack. Not &r flrom the mined 
church of St Agostino, with the date, 1263, on its 
front Is a remnant of a B^man wall and aipiednct, 
near the courtyard of au old monastery. 

Among the Palaces, or seats of the nobility, ore 
the following ; most of which are open to pufoHo 
view between 10 and 3. The twelve or fourteen 
in Strada Nuova were designed by Alessi (who died 
1572), and was one of the first archltecte wnofigored 
at Gfcnoa. Some along the harbour, with tbdr 
marble stairs and splendid rooms, are turned tnto 
hotels, such as the Grimaldi Palace, etc; Those 
witliin the city arc beginning to be renovated again 
by their wealthy owners, who had fbr a tfane neg- 
lected them. The old nobility, who were dfssatlsfiM 
with the annexation with Piedmont, are begtexdng 
to be more reconciled under the now order of things. 
They are pious and charitable. When the matron 
of one of the g^eat hospitals left it fi)r tear of the 
cholera, her place was taken by a Genoese noble 
and his wife. "The palaces, I apprehend (says 
Forsyth), gave to this dty the appellation of Piond ; 
thehr black and white fjronts were once distinctive 
of the highest nobility; bnt most of those noble 
mansions have disappeared. The modem palaces are 
an faced with stucco, and stme are painted !n fresco^ 
a fashion first introduced at Venice by Giorghme." 

Many of them are painted red or yellow; some 
green or blue ; which produces a rich and spark- 
ling efibct In this dlmate. One beautifod feature 
is tneir court-yards, consisting of ranges of marble 
arcades; bnt beantlfhl as tiiey are, with aUttle 
more taste and judgment, they might have been 
ten times more so. They are "remarkable, firsts 
for their size and the largeness of their pftiU i ■ 
qualities, which ore inunensdy exaggerated by the 
narrowness of the streKTts and comts In which tiiey 
are situated. They hare also the great adran- 
tage of standing flree each by ttseU; bnt stttt-lB dose 
pitndffilty to the next ; aad tiiey are i flso^ a s » mle , 
nee from ally attempt to imitate or feufudute efittMcal 
or any othet models. A«aitBctthoii&«Q8tl)t|il«eed 



tlM tediMM of the mateifll; fte coazBeness and 
flraqnently the inoongrnity of the details, and that 
aoBMtimea their architecture is either only painted 
in, or accentuated by paint, with a cmdenesa very 
doaely q>proachInff to vulgarity."— /byuMOfk 

FaUugo BalH-Pkittra in Strada Balbi. It has a 
good portico, 11 portraits, by Vandvket Tttian*s 
St Catherine; Gnido'sLaa^tfa; P. veroBese's Last 
Supper ; Joseph and the Chief Butler, by B. Stiozzi 
(a native). 

*PaUuto BHgnoJe$-J5aIe, or Rosso, In Strada Knova, 
No. 3fi, one of the finest hi the City. Portraits by 
Vandyke ; Da Vfaici's John the Baptist; Dd Sarto's 
Madonna; Guerohu>*8 Virgin Enthroned and Christ 
intheTemide; Procaecini's Holy Family; Gnido's 
St Sebastian. 

Palauo Cambiasa, in Strada Nnovarada. Giier- 
cino's Magdalen; David with Goliath's Head, etc; C. 
Marratta's Marriage of St Catherine; Holbein's 
Calvin; Raphael's Holy Family; Guidons St Luke 
and a Magdalen; three portraits by Vandyke; 
Lucas de Leyden's Descent from the Cross, etc. 

*Pal(uto Cartga, in the Nuova, bnUt by Alessi, isone 
of the largest wd best in Goioa; having a square 
firont 98 feet broad, and 98 feet high, divided into 3 
main stories, or 7, including the small windows and 
brt ween floors. Frescoes, by Castello ; P. Veronese's 
AdoratioD of the Magi ; Titian's Hcrodlas with the 
Baptist's head* 

Pakwso DoHa, occupying a noble site on the north 
side of the pmt, near tne Darsana and railway, now 
nei^ected. It was rebuilt by Montosorli, for Andrea 
Doria, the great Admiral of 1528 in his old days, 
^'luMiesto otio qoiesceret" (that ho might eq)oy his 
well-esm^ ease), as the inscripUon states. It con- 
tains a pcNrtal and vestibule, with arabesques, stucco, 
and otter omamental gnMupa, by P. del Vaga, who 
nnder the patronage of Doria introduced a new 
style in Genoa. In the gardens overlooking the 
harbonr, are statues of the Admiral (as Neptune), 
and his dog Randaa (given him by Qiarles V.), 
besides a Jointer, etc. 

Paiaao Daria-Turti in Strada Kuova, formedy 
the Jesuits* College, now the Iftmicipalita or Town 
Mail ; SOO feet long, including the low arched wings, 
and is faeed with stucco pilasters. It contains 
antographs of C<dumbus and A. Doria, and the 
famoos Poloeverra table, a relic in the shape of a 
copper slab, found at Polccverra in lAO on which is 
engraved the boundary Une between the Genuatae 
and Vecturii, as settled by tho Roman authMities 
(A.U.C 638), the riven^ moantains, behig distinctly 
tnaitod. There is also a pUn of (Senoa as old as 

*Po2tUM» DtttaJB or dsBa Citta, a vast and magnifi- 
cent pile 110 feet high, in Piazza Kuova, once the seat 
of the Doge, now that of the Governor, and the 
Uffizio defii Poiizia (Polke office). It was nearly 
all rebuilt after the fire of 1777, by Colone, of 

elntsd marble, tm> wood being osed. In the noble 
U or SaladI Chran ConalgUo, are plaster casts of the 
s t Bt» ss of the gnat man of Genoa, which were des- 
tfoyed by the nnabHoana In 1797. In another room 
orefoar good FfemUb paintings and a bast (with 
his autograph) of CoUnahflib MMOf of Genoa, to 

whom a monnmcnt lias lately baen erected. He if, 
however, claimed by Cugoleto. 

PaUuzo FQippo Durazxo or della Seals, in Strada 
BalbL No. 2S7, built bv Bianco, and enlarged by 
Tagliafichi (a native), who made the spiral stahrcase 
(scola), from which ft gets its common name. It is 
200 feet long, and has Titian's Magdalen and 
Nymphs; Guorchio's David and the Tribute Money; 
Procaccini's Woman taken in Adultery ; A. Carmdf'a 
St Peter; Del Barto*s Madonna; (Inldo^ Charity, 
St Eustasius, St John, andCHoopatra; Veronese's 
Marriage ot St Catherine; ApoUo and the Mnses 
(fresco), by Paolo ; Vandyke's portraits of a Doge 
and o&er Dnrazzos; Domuiidilno's Christ and 
Mary In the Garden, and St Sebastian ; Rubens* 
Philip IV.; and a large collection of engravings. 

PaUuzo StradaBalU. "Thoo^ asplain 
and devoid of ornament as it is dmost possiUe for 
any dedgn to be, this one is as effective and as 
pleasing as any palace in the dty.**—- Aitmhni. 

PaUuzo MarctHo Durazxo^ now Palazzo dd R€ 
(king's palace), In Strada Balbi, was restored 1812 
by Charles Albert It is 800 feet long, 76feethfeli, 
and like the Munldpallta in style, the details bemg 
large and cold. It has an open eo i rldor and two 
grand marble staircases by Fontana ; a ooHec ti cn of 
painthigs; Spagnoiotto'sFiiar; a portrait by Rem- 
brandt; Vandyke's Crudfizlon, and a noble fnmita 
bust of the Emperor Vetelhos. Tho gallery df Paolo 
was painted by ParodL The Falcone Theatre joins 
it next door. 

Palazzo OrUlo Catanoo, or OanttOt In Porta Ttitr 
tello, No. 3L It contains S. RosstM Christ and the 
Money Changers ; Del Sarto's St Agnes ; Portrait of 
a Lady, by Rubens ; another by BoBlnl ; Bordone's 
Luther and his Wifa 

PaUuzo Leriaei Jmperia!e, or Porftdi, bnSt by 
AlcssL Here are arabesques, sidd to be by Cai^ 
lone, and pidntings by L. d'OIanda, ete. 

Palazzo JiFegroM, in Piazza Fbntane Amaroso, No. 
64, is worth notice fbr the frescoes of ParodL 

*PaUuzo PaHavidni, in Strada Carlo FeUee, No. 327. 
Vandyke's portrait of a Ladv and Child, and Corio- 
lanus ; Fhmceschfairs Sacxifice of Abndiam, Vtrghi 
and Chnd, Bathsheba In the Bath, and Birtb of 
Adonis; A. C^rracci's Magdalene; L, Carraoci's 
Dream of Joseph; Gnerdno's Music, and his St. 
Jerome; Strozzl's St Francis and Madonna at 
Praycr-.(StrozzI is ctdlcd the ''Prete Genorese," or 
Crenoa priest) ; Raphaers Madonna delta Cdoima; 
AIbano*8 Diana and Actcon; Rubens' Angel and 
St Peter ; A. Dtlrer's Descent ftt>ra the Cross. Heie 
tickets for Villa PalUvldni, at Pegli, belonging to 
the same owner, may be obtained. 

Palazzo PetchUra^ built by Alesd, irtOi frescoes 
by Semini, stands in a spot commanding a fine view, 
and has many flshponv (whence tbt name) In its 
beautiflil gardens. 

Palaao Salvai, called *' Paradise," oofside Porta 
Plli, has frescoes by Tavaione, and was the aa«t of 
Lord Byron the year befbro his death. Lady West- 
moreland lived in St afterwards. 

Pabwto StmMt or Saole, by Alcarf, la ono of the 
largMt and most plearing here^ Imk aqflteieto i^. ^t 



forward, in two stories, with arches between. 
"There is more light and shade, and more variety 
of design in tliis palace than in any in Genoa; and if 
its details were a little more pore, it might challenge 
comparison, in some respects, with any in Italy."— 

^PcOatxo Serra, Strada Naovo, No. 49, built by 
Alessi, and restored by Tagliafichi. Its saloon is so 
richly gilt and decorated with marble, glass, tapestry, 
etc., that it is called the Palace of the Sun (del sole). 
The gilding was done by melting down many 
thousands of sequins. " The Serra Palace boasts the 
finest saloon in Europe. This celebrated object is 
oval in plan— the elevation a rich Corinthian; the 
walls are covered with gold and looking-glass ; the 
floor consists of a polish^ mastic stained like oriental 
breccia. Here the ceiling borrows and lends beauty 
to the splendour below."— i^or<y(ft. 

Pdkuxo Ferdinando SpinolOt formerly Palazzo 
Grimaldi, in Strada Nuova, built by AlessL It has 
a great hall and staircase, Vandyke's portridts (one 
on a horse), Titian's Venus, and Bellini's Madonna. 

Paiaggo Giovanni BattiUa Spinola, near the Piazza 
Pontane Amorosa. Here are Vandyke's Madonna ; 
li. Giordano's Destruction of Troy, and the Sama- 
ritan ; Lesueur's Joseph before Pharaoh ; Guide's St 
Sebastian, Magdalen, and Flightinto Egypt; Domeni- 
chino's Family of Tobias ; Borgognone's Sacrifice of 
Abraham; Wad's Landscapes; Farmegiano's Adora- 
tion of the MagL 

PdUuM MauimUiano Sfpinola^ or Palcato Taglia- 
vaechA, in Strada Santa Catherine, is ornamented 
urith some of L. Cambiaso's early frescoes. 

"The real merit of the Genose palaces is that they 
really are what they seem. If the pilasters are used 
they are mere decorations. Pillars are never intro- 
duced when not wanted, and, alx>ve all, is always 
the principal feature of the design, and always at 
the top of the wall— attics being almost unknown in 
Genoa; and windows are only introduced when and 
where they are wanted. With these elements it is 
difficult to fail ; and Alessi only wanted a little more 
elegance in designing his details, and a little better 
material to work wiUi, in order to have attained a 
great success. The last-mentioned is, in fact, one of 
the principal defbcts of the (Genoese buildings, though 
not the fault of the arcliitect; for, though it is usual 
for tourists to tidk of the * marble' palaces of Genoa, 
it is a melancholy fact that, except some of the black 
and white medieval edifices, there is not a single 
fa9ade in the city built wholly of that material."— 

llie Vitta CHustiani^ outside the walls, is a very 
harmonious pile by Alessi, having an ancient granite 
Isis in the grounds. 

ViUa di Oiov. Carlo di Negro stands in a fine spot, 
and contains many works of art, etc. 

Villa Scoglietio is another charming seat, with 
orange gardens, grottoes, etc. The Palazzo del 
Padrl delle Commune (father of the city) is now 
used by the Chamber of Commerce. 

In Strada Balbi, opposite the Khig's Palace, is the 

Palatto delta Universita, founded by the Balbi 

f^/onv; w}ihtreaco^ bronzes, and BtatQW by Giov. 

if/Bo/0/*aM, Mad M public UbnrycouiMh^S A Hebrew 

Bible in sevAi folio volnmef. There are also a royMl 
college, priests' seminary, communal schools, school 
of navigation, and a marine hospitaL 

In Piazza 8L Domentco Is the AcadenUa di JkUt 
Arti (fine arts), fotmded by the Dorias. It has • 
collection of designs, models, pictures, and a public 
library of 40,000 volumes; open daily. In the Piazza 
Acquaverde, near the marine college, is an armoury, 
in which are shewn a wooden cannon, bound witti 
copper, taken from the Venetians in the. war of 
Chioggia, 1872-81, and the rostrum or beak of a 
Roman galley, which made a figure, according to 
tradition, in me Carthaginian attack on GMioa. 

The new Teatro Carlo Felice^ or Opera House, near 
the Piazza Sargana, was buUt in 1828 by C. Baradlno, 
and is huge and remarkably handsome, especially the 
portico, staircases, saloon, etc Teatro St. Agostino, 
formerly a convent, is used for comedy. The Falcone 
Theatre is next to the Royal Palace. 

One of the most extensive charitable institutions . 
is the Albergo di Pouri (poor house), on the north- 
east side of the city, founded in 1654 by Emmanuel 
Brignole, for the benefit of the hifinn, the aged, 
orphans, the tmfortunate. etc, who are all employed 
in work. It is a tall pfie, 550 feet square, with a 
front 120 feet high in the middle ; behind which are 
four courts and a chapel, where you see the Ascen- 
sion by Piola, a Statue of the Virgin by Fuget, and 
11 Angelo's fine Pietk or Dead Christ. 

The vast Otpedale de Pammatone, one of the finest 
l^nildings in Genoa, is near the Acqnasola, and wag 
built for B. Bosco, 1420. by A. OrsoUno ; for the use 
of sick persons. Ijdng-in women, and orphans. Out- 
side the walls is the Casa di Recovero dei Pazzi 
(Home of Recovery for Lunatics), founded 1838, for 
300 patients. The Hospital for Incurabletf in the 
Strada GiuUa, has a portico with marble statues; four 
rooms for 50 each ; and the Lord's Supper by Cam 

A Sordi-Mutit or Deaf and Dumb Asylum, was 
founded It! 01, by Father Assarotti, on Monte di 
8. Bartolemeo. A Maniconico^ or Lunatic Asyimn, 
was built 1834-41, on the east hills, near Porta Plfla, 
in the shape of a star. 

The Conservettorio delk FitscMni, was founied 
1768, by the Fieschi family, as an asylum for orphan 
g^ls who learn to weave, embroider, and make 
artificial fiowers, etc. Many similar establishmenta 
are under the Sisters of St Catherine. There is a 
Protestant hospital for sailors, well deserving of sup- 
port from EngUsh visitors. 

The people are simple in their manners, but have 
a great reputation for cunning; in which, however, 
they are beaten by some people nearer home, if an 
old commercial proverb speaks truth, which says that 
** One Jew equals two Genoese; but one Bristol 
man equals two Jews." The women are well 
shaped ; the poorer dress in a long mezzano or veil. 
There Is a good display of costume at their Casazze 
or religious processions, especially in Holy Week. 

The language is a dialect of the Italian mixed with 
Arab, Spanish, French, and other words. It has no 
t: they slur the {, t, and v; aigring **dto** for dito, 
**noo'' forno/o, and such like; and they drop the 
final syllable In wotda ^U&ft bMiume^^\vtK.Vx\:ckfii «ranA. 

ImHOL A conceUod of OesMn potnu hu been 
mwla Id O. J. CxilU'i "CUIUn." 



ed Cokunbo. Put 
lii Sddle to bU 

Utas reir of th« II4IIU1 

be Lleurlui kh. At djLwn 
QenoH peopl* wwe buBy mgised 
BiE«,uu|( uiuinpha] afcbOt and in ■dornln^ ih« bi 
«oiii« of Ibelr wlillo unuble paluo, witb yeU 
dnperlH and fruh Oowwi. Ab womco vere ]□ 
deUrJDiD of Joynil eipectilion, aodan mliht Iibts 

athen. exctpilnt KunlM m 
glp«FiioKg OMamore Uu Ida 
hi tlia uolnit wM of lUUIJ Dog« ud I 

G»m tlu lutn of ths wblts lUJlan orb which gtioni 
Out niflit npon tba (uduu or tb* Soiii Ftliu 
Hkd tb* immbariga anbad htgit at ths maitali 
biilldiiifi or tb* Coalnda BalU. The ptcturcaqi- 

wllli IMr daguu Tlllaa, w 

a »ilky ot 3lM«nD, 

flUgm work^ cbaina, «ar-Tli 
u Un HallMe and T 


nodu ; a won^rfiil fvtto. Kith a atilictlte arch : 
Ike. yrilb dolpbln^haped boate, porc«liln uali^ 

cast&, a[ thehl£heat poinl or Iho gardens, 

VccchL Qulbstdl roilded, before h!> eiHdil'nn "• 
Sicily. In 1861), upon the Dnibrtak of the liuDn 

nwtto wai, " ItaJyind Victor Eminui I 
ftom Bll parta of ItoCy, uidcmbarked 

GaribaJdl'i name. Slilpi 'cleared 001 

lnnl!'"de raibarked «lb'jlla^ bi 
l.n67 tried men, leaving Rertan 

EOUTE 10. 

B)- coach 10 Speila, 110 Ul., ot 6S( mllei. In IE 

-ee-^ocn In 12 hoiin. (Sea Brwliliaa't Coalmnttat 
GuiiiiJ The poit towiu an 

plata. wood and martda arrlnE* { hilald cupg and 
wui, fiom Br-CM mei; irorka in copper, Ivory. 
■Dd oural artlcn; daua^a. Telveta, ^pore lace. 

t, ilbboiu, coUOD, hall. Hi 

•Fillo miaaMtC at Pagn, abool heV-iraj 
Tlekatt an got at (ha Pallarklnl Palaca, In Otnaa 
■ faeatlA-lirTn ■ - ■ 

Di'ta EiKb. Ital 

From Genoa, tbc road cn»«a the Blsagno. anil 
H> IDwanla S. UartloD d' Alliauo, when Bynm 

Naaai (papnlalkD. 4,eMI. uldllacountlTwaU.IO 
Ricco, Ibaanclmt Rieiao on Ibe Via AuraUa, ■ 
pnlly lawn (popuiallon. l.S&S), wllb ■ campaalla 
chnrui, TQUvaTW^L\\^\*atv^ni^'^^^^'^^^'''^'*^^ 

iVoI PortM DtljltlVMiWl'" ^QWi" ,.>-_^M*,<-«. 

,llile\iMtm6Vian.. Bettmft. 

CaUTlEI QwpnLliit.n 

latg8cnrt«M,fortht J.,.,!. ChLivnii 1» noUdfipr 
numuAulim oTIl^bt j.tjri.Liilcc^oiis. 

■Ula ta&apiUndi La<m^^ '' """"^ ft"*"!™ 
Smnu IdTun {papaliiion, 8,(941, in a bM 
llftil Iwr ODpoglU Kipallo; from wbidi tbe re 
riiMto tin ¥«• of Bnuxo, Mio q( thrj hiiihett Oil 1_. 
rata, UCO (bet above or tbo sea. Tbe winding road 
la cut ibrourt neks of mlanred mubls and gianlle. 
dotbad witE oUm. chi'inuti, and myrUes. Tbe 
^■■udiiaian«Dth«]^ bounded bf the ohl Doohy 

Busoo baa ■.floe ciev of UonEgUii Bay. ShUI 
Poiat, Porta Flio. cic. Hence up to tbo Fasg vf 
Tdia, S,1D(I AM bltli, nbeie vcgolatiou eudl. Ham 

Ifuuui, among ban hilla ; and Id 
Ootammo OupelDtlon, I.eSE). wbere the ch»- 

mll guarded bribrti 
a iBgn Laxaratla, fbr 


for tba rfjad, [a majla eapadallr atnmg ta mlattiia 
iDDunuin tonenti ftan Uu Apembiet. Old fiOm, 
US Ai^Fo]^ Trebblam, etc, an wem ob tbe dlMail 
belcbis. Abau It toDaa op tba Migra, tt Puniia 
Eou, OD the Paima road, near the MmU Oka .Poa^ 
over tht^ ApMnbiti, 3,400 feM blgh. 
Btatlaci, (poi 

^.^_ jAUtnuy; a . ^ ,__„ 

of ibe CooDta QUohdEtil, beton K atttlH ta 
Cbt^cs, Sanana, wbtD It oam* mtat Iba pamt 
or Qi^aoSi In 1407 (by eietiaiiie loi Lecbon), «n 
eninlod m the banUni caiponHon of 8. OU/rgit tt 
ibut Fit;. Bealdea ■ Ibeatie, boffHd, eta, Sen- 
(DtoB a b:mdafniie marble l>botMr, irllb aoniB IMwork 
• -. (rom the ndna of Irtno— «n oU Gtnagm 
^.., ^r ''■B Uagn. which haa yieldol manypR^ 
mcnttv maiblta, bronna, iDKriptknia, Mc^nuinv 
s bishop'* *e* tut 1304, whan ItwM tanAntfts 

SoBiIa la a floe ti 
bllhoF'a aee, and bathlr 

bolll by Kapoleon. T1i 


tkin, 4,700), a lahlng pun. while 
pTDmoniorf of black and yelloiv in 
after Porto Venere, a pLfituteBqu] 
of a Temple of Tenua, doK lo 
lalandand Ita oUn grovca and tI 

inaadeanda port M iha month tf tta Om^ 
rliem Carran ouirble la aUpped. SaM 
If tUa nmbla, wUeli la tba kttd BMl pnteH* 
by nalpCoia, an bnraght dvmi by ImaaiM *a^ 
Doled for thalt gin and «hUa ortovad itk^tf 

[Caiieuli, a little Tillage to the left (pquflUko, 
I3,9SA), nnder the pnrple and red hnia, alliBIA 

with bLocka of white marble, it """ — ' ^ "" 

aldPB. and Willi ihopa fall ' 

InFlaiiaAlberlcalla ..__ 

inrhess BeaCrlce oT tbe Dbo Cardlr, 
larrtaee In 17U irith tbe Dnke of K 
lis nttle Dacby of 30 igaan niII<B 

'1th that of Huaa, Into the Eate nanny. '■ 

ilns a Bat cathedral, mafbTe of conrae, of Ae MtU 
net llith eenturUs; Hodonna del QnuIeCKacob 
itb Hnna good raaiblaa hi It ; & Olaooms Hd^MU 
nd an Aoada^ of tknlpton^ fonndad by Oe 
lincm EllUL Kanileaii'a iltta, and weD FftnUad 
ilth casta and medali, placed In ber pabnv vtilA 
be gave iw foe the purpon. 
TliDMbltaGairanmarMA lo called ficaitlie«Id 
jiiln ■ftarntria, (yrhaat onr old KogUak w«pd 

' Honte Ekien^ near the ElTert 


tha Mnnlrg ana I Mmmmkmmm 



■*■„ mwliAwt. ] f r. 

tin tbe 

an wn- 

L me 



alw lUukrooiDii, 
_ MaitioQi,at« 




ancient remains have survived these changes ; but 
It is still one of the richest cities in Europe. 

The noble Duomo and its spires, tlie grand mark 
ih)m all sides, stands in the midst of the narrow 
windhig streets of the old city; which is surrounded 
by the Naviglio Grande Canal, and is an oval space, 
If mile by 1 mile. This canal communicates by the 
I^aviglio di Martesuna with the streams on each side. 
Beyond it the suburbs, in some parts, stretch to the 
bastione or ramparts, built 1555, which makes an 
irregular heragon between six and seven miles about 
and two miles across. They are well planted with 
trees, as are the Piazza d'Armi, and the Foro on the 
N.E., where the line of drcumvaUation is most 
broken. The streets, called in the old town contrade 
{contradat a street) and caUe (ecUla, a lane), improve 
in the suburbs, where the best houses are found, and 
as they widen take the names of corsie and corsi 
ieonia and eorso^ a course) not wide but lofty ; and 
at length, in the broadest part, near the gates, that 
of borgi (borgo^ a suburb). Several streets are paved 
with pebbles or flagstones, and lighted with gas. 
Milan is the cleanest city in Italy. The chimneys of 
many of the houses are disguised under the form of 
small, turrets, castles, and Chinese temples. 

The best promenades are on the ramparts, the 
Borgo di Porta Orientale, and the other Borgi, the 
Foro, etc. Several cafi^s and shops are in the Gal- 
leria di Cristoferis, a passage or arcade like those at 
Paris. Most of the open spaces, or Piazzi, are 
irregular; the largest is the Piazza del Duomo, from 
which a new street, called Vittorio Emanuele, is to 
be made to the L. da Vhici Piazza, and a Loggia 
Beale, by Menzoni, is to face it That of Piazza 
Fortuna near it, has a fountain of red granite with 
two marble syrens; the Piazza de Mercante ftonts 
the Old Exchange; Piazza St Fedele, opposite that 
church is regular. Piazza Borromeo has a bronze 
of Carlo Borromeo. 

The churches are usually shut from 12 to 3. Of 
all the buildings, the most striking is the marble, 

* Duomo or Cathedral^ reckoned by some to be the 
most remarkable church in Italy, after St Peter's, at 
Bome, and dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It is for 
the most part in the florid Gothic style, with a pro- 
fusion of spires, and niched statues. There are 100 
■of the former, and 7,000 of the latter, of which 2,400 
have been put up in the last twelve years, one of the 
latest being the statue of Victor Emmanuel. Visitors 
are recommended to see it first by moonlight, if 

Sossible. Though begun by G. G. Visconti, Duke of 
[ilan, as far back as 1886, it is still unfinished, after 
various additions and alterations from the original 
4esign, which seems to be due to H. Ahrler, a Ger- 
man. In fiust, it is in a continual state of repair; in 
terms of a deed under which a certain sum is spent 
annually upon the edifice. Length, 871 feet ; width, 
S26 feet; height of the aisles, 92 feet ; of the nave, 
122 feet (about 150 to the vaulting) ; of the cupola, 
197 feet (or 360 feet to the top of the spire). The 
front is an elaborate piece of work, much broken up 
lir^tmsD doora, and many windows, in a Gothicised 
Jiifmaa style, uttle Jiaiwonlstng.^with the scale of 
^i>/endoar of the interior. Tills part waa restored in 

Napoleon's time, and decorated with statues and 
bas-reliefa On each side of the middle door are two 
columns, each of an enormous granite block, flrom 
Baveno, 85 feet higli, carrving statues of S. Carlo 
Borromeo (by Monti) and MarchesL A stained 
window above contains the Assumption, by Bertioi, 
a modem window pidnter, who died 1849. The 
interior, though iU lighted, is vast and imposing, 
being a dear space firom end to end, only interrupted 
by the great clustered pillars, which support the 
vault There are fifty-two of them, sixty-nine feet 
high, twenty feet round the base, and covered with 
niched figures, foliage, tracery, etc. They divide the 
body into two aisles, on each side of the nave, and 
one on each side of the transepts. 

The pavement is of chequered marble. There are 
tombs of archbishops, the Visconti, etc., and two 
popes, Martin V., and Pius IV. Round the pulpits 
are bronzes of the four evangelists, and four fathers, 
by Brambiila. In Pellegiini*s choir are seventeen 
bas-relieft of great ezcdlence. The Inronze taber- 
nacle of the high tdtar is another work by Brambiila. 
Here they keep a nail of the true cross, which is 
carried in procession on the 8rd of May, the anniver- 
sary of the great plague of Milan, in which Its 
excellent archbishop, San Carlo Borromeo, figured so 
worthily. He died hi 1584, and his body is preserved. 
His rich gold and silver shrine is in a vault below, 
where he may be seen dressed up in pontifical robes, 
sparkling with diamonds, and his head resting on a 
gilded cushion. He was the nephew of Pius IV., 
and was canonised by his successor ; which cost his 
family so large a sum, that they declined to ask for 
a similar honour for his cousin. Cardinal Fred. Bor- 
romeo, the one celebrated by Mimzoni, in / Promessi 

An inscription at the east end of the cathedral 
gives a list of the relics belonging to it, among which 
are Christ's cradle and swaddling clothes; part of 
the towel with which he wiped his disciples' feet ; 
four thorns of his crown; parts of the reed, the 
cross, the sponge, and the spear; and one of the 
nails; a piece of Moses' rod; two of EUsha's teeth; 
and so on. 

One of the most popular religious books is the 
Filotea, published bv one of the confessors to the 
cathedral It is full of legendary fables, and sells 
by thousands. Every disorder of every part of the 
human body has a saint, to whom the patient may 
pray for a cure Dr. Wordsworth. 

Here also are St Carlo's statue, and that of St 
Ambrose, besides eight pictures, etc., of the events 
of St Carlo's life. Behind the choir is a curious 
anatomical statue of St Bartholomew, by Agrati, in 
the act of being flayed. 

In the Midici Chapel is a tomb, designed by M. 
Angelo; built by Pope Paul IV., to his brother. 
Some of the pictures are worth notice from being on 
glass. High up is the portrait of the principal 
architect, with the inscription, "I. O. Antonius 
Homodeus Venere Fabrice, ML.L, Architectus," in 
a circle. About 520 marble steps bring us at length 
(past Brambilla's statues of Adam and Eve) to the 
gallery round the spire, whence there is a noble view 
over the 'vr^oVe i^\8!^ «t \k<^ "So. «a l«e «a Moot 

HtdUw rich hnea of lu lUIned (Ii 
■HUH u ir Ihs indent tpMt of religion, guch m 
dnU tn UUu Id the diji of St Ambme, lored id 
Unfa here. Tb* inKripUon, which la caasplcnom ' 
on Dm rood loft ' Atlesdlu ad Petmo unds eicliJ 

pobiting to Chriit Uld ml Peter, u the tree Rock 

Hie large wlndowi • 
itdned wtUi nblscti fi 
BoMiaUon.wdnliy Ber 

wen itaattered by the „ „. 

Hepolmi wu crowned King of Italy. 

Ilia nm and Innaepti an (tie large imboa or 
polplti, flvm whkh Ibe gmpel end epiatle are read. 
Ths Ambrodan liturgy, whlth iha Pi^ hii never 
baen able to extlngabiht la a atandtng proof of the 
iDdependencs Dl tbaHUaneM Cliareb. Piteiu whe 
D» Iba Roman rltnal an not allowed to oAlclau 
eieeptonTarrugsDtaceaaiona. Catechttkil teach- 
iTtf la carrted on Brery 3aiidaT, and cbltdren are 
taogbtto read and wiltain the alaleai a pncllLs 
entorced by tht useDeot S. Carlo Bommea 

tn ISM, the day oTIbe battle ot Uagenta, Arch. 
bUMp Ballethil WM nmdiiaiad to the aee by tt 

Emperor of Anitria I "■ '-■ ''■-—' — 

eflfct, and Ciochi ■ 

ha chepter t 
Ind Id Honii 

TkarGenanl; and he baa 

At Ihs and of IM3L thtr* wm H vacant lec 
anin the new It^lan Ungdom. 

Ontli«inJaDa.tli<ii«tIoiialaniiiTersary, o 
4tlte Slalitta, la oelebnted with great iplendoi 

andooai^ta(U^300ineinlwra, tJie object of which ii 
to cnltlTalt retliKma aufflta, Mpedally thoia whicb 
liara a praetlDa] Enfloence on too eocial welbre of 
the paoida : but lasdabl* aa It leema. It baa been 
denODnoed by the UltiamontauD iooinalit aa achla- 
malical and ranJntlonary. 

&111M JTorfa ddb Oniii^ la Bergo della Qraiie. 
atUelied to tbe old Domlnlean Mary (now a bai- 
radq, wu bnllE lUMS, by Uonaido da Vbxj'a 
patron. Dnk* Lnlovko, II Horo. and baa ■ OotMo 
iMn, with a plonnaqna cupola added by Bramante. 
W (Mt OlamMn, nianted by BO^drcnlar tillHiiMa: 
" and wUiA axtarnally ind inMnuDy la one of (he 
meat plaaabiE •padnuiiB ct Ita clMi to be fliDiid any- 
irhBre."— AfvaBM. 

It hu fiwcoea by O. Itonrl, Me,, and On Iha 

TtrrxtBiy} Oit Ir 

■ aflie a 

wllh carlmia bm»-relie(j. This Atrium, in which 
the peonie liked almi and performed penance, t> 

the aplendld ihrine (shown for c fr) of gold and 

of Augcetine's 11/e, ale, and covered wllh a beaolifol 
canopy; the very old chapel bf hind hia choir, and 
lu Ii (nrioui Byiaoline moaalo on a gold groond. 
Tbe Ambrodan aenice book Ii of velliun, very 
andent. in S (Olio voluma, richly llljinlnated with 

pulpit, la adorned wllh a bai-reliaf of an agape or 
lave leaiL Oppoilu Ihlg li a pDrtrail of 8L Ambroa« 

Sarlonr, wltb a Greek inscripNon, lignlfjlng ■' Jeana 

Aaguttlne, In ^BT- 

died Gulcr Day, S97J undet the high Mh. 
■u Ueiropolltan over 18 Lombaidy bishops. 
ler cbapel la called St. dal^rue, after AmbnHO'a 
r, who wu burled here cloae to St. VlcbH', la a 

Jeot "lonlSlDCUl 
Bant' Ambtoglo.''— Dr. TTordwwlli, 


hiideath4>ed; F§eAiW» statiie of Santa JCarcoUiji^; 
Borgognone'a fresooe of Ghriat and tba Two Angeb 

8. AUucmdro, in CSorao dagU Asosdel, lias two 
brge itatoea in the front, and a dohW onuunented 
Inteito. with palntinge on the capdb, by Cam^ 
Flocacdni, and other artists. 

8mtm Maria prnto 8, CtUa (near S. CMao), in 
that Borgo, oppoeito the Military College, founded 
by the YJacontit, 1491. ahowa a very beMtiful front, 
in wlUflh are two sibyls, by Fontana; and an excel- 
lent Adam and Eve at the entrance, by I«iurenzL 
Inside among other wch'Ic, are Appiqni's firecocs, and 
Fontana^s statue of theViigin ; with azich altar, etc 

8 VUton al Corpo^ in ttiat stradone, behind a 
barrack, was rebuilt 1560, by Alessi, on the site of 
one fnax wiiich St Ambrose shut oot the Emperor 
Theodotrins; with pictures by Froocacdni, Bellon, 

aomia Maria ddla Pamomt^ in that street, near 
Porta Toaa, Is rather a fine ohnreh, 880 ftet kmg, 
with a triple portal and three naves, a dome 106 feet 
high. The tomb of the fininders (Archbishop Btarago 
and his brother), by A. Fuaina, 1498 ; paintings of 
the Cmdfixlon, by Gampi; the Lord's Supper, by O. 
Ferrari; St FraiKis, by Frocacetaii; a Flagellation, 
by Salineggia, etc 

SaiUa Maria presso di 8 Saittro^ was built by 
Bramante, on a site of a temple of Juj^er, and 
moden^sed inside, 1817, with an altar, by Pizzigali 

8. Si^aaO'Maggiore or in BrogUo^ In that Piazza, 
was rebuilt in the 16th century, and has a tower, 
three idsles, and a painting of Procaccini in one of 
its liandMme chapels. Here Qalazzo Visconti was 
assassfaiated, 1476. The Calvaiy Chapel of S.Benar- 
dlno is olose to it. 

8. Naxaro Maggiore In Corso dl Porta Romana, is 
anarrow cross, with an ante-chapel, and other chapels 
all anmnd it It is ftall of monuments of the 
TriTulzl f amfly, on one of whom, an active soldier 
and M airiial of Fiance is the epitaph, ** Qui nun- 
qnam qoieppit, qolesolt, tace ;" (He who never rested, 
rests here; liience!) 

* /Sf. Lorenfo near Ck)rso di Porta Tidnese, is a large 
singcJar octfl«onal church, 142 feet diameter, with 
a^nne, by Fellegrino, and flanked by two small 
octagons; one of them being an andent chapel in 
which Ataulphus the Ctoth and his wife (sister to 
Emperor Honorius) are buried nnder a curious tomb; 
behmd is a third octagon or baptistij 45 feet 
diameter; and in front, beyond where the atrium 
stood, in the Corso, are sixteen fluted columns In a 
line, each above 40 feet hl^ of the Temple or Baths 
of Henndes, buUt, as is supposed by Mazimilianus ; 
almost thesole remnant of the Romans now left here. 
An architrave of brickwork with towen at the end, 
was added l^ Napoleon to assist theh: preservation. 

8. FkMe, in the Piazza behind the old JnsniU* 

College, was buQt by PcUegrini, and has fine bts- 

rdlefs in the front, by G. Monti of St Ambrose 

iBteroeding In the pl^rne of Milan. 8. AngelOt in 

iiuitstnuim, Juudoabhr^wg ofcaowm in mot, and 

8 Babila, at tlie <0n$r vfa«re the Oonl dl 
P.Qrentaleanddl-8. Romana meet, was the Qwnch 
of the Inquisition. 

*& Carlo Borromeo. near P. Orientale, is alaige 
round church, begun 1838, hv Amati, with a dome 
oopied from Uie Pantheon, 105 feet diameter, and 
120 feet high. "Notwithstanding that it noasesses 
internally 22 monoUthic columns of beantlfiu Baveno 
marble, and some good sculpture, the whole is thin, 
mean, and cold, to an extent seldom found anywhere 
else. Extemallv the design is as bad. A portloo of 
36 Corinthian columns Is arranged pretty moch aa in 
the British Museum. Each of tliem Is a nuooUtb 
of marble, nine &et In circumference, and the cafiital, 
and entablature are faultless, but the oentral portico 
is crushed Into insignificance by the dome of the 
church, which rises, like a great dish cover, l>ebind 
it, and the wings are destroyed by having hotuta 
built behind them, with three stcules of windowa 
under the porticoes, and three more above them, so 
arranged aa to compete with, and, as far as jpoesibLs, 
destroy, any little dignity the dome iticjf ndght 
possess. " — Ferffuuou. 

Santa Et^^ia^ on the site of one founded In the 
6th contuiT, is nearly opposite S. Paolo, and a little 
out of the Corso dl S. Celso. 

S. Eustorgio^ just outside P. TIdnese, dope to the 
old Dominican friary, contains tombs of the Torre 
and Visconti families, and, among other oUects of 
notice, Baldncd's excellent Shrineof St PeterJCartTr, 
with its beautiful figures of Prudence, Hqpe, suid 
other vbines. The stone pulpit and statue of St. 
Peter-Martyr face the church. 

S. Marcot in Strada dd Pontacdo, near the fitnal, 
has a Gothic front of the 13th century. 

S. MauriMio Maggiore^ in Corso dl P. Yexodlina, 
belana^ to a convent, is on the site of Jni4ter*a 
Temple, and has some excellent frescoes by iUtlnl 
and G. Ferrari. 

8. SaJtiro^ near C(mtrada Speronari, has no choir, 
but a capital painted imitation of one at the end of 
the nave. 

8. S^attiano, a ronnd church. In Contrada deOa 

8. Sepolero, in that piazza, behind the AmbroM 
Library, has an old tower of Uie Uth centniy. 

The English Chapel is part of an old disused 
church, granted by the King at the request of Sir 
James Hudson, and comfortably fitted up. It stands 
near S. Giovanni aUa Omca, one of the oldest 
churches hi MUan, and so called from the Conca, or 
tub of boning oil, into which St John was p^t 
There is bas-relief of him In the facade. 

Near the Duomo is the *Palazto RedU (Royal 
Palacfi,), rebuilt and enlarged on the site of the (dd 
palace of the Dukes of Milan. In the presence 
chamlier are frescoes by Appiani (the apotbeods of 
Napoleon) and Hayez. There are also some by 
SabateUL A range of caryatides, by Oelano, wamorn 
the long ball room; and S. (iotardo*s ((Sothard) 
chapd, which was part of the ancient pahMie. has 
been latdy reslorea and ornamented by the Aroh- 
dake Ifaxlmllian (low Emperor of M^oo) when 
Governor General of Lombardy. The larse haDs 
adjoinbvg the Y>a\!L toosn an Uun^ irtth. fOk watery, 



wdtA tipMt^ of th6 IfKli c6Bt|uyi from tlM cutoont 
of Rapliael, embroidered by the boiib of San Giorgio, 
near Mantua. A rrand Btate Ball was given here 
to 8,000 gveets in 1869. An elegant Lombard brick 
tower, m the 14th century, riaea orer the chapel, 
with a colosaal angel in copper at the top. Near thia 
palace la the 

Fakuao ArciteieofHU (Ardibi8hq;>*8), with a simple, 
yet good firont, rebuilt by 8. Carlo Borromeo, in the 
10th century. It has a gallery of Lombard and 
Venetian mastera, indnding da Yhici, Titian, with 
landacapea t^Yemet, Canaletto, etc Formerly it 
made part of tiie royal palace adjoining. 

PaUue qf the Oovermnentt in Bwgo Monforte, a 
modem building, with a wide court, and a great hall 
painted by Applani. 

Pahuso delta CV((a (or Mansion House), in Corso del 
Broletto, near tlie Cathedral, conrists of two pic- 
toresqae and renaissance courts, built by F. ViscontL 

Pmazxo de QiustiziOt In that street, a large pile, 
once the reeldenoe ot the judge, now turned into 

Paiaee jf^ As IfiOttOry CcMmmmdiimf, in Contrada 
di Brera, is rich in stuccoes and pictures. 

Palaao de la CompMHHte^ near Contrada di 8. 
Andoca, is composed of two noble courts, by F. 
Mangtme, and ridily decorated inside. 

Falaao Marino^ or di Finama, in Piazaa 8. Fldele, 
opposite the 8cala, is usually called the *C<ua Rotto 
(Red House). It is aiidi^ile, 200 feet long, 100 
hlS^, with three rows of pibsters in firont, built by 
the CsFBlfere Axetino, 1655, fbr Marino; its fine 
halls axe now occupied by the Treasury and the 
Custom House (on ttie ground floor). "This is an 
coiginal and be«otlftil building. Its peculiarity is 
that it looks more l&e our Elizabethan, or as if 
ei?ected In what may be called the Heidelberg style ; 
it lias so little afBiiity with the principal contem- 
porary works in Italian cities.**~Fer{)r(MMm. 

Piatza del MonU^ in Contrada del Monte. The 
PoHce Ogke is near Contrada del Marino. In the 
4|trada della Zecca is the Zeeco, or Rojral Mint, 
^Ttng A jKood collection of medals, ancirat and 

Sodera. Behind it, near the Porta Nuoya, is Casa 
ConvtUme, or House of Correction, a well-managed 
establishment Fortiier west, in Strada del Ponte 
di Santa Teresa, Is the large Gtoyemment Tobacco 

Opposite Casa CTastiglioiie Is tiie house which was 
oQcnpied by Bonaparte in 1797, when he told the 
HDanese be would "make them scHdiers, and in six 
months, lead them to the Tower of London."— £ori 
BrougkUnCt Italff. 

Among prlTBte palaces and villas belonging to the 
nobility, or built br them, are~Pato»o Atmonet 
or Litta, a fine looking pile, built by D. itichini. 
Pfitauo Vbeontit with • bust on the top of the lower 
frindowfk whlpfa, with the skdeton of Hector Vls- 
ooati, K VoiiMk are the only remains of that 

e>wetftil f amOy. Pataao Bdgitifota, built by G. 
iermaxliiL Mdfso BelkmL or SerbeUoni, by the 
MarquU (J^mola. Aitano MwH builtby «!«> 
fuis Trtvubd* ft hat • Hbmy of M,000 volsi vid 

iouoMsa ThoTniid^iMoM, TUtoBgatpw^ 


The BoyalVDla, lately occulted by tfas Axdiduke 
Maximilian, as Imperial Viceroy, lis near the PuUic 
Gardens and Porta Orientate. The palace, once 
occupied by ({neen Caroline, stands in the PuUic 
Gardens; and outside the gate on this side is the 
*Lazaretto mentioned in Manzoni's Promeett iSfpoti, 
an old quadrangle of one story. 

Tlie Tribunale di Prima Instanza, near the Porta 
Bomana, has good bas-relieft. 

The * AmbroMian Ubrary (open didly), in Contrada 
della Biblioteca, near S. Sepolcro's Church, was 
founded by Cardinal Borromeo, nephew of Ban 
Carlo, and contains 60,000 volumes, and above 16,000 
MSS. and palimpsests (parchments written over by 
the monks), among which Mai, the great linguist, 
when librarian here, discovered Cicero's De Bmob- 
llca, parts of his lost Orations, the letters m M. 
Aurelins, etc. One of the most ancient MSS. is a 
Latin translation of Joeephus, by Bufinus, on p^qr- 
rus, sumposed to be eleven centuries old ; another, 
of the Gospels in Irish, is of the sevimth century, 
niere are also a fragment of St C^yril in Sclavonic, 
ten letters of Lncretia Boi^a, and a lock of tun* tnie^t 
yellow hair; a MS. volume of Leonardo da Vlnd, 
called Oxlice Atlantico, containing ills first letter to 
his patron ; Viconti's papers on Mechanics, etix, his 
derigns and his will (all written from right to left); 
San Carlo's Missal and MSS., and otiier cuxioaitiOB^ 
with several bronzes and marbles. 

The paintings and, drawings include Raphael's 
large cartoons of the school (^Athens and the Battle 
<tf Constantine and Mazentius; portraits by DaVinei, 
and a copy of his Last Supper; eleven Titians; 0>r- 
reggio's Christ and the Mater Dolorosa; Kaphael*k 
Washing the Disciples* feet; and others by GuereiBOi, 
Del Sarto, C. Dolcl, S. Rosa, Schidone, A. Dflrer, 
Cranach, Holbehi, and by ^Hell" Breughel (his 
Elements of Fire), etc. 

Another great collection is at the *BmHi, or 
Palazzo d^e Scienze e delle Arti; a vast building, 
formerly the Jesuits' college ; built by Richinl, awl 
enlarged by Piermaiini. It comprises the InsCitnte 
of Sciences, Letters, and Art, founded 1802 ; the 
academy of fine arts; the public library of 170,000 
vols, and 1,000 MSS.. and a well fomid observatory 
(Specola) established 1709. The pictures are disposed 
in ten or twelve rooms and cabineta, and others oon- 
tain marUes, busts, bas-reliefs, casts, etc. Some of 
the best pictures are frescoes by B. Luini, Lassari, 
and Ferrari ; Guide's St Peter and St Baul; A. 
Carraooi's St Sobastian ; Palma Vecchio's Woman 
taken in Adultery ; Dance of Lovee, by Albano^— and 
his Madonna; Domeniohino'sVirghiandChild; Bcr^ 
dene's Assumption; G.Romano's Nativity; Guerdno'a 
*A£^and Abraham (deserving particuLu* attention) ; 
also his Peter and Paul ; Borgognone's Assumption ; 
Garo&lo's Crucifixion ; Tintoretto's Saints before tha 
Cross; P. Ywonese's Christ in the Pluurisee's House 
and Marri^of Cana; Conegliano's Martyrdom of St 
Peter; G.Bellini's St Mark preaching at Alexandria, 
lUl of costumes ; S. Rosa's Purgatoiyand his Jerome; 
I Crespi's Christ Bearing the Cross; L.I>aVInd'so(qpy 
of his portrait of Cecilia Gkillerani (ndstraM of 

Vllte «iWiM»dLM9Wi% <»«»J«8Si%^«»«.N»^^*^ 



Bullrnshei and his St Sebastian; Titian's St 
Francis ; Bonifacio's Clurist at Emmaos, eto. Bor- 
gognone, with Bramtlno, B. Lanini, etc., are paioters 
of what is called the Milanese schooli 15th and 16th 

The Comerwiitoria di Mtuica is the old convent 
next to S. Sattiro's Church, near the Porta Tosa. 

Of the theatres, the'l)est, and also the largest in 
Italy, is the *Teatro la Scala, or opera house, in Corsi 
del Qiardino, on the site of Santa Maria della Scala. 
It was built 1777-9, by O. Piermarini, and is as 
niagnificent as it is commodious hi all its parts. San 
Carlo, at Naples, is its only rival. A large vestibule 
leads into the pit, and by two gn^and staircases to 
the boxes, which number 240, and have a small 
saloon or cabinet to each; total length, 320 feet; 
breadth, 180 feet (length of San Carlo's, 210 feeO ; 
pit, 105 feet deep, and 87 wide across the boxes. Its 
fa^de is Corinthian, on a rustic basement It holds 
above 4,000 persons. "The Scala Theatre is the 
general rendezvous of Milan, and those who meet 
nowhere else meet there. The principal business of 
the audience certainly is not attention to the music; 
and murmurs, loud talking, and laughing are heard 
from the beginning to the end of the performance, 
except during one or two favourite airs, when all are 
still. Those who sit in the pit are the only real 
audience. Those who stand in the alleys come to hear 
the news and arrange commercial affairs; of the 
boxes, the two first tiers are the most polite and the 
least amusing ; in the third and fourth tiers are set- 
tled almost all intrigues of all kinds ; in the fifth 
some of them are brought to a conclusion ; and there 
also are card-tables, and gambUng is gohig on during 
the whole perfonnance; the sixth is open, like the 
pit" — Lord Brottahton. 

Teatro CannobUanOy near Contrada Larga and the 
Boyal Palace (to which it is joined by a corridor), 
was also built by Piermarini. 

Teatro Cancaro, in Borgo di Porta Roraana, on the 
Ate of a convent and so called after the architect 
T*(Uro Ae, Contrada de Due Henri, built by Carlo 
Be, on the site of an old church. 

iPeatro FUo-drammatici for amateurs, is near La 
Scala, and was built by Pollack. 

iWie Cireo, or Anfiteatro (or Arena), in the Piazza 
di Armi, built by the French, 1805-6, from Canonico's 
design is an oval, 860 feet by 170 feet for races, 
shows, etc ; the Marble Arch stands at one end. 
It may be flooded for boat races. It will hold 30,000 
spectators, m its ten rows of seats, nearly all which 
are of turf. A new theatre is built close to the dens. 
Near the Porta Orientale are the public gardens, 
with a building for fStes in it 

"For some time after the change of govern- 
ment the Circus was neglected, and the races 
discontinued, but the velvet throne of Napoleon, 
and two fignres in the ceiling, representing him 
and liis Empress, Josephine, were shown at our first 
visit At my next visit '^^ 1822, the Empress was 
beorane a Minova ; and the former master of the 
tron crown was an old man with a beard."— Zonf 

iJaJtoatoftbe CbAteanor CuemA, a great barrack 
«9 ibaaiie of the old eagtie of the JOffeB {gf wbicl> 

some traces remain), Is the Foro Bonaparte, a pnblle 
walk laid out by Napoleon. Behind it is the Piazza 
d'Armi, for reviews; about 900 feet square, planted 
round the borders. On the further side, across tha 
Simplon road, rises a noble marble triumphal arch, 
called the 

* Arco deVa Paee^ one of the best in Europe, and 
second only to the Arc de TEtoile, at Paris, for size. 
It was began 1807, by Marquis Cagnola, but not 
finished till 1837, and maogurated the year after at 
the coronation of Francis L Thus, though destined 
to record ttie triumphs of Napoleon, it records only 
his reverses at Leipsic, Paris, etc It wasre-dedica* 
ted to its new masters, 1859. As seen firom all sides, 
it is a conspicuous mass, 72 feet wide, 74 feet high, 
42 feet thick ; the centre arch, 24 feet wide, by 48 
feet high; two smaller ones, 11 feet by 28 feet 
Fluted Corinthian pillars face each of the prindpal 
sides. There are numerous reliefs, statues, ete.,^ 
including emblems of the rivers Po, Tidiio, Adige, ' 
and Tagliamento, by the artiits, Cacciatore, and 
Marches!. On the top or attic, are two bronze Vic- 
tories, 13 feet high, and (in the middle) a colossal 
bronze figure of Peace (by Sangiorgio), in a car 
drawn by six horses ; its total cost is reckoned at 
upwards of £140,000. 

Out of the ten gates in the city ramparts, that of 
the Porta Ticinese (formerly Marengo) is also by 
Cagnola; being composed of two Doric arches, with 
rustic work across the canale. The Porta BcMnana 
is flanked by rustic pillars. Porta Nnova is C!orin- 
thian hi style, with geod bas-relie&, by Zanaja (died 
1817). Porta Orientale is of a rich character. 

* OspedaU Maggiore, or Great Hospital, with room 
for 1,300, is a paiti-coloured building in the pointed 
style, 400 feet by 150 broad ; made up of two square 
masses, each containing four courts, united by a 
grand court 243 feet by 220 feet consisting of two 
tiers of light elegant arches, ornamented with pilas- 
ters, reliefs, etc It was founded 1457, by Duke F. 
Sforza, and is richly endowed. Bramaate, Bichini^ 
etc, have had a share in the building of it since the 
conunencement by Filarete, of the southern mass; 
the northern being of a modem date, and inferior 
design. In the middle of the centre court is a domed 
roof, with Quercino's Anntmciation, and the portraits 
of benefactors. The smaller donors are drawn 
standint?, while the others sit 

The Military Hospital^ in Contrada S. Bernardino^' 
was built by Bramante, for a convent Another 
hosnital, or asylum for the aged, is the Pio Trivnlzio, 
in (5or80 di PorU Tosa, built by the Trivulzi family. 

There are also the two hospitals of the Fate-bene* 
Sorella and Fate-bene-FrateUi (for old sisters and 
brethren), in the north part of the city, and a monte 
de pietk, or public pawnshop, in the street of that 

Among the places of education are the military 
college and artillery school, a veterinary school, a 
semhiary for the priests, two royal colleges or 
lyceums, etc. 

Near the * Lazaretto^ celebrated by Manzoni, is a 

a Foppone, or cemetery ; another, called Campo Sant(^ 

is inaJde the Porta Tosa; and outside this, is tha 

I Polyeilft, 01 poYiOiQC TnaeuOnA. Hsoy banacks 


dl^OHd a1»nnii?cl^tbe liTrent i>f uhloh, if (ei 
Ilie Cliatuu, Is thai of 3. FcKicli In gUidft Aqouc. 
In PUzi. di Mwomtl i. thB indent Town Hull, or 
PilBzia deUa ClttB, and the Kil of [be Podestu, cr 
noremm. A bit of antiqultj, called the aioiii.v 
Hsd. Is in Cor^ dc SutL The Heculo, or Old 

In the neighbourbood ire CaBclUgn end lU gar- 
dens, ind UontobellD vrblcb wu Boiupirtfl's hcn^ 
qmnen, lt«I. 

Among iU eminent natlns ire CsclUni SUtlm, 
TAlerioi UEnlmu, Cirdin, Beccarie, ParlEil, etc 

da of aJ] klndA, embTDtdtti^-, 

cheeee. r&w Nik, oic. It li noted for LU fur^tnro 
The plain rilki of Lembardr are >tll1 tlie ben iii 
Eiin9«, Uany reoMenl fUulliei have an Incoma of 
eiO.MO or mon. Coniit Aimoai derlio in \ocomc 

I^mnerlj, Uk HplntlDU ot lU laliebltwU weri 
embodied in tbe l^fnoble riiyma^ 


(Hnrrah for Frazice or SpaU>, k 

w life fall been thnwn Ir 
od practical polltidana, a 
lOted for iSibUlly md go 

edneated, "Ttaa 'GlB,' tliB Mioat IkmUiir fonn«i 
Mea&t aaliitatini li frecl; notainged bettrten i 
dnka ud % Imiifraia, Md 1UI» US lenmSj 
dnppedi a noble belnc addreaed byhla name, oi 
liltta, BotTomats Ajvhlmo, etc ET«n Iidlei tin 

called the enbIlnw,HiMbaraeDlvhi«!_o 
n* of leading f im 

nnd If ha h>* a lacter of Inoodnctlon to aomo or 
In tha dtf, he need be at no loia how to ipeod h 
orenlnga. Once Introdnce^ ha mij drop In at 

alyla of beint;, lUr and g 
MadomiM of Knhaal, and Li 
thej haTo alio llw leant o 

Many otUw man an atoMad 

Whanlhai . 

\iS% the people began to tantad* IM lUveli lull- 

ing loth* cimp of Iha Anelrtan ftneral, Kellcmer, 

realomllon of the Fuiionc. or Act of IflM. by wh«ili 
by the AHeuorl Hunlclpall, or cODnKlIon (their 

iDinnoanca tfaa Ikctia thelinewl; elected loveiel^ 
Victor Emminoe^ on the Held of Uagent*. 

On Iha Tth Jaw, H'Hibon, at the hevi of Iha 
Sod mrp* and i nugnlEicent flleJf, entered Hilan, bj- 
the Poru Vercellim. in the midii ot viel crowda of 
rejalr^g peo^ilc^ ao tlilckly packed, that at llmea It 
iTM tmpoMible to ptoceed. Tbo wgnndid rboth 

lefln Hortcrue, end l)J 


A utile while after hli entry, Loals IIipo)»a 
nletly rode to Porta Bsmani, with ao alrle-de- 

'helmed Uin wlth^uoh dtmonittallorn of gmtttade 
I quite toached him. From the Villi Bonapart* 


.ught Ol 

hoae house he paand the night 

Emperor andTiclor Enunnnnet 
, 1 iirogrBsa through the Btreeta 
together ; and daring their itay there wai a con- 
"nnal incceeilon of feaata md iltuDiInitions. 
iTQur, who had fallowed the aoverelgni to Mjlin, 
same, of coone, one ot the Uoni of the day, and 
J portrait wai aeen ererywhere, Srich was tha 
eniy of puhUc aEcltemeu^ that many pertonji 

AftAeumwii nng In the Cathedral, In ardla cf 
-je oppoaltlon of tha Archhiehop. Caccia, and the 
thtfa»of San CulM1IUetv»^&)<tqGCsA.«>.-Ci^ 



From Milan to Lake Maggiore, by rail ftnd-ooBflh, 


JjtfpMMO ••■•••M**** 16a 

BasloAnlxio ...^. S*i 
QaUarate ..^...^... 26 

Masoeco. . ^ .. .*••••«•« 
Kho .•»••••■•«•• 




ThiB line follows the direction of the Simplon Road, 
towards Lago Maggiorc, passing through part ef the 
flat, though cnlUwted plain of Ijombai^v. Ek»me of 
the trains mn in correspondence with coaches 
to Yasese aadStsto Gateode. Ttaa call feenBoiiuites for 

tlallarate StaUon. The nest place is 
SoMOKA (population, 4,716), near the Ticino, 
which has an old seat of the Tlcontis, in wliich is 
a t^saaa, 34 feet in girth. Here Scipio, the father 
of Scipio Abicanns, was defeated by Hannibal at 
the battle cff the Tichio, B.a 218, and was obliged to 
retreat townids the Pa llenoe to 

0E9K> GaxBinyB (popolatioo, 2,817), At the out* 
let, a(t Ticino, Ihim LagoMaggiore. Here tlie lalie 
steanKrs atarifor Arona, Baveno, the BorrooMan 
Island, Magadino, and other points on the lake, 
(See Route 8 ) 

ROUTE 12. 



Ttic stations are- 
Sesto 4| 

Oesio M^.. 13 

flSBto. or SastO S. CUAVamii .station, has 
seTfiial villas xonnd it. 


Canmago 18 

OuDoiago ..^..-M 34} 
CaiiBBr lata »«.«»»».■«— 38 

On the Lambro; populatioB, 32,106. Bare is a 
priace, orioyalliiintliig seat bottt by Pfennarini in 
1799, in a park ; a college, hoq)ital, theatre, and an 
old cathedral, anlargcd in the 14th oantnry, which 
lias a fioat of Tarions colonred marlile, nmoh orna- 
mented. On -the door is a bas-nUef of the founder, 
Q. Theodolinde and her husband. It contains paint- 
ings by Guercino, B. Lulni, Frooaccini, and others ; 
and the celebrated iron crown of Lombardy, which 
was nsed at the coronation of Charles V., and which 
Napoleon placed on his own head, with the warning, 
ChuU a thi la tocca (Let him that touches beware). 
It was agfda nsed at the crowning of the Emperor uf 
Anatiia, in 1838. It rests on a circular rim of iron, 
said to have been made from a nail of the Saviour's 
cross, and is covered with gold and precious stones. 

Coaehes run to Lecco, on the south-east arm of 

Lake Como. Before the Ihie readies Gomo, it passes 

BaradsUo Tower, on a lofty hill, hi which Mapoleone 

^«fflt *biT«^ ef th0 Tonbmi ikmily, Lords of MOan, 

"v^ liapitaaaed In an iron cage, tybti Tietorioos 

rival, TInanIL St at kit fcHtod fatauelf by dashing 
hit head agalaat the bars. FMn 
ttameclata station, an omnibiu mns to 


On the beantlfhl Lagodi Como. Population, 24,008. 

ITofsb:— L*Angelo, very good; LltaUa; La 

An ancient city, formeriy of eonsiderable hnpor- 
tanoe, two miles from Camerlata. ft nowenjo>8 
a considerable trade in slllcs, wooOens, eotton, yam, 
and Bovp. Its ohieots of attraction, are the beantiful 
Cathedral, the Broletto or Town Hall, the Theatre, 
the Piazza Volta, and the gateways of the city. 
The Vaia d'Este, onoe the xeaUenoe of <^een 
Carolhie, wife of George IV., is on the Lake about 
two nines from town ; it is now the Queen of Bog- 
land Hotel, and agood one. 

The Late of Como is exquisitely lovely, sur- 
rounded, except at the southern extre mi ty, l^ lofty 
mountains, that mn down from the Alps. BOmgio, a 
promontory at the junction of tiie two arms of 
the Lake, is pertiops the moat cfaarmbig spot on 
the Italian lakes, where there is a «hapel at the 
hotel (Grande Bretagae) ; Church of England 
service during the season, is provided by the 
Colonial and Continental Church Society. Cadenab' 
bio, opposite, has also a good hotel (Belle Vue); 
this place is rising into repute. There is also uu 
English chaplafaicy estabUshed there. The villas 
in thU part of the Lake (SerbeUoni, Meial, and Car- 
kitta, eepeciaUy), with their magidfioant gardens 
and their tropical vegetation, should be visited. 
Lakes Lugano and Maggiore can also be readily 
reached from Menaggio. 

Steamers ran tip and down the Laketvrice a day, 
and on Saturday to Lccoo and 1>ack. nwea, 4 ft-s., 
and 2 fir. 10 ct Boatmen and boat per day, 4 and 
5 ft*. ; by the hour, 1( to 2 fr. 

Gavxllbsoa, a mountahi village, near Como^ is 
laachadby apictniesque road, winduigupinnnmeratale 
vaUqrsd^ted with nllages and Carms. Garibaldi had 
encamped here thinking the Austrian General who 
occupied a strong position at San Fermo would at- 
tack him. While he raonained, uncertain of thcSr 
intentions, a young Lomluurd lady boldly rode across 
the Austrian lines and brought him news that Urban 
intended to bar his march to (^mo, with a force of 
10,000 men, while Giaribaldi's corps was not more 
than 3,000. He at once made up his mind, took tiie 
Austrians by surprise, carried their position, drove 
them in full retreat through the streets of Conr>o, 
towards Cameriata and Moiiza, with a loss of a 
great part of their matdrid. At Como he organised 
a Provincial Government, and received intelligence 
of the movements of the allied armies, of ^(Hiich ho 
bad been in ignorance. He also obtained possession 
of tiie telegraph wires and amused hirasalf with 
deceiving the Austrians at Milan by messages wliich 
he knew would be interceiited. 

The district between the two arms of the Lake 
to called the Garden ofLombarJy, and is remaikable 
not only fOi Ua fottiUity hul fox .ke beauty of its 



"inflwiielghboiiriiood of the Lecco, Man-I From Tarese there to a rotd to Luffflio and Ito 
aoBih«8piaoedtfaetcene6ofliiai¥0imn<£[pofi. beantifnl Lake, which U mostly witUn SwIIm 

FhaBComoitisiemUeBto territory. (Stt Bradshaw's Smiu Memo-Book J 

ROUTE 13. 

fpopolstion, 1(1^1) a Tery ttvely, 
fOodHBiced town, tnufinfr moch in oil, having three 
chtfdiM, a teapital, theatre, etc, with teveral 
hoaMB rceting on arcadee, hi the priiwipal streets. 

Ftam Cnstello d^Azzati, is a view of the Lake of 
Varese. and the Madonna del Monte Convent, on a 
hill, which is a fiiToiaita resort of the 

The women, in their hcrtidaj dresses, **wear faand- 
ksrchiefs wonnd about the head, with large silver 
ofBaments 4>ehind, consisting of a number of long 
phw t1in|issiirt like a fan,** and Curtened by another 
farid ■ acr ea s . They w«ar also huge wooden shoes, 
wtthoat stDddngs. 

''TMs place (says Cotmt Anivabene) is remarkable 
for the way in which (Garibaldi outwitteii the 
Atwtrians in 1859. After fortifying Como as well as' 
possible, GarlbaKU proceeded to assault the fort of 
Liavnio ; but be had no artillery, the place was too 
strong fbr him, and the attempt was a fiiilure. 
Hearing of this. General Urban stqpped his retreat, 
and snddtnly moved again on Varese, which was 
totally defenceless and upon which he levied a war 
conttUjntion tl two million fbmcs. Garibaldi 
bastmied back, and fonnd the enemy right in his 
way,.oeoapy9ag a strong position, near the Mils of 
Sa^* -Ambragio aad the flanoas sanetnry of Ma- 
donna del Mimte, awlnnmbering not less than 10,000 

**This tfane tbsp ielt oertahi of vkstory, and ti»t 
Garibaldi had been oaught in a trap. 8o certain were 
they of capturing the whole of the Italian Volunteers, 
that on the morning of .4th Jama, Urban telegraphed 
to Milan, thathe bad atlast sonoanded Garibaldi and 
hoped tohavehim, dead or aUve, before the day ckised. 
In fact, tihe Anstrians had nearly tuned his left 
wing; so that he was oompdled to &11 bade upon 
CoHanel Medid (who with the Sesond Regiment 
oocapied tlie Villa Medici-Melagnono) and concen- 
trsfes 'the whole of his fioroea on the narrow heiglit 
cronracd by that countiy seat The Villa is a 
massive structure of the 17th oentory; the main 
roads wind .up by a stew gradient, and barricades 
can be easily ereoted. On the memorable day in 
question, pidisadea and thnmuc-de-Mae were put 
up by tiie CaociatorL To induce Urban to believe 
that he really meant to accept the fight, (Saribaldl, as 
night came on, made a great display of bla^lag biv- 
ouac fires, and ordered bis men to march up and 
down behind them. Hie ricy wliich had been pure 
aad bine dnrlng the day was suddenly covered with 
doise rollmgekads. Taking advantage of the dark- 
ness auit increasing ^oleuce of the storm. Garibaldi 
gave orders fior retreat Silent, with theb" bivouac 
fires still blaztaig^ the GacdatorideDe Alpi passed 
unnoticed dose to the Austrian outposts, struck atong 
the arduous mountain paths into the deepest gorges; 
and after a long, ditBcuh and fttlgning march of 
many honn, through xlfais and laviaes, arrived at 
Como, whilst Urban «« autoflllly •imitlOff the 
moment of attacL** 




By railway, 176 mHes, or 281 kflometres, In abont 
10 houra The Stations are 


Llmito 6f 

Melzo - 114 

Cassano isl 

Treviglio ISf 

Verdello 26 

Bergamo •.••»•« 32} 

Ckirlag^ M 39f 


(Toocaglio 5i 


BusciA 62 

Rezzato „ 68^ 

Ponte S. Marco 73i 

Lonato (T) 771 

Desenzano 80 

Peschiera. 81 

CasteUiuovo (T.) 91 

Somma Compagna... 96 
VxaotrA(P. Nuova).103 
Verona (P.Vescova)10# 

S. Martino .....~ 108| 

Csldiero 112] 

San Bonifacio 117j 

Lonigo 121 

Montebello ............K 

TaverneUe ..^........U 

VicBjrzA ...^ 

Padua 158 

Ponte di Brenta ...... .156f 

mJ%}%X} •••••••••••••••••••■•mMP 

MUftlLOaaMM •••••••••••• 165} 

jflUooPTc ••••••••••••••••••A f & 

Venice ..^.^,. 17S 

Cassano station, or Cassano d*Adda, the andent 
Cassianum, in a good positi(»i, on the Adda. Popu- 
lation, 6,'6Q5, 

Treviglio Station, on the Adda, a curious old 
town (population, 10,326), near the ancient Pom 
Suretli^ with a large and imposing church, containing 
some pictures. Here the brsncb railway turns off to 
Crema and Cremona (Route 16), passing 

CoBSEGOio, which g^ves name to the great painler, 
who was bom here, lfi69, the son of a bnUder. 
The next station of any importance is 


Population, 86,197. 

J7ore2s->Dltalia; La Fenicc The thrashes, larikl^' 
confetti, and firnits, are excellent 

GonveyaiMM. — Railway to Milan, Camwlflts, 
Verona, Padua, Venice, Lecco, etc. 

Cfii^ Ol^eeti of itTo^jf e. — Ficra, Palaazo KnOTib* 
Duomo, Tasso*8 Monument 

Bergamo is the capital of the province called 
Bergamasco, and a bishop's see, etc, in an anmhi- 
theatre, between the Brembo and Serio, which flow 
from the Vatellhia mountains behind. It is sur- 
rounded by walls and ditches, and has a citadel, or 
castle, on the top of Monte St. Virgilio, commandiac 
a most magnificent prospect Its outskiria eztena 
round the bottom of this eminence, the most popvb- 
lous being that of S. Lconaxdo^ lJui^\&aiti.'tKoaai£saikft» 
bu»f\\n«\B \he*TV«ns w'^*s^tsw^-«i*ia»«»^«a»^ 
August ta\iVft\i€l<aL\ wxNssffljv«Mfc^^^is»»5»*^N^'*^^ 

BRiiNiBAw^ nximuTxD 


oD etch Mt, and h 

gnWTM HvenI (Dad cuu. ind wine 
r. yemute, 'HDiaraiia, etc Tber 

and »inllii(i b/ Titlaii, 

la ih« oUlHt, or CltU pan 
)r *Duomo. wai deifgned lay Fon* 

a ifat/gUfrt, a half Homancsqae 

It Calqilo, on lak* Itea. a 

tbaodHl by C. Bona, a prii 


a BcTgimo. It U buUt m 

i hill, and i> walsnd bj 

g tognUUiu. Garibaldi hkl h)* htti- 

franu arrived- <^uilt Airi' 

wai, he alwayi^^ela dp at dawn, aod, U lut pnvenUd 
by doty, lnvaiiibly fMi to bed a litUa «ftar MnaeL 
Duilnf the summer ha lakoB an hom'a nap In the 

ofiU the old PalaiEO 
nanonieTlt to "Torqualo 
a hka bthar, Betnudo 
written tbe ttlniiry or 

-. r J"*^ "whleh Alaric burnl 

b hk pnifCMi tbnngh Italy, and waa part of tbt 
Anatriaa poaanilinu till l&SB. 

Tin eu(l« «*• nacntted by the AniMana timi 
dlya ilto the bUde of Uigenta. '- On luiliiriiig thi 

l^bt'dwita vonld ibxUy arrive, and a detachmenl 

■topped the train abant a mile 00, ehontlri^ w]Ul all 
the power of hli lungi, ' OaiibaldL Garibaldi,' So 

Kal waa the (ajnalaraatloii of the Croati at lnnrlnB 
-gamo wu occupied by thii Italian Tn^l (Devil) 
that inatcut of Koin; back by train 1o BrtscLa, whicb 
they mlf bt aafely have done, they abandaned thF 
ean, and took to their Itgi acmaa Uie open field."— 

ire InteS Igent and indntltleu, (peaking 

command," said the kin(, ■'andyoamnitraiiiai 
Dnrini the war of 1U> the pIMH wen gami 
by CialdlDl ana Garibaldi, to pmant anAoMi 

'- '- ' — ' '■--npoo the rear of 

hb CaeeialDri d 
Alpl (Alp hmiMn), wti la U> tn 


to Bomls befbre the force* of OarilMUi. the AuM- 
BOi bairicadeil the tnnnej and blew op the tsldta at 
eielvio, and then retired tovarda (he Tyml. i^loh. 
being part of the Oerman Confederation, waa ooi^ 
derail Deulral groand. 
From Ba^mo to Leoco la now done by ran. Tbo 

ItaUoD !• on the road to BunkD (ds 
elael, byoouibna. Then 
taUon (popnlatlon, 1,!*9). whence a 
unkvand Lovere, on the lieo Lake. 

Station, or Pilazincllo (popolatlon, 

4,139), an old medisval town, near a fine viaduct, 
on the OeIIo, which comca down from the iMo Lake. 
CoeeMgiXt) BUUOB (population, 2.MII), (• 0» 
bottom of a hill, eommandhie ■ line pnilpecl. 
Ahoal Uirea ndln w ttnnt^d. la 



CsiAXi (population, 9,341), with an ancient cathe- 
dral and clock tower. To the left Is 

Isio (population, 3,151), on the pretty lake of that 
name, so called fh>m a temple of Isis which stood 


J7o<e2f.— Reale, Del Gambero, Del Cappello, Del 
Aqaila nera, Del Scado, di Francia. 

Excellent fish are supplied fVom Lakes Garda, etc. 
Batter, cheese, and Vino di Benaco. 

Popolation, about 34,932: that of the province 
(called Bresciano) being 476,345, to 1,300 square 

C<mf«srance«.— Railway to Bergamo, Milan, Garner- 
lata, Verona, Mantua, Padua, Venice, etc. 

Railway Station near Porta 8. Nazzaro, about 
three-quarters of a mile from the town ; omnibuses, 
•one franc ; carriages, one horse, one firana 50 cents. ; 
two horses, two francs. 50 cents. 

*Chi^ Objects of Notice. — ^Town House, Broletto, 
two Duomos, Museum in Vespasian's Temple. 

A healthy and bustling city ; capital of the pro> 
vince; seat of a bishop, etc. ; in a rich country near 
the Mella. Here the Alpine Hills fail into the great 
plain of Lombardy, and offer many charming points 
of view. A naviglio or canal passes by it from the 
Mella, to join the Chiese, and helps to supply the 
seventy-two public fountains in the principal squares 
and streets ; besides many private ones. The streets 
are narrow and arcaded, but tliere are many hand- 
some houses and palaces. Brescia is nearly square, 
about one mile each way ; the site of the old walls 
being planted over. Several boiidings are conspicu- 
ous, among which are the Torre dal Orologia, or 
clock tower, the Broletto, etc To the north-east, on 
a hill, b the Torre di P^ade, or bell tower, a castle- 
looking pile, occupying the place. 

" There are few towns in Italy (says Count Arriva- 
bene) in which the summer and autumn can be more 
thoroughly enjoyed than at Brescia. The city itself 
is one of the cleanest in Lombardy; for it is provided 
with so large a number of fountains that there is 
plenty of water to wash the streets and houses. It 
is situated at the foot of a charming cluster of hills, 
often mentioned in the verses of Catullus, together 
with the river Mella. All along the ridge of these 
hills, which are called roncAi, some very beautiful 
and even splendid villas have been built ; some of 
them belonging to the nobility of the city, and dating 
as far back as the golden times of the Most Serene 
Republic of Venice, to which Brescia was once sub- 
ject; others occupied by rich merchants, or pouidenti, 
whose residences are designated by the humble 
appellation of caeini." Nothing can be prettier than 
the effects of the setting sun, or the moonlight on 
the slope, on which standi Vespasian's Temple, now 

^Pakuio deUa Loggia^ or Town House, is a richly- 
carved marble bidlding, in tibe style of the 15th 
century, that is a nUxtore of Gothic and Roman, by 
Formentone and Sansovino. It luu pictures by G. 
Campi ; and ons reprasentlng the condemnation of 
the priest BeocaiellJ, for his nUtjfioiit opInkHia, 1710. 

The Bishop's Pdlaee is worth notice. Close to it 
is the public Ubrary, or Bibltoteca^ founded in tho 
last century, by Cardinal Qnbini, and containii'.t;: 
about 90,000 volumes, with some ancient MSS.. 
including the letters which passed between the Car- 
dinal and his French correspondents, Aguesseau, 
Fleury, Montfan9on, etc. 

There are also a collection of designs and models, 
for the study of the fine arts, a gallery of prints 
giyen by the Martmengo family, cabinet of natural 
history, and medals and some paintings. Among: 
other curiosities is the Cross of Desiderins, the Lom- 
bard, ornamented with cameos. 

The old brick Broletto, with its towers and battle- 
ments, built, 11S7-1213, offers some interestinjr 
examples of ornamental work, and has a palnteil 
ceiling by L. Gambara, a native artist. Several 
ancient inscriptions are let into tho walls of tho 
Monto di Pietk. Remains oi frescoes may still be 
discerned on the houses In many streets — as Corso 
del Teatro, Corso di Mercanti, Strada del Gambara, 

The Gallery Tost, now the Museo Civico, or Town 
Museum, is remarkable for a beautiful Christ, by 
Raphael, painted on wood ; Thonvaldsen's Day and 
Night; Pampaione's Child Praying; and some otlier 
relics. The Mazzuchelli cabinet of medals deserves 
a visit 

The Palazzo Avogadro has three halls done in 
fresco by Romanino, and paintings by P. Veronese, 
Titian, etc This and the Palaces Leochi, Brognole, 
Fenaroli, and Averoldi, are all worth notice for their 
style of construction, or private galleries of art ; as 
are those of the families Martinengo della Fabbriche, 
Martinengo Cesaresco, Gambara, Bargnani, A^eri, 
Calini, Fb, Barbisoni, Cigola, Guard!, etc There 
are two cathedrals here. In the (Cigola Palace 
Bayard was nursed of his wounds by the ladies of 
the house (1612), when Brescia was stormed by 
Gaston de Foix. 

The old *Duomo (Duomo Vecchio), or cathedral, 
called the Rotondo, near the Broletto, is of stone and 
brick, and is one of the most remarkable Italian 
monuments of antiquity. It was built between 660 
aud 673 by two Lombard counts, with the help of 
Grimaldi, Kmg of the Lombards, and is an instance 
of thehr preference for the roimd style of architecture. 
Its outer walls are divided into 24 parts by well- 
modelled pillars, surmoimted by a brick frieze of the 
simplest design. A peristyle of eight piers in the 
interior supports circular arches under the dome. **A 
splendid fUneral mass, in honoitr of the memory of 
Charies Albert, was celebrated here in 1859 by the 
clergy (who rank among the most patriotic in Italy), 
in spite of the opposition ot their Ultramontane 
bishop.**— Amvo&cne. 

It has a dome, many old tombs, paintings by 
Moretto (a native) and P. Rosa, and the ancient 
crypt in the chapel of S. Fflastro. (Tlose to it is the 

* Duomo of Santa JuNa, a round church of later 
date, and a good marble pile of tiie Corinthian order, 
begun 1604 by Lantema, covered with statuM, bas- 
reliefs, and other ornaments. The dome is by Van- 
tini; many of the paintfaigsandetatnJsatoaUs^^vrKk 
the l^U <^ Oax^2mii^^a^afvs&>VQ^xv£«s^V^^ ^ 


hflndaone nuuMoleom to Bi«hq» Nava ii bf MontL 
They iboir harea blt«f the Santlieinw^Croo, ^eopy^ 
Itla said, of the very croet whidi appeared to Coo- 
stanUne. It contains a carious poem io the Breidan 
dialect, which Slamondi noticee ea peculiar. The title 
Is "Yen Breta recitag da da Anni ae Caradar die 
conduae en dttk i legnam per la Fabrtca del Dom" 
(a Breacian vene redted by two angels to the cartera 
who bring timber to the town for baildlng the Cathe- 
<lral). Tm "Prim Angel," or first aogel, begin» 

Omega del Slilr ehe ghi tata premura, 
Bevidi terminada la s5 Ciesa, 
Che'l pbae en premis de sta bda emprGaa, 
Mantignif Uanch e rbs flnehfe la dam, 

And the ^'Second Angd** raaponda in the aame style. 

There are aboat 40 more ehurdwa, many of them 
decorated with freacoea and paintings of the Vene- 
tian and other schools, besides several natfere artials, 
sa ICoretto, Romanino, etc 

SatUa Maria dei MiraeoU, bnUt 1487, has a richly 
ornamented front 

Stmta Maria deUe Ortuie, which belonged to the 
Jesuits, baa good freacoea. 

Saaia 4A«i oom attached to a ce n To nt , and the 
oldeathera, to the site ot the Temple of Saturn, and 
contains Titian's fine picture of the Woman taken in 
Adultery. A Bmnnardt^ ot the 14th oentory, to on 
the site of a tempto of Hercalea. 8. Dommico has 
many ftoseoea. 

At & Mmmrio'M, raboUt 1780, to a largo and apleiidid 
•Itar«ieoe by Titiaa, and Moretto'a Coronation of 
the Virgin. 

S. Oicvammit nbailt on tho site of one aa old aa 
the 4th centmry, oontaina many good spedmens of 
Moretto and Romanino. 8. CTanwnls to eqaally rich 
in Morettos. 

Smta Em^^mila has ftoscoea by Gambara. One of 
Bomanino's best pieces is at aant% Maria OakMra. 

8. iVtmdtao, of the 13th century, has a Ihmt in the 
Xtombard ftyla, or mixture of Norman, and tho By- 
santine, wim a round window, etc. 

8, Batsatortt or Santa Oialia, an old half-mixed 
Lombard drarch, now a barrack, waa founded by 
Beddarloi^ for Uf dapgitter Ansperga, the first 

Tho PHmtt" at tn ih ar $ to attached to tho Chordi 
of & Ptotro^ in 01l?ai^ bom by Sansiyvino, with 
pictarte bsr Moretto, Tma, etc. A College, or 
iSynnuufmfl; oeeiiples tho oM boHAnga of the Bene- 
dtotiao Comront^kdadbr 8L Tcmttlm*» Chwrd^^ 
vrtitoli to xlcii io ftwooeo. 

^Tho flrort JStospM; founded 1447, bM 9. Lac8*fe 
Oh^id, pointed by Romanino and Motottoi 

Tho largo Ifteolre to new and wen boot Thenew 
O i i nK i n f t or Campo Santo, by Vntini, contains 
tDBBbtUNrtfeo Roman Cdnmbaila. 

▲ *iAMB PoMs^or Local Maseam, open 11 to 3, 
flUndaton thMloiiocf the hilla, on tho site of a BooMHi 
iniplObiboiltA.Bk 79^ in Vasyaalanfa thns^ and ooo- 
'.kHoripticao CMoaa Aoos Hi* Palasao 
wMrf a p wn e nwnt i ^ 9iU«n^ altan, and 
0i wikk u » oaWi taBOM Ant or 

victory, abovo lis feet high, diaeovarad UM\ a 
rival to the Venoa of WHo. 

Remabia of an aqueduct, called ^Aqpidotto del 
DUtoIo, exiat in tho way to Valtrompia. 

BreecU was the andent Brixia^ on the northern 
branch of the Via Emilia, and capital of the Cerro- 
manL in Gallia Ciaalfdna. It was colonised by the 
Romans SM B.a, ravaged by the Qo^ ete^ and 
taken by the Lomhanto, wbooelait Ung^ JDoaldacios, 
was a native. 

In 1849, after the root of tho national army at 
Novara, the Bresdans resisted, for ten days, the 

legi<ma of the ferodona Haynan. Hto revenge waa 
so bitter that the Austrian General, Prince Thoni- 
und-Taxis, who waa mortally wounded, beqaeattied 
hto properly to the fluniliea of thoae who suAred lor 
heroically defending tho town. Thek loado:, Tito 
Speri, was hung at Mantoa, fat 1862. 

The Allied Sovenigno spent two days here in 
June, 1869. Louto Napoleon w«o tho gneat of Coimt 
FenaroU, natog tho same bed and table vrtdeh the 
First Conaol had oaad to 179t. HHker, aloa^Cotond 
Tiirr, of Garibaldi*a atafi; waa brooght to bo noned 
by the ladiea of the family, after tho indedalvabattle 
at Tre Ponti, between the Volunteeraand Anotriaoa, 
in which 200 of the former were pot hon da tmkat, 
and Tlirr ahot throogh the arm. 

On 16th May, 1801, Colonel Nullo. a Garibridian 
ofiloer, waa arrested at Pasanda, by llio Toio 
Government and brooght to tho priooa atBnoeio. 
for attempting to raiao tho popoiatioB sgilnat the 

Among nativea it reckons the famoos 4niaMi> di 
Brescia, a religioiu and political refonaer iMvnt at 
Rome 1166 ; Gambara, Moretto^ Vineeoao ^UBna- 
dano) the pahitert; Tartagiia, the iiialhwitirion, 
80 named becauae heatatterad, in eooaeqiieneo of hto 
lip being cut in the aiege of 1612. 

Brescia was long celebrated for fire-arma, cutlery, 
sabrea, etc., so ttiat there Is a proverb ** TnttoBreacto 
non annerebbe nn cogllone." Monti oontrasta the 
two in the linea^ 

Breacia sdenoaa d'ogiU vil panaiero 
Pfai Che di ferro, di valore armata. 

By a careAd diatribvtioB of tfiowater araond to flw 
town miUa and works, they make it twtet aHk, bore 
nraakota, shell rice, hammer the iron and eoiipsr, 
tarn grindstones, and aarv« other noeftil parpoaoa. 

The neighbonriiood to popakma, and atoddait wWi 
country aeata, and vUlagea In every dhooUon. 

Conveyoncoo to Goignaao and Riva on therLako 
di Garda, to time for tho atoaoMn. To CnsMtii, 
foor and a half mileK 

Leaving Breacia, the nezi alation to 

BtBUltO Station (population, 1995), whore tltc 
hilto are left; foOowedby 

Fonte 8. Marco station, on the Chtoflo, wUoh 
flows from Lako d'Idn> and ValGlndioaiia; Here 
thohlBaagdn areappgpaohed. Allttioto*liMiMiito 
OakinateK wfaidi waa tho head fpisatero og Violor 
Rmwanool in Jnne, 185». T^ the tofeoi thti toin ^ 
rond» from vrhiah the famooft piafas^f -- - - 
fho oyo. VUto BflMte to 



chiaro wt» tht Imporial ktAd-qnartert before the 
battle of fiMferino, at the time of the eelebraUon 
et the Corpoa DonUnL 

LonatO Statkm (popalatioo, 8,730), an old town, 
not far from Lake di Garda. Here Bonaparte de- 
feated the Aiutrians, 9nl August, 179& 

A beantifnl road mm ftom Lonato towarda the 
Lake of Garda. From the topof a hill some of the 
most enchanting seenery of Italy spreads itself 
before the eye of the traveller. '* At the Soathem 
extremity (says Arrivabene) amidat the bhia waters 
rises the Uand of Slnnione. Its extensire gardens, 
its lliHnaa rains (said to be tho remains of the Villa 
CatuUns) and its high square tower, bearing the 
arms of the Scaligari, arc seen on the distant 
horizon. The town of Dcsenzano is distinctly 
beheld fhnn tlie top of the promontory of Lonato, 
together with the wlM)ie of the pietaresquo borders 
of the lake, commonly called the Riviera di Garda." 
The scene is heightened when the ristm; sun shines 
on the snowy sommita of old Monte Biddo. 

A slwrt distance (four milaa) to the right of 
Lonato on the Maataa Bead is Casti^one ddla 
Stivere, were the Anstriaus were finally beaten 
on 5th Angoat^ 1796, and driven out of Italy. "It 
stands^ Mpi Cannt Arrivabene, whoee paternal 
Borne WM here, "fior the greater part on the 
declivity at a beantlftil hUL Mcmto B^vedere 
erects its barren top over it, on the left. In the 
centre, the old Gonzaga Castle, once stained with 
the blood of the Marquis Rodolph, frowns above 
the hoases^ with its strongly built round towers. 
A steep ascent, which the people of the town, 
in thetf sharp and lively dialect, call La Rata, 
leads to the elegant Flaaaa Fontana, adorned with 
lofty portieoea^the winter promenade of the beau 
nwnde of the city. Farther on, a large clean street 
flanked by eles^mt palaces^ conducts yon to tho 
Cathedral— a dassio structure erected upon tho 
square t(^ of a small hUl, which, from the building, 
is denommated the Monte Chiesa.** Solferino is a 
abort distance to the south-east, and ftom the 
sammit of St Peer's chnrch, Louis Napoleon be- 
held the field oC battle on the cventfUl 24th of 
June, about five a.m, 

Hera is a ecmvent of the Noble Virgina of Jesna, 
fbunded by the three sisters of Rodolfo Gonzaga, the 
ftUher of St. Louis. The nuns are of two glwesoH. 
the Signoie, or ladias, and the OUate, or women of 
Inferior elassea, who attend to the household duties. 
It is not a monastic order, strictly speaking, for the 
nmia are not clt^stered. They go out in couplea, 
reodve viaits, even from gcnUemen, and entertain 
their fiiendb In forvam thnes every novice among 
the Sigaera waa obliged to prove her quarters to 
Bobillty, lika th» Kniglita of Malta; and even now 
the nufjority ia oomposed of ladies of the best 
jhmilies ofLombardy,. VeBio& and even of France and 
Spain. The commnnity afcilL possessea a good deal 
of land; and Vt ia fiuncma fbr &e delidons cakes or 
hitcoUM^ iftafch eqfoy a giesct npotatkm throughout 

The cafM ar botten«f Banisi, li the plaee where 
ibc fashionables of CaattgUsntBttt at oertiiB ttiMa 

The largi ebnrflfaea-ware turned lata haayltals for Uie 
wounded, after the battle of Solteinsu Hondreda 
of them were collectprl in the Duome^ tihe chnrch at 
St. Louis Gonzaga, the onitory of St: Jeeqph, eta 
About 3 milea oaaa-sonth-«aet of Castigliono is 

Solferino, the scene of tbm graat bottle of June 
24th, 1M9, standing among hilla, the highest of 
whiefa oommanda a. viewed a large pactof the ItaUaa 
Peninsula. '*From the top of a tower, eaUed tiM 
Roccadi Solferino, ani also theSpia dltalht (i e. the 
look-out or watch tower of Italy), and whieh waa 
partof a caatle belonging tothaScaligan^ there ia 
a prospect which extends ftom the Alpato the Ape»> 
nines, Mantna, Vwona, Cercsasa, Bozzol^ Cremana 
and its broad plain, are distinctly seoi ; whOe the 
Lake of Garda is just visible in tha beait of the 
Tyrolese Alps. Its geographical position has made 
it famous in the millta^ annals of Italy."-iirr<MiteM. 

The Aastrians were nominal^ nnder the Emiienir, 
but General Hess had planned the eaaapaign. AHev 
calling in their garrisons, they had 140,000 raen^ aH 
fresh, in two armies. Count Sehlick led the riglil 
wing, designed to take Castigllone and Looato< and 
Count Wimpflfen the left wing, to march, to llianta- 
chiaro. The ground waa familiar to them, fitna 
having been their exercise ground since 1810. Thdr 
object was to outflank the French right, and cot 
them in two. On 24th June, their posttiona covered 
a parallel space of 'illly ground, 12 miles by 9^ 
between Lonato, PefsUera, Volta, and Casti^one; 
tlie key or centre being SoySeriaOt where the mUsara 
highest and slope down to Minda Th^y held almost 
the same pnritlon as Wttrmser hi July, 1*08; hi Ida 
descent from the Tyrol. The allied foroea extended 
ftt)m Desenzano, on I^dce of Garda, along the weatea 
ridge of hlUs, from Lonato to Castigllooe, bendhag. 
bade to Carpenedolo on the Chlese. The ground ia 
covered with small farms and fields of 4 or ff acres^ 
divided by low stone walls. At 2, belbre sun-rise, 
the allies began to move. Victor Enunantiel advanced 
on Pozzolengo with Benedek in ftront ; Baraguay 
d'Hilliers, ftom Esentato Solferino; M'MidionfrDm 
Castigllone on Cavriana ; NIel and Ctmrobert in the 
plain, on Guidizznolo and on MedDlei The battle 
b^ran about 6. Their great object war to eeny 
Solferino at any cost, and then by flank movement 
to beat the Aastrians om; of Cavxlai 

Lonis- Napoleon and his staff were on Mbnta 
Fenilc. The Tower Hill of Solferino was- l&aBy 
carried by GennraL (mm Marriial) Forays; the Ans- 
trians under Stadko, retreatbig to Gaviiana, aftBBr % 
fierce and deadly straggle of many heara At % 
M'Mahon being out-numbered by the AnetriiM, wa» 
joined by Niel, firom Medde, and a8BmBed:flle offm- 
sive, at 4 Cavriana vraa carried ; and the) Kaiasr 
(weepfaig it ia said) left Casa Partore, ^mtikti waa 
then oeonpiad by Lonia Napoleon; The vetrsafeof 
the Anatrianaiwaa made in- a fioarfnl smnmer storm 
of thunder; lightning, and rain. 
' Tbavh3tary,s^eiiada8itwa%waab«(B^li9(tte 
loaa of 12,000]Dlled, wounded, and ndssiiigv. a»tt» 

IFrandifiidBt and 0,000 on the 8aidlBis& 
tliam waae 790 Franoh ottoars^ aadSao 
General Foire^ 



loss of th& Aostrlans was upwards of 20,000, besides 
30 gum and some banners. They believed their 
position at Solferino to be impregnable and boasted 
that they were certiUn to be in Milan in 6 days^ 
The appearance of the field after the battle is 
described by Anivabene. 

The Austarians would not allow that they were 
beaten. Their first defeat was only an able fiank 
march on the Adda; the second a weU-eonoeived 
retreat on thebr positions within the QnadrllateraL 
With a month's rest, and nnder the real leadership 
of Baron Hess, they thought the disasters of Magenta 
and Solferino might be retrieved. 

Victor Emmanuel's army at San Martino was 
opposed by Benedek's divlslonf and had such hard 
wx>rk to keep ground, that Benedek told the Kaiser he 
would cut them off from the French by the 10th. C!on- 
tracanla and other positions were taken and retaken 
three and tour times over; at the fourth time Victor 
Emmanuel rode into the midst of his troops and said, 
**My children, we must retake San Martino and hold 
it, or we must * mat€ San Martino.* " 

In Italy, it is customary to remove on San Mar- 
tin's day (Martinmas), and this flitting is called to 
**make San Martino." The village was taken, but 
was retaken for the fifth time by the Austrians. 
MoUard's Sardinian division had lost one-third of 
its numbers; when it was re-inforced by Aosta's 
brigade, despatched fh)m the field of Solferino. The 
Kingcried out '* Awaute alia carica" (to the charge), 
and after four hours' fighting San Martino was occu- 
pied, Benedek having received orders to retreat 
In these battles, men of the first families In north 
Italy served as privates in the Royal army ; members 
of the Visconti, Trlvulzio, Pallavicino, Medici, 
Qrader.igo, Borromeo, D'Adda, Corsini, Mosto d'Este, 
and other well known houses. 

The line now follows a deep cutting, a tunnel, and 
«omes suddenly in view of a splendid panorama of 
Lale dt Oarda^ with Monte Baldo in the distance, 
and the Alps beyond. Then a viaduct of 15 pointed 
arches, leads to 

DeBenzano station (population, 5,000), a littie 
]>0Tt with its old tower, looking on the Lake di Oarda, 
and the Sermione point, where there are ruins of a 
palace of the ScaUgers, now called the Orotto of 
Catullus. Salso, on the Cape, was the residence of 
Lad>*M. W. Montague. 

Omnibuses to the town. Its vino santo Is worth 
tuding. This is the nearest Custom House to the 
Anstro-Venetian firontier. Salo was occupied by 
Gazibaldi on the 18th June, 1859, when the Francis 
Jotifk^ Austrian steamer, was fired into and sunk. 
She had been ordered to steer to this side of the 
Jakev at the moment a Piedmontese battery had 
anrtr^d. Garibaldi ordered the officers in command 
toOEmfi bar a warm salute. It was so well done, 
ftiOS tv7Q> zoond shot soon smashed her stem ; and as 
Ussy^mawSitOOt ioxieCreat, a well directed hand grenade, 
Mlineaailiioanl exploded the magazine, and in a few 
tritainitt 1^ was fn flames. Before the Bentdek 
oouM Ve ami tnoi Posohiera to help her. she sapk, 

FOBOlengO station' (populdilonT 9«05d), the 
nearest station to the fironiler, here marked by the 
MIncio, which flows out tA Lake dl Garda, and ia 
crossed by a hls^ level bridge before reaching 

Fescblera station (population, 1,700), the first 
Austrian town, where passports, etc., are examined. 
It had a castle of the Scaligers. This ^is a port oa 
the Lake di Garda (steamboats to Riva, at its head, 
in four hours), and a strongly fortified position; 
making one of the QftadrxlaierQi 

Castelnnovo station was oumt and almost 
destroyed in 1848, by the Austrians, in revenge. 

Somma Oompagna station, from which the 
Ihie runs across the Adige, to the Porta I^nova 
station, at Verona. 

VERONA, styled " la Degna," or Worthy. 

Population, 60,000, but two-thirds belong to the 
Austrian garrison. 

iETo^eb.— The Scaligers' Palace ; Torre di Londres.' 
Its olives, garlic sausages (salame dall' aglio), and 
Val Polloella wine, are much esteemed. 

Railwap Statioru.— Porta, Nuova, | of a mile, that 
of Porta Veseova, 1{ mile ftx>m the city. 

Conveyoneet.— Omnibuses, fkres, 1 fr. eadi person;^ 
cittadini, carrying four persons. 2 fir. 50 cents. Ttie 
two railway stations are about 2| miles apart i 

Erbe; Piazza del Signori ; Scaliger Tombs; Cathe- 
dral; Paintings by A. Veronese, P. Veronese, 
Bmsasorci; Juliet's Tomb; Roman Gate, Architeo* 
ture, by Sanmichele. 

An old, middle-aged looking dty, seat of the Aus- 
trian head-quarters, of a bishop, etc., and standing 
on a bend of the swift Adige, at the foot of the 
Tyrol Alps, in a picturesque and healthy spot. Tho 
river divides It in two, the smallest part, to the east, 
being caUed Veronetta. Some of the streets are wide ;' 
the best is Strada del Corso, leading to Porta Stuppa. 

Verona being built on the sides, and at the bottom 
of a theatre of hills, when the floods come down, - 
the low lying parts of the town are put underwater. 
The walls, built by Theodoric the Goth, whose 
favourite seat it was, are strengthened by andenf 
towers; buttheheavy bastions, built by Sanmichelf,, 
In the 16th century, are mostly gone, and Verona la' 
now strongly defended by works to the number of 
forty-four, adapted to modem strategy, erected on 
every possible height, by the Austrian engineers, 
which makes it the key of their Italian possessions. 
With Peschiera, Mantua, and Legnano, it consti- 
tutes the famous military Quadrilateral, out of which 
it is said no army cnn get without defeat. 

It is remarkable for its Roman remains, as well as 
for the (pretended) Tomb of Juliet, who, as every 
reader of Shakspeare knows, died here a victim to 
love; and the contests of ttie Montecchi and Cappe* 
letti, or, Montagues and Capulets — 

*' Two households both alike in dignity. 
In fair Verona, where we lay our scene." 

The tomb is shown at an inn, or osteria, whlcli 
belonged to the Capulets. 




I nua is 

} ins of 

j . ItL» 

by the 


by the 
nge of 



y. 16 

ire are 

1 dclla 
-n. Is 

•Ifi is a 


Dw' old 
« Ifith 
lying a 
B, and 

part is 
of the 

tftue of 
Ich is a 
A and la 

* ~ near a amau dmrdi, la tbe ^Menuiaemn of the 

about tbe end of the Ist century, and is kept In 
tolerable preservation. Kear this, is the theatre of 
the Accademia FUarmonico, built in the hist century, 
by Count Pompel, having a portico (after Palladlo), 

Scaligero, vrho formerly ruled over the towi u % 
is curious for the «3D\!L\>id& Xas^vj^ ^\ >^. '< »*M 

©ruamented by ihscjij^tioM and baa-relte& collected \c\(ia, ^XAXa^^ ^>jx«sstt.^ \«&-wM5a^ «*"^^ 

■— ■ 

position at 

that they 
The appearm 
described by 

The AustrS 
beaten. Tli«i 
inarch on -fcla 
retreat on tlak 
With a monti 
of Baron HesM 
and Solferino -^ 

Victor Enai 
opposed by B4 
work to keep fli 
would cut then 
tracania and of 
three and four' 
Enunanuel rodi* 
**My children, I 
it, or we muse ' 

In Italy, it ui 
tin's day (BT ^ 
*'make San 
"was retaken . 
Mollard'a Sarc— 
its numbers ; -¥ 
brifirade, despaUl 
Kingcriedout •* 
and after four til 
pied, Beuedelc , 
In these battlea 
Italy served as _ 
of the Viscorxi 
wadenlgo, Borxx 
and other well lei 

The line now 1 
«omes suddenly I 
I'Oie di Oarda, A 
and the Alps be J» 
arches, leads to i 

]>eBen2aiio i 

port with its old 4 
and the Sermioii4| 
palace of the Sd 
Catullus. Salso, 4 
LadyM. W. UoJOk 

Omnibuses to tt 
tuiOag, This ial 
-Aiurtio-Venetian ; 
Qazibaldi on the li 
Joa^k, Anstrian » 
She had been ord^ 
iskev at the mom 
sBrtr^d, Garibaldi 
toaanfl her a wan 
ftotr evm> soond slio> 
dfacmiaaCfegiuit torett^ 



at one time ranVed second to Rome for its 
f ancient buildings. As the bulwaric of 
Jy, it was the favourite seat of Odoacer, 
; the Groth, and of King Pepin, and other 
ts of Charlemagne. It was ravaged by 
in the 10th century. 

Catullus and others, it gave birth to two 

m painters, who are usually desig^nated 

native city— Paolo Veronese (or Cagliari), 

between 1530-88, and whose chief worlcs 

lice, marked by a florid style, and brilliant 

Tlie other, Alex. Veronese (or Turchi, 

name, or Orbetto, because he had a blind 

ired from 1582 to 1648, and painted in a 

of the Lombard, Roman, and Venetian 

le is equally noted for his fine colouring. 

(lictured are at the Mlsericordla, and S. 

a Verona. 

:ent of the city is about six miles. Remains 
tifications constructed by Sanmicheli, or 
ill (another native), the first military ougi* 
is day, and the architect of many buildings 
) died 1559, are yet visible ; among which 
)ticed the Porta Nuova, on the right of the 
le tower of S. Angelo on the left, and the 
astion ; but Ids best work is the Porta del 
^Porta Stuppa, of rusticated Doric, which, 
iperfect, is reckoned a very excellent per- 
ils part of the town are the triumphal 

tlie *Porta de Bosa, or del Borsari, in the 
Roman relic, built about 252-55, in the 
jialienus's time, by Vitruvius, in the form 

arch, with small arches above ; Porta del 
[iziale ; Porta di Lione (imperfect) ; and 

a fourth (close to Castcl Vecchio), a work 
lus, in honour of the Gavi family. The 
arch bridge at this point tias a very wide 
in the middle of the river, but on one side ; 
eet span, and rises 40 feet, and was built 
rande, the second Scaliger. 

^Amphitheatre in Piazza Brk, is the great 
here, and ranks only second to the Roman 
1. Its external wall is entirely gone, 
ir arches, and the parts above them ; but 
circle, with the concentric benches, stair- 
l the parts about the arena, are nearly 
An annual sum is devoted to keep it in 
: is pierced by seventy-two Doric arches, 
by pilasters, in each of the three stories, 
ito the passages, or vomitories. Outside 
an oval, 500 feet by 404 feet, and 98 feet 
e arena is 242 feet by 146 feet. A theatre 
Jie midst, over a reservoir. When a f§to 
I to Francis I., its forty- five gradini, or 
eps, accommodated 50,000. At each end 
ng axis, is a principal doorway, with a 
) above. It was built of brick, and great 
>cks, in the reign of Domitian and lYaJan, 
end of the 1st century, and is kept in 
preservation. Near this, is the theatre of 
emia Fllarmonioo, built in the last century, 
Pcmipei, having a portico (after Palladio), 
sd hy ihaaipUoiu and baa-relieta collected 

for tKtt purpose, by MafTei, author of Terona IlhtS' 
trata, whose bust is placed over it 

Among private seats or palazzi, are the foHowing : 
Palazzo Bevilacqtta^ of rusticated Doric and Ck>rin« 
thian (but unfinished), with a rich frieze. llUs is 
by Sanmicheli, and contained many remiuns of 
antiquity, the best part of wliicb is at Munich. It ia 
now neglected. 

Palazzo Canasso, built for Bishop Canossa, by the 
same architect, 1528; a rustic basement and Corin- ' 
thian pilasters. 

Palazzo (UOa Qrana Guardia Antica, in Piazza dl 
Brit; a square, by Palladio, facing the amphitheatre^ 
which might stand for '' an open place in Verona,'* 
in Sliakespeare'splay. 

Palazzo Pompei (now the picture gallery), by the 
same, in the fluted Doric style, with one range of 
arched windows. 

Palazzo Vergi^ by the same, on an arched baae^ 
with fluted Doric pilasters. 

Palazzo Giutto, in Veronetta, has fine gardens, 
and commands an excellent view over the city. It 
is reached by steps and inclined planes. Hero are 
cypresses nearly 130 feet high. 

At the brick Palazzo dei Maffei, in Piazza delta 
Erbe, MafTei the poet and antiquary was bom. I8 
has a remarkable spiral staircase. 

The Rotari and (jazzola families have collections 
of painting and virth. At the Palazzo Ridolfi is a 
curious painting by Brusasorci, of the Procession of 
Clement VIL and Charles V., when the £mperor 
was crowned at Bologna. 

The Mweo Lapidario^ a work began by Maffcl, 
has an Ionic portico. 

On the '^Piazza <fct<Stjrnort stands the Scaligors' old 
picturesque castle, now called Palazzo del Consiglio, 
built by Fra Giocondo, a native monk of the Ifith 
century, after designs by Sonsovino, and having & 
facade ornamented with bronzes, statues^ and 
marbles. The best of the former is an Annunciation, 
by J. Campagna ; the statues are tliose of eminent 
natives, as Uie younger Pliny, Cornelius Nepos, 
Catullus, Fracastore (the physician), MafTei, etc 

In the same square are the Law Courts (Paiazzo 
di Giustizia of the 18th century), and Sc^ger's 
brick campanile, 800 ft. high. " The lower part is 
absolutely plain and solid ; the upper story of tho 
square being pierced with one splendid three-light 
window in each face, above which is a boldly-i roject- 
ing cornice, marking the roof. On this is placed an ' 
octagon two stories in height, which, with the cornice, 
is as graceful as anything of the kind in Italian 
architecture."— /(erfintfion. 

In the picturesque *Pia£za delle Erht, or vegetablo 
market, adjoining, is another old building, the Cosa 
dei Mercanti (1301), or Exchange, vrith a ststtne of 
the Virgin, and the pillar of St Mark, which is a 
block of Verona marble. This Casa was rebuilt 
by Pompei; it has an eight-column portico, and is 
100 feet long. East of the Piazza dei Sigfiori, 
near a smaU chnrch, is the *Mausoleum of tiie 
Scallgero, who formerly ruled over the town. It 
is curious for the antique taste of its moau? 
mental e{fi|^«a, ou YvQit«(^«dB^ 'Ms^^wSsis!k^^»'s^sss^».'• 

thing Uks u tlilmnM Gothic cro» In gtyls, Oni 

fonti by Onus o( Cbirtty, Fallh, <iti^ Anottiei 
betoufi to Caa Giande (1. t. Ibe Otut Dot), Uu 

l«.tlM ladder uxl 

dder uxl caaifl, n 
the HaullAil tn 


Tha nd martilg •Ibnk, eertnlnlir nnt tha genuine 
DM. tboiigb It EUf coivr the loven' grmi*, li In Ihe 
wDd aiMI iiMlsU emniail nrdmi or the Otfano- 
troHa AulnB the linr and nUwiy. oks k miKlary ; 
*'r allnatkiii," uyi Byroo, "* apprfrprUte to tin 

ireh aboif* Iraui oT Dm una i(;la of 
e^esant and ao jfracafDlly applied as to 

Irrnardiiia haa » chaw! (Cappdii PeUegTlna) 

. la ofH of Sanmtchall'I beat wnrlia: bdng ■ 

Ited rotuda, 3» feat acroaa, «4 IM hlfh. of 

■DodDO MlBot, tMC la, of hani Nona whkb 


tamlm AmHlaSa, * good tpaebnea of Italian 

tiolntad Gothto (1Zfl<^138T), an palntlnca by Veroncae. 

' BeniB4l(Chf1etlDaMd<B),C. ltadelA(anagt1- 
:loii): with a clnqii»«ilo altar-plae*, a beututd 

,-Min«in,Me. At Ott CarmtkttChwnb ft t Dtai 

Cbriat, by A. Veraoea^ ooa o( U* but wnk* At 

nUUhadlUS. Ir 

■Mafllag two 01 Chumnune'a psen, Round and 
<HlTar, and the Adonthm of Uio NagI, with a psrdi 
ilaiBt noh orar Hich. sdonied irltb laige grlffiMU. 
VilUa ta a Una Aaaorapliaa, by Titian ! a bronie Cm- 
■UxIntlnobDtr.byeamnleheU: anotber by BaUhw^ 
In Bt ndiolaa chapel; alaa tbe lomb oTPan Ladm 
HL (irba diod ben 1189): another of BnmeMnl 
(a rich nallTe): a rtcb Hbnry of MSS. In th< 
Cbaptar Hoiiaa> etc One matinment is a Roman 
TtliCi bdng that 4 Jotlua AppoloDhia and bla irlft. 

•a. Zdfi(U> Chiini, built lOK-lIia, la auatber 
nod Bpectanen of the Loaibard atyle. Tbeia la ■ 
deasent to It of 11 modi, and a liao lotlda oI 1A tu 
the altar ; bdovwUeh la an au^eot crypt It' 
tmnae giMa and corioaa aoclsat carringa la 
Mctali aad lbs timlia at Oh aalnt, of King Fe 
ila fbDndB^ and A. A. " ' "" " 

Forty Uar^n; and at tha M 

Uoapltal. UMthar. tba Maoia* ftna thaOoa. 

S. Balaa-i Chonh coBlatau tba VMi and Coo- 
itanilns. t^r DnMMrol, a Vanaaaa ai&t, 

Santa emtmia haa Ua DnU PUviag an tha 

. I BaptlMD Df Cniiat, by Parinaa 
le cbnnhea an old, that of S. Mnrw « 

y, with lla old vail p^Dtlnga HEidgallulcs 

miortliatagc. iDtbcf^aiEh la a Uslj Family, by 

^ AnwKiHur^ nntly b*ilt. IIIS. b partly Id 
Idolwda^^with polaeadirbidnra It sm. 
I aararal antlent. nalathita af Iha lltb Matnry, 

..._ teMaal MawlaBD, and toealB o( the Mm 

Brathnl AHgMelt, d* - - 


oMH or lidaU.«ecfc,byFraGiaaMuA'attlia 

Citrgi. by Iho aarae anbUect (tba body, bj 
.^joirina). haa two good piltiiRa of A. Vanoeasi 
ona. lb* HanyrdoiB of SI. Oeotg*; A. Pamina by 

t of & 1 

Ik of Sam 

I. Thora 

& I'aela di Otiv* 

„ oT tba aadlMl woriu af Caioito. 

aoaM JTsiia AD* FIKori^ bi 
Iha Onm,. ^ B. Vmaaaa. S 
UorstoWM bnninrFoRipci. 

Thaebnnli of JMmw di OMipaffMi, at tba *»• 
laga of Sn.MlahA, ovMida tha day, i> a haaatlAd 
1?-— n-" — — ■-, by BaMtoh^t, bat algW ald^ 
wMlat and aaiwiaatail by a-larga dOBtk 

Tba itaiiwfra. by BMMikfcall. la an Imnienw 




A dmntry in> tlie Qampa MArilo, lAld out by 
BarUarii 18S2, Is CM feet aqnan; within a coknnade, 
and is one of tbe beit in this part of Italy* 

' Tta Pinacateea^ in Pidszzo Pompd oontains nine 
rooms of piUntlngB; by Veronese, Bnuaeord, and 
other artisti; illnstralfvQ of the history of the town, 
and other sobjeots ; with a coHeetlon of foatils from 
the Tolcanic hlllt in the neighbooriiood. 

Calderari i« the ardiltect of the Seminario for 
Priests, and of tbe Casa CocastellL The CoUegio d% 
FaoduiUi (t. «. for girls), is the work of Malacame, 

The anotoit Chi^ter Dbnuy, already noticed, 
contains 12,000 toIs^ and 540 MSiS., some as old as 
tbe 4th cttUory, and among which are several poems 
1^ Danttt. It was here that Petrarch discovered 
Cioero^a Bpistles ad Familiares; and Niebnhr, in 
181^ the Institutes of Oaius, a Roman lawyer of 
tk« tioiB of Antoninoa Pius. The latter MS. is a 
ytiiiviwest, consisting of i37 skins of parchment on 
wUeh the fom: books (tf Oaius had been first written; 
Iheaa wera washed or scraped out by the monks of a 
later day, and re*written with the Epistles of St. 
Jerome ((me portion has been used twice over). In 
^la omidition, the original, with idl its erasures and 
abbreviationa, was made- out, and first published in 

Three otiier bridges cross Uie Adige, betides that 
near |he oU Castel ScaligerL That of di Pietra 
wliich has two Roman arches in it, leads to the 
bamcki <m the sUe of the Castel and Church of 
S. Pletro, in Veronetta; this castle was occupied by 
the Fmob, 1797, after a hard struggle. From it 
and from Castel Feliod bastion, behind it, tliere is a 
fine prospeet of the country around. 

Suae tiaoeaare seen of the old wall of Gallienus. 

Pindunonte, the poet, and Isotta Nogarola, a 
learned lady of the 15th century, were natives of 
Verona, betides those already mentioned. 

Many ooantnr seats are disperaed about the town. 
btioBgjbg to the nobility and old Italian families. 
At CakUeroli a good mineral water. AtGarganana, 
Dante wvote pait of his Pwrgataty, 

Rooea and Boica deserve notice for the volcanie 
liilla cleao to them, vrtMre many fossil shells^ Msh, 
and pUnts-have been finmd in the basalt and lime. 
atoae> Ponte dtila- Viga, hi the mountahMS is a 
mteral brid^ liO tank span. 

Among the produeto of this qnaiter are gloves, 
oU^andwtee. ^he silk trade used to eo^Ioy 10,000 

▲ OMgresf was held here, 1832, by the principal 
at which the Enqierers of Austria and 

Russia, and the Kings ot Prussia, Sardinia, and 
INapIss^ were uresent, but no British minister 
appenadv though Wellington was seat unofBdaUy. 
It dssUsdsn allowing Franee to- send an army into 
Spain, Itt-liehalf of the old monurehy. Lord Brous^*- 
ton, in Us /la^ describes aconcert givm to the 
Alllesl flo w it igns, in the snpklthsatrSf on thisooea^* 
aion, aaihsfir Atexander loeiB pidns t» ingiatista 
liimati£iiifli.thi pe^Ie, by •'nuabliag'*' about in 
pwtsnttil luingiittu, aadsslsint tks hands of the 
ladies whom hn hap p e n e d t» mmswiuIh' In- tiki 

street,— offering sequins to the boys; a UgUm 
spim Imvering aroimd him all the time. 

Excursion to Trent and Botzen in the Tyrol^ 
by rail; to Mantua, by rail, opened 1861, paseing 
Vlllafranea. (See Routes 17, 18.) 

From Verona, the train leaves Porta Nuova, or 
Porta Vescefva, the latter at the east end of the city, 
after crossing the Adige. The line to Venice 
was opened 1846. 

The route to Vioensa is through, a fertile plain, 
where the vine is twisted round the muUterry trees. 
It is bordered on tho north by hills cultivated to 
their summits, behind which are the Alps dividing 
Italy from the Tyrol These hills are chiefly lime- 
stone, yielding good red and other marbles. The 
Enganean hills are to the south. 

Caldlero station, the Roman CViIten'um, firom. a 
sulphur spring, over which a. bath was built in the 
year 1 a.d. Here the French were defeated by the 
Austrians, 12th Nov., ITOB^who occupied the bol^its 
under AlvinzL Bonaparte was obliged to withdraw 
hift troops to Verona and vrrote a desponding letter 
to Paris, but on tlxe 14th he marched outqul^yuid 
turned their position at Arcole. In 1805, a batde 
took place here between Massena and the Austriiuu 
under Prince Charles. 

At Colog^nata, opposite, is the seat of the Pompti 
family, one of whom was Count Alessandro Pompe^ 
the architect of the Exchange at Verona. Soave 
Castle stands on a liill near this. 

S. Bonifacio station. It gives name to a family 
whose old tower here serves as a campanile to the 
church of Vlllanuova. 

Down the Alpone, three miles south, is the fSunous 
village of 

Aboole, in a marshy spot where it Joins the AcUge, 
intersected by causeways,, one of which lead to tiie 
bridgn, now maiked by a pillar. Along this Bona- 
parte advanced 15th November, 1796^ to aurprisa tbe 
Austriana Two battalions of Croats and Huagpb- 
riaas with artillery defended it The French twice 
attempted to storm it amidst showers of grapa sliot 
and musketry; and a third time Bonaparte lieaded 
them witli a standard as far as the middle of the 
bridge; but they were remised, and he himself 
was thrown into a pond and nearly lost. Gtono-sl 
Gayeux, by niai-ching round another road, took tbe 
village, but it was retaken by the AustHana the 
same night. 

On the 16th, the French again attempted to carry 
the bridge, but were driven back vrith immense 
loss, especially of officers. They attempted it again 
the next day without success, but Angereau having 
by a flank movement taken the viflage once more, 
Alvinzi retreated on Montebello^ with a total loss 
of 8,000 in killed and prisoners; Further down the 
Adige is^ 

Legaaao, n fortress snd market town. 

HoUbellO StatkMs, saeaUeAfirmn tba cuttiratsi 
hflls nsar it,on»of wUeh hasaaold Ibrtrsss o«ll^ 
is not to be-sonflMindedr with anotiier ~~ 
beUo n«w VsglMs^ whieh c^Kva 
tttls* ~ 

mined auUe oT the Haul 

Tbs Vkenu urmlDUi li In Cunpo Uv^d onda- 

TIOBHZA. aUtd " Astlcn,- or Uh AnOut 

PopglMfon, abootMOOO. 

HstdK — Le Dm KiutB (Tira WHwh); SlelU 
d'On (Oslden Btsi) ! and CniwUo Bduo (Red Csp). 

Cliiif Oi/ieli iif IfoUa. ~^atlo Ollmp^co uid 
miDj palaces, by PAllidlD; Duomo. Hadoniui del 
KonU 1 ViUn Capil. Paiolbigi b; F. VeioneH, Ba». 

raediibslUrut KfMUfta. It liddi IbMt (.UK) P*™»>*- ''■■t ■■ 
f » ioUng pirty. •" ' ■—■--" — ■ -'-i 

Tbe UKlsnt TianUa, of vl 
Caeina wu k ihI1t«, ibunded 
iBiUUzudtnilCfUipM. It 

the Conn) Aolm 
U back u 393 B.C, 

f ■ rt gulu shnpe, 

<nd*IWBttliiMBdMn_.. , 

wtadlng tnOt, nuiOTDded b; a dsnble nin, and 
tnTencd br the BachlcUone and mother mcon- 
talB locmt, which rr«)n«ilV do harm by their Lnim- 

Bajche, or di 8. Mlchele. remaikible Ibr the elie ot 
Itl single arch and the beauty of Iti marble parapets, 
In allnsion to whieh they 1ibt8» asyhig here— ■■ Bny 

II Vicmu the irhlte Ullage! and gmidy 

binUet mdadJnMtducoidlnstopgnpMUn. AH 
UOa b ttrl«d nwra (IngerJinad and imnpor tT 
Kois anhltacti, Iboutti It wm (naflr admired at 
tha tinw. Fan of iha flicad* not cmaM bjr tiM 
pnwiiilam !• dKonttd by Corinthian coinmii^ np- 
portbiE an atUo, with many Matuea, of wfakh ihar* 
ar*«5TiiaU. TheOcMpiecsanedlnUwiB '^Edlpu," 
tnuulatad lot tha wcuUm by tha patrician Oluitl- 
nlano, and aeted by !• Gnle, a blind poeL or AdrU. 

oncL^al^adtbi BailLlca. or *la Bivtau, lor 
or PUuza da' SlgnorL It <> aOothIc edlBce. Improved 
by paUadia'a lon<* uKI donUa ponlee. tndorinf: ■ 
hall Ha iDlton. It ta ons of bis moit lameHrul 
deilgna, ^' being tha only cntzance, perbapa, In whicb 
an addition of that age and ityle bai impTOTOd a 
building af tbe Gothic period."— /'(i-dwainL 

Oppoalto thli la the Palami Sil Capaaniii, or 
PrijUtiM, of the eomposlle order, also by Palladlo. 


andnaHni of tbeae paladlan a 
u of ponleoea and pediments, w 
- ,--.reeEi eculptnred pllutera. ir — 

' style.- 

t Ci dil Zltopo/.. — . -, 

emlnary library ; Paiatto Vaimarana, wtlh In 
ilotul rdlBsteni Palaao TteK. a largt mnlcated 
nt unfinlihad itrw:lnre, fOtnntly the Uouane; 
'oloBd TFluta»<lal VOh aOn, near tbe Pona di 
, ButolonuDeo. on the Deith aldeof lb* city. Thia 

ABotbu rudoBO IViH^ In na d«l Olndcd, near 
lh« CoiK (• tv Ua fhllower, flcacMail ; and the 
Falam Omlilliia, newiba Elanwntary Bchmia, by 
aMiUMrlUI(iir«r. CaUtm^ anda native of \nnoannt, 
like hiipcedeoeaaofa. In tiM ConOi Ottl Forts dl 
Town, li Palladlo'iboaM. That of P^ataUa, tb* 
DsDigMBlaB o( Hactilan, ia near tbe BaalUea, In the 
halt Vawtian Kyle «t tbe ieaie«it(UT<l«lk Under 
"- — 'ndowB an earrtd roeaa. and the nutlo, "11 

loie aant Baplne." TbB PaUHo del Conto 

Scfalo dlff^s IVom Dibar palacoa hen In belpg in Ihjt 
■tyle oC VuULan GoUuB. 

Ii ■ dtf dur (0 (D idDiInn of Ui> 
: »lyl0, Dot only u beln^ the birthplace 

> well utb* toon miebnted pro^rione 
liu Stnu^ to nr, lioffever. It ii — '- 

•o tfait Um bnUdliigi tlunuelni 

jHU moBt deelracClTB or arch 

I tBeet; mid in. Id tkct. betur itudledl 

drvwlugL'' — FtrgtUim't J 

AboDCfony ehurdhcB <t!11 remilii 
coanfL, of inferior dui. apeclnw 
Andru VioaUDO, and other oj 

>, IMb-cditniT. Oothii 

[h Uumi, by Tlotontto. a 

at Ihs hlgfi BlUr. 

3t. Angnitlne Hewing tt 

Kent from tho Crom, 
BaancondEllo, tai tlia AdorBUon of the Maci, by 
U . FlgoUna. 

At a. Blaaio. Tbe Pla^Uatlaii, by Gnercino. 

At Cor^v Somini the De9«nC from tbe i 
by J. B, ZdouL 

ani Psnl VeroDB«*a Dend ChrS, i"th« .wri" 

dft Boaa^ HHUng the Pla^fuc, by Q Buia 
fine ■pBdmm of IhlJ artlit. 

At i^uiig Italia di (Sinipojnono, iriotnres 6» the 
Mme qiuUr. and Pordenooe. 

3. Lortnto't DM Gothic chureli. wtilch had beoutw 
B maculiis. mi nnored In 1SH. It hu ■ One 
poreb, and wnrel nioiiuiiunti. 

The new 'PiiaaUea, at VMnte (3tS\eiy, is Id (he 
ralaiio CUeclcatt ■ Tut boUdlng, by Panidlo, with 
■naraadad facade of Dorio and loolo adoiniw lately 
imond. Iteontaliit gevenl riotorM, Uw b«t or 
wUshin-HlHolyFUDllT.byF.VeroDeHi a Ma. 
dODu, by Ouldoj Xagdi^eiia, b> TUbu: ■ half 
BfarMTA-Cuncdi CluKt aad Uw TligiD on a 
TnmH, by Suaano; porln^U by Boniruio, Qior- 

ndndUift aLiUn Bible of thi 

*lf<idtmna iht Itrml 
grliDags, on MoDle BeH 
proipeet ai f ar u the A 
IB B, Hante^a'l Adors 


13II1 CEMgry, iDdcuo 
e Is a triqigphi] arch. 


MIC and teinple-Il»a dMipi ctct applied to i 
hlloctore. Copies qiora or less mbct are loqnq m 
iry country of Europe. II Is certatnly wl nlted 
lomeitlc purposes, especially In northtm clime*. 

laptlstelll gar_ _ _ 

re Men at the vUlago of Olbia, 
Outilde Porta del CailoUo i> an ai 

be Trevlao aide, contain! 

ir-mllla for winding and prepiiln(ink 
« Bt Viceiua ; lla lilk aumnactam ara 
Important In North Italy. la nWtdal 
I, It cairlea on a iarse trade. Tbe uteh- 
Htremely (brtlle. and ikb In Itaa^nd 

hllli of Btettot etc As i 

Barbarano. tt 

he Bachigilona, is flat, bnl well cnldvalod ; the 
lajieatwoihorttunnelj. Tie only elation Is 
Fojano, about halfway. 



MDVA, or "Padova la Forte" The Btnmg, 
as the Italians style it i 

SOdt.'^Siena d'Oro (Golden Star); Aqoila d' 
Oro (Gdden Eagle) ; Groce d' Oxo (Golden Cross) ; 
the Brewery, near Santa Sophia. Caf€ Pedroochi, a 
noble building, including a casino or assembly room, 
imd cased inside and out with marble — table d*hAte 
two shilUngs. Its Monselice mutton, saltlongne 
and focaocia, or sweetmeats, are noted. 

Population, 45,000. In 1816 the population was 
only 25,000. 

Gonwyaiioet.— Kailrood to Vicenaa, Verona, and 
Tei^oe. Bailway Station half a mile £rom the town. 
Omnibuses, 76 cents. To Ferrata, by coach. 

*Cftt^ ObjKU Qf ^ro<tr«.— Palazao della Bagitme, 
Bnomo, S. Antonio, Scuola, Titian's firesooes, Giotto's 
frescoes at Madonna deir Arena, 8. Guistina, An- 
tenor Sarcophagus, Livy's Grave, Uniyersity, Pe- 
txarch's portrait, Pappafava Palace. 

P««RttR0«, by Giotto, Da Zevio, and Mant^na, 
and others of the Padua schooL Scutptvrt^ by 
Donatello and Biccio. JlrcAt^ecftire, by Falconetto. 

A fortified city; i»ipital of a province; in the 
Anstro-Veneto possessions; seat of the Lieutenant- 
Governor, of a JSishop, University, etc; in a fertile 
part of the Bacdiiglione. It is a very ancient pl^ce, 
called /Vrfovtum, by Xiivy and Vhrgil, who assert 
that Antenor founded it, and planted his Trojans 

*'Hic tamcn ille nrbem Patani sedesque locavit 
Teucrorum, et genti nomen dedit armaque fixit 

LIvy himself was bom hen, or close by. When 
Attila phmderad it, 4A2, tbe people dispersed and built 
Femce, which had no existence till that date. It 
was again restored by Narses, tha general of Justi- 
nian, after defeating the Goths ; Utiar, it was an 
Indepenrtaat republie, except when Ezaelino di 
BoBumo, or tbe Caixam famUy, bad rule; but 
being taJken by Venice 1403, it thenceforth became 
Aibjecito the great city, of which it was the first 

It is an old looking town, with many narrow 
«£caded streets, bat is coaiDdend ao healthy that 
Invalids are sent hither fimn all parts of Italy. Yet 
**«xcepting Ferrara, it has an air of desolation more 
striking than that of any Italian city.'*^r£or(f 
Brouffbion). There are seven gates in the ramparts, 
Among which are Porta Giovanni, P<Hla Savonorola, 
built t>y Falconetta. Among the squares are the 
Piazza de Signori, which takes name irom the seat 
of the CJanara family, or Palazzo del Capitanio, and 
is marked by a fine gate, comt, and the Loggia del 
Consiglio, of tbe 15th century. It was the work of 
Falconetto (1532), and has frescoes by l^lori^ on 
thefi'ont Inside, in the comt, are the public (or 
university) library, and Bettoni's printing office. 
The Cafes are here. In the square stands a fine old 
clock tower, by J. Dondi, called "Dele* Orologio/* 
because he invented and set up hoie the first astro- 
nomical clock in Italy. 
The Piasza delle Erbe (herb maiicet) and Piazza 
^ p-atti fgnln} are not tar from this: the former 
eoataiaa the Prd^gtM. In the Piazza delle Uve 

tenipc^ are aeen frMSoetby Cammgnola, One of 
me best promenades Is the circniar Prade deOa VaUe 
with a piece of water and trees, and lines of statues 
(74) of celebrated natives and Italians; with the 
Mareheae Pdeni (1780) and another, by Canova. 
Another to Azzo of Brunswick was placed here by 
the Dnke of CHoncester in 1776. 

Perhaps the most remarkable building is the 
*PaUuzo deUa Raaione or Town House, with its higli 
pitched root; built about 1209, by P. Cknzo, upon 
arches, and restored after a fire, 1420. It contains 
the public aroliives as fur back as the 9th century. 
Its vast ffatt, without ornaments or proportion, one 
of the largest in Europe, is 256 feet by 86, and 75 
feet high, and pafaited with upwards of 400 decayed 
frescoes, relating to the seasons, the planets, signs of 
the zodiac, astronomical influencea, apoatlea and 
and saints, including St Hark on a ttm)ne, a symbol 
of Venetian power. They were painted ddefly bv 
G. Bflretto, from designs by Giotto, fiimlshed by 
Pietro Apponi or d'Abano, a fiunous astronomer and 
native, whose bust is here. Under St Maxk's 
picture is the * Monument of livy whose hooae ac- 
cording to report was in Strada de S. Giovanni, and 
whose bones (?) are placed in this ball. There are 
also statues, etc., of Speroni, the philoan^r, 
Lucretia Dondi, a learned lady, related to Ddmdi 
dell'Orologio; and Belzoni the traveller, between 
two Egyptian obelisks which he gave to his native 
town ; and the model of a large house by Donatello. 
At one end is the lapia viti^aerii, a bkdc granite 
stone, or cutty stool, where it was the custcnn for an 
insolvent debtor to sit on his naked breech, and 
declare three times that he was not worth so mnch. 
He was then released from his creditors. Max^ in- 
scriptions, etc., are placed in the corridors. 

The cathedral or *Duomc in Piazaa del Santo, was 
rsbnUt in tiie 16-18th centuries by Andrea della 
Valle. It is large, but has nothii^ remarkable 
about it, thoufi^ M, Angelo, they aay* fare the 
design. From a want of eleganee in tiie detafla, it 
produces little good artistic effect It contains some 
monuments of Speroni and his daughter; of Bishop 
Barrocci; a Madonna, by Padovanino, paintings by 
Campagnola, etc., and Binaldo's bust of Petrazcb, 
who was a eanon of this chhrdi, and died at 
Arquk, near this. In the sacristy is a good frescoe 
portrait, cut out of the house he Uved in at Padna; 
a Greek silver vase of curious work, is used at con- 
firmations. They show also abeautlAil missal on 
vellum, printed at Venice, 1498, full of miniatures. 
The detached Baptistry, was built by Francis 
Carrara's wifle, abont 1380, and is covered with, 
good frescoes by painters of Giotto's schooL The 
chapter library contains 10,000 vols, and some MSSL 
A bust of Petrarch was placed in it, 1817, by A> 

S. Antonio or II Santo, dedicated to the patron 
saint of the city, and a very ornamental stmctore. 
St Anthony died here 1281 ; and his relics are of course 
tolerably autlientic, and are duly honoured. Tblu 
great church was built 1265-1 807 in the milled Gtothic 
style by Nlcolb di Pisa, the eight cupolas behig added 
in the 15th century. It is a cross 280 feet by 140. 
" Its i^ast^Tix ^om«&AV& Qi^tcdsncl ti(nx«^«Qd uArrow 



fineries of pointed arches make ap an agirragate 
that could eztot nowhere else. An nglier church 
can hardly be fband."— C^erpuMoa J The arches 
are nnmu and pointed. Above the chief porta! 
are two ftgtrrea of St Bernard and St Antony, 
painted by Mantegna, but since retooched. 

In .the square fronting it is Donatello's bronze 
atatne on horsebacic, by Gattamelato, or Eraamo di 
Ham!, the Condottiere leader; one of the oldest 
works of the kind. Hie interior is very flill of 
ourving, painting, acnlptttre, ez-votoa, espcxdally the 
saint's chapel, with Ita gold silver lamps, and silver 
coffin, and rich shrine, by Sansovino; having a 
facade of line arches, alx>ve wliich are niched 
statues, by Tironi, Alleo, etc The altar, built 1398, 
ia of irerde antico, anrrounded t>y bronze statues 
at aaiiita (Anthony, Bonaventura, Louis, etc.), by 
F. Aepetti ; who aiiso nuide the angels which carry 
A. Riodo's fine oandelabra. One lamp is the gift of 
the Empress Eugenia Two other groups by F. 
Parodi and -O. Marinali, bear silver candelabra, 
wdgldng 1,600 and 1,400 ounoes respectiveiy. 
Klne or ten bas-reliefs on the walls are by Banii, 
Padovano, 43arapagna, Sansovino, Felucca, etc. Tli o 
silver doors of this efaii^ wmre painted over by the 
monka to save thorn from the French. 

Tlie clu^ of the Madonna Mora (the black 
Madonna), .has a sitting figure of the Virgin in 
marble CiSV2) decked ont. In S. Luca's chapel are 
waU paintlags t^ the PadovanL In the choir are 
Inonze gates by F. Aspetti, bronzes on the organ by 
I>oiiateUo ; 12 baa rtUkfy from the Old Testament by 
l^llano (1488), and A. Rkscio; bronzes ronod the 
altar; and atatnes in Inonze by Donatello, and T. 
Bfiindo; a l>eautifhl bronze candelabrum by A. 
Riocio (1507-17) ; a bronze crucifix and bas-reliefs 
(Qurlatin the Tomb) also by Donatello; to whom 
fturther, the bas-reliefs in St Sacrament chapel arc 
dne. The Sanctuary (bnUt 1690) has sculptures by 
F.Ean>d!,andrdic8« the saints; the sacristy, various 
oandngs In wood ; and the Chapter House, traces of 
Giotto's fireacoea. In S. Felice Chiq)el, which, till 
ISW, wna dedleatod to St James, are frescoes relat- 
ing to the latter, by Da Zevio and D'Avonzo (137C), 
iieiidfls sen^turaa of the same date. In the body of 
the efanrdi are monnroents of Sesio (by Parodi) wiio 
Ml when Vanioe-waa attacked by the Turkish fleet, 
1683; of Archbishop Troaabelta, with his bronze 
bust by Riccio; of General Contarini, by San- 
ndchell; Helen Piaccmia, a learned lady; Cardinnl 
Bembo, l>y SanmicheU ; and Cesarotti, the scholar ; 
with four organs in the choir. 

At tlie Saiola (school or brotherhood) where the 
moiiks live, close by, ore a series of frescoes, relating 
to the ndraces of St Anthony; three or four of 
which are by Titian (one contahis his own portrait) ; 
others l^Clampagnola, etc 

A Ftera dei Santo^ or St Anthony's Horse Fair, 
la held in Jtme, when' the animals are blessed by 
the priest Here polesino di Rovigo are bought 
for exportation to Rome, where Uiey are used in tiie 
carriages tS the Cardinals: A cheap Life of St 
Anthoi^iiatfd, givmg the saint's discourse to the 
fiahes, beginnmg **Cari et amate pesd," and ending 
with the Denadletion. 

8. €feorg{n, near St. Anthony's Church, was built, 
1877, as a Mnnsoleum for the Lupi family, and has 
some fresco paintings, by D'Avanzo and Da Zevio. 

OK Eremitani (or the Hermits' Church), near the 
Arena, built 1376, for the Angustines, has canopical 
tombs of the Carrara fiunily (an Inscription toe 
Jacopo C. is by Petrarcli)« and Benavides, the 
priest by Aronttaate; with Quarento*s fresco of 
the Last Judgment in the chohr; some t>y Mant^rna 
and his pupils, etc,, in S. Jacopo's Chapel; a St 
John Baptist, by Guido, in the sacristy ; a fimcral 
nrn to William of Orange, by Canova; and a bust 
by him in the cemetery to Mad. Calemberg. Tho 
frescoes by *Mantegna, almost the only fteaooes by 
this master, are tailing off the walls, and atone of 
the pnncii)al figures have disappeared. 

ScaUa Iftrria delV Annunciate or *Mad€nna delV 
Arena, on the site of a Roman Amphitheatre, which 
the predecessors of Enrico di Serovegno, turned into 
a castle, wou built for him, 1308, by Git^o, wiio also 
adorned it with a aeries of frescoes. It is a small 
plain Gothic building, pierced with windows on one 
side only, and contains the founder's monument by 
John of Pisa, and his statue. * Qtotto'i frucMi 
number 48, representing tlie Life of Christ, and tbo 
Legends of the Virgin, and include the celebrated 
LuAi Judgment^ with tlie Virtues and Vioea, which 
they tiay was in part prompted by Dnnte, with whom 
Gil tto lived at the time. They are on a lilue 
ground, with Arabesques, saints, etc., filling up the 
spaces, which are separated by painted borders, 
without any attempt ut architectural ornament 
Copies in chromo-lithography have been published 
by tho Arundel Society. 

In the ScxM del Carmine are paintings by Cam- 
pagnolo, Titian (The Visitation), and P. Vecchio. 

S. l-'rancesco, built by Sansovino, has paintings by 
P. Veronese, etc. 

Santa Giustina, is a handsome lofty buildlog, 307 
feel long, on the site of on ancient temple; rebuilt, 
1521-49, by A. Eiccio and A. Morone; with a fine 
open lofty imve, and eight cupolas, one of vefaich 
is 130 feet high. It contains the tomb of St Luke, 
by G. Muf.?:ito, with P. Veronese's Martyrdom ot* 
Santa Giustina, including his own portrait ; and a 
Madonna, \.y Koroanino; beside some seat carvinp^s 
in the choir. St. Luke's p<»lraits of the Virgin and 
Child are al-n shown. In the cloisters of the great 
Benedictine Convent to which it is attached, arc a 
vcty old piece of sculpture (about 1000) and some 
other clever statues of a later date. It has an ozoel- 
lent lilirr.ry, much of which was dispersed at the 
Revolution, but it is stillrich in first editions, and con- 
tains Petrarch's letter to G. DondL It is further 
noted as beir g on the supposed site of ^Livp^s Grave^ 
to w horn tl'icrc is an inscription, yntii a bust marked 
"P. T. L.C." 

Servi di Santa Mmia, a Gothic church of tire 14th 
century, founded by Francis Carrara's wife (Fina 
Duzzacarina), has a Madorna over the altar, and 
a monument to Paolo de Castro and his son (1492). 

S. Cavztone contains Danini's Miracle of the Miser 
(with theportmitof Fabricins, the anatomist), and 
otiters by A. Biccio. 

S. Qaetwno-vwXwJ^Xyj^^'WMwru A^%^. 



Th« BWiop'^s Palace (Palazio Vescovlle) has paint- 
togs by Rlccl and others, one being a portrait of 
Petrarch. At the Seminario for Priests attached to 
Santa Mcula in Vanzo, is a library of 65,000 vols., 
and 800 MSS. It was here that Forcellini brought 
out hia great Latin Lexicon. 

The Palace of the University, called II Bo (ox) 
from standing on the site of an inn with that sign, 
was built 1493-1552, though founded in 18th century, 
l^ Frederick IL, and numbers about 1,000 students, 
with 40 or 50 professors. In its palmy state it could 
boast of 18,000 students, but then Padua was able to 
send 110,000 fighting moi Into the field. It forms a 
large pile, with a double gallery by Sansovino rbund 
the beautiful court, in which are arms of learned 
members from all parts of Europe, with the statue 
of the handsome Helen Piscopia, who took her degree 
as a doctor, and died in 1684. Oalileo, Fallopius, 
iVibrecius, etc., were professors here. It comprises 
an anatomical theatre (a good collection as old as 
1594), cabinets of physic and natural history, library 
of 70,000 vols, in tiie hall of the Giganti, attached 
to the Capltaneo'; botanic gardens, as old as 1546, in 
which are large agaves and cacti, a fan palm (cele- 
Inated in a poem by Goethe), magnolia, araucarlas, 
and an ancient plane tree; observatory (in Ezzelino's 
old tower of Tomaso), and an institute of rural 
«conomy. The Observatory commands a view of the 
plain, the Tyrolese and Euganean hills, and of Venice 
(on a dear day). 

Forsyth relates that a Venetian Senator being once 
deputed as a visitor to this university, asked the 
astronomer if the observatory wanted any instru- 
ment; "It wants nothing,** said Chi minelli, ** except 
a good horizon.*' " Horizon 1" said the most potent 
Signer, ** why then we must send to London for one.** 
Eccelino*s House is now the Santa Lucia Theatre for 
marionettes. The University Hospital, or Spedale, 
is in the old Jesuits' College, and has a chapel contain- 
ing Canova's monument of Bishop QiustinianL 

The (7oo«mor*« Palace (Delegazione) has facing it 
the so-ciJlcd niched sarcophagus of *Antenor, under 
a brick canopy, near the remains of S. Stefauo 

Palazzo del Podesta, of tho 16th century, has paint- 
ings by D. Compagnola, Padovanino, etc. 

*Palazzo Trente Pappa-fava (or Bean Bread) has 
Damlni's frescoes; and a curious group of 70 figures 
•of the Fallen Angels, cut out of one marble block, by 
.A. Fasolata, in me course of 12 years' work. Above 
is St Michael, and below is Pluto, and the attitudes 
icnd grouping of the whole are surprising, considering 
<the circumstances. 

-*'It is a group of sixty figures, representing the 
angels cast down from heaven, cut out of one solid 
'block of Carrara marble, about five feet high. They 
sire in all attitudes that the human form could take 
:in such a headlong descent, and are so animated in 
.■appearance that they are almost living. Each angel 
\l8.«eparate from the rest, but the whole are twisted 
and twined together in a complicated manner, and 
Are most exquisitely chiselled, even in the minutest 
lortSL The wonder is how the artist reached the 
MOBerpartiaa of the group, Tht Arcbongd Idichael 

forms the top of tho pyramid. FosAlatai, tlio artisk> 
had never executed anything of consequence beforet 
but his patron thinking the man a genius, took him 
under hia protection, gave him a block of marble» 
rooms in his palace, and liberal pay, and desired him 
to execute a group of figures to prove his talent. 
The artist stipulated that his work should not bo 
seen till finished; and after twelve years he produced 
this, which is certainly uniqne. He was afterwards 
invited to England to execute a similar work, and 
died there, our guide added, of 'home sickness.' The 
group is now covered with glass, as a Russian GeneraJ, 
some time ago, whilst examining it too closely, had 
the misfortune to knock off a small portion of one 
finger."— ifts< Catlow''s Sketching Ranwlee. 

Palazzo Oiu$ttniaat a) Santo is a fine bidlding 
by Falconetto, with Campagnola's firescoes, from 
Raphael's designs. Count Lulgi Comaro, who wrote 
on a '* Long Life," died here, 1566, and it includes a 
musical rotunda built by him. 

Palazzo Lazzara a San Franeeeeo has a gallery of 
paintings of the Venetian school, with many Inscrip* 
tions, etc. 

Palazzo Pisani includes an old chapel in which are 
frescoes, with. portraits of the Carrara family. 

Other buildings are the Theatres Nno<ro and 
Nuovisslmo, Hospital of S. Giovanni, and the Esposti, 
or Foundlhig Hospital, established as far back as 
1097. Near the Porte di Torricelle is an old bouse 
inscribed "Opifizi di Torricalle,'* said to have been 
built hi 1217. 

Its eminent natives, besides LIvy and Pietro 
d'Abano, are A. Mantegna and Campagnola, the 
painters; also A. Musalo, the poet and Davlla. A 
newspaper, called the Oiomale Euganeo^ is pub- 
lished here. 

By coach to Ferrara, in 10 hours. (See Route 20.) 

From Padua to Venice the country is flat, inter- 
sected by numberless canals, and h^hly cultivated. 
Villages, churchet, county seats are dispersed over 
the whole plain, with the Tyrolese Alps on the north. 

Ponte dl Brenta station, near the river, is suc- 
ceeded by 

Dolo Station, where the rail leaves the Brenta, 
which may be descended in the barge or barca to 
Fuslna, from which you cross the Lagoon to Venioei 
But following the ndl you come to 

Mestre station, where Palladio built a splendid 
palace for the Barbaro family ; and to Fort Malghera, 
on the mainland, where the shallow Lagoon, or 
Lagune, not more than 13 feet deep, on which 
Venice is seated, opens to view. Fort Malghera waa 
taken, after a bombardment of five days, in 1849, 
when the Venetians rose ag^inpt their Austrian 
masters, under the leadership of Manin and (General 
Fepe, the patriotic Neapolitan who died in 1855. 
Forts St Glullano and St Secondo serve to guard 
other parts of the Lagoon. The mainland on which 
Mestre stands, was styled the Dogada in the old 
times of the republic. It is crossed by an immense 
bridge, or viaduct, 2^ mile long, 14 feet high, on 22(1 
arches, 88 fbet span, on 80,000 piles (fjlven into the 
mud. Besides the arches thero are several embank- 



ments, the lar^st of irhieh is 460 feet by 100. It 
cost nearly £190,000 and terminates at Venice on the 
Canale Grande at Isola S. Chiara. 
VsxncE. See Route 19t. 


By rail 176 kiL or 110 mUes. 
The stations to Alessandria are :— 


Ferrera........... 38 

Lomello ^ 41} 

Mede 44| 

Castellaro 47 

Torreberetti....^ 49} 

Valenza 64 

Valmadonna 57 

Alessandila ............ 62 


Rogeredo 4i 

Locate 9i 

VOlaMaggiore 12} 

Certosa «. 17| 

Pavia 22i 

Cava Carbonara...... 27 

Zenasco m. 81 

Pieve Albignola...... 32} 

Sannazzaro ............ 32} I 

The greater part of this line is orer flat rich mea- 
dow land, bordered by trees and intersected by the 
t^aviglio Grande and otiier canals. At the first sta- 

Rogeredo Station, the line to Fiacenza and the 
south oranches ofll 

Villa Magglore Station. On the right is Binasco 
Castle, an old seat of the Dukes of Milan, in which 
Beatrice di Tenda, wife of Philip Visconti, was 
beheaded, 1418. 

Certosa station, so called tram the Carthusian 
Monastery of Pavia, five miles from that dty, dedi- 
cated to the Beata Vorgiue della Grazie. It is 
worth visiting for the splendour of its church and 
conventual establishment It was founded by G. G. 
Visconti, first Duke of Milan, 1896, in remorse for his 
poisonings; and.'after being suppressed by Joseph II. 
has been agam restored. Here lYancis I. was brought 
after the battle of Pavia, 1612, which was fought 
hard by. 

The *C^ureht i^proached by a marble court 820 
feet long in which the brethren live, is cross shaped, 
250 feet long ; btdlt by Henrico da Gamodia 
or Zamodia, a German of Gmunden, in the mixed 
Gothic and Renaissance or cinque-cento styles; but 
the rich fix>nt with its doors, pilasters, bas-reliefe, 
figures, so crowded together that scarcely a ffoot of 
emooth surface remtdns, is the work of Borgognone, 
1476, and ether artists. As a frontispiece, this 
fa9ade is ^* certainly one of the most beautiful designs 
of the age. It consists of five compartments, divided 
vertically oy buttresses of bold and appropriate 
form; the three centre divisions representing the 
body of the church with its aisles ; the outer ones 
the side chapels. The oUier features are appropriate 
and well placed and give relief; with light and shade, 
to the compesition."---<P(ergpiinofiJ Eight chapels run 
down each side of the interioi^ which abounds with 

are not admitted farther than the nave of this church 
the order being a strict one hi its observances. Only 
the superior is allowed to converse. "I went into 
the two cloistral quadrangles. The lesser contahis 
a beantifhl garden, rich in flowers; and the walks 
are adorned with gracefhl bas-reliefs in terra cotta, 
representing scriptural subjects. The large cloister 
enclosed a field of com. The views of the noble 
monastery flrom these courts are very picturesque. 
Each of me monks has a separate abode which opens 
into the garden; and there is a little window-like 
hutch by which his food is introduced."— rZ)r. Words' 
worthO They never touch animal food ; they nave 
no communication with each other, and never meet 
except at service and at rare intervals. A large 
libnuy is attached to the monastery. 

Cestosa Chapbls.— Down one side are the follow- 
ing chapels and altars, the latter behig of rich marble 
and mosaic work : — 

SanUi Veronica. — A. Langine*s Resurrection, 
C. Procacchii's Altar-piece; Borgognone's Madonna 
and Angels. 

S. UgoM{Hugo), — St Hugo and Angels; altar- 
piece, by Borgognone and G. Fava. 

8. Benedeiio.^^. Comaro's altar-piece of St Bene- 

S. Croct/tAJO.— Borgognono's Crucifixion, one of 
the best of his works. 

S. Siro.-^C. B. Sacchi's Mosaics; Borgognonc's 
Altar-piece of S. Sirus. 

S.8. Pktro e Paolo.— Montaldo*s St Paul restoring 
a deaa man, and Martyrdom of St Peter. 

ilnnunzioto.— Montaldo*s frescoes. 

The chills down the other side are the following : 

VergiM del AoMrto.— Polpino*s bas-relief ot the 
Adoration of the Magi. 

8. Ambrogio.'—C. Rosnati's bas-relief of St Am- 
brose expelUng the Arians; Borgognone's Altars 

Santa Cofertno.— >Rosnati's statues of St Catherine 
of Siena and St Catherine of the Wheel 

8t. Giuseppe, — ^E. Procaccini's Three Wise Men 
and Herod, and the Angel and St Joseph; D. 
Bussola'B fine bas-relief of the Massacre of the 
Innocents (1677). 

8. (?t(n;anntjBaMi5to.—Carolone*s wall-pieces of St 
John Baptist 

8. i/tcA«fe.— >Nnvoleno's Abraham and the Three 
Angels; Orsolino's bas-relief of Jacob's Dream, eta 
at the altar; Perugino's altar-piece of God the 
Father, one of six by him, the other five l)eing re- 
placed by copies Two ori^als were camea off by 
tlie French, 1796, and the other three are in the 
National Gallery. Raphad is said to have liad a 
hand in these works of his old master. 

8anta Maria ifioKtoZena.— Paintings by F. Bianclii 
and teronL 

At the upper end, in the choir and transepts, are tlie 

Sagrestia Nttova (New Sacristy) in the south 
transept walL G. Rosnati's bas-relief of the Nativity; 
Soiari's (or D Gobbo'sl 

, A. Soiari's (or D Gobbo'sl altax-^vwiRK>SQss^^^*5ssSk 

frescoes, mostly by Borgognone, includhig his altar- 1 Bea^ffl^\^fttft\\,"w«&V>\s«^^n^'OBL«a^^iS^^^ 

piece of the Crucifixion, ffkOng, colouring, bronzes, \ c\xt tot teawyw^ \i^ ^^ "£xffiQs3a, >aB^ ^^* c^^^^ 

bas-jTe2i«fl^ medaJUom, aad otbaronuunante. Women \ iiw»'»iitT?ft\a wodt^V^wsJ^ h.^^^^-c«i >^^va^ 



leads to tlie fbantain clotet8n(clilottio Mia Fon» 
taiuO, wliich had some good terra cotta valMI. 

JSL Brvntrnt^t Altar ia the loath^raaeept to of ridi 
alabaster, dedkated to the fooader of the ofder, with 
leliefB l^ T. Ondlino; above it are Bramsatiao's 
frescoes of the Vlscoad» piesentlBg thederi^ of the 
Certosa, to the Virjrin. Kear it is the 

Mamotmim of G. C. Viscoati, tiie ftnmder, a 
gorgeous oinque^ento |^ by G. Pellegrinif ereefced 
betveea 1490 and 1562, under a oaaopy. Ia the 
north trsasept is the monnment of Lodovieo inifloonti 
and his beantif nl wifia, Beatrice, by SolarL 

Lanaixoo di Monads or little Meristy.— But of 
the architect, and heads of Dachesses el Milan. A. 
Canaia's bas-relieft ; stained windows (1477). 

Dome. — ^Frescoes in the Dome, by Gascdani; 
carved stalls in the choir, by Y. de*Conti; Frescoes 
to the choir, by D. Crespi (1563). Two marble pul- 
pits ; and six niched statues of St Peter, St. Paul, 
Hoses, etc., by T. OraolinL 

Siffh AUar^ under a tabemade, is richly oma- 
anented with marble, bronzes, agate, comelicuis, etc., 
bas-reliefs by Solari; angels, by Volpino. 

SagrttHa Yecchia^ opposite the Lavatory.— Angels, 
etc., bv G. Amadeo, A. Carrara's portrait of G. 
Yisconti, and Guide's Gard. Colonna; B. Degli 
Ubbriachi's ivory bas-reliefs from the Kew Testa- 
ment Near this is the 

Reliquie Altars where the chief relics are preserved. 
Fine mosaics, by V. Sacchi, the work of ten years; 
A. Fontana's beautifiil candelabra; statues of the 
Virgin, etc., by Orsollni and C. Sacchi. 

The cupola m a beautifal object and interesttng as 
the only "important example of a Bimaissance 
copy of the form of dome used by the Italians in 
the medieval period."— •JWvtMioo. 

The marble lavatory has a hurt of the azoUtect 
There are two sacristies, a large refectory, a ltt)rary, 
a beautifal fountain court, a brick cloister, all eqaalty 
adorned with bas-reliefs, altar-pieces and firescoes, and 
ooatributing to thje comfort of the inmates^ who at 
•ne time had an income of £40,000 a year. 

Borgognone, whose other name was Da Fossaao, 
painted the Marriage of St CSatherine (now in the 
National (Gallery), Ibr the Bobeoohino Chiqpel, near 
Pavia, which at one Ume was under the ride of the 

The railway is carried to the west side oi Pavia, 
to Porta Borgorata, while the NavigUo (ahrande rans 
round the east side to the TiciiKH This canal is an 
excellent work coostmcted. by the French, In 1807. 

PAVIA, styled " la Dotta," the Leazaad. 

^(XeZs.— Delia Lombardia, Grooe Bianca (White 
Cross), Posts. SxccUent cheese and Columbano 

Population, 25,066 ; of the province about 135,973, 
to 400 8<iuare smiles. 

^OM^oiifeeU qf Nottee.'^'Dnoiao, S. Michele, Uhi- 
Teiaity. For the Certosa, see above. 

Csfltsl of the province, seat of a bishop, Univerw 

j^^^uuaberofCommeroe, eto, on the Ticinotaesr 

^fl> ^'^ *JK^ of Oxe plain ofLomhaxdj ; so fortile 

aguish and aalHtHhy. ImlMtKMmMHjnmttSklk 
Tidtmm, bat Ayfo when it beeamethe aeatof the 
Lombard Kings, whose old pidaee was replaced by 
the Viscontis' strong CasAtx baUt 1469, and now 
used as a barrack, with an old gate, etc., left The 
celebrated battle of 1596, in wl^eh Charles V. took 
Francis L prisoner, was fought near the Certosa 
Convent on the Milan road. It was plandared 
by the French a tern yean after, in revenge for 
the defeat of Francis ; md in 1796, by Bonaparte 
who gave it np to stonn, en aeooont of an attack 
made on a garrison of 800 Frendi, wlio without 
artillery bravely defended themselves ag^nst 4^000 
men-at-arms. Of the old brick towers which sur- 
rounded it oidy a few are left, about 200 feet high, 
one of which is a belfry. Tint which was the pxiaoa 
of Boethins when he wrote Ms **Consctotion ^ 
Philosophy," snd wherefai he vras beheaded by 
Theodoric's order, stood till 1584. A portleo runs 
round the Piazza Gnmde at the centre of tiie town* 
The streets are wide; one of the best being the 
Corsodi Porta Nnova, wliich mns down to the bridge, 
and to the suburb of BorgoTiclno. This bridge, of 
brick, is aboat 500 leet kog, and bctag roofed over 
with marUe, it serves for a promeoade. Tliere is 
another walk called the Stradone, close ta it 

S. SttfanOf or the *Duomo, is a modem eight-sided 
building, onthesiteof one of the sixth eeotauy, and 
has some good paintings, with a Inkk toww. 

" The churches of Pavia are very interesting, eq[>e- 
daily the Cathedral and Church of St Michael 
Th«:e is a sombre, severe, and stem a^ect in the 
churches, vrfaich, vrith thehr fabrics i^U naiiniflhed, 
seems to connect the spectator of the present day 
with centuries long gone by.*'— (Dr. Wordaworffi), 
The Cathedral contahis a fine cenotaph or altar tomb 
of St Augustiae, under a Ctothic canopy, with mora 
than 900 figures in it a work b^un by Oanmioirain 
1962. St Augustine is not buried liere; bat Ids 
remains, after thdr translation from Bippo^ wen 
brought to Pavia in 710 by Luitprand, King of Lom- 
bardy, and are supposed to lie under the a&r of St 
Peter's Church; because a i^ver dMst was found 
there in 1695, with the name ** Agostino " in GotUc 
lettem They also show here the lanoeaf the IVdadin 

*a. MiehOi (9t Michael) Church, in some parts as 
old as the sixth ocotury, is one of ihe aiost andent 
in Itafy, and a genuine Lombard spedmen, vrith the 
disrac^eristic round arch, tower, etc. It is 190 feet 
by 80, and full of curious carvings, bas-reheft, and 
eariy frescoes. 

" S. Micheli of Pavia, whidi took its present ftmn 
ckber at the end of the 11th mrbegianhig of tiie 18th 
oentuiy, is one of the most iatmieeting of this age, 
and presents in itself all the faatores of a perfect 
round-aroh Gothic diurch. Its vrell-maiked vaulting 
shsfis Mjpdng team the floor to the roof; the pier 
arches in the aisle are perfectly distinct and well 
understood features; the angles of the piers are 
softened and ornamented by riiafts and oth«r omi^ 
mental arrangements. YnOx otter diurc^es of the 
age, it £ails principally from over-heacviaeasctf parts, 
and a eerl^kn ctamrtaaw in construction, wUcfa 

■M BiMnisll;, ciMif flu Dratt ficnlDS ftatETO 
W Ibe apia wlib III circdl*r filiei?. 

The nrr old ebnreh tl S Fkm to C<El f Ore, 
which hdd the lomhi of LDltprinO, the LomlMrd 
Khig. (Dd BoMhiD, !• mw naed *a n magntiia. 
Han On boim of St. AtigmtUn u abora mentioiKd 

" & nodnv mtir bo locmxilixt olitt thu B. 

ircalM by biM 9U batiruaei ifringing bom the 
Cnnod. 4^. Pi^ro Is otBjJderkibLj quHv modero, the 
uudet balDg omitted roBUl the apu, thsugta IiUid- 
4Bcad In the central dome- It be^ begidcB tiro nbor- 
dbM* WMa of gcuxful ile<ign."— J'liyiiwn. 
f /hi Carmim It a Urge brick chaieb of tho I4th 
ODtBIT, with plssaclii In front, and good jalntliu*. 
Santa Maria CoroaatOy or Cajtavptaooa^ U by 

Motic*, in the otoijten of the Anf utvu Cocrent 
Ui« ft Duke of SoCfolk. ft title uuuned by Bkliud 
de la Pole, who ICll in the bsuJe of Peili. He wae 
baried here by hte riietivB Cbarlca Porhor. 

D of hitek ; S. Soholen, finely glH; 

bi the Lombuit ityla, ua giiielde 

■d end adftrnd, 
H of "laPoaft." 

1 by thit Gicdtri 

wUeh gihied PiThi Ui (Onner tt 

li napowd »l 1 1 coUegH, w«h il 

nd niftDy prolkuan. Amongthe 

SlMOuaal, floirpi, VoUa, Feoti 

Odtas*, « iM pU« ms IhaDder 

iM(hv, the Ohidtori, by Flu 

■tanda In It I a tUnl by the GuxU unuiy. & ■owi 

Ubiaiy, moiaiiBe of HatoMl lOnory aod AsMomy. 

■>d ■ Boluiio Gudsn, an attuhed to It. It wna 

mired by Duke Ttaccmti o( Milan in the IGih 

tBUnry. llisHSS. collected by him were taken to 

Pari). In UtS It waa doaad by the new Qoieni- 

Otbar bondios* are the Qeneral Hoqiltal, the 
FanDdilu UuplUl, a food theatre (bnlU 1773), nod 
te/nailfiuA ottb* M Dobility—aa the Bmnbila, 
1tt\aa, and Ollerano— all well deigned, with gal- 
kiiei and beantlfiil gudent. The nuiw^iina Palaee 
ia now tba PbtuoUea *f the dty. 

Lsaftuc Aichbiabop ot Cantetbuy, «u liora 
hm. Tradsinwbie, ^aln, cheeie, faemfh etc '^- 

ROUfE 16. 


«TkiL, oilUmilei. 

ROHrreio .Z::. Alaeno „,.7.™..— WJ 

,oDi Ml p*««* mj 

Cual PoMaringo. 

Camlftiaco _ US 


The due foUowa the r 
gtut Roman load, c*l 
Cones) who mide it. Kl 

>.o. Illniver™,atflnt, 

rieMfl cf Bax, rice, polae, ai 

Leaving Ullui by the Porta Rouuna, we naaa the 
L^ld dwxch of San Giorgio, fbnnted aa lu bask aa 

Llsterciftn boiue' in Itolly, founded by St. Bemard, 

■Cation, and tben to 

the Lambro. celtbrated 
victory ohtiined by Uaisbal M'Mahon, 8th June, 
idcd it. fighting 

euae. the Cbnn 

,00i> beeldefl priioneia, and the F 
[lis place a cuueway ia viilble, cr 

luine of tbo pwLiou sf Lodi and 
LODI BtaUvn. 
Population, ViM^- 
AUflj,— Bole <Snn) ; Eniopa. 

ie FoatOfflcs 

In Fndedo Barbarana, 
oidtawn by the UHanei 

_ right, on lh« 

Old Lodl, la the Hnclcal I^vi, 01 LoMt 
named, lo honour of Pempey, by the 
— '-- -'old buildings aUaeilitthen^ 

3di ia the head of a prerlace id 

— — ■ - bishop's set, abo** 

— itomided 11*8, 



LodI is a well bailt, walled town, and fttmoas in 
modem days for the battle of 10th May, when Bona- 
parte carried the bridge of the Adda against the 
Austrians, nnder BeauUetL It is long and narrow, 
and the French leader himself helped to plant two 
pieces of cannon at its head in spite of a murderous 
fire from the enemy's grenadiers behind their ram- 
parts from the opposite side. Here Massena, Berthier, 
Lannes, and others, first distinguished themselves. 
The Austrians retired in disorder to Crema. 

Some extensive palaces are seen at Lodi, at the 
Merlini, and Bami, and that belonging to the 
bishop, which is incomplete. The public square is 
surrounded by houses and arched porticoes. Among 
the churches the most noticeable is the 

CatfiedrcU, or Dnomo, an ancient Byaantine struc- 
ture of the 12th century, containhig the relics of 
St. Bassano. The Incoronata Church, by Bramante 
(1476), is eight-sided, and painted in fresco and 
ot], by O. Piazza da Lodi, a puidl of Titian. 

There are also an hospital with some old inscrip- 
tions in the court ; and a female school, founded by 
the widow of Cosway the artist. This beautifiil 
painter and musician returned hither after her hus- 
bands's death. She was bom at Leghorn. 

Outside the gate is a large pottery woric, like that 
at Faenza. The next station is 

Seengnano, foUowed by 

Oasal PUSterlengO station (population, 5,711), 
once a fief of the Pusterla family. Here the roads 
to Pavia and Cremona turn off. 

[At one stage (or ],\ or 12 miles) firom Casal Pus- 
terlengo, is Pizziohsitonb (population, 4,263), a 
fortified post on the Adda, where the Serio falls into 
it Here Charles V. kept his prisoner, Francis I., 
alter the battle of Pavia, and before sending him 
into Spain. Two stages further is Cremona, as in 
Boute 6.3 Following the rail, we come to 

CSodOgnO Station, a flourishing town of 9,620 
jnliabitants, having a trade in Parmesan cheese, and 
some good churches. 

Exc^t the vines and mulberry trees which appear, 
there is nothing particularly worth notice on the 
road to Piacenza, till you come to Rossa, a little 
place on the Po. Across the river is 

FUCENZA Station. 

Which the French call Plaisance, following the 
Boman name, Placentiat or Pleasant 

Population, 30,967. 

Hotels.— Mhergo di S. Marco (St Mark's Hotel) ; 
dltalia; Croce Biadca (White Cross). 

^Chie/Obiects o/iVbftce.<— Palazzo Faraese, Dnomo, 
8. Sisto. 

We are now in Parma, or, rather, in the Duchy of 
Piacenza, which belonged to the ex-Duke of Parma, 
and was formerly held by the Farnese family, and 
Kapoleon'6 widow, Maria Louisa. It is now part of 
the kingdom of Italy. 

Piacenza, orighially founded by the Romans, 

Mboai22^B a, is very pleasantly seated on a fertile 

jpJ'j^, ButTounded by Mis, near the sonth bank of 

ioaj'o, and the mouth of the TrebbUu A bridge of 

two arches crossei the l^ter river, near the town, 
erected in 1821. Moats and ramparts hem it in, but 
its cliief security is a citadel, which, under the ol 
system, was garrisoned by Austrian troops. 

The Stradone is the principal thoroughfare. Ail 
the houses and public buUdings are of brick, which 
gives it rather a sombre appearance. In fact Pia- 
cenza is more like a fortress of the middle ages, tha . 
a bustling town of modem days. It has neve . 
recovered the blow inflicted by F. Sforza, who, 01 
account of Its resistance against Milan, took it bi 1 
stonn, 1447, and sold 10,000 of its citizens. lYon 
that day its commerce and population have declined 
In the earlier days of its history, it was lorded ove 
by the Pallavichd, Landi, and Visconti f ano^lies. 

In the principal square, or Piazza de Cavalli 
which is paved with granite, stands the Duca 
Palace, or 

^Palazzo Famese, begun from Vignola's designs, 
but not finished. Its style is grand and shnple. In 
front are F. Mocchi's bronze ^uestrian statues of 
two Dukes of Parma, of the Famese family, who 
succeeded to the sovereignty of Piacenza in the 16th 
century. One is Alessandro, the soldier of Eliza- 
beth's time, and Philip of Spain's governor in the 
Netherlands, against whom Uie lion-hearted queen 
threw out her *^foul scorn," in her celebrated speech 
at Tilbury Fort when threatened with the Spanish 
Armada; and the other is his sou, the tyrannical 

OppcMSite the Ducal Palace is the anclrat Gothic 
Podesteria, or^own Hall, built in the 13th century. 
The seat of the ex-Ducal family was at Palazzo 
Mandelli. Among the religious edifices is the 

*CaOudral or Dturnio, at the end of the Contrada 
Dritta, hi the Gothic style, also begun 1132, but with 
nothing remarkable beyond the curious figures and 
ornaments about it The interior is crowded with 
paintings of little merit, but in the cupola and choir 
are discerned the frescoes of Guercino and L. CarraccL 
Two paintings by modem artists deserve notice^ 
Jesus on Mount Calvary, by Chevalier Landi, and 
The Presentation in the Temple, by CammucinL 
There is a monument to Sacchini, the musician. The 
brick campanile is 200 feet high, and has an iron 
cage for prisoners, made by Ludovico 11 More. 

The old Cathedra^ now the church of S. Antonlno, 
was rebuilt in 1562. Its octagonal tower is as old as 
1014, and rests on several pillars. Its old vestibule 
is called U Paradiso. 

Madonna delta Campagna, belonging to the Fran- 
ciscan Convent was built by Bramante, and contains 
good frescoes, by Pordenone and Sogliano. 

S. Giovanni has two large pictures, by Landi and 
Cammucini, and was built oy the Knights of St 
John. There is a marble monument of the Scott 
family. Dante speaks of Michael Scott, the wizard. 

iS. Franeiseo Orande is a remarkable Gothic chordi 
of the 13th century (1278). 

*S. Sisto is a richly ornamented church of the 

16th century, with two cupolas, containing several 

pictures by various masters^ as Procacclni's Massacre 

1 ot th Iraiocftntej^aasKQO'*^^ l&axNXx^^x^.^^ w^t 

•f tUpliierB hnwns " UidotmB dl S. BIiId," «Uch 
iincwitMniilcbi vrilh & DioniuaeDt to O. funew'" 
wift, HvgBnt of Aiutria. 
_ . — , J— ---"jioB, dw^noil by VlgDOla, 

In niiCT*!, tin ^hkImi, Uwngli 

Irith onumcnti ot Indmruit deglga.~Tb« uchltM- 

Olfau Inildhigi m Uh PaSiatB 

trick hnlldlBi; of IbalEth Mntury. r „ 

liB CoDega Albemoi, outside tin Porta 

Arooaf Its nitlrca. It mkocs Qngftrj X.; Cu> 
dbul Altnroiil! nidBUtlMBForti. 

Ilia TnbUs 1i istlier ■ ramoiu Mrtam. On Uh 
Inaki HudUhI det«Mcd the Conaul a«mpniiiliB; 
■ad SowuTOw debated ths Fiencli under "— 
doiald, lAar ■ btocdjr flgfat of Oatt dayi, 


igged hUlii dom to 

(An la , 

to veil*]!, Iho wdeM Viltia. ■ Mrt at Pompet, t 
tlH but ^ tha ApeanliiM, orerwlulmed In Itie 41. 
cenlntT, ■ Uttla altn Ccnituitlne'a dtuk, br a land- 
alh> ban tba Kota Bid Roiinaiio hull. It ia 2; 


''eieiio; abont U mllea 
no carnage tobq Btopa. 

Bother noonntdn (<BTeii^ In the bed ot wbicb the 

AIMt ramaiiiteg buried npnardi ef 11 centoTiei, 

timei, by th* Eailbls of a bronze tablet. In 1747. 
TheTniagBOTraltirajthencaUed Madniaao. Thli 
tablet iwled by anttquulaiia, Ibg ASmenuuy Table, 
wai, Id flKt, a mmdclpal act ot Trajan'i ilm^ pro- 
viding (Or the annport ot Vl» poor chndnn, iiiid ii 
ejftet long by CI broad. In ITSD, FbHJp of ~ 

ordered mrthet Bearche* t 
vhldi an collected In ' 
nmiin of nutble and b 

aitlcl«9, Including a p 

Wbot boildlogi hi 
■kipe Ota bDl. Tbe» 
and Bathe, Id tba F 
BitlA of the Bnncy c] 

be made, the leiulu o 

ruEO, Amphitheatre, 
xet, DOW U Parma, 

on the Chero, wltb 

Following tha railway and tho Via Emilia we 
reach tbe CoUcse Alberonl, on the lite of 3. LaiaiTO'a 
oldbimiltal; men come u 

' POUteuma station and 

I Flmunolk station, wUh ■ popnUtlon of 8,131; 
a goull bat Inlateatlng old town, whence Veltiii may 
be Tlalted, na above mentioned. Tbe vlewa of the 

AlMno Station (pspnlatton, 4,018), we codn to 
BOTgO-8ail-l>(mlIloSUllon.lnaSnapl^n. It 

and araboqaei. PoiiidUloii. 9.S9St It nanda on 
tbe tnw Stirobo. Tha hoipllal. or aaylnm fbr tbe 
poor, wai eilabllshed W the Frenoh. In plan of the 
luppreiBed coDvemi. The Cathedral ot brick, with 
lie cnrioui anbnal sculptured Is of the I2th csitnry. 

OBBtel OnelfO BtaUcn. >o called after a mined 
fertrcai ot the Gnell psriy. It Is ot biidt, with 
machlcfdiUons and several cudoiia towers. 

A little farther li the fine none bridge on the 

Population, Ab.liZ. 
ifcMli.— La Fosta; Pi 

Irei name, la nude abo 
i S. StainiM, cocked In 

to Cotel Arqnats, end a; 

Bologna. Railway Siulon a short dManca ooUlda 
>i"! city. Omnibna firBi, 7G cecta, clltadlnl, I fr. 
■GhitfOijtai of SaUa.--Ilaama, Sleccala Chnrcb, 

FameH. Academy- Paintings by C^rregglo and 
Parmlglano, of the Pirmese BChoo!, one of thOM 
distill SUlsllca hy cJliaro-KurD. 

LlilDg la mgreeable in Puna. The air li aair, 
though from thfl elevation of the town, and the 
Tieighbonthood of the ^lenninef, tt blowi keen In 
winter. Tha terrttory haa been alwaya i«nowDtd 
rurlti rleb nuadowi and fleeces. Kartial nyi of it, 
'TondetethmumoroiaiUla Pimagieges." Ac 
he present day lUk la the chief ptodnct Scaicely 
inongb com is grown Ibr home coninmplion, bat Ic 
■ abundant in Hit woi^, mines ot Iron and copper, 

of 1 prortnce, and Uta of a duchy, now incorpcraled 
with the kingdom of Italy, wai made a Bomoa 

antiquity. LltUo ol the old time renulni, except 


llitflndflr«atli€PaffBtt!vMf;iv1i«r» (he VbBiaOU 
crosaes it* and tcmm tb» main atreett Strate 
Maestra, or Al PoBt« ^ Mecao (1| mOea lont), ae 
called from the middle bridge on the iltrer; the 
otben being Ponte Capraneoa, and Ponte Verde. 

It ia surrounded by moated widla, nboai 4 aOea in 
compass, witii five gatae. Ita wlda atreeta tave 
rather a deserted look. Many of the hooaes are 
large and well built; andit is provided with fbontalns 
and aqueducts for water; but the principal objects 
for strangers are the works of its three great 
painters, Correggfo, Parmigiano, and Lanfl^co, 
which adcHii the churdieB and public buildings of 
the town. Parmigiano, whose i«al name was 
Masaolo, was born at Parma 1604. 

The catliedral, or *Duamo, is a large bnilding in 
the Gothic style, of the 12th century (1106), re- 
markable for ita eight-sided cupola, the inside of 
which is decoTi^ed with the beautiftd freacoea of 
Correggio. The subject is the 'Assumption of the 
Virgin, among a crowd of angels and sidnts. It is 
one of his finest works, though much faded. Here 
are tombs of the celebrated Bishop Turchi, A. 
Mazzo (the musician), and J. B. Bodoni (the printeA, 
whose editions of Italian works are much admirea, 
and whose office is stUl here. There is also a man- 
soleum to Petrarch, who was for many years arch- 
deacon of the cathedraL Many valuable sculptures, 
pictures, and frescoes by Gambara, Gatti, etc, may 
be noticed in the chofa* and other parts of the build- 
ing, as well as the subterranean chapel and its 
marble Corinthian pillars. 

At the side of the cathedral are, the tall campanile, 
and the Battisterio, or Baptistry ; a rich octagonal 
building of six stories, of Verona marble, buiU2196, 
by Autelini. It contains many richly-adorned pil- 
lars, two being of Oriental granite; several curious 
antique pictures, with Lanfranoo's picture of 8t 
Octaviua falling from his Horae, and a large holy 
water basin of one single piece of marble, of the 
13th century. 

8. Giovanni Svangaista, a wtilte marble chnrch, at 
the end of the Riolo, belonged to the Benedictine 
Convent, was built in the 15th and I0th century, 
and is enriched with good pictures, among which 
are— a beautlfhl copy of the St Jerome df Corr^gio, 
by Aretnsi; another copy of his fEunoos Night, now 
at Dresden ; but especially some superb freseooi In 
the cupola, by Correggio himself This was his first 
great work, when he was only twenty-six. Tiie sub- 
ject is *St John in a vision, seeing Christ on his 
throne, wtth the Apostles around. The same great 
aftist painted in chiaro-scuro the omaments round 
the vault of the sanctuary, and gave the designs of 
the figures and children in bas-relief in the frieze of 
the cornice, aa well as on the oandelabras, and the 
capitals of the pilasters down the whole length of tiM 
church. The arches in the St. Crucifix and St Ger- 
trude chapela have some frescoes by ParfltUgiane ; 
another has a Madonna by F. Francia. Going to 
the convent or college, attached to the <dmrch, 
yon pasa a recess oiver a little door, wHh a 8t 
Jotan the Evangelist by Correggio, and inside the 
cca-not, fronting tha doer of the winter refectory, ia 

in f^MoOi nitf ofttfosatoly flMMft AAnAged. In ft 0ON 
lidor there are torn afcaeoo flgniea, by A: Begar^U, 
of Modena. 

The church of the Kium CappHcine waa boUt in 
lt69 by G. F. Teats, and though small, ia rich and 
elegant, and crowned by a cupola, in which is the 
Aaaumptlon at the Virgin, a fresco bv G. B. Tlnti. 

The CmneUu church belonged formerly to the 
Blnlgfata Templara. It haa a Conception by J. B. 
Piazetta; two good pictures of the Miracles of St 
FeHx, by L, Spada, in the choir ; and two by A. 
Carraoei of 8t Louis and St Elisabeth. 

L'Anmmziata is com'posed of ten chapels arranged 
on an oval, to the centre of which they all tend. 
Among other ornaments is an Annunciation by 
Correggio, in fresco, removed from the waUs on 
account of the injury it has suffered. Parmigiano's 
Madonna and Child, and his St Jerome, are in the 

T*e church of the suppressed convent of St Paul, 
now dedicated to 8. Ltuiovito^ was frequented by the 
Ducal Court in one of the rooms of the convent, 
may be seen the fltmous frescoes of Correggio, repre^ 
senting the*Triumph of Diana, with several atten- 
dants canying instruments of chase, and compart- 
ments round it in chiaro*8cnro. Anofher room is 
painted by A. Aral(M. 

S. Ttreia is entirely painted in fresco by Galeattl; 
the subjects being the events in the life of the imtron 

* Madonna della StMcaUt, so called from a sieeeafo 
or railing before an image of the Vte^n, is the finest 
church in Parma ; attributed to Bcaittulte, but really 
built by G. F. Zaccagna, about 1^9. In the crypt 
are the tombs of the Ducal houses, the Sforza, 
Famese and 'other families. Its qurbles and inlaid 
work, though rich, are exceeded by the beauty of 
the pictures, in fresco and oil, which it conttdna. 
Among others are the Three Sibyls, under the (n^gan, 
a Moses breaking the two Tables, on an aidi close 
by, and an Adam and Eve in chiaro-scuro, all fine 
woiis by Parmigiano. The remainder are works 
by Anselnri, Tiarini, B. Gatti, Sooaro, Franceschin!, 
etc Two Roman pillars of the time of Constaatine 
stand opposite this church. 

Some good frescoes are seen ia lYinUa Veechia 
church, among wtdch are St Roch and St. Antony of 
Padua; and a Holy Virgin with St John Baptist 
and St Francis, by G. B. Siotti, surhamed Molossoi 
There are also several inscriptions. 

S. Alaaandro.—HBre are paintings by G. Mazzolo 
and Tiarini At 8. Francesco ef« Prato ore frescoes 
bQT AnselmL The fa9ade of Madonna delle OraeU 
deserves attention. 

The *Ptd<uxo Fame$e, between Piazza Grande and 
Pente Verde, otherwise called the Pilotta, is not re- 
mai^able except for the great mass it is composed 
of, but attempts are making to improve the whole 
pile. Here is the 

Accademia delle Belle Arti, comptlsing a Hnaeoteca 
or picture gallery, and a library la 14 or 15 r<- -^ ns <m 
the first fioor, and a museum on the gronuU lluor. 
Open, ten to three. 

The PinaeoUca contains some of the most remark- 
ablt tf Gorregglo*8 works. Among theso are tbt 


If adoint della Beala, a freteo tnam. ForU a BOebela 
and the Scala oratory; the Bladonna della Scodella 
(iAofthe platter which flbehcdds); a Deaeent from 
the Cross t but above all, his II Giomo, or the Day, 
otherwise called the *St. Jerome, from the principal 
flgore, acoompaided by the Virgin and Child, St M. 
Jugdalene, and two Angela Other noticeabe pie- 
tores are:— Pormlgiano, Madonna, with St Jerome, 
etc. ; Anselmi, Madonna, and Saints : G. Mazzolo, 
Conception of the Virgin; F. Francia, the Vitale 
Madonna, or Madonna Enthroned, with Santa Jua- 
tina, St Benedict, Santa Scolastica, S. Pladdus; 
(one of the portraits is a likeness of a member of the 
Vitale family); F. Francia, Descent from the Cross; 
L. Carracci's Borial of the Virgin; Annibale 
GamccL a Pieti: G. Maazolo, Adoration of the 
Magi; Gaerdno, Madonna; Cimia da Conegliano, 
Madonna on a Throne; Raphael, Christ in Glory, 
with the Madcnna, etc ; Correggio, Martjrrdom of 
S. Flavia and S. Flacidiis ; Pannigiano, Martyrdom 
of St Catherine; A. del Sarto^ a Pletk There are 
also portndts of Correggio^ Parmigf&no, etc; Chera^ 
Uw Totchi*B drawings of Correggio's works, and 
eoloesal basalt statues of Bacchus and Hcrcnles, 
Ibnnd in the Fameae gardens at Rome, with other 
relics from Veleia. 

At one end stands Canova's fine statue of Maria 
Louisa, who on the banishment of her husband 
to St Helena, 181S, was made Duchess of Parma. 
She resided, till her death, in 1847, hi a building 
close to tlie Palace Famese, and there they show her 
son the Duke of Reichstadt*s rich cradle, and her 
toOettt, eta, gtren by the city of Paris to the Bride 
of NiqMleoa. 

Two great galleries are filled by 100,000 vols, and 
4,000 MSS. of tha library founded 1770. There is a 
fresco by Corrsggk) from S. Giovanni's church and 
a largo coHeetioii of prints. Among the literary 
corio^es here is a Koran taken frvxn the Grand 
Vizier's tent at the battle of Vienna; a MS. of 
Petrardi's which bdonged to Francis I; I^itber's 
Hebrew Psalter ; and 3,400 vols, of books and MSS. 
which bdonged to Rossi, the Hetarew sdiolar, and 
were broofi^t in 1816. Here also are 80,000 en- 
gravings and the types of Bodoni, the famous 

The MuseOt on the ground floor, is rich hi bronzes 
and medals (about 80,000), inscriptions, and other 
monuments of ancient veleia above mentioned 
Q>age 68), including the Tn^an Table. 

A large theatre, the Teatro Fanuse which makes 
part of the Palace, was built by G. Aleotti for Duke 
RanucciOL It is of wood 1,033 feet long, nearly 100 
ftet wide, and would hold about 9,000 persons. It is 
tiie largest In Italy, but not used, and in a dihtpi- 
dated oondhian. The semicircular body rests on 
Corinthian pillan 66 itet high, and has 14 rows of 
scats f oivthe spectators. 

The Teatro Nwmo near the Palace, was built by 
Maria LouIm in 1829. A third is lately completed 
of very elegant design, by H.Battoli, of Parma, the 
decorations by CherraUer Toidd. 

The UfCtuM or ooUsca. sometimes called a 
Univwfllty, is estsUUbsT ia the old College of the 
JesultSi and attended by about SOD stodeats. Throe 

or fbnr nrolhMonhipv ns afttadiedU 11 
also a theatre of Anatomy, a mnsewn d Natural 
ffistory, laboratory, observatory, etc, with a Bo> 
taaic garden in the Stradoae promenade in the 
south sobnrtMi of the city. 

At the military college of Amfti OoMrAui are good 
paintings by Lanfnmoo, L. Spada, F. Stringa, etc, and 
an interesting plan of attack and defence, modelled 
by P. D'Aubencourt, director of the plans at the 
Louvre. It is 62 feet long. Besides these educar 
tional establishments there are a Monte di Pictk for 
helphigthe poor, founded as far back as 1488, by 
Father di Fcltro, who first set such a scheme on 
foot ; a Misericordia, and other hospitals for tha 
aged and insane; and various benevolent insti- 
tutions prqiectcd by Maria Louisa; whose rule was 
mild and liberal. 

The Palazzo delle Commune designed by G. 
Magnani, and the Lo Giara riding house near the 
market place, deserve notice 

The Palazzo Scmvitah has a rich collection oi 
Pannigiano's desig^ns, his Baptism of Christ (painted 
vrhen he was IC) a gallery of ancient and modem 
masters, an excellent library, and a theatre buHt ot 
wood and occasionally open to the public 

College Lalatta is ornamented with Gamtiaia'a 

Palazzo P(dlavieini possesses fine pictures by Ga> 
leotti, Tempesta, etc. 

At the Palazzo OiardinOt another scat of the ex- 
Ducal house across the Pontc Verde, are some 
admirable stuccoes, Gobelin tapestries, and one room 
contmning the frescoes of A. Carracci and Cignani. 
Its beautiful grounds or the Giardini Ducale are 
open every day. 

Tlie Cctsani de Tignola is a small but elegant 
house, injured however by time and improper 

Near the Porto di S. Micheli, buUt aooOTding to 
some by the celebrated engineer Sanmicheli, is the 
CitadA, wliich though rc^rularly planned and laid 
out, is incapable of much resistance A fine ea* 
planade lies between it and the town, close to the 
Stradone and the Botanic Garden. 

By the Treaty of Villafranca (1859), the Duchlesof 
Parma and Piacenzawero to be restored to their 
runaway sovereigns, subject to the concurrence of 
the people; an important reservation, which they 
wero quick to use against them. As soon as the 
Austriao bayonets were withdrawn the whole edifiea 
of tyranny tumbled into ruina The small Ducal 
army joined its protectors at Mantua. Farini was 
appointed Dictator of Modena and Parma by the 
respective (^amt>ers; Rlcasoli governed Tuscany, 
under the Assembly; and Cipriani the Legations, 

In the course of a short time deputations proceeded 
to Turin to offer the sovereignty of Central Italy to 
Victor Emmanuel, which he accepted oonditionaily; 
and Garibaldi beUig appohited to the command, aa 
army of 22 reglmenta of inCmtzv, with artillery and 
cavalry, was soon oi^aniaed. TIm late Duke (Ferd 
Ch. IlL) was stabbed March, 1864; hit* prime mia- 
ister, Baron Ward, an EngUshman, waa dismiaaed; 
and his widow becama EegBDiu Qha 4&cA.>^^ 



On 5th OdobAr, 185d, Colonel Anvlti, ono of the 
most actiye and detested agents of the Duke was 
recognised by the mob at the station, and though 
taken by the police to the San Bamaba barracks, 
they broke in and massacred him. This nnhappy 
event was a great stain npon the ItaUan caoM, and 
the population was disarmed by FarinL 

Beyond the gates, near Sala, is the C€uino de 
Boschi, a favourite retreat of Maria Louisa. The 
Viletia^ or public cemetery, is also outside the town. 

About nine miles from it, at Calobno, on the 
Castel Maggiore road, is another Ducal seat, a fine 
building, in extensive gardens. The wood of Selva 
Plana to the south, up the'Apennines, was Petrarch's 
favourite retreat His house is gone, but the noble 
prospect remains, beautiful as when he lived to eqjoy 

Among the natives of Parma were Casslus the 
friend of Brutus; another Casaius, a poet, whom 
Horace speaks of; and Macrobhis; besides the 
painter Parmigiano, already mentioned. Some of 
his best works are at Bologna, to which he went 
in 1527. 

Roads firom Pormo.— That by Colomo leads to 
Castel Maggiore (two posts) on the Po, whence 
there is a direct road to Mantua and another to Bozzo, 
on the Cremona and Mantua road. The direct post 
road to Mantua passes Sorbolo, on the Enza, Bres- 
cello (two posts), and Guaotalla (one post), with a 
population of 9,544, near the Po ; thence to Mantua, 
OS in Route 16. Fertile meadows are seen all the 

Many of the inhabitants of the province, belonging 
to the mountainous or barren parts of the state, emi- 
grate to England to earn a small independence wiUi 
Uieir street organs and monkeys. 

Leaving Parma at the railway station near Porta 
S. Bamaba, the line continues to traverse the great 
plain, close to the Via Emilia, and in view of the 
Apennines. Cross the Enza, which was the boundary 
of the now extinct Duchies of Parma and Modena. 

S. narlO Station (population, 1,800). Cross the 
Costolo, and the next station is the walled city of 


The birthplace of Ariosto the poet. Population, 

This is the ancient Rhegium Lepidi, founded by 
.Smilius Lepidus, whose name survives in his 
Emilian Way and the new Italian provhice of Emilia. 

This road, under the name of the Strada Maestra 
(the master road), is the chief thoroughfare, with 
another called the Corso della Ghlarra. After being 
mined by Attila and rebuilt by Charlemagne, 
Reggio came under the family of Este, which Ari(ftito, 
in the last canto of his Orlando Furioso, makes to 
spring from the marriage of Bradomante and Rug- 
^ero, a converted Saracen Icnight *Ariosto's house, 
or the site of it, is shown near the Town Hall, or 
Palazzo del Commune. 

The other remarkable buildings are the Duomo^ in 
Piazza Grande, an unfinished church of the 15th 
caatmy, Jmrintr stataea wiOumt and \rithin it by 

one of BL Angelo's pnpHs, Clementi, who to bnrleA 

The Madorma delta Ghiara^ belonging to the 
Franciscan Convent of the Zoccolantl {i.e. sandal- 
wearer^, in the Corso, contahis a Cruclfi^don by 
Ouercino, with frescoes by L. Ferrari and Tiarini. 
Near this is a granite obelisk, erected 1942, on tho 
marriage of the Grand Duke^ 

8. Promro, in Piazza Ficcola, an old chorch, 
rebuilt in the 16tti century. It has frescoes by Pro- 
caccini, Campi, and TiarinL 

At theLyceoia a Motural History collection, made 
by Spallanzani. Not far from this are the remains 
of Canossa Castie, which belonged to the Countess 
Matilda, and in which Pope Hildebrand received 
the homage of Henry IV. in 1077. The Emperor 
was kept thsee days outside the castle in the dress of 
a penitent, and on the fourth day was granted ab- 
sohition after tke had kissed the Pope's foot 

BuDiera, the next Station, is a littie fortified 
place near tJie Seod^ It was the state prison of 
the Duchy of Modeoa, and belonged to the iincestora 
of Bojardo, the author of the Orlando Innamorato 
(whi«h Ariosto afterwards took up), and Cknint of 
Scan^ano, a feudal castle a few miles off, under the 
Apennmes. The next place is 


The ancient Muttna, where Mark Antony was de- 
feated, B.C. 48, by the Consuls Hirtius and Pansa, 
who were both killed. 

J7ote2«.—- San Marco and Reale. Good zampone, 
or petltoes; spongarte, pan! speziali, and other sweet-> 
meats! ; vino tosco (red), vino trebbiano (white), and 
vino di Sorbaro, are the usual wines. 

Conveyamxt. — Railway to Bologna, Parma, and 
Piacenza. Omnibuses and carriages at the railway 
station, the former 50 cents., the latter 1 fr. to 1 fr. 
50 cents., to any part of the town. 

Population, 58,442, including CampogaUiana and 

The women wear blue kerchiefs on the head. 

* Chief Olifeeta cf Notice Duomo, Ghh*landlna 

Tower, ex-Ducal Palace. 

This small capital of the little absolute Ducfay of 
Modena, new swallowed up in the constitutional 
Kingdom of Italy, is a well-built and handsome city, 
between the Secchia and Panaro, stmt in by walls, 
and contxdniug several arcaded streets, the principal 
one called Strada Maestra, or ttte Corso, forming 
part of the Via Emilia. Here fs a statue to Muratori 
the great scholar. A canal, from near the railway 
station and Porta Castello, opens up a communication 
with the Po. It is lit with gas and well supplied 
with water. At the northern extremity is the citadel 
and Piaz^ d' Axmi. Out of its fifty churches and 
chapels, tike most remarkable is the 

*/>uomo, or Cathedral, near the Corso, in Piazza 
Grande, founded 1099, by Countess Matilda, in the 
Lombard style, and finished in the 14th century. It 
has a stone vault and crypt Its tall, conspicuous 
campanfle, consisting of a square base of 200 feet, 
with an octagonal spire of 115 feet on top^ is of black 
marble, with a bronze garland round it, which gives 

h it* popnlu Diin« of •GMftairflni. It contilm i 
tmckn. vlricli. In the clTll win of the 13th century 
niK eunteil off ftnm Bologiui u > tropb;, ud li Uu 
■abl<«t at a burleique poem. La Becehlm Bapita. (thi 
BiqHDf the Bucket), bj Tuunl. who iiaottoK 
confounded irlfli Tulo. It cODtaiiu til* Bangdnl 
tombg, Bad an UKleot Modenwe paSnting of me 
Cmimlns of M«y, by & de' Beriflnl <13SS), wUh 
m tern cotta mti^, V BegneUI. 
S. Ateitim/, 01 SanU Uargbarltii, oexr the I 

Botognu 0*M, baa • enpola 

I*, la the 

Maty, by Pel 

the Fakce Gardens, ta 

'ilde or tbe dt;, faciiiK t 

It and ^rdeua, Erand atatrcoae 
oietnn aallanr and llbraiy, A 
«:— I.dlBlocL 

of the"bat artiit of the ModTnese 

Aiellno. A Kinitge; 1 

. jMngT; Ia'cbttmiC 

■ eoiu sod Capldi t^tiau, Pcirtrsits ; Girofal^ 
Uadomia arJd Smluti^ Gnldo, 9. Rocb In Prii&n. 

Bluing, 'Uarrioee of St. Calhorinei A. dsl Hino, 
HoiyFainllyi a. Procasclni, ClrcumclSon ; Tfarihil. 
- ■- ■ - ■■ ■ Nativity - ■ 

s dsad Chrlj 
of driwlQga tr 

IS CtoM; Uurlllo. 
tine. There la aUo 

i cuUecUo 

•nthor of "Aotichlu Eatcnaa," »ntl 

' "BlbUoteca Modem*," etc, 

The lauer I* bnrlcd In Iho 

and medala dlaapfewal ttIHi the ex- 
L-uj» xmaistaco V-. In ISSt. HIb ii?AIe army of 
2,D00iMni*suUiudfiJthfiil lo blm, Hnd haa been 
InooTpoiatadwiai ibB AuatTtan Ibrces. ll*iiaedi(i 
any be did not mat "enllghleiKilineu, butobediani 
or a deipot'a «i0oiis of goo* eowmmcnt. 

The mmtair buncka, at the Ballcett*. wer* need 
by him aa a priaon tut poUKcal oCfenden. 

The Daaa Palace waa occnpled by Failnl. tb<^ 
Dlttator. It waa aa»ened by the Court taction, and 
repcatid by Lord Nonnaiby, that thla euilieni 
man appropriated all tbe Dake'a Bnen, which being 
markciJ " F." (for Fraimaaoo), would do aa well (br 
FarloE. Wben be ralgned tb* IMetalorahIp, upon 
thenntonofthB Daehl«i with Bardbiia, he wat aa poor 
aa wben he asciuned It ; lo poor tlwt th* Prorlnchil 

Aaaemhty voted him an Mats ind ■ ram of m 

Ihmfllea beinv In the banda of an fgn 
Mgot*dpilt8thoiHl. n haa a good thealie, : 

loot loclMy, lb* leading 
I of an Ignorut'aaa 

ood thealie, fr«»ntr 
inalc: th* caffia. a 
mo. ueneral Oaldlnl waa bora 
Uodena, and began aervice with 

EOUTE 18. 


By rail ftom TievigUo (on the Milan and Venla 

road. Tbe iti 

Milci. I 


4) Sore^na t4f 

-r JOf ! Caaalbnliono _,. 3!| 

Cutelleane 90) | Cremona _ DO 


CuavcteglO (papnlB(lon,T.131],htu&Loinbaid 
church. Hua wna the birthplace of Michelangelo 
Mcilglaie pnbitei, uaually called CaraTagglo, bom 

PleliL in the Vatican. Hli Chriil at Bmmwia, is In 
om' NaUonal Qallery. Spaenolelto waa one of hi* 

C^mA Station, (popnlatloii 8,311)), on (be lUver 
Serio, which cornea fma Ba^mo. IE baa loma 
manofactnicfl, and a breeding atnd and a cathedral of 
the fifteenih caninry, with lolntiagi by Qoldo. Rich 
meadow Uod here all the way lo CremniB, bnt th* 
Une pauea nothing of ImporUnce except fax worki^ 


IT the Po, In & ftRDe bnt muibr |iut 
ortbefTMt pUOn oridmbudr- Will* ma dltctw 
J u M .ij_. .... ■"•-'-(, belag filtod by» 

_ _ —■ an&r wtidi coma 

» Ogllo. 

>llle>l la lul^, wxl vl 

Mat to Aichhlibop VM>. a MHm X 4>* «IM 

'Immortal VUa" oTPiipi'i Uui^ wlw pnn>wii» 

" CwDOH Daw riull «nr boMt tlir nmn 

Aa Htfai filKa to Mantoa, ust In tamB," 

He wn of Ia) X.'t time, and wrote fame LUlB 

Om mOe ontof ttac 
Hit fina drarch pf'S 

■i$ .SMimMdEi, wldcti wai putot 
I by f. Slbra I.. Dofea dTHIIan, 

ma made t' 

nliqnitv nilh anj of lis 
'acltu botJi describe the ii 

ut tt mar tla In 
Lboun. -VliillBd 

n the kingdom of Italy. 

Paluio PDbbUeo ct Or 

mmtan, lately rei 

bnlber, tha Snutdan of tlu Cnmona bnncli or tbe 

Lombard iclunl In tba lAtb oantnry» were eieropted 

ftviD taiM by UNlr fUtov dUxcm. The old brick 

rtCcmmmm- Idw Conit aiyolniog It. la mufcsd 

'* Hri laigc aicfiia (now filled In). 

It poaHSMa Hmnl loedli .. .. „ . .._ 

lUid ben by the Abate Apord, Id IS!9. Uolldu 
Kbooli Rw elder boyi, i. &, aoDooli whkh they attend 
OB cbarch boUdaya al» eilit here. Conaldertng 
tbe number at auch taoBdayi In Catbolic UUBtlifs, 
tUi li a TBally nieftlproTliloiL 

The * CtOJitdral or Dnomo, cloM to Ibe ttnver. to 
wblch It it Dnltcd by In open loggia, la a Gothic 
dmreA, fbr tbe moat part bnilL between HOT und 
Unt; tbe fttade of wblu and red marble being the 
Meat portion. Tbla Is ornamented by enrinni srr- 

aof tbe nuona, alEiia cd tbe lodiac. and a nee 
ow, by a, Forrata, lltK The Interior ii highly 
■doni«d> jmd oontabu mamr paintings by Pordenone 
(l)MCnidfiiton),B,Gatll.Boccacbia{the "Baphad" 
orCmiionanbeliojillHl),Harattl, C>mpl.MsTt)saa, 
eto.^ with freaeoes by Dlotll, and sculptcres by 
BMiiiU, a naUT* MM of the IStta century. A 
f tlie 111b oenCDry 
—■ - Jral. In tha i 

^ola p^nttnii b] 
B. A. and O. Cainpl. and lulOMat Jon 
irkL as wall as oUiec naUn artllH, era 

.. joalFot B. Abbo , ,. 

a Uranus B.aknBlD.ot& ^MtApati 

PaBKi, an tho nOway to tbe soiitl 

la IK) 

EOUTE 17. 

Up tha IJTer Adlia, ne« tbe Lago dl Oaida, by 
railway. Tbe atuliina are 

HlleLl WkL 

Parana ....„ 11 AtId „.„.„ „ W 

Pagcantana .. - 1> Ala _. H 

DemegUan .. SS ! Marl R 

SomeKUan atatloo, near Rivwi, OB tlu ottaa 

Ide of the Adlge, wbeie Bod^hHb diAited Om 
Loglrlsiis uDdec Alilnal. luh Jannaiy, ITST, aftH a 
lard £ght, the town being taken and retaken twiM 

BorarriQ Station, whlcb ts outilde ^~ hrrffj 
a Italy pitfie'i la tlia nearen atatlon tat 
Xiva. It the head of Laka di Oarda (See Brat- 

tuu!n>-Boar fo ncAvr; 

■M flHtt 0fttlj|{M^ SiJ^rtlM) cUvWy ctcif grow in tlM 
«pt» ain Md enmi^F tt to IM e«tted the paradise of the 
Soith Aipa. The Veroan* ud Toronto Albola, two 
i u mta to Btreatma, tumble Into the lake bare. At 
the Hhiortte Cfaimii sro tome woria of art; La 
BoQoai Caatle^ qgi the lake, wu built by the Soaiigeri 
ftelly. ThereisafiBeintmiaiiadehitheoolomiade, 
on the little hattxrar. 

VarioBs excarsioas may be made on the lake, wUeh 
ii snrroimded by falUt, castles, oonntry hoasea, etc., 
olfcfteg a great variety of beaatifal pro^ieota. A 
stMBaboat atarta daily to the little port of DesenzanOf 
besideB the onttnariaor pack^ beat twice a week. 
ERMtt Biina-to PeacMera at the bottom, it is about 
ttdfty mOes loag ; the breadth here is ten milea; ex- 
ceBeatHah is caagfat Virgil calls it the Btnacus, and 
notfeea the storms raised by the raountaia winds. 
Only the upper part on each side of Riva belongs to 
TfmL Meant Baldo, oomparativcly bare, hangpi 
over the eaat aide; the west to by fiar the moat 

In the middle is the pretty island of Tremelone, 
wlOi eqant Lecclii's hoose and gardens. Among 
the spots on the west shore worth notice are, the 
I*edro watetfall, b^iind Ponal, 300 feet down; 
liimone, and its citron groves; the limestone qaar- 
riesof %(9moBine; Oargnago and its villas ; Tosco- 
lana ana vineyards; Salo (population, 3,000), 
amoqg otange ^ovea, one of the most delightful 
parta of the lake ; Ifanerbio, which had a temple 
of Mbierva. Wflnasar marched down both sides of 
thfa lidce to meet B<maparte in the campaign of 1796. 

ForTaxNTO, or Trent, -whei^ the Council was held, 
BCo Bmdshatt/^ Sand-book to SwUzerlaad ana ^oL 

ROUTE 18. 



By rail to Hantna, 23 miles; three times a day in 
li faoaia. 
VsBOSA, (see Bonte 13) 

Tf^tntBB leave Porta Yescova, firom which it is ]| 
mUea to Porta Noova; after which the atations 


iwantBpi ••••••••• 

«. 18 

OoBobnono.. ..».*..« 9h 
lflIlafrBDca...^«.M. lit 
Mozzecane 14| 

After passing Doaaolraono Station, we have 

Cvnotatk to the r^t, where the Piedmontose 
were beaies by the Auatriaos, 25th July, 184S. 
Then oamaa 

Vmafranea Statlen (7,M0 populaHon), which 
was ChftiKa Alberfa head^oarters at the thne, and 
gives name to the Gonventian of 11th July, 1859, 
l>etween Napoleon IIL aaid Rnneia Joseph, con- 
doifed after the battle of aeUMta*, 18 miles distant 

ft i« a boatlhig mailMife-to«m in the piovinoe ef 
Ma«tBa,witiia«asll««ftlMMtfcoeatnry. The two 
•everelgns aw» ait a baoie ta<:!Mrtnida Cappnocini, 
Iwkaigfaig t» a ftgBtrHpfiW lign» Tha4at«vifir 

lasted an hoor, the Empeiors eottVcnihg aometiinea 
in Italian, sometimes in German. Nothing was 
written at the meeting; bat the iakatand and paper, 
wluch were placed on the table, may be still seen 
here exactly as they were set down. Louis Nwoleon 
mechanically picked to pieces some of the flowers 
in a vase wliich stood before him. When they 
came out, he was gay and easy, aa might be ex- 
pected; the Kaiser looked pale and embarrasaed. 

Count Arrivabeae relates the effect of this onex- 
pected peace on the Italians ; the coldness of Victcn: 
Emmanuel ; the fierce rage of Cavour, who reslg*^ 
to be replaced by Bieasoli and Ratazzi, though he 
continued to be the maiui^ring of every movement 
which followed; the dead silence of the people in 
their public reception. About five miles jwest Ot 
Villafranca, ia— ^^_ 

Valeggio, on the Minclo and the high road ftom 
PescMera to Mantua. At this place. Villa Maffei, a 
bonding of the seventh century, and the seat of a 
family represented by Count Maffei, secretary to the 
Italian L^ation in England, was for its picturesque 
sitaation and its magaificeaoe, chesen as the resi- 
dciice of the Austrian General during thie annoal 
military manoeuvres in Autumn. Francis Josejdi 
established his head-qaarters here before the battle 
of Solferino, and it was occupied by Louis Napoleon 
after the battle. "More than once," says Connt 
Arrivabene, " while strolling about the gardena, to 
which my permis gave me access, I saw the Emperor 
in his shirtsleeves, writing at his desk; sometimes 
smoking a cigar, but always at work; for it is oldy 
doing him justice to say that he saw to almost every- 
thing himself, and did net spare either fatigue or 
trouble during the campaign." The simplicity of 
his habits made him very popular with the people. 

He was up at three everv morning. Fonr dishes, 
one quality of wine, and plenty of fruit, was the nn- 
varying fare at table. But in spite ofthefree^m 
wiiich seemed to eidst, the strictest vigilanee was 
kept by the police and the Imperial body guard. 
Fxom here he sent General Fleury vrith proposals 
for an arraistite to the Austrian Kaiser, at Verona, 
on the " fatal 6th Jnly," as the Italians call it : • 
day which damped all their bright hopes of recover* 
ingVenetia. Besides considerations ot policy, it 
appears that Louis Napoleon was really di^usted 
with the quarrels ef his generals, and the horrible 
scenes of real war, vhleh he now witnessed tot Urn 
the first thne. 

Cross the Mincio to Tolta, about fonr miles south- 
west, nearer the field ef SolAsrhio. It derives its 
name from a turn in the road leading to the passiM^ 
of the Mincio at Borgfaetta, and lies on the ric^of a 
small hiU. Here ia a splendid villa belonging to 
Prince Gil. Gonzaga, wbase family were Lords oi 
Mantua, but were almost reduced to poverty by 
Joseph 1 When Napeleen I. passed throng Mantua, 
the head of this okl liocne was so poor that he had 
not a decent coat to attend the lev^ After a lonir 
snit in tfaa Austrian courts, a pension of £1,000 was 
settled on the Prince. About sir miles south of i 
lower down the Mtnclo, is 

Gono, the birthplaae of 8oTdelki.,a.€waim&.%x£ag^ 



^assSa^Ofd eti^9 Porte Poitertowe come in a 
little tiate to the * Pahuto M TtarddT; a square 
Doric pile, built by Frederic n. of Ooozaga, from 
Btmano^B designs, and so called either from the T 
shaped piece of ground on which it stands, or firom 
tejetto, a drain. It is nearly a sqnare, 180 feet by 
18e feet, but only 80 feet faJ^ with two ranges of 
windows, between Doric pilasters; and is rusticated 
throoghout in coarse yellow stucco. The loggia in 
in the court, towards the bridge and garden, though 
of stucco, is of good proportions, and is ornamented 
with sajbyects from the History of David, by the 
neat painter and his pupils ; besides bas-relie& by 

In the Cmura dei CenelUan portraits of Frederic's 
berses, l^ Pagni and Rlnaldo. The Camera de 
P$kJie has pictures, on oil and fresco, of the story of 
Cupid and Psyche, firom Romano's designs. In the 
Camera del Zodiaeo, the seasons are pednted on the 
WtOs, and the ^ns of the Zodiac in compartments 
on the celling, by Romano's pupils. Camera di 
FaeConte takes name from Phaeton, whose fall is 
painted here ; with small pictures it centaurs, etc., 
by Romano and his pupils. Sola dtgli Stucchi, so 
Mdled firom the ttnocoes, representing the Triumphal 
fiittry of fiigismuDd into Mantua, 1433 (when 
n^ds Qoosaga was created Marquis) ; Sdi^ and 
his prisoners; Alexander (^>ening the Cabinet in 
which he keeps his Homer; Csesar bundng the let- 
ters of Pompey; all by Primatiedo. *Sala dei 
Oiffcmli, a small room, adorned by the Assault of 
the Giant "titans on Olympus, fh>m designs of 
Romano. The figures exceed a scale of two to one. 
In the garden are a Grotto and PavUlioa, the latter, 
eontahiing a series of pictures of Human Life from 
the Birth to the Besurrectioa of man, done by 
Romano's pupils under their master's direction. 

••Hie charm of this palace" says Fergtason "de- 
pends on the coffering and colouring of the ceilhigs, 
which display an amount of design and fancy 
combined with elegance, seldom seen else\i{here; 
hut they wiU not sufSoe to redeem the building 
ftom. the reproach of behig, at least, extemcdly aS 
the tamest commonj^aoe, as an arobitectural design." 

At the Scuole Putlbliche is the public library, 
fbtmded by Maria Theresa, containing 80,000 vo- 
lumes, and 1,000 MSS. Among these are Pindar, 
the Heonba, and Orestes of Euripides, a Panejo'ric 
of Trajan, and a Virgil; besides the correspondence 
of Voltaire and Bettinelli. The Capilupi library 
possesses 129 valuable MSS., serving to elucidate 
the literary history of the 15th century. 

A little way out of Mantua Is Pietola, which, 
agreeably to a tradition preserved by Dante, in his 
Purgatory, is thought to be the site of Ancles, Virgo's 
birthplace. An old mined palace of the Mantua 
dukes, called La VtrgtHanet, marks the spot Hither 
tbo Cardinal de Medici came for refuge after the 
iMtttle of Ravenna; and here also General MioUes 
Mve his banquet tn a Temple of Apollo, improvised 
Jor the oocaidon; the Sataits taking the place of the 

-ft Citr^tf^Me, OB the Onute road, nmr the Mincio, 
»^fl» ^th lidjr, iBiB^ ibt Angtriuu defeated tlie 

Tuscans, who osme to the taristtnes of CiuaUm 
Albert The Tuscan yotnnteers were 1,31C soldiers 
of the Grand DtMal army, and 1,166 of the newty- 
taised civic guard, wiUi yontihs lh>m ths Ptea 
university, and other equally unwarlifce sources, 
to the number of 5,000; aD under the ccHimamdof 
General Langier, assisted by Pledmontese oflcsvs. 
They were opposed to 86,000 Austrian troeps, com- 
manded by Radetsky. The villages of Meataasra 
Curtatone are one and a half miles distant from each 
orher. "For more llian six hours the devoted 
little band held in check the enormous force opposed 
to them, and though the promised Pledmontese 
support never came, the Tuscans gained Uie object 
in view, and stayed the advance of the Austrians 
long enough to enaUe the Pledmontese to win 
the battle of Goito on the fbllowing day." ^e loss 
of the Tuscans was very heavy; but they had done 
their duty to their country, and proved they eonld 
fight like heroes. The names of those who fell are 
recorded in the church of Santa Croce. Two Pisa pro- 
feasors were killed; and a third, Montanelli, su]H>ossd 
to be mortally wounded, afterwards recovered, and 
became one of the Graaid Duke's ministers.—- 2*. 4U 
TroUope's Tuscany in 1849 aad 1859. 

Bejrond this, five miles from Mantua, on the r^gtt 
bank of the lake^ and within view of the city, Is the 
church of 

Santa Maria delk Orazii^ founded 1399, by F. 
Gonza^ra and the citiseas, in pursuance of a voir 
made durhi^ the plague. It coafaias a miraeirioee 
portraitof the Madonna, attributsdasusnaltoStLok^ 
and much reverenced. It is still a much firequented 
placeof pilgrimage, especially on Assumption Day. 
The church is an Italian Gothic of the simpleststyle^ 
set off with many ex-votos and inscriptimis. Within 
are paintings by L. Costa, L. Gamjunra, MoasigiMd, 
ete. ; besides a monument of Cwram (1489), tiie son of 
the celebrated military leader, and another of B. Cas- 
tiglione, the friend of M. Axiygjelo and Raphael, and 
author of the Cortegiano. This latter was dnrigned 
by Romano ; the inscription is by Cardinal Bemba 
By his side is his young and learned wi£d. 

Among eminent persons who have "drited this 
church and left thor offerings, are Charies V. and 
his son Ferdinand, Pius II, the Constable Bour« 
bon, and even an ambassador fh)m Japan. The 
walls are covered with a double row of wax figures 
(the size of life) of these and other eminent person- 
ages, bishops, cardinals, Idngs, etc., who have 
reorivod some benefit or grace firom the IHrgln. 
Each bears an InacriptkMi in verse. The art of 
making them was invented by a fVanciscan of Acqna 
Hera, In 1631, but they require flvquent restoration. 

The misceilaaeous off eriogs are most various and 
singular. One is a crocodile or lizard, killed by a 
Hantaan in the rivers about here ; uid another is a 
piece of rope A'om a convict about to be hanged, 
who prayed fcnr help to theMadoiuia; wbenthen^ 
broke and rest<«ed him to sooie^. 

Diligences to Parma, eight houn, fifty-two mBet4 
to Cremona, forty-eight milsB; to Bste, finrty-tiio 
milsa; ¥«R«M sad ModiMi (See Sovtes M oi 




f tho 

It tho 
i in tbo 

I ^ and 

! "I»y 




in the 

toll, 3 

XOB, 1 


at the 



fioe St 


ij Ate an 

. i»acare- 

j . i« an 

■^ i plaoe 

L ve the 

^. Dd one 

. The 

by th* 
o, Pal- 

r datCL 

i»r cnjM M ireeport) au baggage is subject to be\ B. la/XMra^ im!fc^^%to»J»^>sox^\5^ ^wteHk^ 



in the < 
of stnoi 

wttb ■! 




walls, ai 
Dn the 
by Bom 
Bitfry o 
bb viae 
which t> 
ten of 
the Giaa 

the Birtl 

"Tha * 
which dl 
but they 
from the 
the tames 

At the 
lomea, an 
of Tra}an, 
of VoltaL 

A little 

the O 

> '•■••«> 

_ ,ui wtmdM, ftrt^elf^tmilaa; to ^te, to 

i«ad,iM«rtb«Minclo, mttw; Tttwm and Modwaiu (See Boates 
WMaiis defeated the \ 20). 



From Maataa to Bologna and Parma, the distances 


ToBrescello 1 

Parma ^ 2 


ToBorgofi>rte m....... 1 

„ Gaastalla - 3 

Leaving Mantoa by the Porte Predilla we pass 
Cappeletta, to 

BoBGOFOBTB, a fortified castle on the Po, built 
1211, near the joncUon of the Minda There is a 
ferry over to 

LuzsAJU (population, 1,600); an Austrian mili- 
tary post, where Prince Eugene fought an indecisive 
battle on 1st May, 1703, with the French under 

QuASTALLA. (4,000 inhabitants), near the south 
bank of the Po, a bislx^'s see, and ibnnerly the head 
«f a Utile county and duchy, united to Parma in 
1749, and to Modena in 1847. Its history has been 
written in four great quartos, by a native author, P. 
Jjh. Guastalla, now dually annexed to the kingdom 
ot Italy, stands on the Cristulo, a branch of the Po. 
which was the boundary towards Modena. It con- 
tains a cathedral, and five or six other churches, 
public library of 6,000 volumes ; school of music, and 
a statue in bronze, of Qonzaga L From the Parma 
road, another divides off to 

Re(h;^io in two hours, on the line to Bologna. 

BsESCELLO, fbrther up the Po, population, 2,500. 
From this it is 17 miles past Serbolo, on the Enza, to 

Paska, on the great line to Bologna and the south. 
(Route 15.) 



** There is a glorious City in the sea, 
The sea is in the broad, the narrow streets, 
Ebbing ana flowmg ; and the salt seaweed 
Clings to the marble of her palaces."— i2ogf«r«. 
Vefuxia. of the Italians ; Venedig, of the Germans. 
Population, 180,000, to about 28,000 houses, in 2,000 
streets and alleys. 

fib^eZi.— Dameli's Royal Hotel— One of the best 
Hotels in Italy, deservedly recommended. Bauer'a 
Grand Hotel de la Ville— Excellent house, couibining 
every English comfort with moderate charges. 
Hotel Barbesi, Palace Zncchelll, M Barbesi, pro- 
prietor— ExceUent house, moderate prices. 

Cafes.— FUirian andButtil Breakfasts a la four" 
ehette^ suppers cheap; ices; Engli h and French 
papers. Restaurants, Caffd Haiis in Campo Galla, 
behind Procuratle Vccchie. Restaurant Francais, 
over the C!a£f^ Militaire, Piazza San Maroo. Fish 
here in great variety. 
English Consui Oeneral—Mr. Perry. 
Travellers are advised to look after their baggage. 
On arrival at Venice there is often confusion. When 
, you alight from theiarain pixxseed at once to the 
' canal, which is at the front of the station, engage a 
t gondola, return for your bagjrage, with a porter, 
to whom paint out your gondou; five vents par 
^kage Is expected as his fee. On leaving Venice 
fwhich ig a free port) all baggage i§ sabject to lae 

exandned at the statkm befbielt Is allowed 1M 
A fee equal to the number of packages, wy ftom 
1 to 2 frs., will save a deal of 

English Bamken^ Uemn. &: 
and Co., No. 3946, Traghetto ; & Benedetto, Cmai& 


CHurek of EngUmd iSHsrtwe.— 4ifery Bonday fcre- 
noon at half-past eleven, at the resideeee ef the 
clergyman, Palazzo Cirran, S. (Uo GxieostonKH No. 

Reading Room.— There la a News-Room at the 
north-west angle of the Piazza St Ifaroo in tbo 
Procuratle Vecchie, in which French, English, aad 
Italian newspapers may be found. Persons oan pay 
for one week, or subscribe per mcmth. 

Conveyances. — ^Railway, to Udine and NabreshM 
(for Vienna and Trieste) ; to Verona and Milan. 

There are upwards of 4,000 gondolas at Veaioe. 
Gondolas, with 1 boatman, 85 cents, the first hour, 
and 42 cents, fbr each successive horn' ; gondolas, 
with 2 boatmen, double the alxrre fkrou Omniboa 
gondolas, for one place to any part of the dty In the 
line of route, 25 cents.; ferry across Grand Canal, by 
day, 6 cents., by night, 9 cents. ; iron bridge toll, 3 
cents. The gondolas at the railway termlmifl, 1 
boatman, 2 ftv., 2 boatmen, 3 firs. ; these men load 
your baggage in the gondola, and deliver it at the 
door of your apartment, at the hoteL A good gon- 
dolier serves as valet de place, l^etide rises ttiree 

Steamen to Trieste, Ancona, Chioggia; olBoe at 
the Piazzetta. 

Money. — One florin=:100 soldx=3 zwanzigers=fli. 
English. 4 soldi=ld. English; 10^ centimes Frsnoh 
=12^ ccntesimi Italian. 

Theatres.— AH near St Mark's and the Bialto. 
Fenice or Phoenix; Gallo, or S. Benedetto; Apollo, 
near S. Luca's ; S. Samuele; Malibran, near S. Giaa 

English Dispensary, on Campo 8. Loca. The 
Capuchins of the Redemption distU a fine liquor, 
called acqua di melissa. The climate is healthy, 
though moist The saline exhalations, create an 
atmosphere favorable to pulmonary complaints, sere- 
tcda, rickets, etc., for which soar^thing is an 
excellent antidote. Venice is not a {feasant plane 
whien the rain comes down, or st<mn8 move the 
Adriatic Then boats ply in St Mark's and one 
may even get jammed in them under a bridge. 
At the fall of the year smells and mosquitoes 
abound, and cold winds blow from the Alps. The 
Mcrceria and Fondamente Kuova offer more shel* 
tered promenades ; but the views there are tame. 

•Chi^ Ofy'eeu qf Notiee. — ArekUeOurej by the 
Lombardi, Sammidiell, Faloonetto, Sansovino^ Pal- 
ladio ; beddes Byzantine artists of an earlier date. 
Piazza of St Mark, Cathedral, Palace, Bridge of 
Sighs, Campanile, Academy, Scaizi (Church, Rialto, 
Madonna del Orto, S. Salvatore^ S. Gv:sTse>s^ '^&&%-- 
fflOTe (P«S\ad\(3»)^ •'BaAl^OvXat^ tSOEOXtS^ %. ^9M^'«aS6aaQKk> 

B. Uaiia Foimoia, C!t d'Oro. S. Troruo cbizrch. S. 
I'mmau lUlls Vlgni (fnUadlo). Gusill ibanh, 

PoinffofibylUBlegiia.O. Bellini, VLTirlnl.Pilina 
VecchD, Htlu (tt» Auumptlon), FcniBaaDB. Bcr- 

P:l1cib Olavub. I^denslm.. 8, Klad. Cuiilnto. 

iSmrphirt by IfaeLdiDbBrdi. SaDBorino, and CanoTO, 
Vho waa bom and dl«d in Venetian teirltoiy. 

Vwiico 1« onUlde (be lagoon, at Iha mottUl 

Hubdoorhiiafllgfatot . 
Condolai are moond to the caned lUd Mteted alde- 
posla. DrinUng water li pit Inxn ItIO pabUc iUl<- 
tema. aoppUsd ooia tbe maJnland In plpea 1^1 along 
the i^way, ot ftom antelao weUJ, £nt Bunk tn 

galleyi. During lelMT, apwards of leventy a 
paiuea bad been demoliahed by their owners, lu 
many are atdll doerlcd. or converted lato hotela u 
mnboiiieB. Books ara nrinted here. It is a fr 
port alDce ISM, and tbu. toe^her witb tke co 
■trnistlon of (ba railway, ma; lend to reanloukle t] 
decayed city. 

The lut fMne [n its Cill ia described In Airt 
Sitloln. Ont of »3T patrletans, only aeo at ino 
rtanedtoTotafortbeTrsaty of May, 179T, wMi 
-tnuaUrredtteVaneUantsnitory lo Austria. T 


e'.^^ ^L 

!.ii.-ij£y nad 

To the ttawller who aoea It for the fint time, 
Veidce preienis a carioos ifiwUic4e, wXh lU marNs 
lUjaces, banding!, and aplne rising ont of tbe watei; 
Itwaanagunin tMsraanoM- when lbs rtvages of 
Alaric and AttUa (WT-fiS) made Ibe people fly from 
Aopuela, Paflna. ia, 0. *B mahfcSd (whlTh ™ 

n the rlva aita, or RiaUa. 'Fbsn are a fear 
r quays aad dry alleys between toU dark 

for meat, TegetableB, Jewellen, etc., an tbund, 
ay are not snJtable for oarrlagBS and borsea, 

s supplied t^ the gondoia, a gloomT-lookinr. 
rLigb.praweA boat, shapH aomethtog II 

" Long I 
It glides alo] 

:e the lord 

loni of the gondola b eaUc ltl» 
rered boat chat's common herA 
jrow, bulk lfl*rtty, but companlr, 
an-Mi, eadi csUed toodoUer. 
the water lookhig blackly, 

make out what yon vy or do," 

ggars go abonl tn gondo&s. Gi 

ighnseful, and at 

food polnlsof view, yM, the canali bah^t hri.lged. 
every part ot the city may be leactied on Diat, thongh 
there are Dot loolways an the lidu of all the cHuIi. 
In spite of ks aqeatlc adnntabres, and the ehe« 
conTCnience at Its gondolaa, the visitor, " acensUMn^ 
to expaUate on terra flnna," mar aeon irrow im- 
patient Dl tha "moeted Imprisi 

4aed by a canal, 
steps ef a bridge."— ZorJ BrougMoa'i taly, 


ItJiiH^y of olilects lo be itoti»d In gcine frem llii 
Qoayef St Muk'slolhe Railway SlsUon, 3 mllei 
long, by gondola. The palaces marktd * are In the 
prtnlrd or Gothic style. The atyle of the Lombai* 
ecKcnl la marked by rlchncee uld elFganre. Th* 

onif orm chscECier, rl^g ent of the sea. " hui abora 
the wuict they aro ae various is their orcbitecta. 
Some dieploy tho light elegance ot Sansovino, others 
the eiLbcrant oraamejit of Longhcna, and ■ Tew the 





DoigaiuiiOrCiittomHoiiae Royal Gardens. 

Palazzo 6iu8tiniani*fnow 

Hotel de TEuxopo) 
PsJazzo Treves. 
Palazzo Contailni-Fa- 

Palazzo Ferro. 
Palazzo Comer della C2l 

Grande (by Sansovino). 

Palazzo Dario (By the 

Palazzo Manzoni (ditto). 

fialate Chmch. 

Palazzo Zuchelli 
Hotel Barbesi). 



Accademia and Picture 

Palazzo Contariid die 
Scrigni (two— one by 
Scamozzi, the other 

Palazzo Bezzonioo (by 

Palazzo Ginstinianl* 

Palazzo FoscarL* 

Palazzo BalbL 
Palazzo GrimanL 

Palazzo PisanL* 
Palazzo Barbarlgo. 
Palazzo Bernardo* (now 

Hotel DanieU). 
Palazzo Dona. 
Palazzo Tiepolo (by San- 


8. Vltale Church. 

Palazzo Cavalli* (resi- 
dence of Count de 

(by Longhena). 

Palazzo Grassi (nov Ho- 
tel deUViUe). 

Palazzo MorosinL 
Palazzo ContartnL 

Palazzo Mocenigo (By- 
ron's residence). 

Palazzo Comer- Splnelli 
(by the Lombardi). 

Palazzo Grimani, now 
Post Office (by Sammi- 

Palazzo Farsetti, now the 

Palazzo Loredano. 

Palazzo Bembo.* 

Palazzo Manino (by San- 


B. Giaoomo di Rialto. 
Palazzo de' Camerlinghi 
(Court of Appeal). 

Fabbriche Yecchle (by 
Sansovino), in the Pes- 

Palazzo Comer della Re- 
jrina, now the Monte de 



Fondoco de* Tedeschi, 
now Finance Depart- 

Palazzo Mangili Valma- 

Palazso Michiel deUa Co- 
lomM, or Martinongo. 

'Palasao Segreda* 

Ck d'Qro, belongs to 
HdUei ITBgUoiiL 


Palazzo Pesaro, or Be- 

Palazzo Tron. 
Palazzo Battagia (by 

Fondaco de' TurchL 
Muaeo Comer. 

S. Simione Church. 
Palazzo Papadopolo. 

La Croce Church. 
Santa Chiara Church. 


Palazzo Grimani (by Sea- 

Palazzo Vendramfaii-Ca- 
lergl, seat of Duchess 
de Berri (by P. Lom- 

Cannareggio. Up this 
short cimal are — 


Palazzo Labia 

Scalzi Church. 

Railway Station. 

8. Lucia Church. 

Corpus DomSni (ThnrdL 

"Whilst other Italian cities have each 10 or 12 
prominent stractures on which thefar claim to archi- 
tectural flune is based, Venice numbers her q>eci- 
mens by hundreds, and the residence of the slniple 
citizen is often as artistic as the palace of the proudest 
noble. No other city possesses such a school of 
architectural art as applied to domestic purposes; 
and if we look for tvpes fh>m which to originate a 
style stdtable to our modem wants, it is among the 
Venetian examples of the early part of the 16th 
century."— (fervtiMOfi.) The churches are proftasdy 
omamented with maibte, porphyry, alabaster, agate, 
jasper, mosaics, etc., more remarkable for richness 
than good taste. 

The common pictures of the Plazzetta and tha 
great quays give an incorrect notion of the general 
appearance of Venice. The canals should be 
called ** water streets." **I found myself," says 
Lord Broughton, " mistaken in supposing there were 
footways on the side of all the canals. You may 
from the back of most houses, and sometimes from the 
front, step from the hall door into your boat at once, 
and may row through the city almost the whole day 
without suspectbig there are any streets in it ; or 
you may wander through innumerable lanes and 
narrow alleys, like those of London, without comUig 
on a single canal or seeing the water once." The 
profound quiet of the canals and streets at night ia 
very striking. 

It is impossible to describe all the buildings in 
detail, but we shall notice the most deserving in • 
series of Tours which may be done on foot, or in 
gondola, according to circumstances, and may be 
varied at pleasure. The charge for a gondola is 
3zw. (2&) a-day. 

The great potait of attraction is the square of S. 
Marco, or St Mark (the patron. aaiiLtS^ ^x^^3c^& ws^sQc^ 
Bld« ot ^«iA»^ -wYIiiacv, ^wSasL \Jb» «!Ma«2eN. <^^&«ftSK^ 
and \t» YwaiTY, ^flci^ «N«!t \RiS^»Rfe ^"^ "^ J^^S^^ 


plctoresqaeiyio .every view of this mavrdioiu old 


*Piazza 8. Maiw. Thie piazza or sqanre Is snr- 
ronnded by magnificent edifices, all valuabla as Us- 
torjeal . momwwt* . of . the rise ^and- progress of the 
fine . art! fiKnn the 10th century to the present day. 
Oa the east aide are St Mark's Cathedral, with its 
campanile and three pedestals for the Venetian flags ; 
on the north side, the Frocoratorie-Vccchie -aad the 
Orologio Tower. The west side occupies the site of 
8. GemiBiano*8 Church. On the south are the Pro- 
cnratie and the libreria, now the Royal Palace. 

The dinvgniffjonf of this piazza are about 680 feet 
long by an average brea^ of 230 feet ThePiazzetta 
(or little square), 320 feet by 150 feet runs from 
the campaiiUe down to the Mole at. the water 
^de, between the Doge's Palace on the east side 
and the Zecca on the west On the Mole, or Quay, 
are theColonae, or two pillars of St MarlE and St 
Theodore, from which the quay runs past the Ponte 
della Paglia to the Riva del Schiavoni and tbe 
Albergo Reale (formerly the Manimocenigo Palace), 
towaids the asseiM], eta On the three bronze 
pedestals (by lieppardl, of the 16th century) in 
£xmt of St. Mark*a-40w carrying the Austriaa 
ooIouhk-Um three standards of the subfect klog- 
doms of Cyprus, Candla, and Korea .used to fly. 
The Tone dell' Orologio, or dock-tower, at the. 
comer of the .Keroeda, was built 14M l^P. Lmq- 
bardo. It bears an astronomical clock, OBrked 
with tbe34hottr8, as usoalin Italy; whichhasagold 
and blue £ftcei, made by the Rinaldis of Reggio, and 
repaired in 17d& Two bronze Moors strike the 
house, and above these are a bronze Virgin and the 
Lion of St Mark. Wh^i the cloqk strikes two all 
the pigeons come down to be fed. 

The noble Cathedral or * Duomo of S. Marco is in 
the Grei^ shape, and purely Byzantine (or Constan- 
tinople) style, having been begun in 976 by artists 
tcom that city, and finished in 1071. It is supposed 
to have been copied fi'om a church at Alexandria. 
The internal decorations, porticoes, etc., were finishcMl 
in the next century. It is only 205 feet long by 164 
feet through the transepts. It is eccentric when 
compared with later and more regular oattems, but 
it is exceedingly rich in detail, from the mimense pro- 
fusion of beautiful Oriental marbles, has* reliefs, and 
other sculpture, in bronze, gilding and mosaic, 
executed between the 10th and 18th centuries. The 
tessellated pavement is slightly undulatUig like the 
waves of the sea. 

It is surmounted by a heap of ten or twelve oval 
domes round the five larger centre ones, besides several 
pinnacles. The iron tie round the chief dome is called 
Sansovino's- Girdle. They count about 500 pillars of 
verdeontico, porphjrry, serpentine, veined uid oth«r 
rare marbles ; the exterior sides, basement and pave- 
ment are encrusted with rich materials; in fiict all 
tAMt ^.joot gold, or bronze, or mosaic, is covered 
frfOi Orleattd marhlea. 

SSSS Sr^jJf^Kf* '^^MW^.forthequaUtyandl 
-«rc.y ar tttf marbjeB aa tor .their Greek ^oilb.\ 

manship. There are five large gold otsdcs fa 
the lower recesses^ The. first two (to the right) 
represent the Raisfaig of the bones of St Vbaky «( 
Alexandria (whence they were first brought), by 
P. Veochio, 1650; ttie middle one is the Last Jnd^ 
ment of P. Spagna; in the next is the Doge^a 
reception of the Patron Saint's Relics, by L. de Pazxo, 
after S. Ricci; and the lairt is an old mosaic of the 
16th century of the church itself. 

The four mosaics in the upper vaalte are tht 
Descent firom the Cross, the Descent fn«i Lbubo 
(or hell), the Resurrection, and tlte Ase en s i e m all^y 
L. Gaetano, fhnn designs by M. Verona, about 1617 
On one of the four bronze gates (to the left on enter> 
ing) is the name of their artist, *'M.CCC. BertaoiM, 
Aurifex,Venetns, me fecit;" he being a Venetian gold- 
worker of the day. In this /a^ade are the famous 
four Horsts cf Bt. i/anb.(weigiiiBg.oniy 1880 Oml), 
Ijstmeed, but preserving traces of their former gildiaSt 
They are the same which, after being cast at Ohio 
and traasferred to Atiicas, were sent to ornament the 
triumphal arches of Nero and Trajan, at Rome. 
They aeeompanied Theodosius to Byzantium, and in 
the 13th oentury were transported to Venice ; from 
which they were moved to Paris, by Napoleea, to 
the top of the Arc du Carrousel, to be-again, returned 
in 1815 to their old place at Venice. This ia alloikd 
to in the gold hiscription on the church poreh* As 
with the tamoua Coronation Stone at Westminstsr 
possession baa been taken of them at varioas timsn. 
as an emblem of power or conquest 

Above the great door of the vestibule is St Mack in 
his pontificals, by theZnceati, after Titian's designs, 
in 1545. Below him are seven small mosaics of ttare 
10th centory, representing the Crucifixion and Bnrial 
of Christ the work of the same artists, 1 649. On two 
crescents to the right and left above the prinripal 
entrance, are the Resurrection of Lazarus, and the 
Burial of the Virgin, also by the Zuceati. In the 
tower side corners, the Four Evangelists ; in the nppei; 
eight Prophets; on the frieze, the Angels and Dm^ 
tors; all by the same. " High up on the outside of the 
church we one evening observed two small lamps 
burning, and on enqnfary found they had been bum* 
ing there about two hundred years, in memory of a 
poor man who had be^i put to death for a murder, 
though he died protesting his innocence. After his 
execution another man on his death-bed confessing 
that he had committed the deed, and that the perscm 
unjustly put to death had been entirely ignorant of 
it, the Senate ordered these lamps to be kept burning 
as a sign of the innocence of the poor man. and ft 
expiation for his unmerited death."— Jf ma Catlo^ 
Sketching Rambles. 

To the right of the vestibule, in the Zeno Chc^p^ 
is an altar by the Lombard!, ornamented with a 
profusion of bronzes and marbles. Four great 
columns may be noticed of the greatest delicacy, 
and three bronzes of the Virgin and Child, St J<dai 
Baptist, and St Peter. In the middle are the bionse 
cfiBgies of Cardinal J. B. Zeno. 

A little fmrther inside the principal door is one of 
the most ancient mosaics in the church,.* 
tweeulYieWi^xve.'QdL ^V llvrk^ supposed to betf 
old as thft IWii 'iwx-wn. 



The gnti Arch iifihtrlfaae is «nera8ted with crold 
and murble mofaios in -fiv* divisions ; the sabjeots 
takan irom the Revelation. In the middle ie Christ 
Borroinided by seven candlsstioka, by F. Znccato, 
15701 The vault of tha veatibnit, which is in a line 
with this archf-andis prolonged to the exteiior f a9adei 
is equally full of mosaioB, in -fiveoompartmenta. In 
this part is a porphyry hoj^ water tiaain, the base of 
which la a Graetan altar, carved with d(4phins and 
tridents, snrmountad by another baa -relief, of 
children; the latter a-woris of the 15th eontnry. 

To the right of this is the Baptisirtf^ ornamented 
with marbles, bas-reliefs, and other carvings, and 
with mosaics, exeoutedfor themost part about 1800. 
A mosaic of the Baptism of Christ, wldch covers 
the wall opposite to the door opening to the Piazaetta, 
is said to be as old as the lOth or 13th centuries. At 
the altar are a marble Virgin and two Angels; a 
marble chair, believed to have been carved at Alex- 
andria; abas-^relief of the Baptism of Christ; and 
two bas-relie£fr of St Theodore and St George. In 
the.middle :Qf tlie chapel is a large marble basin, 
with- a broaae cover, ornamented with bas-reliefii, by 
two pupils of Sansovino, both of the 16th century; 
and a bronze statue of St John Baptist On the 
walls are monuments of Doge Saranzo, and of Doge 
Enrico Dandolo, a suocessfol leader in war against 
the Tmica and the writer of an excellent Chronicle of 
Yenioe, or History of the Republic down to 1342. 

In the right transept of the church is the OrtUorp 
of fht dross, formed by six ridi columns, one of 
which is of rare black and white porphyry. On the 
wall to the left are delicate marbles, and a moaaic of 
Paradise, attributed to L. Gaetano, firom designs by 

In the Left Aisle (entering from the great door), is 
thecb^)ol of Madonna de Mascoli, with a beautifully 
sculptured marble altar, of the 13th or 14th centuries, 
and some excellent mosaics of the Hi8t<»y of the 
Virgin, by M. Ciombono. 

The chapel of S. Isidore is covered with mosaics 
of the 14th century, representing the life of this 
saint On the wall above the door is the genealo- 
Pfical tree of the Virgin, by N. Bianclllni, trom 
Salviati's designs, 1542. On the marble screen which 
separatrs it from the choir are fourteen marble 
statues of the Virgin and Apostlea, carved in 1394 
by the brothers J. and P. Maaaegna, of Venice. At 
the sides of the entranee to the choir are two rich 
marble sexts, supported by costly pillars, and near 
them two small marble aUars of delicate carving, 
said to be by P. Lombardo, 1470. 

In the Choir itself are many seats ornamented 
with rich hiLiid work, 1536 ; and two desks, with 
six bronze baa-relieft of the life of St Mark, by 
J. Sansovino. On the interior balustrades, near the 
hi?h altar, are eight bronze figures— the Four Evan- 
gelists, by Sansovino ; and Foor Doctors, supposed 
by J. CalHari, or P. d' Udlne, 1614. 

The JUiffh AUar stands under a baldaoehhu) or 
canopy, on four pillars of Greek marble, carved with 
various 8iii)jects of sacred history. This altar is 
remarkable for its twoanelent paintlnga, <»m serving 
as a covering to the other. Tb» flnt is in the Grdck 

Life of Cbriflt, by Haestfo Paolo, and his sona, 
Lnooa and Giovwm!, 1846, vriiose names are inscribed 
on it He is the oUiest of the Venetian school of 
painten; the next to him being Lovenxoof Venkse^ 
whose work is to be seen at the Academy. The 
secondaltaiwpieoe, called the Palad* Oro, ia a flyaan- 
tine -enamel on gold and silver plating, set olf by 
chased work, pearls, cameos, and ouer procioas 
stones. BdiUid the id|^ altar is another altar, on 
dear si^ral alabaster pillars; with bas-reliefs, .in 
marble and g^t bronze ; all by -Sansovino. 

The bas-rdiefs in white marble, and on the hronze 
gate of the sacristy, are by Sansovino^ They took 
hhn about twenty years to execntA Among the 
heads are those of liUan, P. Aretino, and Sansovino 
himself. The sacristy is richly adorned with masaies 
and inlaid work, by Zuccato, Scfaiavone^ eta, be> 
tween 1620 and 1530. 

In a disused chapel, opposite Madonna de MastoU, 
is the TreoMmy af SL Afaritj containing an assort- 
ment of the most esteemed relios; among than an 
pieces of the " true " cross, with a nail, the -qonge, 
and the reed used at the Crucifixi<m; tiie knife 
which cnt the bread at the Lord's Supper ; the tUgh* 
bone of St John Baptist; and innumerable rdtes oC 
the patron saint; besides various trophies brooi^ 
home from the taking of Constantinople. 

All the Doges were buried in 8t Mark's before 
Martin Faliero's treason ; but he and his an cceot of i 
were buried in their own chnrchee. 

" St Mark's is a very singular pile. Though most 
of its materials came from Greece, thehr combinatioa 
is neither Greek nor Gothic, nor basilica!, nor Sasaeen; 
but a fortoituoos jumble of alL A front divided by 
a gallery imd a roof hooded by mosquish cnpoUtt 
give it a strange, unchristian look. Nowhere have 
I seen so many columns crowded into so small a 
space. Near 300 are stuck on the pillars of the frant, 
aiid 300 more on the balustrades above. A like pro- 
fusion preimils in the interior, which is dark, heavy, 
and barbarens" (Fortyth\ in spite of its marble and 
mosaics. But, notwithstanding this, the -geneal 
effect is striking and historicaL 

From the Pietra del Banda, a red stone close to 
the church, the laws were first promulgated. It is a 
trophy trcm Acre, from which another trophy, called 
thepiUars of S. John of Acre, were obtained hi 12S6. 

At the junction of the Piaizza di S. Marco and the 
Piazzetta stands the brick 

* Campanik Tbawr, so conspicuous in all Venetiaa 
views, forming a detached belfry to 1^ Catliednd, 
320 foet high. It was begun in 903; in 1178 « 
spire on an antique model was added, in the 
shape of an extingiUsher, which was reconstructed 
by Martin B. Buono in 1510, as it now amiean^ 
and ornamented with - Oriental marbtesL At the 
base on one 'Side is a log^ by Soverin!, a small 
and elegant building covered with marbles, scal^ 
tures, and bronzes. Four bronze statues of Pallas, 
ApoUo, Mereory, and Peace, are by J. Sansovino. 
Of the bas-reliefe, the best are the three in the attie 
and those below two of tlie statues. 

** Its locality and aaaoi^VsitoQ& \as^ «Mwft. ^ 

Stylo, in oiJ, on wood, Ja H dMtlm§f vetatlng to ihe\ ot M^a ^ft «MDi««QSte ^!s^ ^N^ ^swshh» ^ 



The base (42 feet square) is a mere moraaraentetf 
mass of briokwork, slightly flated and pierced 
nnsymmetrically with small windows to tight the 
inclined planes within. Its size, its height, and appa- 
rent solidity are its only merits. ^^-^FtrguMton). Cost 
of admission, five soldi. The ascent is by a series of 
indines— not steps. Napoleon rode his horse to the 
summit; whence there is a view over the city and 
islands, distant hUls^ etc. Bnt this prospect from the 
top, though good, g^ves no adequate view of the 
canals within the city. 

*Dueal PakKe^ or Palazto DwaU, the old seat of 
the Doge (do(ft from dux)^ is open fh>m nine to four. 
The principal part of this grand edifice has one side 
towards the Mole and the other towards the Piazzetta, 
and is remarkable for its singularity, the solidity and 
magnifiioence of its details, trnd for its style, which is 
Saracenic, of the 14th century in the oldest portisn, 
which is the work of Calenda^o. An arcade cirfled 
the Broglio surrounds it. It was formerly the seat 
of government, and contains the halls of the various 
departments—^ the HaU of the Senate, the Hall of 
the Council of Ten (now the picture gallery), the 
Hall of the Great Council (now the library), the 
Piombi or State Prisons, the PozzI or dungeons, etc. 
The telegraph office is now stationed in the p^ace. 

Near the sea front, at the end of the Piazzetta, are 
two red granite pillars brought from (^eee in the 
12th century. One bears the famous winged lion in 
bronze, called the Lion of St. Mark, a copy of which 
was repeated in every suhjeet province, and the other 
has a statue of St. Theodore (Teedoro) standing on a 
crocodUe. This part and the quay adjoining are 
sometimes called '' II Colonne,*' after these piHars, 
which thus serve as a mark. Public executions 
took pfitce laetween them, and hence it was consi- 
dered unlucky to pass this way. Here Silvio Pelllco 
stood before he was sent to Bpielbeiig. 

** The two arcades whioh constitute the base are, 
from their extent and the beseuty of the detatUs, 
as fine as anything of then: class executed during 
the middle ages. There is also a }ust and pleas- 
ing proportion between the simple soHdity of the 
lower, and the airy, perhaps slightly fantastic light- 
ness of the upper of these arcades, whieh are pierced 
with light fretwork. Had the upper story been 
aet back according to the original desigs, instead of 
being brought forwaudeven with the arcades, whioh 
it everpowvrs by its ill-proportioned mass, a much 
more beautiful building Would have resulted. All 
the beauty ascribed to this story arises from the 
pelyohromatie mode of decoration introduced by dis- 
posing pieoes of different ooloored marbles in diaper 
patterns. Tlie slabs are built into not stuck on."— 

ThA palace fbrms a quadrangle surrounding 
an interim- court; the nerth side of which stands 
ahmgside St. Mark's, which until 1807 was nothing 
but the ehapel of the palace. The east side which 
rests OB the Rio or Canal della Paglia, was the work 
of A. Biazio and ▲. Scarpagnino, 1490-1550. The 
other two sidea towards the Mole and Piazzetta 
waro restored by A. da Ponte, after the fire of 15T7. 
^S^ ^ -aairfcft/ by tiiro large windowB decorated 
mtA^Gu^furmf Hue ab ib§ Mole Ode, eoiutractdd 

1404; that on the fide of the PUuBsetta ftt a laf«r 
date, 1523-38. The carvings above them date fh>m 
1677. The walls are diamonded in pale red and 
white. The palace entrance is near the church, by 
the Porta della Carta, where the scribes used W 
stand, and the ornaments of which are due ta> 
Giovanni and Bartolommeo Bono. This leads to th« 
interior court and the Giant's Stairs. Its principal' 
defect is that " it reverses all the principles of al/* 
other architecture. Here the solid rests on the opeUf 
a wall of enormous thickness rest on a slender f ret-^ 
work of shafts and arches and intersected drcles.**-* 

The beautifhl internal court was rebuilt 1486- 
1550, by A. Bregno and Scarpagnino. Its pointed 
and circular arcades, partly imitated in the School 
of Mines, Piccadill^^ its richly sculptured freizea 
and ornamented waTl spaces, altogether make np 
a singularly pleasing design. In the middle of the 
court are two circular bronze reservobrs, covered 
with reliefs, both of the i6th century. They are 
filled daily with fresh water brought by the wimai 
of FriuU. It is surrounded by busts of endnent 
natives of Venice. In the facade is the dock tower 
built 1S07-15, and ornamented with eight beautifkil 
Greek statues. 

The Arcade, opposite the Giant's Stidrcase, ia 
probably due to Master Bartolommeo, the aather of 
the DeUa Carta gate. A smaller and elegant fa^e 
to the left of the Giant's Staurs, in the Seuators' Court 
is attributed to G. Bergamasco and J. Lombardo. 

The Oianft Stairs (Seala di Giganti) is a magnifi- 
cent work of the 15tii cetttnry, by A. Bregno or A. 
Pizzo ; with delicate marble carvi^ by two Mantua 
artists, and Sansovino's two colossa statues of Mars 
and Neptune, whioh gave name to the staircase. 
Below them at the foot of the staircase are A. Bizzie's 
Adam and Eve. The Doge was crowned on the 
landing of these steps ; here he took the oaths ; and 
here Byron makes Marino Faliero deliver Iiis piece 
of eloquent rant before his execution 1355. 

"The gory head rolls down the Giant> Steps.** 

His corpse was removed in a baxge, with eight 
torches, to his tonfb in the little chapel of Santa 
Maria della Pace, in the church of 8S. Qlovanni • 
Paolo; but it was placed outside the churdi about 
the time of the French hivasion. On the same land- 
ing the captain of Hie Bncenta,ur mounted guard 
during an interregnum. In the "TwoFoscari'* 
Byron mak^^fJie old deposed. Doge die anddenly 
after descending the steps upon hearing the hell of 
St Mai^ rhig fer his successor; though it really 
took place five days after. . 

The Golden Stairs (Scala d'Oro) constructed 1556- 
77f is a fine woric by Sansovino. It led to ttxe room 
ia which . the Ubro d'Oro, or CMden Book of the 
Venetian nobility was kept, in eharge of the Avpo- 
gadori. In the vestibule is Tintoretto's Justice with 
the Sword and Scales. The Hercules and Atlas at 
the bottom are by AspettL 

Sola del Maggior GonsiffliOt or Hall of the Great 

Council, a splendid roosB, looking into the Piazzetta, 

1 175 feet by 82« ori^nallY built by Galendario, and 

I restored 9X\xt \2ca ^x« ot IVl^^^ ni\\s3(v i^K»\s^>i«AL \2;^% 

Milntiogt 1 

bwkiof 8tlfiiik.>Llbriiry. To ibg right, on 
lug, ii TInumio'i Tut nfctnre of tho Qloi 
FendlB, tlbotlonrbySS high. Th^n cwt 

a. Lcclerc— A11lii]icaIUIifiedtwl»(«nDoBel>i 

DnndaLo ; D. TinMKttQ— aorrendtr of Zara i 

ProtacUon of Venice ror°lil< Father, the Enipem or 
ConitantlaDiilc; Palms Oiovane—FU'st Taking ul 

3eami TBWiig of Conttamlnople, 1204, A. Vlwn- 
ttno— BlHtiDn of Baldwin >■ King of Jeraulem. In 
3. SoDtaia'ai'L'AIIense— DandDlo Cronning fiai'J- 
Tln; P. Vgroncae— Doge Contariils Belum adcr 

the Dettait at ti 

iloggia, 1ST8, w 

tino— Dogs BiMeotLngOlho to Pope Aleiander 111. 
(aborethB Joor of the Scnillnio); D. Tinlorstlo— 

«ingUieDog« (tbovo'the windowl; P, Baatano— 

Patfa 1 L. Baatano— Pope preunts Ibe Doge with u 

Dogs nod u Embuay to the Cmperer ; AleumV > 
III., Ill dltgnlM, iBcoenbed by Iha Doge, at Lj 

In tbe balcony of Ihv window is a St George, ote 
of tbe etriieat worki of Cnnova. Round tbe fries t, 
are aeneaty-eil jxiitraita of Dogea, beginning with 
the ninth, Obelorio Antenoria, in 8M, with thie 
omtaakia of Uarino FallEro, whoae place Id the blact 

Faltari, iecaplUtl pro crindnlbas." They arc liy 
Tintoretto, Baiaano. the Palmii, etc 

fine pictBtM; P Veroneae— Venice croiroed hy 
Gloly; Tbiloiello-Venke among the UJvluiUei; 
Palma yecchio— Venice crowned by Victory. 

Among the amaller ontaiie. P. Veroneiie— Taking 
of Smynu, Deftana of Scntul against Sultan U'- 
hommed; F. Buaano — Battle with Cba Duke of 
UU(n,H4ai Deltatof Htnnlw of Femra j Tlnio- 
retto— VlctmyontheLaliedlChirda. 1440; Deftatof 
(he Prince of Ebioj Tluanao^Brasoli dafcodPtl 
ngalnit Ihg Viacontla, 148Bj Victory n 

Milan, and oTCr (he Iniperiallilf, 1107: FfilmiL 
Gnvase— Battle at CremoDa, 1417) Secntiue of 
falu, IMt. 

Satta drlla Scrutinio. where the TMlng at Iha 
election of the Doge toofc pliice. la Joined to tht 
Gffat Sala by a conidor, the portralta bebig con- 
tinned ao aa to make np the 11^, Including Hanin 
the laat Doge. Tbere are alao Eigfct Prophela, by 
A. Vlccntino, It la now naed ai a library tOr MSS. 
and printed books. Tfaepiclnrca are — iH^lnnlngon 
the right:— TinioretUi'a Taking of Zan {alHnre (be 
window)! A. VIcentlno'aTakiBgalCattara— Battle 
ofLepantOiP BelloItl'iDutiuctlonofMargailtano, 
InAlbania; P. Ubari'lVictoryof Dardanell(a,inai 
A.VIcentlno'aFep1nbe>lagliigtbaKlalto,SD»: (Pif 
tended) Defeat of Pepin at the Orfano Canalj 8. 
Pcrandi'aDefeatof IbeCallphofBgypt; L'AUenaa' 
Capture of Tyrol M. Vecellio'a (TItlBn'i nepbew 
VIclcty OTer Kogerof Sldly ; Falmi Glonne'iLaa 
Judgmenl.— with three portinita of bll Wi^ li 
Heaven, Pm-galory, and ^11. A painted 'Mnnphft 

Df the fiUaona^deot tbe n»D) 
In the celling compartmenta nn-. — F. Banana' 
Taking of Padna. UN; O. del Mcro'a Taking o. 

at Trapanl; F. Uontemoiiino'g Victory at Acre 
A. Vicentlno'a Victory oyer the Piiana, loss 
bealdea 13 junall allegorical auljjects by Fordeoone, 

The Ci&rory, contained in Iheae rooma, wa* 
fennded by Petrarch and Cardinal Beeaarlon, the 

tdadio,1416; Card.»rin.aBl'« 

■a beautiful m 

lion of hnBl4 

a. coins, elc. 

ooonplea Ihe 

Dogea, nnd«r 


. or Eobing 

ella Hcudo, wb 


was placed, n 

w containing 

d Map of lb 

World, wn- 

very valnalila Cam« of 

e Ejoico), fou 

d It Ephenu 

rtdei Buatj. 

A. Vittorla, and a head of Doge ^lecaH, from the 

■ itroyed by the mob In 119T. 
[n the upper atory of the palace are the fbllowlns 
^la dtlla Busioia, ao-called from a compaaa on 

bbiimbjlw*b mmnuTCD 

BaOa M Capt or, «f tba T 

b pivm 

UMdauamt N 

of ttta BMbUa; i body am «BliiUwd 
Hon •» iHnH^ UDnOia of O* Hi«L 
"- Pop* idasndar IIL mntkiB tba DngB 
riLCnn Uu itobirr ottr Fradinliik Bar- 
lMs» ttaun, wtth Uh uUm*! pi - " 
Vnpa. aLTanno'i Clement Til 
MMngiu, !»•> Tba Hno cellln 
Bictm, mi jnlntod by ZeLati 

mMu On tba Chmbw of Idnls X1T.>. i> JniKtor 
podihtai ttia FWr Citn^ irhleb wen HiuciaUy 
wgyhibfc by the OmuuH of 'Can— npe, fire, fiiii 
man, idiI usriliga. 

aob dE( QBOHn rvtt, SMeneil hy PalladK rat 
m aUed fzwn Iti four haadaoma dcwn. Tba point 
|B(S tI»:-Jl. COBUilnl'l Bs-aptont of Verona 
USt; naiui'i Dob* OiliaBil It tbe Pool w 
BalMDB; ConBriBl'a Ortownl btfon the Virgini 
C. Citflih'i (BID of P. Vennenl The Niusni' 
bnmn nealTiss « Cop* of ttae Vdietian. Laws : 
A. incmtliia'i Haii7 UC'o Rmepilim at the Lids ; 

a CasUiri'o Boeeptton of Uie Persian Ei^'- 

The obUIuk Ikeaeoei va bv Tluloretto, a: 

-AtaiM Avfodfor M Oiula, lo-called b 
•t Ont, the ntteit dtlMDi *en) pnrod to la 
Don with tbeir adrla. Hen ata. Palma ( 
— 4he Dogu L. end Q. Priidi, PrajinR 
fla¥loor: iL_y""""'" ■"*--'-- -- "-- ■■- 

L.T0« (bsUiid tbe tbrone); Palioa GloTanp—Diigc 
Tender ijcTbre Tanlc^; Dbge Clcogmi befnte llic 
Barinir, aad an aUegory of the Leeene of Oimbiai 
«t*but Venice (Teoice alt] on her lian. and CioiilB 
lulda a bmcb of grapn); ThitonUo— Lomilang 
patting to tbe Vteito. In tbo otilrog; are Thito- 
ntto^ Tenia ai Qneaa of tha Soa: Dokbella— 

md Mi GoanelUors; A. Vlixntim— Fon-en ol 
TdIcsd: elBo, ^Oiutodee XJbertatia^" and otbei 

JUe CAi^dL— Bonlbiski'i CbTlst DrfrlnEont Ibr 
HbBeTGhangent BliEfaCartDausrorninsritcsliiat 

C*ap(I— Allar by Boioi™^ Iho Vir^n by Bnn. 
- " idLindfiaefmco by Tiilau (la aatnireas: 


la' ocU' Atti-OoUa}^ when Rnalgn Ambaua 

o^ Don CMId Pngiar In tfai Miidonnii. 
Mintage of a Culnriae, tbe Tttfla In W<»7, a«l 
Dmiaetaito br— -'- "— " " - 

e itnui^ed. T' 

■S!*( r!^ffl^*^ or Ponle de' Sospirl. 

Tba public A-MmfPnbllehe Prizlonf) op 
brfdnd the Ihieal Palace, tdm a niBiriie D 
on ft nutlo DaeeateDt, built less, by A. d 

H- ^arilanB ot SL Markt 

added, 16U (fij Seimozzlj, Ibr their nee, via., the 
lOonnl, la IBU. on 
all the Greek oidera. Tbo 

I wen kept till 

I ISIJ. Thia 
nd lonJo above, 

UbniU lutva natlBtiDadii beloir, 



is S70 fefitlODg, on i««nty<-«io arebes, indufcUng 
tbioe iB the turrets at eaob end. It wu begun 1636, 
by Sauofrlno, and finished by'ScamoauL' The details 
are ridi and admkaMe^ and may be compared with 
thoee oftheDu^ Palace opposite. Anoblestairw 
case in the middle is adorned with omunents in 
staoeo, by A. Vittoria. fnte first hall was finished 
by Scamozzi, for a moseam of statoary ; which has 
been tnmed ow to the Doge*s Palace, along with 
the books. Another room contains pictures, by 
Titian, Salviati, etc. 

In the OaUaies and Chapel of the Proooratie 
Nnove- are several good paintings, as— Bassano's 
IVesentatlon ; Tintoretto's Adoration of the Magi, 
and S. Joachim Chased out of the Temple; Gior- 
^ne*8 Christ in Umbo; Titian's Passage of the 
Bed Sea, and his Wisdom Crowned ; Tintoretto's 
S. Marie saving a Mussulman firom Shipwreck, and 
his Two YencAians Finding the l)ody of S. Mark ; 
P. Veronese's Venice Surrounded by Hercules, Ceres, 
and other divinities, and hisOliriston the Mount of 
Olives; Dead Christ at the feet of Gh)d the Father, 
by C CagUari, son of P. Veronese; and Adam and 
Eve Bepentant, by the same; P. Veronese's Insti- 
tution of the Bosary ; P. Bordone's Dead Christ, etc. 

The Mint (Zecca), which appears near the quay, 
as a part of the libreria, is a work of solidity and 
good taste, by Sansovino, 1535, having two unlike 
fronts; the one Joining the library accords with it, 
bat that fooing the sea is in the rustic style. It has 
rooms fior the coining of money and medals. From 
this was issued the gold zeochlni or sequins, still 
known in the Levant; and the silver ducats whose 
loss tried the soul of Shylock so bitterly — *'My 
ducats! Oh, ^y dncatsi Oh, my daughter I" Behind 
the Boyid Palaoe but fronting the Dogana and the 
sea in tiie Gindecca, is the Imperial Garden or 

8SC0in> TOTTS. 

*& Zaeearia or St. Zachary, near Bio di S. 
Loraizo, is a tall rich-looking church, rebuilt 1457- 
1515, by M, Lombardo, in a half Lombard and half 
dnqne-cento (15th century) style, and adorned with 
paintings and marbles. It stands on the site of one 
founded in tlie 9th century. The pediment of the 
front is drcular, and it has a carved roof. Three 
altars are of wood, ornamented with inlaid work, 
and several rare paintings, by G and A. Muranesi, 
1445. The choir contains four altars in a semicircle 
At-tiiefhirdis a small but valuable Circumcision, 
\ty Qi, BcUlnl, and a Madonna by the same hand. A 
Bitfh of John the Baptist is by Tintoretto; St 
Zachanr, by Palma, whose Madonna, etc, are here. 
Near the sacristy is the monument of A. Vittoria, 
with a good bust by G. BelUni, 1505. It was in the 
neigttbonitiood of tibis church that Doge N. Michieli 
was assassinated, 1172, which led to the formation of 
the Great ConndL Near it Is the Palazzo Trevisiano. 
IVom Piazza S. Zaeearia take adght-hand turning 
through Piazza S. Provole to the Osmarfaio quay; 
then by two bridges at the end to the quay de Greci, 
where stands the 

SL Oiorgio di Grtel, tha Qi«ik church. It is an 
imposing pile with Arithir ttMvjrflifade^ 

vino, 1560, set off *withiiMaBle8iiMidaMii out Go 
back to the first bridge, tvm to the right- aloagthe 
qoay, then by the hist bridge to the r^t yoa oo«o 

8. Loifmus&, or 6t Lamenee, biMt by Sorella. 
The ridtly adomed high altar Is supported by six 
plUars of Porto Venere marMe, the work of Cam- 
pagna. The Oommenda di Malta<is opposite it Go 
bade to the Ponte de Greci, and foUowtbe street 
before you, to Ponte S. Airtonino; at the end of 

S. AntotUno, having a chapel on the left side, with 
paintings by Palma. Follow the quay close at hand 
till you come to tho Convent of 

S. Giorgio degli Sehiavoni (of the Slavonians). 
Tho front was built 1550. It hasgood paintings by 
Carpaccio. Take the street or strada of the Forlani, 
turn to the right, and continue over the t>ridge, to 

* S. Francesco ddla Vigua, near *Fondam(»te 
Nuove, a large and handsome church, by Sansovino, 
1534, with a front by Palladio. It has two wings in 
its front like S. Giorgio Maggiore. It numbers 17 
chapels and altars. Second chapel — ^The Besurrection, 
by P. Veronese. In the Gappella Santa is a Yixf^n. 
and Child, by S. Bellini. In the g eat ch^sd aro 
two fine marble monuments of the ^ame shape (sup- 
posed to be by Scamozzi) to T. Gritti andto Dogo 
A. Gritti, his nephew. The Ginstuiiani chapel, in 
the right aisle, is covered with good marlile sculptures. 
Above the pulpit is a picture of the Father and Son, 
by J. Santa Croce. In a chapel on tho left is P. 
Veronese's Madonna and Saints. 

iSL Pietro di C€uteUo or St Peter, an old and ex- 
tensive building on the Isola di S. Pietro. at the east 
end of the city, rebuUt 1504-1621, by CrapigUa. It 
was the cathedral church of the city down to 1807, 
when precedence was given to the Ducal Church of 
St Mark. To the right on entering is a veiv ancient 
marble pulpit like a chair, with on Oriental inscrip- 
tion, and believed to have been St Peter's at Antioeh. 
In the grand chapel is a picture of S. Lorenzo GIuf;- 
tiniani delivering Venice f^om the Plague, by A. 
Belluccl; another represents the same S^t distei 
bating Alms— one of the best works of G. Lazarini. 
Others are P. Veronese's Sts. Peter and Paul, 
Padovanino's Martyrdom of St John, S. Giordaao's 
Virgin and Angels; with a good mosaic, by A. 
Zuccato, etc The Vendrax^ini diapel is by B.Long- 
hena. The fine belfry attached to this church was 
rebuilt 1474. Going towards the public gardens you 

S. {7t'ta^e-(2£-C!EUfeZZo or St Joseph. At the Ugh 
altar is the Nativity, by P. Veronese The splendid 
mausoleum of Doge M. Grimaldi and his vrife is by 
Scamozzi; friUi bronzes and other decorations, by 

The Publie Gardens (Giardbii PublicI) are at the 
extreme east end of the city, facing the sea, on a 
sort of peninsula. It has several good walks and 
points of view. Turning back by the Biva degli 
Sehiavoni, you come to the Piazza di S. Blagio 
(St Blaise), and the church of the Madonna ■ dell 
Arsttude, which contidns TorelU's tomb of the (Srand 
Admiral Emo, the last naval oommaadsK ^ ^^as^ 



^Jb'sendt (Arsenate Reale), within a wall about 2 
iniles rounds now the Austrian Dockyard, but much 
reduced from its former importance. In the 14th 
century there were as many as 16,000 workmen 
sometimes enq>Ioyed here. About the middle of the 
last century the Venetian fleet included forty ships; 
Df which twelve were three-deckers, and there were 
1,000 pieces of ordnance in store. It has somewhat 
revived under the Imperial government, but has to 
contend with the rival port of Trieste, on the 
opposite side of the Adriatic. The oldest part dates 
from 1304. The principal gate is a noble work, in 
the Corinthian style, on four columns of Greek 
marble, construfted by Plsano (1480), and adorned 
with statues, etc At the sides are four lions, 
brought from Mount Hymettus, near Athens, in 
1687, by Doge Morosini, the Peloponnesian. 

WitUn (he walls are the old and new arsenals, or 
bashis, the galley docks, and a large modern dock 
(Novissima Grande), many building slips, a Naval 
College, Marine Barracks; a rope walk on pillars, 
100 feet long; foundries, timber-yards, model room, 
and an armoury for 12,000 stand of arms, containing 
some old arms and armour, with the Turkish flag 
taken at Lepanto, and Clanova's monument to 
Admiral Emo, one of the great sculptor's eariiest 
performances. This dockyard was attacked or 
blockaded by the Sardinian fleet in 1848, after 
Venice had set up a Republic, and was bombarded by 
the Imperalists. 

The famous BvcerUoro^ the State Galley of the 
Republic, was here laid up until the French burnt 
her, 1797. Her name is of doubtful origin. Her 
shape was that of the Lord Mayor's barge, though 
larger and more costly ; the size being 100 feet by 21, 
with forty-two oars, and four men to each oar, 
beside the regular crew of forty men. She was 
covered "vrith gilding and carved syrens, tortoises, 
mosques, flowers, shells, medallions, winged lions, 
birds, allegorical emblems, etc. An awning of 
crimson velvet was stretched over her. In the 
course of centuries she was ;so often planked and 
caulked, that, like the Victory at Portsmouth, not a 
part of her original timbers was left 

Every Ascension Day, in memory of Doge Ziani's 
"Victory over Frederic Barbarossa, 1177, thie Doge 
embarked at the Piazza, and proceeded to the Arsenal 
Chapel, thence to the chapel of Santa Helena (where 
the archbishop blessed the water), and the Lido, at 
the mouth of the port Here he dropped a ring into 
the Adriatic, with the words, " We wed thee with 
this ring in token of true and perpetual sovereignty." 
This ceremony originated in a grant, as was said of 
Pope Alexander III., in whose behalf the battle was 
fought. When Julius II. was at war with the Re- 
public, and asked the Venetian ambassador where 
the terms of this grant were to l>e found, he was 
told to look for it on the back of Constantino's 
donation of the States of the Church. 

Leaving the Arsenal, turn to the right, and you 
come to 

8. Martino^ built by Sansovino in the 16th century. 

It contains Santa Croce's Resurrection, and a beau- 

•*f^uJ marble monament to Doge, F. Erizzo. From 

i0a6ansJk, to the left, you come to the Calle della 

PegoUi (Pitch Street), then to the Temi (Ovens) 
which terminates on the Riva degli SchiavonL 
When here turn to the right, pass the first bridge, 
and, on the right, at Na 3,838, is 

The Palazzo Craglietta, with a collection of pafaitp 
ings by celebrated masters of the Venetian and 
Flemish school; as Vivarini, Bellini, Pordenone, 
Titian, P. Veronese, Canaletto, Rubens, A. Diirerf 
etc. Follow the quay towards St Mark, as &r as 
the fourth street on the right, Calle del Dose, and 
by this you reach the square, or Campo, on which 

S. Giovanni de Bragora, or in Bragola, a building 
of the 15th century. At the high altar is a large 
Baptism of Christ, by Cima da Comegliano. The 
Palazzo Badoer, on this Campo, was built 1310. 
From this church go back to the Riva degli 
Schiavoni, follow the quay towards St Mark's, and 
pass over the first bridge, beyond which is the 
church of 

Santo Maria delta Pieth^ an elegant oval building. 
A turning off to the right, over two bridges, brings 
you to 

The Abbezzo Reale, a mediaeval structure, formerly 
the Palazzo Bernardo. 


*S. Giorgio Maggiore (St George the Great), on 
an island opposite St Mark's, in the Porio Franco 
and the Giudecca. This fine work of Palladio (1556) 
is in the shape of a Latin cross, with a dome and 
Corinthian facade, in which we see his expedient for 
combining a larger and smaller order, viz., by placing; 
the principal order on pedestals, and bringing the sub- 
ordinate order do^vvn to the floor line. In this way the 
disproportion between becomes less glaring. The door 
is flanked by two pillars, on each side, of fine-veined 
Greek marble, and the Four Evangelists by A. 
Vittoria. Above the door is the monument of 
Doge L. Dona. To the right on entering, one to 
the general and procurator L. Vernier. At the first 
altar, the Nativity, by J. Bassano. The high altar 
is composed of marbles and bronzes, by J. Compagna. 
In the choir are 48 beautiful carved stalls, referring 
to the life of St Bernard, by Albert de Brule, a 
Flemish artist Six of Tintoretto's pictures are here, 
including the Supper, the Resurrection, etc. Among 
the tombs is that of Doge D. Michieli, the crusader 
and "Terror Gr»corum," as he is called, from his 
exploits in the Archipelago, - and at the capture of 
Tyre. The convent adjoining has a magnificent 
square cloister, in the Ionic style, and a refectory by 
A Palladio. 

*Santa Maria della Salute, ie.. Madonna of Health, 
near the Dogana, on the Grand Canal, was finished 
1630, by B. Longhena. It was founded after tho 
great plague, and is a large eight-sided building, with 
two cupolas and two slender campaniles. The grreat 
dome, 65 feet diameter, is surrounded by eight 
chapels, one of which, in the rear, carries the second 
dome, 42 feet diameter, flanked by two half-domea, 
and having a square chapel behind. It contains as 
many as 125 statues, some of which surround tho 
richly adorned high altar. A candelabra in bronze, 
*l\ tcet \on^^ \a b^ iL A. Bresciano \ sis others, alao 



^ TmHize, AiO at the ooramnnion table. On the 
ceiling of the choir are J. Salviati's three large pic- 
tures of Elijah, Habakttk, and the Manna. On that 
of the sacristy are the Death of Abel, and other 
subjects, including the Descent of the Holy Ghost, 
and the Four Doctors, both fine works by Titian, in 
his best style. Another excellent performance is 
Tintoretto's Marriage of Cana. There are also the 
Birth of Christ, the Presentation, and the Assump- 
tion of the Virgin, by L. Giordano, and Samson, by 
P. Vecchio, with Padovanio's Madonna del Salute, 
at the altar. The little sacristy contains portraits of 
Doge F. Dandolo and his wife. The large convent 
Attached to this church is now the 

Patriarchal Seminary. Here are the Manfredine 
pictures, with some old inscriptions. In the oratory 
is Vittoria's bust of J. Sansoyino, the architect, who 
is buried here. 

*Accademia dei Belle Artiy on the Grand Canal, 
was built by Palladio, 1661, for the convent of La 
Carit^^ partly burnt about 1650, and lately altered 
by Lazzinif for its present purpose. Notice the 
Cortae (or Court), by Palladio. It is close to the 
new Iron Bridge over the canal, built 1854, at the 
St. Vitale ferry. It contains a numerous collection 
of the best works of the most celebrated painters, 
chiefly of the Venetian school, besides drawings, 
models of sculpture, etc. The Academy was instituted 
by Napoleon, in 1807. The present Pinacoteca, as 
arranged by Count Cicognara, fills 20 rooms, old and 
new, many of which are elegantly carved and gilt. 
Open 12 to 8 every day; the drawings only on 
Tuesdays and Saturdays. 

In the Sola deir Astmta la Utian's celebrated 
*A8sumpiion of the Virgin, considered to be his 
best work, and painted at the age of 30; it is 
about 12 feet wide and 22 high. It was found in 
the Frari Church, neglected and covered with dust. 
** But if I am to speak of Titian, I must do so in 
a more reverent mood. Till now I never knew 
that he was the felicitous artist I have this day 
seen 1dm to be. That he thoroughly enjoyed life 
in all its beauty and ftiUness, the picture in Paris 
proves ; but he has fathomed the depths of human 
sorrow, as well as the joys of heaven. His glorious 
Entombment, and also the Assumptum fully evince 
this. How Mary fioats on the cloud, while a 
waving movement seems to pervade the cnth^ pic- 
ture. How you see at a glance her very )reathing, 
her awe and piety, and, in short, athousan<l feelings. 
All words seem poor and commonplace in com- 
parison. The -Uiree angels too, on the right of the 
picture, are of the highest order of beauty — fine, 
serene loveliness, so unconscious, so bright, and so 
seraphic"— ri/emfeiMoAn.J Tintoretto— Miracle of 
St Mark delivering a Slave (opposite Titian's), 
another equally, fine work of the Venetian school; 
from the Scuola of St. Mark. Others by Titiau— 
Lowering of the Cross, his last work (when 98 years 
old), finished by Palma Giovane; Vl^tion, an early 
work. Tintoretto—the Forbiddtn Fruit; Madonna 
and Senators; Christ and Senat<Mn; a Doge ; Madon- 
na, St Mark, St. John, and a Doge; Death of AbeL 
Bonifacio— Pictures of Saints; St Anthony and 
St Mark; St James and St I>aniliiJo; St FrancAs 

and St Paul; Woman in Adultery; Judgment of 
Solomon; Adoration of Mi^ A. Vlcentino— Picture 
of Saints. M. Basaiti — Calling of Zebedee's Sons. 
Giorgione, St. Mark and the Tempest O.' BellinJb— 
Madonna and Saints. Palma Giovane — ^Vision of 
of the Apocalypse ; the White Horse ; St Frauds ; 
Assumption, a fine picture. Ck)ntarini — a Dogpe. 
P. Veronese — Ezekiel and Isaiah, two cameos; Virgin 
in Glory and St Dominic; S. (Dristina beaten with 
rods ; the People of Mira and St Nicholas (in the 
ceiling). Padovanino— Marriage of Cana ; Madonna 
and Saints. V.Catena^-A Flagellation. C.Cagliari — 
Christ bearing his Cross. B. CagUari, Lord's Sup- 
per. B. Marconi — Christ, St Peter, and St John. 
D. Campagnola — Four Prophets (in the ceiling). 
Cima da Concgliano— Virgin Enthroned. Carpaccio — 
a Presentation. 

Sala delk Antiche Pitture.—Works of the early 
Venetian school, chiefly saints, by B. and A. Viva- 
rini, M. Basaiti, G. and A. Murano, Catena, etc 

Vestibule to the Corridor. — Statuary and busts. 

Pinacoteca and Gabbinetta Contarini, bequeathed 
by Count Contarini in 1843.— Upwards of 200 pic- 
tures, by Palma Vecchio, P. Giovane, Padovanino, 
Bassano, Bellini, Cima da Conegliano, etc; with 
wood carvings in the corridor looting into the court. 

Corridors to the Sala Nuove. — Heads, etc, by 
Titian, Tintoretto, G. Bellini, etc 

Prima Saia Nuova. — ^Titian's Presentation in the 
Temple ; P. Pordonone's .S. Lorenzo Giustiniani and 
Saints ; P. Bordone's Fisherman presenting the ring 
of St. Mark to the Doge ; with other works by mas- 
ters mentioned in the Assumption Room. Ceiling by 

Seconda Sala iVtwvo.— G. Bellini's Recovery of the 
Cross. Procession in St. Mark's Piazza, full of 
portraits and costumei \ M. da Udlne's Annuncia- 
tion; Carpaccio's Dream of S. Orsola, and others 
relating to her history; P.Veronese's Christ in Levi'a 
House — a lai^ picture 

Sala PcUladiane, five rooms named after Palladio^ 
full of pictures; Titian's St. John in the Desert 
Next to this a room containing many Dutch masters. 

In the public room of the Academy are some draw- 
ings by old masters, and an urn inscribed " Dexter 
magni Canovs," containing the sculptor's working^ 

The Sculptnre (Gallery includes a large collectfon 
of models and casts of the most famous statues at 
Rome, Naples, Florence, London, etc Among these 
are the Elgfai marbles, the MgiaA marbles, and a 
copy of Canova's Theseus and Centaur. 

In the Great Hall of Sittings is a cornice orna- 
mented by several pieces of Titian, with emblems, 
heads, etc. Over a door are excellent bas-reliefs, 
attributed to Donatella Four bas-reliefs of tha 
Invention of the Cross are by A. Riccio. In a second 
room is the Chevalier Rossi's collection of designs of 
the most celebrated artists, among which are many 
by Da Vinci, Raphael, and M. Angelo. 

Palazzo Oiustiniani JDo/tn, on the Grande Canale, 
fadng the Accademia, is by B. Longhena. A little 
below the Accademia ia PaXfuwt DatV*., ^ssKsft^ ^^Xfisi. 


_ .» LUnaiT 3t St. Hurt Hm Bjmia Umd whUi 
vrldag "Uufno P^Uflro," «c 

/WiBn> n>n<. on Uh Cui>1« flrudft bnllt iboiU 
HOD, coMHlDod tbe One pletan of tke Pwilly oi 
Durtm mpplLcntlng AiBDndcr, by P. Voronwe. mM 

GsDOTB^i Dtwl»[si md Icumi on< of bid eullv 

AUmo Bai4(r<[FD vu (hs mldsiwe <it TIHan 
SnMtiftilshcMwn'kiwaTaBM to tlie Empmir o 

!t ]iafect BpprDprlftteneH U 

Id be oinnislT*, uid tlia pn^tciloc 

&^(le li ra ft^ ^ H."-~('nrauiH*J. Tta< 
Dwil PilBcs, near SL Tomra Cboieb, l> b1» ) 

m Ctmncll. In 11.. 
tbe FaUzio Lore- 

brides, whioli 

TMtUdiRialU.—'Tbltl „., 

UM wu tlw onl; ons wUoh cnHMd lbs 
. OmL ml tha Unnt <rf anr In Venln, ' 
- 'VOTbidlt lW»-«\ f- * -•- "- -" ■ 

Tbidlt 1C8»-«1, b; A. da Font*. ... ... 

' nUd, mdM OBiittli deep bu-nllati )ioil itatiHi 
' ottuir wnligs. IlinepiHue) 

4bbU* nnr of ibop*. Hen it an tin 

AnJMv Af nubNM, or -nnhmiH Araennaii 
fMidi (nnr dinned), anil the AtbHAa Whom di 

ansbii, campoaed of the Dorla and lonio orders, in 
tta-bnt It waatba gnat cantnot trade In Shr- 
loeValtme, andla " tbe Biano " irtiMi ba apeakt or 
Klieii OHiRilalnlu oT Antonla^ niDnE hhn *"- "- 
OKUcaa. CJoaetothl' ■ " ■ - -~ ■ 
■ &nm of three olds* < 

W thtalsOie Palaaio Tlpoki, ■ 

m Jlisli (Culom Hosae), at Oia aa 
IcMrle. lu tows baa aerobe « 

r6a0 Itetla ekaiit,*iiA eMtdu 

1 rillwn Btalkni. ma noted for Ha 

itarofli « natlwa and fbrelen maatera, amoM vaua 

nsthathmponndttbrOliirKloBt^ ufalah Bjimi 

■rai bere^ la ■( ttu 

1. Longhena, ■nd is fanlMllcil^mi 
oitptiirM, paJDtliiini. and Inlaid m 

It of SobutUn V 

OopiKlilui, In tlia (Hi 

bnfliUnj (though in , _. ,. 


unbroken entaUotim, aamunnulnff on* mnvarled 
Corioiblan order, ralgna round the Interter^^'-^fW^ 
lyM). InlbeaasriitTlaaVliglnuuiCblldaBdTm 

waabaUtbrA. de Ponte^ who dfilRned the piindfil 
euDanee, The ehapel la aial. and on Iba delUoj b 
FadonDlno'a Parable of tht Wias Vlrelna. 

ifaaaim dtOa Aomth, or the Geatui!, ostta 
QlndeoiB, ^ Ifaiaaii, las obnrch troatsd bf lofty 
coluana. neUthaltarladecuratedbyBTeijittli 
and decant tabemaole, at^portad by pUlara of lapb 
laiDll of imiinuJ Blie. 

as. flii'Miiai ■ PnUiia, or Ban Troroaa aa it [■ 
uanally c^lad, ITU bnllt in 1fi83. Oa tbe toaltb 

l>y an ookiBwn aMiit At Ibe rich blgh altar la 0. 
Lii£?jtrliu'a picture of the two patron aalntt Ja 

•S. SttiuUaaa, on Canale B. BaalUo. In the acanl 
ahapri m atatnaa oftbe Madonna and ChUd aad 8L 
Jolm the Bt^iKlt, bjL Ijombardo, a pnpll of Sana&- 
viiu. vbeae maiualeani oCAnbUiboB Fodaaatnolt 
On tba Uxb.altarlathaRnl UartyidDMial 

St ailialtlao, by 

. . .-Hanyrdoni, lad naar tbla tba Mar- 
tyrdoin Of as, UaA and UanxlllDO, bolb by P. 
VeiDane.lKS. HU boat and tomb are ban. Tbr 
~ aarpanti la by ^uloiettcs who lalnUd 

tfaa imL wnn dotm, «M., u 

& Magfe.l( wttAroK Tin tlilrd«hii|Hl bu « 

silkd OKBl* dt Crnfli. EHi ccliusru of beiaClfi 
Greek mubls, talKbly vbBMhi], dl-ide the choir 


BloddUidcoiiUn. OTBrU.8.1«rl.UiBfte«ota- 
Iton or Jeui InHuTuplsto Sinwoa, by ■nntorallo. 
One-Um plolsn npnKnttSt. UlMnl deUvedng 


nmgb s gnaid a li n ot RbaotitBtrnqnUt* fW' 

laeiailbMfraBBt Hatk'ilHabDiilil nuke An- Si. 
■Miia'ai tlHnai u tba TnghMto dsUCuiwil: 
tken una Um Omd CmuL Mid by tbs Dud on ibe 

S.Tma.Brtt.'nattM, bnOt In ITU by B. Bog- 
noU. Okh* Oh niiiBt to Iha Csllt del Crulo, ind 
tanitath*UA«TOtbaD«iiiu OneRkBrid^i tliin 
tV th*«ill* MU epuWi to ttaB (qun nod dionb 

& Pmmnm, talH lota. Fmm tUa Dtdnt t« 
dftrira Hie word putULoon, k dtok-iulnB bItad 1o tlia 

TeiMliiBt. nstaUlRlavtocnni — " '° 

mtUbau^byTTeaidL Km 
by J. A. FnmkmL Hw« «n P. V 
g lmn Hflliir - "■-"■' — >"-- 

Obapd !■ m mBblB ittar tf Uie Uth ecDInry. Cn« 
ttasiqnuaMb to tba Flaan dell* UoBtaa; tbe- 
MUiaWttalllnBllKlav, U tta md oT irblcli.' I 
tbeilgM, jmcMU toOWTolmtliilllmy, and tli 

IWCXM Chwtit, orS. HlcaA ddl Tolenthil, n« 
WodofUToUDtlBl.lniDllnieWbrB ■ ^- 

ctnlsry, Tbe nnpol* ova tb< 
Zmiital tnA Atgvl On tba il^t, ni 

... . wgoad pteUn li Jt 

tl Iln ilnni lia iiiibii 111 llii maiiiiiiii »i. the 

mlddla ana batas a patntinc of Uia Tkeolnglcal 
Tlmui; tba otkHttta lamDeatdn, Iq' P. Teniiu 
aoH toiba door aOha-aMdi^baplctBiBof 
aebHttoi, Bt B«A aod 8l laonBoa, one o( 
Buoncoi^gllD'abaMwoAi Oont brtha laoi 

mtotfaaiUhtS CaUalonand 
— la ftari, Inwhieli Maada 
_ .. . Ma ^ AbK a ttoa <Hd cInMi 
oUco (OatmaB-OolUel aMa of Ifee 
utaiT, bnUt bylba Man UiiDrat bL Raod* 
. It! oampai&laeftiMUIlioaitoiy; 11» 
Itur on tba d(bi ia ridi In naitila mA br 
or Longfiena._ Iha tgcand altar la^oloaa to 

:») da MentFlnpo, a Tnaian arUat Tblilltial 
IP adcrinydeMiTaaBotlMLiilihflaiilBtonalBUina 
injvannenti, by S. BdUno. 14M, of tfas TIrXB and 
ciur Bainu. Two magnUlHnt lomba In iha Onat 
hitpfd. (ifDiigaFnmilaoFoKariandDcieaBl.noiL 

I «n. That ot the Dogs, with aoma ollws, ia bjr 

. )iregiio. At tba Mgb altar la an laoearion tr/ 
I.WIUL In the liiUi ohqial oh the light ii the 
lun Luneat ot GenanI TievioBo, a itanple hnl altfaat 

I general and bltbop, vbo 
I'i alcar-plsee ot the ^rgtai 
Bfllnta> Inclndiag ]urtralti 

by puUlo nbeorfptiaB, IB9T, and aiaented by Zoi- 
dDmanliM. Pamil, Boaa, Flbrla, Hertiid, Blnaldl, 
and Rid^ aU Vaaatlab artMa of tha day. It la a 
pyramid with apnHHahn of Ait, Ganitu, ata,, walk- 
ing lata the door, oopiad ftom bla own derigndit iha 
ArDhdDohesB ChriMlBa. B^ond tUa la an alagant 

Mat of S. John B^tlat, In the nOddla, la by 
loTiiitaDit. Batwaan the altar and tha great dooi la 
ana maible tomb of P. Bemndo, who diad UK. 
biive cha door li tba moBamant of J. TanonL In 
iKioldtt of tbeobnnhlaacboiriirtUilWatallBcf 
Doll, eDpatblyhflald with muM^ ata, IM, by 
.... ^ — -.Bllliially.aiUedllaiodaVlDania. 
nndbgata ehoir ia ^xncd with 
■■ V1*7B. m U) 

■/'liUliD.dreMMtarakfVtiWfaMi Damaatdte 
HiBtoty((ti]wi¥«eiifiatr ^'fc's'wiia.'*-^ 
\iks \BMBj "^V ^ \d&aB. -wAa. -aaob «i vm 

FuteuWIbKk. Thli BtlHHoiiHItiSMfw 
li woDdertlilly ToiunlKHii, golDE bi£k to 
comidg down to tik« pntanl liiH. ud li a 
rick in dnnmMBt* (« Uw ISIh U UU Ittb e 
Oh Importut nUs li ■ DeKriptloa ct IL . 
tMntrtT ndir VcmUn nd«, In (Mu roUii toIudm, 
•rwtaUionlir ■ .—.-—.- . 

Bin br«MM,wHh A. VltMi'iflt Jbdm (or S.<». 
conio). tba pRinn of tUi 1ICt1» ctaoiOi. In tlito 
neiKlJi'ont'lOij* ii thg diBicli ot _ „ 

S. CruHU, cHUlulu tfaTM good TlDtanttoi. 
I tIi., the CrndBilDD, DeMcnt IdEd Hell, ud B««r- 

mn ntUadfiiTtheanaf 
nt. Optn dillf tm 10 
bwB obMlnHl fnm tha | 

On foot or to eonaolfc •«™<J'"e '" ' 

a S. Apotali, or Holy Ak«Ub« Cbn 
■Mt fcnUdlng, sod l» foil ol mitblei m 


iiindi of (be EKKnU 

«. fotudfld by & reII)rtDDf 

. The high 
>r chaiiuble 

Ite weJ] pelnUngi b- 
wtalrcaab wu eomprau 

mlddla oT it «■ two p 

TiOta, aod tb< TMMUra by Tlati 

bottom ttaapedeitlliofthacolninDi an cervel with 

mbjecu (hmi luradhlitocy. The C»ncell«l« room, 

palnUiin by Tlntuntto, ud with aculpMrei on 
waadortboUfoorSLRoch,byG, Munhesl; indlti 
IH tlmba eeiUng Is by F. nuts toA M, Angrlo ol 

thabeutUtal marble door, 1M7. iiadiIs the portrall 
of 'nntoratto.pBlatedbyblmielfilCJS. Qdthe waH 
IntheHxCnwrn. ntltd thaAlbergo, facing thii, ii 
hli great work of tiie*CrucitU' 
tnlU of UmKir and Tlllail. u 

ftiul !U beuiy ud two marb 
3f ths lloiii u l( atnngUag It, i! 

nla. vho wu beheBded by tl 

ine building ) 

lemaerance, which Weiley truilslcd. Ko mw ii 
Pa*u. 10* y«ii old. thugh bl> coutltotlm h>a 
liMB alBoat deraoyad ^ dlB^mtlon do WD to hli WU 
™», whia be refOnoBd. Thle family delmt i 
ilcacant from th* Camelll fUiily ot old Roipe 
Another ch«»l to tha right tau ■ magnifioaol eUii 
CroiH the bridge on the left, cloae to the ^^^ 

body. The 
to 6en. Cei 

KenuMlo for 


Fiom tble 

A aartan, or SilmleV 

li ft lirga pictma of tha 
VKSblii. Turn to tba 

A Jul'* ChrTHOttom ot «. , . — ; - 

Venotlue call It, built MM, Painllogi bj Del 
I'lombo (at Itia blgh eltur) ud G. BeUlnl. Near 
Ihls le the MaUbran Theatre, the moat papular Id 
Veolui. CoaIlnn« on tcwanla the Klalto, acroee th* 
square of S. BBrioloraineo to tha UaiiHM wbeio 

•S. SalcoiDM or Bt, Sailour. a larga and o^jant 
slmctnre, by T. Lombardo. SaosoTino, and ■™n- 

buled to O. del Moro, The aeccnd altar baa a Vlrglii 
nnd (iud. a beautiful work snppoeed lo be byCk 
F. Vaoler, by esnaOTino; anthor alto of the Iwi 

by Sanuvlno, Is a palntlcg ot the AnDondBtloD. by 
lltlu. Id old agf. lo an alile to the rigbt la Uu 
)iifi oUDBolenm of Catherine Cornaro, QDMn ol 
Cypmi, by whose marriage with James LaalniD. 

ie Elallo Bridge called Ruga Veccliio, wher 

T (9. C 

It by Scarpagnlno. al 

— -It the high all 

ir tha RliltD, to 

I Batlatteri bridge, beyond which throogh ■ PWW^ 
I on the right, le the t^urcb of St. Julian, called 
i S. (NHlimo. or ZnlliD, by (he Venetiaus, balllby 
I SansoiUio ; painUngs by aanta Crocs, P. VernMI^ 
e ato. Follow rhla CO the Piazza S. Hnrco, and than 
by tha pasaage near tha grand staircase of the Xsyll 
.1 Falaee, to VM chnrdi 

e S. Uoti. in which Law, th* author oC the MImI> 
a iLppI KtLiiiae, \a ^loiVt^ &« ditd in 1730. Lan* 

tn ttae tKiDliful doisMr <if S. fitcfaan, bi 

EnQibrte], From (buice you pus on 

*S. Bt^aaa. or St. SUpbcn'i oturtb, i 

13M, Ibr Uis AuaUD Fitol 

It ocntBlia > 



gml, tliE 

Oa'^lrft or ttaa nut do« 
fcronM W-mW oT Um Vlrgl 



fljnrvbrBnanmoira mtit 

Liiviie ii 

Ifl, WBlk 

don til* Ciinpo 3. SManii. 




lueeiidBtho P»Uii»Mor 

ilnl huUl Ul 

century. Thranjli tke squa 

to ota auen 

.vet Itc oel^ 


riilo; HieaU 

IbocUDTdi of 

A Mimizio or Bt. Mandix 


hylD. F.^g»,amedcrn.rl 




gg^^^^taMl^ a«BO), _^ 




buSdJnK will 

LplKJn. Follow IhBWiTlowaiJs 81. Mark 

amr ODrlabe Brl^m ; beyi 

a which, on 

IMUahl-Albrlnl Vtiaix. In which li n fini li 
irCuMV«,tiUgMlalluii:«iaUulutiella. At 
tiinlwr«Btat£Bltft li m tmHtl uUed Plsli 
8. Ifoii^ vkne Cvrat Oeo^BusUTH, at Na. t; 
Ha ii tite ImBder aT tka AaidaBy otnua Arta. — 
tke matbar Df ■ iplendH witk oa tke man itHUng 
bdiUliuo Id Veoiee, " Lt Faiilincht pin toaiaie a 
rmeST" In bfs »ll«etlon la n hart at TJanU'i 
Bewica, and a large one of the CheTBlier CiMgiiE 
both ta Cbhots. who iireaeniul ibtm utta C-. 
micTj atK a bunt of Canova, ]iy big pupil Elaulill, 
coined fnub uoe by Canova hiroEUir. 

EVom Hfeo Glcof^Ta PoliK^, proceed ill ron^h Caflc 
Long.! Uiance, lurajnc lo Iho righLsnit Uico Id tbf 
kli, y*tt aiiDij to ihe Barozii Oout, In wliich, ai Ho 
1.9S*, ta tbe 


)<ni[d9 St. 

Family b^oro 

■t PonU dal ParadlH, 

t tbe altar to tlie il: 

;iKd Iho brldoB and br, 
in BTSBt formerly oeU 

• tba rlghl, and we co 

3aS« Ruga oii^ In ' 

Patriarch Orimeml 


but really a maDutactured fignrt. 

landing la a gtDeiy tt anrlent InBcriptiona. bnuuea, 
medala, tbmi. etc, ■ bnitot Caracalla. and paintings 
by cka best artlata. AmODE tbe picturei in Dtber 
nonu or tbe ulaca ia A. Dtlrer's iDsUtutlon of the 
KoiEn', tiillOTportraUi, bxlnUng tboH of the anlit 
and bb iTifa. wlva niotBrea are devoted Ip tlio Hla- 

tfaa Ruga Gluffa bridge, ia tbs Frin 
"--TeelatUwiIdo of it, anil, al 

and, oapoalte 


.... jriilge, 10 ths 

aqwre and dmrcb of 

AHUM jrffrAxHXfrwgftbnitC llSl-B. an elegtmt 
bnUdhieinDie urty-p-^Bted etylo. lomethlng like 
B, Zaccaria, with a great eiapel. much admired, 
having a balutmde, altar, ac„ in well eiecntod 
na^le, by tbe Lombardi. Leaving IMb charch, go 
aver Goiir bridgea in Hiccea^on, to the ohnrcb of 

•as. OfonHK(/teU.orSt8.JohnaadPuil,Ml!>d 
Bt, Hut In point •( tnlenat and nanilfloeDce, beb« 
8M (tetlODt, and WlafnwiUMnUof I>og«, Senator^ 
eto, ItwaBliiiatby< tbeOoUiiB 
l^le (ISM-IUO), md Huda near tii« CMl HoapHal 
<AtniLerly the 8am>la of 8. HarctL by U. Lombudo, 
14sn, and Itaa mo del Kedicua It li fUl of moni. 
mania and riatnca, of the pabitad and Ronaiaeiuioa 
period*, aNdIiiuririD«oiineofnstarat)en by Bleu* 
detCL NeBtheeatnu4anaail|ttal,U tiM totnb 
orDoe«M«UBlR<>,bytlMLadbu4lfBBily, At Hie 
Srat altar, the Yliglii and ObDd tad lolnla, one ot 
tbe beat worka of Q. BeUMt, In dkUnqet, i^sne. 

BRADaai.w'a aixtiusto 


liltu, w 

n , ,— ,_- X dlvlakiiu, of aDoJid 

Christ, the ADDimclitJoii. St Cliriitaiiher, etc.; ■ 
cornea tlu large TnwTiawianm of Doge TnUer, noiT- a 
■tuloed Kli» trindmr, hy J. Mocetto, id the 18th 
ctntary. Attbaslgbtb ultir, llie aiTloiir ud bli 
.^loatlta, * bgutUul work of Uvnri, Ib IIw 
fifial cbapel, on Uia right mlU li die monnmuit 
f;1 Dugs U. MoroAfnl, dwont«l ivlLh manj 
■SalptoreA, and foma moaalo or tlw 141h cen- 

J. waflgUa. In 1S7S. Oppoilte thla, anolber of Di^ 
'VendiHDliil,i»'t]i*"n«>r]Iiio,*' who wu maile a 
noUe for bLa great Rrrtcfli at Ctaloggia, igaloBt tba 
Genoete. It ii ODO at tin nuM (Iqnnt iniKiimieiiu 
in Venice. TlHie ■■ anotlnr to Admlnl C. Zano. 
nho flfiuad In tlM IMU* war. Ttaa high alur i> a 
magnlflcont WDrki 1^ BL Camara (IBIS), bebtnd 
irfalch la tlN AnnntutttloD. by L. Oaivu. The pe- 
tition mllf ot ttaii altar are onared -with marble 
hai-nlltfa of Oie Ufa tl ChrIM, the imk of aevenl 
artlM,bMinmlEWaiiaiT33, aa Bonaiia, Taglla- 
idatra, Tontto (Canon'a nuMn). Uorlacter, eta ; 
MddeB baantHal carringi In wood- Ta tha lel^ new 
tba aaciia^ doot, la the nwnumant of Dogs P. Kall- 
pUiTo. BuDw It, a ptetare of tha Crowning of tha 
^gln, Utrllntted to Cupaodo. Fnithar on. ira 
nrlobs monnmant^ InclDdlng tlut ot Oonerat P. 
ffloiUnlaiil oe IioimIm^ b;>. TnW, of ViUn ; 
that of Don T. Hocenlgo, and anacher of Doge K. 
Uarcells, abont Uu end of tlu IMb cantncy. 

Otlter tombfl aro to tba memorr of Captaln- 
Oensal OirinL and to BtagadiiMt tlM dataDda ot 
FloiBgoata. Near tba great door, la a niciora on 
-wood of 'iS Prter JfiMir (he wai • Dominican monk, 
at MUm, kraui, uilT). ona oT the -my beat of 
Tidan'a psncD, whoae boat b ant tho ohnnili door. 
Neartln aama door it the large monument to Dogca 
A Mocenlgo, and O. Bombix far OraplgUB! 
below It. an alegut ona to R Bragadlno. "'. 
alone landacapea In tblB obnrcb, by Doretlo. 
muter of Canora, ara flnlihed with a delicacy 
nicely of detail more «pn»eotii« '- -'"' 

'nio aarcophagua of tbe Doge Marino Fallero. stood 
Intfde tlia otaarch at fint, bat vbe " 
Jtere, be finmd it plaoed ontdde th 
to ibia etanob, la the 

(%U(Mi< ifoHimaU, to Iba memocy a 
CoUeoid, of Bergamo; a oalabratsd lekuoi uuuor u 
Tenetiaii i^wbllo, nd on* of Um Bat nha nude n 

.. -ieaitaflidi^iralktatlieCatiiianlPalaiw. 

Ittar thla ii TlaUed, ntwn to Ihr "— ' 

flnvra QoCT, ud IbMi o>«r a bilda I 
/MritrOMRi, or at Hula aiaa 

~ mDdani, any and mm bolldins, 
m, bat il^bFadmnad vUi oidoorai 

—.i 1 u_ —J larble carpet" Tba 

> tba ML cioaa ta llM wB. hi^i 

lo i>aga P. Casogna, " 

Obaem annngiha palittinm,'tba 

bylHan; andoaCiiaani 

. 0, both It ^ntorattoi U 

3, Franda XtTlar, by Ubeil; and 

^1 — WPalmaVeeililo. FWd tbi 

ter^ fbUow the Quay to 

u Ouatiaa, belonging to tba 

CaUege, fbnnded ISOT, by the French. At tba hlgli 
iiltar Ii F. Veroneae'B M n i ri n g ; . of fi. CatberlnOi 
Thcnse down tha canal, called Tiaghcllo.dl Sasla 

Abiif CAhkA, or An- Aiibaab della Ulieilmdla. 
contalni tbe Tobiia of Clma da Cone«llana. 
ie Matl bridge, and 

— , „,. le right ona'lh* 

inna dell' ORo brlilge, W the ohnceh ot 
iwa JforiaABOng^alaigeandandant (SoOdo 
ion, bnUt ISIO, ot biickt with a oamjanBt 
r. ITI IMt Ugh. Tan plOan of vebied Ontk 
lie aapport tbe ttm. Tbia obuab baa Or man 
■ been In eoma-of zeatoraUon. In tbe fbapo, 

le ilgbt, la the laru 3a'—' " ' ""-" 

: ud te tin left, the Ai 

Celt wUb Uomt 81" 

*" ')aa; aoorapanloi-- 

bmiedhHe. HUB. A 

carried off to Paila, with otl 

Amdemj. Two rich maible monnm 

& OoHKB. JtUt, bnnMlU-93. bylbe LcmiiaidL 

bridge, and the ijurch ot 
S. Jfandaoni) ot a. Uactui. al un mm •><«. 
iilde the priiu^pal door, b e fBmood pictnre of 
Tobl» sad the Angel, by Titian. BeinmaroiibB 
lit bridge, lake the tnmme to tbe ilgtit. andu 
lie end of the qnu. b tbe Omieiit oT Jfitriontii 
Jroas the biidg* of tUa bkik, nun to the right, and 
follow the loay to tba Church of & /Utt, 

«ddea the Ohnrebei already mentkoad, thnv 
. . 8. AMiHWo or B. Stac on (he Qiand Canal, 
bidit, 1109. wUb a lain tifade added, by D. BoM. 

B. SInm I midatainHin andJnde), buUc, 171& 
by a, Bcaltamtta, having a large dome flflj'.^i 
IMt diameur, and a beaaUfal CotutlblAn porUto, of 

La MaanOaa by TeiDen«,'tBan>tonda iritlito 
dfty IM diameto'. Tbbolunhbatll>BDortbema 


V * tt» dv atkcJut j;<«i,ifMii>. luutiu. 

B. Hinnids, onodw tli~ 
Leonardo, near OeCann 
the ebl end new Obetlo. ,_ 




' Sai^ Marta^ to at fhe wMt tad of the Oiadecca 
CanaL Btmta Tertaa^ and Samta Maria Maggiort^ 
am near the Campo di Uarte ■ (field of Mars), not tax 
from tibanaw .Tobacco tBttitaxy (Njqoto Fabbrioa del 
Tabachi). jt«F«rfirMU and A^nMyioPofriarcato, are on 
the Canale di Castello, and the new port S. Qiaeomo 
i8in.tiie.0iadecca, near Rio de Ponte Longo; and 
Sania Evf^mia and. & Ctosmo, are at the end of the 

There are abo many otiier palaces deservhig a visit 
Most of Ihem line the sides of the Grand CanaL 
Sach are the following *05 (for Casa) d* Oro^ which 
has a rich bat unfinished facade, of the 18th century, 
by an unknown architect ^' It has no high roofs or 
bMdly marked bnttresses; but flat roofs and 
liorizontal divisions pervade the design ; and every 
part is pervaded by a fanciftil richness, characteristic 
of the Inznrloaa refinement of the East" (Fergimon). 
The arehiBa are sarroanded by a cartons dental 
mooldinepeQQllar to Venice, as to the bolldings of the 
pcdnted: Gothic period. 

*Failaa» Vrndrttmine Caterffi, by P. Lombardo, 
1494, in the dnqoe-cento style. ** Nothing can 
exceed the beauty of the pn^rtions of the three 
cornices, and the dignity which crowns the whole. 
The base too is sufficiently solid without being 
heavy, and the windows being all mnllioned, and 
tlie spaoes being reinforced with three-qaarter 
colamns. there is no appearance of weakness any- 
where:**— (^ervnwon.) Its dimensions are 86 by 
65 feet 

Near this to the old Fondaw de Turcfri (or Levant 
warehoose), booght of the Duke of Ferrara, 1621, 
and now the Ck)vemment Tobacco Factory. 

PaUmo Comartt near.the St Angelo theatre, is ano- 

her fine dnque-cento building. Palazzo Contarini, 

ear 8. lioca's cnurch, is a beaatiftil strncture of the 

5th cmtary, supposed to be by the Lombardi; 

another PcHatto Contarini^ near St Samnelo, is by 

the same arttots, about the beginning of the 16th 

century. One. of these was called deUa Scrigni, 

because fitted op with cabinets containing piles of 

gold crowns and zeochinL 

Palazzo TrmiMono^ by Bergamasco, IJ^O, has a rich 
and imposing fafade. Xtonoe belonged to Biaiica 
Capello, the wife of Francesco de* MedicL Its 
fa^e in four stones, to 84 feet by 75, the largest in 

Palano de* Camerlinghi^ an elegant three-story 
house, by Beitramasco, 1625, to the Court of AppecU 
(Tribnnale d' AppoUo), near the Rinlto. 

Pakuzo Cornaro near S. Paolo, has a good base- 
ment, by SamraichelL 

Another Palazzo Comoro (or Comer), near S. Mau- 
ri zio, is by Sansovino, and to now the Palace of the 
Oovcmor. It to faced by coupled Corinthian and 
Ionic piUars on a solid raatio basement. The f^ont 
104 feet long by 97,. has. oval windows in the top and 
8 imitated in the Army and Navy Club, Pall MoIL 

Palazzo Manin^ near tlie Rlalto, to also by Sanso. 
*ino, in the 16th century, though ^tered by Seivo, 
n the last century. It has a fhmt of tlirce orders, 
nd was the seat of the last Uoga, Hanin. 

Palazzo Balbif near the Frari chpxi^ by A* Ylfc- 
oria (1582;, to in tiiree stories or «nden« 

Pakuto Balaggiat has a curions firanti by B. 

Palazzo Pesan^ or BevUacqua, another work of 
Longhena's, with a rustic base supporUng a noble 
fii^ade of two orders. ** From the water line to the 
cornice it to a ricti, varied, and appropriate design.** 

Palazzo Rexzonico^ in three orders, also by liong^ 
hena. Palazzo Corrtr della JRegina^ near the ehnroli 
S. Someone Piccolo, on the Grand Cunal, opposite 
the Railway Station, by D. Rossi, 1724, has a rich 
&9ade, and to converted into the Monte de Pietiu 
Here to the 

Mtueo CorreTy bequeathed to the city, by Count 
Correr, and open on Wednesdays and Satur- 
dnys. Besides a collection of medals, MSS., mar- 
bles, engravings ■ (including a pton of Venice, as <dA 
as 1500), objects tn glass and majolica, with ptototo, 
daggers, knives, glass, gems, etc., of Venice make, 
it contains a gallery of drawings and paintings 
Among the last are G. Bellini's Doge Mb«enigo; 
and several otlier portraits of Doges ; Mantegna'a 
Transfiguration; M. Schon*s Christ bearing the 
Cross. Here also are Canova*a, two 
firuit baskets. 

Across the canal to the Giardino Botanioo, laid oot 
according to the LInnean system. 


Thto may be spent in visiting the islands in • 

MuBANO, to the north, has about 6,000 pepaUtion, 
and was once remarkable for its manufacturss of 
glass, plate-glass, .enamel vases, crystal, etc., estab- 
lished here in the 13th century, wlien the makera 
received exdusive privileges fixMn the Senate. Moek 
pearto and conterie or bcMads are the chief prodaeta 
now. Glass beads are made in the following way. 
'*Two men with long iron rods, took ontof the fire 
torge lumps of soft glass, bemg about theconstotSBoy 
of thick honey ; which they moulded round the en^ 
keeping them red-hot Then after forming a htHe hi 
the centre of eadi, they stood opposite another, and 
joining the two lumps just where the holes ware, 
they walked backwards, pulling the soft glass into a 
long thin pipe of a hundred feet or more in lengtii, 
till the lumps were exhausted. When retouched 
it was hard, and the perforation ran through it 
from end to end. Thto was broken into lengths and 
carried to another room, where, by a very simple 
machine it was cut up into bugles or beads ; and 
beyond were rooms full of girls, threading them 
for tlie Eastern market Thto they efilected by 
havmg large basins of beads before them, .and a 
number of long, slender needles ready threaded, in 
one hand, which they plunged into the bashis 
repeatedly till all were full; then pulling the beads 
on to the thread, they -renewed tiie action. By thto 
means the work was speedily done."-^ifiw CaUow's 
SkeUJiing Rttmbles, 

At the church of S. Micheli, over the great door to 
the monament of Cardinal Doffino (died 1622). 
chiefly by BeminL The lofty choir to cahcjk^'VaSx 

bradsb&w'b n.T.irRit*Tro 

Fra Paolo Bupl. Hu hiftoilan, trad HorelU, thr 
Kholar, vho nu IsKly Hbrarisn of BE. Hjirt'l. 

On t]iB left ll Itie CAppolla Emllaiu, ■ WiSbij 
idanied domed chapel of III tidu, 28 feet dii-'" 
^tbiD, by Ber^amaaco. 

j5- Fitira f Paoio Clturch contalna many pair 
Naaf Uie second altar is PDrdonooe'j Aanimd 
ToOiBlettof IhHnearlhenall, iithsVirgli 
Ttrono, wiUi the infanl Jeiua and SalnUi 


, , , goyercd with n 

larbl*. Eiffhtaan pillars with ourioosly ahiped 


«. bv Bli 
bi^ Big 

.._ — iwly iiPu„_- 
lo. la odoniBd vlth 
to come. Behind till 
tlie laat jad^ment. nc 

remart From thia i 
of it "*" " 

Uttoisla, a gMp about 36 mllea lai^ niilch feicei 
off the aea ft^m the LagooDS, haa a fortresB or Castle, 
boDt lHI-71, by SammlcheU, to i»mniind tlie 

rnadc spedmen with ■ Doric eotablitare, and Is cnn 

'^mOrman wCwAb^st i^tt^ntai 

nwtsa _. _ in Nabreaina (liom Trl 
^trolpo ~ lia Is 11 miles, 
nslon Schtnooeaco 113 Vieina, 363 milea 



TroTlso Statioo. 

/mu.— The Post ; Albergo Beale, and Four Crone. 

The andent Tarvisium^ under the Goths (whose 
last Ung was a native), now a bishop's see, eta, in a 
fertile imrt of the Sile. PopuUtion, 21,000. After 
the Longobards or Lombards held It, it became the 
head of a district called Morca Trevisana; was 
acquired by the Venetians in the 14th centnry, and 
besieged in 1509 by the German and French army. 
The streets are old and faregnlar, with arcades before 
the houses. A cross-shaped cathedral, begun by the 
IiOml)ards, and still incomplete, has paintings by 
Veronese, Titiao, and Bordone, a native. The town 
house, law courts, and new prison are near it In 
St. Nicholas church is a fine Madonna ; and there is 
a work of Giomone, in the Monte di Piet2t (public 
pawnshop). Other buildings are, ten or eleven 
churches, the Bishop's Palace, the palazzi (seats) of 
thePola, Brescia, and other families, the hospital, 
Onigo theatre, public library of 80,000 volumes, 
botanic garden, and AthensBum or academy of 
sciences, etc. Trade in wool, cloth, silk, com, wine, 
fruit, paper. Coach to Feltre, up the Piave. The 
Province was called Trevisiano when it belonged to 
Venice, and contains 183,000 population. 

ConegllanO station (population, 5,000).— It has 
an old castle, and a church containing an altar-piece, 
by G. B. Cima, called Citna da Conegliano, from 
being a native of this town. This is the nearest 
station for Bbllcko, 20 miles distant— (See Brad- 
thaw's Hand-Booh to Switzerland and Tyrol), 

Sacile Station, on the Tivenza. (Population, 

Podenone station (population, 5,000); the bhrth- 
place of G. A. Licinio, or Pordenone, a painter of the 
Venetian school, some of whose works are in the 
town churches. 

Casara station. After this, the raU crosses the 
stoney bed of the Tagliamento, by a long viaduct 

Codrolpo Station. Here the direct road to Trieste 
parts off, having a branch at Palma Nova, to 
Aquilija, or AquUeia, near the Gulf or Trieste, now 
a small village, but once an important Roman city. 
It was destroyed by AttUa, 452. It has an ancient 
cathedral of the Patriarch of Aquileia, 11th cen- 
tury, and a museum of antiquities. 

Paslan ScMavonesco station is near Campo 
FormiOf or Formido (on the right), where the 
celebrated Treaty of October, 1797, was signed 
by the French and Austrians, which decided the 
fate of Venice, by giving her up to Austria. 

Udlne Station (population, 20,000); an arch- 
bishop's see and the old capital of Friuli, which 
belonged to the Palriarch of Aquileia, and was 
acquired by Venice in 1445. It was ravaged by 
pestilence in 1611 and 1665. Among the buildings 
are the Patriarch's old Castle, now a law court and 
prison ; a cathedral of the 14th oentoxy ; Palazzo 
Pubh'co, in Piazza 8. Giovanni, on aicades, near 
the Pillar of St Mark, and campanile, or dock 
tower, built by Giovanni da Udbie, a native artist; 
•everal churches, the A»ebbiabop*§ Palace^ a 

theatre, and town library contalidng some rare 
MSS. and books. At the hospital is the Coronation 
of the Virgin, by another native, Girolamo da 

S. Giovanni Manzano station. Tb the left la 
CrviDALB, the ancient Forum JidiL 

Gorizla Station, on the Isonzo, which forms the 
border line of Austrian Italy. The line descends 
the river to 

Bonchi station, 

Monfalcone station, and 

Nabresina station, on the Gulf of Trieste. Here 
the line parts off to Vienna, viA Agram and Buda. 
Then through 

Gxlgnano station, to the terminus at 

Trieste station. (See Bradshaw's Hand-Book to 
Qermany^ and the Continental Guide.). 

ROUTE 20. 


By rtdl to Padua, thence by road to Ferrara ; 
by rail 29 miles, to Bologna. 



Monselioe 1} 

Rovigo 1 


Polesella 1 

Ferrara 2 

Coach to Ferrara, 55^ miles, in ten hours, daily. 
The rail begins on Ponte Lagoscuro on the Po, fivo 
miles this side of Ferrara, and may be taken there 
in proceeding to that dty. The road follows the 
canal to 

Battaglia (population, 2,700), and its old castle, 
leaving on the right 

Abako (population, 2,800), and its springs and 
mud baths (Fons Aponi), which have been used by 
invalids from Roman times. They and the hlUa 
around are of volcanic origin. Livy was actually 
bom at this spot, though claimed as a Padnan. It 
is also the birthplace of Pietro d'Abano, a philoso- 
pher of the 14th century, — so dever as to be accused 
of magic. About two miles south-west of Battaglia, 

ArquA, a healthy spot In the Euganean Hills, which, 
like many places about here, contains mineral springs* 
but is most cdebrated as the residence of Petrardi 
In his last days; where he died peacefully, in 1374, 
with his head over a book in his library. They 
show his tomb, which, with his bust, stands on 
four pillars of red marble In the Chapd of the 
Virgin, which he built ; also his house, chair, stuffed 
cat, and other relics. Several of his later works 
were written in this quiet retreat 

MoKSBLicB (population, 6,000), where the road 
from Arquk falls in ; has a fine old castle on the 
volcanic heights. Four miles to the right, on the 
Mantua road, is 


An andent town (population, 9^000)^ uass tlodw 
Roman Aleste, \n. «i. ^tft ^^w\. ^ 'Qqa -^joaeoisa^' 

AlbBMBoIL,reoM«id.lIwaerot EitaiboBt: 
«nl Ui fint inat inndKin. Albcrtuia, «u 
« Wilt IT.) DOB wfaii^daiGaBditlHBayiinoiUd 
of Braiuwkk, or SatA-Oiulpb, no* npnMoUd t>7 
QoMii TlDtorii ud (be Bng of Hinomr. iiul 
olhn bnndM). Aoo T- in On lltb ccntary, 

In the Fadaui, l:JM: ud br the VeiKdaiu. wbo 
retained It. UOS. In the feu ItSS, lbs hmny 
acqidred Modeiu, tha ei-diika of which Id Its 
TBpTe«entatlTO by tbA aioOmr'a ridn. 
After cnatlng ths AiUgB, it Boan, joa eonw to 
Rdtigo, the haad of a bhuII wiUeiy pntTlnco, 
> .- ....■._•*■__ — . »- — ■■ijBBilliip town of 

|g an tb< Citbednl oT the 

Pllainrdel Rideito, or Ooma* 
- - -- uidi,>Httha 


n lUiadlcliiiu. t]» i 
Asui, oc gi MMa^ iboBt U mllM aut at Rorlgo, 

/hm Ue Mb It samban aUnt S.00O pajmlHtlan. 
Kanuiliu of tta wmDi. bath^ unphlthutn, aqne. 
dnctm, atix, ItUl aiUt of tbe iDdeot town, which Itty 

u the Pa, lheXBBAa,orinHithii 
aa bclaw. Hlira the road Innii < 
itB VuiM* tha laat place on tl 

^.._ », III the Ftaiaiwo and Iha 

,^__.ia.imr»itof tba-kbttdomof Italy, by the 
peputarToUot 13(l>Uanl^IS6l). AD thb ngloii 
of inanfa and Awaaip la protected by Btron^ dykea 
fnim the eocroachmente of the P& Ttom 
Ponto IMOWV^ Btafia^ a nD, e mUiu long, 

HtieUi^Tc* Hurl (Thcoe Uoorl) ; Tre Coroae 
(Tbne Croirai). It It BOtad tw Iti Mprjicont, eels, 
ind eravTlMUiglK 

PopiOMiDn, ffI,nS, IMbdingtlia nibailiaii TitlBgsa. 

Ctnrimun to Biuogna, Fidiu, aad Venice, 

•CM<^0^*<*o^ffi«taa— AHoBtD'a Hanee, Calhe- 
dnl, St BwHdetto, Bants Hiiia del Vado. Campc 
Santo, DtURl Palaoa, Plnacoleca, aanla An&a And 
Ikno'a Cdl, BcUIUMja FaUce, Lycen a, Onulnl's 

Fetrarataai OHia dedtaed i 
latkuL and comoierob alnce A 

tBoa ltia» a pngto tl nolo." Bnt being lane 
«** ynainauimtptetUtai li^arisi. Itlit&a 

Anoncfti "irtde 
beat (re COiag V. Bi 
and tfae Cam di Pd, « 8. Benedetto, aie Hlgli Soeit. 

aboDt II mile tons, froio the Rallmr SutioB to tfae 
PortB dl B. OlonnnL The town fcadf, tarn the 
Porta dt S. Benedetto to Portedl 8. Qtorab la not 
Un than two mOa in eitent. II* foitlfled walls, 
DDUllsn, wcnguTlNDedbraBAtHDIandeliiA- 
mmt, to idpport the anthortt? of the Pope's hnle. 
A ftriinr dlndcl on the wert side, an the slCa of tha 
FluiB d'AnnI, was raied In )8W. 

Cooipited wlifa other Il^an dtles. Ponnm Is 
modem, havlnff grown np alnai the ttth uaulnry, 
when It wns Brit endoeed by the Exarohs of Ba- 
Tcnna. Thon^ exhlMtlig In lt> daeerted sMeB 
msik* of decay—* decay noHeed by Addlaoat.M7i^ 

-^^ ■peatiorttB*"v«y liTse. bnt — ' """ 

— ■- ■■— 111 popBladon Im ti 

. and hMidublai b 
dnwback ariiei ftom the maahy """'fllMt to 
wUA It la at aU Umaa anhfact 

In IHM, Ana VL, of tha line of Eal^ Mi taocan 
by tha tjaaana «s vtear. oclofdoferihsnibabigUw 

atHlcted. OHo( hJs-dtMendaMi, AasoSIaTMivof 

Onelf party, and a vreat patron of la iBl n g, 
"■■■ -'- '^■--'oini Eel* and fonnded achoali 

ifoIoMMxbawuaieciUedlnltar Bra«>.UMIter 
dsBoandan^ was *• gonennu and anDghtened pite^ 
sad became the flnt Dob <^ Pemra, HMeiia, ale 
■■■— him oun* til niagldmBte brother, Enotatvba 

delighted hi the company at acholsIB, as BolinlB, 
Tebaldeo, etc. Alfonul., bis ineceiKir, who am- 
TledLaoiwiBai^i, wiifliepatronofAilgata In 
the Ume of Enole n.. ISJO, CalTln aouAt tUm 
here with the Dnchen, the dangtater of Coali JjL, 
till he wu dtlren away by Ae IniDialtion, QpoB 
the dea^ wltboat bSDe, of AUbMO IL, lAo sM 

,000 to 90,000. 

s popalatka gndntfy bd 
"Diary of an Invalid' 

. . ithing worth seehifr/' But thla Is tha 

hiity oi>lnliin ofai Umiy lrnvaller. 

Tbe chief open place is lb* nana jlrfoites In the 
Cono, >o named after the great poet irtiosa Boloaa 


After teftvetn^ l«lioirh»-1iredac«dIiiagx«at 
pooD Orkmdo fwiota, in 40 oaatoe, dedicated to 
his generous patron* Gtidinal IppoUto d'Este. The 
Ctediaal, however^ -vna « soldier, with little tote for 
poetry; and after readhig it, adted where he had 
**pidBednp8onianyafaeard8torieK'* Dtaka Alfonso 
nMdB up tor tbta, treating the poet so bonntifDUy 
thafclie built himself a boose and garden opposite St 
Benedetto's chnreh. Tlie gaiden is gone, bat the 
house is still shown; as well as his father's house, 
called GasB-degli AiiostL 

The* Cathidralt in Piazza del MeRfltai Is a Oreek 
oroH; marked, by & campanile of red marble. It 
was begun in 1135, and is a mixture of the Gotliic 
BjraEantine, or Bomaneeqne, and Italian. The fia^de 
is plain i)cloW( but the upper part is filled in with 
roiEDBk Gotbio>affAws, and other ornaments ot an har- 
mooioiiB auibplBasiBg character, and includes reliefe 
of tbe same sod Isdber dates, snch as the Passion ; 
lisst Jndgmratr with Hell and Heaven (i& Abra> 
haa*sBoaom); theJSevenCapitalSins, etc. Notice also 
an antiqiia boat- by 29*. da Pisa^ which is reverenced 
as a Madcmna, above the side door on the left ; and 
a statue of Albert d'Este on a pilgdmage to Rome. 
In the interior, wliich is modernised, are Garofalo's 
Madonna on a Throne, St Peter and Paul, and the 
Assumption; Bastianiiio's Last Judgment, with por- 
traits (kmtuayi of his acquaiintanoes in it, including a 
woman who relased to marry him, and who is put 
in heU for. a. punishment; C. Tura's Annunciation, 
and S& Gaorge; Dossi's Tbmb of Urban UL; and C. 
TuoHb oorionaseriesof miniatures in the 23 missals 
of the choiKS. An ancient altar, near Francia's 
Coronation of the Virgin, is adorned with bronze 
statues, by BiondieQi and MareseottL Some parts of 
tbe choir axe of the last century. 

S. Franeueo church, near the Giovecca, founded 
by Eroole L, contains Garofalo's Betrayal of Ctirist, 
a Madonna and Saints, the Holy Family, Resur- 
rection of Lazams, and his Massacre of the Inno- 
cents; Ortolaao'sJEoly Family; with others by Monio 
and Scarsellino; sSso various tombs of theEste family, 
and that of Pigoa who was Tasso's rival Here also 
ia a gODdeoho which tvpeaJta seven timea 

The Chundt of 8, Benedetto was attached to the 
|ii^i^H<»*^ Cenvenit now used as a military hospital. 
It ia a fine building; deserving attention; rebuilt 
1593, in place. of the old one in which Ariosto was 
baiied» IfiSS. For the new church, a handsome 
monument of the poet was prepared by his pupil, A. 
Marti, and placed on the right of the altar, over his- 
remains. In 1613, these were moved to a more 
magnifioent tooib, raised \j his grandnephew, on 
the left iMto of ^ sltar. Ti^is has since been taken 
to the Lyceum. There are pletnres in the ehnrch by 
D. Dossi (the Crucifixicn), Garofalo, Scarsellino 
(Mart3rrdora of Bt GaOieTineX P. Yeronese, etc., 
with G. Gremoaeri'a 81l Mark. In the porch is 
Ganrfialo'a PaeadiaB ^nong^t ban from the convent 
refectory), in wUek a portndl oCtike poet isintro- 
doced above thn dieir of anfsiK' 

S. Paoh, Palntingft bjr Bj Chlodl, Boaone, 
Scarsellino (the Ho^ GiMMt), and oliMra; with 
jnonoments of €k B. DoasV Bastamolo. and A. 
MoQtecatloo; tbeji^tboljjg tbe work vUL Yik«ntiiM>. 

3. DMmimoft, near theCaateHoi. Here are earved 
effigies in the fh)nt ; good paintings^ by Garefolo (St 
Peter-Martyr), Bononi, and other mkive masters; 
and the monument of 0. Caleagnkiiy a leanied maa 
of the IGth century. 

Santa Maria del Vado^ bnllt as ht back as 1171, is 
the oldest church here, and has some quaint carvinga 
on its front It is full of paintings, among whidi 
^are Bononi's Miracle of the Host, Crowning ci 
the Virgin, etc; and a copy of D. Dossi*s Joho. 
the Divine, and the Whore of Babylon. The latter 
was painted naked, but has been decently dreesed by 
the care of some scrupulous Bolognese artist Also^ 
D. Panetti's Visitation; P. Vecchio's Christ and tha 
Tribute Money; Carpi's Minudea of St Anthony; 
and N. Caffaccio's Death of St Mary. On the picture 
of Justice and Force, is the enigma of Alex. GuarinI, 
in latin, which no person has hitherto made out. 
The sacristy contains Panetti's Annunciation, and a 
Flight into Egypt by Sea. There are tombs of the 
painters, Garofalo, Ortolano, Bonone, Bastianino, 
and Dielai; and of the poets, T. V. Strozzi, and his 
son Ercole, a branch of the great Florentine house 
of that name, which settled here in the 15tii century. 
Ercolei the best poet of the two^ and a friend oi 
Arioiito, was killed one night by twenty-two stabs. 
His widow, a poetess, wrote a sonnet to tiis memory. 

S. Spirito. Garofalo's fresco of the Last Supper^ 
in the refectory of the convent adjoining. 

S. Andrea, near the Montegnone promenade. Ia 
the choir is Garofalo's Madonna and Saints ; paintedi 
some say, under the cUrections of BiydbaeL 

S. CfiorgiOj in the south-west comer of Ferranu 
Here Eugenius FV. called a Councfl to effect a union 
between the Eastern and Western (^lurches, in 1438. 
Cosmo, or Cosimo Tnra, the painter, is buried at the 
entrance of the campanile. 

Santa Maria deUa ConaoUuione, with an epitaph 
composed by E. Beiitivoglio, for hto dwighter Jultak 
a child of four years. 

The Camfo Santo Church was Ibnnded by Borso 
d'Este, first Dnke of Ferrara, and was designed by 
Sansovino. Thwe are twelve chapds, contidning 
the Mysteries, by N. Roselli, besides i>atntings by 
Bastianino (a St Christopher), Dielai, etc. Several 
old tombs, worth notice, are in the graveyard (Campo 
Santo) of the old Certosa Convent, including that of 
Garofalo, with Canova's bust of Count Cicognaro. 

In that of Jl Jeeu, is the tcnnb of Alfonso's second 
, Duchess, Barbara. Other churches are those of 

S. Francesco, S, Metureiio, or the CappueM Church, 
and De' Teatini, v^di has Gnereiao's Presentation. 

*PalaMzo Dneale, or Palace of the old Dukes of 
Ferrara, hi the Giovecca, late the seat of the Pi^ 
Delegate, is a large, biidt, moated castle, with 
angular turrets, in the feudal stgie. There are here, 
though in a partly decayed oonditicHi, works in oil 
and fresco of the brothers Doesi^ sndi as the Aurora 
and the Bacchanals, of D. Dossi; besides other 
paintings. At the foot of the Lion's Tower, hi the 
dungeons under this chtmber, Pexishw and Ugo 
were executed on the nig^t of aist Mkroh, 1405^ and. 
buried in St Franoeeetf%qBCE a ft a r 8 > "^'^^cfnnC ^»f^ 

BILiStfU\f'B lUrnRlTBD 

beheaded.' Borne sf the oldot bnUdlngi 

titty wei» beheaded.' 
of Femm euTTDUud ' 

•Pinaantca, or ?ab1le Pbmin QiUerv, and Ateneo 

SlheiuniiiO. an held In the old Paliuo Ensle- 
Ua (IMS), or Hodm of the DEamoud u It ii 
callAd, from tba dlanundab^Kd atoaei la Ita ftvnL 
The jMlMliiea h»e bean ooUwieil ftom the cborcbei, 
and an In eight loama. AmoD^ them an aped- 
mens of the F^raia acbool <tf artui^ lodudlng th^r 
diteC •Oartftlg, Tia., Iill Old and New TeitsioeDt ; 
MoaaloTOllTeiiDeiaeiuiirtliellBl; Spirit: Beinr- 
lectloa; AdonUon o( Uu Xacl; and Ohiigl In the 
GaidaB. Hli Hadoona and Child, painted as an 
attar^acelbrllM nnnned amveotal 3. OagliFlnio, 
lalntheHadonBiaallcry. HIa real nun nai Tlslo, 
hU he li called OaioGilg fnin the ^ll^aoner en 

Tcct copj, wantlni the Utle, ud hailnj 

.., ..InlTSOi aeoiultla 

. wiiBnga of Fenareae anthani Snit 

pallmpaeata (itn pawbmenla wrfttai tma afca*) of 
Or^ar; Kazluuan, ChrnoaCom, ate; aal4;^N^ 
nailii, or anthem bookiiinihniiaiatnna of thBISth 
alas tha Otnaalamat of TaMO, with hi* 

_J ootrectiona, and (avwal nnedlted aonDets 

compoaed b; hhu In hli conflnemeot : Aiioilo'aduit 
— > writing deak, and Iho US. of QnarlnTa Puliir 
0. or Fslthlul Shepherd. 

foarlnl naa a nallre, end bom hen tn tOGT, Hit 
■e, the BCBt of the Hazi^BBe (hurini^ baa an 
rriptlon on It hegbinlng "Hercnlea et MaMIiim 
imerclD.^' eTc. Arhnto'e booH, in which he died 
In ^^ di Ulraiole. hai hia but en " ^- ' 

of Cam; 

i ^^reln 

■j TriboK 

Orandl's AdoraUon of U 
donna and Child Enthroi 

portr^l"'" "—"--' 


Duiie Eroole. 

Faloiia RonreUa, near the Hospital of Santa Anna, 
wu built In the 16th century- Palatzo Bteilaeqae 
hua a good collection of luinilngi. etc. Ptmao 
ilaaa i pilntiugi 1^ Gerof alo and D. DossL 

Tha Chamber of Comnierce la at the Pidazzo delli 
Bagloao, in Piazza dal Ueitala, near the ODOmo. 

JT Lycenm, which replaces 

lira's SI. Georgs 
1, tha poet, laal 




.... ... . . wM placed In Santa Ai , . 

^ibove, from which he wee finally llbenled at the 

aotnaliraipflnefl; and here, though 11 la as donblful 
sa Raleigh's «11, In tha Tower, iSo vlritor will per- 
ctfvB lbs naniea of Bjron, Delavlgne, Lamartln^ 
and oChen, who have made a pilgrimage hf""" 
Hooll of the wall Is chipped away. But it ap 
that, though under reetraint. 

tha old nnivnaity, conqu^ses facnltica 

and lurlipiudenoe^ and about IC 


nlle^ ■ cypher or gnTe-tlono of one 
and a large saraophagua dedicated by Ai 
chia to her husband^ a Syrian by birth, 
and TalaaWa library, open fiom 8 to M, 
chiefly In the hut cmtury, and Inoli 
vohimcB and 900 USS., somo as old i 
ceiitary. Hare an portraits of Forrare 
hiciiidbu Caidlnal Ippoltto d'l!ate. to w: 
d his OciandD. 'Ar 

talidnd; hli 

Hum San B 

balpK of nHrUe. v 
"r aatrlal, e>- ' 

a FrODch Iranflporteiil 

a^ 'nAMiiNf aad [Ii*X8. o/iiia 

iKTipUons on it- 
01 a Hanerlit . .. 
bioks, wooden 

OpblCHl B 

place during thla u 
The iiealre. In 
Bom'J'oW H9° wllh' 
some inscrlpttona. 

m>te and 
Montaigne, and 

nhappy period of hi 
Strada Giovecca. 

a (population. e.O(K))i la 

0, anddeer, aro hunted 



From Ferrara there Is s nil, 47 kU., or 39i miles, ' 
three times a day, in 1| hour, to Bologna. Passen- 
frers may book tnroagta, by coach and rail, between 
Padoa and Bologna. The staUons are 


Poggio Renatico...M. 8 
S. Pietro in Casale... 13 
£1. Qiorgio ............ 18 


CastelMaggiore 38 

CorticellaM. 2ft 

Bologna 29| 


The line passes over a fertile plain, which is liable 
to be flooded in the season, and produces great quan- 
tities of hemp, Indian com, and other gr^n. 

FogglO BenatlCO SUtion (population 3,433), 
near tne Reno, which rises in the Apennines, and 
winds round In this direction towards the Po. 

8. Giorgio, about halfway. A few miles to the 
light is 

Cento (population, 18,361), higher up the Reno, 
imd the birthplace, 1592, of Guerchio, t.e., the 
Squinter, whose real name was BarbierL Hia father 
was a wood-cutter. The house in which he lived 20 
years is fiiD of his pidnting^ as well as the Church, 
or Galerle, as it is styled by his townsmen. 

Castel Hagglore, on the Naviglio, or Canal, 
which makes a short cut firom the Reno to 


Called La Dotta (learned) and La Grassa (fat), the 
ancient Bononia, or Fdtetut, on the Via Emilia, 
known for miles around by its Leaning Towers. 
Population, 96,666. 

Hotels.'^TX Grande Albergo, St. Marco, II Pelle- 
grino, and the Europa. 

Large and small Bologna sausages (hence the word 
* polony'), called mortadella and cotichini; capel- 
Ictti soup ; cenvdlato puddingy, made of raisins and 
fine kernels; coppo, of milk, sugar, and eggs; 
golden grapes and melons. 

(75nv«yanee«.— Railway to Parma, Modena, Pia- 
«enza, Rhnini, Ancona, Ferrara, and Vergato (for 
Florence or Pisa). 

*Chi^ ejects qf Notice. — ^Two Leaning Towers, 
Palazzo Pubblico, Duomo, S. Petronio, S. Domenico, 
S. Giacomo Maggiore, S. Stefano, Madonna di S. 
liuca, S. Mishele in Bosco, Pinacoteca, University, 
the Bacciocci, and other palaces. 

The race of Bologna dogs, which figure in the city 
arms, is extinct. The Bologna stone is a sulphate 
of barsrtes, which when laid in the sun attracts its 
beams and shines in the dark. It gives name to the 
Bol(^nese school of pahiters, viz.: — Of the 15th 
century— M. Zoppo, Francia, and L. Costa; 16th 
century— Lodovico Carracci, Agostino Carracci, and 
Annibale Caxracoi; 17th century — Domenichino, 
Ouido, Albano, Gnerdno, LantVanco, P. F. Mola, 
and C. Clgnani. 

This large, wealthy, and ancient city, which till 
the late revolution raided next to Rome among the 
possessions d the Church, and was the first place in 
the Romagna (<« division north of the Apennhies), 
stands on a hUl in a fertile plain between the rivers 
Reno and Savena, aiKl oommmikates with Ferrara 
by a canal or navigUo. It is snnounded by brick 
walls of a hexagon shape, irfegpoad by 12 gates, and 
is divided into three tofUmu, o«Ued nspoc^^ely 

Levante, or east; Ponente, or west; and Me2zo- 
giomo, or south. 

The Cathedral, Basilica, Leaning Towers, Palazzo 
Pubblico, etc., are near the Corso and Strada Mag- 
giore, which run east and west through the town, 
and are traversed by another main thoroughfare 
running north and south from Porta Galliera and 
Montagnuola, near the Railway Station, to Porta 8. 
Mamola. Montagnuola is a hiUy, open spot in the 
north of the city, laid out in public gardens, with a 
Piazza d'Armi adjoining, and a hall for playhig the 
game of Pallone. Mary of the narrow and winding 
streets are shaded by porticoes, which, though nselul 
for shelter, give the town rather a gloomy appear- 
ance. Latterly, some have been widened and im- 
proved. The houses are large and massive. 

In the civil war between Anthony and the Senate, 
Bononia sided with the Sanate and Pansa the Con- 
sul, who died here of his wounds, after his defeat at 
Mutina. On an island in the Rhenus (now the 
Reno), four miles distant, near the Boigo Panigal^ 
Anthony Octavius, afterwards Augustus, and Lqpi* 
dns concluded the Second Triumvirate. During tiie 
middle ages, when it was an independent republic, 
it adopted **Libertas" for its motto, and took the 
Guelph side against the Emperor ; and its own little 
war with Modena is celebrated in Tassoni's **Secchia 
Rapita." It became subject to the Pope about 1512. 
and remained so down to the late revolution. In 
1848 it firmly resisted 15,000 Austrians under Weden 
and Degenfeld. In 1859 it seized the first opportu- 
nity, on the departure of the Austrians, to desert the 
paternal rule of the Papal Legate and annex itself 
to Sardhiia. Out of 29,000 on the electoral list, 
22,000 voted for the change. 

The political movements were guided by the 
Countess Tatini, a grand-daughter of Murat, the 
Commendature Minghett!, late Prime Minister, and 
the countess's brother. Marquis Popoli, afterwards 
Minister of Commerce, whose black and white family 
arms, palaces, and tomtts are seen everjrwhere in the 
streets and churches. The Countess Gozzadini- 
Serego-Alghieri, a descendant of Dante, was another 
patriotic woman. 

The famous Mortara case occured here while the 
city was under Papal rule. A Jewish child was 
taken Arom its parents by the Holy Office, on the 
pretext that it was baptized, two years before, by 
a servant, a woman of bad character. An appeal 
was made for her release to the Holy Office and Pope 
without efiect. When the Papal government fell, 
the father brought the case before the Minister of 
Justice, who came to the conclusion that Felletti, the 
Inquisitor, had disregarded the rules of even his 
own tribunal. His arrest was ordered and he was 
imprisoned in the Torrione, a room in a massive 
tower of the Palazzo del Govemo. He declined all 
explanation on the ground that he had acted by the 
orders of his only superiors, the Grand Inquisitor and 
the Pope, and he refused to admit the lay jurisdic- 
tion. He was finally released, on the ground that 
when the offence was committed the Holy Office was 
the highest authority in the state. 



painten Donwnlehliio, the Camod, ele. ; snd of 
Malfighi, Zambecarri, Mezzofanti and Other emU 
nent men. ifboae ]tm have been written ia nine 
fblio vokunea. It is the seat of an archbiahop «nd 
nniveralty, and ooatatais about 130 charobea and SO 

At the west end of the Corao, where it Johw with 
Strada Maggiore -and other streeta, are the faanow 

*L$aaing fbm rt , bultt diuing the fieads which 
prevailed in tlie times of the republic, and looldng 
Ulce fkctory ehimnejrs One called Torre Asin^ 
erected 1100, by the Asinelli fomily, is a plain square 
stroetore, about 330 feet high, inclining three feet 
from the perpendicular. It is ascended by 449 st^ie, 
and takes in a prospect of Modena, Ferrara, ttie 
Apennines, eta Tlie other, orTorre QarlsBenda, Iniilt 
by the Garisendi, or Oarissindi, hi 1110, though only 
140 or 150 feet high, leans as mudi as eight or nine 
feet Dante compares it to the stooping Giant An- 
tnus. Tliat the inclination is caused by the slipping 
of the earth below, is the most natural supposition, 
as the timber and stone-woiic of both towers through- 
out are propo' tiunately inclined. But some persons 
ai^e that they were built so purposely, to show 
the skill of thefa* architect 

The Foro tie' Mttroante^ or della M«ican^a, near the 
Asinelli, was bcdlt 1*294, hi the Gothic style, and 
zestored hi 1886 for a Chamber of Commerce. It is 
an open loggia or arcade. 

JPiatsa Maggiorty or di Ylttore Emanuele (after 
the present kmg), in tto Corso at the centre of the 
town, is ttie chief open space in Bologna, and is orna- 
mented with fine buildings and a fontana publioa, 
by Lauretti, with a bronze Neptune in his car, and 
four syrens, cast by Q. da Bologna (1664). The 
water comes fh>m the hreasts of the syrens. On 
tiie west side is the 

PcUazxo Publico^ or dd ChfftrnOy late the seat of 
the Caniinal Legate; a large pile, begun 1290, 
having a Madonna In gilt terra cotta, by N. della 
Area, on the front and Mingante's tm>nsestatne of 
S. Petronk), originally designed for (Gregory XIIL, 
but altered in 1796 to save it from the French repub- 
licans. Inside are a grand staircase by Bramante ; 
a statue of Alexander VIL, in the Famese Room; 
A. Lombardo's statue of Hercules, In the Hercules 
Gallery; and frescoes by Cignani, etc., ui the 17th 
aiid 18th centuries. 

Paktuodtl Podesta, facing this, was bcgnn 1204, 
and the front added 1485. On the Torre dell Aringo, 
built 12'>4, are A. Lombardo's statues ef the Four 
Patron Saints of Bologna. In the Sala del Re Enzio 
(so called from Hentzius, son of the Eimperor Frede- 
rick IL, who died a prisoner here), a Conclave was 
held in 1410 for the election of Pope John XXIL 
Here the public archivea are k^ 

The Portico de' Banehi, going round two sides oT 
the Piazza, was built by Tlgnola, in .1562. 

The oliurobes «re shut rtnm 13to 3. The moat 
aoticeable ore the following >— 

*Oefike^al or Dummo^SS. MKhi a AMfo, aorOi 
gf 5** .ahy a Jfasarftarai 4Mmitt IMS, bv »« Am- 

OaataitmaB,- atarta s 

the ftifade, by A. '^migkm, In tlM last eentm 
teving a triangular top. 9rd chaael on itgfat.— £ 
OFBiiani'e «t Peter and Bp. Jipoliinariaa. :iMlow 
the choir is an old ^mrfftL Cnaplar <Beu8e>»L.4te- 
racd's St Peter and the-'^^brgia bewailing a Dead 
Christ; and an Anwmaiatton, Mi ilait 'mmk, la 

TheiVriofgo iirooewene i fe, «r AjpieUBh<^*B 
latelv restored, was baUt by TUwridi, 1677,. 
a gaUery of BoioffULWrtiatB, 

*3. Petnmio, on the south aide at 
an unfinished basilica, and the largest chnxch in 
Bologna, dedicated to Its patron adnt, fbr whom 
there was a church here as early aa 433. The pre- 
sent one, begun 1390, by A. Vlncenzi, in obamica 
to a decree of the Council of the Bepubllc, was to 
have been 800 feet long, and^20 wide, aad to oontabi 
liftyqfour diapels ; but the design was Intempted, 
and in its present incomplete state. It is 400 that 
long and 200 wide (maldng it only oneJlfth of the 
Intended size), with five aisles, in the Italian-Gotfaio 
style. The three fine entrance doors are omaaianted 
with carvings of Bible subjects, with heads of pro- 
phets and sybils. Over the mid^ door, by J. oella 
Querela (1425), was M. Anuelo's bronze atatae Ht 
Julius IL, which in 1511, 1/as melted down for a 
cannon, called the JuliaiL "Hie other doors are by 
M. Tribolo aad Properzia de' Boasi, a ifeniale 
artist Inside are bas-r^iefe of Adam and Bra, aod 
the Annunciation, by the Lond)ardi CBiari aa V. 
was crowned in this church, 1530, by ClsHant YIL 
The middle vault is 145 feet high. 2iid chapel on 
right— A Madonna and Samts, by L. da Banghiand 
F. imola. 4th— Crucifix, restored by F. frimcia. 
9th— ^anaovino's statue of St Anthony of Padoa, 
-wall paintings, by G. da Treviaa, and paintiagB on 
;glass, designed by M. Asgelo. lltb— Tribolok 
Assumption, the Angels, by Properzia di -SoaBl, Q, 
Campagna's statues of St Francis and 6t Aatbony. 
Bud of choir — Franceschini's lai^e fr?eaco. 16tii 
— Parmlgiano's St Roch ; and the Meridian I4ne, 
traced by Cassini, 1655, the gnomon vriiich throws 
the shadow behig 80 feet h^h. 17tb-^L. Coata\i 

In the room oi^ed the Beverenda Fabbrioa, 
the plans and models of the church, - by 
architects, and a bas*relief of Joseph and Potipfan'B 
Wife, by Properzia de* Rossi, In which the lady hai 
introduced portraits of herself and her lover. 

*B. DonmUco^ south of S. Petronio, lain PiaaaafA 
Domenico, which contains a colonnade -and -tbe taro 
old tombs of R. Passeagieri,andtheFoscherartfiuidty, 
of the ISth century. 

The dhurch attached to the Dominican 
was rebuilt in tiie last century, onthe site of ai 
ancient one, and contains the splendid 

^Tomb of St DomMCy the founder of the order, aad 
of 'tlie 'Inquisition, In the 6th <diap^ on :tfae ligM^ 
worthy of notice fbr its sculpture, auoMeB, ^and 
paiatinga. The taa-reliefe on the wlttte tnaartila 
tarnb, of evants iB*the saiars life, arelyy-Nieeolh da 
nBa,-«31; flgoreaof safaits, l»r NieeaibdaU' Aroa, 
MOO ; Iwo knaelhigangdB, by M. Angelo ; jaa»aaa » 
liMribaa-raUefa arrthe werit of A. .LsadMn^ ^USSl 
TI»tmB»ar^V>T>aa*i*i^ai Vaiadiae,4B \^QaMn 



0t Domfaiic bamfng heretical books, by L. Spada; 
the Bfestored Child, by Tiarini. 10th— Guerdno's 
St Thonuvi Aquinas Writing on the Endiarist. 
The nnrqnetrie 'vrork hi'tfaec^oir gtalls, is by tm> 
Ponrttrican monks. At the high altar, is B. Gesl's 
Adoration of tlie HagL l^h— Tomb of Khig 
Enzins, orHentzins of the 13th cent -who died here 
after twenty-two years* captivity. A line of his epi- 
taph refers to the dog in tiiedty arms: ^^ecanenon 
niagno siepe tenetnr aper." 14th— G. Franda's fit 
Michael; and the tomb of T. PepoU, a magistrate 
of the old rqmblic. 15th— A portrait of S. Thomas 
Aquinas, by Simon de Bolc^rna* 19th, or Rosary 
Chapel— L. Carracd's SS. ICary and Elizabeth ; 
Guidons Assomptlon. There are tablets to Guide, 
and his pupil, Elizabeth Sivani, who was poisoned, 
and is buried with him in this Chmrcli. 22nd^ 
Lb Carracd's S. Raymond Crosshig the Sea on 
his Mantle. Sacristy and cloister— L. Spada's S. 
Jerome; with some old inscriptions, and the Mag- 
nani library, of 83,000 volumes. The Tribunal of 
the Sant* uffizio, or Holy Office of the Inquisition, 
was seated here. 

S. Bariokmmeo 4i Porta Ravegana^ near the 
Ashielli Tower, re-bollt, 1653; but the handsome 
portico by Marches! (1530), belonged to a former 
church. 2nd chapel— L. Carracci's S. Carlo at the 
tom bofV aralla 4th— Albano's Annnndatiun. 7th 
— Mar^Tdom of S. Bartholomew, by FranceschinL 
12tb— ^naiinl'B S. i&«itbony of Padua. 

J3, BarMommeo 4i Reno, built 1733. Agosthio 
Carracd'sNattyity; L. Carracd's Curcumdsion. 

S. Batedetto, near the Montagnola, in the north 
of the town; built 1606. Tiarini's Virgin and 
Magdalen, weeing over the death of Christ 

& Ceemot in mbis, hi Via & Donato : built 1481. 
and remaxiuible for the nine fi-esooes of the Life of 
St Cedlia, by F. Francia and his pupils, L. Costa, 
G. Franda, CbiodartiJo, etc. 

Corpus Domini, or Santa Catarina, styled La 
Santa, FrancescUnl*s frescoes^ in the cupola ; and his 
Ii0rd*s Supper, at the high altar. In one of the 
diapds, Cliristappearing to the Virgin, and another 
by L. Carracd. 

S. Crtitina, near Porta Maggiore. L. Garraccrs 
Ascension, at the high altar ; G. Franda's Nativity 
aud the Magi. 

S. Francetco^ a large church, finnmerly used as the 
the Custom House, or Dogana. It has an old cam- 
panile, and its fine marbk altar was the work of 
Venetian sculptors in 1888. 

S, Qiaeomo Maggiore, near the Asin^lli Tower 
and the Liceo Filarmonica; begun 1267, with a 
fine vaulted celling added hi 1497. It contains 35 
chapels. 1st diapel— Franda's Madcona deUa Chi- 
tura, a small firesco. 10th/-L. Carracd's St Roch. 
12th— Frescoes by P. Tibaldi, who was the archi- 
tect of the chapeL 18th, or Bentivoglio ehapel— 
Francia's fine Madonna Enthroned; bas-reliefs by 
N. dell'Aioa and F. Eranda, those by the latter 
relating to Pope JflSm IL 20tb^S. Procacdni's 
Sigismnnd, King of FotaDd. .Uifr-rCeai's Virgin 

3. Oiawmni i^Jioaie, near fha XkumlUtjafion, 
tcbuj^'t 182^ on the shf tfT 009 'IbmiMDy S. 

Petroidoa8larbftekas'453. la one of 13ie fauq[)els, 
is Guerdno's St Ftntds. 

S. Oitueppe has some painthigs -of tiie 14th een- 
tnry, and tt near the Oepedak <iB g tffti ogsw ar i, or 
Hospltid tottlUi peofit. 

S. Gr^forio, bt Btrada Pon^e. Sere are 
Amifbale Carraed^ Bimtlsm of Clurist— oneof his 
earliest oil paintix^gs. D. <Mhrart*s St -Gregory, at 
the high altar. Albano the painter, is bmied here. 

8. Leonardo, near the Porta S. Titale, belongs to 
the Orphan Asylum. L. Carracd*s St Catherine 
in Prison, and his Martyrdom of St Umola; A* 
Tiarini*s Annundation. 

S. Lucia, the Bamabites (%Qrdi,lB Btxada Castfg- 
Hone. Paintings by E. Procaedni, C^;nani, Oahrart, 
etc. ; and a library. 

Madonna del Baraecano, near Porta S. Stefimo. 
Over the door is a Viigin, by A. Lombaido. The 
chapel of the high altar, by Properzia de RossL 

Madonna di S. Coknnbemo. Frescoes by the 
pupils of L. Carracci, and by AHwno. 

Madonna (& Valeria, near the Dnomo; tmllt 
1689. 3rd diapd— Francasdiini's Madonna. 4tb*< 
Teresa Muratori's Unbelief of St Thomas. 6tb-x 
Albano's the Infamt Savionr viewing the Croas. 
7th— Guerdno's St PhiHp NerL 

Santa Maria Maggiore. Bas-relief of the Death of 
the Virgin, by A. Lombardo. Inscription to Bona* 
parte Ghislien. 

S. Martino, built 1217 and restored 1886. Pen- 
gino*s Assumption; L. CarraccTs St Jerome; F. 
Francia's Madonna and Saints. 

Santa Maria deHa Fur^kaxione, or the Maseardla 
Church ; built 1706. Here is the cell of St. Domi- 
nic, with the Image of the Virgin, which is -said to 
have spoken to him. 

& Mattia, now disused. Here is Gtddo's Vhighi 
appearing to S. Hyacinth; also I. da Imola's Madonna 

S. Nieeolb di S Feliee. An. Garacci*s Orudfixion. 

& Paolo, near Piazza Maggiore, built 1611, and 
restored 1819. On the front are Mirandola's 
St. Peter and St PauL Snd chapel— L. CarraccTs 
Paradise. 8rd — Cavedone*s Nativity, and the fres- 
coes in the ceiling. 4tb— Guerdno's Souls in 

S. Procolo is attached to an old Benedictine 
Convent and Ospedale degli JSsposti, or Foundling 

S. SaitKdore, 'west of Piazza Magi^ore. Garo- 
falo's St Jolm Baptist kneelingto ySarharlah. Guer- 
cino is buried in this diurdi. 

At Servi, or Santa Maria -dd Servi, in Btrada 
Maggiore ; built 1368 ; with a marble portico, by Fra 
A.Manfredi, General of tiie Order; adorned with 
firescoes, by Tiarini, at the age of ninety. 22nd 
chapel — ^F. da Imola's Annundation. 24ti)— Bitii- 
ena^B St. Andrea. 26tfa— Albano*s Noll me tangere. 

*S. Std'ano, In Via di S. Stefemo, is formed by a 
union of seven small churdies or diapds, one of 
which, 8. Sepolero, the centre of the otiiers, Is 
of the 11th century, and is annexed to an Atrio 
di FOeUo, or Pilate's Court supposed to be the aitA 
of a T«Q4le xjf Uia. ^aM&L f3&w9d^\0bi^ *. '^pssi"^^». 



by corridors and passages. Ist chapel— Del Cro- 
cifisso; or walls painting^ of the Crudfixion. 2nd— 
Chi^sel of B. Gialiana de* BanzL 3rd— S. Sepolcro, 
circular, or rather an irregular octagon, about 60 feet 
diameter, having in the middle a small circle of 
pillars, some single, some coupled, supporting a 
dome. From this there is a way to several subsidiary 
chapels. 4th— SS. Pietro e Paolo said to have been 
a cathedral formerly. 5th— I Confess!, a crypt or 
confessional. 6th— Santa TrinitL 7th— Madonna 
della Consolazione. 

S3. VUale et Agrkola^ an old church in Strada S. 
Titale, founded by St. Petronlus, in 428. 2nd chapel 
— Tiarini*s Flight into Egypt 8th— Francia's Angels 
finding an Image of the Virgin. 

Some other churches worth notice are outside the 

AnnunuiiaU^ outside Porta Mamolo, belongs to a 
convent, and has F. Francia's Annunciation. 

The Certoaaj or Carthusian Church, near Porta de 
Saragossa, is at the public Cemetery, established in 
its cloisters. Here is an Ascension, by Bibbiena; 
and a Baptism of Christ, by Elizabeth SiruiL Orange, 
myrtle, rose, and other trees abound here. 

^Madonna di 8. Luea, built 1731, on Monte della 
Guardia (a fine point of view), is so-called firom a 
black Virgin, in the Byzantine style ; attributed 
as usual to St Luke, and brought from Constanti- 
nople in 1160. It contains some early efibrts of 
Guide. A long covered way of three miles, on 640 
arches, built 1674-1739, unites this church to Porta 
de Saragossa. 

Madonna di Strada Maggiore, or OH Scahi^ouUide 
Porta Maggiore, is united to it by a similar portico 
on 167 ardies. 

Madonna di Mtzzaratta, near Porta Castiglione, 
has some frescoes of the Uth century. 

*S. Michele in Boico, near Porta S. Michele, on a 
picturesque hill, is attached to a rich convent, 
founded 1437, and partly converted into a barrack 
and prison in 1797. The villa part was a country 
seat of the Cardinal Legate, which was fitted 
up for Pius IX, in his last progress in 1857; 
now the seat of the Eling. Remains of frescoes by 
Tiarini, Cignuii, etc., in the church, and of a series 
of 37 by ti^e Carracci, in the cloisters, representing 
the histories of St Benedict and St Cecilia— all 
nearly perished. 

The Accademia delle Belle Arti, in the old Jesuits' 
College, near Porta S. Donate, and the Botanic 
Garden, includes the Picture Gallery^ or Pinaeoteca^ 
of about 400 works, chiefly of the Bolognese school, 
collected fh>m suppressed churches and convents, 
and placed in eight or nine rooms, with a library, 
and collections of statuary and old arms. The first 
contains old Bologna painters of the 14th and 15th 
centuries; another, the inferior Bolognese school; 
another, different Italian schools. The next three 
are devoted to large pictures : first, of the Bolog- 
nese school ; next, the best of this school ; then, the 
best Italian masters. Some of the most noticeable 
pictures are the following : — Albani, the Virgin 
Enthroned, with St Catherine and St M.Magdalen; 
JSMpOBm ofCbrigt Quetvlno'a St William of Aqui- 
«aAi4 St Brmuh »od other works. Agostiao Cax- 

racci, *Last Communion of St Jerome; *Tho 
Assumption. Annibale Carracci's Annunciation, 
and other works. L. Carracci's SS. Dominic, 
Francis, etc., Adoring the Infant Clirist (all portraits 
of the Bargellini family); and twelve other picturoL 
G. Cavedone's *Virgin and Child, with Angels and 
Saints. F. Francia's *Vh^ and ChUd, and Saints. 
I. da Imola's St Michael the Archangel I* 
Massari's Holy Women weeping; Angel present* 
ing a purified Soul to the Trinity. Panniglano'a 
St Margaret (Queen of Scotland) on her Knees. 
Guide's *Madonua della PietiL, with St Petronius, 
St Dominic and other protectors of Bologna; his 
*Mas8acre of the Innocents, *Samson and the Jaw 
Bone of the Ass, ^Crucifixion, and five other pic* 
tures. Guide's Pottrait, by a pupQ, Simone Oui- 
tarini (or Pesarese) is in this gallery. Tintoretto's 
Virgin and St Elizabeth. Raphael's *St. Cecilia in 
ecstacy, listening to the Muslcof the Angels ; pidnted 
in 1515, for Elena dall' Oglio Duglioli (afterwards 
canonized). Elizabeth Sivani's St Anthony of 
Padua, and other works. She was poisoned when 
only twenty-six. Tiarini's St Catherine of Alex- 
andria; St Catherine of Siena. Catherine Vigri's 
(called La Santa) Martyrdom of St Ursula. Domeni- 
chino's ^Martyrdom of St Agones ; *Madonna of ths 
Rosary; Martyrdom of St Peter of Verona. A. 
Mengs' Portrait of Clement XIIL 

The Univeriity^ said to have been founded by 
Theodosius II. and revived by Charlemagne, is at 
least as old as 1119, and is the oldest in Italy after 
that of Salerno. It was at first seated in the old 
Archiginnasio, behind St Petroniuschurch— an edifice 
built 1562, by Terribilia, and lately restored ; con- 
taining tombs of former professors, arms of various 
countries which sent students here, and the 
Magnanl, or dtp Library; open every day (but 
Thursday), 10 to 2. Here the first human body 
was first dissected, about 1440, by Modini, and 
galvanism was discovered, in 1701, by Galvani, who 
was a lecturer of the Institute delle Scienze 
(founded by Count Marsigli), which is incorporated 
with the University. Formerly, it was celebrated 
for its women professors,— as Novella d' Andrea, a 
handsome lectui-er on canon law in the 14th cen- 
tury, who hid her face behind a veil, out of a con- 
siderate regard for the feelings of the distracted 
students; Laura Bassi, a mathematical professor, 
in the 18th century; and Clotilda Tambroni, a 
learned Greek scholar, who died as late as 1817. 
The Scuole Pie, or primary school for the poor, 
established here in 1805, is now annexed to the 
Convent of S. Domcnico. 

In 1714 the University was revived, and was 
afterwards transferred to the new buildings In 
Strada di S. Donato, originally built by Tibaldi, fbr 
Cardinal Pozzi, with a court added by TriachinL 
It comprises about 600 students and upwards of 
forty professors in five faculties ; one being medi- 
cine, which is especially fostered and studied in the 
Great Hospital, founded 1667, and a Clhiical Hos- 
pital, founded 17U6, both near at hand. Here are 
frescoes by P. Tibaldi and Niccolb dell* Abate, and 
various cabinets illustrative of anatomy, zoology, 
mineralogy, physics &tc. i with a Moseom of ancient 



and modem antlqnitlefl, an obseirftw^y, and botanic 
frniden ; also a Library with 200,000 vols, and 4,000 
MSSm founded by Benedict XIV.; it is open every 
day except Wednesday. The wonderful linguist. 
Cardinal Mezzofanti (bom at Bologna, 1774, the 
8on of a carpenter), was chief librarian, before his 
removal to Rome. He spoke fifty languages 
fluently, and was able to express himself in seventy- 
eight. In English, for example, he spoke not only 
£ood:English, but good Somersetshire or Yorkshire, 
and he could criticise Hudibras and Shakspeare ; 
and then turn off to some other language and con- 
verse, in it witb.the same readiness. 

Various colleges were fbnnded at different times 
for foreign nations— as the GoUegio di Fiamminghi, 
for Flemish students ; GoUegio di Luigi, for French 
students; the Ventnroli College, for Hungarian 
students (now for students in architecture) ; but the 
only one that survives is the CoUegio della Nazione 
Spagnuoici, founded 1364, by Cardinal Alboraoz, 
next to S. Clemente Church. It has a library with 
300 MSS., and Baguacallo*s Clement VII. crovming 
Chai'les V. 

A Lieeo Fiktrmonieay or Philarmonic Academy, 
near S. Oiacomo Church, founded 1666, by V. 
Caratti, was revived in 1805, and became a school 
of music, directed by Rossini. It has a musical 
Library of 17,000 volumes bequeathed by Father 
Mantini, a composer of the 17th century, Rossini's 
house is in Via Maggiore, marked by a punning gilt 
inscription firom Cicero—" No a dorao dominus, sed . 
domino domus.'* It was built for him in 1825. 

Among the private palaces at Bologna are the ' 
following. (Of several the collections are dispersed, 
and some have collections to sell) :— 

Palazm AlbergatU in Strada di Saragossa, built in 
1S40, by B. Peruzzi. 

Palazzo Aldrovandit in Strada Galliera, rebnllt in 
1748. It has a fine staircase. 

*P<dazzo Baecioehi, otherwise Ranuzzi, etc., was 
built by PaUadio, and was the seat of Princess Elisa 
Baecioehi, Nf^leon's sister. In 1846 the Papal 
authorities wrote to their agent at Poretta to say 
that II stranger, travellhig as "Colonel Crawford," 
but known to be a son of Jerome Bonaparte, had 
{^pointed to meet a son of the Princess at Poretta ; 
and his description was given in the following style : 
"Age, 38 ; height, 1*66 metres ; hair, chesnut ; eye- 
brows, ditto; forehead, middling; eyes, grey and 
little; nose, big; mouth, middling; lips, thick; 
beard, brown; moustaches, fair; visage, oval; com- 
plexion, pale: head stuck between the broad 
slioulders; back, round; some grey hairs." The indi- 
vidual in question was Prince Louis Napoleon, now 
emperor, who had just escaped firom Ham. 

*Palazzo BevHaeqwt, hi Via S. Mamola, built, it 
is said, by Bramantino, with a handsome front of 
diamond-8lii^)ed stones. 

* Palazzo BentivogliOt a handsome boUding in Borgo 
della Paglia. 

Palazzo de Stanchi, in Via 8. Stifiuio^ has a ceiling 
by Guido. 

Palazzo Biagi, or PaJUnkini^ to Via S. Stefano, 
was built by AmbrosinL 

Paiazzo Fava^ &dlng ttie Madonna di Galliera, has 
paintings and firescoes by the Carracci, Albani, B. 
Cesi, etc. 

Palazzo Grassi\ to Via di Mezzo, has a fresco by 
L. Carracci. 

Palazzo Ouidofti, or Magnani, built by Tibaldi, 
has a fine fresco of Romulus and Remus, by the 

Palazzo Ercolani, in Via Maggiore, was built by 

Palazzo Malvezzi-Bonfioli, factog S. Giacomo, to 
Strada Maggiore, built by Vignola, has frescoes in 
the court by L. Spada, Massari, etc., from Tasso's 

Palazzo Malvezzi-Campeggi, to Via di S. Donato, 
has some tapestry by Lucas of Leyden, given by 
Henry VHI. to Cardtoal Campeggio, when Piqpal 
Legate to England. 

Palazzo Maresealchi, factog S. Salvatore, was built 
by TibaldL 

*Palazzo Pepoli, in Strada di Castiglione, amadii- 
colated brick pile, built in 1344, with a terra cotta 

Palazzo PieUcL, or Bocchi, near the Dnomo, built 
by Vignola, for Bocchi, the founder of the Academy 
of Fine Arts. 

Palazzo Ranvzzi^ or Lambertini, in Via S. Stefano, 
built by Triachini, has old frescoes by Sabbatini, 
Tibaldi, etc 

Palazzo SampieH, or Zampieri^ in Strada Mag- 
giore, has fine wall paintuigs of the history of Her- 
cules to five rooms; in the first, Battle with Jupiter, 
by L. Carracci; second, Hercules Instructed by 
Virtue, by An. Caracci ; third, Hercules and Atlas, 
by Ag. Caracci; fourth, Hercules and Antaeus, hf 
Guercino (excellent for chiaro-scuro and foreshorten- 
tog) ; fifth. Genius and Strength, by Guercino. 

Palazzino Viola^ or Bentevoglio, now the Orto 
Agrario, for lectures on agriculture, has frescoes by 
I. da Imola. 

Palwzo Zambecarri, near S. Paolo, in Strada 
TreblK) de Carbouesi; its rich gallery is nearl}' all 

The Zecca, or Mint, built by Terribilia in 1678. 
The Palazzo Bolognini, near Via di S. Stefano, is 
a music castoo and reading room. - 

Theatres. — The Teatro Comincenale, on the site of 
the Bentevoglio Palace, was erected in 1756, by 
Bibbiena; Teatro del Corso, built in 1805; Teatro 
Coniavalli, 1814, to an old Carmelite Convent 

The Giuoco de Pallone is a good manly game, 
played with leather balls (pallone), about the size of 
a foot-ball, thrown by the arm, which is protected 
by a wood or metal bracelet, A large hall is devoted 
to it on the Montagnuola. 

/2<m<««.— To Parma (by rail), Route 18; to Mantua, 
Route 15 ; to Ferrara (by rail) ; to Ravenna (by 
rail) and Ancona, Route 22; to Florence, Lucca, and 
Leghorn, Route 2L (^ fiir<MijiJto!«f% c^w«mmk««A. 

BBADVuw'a luxtn 



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a blataop'i aee, wilh a ta^sirai dedkat«d Ur BC 
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built liTttMBakieiMM. On the ietHe f iialgnana, 
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of the leading Italian patriota, t>f the achool of 
CsTour. cHe Jdned in tiM Imarractimaiy mofra- 
ment of 1881, at Bologna, in which Ijouia Napoleon 
and his brother took part He afterwards became 
tutor in Jerome Bonaparte's family, and a member 
of the Roman Parliament -He waa tiie intimate 
friend of Cavour; was appointed Dictator of 
Parma a&d Modena, -and -aftenvards became Pdme 


The Anflca or Ancient as it is styled by the Italians. 

JSFote^Laflpada, old and good. 

Population, 64,635. 

*Chiitf Oiifeets qf ^o«te8.— Dante's Tomb ; Byron's 
Honae; Cathedral; S. ApoUfaiaie Huovo; JS. Giovanni 
Evangelista; SS. Naaario e Celso ; 6. Vitale ; Theo- 
doehis Palace; Ifauaotomn of Theodosius; & ^^1- 
lina rein Cla8ae;Ptoe Foiest 

Bovoma, the head of an aroh-^oeese and a 
province, warf ormerly tiie seat of the Empire of the 
West, at which Honorins I., Volentinianns IIL, and 
oth er JESmp eBMWTMided after deserting Rome. Hence 
this pcovhwe came tcbe called Romania or Bomagna, 
a name It still bean. Theodoric the GoUi, upon his 
defeat of Odoaeer hard by, in 4S3, made it the capital 
of his kfaigdom, and in Justinian's time, his great 
general, Names, fixed the seat of the Exarchate 
here. Aa early as the thne of Augustus, it was 
noted as one of the two great ports of the Roman 
Empire, and a atartinfir place for the East ; but owing 
to the gradual accumulation of mud and sand 
brought down iqr the Po, along tiiis side of the 
Adriatio, it is now ftall five miles from the sea, and 
•f conne in a state of decay. 

It atanda near tiie rivers Ronco and Montone in 
the nddat of a wide manrtiy plain, covered with 
ruins, and divided from ttie sea by the fiunous 
Fineta, or phie forests, 15 miles long, wliich have 
been celebrated by Dante (whose tomb is here), 
Dryden, and Byron. These pines served to make 
piles for the foundation of the early city, and aiao 
to bnOd vessels for its navy. Through its con- 
nection with the Bast, Ravenna is more Greek- 
built than any other Italian city, containmg, next 
to Rome, a greater miaatity of marbles, mosaics, 
etc., fWnn Greece and Africa, in its churches and 
buildings. One half of the space within the walls 
■is garden ground. 

There are five or six gate»— Porta Serrata, built 
by the Venetians, on the north, near the remains of 
thehrettadel (1467) jaad of Theodoric's Tomb; Porta 
Alboroni, 1789, on the east, towards the Pineta and 
the sea; Porta Nnova, 1658, on the south; Porta 
Sisa, 1568, near this, and alao on the south ; PorU 
Adriana, 1685, on the west, adjoining a suburb on 
thissdde. Here was tite Porta Aorea, of which 
•only a fkagment remains -of a wall bniU by Tiberius. 

From Porta Senrata, the main latnet-nms tiurmjgh 
the town to Porta Noova, wfaldi keadaont to Porta 
NuovB, on itlie Ronco -mad Mrmwm, 4md to S. 
Apollinare, -on tiie ilte af 'C3aiiiB,~9lhe old qport 
A navigiio or canal, of T'Ullss,"waB'««ttin47S7 to 
ti«e new port Tlie PMto «M iM4it«Bt>paitlte 
towb of Gaston de Folx, 

The Piazza Ma^ifiorej the largest open place, lam 
Btatoeaof 8S. Apt^narius and Vitale on two plUars, 
erected by the Venetians, 1488, with bas-cattefi b j 
P. Lmnbfurdo, There is also a statue of Clement Xn., 
and a portico of eiglit tall columns, which belonged 
to a temple of Hercules, facinff the Palazzo dd 
Gooeno. The Town Hall or Palazsco Commuaaie, 
where the archives are placed, is also hare. Near 
this Piazza is the Torre dttUa CUUl, a square brick 
tower of the 11th ceutury, which Jmuib like thoaa 
at Bologna. 

The Piazza di & Ftrmciteo has a bronze statuosof 
Alexander VIL, 1675. In the Piazaa delDuorao is 
a statue of the Virgin, 1659 ; and in the Piaozetta 
dell' AJiuila, a column to Cardinal Gaetanl, 1609, 
whose crest was an eagle ; as waa that of the 
Polenta family, which long ruled here. 

*Tomb of DanUy a little south of Piazza Mag- 
giore, in Strada di Porta Sisi, near Byron's House. 
The great Italian poet died here 14th September, 
1321, an exile from hia *' ungrateful Florence," and 
under the protection of Guido da Polenta,.Ijord of 
Ravenna. The mausoleum, designed by P. Lom- 
bardo, was erected 1481, by the Podesta, Bernardo 
Bemtaio, and restored in 1780, by Cardinal V. Gcn- 
aaga. It is a little domed temple, *'more neat than 
solemn," contafaiing his body, with Ids bust, inscrip- 
tions, and other ornaments. 

* Byron's Houzt is marked by an inscription stating 
that he entered it 10th June, 1819. He lived at 
Ravenna here, and at the house of Countess Gnio- 
cioli till November, 1821, involving himself and the 
lady's connections with the secret societies and plots 
against the Papal Gk>vemment They were so 
seriously committed that her fondly was exiled 
from Ravenna, and took refuge in Tuscany, whither 
he followed them. 

Ravenna has two perfect basilicas, both dedicated 
to St. Apollinarius, and some round buildings, as 
St. Vitale, etc., all exemplifying the Romanesque 
style. Old sarcophagi are to be seen al most of the 

The ^Cathedral or Duomo, a short distance west of 
Dante's Tomb. Rebuilt 1734-49, by Buonamici, out 
of the stones of one founded by St Uraus, in tbB 
4th century, of which the only remain is a round 
campanile of the 8th or 9th century. It had five 
aisles. Some pieces of the old vine-wood door are 
let into the present door. Among the paintingi axe 
Guide's frescoes of the Miracle of Maxma, and El^ah 
fed by Ravens ; Bonone's Belshazaar's Feast and 
Camacdni's St Ursus. There is also an ancient 
silver crucifix, and St Maximiniau's ivoiy chair, 
both of the 6th century. 

The Baptittry, close by, is an octagonal telie, 
restored in 451, and supposed to Imve been built by 
fit Ursus. Two rows of aroades withui, one over 
the other, are eovered with bas-reliefs; and the walls 
-and cupola with mosaic arabeaques of the 6th 
oentury. The front is of po^Dhyry and maihle ; tte 
holy water basin came from a temple of Jiq>iter. 

Tiie Paiaua» Ar e n vxotih or Atolibiahop'a Palaot, 
has a chq^ built AAA \s% %\..1l«taa X23ois:<«tt^»«»^N 
cnvasedL -wVih i»mai«& «cA xD«3fiBj>fe\ ^ias^:*.Vte««i ^ 

\ Mas ., Mvei ww^cxvwv* «>s^ Vftact\cfe«i^v «^^ 



Santa Agata, near Porta Sisf, s primitivo looking 
diiirch, first built 417, with 3 idslea and 20 pillara. 

*S, ApoUinan Ifuovo or in CUta^ in Strada di 
Porta Nuova, is a regular basilica, dedicated to St 
Martin (at first), by Theodoric in ttie 6th century. 
It has 3 aisles, made by 24 pillars of veined 
Greek marble; an apse at the end; 14 rich altars 
Tvith many tombs; the bishop's seat, and por- 
traits of prelates, etc., in the very ancient mosaics 
on the walls of the nave, dating from 559. Among 
these are the Adoration of Magi and 22 Virgins ; the 
Port of Classis, with its ships ; 25 Saints and Martyrs 
adoring Christ; a view of old Ravenna and Theo- 
doric's palace, the remains of wliich are still seen 
near this church. 

S. ChiarOi in ndns, has wall paintings said to be 
by Giotto. 

8. Donunieo, to north-west of Piazza Magglore. 
A church of the 5th century, since altered. It has 
Bondinelli*s Annunciation ; also L. Longhi's Mysteries 
of the Rosary, and his Invention of the Cross. 
Xionghi is buried here. 

S. Franeetco^ near Dante's Tomb and Byron's 
House, and a statue of Alexander VII. An old 
church modernised; with 22 marble columns in the 
nave. It belongs to the lYiars Minors, and Dante 
was at first buried in it, by the Polenta fiunily. Here 
are carvings by P. Lombardo, in the Crucifix Chapel; 
a Madonna, by S. d* Imola ; and tombs of Ostasio 
de Polenta, who died a Franciscan monk ; and of 
Enrico Alfieri, G^eneral of the Older; also an urn to 
Archbishop Liberlus of the 4th century. 

*8. Giovanni Evangelista, in the north of the 
■city, rebuilt 1683, but founded in 420, by Galla 
Pladdia, daughter of Theodosius, in obedience to a 
vow. It has 3 aisles, divided by 24 pillars from 
the first church ; with carvings of the 13th and 14th 
centuries over the door, and paintings by F. Longhi, 
a fresco by Giotto; also old mosaics and an altar 
of serpentine and porphry in the crypt 

S. Oiovanni Battista, near Porta Sesrata, is a 
coventual church, now converted into a hospital. 
Three old sarcophagi are placed in front of it. 

Santa Maria in Cosmedin, close to S. Spirito, was 
originally the baptistry to that Arian church ; of an 
octagon shape, with a mosaic of the Baptism in the 

Santa Maria in Porto^ near Porta Nuova, rebuilt 
1533, out of the stones of S. Lorenzo of Cesarea 
(another Roman port in this quarter). It has an 
old marble Madonna, P. Giovane's Martyrdom of 
fcJt. Mark, and L. Longhi's Virgin and Saints. 

S. Michele in A^^risico^ of the 6th century, now a 
magazine and fish market 

*SS. Nazario e Celso, or the Mattsoleum of OdUa 

Pladdia^ near Porta Adriana, was built 440, by that 

Empress, for herself, in the shape of a Greek cross, 

85 f<:et by 30 feet, under a large cupola, covered with 

marble and mosaics. Among these are seen the 

Christian symbols of that age; as, the lamb for 

Christ birds for departed souls, etc. Behind the 

altar is the large sarcophagus of the Ehnpress, whidi 

Mt one time he\A her sitting figure, dressed in robes. 

£?^J'"^* * <^eyer womaa^ bora at Constantinople, 

"^ dMogitier of TbeododuB, A «ai«>plwgtu in ths 

right transept contains her brother Honorias IT; 
another in the left Constantios, her second husband. 
Her first waa Alaric's son, Ataolphus. Two small 
sarchophagi are said to hold the nnraea of her 

S Niceclb^ near Porta Sisi, founded in 768. Hers 
is the St Monica of Cesare di Ravenna, a uitivs 

S. Bommldo or CUuUt near the Dnomo, Is attached 
to the college, formerly the Certosa Convent and 
was built 1630. Here are Guercino's St Bomnald, 
S. Cignani's St Benedict, and On the college) frescoes 
by L. and F. LonghL 

S. Spirito or TeodorOt was btult in the 6th century, 
by Theodoric, for the Arians, and renamed when 
taken possession of by the orthodox party; the 
baptistry bemg called St Maria in Cotmedin (as 
above). It has an ancient nuurble chair. 

*S. VttoiU^ near Porta Adriana, and the mansoleom 
of Galla Placidia, was built 547 in the time of the 
Emperor Justinian, and dedicated to St Vitalis the 
Martyr. It is usually cited as the most complete 
spechnen of the Byzantine style in Italy, and as a 
copy of St Sophia's at Constantinople. Vtt. Fet' 
grusson thhiks it meant for a copy of the Minerva 
Medica, at Rome. It is an octagon crowned ^ a 
cupola, resting on arches, supported by a dotu>le 
range of granite colunms below, between which are 
some circular recesses. The eighth space opens into 
the sanctuary and apse ; and the whole is surrounded 
by a wall ; so that wliile the outside diameter is 110 
feet, the inside is only 50 feet There is a separate 
gallery for women, round the upper range of pillars. 
The windows and arches are all round-headed. The 
choir is placed across one of the comers out^de the 
octagon, like a tangent, with entrances at each end. 
The cupola is not made of stone, but of light earthen 
pots or amphorse, like some other buildings in Italy, 
and is covered with wood. 

Its walls withhi are lined with marble, up to the 
cornice, where the ^Mosaics began, which have since 
disappeared, except in the choir. Here they still 
remain in a fine state of perfection. One of the 
most interesting is the Consecration of the Church, 
showing Justi^an and his courtiers, the Empress 
Theodosia (who was an actress) and her ladies, and 
Bishop Maximianus and his priesta Other mosaics 
on the wall^ are dedicated to the Martyrdom of 
St. Vitalis, h ^ Evangelists and Apostles, Christ the 
good Shcp er 1, Abel and Melchizedek, Abraham, 
Moses, Isaii-h, Jeremiah, etc ; with arabesque bor- 
ders, and other ornaments. Near the high altar is a 
bas-relief from a temple of Neptune, which occupied 
the site of the church, and there is another of the 
Apotheosis of Augustus, in the sacristy, with a sarco- 
phagus, and painthigs by Longhi, etc. A tomb of 
the Exarch Isaac, who died 641, faces the church. 

The *Paiace of Theodosius, so called, is near Porta 
Nuova, but is only a fragment, consisting of a portico 
on 8 granite columns, of a wall of the old residence 
of Uie Exarchs, now fronting the Franciscan Con- 
vent, which occupies its site. A porhyry basin, wiCh 
pieces of towers and walls are left; but its diiet 
ornaments were canried off by Ciiarlemagne. '*In 
alittB ^Uii\aU sVio^Ni « QU»e cesemblanoe to tiM 



Palace of Biodetlan of fibalatro, more especially to 
the Porta Amea, and the most richly (and least 
dassios^y) decorated parts of that edifice, mixed 
with mouldings and details belonging to the Gothic 
styles which were coming into use."— jPervtiMon. 

A short distance outside Porta Serrata, is the 

* Mausoleum qf Theodorie, built in the 6th century, 
in imitation of that of Hadrian (or Castel S. 
Angelo), at Rome ; and now turned into a church, 
dedicated to Santa Maria delta Rotonda. Its lower 
story is a stone decagon, 45 feet diameter, with a deep 
arched niche in each face at bottom. At the top is a 
flat terrace on which stood a range of small pillars 
supporting arches which surrounded the upper story. 
This is surmounted by a cupola remarkable as being 
made out of a single block of hollowed stone, 85 
feet diameter, with 12 handles round its edge, by 
which it must have been raised to its present position. 
Its weight is calculated at 200 tons. A modem 
staircase leads up to the top, where the sarcophagus 
or urn was placed. 

At the CoUegio of the Carthusians atS. Roraualdo, 
near tiie Dnomo, are the Town Library, Museum 
and Fine Arts Academy. 

The Library, or Biblioteca Communale, founded, 
ITli, by Abbe Gaunetti, contains about 50,000 
volomesand 700 MSS. Among the curiosities are 
about 700 editions of the 14th century, including the 
Decretals of Boniface VIII. (1465), a Venice PUny 
(1469), a Venice Bible (1476) with miniatures, a 
Milan Dante (1478), also a MS. of Dante of the 14th 
century with miniatures, and a rare Aristophanes of 
the lOUi century. 

The Academy of Pictures and Statuary, contains 
works by the Longhi, D. de Volterra, Gnercino, etc., 
and severs! Flemish masters; mosaics, and an effigy 
of a warrior, called Bracciaforte (or strong-arm), 
from S. Francesco's church. 

In the Museum is a fine collection of Italian medals 
ancient and modem, with bronzes, pottery, inscrip- 
tions, etc. ; one of the most remarkable things being 
a medal of Cicero, struck at Magnesia in Asia 

The Jkairo Commtmdle was built 1724 ; theTeatro 
Nuovo, in 1848. 

Good water is scarce here, and was so in Martial's 
time. In one of his epigrams, he says 

*NSit cistema mihi quam vinea malo RavennaB, 
Cum possim multo vendere plnris aquam." 

** Lodged at Ravenna, water seUs so dear, 
A dstem to a vfaieyard I prefer."— ilcfeKaon. 

In another, he complains that he paid for a mix- 
ture of -wine and water, and the rascally vintner 
cheated him and sold him only wine. 

Outside the Ravenna walls, in a solitary spot, is 
the church of Santa Maria in Porto Fuori (ic, vrith- 
out the walls) near the site of the old port, about 
two miles east-south-east Built 1096, by B. P. 
Onesti, or II Pescatore, and rebuilt in the 16th century. 
It has a campanile, three aisles, between arches of 
unequal size, and rmnains of atveral ftescoes, by 
Giotto or pupils of his schod. 

About a quarter of a mile outride Porta Nuova, 
at Lft Crocetta, a Greek aom, l9 tbeiito of 31 Lorenco 

in CescweOy a church founded 898, by the Emperor 
Honorius*s treasurer, in the midst of Angostine's 
more ancient town of Ccesarea, It was razed 1553, 
when Santa Maria in Porto was built From this it 
is 2i miles Airther to 

* S Apollinare in CUuUy on the site (now a marsh) 
of the Roman port of Cliusis^ of which this is the 
only relic, built 584-49, when Maximinian was Arch- 
bishop. This basilica corresponds in age and style to 
its namesake inside the walls, and is allowed to 
possess the trae body of the saint to which both are 
dedicated. It wants a portico, and its marble casing, 
which was used by Malatesta of Rimini to cover his 
church of St Francis there, 1450. Twenty-four 
granite pillars in single blocks divide the church 
into three aisles. Along the walls are six sarcophagi 
of prelates of the 7th and 8th centuries, and there 
is a series of oval portraits of all the prelates down 
to the present time. The Emperor Otho's name 
commemorates an act of penitence performed by 
him in 1000. One of the altars has a marble canopy 
of the 9th century. The high altar is of black and 
white marble porphyry and yerdeiantico, and the 
pulpit is of marble. 

The walls are adorned with Mosaics; as Moses 
and Ellas ; St ApoUinarius, the patron saint preach- 
ing; the Sacrifices of Al)el, Abraham, etc ; Christ 
and the Apostles ; and groups of saints. The tomb 
of the patron saint is in the crypt A tall round 
campanile adjohis the church, looking like a light- 
house. The town of Classe was destroyed by 
Luitprand, king of the Lombards, in 728. Two 
miles outside Porta Sisi, close to the Ronco, is the 

Colonna de' Francesi, or Frenchmen's Pillar; 8 
square column covered with arabesques and inscrip- 
tions, erected in 1557 by President Cesi, in memory 
of the battle of Ravenna, gained on Eaater Day, 
1 1th April, 1512, by the French, under Gaston de 
Foix, over the troops of Julius II. and the Spanish 
King. The Chevalier Bayard, Ariosto, Cardinal de* 
Medici (Leo X.), and others were present ^^d 20,000 
men were killed on both sides, including the French 
general, " the hero boy," who was only twenty-six. 

The *Pinetat or Pine Forest, to the east of the 

"hems the silent shore. 
Which bounds Ravenna's immemorial wood, 

Rooted where once the Adrian wave flow'd o'er, 
To where the last Caesarean fortress stood." — Byron. 

It is full of green, picturesque walks, and is other* 
wise interesting from its antiquity and association 
with many celebrated names. The Vicole del Poeta 
marks a favourite resort of Dante, who speaks of its 
" ramo in ramo si raccoglie," in his Divine Comedy 
Here Boccaccio places the scene of his novel of 
Nastaglo degli ()nesti, in the Decameron, which 
Dryden has versified in his fable of the Proud 
Honoria pursued by the spectre horseman, Gaido 
Cavalcanti, ancestor of Theodore, who comes to her 
rescue armed with a sapling pine. Byron was never 
tired of riding through its haunted ground. 

Garibaldi's wife, Anita, is buried here, in a chapel in 
the midiUe of the forest, eh<^>a& «.xssi&sv ^sssaaL^kSsi'ssSja. 



OfBrHMdii-ift» mtMafT i€ft Vtidaa, panned by-th« 
Anatrina, when thrreaMl was wrecked near Gerria. 
His wife, then near her eonflnement, walked through 
theforaet, but at lait fell ezhauted and died In her 
husband's arms, as they reached the fisnn. In 1869, 
when Garibaldi gave np the command of the Central 
Italian League, upon his differenee with General 
Fanti, before leaving RaTenna, he visited Ida wife's 
grave, with his two children, Teresa and Menotti, 
and afterwards rrtired to Gaprera. 

Ravenna, in the middle ages, was a repoblie under 
the influence of the Pidenta family, one of whom, 
Guido de Polenta, was the fieitlier of Fraacisea 
Bimini, whose adultery with her husband's Ivother, 
Paolo, is the subject of a well-luiown episode in 
Dante's Jt^inmo. Her father, Goido, was Dante's 
protector, and gave him funeral honours. The 
Venetians held it from 1440 to 1509; it was taken 
by the French after the great battle of 1512; and 
was given up to the Pope in 1580. 

Returning, to the main line towards Anoona the 
Baxt station to ^ 

Caste^BologiteBe is ^ 

F&enza station, the andent Favmiia, on the 
Via Emilia and the river Lamone ; the first place 
in Italy where coloured and glazed pottery of the 
kind which the Italians caU majolica (because 
originally a Majorca production, and the French 
nlled faieneet yna made. Population, 35,592. It 
was taken and sadced in 1376 by the Filial troops 
under Hawkwood, an English leader. It 4b a 
weU-bailt, walled town, with an arcaded piazza 
in the middle, surrounded by the Cathedral, Clock 
Tower, Town Hall, Fountain, Theatre. Lyceum, 
Hospital, etc. The Cathedral contidns some 
paintings; wnd the Town Hall was the palace of 
Q. Manfred!, who was murdoed here, by hf<« 
vrife, Francesca. His two s(ms were afterwanis 
put to death at Rome, upon the surrender of Faenzp. 
to Cassar Borgia, in 1501. 

Torrlceili, the pupH of Galileo, andinTentorof the 
barometer, was l)oni here. It Is noted for its wfnc, 
silk, and paper, as well as for its pottery. The 
Znnelli canal, cut ITBSj oommumcates with the 

About four mileff distant «r& the hot springs of 8t 
Catherine. Theroad to it, vriiich ascends the Lamone 
and crosses the Apennines downto Ftorence, was first 
made by the Romans. It vras dose to Faventla 
that Sylla defeated the Consul Carbo, and drove him 
out of Italy. 

Forll Station^ near the Mentone, is the Reman 
Forum LMi, founded by livhis Saiinator, after 
his defeat of AsdrubaL 

Population, 36,560. 

Forli is a bishop's see, and head of a province. 

It contains an old castle, or rocca, the seat of tlie 

Lords of Forli; a cathedral, Santa Crooe, lately 

rebuilt, and several churches; the Palazzo del 

Governor in thft large piazza; the Albidni, Guarini, 

aifd other palaces; a Monte di Pietk; and a new 

JPetdtlerm, orfoib market, bnilt 1880. At the cathe- 

*vli0 C. Cfgiuu^'B Sne Assumption, in the cupola 

mf'tA0 CbMpel c£thB JUMooJM delFaooo (or fiio) 

whleh took him- twentsr yam to paint BlFQippa 
has paiatinga by Cignaal,. C Mantii. and Gnerdno's 
Annondalion. At the ObeervantiDe churdi of St 
Gutdamo is Giddo's Conoeption» with firesooet by 
PalmenaooAnd MelasBOk At St Marcnxiala, weeks 
by Pahneszano and L ds Imola. 

The Pinacoteca at the ooUege contains piiatings 
and drawings by Palmezzano, Cignani, Gnerdno, 
etc. Palmmtzano vras bwn at ForU, about 1456 ; 
his portrait is preserved by his fiunily. Hisfiepoil- 
tion is now in the Natkmd Gallery. 

Croas the Ronoo (ancient .SsdMic), to 

ForlimpopoU Station, so cdled aftv^ Wvnm 
PrnnpilUf of the Romans, wWdi was dcstnyed by 
the Lombards, in 700i Population of ths modem 
town, 4^996. It has a dimreh and a caMl«« bnit by 
C»ser Borgia, to whom it was gtven by his- tattw, 
Alexander VL ^ 

Gross the Savio, to 

Cesena station, the Roman Coneaa, and s bUiopli 
see; celebratedfor its white wine. P(^ulatk>n, n,703L 
The Palazzo Pubblico has a painting by F. Fteocift; 
at the Cqrachin Church is a Guerdno. These ia s 
statue of Pius VIL (Chiaramonte), who was bom 
here, as was his predecessor, Pius VL, who disd at 
Avignon, 1799. In the library of the. college ed- 
lected by the Malatesta family, among otfaor MSK, is 
the EtymoUgisB of St laodorus, of the aevena oeup 
tury. The Benedictine Ghmrch of Maiifwmp ifgi 
Monte, on a hill near the town, is the wnrk of 
Bramante. Pius VIL was a monk in flds oonvent 

This place was at the mercy of a a asa c i aociety 
between 1849- and 1864, n^doh hi the naaas of Hborty 
perpetrated more than sixty politioal mscdeiBi aad 
was not put down till Farini came with a strcmg 
band in 1861, and arrested its leaden. Tlun are 
mines of good sulphur in the neigliboaEhood. 

Between this and Ssvignano, the line panes the 
rivers PisdateUo, Flnmidno, and Rigtoaa, aB 
whioh, with the Uso, have at one time or anottiar 
been identified with the fionous 

Rubieon, the boundary Une between Cisa^jlne 
Gaul, and Umbria in Italy proper. CsBsar was 
at RaTcnna when M. Antony came to Um 
with news that the Senate had resolved that he 
should dismiss his army or be declared a piddle 
enemy. Sending on his cohorts before, he oame to 
the Rubkxm, the boundary of his pxoviitte. "We 
may go back," he said, **bnt when we pass this 
little bridge everything must be done by arms.** He 
made up his mind, waded the stream,, sajrtng, ** Alea 
jacta est," (the die is cast), took Arinrininm, and in 
twomonthsvrasmasterof all Italy. Closetoa Roman 
bridge on the Flumicino is a pillar of modem date, 
with a pretended senatus eonmltum, prohilrftfaig any 
general flrom crossing, under the heaviest penalties. 
lIUs stream, however, into which all the rest f dl, 
may stand for the real boundary with moie prcq^iisty 
ttian any other. The next place la 

St. AroangftlO Station, on the river Uao, whidk 

I is the fourth stream cbdmed as the Rubicon. Tids 
little town is the-birthplace of ClsmeatZJY. (Gaii' 




n« ftodeiit AflmMmm^ in Umhria, iHientlie VU 
JBmUia ended, or Joined the Via Flarainia. The 
modam boundary of Umbria, or UxbfanH is farther 

JToML— Post 

C(imt«tNmoea.--4Mhrs7 to AncoM and Bologna. 

Popiriation, 81,887. 

TMs ancient Robma town stands on a fine spot 
at the moath of the Marecchia (ancient Ariminiu^)^ 
wheretheClosa Joins 4t near tlie sea, which hassome- 
witat retired firoa the old port made by Aut^ostos. Its 
marble stonesirere used in the construction of the 
oitfaedffid. Further down is a harbonrforsmall craft 

lUmini is on tlw whole well built ; it is a t)ishop*s see, 
tnd, besides its remnants of Roman oconpation. it 
eontains a fine cathedral, churches, coUoge, Is^cenm, 
the Palace ot the Malatesta fkmily. Lords of Rimini, 
and remains of their fortress, with two open places. 
One, is Uie PeschUira, or fish market, snrmunded by 
areades, in which is a pedestal statinfir that Cftsar 
addnsaed his soidlers here after passing the Rnbicon. 
flnetoofaiaand Lucan make him ontto haye done so, 
but he says nothing of it himself. The other, or 
Piazza Gnnde, is ornamented witii a bronze statue 
of Paoto v., and a fountain. The Fanal and 
■offisc good points of view. 

*4iwBin|Mi$ at Porta Romana, is an ardi serosa 
tkanadi tor Rome; erected in honour of Angastnat 
iriK a tfmple: and massive pile of white stone, like 
■■■Me, sq>p<»ted by four Corinthian columns, Sa 
feet hifi^, with medallions of Venus, Jupiter, Nep- 
tone,. and Minenra. It is 60 feet high and 27 thick, 
aaib a» archway Ifl 81 ftet wide, bein^r vkier than 
■another in Italy. 

*Fml9 dfAugmUL or bridge whieh carried the ^mi- 
Haat w ay ei vei the Ariminiaa near the town, is of five 
■■dWB,88dfeetloog, made <tf blocks of Istrian marble. 
An insieription states that it was finished by Til)erins. 
There aae some sligtit traces of an amphitheatre of 
Bnttna, at the Capndiin Convent 

The Duomo of & Fnmeegeo was founded in the 
14th oentory and rebuilt hi the 10th, by L. B. Albcrti, 
in a mixed Gtothic and dasdcal style, at the cost of 
the Malatesta family, whose arms (the rose and 
^phant) and monuments are visible all over the 
baUding. Under a series of arches down the outside 
are seven sarcophagi dedicated to certahi celebrities 
of this little court, one being ThemlMtios, a Greek 
writer on Aristotle. Near the door is the tomb of 
Isotta, fourth wife, of Sigismundo Malatesta, two 
others having been poisoned. There are also monn- 
ments of Siglsmund and his son-in-law; a portrait 
of the architect ; a fireseo by P. della Francesca, and 
bronze bas-reliefb by Gbitierti. 

At 8, OuMmo^t Cburdh is a Martyrdom by P. 
Veronese; aad at S. Girolamo is a SL Jerome, by 
Ouerclno. At the CapeUa 8. Antonio^ on the canal, 
St. Anthony preaohed to tbo fishes. 

The Palazzo dd Commune, or Town Hall, contains 
a Pletk by O. BelUnI, and a patattor by Ghirlanda jo. 
The library of 80,04^ vols, and M8& was fbnnded hi 
1617, by A. Oambahnijfe, ■ jorM; Tbo Palauo 

Baffi ia the slta of tfai eUUai Pdace, in which 
Francesca da Rindni and her lover Paolo de Malatesta 
lived, whoaa gnilty pasdon is celebrated by Dante. 
Here she was killed in the arms of her paramonr. 
It ia also oeldbratt d for the Coundl between tho 
Ariflns and Athanasians. 

Rimini, a fewyeara ag0| waathesoene of a Wink- 
ing Madonna, which took greatly with the peasantry, 
who came to her in crowds, groaning and weq^ing; 
and offering their earnings and other gifts, "nie 
more intelligent part endeavoured to expose the cheat, 
which was managed in a dnmsy way by moving ttie 
eyes and making them drop tears; bnt the Francis- 
can monks who contrived the trick gave out that 
these miracles were intended as divine wamhigs to 
the people for neglecting the worship of the Vlii;in. 

Abont 12 miles south-west of Rimini, up the vaBey 
of the Ansa (dona with oxen in five hours). Is. the 
famous little 


Which occupies a space of 22 square miles on tite top 
and slopes of a consiricuous and cragpry monntain 
(formerly called Monte Titano), abont 2,600 feet high; 
and commands a striking proqieot of the Adriatic sea 
and the Apennines. It ori^ated in a chnzch 
perched on the summit of the mountain to the memory 
of St Marino, a hermit, who had been a Sclavoifian 
stonecutter and ficd from Rimini in Diocletian's 
persecntion. This church contains the ashes of the 
saint and his statue holding a model of the monntidn 
top and of three towers of its castle, which consti- 
tute the arms of the republic They stand in La 
Citta, the seat of government, where the best houses 
are found ; and which was walled round in the lOtli 
oentury as the *' Plebs tianta Marini cum Castella** 
It can be reached only by zigzag paths cut in the 
almost perpendicular rock. 

The suburb outside the city walls, 500 feet bdow, 
b called H Borgo; and the population of botk 
amounts to 60a That of the republic in its whole 
extent, inclading Scrravellc and three or four other 
villages at the foot of the mountain, is alxmt 8,000 
Its greatest distance across is eight miles, so that 
when the great bell is rung, on emergencies, it is 
esbily heard all over the republic It contains some 
good pasture, and produces fruit,silkworms, and wine ; 
the last being kept hi cool cellars excavated in the 
rocks. One branch of manufacture is powder, whkdi 
is a government monopoly in the rest of Italy. 

There is no shop or inn in the city, bnt there 
an inn in the Borgo. Its streets are difficult and 
only used by mules, donkeys, and oxen. 

At the Capuchin Church is a Descent fipom the 
Cross. There are three other churches and Ibmr 
convents in the republic In the Council Chamber 
is a bust of Onofri, a disting^nlshed citizen, and a 
Holy Family, by G Romana 

It is governed MminaBy by an Arringo, or 
Assembly of the citizens at. large, bnt really by aa 
elective Genende Con-tlgUo, called D Prindpe (the 
Prince), of 60 members, noUea^ wsalL 



fbr town and oonntiy, wh« change every six montha. 
A judge and doctor, who must be foreignera, are 
elected for three years. Though it boaata an aroiy 
of 1.200 men, all volunteers, it has a model budget of 
6,000 crowns, with a handsome surplus, the expendi- 
ture being only 4,000. 

The laws are printed in folio, entitled "Statnta Illus- 
trissimiB Reipublicffi Sancti Marini," which Addison 
apealcs of in his travels, and wliich among other 
things provide that an ambassador sent to any foreign 
state ^all he allowed one shilling per day for his 
expenses. lit the French invasion of 1797, Bona- 
parte behaved with civility to the ancient republic, 
offered to enlarge its territory, which was declined, 
and gave it four pieces of cannon. 

A treaty has been concluded in due form for 
r^ulating, and settling the relations between the 
new kingdom of Italy and the republic; and it 
still figrures among the independent states of Europe. 
It has been a convenient asylum for political refugees 
and debtors, who have always been treated with 
impartial hospitality. One of the most distinguished 
was Delfico, a Neapolitan, who wrote a history of 
the republic, 1804, and always signed himself 
"Citadino di S. Marino." His home is pointed 
out, as well as that of the Cavalier Borghesi whose 
collection of medals is to be seen here. From 
the summit of the mountain, the coast of Dalmatia, 
across the Adriatic, can be seen at sunrise. " Few 
such sunrises are. I thinic, to be witnessed firom any 
spot in Europe. First, came the gradually kindling 

?ath of fire athwart the cold deep blue of the Adriatic, 
'hen one after another the mountain tops were 
waked up to the new day. The Ancona promontory 
was the first to catch the ray; then the higher of 
the tops further inland ; and lastly the lowlands and 
the distant city of Rimini, which seemed close be- 
neath our gaze. Let no one whose love of sight- 
seeing has induced him to climb the hill of San 
Marino leave it without having stood on the castie 
battlements at sunrise. "^TroZ/ope's Lenten Journey. 

About five miles south-west of S. Marino is the 
Castel di S. Leo, in which the famous impostor, 
Count Cagliostro, who pretended to make old 
women young, and was mixed up with the affair of 
Cardinal Rohan and the diamond necklace, was 
shut up by the Pope, and died 1795. 

Leaving Rimini, by rail, which now follows the 
Flaminian way, close to the coast, the next place is 

La CattoUca station (population, 1,300), in 
file Duchy of Urbino, so called when the orthodox 
bishops at the Council of Rimmi separated from 
their Arian brethren and found an asylum here. 

Cross the Foglia (or ancient Isaurus)^ near the 
remains of a Roman bridge, to 

Pesaro station, the Roman Ptscurum, at the 
mouth of the Foglia, which makes a small port 
Population, 19,883. 

It is walled round with good wide streets, and is 

head of a province, and a bishop's see. It conttdns 

the old palace of the Duke of Urbino, of the 16th 

^^'^*JBJ^^ J56izza, where there is a statue of 

i^fttoa VJU; Cathedra], and seven or eight 

churches, one of which, 8. Fnmcesco, has G. Bel* 
lini's Coronation of the Vixirin. Biblloteca, with 
15,000 vols, and MSS. of Tasso. College and 
Priests* Seminary. Musetun of medals, bequeathed 
by Olivieri, the antiquary and a native. Collection 
of majolica at the Ospizio degl* Incnrabili; a class 
of pottery which came to great perfection at Pesaro. 

Collenuccio, a chronicler of the 15th century, and 
Rossini, were natives. Its Albanella and S. Giovese 
wines are sent to Egypt 

Good olives and figs are grown here and coal has 
been found. In the neighbourhood is the Villa Ber- 
gami, which l)elonged to Queen Caroline, when 
Princess of Wales. The grounds contain two 
monuments to her daughter, the Princess Charlotte, 
and her brother the Duke of Brunswick, who fell at 

Villa ImpericUe was a seat of the Dukes of Urbina 
At Casino del Barchetto (now a farm) Bernardo 
Tasso, the father of Torquato, resided, and composed 
his Amadis. S. Angelo, about eight miles off (where 
the best figs come from), is the birthplace of Gio- 
vanni Branca, who is dfdnaed as the author of a 
work on steam, printed as early as 1629. 

Pesaro to Urbino and Arezzo, see Route 28. 
The next place is 

Fano Station, called by the Romans Fanum 
Fortunce, fh)m a temple erected to commemorate the 
defeat of Asdrubal on the Metaurus, near the mouth 
of which it stands, in a charming situation. Its fort, 
restored by Paul V., is now useless. Population, 

It is walled Uke the other towns hi Italy, and one 
of its gates was a triumphal arch over the Via Fla- 
minia, dedicated to Augustus, and restored by Con- 
stantuie. It is a bishop's see. In the market-place 
is a fountain, with a statue of Fortune, allusive to 
the old name of the town, which is also perpetuated 
in the 

DttomOj dedicated to S. Fortunato. It has four 
lions in the Gothic front and Domcnichino's St 
Maiy, and L. Carracci's Madonna. 

S. Agottino has Guercino's Guardian Angel, and 
S. FrcmcescOj some fine Gothic tombs of the Malatesta 

At Santa Maria Nuova are Pemgino's Madonna, 
a Visitation, by G. Santi (Raphael's father), and a 
Pletk, attributed to Raphael himself. 

S. Patemiano has Guercino's Sposallsio (MarriageX 
and others by C. Bonone, d'Arpino, etc. 

S. Pietro has an Annunciation by Guido. 

Collegio Folfi contains Domenichino's fine David 
with (xoliath's Head, and the Hospital (or S. Croce 
Church), a Madonna by G. Santi. 

Fano has a good theatre and public library. Small 
fish, of the sort called cavallo marino, from the 
likeness to a horse's head, are taken along the coast 
There is a road to Fossombrone and Urbino, and 
over the Apennines to Arezzo. See Route 28. 

From Fano, on the Une, cross the Metauro, or 
Metauras, on whose banks the Consuls Livy and 
Keio defeated Asdra1»al, 207 B.a; then reach 



Marotta station, near Cape Marotta. Cross tho 
rivers Cssano and Misa, to 

fftW^gfttf^** Station, the Sena Oallica of the 
Ronumi, plundered l^ Fompey ; also a bishop's see, 
and the birthplace of Madame Catalani and the 
reigning Pope, Pio None. Pins IX., whose name 
is Oiovanni Maria, was bom 1796, of the hoose of 
Mastal-Ferretti, a noble fSunllylong rerident here; 
became Bidiop of Imola, 1832, and was elected Pope, 
1844. It is noted for a f^ee mart, or fafar, of three 
weeks* lei^erth, called the Fair of St M. Magdalene, 
beginning 20tb Joly, and chartered as tar back as 
1300. Traders oome to it from all parts of the con- 
tinent; the whole town and neighbonrhood are lor 
the time alive with business; and its small port is 
fall of shippfaig. Popnlation, 23,498. 

It has a fortress; Cathedral of S. Pietro ; several 
•hurches, that of Delia Grazie, out^kia the walls, 

having a painting said to be by P. Peraglno; and a 
new theatre. 

In 1502, Sinigaglia was taken by treachery, by 
the infamous Caosar Borgia, and its defenders mas- 
sacred in cold blood, witti their leaders, Oliveretto, 
Vitelii, and the brothers OrsinL They were merce- 
naries who had formeriy served under him. Machla- 
velli, the envoy for the Florentine Bepnblic, givea 
an account of the tragedy. 

After Sinigaglia, the line passes 

Case BradatO station, near the month of the 
Esino, the ancient JBiiOy with the bold promontory 
of Ancona in view. Here the Junction rail to Fo- 
ligno and Bome will fiOl in. (See Bouto 29.) Thea 

Falconara station, the next to 

Ancona station, which is by the water aid* 
(See Boate ih.) 



iloxtntt to '§amt. 






ROUTE 23. 


^o<«7«.— Hotel de Londres; Vittoria; Hotel de 
la Grande Bretagne; Peverando (Long* Arno); 


RaOwaif iStotion.— Near fhe cathedral The sta- 
tion for Lefl^m la on the opposite side of fhe town. 

A new line now connects the two stations. 

MngMi C9ktireA.— Daring the seven winter months 
seryioe Is performed each Sunday— Chaplain, Rev. 
H. Greene. There is an excellent library of general 
English literature at the English Church ; subscrip- 
tion llfrs. for the season. 

English Warehome.'S. Cordon. 

Van Lint, the best alabaster worker in Europe 
lives here. 

Population, 49,181. 

Routes.'— To Leghorn, by rail, half an hour; to 
Florence, byraH, oit) Lucca, Pistoja, etc, in four 
hours; or iid Empoli, along the Arno, 2^ hours; 
to Volterra, by rail and coach ; to Siena, by rail; to 
Cedna, etc, by rail (towards Elba). 

*Chitf Olgects of Notice. — Duomo, Baptistry, 
Leaning Tower, Campo Santo, Santa Maria deUa 
Spina, University. 

Pisa, the Roman PiascBj on the PUanus, nam 
called the Arno, is supposed to be of GreA 
origin, and is one of the most ancient towns and 
ports in Italy, about five miles from the Mediter- 
ranean by the river, and twelve miles by rail fbom 
Leghorn. It is the seat of a province, university, 
and andibishop; and occupies both sides of the 
river, the banks of which are lined with well-built 
quays and tall houses. It is nearly six miles round 
by the walls, but at least two-thirds of the space 
within is garden ground. Though not in ruin, yet 
it has a look of faded grandeur and want of life, 
which has brought upon it the designation of 
" Pisa morta." It has never recovered the destruc- 
tion of its port by the Genoese in 1290, and its 
final subjection to Florence 1445. Its population is 
only a fifth or sixth of what it was ; and grass 
grows in the streets. Like Padua, and some other 
old towns which have seen their prime, it is now 
in a stage of venerable decay; o&e sign of which is 
the number of beggan to be teen. As a residence, 
it is mild in winter, beiny ibdt^red by fhe lur* 

rounding hills, and is therefore suitable for persons 
with w^ Inngs ; but the rainy days are estimated 
at one in three, and the annual inches at forty-seven. 
—(See BrcOthavfs Companion to (he Continent.) 

Forsyth, who lived here some time, says, the 
ndn "generally falls in large round drops direct to 
the ground. It never bres^ into mist, nor dims 
the air, nor penetrates the houses, nor rusts the 
metals, nor racks the bones, with the searching 
activity of an English shower. The spring is short ; 
in summer the mornings are very hot, at noon the 
[ sea-breeze springs up, the nights are damp' and 
I close. The climate, in winter, is considered next to 
Rome— the mildest and most equable in Italy." 

The thick, gray water of the Arno is not good 
for drinldng, but excellent water is supplied by an 
aqueduct, four miles long, from Monte Asciano; 
built 1601-13, by Cosmo IL The canal to Leghorn 
was cut by Frederic II. 

Three bridges cross the river, one of them marbleu 
The lowest one, Ponte cU Mare^ at the west end be- 
tween Porta al Mare and the citadel, is the oldest, 
built 1351, on five arohes, and restored by Brunei- 
leschL Close to it is the old Torre Guelfa, or prison < 

JPonU VeethiOf or fhe Old Bridge, so called, is in 
the middle, in a line with Via del Borgo, the chief 
thorouglifare leading to Lucca Gate and railwaj 
station. It is dose to the Dogana and Post OfSce, 
and replaces a former bridge of one arch. Two 
centuries back, the fine manly game of the Battaglie 
del Ponte used to take place here, when the youth 
of the town either unarmed, or clothed in maH and 
armed with clubs, met for a mock fight and 
wrestling match, fill • paternal government 
stopped it on the pretext of danger. At the south 
end is the Loggie di Bcmchi, an open arcade, built 
1605, by Buontalenti, now a market Above this is 
Ponte alia Fortezta, near the Porta alle Pia^e and 
a small fort close to the Leghorn railway terminus. 

The w«lk along the quays, or Lung' Arno, is • 
fiivourite promenade. Hero yon may still see the 
rusty iron rings on the walls of the palaces, to 
which the galleys of their owners were moored. At 
the triennial festival of the patron saint, 17th Jane, 
the quays and bridges are lifted vp. 

Of the twelve or fifteen open piazzi, the most 
strildng are Piazza di Santa Caterina, with Pam* 
paloni's statue of Leopold L Piazza de' Cavalieri^ 
. surrounded by 8. 8teC«s»^ %s^ ctdbssc. ^sssRkNs^SiSSsas!^ 


af Ibe flint uWI mM ramiil«l« 

, . ._, , md tlw wpi™! eimijils ot « nyl* 

cetebnted by Dante, ind in SajaMt'i I that iniH) here sot of tba dasiicil doiinc tli* ilvk 

,. '_.. _ . _ liow«»con«ldB»bl«taiidBiiojt(n«rfilha 

d«th, In the Itlh century. Hari ngbeenj Oolhlii,miedillyluth*aKleiuli>nDttliatnnieptsuii1 

^bbtshep threw the kejj pLcraRheL" 

ot Connn I Viai the OnJIn^ It i irUta honie, I li certainly 
with gieca abatien, tji* alM of tha fimnoi I^im I chnrabea In 1 

AI Fame, celebrated by Dante, and in BefnoUa'il that anm tie ^ — - 

tore. In which TJtoatia d«]la Qherafduca wul strl& liiliowa a conddsabla tendency towaidai 

- 1. .t. ...V — . n-.-i—i. — J "-■'-io,m,edallyhitli«eilMUlonofthatiinieptas — 

"— niyMW- But It hardlr dlffsn hitemally 
Sonan ""V— , "taemt hi the hnnn]--''— 
Id Mid w*n-dednad tritoifiun gnUerin ci 

whuomMlan beaded hj thai 

hEatiop and conDned ber^ *-"^ *-'- *-" "—" 
Mn mndaoDi "" 

PUiu dt B. Siveiiio and PJaiza di°S^ mecolb 

i;l:l>i>— the Calhednl, Baftlitn, Oanqw Sand}' txceptaoande 
:i'jichyHrd),aad tbetMlA7or 'f— "*"& Tower, i InteRidiiv froo' 
US oDiuanlnttd tdgMlieri "an bdu of Omj Thehuldatti 

M(d thei 
merahk with jearL aod fortnaaJ 

tr and their •>4ltiidn.'-—fdn|Mt. .. 

— I — m J-..1.JJ i„jj£™ of the Cathfr- anpjBtttaig 

Mb and IE 

with antique baav an 

H tnnupt (I)^' T. 
Ih gildUiEB, ecaiptizre a 

work of tbe Mail* ii 

id St J<An. The 

dnLlia immd bnlldhu IUt;-tii . 

to Oia top rtorr, wlilcii la ntdooed to torts I^ ] Bl 
aidwu*ad«d*b«itl4S(L It la 1ST feet high, and I (It 
lodliua feoiteen bet ftom the peipendlcnUr. It ' in 

w» hwm 1IT4, iw ITHQain of Innsbnick and' k— ^ - ... - - 

'Bonano da niB, oTniarUt and tiaidte, in elfhllilcnedbrlL Ai>C(do,otb;Staggl. ThaSa 
atoclea oF pOiued anihei oi open eallmea IWJ &tJfti bm a riirer altar, Ibe sift ef Ceanw i. ii 
jiUuihiBll), dtridedbyeomkui aid li a snuanil l« corared with bu^aiielk, and eort WOAO cmwna. 
and dim aliuMuru ahmlnc no dgna of decay > Hie high altar la apteudid with inlibl marble and 
thmgh ncnninl of efOraan old. The lover Mnrr! two porpoTryCDlnmna, one of which hold lh« bones 

Ii ^tjF-ftra fteti as laM about tweo^ fceL It of 8. BaiJed, the patron r'-' " ' -*-' 

-'^— -■- "— ■ — ■- lie about the Brd ' Berto'aSt. CelhcrbKana H 

» of the 

k dknored Woa Oct that the 
Bmtn row a pUlai* la omk m the earth on one 

Banilfa thfa, nirag the cartbigi of SL Eanlot, Ih 
the Gampo Banto^ done lt)ft yeari later, there ta a 
Victar* of the tower ■tandlng iiiigfat ln&ct,1ba 
■oD la ao iof t aud ylddlng that wata la f <nmd (t 
lb* itepi]! of ■ fm feet; and the OhaenMotyta 

dedbUMwenMOMtowgr. The aamrttlM,! paid} 
iabTlHBta^ In tbanppa'Merj an iennbeU% 
Hm hearten Odn (onAbemc plaadon the off aide 

n dgiu of harhig bwon to . 
— J. Sma ■WON (a> the. 
BtAana toinl) that It was deigned 

HiaTBiiBabla *(>itti*gl la a jhe-alaledcnug, aiO 
IMIaaB,*rtlh a ■**• lOS feet wUa, hjntaig a flu, 
VMdan not,whila Oa aUn are Tanlled. nHlits 
«■> liunMed eMmani, irtiidi br theb -nuisty and 
ealOEr orodma • Sae eSsct. It ww buHt 1M3- 
lllUhl- - - . . - 

k^Wfce awB«a tMa^Blaeed on a teger-with thrta 
doon aad fin raw «( Wee ndm mi pOaitai 
lattT'aght fai all), ma one Oh otlMr, wUcb am 
aairfcdiow Bia lldei^w that tin total nDm*- * 

ilatae of Uua bnuid u 

9 moialc br Oaddl. 
hla,baa been bwtiai 
a Potitoi. JtD encla 

t Madonna l0 al . - — 

a of Anhblihope TBImi'^Til and Q. de' 
liB po^t haa Boma work by ffloranul da 
hi lbs BBOiilf era hot-ccUta by bia pi 

., ll», brDtoUSalTi; a . 

tnra to a ndied BODUiMiqao and Oothlo aiylc^ caMd 
via maiUe; Vee, one pant. It la drcnlar, and 
Uo feet to JlamatCT liuldei "Tbt canCral paM, 
ORj feet irUt, la a dnaiiar colonnade, with tinir 
polygonal jiat lod pabi of idnara be^ieen Vbaa. 
tlM npiwle a kfly cobo, ITS feet Mgb, tbe lower 
part of whldiliDowcaTaradeitemilly wftb a dome. 
wUdi tmB the onaiDeDli la erlden^ of tha luh 
centnry, and oartalnly not a part of the oti^oal 
dedcn.^' Ibero li a Sds mnAul echo midernuth 
tha dome. Externally the "beauty of Ita detaUi 

capttratliic buDdinc." — (fttvwws.) U hai a 
movak Hon; a large brocatafia and maihle JoBt. 
Us enonsb A>r Immenlim, aod ornamented aitli 

^wta atitptg a/ Nack and wblto marble, ' ^ul a heiagoa polplt, oore: 
Mfanr aa(»Hd fa m Agant »t;le. " It ■. nto flCh maftte '^tev * 

•ObbPO Saiilo or Bily Hell di 

Of the CBtbednl, the old barlil pl_.. 

wttb a dDlBtat bnlU 127S-AS. ud bd cinid 
Ud doirn irttn fifty lUp loodi of uU bisiig 
PBleMJue W AromiilKip UbaUo, 1318, Vbm the 
Hmu, Tttll oOmt on—* -'-' ' •■- 


... deHn flhcrarfesca, (Ba'S 

BithMert of Ok — •' " . j _. tt. 

ITie DOTlTi atdt 

nurbla didiCer, « cnrldiM, iM an dtikng tA ditr^ 
nro udiu, of vUdi five ue at euh end, and 
twenty-<rfx on flBch ddfl, bat codoafily auDDgh, It Is 
not a poftct recUDKle, their lengthi tKiag 434 and 
*JJ> feet, apparentljby f ~ — —■-■-■ "^- ■— -j^i- 
ia abont if'^ " 

I3M.SVlMrV(ilpiM, (Ud thai wblch iwalli 
RoBllH OuAtAiofpae; and wltii the tmlis 
CmlDlaedla in^ieet mutable or Gud, 
(A* luarr on Id eaceniHs thB feet, 
Or ptnwi the Kunidt of the Laamn Timr. 

Ibafitanmitbmt. Onm pan 


where the henlcst Ibol 

Fitnolltana edioea, bnt mnit BoTtJy Head ; 

'When-KiUtnde, irilh lUenoe paired, itoieBhait 

Of I>eio]at]oii, end to mhi's Bcytbe 

Dbo; ndauUs not." 

—Tar Im /MIc— Jftnivi at Aegui^ptMailt 
The coTiIdcm are 18 ftet high mA H irlde, corered 

hmodlHt by Gothic windows, ' -^"- 

Sloncaof Iheiethand""'- — " 

by abort MO iBonoi__. ._. „ ._ — 


and altiuiL by O. di Flaa, eta„ irtlk the irona _ . 

« — 1 -..t _ i-._ji .„ oifl^acea of mibjecti 

mdowB, jHiTcd 

■ii deouediDT 

r— — ^e Gainpo 

d gniay aalKnd fhm oedect tOl Iba 
Pilncen Ellu *{^wtaited Cav. I«iInlo u 

^^ b 

Eof le4s 

■uMecU li onrione and InteieRlng. 

■'-■"-■ ■■ " "- the BapUatry, Md 

Ibllowlng order : — 

^ HtUoryof Jot In 

's, by aiotto (1390). Four othoiahy him 

S. In tlio tens aailh conldor, n« 

Fonr (rcnooea by Pletm da Omctro .. — . 

asso-goi. vit:— ThaDnlTersei CfCMlon; Death of 

4. in the rest of the conldar. M fFeocoei by B. 
Oomrll OMK-aS). tIi.: — DrankeraieM of Hoah, 
with a remalQ Fn^lirf Too^ luokiag tbroOffh btr 
fingerji Ham Cursed; Tdwci of Babel, with 

3 by CI 

i Chap. 

HagbFj Destmotlon of Sodom 

id Lol in Egjpl; I 

. 'SaolflM of 
Abiahmi Isaac end BebMca; Birth of Jacob aod 
~ m; Uaniageot Jacob and BachBl; Meetln^ot 
luaad Jiuob,widD[iiBh'oAbducilon; History of 
L-pb, En two fh^Bcoes, above tbo tomb of Oozzoli, 
painter (MJSlj Mo»e»ln Egypt; PaasaKOoftla 
1 aca ; Mount EHnsl ; Brazen Serpent ; Fen of 
Ichn; DavidaniQoUathiSolomoaBndtbeQaeen 

. Id tbo ojut corridor— Belihuzu's Feaat, by 
irll^nL tbij rafisioD, Besarrectlon, and Ascen^o, 
BufriUinacra, orATVitei Capella Oiaade, wiUi 
nis ilo Fiiu's Chiitt on Iho Croa a^SB). 
. Id Iha SQUIh oorrldor, east comer — *Ttlacitp]l 
of DcDth. Iiy A. Orcagna, a remarkable plctuie, 
crondL'd wilh aBorei; *Lait Jndemeat, by tito 

n.,., fnprtof an; Hell, by B. Oicagna, 

Andrea; Anchorilei In the Dnert 
Tcmpbuf, by F, Lureasotti; Aisamption, by ^*^"*^ 

.^ncn the doon, flii Avacoee of the History 
Uuilerl, )iy S, Uemmi and A. Venedmo 
(I840-GD). Tiz.. luu Conrcnlon, rilgrhnage, Tan^tk 
"on, Embarkation, IKstb, aDdMliaclee. 

e. Tluiecaf iheUftof 3t.£phBn%byB.Aie(iin 
(dine others Die deAroyed). 
m.. f.^pj bb5,p ''eiWblti Iha art giQwlu 
11*1 ans, flom the sjipllcity of tndt 

.^ ) •hnplfctty of •tranglh. As yon fSlhnr 

tlie dmnuOagy of the inll (U3ft-ie;0| joa oatoh 
penpoctlTB anEarlnff Into tbe jdiitnreB^ d Mij i n i g ^^ 

the liMlk-BioBBJl. U1& '&«b. ^S'-'^- '""" ' 

■- ■*-- -' — — "1. wi^ "iijft 



straight, or rattier Btretehed, then finre-ehortened, 
and then enlarged, rounded, salient, free, Tarioos, 
expressive.**— T-Pof^V''^ ^^^ artists hare ^ven ns 
the dress, fhmitnre, and the hmnonrs of their own 
day, and introduced portraits of illastrlons Tuscans, 
according to a common practice. 

Some of the most noticeable chnrohes, after the 
Duomo, are the following:— 

&Mita Caterinot in the north-east of the citv, was 
the choich of the Dominican Convent, in which St. 
Thomas of Aquinas lived, and was built in 1368 by 
O. AquellL It contains F. Traini's Christ and St 
Thomas, with Popes, Bishops, etc.; St Thomas*s 
Pulpit; N. da PIsa*s statues of Faith and Charity, 
and his tomb of Archbishop Saltarelli (1842) ; Vanni's 
Santa Caterina receiving the Stigmata. 

Santa Chiara is the church of the hospital, near 
the Duomo. 

a. Francuco, near Santa Caterina, has old frescoes 
by T. Gaddi, Bartoli, etc. (about 1890). 

*Santa Maria deUa Spina^ on the south quay, is 
a beautiful little gem of white marble, begun 1230, 
and so called from a thorn of Christ's Crown, brought 
from Palestine by a Pisa merchant It is chiefly in 
the Gtothic style, but has some round arches. Two 
good statues by O. da lisa, over the front, in richly 
canopied niches; and within are N. de Pisa's statues 
of the Madonna del Fioro, St Peter, and St John 
The Baptist 

S. Martino, In the south-east, has Palma Giovane's 
St Benedict among the Thorns. Near this is a small 
Htatue, let into t^ wall, of a certain Chentiea^ a 
heroine who once saved Hsa from a night attack of 
the Saracens. 

S. Michele in Boico, of the 13th and 14th centuries, 
has a ceiling cracked by an earthquake in 1846, an 
ancient crypt, and a monument of O. GrandJ, a 

8. Niccolbi or Nicola, near the theatre, has N. de 
Pisa's campanile, a little out of the perpendicular, 
and a spiral staircase within. 

S. Paolo, or Duomo Vecchio, near Ponte al Mare, 
a fine old church of the 12th century, lately restored, 
with a sarcophagus of J. Borgondio, a scholar of the 
12th century, and granite pillars in the aisles. 

8. Pietro in Vincoli^ built in 1100 over an earlier 
church, which has been cUsused. 

8. Skpolcro, near Ponte Vecchio, a round church 
of the 12th century, built for the Knight Templars 
by D. SalvL 

8. Sttfano, near Via del Borgo, and the Piazza de 
<Javaliere, belongs to the Knights of the Order of St. 
Stephen, instituted in 1661 by Cosmo L to fight 
against pirates; and was built 1565-96 by Vasari, 
with the palazzo adjoining it Besides a fine organ, 
it contains several trophies taken firomthe Turks; 
also Cigoli's Institution of the Order; Ligozzi's 
Battics of Prevesa and Lepanto ; G. Allori's Embarka* 
tion of Catherine de Medici; J. da £mpoli's Attack 
MiBona; and Bronzino's Nativity. 

The Palazzo Carovana, formerly the seat of the 
erder, is now a normal school, liie front is deco- 
rated with Taoca*s bust of Cosmo II., busts of five 
ctlur memhNB, and with arabesques in sgraffUo, 
^A, msnUfOied through the white plaster to the black 

gronndbdow. Foimttiii, tnd ttatne of Cosmo IL, 
by FrancavOla. 

Palazzo 8cotk> was built by one of the richest men 
inTuseany, who began lilb as a lazsarone and pott- 

Palatzo fezcoHtttU on the north qnay, was called 
Lanflranchi, when the retddence of Byron in 1822; 
after he left Ravenna. It was bnilt by M. Angelo. 

PaloMSO Lamfrt^tucxMy or VpeaingH, on the north 
quay, has a chain over the flront with the motto 
**aUa giomata'* (daily), and Guide's Earthly and 
Heavenly Love hi its picture gallery. 

The *l/niversitjf, founded in the year 1339, by B. 
della Gherardesca, was afterwards settted in the 
present building or Sapienza, near S. Ftediano's 
Church, begun in 1493, and enlarged by Cosmo IIL 
It was so well endowed that the average salary of its 
professors was 2,000 crowns, when MachiaTelU, 
secretary to the Florentine Republic, received only 
180. Galileo, horn at Pisa hi 1564^ and the fbnnder 
of experimental philosophy, was mathematical lec- 
turer at this university, which daims to have 
first introduced (through Leonardo Bonaoci) Algdlnra 
into Europe fh>m the East, under the name of 
*' regola ddla cosa,** the eota or thing being the un- 
known quantity. The Biblioteca has 30,000 volumes, 
chiefly law and polemics, and M8S. by Grandt, tiie 
mathematician; also a statue of Ckdileo by E. DemL 
In 1848, in consequence of the part taken by the 
students, the government moved certain university 
chfdrs to Siena, whidi was a great blow to Pisa. 

In Via Santa Maria is the Museum qf Naiwal ffit^ 
tory, with a cabinet of physic, an observatoiy, or 
Torre della Specola, and a Botanic (harden, estab- 
lished as far back as 1544, contahiing many exotics. 
Cesalpina was a director. 

Theatre, near Via Santa Maria, and the Uidverrity. 
Aoademia deUe Belle Arti, hi Via di S. Frediano, 
has a collection of old Pisa and Florence masters- 
Giotto, Lippi, Cimabue, Gozzoli, Giunta da Pisa, 
Memmi, etc. 

Near the Porta di Lucca are some remains of baths, 
called Bagni di Nerone, almost the only vestige of 
Roman occupation. 

About three miles west of Pisa, towards the 
coast is the Royal Acclimatisation Farm of 

H Qombo (formerly La Casdnh), so called from a 
fort of that name on the shores of the Mediterranean, 
and 1)elonging to the King of Italy. It has a fine 
avenue, three miles long, of elms and poplars ; and 
numbers 2,000 wild cows, 1,500 horses, and 20ft 
camels employed in the work of the farm, llie sea 
has retired here, and left a sandy soil, whidi is suited 
to the worhiof the camels kept here. They were first 
Imported from the Levant by a grand prior of the 
order of St John. 

To the south is the month of the Amo, and the 
ancient Porto Pisano. 

la Certosa, or Carthusian Convent Delia Valle 
Grazina, is under Monte Verucca, a fine hill, 1,76ft 
feet high, five miles east of Pisa. 

Pisa, in the 12th century, was disthignlshed for 
Its commerce and maritime enterprise, and the nnm-' 
her of its galleys, by which it made many snccessfid 
attempts against the Turks and Moors. Along with 

Genoa K csiujBanI ftMtnli, Conlei, mil lb« Bile- 
aric Iilandi, sod una attsmptad to ndace Sicily. 
Atur fmnMBt wHi with Iti ritll, 0«Ktt Diull; 
obliliMd tli« rapnmasriii I3Si, atthaDinl tMtll* of 
Mtloila; U,I)M iiiliMien wu< Mkan to Otiuu. and 
it) baAoar at Fort Plaano. w CaUmtnoiw, wu 
ffllad op. Havllig lUad nitta tba QhlbeliDO or bn- was In lUB lelzed by the FloT«nUaeB, 
and ttaezKclbrth beeuM nibl«ct to ih« Hcdld. 

From Flu then an two nOinj nnU* to Flor- 
ence ; lft» br way of EmpoU, forty-ab milea ; Sod, 
by way of Lacca, iLzty-om mltaa. 

lit. By way of EmpoU, op tbe iIchly-caltiTated 
TBUey of tlia ytUow Amo, wMcti wlnda amoni 
Tlneyaidi *ad Beldl of com and Sal. 

unMl, UUa. 

Navacdilo .-_._. 1« EmpoU „ 40( 

Caacina _ I« ! Montetapo _ 441 

Pontadsm .._ m} | eigu 6ll 

8. Romano „.. SI g. DDnatno M 

8. PlotBa..^ „... Jlj I Flonnca ~ SOI 

From tht tsmlnDi at Porta Flonatliia, to 

HkTaoobla Btattcn. Acrou the An» b MoDte 
yam«eea,l,leaf»t high. At 

PontodaTa BtaUon (popnlaU^n, 9,«33). wbei* 
Uw Era fiiUi Into tbe Arno, there la a md toVoltsiTB, 
and Che copper and borax workft In LtflDeighboarhDod. 

B. Plertno BtaUon, near the S. MvUain. an oU 
eitbedral town Qxipnlatlon, IS,6S») on the hlUa. 
with a conaplcaoaB chnrch afid tower. Hero, In 
1T99. HapDleM paid a Tialt to a Canon Bonaparte, a 
connootion of Ua family. 

EmpoU BtaUon. on the Amo. when ths railway 
U> Biena {towards Rnnie) biancliea ofT (See Ronte 
at.) FopidUlDn^ lfi,fi31. Hate and potWry are 
made, ll atandi In a fertils pUlo, anil li niemarsli> 
for a nHHing of tbe QblbeUnei, In 12«D. after the 
batU« of libnto Apeitc, an tbe Arbia, and the defeat 
of the Floreottaica, when a propoaal lor raalngE^rence 
to tlwmondwaa ancceufnlly oppneed by Farlnata 
degU Ijberd, a* deacilbed In Danto'i Ii^mu. 

centory. with trwuMO by Giotto, Jacopo da Efflpoli, 
ete-i and an equally andent liaptlBtry, with an allai- 
ploce by Qblilandajo. 

VontBltipa Btatlon (population,, h called 
from a eaatio of that name [meanbig WolTa HUl), 
bnlltontheAino,bytheF1orentlnei, 1ZD3. to watch 
another ono oppotite It, called Caprg^ (the goat), 
which bdon(ed to their rivals of I^toja. Tsna 

Tilla at ths lata Grand Dck*. Gmes by an Inm 
brldi^ to tb« north bank of the Amo, whliA bare 
enter! the nairow de6te of GonfbUna, between nxks 
of sandalooa. Then crua the Oinbrone, which 
comes down from FWola and the Apennbita to the 
north. (See Rants SI.) 

Sigma Station. ■ tirtmed t«wn (popslatlon, 
fl.6fl9>, on the Amo, Cniilh-<" ■— " 

S. Donnlno station i tht 

'loebXci which b tDttfed near tha Caidnb 
Bnata K). 

ROUTE 24. 

Tid. fit* to noi«ac«, by way of Lucca (and 111 
ha) uidPlBttda; 


rie-ve-a-NloTole . 
HTlllg Fl 

n (popnlaU 

milk, .-mdniedaaal 
ime for taiing the waiera. 

BinaltaUa staiian, on 

ths, ekeea miles distant, 
••''.t OVuli of JVoliM.— Dqomo, 8, FreCnuM, 
clijle. 8. Ronano, Ducal Palace. 
l>Llatlon. S4,6ea 

vcu "rrndasCrtosa" li a clean and weU-lmtlt 
siiutbiby ramparta, planted wlUi trees, Bbom 
iiiilea la dnnlt, and staodlng in a rich, marshy 
, cuItlTaied Uke a garden, to tba fbot of tha 
nndinghUIi. A large ptvportlan of tu tndnt- 
i i»palatiDii are image-inaken aod plaftartn. 
are manufactojIcB ef ^Ik, linen, ud paper. 
ht oldest MatotUwsOkMd* (UI*)biIt*l7- 
la the seat of a pnMnce, and an aichbiabon md 
F — ., — .V- .,--a J jj dqdiy, ofeatad 


.UK«a.lA<i)i». " 

lUT, on 


bbasbhawIb illobtrated 

vrevioBBly ttbad been gonemed by aa oUgiachj like ' 1663. L. Oiordanrf AMmnptkm sfc fhe Ugli Otitr, 

that of Venice. 

The chief buildings, Post OflSce, Theatre, etc., are 
near the Cathedral and Ducal Palace, which face a 
large open Piazza Grande, and a statae of Maria 
Lonisft, 1843. In Piazza Mereato, near Porta Santa 
|faria,on the north aide, are the remains of a Roman 

A library of 20,000 Tola, at the oonTent. 

*8. FrecHano, or Basilica Longobardormn, dorcto 
the ramparts, near Piazza Mereata, is the largest 
and most ancient church after the eathedxwl, and 
is cited as a complete example of the Lombavd 

amphitheatre of 54 arches. Water U supplied by fgnt - ^ " " - - 7th century out of the 

an aqueduct on 459 arches, two miles lone^ bnitt 
1823-32, by NottoUnL 

The *Duomo^ or Cathedral of S. Marthio, near 
nazza Grande, is a cross, in the Italian-Gothic 

stones of the neighbouring amphitheatre which tiie 
Lombards had razed ; but to make room fat tiie 
walls, it was so altered in the 12th century, that the 
apse stood where the front now stands. This ftoat 

style, with thre^ aisles, chtjular and pohited arches I SSI XS'?t ' T^teri^r'^rSrste ot^'JSSS: 
hi the nare, and pafaited whidows ; and was founded ^ JJ^e Sddte one ^Ik Jd bv ro^d «(^mS& 

w J?«^ ™* 5? Giudetto (1204), has three gal- The baptismal font U carved by Niccolb CWtaM, 

S2S^iJ^r?>,?«^^S!' S^ J "^^^ T^ ^^^ ti»e nephew of Matthew ; the old one, by a oerta^ 
subjects from the life of St Martin, meludbig figures Mafistcr Robert 

of griffins, serpents, lions, eagles, eta, and 8t 

Regulus in eontroyersy with the Arians; above 
which is Niccolb da Pisa's Descent from the Cross; 
and below it, Giovanni da Pisa's Adoration of the 
Magi, much defteed. 

It cont^ns several works of a Lucca senlptor of 
the 15th ooitnry, Matteo Civitali; as the marble 
pulpit, 1498; a monument of Noceto, 1472, secretary 
to KicholasV.; tomb of Count Bertlni; angels in 
the Sacrament Chapel ; statues of St Sebastian and 
St John the Baptist m the chapel of St Regulus, a 

Magistcr Robert 

Among the paintings are^Francia's CorenttioB 
of the Virgin ; and Aspertino's frescoes relating te 
the finding of the Volto Santo and to the MinudeBoT 
St Frediano, In the Augustine ChapeL In the 
Sacrament Chapel, carvings by Delia Querela, Iti& 

8. Maria Foris-PorUxm^ near Porta Santa Orooe^ 
in the east wall, built in the 13th century, and en- 
larged 1516. Here are Querchio's Madonna, with 
St Francis and Alexander IL; and a Santa Lada. 

*S. Michele, near Piazza Grande, built 764^ witii 

small domed octagon of marble and porphyry, rest- 5? ornamented front added 1188, in the style of Flsa 
tog on eight pillars. Another St. Sebastian, is to the Cathedral, with several stories of small arches and 
Volto Santa Chapel, an octagon, so called because Pp^ •'?^? ^F?® *"^! ** *^® *<*P *"•■ bronze 
of a miracidous crucifix found in 782, which is com- ~*~ 
memorated to C. Rosselli's f^co on the door. 

Among the patottogs are— Passignano's Nativity, 
and his Cmcifixion; F. Zuochero's Adoration of the 
Magi; Ttotoretto's Last Supper; Ghirlandajo's 

wings, which shake to the wtod. It contains a 
Madonna Enthroned, by F. LippL 

B. Pietro Somaldi, near Porta S. I^etM, in fhe 
south walL The fron» with a bas-relief of Bt Peter 
and the Keys, was built 1205. Palma Veoofaio's 

Madonna and Saints; Giovanni da Bologna's Resur- ; ^t Anthony the Abbot, with St Francis, etc 
rection, and D. de Volterra's Santa Petronilla, In the 
Liberty Chapel, which oommemorates the delivery of 
Lucca firom the Pisans, by Charles IV., to 1369 ; 
Fra Bartolommeo's Madonna in the sanctuary. 

The archbishop is allowed to dress to purple like 
a cardtoal, and all its canons are mitred. 

The Crooe dei Pisani, a richly ornamented piece 
€f goldsmith's work of the 14th century, is shown 
upon application. 

3. Carmine, near the Piazza Mereata, belongs to 
the Carmelites, and has a Madonna by Ferugina 

S. Cristo/orOt with a half-Lombard, half-Gothic 
front, is the burial place of M. Civitali, the sculptor. 

SS. Crocifisso dA' Bianchi, An Assumption, by 

S. FrancescOf near Porta Santa Maria, built 1442. 
Here Is buried Castrucdo Castracani, who delivered 
liucca from the Pisans, aud governed it till his death, 
1828. There is an toscription on the wall. 

& Giovanni, near the Duomo, built to the 12th 
centnxy, and Jotoed through the north transept to 
the city Baptistry, a square vaulted pfle. In the 
nave is a head of St John the Baptist, to a charger. 

BemU Maria in Corte Or/ondifM, is attached to 
&» €>Miwat of Chieroi Pregoleri deOa Madre di 
J^ ibamdBd In tbe 17th eentary, by Giovanni 
• aaOvQtLmoctti bnitt 1167, andnbnat 


*8. Romano, behind the Ducal Palace; an 
ehurch, rebuilt 17th century, by Bnonamici. It i 
tatos two good pictures by 1^'ra Bartolommeo— 4faa 
Madonna della Misericordia praytog for Lucca; sod 
God the Father, with St Mary Magdalene axkd St 
Catherine of Siena. 

8, 8alvaton has above the doors two bas-ToIieli of 
the 12th century, by Bidumo, an old master. 

8. Trittita contains M. Givitali's Madonnaon tha 

The palaces include : — 

Palazzo Ducale, a large edifice, begun 1578 bf 
Ammanati, and finished by Giubara, 1729. It has a 
good marble staircase and a public Ubrary of 40,OOB 
volumes. Among the MSS. are Gospels of ti&e VMb. 
century, and Latin poems thy Tasso. The stabB 
of Mana Louisa by Bartoleni faces the palace. 

Palazzo Pretorh, now the Post Office, fhdng-fl. 
IQchele, is a large solid buildtog of the.I5th eentary, 
formerly used as law courts. 

PaJazzo Borghi, bidlt 1413, by P. Gcdnlgi, is mm 
the Deposito di MendiciH^ founded 1418. 

PdUuzo Ouidizione, where tiie archives are Irapt^ 

There are several hospitals for the poor and belp- 
lees, fbr fimiMltogs (eqposti), and orphans ; wilii a 
college and Lyceum, the latter baying a liixngrflC 



TTiealre del GigUn, InSik 1817, faces the Piazza 
Grande. Another, caUed Ttatro JHunw, ^ near 
Porta S. Donato, iu the west waU. 


Are 15 miles from the city, np the Serehio (by 
coaob, twice • day, fire panls), ttiroagh a riclily- 
fertila oomitry. 

The road pa w w o Marlia, three miles, an ex-dncal 
e oiui lr y seat, with a eonvoit and gardens, copied 
from tliose at Marti near Paris; Ponte della Madda- 
Wna, or del Dlavolo, 13 miles ; then the Lima to 

Foarns ▲ BnKSAauo, 15 miles, in the midst of the 
warm snlphnr springs, and the Tillages which have 
gxownnparomid them. Theveal, trout, olives and oil 
•xeidlexcdleBt Underthe names of Bagni alia Villa, 
Bagni Cal^ Doooebassi, Bemabo, etc., the *Baths 
oeeapy a pleasant and healthy part of the valley of the 
Seronio, and are much frequented ftom May to Octo- 
ber. The temperature ranges ftom 93" to 130", they 
are clear and oontaln sulphates of lime and magnesia, 
with iron; and are useftal in skin diseases, teTors, 
nervous complaints, and diseases of the glands. 

There is a good snpi^ of hotels, lodging-houses, 
shops, reading rooms, ponies, donkeys, etc., with an 
English diuxdhi, a bo<>k dub, and a hospital for the 
poor, fimnded by Count DemidofC The casino is a 
fine hnOding, 140 feet long. 

Exoursiona to tiie pnt^ village of Lugllano and 
its ash trees^ and San Maroello, up the Lima; to 
Frato Florlto, and Montagna di Celle ; to the Bargello 
Tower; and to the more distant hdgfat of Tre Potenze 
and Rondini^, 8,200 feet, in the Apennines, com- 
mamling extenalve pra^ects of land and sea, even 
as fsr as Corsiaa.] 

Following the rail, the next place to Lucca is 

Feeeta. station, pqpiulatioQ 12,889, among mul- 
berry grounds and paper woric,. Sedi praises its 

KOntecattlll Station, population 6,276, under a 
bill about AOO feet high. Hero are waters drunk iu 
eases of dyientiy and Uver complaints; temperature 
70*> to 80*. To ttiB right is Monsnmmano, the birth- 
place of €Htuti, the fiunoos patriotio poet, who died 
234B, Hewasthefitiendof Azeglio, Rido^, eta At 

HvmsWBXLB BtBXtaa, population 5,467, where an 
4>ld fort guards apass in the hilki, a tunnel tlnrong^ 
Vonde Albsno. Cross the Ombrone to 

Tl8t0]a Station, where the Bologna ndlway Joins 
(See Boots 81). It is an Italian Birmmgham, styled 
"La Fetrlgna,** from the arms and other iron goods 
made here, among which are pisMSy first faivented 
bere by Oamfflo Vitelll, about 1520. Machinery, 
nails, plBB, oDttery, pistola, ploughs, organs, eta, 
still figure among lis prodnotloaa; aa well as good 
mutton and meloBS. 

iTotelR.— La Fssta; dl IkmdnL 

Population, 11,887. 

It is tiie andent ffMsrte, at flia Ibol of the Apen- 
nines, of a squaore diam, wtlh baatioiis and gates at 
each conaer, anfl goed wM te s traati i It to the seat of 
a dieoese^ «n0 or whose pnOalMi ww Selptoae dl 
Sioci, a refbrmlngMshep of Hm last asntary; and 
In medi«f«l htoloiy tt li MMhnM llN^tlM iBfeatkNi 

of the Bianehi and Nerl, or black and white Guelphs. 
These originated in a quarrel, in 1296, between the 
Canceiliari and Pandatechi families, irtiose old 
palaoes are here. In 1806 its first walls were razed 
by the Florentines, which proved a fatal blow to its 

In the Plazaa del Duomo at the centra of the town 
near the cathedral, is tlie 

Paiazeo Pretorio^ now the law court, an Italian- 
Gothic buildings of the 14th century, the seat of the 
Podesta in the time of the repnblia Facing this is 

Pdlaao del Commtmet ot degti Anziani, built 1295 
1385. Over the middle window is a black marine 
bust of Tedid, who betrayed Fistoja to his £ather-in- 
law Oastmccio Castracani, of Pisa, in 132& In the 
advocates' room is a gigantic siu^ch of a Captain 
Orandenio, 15 feet high. 

The DuomOt or Cathedral of S. Jacopo, covered 
with black and white marble, was founded by the 
Countess Matilda, and restored by NiocoUt da Pisa, 
in the 13th century; but the interior has been 
modernised. The campanile fronting Torre del 
Podesta, is by Giovanni da Pisa. Above the prin- 
cipal doorway is a terra cotta basHrelief, by A. della 
Bobbia, which was gilded in 1503. It contains a 
monument of the jurist and poet Cino, the friend of 
Dante and Petrarch, sitting in his chafr, surrounded 
by bis pupOs, with a figure of Selveggia, his mistress, 
to whom his poems were addressed. Verrocchio's 
Monument of Cardinal Forteguerri, a patron and 
founder of the Sapienza, 1473, and whose old family 
palace remains here. C. Allori's Resurrection. 

In S. Jacopo Chapel is a niched figure of St James 
with apostles, angels, eta, and ornaments in silver, 
enamel, eta, being a joint contribution of sculptors 
and artists of the 14th century, resident at Pistoja: 

Facing the'catiiedral is the Baptistry, or S. Gio- 
vanni Rotondo, a marble octagon, by Andrea da 
Pisa, 1357. 

The Bishop*s Palace, a handsome building, erected 
in 1787, by its distinguished occupant. Bishop di 
RiccL Here, in 1786 he held a synod of his clergy, 
with the sanction of the Grand Duke. He spoke 
against indulgences, and in favour of a liturgy in the 
common tongue, and of the independence of the 
bishops, besides other reforms, the advocacy of 
wliich brought upon him a decree of suspension 
from Pins VI. He was bom at Florence in 1741, his 
mother being a member of the Ricasoli £unily. The 
pec^le rose agahut him on suspicion that be in- 
tended to level an altar contaixdng a Cintola or 
girdle of the Madonna. Opposite the palace is the 
Theological College, with a beautiful corridor and 

The churches of 8. Barfokmmeo and & Paolo, are 
botti of the 12ih century. 

J3. Domenieo, built 1250. It contains Fra Barto- 
lommeo's Madonna; Empdi's Mfrade of St. Carlo 
Borromeo, with portraits of the Rospi^oso ftmily ; 
G. Allori's St Dominie receiving the Rosanr, with 
the pahiter's portrait ; R. Ghhrlandajo's St SebastiaD. 

S. Giovanni ForeivHa^ so called from having been 
outside the dttf walls, iHiich now endoee it Built 
hi the 18th and ISOl csBSaitri. *^Xk!^ \ssB^«>a^ >a% 



Santa Uaria deXP UntUta, an oetagon church, fat 
the Corinthian style, and one of the beat in Plftoja; 
begran 1009 by Vitonf, and finiihed by Vaaaii, who 
bnilt the cnpola. At one of the altaxa is the gold 
laurel crown of Gorilla OUmpIca, a poetesi, which 
she oonMcrated to the "^rgln. 

.9. Salvaton, rebuilt 1270. Here CatlUna is aald 
to have been buried, after bis flight from Rome, upon 
Qcero*8 eiq;>OBare of hia conspiracy, and his defeat ty 
the Consols, in this neighbourhood. The street to 
cilled Tomba di Catilina. 

S. Sphrito, bunt by Ramignanl, with a high altar, 
by Bembii, supported by four columns of verde- 
antlco, from the VQIa Papa Oiullo at Rome. 

The Otpeddle Orande del Ceppo, founded in 1318, 
and since restored, has some bas-reliefs, by the DeDa 
Robbias, and others. Among the natives of Pistoja 
are Pope Clement IX., Bracdoliui, Ventura the 
architect, and Cipriani the painter. From Pistoja, 
you come to 

San Plero Stalon, and 

FratO SUtion, on the Bisenzino, under the 
Apennines. Population, 86,810. An old walled town, 
with a cathedral of the 12th and 15th centuriea, 
containhig the Virgin's Girdle, and paintings, by F. 
Lippi, A Gaddi, etc.; a Gothic campanile; and a 
Palazzo del Popolo, now the prison. Within a short 
distance is the lionteferrato range, and its serponUne 

SestO Station (population, 10,754) is near the 
Docda porcelain Cutoiy, and Monte MoroUo (2,700 
feet high). 

Flobikck. See Route 26. 

ROUTE 25. 


This is the western coast lino, completed as for as 
Follonica, and following the Via Anrelia, in ancient 
Etruria. It is the least interesting route of any 
towu^ Rome, and is therefore seldom taken, 
especially as it passes through the Maremma dis- 
tricts, where fever previdls from June to October. 
There is a p<»tal communication of 95 mUes along the 
road between Follonica and Civita Vecohia. (See 
Bradshaw's Continental OuidO' 

The stations are— 


LeghoniM, 10 

CoUe Salvetti 20 

Accialo 23f 

Ordano 28 

Acqnabona M\ 

Cedna AH 

[Branch to SalinelS}] 

Bambolo 52f 

S. Vincenzo ^....67 

Comia 64 

Follonica 74| 

Six trains daily to Leghorn, in about half an hour. 
, 22>0 Mae faUown the otld rwul paning nothing of 

Itfwmo in ItaUan, £Aw«nw In Fmeh. 

PopnlaUou, 91,4t9L 

ffoMf.— L'AguUa Nan, Vitlioria, and Waahingtoa 
Hotel; (^uerda Raale^ C<»oe di Malta, Crooe d'Oro, 
Isole Britamdcha. 

Onmibtuet attend the anlval of the trafaia at the 
railway station; farea SOcenta., carriigefare, 1 fr. 
SOcanta. ; dttadine, 1 fr. the conrsa, to the mola, 
Ifr. SOcents., perhoor, SfriL Boat hire dependa on 
the distance the veasel ia lying off in the bay, frooi 
2s. to 8a. and 6a. each penon. The boirtmen are 
rery exorbitant ; bargain beftxre hand if poaaible. 

'travellers will do well to provide tbemativea here 
with whatever specie they are likely to require. The 
foreign goods for the supi^ of all Tnaeany and the 
Papal States are inqMnted and paid for by Le^Min. 

Britiih Chapel, beside the old Bngliah ceiniB t My , 
Chaplain, Rev. H. Hunthigton, Service at 11 o*doi» 
and in the afternoon. 

Scotch Pretbvttrian Chureh, bealdet the old Eng- 
lish cemetery. Minister, Rev. Dr. Stewart, senrloe at 
11 o'clock, and 6 p.m. 

Englieh OSdmuJL— W. M'Bean, Eaq. 

American Consul.— J. A. Binda, Esq., TiaGoUoBl 

EngUah and American Banktra.'-MMvn. Vaqnay, 
Pakenham, and Smyth, Officea, 7 and 8, VU Bonra; 
correspondents of the Union and Oriental Biuka, and 
of the principal Bankers of London ; alao iMT Measi. 
George Peabody and Co., and other Amerkaa 
Bankers in London ; and Messrs. Duncan, Shennan 
and Co., of New York, etc. 

Conioe\tanKxt Railroad to Pisa, Fontedera and 

Florence. Steamers ahnoat didly, duriM; the aeaaon, 
to Civita Veochia, Naples and Sicily, Genoa, Niee. 
and Marseilles. 

Leghorn stands on a plain on or near the rite of 
Portfu HercuHs or Zt&urAi, and was founded by the 
Florentines (to whom it was ceded by Gkmoa in 14SIU 
upon the decay of Porto Pisanb. Befaigoomparatively 
modem, it Is regularly built, with wide-paved atreels. 
The west part near the harbour, Mlled Nnova 
Venezia, is traversed'by canals, leaiding ap to tbe 
merchants* warehouses, and the old' magaaine, ete. 
Atprincipal street, the Via Ferdinanda, runa fh>m the 
harbour to the Pisa Grate, across the Piasaa d* Armi, 
at the middle of the town, in ^R^ch standa tha 
Duomo, Palazzo del Govemo, eta It ia about two 
miles round, exclusive of Borgo Cappncini and other 
suburbs. It is lit with gas, and supplied with water 
by an aqueduct from Cmognole, made 1792. 

Le^om ia a porto franco, or free port, oo called; 
where goods may be landed and exported without 
pajring duty ; it is a great nest of smuggling; and as 
might he expected the shops are numeroua and well 
supplied. The EngUsh are liked and their language 
is generally spoken by the nativea, who aa a djim are 
industrious, peaceable, and ttierant Besidea many 
English; French, American and GredE raaideBti, 
here are found the descendants of Jews and Maon 
expelled from Spain, and ot reftigeea and traders 
from other nations, Invited to settle here by tht 
liberal policy of Cosmo L, Ferdinand L, and their 
aiiccQaiotB, who created it a free port and ateadily 

•-' .' 


Billed by H»iKil( 

tal mIox OaX period It tiu i«0(iT«red ud gmtly I [[t It 90 kE 

. TTw ■Utloiu «*— 
■ntecUid by a mole hiU • mile long to Ihe Ught- "•" ^, „ ' 
fx luger ciaft, HbJoh otfasnrlie baw lo He In the , pontfl Olnorl, — mlln ; 

.jT««. Th.«»™»l»«leiiiivBlu«.| ^ ^.^^ 

hrtniu' ta Oiovuuil den' Opera'a luge itatiie 

mllel long; two tnlnl dallf . 

rly £lHI,00a. Abont 

The PlAi» del Dne 

ri ndp] La n called f n 


e> oT Ferdinand I. and Leopgld II., whicb stand 

Tho old TofrtKoiaa, orredlow 
br a neatbeicock, la tbe ODl; ;lece 

TOLTBEKA, onlbealUaf nharm. 
B or ih« nmt uidHit and IntenaUne dtlc* «r 
m about 1,«I0 (tat high, eompotad o( 
^'-"-"MaDdHit ••"'-*■— 


Cathedral, bnllt iy Vaairi, with m. front deigned by 
Ugo JoDM, wlio tnnlled in Italy In the early part 
ilEli<aner, and lu^orted the ItaUan nrle oT Pel- 
kdlo Into »-B««"i< It bai palnUngi 1^ Ugoiil. voir 
Og^andEmpiflE. TherearemaralMbeTctanTcbei ' - 
~«a Santa Maria Tlidna, S. DonMnlca, S. OMtuuiI. uiwer-iooi 

... ... -. 1 irilh marblen an EngUih obap»] „Ucb Ke 

f -um aurniaj i ■ DMcb dmrcb and oemetary. laid - 
J ^>ut with flowera; a hBudeome aynagogoBt ricbly , 

Tbeatre and Open Houee. | 

The Engiliti cemetsiy, on Ibe ramparti, contalnt 
Ifa^gTwaafSmoUett, wttb an epltM> by hie ttfmd 
Dr. AimBiwig, tba post, and of Fianda Hemer, 
vUb a liksnaii by Cbantrey on Me niaiUe tomb 
Bnullett wivte hll "Hninptarey Clinker." here. 
Leghorn li fraqaantid tar bathing In nunmeri and ' 
alao tor iti mfauial waten at Ponolantl and Monle- 
Bero, ODialde tbe vaDa flie Uontenero taUlB, near 
theaptbigii aneoreiediirlthTlllaaaf tbamercliBnB, 
who mide hers. Tb« command Bns tIswi of the 
asa and the lalandi of dergena, etc AtlbemoiuB^ 
tery on the emmidt la a mlraonlona portrait of th^ 

lonttixunturtca eld. VIcMrEmnii 

maa waa one limg trinmph. 
ere la ■ great trade carried on In dUi, oU. straw 
Iron tQ'oill Jai)a), alibaner, wine, aplrlts. 
■achoilH, ooral, etc., belldee general conimodltiee. 
ula,— By rail to Plea. Lucca. Enroll, Elena. 

Prom lighom the railway benda to the north, ai 
then luniB Bouh to 

CoUeBUTSttlSlaUoD(popiilalhm, 7,448); fe 

ACdaloloBIatkm. et(L 

AaqnabOIUl SUthn la near the IQtbt Tins. 

Caelna Station, on the lUrar CwJna. Hero a.. , ^ - 

ii;j.;jij^i™ijftw-(njDfiBnj Elba, anda branch rail- lbu»l[u:ssc<knV;il'j\iV«i«. 

nHquitlce; aagL ^ 

' latara, vuaa, etc. In tern cotta. bat eiiiedalljr 
or aaroophagi, to Ihs nmnber of MO, In which 

me dead body after burning. Thfse urns are of tnta 
and alahafiler — rarely of terra eotto, and have been 
found In the lapulchrca, or Ipt>ogt>< ™i In the rocfc 
on wUch tbe dly atanda. The entrance to each 
molt Ii down Bteps, to a doorway closed by a large 
none, aol having an uprigbt elone or dppna placed 
Qefore It, bearing an huBlpilon. Tfao nma wen 
nui|^ on atepa rbbig one eboie aoother along the 
sldu of the vault, or piled up [n the middle round a 
oolucaa. Aa muiy aa 40 to Ail uma have lieen found 
hi one cave. The una have a lid, which lomethse* 
rlHi like the roof or abonee; they are carved with 
baa-reUeb of mythological aubiecu, occationally 


NLccDib da Plu 12 

'nrglnandChlM^ VoltemDD'i Virgin, lodhuat 
Joseph I imd ft. QoiiuUo'i tiHua <tf tlM Vlrgla. 
Jn SL Oolaviao'l Cluwel liSUtifnuo'l r--'— -' "-- 
nini (Itii). 

Tbe Biq>IUt[7 of K Qloruml !• u acUemi. bollt 
ISSIi, on tlia ilta oT > Bomui (emwte. Ttu (onU on 
Iij BuiHvlaa (UOl). 

9, Uki'i ConTentiul Chnreh, fomided itixi >«' 
HuKi, ' '^^^ — ' — — '-' — '''^ .™»^ -^ 
bj Mil 

CiM UdOuiilU wu tlH Uithplue or Dudde da ' 
Vtdum, k itutta of tUi town, tnd t jitatiit, who ! 

AboDt 7 mUa irut of ToUem 
Cmiiil ud La Can 

-^ , .....rt oli*«nlM4u»ltAM> 

Ftnt^t, tho C H jittal, guuded br ktU FakuoB iJid 
Blella. irUch Na{ial«OD ■iiiiniiilliliiiiiiiri j ^i iiiijliiii 
Ld^, He alK mule a nud across tba lilaiid l»ivtn 
langoiie (pof nlulco, I^t), *Uell biiB Tg 

Lajaii, or bona lukea at Henta Cartxdi and Lar- 
denlk^ iriiSoh ta^«a Damo bom lie fbondo't an 
•ntaipibiiiB FRnclnniii, tbe lata Coiint Laidetel, 
irlM eatabUalwd worts ben in IBIB. Tba bot v^wnt 
hiairwUobUnMfnnn the nil li tuned towxmiR 
In tbemaDafaciDraoTboractea^d, wblchlaaxponed 
to EngUnd Ibr glais-makbie, eto. Aboot 3IM men 
an employed on ibe worke.] 
Leaiiiig Cedna Htatlon, on tjie m^ Una, Uie nil 

BunbOlO Stallon 

o the bonx 
a rood putt off 

^t^>liuia. ] 

. FutberoD 


of apanlanU, 




m Porto FwT^ III i3hlef town, ttit 

Um, abmrt IS ndlee long, asd 3 
Tend vraSk lu^ tba btat of whl 
'einio, wbkfa MainleiiD foama 
'llnlSliTfnMttlu ~ ' 

a Folloidea to GitaMa, 

a I CiTlta Veccbli, 11 miba. TiUng tta* (OM^ 
naiH^plaa ia 
LiFonLMi.(U>mIlea). PMa tha awlaat ^MA 

GsoaUTO (1» mildO, on tba Ombioin, aaA Uw 
Dad 10 Siena (M mllea br OMdO- H«nandllla*i 
»ena wiU join the Inlanded ooaat Una. OnMOo 
(popolulon, 3JIB3), tba u^dcal (S tba Hanmaw, If 
8 mllu fnnn the na. Tha alta of .fiiOiena, <■■ ot 
the 12 Elnucan oUlas s> IbaVla (aaodia, 1> naat 

138 mBeA, a fmall IbrtUed town 

, ^WT), In tb* midffle «t ■ ^t U^ 

Uonta Aroentan, a hlDj panlaanla, the aiiiiaiil 
^nwrioiSiii, whloh wpaiaui Uftonitta mk 
iBbtM pohih Tn Cnd. or Tbn* Ommih^ k 
Kutb tide. Aboat B sdlei wot of it la tbe lAnd 
of OlgUo QBiialathm, l^W), tbe /^ObMi at «b 
" — ■" BiUenouthof lllaQiamt^nMA 

Le»tiigOTbel<I[o,theTDadpuKetIietite of Oaaa 

(.Peur. Ttnbnl^Kaaliwitiuli 

sahh-booe to ruLT. 

ipaco about IM mllu loDg. U btaid. 


Slnnrwi dty. 

From HoDtalUii Iho 

OinnrBro{lIndlei), dcseto Itonjuftrtf, tbswM i 

flie proud TiTqalnB,orT»h!cbther^' ——a — 

td lbs Ua aaWT. Abort S,«0« 
'pedod In this Dflt^bonTliDod^ tbec. . 
niUipcnedllinnqiliinnEBiiipe. Hence, 111 mllwi, 


CMflTpprt of 1 

to Ihs taim, duiga 1) ptmL Boat bkei^ em- 
each, wltti ba^E*?^ J"J^ *^ ^i ppula u poUD* 
idiaca«p All tluit«UQfi»eatfiTULflhubt>iir. 
LB^sgi lOr Bone ehDald bo plomU to Bare le- 

EagUih QnuBl, J. T. Lows, Esq. 

COKb, to 'VHerbo, H ndlei. Bf slcamer, to KapUts 
13 boon( liflgbom, U lunm; G«noa, 21 himiv. 

CMUTawtal&taiKi tlH^Btf OaAmatli&a. 
Uh Tla AiuJeBi, vUcb tuning betn nibiail by tb« 
SBruBni, wu naCcnd imdar tU pnaent nuns, 
atsnl^ftng Old Town. IiiIi>iboai,tbauuleatPi»aa 
Tnjaid, liiiiot«dInTi^ui,iruG " ' 
brClanMitXn. An moad acbM 
tbs whDla P 4*1 nary 1* alatlwed 

The French amjvt (Kxi]pi>(Irat,lindal hen bi IMS, 

tral Chorcll, an old caKle neu Ot pollcs oSee, 
Hosenm ot EOucui and oUhsr aatfqnlileA, b foi 
dcilgnfld by H. Angdo, aid ■ larRs canrlct prieoi^ 
Ths Romin StaCea. dnca thamneuaonofCmluii, 
UielIuAe«,uid BzIlBltn■,t•l^ ■■ ' 

Patchee of com or long gnu, and lugB IimM e( 
nasle tand, imrtiroym vltli popi^ anil tUaUi^ 
with occaalena] pools of water nrnplng hi long con 
duila, far Ibe large heida ot oiea and buflilMI. 
But, u Pitn; aald of old, the VxHfmiia at Tail 
fauna, without sufficient capital or latjonr elfendod 
npoD tliem, hare been rdnODS to lUJy ; and tha 
malaria comes and tatei poasesslon of what ll 
abandoned by man; and histead of bdnc aa IE Ddgbt 
be, a fair jc^den, thia tract of conntirta almgeta 
deaolate irildenHaa. "— Cr. WorlKOIra. 

m. Dn set Md Ibi 

Bl9 FtnmB station, near an old BmHit MBga 

fianta SeverA Btatlon, near an old caitl^ ua 
lie alle of Pvrsi, a lawn pillaged h; QkiDJltlu Iba 
tyianl. The Susso H"ia are on the lefL 
Failraxtl SlatlOD. To the lefl la Cervetil, imdN 
Mil, the tim of AgOla 01 Can, an Etnucin dtn 

uit down Id Ad Tarm, now tan Flarla, on tl» 

Pais Stallon, a ;flahIog TUlage, a 

Kaoeaxeu station, on Ih* Are, arAiial*,:BMt 
.leat of the BoqilgUod bnill;. 
FmlaBalira Station, on ■ bniioli of the TBwt, 

>e VlaC 

PortaaTi^aiil. TheUnehcnnmBnurlhe11b«fU 
Btatlon. After thlB, the new chiinA 
1 the Alban mnn amea, and the Una 

Porta Port««, near iha lomh at C«la» 

CesUoaana tht Eo*i*i,C*oBja)Sti\ -^t^iEfc woa- 

KasliUM Btatlo 
of StPral and the J 



EOUTE 26. 


FLOBBROB, the capital of Italy. 

TlM ancient FloraUia, called Firenu hj the 
Italiana, and styled the ''Flower of all dties, and 
the city of all flowers." The flower which figorea 
in the city arms is a giglio or lily; also seen im- 

Eressed on the goid Jhrin or JktrinOf which was coined 
ere. Population, 112,28ti. 

JJoteZfc— Nncci Hotel et Pension de Milan, 13, Roe 
de la Corratani; good accommodatioa; moderata 
charges. Hotel de laVille, a new hotel, conducted on 
the German system, verycojpfortableinereryrespect 
Hotel de TEurope, on the Piazza Santa Trinitk, an 
old eatablished, excellent hotel, with moderate 

Seeond and Third Rate ffoUls.—UoUH da Nord ; 
Hotel de York ; Hotel de New York ; Hotel de la 
Pension Suisse ; di Porta Rossa, Scudo dl Francia, 
and della Luna. Hotel Mnrat, was the palace of 
Caroline Murat 

C%i^(£i.— Caff^ Doni, the most &shionable; Caff^ 

Good fish, veal, lamb, poultry, butter (stamped 
with the Medici palle or baUs), Casentine ham, called 
proteiatto^ mushrooms; delidons Pergolese grapes, 
tigs, peaches, strawberries; Aleatico and Verdea 
wine. Tuscan wines will not keep above 18 months. 
The chocolate of the monks at Santa Maria Novella 
is celebrated for its excellence. Florence was the first 
Italian city in which it was introduced, by a young 
traveller: Carletti, who died at Macao, 1698. 

P<M Offic€.-^K '.letter from Florence to London 
takes four days in transmission. 

DMm Service is performed twice each Sunday, by 
the Rev. F. H. Snow Pendleton, in the new English 
Church, in Vel liagUo, behind San Marco; 11 and 3. 

The Presbyterian Service is performed on Sundays, 
at 11 a.nL and 3 p.m., by Rev. John R. M'Dougall, 
M.A., late of Brighton, in Casa Schneider, No. 11, 
Lung* Amo, Guicciardini, next door to the Swiss 
Church. Vaudois Church, in Via alia Vlgna Nuova. 

Engliih Phytidans.— Dr. Wilson, of the College of 
Physiciims, London, formwly physician to a Loudon 
hospital, Via TomabuonL 

R. Fraser,M.D., Surgeon Accoucher, 13, Via del 
Fossi. *' For many years one of the medical attend- 
ants to the Royal infirmary of Inverness." 

English and American Bankers. — Maquay and 
Pakenham, 4182, Piazza Santa Trinitk, correspon- 
'lents of the Union and other Banks of London, of 
Messrs. G. Peabody and Co., and other American 
Bankers. Always give a liberal exchange. French 
and Co., Piazza Santa Trinitlu 

SttUiOMT^ Printseller, and Depdt for Guide Books, 
Maps, etc.-^Edward Goodban, No. 9, Via Toma- 
buonL Depdt for Bradshaw's Guides, etc. 

Conveyances. — Railroad to Leghorn and to Siena, 
on the road to Rome, ace Routes 24, 26, 26. To Pls- 
^oja, Route 23, Steamers ftom Leghorn to Genoa and 

ManeOka, Civita Vecchia, and VtigkB (aee Brad- 
Shaw's OonHnentai Guide), If the tonreUer ihould 
be deiiroas of going by road to Genoa, a return 
carriage is generally to be procured at about 120 fra. 

The railway station is in the town. Onmibasesto 
the hotels, I flranc ; S-borse carriages, t firaaca the 
first hour, and for any period after tiie first hour. 
Closed caniagea (street) to and from the (^era, per 
agreement, from 8| to four francs, and if not, ft francsL 

*CMef OVeeU ^ .YoMce.— Ponte Veochia Piazza 
Granduca, 8. Annnnglata, Carmine OhnrdD, Santa 
Groce, Duomo, Campanile^ Baptistry, 8. Lorenzo, 
8. Marco, Santa Maria Novella, Or* 8. Mldiele, S. 
Sptrito, Palazzo Veochio, Florence Galleiy (Venus 
de* Medici, etc.), Pitti Gallery, Academy, M.AngeIo'f 
House, Dante's House. 

Some of the Painters of the Tuscan or Fteentine 
school, including those of Pisa and Siena. 18th 
centuiy :— Margaritone d' Arezzo, Guldo, GMnnta da 
Pisa, Cimabue, Ducdo di Buonhisegna. 14th cen- 
tury :— Giotto, T. Gaddi, Giotthio, A. Gaddl, A. 
Oroagna, S. Aretino, 8. MemmL Iftth centofy;«"» 
Fra^. Angelico, P. Ucello, Masaocio, Fra FUq^po 
Lippi, B. Qozzoli, Polli^uolo, D. Ghhrlandaia GL 
Rosselli, S. Botticelli, L. da Vbid, Filippino lippi, 
L. di Credi, P. di Cosimo, Fra BartokMnmeo^ A. 
Verrocchio. 16th century :—Abberthielli,M.ABgclo, 

B. Peruzzi, A. del Sarto, J. Pacchiarotto, J. da 
Pontormo, A. Bronzino, SalviatL ITthcentoiy:-* 

C. Allori, and C. DolcL 

Scidptors.'^lBtk century:— Niccolb da Pisa. 14tii 
centuiy:— A. da Pisa, J. della Oueroia. ISthoentoiy: 
— L. Ghiberti, DonateUo, L. della Robbie, O. daPtaa, 
M. Michelozzi, D. da Settignano, Mino da Ftesok^ 
B. da Maiano, A. del Pollajuolo, A. Verroodifo, M. 
Angelo, a. Bandinelli, Montesole, Montelapo^ TrI- 
boli. 16tii century: — B. Cellini, Sansovino, 
nati, G. da Bologna, P. di Fraacavilla, P. Taoea. 

Architects.— IBth century :— A di Lapo. 14th < 
tury:— Giotto, A. Orcagna. 16th century:— P. da 
Pisa, Brunelleschi, M. Michelozzi, B. da Mi^jano^ 
Cronaca, L. Battista Alberti, A da Sangallo. 

Flobekce, nowthe capitalof Italy, in oonsequoioe 
of the transfer firom Turin, is also the head d a 
province of 2,241 square miles, and the seat of an 
archbishop, and was, till the events of ISM, the 
capital ef a Grand Duchy under the protectkm of 
Austria, now absorbed in the kingdom of Italy. 

Shice the departure of the Grand Duke from 
Florence, and especially shice the city was chosen to 
be the new Capital, it has become fiiller than ever; 
lodgings have risen ; new hotels have been opened, 
and the traffic has greatly bicreased. 

The Chambers and Government Offices are dis- 
tributed as follows.— The Senate, in the Medid 
Theatre and Office of Archives, in the east wii^of 
the UffizL The Chamber of Deputies, and the 
Foreign Office, in the Palazzo Vecchio. Interior, or 
Home Office, in the Riccardi Palace. War Office, in 
the ^cliiepiscopal Seminary. Department of fin- 
ance, in Pidazzo deUe Dogane, or Casino Medioeo» 
Public Works, in the Educandado of Santa Annnn^ 
ziata. Grace and Justice, in the Cepparello Palace. 
. Marine, in the Convent of S. Jacopo. Post Ofitoe^ 

Tt 8 





the plcru • 
scchio are 
T. Gaddi, 
'oaes, over 
Uffizi and 
■ ■ ■ ■, bnilt by 

ree elliptic 
Ponte €$lla 
i restored 
*. the wire 
> opposite 

S. Marco i 
3, etc., fed 
, 3 up to 24 

fro. (about 



«nt •which 
iere is a 
buUt 173!^ 
>nie early 
• Cemetery. 
»ad. Ma- 

3t 1324-7; 
ir, ou the 

Fort, or 

^0 road, 
near this, 
near the 

Bcine and 

I the For- 

■*' le central 

"Is, shops, 
echio and 
»d Cosmo 
r this, the 
the south 
•ry, with 
cchio and 

tatues of 

PtaitadlSMim Maria' Ifimilm, netr tftat church 
and the Plstoja Station. It haa tiR<\ <s^«3itseKSk^t»«^c&!% 

as to bave resisted tn« floods whMi li«?«iinden&liied \ pVAssi ou qqa ^<1^ '!ak»c^ ^"^ "nRM^ ^ ^>-> ^^^ss^w 

^ire suspension brkfins tbof* and brtow tlie elty. 
panU dlle Oragk, or Fonlo dl SiibMoiit«, the oldest 
and most sootbem tartdgte was bafU 18S7, so solidly 

EnUk*|4Me. Thonu»Ttedi]ol*ont)n«M 

Hcna A 5. Coreiiu. IMIflglbat nhaitk. 

Pimm MaHa Aiiilmia„ nu tlM BaMoFMti ■ 
imdtni Mun, tha uinM and molt ntnln l> 
FloiWHi^ BOW cited tin ftoK J«a A<pnWnmi. 

/■(MM * a JTons^ Dcu tlw Botulo dirdut wd 

Awn drU- Jinniioto, in the niHth-«it, n*u 
Ihe auturdacii Guitsin, 1i (urrDUDdnl toy locfle ni 

ohurcli li U» SpBdaJe degl' Innocantl. or PDundilng 
Hiataul, hy BruiielkBchl nod A. da 8, QnJlo, wllh 
(twu*^ MC. by L. and A. Dalln BsbMa. and sn 
~ ~ ~ ~ In the mMdJa. Q, da , 
It of FardiMnd L, aad| 


arrad with wnorial baaj^teii. Tha wjndowi e 

BolOfUBl eqaatrian al 
bnnwi IMuualna. AU 
Hwa AteiM On . . 

amrODiulad by old taooaaa, daoontad wttb freacoc 
ai« Dt wUik Dfipoilt* tka cinnti, nu Ib« Pali 
ofN. d>ll'AaMi>,pre>lrlarUafiheacad*niy, ISM 
Plaaa ddOrmo^ or Gndn Uarhet; aa Arcadp, 
lg«U,tv8.Tlnti,ltl«. Piaaa ii Smta TiitH. 
war tha TrlidU Bridge. It hu a mnLM dLU 
fttm tha Balhaof Canacalli 
OMlmo ■ 

It ia IM ItM dlanKlci Inilile, and JM feet high. 
Ftoai the pivemenl to Ihe top of the crow i« aao 
feet. There li a hole la the lop IhniiEh irhlrh rlis 
am, ahlnlng la lino with a mark on the paTvinenl 
of the nonh iranaqiv abowa the dtrerdgn of tht.' 
nxrldlaii, Srat tncad In 14« b; TofonclH. In 
the choir. BMahad IMS, an baa-r^O by Bandbielli 
and hta pnnila. Behind the Mib ahu la a l'ii'i:i. 

"the lift of Plus iV to **" "^ ftnihililied) wo* of M. Angela. 

delTBdd»-a porphyry (ji^/°tj, "^^ J^'J'J'J,J^'hJ!n°b'°M°f "'' 

Chcuihe*— 1. Tht' (Mhiirtil iif Baula 
XorCa diinm^ that la, of the flower, or Bad LOT, 

which flfttrea In tha dty ansa, and cortvapaBda Willi 
kananu. It ¥r» dtniirKd bv the npnblie Id h« ifae 
largeatandDooitanmjitaau bnlldlBt that could ba 
Invented, hi «rd<r that It might coRMpond with a 
"wy great heart," because originating In the nlnd 
ot moat i^ tlM cUbena unlteil tognher in ana wlU 

(dl rnrte eonlapondepti ad un '"" ""■"" *""" 

gnn^baahno, p«tEh> comvoxto 

Y^pa Bronelleat^ a native 
tba ehniih, and wae (he auttw- 
nUcti H. Angelo need to loo 
admiration, and tay It could lU 



faito the old aiciti^. Fortnltof AM(i,bydrcagnB!. 
near tha choir in the north alaTa. i^Accdtiiere by 
deeiM of the repnbHe, \Wi. Near this a butt of 
Amoldo dl Lapo, the archKaM. Set tis oS Ix .i 
ftVRQ of Sir John Hawkwood, or Johanne Arutiia. 
as hell called, an Baasiman and aoldi.rof rurluoi'. 
whs betrayed V]a, (0 the HorenUiics, 

by BaodloeUI, Botuhho. and other earl^ apnlp1or<. 
Tiie door of Ih* aaerlaly nni it la by L. drila nobbin. 
TIMM chapelt, with their picwiea and other n1li'% 

which I* 


at 91. Pi 

vldtemarble, and adomedinHtdeand oat ^th many 
Matoet. Lmgth, 500 fwt. by BIO feet through the 

Madannaa on the {ront i> the Madonna del Flore, by 

Aasamptloa. ll^igns for a iww fli^ade have bceo 
Dnpand. O.Gfiddl'Bmoukof theCoionatlonof the 
VliiElii ia over the middle door within the chuidi. 

Tin Mtrwr la of dark mottled atoue, with a 
AM JilHk«ndirJ>ttenHrlflisdatl0uedlnF. di San 

in EneeleK^i 

imbina. ' 

latibte ear (provMed by the 

! to tha M^ing "Qaaiido 

a bene U' EVirootlno." 

IT of the prliidpAl entrance 

detached bctfry, begun 
■noiuiBimiiy i. QnUi; h Hght and elegant 
U (eat tquai*. relieved by ectaronal projectl' 
the comer, and covered iika the ctiurcli. with 
of varlagalad mafbla*, osd adomad with M 
,nU<la,iMlUMnM. Ittitatnr Nsrieedi 

fc*wladM>a>,lWA«MBh,ud«uIo hare ctmbd 
BipirairtiWi waqMUraoMiIelt MfcMlitglw;; 
tba nltob, ol BlUt la^ectt, bdnR in lb« (nmt 
MHT. ltliiH«uMbyUfi)U|» ThdHrEnn. 
nlM m at mK Me. m by DvnanUo i fMu 
PrwbMi, . « tlH •mti ■[!]■, br Aidni cU nil ; 
tour Ubi^^ OB nlM north Mo, b; L. ddl» B«bUa ; 

AlMiBb HHhUnm UTa tbU wbaniu >lx btUa 
lODndvd M miiMdf. tbejr wi>iild biing tof^vher 
lM,a«) Diwd men. In Uw cdhfm dT >[« luiirg. 

•S^pHilrv, DO the b11£ of ■ temple of JSm. in 
wbkb all 111* children Df the city are cliTi9t«ued. [I iis 

tl Is mocdiganjlbuUrUaRaf the laui century, IMIei;! 

wu M Bnt the Cathedral, foonded in the etN 
■ie Lombards. T' ' 

wbkb GaWeo. U. Angulo, llidiinim, ai 

Bbea wbloh mala It faoUar, dtvt whlo 
VCD in Itaell an ImmortalltT. 

marble. wUh a low dome, dd I 

ETMile uiui™ ttoat 

Mofluoient of M. Aoftlo. with hi. portrait- Isklig 

the oUu iiiuctnre. and liiial 


T»m,«idoLherartlita. The I 

and Ajcntteeture. Vainrl'a OnmWitoi. UMHOt 

JWaaremvcrM^ith «fcf. 

ftbeHiBtorjot Bu 

of Lanii, inUior of the Hlitory m Palntlnt Tbn 

JiDu]BvtiEt.and other x^nptu 

«1 iubjeoUi one l.y 

Andnr&P:9a.l330| tbB ulb 

llaly and FoMry. His body Uei ai BnaHii. M^ 

miO^M). which M- Angclp 

aald ought to hsi 

numem of iljkri, by CanoYs, at Iha co« of the 

Ue (Btaof Piiadlte. Aiibs 

Count™ of Albany. Monunieiil of J(««ria«ii^ by 

^T fJ/,",'*'^ t^"" ^. 

the PiBtns to Fli" 

J, Spbmeiii, erected at the mat of Lord Oowptt, In 

tectiag Piu, 

were Mnplayed in the conquest of M^oroa. Close 
by thli, wns seen uotUlstety. a trophy brouebt aniiy 
In 13G2_by the Floreallnee. atler tbeir £iial titumpli 

Btn Uacblaialll' 
Bunt, ItU, tc 

le portal la Dluiatelkl'B I 

unua,'^nhMiy.lSlS." '(SuSintclB.) OtHo'i 

Behbid the high altar are A. Gaddl'e fneno, and 
it^nfd wlridffwH, 

iUcaaoit i:tu^t, bdon^ng to Baraa UcaaoU. 
Pahi«n» by SabatuUI. 

Pulci Ohnptt.—-A. Qaddl'a ftnaao-. 

St. aOMOrt CtaipiL— QiuUlDo'i licseeei!. JI«n» 
meut or B. da Bardl. 

«. LudntoMaptr.— DoniteHo'iCnicmx. Msnn- 

8. Ba£a 01 S. Vtti M Lcbnt, near tha 

meBttof IheBiuitl. 

Fluii Gnndua, nbnUI IGls, In thn ihEin of > 

R-TFlaK cr SaKMU CTaptl. — Conolens CiuId- 

rjiU-i Hoimwnt, bf Sicb>muL 

pwiHe ■« bulk h/ Amolfo. 11 content i merblB 
M>d0l»» foyer Ilw door), ■nH B, Buipil-e tomb, by 

Vimiri'* IKKtm of tin. Holy QhW. BuToUlnl'l 
DHinnisnl oT FosMiobnnl: Vuiri't Unbelief ol 

MliK di PitHlei tumb or J. Fendolfinl. bf Hajino: 
the AMnmpilnn. by Veiari; Fre Oppl'i Medonni 
iindAng*U,lnthe Biniico chipe). In Ibe corridor 

Bt Ttomu; Rtoi'. n.=aun,«ntof Sigiiotmli Fc«- 
■Inl's mDnaiMDt of GalU«, wlih hii bun. cirveilln 

ere loine early .frejcnm at the hlitory of Bl. Beoe- 
dlot, ull to b« by llouiclo and Bronzlno. 

7. -Camiw. or CamieLils, chnrdi and convtlrt. 

, ■ Da Settegnano'i 

. , il, Id Ibe ISin cenlnry Kyla 

ant of FUicD]!. the peel, anUior ol " Ilalii I oti. 

at the Penizil, on the ilte of a Roman 
Of other chnrcbea Ibo foHowlas 

3, ^AmAroff^. nurFonaallACrof 

Tbey oere commenced by Maiolino da Panlcale, 
conilDoed, HIS-IT, by hli pDpll, Mauado <f.e. dirty 
Tom. hit reil name being 'lommaBO Ouidi}. and 
Bnlahcd by Rllpino Lippt 

The tabjKti of the •FrtUMI, bcElrmtn; on the leTt 
wall of the chapeL are aa folLowa:— Masaaclo, EipoU 
BlonafAdiinandEn) Uppl,Sl.PiulTl>ltliig8tPeier 
Inprlioni HamclD, Chriit ami the Tribute Homy. 
The Ian of the Apoatlei li ■ portrait of the patnler. 
Oiipl, Rutorli^ayounff man tollfe, iTeninbyMaa- 
lacio; Llpiil,BLPelerpreachlnglKK)reSeroi Ma»- 
locio. Sick cured by tha AposEJe'e shadow (portrait 

C. Bo»alU'» Trmshillon of the Mlrjcaious Chalice. 
Tomb of A. VomKohio, 

ini Simon Miirui' (ni>rtralt In the riihl comer): 

VUael Serrl. Ibunded In the 131h eenlary, by a 

biWberhood cillea the Sorrl or aervana of llio 

In UO!; a Madonna, bya Greek BTtlet; Bircophaeu^ 

behEat Ihe coit of the Poeel famlEy, At Ihs circular 

of91.Andre.y Conlni; In the Cnnlnlcb.pcirGnir- 

HHondiuaHvoralrlchly-decoralcdcbapela. llcon- 
til» a *eda> ol twelya baaniifal Fratoa. chlf lly by 

landajo'a Hiriy Sui^per, and oUier ftoscoei, in Iho 

Del Bnto, which rank imens the ino.1 .]<ceUen( of 

8. CMoio, or the Cometery Church, ha> »me 

WurorkapRirwhich ho waa ilyled "Andrea aenia 
miori," or, fiioltleM Andrew, Thoy ware engraved 

t. S Alice, comer of Via Hcimana FraAngelico'a 

S-'Kif fS i.'ililiSJ.S'™ 

allar-pleoei nithi CliNtlanrt Peter Walbingon ths 

piece, by 8. Roea. 
10. 3<mla ftiicCA near Pnnte Vemhlo. an oncfent 

MlIadlMeMHSt. Jo«n>>>lean>on>ucl[. WItbIn 


Dldeal irork Id oIL^ 
I. S- Ltimardo''i 

dicatcdIoSL Philip 
ot the 1411) ceutury 

{9t. Jerome), bnlit IBIS, ha* B. 

Foui (beyo .id 1 he torUflcatlons).— 
Ihapei ii Dei Sutol Noli me tangcrs, 

■reniD, a brick 

. >*-M. b 




thred aisles, bat wanttng a futile, for which M. 
Angelo left designs. The following chapels are 
the most remarkable : — 

Cappetta degli Opera. — F. Lippi's Annnnciation 
and a pradella; near which are A. Bronzhio*$ (resco 
of the Martyrdom of S. Lorenzo, and two pnlpits, 
by Donatello, with reliefs of the Life of Christ, and 
his four saints, in stucco. At the high altar a Cru- 
cifix, by B. Cellini ; fronting this a slab, marked 
'* Pater Patriffi," to Cosimo or Cosmo de' Medici 

Old Sacristy. — ^Donatello's carved Evangelists and 
his tomb of Giovanni dc' Medici (1428), the father of 
Cosimo and founder of the church. A Verrocchio*s 
tomb of Pietro and Giovanni de' Medici (1472). 
K. del Garbos Birth of Christ. 

Neio Sacristy or Depositi Chapel^ constructed by 
M. Angelo, 1525-31. It contains his famous *Statues 
of GiuUano de' Medici, Duke de Nemours, brother of 
Leo X., and of Lorenzo, Due d' Urbino, the father 
of Catherine; the casts of which are in the medieval 
court of the Crystal Palace. With the former are 
the figures of Night and Day; and with the latter 
those of Morning and Evening. Also an unfinished 
Madonna, by M. Angelo, attended by two saints — 
8. Damlano (by Moutelupo), and S. Cosimo (by 
Montorsoli). Several niches are empty. 

*Mediei or Principi Chapel^ founded by Ferdinand L 
1604, is behind the choir, and is a splendid octagon 
mausoleum covered with rich marbles, jasper, agate, 
giallo antico, and other precious stones, in the 
Florentine style, as practised at the government 
mosaic factory; small minute pieces being laid 
together in imitation of paintings, coats of arms, 
flowers, and other ornaments, with the nicest effects 
of shade and colour. It forms *' the richest crust of 
ornament that ever was lavished on so large a sur- 
face." Here are G. da Bologna's stutue of Ferdinand 
I. the founder, and P. Tacca's Cosimo II. Ben- 
venuti's frescoes in the cupola are a late addition. 

The cloister of the convent leads to the Lorenzo 
Library, or 

Biblioteca Lavrenziana, founded by Clement VII. 
of the Medici iamily. Open daily. It was erected 
Dy M. Angelo and Viisari. 

Facing the church is Bandinelli's statue of Cosimo 
L's father, Giovanni, which used to stand in the 
Palazzo Vccchio. 

16. Santa Lucia Church. — ^D. Ghirland^o's Birth 
of Christ,at the high altar. 

17. Santa Lucia de'Magnoli. — Terra cotta, by L. 
della Robbia; D. Veneziano's Madonna and Saiiits. 

18. S. Marco church, in the Piazza di S. Marco, near 
the Cathedral, attached to a Dominican convent, 
now untenanted, of which Savonarola, the reformer, 
and Fra Angelico and Fra B rtolommeo, were bro- 
thers (frari). Be^iun 1486-7, by Michelozzo, and 
the front completed by Fra Pronti, 1777. Over it is 
Giotto's Crucifix, on a gold ground. In the choh*, 
an illuminated missal by Fra Benedetto (the bro- 
ther of Angelico), and a psalter, by Fra Eustacliio 
(lfi05). In the 

Salviate Chapel, by G. di Bologna, 1688, are SPven 

eict by G. di Bologna and FrancavUla; three 
Angels, by Portigiani ; pictures by Bronzino. 

Chapel Qf the. Sacrament, by Silvani (1678). Paint- 
ings by Passignano, S. di Tito, etc Near this a 
Virgin and SaUits, by Fra Bartolommea • 

Cappella Ricci. — ^Ancient mosaic of the Madonna 
and Saints, of the 18th century, brought from old 
St. Peter's at Rome. There are also monuments of 
Pico della Mirandola (a sort of Admirable Crichton), 
G. Benevieni and A. Poliziano, or Politian (1494). 

The cloisters, chapter-house, corridors, and eyen 
the cells of this convent are ornamented yfUhfrei- 
coes by Poccetti, Gherardinl, etc., but eepedally 
with the works of Fra Giovanni da Fiesole, or Fra 
Angelico as he is called, the earliest of the Ifith 
century artists of the Florentine school. They occu- 
pied hhn about nine years (1436-45), and he always 
began with prayer. The subjects ai-e generally illu8> 
trative of the sufierings and death of Christ, and the 
acts of S. Dominic and other saints. In the refectory 
is D. Ghirlandajo's Last Supper. From this convent, 
which is now used as a barrack, Savonarola and two 
others, were taken and hung in the Piazza Grandnca, 
23rd May, 1498. He is described as ** Apostolicus " 
in the inscription in his cell Bishop Bi^ was con^ 
fined here before his recantation. 

19. Santa Maria MaddaUna diPazzi, in Via Borg 
PintL Built by Brunelleschi and G. da SangaUo, 
who added the clock-tower, 1479. Over the front is 
Poccetti's fresco of SL M. Magdalene. It contains 
S. di Tito's Christ in the Garden ; Pontormo's Ma^ 
donna and Saints; Fra Angelico's Coronation of the 
Virgin ; and in the chapter house, Perugmo's Devo- 
tion of the Cross, to see which leave fi'om the Arch- 
bishop must be asked. 

20. Santa Maria Maggiortt built in the 13th 
century, on the site of a very early church. It has a 
St. John by A. Gaddi ; and is annexed to a convent. 

21 . * Santa Maria Novella, with its extensive Domi- 
nican Convent, was built in the Itallan-Grothic style, 
1256-1357, by certain brothers of the order; the 
front being completed in 1470. Over the great door 
is one of Giotto's Oucifixions. There is a tall 
campanile attached. The closter ai^oining, with its 
arched tombs, dates from 1300. ' 

This large and imposing church, now in course of 
restoration, was so much admired by M. Angelo^ 
that he used to call it his Sposa, or Bride. It u an 
Italinn-Grothic cross, 320 feet long, with three naves^ 
between pointed arches, which purposely diminish 
towards the high altar, to increase the perspective 
effect, Cl'>se to the door is Settignano's tomb <^ 
Santa Beata Villana. Its chapels are as follows : — 

Choir Chapel — This is covered by D. Ghb-landajo'B 
frescoes, finished 1490. On one wall are several 
pictures of the History of St John the Baptist; the 
first pf which contains portraits of Politian, of the 
Tomabuoni family, and of others of his friends and 
patrons ; and the second is a celebrated portrait of 
Ginevrade' Benci,a young andbeautifid Florentiro 
lady. On the opposite wall is the History of the 
Virgin, in seven pictures, with portraits in tiie first, 
of the'painter, of his father and brother, of three cf 
the Mediui^ and of atiothsc ^ateoa^ Tsswas^jbssssSv^ 

Statues oS & Antomiutf & ThomaB, 8. bomku.c^V'BU^mi^ 1^ ^ax%^ ^uilifict!^ ne(«^%iss«x "vs!^ 



■i ffljfil. fa Om tnnatpt— Ptomh of ilia 
iMd In tiii bntlMT B«niuih>){ am 
[ki, tlie Oemutkin tt Uh Tlnln, 
nil QaOaTT. H^ b«l work it hen, 
Im o[ ChrUt ind tlwTltslpm i 
llmna, w&li ua aamt on It, pilnled IMI. 

UtndadkOodnonbac lltB. 
JbrnSii Ckt(Ml.-ClinitKia's Hi 

H l«r^ plctnre on a gold iTouiid> t 

to ths rihnicb. MDnDimat of P. B 
ra^ aiteiii OiuhL—B. da 
tomh-ot tbe [giudgr: F. Uppl'i frc 
rwlriiic DnMADi; Sl PliUlp d 

OfrtiOrt Iludi] will. *»riy fri 
J Spofnoli, tnllt ISM), 

tlic Ulk or 8L T 

__ SoMia VanayuOEv.nurthf PluiAdJDaomo, 
nailt 14ia. u ttaB cbircb » m ainUuit hoaiittal uul 
iMdlonl nchoDl, fiiandtr! FalcaPnrUnuilhe 

Flight into Erypt Ind V«n rter GOM' AluI-|Mcc 
Remain? nf ^a Bulolooimeo'i LoM Judgment, Id 

?3, 8i' Uartiia, mi ormlory of the Boaniiamlnt, 

:ered by A, Oragim. 

uhel, nexr Plain 
(7, by T, Geddi, 

moBt Tuhly carved 

wUhIn ■ larger >r 

gto. Thm 
BaDgallo, ai 

Itant and Tiiimipbaiil. 
lAfl Aqoin*!, a grca- 
a profiuloii of flgiirea. 

diyvai'Bo«dllll'^|ci«iiuit V., imp^Pnas. 
TtMKK LunL Boccacolo, CbitabiA Mc; aad the 
Domiai CaM% « (UthAil biul and white DomhUcaii 
doff, ua eeM dtiTiiie awijr tba IwnUad woltM 
ftom the floek. GaiW'* fnieoee on the weit aide 
iBclida Bia*! KgurM of UChriaHan VIrUia and 

.__ii— CMl Law and JuunEu; Cboreh 

Law and (SrtMat T,i SpecolaUve TbeoliHy ana 
Patn Idobardi Pnctlal ThwlosT and & B(«lhiu : 
Faith and moDyaliii tba AteopagiM ; Hope ud 
Jolin of Danuacoa; Charity and St Anguitlne; 
AifUnutlo and Pvttiagoru! Oeometi? end EucUd i 
AjtroBoor and Floleniyi HuiIb and Tubal Cabi : 
ni.i^.i^ M Lafk, and AiisititJa; Bheloris u^l 

n the refectory' 

oTOieUb ofa Doodnhi, ei 


y (01 3l Elleliu), end f<, 
sidsi A. del V^mcehio'i S 
nioloiKi's St. John the Evai 

M. a. yiaoli. acKM 
Angolo hid away fnm 
Sacritice of Abfabtm 
lonitiOo'a Uodonna an 


aSi'd SuSBrine ;*b*Gb' 
StThomea, InlhoBserisIj 

Hoo>a.BndM.toredinlE97. It be. L. DeU^ Ko 
ble'i rellcfe on the door wayi D, GWrliindBio-a 
Jmomo; BoMQ8lU'e9LAugoillne,Btc. 

'^. & OneA^ now »calBri.ed. HenaCttKH 
jai <^^«1, whbihis pbMd In the Egypl 

SK. a BmViD. ne.r ihu Piiiia Otandoca. hai 
chapel tOoDiliul by Danus'a body,' an Annu 
dwion by Onaenai anoOai bv Bn, Anv^co. ai 

M br OtoUlM, > ni* irllst of tk* 

30. iSLMmH. liudnaHiH'TilKniula.)'}'!' dsllB 
RobbU, asd iSL nwr. by Gltubar (ty. 

SL &'i^(r4ti.JnIlia01ITbAma, nuTthiTrinia 
Brldn,«D An^oriiDe CliuTCh, be^nd im, by BninBl- 
tnbl. nd BbIAM 14S». ctoH u UK nudu ot me 
boTM briN. It la ■ hwHUoBw CartniMu odh, 
SM' Mat Is^. wUk 19 liUK)* ud capnU. Tha 

M»nlr, .. 

Uili, a. ObM^^^i ciirM 

Btllort (^aptl.— Okitui'sloaaiinna. 

MMK aurA—BMOeim-i Madonnii. 

AvwtaMi Cn^rl.— Punp^nl'i »mb of B 
coaiHiiM of tha ttmUj. BMUwUI'a ADimiHiiUton. 

The ocUgpDaL Saerittp Is by CroDua uid SaD" 
aoTlno. TbedfAai^Tsottiit 15tbjmd]9thcantiirlc^ 
by A. Fai^ £md Amui&natI, an adorned iriOi 

OraadBM. tt 
DoMl Hoianiincnt, upw of iha Clumber of Dapntle 
and FonlfD Office. Ii a fine nuuiln and tmae 
what glnniiy pda. ramarkable n 

bnnftliadtlnaatagatkn. Hu mIk* wbi 

mrdaaoJaitedandniBpiandlvT.Oaddl, Andm 
PItaM, and Vaari. It U In Ih* •»!« of a fHidal 
casUa, hBTlnc ob ila ftont blaaanadoMta uf anni, 
neld, whkb ma adopted ai tta liir an 
tkmao L mtdad In II for a fnayaMa ffn 

tha tittr. Ikara la ■ gcewmalenlM batwtaa Out ' 

^d, br H. Aanlo, wIm 
Elf mdaa and Casifc bi 

'tht wcrt af o. da 
Dggoccioiii Palace 

Mement Vli.. Cbaclea V.; H. Angalo'i Tkton' an 
Prlianer. noRniihcd, nod latended tor P»« JaliB^ 
aa.b; aDdKTaralaUeiadodfisunabf VTde'Roail 
. ... .. ... .. .andm ■ 

of tbodif anKbawanirltli 

Tliajr are aaU lo have rapnaenlad Fnace, EnglaRd, 

OermaiiT. Bobemla, Baiua, Plaa. VuoBa, Naplea, 
SlcUy, CamerInD, Halu, and the Kban ol Taniirir 1 

palnladln tnKo b]r Silvlatl. imd bai a door by B, 
do Uajanth Od the Kcond flnor. are many ponraUa 
of (nat norantinu, wlU) one af Ouchesi EUaiica 
Cippcllo ; an annouT? and a pjivata chapel, pahuad 
by &. Ghlrludiijo. 

•GiLLUT or FLoKiun:!, T-mu A mHA Me. 
ThbmarnlGccntaillHHUiaiBOiiandiUy, bnmRtDli 

UJ^. at Offlnn, a nuM i 
■idea d an oblonf conn, beti 
cUo and Itu Arao, abnt i 
broad; ariilnallj Hrrtng aa 
UO or MD (Uhomi long, ta lae nm rmm 
«a coniUiDDlwl by yawl. 1M(KT4, aa n 
lonla or raohd terraot, bnt alurwmdi fl 
with windowa and encloatd. TDtbla.aUHr 
u tli« Trltiang. Nlnbs nonv elA.. ■««» «& 

Mildlnn fbrmln^ S 
teat lom. aiHl_ Ut 

!»,^ «KsaJt'i'«^ ^ofc'Viii*"* 

Vistno L (by G, da pj^wdior A. Donli IJUifrMCO' 
Bolojnn) ; Loremn Ihe MnstiiifiMiil ! Orcn^i (liy Ci^; piimBglmo-* Holy Eninl.^ , _ 
DDpi«): HlmilbdAFlu (liy KfiII, Diieo[tliEtwH>j cin>nEiid>!iiii, Adontlan of ttuUiigl.'iiAR' 


KciuUe. Tm EInisan OOHaj OmM fnm IBW. Pr«!iele«. ». Arotiw. « flgsrt wl«l<I»» h^ 

Tlw coOcaicin -iru fmndBi byCMOlo L, uteMO- knife, fmrnd U Eoidb, Id Urn l«Ui tsBtniy, jml 

oe»dlB«Piii»«rfU»M«toItiinlly. sopposal u tH ■ Bojthlu) prraring lo fi«y Hnr- 

Ic (omalM* pttollngi ot ill the lultan md "yi* *■ / l/*aari. oi Th« Wratlm,-™ Jieul 

Foreign Khoolii tneSeat ind moilmi •dJptnre, of which hu beeen raMored 6. DialMa Fniut 

dtalgnEnuI ■ognrtiinomiiM.tBiu, pottery, Btb, Heiul and unu natond by M. Angdo. 

... __.L._., ._.,....¥.._>■.. hlUbriiy; moBtol xbs Filntlnin to Oili room are— L. Orracci- 

.__ .„ __.L. n.^, E[[5„r ,^ i,,!,,;^*! KCranod' ■ - -- - 

• E. Durer'i Adontloo of the Ma 

' Purtnlt of CardloiJ Agucd; 1 

' Cmldi IL Angelo'a — — ' ''- 

" ■ '^dlor A. Donli 

uPumagLauo-* Holy Family; A. lUdlegDa'i 

__, . „„.,jD«Uioii,Adoiitlonof UioMagUuidReramo. 

ffiono (by Duprt. Iha aculplor of Che Dead AbBl); tkoi A.delBarlo'e •MiOiDila, Bl John Ihe Erao- 
IloDiteUa (by Tordnl)i Albert!, da VlncI, U. nUtt,uilBt Frudli Concsglo'BHeadof 0t. John 
Angela^ DaaW. Pftnrch, Boccaccio. HacblaTelli, |]„ RutlM: B. Liiliil'e Hendiu ud tlw Beiittell 
Gidocludlui, Atnarli^ VupuFci. Galileo, P. Michell, Head; Tltiu'iportraltof Cud)DalB<aadslU; Cor- 
M«ic«nl. CoMlptiio, a. Aiiionlno, Acrord, firjido. reerio'i Holy Family In Eiynti Titian'* "Vemii, with 
B. CelUnl, F. J.d' Vlieril, P. C.ip.Liiini, G.di^'MeJId the F]D«oPB•ndthoI^lW^Thta»"Tlll«n'^Ventl»,'■ 
(a^ Deile Bandl Neri). and FeruccL inpKiRdlabethapeRiiUoftlwodUreiaDftheDuko 
FinI Tittibvlt traai the itah*.— Bronzfi of d'UrbiDb. aiure£o>SuniuSlt>yUBkph*d'(Mr- 
SHeoiu ud BaoAui ; buili of the Uedid. incladlng tnd( ^ Haddaleni Don! (or one of tht Dob] fivdly), 
Coihiia. or CoBmo Ifaitr pattia, oi he la callcti), painted UM; p. Tetonae's Uadotina and Child. BL 
thelounderot the (amUyi which derlvea Its mme Jdm. St. Catherine, etc, ; A. Cairacd'* Bacchante; 
ftom MsUeia, and whoso arcu are tho three plUa Haphael's •Ponrait of Pope Jnllua IL (a copy l> In 
or balia now adopted by pawohroken. He died aar National Oalleiy); •Madouns del CBTdelUno (au 
14S4. Al» Locenio thB Macnlflcont. whoso life calltd ilnni ttio goldfinch in tho Infant Savlonr's 
with that of hio eon, Ofovnnnl (Leo X,). was written hauds— painted aa a woddlog gill to aurprlio a 

I., the tlrat Qnind nuie. Catherine dn' Mcdlcl perngino'i •Holy Family and St. Betaitlani 

(or Medida. ai tho French ipall it), Eraiidnlfce of Raphaero St. John Bapllal, Madonna ael Poiio; 

Olonunl VII., -as the mother of Fmncia II., and Snamoletta'a Bl JerenH; O. Komino'a Virgin 

two other Kingj of Fmnce, and mother-hi-law to „a child; O. Airaui-i Holy limily. H*nheei's 

Kaiy Htnan. •Fomailno. wcoUcd! hli misticsa, the little baiwa 

SKoxd FufBiife.— Woir. do(^ end boar; Btotoea flanihier hut dlfibring from the Baiherinl anil 

of Angnatui and other Emperors. This leads into ouiu' Fomarlnai: aome uy It Is Vittorla Oilonni, 

CoTTVkrt, aajTonnded by p^ntl 

OloIUno's Entombment and Fri A 

piece, with umo good ftearoes by Q „ __ _ 

One. He™ are S3* portinlU; boeta of the Koman Bartolor[im»'i"joi) aiifliMlah; Vandyke^ pirtialt 

Empcrora, and 14 Bircophagi. Among tho boala, of -(nuuiea V. on Honeback, by the Sia Shorai D, 

tht moat BbikiTig are Nero. OttaD,Titni.An1oniiini> ^e Voltena's Uaaiacre of tho Innoccnlai I^ do 

Plus, M. Auroiloa. Caracalla, and Commodqa. Lamton'a (or Dl OlandaW ChriM at the C<aonia. 

^l^Z^Cl^ Si *"' "^ '" '^^ ""^ S™»H Jb«™ or IV™. &*«), In two rooms.- 

ni^»f— i Bin^ clow oclaiton room abonl M Some of the best a« Maiaacto, a ft«co : UaVlnel. 

fbMjIlamnlar M'.lBlnl.,,* • " wJ^ /.f art ^- f ha 4H,fn> * pOTtTBlt, aOd UcdiUa'a Hoad j J. ChiOWDtl 01 

IS^n«.?™ .^^ri?ui J^ii »i,^S ™Tit^™ EmpoU, St Its* and the WWowa and Oiphaiu ( 

It ™ ™,,^S^ bv Vnon^tt a^ ^ ; F«4?g*lloo. fOoT plaureaof the VitKta! DaVlncI, 

i..*?^ (5^r^. i^?.K ^^r.i™ vJL AdMat6nofU»»lagiiE.OWrtand^ S.Z«eohio 

marble floor and a, mothorHrf-pearl dome. Hbb (t^-jjtni,,). F.Ba™AKnm»,HSj*an.!ly.lililast 

1^.K Tr„"'^'^r;'^.™V^ ,"^1'"^^? "' irorkVA^liU Lood-a Judith 4lth Hftoltma- 

£X»'d^werkno^wn^yTbeSplS?"lt"^- ^ 

wiui palntlDgs, by BJ^ihael, Ihe Caincd, etc. 
Ilaiiim SiAoDl,— Goldo's Thgln; CaravacEla-s 

..;.«_. Medina's Head! (^analetto'a Venice ; lldaa'a Chrlat 

lAttk and the PheTitAu-. F. della Ensceaca's Poitniis at 
Duic d'Uiti\na aoiUawUii. 



French SehooJ.-^Tsbr^'B AMerl and the Countess of 
Albany : N. Ponssin, Theseus finding his father's 
sword; 6. Poassin, Landscape: Borgognone, Battle- 
pieces; Mignard, portraits of Madame de Sevigu^ 
and Madame de Grignan. 

Flemish iScAooZ.— Rubens' Venus and Adonis; 
Hc^bein, portraits of More, Southwell, and Francis 
I. on horseback; L. Cranach's Luther, his wife, 
Melancthon, and the Electors John and Frederick. 

LtUch ^ScAooi.— Landscapes and portraits, by Jan 
Steen, G. Dow, Obtade, Rembrandt, Ruysdael, 
Yander Veide. 

Next to the French School, at the further comer 
of the long gallery, near the Amo, is the 

Cabinet ^ Otnu. — Decorated with columns of 
alabaster and verde-antico. Contains about 400 
objects, cameos, vases, etc., in Florcntme mosaics 
and precious stones. Cameo of Savonarola, by 
Comiole; Trinmph of Cosmo L, by D. Romano; 
Ba8»relie fs in gold and mosaic, by G. da Bologna ; 
Clement VU.'s crystal casket, by V. Viccntino, in- 
tended as a wedding gift for Catherine de' Medici ; 
lapis lazuli cup, by U. Celliui; and a plate in 
crystal and gold, by the same; Venus and Cupid, 
Sn porphyry, by Pescia. 

Tnniing into the long west corridor, the first room 
urith (me Isehind it, is given to pictures of the 

Venetian School -Many of them portraits. Gior- 
l^one's General Gattemalata ; Titian's Sansovino, and 
Catherine Comaro; portraits, etc., by Bordone, 
Tintoretto, P. Veronese, Morone. Bassano. 

Next to these is the corridor leading to the Director's 
room and Medal room. Here are Italian sculptures 
of the 15th century, including bas-reliefs, by N. della 
Robbia, Donatdlo, Rossellino, B. da Majano, A. 
Verrocchio, and an nnflnlfihed Virgin and Child, by 
M. Angelo. Medals and Coins^ placed here by 
Ferdinand XL, to tiie number of 80,000, including 
9,000 imperial medals, all arranged chronologically, 
and especially rich in Italian specimens. The stairs 
next to the corridor lead to the 

Etruscan Rooms. — Collection of vases, nms, 
amphora, inscriptions, etc, from Etruscan tombs, at 
Volterra, Chiusi, and Val Chiana. A corridor leads 
hence towards the Ponte Vecchio and Pitti Palace. 
Notice the portraits of the Medici family. Next to 
these are two rooms containing 

Portrait* qf Painters (about 350) painted by them- 
selves ; an interesting collection begun by Cardinal 
Ij. de MedicL The Medici Vase, with a b&s-reUef of 
the sacrifice of Iphigenia, is in the middle of one room. 
Among the portraits are C. Allori, C. Dolci, A. AUori, 
Cigoli, ii. Lippi, F. Znccherl, L. Giordano, Empoli, 
Sodoma, A. del Sarto, Vasari, M. Angelo (muscular and 
rugged), Romano, Raphael (in the centre of a screen), 
Perugino, Ma»8acio, S. Rosa, L. da Vinci, look- 
ing "wise and grave, like a lion" {Mendelssohn)^ 
F. Barocci, Annibaie CarraccI, Giorgione, Pordenone, 
Agostino Carracd, Caravaggio, Titian, Parmegia- 
nino, Guercino, L. Bassauo, Gnido, Domenichino, 
Albano, F. Bassano, A. Diircr, Honthofst (G. della 
Notte), Q. Matsys, Rembrandt, G^ Dow, Velasquez, 
"L, Cranach, Vandyke, Rubens. KneUer, Holbein, 
Jordaens, Reynolds, Borgognone, A. Kauffmaim, 
Sassofenrato, Meugs, Overbeckt Iforthcoto. \ 

Here, also, Is a Libreria or Librviry of 6,000 works 
on art 

Cabinet dff 7nMr(p(tbiM.— Greek and Latto, with 

CaJbinet of the Jlermaphrodite.'^So called from a 
statue resting on a panther's skin. Here is a Gany- 
mede, restored by B. Cellini. Heads of Alexander 
Brutus (unfinished), by M. Angelo; and Mask of a 
Faun, done by him at the age of 15. Two small 
rooms open out of this containing 

Cameos and Intaglios, to the number of 4.000, 
besides Majolica ware. The Italians have long been 
famous for their cut gems. 

Hall qf Barocdo or flaroed. — So called from 
Barocci's painting of the Madonna, praying Christ 
to bless the Charitable. Other works are Honthorst's 
Christ and the Angels; Mantegna's Elizabeth, 
Duchess of Mantua; Velasquez' Philip IV.; F. 
Lippi's Adoration of Magi ; 'Rubens' Bacchus and 
Nymphs. Notice the tables of Florentine mosaic, 
inlaid with flowers and shells of different marbles ; 
one of which, designed by AnteUi, 1613, took 2d 
years in making. 

Hall of Niobe, constructed in 1779, and so called 
from an excellent g^roup of sixteen statues, of Niobe 
and her children, pursued by Apollo and Diana; 
found at Porta S. Paolo, Rome, in 1583. Paiuthigs — 
by Vandyke, the Mother of Rubens ; Snyders, Boar 
Hunt ; Rubens, Heniy IV., at Ivry, and his Entry 
into Paris; Lely, portrait of Prince Rupert and 
Monk. The next rooms contain 

Ancient Bronzes. — Statue of the Orator, found near 
the "reedy Thrasymcne." A shigular Chimera^ 
from Arczzo; an Idolino, or Young Man, found at 
Pesaro, 1530; Etruscan statuettes, animals, utensils, 
inscriptions ; with some Christian relics. A niello o j 
the Assumption of the Virgin, by M. Fhiigucrra, 

Ifodem Brontes. — Fine Mercury by G. da Bologna ; 
B. Cellini's Cosmo L, a bust, and his models of the 
Perseus; Ghiberti, Sacrifice of Abraham ; other sub- 
jects and models by Polh](}uolo, Donatello, Verroc- 
chio, CigolL etc 

At tiie end of the long west corridor are several 
pieces of 

Modem Italian Sculpture — Bacchus and Faun, by 
M. Angelo; another Bacchus, by Sansovino; St. 
John Baptist, by B. da Majano ; another, by Dona- 
tello ; and a David and Goliath, by the same. Copies 
of the Belvedere Venus, Laocoon, etc. The rooms at 
the comer are devoted to 

Designs and Engravings.— About 20,000 designs, 
from Giottino to the 16th century; and upwards of 
80,000 engravings, many of which have been pho- 
tographed. Permission to view, to be obtained from 
the Director. 

Egyptian Museum, formed by Rosellinl. This ia 
now removed to Via Faenza, where it fills three or 
four rooms ; at the end of which is the Cenacolo di 
Foligno, or Last Supper; a fresco discovered in the 
suppressed nunnery of S. OnofHo delle Monache, in 
1845, and bought for 12,000 scudL It is assigned to 
Raphael, from an inscription, " RAPL. V. R. S.^'* 
and Vft <Va\fe4 '^ IKOiN . •;' XwX. vssafe \N»i^sEafc ^fec*^ >&. \9». 


cwlnttiM ■» tm MqnoM BIMm, 14(1. IIh 
bKbmik. dun md FmiiffiiR^ priatcd at TtatM^ 
14(1; Tli*LaiiiUBlDMt«FlDT«noe,IUL ThaOM 
BomD' prlnUd •» n«iHt, 14ea 

T1l« lUJlaii AHiAbt iHnr nMAH In Ih* Hafonn. ATi« 
gully thi 

Tn^fc tB hll ._, .. _ 

naki of m "dMnnr" la tba UOti, 

DMiMADediiiutiineftr ■ 


Mid moflt dLvitably to nil when pnmipt 

tfcrenqiUni]; UJVtboirtngbiiniufln truth, w mil 

« [a nuiH. a nd IMJM, ' •-■-• - 

UuHlBingd. TbeM«dtdip 
Matt compooBdi, aoma «( wkleh m known u the 
" Unto da hoeo del StcOlBBO." Uh " On ponlille del 
PogUwl,- tho "AijBB lOTM le '— '-' — ■— - 

11 GULEIT.— The n 

IS aaUety . 

and MM In INSU>tlwH>dld, 

•lOTrMfB. . .- 

TlMwhola ftoot I* eautncted of bi 
Hona blo^ii bntf nnfertonately, 11 
nc the toil. Thi conn behind la 
BoboU Qudeni, comlit of throe oi 
naother, and alao nuUcated, It c 
iav*i by a Doric cotonnadt. with aa 
nf which ie a Haug piodncod out of 
OnthaBrit atorrof thBP«liiM i 
abont AM iwlntlDgi. diUiibulcd In 

HOrlcal snl^BOti In a 

_ r«tii KoDm (Cimieta dl 1 
-'-■■■ m; ClioU. 

otis'e).— Ttitoretlo, 
9l Pflior Walking 

Taktet Jww*wn tlw Oam: tti iMa la 

1 JtHn—flnido^ HiRdalan. Barbwl.Hlft. 

dmna della SanlaU <0( tba cbidr). a •■• vsik; tka 
«nly ona In wblcb the CTti are nat oaM- dmn. 
Bobaai, pgitnlla of hhnaelt, M« knIlUT, li^ilni, 
MdOroUo*; BniTliail. Tlitlr Finillr. rialliil Mwlanne 

«tt) (ponmt tt l^nM»a, Haau^ 

a haad 1/ Hqkdtnca (U( twD iiMtnUO i 
tn M tka Foaataln. 

^ •Thrre PaiCB. or 

ry OMa Kid bo 

Patia; GaiDlklo, Agfn 

loLomnieo, St Mark ; _ 

Woman ; 8, Roaa, Baltlc-plecea. 

Jiatitn Room, — PorphyiV tabl» i 
Ing— by Qlorglone. Byronh fl; „ . , , 

Cbulei L, uid HBorlecta MuUi R^ha^ pnraall 
of Jnllne IL, portait of Cudtaud BitiMena ; 
7«nt<no, D«M*nt from the Croie ; Btpita, ■Ma- 
donna del fialdacchlno (of the Cajupr) ; Q. Romano, 
HuetaodAiwUi). Bifbael, porlnJl of T. F. Iii|^- 
land; and hia ■Virion of Ei^Iel (a line pictnn). 

flfntKoMB — NHithaUttle StalKEkM — A. <U 
Saito, ■Two AMumpUoaa; Titian, PhlUp IL; 
Canlinal IpolatD do' MadMi Fra aartakHnsiEa. 
■Madonna on a Thnne ; Oloitf one. Ponralt ol a 
maun ; Onanliio, Sxtumali and tks Klden. 

Boom, called the Biacatiai i^ Afiitor.— Baia b a 
w«k b; Ka^iaal, aUad ih« Qmnd DiUu'i Ua- 
doOD*: Bbaantlfal •Madonna and Child, wtaljtbly 
priMd by the si-Ducal fimlly. Ibal It alwxyi went 
wltk tfaefo on thalj tzvTels, fiionzlno, Liu»ila da' 
Idedlcl, dinehttr of Cmdui L 

Ulitiia BoanL—Tttlan, portrait of Charlea T. . 
Bnbeu, ViUlm. L Duke of BuckUaham. 

FalnOngi — by S, Gaetano, Fetdioand I. da' Hodici; 
Boiiic«l]l. La BoUa Simooetta, miatma of Gluliano 

•Ttnna ItaU 
nplaced tu VCDD da' UvUcL whlla t 
iraa at Parli, and la alnoat aa good. 

It of ni^olaan; 

r jUoMu VSmrf, Rundtd br Fbe- 
_ jntalna ««,W0 vole^ and I.He 1(as., 
a, hudndlne kISS. of Tanw, a*UlM, Toiii- 

a<np^lefllll8,n«Talt. down to IWitl 

tka ^Mi(i«wi.v, l«.iw w 

ilndy ol ptltoirni)^ ' 

Ttao TVil'iiH of Oififeo, 
IB In CoMoll, ■«» tX 
vUb ijnvti of hia pupil, 

1( bit> H blofl staiTT 

Pti^nce, ud nrind 

•qi^wMi I 

Op«i<Tlivnd»T< n 

ifthldi upeHed hl« dyoHBtjr Uwa Tuscuny. 

*J«dBiha <ltUa £cJIt Aiii (Academy if Flnf 
ArU), In Vto del CocoiierD. aent St. Mark's. 
Foandfld by a joclQly or ATtSiu [n LMD, andrvBtond 

■n ITM, by UiB Grmid " ■-- ' '-■ ^'— 

'""oil of dealfflT paJE 

UMiiHl, Me. In tlH _ 

Ab; L, deUa Robbia; irlth the original modt 
ui ij. dt Bologni'a Rape of the 3>l>in*t. and H. Au- 
Itlo'i St. Hatdioir. 

Id ibe FtrMn Oalltiy, openO toS, are >p«jmciBol 
(heoMer aiHUn, many or then brnvght from the 

the miMt part chnnoli^cilly. Some or Ihem ara is 
CdUdw) v-dnakoe, Holy Family, Aogels and fro- 
phatti Giotto. Ian lubjeaa in Ihe Ufa of Bt.FnDdi; 
B. Anitilao, D«K«lt Oem the Croea; Verrocchio, 
BaptlaiB of Chrlat— with an ug«t, by L. da Vlncl. 
hia pu^ ; Panurfdo, Cbi1«t In tbe Garden, and an Aa- 
nunpBoi, feoD VaBwnbiOM (ISOOIj F. Llppl and 
Pamgliio,D«ac*nt(Vomth«Cpina! A. del Sarto, Four 
Salniai PnBKtatainiDen,6t.Vineeiiti PlaatlllaNelll 
(an ObMmaUna Hon), thtee Uaryi andSalnla— 
Ibt-MlBta hwhlB > Ihi^nlH appearand, ai Slater 
PlaatUU w« not Bltomd to lake men for liar 
aisd^lA.BtanlB*tOiMai>(la'HediEl; Clsoli,at 
Fruul* neelTlnv tll*Bt)Binata. 

In tba OdlHr 1 BbkUI piuan* 
leUon. alRht pMn, Jn»«a«Hi 

aapTqpLBCj of the Tuscan d i jito it t ai 

ElnuciD," which all QdDcs ted Itallau 

-'-■-'- ■--1 only ta ACG The Academy was 

- oran, ana [heir cnat la a thiliana or aiftar, *iUh 
the motto "II pA bel fior ne cogUa "-^t gitbaia 
oDhi tbe flnaat Boor. 

private palaces an ai foUnwa. The older pulacea an 

UfeoCOhiW; Ft* Battohn 

i-B. An. 
Its. et tba 

ponraltnf _, 

drawlngi and elata; ■LlbiBTS(Wi»<s<>-; ond 
ifca t»Tanim«nt iiaanlot FlwantlBa i—ala (See 

IhilriiKiiTlliijiial rf riiiialii"i. lllaaHniaiilii TIT) 

built In a. ■oUdtwileMedatyle.forCoaiude' Madid, 
by MIobelDaA and enlaigi^ by ttie RlEcanil family. 
wbai it oanie into their poaawdnn. The fiadii sua 
laetloug and M bigli, ti 



to the Government, and is now the seat of the Home 
Office or the Ministry of the Interior, the Delia 
Crusca Academy, and the Biblloteca Riccardiana of 
ltO,QOO volumes and 3,000 MSS., open nine to two. 
Some Roman inscriptions are here, with bas-reliefs 
by Donatello. 

*Podesta Palace, or Bargello, or Palazzo di Qiiu- 
tiziOf in Via del Palagio, near the Badia church, is a 
dark and grim looking old pile, known by its tower, 
and is hi course of restoration. Built 1252, by 
Amolfo di Lapo, and enlarged by A. Gaddi in 1345, 
as the seat of the Podcsta, or Chief Magistrate of 
the old Republia It was adorned with frescoes by 
Giotto, Ghirlandajo, etc., which had gone to decay; 
one of thera was brought to light in 1840, with a 
portrait of Dante, and has been engraved by the 
Arundel Society. In 1782 a memorable scene took 
place in the court of this palace; when, upon the sup- 
pression of the Inquisition by the enlightened Grand 
Duke Leopold, the iostrumeuts of torture were here 
burnt in public. 

Palazzo Strozzi'Tiidolfi, formerly Rucellal, in Via 
Polverosa, belongs to the Prince of Piombino. It 
was the scat of the rich family of the Rucellai, one 
of whom man icd the sister of Pierio de' Medici. It 
was ravagtd by the popular party in 1527, and was 
for a time the residence of Bianca Cappcllo. 

*Palazzo Strozzi, in Via Legnajoli, a Hue specimen 
of the massive Florentine style, on a base 190 feet 
by 138 feet, and in three stories lOU feet high. Begun 
by B. da Majano, for Filippo Str<«zzi, in 1489, and 
finished (though still incomplete), by PoUiyuolo, or 
Cronaca, the autlior of the fiue cornice. Picture 
gallery hi six rooms. 

PcUazzo Rucellai, in Via dclla Vigna Nova. Begun 
1460, by L. B. Albert! ; in three rusticated stories, 
with round-headed windows, separated by pilasters. 
It is less severe and more eleguit in character than 
other palaces. 

Villa Tarrigiani, in Oltr' Amo, near Porta Romano, 
in the midst of a large garden. 

Casa Buonaroti, in Via Ghlbelina, was bought by 
government of the family of Michael Angelo, many 
relics of whom are preserved here, and open on 
Mondays and Thursdaya It contains his bust, by 
G. da Bologna ; his portrait by himself ; sketches and 
pieces of sculpture and furniture; also his dining- 
room, painted with groups of the men of his day ; 
his MSS. letters, his walking stick, slippers, crucifix, 
oil flasks, etc. His last descendant married on 

Dante's 'Bouse, in Via Riccardi, No. 685, marked 
by a bust. A monument has been erected to his 
honour; and the six-hundredth year of his birth 
was observed in May, 1865, There is a mask of bis 
face at Palazzo del NerL 

AlfierVs House, in Lung' Amo, No. 4,177, opposite 
the Casino dei Nobili, near Ponte Santa Trinlth. 
Here died m 1803 the "■ Prince of Tragedy," as he is 
styled in the inscription. He was privately married 
to the Countess of Albany, widow of the Pretender, 
who survived Alfieri till 1824. 

MaddavelK's Houm, in Via Guicciardini, No. 1,845, 

near the PItti Palace. Here ho died, 1627, of a 

Jaed/alae of Jbja owu preacrlbuns, afwr being ousted 

trom his plaice as Secretary to the Reptiblie, by the 
revolution of 1504. At No. 1,696, <^po8ite, is the 
Howe of Qtdeeiardini, the historian of Florence. 

B. Cellini's House, Via del Rosalo. He was bora 
in Via 8. Chiara. 

F. Zuechero^s House^ Via del Mondorlo. 

O. da Bologna't House, or Casa QnaratesI, has « 
bust of Francis L, the donor, over the door. 

Libraries. — The chief public library Is the 
Biblioteca Lawentiana (open 9 to 12), attached to 
the church of S. Lorenzo, and founded by Pope 
Clement VII. and Cosmo I. Vestibule by M. Angelo ; 
the rest by Vasari. The rotunda was added 1841. 
It includes Alfieri's books, presented by his executor, 
Fabrd, the punter. Among the rare books are early 
printed Bibles, and a Luclan, with miniatares of 
Lorenzo de' MedicL The 9,000 MSS. include— a 
Virgil of the 4th or 5th centiuy, the earliest IIS. 
known. Pandects, 6th or 7th century, brought 
from Amalfi, by the Pisana Two MSS. of Tadtos, 
between 7th and 10th centuries ; the older is the only 
one containing the first five books of the Annals. 
Boccaccio's Decameron, 1 384. The Valdarf er edUion 
of Boccaccio was printed here, 1471 ; the sale of which 
In England, in 1812, led to the formation of the 
Roxburghe Club. Cicero's Letters ad FamHiares, 
copied by Petrarch. Horace, 12th century. Letter 
of Dante, declining to return to Florence, on 
condition of asking pardon of the party in favour. 
Catalogues of the Oriental and Hebrew MSS. 
have been published by Asseman and Biccloni, and 
of the Greek, Latin, and Italian, by Bandinl 

Biblioteca Maglktbecciliiana, in the UflizL See 
p. 122. Open 9 to 4. 

Biblioteca Marucelliana, in Via Larga, founded by 
Abbe Marucelli, 1752, and containing 60,000 volumes. 
Open Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 9 to L 
The Mare Magnum, or General Index, in 112 vols.,, 
is a list of all tiie books read by the founder, almost 
rivalling in quantity those devoured by Maglia- 

Biblioteca Palatina, at the Pitti Palace. 

Theatres.— Tfiafro della Pergola, in Via Persia, 
for operas. Built 17;H8, by P. Tacca, with five rows 
of boxes, and will hold 2,500 persons. 

Teatro Nuovo, Via dei Cresci, called the Intrepid!. 

CoeomerOj in Via del Cocomero; tragedy an<l 

Leonoldo, Via dei Cerchi, near Piazza Granduca. 

Alfieri, Via Pietra Plana. 

Borgognissanti, Via Borgo OgnissantL 

Ooldoni, Via Santa Maria, in Oltr' Amo. 

Ferdinando, a circus, on the site of the Stihche or 
debtors' prisons ; wtiich were built l^HOi, and bore 
for inscriptions "oportet misereri," which was freely 
translated as " Porta dclla mlserie." Here was an 
old picture of the expulsion of the Duke of Athens, 
in 1343. Machiavelli was confined here and put to 
the torture on tlie overthrow of the republic in 1502. 

The Arrischiate and SolkciU are devoted to the 
Florence Punch. 

One of the chief places of resort Is the 

Cascine Promenade, on the west; a fine green 
spot outside Porta al Pratn, near the Leopoldo rail- 



8. From the aovth side of Florenee, oot by Ports j 
S. Minlato, a road paaaet op the Arnoi, to Monte • 
Santa Croce, and the Frandacan Church of S. Salva- 
tore, by Gronaea; above which, in the cemetery, is 
the old chorch or basilica of 

•S.^tiitkUo, rc-bnllt 1013; a beaatlful and well- 
proportioned specimen of a Romanosqne chnrch, 1C5 
fieet by 70. dhided into three aisles, it contains bas- 
reliefs, paintings, and frescoes, and an andcnt crypt, 
or second choir below the other choir. In the 
sacristy are S. Spinelll's series of frescoes from the 
life of St Benedict This venerable chnrch tftands 
among cypresses, and is reached by a Via Crucis, 
ending in abeaotlfol prospect Here Giastl, the poet, 
was buried, 1849. 

4. The road flrom Porta Romana passes Poggio 
Imperiale, (Poggio means a hill), another seat of the 
McdicL Villa Albizzi, on Monte Bcllosgnardo, in 
which Qaiiko lived for a time. Aroetri, another hill, 
celebrated for its vino vcrdeot or green wine, the 
"verdea soavissima," celebrated by Red!, which 
they say Galileo amused himself by cultivating. 
He was considered a good Judge of wbie and used 
to say, " n vino h un composite di luce e d'amore." 
On the hill, and marked by his bust over the door, 
whence there is a fine prospect, stands his Torre del 
Gallo, or Observatory ; and close to it the Villa del 
Giojello, in which he spent his lost years under the 
censure of the Inquisition. "There it was," says 
Milton, ** that I found and visited the famous Galileo, 
grown old, a prisoner (" under arrest," as it were), to 
the Inquisition, for thinking in astronomy otherwise 
than the Franciscan and Dominium licensers 
thought" But " « pttr si muove^" the world moves in 
spite ^of them. In this direction is the shrine of 
Santa Maria Impnmeto, a black Virgin, held in 
great honour. 

5. Railway excunsion — To Pontu-ssicve, on the 
Arczzo lino; whence it is six or vip-ht inilcs to the 
"Etrurian shades" of Vallambrosa Monastery, imdcr 
the Apennines. 

The country parts round Florence arc divided into 
fields, edged vrith ditches and poplars, and planted 
with vines, com, olives, etc. Tlieie are two hai-vests 
yearly. The wheat being thick sown and cut down 
before it is ripe, ftmishes the valuable straw which 
is plaited for Leghorn hats. Barley is now grown 
for beer. The fanners are an industrious and intelli- 
gent race, healthy and comfortable, neither rich nor 
poor. They are not able to keep servants, but every 
member of the family works hard. A black beaver 
hat and yellow mnbrella are not uncommon. The 
oxen are dun-coloured and stall-fed. 

' " In the rich and fertile Valdamo, so thickly stud- 
ded with villas as to have suggested Ariosto's well- 
remembered saying that if brought together they 
would make two Romes — ^the fanner and proprietor 
look less to the com and wine than to the (41, as a 
soorco of profit and wealth. The Oil is the great 
thing. Always below rather than alxyve the demand 
In quantity, the goldm oil is readily exchangeable 
at any moment into solid gold ; and by a recognised 
nnge ot long ttandii^ all traaaactlons an paid in 

unimproved than the Tnaeaa —IhoAof 
this valuable produoe from tte borry, or tba* Chat 
of settling accounts between landlord aad teMsL 
Almost every estate has Its vDIa, the ooootry r«i- 
dence of the landowner. Often hin/attorM <wteillff 
inhabits it or a portion of it Nor is it i«i« fisr the 
house of the contadino or fkrmer to b« doM to 
that of his landlord, or even niidw:tlM:Mm« roof. 
To the villa is brought all the piodie of the land. 
The grapes are there pressed into vriaet, and the 
olives into oil, by a clumsy proeaat whkh haanot 
varied for centnrics. The oU when dstwn off ia 
poured into small barrels of a regalar alia, con* 
tafniog a certain number of flaska, and supposad to 
form each half an ass's load. Then ona hanf^ ta the 
kmdlord, and one to the tenant, till the letaola yield 
is equally divided between them. Soalao With the 
wine and so with the corn. Money reata an alaaost 
if not altogetlier unknown." Thla is the tateheftx 
system which prevails throughout Italy* aad fima 
which the only thing excepted Is the pradaoe at the 
beehives, which goes entirely to the tenaat<»il A. 

Florence is a delightful |4aoe to Uv« in. It Imb a 
fine climate; inroviskms are cheap; there are good 
librariesond reading rooms; the peo|^ ara^vl^itty 
and polished, aad noted for thrift Tbereiaa saying 
that when a child is sent to school they give bim a 
piece of bread aad half a lemon for lanoheon. His 
{,n-eodines8 makes him eat the lemoa first ; and his 
teeth being set un edge, he is obliged to leave the 
bread, which is thus spwred fbr another meaL 

It was founded by a colooy of Roman -aoldieTS 
settled here by Octavianus. In the 13th imd 14th 
centuries the republic was at the height of its pros- 
perity, through its great trade, its banking opera- 
tions, and its mannfactttres of sUk, wooUcn, ete. 

' ' Glorious days are those in which, as the historian 
Villani has recorded, the revenue of the republic 
amounted to 300,000 florins (a coin which took its 
name here); a sum, which owing to the greater 
value of money at that time, was equivalent at least 
to £600,000 sterling; that is to say, to more than 
England and Ireland, three centuries ago, jrielded 
annually to Elizabeth. The manufacture of wool 
alone employed 200 factories. Eighty banks con- 
ducted the commercial operatlouii, not of Florence 
only, but of all Europe ; and the arsenals, the villas, 
the museums, the libraries, and the marts were filled 
with articles of comfort and luxury."— Cotoif Arri- 

The gold florin or zccchino had a figoie of St 
Giovanni Battista on one side. Large transactions 
were entered into with Edward IIL of England, 
to whom the citizens lent upwards of a mOUon 
and a half of florins; and his inability to xej^y it 
produced distress and bankruptcy. 

Under the Guelph party, Florence beeamepiedaini- 
naut against its neighbours, Bisa, Siena, etx^; but 
bitter party contests raged at home, betweeathe black 
and wIdteOnelphs; in one of wtaicfaDaata, «4io waa a 
white Gaelpli,- was expelled by "qedtofaigia at e y cpolo 
raallgao^*' In 1301. A fbnlgn»iadveBtafa«« -waiter 

JdIt, b* a pMBmlim of tt 
Um MdHta Sluicheli, *as 
or St aMf)i«o,«iordueiHi 
S«ry ettliHi wu oDllBfd to 

man « Iw lU tbi U 
IB IMS, by tt 

of P. Laimiaa. 

iitt-iKM, isen. On 


leQmpflgiii u GoTflmor <j<^norJ) 


Mr, anlBst (ho InulnH 
; and tha uHiaUuia 


BiMMmpunI ud othonst > tail %t tb 
itaUitMeilla; uidemiwHneEDKUihreilil 
faaBdl»«xerttb»ir«1ng1n opposlCiDii ic 
ardv of tkiDga. Od ihe 2«ih l>c<iniib«-. 
EngMb fbto wtra mck''' 1° I" act of ft 
Mill M Oa wMi of Binda CaconEro, v,i 

ABoHthtnatlTUorraldHitaat PIotliici 
iir«««i(«y,»Oiii8ofwlioni«Ull lire, «■( lin 
L«ip«dl,th> poM; Nkonsl, atrthH or ". 
ill BiWclai*' irta, wliaii proaacnted tor lii' 
oplDiM*, wu imUcted 6j th< lue Oiin"! 
Coant OatHiianllnl. tbe l»d« ot Uie I'r. 
party; Oliuappt Dolfi.thapUriDtlcbBkei, v 

aDrlnglhecvtBUoMSta; iin 
01 of tbe "AntalTloSloilcalu 

FloiwiM to Rome, tUl Bmpoll. Sico.T, ul 
OSDal OTeiteiiU Koula lo Hcmt. 

■kn,,orl^iniUr;6. O 

!Epl Sunday). >" <^'^" 

By rail t 

L«a>e Kir EjnpoU <2fli m 
Cbanga curiagai. Alter t 

Oslerla BluiOk ...^ 

called becanae !ba Vicar ot Ilia Otrmu Empcrorb ia 

Okatal-Flcrao.Uiio Station (popnintion. c,T4j>, 

ORttId* StatioB, a prcny UKIb iraltod town 
(population, ti.EI 10), oiirjaakii]^ VaJ d' Elaa, aBon^ 
tbe Taicui hUli. ihi lut r«tin( place of Beamx, 
tbe tkthtT of Itallaa proaa, wbo ta bmiad la tha 

wluEla up to tbe old place, onea tba iBiidal aaat tt tba 
Conntfl Albertl, than of fti Flonatliia govoMra aad 
vlcnn. irhoae armotlal batitnu corm tbe walli of 
tbe Rocu or caitle. Rli lonb bean hk afflgy (act 

Id chearfDl face, and It 
Tjh la'- " ' 

EdltloDB of h!> Decunanm, a f 
ple«« of Ma tombatone, wbhsh ' 
aUgottdMar. Thebookofi 
name of SlanioDdl, and aome 
Flonnce poet, (o Ih* eOtet U 

itylo.— iT. A. Troliajis't ItaprauKuvfu WmAnrJ 
LkpioT In one or Ills ^' Imaginary CoDTeraaHoaa," 

principal on 
bonn, aUna 

"If any one (Mya Csnnt ArrlTabone) ebo 
a Ttucany, not nur^ for the lake of n 
diTODgh the gaUtdca of Flonnce, or in order t 
uma kiwiriedge of tbe country, i nonld advl 
oot t* miia a lour En Ibe nlley of Cblanti, 1 
Ibera aee Italim nalaia and acricHitnic ti 
'ultut dcvelupment ; be will Bod gi 




8IBNA StaUon, 
Tho ancient Sena Julia, on the Via Clodla. 

HoUls,^Aqv\\^ Nera, near the railway station; 
Le Arme d'lnghilterra, n Seggi, La Scala, and the 
DonzellL Chianti and other wines are to be had. 

Cimoeyancec— To Arezzo, 24 miles. 

PopulaUon, 22,624. 

* Chi^ OlgeeU of ilToftcc.— Piazza del Compo, 
Piazza Pabblico, Daomo, S. DomliUco, Academy. 

At the height of its prosperity, before the plague 
1S4S, Siena had a popalation of 180,000. It was a 
republic in the 11th century, and after passing 
through the revolutions common to most Italian 
cities, and, falling under the dictatorship of the 
Petrucci family, it became part of Tuscany in the 
16th century. Tills ancient place stands on the 
slopes of three elevated tufa hills, at the Junction of 
three or four roads, and is surrounded by walls 
i^ut five^nilcs in circuit, though one-half of the space 
enclosed is garden ground. 

The narrow deserted strectsmn in and out between 
tall old houses which look like castles, and are 
faced with stone and tiles. Water is liberally sup- 
plied by 15 miles of aqueducts to the public foun- 
tains, eta At the north-west extremity is the 
Fortezza, or citadel, erected by Cosmo L, and 
liacingthe Lizza Promenade. 

From beug so high, 1,300 feet above the sea, 
Siena has a healthy and agreeable temperature, 
and was not invaded by cholera. It has a reputa- 
tion for Its handsome women and for speaking good 
Italian. It is the seat of a province, an archbishop, 
and a university. In Strada dell* Oca, near the 
Dominican Church, is an oratory, in which Santa 
Caterina di Sena was bom, 1347, who made herself 
remarkable by her letters and exertions on behalf of 
the Papacy; who by some Roman Catholics Is ; 
thought a crazy impostor, and by others a seraphic . 
■aint She pretended that she was taught Latin 
by a miracle, that she had frequent conversations 
with Christ, and that he at last espoused her by 
putting a ring on her right hand. No one ever saw 
the ring, but she persisted that it was always there ; 
and the subject has often been painted. 

The Sitna School of Painting^ began in the 13th 
«entnry, and numbers severed early masters, — as ! 
Dnccio di Buoninsegna, S. Meromi, Sodoma, Becca^ | 
fnmi, B. Peruzzi, etc., down to F. Vanni, and Marco | 
^a Siena in the 16th century. All their productions ' 
«re of a devotional character. ! 

Out of its thirty-three old gates, seven are now • 
open in the walls. Porta Romana was built, 1327, > 
by the brothers Agnolo and Agostino, and has a 
fresco of the Coronation of the Virgin (14&9). Porta 
di Camullia, on the Florence road, has this hospitable 
inscription: — " Cor magis tibi Sena pandit" Porta 
Pfaq>ini has Sodoma^s firesco of the Nativity. Porta 
IPonte Bnmda, is near the Dominican Church and 
^e cild Branda foimtahi, erected 1193 by Bella- 
mino, end mentioned l»y Dante. 

TThe *Piazza dil Campo^ or chief open place at the 
•centre of the town, wlieiioe «Ieven streets branch out, 
:km iMTgo Betp^ji^eiAe aloping to the south, bwdeied 

del Govemo (now the Post and Police Office), a hand« 
some pile, built by Pius IL, as Palazzo nccolomini, 
with a loggia added 1460, and facing the FoUonica 
fountain, erected 1.249; the Palazzo Pubblico, or 
law court and prison, with its tailtover; and the 
Casino de* Nobili, formerly the Chamber of Com- 
merce, or Loggria of S. Paolo, built 1417. An 
elegant fotmtsdn, named Fonte Gaja for joyful), 
when the water first appeared in 1343, is the 
work of Jacopo delia Querela, ntyled *' del Fonte,'* 
from this performance. Close to it is the Foro Boario, 
or Cattle Market. Here the markets and horse-races 
are held. The races, called II Palio, are held on 
2nd July, and I5th August, or festival of the Assump- 
tion, by the city wards, which take a name from 
some animal, as Contrada dell a Lupa, Contrada 
deir Aquila, etc At this mediaeval festival, the 
earroccto, the companies o» armed warriors, the 
heralds, and the jesters, with a pap and bell, parade 
in quaint costume round the piazza of the town 
hall. It was thus celebrated m Victor Emnuinuei's 
progress in I8C0. through Central Italy. (See 
Story's Roba di Roma, 2nd vol. 

The *Palazzo PubbX^ o. or della SIgnona, is a 
massive pile, built 129>-1327. a^d much cracked by 
the earthquake of 1797; its high and graceful tower, 
called Torre del Mangia was added, 1 326. It contains 
worlcs of early Siena masters, worth nodce. In the 
Bicchema room— Sodoma's Madonna and Saints ; 
and P. Lorenzetti's Coronution of the Virgin. 
Ballestre room — A Lorenzetti's wall-paintings of 
Good and Bad Government (13 8), and the public 
Archives, some ancient Grand Council room— 
S. Memmi's large and curious flrci'co of the Madonna, 
St Gerome, St Gregory, etc. (1315); portrait of 
General Ricci, and Sudonia's Saints. Madonna 
Chapel, built 1348, after the Great Plague, which 
swept away 80,000 — Frescoes, portraits, etc, by T. 
Bartoli; and lodoma's Holy Family. Consistory 
room — Ceiling by Beccafumi, with his chiaro-scuro 
figure of Justice, dark at the feet and the light 
gradually increashig towards the head; Portraits of 
Alexander VII , and other natives. Priori room — 
S. Spinelii's eleven or twelve paindngs of Frederic 
I. (Barbarossa) and Alexander III. 

The *Dtiomo, on a hiH, west of Piazza del 
Campo, begxm 1243 and finished about 1324, is on the 
site of a Temple of Minerva, and is striped with 
black and white marble inside and out It is an 
imposing specimen of Italian-Gothic, 300 feet long; 
overspread with ornaments, even to the very spouts 
in a style opposed to a noble and majestic sim- 
plicity. The front turned to the east, is by Gio- 
vannni da Pisa, most elaborati-ly carved, and coni^ 
prises three great gnblc-hcaded portals of equal size, 
a large circular window, low cloistered towers with 
pyra<i<ids, statues, etc Among the sculptures 
which cover it are Delia Queruia's prophets and 
angels, and many curious heraldic animals figuring 
in the arms of towns once allied with Siena (repre- 
sented by a she-wolf), as the stork fbr Perugia; 
goose, Orvieto; elephant, Rome; dragon, Pistojftt 
hare, Pisa ; rhinoceros, Vitcrbo; horse, Arezzo; 
.vulture, Volterra; lynx, Lucca; and the bo(^ 



clock tower, by the brothers Agnolo and Aprostino, 
of Siena, contains a clock dated 1148. It was 
Tebuilt 1389, and is in eight stories. 

Within, the pillars arc wreathed with leaves and 
fruit ; the vaulting is coloured in azure and gold ; the 
dome is fifty-eight feet in diameter. The marble 
pavement is adorned with eight curious Bible sub- 
jects and Sibyls, by Beccafumi, done by the inser- 
tion ot grey marble into white ; which are covered 
over, but are shown for a fee. On the pilasters of 
the cupola are trophies taken from the Florentine 
Gaelphs, at the great battle of Monte Aperto 
in 1260. The high altar is by B. Peruzzi; its 
bronze tabernacle occupied another artist for a 
period of nine years. Notice the painted windows 
and terra cotta portraits of Popes and Anti-popes, 
including Gregory VII. and Alexander III., both 
natives. The choir paintings, by Duccio di Buonin- 
segna (1311), were thought so <much of, that they 
were brought to the church in public procession. 
Below the chou- is the old octagon Baptistery of St. 
John, cased and in marble ; and containing frescoes 
by Beccafumi, etc., and bas-reliefs on the fonts, by 
Donatello, Ghiberti, Delia Querela, and Pallajuolo. 

Among the Chapels are the following: — 

Chigi Chapel, built by Alexander VII., of that 
family, is rich with marbles, silver, lapis lazuli, 
bronzes, etc., and has Bernini's statues of St 
Jerome and Magdelene, and C. Maratta's mosaics. 

St. Oiovanni Battista Chapel, by B. Peruzzi. It 
has Delia Quercia's Adam and Eve ; and Donatello's 
statue of St. John Baptist. The octagon marble 
pulpit is a celebrated work, by Niccolb da Pisa and 
his sons. On the left of the nave is the Libreria, 
founded by Pius II. (iEneas Sylvias), and built by 
his nephew Cardinal Piccolomini (Pius III.). It is 
ornamented, outside, with arabesques, etc., by 
Harrina, and a fresco by Finturicchio ; one of the 
eleven gaudy pictures (the rest being inside), illus- 
trating the principal events in Pius II's life and 
painted 1503-7. 

This Library contains a beautiful antique group of 
the Tiiree Graces, found in digging the foundations 
in the 13th century; S. Ricci's tomb of Mascagni; 
and another of B. Bandini, with angels designed, by 
M. Angelo; bas-relief of Donatello ; but only a few 
books, and antiphonals full of old miniatures. 

The Cathedral Square is surrounded by the ex- 
Ducal Palace, the Great Hospital and the Palazzo 
del Magnifico. The Hospital was founded by a 
shoemaker, and bears the motto, "Sutor ultra crepi- 
dam." The Ducal Palace comprises part of an 1 
earlier cathedral, never completed. 

S. Agostinoi't Church, near Porta Tufi; across built 
1755, by Vanvitelll, annexed to the Toleomei College, 
an edifiice in the Florenthie style. It contains pictures 
by Perugino (Christ on the Cross), Sodoma, Matteo 
di Siena, Spagnoletto, F. Vanni, etc. 

Del Carmine, near Porta S. Marco, has a dock 
and cloister, by B. Peruzzi, with paintings, by 
Beccafumi and Casolani, a native artist The Pozzo 
di Diana is a deep well in the cloister. 

La Concepzione, near Porto CamuUia, rebuilt 1528, 
py B. Peruzzi, has marble oolamns in the nave, and 

*S. Domenieo, near Porta Fonte Branda, was built 
1220-1465, and much damaged by the earthquake 
of 1797. Hero are Sodoma's three pictiues of the 
Ecstacy, Fainting, etc., of Santa Catcrina da Siena, 
who was a Dominican Sister ; and her portrait by 
A. di VannL It has G. di Paolo's Madonna (1426) 
and Matteo di Siena's St Barbe. Near it in the 
Oratory of St Catherine, which occupies the site of 
the dyer's shop in which she was bom, are found 
frescoes of events in her life ; among others, her 
receiving the Stigmata, by Sodoma. The Fonte 
Branda faces the church. 

Fonte Oiusto Church, near Porta Camullia, built 
1482, to conunemorate a victory over the Florentines. 
It contains B. Peruzzl's fine Sibyl announcing the 
Birth of Christ, to Augustus ; and a glove and other 
ex'voto offerings sent by Columbus, on his return to 

S. Francesco, near Porta Ovile, a large church, 
built 1326, by Agnolb and his brother Agostino. 
Here is a Descent from the Cross, a master-piece of 
Sodoma; whose A'escoes are seen in the Oratory 
of S. Bemadino, with paintings by Beccafumi, V. 
Salimbenl, etc 

S. Quirico, near the Botanic Gardens contains two 
good pictures, Vanni's Descent from the Cross, and 
Casolani's Flight into Egypt 

S. Martino, at the back of the Palazzo Pubbllco ; 
a fine church, with a front by Fontana, 1613. It 
contains della Quercia's coloured statues; Guercino's 
Martyrdom of St Bartholomew, and a curious 
Battlepiece by L. Cinl, who was present (1526), 
when it was fought outside the Camullia gate. 

Oli Servi («. e. Servants of Maria) Church, near 
the Lunatic Asylum and Porta Romana. 

S. Spirito, near Porta Pispini, built 1345; the 
cupola, 1504 ; the fh>nt added by B. PeruzzL It 
has paintings by Sodoma, Vanni, Salimbenl (four 
subjects in the Life of St Hyacinth) ; and a good 
fresco by Fra Bartolommeo. 

The Instituto delle Belle Arti, or * Academy, out of 
the Via Pellicceri, has a useful and interesting series 
of Siena artists, especially the early mast^ ar- 
ranged in six rooms, by Professor MussinL It begins 
with a St Peter and St John, by Pierrolini of 
Siena (about 1100 ?), and a Madonna and Child, on 
wood, by Guido di Ghezzo da Siena (1221), claimed 
by the Sienese as the earliest in modem art. It 
also comprises Sodoma's fine fresco of Christ at the 
Pillar. There are a few by Titian, Annibale Car- 
racci, etc. ; also cartoons of Beccafumi's ornamented 
pavement, in the cathedral ; and some good specimens 
of wood carving, for which Siena is celebrated. 

Facing the Palazzo Pubbllco, is the University, 
founded 1203. It has the tomb of Aninghieri, a 
jurist, by Goro di Gregorio (1874). 

The Biblioteca is in the room of the Academy 
degl' Intronati (t. e. the Heavies or Stupids). It 
contains 50,000 vols, and 5,000 MSS., among which 
are a prose version of the JEneid of the 13th century, 
Greek Evangelaires of the 9th century, brought from 
Constantinople. Letters of St Catheiine of Siena, 
dictated by her (she could not writeV«s& <^<. 
li. «nd¥. SwAxwA «t ^sKnakxkS^ <>ssr{Qb. \ha&ic*«6\ Ni»». 

bulnUns^a by Matteo da. Siena, Casolani, Vaimi, \Couiiawftot ^Q^\u\3Mv\sFUi>^'8^^ff^^ 


Chnret, hu B. Peroi . . 
Uou portnlt of Lsan, f^ BartuhKonK 
Pakuso PfUiiii, Ctilof Ihe Carmine 

an «ld QieiJInTa] cathedral lomi 

I, cslebrUed (Or 
towed on It by 

IE»IA, the blrtl- 

I'opeii, Floe n. and Flu HI., abore tba 

eiuu; and aner huUding '\ina 


I ancient iaate. eitcttd 190S 
llred. ts Cata Sw<ffamt, a 

1 r C 

of Uocauinf 'a lAy ; E 
ive Ihe B« HBd son ab 

Ltucuma, diiefly 

B- Fanuil, enulalhr hia Judgment of Farl«, tmm 
tlM dolgns rj BaphatL Han SL CaUieiine had 
faeidoiia^ aMablUiBd a nUgloua boue. ll ta But 
nviiled by old nBniiBta. ' 

Mtkacooitiyniind »eiia 1b bill oi DoiDitaln ' 
of a ToJcaaic cbanctsc, cblefiy Dable lail, mtb a 
tew oUvBtreaa ami rhieyirda. ' 

Lmlne Siena, ttu rail paiaes naai HonU Aperto, I ' 

EHeu and Fka, oiotbe FloitotiiKS, io li60, 
Aldana Slalion (poptdatlon, T,147) oi 
[Hen a ahort ndl bnnrhca oS to the right 

8. aioraima ffAuo siatinn ; la the ii 

wblch la BugnconTento Civile, where the Em 
Henry VIL Mrd, 1313, puisoaed by ths mini 

ToiranleTl Sbuimi, not fu liata UocteA 
and lea vlneyarda^J 

jph» ipepaiiulm, a. 

a Uttle inland watering 
a hlU. 1,304 foet high, 
fiir iU aii^hni nringa. 
taM tbeVii Cbluui, V/ 

of an apel, and Foggia GajetU; the 
le the tomb cf Portena, deeciibed by 
e Chdsllan catacombs are si Smta 

K To tt 

! railway 

Fluulle station (ponnlatlon, 2,284), 

I uw Orriato len tlie Chkuui)'one loo the 
' bft n) ere Uia nil from Aueoaa. Spoleta, an! 
etni n 11 taUin, and theore deacenda the I^ber w 

OaviETO, tte rrlu <w 

am^eiU hnue of Ilia MftdoanA, IL wta b^fflia In 
19M, ^ L, MklUnl St ateoa, nmtlj Snlihed <n (he 
UtJi ctBtmrr, bat not 11nA]l7 completed IJn about 
leaO, aTMC BMriyllXI*TddlccU. icaipton, piiliit«rs, 
Ma.hBdnnMbiitodtabulldindodDmit. TtitlirM- 
gMnA Imn, like tliu of SIen> Igomamanled. chleAy 

moillca, tnd statnca, by Ginvanni' da" PIm Mid filj 
popUi; tte labjKLs being e>-enu fioia the Old 
TeHonRiit, the Life of Ctriet, ili« Lost JnJgmciit, 

a lAke of ItDlKoi. In Paul te 
■nciont Etrartsn city of Volrto 

e or the Bleedlns Hon. 
with donlrtJ Bbont the 


•rrST^"lTh'"iiM l^Mn't'^ri?i^"Mo«W'?tTO DSSS'^ii''Mo^''Thi^"f ^I^tolidtJ 

■Dd m)i(bDloei«l di 

the Ngpitln ilained by the SleedfBB HoeC of BotHim, 
is rlchfy oraKngnffd. It hM H. di Monleliipi'f 

nupkln, by U V[eri, a Siena goldmnlth (18BS), 
Trtth twelve eiuiiiel1«liiting« of Ha Ulncle of the 

lb of G. di 

1 Sillerjr of paintings, by 

Palaiio Oiiallerlo _ _ _. 

Domenlojilno, C. Clgmnl, An. timed, etc. 
ThiPom Oi s. PaUtib C*.(. St. Patiig|[>, an 

piBca of PabriofDi^ Uw u 

aughlcr of Thwdoric the Qolli, w 

ig aloDg the old 

throofh too 
lenlngoB the right, l^ks 

The nwd pana on, luring on the rl 
Bnlicame, nnd [ts Bnlphnr Tupoon ; nod 
the Tu\ia fA FcTveMtfm; vn& v&u« '"^ 




near the site otFanwn VoltunuuB, in the Patrimony 
of St, Peter. 

^oto/.—AqoDa Nera, a good boose. 

Population, 13,850. 

This is the first Important city reached by the 
traveller in the now reduced Papal dominions, and 
was rebuilt by the Lombards, out of the ruins of the 
Etruscan town. There are traces left of an ancient 
neciopolis. It is a large walled town, containing 
50 churches ; has paved streets ; and is remarkable 
for the number of its fountauis, the best of which 
are in the Piazza Grande, and Piazza delia Kocca 
(by Vignola, 1566). Its peeorino cheese is excel- 
lent. Hither several Popes came to reside when 
their tmbulent Romans made themselves trouble- 
some ; atter it had been compelled to submit to the 
Pontifi^, and give up to them the chain of its principal 
;ratc. Adrian IV. is said to have made the Emperor 
Frederick Barbarossa hold his stirrup here, while he 
mounted his mule, before gr^vuig him the osculum 
jmcis; but this celebrated meeting took place at 
NepI, nearer Rome. 

The Cathedral of S. Lorenzo, is a Gothic church, 
on the site of a temple of Hercules. It has tombs 
of Popes, John XXI (killed at the Bishop's Palace, 
by the falling of a wall), Alexander IV., Alexander 
v., Clement, IV.; also, C. Maratti's St Laurence, F. 
Romanelli's St. Laurence in glo^ (at the altar), and 
A. Dih'ur's Christ and the Evangelists (in the 
sacristy). It was at this high altar that Henry of 
Cornwall, nephew of our Henry IIL, was in 1270 
stabbed by Guy de Montfort, hi revenge for the king's 
treatment of his grandfather, Sbnon de Montfort, 
after the battle of Evesham. Dante refers to the 
murderer, as he who 

" In Qod'» bosom, smote 
The heart still worshipped on the bsnlu of ThAmes," 

and puts him in the deepest pit of hell. At the old 
Bishop's Palace, a building of the 13th century, is 
the room in which the Conclave of CardUials chose 
Gregory X. and Martin IV., after many weary 
months of delay. The former was Marco Polo's 
patron ; and the latter, a Frenchman, was only elected 
in obedience to Charles of Anjou, by starving out 
the Conclave. 

S. Angela in Spada has in front an ancient Roman 
sarcophagus, containing the ashes of a certain beau" 
tlful Giuliana, of the 13th century. 

S. Francesco has the tomb of Adrian V., and S. 
del Piombo's Descent from the Cross; and the 
church of the Osserranti del Paradise contains his 
Flagellation. Santa Rosa, annexed to a nunnery, has 
a gold shrine, containing a famous black Virgin, 
called the " Rose of Viterbo." At the church of 
Santa Maria della Verita, outside the walls, is 
Lorenzo da Vlterbo's *Spozalizio, or Marriage of the 
Virgin ; a large and interesting fresco, fiill of por- 
traits, which occupied the painter twenty-five years. 

The Palazzo Pubblico was begun 1264, and finished 

tySIxtaa IV., aud has some Etruscan sarcophagi in 

tAff court, with a collection of vases, etc, in tbe 

The PaJatzo S. Martino, belonging to the Dorias, 
has a fine broad staircase, and the portrait and bed 
of the famous Olimpia Maidalchini, Innocent Xth*t 
SLBter-in-law, and prime minister. 

The Palazzo Famese is now the Foundling IIo9» 

Viterbo to Civita Vecchla, 35 miles; to Orta, where 
the rails fix)m Florence and Ancona will unite, 10 

At the church of Madonna delia Querela (on the 
Orte road), built by Bramnnte, are some terra cottan 
by L. della Robbia. Farther on, at Bagnaia, is th^ 
Villa Lanti, built by Vignola ; and stiU farther is 
Soriano, with a seat of the Albani family, on a clUT, 
commanding a fine view of the Tiber aud the Monte 
Cimino ridge. 

Descending towards Orte, is the Bassano Lake, 
ancient Locus Vadimonis, where the Romans defeated 
the Etruscans, b.c. 308. At Orte, under the name of 
Horta^ a military colony was established by Augus- 
tus, and among other relics is a bridge called Ponte 
d'Agostino. ' 

To the west of Viterbo, 5 miles, is Castel d'Asso, 
or Castellaccio, the site of the Etruscan Castellum 
Axice, remarkable for the number and size of its 
rock tombs, hewn in the solitary valleys around it ; 
and about 8 to 12 miles south-west of Viterbo, under 
Monte Cimino, are Bieda, ancient Brera, and Nordiia, 
equally lemarkable for Etruscan remains of the 
same character. They run in terraces, and are 
marked by rude sculptures and inscriptions. Ve- 
trulla (population 6,000) is the nearest town. Further 
south is Cantno, the seat of the late Prince Lucien 
Bonaparte ; who made large collections of antiquities 
here and published an account of his investigations. 

Leaving Viterbo, the road ascends the slope of 
Monte Cimino, to 

L' IiiPOSTA, near the top of tliis volcanic range, 
which is 3,000 feet high, and from which an extensive 
panoramic prospect is enjoyed, taking in the Apen- 
nines, the valley of the Tiuer, Mount Soracte, the 
Campag^a, and even of Rome (if the air be clear), 
though a day's journey off. Descend to 

RoNCiOLiONE (population, 4,800), an old place, 
with an old castle, iron works, etc., in a ravine of 
lava beds, under Monte Cimino, near the Vico Lake, 
the ancient Locus Ciininus, in a deep crater. Two 
or three miles south-west of it is Sutei, the ancient 
Sutrium, on the Via Cassia, with its Etruscan 
amphitheatre cut in the rock, having six rows of 
scats, and numerous cave tombs. To the east of 
Bonciglione is Caprarola^ a palace built by Vignola, 
for Cardinal Farnese, on a rock, and surrounded by 
pentagonal walls. The paintings are by Zuccaro, 
etc, and the fine gardens are in the Italian style 
The country about here belonged to the Famese 
family, till seized by Innocent X. Farther on. 
towards the Tiber, is Civita Castellana, so called 
from a strong fort built by Julius II. (See Route 27). 

After leaving Ronciglione, we enter the Campagna 
or Comarca, a wide, level, and for the most part 
desolate tract of volcanic soil, extending beyond 
Home, &a idx «a T«cc«Alna^ on the Naples frontier. 

Ivokauw YvW\a, "souw^k. "Ls^&ft "atwisikasva, ot Lofcxia 

Dicl»l<irCandl]ua.»aerBleny(at«'riefO. TbctoiL, 
ItienpiBaalhc Toinb of Nero, or F. V. Melijiibiih 

m old Itorann briilse tivur Iho 'Tiber, whcto t:i, 

rtithliadiett are St. PcMr'i, 81. Andrenr'iChurtli 
Villa Borgbese. the FioUaUiit Cemslerf, cle. : niu 

BOHI bjF the old Flnminlan Gntc, iind the fcn 
ri»2Mdel Popolo, near the EngUib cjunncr. ll»r< 
pisipoiti and luggage ace cimiliicd. Sue Route Cli 

ROUTE 27. 

miles, in tbirly-tlae 

a Croco SkitlOD. and Uicl: 

.. lU 8, (ilDvuinl..„.._... i 


Rlgnano Statliin {papnbtlon, 4.(38), ibont ilx; 

Id Ktanceiid Palace now belongs lo tlie Coirtnl 
unily. Here the nppet Aino. or Val d'Amo H 

ludsa SlDllon (population, 3,4B!),K> culled from 
10 manner in wbleh iha river aui ihrongh ihg cltffi. 

Flgllne SUtlon tpopnUlIon, 9,13T1, near which 

Sftll GlOVaJinl Station (population, 4,l97)i k 

llntera. Tonunuo QdIeU. lunalty called MuaCelO. 
r Diily Tom. and GloTannI MincEil, uiually called 

UOtkUvarcM SUtlon (population, O.OTS). Hers 

AUEZZO Station, 
rho Bndent Arrttium, now tho capital of a provinca, 
liauli.— Peru ; Eotopa ; Hold Itoyale. 

It iUnds on two tallli, in a fine plain, thiM mlln 
yoin the Amo, on or near tbe tite of the old KitnU' 
am eily, wlilcb was occupied by tbe Conml, Flaout- 

Lhe CloMne inar<hn, aud defeated bim at Thrasy- 

... !l] I 

.._„ so] 

Camplobbl aiallon, irltb Ficsole, etc,, In vicv 
FontaBBteve Elation (popnlatlon, IO,ID!), tii 
Ravenna (over the Apon 

Praio Magno ridge (4,700 feet bigh), in a gorgp of 
which li VaUombroia and i1« "Btnrlan Bbed?^," 
ciRht mllei ttom PontiuilevB. Camaldall. anottiei 
celebrated convent. It high ap tn tbs Apenidiita, 
AbDDt twenty milea dlitont- 

C who fortified tbe town, made Toada. 
C3, was a good statesman, and ndied 
I blB bed. 1E27, in ipile of a thundering 
ilundered by Ingtlram de Coney, or 
talnieOO. It lawelUinilti UieMreela 

, leprinel. 
I'nbhllCD, Dogaha, Theatre, 

remarkable ai the birthplace of many 
31, from HBCocaa, downward). The 
Includes Petrarch, accidentally horn here. 

IM bqadssaVb 

ITAtmeo, tha far a ihiT of Uh niula] ilsff anrl 
nualail K>H A\ rr, iM, e<c.j uiDttaar Gnltloiu. 
poet of DuU'i lea: Poiw JsUiu IIL, wid Clrdlm 
BlbWeo---- " — ■ •■—-' ■- 

I "Aretloet" great ani 
n wsn tU Dia tbe city. 
9 old M nppsr town, cuted Sobborgo, rtuid 

Itallu-Ootblc (Qih, b7 AmoUO dl L^po, 


borlsd beie. II tvu 

Ik. WlUlui. <>r 

■CDlptor, and architecL and 
(Ulupd in the lltb eeninry, mi 
flDB Btalned wlndom by m Freoct 
MmeillMi who il» )i^nn ibe fi-EscDCi 01 tne 1 J 
tnbihedbyCutilliicld'Areiia. Hlgb illu, by C 
nunl da Pat (ISSfi}, wiib bi»-relie{i at the pai 
adnt. TombandeffigiH.el&.orTiu'lUeitheagbi 
Urtiop, by Um brvtbea AgoaiiaD and Api 
aS3T-3l}), wEth a lerlea ot rixteon bai-reUe& of 
eTenta bi bia etiiilne life Har^uUoiw'a tomb 
(Irefrory X., vho died here. Slatua of Fenlbir 
... "-^i-i^ (ly QioTuini da Bologna. Monomt 

Uw palulbigi are a MadpOcn. bj Pic 


h. by Ben' 


on the fr 

:nvenll«a of the Cm», ■ 

8. Uaria d/Ba Pimr 
built IHS, bf Marcblon 

. Tba AnblTOi cod 
1 or Ctiulsnugnt. 

i the Victory otConilun 
dow by ^imam of Mai 
Piazza Grande, 

colnmnB In Eta finnt, If Lth Taanyd^urea. It conUU 
Vasaji'fl BL George and the Uragoo, and other pjuu' 
loga by him, iilth family pnrtrilla. 

Tbe BoiT<lat of Santa Maria MJa jVlKriconiJii i 
■ OoUiic bniiaing of tie Uib century. It hri 
library of 1D.O0O Tola, and tome antlqglileB. At tli 

Abbey or BaMi of 8. Flora, or " " — '— ■- 

, ^„^ o, AftMoeran ., , 

■e It m PaiHc Jfuieani 

The Paland PuMItco. ot Town Hall. bnlU Mti, 
Eiaa been modenilaed. Hext to ihiM la a gmll* ry or 
Loggia. Me feet long 1 a baudaome ptle, by Vaaail, 
Indndbii a Theatre, Dogana. etc Hera Ij a autua 

Haosoai anclsd ^ 

waaUieboiuabiwUcbVHari ma bom. 

BoDtfia, to fUcoa 43 ipUea: (oLaclgnaito 
dlnctrontatsRamejK milea; la Borgo 3i 
Urbbio andPoaro. over tbe ApeuDlnei, ism 
Sorgo SepolcTo, Gobble and Ancona, 40 m 
CIIU di Caalello, by a ilgzaf, 10 rallea. 

The PalBi Ctolna, or ClDBine Manh, to tie 
Aieiio at the bead of Val dl Chluu, hu been 
by tbe KiHghIa of at Stepbon, at Floren 

deporitofg<>odearlb,aadweretbsn>IiiIcedoE Thll 
being repealed gaTBioUdlty to tbe bog, and gradual^' 
raUed it above tbe level of the floodi, and turned it 
Into rich arable ull. now divided Ento Urge faUurit 

Leaving Aroiio, the lowna on the road towarda 

Ceittglioae norentlno ) 

to. Maria degUAngclE i 

Lrezao, Flguno, and Moiitepulclaoo. Fojauo. niae 
idles dlalant, la near (he LaelgDano Slalioa on tlM 
llenaraUvay. (See Rente ZSJ. 
a ■ blt^op*! B« OwpDlallon S(,9MI and the onelent 
loryVn* or Cort^M, the capital of Etruria and 
ne of tbe oldeet of the Ktmacan ddea ; the waits of 
rhldi. rnade of the ^cke of uncemenled stone. In 
Aat la called Uie Cyclopean or Pelaaglc atyle, sUU 
lUt aa fomidatEons to the modem ones. 

OKeli,— Eoiopa. Good table wide here Ij Id. • 
uk. The S. Vlcenza 1) excellent. 

Tbere b>« alao timces of Roman batlx : and oat* 
" '^ ' i, A^nillno, It an Etnucaa aepulchra 

mxD-eMkK TO 

L> at l*T(biciHU), Uie Grolta dm Pit- 

r » "l^P Mil. ioa-ag vineyatii 

on airill" iFarsnOi), &nd orerlKiUng thebeautUU 
Tal di Chlgiw uid the TMuymenein ■■■'"• It hai 

UtcTy rpfltored, haa Si^orct 

r; PiotrodnCorti 

Tu.— Ia SigQorelil'a iind Fr 

Ifi. or iiloody lUver, 
He bj iho Dorgbmio 

'our milu. tha InlUc w*i Isnght iihUi tidtA b 
Li3aBtnll^r 'or "» Ramua. Tbfdr CoMBi m* 
dllid, ud odIt S.<)i» Romiui* waiped. II luted 
brae hoEuifl, duiinff irhLoh ib rtTThrpM^ff o«im«d 
.ihicb oTaitbrew many tomu ii Iti^i bM iru im- 
bolloed by tiifi combotAuts, 


his gradoslljr d« „. _ 

it PBattgnaiio la a eooTdit It la bradstd 
Is coTered vilb i^uea, oakB. rmd oUna; 

Iho Tiber. 

From P.* 

tmju^ lb 

!, aiid°theDC9 




It Arum or 

ty, blsbop 


nuium, po^ T«^ and 

The Pffl^nno Pnimo, or To™ HiOl. la tbs saat of 

Pcjjiulalim, 41, e». 

llic Accadsmia Elnisca, founded nss, wilh n lihraty 

■cA,q^ 0^-(c(j n^ ft'5(to>-Fontino Manrtom. Ei- 

of books and MSa„ and a muKam of anliquliiea, 

ciauge, Dsoau, & t'raiicesot^ S. I'IqUd Mun, Plc- 

broniestoto. Ainong the portraiu H ona Of LonJ 

Wro Gall«y, 

Tliii old oity is the npiW of the modem dirWoa 

Hetumlnfc- lo Camuacia, Ihe road asctnda pait 

of Umliria, bal It waa aiKienll)' an Elniaaui town. 

OasAJs, Ibe liut place on Ihe old Tuacan IVotitUr, lo 

being tbrio milaa froot tbx Tiber, irfakh tHe Romana 

tho mmmit of lie Spclunca ohun, vihich loot, on 

Qimls tfae boaDdarr bNweui Etrurla and Umbrla, 

V,l1 dj ChUna and Iho famoas Thraalinfiw Lake, 

which Li/ bByoud uwarda the Apannlnea. im 

rivara Topbio and Chiaaolo jolu the ■Hbmatlha toot 

(the bill. In the y«r GO b.c, during tli* aMODd 
[iuniTlrale, It waa bald b; M«rh Aotooy'i brotber 
' " ' ' "K aftenrarda Augiutu^ who pluH 
It after A long ai^ bat rwtored It 

lia'ammolt of n donble toppni MU. 
bi^h, uidEasuiTouiidedbfoJd walla 
lit, andeiing a apace only balf built 

ttvM deTudtdb) 

1313 curicd off 10(l,Ma penoiu at ths ctt? inJ 
HiTlroiui. but H bu ucftped tbecboEenorthApti'- 
KDl centnr)'. IntbemiildlBBguUtiKiktheaiKLph 
■Idi!, and then ftiU wtdertbe pmraror Bnceio de Ma.i. 
^4^ umunad fltitninniL ttw" ' 
airong dtidd, bDlltWPiiiI IIL, u 
Bi IMS, the •Haul irhlch, nova . 
muidi a flat UMpMI of tbt ApuinlDu aod Lake 
Tbrttrrmnck Tbe dieu Ibr th* giniM oT pilloiw ii 
<iloH by. In tZia pnaant Abj it baa bacoma iiotoiiou» 
Ar a «oirai^ and mnlan Mladi of tha Swiss me r- 
coiaiteaidtbsP^e, la Jaly 1809, irt» placed " 

ing It haa prnduced, and alio for a ac^oo] of paJntlo^-, 
*» Umbrikn Bchoot. (ooadad by P. PrmgiitQ, whoao 
^1 naios was P. Taimaod. of CasUiUo dalla Pier?, 
r de Caatro Hebls. irheie ho tb> bom.butnliii 
lbc5 niiTOO from PtmslB, where he leamf d hia art, 
Eld paintr^d eevemi pLctnrw for the Cambb, etc ; 
l» the Th^ and Child, noir In our National Gal. 
ry. He waa the learher of Kavliael, the ireat 
milder «f the Soman school. Other pnplin weri^ 
icmardo dl Betlo or Plntuiicehlo, a nailva iTf 
■erugia; A. LnlBi, caUed rinfegno! 8p 
■0 Sragna ; and B. Zoppo, a Floienllna, 

of wblch ronn [ 
■a of the history oi 

e-emhicntly important 
European i^ilfiaUon, 
Ity - -■ 

hiitaryofBelngledty. The importancfl an 
Khicb attach to It in til Ibeae reqwta ti 
fUlTrecovDiaedbya ft^at numlwr of oatir 

-aaiivD. a buildbie of the 14tli century, 

ilB. or 

'oB^iort, one of the flnat worlta of s.rt 

publiahod ISM.' by Vertlnilglloli, nllh 

V ofmnbla, iiyWceoll) da Piia t> 

krniflti dl Lapo. and the third at 1^ of brenn, 
incluilo dealKni of the II monthe, headi of Adam 

^riilin (for Perugia), two eagles, etc On tho second 
Konii^, St. Paul, Fertility. Abundance. Nymphe, olc' 
T)ie P<tiaai> PubbHco. or dePriori, of the 13th 

ir«t in Pirajino (ISOO); which aro 
111 l>la btM. Ammg these are Ood lh< 
IhBybllaaad Ptophcta; IhoNatirtty an 

iB5,N. Pompllius. *■'-■- ■'-■-' ■"- 

a, which flonriJhed Ik 

with Baroo^^a D«eent from liie Cnm. 

J. Slgnorelli'i high altar-pic 

I Btrlpea of green and blue, 
i. Bibles of the Till 

wore done ISes. 

In the Canons- Ubn 
anil Hib century, and Uie first b( 
(HM). B. Capra'i Gli Gaaigli. In me fiaiis uei 
Du.ra.i are the Fountain ajid Governor's Pahuje. 

chapel painted byPeroglno; Goi'tbe Father, and 

Nnlivilyand Baptiem of Chrial, etc.. and hi^has- 
riilitliln thechi^. D. AUanl'a celling. In the Con- 

S. Aitgtio, near Porta B. Angelo; a perfectly 
round cbnrch of the »lh andStb centuries, lis loot 
illaineter, built on the site of a temple o( Vesta, 
of wUch it contilne 15 pillars out of 2S in the wliola 

perhaps, a tiaptistry. ' 

la mafttta or a. Btnardiaa. has a front, by A. 
riiiu Itohbia. 1461, In a half-Qothlc stylo; nnda 

.S. rh^mmia, lu Via Pap^ a largo chnrch rebuilt 

has bomo terra coltas, 1^ A. dciia KobMn. with 
li,^ro 13M of potopn), Is a weH-carve-l work, *liy Da 



S. Ercolano^ at the eomer of Via Papale, is of the 
ISth century. 

*S. Francesco de ConverUuali, near Porta della 
Coiica, an old Gtothic church, restored 1757. It has 
the remains of Braccio da Montone, who was killed 
1424; Perugino*s St. Sebastian, done at the age 
©f 72 ; Saints, by C. Alfani ; and T. Bartoll's Virgin 
and Child (1403), the only one of this master, in the 

& Francisco del Monte, outside Porta S. Angelo, 
1ms a Nativity, by Perugino; S. Oirolamo, at the 
end of Via Papale, an altar-piece, by his pupil, 
Finturicchio ; and S. Giuliana (built 1292), outside 
Porta del Castello, has another Perugino. 

Madonna di Monte Luce, outside Porta Peso, is a 
balf-Gothic church, by G. Dante. 

Santa Maria Nuova^ near Porta S. Tommaso, has 
Pcrugino's Adoration of the Magi (with his own 
) ortrait) and S. del Plombo's St Sebastian and St 


JS. Maria del Popolo, built 1547, by G. Alessi, who 
is buried in St Fiorenzo's church. 

•S, Pielro fuori di Mnra, (i. e. outside the wall) 
but now inside Porta Costanza; a basilica church, 
annexed to the great Benedictine conyent, on the 
Frontone promenade, commanding a fine prospect of 
the Tiber. It is otherwise called S. Pietro de' Cassi- 
nensi. It has 18 old granite and marble pillars, and 
several Perugia masters — as Perugino's Dead Christ, 
nnd five small paintings in the sacristy; Raphael's St. 
Jwhn, and the Infant Jesus, one of his earliest 
v.'orks. Also ten pictures by Aliense; V. Salm- 
l)cni'3 Vision of St Gregory; La Spagna's Madonna; 
P. Alfani's Assumpt'on ; B. Bonfigli's Descent from 
tlve Cross; Sassoferrato's Judith; Frescoes, by Va- 
Fari ; Mino da Fiesole's bas-reliefs; Caravaggio's Sta. 
I'rancescar D. Dossi's Head of Christ; Titian's 
Eccc Homo; Bassano's Crown of Thorns; Guer- 
cino's Christ Bound. The wood carvings and inlaid 
work of the choir, are by two Bergamo artists. 

S. Pietro Martire, has a fine Madonna and Angels, 
by l\;;n.'.:ino. 

' S. Severo, at the Camaldoli Convent has Ra- 
plinpl's first fresco (1505), with additions by Perugino 
(i: : I . Their names are inscribed. 

S. Tommaso has the Unbelief of St Thomas, a 
fine work by Giannicola, of the Perugia school 

The University, founded 1320, is placed in the 
Olivetan Convent near Porta S. Angelo, and is well 
attended. It comprises a library; cabinets of 
minerals and plants, etc. Here is the Archaeological 
Museum (Gabinetto Archaeologico), containing Etrus- 
can and Roman bronzes and silver articles, bas-reliefs, 
vases, medals, and 80 inscriptions ; one, the longest 
Etruscan inscription known, contahis 45 lines. 
Another relic is a quadriga or racing car. Here is the 

*Pinacoteca or gitUery of paintings, chiefly of the 
ITmbrian school; as Giannicola's Madonna En- 
throned; Perugino's Madonna and Saints ; Pinturic- 
chio'sEvangelists and Saints; B. Gozzoli's Madonna; 
T. Barloli's Madonna; and other works by La 
Spagna, Alfani, etc. 

There are several private galleries of paintings, 
chiefly of Perugino's school and collections of 
antiquities ; sonoe of which are on sale. The largest 

gallery is that of Palazzo Penna. At the Palazzo 
Conestdbai'Staffa is the Staffa Madonna of Raphael, 
a small one and one of his earliest works. The 
Public Library, In Via Riaria, contains 30,000 vols, 
and MSS., including early editions of the 15th 
century, and MSS. works of At^^tine (13th 
century). There is a theatre near the Corso. 

The Lunatic Asylum (de* Mentecatti), is outside 
Porta Margherita. Large cattle fairs are held here 
in the first three weeks of August 

About one mile outside the city, near Ponte di 
S. Giovanni, on the road to Rome, an Etruscan, 
necropolis was discovered in 1840, called the Grotta 
de'Volunni (or of the Volmnnii). On the Florence 
road, near Commenda, is another Etruscan relic, 
called Tempio di S. Maimo. About 12 miles distant 
is the Camaldoli convent of Montecorona, planted by 
the monks, up the mountains among forests of pines. 

Routes to Chiusi on the Siena rail, 26 miles; to 
Gubbio and Ancona. From Perugia, the direct road 
to Rome, is down the Tiber vui Todi and Narnl 
(60 miles) ; but the road viA Assisi, Foligno, Spoleto 
and Nami, is, the most interesting, though 20 or 25 
miles longer. Todi, along the direct road is the 
ancient Tuder^ on the ViaAmerina, a cathedral 
town, with several churches, one of which (La Con- 
solazione) is by Bramante. 

Leaving Perugia, the high road crosses the Tiber, 
or Teverone, at Ponte S. Giovanni (near the ancient 
necropolis above mentioned) into Umbria. It passes 
Bastia, a small town (population 3,123), half ruined 
by the earthquake of 12th February, 1854. 

Sakta Maria degli Asgeix, so called from the 
fine church of the Madonna, built 1569 by Vignola; 
round the little stone cottage or Oratory of St 
Francis, in which ho began his ascetic way of life, 
1206. On the front is a It^ge modem ftesco, by 
Overbeck, in imitation of the early masters of the 
Umhrian schooL It contains some old firescoes by 
Lo Spagna, and is annexed to the large metropo- 
litan convent of the Franciscans called the Porti- 
imcula, as being the &nt portion obtained by the order 
from the Benedictines in 1511. Pilgrims flock hither 
and to Assisi, 2l8t July to Ist August and 4th 
October, to benefit by the indulgences of St Francis. 
This pile was damaged by the earthquakes of 1832 
and 1854, but has b^n restored. From here it is H 
mile to Assisi, up the hills, a little out of the high 
road, which may be joined again at Spello, farther 
on. This excursion takes five or six hours. 


The ancient Assisium, a bishop's see, and the birth- 
place of St Francis d' Assisi, and Metastasio. 

Population 13,872. 

It is a walled town, on the side of a picturesque 
mountain, overlooking the valley of the Topino, a 
branch of the Tiber ; and contains several relics of 
the old Roman town or municipium; ^mong whicp 
are remains of a forum, baths, aqueducts, vases fseen 
at the public fountains) and a Temple of Minerva^ 
tiovf turned into a church of the Madonna. It 
stands in the market ^lacft% -vbRx^ nJc^^ ^t^v^^'Sk "'^^ 



colamiu, 81 ftet hi^ iaokidinf tb* bMe and 
capitals. It was tha only building whieh Goetba, 
whose taste was hyper-olassical, would look at when 
he visited Asaisi in 1786. It balongs to the ooosre» 
gation of the Osatory. Tbera is « oastle on the slcpa 

The Duano eTS. Rvibano^ of the 12tb century, was 
restored hi the 10th century by G. Alessi. It has an 
ancient crypt) and a fine Roman sarcophagus, 
with a bas-relief of Diana and Endymion, now used 
as an altar. 

Santa CAiom, built 1253, by F. da Campelto, is 
dedicated to a female disciple of St Francis, uid 
has some firescoes by Oiottino. 

Chiesa Nuova, or the New Chureht occupies the 
site of the house in which St Francis was bom, 
1182. He became the founder of one of the four 
mendicant orders, known as the Franciscans, or Grey 
friars, or Brothers of the Oratory, and died here 
l:t26; soon after which a church was built on his 
grave, and dedicated to him, which is the chief object 
of notice with most visitors, on account of its early 
frescoes of the 19th and lith centuries, its painted 
windows, etc. 

This church of *8. FrcmcetoOy built for the most 
part between 1228 and 1268, by a German architect 
Jacob or Jocopo, consists of two churches (or three 
including the crypt) one over the other Uke steps, on 
the slope of the hill side. The lower church is dark 
and grim looking, in comparison with the cheerful 
one above it ; and there are but few characteristio 
mouldings to mark the style, which is rather Ger- 
man than Italian. The crypt underneath contains 
tlie body of St. Francis in a tc«nb cut in the rock. 
The mountain behind, about three miles off, cal- 
led Monte Sebasio, rises 8,990 feet, and here is the 
" Carccri " or Grotto to which the saint went to 
pray; near a small priory, which has a splendid view 
over the vale of Umbria. 

"This Church," says Fergnsson (Hand-Book <tf 
Architecture)^ " depends on its painting much more 
tiian on its architecture, for its magnificence and 
character. In the first place it is small, the upper 
I)uildhig being only 225 feet by 36 iu width; and 
though the lower one has side aisles which extend 
tlie width to 100 feet, the upper church is only 
CO feet in height and the lower about half as high; 
so that it is far too small for much architectural 
display. The whole church is covered witli fresco 
paintings in great variety and of the most beautiful 
character, which render it one of the most cele- 
brated and admired of all Italy. Without its fres- 
coes and if found on the noith side of the Alps, it 
would hardly attract any attention." 

The entrance is through the Loteer ChurePt, 
which is always open, and is reached by a 
narthez, or vestibule^ added in the 15th c^itury, 
close to chapels painted by Buffalmaeeo imd O. 
Sermei. The side chapels within are aa follow:— 
St. Louis's or Stephen's Chapel (on the right) <-Fre8- 
coes, bySpagna and A. Ooni, whose Prophets and 
Sibyls are hi the ceiling. St. Antlumy's Chapsl-^ 
J'^vgetmJiyraSeami, paiatedM tbe 16th century, 

over those of Glotthio, emepthia CotonctiOBOf tha 
Virgrin. Magdalen Chapel — Frescoes by BnSiid- 
maoco. RifflU TraMepi--Fnaooe6 by T. Gaddi and his 
pupil, Giovanni of Milan ; and the Annunciation, by 
P. Canipanna. Bight TransaH OAotpel— Freecoea 
by Giottino, and L. and S. MemmL Between the 
Choir and iVoM— Freeooes, by Giotto, of the Fran- 
ciscan vowt of Poverty, Chastity, and Obedience, 
and St Francis in Glory ; with the Crucifixion, by 
P. GayallinL L^ft Transept-^F. Capanna's Life of 
Christ And the Stigmata of St Francis, whose por^ 
trait by Oiunta da Pisa, is in the sacristy adjoininc^ 
Chapels on the 10 jiefe—Coronation of the Virgin, 
by Giottino or Fra Martfaio; T. Gaddi's CmcifixiOB 
and Frescoes by S. MemmL 

The Upper Church, seen for a fee to the cnstode, 
is adorned vrith frescoes on the vralls and ceiling, 
by Giotto, Cimabue, and Giunta da Pisa; but the 
exact share of each is disputed by art critics. The 
subjects are from the Bible and the life of St 
Francis. The inlaid work and stalls of the chohr are 
by D. da San Severino, of the 16th century. Behind 
the altar is the rope of Santa Lercia's bell, by ringing 
which with their teeth on a day in August, unlimited 
indulgence is bought by the peasantry. In the 
cloisters and refectory of the convent are portraits 
of some early Franciscans, and a Lord's Supper, by 
A. Don! and Sollmena. Like other buildings, this 
one was much shaken by the earthquake of 1854. 
The brethren here have got rid of the obligation of 
absolute poverty. 

From Assisi return to the road, under Monte 
Subiaso, at 

Spello (population, 3,000), a small town, steep and 
ill built; the anciQnt Hispellunit containing a Roman 
gate, called Porta Veneris, and some fine frescoes by 
*Pinturiochio. in the churches of S. Francesco and 
Santa Maria Maggiore. Those of the latter (in the 
Baglioni Chapel) have been engraved by the Arundel 
Society; and it has also two frescoes by Ferugina 
It was damaged by the earthquake of 1854. At 

FOLIGKO, or Fcligno, 

the ancient Foliginum^ the road joins the Via 
Flaminia, and the road and railway from Ancona 
to Rome (See Route 29) ■ To Ancona, 4 hours; Fano, 
over the Furlo Pass, 12 hours. 

Population, 19,078. 
Hotel. — ^La Posta. 

Foligno, before its incoirporation with the States 
of the Church in 14d9, was an independent republic; 
now part of the Italian kingdom. It is a handsome 
bustling town,, and overlooks the fine valley of the 
Clitunmus> or Maroggia, famous for its fine long- 
horned, white cattle, which furnished the victimts 
^ra»(fei for the triumphs and sacrifices. It joins the 
Topino, a little below. 

It haa a. small, Gothic cathedral, dedicated to S. 
Feliciano, with red marble lions at the door, and 
several churches; one of which, Santa Anna, built 
by Bramante, contained Raphael's ''Madonna di 
FoUgno," now in thft Vatican. This, like T.Aluxmo 

Id PBrfa. OppoiltE the Furgito;; Church, la u 
obeEisk, annmmnted by ■ cmckfix, uid a lamp kept 
prrpeiaidljr IMitsd. Hem flic Flmrinaa Wb? iMdt 
■ IwpUne to Hunl, pu^g Bcngiu, or MtKwia 
(dodei Hoot* Falco), ihc bIKbplue ol ProptiUu 
tlwngh be 1> claimed tiy fbUfnn uid Stella 
TBaTi,ttwBonuiiiIVitra,JiiuiwipbiUi««tn of 
ie Uadonu iCbtireh, ia PeniglDO'B AdoratJoiL 

re rea^tng tbe Le Vece poat-horae, flip 
10, a Ultle cryrtAl icrcjuu at the bead of the 

yt Uiemi<erbBd Ihe npotUloi] dC Khllen- 

" Fait Dot DDbkM tbe Qenlna of ibe ptacel 
If thnogh the air a lephrr more eerenn 
Win to the brow, 'tis bit ; and If yt ince 
Mmg hla rnareini ■ more eloqaent (reen. 

Sprinkle Ita coobfai, and from Ibe dry dmt 

■With Nnure'a hapllBm, 'lia to Mio ye mint 
Pay orlBona for Ibia auapen^oD of dififiut," 

averaed by ai 

he bead ot a darby by the Lombanl 

s tilunptial Ati^ wilb 


beoftbeltkw Bth a 

iidol a Temple 
m la tbe Ciucl- 


'becilsrie'i Bd*M, olileb wai I 
Dnriui-uin^y tiisOotlu. It ta> 

LI, LiDtrido Porta Itammii, te aootber I-oia- 
h. Tbe Ficadel commandaBTtewof tbe 
1, I'erugla, Etc. It was RalUintly deftndaj 
III Brigade on behalf of Ibe Pc^ Is 18W. 
'aliiw PobbUeo. or Town H.IJ. Ii a freaw 

id tmfflea an among the pndnctwu of 
aptH atandins on a haHmeot oC CTclopeaii 

spanned by the aQuednct, is a vharmln^ 
ELTed with Ana old oaka, odo of whloh la 
of 911 Ita rooiid. Hen I> ibe andcM 

eiiificent Fall* of Tend, irb 
EciropH! Isole Brilamdcbe. 

Sli.itl^ Ouuldi the wBllt 19 part of a Romin brMje, 
fi.pljHrf hj- i;oe of Clemant VIU., built ISOI. Sloce 



Like those of Tlvoli, these Foils, called Caduta del 
Marmore, are artificial in their origin, having been 
made, in the first instance, by the Consul M. C. 
Dentatus, 240B.a,who, to drain the sarplua water 
-which inundated the valley of the Velino, made or 
widened a cat through the cliff down to the lower 
level of the Kera. Here the water " clears the wave 
worn precipice,** and falls into the gulf below, about 
800 feet, in three le{q)s, the middle one being 500 feet 
perpendicular, and the lower one a succession of 
rapids. The channel ils about 50 feet wide. Some 
estimates make the total fall only 455 feet, which is 
nearly equalled by the Fall of Foyers, in Scotland ; 
a fall which in Dr. Glarke*s opinion ranks next to 
that of Temi. This fall far exceeds the Falls of 
Schafihausen in Switzerland. One strildng view 
can be got A-om the Specola, a pavilion built by 
FiusVL, overhanging the fall, and here also is a 
fine prospect of the valley and hills around ; but the 
best view of the waters is obtained from the Nera 

Lo where it comes Uke an eternity. 
As if to sweep down all things in its track. 
Charming the eye with dread; a matchless Cataract 

Horribly beautiful !— but on the surge 

From side to side, beneath the glittering moon 

An Iris sits, amidst the infernal surge 

Like Hope. — Byron. 

These rainbows are seen at different parts of the 
fulls in the sunshine. The waters here, as in otiicr 
parts of Italy, have a petrifying quality, and deposit 
much tartrate of lime on the wood and mosses. Near 
this is a villa once inhabited by Queen Caroline. 

From the Falls the road may be followed up the 
Velino, to the Pie* da Luco Lake; and on to Rieti, 
in the Roman Tempe^ and Aqnlla, among the Sabine 
Hills, in the Abruzzi, and thcnco round to Naples. 
(See Route 31.) 

Leaving Temi, for Rome, the country continues 
to have the same hilly and picturesque character, to 

Nabni, a small old cathedral town (population, 
8,124), on a height over the ^era, in a beautiful spot, 
the site of the ancient Nequinuni^ or Namia, a 
Toman colony, which refused to help the mother 
city after the battle of Cannae. The Duomo is of 
the 18th century ; at the Zoccolanti Convent, on a 
hill facing the town, is a fine Spagna (the Coronation 
of the Virgin) ; and in the neighbourhood is the 
Ponte Rotto, a Roman bridge, built by Augustus, 
across a ravine, on the Nera. The remains consist 
of one large arch, and parts of two others. 

Amelia, the ancient Ameria, another Umbrian 
town, and a bishop's see, is away to the right towards 
the Tiber. To Orte, at the intended junction of the 
rails, is eight miles. 

The road follows the old Flamiuian way, with 
hills and villages around, to 

OxRicoti, or Ocrietaum (population, 1243), where 

Mount Soracte comes into view to the south, at 

the other side of the Tiber, which makes a sudden 

oeadtowardt, and then away from the town ; a fact 

which Ariosto turns to account In his Orlando, 
canto xiv. — 

** Un slmil luogo con girerol onda 
botto Ocricoli 11 Tevere circondo." 

The road crosses the Tiber at 
. PoNTB Felice, so called firom an old three*arched 
bridge, built by Augustus, and restored by Sixtus 
v., the famous Cardinal Felice (Felix), of Montalto. 
A steamer may sometimes be taken here, which 
descends the Til)er, to Rome, in ten to t^velve hours. 
Here the French, under Macdonald, defeated the 
Neapolitans, in 1798. Passing 

BoROHETTO, a mcdiroval fortress, the first place in 
Etroria, and in Papal territory, we come to 

CrviTA Castellana, a picturesque walled town 
(population, 8,500), on a volcanic peninsula, the site 
of Falerium Vetus^ one of the Twelve Etruscan 
cities ; between the Treja and Rio Maggiore, which 
runs in the ravine. A bridge, for the road and 
aqueduct, called Ponte del Tcrreno, 130 feet high, 
crosses the latter. Here is a Gothic cathedral (121 u), 
with a castle commanding a fine view of Mount 
Soracte, etc., built by Julius II. The town walls are 
Etruscan in part, and in the ravine below are many 
Etruscan tombs. The convent of Santa Maria do 
Faleri, to the west, marks the site of Falerium 
Novus, or the Roman city, which succeeded the 
Etruscan; and wliich has remains of uncemcnted 
walls, thirty feet high, with gates, etc., in an almost 
perfect state of preservation. This neighbourhood 
was inhabited by the Faliscl or Phalisci, of Greek 
origin, and was famous for its pastures, and the 
venter Fahscus, a kind of sausage mentioned by 

About seven or eight miles east of this is the 
famous isolated peak of Mount Soracte, a limestone 
hill, 2,800 feet high, once crowned by a temple of 
Apollo, now turned into a convent, dedicated to a 
certain "Sanf Oreste;" so called from a hermitage 
to wluch Ch. ilartel's son, Carloman, King of Aus- 
trasia (once part of France), retired to feed pigs and 
die. There is a village on the slope. Near the 
chapel of Santa Romana is a curious grotto. It 
enjoys, as might be expected, a wide panoramic 
view, and is covered with snow a good part of the 
year; as Horace remarks — 

** Vides ut altar stet nive candidum 

From Civita Castellana, the Way to Rome may be 
followed, vid Nepi (a walled town with an aqueduct), 

MoNTEROSi, where it joins the high road from 
Siena (Route 26); or we may take the shorter route 
by the Flamiuian Way to Rignano, under Monte 
Soracte. and 

Castel Nuova, the site of Ad Vicessimane, four- 
teen miles from Civita Castellana. The Sabine Hills, 
Tivoll, Albano, etc., are in sight From this it is 
twelve miles through the treeless and dreary Cam- 
pagna, to Saxa Rubra, near the Tiber, at the junction 
of Via Tiberiana ; and ten miles further, past Ponte 
MoUe, to 

Ko^iE Cs<iQ Route 32V 



ROUTE 28. 


ANCONA Station. 

On the beach, near that town, which preserves its 
old Roman name, and its importance as the l>est 
harbour in the Adriatic, south of Venice. It is a 
porto franco^ wliich means that you may bring what 
you lUte into it, but pay duty for what you take out; 
that is, it is a great bonded warehouse. An old 
rhyme says— 

" Unus Petrus est in Romft 
Una turns in Cremonft 
Unus port us in Anconft." 

Tli.s shows how much the harbour is tliought of 
by the Italians, who also style it the " Doric City." 

iiro(e2s.— -Royal; De la Paix. a good one ; L'Eu- 
ropa ; La Victoria ; La Femcc. 

Good fish are got here. 

Population, 40,185; of whom 5,000 are Jews, 
living in the Ghetto, in small densely crowded 
streets, so narrow that two persons cannot pass 
abreast, with an indescribable want of cleanliness, 
light, and air. 

Conveyances. — Railway to Bologna, Trani, etc. 

The railway was opened to Aucona in May, 1861, 
by the King of Italy, and is now extended to Trani. 

Steamers to Trieste, Corfu, and Alexandria (see 
Bradshato's Continental Guide). It is on the direct 
route to Alexandria and offers the shortest sea 

English Consul.— G. Gaggiotti, Esq. 

*' The first impression the aspect of Ancona pro> 
duces on the traveller is favourable in the extreme. 
It had l)een visible to us for the Uist twenty miles 
of road (from Florence), and looked exceedingly 
picturesque, rising from the very edge of the water 
in terraoe-like succession, till it reached the summit 
of the mountain, crowned by an old cathedral, whose 
quaint semi-Byzantine architecture, gilded by the 
setting sun, stood out in admirable relief against the 
glorious sky." — Mrs-Gretton's Englishwoman in Italy. 

Ancona stands on the summit and side of a fine 
simlcircnlar chalk promontory, which projects into 
the sea, and forms a natural harbour and amphi- 
theatre, between Monte Guasco and Monte Astayguo 
or Capo di Monte. 

The promontory is shaped like an elbow, and 
firom this circumstance It derives its name of Ancon, 
bestowed upon it by the resUoss Dorians from Syra- 
cuse, who made a settlement here. It was also, 
and is still, celebrated for the beauty of its women, 
like nvmy other Greek colonies. 

Butlt was Traian who converted It into a nsefol port 
and naval station by the erection of a Mole or Pier. 

The Lombards made it the aeat of a governor with 
the title at Afarc^esut, whence the name of 

tJie Mark, or Mtirch of Ancona, given to \{afie&\)tvftOKQsOck. 

the province (Le Marche in the ploral). afterwards 
incorporated with the States of the Church by 
Clement VII. Previously to this, though bequeath^ 
to the Pope by the Countess Matilda, it had re- 
mained a f^ree city, and had sustained a brilUant 
siege agdnst the Jealous Venetians, till succoured by 
the Guclphs of Ferrara. It was occupied by the 
French, 179T-1814, and again 1832-8, and in 1849 
it was subjected to 10 days* bombardment from the 
Austrians. In 1861 it was occupied by Lamcnid^re 
after his defeat at Castel Fidardo, and taken by 
Cialdini after a bombardment 

The citadel, buUt by the Popes, commands the 
town, but is partly commanded by the heights above. 
Other forts have been erected for its defence by its 
new master, the King of Italy— «ne near the C^po- 
chin Convent will render it almost hnpregnable. 

Close to the old Mole is the fine marble *Ar^ qf 
Trajan, erected, as the inscription states, by the 
*' Senate and people of Rome to Tn^an, Emperor, and 
Csesar, son of Nerva, etc, a most provident prince, 
who, at his own cost, erected the Mole, and thus made 
this access to Italy safer to navigators." It is of 
white Parian marble, and of good proportions, 
with one gateway, supported by four Corinthian 
columns in each front llie bronze statues of Tra- 
jan, of his wife Plotina, and his sister Mardana. which 
stood on the top of the arch, have dis^>peared. Near 
this is a Doric arch, by Vanvitelli, in honour of 
Clement XII., who built the four-sided lazzaretto and 
the second Mole with its lighthouse. This mole is 
2,000 feet long and 100 broad. Travellers from the 
Levant may shorten their quarantine at the Cadne 
by gohig through the spongio or bath. 

The streets of Ancona are steep and narrow, the 
best one being the Corso, built by Pins VI., which 
leads down to the harbour, through the principal 
gate, close to the Dogana. It has few remarkable 
buildings. A commercial fair begins on the 20Ui 
August soon after that of Sinig^glia; and at all 
times much of the bustle of a ttiriving seaport pre- 
vails here. 

The Duomo, or Cathedral ot S. Siriaco, in Citta 
Vecchio, occupies the very smnmit of the promon- 
tory, on the edge of a white cliff, which rises sheer 
out of the sea, on the site of a temple of Venus, tho 
pUlars of which are contained in the church. It 
was built in the 10th centuiy, but the ornamented 
Gothic door, with its red marble columns fadng the 
Dalmatian coast, is of the Idth century. It has a 
handsome octagon cupola, a Martyrdom of St 
Laurence, by Podesti, and a crypt in which the 
patron saint with two or three others, and the 
Prator, Gogonius, are buried. Within the memory 
of man large masses of diff, close to the church, 
have been swept away by the sea. 

S. AgosHno has bas-reliefs and statues, by Moccio^ 
in its half-Gottiic, half -classical front The interior, 
by Vanvitelli. contains paintings by Tibaldi and 
Andrea di Ancona. 

& Dommicot rebuilt 1788, has Titian's Christ on 
the Cross, and tombs of Marcolta, the poet, Tarcag- 
nosta^the hiatotlsa^^3^<lB.^S!aSL^^YSss«JeEfiass^!^^ 



S. F^miuno has « Gothio door, and oontaine 
Oaido'8 AniMinciatioii, Titian's Virgin, and BeUioi's 

StMta Maria dMa PiaxM^ is a Qothlc cbarch ; 
' Santa Ptkigia has a Gaercina 

The Palazeo dtl Govemo^ late the seat of the 
Bipal Legate ; the Fertetti (by Ttbaldl), Manciporte 
SBod Benlneasa palaces ; and tiie <M marble Loggia 
dd Mercanti, or Exehange, with its Gk>thic oriMi- 
laents and frescoes, by Tibaldi; all deserve notice. 
Also the arehed gateway, etc, of a building which was 
onoe a commando of the Templars. There is a, 
tteatre and a laorge prison. The pablio gardens are a 
ftnr square patches of flowers near the sea, so called. 
Ancona, in Roman times, was noted for its purple 
-dyes. It has a trade in wax, silk, wool, and corn, 
"nie rbaSl steamers for the overland Route leave 5th, 
13th, 20th, and 28th of each nvonth; the through 
tndne from London, vid Paris, Turin, etc., leaving 
two days before. To Corfu, 88 hours ; Alexandria, 
110 hours. To Trieste, 14 hoar8.-^(Bee BradMw's 
CotUmental GwUe). 

Routes to Loreto and Foggia, by rail, thence to 
Rome and Naples; or to Foligno and Rome. 

Both the road and rail wind inland from Ancona, 
towards Osimo, in order to pass round the great 
chalky down which springs up here, between Ancona 
and Loreto, and obtains its full height at Monte 
Conero, 1,981 feet above the sea. 

Ancona has no suburbs beyond the gates; bat 
ihe prospect ontiMe is *' unique in its combination 
of the softest foatnres of a pastoral region, with the 
lofty cliflb and sea views of a grander landscape." 
— 2r^ Englishaoman in Italy, 

One of the best avenues was cat down to make 
barricades against the Austrians in the siege of 1849, 
which lasted 28 days. They took the town and held 
it for the Pope till 1859, ruling with great severity; 
for which there was aome excuse, as Ancona had 
been previoasly in the hands of an association of 
otsassinatL This body originated in 1849, when the 
Papal States were governed by the republicans, and 
several atrodons murders were cosEunitted by a 
hand of fourteen or fifteen young men, the chief of 
whom was Moro, a dentist's son. Orsini was sent 
here by the Roman Triumvirs, to arrest the guilty 
parties, who Were afterwards executed by the Papal 
Government. It was believed at the time that 
they were instigated by the priests of the Sanf edesti 
(or Throae and Altar) Association, in order to 
bring discredit upon the republicans. 

In 1859, after Magenta, the Austrians left on 12th 
June ; but the citadel was occupied by Papal troops, 
under General AUegrina, from Maoerata, before the 
people had time to form a decision. They proclaimed 
the dictatorship of Victor Emmanuel, and the Dele- 
gate left ; but Ancona was obliged to capitulate to 
AllegrinL He connived at the escape of 30 leaders ; 
when Kalbennatten and his Swiss came, set aside 
the capitulation, imposed a fine of 100,000 dollars, 
and made a Qonfaloniere of one ef the most hated 
of the nobility. This state of things lasted till its 
annexation to the kingdom of Italy, after the battle 
Ancom to Fmoo by raUway, aa ia Rout^ 23. After 

this, the towns to Arezzo are as follow, and ths 

distance about 14R) miles :«- 


Mercatello 4 

Lamolli ».«... 6 

Top of Pass. ..».. 6 

Calcinelli 1 post 

Fossombrcme 1 „ 

nrbino...^.l3 Roman mis. 
Urbania...l8 ^ 

S. Angelo- 
in-Vado. 7 


S. Giastino •. 10 

Borgo S. Sepolcro 2 

Arezzo 24 

Fano, on the Bologna and Ancona railway (see 
Route 22), at the mouth of the River Metauro, which 
our road ascends, followfaig the direotion of ikb Via 

FossovBSOKE, a small cathedral town (popola- 
tton, 7,085), near the site of the ancient F&ntm 
SempronH, at the Junction of the Furio, or Foglto, 
with the Metauro. It has remains of a Roman 
Theatre, a Cathedral, with some patfitlngs and 
inscriptions, and a good bridge. The silk made here 
is some of the best in Italy. The Flaminian Way 
here passes up the Furio towards Gagli, as below. 


near the Roman UrUnum BdrteMe^ the teat of an 
archbishop, and a walled town on a hill (population, 
15,095), is remarkable as fhe birthplace of Raphael 
Sanzio, or Santi, usually called Raphael, the prince 
of painters. The house in which he was bom (1483) 
has an inscription on it. It contains a Madonna, by 
G. Santi, his father; but none of Raphael's own 
works remain in the town. He was bom and he 
died on Good Friday. 

Urblno, before its incorporation with the States of 
the Church in 1626, was the head of a Duchy under 
the iamilies of Montref eltro and Delia Rovere. They 
were great patrons of learning and art, especially 
Guid' Ubaldo I., the husband of the beautiful Eliza- 
beth Gonzaga, who reigned here during Raphael's 
youth, and doubtless contributed to nourish his 
rising genius. Other natives were Bramante, the 
architect; Baroodo, the painter; B. Baldi, Paciotti, 
and FabrettL It was noted for the manufacture of 
majolica pottery, ornamented with designs by 
Raphael or by the artists of his day. 

The Palazzo Dwale, now the governor's house, 
is a handsome building, erected in the 15th century, 
in the reign of the first Duke Frederlgo Montreftiltro : 
the carvings, etc., are by A. BaroccTo (the paintcd-'s 
father) and another artist. It has a statue of Dnke 
Frederick, by G. Campana, with some inscriptions ; 
but the best part of its collections has Ixeen traiusferred 
to Rome. 

At Palazzo Jihaniy Clement XT. and some caSTdinali 
of the Albano family, were bofn. 

The Cathedral contains Baroccio^s Last Supper 
and St. Sebastian; with a St Martin, byThnoteo 

S. Francesco has G. Santi*s Madonna a:nd Saints; 
T. delle Vlte's St Roch and Tobias; an altar-pieco 
of the Pardon of St Francis d'Assisi, by Baroccio, 
who was buried here in 1581 ; and tombs of the 
Ducal family. Some other tombs are at 3. Bemar- 
dino's^ outside the walls. At the College of Santa 
AgaXa S& ai9Q\ixa,lt ot DukA Frederick. At the Capw 



At S. FnmuKo di Paolo are th* Holy Sniper and 
the Resarreotlon, by Titian. 

Urbania, a small tOMm (population, 4,367) on the 
Hetauro, bo called after Urban VIIL, has a manu- 
factory of Majolica, with a Collegiate Church (S. 
Francesco), containing Baroccio's Madonna. The 
peaks of the Apennines — in view — are 6,000 to 5,600 
feet high, tJie highest being Monte Nerone, to the 
south. The roads begin to ascend the Ai^enoines, 
vp the Metauro, to 

S. Anoblo in Vado, a small cathedral town, the 
birthplace of the brothers Taddeo and Frederigo 
Zuccaro or Zucchero, both well-known portrait 
painters. At Santa Caterina, are portraits, by 
Frederigo. His portraits of Queen Elizabeth and 
liary Queen of Scots, are at Chiswick. 

Laholli, at the foot of the Apennines, which are 
mounted up the Alpe della Luna, by an extra team of 
bullocks, in 2i hours to the top of the pass ; called the 
Bocca Trabaria, 3,300 feet high, commanding a fine 
prospect of the valley of the Tiber which lies below. 
Descend to 

S. GiusTiNO, on the Tiber, near the Bufklini Villa, 
where are some frescoes, by Gherardi. The road 
ascends the river for Axezzo, and descends it to 

[The first place towards Perugia, is 

CiTTA DI Castello (population, 22,342), a curious 
old decayed town, the andent Tiferum Tiberinwm^ 
where Biaphael execnted some of his earlier works, 
before he went to Florence. The Hotel is part of the 
Canoniera, of the l€tih century, with traces of 
frescoes, etc, here. 

It haa a wooden bridge over the yellow river ; a 
cathedral of the 16th century, dedicated to S. 
Florido, and several other churches, adorned with 
paintings, etc; the Palazzo Communale, in the 
Gothic style ; and four or five palaces of the Yitelli 
family, formerly lords of the dty. These and most 
of the large buildings hero were cracked by the 
earthquake of 1789, which spoilt the old and fan- 
tastic frescoes, chiefly by Gherardi or II Doceno, 
by which they were adorned; and caused the 
rebuilding of the churches. One of the. Yitelli 
palaces is inhabited by the Marchese Bufalini; 
another, now a merchant's warehouse, has a fine 
hall, 120 feet long painted with arabesques ; a third 
built 1640, contains many family portraits, one being 
a beautiful girl, dying of a stab in the neck. It 
stands in a garden, with a loggia painted by Gherardi, 
fresh as if done yesterday, and " covered with the 
most extraordinary and fantastically grouped assem- 
blage of bfards, beasts, fishes, fruits, and flowers, that 
it is possible to unagine."— 2Vo??ppe'4 Lenten Journey. 

About three miles east, is Passerino farm, the site 
of Pliny's Villa, described in his sixth book. 

About 12 miles below this, after crossing the ferry, 
near to the site of an intended bridge, is 

Fratta, or Fratticciola, a smidl picturesque town 
(population, 9,322), where the road to Gubbio, 16 
miles, and Ancona turns ofi", over the mountains; 
past the old Castle of Civitella BanierL Fratta has 
a pottery manufacture, and stands 2,920 feet above 
the sea. In Santa Crooe church, it a fine Decent 
from the GrojHv hy h, SlgoonUL Zbe hiUs here axe 

well wooded, and the country richly fertile On one 
stands the Convent of Monte Corona. 

Pbbuoia is 20 miles further (see Route 27).] 

Fhtm S. Giustino, ascending the Tiber, the next 
place after crossing the old Toscan boundary at 
Cospf^a, is 

San Skpolcso, or Borgo S. Sq)olcro, a bishop's 
see (population, 7,814) which belonged to the Papac>-, 
but was ceded tp Tuscany 1440. It stands, as usual, 
on a hill, and takes its name from an oratory, butit 
by two pilgrims, to hold apiece of stone brought from 
the Holy Sepulchre. It is the birthplace of the 
pointers, Santo di Tito, Pietro deUa FTancesoa, and 
Raffaele del Colle; whose works are to be seen in the 
Cathedral (a building of the 11th century), the Mi- 
sericordia and other churches. 

The Tiber rises about 40 miles north of Borgo S. 
Sepolcro under Monte Falterone, in the ApeniUncs, 
dose to the source of the Amo. It flows through a 
green basin, once a lake, now rich in com, wine, oak 
and other trees. The next place towards Avezzo, U 

MoNTERCHi, the old Mom Hercules, on the ridge 
between the vales of Tiber and CThianti; a little 
walled town, which belonged to Bishop Tftrlati, of 
Arezzo. Some miles £utber, by a zig^ug road, Is 

Arxzzo.— See Route 27. 

For Rome the route tmns off south from FoMom- 
brone, as above (p. 142) ; the towns from which are 
as follow:— 





Gualdo 1 

Nocera 1 

Ponte Centesimo ....... 1 

Foligno... ..•.•■•••». ...... 1 

Acqualagna .... 



Schieggia ................. 1 

Sigillo ..^ 1 

This road is identical with the Via Flaminia. It 
follows the CaudigUano up the Fietralata Hill, or 
Monte cFAsdrubale, which commemorates the defeat 
of Hannibal's brother, Asdrubal, here, by the 
Romans, B.C. 207, on a plain called Piano di S. Sil- 
vestro. A tower <m Monte d'Elce, near the river, 
marks his g^ve. 

■ o cddit, ocddit 

Spes omnis, et fortuna nostri 

Nemisis. — Horace. 

The Roman road here has been tunnelled through 
the solid rock, and through a cutting half a mUe long, 
called the Passo del Purlo ; a work, which an inscrip- 
tion ascribes to Vespasian. It then crosses a Roman 
bridge, Ponte MauHo, to 

Cagli, the ancient CalUs^ under Monte Kero, 5,500 
feet high. A small town (population, 9,669), witb 
several churches. S, Domenico, contains a good 
fresco of the Madonna, by G. Santi, father of Ra- 
phael, whose portrait is given in one of the angels. 
It is published by the Arundel Society. 

The road passes another Roman bridge, Ponte 
Grosso, on the way to 

Cantiano, a small fortified town (3,237), with a 
Holy Fandly, by Peru^no, in one of its churches. 
The road ascends to a pofait,' 2,310 feet high. 

ScHiEGOiA, another small town (population^ l^^'2.Q\> 
near the lemaixA o£ \Jrkfe \»gk^ ^1 ^'q;:^?*^^'^ V\«sk5Ssssss^ 


Caie BmctatS StaUon, u In ItoDte 39 

The q15 •ealaao dit 
1333-36, Is u mtuegllDi 
public, with a compujllc. 

Ibe Carte, doae to the cathedral, la & neglected i 
rnOaita't benuKtal intold eabinec u ~ 

m uidnmbiu, ud Iheblnb- 

ledral wu S^ed ^. 

la.TM. The Kvd aacenda tbe river to 

Order of the Outer 1 

and tipper TO 

Vh una lalmbi BagiMaa oi 
ftmnd here 1M4. They ere ' 
aeriptlOBa, wblch ue hi uihi 


OdDg down to Fratta, 16 mHea, the road [ 
*bt gorge of the Auina, by Duuio Caitle. ct 
•erted convent o( Campo RegglAno. and th 
caxle af ClTita Banleri, on a bill between the N 

PEATtiisDnthe Tl 


and hiBhop'i see, hiving lar^ nunufBctarea of paper 
and parcbnjent and a tnide in woo]. The road entire 
an eagy bnt hilly Blope of Ibe Apennlncn to 

SIOIILO the Homan Btbiilam, in Umbrta. on the 
ViaFlainhiLa.wtilchthe rallnay will fallow tnwarili 
Borne; Fapolation, 1G39. It bai a cistle bnlltby 
the LombaidL There la a iar^ etalfictltlc grotto 
near tUa pl*ce. 

Foaaaio. Population, 1.93Ii. 

tcmaine of the Roman Tadlnum or Tsdi'nK. when 
Nacaca defoaled tho Oolhe under Totilo, who waa 
killed. SET. 

GiiFABi. Then 

NoctiA the ancient Noarla. in Umbria. under 

lallon, (j.oaa. It ia n bliJop> see. on a .lecp hill. 
Church la a paluUng by N. Alunno. 1483. Wine. 

UireitlgBted by MoilchlnL On (he other ^de of 
Monle Pannbio li CamerinD. 

Posts (;ibtesiiio. Then 

PoLiGso. ai in RoDle 11, nhicb tbllows the Itate lo 


BOUTE 30. 


By ndlway, opened 1863; 00 mllcai in 4 to « 

L^^ ::::::;::::::::::: »' 

Porto RecaniU m 

Potenia PIctna ... -a 

S. Ben. de Tronto tlf 

B. ElpldIo 80 

Porto a Giorgio ... Rof 


Ollmo Station, on ■ 
anetent Aunmwn. of vhl 


irard raond the baae of 

hDl BOO feet bigh, the 

1, 8,000, The uncltnt C 

Thsra Is a comfiinable lUtle I 

u inhabited byMuyntNazareth; w 
carrinlflnClAthfmightbeaLr, In J?9 

n cedar wood. Baiuid this 
ed by Uioiuaadi of pilgrlnis 

OD^teT li Tel^rred for fDrlhar par- 

tarts" of Martolaliy, ai Mr. Trollops says. 

out of llie 8sDtB Casa, i> eomparatiTely well builL 

Iho coraain. The ehIM IhorooglifBra Is crowded 
with shops and boolhi (or Ihe sals w pilgrtmi of 
msnries, chaplcM, aBnuB-da inedate. ribbons, arti- 

il boohs, and other m 

alcaKnl, T. ^ 


mbsnlo^ and the 
las-relieffl, are by 
to. Tbe chnreh, 
Terlags from pil. 

Bandinelli. Raffeele da KontalDpo, Q. Lombaido. 
a. della ?orta. Trfboto, eta 

The snbjects of ibese ba«*Ile& are tbe Birth ot 
VfVT. her Xuiiage, Annunclatlai^ Vkltntlon, 


Gaaa; araoi^ wl 
sl^la are Introduced, 
Tbe octagon cupola over the Santa Ci 

frescon in the chapels and sacristy ero b 

'itbe tt^tlfltryisa flue bronze relief, by 

Tbe ugly black hnage of the Tlrgln, i 

'her wonbLppers, who deposit their 

he gift of 
le Virgin. 

Fadng the lAurch li the Palace o 
at ot the Bishop ; a handsome pil 

Woman in Adnltcry}, A. C.irracrl, 

tbe King, and 
orks by Tlltan 

id a apeiierie, or laboratery. 


CASnL Fti)Aai>o,onBhlll,ovo 
r the delfeat ot [ho Papal troops. 


Musone, Dotal 

. Ciahllni, 18th Sept ... 

11,000 men and (burteen mns, organised by Cardinal 
da Herorie. ineludbig an Irish brigade, commanded 
by Major O'Reilly i and was supiwrted by Ui« Batrt- 

^ns,aTms.etc.,irnhGcnerAlPlmodiTTi. Lamoricl^ 

the SardbiUns were ensbled to mnreh on' the 
AbmzzI, onx Neepolltan fmnlier, to join Garibaldi. 
Porto Rscanat! Slallon, al the mouth of tbe 
Polenia, where there Is an STichnrngc for a few 

on a hll), I.OOO feet blfh, with several churches, and 
Biciiu, on the PotenzB. near the sits of KliiTKi. 

Itmufoqnded by ih* GMtu 111 tb» I 

itariu. It li ■ irell-bnUt bDstllng pLi», 
■ iHTpnliitlon of 19,102. Ona of Ita gitn. 
11, U L tttamplial snsh, SRcUd by CinUiKl 
>z, ifjtti hli butt ant It Th* Citaitlnl of 
Bt OlnlUao ha* a tUdoniu, mdoOiapilirHngi^br 


Um, by Luifnoeo. Amonc the otban mcth nodiia 
■n ths Tinni Pilue : tha DnliwrtlTi *llli ■ Ubniy 
aC SftiOOP vsli: ■ Cottega tbr prioa-, Cont of 
ijinsil, tbrthepro^ntoi tba Pabato dmputiODc. 
midi bM aoIlKtiDiu ot mntaqnlVo md InKifpttiFi-. 
ftwn Xidaa; ind Mmal othor palum bidit cf 
IrtdW brick, uUI raojllT deterlid by tbelr ownnt' 
Ootilile Iba wiUi li tba Dil Vewnc Cborcb, W 
BniQtQtai b«<ldaBUr«bTLck-bullt uDpblt^~"-- 
med for Iba guu of piUoiio, ate. 

M Urn la tba ConToi 

Hyi Couiit AirinbUM. " aletaimad tha ' Cm^ua 

Bid dag,' flnbli Mgamaialr " '■" 

•upaetadol Ubanl o^nlau. 

eondanuwd te dutb, raAnnd h 

iMalTaUw sdnlilen of tbg CMhoUc rallgloB. ^a 

Lagltik taoplne to bring tlM oonr'-' 

flou fruna ofmlnd, mat to H« I 

tatorlo, and urged him to lepeat. . . 

VDold eoBftn tai nealTe tba aOBuniudoa If ttty 

a panlteDt and gcHi, 

A AAd tana Boutb-out tc 

>l Monullno, ttae blrtb- 

and lb« BlM olFimaila, 

yw ue, dotroyad Id tba 

8. Glnito Honta Omuicoi and tbc 

Fopulallon, lU.SS 


declilTs battle of 3id Msy, ISIfi. gained by a<! 
Auatriani under Qeneral Ulanohi, over Mnrat, Kias 
o(14ai>li»,tiy whichbe loUblekltigdom. Itialu ? 
narked by tba CaMeUo ddltt lUacia, on the Macerate 
mad. Tba Dnomo Ii (h^lpolal In H. Nil•l^nl^ li 

la tba ando_ 

iecorambOBl IkDilly, 

|hopnlailonB.«M)DnlbeP<iteBH: and Iba obl torn I 
^iraixi^ia Oxpaltiloa, UDOO). 

^^J*" »b« «U« in wMA tb« Pope 
™»9-, awnoi thtApttaimm, to 

Tiunuu. bi a Tiney, abara wblofa « 

BaanATUxx, m tha boonduy of IJmbrta, wHh 
remain* o( aa old OoOdc oaaHe nMeta gvacd«d tba 
deUc. UoDte PenMao and HoanSIbtHa. tbe ndenl 
Jfont ntrfeM, T.we fMI Mfb, mckxe U hand. 
niHrnio |( rwebMI by ■ ticng wnring off la 
itftOB tha CUtBtl, alkrlming VaWaun 
TUa ia H aid Dne^ nd calbadnl town, 

a.ll3M),aimBiillW— <-■" -"■"-"— 

int tak III Ilia rt iiiinBliiaa, oa i 
I nmbria, wU^ fUnriiMd a 
ir Ua AMan ecpadMaB. IttaMaaranLlobindwa 
and Mkf nctortai^ udla Iba btnlnlKa of CarioHanlti 
tbapilDtii. IbaWfiliqnafeaflritManlfalydaattoyed 
-*"'-— oMbadral md tnioad an anitou cfan^ 
.oai]«nrydanibabllLBnU oouag of 


eievad. Uay win lord* of tb« t«mi till It ana 
— '-' tba Pajiw, and mra seaiiy atlfpatad by Ua 
laiwf. TbalrsldftMitfMMlBtoaa 

. dW^r^taad lor good 
look*. lu UitaiT hai btan mtttaa by C !■"" 

" — .jfa^„-^.-.— .- 

Ibmaaant raad tnnu aoBth-WHt ta Seer 
iWa tbe aarramUa piM tba nud 

ieacent li mgged and wtnrlbig along the pred- 
v> Cau Nu09t and SoepoU; tSltit wblob tbe 
ry ImprOTca to BtUlort and tbe beantlfb] valley 
lch^»;iMlapl»ed. SaeRoncaai.] 
FoIlawlDg ttae rail along the tout, fiia oeit place 

.Slatta^ Al««atHpbetwM7i 

, ated In a deacaip- 

Pleanam," la tbe beat galdeMtbalitiiTea. 

L Elpldk). Tba town, oi 

iHMvad or ^£iioiAiBL Tbeae jnrti are no porta at 
, taDl only ancbongca bit a few tlihlng boata, and 
I coaat u aliBMt anlfbimly flat, uai^ and no- 

Fumo, the bHs of 

below Iha town. PofudUion. ie,B9<. 
Ilii nuhed by ■ winding nid lori 

eilBiwqm wbIIs. Ob the vory top of 
l«u Olnna. ituidi tlw Catbotnl. ri 
n widB pnflpoet of the lownt an^ Tllbip 
Mid Hnlfi^ OWr Iho AdtiUli^ II WIS 

rhyme declared — 

of a sort of pcmborpronaotaX 

thf porCb."— (T. A. TroTUipi'l Lnlii 
Hcts sie tomba at a Ylacoull, by Tur: 
turn) da loiola. and > membor of the 
fraiily. Another member, Ollverctto. ■ 

relating to tUMO wbo ha 

n mm M«olB HbUla, T, 

Marano sutio 


on. it tl» mr 

f^lno, Mar the s 

Eiipra Mm-il 


Cyprian Ve. 113 



1 cnthedral ton 

-.n. 1.200). Itbn 




xm of II.IST, <n a hlU la ■ knila pbiln. i 
ction of the Culelkav iMI Via Troiit 
whlcb tn craoKt br "^^ Btmui bridgi 

town, and who 

undf r M. Auto 

ive \TMM T. aiahUL 

rail 'd the Ceo 

(blind man of AicdU), a 

scholar oT Da 


nds the TroncT 

pen Acqna SanK, 



n AkoIJ), near aiiottar 



he ApennhiM, to HoBcii 

(lOmllB,), an 



Sera, anrt .bo 


encdiet fromtUi 


1> BidiriaoonHmHa 

to aacr'nd thu T 

■n'nto, paat 


miiii thai omr Ao 



CiTfu Reale, at the 

nUia. and 

rtBt rlnit to Cl-^to 

Docsle to Bitti. and Ih 

mooio; orputAI 

Ifanii la Am 

iBCrloo and 

oreale, at the hud 

of tho P«m 

•lUl dowD 


the Farther Abmzid, h 


lie Rt«t»Trjdto 

1 Ibniacd town, with a popcdailon ttS,7K, and tlm 

GlUlianoTa Statlvi. or Onnii (ropnlHkm, 
4,TS9), near Ihe omnmi Wotwn, on Ih* Via Vplerti. 
The RBit tinr, one of the many abort iHcbu 
Ironi the ludchboiiilna mnuittfna, la tht Tordliio, n 
iDK<ent.fiaMnii. Abon 10 rnHn Bp thb rim la 

TuAKO, the Bonun Mmmut r tnli U i m a , « 
CiUiadnl town (pifinlatlOD, la,SM), md the euJHl 
of Abratil UHrn. betwem the Torthw Bid OM^ 
DidlnTl»wofttiaT»httBnrieinttQ^lwHh*'^'-**— * 
. SiBDnnn. *&««« 

1, 1 ClQHltA N Q1n«WJ^B 



Mutlgnano Station (population, 1,927), near the 
town of Atbi (which once gave a Dukedom to the 
Acquaviva family), the ancient Eadria; whose 
bishop was captTured by brigands, in September, 1863, 
but rescued, just in time, by a party of soldiers. It 
overlooks the Piombo, which subsides into a salt lake 
near the sea, close to the month of the Selino. This 
last stream comes down Monte Como, the highest 
point of the range caUed Qran Scuso ^Italia (Great 
Bock of Italy), and the highest mountain in the 
Apennines, being 9,510 feet above sea level. It is 
covered with snow all the year round. The view 
from the top embraces the whole width of the 
Adriatic to the opposite coasts of Dalmatia and Istria. 
It is easily ascended. 

Monte SllvanO station is followed by 

Pescara station, about half-way to Foggla and 
Trani (see Route 33). 

ROUTE 31. 


The distances, past Temi Falls, are 




Pcpoli to 
Rocco Valloscura. 1 
Castel di Sangro .. 2 

Isemia 2\ „ 

Vcndfro ll ,, 

Presenzano 1 „ 

Thence by rail to Capua 
and Naples. 


Rieti 16 

Antrodoco 14 

Aquila 17 

Popoli 3 posts 

TOCGO 1 „ 

Pescara 1^ 

Solmona 1 

From the Falls of Temi (see Route 27) ascend the 
Velino to 

Saitta Cbocb, at the junction of the Tnrano, or 
the TeUmitUy on whose banks the Consul P. RutUlus 
was defeated in the Social War. 

Ruti, the ancient Reate, a Sabine city and a 
bishop^s see, on the slope of a hill (in a plain), 1,400 
feet above the sea, below the Velino and Tnrano. 
Population, 13,187. It has a large massive Town 
Hsdl above the town, commanding a fine view; a 
Cathedral of the 12th century, with tombs of Ber- 
nlne and Thorvaldsen; several other churches, a 
college, etc. Rieti is noted for its breed of asses 
called reatini. The plain around having been well 
drained by the Temi Fall (cut by the Consul Den- 
tatus), is highly cultivated with mulberries, vines, 
wheat, Indian com, etc. It is the dewy mead, 
" Rosea rara VeUnl," of Virgil. 

The old city of Reate. on the Via Valeria, was 
named after the goddess Rhea, and was tho capital 
of Uie- Sabini, the ancestors of the Abrazzi people, 
a race known then, as now, for their simple and 
virtuous habits, superstition, and faithftd attach- 
ment to Rome. The great Flavian gens came from 
Reaie; bat tliat branch of it ftt>m wtiich Vespasian 
qorong was obscure. He himself was bom at Fala- 
. artiu^ MbovmSeate, and fberej at a villa erected by 

£& f?%^ '^i '^'\ '^^^ ^^ "deiightof human 
d»9flt R m n m \n § of Sonum batiu are to be 

1. From Rieti it is about 40 miles to Rome, by tho 
Via Safaria. 2. Rietf to Petralla Castle (15 miles)^ 
up the Salta, in the Cicolano Valley, the seat of tho 
Cenci family, where Francesco Cenci was murdered 
by his wife and his daughter, the beautiful and noto- 
rious Beatrice Cenci. This valley was explored by 
Keppel Craven in 1838 (Exeunkm in the Ahruzzi)^ 
and ofTers many cyclopean remains of the dwellings 
of the old Sabines. Hence to Carsoli, 15 miles, and 
to Rome, past Tivoli, 40 miles; or to Carsoli, Subiaco, 
Anagna, and Krosignone, on the Naples railway; or 
to Carsoli, Tagliacozzo, Avezzano, on Lake Celano, 
and Sora, down to the same line. 

From Rieti, on the'Aqiiila Road, to 

CiTTA DncALG (population 3,966,), over the former 
Naples frontier, the ancient CutiKae^ up the Velbio 
and past the janclion of the Salto. 

Antrodoco, or JnUrocrea^ under Monte Calvo^ 
among woods, olive grounds, and vineyards. Over a 
a picturesque mountain path down to the city of 
Testrina; to the left of which Is AmUemum^ now S. 
Vittorino, the birthplace of Salltut the historian. 
There are parts of an amphitheatre, eta 

Aquila, at the head of the Atemo, the capital of 
Abruzzi Ulteriorc Primo, in a rich valley in the 
heart of some of tho highest peaks of the Apennines • 
— Monte Corbaro, Mf Vellino, Delia Duchessa, M. 
Calvo, and M. Corno, or "Gran Sasso d'ltalia" 9,510 
feet high. Population 12,C91. It is a bishop's see, 
etc, and a comparatively modem place, having been 
founded by the Emperor Frederick IL, out of the 
ruins of Aveia and Amitemum^ and called Aquila 
after the imperial eagle. The strong Castle or dtadel 
in the upper part of the town was built by Charles V. 
1334. It was the second city in Naples and could 
muster 15,000 armed men ; is walled round, and has 
eight out of its twelve gates blocked up. It is pretty 
well built, though the streets are narrow and half 
the fp^ce inside is garden ground. It suifered from 
the earthquakes of 1688, 1703, and 1706, which last 
swallowed 2,000 persons. There two large squares, 
with fountains. Formerly it had 100 churches, of 
which 26 remain, chiefly in the Gtothic style. That 
of S. Bernardino da Siena was built by Cola della 
Amatrice, the sculptor and painter, and has a tomb 
of the saint, 1305. Among the other buildings are 
the Palazzo del Ooverno ; the Dragonetti and Torres 
palaces ; a College or Liceo Reale, Seminary, Hospi- 
tal, Theatre, etc Aqidla is noted for its sweetmeats 
and saffron, and has manufactures of paper, wax, and 
linen. Many wealthy families reside here. Tho 
mutton, lamb, pigs, ham, sausages, etc, of tiiis neigh- 
bourhood are all good. 

To Celano on Lake Celano, 23 or 24 miles, by a 
mountain road, past Rocca Cambio, etc, over the 
Monte Vellino group, which is 8,397 feet high, at 
the summit It commands a wide and interesting 
prospect of the hills and valleys of this part ef the 
Apennines, which are populous and cultivated, and 
abound with rare plants. 

From Aquila the road descends the Atemo to 
Snlmona and Popoli. At Demetria, a direct road 
parts oS onVh^UMot 

POPOIA, tYitea ^«xa ttotn. kts^o^v 't\!>KBJ5fe\ft^\v\^\.v 
andPeBcaia\ot\oCwfi>>v^wv^'&«&^sft« \^w^&s3«5»'?»'Sv . 



— *« 


•••««■ H 

•■•••• lo 

■••••a O 

. ly ladles' 

^ The foot 
Jci. Tho 
he Roman 
' 87 £ng. 

511. Con- 

vn tento 


^11 special 

«!. open 
m three. 

itaide the 
ctober to 
•^ce, at 

tnd at 3 

of post- 
tea, eta, 
" po«t- 
on the 


on the 
^« V4A 




town of At 
Wsft opwm i 

tat TQHfM^ 

near these 

Bode of If 


firom the : 




Aqoila .| 
Chiott '4t 


■-■'"•■ . ■ ■ 

-•■ V. ■•.\ 

• \ ■ ■-.•.- 




nine ai; 



' " .' C "^ ! • . 


■ t 

. ";--? ', 



ROUTE ai. 

/aonciM, or Albfrphi:— MDjt of 

Holil lejaffUlfm — A fraiilr hotel mil rrtooi 

Iloltlia LmilnsAni BdlrldAllmagae. SUnfhO- 
Rrro, in TU Bocca di Leone. 

Sotel de J/iRcrL« ,- llolil dt Rvsiii i lieta Giixjtdt 

Qiwd lieef pipcon^ tnTkpya,fish, mnBhroomsH [tLlt 

The inna of Rome nre generally dtosled In Ihs 
Irlangalar space lyin? between the Ports del Popolo, 
VLiizn di giiapin. Vis CondotU, Md the Cono. 

psuH per day. Tha prices 01 opsHmeiia in the beat 

snEily aljlulLiid, 

^or each n d ditJonal penon.. ». t 

]li[lL]rcDaDderthTBByeuidDdot psyif Buted 
on the kncu of Ihow irho lisvo chatge at 

II panels pot taken charge 

]lo hones ftomWpufi 
itiblH Bupplr Udlea' 

Wtighli and Hint 

5 Qnittiinl 
10 llsjocciii 

ianol8-9:I9or37-4CltlisofllicEngli>li| oi 31 Ens- 

Eaijtish CoFijal— Mr. Bercrn, Palsiio PolL Con- 
sulate open every day (except SundBy) &Da tan to 
three. KU^forpaMpott.Sj,er48biiJDceliL Ui.Oda 
Russell, Sccrctaij of LegaiiQu, is at EoniB op ijeclsl 

Amn^cgR Comal — tit. BtUlmaa; Vlct-Caaal, 
Mr. Bro^n. CDnenlate. II, Via Coudoltl, open 
?»eij- dny (except SBBday). frum ten till thiee. 

English caurcA.— The Ei^liih chspel. ontdde tha 
Pono del Popolo. Dlyine scrrice ii^in Octobtt to 

It nine o'cloclc, and, after morning semlCB. at 
iloven ; afternoon lervlce at three. On siaOt dam, 
Horning aenlca (dally) at lea o'clock. ChaplUP, 
Scv. H, B. Wocdwsrd. 


Polt (j^— Formerly tl 

lauls- sN 1 '^"''^"'^^ liequH iolCior4T ° 
S^Hi^?'^'.,'"'^ carHoaes attend the trains at tliB I n 

v„ .t .p^ffy.Om'UbvKt. r.aiocchi.' tl 

JSnle cSr™ apS'.™"!;,' m'S' '^™' I ^' 

"^S'T^"' '""" '*'""' " ""hotel nr »pi«t- \ B 



Ens'and. Leltera, ai 

*M«\teiM.'ioii.\t).\E™ %t.\T«E>yl'lM- 


For fuTtlior putlculan, ih Bradiliaa'i Coaiinr 

Tdiffraph OJicJ.— At Mont* Citorio. A Mepr. 

nme gtDerally occupiea la tho deapaich, nl 

FlcuUe, And theaca by railway to EloriiDce ; i 
2. To CbtnflU Simta, PIh, ot LeghoriE, ^y my t 

Uean. Plawdea anil Oholinelcy, am 

EngJiah Rtadinff Rooms. 
di Spnfna. supplied vA 

of IIdhic, etc. SubBCliptlon, ] tcoAi. 

any of tlioae plaui. T< 
i. Firr Floirme, by 
Fluia Nkoiii.) To 1 
Todi. Perngta, BBil Cbli 

1, To Anoina, tty its 
lalo, FoUgna, Uaoerat 
UiBice by railway lo A] 
dillgeTics In 35 hours. 

I. Trai 


Ilia cbolos of tha rallwi 

B br Iho FDntine Mucbea, Ti 

Mucbea, Terracbia, 

Fontanolla dl BorglLi 
ftnro Clvlta Veqehfi, . 

Kn. fiir Naplea; on" 
m. Gows, and UuHUlea; 
■i. NoapoUhmConniniiyi ( 

afca, VU dl 

^wmmodating, Ou : 

Tbia company is yern 

4. Tmlery A Ga'a FrcQch Statuners^ Afren< 
Office, 81, Via CODdottL On Sundays and Wc 

and MatMinci i on Ttmradayi and Saturaays, d 

B. A Btsamor, tirico a wick, qp tho Tiber, ■ 

jr.— ^Dr. Oasmi. A.B., 
■'lyilclBna, " "■- ' 
ie— [Wi 

PaWie rajci*— Pay no attention t» thes*. aa thpj 
divide tiuie differently (Tom olJier eomtrles. Tlii 
day bfginiBt An Harih oriunieti and Uo Iiouc; 
are oounled on to £4 u'dock. 

rAnKrut— Tails (opani and plays); A^^nlin: 
(oiKrai); ApoUone. or Tordlnora Qinndopeiiu)— 
all Z puib. Burrottiui (fonincclni). 

riagti.— Tariff far Oa Gtf, fnm Earitl !<. 

iiMtdetbedty... 211 „ 

XEBIE3;— .teaftny 0/ 31. L«ii —Via B.inelln, 

heCaplEDl; open, dBLly^ from 10 to4. In tLiii 

buUdlng ara lonie eioeUent paintings 1 amonfiwtijcli 

a " 1(1*," the work of H«ard. an Knglisli artist. 

BarttTBii:— Via Quattra Fontane, open daily, 

fmm 110 S [ OKcept -fiinMdayi, ! to S. 

oJo, tho e^dlery 

mza del SS. ApoeWli, Fatazxa 
12 to 4 daily. 

dalla Longudt Palaazo Coriuoo; 
dally, bom 9 to a. 
Doria—Yla del Cono. Pa1ai» Dorlai open on 



k-^OiHA, daUjr* ftom 10 to 8. 

SoapigHotL-^ On the Quirinal, Palazzo BospigBosi; 
cpen on Wedoeadays and Saturdays, from 9 to 8. 

SctarrtL^^Yisk del Coiso, Palazzo Sciarra; open 
€10 Satardam ftom 9 to 8. 

/9ptida.— Palazzo Spada ; daSy, from 10 to 4. 

Vatican. — Open to the public on Mondays, from 
13 to 3. On otiier days, by a fee to the Costode. 
These galleries are closed on FSte-days. 

A written order is necessary to visit the following 
p1aces:~The Cupola di 8. Pietro (the dome of St. 
l^eter's), the Pope's Gkurdens, and tbis Mosaic Mann- 
factory of the Vatican. The English may obtain 
permisaton by ajpplying at the British Consulate. 
The Americana, by applying to the li^;ation of the 
United States. 

Villas: — Vitta itJ^ani.— Tuesdays and Fridays, 
from 12 to 4. 

ViUa JSof^Aete.— Daily, after 12 o'clock, except 
Mondays, when it is closed; the Statuary Museum, 
in the villa, is only open on Saturdays, from 2 to 4. 

Viila Ludovwi. — Thursday's, from 12 to 4. 

Villa Mtdict (otheiwise the French Academy)— 
Open, daily, to the public. 

Villa Pamfili. — Open, for walking, every day ; for 
driving, on Mondays and Fridays. 

Vma TbrJonta.— Open on Wednesdays, from 1 to 3. 

A written order is necessary to visit idl the Cata^ 
combs, except those of St. Sebastian. An order to 
visit the Catacombs of St Agnese and St Calixtus, 
may be obtained irom. the Cardinal Vicar. 

*ChitfOljects of Notice are as follow (those belong- 
ing to ancient Rome are in JUdics) ;— 

Piazza del Fopolo 

Monte Pincio. 

Church of TriniUl de 

Cappuccini Churcli. 
Piazza Barl>erinL 
Villa LudovisL 
Garden ofSaUttst. 
Piazza de' Termini, 
Church of Santa Maria 

degli AugelL 
Palace of the Quirinal 

and Gardens. 
Church of Santa Maria 

Church of St Giovanni 

Laterano and Museum. 
Church of S. Croce in 

Claudian Aqueduct. 
Meta Sudans. 
Arch of Constantine. 
Palace qfthe Caesars. 
Church of St Gregorio. 
Church of St Stepfaano 

in Rotondo. 
Baths of Titus. 
Palace of Nero. 
Hatha cf Caracalla. 

Tombs ofSdpio. 

Jewish Catacombs. 


Gate of St Sebastian. 

Church of St Sebastian. 

Fountain of Egeria. 

Appian Way. 

Areh qf Janus Quadri- 

Cloaca MaxmuL 
Temple of Vesta. 
Bocca della Verita. 
Protestant Cemetery. 
Pyramid of Caius Sestius. 
Church of St Paolo f uore 

le Mure. 
Roman Forum. 
Arch of Titus. 
Basilica ttf Constantine. 
Capitol and Ara Coeli 

Church of the Jesuits. 
Roman College. 
Church of St Andrea 

delle Valle. 
Doria Palace. 
Sciarra Palace. 
Borgheae Palace. 

Mausoleum qf Augustus. 
St Peter'& \ 

Villa Dorla Pamfili. 
Church of St Pietro in 

Church of St Cecilia in 

Corsini Palace. 
Palazzo Spada. 
Fountain of Trevi. 
Church of St Pietro in 


Tomb of Adrian (Castel 
St Angelo). 

Vatican (inclndingSistine 
Chapel, Pauline Chapel, 
Museiuns, Library, Pic- 
ture Gallery, and Mo- 
saic Maou&ctory). 


Hospital of St Spirlto. 

St Onofrio. 

Pauline Fountain. 

These are some of the principal sights in Rome, 
but there are many more which tlie visiior will have 
little difficulty in nnding out 

Principal Roman ArdtUeets from the period of the 
Renaissance or revival of modem art :— 

15th century. — G. da Majano, B. Pintelli. 

16th century. — Bramante (died 1514), Sangallo, 
Michael Angelo, B. Pemzzi, Raphael, G. Romano, 
Vignola, Ammanati, G. della Porta, D. Fontana 
(died 1607). 

17th century. — C. Mademo (died 1629), P. Ponzio, 
G. Rainaldi, G. B. Soria, Beinuii, Algardl, C. 
Bainaldi, G. A. de' Rossi (died 1695). 

18th century. — Fontana (died 1714), A. Galilei, 
Salvi, Fuga, Vanvitelli, C. Marchionid, R. Stem. 

Painters :^lBih. century. — Raphael (the Trans- 
figuration); M. Angelo (the Last Judgment), Q. 
Romano, G. Penni, P. del Vaga, G. da Udine, Garo- 
falo, F. Zuccaro, d'Arpino, Caravaggio, Ajl and 
Ag. CarraccL 

17th century. — Baroccio, Domenichino, Quldo 
(the Aurora), Guereino, Lanfranco, A. Sacchi, C. 
Maratta, P. da Cortona, Claude, S. Rosa, Poussin, 

18th century. — P. Panniui, P. Battone, R. Menga. 

Sculptors .*— Sansovino, B. Cellini, M. Angelo, G. 
della Porta, Bernini, A. A^ardi, Canova. 

"Rome, in all her vast dimensions," says Men*> 
delssohn, **lics before me, like an interesting problem, 
to enjoy ; but I go deliberately to work, daily select- 
ing some different object appertaining to history. 
One day I visit the ruins of the ancient city ; another 
I go to the Borghese Gallery— or to the Capitol— or 
to St Peter's— or to the Vatican. Each day is thus 
made memorable, and, as I take my time, each 
object l)ecomes forcibly and indelibly impressed on 
me. Just as Venice, with her past, reminded me of 
a vast monument — ^her crumbling modem palacM 
and the perpetual remembrance of former splendour, 
causing sad and dissonant sensations— so does the 
past of Rome suggest the impersonation of hist<nry. 
Her monuments elevate the soul, inspiring solemn 
yet serene feelings ; and it is a thought fraught, with 
exultation that man is capable of producing cr^itions 
which, after the lapse of a thousand years, still 
renovate and animate others." 

^ere is a great deal of second and third-rate 
painting and sculpture at Rome, which the experi- 
enced or &tigucd visitor wiH soon leam to pass over; 
but even inferior objects are sometimes of service am 
a foil to the best, by showing how some igkabvt. <sc 
carve. In tWa Qi\)SL<Ss& -v^ \«^ «s«««Bw«s58ft. '^^'^'^r 
caU w«rv o)oi«!X ^wtnSti \«>\NR»>w»st«is»!t^» ^»»* 

n (10 called fromi 
'tl JuilclIlDai((roniJiuu() I 

n by ordinary titles, arid then to 

issLfv iheir Bubjcrsta. and view them ■ 

r atylea, in cbroiiolo 

order; ca. 



Lcm In 

tbi en 



Uie wh 








f the Pope, &r 


capital of 



!"flfteen mjlai 



to two 



from H 

feel high, 

er part 01 




re the fa. 


TlieW an) tha Qoirinal, VImlnal, EsqulUne, ClBll«ii. 
tlie Quirlnal and i^iquiliiie are tbe highest, ' 

luider Uie Enipcrora, templea, bi 

wbere andoiit Rome ended, and 

nldogUo/aerYM to mark tiio diviion between lb ^ 
Old city and in mini on the Kiaih and BaBt,froi.. 
IhoNew city, to the north and west, alt 

,...t called U 

tidde the wall, it 

'tai -wn noted Ibr It 
ally called Mo'ntorK 

IS-IQ took place on thli aide. 

Coming OTcrUad. from tbaoort^ Borne lienEerci 
leading to the Piazxa d1 fipagna (or £iigliab quanct) 

Honte Teilacclo (Ifila. iioIihBrdi) la an artWcIa 

1. The CapiKlvii mi, k, called from a head 
apat) found In dlggbig tbe fbandatioiia at tlie 


«alh ilde 


oek (throuBh a garden, inacribed ■' Qui w 

yMfeethlfb.almoal hidden 


and by no 


ys Gllibon, 

-on the 161h October, n«4. 


tbe nilna of tbo Capitol, whilit 

barefeolcd frian 



mple of 

Jupiter (A 


the Dsdl 

« and Fall of the City Srec 

my mind. 


rcsa and a eanclnary. the repository of tho Fetal 


omplcsnndaltara. OfaUthsie 

irledon, iihichmaybi 
r, CleeromadeanOtatic 

CboRh. tha Toitonfn, Colooni, uid Buberiul 

■ Tlie Lateisui Cbuicli tad Pslacs ue clox 

V»1Ib TheilTE, a. Lulgi Ctorch, S 
^ PJgn^'jn the mlddlB of tb« loi»r tan 

the Church of Santa MarU dcgU AneeU. 

othat biiiWlngs. on the site of the BUbs ol 

T. The EsquiUnt HUl, between the Col 

Ssnla Maria Maggiore. Here Msom 

nk o! Uis rivM, BiiidI* 
igse and Spadn lalacei. 
len side, the DniUen 

sits tA andent Rome^ 
ei the EaquUlne, Tln)- 
d Dlocleltin, 81. John 

Bcre begun by Aurelian. •-D. 271. In iJace 
etited blocks; and were restored byHonorlui 

• Vesta, Santa Uaiia it 
13. liMtoyere, on Ihe west side of the Tiber,— Jaiit 

Oosmedin Church. 

iTioltio, Conuil. SalvIaU, and FarDesina 
Villa J^mti, Acqua Faolo f ountaiiL 

Vatli^an. Cartel S. Augelo, 6. H^ivt 

are pierced by 16 gates, at which are 


J Bpaena, whwe fore 

C1b6; RIpotta Ieiii 

Ttome li divided Into M Itlotii, to called (since 1743) I 

J. Campo ftfarzo (CEunpas Marlins), neai 

■■" ■ - 'an Gardeoa, Villa Medldi Trtnilii i 

1 ua III cnutcnj riaxu ita- 
eit open pluei i La St^ilenis 1 
fi ud La Hbieira ehurdi ; ] 

D, Trail, ou 'nie Tniclnn nnd QnhhiaT. ivhfrcthi 



n. The Upper town, or mtk part of tlw citjr, on 
the slope of ihe Pindan and Qnirinal, consists 
cJtiefly of palaces, villas, churches, convents, with 
their courts and gardens. It contatais the Qnattro 
Fontane, at the intersection of two main streets, one 
from the Qoirinal to Porta Pla, the other from Piazza 
Barberini to Haggiore Santa Maria ; Promenade, on 
tiie Pindan; Trinity da* MonU Church ; Yia SisHna 
Btreat; Palazzo Barberini; Villa Piombino; Quirinal 
Palace, or Monte Cavallo ; Santa Maria Maggiore 
Church; Campo Vaecino. er Fonun; Capitol, or 
CsmpidogUo; Trajan's Colonm. 

in. The third division, on the west bank or 
Etruscan side of the Tiber, is generally called Tras- 
tevere (ie. trans-Tiber) ; but the Trastevere proper 
is confined to the south part beyond theAurelian 
wall, where the Boman slaves, and the barracks for 
aoldiers and sailors, were qnartoi'ed; now the seat of 
the mannfocturing population. Here are the tobacco 
factory, potteries, and waxrcandle works; the last 
an important branch of trade in Rome. Trastevere Is 
divided firom the Borgo (round the Vatican) by walls 
and gates, and a road called the Lungara, «.e. Long 
Street. This division contains St Peter's and the 
Vatican Palace; Holy Office, or Inquisition; the 
new Piazza Pia; S. Angelo Castle and Prison; S. 
Spiiito Hospital and Cemetery, open on All Souls' 
and other days; Salviali Palace and the Botanic 
Gardens ; La Lungara, along the Tib«r; Janiculum 
Hill ; Palazzo Corsini ; S. Callsto and 8. Francesca 
a Ripa Churches ; Villa Pamfili, and its promenade ; 
Acqua Paolo Fountain, the largest in Rome, of 
which it commands a good view; Santa Maria in 
Trastevere Church ; S. Michele House of Industry ; 
Ripe Grande quay. Lighthouse, and Custom House ; 
Porta Portesc. In one part, called the Lunganetta, 
Is the mediaeval tower of Everso, Count of Anguil- 
kra, now used as a factory for enamelfl and painted 


The 'Hber {Tiberis or Tevere) rises under the 
Apennines, in Tuscany, 120 miles from Rome ; and 
winds for three miles tluough the city, from 200 to 
380 feet i^de. It is of a dirty yellow ooloor, with a 
tail rapid stream; but is found to be good and 
tweet when left to settle. Except at the Ripetta, 
there are no quays or walks along its crumbling 
banks ; only the backs of houses, or patehes of sand 
and gravel are seen. There are two ports, or landing 

Porto di Ripetta, to the north, is on the east shore 
above S. Angelo Bridge^ Here boats from up the 
river land wine, charcoal, provisions, etc., at a quay 
wiiicb. was made of stones taken from the Colosseum, 
1704. There is a ferry across for a bajocco. A 
steuner runs tidce a week op tide river, to Fonte 
Felice, near Borghetto. 

RqM Grande^ to the soath, Is on the west hank 
■ear Porta Portese, and waa formed In I693» when 
A custom^hooae and wordioasea ware eraatad. To 
this Trnseln come up ficom the sea. 

TlM floods someamas lift tb» Tiber 25 to 80 fiaet 
mi0vmH8 aaaal Jerel^ and laundAte tlM lowar town 
vittbaaka. Ja l^Sff^U roae iO fyet,aad tifioxly 

as much in 1596. Horace deicribes an Inrnidatjon 
la the well-known words :— 

" Vidhnva flavum Tiberim, retortis 
Littore Etrusco violenter nadia* 
Ire defectum monumentom re|^ 
Templaque Vests." 

This Temple of Vesta still remains, near Ponto 
Rotto, opposite tiie Etruscan shore, on the Tras- 
tevere side of the yellow river. In the middle of the 
riyer is the Island or Isola of Bartolommeo, on which 
was a Temple of Esculapius. 

Further down was the J^mporiam, or old Roman 
dock, for supplying the city. It stood on a plain to 
the south-east of the Aveatine, along the Tiber, now 
called Vigna Cesariai, facing Porta Portuenais. It 
Included the Horrea and Fonun Platoriom, and the 
depots and granaries, erected by 8. Chdba and 
others, for wine, oil, com, vegetaUes, ete. Some 
remains exist in tine Arco di S. Lazzaro, etc. 
Roads came down to it throoi^ Porta Minucia, in 
the old wall, and Porta Navalis, to the Navalla, or 
docA^ard. Anoth^ followed the banks of the river 
to via (lella Marmorala, fftciag Ripa Grande, and 
so called from the marbles still landed here, as in old 
times, for building and sculptors. It Is continued 
by via della Salara. The river is as rich in anti- 
quities as the soil of the city ; so much so that 
speculators have offered to turn the stream for the 

Eurpose of searching its bed. Tlie holy seven- 
ranched candlestick taken by Titus from the Temple 
at Jerusalem, was lost in the river whax C(Mistantine 
defeated Maxentius, a.d. 312. 


nrere are three bridges and a suspen^on bridge. 

1. Ponte SanP Angelo, Is the Pons^lius of Hadrian, 
slightly restored, under Clement IX., by Bernini, 
ifho added the statues and balustrades. It Is on fhn 
arches, 800 ttet long, the river being 200 feet Pons 
Alius was built by Hadrian to lead across the 
river to his mausolemn (now the Castle) and circns^ 
in the gardens of Domitia. 

2. Ponte 8uto^ 300 fiset long, rebuilt by B. PIntefli 
for Sixtns IV., on the site- of the Pons Janiculensis 
of Marcus Aureliua. An iron bridge of three arcliea 
is projected, between tills and the next bridge. 

8. Ponte di San Bartolommeo and Ponte Qftattro 
Capi, m a line with each other, across the Island of 
San Bartolommeo, the ancient Insula Tiberina (Isola 
Tiburtina) ; which island is 1,000 feet long, and 300 
feet wide in the middle, the end being pointed like a 
ship's bow. Ponte Quattre Capi, so called from a four 
faced 'Janus at that end, is the andent Pons Fabri- 
due, built by Fabridns, the Curator Vlarum, B.a 
64, and still in good preservation. That of S. Bar- 
tolommeo Is the Pont Cfratiantu, built in the reiga 
of Giatlaa. 

Remains of andetit Bridget :-^T(aa Trinmphalis 
or Vaticamu, below Ponte Sant' Angelo, was 
destroyed in the fifth or sixtii century, and the 
remains form a rapid. Poos Palatinus or Sena- 
tortus, now Ponte Rotto, below Isola di Bartolem- 
mieo*, the renmins of three ardies are left of this 
teldge, ytYAOix "^ift toX '^^SX Vi Q^nssUos Sdploi, 

oMut bridge it R 

UEbeB by M. JSmlHiu Lt'iAliu. Uis « 
leign of Autnutai. It hu lbs axua 
Codu' Dmuu exploit, a 

ma yin did jamiit ittiidliic aid* n t»- 

dons shower-bafli. Chs wmtor pelllng og your 
ircllB, wlLll« a f tnuQ Is running belbn yoq tfut 

le principal and mMt IItsIt Ihoninghtm !• tlH 
:a. EiiI^DeIt<"nebfUie£neGBlcaDii:nuu 
Fopolo, three prtnclinl itieets dlverpi [biDotfi 
ritv. Tli.-_tlH! Rinda d1 BIpatta and aoada del 
id left ott&s middli «!«. -wldch 
— ----'-■- eaacraa the modem 
I, and the CnpUonns 
ilace at tha Candnl, 

qolU I liu Aa al tta CUmtAT 


Of bar dulpblua 

Boarluin (bullae) 

a Maiia In CofimedLa. 

la Maria del Bole, 
laaa del Camt'dofiiii. or of (be CupUol. at tl 
theudortfa« ^Wum. {SoeCaidlol, page IfiS.) 

r Palttzo dl U. Otorio. The ni 

DD HcUoiwVa to 
■B9. by Plaj VI. 

be Jar^it and motC hi 
It tho CiivM Agonill 

by a comiplion otaj 
gnu, •acom. The bo 

a«H; -Willi that of Gran Guardln. where 
tB of the French army of OMuiiollon mcoL 

I city of Veil) mack) the old Fuel Offim, 
'oliizo Uu!am9. 

Farnfse, tocea the Faraeu FjdELi]c, near 
rovona. TwaEtaiiltaba^iu,&Qiathe Bathe 

tta Maria in Caiipa Ucrsa. 

r or VU B, Stefiuo del Cw<x. 

AleiandrU 8evenu. 

a fie'hti UiUB iagim 

nmnded it The open epaee ll aMd ai a market, iix 
fta\a and Teeetahlei, eapeolally on Wedneedaj-s. In 
Aupm, on SafuTdsva, It is converted Into ■ lake, for 

louDtidiia; wbeatha p«>{ja drfre ttarou^ in car- 
rlagea. Thefonnlalna(MbrAc(!aaTarBiil" — "" 

m BL Agnei'iChurcltoPI'a^te, the i 
(ntric BorrominL The E^ptian Oh 

imflU, andBrai 
eiBemlUei of the pi 
little AgoDlzunll CI 

if Couitantlne. and aacribEd loFbldia^ 
iM» ; bBl with better (eisoo sumoMd ' 

ibelisk of red granite, placed hero in 1 
^raoile baaln fountain. tranapTanted fr^n 
iY FJuB VIL The palace of the GontuI 

, plsced here Clement XII. 

, so called f^ora an anoiiymoue mutilated 

{tend near the Arch of SeTCtuB. but la noir 

a the CaiJloL 

a Pia. named after Plus IX,, is a new place 

I tho brkd^ of Saa Ancelo and &tr Fctcr'B» 

I with a fountain ou Ionic columns. 

M <ff Piclra, facing the Dogana or CuBtom 

Fiatia del I*opolo, Id 
Kirtb. ou the Via Flav 

. HerelB theMIniatr 

fnpBrlj' BM. Hevsral 

Bid opening OD the eut side to IhP Pilioiad Gnnlenl 

iheplaiiailn'whfchthejatmoi Other, iiro 

Al the Mnlre Is t> BnnUe Bi^Pl'"! Obelljk. brought 
fton, the Cinm. il^ihcai. io IS89, by, who 
dealgned the Lion tonnteSTi el the faue. The fine 
Chnrchor Binli MeriB del PopoJo li cloee to the 

Fanlana Mt Mqva filict, or de" Termini, near 

tiu V. twhoee nun* wu Felli or Felice) b. D. 
I'ontana. Batween the etatnes of Aaron <bi DelU 

P"-^ ,^K ."""; ?K™n'"!i' V'^p""*'',''!?' 

yi» del Bahoino, to the Qulrinul; th« Corso, to Iho 
Cipltol and Poranii Via dl Ripelta, to PUuia 
iriTona and the rirer. At theli jgncUoDs ere two 

Porta) and Gideon (by F. Tacca) la a coloaul bnt 
inferior Uoieg Krikloe the Boelt. by ■ Biudan 

twin churohei, aanla MiiJB dl Uouta Santo and 

FonMM Paolina, on the innunil of the Janlralnm, 

Binta Mull de' Mirncoll. 

Piaaa diUa Qvatlra Fimtaia, at ths niMllng of 
four rondi, near the QulilniL 


I'lSo, of Paul y^. who "gara"^ nacia to b!)th."''lt 
ted by G. Fonlana. ISIS. The gianita plUan ara^t the Palazzo dl Spa^K. 
^n Vln del Babnliio. Hen are many hoteli nnd 

F«>l9iui°^'lWel, nrar (he Palazzo Sclam, ■ 
larw maa at Yrater iiippllcd by the Acgua Veralne. 

in Vta del Bibnlno. Hurt are muiy hoteli nnd 1,™ masiot YraterioCDllcd bvthe Acoua VminB 


"u nX ntST- ii-„j-i.™>.„ tj™,i .• «„ I I.. Meelth are by Dells Valle. It itanda helm Iha 

Eocllih IViendi: 
puiBle Night i 
deal^ed by Berttl' 

Here Beppo, the crJppl 
caiirt(ieo Story's Boba 
FnpigHiida Is eloie t 

of tbo Iminitcalate Coi 

tka BDmu HItial has 

Piatta Ruttifuai, Tti 

Hatid I 

drflo rartorw** (Tort 

wtatah tlM two PooBebis reilded. Tbia 
•eeiRdu tb« tile of the Portico of OcIbvIb. 

FUitndf JimM, fachiR the IVrma, or Bathi 
oT DIoftgUiB, and Banta Maria degU Aogell Cbarch. 
TboFODtiiuddl'AcqnBlVUceDTile'TennlDi Unsu 
thb place. Hanot anaflannoD tbecameaof pallonc 
■nS bsoeatla an plajed. 

Piaaa nttnH, In Iha Foram, round the Trajan 

Piaaa Triam rfCVrnK fiKtag Ihli church, on 
tbeFlndaiiiseartlnlWBnaDdfirdniaof Ballait. 

Plaaadi rtnntB, at tlw iont£ and of thaCorio. 
Here are the Palazzo dlVoiMdt (DOW the Auitrlan 
EobaiiT), and tba Tnrinnh nrt yimfi-ipi Paiaea*. 

Borne la well lapplltd wHli wtiat fmn about bO 

llgho'erlrrtgnoiii voles, and vooc 
IlLdetbosort irhleperlng waters in 

(whence tbe name), foontalu of Treti. La Baicac- 
da, FaroeiB, Flazia NaTcno. and tUne olhcn, in 
the lower city, 

Acqm Ftlia ffbmerly Acqua Uania or Cliudis) 
takes namo from its roatoror, Fellee da Monlaltii, 
ttterwarda Pope Slilqe T., andiuppUes tbo founlnina 

CaTallo. and 14 olhert, In the Upper Town. 

Apeeallarfeatureoflmpertalai^Cectnre. HoMof 
them weia imported from Egypt, after thecoDqneit 
of that proTlJKe ; and are usually tin^Bqunie-iided 
bIHtsof ndgrwiltB,wlthhlero|^yplijD& Aftftci^qfivt 



Obelisk of S. CHowmni in LakfMm (Gonstantine 
Obelisk), facing the Lateoran Palace. The hie^Mst 
in Rome, the shaft being 105i feet, or with basd, etc. 
149 feet The shaft weighs about 445 tons. Two 
sides 9 feet 8|, and the other two only 9 feet This 
difference is observable in all, more or less. It was 
brought fi-om Heliopolis (in a galley of 800 rowers) 
to the Cireus Maximns; and raised on its present 
site by D. Fontana, 1588, in the reign of Sixtos V. 

Obelisk of Monte Cavallo (Qoirhiale Obelisk), 
fixed here 1786. No hieroglyphics ; ^5 feet high, 
or 48 feet the shaft only. 

Obelisk df MonU (Htorio (Campense ObeHsIc) 110 
feet high, or 71} feet the shaft only. Brought fhun 
the Campus Mwtins (where it served as a gnomon 
to mark the hours by its shadow) by Pius VI., in 1789. 

Obelisk qf Santa Maria Maggiore^ 183| feet high, 
or48i feet the shaft only. No hieroglyphics. After 
adomUig the Mausoleum oi Augustus and being 
broken in three pieces, it was put together and set 
up here in 1587, by D. Fontana. 

Obelisk of Santa Maria Sopra Minerta (lIGnerveo 
Obelisk), 39ii feet high, on the back of a grotesque- 
looking elephant I — By Bernini, fixed here 1667. 

Obelisk of the Pantheon (Mahuteo Obelisk). A 
small one, 47} fbet high. Set up in 1711, with a 
fountain round it. 

Obelisk of the Pineian HtH (Aureltano Obdlsk), 
drom the Variani (or Barberini) Qardens, 1822; 66} 
feet high. 

Obelisk of Piazza Navona (Pamfilian ObeHsk), 
99 feet high, in five parts pieced together. Brought 
from the Temple of Romulus, on the Via Appia, by 
Bernini, 1651 ; and placed on the top of his fountain. 

Obelisk of Piazza del Popolo (Flaminio Obelisk), 
116 feet high, to the cross on ttie summit; or, 78^ feet 
the shaft only. Transported from the Fiammian 
Circus, by Fontana, in 1589. 

Obelisk of St. Peter, or the Vatiean, 182 feet Mgh to 
the cross, or 8:{ feet the shaft only. Dedicated to 
Augustus and Tiberius, but without hieroglyphics. 
At first it stood in the Circus of Nero, not fiir off, on 
the site of the sacristy, and was moved to the front 
of St Peter's, iOth September, 1686, by D. Fontana, 
by what was considered a great en^eering feat 
in that day. Above 800 men and 140 horses were 
employed. Sixtos and his court attended to witness 
the experiment after a solemn mass. Complete 
silence was ordered and observed by the crowd, till, 
at a critical moment, when the cordage was fbond 
too short, a sailor, who knew the remedy, cried out 
** Wet the ropes with water,*' which was done, and 
the obelisk was safely fixed in its place. The Pope 
rewarded the sailor, a native of the Riviera, bygiiring 
his family the privilege of selling the palms tor the 
Roman churches, on Palm Sunday. This obeliric is 
nearly nine feet square at the base, and six feet at 
the top. 

Obelisk of TrinOhde Monde (Sallastlano ObeMsk), 
10<» feet high. Placed herein 1789, by PiiwVL It 
stood <m the spina of the Circus of Salhart. 



di Nona, after a prison of that name, from whkiik, at 
nine jo'dock (or nona^, Italian time, criminals twese led 
to execution. Opem and Ballet Prioo three to Jmst 
pauls. Opm 7 do. Full dress is required here. 

Teatr^ FoOs,— <^era and Comec^. The best ia 

Teatre jCf]7ienMML~ViUa deUa Rotonda. 

Teatro Metatiasio. •— Via Pallacorda, Bear tbe 
mpetta. Comedy. 

Teatro Ckgaraniea, near Piazza Colonna. Mario* 

Fantoccini— ^"Pisizza. delle Valle. 

Correot in the oU Mausoleo d'Aagaaio 


The ancient names are opento dispvte, and the 
ancient ways cannot be alwajrs tem^iht i^ iMitb 
certainty to the gates. Several have beeft -restorec 
during Uie present reign. 

*Porta del PopUo, on tiie Flainfaii«n Way, oi 
groat nortii road, by which ooatdies- usually enter 
Rome. Built by Honerins; and deoorttted imder 
Pius IV., by Vignola (from Hidiael Angelo?s de> 
designs) and Bernini, When Queen Cbristioea entered 
Rome. The Protestant Chapel and the OttlelCaricet 
are dofee l>y outside; and tbe Piasza dtfl Fopole la 
JBSt within. 

Porta Pinoiana, VMr closed, is on tiie Pineiaa 
Hill. It was built by Honoiius and rebuilt by 
BeUsarius. At the %vt^ of 1849, an attack was 
made near this gate. 

*Porta JSalara, or Saiaria, built by Heaortus, in 
place of the P. Collina of Serviss TnUitt& Tiirooarh 
this gate ^aric entered, jld. 409, after bis victory on 
the Allia, and gave up Rcone to three days* pillage. 

*Porta Pia, buUt by M. Angielo, by Pius IV. It 
stands near tiie old P. Nomentana, built by Hono« 
rins, and now closed. Here a new bamtdc is build- 
ing, on the site of the Castra Prsetoriana. Tbe fixat 
stone was laid by Pio Nono, 12th Jnne, 188&. 

*Porta 8. Loremo, an the road to S. Lorenzo and 
TivoUor TtbnrtiBa, and once called Porta TtburUna. 
Close to it is a monument at the junction of Aqua 
Marcia, Aqua Tepnla, and Aqua Julia. 

*Porta Ma^gUMn, one -of the best gates, is a hand- 
some arch of travertine stone ; close to the old P. 
Labicana and P. Praenestina (at the tainition 4lf 
those two roads). It consists of two great arohev 
with rusticated Corinthian oolnmns, aborre wlricii 
are chaimeis for the Claudian Aquedtea. This, 
according to the inscriptions on it, was maide by 
Clandian, and restored by Vespasian and Titns. It 
was a union of timee ovfmtx earlier aqneduets. Tho 
Tomb of Eurysaccs, the baker, is near at hand; SEnd 
Hm railway to Monte Albano, Tnaaalinn and 
Frascati, passes in this direction. 

^Porta S. Oiovanni, on the road to Kapisfl, -vnu 
buftt by Gregory XIII, in place of P. Asmmria, nanr 
a pietoreaqne brick rohi, near St. John Lateran, 
thron({b whksh BelisaDhn eontered the dHgr. IIm 
routes to FBaseatI or Aflbano, l^jr Atppia.Nov», .teoBS 
this gate, are superseded by the rail. 

Porta Latina.. madft by Honorius, a.d. 402, and 


r chml, tot mlDud " P. C. " 

CiB<M>liookplu*«iMd«tlilig*le. A thM (Maui- 
bKtam bubmUtelr dlBccmnd turn. 

•Farms. a ti Um t, mtba Via ^pta, or r«t 
■oBtb mad, md otbirwlH ml^eil P. u>ida. bnlh b;^ 
Honoilii* iaplaesBf FortkCiilHi*. ThstwotRick 
■• bnllUir BcUwtm or Hums. 

t iMtepiit S. Paota 111* Tn en 
— ' ■^— '— -a«lby«»« 


FlnmlcotiB, 1 

id LmtHlum, iimaii 

e »it« of r- ■ ■ 

by Utbtn Yltl., in pluoo or 

n, Irom Hip* Grind*. 

when bnuerod by tht Fn 
P.mflli, the old ?. Junk 
3. Pmcmilo (3t. Panor. 

Paria Cacalli^U^ on the CWta Teochta mail. 
r Ibe InqnlUlioo and at PetJt't Tli« Coail — 
irbDn wu enuiOig by Cbl> c*ie wltb bli u 
7, vbni he w» tbol by B. C«l]1a<, wUh u 
bnie. as bad on H nbtls aiartje, and wu 
uttornnnpBfloUiielBddeT. Tbli Ij tbe use 
in by Ccninl, In bl9 Menmlra. 
■oria Flibbrva It clo§ed on. 
■aria Perluia, behind the Yatlcan, [i obo dv 

Porta CojieHo, north of Castrt 8. ADgoto, I 

Porla S. ^IrOo, from tbe Borjo to the Lungnro 
Is a One onflnlBhcd work, by M, ingelo. 

Porta KaaaUana. wu an anelcnt gau la th. 

afierwardi called ArgUetaUt floia tbo oamsof tlu 
loultQJn nrhieh Cloao'a biotha' Ured. Nau thi 
Is the Via do PoitaldBa, afta a Flee Idom of tfai 
tc^Rll ceDtory, vhB tanud tfaafliaam of Uantlla 
.... . *_ .. ... ...- _., rtact«dAiltl-P3pe 

u Aoacletns tL 


•ViaAfpia, gr sreM (inlb md, iatt ontfMi 
Porta Gapeu or 8. BOwllaiu. It wu Bade i 
■qaaie block* of baiall, iriileh an MUl rbbi 
ttnngb their ddgn ars mrn Mwn by Oie gim 

• PM Ii^ta, fion PdiU CqiHii, -wBDt more iBlan 
tenueohnn, etc 

■Pia .^oUona, went ttosa Pwta Egqoflbia; ■ 
did lbs Fin /VmtiMu. It tOIlowa Oe rail pai 
Tllla OordiaDomm. and tbe note W CWUu n 
fioMi. and paaau near Acqai Fdka, Bid tbs tomb i 
Helena, called tbe Cbtircb af B. PdWr n 

. _ _. ._ 'aKbtarydllapMatedbridn 

la the spaekHU green Campa^a. Many mtaa fhim 
the daya at ancient Rome, and main mlch-tow«a 
From Oh middle agea, are aeniered erer tbia loof 
■aeeeaeloncirniBadowa. Obatn sf hlKa Hh towanti 
tba borlKin, now partially eorered wllli anow (Jam- 
aiy), aad tettiHIcally Tarlad In fomg and aokiiii by 
the abadowa-or the cLouda. And there la alio the 
enebanUng vapoury Ylalon of the Alban HQIb. wUch 

paaaea by VII 

bytha'hoati or'A«iii'irennua.'eto.'rviiia ^ 

Castel OlnbUoo, on tha ilte of Pdeme. The AlUa, 

* Via Ftaminiti. or great north mad» went fram 
tbe Porta Flamlnla, and glvca name to the Emilia 

lhediylntbedli«tioiiDf the Cono, bnt ta not Iden- 

Ihe old Ffo. It was lined with tombs nid TlUia IDn 
the Applan Way. Outside the walla It panel Villa 
Borghne; the PrMeitant Cborch; the Amaitatio 
i>rebnDblea,nearthfiTlb*ri and Villi PnmOhillo. 
It Uien eroanathe river by PonteUolle orKllvta, an 
Hdant bddgc, which bat bMn rencmd, and la ■> 
l!1«] by corruption from Ponte EmfUa. the cnuoF. 
Beyund tW« i — "■- -"'- -' ' 

oFHcnnibaL . 

WW* om (ffl >!Y ftaittHi tR ■^ «-\Jtoi^i 
Vorta, in B*u.&tiDn. ' 

^M«^, 1 

L. Venu. andtta ''"^^ 



defeated Maxentius here, A.i>. 312, driving his oppo- 
nent into the river. The Via Claudia turns off 
towards Lake Bracciano, leaving Via Flamlnia to 
turn to the north-east ; at the eighth mile is the Villa 
of Livia, where important excavations are in progress. 

Via Ccasia was a branch of the Via Flaminia. 

* Via Aurelia, firom Porta Aurelia, or S. Fancrazlo, 
Along the west coast 

*Via Campana (or Portuensis), and *Vta Ostiensis 
went to the month of the Tiber, and thence along 
the coast of Latinmu It leads to Ostia^ which once 
had a populatien of 80,000, and now has not more 
than 50. " It was ruined, first by the sea, which re- 
tires at the rate of four yards a year, and then by the 
Saracens and other invaders. Then comes Ardea, 
the capital of the Rutuli, founded by Turnus; then 
Antium, the capital of the Volsci, the site of Nero's 
House, in which the Apollo Belvedere and the Gla- 
diator were found. Here is the Villa Borghese. 

Via ArdecUina, a branch of Via Ostiensis. 

The present sovereign of Rome, Pius IX, was bom 
at Sinigaglia, in 1792; elected Pope, 16th Jime, 1846. 
The government is ecclesiastic and despotic. The 
council of ministers is presided over by a Secretary 
of State (Cardinal Antonelli.). The Governor of 
Rome Is a prelate, and there Is a municipal body 
consisting of a Senator and Conservatore, for orna- 
ment. No officials are employed but such as go to 
confession and are known to be good CathoKcs. 

The public debt amounts to about 90,000,000 scudi ; 
on which the yearly interest is about 4,600,000. 
The yearly revenue is about 8,000,000 ; the expen- 
diture 10,000,000. 

The population of Rome for 1 862, as derived from the 
printed report of the Cardinal Vicar, was as follows:— 
29 Cardinals. 

35 Archbishops and Bishops. 
1,529 Prelates and ordained Ecclesiastics. 

339 Lay Ecclesiastics. 
2,509 Monks. 
2,031 Nuns. 
4,486 Jews. 
186,120 Laity, including Military. 

197,078, Total population of Rome 

In 1838 it was 1*3,500. In the year 1847, a 
Papal decree summoned an Assembly of Notables 
from the provinces, to serve as the foundation of a 
constitutional system. On 15th November, 1848, 
Chancellor Rossi was assassinated, and on the 24th. 
the Poi>e fled to GaSta. Rome then fell under the 
government of the triumvirs, Mazzini, SaflS, and 
Armellini. After a siege which lasted some weeks, 
and in which Garibaldi distinguished himself^ Rome 
was taken by the French, in July, 1849, and the 
Pope was brought back 12th AprU, 1860. The city 
is, for the present, almost French ; 12,000 troops are 
quartered in the old palace ot the Inquisition, in Ara 
CcbU Convent, and many other convents; and the 
Castle of S. Angelo is a French powder magazine. 
Persons are not allowed to mount the tower of the 
Capitol, lest some daring revolutionist should take 
the opportunity to plant the Italian flag on its 
summit. But by the recent convention between 
France and Italy, the French Emperor engages to 
leave Rome in two years from 11th December, 1864. 

Among the improvements effected during the reign 
of Pius IX. are the introduction of gas in some of 
the streets ; the railways to Frascati, Naples, and 
Civita Vecchia ; a suspension bridge on the Tiber ; 
the restoration of the gates, walls, and monuments ; 
the new Piazza Pio, near St. Peter's; and the re- 
building of the splendid church of St. Paul. The 
present Pope has also been very liberid in the pur- 
chase and distribution of antiquities. — (See Mr. Good- 
win's papers on Rome, in the Builder, 1862-3.) A 
jubilee has been proclaimed for the present year, 

The Campagna round the city is divided into 
immense farms belonging to a few rich proprietors 
and religious bodies. The effects of the present rule 
are summed up by Dr. Wordsworth. " Uncultivated 
tracts of land, even to the gates of Rome ; grass 
growing in the streets ; a large part of the city itself 
untenanted ; the commerce of the place languishing ; 
its maritime traffic represented by two or three 
wretched steamers, and three or four barges now 
lying in the port of Ripetta ; the streets swarming 
with beggars ; an organised system of espionage; 
and the confessional itself used as an instrument of 


At Rome the chief business of the place is religion 
nnd the observance of church festivals ; and hence 
the prominence given to its ecclesiastical buildings 
and institutions. 

There are 378 churches in Rome, besides chapels 
and oratories ; and in these will be found sources of 
interest which no other capital in the world can 
afford. Most Catholic countries have a representative 
church at Rome; as S. Stanislao, for the Poles. 
Many Italian cities have them also; as S. Giovanni 
di Fi(yrentin% for the Florentines; S. Croce^ for 
the Laeca men. Some of the largest are under the 
' ^^^ of sovereigns : as the Lateran, under the 
V SdutaMAriaMaggiore, uader the Spanish. 

St Paul's was formerly tinder the patronage of the 
King of England. 

The churches of Rome, says Forsyth, are "ad- 
mirable only In detail. Their materials are rich, 
the workmanship is exquisite; the orders are all 
Greek. Every entablature is adjusted to the axis of 
each column with a mathematical scrupulosity which 
is lost to the eye. One visionary line runs upward, 
bisecting superstitiously every shaft, tryglyph, ove, 
bend, dentel, mutule, modillion, and lion's head that 
lies in its way. But how are those orders employe;] ? 
In false fronts, in pediments, under pediments, etc" 
The d\stT\\>\x.Wotv ot \3cvfe ^«rt.% \.% Tvoaxly the same in 



Over these are sometimes grated recesses, bat never 
open galleries. The choir terminates in a cnnre, 
"wliich is the grand field of decoration,,blazing with 
leaf-gold and glories. In the middle of the cross is 
the high altar. The chapels of the Holy Sacrament 
and the Virgin are usually in the transept Those of 
the saints are ranged on the sides; and each being 
raised by a different family, has an architecture of 
Its own at variance with the church, which thus 
loses its unity amid nests of polytheism." 

Some of the oldest and most remarkable churches, 
are the basilicas ; so called from being planned after 
the Roman courts of justice. That of S. Cle- 
xnente, founded in the 4th and 5th centuries, though 
rebuilt 872, retains the characteristic atrium, or 
court-yard, narthex for penitents, aisles, and other 
arrangements. The earliest churches of this class 
are, Santa Sabina, Santa Maria Maggiore, S. Pietro 
ad Vincula, all of the 5th century ; with others, 
OS in the chronologrical list below. S. Giovanni in 
lAterano, of the 10th century, has five aisles; as 
have St Peter's and St. Paul's, the predecessors of 
which were 4th century churches, the two oldest in 
Kome. The present Stc Paul's has been magni- 
ficently rebuilt by the reigning Pope, since the fire 
of 1823. Santa Maria sopra Minerva, built 1870, 
is the only church approaching the Gothic style (in 
the Italian sense), in Rome. 

The five patriarchal basilicas are, St Peter's, 
St John Lateran, Santa Maria Maggiore, St. 
Paul's, outside the walls, and St. Lorenzo, also 
without the walls ; correspondhig to the five patri- 
archates of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, 
Antiocb, and Jerusalem, respectively. Most of the 
churches, especially the oldest, have mosaic pave- 
ments, and pictures in mosaic at the upper end; 
and they are all rich in marbles, precious stones, 
paintings, and gilding. No stained glass is seen. 
The mosaic style of ornament is peculiar to Rome 
and Florence, where it is carried on by the aid 
of government factories. Each church has relics 
to boast of, which are exposed to view on the fcsta 
of the patron saint Duo notice of the stazione are 
given in the " Diario Romano," from which, or from 
the libraries, all information about the services may 
be obtained. 

The basilicas are open all day. Other churches 
are closed firom 12 to 2 or 4 ; some are closed all the 
week, and a few all the year, except at the festa. 


For a particular account of the church ceremonies 
and festivals, see chapters 4 and 5 of Story's Roba 
di Roma. 

January 1st— The Pontifical Court attends service 
at the Apostolical Palace, where the Pope may be 
residing; either the Sistina Chapel, at the Vatican, 
or the Paolina, at the QuirinaL 

6th. Epiphany.— Procession to the Bambino, at 
Ara CoBli Church. The Exhibition of the Presepe 
(cradle) and child. Preaching contlnoes to 13th. 

17th.— Blessing of the Horses, at S. Antonio. 

21st— St. Agnes. Benediction of the lambs, 
tram whose wool the palUaiDs for the new Aich- 

February 2»d.— Porifleation. Distribution of Can- 
dles at the Sistina. 

Carnival, races, eta, about 10 days before Ash 
Wednesday. Shrove Tuesday. ** Sensa Moccoli** 
illuminations in the Corso. 

March 25th.— Annunciation. Service at S. Maria 
sopra Minerva. Blesshig the GoJden Rose, 4th 
Sunday in Lent 

Holy Week (Settimana Santa). 

Palm Sanday. — Distribution of Pahns at S. Petei^i^ 

Holy Wednesday. — Miserere at the Vatican. 

Holy Thursday. — Blessing the People fixmi the 
Quirinal. Washing the Apostles' Feet, and Supper 
at the Vatican. Miserere at the Sistina. 

Grood Friday.— Service at the Sistina. TVe Ore 
(three hours), at most of the churches. Miserere at 
St. Peter's. 

Holy Saturday. — ^Baptism of Converted Jews and 
Turks, at the Lateran. Armenian Mass at S. 
Biagio. Blesssing the Houses. 

Easter Day. — ^The Pope celebrates mass at St 
Peter's, and blesses the people urbi ei orbi, from the 
middle window. The Dome illuminated. 

Easter Monday. — Girandola fireworlcs, on Monte 

April 25th. — Procession of all the- Roman clergy 
from St Marco to St Peter's; a fine display of 

May 26th.— S. Filippo Neri; at Santa Maria in 

Ascension Day. — Papal Benediction, at tlie La- 

Whitsuntide.. — ^Women visit the crypt of St. 
Peter's. Sprinkling the Cattle. 

Corpus Domini (or Christi). — ^Adoration of the 
Sacrament Procession of the Pope and all tho 
clergy to the Lateran, St Peter's, etc 

Rogation Tuesday. — Procession of all the religions 
orders, with banners, to the Lateran ; a very pic- 
turesque sight 

June 24th. — St John Baptist; at the Lateran. 

28th, 29th.— SS. Peter and Paul. Papal Mass at 
St Peter's. Visit to the Crypt The Dome illumi- 
nated. Girandola on Monte Pincio. 

July 31. — S. Ignatius Loyola; at the Gesn. 

August 1.— St Peter's ciiair shown at St Peto'^s 
in VhicolL 

15th. — Assumption ; at Santa Maria Maggiore. 

September 8th.— Nativity of the Virgin ; at Santa 
Maria del Popolo. 

29th.— St Michael; at S. Michele In Ripa Grande. 
Industrial Exhibition, at the HospitaL 

November 12th.— All Saints. Visits to the Ceme- 
teries ; especially Santa Maria in Trastevere, the 
Lateran, the Hospital of S. Spirito, la Morte, in Via 
Giulia, etc. 

14th.— S. Carlo Borromeo ; at S. Carla 

December.— Advent Sunday. Services in the Papal 
chapels. On the first Sunday, the Pope carries th« 
Sacrament to the Paolina. 



SMh.— COirtatann. G«iaBMBftiiia,atSaBtalfiuriA 
Ifankm. Papal Mass at St Pste^ Brhihition. 
<if thaOWfeirW Ciadle> «fcthe .An Oorii, and a Rnn> 
caaeo, aft Blpa Chnnda^ tULIlie Bphdmny. 

81st— mdnight Te DaamtiitaaOeBii, attendad 
1^ the ^€p^ Clardlnala, and Magistntat 

Eotf IfSe^— The first oemaumy la on Fahn Son- 
day. ** The diolr, (says Mendelssohn), sang J7o- 
tamta in ExeeltU, and intoned varions hymns, while 
twisted pakna sore offend to the POfte, which he 
di airi b ii toa among the Gardhials. The palms are 
long brandm deoonted with bnttons, crossea, and 
crowna, all entirely made of dried pahn leaves 
whidi makes them look like gold. Hie csnlinals; 
who are seated in the ehapel, in tiw form of a 
qoadnmgle with the Aliatti at ttair fleet, now 
advanee each in torn to receiva their palms; 
tiien oome the bishops, monks, and all tiie other 
oiden; the P^mI stngen, the lailghtB, and others. 
Thia makes a long processioB, daring whidi the 
choir continues to smg SBremitUngly. 

" The Pone's throne is then can^d in, on which he 
is elevated in all processions (side the Heliodoms of 
Baphacd, where he isponztrayed). The Cardinals, 
two and two, with their palms, head the procession, 
and the Adding doors of the chapel being thrown 
open, it slowly defiles throngh them. The singing 
whieh has tuUierto incessantly prevailed, like an 
element, taeoomesfahitm: and fainter, ftnrthe singers 
also waUc in the procession, and at length are only 
Uidistinotly heard, the sound dying away in the 
distance. Then a choir in the chapel bursts forth 
with a query, to which the distant one breathes a faint 
response ; and so it goes on for a time, till the pro- 
cession again draws near and the choirs reunite. 
Let them sing how and wiuit they please, this 
cannot fiidlto produce afine effect ; and though it is 
quite true tiiat nothing can be more monotonous and 
even devoid ci form than the hymns oW tmisono, 
bdng without any proper connestion and snng 
for^iimi thzoufl^ut, still I a^ipeal to the impres- 
sion that as a whole it must make on everyone. 
After the prooesidon returns, the Goq»el Is dianted 
hi the moat itngnlar ibne and is snooeeded by the 


There is nothing on Monday or Tuesday ; but on 
Wedneiiat at half-pastfonr, the Nocturne begin with 
the antiphon, Mm Domm ttue. Each Noctnm 
(sa]rs the little Manual of Offices for Holy Week) 
contains three Psalms, signifying tiiat CSluist died 
for alL and also symbolical of tlie three laws, the 
natural, written, and evangelical. The Ihmim 
Ic^ria mas and the Deus in ad^utorium are not sung 
on this occasion, when the death of our Saviour and 
Master Is deplored, as slain by the hands of wi^ed 
godless men. The fifteen lights whidi are ex- 
thiguldied in succession represent the Twelve 
Apostles and the Three Marys. 

" The Psahna, begbming^witfa the 68tb, 69th, and 
Ttth, are ehanted fartiuimot in alternate voioea by 
two matochobB, though invariid>Iy by one class of 
Toheut AiMes or tenora. Yon eaanot eonosiva hofw 
_^*MMM mad momotoaoaa the efifeet Is* md how 
Jj««&«r madmecbanicaUy they chant throiq^ tbs 


of Ben qaamUfaig violnfly, and as If tiny ntfn 
rticwting ant fknioisty one agafaut tha otter. 

"* Dazing this time the UAts ontlie altar an am 
extfngnished, sanra one v^ichls behhid the vidtasiL 
Six wax candles still eonthtne to bum Mgh above 
tfaeentranet; the nat of thespaeais abeady'dfan; 
andnow the whole ohidr IntoaM —fsiw p with tta Ikm 
atrength of their voices, the OemHemn Ifttckmim, 
in D minor, sfaaging it slowlr and ademniy^ dming 
which the last rsmalntng ugiits are SKUngnisiiBd. 
Tba nd^ty sweHbig choima is tka desfenlng-c^m 
and the aolsnm vibcatioo of aa-many vcioM hsive a 
wondnfoUy fine effect AttlieclsaaalliaBrafomid 
darkness." An antii^Mn begins oo flie sentenoe^ 
* Now he that betrayed him gave,* ete, and eon* 
tinnes to the words, * That same is he^' etc. Tben 
the Fope leaves his throne and kneeb befin« the 
altar ; an present fall on their knee% md one solitary 
voice softly singa, Chriihu faetiu M pro nobis 
oiedJMS ntfut ad mortem. On Tiranday is added, 
MorUm atttem ertids. On Chwd Frid^^, Propter 
quod et Deut audtarU Ulmny ei dtdU HU mmm, 
fitod ett saper emus nomcn. 

** Apanseensues, during wfaioh eaoh person repeats 
the Pater Noster to himself. A deatb4ike siIaD«e 
prevails in the church. Presently the Jf2wrer»c«n- 
mences with a chord, softly breathed by the vtrfeea, 
and gradually branching off into two dKrirs. lUs 
beginning, and its first harmonioas vibration, oer- 
ta&oly made the deepest Inqpresskm <m me. for an 
hour and a half prevkHisly, one voioe alone had been 
heard ohanttng almost wlthont any varfoty. AAer 
the pause comes an admirably oonstructed dierd, 
which lus the finest posriUe efihot, canning epvory 
one to feel in their hearts the power of mnsia It is 
Uiis indeed that is so striking. The best voioea are 
reswved tat the IbOserere (Baini*B), whteh is sang 
with the greatest variety of effect; the voioea 
awelUng am. dying away, from the softest piano to 
tlie fhll strength ot tihe cfadr. Mo wonder that it 
dionld excite deep emotion in every heart 

"A second short silent prayer ensues, when ail the 
cardinals scrape their foet noisily on the ground, 
wliich betokens the dose of the ceremony. This 
TuSat (says the Ifanuai) is sjnnboUcal of the tumrit 
made by the Hebrews, in seizing Christ It may be 
so, but it sounds exactly like the commotion in tibe 
pit of a theatre, when a play is delayed or ftaeiBy 
condemned. The shig^e ti^r stiD burning is then 
brought from behind the altar, and all silently 
disperse by its solitaiy light I nnist not omit to 
mention tbB striking effect of the blazing ohanddfcr 
lighting up the great Testibule, when the cardinals 
and their attendant priests traverse the illuminated 
Quhrinal, through ranks of Swla gnard&'*->ifiM- 
deUsokn*8 Littera. 

On Thuradaih at 9 in the morning, the solemnities 
recommence, and last till 1 0. There is high mass 
at 10 SOL At the Olorim in Mxi^aig, the chofrs 
borat in, and all the bells in Some peal forth, and 
are not rungagain till after Gkwd Friday; thehonrs 
for that taiterval being mariosd in the churches lay 
wooden dappersk Afterwards tliars is a preoessien, 
inlwa't\iA vova S& Vms slnCt in his state choir, 

n of tbs diqHl, md the P 

. . r ■hoH, npnMch «iid ktalL 
Biclw tUt, lliii rinimijiiirtiir r iliWil m. Ii fimsi 
ana ofUi flmrt w nr ka, nd ttai; lin It villi n- 

g tODofWnai 

of aiiontkiiL I qnUs nndBitiuid irky ths Impn- 
ptHat prDdQEAdC-- -' ■ -" — •■ — "--'*--- •-- 

inQcieUiti fill 
BvArythla^ CCHiia«ct«d 

A proccBicb fdllDm, to fetdl tia iUM, KbiA bu 

IwOdItIbiI, U| 
. ThamomLr 

mmm m 


imR Df a QnA ODB pncmaid I 

dMiin fnnM b co^ma . .. _ _ .. 

PuIinMlilwat Atheu), wmtOOnmiimU^UV 
tty H. Ang^Otiriu mifeaa 18 }«nut Il.b«wm 

""j LI • ." " •* • ■"^■-■- 
t>y vbom Ibe ortebul plui in»u««4 M llHt <f « 
LaUn crou, in mdm to Uk« ia Ilia riu <( 0>Hfe>. 

by Paul T. TbB* tbB tundina ot It gonn&a iTHe 
n[ 118 rem, mad tba iclfiia gf U Plipli(. «K vt 
nhsm vu Leo X, wbnaa Kbenw Hf I'Wiiir bhcv 
loTlbBwoifc bytfaenlaof IndaJgnAvaMflnad 

Ilia BaflMiutiDa. n* lawl em wm MmHtO 
cmnii,arM,«00,OMMariUw; llllllll in IllMllni 
uf keaplns It np to M.WO oom 

jnam« HtatanmantkiiKd. —~—, inomuiiu pUaitoa md catimnu of e^a^ hd^ iiU 

&rl7 en &il*Pda|r. Id tha Bqidatry af the ' '™>*: ^S''!,'^?^*°£S!^ "* nMTMtel^ 
bBDtUad. aU reorMBiled by > (il(I> eliild; uid g™iwd tfaaa ibove tt. ImldB teag* ^tbema. 
IB inung vfuti TOHiTS cwaeen- . »10 fc« or one-BBreotb more tluB oar Bt PhTi; 
.„; ^ "^ I brSBdlh IhrooBli the (niutnt, MS faati WIMl 

ip of i:t«it M IM. Bs'HtM|Hl 
UtDtba HM,BiidDMto«i«iinB) 

pU]a.uidoid7liiipoatasb]rllailie, irWek WSW 
etwtde, IW Ugh, Hid, imlliTLiUiMj. liMirlha 
•w or tbedmna. nda ni lOM to kMNHMHir (ba 

ti Conn, Tld feet by WO, amlmad- Inr wMiiiiM 
mrttdg DnKioirinmBi,!! tivrawMnMBltowi 
illoyi bnwon tb«m, ud aanat a «Ml' wiilj 

ind ulnt& by Benlnl. lull liimii toiiiUgjIglii 

OMia, far(ni|htft)Dilbt<»BUOf Bn-MCliia- 


EunaHAW^ xuxmk-rma 


wMdi l> HUlchoa with rank piMlliilf. jOdliW, 
ud figui... oipled fron, ihe ■^1. o[ P««. 

BMWMattnoiMdlillDBwlth th« mdm of llui 

RnirtiGhn. W (eel wide, nm dom each ilde o( 

thta slile, with plen f need by pUuten, and nksho, 

mtddU«u.>»dirm>of Fopee. Two VITOWi flver 


Ihe mmd of «ob eroh ■!, IS feet Ugh. 
Th« gntt Copola la doable, with ■ itilRMe be- 

tween the Inner end imtor OuO, Ha BKHDdlDg It. 
TV dIuneluoC tbl> "vast sod wondnnu dom*," 

UiBdiarchii 000 feet 

ue 1S9 feet end IN feet From the nuble peve- 

■UUiH of Bl Paler ind 31. fMuTplswil the" brHu* 
IX, o™- the ftdnl ot the thnreb at Chrtst 

ment to the top of the nnmd Inilde l> m l^t, or 

(1^ feet cku to the hlghen point Aionndlt li the 

Kit, Tu a Pitrvt, « luwr *aae Fdram, etc. 

4»I bl> AfOitla: Hid mo QlKt. dWdwl by^lhe 

euhtettet being the height of imen. Itiiedomed 

nlth telDte in mosaic, and Is lighted from above and 
from the .Itai below. In thelnntem 1. » n»e»lo of 

>DnKt to innjet. Three principal dooniBJul two 

God the Father. ■' There 1b a iltupllrity md gran- 

loMttoVMllbiil*. "PpMlte " muir more opening 

opened uily Utba Jnhlle^ erny U Yon; eifor 
•nrnplB, In Oie prcMnt year, IW. The VutlbiilB 
U (bont «n fM W V w <M deep, and haa 
-~-"-"— .*«ta«io(CS«rlem««M (bjComacchlnf). 
antlDa (by Bemlnl), Tbedoor on the right 
artheentransetolbe BeilaR^a, in the 
vncan t^alace adjoLnbg. by an inclined plane. 
OtB the middle door ia a copy of Glotto'a Stai- 
eeOl aiM), or Birk of St PeUrr. 
IIh Inteilor la to well proportioned as to dliap]vdnt 

the ^ EBta DHd to the detalla; whoa 
"thy mind, 
E^>uided by the genliuof the apot, 
Rm crown coloBU."— fivron. 

UOMT Mfaf llf»«lM an eqaiUy large. The pen 
Mat. MaA, b> the gnM dome, U in laet long. 
•_.,- ---pf 1^1^ amaUer cnpolaa In the idaleeoiH 

work of I 

. aCrin to diitlngnlih thecdting 

u the nnopy of bsaven. Ton Ime 
InStPatei'B; yes take a walk lo It, and 

lanUe nil yoa an qnlte ilied. When 
Mm I> perlMmed and chanted there, yoa are not 
awan UU, till yon Gnme qnlte cloie. The angela 
In tlie BavUMTyDf* nwiutivDa giants: tha doiei, 
culoMd UrdI ol piey. Tea loae all Idea of mca- 
iMimaot«lththa»]re,or propoRloni and yet, who 
don aatl«(l hb heart expand, when itindbig under 
ttw done, wd guini up at tt. t went to the nry 
ftrtbtit end, whence there waa. Indeed, * won- 
derful tnp trvO. When the mnalB eonunaneea, the 
twi idid B not naidi yon tor a Ins tloM^ but echo 

j^^njtM^iMBamlm n l>«w towacda yon."- 

redeem the bed bale ol the 
and the Fhnr great vaulta of 
and choir, openlni tnlo a 
and beioty of proportion 
fbnn togMhec one of the nv 
coDQ^uona that the world 
worthy of the principal t 
religion."— Fs 

it thu of Bt Feter'B. 

5 feci hlgh,^! 

be high altar, which ia 
zl canopy --.--.'--.-'-- 

of which CO 

taken frata the Pantheon i the gndine of whlc 
1D,D(K> aendL Atxnit M lampa are dwiyi bo 
hwe, and aX the tomb, or diapel (by C- Mademoj, 
beneath the paTement, hi whliJi balm ol the bodiea 
or St Peter and St Panl are depoaltad. The other 
hilTea are at St Panl'e, and their heads are at the 
Uteran. Canova'a kneeling atatne o( Flu TL ia 
aeen hi Ola ctapaL On Good Friday, the chnich 

the dome, with great effect Neat the laat pier of 
the aiiIe,on the rl^t li a atntm of Bt Peter, ■ 

atatueofJnplter), wllh thoi 
throDgh fteqnent Uaii^ 1 
every Friday In l,eat 

A> many u ISl Popn ai 
and the or ' '- 

are copied ftom orlglnBls 
tne coat Ol each bdng abool ffi.QOO. 
B^lnnlng on the r^ht of the entmnce, the cha- 

Pieii CAnpft — U. Angelo'a celebrated marblo 
gronp of the Virgin holdhig the Dead Cbriit on bor 
Eneaa; edleda«rieU. 

CVwtte Ckojpl — lAoflnnco'B fRKO of the TU. 
nmph of the Croao. " . - - . - - 

Fabrli) and f 

im ofSt Se] 

at On 



Saetammi Chapel (closed by a gate).~P. da Cor- 
toiia'8 firesoo of the Trinity, and Caravaggio*8 De- 
scent from the Cross. Tomb of Sixtos IV. (by 
PoUajuolo), who built the Ponte Sisto, Sistine 
Chapel, etc. Tomb of Julius IL, nephew of Sixtus ; 
only a i^unple stone, though his intention was to have 
erected a .splendid tomb for himself; out of which 
thought grew the new Church of St Peter's. 
Mosaic by Muziano. Monument of Grego^ Xm. 
(byRusooni), who built the Qiiirinal; and Gregory 
XtV., who was Pope only for six months. 

Madonna (or Oregory) CSkopel— Tombs of Gregory 
XVI. (by Amici). Delia Porta's rich Altar, from 
M. Angelo's design. 

8. Jerome C^pe;.~Domenichino*8 mos^c of the 
Communion of St Jerome. 

3. Basa Chapel^ near the Tomb of Benedict XIV., 
by Braod. 

S. Wencealaue €9to|}«7, in the North Transept 

S. Processus Chapel (Transept). — Valentini's 
mosaic of the Martyrdom of SS. Processo e Marti- 

8. Erasmus Chapel (Transept).— Poussin's Mar- 
tyrdom of St Erasmus. 

NaviceUa Chapel—Lantranco'a Bark of St. Peter. 
Canova's Tomb of ♦Clement XIII., with figures of 
Religion and Genius, and two Lions, which occupied 
him 8 years. 

3. Michael Chapel. ^Gvido's St Michael the 

Santa Petronella Chapel. — Guercino's mosaic of 
Santa Petronella, one of the best in the chwxb. 
Tomb of Clement X. 

SS. PeUr and Tabitha C^opcZ. — Mosaic, by 

Upper end of Church. — ^M. Angelo's Tribune of 
St Peter; and Bernini's gilt bronze chair of St 
Peter, enclosing a more ancient wooden chair sup- 
ported by four doctors of the church. Delia Porta's 
tomb of Paul III, with a bronze of the Pope, and 
marble figures of Justice and Prudence. The 
former was naked at first and was so much admired 
that Bernini ws employed to cover her with a 
decent robe. Bernini's tomb of Urban VIII., with 
figures of Justice and Charity. 

SS. Peter and John Chapel. — ^Mancini's mosaic 
of the Cure of the Cripple. Tomb of Alexander 
VIII. (by Rossi), who pronounced the bull, Inter 
multiplices, against the French clergy, on his death- 
bed, 1612. 

8. Leo Chapel. — Algardi's bas-reliefii of Attila. 

Virgin CAopeZ.— Followed by 

SS. Peter and Paul Chapel.— Tomh of Alexan- 
der VII, with gilt copper statue, byBernhiL Vaunl's 
Simon Magus, on slate.. 

S. Thomas Chapel (South Transept).— Camuccinl's 
mosaic of the Unbelief of St Thomas. Roncalli's 
Ananias and Sapphira. 

8. Peter Chapel (Transept).— Guido's Crucifixion 
of St Peter. 

8. Francis Chapel (Transept).— I>omeiiiobino*8 St 

88. PeUr and Andrew 'opposite the Sacristy 

Tran^fiffwation Cfttfpe?.— Mosaic copy of Bepbaers 

Gregory the Great Chapel-— A. Sacchi'a mosaic of 
the Miracle of St. Gregory. Thorwaldsen't tomb of 
Pius VII, with figures of Strength and Wisdom. 
Tombs of Innocent XL and Leo XL (inscribed **8io 
floruit'*), who was Pope for 27 days only. 

Choir Chapel, closed by Delia Porta's gilt broaae 
gate. Bianchi's mosaic of the Conception. Tombe 
of Pius VIII. and Innocent VHL ; the latter, by 

Presentation C9iap«l— Mosaics, by Romaaelli and 

Stuart STomfts.— Erected at the cost of George IV. ; 
includmg the Pretender, styled " James III,*' and 
his two sons, the Chevalier, "Charles IIL,** and 
Cardinal York, "Henry IX." They are^y Canova, 
and were naked figures at first, but were covered in 
1850. Bracci's tomb of the Chevalier'a widewi 
Maria Sobieski, Countess of Albany. 

Baptistry (left of the entrance).— Three mosaics, 
by C. Maratta, etc. The font is a porphyry vase 
which covered the sarcophagus of (Jtho II. (who 
died 974); with ornaments added by C. Fontana, 
1698. In the right-hand comer as you enter, within 
rails and kept under lock and key, you read **Bic 
est ilia Columna" — the column against whieh 
Christ leant in the Temple when teaching; the gift 
of Cardinal OrsinL Th^ is a specimen of the relics 
which abound in every church in Rome. Here, in 
St Peter's, over the statue of St Helena, is "Parten* 
crucis quam,*^ etc. (part of the true cross). Over 
S. Longinus Martyr is **Longini lanceam;** the 
spear which pierced the Redeemer's side, sent by 
Bajazet to Innocent VHL Over St Andrew — •* S. 
Andriae Caput," his head, the gift of Pius IL Ifie 
ribs are at Santa Maria in Campitelli; his leg is at 
SS. ApostolL Over Santa Veronica, ttie "portrait" 
of the Saviour, on the napkin or handkerchief with 
which his face was wiped. 

Sacristy, built by Pius VI. (1776), from designs by 
C. Marchionni, in three parts. At the entrance are 
statues of St Andrew, St Peter, and St Paul, from 
the old church. In the middle room, pahitings of 
the Virgin and Saints, by G. Romano, etc. In the 
chapter room, old frescoes, by M. di Forli (1472) 
and three paintings by Giotto. The carved wood^i 
presses are ftill of rich robes, vestments, aHar-diotlis, 
plate, eta ; among which are Carlomac^o's corona- 
tion robe, crucifixes, salvers and cups, designed by M. 
Angelo and B. Cellini ; a cup given by the Stuarts; 
and the seal ring of the last Pope, a new one being 
made for each. 

Crypt, comprises the Grotte Vecchie and Nnove 
(under the dome), in a space 11 feet high between 
the pavements of the old and new church; the 
Grotte Vaticane, to which women are not admitted; 
and 4 chapels corresponding with the 4 neat {rfert 
of the dome, adorned with mosaics ^y A. Saoohi, 
Here are tombs of Otho II, Charlotte IL of Jem* 
salem and C)yprus,Christina of Sweden, Adrian IV., 
Boniface VuL, Nicholas V., Urbaa Vl.> 'gVi^iaL.x 
and an eaid^ivt <:axv«^ «s»ssiss$SA4G^ak ^ ^ 

ip In dnific tbiACBk 

- r.l> Um bom <iMrMlTa wd 

_ «. ^ *Ka I* (tm ■ lUnl Mn Is tba atUo ; 
U gf nMtfc MUM tarOtr OMt* n> ' ' 

as. ft aar tM <M£<f|ht a( I 


AAi IV'tton^ nWiW UbDhhuT 

aaDMMibi^ IB5L*)UBlb* MvOanMitftte 

mmsMtattta-lvironl p«w«r, hat m pivan 
«*■< Mr^ifiH^illtjii, bW mtmMr aond 

Iter's Ctia iiDbtillua S. PlHCDj. 

btCon iln Ptpt, iiiiiuiilm bta> tanuaar— 

Ar— to 001BI1I7 wkti Ik* wUtm at tfaa Clmreh 

•Bd to oiiOMhe ttia mutin. Bnt tlw InUoMlm 
»om riwn— ths In^ntloii of Iba Half Gboat— had 

not ygt bMD TscolTed. "TlM7»iu'1<'^*S*''i'i>'"- 
Tha Piwuuator naat knaal agals bBfoe tha Fop« 

But atUi tfaa patUaa 
Itloncarand nut naj 

_. loia^taiToktatkaHaly 

S^; bo iDtDDN 'Vanl Cnator Spirits' The 
FnODiatarnpaBtadUipalidtliialariba tbMtlme. 

rlat TbK, at taaftb. tbe Bamaa Pootia, 
[ Ui mUaa on hla bead, and iKHhk oa hb 

, I at the mat aad id llie chndi, wWi lon^ Ubh 

of mMUiuK aidiUibapi, and IMuiiia, laagid aa 

uDDo die eonuii nUalaiU dantiam ncaUde. 
tsDuinlMFMilaetFUUK StdrftBa StncU. An 
He Uhd DonmuDced the Tt Aon, and after U 
pwed to tb* new taloU who bid been thua 
naalaad, ' traltpn tutu.' "—Br, WardmnlL. 

llka ^ipnruiee to tbe ebunb. Emr Hue oT-the 
ardiltectnn VM bmumt wHb laain and laoked 
Ike IhHi ot ahlBlns iUnr. Tbe Afada. dooa, 
Initani, udonai, wei* all dbttnoUj ^Ined br tte 
pan irUlB IMi^ wbkA to pradaaed br On laaua 
iMtiifancloMd in paper bHian*, lltaa* an liglitad 

Eluallf, IhoagfanuuijrliundndBmaneimdiiind: 
wfcmStPatv^riodE began W lOrtta atHrt, llw 
wWeUgfat waaaoddenl; exchanged (by una 

lund, nraaOnt ibttEa of llu dock, nllg 

Umpt-iridUB 1fa4 TvnlL Tbli dm not, humfui, 

Cf thB D 

I mil a, (MM-OMWitMBIUIIBUUmi, »rnXIB 

typntirf B^M talknr aidtdl, wUA qoiMoT 

MiiBl B iU j mon. ^nm an bwIt 6,(m Imn 

iBte nm m I Ml iUUIUoiihI l.WO Ib 

OFvUm."— JM> OMm'i 8fa«Mv AmUu 
Tim AMtnl of CoiTO CbilM], or Cociru Oamlnl, 

tgcmi on Ui calm. Tlw — ' ■*- li bmi 

Acta Biu and nnwod wUb Oamn mil tp 
tax; aal the mmlMm of all Ui« nUglaiu 
titri Bill In fhn pmr imilnn, rnltmrnl hj iliii lar 
ordoi^ nealir clog;, t ha m nHmt Dt tli« FimI 

tk* foplk of lbs CoOegaa In Bania. On* of tb 
tiTiOii nmg li br at ^numM AqidiMi, b«(Iiin<nB I 

B. nitmut to l al n'aai^ Flami IB S. fllnnDd 
k«ia of tha fMrchMfbHDMi, wHlitB tke waDi ; 
mnr the MM tt OieFiim of vUdi ha Int takii 
poMwhn OB hli alaethn. Ha fa ban BUm af 
BoDHi nMfopiiUtaii of tba iBbartioi dtnidKa, 
nrtnula of Italy, and patilansh of Uia Wiat At 
St. Fcten IM it awai a l^ PobIUC B lUndt OD 

(f (ha sQUfiinton aabat Man. Cfnmintlm 
(■n an Mta to tha Bubiv of Bama, and lomded 
■ ohaidL wUnfa laitri don to IHL It (aka 
laatltrof St ntM^ Tba 

•t dliha ohKAn tf aatfjiuid Oein^Si 
nod Am ittaB^d Ihfidai whU k of tha 

ilUhni ofdKJtr A. OalU aVO,aMlli plarcad 

begna ly Ftaa IT. aad flaWMl I 
An li» i i»yi l iM MBnt wia "a 

rdsbtr A. OalU C 

ta ban bdoMadto B 

danhlaporteBOBtbanai^ br S. Ri^i^ caiiMa 
of S«* analleiof th* Sons ordar bdmr iBa fti*of 
Iha CoilnlUaB ibora. CMaofthailoiiiiliBmailr 
oran-atthTaar. at tha JdSaa, ailulWK "Ot 
lalutiadeontba ti^ll'too high aad tta (ttndh|^ 
Snma Knpponaan teo la^a; hot ft'la oo tSc 
iXoa, a pi * ' ■ ■ ■ — " 


■boild ha as mnm BallBr, : .._ 

mllllil ilnllTiirblililMiIni, ■nnaflrUa 
vt&dUBcBlRhm ' ""■" ~ 


toauthaApoatlBa; abaia' 
[ U Pnphela. nia nM 


Haltar; ■lldUlataIIl^ 

on tha Satinday bctfua Tifait^. 

Tbe CuTilid ChneL bidlf b] 
Clement ZIL, and dadkMa' 
ti uld to ba the ilchuthi B 
bu a mosaic by Qeldo, at 
ct CLament XIL, In a poip 
the Pautham. 

UndartbehlEfa altar an the haadi of 8L AUr 
and fit. FanL Beartble, thebmmatoaabvf Ifartin 
v. Hie magnlflcaaC altar of lbs St aaoameDI, bf 
QUrtsri, Is mfoortsd ta^bnuM tBUtt, add to ha. 

* SaccU ud Caralien d'Ar^no (Cwufl, d^ by 
L BiaaaeofBeaiylV. of Eranc&inihsporlko 
SIttnT. ThaTorioDlaChi«I,h>lDtlll^k 

marble and gliding, ilia nTnW^TT ^ of m^g 2Uh 

Idi la .eafpoitaiE Ua>- 
pot^iy, UaiidlogaB 
IT. IIb loSa «• •!•> 

Tha fi^tUtiT a' Conatai 
feet dUmew. the nwfofwl) 
bal^, tv et^itadiimnadd ro< 
the beads alagbt others belc 
or poitiliTty. Covvaitsd Js 

t HSDO* In gtlEd and 
t: bBs^ Us, tha kMJ* 


if ths MDO^UlOD or tiK InqiiliUlaE 
nnBof tndi Indiutr; ud nl utth 
pOtau: an Inmx B^ivsitorliu oT 
vfakfa diaflffun the colanuu^ ehnrchc 

of tatta tt tli«M buslpUnii, i of gold which cunt boat AdmtIu ta the BptnlA 

, i_ ... ..v.. „ ^ c^, „gj[_ „a ,^ „^[ in 18M ; 11 wu dMljBtid by 

TTU, Q. Suigallo. Notice tlietomtooC Clamant CLmd 

ipply NkhulBB IV^ by Qnldo and D- Footuu retpectiTety. 

"^'l Tbe highiltuhai > poiphyiyBni imder * rfch 

inopy, by FngM, with marble uikU. Hera P.Ua 

L It to lie build. In % ipleiHlld crypt, built in 

. ..._ ijin^poon^ adorned wllh marU^ 


tiie eiiH* at Rligien. They ptetend 
pUlan Inm lbs Temple. Ilia Well 
UH garden), and tbe Tery l^ifrb, nied 
The pdntlDii oribs cDpola. are I 

iwUd into dupctat It lead* to tba cbapeli < 
TeoauloaiidofSL J. BiptM. In the latter, 
bnnia copy at Danalelli'g tutnc of Christ 

Tbe&iifiiAnto,arHoly StaliB, en the uoit 
palaoe aide ot tbe aboreli. and deiach^l from 
eompcaad at IS black marble itepi. leld la 

. . cb til* itONO. pngiDt •* tbey 

lb* lUanesi itf the Sarionr (dona In Bt. 


by other Btepii and 

y* or yeare' Indul. 

ntavlililtaa lUanesL 

Lake wbeahevaal2yearaald), fnltaaBaAcii 

tomra at tbe top. Tbay docaud ' '- 

Ihaa ibibt acqnlra ao many da; 
ganca. Tba Ttlclinlam ot Xeo 

titina <^ Charlamagn^i 

IB tbe odddla at the plBna vbi 
•tasd^ an tbe obelbk, *tlis Leier 
Mtmam <Me page 1st), twi ' 
Tlair comnuoda a proipect i 
Naro Aqnednct. tba Cami 
etc Jnne M. or SL John BBpOst'e Di 
iMta, allandad by the Pope and caidiu 

he cborcli 

. . a Ch^Al 01 

iult by FoDtani, for Biitu V., ( 

■'."and Pim V., and tha richly^or 
and BorgheM chapels. Tha 10 

. four plUan of Oriaotal Juper, ai 
DranzB. Her Image (BaJd to be tha i 
te II It richly adonied nilh ptedona all 

"Ba ehwalof BantaLc 
big larco^iflgus, now na 

Ing the lAW, SacrUlce of Isaac, Flln 
ng his Honili. In the lower row are tl 
n Rock. CbrWi ApprehanAm, Daniel ai 

' Sight, Mbmle ol the LoaTea. Each nliJeoC ceultts 
oftna to faor dgureai and Iheit are aboDl 30 In all. 
■Afli-A m^M±^ BAMtiuKK, "There ia great beafltyln ita tntenutl colonnade, 

>*., ., ^ ......' ,*«. all the nlUara ai which areoT one dedgn andbeor 

■ ■ odwith 


ne bulUlM* adMnhig 
SidiuJdl. Tlia cbdi ton 
Wtbeit In Boma, ' 
Un. Eennaodii 


Facing tha aas^or p^dpalf^nt, la a handiome li 
Corlnihliiii column, UiOBt 60 tMt hlgb, wUb a 1 

bronia lladgnna an Ut^ Fhim a baktmy over tha Intseatlng ons, bnmt In 1823, and first Rnnded by 

middle oaa ot Ita H** door^ tba Fop* bl««tt* Ih* CoutantUfc onr tb* gray* at St. FaoL 1%e gre^t 

rdniibi mi llwai»|illiiii Faj There la aiu a statue ilDekfa)weriBlutliaLombBrdityla.andc9stIS[l,l)M 

«tFtiIUa«( Spi^aud a plUar commemorattaig tha aendL Tit* preaeot tplandld edilce, irtiich b re- 

^t UWUM i Ot Hesny IV. ot F^anoe. Tba biteriac bnildbig ubdir Pto Kana'a eyi^ la UO ftet lons^ 

43M IM hnc tv IM broad) la eompoaed ot tlir** exdadve ot the Mtliim In fnmt, and la lUvMcd Inta 

■»e« dltUad t^ M aarUe lonle colnmna, whieb flTBalBl*l,b]rM inblepillanofBannomarbleaoa 

b ilt iii ed to tbe Temple ot Juno Loeina, and la granite. In ^ngla bloeka, ot which two support ■■ 

punfla lbeAieMMoaAat Kfia. Some of tba anr- attb over tba alur, dedicated to tha sister of Hono- 

j wmtt y jnpnica uv tappaaeA to be ot tb* fith rlua, who completed the former ehiirch, and whoaa 

^mtm^ IA* DoUAv mu ^t wfch the Ont nipply dtBlsiLbii^iwaQDt\i!&\Bitevnteiicaiie, which cod- 



teini also eopies of the old mosaics, by GIotto*s papUs. 
The firont is a ixijpj of the former one, and will contahi 
a great moeiUc, to cost 30,000 scadi. The timber roof 
is richly carved and gilt There are no side chapels, 
file friezes in the nave are ornamented with mosaic 
heads of all the popes, chiefly modem, from the 
government studio, bat some are ancient. The 
alatoster pillars of the high altar were presented by 
the infidel Pasha of Egypt, and a malachite altar in 
the transept is a gift frt>m the hezetic Emperor of 

The granite pillars of the nave are from the Emperor 
of Austria ; among which is the one celebrated by 
Wordsworth, when it stood on the Simplon, which 
Napoleon intended for the triumphal arch of Slilan. A 
Jew has beoneatbed a large sum for the support of 
the dnuch.' The Khig of Holland gave 50,000 francs. 
A pahiting of the Conversion of St Paul is by 
Camnocini; choir, by C. Modemo. A fine St 
Benedict is by Rainaldi. An adjoining cloister of 
the 13th century, belonging to the Benedictine con- 
vent, which rests on fluted and turisted pillars, has, 
in the library cloister, a small collection of Christian 
gravestones, from a.d. 855. One bears a figure of 
an organ, with the words RVSTICVS 8E VIB*^ 
FECI. The atrium of the old church, the dis- 
tinguishing sign of a basilica, existed down to the 
17th century, and is replaced by a modem court 
In its plan the former church was a duplicate of 
the old St Peter's. About 24 of its columns 
were taken from the tomb of Adrian ; and it was 
further remarkable as having been under the patron- 
age of English kings down to Henry VIIL " Jx)ng 
before its destmction by fire, that church had been 
so altered as to lose many of its most striking pecu- 
liarities. Decay and whitewash had done much to 
efface its beauty, which nevertheless seems to have 
strack all travellers with admiration, as combinhig 
in itself the last reminiscence of Pagan Rome with 
the earliest forms of the Ctiristian world. It cer- 
tainly- was the most interesting, if not quite the 
most beautiful, of the Christian buildings of the 


Santa Agnese (St Agnes), near the Pamfili Palace, 
Piazza Navona, founded in tlie 4th century. Re- 
Stnilt at the charge of Innocent X., by Rahialdi 
GS50), and Borromini, who added the cupola and 
front The interior is a handsome Greek cross, in 
marble; cupola, painted by C. Ferri and Bacicclo; 
paintings by Ferrata, Qufdo, etc. Santa Agnese's 
Martyrdom, by Algardi, Is in the chapel dedicated 
\> her, her naked figure hidden by her long hah*. In 
the portico is the tomb of Innocent X. At his 
death his family refused to bury him. A poor mason 
gave the candle to light the bier; one of his major 
domes bought the coffin, and another gave five 
crowns for the frmeral expensea. 
Santa AgnetefuoriUMura.'-'ifieB page 179.) 
S, Adrian, at the Forom, at the comer of Via 
Bonella, occtyties the site of BaaUica Emilia. 

Santa Agata dei CMi^ in Via Maszarini, and lately 
leitored, was a church of the dih century, in poa> 

season of the Arians. It now belongs to the Irith 
ColUg»t and is betiind the Aldobrandhii Pahice. 

& Agostmo (St Augustuie), north-east of Piazza 
Navona. Built by Phitelli, about 1480, its dome 
behig the oldest in Rome (by some years earlier than 
St Peter's); and restored by Yanvitelli, who added 
the Angelica Library, annexed to it Notice a cele- 
brated fresco of IsaUh, by Raphael; St Augustine, 
by Guerdno; a monument of St Monica, hit 
mother; a Madonna of Loreto, by Caravagglo; 
Braoci's tomb of Cardinal Imperiali; and a fine 
marble *Madonna and Child, by Sansovino. This last 
is the Santa Maria SSa. del Parte, which is supposed 
to work miracles to mothers, and is covered with 
necklaces, crowns, ear-rings, and other finery: 
while the foot is almost kissed away. An image of 
the Virgin, supposed to be German, Is popularly 
attributed to St Luke. The library, contahihig 
150,000 volumes, and 2,500 MSS., is open daily. 

S. Alusandro. See Excur$mMfirom Rome below. 

S. Alessio, on the Aventine, near Santa Sabina 
and the Tiber, facing the Ripa Grande, was founded 
in the 8th century, on the site of S. Bonifsce's church, 
and has l)ceu modernised. The stairs, under which 
St Alexis, to whom it is dedicated, lived 17 years 
for self-mortification, is shown. It stands nextto the 
Priory of the Knights of Malta. The Porta Tri- 
gemina (close to the Sublician Bridge), Porta 
Minucia, and Porta Navalis of the old wall, are near 
at hand. All these buildings were much damaged 
in the siege of 1849. 

8. AmbrogiOj near the Ghetto, on the site of a 
house inhabited by St Ambrosio and his sister, Mar- 

Santa Anastana^ on the west side of the Palatine, 
on the site of the Ara Maxima, close to the Chrcus 
Maximus, and Porta Mugonia, in the old walls of 
Romulus. It was founded in the 6th century, to the 
memory of St Anastasia the martyr, and has some 
old columns and his statue, by Ferrata. The city 
Gas Works are near at hand. 

A Andrea (St Andrew), on Monte Cavallo, h/Aafg 
the Quirinal Gardens, on the site of the Temple of 

Suirinus. Built by Beraiui, for the Jesuit novitiates, 
otice paintings by Bacicclo and C. Maratta, and 
the tomb of Carlo Emanuele lY., of Sardinia, who 
abdicated 1832, and became a Jesuit Statue of St. 
Stanislas Kostka, by Legros. The site of the Temple 
of Romulus is in the convent gardens. 

5 Andrea delle Fratte (of the Bushes), near Piazza 
de Spagna, b^lt by Borromini; with a front by 
Valadier (hi 1826). Notice Bernini's Angels, in Sc 
Francis de Paul's chapel, with the tombs of Ange- 
lica Kauffmann and Schadow, and a king of Mo* 
rooco (1789). 

S. Andrea dei SeozzeH, on the (Quirinal, near th« 
Barberini Pahwe, belongs to the Sootth Colkge. 

6 Andrea e^Ua Voile, in Via del Sndarid, on th9 
site of the Theatre of Pcnnpey ; some say at tlie spot 
where Cassar was killed, 15th March. Begun 1591« 
by OMvieri and finished by Mademo ; the front is b^ 
RainaldL Notice the fine cqiy>^ ^Sw'wft> \sfjv*»>^ 
franco^ -ivYiV^ «qk^q^^\&r^ ^s»afe '^««^- ^^ '^S^^^ 

Smt EnataUitL it PoowlehLiui ; Did Die GlvIS- 
utbiB at at. ia&BW, br tb> Mma arUjL Ttai 
L i ii i Un a MI , Unial, BBipdl, Butnrim ctumtto. a! 
iIbUt gnuwind. TombiofRuILudhiialU. 

Ab loHi^tloo tiBoidi ttau tlM 1)047 oniL Sgbwtlui 

If tecMIM. In Plun dd 9S. 

_, „ _• (liliialilil Falue, near ttm 

Cmo, TUt k on* of CooMutln*'! ksgOica, n- 
boOt, lUOiUlJivF. ABlma (1TD3^ Uppvpul 
■( fl» from by TilHUar, 1897. Uada fliipaitfCD 
h * BOMM aula flan tba TntlnD Fonui. naib of 
OnKnl IV. (GunncUl), by C ~ 
«U; aMiM*|*artbe tng nnr 

Blu rio. b j BLituiBSo. CcnoC 

BU Ako tlv tt 

Tin In beat li t . 

da of Mi wUcH iMod titn. 
•^iinCMI,vAin(airrB«ifnJmG^[i, m Fnu- 
MeuAnrdi, ODltn Aant tbaTampli^of Jupltei. 
m tha Ca[dtallne, Ulawmcliell by IMilcpi, troni 

„ . la ted. A rtd high cd 

•nl Inuic* of -tba Tligln. An alMr In the mnei 
" — la of a pcapbyiya^ *" " 

bacuw DioiniiiB hmnoi to plane I 

iftbeOnUoL TbanutlinSBnl 

<f Aa liilmt^pBati Oalait nnnk cf jiuiKr 
ajftuaamt taeOit imtt, ttnt muUe wuTen- 
-^bwiMk TbB mat bOlen (tun tHa ilii 
"~" — ■WttaqpnTBOtwMiBliodbyil 

GMidu tMx o( Angmtei Tea mwl 

— .utbaAk. 

wu dnppad In Iha ponA it 
irtui rant » ball udBavbae 
HwrtUili tlH OcBimt of VM apMli wm 

Dead), tamded by > PrliaB Fi uulHliI^ 

fur lidMa of ronl blood, 'ma Tupaiu BaA & 
doaa by (pau i door inaotbcd "(i^ ri mda In 
ftoaca TuiKsi") B wiU u tbe lalioe id tb* 
Hpnjifjr of Hoinp. CadiirQlla Falocc, olc. 

tbe Gnai|wn UtBeom. F«flta, U^ Sod. 

Anua SoUino, on the AvBDilne, neu the BaOn <£ 
iCuiuUi, la on ancient churchlaletyraloivaara 
penUeiUliLry, dedlcaled Id Lbe Mcond coiitBiT bt 
Pope Alcundcr, Fiagmeou of nurllle and moaafa 
■re to ba iun In the crypt It itandi iritlkln A 
midliivil wall TIh old wall of Serrlu TnlUiB 
pined cIoM lo tt ind tcmrdi Iba Plidni Fnblka, 
for bitben, In tba dlncHon DtTUS.Ba]Hniu U 
cromad tluTliAppto at Foitn Cipana, cloaa to the 
bridge <mt tba AoqniMiinuii,iTbklinioi&inia^ 
the Clroni Mulinu to lbe Tiber. 

B. BarMttnaiuii (St BarttaDloneiO' on At Ink 
dl S. Bartalonuneo, fmmded In tbe tmlfa oentniT. 
Ill U gnnfM ddnmna >n nld to bin beUnfid M 
1 Ten^le of Eacnliplni, irbkb itood bara oa tba 
lite of Iba boaplua dT e, Okmnnl CalabM wbldi 
ru«lt IUtnKai.etc,, bBTBbaanln]andl>rtba 

a. aartohnttato dC ruehitn, neu Bib DbattD, 
bflloaga In the DorponllDn or tannen, and bnu tba 
itlflof ttaeportlwoftbaTbaUnDl Bnlbu. 

B. BtmanlQ, InPLondl Tarmlnl. ontbaattaof 
(be Balbs of Qiodeliu (ddit thn AngcU ebnli^ of 
tbe CiKlmslinil. A round ebnioh niiida bylHor- 
pontine the oUdaiimn of the bilhs. in ICM 
Bem^ni of n tbrairs and hcfnlcyclo, aM la Iba 

'^({/(.^o (ot SL^Blaisu}. to VlaGlttlla, SMrflw 

.. ^. 10 motnon of a 

diuigblerol Flivlan, prelect oC Bomo. Thasintll 
by Beninl (IdU), and the itatne at the min^ mi 
tbe high altar, li by tba auM; tbe "aamtatt^ 
pnweh be baa mide,'' iiyi Foicyth, "lo iMaww 
paUioa of tba aattqiM." On tbla altar la ooa «f tta 

spud. KDtfu^IllbginuidTmideortaKan 
HeUaa and t wo niliu»hv<-'>», -.ciiliin ttand la tba 

a. SmiiiKaMRi, on Uia Falatlna. wKb a oonatot 

C ofp iu M (Oa p tMb hM ). In a iitnr^ naarTlHU 
ButiBlnl: baUt at Iha'Coat of Urban TnL'a Imi- 
tber. Cardinal BatbarlBL On the f rant Is a aopw «( 
Gnldo'i HsTtoUa, or Bnrk of Bl Peter, ^otln 
'ni^iatft*l^'MJr>7r*'.Vha "^'fujli" Apijllo. UlV 



tb0 Httaidtfe gid, tiw andungil facotthes HuA 
(Wgntfltd vmtgmaob which animates wittioat dittort- 
ing.**— (7orqm>. Domenichiiiols SL Etaaeis ia an 
•cataqiCi iu Saeihi:! Bt iknthomr, and his St 
BonaiwntaEa, with fhe Yiigin aad Child. P. da 
Ccortonalls St, Pknl and Aoaniaa Tha tamd&t^ 
tomb, .witiitha Insoription, **Hic Jaoot palvi^dnis 
et nlUL** XiKbaoypt belowthe l>odie8 sndakflVetoas 
af ttte.daafl JMMiks^vs preservsd, and made a show 
o£ The Barberini and Piombhii Palaces an near 

8, OfUfih M €kaiMri, in Fiaaza Catinari (where 
the poivingcr makecs need to live), near the Ghetto, 
between um theatres of Pompey and Balbus; boiH 
1613,<ttthe sitaof,a.Biagio, lilu a Greek crosa; with 
a firont l^ Soda. Tha-coiKda ia one of the largest in 
Home, and is-adonuid xsith *Domenioliino*s Cardinal 
Tfatees. Notice, also, Ouido*sfireaco of St Charles; 
A. Saochils Seath ^ BU^ime; G. Brandi's Mar. 
tyrdom of S. Biagio; P. da Coxtona*s altar-piece of 
& Ghades, wider a dais. One of the monks of this 
ooAvent is tiie learned G. Vercellone, editor of the 
Vaticaa MS. of the JSeptnagint and New Teatament, 
pr^ared by Cardinal Mai. 

The atreets of the Ealegnami, or carpenters, of the 
GKnUMMuud, or oaraeMnakeEs, and other trades, are 
ha this-qoarter. 

S. Carlo 0l Oona, an the €ono. Begun 1612, by 
Lnngfai, and finisbed by P. da Cortona. It is ridi in 
marbles, jwintinga, and stoocoeSb It ia the diorch 
of the Lombarda. Volioe C. Maratta'a Preeentation 
«f St. Charlea ta tha SaTioar, at the high altar; and 
afieaco by Maratta.inSL Chadless ChapeL Tombof 
A. Veni, author of " Kotti Bomane. ' 

3. Carlo (or CorNao^^iZia qtuUtro FonUme, on the 
Qfdthui. A email ohorBh by Borramini, said to fill 
a space less than that occupied by one of the great 
piera of fit Peter'a. The-amall cbumh of St Anne 
is close to it 

Santa Caterina, TIa de' Fnnaii, near the Ghetto, 
has a Dead Christ, by Maiaano, with other fdctares 
by F. Z. ZoocarL 

SaataCateriaadiSitiM, In the Solito del Grillo, a 
pretty church, sttadied to a large Domiidoan nun- 
nery.; in the nrnrnds of which is a fine mediaival 
tower; called Torre di Nerane. The popular stray 
is that Nero fiddled on the top of it while Borne 
was burcing. 

JkmUt CeaKa, in Trastevere. BebuUt; or mo- 
damtsed, in 182a, from Fuga's designs ; and restored 
inthB^tkcantiuy, on the aite of one first erected 
abDortSSOa^D., by Pope Urban. Notice St •Cedlia^s 
atataa, by 8. Mademo; and aome ancient moaaics 
from theloHBiBr duuoh. The navea rest on ancient 

& '(li«afi8e,4B tha Via Porta di 8. Sebaatianot near 
the fialba ofGanwalla; an ancient chnich of the 
7th centary« with aaiiw jnedera moaaics by d'Ajrpino. 

•A. etma i U , <oat ^YiM di & Giovanni, on the 
EaqsaiM; artfiiialllr aae of the oldest ohurohea in 
" " bar 

Lf and rwtoiied l^ 
It stiaiBS ftaaoolBBi .baailioa &rm in | are in an am at the high altar. 
M HMse flompleta ilata than any other In Bama, 
iMitdtaf an aldaa^ or oanrt, in fiMnt, annHraBdBd.bY 


gnudta and dnoSao 
or reading deaks, 

'ttdumiii wtth two old 
and tha blahiq»'« throne 
behind the canopied altar. Tha vaalt in tbaapae is 
inlaid with rooaaica of thelStti oentoryjiepraantiHiig 
the four rfreca of Paradlae iaaaing firom the Cmoa. 
Below U are the remains of an earlier ehuHb, first 
discoversd by Dr. Mullooly. It containa an ancient 
firesco of Boman bishops in the order of 1, Xinns, 
2, Clemens, 3, Petrus. Notice a mosaic of ua Uth 
century in the vault; Christ's Paaaion, a to aieo,by 
Masacdo; St John Baptist, aatatni^ bir ntarafiaor 
of Donatello; tomb of St Ctonent. 

S. CoUauM. See page 179. 

8. Gtwunoto, in Via diS.£ranoeaoo, in Traatavare; 
aamall-chnrohof tha 10th oeatury, with an fanage 
of the Vlr^ which being atolen azid thsmrn .into 
the Tiber, came aafiefy aahore at Ponta Botta 

8S. Comto e JktmUmo (SS. Coemua and Daaiao). 
in the Forum, on the aite of the Tem^ile of BamnluH 
and Borne. Founded £27, by Felix IIL ; reatored in 
780, by Adrian I. ; and partly rebuilt by Urban 
VIIL, in le.'U. Part of the cella of the temple iaiooor- 
porated in the vestibule of the churdu Notifla 
mosaics of the 6th century. Three arches of the 
Basilica of Ckmstantine are oloso at hand. 

8. Crispino e CSr^^nstaao, in the Lnngaatta, in 
Trastevere, was given to the corporation of shoe- 
makersi in 1705, before which time was called Santa 
Bonosa. It contahis the monument of Cola di 

8aMta Croety in Via del Lucchesi, beku^ to the 
natives of Lucca. It stands on the old Forum Sua- 
rium,or Pig Market, and waaat first called SJUoeoIb 
in PorcQibua, from that drcumatance. 

ikuUa Croce «n Qenuakmme^ near Porta Xagi^kue 
close to the wall; one of the four baailicaa in Bmne, 
on the site of the gardens of Hdiogabalua or fierti 
VarianL Built in St Sylvester's tfime, by Oon- 
stantine's mother, St Helena, in bonour of a piece 
of the true cross, found at Jerusalem, and of aome 
earth Arom Mount Calvary ; and rebuilt by Benediet 
XIV., in 1745. It baa a square tower, and contaiUB 
three aisles, divided by massive pillars with frescoes 
by Pinturioohlo. Over the altar ia an antique basalt 
urn, ornamented by four lion's heads. Among the 
relics they diow the original inscription plaoed over 
the Saviour (*' Jesus of Nazareth"), etcL iound in 
1492; an evident forgery. Naaaveth is wdtlan 
thua— **wmeraaaN.** Tiie snbterranean ohapd of 
St Helena, who lived in this quarter, is at the farther 
end, decorated with .mosaics. The Temple of Venoa 
and the Caatrenaian Amphitheatre are cloaei>y. 

& EuatMoy on the E^niUne, near the railway j 
dedicated to Pope Euaebius, in the fith canto^, 
and lately restored. The vault is painted by MenA 
It stands on the site of the house of Udnioa At 
the juaction-of throe -<»: four roads, near this, areihe 
Trophies of Mariua, a fountain, ao caUe^t iiW^l^F 
the Acqua EeUoe. 

Sane Euttaehio facing Piaasa Eostaehla, .near tlie 
Pantheon. The aahit'a relica, with those of Ua viif e. 

MoHiaFnmetiea Romaaa^^tt ^aai^ 

noohimnedporticoL liiflde aitt three aides, tf:vlM.V(»L\:teiiyBa^^QA 



Tope Sylvester, and called at first Santa Maria Knova. 
Notice the tomb of Gregory XI., by Olivieri ; mosaics 
of the 9th century. Open only on the feast of Santa 
Francesa, the Annanciation, and the eve of Holy 
Thorsday. A stone on the wall has an impression, 
it is said, of the knees of St Peter, made when he 
knelt to pray for interposition against the seduction 
of Simon Magna. 

S. Franeeaeo di Paola^ on the north-western slope 
of the Esqniline, was built 1628, and has paintings 
by Sassoferrato. It is attached to a large convent, 
and occupies the site of a Temple of Diana and the 
house of Servius Tullius, the builder of the old wall 
When he was killed by his son-in-law, Lucius 
Tiiffqain, and his dead body thrown into the street, 
it was cbriven over by his own daughter ; an act of 
wickedness perpetuated in the old name of the street, 
Via Scelerata, now Via di S. Francesco di Paola. 

8, Francesco a Atpo, near the Ripa Grande, is the 
most sonthem church in Trastevere, and was founded 
under Gregory IX.), by S. Francesco d* Assist, 
with a large hospital attached, in which his room is 
shown. It has a Piet2^ by A. Gorrncci, and a St 
Frands, by d*Arpino. Near it, is the little church 
dedicated to the Sant' quaranti Martari, or forty 
Christian soldiers, executed under Gallian. 

I^mta OallOt near the Suspension Bridge, with its 
hospital attached, was called Santa Maria in Portico; 
being near the portico of the Forum Olilorium, or 
Herb Market Near this was the Porta Triumphalis, 
made in the old wall of Servius Tullius, on the 
Triumphal Way. 

SL CMlicano^ in Piazza Romana, in Trastevere, is 
dedicated to a Consul, who suffered martyrdom under 
Julian the Apostate, and is part of a hospital for 
cataneons diseases ; founded by Benedict XIII. 

8. Oiacomot in the Lungara, near the Famesiana 

*0€su (Jesus) Piazza del Gesn, near the Palazzo 
di Yenezia. The Jesuit Church, and one of the 
finest and most richly ornamented in Rome, with a 
large convent attached. Begun 1568, by Vignola, 
and carried on by his pupil, Delia Porta. Notice 
firescoes in the cupola, etc., by Baciccio; C. Ma- 
ratta's Death of St Fr. Xavier. Rich chapel and 
altar, of St Ignatius, by Pozzi; a blaze of pre- 
cious stones, with unique globe of lapis lazuli; a 
sQver statue of the Saint (a modem one replacing 
that which the French melted down), and marble 
groups, both trjr Legros. Tomb of the famous Card. 
BellarmUie, by Bemhii. Painting by F. Zuccari. 
High altar, rebuilt 1842; and Muziano's Circum- 
cision. July 81 is the Feast of S. Ignatius. Near 
this are some remains of the Villa Fublica, or the 
hospitium in which foreign ambassadors to Rome 
irere lodged. 

S. CHorgio in Velabro^ in the street of the same 
name, on the irite of the Basilica Semproniana, in 
tiie Forum Boarium, near the Arch of the Silver- 
nniths and the Arch of Janus ; the first one being 
Incorporated in the wall of the church. It is an 
saateat balldiDg, with a square tower, dedicated to 
^€f0aig9afCappttdodlM, the patron saint of Eng- 
^H^ff^^jj^mnSSrd April His head and banner 
300 Vtlabrum was • marshy tract, be- 

tween the Tiber and Monnt Palatine, fireqnently 
inundated by the river. Here were the public mar- 
kets of the ancient city. 

8. Oirolamo della CarUOy "^a Monserrata, founded 
in the 4th century, and rebuilt by BorrominL St 
Philip resided and founded his Institute here. Corn- 
munion of St Jerome, copied by Camuccini from 
Domenichino. St Peter* and the Keys, by Muziano. 
Near this is a Collegio Inglese, for English clerical 

S. Oirolamo degli Schiavoni (St Jerome of the 
Sclavonians), at Porta di Ripetta. Built by M. Lnnghi 
and G. Fontana; and redecorated, in 1852, with 
frescoes, by Gagliardi. 

8. Oiovanni BaUista, in Via dei Genovesi, in Tras- 
tevere, belongs to the Genoese ; it stands next the 
S. Pasqnale Asylum, and on the site of the field 
in which Porsenna's camp was established ; aftcr^ 
wards the Gardens of Ctesar, which he bequeathed 
to the Roman people. 

8. Oiovannni Decollaio, near the Tiber, and the 
site of the Forum Piscatorlum, or fish Market 
Belongs to the Florentines, and has a good St John 
Baptist, by Vasari. The Cemetery, in which crimi- 
nals are buried, is resorted to, says Mr. Bnrgon, 
by "persons of the humblest class, in order to obtain 
from the souls in purgatory, a suggestion as to lucky 
numbers for the lottery.** Near this is the church of 
8atW Eligio, the patron of locksmiths. 

8. Oiovanni Evangdista, in a solitary spot, near 
the Porta Latina, founded 772, on the site of the 
Temple of Diana. It has three naves, divided by 
marble pillars, and an altar-piece by Zuccari. Close 
to the gate, across the road, is the round chapel of 
S. Giovanni in Oleo, where the Evangelist was 
dipped in boiling oil Scipio's Tomb is near at 

8. Oiovanni de* Floreniini (St John of the Floren- 
tines), on the Tiber, at the north end of Via Giulia, 
near the remains of Pons Triumphalis. Built from 
Sansovino*s designs, at the charge of a Florentine 
brotherhood, but not finished till 1754, by A. GalileL 
The interior is by Della Porta. Notice S. Rosa*s 
Deliverance of SS. Cosmus and Damlan. St Jerome, 
and St Francis d'Assisl, both by Santa Titi, a Flo- 
rentine artist B. Cellini's brother, Francesco, is 
buried here. 

8. Giovanni in Laterano. (See page 167). 

8S. Giovanni e PaolOt on the Celian, near the 
Temple of Claudius, In a fine situation, facing the 
Palace. A modem church, belonging to the Bama- 
bites, on the site of one of the 4th century, of which 
the Ionic portico remains ; dedicated to two brothers 
beheaded by Julian the Apostate. The convent is 
resorted to by esercistt^ or persons disposed to pious 
meditation. It has a fine palm, which, with the 
scenery around, as well as other parts of Borne, is 
described in Mad. de Stall's ""Corinne." 

8. Qixtttppe (Joseph^, Via di Capo le Case, near the 
Hncian, has an altar-piece, by A. Sacchl The festa, 
Is kept, 19th March, during Lent, with fritelle, etc 

8. Oituqipe de' Falegnamit over the Mamertine 
Prison, belongs to the corporation of carpentersi, 
and Yiu Q. ilLNnm.'a lim work— the Birth of 

it (St. OT«rM7),onIhaCd 
ind the Sepllitmliini of tht 
Kebuilt IIM, by Ferrui, o 

ontheCUvui SctorL It conUbu IgancVm | 
from the old diarch. Th* [rant li by Snrl 
Bt Andieir'iChipel, om oI throo iiUchcii i 
chuTcli, m two £n« frcflcoeSt tIz-, Chiiit'j 
Andnw Adomlag th« CroHs, and Dodii'i^u 
FlaSfilUaail of St. Andrew; with ■ i:<iac 
ploca, br PomenKglD. A Irtaco by Ki. i 
tti« uaoOktr at Gregory, by Ouldo. u in & 
cluuiel. Than li ■ painting of bcr by Jolin I' 
BnED^bll uUit. Ibey ibaw, hIso, SL Gtr 
mwtila Ubk lod clulr, ud hli cell Slniuc 
Gregory, by N. Cordlflri. There was an Lii?ci 
her* Hdm remoTel) to "Imperii, cotiisan 
nunm," in AgpuU ol tha u» of Leo. X 1 

Ibs^^UooflbeEnEllih; St La»rtiii:i?, 
SI. ■wuima tud HonoriDB, Arcbblsbopi ot Cjijl'lt- 
bDry:S.Piuillniu,ATchbiibopofYo[ki Si. Juicing, 
Blabfm of Boebeuer. 

S. OrAivwnw,[n Tnitmn, wu ronnii^a In tbd 
nth csntury, »nd reholll 1623; lereral jrantio plt- 
LuB, fftHU lemplei hereAbouts, bein^ employejl. 

3. /inwrto, In PIszm dal Igaulu, bfiivreen Iha 

the «Uo of » temple of Juttnw, iliter dI Toran>, 
ud ndJolDa tha OreEoriaa or Jegnlt ll^olle^, a 
chucliof tmertlne; bepm 1(136, In hononrof St. 
IgnatliB do Loyola, Iha areUt«ti belBg Algardl aod 
Grant Po»U another Jendt, ■domad Ibe high 
altar *BdvBidt; which la renrdol uauiamphoT 
poi^igctlTe, when mn dram UiB iteht pabitofirtow. 
notice ■ itatoa and bai-roDtf of &inE> de Gontaga, 
and ths tomb ot Gregory XV., both by Legrcu ; 
al» oTCaidinal LadovM, tbe foonder of the church. 
In front of Iho chnich via tba Septa Jolla, or Julian 
Court, begun by tha Trlnmrlr Lapldua. 

S. IiUan. on Moota PbHdo, belosgi ta the Irish 
FraDdacanl i whoae annala luTe baeo written by Dr. 
WaiUhig, who b boiied here. BnUt Itn, Natlm 
palntbigB by A. Saechl and C. Moratta, and a alab 
ta Cniran'a danghter. 

S. Lomui, a baiUlca. (Bee p. ITS). 

a. Zoraaio ta Datmuo, next the Cancellerla, near 
Via del FelegTlno, a ahorch of the thhd ccatary ; 
icboUt KM, by Biamante, aodreatored ISIS. Por- 
tico, by Vlgnida. AlCir-sleae. on Blate. by Zninsr!. 
Tomb* i)fA.Can,atraiiBlataroI the jEr.cId, uul cr 
Chancellor BomL aatanbuted In Igia, before the 
Pop*^ flight to (MSUl 

tm tto ilta of the houe of Bt. E 

It ot Bt. Lawieneat who waa ma..^ .— 

I a luiofrawi^ br P. Cat^ and ■ iuiT»:i)lu\u 

" pouadB, 
not Via 

erected by Chklaanbilaiid. 

,jelta Vita, In the Corn), waa .„.,. 

Aordlu, palled down by Alexander YIL 

S. Lornui) in Vtmfrfo, In the Fomm, on tha Aa 
□f the cellB ofthe Temple of Aotonhiaa and PauUna; 
<if which 10 TenerahlB pUlara fbrm tba portico of tte 
chtirch, each M fCet high. 

£ £iiM dt* Fnauii (SL LoQla of [be Ftandi), 
flat of Plain Kanna, near the Hadanw Patao^ 
<n the alt« ofthe Bath* of Nero. Thaiflinrdii^tke 
Franeb raaldenta, boUt by duhtilDe da' Xedlel, In 
isat, from tba dedgna of bella Porta. MoUe* a 
treaco of tbe Acta of 8t Cedlla. t^ DonwDlcUna, 
Acopyof Ilaphae]'i8tCecUla,b7anlilo; Amuv- 
lloD of Iha Virgin, by Baiaano, at tba hMi altar. 
^t. Lonia'a Chapet dalgned by Plaatilla Brk4 a 
(bnutle artiat Honomenla of Clatide Lorr^na, by 
Lemoyne ; and of the father-in-law of Bohlei41, a 
jolly print, whobccimaCartUnalwhenSayeaiaoU, 

La Uaddtlma, neat the PaathcoL Carrfaig* In 
IVood. S. Lorenzo Qluatlanl, by L. (HonUnOj a 
rajrid pahitar (aiunamed D FnlrahA or Ughlnli^, 
>rba li aald to haTa done thiB work In a night. 

MaiomaM VniK on the north-weat ilde ol tha 
EaqnIUne, haa Uuzlano'a Urth of Chilat, and taoN 
tha CoDTent delta VItc Sepolle. 

'3S. IfoKdHM e FiiOv, at Toe Plgnattara, oM- 

UcteDa, on a baaemant (contabilng tbecrypta).aliMt 
100 feet aqoare. nwdrealaTpanialn twoatolia; 
the Iowa, about 66 fCet diameter, aorroDndad by 
tight Dlehaj ; aod tha opper. having tba niobM fn- 
lunal and pierced by windowa. Aia roof la mada 
of latra cotta pola. called pignatta, Itom which the 
eotmnon name 1> derived. Ueia a BarcDpliai(iia,now 
In the Vatkan, waa Ibund. 

S. Maralto. In Piazza dl S. Harcello, on tbe Corao. 
- ■ — - ■ - ... - ^„o( 

GoncdTt, the companion of IMdi VIL, at 
the F>Iu» dl Vene^, hi Plazia 

by Pope H 


,_-.... la burled bare. Kollca 

Rarly Cbilatlan epltapha. tn tha portloo, and a n 
la the tribune. C. Haratt&'a Adoration of tba 
Man, and the tomb of I^ da Paaaro, ona ol 
earUaat -work* of Canova. A ooloiaal boat t 

Mark'* day all tba Boman olergy vralk ben 


twaixi ^>^ toBnafb A ' 

Bruwmw% niLTwnEATCc 

K. HuTotthBAngdi), 


•M >ba'BMlB<ifDlodMlM,ii«tlHr 
BVBt Ar BoMdhit JIV., by Tin 
dnn& tB ■ nun drtontc plui bud bemsBB- 
nHixiat by M. Angihi, for pfa IT. Thg Interfsr 
h HOB itaf* Irav tbui Ow gnmd onttide; ■ 
dU»M vtaMi M. Au^ iMd pnpoHd to oORCM 
by laWv tt< Ooar, • or T hg(, and eerailiig tha 
buw at sight mclait gradu BDlDnuu, which hs 
lalMtiJ te t f imii «Bd whlcli u* oiplail In brick 
(daMM onr) la tha pnHnt niBcCBiB. Tlie lenfUi 
oflhiAaAlalMllMb TunitaUi luda ■ cin^ 

Faa^ beblnd 
eutof ttaeF 
tbe CuInB 

doB af ataphwi. by DomaiilolilDa, tnuitfund ftom 
Si.FMtCl.lDlTU. Clbruti^^BiiitlHsorClidiit; 
CMbBdl Bb PeUc ud lUtUluii Pamimnelo'i 
DbiIIi at llUDla* and Sinibln; Hcnidon's Mitna 
gfSL Xnmo, of *Udi dnuat XIT. uld, "Ha 
woddnaklfttaandu of lili ordsr did hK fintld 
lAn." Uadar tba mUbiils ue Mo ctuqiali, an- 
tidldiiC tha tombi at C. Muatt* and S. Rou, feeing 
(hoaa of Cardlnili PitrMo and AlcUtL Tbo Calem. 

PidBt tbe chpnb an tho Deaf ai 


It bai ft CoHnttalsn ponlco. A [Hlnt- 
imuw. at tha blffh altar. Tomb of 
HolMenLtu. > 


A&iaD TL, by PcrOEt). Toml> 
CBtboUoeonvmtBiiilTatlcMillhrxrmi.. .uu i.-iiun:ii 
of S. NIccolb, WBii tlll g to tho naUieg of LotiBlDe, 
ntcOiSHtla Maria. 

iSoida ifiirto in ^galn, near tho Capranlcn Col- 
Ug« and niaaDCi ftmnded In the Gth oflatii[7, by 
AaailailDi L, on the site oT Ihc Tmoplc of Jntems 
a Goddcv of Htaltb. "AanlroT" cornea rtnm the 
CM Eqnbria or boiH lana In lbs rmpnB MuUqs, 
BacM an idll held near the qiot An orphnn 
Bylmn, Rranded by Loyola, 1i attuchnl u the 

aaiMJfaria fa Ara CaH. (See Am VaH. p. 179- 

B, Alesla, bttoigi to the Frinr of iho Knighu of 
HaftK Itmadsmagidlnche irlrEF of 1S49, from 
tbo Frandi battotoa. it ii tbe site of Porta. UlDsda, 

Oe Ttaeatn of Bilbna. 

flbnu jraria M aimi<tMri, In Uie Piitga o< Hut 

umftirertarthe CapluJ, ar CnmpldoElla (by cor- 

"intti^ Adu^MOO. near Ue alle oT the corcerea or 

■i'S! *. ■^ t b* Jiamftriaa Ctrciii (Plaiia Morgana). 

'"'■^'.Piaw *iw ttfivwfcp e/Ort»vi«, whsSnooft 

tar-'ambra" anoa*,Mid''BUdl-«it 
JLDiM, by L, Omdiiaa. A<f — — -" 
'-Hui cupola. HMTlklliiBt 

tin (dt> or tha BtMinni, 
._gTenip[ao( J|MDo,«bM j i .uiM Md»|d»aa>»at 
along otth tbe Taopla ■■« OotaB' A BtUana. 
ThsOblata Canvmt «f Top*' BpoeaU, li alw dan 
by. HBTtihe napato tha CaplM 
Soma Maria ti IkrIaU, Tia dol TMnplo aaa 

the Cailna qturler (the [nnitd took Uu fonn of a 
-■-■-^ "an) Id irlddi PomHiy Uvid tn theTlUa Boa- 
houae adorned wttb tbo bMkMiT a lUp. 
loau Xaria in Canyo aailo, bddnd fit. Atar^ 
— tba iUe of Honi'i Clicaa, now tba Hemidi 
Camatery. Bt. Helena it la aald. oqrend the n>ot 
wlih boly earth Ovm HiMiat Oelniy. Cannagtttai'a 

namnddgD, ft Bnuiola iKliL 

SamU Jfaria iMa Ca u tla i tnt, la attacnad B 
Couolaibne HoRpftal (br irannded pnmu, oi 

arita. oo 

if FudldUi Flebda. It la 

jthigh.only lSf««lhmiad. Fsandad by Piqic 

DLunyalna, mill lebidlt by Pope kdilaB,.raA and 
ta;D.byGT<2KDryIXnbilh»lMiaaisiT. ''Coa- 
«dln." la sold to bo a aarrqitloii at ■■■ m , oma^ 
iHntaL Over Ibapaztleo left gi^phigiDDBtb{booca> 
' nuuk. of Diarble, lob) wbUi, •■ the atooy fM*. if ft 
irpulahld arm heoanBotdrawIt ootagahL Hoiac 
10 Dtunp of Ihc liaaia. Ths interior la dlvtdad inte 
tree oavoa by tireln antiqoe cohuoniiifllh a 
Q^aic poventciit of Aloaandrlae woA. Tbe Ugh 
tar Is mmle ijf Cgypdan gtaulta. An anoint oypt 
ider the choir, wBi part o( the Temple, KearUda 
the Tumplu of VoatSi 

nor the dtattta AimadsM ani 

dndbw IB gwdte [Ova and t 
hiimfie at ehntt foandad by 

nnanniii.oneaftfaefnrea , . _ 

le BepubUr; nowlDsapoiMedwUb It Illaeo 

■"- -' — * * • -—; On plHaia balnf 

a aid (tlMa, with 

or haa^ In thB 

JaiMilMin, Tbe 

pucUco la a mod^ of tha Tsinla M JorMI 
■lUr^deoo, by F, ZnoonL halng It la 
fflHadtha Houe <f FIMai 

byftuigallD. SnmwofBUgTiaai, bynaaan 
^oarVnia cbin^i '■uMtal acMc^alM thn 

a DaalRnsa 


i-JAvto tUiM iMttt fat ^tttofioni, ms bafora 
730 oalled San BalTatofafai Cortc beinir fonodad 
by Santa Am«noBLttM aita of ar«nri*x>r tiibvMlof 

Jlkrte <Ki JAmdyrM, ia tte eoooiaalastiflal 
nama of tba Papthaon linae ha dadteatl a nt in 0QBl 

*&ijtfa JToHa «opra Minerva (on MiaarTs), naatrthe 
irnith nant of tha Pantheon; attached to the ohief 
honaa of theDondnkana, whoae general residea here^ 
and preaidea over the meetings of tlie Santo Uffizio, 
or lomiiaition. fieboilt in tixe 14th century on the 
aita of the Temple of Minerva, and remariEable aa 
the only OotMeChm^ in Borne, aimple in style, bat 
nmchqwfled by modem Palladian restoration. In 
front are marked the hdghts of the waters of the 
Tiber in the floods from 1423 to 1598 ; that of 1530 is 
rec(»dedl^B. CeUini, in his lifb. Notice a Christ 
Bearing Us Croaa, by IL Angeio ; Statne of Urban 
Vn., ty Boonvidno ; Altar-pictare, by F. Lippi, or 
Beato Angelioo; Fresooea, by F. Uppi; rich Tomb 
of Pan! TV. ; Pictore of C. Maratta, in the AMeri 
Cliapel, -witih a Cmciflzion, by A. Sacchi; Tombs of 
Leo. X. and Clanent XII., by A. Sangallo ; with 
one of Car^UnalBembo, and another of Fta Angelioo, 
the monk and artist (boginning "Hie Jaoet Yen. 
Pictor ") ; Tomb of St Catherine of Siena ; Gothic 
T^nnb of BldMi> Dnrand, oovered vrith mosaics, etc.; 
Tomb of Benedict XIII. 

The BOfUoUoa Mmerva of Cardinal Casanate, is a 
part of the Dominican Convent Open daily. 

VatingHbB droroh iaan ol)eliskon an dephant's 
faaok; auo, the. Ecdeaiastieal Academy, aa the site of 
the Bafta of Agrippa. Miss CaUow describes a 
ceremony in tliis chnrcli, at wliich the Pope waa 
mresent >->" Ag;ain the music sounded. * Dunois- the 
Brave* vras played wlien General Guyon entered; 
butnow it vras a more solemn air. Hundreds of people 
poured hi; and soon we saw, coming doven tlie 
opposite dJde, two large fans of wMte oatxich fea- 
thers stuck fi^ of peacock's eyea; an emblem either 
of the Pope's all-seeing power, or denoting that all 
eyes are xxpon him. Then came Pio Noira, l>ome aloft 
in his chah", by a number of men supporting the poles. 
He looked so like an eastern deity or idol carried 
in ills chair, dressed in splendid white robes em- 
broidered with gold, with his high triple tiara, 
jewelled flngera, and diamonds sparkling on his 
cnreBUBt that we were almost startled to see him turn 
his head and raise his hand to bless tiie people, who 
knelt aa he approached. He lias a very pleaaant 
countenance, with more benevolenee than talent in 
it, and looked aa if he would have preferred walking 
on his own feet, to being carried on men's shoulders. 
At last he reached the throne, on which being 
deposited, and the tiara exchanged for a gold mitre, 
his robes were careftilly arranged by two little <dd 
gentlemen vHm> sat on eadi aide. Then the cardi- 
nals approached to Uaa his foot; and after thia cere- 
renuHw mass began, dnrii« the whole of wbidi tlie 
Pontiff vraa very busy. SoaaetiBBM bia mitve waa 
taloen ofi; and than again put on. Sometimea a 
book vraa hddfoefbn him firom whkA ha read a few 
words. When he rose, the two littlB nan opened his 
robe; and vrfaan he aat down, thqr lbUcdik4>v«r aa 
liaffmt^mt^mg9f aadtb9ima«m tm m a tntk, 

plao^wben any ona-oiiiw Aa Uaa tta 
At Ust^ mass oamelo an end. and the soldianrikni* 
iBg mto tmo Unm- doam tka atala^. ifat of aii^ 
Tp«y-w in wUla veUa apnd pin walkad two-. and 
two baiwmui . tham and up to the thwa, wten 
they were presentad to ihe Popa^ and eaeibJMid • 
dowry given bar. After thia^ ttoa Pape nm,,gKf 
the iMnediction in a dear voiDa, and momitiBir Ua 
chair was carried, away. The Qnem (CtacMlBft 
of Spain, wlio waa present witii her hnahand, ttie 
I>nke of Bianxarea, and daulitaa^ paand.;. the 
Fnaak and Svriae aoUiaxa fllad off; and vre SMida 
oor way out** 

Santa Maria diM(mUStmta,miAamlaM!aHmdif 
MmnacoU,ta Piaaia del Popolo^aie tarin rbiiiTjIioa, 
by Bendni and Fontana, both cfliptiaal within; and 
atanding at the junction of Ae three mataL ataaalib 
whidi lead into tliB city. 

Santa Maria di Moimrrato, Via di HbaaBBnli^ 
is the diuroh of tiie Spaniarda. Bnilt by Hangane. 
S. Diego, by A. CarraocL Two Borgias^ via., Popa 
Callixtns IIL ttid Alex. VI., his nqp^w, are badM 

J^uUa Maria m JronficeOt, near Ponte Sisfea, tanflt 
about the year 1,000, with a moaalo of that data 
It bdongs to tlie Teacldng Brothers. 

Santa Maria dttt' Orio^ in Traatevere, fbnndedoB 
the site of Serviua Tullins's Temple of Fortune Forta^ 
in the Gardens (Orti), of Cssar; and bnilt by G; B<^ 
mano and M. Langhi, for members of aaverai gidlte; 
whose difHiels and courts are diatinguiahed by tlieir 
crests; viz., a cock for the poulterers, an articlMke 
for the gardeners, a atone for the mfllers, etc. 
Paintings of the brotiiera Zuocara 

SeMaMariadella Pace (Peaoe), nortb-eaat of Piaiza 
Navona; built 14j>7, for Sixtus IV., by PintHB, 
wlien peaoe prerailed among the aove r eig na of 
Christendom. Its front is a drcniar cokwrnade. 
Notice Kaphaei's celebrated fi-eaco of the *Sfii^ 
scnnewhat in the stj^e of BL Angekji, who designed 
a diapel here. B. Pemzzi's Presentatian, and C. 
Maratta's Visitation, in the cupola. The vanlt above 
the high altar, 1^ Albaoo. Birth of Mary, by F. 

Santa Maria del Pianto (teara), in Via deUa 
Peachiera, ntax the Ghetto; so called from a weep- 
ing image of tlie Virgin, fbond here in Paid IIL*8 
time, before vdiich the d^urdr waa dedicated to S. 
Salvatore. In the square fadng it the statnea of 
Gaator and Pollux, now on ttie Oniitol, were foand; 
the neighbourhood abounding in reaaaina of the 
Theatre of Balbus. 

* Santa Marim dd Pope^ near Porta del Popolo 
and the Pfaician Gardens. Rebuilt 1471, fbr Siztoa 
IV., by Phiteili, onthesito of theDomitiantonib and of 
an earlier ahurch, and modandaed by BanfaiL The 
fountains round the obelisk are fed by ttaeAr(iaaVaik> 
gine. NotioePmturicchk>*8llativity<andhisficBaooaa 
inthedioir; C. Maratta's Gonocption; Bas-relief of 
St Catherine, St Andrew of Padua and St Viooenl— 
a work of ttie 16th century. An image of the Vhntjhi 
(on the high altar), reputed to ^ \ii %^..^jsjaK.>MMk. 
whkk Iba^cr^ wg%Ta«Bi^^^iQB>.%e»jv»^^> ^-^^ 


Bn*»BHA1«^ IU.VRUm) 

bn>thu>ft«mUtTMlIlM. TombiofCardlniliaram 
•nd BuK, br A. C. ds Suucnino, Tb« ChJgi 
CM|Hl,dwlgiicdtijRaphMl! loS thB mouhs In lu 
fiupou, vbtn Japk(«r, DLaiut, and Qthw Fn^iui 
diillM Mnonnd Jehovih.!Plombo'«(I«Urily. 
Btitau of Daniel, etc, by Benilnl. 

church of BUM HtiU In CixmFdl 

jetot reck oUn-hlch first mubed lbs Hp( 
inlbo Btb century, b>-Inii(K*nt II,. and 
tke on 4 granite pllJars added in tbe 191 
31 enolta coltunnt divida the body Into t 
wlui > punaaat of Aleiandrine v 
colmiiiu beloiiEed to tbe Templo ot tslg i 
Tht AnnmptloB. In On ceUIng. It by Di 
HOulaof Um IMb csnluiT. Tombi o1 
IfAkacoii, bjr Paola. of tb 
till! k lbs Btr-"-"— " — 

•*»« JVoria in Valltctna, to the weit of PLaita 
NuniDa; or the ChleH Nuora, ie. Hew Chureh 
(though old enonrti to l» menltoned by Eveiyn, In 
fab DA17, l«U)i U the Cbnith ol the Oratariani, ar 
PtiiBpttel, ■ Bclttr toHnded by S. Pb\l1pHetl; bjr 
whom > Diiulol Mimt*IaiDeDt ot a relieMns charax. 
*^ IB giTOD OTsy flnndnj evenbis, half-an-tionr After 

rewirU. None bat mw in admitted. Fnimthla 

i« lebnLlt according 
totbopluiBofBoiToiniiiL The Lntorior docoraled by 
P. da Coftona. Notice a ^rgbi and Child, and two 
olher iiaImtinga,lvRnheiii,atthoh1ehBJtai, Copy 
•f CariTaitgle'i Dewsent Itom the Cto«, 0-aida'i 
traoo of SL Philip da Neil, and a ■L'ltue of him, by 

the Cono. Rebollt 

Abora the vanhed matorio ot .. . 
Ubraiy— open three dayi n week. 
Santa ihHaim noIsM, In th 
U(3; mi tbt ifte ot an Arch of G' 
do»n ItU), and «f (he prlmi 

dier vbo nuded Idm. It it omi 
B, ate, and hii an oiatoi; In the 

Pla, faelnf the Termini lUunliln. near the Bathe of 
Dkn^etlMD! fyBoOaa \a \K». after a defeat of the 
«"*•,- tS««DD(J)y«H*vbeJnff added by Cai^iul 

[1 the work ot C. Hademo. The flat) mra 
tbeballleorLepaiilo. Sotlce Domenichlno ■ 
"- "- ■ " ■ '» Trinity i and 

columns fhim the templei. 
L SiaeHi de' CfuHni, behlndthe Pantheon, on the 
I of a Temple of Hereolea Soter, or which a«ne 
ixaaiein IbehoiueadJulnbiiQE. TheTempleiot 


■arePertaS. S^illo, 

Built In the ISIh eentory. and notfceable for the 
graTe ot TlUM. who (bund leAige and died ta tht 
convent alUolnhig, lUE. It li near the don, not 
far rrom Domenlchbio'i Tli^ and ChlM. Hb 
effigy. byPabrl^ lathe tiftofPloHoM. Haraaia 
A. Canacd'a Madonna j and a Madonna by ^ di 

chair. an&. Ka 

le poet, who died herei B , 

L^anit," Henolantl, tho trreat Unmini 
K In Taiio'i Cell they ibow ■ naitt 

la fiice, hia inbtand, girdle of haik. 

. -_,.-_ — A. \»Krta. Vti faToortto oak 
Wl — "~'m'i HI . 


__. . K 

fiHnUid, wbo HtibUibed the 6mt niiool lor poor [ Aug utlDB ud Miifant Tfaa tduv Jsw^ Uortm, 
cSildmi It Baas, tioia ibe nllgloiu ordar at irba wu lOnllili Ukto from hk pumu ud btf~ 
Scolm^RBmimlkin odeuob vig. d»d.llT«han,tiitlisdnaotaniclisnlai>. Inth* 

', Motka, tilt, DomnlcMiia'a D*1I*nm» i 
r Onidc^ 

Its Sino, IbrnMriy 

Paolo. Nkiuh HL 

p«apls. 91. Pjinda. by 

ollsl the ScboIb (kIk 
Puiulfliuu. Thtcliiirch at' 
a. Fatlo aot TFt Fomau (St Ful U tha Thru 



^ PtTXara.—Bet page IN. 

A nMrn la MaiUria, on tbe Hona Juleolmn, on 
thB^teof OiaAnof Ancna Uutliu, neat Poita 8. 

dtatfaotSt P«i«IiBn. It bat been repalnd lines 
the ilege of ISU, dmlilK whidi It aoMained aoma 
InJailea. Notice Iha palndnr of tbe ElagelUflon of 
CbrtR («n on wumt el Dal Ploiiibo, from H. 
Angelo^ dealRsa i lb* mA of ali jeaia. Fdhw- 
raoclo'B ittintuin In the vaolL Butaad'a ^am- 
dgaiMlan, Dowtn lb* Tatloan, m 

Tili (bnni tlT " — "" '" 


.nneittdoliti , ^ 

ISjdUannnutdlt From (be hont of tbi 

a floe Tfaw of Iba cUf. Mootorio Is N 

torn tbe TeUowcatourDr tbe bUL Heaittala^n 
anlbePaDUsaFoant^ tbe VlUa Spada, and 
Beau Paraaiekit a gardsi Ld which Ihe poet 
Bwmbanofthe Aicadlau Asadem; meet to nclis ibalr 

•£Miire«i Vtimli (BL Peter In Cbalni), m tbo 
EMDlUoe, near tbe Balhi of Tilna. Founded by 
Eudoila. Tlf« or ValsntlaUn III., to bald tbecAomi 
wlUi which St. Peter wai bound ; letnlll by PtnulU 
for JoUiti IL, and Kalared In 17011, by FontanL 
The uaiM an anpponadbv 30 antique pUlart. Here 
la tbe flunoua ^BCanit ^ Motu, bv M. Anfrolo. 
frownlnif, witb flamtng boma, and a Oowldff beard, 
dealEned aa part oT a tomb lor JuUia IL, oidand b; 
tbat Pops. In IIIIU, bat aerei Bolabed; In bcl, tbe 

letBlt waa tbe building oT St Paui'a. The other ' u«iun, ukkuvi , t™" vm i<^- - -^ 
Ifm^DfEllaa, eta, are bj a jinpll of the Enal-XDiiDikAnft CAuw^ (HV^AJ^a- 

gardenotihecoi- . 

batba, called Bette, Saj^ m Dvi,>»uMiuu. 

Sals JVatNdi. near Santa Uaiia Ifanlora. An 
old chuicb. founded In tSa-, rebnOt by & Caijo 
Sorrcanei^ and divided Into three oaTea by IS gtantta 
colciuu. Notice the antique Btapa al nd maible 
bhKka kadbig to tbe tribiuie, wblcb HapolMn tat- 

Craia,atib*bi|hBttai; ( 

A pUlar, or holy ctdoniD, b „ ., 

vm. In Canllnal Colonna, and nU t( 
which Ghriat waa boand to be Konrged. a ao-cauaa 
pntntt tf ChriM, given br SL Peier to Ibe fUha- ol 
Santa Fraaaede. They ahow the aalnt'a bed and 
ugmeiDIBrdlcaof the early maRyia, a liat of whidi 
la kept In the tilbDn*. 

Sonday In Lent, I wItDcaaed tbe 

anlratemillet of n 

n RomA Tbe fln 
nUad enulBx upeadni ■ 
Br aide of tbe otdet fluctSonar 

Btnvca The e^pellaw at tbe ancMri 
ly a lew irt» bore oandlei, broagltt ip oie 
wore the aame dnn, tIi., a aonv or iUit 
:etu or cape tX while, ilalet, ta Mne; ana 
J the left ann. A cOVai*'* eonoMded tbe 
t erary p*»oa> except In the caae of tbe 
i: who accompaidsd nw oooCnuanillj. A 
tnun putjtof KnulH In Uack cloaed the HUUI* 
doD. The tbne or ^ In front mre anlsotlir 
ladlea, theohief of whom anpported alargeenidSx 
In bei haoda; one oa «adi aid* of bercuirlDta 
lu^ candle, Tb^ wore black tcUi. but tbelr 
Duaa <nt* Tlttbla, and nothing oeold exceed tba 
deconun and propriety of tbeli dameaiiour. Tha 
pToeea at on entered alowly at the wcat doo9, mond 
im tcrmiida tba aHai. and when tbe (branwat ware 
irithln a Ibw yarda of It, all knelt down fbr a Ibw 
mbinte on tbe paTeokent of the chnrdi to wordilik 
t a algnal givea by on* of tba party ( t^ tai^ng the 
ivemuil with bla wand) they roee and alowhr ^ 
iflled olT In tbe dlrectlou at the chapel, «rbereln u 

.._.... Ko ■ 


n fbr a few mlnntei, th 

Utetf tt«liaiiMdrFitat.aT«sac OlKtetogrlt 
Pott, to wlMH owMry it «•• fomdnL Iit Fsm 
EnMduu, InWa. II hu MmnU* pIBtn. nd 
■BUltwiaie* byFiwImnil A dMBtntoT tUi^ 
«eil^>lHda to Itaaarptbdov.whaBth* Trite 
■n feut til* THnil* or Dkn*, md «f HhMm 
ATwitlnMHii bced thli ^ot. b Q» Ttnnrud o^ 
posUaaraiWMluaf tI]>w>Hi<it SirrlB TiiUhMi 

>C BamUoo Ghu (Btbf Ji 
^oguUiiiuu, wlioiinpan iddldin] I 
amunnnlcm tm? Ttauidar at idu. 

X Sols, on UMAnntlne. betwwn (ha Batlit oT 
CumoallBUd FVttk B. Fnolw Ii dHll«t«d to i oer- 
lUn Abbot <^ Cundocii, of St, BngiTfi tbnt 
The ^d wril pMisd V It. 

Sotto SoHh, an Uis ATgnUno, (kctng tbe TIb*r, 
vu ftumdtd nt ur,, ont t Tampla of DUnii, on 
the gui of K buffla. It ma lonnolr ths Domini. 
can Chnrdi, udhupilntlnii and fttaeoM bv Sum- 
I«mt0b Znmail, tto. It li omimanlid irltli puU- 
CDlonnd BUiUaik ud fta una u* nnwiwd b]r 
twenty-Aar wUte miAla oolomni. Tba aqoan 

mall chnieti cloia lo B. Iwicll dc Bsle'g iRitltiitliai 
at Chrittlen Brottaen. Blitti ot Cbilit, tiT>. d* 
CoTtona, bis fint work. TombvfBuKanhiilV. 

S. Aoiaaten In nunaii, nan the Fwtbaoti and 
Ui(iB«tb>(d Moa An orBtiwjr In wlileb la » uaua 
aDpKMad to bean axact Hkeocaa at Gfartat 

daaeMm, In VI* de! QoUnalai ■ Itttla dinrdi, 
— '-'- — na palntinga by DomsDlcMaiv In Uh cupola 

to na datfe Botteglia Oaeotc, it Ifaa 
. (Sob pngp 17.1), 

at. GtaniT'i ■ 


iflWarfi ._ 

brtoDRlaB to tba Ftedmccitan, amr that irf 
OaniiUSi telMVI to t(w BalslBna,ani]llli 

Crooe. ^H chapel oi 

u. ladcn, at ■"■" 

Veat^ or Komo! 
dl&xeodoni. 1 

leffiMtto, EulnE tha C«ui 

adiga HaHtl, In VI 

.. tlw Enitfih OoUagi 

QngDn Zm., aad to tlu (Mlv* 
\rrntt UL, «H BngUah eoai 
Uiand portralu, and la 

di Ucauerralo, li 

rbonded \t!3^vj 
■^ latalv f oondid 
a. Ithaa HiiDe 


tloa. nunin*BchnRhl»n,ftiaiid«db]rKliiBOtk, 
ni, attvwBida dedlcalcd to SL Thomaa of Cao- 
leitniT (Tbninaa k Beckat). Cudlnal maanan 

IwlaDc* to the Spanlth n 
Vabiqaai. 8t Agnaa, by B— -— 

AMa IVMtt (ft- JCfliM, above the Flaiaa A 
BnllE & CbailM VIIL ot FraHse, andnatond b] 
LooU XVtn. HMkoS. aa*Va1lerni'a One treaoa 
of tha Dennt ftom tlie Cmaa, faim a drawinv at 
H. AiigalD'a. The AuampUon, by the Mme artM, 
eootaliu a ponralt, of U. Angdo. G. HomaDO^ 
Moll me tangere. Hadoavi, by Valt. a ""dan 

by a lof^ filght ol itepa, Dtai thla ^iffch. irtdch 
loota dinni tba 'na (Midottl aod Its cundnHii and 
Domnuuida a Bne pnnieet oT tbe al» baa the aapla- 
Md^ and obelbk In Ircot llie French nnna ainK 
.ban. Cl(aleiruVuS<afnltbeftinbairM nWTid 

tarn tMatt dW MbvrM (of tbt Pltoitnil 
BMr Foot* Sim. BiriK MK, sloH ta ■ lodilng 
lHiQnforpi1«rtiiia,aidi»«d[fl«l InlSU. OaOci-i 
•HoirmBltr, Uthalilgti ~ 

a-fwaa,' " 

(tsnghMr.iiadiiiidetoMTfeiik baillf tmtk Ita 

InLcrlor li of ■ Bymilliw dunettr. IM itmc, 
puTFEd vtUi twalie iriDdttm, \* Mpforttd b; tvdrc 

DjtumDii, plK«l OM baUad &t ottv, oo tiw laW 
or UiD plu- IliB &BHMB arc if th* 41k oMoir, 



It dual* a Mi o iUM cjiUlin. Tba pUlMid 
flfiohMi a nmiT qudian^' ~^ — -^' 
■bonmlf. B<nr pKtncn* 
oohnni: bMrddldou la tbu chhiibih; i 

ceBtnofttM emnii Bwdl nd ■ (nrntd 

ITwa _Ob b m OBkdtw rlBjf' WUy^l witi u If bn had 

uliiiig But ijujot at ptrt tatto, taw of ndiilirmi 

tUttievDi _. . _ ,, 

tA' poftttD of rii gnnlM nd 
■monlelntlMMtM. nwan* 

— .J.-- - ^ ™-! n.^f'S ^!" ""■'* ™ *3 plUan of (nidU ud dpolbui. lb* 

5relBdl««,u^^oodH«WjjMrfoodirtLB«ths ,„,„,,, or rtaChor*otMigln*ra«^^ 

Porta 6. lamM, >dM>liii th* CobMbt 
■DoUnrnd tofvbMlHtB Bt lh« 

IdonM Vfaatlnr ana KelMkMIc (n In IbooM 
read Qreek."— Aavm't Ii n>n ftvm Stmid. 

' a good ipadmen 

M OiMmBdcalgDedaaaooditorjaMim „^ 

DDd was copied lu tfav aai^ flnims. Bebig Bom« 
feel bdoir iha Innl of tha bU then ii a doeent o( 
4SMcpato tbBTcaCKndBoriiaitbaL ndaludilnto 

ThUi Uolben rtat Mid bold Bp ths n 

oBcaaftha Caidlni]Tkar,Tia d^ Scnf*. Ob 
SIM JaoBary thla dmrdi !■ opamd, and the Pna 
liluwi two lambA whldiltandAttemal wed in 
Uw puIUiuiia for aichbtahopa, 

Santa CbMsua (Conitantfii), don to tbe BailUea 
of at Atoese. A mined edlflCK 73 f«t dlamstar, 
aomelloiu cilled a TcmplB of Baahu, bat Vallt 
1 bapUnrr lot bli dster ud 

hphafrtu of 

caSE^bofS. Srifc 

A f'MlofSLPanlVAorilaVwa- Beapigdll. 

s SeftiBtinu,aba^lka, t¥n> nUaa onialita PaMa 
:. SebHtfano. Kibdtl In Ihs ITth caitin, k* F. 
Vmla, od the rita of na arartad la MT, ti tt* 
eni«B7of 8t.0>liitaa,Bnr()ilMthaCi ' 

I throogh ow dnnb, and Uie; ea 

lanlC]iap*l,aiU«UePoitada1Paaolo. Su 

•ntUbl PraMtant Camatarrli mi Iba oiipo- 
" Poita B. Facta and tbc 

hiirtei ThTlOi 

Pyramid at Calm G< 


Thli palaca la the naldtocaof the Fope, wh 
GwiH gfiarda, ia yellow and red UTary, are acea it 
Ml dulT. It la a aouU pait of a mt and ugly ra: 
of LioUdlngi, lookJiiff '^ - ■■ — 

n aide of St Pettr'a, but 10 

mntvLy bldd^i tolcQUTtaSn^iteATh'V^&^'^u^^^^^"*^'^"^^^ 
tta tie *epikot\«»vlatBiJ. \i.\»'ftimj.\,\'aa^»'«.'«i'' 

mTftftSO-Cwi itSftuBJum*. ■'"^j^^ 


braiwhaw'b illuitsatbd 

and coraprlaes 30 eonrts, 8 grand and 200 snuUl stair- 
caflcs, with '* several" thousand rooms. 

Ti U called Vatican from the Mons Vaticanas on 
Tf hich it stands, where there was a palace in which 
Charlemagne resided ; bat the Popes lived here till 
their return fh>m Avignon. John XXTIL joined this 
palace to S. Angelo's GasUe (then used as the Papal 
seat) by a covered gallery. Nicholas V. enclosed it 
within walls. Sixtos IV. built the Library and 
Sistine CbapeL Innocent VII., in 1490, built the 
Villa Belvedere (where the ^oUo now stands) which 
Julius II. annexed to the palace, by Bramante's 
long court, which was originally 1,100 feet long, and 
225 feet wide. Across the middle was a double 
terrace or colonnade since added to the. library. 
These and other alterations obscured the plan 
of the first design. Leo X. built the loi/gie on the 
west side of the Corte Damaso ; Paul IIL erected 
the Pauline Chapel ; Siztus V. the tranverse gallery 
for the Li^ary, now dividing the two principtu 
courts within, and began the east side of the Damaso 
Court Clement XIV. and Pius VI. built the Pio- 
Cicmcntino gallery ; Pioa VIL, the Braccio Nuovo, 
another transverse near that of Sixtns V.; and 
Gregory .XVI. added the Etruscan Museum. 

The entrance is through the Scala Regia, on the 
rigkt of the Vestibule of St Peter's, or by the Loggie 
in Corte Damaso. Open, teee, on Mondays, 12 to 3, 
in winter and spring; on Thursdays, June to October. 
On other days a fee of 2 pauls is paid to the custode. 

To see the statuanr by torch light, apply through 
the (rousul to the Magg^ore Domo; and tickets are 
issued to parties of twelve, for 11 scudL Names, 
entered at the libraries in Rome. A written order 
is required for the mosaic manufactory, and gardens. 

The Vatican is now the first Museum in the world 
for variety, extent, and the cltaracter of its works. 
Besides the Sixtineand Pauline Chapels, the Loggie, 
Stanze, and Pinacoteca, with their display of 
works of art, it comprises the Museum proper, and 
its ridi collections of the remains of antiquity ; as 
the Lapidary Gkdlery or gallery- of Inscriptions ; 
ehiaramonti and Braccio Nuovo Museum; Pio- 
Clemen tino Museum; the Square aud Round Ves- 
tibules; MJBleager Room; Belvedere Court; Room 
of Animal Statuary ; Statue Gallery; Bust Room; 
" Cabinet of Biasqnes ; Muses* Chamber; Round Room ; 
Orcck Cross Room ; Biga Chamber j Candelabra 
Gallery; Map Gallery; Egjrptian Museum; Etrus- 
can Museum; Room of Archives; Library; Museum 
of Christian Antiquities ; Papyrus Cabinet ; Aldo- 
brandini Chamber; Cabinet of Medals; Borgia Room. 

It vrlH not do to attempt too much at once, in this 

multifarious collection :-~** Even the Vatican statue 

gallery disappointed me. Amid acres of so-so 

Btatues and nameless busts, the eye wanders in vain 

for something to admire. It finds all it craves in 

the Apollo and Laocoon and the Torso, but it grows 

weary long before it reaches those famous works. 

The critical faculty beghis to flag after it has been 

exercised upon so many hundr^ ol^ecta, few of 

mblcb an very ^Mdi, and none of which are first- 

nte. To dloo ver traces of modem handling is a sad 

m»aruwneat The beautifal little head of the 

'^''^S'Aajranaa (reiyUko the youthfiil Napoleon), 

has been chiselled all over, by a modeen hand. The 
tooling of the 15th century artists.js to be traced in 
every direction. So many supplemental noses, 
fingers, feet, hands, arms, heads; at last annoy you; 
and I was not impatient for a second visit"— 
(Burgon.) Such a work as JBram^t Ruins and 
Museums qfRome will be useful to the visitor, who 
wishes to enter upon a critical examination of the 
objects, before him, and give good reasons for 
admiring the t>est of them. Many of the paintings 
are not in good condition, but faded trom time, 
exposure, - smoke of candles, etc The Loggie of 
RM3hael are hardly recognizable. 

On the other hand,'* There is," says.Mendolsaohn, 
**one singular '. and fortunate peculiarity here. 
Though all the objects have been, a thousand times 
over, described,' copied, and criticised,, in praise or 
blame, by the greatest masters and the most insig- 
nificant scholars, cleverly or stupidly; still, they 
never fiedi to mika a. fresh and sublime impres^on 
on all, i^ecting each person according to his own 

From the Vestibnle of St Peter's, the Scala 
Regia, a fine stahrcase (by Bernini), leads to the 
Sala Regia, a room by Sangallo, and ornamented 
with frescoes, including Gregq^ XL returning from 
Avignon, by Vasari ;• which <yimonnirate8 with the 
Sixtine and Pauling Chapels. . 

1. The CappdlaSistinOy so called after its founder, 
Sixtus IV., was built by B. Pintelli, 140 feet lon^^ 
and 60 wide. It .is a dark, heavy looking, oblong 
room, remarkable for the frescoes of. M An^lo. . in> 
eluding the celebrated Last Judgmentt at th€ further 
end, and the Prophets and Sibyls. A patty of per- 
sons may see it for two or three pauls tpthe custode. 

The *Last Judgment^ painted 1533-41, is a good 
deal faded, besides being hid by the altar. Some 
older f^scoes, by Perugino, werepalntedover to make 
wayfor this great work. On the leftof the Christ (said 
to be copied from Fra Angelico*s, at Orvieto), the 
wickedfall, thunderstruck with terror, through the air, 
and are seized by the devils f^om below. All the atti- 
tudes of the body and all the passions and feelings of 
the soul are said to be expressed in this work. One 
of the figures in hell with an ass's ears is Biaggio, 
master of the ceremonies to Paul III., put here tat 
affecting to be shocked at the naked figures in the 
picture. When he complained, the Pope said:— 
Had it been in purgatory, he could have got him 
out, but being in hell, it was quite beyond his 
power. At a great height overhead, is the faded 
celling, painted 1508-13 for Julius IL, many years 
before the Last Judgment It contains three series 
of firescoes^ whidi nfhen Raphael saw he thanked 
Gk>d he had been bom in the same age as so g^reai 
an artist, and also changed his own style ; but they, 
are unfortunately blackened by time and the smoke 
of candles. The first series includes the separation of 
Light and Darkness, the creation of the Sun and 
Moon, the Earth and Waters, of Adam and Eva, 
the history of Noah and the Deluge; the Almighty 
being personified. In the next scries are the Pro» 
pheUy Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Joel, Isaiah, Daniel, Zach»» 
naYv, MvOi 3oxv«l\\.\ «&\er(\A.t\svs with the (^unaaan, 
DeYj^YiVc, ttii^ ^>iG«x a>b^la. i&>icv^^^ici!a&«ii^»h<vBi^ 

Aliamsnis, Eathrr, DitM uiiI Qollilli, Jndtth and 

DownlJiBiiaoaof thochnpclare sfvcrnl (nucora, by 
BDtticem, Pcmgtiio, etc: w iUl 2S Popes, by DsltlceHl, 
liolwoen Ihe windows. 

1 PaaNne Oimtl, boHl by allIl^ll!^ for Paul III., 
'aligner. • - ■ -—.--=.-— 

Christ The qnqrt is mark*! bjr row» D( open gElle- 
rlcs nr uti&des, c&llcd 

3. Logipi (plonl of iBggia) nan oier Ihe othor. 
bc^n by Brajnvit« and hli nephew, llopli^el, and 
contlnaed by auccefiding archLtwt& They were 
painted by Kaphaal, u -well ta the BUnie. an 
adJoiDing tet\es of rooms over Iha Sale UorBia. 

and a Naratu. The litggie on Ihe Keond itory, 
planned by Ituphie], and omunsnted iritb hti 
gracorul iluceo orabosqiu!!. glva nima to the fldy- 
iwo frtscoea (hnn h!j dssigni, painted in Ibun 

arcailE. Thej reprcKnt the principal «v<iiT>i In the 
Bible. Only the 6rat. OoJ Criating Ihe World, ii 

hii drawing UnfoTtimatcly, they are Eio fade 
ai to bo hardly vlelble now ; tmt photogiiuihs c 
of them are publlihed by Trilbner and Co., Londoi 

Raphael'! lime wera ocearietl by (he Papal Coar 
The room firtt pibited by him (ICll) !i the Camel 
■lella BeL-natiia (whan Uia PoptfiUEiiod biiafe ilc.; 
coTcred with alli^rlcil en1)]ecti— Pagan ud Chrh 
tlan— «t great beauty, Da the mlla and oelUng 
The tour principal onei are, Is[— 'Tbeologr. oi lb 
raqulk del Baoamenla, bitWHn Ihe Dodon an 
the Cbnnh. Noticn the Porlnlta of Dute, Bin 

iw of Jniluill.1. 3n]—LltentDre and Poetry, 
autoL Here Homer, TlrgQ, Petr^ch, BoDcac- 
1 other great namei— elaialcal and ChtMlu 
ound Apollo and the Uuiei. tth— Jattjce or 
rudcnce, inpporlHi by beaotifnl fignna ot 
'ranee.FDrtllnde,u[)FnideDae. Thlilndiulea 
ilan, with t>>>* Plv«<a ot , JuQBiui, and 
7 IX and tm B^^Mpli. - 

,ja ^^adini | " 

d rWn -piUntiii- 

iD if Aogek, la aBoAsa la ll 

cawa at JnUu H, whan urtrtft Ii turn. Ths 
other uUeOa an, tad— Lao I. Mopping AuUa atUw 

CI of Komei with ■ portnlt of Leo X Sid* 
mtvlt M BlMfUnc Hort) at BolHia, who* 

, Tdeuaaf LwZ.,alKr llw 

battle of BaTenna. Hotlog tbo efbet of the thre* 
dUbiant lif^iti. from Ihe aanl, th« tonh, and tb* 

DHMa Borne cither Milptnn paces are acen. 
11)etUidn>om,oc2laiiBd<l IiKOdia (bumtDg), 

the dty, ^inbnlUbyPopaLeo. The F^ dilTca 
hack the flanwl wUh the tfgn of the croia. Old 
St. Fetw'i i> IB tba dbUsee. Goroiiathid ot Chai^ 
lemegne, by Lm> IlL Death of Leo UI. ..^ IV.'i 

..itendedlDCOIiapllDientLcDX. Motlos pornalli of 
him and Francia L I^e root ii b; Pmigiao. 

The fonnb room, or Saia <H a»(laiuj».la the wnk 

toiT over Maienllua, a1 
3nd — Appearance of the 
Iheegly jester withal 

nuloa ot Ihe City Id the Pope. Thli room leadi lo 
the Sala de' Chiaiiweari, *nd the dupelof S. Lonnio 
«c S. Stehno, tai which an ItMcou, In- B. Angelieoi. 

6. iYcnir«OiiRerv(Pbiicotheca)oftheVBiieaD.on 
Uie Inner elds of the Cocte S. Damuo. It la ■ 
lAolce cDllecthHi, BtUnr trmr looma to the Ihlid 
story, including KaphaeTa neateil work, the 

•IVanvlfwaHm— palnlMl fbr Cleotenl Vtl.. M 
en allar-pleee for Narbonne catlicdral, of which ho 
waa archbishop. Hsmaaopleaied wlih]t,howeTer, 
that he kMt IE at Borne, and eent insiead del 
Piombe"« KMiirrectlon of Laiaraj, fnow In onr 
National Oalleryl. The TrangfiKurallon wie left 

don at hia fnneral, and then finlihed by Q. Bomaucb 

Other pletorea are the following i—< 

JlspiotTi * Nadoima di Foligno, pilnltd f<>r <^i. 
mondo Contl (1*12) the Pnal aocntaryi ana hli 
Coraontlonortfieinrgiii. '' Ilei«,'*nya Hendelisohn, 
" the Madonna dawnedon me In thewboleiptewtotir 

_. . __liOB __ 

OL ireroBM; regarded ai hlamailer-plece. Painled 
far tbe diarob of Ara CBlL'ftir 60 crowna, and 
a^teetsd tlU lU great merlu were proclaimed bv 
Ponaaln. .d. AieeAf— •Vialon of BomiuldD, which 
nulla tIBOng Die "fboc great {dclnree" at Bome. 
Be la ritdng under a tree In the valloy of Camaldoli, 


lot BL E 

'Othn miniridom Bu 

a dlignitlng 

and Child i with St. SebaiHan, 
Sl fnndiiOlo.- 1> tUa (icwn Ihore an tbree Btagei, 

10 La the'nanadgoratloo. **Bekiw.,it'-'~ — * 

tjta ti* ^m•»Il^l^Ift.'al— "-^ 

\ OmtLsonVu «(MitoB»>.t*«»'W 


_. — liflMUBgabombktauil, 

but nUck M •■& itiithii: In Itsat of tlw Alclore. 
Aton.l[BriBdknOUIdn In ■ aloid, rr"— - 
wWi ](iraMgDRmiiMI>r*nnli,iriBh«T«^ 
nUBT (Utonda. IbaHdlrCbiukallkmaf 
indnsMiMiriboMtft omra lb> itftub* 
bDlhliBiiUiarwnin4di hh'liaiidi ItrlhaiM 

Tha «oatEHt betmea tb* palB and iirffMBg : , 

irhBOce Bt. BebnUu looki tMh art et lb* picture 
irtUi ndi 0saiB iDd alaiBM uiMlqr, udUc lidty 
■nuUe/WI emtlMliiB In the oliiiiila abave. wlm 
oowBi owifidiiu An dRBJj nnUbm ^^bm, Ii ' 
•dnirabte. HIgli abtn Uw gnnqiiitlUrrfal 
Uw Holy BBUt, tima whom lauiuu* K b 
Umraliu tlgbt, tbtH ftnoliw tb> vaz of th« i 
ouBinmoo. OosUw, at the bagfaialiig id lOa 
TWt U Kmia, danribw uid kdBdnt (Ui f^' 
Tltim bn tobud ItwUi hia gemSm aid 

A FMfc AnoM— BcsnmcttoB of Chrjit. iiiit] 
HMnltaiirBaiihial,lili piuU, andaf Fenixliio, iiy 
Bi|*ul. jflrflte RolrKutfly! andtha^Fudigel 
Sta. P. riiiiaiii riii|iiiailliiliin 

fl. b ft* loBg fl*U«T ol tlia wcand ttary, ats 
Jf^pHwl HjpLiiifii, or Aianl, aathaf an ityl 
ftoB Am*, fa ItandKi, *lMn Mdi troAa n 
in*«B,frOBk dMlgaa pi^iand bytha aitlaton 
larga tv nfMAoc owtuoa. nma Ufn^nt...- 
wen Mdand tv Lao X.. llir tha Bapal niMtiDaiu 
andclu^: adortltaMaatbdiitlntaBdadaiBpic- 
MM to Heoiy VUL Sam nt tba btal, onl of 
tmatr^va awtoan* prmnd br Batiiual and hli 
noiU, ne HOW at Sooth KanalnttnL 

7. a a o rta l^Uatm, ar nllny of linit IniKTlp- 
flau, n the Ant Our, bd&d tha Liwgia oT Bc^i. 

ita; tnodad by Phw VIL, and^'^" ' ' 

■■ -, IBIT. It 

oioflbaflnGrecklnltlilloUBaof "Janutliirwf), 
Cbittt (xp*"i\ 9« of 0«d (eiu Tin), 

Smloiir (liiTfi^)," '~ 

(»). LOCVS HEBl 

inka place of HcnDca, 1 
W.ohi.vDiA.tyirvixi'lAltlna wtyjaeviaim^ 

(Claodlo, wte ilTcd M year), iu»a or tea). 

__„_ ._ DJtT.," ot "D.«.B.,- 

(SairadM Um godi' manH), a t«m bomwnlttaai 
■-— -■— aiJmilia. Serenl of tba moat BtfWae an 
■ - ■■ - "" -■ " IttCaifivm 

to 30 of BllT|[01l'l . 

tiana," In Iba Bth and «ll 00 

placidhtae ■ coivoi ■ optihb 

[CcdBu, bar buband, lo CedDa FlAddlnti, d* 

nof moat eacsUeut momoty, wlHi whom I 
bap^^ Ibr ton yean, witlionl any qoand). 
At th* end If the bvourite DHBOgnm of tha only 





fIott*w*l-4iminto« Ubai*, ta msb, wlio 1 

Ha— at Mby, tlMJMlU te th* third tin 

EKmUlai bUngConHli), iA. ld. 37*. 

I ba fi ty Chnrtm ttmoatt wn t mda m 

niin li ■ cnilMU nd inMreatlas coUeoUiin ot 
•peOUMBiofgntgliua) mdit of wbli£ in dcmibed 
la F. Oumcll "TMd AnUcU." Tloy « 

e. Kmh g M ar-um m . ; 

IbyPlniVU., whoM. — 
Bio Mnimi, whioh (HOMM 

u RiitlqaM, DDd 
uBuiB. iiw uujECU In Um aUm 

wUdi an UM^i^mum ■ 7<— ■- <~ -«^^ 
aiMOMar, irith tbe MllAu, 
Onati JdIIoi Cmmt, u psU 
C Jidiu Bvodni; Mplo AbtewDii VaoM JUui- 
dfameuB (comlngi out 01 Ibg bnli) ; AbchHii^ t Am 
but toandUOMia; DnciainH; CiDcni CnM, 
<ir Pmltolai Tillering ■ flng Atinc dnn; Xili, 
■ luge bnM, finnd 1b UMVUku ■*id«ii Ouir- 
mwle md Oh £a^i CoIoibI HercnW tUturimn 

|dii]Pl» on ■ flntsj Cammoiu; Aatloi 
idm; Rum; EnrlfddU) an Amuon 

9, Braeei^SftiamffirliBwAftn}- AIonguidhaDd- 
■nm* (lUeiT, vlth In mtlqae coluniis from tbetnnib 
tt CsoBIa iiitdli, md H flna naule piTsnunl. 
Hen m Gnek CuyUldH, nstond 1^ ThomldKD. 
Two sDlMnl Buiqiua of Hadnu, fnm Um Ten^ 
tfVaiBi, BiwdtVaM luttaomlddloof tbenom. 
Ebu SUtna of DonoatlMiua. na Aflilati^ApM- 
aloniiM. at tha #ad: aflna alAtnAfbiiad loTzut^ 


ha tJiaif^ ot Igalppiii. Ccu«al 

ud aappDHd to 
alhvmW •Stall 
IB lUtls In^rti, 

'Statu* of tlM Bbia Ku», MnoaDded b; 

by wUch maaaa th^ KB 41 

j«w) FiM<M*^^AntMM|Daii bjr D. da T(»> 
Tonq BalTedan b^AfiQlloBliiVi luppuaodto 

ad mnariublaflw Iti miueiilar 

. _ opened !n ITSl, tlw 

flngvr, wMch Flu VL gm to Lord AJHDoa 
PercT. On the walls \t aji InAcriptlan buliinliu 
AnXber becint, "BONCOIHO. PLOBtVin. 

BABBATI " whldi In book Latin would Im^ 

itlDDt fiama bononim 
Sclplonem, Ulna 

UHOf tha BnM A* 

teles. ItecaiT, I". , . . . 

Endrmlon. ApeOo: maboAraDdha 
at dUhcanttbiMa and la two oUteHt . 

■oiraiuidiDgthaBalnllanOoBr^hniiiidUia Plana 
Oeidn, at tba Dcith ad tf Oa Tiltean.^ ^..'™ 


Cenora. 2iid CibliMt— Bahtden Uercair 

ioat, a Baa B^rim, dlacoTored la the relgii of 

Pan! UL The ilgbt ann and laft band an aima. 
9Td CabUM— The •^omon. In the fblds oT tha 
lement, foond In IMS, on the K•tlllUn■^ and Itrlad 
by H. Annlo. a "mlnele of art" The ana of tba 
(atbei and the anna of tha children, who are trytaf 
u extrleala Ihamaelni, han baas natorML Wb 
CaUnel— -The 'ApoBt BttMUn, of CanaiK maibl* 
tbond at Porto d'AniliL or Antlam, and bontfu In 
Jnlloan.: eoppo»edtobaoft]iatlr--'" ^ 

i bontfu bv 
afMero, aag 

ntoa£ and cbKBLtaf^i 

. t«Bt ^^t^ kA^^ *&* ^BX uv >i .< 

1 DonMa&'wttn fllinaninA.-*!^-'*- 

udtlisHillaf UhUomi. Bo* an n**nljDoaH, 
cUsaf arHin, u— HttlM CaaUot ind a SoM; 

■■'-IHllB»£Sll£Dl0tt(f-"-"^ "-*-"——' ''' '•*" 

■uottai^lluga L 

la tbg cfaiiToli of & Lomuo, Is Pulnmu, 

it wu wonUi^ted «a a hIdl ArUdna SluplDg, 

athtrwlH Cleopun. Two flna Cudalibiu, from 

■ttbaBiUi, Fun Id »d mi 
Betom tbiH^ tbfi SUtuo GiUbt? ADd AdIdu] 
IS. jfaH'C9MBilcr,uoetieaaR»m,i 

Adilun. Hneinthelliutt— Tb£a, 
«Ch tsoDd MttnU, ITHj tlM £kIiI 
"""**. ' T"**. "—'-'". -■- 

!>■ Samd Itwm (SiU BMouda), conitniclcd lilLe 
moiE of itia bidlitlii(i M ttiii and of tin VUliaii. b" 
Vtat TL A httidimin room, lit b; di nindow 

SS. BnpHanlli 
uid Greek Crad BooD. 
Gregory XVL It 00 
gmoiiB, Hii»pb<lli oWi 
p™ finfonF*! xe 

^jiSXVL, ai wu 

(OKcept Mondny}) 1ft ti 

lodB. ThKIi 


nmuL ^miuiff tho bmti ud ■tttuzruo Jn 
ta«>di of Tngedy ud Comtdy, fton niU Ad: 

8it]n; EnqBioc Pmlnu. Fiom thla mter tl 

ML CrHtOsii£onM(BiliBCR>oanc>l,B 

tram tti alupa, m built by eimonMtl. It bit . 

flcoof Egyptlaiigniilts,mdIaadoni«d»tths 

moMka UM uimuou. Hen an * Ted porpbyiy 
■noophigni, from mo eniTo of ConitutlDe e diavh- 
Ur,iMi lb*<anireliofB.Agaew,oiitaldethawiUls. 
' AnNtaer HnxiplUEiu of tin EmpnM Holoil 
iMMeUerofalMCtfe. Bothwoafouidmiidibi 
ud hiTS boon pieced bttetlwr aAor Dumy yean' 
Iconbla. V«iuotpTuUel«,copledfrom the Toons 

ai. fi^(Aami(r(SilBdell>BtgB),ad»iiluTW 
•0 called (Irom tlM marble Bin, or antlqno two-be 
ear, which atandi la 4ba middle. , Ilerala ttaeDIi 
ImIdi, or qnoU ;Uyer, ooplcd from tbxt of Mli 
ttom YlUa Adiiaiia. Tbe'head aod u ana 

>iid ftory. bidU 
*. uniipluwJ. 
Ji bai-nlierol 

ooattlaiig the Baphaol Tat 



pi, 10 to 1, acooiapaalcd by the gd«- 
L Ian* aad bloeaiuig Kdlawon, In 1 1 
Italtaa andqidtlei noently diaoeroted 
ddM Tnld, Vtdl, eto. ; Oia prbidpal 
oh an deaolbod loHt. G. Dank'i 

gant i hiy t eapi, dttbai (« taan), 

daUcMo patMm, «0|ll*i of Etroacaa 
Onade^itaplr- '"■— ■ — 

>f the ItM of Hu. 

a Uercmy In tt 

i. Betm o/ArMMt (AreUtto BwrMo), near tho 
cGioHnaTD, Founded by Plia tV. Hanydoca- 
lU biivE made ajonmey lo Pula and back. 
Catifan LOrarf (Blbllateca), foooded by 
hclasV. ivhDbegBnwIlhT.aOOUBa Itoccuplci 
lun^' ^c&i gillery. looklDg lata tbeTatloao e^r- 
n. ji* vj-iU an H brancb eBTOH Iho iQtcriOT eouna. 

1 ltB«, by Sbttoi IV., 
ueBUta by GattaBi, ate, to 
91B (net long; irtdla the inal EiUeiT ta neaily 

AnlEqdilleB and aftoeatalnaBe atonoan^ and by Ihft 
'^RmeMosenm at tboottKi «ad. It oontaloa a 
dachlte Gbjlit ' and Vaae, from the Empoor of 
issu, and KTonlolber nut, and la adomed by 
scoes^ SDd UHFnncta Piiocalnverial'achdatan- 
; foot. The walla, olc, «r* eorued wiih titr 
■quo. Opea dally, tram idne, Ibr nadai*. 
TheMSS in wUcbthli library iaponllailirriiiw 
w Donibeiraearly UJKO, Lalln, iinA, and OilantaU 
ut up 'la brtrthraana Among the Oriental V^ 

la printed book 
laBoama, atlb 

: — Qrcgk Blbla oftba tUid and fboMh canlorii^ 


latiated Tlr^ ol 

Ainu. Paitof TaMO'aScnualtnio. Ciena'* K*- 
publie, a pa Hmniaat dadpher;^ by Cardinal HaL 
Henry VoL't MB. bo<^ on tba Bacrament^ wrltMD 
aeainat Lnthar, Ibr wUch b* tMalvcd til* tUla of 
/WMht Fm DttnlOi- tt. Ibe-Falth. Biai 
VlIL'alouento Anne'boleim; 'TbtMtnUlum 
>hDwntii''EngllA'rtattora.- lotha'a-UBe. 10^. 
niUad VtrgU, of tb* 4Ui or «h o«ntnrlt& Dad5»- 
Dlvlna Commas IllsmlaBtad. Gngory NuIbii- 
litn'9 RdtdV&«v USasdnaad. of the lltb (cnturlV 
\FaoiGoastU,illtti- "-^ "'^ — >~— j ^ 



ST. 3fk«iVQAiMJ^«ttMm (80 eaHed, in opposition to 
ibaX of Gliristian Antiquities), contains notliing very 
remarkable. In a Cabinet at tlie end are aome 
metal ornaments; with a piece of a Roman barge, 
found at tlie bottom of Lake NemL 

2& Soared Museum, or Mosram of Cnriatf an Anti- 
quities, founded by Benedict XIV. It contains 
various articles used by tiie early Christians in their 
lites, as lamps, chalices, rings, cups, vases, etc. An 
ivory bas-relief of the Descent firom the Cross, 
designed by M. Angelo. Some curious early paintings 
on wood, in distemper, by Greek or Byzantine 
msstws; one is a portrait of Charlemagne. 

29. Papyrus Cabinet (Stanza de' Papiri), con- 
taining the Acts of the 10th, 11th, and 12th centuries, 
on papyrus. Frescoes, by Mengs. The decorations 
of the room are all Egyptian. 

80. Boom of Byzantine, and Early Italian Jif asters. 
Specimens of Margharitone, Cimabue, Giotto, Ma- 
sacdo, Fra Angelico, etc,, collected by Gregory XVL 

31. Vatican Mam^actory of Mosaics. — " Two long 
rooms are devoted to it, with presses on each side 
containing the matwlals used, which are a kind of 
earthenware manufactured for the purpose, and not 
stones of various colours as we had 8upp(Med ; that 
being the case at Florence. They are, however, in 
shades and colours of all kinds. Each artist en- 
gaged had before him a rather coarse but spirited 
painting of a Pope, whose likeness he was taking 
for the new church of St Paul ; and this he copied 
in mosaic as closely as the nature of the material 
allowed him; fixing small and properly shaped 
pieces of the earthenware into a cement, which is 
previously laid on to the portion he can execute 
before it driea It seemed most tedious work; for 
every piece has to be selected of the proper shape 
and size, and fitted into those that have been 
arranged before it. As these heads of the Popes 
were to be placed very high in the new church, 
they were large and coarse; but one man was 
making a copy of Murillo's beautiful picture of St, 
Catherine; another of Raphael's Madonna delta 
S^giola } which were much finer and more tedious. 
These would take several years to execute — the 
single heads about twelve months each; but the 
larger pictures in St Peter's are not completed under 
twenty years.*'— i/tu Catkno's Sketching Rambles. 

32. ^I(fo&rafMiuuC%aiii&er, so called from a remark- 
able ancient painting, the Marriage of Peleus and 
Thetis, found 1606, in a Roman house on the Esqai- 
Bne, and sold by Cardinal Aldobrandini to Plus 
VIL, for the large sum of 10,000 crowns. Prior to 
the discovery of the Battle of Issus and other sub- 
jects at Pompeii, it was regarded as an almost 
unique specimen of Roman art, and was valued 
accordingly. It is on stucco, and contains ten 
figures in three groups, done with great merit in 
respect of composition, drawing, and colour. Some 
other paintings of equal antiquity found 1830, in 
Via Graziosa, are seen here. The roof has (tescoes 
by Guide. Two chairs of wood and Ivory, presented' 
to Pio Nono by the Bishops of Etrinia. 

83. Cfabinet of Medals.-'-Some of the rarest speci- 
mens were stolni 1848-9. Betvroem this and Uie 
h^fgiM ofBaphMl, an U19 

84. Borgia ApeuimmlSf torn rooms now fltU ot 
printed books, but formerly the residence of Alex- 
ander VX (Borpia). They are decorated with 
stuccoes by G. d'Udbie and P. dd Vags; frescoes 
by Pintnricchio, and ancient bos-relieft. One room 
contains Pius VII/s collection of engravings. 

35. Vatican Oardens (Giardini Pontlfido).— That 
part of the interior court, between the BradoNuovo 
aud Museum, is called the Giardino della Pigna, froof 
a laige bronze pine which came firom the Pantheon. 
It contahis two bronze peaoodcs, and other antiqui- 
ties ; also a tank of water, in which floats a man-of- 
war squirting out water from her ports. The larger 
garden is to the west of the Library, and slophig up 
the Vatican hill to the city walls. It contahis the 
Villa Pia, or Casino del Papa, buUt for Pius FV., by 
P. Ligorio, in the style of an antique villa, and 
restored by Leo XXL 


Quirinal Palace (al Qoirlnale), at Monte 
Cavallo, is the summer residence of the Pope^ 
being more healthy than the Vatican. Begun 
1574, by Gregory XIII., from the designs of 
F. Ponzio, and completed by Mascherino and D. 
Fontana. That part called the Famiglia, is the woiir 
of Bernini and Fuga. Open, 10 to 2, by application: 
to the Pope's Chaml>erlain, through the Consul or a 

The principal court is S03 feet (?) long, and 
siUTOunded by a portico on three of its sides. 16 
contains some choice pidntings by great masters. 
Thorwaldsen's bas-relief of the 'Triumph of Alex- 
ander; pieces of Gobelins tapestry; aJso frescoes 
by Albano, with Guide's Annunciation, in the private 
chapel. The embroidered vestments deserve notkiOu 

The large garden behind the palace was added \xf 
Uiban VIII. Open, 8 to 12, by order, as above,, 
when the Pope is away. It contains a kind of 
musical fountain, made by jets of water; and a 
Casino, by Fuga. 

The name is derived firom the Quirinns, or Temjde 
of Romulus, which stood on the hill opposite tlie 
gardens. In fi^nt is the Piazza di Monte Cavallo, 
with its obelisk, 45 feet high; a granite fountain; 
the horses, which give name to the locality; and 
tiie Consulta Palace. Fhie views of the city and 
up the Porta Pia road. 

Here the Cardinals meet in Condave (i«. locked 
iq>) to choose a new Pope, on the tenth day, or 
day aA«r the funeral of his predecessor. During 
the interregnum a Cardfaud Chamberkdn enjoys 
supreme power, and may even cohi money in his owa 
name. The Sacred College, when full, consists of 
6 Cardbial bishops, 60 Cardinal priests and 14 Car- 
dinal deacOns. The Pope must be an Italifm, and 
be 55 years old. Two-thirds of the Cardinals must 
elect him ; but France^ Austria and Spain have eacli 
a veto on one name. When Gregory XVI. was 
chosen the Oudinals had been sitting for 50 days, 
without coming into the open air. This electioif 
wris -made known by a voice fk'om the -xtAAAss^.^ 
" Anaimdo 'viMa ^^kqjS^^sbl XBAaq^^ssBau "^^^aisBSja* 



XYL.lOr Il,OODen 

ittieBonli .... 
Jfraa to make my ror tbe priotsi bMflu. Qe<sa, 
ID to «, bj s fee to ttas cutods. 

It conUlDi bu-rellal oTnuton ud Uctr 
tha TnllB FDnm. The Bruchl AntinDi , .. .. 
"""" ■ *-■— " 'K hWi, booglit by Greeuiy 
-.-BM. Bophocltaifoiiiiil BtTer- 

- . ■ . jf AtUeM, tma the Daitai oj* 

OKteHlL. Stitiia of St Hlwolytu, Uihop in th: 

*-' — ■ — ■-— (romtlwC«t«ointe(curleB) 

- , .,^ jrt G ngohiD'B AnumpLlDii ', 

1 of tlie TIiBtB] A del SvtoTi Htly FwUlf. 

brtbanMBtf P^lniaM,ud taaToyi 

1^ olfntlon of movlugl, bcnoM, md 

tkai gUhaedfaHmrlTCAtMiu cnrKlKtba CUii- 

coDti. jUtln«nd<tftliatiUeiTblhBi 

Mtn «t *& .ffing^Mt, Ih* nintjT, k 

& tiMDNi, Old nktop of PoitB, la tha I 

•fUiebdiiBitiiir- nrtniwar " 

of Hm TIbar, irtHn t tmnr 

mpnolTtu ■tfl] remiiiu. The nuitta 
taA&thcoUMtCJMMmBU ' ' 

lamiBiitdhtedetata.lDlsei, ... 

OP Uw VU TDNUttni, ne«t 3. Lomuo'e ohurch, 

trnttlK chwch at BL 

<< 8. Hli Mi l yti 
UmntAtbMiwfaldihubemtinnMl taaeoomit br 
Banatn, Wordnmlh, ud otbawiftoi^ hi tbefr 
wotkioothOMdrhlitinr of the chnrdL Nairthe 
Mtaa ct HtaFo^HH, to tUa eptt^ to ■ yoimg 
lidf, with £ar Scue In tha attttnda at pnyer, 
diMaed b B paltoM luaO liooW, abxi— 

Q7STIXIT ABBOS XTOL' (Falidi, ■ mint 
nUUU BiUHk Im pwn, Gth of the oomliic 
<atad» <( Beiitoniba. Wfeo Qvad IB jaua). 

VbM an H <r ladptnii anoeiteti. of gmtt 
W*Mt No soa b allnmd to ikebft Uiem, bat 
•aaaaanndana br bo mide. Tba ftnarlle tab- 
^MfiB As ^WltoB BoA INodal hi tbe UoDs' Deo, 
*|-*_5* Omaltei ofUnSaeriaa. ofto«, 
''Mi^ar^inab; 40(1 tha BlitlvJiatMdttlitirdet 

M (Ma & tfvM I fi imto D . On Lori la 

alwayi lapmentid la » baaidleM r 

BOHrtlh»bair' -'— ^-"— - 

Tba Oipan, wUh irtddi lu 

. . 1 north Md of tha Fonun 
VtaSiKm, and la nadMd b> tttm, nUcb 
•Foi luMraanaditthaTlritidChaAiVBUUM. 
An ibM neMiuol dM aBdent ^atlta of tUa ftmoiB 

tba hbmanlM Maoa. nods Oluappa'* Amdi, 
OamtddDCtto, at ounpt dVi^lo^fA t^ Oil OtU, 

tba top la saDed latemodtlaDL 

■~ '-m Capitol or afoanol 

bjlL Anndo. ud co 

nbSdi goaalkr to radian Uiaiin|iMi|iriMrcd ttwti 

Itar iba atns— an two Uorni (at flia bottma), 
of Eg^ifan built, pouring mlcr iBto narbls 
baalMplaoadtbCTat^rhialV. ColMMlatUaw (^ 
tha too) of tba Twin Bnthnn, Cattrand Fkdlnx, 
and tMrhoiMK Cnmd fai tha aiatlD, la tba Itth 
centiii7. TwomuUaatatBMcaltadthanDphiBKtf 

tba Aiiplu Wv> marked " 1," piliod ^ a modain 
AwtfHai^ lAkb, aflar 

tba Irian* at 

Sth Apia, lUli and Blend, ttelaat of tha TrlbnMi^ 
waa killed br tha mab a> be deaoandad tba aUfia, !■ 

;of the Ca^Iolineli ooa«led by tbe An CaU 
Palact tf On S n ater ii on the alio of the Honaii 

alii ilnalrnnl tha baaanait and etaliet thereat 
...tbewB&orSdaPona and BalnaldL Itwu 
nabaadlDlSH. na HOe and Tiber U Slxtoa V.^ 

Palact of at Otam^mlori, or 
nUta vUan-, ud tlHb Bi™ln™'i'o1mm ud 

M of tb* FUd COBtOlOM, 

XK Ibactannhsf BuU. 

tjiou llaUiBi, iHlDtBi^ pHtit DmdslaiB, etc. La 
ohidlBsM, A. Cotattw, tbt (dnlnlj^ bugbt ■ 

■n l» Cuun, *rtiD <i*iD(d Uw ooUMtlDiL Hura i 

7M Pkhn OMOTI (PIsaMtwM. iMOded by 
B«Bedlst XIV. AmoDg laat aoOeUaaitiaga im 
Pwtnlt of Oilda, br UtamiU. QnUo'i bea(iB«a 
Splilt Mceodii^ la PandlH. Ootn^no'i mblUB 
Perdu. Vtlnqnec, bj himwlC P. da Cmtoiui't 
BlpscftbeaiblBea;uidB*ttlaof ArtiaU. Cluule'a 
two ijBfc eM M. Qnanbu'i BuU PMnnclU. b Gub 
wnfc (i»|iM Id moMta M St. Pitcr'i). Alhuto'i 
Birth or ths ^nrgtaL Tltlu'i Bapdm ot Chilgc 
P. VeniKw** Ripg of Xnmtm. 

ni Capaa Mamiim (Hun Cuittolioo), nu the 
Wt bud oT tba pluM. Fbimded byCkmeiuSIl. 
and nccMdngFopes. OpaHoiMUvtaDdlteindiyi, 
13 to «; *Bd othtr d^ for a iBiatl (M. In the 
eonn !■ tllB M nftito, a itnr god, looBit In tbo ViE da 
HvfDrto, wbea iho Fonn if Man Mood. It was 
tbtaanawMeb SMd tooan- am a wMy sdrhpoii- 

(Km Tlberlm down to Ibndogliia. 

.. . . e aamiliaRa* af I 
■h baKcUaft c< il^ka In 

TTIilli.ll iIlilTllMIH, 

^ BmlitboianMiaBadid 
nMtata, wtaleh Mnd In tba 
wanM (kna rtdfa* haahi niH 
I at a itift awntad B.O. W, bi 
' idcin7 oiw tba CaRtaacUoiL 
Un moait ii nrr aBt^nt, Uka tbaf if tk* 
>iu£a. ItwuKMondbrM-Aiwdo. 
BmH a Wf—Biomo honB, IMmd ItA IUm 
TabU.wUbtkaenataDftbeWaTU'nrn. Hwla 
of the flnt PltaT^ OovM, fraa Tula Adiiua, inTi 
tbewotkofScna TbeUlhrUalM Urn. 
Than la a gUlnycf bam nnd o(ht> aaUqu* 
Emptron' Emmt—CcmUtaiim auat «t uw En- 
pFTon down to Jpllu tba ^Kutata, tt woD ■■ 
KmpiEaMat wltli bai-nllefc on Uu »a% and a ta* 
etatue of AgilppUia in [ho ndddls. 

;n'iiL«. bi BJLt bronze. 

/IiAn «/ (^ niin.-^ eillid from a FanBlond 
' n VUla Adtlaaai Child, vltb a uOBitt 

ifnom of rJlf *Dyiiiy fHadiiUtn'.So called ft cmt ht 

■imiu iDitiie of IhatnasH, ftmndlnSilhiit'iTma; 

'eBtidfD). and roll of eipmdoD. Tbe man U 
t)?n4ntely broBthliif, and y«t dying; tba ooljanD 
ibidi iojmoru tho bodr to on the potat of EMnf 
Fny, and then he mnM fuU."— Iffu CWIiiar. 

uUEon, a Ons atatm •Antbisu, from TlIU 
Ldriuia ; lumher flna Batn^ sailed tb« Antlaou tt 
ta CaplloL Fun of rrulbjlia. a copr. 
Cto^^a fL Open hj tfMnn a paol toUu ovtoda. 
^enua of tbe CaplUl. In Pmtella marbb) ObfU 
ndP^sbat LadaaodlbeSwaiL 



ABomnara cbanH. Balk MM, by M. 
^v. «»dB " ■ ""^-^ — '- 


Igfal uw 


naisa ot I elle ot Iho Batha of CcmHaUtiB. 
I-aamAOml, In TU 

cbnndi of A. BOnatro- They ocEopy tb 

Popo Aakitat, IniicU tnt- 

ina OpeolTUtApra N(tlBfioBitbkpaIaaab[„r-vr-- 
ahouM, In th« Maia rf wbloll ti tba HSSy of ""*"■*■"'—• - 
"■ ^P. a«0«i»Timlol\ Pdloiu AlHtK, 

Man (aalt at tbeD^waik}, vfaltb Epw la the 

*Palua BortffM Stndi dens Qnaltn FosUce. 
•n ot tba largM Id Boms, on the ille ol the 
Temple of nontftlun isd nlcinrcMne buLhlln?, 
feegnn iboatlSM b;CuiUnel F. Buberinl. Tbe 
TOMWtd latlds, In Ihna itorlea, I> by Borrominl. 
Tm Sue bnwd Mini MilraiHs, by BomnDlnl uid 
BtmUA Tba •Tiiimipli of Glocy, t^ F. di Coitoiu, 

, la Lomlm^ IdndKipe. Hctly Family, by A. 

M Sum. On tlM irallol Ihe cDurtli ui imeripllDn 
Aom GlMldllli'i Arch, oommenwn^iE tali con- 
qncrti lnBriubi,be^alBe -"n, CI^VDIO. CSB 
AVavaxq," mod eDdinc "GENTESVE. BAB- 
TborwiddMti'i iludlo wae mar thia palacs. 

I^nary of IIO,0OI> vDla^ 7.000 h8S.. Including 
nmaiirFMninhandTuio. Open Tbgrediys, e to >. 

Gardena, and aUloe oC Apollo. Tbe Caitnchin 
Ctanieb It nwi tUa. 

Mhw AitvAbh, tn Ruia Borgbeae, tIh della 
Itontanella. B<9Rb«H (vbkb moani a bnr^ber) 
«u tba uma of Panl T.'a Dunlly, by whom Ihla 

■■"" "^ ■"' 'unglitto- Cardinal Dezis, and 

, . null). The arcadud court l> eor- 

jr M coi^M granite plUm. nltta tDur 

-' — •"-■ TM Q^ery In IS noua, own 

.aaiidHondaya,ll)lo3. A 

a, w1d«^ atnlght and caay, leada lo Ibo 

ua ball, on tba Bnt flmr, wbenca yoa 

Id tha irbola, Ihnxich llsaa nt marbls door- 
"-"■», portnit ol Savonarola, by F. Ll^pL 

.. a Cardinal, bf Baphsel, Pcrtralt of 

Caaai Borria, by BubaeL Entombment, t^ 
Baphaal, paSitad vha be waa only 94. Fianda's 
"' ^'--■---, Porttall of aanhael, by T. d'Urblco. 
. UadDnna. Danlle, by CorrcgglD, Del 

a Chrlat at tbe Column. Cnoiien Sibyl, 

frrAxnoileUiUi. mans Hnntlng, bTDnnienlchlna, 
Albana'a ■ aeaaona. Holy Family, by Fni Bmio- 
lanimMi ffitlo, by Del Sarto. F. Peiter'a Catlls, 

" ■ ' ' — — ' '— ' 1, by Raphael, (ropi Villa 

"--''— T Love, by Tillan. 

1^ Vandyke; witb 

'the Fropa^pinda. hnc^vn 

it Next to It, No. 

t^ of AQ arui of 
ir Dnned In tbe son, -which 
Facing the paiaco la tho 


fiauHB Bom^an. 

taaur ot tbe Corao and Plai^ 

■ly Biira 

HI 0/ Ult Prlnoc Df Musignsni 

- yjt t a lhmaibit amtBr of 
***■]*«• Ab/ VL, bj O. Marc 

Bf tb apaiaa* to 

m fay, and froDi 
In hia shop 

Ortantal nd gnnltA At t M 
ibe oM maHUled atatne, oaUei 
epigrammatic Iail« vha Hiad 
^mn Wfi «t tbe word poi 
iha wita of tba eit* oaad 
tba evanta of the day. ' 

■ 1 , ,- 

___, tba npUas bdng placed en 

(Hiuforto) naar Uis TVmm. When Ibla lauci wM 
removed to tbe DntNnm of the Cqiltol, tbe Pope 
ordued Paaqnlno to ba carried away alK ; bM Iha 
Dwnar ot tha palace ab|eetlng to 4Ia Knwnl, It baa 
aver abice remahied, and la atUl occaalanally naed at 
an organ orpnbUc opinion." 

Palem anmBia, comar ot Strada del Bibnlns 
and FbuwddPapolo. Part of a fine coUectkia of 
Btroaeaii and other antlqitiaea, made by tbe Marqala 
Campana. Much of It waa aold to the Empcm of 
RnadalnlSn. niitan«cotlab«i4«lM> and other 
oblMta, which wore In pledge at tha Monte dl nelh, 
of which ba wu dliwKv, biTO been bought by tlM 
r at the Palalade 1-Induitrle,&ila. 
KM lUIa, next to B. Lorenio 
lain Navona and Plaua Fai- 

neea; thOMatof tb .. _ . _. . 

(be beat woAi ot the ardilttot) bat the pntleo 
waa added by FoDtana, ot tnrerUno taken from the 
O^eani, olc, BOD Rot long, 89} feat hl^ fai Ihna 

L, Borgia (Aleiandar VL) 

PaUaio Chigi, on one aide ot Run COIona*. 
Bnllt by O. Den* Porta and C. Uaderno. A gallery 
ol plctnrea and Ubniy. bi fini tooma. not open t* 
thepabllc Among tne USa. are letnn.atBeiinr 
VIlL end Helamthon. 

mom CUxImHi-Faliaiibri, near Ponta K 
Angelo; en andnlabedbDlldlDg, began byQ.'Bomano. 
or ealbig^Hnua of Fontanella, omso freqaentcd tiy 
Baphael, O. Bomawvatc, eie near thlt palace. 

AiIcBU CoIOMU. naiaa del 8S. Apoilol], the 
realdence of the Fnnoh Embaaty, and known t^ tbe 
oolnmiilntbeannaenrtbegeM. ADorhcoloimada 
In tbe eout contahia an alhialon to 'the family 

^OM nUy AHad MT>ioMi«tinw 

1MM W (Mr brIdfM «t»^ufciiUfl«ll 



tyMazianoi Another Colonna, by Vandyke; Titian's 
O. Panvino; Bonifacio's Holy Family; ivory bas- 
reliefii, copied from M. Anp:elo and Raphael. Great 
Hall, or Galleria— Frescoes in honour of the Colonna 
family ; Titian's Holy Family ; Portrait, by P. Vero- 
nese ; Giorgione's G. S. Colonna; the Colonna 
Bellica, with a figure of Mars on it, a small twisted 
Gothic pillar of mediasval times. In the gardens are 
remains which belonged to the Baths of CottaUntjue, 
on the QuirinaL 

Palazzo deUa ConmllOi on Monte Cavallo. Built 
by Fuga, in the 18th century. 

Palazzo Corsuti, behind Villa Famesiana, iu; Tras- 
tevere, near Porta Septimiana. The large gardens 
slope up towards the Janiculum, on the site of the 
villa of S. Severus, and his' son Geta. ^uUt by the 
Riari family, and enlarged by Fuga, for Clement XII. 
Gallery in ten rooms, open.daily, except Sundays. It 
has a handsome staircase. Portraits by Titian, 
Vandyke, Holbein, etc.; Raphael's Fomarina; C. 
Dolci'a Virgin and Child; Murillo's Virgin and 
Child; A. del Sartols Virgin and Child. Paintings 
by Guide, Guercino, etc.; Titian's Charles VIL's sons ; 
8. Rosa's four Battle-pieces. Luidscapefl by Poussui, 
Claude, Canaletto, and others. Library, of 60,000 
volumes, 1,300 MSS., 10,^00.0 engravhigs. 

Palazzo Costagiiti, Piazza delle Tartarughe. Fres- 
coes by Albano, Guertino; Romanelli, etc I^ear 
this is the BoccapaduU Palace, <mc6 the residence of 
the Poussins. 

Palazzo DoriO'Pamfiliy in the Corso. A large 
palace, beg^n by Cardiiitd.Santorio, and which came 
at length, through the Pamfili family, to the Dorias 
of Genoa. It is the work, of difFerent architects. 
The facade, by Borromini, though absurd and over- 
chained, looks grand when seen down the. Cofso. 
The Court is said to be byBramante. Gallery, of 
nearly 800 paintings, in fifteen rooms. Notice, por- 
traits of Lucrezia Borgia, by P. Veronese; of 
MachiaveUi, by A. del Sarto; Jansenius and A. 
Doria, by Titian; Andrea Dorla, by S. del Plombo; 
Innocent X., by Velasquez; of Bartolo andBaldi, by 
Raphael; Sassoferrato's Holy Family; two fine 
Claudes; Titian's Abraham and Isaac; A. Carracci's 
Dead Christ; and Da Vinci's Joan of Aragon. 
Landscapes by Pousdn, .Titian, A. Carracci, etc. It 
occupies the site of the porticoes of the Septa Julia, 
of which there are'remains beneath. - 

Palazzo Fdkonieri, near the Morte Church and Via 
4e* Giulia. Built by BorromuiL Cardinal Fesch, 
the brother of Napoleon, died here. 

*Paiazzo Famese, in Piazza Famese> near the Tiber, 
one of the largrat and b^t designed palaces in Rome, 
and belonging to the ex-King of Naples ; on a space, 
260 feet by 190 feet, designed by Sangallo, for Cardinal 
Famese, Paul IIL Here the ex-King lives, with his 
shadowy court The principal firont, built 1544, 
in three stories, of simple design, is 190 feet long, 97 
feet high, and is .of brick, &ced with travertine firom 
the Coliseum, etc.; its fine cornice, is by M. Angela 
Bold and deep arcades, surrounded by a square court 
(90 feet each way), by M. Angelo; it contains the 
sarcophagus of Cecilia Metella; bat the Famese 
Hercules, etc., whi^ adorned it, are at Naples. 
Some nm 9ta$Be§ £mnt this coUecticm, m Uvq 

Mercury, Diadomenos, Faun and Inilnit Baochna, 
Apollo, etc., have been lately sold to the British 
Museum. Delia Porta finished the palace in 1588, 
by adding the rear foce, with its arcades in the 

Gallery, 62 feet long, remarkable for the *fi't»coei 
of the two Carracci, assisted by Domenichino and 
Guide. ' Annibal Carracci worked at them for eUffiA 
years, and received only 500 crowns fhnn his em- 
ployers. ■ The sul^ects are all mythologicaL Tha 
hall by Zudcari, Vasari, etc In tiie Piazza tiding 
the palace is a. handsome fountain with two granita 
urns, with St Brigitte's hospital and chapel, for tha 
use of the Swedes. The English College of St 
Thomas is near. . 

Behind: the Palace Is the Morte Church, belong^ 
to a -brotherhood, which looks for dead bodies in the 
Campagna to, give them Christian buriaL It has a beneath. Open in November. In an old 
palace,' hard by, near the .Campo del Fieri, the bionaa 
HerciUes, now in the Vatican, was found 1864. 

Palazzo Famesina^ or Villa Chigi, on the Tiber, la 
Trastevere. Its front in two stories, is recessed 
between projecting wings. It was built by B. 
Peruzzi, for Chig^ the rich banker of Leo X'a. reign, 
afterwards bought by Cardinal A. Famese, andisnow 
the property, with the Palazzo Famese, of the Kiof 
of Naples. Neapolitan students are sent hoa. 
Here are the celebrated 12 *Freteoe$ <^ Bc^phatlt 
painted firom his designs, by S. Romano and.o(hen» 
and restored by C. Maratta. Subject, the Fall of 
Cupid and Psyche. Another fresdoe, the Triumph of 
Galatea, painted by himself, about 1614. Ceiling; 
by D. da Volterra and S. del Piombo. A colobsal 
head, traced in charcoal, by M. Angelo, is still here. 
He drew it one day when he called to see Vottenra. 
It is called his ** visiting card." Other paintinga, 
by B. Perazzi and Sodoma. 

Palazzo di Firenze^ Via de* Frefbtti, said to baby 

Palazzo OaJMelli, formerly Orsini, . stands on ao 
artific^I hill, called Monte Giordano, supposed to 
cover the ruins of the amphitheatre of Statilioa 

Palazzo Oiraudf Piazza Scossacavalli, one of the 
best works of Bramante, in the style of the CuiceU 
laria, also by him ; bought by Prince Torlonia, the 
banker, 1880. Near is the Convertendl, for couv^rja 
to Romaidsm. 

Pakuzo OaiUani, facing Santa Lucia Church, Via 
Paganica. BuUt by Ammanato. It is near the 

PaiUtzeo CHmHmani, near the Post Office. Built by 
Fontana and Borromini, on the site of Nero's Baths. 
Its collection is gone; but some antiques still line 
the walls of its court The family eagle is seen in 
the ciq;>ital. Caravaggio painted some years for tUa 
house, but his works are dispersed. 

Palaee of the InquitituMt or Holy Office, behind St. 
Peter's; a large building, now used as a barrack tor 
the French legion. 

Pakatto LancdoUi^ at the endLQ^'^Ta.'^. i^sj^^&saaaK^ 




EmUt -mtr PfAzaa S. EniUchto. The 
work of BramaBte. Aatatae of Bacchus and Ino^ 
askl f OQBtaiii, in the ooort 

PmktMwo Liitoie, near the CanoellaTla, In a arnaU 
tnrning, called Vicola dell* Aqoila. It has the 
FBrneaeileiir-de4i8 upon it, and la attriboted to B. 

Aiteno Xon^M; In Vis Faganlea, bniltby Vlgnohk 

I*aX«a» MatkmtOt now the Poat Office, and Minis- 
try of Flnanee^ near the Oinstiniani Fuaoe, bevan 
by L. GigoU, for Catherine de* Medid, bat left 
vnflnished. Here the drawing of the Gcr?enunent 
Iiottery takes jdace every Satiuday. 

PdUmso Jf oecortMi, a neglected bvildhig near the 
Pantheon, designed by 6. Romano. 

Patvatto Mamimif y)& S. Pantaleo, one of the best 
works of B. Pemzxi, built 1682, for Pietro MsHStTnl, 
next to the house of Angelo Masriml, by thesame 
arcldtect, bnt at a different angle. The elegant 
oonredfiifade has a portico of sbc pillars. Afoontain 
inthecoartisoflaterdatei ThestatoeofDisoobolos 
is here, with achapel of St Philip Neri, open 36th 
May. In 1496, two Germans established the first 
printing office in Rome, near this palace; thpy began 
with St Augustine's " CMtaU ZML'* 

IVriocM) MaUsi^ between Via de* Fnnari (or cord- 
makerlB) and Via Santa Caterina, north-weet of the 
Oipitolitte; built oat of the ndns of the dreus 
Plamlidas, by C. Mademo, 1616. A fine cornice, 
with a eMeetlon of statnes, bas-reliefs, frescoes, and 
other paintibBgs, by P(»nerancio, Lanfranoo^ Da Cor- 
tona, Domenlchfaio, etc. 

PtOazzo MorstooMi in Via del Oestari, near the 
Ptaasa della Pigna and the Pantheon; a liorge house 
by G. della Porta. 

PtHwcm di MohU OUorto^ or Curia Innooenaiana, 
the seat of the Courts of Justice, and Minister of 
Police, where pasq;K)rts are obtained. BaUt by 
Benifad and C. Pontana, 1660, in tiie reign of Inno- 
cent Xn., who gave it his name. It is ou the site of 
the Forum of Antonine. 

Pakttxo Odeaeatehi, formerly Bracdaao, opposite 
the churdi (tf the SS. ApostoU, near the Gorso. An 
unfinished structure, by Bernini and C. Mademo, 
with a marble gallery. 

Pulazeo OrHitit in Piazza Montanara, on the alto 
of the Theatre of MaiceUus, part of which is incor- 
porated with it below. 

Palazzo OuoUj built by B. Pemzzi, 1696. 

Pakuzo Pan^flU, next to S. Agnese church, to the 
fonth-east of Piazza Narona; built for Innocent X, 
by Rainaldi, 1660, with a painted ceiUng by P. da 
Cortona. Notice the fkmilyfleur^to-Iis in the capitals. 

PcUazxo Pdfma, built 1606, by SangaUo, a work 
of taste and simple design. 

Pakuzo Pio, near Piazza di Campo di Fiore and 
the Gancellarla. In the basement are remains of 
the Temple of Venus, idiich formed part of the 
Theatre of Pompey, the first theatre built in Rome, 
close to which CsBsarwas assassinated, in the Circus 

^naag»JkmHjMo! or P^ywl Adace. See tiie Vati^ 

Cardhial a BorgfaeM, and tnltigad by C Hadenw 
f(>r Cardinal Mazarin. Itwaatheaeatof theFrencii 
Embassy in the last oentiiry, before the removal to 
the Colonna Palaoei Guido'a celebrated frtteo ^ 
Mtirorti is in the celling of a pavUien In the gantan, 
with a looking glass below to reflect it TO be seen 
Wednesdaysand Saturdays. "lofteuTisltit It Is 
a picture, the yeiy type of haste and impetna; for 
surely no man erer tanaghied saeh. hurry and tumult, 
such sounding and clashing. Pahitera maintain that 
it is lighted fhnn two sides; they haire iny full per- 
mission to light thehrs from three if itrwiU improre 
tiiem ; but the dUferenoe UesMsewbersi'*— ^ JtaNfetc- 
•oAn.) The horses are the faTOUiita bnnse ookor 
of the Borgtiese family. 

Pakuzo RuspoUj on the Oono^ omaito Via de 
Condotti, OTer the CaflK Nuoro. Bnfit, 1666, by B. 
Ammanati, a Florenthie. The grand atafaxasaa, of 
.116 marble steps, by the younger M. Luugfai. It is 
admtaed for Its simple Florenthie style, as oppoaed 
to the more ornamental style wliieh pnvidled at 
Rome. The ground floor is a eoflbe-hooie where 
some crocehi or dubameet 

/'lolaaso AieeMIJ, in Via Qfailia, bnitt by SangaUo 
for his own residence; with an inscriptloii **fte«a» 
quodcumqueitoe rtnm ett,'* refiening to Us obUgatiora 
to his pabpon Paul IIL 

Pakuzo SaMaU, in the Lungara, in Trastevere, 
near the Botanic Garden (Orto Botanioo). Built 
by N. di Bacio Biglo, in the Florentine sigds. 

Pakuzo SeuUa Cfroee, in Piazza Bfaoioa, a hage 
and elegant building near the Ghetto. 

POkuzo SekurOt in Plaaza Sdarra, in the Oorao. 
Built by A. Poaalo, with a good Dorle nuotbla gate. 
A collection of pictures. In four rooms. Open on 
Saturdays. Among these are Titian's Madonna and 
Bella Donna; Claude's nightfaito^ypt; Da Vind's 
ModBSty and Vanity eontraated; Ba^uid's Violin 
Player ; Guide's Magdalene delle Radiee, so oaUed 
from the roots she eat; Titian and his VamQy, by 

Close to this, in the Conoi, in 1641, Uifaan Vm. 
found at the depth of 18 feet, reuudna of tlte Areh of 
Claudlan, ereeted by that emperor. In honour of his 
conquests tai Brttamda. A medal (with a flgnze of 
theaidi)l8faitbeVatloan. Qte Pakuao Jkartzrim, 
page 188. 

Pakuzo Simumemt now the Roman Bank,. In the 
Corso, fedng the church of St Maroellns. 

Pakuzo Soni, near the church of SantaMaria della 
Pace. Built by Bramante. 

Pakuzo SpcOa (sword;, Via Capo di Ferns ^ 
known by the nkfaed statnes In its front finilt by 
G. Mazzoni, and rebuilt by BorrominL A deoepttre 
bit of pen^ecttre in the colonnsde of the ooort, is by 
thelattar. The Wars of Centaurs are seen In bas- 
rdle£ Gallery in five rooms, open daily. Here is 
the £unoas colossal *Skam <if Pwvpey^ found 169S; 
near I3ie CaneeUaria, and supposed to he that betas 
which Cssar was UUsd— 

••And thou, dxMid trtatne, yet ezitteBlin 
The BOflcsMfe flBorm of naked majei^: 


i^tS^^'^^^^ -Vi^ del QuWnale, on the 4m\ j.^ vw,\«a«AV«»x^^v.w, cw Ue."-ir,w«. 

'fthe BatbM oiConztinaa^ SagotTS Ponito tor \ N?Yiento>i^xix«*xiWktx<^^ixjx^^^s.v>M*.^vr^^ 



entnry, for CcrttMl Albinl, a man of cntt taste. 
Its imMut owner iflCooiitGutdbareo. Tfalsdiolee 
ooUeettoi, ananged by Wtnekelimiii, the wdU 
knofm antlqtunrian eiftio, and lUnstiated to Ua 
"Storia deU* Art!** and "Monnmenti Inediti,** atBI 
raakt after thoee of tlie Vattean and Oaj^tol, tiwngh 
many of the best thfaigs were taken to Faria by 
Napoleon, or aold to the King of Bavaria. Open od 
Toeedaya. It commands fine proapeets of tlieAIban 
Hills, Apennfiiea, eto. 

Casino— Among the statues, bosta, bas-nllefs, and 
mosaics, are — Baaketrbeaifag Caiyatidesi in the 
Testibnle; Marriage of TheUs, bas^^ef; lfiaer?a 
and the ship Argo^ bas-ielief; IMogoies in Us Tab; 
Antlnoos, a baa-rdlef from the VQla AAriana; 
Pamassns, in tlie ceiling of the gallery, the best 
work of Baphad Mengs; Ap^Io Saaroetenos, a 
bronze Praxiteles, found on the Aventlne; Henalea 
Famese, a bronze copy; lAboors of Hercaks, in 
a fine marble basin. BuUard room and coifee Koom, 
in the garden, with a lound porUoo on twsntjuts 
granite pillars. 

FtOa^orflrAeie, outside Porta del Popolo; ba&tby 
Cardinal Borgfaeso, nephew of Paul V. Prlnoe 
Camilla Borghcse married Ki^leon*s sister, Panllna, 
and sold the best part of the ctdleotian to the Em- 
peror, for removal to the Lonvre. In the essiiio is a 
grallery of ancient and modem works, on the first 
and second floors. Portico— Bas-reliefli from the 
Arch of ClaudioB. Saloon— Frescoes, by Bossi; 
arabesqnes, mosaics, etc. Boom 1, Jono; 3, Ama- 
xon, Hercules; S, ApoUo; 4, Gallery of paintings; 
5, Hermaphrodite; 6, TyrtSBiw; 7, Sgyptian room. 
On the Second Floor:— ApoUo and Daphne, by 
Bernini; Statue of Princess Paulina, as Venus Vic- 
trix, by Canova. The Park, three or four safles in 
extent, is open on Saturdays, from 12 to 4. Its laurel 
and myrtle groves were half-deared for strat^ical 
reasons, by the government of 1849. Entrance, 
near the old Porta Pfndana. It contains a lake, 
temple, and hippodrome, grottoes^ fonntalBS, ate. 
On a statue is an inseripUon inviting the stranger to 
" oome and go when lie pleases, and adE tot wliat be 

VUia Bcmofwit (fermtfly Sciarra and PaoUna), 
is fust inside P<vta Pia, dose to the site of Porta 
CoOhia, on the <dd waU. 

Vma Barbtrkti, on the Via dl Porta Pia, at the 
entrance of the Gardens of BallBSt. His honse, 
portico, etCL, were mined by Attila and his horde% 
who altered the city on this side. Tliere are trao«B 
of arcades and of a Temple of Venns. 

ViUa Ludovisit in the Gardens of Sallnst, on Monte 
Pincio, belonging to the Puke de Sora, of the 
Piombino-Buoneompagni fiimily: bidlt fer Gregory 
XV.'s nephew. Cardinal liudovU, by SomsBkliinD. 
The grounds, laid oat by Le NOtro, are within the 
walls, between Porta Pineiana and Porta Salara. 
Open, l^orsdays, by special permisskm. O t utti H & i 
These are country houses outside the walls, hi the Murora, a fresco, which may be compared with 
midst of formal gardens, ornamented with terraces, Guido's, at Palazzo Bospigliosi, is in oiie of the 
fountains, statuary, etc., in what to called the three earini, in the gaixliBna. Hsecti ve«^ ^^'»^fc«fe:S!**- 
ItaMan style. I E\«±»\ T^wA. tft ^xBia\ %wis^ >^tw% ^^^ ^J^. 

♦F«/a Albani, outside Porta Sahara, Borne, an\P\xvtoaTA'Pw!«rc^?K»,\4l'ftKc*2s^ 
elegunt vUJa, baJJt by C. liliarchloni, in the 18l\\ ^ Vstva ;ixi'\ krcvJu 

npm wUeh Hie eonrts ndedthat It should be divided; 
onedahnantto have the head, and another the trunk. 
This wise decision was met by JuttuB in. buying the 
sutae for 800 crowns. In the riege <^1849, siiots 
etmdc the room on both sides, without damaging 
the oontenta Here also are a figure of Aristotle, and 
eight bas-rdiefli of classical subjects, from tibe diurch 
of S. Agnese, outside the walls, induding tlie Belle- 
rophon, Paris, Dndalus, Archemorus, etc. 

PotafiM Afrosei, in Piaaza delle Stemmate, was 
built by C. Mactemo. It faces the diurch of the 
Stimmata di S. Francesco, vrbkh contains some 
frescoes by L. Gazzl, vid stands in the Gardois of 
the Baths of Agrippa. 

Paiazzo Torlonia^ in Piazza (Hi Venetia. It was 
the Palazzo Bolognetti, btf ore its pawJiase by Prince 
Torionia, the banker, and has tieea restored by 
CarrettL ColleetionofFiemishandothermasters,iiot 
open to the public. Copyof the Loggie arabesques 
vi Raphael ; Hercules amd Lyeas, by Canova. 

Palaamo VaUntMy betwcentwo ehorches, fiuing the 
Trajan Cdaom, on the site of the FOrum. 

Palazzo di VeruHa^ at the end ci the Gorso^ A 
large and simple medieval pile, built by G. da Majano, 
1460; given, in 1661, by Pope Pius IV., for the 
Voietian Bepublic; now the seat of the Austrian 
Embassy. A smaller Falazao di Yenetia, is the 
work of B. Pintelli 

Palazgo Vidoniy in Via del Sudarlo, fadng the 
church of the Santo Sndario. Originally designed by 
Baphael, and still incomplete: It was forme^ the 
scat of the Caffiu-elll and Stoppani families. Here is 
a fragment of the fasti of Varrius Flaecns. 

M. Angdo^s Houu^ was near the CapitoL 

BofhaeiCt Hmue^ hi which he lived several years 
down to his death ^t was rebuilt in 1705), was No. 
124, Via de* Coronari, near Ponte S. Angdo. It 
containa a fkded portrait by C. Maratta. 

PomukCB House. No. 9, near the Uttle Piazza della 
Trinity, and the Church of Trinitk de' MontL Thflse 
of Clando Lorraine and S. Boaa are near it 

Pietro da C&tiona's Botue, in VkolA deUa Fedao- 

Zucckiro^s EotM, now caUed the Palace of the 
Queen of Fdand, at the north end of Via Sisthia. 

GSuon'i House is No. 4, Via della Fontanelle. 

Story's Home is No. 14, Via di a Niccdb dlForen- 
tino. Mr. Story is the accomplished author of BxAta 
di Roma: a deli^^tful book about Bome^ in two 

Rienzfs House, or Casa di PUato, fiidng the Ponte 
Rotto and Temple of Fortnna VlriBs. Rebuilt by 
Cola di Rienzi, the last tribune, in the 14th century, 
4sti the site of a f onner house inhaMted by anotiier 
Roman patriot, the OonsttlCrwcaQtius, three centu- 
ries befwa. 


U-D. M): ua tbu yibkb bi 
nbaOL"— AirvttL 
nil. (IM o]d«M boDdlnfi or which n] 

euiiyle, oTInac, 
■ The Dint cek- 

PilMlni Bridga i 

.d the Temple of V«m. 

(■A lh« alopa of the Aventhie. The MimerllQif 
Prtior, under 8U Jo«ph'B Cbnreh. 

fnl Time of the Bopublic. 609 ta 3D B.C. TbeVIa 
Acpla, made of bualt blscka. Psrt of the BnbllcUn 
«r Iha nutn of Pompe; {Ihe Snt theatra built ut 
Baffle), BMt which Knat Cieur fall. Reonlna kI 
thns tomphi imdei 8.K!c«slb inCmm. Temj)]!: 
er Fortnna 'VtrlUh tn th* chunh of SmU Haiia 
Egliiar near the Fonta fiolto. Three cDlnmns >ir 
the Templs of Cutor and PdUiiz, near the Fonmi. 
Tombi of Bnnlai aDd Sdplo. Anla Veloa uil 
Aqiu. Uaicla tqaedacts. 

Sid. TiDieof Aogutoa and tha Empln. 30 B.aio 
47S i.a The Pinlheon, MinaoleDm of Aujoatna, 

Wb The ToiTO del ContJ, and Cola dl RIcnil'B 
houee are medlffival buUdb;g8 1 bat Hvetal chorehps 
«■ tddai than thiae. Aaamle, mutt Dftll* lUatif 
wtnit tmUimit art marttd bg cAnnki ,- a> Awe 
Ooal^oBlhaTanplaaf JnpllBT.aiiaanehUka. In 
Ok tnj Vm CtfVOm ptrpMaaMd the record of a 
fUbla trinmidi (TTtt tks aid nljgloh. Manyofthe 
opan HBBiw, dws an itlM at rtiuAaUa buildings 

"ThatrigBlteWBlKlHiMBg payi FBriyth) which 
It Implantad Id erery artist, hja thrown BO much 
compHlllon Into tba engraved Ticwa of Bome, h.ta 
•0 exJWgemted Ita mlDS and ir^^tedur^ or ao tK- 
pasdedthe apace In which they Aland, Ib^taalnnEcr 
URtilng hers with the eipeciatlona railed hr those 
pinti, will be InfalUbt; dtgappohitcd.'' 

£l tolam licet satinuire BoDunt.— JTnrMal 
The pohit of Tlaw, in thla qiiotiUoa, la ■□ppoMd to 
teJn tbg Conini (JaidHia la TnatavarK To titke 
(As OipirnHia uMo( ot tht cUt, Ushi by 

iK:)lhl11.«nR)tfh«V1inlnalIial "<Ill>mB•Mr•)^(<Kt, 
ude VliraMedfcl on IbePlndin, the Papal Pala<:eaD 
10 Qulrinil, th« three haailleaa og th* Etgnlllne, 

L Btyle, tha rellaUar w 
of the Hepnblic, the travaitlne prcterred hy tba 
1irst Empenis, tbo altf raata Iufa«,iid biicfc amploytd 
by ihelr Buoceaiors, and lhi± poverty of tniiMiiala, 

The Plain di Spagna anl ^a Csndoltl, ia Uw 
nelcfaboorheod of wldch vUtDn san^yreilda, ara 
iieirr the Coras. Ihs a^a thonngfatu* of modm 
Rorna. It iiretchu amtisa tha cKj abnut t» tte 
CapltallnB Bill and Iha Faram; aotbat thaiWMr 

ind Iba mloa of andant «dlJaM^. 

w Bommni, at tha end of tha Corao. )»• 
the Ciqiitaliiie tuid Palatine Hllla, ia aapma 

orCaw SWd, whnaeatlla, AMtsodp^ 
iL Hers ancient Bona dMdcs Jtom tM 

-cDDrta of juiHce. afaopi. etc, aome of whloh MaMl 
here U rood cantUtlon (HI tha time of tha Goth* 
siiriTandata, and eren to tfaalllh eeotniy, wiua 
iljey war* mined and bnntt. and ib^r mattu 
FQvend orer by the aoU. cudor which ther ■» 
buriidSOttotdeep. In eonieqaeiKs of tU^ many 
or the alto and nanua on thla ftranlta llald of 
'*antlqnarlanpoteinlaB,"aradonbtfhl,and ranialntai 
dlaputeanoMantlqaailaiiii lluiiali aeraial nay ta 

■'-—-——' wLohwaraiitatBi 

. . plMaanttrrldleidad 
hy Lord Bnoshloa. Itia IBea Auaa has db- 
— * -' — ■'■- ""■ e«ntni^ hnt It aUbrdad aa 



tnliy, heianof I 

1^ U* fdaia irhlcb ci 

uvhe vie Into wbKb II 

«b^\h^))Bnft. 'UvuVal^ZtinA'tel.^ 

in* leaped with 

my (>> Khiial, 

CliDdhnt th« tau.DL u. u.. .■»> 

■Kv tbs 'hnph of GlouliULiI 

ud tlHhBKl oT Afpldi derotad 

niztl by fha DKBmirlr. Appli 

iru 5t*bbrd by 
Qt lofCmal goda. 

"Bveln tMinrrPonn 
iDtbeaigbt iKillthep 


^e, tba blMdy daed wu 

Upk of IhC Rood old CSDH 

huingued (mm the Eoitium, H> caJled 

from the Co 

the bokiof iblpa tik£aia (hs fin 

gaiwd byuw Romuu In ihs Fnnl 

tbb coluim 

ths hud of Ciani w 

SB itnck, wUh 

hli hand!. 

ABtonyi Id modory orhH doqacnw 

U» Ana or Sctmwi wid WM CIM8 

o tbc UmbniQi 

or n™l 

Bong, tDd MDHiilDm 


irUiih dtaU 


TbeVIa S«» DP to tb* GuidWI, iridcb trmnttl Uh 

Forum, liB 

«r mBM by .OUou (Or pDiniiB. 

Soon of 

ih* odsling nmXiu u 

Atoh of 8 

ntlmlM Sermu. ■ctom 

1«T1. Swi*. 

^. of th= Capitol. Th 

Uw Tenpl 

Eight gr£, 

e CDlmnns of the TsmpLi of Fortoiin, 

(aUlod S>1 

of ttaa Tsmpla sf Vwiu ukl Some. 

Xhe Temple of CMtoi sad FoUnx, tbs tiria 
tTftbran, who fooEfat for Bomo ^elHst the Liitlii 
TrflHuttbabutlaofLakaSegUlu, etood dgee ta 
die Tampla of Veita, Mid Mr holy w«D In Ibe Fonun. 
1*0 thlj Temple than wu ■ irvid pncevloii of 
Rooui knlgUl tt tlialc foUul, on Ilia Uei of 


The eqndneli la old Same vers In cba^a of 
smlan or preiecti, wbo formed ■ Water Bond. 

Apia Appii. the aldeat, iru oouMrncted SIB *.c 
by ApploH Cleudliu, from PreDeate, end wee S mllw 
iDog, iioder grODDd. It entered by Porte Cepona. 

Tirol! 1 rematna of nhUli eilit near Forte MaggloiB 

I iforeia QO B.C), ^fw IMa 0*1 BJt), 
tu UariDo, and Aqua JuHa (by the ^friiifa, 
), jobwd 10 M to make ■ rin^^l^ me ow 


reatoied <^ BUu T. aa A^na Felke (pag« 1B7), aod 

rung on 8 mUea of peperlno ueliaa la tbe Anntbw 
end Palatine HIHl. It la tbd by Acqna Claudia, 

Afua Auguila or AlciiUna, made by AngnMyt, 
r»m I4)w Dracclano. 

*A7ua F&^wia hron^t from TDicnlom, by tf - 
Agrippa, for blB balfae {befalnd the Pantheon], and 
iTa*reitaisdl»S,*aAi;fiiii rayiw (paga 111). 

a off to the Tempi* tf Claodlni. 

BenaliB of It are » 

'Aqua ft'^fOH, A.B. 111, nea incorpouted wHh 
Aqua Aldeibia, and tbrme Ae^aa Pooja (pege UT), 
which eoppUea the TraeteTert. 

the Dil ConaenUa or Schola XuUhe, near the 
natarles' shope, and tbe path called CUvoa Cajilto- 
Unni. Small ColDms of I'liocitaaDdoUurttscBMnli 
in the middle, of the Fonm. near thairaiilta foun- 
tain and the Bile ot the Basilica JoUa (Julini 
Caaar) traced In 1834, and nuAed by three 
Gohimm. PhoCBi. when he bacaoie Emperor, de- 
clared the Pope to be Onlreraal Bishop. Three fhie 
cnlomn* of tbs TeiM* "t Jo^Mc Stator (oc 
Hlnerra OialriiUnt accurdlnff lo Bn n aeiw-and tba 
Comltiam, af miu antiqnariea) ; callad Statu or tbe 
Inunonable, becanae he atoppfld tbe R om a oa when 
fl^ng trom tbe Sablnei. They are near the ehorch 
ofSanta Malta Ubaratdcs and the Fameee Oaidena. 
Here waa Uie and oE the Fonm. Beyond this, 
nndartheralathw,lalhe Arch of Tltiii,acn»a tbe 
Via Saoa, which may be tntsed by Ita blocks of 
lata, peat Hia Heta Sndana fountahL Tlieii comai 
the Arch (< ConitabUne, beat (be Colcaaeino. | 

Soma of the Bitea aroutd are the following;— The 
hue ef tbe Tubalarlain, In the Senaton' Palace, oc 
the slope of the Cipltol, notr TU dt Hoote Tarpeo. 
Traces of the eaUa of the Temple of Concord, near 
the charch of S. (Hnaeppe aopni la Careen, or Bt 
Joseph over the Prfaon, tA the Uamertbu Prfion, 
wldi^ 1* betow. 8. Adrlano la on the alta of tbe 
Baalllea EmOla, dunnr of TIa BoneHa. 8.Lonnio 
in Miranda, la on tbe iHe of the Temple of Antonbie 
and FaaaUna; tan oolBmna tl wUch are In th* 
Dortloo. 8a. Cmdo e DamlaBm, on Ibi Mt of the 
Temple of Bomnlm and Remna, otbaiiriae Tonple 

DfUiaPenana. Thtae either elo^ of the Temple oC .j... mie « ™»> .« ™= — — rr—^-i-. 
Peace oi BatfUea of CgnKaotbiat now the ohuruh ' Sm^'m >n& tf wu^inl %»»&• Ab. v«a 


Hhldi TOO UkeD Iran an •^•r^aiA-:A "^^^{^ ^ 


Vn, TWa \a •SI 

.BUsnAV* tuxtmrta 

or lb* Mtam «* HtSm b* t 
uCl u* npbiMd br o(bM> by F. 
j'AiO <^ OtlttOa, b»ti 

Uh chDRbM of U. 

OlDmul and PMIiJi ■»<■ B. Touw InForoAi M 

Bollt ^D. IIl InHMiiliuCDnuUiM Dolibtfli ud lUi 
tratliar CoinL It b ■ duel* u ' " 

daptt for Aii^gB anb7. At ths top li u ireh 
of Ui Nrmpbuiim (<ti th< Toopls of CUudlu) ■ 

pon*d b; MOipiwil* ^Um. ud wm oud bj C*n- 

MMk 4^ IMHmm fMU S«iiU Mull UMgtor*, 
oatbedM otlb* Et^alUna Omtt, In ilia old mU. 
DidlaUdi.D.«ai br U. AnnUu nclor, tsOil- 

itqr J(. .IvrtvH, bolH iftoot H 1^0- to flw 
>( tha FuiliKiii, wUd It l> Mipfl OW i WM • 
Hi* to Ilia bMtia md (udmii ud eo*«nd a 


in 'Ha 8. Giorgio : 


mubl* block, n IiM itdi mj, planad by Jbor 
UAlHi^ farming la ofieii Tult bakiw, with nrelve 
aUkM In (Mb ot Iba ri«r«. It «u (briUM lud 
hrir nload Id ttw olTa mn of tba mdlanl i(e. 

•Jn* 4^ awMnAu Ahwvi^ snUwVI* Sun, In 
•w Fonun. BnlU MI t,n~ In bOBDu o( Santna 
.. afl ^ata, aftar tb« vktotki 

Mtar UUIni Ua brotlwr 0«t*), tmn "BT. P. 
OIPIBV&" It la of nniMs, blgUr dKniMad wttb 
■mdptnnai and bnln( th* ooOTtolnca of arobtd. 
(bating on aadi Ua id Iba eantia arcb. Vbw* ai» 
finr Ihitad colmBn* and bia-«lMi ot tbi Robiu 
■trlKrf vufUc on aicb Aca, wllb oimd nonlffli 
andonamenlilii tbtTinlU ItlialloIBtlMrMl 
blfb, TOftatwlds. niHt thick. Tha cmtra > 
toll iM tar K. ItwunoteuUnlydUnlond 

Anil (f a> JKlMTtBUOi, near tbe cbmch of 
aioitla- bi TaUbro, cloM to tbo anh of Ju 
BuDE by Uia bankan ud shtcIuuiIi of tha For 
BoatlBn (or oalUa muhat), bi hononr of Bajitlm 
9*nnBi blavlfa JnHi, andCinoUi. Oeta'i i 
edinlhalnf "' 

flTutntln ot Va.i 

(f tka ptB ndir llib 

^iewotdbr Victwy " 'rttt |ba sMm t■b)^ tba 

Ikar tfoOt broafbt I^ob tba'Teiii[da. ^e frfasa la 
B tnll of Bfana. Hm lnacrip«loa, ca tba dda 
mtlattbaColpaawin. waa pat tbita whn Tltoa 
u dtad. and Ihantea Mylad Dfraa. Rmubu of 
• Palaca <rf tba Caura, and of tha Tampla si 
ami and Roma an neair thli areh. Ho Jaw wUI 
crpiaiDiidatU. ■' ntni'a Anb ta as Ilcb that I 
n budlT think tt alifint. Tha aatablatora, tba 
ipoal^ a* kar iConca,ira all toiTwdad with acolp- 
rre In nniQla ; boE it ta bard to Jndfa 
nmtUalid tblnr-''— nnttfki 

aubtqr J(. AfrtK-^ bolH a) 
qlb of tha Panihton, wUd It 
■atlbolatDlbabattiaaDd (ardi„. — , . 
laotKHlIaatlOBrbyTMbraad. Thayw 

. i, VU dd Csitirll bi Ihi caarL Ttaay wara'fUdl^ 
Iha Aqua Via^o, oooatnietad by tha aama eooaoL 
BaMj ef AlaamUr, batwain Plana Nanna and 
i PanthtoD. BnlU m-t a-n., aa an addllloa t» 
<Bithi or Kara. 

'BaOi (/ Otraeana (tbama Autoalitana), la 
H Tln^irda, near Porta S. StbaMlaa. Coo- 
•traeWd by Canicalla, Hdiogibaloa, od Alaiandic 
aarami, and abandoned In (bi tth eanlnT, wban 
iha aqaednda wham ent off In Iba de(B of 1ST A-n. 
Thar wen Uh moat iplendld In Bona, and with tha 
gardana and onlR caitldont<nre one mile hi dreolt 

— -' mnd plai^ which can ilSl be traead. Tbaia 

M inarata batblUK p!a«, baatdea taii* 
(riiJle and porphyry. Pinaof the potUoo, 
. .narTDlci, pleelnn (wbara tba aqnadnet 
Jolnad), tMldailnnt, eilit, with hof* andaxtaadt* 
ranulna of walla, nlOaa, eomleaih «(&> of brick and 
~"i; bnt tha mazUe^ atnceoea, and otbar or — 

laen at Palaaao Aldo- 

tirandliil, but th* (naler part waa ramond nboot 
im. B. BUthUo chnrdi, and Tllln Cobnua, an 
•SoMi 1/ MKtfKn. boat aboot lOl I.D., by 

ehoreh and ccDTent of Santa Uaria dc^ Ansall. b] 
U. Antolo. Borne of (be Urie brick anbea an aaa 
tn ibo roof of Oie cbnrefa. Inchidbit iba ouiai 
oorUcMitnlLQiaKV "niTj ™tdi a umara of abosl 

• • 




behind. 8t George's Hell, at Ltverpool, is a repro- 
duction, by Elmes, of Caracalla*8 Bath, bat less 
than a fourth of the size. Its area encloses two 
churches and convents, public granaries, etc Mew 
torraclis are in progress here. 

Baihf of Neroy a shapeless mhi, on the site of 8. 
Loi^ church, etc., between the Pantheon and Piazza 
Madama; built A.D. 65, in the year of the great fire, 
and supposed to be an extension of the Baths of 
Agrippa. A ludf-circnlar remnant is left in the 
Albergo, in the Piazza RondaninL Three granite 
columns f onnd here are in the portico of the Pan- 

*JSaths of Titus, built about a.d. 80, in the gardens 
of Nero*s Golden House, on the Esquiline; and were 
400 feet by 600 feet in extent They were improved 
by Julius Felix Gampanianns, Prefect of Rome. 
There are remains in a vineyard, east of the 
Colosseum, especially of the corridors, which were 
ornamented with stuccoes and fi^scoes. One of 
them is a picture of the interior of the baths, show- 
ing the Frigidarium, Tepidarlnm, Laconicum, Bal- 
neum, Hypocaustum, and other arrangements, as 
brought to light at PompeiL The frescoes are 
spoilt by the triclding water. 

Baths qf Trcfjan^ join those of Titus. Begun by 
Domitian, and finished by Trajan. Including the 
Baths of Titus, which were incorporated with tiiem, 
they fiUed an area, 1,100 feet by 800 feet. The 
remains comprise a semicircular theatre, on the 
Colosseum side, with parts of circular ]>orches, and 
places for statues on the north and south sides, 
^ome coloured arabesques and frescoes are still 
visible in the vaults cl a part of Nero's Golden 

Castrmtian AmphitJuatre, near the Ports Ifag- 
^ore, outside the walls of Servius Tullius. A brick 
lialf-oval, built, it is supposed, about the 1st century, 
but used by Honorius to construct his new wall, 
-when its arches were filled in. The Corinthian 
columns of the lower story are well preserved, dose 
to the church of Santa Croce. 


(Hreus Angonatis (for wrestling, etc.)— Only the 
shape can be traced in the Piazza Navona. A circus 
was not part of a circle, nor even an oval, but an 
oblong space, for foot and chariot races, rounded at 
each end. The slope, "sequo carcere,*' for giving a 
fair start to the cars, may be traced. I 

*Cireus dfCaraeo^a (so called), near the Temple of 
Bomulus and tomb of Ctecilia Metella, on the 
Appian Way, two miles from Rome. It was about 
1,500 feet long, and 800 feet wide, and is the best 
preserved of all. At one end are two towers, and the 
twelve carceres, orstarUng places, which are arched 
over; and at the opposite end, in the middle of a 
semicircle, was the Porta Trtumphalis, by which the 
victor left The racers madetiie circuit seven times 
from right to left; the goal bdng marked by the 
conical metsB, fixed on the spina, a raised division 
ranning neariy along the middle ox the ciiciiB, 
Adorned with statues, column^ altars, and small 
UoipliM. The s&iti vren approacbed by an &r^« 

way beneath. fVeseoes under th« ttnli of tiM 
Porta Trinmphalis are still traceableb 

CVrctts, orHouH of Sattustt near Porta Balaria, on 
the Pincian, was destroyed in the capture of tbo 
dty, by Alario, a.d. 410. Some remains exist on tbo 
site of the Gardens of Sallnst The obelisk which, 
adorned the Spina faees the church of Trinith de' 

Cireut Flantiniut was on the site of the Mattel 

Circus of Flora, on the site of Piassa BarberinL 

Circus qf Nero, on the site of the first Basilica of 
St Peter's. Its obelisk now faces the modem 

Circus Maximus, in the vineyards nnder the sonth 
side of the Palatine, near the Gas Works and the 
church of Santa Anastasia, on the Via de* Cercfai. 
It was the oldest place for races, sham-fights, and 
similar spectacles under the name of Ludi Circensee. 
Here the Rape of the Sabine women was effected. 
Except a few circular masses of marble work in the 
walls of some houses in the Via de' Cercld, <ni]y 
the general shape of this large building can be made 
out It was about 1,340 feet by 540 feet and wee 
two stories high. It was begun by Tarqainiw 
Prisons, enlarged by Julius Gassar, restored by Ves- 
pasian, after the great fire in Nero's time, and 
improved by Trajan, and finally by Constantine. At 
one time it would hold nearly 40,000 persons. There 
was a decorated spina, or low wall, 12 feet broad and 
8 high. Two obelisks (metas) were pot up by 
Augustus and Constantius. The former was 13S 
feet Itigh; the latter is now called the Lateraa 
obelisk. Sixtus V. used the st<»ies of the Cirons is 
building St Peter's. 

*Cloaca Maxima, or the main sewer of ancient 
Rome, was a hirge arched drain, first built by Tar- 
quin the Proud, 2,500 years ago, and kept np by the 
censors, sedile, and latterly by the curators ^)pointed 
for the purpose. It was constructed of large s<d]d 
nncemented blocks of green peperino, 16 feet wide 
and 3 high (outside), with three arches, one within 
the other, the innermost behig al>ont 14 feet 
diameter. Part remtdns near the Temple of Vesta, 
where it entered the Tiber. A bright clear q>rine 
ftom high mossy rocks, called Acqua Argentina, mna 
into the .Cloaca. Rome was and is still • well 
drained city. 


"While itandi fhs GoUwnm, Boom ahan stad I 
When falls the CollMun, Borne ihaU ftll | 

And when Borne flkUa, tbe world I "-^Sytvtt. 
•Colosseum, or Coliseum, or Flavian AmphitheatrSL 
near the Baths of Titus, embraces a space of six acres, 
on the site of the pond in Nero's Golden House. It 
was built (A.D. 78-81) in three shears, by Vespasian 
and other members of the Flavian family, many 
Jewish prisoners being employed. Part of the mate- 
rials ofNero's Golden Honse were need. It Is a vast. 
mbied, oval structure, of brick fiused by tzavertioe 
stone bloclcs; 890 feet by 518 feet (hnn.w«ltti^'^i^<«bs&. 
1,820 fieet round. T^««raukV9Ki«ttaaaA.tsc90E^^aDJ^wsl&v 


uiti (gndnO 

ond. M trdga. Thg 
' snautid uilei otUtj 
1 to tlM □ppmnUBT}', 
. ... ., .. iDg, between, lie bent 

I for tbe EmpiRI, Fmlaii, Counls, Vuul Vir- 

nantfipmiilited to tlaiqiiiait,feiHiU, piUiati (or 
rebble) nveEdTel;. TbaplleiyullHtop.nsliDS: 
on elgility pQlui, vu R» tbe woTiKn uid aleTss. 
8tv>i «r eeeD, on lUU Men hen and there, >ome 
helfKH iqi to tbe extarlai mU, wbloli. ithen com- 
plete wu IM IMt UilL TU weU. H eean f torn 
the ootdde, i> divided Into thm etoilee. or rovs 
of ushM, tt eQUl elmtlini, Collaved bj ■ metia- 
nliUk or tutf^tor;, and ■ fOnrlb itoiy, nurDUDded 
by B deep mnilce and enteblatan, mi Ibe Riltery et 
tbe top. Vtt lowflR etory, pianiad b; ^ht; doon, 
bToKtiliOrdebuHl E>aric.lnityl«; 2nd— Soman, 
Imdei SrO—CotinUilaii. Xh*4tli,DbovgihEiiieiu- 

nrin*! trloDub : -aidnWi ura > ra 
beuC I^rf^m, In oiHdar, beMi 
lB<^£l,tMnwB*iUUI^ Then 

Cdold be flooded Ibr boete Bt Qie naval egtata. 

Tbe OahMnom (tnconcetlr bM ott«n called the 
"-" "— ' '- -le dgtHh cenlury, 

I* B*d«i ind «M adopted perbipa, from Ibc 
oeaai of Hero, near It la tbe nth century 
o ins wmtred *i a qnany Ibr Iho Hid Hka ol 
tbe ((one, esd aln fm Uu Inm and Iced need Ic 
cramp Otm togetber: and, wltb the mUertils 
ttani ditalnad, tbe palacai tt Taneila, Fn 
BartarinL die OaaceUeita, tbe Bepetta qoey, 
m» bnltt. Some attampla have b«n ocobiId 
d<Kirltanpantlaii,andpBrtattbewcet " 
iked np by a gnat wali,l)aDt by Piiu 
«i,-«lai a minh Tenanted fanaae at J« 

io,flv*tHtU(li,ttandtlna- ■— ' 

— bA.tabutwu^daya'Indi 
needeTi ot & jiiiiiaMliiin of 
ae^lMn — -— "-■■ 

iteWattrUK wblei Om m. Wood plgwoe, 
.IS fj^'^t tattBataelzimtti^Oit mine. M 
^^^^'~— vt tlt tt\ \ pwil n iiiiii m iia , inn' 

_, Roma). From henoes yon go tbno^ Tltna'i 
Anh, to tbgVUHMn,wlthtli*Cuipi>Vaooino,«r 
Fomm, In vlav, end buge BoDum cattle gming. 

•Calmlorlint, at TnU Rnflal two ndtiB from Poita 
Fli. oM of tbe moet perfect uUttnc, ftinnd IMS. 
It fortoi tbrae Bidea of a aqnire, and nai tfxnnvaof 
nicbea all roiuid, irttb itep* to aaeb row. Eadi of 
(bfl nicbea, or pigeon houa (frem which tbe OolonH 
barium get! lie nani*), oontained a pair of vma 
(Dllae), with Ibe namei of tbe penoDt wbcae aebea 
[Ikcy held. One Inicrlptlon waa lo thli ed^ct — '* L. 

CaliiiabuisIX. ollie SVIII. ilbl poaterteqne eilii" 
Id wblcb tbe paiUoii of Uie nnia la deactlbed. 

CotiaiBK^ iMotliuii Pivi, or the IieaKT AntoDlM 
GolniDti, wee dificovcred In 1TD9, on Monte Citorlo. 
Il wnl a dngle abaft of red grenll^ on a njarbls 

Endeital, In the Yamm of Antonhnu ; end wia need 
yntiiTLtorertaielilaobelUu. TbapedeaUlli 

tbe AMwtint Cofwrni; In tbe Piazza Lomuia, to 
which 11 (Irea nuue. It vai creeled Id tb* ronlm 
ol Anb>nlne,lnbonoiiraf tbeempetor'i'lclDTy oTBr 
tbe Uaroomaoni, and Mher OenoaD tilbu, tbe pai^ 

tlcnlarab^entlnthenirel ha»«ll(*- ' "-- 

^aft. Thayarelnfttloctiipdiit of d*-. 

Eortket to tboae of the 7Ve|an eohnmL 1 

DrarlnwtfarthebroBiealUiwof BtlknlmOa 
lop, whlah Bbrtoi IT. placed thtt* irtiea h* ralMd 

mnTMa he^fitfc 

andttvanllfntlbMbandlSfcetlluib. It la 
made of twate.dght hlocka of while muiUk and 

Ij eacended b7*«P&elBta- ..~- — — . 

OhlglBDd Ddk P«Ha>* I 

Phocaik by the El 

FVum Boaiantna. , , , 

aflaMdOHfnlta)aB.ii»fainaetam«aMfr4«M, mi 

dliinunad tn UlS, asd ataida ta • fll^ (T Mifa. 

eqadto tteMCn icilai vB<ii A 

n ths tw, Ut bfr iHU liulda 

. IB (lDIIl»Uifn| Uto 

tha Tnk FUlar). nmnoantMl Iijr D. Fxiuiia'i lUii 
at Bl FMcr (ISS9), which KplM»i ■ sutDS dT CI 
nond on IM hud. Ttili bill li no* on ih* lUbme 
ortlHCqittgL Rnbfclali IS f«el dop hid ana 
littd rami Uwbuacohlah lutlivbHn tieiind a 

psTeiiiml of Timjui'i lolue or buUcj. Thfl 
rcTiafl «f tliQ vmpcror'i Dului vklorl^^ diii 
Irtampbal prooeulon vlsil tninil tha aborc i 

The Rgnm u* abDiit two IhE high M the faol 
■Del iDcrau gndnaU; towirtt the «ninniit. 

■honlder in- a wallet. 

Oirin Saitilia,<it SmUe Hoan>Mlt by T 

■wall, pl(n«l br»B 
CorlnuiUn coldnnu _ 

^ ■(ofJinmBUroi 

FaUndlmn «d 

ling to the prtndfrnl plac 
... !btranan£JtUM,iitAatn . 
gf TnliD,wmtoai.Bailli*Bdmth; ihu 
— „iuta biTlng.tb* Taria tlitut rUoi «T 
It. and tb* giu if botb Mag: c 

fonai iWrt'lahtoMlMIrra^ 

«ii!u .ToaDd tka Ttmpla at JafMar LHtnlla. < 
"' """" '"'innirelieW.tDiilhaaoin 

. *• « M t ka tT w 

of tha nmakH4f lAaMXapab&aao 

k hola la iknni IIH»w0t-^MA 

IrDpiialtotbadBigadBMnr. IVia 

by SilltiiC. Dsar tha wd o(«ha OattllMilaa 

(lbr''n«itiMnBt")1i TMdoDflMwiUblanni A 
Mndlu path eallu OItu OuplMUiuu iroit Id 
noDtelftlotkaliiHnBsmUun. BiuUiIi'i»rd»I» 

ot chambgn In wtalcb natiiu of ths Dil CODMnM 

allprlDdpildcltiartinmplMHl, indUHBlbyt- 
bnita kept. Tkk MmplB DiHIer ilu ganul 
nuu of GHpLtoUam caot^nBil thucA tsiDplBi ander 
OoeTDO^ ^iHHi*** >o Jo^toi, Jano, aod Mlmn*. 

•niiW(t^Jf«unaa£ ■ aomed templs 
or hdl In Hit lidniu Ovdsiu, SO fast dUmeler. 
IwlKbrDIaolMIui. PbU ol ttaewBlIinnuLn, th« 
brickdiMBtlitTlu bneo Oinniiti In 1918. Itwu 
ttmOu anUidai DDt ten-dded irithin, with nJiH 
netmat or nkbu. (Or u aunr itilDeii, o( which 

It to be ■ tomb, of IKtr ue tb 
OoMaoM. niilluaittbolldtaigii 
•n npllwt to gin Unngth to Ihi 
domewatlbbtdwiUitUH. Ita bi 
OKU* Ihu It! dlnnlar, which gin:; 

Bnnat udln ^«ib MpMi »bir >np«Tioi 
FtBDwop M It to IntMUr to tbat tunplo < 

winaMd UuA 1 ouBN halp beltanna thu It !• niKb 

__^__ Id Moodln tba IVmin of NarvE, 

btUDd Uw «luinbH of 8. Lonoio nd 8. CotimD. 
ItwulUMMbflW TbrcecelmmuindapUutsr 

In tlui nHghlMnrtiood ilio (nH 
QaMco a fflBHflfta) to ui ud 
Aatud, lA ot Uw maoba; I 

taof tboHomaPfpHm- 

idawindlns brick MtbciM, which 
an'TMbto. On of ih« etxht 
wUoh nipponcd the ahnMreokr 


<if BB. CHno a Daiduw ftiris tmtlw^ Ika tte 
fouida«o(BonM)HidtIi«VtoGnNtoOtali>r. Ai 
Elnucan bnau door {tana Pncla] ud ttrojo^ 
nhfnr Mloama mn addal hr D»> TIU. Two 

nmyb^ A* Bm, Id Um CotaBoa Qardon^ to 
ilM Qnlriiii^ wai of gnat •!», and a oooiplciHii 
objam tha all parte Parta sf an eoilciMd artU- 

*nii^e/ ^luoadltDiiKiuxttOthaChanliW 
9. C^uetKa KomiM ttcing thi Falaca of tha 
Csnn, wia a largs ■tractnre wUb two Ikfaila^ 
SGCtMtbjim Aatt baOl br HtdcliQi. and nballt 
by Ituantlu. aftar a fin, Somo nldiaa and )>■•<<■ 
ot gnnlta puiara, and th< aptoodld donbla oohnaad* 

V«Biuwaitli*DMUiir(if jSMai,Qie auoaatorof tba 
foondan of Bom^ 

'navli «* ntM, mar tba nbor. Id Uw Voiub 
Boarimn. now riaoa dalli Bac«i Varltk; Hnnded, 
It to nnipoiad, br Vapatfut. A ctecolar Mlla nr- 
riHiiidslbylSCoataf SOI Hnted Corlntblin eolnmii* 
ot Fukin maibli^ of tot alandBr proponloBi. It 
li eoovartsd loto a Qborch, now oaUod Aoiifd Marta 
M Suit, bat (Hnmrly B. Slatui> dalle Caimie 
Hora wu t)i* vault In which Tiatal'^rglH w(« 
cmftDad. If tkartotonttlia wcradllrawcBTabblh 

n«tn V £■&■!, OB tba ■ItaaFUe-OlHtlB.wai 
eneud In Ibo nifil of AaguMoa, b? OoiuMBt 
BiilbiiB,.ind wai noUad byponlDDia to UaTbaatn 
of OetairU. Tba aell coHiiiig Ibaramoliu itnatw 
a hlU, ullad MdbW CeocI, an ona pan .<if vUm to 
Uia Oaod Falaoa. Uanr sutiu^ dc, han baa 
due up In thla qwtar. 

■nuolra ^ Mamllat, In tba QiAd Tilinn, 
Piaul MoDtanara, on iha 'BIM of Uw Rnaa (Mla> 
Tlnm. Bout bv Aacouoa to tba ntownr.oC U» 
naphew, UBneUni, on tha atta of Uw Tmnia. af 
flltol rutj. The k — ■ ' 

DottoaDdlc) . , 

■apartortai atvla to theOika- 

-- _. . MtoBwdam. htoOwMlnHt 

ofaRoman-thiatnpioptrtobaAHnidbLnaaa. Tla 

Tcovto of mat PMr •*> dadtoatal Is -" - ~ - 

■mj of flHM Uned ttia rud> 

pil^ taratd u tlie top, mi ruUDg an a cubical 

JToaMlttnB iif ^Dtnutet. caDcd lb* Coma, in Via 


e the GitM, 

iIJMUDtladtaim. Tlia antei mU, Mm at tlK back 
o[ Falmo Taldambrlni. and tbe great Tialli el tin 
intoloc, m Mm left. KbuBcdaa aiiampUUiealni 
for nces, flieworki, «Cc. Hen tbe body g( Bieiil 
ntia bqnit. 1364, hj tbe Jewa, to wIund It was 
banded orac fin tbat pmpoH, 

•Ttmt Df CadUm MtMa, on the Appiim Way, 
Dear tka l^i^ of Romulna, and tbo rnlud palace 
VI tka QtBtaiil ftoUly. Dediealad to the wir« of 

fe«tdbRDeUi, eSfoetblgb.madoof bll)c]aatt»K^■ 

)a Capo dl Boi . . 

uvuim (uui, and vras turned into a Rtrtnai In cba 
Hthwntnry.irbeDbsttlemeDtawueadded. Bynm 

Ani If CWut Ctuim, near Porta S. FaoU. Bnllt 
to 830 dajt, "diehvi cceisi,." In the rt^ of 

pyramid on a Iravertn* haaa. Tbaranllsd diaoiber 
ineido !■ decorated Vitii colound aialjeaqaea, and 
anpported by Doric eobuniu of flnlad maibMi. II baa 
been netond by the goveniinent 

•fbint «f OaiiH FtMiaim BOvlut, In Uis irall ot 
a bMaatai VUt Hatf oilo, at the end «t the Cona 
A floaU ^iBtlt mMnmoit ot the thse of Aagai- 
toa, or earilar. In a maaaWe atyla ; conalatln^ of tlie 
npptt at tm MMka (tb* lowtr being bnrM In tbe 
s»il)«taiiflIa<MnLi)nianMntadMe»,ata. Itatood 
fnnneily on Iha Via Idta, ontiMe the walla of 
Geiwiu Tanhw tear tbe old Porta Ratumena. 

l^»n» ^ fAt CfatiiHI, a sbapeleu heap, oppoiiLa the 
tomb ot BUnilna, In tbe Via Uuforio. 

nmi of AvvvKH, (Ac Battr. onldda tbe Porta 
Hiffion. sIo« to tba mowuiunt of the ClawUan 
A<tnedHcl,a(tliajaintl«iit Vto I^bleaaa and Via 
PnmeMina. It wn tno^ to li(bt artiHi the 

indnlhni Jpil nfebaln-a liiiilaiia 
Ci and the^aolptlea, •■EBT.aOG 


*Mmin'mm nfSMHim, wnrtfae Ct 

U tlie nrdanl tt DeotUa. A 

. ___fMt diameter, and IM feat Ugh, 

•qnare bMe, MO Ae t Moh way. and n teet high. 
a.* wBa orlgbialiy of marbla, aomnndad tv 46 idllaza 
of a iln|1e ;deni I and liad Btalnea, whloh in the dega 
of Roma by on Ootha vera thrown dnra on the 
heada of the invaden One. a Denctng Faun Ji now 
at Florence. Tl wax tDrtUed by fluu^ v. and 
otber popea, with baeSona, rm^wrtB, etc, fa the 
modam alrle. Tbe old doorway thdag PonlB B. 
AngelDi ted by ■ >^al way to the chamben inald*, 
wbMta baa ttaenea by P. del Vaga, ete. In one of 
them, Cardliul <%nffB waa auan^ed IMI, liy 
order of Paul lU. A bionie Angel on the aammft 
nplaaeithaetalneor Hadrian, wtinae head k In the 

baiuuet oi 

Oodlid flneyaid, between Tla Anpla an 

II am una to hare baan originaUy * qnaity Df talk 

roeli, in wbldi aepnlilint weio «» '-' ■"— 

entrana ia thnngfa a plain aich, whlc 

foand ben la In ,tha Vatican. It !■ that 
Bartiana, eonanemr of the Samnltea ' ' 
Pnnio war, ami ia of pepeiino. In i 
of CnenI 


Mot l»^ 

sard an III 

Hylaa, and i 

filled wUb unia ani 
TambBtSaKla " 

a, bant tiy ConitanUne, on 

,1 lorned bno a ohnreh ty 

Alexaodar IV. Bee chnirh ot Sota Omtaiua, 
page Vli. It baa double Corinthian cDlomna n^ 
pomugadome, irithmoealca. Afinepotphj^aano- 
phagoii containing the ramalna ot the Emponv'e 
ilater or daughter, Conaantla, la now In the ritlran. 
lonlbitf Santa iCeiaia.— £ee cbnnib of BS. Uar- 

Vhe ton ot tba eooiniy roood Boom, « 4lv 
Ramaimi, h nkank, V- - — "^ — ™ji~.^ 

»il0.\ MMwil, IB «* 7B^5*> S 


ulMla, «Mob 1) Ml ioeUintil to th* hO, but ' 
tt iMaueMd dndnit*. At pmut, ■ nuimr btlt 
■il uutlnlloii nDmiiBdi th* <dt]r wilbi than comti 
« dMtrt Gn la to M mOM, irlitii oUtvatlon i>- 
•ppouL TIm land la cUBfly putnn, with &ir tH* 
.Use* <9 Inluibluuil*. S«b* of lb* hnn* in tb« 
■"unmmi mn toJO^OODuw: mnaf----' 


or boUdlw I uid afttrwuda naad aa ai 

iM bir ChriadaiBi add thenforbiirlalpl 

mft n Hawo to tin Ifttfa oanttuy^ In aoma parta fii 
•alleriM am to b* Man om enr th* othar. PaA 
]|n^ hi hla "HoniiiDeiitl PrindllTl," eaUnataa It 
tntal iMiflh U too teacM and Hut T.OMOOe bodii 
M* depofflted btra. Tfaa larnat an Damad aft 
S. CilUtiia, ahn (S15.1I) tniuported tb* bodlta i 
tbe manyri hllhei. 

In ona Inacrlptlon we nad— "Kbia In em. 
fnwrat tbon an in Ood), wbtn Mhu ttandi (i 


tbongh both Antaui and I.aehu va tndndad In 
tlta cnmnt tattrtjniiHT. CtitniUua wu the «r- 
raapoDdeot of Cyprian. Hr. Bnrgon thlnka tbaaa 
._.. ijmj ju^ y^ doMbf at tba 

CoDingalhrn of Kallca to . . . 

andUMTallcawat* traiil<md,ln IBU^to Ai 
bll aiiii|)«aad idaea of Urth, with (Teat Min 
CanUnal WtHman pieaehlne tha aenoon. 

Emparar and Empnaa wi 

.—Tba VU Appli and Tla Idtlna. 

tb« 'nth* Bondanlnl, ' 

CLiodliu, the »n» 
□rlended to Brni 
>1cuilc blockt, ai 

" Dlla M anlbni :" and In 
k 2nd cantnty. Thay wen 
. lehownlnttiecatAcombBln 
il, oppoalta Bl Sebaatian^ 4^ned 
w uBx. ja. usifiHi CnaetBTy, raomtly axciTiiad. Ii 
In Uu lam of ■ r*Iloir> on ona lenl i the ayralMli 
Mng Bdxad w)u badlion (ymboki Tba large 
Bnmbtr of Inao^ithHiB and other menuRf all ooUected 
•i th* Muevm of Baerad AnUqnltlea, la the Vatt 
4ai^i CliMsmI* *od AnvM'e Umnftvai ftsnuj 
battapaolallyfas w«k l^tha CaTaUtra dl Roial, 
'tarixftliOTOl*. B*ka*«nDDlHd 11,000 hiaerip. 
Uouhttiaaillcatb^Ka.D. TI. The aoMamnMUi 
torn (abont (.OtO) in moit nnmenn* down to STI 
^D.; and then bceome mora and n»Te rare aa the 
■amdlUon of the dundi ImpiOTtd. Abont I.aso 
InaeriptioBB are dated. 

From tha nmgb dnwhiEi Rinnd in Iheae eavea or 
.Sntloea we nt the word " (petaqae.- Slgnor 
CaateUani, In^U di Poll, baa a beaullTnl coUhUod 
of woAa In gold and gtBa loood In the catacomha 

bailed In i 

Many pileiit* and mutyn 
ikaaolMi oallad Cm^ del 
<iiambw an tiaba (almoat a 

wan bl OreA) to 
. "FaUamu, Udiov 
^^ auitn; ~/a.n SSft) "Condhu, mar^ and 

*gfit^" i^P^ Mtk) "LaetOM,^ (AJ>. 203.3 "Boty- maciuih laoea iih onaivn; ana naar %otM, m wey 
■giiiiHAMaib- u.h fTftJ ni«alab«irantonnd\eBUtaWxaak&A&V«VnDkiiLim'»iwaKu*olupal 

ar aa Capua, end ■ftorwanli 
m. It 1( fonn*d of aoUd 
■ a great wDifc'ftir eoeh a 



The Tomb of ttia Sdploa la Jnat onlaida th* ■■ 
of a. SebaaUan, and th* Anh el Dnuoa. It nn 
" rend till IVit. when the lontenti wei 
1 to tha VatlcuL uid oonHaiMt buert 

r— ben Inatead. Cna tba Ahnosa or A. 

qnatamlD, to tbechnteh of Jiwtei f* *adft ("Iiord. 

Bt. Fetar, when flyln; tram iierwi.iillciit 
tha 8«Tloar nd put tfala qnaiHiH to Ub. 
mr waa, "To ba smeiaed again." Upm 

■abmlttad to hla pHaecutora. Tho rowid tomb of 
Prtaettl* tt«a the * — -■ —' " 



and Tombi of Anftistiii and livla, in Yigna Codlni; 
•mmg which are TnrphAna, Julia, FhUologas, and 
▲mimaa, all names like those mentioned by St Paul 
as belonging to C«sar*8 honsehold. On the left of 
these are the Fountain of Egeria, Temple of Bacchns, 
and the square Tombof the Qod,Rediculn8 (called so, a 
redeu$»do) ; and on the right, the basilica of St Sebas- 
tian, near the entrance of tlM catacombs, or cemet ery 
of S. Calixtus, towards Via Ardeatina; tiie Jewish 
eatacombs face these. Then follow the Circus of 
Caracalla, Temple of Romulus, Tomb of Cecilia 
If etella, and the ruined GaStani Palace, called Capo 
di BoTe, fhmi the bull's head carved on it At the 
fourth mile is the ^dicula or Tomb of Seneca, near 
the site of his Villa. At the fifth mile are three 
tnmuli, called the Tbmbs of the Horatll and Curiatii ; 
andlthe large circularTomb of M. Corrinus, the fHend 
•f Horace. It is called Casale Rotondo, and has a 
house and olive garden on its summit Near this is 
the Tomb of Perseus. At the eighth mile are broken 
columns of the Temple of Hercules; and at the 9th, 
the villa and tomb of Gallienus, near Tru Tabertuet 
or Three Taverns, of the AcU of the Apostles. 

9. To Fbascati, Tdbodluii, and Alsano, by the 
Naples railway., the nearest station to 
Tnsculnm, is 12 miles ttom Rome, vid the branch 
from Ciamphio. Albano (or La Cecchina) station is 
18 milea, along the main line. 

Albano is on the west side of the hills, which 
under the general name of the Alban HilU. form a 
volcanic group, about 10 miles in diameter, the most 
elevated of which are the Alban Mount (or Monte 
Cavo), 8,000 feet high, surmounted by a Passionfst 
Convent, and Monte Porzio, near Tuscnium, 2,000 
feet high. This group encloses the Alban Lake and 
Lake Kemi, and is traversed by the Via Latina, 
which leaves the Tusculan Hills to the north of it 
Tlie ancient city of Albtt^ or Alba Longa^ was on 
the east side of the Lake, but the modern town of 

AlbaAO. which has succeeded to its name, is on 
the west side, in a healthy and picturesque spot, 
among fine trees and walks, which have made it 
delightfully attractive to the Romans, in the hot 
season. It is a bishop's see (population 6,000), and 
was founded In the 17th century, when Urban VIII. 
fixed his summer residence at Castel Gandolfo, in 
the^ grounds of Pompey's Villa. It swarms with 
monks; and forms a long street, having, among 
other seats of the Roman nobility, the Barberini and 
Dorla palaces. Good lodgings, for a small rent, may 
be hired, with beautiful prospects. In the Doria 
gardens are traces of the Villas of Pompey and 
Domitian, with remains of baths, and of Domitian's 
Amphitheatre, near the Church af S. Paolo. The 
Capuchin convent commands a very good prospect 
of the Campagna and Rome. A fine modem viaduct 
on three rows of arches, begun in 1846, crosses the 
valley towards Ariocia, at a height of nearly 200 
feet It is 1,000 feet long, and built of peperino. 
fhrni the hills. Outside the gate, is the tomb of the 
CurlatiL Near the town is Bovt'/te, the original seat 
of the great Julian family, before it, with other 
Inhabitants of Alba Losga, was transported to the 
Colias at Booft 

The AVuM Lai$t or Lago Castello, li a pteea of 
water S30 feet above the sea, and 7 miles round. U 
was formerly the crater of a volcano, and ia said to 
be nearly 600 feet deep. It is surrounded by hUli, 
gardens, and vUieyards for Alban wine. The Romeui 
cut a tunnel, or emissario, through the rocky side to 
carry off the surplus water. This Is 6 feet by 4, aod 
runs down to the Tiber, l>elow Rome. 

Going round the lake fh>m Albano, towards th« 
north, we pass through some fine sliady Hexes, to 

Castel Gaitdolfo (population 1,000), the Pope's 
country seat, overlooking the lake. The pakce 
and church, by Bernini, were added to an old castle 
of the Gandolfl family. 

Marino (population, 6,000) near a railway station 
of th^ same name, 10 mUes from Rome ; the site ot 
Cattrimenium, and the seat of a bishop, on a hill, with . 
a cathedral containing a St Bartholomew by Goer- 
eino. In the valley below ia the F^renttne wood*, 
where the Latin tribes used to hold their meetings. 

Gbotta Febbata (population 600), near the yUl 
Latina, has a Greek convent of Basilian monks, on. 
or near the site of Cicero*s Tu$euJan Villa. It looks 
like an old castle. In the library are some Greek 
MSS. The church has an altarplece by An. Carraod, 
and some Arescoes by Domenichino, who took r^nge 
here from the threats of Saivator Rosa; one of them 
contains portraits of Guido, Gnerdno, and Mmiyy 
A great festa is held here, 25th March, in Lent 

Farther on, on the east aide of the lake, near 
Palazzoio, is the site of 

Alba Lonf^ a Lathi city, older than Rome, 
which afterwards subdued it and removed the inha^ 
bitants to the Coellan hill, on the Tiber. Another 
Alba then sprang up, of which there are many solid 
traces dispersed around. A road whids up from 
this to the little town of Rocca di Papa (population. 
2,000), and a plain called the Campo di Annibale^ 
thence through chestnut woods to the smnmit of 

Monte Cavo, or the Alban Mount, 8,000 feet above 
the sea, once crowned by the Temple of Jupiter 
Latialis, now by a convent of the Passioniats, bnilt 
by Cardhial York, the last Stuart In this temple tho 
Latin tribes offered yearly sacrifice, and the Roman 
armies marched up to it hi long procession after « 
triumph, by the Via Trinmphalis, of which there are 
traces. The view talces in the whole Campagna^ 
bounded by the Sabine Hills, Monte Soracte, Monte 
Cimino, etc, on one side; and Uie sea-coast on the 
other, from Civita Vecchia to Naples. 

Under the south side of the mount Is 

Nbmi (population, 900), near Lake Ifemi, the 
ancient Locus Nemortnsii, another crater about two 
miles from the Alban lake, but about one hundred 
feet higher, and surrounded by woody hills. Ita 
waters, three mUes in circuit, are supplied partly by 
the Fountain of Egerkt, close to a temple of Diana^ 
of which remains have been discovered. Its priest 
was a fugitive flrom justice, who could find protcc* 
tioo here, only by killing his predecessor. 

"Those trees in whose dim «had$s« 
The ^UeA\\:j v^\«iX ^<Q^Xv'nSceQk\ 



It it Minonnded by groves of oaks, ilexes, and 
elMBteota. «nd l^ an old seat of the BospigUoalilBUiiilr, 
bant by the CkAonnaB, 
On the west side, near fhe Via Appfa, Is 
Qbszaho Qmpnlation, 4^700), with tiw Cesaxlnl 
Palace, and a Capuchin convent, both overlooldng 
tlie lake. Here are fine alleys of efans and ilexes, 
ivith a proepeet of Monte Gioye, towards the railway. 
An injlorata^ or flower flestlTal, begins here in May. 

L'AsiGGiA. (population, 1.300) the ancient AridOt 
the first stage out of Borne, in Horace's journey, 
where he found but scant cheer, ** hospitio modico." 
It was an old Latin city at the bottom of the hill, 
the top of which is now covered by a church, and 
the Cbigi palace, built by BeminL The solid founda- 
tions of the AppianWay may be seen here to 
advanti^e. The next place is Albano (as above), 
which completes the drcuit of the lake. 

F&ASCATi (population, 6,000), another agreeable 
summer retreat of the Romans, on the side of the 
Tuscnlum Hill, among groves of olives and vineyards, 
producing a sweet robust wine. When old Tosculum 
was destroyed in 1191, a new town sprung up near 
it; which having been at first built of boughs of 
trees or A«McAe, acquired the name of Frascati. It 
is a bishop's see, and chiefly remarkable for its villas ; 
as Villa Aldobrandini, a large building, by Delia 
P(»ta, with frescoes and gardens; Villa Bracciano, 
and ItA frescoes by Domenlchiao; ViUa C!onti ; Villa 
Ludovisi; Villa Falconicri, built 1648, with a ceiling 
by C. Maratta; Villa Ruffinella, belonging to Victor 
Emmanuel; and Villa Mandragone, alarge unfinished 
seat of the Borghese family. About two miles 
higher iq;>, on the top of the hill, waa the ancient 
Latin city of Tuteuhtm, the birthplace of Cato. It 
existed down to 1191, before which several 
Popes had made it a summer residence. There are 
remains of its strong walls, dtadel, theatre, and of a 
Villa of Tiberius, identified by some with the Tuson- 
lan ViUa of CHcero. Others place it at Grotta Ferrata. 

Behind this volcanic hill, is another, crowned by a 
Camtddeli oonvent, and a third peak, Monte Porzio, 
about 2,000 feet Iiigh. They overlook the valley 
towards the Alban Hill, which is traversed by the 
Via Latina. Gn the opposite side of the hills, 
between FVascati and Monte Porzio, is Comufelle, 
the site of LnUce BegiUuSj fSunons for the victory of 
the Romans, assisted by the Twin Brethren, over 
the Latin Tribes. About ten miles east is Palss- 
TsnrA, tb» ancient Praneste, having remains of old 
walls and a Temple of Fortune, close to the Barberini 
Palace, which contains a celebrated Mosaie, dis- 
covered in 1662. Tivoli is eighteen miles. 

4. To Trvou, Villa Adriaka, ^te., an excurrion 

eighteen to twenty miles north-east of Rome, up 

the Anio. The road follows the Via Tiburtina, from 

Porta S. Lorenzo, leaving the church of S. Lorenzo 

and Acqua Felice on the right Cross the Anio by 

Ponte Mammolo, a bridge so called from Alex. Sev« 

ems's mother, Mammea, who repaired it. The Caves 

of Cervara and the ifons Sacer, to which the tribes 

retired aader the leadership of M. Agrippa, arc on the 

IsO, Same miles after crossing a branch of the Anio, 

»» came to Cagtel Ardone; thtttt to the Sol&tara or 

AqwB AJbuks mineral springs;, and ioPonte Loflano^ 
on the Anio ; where it leaves the dsaerted Campaguu, 
for the hills, near the Tomb of tba Plautii; a maasiva 
round tower inscribed to H FlaotiQS Silvanii& 
About two miles to the right la 

*Villa AdHofio, a fiarm so callad, oB the rita of the 
Emperor Hadrian's Palace, now an extensive circle 
of ruins. This magnificent deaifcn embraced im 
efdtome of everything beantifal in nature and art 
wliich the founder had seen in the course of hit 
expeditions; and was, altogether, three milaa kmg 
and one broad. There was a great Lyceum, an 
Academy, an Egjrptian Serapeon, a Vale of Tempe, 
several theatres, temples, baths, barracks for his 
troops (called Cento Camerelle), a Naumachia, hip- 
podrome, etc., the sites of which can be pretty well 
traced. The statuary and marbles found here are 
dispersed in museums, at Rome and elaeiwhera. 
Follow the Via Tiburtina to 

Tivoli, the andent Tt&or, on a sloping hOl, among 
olive groves and vineyards, in the romantic valley 
of the "praeceps Anio^" or Teverone, which here 
tumbles ovw the e&ff» and fcmns a series of rapids. 
It is a bishop's see (population, 6,800), and contains 
several narrow steep streets, on the ^te of the (dd 
Latin city, not far from the Sahtne bordeHb Ua 
healthy situation and fine prospects made it a 
ftivourite resort of Scipio .ffimiUanns, Maiia8» M. 
Plancus, Mascenas, and other eminent Romans. 
Augustus and Horace came here to visit Maoenas, 
and Queen Zenobia spent a pleasant banishment 
here. It submitted to the Pope in the 12th centary, 
after some hard fights with the Abbots of Snbiaco. 

The cathedral was built out of the mins of the 
Temple of Hercules, which stood on the site; its 
cella remains. The church of the Madonna di Quin<- 
tiliolo is near the remains of the 'Villa of (^nintilias 
Varnd, on a hill facing Msacenaa's Villa. Near 
the Roman gate are remains of an octagon t«nple 
or tomb, called Tosse. There is a Roman bridge at 
Ponte Cclio, or Pontieelli. The fine old castle was 
bnUt by Plus IL Massive remains of the Claudian 
Aqueduct are seen here and there. 

The well known * Temple of (he Sibpl (called 
Sibilla), or Vesta, stands on the brow of a cliff oppo- 
site the falls, a picturesque ruin. It was circular, of 
the age of Augustus, and is inscribed " L. Gellio 
L. F.** Ten out of its eighteen Corinthian pillars 
remain. Soane has imitated this architectural relio 
at the Moorgate-street comer of the Bank of England, 
and Lord Bristol would have brought the original to 
England, had not the Roman Crovemment inter- 
fered to prevent its removal 

McBcencui'e Villa is on the highest ridge here, the 
rock being pierced by the Via Tiburtina below. It 
conmian^ a distant view ot Rome, and the rocks 
and falls of the river. The diief remains are a 
range of tall Doric arcades, now used as an iron 
work, established here by Luden Bonaparte. 
Horace's Villa is pointed out by the giUdes as stand- 
in? opposite to Mfficenas's; but this, as wdl as the 
Villa of Sallust (near St. Antonio's Hermitage), the 
.VWlaoC CatoUus (jiear the Cascades), the Villa of 



A path tnftde by General HioUis leads ftom tbe 
Temple of the Sibyl to the grotto ch* cave of Neptune, 
where there is a fine view <^ the falling waters. 
There is another fh>m the Syren*8 Cave, lower down. 

The Anio narrows as it comes near Tivoli« and is 
divided into numerous cascades by the rocks which 
it meets in the course of a couple of miles. The poet 
Gray in his letters praises the sight as the "noblest 
in the world. You have at one view these cas- 
cades, intermixed with groves of olives and little 
woods, the mountains rising behind them, and on 
the top one, at the extremity of one of the half 
circle's horns, is seated the town itself. At the very 
extremity of that extremity, on the brink of the 
precipice, stands the Sibyl's Temple. All this on 
one hand; on the other the open Campagna of 
Borne. Here and there a little castle on a hillock, 
and the city itself on the very brink of the horizon, 
indistinctly seen (being 18 miles off;, except the 
dome of St Peter's." This beautiful spot, which is 
*'all one picture," as Forsyth says, was visited by 
the Prince of Wales and his sister in 1859. 

Near Maecenas's Villa is the Villa d'Este, a large, 
empty, formal seat, built in 1649 by Cardhial d'Este, 
having firescoes by Zuccari and Muziano, with ter- 
races, parterres, fountains, avenues of pines, etc. 
Gray describes it as a house '* being in circumference 
a quarter of a mile two feet and an inch ; the said 
bouse containing the following particulars, to wit, a 
great room ; item, another great room ; iteoif a bigger 
room ; item, another room ; item, a vast room ; item, 
a sixth of the same; a seventh ditto; an eighth 
as before; a ninth as aforesaid; a tenth, see No. 1; 
then ten more such ; besides twenty ; besides others, 
which, notto be too particular, weshall pass over. The 
said rooms contain nine chairs, two tables, five 
atools, and a cricket" The view from it is splendid. 

Tivoli has manufactures of iron and paper ; its 
quarries yield the hard travertine stone, of which the 
Colosseum and St Peter's are built The pizzatello 
and pergolese grapes are grown here. 

The Anio supplied Rome with water by the Anio 
Vetus and Novus aqueducts. Following the river, at 
eight miles above Tivoli, is Vicovaro, the Vana of 
Horace, from which the Digentia, which falls in 
here, may be ascended to Rocca Glovanne and CoUe 
del Poetello, near Horace's Sabine Farmy which some 
antiquaries place here at the foot of Monte Gorgna- 
leto. His **gelidus AJgidus" and "nivecandidum 
Soracte" are in view. To Vicovaro. great crowds 
were brought to see a winking Madonna in July, 
1863. Ascending the Anio, we come to Subiaco, the 
ancient Subalqueum, and the head-quarters of the 
Benedictine order. The Pope is titular abbot of the 
old abbey of Sacro Speco. Here Nero bad a villa. 
Tba head of the river is at Trevi, above* 

6. To OsTiA.— A visit to fhts anefent port of Rome, 
18 miles distant takes three or four hours. The roadip 
along the Via Ostiensis, out of Porta S. Paolo, giving 
a glimpse of the Protestant Cemetery, the pyramid of 
Caius Cestios, and the Temple of Vesta, at the exit 
from the gate. The scenery is as tame as can be. 
Nothing but the waste Campagna is seen, with an 
occasional swell of the surface; herds of cattle, 
flocks of sheep, with few shrubs or trees, and scarcely 
any houses. On the right is the muddy and mono- 
tonous Tiber. Traces of the pavement of the andent 
Via come hito view, but the road is bad, and f lUl of 

The modem Ostla, on the south branch of the 
Tiber, is a bishop's see, founded by Gregory IX. in 
830, but is decayed like its predecessor, having a 
regular population of scarcely fifty inhabitants. It 
contains a small cathedral, a bishop's palace, a smidl 
castle, built by Sangallo for Sixtus IV., and a few 
houses. The Antica Osteria is a very humble inn. 

About i mile from it, near Torre Bovacciana, is the 
site of the ancient city of 

Ostium Tibemivmy the old port of Rome, founded 
by Ancus Martins ; which in prosperous days counted 
a population of 80,000. For a time it had no ng' 
ular harbour, but was a mere unprotected an- 
chorage, which Claudius improved by bidlding 
two moles and a light tower. It is now two to three 
miles firom the sea, which falls back at the rate 
of 12 feet a year. From this cause it was choked up 
in Strabo's time, and by the sixth century it was 
deserted. Several of its bnildhigs have been broken 
up for lime. *'A view of recent excavations will 
make amends" says Burgon, "for the rough Jour- 
ney." It is another PompeiL Whole streets have 
been uncovered, and remains of palaces and batlis 
displayed in perfect order, with bases of cohmms, 
bits of marble, and other fragments of temples and 
theatres. One splendid palace shows its wide cor- 
ridors and galleries, cased with marble, shady porti- 
coes, etc, all on an ample scale. 

The old deserted church of S. Ippolito near this, is 
named after the celebrated Hippolytus, one of the 
first bishops of this see. Opposite it, on the north 
branch of tiie river, is Porto, the site of Portns Tra- 
jani, a harbour of Trajan's, equally choked by the 
sand. Quails are shot here in May. 

From Ostia the Via Severiana passes along the 
coast, southwards, formerly lined with villas, through 
Castel Fnsano, a fine seat of the Chigi fanoily, in a 
pine forest, with a view of the Mediterranean ; and on 
to Porto d'Anzio, or ArUiumy which furnished the 
beaks of the ships in the Rostrum at Rome. It was 
occupied by H.M.S. Edinburgh in 1811, for the 




"^.amt ta "Muhxma. 










EOUTS 32— ClNrtMHMrf. 



(1 ka, or IMJ mileg; Pt-B 

bs NsDiUtiin) kill 

19 from Romo ab fa as Cepnno, mid am iid£i?d 

onLug nmii«. Ihe CDiuitl'i Tin (a punk) wid IhQ 
« Tisn (10 piiDla) must be oMaJned, A CDVcb 

id the Toaim nt Pompej^OomJUdn , 

^leat aqueduc' 

Arum, en:. ' - -. 

ind windfl roiuid Uiq bou ottha ]uU& paJBlnB 
Huliia SMtioi^ on Um Ajiplw w*7, and 

DKJ, OomJ 

ufbind On Vdebt F^l^ » 
den tlie nllmr, letita* ' 
a Knffaa frootkp, aloiiE tfi 

■ Uu old nnita, as far u TermdniL 

lyej ToSaimB, or T 

Is pfliteelly 

TcmuiliiB, 18 leicnes', ■ ftnila bat wUray (net, 
Ibmnerlj well dr^ed and peopled, ud ambracliu 
onnanb of 211 TUlaasi. Bebwmn 17TI and ITtll, 

tbeiroAafdnlnacai ._=— -m. _J 

aiuhu were nude to 

Fore Apitfo (4^ 

Jc boati betweea ^wond asd 

tliM* gredt place Is barge- 

.to. Two ancleDl milMttinfa 

[Dt1ialen,^^nuaii, tha UrtliplBca of CamUloa. 
BuOilwa, nay oxen, Roala, bonM, irild |iM, 

la, backed by tlw Toladan Hllla. 

I coaat, la aetmna, tha aiKlant 

the beata of wlMwe tbipi U» Btnlzam 

llil^^i. wttk' 

•AcUaf milnUtii th^tUM, nt Uh kmm ullanihu 
it nmA miicB liiliiinlliia miM itbo beaidftof tfaui 
in hid «it«tl«J la And. Th* monilnr «■) ' 
Hnti ttu riOnr nas contrulsd w^ In o 
wia Uw dM9 UHTooli of nla, onr wUoli hoi 

in cnr. bauiUaiia, onataUH, Modtng In pi 

•■VW tioopi OMir lb* raid, ud nilnB it lu wHli 
a^ hA tanni «7ca,tbit rormlii tlulr mlUo- 
tnwioD n iMUiic ■ contiut wlUi UulrfMi^ibl* 
bnii irilh t^Utlle blKk doti In the dkUng, 
wkkb wemlT faww Is tw badUoM tmn Uudr 
Miliar andlbMr uambtn; ■Utandidta glTsgnat 
m tfl to tbe pliLn. ^ifl mounUlni wen ttfll mora 

AnatMeiiUis TtinicJDa, Uu Oboan Piomonteiy 
<KoBti OitSki U Mn an tkt H^L Ban tbe 
Swam onw to hunt tb* Tild ba« and *>t ojPHan. 

TmMUU (popBlMiO!^ MOt), whna Honca'i 
UMl U^ tHninUsd, I* on Uw ooMt of Uw Ghill ot 
GaVU, M t t»M bMwea tba M* uid Ilia pnolpltoai 
mU^whUmiHiodnndaaa to tha water. UlatlM 
andnt Jaxw, tVaAaa. at Sturacma; now ■ 
plotonana bat lultnfaiBd plu% taatinint n- 
nainaof iMold wall* «iKI cmUi; ■ Catbedntl, to 
■ haltBriutfM atria, on Uw alia 0( ■ Baman 
Knpb; nafTL'iVUU,aBdtlMniIn>orTli*odsik'i 
Falu, on m tietefat Fmn Itali an eiCandTa 
•M<rt><Tn,a(tlHSilfof GhdiM and icalttrtnaiiaf 
Fndda. Iidd*, ate. at the oniMr or ITaidu Bari of 
tha Ponaa Qnnp ; and of Vandotena, tbo an^nt 
PaUUtria, Oa pbueof «il»of Ansoatiu'adniibW, 
JnUa; bar daoghtar, AgrlpglDB, mid Nen'l wlfa, 
Osunia, Hi* mad latlowa H» Via AppU, throoA 
a daflla, the LaaMa, or Porlell* pua, Fekbraled In 

an ptnhed on tbe lodu. covared witb golden nll- 
flowac*. Tbs dtron, palm, and other marka of Uw 
Matb an MMLbot then ■• a want of tren and gnu& 

Ttwaa BB ComRi, tha Ian place on the Papal 
tetrftmr. Cnn the Nader to 

Poniixa, with K* cuatani-hoan mid cutia, In 
thaprovtnoe of Tana dl l^voro (le. Land of Labtmr, 
whlidi hen maani that my Utile li reqDlred). or 
tbe nrdan of Campania Felix, In the SJuBdom o( 
Odr. litt old CaiUe of MonllcelU lUnds on the 
MiBita A lake hen llnea the ahon or the aacieot 
B»of Amydia. 

Fomi, conalidng of a long oamw atreet la 
«wPaM,nitbnted for Ita CBcnbian wina; forlU 
Ina, tho isene of Waitalegton Irving;'! atory; 
Krrfti b*lWUtl,iya Clavolo (who» real namawai 
Uldiala Peui), and Mammonc ; and Uw the Doml- 
nloin canrent, in which St. Thomas Aqultiu lived. 
FopolatlDil, 6,311. In ie34. the beautiful widow sf 
Proapar Colonna, lord of the (own, w« nearly cat- 
Tied otTbythe brother ol the Tnrklih caiuii. Bir- 
ft™«a (Bed Beanl). wSo (ntinded to make - 

hdglit at tbe end or the paaa. irilh Ha 

,_ jittle, and apopnlatlon of 4.000. 

HOLA Di Uuu (popoUlfciB, i,iW), ■ dirty town, 
mclndli^ Cjatelboiw, tbe ^la of F<rmlai, whoae 
win* Htfiee comparaa to FalembuL The TllU 
Ciipoadlo,iiowaolBa,iath»alU of CHhtd'i FiOa 
Jtrnatiaan^ whin be met and etmleired irith 
CaaerbalbntDiDlne Pompey. Hcnbe waa aaaaa- 
ilnated In Ul Mtb year, by the mcoBngen of 
Anlboni one of the mnrderen being ■ tribune 
wlum (awo bad tnccMirally ddended In a trial for 
Ul IHb. In tbe gaidani tieblnd, an the Baltu of 
ffloen I and a bnUdlng called the Towar of Qcsto^ 
seal IbIt, 1* Mppoied to be hia grsTe. The bn ba- 
ton It, tba Alma nrmjaau, it a riTal to that at 
Haplaa, Ibr beanty. Vaanrloi and the lalanda are 
in Tiew. To the tl^ of Hola, ont of the roaO, 
en a Ugl lodi o*er the aea, liiiir mile* dlatant, la 
OiliA (pppDlitlon, 10,SM), a blsbop'a lee, and tha 
C^tla of iEaMe, Sunded byUmia mamoryof hli 
__ .,._ .»_.._. « ,^ g,,^ j^^j, „ ,^ 

_ tbe key of thU put of 

Italy, aodhla nndecgona aereral d^el; the lataat 
of whkdi waa that of IWO-U. when It waa taken 
tram lb* ex-kbic of Haplea, by the Sardbibm army 
and fleet. The tomb of the Gonitabla Boarbi>& 
vm^^n — |ra It In the Ct"'-' *•" " 

ia the Duomo, la a . . , 

-' Don Jlcdm of Auatrla, who moffht at T^«w</n^ 
3d an andant marble aarcophegiu. Ibe palace 

ome In 1M9. A ebuel la bi the moinb of a cleft, 
dd to bare been mads by the earthqaake at tbe 
avisar'a death. 

Tliia placeuye name b> Cardbial Qdetaa ol 
Hemy Ibe VllL'a time, uiw repraaanted by tba 
/3..i»..i.»^i.^...if._E,„ E^iandsILwaalHaor^''' 
to nbniaty, I8S1, 7 

16,000 men, an 

alio, ibore Clceio'a TDla at Hole, to irtikb ■ load 
font mllia Iode, by Uonte Conca, wai made by tba 
aardlnlan BOlditn. He »ai MdMad on tba aaa alda 
by Admiral Peraano, wbo waa occaafofiBlly thwarted 

by the French and BpaolBta aonadrona. OaEta waa 
beiiegad by Uianna in ISM, for rix moatbK 
From Uola, tha road croaaee tbe plain of the GarU 

B Uinturn, 

he Chevalier Bayaid defended 
number of Sponlarda, atttio 
I Ibe Prencb were defeated 
va. The Via Anpla here bnga 
way 10 Naplea 1 istabig Mon- 

r. Vulni 

' O qui Hmpkriu Bt qi 

still celebrated, lod™-, -, „., . ,_ 

ColtenU, or Naplu. Cipiu li on ths nllwiy, uid 

river Voltnnio (Sm lalnw.)] 

FoUowliig Ibe nil. the out iHice to VeHetd la 

/ ValmantOIie SuUdh. i nnali town (pa|iiilUlr,n, 

^.001)) on a Tokmlc falli ; wltli ■ psUce of (tie Doiii,- 

SttKIll autl'on. Dur tlie >IU of ^Kgnto, on ■ UD in 
tbe Llplnl rldga. Segnl (popiiliikin, *,K0) li a 
blih(D*i Me, tuning; k dmrclivbich ma ■ Bomui 
temptt, uul being ilmt Id by ejtiofaa mlb feqi 
mllH la dtcoH, pienedb^MmngiM*, Tba line 
puwa ItetmoiHame G»d vd Unite Cuoma, to 

BMXKIda atallDil. nev the itreraiea). 

nnulD, nmghi 
left (• motbet blabop'a eee, AHiOMI. or .^luviH^ 
tb> UKdent capital of tlie Hemid, ind the pbii 
where Benedict Tltt wu mvted by tba aeeoti i 
Phllipla Bel, or Francs, nhote Un^om the trori 

Contl, and olten, made np the TwelteStatiornob 
famillee, ot Anagnl. The line deKenda tbe Sacea ( 
nWoonS Station, neu « town o( 1,900 li 
babiluil^ the Bite of the Voladan Fnaiiu on Ih 
Cosea. It atandi on a hill in ■ cnltirited ifot, an 
to tlH bead of A Papal delegiitian, irblch extendi t 
the Pontiiie Herehea and the coeat; haTing ■ calhi 
dnl, caatle, eto. Up the CoiH. the tbthnring 
planiBuybe ilalled: — 1. '^uou. t bbhop't ae- 
on • U^ hill a, Auni (popnUlbHi, 10.000), 
biahop'* tee. on n tteep tM, unoai tbe Hml 
SaliL or Hemidin Bunmt^a. hnliig ■ cathedr 
fai a urge open plana at the anmmlt Itretainalta 
uncieDt nocementei] imEi, iOOO je*a oU, kbODI twv 
mllM In eSrcnit ; bnilt oT liregnlar bat ireU-flttutT 

13IMthi[£,wid Ufeet hlehla ainnepaiu. The 
gate tt the citadel la hi (he game Cyclopean Ryle. 
f. E^irthei np the bilk t> a Carttanilan Conrait iif 
TritiM, In a aoUtaiy glen: ai>t> •* Cou-UMBno 
(P^lathn, I.OOO). 1> a ine atalactUe cne, 30l> ftel 
blRi ta the top of Ita dome, 

OeoWno Blallea. *>d 

0«S/na.O BtoUon, at the Junction of the Sauo 
Kith tbe Qarlgliano, tr Uria, on the Italian OmliiT, 
*hei« paNporU an eumbied. Thla li •boot hilf 
way to Na^ei and baa a bsOM. 

~ Foai down to Oalta W mDN, and 
ai MM or VaapoUtu btnUalOui 

Sari^ano, to Id 

:hs nUmrtng Ida 

3. AMram, or Arp Uia m, tbe blTthplaae <t Clem 
and Hailiu; (Iw of Q. Caiart, the painter, araaD* 
calMthe Ccvallen d'Aqdno. Popnlnlon, »,«& 

n it thUup'aBe^ and aland ^..— — - 


» with the mam abn 

The drnrcb of iSonfti JVarlB A CMU li o^the'dta 
ct the Temple itf Hennry the Wocdbetter. in tbt 
pnblto aqura la a modem Town Hall with bnatiof 

rSrm aiKI Ibrlu^ whoie ftoma «rr 

poliind oat br the eiilia» Then li 


iamed after the oiator; and^ fadtlAet 
Tolllna Cleans are adopted a 

aa mioneKtmei of goodelotti. 


Ktral cucadet on the QariKllano, tbe bettof wUdk 
ia at tbe point ef hmctlaa wfth the FUnviOk whvaa 
■ imall Uaod, tuiU dl B. Paolo, li IbtDedj tot- 
reipondinc to Oa "Amaltbca" daeribed by Ofaaro 
inblalattoa. Olooe to tWi ia« ralr-""— ■"" — 
houae, wbldi waa bnilt ont cf lbs 
Villa i Hid unther bnildln- 
Mail, b now sTTapplit CO 

Is Ml, calledFonle dl Cicerooe, 

*. BlLeOBAno Qiopniatlon, ^SOO) 
'alley, on the npper Oulglii 


itrea, and a loR of lynx called gaUavarOa, 
ind bi tbe foretti abont hera which betong to 
iTlncoof Abnmo C lIarlo Te BecondOi — ' 

the lite of 

S. Crnn J>' AvmrA on a bin, la 

OlllDW.bltawoalj M tot ^o Id tha in 
HwdiJxwl^MftitibawM*. When . 

. .. . — ji ^ (■««« BAnilooinlwt 

-" i hr 1»,M0 

w«U atreiwCbtiMd wUb ml ^ ,_ 

•ad li iDiiEaled irtth ^afti fbr ventnation, u Iji 
iiiod«ni tiumA. It bu of Iftt* jvot bvfiji npAlrad, 
•ad ■ icQltct [or di^niiis the lika li nndsi con- 

fkmUy. On th< north-eut Me la Ciuao (popila- 
tlaa, «,eaS), aal bdilad u< (ona of tHehljIiMt 
nonaliilni of the ApeuiInBi, aW t« 8,e«r IM 
(bon ■*. T)u Hopla an * tmn, hudf, thBpl*- 
tttI'vI^ raoa- tha^Men of tlifl Atantnl," who gooh 
down mm tht Un* in nnuiiBr to wait OB th« f ormi 
In tti* CuBHiu; ud •omasf whom with Ihdr 

Thi«tnitulimCS|inBOte'Iloiii^add two tor 
HulH. Tha not sUttlaD t* 

blOatU BUCkm. on the Ilatliui dda. b hitf^mlla 
hnhar. lut wkWi ■ duuig> ot rmrliiga ii mida. 

— J BtatloB (popolaHon, t,S8»), Iha 

■ ~ - u AiininM (IMT), Ihs ' ' 

__„ ha riSBRHi 

Vano hWI a TOkte<^ irtlA WH Hiaad br Aaionr, 

oearly 4M,M. 

imBgDlhcont Bltv, cnorduo'B Cohbi 
Chonb. by AliuuudcT IL, carved ma 
■arTODOded by 50 pniaili a Una orgoo 
9uccDT]is ChipoCtnlnWi •» the Salnl 

HDmBT. Bonu^ Virgil^ tMO, at.. . 

ofAiohlrea from Iho Bill century; k . 

Moutnmcon, Hnnlori, TIrabcachi. etc. wbo wllb 
QocciGdo and Braci^aDnl, eitbar TlaLtad tha Tltinuy. 

' A*»*«Matoftl»T«isloni oTdsn.1 

OritanllO SibUoii. Fopida 
BludO Statloa Popnlsaon, 13M. 
TMtUO BtatloD, tbeiinolentlVaiHin. on On Bsm, 
ihara thne Boiium waya mat Pt^nlulon, li,vni 

toccn UoiiDiiD, an extinct y<^uni^ to Um naith- 

PlSBStoro StDlloa. Popnlatkn. !,««•. 
Capua Staiinn. 2T ndlM fmn HatAo, ts wbToh 


ompelL The modem Capna dMpiilAtlon, 10^718), 
it an arehbishop*! eee^ ind a fiutlfled town of the 
lltjl centos, on the demand rapid VattomiK built 
out of the stones of the ancient d^ and the amalltf 
town of CMUinvm, which oeonptedtha praseak site. 
E^ragments of Roman oolamn^ ftiens, InMriptlons, 
ete.| are hioorporated hi the dmrohes aadpoblic 
stmctorea, some of wt^ifAk are visible in the Gothic 
Cathedral^ which also containa paintings by Ckfli- 
mena; a mosa