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Full text of "Bradshaw's illustrated hand-book for travellers in Belgium, on the Rhine, and through portions ..."


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Found AT ONCE I 

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0«neral View of Belgium— Works of Art, Ac xx. 

Hired Cftrriages — Barriers — Roads xrliL 




Passports , 


Prices of Refreshments at Railway Stations 



.xvli, xyin. 





Route 1. paob 

liondon to Lille 1 

{vid Dover and Calais.) 

Lille to Donai and Valenciennes 4 

Ulle to Ghent, vid Monscron and Courtrai 5 

Ghent to Mechlin and Brassels 18 

Bouts 2. 

Lille to Brussels 16 

(vid Toumai, Ath, and Enghien.) 


London to Brussels 18 

(vid Dover, Ostend, Bruges, and Ghent.) 

Route 4. 
London to Antwerp by the Scheldt 28 


Bruges to Courtrai 82 

Routs 5x. 
Courtrai to Tpres 82 

Routs 6. 
Bruwds 88 

Routs 7. 

Bruseels to Paris 4) 

fjHd Moos and Qni^vrain, or Mous and Maubeuge.) 

Routs 7a. 

Brassels to Charleroi 48 

^by ViUers-la-Ville, Ligny, and Fleums.) 

Routs 8. 
to Nsmur, direct ...M.*.*..t....*..»t......... 49 

Routs 8a. 


Brussels to Charleroi, direct 4f 

Routs 9. 
Namnr to Litfge 61 

Routs 10. 
Ghent to Antwerp, through the Pays de Waes 68 

Routs 11. 
Antwerp to Brussels, by Malincs 59 

Routs 12. 
Antwerp to Tnmhout ft9 

Routs 18. 

Namur to Luxembourg and Treves 60 

(by Great Luxembourg Rail.) 

ROUTR 14. 
Mons to Manage, towardsWaterloo and Brussels 62 

Rox;ts 16, 
Charleroi to Morialm6 68 

Routs 16. 
Kamur to Dinant and Givet, up the Meuse. 68 

Route 17. 
Landen to St. Trend, Hasselt, Maastricht,) i*^ 
and Aix-la-Chapelle ? ^ 

Bm«%«\% lo Co\«i5nft « — *;:' vXT vi!'^Ycia«^'*^ 

\^\ja A J&£« Alfa 



Money 89 

Passports 89 

Wines M.... 89 

Expenses at tuns in Germany 



London to Rotterdam ; 90 

Route 19a. 
Rotterdam to Nymegcn 94 

Route 20. 
Rotterdam to Cologne 95 

Route 21. 
Cologne to Coblenz, and Ems; the Moselle to 
TrfeTcs 98 

Route 22. 
Coblenz to Mayoncc and Wiesbaden 112 

Route 23. 
Mayence to Frankfoi*t 129 

Route 24. 
Bingen to Mayence VS 

Route 25. 
Saarbriicken to Trbres 133 

Route 26. 
Mayence to Metz 187 

Route 27. 

Mayence to Strassburg 188 

(by Worms and Spires.) 

Route 28. 

Frankfort to Basle 147 

(by Darmstadt, Heidelberg, Ac; 

Route 29. paqi 
Carlsmhe (Oos) to Baden-Baden 161 

Route 30. 

Baden to StraMburg 1(6 

Route 31. 

OSenburg to Constance „ li7 

(through the Black Forest.) 
Route 32. 

Freiburg to SchaflThausen 170 

(by the Hullcnthal.) 
Route 83. 

ATricourt to Strassburg 171 

Route 34. 

Strassburg to MUhlhausen, Basle, Ac 173 

Route 35. 

Metz to Forbach and Mannheim 175 

Route 36. 
Metz to Diedenhof en or Thionrille (for Luxem- 

bonrg), Montm^dy, Sedan. M^zl^res 178 

Route 87. 
Schirmeck and Ban de la Roche to Stran- 

burg .••• ••••M .••M.....M ITo 

Route 88. 
I Strassburg to Hagonau, Weissenburg, aad ^ 
I Mannheim ».. 179 





Aart 96 

Achem 168 

Adenaa ...m* 104 

Adolphseck 125 

Aeltre 23 

Aerschot 60 

Aglmont 64 

Agnetenberg 190 

Aigreiuont 56 

Aix-la-Chapelle (or Aachen).. 76 

Ahrweiler t lOi 

Albsheim 140 

Alf 112 

Aiken 64, 111 

Alkmaar 186, 189 

Alroelo 190 

Alost 13, 28 

Alsdorf 80 

AltBrelsach 160 

Altcnahr 104 

Altenberg 88 

Alzey 137 

Amay 55 

Amersfoort 190 

Ampsin 55 

Amsterdam 186 

Andenne 54 

Andemach 105 

Andlau 172 

Annweller 145 

Ans 68 

Anscremme 64 

Antwerp 26, 190 

Anzin 4 

Apollinarlsberg 104 

Appenweier 158, 166 

Ardennes Forest 60 

Ardres 2 

Arenberg 109 

Arhellgen 148 

Arlon 60, 75 

Armentlbres 3 

Amanc 121 

Amhem 94, 190 

Assesses 60 

Aasmannshausen 118 

Ath 17 

J&XOUo •••••••••« •••••••••••••••••Ov, #v 

Attonhoven , 64 

Avdniardtf « 6 


Audriucq 2 

Auerbach 151 

Auggen 161 

Anrung-Medenbach 127 

Anvelals 51 

Avriconrt 171 

Aye 60 

Bacharach 116 

Baden-Baden 145,158, 161 

Badenwciler 161 

Bai Suggenthal 159 

Baesrode 14 

Balllcul 3 

Baisleux 16 

Ballon de Gebweller 174 

Ban de la Roche, or Steiutbal 178 

Banlers 42 

Baroche 173 

Barr 173 

Bartenheim 175 

Bary-Maulde 17 

Bascoup 62 

Basle 161, 175 

Bastogne 60 

Battice 71 

Beaame 62 

Heirvelde 58 

Beloiel « 17 

Bellem 23 

Bendorf 107 

Benfeld 178 

Bcningen 177 

Bennweier 174 

Benrath 98 

Bensdorf 134 

Bensheim 151 

Benzberg 88 

Bcrchem 59 

Bergstrasse 149, 155 

Bemcastel 112 

Bertrich Baths 112 

Bertrix 60 

Berz^e 63 

Bettingen 60 


Beurig SaatbuTg .AavX^'cOt^ 

Beveren ^ \'%5^*^'*Sue. 


Beyne 71 

Blblis 142 

Bieberach-zell 167 

BiebermUhle 145 

Biebrich 125, 129 

Biervliet 25 

Binche 49 

Bingen 119 

Bingerbmck 119 

Birkcnfeld 121 

Blschwiller 179 

Bisseghem 32 

Bitburg 137 

Bitche, or Bitsch 179 

Black Forest. 158, 167 

Blackwall 24 

Blanc Misseron .*.... 48 

Blandain 16 

Blankenberghe 23 

Blankfcnheim 187 

Bloeraendael 23 

Blumbcrg 168 

Bochum 80 

Bockolt 190 

Bodendorf v 104 

Bois-du-Luc 62 

Bois-le-Dac (or Hertogen- 

bosch) 64, 190 

Boitsfort 48 

BoUweiler 176 

Bommel 94 

Bonn 101 

Bonne Esperance 49 

Boom 18, 14 

Boppart 114 

Boussu 47 

Bouvigny 75 

Boxtel 64, 96, 190 

Braives ^ 

Bracquegnies 62 

Braine-le-Comte 17 

Braubach 114 

Breda 25, 96 

Bretten Bad. 157 

Briey 178 

Brlelle 9J- 

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Hiillonthor „ IM 

KiHiibDric natio (in Hew) ..JOS 
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itS^.'" ..189 

HoTohhelm .^llt 

Hdnlt .,„ lTl> 

ItombcnE .......IdT 

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Ilougonmoiit _ 4S 

HBIflnson '.'.'.'.'. Z'Z'.'."..'.. ~~.Zll» 

Hotlcitheliii ...__....__ .!« 

Igel Obellik M. lOT 

IhTinR^a ..„.„...,..,.. .inft 

Iminisnditt«i ir.A 

InKEllwiiii 123,131 

InselnianiMr 7 

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Kirtzheim.... 178 

Klerf ?Clervaux) 75 

Ko<^enheim 178 

KUnigsdorf 81 

Konigstein 129 

Konigsttthl 155 

Konigswinter 102 

Kork 166 

Kreazberg 101 

Kreaznach 120 

Krotzingen 161 

Kttnsberg 178 

Kurve 125,129 

Kusel (or Cusel) 138 

Kyllburg ^ 137 

La Bello Alliance 45 

La Gennettc 17 

La Hayc Sainte 45 

La Hulpe 4* 

La Lonvibrc 62 

La Mallieuc 66 

La Paix 62 

I-a Pinte 7 

La Plante 52 

La Providence 50 

La Rcid 72 

La Trappe Abbey 69 

La Verrifere 62 

Laacher See 105 

Ladenbnrg 152 

Lncken Palace 16, 23, 65 

Lahnstein 109 

Lahr » 159 

Lanibusart 49 

Lamortean 60 

Lamperthcim 141, 142 

Landan 145, 179 

Ijandeghem 23 

Landen 64, 68 

Landskron 104 

Landstuhl 138 

Laneffc 63 

Langcn 148 

I^angenbrtlckcn 156 

Langtsrwehc 80 

Langmeil 140 

Lautenbach 175 

Lanterbach 158 

Laatcrburg 145, 179 

Lay Ill 

Lede 23 

Leeu warden 190 

Lcforcst 4 

I^embecq 17 

Lens 17 

Lenzklrch 171 

Leopoldshafen 145 

LeopoldshShe mITS 

lie Troor 72 


Leazc '. 17 

Leyden 184 

Libramont 60 

Llchtenthal 165 

Lichtervelde 7, 32 

Li^ge 68, 68 

Lierre 81,59 

Lignc 17 

Ligny 43 

LImbnrg 127 

Limburg Abbey 140 

Limersheim 172 

Lille 8 

Linz 104 

Lobbcs 49 

Loblth 96 

FiOdelinsart 49 

Locvestcin Castle 94 

Locwenbrlickcn 62 

Lokcrcn 58 

L'Olive 62 

Londerzecl 13 

Longlicr 60 

Longuyon 60 

Loo 67, 190 

Lorch 117 

liorchauscn 117 

Lorsch Abbey 151 

Loth 18 

Louisa 148 

Louvam 60, 65 

Ludwigshafcn 141 

Lurleiberg 115 

Luttcrbach 175 

LUtzelburg lil 

Luttre 49, 6\ 51 

Luxembourg 61, 75 

Maestricht 64 

MaflScs 17 

Mainau 170 

Malderen 14 

Malines. or Mechlin 14, 32 

Malplaquct 46 

Manage 49, 62 

Mannheim 141,179 

Marbehan 60 

Marche 60 

Marche-les-Damcs 53 

Marchienne-au-Pont 50 

Marcholsheim 173 

Marirate 24 

Mariemont 62 

Mariembourg 64 

Marienbcrg ., 114 

Marienthal 179 

Marke Braine 45 

Markirch (8t. Marie-anx- 

Mines) 173 

Marksbnrg 114 


Marloio (or Marloye) „.. 60 

Marmoutier ...172 

Mamhoim 140 

Mars-la-Tour 176 

Matzenhcim 178 

Mcubcnge 47 

MaursmUnster ^.173 

Mausethnrm ....119 

Maxau 145 

Mayen 106 

Mayence .•.127 

Mechlin «..14, 82 

Meckesheim 156 

Mcerssen 65 

Mehlem 103 

Mehring 113 

Mefrelbekc 28 

Melibocus 149 

Mciscnheim » 121 

Mclle 18, 38 

Mcnin 83 

Mcppel 193 

Mcrtcrt 61 

Mcrxhcim 174 

Merxptas 59 

Meslin I'Evequo 17 

Mettct 61 

Mcttlach 188 

Metz 138, 178 

Meulbcko 7 

M(}zibrcs 178 

Michelstadt 160 

Middelburg 35 

Mittelheira 128 

Modave 55, 68 

Moerdyk 190 

Moll 68 

Molsheim 179 

Mommenheim 172 

Monrcpos 107 

Mens 46, 47, 49 

Monshcim 140 

Montigny 4 

MontignV-Sur-Sambrc ;. 60 

Mont St.'Guibert 49 

Mont St. Jean 44 

Morchingen 177 

Moresnet 76 

Morialmc 68 

Morsbach 80 

Morschheim 137 

Mosbach 136 

Mosctkcm 112 

Moselle River 107, 110 

Moselweiss 109, 111 

Monscron 5 

Mouse Tower 118 

Moustier 51 

Muggensturm 157 

Mtihlheira 97 

MUlhansen (Mulhouse) 176 

MQlheim-on- the- Rhine 98 

1 Mtthlhofen 107 




Mullhelin 161 

Mttnchen-Oladbach 83, 79, 98 

Mung;er8dorf 81 

Mun8ter*am-Stein 120 

Munster 174 

Ifunster-Maifeld Ill 

Murgthal, The 166 

Mntterstadt 142 

Mutzig 179 

Kani^che 58 

Mamedy 105 

Kamur 51 

Mannines 00 

Nassau 110 

National Denkmal 120 

Natoye 60 

Nebingen 177 

Neckar-Gemiind 155 

Neckar-Steinach 155 

Neckarelz 155 

Keer Linter 68 

Neerwinden 68 

Neuenahr 104 

Neuhausen 169 

Nessonvaux 72 

Weu-Breisach 160, 174 

Neu Eberstein 166 

Keuenberg 161 

Kenmagcn 112 

Neuendorf 107 

Neuenhfiin 129 

Nenenheim 156 

Neufcbftteau 60 

Nennklrchen 188 

Neuss 79 

Netistadt-an-der-Haardt 140 

Ncuwciler 172 

Neuwied 106 

Nlederrad 142 

Niedeggen 80 

Nlederbrelsig 105 

Nlederbronn 177,179 

Nieder-Ingelheim 123 

Nieder Lahnstein 113 

Nidcmhausen 127 

Nleder-Schopfheim 159 

Niederspay 114 

Hlederwald 121 

Nieder-Walluf 124 

Niederwerth 107 

Nierstein 138 

Nleukerken 58 

Nieuport 19 

Nipay 62 

NlTelles 42, 45, 49 

Honnenwerth 103 

Jiotuliaiiseii ••••••••••••• •••••••••••i07 


Oberbeuren 165 

Oberreisig 105 

Oberkassel 103 

Oberkirch 158 

Oberlahnstein 118 

Obernai ....172 

Oberstein 121 

Obersulz «. 175 

Oberwesel 115 

Obourg 62 

Odenwald 149 

Odilienberg 178 

Oetringen 61 

Offenburg 158,167 

Oggersheim 140 

Olsene 6 

Oos 145, 168, 161 

Oostkamp 28 

Oost-Malle 59 

Opwyck 18 

Oppcn 168 

Oi^nheim : 188 

Orschweier 159 

Orschwiller 173 

Ostend 18 

Ostheim 173 

Ottignles 48, 49 

Ottmarsheim 175 

Ottweiler 121 

Ondenarde 6 

Ougr^e 58 

Pallien 187 

Parcq Abbey 67 

Pempelfort 98 

Peltre 177 

Pepinster 72, 75 

Perenchics 8 

Pctershansen 169 

Pfaffendorf 113 

Pfaffenhofen 172 

Pfalz 116 

Pfiffligheim 140 

Phalsbourg (Pfalzburg) 171 

Philippsburg 156 

Piston 49 

Pfnnasens 145 

Pitth«*m 7 

PlasfK^hendael 19 

Poix 60 

Poncellc 60 

Pont-h-Celles 49 

Poperinghe 32 

Popplesdorf 101 

Puers 14 

Pumpe 80 

Punderich 113 

iaiTecuv«.........««. •>•%«*«.»•.••• M<& 


QaUvrain 48 

Quint 1 i^ 

Raalte 190 

Radolfzell H'i) 

Raismes 4 

Ramillies 46, 49, 52 

Ransart 49 

Rastatt 145, 157 

Rauenthal 124 

Redingcn 60 

Rees 96 

Reichenan 170 

Reichenweier 173 

Rcmagcn 1C4 

Remiily 177 

Rcmouehamps Grotto 7o 

Renchen 1.^8 

Rfeves 42 

Rezonrille 176 

Rheinsheim 1/6 

Rheinbreitbach 103 

Rheindiebach 117 

Rheineck Castle 105 

Rhelngau 117 

Rheingrafenstein 120 

Rheinstein 117 

Rheinweiler 161 

Rhcns 113 

Rhcliifels Castle 115 

Rheydt 32, 98 

Rhine River 89, 94, 96, 93 

Rhisncs 49 

Rhondorf 103 

RlbeauTill^ (Rappoltsweller).173 

Riegel 159 

Rippoldsau 167 

Rixcnsart 48 

Rlxheim 175 

Rochfort 60 

Rocult Castle 62 

Rodenstein Castle 151 

Rodelheim 132 

Roermond (or Ruhrmonde)... 82 

Roisdorf 100 

Rotandseck 103 

Roodt 61 

Rnosendaal 25 

Rosengarten 141 

Rosheim 172 

Rosonx 68 

Rossel, The 118 

Rothau 178 

Rothe Erde 80 

Rothenfels 166 

Rotterdam 92, 180 

Rottwcil ;....168 

Roubaix 5 

Roulers ^*^ 

Boux ^ 

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RnpeliuonUe 31 

Ravsbrucck 18 

RyHscIt 190 

Ryswyk 184 

Sanralhen 134 

Suarbrttckcii 121, 1C8, 177 

Saarbarg 134, 171 

tfaargemUnd 184,177 

Saarlouis 121, 138 

Saar-Union 177 

Sachsenhauscn ISl, 142 

St. Adolphc 02 

St. Amaiid 14 

St. Amarin Valley 176 

St. Avoid 177 

St. Denis Westrem 7 

St. Di^ 178 

St. Georgcn 168 

St. Ghislaln 47 

St. Ooar 115 

St. Goarshausen 115 

St. Hubert 60 

St. Ingbert 145 

St. Ilffcn 155 

St. Ludwigr 175 

St. Marie-aux-Mines 173 

St. Nicholas 58 

St. Omer 2 

St. Plerre-les-Calais 2 

St. Pilt 178 

St. Trend 64, 68 

Salzig 114 

Sasbach 158 

Suyenthcm 65 

Savcrne, or Zabem 172 

Schaerbock 65 

SchaflThausen 168, 171 

Schallstadt 161 

Scharlachberg 120 

Schellebelle 23 

Schenkensschanz 96 

Schcveningen 183 

Schiedam 92 

Schicfbahn 98 

Schierstcin 125 

SchlflTerstadt 145 

Schiltach 167 

Schirmeck 178 

Schlangenbad 124 

Schlettstadt 178 

Schliengen ^....161 

Schomberg 116 

Schwalbach 124 

Schwarz-Rheindorf 101 

Schwctzingen 142, 152 

Sclaigncaux 58 

Sechtem 100 

Scclin 4 

Sedan 178 

Seneffo ^...m».........m 49 | 


I Seraing 1.&7, 71 

! Sesonhcim 146 

Sheerness 24 

Shoeimryness 24 

Siel)engcbirge 100, 101, lOi 

Sierck 178 

Si'Tcntz 175 

.**iu^nealx 6i 

Singen 169 

Sinzheini 168 

Sinzig 1C5 

Sobemheim 121 

Soden 129, 132 

8oestdyk 190 

Soignies 17, 46 

Soiuain 4 

Sonimeraa 168 

Southend 24 

Spa 72 

Speicher 137 

Speyer, or Spires 142 

Sprendlingcn U8 

Stahleck 117 

^tamniheim 98 

Starkenburg 112 

Stayelot 75 

Steen Oh&teau 15, 31 

Steenkerke 17 

Stcenwerck S 

Steig 171 

Steinbach 1 68 

Steinberg 123 

Steinburg 172 

Stolbcrg 79, 80 

Stolzenfels 113 

Straepy 62 

Strassburg 145 

Strazecle 8 

Stuttgart 168 

Sulz-nnter-dem-Walde 179 

Sundhofen 160 

Tamines 49, 51 

Taunus Mountains 129 

Teterchen ^..177 

Termonde „... 13 

Temath 28 

Temeusen 25 

T6te de Flandre 68 

Texel 188,189 

Thann 175 

Theux 72 

Thiel 95 

Thionville (Diedenhofen) 178 

Thielt 7 

Thourout 32 

Thuin 49 

Thylo-Ghftteau 68 

Tigolsheim 174 

••••••••••••••••••••••••• 86 


TUlear •.............•...........^.. 67 

Tirlemont 62,67 

Titi See ....171 

Tongres or Tongeren.^M 68 

Tourcoing 5 

Toumai 16 

Traben 112 

Trnrbach 112 

Treis 112 

Trfeves (Trier) 62, 112. 184 

Tribcrg 167 

Trlfcls Castle 145 

Trols Fonts 75 

Trois Vierges (Ulflingen) 71 

Tubize 17 

Tiirkheini 174 

Tumhout 59 

luttlingeu „..168 

Ueckingen 178 

Uerdingeu 79, 97 

Uerzig 119 

Unkel 108 

Utrecht ^ 188 

Val Renoit Bridge 71 

Valenciennes 4, 48 

Vedrin 52 

Veere 2.5 

Velm 64 

Velthem 65 

Vendcnheim 172,179 

Venlo 9^ 

Verdun 177 

Vertryck «.. 67 

Verviers 71, 75 

V csvcnoo •••••••••••9«*« ••• •••••••■• w 

Vetschau 78 

Vielsalm 75 

ViesYillc 49 

Vieux Dieux 59 

Villingen 468 

Villers la ViUe Abbey 48 

VilYorde 15 

T inijii •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• w 

Vlaardingen ».... 91 

Vlo<lrop «., 82 

Wadcm .«.187 

Waereghem 6 

Wagnel^ St. Amand 42 

inraicnereii •....•.....••...«.•*..••• zo 
Walburg ...•••.•...•.«*.«««m»..mJ78 




Waldhof 141 

Waldkirch 1S» 

Waldshttt 16S 

Wallers 4 

Wallersheim 108 

Walporzhelm 104 

Wanlln 60 

Waremme 68 

Warquiirnies 47 

WasscrbilUj; M 

Waterin^en 184 

Waterloo 41 

Watten 2 

Warre 48 

WaTre Ste. Catherine 69 

Wecker 61 

Weilach 129 

Weingarten , 166 

Wcinheini •••«••••.<•••«••••• ••••••••151 

WeiMenbacb 166 

Weissenbnrg 179 

Weimenthann 107 

Welkenraedt 76 


Welmlch 115 

Weacl 96, 190 

Wesserling 175 

Westmalle 59 

Wettercn 13, St 

Wichelen 18 

Wieshaden 125 

Wiesloch 156 

Wildbad •.- 165 

Wilwerwiltz 75 

Winden 145 

Wiiikel 123 

Wiuningcn Ill 

Winterwyk 190 

Wittelsheim ...175 

Woerden 185 

Wolfach 167 

Wolfskfrchen 177 

Woolwich 24 

Worms 139 

Wortel 59 

WSrth ^........179 


Wttrselen 80 

Wyneghem 5SI 

Xanten 96 

Ybursr 165 

Ymuiden 1R8 

Yprea, or Yperon 32 

Yves C8 

Zaandam 186, 188 

Zandvoort 186 

Zabern 172 

Zeist 190 

Zell « 112,167 

Zuid Beveland. 25 

Zutpben. 190 

ZusrderZee J88, 189 

Zwcibrttcken 188, 145 

Zwingenberg 1 19 

ZwoUe *i.O 

Zwyndrecht ••.... 58 


Tliutn,Tli« ... 
AeadMDjr, The. 

Bonchoiit. Chaiem 

Chnrch of Bt. KUb 

i«,PM»nn..crftl. „ 

ii(*^CBH»MaQck.n«4r _..... 

le Cmlle et Hu-kibunc 108 

Ports dnPonl ...^ 
Tone Sli9iibcth.u..i 

Valley near H* 


Thb Hand-Booka hitherto publiahed for the use of travellers on the Continent have 
been the subject of so much complaint and objection, both in reference to their bulk 
and voluminous character, that the Publishers of the present volume determined to 
meet the requirements and oft-expressed wishes of the public, by undertaking the 
task of supplying to them Continental Hand-Books, small and convenient in size, yet 
replete with all the descriptive, historical, and other useful information so ably and 
faithfully given in the large volumes published by their contemporaries. And they 
trust that this effort of theirs will not be looked upon as an unwarrantable intrusion 
upon ground already occupied, nor yet as an unworthy rival to books of a larger and 
more elaborate description. 

The present revised Hand-Book furnishes the traveller with a valuable companion 
in his Tour through Belgium and on the Rhine, And with a view to his convenience and 
information, we have given him a book small and compact, capable of being consigned 
to the pocket, or borne in the hand without trouble or annoyance ; whilst it furnishes 
him with matter-of-fact descriptions of what ought to be seen on his journey and in 
hb visits, carefully selecting all the historical details and anecdotes, and such 
other matters as we believe calculated to interest whilst they instruct the £nglish 
traveller, at the same time that we have excluded all that was dry or useless. In 
our descriptions of buildings and institutions, though we have not burdened our 
readers with the genealogical histories of their founders, proprietors, and architects, 
yet we have not confined ourselves to giving a mere catalogae of them, but we have 
furnished all that was valuable in connection with their histories, paintings, and 
architecture, at the same time that we have illustrated them by a series of 

In all our arrangements we have observed, so far as possible, a simple and con- 
densed style ; and wherever practicable have availed ourselves of good and correct 
information gathered from other sources. The nature or character of this volume 
tolerates little novelty, and admits of no deviation from the principle on which €.\v5Jq^ 
s work must be essentially based. Books in foreign la\i^u«b^<&^ tcmsx \sfe ^Qc>»- <isi»s^ 
oonrces of our information, modified by peiBOnaV o\i*ersft.\I\Qra.«sA^a^^scsssBRfe« 

XVI. PfiEifACE. 

We meet the traveller in England, impart to him the information necessary for 
the purpose of preparation, directing him in reference to the management of his pass- 
port and luggage at home and on the Continent ; we lead him by the most approved 
routes through his tour, and place before him every item of instruction useful to him 
in his journey. We do not, however, say that our work is faultless. Were it so, we 
should have achieved an impossibility, for we believe that Hand-Books are ^ like 
watches, the worst are better than none — the best cannot be expected to go quite true." 
We know the severe ordeal a Hand-Book for travellers abroad has to pass through ; 
we can thoroughly appreciate the merciless criticism which will test its tnith 
when weighing its accuracy on the very spot described, but, however, we venture 
confidingly to launch it forth, trustful in the forbearance of all, whilst hopeful that 
those who make use of it will kindly favour us by forwarding to us corrections of 
any errors or inaccuracies they may discover in it. 

In conclusion, we can only remark that in the editing of the present Tolnme we 
have aimed at the medium between an useless repetition of detail, and the annoy- 
ance of a tasteless brevity of description ; and trust the traveller may find it not less 
useful than interesting. 


passfobtft-^mohbt — ^posting — diligences, barriers, hoads— ^belgian hotels. 
Prices of Befreshment at the Belgian Kailway Stations— General 
View of Belgium — ^Bau.wats in Belgium. 

* * 

See Bradshaw^s Continental Guide^ published monthly, for the latest particulars 
respecting Hotels, Chaplains, Medical Men, Bankers, Population, Railways, 
Steamers, and other matters which axe liable to change at different places. 


Passports are not absolutely required by British subjects either for Belgium or 

Holland, but are quite indispensable for some of the large towns in Germany, yet, 

whether required or not, it is always usef al for the traveller to have one to show 

when called upon. The police take lists of persons staying at the Hotels and Caf4s» 

A passport may be obtained through our Agents, W. J. Adams and Sons, 59, 

Fleet Street. For Germany it is necessary to hare the visa of the German Consul. 

Routes. — London to Brussels, Cologne, and the Rhine, via the South Eastern or 

the London, Chatham, and Dover Railways ; see Routes 1, 2 and 18. London to 

I Rotterdam or Antwerp, via the Great Eastern Railway to Harwich. To Holland and 

j the Rhine, via London, Chatham, and Dover Railway to Queenborougb, and steamer 

! to Flushing. London to Ostend or Antwerp by steamer direct. From the North 

of England, via Grimsby or Hull to Antwerp, Holland, &c. ; and from Newcastle or 

. Leith to Rotterdam. Sec the summary and tables in Bradshaw*s Continental Guide, 

. pages 1 to 17, and 426 and 440 for further information. 

; Custom House. — ^Travellers proceeding through Belgium to the Rhine should 
have their luggage registered for Cologne, where it is examined. 
• Money. — Circular notes are given by most of the principsl London Bankers, and 
I form a very safe and convenient kind of Letters of Credit. The arrangements for 
• cashing them in the various countries through which the traveller may have to pass 
are very simple and efficient, precluding almost the possibility of fraud. As a letter 
of indication is given with them, we would caution tourists to keep the one in 
their pocket-book and the other in their baggage. French, Italian, and even Swiss 
iSlver coinage is still current, as well as Belgian, but, owmsi^ \» ^^jwsssi*. 
arrangements between the Latin nations, it \a VitUct tslqX \» vi«5«^N» «K>i >sbbcv^ 
A 1 — (Belgium,) 


XViii. iXTRODCCTtoS*. 

payment in other than Belgian silver. The bronze money is not importanti 
and French 5 and 10 centimes will be found everywhere. At all the large towns 
English sovereigns will be readily exchanged, and should command the fall equivalent 
of 25 fr. 20 cts., or thereabouts, according to the rate of exchange. The Belgian 
bank issues notes of the value of 1,000, 500, 100, 50, and 20 francs. 



1 Franc = 100 centimes =3 20 sous 9| 

i Franc = 50 centimes 5 

5 Francs 4 


Leopold d'or, or Twenty Franc Piece 16 

Posting is now nearly obsolete, but a post is equivalent to five KngjUsh, or 
about one German, mile, or to two Belgian or French leagues. The charge per poft, 
for each horse, is 1 fr. 30 cts., and for each postilion that distance, 15 sous. Aberlift 
or landau will take three or four horses ; a chariot, three ; britzka, though canying 
the same number of persons, two. 


Hired Carriages. — A voiture, with two horses, can be engaged for about 30 fr. 
per day, including 5 fr. to the driver. 25 fr. a day, back fare, must be paid (making 
in all GO fr. for carriage and horses). 

Barriers. — There are toll-gates, at which four-wheeled carriages are cbarge^ 
10 cents., and each horse 20 cents., the return included. 

Roads. — In general the Belgian roads are paved, thus rendering travelliDg over' 
them very fatiguing, especially to ladies. 

Conveyances. — One-horse cabs, called Monopoles, can be hired in Brnseels as 
follows : — Between 6 a.m. and midnight : For the course (anywhere within the town)- 
1 f r. for the first half-hour ; every quarter of an hour after, 50 c. Double fare after 
midnight. Small pourboire expected. The Bois and the Park of Lacken are 
included, but return must be made in the same cab. There is no fixed tariff for 
two-horse cabs. 

Hotels. — The following are the average charges: — From 1^ to 2^ fr. for bed; 
table d'hote, 2 to 3 fr.; dinner in a separate apartment, by one's self, 5 fr,, supper at 
table d'hote, 1 fr. 50 cents, to 2 fr.; a bottle of Bordeaux (claret), 3 fr.; break- 
fast with eggs and meat, 1 Ir. 50 cents f coffee, tea, and bread and butter, 1 to Ij fr.; 
lervarits, 50 cents, to 1 fr, each. 



Tariff of Refreshments at the BsLaiAif Railway Stations or Buffets 


BoniUon et pain avec beurre 

Blfteck aux pommes de terre, avee pain ... 
RoAstbeef anxpommos de terre, arec pain. 

Filet de bceuf rdtl 

Deux cdtelettes de monton 

Vean chand on cdtelettes avec pommes) 

de terre ' 

Portion de pdnlet chaud m. • 

Vean froid arec nn petit pain 

Jambon id. id 

■ Boenf saltf id. id 

Langne fum^ id. id 

Poolet froid, la portion id. 

Fromage id 

Id. Anglais id 

Un petit pain betur^ 

Id. sausbeurre 

Id. avec beorre et fromage 

Dtfjefiner (cafd on th^, pain et beorre) 

Caf^ 1a demi-tasse 


Vin de Bordeaux ordinaire la bouteille 

Id. id la i id. 

Id. de St. Jttlien la bouteille 

Id. id la i id. 

Id. de St. Emilion la bouteille 

Id. de St. Est^pbe id. 

Id. de Cabarus, long bouchon, premiere ^ 

quality la bouteille) 

Mad^re lo rcrre 

Malaga id. 

Muscat id. 

F^ntignan ou Lunel id. 

Porto id. 

Sherry (X^rfes) id. 

Vinde Cabarus, long bouchon, seconder 

quality la bontcUle) 













2 50 
1 60 

3 60 
1 75 
3 60 
3 50 

3 50 



Yin de Cbftfeau-Margraux la bouteille 

fr. cts. 


dc 6fr. k lOfr. 

Id. de Volnay 

Id. de Pommard 

Id. de Nulls 

Id. de Chftblls 

Id. de Moselle 

Id. de Grave, prem. quality 

Id. id. seconde id 

Id. de Tours « 

Id. de Rhin, prem. quality 

Id. id. seconde id 

Champagne mousseux, la bouteille 


Schiedam le verre 

Amer de Hollande id. 

Eau-dc-Vie id. 

Cognac, Rhum, Kirsch id. 

Liqueurs fines de toute espbce id. 

Marasquiii id. 

Punch h Teau chaude „ id. 


Sirop de fruits ou punch le vcrre 

Limonade ou orgeat id. 

Grog ou orgeat id. 

Eau sucr^e et fleur d*oranger id. 







Cigares ettabacs 

Chambrc avec lit 











Une bouteille de Faro ou dc Diest 60 

Leverre 20 

Une bouteille ou cruchon Iambic. 70 

Une bouteille de Louvain 40 

Le verre 15 

Une bouteille de Bibre de Bavi^ro 70 

Biferc de la locality, le verre 15 







■How.— The prices quoted in the above table must not always be depended upon^ thA <*a«^e«*» "v^a*- 
tbamvurying at the different stations. 

XX. tNtBODtronoN. 

Railways. — There is no free allowance for luggage. Children from 8 to 8, half 
fara. Retam tkkels to a eontiderable nmnber of places. Express farti art Idgher 
than ordinary fares. Greenwich (West Europe) time is kept and is 17} minntes 
behind Brussels time. 

PuYATB Carriages. — Persons travelling in private carriages pay third class fait 
in addition to the charge for the carriage. 


Belgium (2ks Belgique) is a modem name taken from the ancient Betgcs in ChxUia 
Belgica, a tribe conquered by Cssar, b.o. 51, some of whom emigrated to Britain. As 
part of the Netherlands, it came, in a.d. 877, under the Dukes of Burgundy, the last of 
whom was Charles the Bold, who reigned 1467-77. In 1477 the Netherlands were 
transferred to Maximilian, Emperor of Germany. His son, the Emperor Charles Y., 
was born at Ghent. From 1598 they came under Spain, till 1714, when they reverted 
to Austria; and continued to be governed by the Archdukes of the Empire 4owa to 
1795, when they were conquered by the French. Between 1794 and 181 5» Belgium 
made nine departments of France. With Holland, it formed the kingdom of the 
Netherlands from 1815 down to 1830; since which it has ranked as a separate and 
independent kingdom. In the August of 1830 the Belgian provinces revolted, and. 
threw off the yoke of Holland. On the 4th of October following, the independence 
of the kingdom was proclaimed by the provisional government, and recognised Itt the 
month of December by the allied powers of Europe. 

The National Congress assembled at Brussels in 1831, and offered the throne of 
the new kingdom to the Duke of Nemours, which, on the son's behalf, was refused 
by his father, the late Louis Philippe, then King of the French. The next choice of 
the National Representatives fell upon Prince Leopold of Saxe Coburg, widower of 
the Princess Charlotte of England, and uncle to Queen Victoria ; who, as Leopold I., 
ascended the throne, and took the oaths prescribed by the constitution, on the 22nd 
July, 1831, in the presence of the assembled representatives of the nation. His son, 
the reigning king, Leopold II., bom 9th April, 1835, ascended 10th December, 1865. 
He married the Archduchess Maria, 22nd August, 1853 (his Silver Wedding was 
celebrated 1878), and has three daughters. A son died 1869. The king's brother, the 
Count of Flanders, is the present heir-apparent. He married, 1867, the Princess 
HohenzoUem-Sigmaringen. The 50th anniversary of the separation, from Holland 
was celebrated 1880. 

The Belgian territory is small, the area being only 11,878 square miles, no 
more than one-eighth of the size of Great Britain, with a population of 6,147,041; 
yet the important position which it has occupied in the political, military, commercial, 
and agricultural history- of Europe, its former celebrity in manufactures and the fine arts, 
and its present rapid progress in every industrial pursuit and social improvement, 
iares^U witi a peculiar interest for the historian, the traveller, and the student. 


Its territory, as defined by treaty of 15th Norember, 1881, consUts of the nine 
proyinoes of Brabant, Li^e, Limbonrg, Namnr, Hainaut, West Flanders, East 
Flanders, Antwerp, and Luxembourg ; part of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and 
psurt of Limbourg being ceded to Holland, viz. : — first, a portion of the province of 
Luxembourg, east of an irregular line drawn from the French frontier, near Longwy, 
to one on the Prassian frontier, about 17 miles south of Malm^dy; and secondly, 
the portions of Limbourg, on the west of the river Mense, including the city of 
Maestrlcht in a deviating curve, and on the north of a line from Stevenswiert, on 
the Meuse, to one on the Dutch frontier, 4 miles west of Wiert. 

The general outline of the territory is a triangular figure, the longest' side of 
which extends on the French frontier from a point midway between Fumes and 
Dunkirk, to one 9 miles south-east of Arlon, at Longwy. 

The kingdom, as thus described, is bounded on the north by the Dutch province of 
Limburg, and by North Brabant and Zeeland; on the north-west by the North Sea; 
on the south-west and south by the departments of the Pas de Calais, Nord, Ardennes, 
and Moselle, in France ; and on the east by the Dutch portion of the Grand Duchy of 
Luxembourg and Rhenish Prussia. 

Divisions. — Brussels is the capital and seat of government ; for the administra- 
tion of which the kingdom is divided into the 9 provinces above enumerated, 41 
arrondissements, and 2,596 communes. For military purposes it is divided into 
9 commands, corresponding to the 9 provinces ; and, lastly, for judicial proceedings, 
it is divided into 29 arrondissements, and 319 cantons. There are bishoprics at 
Bruges, Ghent, Li^ge, Namur, and Tournai, under an archbishop at Malines. In 
1880 there were 1,559 conventual establishments, with 25,362 members. 

Abea and Population. — Belgium lies between 49" 31' and 51* 27' N. latitude, 
and between 2" 3' and 6«> E. longitude. Its greatest length from S.E. to N.W. is 
173 English miles, and its greatest breadth, measured in the direction S.S.W., from 
the most northern part of the province of Antwerp, to the most southern part of 
the province of Hainault, 112 miles. 

The Area and Population according to Provinces are as under : — 

Provinces. Square Miles. Popnlatlon, 1890. Chief Towns. Population. 

Antwerp 1,096 699,671 Antwerp 227,225 

Brabant 1,271 1,128,728 Brussels 482.000 

Flanders, West... 1,251 746,923 Bruges 47^331 

manders. East ... 1,162 958,762 Ghent 148,729 

Hainault 1,441 1,068,815 Mons 26,287 

Liege 1,120 762,196 Liege 147,660 

Limbourg 934 224,604 Hasselt 13,250 

Luxembourg 1,710 216,380 Arlon 'V^^X 

VWM 1,417 841,072 > .,...»,.,. ^%m!to - 'Ja:^'^v 

11.408 ... 6,147\04\ 


In 1869 the population was 5,021,336 ; in 1873, 5,543,680 ; in 1880, 5,520,009. Forty- 
one per cent, speak French and forty-five Flemish. All but 143,260 are native-born, 
and nearly all Roman Catholics; the Protestants are about 10,000; Jews, 4,000. 
The population of the largest towns (1890), besides those mentioned above, is 
as follows r—Malines, 50,962; Louvain, 40,625; Verviers, 50,223; Toumai, 35,403; 
Seraing, 33,912; Schaerbeek, 54,036; Molenbeek, 50,618 ; Ixellcs, 45,982. 

General Aspect op the Country. — The North and West provinces, in 
.their flatness, fertility, dykes, and canals, may be regarded as a continuation of 
Holland. This portion of the country is so densely populated that it presents 
the appearance of one continuous village. Ths South and East provinces have 
^n opposite character, being generally more thinly populated, le&s cultivated, and 
exhibiting a most irregular mountainous surface, with tracts of marshy lands ail<l 
■extensive forests. With the exception of these three hilly districts in the south and 
east, the entire territory presents the appearance of a series of nearly level plains, 
traversed by numerous streams, delightfully diversified by woods, arable lands, and 
meadows of brilliant verdure, enclosed by hedge rows; and thickly studded through- 
out with towns and villages. In surveying the general face of the country, and 
proceeding from west to east, we observe that the coast is uniformly flat, and formed 
of fine loose sand, which, by the frequent action of the sea winds, is raised into 
.gently undulating downs or (Junes. These banks of sand extend, nearly without inter- 
ruption from Dunkirk, along the entire coasts of Belgium and Holland. In breadth 
they vary from one to three miles, and rise in the highest parts to 40 or 50 feet. 
.They are formed entirely by the operation of the sea waves m elevating the deep 
sands of the shore, and, since they serve as a natural barrier against the encroach- 
ment of the ocean, it is an object of great importance to check their constant 
tendency to advance inland. For the purpose, therefore, of rendering the sand 
compact and stationary, the dunes are sown with a species of reed (arundo arenaria), 
or marrum grass, until a suflicient stratum of mould is collected to support planta- 
tions of firs (Finns Maritimus)^ with which most of the Belgic dunes are covered. 

Though no part of the surface of Belgium is actually below the level of the sea, 
as is the case in Holland, yet, in common with the latter, its shore in some parts is 
defended from the encroachments of the ocean by broad and elevated dykes ; and 
whole districts, which were formerly alluvial morasses, have been entirely reclaimed 
and cultivated, after being drained and embanked. The embanked enclosures of 
this description are called polders. On the sea coast, and along the lower banks of 
the Scheldt, they are very numerous, and some contain above 1,000 acres of rich 
alluvial soil, which is appropriated with great advantage to the purposes of agriculture. 

To the south-east of the dunes the provinces of West and East Flanders and 
HalaaaU Sorm a /ar-stretching plain, the la;|&unant yegetfttioRof whiph indicates th« 


indefatigable care and laboxir bestowed upon its cultivation, for the natural soil coa- 
8ist43 almost wholly of barren sand, audits great fertility is entirely the result of very 
skilful management and judicious application of various manures. The undulations 
in the surface of the northern districts are very slight, and the northern parts of the 
province of Antwerp are less varied and fertile than any other. The soil is, for the 
most part, composed of pure sand, very partially mixed with argillaceous earth. The 
largest unbroken plain in Belgium is called Campine, comprising the north-east por- 
tion of Antwerp and north-west of Li^ge. It consists of marshes, desolate moors, 
peat bogs, and extensive tracts of sand, covered with heath, broom, and firs. Some 
parts, however, consist of natural prairies, that serve as pasturage for extensive herds 
of excellent horses, and the portion of Limbourg on the banks of the Meuse, is 
fertile and carefully cultivated. The character of Brabant resembles that of Flanders 
with respect to its beautiful fields, gardens, and luxuriant trees. In the province 
of Liege the north bank overlooks a fertile plain, producing all kinds of grain and 
vegetables, and affording excellent pasturage for cattle and for dairy husbandry ; 
but the country on the south bank of the river belongs to the mountainous district 
which constitutes the provinces of Luxembourg and Namur. The course of the Meuse, 
from Dinant to Maestricht, offers some very picturesque combinations of landscapes 
and rock scenery. The river is closely shut in by lofty cliffs of various hues; Here 
they overhang the river, and are beautifully shrouded with bushes of box, wild myrtle^ 
and ivy, and there they slope away to its margin, or are suddenly cleft asunder, 
presenting through the chasm a delightful view of highly-cultivated farms and 
villages, half hidden by trees, in the distant highlands. The wild state of nature in 
the provinces of Namur, Liege, and Luxembourg, the various fossils and mineral 
products, and the charms of the scenery, have long made this part of the country a 
favourite of the naturalist, the geologist, and the painter. 

Land Tenuke. — Short leases of nine years are the rule. Rents are high. There 
Are many tenant farmers and many peasant owners. In the province of Brabant, 
the number of owners is more t lan double that of the tenants; in Antwerp, that of 
owners and tenants is nearly equal. 

Climate. — ^The climate of Belgium is pure and healthy, but subject to much 
variation in its general character. 

The Govehnmbnt is a limited constitutional monarchy, and the succession to the 
throne confined to the direct male issue, perpetually excluding females and their 
descendants. The legislative power is vested in the King and two Chambers — the 
Senate and the House of Representatives, the members of which are elected by 
the people paying 30s. direct taxes annually. The number of representatw^wes ^twsssss^u 
«xceed one to every 40,000 people, and in all cases tVv^T^Y^%»fc\3^"a^:vs^xs^^^&^^w^^"^'^^ 
.hf birth or qatnralisatloii, Th^ l^m% hw tV^ ^cs^^t cs\ ^\«^^5>wv^^ "^^ Ooajs®. 


either together or separately, but the decrees of dissolntion must contain an edict 
conroking the elective body within 40 days, and the Chambers within two months. 
Both Chambers are elected by the people, and the npper one, or Senate, consists of 
bat one-half the number constituting the lower Chamber. A senator must be a 
Belgian resident within the kingdom, and 40 years old, and be rated as paying 
annually 1,000 florins direct taxes— something about £B4 sterling. The Represen- 
tatives are paid at the rate of £16 16s. monthly for their services during the session, 
but the senators, or members of the upper chamber, receive no pay. 

The public Income (1894) was £13,972,648 sterling, against an Expenditure of 
£18,864,768. The public Debt is about 92^ millions. The Army on the peace 
establishment numbers 47,223 infantry, 10,000 cavalry, 8,000 artillery, and 204 guns. 
The Garde Civique active numbers 85,000. Belgium does not possess any navy. 
The flag is red, yellow, and black, in perpendiculai stripes. Motto — U Union fait 
la Force — Union is Strength. 

Franco-German War op 1870-1. — On 29rh July, 1870, Count Bismarck published 
a secret despatch in reference to the offer of Napoleon III. to incorporate Belgium. Its 
neutrality was thereupon guaranteed by England, with France and Prussia, i.e., with 
each against the other ; and this was strictly respected by both parties during the war. 
After Sedan, several thousand men found refuge in Belgium. On 28th March, 1871, 
the peace negotiations between Germany and France commenced at Brussels. 

Arts and Sciences. — Since Belgium became an independent nation, a great 
spirit of emulation and desire of improvement has arisen among all classes of the 
population. There are universities at Brussels, Ghent, Liege, and Louvain. Ener- 
gies have been awakened which have already achieved much in the cause of social 
and intellectual advancement, and which promise to accomplish more in the same 
honourable career. The government sustains and encourages the progress of science, 
learning, the fine arts, and literary tastes. Pensions are given to talented young men 
to enable them to develop the powers of their genius in foreign countries, by study- 
ing the works of the great masters ; and a national exhibition is opened every year, 
in the large towns and cities successively, in which are displayed the paintings, 
ftcalptures, engravings, and designs of the best artists. The most meritorious works 
are rewarded by medals of gold, silver, and bronze. 

Manners and Customs. — ^The Belgians have been successively subjected to the 
influence of so many different governments, that they, consequently, possess no dis- 
tinctive and peculiar national character. The apathy and persevering industry of 
the Dutch is blended with the vivacity and self-assurance of the French, without 
producing an agreeable compound. The different provinces exhibit some variety of 
chaHaeter and manners. On the borders of Holland the people are generally similar 
te At jyMt^ Mid adopt their customs, amusements, and dress, But in the southem 


districts they differ little from the French, in appearance, habits, manners, costume, 
or langnage. In some parti there is an admixture of Spanish blood, dating from the 

16th century. The Belgians have always displayed a passionate love for social 
liberty, an impatience of control, that embroiled them with all their different rulers. 
Writers of all ages agree in describing them as the most restless, unruly, tumult-loving 
Aiortals in existence, always treating their best rulers the worst, while the bad over- 
awed them. In the history of no other country do we find such unbounded liberty, 
with such an inveterate disposition to abuse it. 

Language. — About one-half of the population speaks the Picard and Walloon 
dialects of French ; the rather larger half speak Flemish, closely resembling Dutch. It 
may be said that the boundaries of the Walloon and Flemish languages are marked by a 
line, drawn east from Gravelines to the Lys, and along that river to Menin, and thence 
east again to the Meuse, by the south of Brussels and Louvain, between Maestricht 
and Li^ge. South of this line Walloon is spoken, as at Verviers, Liege, and Namur ; 
and Flemish north of it, including Brussels. A more undulating line, drawn from 
Henin to the frontier near Chimay, and intersecting the country between Valen- 
ciennes and Mons, would draw a demarcation between the two dialects of the French 
spoken in Belgium. On the west of this line the Picard dialect is spoken, and the 
Walloon on the east of it. French is the language of the educated classes. 

W0KK8 OF Akt. — School of Painting. — Belgium can boast of a brilliant histoi-y, 
not alone in reference to architecture ; in her school of painting, we find an eminent 
degree of perfection characterising its productions, whilst its masters and students 
have -been signally remarkable for their perfection in the art. This school may be 
looked upon as dating from two separate epochs, and may be designated the schools 
of Van Eyck and Rubens. The founders of the early school were the brothers Hubert 
and John Van Eyck, who are said to have lived between 1370 and 1445. The tone 
and character of their works, and of those of their scholars, and the degree of perfection 
with which tfaoy had been executed, may be easily gleaned from their numerous 
productions stiU existing in Belgium, forming, with the great architectural attractions 
ol the country, a study of special Interest in a Belgian tour. The traveller of taste 
Will appreciate them as equalling, if not surpassing, in their excellence, the 
productions of their European contemporaries. So far back as 1358, a guild of 
painters was established at Bruges. This corporation of artists, in the reign of Philip 
the Good, enjojred a deservedly eminent reputation, and in the days of Van Eyck we 
Und, registered ou its records, above three hundred names, constituting, as a ^ hole, 
the most celebrated school of that period. 

Though Van Eyck canbot be said to be the inventor of oil painting, yet he cannot 
ht denied the credit of having been the perfector of the 1^^ a.T\!l tbl%:^ ^ Ns^ v^n&R. 
ineiMin^ be eHeemed it» father. The pert-ecxvou V> '«VViW't\«w!J^ ^^ V'^^:^^^^^'^ 


fully seen, to the present day, in the deep brilliancy and livelioess discernible in all 
his works, which, by the freshness and perfect preservation of their colours, excite 
the wonder and admiration of every traveller. And it is also certain that this school 
must have achieved a high character for proficiency in this department, since we 
find Antonello of Menina, an Italian artist, travelling into Flanders in order to 
acquire a knowledge of it, though, two hundred years previously, oil painting had 
been practised in Italy. 

With the works of Van Eyck and his brother must be associated those of Hans 
Memling, erroneously styled Hemling, another artist of the same school, whose 
jchefs cTcBuvre are found in Bruges, in the Hospital of St. John. 

In studying the productions of the earJy Flemish school we must not forget that 
their path was a new and entirely original one. Without the classic works of 
antiquity to guide them, or the great models of later times to imitate, they were 
forced by the necessity of circums ances to fall back upon the volume of nature; 
from it they took their models, and hence that formality and f>tiffness and meagrc- 
ness of outline, so unpleasantly combined with a want of refinement in their works, 
which defects are more than covered by the conscientiousness, solemnity, and truthful 
force of expression marking them. An examination of the works of Quentin 
Matsys, Frans Floris, Van der We) den, Van der Goes, Mabuse, Coxcie, Breughel, 
Jordaens, De Vos, the Bringhaes, &c., down to Otto Veen or Venius, Breughe],Teniers, 
and Rubens will clearly show the development and progress of the Flemish school. 

School op Bubenb. — Bubens and his illustrious pupil Vandyck may be looked 
upon as the presiding geniuses of the second epoch in the history of the Belgian or 
Flemish school. We cannot, in any language of our own, better exhibit the character 
of the school, than that in which the head of it is described by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
in the folio wring extract: — ^' The elevated situation in which Rubens stands in the 
esteem of the world, is a sufficient reason for some examination of his pretensions. 
His fame is extended over a great part of the Continent without a rival ; and it may 
justly be said that he enriched his country, not in a figurative sense alone, by the 
great examples of art which he left, but by what sofhe would think a more solid 
advantage — the wealth arising from the concourse of strangers whom his works 
continually invited to Antwerp. To extend his glory still further, he gives to Paris 
one of its most striking features, the Luxembourg Gallery ; and if to these we add the 
many towns, churches, and private cabinets, where a single picture of Rubens 
confers eminence, we cannot hesitate to plfx;e him in the first rank of illustrious 

In the present age, Belgium possesses a School of Artists, whose productions, 
especially those historical ones of Wappers de Keyzer, Bnfre, Maes, Gallait (died 
18^7), t^d Van Lerins (died 1876), will bear coippetitioQ with the befit productiony 
if/^/j^e otker schools of tbc present daj-, 


Abchttbcturb has been carried to its highest defrree of perfection in the 
construction of the cathedrals and town halls of Belgium, which display the finest 
specimens of the ornamental Gothic style of the middle ages. In England, Gothic 
architecture was, until comparatively lately, confined chiefly to churches, but in 
Belgium it is shown to be equally suitable to civic edifices and private dwellings. 
Fronts richly decorated with quaint and fantastic sculptures, lofty sloping roofs, full 
of windows, pointed gables, castellated towers, battlements, and projecting windows, 
combine to produce a general effect, which, from its grandeur and intricacy, delights 
the spectator. 

The traveller should note that in Belgium, churches are usnally closed from noon 
till three or four o'clock. 

FsEBiSTORic IIemaims. — Thcsc have been found at Engis, nearHuy, and at Biche 
aux Riches, near Spy. Bone implements with carvings, and several skulls of various 

pRODCCTS. — Of 7J million acres, one-half is arable, over one-fifth meadow, and 
about another fifth is woodland. It yields wheat, rye, barley, flax, hemp, tobacco, 
potatoes ; copper, zinc, lead, iron, and coal. 

Manufactures. — ^The industry of the Flemings has, within 200 years, converted 
a tract of land, once a sandy and barren heath, into a beautiful garden ; and the 
product of its wheat is often not less than sixteen to one, and oats ten to one, whilst 
scarcely in any part of Britain does wheat give more than eight or ten to one. East and 
West Flanders alone produce, annually, flax to the amount of £1,600,000, employing 
above 400,000 persons. Hops, beetroot, chicory, and tobacco are also grown. The 
coal mines of Hainault, &c., produce annually 19,870,000 tons, valued at £8,000,000 
sterling ; about 2^ million tons are exported. About 1,000,000 tons of iron ore are 
annually raised. The cloth manufactures of Verviers employ 4,000 men; and the 
cotton manufacture, notwithstanding the loss of the Dutch colonial markets, has 
improved steadily since 1830, and now represents a capital of j£d, 000,000 sterling. 
The woollen manufacture may be said to constitute the staple manufacturing trade 
of Belgium ; at all events, it is the object of immense industry, and a quantity of 
foreign wool, to the value of 76,826,000 francs, or about i'3,073,000 sterling, is used 
annually. Hardware, cutlery, and fire-arms are produced at Namur, Mons, and 
Li^ge ; lace at Brussels, Malines, Louvain, and Bruges. Carpets, flax, and linen also 
constitute important items in the manufactures of Belgium. Its cotton manufacture 
represents a capital of 75,000,000 francs in buildings and machinery, and the number 
-of hands employed is at least 122,000. A brisk trade is likewise carried on in sUV^ 
ribbons, hosiery, hats, leather, oil-cloth, paper And Utha^gc«s?^ > '^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 
n^liy locomotives, ^c, 


CoMHBKCE bas greadv increased in Belgiam lately. The principal Exports are the 
productions of its flonrishing agricaltnre and numerous manafactnref, snch ai com, 
coal, oil, lace, woollen and cotton cloths, linen, canvas, arms, cutlery, iron rails, and 
ironmongery. The average amount of value of the Imports and Exports is £217,000,000 
sterling, of which £29,700,000 are with England. The external commerce of Belgium 
suffered greatly by the revolution in 1830, as Holland has since retained and monopo> 
lised the trade with all the colonies which belong to the kingdom of the United Nether- 
lands. Its mercantile marine, in 1892, numbered 53 sailing and steam Teasels, 
exclusive of fishing boats. The tonnage was 70,395. 

RfiLiGtoy. — Leopold I., when chosen, was a Protestant ; the present King is a 
Roman Catholic, and that faith is the religion of the State. Every other form of faith 
has free exercise. 

Railways. — Belgium is the first State in Europe in which a system of railways has 
been planned and executed partly at the public cost ; and certainly it is an honourable 
distinction to have given the first example of such a national and systematic 
provision of the means of r^^id communication. The undertaking, was first 
projected in 1833, and the object proposed was to unite the principal commercial 
towns on one side with the sea, and on the other with the frontier of France and 
Prussia. In this respect Belgium is most favourably situated for the experiment of a 
general system of railroads. It is compact in form, moderate in size, and is surrounded 
on three of its sides by active commercial nations, and on the fourth by the sea, by. 
which it is separated only a few hours* voyage from England. On the west are the 
two large and commodious ports of Antwerp and Ostend, and its east frontier is 
distant only a few leagues from the Rhine, which affords a connection with the 
nations of central and southern Europe. It is therefore in possession of convenient 
markets for its productions, and of great facilities for an extensive transit trade. 
The surface of the country is also most favourable, being for the most part very 
flat, and requiring but few of those costly works of railway tunnelling and 
embanking, which serve to increase so enormously the expense of similar undertakings 
in England. 

In 1892, there were iibout 2,828 miles of Railway in Belgium, forming a complete 
network between all the towns, large and small ; of which a great part belonged to 
the State, producing over Je5,000,000. West Europe (Greenwich) time is kept on 
all lines, and is 17A minutes later than Brussels time. There were 4,640 miles of 
Telegraph line open in 1892, with 965 Stations ; and Oiere were 829 Post-Offices 
in 1892. Telegraph messages from England, l|d. per word, with A regular fee of 
8d. on each telegram. 





To Bbussels iji about Eight Houbs. 

Tbains leave by the Londm^ Chaiham^ and Dover 
Line^ from Victoria, Holborn, and St. Paul's, thrice 
daily; and by the South Eastern LinOy from Char- 
ing Cross and Cannon Street, also thrice daily; 
arriying at Dover in from If to 2 hours. Steamers 
start from Dover in connection with each train, 
arriying at Calais in about 3 hours. A Special 
Express Mail leaves London at 11 a.m. for Brus- 
sels, in t| hours. Third class tickets issued only 
by the erehing Drain, leaving London shortly 
afUt A p.fn. For any possible changes, and all 
details see Bradshaurs Contintntal Ouide. 

Calais (fitatioa}.— ir<x«;«: 

TermlBos Hotttl, Oar« Maritime; Central Hotel, 
first-elaas; good hotels. 


Hotel Meoriee, Ruo do Ouise, noar the Station 
and Quay. 

Paria Hotel. 

Buffet at tho railway stution. 

CIdaiS is a second-class fortress, and contains 
about 66,667 , inhabitants. It is surrounded by 
sMi^hills on one side and by morasses on the 
otiM^, which, though detracting from its beauty, 
yet Aid much to its military strength. The town 
is siltMed in a very barren and non-picturesque 
district. It has latterly been re-fortified, and its 
wotki eonsiderably strengthened, particularly to 
tlill iM eoast. Its harbour, which has been much 
iittf««v«d ftnd l^ngthinsd, is defended by several 

small forts, and the new arrangements allow 
steamers to enter at any state of the tide. There 
is a railway station on the quay, which is 1,960 
yards long. The population are largely engaged 
in the herring and cod-fishery trade. Calais has 
several large and flourishing manufacturing estab- 
lishments — the bobbinet (tvUe) lace, flax spinning 
and ship-building trades are carried on there 
with great vigour. Several mills have been 
established, steam-engines have also been intro- 
duced in increased numbers, and many factories 
erected. It is stated thai 55,000,000 of eggs are 
annually exported from this place to England. 

The pier of Calais is an agreeable promenade. 
On one spot is seen the pillar erected to com- 
memorate the return of Louis XVIII. to France. 
It originally bore the following inscription: — **Lo 
24 Avril, 1814, S. M. Louis XVlII. debarqua vis-k- 
vis de cette colonne ct fut enfin rendu a Tamonr 
des Francais ; pour en perp^tuer le souvenir la ville 
de Calais a ^ev€ ce monument," i.e., His Majesty 
Louis XVIII. disembarked opposite this column on 
the 24th April, 1814, and was at last restored to the 
love of the French people, <fec. The town of Calais 
erected this monument to commemorate the event. 
A brazen plate was fixed on the exact spot where 
the monarch's foot stepped, in order to further 
commemorate the act; but at the revolution of 
1880 both plate and inscription were «;^^<ed^ik.^ 
leaving the pillar to %\»sA ^-i^^.^waTcv^sijsssx.^^.'OKfc 


[Route 1. 

very little to interest; and though one or two 
incidents in its histoiy are fraught with deep 
interest, particularly the emharkation of French 
troops on board of English ships for the Baltic, 
during the Crimean wur, yet its objects of 
attraction are few. The Old Gate, built in 1635 
by Cardinal Richelieu, and figured by Hogarth in 
his celebrated picture, has been demolished, and 
the town is now joined to St. Pierre-les-Calais. 

The Hdtel de Guise will also interest the Eng- 
lish traveller, as having been the place where 
Henry VIII. lodged, 1520, and as the original 
building where was established the Guildhall of 
the mayor and aldenuen of the *' staple of wool," 
founded in 1363 by Edward III. The Hotel de 
Villo, or Tovra Hall, situate in the market place, 
will repay a visit. Within it are all the public 
oflSces, and the front of it is ornamented with 
busts of St. Pierre, of the Duke of Guise, and of 
Cardinal de Richelieu. It is surmounted by a 
belfry containing a chime of bells. The tower and 
steeple of the principal Church, built when Calais 
appertained to England, deserve attention. Im- 
mediately to the rear of the choir is a modem 
circular chapel, and the church itself is a fine 
structure, built in the early Gothic style. 

English Service at Trinity Church, in Rue du 
Moulin Brule'. 

The large suburb of St. Pierre, now joined to 
the town of Calais, considerably exceeds the 
latter in population. The Basse-Ville, or lower 
town, is a pleasant walk on a fete day. The 
lighthouse should be visited. It is one of the most 
beautiful examples of mechanism in the world. 
The view from the summit of the tower presents a 
panoramic scene of great beauty, comprising, on a 
clear day, the distant cliffs of England and the 
outlines of Dover Castle. The public cemetery 
outside the town contains the ashes of Lady 
Hamilton (Nelson's Emma), who expired here, 
destitute and impoverished. 

Railway from hence to Lille, then direct to 
Brussels and all parts of llclglum; also to Douai 
and Paris. 

Custom H0UB8. — Travellers for Belgium or 
Germany, who have not already registered their 
luggage in London, should inform the authorities 
of their place of destination, and by what train 
thoy intend to proceed ; their luggage should then 

be duly marked for transit, and they will avoid the 
annoyance f^^ a custom-house search in France. 

Steamers run thrice each day between Calais 
and Dover, making the voyage In a little under 
2 hours. 

Calais to LUle, 66^ miles. 

Leaving the station on the qual, the first station, 
reached in about 7 minutes, is 

Calais (Vllle). The next is 

Ardres (Station). This is an unimportant 
fortress, situated on a canal. A little to the west 
of the road, between the town and Guisnes, is the 
si)ot called by historians the " Field of the Cloth of 
Gold," where Henry VIII. of England and Francis 
I. of France met In 1520. It is so called from the 
cloth of gold covering the touts and pavilions 
occupied by the two monarchs and their suites, 
comprising 6,696 persons, with 4,826 horses. 

Audruicq (Station). 

Watten (Station). Branch lines to Grave- 

St. Omer (Station). 

Population, 21,661. 

Hotel:— Hotel de la Porte d'Or, Rue St. Bertin. 

A Grst-rate fortress, situated in a marshy dis- 
trict on the Aa, well built and strongly fortified; 
streets wide and well made. A plentiful supply 
of refreshing water is afforded from 12 fountains in 
different quarters. The Hotel de Ville is situated 
in the Place d'Armes. Beyond the walls are two 
considerable suburbs, between which and Clalr- 
marais arc situated, amid extensive marshes, 
several floating islands, covered with trees and 
excellent pasture. The proprietors row them like 
a boat to land their cattle or take tl^em up. The 
town is on the line of railway from Calais to Lille. 
Living is said to be cheap. It possesses two 
ecclesiastical buildings well worthy of notloe — 
the Cathedral, and Abbey Church of St. Bertin. 

The magnificent Cathedral, situated In the 
Rue St. Bertin, exhibits a transition from the 
round to the pointed stylo of architecture. 
Its east end is of a polygonal termination, 
with projecting chapels. The interior of the 
church is in good preservation, and the small 
Chapel of the Virgin has been lately redecorated. 
At the extreme end of the street in which this 
chorch is situated are to be seen the remains of 

Route 1.] 


the once famous Abbep of St. Bertin, formerly the 
noblest Gothic bnildingr in French Flanders. The 
only fragment now remaining is a stately tower, 
noble even in its ruins, the mutilated panelling of 
its walls bespeaking the chaste and superior ele- 
gance of its florid Gothic style of ornament. From 
the tower, which is propped by a rude buttress 
of masonry, a fine panoramic view of the town 
may be had. 

Thomas k Becket sought refuge in this 
once-famous abbey, when a fugitive from 
England, and within its cloister were passed the 
last four years of his life. The monastery was 
suppressed in 1792, but was spared by the Conven- 
tion. The Directory was less considerate, and under 
it the roof was taken off, and the building stripped 
of its fixtures and wood work, which were sold. 
The work of destruction was completed a few 
years since by the local authorities, who had the 
walls taken down, in order to find work for some 
unemployed labourers. 

It was here existed the celebrated Jesuits* Col- 
lege ; founded in 1596 by an English Jesuit, named 
Parsons. In it were educated many of the con- 
spirators mixed up in the Gunpowder Plot, and 
some of the wild spirits who intrigued against 
Elizabeth. This college was succeeded by a 
seminary for British and Irish Roman Catholics, 
and in it was educated the famous agiUtor, Daniel 


Considerable trade is done in linens and pipes, 
and eggs and flruit are exported to England. 

French Reformed Churchy in the Rue Taviel; 
service every Sunday at 10-45 a.m. 

Eblingliem (StatlOD). 

HasebrOUCk (Station). From here a branch 

line leads to Dunkirk. Refreshments may be had. 

The following stations are next passed: — Stra- 

seele, Ballleul, Steenwerck, Armentl^reB 

(Junction for Lens, on the Callas-Amlens line) 

and FerencMes. 
LiUe (Station).— i^cfe/*: 

Hotel de r Europe. 

Hotel de Lille; du Grand Gaf(g Jean. 

Paris; Flandre; Bellevue; ChemlndeferduNord. 

English Church Service, at Christ Church, Rue 


This city is strongly fortified, and forms, on the 
northern frontiers of France, the central point of 
defence. With a population of 901,211 InhabitaaU, 

it is the seat of thriving industry and of busy 
manufacture, ranking as the seventh industrial 
and commercial city of the country. The town 
is traversed by the waters of the Haute and 
Basse Deule, which fill its moats, and work the 
mill machinery about. They are connected by a 
canal, so arranged as to be able to inundate the 
country for one and a half mile around the walls, 
if necessary. Though the city is spacious and its 
wealth very great, yet its monuments and buildings 
are few and unimportant. 

The Citadel is looked upon as a master specimen 
of the skill of Yauban, who held the position of 
governor for many years. The Hotel de VUle is an 
erection of the 1 8th century, built by Jean Sans- 
Peur, inhabited by Charles V., and was anciently 
the palace of the Dukes of Burgundy. The build- 
ing is in the early Gothic style, and has in one of 
its tourelles an exquisitely groined staircase and a 
chapel. The MiUie Wicar, containing an interest- 
ing and rich collection of drawing^s by the old 
masters, is in process of being transferred to a 
new gallery. There are 68 paintings by Raphael, 
13 by Masaccio, 10 by Fra Bartolommeo, and 197 
architectural designs by Michael Angelo. Wicar, 
a native, bequeathed them to the city. The 
paintings in the Hotel de Ville have lately been 
re-arranged and added to. The Mus4e Moillet, an 
ethnographical collection, an Archsological 
museum, and an Industrial Museum also form part 
of the ffdtel de Ville, which also includes the Mus^e 
de Peinture, which will scarcely repay a visit; it, 
however, contains many curious old portraits of 
the Dukes of Burgundy and of the Counts of 
Flanders, besides a painting by Rubens, and two 
by Arnold de Yuez, a native artist, bom in 1642, 
and considerably eminent in his profession. The 
former painting represents St. Catherine rescued 
from the wheel of martyrdom, and the two latter 
are portraits of Saints Francis and Cecilia. 

The chief church in Lille is that of St. Mtmrice, 
a Gothic building of the 16th century, resting on 
delicately light pillars, but presenting no appear- 
ance of general interest. The church of Ste 
Catherine, in which is an image which has been 
venerated for eight centuries, should be visited, aa 
also the fine houses of the Ru<s.lg*«jNs2ca»s^'ws.. "^n^^ 


[Boate 1. 

TIM nibwlM of Ltlto for miles ttrowid, as well 
aa ikb aatini Dflpartinent dn Nord, will atrike 
th« trartUer as strong rosembUnir tlM distriets 
thraaffb Lanoaabire and tbo West Riding. On 
all sidea is heard tbe busj ham of indostiy, whilst 
tall eUmneys and nunerous mills proelaim the 
aetire and vigorous trade being oanied on, form- 
ing the rather novti combination of a fortress 
and a mannfaetnring town. Flax, which forms 
the ttairie mannfaotore, is grown in and aboat 
the adjacent country. When spun and twisted 
it forms the well-known Lisle thread. Cotton 
spinaiag and maanfactore are also carried on 
to a oonsideraUe extent, and lace, ribbons, and 
tnUe are extenslrely made. Its other branches 
ef trade are the mannfocture of smgar faom beet- 
root, the extraction of oils from oolsa and the 
seeds of rape^ poppies, linseed, Ac. Its other 
objects of attraction are the Hospital, evaded in 
17W, the Bridge, the €k>neert HaU; the Gaol, the 
Botanical Gardens, the Triumphal Arch, erected 
in 1782, in honour of I^onis XIV., and the Colunm 
raised in mem<H7 of the siege sustained by the 
eity in 1793. 

Bailwayto Douai and Paris; to ValeneienBeB, 
M<m8, and Bmssels; to Courtral, Ghent, and 

101* /'or eonHnvatUm of direct route to BruOelSj 
»ee page 16. 

Lille to Donal and Valwclmneg. 
BeoUB* GaryiB, and Ltf orwit Stalioiui, 

supplying places of no interest or importance, are 
passed before arriring at 

Donai (Station). 

Hbteh : Hotel de Flandre ; de I'Barope. 

Population, about 6|118. The town is con- 
teniently situated on the river Scarpa, which 
oommuuicates with the canal of Bens^, and is 
surrounded by fortifications, which, originally by 
Vauban, hare lately been partially reccmstructed. 
The detached fort of Scurpe serves as a defence 
for the town, which belongs to Department du 
Nord. It has a very picturesque belfry in the 
market>plaee^ surmounting the Hdta de Ville^ a 
Gothic building ef the 16th century, in which is 
the library, containing fO,000 vols. A rather 
turtons spectacle greets the traveller's eye here 
zir /^ ear} J- pari of each July, when a procession 

takes place called G€aat Gayanti a large osier 
giant, M feet high, attired ia amour, and accom- 
panied by a family ef proportionate sise, pei> 
ambulate the streets, accompanied by the populace. 
The JfiM^ always open to strangers, contains a 
fair ooUeotien of pictures by Vandyck, Van der 
Meulen, ftc, and ancient furniture. Douai has 
been famed for its Ck>llege, founded by Cardinal 
Allen in 15C9. In it Roman Catholic priests for 
England and Ireland have been educated. Daniel 
0*Oonnell also studied here. A good trade in 
flax is carried on. 

Here the Northern of France Railway divides 
into two branches, the one proceeding to join 
the Belgian Railways by Valenciennes; the other 
by Arras and Amiens to Paris. 

Montlgnj, Bomain (junction for CambralX 
Wallers, and Raiimee BtatiOnJi are passed 
previous to our arrival at 

YalencienneB (Station). 

HoteUt: Du Commerce; des Princes ; du Kord; 
Hotel Vauban. 

Conveyances at the station, a quarter of a mile 
distant from the town; there is a good Buffet h«re. 

Population, 28,700. A place of considerable 
trade and wealth, situated on the French Northern 
Railway ; also strongly fortified by its position 
on the Scheldt, at its confluence with the Rhon- 
elle, by which it may be surrounded for three- 
fourths of its circumference, the water being 
retained by means of sluices in the fortifications. 
The town is well built ; the houses are generally 
of brick and white stone. The JTiMrf de HO?, in 
which the Gothic style is mingled with several 
orders of architecture, will claim attentioti; it is 
highly decorated; the handsome fa^de it sur- 
mounted by an attic, adorned with caryatid 
figures, representing the four seasons. The Hos- 
pital and the Theatre are also remarkable. The 
Mu*^^ open from 10 a.m. to strangers, has Queiitln 
Matsys' "Misers," and paintings by Vandyck, 
Teniers, Rubens, Jordaens, Ac. The Valenciennes 
lace, formerly so famous, is now only made in 
coarse, and inferior qualities. From the Citadel 
the valley of the Scheldt is seen to advantage. 
Froissart, the historian of the 14th century, was 
bom here. There is a railway connection with 

Aniin (Station), Ac. 
VA&KHotBHNBs TO BxvssxLS (Boute 7 reverted). 

Route 1.] TO BaLGRIX jlvd tbm ehxhs. 

Lille to Ghent, yU HouBoroiii and 
Koubalx (Station). 

Fopttlation 114,917. Hotel: FerrAille. A large 
manufacturing town, which has lately risen into 
great importance and still continues to increase in 
population and trade. Its staple manufactures are 
woollens and mixed fabrics, and it is generally 
called the French Bradford. Close to it, the 
English, under the Duke of York, suffered a severe 
defeat from the French, commanded by Pichegru, 
t>n May 18th, 1794. They lost 1,000 kUled, 2,000 
prisoners, and 60 cannon. 

ToUTCOing (Statlon)i H miles from Lille. A 
town with 65,477 inhabitants, no way remarkable 
in its general appearance, but uotod for its mann- 
facturea of table linen. 

HoUBOron (Station), in Belgium, 11 miles 
fromLiUe. The town ia seen on an eminence to the 
right, with its beautiful church built of bricks. 
Ita chief importance arises from the fact ol its 
being aituated on the lT<«Uer. It is the ehief place 
of ita .Q<u&mune, and eontains a populaticn of 
13,764 souls. The country about is rich and well 
cnltlTated, producing wheat and rieh paatmres. 
Facing Mouser<Hi, to the left, is the Tillage of 
Luinguea. Here (junction of the railway from 
Toumai) a change of carriage and an examination 
of luggage takes place. TraTellers for Bmaaels, 
wd Jurbiae, also to Namur, should take espeeial 
care to get into the proper train. From this 
station the railway proceeds on through a beauti- 
ful country, until its arrival at Courtrai, on 
nearing whieh the country appears highly culti- 
ratod and picturesquely agreeable. 

Ckmrtral (Station)— in Flemish, Kartrpk. 

Popolation (1886), 80,908. 

HoteU: Du Lion d'Or; du Damier; Midi; du 

A fortified town, and the chief {daee of a 
judicial and administrative district of West Flan- 
den. It is situated on the Lya, whieh divides 
ft into two parts, seeuring to it a communieatlon 
witk the principal towns in the narth of France. 
TlM Btraets are large, and finely built. Under the 
name of Cartortewm it existed in the time of the 
Somalia. The int dotht were made here in 
IMSk and two hundred years afterwards 

contained 6,000 iWearen. It is still famous for 
its manufacture of table linen and other damask, 
though no longer possessing any monopoly in 
these artidea. 

The surrounding eonntxy is noted fmr its growth 
of flax, for the use of ita own and other manufac- 
tories. In the neighbourhood are large and exten- 
sive bleaching-gronnds. The flax is steeped in the 
waters of the Lys, esteemed peculiarly favourable 
for bleaching purposes. 

In 1819, Philip of Burgundy carried away a 
eelebrated Clock, considered at that time one 
of the wonders of the age, and the two figures 
(Jacqnemart and his wife) whioh struck the 
hours. The regularity of the motions of these 
latter gave rise to a proverb which still exists 
in Courtrai, when speaking of the love existing 
between a couple, »'They agree like Jaequemart 
and his wife.** 

In a plain near Courtrai was fought, In 1802, 
the sanguinary battle of the Golden Spurs, between 
the fVeneh troops, under the Count d^Artois, and 
the Flemish under John, Count of Namur; in 
which the former were totally defeated, and the 
Count d'Artcrfs and the Constable of France, to- 
gether with upwards of twelve hundred knights 
and several thousand men, left dead on the fidd. 
The battle derived its name from the immense 
number (700) of the gilt spurs worn by the knights, 
which fell into the hands of the victors. To the 
right of the road is seen a small chapel, erected in 
1881 to coounemorate the event. It is outside the 
P<Hrte de Gand, and marks the centre of the battle- 

The public buildings and monuments of Courtrai 
are not numerous. We will deaorlbe shortly the 

The BMei <fa ViOe (1528) possesses two chim- 
neys, one idaced in the police court or hall, the 
other in the council room; the sculpture of which 
is of exquisite delicacy and highly finished, and 
with the fine belfry worthy of attention. 

The CJmn^ of StAwt Mmrtm was founded iii 
the early pari of the 15th century. It is noted 
for the tower (one of the loftiest in Belgium) which 
surmounts the portico. There is a tabernacle in 
the interior most admirably va«icsN>K«^^ '**^^_Zl 


t-Rottte 1. 

the Apostles," and on tUo two \riu{|^s, "The Sleep 
ot Adftni in Parndiste," and "The Baptism of 
Christ." There is another picture by Van Man- 
deren, the historian and poet, representing "A 
scene of Martyrdom at Rome." The rich orna- 
ments made use of in Divine service are worthy of 
notice for the beauty of the chasing and engraving. 
Notre 2>ain«:— This church is worthy of notice, 
chiefly from the riclmess of its marbles. It was 
founded in 1208 by Baldwin, Count of Flanders 
and Emperor of Constantinople. It deserves to 
be visited on account of the richness and grandeur 
of its ornaments, particularly a ehef-dceuvre of 
Vandyck, placed behind the high altar, and repre- 
senting the Elevation of the Cross. The tabernacle, 
a fine piece of carving, by the famous Lefevre, of 
Toumai; two bas-reliefs by Godccharles; and 
Christ at the Tomb, deserve to be noticed. This 
church once possessed the small ivory statue of 
the Virgin, known as the Virgin of Oroenlngen, 
celebrated for the miracles which, according to 
many, it performed; it is now in the church of 
Saint Michael, and still attracts crowds of pilgrims 
to its shrine. The two towers, called Brotom-Torren, 
built in 1413, are remarkable for the extreme 
streng^th andthickuess of the walls; they are united 
by a bridge over the Lys, built in the year 1466. 
The Market Houses are seen in all their ancient 
simplicity in the centre of the town ; the front of 
the building is adorned by five elegant turrets. 
There was formerly a high tower in the centre of 
the structure, in which the celebrated clock pre- 
viously mentioned was placed. A modem bnilding 
has been erected for market purposes. 

The Theatre, remarkable for the beauty of its 
decorations, forms part of the new market building. 
Promenades. The ramparts or boulevards sur- 
rounding Courtrai form a fine walk, from which 
may be had a beautiful view of the city. The 
park of Saint George is likewise a delightful 
place; but by far the most agreeable of the public 
walks is the esplanade; it is planted with chestnut 
and lime trees, and has nicely laid out plots of 
gn^en, furnished here and there with elegant and 
comfortable seats. 

Railway to Bruges and Ostond; also to Ypres, 

Poperinghe, Renaix, Mons, Ac;; and direct to 

Brussels, i^Audenarde, Sotteghera, Denderleeuw. 

^aOesBMnie (Station) is of very ancient 

origrin, where Marlborough anS Prince Eugene 
defeated the French, 11th July, 1708. Great 
numbers of medals of the Gauls and first Kings 
of France have been found here. The Town 
Hall is a handsome Gothic building; the 
fountain and basin opposite are worthy of 
attention. The portal of the collegiate church of 
the burgomaster and aldermen is a masterpiece of 
wood carving, executed In 1580 by Paul Vander 
Schelder. The trade in linen is extensive. The 
population is 5,255. 

Leaving Courtrai for Ghent, the railway runs 
parallel to the paved road, and shortly arrives at 

Haerlebeke (Station). A commune and chief 
place of a canton in the district of Courtrai, con- 
taining a population of 6,268 souls. It was the 
oldest town in Flanders, and the residence of the 
first governors of the country. Antiquities have 
frequently been found here. The church is re- 
markable for its architecture, and contains a superb 
pulpit, a masterpiece of Decreux, of Toumai. It 
was formerly an important fortress, and suffered 
many vicissitudes in the 9th and 10th centuries. 
It has manufactures of woollens, cloths, and 

Waereghem (Station). An important and 
ancient commune of the district of Courtrai; 
population, 7,316. It has a considerable trade in 
linen. Situated four miles north-west of it is the 
village of Roosbeke, remarkable as the spot where 
Philip Van Artevelde, the brewer of Ghent, suffered 
defeat by the French in 1382, being killed 
with 20,000 of his countrymen. Shortly after 
leaving Waereghem the railway crosses the Stype, 
and, quitting West Flanders, enters into East 
Flanders, passes Zulte, a town containing 2,218 
inhabitants, and arrives at Deynze, after running 
in a right line, past OlS^no (StatX and Machelen; 
the former a commune of the district of Ghent, with 
a population of 2,107, and the latter a town of the 
same district, containing a population of 2,764 

Deynze (Station) is situated on the left bank 
of the Lys. On the opposite bank, between the 
road and the river, is Peteghem, a small commune 
containing 2,196 souls. Deynze is the chief place 
of a canton in the district of Ghent, and an ancient 
town; its population is 4,691. The principal CWureft, 
Notre Dame, is an old Gothic building, c(mtaining 



[Eonta l; 

The B^ifff^L—Beiiry tower, 876 feet high, erected 
in 1183. Permisaion to erect a tower, or belfry, 
wai the earliest privilege that the citizens ob- 
tained from their feudal lords, and was, hence, long 
regarded by them as a monument of their power 
and wealth. It originally served as a watch 
lower, from whence an enemy could be descried, 
and in which was a tocsln-bell that called the 
citizens to arms, and to debate. The gilt dragon 
on the top was carried off from Bruges by the 
Gantoises, as a trophy of their conquest of that 
town, under Philip Vlaenderlandt. It has lately 
been re-gilt. Its history is rather a remarkable 
one, it having originally adorned a Greek church 
at Constantinople, from whence it was carried off 
by the men of Bruges, who went to the first 
crusade as soldiers under Baldwin, Count of 
Flanders. The lower part of the tower is now used 
as a prison, and had deposited in it the title deeds 
and reoorUs of Ghent, now in the Town Hall. From 
its top a magnificent view can be had, and the 
entrance to it is in the St. Jan Straat. Fee to the 
concierge, 1 franc for a single person. The following 
reply was made by Charles V. to hia cruel and 
atrocious minister, Alva^ who advised him to 
destroy the city, " Combien f audrait-il de peaux 
d'Bspagne pour faire un g<mt de cette grandeur?'* 
•^How many skins of Spanish leather would it 
take to make such a glove ?) The tower con- 
tains 44 bells ; the mode adopted for ringing the 
chimes is curious and should be seen. 

The Cathedral, 13th cent., is one of the handsomest 
Gothic buildings in Belgium. It was formerly a 
church dedicated to St. John, but took the name of 
St. Bavon or Baef s in 1540i, when Charles V. removed 
thither the collegiate chapter of the Abbey of that 
saint, and 19 years afterwards it was raised to the 
dignity of a cathedral church. The present build- 
ing was commenced in the thirteenth, and finished 
in the beginning of the sixteenth century. The 
majestic effect which the structure is calculated to 
produce is mueh impaired by the want of an open 
urea around and in front. The tower is remarkr 
able for its elegance ; it is 371 feet high, and the 
ascent to the i)latfonn which terminates it is by 
446 steps; the view from the summit is of great 
extent and beauty. The Cathedral itself is divided 
into three aisles by a double range of light and 
elegant ooltuoons. On each side are disposed 

twelve chapela, which, ai w«U ai th« €lMtr, wi ki 
excellent keeping with the rest of the buUdlmf . 
The choir, which has two aide aisles, is raised 
above the floor of the body of the ohnrob by a 
flight of steps: in front is the grand altar, QnokMMd 
by three bronze doors of elaborate worknMunsbiPi 
and surmounted by Corinthian columns of the 
purest Carrara marble, with a statue of the saint 
in his ducal robes, and two colossal marlile 
statues by Van Pouche, representing the apoatlas 
Peter and Paul. In front of the altar are four taU 
copper candlesticks, remarkable as having been 
the property of Charles the First of England. It 
is surmised that they may have adorned the 
Chapel of Whitehall, or Old St. Faults. It is 
supposed that they were sent out of England and 
sold. On them are still seen the arms of England. 
The stalls of the canons in the Choir are said to 
be the finest specimens of carving in mahogany 
known to exist in the world. Over these stalls 
are eleven paintings In imitation of bas-relief, by 
P. Van Reysschoot. Most of the numerotis ebapels 
which line the Cathedral are adojmed with 
paintings. The first contains the Bebeadlay oi 
St. John the Baptist, by Crayer; the second, the 
Donation of St. Colette (a saint of Qheni, who 
died in 1447) of a piece of ground for a eoavant, 
by Paelinck, a modem artist ; the third, the Ba|»- 
tism of our Saviour, by Crauwer ; the fourth, a 
Dead Christ, by Abraham Janssens; the sixth, 
Christ disputing with the Doctors, by Pouites, 
all the figures of which are portraits of difitrsBt 
individuals holding ofiicial situations BBder 
Phillip II.; the seventh, a fine picture of the 
Martyrdom of St. Barbe, by Crayer \ th« tenths 
a Christ between the Thieves, by Van der Henen, 
a pupil of Vandyck. In the eleventh is the Agnut 
Dei, one of the most celebrated pictures of the 
Flemish school, painted by the brothers Van 
Eyck, the inventors of oil painting, In 14S2 ; and, 
though more than four hundred years have 
elapsed since this picture was painted, the eoloors 
retain a vividness truly wonderful; the numerous 
figures are all finished with the most elaborate 
care, and each countenance is endued with admir- 
ably appropriate expression. TOie towers, which 
in the luminous horizon are supposed to represent 
the New Jerusalem, are painted from those of Maes- 
trleht, near which town the artists were bom. 

TO BSLonnt jl»d thx bhike. 


r^,»,hi» nf L awrence hcUunx, of Ghent, 

id is considered 
am. It is com- 
riie tree of life 
.he tree is seated 
I venerable old 
h ft thick veil, 
iontemplate the 
herself before 
; an open book, 
irge qui dormis, 
iso thou that 
light." At the 
** gels. The four 

f workmanship, 
are ornamented 

of art in this 

Bishop Triest, 

ts of a statue of 

M borne by our 

a figure of the 

. disfigured: the 

. Bavon without 
), a low subtcr- 
dlvided into fire 
and containing 
n Eyck, and his 
all offers of mar- 
Irely tothis art. 
one of the most 
ed in 1120, but 
.8 ediftee goffered 
century. It is 
I Janssena, Ac. 
ae centre of the 
ce and lightness 
'le, partly florid- 
is seen to ad van- 
fa it is situated, 
mts the ekurch, 
„ . , . Ave Imaxl ^»3af«.«!>^ 

ia|lli»rii« wltkliMlMiniony of fte ooaatn«doii f to • Iwlgfat of 4jN fM^^Xs^x. Vca ^«i«^<ecw>&Mb.^»»^«^ 
if «bf rtrt of th% •difioe, Tke /%*>«, which is been cwo^kiiAAdL. \xl \Jtta \?w^YNfc. ^2m!W*^'»s. >«>» 


The B*^ftv>L— Self ry tower. 375 f e g] 
in 1188. Pennf 
WAS the earliei 
t«ined from thei 
regarded by the 
and wealth. 1 
tower, from wh« 
and in which ' 
citizens to arms 
on the top was 
Gantoises, as a 
town, nnder Phi 
been re-gilt. II 
one, it having oi 
at Constantinop] 
by the men of 
crnsade as soU 
Flanders. The 1 
as a prison, and 

and records of G'. 

its top a magni. 
entrance to it is 

concierge, 1 f rant 

reply was made 

atrocious minitt 

destroy the cits 

d'Espagne pour 1 

-^How many all 

take to make a 

tains 44 bells ; t 

ehimes is curioui 
The €fat?iedral,l 

Gothic building» 

church dedicated 


thither the colleg 

saint, and 19 yea 

i^lgnity of a cath< 

lug was comment 

in the beginning 

majestic effect wl 

produce is much i 

area around and i 

able for its elegai 

ascent to the plat 

446 steps; thevit 

extent and beaut). ->»- 

Into three aisles by a dmble nmge of liglit and 

elegant eolumns. On eaoh aide are disposed 




the Hew Jtfusaleai, tie piilntM from tkose of H 
trMH, Bear wMoh toim the artists were h 

} BKUinnt AMn zai BHtxe. 

iftttw* tUi pliillira in thna nuUeT onei b]' lbs 
• irnT utljtii lbs ctaOt njmteate Cliriit on i 

a Uiga MLpphlre ; tbe traDip»r«iicy ol tbe cryjlal I 
U npntented wUb an dTect ibnoat magical ; tba 
kn-buiil plctqie la im exquisite reprsseJitntion of 
tbe Ylrgln, lai tb«t on the right 1> <ui cuoally 
iBeflfnn of St. Jobn the Baptist. Thene four 
pirtoroi, whether conjldered with reterenco tu (he 

xut nnk tunang the' most TBlusble In Belgltuu! i 

,0 Reanrrectlon of LsianiJ, by Otto Tonnins, 
le mastsr of Rnbeni, luid iiJ«o JndAs Maccabena 
mfcing ■ place of Burial (nr bii Boldiera. In the 
itMDlh li Ihe IfartyrdoDi of St. Llevon. the 
itna of Qhent, hy Sejhen. The Hrenteenth 
H a copy fcmn Bubeni' iriotara of Ibe Hartyr- 
aa of at, Cathaiine, tbe original of wtaloh !■ In 
e Church of St. Cutbertue, at Ulle. In front of 

Ip o( LawmoM Deliani, of Ohoiil, 
of the Tight uaTe, and to couildetod 
: beautiful Id Belgium. It la eon- 
niarble and uak. The tree of IKe 
,lpit, and coxn tbe >oundlu|-board 

la lifting np 1 

In order to coDl4 


itc I ho 

=t Trnth. " 

M.n, holding au 



are traced thi 

! words" Surge qoli 


tui,- "Ariie 


ChHit BhaU 

gl.e thee light 

U8 two angel.. 

thfB eiqnla; 

Ite piece of w. 



,8li;a,9OT), are< 

snted by Cbaiies Van Pan 

le Aaaomption of tbe Virgin, by Cra; 

BodlngintotbeCryptd.D.Mi), a 


( In white 

marble, by M. Pi 

,„aU t 








chapel r 


carrying burning 

nncomumed snrplli 

ce to 81. Sandoal 

t; this 


tare la 

by Van H, 

jBsL The twcntj 


a Descent from Ih 

', by 


to ncrlstan. wh 

1 tbe 


1 fmne for each peraon. Open 

from 10 

of tl 


Bstraaee, bMwaeci Id 

' a few good painting by Gnycr, JanHoul. Ac. 
I The CAvrtb tf SI. MirlMI^, In lb« centre ol the 

of Ita arcbllwitnro, of a mixed ilyle. paitly florld- 
I Gothic, partly BenaisBance, which liseeu taadian- 
. tage fram tbs open space la which It la iltBalad, 

The square tower which BunnoBnts th* church, 

height ol 



[Route 1 

edifice, is a magnificent picture of the Crucifixion, 
by Vnndyck, the only work of this master which 
is to be found in any of the public buildings of 
Ghent. Each of the chapels, which are twelve in 
number, contains one or more pictures of various 
merit. It will be sufficient to direct the attention 
of the amateur to the Annunciation, by Lens, and 
the Assumption, by Francois, both in the newly 
finished chapel, to the right of the cross of the 
church; the Apotheosis of St. Catherine in the 
third chapel, by Crayer, and the Finding of the 
Cross, by the Empress Helena, whose figure, 
represented in the picture, was furnished by the 
Empress Josephine, who sat for the model. There 
are also in this church numerous paintings by 
Belgian artists, and a St. Francis of Paula, by 
Ribera. The organ recently erected in this church 
is remarkable for its sweetness. The pulpit of 
massive mahogany is handsome. Sacristan, 1 franc 
for a single person. 

St. Jacques is situated in a vast square. It was 
destroyed in 1720, and afterwards rebuilt. It has 
two good paintings of Jan van Cleef, and some 
monumental sculpture of merit from the chisel of 
Van Poucke. 

The Church of St. Martin has a magnificent 
painting of the Kesiurection, by Crayer, said to be 
his master-piece. 

The Dominican Oratory deser>-e8 to be inspected 
on account of its bold and lofty wooden vault, 
designed by the Dominican Francis Remain, in 

The Beguinage. — The community of Bdguines is 
said to have been founded by St. Begga, Duchess 
of Brabant, and sister of Philip of Landen, and 
Is peculiar to the Netherlands. Clement V. issued 
a bull against these sisters, but John XXII. 
revoked it, and accoitled them many indulgences. 
It is one of the few nunneries not swept away by 
the fury of the French revolution, or suppressed 
by Joseph II. Their existence received a legal 
ratification in 1826. The sisters are bound by no 
vow, and may return to the world at any time. 
Their chief duty is to attend to the sick and visit 
the hospitals, where they arc constantly to be 
met with. In the order are persons of the highest 
families and wealth. The sisters in Ghent number 

about one thousand, whilst their entire number 
in Belgium is about 1,300. New buildings at 
Eecloo (rail in forty minutes) n«w replace the old 
house, or Grand Bc'guinage, a moated pile, which 
was situated in the Rue dcs Bruges. There is a Petit 
Bdguinagc in Rue des Violcttcs, with 300 girls of a 
poorerclass. Thefir8tchapclwasbuiltinl242. The 
sisters live in separate houses, and each door has 
inscribed on it the name of some saint, chosen as 
its protectress. Visitors to Ghent should see their 
church at the hour of vespers, which are sung at 
half-past seven each evening. The scene is most 
impressive. The sisters are all dressed in black 
robes, with white veils; the novices are distin- 
guished by a different dress, whilst those who 
have but lately taken the veil are distinguished by 
a chaplet, which they wear around their heads. 
The chapol, barely illuminated by a few lamps, 
and the solemn singing, together with the large 
assemblage of sisters, so picturesquely dressed, 
impart to the scene an aspect of solemn grandeur 
and mystic beauty. The chapel itself is interest- 
ing in the extreme. Lace (kanten) making forms 
one of the chief occupations of the B^gniines, and 
very good and sometimes beautiful work is done 
by them. This may be bought at their establish- 
ments, and will be found much cheaper than that 
obtained at the shops in the town. 

The H6tel de ViUe is situated partly in the Rue 
Haute Porte, and partly in Le Marchd-au-Beurre. 
The portion standing in the former street, built 
in the Gothic style of architecture, presents a 
magnificent appearance, and is adorned with 
exquisitely wrought oniaments. It has two 
facades, built at intci-vals between 1481 and 1620, 
after several plans, by as many architects. The 
turret or tribune at the comer was built in 1527- 
1660 by Eustace Polloyt, and is in the richest 
flamboyant Gothic style. The other fa9ade, built 
between 1600 and 1620, has columns of three 
different orders of architecture, one sui-mounting 
the other. In the Salle du TrOne, so celebrated 
in the annals of Ghent, was signed the treaty 
known as the "Pacification of Ghent," drawn up, 
in 1576, by the congress of confederates, who 
assembled to adopt measures calculated to drive 
the Simniards out of Belgium. The bust of 
Philip van Artevelde, the famous Captain-General 

Route 1.] 



(killed 1883 at the battle of Rosebecq between the 
revolted citizens and the army of Louis II.}, should 
be seen. 

Palace cf Justice This striking building, by 

B61and8, is situated in the Rue du Th^fttre. The 
ground floor is used as the Exchange, and the 
upper chamber as Courts of Justice. 

PalaU de rTnivernV^.— Founded by William 
I^ King of Holland, in 1826. It is a beautifnl 
and modern edifice, having a splendid Corinthian 
portico, modelled from the Pantheon, at Rome, 
and is built on the site of the Jesuits* College. 
The library, consisting of 100,000 vols, and 700 
HSS., amongst them a Mayence Bible, 1472, 
and a folio Latin Bible, 1466, and a number of 
other ancient volumes, has been transferred to 
the Baudeloo Convent. The Jardin Botanique, 
instituted in 1797, belong^ to the University, and 
is one of the finest in Belgium. It contains a 
collection of 8,000 plants, of 1,000 difierent species. 

The Museum of Natural History is not less re- 
markable for its extent than for the richness of 
its collection. There are also coins, medals, and 
antiquities. An Engineering School, and a School 
of Arts and Manufactures are also maintained in 
connection with the University. 

Maison des Bateliers^ on the Quai aux Herbes, 
is an old and picturesque edifice, built in 1513. 

The Halle aux Draps will also repay notice. 

Maison de Force^ a house of correction, situated 
rather outside of the city, on the Coupure 
canal, which is bordered by a double row of large 
trees. It was constructed in l'!73, in the reign of 
Maria Theresa, and forms a perfect octagon, in the 
centre of which is a spacious court, communicating 
with the different quadrangles of the establish- 
ment. Each quadrangle or ward has a yard, and 
in the centre of that belonging to the female ward 
is a large basin of water, in which the female 
prisoners wash the linen of the whole establish- 
ment. Each prisoner sleeps alone in a small but 
well-aired room, and is employed during the day 
in working at whatever trade or business he or 
she is most competent to do. Of the produce of 
this labour, five-tenths are retained by government 
when the prisoners are merely detained corrcc. 
tionally } six-tenths when they have been sentenced 

to hard labour. The remainder is divided into 
two portions ; half is given to the prisoners weekly 
for pocket money, and the other given to them at 
the expiration of the term of their imprisonment, 
to assist in their re-establishment in the world. 
Religious service and instruction are provided and 
attended to in an admirable manner ; and if prisoners 
are found ignorant of the first elements of know- 
ledge, as reading, writing, and arithmetic, they 
receive instruction in the various branches. In- 
subordination or refractory conduct is punished by 
solitary confinement. The shop for refreshments 
sold to the prisoners is kept under strict regulations 
by the ofilcers of the establishment, and the profits 
are employed as rewards for the most industrious 
and well-behaved prisoners. A new wing, recently 
erected, contains cells adapted to the solitary 
system. Admission can only be obtained by per- 
mission from the Minister of Justice, Brussels; 

The Kouter, or Pface d'Armes, is a large square 
planted with trees. It is a beautiful promenade, 
and has a military band usually playing there on 
summer evenings. 

The March^ du Vendredi (Vrydag-Markt), a vast 
square, so called from the day on which the fair 
is held. It is remarkable as having been the spot 
where the trades' unions of the middle ages planted 
their standards and rallied to arms. On it the 
ceremonial of inaugurating the Counts of Flanders 
was celebrated with a gorgeous and luxurious 
grandeur, unequalled at the present day. This 
spot is also identified with one of the most painful 
and tragic reminisccncesconnected with the history 
of Ghent. 

It is celebrated as being the scene of an 
internecine conflict, in which fifteen hundred citi- 
zens were slain by f cllow-citizens. The weavers 
and fullers constituted the two factions, and the 
former were led on and headed by Jacques Van 
Artevelde, called the Brewer of Ghent, in the cor- 
poration of which body he enrolled himself, though 
descended from one of the first families in Flanders. 
The day, to mark the sanguinary and disgraceful 
work, was called Evil Monday in the annals of 
the town. On that spot, and on that day forty 
years after, Philip, the son of that i^«5JC5>K*.^ ^'«»»' 
saluted PTO\.ftQ!<.OT q\ Qi\v««\^ wA. xwa^N:^^^"^^'^ ^*«^ 

m fLfalnit Louis I 


UntM, la caUed JHt da 

Flanden.uiddiLtcalniinllSO. It dmrrvti ■ Tialt, 

yati- IMS, EdwHil HI. and hta fumll; ndd^ 
hen. Dniins bli ngldencc bta qiucB gare blttta 
Id kw HO. Mm ^ Oamt (Obest). AdlaUoiiie 
and Irtaad]; •lltutH axUtMl lor jrvuibWuNB tba 
lisiUib tad wtojie id Ghtnl. 

Coiino.— SltDKted nesr tbo canul (cut In 1TM, to 
unite tba Lya and Bnign uuil la)retb«'). aiiil 
. bgln for the Botulenl SoeiMy ud ths KdbIuI 
I Boeltly or HI. C^Uc. Here an tild Iba well- 

loo the fate ol 

whom Edward 

in.atEugHna DKd lostylc "bla 

dear goaalp," 

tbtakhig. Bod 

lost bla life, It may be uLd, In hla 

Invited EdwiuTl III, orer to Bluis, 

n Utt, with a 

liew of laklng coundl for th« pro 

motion o( Iho 

prouilie made to the king by Jacine 

tbat be would make him "lard » 

nd heritor of 



oftbeGanlofaea. Public Inillgnall 

aealnet him, and waa farther in 

r^aaed by a 

of Flandan. 

Bteanhlly gent targe anna of momy est of the 

eirbeqier to England, wblrb k> 

ooae, wfaMi 

wsa attacked by a mob of ttt 

peraona. and 

broken Into, when a citizen, n 

med Gerard 

Denys, ilew him without mercy 

Pla aialue 

wa. aet np lo the Square, 1B8» 

ot one ol Chailea V., which alood b 

ore till 17W. 

A atatne ot Van Byok (I8TB) lUnda In the K<n>t«r 

Bvum, when b* BtmI ud died. 

I SwU-Jfoadf (HortlcuHnial Seslely). 

' The ^ty and nel^boarboi>d have for noarly a 
I cenluy been engi^ed In the cultlratlon and 
eipiirt of floweri, wbkb hai been carried to n 
hlgb plMb of pcrfecUan. and Tlilton ahuuld iioi 
UDlt to aea aome tt the bauiUtul gardoua hen:. 
Admlulon le frcdy puntad to atrantcri. 

The Jaadmv 'f^rit, Bn* Ha. Hargneilta, tnui- 
tataa a Minun of PhIdIImi. whtoh la well worth 
In^Mtloi, thongk tba plotara^ til ol the Flemiih 
acluiid, do not mamber any tt/rj ipeoial axuaplaa. 
Siuday mamloa fn* g aUaar dayih M HMa. 

Zroi;«aO.— Obont poaaeueg II hoapltali, elill 
andmllltary. The principal ottheae la the By loquc, 
founded In IIM. and capable of eoBtalnIng fiOO 
lick. In tbe ehnrcb attaebed la It, Jacques Van 
AnenMa waa bulad. Tba MlUtaJy ^^tal la 
■itoated ueai Ihc church of St. Uanln. 

nnurr.— A megnlflceiiltbcalrc bni been Inlcly 

It waa erected al a coat of iCI0«.O0». 

Laula XYUI. vailed here, by tbe Duke ol Wel- 
ILugtas'aaitilea, bcloia Wateiloo, "ttutbe ulgbi 
IH raady to t* to Bnglaud cr P»rl>i" and hoce 
SaUactdld, bj watcUng at tha Una's door, got 
Mwa ol Iba liclorj, potted to I/Hidon, and nwde a 

oloth working, gfa 

ind mamifactarea ol Ghent arc 
ind Tarfoas; the moat ImpaiUnt 
wearing, Mearhing, 




nuking, brewing; goldmitbs' work, paper making, 
and anmeroiit other branches of indmtry, par- 
ticularly the making of masks, of which large 
quantities are exported all over the world. There 
is alto a snperfo iron foundry and engine mann- 
faetory, called the Phoinix, founded 1821 by M. 
Hayt«ns Kerremans, in (}hent. Erery day, in the 
momtog, at noon, and in the cTening, a bell rings, 
to announce to the workmen, who amount in 
number to 1,600 and upwards, the hour of going to 
work. While this bell is ringing, none of the 
bridges are allowed to be turned, lest they rikould 
intercept the passage of the industrious artisans. 

The environs of Ghent are pleasant and fertile, 
abounding particularly in com, flax, madder, and 
tobacco. Outside the Porte de Courtrai are numer- 
ous country houses, and the road is bordered with 
pleasure gardens. In the neighbourhood of the 
gate of St. Lievin is found a transparent stone, 
resembling the flint of Fleuris. 

The fairs held at Ghent commence on the Itfth 
March, and continue for eighteen days; 10th July, 
serenteen days; 9th August, one day; and 3rd 
October, two days. 

A communication between the sea and Ghent 
exists by means of a canal, which enters the 
Schelde at Temeuse. This ensures all the ad- 
yantages of a seaport to the city. Vessels drawing 
eighteen feet of water can enter the basin. About 
fourteen miles north, at Bas ran Gent, are sluices, 
by means of which the entire country can be laid 
under water. 

Ghbkt to Amtwxbp, see Route 10. Six other 
lines run to Selzaete, Hecloo, Bruges, and Ostend; 
Thourout, Oudenarde, Malines, Ac. 

Oluiit to MediliiL and BrusMlf . 

Leaying Ghent, th<» railway after crossing the 
Scheld is carried along th<» south side of it. The 
scenery li tmiateretting, and such as usually char- 
acterises tiM entirons of a great and populous 
city, until we arrire at 

Melle (Statton), on the Escaut or Scheldt. 
Population, 1,900. The routes from Brussels to 
Ghent, and from Ghent to Hods by Grammont 
here Join. From this station to Wetteren the line 
d awrlb ss — ionBMUM ««nre, following the bead of 

the Escaut, on whose surface can be seen the 
boats as they sail up and down the rirer. 

WetttTMl (Station). AcharmincTilIage,or 
rather town, the capital of a canton, situated to 
the right of the railway, on the right bank of the 
Escaut. Population, about 11,102. 

At Scbellebelle the direct line to Brussels 
diverges to the right, passing through 

CAlOBt citation)— JTofeb; D« Flandrot 
Due de Brabant) MilleColonnes» Population, 
24,479. On the river Dendre, the chief town 
of the district of East Flanders, said to owe its 
origin to a fortress built by the Goths in 411. 

The old Town Hall, a fine Gothic edifice, 
built in 1210, was unfortunately burnt in 1879. 
The Church of St. Martin was built by the same 
ardiitect as the cathedral of Amiens, and con- 
tains a fine picture by Rubens, representing 
the "Plague of Alost." From here a branch 
goes off to Antwerp, vid Opwyok, on the 
Assche and Termonde line ; Londoiseel, on 
the line from Ghent to Malines; Boom, and 
Hobokon. Rail also from Alost to Renaix 
and Toumai. For the line from Alost to 
Brussels, see page 23.] 
Leaving Wottoren, the road passes the Molen- 
beek, a stream flowing into the Escaut. 

Wiclielen (Station). A smaU commune to the 
right of the railway, with a population of 2,547 
inhabitants. This station is the point-d^arr^t for 
each train. On quitting this place, the railway 
proceeds through a rather uninteresting piece of 
country, pcuswing the stations of Schoonaerde and 
Audeghem and arrives at 

Tonnondo (Station), or Dendonnonde. 

Jnru: Platd'Etain; Aigle( deUDemi-Lune. 

Population, 8,883. 

An ancient town, said to be earlier than the 
time of Charlemagne. It is situated at the mouth 
of the river Dendre, at its confluence with tho 
Scheldt. The inhabitants have a taste for the fine 
arts, and access may be obtained to the private 
collections. David Tenlers married in this town, 
and resided here for several years. The population 
is chiefly engaged in the hemp and flax trade. 
Hotel de VUle of the 14th.c.««&«r5A«TOw'B€v?iS^^ 




repay a Tisit. It. is a low, old building, sar- 
mounted by an octagon tower, and contains a 
Cmciflxion and Adoration of the Shepherds, by 
Van Dyck, and a Virgin and Saints, by Grayer. 
[From Termonde, a line of 9^ miles goes off, via 

Grembergen and Hamme, to St Nicolas 

(page 58). 

From Baesrode (Station) near Termonde. the 
State line from Qand to Antwerp goes to St. 

Amand, Paen, Boom, Contioli, and Ant- 

Malderen (Station). A commmie containing 
1,952 inhabitants, sitnated at the extremity of the 
province of Brabant. 

Capelle-aa-Boi8 (Station). A iittie village of 

no Importance. Leaving at a short distance from 
here the province of Brabant, we enter at Hombeck 
the province of Antwerp. Passing the ruins of the 
famous valley of Seliendael, we arrive at 

MECHLIN (Station)— French, MaHnes; Ger- 
man, Mechein; Flemish, Meehelen. 
The Malines station is fifteen minutes' walk 
from the town, which is one of the most pictur- 
esque Flemish cities. An obelisk is here erected 
to mark the point where the various Belgian lines 
of railway diverge to Brussels, Ghent, Antwerp, 
Li^ge. A line to Terneuzen (p. 26) was opened 1871. 
Population (1890), 60,962. 

Hotel*: Buda; de la Coupe; Beffer; Chevald'Or; 
de la Grande Cigogne; Campine; Couronne; 

Mechlin is a lai^ town in the province of 
Antwerp, divided by the Dyle into two parts. It 
is equidistant from Brussels, Antwerp, and louvain. 

The streets are broad, and bordered in many 
places by good building^. 

The river Dyle passes through the town, and 
has an ebb and flow of tide for more than a league 
beyond Mechlin, in the direction of Louvain. 

This town dates its origin as far back as the fifth 
century, and was long a subject of contention 
between the lords of Brabant and Flanders. 

The Lace produced at Mechlin is considered 
second only to that of Brussels, from which it 
differs principally hi being made in a single piece, 
by means of bobbins, by which the entire patterns 
are produced at once. Instead of being worked 

gradually by the hand ; and hence it is stronger 
than the Brussels lace, though inferior to It In 
delicacy of workmanship. 

The principal building of Mechlin is the Cathe- 
draU which is the metropolitan church of Belgium. 
It is dedicated to St. Rumbold, who was assassin- 
ated by the Pagans, in 766, in the chapel of St. 
Stephen, which stood near the site of the present 
edifice. The cathedral was commenced in the 
latter part of the twelfth century, but was not 
finished until the year 1513. The choir is of 1866; 
the great nave of 1487. The tower was begun 
1462; and the round Tower which surmounts the 
building is almost entirely composed of buttresses, 
which give it, when seen from a distance, the 
appearance of a fragment of a colossal fluted column . 
It was built with the funds supplied by the 
offering^ of the pilgrims, who came in crowds to 
Mechlin, to share the advantages of the jubilee 
and general indulgence proclaimed by Pope Nich- 
olas v., on the occasion of the war in the East, 
which however terminated the very next year in 
the annihilation of the Eastern Empire, and the 
occupation of Constantinople by the Turks, under 
Mahomed. It was from this jubilee that the town 
acquired the name of *^ Malines I'heureuse," as It 
has since, from its g^at cleanliness, been named 
*^ Malines la propre," but it is now often called 
"la tranquille." 

This tower, 826 feet high, has a clock face 144 
feet In circumference. The view from the summit 
over the surrounding country is extensive, com- 
prising the towns of Antwerp, Brussels, and 
Louvain. It was originally intended to sur- 
mount the tower by a vane of copper gilt, which 
would have increased the height nearly one-third 
but the project has never been put into execution, 
and the tower remains unfinished. The effect 
occasioned by the reflection of the moon on this 
tower, which gives it the appearance of being on fire, 
was the orlg^in of the proverb of the wise men of 
Mechlin, who try to extingruish the moon; the 
bare mention of which, to an inhabitant of the 
town, would oven now excite an irritation not 
easily to be appeased. The interior of the cathe- 
dral presents nothing worthy of notice except the 
altar-piece, which is by Vandyck; its subject is 
the Crucifixion. There are some other paintinfs. 

Bonte 1.] 



The exterior grand front Is ornamented with , mans. Ac, and a splendid ivory cmciflx^ said to be 
sereral statues, amongst them are Faith, Ifope, the worlc of Daqnesnoy. 

Charity, and the Apostles. Its carillons or bellA, 
which are noted, were constructed by Van der 
Qheyn, an artist of the eighteenth century, 
author of ^^Morceaox Fugues." 

In the church of Notre Dame^ behind the grand 
altar, is the Mifxteulou* DraugTU of Fithes, painted 
by Bubens, expressly for the Guild of Fishmongers, 
and considered one of his finest productions. In 
the same church are also a few other pictures. 
The traveller must take care not to confound 
this church with that colled J^'otre Dame 
d^Hanswyci^ which is remarkable for its beautiful 
cupola, and also for its carved pulpit, representing 
the temptation and fall of Adam and Eve. This 
church owes its origin to a miraculous image of 
the Virgin, which floated in a boat against the 
stream, until it arrived at the spot where the 
church now stands, when it approached the bank 
and remained firm; on which a sacred edifice to 
enshrine the image was immediately built; and, 
according to the story, the image repaid the devo- 
tion of the inhabitants by periorming numerous 
and stupendous miracles, which soon attracted pil- 
grims and offerings, sufilcicnt to rejuiy the expense 
to which they had put themselves. This purpose 
being answered, the image does not appear to have 
continued to exert its miraculous powers, for tradi- 
tion relates that it was destroyed by sacrilegious 
hands, when the town was pillaged, as above 

The church, formerly belonging to the Jesuits, 
and still bearing their name, deserves attention 
for its handsome Gothic front, and also for a 

aeries of paintings, formhig a history of St. Francis arst Sunday after the 1st day of July, and the 

Xavier, the Indian Missionary. second on the Ist of October, for all kinds of mer- 

Inthechurchof .Sf^/o//narefourfincpaintingfl,]>y chand»8C; and on the Saint Saturday in October 

Bubens, representing the Adoration of the Magi, ^« » well-frequented horse and cattle fair, 

the Bhih of Christ, the Descent from the Cross, On leaving this station for Brussels the rail 

and the Bosurrectiou. In the vestry is shown crosses the Lonvain Canal. The first station is 

Bubens' receipt for 1,800 florins, paid him for the Weorde, and near Eppeghem station, but scarcely 

work. This church has also some fine wood visible, is the chateau of Bubens, at ^een^ of 

The church of St. Catharine is chiefly remark- 
able on account of its paintings, some of which 
are go<»d, including an Adoration, by Moreels. held 
in high estimati<m by Kulwns. 

The Tribunal (restored) was the palace of 
Margaret of Austria. 

The streets oi Mechlin are wide and handsome, 
particularly that called Den Bruel, in whicli is 
the splendid Hotel belonging to the Commander 
of Pitzembourg, of the Teutonic order. It was 
inhabited both by Louis XIV. and Louis XV. 
The magnificent garden is now open to the public. 
Near the Antwerp Gate is a small convent of 
Bdguines, which deserves attention. 

Near the Town Hall (of the fifteenth century) 
are the statue of the Begent Margaret of Austria, 
and a Museum in the Schepenenhuis, containing 
civic antiquities (50 cents.) . In and about the Buo 
Serment de Fer are several fine old 16th century 
buildings, especially the Hotel Salm. 

Mechlin also possesses a college, a public semi- 
nary, the catholic University, as well as some 
societies for the cultivation of literature and the 
fine arts. The princii>al articles manufactured 
here, in addition to the lace which has been before 
mentioned, are leather, jewellery, many kinds of 
woollen and cotton stufis, hats, combs, pins, oil of 
colza, and flax. John Bol, one of the earliest 
miniature painters, and Michael Coxie, an 
historical painter and pupil of Baphael, and 
Frans Hals, were natives of this town. The 
boulevards replacing the ancient ramparts are 
the general rendezvous of the townspeople. There 
are two Fairs of fifteen days each, commencing the 

wmli^ure, by Verhaegen, and a good pulpit, with 
a remarkable group by the sculptor, Duquesiioy. 

The church of the B^ffuinage has some good 
palntlnr* by Van Loon, Grayer, Qaellyn. Boyer- 

which he was proprietor. 

VllVOrde (Station). A small, healthy towu^c.1 
8,825 inhabitants^ aitx^j^Vt^ X^n.-sr^'^xl Mwsfi^Kv't^ «^^ 
BTUft«fe\«. \\. \% ww^ «A VXi^-aift^ wxevHsoXVa."^-*****^" 



[Route 8. 

and ii m«ch yitited bj philanthropists desirous of 
inspecting the great prison or PeuiteiUiarVt built 
in the suburbs of the town. The Church of Yil- 
vorde ccmtains some exquisite carvings in wood. 
In this town,Tyildale, the first English tran%lator 
of the Bible, suffered martyrdom in 1586, crying 
out, "Lord, open the King of England's eyes." 

The route on leaving the last station takes in 
the Tiew of many beautiful country seats, spread 
along the banks of the canal leading to Brussels. 
To the right, as we iti^roai^h Brussels, is seen the 
Palace of Laeken, belonging to the King of the 
Belgians, some time the residence of his sister, the 
widow of the Emperor Maximilian of Mexico. This 
pala6e was originally built for the Austrian 
Governor of the Netherlands. It was afterwards 
inhabited by Nap<deon, and is remarkable as being 
the plaoe where he planned his Russian campaign. 
It is enclosed by mi^nnificent gardens and a park, 
in which Leopold It. has erected a large and 
handsome observatory. The late queen, Louise 
Marie, is buried here (I8S0). A statue of Leopold I. 
stands under a GK>thie orosa. A statue of Madame 
MiUibran is erected In the oemet«ry at Laeken, 
where she is buried, her husband haTing brought 
her body from Manchester. The statue is by Geef s, 
and la placed in a kind of temple. A beautiful 
and lengthy avenue of trees (1* All^e Yerte) extends 
from La^en to Bruss^s. The railroad traverses 
the opposite side of the canal, and near the Botani- 
cal Gardens, opposite the Rue Nenve at the Port 
de Cologne, enters 

BftussBLd, see Route 6. 

Illle to Brnssels. 

vid Toumai, Atb, and SngMeiL 

From Lille to the French frontier at BaiBlenx 
(Douane) is only 7i miles, and three miles 
further on Is Blandain, where is the Belgian 
Douane, From here it is only about six miles to 
Toumai, on nearing which a good view of the 
city is obtained. A beautiful emp cTceU is formed 
by the bridges, towers, houses, and rivers, all 
identified with some historical event. The new 
station is situated on the Bouleyard des Nerviers, 
o/>j>Q9ii9 the Plaoe Crombes. 

Toumai (Station). Flemish, Doonlk^ 
B^ttU: Derimp^ratricei de la Petite Nef; dea 
Nenf Provinces. 

A fortified city, in Hainault, on the Scheldt. 
The town itself is indifferently built, and hat 
a gloomy aspect; it contains a population of 
85,403, who are engaged in the manufacture of 
Brussels carpets. 

The Roman Civiku Nertiorum, afterwards Tur- 
nocum, it was the residence of Merovingian Kings. 
Henry VIII. captured Toumai in 1618, and be- 
stowed it upon Cardinal Wolsey, who yielded it 
up to Francis I., and persuaded his royal master 
to sell the town to the French King, influenced by 
the promised interest of that monarch to obtain 
his elevation to the papacy. It was made over to 
Spain by the treaty of Madrid, 1636. Of the public 
buildings, the Cathedral (11th, 13th, and 14th 
centuries) is the most celebrated; it is one of 
the oldest and finest in the country. The sculptures 
of the portal are interesting, "the choir is of a 
remarkably bold and striking nature; the pulpit 
is a gem, by Gilis, and the shrine of St Eleu 
Marcus a masterpiee of workmanship in gold. 
There is also a beautiful gallery, by Lecroux, of 
Toumai, and four genii, the gems of the place, 
by Duqnesnoy. The pictures are, a Purgatory, 
by Rubens, and a Crucifixion, by Jordaens. 

The cJturches of St. Quentin, St. Fiat, and St. 
Jacques are interesting specimens of the primitive 
Gothic style. The Church of St. Nicholas du Cha- 
teau is of remarkable architecture, and possesses 
some fine pictures. 

The Public Librarp contains 20,000 volumes, ftnd 
several curious illuminated manuscripts. The 
cabinet of natural history, in the museum at 
the Hotel de ViUe, is worthy of notice. There 
are also some good paintings and fine ivory 
carving^, in a small gallery at the same place. 

Five miles south-east of Toumai, to the right 
of the post road to Ath, is the battle-field of FOU- 
tenoy, seen immediately after passing the village 
of Bourquembrays. In this spot was fought the 
battle between the English, Dutch, and Austriana* 
commanded by the Duke of Cumberland, find 
the French under Marshal Saxe. 

Quitting Toumai, the following stations, nona 
Of which it of any importancot art met with:—* 




HavJnnes, Bary-Manlde, Leuze (where the 

lines from Renaix and Mons come in), and Ligne. 
After which we arriye at 

Ath (StatiOn)-//>n: Ouqucsne. Population, 
9,476. A town on the Dcndrc, 21 miles from 
Toomai. A terrible fire in 1438, a hurricane in 
1600, and an earthquake in 1691, and other disas- 
trous events, dismantled Ath of all her monuments, 
&c St. Julicn's Tower and the Parish Church 
alone escaped the conflagration. Ath has sustained 
many deadly sieges. The fortifications constructed 
in 1815 were afterwards much strengthened. A line 
goes down the Dendre to Grammont and Alost, 
past Lessines (Station); where a branch strikes 

off to ouignies (StatlonX s^ miles, and Bassllly 

(Station), 6| miles. Another line is open vtd 

Vaudlgnies-NeufinaiBon (Station) to St 
OUslain (Station), page 47, near Blaton 

(Station). At Meslln rEvgqne, near Ath, the 
cultiyation of the mulberry and silkworm has been 
introduced with much success. The Beloiel^ 6 
miles from Ath, not far from the road, is famous 
as the patrimonial estate of the Prince de Ligne^ 
illustrious in the triple capacity of diplomatist, 
soldier, and author. The chftteau contains a fine 
collection of pictures and historical relics, and is 
usually open to visitors. At a short distancefrom 
Ath, on the direct lino«to Brussels, vid Hal (see 
below), is 

BngMen (Station). A town containing about 
4,iy8 inhabitants. The beautiful park and gardens 
surrounding the chateau of the Duke D'Aremberg, 
destroyed during the French Revolution, deserve 
notice. See below for continuation of present 

[The old route to Brussels formerly passed by 

Maffles, Attre, Bmgelette, Lens Stations, 

to Jnrllise (Station). A small commune, with a 
population of 1,105 souls. It Is about 8 miles from 
Mons by railway. (See Route 7). 

Soignles (Station). 

UiHdi: DerAnge; desYoyageurs; des Trois Rois. 

The chief town of a canton of the province of 
Uoinault, on the Senne, In the district of Mons, 
with A pop. of 8,488. Its origin is ancient. The 
chmxh of St. Vincent is believed to bo the most 
anelent in Belgium; from its shape, and the 
ityle of its architecture, it is certainly one of the 
ourlons. The beantifally sculptured stalls 

are worthy of notice. The College of Soignics is 
one of the most renowned in Belgium ; it is still 
well attended. The principal trade carried on is 
in the quarrying of the stone, known as that of 
Soignies. It gives name to the forest towards 

Braine-le-Comte (Station). - FiemuJi, sGra- 

ven Brakeel.— .ffo/e/; Dc la Station. Pop., 8,176. 
A small ancient town of Ilainault, in the district 
of Mons. It is said that Brennus, the Gaul, 
50 years before Christ, founded a fortress 
and tower upon the site of the present church. 
The Parish Church has a stone tabernacle 
at the choir, a fine piece of sculpture, but much 
disfigured with gilding and painting. The front 
of the convent of the Dominicans is an elegant 
structure. The manufactures arc chiefly cotton 
spinning and lace thread spinning. On the right 
the line turns off to Charlcroi and Namur; on 
the left to Enghein, Grammont. and Gand. 

The surrounding district here is celebrated for 
the superiority of its flax, the best grown any- 
where. It is employed in the manufacture of 
Brussels lace. To the north-west, a few miles 
distant, is Steenkerke, the spot where the Duke 
of Luxembourg defeated William III., with a loss 
of 7,000 men, in 1692. 

Quitting the last station, the railway pierces 
the tunnel of Braine-le-Comte, and enters a deep 
cutting, passing Heunuyh'es, a commune of the 
province of Hainault; and La Gennette, where 
Jean Jacques Rousseau died, in 1741 ; after which 
it arrives at 

Tubize (Station). A commune in the district 
of Nivellos, in the provhico of Brabant, with a 
population of 4,490 souls. Branch to Bobecq. 

Lembecq (Station). A town containing 3 762 
inhabitants, with no objects of interest save its 
old chateau and its numerous distilleries. The 
next Station is Hal (see below).] 

The present Direct Line runs from Enghien 

through Sainted to 
Hal (Station). 

Hotels: Des Pays Bas; Canal Charlcroi; Belle 

A pretty town of 9,580 inhajb»v\.v».^\s., \^>^x\^. 
partly on the Scutv<i^ «l\\^ qw. \>as!>, <itsft»S. ^^s^-KevRxOk., 
having no oV^fe<i\.% q1 -^BCcN.VsNjX'ax Vs\Vst«5»X>"*»^'=' ''^^' 


church of St. Ubtj, ed«brat«d m posstttiaff a 
mixado-working imag« of tk» VIrffim. It ia of 
wood, two feet Ugh, and haa acquloroA JbnmeiiM 
irealtli by pious offerings^ induding gold plate 
giyen by Charles V., Maximilian I., Pope JvUns 
II., &c. A side chapel contains 33 cannon baUs, 
aimed, it is said, at the churchy and caught by 
the Virgin in her mantle, which she had spread 
orer the town to protect it during a bombardment. 
The high altar deserves special notice, it being 
one of the most beautiful in Belgium, made of 
nmrble, and sculptured, it would seem, by Italian 
artists. Below is the taberaacle, and underneath 
St Martin diriding his doak. The Seren Sacra~ 
■Mnts aro represented on the bas-reliefs, admirable 
works of art, at the lower rows, and the entire 
eonstmction is tarmonnted by a pelican. The 
-^urgeous f(xit, of brass, east at Toumai, by the 
artiflt Lefevre, in 1467, t« worth seeing. It Is 
placed in the octagon baptistery of the church, and 
is covered with a spire, adorned by statues, and 
groups representing the Baptiam of Christ, St. 
Martin,, Ac. 

Leaving Hal, we pass B uj i i ngea (StaUoll), 
and crossing the Senne, arrive at 

botb (StallOK)* about ftmilie* from Brussels., 
t has a very fine church, richly ornamented, and 
having over the high altar a painting (the Martyr- 
dom of St. Peter) by De Crayer. 

Qulfetiiig Loth, the railway runs parallel with 
the caual Cliazleroi, passes Rufftbroedt and Jf^est 
ati^kms,. aiMii arrives aft the south station, entering 

I mUBOl B^Route 7). 


Loadon to BraBsela^ Tli Dover^ Osttnd, 
Bni«66, aaA CttMiit. 

Direct EzpresSf H hours. 

Loudon, to Dover — (BouXe 1). 

Mail steamera leave Dover for Ostead thrice 
daily. The distance from port to port ia 63 Engli^ 
miles, and the voyage is made in S to 4 hours. 
Express trains run in connection to Germany,. 
Basle, the St. Gothard, &c. Fifteen milea south, 
the light of Dunkirk is seen, before the Ostend one 
iriiows itself. 

The Custom House Office is quite close to the 
station, and open daily, early in the morning. 
^asrjgvisro of trareJlen aniiing bytbemaUst^t 

^S<wto& A 

Ostend or Dorer if exsmfned at any hoar by day 

Travellers proceeding direct to Aix-la-Chapello 
or Cologne, can only have their luggage examined 
at either of those places by having it booked 
through. The same applies to travellers going 
direct from London to Aix-la-Chapelle or Cologne. 

The station is outside the town. 

Ostend (StatioiD.— i^o^e/'- 

Hotel Fontaine, in town,, highly recommended, 
very conveniently situated, near the sea and har^ 
bo«r. It has a si^endid disking^roeaa 

Hotel Continental, large first-class hotel»beaBtl- 
fblly situated, facing the sea. See Advt. 

Splendid Hotel, well sttuated, fachig Ote sea 
and bsfths. flee Advt. 

Grand Hotel du Littoral, well situated, laeiag 
the sea. Lift. Electric Light. See AdvL. 

Hotel Mertian, first-ciass house, opon all the year. 

Hotel de la Plage, first-class hotel, betweea tha 
new Kursaal and the Khig's Besideace. 

Great Ocean Hotel, first-class hotel, facing the 
sea and the Baths. 9ee Advt. 

Grand Hotel LeofioM n., situated near the riiore, 
with views over the sea. See Advt. 

Hotel de Gand A d' Albion. Situated Qveea 
Square, near the sea. Kursaal and Casino. 

Grand Hotel du Kursaal et du Bean Site. 

Grand Hotel du Phaare. 

Hotel de Belle Yue. 

Hotel du Beau Eivagc. 

Hotel des Arcades; Imperial; Ship Hotel. 

Hotel du Grand Cafi, well situated on the Phwe J 

Grand Hotel Marion, centrally situated. 

Grand Hotel d'Ostendc. 

Hotel de la Diguov 

Hotel du Liott d'Or et BastanueniUr Pkt«e d?j 
very good. 

Resident Engiish Consul. 

English Church Service. — ^In Rue Longuc. 

Ship Brokers.^-MessrA. Perier and Sam. 

Ca]» from station to tows, 1 frane;, Ii 
free undar 561b8., driver ssqpeets a 
Onmibuses from the hotels meet the 
and the trains. 

The Harbour of Ostend is formed by a. 
Inlet of the sea, which has forced apassage 
two sand-hills. There is a considerable ] 
traflic to and. from Fiu gland; and great 
of rabbits are expcnrted. The celebrated oya 
are sent In large quartiillPis to France. 

Ostead cootaina about M,7]9 hduri^itaMts^ < 
plAeed between tha> ssa and the harfternr, 
iomuMted br water a* evtry side. 


'***«•- place to the 


', U l"Ingli»J» 

■t«nd, proceeds 


rnl point of 

it! general 

_ a little to 
xio obicct of 


'«, Flenileb* 
abo«t M' 


t.*vu*wuH *w* ^vuiimi, 06C. ouon line, 1141 ncY« t^^TC^ Xvwaovtt\xk.^& w:^?^*''^'^^^'^ 


churcli of St, 
wood, twofe 
wealth by 
giyen by C 
II., Ac. A B 
aimed, it is 
the Virgin 
OTcr the to 
The high all 
one of the 
marble, and 
artists. B 
St. Martin 
ments are 
works of ai 
-orgeous f 
artist Lefe' 
];^ced in thi^ 
is covered 
groups rep: 
Martin^ ix. 

and crossing' 

Loth (Stmt 

t has a ver3 
having over < 
dom of St. p« 
Quitting £. 
th« canal CiM 
stations, and; 


London to 

Direct £r 
London to 
Mail steaiv 
daily. The c 
miles, and t ' 
Express tra:5 
Basle, the St:- 
the light of C::^ 
shows itself-- 
The Castor 

ftotttc 9* j 

TO BlXGIlTlf AtfV THE KfttKE. 


fonnd is low, and the waters have to be r^r^lated 
Ijy shiices. It is a growing commercial port, 
*nd a favonrlte snmmcr resort. It sustained a 
memorable siege of 3| years' duration, between 
1901 and 1604; when 50,000 of the besieged, and 
70,000 of the Spaniards who besieged it, under 
General Spinola, fell ; and the town was reduced to 
a heap of ruins. Philip II.'s daughter had rowed 
she would not changpe her chemise tin Ostend was 
taken; and its colour by the time the plac«was 
captured grave name to the "Isabel" yellow. It 
was ceded in 1715 to the Emperor of Germany. 
Louis XV. entered it hi 1745, after a Siege of 18 
days, which all but completed its destruction. 
The oyster parks outside the Bruges Gate ought 
to be rjhsited. It was nearly ruined by the bom- 
bardment of 1745. The Church has no clafan to 
architectural merit, but the inside is ilehly 
ornamented. It has a lofty octangular steeple, 
with a Tery clumsy spire, affording, howerer, an 
excellent sea-mark. 

The old walls are now converted into waUu> but 
the chief promenade is the Digue. Of late years 
many improvements bare been mader and there 
arc now all the attractfoua of the best sea-side 
resorts. There Is a Itsndsome new Kunaal^ with a 
Restaurant attached, and a beautiful Casino has 
been built, so that with races, regattas, pic-nics, 
and excursions, there is plenty to occupy the 
visitor. The sands are excellent. 

Ostend is a healthy watering-place, and is much 
frequented in July, August, and September. Except 
in the season, there is not much to interest the 
traveller, and a stay of two hours will suffice. 
A balhing house has been established (m the Difue. 
The Digue runs iu a south-westeriy direction 
for over a mile, and at H» northam esUremity is 
the fine Suuuner Falaea of the King. It forma a 
beautiful promenade^ and is bordered with a 
succession of hotels, restanrantsv villaav aikd fine 
buiidhigs, supplying every eoatvenle*ee aatd 
attraction that ttm be desired. 

Steamers of the General Steam Navigation Com- 

miles, to Kicuport, a small bathing-placo to the 
south-west. Rail also to BIankenb«rglie< 

Ostend to Bmges.— (Distance, 14 finglisli 
miles.) The railway, on leaving Ostend, proceeds 
through a country presenting no very remarkable 
appearance, being rich in an agricultural point of 
view, but flat and undiversified In itg general 

Flasschendael (Station) ; situated a little to 

the right of railway. It possesses no object of 
interest save its ancient chiteatt. TIm Dunkirk 
and Ostend canals join here. Past Jatlboke to 

BRUGES (StaUon)— OencHm Biihg^ Flemisk, 
Brvggmy or Bridges, of wkieb there are «ko«l Ml 


Hotel d« Commerce ; « fitst^rate old-eaMMiataNl 
bouse, enjoying «s excellent ref«i«ttoa. 

Hotel de Fkuidrv; an sid-eetalAMied ko«ie# 

Hotel de Lendres. 

Hotel de rUnivers; du SaUob. 

English Boaardlng Hovse, U^Bue d« Tieox Siic^ 
five minutes from the ftatioft" ftBall^ Iwt geed. 

Englisli Ghureh SertfeOr B«e d' O st suddr Sifft- 
days at 11 and S»80 winttt; swdner, II gad 7^ 

Population 47,981. 

The railway station at Bruges la in tkt Vrydagt 
Markt, or Friday's Market. The Weal WUmimn 
Railway is now open to Conrtni, vakteg a-Mrect 
railway from Ostend aiMl Bruges to PMta» 9k$ LlUe, 
Amiens, &e. It is 39]itHes Shorter OHM \ty QbCBf. 
A railway runs to Blankenberi^, (See psige S8). 

On lea;ring Ostend M is a very gelicml euetein 
for truireHers goiag to GemnDsy to tak«*Miiway 
tidcet for the whole distance to Cologfle, for tke 
purpose of reaching the KMnewfth fhelesst possi* 
ble delay. In dofng so, they deprfte flMUfsefves of 
the opportunity of visiting the cftfes In Befgiunr, 
whfch possess more objects of interest to the loter 
of the line arts, more pu^ affdf fmtfdX SpstMUttis of 
florid Gothic arcMtectrrra; a rfcher eoAecftton of 
rare and beautlfttl pafnfhrgs by ttte old Fletorfsh 
masters, than can probably be f ottnd in the wlMe 

of Gernfany . If, instead of tfrffs Ihirryfiic t«. %*». 
for London, two or three times a-w^k,iit I haste through acotttvtn "^f^i^v'^rw**"** ^^^^aaa^i 
BTail packets thrice daily, to I poVula ol Vxv\.ct«^«.\. \.o \t«^<3\«* \»t ^"^""^^t*^ 

about 10 hours. ^ j, .„ . j,„.„«„ ^ „»^ „. ,^^^ 

Dover, in 3 to 4 hours ^sce JB^atMaw^a Conft- \ T&tt^*1im'OTVTi\J«^NJi^«^^^***'^^^ 
«9wtor arufo?), mrect rail (the West flandws^ \ devote a ^Mt cJl\lifcVt\VrBfe\o^*^^^^^,,R*^ 
/& Thoarottt, for Caartrai, Ae. Short Hne, Hi* ti^« tKS«t^ t»<i«tsi\t«6 ««w^«^^ 



[Roate 3. 

arities, fine old cities, glorious monuments, arts 
and sciences, tlic people, and their institutions. 

Bruges occupies a prominent place in ttie liistory 
of Flanders; tlie trayeller will find this town espe- 
cially worthy of notice— not that it presents the 
aspect of a populous modem city, but because it 
has preserved the peculiarities which distinguished 
its appearance during the middle ages, Avhen it 
was a gn^eat Hanse town, the emporium of Euro- 
pean commerce, the residence of merchant 
princes, and when its population exceeded 
200,000. The mailed warrior and the gloved 
citizen meet no more upon the fortifications, the 
commerce which animated its quays and canals 
is dispersed over Europe, its merchants are no 
longer opulent as princes, the city is no longer the 
commercial centre of Europe. Yet, though these 
things have passed away, we cannot infer that it 
was in vain that this town attained to such a 
remarkable point of grandeur and importance in the 
15th and 16th centuries. The characteristic intre- 
pidity, activity, and proverbial turbulence of its 
artisans, the inflexible will and sturdiness of its 
burghers, the associations of its merchants and 
traders, which led to that interchange of opinion, 
that communion and unity of sentiment so fatal 
to despotism and feudal oppression, created and 
fostered that honest love of individual liberty, that 
regard and attachment for corporative and com- 
munal privileges, for which the men of Ghent and 
Bruges struggled during several centuries. 

This deep attachment to local institutions has 
been merged into that of national patriotism, and 
if the traveller, in conversing with an intelligent in- 
habitant of Bruges, deplores its depopulated streets, 
he will be told that if Bruges is not the great and 
important city it was formerly, it has still much to be 
thankful for; Its citizens, instead of being at con- 
tinual variance with their sovereign, or the neigh- 
bouring towns, are now members of an independent 
kingdom, governed by a prince of their own choice, 
with one of the most liberal constitutions in the 
world— that Bruges is no longer isolated in its 
splendour and solitude, but that it forms a compo- 
nent part of the nation, and anticipates a return 
of comparative prosperity. 
JBsiraxs, tlie JFlemisb Brufffe (or Bridges, of which 
/*«n9 aiv aftjr abort ones), is the capital of Wert 
"^^Hem eiimUeMfrom BrwsBels, SmUes from the 

North Sea. It is 4 J miles in circuit. Here six 
canals meet, from Ghent, Ostend, Dunkirk, Sluys, 
Fumes, and Ypres, in the large Dock or Basin. 
Bruges, now decayed, was in the loth and 16th 
centuries the great commercial capital of North 

On fete days the fine old city wears a gay and 
animated appearance. The beauty of the women 
of Bruges is of ancient repute, but the present 
generation scarcely justify the proverb, ^^Formosis 
^'uga pttellUy When they are seen enveloped in 
the mantilla of Spanish origin, their brunette 
complexions and dark eyes render them most 
picturesque and pleasing objects among the many 
splendid and exquisite specimens of architecture 
I with which their dwellings are adorned and em- 

" Fair city, worthy of her ancient famo, 
The season of her splendour is gone by ; 
Yet everywhere its monnments remahi. 
Temples which rear their stately heads on high, 
Canfds tliat intersect the fertile plain, 
Wide squares and streets, with many a court 
and hall. 

" Spacious and undefaced, but ancient all. 
When Imry read of tilts, in days of old. 
Of toumays, graced by chieftains of renown. 
Fair dames, grave citizens, and warriors bold. 
If fancy could portray some stately town, 
Which of such pomp flt theatre might be. 
Fair Bruges, I wall then remember thee."— Southxt. 

Bruges contains very many objects of interest 
which will require a day at least to visit. 

The Cathedral (St. Sauveur). This beautiful 
church was founded in the seventh century by St. 
Eloy, and was greatly indebted for its erection to 
the liberality of Dagobert, the then King of France. 
It was entirely consumed by fire in 1358, but was 
again erected, upon a more magnificent scale, on 
the same spot, the charitable subscriptions of the 
faithful defraying the cost. The spire is 470 feet 
high. The building is of brick, and in its external 
appearance presents nothing remarkable or attrac- 
tive, but its interior is admirable. The paintings are 
worth notice because of their antiquity, and repre- 
senting contributions to the history of Flemish art. 
Immediately under the grand entrance are several 
works by J. Van Oost; "The Baptism of Christ," 
"Clirist on the Cross," and "Jesus leaving his 
Mother to ascend Calvary" being the principal. A 
small picture, with shutters, hangs at the south side 
of the aisle, representing the Martyrdom of St. 
Hippolyte, by Dierick Bouts^ of Louvain . There is 
likewise an ex.c«\\cn\.v«^N3D\.Vxi%QV \Xxfc \i&SkN.%\i.\!^r, 

Tllh Abrshiim mi Elllah In the conlre nnd al the 

pnbllc only on dayi of (real jolemnity, bnt itran- 

■Ids, by Peter Portim, On either >lde of the •Itar li 

eer. am easUy obtain acee.. to >ee them on other 

oeoion. by payment of Ifrana for a BlnKleperion 

or half the amonnl each for a party. 

Viiltor. *ill be well repaid by vi.ll. to the 

order of the Tolion d'Or, preaont » from a cheplor of 

oburchei of BB. Gllea, Jaeqnes. WHlbiiigs, Aniia, 

that order, placed In the cUnrch by Philip the 

4e. The mm-c* o/JjTwajmi 1. the fruit of a tow 

Good, who founded the order 1*80. on the day of 

maiio by a plena merchant of Brugei, who, when 

In the ca«rc« </ S(. SaJiHdor are the BoTon Acta 

Salrt Dame la a church no way remarkihle for 

Van 0> 1 the Martyrdom of St. Barbara, by Cell { 

ted apire, 993 feet high. The moat precloua oma- 

uiont of Notre Dame la a atatoo of the Virgin and 

The ChvrtA o/Si' Anna la remarkable for its fine 

Child, «aW lo be by Michael Angelo. Hltboaur- 


prlslng to Snd a work by thli great man In Belgium, 

ptlileBglficdiSainlBaia.taa tradition uyithat 

lome drops of our Saviour's blood, brought hy 

aald to haye offered 30,000 Borina (or it. There aro 

Count Thierry, of Alsace, from the Holy Land, 

many Tery e.cellenl palntlngi In the church, the 

ate now deposited In a richly Jewelled and en- 

amelled ahriiie of gilt allTBr. This Uabown in tbe 

Upper Chapel, the .brine being e.posed on eyery 

Crayor ; an Infant Jeaoa. by Jacqooa Van OoM; at. 

Wednesday to Iho Toneralion of the fallMol. In 

Anthony of Padna, a Virgin and Child by Van 

tbis chapel aro aome good paintings, and a pulpit 

Dyek, and the Marriage of Bt. Calberlne of Siena. 

TheTombiof Charleilhe Bold, Duke of Bur-, and of tals dnnghHr, Mary, wife of the 

»oif>«flfo/fi(./o*n, which Is close to Notre Damo! 

entrance, fltly ceiita. Tho period of Ita foundation 

is unknown. It la only known that In im the 

died on Iho STlh of Maroh. 1*M; and Charles waa 

brothers and sisters of the houao. It originaUy 

killed at the battle of Nancy, In 1477. The monn- 

only received Mogdalencs Into It. bnt now penoni 

of every description are received and attended by 

Phillp ir. paid Uaater longchlinck the auffi of 

14,0IWflortna forthe eiecuttonof one similar to 

that of the Dnebeai. for h!a granHfathcr, Charlea 


the Bold. Tbe effigiai ol both are made of copper. 

of colouring and brightness of tone, that the mo.t 

richly gilt, and repoae at foil length on alaba of 
black marble. Bcnootb and aiwind the ilabi ate 

Indifferent spocUtor wUl toi \&>i-wM, ™. vA--^^^ 

eonti of arma richly snamelted. The; haio lately 

ate^™,«>.ftV*".\.V^"fl.">«^^^*"V„ aS.«»* 

tiM>ii»#»>iH(cr«ned. Tbtr mahowntoOie 

\mp«TtoT« ^ «.« «»^*»*«<*---^-'^^ 

fflUPMUW'ft HUri>-JK>OE 


it^UHiiigB-^timjfrtfd^ci UiM tUf md admUmtJon 9{ 
tr»TeUen^-l»7 Hmj Memling, pnaentsd by him U 
th0 hotvHMlt •# ft nftrk oC ]i|« fimtitode for ihs 
kindness with irbkh be was treated when ft patient 
there. Tlie priaeipal olijecU are, tb* CMtt$ of St. 
Umda, tte Ylrgin ao4 Cbild, tiM Marriage of 9t. 
GatJteriaa. ftjbo DoeapitaOoo of fit John the BaptUt, 
and St. John the EvmfeUitat Patmoe, with a H0I7 
Faivilf \if yaBd7ck.<?) The Belogary, or (Mut 
di Si, Vrsvla, is moft worth notice, coniisting 
of ft wooden coffer, in which is tho arm of the 
saiflt. TiM aide* are beaotifBilj adorned with 
repreaentatione of Bt. UrsnU^f pilgrinuiges and 
martyrdom. The hiatorjr of theae paintings is 
singular and merits ft short notice. Memling was 
a dissipated character at Bmges, and became a 
soldier. He was not known as a painter, when 
a wound received in 1477, at the battle of Nancy, 
compelled him to enter the hospital as a patient. 
His wound was healed in a short time, but he so 
well liked the mode of life, 8cc^ of the hospital, 
that he remained in it for 6 years, and paid his 
expenses by painting these pictures. 

A fine monument erected 1887, to Breydel and De 
Comine, two ardent defenders of national liberty. 
The JlMl de Viile is a beautiful Gothic monu- 
ment, weli preserved, founded in 1377, by Count 
lionis de Maele. It was formerly surmounted by 
six beaotifnl towers. The niches seen in front 
contained BS statues of the Counts of Flanders, 
the designs of which are preserved in. the beautiful 
work of M. Delpuire— 2%tf AtmdU of Bruges. In 
1792, the troops of the French revolution caused 
tlie statues to be destroyed as "images of 
tyrants." They were burnt in the Qrand Square 
in ft bonfire, the materials of which were 
composed of the gallows, scaffold, and the wheel. 
They bftve now been reitored. The staircase of 
the Hotel deserves notice, and also the paintings 
adorning it. At the Tcmlieu is the pnblie library 
containing 10,000 volumes and MO MSB. 

PaXaU dB Justice, close to the Hdtel de YUle, 
formerly the residence of the Connts of Flanders, 
and aneiently called Palais du Franc de Bruges-^ 
a large district independent of the city. The 
building (1737)repUces the ancient structure. The 
lAtaiior eontains little remarkable save the oonnoU 
atmm^mr^f ths nuigi§tnt0§ tod the jaagnificent 
»^»mUmac0amuMm0e0. It i$ CMryd in wood, 

and is ft ck^-^mmt of scalptare i« its way, 
including statoas of Chadss V ., Mary of Burgundy, 
Mftximilian, Charles the Bold, and Marguerite of 
York. The Story of Susannah is represented on 
the marble ^atHrtiiefs decorating it. Admission, 
60 cents. 

T^mrdu HaUes, or Oramds Tour,— In the Grand 
Square, or market-place, is held the annual fair, 
oommendag 4th May, and lasting 15 days. There 
are also two horse fUrs, of two days each, held the 
first Thorsday after Eaater, and the 86th July. 
The meat market in tills square is exquisitely 
neat and w^ arranged. At the extremity of the 
square is a steeple or belfry, the ^ Bdfry of 
Bruges,'' ''old and brown;*' celebrated in Long- 
fellow's poem, and also in his "Carillon." It is 
882 feet high, and is esteemed one of the most 
beautiful in Belgium ; the ascent to it is by 588 
steps. Doorkeeper, 96 cents; Attendant, 60 cents. 

Near this Belfry is the building f<Mrmerly occu- 
pied as the Drapers* hall, or Domus Anglorum, of 
which Caxton, a mercer, was governor, 1403-9; it 
is now divided into two coffee-houses, and contains 
a fine vaulted saloon, in which the National Society 
of Literature hold their meetings. He lived in 
Bruges, down to 1476, and translated his first 
EnglishhooksA\k» History of Troy, 1471, and Game 
of Chess, 1474. They are often errraieously stated 
to have been brought out here, but were probably 
printed at Cologne. The house "ilw Lion de 
Flandre," is erroneously said to have been the 
residence of the Emperor Charles, and of Charles II 
of England, during his exile, when he used to 
shoot hei#. The burghers of Bruges elected him 
Boi des AHuUetriers, King of the Cross-bowmen. 

The Covered FisA Market, with its granite 
colnmns, is a handsome building, lately erected. 
In the opposite comer of the Bue St. Amand is 
the site of the Craenenberg, traditionally interest- 
ing as being the prison of Maximilian in 1487-8. 

Near the Bue Noordzand is the Prinssenhof ; in 
which Marguerite of York, sister to Edward lY., 
was married, in 1408, to Charles the Bold. 

mie Aeaden^ des Beaux Arts was formerly placed 
in De Poorters Loodje, a fine Gothic building, now 
earefnlly restored and decorated. The Academy 
is now at the Ecole Bogaerde, near the HOpital St, 
Jean, but Mending's pictures are in the hall of the 
BOplUl. \\ vmUVa« Mmii^ ^«rs ^« Qld paintings, 

ot On Arqueburien si lb* OnlU or St. a«b«atl«i, 

. amid*]''! I (Matlon), rappljrlDC A 
, wltba popola 
totberlgbtof Uw(s 

tlaklng, dlmitlti, uid ■ blue I 
U tlu towD. Tbe lve-1 
eioaed tfiW in Dnmbcr. 

Sngei i1h eonUliia a lUgslsaga (oat eqi 
tb«l at GbeDt), H boUuie ganleo, a tbaatn 
acaduBT of fina arts, and ieT«ral htet^ij 
icIsDUfic BOcleUss. 

Tba (net of cooBtir •■>« 

ttipeU. iBe cinal from Ghtiil to Bniges, and mtIt** »1 

rkleh ta peculUi LandSsHeni (Station), a conunaiie ot tba 

« an aiid to ,[i,irict of Ghent, wlih a population of 1.IS8 

sonlB. Leavlngliorcwe cross the Lys by abridgBj 

w Free CouitiT ol 

Bnc«a, bam tbe drcnsutaiue 
lUTine IDOMeded In thnnrlng off Iba yoke of 
bolli the ilTal Gitlea of Brngea and Qheot, and 
obtaining from the Connla cf Flanden nuBwniai 
exdulTQ privileges, amongst vblch were tboH 
of aeparate magtstnitci and tribunal!. The high 

been btimght by the unremitting oiertlons of the 

citadel. Tboeburcbof 

BUnkenDerghe, H mllss f^ffoW.,— Oraad 
del Bains; HoUl Continental ; du Cnrsaal, 
and HBTBt, 18 miles fffo«/..-^CurBaBl ; G 
Tutos; d« in Plage; in Phsie; 1 
the Island ot Kadiand, and the 

bonnded by high banks, at 
iibd TRried by pretty vlUaa 

Stalle, QuUecht, vid W«Hemi. and Daudn- 
e docs not present any specUJ featorv of 
!«. For description of Uelle and Wni«reR 
ige 13. AtWettorcn the IlnstoMalinealB 

"cheilebelle, Lcdn, AlOst (for de«a4p- 

page IS), EremhodeglKDi, ]taBd«T- 

IMttVCk T«IIU1^ and tome other itatkmi sf >ui 

LHken <(ai de«:r1ptlaii lae pafa 


Lonaon to Antirerp by tbe Sohelfll. 

<y tbe Great Eastern Railway, na Harwich 
Ilkeston Quay), the Boat Expreii Jeares 
Ddon, LlTorpsol aireet Station, at S^ pjii„ 

LB district of the 
_ It^slu Watt 



[Route 4. 

Families, iu particular, who are going to the 
Rhine, and wish to include a visit to Antwerp in 
their tour, will find this route par excellence the 
most advantageous. The fares are reasonably 
low ; and the advantage of conveying that indis- 
pensable encumbrance — the luggage — from London 
to Antwerp without a '• transfer," will bo appre- 
ciated by every head of a family. 

The sail down the Thames is fraught with 
characteristics full of interest. 
The Toicev BHdge is a fine structure. 
The Tower is on the northern bank of the 
Thames. It is a large pile of building, including 
an area of more than 12 acres, and owes its irregu- 
larity to having been erected and enlarged by 
various sovereigns at distant periods of time. 
Besides being the repository of the regalia, it is 
now used as a garrison and arsenal. St. Katha- 
rine's Docks, adjacent to the tower, occupy 24 
acres, and were opened 1828. 

The London Docks come next, covering an area 
of 34 acres. In the vaults, more than 65,500 pipes 
of wine can be stowed. 

The West India Docks, extending across the 
northern extremity of the Isle of Dogs, from Lime- 
house to Blackwall, were opened in 1832, and 
formed the first establishment of the kind in 

The Commercial Docks are seen on the other side 
of the river. 

Deptford, with its Naval Victualling Yard, and 
the new Foreign Cattle Market, established by the 
Corporation on the site of the Dock Yard, next 
claims our notice. The Dreadnought Hospital 
Ship, which used to be anchored below this, is 
now removed. 

Greenwich, with its fine Hospital (now turned 
into a Naval College), and Observatory, standing 
out boldly and picturesquely from the clustering 
foliage of the Park, greets our view. For its de- 
scription and histoiy, see Bradshatd's Railway 
Tourist's Guide. The Isle of Dogs is on the 
opposite side of the river, and an abnipt turn in 
the river brings us past Millwall Docks, to 

Blackwall, with its pier, and the handsome 
terminus of the Blackwall Railway. Just below 
the railway station, on the left, are the new 
Victoria Docks, recently opened; with Beckton 

fToiamltsb, oa the rtgbt, with its rotnndti, 

cannon-foundry, arsenal, and barracks, is now 
seen. Further down, 

Erlth, on the right, with its pretty rural church, 
immediately after. 

QraVesend, on the right, with the slope of the 
Windmill Hill rising proudly behind the town, 
will next attract our notice. Tilbury Fort, with 
its gate or blockhouse of the time of Henrj' VIII., 
lies across the riverj and the widening expanse of 
water, enlivened by the constant transit of vessels, 
presents a moving panorama of animated interest . 
The large new deep-water Docks, opened in 188(5, 
afford accommodation for the very largest vessels. 

From hence to the Nore we pass Southend, 
SheemeSB, and its Dockyard near Queen 
borough whence the Flushing Boats start, then 

Heme Bay, Margate (with Shoebursmess 

opposite it), and the Foreland; and we sail, almost 
in a straight line, from the Thames to the Scheldt. 
The latter stream is situated immediately opposite 
the mouth of the English river and the port of 
London. It caught the eye of Naiwleon as suitable 
for a two-fold purpose — either to annoy the Eng- 
lish in war, or rival them in commerce. Entering 
the West Scheldt, at the mouth of the river, we 
see, on the left, Walcheren, the most extensive of 
the nine islands forming the province of Zceland. 
The district lies many feet below sea level. 

Various branches of the river Scheldt separate 
the islands one from the other, which ai-e protected 
from the inroads of the oceaix. by sand banks and 
dykes, or sea walls, measuring more than 300 
miles in extent, and kept in repair at an annual 
cost of 2,000,000 florins. These dykes are divided 
by engineers into two classes, called polders cala- 
miteux, and poldei'S non-calamitenx—ihc former 
mahitained at the expense of Government, and the 
others by private individuals. The countiy is, as 
it were, partitioned out by dykes, the interior 
defences serving as a barrier against the further 
ravages of the flood, should the outer dykes break. 
The great dyke of West Kappel ruptured in 1808, 
and the waters burst in, inundating the greater 
part of the island. In the streets of MIddelburg, 
the sea was up to the roofs of the houses, and the 
strength of its walls only saved the town from 
being destroyed. Com and beetroot are the staple 
produce of the province, which is very fertile. As 
we asoend the BcYvft\^t, N«ft w^, xism «ad then. 

peering over tlie artlflcial mound! e 
lh« topa of the Bplrea^ roofs^ and tA 
(be totmi nnd vlElogcs. in which I 

Mlddelbnrg (Statton) in V 

m ^afin48«),wltb 3fl BliCi 

FlusUng iSlatloii), in 

Zald (South) Beveland. 

Blemiet, a small lown. a ibort dliUnu off. oti 
Ibe left bank, fumoui as tbe blnh-plu^e of WilHam 

bombarded and liken by tho Eiigllib, under Lord 
Chstbani. Tbl> act was the only rosuU of the 

■ndSSeaiiboan, wlthalotce o( 6I),IX» men. It , 
was the birth-place of Ailnilral de Ruyter, to I 

and twocbnrches, toBethcrwHh 100 hnuses. were ' 
deelroycd by Ihe hnnibs and cougto.e iMtels ol 
the Bi)gll»b. Al Vaere, » decayed place near 
IbH, Is a good Town Hdl. Tho eonilroctloa of 
the Zlyiei c»nbe»»en 10 perfection at Wesl-Kappel. 

the Scheldt from Ihe cur- 

ilnatlug point of the Island 
icb li ■eporaled from tho 
lasBsge called Kreek Baky . 
dt, up ta this place, belone 

rerp, with ilH lall and lofty 

lo (0 a. 




Belgians, in exck&nge tor Venloo, and in oom- 
pllance with the treaty of the Quadmple Alliance. 

Hie PoUdert are «een on the left bank above 
Fort IdeVu^fiMltiOfk., TImm reaiained under water 
dorinir the contest with the Datch. Before arrir- 
ing at Antwerp, we pa«i aeveral other forts. 
The Duke of Parma, in 1M(, threw acroM the 
Scheldt his celebrated Bridge, 2,400 feet long, 
between the Callto on the left, and Oordam on 
the right, closing the navigation of the rirer, and 
so cat off all supplies from the besieged cky, 
which chiefly caused It to surrender. 

A foreign euginecr, residing at Antwerp, in- 
vented fiie-ehips, which were sent against the 
bridge and blew up one of tlie stockades. 

Opposite the Fori of 8t. Laurent, immediately 
below Antwerp, a yotmg Dutch ofliccr, Van Spcyk, 
blew himself up, with his crew and ship, rather 
than surrender to the Belgians, 1 880. A monument 
has been erected to him by the Dutch, and a 
paiatlBg deleting the event Is to be seen in the 
Eoyal Palace at Amsterdam. 

AUTWERP (Station)— in French, Anversi 60 
miles from the sea, 27i from Brussels, 32 from 
Ghent, 1S0| from Cologne, and f 58i from Paris. 

Population (1890), 227,225, with suburbs. 

Hotels: Koiel St. Antoine — ^well situated, first- 
class hotel; highly recommended. Grand Hotel. 

Hotel des Flandrea— A very goodhotd. Great at- 
tcndon shown to vJcitors, 

Hotel d« Grand Labonreur, Place de Meir, first- 

Hotel de r Evrope, on the Place Verte, close to 
theCathecbal; exceedingly good in every respect. 

Hotel de la Paix, Bne des Menuleiers, in the 
centre of the town. 

Hotel da CkMnmeree, Hue de la Bourse, second 
dass hotd. 

Hotel de Hollande; Hotel du Courrier ; Hotel 
du Grand Miroir. 

Ship Brokers, Messrs. Kennedy & Hunter, agents 
of the General Steam Navigation Company. 

Post Office is in the Place Verte. Resident British 
and American Consuls. English Churchy Bue des 

The Railway Station for Bnuaela, Aix-lApOhap- 

dk, ctoH ((i«« de i*£it^i li About « nUe ftoa a» 

quay— « special train for this fltation leaves Che 
quay from alongside steamer at 9-20 or 10^ a.«4 
if necessary the train waits until 12-20 Tha 
"Sud" station is on the Quay. The "T«te de 
Flandre " station, direct line for Ghent, is on tiie 
opposite side of the river, steam ferry across. 

The commercial capital of Belgium, situated 
on the banks of the Scheldt, celebrated for its 
magnificent Docks, which are capable of re- 
ceiving 2,000 ships. Commerce is Increasing, in 
consequence, it is said, of Its leaving Havre. 
Notwithstanding some increase in the number of 
steam vessels belonging to the port, much of the 
sea traffic is still carried in foreign bottoms. The 
South Citadel has been moved to give better 
accommodation; and the port and quays have 
been enlarged. A new dock is in progress. Ton- 
nage, nearly 4,500,090. 

Objects of Attraction to be seen in Anttcerp: — 
1. The Cathedral and Qucntin Matsys' Well; 2 
Church of St. Jacques; 3. Eubens' House; 4. 
Church of St. Paul— Paintings and Calvary; 5. 
Church of the Augustines— Pictures by Rubens 
Vandyck, and Jordaens; 6. The Museum— Fine 
Collection of Ancient and Modem Paintings, 
well worth visiting; 7. Statue of Rubens, Place 
Verte; 8. The Citadel; 9. Zoological Gardens, 
near the railway station; 10. Statue of Teniers, 
near the statues of Buduognatua, the Belgian 
chief against Cffisar, in Boulevard Leopold; and 
King Leopold, near it. Also Statues of Schoott. 
beke and Camot. Teniers, Neefs, and Snyders, 
are other artists of the Antwerp school, whose 
works may be looked for; 11. Oudheden Museum 
(antiquities); IS. The Mus€e Rantln. 

Tradition aicrihes its origin to a giant, who in* 
habited a fortress on the banks of the Scheldt, and 
exacted a heavy tribute from all who wished to 
cross the stieam, under pain of losing their right 
hand. This continued until Brabon (who gavo 
his name to Brabant) succeeded in destroying th« 
monster, whose right hand he cut off, and threw 
into the river; whence the residence of the giant 
obtained the name of Handwerpen, from hand- 
weipen, to throw. This memory of this f abnloiM 
legend U pi«serred in the dty arms, which con- 
tain two f^mpuU^ted hancis, aii4itel4D<vlV€iii(l6» 

TO BSLgiPM d ^P THE j^lgE. 27 

pt to gaiu 
ed in Ant- 
f Brabant, 
at Plessis- 
I red to in- 

roops into 
ingr of the 
.is attempt 
aM of tho 
ny, where 




]{ 8, between 

signed, on 
I l>ake of 
m it was 
it restored 

jj frequently 

>l Anstrians, 

ion of the 
Msame part 
inds. By 
Id, in 1795, 
; and since 
to been rc- 
le Scheldt 
ih it had 
I Belginm 

j I Antwerp. 




ind several 
whes are 
t best time 

it splendid 
Ditnry, and 
SO Tanltcd 
e beaotiful 
to it is by 
Dm designs 
d in 1518. 
. ; the -^rtew 
ise expanse 

ianc6 wit' 

The Pcid 
iring tiie 
g at Ai 
he Duke 
sheldt hi 
stween tl 
10 right, < 
3 cut off 
'hicb cbie 

A foreM 
ented to 
ridge and 

«low Ant 
Aeir himi 
ban stuTO 
las been 
Minting 4 

niles froi 

Ihcnt, 1« 



Hotel d 

Hotel d 




Hotel « 

centre of 

Hotel « 

class hot 


du Grani 


of tbc G« 

Post Oj 

and Ann 




It i», bowevftr, historically certaia that this town | haying been unsuccessful in his attempt to gain 
was in Azlstence as early as the fourth century. In the hand of Elizabeth of England, urlTod In Ant- 

630 a church dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul 
was built by St. Amand, who first preached the 
Gospel hero. The town was afterwards ravaged 
by tb4) Normans, and from 889 to 980 was in the 
possession of the Moors, who were annihilated in 
the latter year by the inhabitants of Flanders. 

In the 12th century the commercial privileges 
granted to Antwerp by the Dukes of Brabant had 
attracted so many strangers, that the town was 
insufficient to contain them, and in 1304 John II. 
enlarged it considerably. Its harbour was open to 
ships of all nations, and in the sixteenth century 
Antwerp became the first commercial city in the 
world. The Scheldt was navigable for the largest 
vessels, being 20 feet deep, at low water, and 40 
feet at high water. At this period the population 
of the city exceeded 200,000, among whom were 
300 painters and 124 goldsmiths; 600 vessels 
entei-cd the harbour daily, and 2,500 was the 
average number of those at anchor before the city. 
The taxes received in the city annually amounted 
to 2,000,000 florins (£160,000); the sums circulated 
every year by the commerce of the town exceeded 
500,000,000 florins (£40,000,000). During the reign 
of the Emperor Charles Y., a merchant of Antwerp, 
named Dacns, having received the honour of his 
sovereign's company at dinner, closed the repast 
by throwing into the flames the Emperor's acknow- 
ledgment for 2,000,000 florins, which he had lent 
him, saying that the loan was more than repaid 
by the honour of the visit. It was on this occasion 
that the Emperor made the remarkable reply, 
which, coming from such a mouth, is a never-to- 
be-forgotten tribute to the dignity of commerce, 
**My friends] the nobles pillage me, the men of 
letters instruct me, but the merchants enrich me.'^ 

From the time of the independence of the United 
Provinces, the importance of Antwerp gradually 
declined; the Dutch, with their usual policy, 
having made themselves masters of the Scheldt, 
blocked up the entrance of the harbour, and by that 
means transferred to Amsterdam the greater part 
of the commerce of Antwerp. In 1576, the Spanish 
garrison having been left for a long time with- 
out pay, rose in revolt, burnt the town-house, and 
pillaged the city, patting to the sword more than 
10,000 inhabitaoU. la 1582, th« Poke a^Alenfon, 

werp, where he was inaugurated Duke of Brabant, 
in pursuance of the treaty made in 1580, at Flessis- 
les-Tours. In 1583, the Duke contrived to in- 
troduce a numerous body of French troops into 
the territory, with whose assistance he endeavoured 
to establish himself as the absolute king of the 
Low Countries, but, being defeated in his attempt 
by the resolute resistance of every class of tho 
inhabitants, he retired to Chateau-Thierry, whero 
he died of grief, in June, 1584. 

Here the celebrated truce, for 12 years, between 
Belgium and the United Provinces, was signed, on 
the 9th of April, 1609. In 1700, the Duke of 
Marlborough took the town, and in 1748 it was 
successfully besieged by the French, but restored 
to Austria in 1748, by the treaty of Aix-lapChapelle. 
After the French revolution it was frequently 
taken and re-taken by the French and Austrians, 
but remained quietly in the possessioD of the 
former from 1794 until 1814, when it beoame part 
of the new kingdom of the Netherlands. By 
treaty made between Fraaoe and Holland, in 1795, 
the mouth of the EkAeldt was re-opened; and since 
that period, the commerce of Antwerp has been re- 
viving, and, as the navigration of the Scheldt 
was declared open in 1868, it Is fast regaining 
the commercial advantages of whieh it had 
been deprived. There is no town in Belgium 
which possesses so many attractions as Antwerp. 
It literally abounds in the riches of art, and sevvral 
days irtiould be devoted to it. The diurdies are 
closed between 12 and 8, but this is the best time 
tor seeing them ; fee 1 fr., less for a party. 

Tlie Cathedral of Notre Dame is the most splendid 
Gothic building in Belgium. It was eommeneed 
about the middle of the fourteenth century, and 
occupied 84 years in building. It is 884 feet long by 
222 wide, and 180 high, and contains 889 vaulted 
arcades, supported by 125 columns. The beaotiful 
Tower is 402 feet high, and the ascent to it is by 
622 steps; it was commenced in 1422 from designs 
by the architect Amclius, and finished in 1518. 
The exquisite lightness and purity of proportion 
exhibited in this tower are unequalled ; the view 
firom the summit extends over an immense expanse 
of flat country, taldng in above 120 surroundtnc. 
Steeples. Itwaa tat»\>^^^Vi\3s^'^'^'«w»^'^*'''*^ 



[Rente 4. 

of the same height, which was commenced, but was 
never built higher than the first gallery. In 1640 
a chime of 84 bells was added to the tower. On 
^entering the cathedral by the principal nave, the 
eye is stmck with the mag^nificent cnpola ; in the 
ceiling is seen the Virgin surrounded by Angels 
with unfolded wings. Approaching the choir we 
perceive the grand altar, executed in marble from 
the designs of Rubens, and ornamented with his 
immortal work, representing the Assumption. 

In this cathedral are also the Elevation of the 
Cross, consisting of a centre with two wings, and 
the Descent from the Cross, to which have been ap- 
pended, as wings, the Visitation, and the Purifica- 
tion of Mary. These pictures are in Rubens* best 
style, the anatomical precision with which every 
muscle is delineated in the Elevation is beyond 
praise; in the Descent the right arm of our Saviour 
deserves particular notice. It would be impossible 
to particularise in detail all the objects of interest 
in this splendid building, but we must mention the 
chapel of the Sacrament, the altar of which, exe- 
cuted by Verbruggen, represents the Holy Ark, and 
is oiTiamented by a splendid picture of the Disciples 
at Enunaus, by Herrcyns; the portraits of Luther, 
Calvin, Erasmus, and the other now celebrated re- 
formers, contained in a picture representing our 
Saviour disputing with the Doctors, by Franck, the 
elder. The tomb of Ambrose Capello, 7th bishop, 
deserves particular praise; the pulpit, also by Ver- 
bruggen; the white marble figure sculptured by 
Scheemaekers, on the tomb of Van Delft; the mauso- 
leum of the printer, Moretus, enriched by the pencil 
of Rubens; and an exquisite picture of the Marriage 
of Cana, by Martin de Vas. This cathedral formerly 
contained 32 altars, all of white marble, but one 
only escaped the devastating fury of the revolu- 
tionary mob. 

Near the foot of the tower, outside the cathedral, 
is the tomb of Quentin Matsys, with this inscrip- 
tion : — " Gonnubialis amor de mulcibre fecit 
Apellem." This epitaph commemorates the fact 
of Matsys having abandoned his original trade 
of a blacksmith, in order to study painting and 
render himself worthy of the hand of his beloved, 
the daughter of Flors, a painter, who had resolved 
to have none but an artist for a son-hi-law. After 
/xtcferai^gabie studjr for many wotttbff, Matsys 
^.gna ^o liope titat lie abonld succeed in his new 

undertaking, but had not determined in what man- 
ner to make his first attempt to win the professional 
approbation of Flors, when being one day in the 
artist's study, his attention was struck by a singular 
painting called the Fallen Angels, which Flors had 
just finished, after immense labour, and which he 
considered as his masterpiece. Actuated by a sud- 
den and irresistible impulse, Matsys seized a pencil 
and painted an enormous bee crawling on the thigh 
of one of the Angels. Such an exploit would have 
ruined the young aspirant with most artists, but 
Flors had seen enough to appreciate the talent 
displayed in the execution, and not only forgave 
the singular manner of its development, but re- 
warded the artist with his daughter's hand. The 
picture is still preserved in the Museum. Near 
this tomb is the famous Weil, the iron work of 
which was entirely made by Matsys with the 
hammer, and without the use of files. On Sundays 
and high festivals the masses of the great German 
composers are admirably performed in the cathe- 
dral. Open till noon. Sundays and Thursdays free ; 
other days, 12 to 4, Ifi*. Tickets from the concierge. 
St. Jacques (1491 to 1656, late Gothic style) 
is of great extent, and adorned with a number 
of Ionic colunms in marble, supporting the 
great entrance; the marble gallery and the grand 
altar, inlaid with white and black marble, and sup- 
ported by twisted columns, are perfect specimens of 
art. In this church is the Tomb of Rubens; near it 
is a picture by himself, representing the infant Jesus 
sitting on his mother's knees, smTOuuded by a 
number of figures, all of which are portraits of the 
painter, his wives, and family ; one of the females 
represents the original of the celebrated chapcau 
de Faille. The pulpit, chastely and elegantly 
sculptured by Willemssens, merits attention, as do 
all the windows. The various chapels, 28 in num- 
ber, are built with marble of different colours; in 
that dedicated to the Holy Sacrament, is a splendid 
picture of the Last Supper, by Otto Venius, and 
three admirable pieces of sculpture, viz., St. Peter, 
by Verbruggen; St. Paul,byWillemsens; andthe 
First Person of the Trinity, by Quellyn; and in 
that of St. Roch Is a magnificent picture of the 
saint, by Seghers. The Last Judgment, by B. Van 
Orley, is a singular picture, deserving attention 
from the peculiarly vivid tint which the robes have 
retained, tboug^ mote Wion. %^^ "s^m^ \!Jct% 'feVv^^^l 

worki of grmX merit. Tlie .mined ijliisi In tho 
Clisptl of a. Sacriment, Is very fine. 

Tb« Churcli e/m. Andrea wai made a iHindiliil 
churefa In less, by HargtiretorAtulrli. the sister 


rf Gorm 


i, DeiKl Christ, by Vonilyck, 

hedlnieSl. Tbemdit 

principal of wblch^rdtboMfljtyrdom of St. Andrew, 
E.QoeUyn. IlaUoeontalni apunraltot Mary Queen 

IMS by Henry III,, Duke o[ Brabant, andconlainB 
nomerons fine palntlIlB^ anione which arc tbe 
Adoration ol the Shepberdiand the Scourging of 
Chrilt, by Rnbens; the Descent from the Cross, 
by Cels; Gbriat In (ho Oaiden. and (he BsTsn 
Worki of Merey, by Tenters the elder; ChrlM 
bearing the Cross, by Vandyck ; a Head of Christ, 
by 0(to Venlnsi Chtisl Craeified, by Jordaens; 
and St. Dominic, copied from Corrcgsio, by Cra- 
yer. A globe, with Time holding an Arrow, which 
he Clock, 

I of m 

iOf II 

expression of the tormented Bonis Inspires, nt Urst 
sight, a seDUmen( of iniolun taiy awe, which stifles 

for the beauty of its eolouring. The Martyrdon 
or St. ApollonlB^ by Jordaens; St. Angnsllne 
Tlikm, by ymiftli ; and > series of designs i 

Virgin and St. Ignatius were of daiiUng magnlfl- 

lightnlng In 17t8, and the present imitation of it 
In stone has sapjdied Its place. Tbe most ramark- 
ible iiicturcB are Bluieon in the Temple, by Selm ; 
tbe Assumption, by Schotimida Priest administer- 
ing the Socrament to a Knight, by Crayer. In ths 
chapel of S(, Ignntlna is a oommonion-tablB ot 
:nlptnred In the finest stylo of 

■t, by Van 

sh school. A 

Ing Iho Vir^n 

<t In tl 

), Ciriil itlKtm Iht Txo Thirxa, and 
amerous others, bjF Rubens (the Ust mentioned 

jiilns^ the Impenitent thief Is depleted with a 

he Dead Christ, Christ on the Cnus, St. Catherins 
' Sienna, St. Dominic and others, by Vandyck. 
I. Lake before IhoProconanl. The Charity of Bt. 
Icholas to a Poor Family, B 


BKADStLkW's HXim*B001t 


Magi, by Albert D&rer; Portrait of St. Ignatitts 
surrounded by a garland of flowers, by Seghers 
and Schut. Some of the wall paintings are by 
De Keyser. The Chair of Rubens Is likewise 
preserved here, and In an a<Vohiing apartment is a 
line collection of casts. In the garden of the 
Museum are several busts, and a bronze statue of 
Mary of Burgundy ornaments her tomb. She 
was drowned fn attempting to save the life of her 
dog, whose image likewise forms part of the monu- 
ment. Open 10 to 4 ; Sundays and Thursdays free; 
other days, 1 franc. Catalogue 4 francs, a Sorter 
one, 1 franc. Attached to the Museum is a Gallery 
of Modem Paintings. 

The Atadimie de* Beaux Arts^ for paintings, 
acnlpture, architecture, and engraving, which was 
originally founded in 1454, and was taken under the 
immediate patronage of royalty in 1817. A society 
for the encouragament of the fine arts has long been 
cstabliahied, which distributes prizes every third 
year to artists of merit ; the allotting of the prizes 
is preceded by an exhibition, to which none but 
the works of living and native artists are admitted. 

Ou(Utak» Museum (antiquities) of old furni- 
ture, arms, pictures, Ac, at the Steen, a remnant 
of tha old castle, near Fishmarket. 

TlMTft are several private CbOatffcmt, whick are 
Aown to tranr^ert with great readineM; the 
Bwat reflMarkable is that of M. Van Landcer, ia the 
Plac» da Mer, which is rich in most carefvlly 
•elected s^eimens of the best nasters. Tber» is 
also a Mns«mm of If at«ral History iit the Rma dm 
OoBvest, wbiek is worthy of attcnti<»i. 

The Citadd (which has been pulled down and re- 
placed by strong lines of modem fortification, 
surrounding the town), was originally built In I5<S^8, 
by Facciotto and Cerbelloni, under the direction 
of the Duke of Alva; it was of immense strength, 
in the form of a pentagon, with six bastions, 
which command each other, and are defended by 
deep and broad trenches. Thisfortressformeilycon- 
talnedthe Bagne, or place of detention for criminals 
condemned to hard labour. It contained 15 wells, 
andahandsome Church, in which protestant service 
is now performed. When Camot was governor 
t>fAniwBTp, under Napoleon, he spared no pains to 
sireMgtiiea tAsso fortJ£catitms, and succeeded^ as 
'S^^'W^/, /zr i^ndetingr tbem Jwpregnahle, but 

they opposed a very ineffectual resistance to the 
progress of the English arms in 1814, when the 
town was taken, after a bombardment which nearly 
destreytd tb« wh<^ of the docks. 

But the evcat which gave the (Ad citadel of 
Aotwevp its great interest in modem times, was 
its siega and murender to^ the arms of France at the 
doM oiC 1883. F^om the period of the revolution, 
whieh divided Belgium from Hoilamd in 188*, the 
Dutch had retained possession of the citadel, which 
commands Boi oxdy the navigaitien of the Scheldt, 
but holds the entire city of Antwerp at Its mercy. 
The forts below the town were also ha the bands 
of the Dutch, mider (General Chaasi; so that the 
lato moTuanfh bad the control of the eogamerec 
of Antwerp as effectually as att any period during 
hifl reigB. To pat an end to the ineongrooM state 
of things, after upwards of two years spe«t by 
Great Britain and France in fraitless endeavours to 
effect a pacification between the parties, these two 
powers resolved upmi employing force to com^^l 
the King of Holland to relinquish a position which 
gave him so decided an advantage, and which also 
kept both countries in a state of agitati(Ni and 
warlike preparation, the evils of which were not 
very inferior to those of war itself. A combined 
English and French squadron was therefore 
despatdied to Uoekade the mouth of the Scheldt 
by sea, while an in^MMing French force, under 
Marshal Gerard, proceeded to lay siege to the 
citadel and the ac^acent forts by land. 

The French army was much larger than was 
deemed necessary for the mere reduction of the for- 
tress, bat the Prussianshad established alarge corps 
of observation on the right of the Meuse, and the 
King of Holland, on his side, bad levied a powerful 
force, which was kept ready for action within a 
few leagues from Antwerp; consequently, in order 
to be ready for every contingency, the army 
under Marshal Gerard was such as to ensure its 
success; it consisted of nearly 50,000 infantry, 
6,000 cavalry, and a tremendous train of artillery. 
The siege of 1832 commenced on the 29th Novem- 
ber, and terminated on the 23rd of January, 1833, 
In the surrender of the garrfson. The FVench, 
under Marshal Gerard, amounted to 66,0CfO men. 
The late Duke of Orleans conmianded the troops 
in the trenches. The best proof that could bo 
girea of the deUimlTvaMou «aSi "^tw^wj ^wx^. 




'mUOt CkBOffsl Cksmi nS hts 4Ji99 mm Yutd 
dafcadai the timsl confided to Mm, wm f otmd In 
tte aUt* of tko tortrew whm entered hy the 
Tictora; all the Tfimem whiek bad %een IndH and 
considered homb-proei irare discovered to be in a 
state of ntter devaetatien; and er^n tbe 
hoepital wldeb contained the sick anci woanded, 
and amputated soIdierSf and which was so placed 
as to be, at least eomparatirely secure, was f otmd 
to YMK^nt been no- in|nred as to threaten moment- 
asilj t^ fan npon the beads of the bRnafes; the 
k«s af the besieged iras stated at 99 kOFed, 949 
vovBded, and <7 misaiBg", that of tbe French, 106 
kUled and W7 weonded. Tba order ef tbe €&f of 
the FMMh MarsbaL stated tkafi HMO setres 
(bave«a eight and nine nbles> ef trenebes bad 
been opened during the stege^ and 6S,M0 cannon 
halls fired at the citadel. 

The Party on the site of an old fortification, 
contains a statne of Qnentln Matsys, and the 
Loos Monument^ a statne of Antwerp, with alle- 
gorical figures. 

The Sotel do VilU la situated in the principal 
nuurkfit^place. It waa built in 1557-65, and after 
partial destroction by the Spaoiaxdsv restored in 
1581, and enlarged in IZIS, by pulling down twenty- 
nlnA bonsea^ It baa a carved front oC 280 f oet^ and 
ia adojnied with statues of the Yii^^ Justice, 
and Pmdence, with their attributes. In this 
building is an extensive collection of ajodent 
and modem Pictures. Admission, 1 franc,, before 
9 a.m., or after 4 p.m. 

Thft JdomnOf whieb waa bunt down 1868,. was 
principally lemarkable as having been tbe model 
Cswa whlckSir ThomaaOreiriMun feinoMd his design 
for tbe Boyal Exchange of London; it waa finally 
completed in 1581. Tbe handsome new £xch«age 
ia by Schadde. It is larger than the-old onet bat in 
the aama atj^ and la 180 feet long by 185 feet wide. 

The form of the City of Antwerp resemMeaa 
strung bow, the string being represented by the 
Scheldt; ft contains fine broad avenues and public 
aquarea, of wMcft the most beautiful ia the Place 
de Meir, In wbfoft la the Royal Palace purchased 
by Hapoleon and fumiafied by him for his own 

18th of August, fairs which last S0 daya^ for mer^ 
^andiae of all kinds; here idso is the handsome 
building inhabited by Camot, while governor of 

In a anutn eourt out of Place Vendredl, 
la an oid Hotiae, the fnmt of whl(^ Is em- 
bellished with a figure of Hercides iMKiMjUiiled 
by a woman, bearing tbe Inacrip^isB **Iitbere et 
Constantia." It waa fro» U«ft tbe yrtntSiig 
office of Christopher Plantin (printer to Philip II.) 
and Ma aaeeesmr, Meretns. The bouse, with ita 
treasures, was sold by ita last ewner te tbe elty, 
and now f onns tbe Mmo^ FJ M nli my eontatalBg the 
old fnmitnre^ 14^008 letter* of sdMlara, aone ef 
their portraits, with the PolygM printed by 
Philip II. Open 10 to 4, Saturdays excepted, 
1 franc. This exhibition ia unique, and ahould cer- 
tainly be seen. In Rue Leys is the handaomo 
House of the late Baron Leys (bom here 1814), 
containing his frescoes and other werka. tana of 
his productions are in the Town Hall. The benso 
where Rubens lived from 1580 to 1600 is in Plaee 
de Mefr, a portion of the house wbece be died^ 
1640, still exists, at No. 7« Rue de Rubena. Hla 
country house waa at Stecn. Hlia. terceataaary waa 
kept 1877. He executed 2,700 woika C7Q0 being 
(drawings and aketcheaX of which SQAave loat. 

The town atoo eontaine several TheaCrea, Ibe 
new Ffiemiabi one being iwaeikably ioe, a new 
National Bank,. Palais- de Justice, an AtbeMMunr, 
a Botanic Garden^ a FonndllDg Boapltaf, and 
one of the best Zoological Oardene te Bvope. 
Kursaal on the opposite aids of the river* Tbeve 
are numerous associations called "liannoniea.^* 
PnbHc Baths in the Place Verte and In the 

Antwerp la tbe htetb-i^aee of Omy^r, Rubens, 
Yaadjck, Jordaene, the twe Teniere, and Obbbm- 
gank, all painters of tbe fhrsC daaa ,- Edeifarik, the 
engraver; Ortelius, the geographer; eraannagc, 
Butkers, Saaderas, and Vammieteren, biatoriaaff; 
Moretus, the printer ; and Stockmans, whose legal 
decisions are of the greatest authority in tbe Belgic 
courts. The Park is situated Vis*. ^-^'*^^^'^26fc'i?a^ 

residence. Itoimtalaaaftewflnepabitlngs. intbe ll««^^*«^«^^*^'^^** ^^^'^'^^'''^N2Bs^>sfi^'««***"* 
Plane Terte, a square baadMniel^r planted witYk \ iWKB^amwflA^^'^'iS^'s^'^^^ 
treea^ are held on tbe J7tb of May, and on tYwXTftewiaXQf %^awB^* Oti\Jb»vcs«^ 



[Routes 5 and 5a. 

or Uezre (Station), 9 miles; with silk factories, 
and good pictures by Rabens and Memling at St. 
Gomer's old church. Hotel (FAnvers. 

The Antwerp and Gladbach line (for Cologne, 
Ac.), rid HerentlialB and Roermond, passes 

Vlodrop, Rheydt, and Miinclieii aiadlMtch. 

The line to Aix-la-Chapellc, by Diest (pages 60 
and 68), Hasselt and Maestricht, Route 17, is 
now generally preferred for Cologne. 

Antwerp to Brussela, vid Malines. 

See Route 11. page 59. 

Between Antwerp and Mallnes the land is well 
cultivated, and there are several picturesque- 
looking ch&teaux on both sides. 

Bntges to ConrtraL 

BnigeB.~See Route 8. 

Thourout (Station). (Thor-hout: Grove of 
Thor.) A small town in a fertile district, with 
manufactures of coarse woollens and excellent 
lace. Its only objects of attraction are the largo 
new Collegiate Church and StacUhuis. The Castle 
of Wynendael is close by. It was in this place 
that the Bishop of Lincoln and his colleagues 
negotiated the marriage of Edward, Prince of 
Wales, with the daughter of Philip, King of 
France, and that of Edward I., the Prince's father, 
with the sister of that monarch. 

Uchtervelde (Station), the junction of a line 
to Dixmuiden and Dunkirk. 

ROUlers (Station) . A small town picturesquely 
situated on the Mander, amidst beautiful meadows. 
The church of St. Michael, to the rear of the west 
side of the market-place, a small structure with a 
beautiful spire, and the Stadthuit^ an old building 
situated in the market-place, are worth a visit. 

Iseghem (Station), of no importance, where 
the railway crosses the Lys, and arrives at 

Courtrai.— See Route 1. 

Fboh BsnGEs TO CouBTSAi.— The trains cor- 
respond with the government trains going to 
Ostaaef, GJient, Brussels, and Antwerp. Tickets 
^OT- c?s/ea^ Ghent, BrasaeJs, Li^ge, Mouscron, 

and Toumai, are delivered at Bruges, Thonr- 
out, Roulers, Iseghem, and Courtrai ; and in the 
great stations tickets are delivered for Bruges, 
Thourout, Lichtervelde, Iseghem, Courtrai. 

From Courtkai to Bbuges The trains cor- 
respond at Courtrai with the trains for Mouscron, 
Toumai, Lille, and Paris, by the Northern Line. 

Courtrai to Ypres and Poperinghe. 

Courtrai.— See Route 1. On this route we 
pass the village of Bisseghem, near which the 
Duke of York was defeated in 1793 by General 
Sonham, losing on the occasion 70 pieces of cannon. 

Menin (Station), a fortified town, situated on 
the Lys, which separates France from Belgium. 
It contains a population of 12,298 persons. 

Ypres (Station), or Yperen^ in Flemish. 

Hotels.— De la T6tc d'Or; de I'Ep^e Royalo. 

A fortified town, pron. *' Eeper," on a plain, and 
containing 16,505 inhabitants. In the fourteenth 
century it contained 200,000 inhabitants, and kept 
4,000 looms constantly at work. It gives name to 
the linen called diaper (i.e., D'Ypres), so much 
used throughout the world. The old Clothiers' 
Hall, in the great market place, is a long, low 
building, in the Gothic style, containing historical 
pictures by M. Pauwels, and was restored in 1860. 
The Town Hall (1575) forms a continuation of this 
edifice, and has some good mural paintings. 

The Cathedral of St. Martin, in the Gothic style, 
contains a very good carved pulpit, and a paint- 
ing, said to be by Van Eyck, the FaU of Man. In 
the choir a long stone points out the tomb of 
Jansen, or Janssen, Bishop of Ypres, who died in 
1688. He was founder of the Jansenists, and 
was long and violently persecuted by the Jesuits. 
St. Martinis Day, 10-11 November, is celebrated 
by horn and lanterns. Museum of Antiquities and 
Pictures, 60 cents. 

There is a railway connection here with 
Armenti^reB (page 8) and Comines, the birth- 
place of Philip de Comines, the historian. 

Poperins^e (Station), near the French 
frontier. Population, 10,867. At Hazebrouck 
(7 miles), page 8, the Lille and Calais Rail Is 

Boute 6.] 





PoPULAtioN (1890), 483,000, including guburbs. 

Hotel*: — 

Hotel de Belle Vue : a large first-class establish- 
ment, beaatif ollf situated, overlooking the Park ; 
kept by Mr. Dremel, of Dresden. See Advt. 

Hotel de Flandrc, first-class, in the Place Royale; 
belongs also to Mr. Dremel. See Advt. 

Hotel Mengelle, 76, Rue Royale; English and 
American Hotel ; replete with every modem com- 
fort. Lift. Highly recommended. See Advt. 

Hotel Metropole, very well situated in the 
centre of the town, facing the beautiful Place de 
Brouckere. Lift. Electric light. 

Grahd Hotel Gemay, comer of the Boulevard 
dU Nord and the Boulevard Botanique; clean and 
comfortable. See Advt. 

Grand Hotel de Brussels, Boulevard Central; 
200 handsome rooms, with every comfort; baths ; 
highly recommended. Lift. 

Hotel do TEurope, Place Royale. 

Grand Hotel Britannique, first-class hotel, situ- 
ated Place du Tr6ne, near the King's Palace and 
the Boulevards; recommended. 

Hotel de rUoivers, in the centre of the town, 
near the North Railway station. 

Barber's Hotel do France, Rue Royale, an old- 
established, first-class hotel. 

Hotel de Sufede, Rue de I'Evgque, first-class hotel, 
overlooking the new Boulevards. 

Hotel de Saxe, Rue Neuvo, lower town. 

Hotel de la Poste, Rue Fossd aux Loops. 

Hotel du Grand Miroir, central situation, Ruede 
la Montague, near the Galeries St Hubert. 

Hotel dd'Empereur, Rue Neuve, near the station . 

Hotel Central. 

English Hotel, second-class, 44 and 46, Rue de 
Brabant, opposite the North station. 

Engtith Boarding Houses.— At 28 and 24, Boule- 
vard do Waterloo, by Mr. Wiltchcr. At 28, Rue 
de J<Micker, by Mrs. Janss^is Jamagne. At £4, 
Avenue de la Toison d'Or, by Mr. B. De Bocok. 
At 6, Rue Jouvdan (Avenue JLouise), by Mrs. 
Boui'ecoud. Cnlltf ord'a, Rue Bodenbroek. 

Mrs. Mathys, 4% Bm» du Prince Royal (IxeUoft), 
lets wcll-furai8hediiooiii4i saloons, and bedcoomft, 

bjr the week, months dsc gee Advt. 

French and English Pension.— \Q, Rue Caroly, 
Mrs. Gachet. 

The fair city of Brussels has formed the subject 
of the wannest eulogiums from three of our 
greatest modem poets— Byron, Scott, and Southey ; 
and no person who visits it in the present day 
will say that their praises are exaggerated or un- 
deserved. No traveller, visiting the lowertown, who 
observes its noble streets and mansions, its mag- 
nificent arcade known as the Passage de St. Hubert, 
inhabited by the mercantile part of the ccnnmunity, 
and then proceeds to the upper or "west end" of 
the city, commencing with the Place Royale, em- 
bellished by the church of St. Jacques tur 
Caudcnberg, with its fresco painting, which is 
seen to much advantage when the sun streams out 
its settbg glories upon it, and illuminates the vivid 
colours with magical effect, and the statue of the 
crasader, Godfrey of Bouillon, thence to the Place 
des Palais, and there admires the pleasing eoarp- 
iTceil formed by the King's Palace, the Palace of 
the prince of Orange, the beautiful and uubrageous 
Park, the magnificent Rue Royale, the noble 
buildings in the Rue de la Loi and the splendid 
view from the Place du Ck)ngrfes, but will exclaim 
that the beauty of the tout ensemble, the neatness 
and cleanliness of this part of Brussels, render it 
one of the most charming cities in Europe, and 
impart a becoming dignity to the seat of tho 
Belgian government. Its former walls are replaced 
by broad well-planted Boulevards above 4 miles 
long, with convenient tramways all round. The 
Sonne is now covered in, forming one of the finest 
streets in Europe, whether for length and width 
or beauty and architectural variety of buildings. 
Its history presents a succession of event- 
! ful scenes and tragical episodes. At one period 
i depopulated by the plague, produced by 18 months 
of consecutive rain; at another epoch its eitizeng 
decimated by the atrocious cruelties of the Duke of 
Alva, the Spanish Regent; by civil wars and revo- 
lutions; religious persecutions of the Protestimts 
by the Catholics, of the Jews by the Christians. 

Olojeoto of attraction in Bmaselfl.— The 

Town Hall and Grande Place. Bourse. C%«a5^«sJv. 
(Hbercborche*. ^«\«:\^^'«Cft«w»^^^«?«^* ^[^^ 


<^xi. ^^^K^. '*»^ 


Juttlcc. The Botanical Garacim, and the " Museo The following are the principal hinUdings aur- 

Wiertz," near the Pare IxJopohl and the Luxcm- rounding the Park:— 

IwufK' station. The Fontaine de Brouckere The KlXlf'g Palace.— A large and vast edifice, 
at the Namur Oate. The Bols do la Cambro. which is now being completely remodelled. Its 
Finally, the Park, with the Palais Royal, the interior, visible only in the absence of the King, 
Palais dcs Academics, and the Palais dc la Nation, is magnificently furnished. Under the French! 
The old city of Brussels, called in French, *''** Palace was the Hotel dc U Prefecture. 
Jiruxelles, and in Flemish Brusiel, is in tlie form of ^«Poleon and the Empress Josephine lodged in It 
a pear, and Is built partly on an acclivity, once ^" ^^0^' »"** Maria Louise In 1811. It has several 
covered by the forest of Soignies, and partly *oItes of very noble rooms, and has been con- 
on a plain. Its name has been derived from R^erably enlarged by Leopold IF. A flag is hoisted 
Jiruff-Setine (bridge over the Sennc), but the word ^^'^®" **»« K*"ff *» **»ere. 

BrucsclU Is found as early as the 8th century. The a alierff of Paintings collected by Kin"-Leo- 

and this shows the present form to be very old pold is well worth visiting; moreover, there arc 

and probably the original. The climate is tem- several paintings of peculiar interest to Eng-IIsh 

l>erate, and, although extremely variable, and visitors, via.: a portrait of the lamented Princess 

somewhat moist, it is healthy, particularly in the Charlotte, a beautiful one of the late Queen of the 

higher port of the town. The manufactures of Belgians, several others of great merit .and Inte- 

Brusscls consist princiiwlly of its far-famed lace; rest; for instance, those of the King of the French 

bronzes; carriages; printing and hanging papers; and his Queen, Marie Anielie; and last, tlioii«rh 

horse hair and woollen stuffs; painted porcelains; not least, two full-length portraits of Queen Vic- 

f umiture and soaps. There are also lithographic toria and Prince Albert, by Wintcrhalter. 
and printing establishments, especially for books. 

rii. , 1 The Palais (let Academies, formeTly Pttlace of the 

The lute King of Holland erected it at the cost of 

of the beautiful architectural creations of the last 

century, by the architect Gnlmard. It presents a ^, 

monumental aspect, and is remarkable for the ^^'"^ *^* 5' ""*^ presented it to that Prince. It is 

grand regularity of its appearance. On one side it "<>^' ^^^^""""'t property, and contains 12 wall 

opens to Rue Roynlo and the Royal Palace ; on the l'";"""^?* of Belgian history, by SHngeneyer ; 

other, to the Palace of the Count of Flanders (the V.k "^^V" ' '\''*"*' ""^ Quetelct, director 

king's brother). Rue de la Regence, and the Palais ^^ ***^ Observatory, stands in front, 

de Justice. An equestrian Statue of Godfrey de The Chambers of Representatice^t, or Palais de 

Bouillon, the celebrated chief of the first Crusade, la Nation, are situated in the Rue do la Loi. Tlioy 

adorns the square. It is a fine work of art in were built by the Empress Maria Theresa. Tlic 

bronze, by M. E. Simonis. Senate House is adorned with a scries of nine 

The Park is an enclosure in the higher town, subjects from Belgian history, including Clinrlc- 

forming a square divided into avenues, lined with magne, Godfrey of Bouillon, Charles V., Ac, by 

trees and intersected by beautiful walks orna- M. Gallalt, the celebrated historical painter. 

mented with statues. It has three principal walks. Strangers are admitted during the debates. The 

planted with lofty trees. It was one of the chief J'*"^^ containing the Chamber of Deputies and tlic 

scenes of action in the revolution of 1830. A fine library was burnt down 1883, and rebuilt in 1885. 

basin in the centre, and another in the principal At the end of the Rue de la LoI is the Palais 

avenue, with a beautiful fountain, add to the du Cinquantenaire, a part of which contains the 

attractions of this delightful spot. At the N.E. Mussed:' Art Monumentale et Jndustriale, open dRily^ 

corner is the Th^tre du Pare, and an enclosure 10 to 4. Here are collections of casts of sculp- 

ar//ad the Vaujrhally where the Opera Band gives turcs, of decorative arts, stained glass, Ac, and a 

aoncor(0 every evening at eight o'clock, »fay to Museum of Aucteut Industrial Art, also the 

tyvr»rA?/., ar/m/ss/ jt I franc. >-iit\oua\ Y.OiuctcVV>w^Vvv*^xN\w. 

Konfte 6.] 




MUB^e, in PIncc du Miisee, near Place Royal e, 
A pile of building's, which includes the Gallery 
of Modem Pictures; the Historic Gallery; the 
Palais de i'lndustrle; the Natural History Col- 
lection; the Royal Library; and the Palais des 
Beaux Arts, in Rue do la Re^jcnce, ■where the 
ancient pictures nrc now located. In the square is 
Jebotte's statue of Duke Charles of Lorraine. The 
Protestant Church is in the Ancienue Cour, adjuin- 
ing it. 

The only object of attraction at the Mtitee is the 
Picture Gallery, which contains a good collection 
of modem Flemish paintings. Ko catalogue. 
New purchases are continually being made, and 
the galleries include works of Wappcrs, Gallait 
(Taking of Antioch and Abdication of Charles 
v.), Blefve (Compromise of the Nobles, with 
portraits of Egmont, Ac), De Keyzer, and Ver- 
boekhoven, all well worth attention, as specimens 
of the moderu Jiefgian Scfiool. 

The fine new Palaii det Ikaux Arts is entered 
from the Rue do la Rogenco, and contains the 
sculptures and older paintings. Few of the im- 
portant masters of the Flemish and Dutch Schools 
arc unrepresented, some of the paintings being of 
great merit and value. The pictures are frequently 
re-arranged. There Is a considerable number of 
work<i of the French School. Those of the Italian 
and Spanish Schools are comparatively few in 
number, and, excepting a Claude Lorraine 
(^l^eas hunting with Dido), are not worth any 
special notice. Among the most remarkable of the 
Flemish and Dutch pictures are the following: — 

Van Eyck (early Flemish School),— Adam and 
Eve, originally forming part of the celebrated 
Adoration of the Lamb at Ghent, and (livento the 
State as unsuitable for a church, Erythrieau and 
Cumcean Sibyls; (juentin Matsys, — St. Anne, 
Holy Family; Dierlc Bouts,— The Judgment of 
Otho III.; Mcmling,— Portrait, a CruciiSxlon, the 
Burgomaster Morcel and his wife ; Van der Wey- 
dcn,— Chas. the Bold; De Crayer,— several large 
pietures ; Jordacns,— head of an apostle, Eleazer 
tad Rebecca; Rubens, — .\doration of the Magi, 
Iftdonna and Child, Archduke Albert and his 
iiU^AM»nmption, The 174 Oo/orosa, Christ casting 
ittmderbo/ts on the wicked, Venus in the Forge 

of Vulcan, Chas. de Cordcs and wife; Vondyck, — 
St. Francis and St. Anthony, Burgomaster of 

Dutch School. Tenier8,*Temptation of St. 
Anthony, A Village Festival, The Five Senses, 
A Village Landscape; Jan Steen, — The Gallant 
Offer, The Haarlcmmer Meer; Nic Uac#,— Old 
Woman Reading; Frans Hals,— Portrait of Wil- 
liam of Heythuzsen; Gerard Dow,— Himself 
Drawing a Cupid; G. Metsu,— Breakfast Sceno; 
Hondecoeter,- A Crowing Cock. The collections 
of Painting are open to the public daily, includ- 
ing Sundays. 

The Royal Library^ Place du HilMe, contabiing 
20,000 Manuscripts, is well worth ai^ iii^ection. 
The collection is an exceedingly vkluable one, 
formed by the Dukes of Burgundy. The manu- 
scripts are rich in precious miniature paintings, 
executed by Van Eyck's scholars. The Chronicle 
of Hainault, the Psalter of Louis de MAle, and 
the illuminated Missal of Charles V., done for 
Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, should 
be seen ; also an authentic copy of the Cyro- 
psedia of Xenophon, transcribed with his oWn 
hand, by Philip lo Bon, for the use of his son, 
Charles le T^m<$ralre, who lost it at the battle ol 
Nancy. The Library contains 300,000 volumes, 
and has been fomied by the union of the libraries 
of the State with that of Van Ilultem, purchased 
at a cost of 815,000f. It is open each day, from teh 
to three. The reading-room is exceedingly com- 
fortable. About C0,0U0 engravings are here, and 
a line collection of medals (12 to 3). 

Near the Pare Leopold is the Museum of Natural 
Histor}'. In It are A series of the volcanic pro- 
ducts of Vesuvius, and of the fossils of Maestricht. 
There are two gigantic skeletons of Iguanodons 
from the coal measures of the Waine. Open daily. 

Mus^e Wierts^ near the Station du Qua- tier 
Leopold— Contains some extravagant but fine 
productions; well worth visiting. Some of the 
principal are: — "Fight for the body of Patroclus'* 
(No. 1); ''The Last Cannon" (No. W); "The Tri- 
umph of Christ" (No. 16); "The Lion of Water- 
loo " (No. 25) ; ** The Rosebud " (No. 87 \\ ^^'^^-k^^- 
leon in the ln{QTti«\ ^kR^-wiV" \^^.1S^x ^^^^R 
Dog \xx \Aii CoTXv^x- V^^. WV --^^^ '^'"'i^^i' 



[Route 6. 

The Unirtriity^ near the Marchd an Bois, 
founded 1834, hj the Liberals, has nearly 45 pro- 
fessors, and theEcolc Polytechnique.withaiSValM 
of M. Vcrhaegvnt, one of ita chief friends. 

/Mel de VWe^ in the Grande Place, is unques- 
tionably one of the most beantifVil monuments of 
Brussels, and one of the most magnificent of 
Bel^um's municipal palaces. It is situated in the 
lowest part of the town, but commands the admira- 
tion of all Tisitors. The structure was commenced 
in 1401 and finished in 1411, after the plan of an 
Architect called Van Rnysbroeck, and Is bnilt in 
the Lombnrdo-Gothic style. The chief object of 
attraction, of ..the building is the lofty Totcer, of 
Gothic open work, 364 feet high, sunnounting the 
principal facade. The tower, which formerly stood 
at the end of the building, is crowned by a gilt 
eopper figure of St. Michael, which serves as a 
weathercock, and is 17 feet high. On the tapes- 
trio* preserved in the interior, is represented the 
Abdication of Charles V., which took place in 
1556, in the old Ducal Palace, burned down in 
1783. This tower, so remarkable for its antiquity 
and architectural beauty, underwent repair in 
1870, and is now restored to its original perfection. 
The carvings and ornamental work were effaced 
duringthe French revolution. Admission— Interior, 
1 franc; Tower, with splendid view, 1 franc. The 
l>e8t time is before 9 a m., or after 4 p.m. 

The Grande Place is one of the most remarkable 
in Belgium, being a parallelogram, the four sides of 
which, though ornamented with buildings dissimi- 
lar in shape, and in the form of the architecture, arc 
nevertheless consistent with the general plan. 
Opposite the Hdtel de Ville, we see the Maison du 
Roiy built in 1525, after a plan by Keldermans, 
architect to Charles V., and re-constructed in 1884, 
on the original plan. In this house the Counts 
Egmont and Hooni passed the uight previous to 
their execution, 1568, which took })laco in the 
Grand Sqtiare, and was witnessed, from a window, 
by Alva. In this house is situated the JUtuee 
nutorique Communal, opened 1«88. Several of the 
buildings around were Guild Houses, which be- 
longed to corporate trades or companies, and embody 
the varioiu forms of architecture bixmght into the 
^^»- Countiiesf^ ^iz^ a compound oi tbe Gothic 
^^*f tAe Mor/sc** g remarkmble for ftp li^kteMi 

and boldness as for the beauty of its forma and 
the harmony of its i»t>portions, introduced by the 
Spanish, who copied it from the Moors. At one 
comer of the Square is the Rue de la Colline, 
loading to the Galdrie St. Hubert, a handsome 

Near the Gninde Place, on the Boulevard 
Anspach is a handsome new Jkntne or Exchange, 
opened 1874. A large central market (Halles Cen- 
ralcs) stands behind this new Boulevard. 

Behind the Hotel do Ville, at the comer of the 
Rue du Chdne and Rue de TEtuve, is tbe ifanniJtin 
Fountain, supplied by water dribbling from a 
naked boy, who is so great a favourite that he Is 
furnished with a valet and eight dresses for festival 
occasions. It dates from 1619, the model having 
been made by the sculptor Duquesiioy. 

The Collegiate Church of St. Oudule is dedicated 
to St. Michael, patron of the city, and St. Gudulc, 
niece of Pepin of Landen. The grand front, in 
the Farvi* St. GudulA, is surmounted by two lofty 
towers, which would have been carried consider- 
ably higher had there been sufficient funds. The 
original plan was to have thrown an arch over 
them at their |M«seut elevation, and to have reared 
upon it a third steejde. The edifice is in a mixed 
style of architecture, partaking of the early pointed 
and transition. In the ninth ccntur>\ the site of 
this magnificent church was occupied by a mill. 
Lambert, Count of Lou vain, erected there a temple, 
which was finished in 1047, at which period the 
body of St. Gudule, which had been preserved in 
the church of St. Gery, was translated thither. A 
chapter of 12 canons was founded, which was after- 
wards carried to 22. Henry, Duke of Brabant, de- 
molished this temple in 1220; the present structure 
was commenced immediately afterwards, but w^as 
not finished till 1275. Portions of the nave and 
the west towers belong to the 14th and 16th 
centuries; the chapel of the St. Sacrament is 
about 1539, and that of N. D. de Dtjlivrance, about 

It is of Gothic architecture, in the form of a cross, 
845 feet long, and is divided into three aisles. The 
grand eiitranoe is approached by a flight of 36 steps. 
Itwas formerly onuuBentedwIth paintingsin watcr- 
eolovn. aLec!«.ted va Xte'wiila towarda tlM dose 

Boate «.] 

I tbe bLttory of tb 

id Bt. Pblllpue by Van Milder; ; tinint i 

TViy naurkable. It wu d^ialfaed by ITeiiry 
Veilmigen. of Antwerp, for Ibe J«>bI( Church 
of LoDvmin, in 1690. After their luppresBLon, 
it WB9 presented by Uu-li Therein 19 the rhureh 
otBl.auiln1e,177«. ThUanarlceeofinulptureainy 

■uswlnlnK Ihe rlobe; ui Antcel drliei tbcm from 
horidlso, snd Death pursues Ihom; the figut« 

>li«. The csTlty of Ibe globe forme the pulplc. 
vbfcb reiti on (he tree of Rood and eill, Isdsn 

aitrieh. and by th*t oi 

•nppocted by two ung 
biting the lymbol of 
Vlrdn holdluB Ibe I 

Before prOEMJedlng farther, let uilum round to 
Hdmln the Choir, Ulely creeled In such a nuiinor 

by Florl.. utually called Frank Floa, In 16!8. This 
li mperlor to the paintings on glass eiecDtcd by 
.lohnHaeek, of Antwerp, which are >ecn oyer the 

cues the glfti of prhieee and prlneesses. The 
Organ, whleb li one of the ffnost in Ihe cognlry, was 

bnllthyM. DaTOlder, ofGlienl. InlheaWeaatt ._., 

Hgbtees plemna at tattrtor nwrlt, roprSKiithis \ th\a \» MtwAVro. «ft 

beaullfully painted by rarlons artlsla. 'i 
iTinoved In 1TS3. The now one contain, a B 

e. which was formerly ra 

Ised In Ihe 

church. On lb 

e right .id 

Y Sacrament la 

placed tb 

ulal stone 

omb of tl: 

[e Albert. 


there mil 



(he Infant 


re In 18J3, 

of the order of 1 

«. Clare. 

^nbed In lhl9 r 

auU, but 

n up and 

slated to VIenni 

oaes the reinatm 


Charles of 




[Route 6. 

lous liost was concealed during the troubles irbich 
lasted from 1579 to 1585. 

Over the door of the Sacristy is a small half 
length figure of the Virgin, said to be the produc- 
tion of Francis Duquesnoy ; whoever may hare 
been the artist, it is considered a little ehefdtoeutre; 
the Infant in particular being finished with exqui- 
site beauty. 

The Chapel of the Vinjin, styled Aotre Dame, was 
constructed in 1658, at a cost of 56,823 florhis raised 
from ti.e voluntary subscriptions of the citizens. 
The four windows are painted by Delabaer, of Ant- 
tverp. They rcpjesent the principal events con- 
nected with the life of the Virgin, and exhibit 
portraits of the Emperors Ferdinand and Leopold 
I., of the Archduke Albert with the Infanta Isabella, 
and the Archduke Leopold. The altar, which is of 
black and white marble, was designed by Verspael. 
The Virgin over it was executed by Arnold QuellUn. 

The high altar of the church is modem, dating 
only from 1743; a widow having bequeathed a 
sum of 18,00U florins for the purpose of erecting 
one in white marble, this was raised on the plan 
of the architect Doukcrs. It is of the composite 
order, and owes the sculptured ornaments to the 
chisel of the elder Deroy. At the sides of the 
sanctuary are two statues of white marble, by 
Delvaux, one of St. Martin, and the other of St. 
Benedict. They were brought from the Abbey of 
Afflighem, and were at one time destined for the 
museum at Paris. The tabernacle is very rich; 
by an ingenious piece of mechanism the Remon- 
strance is lowered from it into the hands of the 
officiating priest. Above the altar is a square 
table, the top of which bears the arms of the Duke 
of Urabant. On the left is a superb mausoleum 
of black marble, named the tomb of the Dukes of 
Brabant, upon which reposes a brass gilt lion, 
resting on a cushion. This figure, which weighs 
six thousand pounds, was cast in 1610, by Jerome 
de Montfort. The Archduke Albert erected this 
mausoleum to the memory of John II., Duke of 
Brabant, who died in 1812, of his wife Margaret, 
daughter of Edward, King of England, deceased 
in 1818, and of Philip I., who died in 1430. Some 
trrJters affirm that this monument encloses the 
aaA^or rAJJip the Good, but this is doubted. 
^.^ff^Uefo tAU maasoJeum, and oa the other side 

of the choir, is the sepulchral monument of Arch- 
duke Ernest, who died at Brussels, 1695. This 
Prince, clothed in mail, reposes on a cushion. His 
sword, armour, spurs, and gloves are near him. 
and there appears his motto, ''Soli Deo Gloria." 
The choir is lighted by five windows, painted by 
Abraham Van Diepenbach. a pupil of Rubens. 
The works of Art are only shown from 12 to 4; 
1 franc extra fee for og^ning the chapels. 

The handsome Banque NaHonale, on the north 
side of the Cathedral, was built 1864. 

The old Church o/Ste. Catherine is replaced by ji 
handsome new Church, by Poelacrt. 

In Place Royale stands Sf, Jacques sur Cauden- 
berg, built 1776-85, in the Roman Corinthian style. 

The Church of the B^inage was founded in the 
thirteenth century. Its interioris richly ornamented 
by works of art, many of superior merit, such as 
those of Crayer, Otto Venius, &c. 

Notre Dame de la Chapdle, 18th century, is in the 
Romanesque style, and jrassesses a good painting 
by Crayer — Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene. 

It is near the Place du Grand Sablon, so named 
from its having been covered with sand instead of 
being paved, in order to facilitate the exercise of 
troops, to which this square was appropriated. It is 
the largest in the town, and, although irregular, is 
very handsome. In the centre of it is a fine Fountain 
of white marble, which Lord Bruce, Marquis 
of Aylesburj-, who had lived in Brussels forty 
years, ordered in his will to be erected as a grateful 
memorial to the inhabitants of this city, expressive 
of the kindness he had experienced from them, and 
the happiness he had ever enjoyed there. This ad- 
mirable piece is by Berge. It represents Minerva 
seated, and holding the portraits of Maria Theresa 
and Francis I.; on the right is Fame, on the left 
the Scheldt; a genius holds the aegis of Minerva. 
The Marquis occupied a house close to the Sablon 

Wc now proceed up the Petit Sablon, or Klecne 
Zaavelplaati, formerly employed as a cemetery, 
blcaching-ground, and stabling for the brotherhood 
of the Holy Ghost. On one side of it is the Church 
of Notre Dame dee Vietoiree (St. Ursula Chapel), 
15th and 16th centuries, now renovated. The 
other end of the 8cvuaT<& \% oraamanted with the fine 
8Uta«s q! Co\ui\» l&^s°^QU\ wDi^lgksiw:^. T«» v»^^\<| 

flna bronia ititnet. vlth two amalli 
loldiin, by Fnlklii. llootn U i 

The MM, a bindiome new building, at St. 

couiila ware added. 


FalaU d-ArmtoT. IT. Placa dn Pelll Sablon. 

aUonied,H »«ry aelect eallcry o' palntlngt, of 
ihe Dnieb and FIcinl.h .ebool.. Tho ohiotoMe u. 
by Beuibnindl. Jan Steen. and otbcrt <a rare one 

The aplendld Public Park, with the Lfopolil 
Monument, opened IStD, 1. clo» to tbe StallDii 
ilu Qimrtler Leopold, snd adjolni Iha park of Iha 
iwyal Palace at Liekon. 

by Jan Tan der Mefr of Delft), logcther wllh 
tome Einuean antlquitlci and old funillnre. The 
imL.ce w» almoit dctlroj ed by firo in 186!!. 
It potieiKda nnmbcr of xaiei and vnrlollci 


licadorihe Laoeooii. A gallcr>- of pnlnilngi by 
the flnt maiten, Incnued of late by IhBt of tbe 
lata Prince d'Arembers. and a niigidficenl enrden. 

Ihiilof the unfortunate Count ol Ggnnont, ainott 

The AMoi-jral GayrUa. Boalcvird dii Jardln 

ricb^e.^ «Tcry olher In Europe, except thai uf 
r*rli-th.«i.;Hr««l. admirable, bntto beictn 
lo perfecliuu Ihia fnlry place and inrden ibonld 

bi'longi to Ihe Horticultural aoclcty. who j^vo 



TIic Botanic Oaidon li Otd yards It 

of the Hotel de Cuyl 

■In Petit SsUon. In tho rclsn of Philip II. Ihe i»vu]ded by 

Proleatant Confodcnlei met In thli hotel, and In 

It prepared, iu IKfi. the petlllon called the 

nf Parma, the vIce-Qneon, II It recorded that one of 

1 he courlien whbpend Id ber ^'Not lo beaunoyed 
by Bucha parcel of beggarg f guen:t)." Tho Gonfe- 


Brlhiui of reproach, adopted II na tholriudidf 
rr, and appcsre d on the lialcony thai e>cnln|t 
' aapperwllh WBllcti on their backi and par- 
art In their haniK and drank lucccit to the 
ul The DnliD of Aim caused the hulldlng 
t«lhe Coolederate mrellng^ wore licl<l to he 

donie. Tho wiuge which, 

'jich tide a ffallery. tennlnateil by a gquare build- 
t\g reieuiblhis the porlico of u temple. 
From tha groen-houuB wo deteeud by s grtda- 

lie (nnlcn, wbkii ouiitaiiK, properly cloetod. Bii 

t'ictorin Jlef;ia in a ipeelnl hotliout«. 
i one of Ihe beantlfnl Bqnarei of Qm»fl), thouf li 
liettrcotJiHrrouiidingltflreunintcrenlne. Here 

if tha " bravct Bclgn," killed In the BayolmtloH 
.llSSn. ThlimonuiDont It placed In (h«TiJJ«B.» 

hsil. under nUaae.lliocrDU at the lop ol wMc\i\*\i 
/# 4(V/eti »ben (b* (mud. TU« eon w»i aboiV \ o( 



[BoQte 6. 

which the sUIn were interred, and the 
name of CAoh Tictim is inscribed around on 
slabs of black and white marble. The statne 
represents Belgium inscribing ofr a tablefth« dates 
of the racmorablo events of September. At the 
foot of the statue is couched a lion. The monu- 
ment is surrounded by iron railings. This monu- 
ment Is one of the most beautiful works of the 
celebrated sculptor, M. Geefs. In Place dn Con- 
grfes, Rue Royale, is another work by Qeefs, a 
statne of King Leopold, on a OolQttUI of 1^7 '^et, 
at a Yery fine point of view. The reliefs in the base 
are by Simonis. It is called the Colonne dn Con- 
gpr^s. The statne of General BelNard is farther 
down Rne Royale. 

The Porte de Hal was a large gateway in the 
city wall, after th6 Gothic style, erected in 1881. 
It served as a bastilo for Alva during his 
sangniinary persecutfon of the Protestants. It now 
serves as an Armoury or Mvseum of ancient 
armour and weapons. 

Near this are 81. Peter' i Hospital and the 
Blind Asylum (Aveuglc.s). St. John's Hospital is in 
the north of the city. 

A Commissionuaire may be hired for b francs per 

Thft Post-Offlee^ in the Place de la Monnaie, is 
open from h till 9. Postage throughout the 
kingdom : single rate for half an oz., 10 centimes 
for all distances ; prepayment optional. Between 
Belgium and all Europe the stamp is 3S centimes. 
The building of the old Hotel de la Monnaie 
(Mint) was utilised for the Post Office; th^ new 
Hotel de la Motmaie is at St. Gilles, on the south 
side of the city. 

The Mails are conveyed by the short sea routes 
via Dover and Calais and Dover and Ostend, and 
the trains, on either side of the .Channel, leave 
daily at fixed hours, performing the journey in 
about nine hours. Through tickets are issued, 
and luggage can be registered through to Cannon 
Street, Charing Cross, Yictoria, St. Paul's, and 
Holbom Yiaduet. Offioes: Uytborck and Son, 
48, Montagna de la Cour; corner of the Rue des 
Treis Tites. 

J^tterw for Bttsrl»ad mmst bepo8t«dMt the Chief 
aa/kw i^orm spua. for tM9 nnt d^spifoli, and 

before S-46 p.m. for the iceond. Ha Franee. Let- 
ters, Ae., forwarded by the former, are delivered 
in London by 9 in the morning, and by the latter 
by 12 the day after leaving Brussels. 

The King/'s Ptj^eueM may be viewed during his 
Majesty's absence. It is difficultto gfetpermission. 

The Pietnre Oallerp Is open every day, from 10 

Wiertx Museum. — Open every day, from 10 to 4. 
Several eccentric pictures. 

The Picture Gallery at the Duke ^Arenberg's 
Palace is open on week-days, 10 to 4; apply to the 
porter. Foe, 2 francs. 

The Museum of the '* Porte de Hal," every day. 
from 10 to 4 o'clock. Mondays, 1 to 4. 

The Town Hall dally, from 8 to 6. 

The two Houses of ParNammt daily, from 10 
till 3. A fee is expected by the porter. 

The Botanical Garden is open every day, from 8 
to dusk. Hothouses, 10 to 13 ; fee. 

Theatbes.— The TTiSdtre Royal, Placode la Mon- 
naie, a very fine building, erected in 1817, arter 
plans by M. Demesne, at a cost4tf l,400,000f ; 
operatic performances every evening. Theatre 
des Gaiiries Batnt Hubert; performances every 
evening. Other theatres are — Th^tre du Pare; 
Alhambra; a fine new theatre, Rue de Laeken, for 
Flemish plays; Eden; Mns^ du Nord, Passage dn 
Nord, for children; Vaudeville, In the Galerie 
St. Hubert. 

CowcBRTS.— In winter, at the Conservatoire ; in 
summer, In the Park, 8 to 4-30. 

Baths.— Bain Royal, Rue de I'Enselgnemcnt ; 
Bains Leopold, near the Montague de la Cour; 
Bains St. Sauveur, Montague aux Hcrbcs 

Railway Statiows.— Fbr Alx-1»-Chapelle, Ant- 
werp, Cologne, Louvain, Ghent, lA^ge, Llllc, 
Mallnes, Yerviera, Staiion du Nerd, Place des 
Nations. For Donai, Lille, Mons, Namur, Paris, 
and Valenciennes, Station du MUH^ Place de la 
Constitution. For Ailon, Cbarlerol, Dinant, 
Litfge, Luxembourg, Namur, Treves (Great 
Luxemboui^ Railway), Station du QuartierLSopold, 
at the end of tha Rue de Luxembourg. 

Tkamwajs through the main thoroughfares and 
In the cnriiviu, Ywc^ft «Mm&Va%V(k ^IsUnoe. 




ComrBTAKCES. — ^l-horee Cab, between 6 a.m. 
and 11 p.m. as follows: — For the Course (any- 
where within the town), 1 fr. for first half-hour; 
every quarter of any hour after, 50c. By time 
for 2-hor8e Fiacres the charge is not fixed by 
tariff, but is not high. The Voiturei de Qrande 
Remise are' dearer. Pourboirc, 25 cents, small 
packages, free; larger, 15 cents, each. 

English Chdrchm.— CTkurcA of the Retttrreetion . 
Rue de Stassart; Chaplain, Rev. J. C. Jenkins, 
M.A., IC, Rue de Stassart. Holy Communion on 
Sunday and Festivals at 8-30 a.m. Sunday, Holy 
Communion 8-30; Prayers, Sermon, Holy Com- 
munion 11 a.m.; Litany 4 p.m.; Evening prayer 
and Sermon 7 p.m. Week-days, 8-15 a.m. 

Christ Church (C. C. C. Society), Rue Crespel, 
Avenue de la Tolson d'Or; Chaplain, Rev. W. R. 
Stephens, M.A., 185, Chauss^e do Vleurgat. Sun- 
days, 11 a.m. and 7 p.m.; Wednesdays and Fes- 
tivals, 11 a.m. Holy Communion, 1st and 3rd 
Sunday of month in winter, and every Sunday, 
May to October. Dcmations to building fund may 
-be paid to the chaplain, or to Colonial and 
Continental Church Society, London. 

Service is also held in the English Church, Rue 
Belliard, Quarticr Leopold, Rev. A. K. Harlock, 
Mi A., Chaplain. Morning service, 8-30, 12; after- 
noon, 4. Holy Communion on the 1st and 3rd Sun- 
days at mid-day; 2nd and 4tb, at 8-80 a.m.; 
Wednesday, 11-0 a.m. Festivals, 11-0 a.m. 

[N.B. — For any alterations in the hours of 
service see bills at. the hotels.] 

The new Synagogue is near the new Conserva- 
toire, in the Rue de la R^gence. 


The best shops are to be found in the Rue 
Montague de la Cour, the Rue de la Madeleine, 
the Boulevard Anapach, and the Passages, also in 
Rue de la R^enee and the Rue Neuve ; the best 
cafds in Bonlevard Anspach, Place de la Monnaie, 
Place and Rue Roy ale, and Rue Leopold. AH 
these are situated either in the upper or the 
central part of the old city, 

PiiT8iciAff.-H.GoUi«iioa,](.D., 94,Biie dtsChera* 
VM§,pbysieiaa to tb9, JL, L^gfttion, aad to th« 

British Charitable Fund. Accoucheur (at home 
from twelve till half-past two o'cloek In the after- 
noon). Recommended. 

BiBLB Society's Agent.— Mr. W. H. Kirk- 
patrick, 5, Rue de la P^pini^re. 

Old English Bank.— Bigwood & Morgan, 10, 
Rue Royale, opposite the Park. Corrosiwndents 
of all the principal English and American Banks. 
Circular Letters of Credit cashed and issued for 
all parts of the Continent. Purchases and solefl 
effected in British and Foreign Stocks and Secu' 
rities. Register kept for English and American 

Lace Manufactory. — Cio. Royale des Dentelies 
de Bruxelles. Wo recommend with all confidence 
the establishment of M. O. de Yergnies et Soeurs, 
13, Rue des Sablons, near the Cathedral of St. 

British Institute, 26, Rue i>s Vienbe. — 
Home and Reading Rooms for English women. 
Meali can be procured. Free Registry. Hon. 
Lady Superintend., Mrs. Jenkins. 36, Rue de 

Educational Establishment. — ^The Rev. J. C. 
Jenkins, M.A., chaplain of the Church of the 
Resurrection, and formerly scholar of Magdalen 
College, Cambridge, has passed pupils (direct) for 
Eton and Winchester Foundation Scholarships, the 
army, navy, Ac. First prizes for French and 
German have been obtained by former pupils at 
Eton and Woolwich. Special preparation for the 
Mercantile Profession. Clergymen's sons receive<l 
at reduced terms. Senior and junior departments. 
Terms commence September 15, January 15, and 
April 15. Address — 74, Rue Stassart, Brussels. 

Tobacco.— Messrs. W. D. and H. O. Wllls's 
"Best Bird*s Eye" is sold by Mens. Lelottc- 
Town, 88, Montagnc-de-la-Cour. 

Excursions firom Brussels. 

Waterloo. — The Museum Hotel, near the Lion« 
recommended; Hotel Mont St. Jean (at Mont St. 
Jean) ; and Hotel de Colonnes. 

The excursion to Waterloo is a ver^ ^VsassKcX^s^*". 
indeed— UvTo^x%\!L VX^fe V«t««N. ^\ ^8rfwBc^«t!^ ^^ 




[Route 6. 

Jean, the Chateau of Hou^ooniont, I^a Haye Sainte, 
Quatro Bras, Ac, which, with thoir exciting as- 
KociatiouR, arc as attractive as ever. It may be 
(lone by rail as well as by conch, Ac. The Water- 
loo District li now traversed by Rail direct from 
Hrusscls to Charl«rol, talcing in Waterloo, Rraine- 
rAilcud, Nivcllc^ Genappe, Belle Alliance, and 
Qnatre-Bra*. A part of It passes Banlen, 

NiyeUes, R^yes (near Lnttro), Frasnes-les- 

QOSSelleB (Ney's head-quarterK). and Wagnel^ 
St. Amand (near Qattrc-Bras), BlUclier*s hcnd- 
qu.nrters at the Battle of Llgny. 

CowRYAXCES.— From Brussels, by rail, see 
Bnadthair*s CotiHnental Guide, page IJO. Fare to 
Brainc-rAllcud (which Is the nearest station to 
the Monnt) there and back, 1st class, Sfr. 30c. 
X.B.— Stations at Waterloo and Braln-rAllcud; the 
latter only a mile from the Belgian Lion, to which 
there is a conreyance. By the four-horse coach 
(Sundays excepted) ; fare there and back, 7 f rs., 
and 1 fr. to the driver. Private carriages for I to 5 
person*, 80 frs. Fee expecteo by the driver. Insist 
upon being put down at the Museum Hotel, when 
going by private carriage, otherwise you will have 
to walk 3 or 4 miles. The Hotel is at the foot of 
the Lion, and an omnibus from it meets the trains 
at Braine TAlleud. The Museum is kept by the 
niece of the late Scrgcant-Major Cotton. 

Travellers wishing to possess a concise and 
authentic history of the celebrated battle should 
purchase " The Voice from Waterloo," by the late 
Serjeant-Major Cotton, to be had at the Waterloo 
Museum, at the foot of the Lion Mount. 

Guides --We advise our readers never to allow 
a Guide to accompany them on the field without 
having previously made arrangements as to what 
they will have to pay him. 

Waterloo is a large and handsome village. Its 
church is an elegant lotunda, adonied by a neat 
frontispiece, l>earing an Inscription, which states 
that the Marquis of Castanaga, governor of the 
iMvr Countries, laid the first stone of the church 
in 1690. The hamlet of Mont St. Jean is a little 
l>cyond Waterloo. The French named the battle 
of the 18th Juno, 1815, after this hamlet, Mont St. 
Jean; the victorious allies, as it is well known, 
t^/edJtM/tertberiUageofWtAeiAoo, PJanohenoit, 
w*w tbc f^rm iff Za JfeUe AWtmee, f |)« luiua 

Prussian name for the battle, is situated, is still a 
little further on. 

The road from Brussels to Waterloo lies for the 
greater part through the F9it»t of Soigniet and 
except that it passes through a pleasant country, 
presents no features worthy of observation. 

Byron, using a poetical license, dc&cribcs the 
march of the British troops through the forest in 
the following beautiful lines : 

" And Ardennw waves above them her green leares. 
Dewy with uaiure'i teiur drope, m ihoy \ia». 
Grieving, if ought inanimate e'er grieves. 
Over the onretuming brave. Alas ! 
Bre evening to be trodden like the gran 
Whidi now beneath them, bat above sliall grow 

In its next verdure, when its flery mass 
Of living valour, rolling on the foe. 
And Iniming with high hope, shall moulder cold 
and low." 

This forest is 9 miles long, and about 8 broad. 
The railway runs through a considerable number 
of cuttings, so that no continuous view is obtained. 
The village of Waterloo receives us immedi- 
ately on leaving the forest, but contains nothing 
to attract our attention, except the elegant little 
Chapel, built 1855, surmounted by a handsome dome, 
and containing several marble tablets to the memory 
of those who fell in the contest, and the house in 
which the leg of Lord Uxbridge was amputated. 
The spot in the garden in which the shattered leg 
was buried, is marked by a small monument. In 
this church are thirty tablets and monuments, 
melancholy memorials of the horrible vicissitudes 
of war, and its victims, the English officers who fell 
on that memorable field. 

" Many a woonded Briton there was laid 
With such poor help as time might then allow 
From the fresh carunge of the field conveyed. 
And they whom homnn succour could not sare 
Here in its precincts found a hasty grave. 
And here, on marble tablets set on high, 
In English lines by foreign workmen trac'd, 
Are names familiar to an English eye ; 
Their brethren here the fit iiiemorials plac'J, 
Whose unadorned iusciiptions briefly tell 
Their gallant oomrades' rank and where they fell." 


It was in this village that the Duke of Wel- 
lington established his head-quarters on the night 
of the 17th of June, 1815. About a mile beyond 
WftUrloo fr« v*^«^ \Yixva.5i\i \.V% VA.\s&ft^ oC M<mt' 

ate 6.1 



^M '. ^. 



. ' f 



feaii, and leaving the road to NivcUcs on the ) memory of the duke, his father, who was mortally 
t wo proceed in the direction of Genappe and | wounded at the battle of Jena. Daring the 

)n, eom- 
my, who 
.8 troops 

' ~ ■ "gmies^ on 

^ . gen) was 

' ^. /- ' 14 miles 

.» t Wayrc. 

:* bout one 

f - in front 

', t extend- 


I. -^Bfarm of 

■'*' tf broken 

•. ij Jion with 


5ir direc- 

until the 

* e, where 

hi of the 

ime emi- 

;'^ ' lies Road 

/ ' <n(. The 

m sloped 

.'•a sort of 

/^y, varied 



'^A '"W-'l 

■ < >•■■-. .- 


.'^^If formed 

,• L 




- U n : 

r-— '■• 

... r 


«ind then 

.A. • ^. 



r - 


. "■ t ■ 


6 opposite 
r parallel 
a hundred 
i»ch. The 

-■ Irely open 
day bore 

" the centre 
a the two 

■ • right of 

< de Gou- 

having a 

ounded on 

the other 

aced by a 

hii famous Black Bmnswickers, so called from I a«OTA«AV>v \U^<J«AwA w^'^^'W^^**'*^'*'^*''*' 

ulng a black uniform, out of rcspoot to the \ poini d^appui \o 


, XXjft^tVXVXifi^^.^'^^*- 



[Route 6 


Jean, the Chateau of Ilougoumont, ha Hay c Sainte, 
Quatro Bras, Jtc, which, with their exciting as- 
(lone by rn 
loo Distric 

Hrusscis t« . . - - - ■ - - 

I'AIleud, 1 

Niyelles, - 
St. Amax 

qii.nrtcrs a 


the Mount 
X.B.— Stal 
latter only 
there is a 
(Sundays «- 
and 1 f r. t< 
person", 80 
upon beinji 
going: by p 
to walk 3 c 
the Lion, < " 
at Braine 1 
niece of th']" 

authentic \ 
purchase * 
Museum, A 

Guides - 
a Guide to 
having pro 
they Willi 

church Is ; 
front ispicc 
that the > — 
Low Coun 
in 1690. ' 
beyond Wi 
of the 18tl 
Jean; the 

Prussian name for the battle, is situated, is still 
little further on. ___^^^^_ 

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ca//e^/tM/fert/ierilJageof Waterloo. PJanohenolt, I ofthelTtH of June, 1816. About a mUe boyon 
ff/f^rif the farm Qf j^ J$e/le AUiame, f4« lumul I WfttwVw ^* i?ft» ttaiwk^v x^f^ y,^^^.^ ^^ ^^^ 

L rl^l wo proceed in 
ClurleroL, uid aoo 
MmiI Bt. J«ii. nt 

B (HiElle of Jena. Dnrliii Iha 
Ion of tliB (rDopi Ml haxt bpva 

n tlw DppoiLlo lidcB. ar 

thelTtb. tho Dnke'i horio (not Ropcnkivnil irnii 

ID haioa prime mecl lug with BlDcheriit Wirrr. 
The Eiig11ihpoilIi(HiDceD|.io<lillneDlabool ona 
mile iiid I half In leiigtfa, the coiitio being In fnHil 
ol IberarmhDaHofMonlSt.Jean^tlieletleitenil- 


t. by II 

nvH hail. 


and lyniitillnR or about lU.OOO men. i 
whom woro the old linpcrial enarili, i 
equipped, ind aceotnpanled by a numeral 

realed eome reghnenti of PmBilani. look po 

On the 1«th Ibey adTauceiJ Inlo the p 

leaped bslnj! taken priui 

dng parallel 

i«»]BmuotFrencblnH)]»ad>-a]ic(i<llawanli | -lilso*. ""•I 'HMtccI Co 
"^ ' house ot the old Flem 

harleni. whan the Prince «i Orange wag potted 
Ith a dlililon of llBl«ian and Hrl.iBh (HBpi. 
A warm aeliim took place, tn which tha yoDog 
^^« displayed Ih* rreaicBt bniTory anrl ability. 
Id ihB Knke of Bniniwhik w» killed at the head 

(ipenlng Id b pirdcn 

^ „03V«*»i«A««*>*«0-^-^^'' 



r Route 6. 

Tbe ehAtean was occupied bj a detachment of 
the graards under Lord Baltoun. The French 
army was full two miles in length, extending 
along the opposite ridge, and haring La B^Ie 
Alliance in the centre of their line. Nap(dec»i 
at this time had abont 70,000 men with him; 
and the allies about the same, exclusive of the Pnis> 
sians. Here took place, on the 18th of June, the 
sanguinary battle by which the fate of Eurox>e 
was decided. It began at eleven o'clock in the 
morning and continued till seven in the evening. 
The boldness and pertinacity exhibited by the 
French troops in their repeated attacks have few 
parallels in history ; whilst the Fingllsh received 
each successive shock with the coolest and most 
determined Intrepidity. The French army was 
preparing to make a last assault, when the Prus- 
sian general, BlUcher, appeared on their flanks, at 
the head of two divisions. A frightful panic then 
spread through the French ranks, and Bonaparte, 
abandoned by fortune, whose Idol he had so often 
seemed, was hurried from the field by the im- 
petuous torrent of fuglti^-es. All the French 
artillery, a great part of the baggage, and even 
the private carriage of Napoleon fell into the 
hands of the victors. This victory, however, 
was dearly purchased. The loss to the victors 
was great indeed. Beside Generals PIcton 
and Ponsonby, the loss of the British and Hano- 
verians on the 16th and 18th amounted to not 
less than 18,000 men and 750 ofiicers, the flower 
of the army, of whom more than two-thirds fell 
at Waterloo ; the total loss of the Prussians, from 
the commencement of the campaign, to their 
second triumphant entry into Paris, has been 
officially stated at 38,000, including 7,000 at Water- 
loo; but that of the French has never been 
accurately ascertained. It may however be toler- 
ably certainly fixed at 18,000 killed and wounded, 
with 8,000 prisoners. Their loss during the 
campaign has been approximately calculated at 
100,000 men, killed, wounded, and missing. Who 
can think of this work of human destruction with- 
out a thrill of horror at the dreadful havoc of modem 
warfare, or what man would hesitate to adopt the 
cAristJan pHacJplea of peace and jrood will, with 
tAtf v/enr of avertJagr Much Inbuautn oonflicti as 
"^^ «/- fTA/cA the»0 pisUng WW the tbMtr^ 

From that moment the village of Waterloo 
beeame an object of interesting curiosity to 
travellers of all nations, but above all to 
the fingllsh, who contemplate, with a melan- 
choly pride, fields which have been moistened 
with the life-springs of so many of their fellow 

Having briefly traced the momentous events 
that will long continue to impart a powerful 
interest to the plains of Waterloo, we proceed to 
point out such partieulaar land-marics as may 
avm to give the tourist a correct idea of tho 
positions taken by the contending armies during 
the contest, and, with the assistance of a few 
details, enable him to ascertain the precise spot 
of many heroic deeds. For this purpose, it is 
necessary to retrace our steps, in order to com- 
mence with tho Forest of Soignies. The forest 
eommences a mile and three-quarters from 
tbe village, and after presenting every variety 
of sylvan scenery, comes to an end a little 
beyond Waterloo. The principal road through 
the wood to this village Is of great length and 
extreme regularity; but the unvarying, uniform 
appearance of tho trees which fringe it, give a 
sombre aspect to the route. The Forest, which 
is about seven to eight miles in breadth, and 
nine miles in length, contains many defiles, and 
is interspersed with lakes, vales, brooks, hamlets, 
and cultivated plains. Great quantities of oak 
were felled by command of Bonaparte, in order 
to supply the dockyards at Amsterdam; but 
the forest still abounds in fine timber, and a 
thousand acres of it, which belong to the Duke 
of Wellington, are said to yield a revenue of 
forty francs an acre. The proximity of this 
immense mass of wood to Brussels, renders the 
city somewhat damp and cold when the wind 
blows from that quarter; on tho other hand, 
from its great attractive powers, thunder-clouds 
frequently discharge themselves there, which 
might otherwise carry heavy storms into the 
town. Neariy at the extremity of the forest, and 
about t€Hi miles from Brussels, stands Waterloo, 
as before mentioned. 

MMlfc Btb Joan. — ^This hamlet, which, as before 
mentioned, is more than a mile from Waterloo, at 
a plaoe irhen t\i« toad divides Into two branches. 

Bonte 6.] 



that on the right to NlTdUeS, must not be con- 
founded by the tourist with the farm-house of 
Mont St. Jean, half a mile in advance of the Til- 
lage, on the road to the farm of La Haye Sainte, 
which was in the immediate rear of the British 
position. From this farm an easy ascent leads to 
the ridge which formed the line of occupation of 
the British array. Near the centre of this ridge 
stood the Wellington Tree^ so called in consequence 
of the duke having, it is said, taken his station 
there during part of the 18th. It was cut down 
arid sold in 1 821 . In front is a little valley, irregu- 
larly formed, with numerous gentle windings and 
hollows, and varying in breadth from a quarter to 
half a mile. This was the scene of the murderous 
conflict. The opposite ridges, running parallel to 
Mont St. Jean, were occupied by the French. A 
stupendous triumphal Mound of a conical shape, 
surmounted "by a colossal Belgian Lion in bronze, 
was constructed at the expense of the Netherlands 
government on the plains of St. Jean. The base 
of the monument is 160 yards In diameter, and the 
height of the whole nearly 200 feet. 

La Haye Sainte.— This is the name of a large 

farm-house on the road from Mont St. Jean to La 

Belle Alliance, and about a mile from the former 

place, on the Genappc road. It was in the left 

centre of the British position, and a little in 

advance of Wellington's Tree. In the immediate 

vicinity of this house, which received much injury, 

in all directions, and especially in what forms the 

back part of the building, the hottest conflict 

raged between the combatants. It was taken by 

the French army on the day, and maintained by 

them until nearly the end of the battle. On the 

side of the building towards the road a monument 

has been erected to the memory of some officers of 

the 2nd German Legion, who fell in the onslaught; 

and at a little distance, on the opposite side of the 

road, is a hollow way, where 4,000 men and a great 

number of horses were buried in one common grave. 

Near this spot fell Sir Thomas Picton, leading a 

gallant charge on the French cuirassiers. 

Hongonmaut.— The large farm-house or cha- 
teau, so called, was fiercely contested. It is situated 
on the right of La Haye Sainte from Waterloo, at 
the distance of about M mile from the former place. 
The Btitisk bad pmnamkm oi tbe lumse and gar- 

dens, and fought with a des^iOrate courage to main ^ 
tain it; while the French, led on by Jerome Bona- 
parte, who, though wounded in the arm, still kept 
the field, made equal eficMts to exp^ them, aware 
that, if they became masters «f the place, tbe 
whole of tbe British lines would be exposed to 
their fire. It was, in fact, the key-stone of the 
British position. The garden was protected on 
three sides by a strong wall, wfakb served our 
troops as a breast-work, and from behind whkh 
they aimed at the assailants with deadly certainty; 
the unprotected part commanded a vicwof the Duke 
of Wellington's position on the heights. In rain the 
enemy mode repeated attempts to scale the garden 
wall from the adjoining orchard, and though they 
thrice entered the gates of Hougoumont, they were 
as often repulsed, and driven out with severe loss. 
At length, after a destructive artillery fire, and 
the most frightful carnage, the French succeeded 
in setting the place on fire, and great numbers of 
killed and wounded on both sides were buried iu 
the ruhis. The place was entirely destroyed, with 
the exception of the chapel and on out-house, whkh 
escaped almost uninjured. Many of the surround- 
ing trees were cut in two, while others were 
completely perforated with balls. A large but 
rudely-carved figure of the Saviour is placed over 
the altar in the Chapel, which is very small, and by 
no means curious. 

La Belle Allianoe.— a small farm-house, so 
called, now a poor inn, about three-quarters of ft 
mile from La Haye Sainte. It is erroneously 
stated that Wellington and BlUchcr met here on 
the evening of the day of battle. In reality it 
was at Maison Rouge, 2 miles further. Having 
exchanged greetings and congratulations, the 
duke retired on his position, and Blucher went 
in pursuit of the flying enemy. Bonaparte posted 
his favourite guard iu front of this place, but 
never approached in person nearer to La Haye 
Sainte than the hollow part of the ground between 
that place and La Belle Alliance and the main 
road. The Prussians have erected a Monument 
in iron near this spot, to commemorate the success 
of their army. 


bbadshjlv'a hand-book 


the righs coiumanded by Miijor-Gencral Humbcr, 
was posted on this pnrt of the field; but no event 
occurred to render the spot memorable. 

At Planeenoit, l mile to the N.E. of La Belle 
Alliance, occurred the sanguinary struggle 
between the Prussians under Prince William 
(afterwards Prince Wilhelm) and the French. An 
Iron obelisk, with an inscription, commemorates 
tlie desperate bravery of the Germans. The ground 
where the battle was fought produced the best 
crops in Belgium for many years after the san- 
guinary event. 

Ramillies (page 49) is not far off from the field; 
and in 1705, Marlborough was nearly fighting a 
battle at Fritehermont, hard by. 

** But where I stood, beneath the fresh green tree. 
Which, living, waves where thou didst cease to live. 
And raw around me the wide fields revive 
With fmits and fertile promise, and the spring 

. Come forth her work of gladness to contrive. 
With all heir reckless birds upon the wing, 
I turned from all she brought to those she could not 
bring." Bykov. 

" Was it a soothing or a mournful thought. 
Amid this scene of slaui^ter, as we stood* 
Where armies had with recent fury fought, 
To mark how gentle nature still pursued 
Her quiet course, as if she took no cai^ 
For what her noblest work had suffered there." 


Visitors to Waterloo will find hordes ot beggars, 
and persons selling relics, in the shape of buttons, 
shreds of cloth, fragments of accoutrements, bullets, 
many of which arc manufactured in the neighbour- 
hood. Very many real melancholy memorials of 
the carnage were brought to light for some years 
after the battle. 

There arc several other pretty places to which 
Excursions could bo made with pleasure from 
Brussels, such as Forest, Trols Fontaines, Ter- 
vuercn, Saventhem (sec page 65), and the Central 
House of Correction, on the rail to Vllvorde. It is 
on the same plan ns the model prisons constructed 
during the last forty years in England and the 
United States. The prison can ?ontain 2,000 
pri80Mer!». There arc, however, some special 
features connected with the Belgian system which 
will interest those who study these matters. The 
old Chateau, on the site of which this prison was 
originally erected, also answered the same purpose, 
but only for state offenders. Madame Deshouliers, 
/Ao pas'ont/ poctcs/tf was n prhtmer ot state here in 

mOTJTE 7. 

Bnuwels to Paris, by way of Mozu and 

Manbenge, or Mons and Qui^vrain. 
Bnusels to Bralne-le-Compte, Soignies, 

and Jnrbisa, see Route 2. 

Between Jurbise and Mons the road prosciits 
many engineering difficulties. On approaching- 
Mons the traveller sees its steeples, towers, and 
fortifications stretched before him. Before enter- 
ing the town, the commune of Nimy and the river 
Haine are passed; running parallel to one another, 
the railroad and river pass through a bastion, and 
enter the town together. The Station is situated 
within the arsenal. 

Mons (Station). Flemish Bergen. 

Population, 26,240. 

Hotels: Dola Conronnc; Hotel Koyal. 

A large town, 33 miles from Brussels, the 
chief place of the province of Hainault. The 
river Trouillo divides it into two parts, and it 
is partly overlooked by the mound of the Pauiiia. 
It is said that Julius Cmsar built a castle here, 
which, taking the name of Castrum Cicsaris, 
formed the beginning of the town of Mor.s, and 
was destroyed by the barbarians in the fifth 
century. Alberic, Count of Hainault, repaired 
the remains of the town, and surrounded it with 
walls. In 804, Charlemagne formed it into the 
capital of a province. Mons after this became 
the scene of many troubles. Under the reign of 
Charles V. it had its highest degree of prosperity ; 
the manufactures of cloth and serge were carried 
on to a great extent. Iron was wrought here to 
gn^at advantage, and the beauty of their chased 
jewellery excited the admiration of strangers. 
Under the French Republic, Mons became the 
department of Jomappcs. The fortifications, 
rebuilt in 1818, were removed 50 years later, and 
their site formed into promenades. The streets arc 
steep, but wide, clean, and in good repair. The 
monuments aiid curiosities are numerous, and 
worthy of attention. 

Mons was the natal town of Orlando I^ssus, 
a celebrated musician of the sixteenth century. 
Ten miles south of Mons, within the French ten i- 
torios, is the spot where was fought the sanguinary 
battle of KalpUULUet, &t which the Duke of 
Marlborough and Prince Eugene conquered the 
French and \o»\. wv \Yit Vj^lW^i ^cUl 20^000 men. 

Boutes 7.] 


Mons has a coiumunication with the Scheldt by 
t|ie Canal dc Conde; and also, by railway, with 
Jorbisc, Atb, Toumai, Lille, and Calais. 

Mons also possesses manufactures of unloves, 
leather, and cutlery, and several tan-yartls and 
bleaching grounds. The priiiciiwl buildings are 
the Hotel de Villc, and the Church of 
St. Wandrn, Which is said to be built on the site 
of Caesar's Castle. The altar de8cr>'cs attention. 
There is also a Theatre, a Public Library, a 
College, and a Foundling Hospital. Muns was the 
birthplace of Peter Denys, a journeyman black- 
smith, who constructed the beautiful iron orna- 
ments which decorate the Abbey of St. Denis, near 

The Chmxh ofSte. M'audru Is one of the finest in 
Belgium. It was founded in 1460, on the site of 
another chuiH;h, burnt in 11C9. More than a 
century elapsed ere the works were finished. The 
nave is a maHterpiece of boldness, elegance, and 
lightness ; the numerous columns which adorn it, 
and support innumerable Gothic arches at the top, 
compose a most delightful whole. Space will not 
permit us to enter further into detail in connection 
with the manf curiosities of this church, save in 
allowing us to notice the splendid picture of the 
Exaltation of St. Francis, by Van Thuldon ; a 
Descent from the Cross, by Teniers; a Gothic 
altar, finely sculptured; the beautiful stained 
glass in the windows ; and last, though not least, 
the fine statues, formerly adorning the screen, but 
happily preserved. 

St. Nichota* en Havre, is noted for the severe 
and imposing aspect of the interior. It possesses 
some fine carving in wood. 

From the tower of the Btl/ry a magnificent 
view of the surrounding country is obtained. 

The PubOe Library is open every day ; it con- 
tains 401,000 volumes, and about aOO manuscripts. 

I/6M de nue is a Gothic edifice, erected In the 
year 1460. It contains nothing remarkable, but is 
the chief ornament of the Grande Place. 

The PcUaUdeJiuHeennd Mtneum will well repay 
a visit. 

Near the station it the statue of Leopold I., 
erected i877. Another statue was erected on 
the promenade in 1859 to the composer Ilo\ni\A 

Delattre, l)om hero 1520. Equestrian statue of 
Baldwin, of Hainanlt, near the Vauxhalt. 

Mons is the centre of the largest coal district of 
Belgium, about three-fourths of the annual yield 
being obtained in this neighbourhood. 

[At Mons a branch railway supplies a direct 
communication from Paris tc Cliartcroi, Namur, 
and Cologne. Mons to Paris, tia Maubeugc, 
Aulnoye, Tergnier, Ac. This is the newest and 
best route for ttiuse to whom tiu'.c is an object. 
Express in 4 hours.] 

Moys TO QuiEvnAiN.— After leaving Mons, the 
railroad inclihes at first towards the right, traver- 
sing an extensive plain, bounded on the left by 
the Panisei and the little hills of Flenu, and 
crowned by the high chimneys of numerous 
coal works. The canol from Mons to Conde, which, 
for a distance of five leagues runs In a perfectly 
straight line, is seen on the left, as also the village 
of Cuesmes, the theatre of one of the most sangni- 
nary episodes of the celebrated battle of Jemappcs 
Passing the levant of Fldnu, 

Jexnappes (Station) is reached, it is rcmafk- 
able for the victory gained by the French under 
General Diimouriez, and the late Louis Philippe, 
when Duke de Clmrtres, over the Austrians, I792< 
The village of Qimregnon is passed after leaving 
Jemappcs; near to which are seen the ruins of 
the ancient tower, known by the name of the liigli 
Court. The railroad here takes a considerable 
bend, and shortly after runs into the straight line, 
which continues to the frontier. The country on 
each side is in high cultivation, and adorned with 
many beautiful country houses. 

St. <^l»<«1a^<w (Station) is next reached, the 
church of which is on the right. On tlie left are 
the magnificent establishments of Homu, founded 
by the late Mad. Degorges Legrand. St. Ghi»lain 
is a very ancient town; population, 3,759. The 
surrounding country very much resembles the 
neighbourhood of Manchester and Bolton. A 

branch rail goes off to Warqoignles Station, 

near Mons. 

BOUSfU (Station) is the next. The ehleC \.W^«^ 
of a cantotvv v«^^3\*«tfs^, ^:v^- '^'^ ^fi^&^s*.^ ^^ 



[Bottte 7a. 

This architectorai wonder should be teen by tbe 
tourist; there are many remarkable traditions 
connected with it. The station has been erected 
in a part of the magnificent park, from which It is 
separated by an ornamental iron ratling. The 
church of Boussu contains some fine pieces of 
sculpture. Between Boussu and Thulin, the next 
station, there Is nothing worthy of notice. 

Qul^Vrain (Station) is arrived at shortly after 
leaving Thulin ; it is the last station of the Belgian 
Hallway. The office of the Belgian Custom House 
Is here, and the baggage of parties entering 
Belgium is examined. 
The town contains 3,330 inhabitants, oarr>ung 
on an active commerce with France. It affords 
absolutely nothing worth special notice. Tlii^ Is 
the frontier station of the Southern Line and the 
point of junction with the Great Northern of 
France Railway. 

Blanc Missenm (Station)— on lYench soil— is 

next met with ; after which we enter 

Valenciennes (8tation).~Boute i. 

Valenciennes to Paris by rail. 

BnUwelB to Charleroi by VUlen-la-Ville, 
Vt^Yt and nettnis* 

From the Nord or the Great tjuxcmlmurg 
iStatton, Quart ier Leopold. 

On leaving Brussels the train passes through 
several cuttings; (m emerging from which it 
arrives at 

SoitSfort (Station), being the third station on 
the Namur line, and three and threo-quarte'r miles 
from Brussels. The village lies In a valley on the 
border of the Forest of Solgnles. Itisthe^reat 
resort of pleasure parties, as it contains several 
excellent restaurants and gardens, where provi- 
sions may be obtained at reasonable prices. There 
are some large sheets of water, well stocked with 
fish, but strictly preserved. 

Oroenendael (Station), 6 miles from Brussels, 
is situated in the heart of the Forest, and convey- 
ances may be got for Waterloo in one hour. 
JVaa^ tite station may be seen the mined f ounda- 
fiona of a Priory, which once existed here, and 

which must have been a large pile of building. It 
is now a Koataurant, with a beautiful garden, &e^ 
much frequented in the summer. 

La HlQpe (Station), 9 miles from Brussels, 
is a village of some importance. It was once 
a provincial town. From the station there is a 
fine view over a large sheet of water, towards 
tbe country seat of the Marqais de Dethune, 
which is a remarkably fine house, with ext(mslve 
grounds. From the high ground above the station 
may be seen, on a clear day, the monumental Lion 
•n the field of Waterloo. 

Rixenaart (Station). Oliilteau of Gomte de 

Ottignies (Station) is 15 mllcs from Brussels, 
and forms the junction of tbe Charlcrol and 
Louvaln and the Managre and Wavre lines with 
that to Gembloux and Namur. It has one 
common station for the three companies. There 
is a considerable animation and bustle here, 
owing to the change of trains by passengers and 
the goods trafilc passing from one line to another. 

Ck)urt St. Btienne (Station).— On leaving this 

station the traveller should remember that he Is 
approaching one of the most singular and beautiful 
views in Belgium, viz. — The ruins of the Abbey le 

Villen-la-Ville (Station).— The line passes 
through the garden of the Abbey, and generally so 
rapidly, that only a glimpse can be obtained of 
these magnificent ruins. The Tourist should there- 
fore make an excursion expressly to visit them 
from Brussels, or alight at this station and take a 
subsequent train on to Paris; but the former 
course Is the most pleasant. The Abbey le Villej-s 
founded 1147, Is a most splendid, romantic, and 
picturesque pile. 

The best view of the ruins is from the terrace 
gardens beyond the railway ; but it is difficult 
to say which excites the most admiration, the view 
from the heights around, or a walk through the 
ruins. No one can behold the refectory, the 
cloisters, the crypts, the breviary, and last the 
magnificent ruins of the beautiful Church, without 
feelings of delight and wonder. It Is a scene of 
surpassing beauty, particularly in the eflfulgence 
of the noon day ot ti^lUng «uu. 

Boates 8 and 8a.] 



The Abbey of Villers was first pillaged, and then i reaching Namur, in a lOTely country. Aito.r 
set on fire by a party of French Republican soldiers passing sercral cuttings, the line is carried OTer a 
in 1789. The ruins were then sold to a person of long bank, below which lies the river Sambre, and 
the name of La Tcrrade for 70,000fr., who con- f^m which a fine view is obtained of 
tinned the work of destruction, and left the present Nanwr (Statton).— See page 61 : 
mins. Entrance to the Abbey at Duraont's Hotel, 
admission, 60 cents. 

From Villers to Charleroi the most Interesting 
places are Ligny and Flennis. At Ligny was 
fought, on the 16th June. 1815, the memorable 
battle between th« French and Prussians. At 
FlAnrns, also, battles were fought in the 17th 
and 18th centuries. 

LOdelinBartb Junction of local linos. 

Cliarlerol (Station). Population, 22,661. 

llotett: Douriu; Grand Monarqnc. Buffet. 

The centre of flourishing collieries, iron foundries, 
and blast fumaoes, on the Sambre, having near it 
the fine extensive ruins of the old i466«y iFAIne 
founded in the year.666. Sec page 60. There is an 
interesting archieologlcal museum, with a good 
collection of local antiquities. 

At Charleroi the line branches off, and leads 
to Walcourt, and having offshoots to Lancff(B, 
Morialnie. and Florennes. See Route 16. Further 
up the Sambre, at Thuln (Station), a line connects 

with Lobbea (Station) ; Binche (Station), a 

place for lace makers (population, 9,441); and 

thence with Bonno Esp^rance (Station); 
Fleton (Station); BuTTinne8-Mont(StationX 
and Mons (Station), &c. 


BmSB^B to Namur, direct.— 86 miles— From 
the Mord or Quartier Leopold Stations. 

OttignieS (Station), as in Route 7a. 

Mont St. Ouibert (Station), at a picturesque 
viUage. There are the remains of an old Castle 
close to the railway. The Chftteau itself is worth 
seeing; the grounds are open by payment of half 
a franc. ' 

QomUonx (Station), where the line from 
Fleurus to Ramiliies crosses, near a small town 
(population, 8,612), the trade of which is cutlery. 
At BamlUiM, 1706, Mar borough and the Allies 
defeated Marshal Villeroy and the Elector of Bava- 
ria, in one of his most decisive battles. Ramiliies 
is also a station on the short line 27f miles from 
Namur to Tirlemont. 

BllifDOB (Station).— The fast station before 

BruBselB to Charleroi, direct 

The new direct line, 68^ miles, to Charleroi saves 
10 miles. It passes Waterloo (p.41),Brainc TAllend. 
Baulcrs, aud Nivelles, and Joins the old line at 

Braine I'Alleud. From here it is 14 mile to 
the Lion Monnd, which is visible. 

Baulers : junction of the Manage and Wavrc 
line, one mile only from 

Nivelles. Population, 10,475. Hotel, Monton 
Blanc. The station is away from the town, a manu- 
facturing place of litUe interest. 

Luttre, see below. 

The old line is as follows : — 

BmeselB to Braine-le-Comte, see Route 2.— 

At Braine-le-Comte the line to Namul* by Manage, 
Luttre, ond Jumet branches off to the east. 

EcaUBBinea (Station), standing among valu- 
able quarries of blue limestone. The church of 
Marchd-les-Ecaussines contains some exceedingly 
curious tombs. Passing over the Charleroi Canal 
and through a country possessing r.o remarkable 
features, except collieries. 

Manage (Station) is next reached. Here is the 
junction of the Mons and Manage lines, Route 14. 
On the left lies Seneffe^ remarkable as the spot 
where William III., when Prince of Orange, in 1674, 
fought the old warrior, Condd, on which occasion 
27,000 were killed. There is at the latter place a 
magnificent ch&teau, enclosed by a remarkable 
park. Leaving Manage the scenery becomes more 
varied: interesting works of art are numerous. 
Traversing the tunnel of Godarville, the railroad 
takes a winding course. 

Theihiethcn passes Goay-les-Pi^ton(Station), 
Pont-^-Cellea (Station) to Luttre (Station), 

whereajunctiouii i8milcsis made with Tamiuer, 
viA Viesville, Gosselies-Ville, Jumet-Brulotte, 
Bansart, and Lamburart. Jumet, above named, 
has a population of 28,868. It connect s witlv l..<i:»^9k- 
linsart,cn the CeutX1^V^0i%'^^^«N««^^'^^^«ev'*.^ 




From T*uttre. the road nvxt traversos a cnltin;:. 
the sides <»f which exhibit lnyci*8of oarth anil tiint 
siringely snpeqwsod. On approaching Qosselies 
the cuttings arc of immense depth. 

Gosselles-Oourcdlles (Station), H miic from 

the town, to which an omnibus rans. Population, 
9,118. A connecting link it ma<le with Chfttelincau, 
vid Jumet. On quitting Gossclios, the railroad 
traverses a beautiful country, cutting through 
several coal beds, past Snmctz, situated in a most 
picturesque manner at the base of a little hill, 
near the Abbey of Sart-lc-Moine, which contains a 
rich altar-piece of wood sculpture. Pacising the 
Rous (Station), the road traverses a rich open 
country, in the midst of which arc the manufac- 
turing districts of Charleroi, and shoi*tly reaches 

MarcMenne-an-Pont (Station), the junc- 
tion with the Sambre and Meuse Railway, now 
extended to Bcrzce, Walcourt, Silcnricux, Canuin, 
Vireux, ifec. At Marchiennes-au-Pont the Brussels 
and Charleroi canals join the Mouse. The river 
Sambre is here met with, and between this station 
and Namur the railroad crosses it no less than six- 
teen times. The railroad here crosses it on a 
beautiful bridge. On the right, after leaving 
Marchlennes, the gigantic establishments of Mon- 
cean Fonteine ai*e seen ; at the distance of a league 
and a half from these, the ruins of the Abbey cTAlne 
are situated— the traveller should visit these. 

Crossing the river Heure, which effects its con- 
fluence immediately after with the Sambre, the 
coal works of Lodcllnsart arc passed on the left, 
and the town of La Providence ; here the manu- 
facture of iron is carried on to a large extent. 
The stranger should not think of quitting the 
neighbourhood without visiting some of these 
great establishments, which are in no way in- 
ferior to some of the largest English works 
of a similar description. Approaching Charleroi, 
the station, situated in the lower town and near 
the place, is amved at. 

Oliarleroi (Station). Population, 22,551. 

Hotels: Dourin; Grand Monarque. Buffet. 

It offers little of consequence, excepting an 

Archaeological Museum, with a good collection of 

Jocal, prehistoric, Roman, and Prankish antiqni- 

^y<0s, and some local minerals. The district arottnd 

^^^apopaJatfimofS0,000,andprefient8 a scene of 

[Route 8a. 

' extraonlinary aotivlty. The Charleroi coal-fis!d 
I is the most extousive in Ifejgium, giving cqiploy- 
mcnt to 10,000 miners, and yiwiding aunuaUy 
3,000,000 tons of coal ; the trlass trade is also carried 
on to a very great extent, and those ntimerous uid 
extensive iron works, which derive their supplies 
of iron ore from the Sambre and Meuse district- 
one of the most picturesque and interesting 
countries in Belgium, but, with the exception of 
a few ominOnt geologists, totally unk-nown to 
travellers. It expends about 40 miles south of 
Charleroi to the Fi-ench deportment of the 
Ardennes. The Sambre and Meuse Balliray, 
which commences at March ionnc-au-Pont (as 
above), about a mile from Charleroi, traverses it 
in its entire length, terminating on the Kense, 
near Qivet. The network of railways surrounding 
Charleroi on the east, north, and west, is closer 
than in any other part of Bqlgiuro, excepting a 
district to the east and south-east of Mons^ 

The Sambre and Meuse present attractive fea- 
tures to the lovers of angling, the trout of the 
former and cray-fish of the latter being abundaqt 
and excellent. Bridges span both the rivers here. 
At two leagues distance from Chai*leroi, in the 
picturesque valley of the Sambre, are the ruins of 
the Abb^ d'Alne (already mentioned), one of the 
most ancient monasteries perhaps in Europe, built 
in the year 656. 

The railway crosses the river Sambre many 
times between Charleroi and Namur. The sceneiy 
is most charming. At Charleroi the line branches 
off, and leads to Walcourt; havjng offshoots to 
Laneffe, Morialm^, Philippevllle. Florennes, Ma- 
riembourg, and Chlraay (on the French border). 

Oliarleroi to Namur.— Shortly after leaving 
the station, the village of Couillet, renowned for 
its metallurgic establishments, is passed; then 
Montigny-sur-Sambre, the factories of which give 
employment to many workmen. Crossing the 
Sambro, the elevated chimneys of 

Ch&telineau (Station) are observable, near a 
town celebrated for its earthenware. From here 
a link comes in via Jumet and GiUy, in the coal 
district. There is also a communication (aim.) 
with Oiyet on the French frontier. Leaving 















arc J 









of ft 

the ! 



a. 9 .' 





M«aa of Beaulioii, the ffArdons of which are much 
lulled by the railway, and shortly arrives at 
Ptodeimes (Station), near a pretty village of 
►C6 inhabitants, which has been literally cut in 
•o by the railway passing through It. Through 
sountry rich, varied, and interesting, 

I^amiXies (StatiOXI) ia next arrived at, where 
les come in from Luttre (page 49) and 
ettet and Dina&t (aee page 68) ; then Auve- 
XBf a pretty village, possessing nothing of 
terest. Crossing the Bambre for the seventh 
Xke since leaving Marchionno, immediately after 
Bluing Auvelais, the railroad enters vast cuttings, 
&de la enormou9 banks of schist, curiously 
sposed. Passing the hamlet of Grand Bois, and 
r^n crossing the Sambre, deep cuttings are 
itered, on emerging from which are seen richly 
&d meadows, through which meanders the 
ver. On the right is seen the steeple of the 
hurcli of Ham-sur-Sambrc, and on the left that 
f Jemmeppe. 

lloustjdr (Station) is then seen, and further 
n to the left Momsmerit; then a cutting, then 
g;piu the Sambre, and still the Sambre, which 
epcdes, approaching and bending like a serpent, 
infolds amorously the green bills, then retires, 
ike a coquette, to wander about in a thousand 
tircuits, where the eye in vain strives to follow her. 

The railroad next passes through a lovely wood, 
mrrounded by forests; on the right, as far as the 
)ye can reach, rise a succession of hills, entirely 
Yoodcd, gradually sinking and terminating in 
Tont of us by a slight elevation, in which is situated 
he village of Francferes; on the left are the park 
md chAteau of Loye, and looking across the 
riaduct the traveller may perceive the magnificent 
)uildings of the Abbe7j o/Fforeffe, situated midway 
m the side of a hill higher than any wo have 
litherto seen, and bristling here and there with the 
Ktlnts of rocks, which cut off by their aridity the 
rigorous vegetation which surrounds them on all 

Floreffe (Station). The village gives evidence, 
n the immense charcli(and the beauty of its Abbey, 
if the importance anciently attached to it by the 
founts of Namnr. Itbag8,e00inbabiUmtB. Cros- 
fjigr the Sambro ibntc tJmtg mfter l^AYlag Floreffe. 

the rnilrond passes Mnloinie, a celebrated Abbey, the 
beantiful steeple of which, erected !n 1651, is seoiV 
between two hills towards the right. Passing 
through a country somewhat varied and interest- 
ing, the railroad, in following the course of the 
Sambre, describes innumerable curves and turn- 
ings, and crossing a fine viaduct, reaches the 
station in Namur, situated outside the Porte-de- 
Fer, which leads to Louvain. 


NAMUR (Station). Flmiish; if amen. 

Hotel d'Harscamp. 

The capital of the province of Xamur, at the 
conflux of the Sambre and the Mense, a well-built 
city, with wide and clean streets. It contains a 
population of 29,794, who are chiefly employed 
in the cutlery business. It is defended by 
a citadel built on the summit of a craggy rock. 
Here are extensive manufactures of Are-arms, 
swords, knives, scissors, and other articles of ir> n*, 
copper, and brass. Quantities of leather, paper, 
thread, and tobacco are also prepared here. Nnmur 
has often changed masters, and is noted for the 
many sieges which it has sustained. Owing to 
the destruction inflicted during these rarions 
sieges, bombardments, <fec., it has now but few 
objects of interest to enlist the traveller's notice. 
Namur has lately been much visited by Belgians' 
and a Kursaal has been built on the Meuse. 

Cathedi'dl of St. Aubin, an elegant modem build- 
ing, erected in 1772, having a portico supported 
by twenty-five columns (the capitals of which 
are elaborately ornamented), and surmounted 
by statues In white marble. In the interior 
will be observed some fine paintings by Rubens, 
and some remarkable monuments. On the right 
of the altar i» a monument to a Bishop Pisanl. 
Here also is the tomb of Don John of Austria, 
the victor of Lepanto. The wooden pulpit erected 
in 1848, from a plan by M. Geerts, deserves notice. 
The treasury contains many valuable curiosities. 

The Church of St. Loup, Rue du College, 
is also a fine specimen of the ornamental style of 
architecture. The root" U cQ\v9.Vrss5i\.v>A 'A N\>». •^vs^'Si 
of St. Hubet\,\iTQ\x^VOiiT«m W't Kx^.^k^^'^A^^^^ 
nc\g\ibo\aVvoo^ ol -y^tv-vOaaN «sn.«. >^^ ^^t^^^* 



[Route 9. 

The CJtdteau^ remarkable for its sie^e of two 
years, from 1256 to 1258. The Government House 
was formerly the Bishop's Palace, built in 1275, 
by an Englishman named Strickland, who was 
bishop of the diocese. The Citadel and Ramjxu'tt, 
built on one of the mountains overhanging the 
town, command varied and extensive views over 
the fertile country watered by the Meuso. The 
town also contains several hospitals, the principal 
of which is that founded by the Countess of 
Harscamp, in 1812, for aged destitute persons of 
both sexes. The ArdtseologiccU Miueum contains 
a large and interesting collection of Roman and 
older antiquities. In the neighbourhood of the 
town are quarries of black, red, and grey marble, 
susceptible of a very high polish. 

The tan-yards, which were formerly an Im- 
portant branch of industry at Namur, are much 
diminished in importance; but there are still 
several remaining— as also numerous breweries, 
xuid one glass house. The pit-eoal, called houiUe, 
is found in the hill on which the castle is 
built. Tobacco and endive are cultivated. 

A statue of Leopold I. was inaugurated, 1869. 
The Boulevard Leopold, leading to the pretty little 
Park of Maria Louise, is adorned with a monu- 
ment to Omalius, the geologist. 

The streets of Namur are wide and well built, 
principally of blue stone, veined with red and 
black. The singular sham-fights, formerly carried 
on between the two parties of young townsmen, 
mounted on stilts, were once a f avom-ite diversion 
of the inhabitants, to which, it is said the brewers 
of Namur owe the exemption from excise, granted 
by Duke Albert. They are now almost discon- 
tinued, but arc still occasionally to be seen during 
the Fairs, the principal of which commences on 
the 2nd July, and lasts fifteen days; the others 
are but one day each, viz. : the second Monday 
in April, and the first Saturday in October. 

The Citadel Is thought to occupy the site of the 
fortified camp of the Aduaci, mentioned by CiBsar 
in the second book Dc Bello Gallico, which was 
certainly not far from here. 

Within 3 miles of Namur is the curious 

f^eraiJiag-e ol MontAgn^. cut in the solid rock, by 

M bjiatAerbood of Carmelite Friars; and about two 

^/Ji>s to the north, is the yUUge of Vedrin, in 

which is a valuable lead mine, discovered in 1619. 
The walk to this village, as well as that of La 
Plante, which is about the same distance, is delight- 
fully picturesque. The principal lines are to 
Luxembourg and Trfevc8(Boute 18); toTirlemont; 
to Dinnnt and Givct (Route IC). The line to 
Tirlemont (page 67) is 27f miles long and passes 
through Ramillies (page 49X 

Namur to Li^ge. 

The railway station is on the Place de la StatioUf 
with the Boulevard de Leopold on one side and 
the Square Leopold on the other. The latter is 
laid out in garden*!, and leads to the Place I^^opold, 
in which is a good statue of Leopold I. by Gecfs. 
The Boulevard Leopold, on the other side of the 
Gare, also has a statue of J. J. Omalius d'Halloy, 
the noted Belgian geologist. 

Leaving the station the railway passes under 
the hill of Pied-noir, and that of Coquelet, between 
which ascends the high road leading to Louvain. 
After the doubling of the hill of Pied-noir, more 
generally known by the name of the Windmill- 
mount, the railway, leaving to the right the forti- 
fications of the town, St. Nicholas's gate, and the 
neighbouring plantations, passes by the trees of 
the Grands-Malades (an old leper hospital), at the 
foot of steep hills, of which the rocky slopes 
conceal from sight the village of Bourges, l)y 
which they are crowned. At this point we see 
embedded in a rock the picturesque Hermitage 
of St. Hubert. The railway now approaches the 
Meuse, and does not leave it until its arrival at 
Lidge. It crosses the first valley, running past 
some rocks of brilliant whiteness, which close the 
prospect on the left bank, and vanish towards a 
cluster of trees which shelter the white buildings 
at the sign of La T§te du Pre'. The landscape 
is closed on the right bank, which the old road 
follows, by the heights of Erpcnt, at the top of 
which winds the road to Luxembourg; lower 
down, by the hill overhanging the gloomy Trou 
des Larrons, a famous cave, once so dreaded by 
travellers ; and lastly, by the heights of Lives, 
the sides of which are covered with blocks of 
stone, presenting the fantastic appearance of a 
manoT-bouM^ "wUih. lift massive entrance iUtuked 
by two Tnou\dOT\n« XoN^«t%. 

Bottte 9.] 



This first valley has beauties too nnraerons for 
us to attempt to describe. It is followed by others 
in rapid succession, equally grand and beautiful. 
Erery attempt to do so would appear cold and 
colourless compared with the impression produced 
by the view, under the unceasing play of light and 
shade, by the splendlil river, sprinlcled here and 
there with verdant and gr-iccful islands, a limpid 
and azure track travelled over, hour after hour, 
by heavily laden trading boats, slender steamers, 
with sounding and foaming paddles, and long 
white plumes of smoke. 

Beyond T§te-du-Prd the railway passes by the 
villig) of Becz, and soon reaches the beautiful 
rocks of Marchc les Dames, whoso greyish sides 
border the road, and proudly raise their wild 
steep crags in the air. 

Marche les Dames (Station). - The Castieon 

the rocky slope is an erection of the present century, 
by the owner of some ironworks — it now belongs 
to the Due d* Aremberg. The village is of regular 
construction, and contains a pretty good number 
of houses and forges. 

The village owes the first part of its name to 
its situation on the confines of the ancient dis- 
trict of Namur {Marche, frontier limit), and the 
latter part refers to the foundation of the Abbey, 
which still attracts a number of visitors to 
Harcbe-Ies-Damcs. An affecting tradition con- 
nects its origin with the first crusade. When in 
the reign of Albert III. the Namur crusaders set 
out for the Holy Land, such of their wives as were 
unable to follow them assembled in the rustic 
and lonely valley, of which the industry now 
established there has not entirely destroyed the 
charms; they raised a modest chapel, in which, 
praying for the deliverance of the Holy Sepulchre, 
they waited for the return of their husbands. 
But out of the many warriors who had been to 
seek for glory on the burning plains of Palestine, 
very few, indeed, over regained the green hills of 
their native land. When the crusaders who had 
escaped death returned to the banks of the Mcusc. 
desolation reigned in the Valley of Notre Dame 
du Vivicr, as it was then called. Most of those,, 
wives learned that they wore widows, und resolved 
to tnd their days in the rotrcat which they had 

chosen, and young girls, whom the war had 
made fatherless, joined them. An abbey was 
founded there, which, in three centuries after- 
wards, adopted the rule of St. Bernard. 

Opposite here, on the right bank of the Mouse, 
is the chfttcau of Brumagne. in a shady park; 
and on the left bank, at a small distance, is the 
funiace of Halniau. A little further on at the 
entrance of the village of Namechc, against the 
extreme point of aroc ley chasm,weseeamodem little 
Chapel, almost buried behind the embankment of 
the railway. It is dedicated to St. Roch, and has, 
above its doors the following:— 

" lAlxT BoCa VoUi aYbz bLoIoxk Lu MaUX Dm Cxitk 


This church was erected at tlic cessation of the 
cholera in 1833, which ravaged Nambche with 
great violence. The date is indicated by the Roman 

Above Nameche, on the opposite Itank, on the 
slope of a high hill, and from the midst of a dark 
plantation of fir trees, appears, with its whitish 
walls and vast slate roof, the lordly residence of 
Moisnil. Lower down, and occupying the bottom 
of the valley, appear the gigantic rocks of Sam- 
son, opposing a seemingly impassible barrier to 
the river; on the highest block are the ruins of 
the castle of Samson. 

Nameche (Station). — Beyond Nameche. a 
short distance from the village, the extreme point 
of an elevation which skirts the railwny presents 
the exact outline ot a strongly-marked human face. 
The artist, in drawing it, has not made the least 
alteration, nor the slightest addition. He has 
merely copied the fantastic profile which offered 
itself to his view, and which vanishes from sight 
on a near approach, being the result of a capricious 
assemblage of shapeless stones which the railway 
cutting has exposed to view. (Sec illustration). 

Solaigneanx (Station), with a snuiii hamlet 

adjoining on the village of V^zin. Amidst the 
buildings, whose reddish walls contrast with the 
grey tints of the overh.inging rocks, noijca-'c* *-V!».*^ 
manufactorv. 'VVvt >^t^VV^ n>Nv«^'!^ v^w v>a& '*^'^^^';^, 



[Route 9^ 

basin, which presents as a 'whole one of 
the most a^eeable sisrhts on the line between 
Kamur and liuy. 

The railway, after being for a pretty consider- 
able time confined between rocks and the river, 
enters the first tunnel, two hundred and thirty-five 
metres long, pierced through the rock, and leading 
at once to the beautiful and extensive basin of 
Andennc. In the first place, on the right of the 
railway, a charming Castle, in the style of the 
15th century, reflects forth on the blue arch of 
heaven the elegant architecture of its battlements 
and turrets. It is the Castle of Scillcs, and, thongh 
lately erected, it appears as if the barons of the 
country had held their coiu-t for ages within its 
feudal precincts. The Roman tower, which appears 
on the left, belongs to the church of Seillcs. In 
the private chapel of the ancient Lords is a tomb, 
a real work of art, sacred to Michael dc Warisoulx 
and his wife Jeanne de Crehcn. 

Andexme (Station). — An important town on 
the right bank of the river. A viaduct unites the 
two banks, and ensures to the town all the advan- 
tages which the railway affords. The population is 
7,114, of which a large number is employed in the 
paper mills, pottery works, and iron mines, Which 
the town and its vicinity possess. Andenne is 
indebted to the celebrated Cockerill for the estab- 
lishment of a vast paper manufactory, which is now 
no longer the only one there that affords a profitable 
employment to a considerable number of workmen. 
Between Andenne and Bas-Oha the railway, 
quitting the province of Li^ge, passes the village 
of Java, renowned for its orchards and vineyai'ds, 
which are the most productive in the country. 

On the right bank, the hills, which had receded 
AS if to allow the villages of Gives and Ben to 
extend in the plain, again draw nearer to the 
river, and on the airy top of the rocks are seen the 
ruins of the Castle of Beaufort, destroyed 1554. 

On the left bank, near Huy, the church, built 
on the hill, the slope of which stops the railway. Is 
that of Statte, one of the seven suburbs of the 
town. Just before crossing the M^haigne, which 
served as a line of defence at the close of the 
seventeenth contui^ against the armies sent to 
yv/avf /Ae alege of Nnmnr, and before entering the 
^nwrtf/, yrbicb enda Mt the gtMthik of HHy^uiit 

at the end of the charming landscape, formed by 
the Mense and the hills which enclose it — are seen 
the vast bastions of the citadel, now partly 
demolished. Statte (Station) junction of the 
line from Huy to Landen and Ciney (see page 68). 

Huy (Station) — the Flemish //ioey— half way 
between Namur and Li^ge. 

Population, 14,485. 

Hotels: De TAigle Nolr; du Mouton Bluu. 

Nothing can be more striking than the prospect 
which rises, as it were, to the view, when, after 
the subterraneous darkness of the long tunnel of 
Statte, one finds one's self suddenly under the 
blue vault, reflected by the Meusc, between the 
steep heights of the left bank, all covered with 
vineyards and the woody hills on the right bank, 
under the shelter of which the town lies, and over 
which peers amidst the bouses which they com- 
mand, the lofty rock, once crowned by the citadel, 
the Gothic Collegiate Church, under the invocation 
of Notre Dame, and the tapering spire of its 
church, dedicated to St. Peter. 

Huy is divided by the Meuse into two parts, one 
on the right bank, in Condroz, the other in Iles- 
baye. The town is so confined between the hills 
that overhang it, that the streets appear crushed 
by them. Under the government of the Prince- 
Bishop of Li^ge it contained only 6,000 Inhabitants, 
but could boast of fifteen churches and a consi- 
derable number of abbeys and convents. The 
rains of the greater part of the religious buildings, 
a few monuments entirely preserved, and a quan- 
tity of curious constructions of a mord or less 
distant epoch, will, long afford a plentiful supply 
of interesting studies to the researches of the 
antiquarian and the pencil of the artist. If you 
question an iiihabltant of the country on the won- 
ders of Huy, he will at once reply In his peculiar 
dialect, Upontia, li roncUa, K batssinia— the bridge 
over the Meuse, the Rose of the Collegiate Church, 
and the fountain of the Grande Place. 

The B7Hdge was built in 1294, and cost 6,600 
llvres. The arches, seven In number, are 138 
metres above the level of the bed of the Meuse. 
Tlie far-famed Rose of the Collegiate Church 
adorns the Interidr facade of the building, toe 
finest monument of the second pointed style in 

Boute 9. j 



. The Brass Basin of the fountain on the Grande 
Place is ornamented with curiously worked little 
figures, presumed to bo satirical allusions to 
certain convents in the neighbourhood. 

The Citadel was built in 1817, in the place 
occupied by the old castle, destroyed by the Dutch 
in 1717. It commanded at the snme time the town 
and the courses of the Meuse and Hoyoux — the 
latter a small rapid river which crosses the right 
bank quarter of the town, and falls into the river 
at the very foot of the rock, till lately crowned 
by the bastions of the fortress. 

Wo should be guilty of a great oversight did 
we not invito the tourist to si^cnd a few hours in 
rambling through the deep and narrow valley, 
watered by the limpid waters of the Hoyoux. Its 
rapid course gives impulse to a number of manu- 
factories, whose presence adds to the picturesque- 
ness of the landscape. From Huy to Barse, where 
the valley, widening for a moment, brings to view 
the old manor>house, now transformed into a 
farm-house, to which its old turret gives a martial 
rather than a rural aspect; then from Barse to 
Modave, whose castle, blending the grey tints of 
its towers and walls with those of the craggy 
sides of the rock which support it, seems to form 
with it but one gigantic edifice. 

Huy is an industrious town. By means of the 
wharves on the Meuse, it carries on a considerable 
trade in com, and the wine, which alone in all 
Belgium it produces in sufficient quantity to be 
worth mentioning, forms the object of a commerce 
which isbecoraing more important every day. From 
the station, the railway, in its direction towards 
Lidge, regains, by a considerable curve, the bank 
of theMeuse. Here one enjoys anextensivc prospect, 
comprising the whole town with the splendid 
bridge which occupies the middle of it, and the 
rock of Fort which overhangs it, and whose greyish 
mass is conspicuous on the verdant ground of the 
surrounding heights. The long chain which 
crowns the right barrier is suddenly interrupted 
by the steep rock that shelters the town, and in 
front of which the fertile basin unfolds itself, in 
which, in the first place, appears the pretty village 
of Tihange. 

From Hvy a hratteh rana to Olnejr, on the 

' Great Luxembourg line (Route 18), passing by 
' way of Mo<laV6, Havelange, and Hamoy. 

Our main line, after coming near the old road from 
. Namur to Litfgc, which from the right bank has 
passed to the left, runs by the blackened buildings 
! of a zinc manufactory, which clouds of dust and 
smoke envelope in a constant fog. It then crosses 
' the tunnel of Loyablc, cut in the rocky height, 
• which on that side bounds the valley of Huy, and 
arrives in a vast basin, to which the green carpet 
of the meadows, the varied mosaic work of culti- 
vated land, and the shade of the succeeding 
orchards and tufts of trees, give a most rural 
aspect. The village of Ampsin, seen on the left, 
with its church, the steeple of which shows on the 
greyish ground of a calcareous rock, is crossed by 
the stream of Bende. At the right of the railway, 
on the banks of the Meuse, rises the Castlo of 
Ampsin, consisting of three brildings, the most 
extensive of which is flanked by a square tower, 
surmounted by a Belvedere. It is built in the 
water, and is entirely isolated, and commiuucates 
with the inner court by a largo bridge. Opposite 
the Castle of Ampsin is the Castle of Neucille, a 
superb construction in the modern style, consisting 
of a double building ivith two wings, terminated 
by two pavilions, the dome-shaped roof of which is 
surmounted by two lanterns. The banks of tho 
river arc embellished by the gardens of both 

Amay (Station) is a league beyond Ampsin, and 
is the first intermediate station between Iluy and 
Lidge. The station built along a park, enclosing 
a handsome country-house, presents the most de- 
lightful aspect. The village lies at the foot of the 
hills which tend to draw near the Meuse. The 
Gothic Collegiate Church, with its three aisles, 
forms a considerable building. Beyond the 
Church a steep rock serves as a pedestal, as it 
were, to a small church dedicated to St. Catherine, 
but commonly known by the name of St. Poinpey. 
On the extreme top of the neighbouring heights, 
near some larch trees, whose dark branches appear 
like black lace on the azure of the sky, a windmill 
merrily turns its sails, exposed tQ «!^*Cwft.-^NsAa»^=?*' 



[Route 9. 

dustry, in the confines of & ralley where modem 
industry rules with absolute sway. An excellent 
kind of plum is produced there, which, when 
dried, is an article of trade. The rine is culti- 
vated with success ; the Amay wine is the best in 
the country. 

A short distance beyond Amay the railway, 
leaving the basin where it deviated from the 
Meusc, again approaches the river, going the old 
highway, which is crossed near Ampsln, and which 
it meets once more to the left of the narrow bank, 
bordered by a long chain of formidable rocks of 
various tints. It next crosses the village of Flone, 
at the extremity of which appears tlie celebrated 
Abbey, the site of which is undoubtedly one of the 
most remarkable in the journey. 

On the right bank between the river and the 
hill', undulating on the horizon, is visible 
the village of Ombret, then the castle and burgh of 
Hermalle, of which the triple central building, 
with the two towers over the eastern facade, and 
the two square pavilions erected before the garden, 
form an en$emble by no means destitute of 

The rocks by the side of the railway continue 
to appear as far as La Mallieue^ a small village 
whose thatched houses, picturesquely grouped at 
the foot of the heights, contrast, in their rustic 
and ruinous aspect, with the recent constructions 
of the neighbouring zinc manufactory. The line 
next runs over a huge embankment, which skirts 
the river nearly as far as the works of the 
Nouvelle Montagne. This important zinc estab- 
lishment, of which the vast workshops extend 
along the Mouse, faces on the opposite bank a few 
slate-roofed brick buildings, forming a dependency 
of the village of Clermont. As it draws near the 
Nouvelle Montagne, the railway once more crosses 
the old road, passing to the right of the zinc 
works, whilst the line itself, passing to the left, 
deviates from the river by a curve traced between 
two embankments, which are too high to allow us 
a sight of the village of Engis and the neighbour- 
ing plantations. 

JBQglS (Station).— The village presents, on the 

^yj!9 torrards the Meuae, a slope, in a southern 

^reotJon, M most fnvottmble altntition tor the cul- 

tivation of the vine. On the road to Warfus^e is 
A handsome country seat, built only thirty years 
ago. At the foot of a chalky rock, which commands 
the river on the right bank, is a building, known 
by the name of the Chftteau of Engihoul. In a 
cave near here was discovered the skull of a 
pre-historic man, together with numerous fossil 

To the village of Engis succeeds the territory 
of the Anns. A break in the hilly chain, at 
whose foot are fertile valleys, by the side of which 
the railway passes, suddenly discloses, at the 
top of a craggy rock, the ancient Castle of Aigre- 
mont, which belonged to William de la Marck. 

A little beyond Aigremont is seen, nearly 
300 feet above the bank, the Castle of Chokicr, 
majestically built on a steep rock, resembling 
a truncated cone in shape. The principal 
building, reconstructed in the modern taste, stands 
on a very extenstro terrncc. The bastions in 
front of it, and the brick turret which iwcrs 
gracefully and proudly over the vast layers of the 
enclosing wall, seem to be the remains of the 
ancient castle. 

Leaving Chokier the railway passes sonic 
dusty lime-kilns, which have given the neigh- 
bouring hamlet the name of Chaffour, close by 
Fldmalle Station. 

[From this station begins the short 6rrtwc/i which 
extends on the left bank as far as the Guillemins, 
or Government Station, at Li^gc. It first crosses 
the village of Fl^malle-Haute. and then passes 
over the territory of the village of Flemallc- 
Orande. The ground towards the north is liij?h. 
and intersected by hills ; towards the soiith is one 
on which the vine flourishes. 

Jexneppe (Station) appears a little further on, 
opposite the Seraing establishment, situated on 
the right bank. The iron bridge, 32 yards long, 
crosses the Meuse at one of its widest parts. Its 
vast horizontal floor, adorned on each side by a 
handsome iron railing, is suspended by four enor- 
mous chains to the top of four cast-iron cylindrical 

From Jemeppe to Tilleur the line runs almost 
entirely amidst houses and villas, some of which 
are very taateiuWy "buVW.. 

fioute 9.] TO fiBLainu akd tex bhdik. 

TlUsnr (ltatlOIl)lBB'l1lig«of •nmll tinpert- ' The anclrnt opiicDp 
anew. The hllti, bf wlilcb Ihe nUwiy hu run ! porcb to Ihe InduitrUl 
■lii«llta(IF1<mBlle.>e*m1(>iilthdnwBn<ldlup- | ISli by John Cocken 

where Ibe ilglit (reely waiiden on Ibe ¥raodr | purchaKd hl« royiJ co-proprielor'i portion, m 

the Vil-Deaott, whkh touchei tbe [own of LMp^ *' '■ '«"' '™tnl by ■ company (ormcd In IM 

where It {obii the Slite Bailwiy In [he lUttoD " Wnniw In IMI, where be itopiKd durtng oi 
couimoiita both,] ' o' '^o dlgtuit cxcunloni which hli Intelllgsi 

LeiTbig Kl^mnlle StntUin tbe main line cn»>iiiir i ""•I'!' I'"f"«i<l htm to mnlie OTsry now and the 
tbe old highway. »Wrb™,(tnne> to follow the left ! »" "P*" "•" ""'"^ "' "*^'- "'• *'"'"'• ' 
bm,k,advBiice»Iow.rditheMen..,»hkhUero«e. ,' °""='' '"' ' '™* >npl»™d by worfctiis me 
on ■ Mona bridge, T8 ynrds long, and ti broad. ""' niicotered 1871. 
TbOTBlley wblcb tbcralJwey cnlera on reachlni The areaoceupiodby IbenSira^ tTor^tjanioan 

, andtho third for 

a little embelUihed by the elegantly cnnetructed 

woody bill bounding the Valley St. Lambert, at 
tbe lop of whicb tbe high chlmnei-j of the Ivoi , 


There 1 
and fui 

m. It enter. In Ihe Mate 
transfonned Into mlghiy 

real work, appear, rKlngamldet the Ireee on Iba 

graceful turret.; whU«OM>o»l.e allwar the two , 
cblleaaiDf Fleinallo-IInntennd FldniDllc-Urandc, ' 

,.c population of workuH 

rnacc^ftc. fortheprodue 
Ic eranlng, wlicn Ihe abi 

bMiil of llio LJ^ cotiiilr)-. prodn 
ooal in ei|iia1 alimidaiicc. 

Boyond the Vnlloy St. Lambert 
traverse, the Mnrlhaye coal work., i 
the .ide of Ihe Eip^rance fnniace^ reaelie. 

SSEAIira {Station), whid. wa> formerty a 
dallgblful rclreal, on Ihe Mcu.e. bounded by an 
■mpUtheatra of hiJK cromwd with lolly Ireei. 
The rilnce-Bi.hoiH of Utge possoaied a chlleau iiighl. Tbe bv 
there. lnm\j e»!aiYi«l\rs «a«.'A 

Figniltllaa (1^0), tS,»lS. ' ani o tVR Bt Via to«". Vni^w 



[Rott,te 10. 

Tho boring machinery for the Mont Cenis tunne! 
was made here. There are a hospital and an 
ori)hanage belonging to the works, costing £2,300 
per annum. 

Ougr^e is a village containing a population of 
10,241 inhabitants; it is situated on the left of the 
railway. On the right are two country houses 
surrounded with plantations. Tho tunnel near the 
station passes through tho establishment of fur- 
naces, a distance of 150 yards. 

Scarcely has the line passed through tho tunnel 
when we see at the left the Castle of Ougrdc. 
it consists of a square building, flanked by four 
turrets, covered in a pavilion style, and surmounted 
by several lanterns. The railway next passes for 
more than a league through fertile fields, orchards, 
and meadows, confined between the river and a 
chain of green hills, the last slopes of which are 
crowned with thick shades, which form part of the 
wood of Quinquempois. 

«f ust before leaving the last hills, which artf on 
the sides of the line, the traveller flees unfolded 
before him the beautiful valley in which the town 
of Li€ge is situated. On nearing the latter the train 
crosses the Government Line from Li^ge to 
Cologne, with which it has a junction in four 
directions. A mile and a-half beyond this point 
the train arrives at the Longdoz Station. 

JAi6gB, — For this city and the Route to Aix-la- 
Chapelle and Cologne, see Route 1 8. 


CHient to Antwerp, direct througli the 
Fays de Waes. 

Distance, 32 English miles. 

Ghent (Station).— ^See Route 21. 

Parties entering Belgium at Ostend, and who, 
proceeding to Ghent, wish also to visit Antwerp, 
may do so from Ghent, from which it is 1| hour 
distant. The State line m hour) by Termonde, 
(sec page 13) has better carriages. 

The railway, quitting Ghent, proceeds through 
a thickly populated and well-cultivated comiiry, 
the Fays do Waes, formerly a barren moor, but at 
present probably tho most thoroughly utilised 
and productive district in Europe; the culture is 
that known as intensive, every yard is used, and 
vejyr jninnte Mtention paid to tho treatment of 
r^^ 3oj/. To the north of the road we aee the 

castle of Loochristi, once a hunting seat for the 
Bishops of Ghent. 

Beirrelde (Station) is the first met with ; and, 
five miles further on we arrive at 

Lokeren (Station). 

Hotels: Des Quatre Sceaux; du Mirolr. 

A considerable manufacturing town, on the 
direct railway from Ghent to Antwerp, containing 
18,471 inhabitants. It is situated on tho river 
Durme, by which It communicates with the 
Scheldt. Tho market place and the quay are 
remarkable. The Churchy the construction of 
which dates as far back as the thirteenth century, 
is adorned with an elevated tower, and contains 
a fine Pulpit, magnificently carved, and represent- 
ing, in a group of ten figures, Jesus among the' 
Doctors. There are also some fine pictures; one 
especially should be examined, the Circumcision, 
by Veraghen. 

This is the Junction of the lines to Dendenuond 
(or Termonde) and Alost, and the Selzacte. 

St. Nicholas (Station). 

Hotels: Quatre Sceaux ; de TAncre. 

Population (1884), 28,350. 

The chief town of a district of East Flanders, on 
the road from Ghent to Antwerp. A fiourishhig 
trade is carried on in all sorts of stuff's, which are 
here manufactured. The principal church contains 
some fine pictures, and the New Town Hall is a 
splendid specimen of art, by Smeyers. 

Leaving this last station we pass Nleilkerken, 
and then BeYOren, with a population of 7,000, 
and arrive at 

ZwyndreOht, a pretty little village, containing 
8,580 inhabitants. ' Its church, an ancient edifice, 
constructed in 1242, contains a choir and some 
paintings t?^orthy of the visitor's notice. The 
train next reaches 

Tete de Flandre.— On the left bank facing 
Antwerp lies tho Terminus, which forms an out- 
work to the city. A steam ferry boat plies across 
the Scheldt between the Tete de Flandre and Ant- 
werp, every quarter of an hour, conveying the pas- 
sengers who travel by this line. Napoleon in- 
tended to found a new city here. Tho Belgian 
Government have constructed on this side tho 
Scheldt, a Camp Retranehe\ which is to be the 
head quarters of Government, and of tho Belgian 
army — in the event of an invasion. And this camp 

Boates 11 and 12.] 

is well worth visiting. It is situated opposite the 
Citadel of Antwerp. 

Antwerp.— See Route 4. 




Antwerp to BnuselB, by lEalines. 

Antwerp, in Route 4. 

Leaving Antwerp, we pass Bttrcihem (Station), 
in a commune of 2,310 inliabitants. Here were the 
bead-quarters of the French daring the siege of Ant- 
werp, in 183-2. It was before this place that Count 
Frederic de Mcrode was mortally wounded in 1830, 
during the retreat of the Dutch troops. About 
here we perceive many beautiful country residences, 
principally, belonging to the merchants of Antwerp. 

Vieuz-Dleuz (Station), or Ouda Ood in 

Flemish, near a little hamlet to the right, so called 
from a Pagan idol adored here, before the establish- 
ment of Christianity. Quitting here the lin^ 
proceeds by the banks of the Nethe. To the right 
we see Sdeghem, a village with 1,068 inhabitants ; 
and a little further on to the left, rising 
up in the distance. Hove, and soon after arrive at 

ContiCh (Station), close to a small place with 
8,640 inhabitants. The antiquated castles of 
Groeningen Hof, de Tanghofi, and d'Altiua here, 
are worth a visit. A branch rail to Herentbals and 
Tumhout, crosses the Antwerp and Maestricht 
line. See next route. 

Duffel (Station) is situated upon the Nethe, tra- 
versed by the route from Malines to Lietre Sta- 
tion (near a chief town of a canton in the district 
of Malines, on the Maestricht lino, as above, situated 
at the confluence of the great and little . Nethe, 
surrounded by ramparts planted with trees, and 
containhig a population of 17,943. (See page 81). 
Duffel has a population of 4,460 people, and its 
trade in linen is the chief staple of its industry. 

Wavre-6te.-Catlierlne (Station>,we arrive at 

Malines.— Hence to Brussels, see Route 1. 


Antwerp to Tambont— Distance, about 24 
miles by road, and 34f by rail by Oost-Malle, or 
Z5 by rail, by Licrre and Herentbals. 

The shorter road hy tmII, opened 1887, pMses 

through Wsmeghem and Ooit-Malle, where 
there is a branch to HoOgStraeten. Not far 
from these two places is West-HaUe, near to 
which is the Cistercian Convent, or Abbep of La 
Trappe. The monks of this order are remarkable 
for the strict regime under which they live, as 
Well as for the active and industrial pursuits which 
they constantly follow. The brothers rarely speak ; 
they rise at two o'clock a.m., and continue in prayer 
until six o'clock, when they proceed to their daily 
avocations of field labour and other pursuits. They 
take but one meal a day, and fetire to bed at eight 
o'clock p.m. The brothers number about 
sixty, and have reclaimed a barren heath of 400 
acfes, converting it into a fruitful garden. The 
visitor is shown through the house by one of the 
brothers, and in the garden he will see the cemetery, 
in which a grave is always open to receive him who 
dies next. They are buried without coffins. 

Seven miles from West-Malic is 

Wortel, the pauper colony established by the 
Dutch government in 1822, lying north-east. It 
contains 460 inhabitants. In reference to this 
plaee we find the following in the Commercial 
Statistics: — "It was placed at its foundation under 
the direction of Captain Van den Bosch, brother to 
the General of that name. The eompany at 
Wortel contracted to maintain 1,000 paupers for 
85 florins each per annum. Other paupers were 
afterwards taken. Another pauper settlement was 
undertaken by one person, near Bruges, who also 
agreed with government to maintain 1,000 paupers 
for 35 florins per annum ; but whether from the 
separation of Belgium from Holland, or whether 
from the pauper colonists, chiefly idle vagrants 
sent from Brussels, being of an inferior class: 
certain it is, that the pauper settlements of 
Belgium are far behind the colony of Froniksen 
in prosperity." Merxplcu, a convict station, is 
situated 4 miles beyond this. 

Tumbout (Station). 

Inn: Porte d' Or. 
Population, 17,010. 

Tumhout is on the line from Antwerp, «m» Lierre 
and Herentbals to Tilbury MMi.'S&wtfvsflee«^o«*'"S«*'- ^'^ 

and \AW wtt o\^ cwX\^ cA V\v^X»»^'^'^ ^^^*=«w*- 




[Route 13. 

lierre (Station) ; wc page 8i. 

Herentlial8(Statl01l)-J5ro<«^' DelEmpereur. 
Population,6,010. Thealtarln St. Crispin's church, 
ornamented with elaborate carving (1470), will 
repay a visit. Bail via Gheel to Termonde (page 
13). Gheel l8 in the centre of the Campine, a 
desolate moor. The chief occupation of the greater 
part of the Inhabitants is taking care of the 
lunatics sent here from all parts of Belgium. At 
Gheel there is a pretty church, dedicated to St. 
Dympna, an Irish lady and the daughter of an 

Irish king. 

Fn>ra llcrenthals, a line runs due south, past 
Vestcrloo, across the Ncthc; and 10 miles further, 
across the Dcynze, to 

AersohOt (Station) (on the Antwerp and Maes- 
tricht line), which has a church worth visiting. 

Louvain (see page 65) Is 12 miles by rail from 

The next station of any Importance is Diest. 

Diest (Station), a little to the east {Hotel: Du 
Sauvage) has the old Church of St. Sulplce, with 
the neighbouring Churches of Mont Algu and 
Avenboden Convent. Population, 7,460. 

From Diest to HaBSelt (»ee page 64) Is 121 
miles, and the rail continues to follow the valley 
of the Dcmcr, which It entered at Aerschot, as 
far as Maestrlcht, page 64. 

I^OXJTB 13- 

Namnr to Luxembourg and Treves, by 

tbe Great Luxembourg RaUway, 

in 5 hours, through the Forest of Ardennes. 

Namur, see Route 8. Then 

Nannines, near the village of Vivler l' Agneau. 

Assesses, before reaching the village of Emf ten- 
ues, on the left. Then 

Natoye, and 

Ciney, on a branch of the Meuse, formerly a 
town of the Condrusl, In Roman times. Here a 
line from Hiiy (page 51) comes in. 

Aye, the best station for Makchk, a pretty town, 
in the Famene com district. 
MarlOie, where the direct line fh)m Li<Sge, 
M/aag-the Valley of tbe Ourtbe, falls in. 
^(m0jJe,intheViUleyotthe WMime,»t its con- 

fluence with the Lomme. From here, by omnibus 
(8| miles), to Han-SUT-LeSSO (2 Hotels) ; return 
tickets, 8 f rs. The Grotte de Han Is a remarkable 
series, 2 miles long, of limestone caverns, partly 
traversed by the Lesse, and forming a succession 
of lofty galleries and huge vaults, adorned with 
most beautiful and unique stolat title formations 
of the most fantastic shapes ; collumns, pyramids, 
thrones, cascades, fountains, mysterious and 
sublime in the highest degree. Entrance, 5 frs. 
each for two or more persons. 

[Branch line to Rochefort (Station), 2* miles, 
remarkable as a mined fortress, where Lafayette 
was confined by the Austrians. Very beautiful 
limestone caves. The line goes on to Wanlln.] 

POlX (Station), in Belgian Luxembourg, from 
which It Is 20 minutes run by branch to St. 
Hubert ( Hotel de Luxembourg; population, 2,720), 
a small place In the Forest, with an old Abbty, 
and the Chapel of the patron saint of sportsmen. 

Libramont (Station). Branch to Gouvy, by 

Ba8tOgne,a small town (2,973 inhabitants), with 
an old church. Branch to Bertrlx (sec below). 

Longlier (Stations, near NeufcuAtrau, asmall 
town on a branch of the Scmoy or Semols. 

At Marbehan, a branch goes off to Poncelle, 

Vlrton, and Lamorteau, on the Montmcdy an I 
Ecouvlcz line. From Vlrton, a. branch goes to 

Izel, FlorenvUle, Bertrix (branch to Qouvy, 

48J miles, see page 75), and Oedinnes, In the 
Forest of Ardennes, near the French frontier. 
FlorenvUle Is the station for the extensive ruins 
of Orval Abbey, founded In 1124. 

ArlOn (Station). Hotels: Du Nord; Europe. 

The small capital (7,914 inhabitants) of the 
Belgian part of the province of Luxembourg, 
1,250 feet above sea, and surmised to be the Oro?au- 
num of the Romans. Rail to Longuyon, past AthUS, 
where there is a connection with the Prince Henry 
line from Petange and Escb (towards Mctz); and 
from which the new line (called the Meuse line) 
works round, via SigneulX. to Vlrton, for Floren- 
vUle, &c., as above. At Esch a connection is opened 

with Deutsch Otb (Station). Redlngen (Sta- 
tion), Ac, on the Alsace-Lorraine lines. 
At Bettingen (Station) is the German douaiie. 
I ExamVnatto\\a\li\\Ttwa\»\«\E. 

Boute 13.] 



LUXEMBOURG (Station). 

Hotels: Grand Hotel Brasseur, first-class Hotel, 
replete with every modem comfort, exceptionally 
situated near the Park. English spoken. See 
Advt. Do Cologne, in the centre of the town, 
an old house, affording good accommodation. 
Hotel de I'Europc. 

The town, not less singrularly than picturesquely 
■ situated, is the capital of the independent duchy of 
the same name, and contains 18,187 inhabitants. 
Of the public buildings, the irost noteworthy is 
the old Hotel du Qouvemoment, which dates from 
1 143, and was then the Hotel de Ville. 

It is divided into the upper and lower towns, the 
former being connected only on the west with the 
neighbouring country, with a descent 200 feet deep 
on the other sides. Its valley, which will well 
repay a walk, is enclosed by bold and rugged rocks 
of lofty dimensions, and watered by the streams 
of Alzette and Peltrusbach. The lower town is 
full of active industry, and has a great number 
of mills and dycworks. A projecting rock, known 
as Le Bouc, divides it into two quarters, which 
communicate with the upper town by means of 
zig-zag streets and flights of steps. A broken 
fragment, with two gate way p, forms the sole 
remaining memorial of the palace of Peter Ernest 
of Mansfeldt, the Spanish Stadtholder. A fine 
and striking view of the town may be obtained 
from the road to Treves, and this is decidedly the 
best point if the traveller desires to carry away 
a. characteristic remembrance of this singularly 
huilt and situated town. The fortifications 
were successively added to and strengthened by 
various towers until it was considered to be the 
strongest defence in Europe, after Gibraltar. 
According to a Decree emanating from a Con- 
ference of the Great Powers, held in London, 
(May, 1867), the Foi*ts were dismantled, the 
whole of the Prussian garrison withdrawn, and 
the Duchy is now neutral territory under the con- 
trol of the Grand Duke of Nassau. The Fosse is 
now filled up; a fine park occupies the site of the 
fortifications; and new buildings are rising up 
outside at the best points of view. 

On entering the gate of the city, the passport may 

which, on the following day, at the Polixei, the 
passport is returned. If, however, the traveller 
wishes to proceed on his journey the same day, 
his passport may also be obtained. 

Excursion on Whit-Tuesday to BohteTliacIl 
(page 137), which has a church of the 13th century, 
originally founded in the 11th. 

Rail to Diekirch and Si>a, to Thionville and 
Treves, crossing the ravines by good viaducts. 

Our line to Treves passes through a hilly 
country, to 

Oetringen (Station), or (Elrangt, on the Sire. 

Then Roodt (Station) and Weaker (Station), 

near Grkvbnmachern, where the line reaches the 
Moselle, and follows its left bank, through scenery 
of attractive beauty, until our arrival at Treves. 


At Wasserbillig (Station) we cross the bridge 
spanning the Sire, and arrive at the Prussian 
frontier and custom-house, where the examination 
of baggage, &c., a rigid but polite one, takes 
place. Igel is the next station, where is visible 
from the line the /$r«/, a curious Roman monu- 
ment. The Tillage is a small one, and has, 
standing in its midst, a magnificent Roman struc- 
ture, known as the monument of Igel. It is a 
quadrangular Obelisk^ 75 feet high, ornamented 
with inscriptions, carvings, ongrravings, (fee, but 
so mutilated as to render the discovery of its 
origin or designation all but impossible. Many, 
indeed, have been the explanations g^ven of it, as 
many, probably, as the number of antiquarians, 
who exhausted all their lore In endeavours to 
decipher its hieroglyphics. Some claim it as a 
commemoration of Constantine's marriage with 
Helena, others would ascribe its erection to record 
the birth of Caligula, and others consider it an 
allusion to the apotheosis of some imperial family. 
However, speculation seems to be merged in the 
plain fact that it was erected by two brothers 
called Secundinus, for a twofold purpose; that is, 
to commemorate a marriage of their sister, and be 
a mounting memorial for the memory of their 
deceased relatives. Its style of architecture would 
denote it as belongitv^ \ft n>&r. ^««c*^»s!^^is^s6. «*- 

be demanded, and must be given up. A receipt or \ *«^ w^^v...^...., -^ ^ 

certificate (ScfaeJ/i; i3 ^ire/i on the product'iuu of \ ^ou\d ttVV^w, v«<yc«i ^vvr}v\«& ^xv^ V*^*^ ^ 



[Route 14. 

who ooonpied several po^ts under the Boman 
Government, some of which may be denoted by the 
mythological devices on the monument. 

Eartliaus (Station). Hero the line crosses > 
the Moselle, luid the Saarforiick line, in the valley 
of the Sarre. 

Lbwenbriicken (Station). UmUefrom 

Tri¥9B (Station), see Route 36. 

Mono to Blanaste. 

Mons (Station), as in Route 7. 

The railway starts from the (Jovemment Station, 
where it joins the line from Brussels to the frontier 
of France. 

Nimy (Station), near a small villafire containing 
a population of 2,000 souls. It is remarkable for 
an earthenware manufactory, that at one time 
employed three hundred men, which number has 
fallen below fifty since the introduction of Enj^Iish 
potteries. The ware made at Nimy is composed 
of clay and silex, and is susceptible of receiving 
the most graceful forms, and has the advantage, 
from Its cheapness, of being within the reach of 
all classes of purchasers. Nimy, through which 
the high road from Mons to Brussels passes, is 
much frequented during the fine season, and is 
cotisldered a pleasant residence. 

ObOUrg (Station) is if league from Mons, at 
the confluence of the Haine and Aubechuelle, sur- 
rounded by pasture land and meadows, from 
which it derives its chief riches. It contains a 
population of 4,000 inhabitants. The line of wood 
which bounds the horizon on the left, beyond 
Obourg, contains the old Castle of Roeult, one of 
the most remarkable in Belgium. It is built on a 
hill, sloped by a magnificent park, spreading from 
grove to grove and lawn to lawn, with incom- 
parable grace. 

Havre (Station), near Harre-raie, which is 
situated in the vicinity of Obourg, and possesses a 
Gothic castle, built in 1603. It is seen to the right 
of the railway, in the midst of a park. The wood 
of Havre and the castle of the Duke of Croy are 
favourite country walks with the inhabitants of 

Snuvne^mieB (Station). The place is a mere 
^*v>maaeaejrofstraepy, rfJJMge of the canton of Rao- 

cruix, situated three lea^aes east of Mcms. Near 
Bracquegnies the railway, after repeatedly passing 
the Haine, croMos it for the last time. From this 
place onwards, the soil, less level, is diversified by 
several hills, between which lie narrow valleys. 
On the right and left of the road are numerous 
coal works, established in carboniferous strata 
connected with the basin of the east of Mons. 

BoiS-dU-LuC (Station), the great coal works 
of that name, consisting of five pits. The col- 
lieries of La Pair, on the territory of the parish 
of St. Vaast forms the sixth intermediate station. 
These coal pits present a most picturesque aspect, 
situated in a woody hollow, penetrated in a 
graceful curve by a road, which disappears in 
the shade. 

La LOUVltoe (Station), the last stop between 
Mons and Manage, is the principal station on the 
line. It is one of the most important coal districts 
in the territory of St. Vaast, where the new quays 
have been established along the branch of the canal 
from Charleroi to Brussels. At this station the 
Branch Rail towards L' Olive and Bascoup begins. 
Between La Louvi^re and L'Olive there are five 

stations, Houiseau, Beaumo, La Verrl^, 

St. AdOlphe, and Uanemont. This branch 
traverses the centre of the richest coal region. 
The tourist will do well to visit this vast work- 
shop, which employs a numerous and intelligent 
population. The country besides offers more than 
one site worthy of attention. One view in par- 
ticular, of the most charming chai'acter, is to be 
found at Mariemont^ where the magnificent 
residence of M. Warocque contrasts in its 
modem luxury with the highly picturesque 
ruins of the residence of the Archdukes of Austria, 

Leaving the station of La Louvi^re the main line 
crosses the branches of the Charleroi canal, on a 
fixed and a swing bridg^. Numerous industrial 
establishments continue to appear on both sides of 
the railway, which passes through a well culti- 
vated country, with some orchards, whose aspect 
relieves the monotony of the landscape. Finally, 
on the high road from Nivelles to Mons, the rail- 
way enters the station at Manage, which it shares 
in commoti wVOa \.Yi«» ^^s^^^sokoX tftil-wsLy. 

Routes 15 and 16.] 

Manage ^Station), a few years ago, was close 
to an insignificant liaailet, forming a part of the 
village of Leneffe. The place is now daily rising in 
importance since the building of the Government 
and Namur and Li^ge railway stations there. Rail 
to Braine-le-Comte, Charleroi, and Nivelles,toward8 
Brussels and Louvain, see page 40 

Cbarleroi to Morialm^ and Givet. 

Between Charleroi and Marchienne-au-Pont, 
this railway turns off from the Brussels and Namur 
line, and phases through a district rich in minerals, 
and having an extensive trade in iron, coke, 
and coal. It strikes the valleys of the Sambre 
and Meuse a few miles above Givet, and likewise 
at Charleroi and M^ziferes. Starting from the 
government station at Charleroi, the train passes 

La Sambre, Montlgny-le-lllleta, Bomer^e, 

Jamioulx, Ham-sur-Heure, and arrives at 

Berz^e, where a branch railway leads by Thyle- 
Ch&teau to Laneffe. Another short branch to 


Thence 2 miles to WalCOUrt, where there is 
again a branch to Yves, where one line runs off 

to Morialme, while others proceed to Florenne 
and Philippeyille. 

The Charleroi-Vireux line Is continued from 
Walcourt to MarlembOUrg, 'vWience it is 10 miles 
(across the frontier) to Vireuz, which is close to 

At Mariembonrg, there is a short branch 
(4 miles) to OOUVin. 

For Oivet see next page. 

Namur to Dinant and Givet, up the Meuse, 

in li hour. 

Namur (Station), as in Route 8. 

Though the Meuse above Namur is less visited, 
it is not less interestingly attractive there than 
below it. Escarpments of limestone, magnificent 
in their lofty outline and bold projecting heights, 
hem in the river as it flows gently along its pebbly 
bed, the entire landscape forming a tout ensemble 
leaembling the vales of Derbyshire. At Dinant 
the road crosses the river by a stone bridge, and 
at Yvoir, 4 miles below, are some intermittent 



at Yvoir, 4 miles below, are some intermittent \ pTovo\L%^ \.o X\v\^ <s.tnss^ wA. \s^ '^^^ ^^\v*Sis«^ 
tptinga, rising and siakiag regnlarly, every seven \ to^oiap^io^'^^ ^-^ ^'^^ *'^^'*^°^'^'^'^ 

minutes. Passing several picturesque villas and 
chateaux we perceive, about 3 miles below Dinant, 
the ruins of the Castle of Poilvachc. taken and des- 
troyed, by Bishop Jean de Heynsberg. 

To the left, on the summit of a rock, half a mile 
before reaching Dinant, is seen the ruined Castle or 
Bouvignes or Crhjecoeur. A thrilling tale of female 
heroism is connected with the history of this 
castle, and tradition does not fall to perpetuate 
and hand it down to each succeeding generation. 
The French, under the Duke de Nevera, besieged 
this castle In 1554, and three beautiful women, 
with their husbands, took refuge in the tower of 
CrfevecoBur, designing to aid the garrison by their 
succoiu" and presence. The besieged were all 
slain save the three females, who. rather than 
submit to the brutality of their conquerors, threw 
themselves from the top of the battlemenU, and 
were dashed into atoms on the rocks beneath. 

Dinant (Station). 

Hotels: T6te D'Or, good and reasonable; recom- 
mended, good trout fishing. 

Des Postes. 

Population, 6,773. It Is situated in a romantic 
position at the base of limestone cliffs, with the 
citadel and church crowning their summits. 

The Bouvlgnese and people of Dinant were 
rivals in the manufacture of copper, and from this 
arose a hostile animus on both sides, which led to 
the most cruel and sanguinary encounters. The 
two parties fought constantly against each other. 
The castles of Crfevecoeur and Montorgueil were 
built, the former by the Bouvlgnese, and the latter 
by the Dhiantese, for the purpose of mutual 
annoyance. In 1467 Dinant was besieged by Philip 
the Good, with an army of 30,000 men. On being 
summoned to surrender, they hung the mes- 
sengers sent with the terms of capitulation, which 
so enraged the duke that, on the town being forced 
to surrender, he gave it up to pillage for three 
days, and then burned it to the ground, ordering 
eight hundred of the inhabitants, bound two and 
two, to be thrown into the Meuse. The town was 
rebuilt by his son, Charles the Bold, but was again 
pillaged and sacked, in 1554^ b^ i\Na'^x^'^^a^."«»s^'«^ ^ 
the DuVie Cifc ^«v«^, -w\s», V«!wc^ "^"^^^^ 
pT0VO\L%«i\,oX\v\^«imfe\^^>^^^'^'^r^^ '^^^ 



[Route 17. 

replied that if the King of France and the Duke 
fell into their hands they woald roast their hearts 
and livers for breakfast. The treaty of Ryswick 
gare Dinant to the Prince-Bishop. Attacked and 
taken during the first French revolution, it be- 
came the chief town of a French department, and 
so remained nntil 1813, when it was retaken by 
the allies, and definitely joined to the royalty of 
the Netherlands, together with the ancient dis- 
trict of Li^ge. 

The church of Notre Dame is a massive struc- 
ture, of a cruciform shape, built in the Gothic 
style. It contains nothing particularly interesting, 
and is only remarkable for its portal and a tower 
210 feet high. 

ExcwHons from Dhiant to the Grotto of Han- 
sur-Lease (see page 60), Castle of Montaigle, the 
finest ruin of the kind in Belgium, and to Ch&teau 
do Wabzins. 

Above Dinant the line leads us through a 
species of natural portal, abruptly terminated by 
a wall of rock shot out from the precipitous 
cliffs on the left, and on the right by the Roche 
k Bayard, an isolated mass of rock; close by here 
quarries of black marble are to be found; also 
immediately above is the pretty little town of 
Anseremme. The valley is very picturesque, and 
well deserves to be explored. This is best done 
on foot. At this spot, the Lesse falls into the 

Three miles above Dinaat is the Chdteau of Freyer^ 
situated at the base of iuxuriantiy-clothed hills, 
on the left bank of the river. It is a country seat 
of the Duchess of Beaufort-Fontin, and has 
within its grounds a beautiful grotto. Opposite 
here the scenery is very picturesque. Forms and 
outlines of the most singular caste and character 
are shadowed forth by the broken masses of lime- 
stone, rising like so many giants out of the Meu^e. 
As far as Flamignoul the scenery partakes of 
quite a romantic aspect. Close by is Heer, a red 
marble quarry. The road is enlivened by chaste 
and beautiful scener}*. 

Rail to Mettet and Taraines (page 51). 

The Stations of Hastl^re (rail to Mariem- 

MfOiUTgr, whence there is a short branch to Couvin, 
^Aen farther to Cbimay tuid Anor) nnd AtiOlOlLt 
^fv/meaedf then comes 

Givet (Station). 

Inn: — Le Mont d'Or. 

A small but prettily situated town, on the right 
bank of the Mease, opiK>site Charlemont, with 
which it is connected by a bridge. Here is the 
French donane. Both places belong to France. 
Givet hfts a population of about 6,972, and is a 
fortress. The fortifications of Charlemont stand 
on the left bank, on a . rock of limestone. There 
is a statue to M^ul, the composer. Rail to 
Mdzi^res, Maricmbonrg, Morlalmd, Charlcroi, 4cc. 


Landen to St Trond, Hasselt, Maastricht, 
and Aix-la-Chapelle. 

Leaving Landen (Station)— Route 1 8— the rail- 
road passes Attenhoven^ a commune of 700 inhabi- 
tants, and soon after leaves the province of Li^ge, 
and enters that of Limburg, and shortly arrives at 

Velm (Station), in a commune of Limburg, in 
the district of Hasselt, crossed by a Roman cause- 

St. Trond (Station), near the chief place of 
canton of the district of Hasselt, in the province of 
Limburg. There are several fine old Churches, 
the best is in a vast square ; in which is also the 
Town Hall, worthy of notice. Population, 12,000. 
Rail hence to Tongres (page 68) to the east, and 
to Tirlemont (pag»67) to the west. 

Cortenbosch (Station) and AUcen (Station) 

followed by 

Hasselt (Station). Hotels: DeLimbourg; do 
Bois-le-Duc. Capital of Belgian Limbourg. Popu- 
lation, 13,250. Its two good Churches, containing 
many pictures and good carving, are worth 
visiting. A rail to Utrecht and Amsterdam via 
Eindhoven, Boxtel, and Bois-lc-Duc. Past several 
unimportant places to 

Maastricht (Station), in Holland. Population, 

Hotel*: Du Casque; Du Levrier (Greyhound). 

The capital of Dutch Limburg, on the Mouse, 
Maas, or Maes, from which, and the old Roman 
ferry, or tr<:yectum, it derives its name. It has a 
strong fortress (taken after a long siege by the 
Spaniards 1579) and a six-arch bridge tothe suburb 
of Wyck.The Town Hall (1664X in the Market Place, 
I l\a9 plcltiTfts axvA «ooA \,«c^?\t^ . 't>^«^ Ci^\\fttsiete 

Uoute 18.] - 


n ISO lent liigh. The 

hero Keenuwa. FaqusmoBt, 
Fauq«tmu,l,) li>Alx-l»-Chap«llB,and 
OolOtns, Bs an figea IS lo 81. 

f-OXJTB 18- 

■o Cologne, by Lonvaln, U^ 

and Ais-la ChEpeiie. 

(Btatlon), see Ra 

Rub Nfu 


hllMB thai Napoleon Xgned Ibe celebrated de- 

raiihig through Cortenberg, Veltbsm, 

■mlion of war 8r«in>l BuiiU. Tho pbIbco Is 

Harsnt. The icenery li tboroneWy Dotcli 

OH the proptrty at the crown, and faTourHere.i- 

LOUVAIH (BtaUoW; L«nm. In Fie 

ence o[ Ibe Roysl Faniils' (sec page 10). 

ii«™. in Gennan. Populallon (1890), 40,8)6 

Holfli: He Subde. good; de laCourdeHon 

ne [o M^liiei divereei. Neil Mrglifni, anrl Ihcn 


Raidnl ETii^Uh ria-(miul. 

comTniuiB ol the dittrlct of Brq..eli, wdlh 1,?0I> 

A large, Irregnlarly-hBlll town, of a eir 

.h.bltanl.. The Chml, wUI well repay a .Isll 

Facing Ibe etallon i> a pedestal Slalne of V 

Janln on hl> hone, givlnf a ponlon of hn cloak 

oncowred by ibe Kinir, JS:fl. 

o a poor man. The blilory of thi> painting 1. 

Vandyck, rjn hb wajr to bid farewell to hli 
IHnaltlone mailer, pttrhnu to bia departnra Eor ' 
Home was monnlHi oa a iniHrb bone, a, gld 

oflbeblstory Q(*.fe*'^^jt*«ft»^'Atf*"^*»^^'** 
the EmvttOT kiw.\i,Vn wlw ^^a \iP*-«*--c>. 


• [Route 18. 


on( 1 

aprojurly cull* 

Chaiwu c«M 



). Th 


1 t1i« 

Henry, ttae flr. 



sill. IT 


U the e 






d W. Qu 



ce sf abode o[ th 



during ht 

youlh. The ruin 


g. Till tho ye.. 



«pi, under Genor* 

il proihicUana ot LoutiIu 
□ the Ball-worlif. (ugnr refine: 

f Duke Wencealau 

and M rapidly did (b 
ounln preKnled all 

iboTe 300,000 burels of malt liquor. 

The IKld de Tille It one ol tie mojt perf«l 
ipeclmena of Ijiler Ootblc ucbltoelDTO eituit, 
mdfbe Innumenble cBrredB^um irblcb mdcl 


pilnllngg by Verbaegen, imd the CoDtloEnra of 
Sclpio, by Loci Giordano ; and in tbe Qnnd Saloon 
is a collection CDniprlalng the ResuTTOction, by 
RulKni; JenuB, Miry, and JoHpIt, by Crayar{ and 
a portrait of Llpilui, by Vanilyck. 

The Calludral CInirch of St. Ptter wu built 
aboDttbc year 1010, and replaced by the preaent 
building, a beautiful edifice. Id 1490. Ttili had ■ 
ipire of Ibe Iieight of eS3 feet, conildend by ttaa 
people of Looeabi ai tlie eicbtb wonder of tb* 
Torid: bat, unfortouaUly. tbli bold and iDfUy 
admired Bpecbnen of iteeplt building vai ienUail 
with tiae (roond. by a rlolent atom of irind, In 
leOl. Tiie Interior of thli chnioli eontalna mneh 
(0 attract tba attention. paHlcaUrly * Sne alla- 
gorical lubjecc, rapreaenilng Faith. Hopa, and 
Charity, by Crayer. wliich ii io lbs Chapel of 


ona piece, la by Ooamaua, and the Iron lu 
QuBiittn Uatiyi. 
Tba Crnelfixion. by Vandj'Ch, wbicb ad< 

Intradnelion of a numtwr of fvlnged boye. ' 

ought 11 

U Yojamei, and the nnlrorsitj 
1 beUuial garden and a (olerably 
to ofimilngy Mad ffljneniiojy. ' 


Bontt, tbouib long Muly Xtrlbnfid to Mem- 
ling, ibosld also b* Mtloed ; u nil ■• tli« auublo 
ilUrl or tbe Cbapela tt tbs SicnnuDt and the , 
Virgin Muy ; Ibe liMter wu detipifld by Enbani. 
Tbe Mk rulfiU nil bronght lo Ihli church 

OTCn, nesr Bnig>el>. It la the oark of Ber^^. 
In itia, and by some eonaldered one of Ihe flnetl 
■peclmeDa of caned wood In Btlginm, and li 
richly acolplnrsd. The Convereion of St. Panl i 
occnrdei (he loiret part, and round 11 are a I 

iDilUtloDi 0« irnnfcs and leaves of Ireai. The ; 
Communion Railing, by Alexander Tan Papen- 
boien (date 1709), Is an eaquiilto produclion. wltb 
itifTvupa of angelB and cberablm playing among 

are among the beat In Belgium, were long fil»ly 
atttlbntcd to John Goittows, but were really mode 
by John Crlmon, of Mona. in 1*6«. 

y IV., 

J of Brnbant, 
■ amalUhapel. 


■ettcd In her honour; and there, to the admira- 
tion of tbe lillhful. may the wooden pitcher in 
which abe foMhed wins to ttala day be lecn 

The churthet ol St. Michael, St, Anthony, nnrl 

' cellulj 

e Dies 

The IWer of JiHumiit, In vhleb he 1> luppoiMI 
bare written " Angnitlnni," bit great work on 
]raee and Freewill, and the honae of I.lpslue 

, eipccially that called Bt. Oearge's Garden, 

Wage li bandiomely built. The Penitentiary 
9 largest lolltary prison In Belgiam. 

li; It communicates with Uechlhi by a ciDal, 

of 2 posts or Id milei In length, by which 
Jin tbe high road leadbig from Bmiscla to 

t Lonraln, is held annaally. beginnhig the Hrat 
Innday inSeplomber. tt seems to be a healthy place. 
1 It appears, on Ihe authoHty of Dr. GranTllle 
rol. I,p. 7«), that the martallt; aa to the nomber 
if blilhi ia in the proportion of all lo eight. 
LOHTaln to Idiga.— After leanng LonTaln the 
Abbey of Fareq (1131) iapassei 



TerbTOk {BU- 

Tlrlemont (Station), or nuntn, in Hcmish. 
Hottlt: Du Nonrean Monde; deFlandre, 
There la a good Bnllel at the Suiiun.— The chief 
place of a canton of the dlatrlot of Louvain, In the 
province of Brabant, la Hltoated on the great Gette, 
nblcb traveraei 11. From 11a alie Tirlemont waa 
jrobably onco very populous 1 iJisijimkio. -wsb^*. 

mi dtitrTct * lint, 
inpitilof TJrlemanl.iu 

tb« ma^Lflnnt by tta« nUnnJ. 

i AvtndbodHi conicnt o 
lei e«i to 8t. Trond u 

lUnhal Luxemburg. IBM. 

Landen [StaUan), in tbe aaml 
Lwidsn, nnFMel the p^4M lo CI 
fsnndar gf Ibc no ot Chulgiiil«i» 

I dBluud by 
J at Pepin of 

"' irllb the bleb atee[4e," Ibongb th( 
'' I cbunb by no nyue jueUflee t 

Fopnlulon, «SD. Tbe nul Endnnlly rliei to Au 
'" I (SUltiOll), Ibe one next lo Uigt. am tbe 

"> Intenil >t Am. Ithu«,e7« Inbxbltuti. 

"^ I On Appnuchlnff Ll^ge the tnTolTer tbould ob- 

"' Tbe wbola city a1 liigB, witb lU domee, lie In- 
'^ I nuinerabla miuurutfliiBi. *nd iti pelwu, exlended 

1 Ughl. 

UBOE (Btatloni-FiciE 

Tbe Linri™ ind CtnoJ Rail It c 

HUT (pege H). HodaTB (p«e< m: 

udOlnay, "d is nowconllnoed 
the Luxembourg line (page M). 

ipeni^BT&lTM, ' 

Hon) 11 !«««• Uigt «gllln, »i 
fleet, il reichej 
Vitremma (Station), i >i 

, lette: Ormnd 
I There ii m 
I dletwil [nun 

Pen imd Tcltfrnph Office —Hue de Y 

PoruLiTION (1890), U7.880. 

Ll^ge, the upitt] of tbe encknt pT 

1 mile. 
U rnnn the 

nclpillIT or 

ii Aoaons CBt»- i Large uid fine city, iyinj In 


heOnrlhc, tbcVendr 
til. Th* city l« intd I 

ei<t inbabitmti o[ Ll^i 
ii.C»«r in Belgium. 
If Li*ge were 

if Lliige 

Ronte le.] TO DeLoitM a 

I he Boar of Ardennct. and (be IniDrgtnt cltlisni, 

'rebtlZ'! |«nlc.wllhlnth.wwn: lh.ngli 

nglinent of Uigt; lIMl, 

e Kins ot Fru 
■blMd. nUl be I 

Fcnsiofwhlctanrclatd In Ll€g:<i. We ma" l9 generall)' prlird in Fninio abci 

dure of the dDthlc order, co 
iihg:ci of shoTifi. The Bedo 

charter. Hcsrlus. in Ihi 
londpiivllegeiof Iho c 

r the Vlr^i, <w 

bad fall epldcopal revenue, and the 

their feei. About :00 men (onned 

1)10 peine", but tbe luhahltauli, vllb a deilre for [ i 

mlUlarj- glorj-. fnjrinBnlly enrased In foielpi ' SI. \«'rt«>tK.»»^ *'*™'™' 

•rrriee. and ditplayed lielr omrage In Auitrta, ' ui enineM*-, aiA '"''^^ 



[Route 18. 

Cathidrai.—The Church of St. Paul is now the 
Cathedral; and by the architectural grandeur of 
its exterior, and the exquisite arrangements of its 
interior ornaments, well deserves the distinction. 
The style is generally that of the pointed arch of 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, with 
massive columns below, and light pilasters 
above. The choir, the most ancient part, 
which is closed by two elegant brass doors, 
is very beautiful ; and the great altar is enriched 
by six solid silver candlesticks of great 
size. The painted windows and roof also deserve 
attention. The pulpit, by Geefs, is a remarkable 
item in the list of attractions. 

Its principal pictures are the altar-piece ; the As- 
sumption, by Lairesse; a Descent from the Cross, 
by some attributed to Bubens, but more probably 
done by one of his pupils ; the Plague at Milan, 
with two other pictures, by Bertholet ; and Four 
Fathers of the Church, by Quellin. There is also 
a fine sculptured figure of our Saviour, by Delconr. 

The ancient Cathedral Church of St. Lambert, 
founded 712, and destroyed during the revolution 
in 17i^4, was a vast building, at once the 
ornament and pride of the city, of which not 
a vestige now remains. The dignitaries of the 
chapter were the Prince-bishop, the Grand Provost 
and Archdeacon of the City, the Great Dean, head 
of the chapter. The canons, who were named 
trcfonciers, and were all nobles or licentiates in 
theology or law, enjoyed the right of nominating 
the bishop, who was a suffragan of the archbishopric 
of Cologne. St. Mateme was the first bishop of 
St. Lambert, and the Prince of M^n, late arch- 
bishop of Malines, the ninetieth and last. The site 
of this building now forms a handsome square, 
the Place St. Lambert. In the church of St. John 
the Eoangeliit are several modem pictures, and a 
number of images of the Virgin, dressed in the 
most gaudy and ludicrous maimer. 

The Church of St. Jacques is deservedly con- 
sidered as the wonder of Lldge, indeed few build- 
ings combine grandeur and elegance in greater 
perfection. This masterpiece of architecture, pre- 
senting specimens of all styles from 1100 to the 
^eoajssance, has a portal planned by Lambert 
^Mtbmrd. The org^Ma Mnd choir will interest every 
'^/'/tor. The cbfuvb W9S ortginidl^ built fa 1014. 

It has much fine sculpture in wood, and an admir- 
able nave. The gradual rise to the sanctuary is 
very imposing. The fret-work and trellis-work of 
chiselled stone is fantastically beautiful, especially 
about the ceilhig, and presents a resemblance to 
the Ste. Chapelle at Paris. 

St. Martin.— This church, founded in 902, 
destroyed in 1302, and rebuilt in 1642, is noted as 
the first church in which the festival of Corpus 
Christl was celebrated. The fine church of the 
Carmelites, formerly a ChAteau, should be seen; 
the front, the most remarkable in Li^ge, has two 
lions in stone, sculptured by the celebrated Del- 
cour. The other churches deservbig of notice are 
St. Jean, St. Denis, Ste. Croix, St. Barthelfemy, 
and St. Veroniquo. All are usually closed between 
12 and 2. 

Promenade :— The Boulevard de la Saureni^re. 

Citadel.— The traveller should ascend to the sum- 
mit in order to enjoy the magnificent panorama of 
the town and suburbs presented to him. Outsldethe 
city are the remains of St. Julian's Convent^ in which 
was buried Sir John Mandoville, the traveller. 

The other public buildings deserving mention 
are the Place-aux-Cheveaux, erected in 1821 ; the 
barracks, the hospital; the cannon-foundry, estab- 
lished by Napoleon at an expense of nearly half a 
million sterling, and the University founded in 1817 
by the late King of the Netherlands. It contaiJis 
a library of two hundred thousand volumes, and 
several good collections, amongst others an ex- 
ceedingly interesting JUus^e Archeoloffique, fossili, 
bones, remains of prehistoric races, skulls, Ac, 
found nt Chokier, Engls, Ac. Open Sunday!. 
The Botanical Garden contains a great number of 
rare plants. There are about fonrtccn hundred 
students educated, at a very moderate expense, 
by fifty professors, who also give gratuitous 
evening lectures, to the working classes, on arith- 
metic, elementary algebra, practical geometry, 
architecture, linear- drawing, mechanics, and 
chemistry as applied to arts and manufactures. 

Li^ge is the seat of a superior court, whose 
jurisdiction extends over the provinces of Litfge, 
Namur, Limburg, and Luxemburg; and pos- 
sesses a Soci^ttf de Libre Emulation, a free compo- 
tltloii school, to\xTi^^^\sv\TOV^ ^V8*k«\j Vetbnicb, 

Route 18.] 



a school of arts and manufactures, a museum 
of natural history and philosophy, a botanic 
garden, (all these connected with the University), 
a society for the cultivation of French literature ; 
the last, a highly beneficial institution, as the 
lower classes of the inhabitants speak the Walloon 
or provincial dialect, which is alike unintelligible 
to Flemings and Frenchmen. There is a good 
Jardin d'Acclimatation, with animals. The fine 
panorama of the town and suiTOunding country from 
the Fort dc la Chartreuse should not be left un- 
observed. Many of the caves in the neighbourhood 
have been explored by Dr. Schmerling. 

A considerable trade in coal, which abounds in 
the neighbourhood, extending its veins even under 
the bed of the Mouse, is carried on, and the various 
objects of exportation consist in the productions 
of the soil and numerous manufactories, viz., iron, 
marble, lime, brimstone, alum, tobacco, g^ain, colza, 
hops, nails, pottery, glass, paper, soap, perfumery, 
leather, steel, hardware, hats, arms of all kinds, 
worsted, cloth, kerseymere, gauzes, optical, mathe- 
matical, and surgical instruments, articles in horn, 
gtraw-hats, machinery, files, barometers, copperas. 

There are also in the town, a manufactory of Fire- 
arms and a Cannon-foundry (already referred to) 
and the 9oc\4t6 de St. L^onard,for the manufacture 
of machinery, locomotives, &c. The arms, of 
good quality, being made at the workmen's homes, 
are dear as compared with English and American 
production. Cast-iron printing presses, and all kinds 
of steam-engines are manufactured in the greatest 
perfection at Liege, particularly at the establish- 
ment of Mr. Cockerill, at Seraing, a suburb of 
Li^ge, before-mentioned (see Route 9), which con- 
stantly employs many thousand men. It may be 
reached by omnibus, steamer, or rail. 

Among the celebrated men to whom Li^ge has 
given birth, are Gaspard Lair^ne, sumamcd the 
Dutch Raphael, author of a treatise on painting ; 
the ingenious Rcnchin, who constructed the great 
machine at Marly, near Versailles ; the jurisconsul 
M€an ; and Gr^try, whose Richard Cosnr de Lion 
alone sufiices to secure him immortal fame. The 
Place Gr6try is oniamented with a bust, by Geefs, 
of that eminent coh^wmt, horn 174], and who d\td 
at Montmorenrj In 1818. 

From Li^ge a line is open to Tongres (page 68) 
and Jfunsttrbihen, to meet the line from Hasselt 
to Maestricht. To Spa, vid Pcpinster, seo next 

Ll^ge to Vervlerfl.— This is one of the most in- 
teresting sections of the Belgian railways, where 
considerable difiicultics have, at great cost, been 
overcome. Quitting Glllllemins (Station), a 
most remarkable structure is shortly arrived at ; 
it is the beautiful Bridge of Val-Benott, a master- 
piece of architecture. There are five oval 
arches, sunnountcd by a parapet composed of iron 
balustrades and square pillars, dividing the rows of 
rails. The railroad passes on one side, and inferior 
conveyances on the other, over a pavement. 
There is also a road for foot passengers. The 
beautiful cast-iron balustrade is lighted by elegant 
candelabra. After passing the 5Ieuse, a splendid 
panorama is presented to the eye of the delighted 
traveller. On the left is Ll^ge, ^^the turbulent 
city." Nothing can be prettier than the valley 
of the Mcusc — and few scenes are more pleasing 
than the landscape formed by the two banks of 
the river. Passing the junction for Marche on the 
right, we arrive at 

Chdn^e (Station). A manufacturing place, 
situated at the junction of the Ourthe with the 
Vcsdre. A loop line of 25 miles to Vcrviers (page 

75) passes Beyne rstation), Herve (Station), 

on a plateau, and Battlce (Station), with a 

branch to Aubel (Station). 

The main line traverses the beautiful vale of 
the Vesdre. The scenery is interspersed with 
orchards, villas, gardens, rich pasturage, and 
factories, to 

Chaudfontaine (Station), or Chaude Fon- 
taine — i.e. Warm Fountain. 

PoiJulation, 1,752. 

Inn : Hotel des Bains. 

A beautiful village 5 miles distant from Li€ge, 
on the Cologne Railway, delightfully situated 
in the valley of the Vesdre, much frequented 
by travellers on account of its picturesque pro- 
menades and warm mineral Springs (up to 104°), as 
also from its proximity to Spa and VervvK«.- "C^s^ 
season for takiw\^l>a&\i^NJM. ^wsssassc^^-*^^"^'^'^'^ 



[Route 18. 

few hours' reiii ;it th's cliariuing place, and in so 
doing they obviate the expenses incidental to the 
removal of luggage to and from the stations of 
larger towns. Some distance further on, a high 
hill on the left is passed, forming an amphitheatre. 
On certain parts it is destitute of a covering of 
earth, thus exposing to view layers of grecn-tlntcd 
marble, having a fine effect. Between this and 
the station at Pcplnster, a coimtrj', wild and 
beautiful by tarns, is traversed. 

LeTroOZCStation), withan old Castle, where 
gan barrels are bored. Then 

Nessonyauz (Station), near the Chateau do 
Masures, a modern seat. 

Pepinster (Station). Population, 2,600. 

[Railway to Spa, cftstancc 7| miles. Many 
trains dally iJi summer (see Bradshaw's Continental 

The line to Spa proceeds along the valley of the 
Hoegnc, studded with country houses belonging 
to the manufacturers of Verviers. Beyond Is 

ThBUZ (Station), among noted quarries of 
black marble. La Reid (Station), on the pretty 

SPA (Station). Population, 7,110. JIufeJs:— 

De Flandrc, an old-established good house; 
highly recommended. 

J)e TEuropc, opposite the Cascndc; kci-tby Mr. 
Henrard Richard. A very good flrst-class hotel, 
deservedly r.'co:nnicnded. See Advt. 

D'Orange. Urst-class hotel. 

D'York, a very old and first-rate hotel, exceed- 
ingly well situated, and especially known for its 
comfort and good accommodation. 

De Belle Vue, Place Iloynl. First-class hotel, 
highly rccounncnded. 

Britannlque, first-class hotel, very well situated. 

Hotel des Pays Bas, a quiet well-conducted 
house, and reasonable prices. 

Grand Hotel des Bains, Place Royale, near the 
Biths; kept by M. Baas Cognez; Du Midi. 

Du Portugal; Brighton. 

Cafds Restaurant are very numerous : de Paris; 
Casino ; Rociier de Cancalc. Saddle-hon^es, car- 
r/MS'ci, and pojiy-cbaiaoa. The ponies are siirc- 
^<f^fe<faaf,uiffM of Andal^slan blooa, 

There are numerous Lodging-houses. Penslou 
at several of the hotels. 

EnglUh Church Service. 

Presbyterian S-'rvice. 

Tiro Residait English Physiciam. 

Visitors* tax for Cashio, &c. 

Spa is a town in the armndissement of Verviers, 
situated on the little river- Wayai. in a valloy. 
It dates from the vear 1327, when its founder, an 
ironmaster, who purchHsed from the prince-bishop 
of Lidge a quantity of woodland (in which the 
Pouhon spring was discovered), caused the ground 
to be cleared, and reared the first habitations. It 
afterwards became celebrated throughout Europe 
for Its mineral waters, attracting crowds of 
strangers, particularly from England, as well as 
America; and has more than once been honoured 
with the presence of several cro-wned heads, in 
the pursuit of health. 

The town comprises upwards of 500 houses; the 
greater part, tastefully and elegantly furnished, 
assume the name of hotels, and oifer every accom- 
modation to those taking up a temporary abode in 
the place. The principal street is terminated by 
an irregularly-shaped place or square, in the 
centre of which stands a fountain, and near it a 
large public saloon, built in 1820, in remembrance 
of Peter I., the Emperor of Russia, who derived 
great benefit from its waters in 1717, and re-built 
in 1S80. The productions of the neighbourhood 
are not equal to the consumption of the town 
during the period of the influx of strangers; and 
fruit, vegetables, fish, and poultry are conse- 
quently brought from Lidge. The ordinary water 
is excellent, and more pore than might have been 
expected in a spot abounding in mineral springs. 

The principal industry of the inhabitants is 
the fabrication of an infinite variety of articles, 
known as Spa Wure; these articles the best ot 
which ai*e made of the bird's-eye maple, and 
are previously stained grey by immersion in 
the mineral water of the place, arc often elabo- 
rately painted, and are then really works of art; 
the flower painting is exquisite. The great 
improvement which has taken place of late years 
in this iieculiar industry, is mainly owing to the 
foundation of a drawing academy in 1843, whicl) 
hn-H produced vuhyvv vwv q.Xv?^'? «oc\.Vv\,%\ 

Route 18.] 



Mineral Springs. — Of these there are no less 
than seren, without counting a raricty that lose 
themselves in the monntain. The names of the 
inost important are— the Pouhon, the Geronstdre, 
the Saureni^re, the Groesbcck, the two fountains 
of the Tonnelct, and the Barisart. 

The Pouhon is the most celebrated and best fre- 
quented, and the only one from which Spa water 
is taken for the purpose of being sent to foreign 
countries. It rises from the ground in the centre 
of the town, and is supposed to have its source in 
the mountain of argillaceous slate, the base of 
which is veined with oxide of iron. At some 
distance to the west the slate appears slightly mixed 
with silex and alum, and is easily decomposed by 
the atmosphere and rain. The Pouhon is enclosed 
in a handsome building, erected in 18S0; and 
tiiosc drinking the waters find refuge from any 
inclemency of the weather in ,handsome conver- 
sation rooms, covered promenades, and an agree- 
able winter garden. The spring is equal to the 
daily consumption ; it even loses much of its water, 
of which no use is made, and appears more or less 
abundant, and possesses its medicinal qualities in 
a greater or less degree, according to the season of 
the year. Notwithstanding the great number of 
those who drink it, the consumption of the inhabi- 
tants, who make a habitual use of it, and from 800 
to 1,000 pitchers sent daily to foreign countries, the 
diminution in the basin is scarcely perceptible. 
The water is perfectly limpid, but it deposits an 
ochrey or metallic earth, which is daily removed 
from the mouth of the fountain, and gaseous 
bubbles constantly rise from the bottom of the 
spring, bursting with a dull sound on the surface 
of the water, the temperature of which is 60* 
Fahrenheit, or 8* Rdaum., or 10* Cent., and its 
specific gravity 1-00098. It has a ferruginous, 
acidulous taste, without smell, unlesn after the 
longest rains. The Pouhon water contains more 
iron and carbonic acid than any other spring 
known except that of Pynnont. To the former 
quality it is indebted for its medicinal qualities ; 
while from the superabundance of the carbonic 
acid it is capable of being preserved during entire 
years in well-corkcd bottles and pitchers, and for 
Ibis reason is sent in coi|«|derabfe quanUlV«4 lo 

The G&onsth'e is the principal spring after the 
Pouhon, and that of which the g^ea'est use is made. 
It lies about two and a half miles from Spa. half 
way to the mountain, forming a semicircle 
round the town to the south. It comes from a 
solitary grove, near the dwelling-house of the 
keepers, in which is a pretty large saloon, 
whither the water-drinkers resort in bad 
weather. Fijie groups of trees, and alleys with 
agreeable footpaths winding through charming 
meadows, lend their influence to the vicinity, 
and tempt those frequenting this well to indulge 
in the pleasures of the promenade. The mouth 
of the spring is contained in a round basin, covered 
over with a cupola, and connected with the saloon 
by a gallery. Fewer of those bubbles that burst 
on reaching the surface of the water are seen 
here than at the Pouhon, but the most striking 
difference between the two wells is perhaps to 
be found in the disagreeable smell emitted by 
the water of the G^ronstfere. Its taste is decidedly 
ferruginous, but less acidulous than the Pouhon, 
and its temperature 49" Fahrenheit, or 7-o5* Re'auni. 
Specific gravity, 10008. I'ic-nic parties and ffetes 
perpetually enliven the beautiful grounds of the 
Gdronstijre during the season. 

The Sauveniere is situated half a league from 
Spa, in the direction of the Gdronstfere, and on the 
route to Malmddy. The spring, which flows from 
a rock, is covered by a cupola, and connected by 
a gallerj' with an adjoining saloon. On emptying 
the basin it is found to fill itself in twenty minutes. 
Sometimes the water is devoid of smell, and at 
other times it possesses, though in a slighter 
degree, an o'lour like that of the Gdronstfere. Its 
temperature is 495" Fahrenheit, or 7-77* Rdaum. 
Specific gravity, 100075. 

The Groesbeck is in the neighbourhood of the 
Sauvenifere, and like it is covered over. From an 
inscription we leani that the Baron of Groesbcck, 
who recovered his health there in 16.M, erected 
this building out of gratitude. The temperature 
of the water is 49&* Fahrenheit, or 7-77' 
Rdaum. Specific gravity, 1 00073. The position 
of these springs is very picturesque, and 
the gi-ounds attached to them are m. ch admired. 
Adjoining them is a beautiful ravUvc. «»A. ''^^^"f""^ 

fortablc ^%\^\i\V^\«afcvX \% v^s.^ ^'^^^^Iv^Ns^'^ 





[Route 18. 

The Tonneletff which derive their names from 
the ctrcumstftnce of the basin for the reception 
of the water baring at first been formed of a 
tonncau or barrel, arc situated about a quarter of 
an hour's walk from the Sauvenifere. The ground 
is moist and swampy in many places. Among 
other springs that take their rise in this spot, there 
arc two at an inconsiderable distance from each 
other that merit particular attention, on account 
of the difference existing in their constituent parts. 
One of them is covered, and presents a handsome 
portico and columns, while the other, whose 
virtues entitle it to a higher distinction and more 
consideration, has not received a similar mark 
of honour. The latter flows abundantly from a 
schistose rock, and continually gives out a quantity 
of gas, producing an unceasing noise, similar to 
the crackling of flames. The temperature is 7'77*' 
Reaumur, or 49§ ** Fahrenheit, with a specific gravity 
of 1' 00075. When poured into a glass the water 
presents a ciystalline limpidity, and produces a 
quantity of bubbles. Its taste is more agi-eeablo 
and less ferruginous than those above described, 
and it is used as the ordinary drink of the inhabi- 
tants. The smell resembles that of the G^ronst^re, 
but is somewhat loss strong. Both these fountains 
arc remarkable for the quantity of carbonic acid 
they contain, and with which the ground in the 
vicinity seems strongly impregnated; for it is 
given out, not merely with the water, but it is 
even evaporated in the clefts of the rocks bordering 
the springs. 

The Bai'isart is situated at about a mile from 
the town of Spa, lying due south; it is reached 
by a new road opened through a pleasant valley, 
the road being continued on to the G^ronstbre. 
This spring, like all the rest, contains abundance 
of carbonic acid gas. Its flavour is most agreeable, 
and its appearance in the glass is as sparkling as 
the water of the Pouhon. This valuable spring was 
a roadside well, only reputed among the peasantry 
for its vermifuge qualities, until Dr. Cutler's re- 
searches in regard to its other medicinal properties 
led, in 1850, to its almost immediate appreciation 
by the public. The authorities of the place then 
dl/iocted the}r attention to this delicious source, 
^iie mo0t po^erfaJ of all in dyspeptic affections; 
"fproTed fbc nppeartmce of the npot hy an omn- 

mental plantation; enclosed the trell in solid 
masonry, lined within by a cast-iron cylinder, to 
exclude the ingress of the soft springs, and con- 
structed over it a grotto of the boulders scattered 
about the neighbourhood, the whole surmounted 
by a pretty Kiosque. There is a restaurant for the 
accommodation of invalids, so that the Barisart 
is now one of the most frequented of all the springs 
out of the town, as well as one of the prettiest 
objects in the environs of Spa. 

The Chalybeate Waters of Spa are disthiguished 
from those of Germany by the greater quantity 
of carbonic acid gas they contain; with the 
exception of the springs of Pyrmont, there is none 
that can be compared to them in this respect. 
When speaking of waters highly impregnated 
with carbonic acid, the late Dr. Murray, in his 
Materia Medica, says, "They are grateful from 
their pungency, sit light on the stomach, and in a 
large dose produce a sensible degree of exhilara- 
tion ; they increase the appetite, and generally have 
a diuretic effect. They prove useful in dyspeptic 
affections, from the grateful and moderate stimulus 
exerted by the diluent operation of the water; and 
hence the advantage derived from them in the 
numerous chronic affections connected with the 
impaired power of the digestive organs, and par- 
ticularly in simple dyspepsia, in hypochondriasis, 
and gout. They, generally, also contain some saline 
substances, which communicate additional powers ; 
and the operation of these is promoted, or at least 
they arc rendered more grateful, by the carbonic 

The Spa waters are perhaps the most useful in 
nervous and uterine affections, and in disorders of 
the digestive system; in liver complaints from 
long residence in hot climates they are invaluable. 
There is a splendid Ettablissement des Bains. 

The Casino or R^otUe is one of the finest 
establishments of the kind on the Continent. The 
exterior, from its simplicity, would certainly not 
lead the stranger to suspect the richness of its 
interior. Besides a caf d and a billiard room, there 
is an elegant saloon in the style of Louis XV., 
and a smaller one adjoining was added for the games 
of Roulette and Rouge et Koir; which have been 
6uppTCA««d ^Itice 187S. In the largest of these 

"Souto 18.] 

gullery omunentfd witb plcli 

□Hmlona pnpoi-tlonB, In Ihe bee 

bill! tuid fe<es, tba ViDilul] and Sail 
(he; <ir« both iniroimded by beautlfu 
graundi, Steeple Cbisei take place In 

'armod tirlce eTcr>- Sund 

BtaTelOt (Stfttioil), on the Auiblbvi^, con. 
(lining B very old Abbe; Churcb ; popaliUon. l.DOO. 
Trola Ponta (Station), un the Ambiivn and 
Sam. VlBlaalm (Btatlon), the oM .eai ot the 
Salm-Baloi (sjally. BOOTI^IT. Oouvy. 

Trola Tlergei or tUfllngen (Bta.tloii), on ilio 
Woli, over the LuMuibure border. 

Klerf or Olerrwux (fltattonl, w"ii an old 
i ^llwerwllbi and KantenUocIi (Btatltmi), 

Ln lljo fine hilly oountry of the Ardeniips, Ibreaded 

Ettelbriidc (Btatloii), ib 


on (or 

UTlOl (Hotel de. Ardcaneti 



iboolinB), Echtemach (page 


(r<goia4)i and ^o^Albn^Ar 

on. 4s 

Lnzemtmrg (BtaUon), <e 



Shortly Bdcr leaving FmliiHter, 


thD rallrosd shortly OJitcrs a 





.lc», w 

population of 6,494. The stc 

pie of 

tbe cho 

the top of wbloh U very o 


|1 1 e, tr Leaving E 

P«8e th gb long tunnel. 



Vervlen isttttion). Pop 





[Route 18. 

Conveyances.- VLai\yr&y trains to Aix-Ia-Chapelle 
and Cologne ; to JA4ge, Tirlemont, Lourain, &la- 
lines, Brussels, Ghent, Bruges, and Ostend, see 
Bradshaw's Continental Quide. A loop line to Aix- 
Ia-Chapelle, vid Welkenraedt, runs otf at Dolhaln. 

[The only interesting point on this line is at 
Moiiizcn-Muresnct, near vrhich is the neutral 
territory, about 3 square miles, of Moiesnet, ivith 
2,000 population, employed mainly in zinc mining. 
It is guvemcd by a burgomaster and ten council- 
lors, and possesses a standing arn*y and polici.- 
forcc of one gendarme.] 

Dolliain (Station). — Passengers are sometimes 

required to alight here, that it may be ascertained 

that the carriage contains no small luggage. This 

once flourishing town, ruined by Louis XIV., is 

' overlooked by Limbnrg Castle. 

Herbesthal (Station). Here all luggage is 
examined which has not previously been declared 
for transit. The railway is carried over a bridge of 
seventeen arches, 1^0 ft. high in the centre, over 
the valley of the Guile (orGochl), passing through 
two tunnels, the second of which is 2,220 ft. long, 
pierced through a sand hill. 

AIZ-LA-GHAPELLE (Station)— in German, 
Aachen. Hotels: 

Hotel du Grand Monarqae. First-rate in everj- 
respect, a splendid establishment admirably con- 
ducted, large airy rooms. 

Hotel Nucllens : First-rate, airy, and delightful 
situation, facing the Eliza Fountain, with its gar- 
den and its public promenade. 

New Kalserbad, Brunnen — Bains del'Emperenr, 
or Emperor's Bntli — very superior establishment, 
supplied direct from the Mineral Springs. — The 
proiirleior, Mr. Dicmel, is also proprietor of the 
Hotei Grand Mon^rque and the Hotel Nuellens. 

Dnbig-k's old established and excellent family 
Hotel :ind Hotel et Bains de la Rose, opposite the 
Kuraal, belong ng now to J. Ilenrion, new pro- 

Hotel zur Kaiserlichcn Krone (Imperial Crown 
Hotel).— 34 and 36, Alexander Street. Close to 
the Kurhaus. 

Hotel du Dragon d'Or, close to the Kursaal and 
principal Bath Houses; prices reasonable. 

Hoycr's Union Hotel, close to the rail M*ay sta- 
tion. Recommended for its cleanliness. 

ffotcl du Nord, <vy7ajr//e.Riienisb railway station. ' 
wr/fC^'^*'^^' l<^^i^rhof.—Flr8t-c1asB Hotel, verv 

Belle Vue; King of Spain; Elephant; Hotel 
Graaf. The Bath Hotels at the 8 springs belonging 
to the city are open all the year. 

Population, 116,000. 

English Church, in Anna Strasso. Resident 
Physicians, who speik English. 

Newspapers at Mayer's Library. 

Cabs.— The drive, one person, without luggage, 
50 pf. Tariff inside. Luggage above in lbs., 
30 pf. each article. For two persons, 1 mile, 80 pf. 

Post and Telegraph Office.— "So. 23, Jakobstrasse. 

Tramways through several of the principal streets 
to Burtscheid. 

At Herbesthal, the first Prussian station, the 
train stops 10 minutes for the usual custom- 
house formalities. 

Historically, Aachen^ as the Germans call it, or 
Aix-la-Chapdle, as it is usually called (following 
the French way) from its warm springs (aqux), is 
associated with the grandeur and the celebrity of 
Charlemagne, who died there. The emperors of 
Germany were formerly crowned within its walls, 
and its citizens possessed, during the middle ages, 
many important privileges and immunities. At the 
Reformation, the city was the scene of conflicts be- 
tween Catholics and Protestants, until the latter 
were compelled to emigrate to other countries ; and 
as they were principally the most wealthy and in- 
fluential merchants, their emigration proved highly 
prejudicial to the prosperity of the town, which 
declined for centuries. Latterly it has acquired 
an adventitious importance in history, from its 
having had European Congresses held within 
its walla, viz., in 1668, 1748, and 1818. This 
invested it with a temporary dignity, emanating, as 
it were, in a graceful act of filial piety from the 
sovereigns of modem Europe towards the favourite 
city of Charlemagne. Of ten Gates', the Marschier- 
Thor and Pont-Thor. are parts of the old fortifica- 
tions, dating from the fourteenth century. 

Commercially, Aix-la-Chapelle was renowned in 
former ages for the excellency of its woollen cloths, 
and even at the present day, the manufacturers 
of Aix are enabled to produce, from some re- 
markable properties in the mineral waters of the 
town, a peculiar light blue cloth, the dye of which 
wearft to IVie \&«t, and of which they export a great 

Sottte 18.1 

TO meLGfi'M akd tidi nuinu. 

1 1 

alio considerable establishments for manufacturing 
needles and pins, which are largely exported. Also 
extensive iron foundries, machine shops, coach- 
makers, &c. Aix-la-Chapelle has also become 
celebrated for its warm medicinal Springs^ which 
break forth in all parts of the city, and afford a 
great source of revenue and attraction. These 
waters are very efficacious, but may be injurious 
when taken improperly or without medical advice. 
We refer those who wish to obtain information on 
their composition and medical virtues to a book 
written by an experienced physician of Aix- 
la-Chapelle, viz.: "The Mineral Waters of Aix-la- 
Chapelle," by L. Wetzler, M.D., Physician at 
Aix-la-Chapelle. London, John Churchill. 

Oltjects of Notice.— The Gothic Town Hall (Rath- 
haus), built 1358-76, has undergone thorough 
restoration. It includes a tower of the old Palace, 
with several bulbous-looking spires, and contains 
a number of fresco paintings by Alfred Rethel, 
from scenes in the history of Charlemagne. The 
CoUhedi'oi^ begun under Charlemagne in 796, and 
now under restoration, includes an octagon Basilica, 
built 796-804 (constituting the Chapel which gives 
the place one of Its names), and a Gothic Choir 
completed 1413, with thirteen richly stained win- 
dows, and e>ght chapels. The new Mosaics 
in the cupola are by Bethunc. In the Hoch- 
miinster is the Emperor's Throne, and in the 
Ungarische Kapelle, the body of Charlemagne, 
with an innumerable number of precious relics, 
exhibited once in seven years, when pilgrims 
flock to see them from all parts. Admission to the 
Treasury, 8 marks for one to three persons ; 
beyond this number 1 mark each. It is easy to 
join a party. Fee for being shown round the Dom, 
1^ mark. There are nine or ten other churches, 
with St. Mary's new Church, in the modem quarter. 
Theatre; Eiise Fountain, by Schhikei. The old 
Com Hall, with statues of the Seven Electors. War 
Monument of 1866 and ls70-l. The Technitehe 
Hoehschule for practical science ia a handsome 
stone pile (lb79) near Tempelerbend Strasse. 

In the Kalserplatx is tho handsome Kaiser- 

The Polytechnic Institution, In the court of which 
is deposited a ponderous Aerolite^ said to weigh 
seven thousand pounds. The monument erected 
in memory of the Congreu of Aix-la-ChapoUe. 
in 1818. The new hospital outside the town. 

The suburbs and environs of Alx-la-Chapelle 
are both pleasant and interesting. A charming 
view of the whole city and surrounding country 
is obtained from the hill of Lousberg, a favourite 
resort of thegood citizens on Sundays and holidays. 

The Valley of Burtschcld (or Borcette) Is also 
worth visithig. There Is a tramway to tho town, 
which Is celebrated for the numerous tparm Springs 
and brooks that run through it. These hot wells 
supply several large bathing houses. There are 
also manufactories of cloths and cashmeres In the 
valley, established by Protestants, who were 
formerly not permitted to have an independent 
place of worship at Aix; but the spirit of In- 
tolerance In this part of Prussia has been greatly 
subdued by late events. 

Zt6»wi<«.— Public library at the Town Hall; 
library of the Gymnasium; library of the Burgher 
School; library of the Society of Arts and 
Sciences ; library at the Royal Government House. 
Besides these the possessors of private libraries 
will very readily aSord strangers the loan and 
amusement of single works. Libraries are kept 
by the booksellers, J. A. Mayer and H. Benrath, 
who also circulate a series of periodical journals 
and magazines. 

Next to the teeming flowery meads of the 
environing country, the promenades about the 
town gardens of several residents ofl'er to the 
botanist an unusually large variety of indigenous 
and exotic plants. Beside the public assembly 
rooms of the grrand Kurhaus, with Its choice 
selection of literature and belles-lettres, where 
good music Is executed, joined to divers other 
amusements, such as those at the Elisen garten 
(English newspapers), where music invites pres- 
ence, and where a brilliant illumination of the 
whole colonnade takes place at different times, 
a ready admittance may bo obtained to the 
f ollowhig private societies :— The Caalr!ift^<ss8'aw5«&s^ 

The Kvrhau*^ or assembly rooms, for stran- 
gers; entrance, to non-subscribers, 60 pf. l^etr \ ftxiil Vtv* ^wAsX^ vA^!yCl► 

to the theaxx^, Vw^'&^n^n.v ^V Vc^-^ ^^"^ ^''T"^^" 


[Route 18. 

hunlLng lodffo of Charlenukgne' A mo^t surroiiDdi 

dcUghtful little nood, cunULolng an inllic 
cominiclcdf rom the rcmilm o( n ihBpcl of 
pugnc, and n snowpti'i™- SckHi{faril, 1 

'niiUurfoiu.— In addlllon It 

d Conoptea, lb« 
LimMfila aquit- 
(•ery ntulj ■ 


\>9 and thady 

Testable I 


wllb ■ pU4,'[luiar 

•«iM»bl8 reiorti. Al llio HUborb o( BurtBOlU 
or BoroattO, aic bot sprlngt raneliig: from MO 
1B>° Filinnbelt. forming a bolUiig, babb: 
^raat Ja tie alddle of ooeof Ihe itittU; and 

. Bpol Lb Ibl! qulrlun 

. Flow 

Ihroogbahlgblj romanl IccooDliy.Iboiprlngtgitii 
binbtotheWl]dbDcb(iaadBtruni}. Tbe Bnmmlt 
o( Ibis rocky lilll aSbrdi a plclnraBqne view. 

Btralum, containing; a Taiiety of pMriractJona, 1) 

111 plant). 

, A pica. 

nortbward of tbe lowni lu T»»t and dellghtfBl 
gatdeni, lu aniMrlai, botkoiuBa, and lu bMDtl- 

Route 18.] 


upon the backgrounds of the gardens lies the 
Scherberigberg (Binty hillocks tt 1th vast pebble- 
stone beds. 

The Wolfsfurth (wolves' ford) in the valley of 
the Wunn, at the foot of the Scherberigberg. Hero 
is the only discharge of all the drains of Aix-la- 
Chapclle. This place consists of some few build- 
ings, chiefly cloth manufactories. Some good 
flower and kitchen gardens are attached to them, 
and also a small park, the property of the cloth 
manufacturer, Mr. Kuetgens; Gardens and park 
form a part of the Bois de Pauline, a name given 
to this wood by Napoleon's sister. 
Excursions al^o to the Aachener Wald, Carlshohe, 
Ronheide, Linzenshauschen, &c. 

Railway to Diisseldorf and Cologne, as below. 

To Malm^dy, vift Montjoie, fil miles. 
{ There are three Railway Stations ; the Rhenish 
' (Cologne, Ac), Tempelerbend, and Marschier- 
Thor (Gladbach, Diisseldorf, Lidge, <tc.) 

The walk from Aix-la-Chapelle to Li^ge is 
charming. — R. S. C. 

[Atz-la-Chapelle to Htinchen-Oladbach, 

Crefeld, and RlUirOTt, by railway. 

Geilenklrchen (Station), the nearest for 

I JliliChorJuliers. (See below.) 

Erkelenz (Station). Population, 4,312. A 

^ small place on the Roer. 

Bheydt ; population, 26,832, the junction of the 
line from Oladbach to Antwerp. 

Hunclien-Gladl>ach or Oladbach (Station). 

Population, 49,626. On the Ners. It has a Bene- 
dictine Abbey, and considerable manufactures of 
cotton and woollen are carried on. (From hero a 
brandi of the Berg-M'arkische Railway was opened 

1 1873 to JullCll (22^ English miles), with short 
extensions thence to StOlberg and Dtiron (13 

■and 14 miles respectively), both on the line from 


. Aiz la Chapelle to Cologne (see p. 70). Jiilich, a 
small town on the Roer, said to have been founded 

■ by Julius Caesar, was once a strong fortress, 
Which Upon the death of the Duke of Cleves and 
Jtllich, In 1610, leaving "everybody his heir," 

■ was seized by the Dutch, under the advice of 
Bameveld, in order to prevent it from falling 
Ittko the hands of the Emperor. This was previous 

. $0^60 TUrtjr Tears' War. 

Neuss (Station). Population, 28,000. Thi« 
place used formerly to be quite close to the Rhine, 
but since the fourteenth century, owing to the 
altered course of the stream, it has been removed 
from it about a mile and a half. 

Numerous excavations of Roman remains 
have been made on the site, supposed to be the 
Novesium of the Romans. Here Drusus, who built 
the town, threw a bridge over the Rhine. Neuss 
has sustained some remarkable sieges, which are 
mentioned in history. Am<Hig its edifices the old 
church, or cathedral, of St, Quirinus, a fine Gothic 
building, erected in 1209, is well worthy examina- 
tion, its dome having some modem paintings in 
fresco by Cornelius. At the Rathhaus is a good 
collection of Roman Antiquities. A War Monu- 
ment of 1866 and 1870-1, has been erected. 

Near Neuss is the ancient abbey of Eberach, 
the church of which, built in the thirteenth 
century, was remarkable for its monuments. 
On the decease of the Princes and Bishops of 
Wilrzburg, their hearts were deposited in it. 

Rail to Crefeld; to Cologne; and to Dttsseldorf, 
sec Route 20. Rail to Rheydt, 16^ miles. 

From Miinchen-Gladbach the Ruhrortline passes 
Viersen and Anrath to 

Crefeld (Station). Population, 105,371. Thisifl 
a flourishing town, with fine wide streets of nicely 
built houses, about 5 miles from the Rhine, be- 
tween Dttsseldorf and Cleves. Here there are 
considerable manufactures of silk velvet, silk, and 
mixed fabrics, besides dyeworks. These goods 
are sent in large quantities all over Germany, to 
France, and especially to England. During the 
Seven Years' war, an important conflict took place 

Uerdingen (Station). PopiUatiou, 2,800. Close 

to the left bank of the Rhine, surrounded by pop- 
lars. Near this place, at Eichelskamp, the French 
Revolution-army, under Lef ^bre, numbering about 
25,u00, first crossed the Rhine in 1795, and turned 
the Austrian position. 

Bnhrort (Station). Population, 9,866. Situ- ^ 
atcd at the confluence of the R.-«.\a V5J5i'«»^>-9fC^^0a.'C^^s6. 
Rhine. It ^^o^^e^^^^ \aaxc^ X-KKsyfe ^^^V^'Q^'*'^^"'^ 
1 docka, axvai \va.% mi Vrnxassaa^ ^i.^v^A.x^^'^ T^o^' 


■I OD lh> bIQicf ol IliT Kwr. ThU DThslwU 

Tu /.uflballini, B publls pleaiun gu'raon 
snillD dhiaiiMn sgMoiMe wnlk may bo 

tomn, MCb ISO feel blgb. o 
Khina, at HomlMrK and Rt 

HAMc^HouH [KouteJs. 

nesr a pleiorMqne ol.l caitle, Ilcra koU [cduIih 
(tothySafoFi. ' "* 

Ashortbroiicl, rromlhii to Alidorf (Statioa) 
"ith Wttraelen (branch lo Monbacni end 

oeiiBliicioiiiVcrrslil*. Tmho loft and 

the taelglii of ihe wi 

a UrgB ituDHr, fasTlnE nlti on deck carrying 

nyMt, wlthitDt changing iheir teiti, f roiu one bank 
to the ather.l 

Alz-Ia-COiapelle to Cologne (*t miea in 

1 boor anil M uiinutcs).— Oaiilds Ali-la-Chapelle 
■lallon ii a iiiloiidld Tladiin. on two lien a( fl[- 

the Tille]' of the Woriubach, and li SSi feet long 

Cluiob}- the side of the l[ne. to the Left. U the 
. CharlBmagoe Is reported 



lanserwehe. Beyond thig, ihrongb the VaU 

looki bf the vniage and caatic ot Merode ; and 
again pursuing iti conno through the .iliago of 

8tOllMrg(Statlail) li reached. 

"*«** v^ v^lvtuOM will, ea,„, fyrge,, 4,„ 

Ruhr, bra bridge of ili arche>i alter irblch no 
arrl.e at DUren, 1 mlla distant. 

DilrMKStatlOIl). Aminnfactnrlngloirn.iriih 
a population of 19,800; lo called Iroin hoKuman 

Banone. Chief manatactureaatf croihandpauer. 

pleiisanl eieurslnn ninylM niBilcllp Ibe Tnlley of 
Ibe Hnhr to the VauHful village of Xlrdfgtn, 
Bmllei aontb of DUren. built on a htll. on which 
anlbaralnaotaauilf.whfreGninlbett, Arch- 
blihop of Cologne, was Imprisoned In the Ihlr- 

Route 18.] 



The line passes a catting between the Mease and 
the Rhino, terminating a little way short of 

Buir (Station), from which it proceeds by a 
high embankment, over the lowlands of the valley of 
the Erft, crossing that river by three bridges before 

Horrem (Station), which is near the fine old 
Castle of Fronz. Passing from the Erft into the 
Valley of the Rbine, through Kdnigsdoi-f tunnel, 
A mile long, carried through a hill of sand 136 
feet below the summit, we arrive at KbnUrBdorf ; 
from here we proceed to 

lltingerBdorf, crossing the road from C)ologne 
to Jttlich. Here a very fine view can be had of 
Cologne, with its myriad towers and steeples. 

COLOGNE (Station)— German, Koln; Dutch, 
JB^eulen. Population, 281,273. 


Dom Hotel, first-class hotel on the Dom Square, 
opposite the Cathedral, two minutes' walk from 
the Central Station. See Advt. 

Hotel du Nord. — Excellent hotel, near the Cen- 
tral Station, the Cathedral, the Rhine, &c. 

Hotel Disch, in Bridge Street ; centrally situated, 
and frequented by English families and single 
gentlemen, who experience equal attention and 

Hotel dc Hollande, a first-rate establishment, 
facing the quay. 

Hotel Ernst, first-class, five minutes from station. 

Grand Hotel Victoria, situated in the Haymarket, 
close to the Rhine. 

Hotel Drei Konige, opposite the landing place of 
the Saloon Steamers. 

Hotel Continental, opposite the Dom — good 
second-class hotel. 

Wienerhof; Hotel Weber; de T Europe; Main- 
zerhof; Kolnischerhof ; Unitm,. die. 

C«/e», Restaurants : Heuser ; Johnen ; Berzdorf . 

Eau de Cologne. — Travellers are frequently 
importuned by officious persons offering to direct 
or accompany them to this or that vendor of the 
celebrated perfume; there are upwards of thirty- 
three manufacturers of this article, nearly all of 
them having the legal right to use the name of 
Johann Maria Farina. 

F. C. Eyssen, 13, Domhof, For6igii Book, Print, 
Kod Map Seller; photographic yie^s <^| tbe Caf^^ 

dral of Cologne, Ac. J. J. Niessen, 4, Domhof, 
Book and Map Seller. BnADsnAw's Guides and 
Iland-Books on sale. 

Resident Exgush and Amxbican Coxsuls. 

English Chdrch, 3, Bischofsgarteustrnssc. 

Droschkies, or cabs. From the station to any 
place in the town; one person, 60 pf., two person?, 
75 pf ., three persons, 1 mark. Cologne to Deutz, 
including toll, one or two persons, 1 mark 75 pf. 
For a half hour's drive, with one or two persons, 
1 mark; with three or four, 1 mark 50 pf. From 
10-0 p.m. to 7-0 a.m. double fare. Omnibus from 

Cologne is a fortified town, situated on the left 
bank of the Rhine, and havmg the populous 
suburb of Deutz (Hotel do Belle Vue) on the 
right bank. A bridge of boats, 400 ft. long, connects 
the town and suburbs. The new railway bridge 
across the Rhine is a very fine structure. There 
is a way for foot passengers. Several new streets 
and squares of handsome houses have been built, 
and other improvements made. 

This remarkable city owes its origin to the 
camp that Marcus Agrippa pitched on the skirts of 
the hill that now occupies the central portion of 
the modern town. That camp was afterwards 
considerably increased by the removal of the Ubil, 
about 3S B c, from the east bank of the Rhin^, 
on which they had previously lived, to the right 
bank, on the spot where Cologne now stands. 
About 50 A.D., this original city, called Oppidum 
Uhiorum^ was enlarged by a Roman colony of 
veterans, sent hither by Agrippina, the wife of 
Claudius and mother of Nero, who was bom here 
in the camp of her father, Germanicus. It was 
called after the Emperor and her, CoUmia 
Claudia Augusta A ffrippinensis,(rom which arises 
its modern appellation. 

Cologne is interesting in its historical remi- 
niscences, as well as from its chequered destiny, 
traced on many a page of overflowing prosperity. 
At one time prostrate and at another flourishing, this 
town passed through epochs different in their char- 
acter as they were disastrous or beneficial in their 
consequences. At this distant and remote period, 
when cycles of centuries have rolled over since 
the mail-clad Roman swayed his deU^a.tft5l k!K!cv«>>- 

kli lOTtrelitiity lii Itao trngmeiilal nlomt at hi 

lb« snl|i]'jitlss of RDoiau origin dor op daily 
b«nuth Iti gurfdcs. u irell ■> Ip tb« mi 
outline, ciaEilcal r«lta^e^ and oqullliif nos 
tho popuUdon, whose physiognoiuy liidl 
their hersilltarj- dosceiit. ind distinctly n 

o[ the Huieullc League, si 

and tiiumvlrB^ vere preceded by llctor 

qnarinn dlapoitd to rigidly »caii the o 
oitent of Ibe ancient city, vlll trace 
thcBDrgnumer, by IheZengbBui, bytb 
KlartnO-tirm, frectcd on the Roman w. 
Fmnhs, thence to the Lach, whdre appeo 
Itomau tower. and lo the UlrXisteln; 
■'gain eastward lo the cbnreh ef St. 

King of the FranU-. 

The Emiietor Conitantino buill 
the Rhine; the rniua of whlEli.atlc 

iDflthera atyle of archllectare li seen In 
the oldeit churches. And to-day. when, i 

bygone yeara, and their eyenls, render Cvl 
objeel of deep Interest to English traTCI 

Into Engbind a ihon tine of torwuds. and 

redll" (jlaj^e laws), wbercbj «li goods arriving 

uiade to pay a high i»Ie of duly for further tran! 
The dignity and importance of thistllj hail 

and it was called the ■'belllgeStsdt." orbolydi 
ita merchants were highly privileged In Engla 
by Henry VI., who allowea Ihem the sole oecui 
tion of the Gnlld Hall. Ii auinbered within 
walls see cburches,and conld sendbilo the n. 
iMI.OiiDrlghibiginen. ButthahourDtdesolntloim 

Commerce departed from ivs port, and sought 


Route 18.] 

The first edict issued by the persecuting church- 
men within its sanctuary was against the Jews, 
who were hunted like wild beasts, and expelled 
without mercy. The second act of intolerance 
and persecution was the banishment of the weavers ; 
and the third the exiling of the Protestants in 
1608. In the case of the weavers, 1,7U0 Iwms were 
burned, and the owners emigrated to Verviers, Klber- 
feld, and Aix la-Chapelle, whither they transferred 
their industry from an ungrateful city, and where 
they established the celebrated cloth manufactories, 
still flourishing and enriching these towns. The 
expelled Protestants settled at Miilheim, Diisseldorf, 
Elberfeld, Crefeld, Solingen, and other places, 
where, as exiles and victims of persecuting bigotry, 
they raised establishments and promoted the arts 
of peace and industry — so true is it that persecu- 
tion fails to effect its purpose, whilst it ever gives 
new strength and energy to the emanciimted 
victims of its cruelties. In this period the church, 
or rather ecclesiastical body, reigned paramount, 
until the French Revolution destroyed its sinister 
influence, and laughed at its censures ; whilst its 
well-filled coffers were being emptied, its ill- 
gotten revenues seized upon, its churches and 
convents plundered, secularised, and converted into 
stables and warehouses, and the city itself was 
even finally incorporated with France, October 
17tb, 1797. In 1815 it passed under Prussian rule. 

The closing of the navigation of the Rhine by 
the Dutch, in the sixteenth centurj*, was a great 
blow to the prosperity of Cologne. The removal 
of this impediment, in 1837, greatly tended to 
give a new stimulus to commercial enterprise and 
industrial development. Vessels now throng her 
harbour, along which new quays and bonding 
warehouses have been erected, a foreign communi- 
cation by sea is carried on and extending, whilst 
the dally Increasing prosperity of the city is being 
added to, and strengthened by, the railway commu- 
nication with Paris, Antwerp, and Berlin, the 1 nes 
from which converge at this point ; and, wi- h the 
immense Rhenssh trade passing through, Cologne 
bids fair some day to rival the Cologne of the 
twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth cen- 
turies, and again have her empty warehouses and 
storAs filled with the results of industry, whilst her 
population increases in prosperity and happiness. 



Its objects of attraction are numerous, and lie 
wide apart, but the tourist will find his visits 
much facilitated by making them in the following 
order : — 

The Cathedral (Domklrche) is one of the purest 
monuments of Gothic architecture in Europe. 
The ed'fice was begun 814, but most of it was 
burnt 1248. The name of the architect who de- 
signed the plan is lost. The first builder was Master 
Gerhard, who was still living about 1252, but of 
whom nothing further Is known. The building was 
projected by the Archbishop Engelbert Von Berg, 
and commenced by his successor, Conrad Von 
Hochstadeu, in 1248. The edifice Is but a fragment 
of the proportions designed, which, if can-led out, 
would have made It the St. Peter of Gothic archi- 
tecture. Ids cross-shaped, on the plan of that at 
Amiens, viz., a nave with double aisles of A b.ays; 
and an apse of 7 bays with 7 chapels, each of 5 
apses. It Is supported by flying buttresses ; these, 
with the south transept, west door, and clustered 
spires, deserve especial notice. The vv hole length 
of the building is 496 feet. The Nave ^nd aisles 
are 144 feet wide; the nave Is 145 feet high and 
the aisles are 60 feet high ; the arches are supported 
by four rows of 64 columns, which, together with 
the half colunms and the pillars of the porticoes, 
amount to 100. The four central ones measure 
about 30 feet in circumference ; each terminates in 
a capital, ornamented In a peculiar manner. The 
south transept is 240 feet wide by 130 feet high. 

Height to the ridge of the roof about 200 feet. 
The two west Towers or steeples are each 515 
feet high ; one stands on the north side, and the 
other, at present used as a belfry, has the large 
Fire bell, weighing 25,000 lbs., and the Emperor's 
bell, weighing 56,000 lbs. The central Tower is 
850 feet high. 

The Kaiserglocke (Emperor's bell) was £oIemnly 

Inaugurated, July, 1887. It was made from 22 

guns taken from the French, with the addition of 

5,U00 kilos, of tin. On one side Is a figure of St. 

Peter, with some verses, on the other the German 

Arms, with the sestet: — 

Die Kaiaerglocke heiu* ich, 
Des KAlaen Khre yMAs.' V2«k> 

\\vm Qi<A.\.\s«««2«i*«*'' 



[Route 18. 

The Dki^estie Choir, of nnncnal height, together 
with the snrrormding chapels, constitutes one of 
the most striking portions of this immense edifice. 
Beautiful in the extreme are the graceful groups 
Qf tall columns, like the trees of an ancient forest, 
ending at the culminating points in a crown of 
branches, and terminating in a pointed arch, almost 
inaccessible to the eye that would trace them. 
- The two last Kings of Prussia expended in 
the space of eighteen years a large sum on the 
repair and preservation of the building, rendered 
almost a ruin by long ages of neglect. The res- 
toration was effected in a masterly style, the Dracb- 
enfels stone of the exterior being replaced by a 
species of volcanic origin, brought from Trbves 
and Andemach. In 1812 the then king laid the 
foundation-stone of the new transept, and an 
association was established, with branches all 
through Europe, for the purpose of collecting sub- 
scriptions for the completion of the edifice after 
the original design ; a million dollars were collected 
from 18 &2 to 1851. The aisle, nave, and transept 
^ere opened in September, 1848, the two latter 
portions being covered in by a temporary wooden 
roofing; and in the autumn of 1853, the five 
'Windows of stained glass, presented by the late 
King of Bavaria, were placed in the south aisle of 
the nave, and the one executed in 1508 in the 
north aisle. The other windows, mostly done at 
Munich, were filled in; and the Cathedral being 
at length finished, at a total cost of two millions 
sterling, was opened by the German Emperor, 
William I., on the 14th August, 1880. 

The new Bell, (the Kaiserglocke, see page 83), 
14 feet high, was cast out of French cannon taken 
in the war. Other bells have been added, with 
a new Clock by Mannhardt. 

The Presbytery, in the choir, and the high altar, 

are works of a modem date, and we think accord 

but ill with the antique majesty and solemn 

grandeur of the rest. Among the columns at the 

entrance there are two very fine marble statues, 

representing the Virgin and St. Peter, exquisitely 

sculptured in tbe Italian style. The two tombs, 

in the choir, of the brothers Adolphus and Anthony 

JVJ7 Schaaeaherg (both of them Archbishops of 

aoJogve^, JUT$ Ate atataes of white mArbJe, adorned 

"^^'^f^^smily arrange toym§^ md deseiring of 

'^t^enble MttentioD, aa rich apeclmem qf ^Ig^i. 

art. The beantlfnlly stained windows have been 
refreshed and repaired, and the frescoes redeco-^ 
rated by Steinli, an artist of the Dusseldorf school. 
The colossal coloured and gilt statues of the Twelve 
ApottUa standing against the columns are fine 
specimens of the antique German statuary of the 
fourteenth century, of which date also are the 
superbly carved stalls and seats. 

In the Chapa of the Three Kings behind the high 
altar is the monument of the !ntree Kings, or Magi, 
who came from the East to worship the Saviour, 
and present him with gifts. Melchior, who is 
usually represented as an old man, and descended 
from Shem, gave gold. Balthazar, a man of middle 
age, descended from Japheth, gave incense. Gas* 
par, a youth, descended from Ham, gave myrrh. 
This chapel was built by the Elector Maximilian 
Henry of Bavaria, and the bodies of the three 
Oriental Kings, or Wise Men of the East, were 
presented to it by Frederick the First, also called 
Barbarossa, who carried them off from St. Eus- 
torgio, after he had taken and plundered Milan, 
giving them to Rainald, Archbishop of Cologne, 
who accompanied him, and had them conveyed to 
that city in 1170. The coffer in which they repose^ 
which originally stood in this chapel, has been 
removed to the Treasury. It is composed of plate, 
gold and silver, exquisitely engraved, with an. 
encircling of small arcades supported by pillars; 
however, the rich treasures and exquisite dec- 
orations of this shrine were carried off and much, 
injured during the fury of the French revolution, 
at which period it was transferred for safety ta 
Amsberg, in Westphalia, and several of the jewels, 
sold, which were replaced by paste or glass counter-^ 

The coffer has two partitions, the lower on(y 
of which has on either side a half-roofing, while, 
the upper one has a whole one. The lower 
and broader division contains the bones of- 
the three kings whose heads appear ranged 
in front, between the half-roofing upon which, 
you see, in rubies, the names Caspar, Mel-. 
ehior, Balthazar; these skulls are adorned with 
costly crowns of gold, diamonds, and pearls, 
of six pounds weight each, which present a 
ghastly contrast to the decayed and mouldering . 
fri^menU oi Yramvoil^ th«y encircle. In 1804, 
when ^^^e «ft;cdiL^ ^«A\«b\x:igbX\iw3*.Vtws. ksxM^^t^^ 

itoate 1^.] 



many of the jewels and enamels had disappeared, 
together with their valuable croi^-ns; they were 
replaced by metal neatly wrought and gilt, partly 
by antiques, precious stones, enamels, and other 
ornaments, given by the people of Cologne, and the 
shrine, without the value, has much of its original 
appearance. The front of the shrine has inscribed 
on its surface the following inscription : — 
" CorpoT* Hanctorum recubmit hie tenuk Magonim 
Kx his sttblatum nihil est, alibiire locutum." 
This reliquary, a very highly ornamental piece 
of Romanesque work, probably dates from the end 
of the 12th century. 

On Sundays and holidays the Shrine is open to 
the public; but Visitors desiring a close examina- 
tion of it had better take a ticket of tiie sacristan, 
to admit self and friends. Tickets for the Cathe- 
dral, Im. each. Choir and Treasury, Im. 60pf., 
or 2m. SOpf. to see everything and ascend the 
galleries. Between the high altar and the shrine 
of the Three Kings, under a slab in the flooring, 
is buried the heart of Mary of Medicis ; and before 
the chapel the tombstones and epitaphs of the 
Archbishops of Cologne may be seen on the marble 
walls, the most remarkable of which are those of 
Philip of Heinberg, surrounded by a mural 
parapet, and of Conrad of Hochstaden in bronze. 

Particularly worthy of notice is the celebrated 
Dombild^ a beautiful old pictureof 1410, representing 
the patrons of the city, and the Three Kings ador- 
ing the Divine Babe in the centre ; with St. Ursula 
and her companions, the 11,000 Virgins, St. Gereon 
and his Theban legion on the sides. This paint- 
ing was removed from the Hotel de Ville in 1816, 
and placed in its present position in the Chapel of 
St. Agnes, on the right of the Magi. The artist 
is not known, but ho is surmised to have been 
Master Stephan, a pupil of William of Cologne. 

The Sacristy contains some interesting antiqui- 
ties, and splendid specimens of art and workman- 
ship, in the shape of church plate, shrines, a sword 
of justice used at the coronation of the emperors, 
carvings in ivory, an archiepiscopal cross 7 feet 
high, and several other objects of interest. 
. The visitor will be well repaid by ascending the 
gallery of the triforiom to see the stained glass, 
and should also go out on the roof, from wMcii 
be wiU haveamii^iilceiitjVDfpect. 

The Church of SU Pitier. Kubens, who wgsr 
baptised in this church, in the brazen font still 
existing there, painted for it its celebrated altar- 
piece — the Cruci/unon of the Apostle with his heati 
downwards. This painting is reckoned as one of 
his masterpieces. The picture generally cxposetl 
is merely a copy, but a fee of 1 mark 50 pf. for a 
party, will induce the sacristan to reverse it, and at 
the back is displayed the original. 

The Church of St. Ursula, famous for the legend 
of the 11,000 Virgins, was erected partly in 
the twelfth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries. 
The singularity of its architecture is well worth 
attention, and the entire church is nearly filled 
with bones. On the right hand, near the entrance, 
is the golden chamber, in which St. Ursula and a 
few of her favoured associates lie in repose in 
coflins behind the altar. The bones are encased in 
silver; and among the relics pointed out in thi? 
chamber is one of the stone vessels used at the 
marriage feast in Cana. Fee for admission, 1^ 
mark for 1 to 3 persons. The relics in this churol^ 
are hideous, bones everywhere meet the eyo, and 
are disposed in ghastly array in glass cases. 
The history of this monkish legend is painted In. 
the choir, and represents the saint as the daughter 
of an English king, who, on her return from Ronib,' 
was murdered at Cologne, together with her 11,000 

The Church of St. Maria im Capitol, is, with 
the exception of St. Cecilia, the oldest in Cologne. 
Plectrudis, the consort of Pepin, of Heristal, who 
separated from her husband, founded this estab- 
lishment, and built the original church. H«r 
stone statue is behind the choir, in the street . 
but her tomb is in the church before th^ oholn,^ 
and has a long Latin inscription. Over against 
this tomb is that of St. Ida, who was a relation of 
Plectrudis, and the first abbess of the. establish* 
mcnt. The present church, of peculiar shape,, 
dates from 1060. The upper part of the choir,^ 
with the round arched colonnades, is of the twelfth 
century; the principal vault of the nave waa 
built later, having been damaged considerably by- 
the Normans. Several paintings were removed to 
this church from that of at, ^vsNSss^x ^v -w>E&s5fe?_ 



de«erving of belngr noticed. This church also 
possesses a large and excellent organ by the elder 
Kflenig, the celebrated artist of Cologne, who also 
built the organ of Nimwegen. 

The Church ofSta. Maria is a handsome specimen 
of transition romance style, with painted windows 
of the 16th century. On the west portal is a mark 
showing the heiglit of the inundation of 1784. 
Statue of the Virgin, 16th century. 

St. Martin's Church, or Gross St. Martin, is a large 
building of the 22th century, with a tower of 270ft. 

The Church of St. Oereon, a remarkable edifice, was 
built by Archbishop Anno, in 1066, on the ruins of 
that built by St. Helena, of which there are 
remains. Later, a boldly-executed cupola with 
three galleries was added, and it is one of the best 
and most conspicuous churches in Cologne. St. 
Gereon lies buried here, along with his 318 
warriors. The skulls of these martyrs are ex- 
hibited in the churchy In the crypt, or vault, 
there are two chapels, on who^e floor is an ancient 
mosaic pavement. The altars at the entrance of the 
church arc adorned with two good paintings by 
Schuett and Geldorf, artists of Cologne. It should 
be visited before 9 a.m., 1 mark for 1 or 2 persons, 
afterwards 60 pf. each. 

The Church of St. Cmibert, near the Rhine, is 
spacious and beautiful, and has a fine perspective. 
The altar is con<'tructed after the pattern of that 
of St. Petcr*s at Rome. The gate has a fine frame 
in the last style of the 12th century. The Tumba 
of St. Cunibert, which was once so remarkable, 
was scandalously mutilated during the Ficnch 
occupation. In 1830 the steeple fell down. It has 
since been rebuilt. The fine glass paintings in the 
choir are well worth seeing. The Church of The 
Apottles, near the new market, is likewise a 
beautiful old German building of the 13th century. 
An Ascension of the Holy Virgin by Hulsmann, and 
the martyrdom of St. Catharina by Pottgiesser, 
deserve to be noticed; in connection with this 
church is told a very interesting story, dating 
from 1357, the time of the plague, about Lady 
Rtchmodis, wife of Mengis von Adocht, of the 
family of the Lyskir^chen, who was burled alive 
■^«n^ Mief bjr a pecaUar accident saved herself 

^^i>«.ctt^«, Mnd afterwards Jlred many yews 

^'^ ^^^<^^rt rerr happily. 

tRoute \%. 

The Church of St. Maria Ascension, sometime the 
church of the Jesuits, though built in a mixed style, 
half ancient German, and half modem, has many 
ornaments in the inside, especially a splendid com. 
munion pew, with arabesques and bas-reliefs of 
white marble. There are some paintings by Schuett 
on thehighaltar. The walls of the choirare adorned 
with landscapes. The marble flooring, the pulpit, 
and the organ are handsome. Contiguous to the 
church stands the late College of the Jesuits, in 
which there were a valuable library and rich 
cabinets of artificial curiosities. The French 
carried off the most valuable articles; among 
others, a volume of letters, in Leibnitz's own 
handwriting, to the Jesuit Drosses; the most 
valuable minerals; about 1,400 pieces of Greek 
and Roman coins ; a pretty complete collection of 
silver and copper coins of the middle ages; a 
number of antique bowls, vases, urns, images, 
Ac; an invaluable collection of more than fi,000 
original drawings of the most celebrated artists of 
all schools; and a similar collection of ancient 
engravings. There exists a printed catalogue of 
the latter collection, which was sent to Paris, and 
returned in a very defective state. 

There are some of the other churches and 
chapels (not mentioned here) that may have been 
built at the time when the Christian religion was 
introduced on the banks of the Rhine, and furnish 
fine materials for a history of ancient German 
architecture. Others there are that are remarkable 
in other respects. In the Church of St. Pantaleon 
(13th century) there is the tomb of the Empress 
Theophauia, the consort of Emperor Otho II. They 
also preserve in this church the uncorrupted body 
of the martyr, Albinus. The body of the famous 
Duns Scotus, who died at Cologne, in 1308, whose 
manuscripts, in 14 folio volumes, were in the 
possession of the Minorites, is buried in the church 
of that name behind the Museum. The churches 
of St. Severin and St. Oeorge are very old, but 
defaced by many coloured paintings. Both have 
recently been restored. The fonner, consecrated in 
1067, contains a very ancient wooden Romanesque 
Cross; and, connected with the latter, is a tower of 
enormous thickness, which an Archbishop placed 
right in f rcmt of the upper and older town gate, to 
keep In Kwe lYie c,VV\xcca qI Colocue^ who vrero 

Route 18.] 



disaffected to him. St. Cxcilia^ a very old church, 
was restored "in full ancient splendour" by 
Archbishop Wichfricd. A portion ol this was left 
nfter a second restoration. There is a piece of 
remarlrable old Romanesque Sculpture over the 
Northern Portal. 

The remains of the famous Albertus Magnus were 
deposited in the church of the Dominicans, which 
has been pulled down since. Spacious barracks 
for the artilleiy now occupy the ground on which 
it stood. 

All the religions corporations in Cologne were 
secularised by the fir t revolutionary French govern- 
ment; many parish churches went to decay: others 
were joined to finer churches, formerly belonging 
to cloisters or other pious foundati<ms ; some also 
were turned into manufactories and magazine<«, or 
demolished. The handsome though plain church 
of the Antonites, was given to the Lutheran and 
reformed congregations. 

Town Hall, or Raihhaus. — It has a fine marble 
portal, or double arcad*, one placed over the other; 
the upper one being in the Italian-Roman, and the 
lower one in the Corinthian style. Handsome bas- 
reliefs adorn the interstices. The other parts of 
the buildings are less deserving of praise. From 
the steeple, the shape of which is rather singular, 
you have a charming view of the town and its 
environs. One pair of stairs high, on your right 
hand, you enter the spacious hall of the once 
powerful Hansa, with ancient German stone 
figures. The hall is 90rt. long by 25ft. broad, and 
32ft. high, and is beautifully decorated with 
armorial bearings of the nobility, and arms of the 
various guilds. 

The Emperor Maximilian gave several enter- 
tainments in this hail, which of late years has 
served for a ball-room at the conclusion of the 
splendid carnival. On the ground floor there 
is a spacious hall, called the Muschel (shell), 
with fine Gobelins tapestry, in which many 
landscapes by Wouvermann are ingeniously 
introduced. The whole produces a strilcing effect. 

Statues of Bismarck and Moltke; the former 
In Augustiner Platz, the latter in Laurent Platz. 

The Theatre.— t\kfi inner arrangement is taste- 
ful (having the playhoiue of the Grand Duke of 

Darmstadt for n pattern). It was fuiiKhcd iu 1872. 
The company net at Cologne only in winter; in 
summer, alternately at Bonn and Coblcnz. 

The Palace of Justice, the foundation of which 
was laid in 1824. The town has built it at its 
own expense. It contains the court of appeal, the 
court of province, and the board of trade. The 
Government Buildings lie not far from it. The 
Archicpiscopal Palace stands in the Gereonsstrasse, 
and in front of it is the Mariensaule, a fine monu- 
ment to commemorate the promulgation of the 
dogma of the Immaculate Conception. 

The site of the old Exchange is occupied by a 
Statue of the late King, Frederick Williara III.» 
wit'i 16 life-size figures of statt-smen and soldiers 
in the base ; the whole 48 feet high. 

**trangers may further notice the Work and 
Charity House, in the later cloister of the Minori- 
ties ; the Military Hospital, in the cloister of 
the Carthusians, for 300 patients, in twenty- 
four roomy saloons ; the Hospital for Citizens, in 
the cloister of Ca:cilia and Michael, in which 800 
poor persons, belonging to the town, are admitted 
and taken care of. amongst whom are a certain 
number of incurable lunatics (such as are pro- 
nounced curable are sent to Siegburg). This 
establishment can be visited at any time in the 
afternoon. The guide expects trinkgeld, and 
some contribution must be made to the poor-box. 
The institution is exceedingly well arranged, and 
worth inspection. The Orphan House in the 
Waisenhausgasse (Orphan Houses Street, No. 38, 
at the end of the Blaubach), for 200 orphans 
and foundlings, who are brought up and educated 
here from 6 to 16 or 17 years of age. A work school 
has also been established here. The House of 
Correction (near the New Market, commonly 
called in dcr Blechen Buets) can, in 80 small and 
larger apartments, receive 820 prisoners. The 
Barracks, in the cloisters of the Dominicans and 
Observants, in the Weidenbach and the Abbey of 
St. Pantaleon. In the Sterucngasse is the 
so-called Rubens House, in which Mario de 
M^dicis died, 16t2. It is a mistake to suppose 
that Rubens was born here. That ft'«i«c^ \ja!^«- 
place at Ste^^w^ laOsv ^>a>\<i^ ^SW. >a.^.n3» Na. -^ 



[Route IS. 

collector.— Le Brim painted him and liis family 
In a larg^e picture. 

Tiio Gurzenichy in tiic Martlnsstrasse, a fine 
building erected 1441-52 for civic festivities. The 
lower portion has been used since 1875 as an 
Exchange. The Biirse is held from 12 to 1 p.m. 
The handsome Banqueting and other Halls, lately 
renovated, deserve a visit. Entrance, 50 pf. This 
is the finest building in Cologne except the Doni. 
Firpt-dass concerts are given liere in winter, 
under the direction of Dr. Ferd. Hiller. Seats 
A\ to 2 marks. Tlic former are to be preferred. 

Museums. The Archiepiscapal Diocesan Museum, 
in the Cathedral Place (open 9 to 12 and 3 to 6, 
50 pf.), c ntains chiefly, objects of mcdifeval 
ecclesiastical art. A few minutes' walk from the 
principal portal of the Cathedral, in a south-west 
direction, Is the Wallvaf-Richartz Museum^ a fine 
Gothic building, erected from funds presented by 
A merchant, J. H. Richartz, about 1850, to contain 
the collection of Prof. Kichartz. One of the 
principal features is a remarkable set of paintings 

Deutz (Station) (Castrum Dintfnsium), U 
joined to Cologne by a viaduct 1,352 ft. long, 
begun 1855, completed 1862. The Emperor 
Constantlne built a castle here in the fourth cen- 
tury, which is described in ancient documents 
under the name of Monumenium Dutienza, Deutz 
and Cologne were at that time connected by a 
bridge, which was demolished by the Archbishop 
Bruno in the tenth century, along with the castlo 
The works around Deutz were, at a later period, 
rebuilt several times, and for the last time de- 
molished by the Austrians in 1673. Since Deutz 
came into the possession of Prussia, it has been 
strongly fortiQed. There are four large work-v 
shops of the artillery, worth the notice of military 
men, but admission is not easily granted. 

The old Benedictine abbey lies on the IJhinc, 
and has a charming aspect. It was founded in IOd] , 
by the elector Heribert, a count of Rothcnburg. 
The little town prospered by carrying on a 
smuggling trade to the left bank of the Rhine, 
under the French dominion. Bensberg, the former 
Palatine chateau, lies 3 leagues from Deutz. It 

Of tlK. early Cologne School, which should be seen ^^^ ^^^^^^y^x allegorical and mythological plat- 
by Ml interested in the historical study of art. 

Tho're are also works of the early Saxon, Swablan, 
and Franconian Schools, and frescoes show;ing the 
deTclopment of art In Cologne. Open 9 to 6, 75 pf . ; 
Wednesday and Sunday gratis. General cata- 
logue, i mark ; Pictures, 50 pf.; Antiquities, 75 pf. 

forms, painted by eminent masters; the views 
from the window and the cupola arc particularly 
charming, and the horizon extends to 13 to 20 
German miles. 

A trip from Cologne to the Cistercian abbey of 
Altenberg will be found interesting. It is 2^ 

The House of the Templars, No. 8, Rhelngasse, i^^^^^ distant from it, in the direction beyond 

is used as a Baptist chapel. The Casino is close to 
the Theatre, and has ball and reading rooms 
attached to it. 

Zoological Oardens, at the North end of the town ; 
Concerts, Sunday, Wednesday, and Saturday 
afternoons, 1 mark, Sundays, SO pf. Fine collec- 
tion of animals. 

Mueheldeim in a beautiful solitary valley, on the 
banks of the Dachn, a considerable mountain 
torrent. A pleasant excursion may also be made 
from Cologne to Brnehl. 

Express trains from Cologne to Paris, morning 
and night, in 11 hours. Railway to Diisseldorf, 
Hamm, Hinden, and Berlin ; to Paderbom, Cassel, 

Botanical Gar Jens (close by), with Aquarium, Ac.; to Marburg, Giesscn, and Frankfort ; to Bonn, 

(60 pf. extra); same admission as the Zoological Coblenz, and Mayence; to Paris, Aix-la-Chapelle, 

Gardens. Frequent concerts. Fine view of and Belgium. For information respecting the 

Cologne and environs. Rhine Steamers see advertisements in Bradshaw's 

The StOdtische Garten^ on the west side, is Continental Guide. The description of the jouniey 

a favourite promenade. from Cologne up theRhlne is continued in Route 21 . 




^ There arc rivers whose course is longer, and whose rolumc of water is greater, but none around which^ 
are grouped such associations of romance and historical interest, joined to the advantages of natural 
beauty, as the Rhine (ancient, IVienus). As it flows down from the distant ridges of the Alps, through fer- 
tile regions into the open sea, so it comes down from remote antiquity, associated in every age with mo- 
mentous events, in the history of the neighbourhig nations. It is formed in the Swiss Canton of Orisons, 
by the junction, at Reichenau, of two streams called the Hinter and Vorder Rhein ; the former having Its 
source in the Rheinwald glacier, the latter rising on the north side of Mont St. Gothard. After passing 
Mayenfeld the river enters Lake Constance (also called the Boden-sec) at Rheineck. It again leaves the 
lake at Stein, which stands at its western extremity. It then flows past Schaffhausen, where it produces 
the celebrated cataract called the Falls of Schaffhausen. After passing Basle, where the Upper Rhine 
terminates, it flows past Breisach, Strassburg, Spcycr, Mannheim, Worms, Maycnce, Coblentz, Bonn, 
Cologne, Diisseldorf, Wesel, and Emmerich, where it enters the Netherlands, and reaches, the North 
dea by several mouths — the Waal to Rotterdam ; the Yssel, to the Zuyder Zee ; the Old Rhine, to Leyden.. 
In Its course it pai^ses through the following territories, viz.:— Switzerland, Baden,. Bavaria, Hesse- 
Darmstadt, Prussia, and Holland. Its principal affluents on the right bank. arc the Kinzig, tho. 
jfcckar, the Main, the Lahn, the Ruhr, and the Lippe ; and on the left the Thur, the Aare, the 111,, 
and the Moselle. From the source to the mouth, allowing for windings, the distance is 600 ' 
miles ; the direct distance is about 360 miles. Vessels of from 3.00 to 450 tons go np the river to 
Cologne; those of 126 to 200 to Mayence; and those of 100 to 125 as far as Strassburg. Tt Is navigable 
by steamers from Rotterdam to Basle, but at present steamers only mii as far as Mannheim, liie 
beauties of the river lie between Remagen (a little beyond Bonn) and Bingen, on this side of Mayence. 
The finest part of the river is, without doubt, that between Coblentz and Bingen. It was frozen over 
at Mayence and at the Ruhr, 1879. 

Passports are still occasionally demanded in Prussia, Bavaria, and other parts of Ckrmany, especially 
in Berlin and Frankfort; and the visa is necessary in such cases. The passport is likewise of 
itso in cases of Identification, and perhaps, sometimes, for admission into public buildings, and the 
traveller is advised never to bo without one. A Foreign Office passport is always desirable, and may be 
obtained at a trifling cost. Innkeepers are bound to submit the names, professions, age, religion, and 
motives for travelling, Ac., of all the visitors who may arrive at or depart from their hotels. And the 
better to ensure attention to this rule, a strangers' book, called "das Fremden-Buch," is kept at each 
hotel. In which the traveller is requested to enter all the necessary particulars. 

Money.— i German mark (or 100 pfennlge) = Is. = IJ franc = 60 Dutch cents. = 24 American 
cents. A Thaler = 2s. lid.; Dutch or Austrian Florin = Is. 8d. 

Wines.— The best wines of the Rheingau are those called Johannisberger, Stelnberger, Rudesbeimcr, 
A-ssmannshanser, Marcobnmner, Grafenberger, Hochheimer, Geisenheimer, Hattenhehuer^BAxwKcd^Vcsiv'et^ 
Winkel, and Bodeuthaler ; those of Rhenish Bavaria are R.uve«t\.€tk<ix%'!ix> '^'^^'^^^^^^^^^ 
snd KSnigsbacher. Th^#4 6t Rhdnisb Pm«8lA ln<ATxAt lExi«^\v^KV« tccv^ ^V3ww&N '<^^'^'^ ^ ^ «=^ 


1 rosfie, Scharlachber^cr, Xicrstcincr, Lnnhciiheimcr, and Liebfraucnmlloh. The valley of the Ahr gives 
Ahrblclchert and Walporzheimcr; and at Ehrcnbreitstein is a good wine called Kreuzbcrgcr. Of the 
M )selle wines the best arc Braunbcrger and Pisportcr. 

InnB.— In Germany the innkeepers arc of a superior class in life, and generally of obliging and kbid 
manners. They preside at their own tables cThdie, and their conversation is almost invariably 
intelligent and agreeable. 

Travellers intending to remain a week or longer at an hotel, should make an agreement beforehand 
with the landlord, who will generally abate one-third of the charge. Table dhdte tickets can also be 
purchased much cheaper when taken by the score or dozen. In Germany, apartments in hotels are 
charged for according to size, accommodation, and the storey in which they are situated. 

(AvRRAOE Charges made at Good Medium Hotels iir Gerhakt). Marks. 

Bed-rooms, varying according to size and situation, from 1^ to 8 

mxmateX table dhdte 3 

in private room, from 3 to 4 

Tea or coffee, with meat 2 

Breakfast 1 to 1| 

Bottle of table wine 1 to \\ 

Attendance „ \ to 1 

Light „ i to 1 

The averagpe expenses of a party, say of six, would be considerably less. 

Table (T/rd/tf.— Generally at 1 o'clock. 

Travellers on the Rhine should ask for ** Bowie,'* a delicious spiced wine in grreat vogue during 

Steamers.— The fares on board the Rhine steamers have been raised ; it is cheaper to travel by rail 
than by boat ; but certainly the river is better seen from the banks than from the steamer. Seepage 99 
/or details. 

London to the Rliine, vlfl. Rotterdam. 

By Sea. 
The^e steamers are provided with first-class 
accommodation for passengers, including private 
state cabins for families. Places can be taken at 
the London offices of the companies from London 
for any town on the Rhine, as far as Basle, at 
very moderate fares ; and in booking throughout 
passengers have the advantage of being permitted 
to stop at any place they please on the Rhine, and 
of proceeding on their journey without the least 
additional charge. 

Through tickets for the undermentioned places on 
the Rhine, vid Rotterdam, by the steamers of the 
Netherlands Rhine Steam Navigation Compan}', 
can be obtained at the Company's Offices at 
Jvoderate rates: — 
To l?ffsseIdorf, Cologne Bonn, Nenwied, Cob- 

lenz, Bingen, Wiesbaden, Bieberich, Mayence, 
Frankfort, Worms, Ludwigshafen, or Mannheim. 
Passengers booked also to places as under, via 
the Dutch-Rhenish Railway Company: — From 
London to Amsterdam, the Hague, Amhcm, 
or Diisseldorf, chief cabin and first-class, at 
moderate rates. 

London to Rotterdam, vU Harwich, and 

Hoek van Holland.— By Great Eastern Rail- 
way. The Boat Express leaves London, Liverpool 
Street Station, at 8-80 p.m., and Doncaster at 4-28 
aft. every week-day, in connection with Express 
Trains from Manchester, the North of England, 
and Scotland. Fares from London, first-class and 
saloon, 29s.; second class and fore cabin, 188. 
Return tickets, 4ds.; 29s. Passengers can go on 
to Rotterdam by the steamer, fares being some- 
what lower. See Bradsfuno't Continental Guide, 
LondontoRotterdam.— By Netherlands steam 

Koiite 19.] 



Bofit Company** Steamers, HuUand, Maasstrom, 
and Batavler, alternately, every Wednesday and 
Saturday, from Brunswick Wharf, Blackwall, in 
connection with the Rhine steamers. 

London, Queenborough, and FlaBhlng.— 

By Cliatham and Dover Rail to Queenborough: 
tliencc by Zeclnnd Co.'s Steamer, dally, to Flush- 
ing (Vllsslngcn). 

Hull to Rotterdam.— Every Mon day ,Wedn es- 
day,Thursday, and Saturday. Sea passage, lOhours. 

GrimBby to Rotterdam (average passage, 
thirty hours).— Saloon. 20s.: return, 308. Every 
Wednesday and Saturday. 

Newcastle to Rotterdam.— The Tyne Ship- 
ping Steamers every Tuesday. Return, Friday. 

Lelth to Rotterdam— Every Monday and 

London to Brassels and Cologne, direct by 

rail. Ac. ; see preceding Routes. 

In the maritime Provinces of Holland, there are 
neither mountains nor hills to relieve the eye from 
thp monotony of one flat sni-fnce; and when viewed 
from the top of a tower or s' eeple the country appears 
like a vast marshy plain, intersected in nil directions 
by an infinity of canals and ditches. The prospect Is 
not however altogether uninteresting, though want- 
ing In what we deem the first features of picturesque 
beauty, as It exhibits vast meadows of the fi-eshest 
verdure, covered with nume ous herds of cattle. 
The numerous vessels passhig In every direc- 
tion also tend to enliven tiie scene, nnd the close 
succession of farms, villages, and t<)wns, show at 
once the industry and wealth of the country. 

Tlie Maas (French, Meuse), is the estuary which 
conducts the greater portion of the waters of the 
Rhine and Meuse into the sea. At Its mouth there 
Is a bar which causes vessels much difficulty to 
pass, especially in a low tide, when there is only 
seven feet of water to sail In. Entering the Maas, 
we see to the left the Hoek (HooV) van Holland, 
a sandy bank stretching into the sea. 

To the left we see Brlelle, a fortified town of 
small dimensions, situated on the right ba>ik 
of the river as we ascend the stream. It is 
celebrated as being the birth-place of Admirals 
Tromp and de Witt. At this point the vessel is 
boarded by the oiHcArs of customs, who examine 
the ship's papers, nod close the hold of the vessel. 

At the outbreak of the Dutch war of liberation, it 
was taken from the Spaniards by the Dutch in 
1572, William dc la Marck commanding the Water 
Gueuscn at the attack; the tercentenary of which 
event was celebrated 1872; when a Monument 
and a Sailor's Hospital were commenced, the king* 
laying the foundation stone. Motley, the historian, 
author of the '' Rise of the Dutch Republic," and 
other well known works, was present. A proces- 
sion of trades in mediaeval costume was formed on 
this occasion. It was one of the cautionary towns 
delivered to the English in 1585, in whose hands 
it remained until 1616. At this point we find a 
ferry across the Maas. We arrive at the entrance 
of the New canal, which Is 5 miles further up than 
Brlelle. This canal has proved an invaluable aid 
in the navigation of the river. It bisects the Island 
of Vooni, and enables vessels of large burden to 
avoid the risk incurred by enteringat the mouth of 
the Maas, from which place they can pass into 
the large and commodious port of 

HelVOetslays (or " Hell-foot Sluice "), where 
we see a roval dock and arsenal. It was from here 
William III. set sail for England In 1688. It is the 
chief naval port for the Dutch in the south, and 
may be looked upon in reference to Rotterdam and 
the mouth of the Rhine and Meuxe In the same 
light as the Helder is to Amsterdam and the 
Zuyder Zee. 

Vlaardingen is seen on the right, higher up, 
and is the chief station for the Herring fishery of 
Holland, in which a hundred or more vessels are 
engaged annually. The tishery season lasts from 
the 2nd of June to the Ist of November. The 
chartering of the herring fleet is an interesting 
affair; some time about the middle of June the 
officers to be employed assemble at the Stadhuis, 
or Town Hall, and take an oath of fidelity to the 
laws of the fishery convention. After this they 
hoist their flags, generally on the 14th of June, 
and proceed to the church to assist at the service 
specially celebrated for tiie occasion, with the 
object of praying for a successful season. The 14th 
of June, on which day they weigh anchor, is 
generally kept as a gala day, devoted to amuse- 
ment and feasting. The first fruits of the expedi- 
tion are looked for with mxL<5.V>>%s»aX^>i>'^^"*^^'«*-"«*^'=''^^ 

\ to^e<i^«L\oOtvaXVw^^x'^^^'».v^^'> 


BttAi>BltAW's Hand-book 

tRoute 19. 

home with tke first fish taken. A carpo of herthigrs 
realises about 800 florins, and the first kegs were 
•oncefoiesentedto the King and his Ministers. Both 
Vlaardhigen and Schiedam (below) are stations on 
the line from Hoek van Holland to Rotterdam. 

Nearer to Rotterdam, sltaated at a distance from 
the river side, is 

ScMedam. Popalatlon (1890), 25,260. This 
place is famous for its distilleries, with the refuse of 
which upwards of 30,000 pigs are fed annually. It 
has the appearance of ahuge forge, vomiting clouds 
of smoke that cover the town with a black mist. 

Rotterdam Is next seen at a turn of the river. 
The Maas, facing the town, is from 40 to 45 feet 
deep, thus enabling vessels of the largest tonnage 
to moor close to the houses.- The Steamers land 
their passengers on the west quay, near the 
Boompjes. The latter is singrularly picturesque. 
In consequence of the large avenue of beautiful 
elms which stretch along its banks giving the quay 
its ntime—Boomfffes, which means little trees. On 
this quay is situated the Custom House. Through 
passengers for Cologne, Ac, are conveyed free, by 
river steamer, to the Rh^nspoorweg terminus. 

ROTTERDAM (Station). 

ffotas :—l,ejgtatifrs Hotel. Established 1826. 
Situated near the Landing Pier, facing the Park. 
See Advt. Victoria Hotel; Hotel Weimar, very 
conveniently situated; New Bath Hotel; Hotel des 
Pays Bas; Hotel Maas; De Hollande; Hotel 
Verhaaren (Spaansche Kade); Du Passage; 
Coomans; St. Paulus. 

Resident English OonsuL 

English Church and Sa>tch Church Services. The 
English Church, on the east side of the Haringvllet, 
has emblazoned on its portal the arms of Queen 
Anne and of the Duke of Marlborough. 

English Physician. 

Conveyances. — Railways to Hag^e, Leyden, Haar- 
lem, Amsterdam, Utrecht, Amhem, Emmerich, 
and Oberhausen (for all parts of Germany), see 
Bkadshaw's Continental Guide. Railway to Breda 
and Antwerp. A connecting rail runs through the 
town across the river, by a viaduct and bridge to 
m6ot the Central Belgian line from Dort. 

J'ast and Telegraph Q^.— -Beurs Plein. 
JiotterdMm Is situated on tho right bank of the 
"^ ^^^ ^^^ coneuence with the Rotte. Popu- 

lation of 209.186. One*fourth Roman Catholic. 
8,000 Jews. The form of the town is that of a 
triangle, made up of about an equal proportion of 
streets and canals, the principal of tho latter 
being the Leuve, Oude, Nieuwe, Scheepmakcrs 
and Wynhaven, and the Haringvllet, which 
discharge themselves Into the Maas. 

In Holland both tea and coffee are excellent. By 
no means order bacon or fish, or broiled ham and 
eggs ; they arc usually a failure abroad. The 
best thing to have is plain boiled eggs, or cold 
meat, or eotelettes aux pommes de t err e /rites, or an 
omelette aux herbes fines. The charge for break- 
fast is from a florin to a florin and a half (Is. 8d. 
to 2s. 6d.) Table d'h&e dinner is at four or half- 
past four; a bell usually rings tuc.ill the company 
together. The charge, including ordinary' wine, 
is about two guilders (3s. 4d.) Higher priced 
wines can be chosen from the carte. Never drink 
water; it is very bad. The best substitute is 
Seltzerwater, or bottled beer. 

The hotels in Holland are managed in the French 
style. At most sixpence each is charged for 
candles (bougies) in the room, and about tenpcnce 
a day for attendance (service). 

The shops are tolerably good, but they see 
too many English not to know how to charge 
high. A Turk's head, with a gaping mouth, 
gaudily painted and set above the door is the 
sign of a druggist's shop. A Bible carved in 
stone over the door indicates the deaconries for 
charity. Mirrors set at an angle outside the 
windows will also catch the stranger's eye; these 
reflect whatever is passing in the street, and ar^ 
called *' spies.'' 

The visitor to Rotterdam, for the first time, will 
be surprised at the large number of draw-bridges 
keeping up a communication. The canals, crowded 
with vessels discharging cargoes at the very doors 
of the shops and warehouses, will appear quite as 
singular. Thus the easy communication with the 
sea has contributed largely to swell the tide of 
prosperity for Rotterdam. It has a large number 
of merchant ships constantly employed in Its 
foreign commerce, which are principally engaged 
in the service to and from India. Its chief 
foreign trade is with Batavia, but a good traffic 
tB also maintained in the productions of the East. 
Its com faidpTO^V%Voii\.Ta,<L<^« axe also very greats 


Boute 19.] 



whilst its dockyards, supplied with timber from 
the upper parts of Germany contiguous to the 
Rhine, make it the seat of a busy industry in ship- 

The appearance of the town, its novel and 
attractive combination of trees, bridges, water, 
and vessels; its old houses, overhanging their 
foundation, as if about falling in ruins ; its shops 
and the semi-barbarous images in their front, 
together with its many other peculiar scenes and 
customs, will serve to amuse the visitor who 
enters it for the first time much better than any 
lengthened description we can give of its buildings 
and institutions. The high street, called ffoogstraat, 
is built upon a broad, low dyke, or embankment, 
wliich formerly protected the town against inun- 
dation. The more modem and regularly built 
portion is to be found to the west, south, and 
southowest of this street, which once bounded the 
old city on the south. 

One chief object of attraction in Rotterdam is 
the bronze Statue of Eratmw^ standing on vaulting 
of considerable width, which spans a canal, and 
on which is held the principal market. The house 
in which Erasmus was born, in 1467, is now a 
tavom, and is to be seen at No. 3, Breede Kerk 
Straat ; it bears the following inscription — " Hie 
est parva domus, magnus quft natus Erasmus.*' 
His real name was Gerrit-Gerritz, which he 
changed into Desiderius Erasmus. 

The Church of St. Lawrence, called the Groote 
Kerk, is a structure of the fifteenth century, 
being built in 1472, and lately restored. Its archi- 
tectural proportions are much neglected, and do 
not present a very fine appearance. It is surmounted 
by a tower 210 feet high, from which can bo 
obtained an excellent view of the town and sur- 
rounding country, which, like all scenes in Holland, 
is peculiar and distinctive, presenting a combina- 
tion of wood and water, avenues and farm-yards 
stretching along a singrularly level horizon, only 
broken by an occasional church spire or windmill 
rising in the distance. This church contains 
a larg^ number of monuments, among which 
are those of Admirals de Witt and Cod«per, 
erected by the States-General. Sacristan, 2$ cents. 
Tower, 50 cents, additional. The Organ will attract 
attention on acoount ol its immense sise apd 
sweet tonef U k»B AW |49^» 81 stops, and 


its largest metal pipe is 36 feet long, and 17 inches 
in diameter. It is 90 feet high, and considered 
superior to the organ of Haarlem. The organist 
will play for an hour for a fee of ten florins. 

The Exchange, above which is a fine collection 
of philosophical instruments, and an Industrial Art 
Museum. Daily, 25 cents. 

The Town Hall or Stadhuis is a fine building, 
having a composite portico. The House formerly 
occupied by the East India Company, near the 
Hotel des Pays Bas, is noticeable. The Dockyard^ 
though small, is wM'tha visit, andean be seen by an 
order from' any respectable householder. In it ift 
preserved the stem of the Royal Charles, which 
was taken by the Dutch in 1667. The Picture 
Museum, bequeathed to the town by M. Boymans^ 
1857, was burnt, 1864, and has been rebuilt. Th» 
collection, part of which was saved, and has been 
increased, can be seen daily, except Monday, by 
paying a small fee. The Archives and the Town 
LibrQry, with 30,000 vols., are in the same building. 
Open 11 to 3. Apply to the librarian. The follow- 
ing are the most noteworthy pictures :— J. G. Cnjrp* 
a portrait; Alb. Cuyp, a dead hare and grey 
horses; Rembrandt, a large mifinished allegorieal 
sketch; Ruysdael, two landscapes; A. Van de 
Velde, the Farrior; E. Van de Volde, Man on 
Horseback; Hobbcma, two landscapes; JanSteea, 
Feast of St. Nicholas, and An Operation for Stone: 
Eeckhout, an Interior, Ruth and Boaz ; Mierevelt, 
Portrait of Baraeveld ; Klinkenburg, View at tb« 
Hague. Catalogue (in French), 75 cents. 

The Zoological and Botanic Gardens may bo 
visited in the morning. 

After dinner the Paa^k, at the West End, may 
be visited. A band plays here on Summer CTea* 
ings, and coffee and refreshments can be had. 
Ornamental water, with swans, pretty shrubberies 
and plantations, and a statue of Tollens, one of 
the popular poets of Holland, make this spot very 
delightful. A number of very pretty houses are 
here, and the great Sailors' Home lies to the left. 
Tramways are a considerable feature here. 

Small screw Trekschuiten ply every hour to Delft 
and the Hague. Steamers to Nymegen erery 
morning in summer, and every second mominf 
during the winter months. 



[Route 19a. 

hours; to Hertogenbosch (Bois-le-Duc), 6 hours. 
To London, three times a week ; to Antwerp, daily, 
in 10 hours; to Hull, Dundee, Edinburgh, Grimsby, 
Harwich, Newcastle:— For hours of sailing and fur- 
ther particulars, see BracUhaw's Continental Guide 
From Groote Veerhaven to Kattendrecht a ferry- 
boat plies, fare 15 cents. Hero the left bank of 
the Maas is formed by an island called Ijssel- 
monde, and which, though only 15 miles in length, 
by 7 in width, is surrounded and intersected by 
dykes to the extent of 2,000 miles in length. 

ROTJTB le^. 


Rotterdam to Nymegen. 

The Toyage from Rotterdam to Nymeg^u, up 
the Waal, generally occupies twelve hours, hnd if 
for a party, where there are several ladies, the 
ttate cabin should be engaged. It ntay be reached 
by rail rid Utrecht, Anihem, and Cleve. Dordrecht 
may be reached vid the Grand Central Belgian 
Line to Antwerp and Brussels. It crosses the Moer« 
dijk by a fine viaduct, with a swing bridge in it. 

The "Waal" is the largest of the arms Into 
which the Rhine divides on reaching Holland. 

Leaving Rotterdam, we first pass, on the left, 
the guard-ship, and Feyenoor, the seat of a large 
engineering and foundry establishment, where we 
see the banks at both sides dotted with numerous 
picturesque villas and summer residences. At the 
8paaniars-Diop, windmills, cottages, and ship- 
yards are seen, and at this point the Leek joins the 

Dort, or Dordrecbt (Station), on the Antwerp 
line. Population, 32,934. 

Ifotels : Belle Vuc ; Wolk's ; Des Armes 
D*Amerique ; Des Armes d'Hollande ; Caf d at the 

Dort, once a Roman Trajectum or ferry, is situated 
on the expanse of the Maas ; presenting a 8emi« 
circular front to the water, with a quay and espla- 
nade all round. It is the seat of a considerable 
timber trade ; with hundreds of saw mills, barges, 
and schuyts {skooiti.) It was here, in 1572, the 
first assembly of the States-General met, after 
Holland had revolted from the Spanish yoke. 

The famous assembly of Protestant divines, 

J-aofra as the ** Synod of DorU^" was held here in 

lais-js, ia the bouHe uosr called KJoreniers 

'**«''«». TAa room in which thU celebrated 

synod was held s still preserved unaltered, though 
often used as a ball-room. Its sittings lasted six 
months, and numbered 152; the upshot of them 
was to confirm as the established faith, the Gal- 
vini>tic doctrine of Predestination and Grace, 
and condemn Arminius and his followers. The 
president, in closing the sittings, declared "its 
miraculous labours had made hcU treml)]e." 

Museum of Pictures, chiefly modem and local. A 
large number l>y Ary Scheffer, mostly copies 

The Gothic Church has a tall square tower, and is 
remarkable for its carved white marble pulpit, its 
carved choir stalls in the Renaissance style, various 
monuments, and massive gold church plate. The 
Mint is a building of the fifteenth century. 

Dort is the chief station for the rafts (see 
Route 21). The largest East Indiamen can sail up 
to the quays. The surrounding country is very 
low, and every depression is so full of water that 
fears are entertained lest the whole should be 
swallowed by the waters, were the Rhine to rise 
even a few inches. Sailing through very intricate 
sandbanks, we arrive at 

GorkHIIl, or Gorinchem (Station), an old 
town to the left, situated at the junction of the 
Maas and Linge, and connected with Yianen 
on the Lock by the canal of Frederick. Popula- 
tion, 10,396. This was one of the first places taken 
from the Spaniards by the Water Gueusen, in 1572, 
who, under their chief ofiieer Lumey, murdered 
nineteen Roman Catholic priests, for which savage 
act he was degraded by the States-General. 
The great Merwede Canal from Amsterdam to 
Gtorkum, was opened as far as Vreeswijk in 1892. 
Opposite Gorkum, on the left, is Workum, and we 
see also to the left 

The Castfe of Jjoevefistein^ famous as the prison of 
Grotius, 1609. It stands on a point of the island 
of Bommel. Grotius being allowed books, was 
concealed by his wife in the box which brought 
them and so conveyed out of prison by his 
servant maid, who had it taken to Gorcum, to 
the house ot an Armenian friend named Jacob 
Daatzelaar, where he was relieved from his 
narrow cell and escaped to Brabant. Madame do 
Grootwasnot long detained in prison, and soon 
after rejoined her husband in Paris. 
BOTHT'^^'^i to the left, once a fortified place de- 
stroyed \U \W%. ^T\^«^ 1^1 ^»X^%ViTv^. 


Route 20.] 

TMel, to the right, an agreeable little town, ' 
with 3,6U0 inhabitants, and famous as the birth- 
place of the lato General Chassd. 

Nsrmegen (Station), on the Zevenaar, Cleve, 
and Cologne line. Dutch, Nijmegen; German, 

Hotels: De la Place Roy ale: Boggia; Hof 
van Brabant; De Gouden Letuw; Berg-en-Dal; 

Nymegen (pop. 82,fil8), the Roman Noviomagum^ 
on the left bank of the Waai. A good view of it may 
be obtained from the Belvedere. It was formerly 
strongly defended, and is built on the slope of the 
Hoenderberg hill, where the Romans pitched a 


Toven HcU^ a structure of the sixteenth century, 
having in front two rows of btatues of some 
empermrs of Germany. Its curiosities are the 
iword with which the Counts Egiuont and Hourn 
were beheaded, portraits of the ambassadors 
who attended on the occasion of the signing of 
the treaty in 1678, between Charles II. of Spain 
and Louis XIV. ; a picture called the Riddle of 
l^ymegen; and some Roman antiquities. 

St. Stephen's Chwch, a brick edifice of a good 
cruciform shape, erected 1272, is a pretty specimeu 
of the Gothic style, and remarkable for its ancient 
choir, in which stands the monument of Catherine 
de Bourbon, wife of Adolphus of Egmont, uuke of 
Gueldcrs. Her eflRgy is executed in brass. 

On an eminence here stand fragments of the church 
of the Castle of Valkhof— a Castle destroyed \y 
tiio French in 1794, and said to have been built by 
Julius CjBsar, and inhabited by Charlemagne. A 
circular chapel or baptistery is of the thirteenth 
century. Further up is the cafd called Belvedere, 
with a very fine view. 

Rail to Cleve; toVenloo; to Tilborg; and to 
Amhem, performing the jouniey, by express, in 22 
minutes, and meeting the trains to Utrecht and 
Amsterdam. Steamer down to Rotterdam in 10 


THE snnfE (b). 

Botterdam to Cologne. 

The hwt course to adopt in this route is to pro- 
ceed from Rotterdam to Arnbem (sec p. 190) by 
|&« nUJwMy; wbicb is eo&tijined on to Cologne, 


vid Cleves or Emmerich ; but should persons prefei 
the jouniey by water, they may find a steamer 
starting from Amhem each morning, which arrives 
at Cologne in about 15 hours, arter a tedious 

The rails down the east and west banks of the 
river, towards Cologne, divide ofT near Zevenaar ; 
one going past Emmerich, Wesel, Ac; the other, 
jmst Cleve and Crelcld. 

Cleve (Station), Cleves, or Klece (in Prussia) 
has a population of 10,170. 

Hotels: Bath Hotel; Hotel Stirum; Prinzcnhof. 
Omnibus from tlie station, where there is a Post 
and Telegraph office. English Church Strvice. 

This is an exceedingly attractive Rhenish 
watering-place, boih for summer and winter, and 
is resorted to annually by above 20,<i00 persons — 
Dutch and German, besides many English visitors. 
Conversation House and Ball-rof>m, with salon*, 
promenades, concerts, and other conveniences. 
The surrounding woods are traversed by numerous 
pleasant walks. Park ai the Thiergarten. Baths 
at the Stahlbrunnen (erected 1742), near the Cur- 
haus, and Friedricii-Wilhelms Bad. The waters 
are good for the nerves, and agreeable and easy of 
digestion. Carriages, horses, and donkeys are to 
be had in abundance, according to tariff. Kurtaxo, 
payable after a week's stay, 5 marks. 

It stands on the slope {Clivus) of three wooded 
hills, in a fertile country, 2| miles from the Rhine, 
to which a canal runs; and was the capital of a 
Duchy, and long a disputed possession of the 
House of Prussia. In the middle of the town is 
the old Ducal Castle o/Schtcanenburg. where Anne of 
Cleves, one of Henry ViII.'s wives, was b«irn; now 
converted into public oflices, and marked by a 
stiong tower, 180 leet high, built 1439, overlooking 
a fine prospect. It is the bcene uf a legend, referred 
to in one of Southey's ^oems. Another ^ood >iew 
from the Cleverberg. Tr e brick Sti/iskircfie ( 1 8 »fi) 
has monuments of the Counts of Cleve, effigies of 
Adolph VI. of (iuelders and wife (1394), and brasses 
of John I. (1481) and II. At the Rathhats are 
some fVescoes. Statue of Elector Sigismund in the 
market place, and of Johanna Sebus, a local U«xv<^ 
factor. At. Pi-\\tt«whot \^ ^ \c«»jivsRivsi5s. Xs^e^^xN^^ 



[Route 20. 

nnd Pyruioiit ; oiid at Berg und Thaly on the road to 
Xanthen, in a gri'ove, is Prince Maurice's iron 
tomb (1625). Frederick the Great lired at Schloss 

The confluence of the Waal and the Lower Rhine, 
or Leek, the two branches of the Rhine, takes place 
at a distance of eight or nine miles above Nymegen, 
on the former, and Amhem on the latter. Here are 
dams, dykes, and jetties regulating the waters, so 
that no more than two-thirds of the tributaries 
should enter into the Waal, and only one-third into 
the Leek. On these hydraulic works depends the 
physical existence of Holland. The vigilance used 
by the engineers in strengthening them saved the 
country from being inundated in the floods of 1784. 

■ At Aart a safety-valve is formed by a dam 
thrown across an old arm of the Rhine. In the 
event of its waters at Amhem attaining a certain 
heighr, a new passage to the sea would be formed 
for the Rhine in less than five minutes, which 
W3uld suffice to sweep away the dam. 

LObith is seen to the right, and marks the 
frontiers of HoUand and Prussia. It is also the 
station of the Dutch custom-house, and the 
steamer, in descending, is delayed an hour or more 
in the examination of baggage, &c., by the officers. 
Opposite Lobith is the now decayed fortress of 
Schenkenstchanz, once a formidable and much- 
prized stronghold, rendered important by its 
position on the tongue of land stretching into the 
Rhine and formed by the forking of that river. 
Fpom close to this spot can be seen the towers and 
isteeples of Cleves, towards which a railway runs. 

Elten (Station).— Here an examination of 
baggage takes {dace by the custom-house officers, 
and the passports are sometimes asked for by the 

BrnmerlOh (Station) — HdteU: DeHollande; 
Bahnhof; Royal; Rheinhof — is situated on the 
right, and is the first Prussian garrisoned town we 
meet, with a population of 9,759. It is the seat of 
considerable industry, and has a very clean and 
neat appearance. The church of St. Aldegund and 
the Uifuter^ the oldest on the right bank of the 
-Rhine, are the only objects of attractive interest. 

' SiMTtlnjr Iroj^ Emmerich, we see the small town 
^<Jf0a^ ca tbe rifbt fit/p. 

Xanthen, or Xantm ou the left, remarkable for 
its double-spired church, and as being the Castra 
Vetera of the Romans. It has a population of 3,500 ; 
and tradition renders it memorable as being the 
spot where the Emperor Maximilian had St. Gcrcon, 
and the Thcban Legion, beheaded. 

Wesel (Station)— /nn«; Dombusch; Giesen— 
at the confluence of the Lippe and the Rhine, 
diagonally opposite an artificial island, formed in 
1785, by a cut of tbe river, the chief strong- 
hold of the north-west frontier of Prussia. It 
contains 20,736 inhabitants, and is the emporium 
of a very active trade. A connecting rail with 
Haltem (Station) was opened 1874; and another 
link finished 1875, to Venlo^ opens up a direct line 
from Paris to Hamburg, vid MUnster and Bremen. 
The direct line from Flushing is also open, via 

Breda. TUburg, Boztel, Ooch, and Xanten. 

At Boxtel, lines come in from ElndhOTOn and 
Hasselt; and from Eindhoven, Helmond, ftod 
Venlo (from DUsseldorf ). 

At Wesel the Rhine is crossed by a bridge of boatf, 
and is divided in two arms by the island of Biidcrich. 
The Rathhaus is the only building worth seeing. 
Close to Wesel there is a monument to the 
memory of the Prussian officers shot here, in 1809, 
by the French. To the left, facing Wesel, is 
Fort Blttcher. At Wesel, also, Rapin wrote his 
history of England. Passing Orsoy to the left, we 
see on the right, 

Bnlirort (Station)— //<><«/< ; Ville de Clevcs; 
Preussischerhof ; Rbeinischerhof — a coal depdt, sit- 
uated at tbe mouth of the Ruhr, where it discharges 
itself into the Rhine. Nearly 8,000,000 tons of 
coal, the produce of the fields on the banks of the 
Ruhr, are deposited here annually. 

Dulsburg (Station)— /nfu: Europalscher Hof ; 
Hof von Holland, Harke— on the Lys. A consider- 
able manufacturing town, with a population of 
69,300. It has Reiss's monument to Gerhardt 
Kremer,the originator of Mercator's Chart; German 
— Kramer , Latin— i/«rca<«r (see Rupelmonde, page 
31). Duisburg is, next to Ruhrort, the largest 
depdt for the great trade in coal from the Ruhr 

The Vatleff 6/ the Ruhr deserves to be explored if 
time permit. The following will be found its most 
inttrestlng e^s: Hohoi- Sybug, BlankeastoiB, 

Jloute 20.1 



Werden, Ketling, wnAMUMheim, from whidi aline to 
ilM/tH(piBopen -> one of seTeral in this busy yalley. 
UerdingMI (Station) is on tho left bank, 
seated in a fertile plain, and encircled by poplar 
tr^ea. It has about 3,925 inhabitants, principally 
em^yed in naTigratioii and sheep and cattle 
feeding. Not far from this place is 
EieheLskftmp, where the French, In 1795, first 
cKMMd the Rhine, with 25,000 men under the 
oommand of Ltf tfbre. On the right we see OalOItm, 
a railway station, about \\ mile from which Is 
KAlamirtrCh, for a loog period the residence of 
the Gernum tmpeffors. It was formerly an island, 
and still contains the roini of a Cattle, built by 
Pepin d^Heristal, frmn whieh the Archbishop of 
Cologne, Hanno, earried off the emperor Henry IV., 
when <mly a child of two years, from his mother. 
Its Ohureh it a remariuble building of the thir- 
temth eentitty, and contains the shrine of St. 
Snltbert, an English monk, who preached here in 
the eighth eentnry. In this place also, there is 
a Deaeonesa Institution, founded by Fliedner, a 
Protestant clergyman. Population, fl,888. 
DUSBBLDOBIf (8tetiOlD.-ifo/eb: 
Breidenbaeherhof ; Hotel Heck— First elass; in 

Hotel do r Europe, near the railway station, post 
office, find landing places of the Rhine steamers. 
Resident EnglUh ConnU^Oenefat. 
English Church Service at the German Protestant 
Ch9rch, Berger Btrasse, at 11 a.m. and 4 30 p.m. on 

Post OJflct, comer of Kasemen Strasse. 
' DUsseldorf is one of the prettiest and neatest 
towns on tho Rhine, containing 144,682 inhabitants. 
It is seated on the right bank of the Rhine, which 
here attains a breadth of 400 yards. It was once a 
fortified town, but its fortifications, since the peace 
of liuncvillc, have disappeared, and their place is 
occupied by gardens and agreeable walks. Its 
objects of attraction are few— indeed it may be 
Raid that the Kunsthalle and the Boyal Kurutaiade- 
mie are the only ones. The celebrated gallery of 
pictures was remored to Munich in 1803; the 
present collection in the Kunsthalle is much 
inferior. The artists principally represented arc : ~ 
Cornelius, Knaus, Hasenderer, A. aud O. Achqu- 
bach, and J. W. Sehirmer. Taa so and the two 


Loonuras, by Carl Sohn, are brilliirat executions of 
modem date. 

Part of the Kunstakademie collection was burnt 
inthe fire of March, 1872; but one good picture, 
Rubcns's Assumption of the Virgin, was saved, and 
there is also an Interesting collection of draw- 
ings and engraviags, amounting to 14,2M speci« 
mens, among which are many by Raphael, 
M. Angelo, Titian, and other celebrities, together 
with copies of 800 water-colour drawings from 
the works of the different Italian sehools, from 
the fourth century. 

The DUsseidor/ School 0/ Painting^ founded in 
1828, by Cornelius, has an exhibition each summer 
of the paintings by water-colour artists. It opens 
in July, and continues open until September. Near 
the Uofgarten there is a fine statue of Cornelius 
(bora here, 1787), on a double pedestal. The Mal- 
kttsten (Paiat-box) Club meets at Jacobrs House. 

Schttlte's Gallery of Modem Paintings, at 42, 
Alleestrasse, is always worthy a risit, constantly 
containing new pictures, whieh art txiiibited there 
as they are fini^ed. Sereral fine pietoria of Um 
earlier part of this century are also on Tiav. 

The Hofkircht^ or church of St. Andraw, has 
some good paintings by Dusseldorf artists of the 
existing school, amongst which is one by Deger, 
representing the Virgin as -she stands on clouds, 
huldiiig the Saviour. The church of St. Lambert, 
in which there are several interesting monuments, 
and the Maxlmilianskirche are the only other 
objects of public interest. 

The Ho/garten, laid out In 1767, extended in 1802, 
will repay a visit ; it is lined with good walks, and 
conmiands a good view of the Rhine. The Exhibi- 
tion of 188U was held near the K61n-Mindeu Station. 

Ddsseldorf is the seat of the provincial parlia- 
ment of the Rhenish provinces, and is the residence 
of Prince Frederick of Prussia. Its situation on 
the Rhine contributes considerably to its pros- 
perous and thriving conditiov . Tt is the emporium 
uf the merchandise sent from the duchy of Berg, 
and the cutlery and iron ware from Sohliiigen, m, 
well as of the cloths aud cottons of Elberfeld. 
Of the three quarters into which it is divided^ 
Karlstadt and Neustadt ax^VsA\«^N.«8A.^'*«»«a^, 

couUa%VVu*"%Uw^V3 ^V^>a^ ^'^ '^^^'^ ^^ '^'^^ 



Pkmpxlfobt, situated on the east of the town, 
is remarkable as being the residence of the philo- 
sopher Jacobi, and the resort of Goethe, Wieland, 
Stolberg, and other literary celebrities. H. Heine 
was born at No. 3, Bclker Str. 

Zoological Gardens, well laid out, admission 
50 pf. Music occasionally. Near these is 

D|}88BLTHAL—Three miles from Dusseldorf, and 
also worth a visit. It is an asylum for destitute 
children, 140 of whom receive a useful education, 
and are taught trades. 

Helldobf— Twelve miles from Dusseldorf, near 
Calcum Station, on the line to Dnisbnrg, will repay 
a visit. Here is the house of Count Spec, which 
contains some excellent frescoes. 

The steamer occupies, between DUsseldorf and 
Cologne, 5 hours in ascending, and 2| hours in 

Leaving Dusseldorf, we see on our left the 
steeple of Neil88 (Station), where a connection 

is open via 86hi«n>alm, with MUnchen-Olad- 

toadb and Blieydt, 1 6 miles. See page 79. 

Benrath (Station).— From here we see a hand- 
some chAtean, built by the electors of Cleves, and 
occupied by Murat when Grand Duke. 

Passing Zons, with its numerous towers, we 
cross the Kuppe, and arrive at 

Mnlhelm-on-tlie-Blxlne (Station), on our 

right, a fine prosperous town, 8 miles from Cologne. 
Population, 30,993. Bridge of boats removed 
from Coblenz. Not far distant is Stammheim, 
remarkable for its Gothic chapel, and as the 
residence of Count FUrstenberg. 



Cologne to CoUenz and Ems; the Moselle 
to Trdves. 

This famous rfver, the entire course and character 

of which the Supreme Architect seems to have 

embellished with glorious scenery and pictu- 

^asqae grandear, is no less remarkable for the 

o*fm6lnatlon of natural loveliness that characterises 

JtB seonery, than for the historical traditions inter- 

orwi wrJtb every phate of its biatory, represent- 

[Route 21. 

iug Roman conquests and defeats ; feudal events 
full of chivaby and daring; and the wars and 
negotiations of modem days. Its banks possess 
an interest, not only as being the resting place of 
the bones and ashes of emperors who wore 
the imperial purple, and swayed the mighty sceptre 
within its territorial boundaries, but as being 
adorned with some of the noblest Gothic 
monuments of the middle ages, whilst every variety 
of rugged rock, and forests thick In stately ele- 
gance and sylvan grandeur; plains rich in fruitful 
vineyards, now perched like an eagle's eyrie among 
lofty crags, and anon gently sloping to the water's 
edge, are scattered along as so many triumphs 
won by industrj' and energy in this rugged 
stronghold of nature. The Rhine, which is now 
entirely in Gorman territory, is regarded by 
every German with a kind of reverence and affec- 
tionate interest, their poetry calling it ^'' King 
Rhine;'' and their resolve to keep it is attested in 
the popular song, " Die Wacht am Rhoin." Old 
castles having a thousand legends connected with 
the traditional reminiscences of their history are 
met with as we are borne along its course. 

" And there they etand as stands a lofty mind. 
Worn, but tinstooping to the baser crowd. 
All tenantlea save to the crannying wind. 
Or holdini^ dark commtinion with the crowd- 
There was a day when they were young and provd. 
Banners on high and battles passed below. 
But they who fought are in a bloody shroud. 
And those which waved are ahredleas dust ere now, 
And the bleak battlements shall bear no future blow." 

Populous cities, flourishing towns and villages, 
beautiful roads and healthy mineral springs are not 
wanting to add more attraction and beauty to that 
river whose waters supply choice fish, as the vine- 
yards on its banks produce the choicest wine; "a 
river which," according to Dr. Lieber, "in its 
course of 800 miles, affords 680 miles of uninter- 
rupted navigation (torn Basle to the sea, and enables 
the inhabitants of its banks to exchange the rich 
and various products of its shores for the choice 
articles indigrenous to other lands; whose cities, 
illustrious for commerce, for the encouragement of 
science, and fortifications, ftimish protection to 
Germany, and are also famous as the seats of 
Roman colonies and of ecclesiastical councils, and 
are associated ^VWvtcvssvy <)^ the most important 
I events recoTded \tv \\i^ \A'&\or9 Q\\iuKG:fe\sj^:> 

;d quuillty. The timber t>iMi!d i 
1 voysge, ud often predueei ai 
H>.uid»metlmetXaO.MW. The i 

Bt«unen on t&B auns. 

lOtUuda Coiop*!))- in n.iuLly 

I, l(a Gi>mp«itlon, ob^ct, uid deal 
ue ulleil ra/li. ud are the pndnis 


ntholrloftf hcli;hIB, 
Dd tu Dordrecbl, tor 

luuti an nqnlnd to uTlgate ihe 
e directed by pllota and tbe pro 
roB on tioud tliv raft, Ju a hauae Un 

I poilliou, which 
id order all the gteorinf and 

(Salon; and Foro-Cabl.i (VorkamMi). 

bo go tatlilaetory. The qnjckeet boatg goiyom 
Mayonce tuCoiogue in 7) haan, siid from Cologne 
to Maywis b> 11 faoun. Tbeu ct\l ooly at Bleb- 

BtBlnEenaln. Oa Sundiyi and bolldayg Ibey 
alao caJl it Eltvllle and Ktlulgiwlnlsr. Ttaere ar« 
tbtee cluHi at boali. qnlck, medlnip, and glaw. 
110 llj». of Imgigo »« alloirfld free. 
Ttae Following will be tonnd the aierage time 

Botterdam and Enunerlcli— ...ST ...S targ...|j hn. 

UayeiuHiaud Mannheim SI ...3 „ ... IS) „ 

Tbereare Wluidliigplacoanlirlilehlbaateuiier* 
louch, looia of tbc uioit plctnr«>i|uu polnti of tha 
RhiiJO. At any of lhem,ttAV4*v^*\.^M^'v»»^-'**^ 



has only to take care to hare his ticket marked ' 
by the conductor of the boat before leaving it. ; 
Careful enquiry should be mtde, before going on 
board, as to where the steamer in question calls. At 
certain places landing or boarding is effected by 
boat at a charge of lOpf . The circular tickets issued 
by Railway Companies are not in connection with 
steamers. Ordincuy return tickets are good for 
10 days, and others for a year. 

acmerp of the Rhitu.—Th9 picturesque grr*ndeiir 
and beauties of the Rhuie are first seen on arriving 
at the cluster of hills called Siebongebirge 
(Seven Mountains); and from this place, along 
the banks of the river as far as Mayence, scenes 
of surpassing loveliness and romantic beauty are 
consti^ntly met with. Tourists hurriedly pas- 
ting up and down the river in a steam-boat cannot 
properly enjoy the scenery of the Rhine. A mere 
trip up ordown the Rhine, such as English travellers 
generally take, gives only an imperfect idea of 
the beauties of the river and its banks. If the 
tourist wishes to appreciate the Rhine, he must 
not hurry on but halt at the fbllowlng places, 
which perhaps are the most appropriate ones 
that can be pointed out : Bonn, Coblenz^ St. Ooar^ 
and Bingen^ or RUdesheim. Below Bonn, in the 
direction of Cologne, or above Mayence, there 
is scarcely any object which merits admiration. 

We trace in the elevated Alps, in Switzer- 
land, and near Mount St. Gothard, the sources 
of the Rhdne, the Tessin, and the Rhine or 
the king of the German— nay, of the West 
European— rivers. The visitor, on ascending the 
Rhine, or on his arrival at Strassburg, calls to his 
recollection that this stream has hastened its 
course tlirough the lake of Constance; has pre- 
cipitated itself over the rocky ramparts at SchaiT- 
hausen; then, strengthened by the collected 
v^aters of Switzerland— the influx of 870 glaciers, 
and upwards of 2,700 brooks and streams- 
commenced its majestic course near the ancient 
Roman city of Basic; expanding between the 
Upper Black Forest, amidst ranges of mountains 
encircling a valley of nearly 80 miesl In breadth, 
tAj-on^rh vrbich It rapidly wound, receiving, besides 
otber streama, the important Ifeckar and Main, 
"W drdclty trate st Bbtgren seemi to arrsst its 

f Route 21. 

further career, through which It swiftly rushes, 
and, strengthened by the Nahe and Motelle, over- 
comes a similar obstacle at Andemaeh, when it 
continues its victorious course towards the Itfn. 

Cologne to Bonn by rail ; or by Steamer, 

18 English miles. 

Gologrne terminus close to the Central Station^ 
Distance by water, 22 English miles. Steamera 
occupy 8 hours up, and 1^ down. Travellers 
not desirous of visiting Bonn usually take the 
train as far as Mohlem, where there is a ferry to 
KSnigswlnter. A railway runs near both banks 
of the river, all the way from Cologne to 
Mayenee. Left bank rail (Linksrheinisehe Balm). 

OolOgne (Station). (See Route 18.)— The rallr 
way, quitting Cologne, passes, at a short distance 
from the Rhhie, through a flat country, rich in 
com fields, and in proximity to the Yorgebirge 
chain of hills, Ac. 

KalSChenren (Station), a place of no import- 

Briilll (Station).— A small town, population 
3,860, remarkable as having been the refuge 
of the Archbishop Eng^lbert, of Falkenberg, 
expelled from Cologne in 1263, and of the Cardinal 
Mazarin, when expelled from France. The elector, 
Clement Augustus, laid, in 1725, ihe foundation 
stone of the magnificent Castle of Augustendurg^ 
finished by Maximilian Frederick, and now the 
property of the Prussian government. This castle 
lies on a beautiful promontory, which near Bonn 
recedes from the Rhine, and ranges along in a 
picturesque manner, two miles from it. The train 
stops almost exactly opposite the castle. The King 
of Prussia, in 1845, received Queen Victoria in this 
castle during the Beethoven festival. The site is 
excellent, and the country around very picturesque 
and grand ; over the stairs are beautiful platfofms 
painted by Anducci and Camioli. In the inteiier 
cultivated taste is combined with domestic eoni- 
fort. Larg^ Ash ponds, shady groves, and a park 
which was formerly stocked with game etieirele 
the castle ; a linden walk takes us into a small 
wood to the beautiful hunting seat of Falkenlntt. 
Leaving the last station we pass . 

Sechtem (Station) and Waldorf, where are 
the remains of a Roman aqneduet, and arrlTe «t 

Bonie 31«] 



mineral spring, whose water is preferable to that 
of Godesberg, because it retains its carb<»ic acid 
for a longer time, and therefore may be sent to a 
greater distance. A brilliant view of the Soren 
Mountains beyond the Rhine may be had here. 
Before reaching Bonn, we see the Kreujberg (Cross 
monntain), to which a fine avenue of fir-trees leads. 
The village of Poppelsdorf rises behind it. The 
cloister of Servites has been pulled down, but the 
beautiful Church, with its marble sUirs and fine 
platform is still standing. The church contains 
some fine paintings, and in the crypt are to be 
seen mummies of the monks. 

The Bonn terminus is dose to the chestnut 
avenue leading to Poppelsdorf. Omnibuses ply 
between the station and steamers. 

The water journey from Cologne to Bonn is very 
dull, the banks being quite flat, and the villages 
lying on ihem uninteresting. 

As the steamer nears Bonn, to the left, the outline 
of the JUdtengebirge^ or Seven Mountains, is seen to 
reflect itself in prismatic splendour, glittering and 
sparkling like the walls of some crystal palace. 

The Sieg discharges itself into the Rhine on the 
right bank. This river is famous for salmon fish- 
*ing. It abounds in this fish, some of which weigh 
from 30 to 60 pounds. 

To the left the castle of Siegburg rises on an 
eminence above the Sieg, three miles east of the 
Rhine. It is now a Reformatory. 

To the left, also, is Scbwarz-Rheindorf. It 
contains a curious architectural monument, the 
Stift Kirche, a church of two storeys high, with 
very old(12tb century ) mural paintings, extremely 
interesting to antiquarians. 

On approaching Bonn, the most prominent 
objects are the towers of the Minster, and of the 
now Evangelical Protestant Church. 

BOHN iWUUcak),'-Motat: 

The Oraad Hotel Royal, situated on tlie banks of 
the Rhine; replete with every modem comfort; 
liighly reeommeudcd. L. Vogeler, Manager. See 

Hotel Golden Star, one of the best on the Conti- 
nent in every respact, and worthy of the highest 
recommendation . 

Hotel Rheineck. Hotel lUay, 

Grand Hotel de Belle Yi», 

English Church Service^ on Sundays, in the 
University Church. Prubyterian ChunhYxett. 

Post and Telegraph Office, Miinster-Pliitz. 

Population, 89,801, mcluding the students and 
garrison. A university town in Rhenish-Prnssit, 
of Roman origin (BonnaJ^ and formerly the resi* 
dence of the Electors of Cologne. One of its best 
edifices is the University, where the late Princf 
Consort was a student, formerly the Electoral 
Palace, in which, besides lecture-rooms, is a library 
of 250,000 volumes; the Academical Museum of 
Art, in two rooms, catalogue, 8 marks; attendant, 
7$pf.; and Aula, or Hall, decorated with freacoea 
by FSrster, Gotzenburger, and Herman, under the 
direction of Cornelius. The subjects are Philo^ 
sophy. Medicine, Jurisprudence, and Theology, i* 
which may be noticed the figures of Linnffua, 
Cuvier, Wickliffe, Luther, Calvin, St. Jerome, aad 
Ignatius Loyola. That of Theology was begun by 
Cornelius. Entrance, 75pf. ProvineiuiMvseum of 
Rhenish and Roman Antiquities, opened 1891. 

The Minster, 11th and 18th centuries, has a very 
fine external appearance, and was originally 
founded by the Empress Helena, mother of 
Constantine the Great, in 320. It is built in the 
Byzantine style, and is surmounted by five 
towers. It contains a bronze statue of the 
Empress, and bai been restored. 

The house of Beethoven* s parents is pointed 
out in the Rlicingasse. He was bom, however, in 
the house No. 20, Bonngasse. A bronze stAtue 
of him, erected in 1845, stands in the Milnster 
Platz. Niebuhr, the historian, is buried in the 
churchyard here, outside the town, with Bunsen 
and his wife, Schumann (statue), and E. M. Amdt. 
Here died, 1876, Professor Simrock, author of '*An 
den Rhein, an den Rhein, zieh nicht an den Bhein,** 
and of a popular review of the Nibelungenlied. 

The Museum of Natural Philosophy occupies the 
Chateau of Poppelsdorf approached by a beautiful 
walk, lined with a double avenue of chestnut trees. 
The collection is extensive and interesting; the 
various fossils, minerals, Ac, iUustrating the 
geology of th» Rhine, the Siebengebirge, and 
Eifel. A set of fossU frogs in it deserve notice- 
Entrance, 75 ^t.> W%% ^« '^^^^'^^^^"^^Ivr^ 

Botomift GuHUi* *J5^^V«y* V>«^ ^'^^'*w'^vv«si*.^'^ 



[Route 21 i 

ratory, one of the best in Europe, nnd a School of 
Anatomy, close by, belong to the Univertfity. 

The Beanties of the Rhine begin to unfold 
themselres at Bonn. From the opposite side of the 
river the view of the Seven Mountains is magni- 
ficently grand, whilst they can also be seen with 
mncb advantage from the Alter Zoll terrace, out- 
side the Coblenz gate. The view obtained from 
the church on the top of Kreuzberg, I mile from 
roppelsdorf Castle, is beautiful. The Church 
was built in 1627, and contains a copy of the stairs 
which led np to Pilate's Judgment Hall. They 
are in a chapel behind the high altar, and are 
modelled from the Scala Santa staircase at Rome, 
and were built of Italian marble in 1725. Persons 
wishing to ascend them must do so on their knees. 
In a vault nndemeath the church are mummies. 
They lie in twenty-five colBns, and have cowls and 
cassocks on. They have been buried at various 
times, from 1400 to 1713. Many other pleasant ex- 
cursions can be made in Bonn ; and the visitor is 
recommended to devote a day to Poppelsdorf, 
Kreuzberg, Kcssenich, and the Rosenburg, the 
Kcssenicher Schlucht, and the Dottendorfer Hohe. 

From Benel (opposite) a rail leads into a very 
wild and picturesque district to Hennef, Ac. 

Bonn to Coblenz.— Leaving Bonn, we pass, 
at 3 miles distance, the Hocb Kreuz (high 
cross), as it is called, a Gothic monument, built 
by Wulfram von Jttlich, Archbishop of Cologne, 
in 1331-1349. About 1 mile distant from this, to 
the right of the line, and opposite the Hoch Kreuz, 
lies Frietdarf^ situated at the foot of a pleasant 
chain of hills which commences at Godesberg. 

Before reaching Godesberg, we pass, on the left, 
the villages of Ramersdorf and Pllttersdorf, and 
opposite to them on the other side of the Rhine, 
are Obcrkasscl and Dottendorf. 

Ck>des1>erg (Station). 

Hoteli: Blinzler's; Belle Vue; Adler. 

A pleasant health resort, which possesses special 

attractions, much improved of late years. The 

Draischer Brunnen and Wasserheil Anstalt with 

baths are close by. The castle keep, the Godcs- 

burg, on the top of the hill, Is an interesting object ; 

y^jsabaJJdlnsrof tbe thirteenth centniy, erected 

^J^ tue jUvbblshops of Cologne, on the site of a 

Roman fort. It was taken and blown ap by the 
Bavarians in 1583. Magnificent view of the Rhine. 
Engliih Chur^ Seitnce, by resident chaplain. One 
mile and a half from Godesberg is 

MeUem (Station), where travellers for 
Konigswinter nnd the Drachenfels leave the train. 
The station is i mile from the river. From 
Mehlem an excursion can be made to the volcanic 
hill of Roderberg. The shortest way to reach 
the Seven Mountains is by crossing to KSnigs- 
winter over the Rhine by ferryboat. 

K5nlg8Wlnter (on the opposite bank) —HoteU: 

Hotel on the Petersberg, beautifully situated on 
one of the finest moantaias of the Slebengcbirge. 
See Advt. 

Hotel de T Europe. 

Hotel de Berlin ; Rieffcl ; Kulnerhof . 

Here the valley of the Rhine, properly so 
called, which begins at Bingen, terminates. It is 
a small village of about 3,060 inhabitants, situated 
at the foot of the Drachenfels, the ascent of which 
from here can be made in about half an hour. 
A very interesting and delightful excursion, 
of about one day*s length, may be made from 
the foot of the Drachenfels, by ascending the 
left bank of the Rhine to Rolandseck, and 
again going down the river to KSnigrswinter. 
With the excursion to the Seven Mountains, 
a visit can be made to the celebrated Cistercian 
Abbey of HeUterhaeh. A fragment of the choir 
now only remains, a solitary monument of its 
ancient magnificence. The building was com- 
menced in 1202, and was finished in 12-38, being a 
beautiful specimen of the transition style from 
the round to the pointed system of architecture. 
In 1806, the greater part of the building was pulled 
down, and used up in the erection of the fortifica- 
tions of Wesel. There is now no need of a guide 
to visit the district, as finger.posts and first-cla'fs 
roads render it easy for the pedestrian, or thoic 
preferring horseback or using carriages, to find 
their way about. A' small map of the district 
may bo obtained at Bonn or Konigswinter. 

Donkeys to ascend the Drachenfels cost I Imark;: : 
to Heisterbach, IJ marks. Boats to Nonnenwerth 
and back, 2 marks; to Bonn, 1^ marks. 

The Seven Mountains, or the Siebengebirge, 
arc a porUotv ol t\\«i'W<»t«rwt\^^wA.fA.\^ \SA\ier In 

Bonte 21.] 



the magnificent scenerj' of the Rhine. They rise? 
in towering majesty above its banlcs, and are 
denominated as follows : — Stromberg, 1,053 
feet; Niederstromberg, 1,066 feet; Oelberg, 1,456 
feet; Wolkenbnrg, 1,057 feet; DrachenfeU, 1,051 
feet; LSwenbnrg, and Hemmerich. On the sum- 
mits of some are remains of ancient strongholds. 
The Drachenfels., or the Dragon Rock, is the 
most remarkable, and derives double interest from 
having been the subject of Byron's muse. It 
rises from the bank of the river in a huge wall of 
rocks, on the south-west declivity. In the lower 
half, you perceive the narrow, though high, opening 
of a cave, in which tradition records, dwelt the 
dragon whom the homed Siegfried slew: 

"The «Mtl«d crag of Dniehenfels, 
Frowns o'er the wide and windiiif Bhine Byron. 

The summit of this mountain can be arrived at 
in a little less than an hour from Konigswinter. 
For those who cannot undertake the pedestrian 
ascent, and do not care to ride, the cog-wheel rail 
(1 mark up, 50 pf. Aoym) will be found very con- 

From the top a magnificent view may be enjoyed 
of the country and objects all round. In our ascent 
we pass the quarry from which was taken the 
stone used in the erection of the Cologne Cathedral. 
Close to the top is a very good Inn, where the 
traveller will find comfortable accommodation, 
and enjoy a magrnificent view of the sunrise, should 
he stop over night and sleep there. From here the 
view extends down the river for about '20 miles, 
closed in by high and picturesque rocks, which 
impart a wild aspect to the scene, greatly relieved, 
however, by the villages and farm houses filling 
up the foreground. The chief objects which strike 
the eye are the peaks of the Seven Mountains, the 
Tower of Qodesberg, the Volcanic Chain of the 
Eifcl, and the island of Nonnenwerth. On^ the 
summit of the Lowenberg are the ruins of the 
castle in which Mclanchthonand Bucer dwelt for a 
short period with the Archbishop Herman Von 
Wcid. Near Mehlem there is an extinct volcano, 
one of the most interesting on the Rhine, called 
the Roderberg. Its crater is a one-fifth of a mile 
round, and 60 feet deep. Leaving Mehlem the line 
commences to run close to the river. 

Rolandsedc (Station).— JSTo^e/.* 

Hotel Rolandseclc. 

The view from Rolandseck is very beautiful. If 
you desire to reach the ruins, you first strike 
into the horse-road, which serpentines across the 
hill in a westerly direction. Yon then come on the 
left to a footpath that takes you through an over- 
grown ravine to the summit. At the foot of the 
hill lies a hamlet with 860 inhabitants. On the 
pleasant island of Nonnenwerth there is a nunnery, 
built in 1673. It is now a ladies* school, and gentle- 
men are not admitted alone. The legend of Roland 
(of very doubtful authenticity) is well known, and 
need not be told at length. Roland, in his travels, 
is said to have been entertained by Graf Heribert, 
at the Dracheufels, and to have fallen in love with 
his beautiful daughter, Hildegnnde. The crusade 
prevented their nuptials, and a rumour of Roland*a 
death caused Hildergninde to seek refuge in the 
convent of Nonnenwerth. His return and despair, 
his building the castle where he might possibly 
catch a glimpse of the beloved form, and his faith- 
fulness till death have been recorded in melodious 

On the height of Honnef, on the other side of 
the river, there are some lead and copper mines, 
and a little further down is RhSndorf, in the 
shade of the majestic Siebengebirge. With these 
masses terminates the Westerwald chain that 
stretches in an easterly direction up to Fulda. 

The road from Rolandseck to Remagen is carried 
through a rock. It was begmi by the Bavarians, 
continued by the French, and perfected by the 
Prussians. From Konigswinter to Unkel, the 
Rhine forms a new basin, bordered on both banks 
by cheerful landscapes. The stations on the 
Rechtsrhcin line are Bhondorf, Honnef, and Unkel. 
Just before arriving at the latter we pass 
Rheinbreitbach with 1,200 inhabitants, and two 
coppermines, one of which, St. John's, is the oldest 
on the Rhine. 

' UnkeL— A small town, with 600 or 700 inhabi- 
tants, sitnated in a very picturesque country, 
on the left bank. Here is a hill with an inex- 
haustible store of large columns of basalt, under 
a layer of 30 or 40 feet of sandy marl ground. They 
stand and lie in the quarry in different directions, 
resembling those of the Gi9.i&5C% ^«s»ss?r"«^ Na- 




Tht most nnuu-kAbl* of th«M it the UnkeUtein, 
which WM formerlj a heathen altar. The basalt 
forms a first-rate material for roads, and as sach 
is largely quarried. Just before arrivinf at 
Uemagen, on the Linksrheiiiische line, we see 
the wooded heights of the 

ApoUinmrUbtrfy which belonged to the abbey of 
Jiiegfotrg. It glares name to a tonic water for 
drinking in mneh repute, the ApoUintni* Spring, 
disoov«red ie«7. From 80 to lOi) million bottles 
are aztKMted, tnoetljr to England, from the Com- 
fany^s works. It is rich In carbonic acid gas, and 
is called after 8t. Apollinarins, whoso head Is 
lifeteirYed In the ancient Gothic chorch, built 
from the designs of Zwlmer, the restorer and 
finiriier of the Dom of Cologne. It is decorated 
with frescoes, and lighted, except In the choir, by 
circular windows, tt contains some of the best 
Woiku of the German school of fresco painting, by 
Ueger, A. MHller, and Ittenbach. It may be 
yisltod from Remagen, S horse carriage, ]| mark. 

. BMMgan (ttotioa). (Liaksrheiulsche Rail.) 

il9UU: Hotel Fttrsteaburg, good and moderate; 
kept by W. Caraotola, the proprietor also of 
liotol &»aig Voa PreuMea. Both often fuU. 

A small town, the Rig&maguM of the Romans, 
with popniatlon of S,300 inhabitants. It lies op- 
posite the high road from Bonn to Coblenx. When, 
in 1T68, the beautiful road between the two latter 
mentimied plaees was being made, a great number 
of antique monuments were found here and about. 
Thoy chiefly consisted of Roman mileetones, coins, 
colnmus with Inscriptions, sarcophagi, denoting 
{Hnetty clearly that the Emperor Marcus Aurellus 
and Lucius had already founded a road here. The 
chief v^a^tsX of Interest to the traveller is the 
Rmmmmfm € M§ m a if. It is close to the church, 
and has sculptured on it the signs of the sodlac. 

On the other side, a little above Hemagen, are seen 
the basaltic predpices called ^eBrpeUrLei, which 
are MO feet high, and almost inaccessible, and 
have yet, by the energy and skill of human 
industry, been converted Into rich vineyards. 
The costly Ltp wine, the principal white wine of 
£h*jo jMiii^ grows on the southern or eastern 
a^eUHtjrof tbtB Hfep. m§ tMrelfef Is «dvl«ed 

[From Remagen a short line of 6 miles runs up 
the Ahr valley as far as Adenau. 

The first station is Bo4MLdorf; the line then 
runs partly xound the base of the LaildlkZO]l» 
over 900 feet high, oomposod almost entirely of 
colunmar basalt, and crowned by a ruined cattle 
of the early part of the 18th century. Near the 
baso arc mineral q>rings, similar to the Apolliu- 
arisbrunnen (see above), which lies rather fhrther 
up the valley. Next comes IfeilOllftlir, S miles 
from Remagen. Kurhaus, with thermal springs, 
resembling those tH Ems, much visited, with good 
arrangements. There are good and cheap hotels 
and the climate is suited for week constitutions. 

Ahrwallar, two miles further up the valley 
(population, 4,<16), lies at the entrance to the 
more picturesque part of the valley, best visited 
by pedestrians. Carriages can l>c obtained, and 
the roads arc good. The principal attractions are 
Walponbeim (I mlle, good small hot(I), and 
Altenahr (Station), with n castle of the 13th 
century, situated on a bold clifi, 400 feet above the 
village. Entrance, 50i)f. for one person. 

The railway continues up the Ahr valley as fhr 
as Dtimpelfeld. and then turns off to Adtliail, 
near the two highest peaks of the Eifel, the Hohc 
Acht, and the Nllrburg. 

The effect of the rugged cliffs, which hem in the 
rushing river, is enhanced by their composition, 
which is either black basalt or dark slate. 

This little mountain stream flows through a 
narrow, deep, and crooked valley, 54 miles long, 
producing an excellent red wine called Ahr- 
bleichert. Its current is very rapid and sometimes 
overflows its banks, spreading desolation around. 
The Ahr valley is well worth a visit by lovers 
of picturesque scenery ; it is too little known.] 

Linz (Station), on the Rechtsrheinische. 

Uotd* : Woinstock ; Nassau flammerstein ; 
Dcutscbcr Kaiser. 

A small industrious town, with a p<^ulation of 
S,415. It is partly fortified and belonged formerly 
to the Electorate of Cologne. In 1865, the castle 
near the Rhine-gate was built by Archbishop 
Engelbert til., in order to secure the Rhine toll 
and protect the town against the invasions of the 
citizens of Anderaach. The castle, as well m the 
town-walls, are built of basalt^ and the streeta are 
paved witYv the ssLiuft -m«).\A^s\. K\s&.q%\. Q&s«rKl^ 

Boufce 21.] 



opposite Linz, the Ahr issues into the Rliine, 
immediately below Sinzig. In passing its mouthy 
hy steamer, we see up the Ahr valley the conical 
top of the Landskron. 

Sinzllf (Station)— (Unksrheiniscbe)— /Tb/eiL* 
Deutschcs Haus. A small town, 1^ mile from the 
Kbine, by whose waters its walls might hare 
been formerly washed. Its population is 2,300. It 
is the ancient Sentiacwnj a Roman station, 
probably founded by one of Augustus's generals, 
called Sentis. According to tradition, the memo- 
rable battle between Constantino and Maxcntius, 
which insured the triumph of Christianity over 
Paganism, was fought here. Its parish Church is 
an object of interest. The altar-piece in it repre- 
sents Constantiue beholding the cross in the sky. 
It is a fine Romanesque edifice, built in the form 
of a cro.<!8. A well-preserved earlj' Cologne 
painting, in the choir, deserves notice. There are 
a few German paintings at the side of the high altar. 

On the opposite bank is the castle of Arenfels. 
The line now leaves the Rhine, and takes a 

straight course to Klsderbreislg (Station), a 

pretty place, with about 1,220 inhabitants. West- 
wardly from here, away from the river, is Ober- 
rcisig, where our notice is claimed by an ancient 
church and some inscriptions. Proceeding to 
Brohl (below) we pass, on the left, the Ceutle qf 
Rheineck, from which the prospect is really grand. 
The ruins are the property of Herr von 
Bcthman-Holweg, of Bonn, who has restored 
them to their pristine shape at considerable 

Brobl (Stat) -JJ^M*: Peter Brvhl; Noim, 8«n.; 
Noun, Jua.->a sm^l village at the mouth of the 
Brohe valley. It extends partly on the declivity of 
a mount, and is partly hid in different directions 
by two small hills. Upon one of these eminences 
there lies an ancient Ceutie. The beautiful view, 
the abundance of springs, tbeovcrgrcon vegetation, 
and the natural ivweiisMU ao interesting to a 
philosopher, present one of the most delightful 
attractions on the banka of tiie Rhine. All around 
Brohl the character of the toil is volcanic, and the 
substratum of the valley ooniiate aloMMt entireiy 
of pumice atcme thrown out by eraptlon, and 
bounded by the asBalDeroaiaaalaterocka. BroU 
possesses several mills, emplefed la giin^ng 

tuff-stone into trass or cement. It resembles 
Roman cement and the pozzolana of Ni4;)les, and 
was made use of by the ancients in the constroc- 
tion of their sarcophagi. 

From here an excursion can be made to the 
Laachdr See And its Abbey, 1 -horse carriage, 
8 marks ; return 13} marks. This lake is extremely 
remarkable. It is a circular depression, about If 
mile in diameter, and 170 feet deep. It is said 
to have 3,000 sources. The water is of a bluish 
colour, is very cold, and of a nauseous taste, 
throwing up, when agitated, a sand attracted by 
the magpaet. The lake rarely freezes, and contains 
no fish but pike, tench, and perch. iThe Benedic- 
tine Abbey, founded 1093, was once renowned for 
its wealth. The founder, Pfalzgraf Heinrich II., 
is buried in the fine Romanesque Church. At an 
hotel near the building the keys of the Church 
may be obtained. On the opposite shore of the 
Rhine is visible the ivy-clad ruin of the Castle 
of ffamtiierstein, remarkable as being the refuge 
of the Emperor Henry IV. when persecuted by 
his son. The little old church within it is 
interesting. To the right of the rail lies 

Kamedy, situated romantically within the 
shades of the forest. . Here the Rhine forms a 
small harbour, where formerly the smaller rafts 
were united into larger ones. The mountains hero 
do not approach so closely to the river on either 
side. Lenteidorf is seen on the other side of 
4be Rhine, sheltered by high walls of rocks 
planted with vines. We arrive at 

Andemacll (Stations— <&o^«<Hackenbruch; 
Glocke ; Schaefer. An ancient town, founded by 
the Romans, and once a free city of the empire. 
Enclosed within lofty old walls, it contrasts 
strikingly with Neuwicd, which lies quite open. 
It was the frontier fortress of the Romans, 
the head-qnarters of a prsefectus militum, and 
the last Roman station of the army of the 
Upper Rhine. It contains fi,800 inhabitants, 
and is now famous for two products, fur- 
nished by remarkable quarries of mill stone 
and terras or trass, which will be Interesting to 
the geologist. This volcanic production. If mixed 
with a proper quantity of lime, forma •. <«wMe^ 
that re%V«.U -w^Jiw, «t t^^«> N*" ^'^^^''^j^^ 



[Ronte 21. 

building the dykc« liiHolIand. The mill stones of this 
place are also a volcanic product, and are spoken 
of as the ** Rhenish mill stones '* by the Roman 
authors. A great many of them have been found 
among the Roman ruins in England. They are 
also exported to this country, Russia, the East 
and West Indies, and to other countries of the 
world. The curiosities of Andeniach are, the gate 
towards Coblenz ; the round watch tower; the 
ancient palace of the Archbishops of Cologne, an 
interesting specimen of the architecture of the 
middle ages. 

The Church is a fine old structure of the 13th 
century; and in the neighbouring Kirchberg there 
are Roman sepulchres. In the neighbourhood are 
screral rich mineral springs. Those of TiJnnisstein 
have considerable reputation. There is a hotel 
and bathing establishment. The Lacuher See (see 
page 105) can also be cheaply visited from here by 
taking rail from Nieder-Mindig. The line, 14 miles 
long, runs throagh a scries of lava hills. The 
most remarkable is Niedcr-Mindig, where there 
arc large underground lava quarries, probably 
dating from Roman times. In some of these is 
stored beer, which is noted far and wide for its 
clearness and sparkling coolness. At this place, 
omnibuses for the Laucher See meet the trains; 
fare, 1 mark. 

Not far from Andemach, on the right of the 
road, on the spot where formerly stood the Abbey 
of St. Thom.ts, burnt by the French in 1794, Ihcre 
is an extensive tonnery and lunatic asylum, part 
of the restored ruins of the abbey. Beyond Ander- 
nach the mountains again approach the river, form- 
ing a magnificent defile, and having, at the water's 
edge, opposite Andemach, the ruin of Friedrich- 
stcin, or the Teufelshaus— i. e., the DeviKs House, 
so called by the serfs forced to build it; It was 
begun in the 17th century, but never finished. 

Just below Andemach is the mouth of the Nette, 
which, in its course of 10 leagues, waters one of 
the most fertile valleys on the Rhine. 
Rail from Andeniach to Uayeo. 

Keuwled (Station). (On both linos). 

Hotel* : Goldener Anker; Wilder Mann; Mora. 
"^Jmnf Sommcr. 

-Aa mgreeably eltnated and clean town, with a 
ropuution of about 10,192. It to the capital of the 

principality of Wicd, now joined to Prussia, and is 
located in a charming plain, environed as it were 
by a garland of eminences. It was founded not 
much more than two centuiics back by Frederick 
III. of Wied. It has broad streets, cheerful houses, 
and is a pattern of activity and industry. The 
Comit Alexander raised the prosperity of the town 
by giving perfect freedom and toleration in civil 
and religious matters to all who came to settle 
there, by assisting them with largo sums of money, 
and keeping up a splendid court. Lutherans, 
Roman Catholics, in short, people of all persuasions, 
flocked to this place where the fostering genius 
of toleration built herself a temple, where men, 
though kneeling at different altars, anil worshipping 
with different rites, yet regarded the book of peace 
and the legacy of love not as a bone of contention, 
nor Christianity as the touchstone of unchari- 

The Prince's Palace overlooks the river. In one 
of its side buildings is an interesting Museum 
of Roman antiquities, chiefly gathered from 
the buried city, near Niederbiber, 3 miles to 
the north of the town. In the collection are 
several tutelar genii; one of bronze, whose 
inscription Informs us that it had been erected by 
fourteen veterans (their names arc inscribed on 
the base), and other military persons, on the 33rd 
of September, 346 B.C. Besides these, there is 
silver in plates, bronze, sandstone and pipe clay, 
alabaster and fine volutes, shields, arms, helmets, 
iron tools, potter's ware of all forms and kinds, 
and a collection of coins, female ornaments, Ac. 
None of the coins date later than 876 a.d., which all 
but precisely settles the epoch of the destruction of 
the place, the ruins of which are now covered up. 
and the green com of spring again yearly waves in 
beauty over the bruised and broken remnants of 
its ancient grandeur. The Roman castrum is not 
mentioned in any of the itineraries. 

The palace Garden, accessible to every one, is 
particularly deserving the tourist's notice. A 
small hill in it, the Sonnenberg, affords a most 
beautiful prospect of the Rhine and of Andeniach. 
At the extremity of the garden yon see before 
you, through the trellis g^ate, the beautifnl avenue 
of popliurs that leads to the village of Iriich. In 
tbe \)X!^dVxvtS Q«KV«<3l WkA Pheasant's Wanen, to 

Route 21.] 



remarkable collection of natural objects may be 
seen, which the celebrated naturalist, Prince 
Maximilian of Neawied, made during bis travels 
in Brazil and North America. This collection 
contains 313 mammalia and 1,700 stnffed birds; 
there are also in it many specimens of other 
classes of the Brazilian animal liingdom. 

The flying bridge over the Rhine, and a steamer, 
maintain the connection between the two towns. 

The colony of Moravians or Hermhuter occupying 
a distinct quarter of the town, will interest the 
tourist; their church, schools, and workshops being 
worth seeing. They make pottery and gloves. 

A pleasant excursion can be made to Monrepos, 
with its park and gardens. It is situated 6 miles 
north-norih-east from Neuwied, and affords 
beautiful prospects. A pleasant road leads 
us to the ironworks of Rasselstein, and 
thence to the pleasure park of Nofhfiausen, much 
frequented by visitors from Coblenz and other 
places. The palace or Ch&teau is a plain building 
of but one storey. Behind the chftteau is a grove, 
partitioned out into seven shady and delightful 
walks ; at the end of one of them is a lonely and 
romantic valley, terminating at the entrance to a 
beautiful beech forest. The Altwiedcr Ausslcht, 
near here, commands an exceedingly fine prospect. 

We next see to the left, WeUsenthurm, or the 
White Tower. It is a village possessing a church 
decorated with modem frescoes, and deriving its 
name from the ancient watch tower built by the 
Electors of Treves. At this spot C»sar crossed 
the Rhine, seventeen centuries before, and con- 
structed his famous bridge, described in his Com- 
mentariei. The French also, in 1797, crossed the 
river at this spot under General Hoche, by throwing 
a bridge across. They met with stout opposition 
from the Austrians on the occasion. To the right, 
on an eminence, we see the obelisk erected to the 
memory of the French General. It bears the 
following inscription:— "The army of the Sambre 
and Meuse, to its commander General Hoche." 
The banks of the river here widen into an extensive 
and well cultivated plain, over which are scattered 
villas with pleasure and fruit gardens around 
them ; and the line leaves the Rhine, which is lost 
Bigbt of altogether until netr Coblenz. The Reclits- 

rbcinische lino also leaves the river for a time, 
nearing it again at 

Engers (Hotel: Zur Romerbrticke), with a 
castle and a population of 2,000. Scarcely 
a pistol-shot distance from it is the buttress of a 
Roman bridge of cement, said to have been built 
38 years B.C. by Virginius Agrippa. The castle Is 
now a military school, and near it are the remains 
of a 14th century fort, built to protect the naviga- 

MuMhofeXL— A small village at the mouth of 
the little river Sayn, on which are the village and 
ch&teau of Sayn, the latter having a valuable col- 
lection of pictures. At the rear of the village of Ben- 
dorf, close by,are the great Concordia ironworks, of 
the well-known firmof Krupp, at Essen. The former 
PrsBmonstrant Abbey at Sayn, founded in 1202, 
will interest deeply. Its church is built in the tran- 
sition style. At the extreme point of the valley is 
the castle of the Counts of Isenburg. The valley 
is certainly a delightful one, containing summer- 
houses, gardens, and villas. It forms a favourite 
object of summer visits to the people of Coblenz. 
The venerable and noble Abbey of Bommersdorf is 
seen on the slope of a hill north of the valley, 
about 2 miles north of Sayn, and the same distance 
north-east of Engers. To the right are seen the 
walls of the fortress of Ehrenbreitstein. Over 
against the ruins of the ancient Castle of Sayn lies 
the Fricdrich — or Renne — berg, where beautiful 
plantations may be seen and magnificent views 

fiendorf (Station), on the Rechtsrheinlscho line, 
is situated a little higher up ; it is surrounded with 
eminences of ironstone rock, which afford some 
beautiful prospects, including a view of the Rhine 
far below Coblenz issuing from among the moun- 
tains to form a junction with the Moselle, near that 
town. The Linksrheinischo line affords no further 
view of the Rhine ; those ascending the river by 
steamer sec on the left 

Neaendorf, the vegetable market of Coblenz. 
On the right the cottages of the vinedressers 
from Urbar range along the bank of thA x5^<52t^ 
where an e^i.<icVVfe\iVT^'^S^.^«l^\!M&\%^et«'«^ -Wsse 




To the left, near Ketselheim, arc the remains of 
the chftteau of 8ehdnbom*ltut, the residence of the 
Bourbon princes daring their exile from Franco at 
the French Revolution. On the left bank Is seen 
the village of Wallersheim, with its cloister, and 
on the right, on the slope of a mount, the former 
nunnery of Besselich. Near the confluence of the 
Moselle and Rhine, to the left, is the monument to 
General Marceau, who fell on the field of Altcn- 
kirchen, in endeavouring to check the retreat of 
Jourdan. Before reaching Coblenz the valley 
widens considerably, the mountains of the Hohen- 
Elfel no longer come up to the bank of the river; 
those of the Untcr-Wcsterwald also recede a little 
on the right hand, and thus the tourist is sur- 
rounded by a grand natural panorama. 

At Coblenz the Moselle and Rhine unite, and the 
line, skirting the Petersberg, and passing by the 
monument to General Marceau, crosses the former 
stream just above the ancient Coblenz. Ehrcn- 
breitstein, on the right, forms a striking object as 
the town is approached. Should the entry take 
place at the close of the day, the numerous old 
towers and turrets of Coblenz, sleeping in the 
shade, look well in the dusky twilight, and impart 
to the scene an aspect of sombre beauty. 

COBLBHZ mtaXion).- -Hoteii: 

Hotel du Geant, one of the best on the Rhine ; 
kept by Messrs. Eisemmann Brothers. 

Hotel de Belle Vue — first rate, and highly recom- 
mended. Landlady, Mrs. Hoche. 

The Anchor (Anker) Hotel, near the landing 
place. An old established moderate house. 

Hotel de Trfeves — Good. 

Pension Pfingsten ; Pension Beau Scjour. 

Church of England service^ }>erformed in the 
Palace Chapel twice each Sunday. The ehapel is 
supported by voluntary contributions. 

Cobieoz, the ^^Confluentes'' of the Romans, is a 

strongly fortified town on the light bank of the 

Rhine and left of the Moselle; capital of Rhenish 

Prussia, with a population of 82,671, exclusive of 

military in Ehrenbreitstein opposite. It occupies 

/t Ag/gv MangiB, formed by the influx of the 

MoMmjje Into the Rhine, and is adorned by many 

^^ baildlnsv, Bqwtrea, snd arennea of trees. 

The old castle, near the Moselle Bridge, possesses 
historical interest; here the Elector von Mettemich 
founded the Catholic League, 1609. It is now a 
tinware factory. 

Here the grandsons of Charlemagne met to 
divide amongst them his mighty empire into 
Germany, France, and Italy. Here, also, Edward 
III. of England, was installed Vicar of the 
Empire, by Louis of Bavaria. 

The Church of Si. Castor^ at the very confluMice 
of the two rivers, dating from 836, and dis- 
tinguished by its four towers, is worth a visit, 
and was consecrated in 1208. It was originally 
built chieiiy at the expense of Louis the Pious, 
but the present building is chiefly 11th century. 
On the left of the chancel stands the beautiful 
tomb of Kuno of Falkenstcin, archbishop of 
Treves, with a painting of a Crucifixion, attri- 
buted to the old German master, William of 

The cellars under the grammar school, formerly 
a Jesuit Convent, are worth visiting from their 
great extent, containing about 300 vats, or 400,000 
bottles of Rhine and Moselle wines. From the 
vicinity of this town to the wine districts, it forms 
the great depdt for the export of their produce, 
as also of the seltzer waters of Nassau, and the 
various volcanic productions of the neighbour- 

The Palace, the summer residence of the late 
Empress Augusta, extends its long and handsome 
fapade above the bridge of boats, with its principiU 
front to the great square, where the troops drill 
and band plays,, between 1 2 and 1 o^clock each day. 
The castellan shows the rooms, which are well 
worth a visit. Ring the bell in the corridor of the 
North Wing. Fee, 1 mark, or 2 marks for a party. 

The new PcUaee of Justice, containing the Law 
Courts, German Renaissance style. 

The Casino is a handsome building, having con- 
nected with it good reading-rooms, ball-rooms, and 
gardens, and is worth visiting. 

The objects worth notice in the old town are, be- 
sides the church of St. Castor, already mentioned, 
the Monument in front of this church, erected by 
the French in 1812, consisting of a fountain, 
the Ooitorbrutmeiv^MVWx^bTv \sA<»\\iC»nk^«wfiaa«aBA- 


Route 21.] 



rtktlre of tbe invMion of Russia by the French ; to 
which was added, by Gerard St. Priest, the Russian 
commander, on his way to Paris, when pnrsuinjf 
the discomfited army of Napoleon, in 1814: "seen 
and approved of by us, the Russian commander of 
the town of Coblenz " The Liebfiraum Kirche, a 
curious building, founded in 1259; the Pt'otestant 
church, remarkable for its stained glass windows, 
similar to those in the Jerusalem chamber at West- 
minster; the Moselle bridge, built in 1344, and 
commanding an agreeable view of the river; the 
venerable old buildings along the quay; the 
former Town Hall (Kaufhaus)), with a curious 
old clock; the monument to General von Goebcn, 
unveiled by the Emperor, September, 1884, on the 
Parade Platz; the Clemensbrunnen fountain. 

The forti/keUumt of Coiieng are of vast extent; 
of these Bll]r0n1>reit8t€ln is the most remarkable, 
having cost, it is said, £1,250,000. The works 
were completed after being about twenty years 
in process of erection. The ramparts have no case- 
mates, only a sidewall carried up along the moat. 
Covered towers, that rise up from the fosse to the 
glacis, and with their batteries, form the projecting 
angles, command th« whole lengrth of the moat. 
The bastions of the Moselle bridge-gate, the Lohr 
gate, and the Munt^ gate appear to be stronger 
than the rest. Forts Alexander and Constantine, 
built on the Carthusian mount, or Karthauu^ a fine 
point of view above the town, command the road 
to Mayence, and that over the Hunsriick. The 
latter fortress also commands the Rhine and 
Moselle. The stone steps, about 600, which lead 
up direct from the river bank, almost perpendicu- 
larly to tbe top of Ehrenbreitstein, are no longer 
used. From the fortifications there is a most 
charming prospect. In the foreground, Coblenz 
borders the stream, bounded by two islands, each 
of which formerly bad a convent. Behind the 
town, rising on high, are the threatening for- 
tifications of the Carthusian mount. In the plain 
there are more than thirty villages visible, and 
each point of view presents a new and enchant- 
ing landscape Tickets (before ascending to the 
fortress at the office in the Hofstrasse, close to tlie 
bridge), 50pf. each person. A non-commissioned 
officer Idads the party. Trinkgeld forbidden. 
Along the foot of the motmt, and losing itself in 

I the turning of the valley, near a pleasant mlnenl 
I spring that issues from a hill, extends the village 
of Muehlheim, with 2,800 inhabitants, commonly 
called the Thai Ehrenbreitstein. 

From behind the town of Ehrenbreitstein, a road 
leads via Niedcrberg to the pilgrim church of 
Arenberg, which has an altar made of curious 
grotto work, with a grotto chapel. 

In the environs of Coblenz are Moselweiss, a 
pretty village, much resorted to for recreation ; 
Mettemich. 8 miles distant, at the foot of the 
Krttmmelberg. Dere are the sources which supply 
Coblenz with water by pipes, which pass over the 
bridge of the MOMlltti This river is navigable to 
a great distance beyond Trbves ; daring the whole 
of its course from that city to its mouth, 147 miles, 
it is closed in by mountains, which form a con- 
tinned series of the most diversified landscapes, in 
consequence of the sinuosities of the stream. 
Steamers ply (in 1| day) between Coblenz and 
Treves, and thence on to Metz (page 176). Besides 
the beautiful valley of the Moselle itself, which con- 
tains some of the most picturesque river scenery 
in Germany, many of the adjacent valleys are well 
worth a visit. 

Coblenz being one of those points on the Rhine 
from whence so many interesting excursions may 
be made, it is well, if possible, to make it a halting 
place for some days. Among the places most 
worth visiting are the following: — the Pfafifen* 
dorfer H5he, a hill on the same side with Ehren- 
breitstein, and commanding almost as fine a view ; 
the hill of the Karihause; the castle of Stolzeafels, 
3 miles up, on the right bank of the Rhine — 
vehicles there and back, by tariff; to the top of the 
Riihkopf, the highest hill near tbe town ; Lahn- 
stein, on the left bank ; Sayn and the abbey of 
Rommersdorf ; abbey and lake of Laach; castle 
of Elz; Neuwied and Marksburg; more distant. 
Ems and Nassau. The neighbouring forests 
abound in game. With respect to the vineyards, 
for fifteen days before 15th October it is the cus- 
tom for no one, not even the owner, to enter them, 
butonthol5th all rush in andtake their fill of grapes. 

CofireyoJicM.— Rail to Ems, Kreuznach, Nieder- 
lahnsteia, Ehrang, Treves ^up the Moselle, pag* 
136), and Wiesbaden. 8tesLmAC^^ x-^^^-iftw *<«!»!«». 


alto to Bonn, Cologne, DttMeldorf, and Rotterdam, on the groand floor, which is a large raolted amd 

Steamers ascend the Muselie as far as Treres gloomy Hall, the water of the two principal springs 

and Motz. The average passage down the river is drank. Between the two springs there is a long 

from Treves to Coblenz is 11 hours; and 1} coveredpassage,onoithersideofwhlcharearranged 

day from Coblenz up to Treves. stalls for the sale of fancy articles. The principal 

At Coblenz the direct road to the Bmnnon of bathing-house is joined by covered passages to 

Nassau leaves the Rhine. A great part of it is two of the hotels. There is also another, the 

uninteresting, whilst some of the finest scenery of Prince of Wales, which has separate springs, 

the Rhine lies between Coblenz and Blngen ; and and one called the Vler ThttrmeflT; and finally the 

hence, to those wishing to explore its beauties, the jj^^g Badhaus, supplied from the Neue Quelle, 

rail bythe Icftbank, or the steamer as far as Blngen, ^yie hottest, 186*. The Kursaal contains lounging 

is preferable. In this case an excursion by rail ^^d reading room?, and a cafd. A Visitors' Tax 

to Ems and to the castle of NaMAU, 5 mUes ^^ ^^ marks is payable after the first week, 

further, ought to be made. ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^e ^^t^n^ A^e hot alkaline springs, 

EMS (Btation), f^Q^ go* jQ 120* at the Kesselbrunnen. They are 

Near Nassau, 13 miles from Coblenz, via taken in the morning and after dinner, from three 

Niederlahnstelii. ^^ ^^^ goblets before breakfast, and one or two in 

Population, 6,781. the afternoon. The dinner hour is one o'clock, 

J/oteU: Hotel d'Angleterre (Engllscher HoO; ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^,„3 ^^ the table d'hdte. 

Four Seasons (Vier Jahreszeiten) ; de Russie; ^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ,, ^j^. 

DarmstadterHof;Europillscherhof. ^^^^ ^^^^ ^ 3^^^,^^^ j^^ g^^„^,. 

Ems, or Bad-Ems. is beautifully situated on the ^^^^ beamlful walks can be taken near 
right bank of the Lahn It consist^ chiefly of a ^^^ particularly those up and down the Lahn, 
long range of houses buUt against hills, which rise ^^^ ^^ ^^^ Malberg, and the Winterberg, also to 
steeply behind it to a considerable height. The ^^^ concordla Thurm on the SlebenkOpe, where 
side of the vaUey is so narrow that there is barely ^^^ restaurants. The Malberg (l,SMft.) is con- 
space for the road and public promenade between ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^ funicular rail ; the cars 
the houses and the river. The situation of Ems is ^un every 10 minutes. Fare 1 mark. Monthly 

eminently beautiful, and many Improvements ., . ^ ,„ . 

. J . ^1 ^ \ \. w tickets 12 marks, 

have been made by the town; trees have been A'««m«u.«,sltuatedatthetopofamountatotothe 

planted; and water is supplied In abundance. The ^^rth-enst of Ems, Is a splendid point of view; and 

neighbourhood possesses several objects of Interest, ^^^^ ^^^ ^,^^ ^^^ ^ ^,,jt^ Braubach and the 

to which excursions are usually made on donkeys; ^^^^j^ ^^ Marksburg, described In Route 22. 

which are here numerous and well conditioned. . ^ ^ ^i . ^w _t„u* k-«v ^t *u^ t -u- 

A short distance on the right bank of the Lahn 

The narrowness of the valley forms a barrier ^^ YftL&B&U (Station), the first scat of the Ducal 

to free ventilation, and the air Is occasionally ^^^^^ Population, 1,788. Hotel: Krone. Here 

oppressive and relaxing In July^nd August. The gt^^dg their old castle, with the Monument to Baron 

donkeys are posted close by the bridge of boats, ^^.^ ^^^^^ ^^, Inaugurated, 1872. It faces Stein 

and are hired from 70pf . an hour. Ems, though not ^^^^j^ ^„^ y^^^^ ^ punning motto on his name, 

at all able to compete with Wiesbaden, yet boasts .< jj^, Quten Oruodsteiii. 

a magnificent A'ur«aa/, situated on the margin of the Des Baeen Bck*t«in, 

Dec Deatacben BdeLiteiii. 

Lahn, and erected by the Grand Duke. It contains „^ a^ , *i„ i. «„„ ♦« „tot*»». i„ ♦»,« 

jnii-^ A n ^u ^ ttt X. ^ The Stein castle Is open to visitors In the 

a grand Ball-room and Bath establishments. ^ , ., , , 

,„.„,,_, V . ».. .. absence of the Countess of Klelmansegg. 

The King of Prussia was here taking the waters, ^ ^ _, 

18th July, 1870, when pressed by M. Benedettl, ^ ^"^ ^y'» excursion can be made by carriage, 

the French ambassador, for his ultimatum about ''<>«» Coblenz, by the Treves post-road, through 

Prince Leopold and the throne of Spahi, which Mettemlch to Loninlg, MUnster-Malfeld, and to the 

pteceded the declaration of war. hill above Elz, where we leave the carriage going 

TJieATMrAmMBUutda in the centre of the town; to Gondorf, croesing the Moselle by a ferry to 

isv,.g 3SH-.S ■S22S5S.. 

9 right h( 

all Ibe WBT lo Tte»e^ t Iwo d«y»' eienMLon 
nilgbt be mule to UUiiBter-MaUdd, Ibe castle 
or Eti, UDd the Tllligfl or Air— aitiulod DD 

Keneiy *iiits~.nd to the Bithi of Bertrich. 

JlHDKri leave Coliloui every Meiiday and 
ThUTidly muming for TiarhBch, theoce Id Tr^vei 
ever; Tuesday and Friday morning, and come 

iT dayA molt pleasantly, ai the » 

ThiOfivlUe, eeparalea the dDCby of Luxemhonrg 
from Rhoiilih Pruista, fmaet by Trfevos, and jolni 

Franeo are the Meutlhe and the SclUe on Ihe right, 
and In the Prnaalan Stalci the Savro on the righl, 
and thS'Sarc. the Kylt, and (he £]i on the left. It 

set mltee. The beat HoHllo slnei are Draune- 
bergcr, Plsporter. Oroach. and Zeltinger. Schari- 

Afler leaving Ooblent (Station} the Ant place 
wotlby of nulice !• HoHlvellB on the right ban*, 
Hhote there are largo public gardens. Abovo this 
rlllag* rlao the fortlflcatton. of Fort Aleiander, 
me ol the advanced fort) of CoUenz, •llnatcU 
Ktwecn the Moiettc and the Rhine. 

Further on we pass on the Icll llie cliurcb of 
Hellemlch: (he village of ff»i, with Its twin 
iplrci; then the Tillage ol Layou the righl and 
bat of Wlnnlngan (Station} on Iho lefli after 
■hlch we come to dtlilicA on the right- a plaee 

Oabttm IStAtlanJon the left bank, la situated al 

which deserves a visit from all admirers of graee- 

Gondwf, on the led, ii another pretty vlltage, 

formerly the residence of the Count yon Layen. 

Osttenae.— A village on the same side, Ju.t 

placed across to exact loll from the boala going up 

Aiken, on 

lEh Schloss Tuion — a plcluKsqvo 
I30O, on the heights above. 



[Route 2Sr. 

a charming valley, with verdant meadows and vine- 
yards, streams and water mills, Ac., the perspec- 
i ire in front being closed by a rocky barrier, on the 
heights of which stands tlie Cattle of Ehrenburg, 
said to excel in beauty and preservation any 
other castle on the ilhine or Moselle. 

Road to MUnstermaifeld^ and its very ancient 
chnrch of the 10th century. 

We next pass Hatzenport on the left, and fur- 
ther on the same side the castle of Bischo/utein^ be- 
longing to the Archbishop^f Treves ; then Moselkem^ 
the entrance of the beautiful vale of Eltz. 

If the traveller lands at MOBelkem vStatUm), 
crosses the hill, or strikes across the heights along 
the side of the glen, he will obtain several fine 
views; and then luissing through the romantic 
wooded Valley of the BUz^ he may visit the pictur- 
esque and interesting old Castld Of £ltz, almost a 
unique specimen of a feudal fortress uf the 12th 
century. Permission must be obtained from the 
proprietor, Graf Eltz, at Eltville. 

The traveller can then return by the road, 
direct, to join the steamer at Garden (Station), 
a village charmingly situated in one of the sweetest 
spots of the Moselle. 

Proceeding on, we next pass TrolS, on the right 
side, situated within an amphitheatre of hills, on 
which there are two castles. Clotten, on the left, a 
small village with its church on the hill, and the 
ruins of an old castle. The next place we come to is 

Cochem (Station).- //o^«I« : l)e r Union; 
Qermania. This is an ancient town of 3,225 
inhabitants, and the distant view of it, with t wti 
Castles on the hills behind (one formerly the 
seat of the Archbishop of Treves), is exceedingly 
prepossessing and attractive ; but the streets are 
narrow and dirty, even more so than those of the 
other towns on the Moselle. The Railway Tunnel 
is the longest in Germany, 4,600 yards, and took 
three years to make, at a cost of about £200,000. 

Thence past BeiUtein Castle, to the little fortress 
of Edlger, near the Ellcrbcrg tunnel (2^ miles 
long), which makes a short cut of the long river 

Alf, at another series of Lends, in a beautiful 
joMJt of the river, 5 miles from Bad Bertricll, 
trA/cA £s conreaient for the Eifel^ a volcanic 
Mstrfei between the Moselle, Roer, nnd Rhine. 

Then Zell (population 2,500), to 

Pfinderidl, a village on the right bank. Travel- 
lers Intending to visit the interesting ruins of 
Marienburg should land on the opposite side of the 
river. The view from a hill near the ruins affords 
(•ue of the finest prospects on the Moselle, embrac- 
ing four different bends of the river, and forming 
a splendid panorama. Refreshments can be had 
at a small inn within the ruins. 

From Piinderich, the steamer proceeds pa(>t the 
villages of Enkirch and Starkenburg on the right 
bank, and then arrives at Araben on the left. 
(Claus Hotel.) A short lifstaiice higher up bn the 
right bank Is 

TrarbaclL— i/ote?« .• Bellcme ; Brauncberg ; 
Grttfinburg. A town of 1,800 inhabitants, where 
the steamer remains during the night. This place 
resembles Cochem in the beauty of its position. 
It is situated at the mouth of the valley, and ia 
encircled by a range, of hills or mountains. The 
castle on one of these commands the river totirely. 

By road and footpath, Berncastel can be reached 
in less than half the time taken by a steamer. 

Between Trarbach and Treves the acenery be- 
comes less beautiful, and the viUagea of UomS 
(Station), Ac.t with the exception of Berncastel, 
are devoid of interest. 

BemeasteL— •^•te/«: Drel Kouige; Poet. A 
town of 2,402 inhabitants. The situation of this 
town is very fine, but it is both dirty and badly 
drained. The ruins of Landshut castle belong 
to the Emperor. 

Thfcnce to Mttlbelm, Keumagen (ancient 

SoviomaguM), Melirlnif, and the fine cM. city of 
Treves (Station), described in Route 2d. 

CoUenz to Uayence and Wiesbaden. 

By rail along the left bank of the Rhine, 
in 2 hours. Kail along the right bank, 2| hours. 
Steamers five or six times daily, performing the 
voyage up in eight hours, and down in five hours. 

The following description applies chiefly to the 
steamer route, and' the words "left" and "rigbt" 
refer to the position as seen from the steamer. 

Above Coblcnz the lung ridges of the mountains 
begin to hem in the Rhine, which, as far as Bingen, 
flows thToug\i a contracted gorge. The broken 

Houte 22.] 



the walled towns and vcucrable bnildiugs, form 
prominent features in the scene, the interest 
being heightened by the historical associations 
coiyiected with each and every object that 
bursts upon the delighted vision. Leaving 
Coblenz we pass Forts Alexander and Constantino 
on the right, and to the left, Fort Astcrstein, 
which surmounts the heights of Ffaffendorf, 
situated above a village of the same name. Pro- 
ceeding on, we pass Horchheim, noted for its ex- 
cellent red wine, and see, opposite to it, the island 
cf Oberwierth, on which is the former convent, 
now farm buildings. 

Three miles or so above Coblenz we behold 
StOlzenfOlB, one of the most interesting castles 
on the Rhine, beautiful in its picturesque outline 
and commanding position ; it may justly be styled 
the Proud Rock. It is near 

Capellen (Stat.), and was built in 1250 by 
one of the archbishops of Treves. In 1802, the 
ruins became the property of the town of Coblenz, 
and were given to the then Crown Prince, after- 
wards Frledrich Wilhelm IV., who rebuilt them 
in the original style. A good carriage road leads 
up to it, donkeys from Capellen, 80pf ., there and 
back, Imark 20pf. Its principal objects of attrac- 
tion are the Kleiner RittersctdL, an apartment 
painted with frescoes, by Stilke, representing the 
knightly virtues, historical scenes illustrating, «'.«., 
the death of the blind king, John of Bcliemia, at 
the battle of Crdcy — Courage. Hermann voaSieben- 
elchen saving the Emperor Barbarossa by exposing 
himself to the Guelph assassins, having first forced 
the Emperor to flee — Fidelity. The Emperor 
Frederick II. receiving his bride, Isabella Planta- 
genet, sister to Henry III. — Love. Other subjects 
arc Music: Philip of Swabia with his wife and min- 
strels on the Rhine. Justice: Rudolph of Hapsburg 
condemning robber barons. Perseverance: represen- 
ted by (Godfrey of Bouillon hanging up his arms in 
the church of the Holy Sopnichrc. Sts. Ocreon, 
George, Maurice, and Reinhold, are painted on the 
window. In the Qroseer Rittereaal there is an 
armeury, with the swords of Tilly, BlUcher, 
Napoleon, Murat, Hofer, Alba, Ac. Queen Victoria, 
accompanied by the late King of Prussia, visited 
this castle in 184o, just after its restoration From 
here to Mayence the right bank of the Rb'mc 

belongs to Nassau. It is the most beautifully 
situated of all the Rhine castles, commanding a 
prospect up the river as far as the valley of the 
Dinkholder springs, with Rhcns, Oberlahnstehi, 
and the Marksburg included. Opposite is the 
lovely valley of the Lahn, and the confluence of 
that river with the Rhine; while down the stream 
the view embraces Coblenz, with its fortifications, 
and the mountains above Andemach in the distance. 

There is a steamer every hour from Capellen 
to Ober-Lahnstein. 

The little river Luhn issues with a slow current 
from a chasm, and is navigable for small vessels 
as high up as Wcibcry . At this spot the Russians 
crossed in 1814. The Lahn carries a great quan- 
tity of sand, &c., into the Rhine. Above its mouth, 
to the right, on the top of a rock, is the castlo 
Lahneck, like a mourning Naiad weeping, as it 
were, over its ruined g^ndeur. Below is 

Oberlalinsteln (Station) on the left, an old 

walled town, with a conspicuous red building at 
the edge of the Rhine, once a castle of the electors 
of Mayence ; near it is a small white cbapcl among 
trees, where, in 1400, the deposition of the Emperor 
Wenccslaus was pronoimced, and the election of 
Rupert, in his place, effected by the electors. 
At the mouth of this river is the church of St. 
John, a venerable ruin. Its choir and columns 
are worth inspection. Victoria Fountain, an effer- 
vescing water, was discovered 1880. At a short 
distance above it is the village of Nieder-Lalin- 
stein (Station), on the Rechtsrhelnlsche rail, 
whence a line runs to Ems (page 110). 

Rhens {Inm: Zum Konigsstuhl; Stem, in 
the town), a very old town, which has many 
timber houses, and still retains a mediseval 
German aspect. Near it is the Koniguiuhl 
(Kh)g*s seat), an open vaulted hall, with 
seven stone seats for the seven electors, who 
used to meet in it to discuss affairs of state. 
In this little town many treaties of peace were 
made and signed ; emperors were dethroned, and 
kingdoms consolidated by the alliance of. 
centuries withered into clay, whilst dynasties, 
supported by the traditions of agea^ ■'K^kxsw 'tjev. 




[Route aa. 

.▼inflows of the CAsUe. Tho Rhine hero attauis a 
•readth ef 1,830 yarda. We see, iu a valloy, 

BraulNUdl (§iB,tllimiX — IfoM»: Arsbacher; 
Rheinischerhof ; Nnssanerhof ; Dentsoho Hauii. A 
ittlc town to the left, at the base of a lofty rock, 
on which stnndd the strong and feudal fortress — 
the castle of the Marksburgr, described below. It 
la worth a visit ; and a magnificent rlew can be 
ei\)oyed from the sammlt of the donjon keep. 
The castle is distant about 7 miles from Ems, 
and is approached by a very passable road. 
Outside the town is a beautiful mineral spring of 
delicious water. Persons desirous of visiting the 
Marksburg from the left bank of the Rhino must 
cross the river at Nlederspay, where there is a 
ferr>'. Iu the romantic valley surroundhig Brau- 
btoh there are copper and silver mines. On the 
top of a mass of rock appears 

The MaXklblUV.- A fortress of the middle ages. 
In perfect prcscrvatiom being tho only one of the 
Rhino castles which has escaped destruction. It 
is situated on a lofty rock, was used as a state 
prison, but recently as an infirmary, or rather it is 
garrisoned by invalids. It is well worth visiting, 
as a romarkatile specimen of those terrible strong- 
holds where " power dwelt amidst her passions ;" 
narrow and mystcrioUM iMssagcs, dungeons cut in 
the solid rock, are here to be scon ; among these 
is one called the Uundloch (dog hole), into which 
prisoners were let down by a windlass, and another 
the Foltcrkammcr (chaml»er of torture). A cell 
is iiointed out as the one in which tho emperor 
Henry IV. was confined. 

After viewing these dismal records, the tourist 
may ascend the don}oi« keep, and take a view of 
the snrrouHding scenery, which is picturesque in 
the extreme. The appearance of the country on 
the right now becomes wilder and more romantio. 
A long sandbank stretches across the bed of the 
lircr, and the Rhine rolls its waves past Peterspay, 
NIedorspay, and OborsiMiy, seen on the right. 
The Rhine here takes one of its largest curves, but 
Is soon deflected again into Its original direction by 
th6 mount of Boppai-t. - The mountains now appear 
less pictntvsqne, being generally flattened or 
jyaiiffed. Tho ehanulng castle of Licbeneck rises 
^•^vsthmify above Ogten/my, which may be 
^^^or/ a „^t tnr,bsM. OppoMtteNiedenprny MhoMt 


2k luiles beyond Braubacb, is tho Dinkholder 
Bnuinen, a famous mhieral spring. 

Bomwrt or Boppard (Station), on tUo right. 

llotel$i Spiegel; Rheino; Closmauu, in the town. 

An ancient walled town ; population, 5,594. This 
is a gloomy but interesting place, the Roman Both' 
btiffo^ having been one of the 50 castles of Drusus on 
the Rhine. In it are the remains of the palace of 
the Prankish kings, and tho ruins of a fine ehapel. 
Behind the town is the ancient nmmery of Mmrim^ 
herg^ now an establishment for the water^uro. 
The walls of tho Roman castrum, a quadrangle of 
strong masonry, still in the heart of the town. 
Tho Chureh is 18th century, nnd the Carmelite 
Church 14th ceutur>'. Tho streets of BopiuMt are 
vcr>' narrow and dark, but possess many attractions 
for the architect and antiquary, many of tho build- 
ings presenting great peculiarities of arehitecture. 

Approaching itoUlg on the right, tho UMmntaius 
recede a little from the banks, and give plaoe to 
com fields and meadows. We next see the 
mouldering battlements and ruined towws of 
Storreiiborg and Licl)enstein opposite, just before 
Salilg, seated on a lofty rock, clothed with 
vines. The traditions connected with their history 
make them interesting. They are called the 
Brothers, from the fact of two brothers having 
resided in them. Tho brothers fell In love with 
the same lady, and lHx:amo foes, and fell by each 
other's sword. These ruins have a beautiful 
appearance when viewed from the left hank of tho 
Rhine. In a picturesque valley lies Bombolm, 
formerly a cloister of Capuchins; above is the 
eminence, on whose summit are the ruiuf. A 
walk, shaded by walnut trees, takes you from 
the cloister to the village of Kamp. 

Wenowoome to Ballig (right), with large {dan- 
tations of cherry trees. The inlubitants possess, 
large ^neyards all round. Near Hincenaeh the> 
river takes an easterly turn. On the right 
bank you see the Tillage of Koster, with its 
domolished parish ckuroh. Opposite to it rises a 
high wall of rocks, at Its foot girded with viiie^ 
yards, and on its summit crowned with wood. 
You next come to Ehteilthal (left), where there 
is an abundance of silver, load, and eopiicr 
mines. Iu the whole district, from bolow Hirsen- 
acb to \VeM\ \Yk«c« ki^Ymm^X^ i^vXA^MsMSk marble, 




and other minerals. A beautiful scenery now ex- 
pands itself before the voyager. WelmiOb, with iu 
Gothic tower and pictsresque environs, now appears, 
and behind it the old walls of the oastle of Thnm- 
boiv, built by Kuno V. Falkenstcin, archbishop of 
Treves, in 1863, peer down upon you. It is called 
the Mouse, to distinguish it from a castle called 
the Cat, which is above St. Goarshauson. The 
seenery now is rich in the extreme, fertile gardens 
and luxuriant meadow>greund are spread out from 
Welmioh to the very bank of the Rhino. On the 
right are St. Uoar and Rbeinfcls, whilHt below 
Welraich the river makes a great curve towards 
the north, forming a fine bay, surrounded by 
cminenees. To the right, close above the town of 
St. Gear, are situated the most extenaivc ruins 
cm the Rhino, namely, the fortress of RheinfelB. 

niis stronghold was built in 1245 by a count 
of Katzenellenbogen, to levy duties on the passing 
roerehandlse; but, pushing his extortions too far, 
he was besieged by the people of the adjacent 
towns, who, for fifteen months, endeavoured to 
reduce the oastle, but without huccoss ; it fell 
afterwards, however, with most of the other 
robber-dens, before the confederacy of the Gorman 
amd Rhine towns. It became afterwards, in the 
hands of the Landgrave of Hesso, a modem fortress, 
which bafHed tlie French in ]6S)2, but was taken 
and blown up by them in 1794. The ruins now 
belong to the Konpcror. The view is only limited. 
The custodian requires a fee of 50 pf . to 1 mark. 

The country now changes its aspect as if by 
magic; from the gloomy rocky gulf yon enter 
a cheerful and pleasant valley, and see all round 
you eminenoes covered with leaf wood or planted 
with vines and gardens, stretching beautifully 
along the banks of the river, which expands itself 
like a sleeping serpent. 

St. Ooar (StaUon)— ifo^«^: Hotel Lille, first- 
class hotel, well situated on the Rhine : Schneider; 
Rheinfels. Population of 1,600. A cheerful little 
town, and very deain^le as a sojourn for the purpose 
of making excursions hi the vicinity, as it lies in 
the midst of some of the finest of the Rhino scenery, 
and is therefore well placed for a few days' halt. 
This town is also famous for its salmon fishery. A 
very fine view Is to be had from the heights 
above St. Goar, rising directly in the face of the 

Lurlcibcrg. It is apivoachol by a footpath 
leading out of the high road to the bridge, shortljr 
before coming to the Trumpeter's G rotto(8ee belQw)^ 
The Frotestant Church, near the centre of the- 
town, is worth a visit ; it is erected over the crypt 
of the old church of St. Goar, built in 1468. Li 
the Roman Catholic Church of St. Goar there is a 
rude image of that hermit, who, it is said, to prove 
his holiness, hung up his cloak on a sunbeam. To 
the right, some delightful excursions and views 
ma}' be had from the Nassau bank of the Rhine, 
and boats are always at hand to bring visitors 
over the river. There is a steam ferry to 

St. Ooanhaucwn (Station)— //o^/s .- Adien 

Lamm; Krone; Zum; Hohcnzoller — 1,600 inba-^ 
bitants, still partly surrounded with its old walls. 
Here begins the Forstbachthal, a Swiss valley, 
celebrated for its beauty, being traversed by a 
clear stream, forming numerous cascades, between 
precipitous masses of rock. At the entrance of 
this valley stands the castle of the Katz, a very 
picturesque object, built in 1893, by John III«, 
Count of NeukatzeucUenbogen. An excellent red 
wine is grown here on the Putersberg, equal in 
richness to that of Assmannshauscn. On tho 
right of St. Goarhausen we see the demolished 
castle of Rheineck. In this part there are charming 
valleys. The Lurleiberg can be reached by. 
carriage from the Schweizcrthal. 

On the same side, but a little above St Goars^ 
hausen, the black perpendicular precipice of thci 
Lurleiberff i^scs abruptly from the water*s edge, 
opposite tu which, on the road side, is a grotto, ia 
which is stationed a man who, with a bugle or by' 
firing a pistol, awakens the echo of the Lurlei, 
which is said to repeat somids fifteen times. Above 
this, in mid-channel, and visible at low watar, ar* 
the rocks called the Seven Sisters, the suL||ect^ % 
legend, the author of which was Clemens Breutano, 
1802 (sec page llti). 

OberweMl (Station). On the right. 

Inns: Rheinischcr Hof ; Goldcner Propfenzieher; 
Deutsches Ilaus. 

The Vesalia of the Romans; a town of 9,560 
inhabitants. It was given by Henry VII. to tlM 
Archbishop o( Trbves. The church <\C CS^sslXaj^ 
In Oberwe^W* wnv%V^Kt^^^ TEs«»^«i^. *!»v "'^^^ <:^<«*iii^>» 




[Route 22. 

paintings; in St.Martins is a '•Descent from the 
Cross," by Dicpcnbrock. The picturesque api»car- 
ance of this town is much increased by its tur- 
rcted walls and the lofty round tower called the 
Oduenthurm by the water side. The village of 
Engch511 is well worth a visit. Above Obcrwescl 
the Rhine forms a lake, which appears to be 
entirely blocked up by rocks. The view is sub- 
limely grand, and magnificently striking. Beyond 
the lake the river makes a curve; its current 
strikes agaist a group of rocks partly visible and 
l^artly concealed from view, and forms a whirlpool 
called the Bank. Immediately below the hank 
there is another whirlpool called the Gewirr, 
Which, according to tradition, was formerly connec- 
ted with the Bingcrloch, by a subterraneous chasm. 
The former whirlpool has often proved fatal to 
shippers, especially to <hc rafts, the forepart of 
which is frequently sucked 5 or 6 feet under the 
surface, and the crews plunged up to their necks 
in water, and many a rower has found a grave 
beneath the dark blue waters foaming around him. 
Tradition hands us down a mystic legend in con- 
nection with this spot, representing it as haunted 
by a beautiful syren, whose deeply rich and miigic 
melody beguiled the passing boatmen in order to 
overwhelm them. The legend is related in Hcinc*s 
well-known "Ich weiss nicht was soil esbcdeuten." 
To the left, the next object of interest we meet 
is Sehomberg, an old castle, now called Schonberg, 
and once the dwelling of a family of the same 
name, from which rprung Marshal Schomberg, 
the general of William III. at the Battle of the 
Boyne, in Ireland. It now belongs to a New York 
family, and is being restored. It is called the 
Beautiful Rock, from seven daughters of the house, 
who were as lovely as they were cold hearted, and 
were turned into seven rocks, seen to this day 
below Oberwesel, rising out of the bed of the river. 
Caub is now seen on the left. It has 2,177 
inhabitants. Hotel* : Zum Oriinon Wald; Adier; 
Thurm. It is chiefly remarkable for its slate 
quarries, and as being close to the spot where 
BlUcher crossed the Rhine, on the Ist of Januar>', 
1814. From the heights above, the Rhine was first 
j0»ejn bj- the Prussians, who gave one loud and 

oxuWaffcbcor, shouting 27te Rhine* the Rftine! 

^boro tlio town of> Cnub is GuTBNFELs, a 

ruined castle, 12th centui-y, upon a steep mount. 
Tradition derives It as named from a fair lady • 
named Guda, a favourite of Richard of Cornwall, 
Emperor Elect of Germany, the brother of Henry • 
III. of England. In 1807, it was sold for the con- 
sideration of a few hundred florins. There is on a 
projecting point of rock a watch-house, which 
seems to be suspended in the air; from its giddy 
height, yon look with fear on the river rolling deep 
below you. It was here Gustavus Adolphus, in 
the Thirty Years' War, issued his orders against 
the Spaniards, who had taken their station on the 
opposite bonk. 

Up to quite lately a toll was paid hero to the 
Duke of Nassau by all vessels. The Duke was 
the only iiersou who exacted this feudal impost, 
though a couple of centuries earlier all vessels 
had to pay thirty-two tolls on their voyage of the 
Rhine. Opposite Caub, in the centre of the 
river, wc see the fine old CasUe of JP^fitU, built 
in the fourteenth century by King Louis the 
Bavariau for a toll-house. To this little 
island Louis le Dcbonnairo retired to die in 
840. Tradition states that the Pfalz served as a 
place of refuge for the Countesses Palatine during 
their accouchements, but the story is very im- 
probable. The castle can only be approached by 
a ladder, and a portcullis closes the only entrance. 
The key is kept by a boatman in Caub. In 
remote times the dungeons served for state 
prisoners. Downwards from Caub the valley 
has a more romantic appearance, the mountains 
draw nearer each other, the towns and hamlets 
have a more antique form, and wonderful tradi- 
tions are told of the ruins of castles and cloisters, 
of reefs, and of the whirlpool, and other phenomena 
of nature. 

Bacharach (Station) — JToteU : Wasum ; 

Bastian- built along the right bank. Population, 
1,286. Its antique walls and open towers, by which 
it is encircled, are picturesque and ornamental. 
The mount against which the town is built is 
planted with vines as high up as the Castle of 
Stahleck. The excellent quality of the wine of this 
place, to which the valleys of Steeg, Manebach, al»d 
Dub:ich belong, together with that of the adjacent 
eminences, the Schlostberg, Vogtsberff, andKucMberg, 
is guarawlcftd by two respectable historical 

Route 22.] 



Silvius, ordered a tun of it to be sent annually to 
Rome, and the town of NttJcmberg was granted its 
freedom by the Emperor Wenceslaus in return for 
four casks of it. The Templar Church of St. 
Tcter, with a round choir, is a fine object. 

The ruins of StaJdeck, on the loft, should be 
visited from this place, where one of the most 
beautiful views expands itself before the tourist. 
The Castle waa of considerable extent, and seemed 
to have been built on the ruins of a Roman strong- 
hold. It was the seat of the Electors of Palatine 
untU 1253, and is now the property of the Imperial 
family, of Germany. Close below the castle 
sta^ida the mutilated skeleton of the church 
of..^. Jfdrwer, a beautiful specimen of Gothic 
architecture (1293), with its lofty painted window, 
exhibiting a perfect specimen of the exctllent 
tracery work. "Should the traveller stop here, 
ho ought to devote an hour or two to visit the 
castle of Stahleck; and enjoy the magnificent 
prospect seen from it."— ^. C. 

Immediately under the town there is an isle on 
the Rhine of about thirty acres. Between this 
and the left bank of the Rhine there lies a stone, 
once called Am Bacchi, which gave name to 
Bacharach. It is now called the Altarstein. 

Lorchaasen is seen on the left. It is a small 

village that marked the ancient geographical 

limit of the Rheingau. Above the village, on the 

Bichofsberg, are seen the ruins of the frontier 

fortress of Sareck ; also, opposite to it, the ruinous 

cloister of Winsbach. As far as this place the 

Rhine flows from east to west, which lays the 

vineyards open to the influence of the noontide 

sun, and the north and east wincjs are averted by 

the mountains on the left bank. The stronger 

vines come from the highest eminences, but the 

best in the middle regions ; such wines as are 

produced in the low grounds become more potable 

at a later period. Higher up from Ix)rchausen 

is the ruin of the ancient castle of Nollingen, 

from which a very interesting view can be had! 

On the opposite bank is seen the village of 

Rheindiebach, above which rise the round keep 

tower and shattered walls of the FUrstenbui-g, 

reduced to a ruin by the French in 1689. On 

.the left is 

1.800 inhabitants, built into the Wisperthal, on the 
right bank of which rises the Teufelsleitcr, a rocky 
height, at the top of which is the castle of Nollingen, 
above-mentioned. A delightful pedestrian ex- 
cursion of about 20 miles may be made up the 
Wisperthal to the Schwalbach, (page 124). 

The district of the Rheingau, or Rhine countr>% 
on the right bank, commences here, and extends 
along it as far as Wallof, including the vineyards 
which produce the most famous wines. 

To the right we see the turreted ruin of Sooneck, 
originally a robber castle, destroyed by the 
Emperor Rudolph, in 1282. 

Approaching Bingen and Assmannshausen, we 
meet with what may bo truly styled the cantlod 
Rhine. These crumbling towers, the moss-covered 
stones, and ruined hnlls, all speak forcibly of the 
past; and, whilst calling up in every one of their 
broken particles the memory of other days, cannot 
but remind the student, the historian, and the tra- 
veller, of the happy change which has been effected 
from feudal barbarism to civil and constitutional 
principles. As we proceed along, we are attracted 
by the castle of Reichenstein or Falkenburg, which 
stands on the right on a lofty spur of the rock, 
once a dreadful den of robbers, destroyed by 
Rudolph of Hapsburg; whilst further up, on the 
same bank, is the castle of Rhelnstein, built on a 
projecting rock that rises from the bank of the 
river. Not far from here, between the road and 
the river, rises, beautiful and grand, the Gothic 
chapel dedicated to St. Clement, rescued from a 
state of ruin by Princess Frederick of Prussia. All, 
or nearly all, these strongholds of feudal robbery 
were destroyed at the close of the thirteenth 
century, by a decree of the Diet of the Empire. 

The castle of Rhelnstein is seen to the right ; the 
ruins were partially restored in 1829 so as to serve 
as a summer retreat for Prince Frederick of Prussia. 
The interior is well worth a minute inspection, 
and travellers will find no difliculty in getting 
access to it, there being a servant constantly there 
who will shew visitors round it. Below Rhelnstein 
there is a narrow pass, where, until very lately, 
there was demanded a Jew's toll. 

was demanded a Jew's toll. Admission^ I 
mark; for a \mrtY>S<i^^l. ^^Ocl\ \ax\0>.ssr!ge.'^»sN?^ 

LorcHr//»/?/.-5cfiH^«„,. Krone). A viUage of \ btvtouW\ s^.T^^^^V^W. ^v.^ 

«C«kR, «tf3^-"«!i"*^^«*^ 



Armour, Ac, Is grood, but the view is not wortli 
the trouble of making' the aacent. 

ABBmannBTiansen is seen to the left. Inm: 
Krone; Anker; Reutcrshan ; Gcrmania; Kur- 
haua. Between here and Ehreufcls, the terraced 
sides of the mountain are covered with vineyards, 
rising one above another to the verj' summit, kept 
up by strong stone walls of from five to eight 
feet high ; in fact, the vineyards are nothing more 
than a succession of terraces, extending from the 
top to the bottom of the hills, some of which are 
near 1,000 feet high. Great and severe labour is 
requiied from the vine-dressers in the cultivation 
of the vine in these places, who have to carry 
every particle of manure, and even the soil itself, 
on their shoulders to the hills. And yet, notwith- 
standing their severe labours, they all seem 
cheerful and happy. The culture of the vine, 
though it involves much and incessant labour, is 
-yet uncertain and contingent on the weather, 
which, if boisterous, may in a few hours destroy 
the mtire vintage, and there being no com crops 
to supply Its place, the cultivator Is deprived of 
.his sole means of subsistence. 

Among the numerous sorts of Rhenish wines 
remarkable for their superior excellence, the red 
wines of Ingelhelm and Assmannshausen are 
reckoned the most pleasant ; those of Ilochhelm, 
Johannisberg, and Geisenheim possess the finest 
bouquet; and those of Nierstein, Marksbrun, and 
Rttdesheim are the strongest. The Emperor Pro bus 
first introduced the culture of the vine on the 
Rhine and Moselle. 

The RobmL Assmannshausen is a good starting 
point from which to make an ascent to the Nieder- 
wald, but Bingen, or RUdeshelm, having better 
Inns, should be preferred. Starting from the 
latter place, yon pass the National Denkmal (see 
page 120), and come to an open rotunda or small 
temple, where a most charming prospect greets 
the eye. The Rhine glides down before you, 
bespangled with town-like hamlets and towns, 
churches, villas, vlnehills, and mountains of ver- 
OMit hue. There Is now a railway from Rildeshelm 
A* ^A0 IfMtionnl Monument 

[Bontte 22. 

OfiP^t^ JUS Bi^gmi {Bee next page. 


It stands at the foot of a hill, bearing the ruins 
of a castle of Drusus ; to the left rises Mount 
Rochus, with its chapel; to the right the Nahe 
mixes its waters with those of the Rhine, and on 
the left bank of that river is Mount Rupert, with 
the ruins of a cloister. Near the Mouse Tower, or 
Miiusethurm, the Rhine, passing between the 
dreary mountains of slate, forms almost a rapid. 
Prom the temple we proceed to the Hostet, the 
topmost point of the Nlederwald, and sbudder as 
we look into the gloomy gulf fofmed by the 
mountains on either side, rising In high perpen- 
dicular masses after a very picturesque fashlbii. 
The rains of the castle of Ehrenfels hang lik^'Wi 
eagle's eyrie below, on the beetling nSefss, ifnd 
seem to be threatened alike by the '*ddth 'of 
time and by the swelling waves. The ttMrfbllnj^ 
stream presents a very romantic appeai^ncc, 
having changed from the even flow Whieh 
hitherto characterised It. This is one of the 
most magnificent views of the Rhine. The wutere 
present rather a curious appearance In the river 
below, exhibiting three different colours. In the 
centre, the Rhine Is a clear green; the Nahe, 
close to the left bank, a heavy brown ; and the 
Main, at the right bank, a dirty red. Though 
the Main Joins the Rhine more than JO miles 
beyond Bingen, yet the waters, it Is asserted, 
do not mingle until their arrival at the deep 
pool of the Lurlel. The upper limit of the 
gorge of the Rhine, with ail its grand scenery, 
is now reached. The river between Bingen and 
Boppart cuts across a chain of hills, which it is 
supposed at one time dammed up Its waters 
until an earthquake, or possibly the waters 
themselves, forced a passage and formed the 
present gorge or ravine through which the 
waters flow to the ocean. A remnant of this 
colossal barrier yet remains, and an artificial 
channel had to be cut through It in order to afford 
a passage to vessels. It Is called Bingtr Loch, or 
the Hole of the Bingen. The navigation of this 
part has been much improved, and to the Prussian 
government Is due the credit of having widened 
It from 36 to S 10 feet. On the left we see the 
small monument conunemoratlve of this event. 
This chanueWVea uMtt Wa tuIus of the castle of 

KoHte 29.] 



. Close to the left bank, near to where the 
wAterfl of the Nahe nnlte with the Rhine, is the 
M&IUMthlirm, notorionn for the following 
tradition. "There was a great famine In all 
the laud of the Rhino, and the men, women, 
and children parished for want of food. Crowds 
of the miserable jHUisants surrounded the castlo 
of Ments, where Hatto held his feudal court, and 
implored for bread. He would extend his hand in 
benediction ororthem, but it held no loaf; and 
yet the bams of the prelate were filled with 
ipraln. He treated them as idlers and impostors, 
who did not choose to work. The poor people 
became yet more importunate; they disturbed his 
sleep, and Hatto sent his bowmen to invite them,— 
all they could get, the strong and the sick, old 
men and children, and shut them up in his great 
bam, to which he then set fire. It was a sight 
to draw tears from a heart of flint ; and when they 
screamed, Hatto laughed and said, 'Hear ye how 
theratt squeak in my bom!' But heaven was 
not blind. Swarms of rats appeared and overspread 
the castle ; no one could remain in it. Hatto went 
higher and higher; they pursued him to the very 
roof. The more they were destroyed, the more did 
they increase; they seemed to rise up out of the 
earth. Hatto fled to Bingen. In the midst of the 
riverhebuilt his place of ref age, and went across 
to it in a small boat which held him alone. But the 
rats followed him over there ; they swam across the 
river; they climbed Qver the walls aud over the 
roof, they entered through every small hole, above 
and below. They devoured Hatto alive, they ate 
his very name embroidered In the tapestry which 
covered the walls of his apartment ! In the morn- 
ing mist which settles on the grey tower, the 
lonely fisherman sees even now the spirit of 
Hatto." Bouthey has versified this tale ; against 
which, however, hMory It decisive, for it tells us 
that the tower of Hatto was built in the early part of 
the thirteenth oentuty, by Archbishop Siegfried, 
when he opened the navigation of the right bank, 
fully two hundred years after the death of Hatto. 
The Bimflarity of the German words Mam and 
Mamth—MMM meanliir rat, and Manth meaning 
toll, has probftbly been the temptatton for fixing 
the legend on tlM naldenee of the oflteer ivho 
e0neeted toll far tftt I^Mr bishop; the tlort 


being due to the ^inventive faculty of the Inonke . 
and clergy, who disliked Hatto for hi* Mvertty 
and rigid discipline. 

Blnftrlinidk (llAtlim), near MafBii (nnn: 

Hotel Welsses Ross ; Hotel de Belle Viie; 
Victoria, large, first-class), in an angit of the 
beautiful valley of the Nahe. This frontier town 
(i.e. Bingen) of the Rheno-Hesslan territory has a 
population of 7,915. Rail to Krenanach andtlife 
Rheinpfalz, also to Mayenee, parallel to One on 
the opposite bank ; which passes the junction for 
Wiesbaden, and also passes SltTlIle (populatloli, 
8,000), where conveyances may bfe taken in sumitaiir 
for Schlangenbad and Schwalbach. Lhie, 98| 
miles, from Bingerbmck to Simmem. 

The Rhine here makes a considerable curve, nnd the 
scenery around is in the higliost degree attractive^ 
The beauty of that In the nelghbouriiood 
is altogether lost to those who merely pass up 
and down the river. Prom here a short exctirsion 
can be made to the ruins called Klopp^ or DnUus 
Castle. Narrow and steep stairs lead to a platform 
covered with luxuriant vegetation of shrubs and 
creepers; and there are subterranean dungeon^ 
below the ruins, vestiges of the feudal tiiAes. 
From here also the traveller can set out to explore 
the Rheinstein, and the Mlederwald, which may 
be done in one da}*. A boat taken from Bingen 
takes us down the Rhine to the castle of Rhein » 
stein (s«6 tinder Assmannshansen) in 90 mlnntes. 

From Rheinstein, we cross to Assmannshauseh, 
and find donkeys to take us up to the Miederwald ; 
behind the village we find a path leading from 
the right to the Jagd Behloss, where refk-eshments 
can be had. There is a railway from Asaraanu- 
shausen to the Jagd Schloss. This oxoorslon 
takes the.podeetriftii abovt iin hour; • fisw mtpvles 
more suffices to bring us to the Smt^et B9kh^ or 
Magie 0«ve. Here three magnificent landscapes 
of the Rhine may be ei\joyed, each one diffsroiit 
from the other, and presentiag the appearance of a 
beautiful diorama. The Rossel(seep.ll8)isnotfar 
from the Gave, overlooking the boistttout eddies 
of the Bingen loch. The path now ugabi alsks 
into the wood, and aftar a mila, arrivot at 
the Temple, a round bviMliig too* to the right 
It rests on pttlM*^«aw^x«»^3^db.'t^CL•«s^ ''^>^ ^*^ "^J**^ 

^\v\Tvt a.Ti^ tl<iT^% ^J^^ ^"^"^^ ^^^ 



[Route 22. 

and Odenwftld, can be enjoyed here. A new 
road leads down to the ''National Deukmal," 
Germanla, 82 feet high. This magnificent 
group of statnar}', erected 1877-1888, at a cost of 
£60,000, as a manorial of the re-cstablishmeut of 
the Gtormaii Empire, consists of several remarkable 
groups of allegorical bronze figures, ^jtatues (in 
all nearly 200 life-size portraits) of the Emperor 
William I., the Kings of Bararia and Saxony, 
Counts Moltke and Bismarck, and the principal 
Generals of the German army,— the whole in the 
highest style of art,— surmounted by a colossal 
bronze statue of Germania, 35 feet high, crowned 
with oak and laurel, and with outstretched laurel- 
twined sword. The inscriptions are extremely 
characteristic and interesting. We descend 
from the Temple to RUdesheim, by a path in the 
vineyards, which is closed in the vine season. Or 
the rail can be taken, if preferred. 

Opposite Bing^n, on the right of the Nahe, 
stands the Rnpertsberg, and about a mile and a half 
distant, the ElisenhShe, from the moss-house of 
which there is another magnificent view. An 
agreeable tour may be made to the Rochusbci^g 
and its chapel, from whence there is a prospect 
of extraordinaiy beauty, and also 

Up the Nabe to Xrenznacli and Oberatein. 

At Bingen, the Ncihe discharges itself into the 
Rhine, through the gate or portal formed by the 
Rochusberg, on the right, and the Rupertsberg 
on the left. A road goes past the Scharlachberg 
(Mount Scarlet), renowned for its red wine, 
through the villages of Mainster, Laubenheim, and 
Brezeuheim. It traverses the left bank, which 
belongs to Prussia. The right bank belongs to 

Krenmadi or Orenmach (Station). 

Hotels: Kurhaus. 

Hotel Oranienhof. — ^Well situated, close to the 

Royal Hotel and Englischcr Hof. Well situated 
In the centre of the Baths and near the Kurgarden. 

Private Hotel Dheil Schmidt, family hotel, close 
to the Kurhaus. 

Hotel duNord: deTEnrope; Hotel Kautzenberg; 
Pfalzerhof; Berllnorhof: Riedel's. 

Hotel de Holland, first-class hotel. 
J'j-irate Hotel Baum^ £rst-claB8, well situatetL 
Mjtaj- oftbem are closed in winter, 
^nrfaxe, about lOmarkafor the aeastm. 

Englith Church Service. 

Stadt station is 20 minutes from the baths; Bad 
station is close to the Elizabeths-quelle. 

A pleasant town, of 16,414 inhabitants, belonging 
to Prussia, situated picturesquely by the Nahe. 

It is famous as a watering-place, and is much 
frequented on account of its cold saline Springs, 
containing iodine and brominm. The principal 
drinking spring is the Elizabeths-quelle, in beauti- 
ful public gardens, on an island on the Nahe, 
where a very handsome Kursaal has been erected, 
with a bath room of magnificent dimensions. 
Bands play here every day in the season. Notice the 
ruins of the Roman Castrum, tl»e ancient Bridge, 
the ruins of a beautiful Church on the island, 
built in the 14th century, and the Kauzenberg. 
It was taken (1632) by Gustavus Adolphus. 

The best Nahe wines arc those from the vine- 
yards of Scharlachberg, Kauzenberg, Ebembnrg, 
Norheim, Monzlngen, Mttnster, am Stein, Boseu- 
hcira, and Winzenheim. There is, also, a very fine 
wine called Ingelheimer, which is rather a Rhine 
wine. Two miles above Kreuznach, on the right 
bank of the Nahe, are the saline springs of 
Karlshalle. Living is very cheap here. 

One mile further is Munster am Stein, a 
sort of little Kreuznach, with Kursaal and hotels. 
The Gans, a dark red wall of porphyry, reaching the 
height of 1,025 feet, extending 2 miles to the village 
of Norheim, has on its north-east the few remains 
of the Castle of Rheingra/enstein^hvllt by theRhein- 
graves. The view from it is immense, and it is 
ascended either by crossing the ferry at the salt 
works, and ascending a steep path, or by descend- 
ing upon it from the hill above, which is the more 
facile and better way. 

The ruins of the Castle of Ebemburg lie fronting 

Rheingrafenstein, at the confluence of the Nahe 

and Alsenz. It belonged to Francis von Sickin- 

gen, one of the most daring and chivalrous 

knights-errant that closed the middle ages. He 

laid siege to the cities of Metz and Treves; and in 

this castle he sheltered from persecution many of 

the early reformers. Melanchthon, Bucer, (Ecolam- 

padius, and Ulrich von Hutten, found a shelter 

here. The castle was surrendered, after a stout 

resistance, to lYieElectars of Hesse and Treves, who 

first v\undwe^ Wi«3^ VVi«Vi "Vrorsv^NX. \^ ^%^^^^ s 

Route 22.] 



of Alsenz are some pictturesque ruins and fine old 
castles. The qnicksilyer mine of Landsberg is near 
Obermoschel, between which and Mcisenheim 
there are some coal fields. 

The road during the next stage leayes the bank 
of the Nahe, proceeds to Sobemhelm, passing, on 
the right, the castle and abbey of Sponheim, and 
having on the left, near Odemhcim, the few 
remains of Disibodenberg, once a magfnificent 
abbey of the Benedictines. 

SolWlllieim iftMIUm), — Hotels : Post; 
Adier.— A venerable old town, containing a 
p<^uIation of 2,800. The prospect from the 
eminence of this little town — the charming 
valleys of the Glau and Nahe, and the town of 
Mcisenheim — is very pleasing. A basin-shaped 
valley <^ns out at Martinstein, having at its 
extreme point the majestic ruins of the castle 
of Dhann. The path leading from them passes 
the villages of Dhaun and Johannisberg, below 
which a road runs, through a wild gorge, to 
Kim. Magnificent scenery from Dhaun to 

OtMnteln (Station).— Restaurant, at Station. 
Hotel Post, in the town.— A small and dirty town, 
clustered in a picturesque manner on the moun- 
tain, which is composed principally of a compact 
mass of rocks of porphyry, or amygdaloid, rich 
in agates and amethysts of great beauty and 
variety. The village Church is built in a cavity of 
this rock, and its internal walls are covered with 
moss. It is approached by steps hewn in the rock 
and is lighted by two large wmdows. An ancient 
Castle crowns the summit of the mountain. This 
village excels in polishing agate, and the lover of 
mineralogy may find, besides neat agates and ame- 
thysts, very fine crystals of cubical zeolyth, harme- 
ton,&c. Oberstein appertains to the duchy of Olden- 
berg, while the district on the opposite side belongs 
to Prussia, which purchased it from Saxe-Coburg. 
Above this village, the Nahe loses its beauty and 

Btrkenfeld (Station).— Thechief town of a dis- 
trict. It is only remarkable for its white ducal 
chfttcau. A good road, provided with relays of 
post-horses, leads from Birkenfeld, by Hermeskci!, 
over the Hochwald, to Treves, a distance of 32 
miles. A good church at St. Wendel. 

0t$W9nw»ad MeMOlsaaX, where wlxUe \ ^i\im«iT qI ^^^si.%\l^N5sv ^-tVst^-^ 

glass is manufactured. At /)wdKW»fe»-, three English 
miles north of Saarbriicken, is a coal mine which 
has been burning for 160 years. When the air 
is moist, smoke and vapours arise from the bottom 
in great quantities, but in dry weather, very 
little vapour issues from the clefts of the rock, 
which are covered with saltpetre and sulphur. 

Saarbriicken (Station) .—-»<>'«''• Rh^*" ^of ; 

KShl; Kom.— A pretty Prussian town containUig 
a population of 14,458 inhabitants, on the Saar, con- 
nected with St. Johann, by a bridge, formerly the 
residence of the Princes of Nassau. Extensive 
coal mines. Anmne, possessing a splendid Gothic 
church, is higher up the valley. Railway to Saar- 
louis and Saarburg, Mctz, and to Kreuznach. 
At Saarbriicken, the first blood was shed, 1870, 
by a Prussian sentUiel killing a French one. 
From the heights commanding them, these towns 
were bombarded by tlie French. Two miles 
behind is the Spicheren Berg, stormed Aug. 6, 
1870, by the Germans. A visit to the scene of the 
battle requires about 5 hours, and a carriage for 
the excursion costs 12 marks. 

Bingen to Mayence and Franlrfort.— Ascent 
of the Rhine continued. 

Budeshelm (Station).— ^o/e/.- Darmstadter 
Hof; Jung's; Rheinstein; BeUevue; Ehrhard. 

Population, 4,040. A railway runs up to the 
National Denkmal. 

Excursion to the Niederwald from here as 
well as from Assraannshauscn ; marked by the 
national monument of Qermania (see account 
on page 120). Paths also lead to the Tempel 
on the right, and on the left to the Jagd 
Schloss, and the Rossel. A picturesque old tower 
is seen at the upper end of the town. The stu- 
pendous quadrangular castle ot Brdmserbnrg stands 
at the other extremity. It is a buildmg of the 
twelfth century, and consists of three vaulted 
storeys, resting on walls of from 10 to 16 feet thick. 
Its present proprietor, Count Ingelheim, has had it 
preserved from decay as far as possible. A lofty 
square tower stands close to it. The Stammhaus 
der BrSmser is in the centre of the town, and is 
biteresting because of the tradition lixte.r««swn<s». 

132 RRADSiiAw's HAND-BOOK [Ronte 22. 

In the Holy T.«nd. His name was honoured f tarnhif away from the Rhine at EltrBle. Par- 

by the Frank* and dreaded by the Saracens. ties for Wiesbaden go on to Mosbach before 

Amongr hifl other exploits, he destroyed a learingthe Rhine, the line to Mayenee eontlnnin? 

ferocious and destruotiTe dragon, the terror of ^Y its side to Castel. The distance to Castel from 

the Christian army. Scarcely had he dealt the Hiideshelm is between 14 or 15 miles. A scene of 

last blow ere the Saracens seized and made him snrpassiag loveliness is here formed by the raoun- 

prisoncr. During his long captirit>% he conse- ^^"" subsiding into gentle slopes and the ridges 

crated his daughter to hearen, and made a tow ^^ ^he Taunus receding to the river. The district 

that she should take the veil if ho over returned around possesses many traits of soft picturesque 

to the turnks of the Rhfaie. At length his captivity beauty, delicate and sweet, mingled with richness 

ended, and with his pilg^m's staff he once more ^"^ brilliancy. All the fdaccs now described are 

stood at his own castle gates. His daughter, the ^" ^he Kcchtsrheinischo line, the other side pre- 

beautiful Gisolla, came out to meet him, and tears »«"ting nothing of interest. 

<A Joy rolled down the furrowed cheeks of the aged fl<ri««nhfi<tn (BtatlOXL). 

warrior. But when he announced to her his vow, Innt: 8tndt Frankfurt; Gcrmanlo. 

she turned pale and hoard it with consternation, A town containing a population of J),125. Here 

for she but waited her father^s return to l)e mar- are the beantifnl seats of the Counts Ingelheiin 

ried to young Otho, to whom she was betrothed, and 8chSnbom, and in the Church, IWh century, is 

Her tears and entreaties could not change her **»« magnificent tomb of the elector, John Philip 

father^s purpose, and ho threatened her with his of Bchonbom. Royal Lehramtaft fUr Wein-wid 

curse if she did not obey. She rose from his feet Obstban, or Pomological Institute, well worth 

and opened the door of the tower which overhung seeing. Close to this place rises the Rothenberg, 

the Rhine. The tempest raged in the narrow affording a beautiful prospect, and here jfrows 

valley-the river seemed a place of refuge, and JJ"*; ^^^\ Geisenheimer Half an hour from 

the beautiful Gisella threw herself into the flood. G«ise«heim is ScMoss-Johannubef-g, the property 

Her body was found next day near the town of 

of Prince Mctteinlch. It Is situated in the 

,_,, ^ , . ^ J, ^ ^ ^ , . midst of vineyards, producing the most famous 

Hatton, and her cries had been heard by the ^i„„ ^„ ^^^ Khi„^ ^j,^^ ^j^^ secularlsa- 

lonely sentinel on the tower. Up to the present t,^,„ ^f ^^e Abbey of Fulda, in 1803, this valuable 

time the villagers and fishermen fancy they see domain became the property of the Prnce of 

the ghost-like form of Glaella hovering over the Orange, who did not possess it more than three 

scene of her destruction, mingling her lamentations years, when Napoleon gave it to Marshal Keller- 

with the sighings of the winds. The greatness man. On the termination of the war It again 

and feudal grandeur of other days have now i changed hands, and was presented in 1819, by the 

departed from the Bromserhof; its antiquities, Ac, ! Emperor of Austria, to Prince Mettemich, who 

having been transferred to Johannisberg, and its j held it as an imperial gift. He enlarged the chft- 

area metamorphosed into common dwelling-houses, tean, giving the entire middle front an additional 

Between Riidesheim and Bingen there is a steamer storey and a flat roof in the Italian style. The 

over the Rhine, starting every hour, and also one interior, plainly fitted up, is not allowed to be 

from the station to BingerbrUck, in coimection 

seen. In the palace chapel are the family arms 

with the trains. • of the Mettemich family painted on the glass 

Visitors to the Brannen of Nassau proceed from j windows by Ileilme. A beautiful view may be 

RUdesheim, on the rail by the right bank of the i enjoyed from the terrace, but admission Is only 

Rhine. The principal points of interest which will 

be passed are Schloss Johannisberg, beyond 

Oeisenheim, and Steinberg, beyond Erbach. Des- 

cr/pt/on8 of these places will be found further on, 

/A^ ^^' ^'"'^'^ ^^^ ^** ^'^ to Btop and inspect 
^»«» VMfojv to S<AlntgenbMl g9 to the left, 

granted in the absence of the family. 

The Vineyard originally belonged to the monks of 
the Abbey or Convent of St. John. The Johannis- 
try of Mount St. John, or Dischofsberg, consists 
of about ^0 iAT«%^Tl«ltv^ ^titly and commanding a 

Boute 22.] 



with innnmorable hamlets, Tillages, villas, and 
cloisters, the eminences covered with the ruins 
of castles, and river with shady islands. The 
wine of JohemnUherg has spread the fame of this 
eminence over a great part of Europe. The pro- 
duce is reckoned at about forty butts, valued at 
80,M0 florins. The vines of this yard are called 
Riesslingc, and the choicest of the vines grow 
near the castle. The vintage takes place as late as 
possible, the grapes being suffered to retain the 
highest degree of maturity. So precious arc they 
that the berries which drop off are picked up with 
forks expressly made for the purpose. George IV. 
and the then King of Prussia were the purchasers 
of the highest priced cask thidt has ever been sold, 
which cost nearly 22s. a bottle. The wine is 
placed In the collars of the chftteau and delivered 
out In bottles. Tourists can obtain alnglo bottles 
at 88. to S6s. at the Schlosswlrthschaft. It is not 
really good under lis. 

At tkis place the Rhine attains its greatest 
breadth, of f ,0M feet, stretching itself out to a 
raudk greater width than near RUdcsheim. Its 
breadth at Cologne is 1,300 feet, and at Wcsel 1,600. 
From hen wp to Maycoce small islands ai'c scat- 
tered in the centre of the channel. To the left wc 
see WlBk^ \a»tel» Rhclngauerhof; Diiring) from 
VittiCellti, from the fa<et of Charlemagne's wine- 
cellar being here; A very remarkable Church 
of the twelfth century is seen at Mittelheim. It 
contains a very flne ancient font. 

NearHattenhelm,a8mall village with 1,400 inhabi- 
tants, is the palace of Reichartshausen, formerly 
the wine magazine of the abbots of Eberbach. 
The present proprietor. Count Benkendorf, has 
beautified it by planting a charming garden, and 
placing iA it a very choice collection of paintings. 
Among them is one by Wilkle, called *^ Guess my 
Name." Hattenhelm can also boast of handsome 
villas, and not far from here grows, on the Strahlen- 
bei^, a little highet- up the river, the famous wine 
called Marcobrunner, deriving its name from a 
well, called Marktbrnnn, properly liCarkbrunn. 
TlM power and feudal greatness of the nobles of 
the BheiBgau have all but passed away, whilst 
tbalr number has ftlso been materially diminished. 
few now reside upon its JbAoks, and to tbem\)eloi\g 
the principal rineyards. 

Erbadl (Station)— /nn: Engel.-- Scbloss Rein- 
hartshausen, the property of Prince Albrecht of 
Prussia, contains good collections of pictures and 
sculptures, and is worth a visit. From this place 
two pleasant excursions can be made In the course 
of a few hours. One to Nieder-Ingelheim, not far 
distant (see p. 133). At a point on the Mainz Road, 
marked by an obelisk, we behold the entire Rhein- 
gau, and its charming scenery. This village is de- 
serving a visit, as the most memorable in Germany, 
and another should be paid to the Abbey of 
Eberbach, at one time the most important monastic 
establishment on the Rhine. It is beautifully 
situated in a wood, not far from Ellfeld. It was 
founded in 1131 by St. Bernard of Clairvaux, but 
is now used as a house of correction and asylum 
for lunatics. These establishments are wdl 
managed, but seldom shown to strangers. Itj) 
churches, which can be easily explored, are 
deeply Interesting specimens of the Romanesque 
style, and scattered amongst them are some very 
curious monuments; those of Katzcnellenbogenand 
Von Stein (de Lapide) are worth notice, as are 
also the long Dormitory and Chapter House. The 
oldest of these churches is now occupied by vine 
presses. Up the slope of the bill, close to the 
Convent, is the famous Steinberg Vineyard, con- 
sisting of about 60 acres. The vaults under these 
buildings have been transformed into wme cellars, 
for the ducal vineyards and costly wines. In them 
the Duke of Nassau keeps his *^ cabinet wines." 
A magnificent view of the surrounding scenery 
can be had from the Moss-house, on the Bos, a 
height close by here. On the other side of the river 
is Ingelheim, once the favourite residence of 
Charlemagne, but now a miserable village. 

To the left, between Erbach knd Ellfeld, is the 
Draiser Hof, formerly belonging to the convent. 

Ellfeld or mtyille (Station). 

Jnns : Reisenbach, Cratz*s and Mainzcrhof 

A small place with 3,340 inhabitants, remarkable 
for the beauty of its situation and Gothic towers, 
once the capital of the Rheingau. Surroimding the 
town are very many beautiful country seats, that of 
Graf vonEltib<ATi%'^'tQ\s&B««N^^'^^sJ=s«^»i«si«s^^ 

^«.\,\\. C\o*^\i^'«^^^2^^'^^ 




TRoute 22. 

valley, with a Pilgrim church well worth seeing. 
Its woodwork galleries and painted glass windows 
merit attention. Behind Kiedrich, yon see the old 
castle of Scharfenstein, once the residence of the 
Archbishops of Maycnce. It is here the Giilfcnberg 
wine is made. Nieder-Walluf is to the right, 
and Rauenthal, famous for its wine, is 4 miles 
north-west. EltviUc is the station for Schlangenbad 
(5 miles) and Langenschwalbach (10 miles) by road. 
Diligence twice a day. 

8CHLAN0ENBAD, 5 miles from Eltville, by road. 

Population, 850. 

Hotels: Victoria; Nassauerhof ; Planz; Germania; 
Bussischerhof ; Rlieinganerhof. 

Schlangenbad (i.e.. Serpent Spring) and Schwal- 
bach, are two of the baths, celebrated in Sir F. 
Head's " Bubbles from the Brunncn of Nasgau." 
Those who require quiet and retirement can pass 
a few weeks very agreeably at Schlangenbad, 
which, being higher and more shaded, is a much 
cooler residence than Wiesbaden (6 miles distant). 
The Baths, also, from being but slightly mine- 
ralised may be used by persons in health, as well 
as by those suffering from skin and other diseases; 
they not only impart a pleasurable sensation at 
the time, but also a feeling of Men etre for the 
remainder of the day. The water is not taken 

The Baths are placed in the lower storey of the 
Old and New Badhaus. and must be heated for 
bathing, as the water is only 80" to 8o^ Fahrenheit 
in temperature. Bath tax, 12 marks for the season, 
9 marks for each additional person ; levied after 
6 days* stay. 

A band of music plays daily on the promenade. 

English Church Service, in the Duke of Nassau's 
Chapel, during the season. 

Conveyances to Eltville, Wiesbaden (7^ miles), 
Schwalbach, Ems, &c. 

SCHWALBACH, 5 miles from Schlangenbad, 
now accessible by rail from Wiesbaden. 

Population, 2,800. 

Hotels: Kursaal. 

Hotel de la Promenade (All^e Saal), near the 
Xoyal Bath-house; Srat-claas hotel. 
^oteiHerzoff von Naasaa (Duke of Nassau), an 
«3e^/y«,/ hotcJ iu a ffoQd sitnation. 

. Quellenhof (Hotel des Sources) ; well situated, 
fine garden. 

Hotel M^tropole. Favourite first-class Hotel, 
situated in the prettiest and healthiest part of 

Tivoli. Firat-class private hotel and pension, 
specially recommended to families. Moderate 

Prince of Wales; Berlinerhof; Taunus; Bussi- 

English Church Service. 

Schwalbach, or Langenschwalbach, lies con- 
siderably higherthan Wiesbaden (12 miles distant), 
and though the town itself is hot in the middle of 
the day when the sun's rays are reflected from the 
hills, yet the air out of the valley is extremely 
bracing ; the ground soon dries after rain, and the 
walks and rides in the environs are varied, and 
extremely beautiful. 

Within the laist few years the place has l>cen 
considerably enlai^d and improved in its appear- 
ance and accommodation. This place is far more 
pleasant than Wiesbaden or Ems, in l>cing less 
noisy and less exposed to bustle or annoyance. 
The season lasts little more than two months, 
beginning in June and ending in August. The 
public room opens out upon the Allee, a fine 
avenue of trees continuous with the public 
promenade; whore two of the springs, the Wein- 
brunnen and the Pauline rise; the third spring, 
StaJilbrunnen, is separated by a low hill from the 
others. The water is exceedingly cxhilarathig, 
its effect being like that of champagne. 

Near the Weinbrunnen is the new Bade-Anstalt, 
a handsome building, resting on an open colonnade, 
which contains commodious bathing cabinets, and 
a promenade room. The colonnade extenda the 
entire length of the building, beneath which booths 
are open in the season for the sale of books, toys, 
&c., by itinerant travellers. The Pauline spring 
gives water to the baths in the upper storey ; and 
the Stahl and Weinbrunnen to those on the lower. 
Each bath is charged at the rate of about 1| mark 
Persons should be punctual in attending at the 
hour they \>e«^e&k. the bath, as if they do not they 
will \oae tYwiXt Vmiv. KX. \^<i ^ftfti q\ ^Jo^ ^^n«l4^ 

Route 22.] 



ttinkgeld is expected. There is a handsome 
Kursaal, with readhig-room, Ac. 

Knrtaxe, 10 marks per head, levied after 5 days. 

Music every morning and afternoon. 

Convejfonces to Eltville, Schlangcnbad, Wies- 
baden, Ems, &c. PubJic Cabs: 1 horse, 3 J marks; 
2 horses, C marks per honr. Extra after 11 p.m. 

The hillsalK)at areall intersected with paths ; and 
very beautiful views can be had from the sur- 
rounding eminences, particularly from the liiutic 
Pavilion^ standing on the suimuit of a hill on the 
road from hero to Wiesbaden, and which is not more 
than a quarter of an hour's walk from the Pauline. 

Adofphaeck^ a ruined castle, is another pretty 
excursion of a half-hour's walk. The principal 
and most delightful excursion is along the same 
road, the Aarstrasse, the finest in Germany, 
f (blowing the windings of the small stream Aar, to 
the Castlo of Hofieruteinj and up the valley for 6 
miles. Its scenery is channing and varied after 
a most beautiful fashion up to the moment the 
magnificent old castle shadows itself forth from its 
romantic height of black precipice. 

Returning to the ReehUrheinischn liail, the first 
station is Kiedcrwalluf, noticeable as being the 
spot where the Rheingau ends. 

Scblerstein {Hotd: Drel Kronen), a small vil- 
lage, containing 3,800 inhabitants. The ruined 
castle of Frauenstein is 4 miles from Schierstein, 
where is also a linden, ),O0O years old. Approach- 
ing Biebrich, the eminences along the bank rise 
in terraces, on which the vines are blooming, the 
river terminating in the distance in a semicircle, 
which gives to it the appearance of a large lake. 

.Biebrich (Station). 

Hoteis: Do TEurope ; Belle Vue; Krone. 
Population, 9,669. 

Up to 1866, the summer residence of the Duke of 
Nassau, whose Chateau^ of red sandstone, looks 
beautiful from the river. It is now rather dilapi- 
dated, but is yet one of the handsomest 
palaces on the Rhine. It is very magnificently 
decorated in the interior, and snrrounded by 
gardens tastefully laid out and picturesquely 
situated. A miniature Castle, the Moosburg, 
stands within them, on the bank of an artificial 
lake, and in it are preserved a large number of 
Roman antiqntttea. Thcto gardens arc open to the 

public. The Taunus Rail runs to Wiesbaden in 
20 minutes ; carriages must be changed at Kurve 
both going and coming. The Nassau-Rhine Rail- 
way has its station at the village of MOBteCll 
(which forms a part of Biebrich), close to the 
entrance of Biebrich Park. From here it is 15 
minutes to Wiesbaden. From the latter place 
tickets by the Taunus Railway to KOTVe station 
can be taken, and from there it is 10 minutes to 
Mosbach and 15 minutes to Biebrich on foot. 

Near Biebrich, upon the high grounds, a 
succession of fine views begin; beneath you 
lies the country like a luxuriant orchard, together 
with the palace of Biebrich, and the silver stream 
beyond the village of Hombach, bordered with 
fine hills, at the extreme point of which lies Buden- 
heira. On this side, the blue mountains of the 
Rheingau enliven the stream, here forming a 
majestic lake, reflecting beautifully the outlines 
of Schierstein, Ellfeld, and Walluf . At some dis- 
tance you behold, shadowed forth in darkened 
splendour, the Johannisbei^ and the Rochusberg, 
and further below appears the rocky chasm of 
Bingen, where the Rhine seems to terminate. To- 
wards Mayence, Castel, and Hocheim the vines are 
not less luxuriant, though of a different description. 

Persons on the Rhbie boat wishing to see Wies- 
baden should land here; and proceed by a br«nch 
rail to Wiesbaden, 3 miles distant. 

On the Branch Line from Biebrich. 

Population, 64,693. » 

Hoteh: Taunus Hotel, well situated, near the 
Railway Stations. Post and Telegraph Offices. 
See Advt. 

Hotel et Bains de Nassau. 

Rhine Hotel, large and splendid hotel, opposite 
the Railway Station. Post and Telegraph direction. 
Large stock of Rhine and Moselle wines. 

Hotel and Baths, The Four Seasons (Yler 
Jahreszeitcn), first-class hotel. 

Rose Hotel and Baths, first-rate and reasonable ; 
very comfortable. 

Hotel Victoria, close to the station. 

Hotel du Pare, first-class family hotel. 

Hotel d'Angleterre, an excellent h.QuaA..,VAs^H 



[Route 2S. 

Hotel AtUcr ; Grand Hutel. 

Hotel du Nord: Hotel Adlcr; Orttiierwald ; 

Prices of all the hotolH almost equal and mode- 
rate. At most of the booses, in winter, "Pension ** 
can be had. 

Pension, No. 8, Nenbaucr Strasse; Pension Quisi- 
sana; Pension International; Pension Abbott; 
Pension Hausmann, &c. 

Pott and Telegraph Oi^€<.— Rheinstrasso. 

Cab fares. — In the town, or to any of the 
country houses not beyond the Diotcnmiihle. — 1 
to a persons, 66 pf . ; 3 to 4 persons, 80 pf. By 
time, 1 to ^'persons, 2 and 3 marks per hour. Two- 
horse vehicles, about double. 

Wiesbaden, the (rovernmont seat of the PnisHian 
provinco of llesse-Nassnu, and one of the oldest 
and mo»t attrsctive wnterin^^ place*, lies at the 
centre of rnion of four Talleys af the Tnunus 
range which open to the Rhine. There is no 
manufacturing industry ; it is a rapidly prosper- 
ing Btraagers' colony, being inhabited by a large 
number of wealthy residents from all parts of the 
world, and is renowned as the healthiest town on 
the ccmtinent. A 1 argc supply of excellent water is 
brought from the hills into the houses by the town 
waterworics ; and the drainage extends to all 
the streets, which are wide and handsome. The 
Kursaal, the great attraction, contains splendid 
banquet and ball rooms, conversation and well 
supplied reading rooms, crowded with visitors, and 
forming a tout ememble not exceeded in Qei'mtuiy. 

A Band, performing during the season thrice a 
day, viz., 6 a.m., 4 pju., and 7 p in , is attached to 
the establishment. Fridays, select concerts. On 
each side of the Kursaui are colonnades, with 
bazaars, serving as a promenade in wet weather. 
The one opposite the Quatrc Haisons Hotel con- 
tains in the corner pavilion a warm mineral Spring, 
which is used for drinking. In summer it flows 
outside in the Park. The middle pavilion front- 
ing the park has an excellent permanent display 
of fine art. Behind the Kursaal is a little lake, 
from which, during the afternoon concerts, a 
gigantic Fountain rises to a height of about 100 
/bet, Bploadid Venetian night entertainments 
Jiro frequently given here. Tbo promenades ox- 
*«?//</ a/ons- < JJttJo river, bordered with viUaa, to 

the old castle of SonneHbeiy^ lialf-an-hour's walk. 
On the way is a little Zoological Garden, with 
croquet and tennis lawns. 

Kvrtaxe.^Vor six weeks : 1 person, 10 marks, 
3 persons, 15 marks, and for each person of the 
same family, 8 marks more. Day Tickets, 1 mark, 
at the office to the right on entering the Kursaal. 

There are 80 Hot Springs (Aqute Mattiacx) 
differing only little in heat, which supply the 
different bath>houses ; hydrochlorate of soda is the 
principal ingredient of the WAter, which has a 
slight alkaline i^mell and a tolerably strong salt 
taste. The action of the hot baths is in the highest 
degree stimulating and exciting, and has effected 
remarkable cures of chronic gout and rheumatism, 
which have resisted ordinary medical treatment. 
The principal spring, Kochbrttnnem, 156* Fahr., is 
frequented by water drinkers from six to eight 
o'clock in the morning, when a band plays. A 
new and extensive Drinking Hall is erected 
on the site of the old Hos[^taI. There is also 
a Military Bath-house close to the Palace. The 
great square containing the Assembly Hall (Kur- 
sasl) and the Colonnades is one of the finest on 
the continent. The Baths can be taken in several 
of the hotels; a great convenience for weakly 

Besides the Royal Palace in the Market Place, 
the town contains, close to the Kursaal, the PalaU 
Pauline in the Moorish style, in the Wllhelm- 
strasse ; the Museum, with very interesting Roman 
antiquities, found here; a Picture Qallery ; Zoolo- 
gical, Botanical, and Bfineralogical collections; a 
public Library with some rare M8S. In the 
Royal Theatre the best operas are iierformed the 
whole year round in a superior mannw. A Pro- 
testant Cathedral in. the new Gothic style; a 
Protestant Church, on the hill, in the style of 12th 
century; a Roman Catholic Church; and a new 
Synagogue, are to be found hero. The chief 
attraction is the Greek Church, on a bill near the 
town, having a cross 18.'i fe.>t higli, valuable mar- 
ble decorations, and a recumbent statue of the 
late Duchess of Nassau, a Russian princess. 

The beautiful ^aoironf afford excurHions to points 
which command the finest views of the Rhine and 
the Taunus hills. The temple on the Neroberg 
(cable-tramway from the centre of the town) is a 
f avoutVlft TOWtl, w\\,Yv si ^Wi4 T^^laurant. 


















Hotel Aill 

Hotel du 

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rjtte. At m 
can bo had. 

Pcusion, ! 
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Pension Hs 


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to a perse 
time, 1 to • 
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province c 
and mo»t 
contro of 
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the ccmtir 
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"tMv *4rv*, ^^., 





titgiuh Church Service twic« on Sundays, at tbo 
irob (bttUt 186a) in WUhelmstrasso. 
L Dmeal Htiniing Lodge- Die Platte— standH on 
eleTated ridge of the Taanu«, and fonui a 
uaat esLCursion, rarely omitted by strangers. 
i^artments are tastefully fitted up with 
nitiirai chiefly made of stags' horns; and sovoral 
\ pairfi <rf antlers hang around the hall, as 
phiea <»f achierements in the chase. Two^horse 
» tbitre and back, with stay of l^ lionrs, 

•'*rom Um roof a splendid prospect is obtainetl 
au cxtcflsire tract of variegated country, 
liidiiig the vi'unic of the river for several 
M, «iul the chain of the Bcrgstraase nioun- 
na,with the woods of the Taunus and Wies- 
lea lying immediately beneath. 
riM C bw sw i / of Kiarenthal and the Fai$anerie 
Peasantry), a little to the loft of ho road, will 
lay a visit. 

laitwmy to Umgen^Sehwalhadi (page 124) through 
leme Hand, in \\ houi. 

latlway from Wiesbaden to Mnyenco. in Ifl 
nmics; thence in one hoar to Frankfort-on- 
»-Mtia (Station), a hrancli mil Is ofien rui 

tMtttMlm, Igitadt, Aunmff-Medenbach, 

•dtfnliaUMn ; and thence to Llmlrarg, nnd 
fine old Cathedral, on the Luhn.] 
3asttf(ftatUm).—//o/W: Anker. A town and 
tress on the right Imnk, almost a suburb of 
iy«nce(8,SlSinhabitnntH) nnd connected with it 
a Bew solid britlge, replacing a bridge of boats. | 
sre is the branch station of the Wiesbaden and I 
ankfort RaiJway. 

MATENCE (Station), in (icrumn, MAINZ. 

Population, 72,984 (one-third Protcstunts, 6,000 
ws), inclnding garrison of 8,000. 
Hotdi: Hotel de Ilollande, an old established 
use, good nnd reasonable ; Hotel d' Angleterrc, 
excellent hotel, in front of the bridge, and com- 
inding beautiful views of the Rhine. 
ftheinischer Hof, deservedly reconiniendcd. 
KUlnerhof; Taunus; Stadt Bonn; (iermanla: 
ris; Bouvagc. 

Jatis: -1 horse, 15 minutes 60 pf., and so on. 
iggaffc, 80 pf. per l^iu 
Ifa/ouco fills • uirge page in the volume ol 

Continental history, and though at present it differ^ 
much from what it was when the residence of tha 
first German Elector, — when arts and seienoes 
flourished, and when it was at the summit of its 
glory, yet it must ever prove interesting to th« 
student of human institutions and of history, who 
cannot but revere it as the emporium of two things 
which make the world its debtor, and which have 
had the greatest influence in effecting human im- 
provement — ^the emancipation of trade from the 
exactions of the feudal aristocracy and the inven- 
tion of the printing preis. 

It has been a frontier fortress from the eariiest 
and moflt remote periods, and yet continues to bo 
one of the strongest in Cermany, as its situation 
is the finest, rising up a part of a hill on the bank 
where the yellowish Main has its confluence with 
the Rhine. It was the Moguntiacum of the 
Romans, and owes its existence to the fortress 
which IJrusus Germanicns built there, oA the spot 
where Marcus Agrippo, imder Augustus, had 
formed a fortified camp. To that period belongs 
the acr&n. or Dmsus stone, yet seen on the ram- 
part, and the aqueduct near ZahllMch. Mayence 
enjoyed its most gloriouK epoch in the second half 
of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and 
hero it was that the troubadours (Minnesanger) 
had their principal seat. The fifteenth centurjr 
became glorious to Mayence by the Invention of 
the art of Printing and as the birthplace and 
residence of Johann (lensfieisch, called Ontienberg, 
the inventor of movable types. A splendid bronze 
Statue, modelled by Thorwaldscn, was erected to 
his memory in 1837. in the open space facing 
the theatre, from general contributions, which 
amounted to 26.000fl. The Civil Casino now occu- 
pies the site of his houne, which stood at the end 
of the Schuster-gasso. In the comer house, be- 
tween Knunerans-gasHC and the Pfandhaus-gasse,. 
Gensflcisch (goose-fiesh) was bum, and his first 
printing-ofiice was the house called Hof xum 
Jungen, or Faiborhof. The new houses of tho' 
Schustcr^asse now occupy the site of the church 
of St. Francis, in which he was buried. 

The Mazarin Bible, by Gutenberg, formerly 
belonging to Lord Spencer, is the earliest ^cKss^u^ii^ 



Qneen Victoria. It was printed by Fust and 
Schoflfer, on Tellnm. 

■ Arnold Von Walpodcn, also a citizen, originated 
the plan whereby commerce was delivered from 
the exactions and oppressions of knightly high- 
waymen who over-ran the entire continent in the 
thirteenth century with their strongholds. He 
suggested a confederation of cities, which led to 
the formation of the Rhenish League in 1254. 
Under the energfetic reign of the Emperor Rudolph 
of Hapsburg, this same Walpoden instigated the 
reduction to their present picturesque condition of 
the mined castles along the banks of the Rhine. 

With the year 1792 began the most eventful 
and unfortunate period of the history of Mayenco, 
when Custine appeared before the town and took 
it without resistance. In 1793 the French evac- 
uated it after a determined defence against 
the Prussians, who bombarded it, and appeared 
before it again in 1794, with a powerful besieging 
army, from which it was delivered in 1795 by the 
victory of General Clairfait, after which an 
Austrian garrison occupied it until 1797, when 
the cession of the left bank of the Rhine to the 
French caused to Mayence a total change of all its 
relations. By the peace of Paris the city was 
again incorporated with Germany, and in 1816 
ceded to the Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, to 
whom it still belongs, and is one of the most 
important towns in his dominions. It is one of 
the chief fortresses of the German Empire, 
having a garrison of 8,000, and is the capital of 
Rhenish Hesse. 

Notice the KurfilrttlieheSehlo»s, or ancient palace 
of the Electors of Mayence, now a museum ; the 
Grossherzoglicho Schloss (originally the Teutonic 
house, which Napoleon lodged in) ; and the Arsenal, 
which are situated upon the quay whore the 
steamer stops. 

A chief object of attraction in Mayence is 

the CcUItedral, erected partly in the tenth century, 

by Archbishop Willigis, Lut not completed until 

the eleventh century. It is a vast red building, 

hemmed in on the north and south-west by mean 

houses. It is built in massive rotind style. Confla- 

^rrationB f three in the 11th cent.X bombardments by 

^^ J'rase/ang, and desecrations by the French in 

^"*'^' ^^^^^ret^/yinjared the edifice, the older 

[R'jutc 2^4 

parts of which, dating from the 11th century, A^ 
to be found at the east end, including the rour 
towers. It has now been fully restored, b* 
cannot be inspected during service. The gro* 
tower is about 270ft. high. It has two Choirs, ntf 
high altars at the cast and west, with two trMM 
septs. The most beautiful of the two choirs is tbii 
of All Saints, containing a very fine window, bi 
in 1317. The towers and chapels afford inter©« 
ing specimens of the various styles, Romanesqt 
Gothic, and Rococo, which characterised the 
centuries occupied in erecting the building. Tb©i 
are several Monuments worth seeing ; among wbl< 
are those of Archbishop Peter Von AspeU 
crowning Henry VII., Louis the Bavarian, 
John, King of Bohemia, Prince Albert of Saxonr«' 
Canon Bernard Von Breidenbach, Archbisbof»' 
BertholdVonHenneberg; sepulchral inscription i0< 
Fastrada, wife of Charlemagne, close to the magni* 
ficent doorway leading into the Memorie (probably 
a copy of an older one); the Minnesinger Frauenlob, 
who was carried to his grave by the ladies 
of Mayence, so great a favourite was he of 
their sex ; St. Boniface, first Archbishop of May- 
ence and Apostle of Germany. He was an English- 
man, bom at Ci-editou, in Devonshire, and professor 
of poetry, historj-, rhetoric, and the Holy Scriptures 
in the Benedictine Abbey 'of Nutsall, near Win- 
chester. He left England with eleven other monks 
to proach the gospel in Germany, and was created 
Bishop by Grogory II., and Archbishop and Primate 
of Germany by Gregorj- III., and Archbishop of 
Mentz, as the German metropolitan see, by Pope 
Zachary. One of his scholars was Von Meissen, 
the minstrel, called Frauenlob, or *' Preiser of 
women," mentioned above. 

The Pulpit^ an ancient font of lead behind 
the eastern altar, and the brazen doors opening 
into the Market-street, will attract attention. 
The doors are of the tenth century. Bishop 
Adelbert t., in 11 So, had engraven on the upper 
valves an edict granting important privileges to the 
city in consideration of his gratitude to the citi- 
zens who delivered him from the hands of the 
emperor, whose person they seized and detained 
until the bishop was restored to them. Two very 
ancient chalices arc preserved in the sanctuarj',, 
Tl\e canons of this cathedral returned rather a 
remarkaAAQ atvvNW \.o \\wil?QiVfc ovs. VYka qw.^aIou. of 


"a, twice 


: of the 

in 1840. 
e, from 
!9, 1885, 
e muni- 
llne to 
I one, is 
istel to 
lere is a 
I (Sta- 
goes to 


% «aa$M 



are a 
les are 
it, on a 
uif and 


le sol- 

a good 

_^ iha sftitftn to Hm iHf«r. 
rb» mmmU&h ihna Mayenca to CoUen* and 

I sprlr 

_ .,-*.— -—o »"■" "• 



r its old 

. former 



, .—--■*, tonic 




Foldberg, Ac. An old watch-tower marks the 
former boundary of the territory of Frankfort 
when a free city. 


Population, about 179,860; 40,000 being Catho- 
lics and 15,000 Jews. 

Iloteit: Hotel Continental. First-class hotel, 
splendid position. Electric Light. Lift. 

Hotel Frankfurter Hof . 

Hotel Swan, where Bismarck and Favre met 

in 1871. 

Hotel Angleterre; Westend Hall; Hotel de 
Russie; duNord. 

Union Hotel. 

Hotel Landsberg ; Drexel ; de Brnxelles ; Jacobi ; 

The Roman Emperor (RSmische Kaiser). 

Private Family Boarding House, Mr. Vcrster, 17, 

Boarding House, Kettenhofweg, West End. 

Pension Valentin, 18, Wohlerstrasse ; very con- 
venient situation. 

Pension Brisbois, 14, Wohlerstrasse. 

Resident British Consul ;~-9,nd Resident United 
States Ccnsvl-Oeneral. 

Resident Engliik Clergyman. 

Cahs.—Trom stations, 90pf. per person ; 20pf. for 
a box. A drive in the town, 1 or 2 persons, 60pf. 
One-horse droschky, 2 persons, \ hour, 50pf. 

Tramway. — ^From Boekenheim to the Zoological 
Garden with branches to the Ost and the Central 
Station (Bahnhof). 

Frankfort, now belonging to Prussia, was a 
free city, with a senate of its own, and the 
place where the German Emperors were elected 
after 1356. Here the German Bund used to 
meet prior to 1866. It occupies, including Sach- 
scnhauscn, a wide plain on the right and left banks 
of the Main, and contains many large, handsome 
thoroughfares, especially in the New Town, in the 
Zeil, in Mainzer-strasse, Kaiscr-strasse, Ac. The 
bounds of the Old Town and of the suburbs beyond 
are mai ked by ancient watch-towers and modem 
gates, and by well-planted walks, or Anlagen, 
along the course of the former walls, which were 
removed, 1813. There are a lusp^ision bridge, 
ir/sdaet. and three other hridgOB. 
Tiie moat caaaplcaous object of notice is the 

[Route 23. 

Cathedral or Dom^ which having been half ruined 
by a fire in 1867, has now been fully rMtored. It is 
remarkable for its antiquity as well as for behig 
the place where for many years the Emperors 
were crowned. At a very early period, an Abbey, 
founded by Louis the German and a pious 
Franconian, was connected with the church. 
The nave, which is the oldest part, dates from 
the thirteenth century, and the choir from the 
fourteenth century. It is built in the form of 
a cross, and is considered a good specimen of 
ancient German architecture. The tower, 312ft. 
high, should be ascended for the fine prospect. 
Trinkgeld is expected by the attendant. Its interior 
is comparatively plain and unadorned, but has 
been renovated and improved of late years. It 
contains one or two Monuments, the most remark- 
able of which is that on the right of the choir 
the Wahlkapelle, or Electors' Chapel, dedicated to 
the memory of the unfortunate Emperor Giinthcr 
of Schwarzbui^, and another in the chapel on the 
left side of the choir, a clumsily ornamented one, 
that of Rudolph of Sachsenhausen. 

The Liebfrauenkirche, St. Catharine's or the 
High Church, St. Leonhard, and St. Nicholas, are 
old churches ; St. Paul's is modern. 

The most remai'kable public building is the 
Town House, called Rdmef\ dating from 1406. It 
is of the fifteenth century, interesting for its 
historical note. Here is the Wahlzimmer (still 
preserving its original appearance), where the 
Electors or their deputies used to assemble ; the 
Kaisersaal, or Imperial Hall, with the portraits 
of all the Emperors, from Charles the Great or 
Charlemagne to Francis II., hanging on its walls. 
There are several other paintings in the hall, 
which has been redecorated in the ancient style. 
The Kaisersaal is open free, Monday, Wednesday, 
and Friday, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. Other days, 
50pf . to i mark. 

On the RSmerberg, opposite the Imperial build- 
ing, an entire ox was roasted at each coronation 
from which the Arch-Stewards cut a slice for the 
Emperor. Wine flowed from a historical fountain 
(the Justitia-Brunner, now restored) ; and corn 
was distributed from a silver measure by the Arch- 
HanbtLl^totYi^V^^ulflLce^who were privileged to cut 

Bonte 23.] 



walked. See Goethe's ''Dichtang und Wahrheit.*' 
This famous fountain having become ruinous was 
copied accurately in bronze at the expense of 
Gustay Manskopf, Esq., a member of an old 
Frankfort family, and re-erected May, 1887. 

The Saalho/, Saalgasse No. 81, originally a royal 
palace, of which nothing now remains but a chapel. 
The principal Synagogue^ hi Oriental style, with 
gilt cupola, in the Fahrgasse, is worth seeing. 

St. LeonharcTs Church, 13th to 16th century, on the 
spot where once stood Charlemagne's palace. Near 
this is the Old Bridge, with a modern statue of 
Charlemagne, leading over to Sachsenhausen ; 
where stands the ancient Palace of the Knights of 
the Teutonic Order, and close by are the remains 
of the old Palace of the Counts of Iseubcrg. 

The Municipal Archives, near the Cathedral, 
contain some old paintings from extinct monas- 
teries; an antiquarian collection; Dr. Rtippell's 
Kgyptian collection; an ethnographic collection ; 
and the Golden Bull of 1356. 

The Stiidel Museum of Pictures, in a new building 
at Sachsenhausen, called after its fomider, is an 
artistical institution for the benefit of young 
painters, architects, designers, engravers. Its 
founder, StSdel, the banker, left his numerous 
pictures and collections of prints, and a sum of 
l,200,000f. (£100,000), for the foundation of the 
institute. The collection of engravings, about 
30,000, is one of the finest in Europe. Open daily, 
fromlltol. The principal pictures in the collec- 
tion belcmg to tiie Flemish and German Schools. 
Lcssing's Trial of Huss, and pictures by Van Hnls, 
De Hoog. and Overbeck, are worth notice. A 
catalogue may be obtained at the door, price 1 mark. 

KUnstverein Picture Gallery, 9 to 6, 1 mark. 

The Senckenberg Museum of Natural Philosophy, 
near the old Eschenhcimer Tower, has a very good 
collection, well arranged, founded by Dr. Senckcn- 
bcrg. Open, free, Wednesdays, 2 to 4 ; Fridays and 
Sundays, 11 to 1 ; other days 8 to 1 and 8 to 6, 75pf . 

The Public Library is a pretty building, and con- 
tains about 150,000 volumes, besides old M3S. ; 
open all days of the week. In the libraiy are 
portraits of Luther, and of his wife Catherine, 
two pairs ^f Luther's shoes, two missals, and a good 
copy of the 1st edition of the Bible printed by 
Fast at Mentz. To the rear of the library "we 

see the Holy Ghost or St. George's Hospital^ a light 
and elegant building. 

The Gutenberg Monument, dedicated to tho 
inventors of printing, is by Von Launitz, 1857, 
and consists of Gutenberg, SchofTer and Fust, on 
a pedestal ; round the base of which are medallions 
of Koster, Caxton, and others, with various other 
emblems, arms of towns, &c. 

Goethe was born at No. 23, Grosser Hirschgraben, 
which has been completely restored. It contains 
a good portrait by J. Lips, 1792. On the front is his 
father's coat of anns, bearing the poetical devices 
of three lyres ; open, for 1 mark. In Goethe Platz, 
facuig the Theatre and the Gutenberg Statue, is a 
bronze Statue of Goethe, executed by Schwanthalcrf 
of Munich. In Schiller Platz, near this, is Diel- 
mann's Statue of Schiller, placed here 1864. A 
Latin inscription and bust mark the house in whicL* 
Luther resided in the Dom Platz, on his way to 
Worms, 1521. The inscription is as follows : ''In 
silentio et spo erit fortitudo vescra."— (In silence 
and hope shall be your strength^') Frankfort is 
also distinguished as being the birth-place of the 
founders of tlie Rothschild family (sounded "K5t- 
sheeld.") The house in which they were born was 
in the Judengasse, or Jews' Street, which Is now 
entirely cleared .away, but the house itself is still 
preserved at No. 26, Biirncstrasse. 

Tho Rothschild Collection of curious small oojects 
of art is shown on Mondays and Thursdays. 
Apply for tickets at tlie Rothscliid Library, 

The New Exchange, or Borse, in Theuier Platz, is 
in the Byzantine style, and is ornamented with 
statues of Hope and Prudence, the Divisions ol the 
Earth, Commerce, &c. 

The Frankfort Fairs (or Messe) are held at Easter, 
and three weeks previous to Michaelmas ; during 
their continuance the inns are ver>' crowded. 

The Palace of the Prince of Thurn and Taxis was 
the place of meeting for the Germanic Diet till 1866. 

At the Bethmannsche Museum is Dannecker's 
statue of Ariadne on ?ier Panther — a celebrated 
work, the boast of Frankfort — here placed in a 
cabinet ; the lights of which are regulaJtAA. ^s^ 
transparcut b\\\\«\^ \\\ Wvti ^^V\ss^n\'se. ^5»*«5':5«^^ 



[Route S3. 

At the house of the Bethmannp, in Buchgasse, the 
Countess d'Agoult, the Novelist, was born, 180S. 
She called herself ''Daniel Stern." 

The Monument erected to the memory of the 
Hessian soldiers, killed in 1792, stands outsid* the 
Friedherg Gate. 

In the Markt^ near the Cathedral, are the 
Steinertie Ilaus, of the ICth centary, the Bana turn 
Kleinen Engel (1562), and other old hoiuefl. 

Church of England Service^ celebrated each San- 
day, at the Church in the Goetheplatz. 

The TftecUre is open daily. At the Bockenheim 
Gate there is a magnificent new Opera House. 
Both are closed in August. 

The third Continental Peace Congress was held 
at Frankfort on the 22nd August, 1850, and the 
two following days. The special train from Lon- 
don, via Calais and Cologne, and thence up the 
Rhine, conUined about 600 delegates and risitors. 
The place of meeting was St. Paul's Church, a 
building capable of holding more than 2,000 per- 
sons, which was thronged each day. Bismarck 
and Jules Favre met here, 1871 (at the White 
Swan), during the Franco-German war. 

The Pott Office, in the Zeil, not far from the Hotel 
de Russie, on the same side. 

The Burgervereinj 74, Eschenheim-str., takes in 
foreign journals. Strangers are admitted on being 
introduced by a member. 

Bankers. — Messrs. Rothschild, 146, Fahrgasse; 
Frankfurter Bank, 2, Mlinzgasse. 

English and Foreign Booksellers. — C. Jtigel, 
Depot for Bradshaui's Guides. 

Wines.— "Messrs. Mauskopf Si Sons, 16, Hinter 
der Schbnen Aussicht. 

Messrs. Mayer's, 16, Buchgasse. 

The Palmengarien (Palm Garden), on the 
Bockenheim Road, west of the town, contains 
plants bought 1869, of the Duke of Nassau. A 
baud plays daily; admission, 1 mark. A collection 
of stuffed animals is near it. On the east side, 
are the Zoological Gardens^ 1 mark; and Aquarium, 
50 pf.; worth seeing. 

The Old and New Cemeteries arc situated about I^ 

^ng-j/ah mile from the Friedherg Gate, commanding 

^S^od Tiewof ITmnkfort and the Taunus. They 

^i^iia J, j^gre number of interestine monumouts, 

among which are those of the Bethmand family, hy 
Thorwaldsen, and of the Countess of Reieb«nbach, 
wife to the late Elector of Hesse. Also a monument 
to Prince Lichnowsky and General Auerswald, the 
Prussian Deputies, murdered in the revolution of 
1848, by cowardly assassins; with the graves of 
Sommering, the naturalist, and Feuerbach, the 
lawyer (For farther particulars, see L.Tlaven- 
stein's Guide.— " /YiArer dnrch Frankfurt und 

Steamers on the Main to Wuraborg daily ; also 
to Mayence. Rail to Homburg and to Wiesbaden ; 
also to Cronberg, a short line of 9i miles, 
opened 1874, out of the Homburg line from 

BOdelbeliu; to Cassel; to Soden. in the 

Taunus Mountains, (see page 129.) A direct line 
is open to Darmstadt (see Route 28). Electric 
rail to Offenbach. 

The rail to Homburg, 11 miles long, passes vi& 
RSdelheim, Weiskirchen, and Ober-Ursel. 
HOBIBURO (Station), or Homburg Baths. 

Population, 8,863. Hotels: 

Royal Victoria Hotel.— First-class hotel; Ex- 
cellent table d'hdte. Best situation ; fine views of 
Taunus mountains. See Advt. 

Hotel de Russie. — First-class hotel; elegantly 
furnished apartments. See Advt. 

Hotel des Quatre Saisons (Vier Jahreszciten), 
kept by Mr. W. Schlotterbeck. Well situated; 
moderate charges. 

Hotel de Belle Vue, very well situated, 
opposite the Park. 

Hotel Ritter's Park.— Newly established; 
beautifully situated. 
Hotel Ricchelmann. 
Englischerof ; Windsor; Adler; Eisenbahn, Ac. 

Homburg, or Homburg vor der Hobe, is 

a town beautifully situated, 650 feet above sea, 
in a bracing climate. Since 1844 it has becomo 
famous for its excellent saline waters; one of these, 
the Elisabeth' Brunnen, has more carbonic acid 
than any other saline spring at present discoyered. 
The others are Stahlbrunnen, ferruginous, like that 
of Spa; the Luisenbrunnen; the Kaiserbrunnen^ 
containing most salt, compared to the Carlsbad 
I waters; aii^XXi^ Lu(&ctgs6runn«ii. Kaiserwilhelms- 

BoBtes 24 and 25.] 



There is an Engli$h Resident Phytidan. Intend- 
ing Titit^rs should read ** ObserTatioQS on the 
Mineral Waters of Homburg," by F. H. Prytherch, 
M.D. (John Gharchill, London; Louia Schick, 
Homburg). The place is well laid out; good water 
supplied from the hills. 

Hombni^ contains perhaps the most mag- 
nificent Kursaal in Germany; 540 feet long by 
266 feet broad. It has a dining hall, coffee- 
rooms, reading and smoking rooms, with a fine 
band, which plays daily on the walk. It also 
contains the SacUhurg Museum of Roman antiqui- 
ties. Kurtaxe levied after a residence of 5 days, 
which is doubled from June to Sept. During this 
period an extra charge is made from 3 to 9 p.m. 
to those not paying Kurtaxe. 

Its only object of attraction is the former Palace 
of the Landgraves. At the back is the Wcisscr 
Thurm (190 ft.), and over the inner gateway 
is an equestrian statue of Prince Frederick 
of Hesse. The daughter of George III., the late 
Landgravine Elizabeth, had the gardens attached 
to the Palace nicely laid out in the English style ; 
entrance free. A succession of well-kept flower 
gardens and shrubberies stretch along between 
these grounds and the base of the Taiums, 
affording to the promenadcr a magnificent walk, 
and leading him to an eminence commanding 
a rich view of the surrounding country. 

A visit can be paid from here to the Nauheim 
Bolt BeUhs, about 9 miles north-east of Homburg, 
on the Frankfurt and Gassel line. Good hotels, 
and cheap lodgings. 

EnglWi Chmxh Service^ every Sunday, at the 
new Church, Ferdinandstrasse, near the station. 

Kwtar§—Af\tr 5 days' residence, 1 person. 8 
marks; 2 persons, 13 marics: 8 and 4 persons, 20 
marks; doubled from 16th June to 18th Sept. 

Bingen to MAyence— by rail or road. 

Distance by rail, 20 English miles. The rail 
along the south bank passes Ingelheim, Budenheim, 
ifcc. There are also two roads, (me, the most inter- 
esting, along the left bank, uid another on the left 
bank, remote from the si^e of the river. The rail^ 
on leaving Bingen, skirtf the foot of the BoclkUft- 
bersr, and passes tbo village ot Kempten. 

Tfi gAiyyAlin (Stati011).<-''fio<«/- Hirsch.^About 
1} mile from the Rhine, now reduced to a. 
miserable village. It was once the spot where 
Charlemagne loved to dwell, and where he builthim- 
self a magnificent Palace and decorated it with one 
hundred pillars of marble and porphyry, and with 
red mosaics sent to him by Pope Adrian. The 
only memorials of its existence are a few mutilated 
fragments of pillars within one of the two Churches, 
near which it stood, and a column of granite 
inserted in a comer of an old gateway. In this 
church is the monument of one of Charlemagne's 
four queens. The other stations between here 
and Mayence are Heidesheim, Mombach, and 
Gartenbach. The two first produce wine neaiiy 
equal to that of Ingelheim. After leaving Ingel- 
heim, the line passes on the right an eminence, 
near the top of which stands a small obelisk 
erected by the French, and bearing this Inscrip- 
tion, ** Route de Charlemagne, termintfe en Tan 
premier du rbgne de Napoleon—" (The Chaiie- 
magne Road, finished in the 1st year of the reign 
of Napoleon). 

Saarbriicken to Treves. 


Saarbriicken (Station). See Route 22. Rail to 

Metz, Forbach, and other places which figured in 
the war. The line to Treves descends the pleasant 
valley of the Saar. 

SaarlonlS (Station). Hotels: Post; Trier- 
scherhof. A frontier fortress of Prussia, of 
great strength. The Saar half encircles the town, 
and is spanned by a long stone bridge. The 
fortifications were built in one year by Yauban, to 
win a wager with Louis XIV. Population, 7,000, 
many of them descended from English prisoners 
confined there by this king. During the first 
French revolution it was called Saarlibre. It is 
remarkable as the birth-place of Marshal Ney. 
The Peace of Ryswick guaranteed this place to 
France, but the treaty of 181 4 secured it to Prussia. 

Mettlach (Station).— Here is an extensive 
porcelain factory, formerly a Benedlctisi*. ^Mws^^ 
founded wvd %Ti^<cr«^e)L \^ NJws. -wsh^^^Sq. ^aesssOT- 
(,^om «. t\Vn «}\^s^^^.\TCW^^^^V^'«^^ '^'^T?^^^ 



[Route 25. 

Aboat 8 miles distant from Saarburg, we see 
Castell, originally a Roman castle, and transformed 
into a chapel, to receive the remains of John, King 
of Bohemia, son of the emperor Henry the Yll., 
killed ill 1846, at the battle of Cr€cy. It was re- 
stored by the King Fr. Wilhclm, 1835. 

A small village, delightfully situated at the mouth 
of the valley of the Saar. On the Leuk, which here 
falls Into the Saar, is a beautiful waterfall, near 
some picturesque ruins. A branch rail, 84 miles 
long, is open from Saarburg to SaargeniiilldL 

It passes Hanweiler and Saaralben, from which 

last a line runs via BeHSdOTf and CH&teaU- 
SalillB, to Nancy, in France. 

CODZ (Station) ; the Roman Gonstltium, after 
which the line enters the Moselle valley. 

KartbaUS (Station), at the junction for Lux- 
embourg and Brussels. 

TREVES (Station)— or Trier, in German. 
Hotel J. ' 

Hotel de Trfeves (Trlerscher Hof), very good 
hotel for families and gentlemen ; recommended. 

Rothes Haus, or Maison Rouge, an old-estab- 
lished good house, well situated ; formerly the 
Hotel de VUle. 

Luxomburgcrhof; Stadt Venedig. 

Post Office.— 75^ Fleischstrassc, opposite the 
Kcmmarkt. . 

Ca64.— Within the town, including the station, 
amphitheatre, and the zurlaubcn, all of which are 
outside :^ 1 person, 60 pf., 2 persons, 60 pf., 8 per- 
sons, 85 pf. 1 hour, U mark for 1 horse, 2i marks 
for 2 horses ; for every further 20 minutes, 60 pf . and 
76 pf . more. For longer drives as by agreement. 
To Igel about 6 marks for 2 horses. 

Steamers from Treves to Cobleuz. 

The station lies outside of the town, at the 
eastern comer, and not very far from the Porta 
Nigra. The smaller station, on the left bank of 
the river, is now only used for the short line from 
Ehrang to Konz. 

This ancient town lies in a charming valley 

of Rhenish Prussia, suiTouuded by low vine-clad 

////Jo', wbiob la open from south-east to north-west, 

on tJio jiffbt bank of the Moselle^ and contains a 

f^^^fJoa of 86,162. A beautiful range of hills 

9c/ra/es tbe town, from the month of the Saar to 

that of the Kyll. Above and below, small villages 
appear, like suburbs. Its interior is very#greeable, 
the streets being for the most part regular and 
large, and embellished with many fine houses; 
the slated roofs, however, render the place rather 
sombre and gloomy. The inscription, " Ante 
Romam Treviris stetlt annis MCCC," on the walls 
of the former Town Hall, now Rothes Haus (or 
Red House) Hotel, asserts thnt Treves was built 
before Rome. At all events, it is the oldest city in 
Germany, though it is doubtful whether, as some 
think, it existed when the Romans under Julius 
Caesar (b.c. 68) first invaded the district, but it 
probably dates from Claudius. Prehistoric weapons 
indicate that the district was once populous. 

Claudius established a Roman colony here, called 
Augusta !n-evirorum^ shortly after the parti- 
tion of Gaul, and settled there the supreme courts 
of administration. Under Diocletian,Trevcs became 
the metropolis of Belgiea Prt»w— comprising not 
only Belgium so-called, but the whole of Spain and 
Britain; Roman laws were issued and imperial 
coins struck there, and cloth, arms, and military 
stores were supplied to the Roman legions. It was 
also the residence of several Roman emperors, and, 
in the great distribution of the empire, under Con- 
stantine the Great, the praetorian prefect of Gaul 
was appointed to have his residence at Trbves ; 
eventually removed to Aries, when the German 
nations began to Invade the Roman possessions. 
Here also lived, in high offices, Ausonius, the poet 
of the Moselle, the preceptor of the emperor Valen- 
tinian's son. During 115 years, an emperor, or 
one of the Imperial family, was constantly here. 
Agritius of Antioch, was first bishop of Treves 
(A.D. 828), and the city was afterwards raised to 
an archbishop's see. The university was founded 
in 1473, and existed until 1798. The city was for 
centuries the residence of an elector of the 
empire, until in 1786 the last of these, Clemens 
Wcnceslaus, removed the seat of authority to 
Coblenz. • 

In 1702-4, the English, under Marlborough, took 
Trfeves, and in 1794 it was held by the French, 
when the churches and convents were stripped 
ot all ti\<iVt \»^tdl\v and oniamcnts, and turned 

into fttaUea. YtcyVo^'i Vq >Jo\a^'\:x^N^^ v^^^t-^aftA. 

Route 25.] 



more ecclesiastical buildings than any city in 
Europe of a similar size. While it was In French 
hands, it was incorporated (in 1801) with the 
French Republic, in conformity with the treaty 
of LuneTille, as capital of the department of the 
Barre. It became Prussian property in 1815. 

Treves, after having' been the seat of imperialism, 
spiritual and civil courts of the electorate, of a 
chapter, an episcopal college and a university, is 
now the seat of a Prussian governor. As a town 
it is decayed and faded, and only interesting 
because of its historical glories and for the Roman 
remains still existing in it. These remains con- 
stitute the most extensive relics of the once masters 
of the world, saved from remote antiquity. As 
memorials of their architecture, history, Ac, rast- 
ness and not beauty is the distinctive charac- 
teristic of their appearance, and in this they differ 
from remains found in the south of France and 
elsewhere. Christianity and Vandalism have, the 
latter by its barbarism, and the former by its 
prejudice, done much to annihilate and dlsfig^e 
these memorials of Roman dominion. 

The Cathedral of St. Peter and St, Helena is 
situated on the highest eminence in the town. 
The front and east side of it, consisting of Roman 
masonry, are said to have belonged to the palace 
of the Empress Helena, or to basilica built by the 
Emperor Valentiniau. St. Helena, we are told, 
deposited in the church the SeanUeu Coat of our 
Saviour, which, after being hidden for 184 years, 
was, in 1844, for eight weeks exhibited to the 
veneration of one million one hundred thousand 
pilgrims. Huge columns of granite adorned, in 
the eleventh centnr}', that part where now the 
great choir stands; remains of them are still 
lying in the cloister garden. In addition to the 
traces of Roman Byzantine architecture, we also 
discover traces of the middle ages in the interior 
of the well-preserved cloister which adjoins the 
church. In the interior of the church are several 
monuments of the electors of Treves, among 
which is that of the soldier^prelate, Richard von 
Greiffenklau. The pulpit carving is pretty good, 
and the seats of the choir are inlaid with ivory 
and wood carving, and beneath the church are 

from the exhibition of the Holy Coat, and a 
portion of them are devoted to the repair of the 

Close to the cathedral, and connected with it 
by very beautiful cloisters, is the LiOfrauen Kirchty 
or Church of Our Lady. It occupied from 1227 to 
1243 in building, and is in the most elegant 
pointed style of pure Gothic architecture. The 
disposition of the plan is grand, and the proporticms 
are happily chosen. The eastern choir terminates 
in the form of a cross, the pieces of which form 
two lateral passages northward. The semicircular 
portal is richly ornamented with sculpture, ani 
twelve columns, each bearing the figure of a 
apostle, support the interior. These may all be 
seen at once from a dark blue slab near the door. 
They show here the weU-preserved corpse of t. 
Theodulph, bishop of Treves. The monument of 
Johann Segensis, and the doorway in the north 
transept, are worth inspection. 

The Porta Nigra^ Black Gate, or Porta Mortis^ 
situated at the northern extremity of the town, 
at the end of the Simeonstrasse, is one of the 
most interesting objects of antiquity in the city. 
Its origin or date cannot be ascertained, but it 
is surmised to have been built in the reign of 
Constantino the Great. Tuscan columns decorate 
the front, and its basement storey is ver^' massive, 
and probably built as the entrance on the north of 
the city wall. Some writers place the date of 
its erection before the arrival of the Romans, 
and designate it the council-house of the Belgae. 
Its style of architecture would, however, con- 
tradict this, and lead us to believe it a building 
belonging to the lower empire. In 1805 the 
building was converted into a Church by Arch- 
bishop Popo, and dedicated to St. Simeon, an 
anchorite, who, in the eleventh century, on his 
return from the Holy Land, took up his position 
on the top of the edifice, acquired a reputation of 
great sanctity, and at his death was added as a 
saint to the Roman calendar. Napoleon strii^d 
the lead from the roof on his arrival at Treves and 
had it cast into bullets. The Prussian govern- 
ment, in 1816, cleared it of rubbishy t<^ «i^fB«w 
the folding dww lot \X» ^^^ \!«b»>svX'Ks:v A*=^^f°» 

vaults in which repose the bones of wchbliliope \ «iitr^<AVY«'Kia*^T^c^**«'«^^^ 
tuid electors. Large twoAu Aoeroe to this chinch \ la IWft «\\\tAA ^^\%b«co«o!w^ ^^'^ 



£Boate 29. 

only the lateral building <^ the elerenth centnry, 
containiug the choir and altar, it left itaading ; it 
is a fine specimen of Roman architecture. 

This Porta i« oonttructed of raddiah-grey blocks 
of sandstone, grown black by the influence of time, 
and to closely eonuected, without the aj^tlication 
of mortar or eemetit, that the Joints could scarcely 
be discerned, but they have been chipped and 
mutilated at their angles, in order to extract the 
metal clampe that united them. In the interior 
are some broken fragments of antiquity, the most 
remarkable of whidi are a bas-relief of gladiators, 
a mermaid with two tails, several earthen pipes, 
and some Roman mileatones. Trinkgeld expected. 

The Palace 0/ the EleetortundBidvps. The bold 
and gigantic eonatruetion of this building is atiU 
Wsible in iU ruins. The edifice is now a barrack. 
The principal, staireaae is a rare specimen of 
rich and elaborate canring. It stands npon the site 
(if fm euormons Roman edifice, a frsgment of wliich 
uuly remains^ the other parts being removed in 
1614 to make way for the Epiacopal Palace erected 
an its ruins. The fragment remaining is a semi- 
oix«ular tower built into the edifice, and called 
BeUmthurm, The walls an 90 feet high and 
10 feet thick, and give eome idea aa to the 
colosBal diraensiona of the building when 
entire. The ecmstruction is entirely of bricks and 
tilea, and ia a maaterpieee of architecture, there 
not being a crack or iHreak in the walla now after 
the lapse of ages. It is now used as a Church, for 
which purpose it waa cleared out by order <tf the 
king of Prussia. From the portals of this broken 
ruin were issued those decrees which gave laws to 
Rome, Constantinople, and to Britain at th« one 
epoch. It was also the fayoorite residence of 

An open tpaot in fVont d this building aerves aa 
a driil^gronnd for the troops, and at ita farther ex- 
tremity are the rains of the Roman Palace. 
Though much mutilated, these ruina hare been laid 
bare by the dii^ctlon of the Prusaian Ooyemment. 
The principal part of the remains ia alazge apart- 
ment, heated by hotHiir ohuuMls. One of fba 
iowers wJbich formed the e«taide of the edifiee 

•«^ ^fvamrOftr mm £f tmtkop^d o«t of ifaa Man- 1 

berg, a hill covered with vineyards. It was once 
the scene of the ^^magnificum speOaevluM—famoaa 
tuppUela^'' with which Constantlne entertained his 
subjects. Tttey were called Ludi Francici, or 
Frankish sports, and consisted in expoeing many 
thousands of unarmed Frankish prisoners to be 
torn in pieces by wild beasts. The arena is 834 
feet Icmg and 165 feet broad. The circus mentioned 
by Augustine in his Confessions lay in a southern 
direction from the amphitheatre. 

The Bridge over the MouUe has lately been care- 
fully widened, and is probably one of the most 
ancient monuments in Treves . It had eight arched 
openings, constructed of massive pieces of lava. 
The pillars of the bridge are about 66 feet long and 
21 feet broad, and some date from the reign of 
Augustus. It originally stood near the centre of 
the town, and resisted, during a cycle of centuries, 
the efforta of barbarism, nntll the French blew it 
up in the wars of Louis XIV., and hence the only 
parts now remaining are the piers of large stones 
from the lava quarries, at Mendig, near the lake of 
Laach. It was partly re-bullt, 1741, 

Without the city there were four Abbeys of 
Benedictines, renowned for their great wealth, not 
a fragment of which now remains, and modern 
structures have even retraced the old edifices. 
They were those of St. Matthew, now a school ; 
St. Maximin, now a barrack; St Martin on the 
Moeelle, now a china fadx>ry ; and St. Mary of the 
Poor Martyrs, below the town on the site once oc- 
oupied by the Roman prefect* s palace, where the 
ioldiera of the Theban legion suffered martyrdom. 

The UmvertUff, which had greatly declmod, was 
formed by the French into a college, and Is at pre- 
sent used aa a High School, in which is placed 
ike Town library, containing 94,000 volumes, a 
MS. of the fonr gospels, the famous Codex Aureus, 
i^tten in golden letters, bound in plates of gilt 
silver, with figures embossed in high relief, inter- 
spM'sed with i»'eeious stones, and having in the 
cmtre, a splendid cameo, representing the Famllia 
Augusta, besides several <^her literary curiosities, 
Qnttenberg's first bible, and many other printed 
books of great value. Among the collection of 
cnriositiM is a large number of ancient ooins 
and medala, and also Ardibishop Engelbert's 
Mfi. QQV9 «l ^*^ «Q«V^Vv distincuished by laaay 

BoBte 26.] 



maitoriy miniature painting; and ten aatograph 
letters of Luther and Ignatius. MnBeom of 7,000 
coin« ; open 9 to 11 a.m., gratis. The Protfineial 
J£u$e$un, open daily in summer, li to 1 ; Sunday 
and Wednesday free, other days, 60pi. A good 
collection of antiquities. 

Treves was the birth-place of St. Ambrose, and 
the Altna Mater of St. Jerome. The Basilica 
Bomana is now a Protestant Church. 

A pillar of granite stands in tha market-place ; it 
is surmounted by a cross, designed to coounemo- 
rate the appearance of the fiery Gross, which tradi- 
tion tells us, was seen in the sky in 958. 

The environs of Trbves are charming; many 
parts are in the style of Swiss landscapes. One of 
the chief points is Pallien, a villf^e on the left 
bank of the Moselle, at the mouth of a ravine, up 
which the road to Aix-la-Chapellc is carried. From 
this village may be had the most beautiful and 
picturesque views of the valley and its romantic 
environs. From the pretty White House on the 
height above there is a good view of the Uuselle 
and of the city before us. At ttve Schneidershof 
Caf^ there are c<»acert8, and also at the Mattlach 
Caf^ at Zurltmben, to which there is a ferry from 

From Tr^es a ddigfatf nl eKcanion can be made 
to Igel, a sm^ vUlage 6 miles distant from the 
city, on the road to Luxembourg, remarkable for its 
Roman column 70 feet high (see page 61). 

Another excursion may be made to EdLtor- 
BACll, on the Saur or Sure (in Luxembourg), 
which has, on a hill, the Church of St. Willibrod, 
or Willbrord (the Northumbrian apostle of the 
Frisians), to which the "liopping pilgrims" come 
on Whit-Tuesday. They hop a distance of seven 
miles. It commemorates the cure of St. Vitus's 

Conveyances — Diligences daily from Treves 
to Bitburg, 6 hours; Waderu, ^ hours. Rail 
to Luxembourg, Metz, Binges, and Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle. A direct rail of 112 miles is open from 
T^ves to Cologne, past EbXBOg and BfiaUiyax 
(from which a short branch is made toQullilt, down 

the Moselle), XyUburg, OerolsteiK, BlaaJceB- 

ll^m, and EUBldrclLeiL This traverses the 
highly interesting volcanic district of the SUM.; i 
the bi£rbe0t point, the BekBTtahWg, 2,yK)ft., U \ 

near (}erolstein. The whole country is fall of 
ruins, especially Roman. 

Steam-boats on the Upper Moselle between 
Treves, Thorsmitte, and Metz daily in summer; 
also a quick boat to Coblenx, Wednesdays and 
JSatnrdays. Slower boats run four times a week. 
The rail is now open to Coblena, M miles (see 
pages 111 and 112). 

Mayeiioe to Ketz. 

Distance, 46 English miles. 

At short distances wo pass the unimportant 
villages of Niederolm and WSrrstadt, arriving 
shortly after at 

Alzey (BtKtA.<m)-~Ho(d: Maschmann— On the 
Bingen and Worms line, vrith a population of 
5,500. It is a very old place, and perhi^s of 
Roman origin. The Castle, at present an exten- 
sive ruin, was blown down by the French in 16^9. 
We next arrive at Mbrtchhelm^ a village of WO in- 
habitants, where the road leaves Hesse Darmstadt 
and enters Bavaria, and in half an hour arrives at 

Eirchlieiiubolaiidexi (Stiition) — ffotas : 

Bechtelsheimer; Traube. — Population, 8,482. 
Formerly the residence of the Princes of Nassan- 
Wcilberg. The church and family vault of the 
Princes are worth seeing. 

[Six miles from here is M(mt Tonnerre, or 
Donnersberg, frequently ascended from this town, 
by a road passing through Dannenfels at the base 
of the mount. The mountain, composed of por- 
phyry, is 2,225 feet above the level of the sea. 
On the plateau you behold the remains of the g^at 
Roman entrenchments, the measurement of which 
was 12,315 feet. A splendid view can be obtained 
from the signal tower. Key at Dannenfels.] 

From here to Homburg the line runs very near 
the Kaiscrstrasse. 

Eaiserslautem (Station)— /«n: Schwan.— 

Population, 37,041. The Emperor Barbarossa built 
here in the twelfth century a castle, separated 
from the town by its fortifications. In the war 
of the Spanish Succession it was destroyed. It 
is the scat of the central prison of the Rhenish 
circle, which is built over the cui33L% <s.l "^asfraitk.- 

The ruined 

of tt>« Coonts of SiDkliigcn o 

It w» p«1lj he-n out of 

the rock, end 

will. IS feel thick. In 11 1 

e chiviilroin 

.on aicMnfon lost hl> IKo 

on May Ith, 

hiTiog been monnlly hnrt by 

■ falling bojin. 

bono rest fn ■ t»uI1 nndemc 

thlhe high « 

tbo Ranun CalhuUc Church. 


til mile. Boei 


Quitting LindWuhl, the 

rnUwey pro 

through m Intorotllng connlry, pujliig HR 

tnlll (StaHOU), and arrive. 

aomlntK (StatlDiii. > 

.mall t™o i 

From here s branch lino goes to ZwelbTttckfln, 
or DenX PoatB. (aeepageHS.) 

Beztncb and NennlUzahan SUtlonB. 
Reuderloh li the Davariiii froulier. I-eavlng 
Bi'irtan, no enter the Prussian territory 
BMrbritolcan (Btatlon). (See page 111.) He 
to rorbacb and Hetl, thtoOBh Garnian Icntli 
{See page na.) The line procemU over the FrencB 
Iwrdcr, towards Nimcy and Chalons. (See Brad- 
shaa't Handbook to France J 

Tlie RUne oouUnned.— aUysuMtoStnwB- 
bnig.DyWDmu, "■""*■"<"■ I and Bplru. 

f spoldilufen. to drop ps! 
'ho steamboats dacexd [roi 
eim in 7 bonrs. It i. mn 
p by rBil«ay, though the 

louH to M»>-enM, aitd ii 
asking Mf 

I nAND-BooK [Bonte ST. 

The low ground of the valley of tUe Khine to 
liritierland li exeeedlngly fertile. 

Leavbig Hiyenoe we praoced by Laubenhelm 
ind BodenUelm, nlong the bank of the Rhine, 
ivbleh Ib skirted by ■ inceessinn ol sloping hllli, 
jUnted with rhieyards. To the Ictt we loo 

muvMn (SUtbm). A consldombU Tillage, 
lolebmted for Its wine, bavlug a popnlallon of 
SWi bibubltrntt. It was (ormerly known to the 

II omsnB, under the title of 'Iftiii JVcri, because of it> 
■olebraled mlneraliprlng. It bas a eh^Kl worth 
welng. The TwasBre of the NibelnnBen w»i 

Oppeuhelm (Btetlon) -Hotel lum Hitter.— A 

.nnti, who arc chlctly employod hi agrieultural 

d GKoflA. dedicated to St, Catherine, unilcr the 
lins of the imperial Cattle of Landakron. It waa 
8gnn In ISSa, aud finished hi 1317. In this church 
ie German eeelcsimticil style Is seen in ila 
Igheit beauty. The western part was dcstn)yeil 
1 the conflagration of 1638, and since rebuilt, 
'he well-preserved painted windows, the c*;cellrnt 
cnlptures, and the tombs of many noble per- 
onagea, especially the family of Dalbcrg. deservo 

I uight. 

Eawagatis.nyUo!a Mayenoo to Mannhel 
hence by rail to Heidelberg; or byraU 
nj. There Is no hidueement for travel 
WJiti^ln a cafrlttgn the direct road by Ihi 
mi Sptrei lo Straubarg. The foUowIng 
•m aitlnlrfor lie aecoainiodaUoa ol Ibi: 

ih ChuK 

bones of Swedes and Spaniards, wl 
the religions war ol 1881, when t 
cepti of the Christian code, and the 

religion, and perverthig the first principle! 

Gospel to Juitlly a brother's murder. 
On the right bunk, a little above Oppenh. 

ErleldcB, Is the monument, uot seen fro 
1 atenmei,<« at ita ^aiaage 
\ BUne by Q»Hi;»« (AA^™- ■»■ ««"'* 

Houte 27.] 



simple pillar, surrounded by a lion. Tradition in- 
forms US that the Swedes crossed the river amid 
songs and rejoicing, and that their general and 
king was ferried over on a barn-door. 

Conrad, second Duke of Rhenish Franconia, 
was, in 1024, chosen Emperor of Germany, on the 
large plahi lying between Oppenheim and Oun- 
tet^blum, a pleasant and rich town, with a 
population of 3,000 souls. The Septs of nearly all 
Germany met in this place on that occasion. The 
Rhenish Franks and the upper and lower Lothar- 
ingians encamped on the left ; the Saxons, with 
their neighbours the Sclaves; the East Franks, 
Bavarians, and Suabians on their right bank, each 
Sept under the command of their duke. The 
Emperor was proclaimed from the Kunigstuhl, 
near Lorzweilcr, above Nackenheim. 

At this spot the road winds very much ; and a 
canal, cut through an Isthmus, saves several hours 
of rowing to the boatmen. The road now leaves 
the borders of the river. 

Qemslietm (Station). A small place with a 
lK)pulation of 3,409 inhabitants, the birth-place of 
Peter Schoffer, the partner of Fust in the dis- 
covery of printing, in whose honour there is a 
handsome Monument, consisting of a colossal 
statue of sandstone, 22 feet high, erected on the 
right bank of the Rhine. 

The rail from Oppenheim to Worms is uninter- 
esting; it continues to run at the foot of the hills 
which bounded it on the right all the way from 
Mayence, but which become much lower and soon 
vanish after leaving Worms. 

WORMS {Btaition)—Hoteh: Zum Alten Kaiser; 
PfalzerHof; Hotel Hartmann ; EuropaischerHof; 
Rheinischer Hof . Restaurant ; Werrels. 

The first frontier town of Rhenish Hesse, with 
a population of about 25,504 souls (3,000 Jews), 
besides the garrison. It is one of the oldest German 
towns, was once an imperial free city, contained 
a population of 40,000, and is eminently distin- 
guished in ancient heroic poetry and history. 
It was once the site of a Roman settlement, and 
the castle, erected by Drusus in the country of 
the vanquished Vangiones, gave rise to the town, 
which, in the momentous sequel, remained an 
invaluable Roman station, and when they liaA 

and frequently the long sojourn of the Franconiaii 
kings, even of Charles the Great, and the later 
Carlovingians. After Attila's ravages, the city 
rose from its ruins sooner than the other towns. 
Charlemagne was married thei-e, and held in its 
vicinity the rude legislative assemblies of the 
Franks called the Camp de Mai. In the middle 
and modem history of Germany, the city was the 
scene and theatre of many great Diets held here by 
the emperors, to settle the most important concerns 
of the empire, of which those of 1495 and of 1621 
were the most important. By the former, which 
first abolished private war, order was established 
in Germany; and in the latter, Luther appeared 
before the young emperor, Charles V., and the 
assembled princes, Ac, to make his defence and 
declare his adhesion to the doctrhies of the Reforma- 
tion, which were declared heretical by the Diet. 

Within the last two centuries the city has been 
gradually reduced from importance by various 
causes, especially by frequeut wars and by its 
entire destruction and demolition in 1689 by the 
French, under the infamous Mdlac, the detestable 
instrument of Louis XIV. and Louvois, and by 
the dispersion of its inhabitants. The walls of 
the Dom, and the Judengasse, are the only parts 
remaining of the old city. Worms was one of 
the first towns that embraced the Reformation, to 
which the continual contests of the bishops (who 
were also bishops of Mayence) with the town, as 
well as the arraignment of Luther, who at a later 
period addressed several letters to the congregation 
of that city, may have greatly contributed. 

The chief resources of the inhabitants arise 
from agriculture, the cultivation of the vine, manu- 
facture of tobacco, sugar, lead, and a great number 
of oil mills. Entering the precincts of the town, 
you behold gardens on the right and left, which 
occupy the space formerly covered with houses. 
At some distance to the left, you behold the remains 
of Maricnmiinster, formerly a rich nunnery, now 
a barracks. Just below Worms, beyond the walls, 
is the Gothic church of Our Lady, dated 1467. 
It stands within a vineyard producing the wine 
Liobfrauenmilch — Our Lady^s milk. Singular 
carvings, representing the Wise and Foolish 
Virgins, ornament each side of U.% ^'"c^t^aojcss^^ 

beea driven onto/ Germany, it became the seat, \ b\xt'^eTv<^TitoVi\s^x\!i^^c^^^^«^5^ 





flWTMr MS, >nd flniihi 

thlg ehorch M]. but <ni reocmUnmUii uid e™-- ' 
(MWdMHir ArchblthopBppo. Th. Biiith I 
front hdi rtth potnled [wrliila. In tha Uyle of Uio 
linsenlbcMtnry. Iti wutendbu thsippeiniioo 
ofthsmadernMrleofiiKhLtiKtaR. In lutntsrlnr 
1 cboln and two hlqb alun. It la i*S fuel, . 

[Route 37. 

It purk, >nd cbAteui oF 

It Binga 

o TrtTei 


n the <^iBpel of Bt. Nilbidu are »me 
innrkuble (peclmHiiof nwdlnvol KBlptBre. rapie- 
inttne- the Annnnclatlon, the MulrltT. the Eflnei- 
■giul tree at Ihe Vlmtln, the DeicenI from llie 
[n tiK bsptlalcry sre 

BO painting', by BAcknti, : 

. This pilnllnit. n 
TBB railored it the Refo 
. The ane £u(Afr OmtFM 

Tba Synofogai dstei frODi Ibo cleTtntb ccntniy, 

The BinltiAt Baai li erected od the jlta of tlie 
R1>hop-| Palace where the fanwu Diet was held 

The esnnlTy Ibmit Womu li iDtereMloK, and 
vu called by the annlcot mlDiVeli In their liyi, 
the Wamtftu or " Land ol Joy." In lU ncigh- 
bonrfaood, nuar the village ol i^iUli^Mn. yon may 
atUl lee Iha El ra-tree imder wh leh Lalher la taid to 
haT«re«ed on bl> Joomey to WotnM. andrepUed to 
hlifrlendi who wxnild pennade him agiloitsater- 

thoagli tbere wi 

line from Wonni U jLlay paHei ■ 
fram which a liaa o( M Engllih mllu wu apcDed, 
ieTJ(a»thadlr«ctlliMtaStraBiblirg). cfdAlbB- 
batin, Orflnstadt Ibranch to Hertetbclm and 
ElKDbctg). DJlrUudm, DeldaaliBlIIi, and F«n- 
•tadt-Ui-dBr-HMirat (pop, li.aiS). baring old 
and newchnrcbei. Dnridielm (pop. 7,0M), under 
the Haardt HUlf^ li a frape-care, vilb excellent 
iodine and ulina aprlnge. BiMt: Four Seasoaa ; 
UluUDg. SbootlniandBablDg. The Scidmnaatr 
Waa_ on' the Kaatanloiliug giies name to 
a DOTel of Coaper'i. The Hftardt 1> a wlna 
dMrlet of fallaya and hllK l,ua u I.BOII feet 
high. For Trifela Caatle, lee page IK. Near 
Dukhetm \m Umbmv ^H^ (il»*-1ti. a rain, l>e- 
•lefBd 16M, when liia Abbul buried Ilic rich 

helm and LansmeU, 1« miiu. 

iMihi ai tar ai that. The rail paiiet Frail' 
kenthal (Statton), an Indutrioui mile town, 
FllhaiwiiidadaioriD.mawDAnu). Itowsditi 

France and the gpankah Hethorlaiidi on acoonnt 
ol perseeotloni. Tb><crefn|teeiln(rodiu»il maBD- 

! andFralenalialiniuIHii'kJieliiL) 

Route 27.] 



side of Mannheim, the Keckar joins the RhiAe. 

Lndwii^liafen (BtaXiony—ffoteh: Dcntsehes 

Hans; Drei Mohren — On the right, |s connected 
by railway with Spires, Saarbriick, Kaisers- 
lantern, and Homburg. Close to the bonding- 
honses on the water side, and about one mile 
below the bridge of boats, the steamer comes to 
her moorings. Rail over the river to Mannheim. 

From ■Worms the Louis of ffesse rail rnns to 
Rosengartexi (branch to Bensheim, page 151), 
the connection across the river being kept- np 
by steamer, and Lanip6rttl6l]ll; whence it is 
carried north to OeitLSlielni (page 139), and 
GrosS-GeravL, for Frankfurt ; and south through 
WaldllOf and E&fertlial to Mannheim. 

UANNHEIM (StattoxL).— iro/«r«: 

Hotel du Palatinat (Pfdlzer Hof.).— A first-class 
hotel, in the centre of the town — recommended. 

Kaiscrhof; Deutscher Hof ; Lungaloth; Lands- 

Mannheim is in the Grand Duchy of Baden, at 
the influx of the Neckar into the Rhine, and has a 
population of 79,044. The first stone of the town 
was laid in 1606, by the elector, Frederick IV., 
and contiguous to it the same prince built 
Frederick's Castle, which, with the town, was 
destroyed in the Thirty Tears' war. The town 
was soon rebuilt, but was again burnt by the 
French in 1689; when the French general intimated 
to the townspeople the determination of his brutal 
master, Louis XIV., to reduce the town to ashes, 
and, at the same time, mockingly informed them 
that they were privileged, by special favour, to 
perpetrate this barbarism on their own hearths 
and altars; for which a period of 20 days was 
given them. The people declined the offer. The 
town was again rebuilt, and the present Mann- 
heim is the third town erected since 1606. 

Mannheim is now the seat of a considerable 
trade, containing from 25,000 to 30,000 artizans, 
and is the residence of a large number of English 
families. It is an exceedingly cheap place 
of residence, and the society very agreeable, 
a pleasure enhanced by its being now the residence 
of the Ducal court. It was one time strongly 
fortified, but now, fortunately for its future 
progress, is utterly defenceless; its fortl^- 
cations having been turned Into gardens and 

walks. The modem town consists of 12 pfkralle 
streets, intersected at right angles by 10 other 
streets, which makes the town appear monotonous 
in its rectangular regularity. The street leading 
from the palace to the Suspension bridge over the 
Neckar divides the town into two parts. The 
streets are not named, but distinguished by a 
figure and a letter. The squares are ornamented 
with fountains, which want only water, which Is 
very scarce here, to make them useful. The 
principal curiosity of the place is the 

PeUciee, a colossal structure, built of red sand- 
stone, but without any architectural beauty^ and 
only remarkable for its size. It was erected in 
1720, by the Elector Palatine, Karl Philip, on the 
occasion of the removal of his court from Hei- 
delberg to Mannheim. The right wing, used as 
a theatre, suffered severely from the Austrians in 
1796, when they bombarded the city. It has since 
been repaired. In that bombardment half the 
palace was burnt, and only fourteen houses 
remained uninjured. The Austrians threw, on 
that occasion, into the town, 26,000 cannon balls 
and 1,780 bombs; it was garrisoned by 4,700 
French, who finally surrendered to General 
Wiirmser. A large portion of the palace serves as 
a Museum, in which is a Gallery of Paintings, 
(Wednesdays, 11 to 4, free), eontaining many 
excellent productions of the Dutch School, 
especially Rembrandt; a collection of plaster 
casts, and a Cabinet of Natural History, together 
with a collection of antiquities.- Open, Sunday, 
11 to 12. In 1779, the flower of all the collection 
at Mannheim was transferred to Munich. 

Near the palace is the Jesuits' Churchy an 
imposing structure, richly decorated. 

The Railway Station is a fine work of art, one 
of the handsomest in Europe. 

The Theatre is a good building, in which 
Schiller's " Robbers" was first dramatised in 1782. 
The author lived in the house named Zum itarls- 
burg, on the Parade Platz. Opposite the grand 
entrance to the Theatre is Kotzebue's house, in 
which the insane student, Sand, assassinated the 
owner. The victim and assassiii are buried in the 
churchyard, outside tbia li^VsA^a.^^J^aat'Sa.. 



[Route 27. 

The Kaufhauty the Arsenal^ the haudsome Rail- 
way Bridge (connecting Mannheim with Lndwiga- 
hafen), and the large wharves claim the notice 
of the traveller. From here a line runs near the 
east Bide of the Rhine to Lampertheim (8tat.)« 
see page 141 ; thence to Biblis (for Worms), 

Ooddelau-Brfelden (for Darmstadt), Dorm- 
l)erg, Sachsenliaiisexi, Niederrad, and Frank- 

Schwetzingen (Stat.) a pleasant excursion 
can be made from Mannheim to this place; 
population, 4,944. It is only 6 miles distant 
from Heidelberg. Here the Garden is the most 
remarkable object. It covers a plain of 114 acres, 
and its vegetation is most luxuriant, though 
Hituatcd on a sandy plain. 

The most interesting parts of the Garden are 
the Linden walk, and the groups of trees in the 
English garden ; the prospect at the large Basin, 
through the opening in the forest, near Ketsch, 
extending to the Vosges mountains; the Temple 
of Apollo, which has a peculiar charm when illu- 
minated by the scttingsun; theTempleof Minerva, 
the charming bathing house, the splendid landitcnpo 
round the Temple of Mercury and the Mo9<|iic, 
with its minarets, all presenting the appearance of 
a beautiful diorama. The Tower should be ascended 
and a splendid view will be obtained. Your inspec- 
tion is further invited by the landscape near the 
bii'ds' basin ; the Botanical garden, which contains 
24,000 foreign trees and shrubs, among which is 
an excellent collection of Alpine plants. The 
gardens are laid out in the French style, nnd are 
adorned with statues, bounded by thorn hedges, 
and intersected by long avenues. Tlie orangery 
and conservatories should be visited. Two hours 
are required to see everything. 

The Chateau is scarcely worth notice. It was 
originally a hunting lodge, and is sometimes 
visited by the Grand Duke. The grounds about 
are kept in good order. In remote days it was the 
seat of the Electors Palatine, and in 1743 became 
the summer residence of the Elector Charles 
Theodore, who expended vast sums of money in 
changrlnsr a Oat sandy plain into an ornamental 

garden, to enjoy the distinct prospect of a pic- 

taresqae chain of hills. 

^firrayfrom Mannheim to Heidelberg, 16 Eng- 

list^*niiles. Trains in one hour to Frankfort; a 
new direct line to Carlsruhe; to Badeu and Strass- 
burg, and Freiburg to Kaiserslautom, Homburg, 
and Bexbach ; Metz and Paris. 

Steamboats several times a day to Mayence and 
Coblenz; and to Strassburg daily. 

The traveller would do well to visit Spires from 
Ludwigshafen, as there is no inducement to fol- 
low the Rhine above Mannheim. The tourist going 
south had better go along the Baden railway to 

Ftom Ludwigshafen to Spires by railway. 

Quitting this station we see in the distance the 
castle of Heidelberg on the side of the Kunigs- 
stuhl. Passing Kutterstadt (Station) we reach 
ScMfferstadt, where the branch railway to Spires 
diverges firom the line, running near to Neustadt, 
&c. Quitting ScbifFerstadt by this branch we 
arrive in a short time at 

SPETER (Station), or Spire, or Spires 

Hotels: Wittelsbacher Hof; Rhcinischer Ilof; 

A direct line to Heidelberg, via Schwetzingen 
(see above), was opened in 1874. 

An old and venerable city; at one time one of 
the capitals of Germany, situated on the Speyer- 
bach on the left bank of the Rhine. It has now 
a population of 17,585 inhabitants ; at one 
period it amounted to 27,000. It is the seat of 
the president of the Regency, and of all the 
supreme boards of administration of the Bavarian 
Pfalz or Palatinate of the Rhine. It may now, 
however, be said that its glory has departed, and at 
the present day we recognise it only as the shadow 
of its former self. It was called by the Romans, 
Civitas Nemetumy and was, we arc told by Tacitus, 
a strong and powerful outpost on the Rhine, used 
for the purpose of resisting the attacks of the 
Alemamii, by whom it was repeatedly destroyed, 
and again rebuilt by the Emperors Constantino 
and Julianus. It was also the seat of the Germanic 
diet, and chosen place of residence of the Emperor 
Charlemagne and his successors of the Swabian 
and Franconian lines, and had conferred upon it 
all the privileges of a free city of the Empire, 
whereby it became the seat of a flourishing trade, 
and t\iQ emporium of great wealth. Its citizens 
had cotdftTVft^ oxv XXicax \i^' '^^wcct^ "^ .^ Vcl 1111^ a 

TOKWS «iHEi MffiSS* 


. r 

Route 27.] TO Belgium and the rhime. 

right to detoRy any feudal fortress within three 
German inilcs of t|ie gates. Daring the middle 
ages imperial /e/ef« court magnificence, and citizen 
violence within and without were alternately the 
scenes enacted in this city. Freqnently engaged 
in qnarriBls and feuds with their Emperors and 
Bishops, the people were as skilled in the use of 
arms as mechanics in usingthe instruments of their 
trade. Armies, oftentimes of 20,000 men, raised by 
the feudal barons, whose rapacity and pillage were 
punished by the burning of their castles to the 
ground, besieged the city of Spires, but were as 
often repulsed by the citizens, who, when not vic- 
torious, had to suffer much misery and spoliation 
of property from the inroads of these plundering 

The city also maintained in the fourteenth 
century an army of knights and soldiers for its 
defence and war purposes, and only settled into 
quiet in 1680, when an Imperial writ abolished 
the right of war, and restored peace to Germany. 
Spires was for more than two centuries the seat of 
the Reichs-Kammergericht or Imperial Chamber, 
by which legislative enactments were enforced, 
and their violations punished. After the devasta- 
tions committed by the hordes of Louis XIV., it 
was removed to the Wetzlar, in 1G89. 

Its prosperity began to wane in the seventeenth 
century, but did not go down altogether until 
the War of Succession, during which the 
greatest atrocities were perpetrated by the 
French, who took the town in 1689, and issued one 
of the most barbarous proclamations on record, 
whereby the citizens, with their families were 
ordered to emigrate within six days to Alsace, 
Lorraine, or Burgundy, and prohibiting them 
under pain of death from crossing the Rhine. On 
the doy named in the proclamation the wretched 
inhabitants were driven from the city at the beat 
of drum, and were followed by the French soldiery, 
who had plundered the houses and churches of 
everything valuable. The town was left to the 
sole occupation and mercy of the executioners, 
who, headed by the Provost-marshal, entered the 
town with a gallows on the day the proclamation 
was issued, carrying about with them the emblems 
of their profession. 

By orders of the French general, Montclair, the 


with its forty-seven streets, churches, houses, and 
edifices sent forth one unbroken blaze, that 
illumined the distant horizon, and furiously pene- 
trated into the most cherished recesses of that 
city, now abandoned to the destroying element. 
Nor did the work end here, for after a conflagration 
of three days and three nights, it was found 
that monuments, fountains, and many houses 
were still not altogether destroyed; therefore 
mines were sprung, and these classic monuments 
of antiquity were rudely blown to atoms. The 
venerated shrine of religion, beneath whose 
vaulted pavement were mouldering into clay the 
honoured remains of royal personages and imperial 
governors, and within whose shrines were re- 
posing the venerated rcliqucs consecrated by 
superstitious piety as things holy and mystical, 
was dismantled, its sanctuary violated, the portal 
of its tabernacle broken into fragments, and the 
graves and tombs beneath its roof torn open, and 
their contents, the bones of emperors and heroes, 
scattered to tlie winds. Years rolled by and 
Spires still lay in ruins, but even the rubbish of 
its once proud monuments spoke eloquently, and 
from the depths of their desolation issued a voice, 
appealing to the citizen love and patriotism of her 
exiled children or their descendants, who once 
sat beneath the shadow of her wing^. They 
returned to the homo of their earlier days or 
maturer years ; each fragment of the ruined city 
had an attraction for their enthusiasm; the foun- 
dations of their homes were sought out, and in 
time Spires again existed, but only as the shadow 
of its former self. Cycles of years have gone by, 
and during their transit, provinces have been 
raised to empires, and empires reduced to pro- 
vinces, but Spires has not raised its head. 

But even the skeleton of this once great town 
was not yet exempt from the sanguinary horrors 
of war, for in 1794 the revolutionary army under 
Custinetook it, and repeated the atrocities of 1689. 
In 1816 Spires was ceded to the King of Bavaria. 
In the interval rp to this time much has been 
done to repair the injuries inflicted on it by war. 

The Cathedral was founded in 1027, by Conrad 
the Salic, as a burying-place for himself and his 
successors. After Wa ^'fea*Xi^\^& ^"c^s.'^AsBKri ''KN.. 

tofm waa set fire to, and tn a few hours, Spires, \ detilYiA^^^^^^^X!^''*^'^'^*^^^^'^'^'^'^^^^^^^^^ 



Henrf IV., the eooiptotion of this splendid edific*, 
wbieh was finUbed in 1097. Its site hud be«n 
prerlorasly occupied hj a Roman tcnaple of Venus, 
and afterwards by a Cbrlstlan temple, erected by 
Dagobert II. A fire In 1450 completely destroyed 
in a few hoars tbe work which it took three 
gfenerations to perfect; and we see in the present 
structure, not the original edifice of 1037, but the 
one erected after 1450, in which the pointed 
steeples, the eastern cupola, and the round tower 
are the only remains of the ancient eathedral. 

This noble edifice again sufferod from the 
French in 1689, who, though they had promised 
to respect it, and thereby caused the citizens to 
fill it with all their valuables, yet plundered It and 
burned all that was consumable in tbe west end, 
cupola, nave, and choir. These modern barbarians 
also mined and endeavoured to blow it up, but 
were unsuccessful in all their efforts to accomplish 
their purpose. The last prince bishop of Bruchsal 
and Spires caused this cathedral to be restored in 
1772, but gave it, facing the town, a pyramidal 
front, entirely foreign to its general style of archi- 
tecture. During the revolutionary war in 1794. 
the interior decorations, sculpture, carving, Ac, 
were destroyed by the French ; but it was after- 
wards repaired, and was re-opened for public 
worship in 1824 ; since which many decorations 
have been added, and the west front rebuilt. 

Its restored Byzantine interior is modelled 
iu what architects call the *' severe style," and is 
remarkably devoid of ornament, but the height 
and width of the nave are grand and imposing. 
Between the nave and the choir is the Kaiter- 
grufty in which were buried eight emperors of 
Germany, whose remains were scattered by the 
French. The principal Monument worth notice is 
that of Adolphus of Nassau, by Ohnmacht, con- 
sisting of a Byzantine sarcophagus, on which is a 
kneeling figure of tbe emperor in armour. This 
monument was erected by the duke of Nassau; 
and there is another to the memory of Rudolph of 
Hapsbui-g, by King Louis of Bavaria, executed by 
Schwantholer. The other objects of attraction are 
Afhraudoira frescoes, the best modem works iu 
GenaMujr; the crypt, in which are Been tbe original 
grrar^^atoae of BadoJpb of Hapsburg, bearing bis 
««fer. sad tncea of the mlnea Mpruog by the 

[Route 27. 

French, when tbey unraoeetsfiilly attempted to 
blow «p th« cathedral ; 0ehlesfaig«r*8 copy of tbe 
Madonna, by Raphael; a set of priest'g robea 
of the fourteenth century, beautifolly embossed 
and ornamented. In the sacristy. On the north 
side of the building is St. Afra's ehapel, dating 
from 1027, where lay unburied for five years 
tbe remains of Henry II., until tbe papal excom- 
nranication pronounced against him wlien living 
had been removed, and his ashes permitted a rest- 
ing-place in the imperial vaaK. In the centre gallery 
encircling the cathedral there s a fine prospect of 
Heidelberg, Mannheim, tbe Hartz mountains, Ac. 
To see the choirs, S5pf. ; St. Catherine's chapel, 
1 mark. The town Itself is surrounded by beauti- 
ful pleasure-grounds, stretching along the Rhine. 

At the north-east side is tbe Opmnatium^ con- 
taining a collection of prehistoric, Ronum, and 
Frankish antiquities, statues, altars, coins, votive 
tablets, sword-blades, a bronze statue of Mercury, 
the eagle of the Roman legion. Admission, Bun- 
days, 1 to S, gratis. 

The only remains of the Retsehsr^ in which 
twenty-nine Diets were hdd, is a broken wall, 
adjoining the Protestant church (built in 1717). 
The protest of the prineee and cities against the 
decree of the diet which was held here In IB99 
originated the name Ptote»tant. There ezlita in 
Spires a Harmony^ a club to which travelletv may 
be admitted, on being introduced, to read the 

Voyage up the Rhine, from Spires, 

Quitting Spires we continue our voyage up the 
Rhine, and on our left pass Philipsburg, built 
between 1668 and 1571, by Philip Von Sotem, 
archbishop of Spires, after whom it is named. It 
was once an imperial fortress, but was demolished 
In 1800. The banks here are marshy. 

Gennenhelm (Station), on the left— /mw.* 

Elephant; Salm— where there is a bridge of 
lK>at8, connecting it with the opposite bank of the 
Rhine. The town was founded by Rudolph of 
Hapsburg, who granted to it all the privileges 
possessed by the free imperial town of Spirea. 
This celebrated Emperor died here in 1381. The 
QermaiiCouie«)LeiTa\.VQTkKl\«^x\^^:^ C'kaIIy ttxength- 
ened It and wKwett^d \\. Vsi\» «. lat\x%%\. 

Bonte 27.] 



From Oermersheiiu, a line is open to Bdliffer- 
Stadt and Landau— /»»< : Schwan, Korber— near 
the Haardt Hills. This last was an old fortress 
in Rhenish Bavaria, on the river Queich; de- 
molished, 1887. It is the nearest station for 
Olelsweiler, a watercure and bathing place, in a 
fine spot 1,000 feet above sea. Coach in If hour. 

Rail from Germersheim to Bmchsal, 16f miles; 
see page 166. 

[From Lnndau a line of 43 miles was opened, 
1874-5, across the Palatinate to Annweller for 
Jri/ds CtutiCy 5 miles in the Haardt country, the 
prison of Richard Coeur de Lion when discovered 
by BlondelX Biebermiillle (branch to Flr- 

masens), and Zweibriicken or Deux Fonts, 

towards Saarbriick and Metz; with a branch to 
St. InglMtt. Rail also toWeissenburg, Hagenan, 
and Strassbnrg.] 

The next place seen on the right isLauterbUTg, 
where the Lauter joins the Rhine, and separates 
Alsace and the Palatinate. From here a rail of 
34 miles goes up the west side of the Rhine to 

strassburg, vid Sesenlieim, Drusenlielm, 

Gambsheim, etc. Further on to the right wo 
see the pretty village of Leopoldshafen^ or Shrock. 

At Wlnden (Station) there is a junction from 
Carlsrolie (4 miles distant) on one side, and 

Bergzabem (Station) on the other. 

At Uazan, the Rhine is crossed by a bridge of 
boats. Close by is the villa of Margrave Max, of 
Baden. Further down, on the east bank, are 
Rastatt (see page 15';) and OOB (page 158), the 
junction for Baden-Baden. On the left the 
fortress of St. Louis, raised by Vauban, and de- 
stroyed by the Austrians in 1793. On a sunny 
day, when the atmosphere is clear, we can see, 
though 27 miles off, the spire of Strassburg Cathe- 
dral. In this part of the course of the Rhine it is • 
said that gold is found among the gravel and stones. 

STRASSBURG (Station)'-in French, Strcu- 
hourg—KxoL is opposite on the east bank. — Hotels: 

Hotel d'Angleterre. First-class hotel. Opposite 
the railway station, kept by 0. Mathis. Good 
accommodation; moderate charges. See Advt. 

Hotel de la Ville de Paris. First class, well 
situated, and well managed. 

Hotel National. New first class liote\; "weW 

Hotel Europe ; Hotel France, &c. 

Hotel de la Maison Rouge. 

Hotel de la Ville de Ylenne (Wiener Hof ). 

Cab Fares,— 1 or 2 persons, in the town 60pf.; 
to the Rhine, 1 mark 20pf . ; to Kehl station, 1 
mark 60pf. After 6 p.m. these prices are one- 
third higher, and after 10 p.m. double or more. 
By time^i hour, 60pf. ; | hour, 1 mark ; | hour, 
1 mark 20pf, ; 1 hour, 1 mark 60pf., with corres- 
ponding increases after 6 and 10 p.m. 

Strassburg, the capital of Alsace, in German, 
Els<xsSy is a strongly fortified city, near the Little 
Rhine, on the 111, which intersects the town in all 
directions, and unites with the Breuch near the 
Welssen Thor (White Gate). It contains a popu- 
lation of 123,490 inhabitants, and a garrison. The 
streets are mostly narrow and the houses high, 
whilst on every side we see the traces of an im- 
perial German town, which Strassburg yet pre- 
serves, notwithstanding its past union with France 
for nearly two centuries. It was formerly a free 
imperial city, till Louis XIV., in 1681, in time of 
peace, suddenly took and annexed it to his king- 
dom ; of which it remained a part down to 1870, 
when the Franco-German war gave it back to 
its first owners. 

The railway bridge to Kehl, on the east bank of 
the Rhine, having been blown up by the Germans, 
22nd July, Strassburg was invested 10th August, 
and the bombardment commenced on the 19th. 
during which the library and theatre were burnt, 
and some injury was done to the cathedral; a 
shell lodged in the organ without bursting; but 
the clock was unhurt. On the 28th September, Gen- 
eral Uhrich, the French commander, surrendered, 
with 400 ofiicers and 17,000 men. Peace with 
Germany might have been obtained in the nego- 
ciations of September, 1870, by the surrender of 
this city ; but Jules Favre would not then consent 
to give up an inch of French soil, or a stone of 
her fortresses, " Pas im pouce, pas une pierre." 

Its origin may be traced to the most remote 
times. Here was the Roman Argentoratum, which, 
having been destroyed by the invading barbarians, 
in the fifth century, was rebuilt by tb& l^«asa«a.N»- 
the %Vx.W wv^ Vtwa.SJB»X V8««ft. ^"sSS^ftSw ^^'^'^^^ 



[Route 27. 

Tho CcUJiedrcU^ or Minster^ ranks foremost among 
the European specimens of Gothic architec- 
ture. Tho first Cathedral was built by Clovis I., 
about 510, and a choir was added by Charles tho 
Gk-eat ; but in 1007 the building was reduced to ashes 
by lightning, and the foundation of a now Cathedral 
was laid in 101^5, by Bishop Werner, of the house of 
Hapsburg, tho nave being finished in 1275. After 
a fire in 1293 this was completely restored. The 
spire is one of the highest in Europe, being 465 
feet from the pavement, or 6 feet less than St. 
Nicholas, at Hamburg; 8 feet higher than the great 
pyramid of Egypt, 3 feet higher than St. Peter's, 
and 60 feet higher than St. Paul's, London. Its 
erection was commenced in 1276, after a design 
by the great artist, Erwin v(m Steinbach. How- 
ever, the steeple of the l<lorth side only was 
finished, and the other rises very little aljove 
the roof. Erwin died in 1318, and his son John 
continued the building up to tho flat roof, and 
his daughter Sabina ornamented the great portal. 
This family of architects are buried within the 
Cathedral. The Totcer was not completed until 
1432, when the spire was added by a Cologne 
artist, John HUltz, who was brought to Strassburg 
for this purpose. 

Observe the three western Portah^ whose sculp- 
tures were effaced during the " terror," in 1793, but 
were restored 1879 after the old models, with 14 
statues added; also, the vast and beautiful Windotc 
over the portal, 48 feet in diameter, and composed of 
rich painted glass; the beautiful Font of 1453, in the 
north transept ; the Pulpit of carved stone, 1486; the 
large Choir ^ith the high altar, and below, in the 
Sepulchre, the tombs of John Geiler, of Kaisersberg, 
of KonradII.,of Mantelin, the first printer of Strass- 
bnr J, and of Erwin and his children. Notice, also, the 
great <Jlock^ by SchHilgu^, 1882, which is a complete 
astronomical almanac. In one gallery, an angel 
strikes the quarters, and a figure near him 
revetises the hour glass every hour. Above this 
a skeleton, surrounded by allegorical fignrcs, 
strikesthehotUB. In the highest part, the Atx>siles 
mov« round the 'ftgvre of the Saviour. To see all 
this to advantAge, the vMtor sboirid contrire to be 

"^/r eM0jr msemtt may be made to the platf onn, 

tm*-*hir(Ia of the way up ; gnd ii it should be de- 

«>«cr to proceed to tbe»nmmlt, tbe wHtchmoB, irho 

resides in this station, will, if the parties have 
obtained the necessary ticket, (1 mark 20 pf.), unlock 
the iron grate enclosing the passage,and accompany 
the adventurer to the top. To a person of ordinary 
nerve there is no danger in ascending it. The 
ascoit will be well repaid by the pleasure derived 
from a minute inspection of the exquisitely wrought 
tracery, like lace-work, the delicately chiselled 
angles and ornaments, and the splendidly 
chiselled pillars supporting the open stone work, 
braced together by bars of iron,leadingone to believe 
himself in a net suspended between earth apd 
heaven. Tho winding stair terminate under a 
species of carved work. At the top are the names 
of Voltaire, Klopstock, Lavater, Montalembcrt, 
Goethe, Herder, and other celebrities. The view 
embraces the city, the Black Forest in Germany, 
the Vosges Mountams, and the Rhino district; but 
it is the exploit and the height that will repay, 
more than the prospect, the advcntui-ous climber. 

The Chui'ch of St. Thomas is used for tho cele- 
bration of tho Pi-otcstant service. It contains the 
magnificent tomb of Marshal Saxe, executed in 
marble, by Pigallc, and looked upon as one of his 
masterpieces. It is plain, though beautiful ; and 
was erected to the Marshal's memory by Lronis XV. 
It represents a beautiful female figure, endeavour- 
ing to stay the advance of death, and to detain the 
general, who appears descending calmly «tod with 
dignity to the grave. 

In this church also, are the monuments of 
Schopflin, by Peters, erected by his sister, and of 
Oberlin, executed by Ohmaoht's masterly chisol. 
In a vault beneath the church are some preserved 
corpses, two of which are said to be the bodies of 
a Count of Nassau, Saarwerden and his daughter, 
buried upwards of a century. 

The Academie Ropale, founded In 1588, and 
erected with a university in 1621, was formerly 
a Protestant school. The Urviversitp was Bup- 
pressed at the Revolution of 1789, but was revived 
by the Germans 1872, on an enlarged basis, and 
is now called " Kaiser Wilhelra's University." It 
was the Ahna Mater of several eminent scholars, 
among whom rankasthemost romarkablcSchweig- 
hauser, Oberlin, Schopflin, &c. ; Goethe, also, com- 
pleted Ma BtuCL\e%Yk,Qitfe,«cv^\uV\1^\.'w5t\!Sa ^A^^reo 
of I>octoT ol "Uvwa. T\v<i ^\5&cvasv <A ^«!6«t«^ 


Route 28.] 



History contains a very select and valuable 
collection of fossils, Ac. In the botanical col- 
lection is the trunk of a silver fir, which was 8 feet 
in diameter, and 150 feet high. 

The I^Mie Idbrorv^ before its destmction In the 
late siege, eontamed 100,000 volumes, and many 
literary em'iosities, comprising the Landsberg 
Missal of Herrado, Abbess of Uohenberg, richly 
illuminated in the early Byzantine style (1180), a 
Mlssul, ill silver letters, on purple vellum, and 
many books of the earliest date of printing, 
with a collection of ancient coins. The Library 
was restored 1872, and now contains 500,000 vol- 
umes, contributed by the various German States, 
including 5,000 volumes from the Emperor William 
and the King of Bavaria. There is contiguous to 
it an Observatory. Other interesting buildings 
are, a new Palace of Justice, with a new Prefecture, 
the Protestant Gymnasium, of which the natives 
are rather proud, and the old Episcopal Palace, 
how the University. 

On the other side of the river is the imposing 
hew Imperial Palace, erected 1888, by Eggert, The 
square is called the Kaiser Platx, an d close by are the 
fine buildings of the University and the CoUegien- 

The Theatre^ which also suffered, was a mag- 
hificent building at the extremity of the beautiful 
Promenade de Broglie, adorned with six Ionian 
Columns, surmounted by the muses, the whole 
being the work of Obmacht. It has undergone 

In the centre of the Place d^Armes is a vault, 
beneath which repose the ashes of General Kleber, to 
whose memory a monument is erected over the vault. 

In the siege of 1870 the principal fortifications, 
as then existing, viz., the Citadel, Stcinthor, and 
Weisscr Thorm Thor, were reduced to ruins. 
They have been rebuilt or replaced. Fourteen 
forts now stand at different points in the neighbour- 

The Simagogue^ a new building, erected in 1834, 
by the numerous Jewish community, who were at 
one time cruelly persecuted and inhumanly tor- 
tured in this city. On the spot where now stands 
the Prefecture, over 2,000 of this persecuted race 
were burned in a bonfire, by people calling them- 
selves Christians. Gustavo Dor€ (bom \^% yn^A 
one of the distiDgnlBbod natiyes of StiasB\>xiTs> 

A bronze statue, near the Cathedral, commemo- 
rates the memory of Peter Schdffer, who assisted 
Gutenberg in his discovery of printing. In the 
Place de Gutenberg is a statue to the memory o 
the latter, who made his first attempt at printingr 
in Strassburg, and brought it to perfection at 

The Contadet Park^ and the public gardens, 
called the Orangerie^ are pleasant promenades. 

In the latter is a very pretty Kiosk, the gift of 
the King of Bavaria. 

Strassburg is favourably situated for commerce, 
the Rhine connectiug it with Switzerland, Holland, 
and Belgium; its chief exports are com, flax, 
hemp, wine and spirits, linen, sail-cloth, blankets, 
cari)ets, hardware, leather, cotton, lace, tobacco, 
and snuff. It is noted for g^oose-liver pies. 

Strassburg and Paris Railway : From Strassburg 
to Paris in 15 hours. Railway to Basle (see Route 
34) ; also from Kehl to the Great Baden railway 
(see Route 30) ; and to Saarbriick, Sec. 

Steamers daily to Mannheim and Mayence. 
From Strassburg to Mayence, the journey is made 
tolerably quickly by water, viz., 6^ hours, but It 
takes two long days to accomplish the journey 
up from Mayence. 

A new canal opens into the Rhine below the 
bridge of Kchl, connecting it with the HI. By 
means of this canal, steamboats, Ac, are enabled 
to penetrate into the heart of Strassburg. As we 
enter, the Spire presents a beautiful appearance, 
and will command the attention of the tourist. 

Frankfort to Basle. 
By Darmstadt, Heldell)erg, Carlsruhe, and 


Railway: Frankfort to Heidelberg or Mannheim 
in If hour, by the Main-Ncckar Eisenbahn; 
distances, 58j^ and 54| English miles respectively. 

Mannheim to Basle, 156^ English miles, in five 
hours, by the Badische Staat-Eisenbahn. 

The railway, quitting the terminus«t Frankfort, 
situated near the Gallus Thor, crosses the Main 
by means of a bridge, and passes the height on the 
left, on the eminence of which we see tha. '■w.-wsaaa. 





[Route 28. 

turesquo and charming by the vineyards and sweet 
villas scattered over the immediate foreground. 

The railway to Offenbach branches off at 
Sachsenhansen. Hence the direct line to Darm- 
stadt, 16 miles long, passes LoutSE, Sprondlln- 


Langen (Station). Leaving this place the route 
is through a flat and uninteresting country up to 
Darmstadt. Before arrival at this place we 
pass the unimportant station of ArheilgeXL 

DARMSTADT (Station) —Hotels : 

Hotel DarmstUdter Hof— very good house, kept 
by M. Wiener. 

Hotel au Raisin (Zar Traubc), first-rate and 

Railway Hotel ; Kuhlcr ; Prince Charles. 

Darmstadt, the residence of the Grand Duke 
of Hesse, the capital of the Grand Duchy and the 
seat of government, and of the supreme chamber, 
leans eastward against a gentle declivity, near 
an extensive plain, towards the Rhine and Main, 
presenting many beautiful prospects to the lovers of 
woodland scenerj', where it borders the Odcnwald 
and the Bergstrosse. It contains a population, 
with Bessunger, of 5C,503, the majority of whom are 
Protestants. The streets are wide and straight, the 
houses in general built singly, and the squares 
numerous. At the tcnniimtlon of the Rheinstrasse 
is a coluimi 131 feet high, on the top of which is 
a statue, by Sch wanthaler, of the Grand Duke Louis. 

Palace (old) is an edifice of different ages, com- 
mencing with the sixteenth and ending with the 
eighteenth century, and is surrounded by shrub- 
beries and gardens. Here died in December, 1878, 
the Duke's wife, the excellent Princess Atice of 
England, of an illness caught from nursing her 
sick children; she is buried in the family mauso- 
leum. There is an Alice Hospital to her memory, 
besldesan Orphan Asylum. Its Museum of Painting 
and Natural History is n, collection of 700 Paintings 
of all kinds, in nine lorge rooms ; the different 
schools being classified, as may be seen by the 
catalogue, price 20pf . The host picture is Rubens's 
Nymphs and Satyrs. Holbein's Madonna is at the 
J'alaee of Prhtco Charles. There is also an 
J^nportnnt coUcctioa of painted glass, very many 
-/»//7we /rojyr earrings, onamolM, *c. 

The CeOtinet of Natural History abounds in stuffed 
birds, and has the remains of the elepliaut and 
whale, bony fragments of the rhinoceros from 
Oppenheim, remains of the Deinotherium^ an am- 
phibious animal, as large as the elephant, and of 
the Sus antiquus from Eppelsheim. The Museum 
is open Tuesday to Friday, from 11 to 1. At other 
times by payment of 1 mark 20pf . to attendant. 

The PuhHc Library is also situated in the Palace, 
and contains £00,000 volumes. It is open each 
week day, Saturday excepted, from 10 to 12 a.m., 
and from 2 to 4 p.m., and the inhabitants are allowed 
to take books out free. 

The Theatre, built in 1818 and 1819, by Mollcr, a 
pupil of the celebrated Weinhcnner, after a noble 
style of architecture, was bamt 1871, but re-built 
very handsomely, and will contain about 2,000 

The Roman Catholic Church, a brick edifice, built 
after designs by Mollcr. It stands upon the Wil- 
helminen Platz, near the Xeic Palace. It presents 
the appearance of a large rotunda, and is remark- 
ably strikhig in its simple style of architecture, 
as well as by the harmony of its proportions. 

The Exercierhaus is in the immediate vicinity of 
the theatre, and is considered to be a masterpiece of 
architecture. It was erected by order of the Land- 
grave Ludwig IX., in 1771, for garrison exercise in 
bad weather. It was built by a common, or hedgc- 
carpentcr, named J. M. Schirknecht. and encloses 
a space of 319 feet in length and 151 in breadth, 
unsupported by pillars. The building is now used 
as an Arsenal. The hanging-work by which 
the building is upheld is a surprising piece of 
workmanship in its way. 

The Casino is one of the handsomest and most 
tasteful in Germany. Social amusements have 
gained greatly by the union of the older clubs, and 
late evening society, now established under the 
denomination of the " United Society." It is made 
up of more than 400 members, who meet each 
evening. Respectable persons are admitted, and 
strangers introduced by a member have free ac- 
cess for an entire month. The (.'asino was built 
by subscription. The Lower Chamber of the 
Duchy Vs unCLcT IVvt *tx\wc toof. The gentlemen 
meet every da's ^^ ^'^^^ ^^^ cqwn wf,^, w ^t\>5 ^ tcv^^ 

Boute 28.] 



each Thursday a circle of ladies join the gentle- 
men for the purposes of social amusement, and 
in winter a ball is given ever\' night. 

The Gardens of the Palace, or Henengarten, 1 ie over 
against the palace, and are prettily laid out. 
Particularly interesting is the spot of interment 
which Margravine Henrietta Caroline, of the 
royal family of Prussia, chose for herself beneath 
the gloomy cypresses. She was a high-spirited 
woman and of a rare goodness of heart. Fred- 
crick the Great caused an ura of CaiTara marble 
to be placed over her tomb, with the following 
inscription '.—'' Sexufcemina, ingenio vir" 

Darmstadt can boast of very little commerce, or 
of active industry. 

Tho Environs of Darmstadt have many pleasant 
walks, offering great inducements to tho lovers 
of rui-al scenery and picturesque neatness. Among 
the principal is the Linden Walk, without the 
Rheinthor; the road to the Brunnen, three wells, 
beautifully situated in a wood ; to the Carlshof, 
the seat of the late Baron Backhausen, open to the 
public all the year round; to the Faisanerie (phea- 
sant preserve); and to the Kraniehstein, an old 
hunting seat, where wild boars are kept for the 
Ducal chase. 

Rail to Mayence, Worms, Aschaffenburg, Mann- 
heim, ifcc. 

Leaving the last station, the railway directs its 
course to 

El3ersta4t-PfimgStadt.— Two small villages 
on the Modau-Brook. the scat of various kinds of 
industry. Quitting Eberstadt we see, a short dis- 
tance off, the ruins of the castle of Frankenstein 
on the left. 

Close to this station and some miles south of 
Darmstadt commences the picturesque district 
called the Odenwald. It lies on the road 
to Hcidelbei^, east of the railway, and on the 
way to the last mentioned place. Some of its 
most interesting scenery may be visited, par- 
ticularly the ascent of the Melibocus, from Zwin- 
genberg, which ought not to be omitted 
by any, even though they do not visit the whole. 
A railroad, 50 miles long, through the centre of the 
Odenwald leads from Darmstadt to Heidelberg. 
The lino rnns, until after quitting "WclnYveVm, "h^ 
the old Roman road, remarkable lor Ua "v>\c 

' turesquo beauty and agreeable scenery. This roa4 
is called the Bergttrasse, from the mountains at 
the foot of which it runs, for it is perfectly level 
itself. It is beautiful in the brilliant aspect 
presented by cultivated fertility and luxuriant 
vegetation, distinguishing the district it overlooks. 
To the left we see the boundary of tho Odenwald, 
a chain of mountains wooded and vine-clad, bear- 
ing a ruined castle of feudal ages on their firowninff 
brows. A short distance to the right, and runninff 
parallel with tho railroad, to which it is close, 
stretches in giant-like dimensions the wide sandy 
plain, which commences with the Main, and con- 
tinues far below Strassburg, intersected by the 
meandering Rhine, bounded in the background by 
the high grounds of Rhenish Hesse, the river, and 
the lofty heights of Mont Tonnerrc. At the base 
of the Odenwald mountains we sec grandly-located 
towns and villages, canopied by the over-hanginff 
vine-clad slopes, and embowered within orchards, 
which form delightful avenues or walks between 
the towns and villages. The best points are seen 
from Zwingenberg and Aucrbach ; see below for 

Zwingenberg (Station)— /«»: Lowe.— A 

cheerful country town with a population of 1,600, 
situated immediately under the sylvan Mellbocus — 
visitors to which should leave the railway here, and 
procure refreshments at the Inn below, as none 
can be got on the top. The excursion can be made 
in from six to seven hours, which are occupied In 
the entire excursion to the Mellbocus, Felsberg, 
Felsenmeer, and by the valley of Schunberg, back 
to Auerbach and Zwingenberg. Tho keys of tho 
tower on the Melibocus, are at the forester's (fee, 
26pf.), where refreshments may be obtained. From 
the tower (only) can be got a commanding view of 
the Odenwald and its hills clothed with forests. 

The Melibocus or Maichen is a hill of granite, 
conically-shaped, and is the highest of the Oden- 
wald chain, being 1,680 feet above the level 
of the sea. On its loftiest summit is a white 
tower, erected in 1777, which attracts attention 
for miles on every side. A grand view can be 
enjoyed from this Belvedere. At a tewNs^A. *&»«- 



[Route 28. 

Gothio Cathedral, with the gloomy towers of 
Mayenoe frowning: beneath and farther down. 
The Tower is situated on the declivity of the 
hill, and commands a view of the hamlets and 
gardens of the Bergstrasse, the coarse of the 
Rhine, and its waters sparkling in the golden glare 
of a noon-day son, daring a coarse of oyer 60 
miles from Mannheim to Bingen, antil it is lost in 
the deep recesses of the moantains of the Rhein- 
gao, which form the boondary of the yiew on that 
side. We can also distingaish the Neckar, as it 
flows smoothly along, and its conflaence with the 
Rhine. The Spire of Strassbarg cathedral, 100 
miles distant, can be distingaished on a clear 
day, if a telescope be broaght to bear on it. 
Northwards you see at a distance of 61 miles, 
the moantains near Giessen, in Hesse, and on the 
east the Odenwald greets the eye, oyer whose 
forest heights the prospect ranges as far as Wiirz- 
borg, and on the west, the view stretches across 
the Rhine, ontil intercepted by the slate-ooloared 
peaks of the Yosges and Mont Tonnerre, ten 
miles off. 

Toorists wishing to extend their joamey through 
the Odenwald, continue the excursion by the path 
leading to the Felsberg (Mount of Rocks), 1,624 
feet high, and surmounted by a hunting lodge, com- 
manding a noble prospect, still more extensiye 
than that from Melibocus, from which it is 
distant about li hour's walk. The path is indi- 
cated by finger-posts. It is separated from 
the Melibocus by one of the greenest valleys in 
the district. Not far from the Fursthaus, a hunting 
lodge, and by the path side, turning down to 
Reichenbach, is the Rie$ens&tUe^ a column 80 feet 
long and 4 feet in diameter, composed of hard 
syenite, closely resembling the rock constituting 
the mountain. 

Close to this is the Riesenaitarstein, a rocky 

altar composed of the same material. Its origin 

has not been ascertained, and it becomes a 

matter of much curiosity to learn under what 

eircumstanoes these trophies of human power 

were erected in a far remote sequestered forest. 

VmrJoaa aurmiaea bare been haxarded on the sub- 

/0o^ m rmvonrfte theory being that they are ruint 

£J^Z^^**'°"* *rtii!oeng, irhen established In 

-^^ «^ CfenuMny, eompriatd in tlie Agri 

decumates. Others contend that they are of 
German origin, and were originally designed to 
form a part of the materials for a temple to Odin. 
It was once thought to remove them, for the pur- 
pose of incorporating them in the erection of a 
column on the field of Leipzig, to commemorate 
the victory. We next see the Fatanmeet (sea of 
rooks), a vast accumulation of rocks, extending 
almost from the summit of the Fclsberg to Reichen- 
bach, and looking as if vomited out of some chasm 
by nature, in one of her dreadful convulsions. 

Instead of returning to Zwingenberg or Auer- 
bach, the excursion may be continued to Linden- 
fels, thence to Reichelsheim, for the casUe of 
Rodenstem (sec next page). From Reichelsheim, 
it is about three miles through Lindenf els to Flirth, 
where a guide may be taken for an exeursioa of 
li hour to the Dromm or Tromm(l,834 ft.) . From 
a point to the right of the path, called the Stein, 
a fine view may be obtained. Thence it is about 
4| miles by a pleasant path to Waldmichelbach 
(2 inns), from which the high-road leads direct 
through a fine country to HlrSOllllOTlli on the 
Neckar, where the rail may be taken, if desired, 
through Neckarsteinach to Heidelberg. Or the 
road, somewhat irregular, may be taken from 
Reichelsheim to Hiclielstadt, with over 3,158 
inhabitants in the Miinnlingthal, the chief town 
of the Odenwald, whence the Hesse-Darmstadt 
line will take the traveller in a few minutes to 
Erbacll (see just below), Eborbach, and through 
Hirschhom to Heidelberg. 

Erbach (Station)- Population, 2,600. {inn: 
Zum Odenwald). Aprettyvillageon the Darmstadt- 
Eberbach Railway. Its old church, containing the 
tombs of the Knights of Allendorf , is worth seeing. 
The Castle qf the Cottnts of Erhach will attract 
attention. It stands on the site of an old baronial 
residence, which has fallen into ruins and been 
destroyed, except the doi\jon tower, in which is an 
Armoury with many hundred suits. Among the 
most interesting are the suits worn by Philip of 
Burgundy, called the "Gk)od," Frederick XII., 
Maximilian the First of Austria, Oian Giacomo 
Medici, Margrave Albert, of Brandenburg, Gnsta- 
yus Ado\pYiu%^'W«.Uen8tein, the panoply of Frans 
of aickixvg^n, ol ^^"^ ^^ "awAVaDtoist^ ^ vcoaJl 
suit m^eL© loi Ti\x«BA\ft,VoA ^-^jwl d ^'k kuSaftisSjM 

Boute 28.] 



Ferdinand of Austria; the iron band from Helli- | century 
bronn, <fec. ~"^~' "" 

In tlie chapel are the coffins in which reposed 
the remains of Charlemagrnc's son-in-law and secre- 
tary, Egiuhard, and his f aitlif ul wife, Emma. These 
interesting memorials of the dead were transferred, 
in 1810, from the church at Seligenstadt to then* 
present resting-place. The Castle itself will be 
fomid to contain several other hiteresting curiosi- 
ties in the shape of painted glass, antiques, vases, 
firearms, besides Roman remains found on the 
neighbouring hills, and weapons of the Stone 
and Bronze ages. Entrance, 75 pf . 

The Castle of Rodenstein, with whose history is 
identified the legend of the wild huntsman, who 
flies through the air with a boisterous retinue on 
the eve oi war, is a ruined edifice, surrounded by 
forests, situated in a singularly wild mountain dis- 
trict, 9 miles north-west from Erbaoh, about half 
an hour's walk from Reichelsheim. From Reichel- 
sheim, through Lindelfels and FSrth, a road leads 
to Woiuheim Station on the Bergstrasse (see below). 

Returning to the direct rail, the next station to 
Zwingeaberg is 

Auerbaoh (Station)— .A»».' Krone.— a place 
on the left of the road, in a beautiful and 
picturesque neighbourhood. It is a large and pros- 
perous village, with a mineral spring. Travellers 
would do well to make an exoursion, which can 
be done in a light car, from this place to the 
Castle ol Auerbach, 2 miles from the village. 
From here to the Melibocus, there is a shady and 
agreeable path. 

Benshelm (Station), at the junction for 
Worms — {HoMs: Traube; Deutsches Haus; 
Renter's).— A small town, whose situation on the 
slope of vine-clad hills, together with the character 
of antiquity displayed in the architecture of the 
houses, the ruined and broken up fortifications, 
the high walls and turrets, and deep moats, impart 
to the little town a peculiar eharm. 

The Abbejf of Lwseh lies about 8 miles west 
of Bensheim, and is one of the oldest Gothic ruins 
in this portion of Ctormany. The original church 
was consecrated In 774, in presence of Chariemagae 
and his family, but no portion of this structure 
remains. Portions of the present buUding 8^e 
Jp the debased Eomsoi style of the ele^eivlYi 

i part of it is now oaed as a fmit 
store-hottse. A number of cloiatera were feiMided 
by this Abbey, which soon beoamo rich and 
powerful ; while the country all round owes to it 
much of its civilisation, it having been reclaimed 
f^om a barren wilderness to a state of high cultiva- 
tion. Within this Abbey died, with the monk*s 
cowl, the Puke Thassilo of Bavaria, depoMd for 
treason by Charlemagne. 

The Lomdberg is situated between BenakeiBi 
and Heppenheim. It consists of a mound or inall 
hill in the centre of a field, and is remarkaUa as 
having been the place where, in ancient times, the 
Bui'gravcs of Starkenbnrg held the Gaugariokt, 
a species of court. 

HoppoBllOilll (Station)— /mi* Halber Mo«d.— 
Agreeably pituated, but with a deci^yed ap(«ar- 
ance. The former ohufeh was built by Ctorlegmgivft. 
The present haa a good painting of tlie Saviour. A 
(Alarming mountain riaes beyond the town, (Jormarly 
called Berkhelden, luxuriooaly planted with Ti|^ 
and fruit trees. An easy path winds round 14 to 
the ruins of the castle of Starkeuburg, built in 
1064, by the Abbots of Lorseh, as a defenee agatnst 
the attacks of the German Emperors. It after- 
wards fell into the hands of the Archbishop of 
Mayenco, who garrisoned it and prized it «|( (U^ in- 
valuable stronghold. It waa the object of several 
sieges by the Spaniards, the Swedes, and the 
French. A picturesque garden surrounds the ruins. 

The railway on quitting Heppenheim at a short 
distance leaves the territory <A DamwtAdt, and 
enters that of Baden. 

HOOMilHM^l (Station)*— Close by here ia the 
country residence of M. RothfichUd of Frankfort. 
In this neighbourhood he has a very large estate. 

Weinlieim (Station). 

hms: Der Karlsberg ; PfalzerHof. 

Weinheim is a small town with a popolatloa of 
7,595 inhabitants, built in an amphitheatrleal fonn, 
round a hilly slope. In many perta fl| the 
town you discern traces of high a«t|qiUty; mid 
close- by is grown the best wine of the Berg- 
strasse, of which the country around it the most 
fertile and finest spot. T^ Ofstte «/ ir<Mi&&^ 


taking i ditect cosne to Ib« Neckor, 

LAd«ntnirg (fltftHon)— /nn : Adlw.- T 
oldutlown Inthlipartontia RbeDiih FiIMIdh 
probably the Lapoduniun of tbe RomAni, ittuat 
on Uia bunk ol (h« Neckir, when it nukei i B 
mppfunnu wUh In Gotblc tutreti, Hi cbarcb 
St. Onllua (l«ti centory). ud bigh town nl 
Tbe pi^iilatlon siccedi S.ODO Kiiili. 
FrlBdrlclufeld (Btation): fiqiuliy dUti 

n Schvvtilngen gardei 
«lBil(Bd BboTB ScbrEi 

HSmSLBERO (Station): Qoutar ol a n 
Datilda ibe Klingcl Thor. A dliect rait \t » 
open to Sinyer, «la Sotiwetslliceil (fkgt 143; 


Halel Fiinc* Cbartea, flrll-»ta boUt, c[a» 
the Caitle; btghly recommendtd. HMin. Ek 
Dwr anil Eltmer, pn^rietan. 

Hot«l and Psnaloa BchrEeda Flnt-clais hoi 
weLi-«ltmiWd; very comrortalile, 

MUller'i Vklorla Hotel I moit nwpectable i 

Tbe Adler Ilolel, oppoill the Cagtie. 

Grand Hotel, cloai 

Sofliih ftMion, by Mri. Hoffnumn, IB, Anlase. 
EnfHih cavnA, in PlVckitmige ; Service, Bnn- 
lay, 8.11, and <-aa. 
Heidelberg is lituateil 

Bflhi being Roman Citl 

Tblt city b>9 saffered more tron 
war tbui perfaapfl any otbet iii E 
parlod. before the Tbiny Yean' 
projperoM cominepclal city. It iri 

and dellrered over lo pillaga. lo ISM, TiUj 
ly ilorm after a cmel tlflse and 

bree dayi IS hlarutbleuioldlen to pillage. He 

ni manDiFripta from Ihn library o( the Bleetor, 
ne of the moiC valoable in Etu-ope, It was re- 
iken by the Hwedet, who proved learcBly better 
riondt than Iti imperial foes. Tbe Bml>ltion of 
.□nis XIV. was more tromendouriy deatmctlve 
han any former foe had been, and two French 
rmles, tbe flr.t In 1671, the lecoad in IBM, 
tooBi tbe Rhine, carrying Are, slaughter, uid 
imlne In Ibelr train. Tbongh Heidelberg wa> 
aken and burned by Uelac, Ifigg. it wu Id the 
lege dT 1G>3. under Cbimilly, that the Freuch 
lerdted a flendiah ertieUy and mereileai atrocity 
jat remain unparalleled, aavo by the erents of tlie 
:elgn of Terror In tbo French RcTDlntlon, and 
■hich to this day caate the name of fVenchniBn 
ibe etccralad in the Palatinate. In this ciu^ 

Tbe UiriKnlli/ li 
Germany , uift -wm 
qnented liy 100 tJ 

Route 28.] 



some distin^ished members of the schools of law 
and medicine, and can boast of the following great 
names: — Omelin, illnstrious in natural history and 
chemistry; Ticdemann, in anatomy; Panlus, in 
theology ; and Mittcrmeyer, in criminal law. This 
palace of literature served as a silent retreat for 
Gervinus and Schlosser. As an architectural 
structure the building cannot boast of any 
attraction. Its library contains 80,000 volumes, 
independent of manuscripts. Of the celebrated 
Bibliotheca Palatina, 890 manuscripts, which were 
carried off to Rome and placed in the Vatican, 
were restored in 1815 by Pope Pius VII. The 
most eminent curiosities in the collection are a 
Codex of the Greek Anthology; manuscripts of 
Plutarch and Thucydides, and many valuable 
autographs ; the following works of Luther — ^manu- 
script translation of Isaiah ; Exhortation to Prayer 
against the Turks, and a copy of the Heidelberg 
Catechism, annotated by him, and several other 
works. Except on Sundays the library is open 
from 10 to 12, daily. 

The Physical and Zoological Mtueunu are located 
in the new Friedrichsbau in the Westliche 
Hanptstadt. Open Saturdays, 3 to 4, gratis. 

The Museum Ciub^ opposite to the University 
upon the late Parade, contains a good reading 
room, a ball and concert halls. 

The public buildings and houses of this city, as 
we now see them, give us but a faint Idea of its 
former grandeur, and we could but distinguish one 
bouse among the number which might be fairly 
styled the representative of former architectural 
embience. It is the inn, Zum Ritter, situated in 
the Market Place, near the Church of the Holy 
Ghost. Its structure dates from 1592; It is sur- 
niomited by the statue of a knight, and its richly 
decorated facade, ornamented with images, heraldic 
devices, Ac., may give the tourist some idea of the 
character of Heidelberg's architecture in the days 
of her ancient grreatness. 

The Church of the Holy Ohost.~In this edifice 
are entombed the ashes of many of the Electors 
and Counts Palatine of Germany. All the magni- 
ficent monuments formerly erected in it were 
destroyed or mutilated by the French, in 1798. 
This church was formerly the subject of a long 
contest between the Pmotestant and Roman CafhoWc 
secis, both claiming possession of it, for tbc pxa 


poses of public worship. This dispute was termi- 
nated by its being equally divided between both ; 
and now, beneath the same roof, arc celebrated 
the service of Rome, in all the grandeur of its 
mystic and ceremonial pomp, and the liturgy 
of the reformed Church in the purity of its 
unadulterated simplicity. It is worthy of 
record, that the Electoral Court was removed from 
Heidelberg to Mannheim by one of the electors, in 
consequence of a quarrel with the townspeople, 
who resisted his attempt to deprive the Protes- 
tants of this privilege, though he offered to build 
them a church of their own. Doubtless the English 
tourists will think it an extraordhiary thing— a 
strange tale — Catholics and Protestants worship- 
ping in the same church ; and yet they will meet 
with other instances of the same kind, both in 
Germany and Switzerland. At the great cele- 
bration of the quincentenary festival of Heidel- 
berg University in 1886, the ugly wall, disfiguring 
the grand and simple proportions of the building, 
was pulled down. This was run up in the 18th 
century, between the nave and the choir, to 
divide the Protestant portion from the Roman 
Catholic. A very striking but simple religious 
service was then held, in which all could unite, 
the Grand Duke and Duchess and the German 
Crown Prince being present. 

Church o/St. Pefer.— This fine old church cannot 
fail to attract the tourist, because of its antiquity 
and memorable historical traditions connected 
with the fact of Jerome of Prague, the companion 
of IIuss, havhig attached to its door his celebrated 
Thesis— an exposition and defence of the reformed 
doctrines, which he preached upon and maintained 
to a multitude of hearers assembled in the church- 
yard. Hero, likewise we see, simple as beautiful, 
the tomb of that wonderful woman, Olimpia 
Moreta, who to the exalted grace and rich beauty 
of a woman, added the intellectual greatness and 
learning of a philosopher. Driven from her own 
sunny land, where persecution followed her steps 
as a heretic, she was forced to fly Italy, and, together 
with her German husband, settled In a house at 
Heidelberg, where she delivered brilliant courses 
of lectures to crowded and applauding^ tt3&J&!>iis«>s&K3«.. 
As we loo%L^v^Tk.\i«t ^Etw^^«sA.'t«a*5^>««'^''^***^ 



[Route M. 

boaaty; her miifortimes, literary acquirements, 
and early deaths all of wlilch conspire to illumine 
ker tomb and sanctify her ashes with a brightening 
halo of peculiar interest. 

The Castle of Heidelberg is finely situated on 
a rock overlooking the Neckar and its beautiful and 
fertile valley. It looks an imposing rnin, exhibiting 
the twofold character of a fortress and a palace, 
and was in remote days the residence of the 
Electors Palatine. This venerable ruin, so varied 
in its styles of architecture, representing the tastes 
of several centuries, so highly interesting in the 
combined details of its history and chequered for- 
tunes, and so beautifully attractive by its pictu- 
resque situation, has been thrice burnt, and devas- 
tated on ten occasions by the horrors and barbarism 
of war, which, however, did not destroy its vast- 
ness, nor the relics of its architectural grandeur. 
Its ultimate ruin was accomplished in 1764, when 
it was struck by lightning and burnt to the ground. 
It is now roofless, and but a colleetion of red stone 
walls . It is approached by a steep and strong ascent, 
winding on the side of the Neckar, and by a carriage 
road from the rise. The Electors- Bardolph and 
Rupert are said to have been the founders of the 
oldest part of the building. It still exhibits the 
appearance of a fortress of the feudal ages, and 
from beneath the archway we yet see projecting 
the teeth of the Portcullis. The Friedrichsbau, 
built in the early part of the seventeenth century, 
and probably named after the Elector Frederick 
who erected it, is richly decorated, and the fa9adc 
to the south of the inner court of the building is 
adorned with statues, flnished as exquisitely as 
though the artist had to work f^om Carrara 
marble instead of the red stone (keuper) of the 
mountains of Germany. This part of the building, 
of the Elizabethan style, overhangs the river, and 
extends along the east side of the quadrangle, 
built by Otho Henry in 1556. A collecti< n of por- 
traits and relics is shown. 

The English traveller must be deeply interested 
by the round tower, between which and the Fried- 
richsbau were the apartments of Elizabeth of 
England, daughter of James l.,and grand-dauithtor 
of Mary Queen of Scots. The tower is the most 
complete ruin Ja the vast ediSoo. The wallflower 

^^J^ iw4neM mround tbe pUUra of the triumphal 

arch, erected in h(Mionr of her marriage by her 
huaUaad Froderlok V., Count Palathio, afterwards 
king of Bohemia. The garden attached to it was 
laid out for her pleasure, and is called the 9tuck- 
garten, and its entrance is still known as the 
Elizabethcn Pforte. The room in which her un- 
fortunate Jiusband consulted his nobles about 
accepting the crown of Bohemia is still pointed 
out. Elizabeth remained outside the door in an 
ai(joining chamber. She demanded to know the 
decision, and when he hesitated to accept the 
crown, exclaimed, " If you refuse to be a king, you 
are not worthy of having married the daughter of 
a king. Let me rather eat dry bread at a kiiig's 
table than feast at the board of an Elector;" and 
she lived not only to eat, but even to beg the 
bread of charity with her children, " but she would 
be a queen ! " 

In the cellar on the left of the Friedrichsbau is the 
celebrated Heidelberg Tun. Its dimensions are 33 
feet by 16 leet, and It is the largest wine cask in 
the world. It is now long since it was used, and 
longer since the merry waltz went round in triumph 
on its broad summit. It is capable of containing 
800 hogsheads, and is said never to have been 
filled but once. It has been out of use altogether 
since 1769, or more than a century, it was gauged 
by mathematicians in 1886, and estimated to hold 
283,229 bottles. Fee for everything: 1 peraon, 
1 mark ; 2 persons, 1 mark 50 pf.; and 50 pf. for 
each further visitor. 

The tower called Der Qeiprengte 2%urm, which 
served as one of the defences of the castlo, though 
undermined and blown up by the French, did not 
fall to pieces, but fell or slid into the ditch, where 
it yet remains in a compact mass. 

The Gardens and shrubberies surrounding the 
castle, and originally planned by the engineer, 
Solomon de Caus, are delightful hi the extreme, 
whilst the terraces and elevations afford aToriety 
of most interesting views. ^^It is, in truth, a 
place of surpassing loveliness — where all the 
romantic wildnoss of German scenery ia blended 
with the soft beauty of the Italian. An immense 
plain is bordered on one side by the Bergstrasae 
Mountains, and on the other by the range of the 
Vosges. Situate on the river Neckar, in a ravine 
of the Bergstrosse, amid mountains coverad with 
Tinea, Va H.eVCMiLW%. \a\.\v^ -ouddJLe of the brood 
plain ntfiY ^ ^VAX>^3ix^%\)A^ ^^^ ^2a!ai^ ^s^^on^ ^ 

Route 28.] 



Mannheim, Worms, and Fraukenthal ; and pooring 
its rich stream through this luxuriant land, the 
beautiful and abounding Rhine receives the tribute 
of the Neckar."— LoBD Bbaconsfield's Viviflti 

No doubt it is from the extreme point of the 

terrace projecting over the Neckar that we obtain 

the best general view of the castle. But a view 

from one point would ill repay the tourist's visit 

whea we consider the imposing magnificence of the 

old ruins, an. I the grand, yet soft sweet beauty of 

the surrouDdiug couatry. The heights on the 

right bank of the Neckar, approached from the end 

of the bridge by a steep path, or from Neuenheim 

by a more gradual ascent, should be ascended 

by the tourist. The hill fronting the town, 

reached by the path called the Fhilosopheaweg, 

will afford a good view, as will also, in a more 

extensive way the HeUigenbera^ a hill between 

the valley of the Rhine, and the Neckar. This was 

the point chosen by Tilly to open his trenches in 

the Thirty Years' War, and on its top we see the 

ruins of a castle. 

A lonely Inn called Hinchgaue^ standing fifty 
yards or so above the bridge, is the spot where the 
students' duels are fought, somethnes to the number 
of four or five a day. 

The Konigiiuhl is the krftiest hUl in the distriet, 
standing to the right of the town and castle. A 
very extensive view may be had from its summit, 
whieh may be ascended in an hour or two's walk, 
or by carriage. A high tower has been erected on 
the spot, and the visitor would do well to ascend 
it and exyoy the grand pro^peet it commands. 
Beautiful indeed is the panorama, including the 
Rhine and the Neckar, the Odenwald and Haardt 
mountains on the west, the Taunus, the ridge of 
the Black Forest, the Castle of EbersteiUv and the 
spire of Strasaburg CathedraU M miles distant. 
The sun rising as witnessed from this hill is de- 
cidedly magnificent, conyeymg to the spectator an 
exhibition of celestial grandeur well worth con- 
templation. Never can he forget the golden ocean, 
irradiated by thousaods of spiral shades of star- 
like brdliancy from vhioh the monarch of the day 
emerges on wings ot Ar« illumining up the entire 

previous night at the ixm, «n tlie top, eaU«d 
Kohlhof . There is another inn on ^ neis^bau¥i»9 

Above Heidelberg the banks of the Neckar alRurd 
many delightful excursions ; the one to NMkar- 
gemiilLd (Station), 6 mUos off, from wke»^ 
the tourist may prolong his route to HVCAEttT' 
Stelnach (/««•• Die Harfc). Two miles from 
Heidelberg castle, by a road orerhanging t^ 
Neckar, is seen the Wolfs well, a pretty seclude^ 
spot. Here the enchantress, Jetta, who fcfst loM- 
told the greatness of the house of th© C<M»Bt« of 
the Palatinate was torn in pieces by a wolf. 
Close by is a good inn, celebrated for its trout »nd 
beer. The road along the margin of the river leads 
hence to Heidelberg. Two mUes on the road to 
Darmstadt we meet with the little villago of 
Handschuchsheim on the Bergstrasse, where there 
is a good inn, much frequented by the students. 
Dossenheim, 2 miles from this last vUlage, is 
noted for its cherries. From Neckargemiind th« 
rail may be followed to EberlMCh (Statlfln>» 
Neckaxelz (StatiOIl), and its connectioBs wilh 

Jagstfeld (Station) and Meokesbelm (Star 

On the right bank of the Neckar wo see H^UAB- 
beim, a smaU village. Opposite, on the railway 
station, is a house m which Luther lodged on his 
way to Heidelberg, in 1618. Droschkies can be hired. 

Rail to Hellbronn, Stuttgard, and to Wurzburg. 
To Mannheim, stopping at Friedrichsfeld, th© 
junction of the Frankfort and Darmstadt railway. 
The Baden railway, Heidelberg to B«e, branches 
to Baden-Baden and Kehl (opposite Strassbnrg), 
trains to Carteruhe in H hour ; Baden, S hours ; 
Kehl, 5 hours ; to Freiburg, in 7 hours; to Hal- 
tringen, 4 miles from BMe, In 9 hours. A shert 
line to SchwetzlBgen (Station), p. U% in con- 
nection with branches to Mannheim (Route 87), 
Speyer or Spires, and Oarl8ruhe,was opened 1878, 
and wa« carried on to HoidellMirg hi 1OT4. 
Tourists will find the 2nd class carriages eemfort- 
able and respectable. 

_...».- -, , St.n«enC8to*i^.-^^^^^^ 

extent of his eastern territories. Persons wm.\ou% \ t«i\v»A. \%<»s;^^ ^^^^.^ -w^^ "^ss^s. ^^^^ 

to wJiaess this gloriouB »pectacle shoiild pasttTsk^ \ e*«>\.^w^ M «• '^^^^'^ ^ 



[Koute 28. 

through which it passes south of Heidelberg has 
none of the beauty of the Berg^trassc. 

WiOBlOCh (Station). Between hero and the 
next station Is a female penitentiary, called Kislau, 
formerly a residence of the Prince -Bishops of 

Langenlniicken (Stat.)~/nn«' Ochs; Sonne. 

A small place with 1,800 inhabitants. The mineral 
springs here range in temperature between 50* 
and 60* Fahrenheit, and are strongly impregnated 
with sulphuretted hydrogen gas and sulphur. 

Bmchsal (Station). 

Jntu: Keller; Rose. 

Has a population of 11,658, and was formerly the 
residence and property of the prince* bishops of 
Spires. Its chief curiosities are the episcopal palace 
in the Rococo style, a large prison on the left 
of the railway, and the church of St. Peter, with 
the tombs of the last bishops. 

A branch rail towards Germersbelm and the 
Rhine was opened 1875, vid CarlBdorf, Oraben- 
Nendorf (on the Mannheim and Carlsruhe line), 

Huttenhelm, Phlllppslrarg. and Bhelns- 

helm. For Gtermerslielm, see page I44. Travel- 
lers for Munich and the Tyrol may turn off here, 
vid Ludwigsburg, Stuttgart, &c. 

Welngarten (Station).— A beautiful village 

with a population of 3,670 souls, where we yet sec 
the ruins of a castle of the lords of Schmalenstein. 
Not far from this village lies the ancient Schloss- 
BueKly or the place where justice was publicly 
administered in the middle ages. 

Durlach (Station)— //o/«/: Karlsburg— popu- 
lation, 7,656 ; once the capital of Baden-Durlach, 
and the residence of the Margraves of that branch 
of the reigning family up to 1771, whpn the Baden- 
Durlach-Emestino line became extinct. 

In the palace gardens are many Roman anti- 
quities, such as altars, milestones, obliterated bns- 
rel ief 8. The old ch&tcau is now a cavalry barrack. 

Rail from here to Pforzheim and Wildbad, in the 
Black Forest, 16 miles in 1^ hour. 

Passing Oottesau to the right, with a Castle 
built in the ancient style, we arrive at the 

CARLSRUHE (Station). 
.<5&/SfA' Oermania, ^nt-clMS, with every accom- 
aodMtton; Victoria; BrbprlDz; Griiner Hof; 
^riagJiaxs Oroaser AdJer, 

Pott Ofiee: Priedrichsstrasso. 

Telegraph Office: Ilerrcnstrnsse. 

English Church: Sophicnstrassc. 

Carlsruhe (population 78,496), capital of the 
grand-ducliy of Baden, and the seat of government, 
lies U league flrom the Rhine, in the Ilardtteald, 
or Hardt forest, which bounds the town on the 
north and west. In 1715 a hunting-scat was built 
on the spot by the Margrave Charles of Baden, 
and to this fortuitous circumstance we may 
ascribe the existence of the town, now one of 
the prettiest in Germany, ornamented with old 
trees, once belonging to a forest, in which the* 
founder began the town. The streets are 
regular, broad, and light ; some of them afford a 
prospect of the neighbouring mountains, whilst 
others form a pleasant architectural picture. 

It is built in the shape of a fan or wheel, with all 
the streets converging at the castle, which forms 
a centre. The generality of the buildings that 
adorn the city, we're erected by IVeinbreimer 
and Arnold, two directors of buildings. An 
aqueduct conveys water through iron pipes from 
Durlach to Carlsruhe, and the streets are amply 
supplied with fountains, serving as ornaments, 
whilst of great convenience. 

Leaving the railway station, the tourist enters 
Carlsruhe by the Ettlingen gate, and sees the 
monuments of the g^and duke Karl, who died in 
1818; of Ludwig, who died in 1830; and of the 
Margrave Charles William, founder of Carlsruhe, 
as he passes through the street leading to the 
palace. The former is a bust, and the two latter 
are a statue and a pyramid, situated in tho market 
place; on the east of which is seen the Protestant 
church, and the Rathhata on the west. 

The Palace or Schloss presents no very remark- 
able appearance. From its tower, the Bleithurm, 
formingthe centre of all the town buildings, there is 
a rich and extensive prospect: from It can be 
distinctly traced the roads into the Hardt forest, 
corresponding with the streets; also the Rhine, 
and beyond it the Vosges mountains in France; the 
mountains of tho Schwarzwald on the south, and 
those of the Bei^strasse on the north ; these, with 
the vast and cultivated plains within the monntain 
f ramewotVLi loitn. *, \\«X"«t^ ^^i\. ^w^^t «sxv^rhic 
\ away Yti l\i^ lawaon ^^ VYvsrtfc \AM&i».'^ «ANj«Q).\a 

Route 28.] 



Germany. Attached to the palace there is a 
Theatre, open three times a week. In the court- 
yard is a statue by Schwanthaler of the Duke 
Karl Friedrich, who died in 1811. 

the Palace Garden is a fine plantation, which 
on one side is contiguous to a pheasant preserve, 
and on the other to the Botanical Garden, which 
contains a Winter Garden, open Mondays and 
Fridays, 9 to 12 and 2 to 4. Open on week-days. 

The Kunsthalle, or Academy of Art, a good 
building, erected by Hiibsch, 1843. It is constructed 
of grey sandstone, striped with red lines, and 
ornamented with frescoes by Schwmd. It contains 
a gallery of paintings, among which is a portrait 
of Colbert, some Dutch paintings, and a medallion 
portrait of Newton, by De Wittc. Free, Wednes- 
days and Sundays. 

The Museum, to the right of the palace, is rich 
in fossil remains, A;c., among them is the skeleton 
of a mammoth, dug up at Oos. The Polytechnic 
School for boys was built by Hiibsch, 1836. There 
is a fine collection of models here. There is also 
jin Industrial Art School. The Vereinigte Samtn- 
lungen in Friedrichs Platz contains a very fine 
Library, with 110,000 volumes, MSS., antiquities, 
coins, &Q. 

The Hospital is near the Miihlbcrg gate, and 
was founded and endowed with a sum of 100,000fl. 
by the celebrated tailor, Stultz, who was created 
a baron. In the FHedhof Is pointed out the grave 
of Jung-Stilling, who died in 1817, in Carlsrahe. 

Rail to Durlach (for Pforzheim), BrettenBad, 

and Epplngen, towards lleilbronn. Also, to 
Maxau (on the Rhine), Landau, Wildbad, Stutt- 
gart, «fcc. 

Quitting Carlsruhe, at the distance of 2 miles, 
we see from the railroad on the right, Bulaoll, 
where there is a modem church, built in the 
Roman style by Hiibsch, in 1888. Its interior is 
ornamented with ft'escoes by Dietrcch, of Stuttgart. 

EttUngen (Station) lies at the opening of the 
Albthal, and contains a population of fi,500. Here, 
there are still extant, ten Roman monuments, and 
the remains of Roman baths. On the Alb are a 
large number of fta'per mills. 

The hills of the Schwarzwald begin to bo visible. 

Muggenstnrm (Station). 

The duchy of Baden, into which we now cuter, 

is one of the richest districts in Germany, and the* 
raUroad hi its course passes through a country 
producing tobacco, hemp, flax, hops, and maize. 
Vineyards cover the sloping hills, which in their 
luxuriance promise large supplies of wine, Ac, 
and largo walnut trees shade the road. As the 
traveller proceeds, he cannot help being amused at 
the appearance of the farmers with their long dark 
coats, red waistcoats, and large three-cornered hats^ 
the broad flaps of which are looped up behind, 
giving the wearer the appearance of a Greenwich 

Rastatt (Station), from which a branch rail 
goes to Gemsbaoll (see page 166). 

Inns : Goldenes Kreuz ; Post ; Lowe. 

This regularly built town, the former residence 
of the Margraves of Baden-Baden, is situated on the 
Murg, and has a population of 11,570. Its large 
Palace of red sandstone, built by the Margravine 
Sybilla Augusta, wife of Ludwig Wilhelm, is now 
a barrack, and presents a decayed appearance. It 
is not now open to the public. 

In the apartments of the palace are several 
trophies, brought by Ludwig Wilhelm on his 
return from the war against the Turks. It is 
also remarkable as having been the place where 
several European Congresses were held. The small 
cabinet is still pointed out in which Prince Eugene 
and Marshal Villars signed the treaty of peace in 
1814. Another treaty was signed here in 1797-99, 
but it was never carried into effect, in consequence 
of the foul assassination of the French deputies, 
Robejot and Bonnier. A monument is erected to 
their memory outside the Rheinau gate, on the spot 
where they were murdered. The picture Gallery 
of the palace (not open) contains some trophies of 
warfare, and portraits of Circassian slaves, taken 
captive by the Margrave Louis ; but several valu- 
able antiquities were stolen from it in 1849, when 
Rastatt was taken possession of by 6,000 revo- 
lutionary scamps, consisting of escaped convicts, 
disgraced soldiers, <fcc., who did not evacuate the 
town until July in that year. 

The railway, quitting the last station, crosses the 
Murg at a spot half-a-mile from which we see the 
ruined and deserted old ch&teau called the Favor- 
ite, 6 miles fi-om Badftw. '^'afc ^NA^.^«ss.Na. ^-^Scs 



[Route 26. 

Bybillo, who ended hor days within its walls. 
Her youth was a scene of levity and vain self -^lorj', 
and her old age a picture of superstition and 
bigotry ; the latter led her to macerate hor body, 
and w« still see the gloomy <H*atory where «be 
lingered out the last few days of her existence, 
and the sharp scourge of thin wires with which 
she lacerated her miserable frame. A hair shirt 
hor inner garment, a rush mat hor bed, her kneel- 
ing stool studded with pointed wire ; her only com- 
panions in her prison chapel wooden figures of 
Christ, the Virgin, and St. John; with these she 
sat at taUe and divided her meat into equal por- 
tions, one for herself, and three for the wooden 
statues; the latter portions she afterwards con- 
siderately gave to the poor. 

008 (Btation).— From here there is a branch 
line to Baden-Baden (Station), 3 miles distant. 
See Route 29. Crossing the Oos after quitting 
the last station, the railroad proceeds on to Sinz- 
heiin station, and shortly after arrives at Siein-- 
baeh station, a small place situated at the foot of 
the hill of Yburg, and remarkable as being the 
natal spot of the architect of Strassburg cathedral. 

BtillKStation)— /tirM; Badischcrhof ; Rabc.— A 
busy and prosperous little town in the Biihlerthal. 

Ottersweier, on the east, opening up before us, 
lies the valley of Hub, containing the ruined castle 
of Windeck, now converted hito a poorhouse, and 
the Hubbad. 

Acbem (Station)— iro/«/«: Railway Hotel 
and Restaurant ; Post; Adler. — ^A thriving village 
with a population of 2,000 inhabitants. Two 
miles below Achem, on the left, is Scubaeh; 
population, 1,200. To the right of the post-road 
and the left of the railway, just outside Sasbach, 
we see the monument, a granite stone obelisk, 
erected to the memory of Marshal Tttrenne by the 
French, on the q>ot where he was killed by a 
cannon ball, 1675, as he was reconnoitering the 
Austrian army. The present is the fourth monu- 
ment erected, the others having been destroyed. 
Much confusion was occasi<nied in the French 
ranks by this marshal's death, and the tixraps, dis- 
gusted by wont of success and inaction, exclaimed 
in irony— **lAcbez la pie, elle nous conduira:^' in 

Achem and Sasbach, the Hom itgrimtie rises to a 
height of over 8,800 feet. A grand prospect may 
be had from the top, and suironnded with pine- 
clad crags lies the Jtftimmebee, a lake sapposed to 
be tmf athomable. 

The ruins of the Abbey of Allerheiligen, or AH 
Saints, burned in 1008, can be visited by Ober- 
Achem, Kappel, and Ottenhofen. The convent 
lies in a romantic wilderness, in a central valley, 
enclosed by the rocks of the Kniebis. 

Leaving Achem, the raU, crossing the Beneh, 
which descends from the Kniebis, Arrives at 

Renchein (Station)— J2o<«/.> Adior.— A fins 

market town, with a population of 2,202 inhabit' 
ants, once of considerable importance. 

Ajipenweier (Station) — J7b«e2s: luuway 

Hotel; Krone; Adler.— From this point a line 
branches off on the right to Kehl and Strassboig, 
distant 9^ miles. Tourists for Strassburg, amd who 
intend proceeding thence to Switzeiiand, through 
Freiburg or Schaffhausen, will do best to proceed 
on to Offenburg (see below), leaving the baggage 
at the Railway Hotel opposite the station. 

The road from here through the Black Forest 
takes you from Appenweier, across the Kniebis, 
which is 3,000 feet high, to Freudenstadt, S9 
01 lies, by Oberkirch, a pleasant little town, with 
1,900 inhabitants, at the entrance of the valley. 
Above this are seen the ruins of Allenbug, and i 
miles from this, up in the valley, is Lauterbaoh, 
with its tne old Gothic church, built in 1471, and 
well worth a visit. Henoe, on by Of^ien, which 
has an inn (Krone), where refreshments and 
wines are supplied. An cilwagen from Appen- 
weier to Rippoldsau, in six hours, the last frontier 
of Baden, on this road. (See Bradshaw'* Hand- 
Book to Oermany, for details of the Bla>(dc Foreet.) 

l^om the railroad, on our way to Offenbuzg 
from the last station, we see, to the right, the spin 
of Strassburg Minster, and to the left the Castle of 
Stauf cnberg, a building of the eleventh century, 
which affords an excellent view. 

Offenbuzg iStaXiony— Hotels: Railway; For- 
tuna ; Post ; Rheinischcr Hof— lies on the Kinzig, 
and was founded by Offo, whence it derived Its 

This town, by its site, commands the entrance 

fusion to the manhal'B plob^ld charger, which I of thevaW^i^ oll\v^"Wcsa.\!6, \^.\A& ^.v^f^SuUt^on of 
"•-' ao frequently led tbe^ rictory. Behind \ aboul 7,1W\ ea^ «^ *\».Vsxft Vi ^^x'tT«3«^&\yetiu^ 

Route 28.J 



who "brought the potato into Europe, 1586." 
The post roads from Frankfort-on-the-Maiu to 
Baden, and into the valley of the Kinelg from 
Strassburg, 12 miles off, cross each other. Two 
miles distant is the Castle of Ortenborg, built at 
a cost of £30,000 by a Russian nobleman. 

Leaving the Offenburg Station (branch rail to 
Hausach and the Black Forest see Route 31X the 
railway crosses the Kinzig, and arrives at 

Nieder-Schopflieixn (Station).— Here are 

glass works established on the English plan. 
The fire is covered, and the workmen are exposed 
very little to the heat. 

Frlesenlieilll (Station).— A small town, con- 
taining a population of 2,414 souls, but no way 

Dinglingen (Station) — inn: Post. — A small 
place with 1,000 inhabitants. From here a short 
branch rail takes you to Lalir — Hotels : Sonne ; 
Pflug; Krone. — A small industrious town, on 
the Scimtter. Population, 9,937. In this place 
are stuff and woollen cloth manufactories, and 
some tobacco works. The Ludwigsstrasso, or 
JiOuis road, connects this town with the vullcy 
of the Kinzig. 

The outlines of the Vosges mountains arc dis- 
cerned lying west, beyond the Rhine, and the red 
stone cliffs of the Black Forest on the east; whilst 
on a steep hill we see the ruins of Schloss Hohen- 

KiXQjenlieiin (Station)— -/nn .* Anker.— A small 
village, only remarkable for its cast-iron Monu- 
ment to the memory of Baron Stultz, the tailor. 

Orsohweier (Station)— /nn ; Krone.— Not far 
from here the rail crosses the Etteubach. A little 
to the east of the line we see Etteuheim. Its 
castom-house Is the place to which the unfor- 
tunate Duke d'Enghien was dragged, and per- 
mitted to dress himself, whence he was caiTiod 
to Kappel, and thence across the Rhine to France, 
whore he was shot six days after, by (mier of 
Napoleon, at Vinconncs. The town itself has a 
handsome church, and its environs are veiy fertile. 

Herbolzhelm (Station). 

Kenzingen (Station) —inn: Lach.— The lovers 
of angling will find good amusement on the rivci' 
here, salmon and trout being abundant. 

and Black Forest range; the former a fertile 
and thickly x)opulatcd rcricanic range of hiUs, 
rising out of the i^ain of the Rhine. In the 
distance are the tops of the Bolohon and Blawm. 
From Riegel the Kaiserstuhl may bo visited. 

Bmmendingen (Station).— a small town, 

situated on the Elz and Bretten, in a channing 
country. To the left, beyond the town, you behold 
on a hill the fine ruins of the CasOe of ffodtburff, 
the most extensive in Germany, after Heidelberg. 

The Elz is now crossed, and a beautiful view 
obtained of the Elzthal, opening up on the left. 

Denzlingen (Station)- /nn^.- Post; Krone; 
Adlcr. -The largest village of the Grand Dnohy, 
with a singular church . Close by here, the Ktrndel^ 
4,080ft., with a grand prospect. A short branch 
was opened, 1875, to BuchhOlZ (for Bad SBggen- 
thal, cheap living here) and Waldldrcb. 

Before reaching Freiburg, and about 8 miles 
north from the city, we see on the loft the ruined 
castle of the Counts of Zahringen, from whom 
the reigning house of Baden takes its origfai. A 
magnificent view may be had from the tower, over 
the Breisgau, formerly an Austrian possessioo, 
but since 1805 annexed to Baden. 


Hotels: Hotel Sommcr and Zahringerhof, first 
classl beautifully situated, opposite the Station, 
lift, electric light; Hotel del' Europe; Hotel Vic- 
toria; Engel; Wildermann ; Geist ; Rheinischerhof ; 
Foehrenbach; Romischer Kaiser; Freiburgerhof ; 
and Pensions. 

Post d; Telcfjraph Offke : Eisenbahnstr. 

English Church: 61, Kaiserstr. 

This, the old capital of the Breisgau, lies at the 
extremity of the mountains of the Black Forest. 
Eastwards of it runs the Dreisam^ which bursts 
out of the Hollcnthal or Infernal Valley, (sec page 
IGO). Freiburg was founded in 1091, by Bcrthold 
II. of Zahringen, who conferred upon it very 
important privileges. Population, 48,788, one 
third Protestant. The chief attraction is the 
Minster, one of the handsomest and most per- 
fectly finished of German edifices, built of rod 
sandstone, in a cruciform shape, and ornamented 

with airy stone tracery. It was fouudftiLVasirfv^wftjCTv 
the ycota WTl «svd. WVl.^ \Si ^^2*.'^ ^^s«s"»ss. ^ 
Riegel (Statl<m)-/«»- Kopf.— On quitting \ Za\iT\T\seT^,MvQLQ^«&VV^'s»2»\5OT^^^ 

Zrere, the railroad pAseea between the Kaiseretuhl \ mutvVELcct^c^i ol Vafc v^Sstfi<s«» 




Boute 28. 

spirited liberality of the inhabitants of the city, 
who generously and zealously furnished supplies 
to carry on and complete the work. It is probable 
that it was completed under Conrad I., in 1152. 
The west front, the porch beneath it, and nave 
date from 1236-72. The Tower rises from a square 
base into an octagon, which is surmounted by a 
pyramidal spire of the most exquisite open work 
of great boldness and lightness. It is 880 feet 
high, and many prefer it to the tower of the Strass- 
burg cathedral. Th'o prhicipal entrance is through 
the beautifully ornamented and exquisitely sculp- 
tured portal I)cneath the tower. The Deity is 
sculptured on the portal north, leading from the 
choir, in the form of an old man, breathhig life 
into the nostrils of our first parent, and creating 
the solar system. The principal objects worth 
seeing in the interior arc the statue of Berthold 
v., last duke of Zahringen (1228); the stone 
statues of the other Zahringens; a painting of the 
Lord's Supper, made np of thirteen figures, by 
Mauser (1561); and the Altar-Piecc, by Grien, a mas- 
terpiece of the German School. Some exquisitely 
painted windows. On the north of the choir, in 
the chapel of St. Martin, is a very fine wood carv- 
ing of the Virgin, representing her in the act of 
sheltering a host of Popes, Cardinals, Bishops, 
Priests, and Laics under a mantle. A sliver 
Crucifix of Eastern workmanship is to be seen in 
Brocklin's Chapel, together with his ornamental 
cfiigies in armour. A magnificently carved Pulpit, 
(1561), and the Bishops Throne (1861), are worth 
notice. In the University Chapel are two good 
pahitings, by Holbein— a Nativity and an Adora- 
tion of the Magi. It should be vibited after 10-30 
a.m. Fee to attendant, 50pf . each. For the Tower, 
60pf . extra. 

The University, established in 1454, is the 
Roman Catholic semuiary of the Grand Duchy 
of Baden. That of Heidelberg is Protestant. It 
has a voluminous library, a cabinet of natural 
curiosities, a fine collection of physical instru- 
ments, and a botanical gardens. There arc about 
700 students. 

The Protestant Church, a modem structure of 

hiffh and elegant dimensions, built hi the Byzan- 

tJao style, is snnnouutcd by an octagon tower, 

w-A/cA formerly belonged to an old convent at 

^eimenbach, U miles off, and which was removed 

stone by stone and made to resume its original 
shape on this church. It is situated close to the 
grate leading to Frankfort. 

The Kaufhaus rests on pointed arches, and is a 
specimen of the Gothic style of the fifteenth 
century. Gilt fresco-painted portraits of the Em- 
peror Maximilian, his son Philip I., and Charles 
V. ornament its interior and exterior, and the 
Gothic portal under the arcade is remarkable for 
its beautiful arrangement. The tourist will be 
interested by the Gothic Fountain in the street. 

On King Wilhelm Platz (formerly Casemen 
Platz) is the Monument of the victory of 8th Jan., 
1871, when Von Werder defeated Bourbaki. 

In the Kaiserstrassc is the Monument to the 
14th German Army Corps. 

The environs of Freiburg abound in places for 
pleasant excursions. The most convenient spot 
from which a good view of the town can be 
obtained is the Sehlossherg (1,025 feet), where 
formerly stood the citadel. Beautifully grand and 
picturesquely delightful is the scene as the eye 
ranges over the sleeping vale of the Dreisam, 
with the waving line of the hills of the Black 
Forest resembling the benches of an Amphitheatre. 

The principal Walks are to Giintersthal, situated 
in a pleasant valley, under Kybfelsen (3,790 feet 
high) ; to the Carthusian Monastery, in a wild and 
romantic district; to the Hermitage of St.BariMura, 
<fec. Travellers not intending to pass through the 
HSllcnthal, or Valley of Hell, on their route to Swit- 
zerland, should take a short excnrsioii from 
Freiburg to explore its beauties. Its scenery, 
combining rugged and savage grandeur with soft 
and picturesque brtlliancy, will be found described 
in Route 32. 

Eilwagen to Schaffhauson in 11 hours. A rail 
proceeds to Alt Breisach, 14 miles, on the Khinc-t 
and thence to Colmar (13 miles), rtd Qot tonTiadtn , 

Ihrlngen* Alt Breisach, Neu- Breisach, 

BundhOfen, crossmg the river by a Viaduet. 

Alt Breisach (Stat.)— /?:n<: Deutscher EUiisen 
Salmon — is on the right bank of the Rhine, 14 
miles west of Freiburg. It was once one of the 
strongest fortresses in Germany, but was des- 
troyed in 1744. It is mentioned in Scott*s "Anne 
of Gelerstein." This place was originally situated 
otvtTieMV. \>axvVL ol W<iA-<i«st^\i>a*.\srj a change in 



right. It was probably loonded by Dmsa». The 
town is baUt on a basaltic hill. On its rommitis 
the Church of St. Ste]Aen, where the bones of the 
martyrs^ Gerrasiiis and Protasius, rest in silver 
coflins, hAving been brought together in the reign 
ol iTrederick with the Aed Beard. The wooden 
CArvings of the High Altar, er Altar Screens, are 
Well Worth inspection. The prospect from this spot, 
Where the fort formerly stood, is very beautiful. 
Yoa overlook the voleanic KdtsenitM (Imperial 
Chair), the pine Woods of the Black Forest, the 
biBe mountains of Alsace, which He opposite, and 
the Old Breisaeh at your feet. In a southern 
direetioa we see Mount Eekard, on which for- 
merly stood the citadel, and which is now 
ornamented with a monument in honour of 
Charles Frederi<^, Grand Duke of Baden. 

An excursion to Biegel, p. 159, to the Kaiterstuhl, 
the summit of which offers most variegated v||bws 
of eminences, of vineyards and gardens, of forests 
»Bd vUiages. Its Ugbdst point, the Neun Linden, 
\b «l«v«ted 1,838 feet above the level of the sea. 

Ijesving Freiburg we come to 

SChallstadt (Station). 

Erotzingen (Station)— /n»: Post.— An Im^ 
portant spot, thai so early as the sixth century 
;ave a name to a noble family, and is situated in 
k fertile country. To the right of the road, close 
}y, are the vnii» ol Staufenberg Caatle. 

H«it«nlielni (8tatton)~/mM: Adler; Kreuz. 
Sere vnwf ormerlyihe residence of the Grand Prlmr 
)f the Order ef Malta. 

HuIUielm (Station)— /nn«: Bahnhof ; Krone ; 
Uchwon; Tfeue Post.— In a valley, sheltered on one 
iide by the huge Mauen^ and by vineyards on the 
)ther. [From here a rail parts olT to Ifettenberg (on 
;he Rhine, where Duke Bemhard of Saxe-Wolmar 
nras poisoned by Sichelleu, 1639, and MiUhausenj 
L4 miles.} This is the Station for the Baden Weiler 
Baths, 5 miles distant. 

Bodenweller.— i7o^ : 

Hotel Sommer(Karlsruherhof)L —First-class, very 
frell situated, with opea view, next to the Kur- 
)ark and the Baths. Bacommended. See Advt. 

Romer Bad.-L«rge house, close to castle. 

Diligences meet the trains at Mttllheim; iare 
ifitpf., boxes Sifpf. FIf itof^s Cftx, 3 iMffkapcr wetk. 



The vill^fe owes its name to its hot tpttegs. 
A Roman batk was dis«ircred here is I7M. It 
was 322 feet long, by 100 feet l^oad. It coMisted 
of hot air, and cold and hot water baths, portieoes, 
anointing rooms, Ac The masonry is covered 
with polished cement, the greater part of whieh is 
painted red. An altar which remains proves, by 
an Inscription, that these baths were dedicated to 
Diana Abnoba. On the Behenhag an excellent 
wine is grown. Excursions can be made to the 
summit of the Belchen and Blauen Mountains, 
4,640 and 3,880 feet high. 

To the north-east is Sulzburg, where SchSpflia, 
the reformer, was bom. 

Auggen, famous for its excellent wines. 

SdUiengen (Station)-~/no.- Krone.— A mar* 
ket town, remarkable as being the spot, where, in 
the autumn of 1796, a battle was fought between 
the Archduke Charles andMoreau. To the right 
lies Lid, a. village with ir<m mines. 

The railway bends its course towards the Rhfaie, 
now encroached on by hills. There are five sta- 
tions before reaching Basle, the fast trains only 
stopping at 


Basle (Station).- (See Bradshaw's Handbook 
to SwUzerlandJ 


Carlsrolie (Cos) to Baden-Baden. 

Distance^ 3 English miles. This is a branch line 
leading off from the OOS Station, see Route 2S. 

Not far from Oos the valley contracts, and begins 
to bo enclosed by hills on either side. On the 
summit of a far hill we see the old castle of Baden 
on the left, and the Yburg hill, surmounted by 
another castle, on the right. 

BADEN-BADEN (Station). 
Population, 14,000— iJofc^*; 

Hotel de HoUande, near the Kursaal, one of 
the best in Germany. Table d'lkdte at 1 and 5 
p.m. Highly recommended. Proprietor, Mr. A. 
Roessler. See Advt. 

Victoria Hotd, on the new promenade, near the 

Court of Baden Hotd (Badiseher Hof)— An 
old-established and unexceptionable hotel. Tenaa 

Hotel dA V IZroxvim^ ^vS^ '^^^^36^s^^ ^'^**'*^J^. 



[Route 29. 

Hotel Belle Vne; very grood house; in the 
Lichtenthaler All€e, outside the town. 
Hotel d'Angleterrc. 

Hotel do Russie, delightfully situated near the 
Kursaal. &c. Recommended. 

Hotel de Fr.ince, exceedingly well situated, in 
the midst of the park. Good accommodation, 
moderate charges. 

Hotel et Bains dc Darmstadt, excellent second 
class, close to the Conversation House. Excellent 
cuisine, moderate charges. 

Hotel de la VlUe de Bade, a newly-furnished 
house, conveniently situated, with a beautiful 
garden, deservedly recommended. 
Hotel Royal; Stephanienbad. 
Hotel National; Messmer; Petersburgerhof ; 

Rhehiischer Hof; Zahringher Hof; Stem; Stadt 
Strassburg; Hirsch; Trois Rois; Oberst; Mlillcr; 
Bairischcrhof ; Baldreit; Kammercr; Ritter; Bar. 
Besides the above, there are many private 
Lodgings, in which good rooms may be got at 
various prices, 10 to 20 marks a week. At all the 
principal Inns, tables d'hote will be found at 1 
and 4 p.m. Charges at former hour, 8 marks, and 
at latter hour 4 marks. The Affonthaler, Elingel- 
berger, and Markgriifler are the best wines. Bed, 
from 2 marks. Breakfast, 1 to li mark. Attend- 
ance, 50 to 70 pf. 

Bankers.— F. C. Jorger, Leopoldsplatz ; MtiUer 
and Co., Sophienstrasse. 
Post and Telegraph Office: Leopoldsplatz. 
Omnibus from station, 30 pf. 
DroscMen, i hour, 1 to 2 persons, 90pf., 3 to 4 
persons, 1 mark 50pf . ; i hour, 1 to 2 persons, 1 mark 
40pf ., 3 to 4 persons, 2 marks. There is also a 
fixed tariflf for certain drives. Donkeys, 1 hour, 
1 mark 33pf ., for each hour after, 86pf. 
English Church Service. 
Lawn-tennis and Qolf. 

The season hero commences on the Ist May, and 

continues until the 3l8t October. Kurtaxe, — One 

day, 1 mark ; 14 days, 8 marks ; a month, 16 marks 

for 1 person, 25 marks for 2 persons, 30 marks for 


JBadon, CiW/asAureliaAguensis^ and the residence 
^f tbo Margra res of Baden for nearly six centuries, 

lies in a charming valley, on the little stream 
Oos, which was fomieriy the boundftry of the 
duchy of Alemannla and Rhenish Fnmeia. The 
mountains surrounding it, of which Stanfen or 
Mount Mercury is the highest, arc mostly covered 
with fir trees or brushwood; whilst the hills in the 
foreground are clothed with oak and beech trees, 
and partly with vines or com. 

Baden was founded in the second century after 
the Christian era, and was the capital of the 
Decumatic Fields, and highly-favoured by Rome's 
Aurelian emperors. In 1689 the town was burned 
down by the French, like many other towns in 
the middle Rhine, when the residence of the 
Margraves was removed to Rastatt, in the flat 
plain of the Rhine. The Grand Duke has a villa 
here, ^vhich he visits at intervals, during the 
summer. Queen Victoria on her visit stopped at 
Villa Hohcnlohc. 

Baden-Baden is one of the most frequented 
watering places in Europe, and is considered by 
far the most beautiful of the baths of Northern 
Genuany, even superior to the Brunnen of Nassau. 
During the last few years improvements on a large 
scale have been made. Among these are a Bath- 
House, named after the late Empress Augusta, 
an immense Restaurant on Augfusta Plate, 
and a new Sanatorium. The celebrated wells 
amount to twenty; they differ in the quantity 
of solids, and in warmth from 150* down to 
115** Fahrenheit. The principal spring for 
quantity or warmth is the Drsprung. It rises 
from a fissure near the hall, aud yields every 
twenty-four hours, 7,345,440 cubic inches of water; 
and that it was known to and used by the Romans 
appears from the remains of Roman masonry 
found here. Another spring of 1444' Fahrenheit 
rises within a few yards to the left. It is used 
for scaldmg poultry, and on that account called 
the Bruhcbrunuen, or scalding well. 

The Friedru-hsbad. — The finest structure iu 
Baden, and probably the handsomest and best 
arranged building on the Continent of Europe 
for bathing in and drinking therapeutic waters, 
was completed in 1877, under the direction of the 
englueev ol Wi^ St. Gothard and Black Porest 

i lines, VX 9k C0«\. ol Qb>E)Q\X\, £A^^^^. "YlXu^ -^^SSBk.*^ 

Route 29.1 



based on that of the Roman bath extant at 
Badenweiler. It is snfflcieut to say that every 
known arrangement for the purpose contemplated 
has been utilised, and the visitor is referred for 
further information to a book published at Baden 
in 1878, entitled "The Friedrichsbad, with plans 
and illustrations/* 

In 1647 the remains of vapour baths were dis- 
covered beneath the new castle. A kind of canal 
conducted the water to a subterraneous chamber, 
40 feet long and 20 feet broad, and from this a 
largo number of pipes conveyed the vapour to the 

The Neue Trinkhalle, or Pump-room, is prettily 
situated on the west side of the town on the 
public walks. The superstructure is a design 
by Hiibsch, and is certainly a very pretty building. 
It forms a long colonnade, and Is ornamented by 
fourteen frescoes. It oflfers a delightful view of 
the southern mountains. Pipes convey the hot 
water from the source, and goats' whey, &c., arc 
sold. Visitors assemble to drink the waters at 
between seven and eight a.m., during which time 
a band plays for their amusement. July and 
August are the season when the greatest number 
of visitors are at the baths. 

Closely adjoining the Trinkhalle are the Pro- 
menade and the Conversationshaus. Shady gravel 
walks intersect each other in all du*ections, and 
there are many spots affording rich and 
charming prospects. The Conversationshaus, or 
house intended for visitors to sit and talk in, 
lies in the background of a large green, bordered 
on either side by handsome chestnut trees. In 
the centre of the building rises the Hall for Con- 
versation. It is 40 feet high, 126 long, and 87 feet 
broad, and is richly and tastefully decorated. 
Adjoining it are large rooms, for the accommo- 
dation of such as wish to refresh themselves. 
Here, till they were abolished, 1872, the gaming 
rooms were open all day. Crowds used to sur- 
round the rouge-et-noir and roulette tables, where 
the stakes played for were heavy, and increased 
as night advanced. 

There is also an excellent gratuitous reading 
room and library in the Conversation Houde, end 
another one, to which visitors can subscribe. In. \ ' 
the left wine, opposite the Theatre, buUt X861\l& a \ 

Restaurant, where dinners, Ac, can bfe pro- 
cured. This building has also attached to it the 
library and reading rooms, where English And 
French papers are to bo found. Visitors will have 
to subscribe in order to have access to the music-* 
rooms and balls ; there is a society which gives 
all information. 

The Musik-Kiosk, near the Conversationahatis, 
has a numerous band of performers, who play 
three times a day. 

The avenue leading to the Conversationshaus 
is filled with stalls of traders from Switzerland 
and the Tyrol, and even from Paris ; and in tho 
evening, after dinner, tho entire space is filled 
with chairs and tables, occupied by fashionable 
loungers, sipping cofiee, ices, <fcc., and smoking. 

As many as 60,000 persons visit Baden-Baden 
during tho season, and the number of English 
visitors is so large that the place assumes the 
appearance of a settlement of our countrymen 
From May to October, there is a succession of 
visitors from all parts of the world. Those who 
prefer quiet and economy may find it an advantage 
to take up their residence at one of the inns at 
Lichtenthal (see page 166), where cheap penHon 
can be had. 

Artistes and actors of first-rate talent perform 
at the concerts and hi the representations given 
at the Theatre, in the grand saloon of Louis XIV. 
Close by is the KUnsthalle, with a permanent 
^exhibition of modern pictures, mostly for Sale. 
Entrance, 50pf. 

The Oak Avenue, after the Promenade, is most 
resorted to, and the main road is crowded with 
carriages and horsemen through a summer's 
evening, and the paths on either side with 

The Parish Church is remarkable as having 
withhi it the monuments of several of the Mnr* 
graves, the most notable of which is that of 
Leopold William and his Lady Francesca. Tho 
monument was supported by Turks hi chains, to 
commemorate his feats against the infidels. A 
monument of Louis William, by PageJIc ; one of 
Margrave Frederick, who, though a bishop^ 14 
represented in armour^ -wvX.Vv^V^jScaEssis. >»!*vs»ak.'=Bv *> 




Urthe; attached to it is a community of Nuns 
of the "Botj Sopulclirc, who have an cduca- 
tiooal institute connected with the conTcnt, and 
-Me habited in black, a moumfanfc to be worn until 
the sepulchre h rescued from the infidels. The 
church music is executed by tlko nuns, and attracts, 
on Sundays and festivals, many strangers. 

Tlie JToM Srhtots^ or Kew Palace, is seen 
Abore the hif?!test houses in the town. This 
4[>alaco was the residence of the Margraves for 
iBioro than three centuries, but was burned by 
the French in 1689, and was afterwards restored 
to its poresent form. As a building it is not at all 
remarlcable, and is only interesting frum its situa- 
tion and the Dungeons under it, which will be 
pointed out and shown to the tourist by the 
CasteUaa. They are horrible, hopeless dungeons, 
such as will strike the beholder with sickening 
horror. They arc entered by winding stairs 
under the tower, and through an ancient bath 
eonstmeted by the Romans. These dungeons were 
not so entered by their luckless inhabitants; they 
were let down a perpendicular shaft running 
through the centre of the building, blindfolded 
and secured in an arm chair. The vaults in which 
the tribunal sat in judgment are excavated out of 
the solid rock. The dungeons were closed by 
massive slabs (rf stone turning on pivots ; several 
of them stni remain. They are nearly a foot thick, 
«nd weigh from one to two thousand pounds. 

In a vault loftier than the rest stood the instru- 
ments of torture ; a row of iron rings, formerly part 
of the horrid apparatus, still remain in the wall and 
may be seen. In this chamber, the criminal who 
was sentenced to a cruel death (called le haiser de 
la Vierge), was desired to kiss an imago of the 
Virgin placed at the further end. To do this, he 
was obliged to step on the trap door, it iravo way 
beneath his weight, and he was precipitated to a 
great depth upon wheels covered with knives, by 
which he was torn to pieces. This dungeon with 
the fatal trap door was called oubliette ; those who 
entered it were lost, they were indeed *'otdfli^s." 

In the Hall (^ Judgment there are yet traces of 

tAe stone aeata of tho judges round the wall. 
jBetAIod tbc uicbe where ^Ae president (Blutrichter) 

sat la the outlet to a subterranean passage by \ pVeaaouX. anA. "^VcXx^t^^opA %c«»«v^-^'&^rtiiotpalof 
fyliJeh th^m^gnbwm of the oonrt mtmnd. It once \ xrYkV©^ \» \\« A.Ue StWw V^XAl lt«a«j£v «S^ 

coummnicated with tho ol<l castle at the top of 
tho hill, Imt Is now walled up. A Tory trivial 
circumstance, it is said, led to' the diacoYory of 
these torriblo dungeons, which vrere found in a 
search for a little dog whi<di fell through tho plank 
above ; this pit when searched disdooed the frag- 
ments of wheels set round with knives, fragments 
of bonea, rags and torn garments aAicringto them. 

Tradition would also assign tho dungeons as 
having been used by tho Tehmgericht or Secret 
Tribunal. This, however, is undoubtedly an error, 
as tho Vehm always held its comicils in tho open 
air. The meetings of this tribunal were held in 
the inmost recesses of the forest at midnight. Its 
members, who were called tho Witaende^ or wiso 
ones, were cliosen from among those judged the 
wisest, most virtuous, and tho bravest «rf the 
community. Nothing in history can be comp a red 
with it for tho influence it exerted, and tlio terror 
it occasioned, unless It was tho State inqnisition 
of Venice. Tho greatest ami most powerful 
princes and nobles were anxious to enter it, cither 
for protection from their enemies, or to aceure 
themselves against its power. It possibly, for a 
time, worked well, suppressing offences and bring- 
ing criminals to justice who wero above the reach 
of tho law, but it could not fail to beoone mn 
engine of cruelty and evil, horrible in j p auy w llon 
to its power and mystery. 

A very good view is obtained from tin vpper 
part of the castle, and the open shaft ninniBy ftvni 
tho top of tho building to the bottom la wtlrfh 
notice. It is divided into two by a partition, and 
it is supposed that the prisoner was wonnd up to 
the top by ono side of the shaft and let doim into 
the prisons of tho tribunal by tho other. It is 
also supposed that this shaft served to eoHTej air 
to these subterranean dungeons. 

Carriages, donkeys, and riding horses arc to be 
got hero ])lcutifully at all the hotels during the 
season. All the charges are regulated by a tariff 
according to distance. This includes also long 
drives, such as to the Yburg, tho Altc Schloss, the 
Ebersteinberg, and Qomsbach. 

The Exettnions.—ScaTcolj a path presents Hself 
that does not conduct tho visitor through some 

»" 1 






btt, a ruin rising out of the trees on the top of 
m hill ovorhauging the town. It is approached 
py a ziz-aag con-iagc-road, but tliere is a 
klxortcr path for pedestrians andriders. The path 
delightfully sheltered with wooiUand trees, and 
fs placed at intervals enable the tourist to rest 
i iiself when so disposed. 

'x'hc Alte Schloss was the residence of the Mar- 

Taycs for many centuries, and was only abandoned 

y them in the fifteenth, when the abolishment of 

e right of private warfare enabled them to live 

ith safety in the town where they built the new 

h&tcau. The ruins lie on the northern ridge of 

e mountain of the old castle : the north-western 

int is built upon a rock of porphyry, and was 

robably the work of the liomans. The vegetation 

!i these rums is astonishing, especially on the 

«8tem side. -The most interesting parts arc the 

liar-vaults, the Knights' Hall, the galleries run- 

ing round its mouldering battlements, from -^diich 

^ou can enjoy many delightful prospects, and the 

l&lgh tower on the south-east side, ascended by a 

L.«3toiie staircase ; from the top yon behold part of 

tUe beautiful Rhine, the mountains of the Black 

[Merest, churches, mills, innumerable villages, 

p Clustering in delightful harmcmy around sylvan 

*iid winding streams. 

On the left you see a path leading from the gate- 
"W-ay of the castle to Ebersteinburg, 2 miles off, 
(^d an old castle situated at the extremity of the 
"Village of the same name, upon an insulated rock, 
*»id commanding a splendid view. Good views 
^iftay also be obtained from the Jagdhaus^the Tbtgrg^ 

miles off, and the Mercurimberg, 6 miles off, on 
^Ke top of which is a tower, and to both of which 
places pleasant excursions may be made. 

The LiChtenthal ilnm: Bar; Lndwigsbad; 
wo, apartments and penHatu at reasonable 
S^tcs.) — The valley of the convent of the Lichentbal 
approached by an avenue of shady oaks,commene- 
li^ at the south end of the town. The nunnery; was 
founded in 1245 by the Margravine InuMigard, and 
preserved when the other religious houses were 
«Qcalarised. The founder and many of the 
princesses of her race spent their days here in calm 
' I'etirement. It is of the order of the Cistercians. 
STAtf older aud smaller of the two churches, called \ "wuv xaxa xu» \.xifc'«'ovv«v> — - --- ^Vcori>«v««^ '^^'^"•^ 
tj,e Funeral Chapel, baa buried within it many ot I apwe, Xo ^3;x<a ^T^VasX^ta. ^^J^^Tj^lj^, -^ft^'fiMS'^^'^ 
^lie Afar^rares md their familiea over wUose \ aiouaa'R«i^««^*V«^'^^"^'^^"^'**' 

are raised ourioiu uMiivinenta, witk their 
sculptured and carved effigies. It luu been re- 
stored and redecorated with asauy paintings of the 
old German School ; the mo9t remarkable in the 
collection are those painted by Bans Balding^ whose 
daughter died a nun in the cloister. The large 
building on the left side of the yard, is now 
the Orphan House^ founded by Baron Stultz, 
the London tailor. The cloister has a very 
melancholy appearance, and is separated by a 
rushing stream from Mount Cecilia, which throws 
its shade over the solitary fabric ; several walks 
lead to the top of the mount, f^om which a mag- 
nificent panoramic view of the hUls and mountains 
in the direction of Baden will be enjoyed. There 
is an omnibus three times a day from Baden 
station to Lichtenthal ; fare 55pf . 

Near Lichtenthal are the convent and village of 
Oberb^u'tn^ lying at the entrance oi a beaotifml 
and picturesque valley, which stretches with its 
neat cottages and rural residenoes along the other 
bank of the rivulet. The valley abounds in scenes 
of quiet loveliness, sylvan magnificence, and the 
lover of natui'e will find himself well repaid by an 
excursion through it. You may proceed in a 
carriage as far as the picturesque village of Gerold- 
sau, from which visitors can walk to the "?rater- 
f all called the Butte^ generally dried np In summer, 
but the walk is pleasant and worth having. 

An excursion may also be made over tlM moun- 
tains to 

linidbad. Hotels: Klump, charmingly situ- 
ated, first-class; Belle Vue, also very good; both 
well recommended; Royal Bath Hotel; Keim; 
Russie. II is distant 18 miles from Baden-Baden, 
and may be reached by ellwagen. The warm bathe 
8<y» to 9(f, are visited yeariy by over «,000 suflbren 
from rheumatism, old wounds, gout, and paralysis. 
There is a fine Kurfaaus, with ea£<, reading room, 
Ac, the new CarU*-Bad, wHh vapour baths, hot- 
air rooms, gjnnnasiiun, arrangements for massage, 
Ac, opened by the King of Wiirttenberg in May, 
1692, and chtormiBg walks and drives. Wildbad 
may also be reached «M Carlamhe by raa««<i . 

»Wt th« old BchlM., oocnpylnt .!»« ihr« 

I'otbach, vhld 

honrn, and drive thence to Hon Eluniteln liy' 

LIchlenllul, detcondlnR the Uurphd to Qemi- 

bu'lii 1>y Ottciua Md RothenMo. toRopprnheLm, 

niiu •rhence be un returr to Bndpn or to Kutott 

,be y»Uey ot 

Blotlon. The driTS lo Gennhsth and Xm Ebsr- 

ruagnlBcenl va 

Idn Itnm Duden >nd hockirllloccnpyaromioani 

A t™ mllei 

>Dt the matt dcIlKhthil cicnnEoB that cud he made 

r.n» Baden \> to the Yalloj- of Morir. which almind. 

11 chunihiE >ccnei7. and l< 10 Ififnei long. The 

•cenery It at one tlino mllrl and plclureaque, el 


■mother bold and grand In it> mggti wildne... 

F..r tbeie and 

The Mnr»tll*L-Tbf r^ >h two roadi. one by 

IIa*d-Booi lo 

I.klite.ithal md Bturen, the other by the 

Ebcrilrinbiiri-, the latter In 1 mllsg the aboiter. 


Pede.tri.n. can lake ihort cut.. The little town 



a rngged crag, and u eltnateii 

tbo l>eHinn!ng of the eentnry on the old Bite, and It 
antiquely fnrnlihed and omamentcd with Gothic 
fumltuTe, armonr. painted elase, Ik. It liths 
■uiuiuer rcaldence of the Qrud Duke, aixd itranEcra 

ir White Chapi 

ot In Oemiany comparable 
17 fdotpalh to Der KliTiffil, 

cb. the c 

, ihady hill, the road 

wild cIllTs IhrouEh which It hat bunt Its -nsy, 
Tbo TBiley »rom wilder and more picturesque the 
nearer we approach to Lan^anhTand. From hero a 
abort Ica^ne takei qi to Qeniebachi presenting all 
■ Swlai ¥t11a(^. Hero the road 

I le II nllM from Baden, tenal- I 
oieanlDn for piutl« lntendlB( U 

rocka Into the Unf. 
[nrv loeea all intemt, 
i, Schgnmiiniub, IK 

BadHL to Struaburg. 

se Route 3!>. From the Junction at ON 
e puto 138} tbo line sklris the Black 1 
igc. running alone the Icrcl TBiley of Hi 

Sshl IStatlon).— Population, 3.U9. 

//olc/i.'WcIssesLamm; Salmi BInma. 

ABiunllTmiige.onceBPrcnch tortreaa, rftuatei 
>n the bank of the Rhine, where It is Joined by (hs 
Klniii,' and Schulter, IlHnebunied and nieden 
nany occasions, having boon Drlglnally creeled la 
IBRS hy the French as a aort o( ontwork dtfena 
If Straisbarit. The town was partly riiin*d la 

et on lo Slrasohurg, 2 mile* diHut, 
rer the river. The blowing up of s 
Tladacl by the Oonmna was on 

IS right a 

■d by m. 

into which the Korglhundi 

lUUiKUit tiUmge belonging to Baaai, 
ngrHtuA (yiHj.- GrBnethof! Krone).-HorB 
w« tmaativ of ibe Marg pais from before 

is I mile 

■ \ mn 

Route 31.] 




OlTenlmrg to Constance, tbroush the Black 
Forest, by Schaffliansen, the Klnzlg- 
thal, and Donaneschlngen. 

Distance from Offcnburg to Schaffhaiisen, 102 
English miles, and thence to Constance, 30 Eng- 
lish miles. Black Forest line, Offenburg to Singen, 
98 raileM. 

Offenbnrg (Station), on the Frankfort and Bale 
line (see Route 28). Hotels: Railway; Fortuna; 
Schwarzer Adlcr; Rheinischerhof. Population, 
7,769. Here the people have erected a memorial 
statue to "Sir Francis Drake," as the supposed 
introducer of the potato into Europe. Starting on 
our route we proceed to the charming valley of 
the Kinzigthal, and pass Ortenberg, with the 
picturesque ruins of an old castle. Here grows 
the most excellent red wine in the Grand Duchy 
of Baden. 

Oengenbach (Station)— /ntw.- Adler; Sonne. 

Once an imperial town, with a late Abbey of 
Benedictines, now secularised. From Offcnburg 
to this place the valley offers a great many beau- 
tiful views on either bank of the Kinzig. The 
town has 2,640 inhabitants, and its most remark- 
able buildings arc the Cloister, the Guild Hall, 
the Merchants' Hall, the New Hospital, and the 
Church of St. Mark. The Church of the Cloister 
is a beautiful one. Behind Gengcnbach, the val- 
ley gradually narrows, but begins to present a more 
picturesque appearance — the mountains clothed in 
deep verdure, drawing closer at every step, e*>- 
close the charming meadow ground watered by 
the Kinzig, and forming the valley. 

Bieherach-Zell (Station)— /nn< .- Krone; 

Sonne — on the left bank of the river, close to 
Ilausach. A lateral valley from here takes the 
tourist to Zell, on the Harmcrsbach, remarkable 
for its porcelain manufactory. Further up in 
the valley we come to 

Haslach (Station)— /*<»<: Furstenberg'scher 
Hof; Krcuz. Formerly the residence of the mem- 
bers of the house of FUrstenberg, to which Haslach 
and the neighbouring Hausach belong. 

Hausach(StatlonX— ^o^A Bahnhof ; Hirsch; 
Krone; Engel. — Should the traveller here follow 

bach, at the extremity of which are the baths of 
Rippoldmu, lying at the foot of the Kniebis. The 
small town of Wolfach lies at the opening of that 
valley. There is a short line from Hausach to 
Wolfach (good hotel and bathhouse here, often 
full in the season), thenco to Schiltach whence 
there is a line to Frendenstadt and Eutlngeu. 
The Kniebis may be ascended from Rippoldsau. 

Homberg (Station)— /nnj; Post; Ban Rossle; 
Schlosshold— with 2,094 inhabitants. The town 
of Homberg formerly belonged to Wilittemberg, 
but is now under the sway of Baden. It lies in 
a narrow ravine,l,290 feet above sea, under a height 
surmounted by an old castle. Here the hill country 
of the Black Forest and the finest part of its scenery 
begin, among deep glens and pine woods, now 
traversed by the Black Forest Rail made by 
Herr Gcrwig, the engineer of the St. Gothard line. 
About 3,600 men were employed on the works 
across the plateau of the Sommerau or water-shed 
of the Rhine and Danube, 2,780 feet above sea; 
and thirty-eight tunnels have been made, of a total 
length of 30,000 feet, the longest one being 6,600 
feet. A fine view of the lino may be had by 
walking from Hornbcrg to Triberg. 

The road leads up the valley of the Gutach, 
winding in immense curves until it suddenly 
carries you to the entrance of the little town of 

Triberg (Station)— //o/e^*.- Schwarzwaid, close 

to the Waterfall, Is an excellent first-class estab- 
lishment, managed by the proprietor and de- 
servedly recommended. Omnibus to hotel, 60pf. 
English Divine Service in this hotel. Hotel and 
Pension Bellevue, well situated, opposite the 
Schwarzwaid Hotel and near the Waterfalls; 
garden. Hotel Wehrle (Hotel Z. Ochsen), well 
situated, not far from the Waterfalls. LUwo ; 
Sonne, «fec. — Romantically situated off the 
high road, and hemmed in by lofty precipices. 
Triberg is the principal market for the clocks 
of the Black Forest, and for the yellow-coloured 
straw hats worn by the peasantry. Over 
200,000 of these clocks are yearly exported, 
under the name of Dutch clocks, to the various 
countries of Europe, and to America axxA. Cy«4<s«^. 
The Watwjatt ^'Kv. ^\Jct«R.\. «^^5Be^^ss^^^^s**^ 

the road (instead of the rail) as more Intereating, \ Vn. YI«»\^tti ^\«c^. '^'^ "^^ ^^''^^'^^Tv«^I^^« 

U will lead him to the romantic valley of Bclia^ \ \>too>l%^\v\Oci\ssi\\»>w^^^^^='^^'^'^ 




oTerhAagingthe town poor their waters 48(>ft.dowB: 
into the chaam below Ib eeren snoeeesire eaaeedes. 
The moimtAiiiB are partly corered with dark fir 
trees, and every object has an Alpine aj^arance. 
Other great attractions at Triberg are the singu- 
lar costumes of the peasantry, and their peculiar 
dwellings with stables ondemeath. 

SomniBrail (BtattOlDf the summit one on the 
line, towards which it asoends like a eorkserew. 
Many travellers get out here, and return on foot, 
diverging here and there. 

8t. Qeorsem— /sn«.* Adler; Hinch.— The only 
objeet worth notice it the <4d Benedictine Abbey, 
burnt by the Duke of Wiirtemberg, because the 
nMMiks professed the Lutheran doctrine, but 
another was soon erected, and the ruins of 
the old (me preserved. From here the road indines 
to a deicent until we reach rail again at 

VUlingeXL (BtatiOn)— /mm: Blume; Lilie; 
Falke; Biir; Deutcher Kaiser.— A small town. 
Population, 6,140. Here lives Christian Martin, 
the celebrated cloekmaker, whose last production, 
completed in 1867, is said to excel even the 
elaborate marvel of Btrasburg Cathedral, and the 
wonderful processional clock of the Tower at 
Berne. Near Schweningen, 4 miles east of this 
place, is the source of the Neckar. We are now 
in a country that can fairly be called cascade land, 
so plentifully does it abound in fountains and 
waterfalls; the reservoirs of the Black Forest feed 
the two principal rivers in Europe, the Rhine and 
Danube. The two extremities of a Continent 
receive the melted snow-flakes of its ridges, 
and in many instances the water-drip of one pide 
of its houses finds its way to the German Ocean, 
and of the other to the Black Sea. 

Branch line from Yillingen to Bottweil on the 
line from Stuttgart to Schaffhausen. 

DonaueBdiliigeii (Station)— /niu; Schtitze; 

Falke.— The capital of the principality of Baar, 
once the property of the Prince of FUrstenberg, a 
mediatised prince, whose Palace is the principal 
building of the town, which contains 8,518 inhabi- 
tants. Collectionsof pictures, minerals, arms, books 
{8&,O00 rolanaeB), prints, Ao^ at the new Karls- 
4«K /ja the gardm oith% pgUtee is the Source 
2^^.Am«A( s eJreaUr baaia of eUar apv Uing 
^^Vdagt^a iiiViigh B ehaaoBl mkler gnraiid 

for about fifty yards imto the Brlg^db, trom this 
spot called the Danube. TlMBgh the two Vfpv 
streams, the Brege and tht Brigmoh, an long, yet 
they are not known as the Danube until aftorthis 
Junction, and but for the stream of the castle 
garden, they would, despite the length of their 
course, possibly be liable to he exhausted; the 
claim of this basin to be called the sourai o< 
the Danube is, however, somewhsit obeoare. 

The country for miles around DooavesolilDffwi 
is moist and marshy, the seat of imuunemUi 
springs, all flowing to the Danube. At HfUfiogeo, 
about a mile from this place, the road <a*oise0 the 
Brege, which, a mile further down, is Joined by the 
Brigach, and the united streanu form the Danube. 

Heoce to Constance by rail, winding round by 

Geislngen (Station), Immendiffen (Btatku^ 

where a line goes off to TatttlngOD, SottWOil* 
and Stuttgart, and another to Waldllnitk 
and Bngen (Station)— remarkable «s tha i^ot 
whence the Austrians were defeated by Motwui in 
1800, both sides loshig 7,000 men. The teigkt of 
Hoh^ihSwen, an extinct volcano, was ocenpled 
by the Austrians, who were driven from it by^s 
French. At Blng«n (Station) the Ub« to Soiiaff- 
hausen (13^ miles) parts off. 

From Donaueschingen, the direct road to Schaff- 
hausen leads through a bare and open coniitry, in 
the midst of which we see to the left the mined 
castle of Furstenbeig. We pass the small Tillage 
of Biedbohringen and Blumberg, a miserable post 
house. The ascent and descent of the Raudei, a very 
steep hill, occupies this stage. A magnifioent view 
can be enjoyed from the summit of the hill, ih» qiet 
near the wooden eress. On the left wa sea the 
mountains and extinct volcanoes known as t^ 
Hohenstoffein, Hohenkriihe, and Hohentwial, and 
in the same direction the lake of Constaaoe un- 
folds its diarms to the eyes, whilst the towers ef 
Constance and the snow-cai^d hills of Bwitser* 
land add beautifully to the background of the 
picture. Midway down is the Custom House of 
the Baden frontier. Just beyond, the road entert 
Switzerland, and passes through a valley to 

8dbaffhaiisen(8tation).r-Popilatioii, im^. 

Hotels :— In the town— Krone; Rhelnisohar Hof i 

HttUer'a &oU3L\ 'BlV%«a% 1?t(ifc.\ ^M*ctw«v\ «Cmk94^ 


TO waumm jmh 


M tte SUl,MMr VdVlUHUmiattftttOliy-fiotol 
B < hwi aeriiof, intHrisM, Idgiily nconoMndad ; 
Hotel du ChiteaadeLnfiM; BdlaVue; BheinfalL 

fiteaners d«Uj to CkMutaoM. 

For the Falls of tbe Rhina, ^bu, saa Bradtkatt's 
Bdud-Booi to SwiturUmd, 

Tha rail to Cooataace which orosias the Badea 
frontier repasses 

8lac«a (Station.)— Am: Krone; Ekkerfaard. 
Barn w« pasa the Hbhaatwiel, fonaerlj a faaaouB 
(Ad castla, and later a mountain fortress of the late 
Dokas 0/ WUrttembefv, whieh, bowa^ar, is now 
dismantled and ataading in rmins on aloftfroek. 

BadcdflnH (Btatton)— A»n«: Sehfff; flknme— 
where the line ttom Ulm eomes in. The town is 
sitnated at the end of the extreme branch of the 
lake of Constance, known as the "Unter See," 
and has walls and gates. It contains a very fine 
old Chnrch, in the Oerman Gothic style. 

Petershansen— situated on the right hank of 
the Rhino, which here from a lake becomes a river, 
was nnder the Ihi^ire a free abbe/. Crossing the 
Rhine near a wooden hridfa wa reach 

CONSTANCB (I(«tl0&), the Oerman Con- 
fltaai, fa Badea terrltory.*/mw; 

Insel Hotel, on the Lake; formerly a Convent. 

Hotel Halm; Badischer Hof; Hecht; Krone; 
SchifF; Falke. 

It is situated at the north-west extremity of 
the Bodensee, or Lake of Constance, on the left bank 
oi the river, on the site of the Roman Corutantia of 
the commencement of the fourth century. It was 
considerably improved after the middle of the sixth 
century; and flourished as a A'ee imperial town 
in its trade and manufactures throughout the 
middle ages. It Is dull and monotonous, but the 
deep interest attached to its historical traditions 
cannot fail to make it an agreeable sojourn of a 
day or two. It formerly contained 40,000 inhabi- 
tants, but has, at the present time, a population of 
not more than 15,000. It has, however, begun to 
improve lately, and the government have formed 
a port on the lake, which, whilst adorning the 
town, is also useful for the purposes of extending 
and promoting prosperity and trade in all the 
departments ot their Indostrial pursuits and enex- 
giM. It has been formed at aontidttrablQ wtX . 

Tha ifkuter U a Gothic stmetare ereetad fn 
i^M, re-bnnt in Its present form early In the Uth 
aaatttry, ezie^ the sixteen oolomns that support 
the nave, each hewn out of a single block, 18 fast 
high, which date from the 18tb century. Hie 
idatform of the steei^e affords a delightful and 
extensive view of the disfant shores of Buabia and 
the Vorarlberg, behind which are seen on one side 
the mountains and the seven hills of Granbttnden, 
and on the othw the chain of the AppMiaeil. 
Clrealar arches in the Romanesque style flank 
the nave, in the centre of wlilch, close to the 
pulpit, a stone attracts your attention. That is 
the spot oa which the martyred Hues stood 
when receiving sentence of death by tlie state 
from tha wretched mea who constituted thonselvea 
his jadgas. A reaaarkable tomb of English brasa 
staada in front of the grand altar. Beaeath it lia 
interred the mortal remaias of Robert Hallam, 
Bishop of Salisbury, who atteaded tha couacil 
with a deputation from the English church. Ha 
is represented as wearing the order of the Garter. 

The stalls of the choir wHI deeply Interest the 
visitor, who cannot fail to be delighted with the 
exquisite carvingfs ornamenting them. The Death 
of the Virgin, represented by lifelike figures, in 
the north transept, is worth inspection, as also the 
beautiful tracery work of the still existing sides 
of the ancient cloisters. A circus-like building is 
seen in one of their angles, and in its centre a 
round room, in the Gk>thic style, containing a num- 
ber of curiously devised scriptural figures. It is 
used for the commemoration services of the Passion, 
on (Jood Friday. In the sacristy are some very 
curious relics, Brabant lace, and a beautiful 
mantel-piece. The cupboards or presses in the 
upper vestry-room wHl attract notice. 

The Dominican Convent, now the Insel Hotel, 
stands upon a little island, once a Roman fortifica- 
tion. In it is shown the spot where stood Hnss's 
dungeon, now removed to the Kaufhaus. The 
church, chapter house and cloisters form very 
picturesque ruins. 

The Hall of the Kauyhaus-wHl be ever memorable 
as the place withfai whose portals waa %s5A.**b!^ 




[Route S2. 

and « host of other secular and clerical dignitaries. 
The readers of history are familiar with the acts 
of this council, which deposed the infamous John 
XXIII. and Benedict XIII., electing Martin V. 
histead. No time can ever obliterate, nor blot out 
its faifamy and horrible cruelty in sending to the 
stake Jerome of Prague and John IIuss. Their 
unprincipled and treacherous seizure and l)arbarous 
murder will ever remahi as incentives to execrate 
and detest the memories and principles of the 
civil and ecclesiastical monsters who sent them to 
the faggot, and condemned them to torture. 

The curiosities of the Hall are the chairs in 
which sat the emperor and pope, Hass*s Bible, a 
model of his dungeon, the car on which he was 
drawn to execution, the figure of Abraham, that 
supported the pulpit in the minster, and other relics 
of the council. Council Chamber, 20pf. ; Indian 
and Chinese Cariosities, 40pf. 

The house in which Hnss had apartments is 
seen in the Paul's Strasse, near the Schnetzthor. 
It has affixed to it a memorial tablet, with eflSgy. 
He was imprisoned first in the Franciscan Convent, 
but was soon conveyed to the stone dungeon in the 
Dominican convent. In the suburb of Brtihl, out- 
side the town, is the field in which he suffered 
death with heroic foi*titude. The spot is shown 
where the stake was placed, and earthen images of 
Huss and Jerome are offered for sale. 

In the Rosgarten Mmeum is a fine collection of 
local antiquities, prehistoric remains from the 
lake dwellings, and natural hintory; admission, 

In Constance was negotiated the treaty of peace 
between the Swiss confederation and Sigismund of 
Austria, and signed at Aarberg, in July, 1415. The 
house behhid the Hotel Hedtt^ with the beautiful 
Gothic window, is that where the emperor lodged. 
The treaty of Prcssburg, in 1816, transferred Con- 
stance from Austria to Baden, and since 1802 it 
has ceased to be an Episcopal see. 

The navigation of Lake CoXiBtailce is accom- 
plished by seven or eight steamers, which keep 
up a communication several times a day with the 
principal places upon its banks. The traffic upon 
thisJske baa received a considerable impetus from 
the formation of a port at Aladzlcludiafeil, the 
'ontbsm UrminuB of tbe Wflrttemberg railway; 

and by the oompletion oi the Bararian railway to 
Lindau, by which it is brought into communica- 
tion with Munich and the rest of Germany. 

The northern banks of the lake are flat ; but the 
southern side presents a series of picturesque 
views, having the mountains of Appenzell and 
St. Gall, together with those of the Tyrol, in the 

Excursions can be made from here to Reichenav, 
situated in the broad part of the Rhine, and famed 
for its monastery, founded by Charlemagne; 
and to Mainau, 4 miles north, famous as being 
once the seat of the commandery of the knights of 
the Teutonic order. It is approached by a wooden 
footbridge, which connects it with the shore. 
From the terrace of the garden surrounding the 
house in which the cx)mmandery dwelt, some 
delightful views may be had. 

Steamers to all the ports of the lake — Rorschach, 
Friodrichshafen, Lindau, Bregenz, &c., on the lines 
to Germany, Tyrol, and East Switzerland. 

Freibnrg to SchafQutneen. 

Distance, 57 English miles. Eilwagen daUy— 
direct in eleven hours. There is now a railway 
(21| miles), up the HoIIenthal, the stations being 
Himmelreich, Hirschsprung, HoUsteig, Tltisee 
(Leuzkirch), and Ncustadt. 

The roacf at first passes through the Dreisam- 
thal — which presents the appearance, at its open- 
ing, of a fiat and fertile plain, enclosed amid 
sloping and sylvan hills— to the Himmelreich 
(Kingdom of Heaven). Ncaring the ascent, its 
orighial width becomes slowly contracted; and 
at the imposing HoIIenthal (i.e.. Valley of Hell), 
assumes a magnificently beautiful aspect of 
romantic grandeur. Its woods, rich in foliage, 
cover the steep sides, from w^ich project 
sharpened fragments of rock, rugged and naked, 
having running at their base the Dreisam. The 
scenery here will impress the mind of the tourist 
as partaking of a majestic wildness, blended 
with picturesque beauty; the Hirschsprung and 
near Oberhollsteig are the spots most remarkable for 
t\ie eibVbVUou ol WvV^ ^'^^ vcv^T^<«E5E.^d grandeur. 

a BELonm amd thi xbimb. 

wm deterred {rom attempting tbla V". 
tbiit he wu not d<lre-de>ll enongh. Ader 
the Hlrtchipmng we coine lo the Stem 

jpe of the iwLd leade the 

ither ind with ■ Bnlde. np the FrIMcrg. *,K« 
■ The nU Bea, nith > good hotel (ndiipted 
n lengthened stay), clone by, shuald also be 
B LeniUrcll »nd Bonndorf (19 

n wheni 

»L*w or the Lake of tjonsliince. Close Ijy 
CBstle of Hohonlnpfen: and n KtUe [urthar on, 
after piiasing StDhlingen. wo cross a ilreun. and 
fonntef Ing on a distance of ll( miles arrO-o at 

BclialflWIIMll and lU Falls. Bee Bnd- 
jAau's Hand-Book to Sieittertanii. We now enter 


(Called LoUUIIIKail and ElSBM. In Gormani 

and Bas-Rhln. comprising AlauM, 
it LotTaine, and part of Menrthe, 
KipnDlatlon, la ISBS. of l.Mi.(lM. 

From ATTlconrt to Btraubmi, 

(Parlt and Strassburg Railwajr.) 
For the flrst pan of ihfi line op to Ember- 
iiSnll, near Die German frontier. He flraifjAair'i 

AnlOOnrt OtaUOU), uear the head of Ihe 

French Donane. Then DeutMiIl-Anlaaiirt I 
Hemlnsen (Station) — SJ miles — where the 

it spoken. In the latter. French. It belonged to 
fho Archbishops of Mots and Dnkea of Lorraine. 
cuao to Vrcnce 1«(1], and back to Germany 1371. 
Most ofltwaa rebuilt afterlhefireoflUI. Itiraa 
Ibe PoaiSarare of Bbman geographers, and ookna 
have been fonod. The Leak here Jolni tba Saar, 
iind forms a cascade. Ball to Heti, M mllea 
((lage 17E). SaargemUnd. Ac. 


LUtzelbnrg (StatloiU-iot amei 

Znr Elsenbabni Storch- with a rali 


the left of 
el with it, 




citadel, tmUt by VmlImui to flonunand a pass oi tlie 
VoagtB^ capitalatod to the Gemauut 12th Deeem- 
ber, 1870. The fortifications were flcinliihril 
in 1872. It was called Einartyhauscu, before 
1570, when the Prince Palatine of Velden rebuilt 
it under its modam name; it came afterwards 
to the house of I/)rraine. Part of the palace is 
seen ; besides a Town Hall of the time of Louis 
XIV., Ac. 

Marshal Loban, Qeneral Gerard, Ac., were bom 
here. Excellent noyau is made. Population, 4,900. 

M. ErekmamL, with M. Chatrian, joint anthora of 
the Oonmripi, Waterloo, The FUbieeUe, &c^ were 
both bom ham.] 

/Vwrmare tanaels succeed, respectirely 1,417, 
1,296, 1,G49, and l,e09 feet in len«:th. You catch 
glimpses of various feudal towQi's and ruined 
castles crowning the tops of the mountain ranges, 
among which theHoho Barr and Gross Geroldsock 
are the most picturesque. 

Zabem or Sayeme (Statton)— «* mnes— 

down the east slope of the Vosges (towards the 
Rhine), in a charming spot on the Zom, is a 
town In Alsace (late department Bas-Rhfai), having 
6,93J6 souls, and belonged to the bishops of Strass- 
burg, whose old castle here is now a barrack. The 
church has a high square tower. Copper goods 
are made. Museum of local antiquities. 

Hotels: Ambruster; Sonne; Zum Mtochencr 
Kindl; Karpfen. 

It is said to have taken Its name from the old 
tabemm, or resting-places, distributed through the 
valley. The hill at the top of the spiral road above 
the town commands a fine proepeot of Aisaoe 
and Strassbarg Mhister. From here a rail, in con- 
nection with the Great Lnxembnrg, is open 
through Alsace, to Mntsdg (branches to Strassbnrg 
and Rottau), Schlettstadt (branch to St.Marie-aux- 
Mines, or Maridreh), Ckilmar (branches to Frei- 
burg and Munstar), Miihlhausen, and Bftie, about 
100 miles. 

[At 5 miles on the Schlettstadt rail is Macbs- 
XUHSTEB, with an Abbeff clmixh of the 10th century.] 

Bteinblirg (StatiOll)— 3^ miles— on the Zom. 
Branch rail of 8 miles to BuOllBWeiler (short line 

/^ zaerwietilarj, F/affenhofen, and fiagenau 

<P^«i79Xpast NmiW^Uw, which has two good 

Past DattWtfler, lower down th» Zora, to 

HodiftldMi (StatloiL)-7iBaiM. 

Pass WaaamiNiheAmr-^ aa He s-oa tiM pLaka. of 

Alsace, to 

Bnimath (StaUoa)— < miles— wher« the rail 
turns off from the Zom. It is the aneient Broeomth 
gus, and is near the foundling hospital of Stepiuuis- 
feldcii, founded 1220. Here the Austriana ware 
defeated, 1793. 

Vendenlieiin (StatioiD~amiies*-^hei« tha 

Branch line to Weissenhnig tarns off. About 8| 
miles further is 

8T&AS8B17SO (Statton)^ SUi miles from 
Paris. See Soute 27. 

Strassbnrg to MuUhausen, Basle, ftc. 

Up the Khine by railway. Distance, 141 kil. or 
89 miles; 3 to fii hours. Terminus, near Porta de 

The railway passes up the Tallay of tba 111, 
which receives innumerable streams irom the 
Vosges mountauis to the west. The new oat- 
works of the fortifications of Strassbnrg (to the 
right — FortsBismarckandKroDprinzvonSaebsen; 
to the left— Forts von Werder and von der Tann) 
form very conspicuous ot^ts. 

OeispolBhelm (Station)— TmUcs— on the Eger, 
once a fortress. Population, 3,830. Ikichsteiii, 12 
kil. off, on the ni, was a fortress taken by Turenne, 
1674. Further off are Molsheim and Mutzig, where 
they manufacture ribbons, fire-arms, &c. See 
page 179. 

Fegersheixn (Station)— if miles— near the ni 
and Andlan. Motheim (1< kil. west), in a {iretty 
position oa the Magel, is a walled town of 4,000 

Llmeralielm (Station), 3| mUcs. 

Erstein (Station)— 2^ miles_/nn; LSwo— was 
a fortress in the stormy times of the Empire, like 
most other places in this frontier laud. Population, 
4,378. Coach to Obemai (on the Schlettstadt railX 
which lies on the Andlau, above Niedemay, and is 
ill built, with a population of 4,500 souls, who 
make calicoes, &c. It has an old ch&teau, and a 

I Gothic towax, oaiVb^ "RjcQi^ca TVicoanoL. "E-vsV^ar 

Roate a4.] 



Odilienberi?, near the Waldersbach, the scene of 
Obeilin*g labonrs. OdiHenberg is a favourite pil- 
grim's chapel, fonnded by St. Odile, daughter of a 
duke of Alsace, en a height which commands a 
Tiew almost to Basle. There are sercral fine 
ruins about it, as the Ceutlea of Rathsamhausen, 
Landsberg, and Andlan, and Truttenhausen con- 

Olatienlielm (Station)— 3 miles— on the lu. 

Benfeld (StatiOIL>— 2i mUes^also on the 111, in 
the centre of the tobacco cultivation, and a small 
place of 2,644 souls, as old as the seventh century, but 
dismantled after the treaty of Miinster. Coach to 
Barr (11 kil. west-north-west), a Protestant town 
of 4,600 population, in a delightful hollow, under 
the Kirchberg, Hohenburg, Monkalb, and other 
heights. The old castle is replaced by a Town 
Hall, built 1640. Woollen mittens and socks 
are made. Andktu (south-west of Barr), among 
vine-covered hills, is another pretty spot, near 
Hohen-Andlau Cnstte^ a conspicuous ruin, on a hill, 
once the seat of a very old Alsatian family. Here 
was an abbey, founded by the wife of the Emperor 
Charles the Fat. 

Kogenhelm (Station)— 3i miles— on the in. 
*'Heim," in those names is literally "home." 

Ebersbelm (Station)— 2 miles- has a bufet, 
and a conveyance to Dambach, near Bernstein 
castle. Towards the Rhine are the three slender 
towers of EbermUnster church, whose abbey was 
founded in the seventh century. It has some very 
old frescoes and wood carving. 

ScUettStadt (Station)— 4fniUes— on the lU, 
a town of 9,172 population, and an old free 
city of the Empire, called Electw^ by the Romans ; 
rebuilt 1216, taken by Louis XIV., 1673, and forti- 
fied by Vauban. It capitulated to the Germans 24th 
October, 1870. The chief buildings are St. George's 
Gothic CTitfrch of the fourteenth century, with a 
square tower, 187 feet high ; the Reeollets' church; 
public library, with some early printed books; the 
college at the old eonunandery of Malta, near the 
Round Church of St. Fbi, built 1694, by a crusader, 
on the plan of the Holy Sepulchre ; the arsenal ; 

Giessen passes by on the north, from the Yosges 
mountains, which are in view. Manufactures of 
pottery (enamelled pottery was invented here in 
the twelfth century), metallic gauze, iron and 
copper, Ac, are carried on. 
Hotds: Adler; Bock; GoIdnesLamm. 

[Branch rail to KaxUrcb or St. Karle-auz* 

Mines (Station), once noted for its ailvey 
works; thence to St. Di^ Epinal, Nancy, Ac. 
OrschwiUer (6 kU. west north-west) is in the 
neighbourhood of the Baotsftein and Ortenberg 
towers, of Kirtzheim and its Castle^ and under 
the fine old Cattle ofHohen Konigsburg^ which the 
Swedes destroyeui after they took this town, in 
the Thirty Years' War, 1632. It was buUt by the 
Prankish kings, and became an imperial fief, being 
held by knights, half robbers and half tyrants.] 

Rail to Molsheim and Slabem (page 172). 

St. put (Station)— 3f miles— is the nearest 
station for KSnigsburg castle, and alaoFrtmimbHrffj 
another picturesque ruin, burnt 1682. It belonged 
to the bishops of Strassburg. 

Bappoltsweiler (Sta^m) — n mi]e«--«r 

Bikeamaie {HoieU: Lamm; do Nancy), among 
vineyards, under the heights covered by the old 
Cattla o4 Ki^fwltsteki, Girsberg, and St. Ulrich. 
St. Gregoire*8 cknreh has several ancient tombs ; 
the Town Hall is good. Population, 6,904. In the 
neighbourhood are remains of the chapel, Netre 
Dame of Dusenbach, and a famous ejehopema acUl 
(on the sides of the VosgesX called the Ifeiden- 
mauer, or Heathen's wall. The vast blocks of 
which it was composed are traced for 6 or 6 miles. 
Near Baroche, to the south, is Hohenach Outle, 
the tower of which eommands one of the most 
beautiful views in this interesting country. 

[At 18 ML east'sonth-east, is 

MarehOlfOieini, near the Rhine, with bleach- 
ground and tobacco factories. Population, 2,600.] 

Osthelm (Station), 2 miles. Population, 1,700. 

[Al Rbichbnwsibb (7 miles west), among vine- 
yards, on the Sempach, is the old castle of Reichen- 
stein, dismantled 1209. A Uttle south of it, on the 
Weiss, is the old imperial Castle of £aiMK^9Qwr<v<. 
built In tlvsk \\x\T\stfisoSJa. <jRs*;»ax^^>Js^ ^^^'*S»^«-""*»*^" 

the old fausse porteor bet/i^ tower, in the Gothic ,, 

style; new com market and tobacco factory. \\sOTO^%B^^\^o%<i«^^^\^^&^^^^'^^^^^ 

^ was a natlTC. TYi« v oi M«^«.'5i\i KXiX^l «c^^^^Ni^'^v >s»5C^^8. '^ 

M/irtin Bacer (or X'lilborn), 




[Koute 34. 

stream are the hue ruius of Uohenlandsbcrg, and 

BflBlLWeler (Station), 2^ miles. Coaches to 
Ti^^uishcim, Klntsheim, Kaisersbcrg, Orbey, La 
Poutruyc. Orbey is imdcr a mountain, on which 
are the White and Black Lakes ; each about 3 miles 
in circuit. White Lake, shut in by granite walls, 
is the source of the Weiss. Hereabouts is the 
highest part of the Yosges chain. 

At 2} miles further is 

GOLKAR (Station). 

A buffet. 39} miles from Strassburg; 46^ from 

Hotels: Dcs Deux Clefs; Schwarzes Lamm; 
Von Briesen. 

Population, 30,399. Chief tqwn of late depart- 
ment Haut-Rhin, in a fine plain half-way between 
the Vosgcs and the river Rhine, or the river Lauch, 
1| mile from the III. It is not far from the site 
of the Roman Argentovaria; it was an imperial 
free city, given up to France by the treaty of 
Westphalia, 1648, when the fortifications were 
razed ; and is now rc-amiexed to Germany. There 
are three gates, many naiTow streets and old 
houses ; good walks on the Champ de Mars, where 
a Fountain was erected, 1857, to Admiral Bruat, 
and the cemetery of Horburg (2 kil. oflf). It is 
watered by the branches of the river and the 
canals of the Fecht. 

The Minster, built 1363, is a large Gothic build- 
ing with a tower about 300 (?) feet high, and an 
altar-piece on wood, by SchSnganer. Its tower com- 
mands a view of above 800 places in Alsace and 
Baden, &c. The Jesuit church was built 1760; 
the fine nave of the Domhiican church contains 
a Museum of Pictures, with the Monument of 
Schongauer, the artist; the Library contains 
40,000 vols., besides rare MSS., ; the old Protest- 
ant church is a store-house. 

Other objects of notice are the ancient Town 

House, now the Governor's house, in which is to 

be seen the head (as well as the sword which 

cut it off) of Hagenbach, Charles the Bold's 

governor, who figm*es in "Anne of Geierstein;" 

i/jo Hospital; Moimmont to Marshal llapp ; the 

rastJ'rfson; large caxalry Barracks ; and public 


In the neighbourhood, are the large factories 
of MM. Hauseman, Ilersog, Ac. At Manster 
(Station), 11 m. by rail to the west-south-west, 
In the busy valley of that name, is Hartmann's 
large cotton factory, near the castle of Schwar- 
zenburg. Generals Rapp, and Rewbel, who was 
one of the Directorie, were natives of Mttnster. 
Milnster had an abbey, the last head of which 
embraced Protestantism in 1536. 

In this quarter are Winzenheim, under Ho- 
hcnlandsberg Castle ; and Tiirkhoim, onco an im- 
perial fief, now noted for its red wines. Hero 
Turcnne gained a victory over the Imperialists, 
1675, with the assistance of English troops, lent 
by Charles II. 

Colmar has large manufactures of cotton, linens, 
ribbons, powder, «fcc. ; and a trade in wine, grain, 
&c. Conveyances by branch rails to Munster (as 
above), to Breisach, thence to Freiburg and the 
Black Forest, Ac. A road and rail lead down to 
a disused custom-house and ferry on the Rhine, 
near Fort Mortier, and the citadel of A>tf 
Breisach, built by Vauban, on the Rhine canal, and 
taken by the Germans 10th November, 1870. 

From Colmar, on the way to Bftle, you pass 

Egisheim (StatiOn)-5i miles— which has a 
strong six-sided tower left of an ancient Castle, 
fhe birth-place of Leo IX. Population, 2,130 
Here also are the Drei Exen, or three towers of 
another Castle, which belonged to the imperial 

Herlisheim (Station), i; mile. A modem 

ch&teau on the site of the old castle — once a nest 
of robbers. The ancient church of Geberschweier 
is seen beyond this station. It has a Norman 
tower with pcnt-hbuso roof. 

Rufach (Station)— 4 miles (Bar) — on the 
Lauch, with an old Gothic church and remains 
of Iscnbourg castle, a seat of the Merovingian 
kings. Marshal Lcfcbvre was bom here. At 
Judenfeld many Jews were executed; and they 
say that no Jew will live there to this day. Popu- 
lation, 3,630. Coach to Soultzmatt. 

Merzheim (Station)— 3 miles— to the south- 
west of which is the Gebweiler Belchen, or Balkm 
de Gebweilet*, lYvft \i\^fe%\. <il tVikSv Yoagos nuige 


HoQte 35.] 

BollWttileX (8»«fclOll>-4* mn«»— fn a wine 
district. Branch Rail to Oebweller, through 
Ol>er81llZ (population, 4,511, and a handsome 
spire church), and Laute&bach, on the Lauch. 
Gebweiler has (near some abbey ruins) a fine 
Norman church with three spires. Here the ascent 
to the Ballon, or Orotse Belchen, may be made 
(view over part of Switzerland), descending to the 
Interesting valley of 8t. Amarin (see below), and 
to a way to Thann. 

Wittelsheim (Station), 3^ miles. 

Lutterbach (Station) — 4J miles— where the. 
branch to Thann and Wesserling turns off, as 

Domacll (Station), l mile. Here is the large 
factory of Dollfns A Co. Population, 6,000. 

69 miles from Strassburg, 304 from Paris (via the 
new route through Belfort, Troyes, Ac). There is 
a buffet at the station. 

Hotds: Central; Wagner; Nord; de Rome; 
des Etraugers. 

A town of 76,968 souls, and a great seat of 
manufactures^ such as cotton prints, turkey red, 
woollens, worsteds, muslins, yam, silk, steam 
engines, spinning machines, locomotives, &c. It 
was an imperial city from 1268 till 1515, when it 
became a Swiss republic; was joined to France, 
1798, and is now annexed to Germany. It stands 
partly on an island of the 111, and on the Rhine 
andRhdne canal, and is generally weU built, with 
some old houses. The now quarter was begun 
1828. There are a Rathhaus, the oldest public 
building; college; hospital; cabinets of natural 
history, and library at the Soci€t^ Industrielle ; 
and many factories, one of the largest and oldest 
being that of Kochlin Brothers. Here are many 
hundred Workmen's Model Dwellings on a good 
plan, with a garden to each. Railways to Belfort 
30 miles, and to Neuenburg and Miillheim 14 

[Ottmarshelm (is kil.), near MtiUhdm Rail, 
on the Rhine, has a remarkable Church, eight-sided, 
ani believed to be part of a Lombard Basilica.] 
R1T^ f^*"* (Station)— 3 miles—which haa large 


Kereotx (Vtatf on), H mUM. 
Bartenheim (Station), if miles. 

St LudWig, or Louis (Station)— 6 miles— on 
the Suits Frontier, where baggage is searched. 

[ A loop line to BdJe, via Leopoldshdlie, goes 
past Hunlngen (Station), on the Rhine; which 
had, on a rock, one of Vauban's fortresses before 
1815, when it was taken by the Austrians. It 
contains a good church, barracks, and an institution 
for pisciculture, worth visiting. Population, 1,695.] 

At 2 miles further is 

BASLE (Station), in Switzerland (see Brad- 
Shaw's Hand-Book to Switzerland)." 

From Lutterbach (above), a Branch Rail of 
17 miles goes off past 

Ceinay (4^ miles), a pretty spot (population, 
4,000), near the sterile tract of Ochsenfcld, to 

Thann (Station) — Z% vaWQ^— Hotels : Kaiser; 
Zwci Schiissel. A town of 7,464 cotton printers, 
Ac, on the Thur, at the entrance of St. Amarin 
valley, with remains of Eugelburg Castle on a 
hill. It contains several ancient houses, and St. 
Thibault's fine Church, with a sculptured west 
door way, and a steeple 328 feet high, built 1516. 
Yin de Rang is produced here. Wesserling 
(Station), a new town, in an interesting neigh- 
bourhood, is 9 miles farther. 

Metz to Forbach and Mannheim. 

For the first part of this Route from Nancy, 
see Brads?iato^s Hand-Boot to France. 
METZ (Station), 

25 miles from Nancy, 100 miles from Mannheim. 

Population, 60,194. ^ 

Hotels: Grand Hotel de Metz, an excellent hotel, 
combining comfort with reasonable prices. 

Grand Hotel de TEurope, well situated and 

De Paris, &c. 

The Buffet at the station, which is half a milo 
from the town, is good. Omnibuses and other 
vehicles convey passengers to the hotels. 

Chief town of German Lorraine (late depart- 
ment Moselle), a first-class fortress, head-quarters 
of a military divisloiv^ w»^. ^ <». >«;5v^^^ssyev's-^ >aj«t.-^ 

U\ vs. «i«X\.\%\v ^^N. '^^^^ ^ 

mwafiictttrea of paper bt^ingBf Population^ Vl^.\ ^\vw^ X\ia ^^iV^fe \«N»* nN' ^ 

1. It vu Uw npttil 

» Dmblo 

iMl) ForU, boUl 1798-8 


ipLta of a Ion? «ifv* by 
Btronffly Joriifie^ with 
[nrnonulgno, Including 
B«llo Cioli(iuiwai>lD- 
. One of lU ulna Oolu, 
nto tbii 

in ImpoHuit llenrE. The Bn 

irOek iru taken Aid Angnal, 
^riiKW Imperial. 

ini^ retreirt«d tomnli 

Tm^ I 

Ld Ctuiknu. pnianed 

a few 

at the battle, and whleh wai-rialted by hio, 1879. 
Finding It Impouiblotocnt thiODgb tbe Oerman 
torcei, Baiaino letlred Into Uetz, vblch wu com- 
pletelylnveiteil byagrdAognet. At St. Barb* and 
HoleseTille, on Slit Aognit, ttaa French For a time 
arOTe IbB Getmam back. On Ist September (the 
day before Sedan), Baialncwas repolaod In a Jf"' 
■ortle; and again on tbe Itb October. Finally be 
eapltnlated on tbe Sith Octobar, when tbrae mar- 
■hali (Baiaine, Canicbert, and Lalnnf), witb 
IhoDiandB of efflcera, and 173.000 men (!I>,«M being 

tranipoTtedaaprLaonoritoGermany. TheOenoan 
forcsienteredtbe town Slit Oclob«ri and It ta now 
anneied to the Khino ProTinwa by treaty of 
lit Uarch, 1971. 
of rail wBi made by the 
be el»ht I 

beAiipiana. Inane daUBItaUMhkqpalatliaaU 
Ctanrali c< tbe Trinity, BOW tha PntaiUat T^Vk 
MMt <A Iba itneta ate naRnw and dtitjr ; tb« 
bouaa an cUafly ol itaH. two er threa Umiji 

lilgfa, and icaia ■!• euiviuly aamd, numliUj In 

The noble OaOuirA. In PlM* d'Aimaa, witb lt< 
flying buttreABeB, Ac, was b^HDin 1014. by Biibop 
Tbleni, bnt not flniihsd til) IMS. R !■ pfemd 
wKhagreat nnmberof irtaifOvi — manj beanttTnUy 
lUlned. by Bnsch. ICiS. Iti lengtb 1b NBfaat; 
width of naTB SI feat (o: 


While the OntUe iplra, baUt bi 1417. la ■ 

blgb a* the cbunh la long, tBTft^ abd i 

an inuaenw bell, called La Hntla, ■ 

abont 38,800 lb>. The *ery old/Ml la call 

de C^aar (CBtar'i Tnb). SeTeral conucUa wan 

held bere between SOO and 1180. 

The Chnrctaei of St. Vincent and Bt. Kncluilni 
are of eld data. That sf A. Martlm olhri a taiMy 
of itylee, from the aaiUeat dtnfn t» IM* li 
tbe liiteentb eenlvry. One af tbe KnlglM 
Templan* RotlBd CbniEbee li tn Iha )ai|i 
ArmwA, which oentalni ■ itmd e( oma aa4 a 

It) feet long. 17 Inchei wh 

weigh! 3S,T1I lb>., and the a! 

ODce part of St, AniDld'i ataN 

library of 10,000 «!>.. be«M 

US. treatliei. Tbe Mmt 

barrack, la a handionie bnlldtaf. " 

ISSl. There an alee eita 

for bedding li the ^Nwy of ClemeM, ball* In tkt 

■bneenth centnry \>y an Italian archltset) : and a 

military hoepltal— the latter an Innnenee bnlldhig, 

begun by Lonls XT,, large eooogti fer I,m 

patient!. The Jnitti Falait, or Law Conrt (mee 

tbofilEefdfr/nfsidaiiu, began. It liaald, bye Dika 

of SotMk), [a an aitoulTa iCmatua^ amm thi 

^ute 35. j 



simple but good building, was finished 1771, from 
the designs of Blondel. It has some poitraits. 
Other buildings are the Governor's House, the 
Mint; the college, and priests' seminary, both 
large edifices; and theatre. The large covered 
Market was begun for the archbishop's palace in 
1785. Near the Moyen Pont is part of an old tower, 
close to the Fontaine des Pucelles. 

For a long time Metz has been one of the chief 
seats of the Jews, w^ho have had a rabbi and a 
rabbinical school here. The Romans constructed 
an amphitheatre and a naumachia (for sea fights) 
here, but the traces are almost gone. An aqueduct 
weiit out to the south-west, of which several arches 
remain at Jouey (5 miles) on the Moselle, as men- 
tioned above. Among its eminent natives are 
Marshal Fabert, a noble-minded man, whose statue 
is on Place d'Armes; Generals Kellerman. Custlnes, 
and Lallemand; Boiichette, who was war minister 
nnder the Convention; Barbd Marbols, one of 
Napoleon's ministers ; La Vaillant, the naturalist; 
Baspail, the chemist; and Mademoiselle Ta^tu, 
the poetess. 

Manufactures of leather, cotton, linen, woollen- 
cloth, muslin, nails, stained papers,. &c.; trade In 
these, and wines, eati-de-vie, excellent beer and 
comfitures, drugs, spices, etc. 

Rail to Verdun and Paris; to Nancy; to Saar- 
burg and Strassbarg ; to Saarbrtick ; to Thlonvllle 
(Diedenhofen),to Luxemburg, and Trbves. Omni- 
buses to the pretty village of Moulins. In the 
neighbourhood of Metz are also the i*ock of Roche- 
Rudotte, in the valley of Mance; the Chftteau of 
Montigny-les-Metz ; the cascade on the Digue of 
Wadrineau; with Gravelotte, <fec., as alwve men- 

{Etain (40 kil. west-north-west), on the Ornes, In 
the middle of the fertile plain of Vogvre, which 
belonged to St. Euchane*s Abbey at Treves, in the 
iteventh century, and was given up to the Duke of 
Lorraine by the peace of Ryswick, 1697. It has 
a good Town House. About 18 kil. west-south- 
west of It is Verdun.] 

From Metz, on the railway to Forbach and 
Saarbriick (towards Frankfort), yon pass Peltre, 
which was for a time the head-qaarters oi lYift 

allied powers in 1815, and V[hB rained 1870. 

A' • ' . 

Courcelles (Station)— Sf mllcs— or Courcellcfi- 
less-Chaussy, on the Nled. Here the Geimans won 
the battle of Pange, 14th August, 1870. Branch of 

18 miles to Teterchen. 

Remllly (Station)— S miles— has a pinnacled 
church. Here the line to Saarburg, 40 miles, goes 
off via Morchliigen and Kebiogen. Pass 
Hemy to 

Falkeaberg (Station)- iii miles- or Faique 

mont, III French (Falcon's Hill), was once the head 
of a marquisate, 

St. Avoid (Station) -6i miles- a pretty little 
place, population 3,600, under the Bllesberg, once a 
fortified post of Lorraine; with some mineral 
springs, and cluth manufactures. The line crosses 
the Rosselle two or three times, and the neigh- 
bouring ravines. 

Benlngen (Station)— 4 miles. Here the rail 
from Saargemilnd, Hagenau, and Strassburg 
comes In. 

Forbach (Station)— 5 miles— on the Prussian 
frontier, with a custom house, and remains of a 
chftteau fort on Schossberg hill, nnder which the 
town is built. Population, 7,839, who make pipes, 
glass, and hardware. It was occupied by the 
Germans, 6th August, 1670, after their success at 
Welssenburg. Rail to Saargemiind, Hitchc, 
Niederbronn, and ffagf nau (see page 170). 

Saargemilnd (Station), or Sarreguemlnep, 

a town (population, 10,719) on the Saar, where the 
line from Saarbriick and Saarburg falls In. It was 
called Gucmonde, and had a Capuchin convent, 
founded by Duke Leopold, 1621, now turned into 
a Town House, college, «fec. It is noted for talja- 
tlferes en carton (pasteboard snuff boxes), of which 
thousands are sold; good pottery Is also made. 

Hotel: De Paris. 

The glass works of St. Louis are near. The line 
to Saarburg, 33 miles, proceeds via Saar-ITnlon 

(Station) and WolfBldrchen (Station). 

At 9 kil. beyond Forbach is 

Saarbrucken (Station)— in Prussia -whence 
there are lines to Mannheim, Heidelberg, Mayence, 
and Frankfort, and to Treves. Hotels: Rheinhof v 
Kohl; Kom. Po\J\^».l^ss\JL^^S^^'S^. ^v^^-^-^wsru-wv^ 




[Routes 86 and 87, 

** baptism of fire." It wai aoon recaptured by the 
Oermans. It is worth notice as being the place 
where the first death occurred after the declara- 
tion of war. On 'ilst July, 1870, a French sentinel 
fired at a Prussian vedette, but missing him he was 
shot by the Prussian. Bee page 131. 

Met! to Dledenhofen (thence to Treves, 
Luxemburg), Hontm^y, Sedan, H^il^res. 

Distance to M^zi^res about 177 Idl., or 110 miles. 
To Dledenhofen, or Thionvllle, by rail, 20^ miles. 
The line passes various sites which figured In the 
war of 1870-1. 

B(etz (Station), on the Nancy and Forbach 
branch. The line turns round the fortifications, 
crosses the Mozelle, and reaches 

Devant-les-Font8 (Station)— 5 miles- in the 

environs. Then across a plain, with wooded hills 
on both sides, to 
M^Zt^es (Station) ~fif miles— on the Moselle. 

Hagendlngen (Station), 3 miles, from which 

Is a tram road up the pretty valley of the Ome. At 
Uecklngen (Station), 3 miles, conveyances 
should be taken for Hayange and Longwy. 

[Hatinoen (10 kll. west-north-west) is an in- 
dustrious village, in a pretty spot, on the Feusch, 
among Ironworks and mines. A tramroad leads to 
It, past the Chandebourg mineral spring. 

Bbibt (19 kll. to the west) Is a small town on a 
hill side over the Wagot, a branch of the Ome.] 

Dledenliofen, or Thionvllle (Statlon),iikii., 

a fortified town of the third class, where Pepin 
I'Heristal had a seat, which Charlemagne used to 
visit, in a flat part of the Moselle. After being 
held by the Spaniards, It was taken by Gond^, 
1648 ; the Prussians captured It 1792, and held It 
again In 1815. It surrendered to the German forces 
24th November, 1870. |Iere are many old houses 
of the sixteenth century ; a Place d'Armes, sur- 
rounded by barracks and a manage for cavalry; 
a large parish church ; a com market ; works for 
steam engines; a college; and botanic gardens. 
Tbe old covered bridge on the Moselle was rebuilt 
of stone, 1844, Zjorge distiUerieB and sugar-works 
fire carried on In tbe nei^hboprhood. 
Popmltttion, 8,tll, 

Hotels.— Lefebore; 8t. Hubert. 
Rail to Lnzembonrg, in Holland ; and to Sierek, 
Saarburg, and Treves, 43 miles. 

[Sierek (Station), H miles, the last place near 
the Prussian frontier, at the bottom of the hills, on 
the Moselle, commanded by an old chftteau, from 
which there is a good prospect. Farther down 
the river are the lines of Kiim^>erg, where Marl- 
borough was stopped by ViUars. At 16 miles 
beyond it is Baarburg, In Prussia | mid TiAves 
is a1x)ut 90 miles past it.] 

For remainder of the Route to thQ ^roitful 
battlefield of Sedim, see Bradthmt^f Haind-^ook 
to France. 

Schlnneck and Ban de la Eo<die to 

For the fir^t part pf th^ x%\\ from Epiqal, i#e 
Bradshato'i Pand-Booi to France, 

tchlrmeOk (Station), nboul U m|l«s trm 
Raon I'Etape, in the Vosgcs. 

About 8 kil. south, iu tl|« 

Ban de la Roehe, or Vallty of stone (iSMi- 
/hal, in Oerman), whieh divides the Vosges fram 
the Champ de Fuo nioiuitains, are Fovdai, 
Walbach, and Rothau, the scene of the labours of 
the pious and devoted Pastor, ObepKn^ Hmto, iu a 
sterile spot, he taught his people, who were poor 
and Ignorant Lutherans, not only the way to 
heaven, but how to improve their cottages and 
gardens, to grow flax, to knit and we^ve, to 
establish Infant and other schools, till th9 desert 
Indeed blossomed like the rose; thus fiuniiibing 
an instructive example of what a wise and earnest 
country clergyman may do with his ^ock. I( was 
he who first opened a road across the Bn^che (o 
Strassburg. After 59 years' residence l)e died, in 
1826, when 86 years old, and is bqried 4t Feudal, 
His excellent housekeeper, Louisa Schepler, after 
obtaining the French prl^e of y^rtuOi cUe4 In 1837, 
and lies near him. 

Between the Stelntl^al and Schirineck is the 
Chftmp de Fue, a plain 3,687 feet above tl)e sea; 
axvd. c\o«« \A V\. \.Vi^ QdHXiaaJberg^ or St. 04ilU*8 

Route 38.] 



a noble view over Alsaco (see page 173). Ilohen- 
burg camp and castle, and an old paved way are 

Hutz)g Station (is miles), in a valley on the 
Bmehe, near Donon mountain (8,815 feet high), has 
an old country seat of the Strassburg bishops, now 
used as a powder factory. Population, 2,727. At 
Molshelm (Station), a little fuither on, tools 
are made. Still further you pass DaollBteln 
(Station^ through tobacco and flax plantations ; 
and at 18 miles from Molshelm you come to 

BtrasBburg (Station).— See »oute 22. 

•tfaiBburg to Sag^nau, Welssenburg, 
and Hannlielni. 

By rail 40 miles to Weissenburg. 

Strassburg (Station), as in Routo n. Then 
back to 

Vendenhelm (Station)— 5i miles— on the 
same line, where the Paris Line comes in and the 
branch turns off to 

Hdrdt (Station), H miles ; 

Blscliwlller (Station), 6 miles ; 

Marlenthal (Station), li miles; then 

Hagenau (8tatlon)->3 miles— on the Moder, 
a fortress, first walled round by Frederick Barba> 
rossa, who made it an imperial town. It has two 
Gothic churches of the fivrelfth and thirteenth 
centuries. ifo/c/«; Europ^ispberHof; Post; Wilder 
Mann. Population, 14,000. Branch rail through 

Niedeirbronn to 

BltCbe, or BltBCU (Station), a strong fort 
which commands the wooded pass of the Yosges 
niountains, and stands 1,292 feet above the sea. 

It was considered almost impregnable. It ca- 
pitulated at the close of the war. The village 
below contains a population of 2,850. About 80 kll. 
to the north is Deux Ponts, or Zwolbrucken 
(Station), in Rhenish Bavaria (^ee page J 38). 
From BltSCh 24 miles by rail to Sarrgemilnd 
(page 177). 

Walborg (Station)— 5^ miles— on a branch of 
the Rhine. 

SuU-unt^r-dexn-Walde (Station)— 4f miles. 

The Station for the battlefield of W«rth (below). 

noSbn (Station). 2i miles. 

HundSliacb (Station), 2i cilles. Then 

Weissenburg (Station) -4f miles. Beta*: 
Engel; Schwan; Goldcne Rose; Durr's Gasthof. 
A fortified town (population, 6,026) on the Lauter, 
.under the Gelsberg, on the bavarian froiitler ; 
which had an abbey, founded by Dagpbert, and 
came to France by the pe^ce of Ryswick. The 
014 Church was rebuilt 1288. At St. Jean's 
Protestant Church a bust of Luther was put up 
at the third centenary of the Reformation. The 
lines outside were taken by the Austrli^is, and 
retaken by Hoche, 1793. 

Here a decisive German victory was gained at 
the outbreak of the war of 1870-1, the Grown 
Prince defeating MacMahon, 4th August. General 
Douay was killed ; 4 mitrailleuses and 22 cannon 
were taken. A little to the south-west is 
Wdrth, where the second victory was gained 
and 4,000 prisoners were taken. At Fri>B<dlwel- 
ler is a handsome new Church, near Pnrckbeim's 

Coach to Lanterbnrg. By rail to Windeq, Lan- 
dau, and Neustadt (29 miles from Weissenburg), 
in Rhenish Bavaria; thence to jfaBinllftlll (Sta- 
tlon).~^ee Route 27. 




Though by no means picturesque, Holland is in 
many respects an interesting country, especially 
to Englishmen. It has the cleanest and, next to 
Prussia, the best educated population on the Con- 
tinent, and it has shown what industry can do 
in defiance of the elements. 

The surface embraces 12,700 geographical square 
miles; the population is 4,011,415, of whom 
1,604.179 are Catholics, and 97,274 Jews. The 
largest cities are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and the 
Hague. The imports in 1891 amounted to 108 
millions sterling; the exports to 90^ millions. 
Debt, £91,376,000. Manufactures of all kinds 
have lately much increased. It is estimated 
that Holland has 278,000 horses, Ac, and 933,000 
sheep. Horticulture receiyes much attention; 
3,000,000 florins being devoted to it annually. 
There are three Universities, 67 gymnasia (or 
high schools), and a large number of primary 
schools, of which 870 are special. The Army 
numbers 53,000 men, and the Navy 154 vessels. 

A very agreeable Ten Days' Tour may be made in 
Holland at a very moderate expense. This country 
is usually neglected by tourists on account of the 
paramount attractions of the Rhine. It neverthe- 
less abounds in novelty and interest. Wilkie and 
ICr. Jameson have remarked that ** there was 
nothing new to them in the country. It is a suc- 
cession of remindersof Rubens, Teniers, Rembrandt, 
Wouvermans." The Dutch style of architecture 
is our Queen Anne's, which began under Charles II. 
and WiUiam III. 

Though no Passport may be demanded, it is desir- 
able to carry one. At Rotterdam, the Hague, 
Leyden, and other places near the coast, every 
hotei and caf ^ is required to make daily returns 
ofrioltora, atating tbeirntunes, agen, destination, 
^d so forth. At the prbicipal hotels and rail- 
rZ^aii^"""' ^»«^//«/i and French are spoken. 
'^^insumweria wannerthsm in England. 

Money is decimal : five cents make a stiver (or 
penny) ; ten stivers make a franc ; twenty stivers 
(100 cents) make a guilder or florin (one shilling 
and eightpence). There are notes for one, five, 
ten, twenty-five guilders, Ac. English sove- 
reigns, and even £5 notes, can be changed for 
Dutch money at the hotels. Tou should not 
change more than you actually want, as in Hol- 
land you change at a disadvantage. A doit (dnyt) 
was a half-farthing=i stiver. 

The Dutch Flcig is red, white, and blue, one 
above the other. Motto, Je Maintiendrai. This 
was William III.*s motto; the full meaning being, 
•' I will maintain piety and justice." 

The journey from London to Rotterdam may be 
performed by rail and steamer or by direct steamer. 
(See Bradshaw's ContinentaV RaUuap Ouide and 
Route 19, page 90). Custom house ofiicers come 
on board to examine the luggage, but they are 
extremely civil, speak English, and give little 


Before landing, the traveller should decide on 
his hotel (for which see Bradshato^g Cfontliuntal 
Gxvide). If the name of the hotel is called out, a 
man on the quay will at once come forward, take 
charge of the luggage, and conduct the traveUer to 
the house. See Route 19 (page 92) for farther 
particulars of Rotterdam, and for the way to it. 

J?ai;«;a2(.-Through communication open between 
Rotterdam and the lines to Flushing (page 25)^ 
Antwerp, Cologne, Utrecht, The Hague, Am8te^ 
dam, Ac 

Distances by Rail.— Schiedam, 8 miles; Delft, 
9 miles; The Hague, 14 miles; Leyden, 34 miles; 
Haarlem, 48 miles; Amsterdam, 52 miles. 

Delft (Station). 

Popu\atVow (,\%Wv'i?i,'!fla. 
Hotels: Sctv^ijcp*, ^ft«tci^<i%wa»QX, 



If the canal route be preferred, next morning, 
after breakfast, at Rotterdam, drive to the quay, 
whence the canal boats (treksehuiten) start for 
Delft. The cab fare is 60 cents (Is.). The traveller 
should remember that if a cab (vigilante) is hired 
a la course, and if a stop is made at a shop or 
elsewhere, though but for a niinute, a fresh fare 
will be expected to be paid. The Steam Trek- 
schnit is a comfortable conveyance. The cabins are 
large and clean, and there is a space on the poop for 
those who prefer the open air. Outside the town 
the boat steams at the rate of 5 or 6 miles an hour; 
and although the pace is tedious, compared with 
British express trains, there is a special charm in 
the calm, silent motion, which harmonises with 
the flat pastures around, and the grave and courte- 
ous demeanour of the country people. 

In rather over an hour after leaving Rotterdam 
the boat will arrive at Delft. The boat fare is about 
sixpence. As it is only necessary to spend a few 
hours here, the luggage may be sent on, directed 
to the hotel at the Hague, or may be left at a 
coffee house near the landing-place. 

The State Arsenal, formerly the East India 
House, occupies an island on the outskirts of the 
town. The Old Church, with a leaning tower, 
will probably be the first object to attract atten- 
tion in Delft, and hereabouts the entire interest 
of the town centres. The interior of this build- 
ing is lofty, vacant, and dull, with tall white 
pillars, and a huge putty-coloured organ. Two 
or three monuments adorn the walls. One, with 
a bas-relief and Lathi inscription, commemorates 
the death and services of Admiral Tromp. The 
tower reminds one of Caerphilly or Saragossa. It 
is considerably out of the perpendicular. In it 
was imprisoned Balthasar Gerards, the assassin 
of William the Silent. The catastrophe took place 
beneath its very shade, in the Prinzenho/, now 
a barrack. Massive walls, pierced with narrow 
windows, and a rough bas-relief over the door, 
are its distinctive features. 

This was formerly the palace of the Prince of 
Orange ; and here that martyr of Protestantism, 
whose memory all Dutchmen revere, fell a victim 
to the villany of a fanatic, July 10th, 1684. On 
the staircase an inscription points out the spot on 
which he fell, while the bullet mark is still visible 
in the wall; and the room in which the Prince 

died remains to be seen. His monument, which 
is a monstrosity of bad taste, is the principal 
attraction in the Nea Church, in the square, oppo- 
site the Town House. Its only redeeming point 
is the introduction of the Prince's dog, a faithful 
animal, which once saved its master's life from 
assassins, and pined to death after the assassi- 
nation. In the same church is the modest tomb 
of Orotius, who was a native of this town. Leeu- 
wenhoeck, the naturalist, who improved the micro- 
scope, was also born here. 

The Stadhuis (1618) contains some good plctnreB. 

Little else remains to be seen in Delft except its ' 
Potteries, which wore in existence as early as the 
beghmhig of the fourteenth century, and were 
very celebrated; they arc now but a shadow of 
what they were. Until lately from 160 to 200 
workmen only were employed, and the ware 
manufactured was very coarse and of little value, 
but considerable improvement has lately been 
made. At the Polytechnic School is a fine collection of 
models of ships and machinery. Thecleanness and 
regularity of the streets, the narrow canals running 
close to the doors and windows of the houses, and 
the evident wonder with which the inhabitants 
regard the advent of foreigners, cannot fail to be 

Dinner, or some kind of refreshment, may be 
obtained at the Coffee-house where the luggage was 
left; and afterwards the Hague can be reached 
either by trekschuit, or by the tramway, or by the 
evening train ; the fare in either case being but a 

few pence. 

THE HAGUE (Station), 
Or, in Dutch, 'S Gravbnhaob (The Count's Park), 
French, La Hate, the capital of Holland. 
A Station on the Rotterdam and Amsterdam 
line, with branch to Gouda, &c. 
Population (1890), 160,681. 

Hotels : Hotel dcs Indes, large, first-class, near 
the Park, &c. 

Hotel de Belle Viie will be found deserving our 
best recommendation. 

Hotel Paulez, well situated and good. Land- 
lord, Mr. Paulez. 

Hotel de I'Europe, Lange Houtstraat. Large 
and well situated first-class hotel. 

Hotel du Vleux Doelen, first-rate. Mr. Van . 

Santen, proprietor. 



Rettauranis: Van der Pyl; Cafd dn Paseafre. 

N.B. — Tlic word " Doelcn," so often the name of 
an hotel, means "shooting-place." Doel is a tar^t. 

Piost Office.— Clone to the Groote Kerk. 

TeUghiph — Near the Picture Gallery. 

English C9kureA.— Near the Rhenish Station. 

On the evening of arrival Boer's Bazaar — a 
capital Collection of curiosities from China and 
Japan on sale— in the Zee Straat, might be visited. 
The garden tere is very pretty, and close opposite 
the Willems Park, where is the "Neerlands Bov- 
reiding" monument,a fine group. Inaugurated 1879. 

The Hague will require at least two days. 
Never having been Walled In, It was styled one 
of the biggest " villages " In Europe. On arrival 
send to the director of the Meermann-Wcstreenen 
Museum for an admission card (see page 184) ; 
this institution is only open on the first and third 
Thursday in every mouth. 

The first thing, devote a couple of hours to the 
Picture Gallery at the Maurits Huis. Open gratis, 
week-days, from lO to 4, Sundays and fdte-days, 
12-80 to 8. 

It occupies about a dozen rooms. Here are 
portraits by Van Dyck; "Stag Hunt," by 
Snyders, &c. A "Young Man," by Rembrandt; 
a "Hay Cart," by Wouvemians; "Interior of a 
Farm," an admirable picture of Ostade, exquisite 
from its truth to nature. The ^'^ Lesson in 
An€Uomy" by Rembrandt, is a perfect master- 
piece (painted 1631). Others worth notice are 
Rembrandt's "Simeon in the Temple," and 
"Susanna at the Bath;" Jan Steen's "Oyster 
Feast, or Human Life," " Poultry Yard," and his 
"Family Piece" (portraits); Ostade's "Fiddler;" 
" The Strand of Scheveningen," by Adrian Van de 
Veldc; "The Coast at Overseen," a delightful 
sea piece, by Ruysdael; a charming "Cattle 
Scene," of Paul Potter and Gerard Dow's 
"The Young Housekeepeer," one of his best 
pieces; "A stonu at Sea," by Backhulzen; 
"A Kitchen," by Teniers; above all ''The Bull,'' 
of P. Potter, described as giving evidence of 
remarkable science, truth to nature, and mi- 
nute accuracy. Various objects formerly to be 
seeaAere, are mored to the Gemeatte Mtueum^ in 
^^ Vjrrmrifergrf <n>DBi8tiag oi Japanese, Chlneae, 
^Ofga, and other relies t open lOtoi daily, free. 

Amongst these were a picture of the I>odo, lutintcd 
early in the 17th eentory, from a living specimen ; 
and the stilt of clothes worn by William the Silent 
the day he was assassinated. The plain lent hem 
coat was bloodstained, blackened, and pierced by 
the bollets. 

AStattteof Wtmaml., the Silent^ is on the Plein, 
which you can next visit. Herd ii the Arddees 
Qjlfkx (Rpks Archlef), containing a most raloable col- 
lection of documents, open to tho public every day 
from 10 to 8. Among the papers is a letter to 
Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, atinodncingthe 
birth of the late Emperor of the French. 

The Binnehhof (Inner Court) is a collection of 
ancient buildiags of considerable interest. 

We woald call attention to the noble Gothic 
Riddersaal (180 feet by 60), which is the ttiost 
ancient building In the city, andfortned part of the 
old palace of the Counts of Holland. In front (^ 
this Pensionary, Bamevelt was beheaded in 1019. 

The Palace of the JFjiftf^e* (Slaateti - Getienlal), 
where the Dutch Parliament sits, is close by. 
Strangers arc admitted, and should by all meails 
avail themselves of this privilege. Admission 
cards may be obtained at the Register's Office. 

Crossing the Bultenhof (Otiter Court), with a 
Statue of William II., we come to an old tower 
(Gevangenpoort), where Cornelius Uc Witt was 
confined in 1672, on a false accusation of attempt- 
ing the life of the Prince of Orange. On the Piaats, 
close by, the two brothers were literally torn to 
pieces by the exasperated mob. A triangle of white 
stones with a block in the middle, also hero, ahow^ 
the spot where Adelaide, mistress of Albett, Count 
of Holland, was murdered, December S2nd, 1392. 
The De Witts' house is still standing on tho 
Kncuterdyk, a very short distance off ; there also 
Is the Palace of William II., which coutains 
a fine Gothic Hall and a miscellaneous collection 
of pictures. These can be seen daily on application, 
and a fee to the servant. 

The Cathedral, which is dedicated to St. James, 
should be next examined. To do this we pass down 
Hoog Straat to the Groenmarkt, where the front «f 
the Town Hall (Stadthuis) will require attention. 
The architecture is curious, and the city arms are 
carved abot«\\v«4iXM». Atthe Twm Mwm m, near the 

i> BBLOini aru thb i 

I other phitnrei. tiz., portraits 
Ti," Ac. by tbe Munu artlBt, hIdi 
r plctnrea Biid ■ntlqnltlm. A re 

■I hmnd. Il« tower l» nrj »Dtlaiit. the ipire l> 
modMn «nd t)ia body of the ehnreh, whleh is l«rge 
■nd lottT, dstea from the SrM half of (he BlilMDita 

tteined glui, but nothbg •>! oonHqa 

enco. Th 

painted window M tbe eod of the c 

bolr !■ by 

Crmbet. Org«n reciul once » weeh. 

By p.e.InE down School Btreot the h 

nachedbyUdlflerenlroiidi tnmtoUi 

Tlamlng Street, Ihrongh Bpol Blrest. 

At the bwtom ituide the JTw CTureft (boilt In 

lfit9),wbleheoiHslMth tombe th 

D W 

•ndSpinoia. BUtnoof^ m ppo 


A Tery plemajit e m 

14,800; SoliU: Korhs ™ G 


SMion.1 Honoment 1 W m P 

lett bind 5lde, le the P«l ce U 


a oharmioe chftleao, f m. 

Jamb C»li, the poet. g«r 

thai .ervod to hold Ink, Is etlH =bown 

I.) is OTC 

arched with fine trees. Hero will bo m 

bably, many of tbe peaasntry In their 


hesdgear, and the fiih carts drawn liy dogs Ihro 

ttbreaitara worthy of notice. The tU lags contain 

It Is beantimi tc 

irreit of seaweed (larech), which (bey 
bnndred difterent ways to stuff m 
anoie (ho land, caulk boats, &c.] 
W retnm totheHagne. 
A beBatliBoDM(adni1«slDn,26centi 

ce Frederick's 

ito the right, 

Tb next rnonilnff, supposing the royal family Is 

t (he HugTie, application may be made to aeo 

Falact, In the Noord-Elnde. Thia. howBTer, 

mportant. JnM opposite Is the beantlfnl 
ace of turf and trees, called the Lange Voorhout- 
Bre Is the Cloosterkert. whleh contains Urertl 

m. ClosebylstheHlnlstryot FInance.aportlon 
which iraB formerly the bonse of Penslonu? 
rnierelt. Across tbe Voorhoni Is the Ministry 
' Marine, where is a most enrtons collection {tb« 


. Thee 

It Is said the uiclont ohorch formerly stood S mlUv I 
farther seaward^ It was destroyod and a large trac^ . 
of land Bwallowcd np In 1S70. 

A strong resemblance may be tracod here to the I 
filter pi^nlatlan of tbe Isle of Kan. The Schaten- I 
Ingen, like the Hank Mllor, la eminently religions. I 
Vnr an «re rihred Ud braul nmi wlMD tb* taati \ 

aTsn. in Spitsbergen, or Norn ZembI 
re-dinoeierBd in 1873, pretty mnLl 
a left. Tbay tnolnd* soma I 



and a Dutch history of China, the country which 
it was the aim of the imrty to reach. Many were 
brought over by Mr. Gardiner, in his yacht, tlie 
Glowworm. i 

Froai this it is not fur to the R«njal Libi-arff, 
which is voiy ftnc (400,000 vols.), and contahis 
rare treasures of early typography, " The Bible j 
of the Poor,' (Bihlia Pauperu-n) Ac., of which i 
Holland may justly be proud. Open daily, 10 | 
to n. The cabinets of medals and penis are 
superb; 40.000 of the former are said to be 
treasured here, while the cameos are numerous 
and exquisite. This institution is open daily 
(except on Sundays and Holidays, from 12 to 4), 
fn)m 10 to 4. Proceed now to the Lange 
Vyverbcrg, for the private GaUenj of Baron 
Steengracht (open 10 to 4) ; permission to see the 
beautiful pictures gathered together here is easily 
obtained. The ser\'ant who shows them expects a 
florin as a fee. The Meennanil-Westreenon 
Museum, in the Prinzesscn Gracht, will then 
occupy till dinner. This collection of medals, 
rare old MSS., specimens of early printing. 
Egyptian, Greek, and Roman antiquities, is highly 
iuteresthig, especially the typography. 

In the streets may frequently be noticed the 
quaint but picturesque figures of the children 
from the Orphan Asyhim on the Spire Quay, a large 
brick house with an escutcheon over the door, and 
the inscription, " Dyaconyo oude vrouwen en 
kinder huis." This excellent institution was 
founded in 1659, and the dress of the children is 
of that epoch ; the boys, brown cloth with leather 
buttons, white neckerchief and gloves; the girls, 
black woollen frocks with short sleeves, long white 
mittens, neckerchief and close cap hiding the hair. 

After dinner, walk past the Botanical Garden 
and Malie-Veldt to the Park (het Bosch) contain- 
ing the Palace in the Wood (Huis ten Bosch) ; filled 
with pictures and finef urniture. This was erected, 
about 1650, by the widow of Prince Frederik 
Hendrik of Orange, in memory of her husband, 
under whom the Republic reached the zenith of 
its prosperity. The interior is worth a visit for 
its peeuliar ornamentation and good collection of 
porcelain. The principal attraction, however, is the 
OrMogre Saloon, ornamented with paintings^ chiefly 
scenes In the life of Prince Frederik Hendrik, by 

artists of the rather heavy Dntch Sehool. 
Admission;— 1 florin for 1 to 8 persons; 2 florins 
for a larger number. At the " Societeit,'* in 
the Wood, among the fine beeches near the lake^ 
concerts are held duiiiig the summer evenings. Or 
a very agreeable drive may be taken to Ryswyk 
and Wateringeu. At the first village the Treaty 
of Peace was concluded in 1697. The scenery about 
here is extremely pleasing; vineyards and or- 
chards and neat comitry houses make this district 
(Westland) the garden of Holland. 

There is a Theatre in the Toumooiveld, where, 
on Monday, Thursday, and Saturday, French, 
and on Tuesday and Friday Dutch plays are 

LE7DEN (Station), or Leiden. 

Population (1890), 43,500. 

Hotels: Levedag, the bobt; du Lion d*Or(QoudeB 
Leeuw); Smit's; Post. CafS Zomerzorg. 

The Luffdutium Batarorum of the Romans, called 
the oldest town in Holland, near the mouth of the 
Old Rhine, which falls into the sea at the Katwyk 
sluices The Roman station is marked by the 
Burg, a high mound crowned by a fort. 

A train runs from the Hague to Lcydcn in less 
than half-an-hour. The contrast between the 
two towns is very striking. The Hague is com- 
paratively gay and Frenchified; Leyden is Dutch 
in style, quiet, if not dull. The houses are lofty, 
the streets clean, and the fine canals are bordered 
with trees. 

The Town House in Breedc Straat, is a splendid 
structure of the sixteenth century. This, and the 
two large Churches, which bear a strong family 
likeness to all the others in Holland, are the first 
things to be seen. Then comes the famous 
Universit'if, with its noble library of 300,000 vols., 
where many curious MSS. and interesting portraits 
of the old professors may be noticed. Among the 
illustrious men who have been professors are 
Arminius, Descartes, Boerhaave, Lipsius, Scaliger, 
Voss, Heinsius, Linnams. Here the Leyden Jar 
was invented, 1746. Its ob'ervatory is the oldest 
in Europe (1632). 

This University was founded by that palladium 
of Protestantism, William the Silent (the traces of 
whose IntLuence ate met with in every part of this 
I land) alter \Ai«wil>x\aV^%'iQ^\^lVVj«»>a»Keiitfetfw^ 



on the Town Hall), when Leyden WMreliered only 
by the desperatp expedient of letting in the sea 
upon the Spanish army. Coins, with the inscrip- 
tion : — " Deus servet Leiden," are preserved in 
the Ha^e museum. 

The collections of antiquities and specimens of 
Natural History which are attached to the uni- 
versity are wonderfully rich. The EthnographkcU 
Mtueumy in Breede Street, origrinally founded by 
Siebold, contains his Japanese and other collection; 
the former being extremely rich and various. 
The Museum of Antiquities, Egyptian, etc., also in 
Breede Street; 50c. It contains arrow-heads, Ac, 
from Hilversum, found under the Hunebeddcn or 
dolmens. A very complete Natural History Museum, 
of birds, Ac., in Rapenburg Gracht The Botanical 
Gardens deserve a visit. The Town, or Stadelyk 
Museum (portraits and altar-piecesX in the old Cloth 
Hall; lUc. Boerhaavc's statue is near the station. 
The '* Ruine" marks the site of an explosion, which 
did immense mischief. The houses of Descartes 
and Boerhaavc nrc on the road to the sea. 

Rembrandt, Gerard Dow, Jan Stcen, and Mieris, 
the painters, were born hi or nenr Leyden. The 
well known Elzevir Brothers were also natives. 
Another celebrity is John of Leyden, or John 
Rockoldt or Bochelson, a tailor, who lived here 
(but was bom at the Hague, where his father was 
a magistrate). He was hand:$omo and devout, 
with qualities which fitted him to become a leader; 
and having joined John, the Anabaptist, of 
Haarlem, ai d his followers in the religious war of 
1532, he took MUnster by surprise, and was 
crowned king of MUnster, and afterwords hnng. 

Should the traveller be so fortunate as to be in 
Leyden about the time of any of the historical fStes 
held by the university students, it would be worth 
delaying a day to be present. The time could be 
filled up by an excursion to Katwyk to see the great 
sluices where the Rhine falls into the sea. In 
rough weather the waves here make dreadful in- 
cursions, and eighty houses are said to have been 
swept away in fifteen years. When the sea is high 
. they open the first sluice to allow the waves some 
little play. At low water the remains of an ancient 
Roman castle may be traced in the mud. The 
students' fgtes, of which we are speaking, were 
kept up also In great style at Delft, Utrecht, &c. 

The Kermeses, or fairs, likewise would bo worth 
stopping to witness, as the peasantry on nieh 
occasions throng the town in their holiday garh, and 
are themselves quite a spectacle. The ring^ chains, 
necklaces, and head ornaments worn by the women 
are remarkably curious and often of considerable 
value. At these Kermeses^ little pancakes ('* Ponf- 
fenkissen"), '"Gauffres," and pickled encumbers, 
with lemons, and dried eels seem to take the place 
of our English ginger-breads, nuts, and fairing. 
Merry-go-rounds, booths, and shows of all kinds 
block up the streets. A direct rail to Utrecht is 
open through W06rd6ZL 

Steam Tram to Haarlem. 

HAART.KM (StaUon). 

Population (1890), 5l,62B.—ffotas: 

Fiinklcr ; Lion d'Or (Gonden Leenw.) 

Van den Berg; Des Armes d* Amsterdam; 

Caf^ Restaurant : Brinkmann*s Koflljhttis 

The Buffet at the Railway Station is good. 

The afternoon train would bring the tourist on 
to Haarlem, and the omnibus would take him from 
the station to the Golden Lion Hotel, which is con- 
veniently situated in the middle of the town. 
While dinner is behig prepared, the Church (Groote 
Kerk) with its renowned Organ could be visited, 
which, however, can only be heard on payment of 
thirteen guilders, excepting on Tuesdays, when 
there is a public performance, from 1 to 2 o^clock, 
and on Thursdays, 1 to 8, but the people walk 
about so that the music cannot well be heard. 
Bilderdyk, the poet, lies buried in this church. On 
payment of a florin (Is. 8d.), the tower (250 feet) 
maybe ascended, and an extensive view obtained. 
In the Square is Laurence J. Coster's Statue^ 
erected in 1886, and his workshop, with the in- 
scription, "Costcri ades Typogrrnphas Natalis." 
He is claimed as one of the inventors of printing. 
Admission may then bo obtained to the Toun 
Hall (in the square), where several of Coster's 
early books are preserved, *' Speculum Salvationis 
HumansB," "Ars Moriendi," &c. The picture of 
the Siege, in the Hall, was presented to the town 
by an Englishman, Mr. WU«qp\. Vv. twsJ«aK6^a►^5a!^ 



orthfM hvadnd women helped in the war for in- 
dependence, and for more tluui six months held the 
onemj At hmj. There ere some onrlous historical 
pictures hf F. Hals, fine samples of his style, and 
seroral other good paintings. Open daily, SO cents. 

The old gates, and all tliat remains of the onco 
shattered ramparts, now converted into pleasant 
walks, arc Interesting. In the Groote Martt^ are 
the Groote Kerko, the Stadhuis, the old Town 
Hall (1260), and the IGth century VleucMuiU, the 
latter specially worth notice. 

Tho Teyler ifttseum in Dam Straat is open from 
Monday to Friday, 1 to 4; tho library only Wed- 
nesday, Thursday, and Saturday, 1 to -1. Modem 
pictures, books, and a rare collection of fossils 
will pass away an hour rcry agreeably. This may 
be followed by a walk to the Pavilion in the Parky 
but a short distance from tho town, where arc 
the Colonial ifuseurn, and tho IndustiHal Afuieum 
(fee, 25 cents each). The ''Battle of Waterloo" 
is usually much admired, but it is by no means the 
gem of the gallery. The palace itself is small, but 
rather elegant, and tho Park is charming, with flno 
old timber, beach and lime, find herds of stately 
deer, and a monument to Coster. 

Round Haarlem may be seen some of tho famous 
nurseries for flowers and Dutch bulbs. Tulips and 
hyacinths arc still much cultivated and esteemed, 
a tulip root sometimes fetching as much as £80 
or £90, but the notorious mania for these flowers 
has long since subsided. It is said, indeed, never 
to have been anything but mere gambling. The 
celebrated bulb "Semper Augustus," was, in 
one case, sold for one thousand pounds. To 
bo dazzled by these floral treasures it is proper 
to be in Holland at the end of April or the 
beginning of May; then tho blue eyes of the 
"Amiable Shepherdess" gaze kindly upon tho 
spectator, and "Admiral Tronip " blazes in triumph. 
Ilals and Wouverman, the painters, lived here. A 
rail to Alkmaar and the Holder via Uitgeeat. 
Kail to Zandvoort (4^ miles) on the Dunes ; a sea- 
bathing place, with good hotels and a Kurzaal. 

AMSTERDAM (Station). 

Amatol Hotel, opened in 1867, affording ex- 
celigat mecommodMtUm. 

Hotel Viotoria, iMitametlU] newl>'4mlli flrtt- 
classhoteli lOQ rcNmis aBd eAlooHe. BeeAdn. 

Hotel dos Pays Bas ; entirely rdbtillt and stl|>- 
pUcd with every modem comfort. 

Hardenberg*s Old Bible Hotel, a well conducted 
house, much frequented by English and American 
gentlemen. Hotel Victoria; del'Earope. 

Brock'sDoelen Hotel, very good; roconmicnded. 

Stad Elberfeld; Keiierskroon; Bondeel; Haas< 
Dn Passage; Adrian; Suisse; Millo Ck>lonnei 
(with Caf^ ; Krasnapolsky (with Bestaurant). 

llettauranii:—OMiAe Oroaf; Jonge GraAf, Ac. 

Ca/%:— Pran9ais; Neuf; Poolsche KoflSJhuis. 

English Consul; English and Sdotch Church Serricet, 

ThetUres :—8t&Ci8 Bchouwburg; Grand Theater, 
Ac. Panoramas, Panoptikutn^ Caneerts, 

Steam Tramtnyi to sercral places. 

Post and Telegraph Ojfiee*^ in the Nicuwozyds 

The afternoon trains run in half-an-hour to 
Amsterdam. The space of green meadow on the 
right as you leave Haarlem was formerly the groat 
lake, " Haarlemmer Mecr," which, within tho last 
quarter century, was a vast sheet of stormy waters, 
but has been drained by the aid of powerful steam 
engines, thus increasing the value of the land four 
or five fold. The numerous sunken fields ("pold- 
ers") which we see all over Holland, some of them 
as much as 15 feet belovr the level, are drained, 
each spring, in similar manner by means of tho 
ubiquitous windmills. As the train journeys on, 
Zaandam appears on the loft, with its flcot of 
windmills that seem to float upon tho broad estuary 
of the river Y (sounded I). Most of the hotels, 
excepting tho Amstel, are in the centre of the 
city, which is somewhat in the shape of half a 
spider's web. 

The evening can be spent at one of the open 
air concerts, at the Zoological Gardens, and at 
tho Linnseus Garden and tho Yondelspark. Visit 
Frascati's, where concerts are held. It is situated 
in the Middel Laan. 

Good water is a rarity and a difficulty it 
Amsterdam. It is conveyed in pipes from A 
\ TQservoVr^ ^ tDWoi Ixotn. Heaxiem. It is abt . 
\ brought tTom\^«\V\X\%YV(«tN«^VVDL\KwiX%^Ai4, 

to BBLOttw Airo ram MtwB 



















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Icggefs. Though without striking monuments, 
the whole place is so remarkable that the general 
impression is favonrablc. The Quays along the 
Zuider Zee are admirable, and the canals add to 
the noTclty of the scene. 

Principal squares— The Dam and the Botcr- 
markt. In the ^rcdericksplcin is the new 
Industrial or Crystal Palace (Paleis voor Volksvlijt), 
440 feet long, near the Utrecht Gate. It will 
hold 13,000, and is devoted to exhibitions and 

Private Picture Gallery.— The Six van Hiilegom 
Museum, No. 611, Hcerengracht, 1 florin. This is 
half of a collection of 200 good pictures, first made 
by Mr. Van Winter. The other part composed the 
Van Loon Collection, which was sold 1878, te Baron 
RothschUd, of Paris, for £160,000. The seigneurie 
Hiilegom is near Leiden, where the Six family 
once had a country seat, where Rembrandt was 
often entertained. He painted two portraits of his 
hosts, which are now in the collection. 

The Zeemanshoopf an asylum for sailors, and an 
asylum for the aged are on the Amstel quay. 

In returning by the road from the station, the 
Cathedral will be observed; the chimes are de- 
licious ; the Exchange (admission, 25 cents); and 
the Royal Palace, built upon 13,659 piles, entrance 
to which can be obtained by application and a fee. 

Passing on through Kalvert Street, which is the 
Regent Street (on a narrow scale) of Amsterdam, 
remark on the right hand a building at the comer 
of a street, having handsome gates and a good 
deal of carving and decoration in front. This 
Is the Burger Weeshuis (Orphan Asylum), whose 
youthful inmates will probably have been remarked 
in the streets, their costumes being singular, half 
black and half red. The hero, Van Spcyk, was bred 
up in this institution. A picture of his blowing up 
his gun-boat (with his crew) rather than allow the 
Dutch flag to fall into the hands of the Belgians in 
1831, records his bravery, and is preserved in the 
Royal Palace. A public Monument was also 
erected (on the Dam), as a memorial of the honour- 
able part taken by the Dutch at that period. The 
numerous institutions for orphans, the aged, the 



this proTidoit and charitable nation, 
of beggars akio is noticeable. 

Turning down a street to the right, the market 
square will be reached, where there is a status of 
Rembrandt^ the painter, who was a native of 
Amsterdam. It is not very far from here to tho 
Zoological Gardens (60c.), called the " Artis," trhich 
contain fine specimens, and are everywhel* 111 
beautiful condition and order. 

There is a good Museum of stuffed animals 
above the concert hall, where also is a striking 
portrait of King Willem II. The Botanical Gar- 
den, or Hortns, close by (26 cents), has some 
noble palms, and the "Victoria Regia." A eall 
might be made at Mr. Koster's Diamond workshops, 
where admission can at all times be obtained on 
application; of course, fee the attendant. Tho 
san^ froid with which the workmen handle 
tho gems is astonishing; but though apparently 
careless of these precious adornments of rank, 
it is very rarely that a diamond is lost. 
Hero will be shown models of the most noted 
diamonds, including the Koh-i-noor, which was 
polished here, and is now in the Tower among tho 
Queen's regalia. Six hundred men are employed 
in this establishment, their pay varying from ono 
to four pounds a week. The gems are mostly 
brought from Brazil, and only the best arc 
fashioned here; rose diamonds are sent to Ant- 
werp to be cut and polished. The polishing lathes 
are turned by a steam engine, upon the ground floor. 
On Thursdays the men, being Jews, work fif teea 
hours to make np for Saturday, which is their 
Sabbath. The number of Jews in Holland is re- 
markable; being 2 percent, of the whole population. 

The i202ra;Pa7ace (1648-1666), on the Dam, richly 
ornamented with sculptures, originally the Towil 
Hall, open daily, 60 cents. The Nieuwc Kerk, 
one of the finest churches in Holland, is opposite 
the palace. 

The old church, not far from here, is of tho 
I4th century, and contains good stained glass and 
many monuments. 

The Antiquarian Society's Collection is near 
the Dam (25 cents). That of the Painters, Arti 

destitute, the blind, and the deaf and dumb cannot \ (^^ <ictvV^. k\Nv«Mfcx«s^^ ^x Tlxi^^c'S*^.^^^ ^^2 
%a to impress the stranger with admiration tor \ a\xvtt<fc\. 


a\ivft^\. 0\^^«a%^^^^'«^'^^^^"^ 


bradshjlw'b hand-book 

built 1488-1533. The Zcemanshois (Home), Naval The North Sea Canal is 14 miles lon^f to the 
Yard, Entrepot or CastomHouiie, and Naval School, entrance, called Ymuidon (or Mouth of the Y) 
are near the Harbour. A Bank was founded here where the new harbour was opened by the King, 
1W». i 1876; thus bringing the city within 24 hours of 

ByjEB-Husenm, on the south aide of the city, | ^^^ Thames. There are locks at Schellingwonde. 
near the Weterlng Poort, a new and handsome | '^**® ^^^^ ^^^ 24 millions, but the land reclaimed 
erection, containing the pictures formerly in the ' i»^orth £80 an acre. Large East Indiamen now 
Trippenhuls, the Van dcr Hoop collection, and ®®™® »*»^* ^^V' instead of by the Texel, which is 
the pictures by modem artists from the Pavil joen ^"^^ ^^ timber ships. The south half of the Zuyder 
Welgelegcn at Harlem. This is now the finest I ** ^^ ^^ **« reclaimed, and a canal opened f.-om 

collection in Holland of the Dutch school. The 
following are the finest : Hondekoeter's Floating 

Amsterdam to the Rhenish provinces. It is only 
10 to 12 feet deep, and was overrun about 1400. 

Feather; O. Don's Night School, and Gentleman ' "^^^ draining of the whole sea would add an 

and his Wife; G. Fllnck's Isaac Blessing Jacob ; acreage of 6 per cent, to the country. 

F. Hals' Merry Fellow, and Portrait of Self and I ^^ederode Castle and Muiden Castle (where 

Wife; Van der Heist's Banquet of the Civic ^''^^''^ "^®^> *° *^® neighbourhood are to be 

Guard, Syndics of St. Sebastian, and 9 Portraits: ! ^^^^ "P ** P^^"<^ monuments. 

Metsu's Toper; F. Mieris' Jacob's Dream; Van | N«** morning take the early steamboat for 

Ostade's Baker; Rembrandt's Night Watch, Cloth ' ^ ftftTKlani, and breakfast there at the Caf^ 

Syndics and Elizabeth Bas ; Jan Steen's Feast | *^'"*° *® ***« landing stage. After inspecting 

of St. Nicholas, Quack Doctor, Dancing Lesson, ^^^^^ **»® Great's Hut, start for Brock and 

&c. Wouverman's Restive Horse, Riding School, ««*ckaloot. The carriage costs si.x florins (IDs.), 

and 8 others ; Van Dyck's Burgomaster of Ant- 
werp; Tenicrs' Workmen Reposing. The gems 
of the Van dcr Hoop collection and Van Dyck's 
Potrait of Himself; Van de Velde's Caimon-shot ; 
Jan Stcen's Visit of the Physician ; Rembrandt's 
Jewish Bride; Maes' Spinster ; G. Don's Hermit, 
and Fisherman's Wife; and Dirk Hals' Lady 
Playing the Clavecin. 
At Vondel's Park is a statue of Vondol, the 

I with "trinkgeld" for the driver. The extreme 
cleanliness of Broek (Brook) has become pro- 
verbial; indeed, it is carried to such excess as 
to t>ecome ridiculous. The dress and manners of 
the people are most original. It is the emporium 
of bric-h-brac. A boat excursion should be made 
to the islands of the Zuyder Zee. 

The Fodor Gallery of Pictures (Keizersgracht, 
60ji) is open daily, 10 to 4, ndmission, 60 cents. 

man, was set up 1876. Admiral Van Heeinskirk 
is buried in the Old Church ; De Ruy tcr in the 
New Church. 

It will be advisable to take a walk upon 
the Dykes of the Buitcnkant, round the harbour- 
side of the town. This will give a clear idea of 
the difllculties the Dutch have overcome. The 

poet. Lecnhoff 's statue of Thorbeke, the states- , ^"'^ contains an exceedmgly good collection of 

modem French masters. 

The cleanliness of the houses everywhere, but 
siHJcially in this part of Holland, cannot but 
delight the traveller. The inns are in no way to be 
taken as 8i)eciuiens of Dutch housekeeping but 
elsewhere, it is quite invigorating to notice the 
cleansing which takes place on Wednesdays and 

city lies so low that it is a marvel how the water I Saturdays. 

Is kept out. Here too the great works of the I The pavilions or summer houses in the gardens 

North Sea Canal may be inspected, by which a ' outside Amsterdam have something very Chinese 

second short cut is obtained to the city for large j in their appearance. In these oricntal-looking 

ships (in addition to that of the North Holland \ retreats, the owners may be seen drinking tea or 

<^S!x«/y/,/h>m the Texel), and 12,500 acres of land are coflfee, of which the Dutch are very fond, and in- 

ro<^HJtaod from the Y and Lake Wykermeer, by I dulging in a cigar or pipe. Smoking is almost 

^ ii/n^ them dry. Those works are carried on 1 unWeraaV, cYxV\6x«n.oi\.«i{v^«.T^<&M«&skfor a fusee 

^a.Ea^JUh contractor. <witYi au a%%urtttt<» l\va\. V% \.\ka t^mskW. «A \«jci\v. 



Another resemblance to Chinese customs is 
the large floating population in the vicinity of 
Amsterdam (as at Nankin); there are, as it were, 
villages of boats, whose inhabitants obtain their 
living by fishing, and vending fruit and vegetables. 
At HOOrn (population 10,811), If hour from 
Amsterdam by rail, vid Zaandam, there is a festi- 
val, similar to the Chinese feast of lanterns. 
It has an old weigh-house, and very fine ex- 
amples of old carved houses, and is also noticeable 
as having given name to Cape Horn. The old town 
of Alkmaax, with its curious Waaghuis or weigh- 
house for the round Dutch cheeses, and the Texel. 
may be visited from Amsterdam by a direct mil 
through Zaandam. EnkhulseiL, on the Zuyder 
Zee, a decayed town, with carved stalls In the old 
church, and a Town House (1688;. Paul Potter 
bom here (1625-54). There Is a project for a dam 
across the Zuyder Zee to Kampen (old Cathedral 
and Town Hall). 

Ylaardlngen, on the line from the Hoek yan 

Holland to Rotterdam, Is the head-quarters of 
the herring fishery, from which the boats go to 
sea on the 14th June. At the arrival of the first 
draught of herrings of the season, the fishmongers* 
shops are gaily decorated with flags; and a 
crown of leaves and flowers, with a dried herring 
pendant, hangs over the door. The first keg of the 
season used to be presented with some ceremony 
to the King, who gave 600 guilders on the 

UTRECHT (Station). 

Population, 86,116 — Hotels: Pays Bas ; Europe; 
Belle Yue; Kasteel v. Antwerpen ; De Llggende 
Os; de la Station. — Cq/Vi: Haagsche Koflyhms; 
Rlche; Wiener; Tlvoli. 

English Church Service and Physician. 

This is admitted to be a very ancient place, as 
testified by Its early name : Trtyectum ad Rhenum, 
of whlcb the modem name Is a corruption. The 
Old Rhine here separates from another branch, 
the Vecht, which runs Into the Zuyder Zee. 

as in England), and a pure bracing aimospher* 
distinguish Utrecht from th« other towns prtt- 
viously visited. 

The most noteworthy object is the Cathedral 
(ISthcentnry); it Is a fine Gothic remain with* 
splendid detached Tower, from the top of which, SiO 
feet high, the branches of the Rhine, and 20 towns 
are visible. This Cathedral is remarkable for its 
having been actually cut in twain by the blast of 
a hurricane in 1674, the nave being ruined. In the 
Cloisters are some interesting portraits of old pro- 
fessors of the UttiversUp, which institution is one 
of the chief lions of Utrecht. Here the Union of 
the Seven Provinces was signed 1579, of which the 
tercentenary was celebrated 1879. The Library 
and Museum are well worth attentive examination. 
Here is a very^ remarkable MS. of the Utrecht 
Psalter, containing the Athanasian creed, said by 
some to be of the 6th century ; by others to be of 
later date. 

St. Pieter's Kerk (1039) has a curious old crypt. 
St. Jan*s Kerk is Romanesque of the 11th centtuy . 

Other obiects of interest are the Stadhals 
(Town House), with a Museum of pictures and 
carvings; the Royal Mint; the Observatory; 
Atvhiepiseopal Museum (missals, carvings, ftc.X 
open daily, 50 cents ; pictures of the old Utrecht 
masters at the Museum Kunstllefde ; and the 
Paushuizen or Pope's House (telegraph oflSce) so 
called because built by Pope Adrian VI., who 
was born here 1459. At the old Town Hall 
(Stadhuis\ now a barrack, the celebrated TWo^y 
of peace which brought to close the war of the 
Spanish Succession was signed In 1718. School 
Museum, 25 cents ; Industrial Museum, 25 cents. 

There is a fine avenue of old lime trees (Malie- 
baan), worth visiting. A walk round the ram' 
parts will indeed be found delightful, the com- 
bination of wood, water, and verdant meadows 
being most agreeable to the eye. Here the tourist 
may chance to see passing along the road by the 
canal side one of those smartly painted, carved (and 
even gilded) carts in which the Dutch farmer takes 
a pride. 

The city Is well situated above the Rhine, on 
higher ground than is usual in Holland. The 

enclosed canals, with covered passages from, the . 

houses, the grave demeanour of the people \ ^xJialOT'iA^e'Sv^^'^^'^''"^'*^"'^^^^ 
(especially on Sunday, which is kept as 8trict\y \ "^rewOci t^s\^. 

ItvTiXx^tibX w^ '^^«T«^'«'^'^^^?t^;^X^ 



The Jeuueniits, or Old Roman Gatholios, as they 
call themselTes, though anacknowledged by Bouie, 
have a quarter to themselves In UtrMht. Their 
church, a pretty buUdlng with the simple inscrip- 
tion "To God," itanda In the midst of modest 
bouses with neat gardens. 

From here take the train to Zelst, a delightful 
spot, where a Moravian community haye settled, 
and where they hold their schools, and carry on 
their unostentations charities, amidst the most 
charming wooded scenery. 

Boeitdyk (13 miles, rail to Baam) was the 
seat of the late Prince Henry of the Netherlands. 

RaiUcay»— from Utrecht to Bols-le-0ao or 

Hertogenbosch (where imitation diamonds are 
made), Boxtel, and Ll^ge. Bois-le-Duc has a popu- 
lation of 27,802, a noble 16th century Cathedral, 
845 feet long, and a good Museum. To Amersf oort, 
ZWOlle, Groningen. To Amhem (for Cologne), 
Deventer (a famous Terburg at the Town Uall) 
and a iine old church, crypt 11th century, and 
Zntphen. To Gouda, the Hague, Rotterdam, 
Flushing, and Antwerp. ZwoUO, the capital of 
Over-Yssel (population, 26,726), has a large Gothic 
Church, and is 3 miles from the Agnetenberg 
Convent, where Thomas & Kempis died^ 1471. Rail 
to Kampen on the Zuyder Zee; to Meppcl, 
Groningen, &c. ; and to ^Mlte (Station), and to 

Almelo (Station) and Qengelo (Station). 

Gouda (StatiOn).~-^o<e/; Du Saumon. Popu- 
lation, 18,844. Notice the Town Hall (1449), and 
the large Churchy with Us 29 large stained glass 
Windom^ very remarkable, and well worth 

We next proceed to Rotterdam, whiph should 
be reached in time to get dinner, and to have the 
luggage comfortably on board the packet for Eng- 
land. As the boats leave the "Boompjes" at 
various hours, according to the tide, it is neces* 
sary to examine the packet bills, which are 
hung up at almost every railway station, to 
ascertain the hour of departure, and so regulate 
the journey from Utrecht; or if preferred, the 
Ifoat may he taken at Rotterdam to Moordylc 
orMaerdifk (Station), thence by train to 
^twerp (Bee Route 4^ and bo the Ten Days' 
"our fre bMreBketob§d throntfh nolland maybe 


Indefinitely extended through Belgium dnd up the 
Rhino, Ac. 

The MoerdykViadnct over the Hollandif Diep, in 
continuation of the Central Belgian, is one of the 
longest on the Continent. It consists ef 16 apans 
of 100 metres; nearly a puile in all. The rail 
passes thence to a bridge at Port, ^d hence to 
Rotterdam, where the rail through that town 
joins, and thus completes the directline to Antwerp. 
(See Bradthato's Cmtinental Ouide and lltmd-book.) 
ASHSSW (SUtlon). 

The trains take li hour. The hnndBomest 
town in Holland, on the Neder Rhyn. Population 
(1890;, 60,194. 

Hotels: Grand Hotel du Solell (Zon); If otel do 
Belle Vue; one of the good hotels in Holland; 
Swynshoofd; Hotel Garni; pianten-en-Vogeltuin; 
De Paauw; Railway Rest; Caf^ Central. 

Sights.— Groote Kerk (Egmont's monument); 
the Town Hall (Duivelshuis) ; the Park: of 
Hartjcsberg or Sansbeek. From this old capital 
of Guelderland, a short run may be made to 
Bysselt, the Dutch Mettray (4 miles) for poor boys 
on a farm of 155 acres; and by rail to Zutfen or 
Zntphen (Station), on the Yssel, where Sir P. 
Sidney was killed, 1686; and Deven'^er, which 
figured in the Dutch war for freedom, in Queen 
Elizabeth's time. Its Church has a brass font. 
Within a short distance are Saansbeek Castle; 
Bronbcek House, for invalid soldiers from India, 
containing pictures and curiosities; and Middagten 
Castle, a seat of the Bentinck family, who are kin 
to the Duke of Portland. LoO, the King's country 
seat, is 20 miles distant, near Aqieldoorfi. To 
Letuwarddn (Station), 150 miles from Eutphen 
(past Meppel), the old Frisian capital (pc^nlatioii, 
30,590), with a good church tower, an old'Aiwn 
Hall, old Waaghuls, and a Museum* Chroil}]lg8lli 
is 48 miles from Meppel, near the Dolladt. line 
Gothic Church (tower 430 feet) and Town Hall in 
the large marketplace; University; andthoOude 
Kick, a peeping man, near the harbour. Popula- 
tion, 56,418. Hotels: Nieuw Doelen; t'Wapen van 
Vriesland; Phoenix. 

From Zutphen lines are open to HaogelO 
(Station), Balzbergen, Hanover, Ae., to WltttflT- 
iryl^CV^^'QiBi^t^^^'^^^^^'^^iii^Mit^ and Bsaen 

wS iiilM 

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HOTEL r)XJ IDEi,A.003Sr D'OH. 

CA^Kl KOHMKB, rronrletor. 

THIS lirsemnd vclMdinHn Estibllihmml, clogato the KuruDl.indnppaiito the principal Bath 
Huuui, bu in eicellsDt rBput itlan tar Iti general comfort, clsanlluBU, guHcloT awommoda- 

1 and i o'sliKll. Carr)ate> st the Hotel. Arrtneementi Id the Winter MMon trom the lit October. 




Admirably situated near the Baths, Public Garden, and Casino. 

IM Kavui* and ■'rlvnta Apa rtmenta. Oranllnu «t tke StallaBi 

E. Q17IBERT, Proprietor. 


Amstel Hotel 


BYCpy Hodun Comfort Mmblaad 
with Hodeiate Prleu. 



F'^S^S' c^-^s Family hotel. Hm exiiiei t« «»« *»» ^ 






the year. 


Now surrounded by 

its own 



Special armDgemenls for a proloaged slay. 



A. ROSSLEff, Proprietor. 

Brand Hotel; HOTEL Em£mUjz£(LAIiO JMfllOBE^. 





Fltst-cUss HouHQ. BeantlAiIljr sltnated, with Ulneral Water 

Springs (Einnlbader). 

Onmllms meets principal Tratoa at tlie Uolbelm Station. 



Rrst-clasa Hotel, near tbe Railway Station, sitoated In 
tiu centre of a beautiful sarden, CQnLma&^^ui ttit ^y''*-'-"^^- -<tn« . 

Both emUUlabmea\% hava latga ^^T^'k^^'^**^*-'*-^*^^^^»^w«^"^ 




THIS First Class Family Hotel, much frequented by English and Americans, 
is litaated in the most fashionable quarter of the Town, in the centre of the Theatres, and 
other places of amusement, near the Post and Telegraph Offices. French Cuisine, Table d'Hote. 
English, German, and French spoken. Terms moderate. Special terms for the Winter Season. 




Entirely tinder the personal superintendence of the New Proprietor, Mr. D. IMBODEZf . 





VIRST-OLASS HOUSE, in the best position amonrst the Italian Lakes. Modem Comfort. 
' JUagniflceot Garden and Purk. Electric Light. Lift. Pension for protracted stay. Moderate 

A. MEYER, Propriet or. 


Vnier den Unden, 39, opposite tbe Royal Palace. 

THIS old, repnted. first-class Hotel, has the best situation in the Town, close to all the prinoipal 
sights and Royal Theatres. Lately re-f arnished throughout. Splendid Restaurant, looking out 
OTcr the "Linden." " Cafe.'' Drawing Room for Ladies. Baths. Lift. Table d'Hote. Electric 
Light. Newspapers in all Languages. Omnibus at Stations. Moderate Charges. 

Proprietor : ABOLPH MUHLING, Purveyor to the Imperial Court. 


Opposite the Xew Emrlisli Chnrcli* 
^¥^SI8 favourite Hotels renovated and nevAy T^i\aT\\^fe^^'m\Xi\t*Tiew ad^tioD 

*• o/ ^t? Booma, new Drawing Room, Dlntag Hoom, "BWWmQl 'R.WB^^ ^m«^B\xi% ^<qksiii^ wbj^. 
g»«j;/r; BMtb E§UhUabment with Salt Bath* andTif o %a^\fc% «ife%I>oxiecA%v^w!^wiw^55ftAjB„ 

^^^Lu^"^ ^^*^y "^^ InhaUnff Booms ; w\U now \Wk ov^^J^^^2^^*«;J2SSS?**c^ ^^^^ 
^^stmtioo. I»«r^ Park trith shaded walks. PenaiOTi. twma TftattS5«.Xft* Ci»W\^^. 




Very comfortable Table cl*IIofe nnd iirlvate Dlnuem. 

APARTMENTS for Families. Close to the Castle of Blois. Comfortable 
Cnrriago fur visiting Chambord and the environs. Omnibus at the Station. Eugllih spokMi. 


LIFT. On the Bajiks of the Rhine. LIFT. 

European Bepntation. 200 Booms and Saloons. 

SITUATION witlurat aqu&l, facing the BhiiM. Baran Monntaiiui, tha Park, Landiiic Piar. and BaOway Stattoa. 
Extenaive English Gardens. Reading. Smoking, and Billiard Rooms. Ladles' Saloon. American, FiWMh, and 
English Newspapers. Warm and Cold Baths In the Hotel. Special Omnibuses belonging to the EstablUhm«it t» tad 
from all Trains and Steamers. Moderate Charges. Ad Vhutageoos arrangements for a prolonged sojourn. Panalob' 
Highly recommended. Table d'Hote at Ik and 6 o'clock. O. B1EB1]M<»ER«V0<UE£ER< MftMirei'* 



(HOTEL de FRANCE at de NANTES, r^unis). 

Only FirHt (lass Hotel, fall south, patroulsed by II.R.H. the Prince of Walcfl. 

TELEPHONE, latest system, communicating with PARIS. 





Situated opposite the Grand Theatre, the Prefecture, the Exchange, the Bank of 
France, and the Port. Saloons and 90 Rooms from 3 francs upwards ; in Pension 
£3 2s. a week. 

Mr. PETER'S magnilicent Cellars under the Hotel, containing 80,000 bottles, 
can be visited at any time in the day ; he is also Proprietor of the Domains du 
Phenix, and Purveyor of Wine and Liqueurs to H.M. the Queen of England. 
He sells this article in small and large quantities, in bottles or in wood, in full 

L. PETER, Proprietor. 



FIRST-CLASS ESTABLISHMEliiT, \^^\i\i x^^wMajK^^'s.^ "^^J^^S 
Families. Arrangcmcnta made lor a protracteeL «Xa^. "E.w\R\wJtv ^'^:^^^^^'^\vS«!»«^*' '*' 
Large Garden. Famished Dark Room for PYvotOBra\iV\«%. '^^^^^^•'^^.SSMJw " — "-— ^ 
tratnaand to VcDtlmiglla, Stntion if req\ie*t«d. 3. •B:\J«7a5».,'«T«Vn«^'«^ 

<> iDrSKTlSSMfiHTB. 

BOTZEy (Sottth Tyrol). 

Immediatelj TtLtitng the Railway Station (no omnitrai needed). 
nPHIS excellent Hotel* long and farourably known to English and American Trarellers, is specially 
-*- recommended tor its open and airy situation. Splendid view of the Dolomites and Roeengartoi. 
Most oooTonient p^nt for oreaking journey between Germany and Italy. Erery latest improvement 
for eosoring the o«nf ort of Visitors. 
BraMch HoBMS: Hotel Br itanni a^ Ten tce ; Hotel des Alpes, BellnMO <DoloHiltee)* 
WALTHKH dB OESTBBLB, Proprietore. 



A DMIRABLY situated, close to the Casino and Sands. Large and small Apartments. Speoial 
'^^ terms for Families and Parties. Table d'Hdte and Restaurant (open to non-residentsX 
Excellent Cuisine. First Class Wines. Perfect Sanitation. Highly recommended. Coo k*s co npops 
acoepted. English spoken — On parle Frangais— Man spricht Deutsch* W. PEFPEBDINB, RO. 



Hewly Imllt, dose to the Station and Iiaitdliiir Plaee of the Steameve* 

QITUATED on the Lake, it commands a splendid view of the Mountains, and affords every modem 
^ comfort. 60 elegantly furnished Bedrooms. Saloons. ** Salle h Manger." Reading Saloon. 
Good attoddance. Moderate charges. Excellent Restaurant. 

A. BBACHML and T« BTOZAB, Proprietors* 

BBINDISI (Terminal Station of the Peninsular Express). 


The International Palace ComiMuay's Hotel. 

(pffl[S well-known Hotel has been acquired hy the Company, and has recently undergone extension and 
*'* partial reconstruction. Has been refurnished. Moderate Tariff. Pension. Direetiy .onMMdte 
P. & O. Steamer Quay. Experienced Staff. Telegrams s *' Hotel Intematlonalf HrlncDlat.** 

London Offices : 14, Cockapur Street, 8. W., 

Where plans may be consulted, and through tickets to all destinations obtained. 




THIS unrivalled Establishment, overlooking the Park, the Place Royale, and 
the Rue Royale, has been considerably enlarged and embellished by the present Proprietor, 
Mr. E. DREMEL. Public Saloons, Reading, Smoking, and Bath Rooms. Spacious Terrace Garden 
OTCorlooking the whole park. Electric Light in all the Rooms. Ticket and Booking Office for Lug- 

fage in the Hotel. Rooms from 4 frs. 50 c, including Electric Light. Hydraulic Lift (Heurtebise 


f^OpaiNQ inclusire of attendance and electric \\tf[i\.,ivwfi^^^^vs^^l: ^I'a*. 


B&USSSLS Contlnned. 


BRUSSELS (central part). 


UnviYalled for its eomfort, excellent Cuiaine, fine WineSi 

and moderate ohaFges* 

Tbe Table d'Hote, BreaMast, Lnncheon. Dinner, and finmd 
Table d'flote are accessible to non-residents. 




Telegraphic Address : Metropole, Bmiielp. 



HydraoUc Lift. (RUE ROTALE). Hydraulio Lift. 

THIS large and beauiilul First-Olass Hotel is situated in the finest Mid 
healthiett part of the town, near to the most frequeated promenades, aiid is 8appUe4 ll^ 
cTMrv modtm eMbfort. Table d'Hdte, 5 francs. Restaurant **li1a Carte** at any boor. Tirst^rite 
Cooking and Choice Wines. Accommodation for 160 persons. Reading and CooTersation Saloons. 
Smoking and BUUard Rooms. Baths. Large and splendid Dining Room. 

Arrangemeats made with Families during the WINTER SEASOiT, 

Mr. B. MSNGKLLK, Proprietor. 


BOULEVARD BOTANIQUB. Cloa^ic>t\i«^^U\:\wvV^x^«KaMs^ 
France^ Spa, Ottend, Antwerp, Ghent, MidBr™%. '^>ti^7' ^J^^'^SS?;^'***'^ 
Hotel eyrr morning, Cliargef modenttt. BataoA Va &*» B.tkVii. 't^awews*^^* 

jiwrlK Boom fov VlMiio«v«»1»»« 


BRUB8XLS Contlnned. 


MRS. MATTOYS, 42, Rue du Prince Royal, lets good furnished 
Saloons, I}cd-r<>omH by the Week or the Slonth, with linen and nttendnnce. Board if 
desired. Best situntlon iionr the nuulovards, the Avenue Louise, and the Tramways. Moderate 
terms. Mrs. MATTilYS speaks English. 



Highly Recommended Fihst Class Hotel. 

JOSEF BIARCHAL, Proprietor. 



FIRST-RATE HOTEL, lately greatly enlarged, situated on the western bank 
of the Lake, opposite Bellagio. Its situation is delightful for its beautiful views, and fine 
shady walks along the shore. Cadenabbia is every day rising into repute for the salubrity of the climate. 



First Class Hotel, best in the Town. 

L.. iYlANCJCL, Proprietor. 



JP^HT miles from Cairo, Eeypt, within 5 mmutfe^' ^^iXVLoi^iJtv^^c^^x.'^Tt^^KfiAau 

^iSST^-^*"^ ^^*<"' «nd Break rin in regular «>^tnutAQa\.\o^N,\V^^V^^^>g^« ^^ 
»^S^;»,P*?S' ^°"'c and Private DinlnR Rooms, Weadixv*, J>tw,Vtv«, wxiy.^m05J»wt^««tA. k. 
'eiecuoa of Bookt, and moBt of the English JoumaU wr^X^J^w^^^- 

ADVEktlSRMfexTg. 9 






This First Class Establishment is now kept and directed by Si£:. P. BORGO. lately and t<x nuttjr 
years Proprietor of the renowned Grand Hotel d'Earope, at Tnrin. 



This FIRST-CLASS HOTEL offers special comfort to Bncrlish and 

American Travellers. 


OninLlbns at the Station. UIT. ELECTRIC^ LIGHT. 



"With Dependence (Two German Monarchs). 

THIS HOTEL has European celebrity, is very beautifully situated, with large 
Onrden, and is newly furnished and decorated. Travellers will Und here every comfort at 
moderate prices. English, French, and German Newspapers. Open all the year. English 
Servants. F. BOSOHEB, Hotelier. 




FIRST CLASS ESTABLISHMENT, particularly recommended. 300 Rooms. 
Table d'Hote. Restaurant. Near the Bath Establishmeot and the Casino. Lift. Englifth 
and other languages spoken. Open all the year. A MEILLON, Proprietor. 



LARGE and splendid house of the first order, with extensive Park and Garden on the banks of the 
Lake. Former residence of H. M. Queen Caroline of England. Abode chosen by H. M. the 
late Empress of Russia in 1868. Arrangements for families at very moderate rates. Pension. 



LEON RBYNAIID^ TTOVT\«i«v. ajbs«!^« 

A new estahJiahment in an open and airy s\tuat\oT\, c\o&« lo W^ft '^^aSc^^-^ ^''^^ek"*^.'* «s&!k^ 
suiaJJ apartments, scrupulowtly clean. Table d'HoU at \V oadi * ^'^^^^^'^vSS^'eJcv^^'^'^'^'^'*'^ 
Chambery i$ on the route to India by ** Mont CeMa,*' tioYf t^comxtv^xv^^fe^x^^^^^^ 




FIRST-CLASS FAMILY HOTEL, delightftiUy situated in full view of 
Mont Blanc. Large Park and Garden. Excellent Telescope for free use of visitors. Baths. 
French Restaurant. Special arrangements. Rooms from 3 francs, Pension from 9 francs. Under 
personal management of the proprietor. 


CHAUMONT (France) Hte. Mame. 


Lance an4 small Tery comfbrtable Apartaiemte* 

Large and small Sooms. Kecommended to Families and Single Tourists. 


CHUB (Goire). 

HOTEL STEINBOCK (Capricorne.) 

VOBICEBLT Hauwr, Eelm A Co. E. EVPPEB Manager, formerly at the Hotel Baar am Lae, Inkh, aaA 
* Hotel Natioiial, Lneenw. 

FIRST CLAfSS HfrTEL, wltli !•• Rooais bmA MttlBS Rooais. 

Best situation in Town. Baths on each floor. Railway BooUag (Mice for Tickets and Luggage in ttb« 

Carriages ana extra Posts. 
Telephone correBpondence between the Post, Poet OfBce for Diligencee, and Bxtn Poet, in the Hotel. 



COMMANDING a splendid view of the Rhine and the Castle of Ehrenbreitstein, 
and close to the landing place. It deserves in every respect the patronage of Englisb FamiAei 
and Single Travellers. Good attendance. Excellent cooking. Choice Wine s. H ot and Gold Batiis. 
El^^ftQ^ Carriages in the Hotel. Moderate Charges. H. HOGHB, PrOlirl0tor. 



3T GJLaJk,f&m SCOVZIXjk 

MOST centrally situated, close to the Cathedral, near the Central Railway 
Station and the Quay of the Rhine Steamers. 200 lofty, airy Rooms and Saloons; 800 Beds. 
Electric Liglit. Hydraulic Lift. Caloriferes In winter. Excellent Kitchen. 


.EJuaL rj- 1> E5 - C3 O X^O Cap'fi^ "El 

rs the No. 4, distilled strictly according to ihe OTV%\m\ ■^xfe^w'site-o.oV 'SorSsctwa*, 
«J'«n«M«or, 6y the most «nolentdUtUleT .. „ .. « . 




ON the border of the Lake, opposite the Landing Place of Steamers. The sole 
First Class Hotel in Como. Cook's Coupons accepted. 

O. BAZZI, Proprietor. 


Visitors will find this Hotel most comfortable. It is pleasantly situated 

near the Springs and Baths. 

Good Onlsino. Engllsli spoken. The Hotel Omnlbns meets all trains. 
_ SOHUHXRAFT, Proprietor. 



Pension at Tery moderate prices. 

THIS First-class Hotel, situated on the best side of the Esplanade, fitted up 
after the English style, well known and highly recommended for its comfort and good attend- 
ance, is under the personal Management of the sole Proprietor, Alexander 8. Maxnoby. 



E. DOLIiE, Proprietor. 

FIRST GLASS HOTEL, newly built, with a splendid view on the Sea and 
Port, newly and comfortably fitted up. Good Cuisine. Choice Wines. Warm Sea Baths in 
the house. Two minutes' walk from the Railway Depdt, fifteen minutes from the New Sea bathing 
Establishment. Carriages of the Hotel at the Lauding place. 



A FIRST-RATE HOTEL of old standing, superior accommodation for 
Gentlemen or Families. Two Coffee Rooms. Excellent Table d'HOte. Suites oX, l:^a^- 
ments, with erery comfort in the English style, at moderate clv«Lt%«.«. , „ ,, -r,,,-^-^ 

N.B.—Tbia Hotel wbb established more than Yia\l a <i«oX.\«^ '^*^'^'' ^'^''^^!SSS^Sis^^»i8ie« 
proprietor. A lengthened residence in England en«k\i\«* 'M.t,^\«&v.^^»««'^'^^*^ 
to English travellers. 


C anton des Grisons ,] DAVOZ PLA TZ. [Switzerland 


T ARGEST FIRST CLASS ENGLISH HOTEL (open the whole year), particularly recommended to 
J^ English Travellers. 180 Bedrooms Splendid Saloons and vast Assembly HalL with Stage for 
Theatricals. Beautiful views. Terraces, Verandahs, Lawn Tennis Ground, SleighingiSkating, Curling, 
full sized English Billiard Tables. Library, Bath Rooms. English Sanitary arrangements Pension for 
a weeks stay. For further information apply to HANS BIOSER, Manager* 

(France.) DAX. (L andes .) 


The nearest to the Sea, the Casino, and the Bathing Establishment. 


LARSONNEUX, Proprietor. 


n^^HIS large Establishment, with its celebrated Mud and Hot Mineral - 

-L Baths. Open all the year, it is one of the best establishments on t)ie Continent, and is in 
great repute for the treatment and cure of Rheumatism, Gout, Paralysis, Neuralgia, Throat | 
and Chest Diseases, and is especially patronised by the Government and the Academy of Medicine ! 
of Paris. The accommodation is the same as in the first class Hotels. Pension 10 francs the Winter, 
8 francs the Summer. 


Hotel Bristol. 


Oppite the Central Railway Station, BISMARKPLATZ, 7. 

Situated in the English-American Square, the finest part of Dresden. 



G. WENTZEL, Proprietor. 





FIRST CLASS HOTEL, the largest of the Town, close to the Station (Arrival). 

Two "Tables d'Hote" in the Afternoon. 

CARI. & EDBIIJirD ROHRIO, Proprietors (and liVlne MerclaaiiUi). 

Purveyors to H. G. the Duke, of Saxe Weimar. 



F. SCHMLITT, Proprietor. 

THIS First Class Hotel is in the best situation of Ems, opposite the Royal 
Baths, with a beautiful Garden, and combines every comfort. Moderate charges. Excellent 
Cooking and choice Wines. Reading, Music, Billiard, and Smoking Rooms. Arrangements, on 
very reasonable terms, are made at the early and late part of the season. The Hotel is lighted by 

Electric j^igbt. Onmlbus at the Station. Hydraulic Uft. 



FIRST-CLASS HOTEL, best situated in the Valley, in the middle of an extensive garden. 
200 Beds. Lofty Dining Room. Large Conversation Saloon with Veranda. Reading, 
Billiard, and Smoking Rooms. Music Saloon. Lift. Electric Light in nil the rooms. Warm 
and Cold Shower Baths. English Chapel in the garden. Good attendance. Moderate charges. 

ED. GATTANI, Proprietor. 



Conversation Saloon, Reading, and Smoking Booms. Electric Light. Baths. 


Frz. W¥KS€H-€ATTA.\I, Manager. 



H. EOBiaia & ^o-, ^ ,. ^ 

17, Via. TanuLtmoDi ; and Rome, PIbob. %, "Letwiaa ^'^^'*=^,[^'^J^xw ^«^ 

PreBcriptiona pivpcrod by English asslstaTLls "w\\\i ^tu%* Vt^^ ^^i^ij^ 



CONTINENTAL HOTEL, first class. 

Opposite the Central Railway Station. 

ELECTRIC LIGHT and Central Steam Heating in evei^ room. Kew Read- 
ing and Smoking Rooms. Splendid position. Lift. Telephone 1360. M oderate charges, 
Service, Light, Heating incladed. New Proprietor : R. OBBSTENBRAND. 

(Hotel where BISMARCK and FAVRE settled the Treaty of Peace, 1871X 

THIS First-Class Hotel, for Families and Single Gentlemen, close to the two 
Theatres and the principal Railway Stations, is one of the finest and best situated Hotels in 
the town. 150 Room s and Saloons. Pension at moderate prices. 

LIFT. O. SIMSON, Proprietor. 


FREITDlSirSTADT <S,eoo fieet above the 8ea>, 

RallwayUne-Stialitirarl;* Offenburs, Strasbnnr. 

FIRST-CLASS HOTEL, surrounded by a very beautiful Park. Comfortable 
Bedrooms and Saloons. Water and Milk cures. Pine-needle and Bole Bat&s. Sanitary 
arrangements perfect. Central Residence for Excursions. Carriages at the Hotel. Moderate 
charges. Pension. ERNEST LUZ, Junior, Proprietor. 



MOST Popular and Fashionable First-Class Hotel. The finest in Geneva. 
Best situation, with a beautiful terrace. Concerts in Summer. Baths on each floor. New 
Sanitary Arrangements with the latest improvements. Electric Light In eve ry room. No extra 
charge for lights and attendance. LIFT. HATut ft KUNZ, Proprieton. 



■X2 Propnetor of the Hotel, now begs to inform English Travellers that he baa anoeeedtd 

-Afr Dubua in tbo above well-known, first-rate, and \>eauV\iuV\Y %\VQL«l«id Establishment, whiidi 

f^rda extensive snd superior accommodation for FamV\\«a«itvA^\»«\fe^«a>L\wa«ci. \oL\A!K!a^tte 

eimTi^'^'''^ J^^^^ <^o UPobU, Mr, Vasdb Putt* i» «T«to\ft«L\o o«l« %x^N^VA% w!*yMcAajQy«i\!(i 

^erSSi^^^f'^^ ^^tniliea, and to Commercial GcuU^^metv, slidA ^\*^% ^s^»^>S. n» ^i^^ <« 

^ w^ Hrjnter Setton mrrangeminiB are made -w WYi TamWV«» o1im<i^«s»!«^^T^a^, 




FIKST-CLASS Hotel, situated in one of the most oommandiug positions of 
ijbis charming Summer Station, so much frequented by lovers of Lake and 
Mountain Scenery. KUPFER BROTHERS, Proprietors. 




COMFORTABLE First-Class Hotel. Highly recommended. Mr. Bbaches, 
the Proprietor, hat been In England and America, and knows tlie wants of English and 
American Travellers. Charges moderate. 


Mr. TRIUiATy Proprietor <Son-ln-law and Sneeessor to flir. MONNET). 

THIS HOTBL is situated in the PLACE GRENETTE, 14; it offers 
excellent accommodation, and will be found deserring the patronage of English Families aAd 
Single Gentlemen. Post Horses and Goadies for Aix-les-Bains, Allerard, Ariege, la Motte-les-Bains, 
la Sallette, &c. Omnibus at the Station. 



Proprietor, FRED. J. J. €• TAN SABTTElf, Tovmoolreld^ 3» 4, and 5. 

rpHIS Ilnt-rate Hotel, the largest in the town, patronised by the highest class of Society, is delight- 
-*- fully situated in the vicinity of the Royal Park and all the Museums. Electric lagkt ana Tdeph^e. 
It may be ranked for its comfort and good accommodation amongst the bosA First-class Hotels of the 
Continent. The largest and most lofty Dining Boom in the City. Comfortable Conversation, Ladies', 
and Smoking Booms. Bath Booms (new system). Lavatory. Beautiful' Garden for the use of Visitors. 
Excellent Cuisine. Moderate Charges. 



EXCELLENT First-Class Family Hote\,\iv V)aa ^\v^«^\»».NK^\i.^^^^^ 
looking the Alster Bassin. This Hot«\ <^ll\o^^«^^^^^^«^^^'^^;f^'^ 
/iod American famitieB for its comfoTt, ttoo^ C;\jA»vcv^ wA ^2?w«>«,.^'1 
^xceUence. Jhraprletor, LDDVlQi «K1^^> ijiiww^wt xt^ ^ 




RrS I»lf PARIS, lM-199. 

EXCEEDINGLY well situated, in the best quarter of the Town, recommended 
for itfl comfort and moderate charges. Apartments for Families. Masic and Gonrersation 
Saloons. Rooms from 3 to 6 francs. '* Restaurant h la Carte.*' Table d*Hdte. Breakfast 
*Jfrs. 50c. Dinners afrs. English and German spoken. QBELLE Proprietor. 




One of the best in the Town, with Dependence 


Situated in the extensive Gardens of the HoteL 

Best position near the Knrsaal, the Springs, and Bathing Establishments. Perfect sanitary 
arrangements. Splendid Dining Room with covered Verandahs. Hydraulic Lift. 


In the early and late part of the Season (May, June, September, and October}, 
arrangements are made at very moderate prices. 

Fnrveyor to H.B.H. tbe Orand Duke of Mecklenbnrg-Strelitz. 

ROYAL VICTORIA HOTtL '""i^^^^^*™^ 

Has been patronised by H.B.H. the Prince of Wales and the Rojral Family. 

9Io«t eleTAted altnatloii. Fine Garrieii. faclns South. Admirably anited for Tlaiton 
safferlnv from iiout and Rheamntlsm. iModerate cbarces* 

OITSTATE WEIttAND, Proprietor^ 

Forreyor to H.B.H. the Prince of Wales and H.B.H. the Grand Duke of Mecklealwrg StreUti. 


TTOTEL DU TIROL, formerly Hotel d*Autriche. First-class Estoblislmeni 

./jL c/oge to tbe Runway Station and the New Steam and Salt Swimming Baths Establishment, 
eommtmds a beautiful view of the Valley of the law, atv^V «u.TTo\\v^\\\%TGiCi\v(v\^Sxv<&. It contains over 
JOO elegantly famished tied Rooms and Sitting 1ELoottv%. 'R<itL«i\tvis«kYA^\stf>\J«*.%'^vrts\sv^. '<&«sCftg^ 
■Fine garden. Special arranffementa for a protToctedstay. \T\Tv%>oTxi€fc.^«»fcwfc^».\v\S\\^«%\vi^%jA. 

ff^H^Zf't^f^"^^ ^<*' edocfttion in general. WVivxw ^^^*;i^^*^ «^SS^^^''^S&i^^ 
^««/«r resort ia Winter for weak constitutions. QKKU V«^^^^^*^«»*^»«wa* 

Al>V£:&ttS£MEN'rS. 17 



FRST CLASS HOUSE of ancient reputation. Most central position on 
" Hoheweg," the principal promenade, with best Tiew of the Jungfrau and Glaciers. Lift. Electric 
Light throughout. Satha. Lawn Tennis. Pension rates and special arrangements made for prolonged 
stay. Moderate Charges in May, June, and September. 



FINEST SITUATION. Bath Room. Moderate Prices. Pension from 
6 francs upwards. Dark Room for Amateur Photography. Furnished with all modem comfort. 
Omnibus. Best Sanitary Arrangements. 




THIS Magnificent Establishment, just opposite the Kurgarten and Mineral 
Springs, contains now 160 Bedrooms, 30 Sitting Rooms, and a Ladles* Drawing Room, all of 
them with an open view in the gardens. 

The only Hotel wltli Mineral Bictlifl lil tlie Honee. . 

EONIGSWINTER, (Petersberg), Rhine. 

UnTCI AM TUC DCTCDQnCDP one of the most beantif9l 

nU I CL UH I nC re l en ODCK Us monntams or t&e fttebengcSuve. 

TTNTIBBLT new Iniildbig and every comfort. Aiir lodgtng^-rooms and Saloons with a fine view, large Anlng and 
-'^ restatuant rooms^ Large plateau with foreet and parka, and beavtifid shady promenades. Hafrniflcent views in 
greater variety than from any other point of the Seven Mountains. Brery Wednesday, UiUtury Free Conoeri Table 
d'H(yte, week-days at 1 o'clock, Sunday and Holidays at 12-90 and 2 o'clock ; Dinners and Suppers at any hour. 
Acknowledged good cuisine and liquors. Post and Telegraph in the house. Wwe. PETER JOB. NEUiES. 
Address for letters and telegrams: Nellei, Petersberg (SUne). Communication with KOnigswlnter directly by a 
Cog-wheel Railway. Corresponds with all trains of the State Railway and Steamers. 





AilmlniMj sitHMted FInt Class Hotel, fmiaae^T«mssMAfc%>^^*»^*^'^'^'*^:. 

Elerater. Electric LlgU in eTexy loom. ^^^*'^*.'^^^^' *' ' ^ 

R_/^M//«.«M/x.y a» 

IS At)V£RTt8£MEKTfl. 


T A^ A T) TCTA Terminus of the Oothard Railway, on LA KE MAGG IORE. Best 

4rf W W Je* AJil Wa stoppingplaco ontheltalian Lakes. OPEN THE WHOLE TEAR. 


The situation unrivalled either for a Summer or Winter Besort 

PATRONISED by all the Royal Families of Europe. Most luxurious and 
comfortable home with large Park and Gardens. Best situation in the mildest and most 
constant climate of Europe, without snow, wind, or fog, but with plenty of sunshine. Entirely 
adapted for winter residence. Chemin^cs, calorif 6res, and stoves. Beautiful walks and Mountain 
excursions. English Church. Doctor. Society. Li/t. Exquisite cuisine. Private steamer 
and carriages for visitors. Most moderate charges. 

Messrs. BALLI, Proprietors. 




This Hofcel has a fiist class English connection, returning year after year, and has not increased its 

prices. Deservedly known for its comfort and good dinners. Pension from 8 francs, for a long stay. 

ZURICHER- MCVCD'C ninDAMA zuricher- 
STRASSE. mEilEno IHUnAlnA strasse. 


MOST interestingly and instructive. Splendid view of Rigi Kulm and Mount 
Pilatus, the Girder Bridge (half-way from Vitznau to the summit of the Rigi), the Top of Oomer 
(Zermatt), the Ice-Sea, Range of Mount Rosa and Matterhom, &o. 

First class HoteL Largely patronised by Bn^^ish Visitors. Splendidly situated. 




FSHSION (aoom, Li«^t, and Service ineladed), flrom Str. to 10 tr.; July and August firom 11 f^. to 14 fr. 

Special arraagementaTor Families. J. ZIAiJli£Rll-U£ASER« l*roprle(or* 



f^HB Jmrgest Hotel and Beat Restaurant In the Town. Ixv wo. <5,xaw8k\.VsM\ ^W^s^Mv^T^xftwe ^^ ^Naik 
MmmJ^ ^°^^ ^romenadea. Replete wlt\i every moOLfttn comiotv. GoTc^«l»»x^wi^ 'tXK^^^ vaji. 
'•••««»• JJooiiM. EngliBhMpokm, Douches and Ba\,^». lE.\ecVcV?i\A^V«.. Otjav\\yaA wiA. ^«rewMP». 

■ — '^- 



FIRST-CLASS FAMILY HOTEL. Patronised by the Nobility and the 
Gentry of all Nations. In the centre and most fashionable part of the City. Elerator. 
Baths. Railway Ticket Office in the Hotel. Tariff of Charges in every Room. Moderate Terau. 

HydranUe lift, • Electric LlKht. Telephone. _^___ ,___, , 

Telegrapbic Address : " GRAND HOTEL, LTOH/ 



On the splendid Qaal de la Saone. Five minutes' walk (rom the Station. 

Vve. bATAIl£abd. Oommandixur a view of the Alps, and Mont Blanc. 

First Hotel in the Town. Recommended to Families and Single Travellers. Interpreter 
Trains from Macon to Vichy, to Bonrges, Blois, Poitiers, and Tours. 

All ExpreM and First Clam Trains take np and leaTe PacMenflreni at llaeea* 

MADEIRA— (Funchal). 

Reid's Hotels 


By appointment to H.R.H. The Duke of Edinburgh. 

SANTA CLARA HOTEL. - "Admirably situated, overlooking 
Funchal, line view of the Mountains and Sea. * — Viae RendelVs Guide to Madeira, 

REID'S NEW HOTEL. — Situated on the Cliffs to the West of 

Funchal, on the New Boad, overlooking the Sea, grand yiew of the Mountains. 
Sea Bathing and Boating. 

MILES'S CARMO HOTEL.— ^^ sheltered central position. 
HORTAS HOTEL.— G^erman spoken. 

S ANT' ANNA HOTEL.— ^ood centre for scenery of the interior and 
north of Island. ' 

These FIRST CLASS HOTELS afford every comfort for families and travellers. 
Excellent Cuisine and Choice Wines. Tennis Courts, large Gardens, Baths, 
Reading, and Smoking Rooms, English and German Newspapers. Billiards. The 
SANITARY arrangements have been carried out by the Banner Sanitation Co.^.q1 
London. All Steamers met. 

Telegrams, "Beid, Punchal." 1Pam^\jl^\i tt^^ .'^ ^^mmw^^^^ 
IS^t Oheapside, Iiondou, ox ^xcu l^V^* 

90 ADVSftftriUdUitB. 



^I^UlS Urst Class Ilotel, situate in the middle of the town, and near the Land'* 

J. log Places of SteamboAts, affords large siiites of well-furnished apartments for fsmlllfla. and 
eomfortable and aliy rooms for single gentlemen. Qobd Table and Wines, attentlTe attendiuits. 
Moderate charges. Foreign Newspapers taken in. An Omnibns from the Hotel meets erery TnUn. 

eomfortable and aliy rooms for single gentlemen. Qobd Table and Wines, attentlTe 
Moderate charges. Foreign Newspapers taken in. An Omnibns from th e Hotel meets e 
French and EnglUh spoken. BERNDHAITBEL ft BEIFTEL, Proprietors. 



WELL-KNOWN Fint-ClasB Hotel, opposite the Central Bailway Station. New 
and elegantly famished. Moderate charges. No extra for light and attend- 
ance. Ererj comfort. Bath on each floor. Excellent Cuisine. Choice Wines. 

Hear the Landing Place of tbe Blilne Bteamen. 

MENTONE (Alpes Maritimes). 


CLOSE to the Station. Most sheltered positioni and full South. Magnificent 
view on the Sea and Italian Coasts. Large Garden with Tennis G round . Ar rangementjApom 
8 frs. per day upwards. T. A, W lDTBSBL, Prcpl letor. 




FIBST CLASS HOTEL. The largest and most comfortaUe ia tlia 
Town. Beaatifollj situated, with a fine Garden. 

Patronized by the Royal F amities of several Courts of Europe. 

PH. B£RliniiARDT» Proprietor. 


MIXiAN CkiBtlniied. 


THE most comfortable Hotel, near to the Station. Newly restored (1894). 
F«1I South with Garden, and facing the Faro. Moderate charges. Cook's Conpona aeo^Cid. 

V. OOLLEONI, Proprietor. OH. QALUA, Director, 


In the Immediate vlelnlty off the JRailwajr Station. 

"^EW; expressly bailt for an Hotel with all moderm improTements. Situated in th« hMlthUfI 
^^ part of the Town. Pleasant Garden. Airy Apartments. Table d'Hote. Restaurant ud 
Reading Rooms. Baths. Heated throughout. Scmpulously clean. Careful attendance and Ttry 
moderate charges. Real English Hotel, near the Station. Porter meets all trains. Hotel Coapona 
accepted. No Examination of Luogaob for Visitors to this Hotel. 

J. BELLINIy Proprlefor. 

MOMTBEUX (Clarens). 


A FIRST-CLASS Family Hotel, in the healthiest, quietest, and most 
charming par]t, stands well up from the Lake. Splendid unriyalled views. Surrounded by 
Vineyards. Shady terraces and Garden Park, easy access from Town. Latest Sanitary appliancea. 
26 Balconies. Lift. Moderate Charges. TH8. UNQER DONALDSON, Proprietor, 

Lawn Tennis Oonrt. Omnibus. Branch House— Grand Hotel Victoria, St. Beatenberjg. 

MONTREUX (Veytanx-Chmon). 



BEAUTIFULLY SITUATED, between the Castle and the English Church. 
Highly recommended to English and American Families. Home comfort. Eleotrto Light; 
and Bath Room. Garden lately renovated and improved. Terms moderate. 


HODEBH FIBST-CLiSS HOUSE, opposite tbe Knrsaal. Finest Sltuatloo. 

Eleetrie Uxht In cTcrr room. Hetfs tn either Hotel. 

B. OAISEB FLOBB, Proprietor of tMtb Hotola. 

Montrenx— TEBBITET—Lake of Geneva. 



rpHBBE Eetablisbments, surrounded ^th PatkB wA TW^^^^«xv\»^Y'^'*SnS! 
JL la sbeltend potltionB, afford by their different aVUtude, mv«». 1\v* \xwa«wa* ^A-^^xvuw^ 
intujmenu the mott deglrabJe summer and winter Te«V^ewce, 





SPLENDID First-class Family Hotel. Situated in the most fashionable 
Qaarter, n««r all objects of interest. All modem comforts and improTements. Bloderata 
Charges. Baths. Electric Light throaghont. Hydraulic Lift. VL DIENER, Proprietor. 

MtlRREN (Switzerland). 



OPEN from 1st May to 31st October. Electric Light throughout. Pension 
during the whole Season. Recommended for a protracted stay. Magnificent Tiev. 
Numerous Promenades and Excursions. Post, Telegraph and Telephone. Prospectus on appllcatioa. 

If, QVUTNBR'UEXHKMi Proprietor* 



OPEN all the year round. Quai Parthenope (New Embankment). Splendid 
situation, full South, close to the Pu!)llc Garden and the cpiitro of the town, wHh magnificent 
view of the Bay and Vesuvius. Hydraulic Lift. Electric Light, Telegraph nnd Post Office. Every 
kind of Baths. Moderate Charge.^. No extra Charges for Attendance and Lights. 

R. WAEHLEB, Proprietor, 

PARKCR S B[Ox£Xi (tbamontano/* 

OAA FEET above the Sea, passed by the tram from Posilipo to the Museum^ 

/wU U close to the stations for San Martino and Bai«. The windows look over Vesuvius, Capri, 
and the whole Bay. Ssnitation on latest English principles. All terms made for rooms Include 
Baths, LiglltS, and Attendance. Lift. Electric Light in all Rooms. 



ir^^ST CLASS HOTEL, in an admiraUe po^itiou, ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^?S^ 




SpleuUd VlewB of the oelsbniUd 


OoTVliis An »rt«bt at OTV 1Q4 mUH, 



By means of ElectrlciCj and Bengal Lights the Falh of 
'" - ' ■— night duping the Si 

lUnminated e> ■ . ■ - '- 
ENQLISH DIVIHE 8EBYIGE ia the nan Chnrch, Inoated in the 

Qponndg of the Bchweizerhof. 



Ths lansat Bift-olaaBota),'' 


OSTXND Contlnnedt 




Close to the New Kursaal and the Residence of the Royal Family. 

LEON THOMA, Proprietor. 

uRAND HOTEL LEO POL D II. ^EngUshTraTeUers. BeoownedtoritsOooldng 

Ulinill/ IIUIJJU liUUlUlil/ 111 and Wines. Splendid mtuatioo. HearerttS 

the Baths, Kursaal, and English Ohurch ; close to and with view of the sea. Evety Home Comfort. 
Electric Light throughout. Conversation Boom, with Piano. Beading Boom. Suites <^ Booms for 
Families. Qood and airy Bedrooms, firom 8tt. a day. Fnll Pensfon, three meals, llglit, and 
attendance, from 9fr. a day. Meals at separate tables. Great reduction for families and long stay. 
All demands for arrangements promptly answered. Omnibus at Trains and Steamers. BnglUul 
Attendants. eTdATID ¥AllCirY€iL» Proprietor A Manager (Speaks Engllib). 

SITUATED, Rue d'Ouest, close to the Kursaal and Bathing Place. First- 
class Hotel, recommended for its comfort and moderate fixed prices. Splendid large Dining 
Boom. Breakfast Boom. Conversation and Beading Saloons. English, American, Germa n, ana 
Franch Newspapers. Omnibus and Hotel Porter meet the Train and Steamer. OPEN AU THB 



^jyHM! most FASEiONA.'ELK Hotel and RestaiitaiiX. m ^^ ^Xbaa. ¥l!a«Bt siiuationi 
^^^Ji" ^*^ «°^ <^« BAths, and next to tlie TalMM 01 xacA "B^^s^X^^f^^^ 


08TBND Continued. 




xpiRBT-GLASS ENGLISH FAMILY HOTEL AND PENSION, Green Square, close to tbe So«. 
-^ KnrsMiI, and Ctfsino. Open all the year. Full Board, Is. or Ss. per day, according to tttt 
RooBSt Special arrangements per Week or Month dnrine tbe Winter and Sommer Seaaon. 

N.R^^— The Omnibus of the Hotel conyeys Travellers, free, to and from the Trains and Steaniexi. 

A. I^KCUGRCK, PropTleter* 




8, RUE DE liA PAIX, 8, 

(Place YeMom Place de I'Opera.) 




"I7NTRANCBS 85. Rue Bolssy d'Anglas, and 80, Faubourg St. Honor^v \v%»x^V<s,'\l^^^^'i2>jB!^'*»^ 
^ the Champs Elys^s. Hot Air Stove, large and amaW a.vM\Mi«^\.%^\v:c.\.^H^^^\N»»*^^^^ 
Drawing Rooms, SmoJWng Room. Table d'Hdlc, BotvVce ^*>. \ab CwcV^:^ ^^i^SS^^^S^^** 

p0r day. Board from 7 to 10 francs per day. AftvantageoAx* ^TTtvTv^«SR«oX'^ ''wcv. x^\»». 

rertdence. KngUah and (rerman ppolcf n. 


(Oermany.) PYBMOST-LES-BAINS. (WaMeck.) 


pATEOmnD BT TEB BOTAL FAKZLIBB. Entirely new and oomforUUe ; flnt-rata for FunlUeB «Bi Siacl 
* Gentlemen. The nearfst Hotel to the Springe, the principal Allee, end PromenMlee. The new Mnd Bftthe wil 
be open thii seMon. En^^ish end French spoken. Omnioue to all Traiiu. Pymumt can be reached In 90 honn via 
Floenlnff. Through Tiekete iained at Yictotla Station direct to Pyrmont ria Qaeenboro*, Floehinf (Iiohne, Wamelfc~. 
two servioes per dar. ERIEDJR. VOLKERS* Propiletar* 


FAMOUS First Class Hotel, opposite the Vienna, Dresden, Karlsbad, and 
Breslau Railway Station (no carriages wanted). Very clean and most comfortable apartments 
at Ifl. and upwards. Conversation and Reading Room. Beautiful Garden with Terrace. 
Luminous Fountain. Carriages. Baths. Telephone. V. BENES, Proprietor. 



PETER WIETH, Proprietor. 

RE-OPENED 1st June, 1885. The largest First Class Establishment in 
the town, overlooking three streets. Beautiful building (style Renaissance), with « Granite 
Staircase, and replete with every modem comfort. Superior Cooking, choice Wine, and good 
attendance. Omnibus at the Station. Carriages for Excursions to the ** WalholU.'* English 
Newspapers. Moderate charges. Large Saloon for "Restaurant. * 


MOST Distinguished House in the most elevated and salubrious part of Rome. 
Moderate Charges. Arrangements for protracted stay.*»a« /C RITZ. ttom the Savoy HoteL London.^ 
Managers:—!^ PiiTFER, ftom the Grand Hotel National, Luoome. 



All Modern Comforts. Open all Tear Round. 

P. LUGANI, Proprietor. 

FAMILT HOUSE, oomer Via LuflLo^Vrt. aai^ knrow^ ^^. ^ . ^ 
J^^^&Si?^^ •»* *«H*W«rt poeitKm of Rome, an tt^* ~2!S22 S5wfw?^i«^.^S2^§^Bk 
-V. •nn© ^ad mi,enio<m tea included. "^ . 




ESTABLISHED since 1826. Situated on the River and facing the S«rk. 
Full-sized English Billiard Table. Marble Baths, Hot and Cold. Omnibus meets boats «ad 
trains on application. Pension, Board and Service at £3 Is. per week. 




¥erjr flrst-class and best situated Hotel* 

VIEW on the Seine, Bon Secours, Pont Comeille, and He Lacroix. Near a Post and Telegraph (MBm. 
the Theatre, and the principal Monuments. Large and small Apartments. Choice CnisiiM. 
Renowned Wines. English spoken. Cook's Coupons accepted and abatement of 5 per cent, for an ei^t 
days iBtay. Hcycles may be deposited. Kept by Mm. Ytc RATA Il«i. A RD, 

Formerly proprietren of the Hotel de I'Biirope, at Miosa. 

ST. BEATENBEBG (Canton de Berne, Suisse). 


THE largest and newest, rebuilt, with every modem comfort. Baths and 
Douches. Best Sanitary arrangements, own springs furnishing excellent water. Wood, and nioe 
shady Terraces. Finest sheltered position, in the centre, between Church and Post OfiBoe. Embracing 
the grandest panorama of the Lake of Thun, the Glaciers, and the Mountains of the Bernese Oberland. 
Telegraphic Address : Yxcioria, Beatenbejeio. Branch House : Hotel Belmont, Montrbux. 


ST. GOAS (Rhine). 

rPHIS WELL-KNOWN FIRST-CLASS HOTEL, established over 600 years, and situated on the 
-^ most beautiful part of tlie Rhine, was rebuilt in 1888 and provided with every modem comfort 
for travellers. Large Saloons, Reading Room with English papers, and 64 lofty and airy Bedrooms. 
Hot and Cold Baths. Sanitary arrangements perfect. Splendid views of the Loreley. of the Ruina 
of the Rheinfels. and Cat and Mouse Towers, and surrounding hills. English Church. Moderate 
cliarges. Excellent Cuisine and choice Wines. 




GREAT M0B8KAI, best situation in the Town. Opposite the WltitMC ¥«&>»6,^«irc&\\»ii!b.^<n^k«D^<^^^r^^^^^;^. 
Frospeet. TVamwaycommiuiloatlon through the whole Wim. l^AoiiA\xciisL\t.\A^Bta. ?^^!^'^''^^^^<i^L 'tt^i^iu^ 
BeDpwned Culsiue. Large Beading Boom, with all ExiTOtw»xv ^«ww^v«9c». ^«!<. »»-^ '^^'««e»!«o- >s«»-^ 
jEro^oDt aofifesk and ail Jangoagee spoken. By the same TtoprlcAiOx Vb'kvG>\>vaix«— "C^^^k/ftfe^S^^ 

HOTKt. BSI^JLK VUJE, Just oppoaVXe XYv^i ^Ot^^^^^^ 


Italy. SAN BEMO. Bivieba. 



BEAUTIFULLY and healthfully situated, commanding magnificent views 
of the Town and Sea. Beautiful large garden. Smoking and Billiard Booms, Excellent 
Lawn TenniR Ground. Hydraulic Lift. 

L. BEBTOLIKI, Prop. The same as the Grand Hotel Royal, Courmayenr (Vall^ d'Aoste). 

SCHINZNACH (Switzerland). 






Season, May 16 nntil September 30. 


Bicli Bolplinroiu JErated mnenl 
Springs, effloaciouB for Otaronio ndn 
Diseases, Obronlc Catazrb, Bhmiinattim. 

Fine new Building for Special TraaA- 
ment t>y Inlialations. Itilf cure. 


Beduced prices until June Iff, Pro- 
spectus firee firom 

HANS AMSLEB, Proprietor. 



NEAR the Hotel is a Branch House, newly built expressly for an Hotel, and 
situated fall South. 200 Rooms and Saloons newly furnished with superior comfort. Smoking 
and Reading Rooms. French Cooking. Moderate charges. Special arrangements made for the 
Winter season. Careful attendance under the personal direction of the Manager, Louis Bayuca.. 
Large Garden. Omnibus to and from the Station. Interpreter. 
Note. — The Hotel de Madrid is also the Sleeping Gars Agency in Seville. 



FIRST-CLASS HOTEL, greatly improved and beautifully situated, in cloBe 
proximity to all the principal Establishments. 140 Beds. Vast Saloons and Richly Fumlflihed 
Apartments. Reading Saloon supplied with papers of all countries. Large Smoking Boom. 



^■^S aewfy rebuilt Brst-daaa Hotel, witli modem «wB£oT\.MA.TO!AK^«Bwm»» 
* aS^I^^'"*^ btweeathe Station and fte C»tt«S?^.'''^T^;^iiSS;!*^SS«i^ 

American fiiinines. 

XbVJtKttBkltlittl'S. Sd 



IS situated in the finest part of the town^ in the heautifnl Place Bojal» 
adjoining the Railway Station and the Post OflBce, near to the Theatre and the Royal Garcbis, 
opposite the Palace, and fadng the new Odeon. This Hotel will be f oond most comfortable in eTery 
respect ; the apartments are dl^antly famished and suitable for families or single gentlemen. Table 
d*H6te at 1 and 5 o'clock. French and English Newspapers. H. and O. Mabquabdt, Proprietor!. 

TAMABIS'SUB-MEB (Near Toulon) Var— France. 

NEW Winter Station on the Mediterranean, picturesque and well-wooded, 
facing entrance to Toulon roadstead. Open all the year round. Modem comfort and sani- 
tation. Excellent Cuisine. Frequent communication with Toulon by Land and Sea in 20 minutes. 

Address: VL JUST, Proprietor, GBAMD HOTEL, Tamaris-sur-Mer (Var). 
comnETANdBS »ent to 11EET4 train at toclon. terms moi^eratb. 



"DEST situaticm, near the WatexfaUs: for a long time well known as "HOTBL z. OOHSBN." Erery 
^^ English comfort. Baths. Electrie Id^t Milk Cnre. Omnibus at the Station. Carriages. 
Moderate chuges. Pension. The proprietor gives best information for Excursions in the Black Vontt. 
The HOTXL Wkhblx, not very large bat very comfortable, is hi^^Iy reoo mme nded by Qennan and 
Foreign Guide Books. P. IVElIRIiEf noprtetor* 


Opposite (he Beliwarzwald Hotel (BlAek Forest Hotel). 

TK the immediate neighbourhood of the grand waterfalls. First-class house, OTerlooklng the 
-'- Town and Valley; surrounded by a large garden. Trout fishing. Most excellent Board and 
Accommodation at moderate chaises. English Comfort. Most European languages spoken 
Omnibus and Landau meet all trains. 
AlBERT ROTZlNftEB,. Proprietor, 



FIIIST<^CLASS. Well and conveniently situated in the Via Bomayand 
the Central Station. Sanitary arrangements perfect. ' EA<St&Sk'^s»^l«Aw*^i<^^''^^^ 
Bydranllo LUt. Omnibus to and from allTT&\]iB« 





rpHIS OLD ESTABLISHED FIRST-CLASS HOTEL, situated on the best position of the Grand 
-'' Canal, has just been repaired and greatly impro^d. New rich Dining Room on the ground 
floor overlooking the Grand Canal. E^drauliC Lift. 




NEAR St. Mark's Square, on the Grand Canal, facing the Church of St. 
Maria Salate. 200 Rooms. 20 Saloons. Patronised by English and American Travellers. 

Tbe Splendid Bestanrant "Bauer Gmnwald" connected with the Hotel, ItelonerB to 

the game Proprietor. Post Office in the Hotel. 
See Text, under "Venice," Italy Section. JULIUS ORUNWALD, Senior PiPOp* 



(Near tbe Tannus and Rhine Railway Stations, Post and Telegrapli). 


Newly Enlarged and RenoYated, and affording every comfort 

to English and American Families. 



J*. Solxanltas- 



Formerly HOTEIj BE I.*OVRS. 

'T^IS First-class Hotel, containing 45 Saloons and 236 Bedrooms, with a 

JL separate Breakfast and new Reading and Gonyersation Rooms, as well as a Smoking Saloon, 

a very extensive and elegant Dining Room, and an Artificial Garden over the river, is beaatiftilly 

situated in connection with the Old and New Bath buildings and Conversation House, and in the 

ixDibediate vicinity of the Promenade and Trinkhalle. It is celebrated for its elegant and comfort- 

*bl0ApartmeBt8,good Cuitine and Cellar, and deserves its wide-spread reputation as an e|ic«lltDt 

J^otel, Table d'Hdte at 1 and 6 o'clock. Breakfasts aiv^ &\x.VV^x« ^ la Carte. Exchanire Mce. 

CorrespoDdent of tbe principal Banking Houses of "LonAoti lox \.YvftV«-7vnfci\\.«>l^Ve«t\%xlRtkV«k^^d 

wl^' *^f <^'^it. OmnibuBBB of the Hotel to and Irom ©a.c\v Tt«\u. ^\^^jets.^»!w^^wA*^v 

r^ '"d Cold BAtbe in the Hotel. Lift to every floor . E.xce\\c^Vw^OTa«i'»^'«Jf^- ^ ^^^ 

^^^^^pnoemforRoimB daring tHe moutha ot kvxV1,iim.^««^«»^*«^^^^^**^ 



WILDBAD Continned. 


THIS First-class Hotel is beautifully situated on a terrace facing the new 
Trinkhalle, at the entrance of the Promenade, and within five minutes' walk from the EnffUih 
Church. It is well known for its cleanliness, good attendance, and moderate charges. The 
Cuisine department and Wines will afford satisfaction to the most fastidious taste. A great part of 
the Hotel has been newly furnished, and the drainage entirely reconstructed. Excellent Sitting and 
Bed Rooms, furnished with English comfort. Conversation, Reading, and Smoking Rooms. Ladles' 
Music Room. The Times and other Papers taken in. Warm and Cold Baths in a separate building. 
The Hotel Omnibus meets every Train during the season. Covered communication between iiie 
Hotel and new Bath House. 

7™^^^^^^^ ■ " ■ -- , , , .._«^-l .11. .1 I I I H . . . .«._l.. I. ■ I I . I ^ 


Hotel Baur au Lag 




Patronised by English and American Families. 




FRENCH, GERMAN, \Tk\AM\, ^VK^X^^e^^ 

One Sh.iQia& eoA^x. 

S2 jLtnttittmuistm. 



rpHE OKLY HOTEL on the Island with a Sea View, and is nearest to 




INCLUSIVE TERMS, 6s. 6d. per DAT. 




Charmingly Situated on Sea Shore* 

Recently enlarged. Tariff on application. The only Hotel in Channel Islands 

affording facilities for Sea Bathing. 

A. B. HARDEN, Proprietor* 




Telegrami : GBAMD, JEBBEY. M. de lEIDI, MamMTer. 





Prlee Twelve ftliUlimcft VCVotai^* 

1^. J. AJ>ABfS & SONS, 69, PLTiE,T STKEEiT, l^^UO^,^.^. 









PARIS 58, Rue de Clichy. 

PARIS 4, Place du Theatre frangais (Palais Royal). 

MARSEILLES 38, Rue de la R^pubUquc. 

' BRUSSELS 5, Rue de la Pepini^re. 

ANTWERP 21, Avenue du Commerce. 

COPENHAGEN Frederiksberggade, 26. 

BERLIN 33, Wilhelmsstrasse. 

COLOGNE 22, Kornddienstrassc. 

BASLE 4, Stapfelberg. 

BERNE Naegeliegasse. 

VIENNA 6, EHsabeth Strasse. 

PESTH 4, Deaks Platz. 

PRAGUE Franzen Quai. 

MADRID Leganitos, 4. 

SEVILLE 31, Plaza de la Constitucion. 

LISBON Janellas Verdes, 32. 

ROME 63, Via Due Macelli. 

FLORENCE 22, Via della Vigna Nuova. 

GENOA 9, Via Assarotti. 

MILAN Via Carlo Alberto, 31. 

NAPLES 101, Strada di Chiaia. 

ALGIERS 3, Rue Tanger. 

ST. PETERSBURG ...4, New Isaac Street. 

ODESSA 58, Khersonskaya Street. 

ALEXANDRIA Post Offleft S\x^^\,. 

Hbee InformMon can be obtidned ait mkh ot ^dck!^ ^IX^ri^^ «^^swm^^ 




6ilf Forms. 





^OJf^sTyi'fAm U, ALBERT sa\ik^t.. ■^^^^^^^'^'^^^^ 

**■ Aretraly 

ip- -^Jfc 

\Y Hodlcinag or blessiDg ft relief 

% * to all who are out of honltli. 

V Ik -A-ro yuu BufFsring 

.\ "\ from iDillHOallon, Want of Hnergj, 

■\ AD"0''l'>roJSfoaiD,Gli,LivertronblB, 


m \Vor Lack of Tone ? 


SB V^ Try the Pilla, 

■^J^ and yon will rejoica In 


gU reatored iieolth, atrength, nod appetite. 

y Save you takan oold 


3 Gout or Neuralgu? 


r Ub« tlie Ointmant. 

' It acts lik-a a cliann. For Cuts, Wonnda, 

i^HaX - ^^ 

Bruiaes, SpriLna, and all nmscalkic con- 


tnictioDB, it has no equal. 

I AdTlce gntla^ [it tliB»1)0Teadtlics3, d^Iy, batnco: 

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