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Full text of "Bradshaw's illustrated hand-book to Switzerland and the Tyrol"

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Br Appointment to H. R. H. THE PRINCE OF Wj 



ALIENS PORTMANTEAU 



AND STRONG DRESS BASKI 

87, WEST STRAND, LONDON. 

let Dlistrittl Cttalosie of Rggistenl and FattDtsl iiUcles, I 
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LONDON: m{L|» MANCHESTER 

, FLEET STREET. E.C. -iSIB*- ILBERT SQUARE 

SRADSHAW'S RAILWAY GUIDES, &o, 



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CONTINENTAL HAND-BOOKS. 



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BRADSHAW'S 



ILLUSTRATED HAND-BOOK 



TO 



IWITZERLAND AND THE TYROL; 



WITH MAPS AND ENGRAVINGS. 



NEW EDITION. 



TiONDON : 
W. J. ADABfS & SONS (BRADSHAW'S GUIDE OFFICE). 89, FLEET STREET, £.0.; 

MANCliRSTER:— HKNUY BLAOKLOCK 4 CO., ALBERT BQUABB ; 
And SUEFFIBLD:— 31. PaMatb; 
>L:— W. H. SMITH ft SON. «!. Oai.k Strkkt; BIRMINOHAM:— W. H. SMITH * SON, SS. UiriOKJ 
IBTON:— H. * C. TREACHER. 1. Nurth Strmkt; SOUTHAMPTON: -COX * SHARLAND, Hios STMcn; 
XDINBUB0H:-J0HN MBNZIBS * CO.. 12. Hamovvr Strkbt: GLASGOW :— JOHN MENZIES 4 CO.. 
90. WfcST NiLR Strkkt; JAMES RBID. 144. Aroylb Street (for Adrta. in Scotland); 
DUBLIN :— CAR90N BROTHERd. 7. Oraftok Strkkt (6 Dooita from NAaaAU Struct): 
" PARIS:— Thk G align ANI LIBRARY. 224, Ruk DK Rivou ; BRBNTANO. 17. AvKVDK dk l'Opuu; 
.BBU88BLS:— HANQUBT 4 YANDER8TERN (Braimhaw's Guide OrrioK). 6. Pamaob dkk Ponn, 

fBouLKTARO Avspaoh; 
. JM>XB:-.ALINARI * COOK. 90. Tia dkl' Corbo; GENEVA :-H. STAPBLMOHB 94. ComsAnuB; 
ZURICH:— U. F. LEUTHOLD. Ruk dbs Ponsi A Cotb db l'Hotbi. Bavb; 
GERMANY:— J. F. KOSHLER, Lbipkio: 
PORT SAID:— J. HORN; ALEXANDRIA AND CAIRO:— U. Y'ES^KSARr&N 
XTKITBD STATES :-CHARLES SCRIBNB& k BO^A. 14& jotd Itt, ^vusvukx^ 19^v« n<s«x:\ 

BRENTANO, 6, Uirtov Bquakk, 'Svir "^qkb.; _ ^^^ 

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189A. 

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INTRODUCTION. 



SwnzERLAiTD (the land of the Switzers; GermsLU JSchweiz ; 'French, La Suisse ; 

Itsliaii, Xa Svizzera) is the cnlminating ridge of the mountains hordering on France, 

Germany, Austria, and Italy ; including the head water-systems of the Bhone, Khine, 

. Aar, and Inn. Into these all the other streams run ; except the Ticino, which falls 

into Lake Maggiore. 

SuBVACB. — ^Ahout 220 miles by 110 miles, or an area of 15,720 square miles ; equal 
to about half of Scotland. From B&le to Monte Kosa (about 100 mQes) there is a 
total rise of 14,000 feet — a rise divided by naturalists into seven Kegions, or more 
generally into four: 1. — ^The Jura region, mostly on the west and north-west or French 
border, extending in parallel ridges through Neuch&tel and Soleure to Bdle and 
Aiurgau, about 150 miles. They are clothed with pine and other timber. 2. — The 
.Plainj so called, though covered with hills, 150 miles by 50 miles, extending from the 
Iiake of Oeneva through Fribourg and Bern, to the river Aar. 8. — The HiUy region 
of north and central Switzerland, having the Rigi and Lakes for its centre. 4. — ^The 
Alpine or Mountain region, south of Interlaken and Brienz, consisting of deep valleys, 
between high mountains, marked by coniferous trees, and by corresponding differ- 
ences of climate, so that winter and summer are seen close together. 

The great ridge of the High Alps in Switzerland extends from Mont Blanc along 
thie Italian frontier, to the Tyrol, having its centre at St. Grothard, near the sources 
of the Bhdne and Bhine. From here the Lower Alps of the Oberland strike off 
west past the Jungfrau, &c., along the north side of the Bhdne. Wheat and oats 
grow to the height of 4,300 feet; barley grows to 5,100 feet; oaks grow to 
8,500 feet; pine to 6,500 or 7,000 feet; pasture is found at 6,000 to 8,000 feet; 
snow line at 8,000 to 8,500 feet. Timber forests are estimated to cover l-6th of 
the surface. Among the wild animals are the chamois and lammergeyer, ger- 
falcon, lynx, wild cat, brown bear, weasel, polecat, and hog or wild pig. The last 
Iftmmergeyer was killed in 1887. Yellow and blue flowers predominate. Those near 
the snow and glaciers belong to the families of the rose, campanula, saxifrage, 
nmuncnlns, ana gentian. 

The Swiss High Alps are classified into — 1st, Pennine Alps, from Mont Blanc to 
the Matterhom and Monte Bosa, including the Passes of Great St. Bernard and St. 
Th^odule. 2nd, Helvetic Alps, from Monte Bosa to the Bemhardin, or Bernardino 
Pass, in the Orisons ; taking in the Passes of the Simplon, St. Gothard, and Lukmanier. 
3rd, Rhaetic Alps, from the Bemhardin eastward ; taking in the Passes of the Splligen, 
Septimer, Maloya, Julier, Albula, Fluela, and Stelvio, or Wormser Joch. Highest 
points are the Mischabelhomer (Dom and Tasch) and the Matterhom or Mont Cervin. 
Mont Blanc is outside Switzerland proper, on the border line of French Savoy and 
Italy. The highest point of the Alps, actually within Swiss territory, is the Dom, 
one of tbe Misdiabelhomer, near Monte Bosa, 14,985 feet high. BhododendrQn& «&<&. 
seen in sommer on the Col de Balme, 6,000 feet hi^. 

GxAciBKf. -About l-lSth oi the surlw^ia <ia^«t^^\fe.«Ms^2;s^^^^'^^^^^ 
number oi 400 1 ih^ largest, Uxe Al^MwYi Wjwhwt-wwt ^^ B.^»eKassts^>^ 



W» IKfRODtJCMol*. 

long. They form an ley sea of 1,000 square miles, and are the great feeders of tt 
rivers. They are marked by lines of rubbish and stones, called moraines, which fa 
from the rocks above and are gradually transported to the lowlands by the melting < 
ice. On the Lake of Garda is a moraine 35 miles long. For a very complei 
account of the Geology of this country refer to the introduction to Ball's Alpit 
Guide. A sort of anthracite coal is found at Chandolin, near Sion ; Coupeau, net 
Chamouni ; at Vernayaz and in the Valley of the Aar ; but no true coal is f oun 
in Switzerland. Asphalte is found at Val de Travers. 

Switzerland is also pre-eminently a land of Lakes, the principal of which are tli 
Lake of Constance; Lake of Geneva, or Lake Leman, 50 miles by 9 miles ; Lake < 
Ziirich, 25 miles by 3 miles ; Vierwaldstatter See, or Lake of Lucerne, 23 miles by 1 
miles; and the Lake of Neuch^tel, 27 miles by 6 miles; with the Lakes of Bienn 
Thun,Brienz, Zug, Wallenstadt, and some smaller ones, as Morat, Sempach, Sarnei 
Egeri, Greiffen, Ffaffikon, &c. On the Italian side are Lakes Maggiore, Lugan' 
and Como. Most of them are traversed by steamboats. On many are found trac< 
of ancient Lake Habitations ; remains of which in the museums at Geneva. Ber; 
Ziirich, &c., include articles in stone, bones of the bison and elk, portions of net 
fishing implements, garments, &c. Remains of pile houses have been discovered i 
Concise, in Lake Neuch&tel ; Nidau, in Lake Bienne ; Gu^vaux, in Lake Mora 
Morges and Hermance, in the Lake of Geneva, and also opposite the city; Bau 
chanz, Lake of Ziirich; Robenhausen, Lake Ffaffikon; Nussdorf and Wangen, i 
Lake Constance. — See Dr. Keller's Lakt Dwellings of Switzerland, 1856. . 

Waterfalls. — Some of the most striking are, the Rhine, at Schaffhausen, 80 fe< 
down, and 30O feet broad; Aar, at Handeck; Stanbbach and Pletschbach, i 
Lauterbrnnnen ; Schmadribach, at Miirren; Reichenbach, nt Meiringen; Gies 
bach, at Brieoz; Seerenbach and Baierbach, in Lake Wallenstadt; Schreienbac 
near Stachelberg ; Saane, near Gsteig ; F^lerins, in Bossons Glacier, near Chamoun 
Fissevache, near Martigny ; Fianazzo, near tha Spliigen ; Toccia or Tosa, in V 
Formazza, near the Simplon ; and the Ache, in the Upper Finzgau. As regards tl 
heights, the only reliable authority is the " Eidgenossische Karte " of the district, ( 
which the heights above sea at top and bottom are given. 

FoiNTS OP View. — ^For distant prospects of Alpine Feaks — Col de la Faucill 
near Mt. Reculets and Mt. Dole, above St. Cergue ; both near Geneva. Chaumoii 
above Nench&tel. The Weissenstein, above Soleure. The Hauenstein, above Oltc 
The Uetliberg, near Zurich. The Albis, between Zurich and Zug. Rigi, betwe< 
Zug and Lucerne. Faulhorn and Bothhom, near Brienz. The Gornergrat, ne 
Zermatt. Stockhorn, near Thun. Monte Salvatore, near Lake of Lugano. Tl 
Kamor or Stoss, near Gais, in Appenzell. From the Observatory at Turin, &c., &c 

Tours in Switzerland. — The most common approaches are by way of B&le ai 
Schaffhausen, through Germany to the Lake of Constance, and Geneva or Ne 
ch&tel. The Round should begin with B&le, &c. ; thence to Ziirich, Lucerne, ai 
the Oberland, &c., ending with Mont Blanc and Geneva. In this way the scale 
magnitude increases to the end ; whereas, if you begin with Mont Blanc, all the re 
is dwarfed by it. A Direct Route from London through France is now open via Cala 
Boulogne, Amiens, Laon, Reims, Belfort, to Bale, for Geneva, Berne, Lucerne, & 
A favourite Route is vid Paris to Dijon, Fontarlier, Yallorbes (source of the Orl 
F^ of the Orbe or Saute du Dais), Grotte des F^es, and up the Dent du Vauli< 
Cr/etr of Mont Blanc), thence to l^&a du Joux, Nyon, and Geneva. This Is the b< 
Jva^ wjbp^ *%llft/ec# h onlyAo 9^ the Moat Blejwi aaa\«v^V 



INTBODUCTIOXr. V- 

IfOir]>oir TO BoTTBBDAH, OsTBND, OR AifTWEBP, Cologne, Frankfort, Freiburg-in- 
Bnif gau and B&le ; or b^ Great Luxembourg Railway, from Brussels (without change 
to B&e), vid Namur, Metz, Strassburg, and B&Ie. From B&le proceed to Schaff- 
liaiuen, Constance, Rorschach, St. Gall, Appenzell and the Sentis. Weissbad, 
Bennewald, Ragatz, and Baths of Pfaffers. Wallenstadt, Coire (for the Via Mala, St. 
Moritz, and the Engadin), the Spliigen, Chiavenna and Lake Como (or Bellinzona 
aJtid Lake Maggiore), Wesen, Ra])per8chwyl, Ziirich, Zug, Goldau, Rigi, Lucerne and 
Bay of Uri; Fluelen, Altorf and the Todi, Devil's Bridge or TeufelsbrUcke, on 
the Beuss, ^Andermatt, Goschenen Gorge, St. Gothard, and Airolo (for Lake 
Maggiore and Milan), Furca, and Gries Passes, at the heads of the Rhone and 
Rhine ; Grimsel Hospice, Joch Pass and Meyringen, Brunig Pass (to Samen and 
Xincome), Brienz and the Gies^ach, Scheideck Pass, Faulhom, Grindelwald, Lauter- 
bmnnen, the Jungfrau, Monch, &c. ; Kanderthal in the Oberland, Gemmi Pass and 
Baths of Leuk, Brieg and the Simplon (for Domo d'Ossola and Lake Maggiore) ; 
Visp (for Zermatt, Monte Rosa, the Matterhom, &c.); Sierre, Rawyl Pass, An-der- 
Lenky Slmmenthal, Intcrlaken, Thun, Berne, Solothurn (Soleure), Weissenstein, 
Bienne, Neuch&tel, Morat, Avenches (the ancient Aventicumj the capital of Helvetia 
or West Switzerland), Fribourg, Lausanne, Geneva, Vevey, Bex, Martigny (for Great 
St. Bernard and Aosta), Tcte Noire, Col do Balme, Chamouni, and Mont Blanc f 
Montanvert, Sallenches (for Chambery and Annecy) ; Geneva (for the Lake and 
the Juras) ; Lyons, Paris, and London. 

From the North of England, vid Grimsby, by the Manchester, Sheffield, and 
Lincolnshire Railway Company's Steamers; and vid Hull and Antwerp, by 
the Wilson Lino of Steamers. From Newcastle or Leith, by Steamer, to 
Ahtwbrp, Rotterdam, &c. See Bradshavo'a Continental Guide, for the Month, 
imd Skeleton Routes, page 1 of the present volume. 

Ateraob Cost of Living. — In Switzerland the traveller can manage to live for 
from 8 francs to 10 francs per day, excluding all charges for conveyances, horses, 
guides, &c. A pedestrian tourist can travel for about 7 francs, provided he knows 
German and French. 

Hotel Expenses. — At the best hotels. Table d'Hote Dinner, at 1 o'clock, costs 
8 to 4 francs. Second Dinner at 5 o'clock, 4 to 5 francs. Breakfast or Tea, 1^ 
francs. Bed, 1 to 2 francs. Sitting room 4 to 8 francs. Attendance, i franc per 
head for a party. Pension (board at hotels) from 6 francs a day. If possible, tourists 
should travel in parties (two or four are the best numbers, as they exactly fill either 
a one-horse or two-horse voiture) and make all their arrangements over night. 

Time for Travelling. — The latter part of June, July, August, and September, 
are the best months for a tour. June is very pleasant ; the flowers are in bloom, 
bat the snow is unsafe. For the mountains, August is certainly the best. The three 
months from July to September are sufficient to explore the country, allowing three 
or four weeks of doubtful weather. Switzerland, the traveller must remember, is a 
mountainous country and therefore subject to much cloud, rain, and snow. It is 
pre-eminently a pedestrian country — a country to be walked over by him who wishes 
to make anything like a real acquaintance with it. He should train himself at first 
by short walks, gradually lengthening. Winter visitors speak of the great heat 
experienced in the day time, at places where intense cold is expected. The chief 
drawback at that season is the want of water. 



Hikts.— Cold water, Ac, should not be ta\Leiv Viv ^«t«^.^«^^^'^^'^^^A^?!^f^^^ 



unrrs. — yjoia waier, etc., snouLO uoi oe \asjeiv \iv vwi^'a ^^«»xaxvw 'o^ ^^^--~- 
hfifitfid^ ^nd particularly when much fat\gne^. 'fi^o Vcvi€\^x ^^>^^ -aNNi^ss^ 



tL nmoDOCTioN. 

a glacier without a ffnide, to whom he ii attached bj a stont rope, and who in all easei 
should take the lead. Take i>aper, pens, Ink, and soap, as they are articles difficult 
to-be met with. A stroni;^ alpenstock is indispensable upon a mountain jonrnej. Take 
as little luggage as possible, but do not omit a good water-proof coat or a plaid. 
Other usefal articles are light woollen clothes, half-boots, canvas gaiters, doeskin 
glores, dark spectacles and a gauze yeil, as protectors against the snow. For frost- 
bite, rub the part with snow, not with anything warm ; the pain, if any, shows that 
the flesh is not dead. The pedestrian will find it a great refreshment to gire himself 
a thorough wash with soap and water. Butter is a good antidote to thirst ; a lump 
can be carried in your bread (Ball's Alpine Guide). Cold tea and chocolate cakes 
are useful. 

A small phial of cold cream or glycerine is useful for rubbing the face and hands 
when sunburnt, or for the feet when blistered. Rowland's Kalydor is iJso good. 
Homoeopathic Tincture of Arnica is a yaluable remedy for any sprain or bruise, and 
a small bottle is a desirable addition to the tourist's equipments. For sore feet, rub 
in a little brandy mixed with a few drops of grease ; or put a bit of greased paper 
next the skin. 

Tbaksport of Luggaob. — ^Luggage conveyed to any part of Switzerland or the 
neighbouring countries. All luggage is charged for ; the charge is by weight, at a 
low rate. This mode of transit is the safest and speediest. Heavy articles should 
be sent, if time be no object, by " Train commerce** on Railways. 

CoNYBTAWCBS. — Diligcuces, belonging to Government, and generally canyinff the 
mails, traverse all the chief roads. There is a printed official tariff and tabled the 
diligence and post service for every " Post-Kreis," which is put up conspicuously for 
public information at every post station, and frequently at the hotels. This contaiu 
the following information : — 

A list of the routes, with the passenger service. 

The kind of vehicle and number of places. 

The distances from one station to another. 

The tariff of fares. 

Details respecting additional vehicles and the terms on which they are supplied. 

Regulations (the book can be obtained for 1 franc) are in force respecting non« 
admission of epileptic or insane persons, or invalids suffering from infectious disorden^ 
blind people (except under charge of others), riotous, drunken, or dirty people, those 
carrying loaded fire-arms or explosives, dogs and other animals. 
Smoking is only allowed by consent of all the passengers. 

Owing to regulations as to providing additional vehicles, it is advisable to be at tliA 
post station to secure places, say an hour and a quarter before the time of starting, ani 
in case of large markets, annual festivals, &c., at least two hours beforehand. ChildreB 
are free under two years, and pay half price from two to seven. Return tickets (ndt 
transferable) are good for two dajs, and are about 10 per cent, lower than two single 
fares. They do not confer any right of precedence over single tickets on the retnni 
journey. If places have been taken, and the travellers are prevented from goingi 
notice must be given two hours before starting time, so as to get the date altered, or 
(in case of sudden illness) the fare returned. Precedence is given according to the 
namber of the ticket, 
^^-?«5«»3^^ magi be paid for, and no luggage taken VuAo \.\v^ ^ft\:^'c\fi» ^ii<c«\vt iniisn - 
^^i^^fi^f^ wfi/cA will not mcommode passengeTS. Xiu^ga^^VftxtfiX. \c^\)i^\!ikbM^^V 
^^^wc?/«r orpoetUUon, but given m ftt tlie poet-lio\i^^ Xo Xj'^ ^^\^^> 



iNTBOBironov. r\L 

With regard to eortra'post vehicles there are some special regulattons which shonld 
be earef ullj studied. Swiss officials are punctilious in small matters. EspeciAl caro 
must be taken not to detain drivers bevond the time allowed, as in such case they axe 
entitled to an extra payment, and will certainly demand it. 

Three or four travelling together will find it more convenient to hire a prtifai4 
conveyance (voiture, einspanner, zwei spanner, vetturq); charge, with one horse (two* ' 
persons), 12 francs a day; two horses (five persons) 20 francs, besides 1 franc per 
horse to driver. Return fare must also be paid. The hiring should be done through 
the hotel-keeper. A voiturier will do 35 to 45 miles a day. The traveller should 
ascertain whether a return carriage may not be in the town, before hiriog one 
belonging to the place ; but in the height of the season return carriages are charged 
higher. Usual prices for a horse or mule, 6 francs; sometimes 8 to 10 francs and 
haJLf-pay for the return journey. Muleteers, 3 francs a-day ; and the same for return^ ' 
Steamers navigate all the chief lakes. 

Railways. — The country is now well provided with Railways (1,960 miles in 
1889). The carriages are excellent. The 1st class carriages are most luxuriously 
fitted up with every convenience; and the 2nd class are roomy, and admirably 
adapted to enable the traveller to view with ease and comfort the scenery of the 
country. Geneva time is 15§ minutes before French time; Berne time (by which 
the railways are timed), 20 minutes. Short lines run to the Bigi from Lakes Lucerne 
and Zug. An extension is projected from Coire to the St. Gothard line hear 
Bellinzona. The line from B&le and Ziirich to Milan runs via Altorf, through 
the St. Gothard, by a tunnel of 9^ miles. Another is projected under the 
Simplon. Luggage, such as a portmanteau, can be forwarded by "grande vitesse" at 
a cheap and expeditious rate ; but the traveller should not send anything valuable 
this way. Return tickets, saving 20 to 40 per cent, are granted on many lines. On 
the principal lines circular tickets (see Bradshaw*s Continental Guide, page 381), 
available as a rule for 40 days, are issued at most stations, four hours notice being 
required and full information afforded. 

Guides. — ^As a general rule, they are absolutely necessary in mountain excursions 
at any other times than the months named for a tour, since the paths are liable to be 
obliterated by snow. Their almost invariable honesty and good temper render them 
on all occasions useful. Travellers should always make a bargain beforehand with 
guides for such excursions ; the hiring should be done through the landlord. ' Average 
pay, 6 francs a-day, and half for the return journey. In many cases there is a fixed 
tariff. They will carry 25 lbs. of luggage. Porters, 3 to 5 francs a-day. 

Monet. — Same name and value as French. English sovereigns are taken at the 
Swiss towns at a value of 25 francs. English circular notes are exchanged at all the 
chief places of resoit in the country. There is little Swiss gold coin ; French, 
Italian, and Belgian pieces are taken. Silver: Swiss, French, and Belgian. Of 
Italian silver coins, only 6-franc pieces are accepted. 

Weights and Measures. — Kilometre =: 5-8ths mile ■=. nearly 5 furlongs. Stunde, 
DT hour's journey = 2^ to 3 miles izr a league. Post = 3 stunden. Paris foot = 
1-066 English foot ; Swiss foot z= 11 in. 10 lines. Swiss lb. (Pfund) =: J kilogramme 
= 1 lb. 1^ oz. English. 

Wines. — "The best vin ordinaire is the Veltliner. It is ^eiMw:«.VV5 ^s^ \s!i. V'*^ xs^ 
North Switzerland. Have it drawn iroia tV^ cw^:'— U. a. C, ^C^'Csx'et '«*J^^;^2 
are :—WaadaUnder and WftlUser ^^rYiitftY T^WVt^wwsc ^\^^ '^s^^^sS&ossajet Vjs^^^^ 
wIfUo wd red Nmck&teh 



'it.'^.\ir^yy\'. JjtrtLk tl'nr^i nniverfftl in North and West Swilierlaiid. Tnil 
y hrt.y. Ms', y, 4jr- • »,$^ lifurtfhuT*, an'l 34 renti per word. In Switxerimnd, 80 
V't^f^',/.* fcu^ t^rA 2) '.-fit* i*^r woni. In I8«*J there were 4,450 miles, with 



'r;*:^'^^ 



1,111 






:^»rftr* ^ov.-: -^^ u^:'\r*r*%^A " Toitc Ilefltantc'* (to be called for), or throHgli i 
ii.r.«» ** • •.■■>. ;• .# •,»-•• «rr to I«-«ve out *'KHq.,** which is not nnderatood abciMi 



•-* 'jK «' • ."': ' M'/f;».»; if " or •• Mr." 



*'. 4 r 'vr * . '; r *",• y-t wo : Oirf.t: b^ifijf 'liTiflcd into two (lections each. Berne, Valaii^ 
'ytt^^'.t ♦•• :/ Ur ?:.•: l*r;":ft: Valiiiii, (tcncvs, Vaud. Neuoli&tel, Berne, BAIe, an 
'^ •'.-• ir'irf,". v.»-r«'f ■ J5i>. Aaraii, Ziiricli, Schnffhaiiscn, Tharfiran, on the Germsa 
•*>'^:''« -,' i;iu.yT. V.' .rt^rfriSTt'. an'] liavaria; St. Gall, and Grisons, on theboidcn 
V /. vv" . •. '; ,f', V*.*.*, '|«-«»tiri ''or Tirino), ami Grisons, on the Italian border. 




/v^*iA/: V, *.:.*:. f i/fiz^.ut. nutu)t*:r. KhcIi in itself is an independent state, subject to 
tr.* *A:t.'fu, x:*u*ii.*y i't w*r and religions matters. Another revision of ths 
C'/'.n.t '.*.'.'. t/y/k ]/.«/«-. J>74; wliirn tlic I'apal Nuncio received his passport ii 

CAJfTOirg, WITH K^rULATION AND NUMBER OF MEKBBRS OF COmiOXL:- 



C A 1*7 O.N H. 



j{.jf..'.»l 

lJ*:rri*. */f iJi-rfi 

{M*.*ru*i. or l^ux*irn 
:r\ 



fkhwyt«, or ri':hTry* ; 

rnl«-w.Id«. - ^)Xii,r; Btanz, Ac.) 

r;iftra« 

Zoif 

VriiMMurKi or Frcfhurf^ 

K'At:urt. or .SoMhum 

»AI« -^ ^'"« 

I CftDipafcne (Liestal, Ac.) 

8c}iafni«nfen 

Appenzell -J j„j^^,^, 

St. Gallen 

Orisons, or Graublinden (Coire, Ac.) 

Ar;{^OTie, or Aarfirau (Aarau, Brugg, Ac.) . 
ThurgoTle, or Thurgan (Francnfeld, Ac). 
Teflsin, or Tlcino (Lugano, Locano, Ac.) . 

Vaud (Lausanne, Vevey, Ac.) 

ValalH, or Wallis (Martigny, Sion, Ac.) .... 

Neuchfttel (Chanx-de-FoniU, Ac.) 

Oeoera. 



Population 
1888. 

" 3H9;dl4~ 

639.971 

13A,780 

17,384 

60,896 

19,524 

15,032 

3.3,800 

23,120 

119,662 

86,720 

62,133 

74,251 

87,879 

64,200 

12,906 

229,441 

96,291 

193,8-28 

105,091 

127,274 

251,288 

101.925 

109,047 

Total ^ «i,«a%^^^•l 



Members 

of 
ConncU. 



IS 
f7 

7 
1 
S 
1 
1 
2 
1 
6 
4 
S 
S 
3 
S 
1 

10 
6 

10 
6 
7 

12 
S 
6 
6 



\^& 



INTRODUCTION. ix. 

The proTisional census for 1888 shows an increase of about 86,000 since 1880, on 
the total population, of which 1,725,000 were Protestants, mostly in the Cantond of 
\' Ziirich, Yaud, Schaffhausen, Glarus, B&le, Appenzell, and Thargau; and 1,1 90,000 
[ Catholics, mostly in the remaining Cantons. 2,695,750 were Swiss-bom. As respects 
[ IiAKGUAGE, 2,092,530 were German-speaking in fourteen Cantons on the North and 
North-East, as far as Sierre; 638,000 French-speaking in the Cantons on the West 
(viz., Valais, Fribourg, Neuch&tel, Geneva, Vaud) ; 156,600 Italian- speaking (in 
Ticino or Tessin) south of the Alps ; 38,370 Romansch-speaking in the Grisons, 
next to Tyrol. The Komansch is a curious remnant of provincial Latin ; several 
newspapers are published in this dialect. French, the official language, is understood 
nearly everywhere. As regards origin : the population of the Rhoitian Alps are 
Ostrogoths ; of French Switzerland, Burgundian ; Schwyz, Uri, and Unterwalden, 
Frisians ; the remainder Alemanni and Franks. See under Lake Dwellings, next page. 

Manupacturbs. — At Neuch&tel, watches; Geneva, silk, lace, jewellery, watches, 

S musical-boxes, and cutlery; Ziirich, silks and mixed goods; St. Gall, embroidered 
muslins; Schaffhausen, steel goods; Berne, linen, watches, &c. Watches, one 
^ 'of the staple productions, are made in Cantons Neuch&tel, Berne, Vaud, and 
M Geneva, employing 38,000 persons, one- third being women. About 1 ,600,000 watches, 
2 worth 88 millions of francs, are made annually ; of which 35 per cent, are from 
i| Neuchatel. The best are made in Geneva ; common ones in Borne. They suffer 
I from the competition of American machine-made watches. Though ordinary English 
I watches make no head against the Swiss, yet English chronometers are reckoned 
J the best in the world. 

I Government. — A Federal Assembly, or Legislative body, consisting of a National 
\ Council of 145 members (one for 20,000 population); and a Council of States, of 44 
F members — two for each Canton. A Federal Council or Executive of seven members, 
I, is nominated by the Assembly for three years, under a President and Vice-President, 
t elected annually, seated at Berne, where the Foreign Ministers reside ; a Federal 

'_ Tribunal, or Judicial body, is nominated for three years. Army (1890), 207,240, in 

nine divisions; of whom 126,000 are regulars, from 20 to 32 years of age; the 

remainder are reserve of 33 to 44 years of age. There are 148,227 infantry, 12,572 

\ riflemen, 28,141 artillery, 6,740 cavalry. To these must be added the Landsturmj 

! obligatory up to 50 years. Navy — represented by 86 mercantile steamers, of 3, 500 

t horse-power, on the lakes. Universities. — Three, at Berne, B&le, Ziirich ; and 

an Academy, with the rank of an University, at Geneva. There are Bishops at 
Bale, Coire, Fribourg, St. Gall, and Sion. Latterly, the army and public instruction 
have been brought more immediately within the control of the central authority. 
Federal Revenue and Expenditure, about jC2,39O,000. Most of the burdens of the 
State are borne by the respective Cantons. 

Newspapers — About 450 are published, many of them being of a literary or 
scientific character only. Two-thirds are in the German language; 15 Italian; 
3 Romansch ; the rest French. 

A Tir Federal (National Shooting Match) is held every two years. Wrestling 
matches, or Schwingfeste, are also held at Lauterbrunnen, Meyringen, &c. The^Bjaxvru 
des Vaches is a kind of musical call used by the people tc> wsototv^xsl S5a& ^i^-^% V^-wScisl^ 
to be milked. It differs in different places, \>ut \a BX-'wft.i^ «. '^^Vr. Os^«s»kN'=!^^>««^' 
If,J? — 411 gaming tables in Switj^eirlaT^d w^T^ cVo*^^ V^ ^^'I'V* 



Z. IHTR0D1TCTI0N. 

Swiss Lakb-Dwellxngs. — In his careful inyestigations of pile dwellings, Dr^ 
Stnder met with two extreme t3rpe8 of skullB, the hrachycephatic and the doliho^ 
cephalic; the former, at Schaffis and Luschery (Lake of Bienne), belonging to the 
pure Stone 'period, and the latter, at Vinolz and Sntz, to the Bronze period. The 
facts point to an inyaaion by the Bronze men, involving a complete transformation of 
the group of domestic animals ; the horse appears for the first time, and new races of 
sheep and dogs replace the older forms of the Stone period. The occurrence of 
mesocephaltCf and even considerably shortened skulls, in the Bronze period, shows that 
there was np extinction of the brachycephali9 race, but that the two races mixed. 
This mixture increases the difficulty of tracing back the skull forms of the modem 
population. Dr. Studer suggests that the Rhaetian short-headed type may be referred 
to the old lake dwellers of the Stone period, in which case the prevalent dark hair, 
eyes, and skin of the present natives of the Grisons may recall the aspect of the 
older prehistoric race. There is also a large population of dark people round about 
the lakes in Canton Berne. 

Books. — Some useful authorities are: — Alpine Club's Peaks, Passes, and 
Glaciers ; Alpine Highways and Byeways, by Mrs. Freshfield ; Glaciers of the Alps^ 
by Ttndall ; High Alps "without Guides, by Girdlestone ; Illustrations of the Passes 
of the Alps, by Brockedon ; Italian Valleys of the Alps,hy Kino ; Lake HabitcUions, 
by Dr. Keller (translated by G. Lee), second edition ; Mountaineering, by Ttndall; 
On Foot through the Tyrol, by W. White ; Physicia»*s Holiday, by Sir J. Forbes ; 
Summer Tour in the Grisons, by Mrs. Freshfield ; ITie R*>gular Swiss Jiound, by 
Jones ; Tour of Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa, by Prof. J. D. Forbes ; Tour round 
Monte Rosa, by a Ladt; Wanderings in the High Alps, by Wills; Scrambles in 
the Alps, by Whtmpbr; Walk in the Grisons, by F. B. Zinckb (an account of 
Swiss peasant proprietors); The Pioneers of the Alps, by C. D. Cunningham and 
W. Abnet, R.B., p.R.s. ; Whtmpbr's Ascent of the Matterhom; Devit's Above the 
Snow Line ; Gremli's Flora of Switzerland, for the use of Tourists and Field Botanists 
(D. Nutt). 

Maps. — Swiss Government Survey ; Leuthold's, Keller'* s, and others. The Alpins 
Club's Map, on a scale of 1 to 250,000, extending into the nei^rhbouring countries 
of France, Austria, and Italy, gives points of view, battle sites, out-of-the-way 
inns, routes over by-paths and glaciers, lake-dwellings and antiquities. The Swiss 
Government M<xp, by Gen. Dnfour, is on the larger scale of 1 to 10,000; but is 
confined to Switzerland proper. 

Couriers. — ^Apply to Messrs. W. J. Adams & Sons, 59, Fleet Street. 

Passports are now again asked for in Switzerland, they are absolutely necessary 
for English residents ; were this not so, they are always useful on the Continent, If 
only as a proof of identity, and to claim registered letters. If passing through any 
part of Germany, the German Visa is indispensable. 

Customs Duties. — ^Travellers with cigars, or new (unworn) cotton and woollen 
dresses, should declare them on passing the frontier. 



IHTBODUOnOM. 



XI. 



SWISS MOUNTAINS AND PASSES. 

Heights aboye sea level. 

A]p=inonntain pasture; Sennhtttte or Chftlet=cattle shed. 

CoI=Pass; Aiguille, Tiz, or Hom=Peak. 



Eng. feet. 
JRffgi»ehh'hn and Aletsch Glacier (Yiesch)... 9,650 

Aletschhom 18,808 

Albula Pass (St. Moritz) 7,600 

Altel8(Leuk) 11,925 

Balme, Col de (Chamouni) 7,230 

Bernard, Great St, Pass (Martigny) 8,180 

Bemina Pass (St. Moritz) 7,600 

Blanc, Mont (Chamouni) 15,780 

Bliimlis Alp (Kandersteg) 12,040 

Bonhomme, Col du (Mont Blanc) 8,125 

Breithom (Oberland) 12,380 

BrunigPass (Meyringen) 3,650 

Calanda (Coire) 9,215 

Cents M. Pass 6,280 

Chat (Aix-le Bains) 5,300 

Chasseral (Bienne) 6,280 

Chaumont (Keuchfttel) 3,845 

Cima de Jazzi (M. Rosa) 12,525 

Colon M. (Cogne, Italy) 12,265 

Combin (M. Bosa) 14,166 

Dent du Midi (Martigny) 10,460 

Dent de Morclfes (Martigny) 9,640 

Diablerets or Teufel8h6mer, M.) .t,,,x (10,665 
„ „ Pass; ^"^^^ — t «,600 

Distelhom (M. Rosa) '. 12,970 

Ddle M, (Geneva) 6,520 

Eiger (Grlndelwald) 13,046 

EngelhUmer (Rosenlaui) 11,000 

Faulhom (Grindelwald) 8,800 

Finsteraarhom (Oberland) 14,026 

Furca Pass and Rhone Glacier (Andermatt) . 7,990 

Fltlela (Weisshom) 10,135 

„ Pass (Engadin) 7,890 

G^ant, Aiguille du (Chamouni) 13,185 

Gemmi Pass (Leuk) 7,665 

Glamisch, Hinter (Glarus) 9,586 

Gletscherhom (Kanderthal) 10,190 

Gothard, St., Pass (Andermatt) 6,986 

Grands Mulets 10,010 

Grauehomer (Sargans) 9,340 

Great St. Bernard ...i 8,130 

GriesPass (Viesch) 8,050 

Grimscl Pass (Meyringen) '. 7,105 

Haueostein Pass (Oltcn) 3,000 

Hohcnkasten (Rhine) 6,900 

Hohgant (Interlaken) 7,216 

Iseran M. (Aosta-Italy) 11,320 

Juftgfrau (Oberland) 13,760 

Julier Pass (St. Moritz) 7,506 

Karpfstock (Glarus) 9,180 

Kistenberg (Tbdi group) 9,020 

Languard, Piz (St. Moritz) 10,716 

Lukmanier Pass (Dissentis) 7,290 

Maloya Pass (St. Moritz) 5,940 

TdArmolata (Cortina) .11,000 

M^ttprfiomorM. Cfirrln (;5wmn) .....mm..,14,105 



Eng. feet. 

MischabelhSmer (Zermatt) Dom 14,936 

„ „ Tasch 14,760 

MoWson M. (Vevey) 6,680 

Mont Blane 15,780 

Monte Rosa 16,215 

Monch (Oberland) 13,440 

Montanvert (M. Blanc) 6,805 

Moveran(Bex) 10,046 

Mflschelbom (St. Gothard) 10,286 

Mythen (Schwytz) 6,246 

Napf (Entlibuch) 6,196 

Niesen (Interlaken) 7,765 

Oberalpstock (TSdi group) 10,925 

Ortler Spitz (Tyrol) 12,815 

Paradis M. (Cogne, Italy) 18,800 

Pilatus (Lucerne) 7,290 

Piz Bernhia (Pontresina) 13,296 

Piz Beverina (St. Gothard) 9,845 

Piz Valrheln (St. Gothard) «...n,160 

Reculets (Geneva) 6,680 

RlflTelhom (Zermatt) 9,615 

Rigi Kulm (Lucerne).*. 6,905 

Rinderhom (Oberland) 11,870 

Rosa, Monte (Zermatt) 16,215 

Rossberg (Arth) 6,190 

Rothhom (Brienz) 7,915 

„ (Jungfrau) 11,645 

Salvatore (Lugano) 3,060 

Scheerhom (Glarus) 10,815 

Scheideck, Great (Rosenlaui) 6,910 

Scheideck, Little (Lauterbrunnen) 6,770 

Schreckhom (Oberland) 13,395 

Scesaplana (Engadin) 9,740 

Schwarzhom (Oberland) 9,605 

Semnoz Alp (Aix les Bains, French Savoy)... 6,900 

Sentis, or Santis (Appenzell) 8,216 

Septimer Pass (St. Moritz) 7,680 

Simplon Pass (Brieg) 6,696 

Spltigen (Coire) 6,945 

Stelvio, or WSrmser Joch (Engadin) 9,176 

Stockhom (Thun) 7,196 

Tambohom (Spliigen) 10,750 

T6te Noire (M. Blanc) 3,916 

Titlis (Meyringen) 10,600 

Th^odule, St., Pass (Zermatt) 10,900 

Todi, or D6dl (Altorf) 11,890 

Uri Rothstock 9,630 

Viescherhom (Viesch) 12,705 

Weisshom 14,010 

Wcissthor (Zermatt) 11,800 

Weissenstein (Soleure) 4,210 

Wengern Alp (Lauterbrunneu\ .^^ "^^^s* 

WettetYvoTTv, <ix"^«.'^\^'«B!95:M». ^^^^ 

'WV!\aL%0;NfcV.Q\»x\ks^ ...«..- UIlx>^ 



RAILW AYS IN SWITZE RLAND. 

The following are the principal groaps and lines completed ; for particalan of 
which see Bradshaw^s Continental Railway Guide, issued monthly. 

1. Swiss Central (Scbweizerische Centralbahn). B&le to Olten, Sursee, andLnceme, 
and branches. Botzbergbahn, from B&le to Brugg and Zurich. Olten to Herzo- 
genbnchsee, Berne, and Than (for Interlaken) ; Ilerzogenbuchsee to Soltfure (or 
Solothnm) and Bienne (or Biel). B&le to Del6mont and Bienne. Berne to Eri- 
boarg and Lausanne; with- branches. 

2. Swiss North Eastern (Scbweizerische Nordostbahn). Aaran to Bra|i^, Tuigi, 
Baden, and Zurich (63 miles from B&le ; with a branch from Turgi to Waldshnt, on 
the Rhine. Zurich to Wallisellen, Winterthur, Frauenfeld, Weinfelden, to Roman- 
shorn, on Lake Constance (114 miles from B&le); with a branch from Winterthur to 
SchafFhausen. Zurich to Bulach. Winterthur to Singen (Scbweizerische National- 
bahn). Zurich to Richtersweil and Glarus (Linksufrige ZUrichseebahn), on the 
south side of Lake Ziirich. The Toggenburg, Appenzell, and other short lines. 

3. United Swiss (Yereinigte Schweizerbahnen). Ziirich to Wallisellen, Uster, 
I Rapperschwyl, Wesen, Sargans, and Chur (or Coire) ; with a branch from Wesen to 

Glarus. Winterthur (on the North Eastern) to Wyl (thence to Ebnat-Kappel), St. 

Gall, Rorschach (on Lake Constance), Rheineck, Sargans, and Coire, where there is 
I a connection by diligence over the Spliigen to Bellinzona, for Milan. 
! 4. West Swiss (Quest Suisse). Bienne, on the Central, to Ncuch&tel, Tverdon, 
I Lausanne, and Geneva, and branches from Neuch&tel to Locle (called the Swiss 
( Industrial), and to Pontarlier. Lausanne to Pontarlier. Lausanne to YillenenTe^ 
j on Lake Leman, Bex,. and St. Maurice. Bouveret to St. Maurice, Martignj, Sion, 

Sierre, and Brieg, by the Ligne d'ltalie. A French line, passing near Geneva, rons 

from Bellegarde to Bouveret, on the Lake of Geneva. 

5. Jura, Berne, and Lucerne line, from Locle to Bienne, Berne, and Lucerne, and 

branches. Emmenthal line. 

C. The Berne government rail between Langnau, Berne, and Biel. 

7. Rigi railways, from Lake of Lucerne and Lake Zug. 

8. The Briiuig Line, from Barligen to Interlaken, Brienz, Meiringen, Alpnacht, 
and Luzem. 

There are lines connecting the Swiss rails with those of Bavaria and Anstrian- 
Tyrol via Bregenz, Lindau, Feldkirch, and Blndenz, to Innsbruck. The railway to 
Coire is to be continued to the Alps, where a projected tunnel, 15 miles long, at a 
height of 5,000 feet, will penetrate the ridge of mountains, into Val Blegng, and 
join the St. Gothard line above Biasca. The great St. Gothard Tunnel, 9^ miles 
long, forms the principal connection between Switzerland and Italy. 

Fifty pounds of baggage are allowed free of charge OTi«oTii^\vci^%\ ow others log* 
jsr^^re Is paid for. On the L^kes^ Steainers run \n cqtiwv9^!^^;''\'^^'''V^^^'^*^*?^ 



CONTENTS. 



SKELETON ROUTES I'ROM 
LONDON. 

RouTX. Page. 

1. London to Calais, Boulogne, Paris, Strass- 

bnrg, and Basle, by rail 1 

3. „ to Calais, Amiens, direct to Basle... 6 
8. „ to Boulogne, Paris, Chalons, and 

Geneva 6 

4. „ to Paris, Troyes, Chaumont, Bel- 

fort, and Basle 7 

6. n to Brussels, Luxemburg, Strasbnrg, 

and Basle 8 

6. ,) to Cologne, the Rhine, Stuttgart, 

and Lake of Constance 8 

7. „ to Frankfort, Stuttgart, Munich, 

and Innsbruck in the Tyrol 18 



SECTION I. 

WEST SWITZERLAND AND THE 
HIGH ALPS. 
RouTK. Page. 

1. Geneva, description of 14 

„ to Chamouni and Mont Blanc 18 

3. „ to Annecy and Chamb^ry 28 

3. „ to Martigny, by the south side of 

the Lake 39 

4. „ to Lausanne, Martigny, Sion, and 

Brieg, and over the Simplon, to 
Milan 30 and 40 

5. Martigny to Great St. Bernard and Aosta... 47 

6. Brieg and Visp, on the Simplon Road, to 

Chfttillon, over the Matterjoch 50 

7. „ to the Source of the Rhdne 61 



SECTION 11. 

CENTRAL SWITZERLAND AND THE 

OBERLAND. 

10. Basle to Lucerne, the Rigi, Altorf, St. 

Gothard, Como, and Milan; also 

from Lucerne to Milan, by the St. 

Gotluud Wand I 



Route. Page. 

11. Basle to Baden and Ztirich, ZUfif, the ttigl, 

and Rossberg, Schivyz, Einsiedeln, 
and Altorf 67 

12. „ to Schaffhausen and Constance, and 

to Ziirich, vid Schaffhausen 75 

18. „ to Soleure (and Bienne), Berne, and 
the Bernese Oberland, including 
Thun, Interlaken, Grindelwald, 
Lauterbrunnen, Grimsel, Ac 78 

13. Berne and the Bernese Oberland 80 

ISA.Interlaken to Brienz, the Rothhom, Mei- 

ringen, the Grimsel, Rhdne Glacier, 
&c 89 

14. Lucerne to Berne 98 

15. „ to Brienz, by the Brnnig 9S 

16. Thun, by the Gemmi Pass, to Leuk 96 

17. „ to Vevey, by the Simmenthal 98 

18. Berne to Lausanne 103 

19. Basle to Bienne, Neuchfttel, Yverdon, 

Lausanne, and Geneva 106 

lOA.Neuchfttel to Locle ; and to Val Travers, 

Motiers, and Pontarlier 110 



22. 



23. 
24. 
25. 



26. 
27. 



\ 



SECTION IIL 

EAST SWITZERLAND. 

Constance to St. Gall and Appenzell, Pfaf 
fers Baths, Coire, across the 
Spltigen, to Como and Milan ; 
also St. Gall to Pfaffers Baths 

and Chur, or Coire 114 and 117 

Zurich to St. Gall ., 124 

„ to Pfaffers Baths and Chur 127 

Wesen to Glarus, PantenbrUcke, Dissentis, 
in the Rheinthal ; and to Altdorf, 

on the St. Gothard Road 129 

Glarus, up the Semftthal to Coire, and 

Hanz, in the Rheinthal 138 

Coire, up the Vorder-Rhein to Dissentis 
and Andermatt, on the St. GQtKox<L 



xIy. 



OONTBKtS. 



Bouts. Page. 

38. Coire to Bdlinzona, by the Bcrnardin Pass 137 

99. „ am the Jailer or Soptimer Fasfes to 
St. Morltx, in the Engadin; also 
down the Engadinthal, from St. 
Moritz to Finstermiinz, in the 
Tyrol 138 and 140 

90. ChlftTenna, up the Maloya Pass to the 

Engadine ^ 148 

31. Coire to the Engadine, by the Albola Pass.. 144 

93. „ to Daroa and the Engadine, by the 

Strda. Scaletta and Fluela Passes 144 

38. LAndqaArt,aptheFrflttigaa,totheEngadinl46 



SECTION IV. 

TYBOL. 
85. Bregenz throngh Yorarlberg, the Ariberger 
Pass, and down the Inn to 
Innsbmck, Salzburg, and Ischl ; 148 
Innsbruck to Salzburg; and 
Salzburg to Ischl, in the Salz- 
kanuaeic^t • (•tt.lW and 167 



Bouts 86— Con/fii«M(i fife. 

Ischl, walks in the enTirona of Ut 

„ distant Carriage Ezcarsions from... IM 

36. Salzburg to Oastein Baths US 

37. Landeck, by the Finstermiinz and StelTio 

Pas•e^ to Lake Gomo and MOni 111 

88. „ to Heran, Botzen, Trent, and 

Verona ~.^ Vt 

89. Innibruck, by the Brenner PaBi,to BotscB Iff 

40. „ to the ZUIcrthal, Finsgan, tnd 

Uastein ••••••. •..•.....••..•■•MiaMM .'* 

41. Brizcn to Brunock and Liens, In tha 

Pusterthal, and to Mittenlll, in 
the Pinzgau...M..........M«M»MM«* i'* 

42. Bruneck, through the Enneberg and 

OrUdncr Yalleya and Dolo- 
mite R^on to Botsen ......... W 

48. „ In the Pusterthal, fhroogli the 
Ampezzothal, and Dolonita 

Alps, to Venice ...m. ...mm 17T 

44 Trent, through Val Sugana to BeUono (or 

to Venice) ..« ••...••••m.m.* 17* 



INDEX. 



,116 

66 

», 103, 108 
eg, 66 
1,56 
LUe,3 

erdbaeh,176 
lfleb«n,10« 
176 
111,161 

FaUofthe,174 
PaU8,164 
chhoni,62,87 

106 

Castle, 166 

36,106 

le de Vareau, 19 

lur-Noye, 8 

,64,136 

rChapelle, 9 

s-Baiiut,28 

12 

A, 61 

»n, 81 

ire, 101 

71 

I Fan, 144 

h Glacier, 62 

oh, 96 

ten, 69 

tten, 117, 118 

,97 

tt, V8 

, 63, 188 

311,144 

'"»! 
,128 

Ion, 29 

W7l,186 

r,123 

r-Lenk, 99 

matt, 64, 188, 187 

2,177 

rthal,164 

y,27 

aasse, 19, 39 

jrp,8 

60 

zell, 116 

0,65 

, 78, U4 

171 

E,142 

,40 

iibiir9,f7 

'g MouBitaiai <And 

Qel,14t 

.46 

.145 I 

'2 / 



Arthaz, 19 
Arve, 19 
ArTe7ran,36 
Ashford, 2 
Asiago, 178 
Atzwand, 178 
Anb<»ne, 81 
Aabonne-AUeman, 81 
Angst, 55 
Auronzo, 178 
Auvemier, 116 
Avenches, 103, 106 
Avisio, 170 
Axenfels, 60 
Baden, 66, 68 
Bad Gastein, 168 
Bagne, 48 
BaUsthal, 79 
Balme, 19 
Biurenbnrg, 122 
Barknn8,a86 
Bar-le-Dnc, 4 
Basel-Angst, 67 
Basle, or Basel, 5, 68 
Bassano, 179 
Basserstorf, 124 
Batzenhdd, 116, 126 
Baveno, 46. 
Banma, 126 
Beatenberg Moimtaia, 85 
Beckenried, 69 
Belf anx, 104 
Belfort, 6 
Bellach, 80 
Bel Alp, 87 
Bellano, 124 
Bellegarde, 39 
Bellelay, 107 
Bellevanz, 109 
Bellinzona, 65, 188 
Bellnno, 178, 179 
Belpberg, 83 
Berchtesgaden, 167 
Bergiin, 144 
B^sal, 48 

Bemardin Pass, 184^ 387 
Berne, 80, 94 
Bernese Oberland, 83 
Bemina Pass, 141 
Bettlach, 80 
Beraix, 110 
Bex, 87 
Biasca, 65 
Biberbmok, 74 
Biberbrttcke, 137 
BlberiBt, 79 
Bid, 52 

BieBne,^0?,lU 
Bieischh<nii,-87 
BUdhans, |26 
Bingen, 12 
Bl0chof Bhoien, VSi 



Bischof szell, 116, 126 
Bivio, 189 
Blonay Castle, 86 
Bloye, 28 
Bludenz, 149 
Blumenstein, 84 
BSckstein, 164 
Bodra See, 78 
Bodeli Rail, 86 
Bodio, 65 
Bollweiler, 6 
Boltigen, 99 
Bonadutz, 121, 184 
Bondy, 8 
BSnigen, 86 
Bonn, 11 
Bonneville, 19 
Borgo di Val Sngana, 178 
Bormio, or Worms, 167 
Boswyl-Bunzen, 66 
Botzen, 168, 178, 174 
Bouchet, 21 
Boudry, 110 
Boulogiiie, 2 
Bonrdean, 28 
Bonrg St. Pierre, 48 
Bonreret, 16, 80, 88 
Boves, 3 
Branzoll, 169 
Bregenz, 148 
Bremgarten, 66 
Brenner Pass, 179 
Brescia, 172 
BresteQberg, 66 
Brenil, 51 
Br^vent, 83, 35 
Brecon, 19 
Brieg, 42 
Brienz, 89, 96, 144 
Brienzer See, 89 
Brixen, 173 
Brixlegg, 153, 167 
Brocard, 47 
Bmck, 174 
Bruges, 9 
Bragg, 56, 67, 108 
Bmnadem, 126 
Bmneck, 175 
Briinig Pass, 96 
Bninnen, 60 
Brnssels, 8, 9 
Buchs, 78, 118, 149 
Bnffalora Fall, 188 
Boffalora Pass, 142 
Bnhler, 116 
Biilach, 78 
Bnlle, 103, 104 
Bnmplitz, 108 
Buochft^ &^ 



I 



Bllrglen,136 

Btirglen (Sohwyz), 132 
Bnssigny, 81,111 
Bnsswyl, 108 
Bnsto Arslzio, 47 
Biitschel, 88 
Btttschwyl, 136 
Butterkinden, 80 
Bnttisholz, 57 
Biitzberg, 56 
Cabiolo, 138 
Calais, 2, 9 

Calanda Monntain, 129 
CaUiano, 171 
Camischolas, 187 
Campfer, 140 
Campil, 176 
Campo Dolcino, 128 
Cappel, 71 
Caprile, 179 
Caronge, 27 
Casaccia, 139, 148 
Castasegna, 143 
Cavalese, 170 
Celerina, 140 
Ceneda, 178 
Chalons-sor-Mame, 8, 6 
Cham, 71 
Chamb^ry, 28 
Chambrelien, 111 
Chamonni, 21,89 
Changis, 3 
Chapean, 26 
ChasseraJ, 108 
Chasseron, The, 110 
Ch&teau d*Oex, 100 • 
Ch&tel St. Denis, 108 
Ch&tillon, 61 
Chandfomtaine 9 
Chaumont, 109 
Chanx-de-Fonds, 111, U2 
Chavomay, 31, HI 
Ch^de, 21 
Chelsfield, 1 
Cheseanx, 88 
Chesne, 18 
Chexbres, 104 
Chiasso, 66 
Chiavenna, 138, 148 
Chillon, Castle, 86 
Chislehurst, 1 
Chorinsky Klanse, 160 
Chnrwalden, 189 
Ciamot, 187 
Cimbro, 47 
Cinnschel, 143 
Cismone, 178 
Clamaas^ 






xtL 



tUftotX. 



CoU«trtz.ll [199 

i>An {or Cbnr>, 11», 11», 

i>A d« J5«Jui«. 27. 9$ 
Col de Ch^iik. 97 
OJ <i« F«rr«t, W 
(>A <i« ForeiAZ, 27, 99 
iAfl de 4<m, 61 
<>^] d« U F«rn«tr«, M 

<>^l dn G^snt, 26 

Col d'll^renf, 41 

Colie'/, IM 

iUAtOMT, i 

i'Mtrj^tut^ 10 

ColoiDbi«r, 110 

0«il/tJls£, Itl 

Coofi, 47, «« 

CooclKe, 110 

OmeffJUno, 178 

C<«kUficc,77 

(UmU:r%, y^ 

OmUminet, Let, 21 

CouUttiinet 8nr Aire, 19 

Omren, 111 

Coppet,30 

CorcelltM, 102, lOff, 111 

CorUUlod, 110 

CortinA, 177, 178 

CoMonay, 107 

CoMonex (or CoMonay), 
31, no 

Conrmayetir, 21, 20 

CourrendUn, 107 

Court, 107 

Convet, 113 

Covalo, Fati of, 179 

Cr«il, 3 
• Cremeo, 138 

Cressier, 108 

Cresta, 140 

Creuieseine, 27, 118 

Cresciano, 65 

Crerola, 44 

Cubly. 36 

Dachtfelden, 107 

Bachttein, 161 

Dagmerselleo, 07 

Dalaat, 149 

Dilnlkon, 06 

DXrllngen, 85 

Daabenliorn, 97 

Davos Dorfli, 146 

Daros Plats, 146 

Delle, 107 [107 

Delsberg or Dddmont, 

Dent de Moroles, 88 

Dent du Chat, 28 

Dent da Midi, 38 

Dent d* Oche, 29 

Dent de Jaman, 35 

Deaenzano, 172 

Xtontsch-Ayrieourt, 4 
IfJaMerets, ST / 



Dielt<lorr, 78 
liieflvenliofen, 76 
Dietlkon, m 
Diafurt, 120 
Dijon, 7 

Di»«enti«, 132, 135 
Dodi or Todi, ascent of 

the, 132 
Dolomite Mountains, 177 
Domdidier, 106 
Domo d'Ossola, 42,44, 93 
DJJrfii, 146 
Doniach, 5 
Domach (Bwltz-X 107 
Domliim, 149 
Domhaus, 131 
Douannc, 108 
Dovaine, 29 
Dover, 2 
Dunton Green, 1 
Durrenboden, 145 
KUn-alp, 116 
Ebilcon, 71 

Ebnatlcappel, 115, 120 
Echallcns, 32 
Echellcs, 98 
Ecl^pens, 81, 111 
Ecublens, 106 
EffretilLon, 124 
Egard Baths, 168 
Eff eri, 72 
Eglifiau, 78 
E}(nach, 114 
Ei;;er, 87 
EUcen, 67 [127 

Ein8iedcIn,Abbey, 72, 74, 
Elgflr, 115, 126 
Elm, 133, 134 
Emmcnbriicke, 57 
Emmenthal Ball, 79 
Ems, 134 

Engadin, The, 140 
Engelberg, 92, 96 
Engl, 133 
Engstlen Alp, 91 
Enncberg-valley, 176 
Ennenda, 180 
Entlebaeh, 93 
Entremont, 48 
Epemay, 3 
Erien, 125 
Erlenbach, 98 
Ermatingen, 77 
Eschlikon, 115 
Escholzmatt, 93 
Estavayer, 106 
Ettiswyl, 94 
Etzweilen, 125 
Evian, 15, 29 
Evionnay, 89 
EvoMna, 41 
Eyrs, 167 
Faldo, 65 
Faovls^ 10$ 



FUtschbacli Fall, 182 
Faucigny Castle, 19 
Faulhom, 88 
Favergesi, 28 
Felbcn, 125 
Feldkirch, 149 
Felscnegg, 71 
Feltrc, 179 
Fend, 150 

Ferdcn Rothhom, 98 
Femey, 18 
Ferrara, 122 
Fideris, 147 
Fidcris Baths, 147 
Filisur, 144 

Finsteraarhom, 87 [166 
Finstermiinz Pass. 148, 
First, or Unterstatten, 59 
Flamatt, 102 
Flims, 133, 134 
Flir8ct^ 150 
Fluela Pass, 145 
Flueln or FlUelen, 60 
Flagkopf, The; 165 
Folkestone, 2 
Fontainebleao, 6 
Fontenoy-sur-Moselle, 4 
Fr/tnzensfeste, 172, 175 
Franzcnshohe, 166 
Frastanz, 149 
Fraubrunnen, 80 
Fraucnfeld, 114, 125 
Freilassing, 154 
Frenibres, '67 
Fribourg, 103 
Frik, 67 
Frohburg, 56 
Frutigen, 96 
FUgen, 173 
Furca Pass, 92 
Furke Pass, 86, 96 
Fuscher-thal, 174 
Oais, 116 
Gaisberg, 1S7 
Gallarate, 47 
Gampel, 42 
Gams, 126 
Gamskahrkogel, 164 
Gand, 9 

Garda Lake, 171 
Gardone-Riviera, 172 
Gargazon, 168 
Gastein Baths, 163 
Gastein Valley, 168 
Gelten Pass, 100 
Gemmi Pass, 97 
Geneva, 14, 18 
Geneva, Lake of, 18 
Gerlos-thal, 174 
Gersau, 60 
Gestad or Staad, 100 
Gessenay, 99 
Gestinen, 63 



GlbralUrtilli,5f 
Giessbach FaUs, A 
Giomioo,65 
Gisikon, 71 
Giubiasco, 66 
Glacier des Bomobi, 9 
Glacier de T«coiiiUB|t8 
Glaris, 146 
GlXmisch, 130 
Glams, 138, 1S0» 133 
Glams, Canton of, 130 
Glattfelden, 78 
Glion, or Glyon, U 
Glockner, 174 
Glums, 142, 106 
Glys, 48 
Goisem, 161 
Goldau, 78 
Golling, 103 
Gollinger Fall, 103 
Gondo, 44 
Gorgier, 110 
GomerGrat, 01 
Gosan, 101 
Gossan, 116, 138, 116 
G5scbenen, OS 
Gothard, St., 00, OS 
Gotzls, 149 
Gottlieben CaaUe, 77 
Grande Chartreuse, 18 
Grand Plateau, 3S 
Grand Saoconez, 18 
Grands Mulets, 3S 
Grandson 110 
Granges de Solaiwm, 19 
Grauo HOmer, 130 
Grenchen, 80 
Gressonay* 51 
Grfesy-sur-Aiz, 88 
Gries, 153 
Grimsel Hospice, 91 
Grimsel Pass, 91 
Grindelwald, 87 
Grisons, Caiit<m at, 119 
GrSdner-thal, 177 
Grono, 188 
Grosse Mythe, 74 
Grosse Stulben Fall, 150 
Gross Glockner, 176 
GrUsch, 146 
Grutli, 60, 96 
Gmy^res, 101 
Gsteig, 41, 100 
Guarda, 143 
Gumfluh, 99 
Gilmlingeii, 83, 9S 
Gumig^84 ' 
Gnrgl-thal, 160 
Guttanen, 90 
GUttingen, 114 
Haag, 136 
Habsbuiy , 68 
Haibach, 174 V 



*nfli>i!X* 



XTii. 



Hftll«in, m 
HaUstatt, lU 
HaUwyl Lake, M 
Handeck Falla, 90 
Hasenmatt, 80 
HasUthal, 89 
Hansfltock, 181 
Haute-Gombe, 28 
Hautfl-Gteneveys, 111 
Heidelberg, 12 
Heiden, 117 
Heiligenblnt, 176 
Heillg Krenz, 160 
Herisan, 136, 127 
Herzogenbachsee, 56 
Henstrich, 84 
Hindelbank, £6, 04 
Hinter-Rhein, 137 
Hinweil, 124 
Hochdorf, 56 
Hof, 168 
Hofwyl, 80 
Hohenhems, 149 
Hohentwiel, 76 
Hohe Kasten, 117 
Hohlenstein, 177 
Holderbank, 78 
Hopitaux-Jougny, 81 
Horgen, 71, 127 
HoaDenthal, 64, 92 
Holpiceof St. Bernard, 
Htiningen, 55 
Huttwyl, 94 
Hythe,3 
Igis, 118 
Ilanz, 182, 184 
lllnau, 124 
Inimier-thal, 107 
Imst, 150 
Innichen, 176 
Innsbruck, 151, 172 
Interlaken, 85 
Intra, 46 
Ischl, 158 
Isella, 44 
Isemberg, 71 
Isola Bella, 46 
Isola Madre, 46 
Isola Superlore, 46 
Itznang, 76 
Jardin, 25 
Jegisdorf, 80 
Jenatz, 147 
Jenbach, 158, 178 
Jnller Pass, 121, 140 
Jungf ran, 87 
Kaiser-Angst, 67 
Kamor, 117 
Kandersteg, 96 
Katzls, 121 
Kempten, 124 
KempthaJf 124 
Kesserloch Ca ve, 76 
Kessvfryl, 114 



48 



Klefersfelden, 154 
Kienholz, 90 
Kiesen, 84 
Kilchistock, 90 
Kitzbfihel, 154, 174 
Kitzlochklamm, 174 
KlHmm Pass, 163 
Klausen, 173 
Klausen Pass, 123. 
Klon See, 130 
Klosters, 147 
Kloten, 78 , 
Knonau, 71 
Koblenz, 78 
Kulliken, 57 
Kollmann, 178 
Konigsbach Falls, 157 
Konigsee, 157 
;KonigsfeIden Abbey, 68 
Kotschaohtbal, 164 
Krabel, 72 
Kreuzlingen, 77, 114 
Krimml, 174 
KUbliR, 147 
Kuf stein, 154 
Kurfirsten Moantains,l 28 
Kilssnacht, 59 
La Batie, 39 
Lacben, 127 

La Chaux da Cachot, 112 
LaFert^-sons-Jonarre, 8 
LaFldg^re, 22 
Lagny, 3 

Lago di Garda, 171 
Lago di Lugano, 66 
Lago d*Orta, 46 
Lago Maggiore, 46 
Lake Como, 124 
Landeck, 150, 166 
Landeron, 108 [147 

Landquart, 114,118, U6, 
Langenbruok, 78 
Langnau, 98 
Langwieaen, 145 
Laon, 6 
Largenthal, 55 
La Sagna, 112 
La Tonr-de-Peilz, 35 
Latsch, 167 
Laoffenburg, 67 
Lauffelfingen, 56 
Lauffffli, 107 
Laupen, 102 
Lausanne, 82, 105 
Lanterbmnnen, 86 
Laveno, 46 
Lavey, i8 
Lavin, 142 
LaTis, 170 
Lax, 55, 134 
Lebenberg, 168 
Lecco, 124 
Ledra Fall. 172 
Lq Fayet, 21 



Legnano, 47 
Lendt, 163, 175 
Lenz, 189 
Lenzburg, 56 
Le Pont, 31 
Le Prese, 141 
Le Tezze, 179 135 

Les Arents or Avantes, 
Les Esplatnres, 112 
Les Houches. 21 
Les Plans, 37 
Les Fonts, 112 
Les Rousses, 30 
Les Verriferes. Ul, 118 
Lesighaus, 126 
LeulE, 42 {Leak, 97 

Leukerbad. or Baths of 
Levieo, 178 
Liancourt, 8 
Liechtensteig, 125, 126 
Liddes, 48 
Lichtensteiu, 118 
Li^ge,9 
Lienz, 176 
Liestal, 55, 78 
Lme,9 

Linth-thal, 181 
Lisighaus, 117 
Livigno, 142 
Locarno, 66 
Locle, 112 
Lofer, 154 
London, 1 

Lou^che les Bains (Leu- 
kerbad, 42, 97 
Lou^che Yille, 42, 98 
Longarone, 178 
LStschen-thal, 86 
Louvain, 9 
Loragny, 28 
Luberg, 108 
Lucerne, 57, 94 
Lucerne, Lake of, 59 
Luchsingen, 126, 131 
Lugano, 66 
Luisburg, 125 
Lukmanier, 135, 186 
Liiner See, 146 
Lungem,96 
Ltitzelburg, 4 
Luxemburg, 8 
Lyskamm Pass, 61 
Lyss, 108 
Lyssach, 56 
Macugnaga, 45, 60 
Maderaner-thal, 68 
Madesineno, Fall of, 123 
Madulein, 142 
Madritscb Joch Paaa, 167 

, "MLaXcTXYiMvA, ^1 



Malix, 139 
Malleray, 107 
Maloya Pass, 140, 148 
Mais, 166 
Maramem, 76 
Marainyiller, 4 
Marmarofe, 178 
Marmolada, 177 
Marojwia, 66 
Martell Valley, 167 
Martigny, 26, 39 
Martigny le Bourg, 47 
Martinsbmck, 143 
Martinswand, 151 
Matt, 133 
Mattarello, 171 
Matterbom, 50 
Matterjoch Pass, 51 
Mattmarksee, 51 
Matrei, 172 
Mayence, 12 
Mayenfeld, 149 
Mayerhofen, 17 
Meilen, 71 
MeiUeric, 29 
Meinau, 77 
Meiringen, 89, 96 
Melleck, 154 
Mels, 128 
Mendel, The, 169 
Mendrisio, 66 
Meran, 151, 168 
Mer de Glace, 25 
Mestre, 178 
Mettendorf, 126 
Metz, 8 
Milan, 47, 124 
Misocco, 188 
Mission, 42 
Mitlodi, 131 
Mittelhom, 89 
Mittelwald, 176 
MiUerbad, 168 
Mitterslll, 154, 174 
Moena, 170 
Mohlin, 67 
Mole, 19 
Molens, 139 
Moleson, 101 
Mollis, 129 
Mommenheim, 4 
M«ncb, 87 

Montafuner Valley, 149 
Montanvert, 25 
Mont Blanc, 22, 26 
Mont Collon, 40 
Mont D61e, 30 
Mont Douron, 19 
Motvt JO&-s«Bi 



sfilL 



niBBX. 



UvuU Baldo. 17S 
UquU Bre. €$ 

M<«t« Crf«Ullo. 197 
Monu I>dU DiagruU 

143 
Moou 4'Oro, 143 
HtmU GatUl, 167 
JfoDte Generoto, M 
Moote G/iipu, 124 
Monte Le^none, 124 
Monte Moro Peu, 61 
Moftte Ifottcrone, 46 
Monte UoM, 46, 61 
Moftte Salratore. 66 
Moute Tofeno, 178 
M<>ntliey, 30, M 
Montrenz, 36 
Monza. 47 
Morat, 106 
Morcles, 9S 
Moryarten, 72, 74 
Morge*, 31 
Mori, 171, 172 
MSrel, 62 
Morteratwh, 141 
Motierft-Traren, 113 
Motidon, 102, 106 
MUhlbacb, 175 
MUhlehoni, 128 
Muhlibach, 52 
Mttlhansen, 6 
Munich, i:; 
Mfinchiiiglen, 125 
Mttniingen, 83 
Mttniter, 62, 107 
Mfinsterlingen, 114 
Munsterthid, The, 107 
MaotU-thal,71,182 
Morg, 128 
Murgenthal, 66 
Mori, 56 
Mtirreii, 86 
Mnrtener See, or Lake 

of Morat, 106 
Miirtscbenstock, 128 
My then, 74 
Nufels, 127, 129 
Namur. 8 

Nanyeis-le-Petit, 4 
Nancy, 4 
Nangy, 19 
Nant d*Arpenu8, 19 
Naters, 51 
Natams, 168 
Nanders, 143, 166 
Nebikon, 57 
Nenzing, 149 
Netstall, 130 
Neneneck, 102 
Neachatel,108,109; Lake 
of, 109; Canton of, 109 
^en-Habshnrsr, 59 



1 



Neumarkt, 169 
NearerUle, 108 
Niederglatt, 78 
Niedemdorf, 176 
Niedenryl, 66, 126 
NieMn,84 
Nogent I'Artand, 3 
Nnfenen, 134 
Nydan, 108 
Xyon, 80 
Oberalp PaH, 64 
Oberaadorf, 164 
Ober Batzenheid, 125 
Ober-Entfelden. 67 
Ober Pinzgan, 174 
Ober Uzwyl, 116 
Ober-Vellach, 166 
Ober-Winterthur, 126 
Ober Zillerthal, 70 
Oberarth, 72 
Obergestelen, 52, 90 
Oberglatt, 78 
Obersee, 167 
OberatafTel, 132 
Oberwald, 52 
Oerlikon, 78, 124 
Oetzthal, 160 
Ofen, 142 
Olirone, 137 
Olten, 56 
Onnena, 110 
Orbe,81 

Ormond Dessus, 101 
Ormond Valley, 101 
Orsibres, 48 
Orta,46 

Ortlerspitze, 166, 167 
Osog^a, 65 
Osslngen, 125 
Ostend, 8 
Ouchy, 32 
Paddock Wood, 1 
Pagny-sur-Meuse, 4 
Pal^zieux, 104 
Pallanza, 46 
Pantenbriickc, 132 
Parabiago, 47 
Pargny, 4 
Paris, 3, 6 

Parpan, 189 [102, 104 
Payeme, or Peterlin, 
Pcrgine, 178 
Perl, 172 
Peschiera. 172 
Peutelstein, 177 [129 
Pfaff ers Sulpher Springs, 
Pfaffikon, 124, 127 
Pfung-Neftenbach, 78 
Pfyn Forest, 142 
Piave di Cadore, 178 
Piburger See, 150 
Pierre-k-Voir, 39 
P/err© Pertris, 107 
rjeterlen, 79. 80 



Piere dl Cadora, 178 
Pilatas, 61 
PileAlpe 51 
Pinzolo, 171 
Piona, 124 
Pisserache, 89 
Piz Bemina, 141 
Piz Beverin, 122 
Piz Languard, 141 
Piz Linard, 142, 150 
Piz Lischan, 143 
Piz Mondaun, 136 
Piz Munt«nuch, 140 
Piz Nair, 140 
Piz Ot, 141 
Piz Pisoc, 143 
Piz Koseggio, 141 
Piz TomU, 128 
Piz Urlann, 136 
Piz Valrhein, 123 
Plainpalaifl, 27 
Plassenstein, 161 
Platta, 136 
PIaz, 188 
Plors, 123, 143 
Pointe de Dronaz, 50 
Polleggio, 65 
Pontarlier, 80, 111, 113 
Ponte, 142 
Pontoise, 3 
Pont Pelissier, 21 
Pontresino, 141 
Porrentmy, 107 
Poscliiayo, 141 
Possagno, 179 
Prad, 166 
Pratteln, 67 
Predazzo, 170 
Prettigaji, The, 14G 
Primolano, 179 
Promenthoax, 80 
Promontogno, 148 
Pruntrut, 107 
Puntanta, 142 
Pusterthal, 175 
Rabbi-bad, 169 
Radstadt, 162 
Ragatz, 118, 128 
Rankweil, 149 
Rapperschwyl, 124, 127 
Raterschen, 115 
Rattenberg, 153 
Rautifelden, 129 
Ravis, 134 
Rawyl Pass, 99 
Reckingen, 78 
Reichenan, 120, 134 
Reichenbach Fall, 89 
Reichenhall, 154 
Reiden, 57 
Remfis, 143 
Rennendorf ^ 107 

llesUUot\A\ionv,^i% 



v 



Bvrigny, 4 
Rh&dkon,lA9 
Rhasoni, 121 
Rhelneck. 117 
Rheinfeldbn, 67 
Rhine, Falli, 76 
Rhine, Head of the, 117 
Rho,47 

Rhone Glacier, 62, 99 
Richta*Bweil, 74, IN 
Riddea, 40 
Ried, 166, 173 
Rledwyl, 66 
Riffelberg, 61 
Rigi, or Righi, 60 72 
Rigi-Kaltbad, 69 
Rigi-Kuhn, 69, 7S 
Rigi-Kldsterli, 72 
Rigi-SchefdeclE, 69, 73 
Rigi-Staifel, 69, 60, 71 
Rinderhorn, 96 
Rira, 124, 171 
Rivoli, 172 
Roche, 86 
Rochefort, US 
Rofiha, 139 
Rolle, 31 

Romanshom, 114, 125 
Komiti-Felsenthor, 63 
Romont, 104, 106 
Rorschach, 114, 11^ 
Rosenheim, 164 
Rosenlanibad, 89 
Rosenlani Glacier, 88 
Rosi^res-anx-Salinet, 4 
Rossberg, Landslip, 73 
Rotheflnh, 80 
Rothenburg, 67 
Rothenthnrm, 74 
Rothhom, 90 
Rothkrenz, 66, 62 
Rotterdam, 8 
Roveredo, 188, 171 
Rnaras, 187 
Rue, 2, 105 
RUmlkon, 78 
Rumilly, 28 
Rupperswyl, 66 
Riiii, 118, 125, 127 
RUtli, 60 
Sacro Monte, 46 
Saanen, 99 
Saas, 51 
Saasberg, 131 
Sallenches, 20 
Salmsach, 114 
Sal urn, 169 
Salo, 178 
Salzburg, 156 
Salzkammei^ixit, 158 
Samaden, 141 
Samaune, 148 



Oroce, 178 
ttore, 138 
It, 118, 138 
1,96 
rg4,8 
47 

Ibre, 42 
li-Ferro, 46 
74 

u Donbi, 112 
gno, 189 
les-Bains, 40 
ft Pass, 146 
,142 

Pass, 148 
lana, 146 
i-Vaduz, 149 
!)erg, 168 [76 

lansen and FallSt 
eck, Little, 87 
egg, 87, 88 
s,146 
The, 180 
lom, 86 
degi, 127 
nach Bad, 56, 
ders, 167 
Atadt, 6 
9 Tirol, 168 
ris,134 

dribach Fall, 86 
rikon, 127 
;ten, 146 
)erg, 172 
>UliI, 66 
mwerth, 66 
la, 168 
khom, 87 
8,143 
:en, 108 
lieim, 93 
galp, 116 
mmendingen, 124 
iiden, 181 
rzach, 163 
rzhorn, 145 
tz, 163, 170 
ndi. 117 
1,78 

ige Platte, 86 
Pass, 121,139 
136 
1,137 
). 146 

i Pass, 133 
1,152 
h,80 
137 

anchor, 47 
>z, 28 
ch,67 
aid, 118 
116 
101 



8eptim«r Pass, 189 * 

Serraralle, 178 

Serri^res, 110 

Senroz, 21 

Sesto Calende, 46 

S«tte Comnni, 178 

Berenoaks, 1 

Sidelhom, 91 

Sierre, 41, 98 

Sigmnndskron, 168 

Signal, 33 

Signal de Bougy, 81 

Signao, 94 

Sihlbrttcke, 71 * 

Sils, 144 

Sils Maria, 144 

Silvaplana, 140, 144 

Silvretta Pass, 147 

SUvretta, 147 

Sillian, 176 

SUz, 151 

Simplon, 42, 44 

Singen, 76 

Sins, 143 

Sion, 40 

Siongy, 19 

Simacti, 116 

Sissach, 56 

Soazza, 138 

Solavers Castle, 146 

851den, 160 

Solenre (or Solothum), 79 

8811, 164 

Sonuna, 47 

Somvix, 135 

Sonceboz, 107 

Sool, 133 

Soyhi^res, 107 

Spino, 143 

Spiringen, 132 

Splttgen, 123, 134, 137 

St. Anton, 149 

St. Anbin, 110 

St. Bernard, Great, 49 

St. Bemardin, 187 

St. Blaise, 108 

St. Branchier, 47 

St. Cassian, 176 [30 

St. Cergraes (Mont Dole), 

St. Gerques (Geneva) 29 

St. Croix, 111 

St. Donat d'Alby, 28 

St. GaU, 114, 126 

St. Gallen, 125 

St. Gerrais, Baths of, 20 

St. Giacomo, 137 

St. Gilgen, 158 . 

St. Gingolph, 29 

St. Gothard, Pass of, 64 

St. Gothard, Tunnel and 

Rail, 62 
Stlmier, 111 
St. Jacob (Tyrol), 175 
St. Jakob, 5S, 106 



St. Jean, 108 [184, 162 
St. Johann-in-Pongfao, 
St. John, 174 
St. Julien or St. Jnlien 

en-Geneve, 27, 29 
St. Just, 8 

St. Margarethen, 117, 146 
St. Martin, 20 
St. Maurice, 80, 88 
St. Michele, 169 
St. Moritz, 140 
St. Niklaus,60 
St. Pierre, 2 
St. Pierre Bourg, 48 
St. Pierre's Island, 108 
St. Sulpice,l]3 
St. Triphon, 86 
St. Ulrich, 177 
St. Verena H«nnitflge,^9 
St. Wolfgang, 168 
Staben, 151 
Stachelberg Bath, 13 
Staefa, 71 
Staffel, 69 
Staffelh9h«, 69 
Stalden, 60 
Stansstad, 96 
Stans, 96 

Staubbach Fall, 86 
Steckhom, 76 
Steg, 161 
Stein, 67 

Stein (Schaffliauseu), 76 
Steinach, 172 
Steinburg, 4 
Steinen, 74 
Stelvio, 139, 166 
Sterzing, 172 
Stockhom, 84 
Strahleek Pass, 88 
Strasburg, 4 
Strass, 163, 170 
Strassenhaus, 149 
Strela Pass, 146 
Strnbeleck Pass, 41 
Stnben, 149 
Stuttgardt, 12 
Suhr, 67 
Sulgen, 116, 126 
Sulzthal, 150 
Summiswald, 94 
Sursee, 67, 94 
SUs, 142, 146 
Susten, 42 
Sustenhom, 88 
Susten Pasa, 91 
Tambohom, 123 
Tamins, 184 
Tarasp, 142 
Taufersthal, 176 
TaiNa.ii«t.%^\^ 



Tell*B Chftpel, 60 
Terlan, 168 
Tete Noire, 27 
TSte Noire Pass, 89 
Teufelsbrtlcken, 68 
Teufen, 116 
Thayingen, 76 
Thonon, 29 
Tholt, 19 
Thnn, 84 
Thuner-See, 85 
Thurgau, Canton of, 126 
Thusis, 121 
Ticino, Canton of, 64 
Tief enkasten, 139 
Tinzen, 139 
Tione, ITl 
Tisch, The, 166 
Titlis, 92, 96 
Toblach, 176, 177 
T5di, Ascent of, 182 
Toggenburg, 126 
Torrenthom, 98 
Tosa Fall, 98 
Toss, 78, 124 
Tossthal, 126 
Trachsellauinen, 86 
Tracht, 90 
Trafoi, 166 
Traunstein, 168 
Trarers, 112 
Trent, 170, 178 
Treviso, 178 
Trient, 27, 38, 39 
Trins, 184 
Trogen, 118 
Trons, 132, 135 
Troves, 7 
Tschiamut, 137 
Tnnbridge, 1 
Turgi,68 
Turtmann, 42, 86 
Uebeflingen, 77 
Uetlibcrg, 70 
Ulrichen, 62 
Umhausen, 160 
Unken, 164 
Unsere Fran, 151 
Unspunnen C3astle, 86 
Unter Hauenstein, 66 
Untermais, 168 
Unterschachen, 182 
Unterseen, 86 
Unterstatten, 69 
Unter-Vintl, 176 
Unterwalden, Canton of 

96 
Umasch, 126 
Umerboden, 131 






iMMiL 



Val ComoniM, If 
Val d'H^rens, 41 
Val de Travert, IIS 
Val FormazzA, 98 
Val d'AnnlTiers 41 
Val Lugnets, 13£ 
Vallengin, 111 
Vallorbes, 81, 106 
ValtelliDa. 167 
Vanzone, 46 
Varallo, 61 

Varen, Aigrail)«« de, 19 
Varennes, 8 
Varese, 47 
Vattid, 138 
Vanderens, lOS 
Vaulruz, 102 
Vanxmarcas, 110 
Vazerol, 189 
Venas, 178 
Vemayaz, 39 
Vemez, 36 
Verona, 173 
Vers TEgUie, 101 
Versolx, 80 
Verriers, 9 
VeTey,88,«» 
Veytaux, 86 
Vezzano, 171 
Via Mala, 121 
Vicosoprano, 148 



Tl4f«, Valky of, 88 

Vlcsch, 69 

Villach, 176 

Villart, or Vlllard-anr- 

Ollon, 87, 101 
VUleneure, 36 
Vilpian, 168 
Visp, 42,60 
VlMoye, 41 
Vitznau, 69, 79 
Vogogrna, 46 
Voirons, 19 
Vougy, 19 
Vulpera, 143 
Widensweil, 127 
Waggls or Weggis, 69 
Waidbrttok, 178 
Waidring, 164 
Wald, 12d 
Waldbachstrab. 161 
Waldenburg, 7^ 
Waldshnt, 67, 7S, 126 
Waldstatt, 126 
Wallenstadt, 128 
WallenstKtterorWallen- 

See, 128 
WalliseUen, 78, 124 
Waltenberg, 188 
Wasen, 68, 90 
Wattingen, 68 
Wattis, 183 



Wattwy], 126 
Watzmanti, 167 
Wauwyl, 67 

Weiach-KaisttBteU, f8 
Weinfelden, 114, 191 
Weiflsbad, 114 
Weissenburg, 98 
Welssenstein, 79, IW 
Weisshom, 41 
Weimkugel, 160 
Welsberg. 176 
Wengem Alp. 86 
Wenigstein, 80 
Werdenberg, 118 
Werfen, 162 
Weesen, 129 
Westetiluuiger, 2 
Wetterhorn, 87 
Wettingen, 69 
Wetzikon, 134 
Wiesen, 144 
Wlggis, 180 
Wildegg, 66, 68 
Wildhans, 126 
Wildspitz, 160 
Wildstrubel, 99 
Windisch Matrey, 176 
Winkeln, 116, 126 
Winterthur, 114, 126 
Worb, 94 
Wohlen, 66 



Wohlbaascn, 96 
W8rgl, 164 
WSrmser Joch, 189, 
Wunderbrunxien, 91 
Wiirenlos, 78 
Wyl, 116, 126 
Wynigen, 66 
Yrerdon, 31, 106, lli 
y vome, 86 
Zabem, 4 
Zazlwyl, 94 
Zell (TyrolX 174 
Zell-am-See, 174 
Zermatt, 60 
Zemetz, 142 
Ziegelbrttcke, 127 
Zniertbal, 173 
Zlllis, 122 
Zimmerthal, 174 
Zioal. 41 
Zirl, 161 
Zizcrs, 118 
Zofingen, 67 
Zollhaus, 86 
Zollikofen, 66, 108 
Zuohwyl, 80 
Zug, 71 ; Lake of. 79 
Zfirich, 68; Lake of , 
Zuz. or Zatz, 142 
Zweisimmen, 99 
Zwieselstein, 160 



ILLUSTBATIONS. 



Basle 68 

Berntf 84 

Cotteron, Defile of, Freyburg 84 

Geneva 68 

„ Han of 14 

Lake Xincerne, from the Bighi 57 

„ Lugano 66 

„ Maggiore 53 

„ Thun 84 

. Laosanne 68 

Lucerne .• , 57 

Mount Bernhardin ^ 57 

Mont Blanc, from Chamonni 66 

Mount Pilatus 66 

St. Kidiolas, Valley of 06 

Slmmenthal, Entrance to 14 

Staubbacb, Fall of the 84 

Sw/tze^ — -^^Map of .. » '^a^ 

Te7 ^ -vi-^ 






lOL. 



ASLE, by rail, 
in)ON to BOU> 

. 4.-L0ND0N, 
•N, BRUBSELSi 

a- tlie Rlilne to 
MUNICH, and 

ro88 the Loop Lin« 
:hes off to the left. 

) residence of the 
«d here 1878; the 
BT to Baron F. d« 
irhere Sir Francif 
and Lord Keeper 
of Earl Sydney, 
p grounds. 
irk to the left. 
I is then crossed to 
r, and we enter 
Qing^ Park in the 

ftst is Knole Park, 
irnitnre and paint- 
lallyrich in works 
m; seat of the Map* 
*ark, Lord HoIme»> 
seat of Lord de 
was bom. 

i castle and priory, 
ood, something like '. 
Tyrolesa Judde'» 
Blizabethan build- 
llfl and Hastingi. 

Maidstone, and ita 



stife; t»MiL 

Val Coin<»lM, iro t yid^ VanuT of. 88 f Watr-nrl ^^ ' wnhth^ 

Val d'H^rem, 41 

Val de Travert, IIS 

Val FormasxA, 98 

Val d^AnniTiors 41 

Val Lngnetz, ISC 

VaUengin, 111 

VaIlorbe^ 81, 106 

ValtelUna. 167 

Vanzone, 46 

Varallo, 61 

Varen, Aigrai1)«« de, 1 

Varennes, 3 

Varese, 47 

Vi&ttia, 138 

Vanderens, lOS 

Vaulrnz, 102 

Vanxmarcus, 110 

Vazerol, 189 

Venas, 178 

Vemayaz, 89 

Vemez, 36 , 

Verona, 17* 

Vers TEgUte, 101 

Versoiz, 30 

Verriers, 9 

Vevey, 88, 10* 

Veytaux, 86 

Vezzano, 171 

Via Mala, 191 

Vicosoprano, 148 



Basle .... 
Some . . • • 
Cotteron, 
Geneva . 

Lake Xiuc 

» Mag 
„ Th« 

liaitflaixne 
Luoeme . 
Mount Be 
Mont Bla 
Mount Pi 
St. Hiehcf 
Simmi 



SWITZEELAND AND THE TYBOL. 



SKELETON BOUTES FBOM LONDON. 



L-LONDON TO CALAIS, BOULOaNB, PARIS, STRASSBURG, and BASLE, by raU, 
2.— LONDON. CALAIS, BOULOGNE, AMIENS, direct to BASLE. 8.-L0ND0N to BOU> 
LOGNE, PARIS, DIJON, SALINS, or CHALONS, MACON, to GENEVA. 4.-L0ND0N, 
PARIS, TROTES. CHAUMONT, VESOUL. BELFORT, BASLE. 5.-L0ND0N, BRUSSELSi 
LUXEMBURG, STRASSBURG, BASLE. 6.~L0NI>0N to COLOGNE, down tHe RUlne to 
LAKE OF CONSTANCE. 7.-L0ND0N, FRANKFORT, STUTTGART, MUNICH, and 
INNSBRUCK. 



SKELETON ROUTE 1. 

London to Calais, Paris, Strassbnrg, 

and Basle, by raiL 

N.B. — For the passing traveller it will suffice to 
indicate only the most striking objects on each road. 
Bkadshaw's Hand-Booki for France^ Belgium^ and 
Oermanp, respectively, must be consulted for fur- 
ther particulars, and Bradshaa's Continental Guide^ 
■issued monthly, for the latest information respect- 
ing Passports, Registration of Baggage (very 
important as saving trouble after the some- 
times unpleasant sea passageX Hotels, Chaplains, 
Medical Men, Bankers, Population, Railways, 
Steamers, and other matters liable to change. 

By the South Eastern Railway (76 miles) to 
Dover, from Charing Cross, stopphig at Cannon 
Street; or by the London, Chatham, and Dover 
Line (81 miles), from Victoria, or St. Paul's and 
Holbora Stations, morning and afternoon. To 
Folkestone, from Charing Cross and Cannon Street 
only, by Special Tidal Trains.— For times of 
departures see BrcuUhaw's Continental Guide; dlso 
for the express route to Bftle, by Calais, Amiens, 
and Tergnier; and for the Great Luxemburg and 
8t. Gothard Routes. After starting by the South 
Eastern you leave Bermondsey new church, and 
the Branch line to Deptford and Greenwich on 
the left, and reach 

I New Cboss. — Company*s shops to the right, and 
the Naval School to the left. At Forest HUl, 



A short distance from New Cross the Loop Line 
to Dartford and Gravesend branches off to the left. 

CmsLBncRST.— Sometime the residence of the 
Ex-Emperor Napoleon, who died here 1878; the 
house and grounds now belong to Baron F. do 
Rothschild; near Foot's Cray, where Sir Francia 
Walsingham, the statesman, and Lord Keeper 
Bacon were bom, now the scat of Earl Sydney. 

Orpixgtoh.— Partly in the hop grounds. 

Chelsfield.— LuUingstone Park to the left, 
chalk range of the North Downs is then crossed to 
Halstead avd DiTKTOK GsssK, and we enter 
the Weald of Kfcnt. Chevening^ Park in the 
vicinity. • 

Skvskoaks.— To the south-east is Knole Park, 
which has a collection of old furniture and paint- 
ings, celebrated «• being especially rich in works 
of the Italiaa sehool. Wilderness; seat of the Map* 
quis of Camden ; and Montreal Parle, Lord Holme»> 
dale. Penthorst, the ancient seat of Lord de 
L'lile, where Sir Philip Sidney was bom. 

TuKBBiDOE, on the Tun.— Old castle and priory. 
Tunbridge^^are, made of softwood, something like ' . 
the toys made by the Swiss and Tyroles& Judde'» 
Gfftm^ar School. SomerhilL, an Elizabethan build- 
ing. Branch to Tunbridge Wells and Hastings. 

Paddock Wood.— Branch to Maidstone^ and VL«». 
hop grounds, paper mUla^ Ik.. 



3 miles further, Dalwich Picture OaUery to the \ line tti.^ftt«fc»l\i% 'H^wX^^A^'sk^^V*-^'^* ^ 



fr/lg'H Mnd the Crystal Palace bei^d. 



tow*, if\»ift>i i«iS^ V«v«^a»»«*- 



BBADSHAW'S SWITZERLAND AND THE TTBOL. 



HBA]>C0B!r.— Sutton Castle, an old niln to the 
left. Biddeaden, to the right. 

Fluoklbt.— Bethersden, where a kind of mar- 
ble, once much used In Kentish churches, was dug, 
to the right. Surrenden, the Derings' old seat, to 
the left. Hothfield, where Jack Cade was caught 

AsHTOBD.— Company'! workshops, and church. 
Old parish church. Branch line to Canterbury, 
Margate, ^., and to Hastings. 

WMTjnrffANOxB.--01d seat of the Sm3rthes, now 
a farm. Hythe, cinque-port, to the right; old 
church, marteUo towers, Ac. Lympne, a Roman 
atailoa, and Sandgate bathing^plaee, to the right. 
Deedet Tunnel, 100 yards; Saltwood Tunnel, 958 
yaxda. Old caifetle of Archbiihops of Canterbury, 
to the left. Foord Viaduct, of 19 arches, 100 feet 
high in the middle. 

FoLKBSTOifB.~Cinque-port, bathing-place, Ac. 
Old church, large hotel, Ao, Fine view from the 
cliffs, nearly 600 feet high. Quick passage to Bou- 
logne in 2 hours, 29 miles from the pier. Thence 
. to Parib, a distance of 157| miles in 4| to 51 hours, 
express, allowing 2 hours more in Paris than by 
the Calais route. Martello Tunnel, 636 yards; Ab- 
bot's Cliff Tunnel, 1,987 yards, longest on the line; 
Shakespeare Tunnel, 1,898 yards. Shakespeare Cliff 
is much reduced in height. Sea wall, near Boun- 
down Cliff, I mile long. 

DoyBB.-~Arriying in 2 hours. Population, 28,506. 
Noted old Castle on the clifb. Roman Pharos, Nor- 
man Keep, Queen Elizabeth's pocket pistol, Ac. 
Pier Harbour, where the mail boats start. New 
harbour of refuge. Submarine telegri^h cable. By 
mail packet to Calais, on the arriral of the mail 
train, 21| mUes in 1} hours, across the Straits of 
Dorer,. or Pat de Osfois, as the French call it. 

CaIalS.~Pas8port office (for getting the vM) 
and Donane (for examining the luggage) close to 
the harbour and station. An examination of lug- 
gage may be sared by declaring it **for transit," 
but it is better to have it so marked in liondon. 
Fortified towB, with Richelieu's Citadel and Oate, 
near the pier. Louis KYIIL's pillar. Hotel de 
Tille, with busts of St Pierre, Ac Gothic Church, 
buUt by the English. Museum, with a Correggio. 

'fiB J^mmmm J^ ml/A Mirth'plMe0 ot Siutaeh* 
'^JVmrr^ frJio defended CMkiif$9imi^itmsaAJXL 



Large tulle and cotton lace factories, employing 
10,000 hands, many being English. 
Frkthun, 8 miles; Caffikrs, 5| miles. 
Mabquise Rihxbnt, 6 miles; population, 4,000. 
Marble quarries ; iron foundries ; coal mines. 
WiMiLLE-WiMEREux, 6 miles. 
Boulogne. — Douane on the quay. Military port 
and packet station. Harbour betwixt wooden piles, 
the piers being 1,600 feet and 2,200 feet long. 
Great Improvements are being made to render the 
port more accessible. Old citadel and houses in 
Upper Town. Modem church, Gothic Hotel de 
Yille; fine new baths; Napoleon Column, 180 feet 
high; Museum. Population, 45,916, one-tenth 
being English. English college and schools. 
Pont de Bbique, 4 miles; NeuchItbl, 4^ miles. 
Etaplbs, 8i miles, at the Canche's mouth. Old 
castle. 

St. Jossb. To the left, Montreuil-sur-Mer, an 
old town, and sous-prefecture. 

Rub, 10 miles, on a brook which flows from the 
field of Crecy. Fine Church of St. Esprit. 

NoTBLLB, 7 miles. To the left are Agincourt and 
Crecy, in the old province of Picardy. 

ABBBViLLB.—Sous-prefecture.and fortress, on the 
Somme. Old-fashioned town. St. Wulfram's 
Cathedral, and its beautiful modem front. Abbe- 
ville is celebrated in connection with the discovery 
of flint weapons and tools in the drift. St. Valery- 
sur-Somme, a bathing place, 12 miles to the right. 
From thU pUce William I. sailed to the conquest 
of England. Louis Philippe's Chftteau d'Eu, stlU 
further to the right St. Briquier old Church 
and Abbey, to the left. 

Pont Rbmt, 4* miles; LoNGPBB,4i miles; Haf- 
OB8T, 4| miles. 

PzcQuiaNT, 4 miles ; old castle, where the treaty 
between Edward IV. and Louis XI. was signed, 
1475. AiLLT, a mUes. 

Amiens, 6 miles; buffet for refreshment 

Capital of department Somme, on that river. 

Beautiful front of Cathedral, which is 141 feet 

high inxide; relics of St John the Baptist's head, 

and bones of St. Theodosia, added 1853, with great 

pomp. Hotel de Ville of Henry IV.'s day. Public 

Library. House where Peace of Amiens was 

Bigaed 1802. Large Herb-Market Large mahn- 

ftctures of oocdscoy lad cfiy^u-^nfipt^^aon ^«^ 



8KSLBT0K ftOUTB 1. 



8 



cottoni. line from Boulogne »nd Abbeville joins 
bere. 

BoYXS, 5| miles, on the Noye. 

AnxT-suB-NoTB, 6f miles. To the left Morenil 
Castle and paper factories. 

Bbxtsuil, lOi miles. The town, 4 miles from 
the station, was a Roman settlement, Brcmtusptm- 
sium. Old church, Ac. 

St. Just, 9f miles, on the Arre. 

Clbrmont-Oisib.— Sous-prefecture. Fine viei^ 
from old castle. To the right, Bsauvais and its 
cathedral, with the highest roof in the world, 145 
feet. Capital of d^artment Oise. 

LiANCOtfRT, 6J miles. Duke de la Rochefou- 
cauld^s seat. 

Cbbil, 4J miles; buffet for refreshment. Spire 
church. Castle on island hi the Oise. Branch line 
to St. Quentin, Cologne, Ac, Joins. 

Chantillt. Fine chateau, restored by the Due 
D'Aumale and presented by him to the nation, 
where Cond^ received Louis XIV., when the ehtf 
Vatel killed himself. Races held here, in the een- 
tre of the forest, in May and October. A fine 
kind of silk lace is made. 

Next OHKT LA ViLLE, LotrVBXS, PlBBRBFITTk- 

Etains. 

St. DBiins.~Sous-prefecture. and burial-place of 
F*rench sovereigns. Noble church, half-ruined at 
the Revolution, but lately restored ; full of historical 
monuments, frescoes, stained glass, Ac. Orphan 
Asylum for Legion of Honotir ; Epinay, Ecouen, Ac, 
io the left. Going on to Paris, the Seine, Mont- 
martre Fort, Clignancourt, Aubervillier8,'St. Onen, 
Ac, are in view on the right and left. 

Paris.— Terminus at St. Laxare, near Barribre 
St. Denis. (See Bradthcm*s Paris Guide). Leave 
Paris from the Strasbourg Station or embar- 
cadfere, at the top of Rue Faubourg St. Martin, near 
the Northern of Franc* Terminus. A ceinture, or 
junction rail, connects the two lines. To Stbas- 
BTOO, 812J miles. Canal de I'Ourcq, which supplies 
water to part of Paris, close to line. Belleville 
Reservoir, Romainville Fort and Ginguettes, and 
other points, are in view. 

NoisT-LB-Sxo, 64 miles. 

BoNDT, li miles. Forest of Bondy. Lotiii'fb!)!- 
iippe's Cbiteau at lUincy, to the left 



Chbllsb, 8 miles, near Canal de TOnrcq. 
Lagnt, 5f miles, on the Mame, which is viewed 
once or twice afterwards. 

Across the Mame by a fine bridge, and through 
a tunnel to 

EsBLT, 5} miles. 

Meaux, on the Mame. Sous-pnfecture and 
bishopric. Gothic cathedral, with Bossuet's tomb 
his statue at the palace. 

From here up to Epemay the line runs along 
the Marne, which it frequently crosses. 

Tbilpobt, 8f miles. 

Chakgis, 4| miles, on the Mame. 

La Fbet^-sous-Jouabbb, 5 miles, on the Mame. 
An old fert^ or fort. La Barre Chftteau, in the 
river. To the right, Montmirail, Vanohamps, 
Champaubert, Ac, where several actions were 
fought with the Allies in Napoleon's campaign of 
the Mame, 1814. 

Three bridges over the Mame, and then a tun- 
nel to 

Nantbuil, 6 miles. 

Nogbnt l'Abtacd, G miles, in d^wrtment Aisne 

Tunnel of Ch^zy I'Abbaye. 

ChItbau-Thibbet, 7 miles. Sous-prefecture. 
Fine castle of Thierry IV. La Fontaine's Statue, 
near new bridge. Hotel de Vilie, and otlier old 
houses. 

Mezt, 5f miles. 

YABBinnES, li mile. Robert le Dreux^ Castle at 
F^re-en-Tardenois, to the left. 

Dqexans, 6f miles. Old church. Suspension 
bridge. 

PoBT-A-BiNsoN, 5f miles. Old Castle of Chatillon. 

Dakbbt, 54 miles. Champagne wine country 
about here. 

Epbbkat, 4^ miles. Sous-prefecture of 16,400 
inhabitants. Centre for champagne wine. Cellars 
in the chalk hiUs. New church. Branch line to 
Rheims and cathedral, to the left. At, 4 miles on 
the left of line. Best champagne here. Buffet. 
OisT, 8f miles. 

jALONS-LBS-YiGNBS, 6f milos. On the Mame. 
Chalons-sue-Mabkb, 8i mllesu Ci«»§i«ji^ ^ v^«» - 
partmeat. Q^JCftsAxiJL ^V ^a^^ ^^^ic^s.. Ci'^ 



BBJLDBHAW*8 BWITZBRLAVO AMD THE TTBOL. 



in a great decisive battle, 451, Theodoric, the 
Gothic King, being killed. 

ViTST-LA-ViLLK, 9f miles; LouT, 7 miles. 

Vitrt-le-Frak^ois, 3| miles. Soas-prefectnre 
and fortified town, on the Mame. Gothic church 
of Francis I.*8 time. 

BLsaMBS, 7| miles; branch to Chanmont, Ac. 
Then Paxokt, 6 miles, on the Saulx. 

Skrmaizr, 8f miles; here is the Fontaine des 
Sarrasins, a well-known mineral spring. RxviGinr, 
4 miles. 

Bar-ls-Duc. — Capital of department Mease, on 
the Omain, founded in the 10th century. Old 
castle on a hill. Curious anatomical effigy at St. 
Pierre's. 'Population, 15,280. Noted sweetmeats. 
Jean d'Henre's Castle near. 

LovGUKViLLX, 2| miles. 

Nan^ois-lb-Pbtit, 4^ miles. Ligny to the right; 
a pretty place, with an old castle. 

Ernecoubt-Loxeyillx, ^ miles ; deep cuttings 
in the chalk. 

LxROUYiLLK, 8| miles. Here i% a branch line to 
Verdun, 33 miles. 

CoxHBRCT, 3i miles. Sous-prefecture, on the 
Meusc. The Cavalry Barrack here was formerly 
the seat of Stanislaus of Poland and Cardinal de 
Retz. 

SoRCT, 6 miles. Old abbey and Roman camp 

Pagkt-sub-Mbusb, 3f miles ; 13 miles from here 
is Domrcmy la Pucelle, Joan of Arc's birthplace, 
1412. The cottage is still shown. Foug, 3i miles. 
In department Meurthe. 

TouL, 3f miles. Fortress, on the Moselle. T^to 
good towers of old cathedral church. 

Fontbnot-sur-Mosbllb, 5| miles. 

LiYXRDUN, 5f miles. Old castle above the river; 
Here the Mame and Rhine Canal, after passing 
through a tunnel of 5(0 yards, crosses the Moselle 
by an aqueduct, and is itself passed over by the 
railway; which aUo crosses and re-crosses the 
river further on. 

Frouarp, 4^ miles. Here branch to Metz, ftc, 
turns off. 

Nancy.— Population, 79,040. Buffet. Well- 
built capital of department Meurthe. Old castle 
of Dukes of Lorraine. Ducal monuments in . Cor- 
OmUmn* Church, laurg^ bronze tt»tn» ot Stanifllans 
^JiiJkaa, Modem cstbedral with two tpirw and 



dome. Charles the Bold defeated here, 1477. 
Exactly facing the station is Gnlbert's statue of 
Thiers, *'Lib€rateur du Territoire.** CaUot, the 
engraver, was a native. 

Varaitobvilui, 7i miles. Light Gothic church. 

R08IXXB8-AUX-SALINB8, 3^ miles. To the left, 
Dombasle Castle, above the Moselle. 

Blaintillb-la-Grandb, 8f miles. 

LuNBYiLLB, 5| miles. Sous-prefecture, where 
treaty of 1801 was signed. Old palace of Dukes 
of Lorraine. Yosges Mountains in the distance. 

Marainyillbk, 5 miles; Eubsrhxkil, 5 miles. 
Baccarat Crystal Factory to the right. 

Dxutsgh-Ayricourt, 4 miles. Here the German 
frontier is crossed. Passports must be shown, unless 
the traveller has a through ticket for Switzerland 
or Italy, To the right, Blamont Castle and lakes, 
in the Yosges. Bbchicourt, 4f miles. Hxxivo, 
8f miles. 

Saarbubo, 5 miles. Fortress and sons-prefec- 
ture, in a pass of the Yosges. 

The rail now traverses the Votget by a series of 
tunnels, the first of i^hlch is Homarting, 8,787 feet, 
the longest on the line. It enters to the left of 
the Mame and Rhine Canal, on a level with it, 
passes underneath it, and issues from the rock to 
the right of it, 89 feet lower. The line then crosses 
the gorge of the Zom (which the canal passes on 
an aqueduct) to a second tunnel of 804 feet. 

LVtzxlburo, 1} mile. Old castle, near suBunit 
of Yosges range. Four more tunnels, respectively 
1,417, 1,296, 1,640, and 1,069 feet. Glimpses are 
caught of ruined castles and towers crowning the 
heights. 

Zabbrn, or Sayxrnk, € miles, on the Zom, in a 
fine spot. Old country seat of Strassburg bishops, 
now a barrack. Marmoutler Abbey to the right. 

Steinburo, 8i miles; Dbttwiller, 2i miles 
HocHFBLDEK, 5| mlles; MoMicxKHEiic, 2| milos — 
all on the Zom. 

Bruhath, 8^ miles. Ancient Brocomagtu. To the 
left is Hagenau Fortress, with two churches, Ac. 

YxHDEMHEiM, 4^ milcs. 

StraSBburg, in German; or, Stra8l)01irg, in 
French, 6i miles. 

Inns: Hotel d'Angleterre, first-class, well- 
situated, recommended. 

Hotel de\aW)l« ^« TvAa^Ui^HS^aM. 



sRXLisTOK notrtu 2^ 



Hotel Kattobal, firtt-class. 

Hotel dela Maison Rouge. 

The population (119,000) are chiefly Protestants, 
and German-speaking. Capital of German Alsace, 
1| mile from the Rhine. Many little bridges over 
the 111. High-roofed, gloomy -looking houses. 
Noble Cathedral^ and s pire, 466 feet high, with about 
500 steps to the crown of it. Tall clustered pillars, 
curiousclock. monuments, Ac, Old Bishop's Palace; 
St. Thomas's Protestant Churcl^ with monu- 
ments of Obelin nuil Marshal Saxe. Jews' Syna- 
gogue, Hotel de Ville, on the Broglie. Large 
Public Library, restored since the siege of 1870 ; 
statue of Gutenberg, inrentor of printing. 
Statue of KUber. The new fortiflcations, con- 
structed after the siege and bombardment in 1870, 
are exceedingly strong and consist chiefly of a 
chain of forts, some of them over 4 miles from the 
town. Desaix's pillar, on the Rhine, up which 
steamers run to B&le. 

Leave Strassburg for Bftle, 88 miles, in 8| 
hours, by express. 

GBispoLSHsnf, 6| miles on the Eger. Molsheim 
and Mutzig to the right, up the Yosges Mountains. 

FKaKBSHEiic, 2 miles, near the 111. Rosheim to 
the right. Ldocbshxim, 2) miles. 

EBSTxnr, 2^ miles. Obemai, to the right, a 
flourishing town, with old castle and tower. Many 
old mined forts crown the peaks of the Yosges. 

MATZBHHsnf, S miles, still on the 111; BsirncLD, 
2i miles. An olS town, dating from the seventh 
century. The centre of the important tobacco 
cultivation. 

KooBNHEiic, 8| miles. Ebxrshsiic, 2 miles. 
Most of the place-names hereabouts end in heim, 
the English ham. 

ScHLBTTSTADT, 4| milcs. A Small tOMrn, forti- 
fied by Yauban. Gothic church. St. Foy's round 
Church of the Knights of St. John. Gothic belfry. 
Birth-place of Bucer. Yosges Mountains in view, 
and old castles. Considerable pottery and metal 
manufactures. 

St. Hippoltte, 3f miles, in the Haut Rhhi. 

Rappoltswbilbr, 2| miles. Pretty place among 
old castles. The famous Heidenmauer, or Cyclo- 
pean wall, to the right, up the Yosges. Hohenach 
and other towns in view, on the distant heiglita. 

OsTHMot, SmUea, JSlqaeirlhr, Kalserberg, and 



two other castles, to the Hght. Bbnnwerr, 2| 
miles. 

CoLiCAB.— A German town, late the capital of 
the Haut Rhin, in a fine plain. Large minster, 
with extensive prospect. Com market in old churclk 
Ancient Maison-de-ville, Maison-d'arret, or prison. 
Fort Mortier, on the Rhine, one of Yauban*s. 

EoisHEix, 5f mUes. Keep of old castle; Hbkb- 
LI8HEIM, If miles. 

RuFFACH, 4 miles, on the Lauch. Old church 
and castle of the Merovingians. 

Mkbxheim, 8 miles. Ballon-de-Gebweiler, the 
highest point of the Yosges, 4,700 feet, to the right. 

BoLLWBiLBR, 8f miics; Wittelshbdc, 4^ miles. 
LuTTBBBACH, 4| mllcs. Branch to Thann; old 
cathedral, castle, and cotton works. 

DoBKACH, 1 mile ; here were the celebrated print 
works of Dolifus and Co., the largest in Germany 

MuLHOnsB, or Mfllhaasen, 2| miles. A great 
manufacturing place for cottons, woollens, muslins, 
engrines, Ac. Catholic and Protestant Churches, 
Synagogue, Hotel de Ville, Jcc. Round Lombard 
Church of Ottmarsheim, to the left. There is a 
line to Belfort, 80 miles. 

RixHBiM, 8 miles. Paper-hanging factory; Hab- 
8HEIU, f mile; Sibbntz, 6| miles; Bartenhbiic, 
If mile. 

St. Louis, 5 miles. Custom House on Swiss 
frontier. Baggage searched. Huningen old 
Fortress, near the Rhine. 

BJLle or Basle (Basel in German), 2 miles, in 
Switzerland, as in Route 11. 

SKELETON ROUTE 2. 

London to Calais, Boulogne, Amiens, thence 
direct to Basle, in 19| bonrs. (see Brad- 

shawls Continental Quide, International Table E.) 

This route effects a saving in time, but has the 
disadvantage of avoiding Paris, and not offering 
any place to break the journey. N.B.— Luggage 
registered vid Calais for Switzerland or Italy is 
not examined in France. Sleeping Car Company's 
Tickets. 

London to Calais, Boulogne, and AmieraA.^^^ *'S^ 
Route I. -^^ 



J 

\ 



teJLD8HAW*8 gWttZBtttAXt) AlKD tHft TTftOt. 



w&E coD^iMd ill ]^>Mrs, after the immccessful 
descent on Boulogne, 1840. 

TxB6Ki£K (jonction); La Fxbb, arsenal and 
barracks. 

. Laov, popniation, 12,640. Capital of depart- 
ment JUsne, fortified on a rocky hill; very fine 
cathedral (1112), early pointed style; formerly 
capital of the Prankish kingdom. 

Two unimportant statiins nnd the train passes 
by, without entering, Rhxims, running on to the 
Beims and Chftlons line. Then Sillery, Mour- 
nelon, St. HUaire, and 

Ohaloks-sub-Mabkb, population, 28,200, capital 
«f department Mame. Great trade in wine, prin- 
cipally champagne. About 5 miles off, Attila was 
defeated with immense slaughter by the Romans 
aad Visigoths, a.d. 451. 

Vitry-la-Ville; Loisy; then Vitby lk Fbav^ois, 
population, 7,600, founded in Uit by Francis I. 
The rail here leares the Mame. 

Blssmb (Buffet). 

8t> Dizibr, population, 12,775. On the Mame. 
Keafly burnt down 100 years ago. Eurville ; Che- 
rillon ; Joinville, the birthplace of the Sieur de 
Jaiuvifh^ who wrote the famous history of St. 
LOBlf. 

About 20 miles farther, Chauuokt, popniation, 
13,170, chief town of department Haute Mame. 

liANQBEf, population, 11,790. Trade in good 
cutlery. The Roman Longonum. Several unim- 
portant stations to 

ViTRET, station for Bourbonne les Bains, 11 
miles distant. Jussey, Pont-sur-SAone (popula- 
tion, 2,000), Vaivre, and 

Ybsoul (Buffet)^ population, 9,556; capital of 
department Haute Sa6ne. Colombier, Creyeney- 
Saulx, Genevreuille, to 

Lube, population 3,995, on the marshy plain of 
the Ognon. Ronchamp, Champagney, on the 
Rohan. 

Bblvobt, Buffet and junction of Dijon line; 

population, 19,500. Castle built 122S, retained by 

the French under Treaty of 1871; since which 

time the population has nearly doubled. The 

jmtuOMderol ibisront^ HA Dxllb, will be f«nnd 

^ i^ sad 0f Saute 4. 



SKELETON ROUTE 3. 

London to Boulogne, Paris, DlJon, Sali&fl, 
and Lausanne; or by Clialon, Macon, 
and CWoz, to Geneva. 

London to Pabis, as in Route 1. 

Paris by rail, to Chalon-sur-Sadne; 289 miles 
in 104 hours. Station in Boulevard Mazas. Pass 
Bercy Wine Stores, and Suspension Bridge on the 
Seine, and Viaduct on the Mame. Charenton, 
Alfort YeterintSy College, and Yincennes Castle, 
to the left, are in view. 

YiLLENEUVB-ST-GE0BaB*8, 9^ mlles, on the Seine 
and Y^res. Boissy, on a hill to the left; Mobtobbon, 
If mile. Old castle in the forest. 

Bbubot, 2| miles. Wellington was Duke of 
Brunoy. Brie-Comte-Robert Church, to the left. 

CoMBS-LA-YiLLB, 2} mlles, on the Ybres; Libu- 
SAIKT, 3 miles; Cbs^ok, 4^ miles. Yiaduct over the 
Seine to 

Mblun. — A small town, and capital of depart- 
ment Seine-et-Marae. Large old Church of St. 
Aspais, and Gothic belfry. Great House of Deten- 
tion on an island. Amyot, who translated Plutarch, 
was a native. Nangis Castle, and Grange Bleneau, 
to the left; the latter was Lafayette's seat. 

Bois-LB-Roi, 3f miles, in the forest of 

Fontaikbblbau, 5 miles. Old palace, bogrnn as 
early as twelfth century. One court is the Cour- 
des-Adieux, where Napoleon took leave of his 
Guards. Louis XYI.*s pillar outside the town. 
Fine views in forest; trees, rocl^ heath, «feo. 

Thombbt, 8} miles. Noted for chasselas grrapes. 
MoBBT St. Mahbs, 3 miles. Old castle and 
church. 

MoBTEBBAU. — Buffet for refreshment. On the 
Tonne and Seine. Junction with the Chaumont 
line. Jean Sans-Peur's sword in the old church; 
he was murdered here by Charles the Dauphin. 

YlLLENBUVB-LA-GUTD, GJ mllCS. PONT-SUB- 

YoNNB, 6f miles ; pretty part of the Tonne. 

Sens, 1\ miles. Sous-prefecture. Old gates 
and walls, half Roman. Early Gothic cathedral, 
with Becket's mitre, Ac. Hotel de Ville. Fleu- 
ligny Chftteau. 

YiLLENBUYB-suB-ToxTNE, 8f mllcs. Gothic gates 
89d church; old castle. 

St. JnuiUK-DvBikni.'s^^iB&.V^v 



SS;BU2I0H ftOUTB 4. 



'7 



Joiomr, 7 miles. Soas-prefectore. Good views. 
Hotel Dien. Ancient chftteau. 

LAJtocHB, 5f miles. Branch line to Auxerre. 
Bbisnson, 5 1 miles. 

St. Floremtin, 5i miles, on the Arman9on. Good 
views. Canal de Bourgogne and aqueduct. Church 
of the fourteenth century. Ervy Castle to the left. 

Flognt, 7^ miles. Roman camp on the Arman- 
9on. Pontigny A.bbey Church to the right. 

TovNERRX, 8 miles. Buffet for refreshment. 
Sous-prefecture, in Bnrgmidy wine district. Rich 
hospital founded by St. Louis's sister-in-law, 
Margaret. Old chftteau, town walls, &c. St. 
Pierre's Gothic Church. To the right Chablis, 
noted for white wine. 

Taklat, 5 miles. Fine chftteau of the Tanlay 
family, in the renaissance style. 

LiziNNES Tonnel, 1,740 feet. Passt Tunnel, 8,280 
feet. Anct-lk-Fbakc, 8| miles. Louvois Chftteau, 
in the forest. 

NuiTS-SOnS-RAYIEBXS. AlST-SUB-ABMANflOH, 5 

miles. 

MoKTBASP, 6 miles. Pretty place, in department 
Cdte d'Or. Buffon's Chftteau, where he wrote his 
Natural History. Semur, on a rock to the right. 

Lbs Laumes, 9 miles. Alise Abbey and sulphur 
spring near; hilly country, and fine views. 

y&BBET, 18| miles. Old chftteau. St. Seine 
Church, in a deep pass, to the left. 

Blaist Bas, 5| miles. One of the most remark- 
able tunnels in France, 2| miles long, at the 
highest part of the line. A succession of tunn^s 
and viaducts hence to Dijon. 

Malain, 5 miles. Combe-de-Fain Viaduct near 
this, 147 feet high, on a doUhle xbw of arches. 

Ploxbiebes, 4i miles. Good church. 

Duov. — Chief town of department Cdte d'Or, and 
old capital of Burgundy. B«£fet for refreshment. 
Train stops about 33 minutes here. Cdte d*Or 
Hills in view; Cathedral, with tall spire, 328 feet 
high. Old cathedral church. Ancient Palais 
des Etats, with ducal effigies, Ac. Large pre- 
fecture and theatre. Thence onwards by rail to 
Chalon, Mftcon, Bourg, Amb^rieti, Culoz, and 
Geneva, a round of 120 miles. Following the direct 
route from Dijon, you go to Dole and SalinB, an^ 
thence to LanaanBe and Qeaera, 



SKELETON BOUTS L 

London to Calais, Boulogne, and Paxii, 
and to Basle, by Troyes, Cliaiimont» 
Vesoul, and Belfort. 

London to Pabis, as in Route No. 1. 

From the terminus of the Eastern Company in 
the Rue de Strasbourg, Paris, through the suburbs, 
Noisy-le-Sec, Kogent-sur-Mame, and across the 
Mame to 

YiLLiBBS (an old chftteau) and Ozouer-la-Fer- 
rifere, in the Forest of Armainvilliers. Past several 
unimportant stations to 

MoBMAKT, Grandpuits, and Nanois; trade in 
cheese, the well-known Fromage de Brie being 
made in the Brie country here. 

Pass Maison-Rouge, Longueville, Ac, to 

Nogbnt-sitb-Seine, department Aube, where the 
Seine becomes navigable. 

Pont-sur-Seine, chftteau of the Perier family. 
Romilly, another beautiful chftteau. Mesgrlgny 
(viaduct across the lake), St. Mesmin, Barberey, and 

Tbotbs (bujaret), population, 4«,100, oapitel of 
department Aube, formerly a great trading place, 
whence Troy weight. Roman walls. NeztBoulUy 
St Loup, Lusigny (in a forestX and Montitframey, 
on the Barse^ which rises at the next stati<Mi, Yen- 
deuvre. Then Jessains, Arsonval, and BAB-eu|t- 
AuBE, population, 4,450, amongst vineyards. Over 
the bridge here Charles VII. had his rebel lubjeet, 
the Bftt^rd de Bourbon, thrown into the river In 
a sack. 

Claibyaux. The prison here, which h<^ds 2,000 
prisoners, was formerly the celebrated Abbey, 
founded by St. Bernard, 1105. By Mar^nvUle 
and Bricon to Chaumont. 

For the portion f^om CsAuiiOKf to Belfort, see 
Route 2. 

From Belfort to Pbtit-Cboix, the last Flrench 
station. 

Alt MuKSTBBOL (Montreux-Vieux). Note the 
change of time, German time being 25 minutes 
faster than French. The line runs by the canal of 
the Rhine and the RhOne, which it crosses near 
Montreux-Yieeux. 

Daitkehabik; axvd. ksarssa.vs^^sGk.N^'^'^^ 



\ 



8 



fiRADSHAW*S 8Wt¥2ttRLAltD AUb THE TtMot; 



lUfurth and Mulhauskw, or Mulhonse, popnla- 
tlon^ 75,000, a considerable mannfocturing town 
for co'.ton go.ds; after which St. Lndwig and 
Basbl. 

Or, from BsLroRT, by Morvillars, to Dkllk 
(Swiss Frontier), Porrentrut or Pruntrut, Dxle- 
liONT or Dcisberg, and Basle. 

SKELETON ROUTE 5. 

London to Basel, vUk Brussels, Luxem- 
bnrg. Metz, and Strasburg. 

London to Brussels, ffid Dover and Calais, 
thence direct rail, or vid Dover and Obtend, or 
steamer from London to Ostend, or rail from 
London to Harwich and steamer to Antwerp. 
Bail from Ostend to Bmssels in from 2 to 8 hours; 
from Antwerp to Brussels, about 1 hour 

Antwerp, an exceedingly curious old town, 
population, 225,000, on the Scheldt, 60 miles from 
the sea, rapidly increasing as a commercial port ; 
several fine churches, with celebrated paintings. 

OsTSNP, population, 25,000, an Increasing port, 
imd the Brighton of Belgrium. Luggage booked 
through express from London to Cologne is sent 
. on by express trains only. 

Brussels, the capital of Belgium, a very beau- 
tiful city, often justly styled "the little Paris." 
Population, 472,000. Fine town hall, grand old 
churches, well worthy a stay of some days, the 
environs being of great interest to English 
travellers. (See next Route.) 

Leave Brussels by the Gare de Luxembourg. 

Boitsfort, on the borders of the Forest of Solg- 
nies. Groenendael, 6 miles from Brussels, in the 
forest. Conveyances to Waterloo, 1 hour. La 
Hulpe (d milesX a lake and chftteau of the Mar- 
quis de Bethune. 

Rixensart ; Ottignies Junction. 

Mont St. Guibert; old castle visible from rail. 

Gkmbloux, population, 2,800; staple trade, 
cutlery. Khisnes. 

Naxvb, population, 28,200 ; at the confluence of 

the Sombre and the Meuse; chief manofacture, 

cutlery, swords, arms, articles of mixed metal. 

Owing to numerous sieges, few ancient public 

Jbai/dlo£:9 remain. Great fairs in April, July 

J^eiajraj^ and October, 



Nannines; Aye; Marloie, Junction of lino from 
Ll^ge ; Ismelle, confluence of the WamtM and the 
£omm«, quarries; Poix; Marbechan; Pouches. 

Arlon, population, 8,200; capital of Belgian 
Luxembourg. The Fvrttt of Ardennes is near the 
line about here. 

Stbrpenich, Belgian custom house. Bettik- 
6EN, Dutch custom house. 

Luxemburg, population, 20,000 ; capital of the 
independent Duchy of Luxemburg; neutral terri- 
tory, under the control of the King of Holland 
(May, 1867). Shut in by high rocks. The fortifi- 
cations are now dismantled. JGerman spoken here. 

Bettemburg. 

DiEDEKHOFEN (Thionville), population, 5,500; a 
fortified town on the Moselle, formerly French, 
now German. 

Ueckingen, or Uckange; Hazondange; valley 
of the Ome. 

MEZikRES, on the MoseUe^ German, M6»el. Along 
a plain, shut in by wooded hills, to Devant-Us- 
Ponts. Then 

Metz, population, 55,000 ; Buffet ; chief town of 
Lothringen. A fortress, famous in the Franco- 
German war; surrendered by Bazaine, after two 
months' investment. Fortifications, originally by 
Yauban, now materially strengthened. 

Courcelles (8f milesX Remilly (5 miles). Then 
M(5r«hingen, Bensdorf, and Benthelmingen, to 

Saarburq, population, 2,600; at the confluence 
of the Leux and the Saar. The line from Paris 
to Strasburg and Basle here runs in — see Skeleton 
Route No. 1. 

SEiELETON ROUTE 6. 

London to Dover, Calais (or Ostend), 
Cologne, the Blilne, Mayence, Stuttgart, 
and Friedridisliafen (Lake of Constance). 

London to Calais, as in Route 1, thence rail to 
Brussels; or London to Dover and Ostend, thence 
rail to Brussels; or London to Queenborough and 
Flushing. Breda, and Cologne. Sea passage about 
9 hours. 

The routes by Harwich and Rotterdam, or Har- 
wich and Antwerp, are sometimes taken, but they 
are longer. See Brodehaw's Continental Cfvide, 
page 2, 8lLQ\«iloiiT\aout&>\'&Qu\Av 



SkBtKTON ROUTS 6. 



&ALAI9 to H AZfiBftoucK (Buffetj, past St. Oxsb, 
once famous for its Jesuit College, to 

Lille, a strongly fortified town, capital of depart- 
ment Kord ; population, about 188,272. Large cotton 
manufactures; good buildings. The fh>ntier sta- 
tions of Baisieux (France) and Blandain (Belgium) 
having been passed (notice a small difference be- 
tween French and Belgium timeX the next town 
of importance is Tourna.! (Flemish Doamik)^ 16i 
miles from Lille, population, 88,700; a fortified 
manufacturing town, chiefly remarkable for its 
fine Cathedral. 

Then Ath, 1H miles; population, 9,000; forti- 
fied; has sustained many siegres. 

Ekohiek, 14i miles; population, 4,000; from 
here it is 18 miles to Brussels. 

OsTEKD (see Route 5). Thence to Bxnoss (14 
miles); population, 47,000; the central point for 
canals of West Flanders. A very fine Cathedral, 
founded in seventh century, burnt and rebait in 
1858, spire 470 feet; the beffroi, or belfry, of 
Bruges, 320 feet, mentioned by Longfellow. The 
next noteworthy place is 

Gand, or Ghent, 28 miles; population, 145,420; 
large linen and cotton manufactures; more modem 
than Bruges; fine cathedral and many churches. 

Then Alost, 14i miles; population, about 22,000; 
linen and lace manufactures. Thence 19^ miles to 

BmsselS (see Route 5). Capital of Belgium. 
King's Palace, Prince of Orange's Palace, Duke 
d'Aremberg's Palace. Statue of Godfrey of Bouil- 
lon, in Place Royale. Beautiful Gothic Hotel de 
Yille, in Grande Place. Mannikin Fountain, near 
RneduChene. St. Gudule's Cathedral ; its stained 
windows, carvings, Ae. Museum of Paintings. 
Houses of Parliament. Coaches to Waterloo from 
Place Royale; on the field of Waterloo, the Lion 
Pyramid, Hougonmont Chftteau, Mont St. Jean, 
La Haye Saint, and other familiar spots. 

Haecht, 7 miles. In a pleasant country. Wsspx- 
LAKR, li mile. 

LouvAiK, 7 miles. On the Dyle. Fine Gothic 
Town Hall, and collection of Flemish painters. 
Paintings in St. Peter's and St. Gertrude's 
Churches. Good beer. Tunnel out of Louvain. 
Abbey of Parcq on the right. 

Yebtrtck, 6| miles. Another tunnel to 

Tisuurojrr, 4i miles. Old gates and hoTiaea 



St. Oennain*s ancient chtirch, on a hill. Thre 
high barrows (or graves) on the left. 

EsKUASL, 8f miles. Plains of Neirweiden, wlier 
William III. of Orange was defeated by Marsha 
Luxembourg, 1693. 

Lakden, 4| miles. Old decayed town on the 
Beck; Pepin, founder of the French line of 
sovereigns, bom here. Branch line to Maestricht 
and Aix-la-Chapelle. 

GiNGKLOv, 2 miles ; Rosotix, 8 miles ; WABEMMe, 
8f miles. Small place in Li^ge province. Old 
church. Fexqe, 7 miles. 

Ans, 5 miles. A steep incline here, from the 
summit of which there is a striking panoramic 
view of 

LiiGB (8f miles). Fine old town, among hills, 
on the Mouse. Many large and small iron works, 
like Birmingham and Wolverhampton. Ancient 
palace of bishops (see "Quentin Durward."). St. 
Jacques Church and its Moorish piazzas. Line 
from Namur joins here. Hence to Verviers, by 
the Mouse; much picturesque scenery, and many 
tunnels and viaducts. 

Chsnbe, 2| miles. On the Ourthe. Fine vale of 
Vesdre. Limboubg.— Cloth factories. 

Chaudfontainb, IJ mile. Pretty bathing-place 
in Vesdre Valley. Lb Tbooz, 2| miles; Nbsson- 
YAUX, 2^ miles. 

Pepinsteb m miles) . Branch line to Spa, which 
is celebrated for its iron springs. The waters are 
bottled for exportation. Spa ware made. 

Ensiyal, If mile. Cloth factories. 

Vbbyiebs, 1| mile. Great cloth town, in Vesdre 
Valley. Custom House here. Change carriages 
for Germany. Dolhain, 8f miles, decayed place 
at the end of the valley. 

Hebbesthal, 4| miles. First place on the 
German side. Passports and luggage given up— 
the first to be asked for at the Aix Station, the 
second to be re-claimed at Cologne. 

AsTENET, 3 miles.- -Tunnel and Guile Aqueduct. 
Another tunnel, 740 yards long. 

AlX-la-Chapelle, or Aachen. — ^Noted as the 
favourite city of Charlemagne and the German 
Emperors; for its blue cloth, needles^ <b;<!..\ «sv^ 
its Spa. Ajaa\.«a\. C\i.\JftsAx^ -m^^n^a ^,jS5nm». 



1 






■^iSc^^^sst^^ 



i 



SBjLDBSAw'S flWITZBXLUID AXD THB Tmot. 



IdnlBbert- Hew Hoipltil. BiutKheld Hot 



Old culle. 



Vl»d 



de Canle. Bridge 
wlib NledtHEgflD 



crtlio Bnherio 

DnEHr, 61 mllH. . 
Ctitle, to the right. 

Bdib. dl milu. Valleral the Erft and three 
bridges. 

HoRUH, ejtnllM. Fteni Culle. Tunnel, 1 mile 
long;. ToESNtGBD0ur,3ml1e9. MmKHKaoofta, tj 
Inil«.>^Fliis Tlew of Cologne. 

OOlOfpU, H miles, on the Bbloe. Loggafe 
to be utod lor. j?olel<— See Bradibaa'i Con- 

Eitn do Cologne. AfortiaBdcUj-efFraHle, culled 
COIcnia Affrippina. bj tlie Romenji. Bridge of 



Thonaund Virgin.," 1 

Frankgasee. Rnhei 

bonnei. Eiclungo. LeaTingI 



iJeeulti'Chiiri 

111. MoieiuD, 

Uuy de Uedlc 



hron^ Sbchtzm an< 
■ celebrated ipring 



of nail 



and the Kieozberg, 



w»gr 11^ where a 
KiinlgewlQter, one 
SoujiDOtCK, nam 



I a fayauiiu rei 

narGh, St. Oenoli 
dating from Roi 



e Roman Badoiriga ; the 



the Sl> 
from about hen 
abont 400 leet, i» 

light on tbe right of the line 

. on the left elde of the carriage, 
leaving Bonn {see aeal page), 
' of the neble riier 1b obUlned. 
h a 6no old caitle and lutsrelUllg 



Jr frei 



■ntlqnll;. Pope P 



mfor 

Nudeb-Hrhibaoh, oyerlooked by the gloomy 
tower of Stimburff or Jlofmuci castle, no^ rebuilt. 
Pait the csatle of Soanect (lealored), belonging lo 
the Oeroian Emperor, to 

Tkccrtlckhbaiibeh, abOTe whli 



la the eaetle 



SKSLSTON BOUTB 6. 



11 



bnfaiSbsttoK, lee )>age 12. The line here leares 
the Rhine for tome distance, and is uninteresting, 
but again approaches it at 

BiSBBicH and Matenck, see next page. 

Ctologne, by Bteamer, to Bingerliruck or 
Mayence. 

Banks, at first, are flat and uninteresting. Higher 
np, the Siebengebirge, or Seven Mountains, appear, 
and the Rhine scenery begins. 

Bonn, about 18 or 20 miles. Population, 81,515. 
A university town. The university in the old 
Electoral Palace; about 800 students, a fair pro- 
portion English. Fine Museum. Minster, in the 
Byzantine style. Three or four churches. Beet- 
hoven's house and statue. Seven Mountains not 
far off. 

KoNiGSWiNTiB, on the left, near the Drachenfels 
(one of the seven mountains), whence a splendid 
prospect. Above this, Rolandseck Castle, on the 
right, and Nonnenwerth Nunnery. Hence to Bingen, 
the finest part of the Rhine. High cli£b and 
terraces of vineyards, ruined castles, hills, Ac. 
Oberwinter, on the right. Rheinbreitbach Castle, 
Unkel Cliffs and Rapid, on the left. Apollfaiarisberg 
Gothic Church, onthe;right. ErpelerLei rocks and 
Tineyards, on the left. 

SiNZiG, on the right, at the mouth of the beautiful 
Ahr Valley. Flying bridge to Lina, on the left. 
Castles and houses of basalt, which is plentiful 
here. The memorable battle between Constan- 
tino and Maxentius, which decided the fate of 
Paganism, is said to have been fought here. After 
this come the lofty donjon tower of Rheineci^ and 
the splendid country seat of the Frankfort banker, 
Bethmann. 

Andsbnach, on the right. Founded by the 
Romans, and has a fortified Roman gate. Old 
church and tower. Ancient Bishop's Palace. 
Laacher Lake (inland), in the crater of a volcano. 
Friedrichstein Castle, on the left, under tall cliffs. 

Nkxjwied, on the left. Flying Bridge. Old 
Prince's Palace, and Museum from Victoria. A 
Roman tower (inland). Moravian settlement. 

Wkissenthttbm (opposite). Roman Watch Tower 
and General Hoche's Monument. MuHLHOFur, on 
the.left, at the mouth of the Sayn. 

Kbssslhxiu, on the right. SchDnbomlnst ruins. 
Old palace of the Elector ot Tr^yes. EhrenbieVi 



:-\ 



stein in view. KEinEKDOSP, on the right, ithen 
timber rafts are made to descend the river. 

Coblontz. Roman Confiuentes^ where the 
Moselle joins. Bridge on Moselle, and view. 
Bridge of boats to Ehrenbreitstein Fortress, on 
the left. St. Castor's Church, with four Towers. 
Old castle. Wine cellars, for ** Rhine" and 
"Moselle" wines. Many fine points of view. 
Steamers up Moselle, to Treves and Metz, through 
charming scenery. 

HoBCHHEUi, on the left. Stolzenfels Castle, on 
the right. Queen Victoria received here by the 
King of Prussia, 1845. Fine view. 

NiEDBRLAHNSTEiN Castlb, on the left, at the 
mouth of the Lahn^ which runs down past Ems 
and other spas in Nassau. 

Obeblahnstein Castle (red), on the left, where 
Wenceslaus was destroyed, 1400. 

Rhense, on the right. — Ancient-looking town, 
with the Konigsstuhl, where the seven Imperial 
Electors used to meet. 

Bbagbach, on the left, under the Marksburg, and 
its fine mediaeval castle. The river makes a bend 
to BOPPABT, on the right.— Fortress, with 4,000 
inhabitants. Roman walls. Palace of Prankish 
kings. Old houses. Marienberg water-cure. 
Gorge of the Rhine begins here. 

Salzig, on the right. Sternberg and Liebensteiit 
Castles are opposite. 

Ehbekthal, on the left, noted for mines of silver, 
lead, and copper. Welmich Church, on the left, 
and Thnmberg, or Mouse Castle. 

RHEIN7ELS Castle, on the right, a fine feudal 
remain, with noble prospect. St. Goab, on the 
right, in a delightful spot. Salmon fishing at the 
rapids. Lurieiberg Black Cliffs, on the I^t. Grotto 
and echo. 

St. GoABHAnsBK, on the left. Old decayed 
town. Katz, or Cat's, Castic. at the mouth of the 
beautiful Fortsbach Valley. Rheinf els Castle, near 
St. Gear. Seven Sisters Rocks, in the Rhine. 

Obebwbsbl, on the right — Roman Vesalia. Old 
Gothic walls. A tall tower, called the Ox Tbwer, 
on the river, by the water edge. GtothSe ehurch 
above. SchSnburg Castle. 

Cattb, on the left, with Gutet!l<ft7L^<!ssies^'6k'«s=*«**-ir— 



1^ 



fiRADSHAW*d 8WirZ«RLAKl> AKt> THE TTBOL. 



BAOHAlUtiB, Oh the ri^ht, so called from the 
Altar of Bacchus, a stone in the river. Werner 
Gothic Chapel, in ruins. Old Gtothie walls. 
Stahleck Castle. Famous for wine. 

LoRCH, on the left, at the mouth of the Wisper- 
bach. Devil's Ladder and Kollingen Castle. Fttr- 
stenburg Castle. Castles and vineyards stand 
thick in the Rheingau, as this part of the river is 
called. Heimbnrg and Sonneck Castles opposite. 

AssjCANNsnAusKX, on the left. Mineral waters. 
Vineyards on the terraces, some 1,000 feet hijjh. 
Rossel Tower and view. Rheinstcin Ca tie 
opposite. Bingcr Loch Rocks in the river, and 
Ehrenfels on the left. 

The Mausbthdsm, on the right, near the mouth 
of the Nahe, scene of Southey*s ballad. 

BoroKRBRt^CK, on the north bank of the Nahe. 
(Time will be saved by taking the train here for 
Mayence.) Notice the colossal statute of Oermania 
on the opposite hills. 

BoroxK, on the right, at the mouth of the Nahe. 
Great place for com and wine. Fine points of 
view. Branch line to Kreuznach watering-place, 
up the Nahe. 

ROdesheix, on the left, noted fo;: wine. Four or 
five old castles. 

Gbiskkhizv, on the left. A charming spot. 
Many islands in the river. Johannisberg Castle 
and vineyards on the left, belonging to Prince 
Mettemich. 

BiBBSsicH, on the left. Dukeof Nassau's Palace. 
Short branch line to Wiesbaden, a beautiful 
watering-place. 

KayO&CO, or Mainz. 

A strong fortress, garrisoned by 8,000 troops. 
Old cathedral with remarkable tombs and mural 
paintings. A portion (the eastern Round Towers) 
dates from the 11th century. Thorwaldsen's statue 
of Gutenberg, a native. Paintings in the eld 
Electoral Castle. New stone bridge to Castel, 
opposite, near the mouth of the Main. Railway, 
to Frankfort, 28| miles. 

From Mayence the traveller can proceed either 
by MAiTNHxnc, or by Darmstadt, to Hxidklbero. 

Mahkhkix, capital of Grand Duchy of Baden, 
an important city ; handsome railway station. 
i>.juuistaj>t, iSimUea. Capital of Dnchy, Ducal 
^»^*ce. Statute Sa the Lonlaen-plaiz, 



ZwurOiNBUKO, lOf miles; Bemsbbix, 8| miles. 

Hbpfbwhkix, 3 miles. To the right across the 
Rhine, Worms and its Cathedral. Luther before 
the Diet, 1521. Wbikhbim, 6f miles. 

Frxedricbsfbld, 8f miles. Branch turns off to 
Mannheim on the Rhine. 

HxtDXLBBRO, 6i miles. Delightful town on the 
Neckar. Larg^e and picturesque ruined castle. 
University. Wiesloch, 7 J miles. On Rhine, to the 
right. Spire or Speyer, and its ancient Cathedral. 

BxucHSAL, 13^ miles, a buffet. Here we leave 
the direct line between Carlsruhe (the capital of 
Baden) and Basle, to follow the line to Stuttgardt. 
We pass Hbidelsueim, Maulbronn, and six other 
stations, to 

Bletiqhbim, 85 miles from Bruchsal, from which 
there is a branch of 18 miles to Heilbronn. The 
next station is Aspbro and its old castle; then 
Ludwxosburo, 4| miles from Bletigheim ; followed 
by three more stations, and then 

• Stuttgart, or Stuttgard, 10 miles. Capital of 
Wttrttemberg. Very beautifully situated, sur- 
rounded by wooded and vine-clad heights; ofcom- 
paratively modern origin, and noted for famous 
architects. 

Modem houses, large palace and gardens, in 
KSnigs-strasse, and stud of Arabians; old palace 
near it. Theatre and Jubilee Pillar. Houses of 
Parliament, old Ctothic Church, Schiller's Statue, 
Museum, Rosenstein Country Seat. Leave for 
Friedrichshafen, 181 miles in 7^ hours. 

Tunnel of 400 yards. 

Canvstadt, a suburb of the capital, on the 
Neckar. Gk>od mineral waters; public gardens, Ac. 

EssLiiraBir, 8 miles, a small town, with an old 
castle; Gothic spire church; Romanesque church, 
with two towers. 

Plochikqem, 7 miles, on the Neckar. Wooden 
bridge across the Nils. 

GSppikoen, 10^ miles, a small place on the Fils. 

HoHBNsrAUFBN, to the left, old castle of the 
Swabian Emperors of Germany, on a mountain 
2,250 feet high. 

Gbisslimqbn, llf miles, in a deep pass of the 
Rauhe Alp*> Wooden toys made. 

Ulm, 19| mUes. Ancient town and fortress, on 
the Danube. Great trade in snails. Fine Gothic 
Protestant Minster, one of the largest in Germany, 
460 feet lon«\ Www, «V% l«\.\xV|^ tk^VsAa T^i^im 



8KELVT0N ROUTS 7. 

rick-bnilt cathedral. St 



House. Mack surrendered to the French here, f houses. Brick-bnilt cathedral. St. Pet 



ii 
i( 
t 

B 
1 

r 
1 

y 

e 

({ 
t 

e 
li 



I 



P< 
X] 

b 
If 

n 
u 



'i 



SECTION L 



WEST SWITZERLAND AND THE HIGH ALPS. 

FROM GENEVA TO HONT BLANC, GREAT ST. BEBNARB, ORANBE CHARTREUSE, 
A08TA, UP THE 8IMPL0H, THE SOURCE OF THE RHONE. AND TO MILAN. 

(ROUTES 1 to 7.) 



HOXJTB 1- 
CtenevE to Cbamouni and Hont Blanc, 

up tbe Arve. — This is the shortest and most 
direct route to Mont Blanc, and may be accom- 
plished from London in a retam trip of ten or 
twelve days or less. 

GENEVA (Stat) 

Genive in French, Oet^/ in German, Oinevra in 
Italian. — Hotels : 

Grand Hotel National, one of the largest and 
best in Switzerland ; comfortable and moderate. 
Fine view of the Lake and Mont Blanc. Patent 
lifts. 

Grand Hotel de la Palx, first-class hotel, well 
situated, Qnai du Mont Blanc. Recommended. 

Grand Hotel Beau Rivage, first-class and well 
situated, with beautiful terrace. Lift to each 
floor. 

Hotel de la Metropole. 

Hotel de rificu. 

Hotel des Berfmes, a first-clasi hotel for families 
and gentlemen. 

Grand Hotel de Buasie and Continental, 1, Quai 
da Hont Blanc; first-class hotel. 

Hotel d*Angleterre, near Hotel Beau Rirage. 
Victoria Hotel,Tery good house, well situated, and 
moderate. Deservedly recommended. See Advt 
Hotel de Geneve. 

Eichmond Family Hotel, opposite the Pier. 

Hotel de la Poste. 
Pension Fleischmann. 

BxiTisH Consul.— 10, Rue Bonivarcl, where pass- 

y*arty joajf be bad. Fbxitch Consul— 4, Place du 

MoUrd. UirTTKD Statmb CONSUL— Rue dea Alpes. 



ports for visitors to the Simplon must be tUi 
(4 francs). But to save delay here it should be 
previously done by the Consul in England. 

Post Office.— Place de la Poste. Letters 34 
hoars from London. Telegraph Oflice, same place. 
Geneva time is 15| minutes before Paris and 4^ 
minutes behind Berne time. 

English Church Ssbvicx.— At 10-80 a.m. and 
7-80 p.m. in the Gothic Church of H&ly Trinity, Rue 
du Mont Blanc, built 1858, on freehold ground 
granted by the city. 

PSBSBTTJBBIAN SbBYIOB, FbBB ChUBCH OF SCOT- 
LAND, Rue du RhOne, 60. AmbbiOan Episcopal 
Chuboh, Rue des Voirons, 10-80 a.m. Ambbicah 
Union Chubch, Salle de la Reformation, 11 a.m. 
Union Nationals EvANoiLiQus, Petite Salle 
de la Reformation, 65, Rue du Rhdne, 10 ajn. 

DiviNB Sbbvicb in the town churches (National 
Reformed) at 10, as a rule; at the Auditoire (Ger- 
man Reformed) at 10; at the Lutheran Church (in 
German), RueVerdaine, at 10; (Catholic Liberal 
Church, St. Germain, Rue des Granges; New 
Catholic Temple Unique, Place Neuve; Russian 
Church, Plateau deft Tranches; Jewish Syna- 
gogue, Plain Palais. 

Biblb Socibtt's Agents.— Robert Fr^res, 4, 
Place Bel Air, where Guidft (in English) can be 
obtained. 

Eisn>BNT English Phtsiclibs. 

Swiss Abtiolbs.— Sculptured in wood, ivory, 

buck-horn, &c.. Place Bel Air. 

WATcaaas.— Mr. P. Philippe, 22, Grand Quai 
Baths at Carouge; the He, near the water- 
works ; Des Alp«s, lioA ^uIAvtUt \ sad Ia Rive^ 

near Boiix( in. 1?«<^* 



Boute 1.] 



aBNXYA. 



15 



Omkibusxs at rarioas times to Odligny, Trelex, 
Qex^ Yearsolx, fiO cents ; Femey, 50 cents ; St. Jolien, 
MomeXf Lancey, Vandoeuvres, Villette, 25 cents to 
1 franc 40 cents. To Carouge, every J hour, 12 cents. 

Cabs, per course in the city, 1 franc, 8 or 4 
persons, 1^ franc; 2 J francs per hour; 66 cents 
for each quarter over. One-horse vehicles, about 
15 francs a day. Diligmce to Chamouny, 21 francs 
to 25 francs. Carriage and pair to Chamouny, 
100 francs, and 5 francs to driver ; 55 miles, 9 hours' 
travelling, and li hour for refreshment at Bon- 
neville and St. Martin. The traveller should 
arrange beforehand about luggage. 

Stkamboats.— From the Quai du Mont Blanc in 
summer for Coppet, Nyon, Rolle, Mergres, Ouchy 
(Lausanne), Vevey, and Villeneuve. Trunk, from 
hotel to boat, 75 cents. For Steamers round the 
Lake, Quai du Jardin Anglais. (See Bradsfutui's 
Continental Guide.) 

Boat, with man, 2| franceiper hour. 

Railway.— Central Station, Place de Comavin. 
To Lausanne, 88 miles ; Tverdun, 65 miles ; Keu- 
chfttel, 88 miles; Berne, 107 miles; Soleure, 123 
miles; Olten, 152 miles; Basle, 177 miles. To 
Lyons, 100 miles. Cabs to town, 2 francs for one 
to three persons; lugrgago, 25 cents, under 20 
kilometres. The rail from Bellegarde (over the 
French frontier), south of Geneva, passes St. Julien- 
cn-Gen^ve, St. Cerques, Aniemasse, to Thonon, 
Evian, and Bouveret (page 29). Geneva time is 
4| minutes after Berne time, and lb\ minutes 
before Paris. (See Bradehau^s OontineiUal Ouide.) 
Tram to Carouge, Ac. Stbax Trams to ChenO 
and Annemasse (page 19). 

Population, 72,254 (one-third Roman CatholicX 
including the communes. That of the Canton 
(93 square miles) is 107,000, of whom one-half are 
Roman Catholics. 

Geneva, from its position as a frontier town, is 
a sort of neutral ground for continental Europe, 
where all nations and creeds fraternise, and g^ve 
a colour to the tone of society. Careful, serious, 
and decorous habits still prevail, according to the 
pattern set by their great legislator, Calvin. At 
the same time, a little has been borrowed from 
each of their neighbours, and the people who fk>ok 



here; from the French, their nrbanitj and good \ linem t&»Ck\\.<A«i% %»^ %«t<*»S^^ ^'^'^^^^^T 



with good principles of education and moral 
training ; from Italy, traditions of art ; from Ger- 
many, a love of books and philosophy. Moore, the 
poet, in his "Journals,** speaks of it as a little 
microcosm, a compact epitome of what is going on 
on a larger scale in the world ; with an influence 
utterly disproportioncd to the size of its territory, 
which is a mere speck of 10 miles square. It is a 
noted stronghold of civil and religious liberty; and 
is still looked on as the capital of the Reformed 
faith on the continent, though many of the Presby- 
terian Olergy, as in England and America, formerly 
distinguished for high Calvinistlc tenets, are now 
Unitarians. The evangelical party, however, is 
large, and increasing in numbers and energy. One 
of them. Merle D'AuMgni^ the Historian of .the 
Reformation, died 1872, at Eaux-Yives, over- 
looking the lake. 

The city, about 1,300 feet above the sea. 
stands on both sides of the Rhdne, as it 
issues out of the lower end of Lake Leman, or 
Lake of Geneva; it is built on two low hills, the 
highest being only 100 feet above the river on the 
south bank, where the largest and oldest portion of 
the town, called la Cit€, stands. This is occupied 
by the aristocracy, while the tradespeople and pro- 
fessionals reside mostly at St. Gervals, on the north 
or right bank. As many capitalists and bankers 
live at Geneva, it is, next to Bftle, the wealthiest 
town of the Confederation. About a seventh part 
of the population is employed in making watches, 
of which above 100,000 are exported in the year. 
They are small and chea|^ compared with those of 
English construction, but not so intrinsically good 
or lasting. It has, besides, manufactures of hats, 
doth, cotton, velvet, leather, jewellery, &c., and a 
very considerable trade in collections of plants and 
minerals, butterflies, and such like. 

The neighbourhood of Geneva is unrivalled. The 
blue lake, and yet bluer river; the watering-places 
on the lake ; the Jura Hills in front ; Mont Sal^ve 
behind, with the mountains of Savojr, and Mont 
Blanc rising above all, in the background, combine 
to form a panorama of remarkable grandeur. But 
in itself Geneva is rather tame. On approaching it, 
the wide quays, and the stately hflra3fcft^•^\!^!3s!k^^sss«l. 



xxu«HAw'* awirzKBLAxp AXD r 



MraM of 1<JI, dnk-knUiW hovH^ mtnl MsRTa 
«M biHtlnM, Hj—iwil«r<. Invtrtr. H llM bin* of 



• Maim psnlo, tBftti tnm 

A»S ■ rnu mmba of tptUfiu. Ii ok 

kytAT of bb 1JB«. ud n 



m BIbk. Bvl 
IIIU«lHlnir(]ii>eltx. TIud 
•Ha M ChM«I()nt, irlim (ha mnMj tarn 
Arr* »M llu trfM Mm nf lh( MMnt U 
nill (14* by iMa wllhmit nliwDnf. nHt] U 
!• Krxtflill)' dliKnImvl. At 
of ( <ir II Kcrat b» bMii lold 



BbAne, ■ tht Ifvc At RjAsn. % 






»|4( 



In Moni BUne, wVnc4. oriAcku aTenliijr, lia 
T*n<l Tt*w »[ llu Hunt [IIiik in"nip- On Ibt ftl. 
Itrr*l( iMsar* Ili<qu)' md nhnrbof do Bir- 

fl'i. |olii*di Irf m DMBM-uftwl brldce, ihi F«il 
:■■tl■lr«BB^ t'lI'lK* da HhAnenn thaOrnnd Qui. 



Kur )t !• Uc cbDnfa. or Ttmpla 

PdUIc P«k, i' La MiddciM, the oldut cbnrcb In Gtnera, 

indwDcPonl '"■"'•''"I'xIltbceBlBT. Tbt Omnln (whera 

ITAnMfad pr»ehed)l> la ■■( dc Tabuan ; Templa 

~ Plm de Ii Futarit. SI. Gcnais. in Ihs 






I cat lad 



IladaDuwHaH, which, bi Iha ibapn of ■ bailliin,! 
planted with Irnai, and wntilni I'radler'iAMfiH^ 
JIouNou.irhDnMlwrnatt*, Urand Ruti not In 
llua Uon»Hn, m Inoorraclly uHrtail, Thli li a 
iliilliihtfal fnniaiuda Hi a Una inniDiar'i arenln;. 
I*w«r down, whara tha rlr«r» narrow, tiro lirldgai, 
raitlnji on a larger lidind, unlla Placa Bel Air to 
riaoaila Ht. Oanali, Upon th I* Inland wai placed 
the Maahlne llrdraullnne. areclad In ITOB, and re- 
plaead In 1IHN1 liy Ilia n>rMf mofrfyiui iu lOttiU! 
with turblneiufnaarl]' A,Oai>h.p.,i<uppl]'ln| water 
foIdumaitlD purpoaai, elaolrlo llshtlni, and notlTe 
powar to varloni parti. Tlia gnat af thl> li about 
IKIfr pat aniinn por I h.p> (or 10 houri dall;. 

Th*.Au-iU>i.(i>pl<i(a, fiBlnitbg at«imirqua)-,Dn 
tha lAka, snntalni Dncer'i JVaKgaaJ VmuiBanl 
(a bronig ■rnupll and a kloique, with a pano- 
nwle rellet of Mont Blang. Hear Ihig are tha 
Italia <tg la HefiirmMlan {rallci of Calln), and, In 
Ihs lako, (lie IHim iD ffflrm (or Miptong). one 
lit twa bunlilar iIoiih, wbleh Ig bellerad to hare 
baan nied ai an allar. 

ThaCi 



rabarb of tha same i 



Clalmi nut, 
Inalde which 
It hag the An 
Adjoining It 1 
lUB. Here 
Behind It, on the othoi 
arclheSglanfaiJffan 

Da Cgiidolla. Tfaej 



al(tt. C). Ii 



Otlitte (eOO glodenti) hj Calvin. 
gieaa-g EmOe was bomt, 17113. 
horiideor the Trellle promenade, 

ho great botfldln. 



)f agrlcu 






oontalnlng tha Pnblie Llbrarr and Unaenm o( 
KMoral Hiatocj. Tha LSirarji wai fonnded by 



Boute 1.] 



GfiI{BVA« 



17 



IfSS. Among other relics are the Koble Ley9on, 
A Waldensian compendium of the Bible, in the 
Yandois dialect of the twelfth century, which Sir 
S. Morland translated in Cromwell's time; many 
letters and sermons of Calvin and Beza; homilies 
of St. Augustine, on an ancient papyrus ; Philippe le 
Bers wax tablets (1808); portraitsof illustrious men. 

The Museum^ chiefly one of Natural History, is a 
rich collection, begun 1818, by the gift of the cabi- 
net of M. Boissier, Professor Necker*s ornithology, 
Ac. It contains specimens of nearly every Swiss 
animal, especially of the lake fish; with the vegeta- 
ble fossils gathered by Brongniart and De Candolle; 
the original geological cabinets of De Saussure and 
Jurine; Mayor's preparations of anatomy; Pictet's 
cabinet of physical objects; and a room of antiqui- 
ties. Dame Royaume's Iron pot and ring, which 
figured at the Escalade, is In the Historical section. 
Open to strangers daily, Tuesdays and Saturdays 
free. 

Not far from the University is an Alpine Jardin 
d'Acclimatation, where specimens may be bought. 

At Promenade de St. Antoine stand the Poudri%re 
and the Observatory; the latter a domed building, 
with a zenith sector, Ac. Near the Port de Rive, 
further on, is the Gymnasium. The Mus^e Fol, a 
handsome collection of statuary, frescoes, porcelain, 
antiquities, &c., is in Grande Rue, the building 
being mainly occupied by the Soei€t€ de Lecture. 

The Mutie Bath^ founded by General Rath (a 
Russian by adoption), is close to the Porte Neuve, 
and to the Grand Theatre. It occupies a hand- 
some building by Yaucher, which, till 1826^ was 
called the Academy of Design. Beside plaster 
casts and models, it includes a gallery of paintings 
by native and other artists. Among the best are 
Homung's Last Moments of Calvin, a Sea Piece by 
Yan der Hals, Scene in Winter by TSpfer, the Story 
Teller by Calame, the Deliverance of Bonivard by 
Lugardon, Landscapes by Dutch Masters. Mon- 
days, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, free; 
other days, | franc. The Porte Neuve just men- 
tioned, was the scene of the Etealade^ of 11th Dec, 
1602, when the Duke of Savoy unsuccessfully tried 
to take the town by surprise. 

The aocUtide Lecture^ or Reading Club, founded 
1818, has an extensive Ubraiy, to which Btrangen 
majr b§ Admitied by cuxlf or Introduction of mcm- 
C 



hefB. There are many other societies: ICedieal, 
Scientific, Artistical; with numerous elementary 
and infant Schools. The large Batiment Electoral, 
and the Ath^n^e on the Bastions Promenade, are 
used for concerts, &o. In the Ath^n^e is a per- 
manent exhibition by Gknevese artists. Mus^e 
Ariana, a fine private collection (open Tuesdays, 
Thursdays, and Fridays, after 1 p.m.), is at 
Pregny, 20 minutes distance. 

The handsome new Theatre^ bnilt for £200,000, 
out of the Brunswick bequest, by Goss, is in Place 
Neuve, near the Conservatoire de Musique and its 
Club. Orphan Asylum, near the station. CaH' 
tonal Hotpitdl, built 1856, at Champel Hill, where 
Servetus was burnt. 

Provisions and house rent are moderate at 
Geneva; the shops are good, and the articles cheap. 

Geneva was, in the time of Caesar, a town of 
the AUobroges. In the fifth century it became 
Burgundian, and in the sixth. Prankish; once 
more Burgundian in the ninth century, and Ger- 
man in 1083. 

Before the Reformation, Geneva waa republican 
under its bishop, who styled himself Prince of 
Geneva. Napoleon I. made it the capital of th« 
new department of Leman. It is now surrounded by 
French territory, acquired by the cession of Savoy. 

Calvin lived, or rather reigned, here from 1586 to 
1664. His Howe was No. 11, Rue des Chanoines. 

It was by his influence that the atrocious crime of 
roasting Servetus to death for his opinions was com- 
mitted, 1 558. In 1558, he received John Knox here. 
His grave, marked J. C, is in the Plainpalais Ceme- 
tery^ near the Arve, along with the graves of Sir H. 
Davy. (died here, 1829) and De Candolle. Other 
residents were Beza, Yemet, Romilly, Saussure, 
De Luc, Bonnet, Jurine, Huber, De Candolle, the 
naturalist; J. Causabon,Diodati,De Lolme, Pictet; 
Abauzit, the learned scholar, of Arabic blood; 
Lef ort, the tutor of Peter the Great ; Necker, and 
his daughter, the celebrated Madame de Stael; 
Dumont and J. B. Jay; De la Rive, the chenoist; 
Rousseau and Sismondi. The Centenary of Rous- 
seau was observed, 1878. The late eccentric Duke, 
of Brunswick, who died hax^ \^«a. WsiSK«>^»^SsR^, 



«t«jWWX <iVCk3.«a- \N. N* ^ '^^^^ 



udlsorrlch irhltemai'b]*, i feader- 
he Dnka and hli inceiton, abODDdii ' 



THK TTBOL. [Section 1. ' 

•K tha Drance and Vaoge. It 



Point* of view b 



Srottoi d' Ob«[jet and de Balms at Coin. Splea- 
«ld tIbwi from the Hilla of Boiiy, Bentiigea, 
CDlagnr (when Byron llTsd, 1818). ChampeL Dli- 
lant aicnnlong (v the Billtve and Leg Pltoni, t,30(l 
f Mt to 4,G0D feet high ; ta CuQng^ and iti Bomac 
aatlqnltiefl. FenKjr^ which waa Voltaire's connlrp 



one at the Inn. 
aeribod by Ho 


oftheJoraroadfromPoIigny, 
™inhl.JJ*i™««.(*«B™i- 


«- 


Dlttel railw. 
uidChambiry 
yiancehyway 
ild> of th* la 
■wlththoltoen 


coramimlcatlon ojiite with J 
in Savoy ! and wlUi the Booth 

of Ljoni. Arailwajraiongtheio 
e, eonnecllnff France and Gen 

p the ValaU,w».op«ied, 1886. 


of 


THE UKB OP omEVA, 




Or Oenfer See of the Gennani, an 
Ixsman (Lai Limai, ai it I. mo 


lomotlmosLate 



tha lake the i 
portion is » to 



III ilaolate depth Ji gradualXy diminiita- 
■flonr I, ■ bright HtbJj- ukr bias; It 
- artr. 3%a BhOat l» tba prlnoli*! 



The opposite 


orSwl,. 


ida,i. -d 


iighlfnl plctnra 




■edwithT 


neyards,B 


rdens. and imall 














jndVillen 


nrc. Theopper 








antic, eepeciaily 


aiwotVeTey, 


Uontrenx, 


Chilion, M 


illerte,&c. Ths 


cirmitofiO 




done, 188 


byMr.Levler, 


■a Engliih b 


cyclist, in 


IS hoots. 




Altojtelhet 


this lake 


aKirtotmean between th. 








jontry and tha 






Kin Italy 


AewelLcaUed 


•eiche, tDmethbig like 


the eagre 


t the month of 


arge tive«, 


«,dperh 


p> occB^oned by Iha aams 


MUM, Tl.., the preMara <,t the a 


, takes placo at 


times, by wh 




rf«*l. s 


ddenly ralaed K 




alfanho 


r together 


Klopstock wd 



OSHEVA TO oEAHonmr. 



By diligence from Grand Qnii, to ChamonnX 
bi 8 hours, daily, at 7 a.m., 1st May to lEth Oclo. 

Iteket, hut W. \a ^xUcr to mara bx another rout« 



boute hj 



&8MTA ¥0 CttAMOlt!(t, JbOlfKEtltLtt, OLtSXS. 



19 



Learing Geneva by the Grande Place, you come 
by a pleasant road to CAMM^one of the largest places 
in the Geneva territory. AmiimaiUe, now a sta- 
tion on the Evian-Valais line, ia on a little stream 
dividing the canton from French davoy, and has a 
Custom House. Then come Vetrax^ Arifuu (on the 
Menoge), Nangy^ and Contaminet-sur'Arve \ the 
latter at the foot of the M61e, whose rugged sides 
line the road all the way to Bonneville. The points 
of view are interesting. In descending the valley of 
the Menoge you see to theleft the Vciroru, 4,900 feet 
high {Hotd at top); M^e in the middle, 6,150 
feet, and Breton to the right, 6,185 feet. To the 
left of Moolins, which is beyond Gontamines, is 
the Castle of Favdgny^ to which family the pro- 
vince once belonged. 

BONNEVILLE (StatioiiX 

Inn : La Couronne; des Balances. 

A small town of 2,200 souls, capital of the former 
province of Faucigny, in a pleasant spot on the 
Arve, which rises hi the Glacier of Bois, in the 
Valley of Ghamounlx. It has some manofactares. 
The Borne joins the Arve here. On the handsome 
bridge, outside the town, is a pillar 72 feet high, 
with a statute of Charles Felix of Savoy (1824), to 
commemorate the embankments he bi^lt against the 
inundations of the " vastantem Arvam,'' The level 
of this unsettled stream was raised 20 feet in spme 
parts of its course, in the inundations of 1852. 

[To ascend Hont Breion, leave Bonneville 
by the stone bridge on the Arve, and tuni 
off to the right, to the village of Thult, at 
the foot of the Bresson. Most of the people 
are aflUcted with goitre. The mule path which 
begins ere is very picturesque in some parts. 
Near the first cottages you come to Is a torrent 
which descends to the village below. A rocky 
gorge leads hence to the village of Brezon, 
above which are green pastures and chalets, 
called the Granges de Solaison, and frequented 
in summer. The summit of the mountain 
commands a magnificent view, especially from 
a point which, being rather hazardons, must 
be approached by lying on your breast, and 
hiding in this way to the edge vl the predplce. 
It is rich in tpecimena of Howen and minerala. 
From BreMOB you inaypnieettl to the Saxon- 



hex, another peak, ^,570 feet high; descending 
thence, by the village, to Slongy, yon will 
find fossil oyster shells in the limestone, near 
the path.) 
VOUgy, with its rushing mountain stream, 
the Qiffre^ is the next place, at a part of the 
road where it becomes hilly and winding. Then 
coves Seiongier^ in a plain covered with luxu- 
riant vegetation, the chestnuts, walnuts, oaks, 
Ac, growing to a great size. Before reaching 
Cluses the road crosses the Arve again. The 
YalHiy of Bonneville is narrow at its entrance 
between the Mdle and the Brezon, then grows 
wider, and at last so narrow again that the trees 
on both Aides of the pass touch each other, and 
there is only room left for the river and the little 
village. 

OI1V8E8 (Station). 

Inm: National; Union. 

It is but a long strtet of houses (most of them 
rebuilt since the fire of 1844), shut up (clausa) in 
the narrow pass, and having a population of 1,770, 
and a considerable manufacture of clocks. Many 
fine points of view. It stands 1,600 feet above sea. 
On the right are the picturesque ruins of Ch&teau 
de Mussel, on a peak of Mont I>oaron, which is a 
rugged limestone mass. All the hills round this 
pass are limestone, and as such are scarped and 
broken, and twisted in every imaginable form; 
but waterfalls, patches of verdure, and trees are 
numerous. About a league from Cluses is Bcame, 
and its cavern, a little above it, with an entrance 
about 20 feet wide— it is about 640 paces long, but 
the height varies; about half-way in is a deep pit, 
where a grenade behig fired produces a remarkable 
echo. It is 770 feet above the Arve, and is like 
most other caves all the world over. Beyond 
Balme is a spring of pure water, which runs into 
the Arve, and is supposed to flow out of the Lake 
of Flaine, which lies above it. A great quantity 
of clock-work machinery is made here* and supplied 
to Geneva, &c. Cluses has also two free schools 
for teaching watchmaking. 

Maglan, in a charming valleyN ftsass«k^ -^^sra*.^ 
meadows^ gcOTtv«cA«^"ecMt% kA^'^vw*.-'"^^'^^*^^;^ 



JO 



maLAMOAW^M SWnzXSLAXD AKD THB TTBOL. 



ESecti<ml. 



Vaat d'Atp9DMl, bMt Men after nin. It 
iBBbic* ortt cooimoiit lodu, md U lort in tprmy 
•bout 876 feet below. Mont Blenc comes into view 
M jon epinioach towards St. Martin's. On the 
left is tlie AiguiOe de Varem^ 8,lr7S feet above 
the sea. The first slate now appears on a hill to 
the left: mixed with black marble. 

St. Martin.— /i>n«: Hotel da Mont Blanc and 
the Croix Blanche, where travellers pass the night, 
if thej do not wish to reach Chamonny the same 
daj. Walk out to the bridge on theArre, and yon 
have before you many peaks and glaciers, and 
Mont Blanc in all its majesty about 14 miles off. 

gALLENCHES, or SAUJkHCHES. 

Inmi; DesMessageries; Bdleme. 

A Tillage of 2,100 sonls, mostly rebuilt since its 
destruction by fire in April, 1840. It is 1,830 feet 
above the sea (590 feet above the Lake of Geneva), 
and stands opposite the peak, or Aiguille de Yarens, 
pn the other side of the Arve. CharM from here or 
St. Martin's to Chamouny, 13 francs, by tariff. 
From Sallenches there is a char-road to M^g^ve, 
THopital, and Chamb^ry. About a quarter of a 
league from Sallenches, there are two gorges, with 
ft stream flowing through each, which unite, and 
give name to the village. They abound with 
ftriking scenery. From Mont Bosaet, above the 
Bellevue Hotel, the outlines of the Ddme du Gk>ut^, 
which stands in front of Mont Blanc, may be 
elearly distinguished. The church wall of Passy, 
on the other side of the Arve, has two Roman 
Totire insodptions on it. That part of the valley 
between Sallenches and the Baths of St. Gervais is 
•ztremely interesting; and the artist, geologist, 
and botanist may all find something to delight and 
instruct them. The so^kery at St. Gervais, with 
its cascades, immense rooks and mountains, vine- 
yards, forests, and solitary walks, is most charming. 
Kowhere can so many examples be found of 
uplifted rocks and contorted strata, granite, gneiss, 
mioa, schist, mountain limestone, slate, Ac., tossed 
about in every direction. In one part, alpine lime- 
•tone serves as a base to the green sandstone and 
eompact chalk above it. At St. Gervais, the gjrpsum 
Mod eaicMr90Wt tufa form the prineipal basis. 

^^4 Mrw dUpwfd MTQUnd. 



Between the vineyards at the bottom, and the 

i glaciers at the summit, the sides of the ralley ofliur 

\ qiecimens of plants characteristic of almost every 

I r^on into which botanists divide them. Botterfliea 

and other insects are also found in great numbers. 

[The best road to the BatllB of St. GeTYalS is 
by the south side of the Arve, past Domancp and 
Le Fayttj in the broad valley of the river, till yon 
come to. the bridge on the Bonnant, a branch of 
the Arve, which comes down from Col de Bon- 
homme, through Val M<mtjoie, under the aides of 
Mont Blanc The traveller ought to sleep at the 
Baths, and even to stay ha« to become acquainted 
vrith the beauties of the locality. Since they 
became the property of Dr. de Mey, they have been 
greatly improved, and frequented not only by 
invalids, but by lovers of good scenery. May to 
September is the season ; and you may live here, 
en pension, at 8 francs a day, very comfortably, 
including the use of the waters. There are four 
principal and five other sources, all warm, 
ranging from 65*> to 108*, and chiefly of a saline 
and sulphureous character. They are tonic and 
stimulant, and particularly serviceable in chronic 
affections of the stomach, nerves, and muscles. 

Near the Baths is the Cascade du Criptn, a fall of 
great volume, exceeding that of the GhMe, though 
not so high. The Pont du Diable, nearly 90 feet 
above the wato*, Rftteaux Tower, Ac., deserve 
notice. All the points round command most 
splendidpanoramas; such as Combloux, with a view 
of Mont Blanc and its aiguilles, and Mont JoU. 
This last is a vast isolated psrramid, which re- 
quires nearly a day to visit, lying up the Valley 
of Montjoie, past Bionnay, and Les Contamines, 
where the char-road ends, and a patii is to be taken 
to the right. Mont Joli is 8,760 feet above the sea, 
and from the top of it you see, in all their extent, | 
the Valieys of Chamouny, Sallenches, Maglan, 
Montjoie, M^dve, and Gr^vandui; the Juras 
beyond the Lake of Geneva; the Peaks of the 
Fours, Yarens, Buet, Ac, on this side of the lake, 
the summit of the Prarion (a fine point of view 
itself); and above all, the colossal mass of Mont 
Blano and its peaks, from ihe Aiguille Du Tour to 
the C<^ de Bonhonune, that is, a breadth of twenty 
leagttfif, frtttk &tjt ranges of thirty glaciers. The 



tu-tMicma, eaiMoma. 



tbt Hot d< OUm, at Cbtumat. Whit nuku tba 
Tlew from Hont Joll k tnpoloT ii the nujatlt 
paooriiiu on all ildM, wblcb aarne tblok uceeda 
the fUninu one from tba BigL 

Fmntas CimtamillSB, ibonlSDlElorrDm 3t. 
GsnMi, there tan mole path npTal Honljole, pmit 
Notre Dama de UGorge, wberenfeie li held In 

Pug of Col de Bonhomme (>t tbe west ihoalder 
of Mont Blane), 8,186 leet sboTe the een, down lo 
Cb«ptn, Hero there !• a pith to St. Msnrlce, on 
the I.lttle St. Bemud roidi and anotheT tima 

Uie Col de la Seigns (with a iiab[s lieir of Moot 
BUnc, *o.), lo Canrroayeor, In (be Val d'Aoita, 
14] bsnri from Nant Borrant ; 11 bonn from Col 
dn Banhomma for ffood |i«deatrkuifl,] 

Hetnmliig troni St. Qerrali to L* Fafet. tbe 
direct rand to Chuaaiuir l>,re>aiiied. The old 
roQle wai longer, and pa»ed through Ohtdo, 
Serma, and Boacbet. The dlllEeuce hers ruely 
get! bsrond foot-paoe, and good walken irlll do 
well to walk ta Le Cbacelard. Tba Arre, on the 
left, In now bidden, the road rlibig npldty and 
being oHsadooallr tbnugb the rock. Oppoilts 
Le Fayet U an [tod bridge at 110 feel ipan. 



IS Le Chaielard (tha I. 
here the road pati 



wdad gorge. In a few 



gladan aoittug down htm tha ■Btamld of th* 
hogs laau nimionnted by tha D(ma da Qolitat 
and the rounded head of Mont Blanc. Thenearait 



BoftheUsrdeGIaoi 



iicilid the aiaoiar dai Boll, 



n greylib morihief, 
,TB granite peiki, tba 
e Otaodi Hnletf, the 



Charmoi, dn Dre 
CHASOim (01 

Bole!!: Gnnd B 



II, dea Orandei Jon 
fi ham nnny, or 



et de aasiiu 
Depandance, (See AdTl.]l Penilon Pal 
CrjHal. Flrsl-claii boleli. 
Grand Hotel Imperial, Brit-olaii hotel. 

Grunii Hotel d'Angleterrai fliit-dan. 
Hotel and Penelon de Londiai. 
Dnlon et Conronna. 
Hotel dn Mont Blanc 1 Balancai Pali. 
Uvlng will CO 

the KClety In tba Tillage. 
EnalM dnrth Servk*. 
Chamonny l> now on French (enitoty. Uuch of 

When Sauseare first came here, IIGO. and even 
for leTeral years alter, there were only one or t*o 
miieiablB cabareli, inch ai an leen In the moit 
oafreqnentad Tillages. Surlng the ' 



obtained at tba Bnraan ef 



The>o are worth seeing; ( 
to so and retnrn. Beyond tbe Tillage of Fonllly, 
tbe road piuei to the right bank of tbe Arra by 
the Font de UaHe. retnming to tbe left bank above 
L«a HonchSB, near Che emboncbnre of the Giia. 
The Talley of Cbamouny li now entered. Tha 
Arve li again croiied by tha bridge of Percolati, 
wbence It Ii hail an hour to Chamonny. Tha 
valley extendi lo the Col da Bilma I to the left tha I 
nigged brown ^dai of tba Brtrest, onrtog^A ^ \ 
t]M UgtUUM Boagtti M(beil(lrt,tt«iuini«TOU 



bit Tl 
id were lodged at 



people. Everything li now changed. 
It lies lo a i»l.\«i iSotmJ. %T. M S 



9» 



BBADBHAW'S 8WITZXSLAVD AHD THX TTBOL. 



[Section 1. 



from the Briemt or La Fligk^ the latter being 
the easier ascent, and tlie prospect nearly as fine. 
Tliis isolated valley, cut off as it were from the 
rest of the world, is abont 3,440 feet above the sea, 
in a splendid situation, and is almost unequalled 
for the grandeur of its mountain scenery, combined 
with great accessibility. The view comprises the 
four great Glaciers of Mont BJanc, called the 
Bossons, Bois, Argenti^re, and Tour, and the Cols 
de Balme and du G^ant, the Aiguille Vert and 
the majestic Hont Blanc 

A plan of the ralley and of Mont Rosa, and the 
Museum of Mont Blanc may be seen. The 
Church of St. Michael is in the Public Ekjuare, 
under the Brtfrent ; it has a splendid altar, set up 
by the old Company of Guides. 

**The foreshortening effect of the close prox- 
imity of the mountain creates curious deceptions. 
For instance, one sees a cabin up beside the glacier, 
and just beyond it the spot where that red light, 
which the night before seemed so near, was loca- 
ted; one thinks a stone might be thrown from 
one place to the other, but the difference between 
the altitudes is over 8,000 feet. This seems impos- 
sible from below; it is, nevertheless, true.** 

Chamouny was at first a Benedictine Convent or 
Priory, founded at the end of the eleventh century, 
when Count Ajrmon settled the valley on that 
Order, by a deed in which it is called Campw 
munitut (fortified field), whence comes the present 
name. Captain Sherwill, in his brief nistorieal 
Sketch of the Vale of Chamouny^ relates the visit 
paid by two or three Bishops of Geneva to this 
part of their diocese ; one was St. Francis de Sales, 
in July, 1606. But it was the account which 
Messrs. Wyndham and Pocock published of their 
travels in this part which brought Mont Blanc into 
notice amongst tourists. 

HONT BLANO, 
15,780 feet above the sea, the highest point in 
Europe, is surrounded by enormous glaciers, fields 
of snow, and abysses, on which account its ascent 
is always attended with great danger and fatigue. 
On the Italian side it descends almost perpendicu- 
larly to the. valley. It was first ascended by two 
natives, Jacques Balmat and Dr. Paccard, 8th 
August, 1780, at 6 a.m. They stayed up half-an- 
Aaar, »r/ii»iJlr«ll}en»Qmeterl4*belowfreesingpohit. 
77i»pivHtioa9 ffoi^ In their fodto^if fhelf la^ef 



were froetbitten, and their lipt swollen, and tlie 
sight was much weakened ; but they soon recovered 
upon their descent. This guide, Balmat, lost his Ufa 
in a crevice, 18S5, " gold huntbig**; his descendants 
are now in America. M. de Saussure, and a party of 
seventeen climbed it for scientific pnrposes,1787, and 
remained up 3| hours making observations. From 
that date to 1827, eighteen travellers ascended it, 
of whom nine were Englishmen. At Dr. Hamel's 
ascent, 1820, three guides were lost in a storm, 
remains of whose dress, Ac, were found in 180S, 
at a spot five miles distant, to which they had 
been transported by glaciers. The first French- 
man was Comte de Tilly, 1835. Maria de Paradis, 
a guide's wife, was the first woman to surmount 
it. in IS 38; she was carried from the Grand 
Plateau. A Frenchwcmin, Mademoiselle d*Ang^- 
ville, ascended, 3rd to 5th September, 1840, 
being dragged up the last 1,200 feet by the 
gnides, and crying out, "If I die, carry me 
to the top." When there, she made them 
lift her up, that she might boast she had 
been higher than any man in Europe. Captain 
Sherwill ascended in 1825; Messrs. Fellowea 
and Hawes in 1827; Dr. M. Barry in 1834; 
Albert Smith in 1851; Mr. J. D. Brown, the 
artist, and Lieut. Godall, R.E., in July, 1852. 
On 21 st and 22nd July, 1853, it was surmounted by 
Mr Salmond, and Lieut. Walsham (killed at the 
battle of the Alma, 1854.) Mr. J. Macgregor 
(Rob Roy) and Mr Sbuldham went up, on 22nd 
September of the same year, being "Nos. 33 and 
34" of those who have ascended. In 1854, Mr. 
and Mrs. Hamilton, with nine gnides, accomplished 
the feat without much inconvenience The lady 
is the first Englishwoman who has been up. 

The ascent is now an annual occurrence, only 
remarkable as being a work of excessive fatigue 
and some danger; but "within the roach" (says Rob 
Roy) "of every one who has good weather, good 
guides, a good head, and sufficient energy for a 
walk of 24 hours, chiefly over deep snow, and with- 
out sleep." Mr. Morshead went up alone, in one 
day, 1866. In 1870, eight persons lost their lives 
in trying the ascent. In 1872, a French lady made 
it in^ safety. On 81st January, 1876, in the midst 
of winter, the top was reached by an English lady. 
It was ascended by four Italians from the Italian 



Bonte 1.] 



IfOKT BLANC* 



28 



doubt exaggerated by thegaides; but the solitary 
trareller shonld remember that he does it at the 
risk of frost and sndden snow storms. Norices 
should try- the Jardin, or Mer de Glace, before 
Mont Blanc. In July, 1886, two members of the 
Swiss Alpine Glnb ascended by starting early from 
Les Honches, staying at the Aiguille du Gofiter 
all night, whence the summit was reached in 4f 
hours. They recommend this route as shorter and 
less laborious, aroiding the great plateau. 

The Ascent of Mont Blanc takes two days ; 
two guides are required for one person, besides 
a porter to carry provisions. The first stage is 
the Grands Mulets, 10,000 feet high, in 7 hours; 
sleep in the hotel; and the next day up the Mont 
aiid back to Chamouni, 14 hours, though some stay 
at the Grands Mulets, and return the third day. 
There are about 40 registered guides under a Chef. 
There is a fixed tariff. Visitors go to the top of the 
Br^vent, opposite, to watch the ascent of the party. 

First Day. — Being provided with warm cloth- 
ing, grreen crape veils for the face, stout shoes, 
armed with crampons, alpenstocks, ladders, ropes, 
Ac, you set out at 8 a.m., cross the Arve, round 
the foot of Montanvert to the Cascade des Pdlerlns. 
Leave Glacier des Bossons and ascend the fir forest, 
called Bois des P^lerins, over a bare mountahi to 
Chalet de la Para, once occupied by Jacques Bal- 
mat, the guide, who ascended 1786. Beyond this, 
2 hours from Chamouny, is the Pierre Pohitue, a 
great rock, where yon must dismount from mule 
back and perform the rest of the journey on foot. 
A difiicult track along an unsafe ledge, a foot wide 
in some parts, by ravines 500 feet deep, and among 
blocks of stone, brings yon in three<-quarters-of-an- 
hour to a halt at the Pierre h, TEchelle, a square 
granite stone, where the ladder begins tobe required 
for passing the crevasses (crevices or deep gaps). A 
shot fired here produces a remarkable echo. Nothing 
but a few hardy rhododendrons and mountain plants 
are seen, being the last signs of vegetation; the 
height being 4,000 feet above Chamouny, with a 
fine view of the whole valley, the Col de Balme, 
Aiguille du Midi, Ac. In forty minutes you reach 
the Glacier des Bossons, where the porters and other 
supernumeraries part company; some, however, go 
on as far as the Grands Mulets to sleep. All is ice 
or snow from this. It is best to tf averse the glaciet 



way is among a labyrinth of icebergSf and deep 
crevices, hidden by the snow. These are ctossed 
by means of ladders with a rope railing fitted oH, 
or by cutting steps in the ice; the party being tied 
to each other by ropes, so that if one slips he may 
be held up by the rest, and keeping silence lest the 
vibration caused by talJdng should dislodge the 
avalanches of the Aiguille du Midi. 

The Olader des Bossons is only half a mile 
wide, yet it takes three hours' walking to cross it, 
such are the difficulties of the way. About 8 o'clock, 
you come by a steep ascent to the Orands HuletSf 
two broken naked peaks rising out of the snow like 
islands, 10,010 feet above the sea; here part of the 
night is passed. On the edge of the highest one is a 
narrow platform, 20f eet by 5, where the guides have 
built a small Hotel to hold about tweuty persons 
closely packed. A few hours' repose are a necessary 
preparation for the fatigue to come; but the excite- 
ment is usually so great that sleep is out of tha 
question. Little should be eaten, or it will spoil 
the rest of the journey. After sunset the keen air 
at this great height makes a fire agreeable, and it 
serves also as a signal to the spectators below, who 
answer it by another. The view is extremely im- 
posing ; *' the sky becomes clear and cloudless, tlie 
mist disappears from the valleys, and the stars 
shed on the mountains a weak ale light, sufficient 
to bring out their masses and distances. The re- 
pose and profound silence fill the imagination with 
reverential awe." A few white mice and perhaps 
an eagle may be seen. 

Second Day.— From Grands Mulets the way ii 
west-south-west to Dome du Gofit€, across tha 
Qlacler de Taconnaz or Tacconay, which is 
intersected by vast crevices, overhung by the ava • 
lanches of the Aiguille du Midi. It is advisable to 
be on foot shortly after midnight. The moonlight is 
so bright as to supersede lanterns; new stars appear 
in the black sky, which forms a direct contrast to 
the brilliant snow, but respiration becomes diffi- 
cult, the pulse-beats rise above 100, accompanied b/ 
giddiness and headache; the thirst is great with 
a sense of nausea, loss of appetite, and fever ; and 
the propensity to sleep is almost irresistible. In 
3^ hours you come to the steep bank, 800 feet hl^bu 
called the Petites M.ov.^'Cfev ^>b^sSc^ ^^^^ ^'^^^ ^^ 



•afly, b^ojre tl?e Bun Boftem thQ outer cmt, TCYie \ \.\\^ Vs^ «t "^^NhN* XVA'^^s^ ^*^ ^^5*^ 



V 



H bbadbhaw'b swiTnKi:,ARD i 

It ImpMtlb]* to tiki mora thu tweln or Blttta | cuei to 



anBd« UonUct. wblch la crowned by tbe DtIiIii 

■bcut t mUe> I««, irtth the AlguUU da Uldl 01 
th« un, D«me da Qafit^ on tbe right, mid Mon 
Blue In front, In ui imphlthMtre o( loebergi. 
There i« • ihort wsy bi the Rochei Rongei 






tWrleei 
afaanrliBuppe 
Moleti, j-ira M 
Mnr de la Cat 
Petits Mnlets, 
feel high, end . 



ilodlng nil the gnMes. The ( 
]nH. InThoni ■ 

most dIfficuJ 



incllnetloo to 
e pirtjr of 



DtueFe on ■cooont of tho i«l«i- 


■hlnei out on the ua 


To tbe eontb li the Apen- 


In 1830 burled tbree giKdei of 


nlnechilnpuilnsor 


rQenoaandthoMedltetra- 




nenn, md put ef tb 
tbe north ud iresC 


CreUbulnofthePo. To 


gt,. In 18in, >nd » nvoldrf eome 


Birltierluid and Da 


phlD«, behind whieh lie the 


m 1 irord might dl.lodge the evelu- 


plain. otBurgondy. 






Semxire record!. 


n hli aacent. 17«l>, (hat tha 


bleck, 10 lh.t 11 Is difficult to knew 
m .notber. It is the g<mera! iffM 
k tyiltm. rither than mere f.tignt, 


oolonr of the tkj w 

inches (being S7-08 'a 
iu the .bade™ Ml 


t deep bine, the ttare nert 
in tbe son SB- (being BJ'at 



being bordered by tremend 

every itep must bo cat flr^ 

solid loo, meklDg shoot 260 altogelli 



dim the 

Ms takes an hour, the t 



asiistanceof tbe elpeni 
aTemhmteelDfflcetoh 
it took HI boor to aicet 

apectade of tbe abado 



Bf nllwny IfaU Slmc may bi rtaHied, vU 
Calala, P«rl^ Md MSoon, by ordhinrr t. 



troohle, In tie ei 
frontier, the Ital 
helore starUng.) 



The top Of Kont Blanc is 

ridge lying east and west, the b 
near the weit end. Seenfromth 
looka like a pyramid (steepest 



er laMi In the Vale of Chamonny 



alpine paalnros, woods, Ac., with chcrr; 
fmlta. Dell{rions honey, remarkable fo 

I nM»M*ltniaiMvw,Via!L5i>Y™ta.sB)i. 



li la- I Jioquet, ■ 



I. To the BrfvMrt, "Wrf 

thoAlglOUM Htrages, ind 
lnt>, not Isr trom Iho Prior; 



redwithgianito block). There mi 
loari; Bnlds.WfrMcs; mnle, U Iran 
hour yon roich Planprai, whieb !• 

ro proipecl !• obUlned from the BI 



D dnrloff tb« iMHon, 
he >ea. Then U p» 
lot of the AlgnUIe di 

Sola. ThedacentK 



r lake, MbT da aitkce, b 



Taluli), AlgoHla «i>d Glacier dn Toor (eftore tnei 
lUlnge), AigaUIe de Chsrdonnet, Aignllle d'Algcn- 
tlire md itt gl»cier>, Algnilie Verte, Algnllle cln 
Dm, AlgniUe du Molne Cilh U"i Blacier. du Nant 

Her do Glace, Honplce of MoDtanveri, *c., beDetilh), 
AlgnDlEs da L&hand and de Channoi. Aignillea 
dee Grands Jombws (belilnd>, da Cr€pon, do Blal- 
tltre and dn Plan ; Iben some of tbe bigbeit peaki, 
■5 AlgnillB du Midi (irltb Glacier des Blerene 
below), Mont BliDc-du-Tacnl. AlgnlUe SanaBota 
(bWMhi( mane), Konl Blmc (the aacentto which 
li dasortbed abora), D»m« ia OvM. AignlUe da 
GoflW twUh ths Glacier* dea Boaaona and de 
Tacomiay below), AlffOlBs de Blonoaisay (Mon- 
tague de la Qria beneath), Mont Blanc-Bt-Qen'aia, 
Algaille 
homoie, T 



Tillage 



Cbaillod. Ac., to ( 
2. To tlie Hontaurert, bj 



inle, n b 
Guldcairanca 
Chapeao, flfta 



some eon feet high, and Ib conatantly, thoagta 
^'radnally, oarbiK doimwarda. In front li tli« 
-Iriklng Algnilie dn Dra, known at onoe from ita 
l-rcat height (9,830 ftot above the Vale of Cha- 
inouny) and conical shape. To the left, la the 
iignlllB dn Boohard, not so high ; more to the 
right and »t the lower end of the hollow, is Iha 
Algnilie do CooTenile, below which le a glacier, 

Boll. OntheBaDth-eaEt,atthefootoI thlsglacler, 
i^eartheP^riadea, theUer de Glace dMdea oft into 

other forming the Glacier do L^cban. 

3. To the Jftldin, paat Mootanvert, S bonn' 
jonmey bejond the latter, and TOrj fatiguing. It 

(or the eyea, Ac ahonld he t«kcn, aa reconunended 
by the gaida, fee, H to 16 francs. From Mon- 
lanvert, at dsj-btenk, yon strike off aouth, liong 



Algulllea de 



e Cr^pon. 



IB Wf iitnd to beat. At tbo top ta ttk6\lertWss^\a«tnftVi«»'.'s*^' 



B great glaciers unite; at the right i 
il; alittleMl<AWa'a\t.'CQ»'U«9M«-.'^ 



BKISSHAW'B BWITZIRLAKD 



Tsltrn. Cna tbc mnr of ibli giMler hr » pu- 
uc* called I1i« Egnleta, ■nd ron soma t 
CcHiTdnle. Tbls 1< ■ kind of pliln U tba ti 
■ UU. worn roek (the PIu), utd It lurered 



n TSB TTBOL CSeCttOIl 1. 

PtdeitrUru who do not mind tMgu, amy, .fi,, 
iMhlnS 111" ClitpMii, u«nd ibe tdgs of tb* Ibr 
I GI«o, pui Uie CabiuH do UoDUnTot- ad k 

«k^ „d tho Boch. p™*,, ..bort ..Olerrr^ 
o« ./."mw dl Gli^"' *"''*■ " ^"^ «• 
«. To tbe ATTSyron, [n 1 hour, . ri.„rt bmt 



TheCoortUor/orcKB, on the north ild 
TMfn aikeler, formg ■ kind of Itluii 
glaclen. Id flgnrc li ttist of ■ trUngle, i 



JIuloT du Boil, tl 

deQlMMndrtKidion 

Icy cirom, which fall tn di 



ibfon 



""■^l^UlodnDnL 
ig that j-sar. Co» 

• ~ • HlU StSTMU 



L'AlgnlH* dn Midi, di 



at GhinsTl^ baiinded by the Al^Ule i 

*■ To the diajwaTi, B,OM (eel i 
honn, mostly by mole- Follow th 
tba TIncB, whence you ucond toward 
towarda the Cbspun (or Mont Harbeox), 
It at tbe foot of the AlgDlUei da Bocbi 
the right aide of tbe Clacler d« Bail. 
peak 1b iqipoaite HontasTert. bni not w 



In USS, makUie obtenalioDi, wl 
liaamforMlence. Two Englh 
[iM Campbell), with eight gnl 



■««l«ndCoortti«,,„. 
tBTOaitrl^Mxltoth. 
ndbig ont behind tlw 

r the nonh shoulder of 
H ll,oaHeot .boTe the 
refo 



'1th h 






may take thla. an 



high! I 



ijoy a proepect alnioat hb grand 
e Mer da Olace, Mont BImic. 
thaAlgnlllei de Cbarmoi and de Blaltiires, the 
Vale of Cbamonny, the Brirent, *e. Here the 
aTalincheamay he ufety tI 



I oeil day fleicendod to Coannayenr. 

I 7. The drenlt of Hont Blanc may be m d 

from Chamoi:mytoHnche8,oTer the Fonj„,,.r: 
(eet aboTO tbe le™l of the «a), wlih . f amon. ft J_ 
up (be Col de BiBihooime, OTer tbe Col dn blj 
I U.rongb the All^ Blanche ,o C.^,r^,,:^^^ 

110 1,01 de Trlent {only a.oao feethlghj j 



HamUt dc 



n backlo 



a To Marttgny, by the tiu yatn «„ ^ 

Trlent, by carriage road, practicable for »-horia 

HMrt™Jlf'war Ti?=™'il""'oto"" ''*'* ^"^ 
thii, by the Cnl de BaJme (.ee pa'ge m/, bat'',r 
TeieSolreiathallne.t. PaMlnr np tho V.,. "! 
the Arve, yoM c< 



eicorii™ which may be nude In S boun, and la _.h«™ the nath tn ih. i ™™_ . ^ 



you eroM tit* Arf^ Wd pafft Angmti^re, th« third 
pAiish church of the Tmltey, close to the glacier 
of the same name. Just hefbre Tr^^chant yon 
leave the path to Tour and Col de Balme on the 
right, and ascend the Val Orslne by a rocky fmaa, 
to Montets (Mont Buct Is seen on the left, nd 
a path strikes off here to it) ; then, crossing a low 
ridge, yon reach the Tillage church of Val Orslne, 
on the Eau Noire, a mountain stream which dashes 
through the rarine down towards Martlgny. 
Orslne takes its name from the bears which are 
found here, and is ornamented by farmsteads, 
falls, wooden chftlets, and patches of cultiration. 
The Swiss frontier is approached by a steep and 
difficult path, rising like steps towards the head of 
the Tdte Noire, the most striking part of the pass. 
A new road has been cut on the Swiss side, in zlg- 
^a^s, looking down on the dark ravine, which, with 
its sides picturesquely clothed with pine forests, 
presents, when the setting sun shines through It, 
one of the finest scenes imagbiable. 

On the ascent from Argentl^re to the Col de 
Balme (7,280 feet high), before yon reach the 
Couronne Inn, there is above the road a tunnelled 
rock, called the Roche de Balme, or Roche Perc^e, 
with a coronet on it, and two inscriptions, which, 
for their curious French and English (the work of 
some native artist), deserve copying verttatim:— 
»*D'un roc tout respire ici, dieu, lapaig, la verite 
La Comtesse de Guilford, Ladl Suson North, Ladj 
Giolgtaa Nort La, Lord Porchester. A Leur Retour 
de Ittalie ont obtenu le 10th de Mai, 1821. Ce su- 
perbe Rocher, et ont erlge cette tablette votive pour 
commemorer de momens passes ici, brilllans mais 
passagers comme le rayons du soleil, qui illumi- 
nent les Arbres de cette f oret combien ce temps 
encor est cher notre memoire May 10, 1821. On ne 
me repond pais mais peutetre on mentand." 

Thus Englished: — 

" Dunroc whe' ever we hatever fosee our heauts 
untervelled, feudly tun to thee (my heart, un- 
travelled, fondly turns, JtcJ Lady Georglna 
North, Lord Lencester, un their retoume from 
Italy oblester. May 10th, 1821. Thes magnificent 
reik rad rested cher vetever tablette le com- 
memorente momenta pand *here bright huts hteling 
nr the rup of the everes sun which gilded the 



27 

through manlararied scene unkingner (utMndneu) 
neve came betwer, May 10th, 183L FareweU, a 
long farewell." 

Through dark forests you descend the valley 
towards Ttlent, a village so called from the stream 
which rises in the Aiguille du Tour, and is joined 
by the Eau Noire, further to the left. You may 
hear, Hoir -and then, the blocks of granite rattling 
down the tvrine below, as the swift mountain 
stream dashes on. The path over the Col de Balme 
falls in here. You then woend the Col de Forclas 
(6,000 feet high) by a rough path, near an old fort. 
Having crossed this, you get a noM* view of the 
Valley of the Rhone, as it lies spread before you, 
up the Slmplon Road. Brocard and HaxHtBy 
(see page 89) are immediately below. 

ROXJTB S. 
Oenera to Annecy and Chamb^. 

By rail to Annecy, 33| miles, in 2 hours. 
Thence by rail to Chamb^ry, vid Aix-les-Baid§, 07| 
miles, in 2 hours. 

The coach road passes by Plain-Palais, and across 
the Arve, following the train, to Carouge, a 
Catholic village in a fertile plain. Thence to 
St. Julien (now a station, see page 29). From 
this there Is an ascent to Mont Slon (2,600 feet 
high), which commands an extensive prospect over 
the lake, the Jura Mountains, &c. 

CreuselUes has a population of 1,300, and an 
old castle, under Mont Sal^YO (4,540 feet). 
Descoid from this to the ravine of the Usses, now 
crossed by a susp^islon bridge, called Pont de la 
Callle, 525 feet long, 656 high above the stream, 
and built 1839. The road to Annecy passes 
Alonzier, Cuval, Pringy and Mont des Bomes, with 
several good points of view. The chief stations 
on the rail from Geneva are Annemasse (page 19) 
and La Roche sur Foron, the junction for Cluses 
and Chamonix. 

ANNECT (Stat.) 
Inns: Verdun; d'Angleterre ; deTAJgle. 
An old town, (now French) formerly the capital 
of the Duchy of Savoy, and called Anneciacum 
Novum in the twelfth century, to distinguish it 
from a still older place, where the Romans settled 
at, now represraited by AnnecY-lAi-Wso:!^ 'vs-ifi«M&s>» 



26 







t • • •• 



v.fc J/" *.*- * 



tf V 



/ ■' 



If ■ f I 




■^ > 



. , ,.■■,•■■•■■.■■■ w*' "^ 

I,..- u- ••Ln,«i..JB!|0 *^ 

li,..: ..ii.v'11. e; OuiiHiiiiin«i; 
^ llu-..; du rare wen 

J „.. »..■.-. I. M:liiVlJ'- 

J ,...,....■,.. 4i»'iO. Thl» 
,, I |.. ...... i.e «i»n«4 AqmM- 

I. of llic Aln, *V^ 

,.,., ,..,ir Irthr. mereU « »[»* 
■ •*■ . ,..„. ,, .. KI..K of STdlnla; .liO^ 
• •» •• : I ,u... U-.m H •IM*** »"^ ^ 

, .-V *"«^'^' "!!;^ 



t • ■• 
I . If ■ J 

; .. •/ 

■ ■■ / ■'■ 

i ■•■ 
I < 



11 



■I '■ » • •• » ^ . .,.. ,. , 



...»rvx ivMoTcA l^y the 8« 

..,M. •• •.v.;..rM«tCh*tmnd 



II II «• 

. ..lit i« 

I . . I 

1 1 , • < 



•«■■•>• t _ 

V . X . . 1 TATS JC JB. * 

^ ■ ■ « - - » ^ 

. ^ »L -lie Kj 



,1 ■• • 
il I- 



-, 1 






■v-- * - 



•'* 



:i 






■ I I 



V. 






Boute 3.] 



laOirOK^ BTUHi Bt. aiKGOLPH. 



29 



Further on 8 AlbdllB (Btftt.), on the road and 
rail mentioned above. 

Cliambdry to Orande Chartreuse.— On 

foot about 9 honrs; bnt horses and char-k-bancs 
may be hired part of the way. You pass St. 
Thibauld de Coux, 1^ post, and Les Echelles, 
1| post; hence to St. Laurent, it takes 1} hour. 
This place is at the foot of high rugged peaks, 
which at a distance look like irregular forti- 
fications. At half-an-hour from it, you come 
to Fourvoiries village, a picturesque spot. Here 
the mountains appear to be impenetrable, but at 
length a little narrow opening comes in sight, the 
entrance into a deep ravine, where the sky is scarcely 
visible; the road, such as it is, is cut in the face of 
the cliff, and supported below by a thick wall. 
Great blocks are set up as a parapet where the path 
is most dangerous. At about 3 miles from St. Lau- 
rent, the road crosses the Pont de St. Bruno to the 
other side of the torrent, where the new road 
begins; it displays great engineering skill and has 
three tunnels, but has considerably changed the 
character of the approach as described in the 
old accounts. Hence the way, leaving the Guiers, 
ascends the steep side of the mountain by several 
zig-zags; the river soon ceases to be heard, and 
the most profound silence reigns ; and after 2 hours' 
walking, the Chartreuse comes in sight. (See 
Bradshaw's Traveller's Hand-Book to France.) 

ROXJXB S. 

Geneva to Karttgny, by the South Side of 

the Lake. 

A rail from Bellegarde (on the French side) 
runs through French territory at the back of 
Geneva past St. JuUen-en-Qen^ve, St. Cer- 
ques, Annemasse, to Thonon, Brian, and 

Bouyeret, as below. By road to Douvaine, 8^ 
atunden; Thonon, 8; Evian, 2; St. Gingolph, 8|; 
or 12 stunden, to the Swiss border. From Bouveret, 
on the Swiss side, the direct line to the Shoplon 
runs up the Rhdne to St. Maurice, Martigny, 
Sion, and Brieg. Steamers daUy from Geneva to 
Bouveret, &c. 

A pleasant road leads out through Calogny and 
Corzier to the French-Savoy border, where an un- 
interesting plain divides the Genevan territor^y 



Douvaine, which has a donane, in a dull spot, 
with scarcely a view before reaching Bolsy, where 
is a hill with a fine prospect. 
Then come Sciez, Massongy, and Bonatrix, and 
Thonon (Stat.)— iro<e2«: Thonon; Balance; De 
rEurope. A small fortified town, on a gulf of the 
same name, on the lake, capital of the Chablais 
district. Here are traces of a lake settlement. The 
French Govenmicnt has constructed a small naval 
port here since 1860. Population, 5,500. The best 
houses are in Haute Ville, with the Church, (College, 
and Castle. Ripaille, on the lake, is a pleasant 
little place. Roads run up the two heads of the 
Dranse (which falls into the lake haid by); one to 
Semaz, Mont Rion,Welan, and Cluses, on the Arve 
another to Chevenoz, Notre Dame d' Abondance, and 
Chfttel, whence a path goes over the Col d'Abon- 
dance, to Monthey and St. Maurice. The latter is 
the direct route from Thonon. Following that by 
the lake we come (after a bridge on the Drance) to 
Amphion, a pretty place, with mineral springs 
and good walks. Through the chestnut woods to 
Evian (Stat.).— ^o^e^i: Grand Hotel d' Evian 
Des Bains; Fonbonne. 

A small town of about 3,440 souls, the second in 
the Chablais, in French Savoy, frequented during 
the season for the beauty of its situation and its 
Baths. The ancient ch&teau and property of the 
Blonays have been utilised by the town for a 
Casino, Ac, similar to those at Vichy. Past La 
Tour Ronde to H^llerie, a miserable village in 
Rousseau's time, but since improved into an 
agreeable resort. The coast hence becomes more 
wooded and romantic. From this, past Bret, on 
the site of the Roman Tauretunum, which was 
overwhelmed in the year 563 by a landslip; and 
by another May 4th, 1584, burying 122 persons 
St. OingOlph {,^\A%,),— Hotels: DuLac; Lion 

d'Or. 

Lies on the two sides of a ravine, with the 
largest part belonging to France, and the other to 
the Swiss Canton of Valais; population, 600. There 
are lime and other works on the Yalais side of 
the torrent La Merge. Les DentS d'Oche, be- 
hind it, 8,010 feet above sea, are near the delta 
of the Rhftne, with an old caatlft Vbi. •^ 'Oiass.'««s\ 



fiom the ChsblMiM conntiy. The first pUce on ttie \ "fiwlt ^«t^^ %^V%.,^\j2tf^^^ ^^'s^^sq.' 



FnuohBid^U 



28 



BSAD8HAW 8 BWITZSBLAKD AKD THB TTSOL. 



[Seetion I. 



close to tho Lake of Annecy, which is 9 miles by 
8 miles, and nearly 200 feet deep in some parts. 
Sereral canals, said to have been cat by the Romans, 
pass through the town, and unite in the Thion, 
which flows into the Fier, a branch of the Rh6ne, 
with some romantic scenery at the Gorge de Fiet\ 
a pass i mile long. 

Among the curiosities are the old Chfttean of the 
Generois Nemours family, its former counts ; the 
Bishop^s Palace; and the Cathedral, this town being 
the bishop's see ever shice the Reformation drore 
them out of Geneva. Among its prelates was St. 
Francis de Sales, who died at Lyons 1622, but was 
buried at Annecy. In the middle of the Jardin 
Public stands Marochetti's statue of BerthoUet, the 
chemist, a native. 

A fine prospect, embracing the Lake and its sur- 
roundings, will be obtained by taking a stroll on 
• the Promenade du FAquicr, in which is situated 
the Prefecture, with a monument to one of the 
Engineers of the Mont Cenis Tunnel. 

At Old Annecy, on the north side of a tower, 
there is a Roman inscription beginning, *'/oW...O... 
Maximo. L. Vieinius Severut...^'' which may in- 
terest the *' painful antiquary.'' 

There are various pretty spots on the Lake; 
as. Chftteau Duindt, on a point on its north side; 
■ Ghftteau de Menthon, where St. Bernard, of Men- 
thon, was bom ; and the Valley of Thones. From 
Duindt Castle, the road leads to Faverges, with 
2,000 souls, and a large old castle, among wooded 
heights and cultivated pastures. It possesses silk 
mills and other works, but was formerly noted for 
iron and copper forges, which gave it the name 
Fabrieariunh of which the present is a corruption. 

The Rail from Annecy to Aix-lcs- Bains (26 
miles) passes Lovagny, RumiUy^ Bloye, Albetu^ and 
Oriiy-iur^'^i^- '^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ Annecy threads a 
mountain valley past St. Donat d'Alby, a village 
of 800 souls, on the Charon, here crossed by a fine 
stone bridge. Remains of castles are seen, which 
formerly defended the passage. Near AllMlLB 
(Stat.), have been found coins of Claudian, Anto« 
nJniis, Ac. ; and from hence the line passes by 
Lesohaux, where an easy ascent can be made to the 
top of the BemnOB (Hotel)^ an excellent point of 
Kfawi sbont 4900 feet high. The ro^d ororiooks 
tAe fawn of AJXt or 



AIX-LE8-BAIK8 (Stat), In French Savoy. 

IwM : Grand Hotel d' Aix, Mr. Guibert, proprietor. 
Admirably situated near the Casino. 

Grand Hotel de TEurope et du Globe, Mr. Ber- 
nascon, proprietor; first-class hotel ; very elegant 
and comfortable. 

Splendid Hotel ; beautiful first-class hotel. 

Grand Hotel du Nord, first-class family hotel, 
near the Bath Establishment ; Hotel Beau Site. 

Grand Hotel de TUnivers, kept by Mr. Renaud, 
near the Baths, Casino, Park ; delightful garden. 

Hotel Venat and Bristol ; first-class, with large 
garden. 

Hotel and Pension Ch&teau Durieux. 

Grand Hotel de la Galerie. 

Hotel Damesin et Continental; good andcom* 
fortable. 

Grand Hotel du Pare, well situated, near the 
Bath establishment. 

Church Services; and resident Medical Men. 

Population, 4,800. This watering-place, which 
the Romans called Aqute Oratiante, is much 
frequented by visitors for its sulphur Springs^ 
which arc useful in cases of indigestion, rheu- 
matism, diseases of the skin, Ac. Temperature, 
100* to 117* Fahr. There is a good Bath House, 
built by a King of Sardinia; also a Casino and 
Reading Room. It stands near Lac de Bourgct, 
and offers many attractive excursions; such 
as Haute Combe and its Cistercian Monastery 
(founded 1225), restored by the Sardinian kings, 
and Bourdeau, under Mont Chat and Dent du Chat 
(5,802 feet). 

A few Roman remains exist at Aix ; those are 
an arch of triumph of the third or fourth century, 
in the Doric style; a part of an Ionic temple to 
Venus or Diana; and fragments of baths. 

Leaving Aix, the rail follows a beautiful road, 
past Bourget Castle, at the Lake's head, to 
Cliainbdry. Thence to St. Jean de Mauricnnc, 
on the Turin route. 

Another route, equal to 12i posts, is by way of 
St. Julien, Frangy, and Rumllly, to Albens, a road 
nearer the Rh6no. Leaving St. Julien, it strikes 
over the Mont Sion ridge, into the Usses Valley, to 
Frangy, whence it ascends and descends the Valley 
of the (}h€ron, to BoinUly (Stat.) This was the 
Roman Hiimill^a^um, tsidlv«,« SbVov^Ation of 4^000. 



Route a.] 



Further on 8 AlbenS (Stat.), on the road and 
rail mentioned above. 

ObajxMrj to Qrande Chartreuse.— On 

foot abont 9 honrs; bnt horses and char-2i-bancs 
may be hired part of the way. You pass St. 
Thibauld de Coux, 1^ post, and Les Echelles, 
1| post; hence to St. Laurent, it takes 1} hour. 
This place is at the foot of high rugged peaks, 
which at a distance look like irregular forti- 
fications. At half-JEUi-hour from it, you come 
to Fourvoiries Tillage, a picturesque spot. Here 
the mountains appear to be impenetrable, but at 
length a little narrow opening comes in sight, the 
entrance into a deep ravine, where the sky is scarcely 
risible; the road, such as it is, is cut in the face of 
the cliff, and supported below by a thick wall. 
Great blocks are set up as a parapet where the path 
Is most dangerous. At about 3 miles from St. Lau- 
rent, the road crosses the Pont de St. Bruno to the 
other side of the torrent, where the new road 
begins; it displays great engineering skill and has 
three tunnels, but has considerably changed the 
character of the approach as described in the 
old accounts. Hence the way, leaving the Guiers, 
asc^ds the steep side of the mountahi by several 
zig-zags; the river soon ceases to be heard, and 
the most profound silence reigns ; and after 2 hours* 
walking, the ChartreQBe comes in sight. (See 
BracUhaw's Traveller's ffand-Booi to France,) 

ROXJXB S. 

OeneTa to Marttgny, by the Sonth Side of 

the Lake. 

A rail from Beilegarde (on the French side) 
runs through French territory at the back of 

Genera past 8t Julien-en-Oen^ye, St. Cer 
quee, AiineTnatwe, to Thonon, BTian, and 

Bonveret, as below. By road to Douvaine, Si 
0tundea; Thonon, 8; Evian, 2; St.Ghigolph, 3|; 
or 12 stunden, to the Swiss border. From Bouveret, 
CB the Swiu aide, tiie direct line to the Simplon 
runs up ihe Bh6ne to St. Maurice, Martigny, 
Sion, and Brieg. Bteamera daily from Geneva to 
Bouveret, Ac. 

A pleasant zoad leads out through Calogny and 
Corzier to the Frenoh-Savoy border, where an un- 
IntereatiDf plain dividea the Genevan territory 



laOirOK^ BTIAHi Bt. aiKGOLPH. 29 

Douvaine, which has a donane, in a dull spot, 
with scarcely a view before reaching Boisy, where 
is a hill with a fine prospect. 
Then come Sciez, Massongy, and Bonatrix, and 
ThOUOUiBtaX^ySoteh: Thonon; Balance; De 
TEurope. A small fortified town, on a gulf of the 
same name, on the lake, capital of the Chablais 
district. Here are traces of a lake settlement. The 
French Govemm^it has constructed a small naval 
port here since 1860. Population, 5,500. The best 
houses are in Haute Yille, with the Church, College, 
and Castle. Ripaille, on the lake, is a pleasant 
little place. Roads run up the two heads of the 
Dranse (which falls Into the lake ha>d by); <me to 
Semaz, Mont Rion, Welan, and Cluses, on the Arve 
another to Chevenoz, Notre Dame d' Abondance, and 
Chfttel, whence a path goes over the Col d*Abon- 
dance, to Monthey and St. Maurice. The latter is 
the direct route from Thonon. Following that by 
the lake we come (after a bridge on the Drance) to 
Amphion, a pretty place, with mineral springs 
and good walks. Through the chestnut woods to 
EviaXL iBt&t,) u—Sotels: Grand Hotel d' Evian 
Des Bains; Fonbonne. 

A small town of about 3,440 souls, the second in 
the Chablais, in French Savoy, frequented during 
the season for the beauty of its situation and its 
Bat?is. The ancient chftteau and property of the 
Blonays have been utilised by the town for a 
Casino, Ac, similar to those at Vichy. Past La 
Tour Ronde to Helllerle, a miserable village in 
Rousseau's time, but since improved into an 
agreeable resort. The coast hence becomes more 
wooded and romantic. From this, past Bret, on 
the site of the Roman Tauretunum, which was 
overwhelmed in the year 563 by a landslip; and 
by another May 4th, 1684, burying 122 persons 
St. GingOlph {!&taX,).SoteU: DuLac; Lion 

d'Or. 

Lies on the two sides of a ravine, with the 
largest part belonging to France, and the other to 
the Swiss Canton of Valais; population, 600. There 
are lime and other works on the Valais side of 
the torrent La Merge. L68 Dents d'Oohe, be- 
hind it, 8,010 feet above sea, are near the delta 
of the Rhftne, with an old castle tsv **• /^^^^^ 



._ 



Uom the ChabUii eointiy. The fint pUce on the \ i^t'SoxlN «^V% 



^iweb0^i§ 






41 



32 



iBlUDSHAW^S BWrrZB&LAKD AND TH£ TTBOL. 



[Section 1. 



wMeh flows down flrom the Jura Hills; and 
thence by the plain of Vidy. 

Oncibj.—JffoteU: Bean Rirage; large first-class 
hotel, at a fine point of view; d*AngIeterrc. The 
port of Lausanne, to which there is a funicular 
line. It has a douane, a quay, and jetty, and a 
square tower of a ch&teau, built 1170, by a Lau- 
sanne bishop. The depth of water has sensibly 
diminished here, so much so that the jetty, which 
had 16 feet water outside it, has not been accessible, 
except by boats, since 1808. In the little parlour 
of the Hotel de TAncre (now D*Angleterre), which 
overlooks it, Byron wrote the Prisoner of Chillon 
(not the sonnet), in two days (June, 1816), as the 
f tory goes, while kept in-doors by bad weather. 

LAUSANNE (Stat.) 

Population, 83,3Q0; of Canton de Vaud, about 
S89,000 to 1,425 square miles. 

Hotels: Hotel Richemont — surrounded by large 
gardens. 

Hotel Gibbon, first-class, in a beautiful spot; 
Icept by Mr. Bitter. Near this, Gibbon finished 
his Decline and FcUl, 1787. 

Hotel du Faucon; du Grand Pont; Beau Site; 
Hotel de Belle Vue; Grande Pension Victoria. 
Hotel du Nord ; Posts. 

Hotel Beau Rivage ; a first-class hotel, admirably 
•itnated between Lausanne and Ouchy. 

BijnaBBS.— MM. Masson et Charannes; MM. 
Hoirs et Marcel; Garrard et Cie; Charri^re et 
Roguin; all Place St. Francois. 

Ekolish Chusch Sk&vics, Avenue de Gran9y, 
twice on Sunday. 

Scotch Ghubch. — ^Avenue de Rumine. 

FsBNOH Wesletah Chttbch.— 1, Rue da Valen- 
tin, Place de la Riponne. 

RtsiDBKT Medical Mek, CHSinsTS, etc.— See 
BradsfiatoU Continental Guide. 

Post Office, near St. Francois Church. Baths 
at the GK>lden Lion, Place de la Riponne. 

Rail to Vevey, Geneva, Pontarlier, Paris, *c., to 

Pxihonrg, Milan, in 47 hours, by the Shnplon (for 

wlUch the Itallaa visa mast he got here). To 

'^^^nfaaC9^/o//^j^XfeafiMt9l(46aUlet), «QdBMl« 



(130 miles), by the West Swiss Line. To Romont, 
Fribourg, and Berne, by the Swiss Central. (See 
Brctdshaw's Continental Guide.) A short RaU is 

open to Cheseaux, EchallenB, and B«rclier. 

Steakebs frequently to Geneva and Boucheret, 
from Ouchy. 

Chief town of Canton de Vaud {German^ Waadt), 
1,600 feet above sea, on the slope of the Jorat, facing 
the Loman Lake, or Lake of Geneva, with which it 
is connected by funicular rail, the port being at 
Ouchy, where the steamer puts in. The view of 
it, with the cathedral at the top, the beautiful 
environs said country seats, is extremely pio- 
turesque; but the streets having to cross two 
or three ridges of the mountain, are irregular, 
steep, and narrow. Most of the houses are 
modem. The old town from which it derives its 
name was ZatMonna, or Lausonimn, founded by 
the Romans in 456, near the lake, but destroyed 
about a century later by a landsUp, when they 
began to build in a safer spot, round St. Protais* 
Hermitage, on the site of the present town. It 
numbers about sixty streets, divided into six 
quarters, the highest part of which, La Cit^ is 
reached by covered steps hewn in the rocks, from 
Rue du Prd, as well as by a road. A handsome 
granite bridge or viaduct, called Pont Pichard, on 
a double row of arches, 640 feet long, 87 feet high, 
crosses the ravine, near Place St. Franfois, which is 
the busiest quarter, lying between Rue du Grand 
Chdne (on the (Geneva side) and Rue de Bourg. 

Among eminent persons who have lived and 
wrote here, are Haller, Voltaire, and Tissot; 
Conrad Gessner was professor at the Academy, and 
Gibbon finished his Decline and Fall^ in a summer 
house which stood near the Hotel Giblxm; this is 
gone, and his library was sold off some years ago. 

The most remarkable building is the Cathedral^ 
which rises over the town, 500 feet above the lake, 
and is reckoned a very excellent Gothic specimen. 
It Tv;,as founded about 1000, rebuilt 200 years later, 
and consecrated 1275, by Gregory X. The form is a 
Latin cross, 350 feet by 150 feet, surmounted by 
two towers, only one of them being finished, and 
supporting a q[)ire 252 feet high. Two superb 
porticoes, ornamented by a great number of 
statues and carvings, lead into the nave, whidi 
xests on aVyvit 7^ pUIssa nearly 70 feet high, and 



I^DSiSBB, VBTBT. 



pUinn (tTJ In an are coanted) *re ddlcnlely csi 
la the choir, which 1> 113 feel high to the cb 
la > elrenlBT ilained i^ndan SSItft acroH. 

FolfsV., Otto ie Oraiiion, the Rnislan Prli 
OrlolT, ■ Dncheas of Conrland, snd ■ wife of Lord 
Stratfortl da Bcdcllfls (who. ii 9<r Stratford Cii 
nlng, va> imbuudor to Swlticrluul In 1817)! tl 
Uit by BirtolinI, of Floraice, Indndai a bnsl . 



tuidl the uclenl FnndKan Church wl 
«>ojr) reiigned the Piipiicy 144», to hrin. 



ilvln. Fare), and Viret. whkh p 
Ubllthment of Proleatantioni la th« 
e flight of (he bl-hop of Laaiann 
angei followed thli one of religion 



dc la Charlie 
il literary end 
nLawuTconliClnbe 



I Hnieam ef 
'he Aello dci 
ciii, li finely 



halllSio 



i> toll ol 



Iho old Church of SI. Malr^ now a barrack, A 
Bhort ilreet leads benco to the College or ncademy, 
which II at Did a> 1687, and contains within Iti 
wall! the Cantonal library (open dally, 1 to (). ol 
M.OOO VDlomei (Kme betiueathed by a Spanish 
profeiior, Beninl doQalros, 17Se), aod the Caal-ma. 

with a few plctnrci and antlqaitlcs, oponon Wed 

Noat It li a Bmall School ot Design, founded by B 
natlTc; a Utile lower, at the end of Bne St. F.ticnnc 

Chapel (on Ihe ilteoftheHnennl), 
thoEngllihandOcrmane. AlPo; 
nre renalni of walls bnill by the 



inHrrcd, Is 



io Conven] 



by 



VE7ET (Btat.l, oi 



In good points of idow and 
£ra1, a hnndmniD building). 



10 Slmploii, and St. Gotbard. 
lonric «,l)SO feet high). 



. Fopnlal Ion, 7,801). 



to Iho I 



with gj 



(ia caaov *''•*''. J»""Hoapltal; near Whldi, ^ -KiAA wA'*wi*»^*' ko.t»^*^ 



BKiDHai.w'a BwiiiBBiiAnD i 



B±¥uaa.— UMin. Cii6iadi Cliunhill A C 
Ur. a. Qlu. 



taUwUka. The t1d< district of Linu >Re 
h«iiM ilBag til* IskB, foi tluH lugoH, toldvuniu. 
It la 1,130 feat 'Iwreiu. 
It was known to tha Romiuu ta nKrwrn^ from 

Sardntloii, It wu nibjact, in oiminoD with 
lADsanoe, Ac^ to the Buneae. It uirlei on a 
trade In wins, leather, watchai, Ac.; and amoiiB 
•thai manDfaatorai ii noted for it! taoneriei, gold 



and >ll«r work, mllUnary, cij. 
wood and matbla carrlnci- 

The largs HoipHil waa bnill UH; baiidas 
reealTins patlania, It contaEu aach»l of IndDilrf, 
the pnbllo library at 13,(00 Totuaei, and thi 
criminal cenrta- 

At the end at ona of tbe prlnidpal itreeti li thi 
gnoattai or Com hill, with a black marble portico 
and lower. Uarkeli for grain are beld arery 
Taeiday. The eaat pHa of the Dooaue 



Clt/. where BoniMaa lodged, li the next bB' 
on the north. BBll^ concerti, Ac, an gii 
theCaiino,bal]tlSSO; It ianaedalBOforaprlmaij 

Tha HMdili Fmewu rabnllt In I7M, In 1 >lmii]( 
Myla. Hera the muDlcipallt; and the clvatrlbonala 
meat, and the ardilTeii ua plased. In front ia 
olookjowar, with a fonntain at the baae. Th 
prtaoBi, called tha ChafltCB, are cloaa by 1 being oi 
tiia alta of A mooaatery attached to St. Uartln' 
Church. Tha OoHage ti a Una bnilding-, erected 
UK; thad>ailci,modemIangii({rea,mathani 



nadeni Till., Doke ot SaToy, arte 
Pope, and at length hermit, nponhlaabdical 
bnlltat thereqnestcf bla iliter, but mi 



looking like tha don^in of a caatle. Is dated It 

Wllkln are the tomha o( Lndlow and Brongbb 
the regicides, who fled here at the Eertoratlon 
ChaAei II,; Bnmghton died 1037. and Lodlow i 
yearelater. ThehonaeinwhlchLndiowdled,cli 
(0 Hotel da Lac, bora Ihe InBcrlptlon, " Omiu tolt 
firHpalrlapHapalrli" (everyconnlry laafath 
land to the brave man. because It Is his Fathef 
till l«il, when the tablet was booght by an Enfl! 



ar tbie chorch, planted yr 



llghtrol li the 



In the beantifnl lake, the Dent da Midi and 
giaclera; Mont Combin, near tha St. Benurdi 
DIahlerets, and other peaka at the entrance of ' 
Bhlne Valley; the Dent deJaman, behind; IheJi 
Uonntdna and their forests; and ihe SaToy H 
in frwit. Another walk, called Derrifero d'A 
itratcblug along tha lake from the month of 
aparkthig VOTeyge. waa impnved at the coat of 
ConTreo, whoae largo Gothic seat here gives na 
to llj and forms an oicellent quay. To these o 
be added Uie walksof RonTenneaiuidlts gatdc 
the FfrsUle, the Entre-deu-Tlllei. Ac. The a 
ket-place, on the borders of tiie lake, ia wort 



visit. 



'eady raantloned, Ibei 



Other btUldlngsdeaerrlDg attention an — 4he' 
Castle, inhabited by thebailW irf Berne bafora 
leralntlon, ud tha Conr-anx-Chantiea. CaiV 



Bonte 4.] 



YEYBT) OULBBKSi TBBKXZ, MOKTRBVZ. 



35 



Ii^knAn, dose to the lake; and the Workmen's 
Club, with a good Public Ltbrary. Steamers, 
frequently to Gteneva and Villeneure, Ac. « 

ForMgners are permitted to send their children, 
of either sex, to the Latin or the Commvcial 
College, or the Oirls* Institntion, for about 5s. 

per month. 
The Hospital has a Public Library of 15,000 vols. 

Yeyey has a branch of the Lausanne Socl^td 
d'Emulation, and is further remarkable for a fdte 
des Vignerons, held every 20 years, by a society of 
Tine-growers, of yery ancient foundation. It is 
attended by processions and dances, and a disjday 
of Swiss costumes; and premiums are distributed 
to those who make the best show of grapes. 

ExGUBSiOMS may be taken to the Cubly, 
a mountain which rises aboye Montreux, and com* 
mands a fine yiew to the yalleysand heights of the 
Jorat; among which are Mont P^^rin (8,465 feet 
aboye the sea), Chardonne (3,300 feet). Tour de 
Gourze (4,050 feet, said to be haunted by the 
spirits of confirmed spinsters deceasedX near Lao 
de Bret, or Brey, and Chalet k Gobet (2,930 feet); 
to the Baths of Alliaz (3,080 feet), past HauteyiUe, 
with a fine garden, open to the public, and Blonay 
Castle^ and thence by Avent, oyer the beautiful 
Dent de Jaman into the Saanen-thal. Bk»ay 
Castle, at a fine point of yiew, 800 feet aboye 
the lake, has been four centuries in the fiunily of 
its owners. 

Adjoining Veyey, now almost forming part of 
it, is La Tour de PeilZ, with a considerable 
population, and a castle which was dismantled 1747. 
The next place is 

0LABEN8 (Stat). 

Hotel Belmont, well situAted in a healthy and 
beatifnl part. See Adyt. 

Clarens is situated in a loyely spot, which is 
best seen from a height aboye it, called Crdtes, 
where Madame de Warens had a country seat 
when Bousseau ItyM with her in his younger 
days. It is here that he places the scenes of 
his Julie, or La NownBe Hiloise; and it is not 
less to their real beauty than to his highly 
wrought descriptions, and the poetical colouring 
bestowed upon then by Byron, that '' Clarens, 
sweet Clar«Bi ** •wet iU fiyiM. The riiitor shonIA 



of the lake, and the entrance to the Rhdne, opposite. 
Behind it ia Baugy, belieyed to be a Roman station, 
from the coins and traces of buildings found there. 
Coins, indeed, are so numerous, that a trader comes 
yearly to purchase all he can get. Near Baugy is 
Ch&telard, among the ylneyards, on the slopes of 
the mountains, a feudal castle, rebuilt 1441, oa the 
site of an earlier one. The way behind it leads 
oyer the Dent de Jaman. 

At Clarens-Montreux, with its charming position 
and soft climate, making it a great attraction 
for strangers, for the enjoyment of its pure 
air and exquisite scenery, lodgrings and pen- 
sions andyllla residences for hire are abundant. 
MeiUerie, St. Gingolph, and other beautiful spots, 
are on the opposite shore. Church of England Service. 

Vemez, a short distance from Clarens, lies 
among walnut and other fruit trees, where the 
laurel and pomegranate flourish in the open air. 
Hotel and Pension Beaulieu; and Pensions. The 

Station is called Montreuz-Veniez. 

Montreux, l mile further, is another loyely 
spot, and being more sheltered by the heights 
behind, is much frequented by invalids. Pop., 2,300. 

Hotels: Hotel des Alpes; Hotel National ; Bean 
S^jour au Lac; Du Cygne, Ac, Ac, and many 
comfortable Pensions. 

English Church Service, in Montreux Church. 

Free Church of Scotland Service, at the new 
Church (1872), near the College, September to June. 

The handsome CUrsaal, with concerts and 
entertainments of every kind, is a great centre of 
attraction. 

The best point of view of the country around, 
with the Castle of Chillon, Ac, is to be had from 
the church-yard, where the old Church, with its 
pyramid tower, is hid among the chestnut trees. 
Near it is the Rock of Tufa, the water from which 
deposits stalactites of a violet colour. A funicular 
rail leads from Torritet up to ailon,which Is much 
frequented. Engage rooms in advance (Hotel 
Righi Vaudois, first-class, with splendid views. 
Grand Hotel Victoria). 

At Leg Avants (ffotel des Avants and Chwrch 
Service), a sight like the Spectre of tho ^Tc^t^ysie^ 
has been seen oy«( \3dl!& D«Mi dA 3Q!«MMw>VGk.^QGk!^ Vst^sk. 



»3etadtaa0m*(fmf^th0pnanm(dmBy!ii\ Oii*lWh»A\torti^«&«A.^^«v^'«^>'^**^^'^ 



86 



BRA.D8HAW*8 BWITZBRLA2CD AND THE TTKOL. 



[Section 1. 



fortune (not very great) to all the poor of the 
nni verse; it is employed in assisting those who 
offer themselyes. The picturesque effect of the 
Bridge (98 feet high) on the little bay in the lake, 
joining the Tillages of Sales and Planchc, is worth 
noticing. This bay is formed by the mouth of a 
little stream, which rises at Verroux, in the peaks 
of the Dent de Jaman. 

The name MontrOQX is applied to the collection 
of villages which hare now grown together, the 

principal of which are Glarens, Vemex, Ter- 
rltet, and Veytauz. 

Kear Veytaux-Chlllon (Stat.) s the famous 
CASTLE OF CHILLON 

(which the genius of Byron has immortalised); a 

mass of square buildings and towers, on a small 
rock, joined to the mainland by a light wooden 
bridge. It was built about 1240, to command a road 
into Italy, by Amadeus IV., of Savoy, and, before 
artillery was invented, was thought to be impreg- 
nable. In 1259 the Counts of Savoy obtained a 
victory here, which led a few years afterwards to 
the acquisition of the Pays de Vaud. It was taken 
from them, however, by the Bernese in 1586, along 
with the Castle; upon which occasion Francis 
Bonnivard, immortalised in Byron's noble sonnet 
(see below), was set free. He was Prior of St. Victor, 
at Geneva, and having sided with his townsmen 
against the pretensions of the Bishop and Duke of 
Savoy, was treacherously carried off, 1530, and shut 
up in this fortress. It was repaired hi 1837, but 
without altering any important parts. 

Several rooms are opened to visitors, as 
the Hall of the Knights, which latterly had been 
the Governor's kitchen; the Chamber of Justice, 
with the wooden beam, or potence, for inflicting 
torture, and a trap-door to the oubliette below, 
down which the body of the. victim was thrust, to 
be 0M6/tV (forgotten); the Chapel and Secret Cham- 
ber of the Dukes, having one window only in it, 
overlooking the court, and an iron-bound door, with 
the Duchess's room, now used as a powder maga- 
zine. The dungeon of Bonnivard (or Bonlvard), 
with its rock floor, rests on pillars, and is lit by 

several windows. 

CihJUon I thy prlaon is ft holy piftoa. 
And OtrmdOoor ma altar: tor twaa irod« 
Uattlbla reryttepa hara leti a trace. 



This sonnet (which ranks with Milton's on 
the persecuted Vandois), though placed as an intT(>< 
ctaiction to the '* Prisoner of Chillon," was in fact 
written at a later date ; it celebrates the m emory of a 
real sufferer; while the hero of the poem itself, with 
hisf amily of captive sons, is only a powerful creation 
of the author's fancy, composed as above-mentioned 
at Ouchy, when he was ignorant of Bonnivard's 
history. The unfortunate prior was chained to 
the fifth of the ** seven columns weary and grey," 
where the staple may be still observed; Byron 
carved his name, not on this, but on the third 
pillar, in company with Fenimore Cooper's and 
others ; but some one has cut a line through it. Li 
making repairs here, figures, traced in black on 
the wall by some wretched captive, and human 
bones were found. 

The Castle has for years been used as an Arsenal. 
Admission, 1 f r. Its turrets command a fine view 
of the lake, and of the "little isle," or He de Paix, 
opposite Vllleneuve; "the only one In view" of the 
poor prisoner, and indeed the only one in the lakei 
It has two or three trees on it. Half way to 
Vllleneuve is the large Hotel Byron. 

ViUeneUYe (Stat.)— Hotel Byron (near tht 
Castle of ChUlon), Church Service at the hotel. 

A small old walled town of 1,700 population, at 
the upper end of the Lake, on the site of the 
Roman PennieulU^ where the road turns off up the 
Valley of the Rhone, following the rail to Bex and 
St. Maurice. The ancient town was destroyed in 
563, along with several others on Lake L^man, by 
the fall of the mountain Tauretunum^ and the con* 
sequent inundation, see page 89. 

The banks of the RhOne at this point are marshy 
and unattractive. In the course of centuries the 
river has made a little delta, at the top of which if 
Port Valnis, now 1 mile from the shore, but olies 
the Portut Valesim of the Romans, and the pi ace of 
embarkation. As it falls into the lake, it is oft 
muddy colour, but at Geneva it is a deep blue. 

Hereabouts it is thought the consul, L. Caasivi^ 
and his legate Piso, were defeated and slaii 
by the Helvetian tribes, in the year 110 b.o. ; vd 
the Roman army put under the yoke, in toktf 
of BubmVmVoTi to t\i«\.T cotic^jierors, headed by Dl 
\ 7romtb!isv^\siV.V\i«c«xt\B««T<A.^VS&Km%^c^ 



R6ut6 4.] 

tion of the river, and turns at Gils, near Brleg, 
over the Simpluh Pass. 

Leaving VilleneuVe yon come to Rennaz and 
Roche (Stat.), nnder Mont Arvel, the latter near 
an old Castle. Then TVOIue (population 700), 
formerly called Hyherna^ and now noted for its 
white wine. 

Algle (Stat.), the Roman Aquileia^ on a branch of 
the RhOne, called the Grande Eau, up tlie valley of 
which is the Panex Salt Work. Population, 3,600. 
Hotel*: Grand Hotel, very comfortable first-class 
hotel-, du Midi; du Nord; Beau Site; Victoria. 
The climate is mild; the grapes arc some of the 
best in Switzerland; and it is the centre of various 
excursions, as the Devens Salt Springs, Tour d'Ai, 
Dent du Midi, Dent de Morcles, Diablerets, and 
especially up the Grande Eau, by Aigremont Castle 
and Ormonts, to Saanen Land, on the Thun Road. 
Diligence daily (4 hours) to 

VUlars or VUlard-Blir-OllOll, lO miles E., 
4,025 feet above sea. Fine views ot Grand Muveran, 
Ac., from the Chamostaire, 6,940 feet. A guide is 
not required. 

St. Trlphon (Stat.), near a picturesque hill, 
above which is a tower, said to be Roman, com- 
manding the Valley of the Rhdne ; also the ruined 
Chapel of des Danes, with a quarry of black marble, 
close by. Many Roman coins have been found. 
BEX (Stat.) pronounced "Bay.** 

Hotels: Grand Hotel et Bains des Salines. 

Grand Hotel des Bains (Hotel and Pension), in 
a fine park, opposite the English Church. 

L'Union; Hotel and Pension Villa, des Bains. 
Pensions : —Des Etrangers ; da Crochet. Railway 
Restaurant. 

EnglUh Servieey at the New English Chnreh. 

A town of 4,300 population, on the Avenfon, 
another branch of the Rhdne, noted for its mineral 
springs and salt works. It stands 1,450 feet above 
tl\e sea, near the Dent du Midi, in a most pleasant 
spot. The waters are sulphuretted and begin to be 
taken about May. Excellent trout and game are 
got here. A trip of three days will enable one to 
visit Chamouny and the Great St. Bernard. The 
salt works or salines, which are 8 miles distant. 



AIOLE, ST. THIPHON) BEX, 37 

feet thick ; and the annual produce is now very 
considerable. Old sulphur springs once used by 
the Romans have also been brought to light. 

The principal Salt Mines, called Boulllet and 
Fondement, are up the picturesque valleys of the 
Avenpon and Grionne. Before reaching them, you 
come to the bfttimens de cuite, or boiling houses, 
with their large chaudi^res (pans) at B^vieux and 
Devens ; to which the brine is brought in wooden 
pipes, 1| mile long. A little higher are the 
B&timens de graduation, 600 feet long, filled with 
faggots, over which the brine is made to trickle, 
and brought to the proper strength £or boiling. 
Bouillet, the first mine, is a gallery about 7,250 feet 
long and 6 wide. Going through it you pass two 
large circular reservoirs or dessaloirs, one of 
which is 81 feet diameter and 11 feet deep; 
they are used for the first step in the process after 
blasting the rock, namely, dissolving the broken 
pieces in water, before sending the brine down to 
the Bfttimcns de graduation. One of these dessaloirs 
has a good echo. Further on is a puits or pit, 
bored in the last century, in search of salt ; and 
then smaller reservoirs, with the blasting holes. A 
shaft 520 feet long and 700 steps, bring you to the 
upper or Fondement mine, which contains several 
small galleries of older date, excavated before gun- 
powder was employed (1775). Of the seven brine 
springs which issue from the rock, the most produc- 
tive are Bon-Succ^s and Esp^rancc Louvelle. 

About 5i miles from Bex is the small town of 
Lea Plans, in the valley of the same name, with 
two or three good penriont^ this is a good centre 
for excursions, especially to the Dent de Morcles, 
9,700 feet, for which guides can be had. 

From Bex, an Excubsion may be made to the 
castle ruins of Dulng, and the charming village of 
Frenibres (above tlie Salines); thence by a fine but 
rather dangerous footpath, over the Col de Chdville 
(6,975 feet above sea), by the landslips of the 
Diablerets (they fell 1714 and *49), which is 10,670 
feet higli ; by the Saut du Chien (Dog*s leap) an 
abyss 1,900 feet deep, and steep on both sides, to 
the pretty waterfalls of Sitten or Sion (12 stxi£L.<dfi3&N> 
in the Rhone valte'j. toosJCasx Na^ ^-h^ S5c»» '^"*a» 

Ol \A CXOVIL V^,\^^ V'i^'riC^ N» <5»^SB5SO«^-"^" 



deserve a visit. From 1554 to 1828 only brine 

springs were worired; but in the latter year^ast \ at\XTidftik\ «x\i\ \Xv«Mi.t\si ^J^-^'^'^^*'^ 

Ireds of rack salt were discoveredf in some places 16 \ Saafteo. "Lasi^ ^v'^ ^VosA««^^ '^ ^** 



dd 



fi&ABSfiAW'S BWltMBLAKD AND Tttfi ftUOt, 



[Section h 



and Inteiiaken. An ezcanion, little kno-vm, 
shonld be taken by Montey, up the beautifal Valley 
of Vlfezc, to Val d'llliea, Champ€ry, Ac, under the 
Dent da Midi and other mountains. To proceed 
beyond will bring you into the Valley of Sixt, in 
Savoy. " 

The road from Bex crosses the Avcn9on and 
then the Bhdne, by the old fortified bridge to St. 
Maurice. The railway crosses the river near this 
old bridge, and forms a junction with the Ligne 
dltalie at St. Maurice. This old bridge has one 
arch 70 feet above the river, which is so hemjned 
in here by tlie Dent du BUdl (10,450 feet) on one 
side, and the Dent de Mordes (9,700 feet) on 
the other, that there is little more than room 
enough for it and the road. 

The river here divides the Pays do Vaud from 
Canton du ValalS, or WdllU, as the Germans 
call it. It stretches along both sides of the Rh6ne, 
towards its source, bounded on the north and south 
by the two great chains of the Alps, the Oberland 
and the Sardinian. As far as Sion (the capital, 
see page 40), Fr^ich is spoken, but German 
beyond. The people are distinguished from their 
neighbours by dirt, poverty, and cretinism, which, 
with its companion the goitre, is unusually pre- 
valent in the Bas Valais. The poor cretin is known 
by his large head, thin crooked legs, feeble steps, 
and inarticulate speech. Both cretinism and goitre 
appear to be attributable to drinking bad water, 
and the want of pure air in close, wet, Ill-ventilated 
valleys, at a height of 3,000 feet above sea. Beyond 
that line it docs not occur. " In some parts of the 
Valais, the deformity of the goitre was so common, 
that if a man wanted the usual appendage to his 
throat, the others would laugh at him, and call him 
OanshaJs^ or 'Goose-neck.' Some travellers seem to 
think that parents look upon it as a light aflfllction 
to have a cretin child ; but the old saying quoted 
by Simler (in his Vallesias Descriptio) as used when 
a healthy child was bom, 'Gott sy gelobt das kind 
toerdt kein goueh werden," ' God be praised the child 
will not prove a gowk,' shows that it was always 
felt as a great calamity."— -f«r^t«(m. 
ST. MAURICE (Stat.) 
y^M^.' Hotel and Pension OrlsogonOt connected 
9r//^ tbe Ssuiway BtgtaiunnX; Dea Alpes ; Ecu 



\ 



A little town on the west bank of the Bhdne, 
with 1,600 population, and 1,860 feet above the sea. 
It is noted for a very ancient Augustine Albeiff 
dedicated to St. Maurice, chief of the Theban or 
Christian legion, martyred here by Maximilian in 
the bcghining of the fourth century. It was then 
called Tamaias, which was changed to Agannnm. 

A church, they say, was built on the spot by 
Theodore I., Bishop of Valais, between 351-91. 
Sigismund of Burgundy amply endowed it in the 
sixth century, and a successor Raoul, or Rudolph I., 
was crowned (889), and afterwards buried here. Its 
abbot was mitred, and had the title of Count, with 
other privileges. Besides its collection of relics, it 
boasts two agate vases given by Charlemagne, a gold 
crozier with little figures round it, and a chalice 
given by Queen Bertha, St. Sigismund' s shrine^ 
Ac. (special permission required). The chnrdi 
tower is the oldest part of that building. Accord- 
ing to an inscription on the Town house (Christiana 
sum ab anno LVIII.) Christianity was established 
here as eaily as a.d. 58. At St. Maurice the Ligne 
d'ltalie, on the south side of the Lake of Geneva 
via Bouveret and Monthey, comes in ; and from 
here it ascends the left bank of the Bh6ne to Bri^. 
Visit the Grotte des F^es, an immense cavity ot 
660 yards, terminating in a small lake. Oppoaita 
it (li mile) is the little vUlage of 

Lavey (population, 200) and its sulphur JBoAi, 
first brought into notice 1831. They run close to 
the river, are clear but bitter tasted, and smell 
like rotten eggs, from the sulphuretted hydrogen 
they contain. Temperature 113*, which is reduced 
to about 100** in the bath-house. They arewett 
arranged and superintended. Living moderate. 
Above Lavey a narrow road leads to the very 
picturesque village of MorcleA. 

The Dent Vallerette may be easily ascended heit, 
among a circle of mountains. Dent do Morciea, 9,700 
feet, may also be ascended, but a guide will be 
necessary. The view over the Rhdne valley is ex- 
ceedingly fine. Leaving St. Maurice the line passes 
the Hermitage of Notre Dame du Sex on a point 
above, commanding a very splendid view. TImb 
Veriolax, a ■MLattyr's Chapel, whore it is said the' 
wartlOTa ol ttieTYvOBMv\%^OTk.^«i^ ^ftR&BaataA.tal 



Boate 4.j 



ttVlOSTKAY, rvSMAXlZf HJLBTI&KY, 



99 



Emperor M&ximin, becaaie they would not give 
ap Christianity ; and the site of Bpaunum^ which 
was OTerwhelmed by mad and stones from the 
Dent da Midi in the sixth century. The marks of 
a similar catastrophe are noticed farther on, at 

fivlonnay (Stat.), where a space of 900 feet 
was covered, in 1835, after a heavy storm of rain 
and thunder. 

Beyond this you come to the Fl886yaoh6, or 
Fall <^f the 8aler^ which rises in the glaciers of 
Dent du Midi, and here forms a fine cascade of 
nearly 800 feet. The iris, as usual, may be seen 
playing across it just before noon. 

Vemayai (8tat.)» in the mouth of the fine 
Gorges da Trlent (near a Fall), so called from the 
Trient, which comes down from the T6te Noir Pass. 
ffoMt: DesGtorges; desAlpes; Suisse; Chamonix; 
Foste. Leaving La Batie Castle, on a picturesque 
height, you reach Martigny across the Drance, 
which rises under the Great St. Bernard. La Batie 
was a OastU of the archbishops of Sion, destroyed 
by George Supersax, 1518. The round keep and 
outer walls remain. 
MAJtTiaNT (Stat.), or MarHnach, hi German. 
HoteU: Clorc; Du Mont Blanc; de TAigle; 
Railway Restaurant. 

It is partly on the Simplon Road. Including 
Martlgny-le-Bonrg, the other part which is about 
1 mile up the Drance, the population is 3,600, of 
which 1,320 is in the Bourg. It stands on the bend 
of the Riidne, 1,500 feet above the sea, in a fertile 
Valley, but so shut in that the marshy exhalations, 
want of good water, and especially of fresh air, 
produce many eases of ague, cretin, and other 
diseases. It is at hot as the West Indies in summer, 
and the mosquitoes (or eotuint as the natives call 
them) are most tormenting. There is a covered 
wooden Bridge across the turbulent Drance, which 
nearly overwhelmed the town 1545 and 1818. 
Marks of its rise may yet be noticed on the houses, 
some of which are built strong to resist future 
inundations. On the hills above are the round 
keep and walls of La Batie Castle, built in 1200, 
by Peter of Savoy, to command this part of the 
valley. Most of the hills are bare, but good wine, 
as Coquempey and La Marque, is grown upon them ; 
the honey is also veiy choice. There is a handsome 
paiigA Cbnreb, Bt. Mtuya, with «ome Ronuai iii« 



scriptions in the walls, serving as a Bumorfal of the 
ancioit Octodurwn^ on this site. At the Bourg are 
large warehouses, and a good market, with a chest- 
nut wood towards Lavlnin ; and here also is the 
Convent qf 8t. Bernard^ whence periodical reliefs 
of monks are sent out to supfdy the Hospice of St.. 
Bernard, which is about 8 hours* journey up thft 
Drance (Route 5). 

Martigny is the starting-point for visiting th* 
Hospice as well as the T6te Noire, Col de Balme,. 
Chamouny (7 to 8 hours), and the Pierr6-4-Voir 
(guide required^ the conical peak of the Levron 
range, 8,124 feet high. Many rare and curiousplantat 
are also found In the neighbourhood of Martigny. 
A carriage road is now open over the T6te Noir* 
to Chamouny. It is praeticable for two*hor8» 
conveyances. Relays can be hail at the HOtel d* 
la T^te Noire, half way. 

Uartigny to Cliamoimy, ovtr tlie Ool <• 
Balme— a trip not to be omitted, for the splen^tfid 
view it offers of Mont Blanc and its attendant ] 
It takes 9 to 10 hours walking; but it may he d« 
as follows, without a guide; though one will be 
required if you quit the direct route. Xieaving 
Martigny in the morning, you proceed up the 
mule path to 001 de Forolai or Trlent, com- 
manding the most splendid views (turning roand> 
of the Valley of the Rhone. From this Col yon 
descend to the i«etty hamlet of Triait in the midst 
of green meadows. A path turns off to the T4t€i 
Noire Pass (see page 26). A succession of steepi 
fatiguing ascents, difficult even for mules, threaghi 
forests and pastures, near the Herbag^res ekilets^ 
brings you in 2 hours to the two little JRhi# en 
the top of the Ool de Balme, and therev tf the 
weather be clear, the **dread knd sUeat wount** is 
before you in all its majesty. The beet point of 
view is at the Aiguille de Balme, fiOt feel above the> 
inn, which is itself 7,280 feet above the sea. Oib 
the right are the Aiguilles Rouges and the Buet, the< 
former, bare, rugged, and tnaeeessible. To the left 
are the Aiguilles du Tour, Argenti^re, Vert, audi 
Dm; then the Mer de Glace, Col du G^ant, du: 
Midi, and Mont Blano. Below lies the Yale off 
Chamouny, and the villages dispersed up andda-^rai. 
theArve; end \MkYiLViA>>QcA^ Ki^^^>^s!^isss|,x*^s^ew'*As8 

««m»A lft».l\Wk ^VlWft. «^^'^ Xl«tS88»»- 



40 



BRAI>9nAW*8 SWITZEBMND AXD THfi tTHOL. 



[Section i. 



Ijecoraes at fftst of xui nmbcr colour, then changes 
to ft bright rosy tint, which lasts till tlio sun has 
sunk down, when It settles at once to its natural 
glittiMJng white. Tlic air is hitensely coM at this 
h i^'ht; .uwl the sheets feel damp (without being so), 
SD tliat from these causes, the noise of the wind, 
and the excitcoicni, slcap is almost impossible. 
From liere tlic path canaoi be missed ; it runs 
near the Arve, past Le Tcnur, Argeatifere (2 stun- 
den) to Chnmouny (2 stunden). 

K.OXJXB 4r— Con/ini/e^. 
Marttgny to Sion and Brieg, and oyer the 
Simplon, to tlie Italian Lakes and Milan. 

This is done by lUHway as far as Brieg, 
on the West Swiss and Ligne d^ItaUe, and thence 
by road. Trains from Martigny to Brieg (about 
24 miles) three times a day. (See BradshauU 
Continental Otdek.) Thence by diligence the dis- 
tances are: — 

To the Hospice 2J stunden. 

Simplon Village 2 ^ 

Domo d*OssoIa 7J 

Bavcno 7 

Sesto Galende 6 

Milan .«. 10 



ti 



11 



u 



« 



84f stunden. 

Leaving Martigny, the rail ascends the valley 
of the Rhdne, through a somewhat marshy country. 

Saxon-les Bains (Stat.) Grand Udtel des 
Bains. The water is good for skin diseases. Saillon 
has a quarry of coloured marble. At Biddes 
(Stat.) a covered bridge crosses the river to St. 
JPierre, on the north bank. Then comes Ardon 
(Stat.) and its vineyards and fruit gardens, with 
a rich soil which renders it the granary of this 
part. Population, 600. Iron is also forged. It was 
inundated in 1818 by the Liceme, which comes 
down from the ridge near the Diablerets. At 
Vdtroz (further on) a path turn up across the head 
of it to Bex. The Morge is another mountahi 
ton'ent, next crossed ; and then comes 

SION (Stat.) — German, Sitten^tit the mouth of 
the Evolena Valley, 17 miles from Martigny. 

ffotelt Du Midi. 

It was the Roman Sedunum^ now capital of Canton 
VaJa/3or Walli8,8eatota bishop, Ac; standing near 



4Ae SAdoe, where the Sionne Jotna It, about the ^ ol longo-Bot^uft, NrtX\v «k Oav^ to.>«a\ Vs^ ^ha 



middle of the canton, 1 ,860 feet above rca. German 
begins to be the common tongue about here. Popu- 
lation, 4,900, in dirty, dark streets; the chief one 
being the Pont, through which the Sionne flows, like 
acanul, covered in. Though tbe situation is some- 
what agreeable, and the soil fertile, it is extremely 
hot and unhealtliy in summer. Several ch&teaux 
cover the heights, besides three old Castles. Valeria 
Castle, to the south, has some high towers, and a 
pilgrim's chapel (St. Katherina), said to have been 
built by the Romans. Tourbillon, the highest (to 
which there is a way by the Tour dos Chicns or 
Hundethurm), built 1294, was the old seat of the 
bishops. Majoria was the third seat of theirs befbre 
it was burnt, 1788. There are walls and ditches 
round it, with six gates ornamented with paintings 
of saints, Ac. Whie, almonds, and figs are produced. 
The Cathedral, dedicated to the Virgin, is anoU 
Gothic building, with fifteen altars, tombs, and an 
ossuary, where Roman inscriptions may be noticed. 
St. Thdodule's Church, built by Cardinal Matthew 
Schinner, in the sixteenth century. That of tlie 
Jesuits, in a pretty spot, has two good altar paint- 
ings. In the former Jcfrult College a Cautcmal 
collection of natural history is now kept. 

The Rathhaus, or Town Hall, is a Gothic struc- 
ture of some pretensions, with an astronomical 
clock and several Roman inscriptions. The Chan- 
cellerie is a new building, as is the Bishop^s Palace, 
where they show a set of portraits of prelatSs from 
the third (?) century. Charlemagne, they say, 
built the Kalendes Tower. Outside the town aie 
the Capuchin Ck)nvent, a Hospital under the Sisters 
of Charity, and the Shooting House. 

A market is held on the bridge, whence there is 
a fine view of the Mayens de Sion, with its country 
seats, gardens, and herds of cattle, as well as of the 
hills on the opposite side of the Rhdne. On the field 
of Planta the Upper Valaisans defeated an army of 
10,000 Savoyards, 13th November, 1475, an anniver- 
sary kept to this day. Further off you look down 
into the Morgenthal (Valley of the Merge), npcm 
the almost inaccessible mountain fort of Mondorge. 
From this place Anton von Thun threw his uncle, 
which led to the war of the Valais just meoti(med« 
About 2 miles south of the town is the Hennitag« 



Kdnte 4.j 



1. From BlOD to OatelK, 1" 3«»n«i I-mil. thgr. 


1, .-, mulo pRth of B liours over tho SanctKh 


I'nts. by nigged lig-iags, ravlnM, 4o. It learli 


iil> the Tflllcy of tlio Morgcs. to Chaidi«Bnol snd 


St. Martin. Th» p™ <s 7,370 feet abova .ea, with a 


iioblflTiawoMhe chain o(tb, Alps. Thapeakof 


Arbolle (Arbclhorn) divides thit pus from that o( 


Qollon, which l> »,980 [e« hlgt. The way to It 




Hdtb a patli to the Sanoueh goes off to the west. 




tabu, pait Aabaz, raid dcicendi to Lincnen In 


Smuien Lanfl. Fmm arimltoH tbeni Is > path by 


Ayent and R.»ln (with ila waterfnlli) up to the 




horn at the height of 7,948 feet, and doicendi by 




i. Fnm aion up lbs YH d'HfoMU. or Eria 


Ber-thal to Evolena. In fi honn by mnle. It oponi 


on the touth Into tho Valley of the Rhine, at 


Btamoii (or Dtemlfc In Gemian), hi » wl po 




■bore It Trai made In lh« ilxteenth cenlni; an 


la nsaally Inhabited by (i»»lltatiei (tot comp 


from when hensy and wine may bo got 



place of tlic valley (population, 100), with co 
of wood, decorated with heads of bears and 
Here th« Borgne or main stream f mm Col d 
and Val do la Banaa In tlie sonth-west is Jo 
t]i« Heionee, which you may aacend to Bro 



Immense elacleTa and ma^lGccnt Alpine peafas. I 
anob as Dent d'H^reni and Dent Blanche (WelBS- 
bom), 19,714 and 14.120 feet high, by a path | 
orer Ool i'EAmna (11,430 feel). The Orotte- i 
aui-Fayu at IlHlgne 1> espodatly worth notice. 
A path snr the Olacln' d'Anllla into Tal Felllna 



1i vriB ascended 



Itn—lt rollei 



ivIewoflhoBniUandolherglacI 



B k B tb and the I 



g by mole. In 4 honn; and to Tbnn, b; 

errs up V»l d'AnniTlen, or EinSuh 

ly afflicted wlih goitre. The maul 

SI the Hhano Is goarded by tho tw 

Alt-Slden and Beaarogarcl, en th 

w t Chypli or Chlppli, which belongo 



VWAa, UMst'BM.im-i'^Vwn* *¥*.»■ «^ 



downtoADat^paMMniicbgruit Kenery, nuder \-iTUb&t,-'^vet«^>M* ^'^'^'^'^''^ 



budisiw'b Bwnzauum Airt> ma Tnot. 



rSoetiioBl. 



tb* sum ttntBt puti alt 1d(o two heuU, th< 


Zlul (to tbs 


Mty. BDd QriBum, 


e- This !• M 


HIaion, Am 


rding to tradition,! 


B people of thi. 


T«lley (Bbonl 


OWI In twenty-flTe ) 


unlcti) are de- 


tamdedlnm 


bandof Hasiwtaolt 




Their dUdcct, 


mioneiB, dreu, and 


tbo iroy Ihey 


bnUd Uitar bo 




hey we« only 




PaeanLnn In the elmentb or twtUlh 


is«lurl«.»fw 


hichlheTillageof » 


I..IDD prcept. 


Id IU nunc n 


memorial. Tin! mo 


untrin. endlTK 



the C°I da Zlnal. or Trlftjoc 


(ii.ne 


eet), 10 


Zenutt, 1! honn. (See Rant 






The Rail f r™ Blerre follow. 


theSbnplonBoad 


whicb croHU ths EhOoB to tha Forort 


of Pfyn 




lallJtary 


poeltloo, 


harbw * peak of the itreat c 




e right, 


aboiUB.9M fset abon the m. 


TheBca 




bride* (ow tha ShfiM) to 








-/aw; 




IBDlipot. 




oct aboT 


■ea, at 


Iha Jnnalion of the Dala wllh 


tha Shtoe, here 


eroaHd by a coYe«d bridge. 


There 




ChnrchH, and nmaini of twc 


CaitlH. 


clone to 


theactllthngel, agreatna.. 1 


■OtoSODf 


Mt high, 


apparmlly a lai.d.Ilp. Omnlb 


> for the 


bath, at 



B Oemml 



! m. 



Ji Id the DelghboDTbood. 

ir TmirlimatM, in Ptencb), at the 
monUiof BTalloyof theumanama. lam: LKwai 
Bonne. Poptdatlin, IM. 8o called from Turrfi 
MaffTta, a Roman itathni hare. 

Ten nlnotea from (be Tillage, the ralley bdng 
In a high degree deiolata lod wUd, ta the Tcr; One 
aaacade of the Tuitmannhaeh, a (all of M feet. 
Tha bead of the lalley. i Mnndeo dUant, It 
hemmed In by glaolert; there la a way over to 
St. Hiklaul (page AO). 

Tha rail paaaea np to OVWMl (BtttJi et th* 
aaati oflieZiHieliaaaui); tieaet t0 



Tljp, orVI*pna<A; Pnnah, Tlift. Beld: 8oma, 
>r Solel). A Tillage co the BhSne, where tiig 
riipbaeb Jolni from the VUp-thft], a fine ritltr 
■a the KQlh. leading np lo Zenult (lee Ronte t), 
[t Btiuidi S,3S0 feet aboFO the aca, and la a hc^i of 
Ittle naiTovt gl^wt^ wllh two Churchea, adorned 
with qnalnt palntlngt. The beat, Bt. Hartln'i, 
recrlooklBg the •Uiagc, iB known by iti towcri 
lenr the bridge yon get a view of Uonte Roaa, np 
beViip-lhaL Harkcti are held bcre. Ontheeaat 
.Ide ara remalDi of a nuaalre wall, flanked by 
oireri, called the will of the Vlberiana, after the 
LoclcDt people of Ibe country. 

From Vlip, up the Simplon Boad, th* nil paaaea 
lamien.atthemoDthirflfaeaamienDrNaniutha], 

(Uti, which baa the tomb of Qeorge Sapeiaax 
Von der Fine), his wife, and Ihidr ItcaUy-lhrm 
hlldren. He wus a noted leader of the ValaieaD*, 

llm;»on Innii off hare, bDt i t ii moal to gu to Brltflr. 



Bilec (BUt.), or BHgta (Hotel dei 
t PoFt»X at the Jmictlon wllh the Eh. 



ID largest plae«4 Id tba 
buUdbigs hehig • Chun:h on a 
. aa Unnllne CouTent of th> 



of Baion Stockslper. a targe i 
3,901) fset abore the lea (1,I)H 
of OoncTa). The root! we 






The road ah 









to the 



NnfBDCn Paiiea. (See Ronte 7.) Bell Alp. neur 
LaDteibrtumen (page BC), Ii five mllee north, under 
ths Aletacb and ather glaclen. 

From BMoK to Domo A'OmoU, orat tba 
li4ip(itti,orU ttuulBi.M'llmilMi 



BoQte 4.] 



taUnc II to IJ hotin' vilklng, 01 
gence. The [etnm Joomey leqnl 
more. Tbli laisoos pusa, the 
Blmplon, or aimptln in Germ 



being ilnneJr bnllt 



,a probably 



agalut the Clmbrl who thTeateoi 
oeu the border of the Upper Tulils wnd Piedmont, 
In the central chain of the Alfa, uddle-iheped, 
6,GM (ect ibon the lei. In war It I* MBOraMo 
for the battle oT the Ullucse with the pM(i* al 
the Valale, ki 1781, at the botlMn of the Vedio- 
thal; forthebatllabotweeulheFroDch and Aui- 
trlan>,lathAiigoBt,17eB; far the bold puaaga of 
General Bethancourt. SItbUay. ISOO, when 1,001 
Aoldlen with amu and knaptacki, and the General 



placM. niMtlr 
rccki; for the tceeptloo of 
uid bad neither. The gallerlal 
DQ the Italian aide, where the 
bad to be enccnnteied. Not- 
betBht, it laao well laid out that 



reet wide, with a ilant of 1( Inchn In the fall 
Indeed til* baant<r ud ihspliclt; of the whole 
» great that many an dlaappolnled with II 
lint light ; a> li rreqnently Che caae with g 
engineering woiki. Btrong low wall! of etone 



ie bridge, of which hi 



model (or all tl 



■t of not lew tbu IS mll- 
Ilonj of truci, hy the engineer Ceard (80,000 men 
being Ireqaenllf employed at OQCB upon It), at the 
command el Naptjun, ISOl-fi, on uconnt of tha 

eage of the Great St. Bernard. Wtiatera tnlarlea 

repaired by I 

through which It goea, 1 

o(M.000 to BO,a0O franca. One of the worit itomu 

ben wBl 2Uh of Angnit, ISS4, when bridgea, Ik., , 

were carried away on the Italian aide. The dd 

road, which yet exlMi, and ii nied by tbe aatlTei, I 

being the lame, they eay, hy whlcb the Rcmani 

travelled, gcee from Briag, np the SaHIna to Tarer- | 

geltei (£.180 r«et high) m wide alaba of granite. 

and It ihorter by 3 itnnden thaa ibe new road. 

but Tarj dUBontt and far ten worthy of notice. 

Aa to tbt new nad^ from Glya, when it beghv 
fthongfa the itart la nattafly mad* from Brieg), 
to Beala Oalend^ at the lower and of L*go 
Haggtor^ then an III bildcia, T lalUtlM i 



Starting eariy U Iba morning from Brieg, wltli 
additional dringbt anlmala, a aDianad hringa yon 
into the main road from Glya, not far fraBnovnad 
, ,, _, . Midge on the SalUne. 70 loot high. Then come the 

1 been canted away , ' ..^ ^ . . , ... 

slg-iagi, with changing ylewi of the moonUlne 
and the BhOna Valley. After the first refoge yon 
<«me to Bledwald ai stnnde), and then the ascend 

llret gallery (Holagraben) now demollahed. a dia- 
tance of 1 ainnde. Then lo the handavme Ganlhar 
Bridge, OTU a wild nTtne. SO itepa Inig and 4.SM 



A iplendid Tlew o( 



BillBal (8 leagnes from Brieg), 1> 

STalaocboi, By the brtdgee on the ' 
Welaabach to the fonrth refnge, in tJ 
then throngh the Qnt or Schalbet 
gaUery near the pjTBmid-lIhe Bchnei 
glaoleri, to the filth ratngo, in a deaoU' 

like a hooie, anil atrengthcned In eve 



franca for repoln ki lAken, Fifvi the wooden c 
It the flummf 0/ »>:S(nipf«t |£ lugaea rmm Bit 
height, S,aiS feel) there li a aplendld back v 



laatH tad U Aohw rf nftf* >- th« Uttu \ 'B«*ttM» U«k. "Ca*™^ "»*****•' 



BBADSHAW 

, and nnfgJiM ID 



I eWlTZBRLAKD A 

J«, lifc.pt by I ..flg; 



) THB TIROt. 



tilth); then tlirongh tt 



eillorTloCMTOUdJMoniJ*), over Iheflne bridge, 



KlBC 








01 Simple 


n, over tbe L.nlbaeh Brldg. 10 the 




wbere tb 


e roBd luon «barp oB to the cMt, i> 




tnndc. 


Boon after yoo come to GitelK oi- 




ihy, ot Im 


Oonit, nearlhe Gallery o! Gjtelg. 




elheL"' 


I,^(^>mtheLa.i^cnBeier.lolnitl.e 


ben 


mmbach, 


nd [onnithe DoieriB, Khlcb floirs 
the road, through IheVal Vedro. 




4 iliindBn 




MV.ee Pbm 




mat 




o the eighth retng., and the fonrtli 


^u 


ry(2«(o 


[ long) ; then over the Fonte Alto, or 


Bridge of the 


Do.eria, (0 the Grand Gallery or Gal- 


l#ry 


o( Qaaio 


tbe flnesl and longeat (aSS feet) ot all. 


w)t 


l^onpf 


Ttnrea for Itjht, and ■■ Aer, Hal-. 


MDCCCV.(n 


arly worn away); JTap. Imp ," cat on 




root. ThI 


anprctcndl ng recori agresi well wltSi 


tbe 




nt simplicity of the whole road. The 




nellookl 


OOmen eighteen months to make. Ai 






fin 


foUoft 


e Alplrnbach, or Fresslnone, and In 1 i 






.telglhe village of Oondo, orGon., 1» 



!, and at a conilderable depth below 
Is a wide and brawling' torrent, which 
nagniaed bito a rlrer. On the other, 
vidls o[ rocfc, with fronts aa rugged ai 

had been dislodged by some con- 



rragmente frequently d 



In about a I o( n slnnde aflerwarfle, to the Pled 

moot border, at B. Marco' iCh«pel,wberelh6ltallnn 

/•a^aags begiBi, a part of the road hBreabouts. 

r/ rtaailea ioi^, traaalsaoitdiatz'ijeibjXiMtaoit 



lOsplUble T>1 dl V 



ireby to 



it); forheautHnl— eiceedlngly 
a rather eipandod valley, l> 
martcd by the loltyand ott- 



taget elevated npon high lerracee, where Ihe vine 
forms gracefnl arches o( foliage."— G. Dow»K-g 
Utio-t from CMliimlel OxaUria. 

Somo d'OsHU (Stab) 

Populslhni, »,6W. 

Hatai: De Spagoa; De la Ville et Poste; Peace. 

A lively Uttle town near the Toss, in the Escbcn 
orOewlaVaUey, qnlts Kalian In its character, with 
aomaof Ihobonies supported by arcades; most ot 
th« iKttf In Pari" come from this town and nclgh- 



Koute 4.] 



DOMO D*O8S0LA, VOOOGKA. 



45 



Dachy of Milan, and is now incorporated with the 
kingdom of Italy. It is an excellent starting 
point for excnrslons in the valleys around. For 
example: one may bo taken through the terrace- 
shaped and fertile Yal Formazza or Fommat, past 
the fine Tosa Fall, above Andermatt, on the Fmtt, 
thence over the Glaciers of the Gries (7,780 feet 
high), and throngh Eginenen-thal to Ober-Gestelen 
(on the Rhdne), in the Yalais, a distance of 18} 
stnnden; or from Upper Tosa yon may go by Val 
Bedretto to Airolo, on the St. Gothard Road, 15 
stnnden. Another trip from Domo d*OssoIa is by 
the road to the east, throngh Val Vigezza, or Cento- 
valli, past Masera, Trontans, Riva (near a fall), 
Malesco, Olgis (the highest part, 3,020 feet), under 
Monte Chiridonc (7,050 feet), Borgnone, Verdasio, 
Intragna (at the month of Val Onsersone) across 
Ponte Brolla,on theMaggia, to Locamo(10 stnnden), 
at the head of the Langen See, or Lago Maggiore. 
Leaving Domo d'Ossola, yon descend the Val 
d'Ossola to Villa, where the Ovesca joins from tho 
Val Antrona (the latter may be followed up to 
Antrona-Piana, and thence over the glaciers, ronnd 
Monte Moro, into Saas-thal). The next places are 
Pallanzcmo, and Borgo (before which you cross 
the Tosa at Ponte Masone, having a glimpse of 
Monte Rosa), then Vogogna. 

The stations by rail are VilladOSBOla and 

Piedlxnulera. 

Vogogna (Stat.) ffotel: (Torona, where the 
Tosa becomes navigable. There is an old castle 
above it. Here the beautiful Val Anzosca begins, 
leading up to Monte Rosa, and into Saas-thal, 
by the Monte Moro. The scenery, at the head, is 
as g^and as anything on the Swiss side of the Alps, 
but softened down by an Italian sky. The people 
in common with those of other valleys here are of 
German origin. 

[Leaving Vogogna, you come to Pic di Muleras, 
at the foot of the Cima di Muleras, near the Anza. 
Then Castiglione, in a richly-wooded spot, com- 
manding excellent prospects all round it. Beyond 
Calasca is the fine Fall of Val Bianca ; and at Ponte 
Grande a way turns ofif to Valsesmenta, under the 
Del Moro Peak. Vanzone is half-way to Macug- 
naga, with a good Inn and two churches. Vast 



Geppo Morelli (near Cimamorga Chnpcl and its 
prospect), Campiole, Morgen, and Prcsquartero, 
where a direct way passes up a defile to the right, 
over Monte Moro, to Saas-thal; but our way by 
Macngnaga is best for the views of Monte Rosa it 
offers. The German langruage begins hereabouts. 
At Pestarana are gold mines, where a small 
quantity of g^old is found in combination with iron. 
Tho latter, with copper and lead, is abundant; 
silver is also found. Borca, tho next place, com- 
mands a fine view of Monte Rosa, but the best pro- 
spects of it are obtained from MaCUgnaga (Ilottlt: 
Monte Rosa; Monte Moro), which stands at tho 
bottom of an amphitheatre of mountains and 
glaciers, on a green meadow, 8 miles by 1|, and 
5,170 feet above the sea. It has a pretty village 
Church, the language is German, and the popula- 
tion remarkable for vigour and good looks. 

From a point beyond the village is an extraordi- 
nary panorama of MolltO ROia and its neigh- 
bouring pealu, which rise up with nothing to 
obstruct the sight, in a vast semicircle, snowy and 
glistening, darkened at the bottom here and there 
by forests. To the south are the Cima del Pisse, 
near the Turlo Pass (into Val di Sesia); Pizao 
Bianco, on the west, the Monte Rosa behind it 
(15,215 feet high), in all her splendour, the Weiss- 
thor Pass, over to Zermatt, Cima de Jazi, and tho 
Mittaghom (13,650 feet); and Monte Moro and its 
Col (8,220 feet), over which was one of tho high 
roads into Switzerland, before the Simplon was 
made. 

A steep ascent leads up to the summit of this 
pass in 4 hours, which commands a prospect of vast 
extent. Thence downwards by a desolate, though 
not difficult path, over glaciers, Ac, to Distel and 
Mcigeren (2 hours from top), in Saas-thal, and 
under the snowy peak of Mont Fde; then Alraagoll, 
whence there are paths into the Val Antrona to tho 
east, and to Zormatt in Nikolai-thai on tho west. 
Saas (2 hours) the next place, gives name to the 
valley. ^o<«'.— Monte Moro.] 
After Vogogna, the stations are PremOtella, 

Cuzzago, OrnayaBso, and Orayellona-ToA^ 
At OravellQiiA. ^^ v«^^ '^^'^^"^ 



V!k 






forests ofcbeptnnU an^ walnpts cov^jr ^he bijl aVdes. \ coiA.Vaa*^ Uoio. ^xjx«kcv». N.^ ^"^^^^ 



^SB^S*-" 



* ~ 



BKu>aHAw a BwnziBi'iiiD a 



BOTUa. Thllloielyllkeli 
Ligo MiggLore). Ilwaithe 



1 0raitllDU the Domo d'Oinlii line rnai cl 
>thioDgb Hi«enti,Rtao,<ind Hiiocco toHUii 
1 Br«»aUon» (Si mile.) to FcrLolo, whlo 
the migniecent la^so Maggion. Ju> 

mtrft, 



ic hingliig gurdcni. Ilnl laid ont bj C 
>r, Usnl. cork, bHch, oj-pnn, gngiir a 



(reqoenleri by the Ei 
Baveno (Qrmd 






oftaerT 



) A chiinnlDf Tillage 
ftB oec^ted by ttu f^uMn m 



pollihed. Fine ted trout uv canght. Boati to 
the Ifllanda, liTB fraDca tor t henrt A Bteamei 
tonchei here bi Ihe morning, on lt> way to Seats 
Calende, at the bottom ol the lake. A puh lesda 
rrom Bareno and anoUieT trom Btnaa (60 mlnulea 
tromBaTei».oiitbelaka; Hotel deaUeaBorrain^cai 
Albergo Reile) to Moftia Kottarona a bonn, 
4.MW feetX and thence to ORa (total laqmey, 7 
honnanCaot). From UonteMatterooe yon enjoy a 
grand Tiew oT Uket. the i^alni ot Italy, and the 
Alpi from Konte Vino to the Setnlne. 

IWU Bnpwlor*, or del Fiicatori (Piihennen'i 
latand), and Us [itctiiTe«[ne charcfa, wltb a popula- 
tion of SK. Further out la the iHia Klldn 
«.«„ tbe Yligln'e Iilsnd), irblcb la a nuea ol foliage 
DMlTe and exotic, laid out In alleya and terracti, 
tbioigh which beantirnl Tleire of the lakei and 
tnrronndlng hill) are caught. There 1< a profuBlon 
of oraBgei,len»ne, tropical plants, beeldea aTlarlci 
efbirAt; but tbe only building 1b an nnDnlBbed 
.«*a»fl^tt*»./Tmii»Aoii(r, wftlolithBgiTdaMt 
^•^'^mntkoMnuOOrmta. TU Ue'wtft, In 



:to, cloae to tbe 
tbe ilatey rook 



lilt by Count 1 



Glorglon. 
hither fo 



aide 


of the 


lake 


Fr. 


m Lav 


eno, a line 


nma to 


Varac (ace 






) and 


Milan; and 




road 


cadil 


PonteT 




Lugano. 




Fo 


owing 






bywa 


of Arona 


(Stat), 


(■pop 


*.IHHB. 






to N=.ara, Magenta, 






cea. 






Hlreia, Belglrata, 


Le«^ 


andU 


ina 


Bey 


nil the 


ajttithegr 


at metal 



StadK if S. Carlo Borromca, the 

lake, and la tt feet high, bealdes a pedestal of 

you may avend the hollow body, and alt In the 
InBldeoftheearor thenoae. It waa pnt up In IStT 
by the Borromeo family. 

AltM Doim«Ua end Doimeletto, yoo tntt tha 
TtebDdttttoMUaB.'A'CDAViaufite 



Bonte 5^3 



8ESTO CALSNDB, YABS8B, ST. BBAHOHIBB. 



47 



SestO Oalende (Stat.), the Roman Sexto Calm- 
daSj in the Italian dominions; where the passport 
is examined and baggage declared. Here the 
direct rail to Milan is joined, coming from Arooa 
(aboTO). It goes from Sesto, through a rather 
dull, though fruitful country, part of the great plain 
of liombardy. The first Station is SODUna, with 
Its Castle of the Visconti family, and especiaUy an 
ancient cypress, 24 feet girth. Scipio was defeated 
here by Hannibal, at the Battle of the Tichio, 218 
B.C., and obliged to retreat to the Po. Qallaxate 
is the next station where the branch to Varese 
turns off (below); then BustO ArsizlO, near 

Castegnate, on the oiona; Legnano ; ParaMago; 

Bbo; and at length 

|Mmft.fi, at the famous Arco della Face. 

At Sesto Oalende (above), sereral roads fall 
in at the point where the river issues out of the lake, 
one of which leads to Como, and passes through 

Olmliro, where the mulberry begins to appear. 
At Oasata, which stands in a pretty country, on a 
hUl, is a fine view of the St. Gothard and the 
neighbouring Alps. The unusual stature of the 
people will be noticed, and their low-pitched cotta- 
ges. From Castello d'Azzati, is a view of the Lake 
of Yarese, and the Madonna del Monte, a pilgrim 
church, on a beautiful hill, which is a favourite 
resort of the peasantry. 

Varese (Stat) reached by a branch from Gal- 
larate (as above). It is a lively, good-sized town, 
trading much in oil, and having three churches, 
a hospital, theatre, Ac, with several houses resthig 
on arcades in the principal streets. 

After crossing the Olona you como to Malnate, 
near the Madonnina Chapel, on a hill. The women, 
in their holiday dresses, "wear handkerchiefs 
wound about the head, with large silver ornaments 
behind, consisting of a number of long pins disposed 
like a fan," and fastened by another laid across. 
They wear also huge wooden shoes, without 
stockings. 

Beyond Bfaiago is the Odescalchi Villa, and at 
Cametlate you get a view of Baradello Castle, on a 
lofty hill, OHM used as a prison. A turn of the 
road to the BOtth brings you to Ckimo (Stat.), 
ftom wfatoh a Unt raw fid Moma, to XUaili 



IIOTJTB B. 
llartigny to Great St. Bernard and Aosto. 

To Martigny-le-Bourg ^ stunde. 

Bouvemier li 

Semranchier i 

Orsi^res li 

Liddes U 

Bourg St. Pierre li 

Hospice of St. Bernard Si 

Aosta 6i 



It 



»t 



II 
II 



II 



16 stundon. 
Char road to Cantine de Proz ; thence bridle- 
road to the pass. Diligence in summer to Bourg St. 
Tierre. One horse conveyance to Orsi^res, 15 francs. ' 
Liddes to St. Bernard, mule and guide, 8 francs and 
pourboire. The route may bo varied by way of 
Yal de Ferret and Col de Fendtre, which presents 
many fine prospects of Mont Blanc, the G^ant, Ac. 

Passing Uartlgny le Bourg, you come to 

Le Kocard, 2,820 feet above sea, near traces 
of an aqueduct which supplied Oetodurum. 

After Bauvemier, the road crosses the Dranse, 
to the Galeric de la Monnaie Tunnel near a convent, 
and then re-crosses it to St. BrancUer or Sembran- 
ehieTf which suffered much in the great inundation 
of 1818, occasioned by the Bagnes, a branch of the 
main stream which falls in here. It was stopped 
in its upper part near Torcml^ic, by a iglacier which 
fell in April from the Genoz Mountain, and made 
a natural dyke, 600 feet high, across the valley, 
the waters forming a lake behind it, li mile long 
and 400 feet deep. Precautions were taken, and a 
tunnel cut through the dyke, but, on 16th June, it 
burst, and 500,000,000 cubic feet of water swept 
down the valley \t a fearful rate, carrying away 
bridges, cottages, trees, cattle, and thirty-four 
lives, though notice had been given beforehand. 
The dyke was afterwards melted down by a simple 
plan adopted by Yenetz, an engineer; which was to 
divert the springs from the heights across the ice oi» 
the dyke; and, in 24 hours, though not more than a 
fbw inches broad, they worked channels 200 feet 
deep for themselves, and thus broke it uJ^-<^^»^<scs^!)^^> 

Chestnut* aO!aL'^\S«»«tQ^. '^\!«!t^«^^^'«S5Ssaficoa^^ 

two Gwttes, ouft ^\ ^x^^xwwJB^^'^S^^s*** 






.48 



BKADSHAW'i 8WITZBBLAKD AND TUB TTBOL. 



[Section 1. 



OTBlhireB C^nn: Hotel dcs AIpcs), a town of 
2,000 luhabitants, at the entrance of the pretty 
valleys of Ferret and Entromont, 2,890 feet 
above the sea. The heights around command a 
splendid view. A prominent object is Mont 
Velan (12,360 feet), with its glittering snow fields. 
Lac de Ghampey is a charming promenade (4 miles 
off) among ch&lcts, pine woods, meadows, Ac, 
where a great variety of plants are foond. 

[A road turns off here, under Catogne (8,460 feet), 
a point commanding a view of the Lake of Geneva, 
the Juras, Ac. ; thence by the rich pastures of the 
Hospice, by lake and glaciers, cither over Col 
Ferret to Courmayeur, or over Col de la FcuOtle 
round to St. Bernard.] 

Lewing Orsi^res, you come in a short time to 
Liddes, 4,390 feet above sea, and the most healthy 
and agreeable place in Val d'Eutremont. The 
people are industrious and the soil is fertile. St. 
Laurent's Chapel is the best point of view. The 
valley of Bagne meets the Entremont valley 
above Bagne, from which there is a way to Col de 
Fen6trc (page 50) and Aosta. M. Troillet is a 
guide here. 

Bourg St. Plezref where the chr^r-road ends in 
a forest, 5,360 feet above sea, is but a street of 
cottages, with a population of 400, cattle breeders, 
Ac. The church was built by a bishop of Geneva, 
in the eleventh century, and has a Roman mile-stone 
of Constantino's age. Charlemagne first erected 
the wooden bridge of St. Charles. One of the best 
falls here is that of Yalsorez, which issues from a 
glacier under the Combin and Velan, two peaks, 
12,000 to 14,000 feet high. There is a Botanical Gar- 
den here, the key of which can be had at the inn. 

The name of the guide who conducted the First 
Consul and his army of 36,000 ovei' the pass in May, 
1800, was J. B. Dorsaz. In the Album de la Suisse 
Pittoresque, a traveller relates some of his gossip 
about Bonaparte: — "He was small and slender, 
with the white of his eye as yellow as a lemon, and 
the same shape. Long dark locks fell over his 
collar and dress, and his hat was covered with an 
oil-skin cloth. Though young, he spoke little, but 
. WAS trite, and constantly turning to see how the 
troops advanced. When be asked my nftme, 



lA 



I was young then, like himself, and!, if I had 
looked out, might have been much better <^ than 
lam now. When we got to the Hospice, after A 
safe journey, he asked what I liked best. I hardly 
liked to say, but at last I told him that a pretty 
cottage, a field, and a cow would make mo happy. 
' How much would it come to ?' said ho, quickly. 
* About 60 louis' was my answer; and the fint 
fellow told me to count them out directly.** 

In Napoleon's time, the way was continued 
through the forest by a rugged and difficult path, 
over precipices which continually obstructed the 
carriage of artillery; a better one has been cut out 
of the cliffs, over the ravine of the Dranse. Further 
on, the country becomes wild and sterile, with an 
occasional patch of verdure, clumps of firs, views of 
the neighbouring peaks, the Velan, Moro, Pointe de 
Ronaz, Roc-Poli, Ac. The carriage road ceases at 
the little inn, Cantine de Proz. Further on a 
gorge, the Defif^ de Marengo^ is reached, thence to 
the little Spital, with a morgue, where the bodies 
of unfortunate travellers overwhelmed by ava- 
lanches or snowfalls are preserved from dectnu' 
position. In the defile of Todten-thal, or Valley of 
Death, at the head of the stream, is the Augustine 
Convent or 

HOSPICE OF ST. BERNARD, 

On the pass of the Great St. Bernard; thought 1^ 
some to be so called from Charlemagne's nnde, 
Duke Bernard, who led his corps this way when 
Charlemagne invaded Italy, by others from St 
Bernard of Meuthon, who founded Iho Hospice. 
The present convent was founded on the s!t«» if an 
earlier religious house, about the same time that 
one was established at the Little St. Bernard, the 
pass by which Hannibal had previously entered 
Italy. There was from the first a Pagan tcmplt 
here, to Jupiter Pcnninus (pen, a height), whence 
it came to be called Mons Jovis or Mont Joux; 
this was destroyed by the Barbarians. 

The Hospice, the highest inhabited honsc in the 
Alps after that on fheStclvio, is 8,130 feet above the 
sea, near a lake which marks the boundary (rf the 
Valais and Piedmont, and is at the head of a brandi 
ol t\ie Dora. The principal building, Birqa^ 



'eredbim 9a I do yon, *Jeim Baptist Dorsas.' \ buttwiwA ^%\xViwv>)ci<»Ti\^xT^Y^^\w\^^ 



ttoinoa oY sTk sisitabd. 



Bottle 50 

eighty bedf tot irftTellen, and room for 800 alto- 
gHher, though MmetlmM twice as many hare b^U 
reliered in a day. A smaller hoose near it, called 
the Hospice St Louis, is mainly used for the poorer 
trayellers. There are magazines of proyisions (as 
bread, wine, cheese, dried fmit, timber, forage, 
brooght up ftom the ralleysX stables, Ac., with a 
chapel containing a monument to Desaix (killed at 
Marengo), who passed oyer with Kapdeon, 1800. 
The latter laid the first stone of it fiye years after. 
Not far distant is the Morgue, the receptacle for 
bodies of trayellers found in the snow, until claimed 
by relatiyes. 

In the rec^ition soom are seyeral pictures and 
other memorials Ax>m grateful trayellers, with 
collections of Alpine minerals and insects, and 
Roman antiquities. Eyen in a summer eyening 
the temperature is at freezing point, or below 
it if the wind is north, and the neighbouring 
lake gradually fireexes towardtfthe morning, while 
a breeze in the day time is keenly felt There are 
scarcely ten clear days in the whole year, the 
climate being seyere and stormy in the highest 
degree; ice and snow are common all the year 
through. The two extremes of temperature 
noticed, are 68* Fahrenheit, and 39* behw wro. In 
winter the snow lies 7 to 9 feet deep, and eyen 80 
to 40 feet in some parts. Dangerous as the pass is 
in this season, it is used by the natiyes ; and then 
the brethren (ten or twelye of whom are always 
stationed here) distinguish themselyes by their 
humane exertions, in sending out parties, accom- 
panied by the famous St. Bernard dogs^ a species 
allied to the shepherd*s dog, intelligent and faithful, 
with a keen nose, a large massiye head, and 
tawny skin. They track their way through the 
snow with unerring sagacity, but are short liyed, 
as are the monks, ttom the bitter effects of this 
polar climate. A party of eight persons and a dog 
were oyerwhelmed December, 1874, in a snowdrift. 
The dog struggled out and got back to the Hospice, 
but all the rest were lost. 

As many as 13,000 persons, tourists and others, 
travel oyer this pass or yisit the Hospice yearly. 



«8 



ttittch, at least, as they wmOd «C an Inn for the 
samethne. Formerly the institution was posacMed 
of rich estates in seyeral countries, and held eighty- 
eight benefices; but these haye been taken awaj 
in course of thne. The monks are in general 
affable and well informed, as might be expected 
from their great intercourse with strangera. They 
enter on their noyiciate at eighteen, taking it hi 
turn to reside at the Hospice; but their constitu- 
tions are almost broken down by the time their 
(fifteen years) yow expires. 

The Pass does not lack remembrances of the 
Roman soyereignty, for which nothing was too 
lofty. In the time of Julius Cassar it appears to 
haye been practicable, and under his successor^ 
Augustus, was much used. The site of the tempi* 
to the god Penniuus is still pointed out, and many 
brass yotiye altars from its ruins, with other 
remains, are placed in the hospice or at th« 
museum of Turbi. Llyy tells us that the Terag<- 
rians had a temple here, and this is confirmed by 
Celtic coins being found. The BarbarisM, as they 
were called, and the Saracens, who were scarcely 
less barbarous, deyastated the house of refhge here; 
and eyen after St. Bernard's time, the hospioe vms 
taken possessicm of by robbers, who leyled a ion 
on eyery passer by. Canute of En^^bad eoa- 
plained to the Po^ and the EmpeiM^ thai Ui- 
subjects, in making their pilgrimage to Soma^ 
were obliged to trayel in companies of 400 or M^ 
for mutual protection, iqxm which the ho^ca wsa 
re-founded on a better footing. 

From 1798, when the Frendh first pOMtrated 
Switzeriand, to 1801, more than IM^tOO soldiam 
crossed the St. Bernard, and the eonyent had ft 
garrison of 150 men. In 1799 the Austriana triad 
to take it, but were defeated after a hard day*a 
fight. Between the 16th and 31st May, 1800, the 
French army of reserve, commanded by Bonaparte, 
with 40 pieces of cannon, crossed the pass; a part 
of the same army which, on the 15th June, beat 
the Austrlans under Melas at Marengo. The other 



^yisions went oyer the Simplon and St. Gothard^ 
all of whom are fed and sheltered without charge. I the cannon being dismounted, put into hoUowtmnki 
The cost of maintenance is reckoned at 60,000 I of trees, and hauled u^ b^ thAvs.VdSsavr*'^'*''*^*'^ 
francs; but those, of course^ who are able, eipvdbiAly \ «»3^^»^Bfc%'««^^»5»ssa. Nr "^J^R^^^sa^ ^aa*»^'«»^*** 
men riBJton, p*y for tbelr acoosuAOdAUoik iy|\\MA^lT»dMi 



50 



BSADSHAW'b SWlTznaAKD AHD TttB TTBOL. 



[Seetkil 



A footpath, rich In Alpine scenery, tarns off from | Bands, on to Zermatt, which is S,915 f«et abonlli 

the Hosplee oyer the Col de la Fendtre (8,855rt. 

high) to Ferret; thence by Issert to Martlgny (in 

11 hours); or to Piedmont by Val Ferret, over the 

Col, to Courmaycur (7 to 8 hours). From Ferret 

also (near which is the Fointe de Dronax, 

9,C80 feet high, with splendid prospcctn), by Col 

de Ferret (8,715feet), into the Valley of Entrbres. 
From the Hospice to Aosta, the path winds 

l^tween the lake and the Plan de Jupiter, the site 

of the Roman temple dedicated to Jupiter, hence 

the Latin Jfont Jovis, Savoyard Afont Joux; a 

little beyond which the view of the basin of the 
Yacherie opens, on the Italian side, where the 
cattle of the convent are fed. The road is tolerably 
plain ; and there is a fine view of the Yacherie 
fh>m the gorge of Mont Moro ; the most striking 
object being the Pain de Sucre or Sugar Loaf 
Mountain. Thence the path winds down to St. 
B^my (6,240 feet high), where return chars may 
be got to Aosta. The custom-house is here; the 
tobacco duty is heavy, and only 80 cigars are 
allowed free. St. Oycn comes next, and Etronnes 
after that, where passports are shewn ; then La 
Cluse, Oignaud, Signaye, and 

Aosta, a charming spot, where the scenery be- 
comes half Italian. (See Bradshate's Hand-Book 
to Italy.) 

Brieg and Yisp. M.D.<~On mule-back and on 

foot to ClLA.ttllon and Aosta, over the Pass 

Of St. Th^odule. 

The Yisp-thal (page 42) at Stalden (whore earth 
pillars left by the moraines may be noticed), 5 miles 
from Brieg, divides into two branches, the Nikolai- 
thai and Saas-thal. Between these two volleys 
lie the MisohabcIhUrncr, viz. : the Graben or Dom 
( 14,0dMt.) and the Taschhom (14,760ft.), the highest 
peaks in Switzerland, neither Mont Blanc nor 
Monto Rosa being Swiss. The Saas-thal, also called 
nt its commenceniout Eistcnthal, ascends about 15 
miles past Saas, to the glaciers which shut it in 
on all sides, but has a path over Monto Moro to 
Yogogna, on the Milan Road. The former end 
most important stretches away to the south, 25 or 
80 miles, to the base of Mont Corvhi or the Matter- I known), which rises up here in great majesty 

vfjmsslng arUcbeOt 8t. Niklaua, Hcrbrigen, I l!,70M\, Chwch Serrtca «X «X. "S^Va'^ Cbwrch, 



sea, in the heart of a circle of glaciers ii«ig in g iMi 
the sides of Mcmte Rosa (the aeeond peak of fli 
whole Alpbie chain, 15,315 feet above sea) aadtli 
Matterhom (14,705, or, as some say, 14,780 fM). 
Over the shoulder of the latter Is the Matteijed 
Pass (10,900 feet high), with St. Th^odnle*8 oldftit 
and across it a path orer Sclera and fields «f 
snow, to Toumanche (11 stondenlktnn Zermatt) sii 
ChAtillon, in Yol d* Aosta. Both ralleja, which till 
comparatively lately had been oyerlooked bf 
ordinary travellers, are noted for the grandeur of 
their mountain scenery, the size of the ^ocien^ 
fine waterfalls, and the simfde mamiers of ttadr 
industrious inhabitants. 

Ylsp to CliAtillon, by the Katterlioni, in 

20 to 23 hours, with guides. 

After If hour you reach Stalden, and thence 
along the edge of a wild ravine (loaring GrSdM 
above on the left, where Platter, the reformer, 
was bom), to 

St. KUdans, or Nicolas (2^ hours from Stal- 
den), a pretty place amongforestsondfroit garden!^ 
with an/nn, St.Nlcolas, about half-way to Zermatt 
Leaving Yisp early, you may get over the glaciers 
of the Matterhom to the cliAlets of Breuil the same 
day; but It Is better to arrange to get to Zermatt 
the first day, Yal Toumanche the second and 
Ch&tillon the third. 

Above St. Nicolas the path is steep and dan- 
gerous. Near Herbrigen, or Herbriiggen, are the 
Schallhom Glacier and a waterfall. Randa was 
nearly overwhelmed by an avalanche in 1819, the 
mere wind of which shook several of the cottages 
to pieces. Another hour to Tasch, and in 2 hours 
more to 

Zermi,tt.—IIot€lt : Monte Rosa; Mont Cervin; 
Zermatt: Post; Hotel and Pension Riffelalp; Hotel 
and Pension Rlffel, 3 hours from Zermatt. 

This village (population, 600), which the Italians 
call Praborgne, is the chief place of the Matter- 
thai, in a grassy hollow among the noblest scenery, 
for which this is an excellent starting point. It 
commands a splendid view of the Uatterliom, 
Mont Cervin, or Monte Silvio (the latter little 



Boute 7.] 

-vrhlch t> dedicated to th« mcmoi? of the 
ol Mr. Whyinp*r-B party, nbofeUin dMoe 
Mitterbom, ISSS, The eood poliitB of 
Oomar Orat and Hoiibalm, over the vt 



KkMUTT, ailBIO TO B 






Or Mr. C«j 



The ClTcnlt of Honte Bou f 



tho Weliethor, t 



(from Aya«) by takins C 
' VaUali. aiidColdlVall 

I Konte Koro Fwi (8,1 



JOCh, or pu> < 

On a Ijare pie 



y of tJinM Including HI 



« Wiaker, wli 



lit of St. Thfedule, built in tl 
, and mil lean. Hear (he old ] 
lied c<a ae St. nifodnle, I 









A Tour of BlitOBu Days train Brieg to 

I SaM,-Ki!eValleyatidMnttmarluter ov.r Motle 

Fobello. 



Ly. Olac! 



>-and MouL 
Pile Al|>e, Vi 
rCi,l d'OUen 
ay by Col d 



I dl Tre Cnx 
a dl Dor 



I Put, two Engll.bdun and tbrea 
ithcra Kbublej) were killed by a 



nOTTTE 7. 
r to ths BonicB of the Slieua. 



B.EOTC10 


BKs Gk.tilbw.— A cbai-rond Ihronib 




volley ofllieRhOpe,wllli the AletKh, 


Bc:h, aado 


her Glaciers on the left. Crojibig 


bridge 


ut of Brieg, yon come to HatOTB, 


entlyJlTfl 


rij, w bicb, w U.^'.lA»&\v,\i^.<,>,raiMM 



In S hoim. Thlg la a imall li 

aboTfl lea, close to a cliapeli with \ wjm^wft Wift Wi\^fc. ■\St'ai^*»ii».*&^'u»*i^ ^v 



52 



DRADSnAW'g 8WXTZESLAKD AlTD THS TTftOt. 



tSectkml. 



ta^e. The olil ruined C'Mtles of Welngarten and 
Bn\tcrnnx fjclnfr paiiicd, you aiiproach the MasM, 
which roincH (lon'ii from the Alctiich Glacier. 

A pnth asrondsthiii Htrcam past a fall, winding 
round the Alfrtnch Glacier and the Martlnsberg-, 
and falllnfr Into the road higher up at Viesch. At 

Mdrel (/lotelt^Dei Alpc^; EgglBhom) the rood 
erosiex the llhune (a footpath goes straight on) to 
Bister, and Grcngloli, which was called Oranolia^ 
and has a church on the site of its old baronial castle. 
Most of the village has been rebuilt since the Aus- 
trians burnt it, 1709. The rich pastures here stretch 
up towards the Binnenthal, by which there is a way 
orer the mountains to Wald, in the Vol Formaiza 
(near the Tosa Falls), and thence into Val Maggia. 
Crossing the Rhdne again, y^u come to Deisch, 
and Lax, a pretty, well-built village, with com and 
■aw mills. The people carry on a good trade in 
cheese, cattle, ftc, with Italy, by the Binnenthal, 
towards which there is a bridge a little higher up, 
where the mountains seem to close In upon the 
riew. 

Vlescll or Fiesch {Inn»: Hotel du Glacier; dcs 
Alpcs) contains over 800 inhabitants, and stands 
8,816 feet above the sea, near a torrent of 
the same name, which drains the Viesch Glacier. 
Fine crystals are got near this beautiful spot. The 
path up the little stream goes round to Nattcn. At 
one time, it is said, there was a way right over to 
Grindclwald ; but the accumulation of glaciers has 
rendered it impracticable. An excursion may be 
made heifbe to the AletSCll Olader, and the 
JSgglSClillom. The MSrjelen See, a small deep 
blue lake, one of the special points of the Aletsch 
Glacier, disappcarod suddenly, March, 1888. Two 
hours from Viesch on the sloi)e of the .£ggischhorn, 
is the Jungfrau llotel, which has been improved 
and made a great centre for excursions. The 
ascent of the iEggischhom, with its splendid 
panoramic view (9,650 feet) takes about 2 hours, 
commanding the Finsteraarhom and Monte Rosa 
chains, with peeps of the Todi and Grisons Alps. 

This is also one of the best centres for the 
Jungfrau, Aletschhorn, and Finsteraarhom. Pen- 
sion at the Jungfrau Hotel, 7fr. per day. Belwald, 
■rViescta, commands a good prospect. On the 
gjhjMf of th$ ShOM, U th%Um^ TltU«e of 



MWibaeh^ whera Cardinal SehliiiMr, BUiop ol 
Sion, was bom. He played a great partlnSirla 
affairs before the Reformation, and died at Bob% 
1522. 

Passing Niederwald, Blitiingen, and BalUngn, 
where the scenery becomes less striking^ jou omm 
to Blel (population, 160), 4,870 feet abore the •••, 
with some remains of Blandra Castle. Ka the nlgU 
of 16th and 17th January, 1827, an aTalanche rolled 
down here and destrojred forty-six bouses and a 
mill. Out of ei^ty-nine persons onrwhdnMd, 
only thirty-eight were dug out aliT*. Blilagwi, 
ifec., comes next (Holy Cross Chnroh belag seal 
over the town), and tlien (Horingen, Setrinfoi, 
and Rcckingen. 

Hlinster (/nn.* Croix d*Or, or Golden Ckms), 
the chief place in Upper Yalais, where, though tbs 
pastures arc scanty and the climate eoM, eattls 
and a little fhiit are raised. The old chnxthli 
worth notice; It looks down the Talley npoo ths 
Weisshom. Mttnster was the first plaee hi tUl 
part to unite with the Forest Gantoos, ivlth whom 
it formed a treaty, 1416. From here the aseent cf 
the Loffelhom (10,140 feet) can be made hi 5 hooxs. 

Ulrlclieil, a village of 800 souls, opposite thl 
EgSncnthal, which may be aseoided from here tt 
get over the Gries Glacier into Yal IV>T]nasBa,'or 
over the NUfdnen into Yal Bedretto, to Airelo aad 

to Pommat. 

Oberg^stelen, or Haut ChAtillon {Inn: Haai 
Ch&tilion), is under the GrimscI, 4,8M ibet above 
the sea, at the point where the paths over 
that Pass, and those of the Furoa, Ac, meat 
with the Galenstock and other icy peaks in tnnA, 
It is a busy little place, with a population of 2M 
and a trade in cheese, dsc; but suffer^ gi%at]j 
from the fire of 1868, when all of its black wooden 
houses were burnt. Parts of a Castle, which 
defended the passes, are still visible. This ele- 
vated part of the Valais, being so near the oonrsa 
of the Rh6ne, is subject to frequent innndatloni. 
About 1 mile above it is Oberwald, the last 
and highest village in the canton, and about 
4 miles from the source of the river in the IMi^lu ft 
GletSCher, or Glacier. (See Route 18a.) An 
avalanche in 1770 buried eigfaty-fonr peopU at thife 
l&Ace. 



SECTION IT. 

CENTRAL SWITZERLAND AND TEE OBERLAND. 

FROH BASLE TO ZURICH, SCHAFFHAUSEN, CONSTANCE, SOLEUBE, NEUFCHATEL, 
BB&NE AND THE BERNESE OBEBLAND, LUCEBNE AND THE FOBEST CANTONS, 
OVEB THE ST. OOTHABD, TO MILAN. BOUTES 10 to 19. 

Popolation, 61,400 (41,810 ProtetUntf, 18,5M 
Roman Catholics, 801 Jews); of BAle Yille, 64,800; 
of BAle Campagne, 69,270. 

The largrest place in Switzerland, well situated 
at the point where it borders Germany and 
France. It stands about 800 feet above sea, at the 
elbow of the Rhine, which dirides it into Gross and 
Klein Basel (Great and Little), jdned by a wooden 
bridge (Alte BrlickeX by the new Johanniter^ 
BrUcke, and an iron viaduct at St. Alban Graben, 
connecting the north (Baden) and south (Swiss) 
Stations. The oldest part is in Gross Basel, on 
the left bank, where are crooked streets and 
old-fashioned houses, with a Tery large number 
of Fountains, one of the best of which, Gothlo 
and curiously carved, is in the Fish Market. 
A good view of the town is obtained tnm. the 
P/alM Basely in a capital situation near the 
Cathedral, 75 feet above the river, and command- 
ing a wide prospect of the Black Forest, and other 
objects around. 

Here stood the Roman BaHlia, built by Yalenti- 
niau I. upon the decay of Augusta Rawaeorttm (now 
Angst) higher up the stream; out of which the town 
first grew. Being almost destroyed by theHuns, -817, 
it was rebuilt 924-82, by Henry the Yogelsteller 
(Fowler), and in time it became a free city of 
the Empire as part of Suabia. A plague in 1812, a 
fire in 1886, and an earthquake in 1856, greatly re- 
duced it. The famous Council of Basil, held here 
1481-4S, to establish peace and unity, and to reform 
the church, having asserted that a Council was 
above the Pope, was ezcommmiicated by Eugene 
ly., and forthwith chose Amadous of Savoy, as 
Pope, under the title of Felix IV. iBneas Sylvius, 
afterwards Pius II., acted as secretary. In 1444, the 
Armafrnac army, under the Dauphin, crossed here 
to the field of St. Jacob (;^.\A^\« \\\<^^K^<tj^s^^J^'^'^^a^ 



lO- 

BAle to Lucerne, the Blgl, Altorf, St. 
Gotbard, Coxno. and Uilan. 

BASLE (Stat.) German, Basel; French, BAle. 

Sotels: Hotel des Trois Rois (Three Kings), first- 
clasa, highly recommended. 

Hotel Euler, large and well situated hotel, near 
the French and Swiss Railway Station. 

Hotel National, fitted up in a most comfortable 
atyle. 

Hotel Suisse (Schwelserhof), situated opposite 
the French and Swiss Railway Stations. 

Hotel ELrafft, first-class, for English and Ameri- 
oan travell6ni. 

Victoria, formerly Hotel Lorenz. 

Hotel de la Cigogne, situated near to the Rhine; 
moderate charges. Mr. J. Klein Weber, proprietor. 

Hotel de B&le, opposite the Baden Railway 
Station. 

Hotel Schrieder ; Hotel Metropole ; Black Bear 
Hotel; Hotel de la Couronne. 

Enoush Chubch SanviCK, at St. Martinis, near 
t^ Bridge. 

Post akd Tbliobaph Offick.— In Freien 
Btrasse. 

Railways.— Trains to Mulhouse, Colmar, Strass- 

bnrg, Paris; to Freiburg-im-Breisgau, Baden, 

Mannheim, Frankfort. To Olten, Lucerne, Herso- 

gtnbuehsee, Berne (thence to Thun and Interlaken), 

Fribourg, Lausanne, by the Swiss Central; or 

Ms Deltfmont, Bienne, Ac, to Lausanne. Vid 

Reriogenbuchsoe, Soleure, Neufch&tel, Yvcr- 

don, Lausanne, and Geneva, by the West Swiss. 

ViA Olten, Aarau, Brttgg, to Ztirich, on the North 

Eastern. Vid Waldshnt, to Ziirich, and thence 

to Romanshom, St. Gall, Coire, Glarus. (See 

I Mrmdthan't Continental Ouide,) 

' Tnuai 0reiy 8 minutes from the Badlicher to 



54 



BBJLDSHAW'S SWITZBSLAND AND THE TTBOL. 



[Section 2. 



The year 1706 was marked by the Biege of Hii- 
nlngen, a French fortress, on the Rhine, below the 
town, by the Archduke Charles. In 1883, the little 
reyolntion took place which divided the Canton 
into two republics, Basel-stodt and Basel-land (city 
and country). Here lived Erasmus, Reuchlin, Hol- 
bein, Iselin, Qrynaeus, the Bemouillis, Euler, and 
other famous men. It is now a rich and thriving 
town, with manufactories of ribbons, paper, silks, 
chemicals, tobacco, Ac. 

One of the oldest and most conspicuous buildings 
is the red sandstone Munster (Minster or Cathe- 
dral), begun by the Emperor Henry II., about 1010, 
in the Byzantine (or round-arch) style, but for the 
most part restored in the Gothic style, after the 
earthquake of 1356; with two spires, 205 feet high, 
built 1500. What remains of the first church arc, 
St. Gallen's north porch, flanked by statues of 
Christ, St. Peter, the Ten Virgins, Ac. ; the crypts 
and one side of the nave, and the grotesque figures 
on the pillars and beam-ends, peculiar to the early 
style. The chancel and side aisles are a mixture 
of both styles. On the west front are various 
•Gothic ornaments, and figures of St. George and 
St. Martin, on horseback; also the statues (as 
supposed) of Henry I., or Conrad I., with his wife 
and daughters; the Virgin, Henry 11., and St. 
Kunigninde on the fa9ade; four kings and the 
wise men on the towers. Inside, near the com- 
munion table, is the grave-stone of Erasmus (who 
died at a house close by, 1586) ; the large organ, 
1,431 pipes ; tombs of the Empress Anna (Rudolph of 
Hapsburg's wife) and her sons; the carved chancel 
and font, and other reliques of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries. The Chapter House was used 
by the great Council. Admission, ^ franc The 
picturesque Cloisters on the south side are full of 
tombstones from many centuries back, including 
that of (Eoolampadius, who first preached the 
Reformation here. The Medissval Collection, in a 
building adjoining the Minster, is well worth 
seeing. Admission, | franc. Underneath the Pfalz 
- is the Swimming School for ladies and gentlemen, 
with a Reading-room over it. 

jf^ear the Cathedral is the MOBeUIIl containing 

/Ae J^Jkl/c Xdbrary, which belonged to the 

^"'reivitx (foufided 1460), ot about 190,000 

--^/ and 4,000 M&8^ with palntinga, draw- 



\ 



ings, Ac It was formerly the Bishop^s Palace. 
Open on Sunday and Wednesday, for 3 hours, free. 
Among other things are the transactions of the 
Council (11 folios); a Greek Commentary, on 
vellum, by Gregory Nazlanzen; the English 
Greek Testament, edited by Erasmus, printed by 
Froben, 1516; Erasmus's Praise of Folly, illu- 
minated by Holbein ; Original Letters of Luther, 
Erasmus, Mclanchthon, Zwingli, &c.; Roman 
antiquities, from Angst; 12,000 coins; and more 
of the younger Holbein's works (the B&lese claim 
him as a native) than can be found anywhere 
else. They number twenty-six, and include- 
No. 8, the Passion, in eight parts, for which 
Maximilian of Bavaria offered 80,000 florins; 
a Portrait of Erasmus, No. 18 — thought to be the 
painter's best; Portrait of Frobinius, No. 15, the 
printer; his friend Schwcizer, No. 16; and hit 
patron Ammerbach, No. 17; his Wife and Children, 
No. 12; Bnrgermoister Meyer and Wife, No. 19; 
Body of Christ, No. 7 — said to have been painted 
from a drowned Jew. Among his drawings (nearly 
80) are his own portrait, the Meyer Family, sketches 
for Sir Thomas More's family, and copies of the fa- 
mous Todtentanz (Dance of Death), with piecei of 
the original frescoes. Other works are, the Battle 
of St. Jacob, by H. Hess, Cranach's Luther, and 
an interesting collection of paintings by Swi« 
masters. A Museum of Jura fossils, plants, and 
antiquities, and a Botanical garden are attached 
to the University. 

St. Martin's Churchy the oldest here, was 
built in the time of king Chlodowig ; at %t. 
Peter's are gi'aves of eminent natives, especially 
theBemouillifamily. There arc also the Convent of 
the Bare-footed friars (now a magazine), and the 
Grey-friary, at which is a theological library of 
10,000 volumes, and valuable MSS. The mod«> 
church of St. Elisabeth has fine stained glass. 

The Rathhaus, or Town Hall, in the Market PlM^ 
is a good specimen of Burgundian (jrothie, yiVk\ 
carvings, a^c, built 1508, and restored IfiMi 
On the front are frescoes and the arms of Basle (■} 
bishop's orozier supported by a fish-gaff), XllAA 
Unterwalden, &c. Inside are frescoes by 
Booh (1609) ; stained windows and carvings ial 
Great HaXVt'wY^Yi. ^«a qxwca «AotQ«d by 
frescoes, uo^ tb\QiQ«x> Q>\\\«t^V^\ «»9^^iii^ 



Route 10.] 

Mairatins Planciu (the fotinder of Aagst) in 
the court. The now Theatre or casino, across 
the bridge, built 1840. A new Hospital on 
the site of the Margrave's Palace, in the faubourg. 
Some cells of the old Carthusian Convent are left 
at the Waisenhaus (Orphan School) in Little B&le. 
The old Spahlen-thor, St. PauFs Gate, with its 
machicolations, was built about 1400; some of the 
ancient watch towers remain over the ramparts. 
The Spahlen-brannai (Fountain) has a copy of A. 
Dam^s Bagpiper. In St. Alban*s Klostcr is a 
Byzantine archway, dating from Roman times; 
the Spiesshof is in the Florentine style. St. Clara 
(Roman Catholic) has a fine organ. 

Many social, learned, and religious Societies exist 
here, as the famous Missions Seminar, or Missionary 
Cbtte^e, founded 1816; Bible Society; Society for 
Promoting the Public Gk>od; the Hochschule, or 
High School, a Paodagogium (1817), Gymnasium, 
Parish Schools; College Alumnorum, or Eros- 
mianum; the Kunstvercin (Society of Arts) at 
the Kunsthalle, with a permanent Exhibition of 
Pictures; admission, 50 cents. The library of the 
Lesegesellschaft has 27,000 volumes. 

The Gates used to be shut during service on 
Sundays and also every night at 11, after which 
a fee had to be paid for admission. The walls 
have been converted into promenades. Buxtorf 
the Hebrew scholar, and Burckhardt the traveller, 
were natives of B&le. 

Zoological Gardens, not far from the Central 
Station, with concerts on Sunday afternoons. 

In the neighbourhood are various points of 
interest, ti the Bruderholz (| stunde), HUningen 
Fort (close to an important fisli-farm), St. Jacob 
or Jakob (page 106), Mortcnberg, Mariastein 
Abbey, Ettlngen, Badenweiler, Burg and its Baths, 
Leimen-thal, St. Margarethen Hills, Ncubad (New 
Bath), the Grenzaclier Horn and Chrischona> 
Kapelle (1§ stunde) with fine views of the Alps, 
Arlesheim (a romantic spot), Augenstcin Castle, 
also the "Wioscnthal, RUttclcn Castlo, and the 
Hardtwalde. Trout fishing in the Birs, 
The Canton contains about 185 square miles, 
' with good pasture near the Rhine; com, wine, 
E fish, cheese, and cattle are' the ehief products. 
^Idesthal is tho capital of the coantry part, or 
f me-CMmp^m^. <?«lW«ntetJi« common language. 



BABLS, USSTHAL. 55 

Basle to luoeme, by the 
Unterbanenstein. 

The old road, which passes Liesthal, Sissach, 
Olten, Sursee, Ac, and is about 17 stunden or 64 
miles long, is, for the moat part, superseded by tho 
Schweizerische Central-balm, or SwlSS Central 
Bailway following nearly the same direction. 
Two small portions, viz., between Sissach and 
Olten (across the Hauenstein), and between Em* 
menbrticke and Lucerne, are now pierced by 
tunnels opened in 1858 and 1859. At Olten, on the 
Aare, is a branch, down that river to Aarnn, 
forming a junction with the Central Swiss line 
from Ziirich, Aca and at Aarbnrg, up the river, 
the West Swiss line from Berne, Solothum, Neuf- 
chfttel, Yverdon, Lucerne, and Geneva, falls in. 
The through route from BAsle to Lncemc, 59 miles, 
is performed in 2ito 3| hours. (For times, distances, 
4Sec., see BradsJiato's Continental Guide.) There are 
eighteen stations, the most important of which are 
described below. The direct line to Brugg and 
Ziirich, opened 1875, turns off at Fratteln (see 
Route 11). 

The line passes the bridge over the Birs ; Behwei- 
zcrhall or Rothhaus Saltworks (rock salt 640 f^t 
down), opened 1836; and the Forest of Hard. Near 
this, a Roman tower and pillar were found, 1751. 
Basel-Avgst and its antiquities are further on (on 
the Rheinfelden Road, Route 11). 

Liestbal (Stat) 

Population, 4,850. 

Hotels: SchlUssel; Faike; Engel; Sonne. 

Capital of Basel-Landschaft, or B&Ie-Campagne, 
since the separation from Basel-Stadt, or B&le- 
Yille in 1833, and after a battle fought in the 
Hundwald. At the Gemeindehaus (Common Hall) 
is Charles the Bold's drinking cup, taken at 
the battle of Kaney. There are also an Arsenal, 
Hospital, and Cantonal Library. Near it are the 
ruins and Bath of Sohauenberg, Bubendorf Bath, 
Wildensteln Castle, and a fine view from Sissacher 
Fluh (1,300 feet above tho son); at Waldenburg 
a ruined castle and a fall of 80 feet down. The 
topofOber Hauenstein is about 3,000 feet high. 
It is traversed by three tumicl8> V\<5,<?«^«s».^SaR»saQ»- 



bbjldshaVs ainniaBi*iJn> axd thb ttbol. 



[Section 8. 



SiSiaeli (8tait)» en ^« Br^oU, 1,885 feet abore 
the aeft. BbtO: ikwt. l^opulstlon, 1,600. The 
ohwrcli ft Itfge snd oli. One of the first Pesta- 
lenftan SoIukAs was eAabliahed here. Bibbons are 
made. ItaAe In ^ed fruit and cherry brandy. 
To fhenofth-'WeA, the In-der-Alp Baths; and a 
fine Tiew ttcm. Sissacherfloh Mountain. After 
INMsing the tvins of Castle Homburg we come to 

L&nftiliBgeiL (Stat.).— Here are a church, 
echeel, <Jte., on an ei&inence, at the bottom of the 
WieMBberg (8,280 feet, to the left, a fine view) and 
•f the Pass oC the Unter Hauensteln, which is 
Itart of the «einmon high road to the St. (Jothard. 
At a coflt K>f a quarter of a million of francs, 
btfweem 1B27-80, the gradients hare been much 
lHpref«d ; a toll of f franc per horse is leried. 
Thnre is a splendid View from the top (1,180 feet), 
where you cross the boundary into Soleure Canton, 
l>ut the railway passes a tunnel 3,900 yards in 
length, the icene of the accident referred to abore. 
A deep gorge, to 

Olten Btoi. and Junction.— Buffet. Hotel 

Schweizerhof . Population, 4,900. On the Aare, 
where tk» lines to Aarau, Berne, Thun, Soleure, 
jfeCM ftil in; haying an old Church, built before 
U4I^ now a magazine. The Wariburg and Froh- 
tmrg are near. 

Change here for the line to SolCTire, Befne, Ac, 
which passes the Stations of Nlederwirl, Mnr- 

gentluil, Largenthal, and Biltzberg, to Her- 

ZOgenbUChsee, where the line to Soleure turns 
tfff. Hence to Berne by way of Bledwyl, 
Wynlgen (tunnel l mile long), Burgdorf (see 

Koute u), LyBsach, mndelbank, Scbdnbilia 

<near Hofwyl), and ZoUUCOfen, near which you 
get the view of the Bernese Alps. 

[At Olten there is a branch line (past B&oikon 
«BdflA<>nenwerUi) to 

Aaran (Stat.) 

Sotas: Wilder Mann; LSwe; RQssli; Ochs. 

Capital of Canton Aargau^ or Argoyie, at the foot 

of the Jura range, on the Aare (a tributary of the 

Bhine), orer which is a suspension bridge, finished 

-i»?K JPojmlaiioo 4790, mostly Protestants. It 

«iico^ ai^a^ I,20>0 iee^-HboYG the sea; and is an 

'iribaa jiUise^ jts^iog maaufaeturea pf cottoa 



.woollen, ribbena, Titriol, cutlery, Ao. Among the 
boildingfl and noteworthy objects are the Parish 
Church (which both Protestants and Catholics 
attend at different hounh-an arrangement once 
adTOoated by Dr. Arnold in England); the Rath- 
haus, in the old castle of the Counts Yon Rors ; 
Cantonal or High School; Gsmmasium; Trades* 
School; Arsenal; large new Barracks; Cantonal 
Library (open at 8 p.m.), with MSS. collected by 
GeU. Lurlauben; Ethnographical Industrial Mu- 
seum; collection of antiquities from Ylndonissa. 
There is also a Bible and Foreign Aid Society. 
Walks and excursions may be made to the 
Tumplatz on. the river, Zimmermann*s Garden, 
SchSnenwerd (f stnnde). Baths Of Schinznach 
(8 stunden, page 68). Zschokke, the historian, 
lived at Aarau, and his house is on the road which 
leads out to the Hungerberg. 

The Central Swiss line here joins the line from 
Basle; proceedhig by way of Bmgg and Baden 
(in Route 11), to ZUrlcll. Leaving Aaran, it 
passes Bupperschwyl, from which a brancb up 
the Reuss (part of the St. Gothard line) is open vid 

Lenslrarg and Hendsdxlkon to WoUen, Bo8< 
wyl-Bnnzen, Mnrl, and Bothloreaz (page 71). 

Muri has a public school in a large old Benedictine 
Abbey. At Wohlen or Wohlen-ViUmergen, a branch 
of 4i miles goes off to Bremgarten. There is a 
shorter line from Lenzburg to Lucerne, past the 
HdUvoyl LoJkt^ then through HOChdorf to Emmen- 
briicke (see page 57). From Rupperschwyl the 
Zurich line passes Wildegg, near Wildegg Castle 
(page 68), and the Brestenberg jrater-cure; 
SoMnznaCb, near the Baths (page 68) ; to Bmgg, 
page 68]. 

From Olten the Lucerne line proceeds to Aar- 
burg (Stat.) /ntu: Krone (Crown); Bar (Bear). 
Population 2,000. In Canton Aargau, on the Aare, 
where the Wigger joins it. A wire suspension 
bridge, 270 feet long, was built after the fire of 
1840, which nearly destroyed the town. Parish 
churoh on a rock. On a higher point commanding 
the town, is the old Citadel, built hi 1660, where 
Napoleon used to confine troublesome patriots; it 
is now a state prison. 

SSoflngen (!&tat.) /«».* Ochs (Ox); rsssU 



iMbt 10.] 

▼alley of the Wiggerthal, is the Boman Tdbinium^ 
hear -which, on a paved way, a bath, pavanent, Ac, 
have been found; they are at the Rathhans, along 
with coins, letters of the Swiss reformers, drawings, 
Ac. Population, 4,400; many being makers of 
entlery. The Swiss Art Union meets annually 
(established 1806). Mr. Suter's interesting collec- 
tion of objects from the lake-dwellings. A loop 
from Aaran connects here, passing EdUlkeil, 
Olier-Bntfeldeil, and Snlir. Good views on the 
Heiteridat (the Bernese Alps in the distance). 
Passing Belden in Canton Lucerne, Dagmer- 

seUen, Neblkon (to the right Piiatus),Wauwyl, 

you come to 

Bursee (Stat) 

Inns: Sonne (Sun) ; Hirsch (Stag). 

An old walled town, near the mouth of the Suren, 
which falls into the Sempacher See or lake. Popu- 
lation, 2,100. It has an old Gothic Town House. 
Marienzell Chapel is near it. To the south-west 
(li stunde) is Tauenfels Castle, with a fine view; 
beyond which lies Buttisholz BarroW (Eng- 
ULnder Hiigel), where the Entlibuch men finally 
routed the English adventurer Ingdram de Courcy 
and his followers, 1376. Scott alludes to it in 
^'Anne of Geierstein." The Lake of Sempaeh, 8| 
toiles long by U broad, is 1,470 feet above the sea, 
with a pleasant hilly border round it, and abounds 
with good trout (Salino lavoeretus), crayfish, &c. 
A boat or the rail will take you to the little village of 
'Bexnpaoll (Stat.) inns: Kreuz (Cross); 
Adler (Eagle). Famous in the history of Swiss 
independence for the celebrated BcUtley 9th July, 
1886, when Leopold II. of Austria, lord of this part, 
was utterly routed and slain by his vassals. How 
the victory was gained through the generous self- 
sacrifice of Arnold Winkelried, as he threw himself 
on the lances of the enemy to open a way for his 
countrymen, is described in James Montgomery's 
*/Make way for Liberty," some of the most stirring 
lines in the English language. See Zschokke's 
eloquent description of the battle. It is still com- 
memorated in a yearly religious ceremony at the 
Sehiacht-Kapdle on the spot, which has some old 
pictures of the arms, <fec., of those, who fell on its 
Walls. A meeting of the Diet was held here 1893. 
' From Bniwee the JJne winds round the west side of 
ibe^Mfi, past WATterum Ct^sU^ Mnpaoll (as 



8X7&8BB, SXItPAOH) LTTClBltlfB. 



57 



above), and Bothenbvrff, to Emmenliracke 

(on the Enune) ; the Eigi on the left andPilatus 
on the right being in view. From Emmenbrficke, 
a tunnel 850 yards long carries the line under Gib- 
raltar (a spur of the Glltsch) into 

LUCERNE (Stat); German, LuzenL 

Hotels: Schweizerhof and Luzemerhof, view 
from the windows superb, a first-rate house. 

Hotel National, fine large hotel, with lift to all 
storeys, open all the year. Hecommended. 

Hotel Beau Rivage. First-class hotel, beautifully 
situated. Moderate charges. Recommended. 
See Advt. 

Hotel d'Angleterre, Mr. Reber, proprietor. 

Swan Hotel, kept by Mr. Haefeli. 

Hotel du Rigi, Mr. G. Regii, proprietor. 

Hotel des Balances. 

Hotel St. Gothard. 

Adler; Engel; Rossli; Hirsch; Post; Belle Vue; 
Europe; Neues Schweizerhaus; Altes Schweizer- 

haus. 

The improved Turkish Baths, near the Schweizer- 
hof Hotel, by Dr. Brun, phjrsician. 

Pensions— Numerous, at all the best points of 
view. 

English Church Service^ in the Lutheran Church. 
Free Church of Scotland^ in Maria Hilf Church. 
Resident Medical Men. 

Bankers. — Knijrr and Son. 

BaUufay.^To Olten, Basle, Berne (page 98), Zug 
(page 71), Ziirich, St. Gothard (page 62), Ac. (See 
Bradshaw's Continental Ouide.) The Zug line 
Joins the Swiss Central at Cfibraltar Hill, a good 
point of view. 

Population, 21, 000, Roman Catholics. The capital 
of Canton Lucerne, seat of the Great Council, and of 
the Yorort (or Diet) in turn with Berne and Ziirich ; 
a fine old walled town, in the very centre of Switzer- 
land, where the Reuss runs out of the Vierwald- 
stStter See or Lake of Lucerne, the most beautiful 
in the country, with Pilatus, Rigi, Ac, in sight. It 
belonged to Austria till 1832, when it joined the 
confederation formed of the other three Cantons 
round the lake; and in the religious wars of 1712, 
headed the Catholics, who were detea.tsA. ^^."^^^c- 

ISimcVo fottafexVj T^t^^'A V«t^. ^HJosst "V 



58 



BRJLD8HAW'S 8WITSBBLAin> AND THB TTBOL. 



[Section 2. 



The Benss dlyides the town in two, the largest 
part being on the norths on the slope of Mnsogg 
Hill; and as seen from the lake, it looks, with 
its ramparts, watch-towers of the fourth century, 
spires, &c., much better than it really prores to 
be on passing through its narrow, ill-paved streets. 
But the beauty of the neighbourhood makes amends 
for all. There ftre three or four open places, with 
handsome Ctothic fountains, one as old as 1481, and 
tttiltty old-fashioned houses. 

Among the curiosities are the corered Bridges 
tm the river, serving as proraenadea. The 
Mvhlenbrikke (Mill Bridge) or Spreuerbrticke, bnUt 
1403, has thirty-six subjects from the ** Dance of 
Death," besides other paintings. Kapdlbrikke 
(Chapel Bridge) built 1 803, 1,000 feet long, is adorned 
with 154 pictures, dedicated to Swiss history and 
the patron saints of the town, St. Lcger and St. 
Maurice. The BeussbrUcke, 164 feet long, (sthe 
only one passable for carriages. The New Bridge is 
an iron viaduct for the rail. On the Elapcllbrlicke 
is the old Wasserthurm or Water Tower (where the 
archives are kept) which, having been once a light- 
house (Lucerna), gave name, they say, to the 
place. At the mouth of the river formerly stood 
the Hofbriicke, another covered way, adorned with 
nearly 240 scripture subjects, which are still pre- 
served in the Rathhaus. It led over to the Hof- 
kirchc, or Cathedral, close to which was a Monastery 
and seat (hof) of the Abbot. The church stands on 
the site of one founded in 698, by St. Leodeger or 
Leger. It is of the seventeenth century, having 
two slender towers as old as 1606; a few stained 
windows, Lanfranc's Christ on the Mount of 
Olives, a g^ood organ, &c. 

Just outside the Waggisthor is Meyer's interest- 
ing Diorama. 

Not far from this is one of the great attract ions of 
the town, in the Lowen-Gartcn, viz., the Ldwe von 
Luxet-n, or Luceme Hon, to the memory of the 
Swiss Guards who fell in the attack on the Tuilerics, 
10th August, 1792. It is a relief 28 feet long, 
18 feet high, hewn out of the sandstone rock, by 
Ahrorh, of Constance, fi-om Thorwoldsen's designs. 
The dying animnl, as he falls speared through, 
^rasjrs tho Bourbon Lily in one paw, while the 
o/i,er/s Ae/d ap to repel the next fltroJce. Around 
V^ose who (pU ^d Qf the »W. 



9J70 fJio 



vivors (only 870 out of 1,160), with an inscription to 
the "fidelity and valour .of the Swiss." Another 
inscription, "Peace to the unconquered," is seen in 
the little Chapel, with an embroidered altar-cloth, 
worked by the Duchesse d'AngoulSme, 1825. 
Near here is the famous Olaeier^arden^ with 
large holes in the solid rock, worn by stones con- 
stantly revolving in the stream underneath a 
glacier that existed here ages ago. At this garden 
are the late General PfyfFer*8 Relief Map of the 
Forest Canioru, 22 feet by 12, made of pasteboard, 
wax, Ac, the highest mountain (9,700 feet) being 
lOin. high, and another, by Mfiller, of the Eastern 
Cantons, 7} feet by 6, on a scale of 1 to 40,000. 
Near here again is Stauffer's Museum of Alpine 
animals ; admission, 1 franc. 

Among the paintings at the Jesuit*' Church, built 
1C67, is one by F. Torriani; their college is now 
the Government House, and includes the Post 
Office, Ac. St. Peter's is as old as 1173. 

The Rathhaus, built 1606, contains an interesting 
Historical Museum and Armoury; close to it is 
an old tower, with the figure of a giant, and a 
long inscription on it. 

Near the Mtihlenbrticke and Berne Gate, is 
the Arsenal. The old weapons and armour, among 
which are banners, Leopold of Austria's coat of 
mail, from the field of Sempach, several trophies 
from Morat, William Tell's Sword, Aic., are now in 
tne Rathhaus. 

Other buildings are — the large Town Hospital, 
Hospital for Incurables, Lyceum (at the Jesuits* 
College), several good Schools, and a Theatre 
and Concert Room, built 1839. There are the 
Town, Lyceum, Capuchin, and other Libraries^ 
besides Meyer's, near the Post Office, and Stocker's 
on the Quay; a Musical Society, formed 1884; Rein- 
hard's 132 paintings of Swiss costumes ; Geiger's 
collections of paintings; and PfyfTer's of minerals. 
Museum of Natural History. Meyer's Diorama 
of the Rigi and Pilatus, ZUrichcrstrasse. 

The Canton numbers a population of 132,240, to 
657 square' miles; nearly all Catholic and German- 
speaking. It is tolerably fertile in com, cattle, 
horses, cheese, fruit, chestnuts, with a little wine, 

EZCUXfllQnA iaa>'9 ^ made along the river 



LAKX or tXCWKKM, KUim AOHT, WAOaiB. 



wbMl tl > puumins ot the St. E^jthurd, nod ttoi 
which a fins Tiew of ths town on be Dbtilned ; I 
Eli«iB» Altoovledan, Meggen (on the Ukq), Soi 
Denberr, □ IbndUr, A]lenirinden,tfae HtlMck Tswc 



PUntiii Honntaln Rill voy. opened ISSS.iDsilmDc 
gT4il)eDt, 48 In 100. about X mllei tong, 1| hon 
frem AlpDiKh-Stul (|i>ge OU end by Wilggli a 
KOaniKht. ap the JUgl (4 t» 6j boon), [or tli 



THE LASS OF LUCEKNE, 

Or VlavaU^Stleria {it^ Fonr Forett 
Lake), or Lake o[ the Four Cinloni (nti 



«,OMr«t. IlliofMilmgol 


J .bapo, uimelhing 


Uke ■ CTDM, with the long am 




Thl, 


part, M iDlle> long, l> D>ade 


p <f Ihree 


eaehes, 


I-ncenie, Baocbi, and Url. 






■croM It li la milei long, from AlpiKh to 




Mcht, i.blcb give, name to 1 






Ul,4Mteet above the ass, and 


8501a«dee 




Bcnii Mootta and Engelbeigc 




arge.t 




beiteemed 




with lateen lallt are niod. 


and are 




dangeroiu when (he FOhn 






blows. The lake ne.er frea 






partlj' Iroien in the winter 






Idind ot AltiUd, the onl)- on 


in the Ilk 


.iioir 


M«gg«hom.notf«-/roniNeu 


Hab-burg. where 1. 


tiie ancient Hat of tlie Anjtrlu Dv^ft, dutroyeil 









Botdi! Schwaner' 
Pension SIgwart. 

A Tillage at the foo 

conn try, Poi>nlBtlon. 

pnbllc fountain, w 



.tre (or the Blgl (3J hour.), 
WAOOIE, or VegSla, 



re the new Rlgl rallWi^ 



paiiei throngb a tunnel of 22G feet, near the bridge 
OTer the Schnartohel Gorge, and lias atallona at 
Romlll-FelgentliciT, Kaltbad (brai 
FlTit. or Unterstalten, i ~ " 
BtafleUiDlie, StalTel, and the Kulm on top. 
Fron] the Knlm youinay descend to Arth.by a line 
opened 1BJ6 (page 71) . Near Vltinau are the Naeon 
Capes, opposite the middle ol the lake, where it la 
narrowest. Onthtsouthsbotc.at moutholtheAa, 

Soloill, near tbeRicillirilgrlni'iChapel, and nniloc 
(he Buochi«aQrn,I>,W^\'»^'*'^'''**" ''''^'""J^ 



BBADMUW^ SWlfOBLAirD AHB VBM SflOL. 



[Seetion 9. 



the Chapel of MarU sam Booncnberg channingly 
M«Ud aboTe the Mytenstein and QHUU or BMli 
Meadow ; a memorable spot, where the men of the 
three Forest Caatons met by night, 7th l^vember, 
1307, to save their country and liberty without vio- 
lence or injostioc. A path strikes up the Seelisberg 
Kulm, above 6,000 feet, with a fine view of the whole 
lake, &c. Kurhans, with 800 beds. 
Opposite Beckenried is 

OERSAU. 

Hotels: Hotel and Pension Mfillor; Gersaurhof ; 
Hirsch; Hotel and Pension da Rigi Scheideck; 
Sonne. 

A pretty little place of 1,780 population, under 
the Rigi, which formed a separate republic (before 
upset by the French, 1798), of exactly 6 square 
miles area, now part of the Canton Schwyz. In 
the Church was once the banner of the Counts of 
Hohenzollem (taken at Sempach) till one of that 
family stole it away. Further on is EShlibach 
Fall, and then 

Bruimen.— 'B'o^e7«; WaldstHtter Hof; Adler; 
Hirsch; RSssli; and many Pensions. 

A little port for the carrying trade, having a 
depAt for Canton Schwyz. Here the three Forest 
Cantons made a confederacy, 19th December, 1815. 

Excursions to Wylen and Seelisberg, see page 74. 

Bey(md this is AzenfelS, with its first-class 
Hotel <md Pension AxenfeU^ in a fine situation, 
under the Frohnalpstoek; very comfortable. Not 
far from here is the Grand Hotel Axenstein, with a 
magnificent view and a fine situation. English 
Church Service. 

Koarly midway between Bmnncn and Schwyz, 
the Muotta-thal opens to the right, considerably 
above the level of the road. From Brunnen the 
lake grows narrower, as it runs up among the 
stupendous ridges of the Uri, with the name of the 
Umer See. The Uri-Rothstock, Rossstock, and 
other peaks behhid, are 7,000 to 9,000 feet high. 
Passhig Sislkfai, in Canton Uri, you come under 
the rugged Axenberg, nearly 8,000 feet high, to 
Toll's Cliapel, built 1388, restored 1834, and re- 
built 1883, on the Tellenplatte, where he escaped 
MsAor^ bjra bold leap from Gessler's boat in the 
^orm. The oliapelJabelnff decorated with frescoes 
'*e exploits And liistor^, by the 



Vastr* 



w«ll-known palnttr, Emtt Btliekdberg, of Bteel. 
Opposite it, near the Isanthal, is BUtll, or GrtttU, 
a spot, frequently referred to in Schiller's 
^ Wilhelm Tell,** in eommon with other celebrated 
localities in Swiss history. (See above). At the 
head of the lake is 

FLUBLBN ; the ItaUan Flora. 

Inns: Kreuz; Tell; Adler; Stem; and Rail- 
way Restaurant. Population, 600. 

A dop6t for the carrying trade over the St. 
Oothard, with a landing pier for the steamers. 
It stands among fine mountain scoiery, but on a 
marshy site at the mouth of the Reuss, above which 
is the old castle of the Barons of Attinghausen. 
The French landed here, 1799, under Sonlt, after 
great resistance from the Swiss ; and fought with 
the Russians the same year, oUigring them to 
retreat towards the Rhine. 

AflOENT OF THE BIQI. 
Or Mons Bigidus^ so celebrated for its extraordhiary 
prospect, and the distant effects of sim-set and sus- 
rise. It is a ridge of plum-podding rock, between 
the Lakes of Lucerne and Zug, 80 miles round, 
covered with forest and pasture to the top, 
or Kulm, which' is 5,905 feet above the sea (1,470 
above the lake). It is within 4| hours of Lucerne ; 
viz., by .steamer to WSggis, 1 hour (a boat 
takes If) ; thence to the top, 8| hours, taking care 
to reach the top 1 hour before sun-set. Dili- 
gences round to Arth in 6 hours. There are Hotels 
at the best points of view, always crowded in the 
season— (Hotel Rigi Kulm; Hotel Schreibcr; 
Hotel and Pension Staffel; Hotel and Pension 
Rigi Scheideck; Hotel and Pension Rigi-First; 
Hotel Rigi Kaltbad; see Bradehaw't Continental 
Ouide)— where the passing tourist may get meals 
and a bed, and the resident may benefit by the 
whey cure and hydropathy ; but the cold winds and 
mists are trying at this great height. In clear 
weather guides are quite unnecessary. 

The new Railways offer the most easy modes 
of ascent ; for that from Yitznau, see page 59; and 
for that ftrom Arth, see page 73. A pedestrian will 
prefer the walk up. For those who ride from 
the starthig points at the bottom (mentioned 
below), a horse or mule costs 9 francs to the AAn, 
besides 6 tot t^e t«^raxn. V; the aame road, or 
9 fT%nC8 by a d\t^TW\ <w^% tftftJ^?w^\«^^»*^^%^'lb v^^ 



Bonte 10.| 



ICOVT PILATirS. 



61 



firanei vp, and S| to C htmn down, for eftch bearer. 
GKddes (if hired) 6 franca a-day, for tdiich they 
wHl carry 201bs. of luggage; bosrs may be got 
ebeapo:. A trinkgeld is expected. 

Beaidea the way up from WXggls (8i hours) 
which commands a constant yiew of the lake, there 
are Tarions others, — ^from KUssnacht (3| hoars), 
the Immen See (8f hoars), Arth (4 hoars), Goldaa 
(8| hours), Lowera (8f hoars), Oreppen (8 hours), 
Yltznau (3| hours), Gersau (4} hours) ; all being 
bridle-paths, except Immen See, Greppen, and 
Gersau. Nearly all the paths meet at Bigistaffel 
(I hour) below the Kulm. 

On the road from WSggis, lies the Felscn'thor 
Gate (two black rocks resting on a third), the 
eroBses or stations of pilgrims, and the Kaltbad or 
Hydropathic Institution, handsomely rebuilt since 
the fire of 1849, with a chapel and good hotel; and 
1 stunde from it is the KSnzeli Cliff, with a fine 
Tiew. But the most agreeable way is from Arth 
and Goldaa whore the view bursts upon you by 
•ozpiriae, and ao descend by Waggis, haying the 
noble lake under jrour ejre all the way down. 
Supposing it to be by Arth, in the ascoit you come 
to Unter Dachli Inn, where the thirteen stations or 
pilgrim chapels begin; further on is Ober Dachli, 
where a footpath (| stunde shorter) divides off 
from the road. The latter leads to the Hospice of 
Haria zum Schnee (Our Lady of the Snow), a 
CapuchinHouse, foundedl618, to whichrpUgrlmages 
are made, especially at the festivals of 22nd July, 
Cth and 10th of August. And at | stonde above it, 
la the Staffel, where the roads unite. 

The JProtpeet takes in a splendid panorama of 
80 milea every way. To the north are the Zuger 
See (lake), the Albis Eange, Egeri See, and the 
Black Forest of Suabia (Baden), far away in the 
horizon beyond the Rhine. In the west, almost 
the whole Canton of Lucerne lies spread oat, with 
the Sempacher See, Filatus and his horns, the 
chain of the Jura, &c. Towards the south, the 
Luoeme Lake (immediately below) and its moun- 
tains, and above all, the long icy chain of the 
Bemeaa Obarlaad (Jungfrau, Finsteraarhom, &c.) 
•od the St. Gothard Boad. While to the east are 
tk» TSd^ Glarnisob, and other Alpine peAks, and 
fkUxwym under the Mytbm* Th9 cbaof et of 



colour on the lakes, and the rose tints of the distant 
glaciers, are remarkably beautiful 

Green alps (jLe. mountain pastures), and senn- 
hiitten or cowherd*s huts are dispersed about on 
all sides. As many as 800 different plants may 
be gathered on the Rigi and on Filatus. From here 
Prince Albert, before his marriage, sent the Queen, 
his cousin, a dried rose desAlpety with an album of 
views, which she still keeps among her treasures. 

Between Lucerne and Alpnach lies 

HOTTNT FILATUS, 

So called from PUeatus, a cap, because the clouds 
settle over his head like one ; but the common story 
is (see ''Anne of Geierstein ") that Fontlus Filate, 
when banished by Tiberius to Gaul, found his way 
here, and in despair drowned himself in a lake at 
the top, formed by the melting of the snow. It is 
a striking limestone group, 30 miles long, much 
more wild and rugged than Rigi, and so attractive 
in many of its views and features as to draw a great 
number of visitors. The highest point, the Ober- 
haupt, is 7,290 feet On account of its broken 
outline it is sometimes called Fraomont (mens 
fractus). 

The foot ascent should be made from Hergiswyl. 
A small inn stands at Bnunmeli, 1 hour from 
Hergiswyl; and at 8| hours is the SoUl Zum 
Klimsenhom, built at the Klimsenhom, near 
the summit (15 or 10 minutes), 6,555 feet high. 
Another HoUlf the Bellevue, has been built 5 
or 6 minutes below the Esel, 6,960 feet high. 
There is a path from the Hotel Klimsenhom to 
one of the highest of the seven peaks, the ToniliS' 
horn (6,997 feet), which commands the best view, 
and is most beautiful in the morning ; whUe that 
from Esel, the next, offers the finest evening 
prospect. 

The railway commences at Alpnach-Stad (Hotel 
Filatus) and passes through woods over the 
Wolfortbach, through the Wolfort Tunnel, next 
through two other short tunnels to the Aemsig- 
enalp, and finally passes through four tunnels up 
the steep side of the Esel to the Filatuskulm, 
close to Hotel Bellevue and the new Hotel 
Filatuskulm. Hence by a pathisi \.<i\s&&is^^jM.v^ 



62 



fifiADSfiAW's SWtfZBItLAKD AND THB TYROL. 



[Section 2. 



The Pilatns See or lake, 160 feet long, with the 

Dominik-Huhle is to the south-east. For a long 

time it was a punishable offence to visit the lake, 

lest it should disturb the unquiet spirit of the 

wretched suicide, who, in revenge, vexed the 

country below with his storms. An ancient rhyme 

runs thus — 

" Hat der PiUtiiMeinen Hut 
pMin wird du Wetter gut ; 
Tttatt er abeneineu Dcgen 
Bo gibt ee wohl aleher Begen." 

Meaning that, when Pilate puta on his hat (the 
cloud on his top) the weather will be fine; but 
when he wears a sword (when his peak is seen 
with a horizontal line of stratiu below) it will be 
sure to rain; so that he serves as a weather glass, 
like many hills in other countries. 

liOXJTB 1.0— Continued. 
From Lucerne to Milan, by the St. Qothard. 

Distance by rail from Lucerne to Milan, 284 
kil. = 176 miles; 4 trains daily, including 1 day 
and 1 night express. 

The road from Altdorf forming the shortest way 
to Italy, across Switzerland, from Germany, was 
made 1820-32, by Miiller, of Altorf. It runs np by 
this side of the Reuss. 

The St. OotliardBall starts from Kothkreiu 

(page 56) 11 miles from Lucerne, where the line 
from the north comes in, and passes down Lake 
Zug, at the base of the Bigi, and Lake Lowerz, to 
Brunnen, on Lake Lncerne. Thence to Fluelen, 
Altorf, and Erstfeld (5 miles from Fluelen, 1,558 
feet high), up the Reuss. Thence to Amsteg, and 
by several tunnels and bridges to Gurtncllen (8 
miles from Fluelen, 2,427 feet), and by zigzags 
across the Reuss, tbrough Pfaffensprung Tunnel 
(1,487 metres) and Wattingen Tunnel, to Wasen 
(3,008 feet). The line turns back towards Fluelen to 
Naxberg Tunnel (1,570 metres) and G(>schenen, at 
the north mouth of the Great Tunnel; which 
(missing the fine road through Devil's Bridge, 
Andermatt, Hospenthal, and St. Gothard Pass) 
tfozaesoat a^aJjiatAirolo, nearlj 10 miles beyond. 
^stHHjpiaa Js to take tie rail to Qifscbenen or 
** p/oro the pats on foot 



The Great Tttnnel was finally bored through on 
Sunday, 29th February, 1880, after eight years work 
(1872-80), and was handed over by the contractors 
1881. It is 9| miles and 337 yards long (16 to 25 
minutes); having its north end near Goschencn, 
8.639 feet above sea ; its south end at Airolo, 3,757 
feet; and the middle 3,780 feet, or rather higher; 
thus making a slope each way for drainage. From 
Airolo the south section winds down to Biasca, past 
eight tunnels; and there are upwards of 20 tunnels 
along the north approach at Axenberg, Oelberg, 
Schiefemeok, &c., besides those above mentioned, 
and several smaller ones. Massagno Tunnel (924 
metres), the last of 50, was made 1881 . Altogether 
there are 53 tunnels, forming a total of 24 miles of 
tunnel work, including the Great Tunnel. It was 
made without shafts, the temperature being 100°; 
and thongh begun at both ends, the two parts came 
together within an inch — a triumph of modem 
engineering. 

At the Mont Cenis tunnel the two parts were 
one foot and a half from each other; and though 
shorter than the St. Gothard by 3,664 yards, it took 
six years more to complete it. 

ALTOKF, or ALTDORF 

(^;<on/ia in Italian). 

Inns: Hotel Schliissel; Krone; Tell; Lowe. 

Capital of Canton Uri, under the Baunberg, 1,440 
feet above the sea, near the Reuss, a little before 
it falls into the Lake of Lucerne. Population, 2, 730, 
chiefly engaged in the carrying trade, and trans- 
port of passengers. Walter Fiirst of Uri, born at 
Attinghausen, near here, was one of the three who 
conspired against Austrian rule, 1307 ; andWilhelm 
Tell, the best known of them, was bom at 
BUrglen, also near this. In the town is a good 
Pfarrkirche or Parish C^ura near the Town 
House; with an excellent organ, and paint- 
ings, one being a Nativity, by Vandyke. The 
Capuchin Convent, founded 1581, is the oldest in 
Switzerland; it has a good library. At this 
point is a very fine view. The wood above the 
Convent is called the Bannwald, and none of the 
trees are allowed to be out. KB it protect tk town 
from liftin^tTfLtsQ^vsM. 



Sonte 10.1 



(nmt of St. 
homo of tHe 
Qf [ho Three 



u>d (gilo In ITW. 
be miido to Ibe Axtnbeiy, 
ind other place* ilready moi- 
lutnedom: tcWiildiiuht-Uiiil 
WatofnU, BorUdg:ai, Rolhitock, mid Iti Elacien 
itfiM feet), wdoilnE tho plctomque Villa; of 
IkdUi*], Ac 

Ftora Altorf Uh nud loadt sp ths Kenuttail. 
oral tlw BehKchcnbiicb, In which they mj Tell wu 
drowned, IBM (trying to aave t child), not Ht Trom 
Ill(blrtli-pUce,Blirgleii.i little tfltboea It. Alllng- 
bauen Ilea on the weat tide ol the Reals. wKb Iti 
old bmronliU Cutla. A little aboTB, Bt Kibibin- 

tlie TltlU, to Enealbirg. At Kliu the road 
Dtrnnri, end la aprhikled with roclui It etandi 
o)»poalte Eratfaldertbfd. ieadlDg up to FiolenbAcb 
Fill. PMilng, Bllenen Caitla and Zwlng-Uri 
Cutla (leatroyed 13M), jov eome to AtHBtas, 
or Amiag (/•«.■ aten; Kieni), it (ho monlh 
at the KKntelen or KadanuulHIWl (up to 
tba TUdI and other Alpine peakt past the dna 
Bnumlbacb Fall), Inn pretty place, nnderifae Wind- 
gelle. and Brlitenitock (9,870 feet abore the aea); 
tbe latter a noble peak, rarely Tlalted, agdioacbed 

Amileg, In tho Madcranertbal, tt,, eiploced by 
Ilr.j.8owerby,l8e2-J2,ar68,(»l)tnll,l»00(oethlgh. 
(See A^'fiu Journal, Feb., 1874.) The Asomt Of 
tlia Bt. Oolham beglna here, and the nad, 

" ~ " pretty (alia at Ourl- 



ch Q 6«clien8n, or qm- 



rqgged. ana at length lY 

Unan, a ErowhiK toi 

montta of a fine Talle; whlcta Inma up (put Sand- 

baline Qrotto) to tho Glaclen of TrlFt and Oelmer. 

Hen tbe north end of tba Qreat Tunnel begina, 

abont 3.ew feet above sea. Abore tho chnrcb are 



of granlle rock, wlodlnB t 


vta aide to ilde, nndor 


tbe name of SobBlllnen an 


Krachen-lhal. If the 


traToller dealrci to rldo ove 


the paa., ho can hire 


a carriage at OBachenon or 






en to Andematt and 


Hcapcnt hal, but not from H 


MpenthaloTer tbe rata. 


At the nuMt aarage part, w 




doimaf.llofSMfeet,the 




(Devll'a Bridge.), me men 






prcclplcca. Oncwith- 


ontpnrapet.M(eetapan,b 


Ut hilhBlSlbconlnry 


by tbe monka of EIntleileln. »aa the icene of the 


defeat of tho Auatrlani 


by the French, 1789, 


and of Ihdr own dcfea 


by Snwariow, who 




ater. Thla bridge fell 


downlnlBBS, Ha other, 


or new bridge, 20 feet 


higher op, M leet wide. 




atieam, 1> of a bolder and 




One road then goea by te 


rracs-fonned wlndlnga, 



I the Kllcbbeig, In IT 
langhig bridge, aaapi 



iwUmX bp to U< jyitfinvrmv Bridge, whloh I bt»adn)10«.lWtt»»>M»»V>''''*»^***~^ 



64 



fi&ADSHAW*0 SWlt^lBBtlKl) AKl) I^Hfi TTfiOL. 



[Section 2^ 



ANDERHATT 

(Or Unem, called OrMra by the Italians) 
ffotds : Belle Vue ; Drel K»nlge ; Kager ; 
Hotel ct Pension Gothard. Good tront fishing. 
Diligence orer the Furka Pass to Brieg, halting 
at the Rhdne Glacier. 

The chief Tillage here, 4,7M feet above the sea, 
with 1,326 inhabitants, (including Realp), and noted 
for its excellent cheese, honejr, and red treat from 
the Oberalp See, a lake to the north-east, near the 
head of the Rhine, in theGrisons. The head of the 
Rhdne is npt far of^ to the south-west, beycmd 
Realp, in Ursemthal, and the Glaciers of Furka. 
Each of these famous streams may be reached by 
bridle-paths from this village, which stands under 
the Glacier of the Gtirschen, or St. Anne*s Moun- 
tain. Fine specimens of St. Gothard minerals are 
got here. There is an old Church, with two or three 
chapels, a convent built 1688, and a hospital for 
poor travellers. Since the opening of the St. 
Gothard Railway, this place has been much fre- 
quented as a residence by consumptive patients. 
From here the Oberalp Pass (6,712 feet), 7 miles, 
may be visited. Near the summit is the Oberalp 
See. Carriage to the top in 2 hours; easy walk 
back to the hotel. 
Ascending the valley, the road leaves it at 
HOQpentliaL Hotels : Hotel Meyerhof, with 
D^pendance ; Gtoldner L8we. 

A little village of 300 population, where the two 
heads of the Reuss join, under the HUnereck, 4,810 
feet above the sea; so called from a Hospice once 
here. It contains an ancient Church, with an old 
tower (dating from the time of the Longobardi) 
above it, on a good point of view, and a pretty 
chapel. By several paved zigzags, up the south 
bead of the Reuss, in 2} hours, to 

PASS OF ST. GOTHARD 

(For the Tunnel, see page 69). 
In Canton Ticino, or Tessin, a desolate gap In the 
ridge of the Helvetic Alps, 6,935 feet above the sea, 
but lower than four or five other Swiss passes. It Is 
the Roman Adula^ and the centre of a group of 
mountains, some above 10,000 feet high, from 
which, within 8 or 10 miles of the Col, the Rhine^ 
JBhdne^ Reuss, Tidno, Toccia, Ac, take their rise. 
^a Jtigiteat peaks are toward the eaat—u the 
^^^4riVreeti JMOM, 9,015: UGkShvn, 1W80. 



To the west and south-west are Mntthom, 10,180; 
the Hendo, 8,890, with a wide prospect ; the Luzen- 
dro, 9,710; and Fibbia, 9,000. Prosa, 8,860 feet," 
is on the north. These are surrounded by seventeen 
valleys, eight glaciers, and above thirty lakes, one 
only of which (Luzeridro) contains fish. , 

Not far below the highest point of the Pass are 
the Hospice and the Hdtel du Mont Prosa, with a 
Telegraph Office. 

The old Hospice, built 1874, by the abbots of 
Dissentis, was ruined by the French when they 
encamped here, 1799 ; the new one close to it, is a 
strong roomy building. It is fitted to stand the 
storms and avalanches of winter, whidwlast 
eight or nine months, and during ^niiich snow 
often lies 80 to 40 feet deep. It is now a 
meteorological station. Close by is the Hotel du 
Mont Prosa and its dtfpendance, the Albergo del 
San Ck>ttardo. About 15,000 people pass over 
in the year; in winter, carriages, &c., are carried 
over on sledges, and strong houses of refuge 
are stationed here and there on both sides of 
the pass. Average yearly temperature 80*, or 
25« below that of MUan, 20* below London, and 2» 
below the North Cape. The ItaUan part of the road 
was guarded by towers built by the Lombard 
Kings. On this side of the Alps (stiU in a 
Swiss canton) the road, about 18* feet broad, 
descends in zigzag terraces, past where Suwarrow 
defeated the French, through the once fearful 
Val Tremola, which gives name to a mineral stone 
found here, Tremolite. Then through Val Bedretto, 
past St. Anne's Chapel and PioteUa Forest, to 
AIBOLO; German, .fi!rMs. 

Inn: Post; Airolo; desAlpes; Lombard!. 

An Italian village on the Tichio, with a Lom- 
bard Castle (D CasteUo) of the eighth century. The 
Canton of Tlcino> or Jfcs*<», is ItaUan and Roman 
Catholic, with a population of 140,000 to 1,100 
square miles of mountaui and valley. Many of 
the people emigrate yearly to Lombardy, Gfermany, 
4c, as porters, masons, glaziers, chocolate makers, 
barometer sellers, and such like; and it was about 
8,000 of this quiet and industrious class, who in 1853, 
without warning, yresn driven back to their homes 
by the oppressive government whlidi then ruM 
in Austrian Italy. 

Paths lead henoe sp th« Tloiao, thiongli Ytl 
BeOxfitto Q^«c Ui% iM|«ii ^ iQa% V«|^m« aw i» 



BpntelO.] 



OIOBNICO, BELLINZOMA. 



65 



Dissentifl in the Grigons; and by the Tnrba into Val 
LaTizzara. Going down the valley, here called the 
Livinen-thal or Val Leventina, after the Lepontina 
of the Romans, and acquired by the Forest Cantons 
after the battle of Giomico, you pass the narrow 
defile of Dazio Grande, a strikhig p&sB under the 
Monte Piottino, about 1 mile long, crossing three 
bridges to the German Pfaid^ or 

FaldO (Stat).— Several hotels. A village of 
900 inhabitants, where vines, chestnuts, and mul- 
berry trees beg^ to appear (2,890 feet above sea). 
It has an old abbey and a fine waterfalL There 
are several pretty cascades between here and the 
next place, 

OIOBNICO; German, Irnis. (Stat) 

Iwu: Corona; Cervo. 

In a pretty spot, a little above which 600 
Swiss of the Forest Cantons defeated 14,000 of the 
Milanese, in the winter of 1478, and obtained a 
footing in the Ticineso territory. It stands 1,180 
feet above the sea, and has a Lombard tower, with 
the ancient Churches of Sta. Maria di Castello and 
S. Niccolo, in the same early Lombard style. The 
fine Falls of Baroglia and Cramosina are at hand. 
Two paths lead into the Yal Verzasca. Still de- 
scending by BocUo and Folleggio, you cross the 
Bl^n^o, which Joins here, to 

fflaffffa (Stat.)— /nn: Unione; Railway Res- 
taurant) — ^In that part of the Ticino called Val 
Riviera, where the road from Olivone and the 
Lokmanier Pass comes in. Above it is the Pil- 
grim Chapel of St. PetronoUa. An earthquake, 
in 1{(12, caused a landslip and the formation of 
a lal(e, which burst a few years after. In the 
forests of Personico, on the other side of the 
river, are glass works. The timber in this 
mountainous country, where land carriage is impos- 
sible, is. sent down the valleys by companies of men, 
called borratori (from the borra or borre, trunks of 
trees), by a plan which is also employed elsewhere. 
An artificial trough, called sovenda, is made, and 
carried from point to point as far as they desire to 
go. Water is then poured down, which, freezing, 
makes a perfectly smooth way ; and at a signal from 
the top, which the men who are stationed along the 
lin* tnuwnit bj a peenUar ciy, the logs are 
itBoufrftflt mfMUdfi dofm with impdwfiU iwUtMM 



the Rhdne by Yal Piora, over the Lukmanier, to 
to the river or lake at the bottom. In this simple 
manner, 5,000 or 6,000 logs are sent a distance of 
3 or 3 leagues in one night. 

Further south, past 0»ogna and its old tower, 
Cresciano, OlBXO (Stat.), with a Benedicthie 
Abbey, on a beautiful hill called Poncione do 
Claro (with a ruined seat of the Milan Dukes at 
the bottom), and across the Mocsa, yon reach 

BELLINZONA (Stat) : Gorman, Bellenz. 

Inns: Poste ot Pension Suisse; Angelo; Bellin- 
zona. 

Now the only capital of Canton Ticino, and a fine 
looking old walled town on the Ticino, the passage 
of which it commands. Population, 3,400. Citrons 
and oranges begin to g^ow in this luxuriant spot. 
La Torrcta stone bridge, 714 feet long, on 14 arches 
crosses the river; and there is a strong dam built 
by the French, in Francis I.'s time, to keep out the 
floods. Three old Castles on the heights above 
were built by the Forest Cantons. Castello Grande 
(which replaces, some say, a fort by Cssar), is now 
a prison and arsenal, and commands a fine view. 
The Parish Church has a marble font, and some 
bas-reliefs at tAe altar. There are also a new 
theatre, built 1847; the Government buildings, 
formerly an Ursuline Convent; and St. Blaise 
(Biaggio) old church. Among the points of view 
around are the Churches of Carasso Convent, 
Gorduno, and Daro. Near the Mocsa is Arbedo, 
where 24,000 Milanese defeated 3,000 Swiss, 1422, 
slaughtering 2,000, who are buried in the graveyard 
of the Ghiesa rosa church. From here a rail (25 
miles) runs vid Cadenazzo (Stat.), and Uaga- 
dino (Stat.), at the north end of Lago Maggiore, 
and near the mouth of the Ticino, toLuino (Stat) 
on Lago Maggiore. Luino is a delightful summer 
resort, -with three good hotels, in a beautiful 
situation. Much silk is spun in the district. The 
direct line to Como goes on to 

Qiubiasco, and its two churches, near the month 
of Yal Morobbia, up which there is a way over 
Jorisberg to Lake Como. At Giubiasco, the line ta 
Luino^ on Lik«M»;ci^<vt^V^ss(^Cv!«s&^^^^ ^ 



66 



BRADSHAVS SWITZERLAND AMD THE TTBOL. 



[Section 2. 



The Como line mni from Glnblaeco, through the 
tnnnel under Monte Ccnerl (about 1 mile long) 
and amidst pleasant scenery which reminds the 
traveller of his approach to Italy, to Lugano, 
on one side of which is seen Mount San SaWatore, 
on the other Mount Br^. 

LUaANO (Btat.) ; German, Lauis. 

Ilotelt: Hotel et Belvedere du Pare, kept by M. 
Beha, first-class hotel. 

Splcndldc; Washington; National; Beauregard; 
Grand Hotel Suisse; Belle Vue; de Lngano; Beau 
Ulvage; and many Pensions. 

Church of England Service, June to October, at 
the Hotel du Pare, at 11 a.m. and 8 p.m. 

Funicular rail from station to centre of town. 

A pretty thriving town, in a lovely Italian 
climate. Population, 8,000. It is the largest o( 
the three principal towns of Canton Ticino, and w^ 
acquired by the Swiss in the sixteenth century. 
The unfinished Church of St. Lorenzo, on a hill, 
(accessible by funicular rail), has some good carv- 
ing, a Virghi Chapel, a beautiful fa9ade, and a flag, 
taken 1798 from the Cisalpine republic. At the 
FrancUcan Church of Sta. Maria, founded 1499, 
are paintings (date 1530) by B. Lulni. 

Former Palazzo Riva, occupied by " Banca della 
Svizzera itallana." Principal rendezvousr-The 
Piazza della Riforma. All informatien given by 
the Socictii Pro-Lugano. 

Excursions may be made to MofUe Br4 (3,080 
feet); to Monte Qeneroso (6,560 feet); Monte 
ScUcatore^ by funicular rail; across the lake to 
Caprino and its wine caves, and the /Cavellino 
Waterfall. From Capolago (4^ mUes by rail) there 
is a mountain rail to the top of Monte Qeneroso. 

LAOO DI LUaANO, or Ceresio. 

Chiefly in Canton Ticino, but at its upper end, 

towards Porlezza, in Italy, is a narrow, crooked 

lake, about 20 miles long, 540 feet deep, 910 feet 

above the sea; the Tresa at the bottom carries off 

its watMTs to Lago Maggiore; plenty of good troutj 

2S!te sAarware ateen eepecinlly above G«ndriaj but 

^ell caH£mted and wooded; kod ^nli ot changing', 

/ctaregqnerlewa. FimiiBf9tH0Sai9dk>9^€^hltssk 



from Lugano, and S,980 feet high) , on its west shore, 
there is a splendid prospect of it, and the plain of 
Italy, the Alps, Monte Rosa, &c. Other places on 
its shores are Capo Lago, Morcote, and Agno. A 
beautiful boat trip to Ponte Tresa. From Porlezza 
there is a rail to Menaggio on Lago di Como. 

From Lugano, the stations on the Como line are 
HarOffgla (2 miles), and Hellde (4| miles). 

McilldZlBiO (Stat.)» or Mendrii in German, in a 
very agreeable and fruitful country, with a popula- 
tion of 2,800, three convents (one having a large 
church,) a college, silk mills, aprinting office for con- 
traband books, &c. Balema, San Martino, and Yal 
Maggio are beautiful spots. Balema is a country 
seat of the Bishop of Como. 

From Mendrisio it is 5 miles to CMaSBO (Stat.) 
the last village in Switzerland, with a custom- 
house; and after crossing the Italian frontier, you 
come, 8 miles further, to 

Como (Stat.), in Italy, whence there is a rail to 
Milan, distant 30 miles from Como. {Be^Bradshcnc's 
Hand-Book to Italy.) 

From Bellhizona to Lago Maggiore. the line to 
Locarno turns oft at Cadenazzo, where are very 
beautiful views of the lakes, and after passing 
Ciarthio, you reach, at 13i miles from BeUinzona, 
the picturesque and interesthig little town of 

LOCABNO Stat); German, Luggaree. 

Hotels: Grand Hotel Locarno; Corona; Suisse; 
Pension Villa Righetti. 

Population, 2,840. This is the third largest 
town of the Canton, and stands in a flne spot, though 
marshy, near the mouth of the Maggia. At the 
Reformation it had nearly 6,000 population, but hi 
1553, many of the principal families (the Orelli, 
Muralti, Ac.) were banished for Protestantism, and 
settled in Ztirich. On the Grosser Plata stands the 
old Castle, now the (Jovemmait House and the Pub- 
lic Garden. The Church of Madonna del Sauo (of 
the Rock), on aheight, with a most delightful view of 
the lake, has some good carvings and frescoes by 
B. Luini. There are two other churches (Trinltahas 
also a fine view), convents, a hospital, library, and 
the pillar of S. Vittoria with a statue on it. The 
Inhabitants ftre divided thto'7 guilds, ti^., lifobfli, 
Btti^^ *I<itttet\;- ftfeWSBB&r (jffdk^nV Oriondl 



Route 11.] 



KAIBES-AUGST, BBUGO. 



67 



ind Mensualisti (foreign immigrants). A pictnr- 

f^que display of costumes at the weekly market, 

: rhich the country people attend. The views and 

alks about are, the Pass of Ponte BroUa ({ hour); 

e Fall of the Fozzaccia,atMaggia, up ValMaggia ; 

he Belvedere Hotel at Intragna (4 miles); Ascona 

d Brissago on the lake. Also to the Borromean 

lands, Falanza, Arona, &c. A road strikes 

nee through the Centovalli, up the Melezza, 

the fine Falls of St. Remo, to Domo d'Ossola 

to 10 hours), on the Simplon Road, in Piedmont. 

See Route 4.) 

ROXJTE 11- 
e, to Baden and Ziirlcli, Zug, the Blgl, 
and Kossberg, Scliwsrz, Elnsledeln, and 
Altort 

By road or rail. The direct S^^iss North-Eastem 
lail (BStzbergbahn), opened 1875, is 89 kilometres, 
tr 53 miles long, and turns off from the Lucerne 
tail at Pratteln (Stat.) it passes Rhelnfelden, 
Btein, Brugg, Turgi, Baden, <fec. Take care to sit 
m the right hand side of the carriage. (See 
iradshaw's Continental Guide). From Turgi, near 
(mgg, a branch line runs toWaldshut, on the north 
tank of the Rhine. A rail may be taken from 
iasle, along this bank, to Waldshut, and thence to 
jSrugg and Ziirich. 

' Following the Road from Basle, you pass Hardt 
tf^orest, as in Route 10, on to Basbl-Augst, the 
loman Augusta Rawacoi'um^ founded by Munatius 
*Iancu8, in the Emperor Augustus's time. On the 
)ther side of the Ergoltz is 

KAIBER-AUOST, or Rhelnfelden (Stat) 
Hotelt: Des Salines; Dietsch zur Krone; Belle- 
rue. 

A small walled town (2,300 population) in 
rgau, on the Rtiine, joined to the Baden side by 
covered wooden bridge. Town House and Church ; 
th salt works and baths. In the middle of the river 
hich forms several rapids here, is the old Fort of 
'iein (a rock), which came to the German empire, 
218, and to Austria, 1330. In 1445, it was des- 
troyed by the Confederates, and by the Swedes, 
1688 (Thirty Years' War). It stood a siege of 
twenty-five weelcs, in 1634, from the Rhinegrave 
ffthn Tbilip, and another from the French In 1679, 
&» doBtnyed It, 1748. At Olaherg, or Gottcs 



Garden, is a foundation or academy (for women) 
as old as 1174. There is a large Kuranstalt with 
saline, brine, and mud baths (Sool-Bad); good 
arrangements and reasonable prices. 

From Rhehifelden, the rail passes Hdhlin 
(Stat.), on a branch of the Rhine ; then Stein 
(Stat.)» on the south bank of the Rhino, opposite 
Sackingen Abtiey, which gives name to a station 
on the rail following the north bank. 

[From Stein, the road towards Waldshut, follows 
the south bank to Lauffenlmrg (Hotel: Post), a 
small place, with an old castle, giving name to a 
station on the north side. The river here divides, 
and makes a fall or rapids (Lanf en) called Kleine 
(little) Lauf en, to distinguish it from the famous 
Grosse (great) Laufen, at Schaffhausen. It was 
here that the last Viscount Montagu attempting 
the rapids in a boat, was drowned, 1793, about the 
same time that his seat, Cowdray, was burnt in 
England. Salmon abound. Across the river is 
seen the Feldbcrg (rising 4,600 feet), the highest 
part of the Black Forest. 

The rail on the Forest side passes Albbmck to 
Waldshut (StaX,)- Motels: Rebstock; Schatzli; 
Biumer— near which the Aar falls in ; and thence 
through a tunnel to Thiengen (on the right the 
ruins of Kiissenberg) on to SchaflThausen (see 
page 75). Travellers disposed to "rough " it, and 
not put out by a ducking now and then, may 
descend the rapids from Schafifhausen on the timber 
rafts, making acquaintance with the rivcrmen, a 
hardy and peculiar class. Rail hence to Winter- 
thur via Eglisau and Bulach (page 78). 

From Stein, as above, the Baden line passes 
Eiken (Stat.) to 

Frik or FrlCk (Stat.)— iTofe/*.- Adler; Engel— 
a small market town, in the Frik-thal, where the 
roads to Aarau and Ziirich part off. It has a good 
church and hospitaL You may cross the Staffeleck 
(2,080 feet above sea), past Herznach, &c., down 
to Kiittigen and Aarau (3 stunden). 

From Frik you ascend the Frik-thal, by Hor- 
nussen, BStzen, to the top of the Jura chain, at the 
BStzbei^ (3,000 feet) or Mons VoceHusof the Rqqubavv 
whence tVieTe V« 8^ ^ii<& -^x^v^n^N.. 



66 



BSADSHJLW'8 BWITZISLAVD AKB THB TTBOL. 



ar 



Station Hotel. Here the line from Aaraa and 
Berne comes in (page 56). 

Bmgg (not to be confounded with Bmck or 
Broc, in Fribourg Canton), is named from the 
bridge over the Aare, near its junction with the 
Reuss and Limmat. Near it is the Roman Fifn- 
donissa, (now Windisch), formerly one of the most 
imiwrtant stations in Helvetia, where traces of an 
aqueduct, amphitheatre, Ac., hare been noticed. 
It is a pleasant little town (population, 1,500) 
with old walla and towers, and belonged to the 
house of Hdbsburg or Sapsburg^ yrhote old historic 
Castle is near at hand (see below). From hence 
Duke Albrecht or Albert set out 1853, to the siege 
of Ziirich ; the Bernese took it, 1415, and it was 
bnmt by Hans von Falkenstein and his knights, 
1444. Zimmermann, who wrote the "Pleasures 
of Solitude," Frickhart, and the chroniclers, Eglof 
and Etterlin, were natives. 

ExcuBSiONS may be made to the BStzberg (1^ 
stunde), with its fine view of the Alps, and the comu 
ammonis fossils ; to WUdegS and its Castle (2^ 
stunden) ; the Gislifluh (31 stunden) ; Aarau (4 
stunden), all up the Aare (see page 56). Down the 
river is Rein or Reis, with another good view from 
its church, and a light bridge over the stream. 
Qoing again up the Aare (4 miles), is Habsburg 
or Sclilliznacll, near the noted JSefUnznaeh Bad 
(Bath), an excellent watering-place, with warm 
sulphur springs (temperature, 88*)t and cheap and 
ample accommodation at the grreat Bath House, 
in a temperate spot among forests. It is both 
bathed in and drunk; is useful in gout, diseases 
of the skin and glands, but beingrather stimulating, 
it must be taken with caution. The church has a 
monument to General Yon Erlach. 

Yisit the Castles of Brunegg and Wildenstein, 

but especially the old keep of Habsburg (HatokU 

Castle), on the Wiilpelsberg (1,820 feet above the 

sea), built 1020, by Rudolf of Habsburg, ancestor 

of the house of Austria. It commands a fine view. 

Another Rudolph of Habsburg, who became 

Eniperor of Germany, 1278, had six daughters, 

wJkomarrioA respectively Ludwig of Bavaria, Otto 

COtAoJ of Brandenburg, Albrecht of Baxony, Otto 

^^^^"^^eohew of Ludwig), CharJes Jtfartel, 

f Bohemia, ami neater Bniffg, I 



[Section 2. 

beyond the site of Vindonista^ is the old Church 
(fast becoming a ruin), with its stained windows 
and tombs of the Knights who fell at Sempach, 
belonging to the Abbey of Konigs/elden, founded 
1810, by Elizabeth of Germany (and her daughter 
Agrnes), on the spot where her husband, the 
Emperor Albert, was murdered by his nephew, 
John of Suabia, two years before. 

The next to Brugg is Toigl (Stat.), where the 
branch to WaldBbUt (above) makes a junction. 
Then comes 

BADEN (Stat.) ; or Baden-in-Aargau. 
Hotels: In the town, Waage; Bahnhof. At 
the BatTis, Neue Kuranstalt; Schiff; Blume; 
Schweizerhof; Bfir; Ochs; Freihof; Verenahof; 
Limmathof. 

Population, 8,^80(^. The most celebrated watering 
place in Switzerland, the Roman Victu Thermarum, 
or Agute Helvetica:. It was laid waste *y Caecina ; 
but rebuilt and fortified by the Austrian princes, 
whoso large old Castle, called the Stein zu Baden 
(Rock at Baden), still stands in ruins above the 
town, and the Pass of the Limmat on which it lies. 
It was here (at the Rathhaus), the preliminaries 
of the Peace of Utrecht were signed 1712. The 
nineteen sulphur Springs, 20 minutes' distance, 
are divided into Kleine and Grosse Bader; the 
Great Baths, on the west side of the ruin 
being most esteemed, the others are used by the 
peasants. Temperature, 106 to 124 degrees; and 
the daily supply most abundant for the bathers, 
besides great quantities of salt and gypsum. The 
best is the Verenabad, with an oaken fig^ure 
of St. Verena, which some take to be a statue 
of Isis; Freibad is near it, in a large square; 
Quelle is another; Armenbad, for the poor; and 
all, though deeper than Ziirich Lake, are 1,090 feet 
above the sea. As many as 14,000 or 16,000 visitors 
use them, for gout, rheumatism, scrofula, diseases 
of the skin and glands, palsy, crooked limbs, old 
wounds. There are here a hospital, theatre. Ca- 
puchin Convent, Ac. Among the walks are those 
on the Limmat and Matte; the views from the 
Kreuz-berg, Staffel-berg, and Teufelskeller, and 
WetUngen Al>bey Clwm^^AiaiTi^n^w a schpoL 



BonM II.] M: 

Urnmat, part Wetttngetl, otar > lumd, BOO t«t 
loot; Dletlkoii,ii'oiitbiiir-Hai'; udJUitattan; 
■D nolnipartiDt pliFU. Haiacna uurchH) thli 
war, In 17g». aDddeFeatBd the BnaiUoa at ZUilch. 
ZifKICH IBtat.) 

PopaUtini, 80,000. with commimei. 

AMii Hotel Banr an Lac. Pint-dail hoMI, 
baautifnllf dtaatsd, with fine gardBn. 

Hotei da BtUe Vdq an Lac. Finely aitoated. 
ODDimaiidliie tplADdid rlews. Open all the year. 

Int-cUaa, and Tery comfbrtable. 
Victoria; Habla; Bchircrti Banr-Stadt. 

SnffUA and Stole* CTiurcA Sen*M. 

.^pnl flr Bradilau-i Onide. C. Bchmldt. Ll- 

LoDdon papen may be had. Kevripaprn, i1». 

brldgH. Baths on the like. Baxaar ct Snlia 
■Ttlclu behind the Calhtdral. EiceLlent beer at 
DnbtMhBledll'a, neai the Rail. 

E«Qirar.— At zarleh theie Is reUiroy oiinmn- 
BleKloB ^th Baile (JS miiei dlreet, vii BnigB>i 
Bama <y(t the Entllbncb). Zog. LncaniB, Weien. 
eiana (41 mil« dlnetl, St. Gall, Colre. Wlntei- 
Unu', Bgllaahaiiieii. Blngen (M mllet direct, iM 
EtswallaXand ConetinceCetinllegdlRcl), (See 
SPbMm'j CMtfRCHlol Gaidi}. For a cootlnDa- 
tlon Ql tha Central Swlu llna, to Cuica, tii Bappei- 
aohwjl, and Bagati, lee Boote 24. 

A pFOBpetinia commerdgl town, capital of tha 



the aca, M the bottom of (he Z 
JJumat mna out of It <to the Aar), dlTldlng the 
town into Qroaie and Klelne Stadt, thosEh Iher ua 
neailT eqnsl. Flie Bridges nolle them. Groue 
Htadt, OD ZUrichberg Hill. Ii the olden pan, with 
oaitnw rtrcetB, and high middle- age bouiet \ Kleins 
fltadt, which la more modeni. Ilea between the 
Idmniat and Slhl. bavlng a long promenade, the 
Baluihof rtiuae, with the Bahnhof iplats In the eaa- 
tre oontalning a bronio atatna of Eacher, projector 
Of Uw Bt Ooihard nil. Since tlia nuaputa wer« 







One 


of the beat tUw. of It la iron, the BUrgll 


Qron 




the KatibaMlon, or " KMu " Oudena; or (rom the 






the Ute of a Roman OaMuin. 




WW the leat of the Tfrnrial, In Roman timea 








ZwhiBll here oipoBed the sale of idle^ ltl»; her. 


Cove 


rdale printed the Engllih Bible, UM; and 








pnbliriied by the flwHi reformera. In 1668. 






ofth 


eontrea of the silk and cotton maoolictnrei. 




f the trade with Germany and Italy; while U 




lownod Bi a Beat of leuolne. Keller. Ftluli, 




r. Hoffmann, Gayer, Geisner, Meyer. Weith . 


mUll 


r, Pcstaloiil, Layater, ftc., have Unghl here. 




Ide 


indthemlddleolBeptamber. Whentheeaily 



dlatlngnlabed. In March. Ifi7 
hero by the French reftlgeei 
Gemeni while coJebratlDg th 



iepnbIlcballdlnBi,themoit remarkable 



hu 3. oholr Tfi feet high; St. Petcr'e haa a good 
tower end clock. The old WanerHndie (Wnter- 
cbnrch) near the MUnater Bridge formerly o«d afl 
a trading hall, 1> (with the HcLDlhaB^ inBlltnled 
1479, by Hani Felden), now the Stadt-hlbllothek, or 
Toiai and Contonat UbTO.TH, 
M,OW>-TO\xan*a»oa.i»ialfi 



70 



fiHADSHAW's SWITSEStAND AND !rHB TTSOL. 



[Section 2. 



Lady Jane Orej, Zwinglfs Greek Bible, with his 
MS. Hebrew notes, Frederick the Great* s letter to 
Professor Mtiller on German Poetry; letters and 
portraits of Zwingli and other learned men and 
burgomasters ; statue of Zwingli, Dannecker*s bust 
of Larater ; cast of Henri Quatre*s face after death ; 
Boman and Etrurian antiquities, coins; Mtlller*s 
great relief-panorama of a third of Switzerland, 
with the Yorarlberg, on a scale of 40^00 ; objects 
from the Lake dwellings; and good collections of 
insects, plants, fruits, with tt skeleton of a bird 
from the Glaris black slate. 

At the Arsenal^ near Baur's, is a choice collec- 
tion of ancient implements; such as *' morning 
stars " (^'Morgenstem," a spiked ball, attached by 
a chain to a polo), halberts, Zwingli's battleaze, 
crossbows, one of which they show as William 
Teirs. About 200 students attend the University^ 
founded 1882; it has a library, cabinets of zoology, 
minerals, botany, veterinary school, &c. The 
Federal Polytechnic School, a fine building (1864), 
stands above the town, near the Cantonal Hospital 
and Anatomical Theatre, the Forest Schools, and 
Observatory. Besides the Cantonal Buildings, 
there are the Waisenhaus, for orphans; the deaf 
and dumb and blind Institutions; a Kiinstlerhans, 
for artists, who have a collection here; a House of 
Correction ; a newly laid out Cemetery, under the 
Hohen Promenade, on the Limmat, with a monu- 
ment to N&geli; a handsome Casino near the 
Hirschengraben walks; the SchUtzenhaus, or 
•porthig gallery. The Weltenborg Tower or 
Asylum, on the lake, is now gone. 

Several literary and scientific societies, with 
Bible and Missionary Societies, exist here; Dr. 
Meyer, and MM. Ochsner and Hirzel have made 
collections of coins; Professor Keller and Burgo- 
master Hess, of paintings; Escher von der Linth, 
of fossils; Escher ZoUikofer, of insects. At Filssli's 
is an excellent map of the valleys round Monte 
Rosa, ^., by Studer. 

BuUinger was a native of Ziirlch. In the pre- 
sent day it is remarkable for the treaty of 10th 
November, 1869, between Austria and France, by 
wii/eli tAe /ormer ceded LombArdy to Italy, 



(2,866 feet above the sea), wliich takes in a noble 
prospect of the town and lake, the Bernese Obcr- 
land, the Jura chain, with peaks of the Vosges, 
and the Black Forest. It is about 6 miles from 
Ziirich, and has an Hotel on the top ; to which a 
Railway was opened, 1876. Other fine points are 
Manneck Castle, KUssnacht, the Waid (1 stunde), 
the Forsch, the Hydelbad, Albis-Hochwacht and 
Albishorn, the BUrgli-Terrasse, on the road to the 
Uetli, 1 mile, the Sonnenberg (Inn)^ the Karolinen- 
berg (Inn)^ 1 mile, behind which is the new 
Belvedere Tower, Ac. 

The Canton, one of the largest, covers 700 
square miles, with a population of about 317,580, 
nearly all Protestant and German-speaking. 

ZUBIOHLAKE 

Is long and narrow, being about 25 miles to the 
top of it, and only 2 to 8 broad. It is about 1,300 
feet above the sea, and 600 deep in some parts. Its 
pleasant and highly -cultivated shores swarm with 
a busy populati(m, among little towns, villages, 
vineyards, orchards, country seats, and fields. Tbe 
lower portion is traversed by steamers 7 times, 
and the upper 4 times a-day, visiting every place 
of the least consequence, and being in connection 
with those on the Wallenstatter Lake. The best 
views are from the Pfannemiiel above Meilen, on 
the east side, and ThahotU Ckwrch on the west. 

A pleasant excursion may be made to an island 
(celebrated by Klopstock), and the Bocken near 
Horgen, where coaches are taken for Zug and 
the Rigi; other spots are ELilchburg Old Church; 
Oberrieden, where Lavater wrote his work on 
Physiognomy; Waedenswyl Castle and Fall; 
Richterswyl Castle, where pilg^rims for the £in- 
siedeln rail land ; Staefa (pop. 4,080) once a Roman 
station, with a g^ood church, &c. On Afenauor 
Ufhau Island, near the top, Ulrich von Hutten, 
the champion of German freedom at the Reforma- 
tion, found a retreat and a grave, 1628. Thejdank 
Bridge^ from Rapperswyl to Harden, 4,800 feet 
long, where the Rail crosses, was made by 
Albert the Wise, and cuts off the Ober See, or 
upper end, reaching to Schmerikon, from which 
the Lhit Canal runs to the Wallenstiitter See. This 
part is yery fLu«, and hemmed in by ridges, above 
which rise Ui« S^««sNMiK«) Q^axQss\Mst^^ tA« 



Boute 11.] nvQj 

Ttom Zfizioh to Ziur, Bchwytis, tticemd, 
and Altorf. 

Zflrloll to Ztig and Luceme may be done by 
rail, about 40 miles, past Alstetten, Knonau, 

Zng, duun, aisikon, Rothlareuz (page 56), 

on the Benss, and Ebikon, near the Roth Lake. 
Care should be taken to sit on the rigM side of 
the carriage, for the sake of the views. Or by the 
road to Zug, as follows:^ 



71 



(a) Over the AlhU, 

ToAlbisWirth8hau8(inn)... 2| stunden. 

Knonau 2i 

St. Wolfgang IJ 

Zug If 

Arth 3 

Schwytz 3 



II 



11 



ti 



11 



11 



14 stunden. 

(b) By Horgen. 

To Horgen (by steam) 3 stunden. 

Sihlbriicke If 

Zug U 

Arth 8 

Schwytz 3 



11 



11 



II 



11 



12i stunden. 
There are two carriage roads; one round the 
foot of AlbiS (a ridge on the west of ZUrich Lake), 
by Albisrieden and Bonstetten to Knonau; the 
other oyer the Albis itself, and much to be pre- 
pared, on account of the noble panorama it 
e omm a nd fc Taking the latter, you keep near the 
lake tin you cross the Sihl at Adliswyl, when 
the zigzag ascends to the Albis Inn (2,400 feet 
above the sea) which offers a fine prospect ; but 
better views are obtained from the Uetliberg 
(as above), and Hochwache or Watch Tower on 
the Schnabelberg (2,890 feet), further on. The 
view takes in Suabia to the north ; Ziirich Lake, 
Ac., below ; and, to the south Rigi, Pilatus, Zug 
Lake, with the Jung^rau and other snowy peaks 
behind. From this the direct road to Zug leads 
by Albisbrunn hydropathic establishment, and 
Hansen, to Cappel or Kappel, so called from a 
convent Chapel here, and famous as the spot where 
the Zilrichers were defeated and Zwingli fell, in 
the religious war of 1581— now marked by a stone 
pillar. TartberoaareBMrtaidZvis\ butfoUoi?- 



ing the Luceiiie road dowh the Albis, you come 
to th6 little Turler See (Lake of Turl), and 

Knonau (Stat.) inn: Adler. 

Not far from which is Lungem or Isemberg, 
where part of a temple to Isis, and many Roman 
coins were found, 1741. 

Here the direct road proceeds up the Reuss, by 
GislikerbrQcke, Dierikcn, Ac, to Luceme, about 
11 miles. Leaving this at Wolfgang, we come to 
Cham (Stat,) the establishment of the Anglo- 
Swiss Milk Company, on the Zuger See, and Zug. 

The second way to Zug, as above, from Ziirich, 
is to take the steamer to HOTgen (Stat.) — Inns: 
Schwan; Lowe; Schiitzenhaus— whenceomnibuses 
run to Zug (2^ hours). Or you may walk to Zug, 
and take a boat on the lake to Arth, and then walk 
up the Rigi. Opposite Horgen is Hellen, where 
Mr. John Aeppli, schoolmaster here, was the first 
to discover (1854) the Lake Dwellings, described 
in Dr. Keller's work. From Horgen you cross the 
Albis, to 

SiUbriiCke, so called from the covered bridge 
over the Sihl, burnt 1847, in the Sonderbund war. 
Then by Baar to 

ZUa (Stat.) 

Inns: Hirsch; Ochs; Belle Vue; Falk; Krone; 
Lowe. 

Capital of Canton Zug (the smallest of all), on a 
Lake of the same name, in a fruitful country, with 
a fine view of the Rigi, Pilatus, the snowy Bernese 
peaks, &,c. It is an ancient walled Catholic town, 
with 5,100 population, six churches, six chapels, 
and other buildings. The Canton (64 square miles ; 
population, 22,995), joined the Confederation, 1852. 

At St. Oswald's Church (so called after King 
Oswald of Northumbria) is an altarpiece by C. 
Brandenberg, and several carved statues. 8t, 
MichaeVs has a gay churchyard, full of gilt 
crosses, &c., and a well-stocked bone house, in 
which the skulls of the departed are all catalogued. 
Some of these grim relics are to be seen even in 
the houses. The Capuchin Church, on Zugtr- 
berg^ among vineyards and orchards, commands 
a fine view from. U.* Vs^«t. "^^ws^ '«»ss£v«»a.x '<*• 

Felsenegg, ox^ VVNa Ve^VSs. ^^i.^ v«x>£i^- J^"" 



72 



BllADSfiAW's SWtTZIfiftLAND AKD fHfi fT&OL* 



fSectlon 2. 



the blood of LancUanmann Collin Aid his sons, -who 
fell at Bellinzona, 1422, against the Milanese; a 
memorial to another of the family, who died on the 
field of Cappel, stands on the Flatz. In the old 
gloomy Bad. Haus are specimens of stained glass, 
by MtiUer, of Zug, and a map of the Canton. 
There are also the new Cantonal Buildings ; the 
Nenfrauenstein International and Commercial In- 
stitute (an excellent one) ; Gymnasium and College ; 
Schiitzenhaus (shooting gallery), Wikart's collec- 
tion of natural objects, a clock foundry, &c. 
Among the peculiar customs here are the festive 
meals, called Nachbarmahler. One mile above 
Zug are the new sanatory establishments (Euran- 
stalten), Felsenegg, and SchSnfels. In June, 1887, 
several newly-constructed quays and about twenty 
houses, suddenly sunk into the lake. 

About 4 miles south-east is the primitive valley 
of the Egerl, at the bottom of the small Egeri 
dee or lake, which, henmied in by mountains, is 
2,870 feet above the sea, and well stocked with 
fish. A great fair is held in October, at Ober 
Egeri, which with Unter Egeri presents many 
picturesque Alpine sites. One path leads over 
the mountains^ by St. Just's Chapel and Altmatt, to 
Elnsledeln (8 miles), now a Station (page 74); 
another up the edge of the lake to Morgarten 
(3 miles, p. 74), where the first battle for Swiss 
liberty was fought, 1815. In the neighbourhood 
are the Frauenthal and its old nunnery, and 
Oberweil, both on the shore of the lake. Water 
excursions may be made to Immensee (in the 
upper part of the lake), and, by the Yierwald- 
stattcr See, to Lucerne. Those w;ho wish to 
make pedestrian Journeys by the Rigi, through the 
Bernese Oberland and Oberhasli-thal to the Furka 
and Grimsel Passes into the St. Gtothard, wHl find 
this a good place for engaging guides. Distances 
from Zug on foot, to Zttrich, 5 hours. ; to Lucerne, 
5 (both may be reached by rail); to Egeri and 
Morgarten, 3. 

The LAKE OF ZUG, or Znger See, 

is 1,400 feet above the sea, 9 miles long, 1 to 2} 

broad, and 1,200 feet deep, at St. Adrian's Chapel. 

It has not such pleasant shores as many of the 

^mfsv JaJtes^ stJOl It makes a striking picture, 

,^9PieG/jg/4rJyvm Cape Kiemen; a point about the 

r/^fa/0 or tAe west aide, wh&re tb6 bbenee or 



upper laie begins, opposite a fall and Walchwyl 
Castle. Some of the best carp in the country are 
caught, often 901bs. weight; besides good trout 
and pike. Three steamers run ; the landing places 
being Walchwyl, Arth (see below), and Immensee 
(Hotel du Righi), near which is the ffohle Gasse 
(hollow way) where Tell is said to have secreted 
himself when he shot Gessler. 

Soon after leaving Zug the wooded Pilatus 
appears, to the south-west; the huge pyramid- 
shaped Rigi to the south, rising out of the lake ; 
the Rossberg and Steinerberg, to the south-east, 
with the Ross-stock and the Mythen of Schwytz 
behind, a bare red pile, 6,245 feet above the 
sea; the trees on which were Entirely burnt by 
fire in 1800. The high road from Zug runs 
along the east side of the lake past Walchwyl and 
St. Adrian's, and around the foot of the Rossberg. 
Near St. Adrian's, a stone marks the spot where, in 
1315, the Ritter Hefairich von Htlnenberg shot an 
arrow from the Austrian into the Swiss camp, with 
these words on it, ^^HUtet euch am St. Otmars- 
abend am Morgarfetiy'" (Look out, on St. Otmar's 
evening, on Morgarten), a friendly warning which 
secured the victory. Both arrow and bow are 
shown at 

ARTH, 
which stands at the head of Lake Zug, under the 
Rigi. A Ball was opened 1875 from here to the 
top, past the stations of Ot>eraxtli, GoldaQ, 
Krilbel, Rigl-Sli^stetll. Rigl-Staffel, and 

Blg}-Klllm (HoUh—SQB p. 60). The descent by 
rail can be made to Vltimail (see pages 69-60), on 
the other side. 

ffoteU: Adler; Blgi; Schltissel. 

A town of Canton Schwytz, with 2,300 popula- 
tion, in a fine spot, whence The Rlgl is ascended 
from this side. The public fountain is a single block 
of granite. St. George's tJhurch, built 1694, has a 
silver bowl, which belonged to Charles the Bold. 
At the Capuchin Convent, are some old works 
relating to Swiss history, Baumann's reliefs of the 
Rossberg landslip are also to be seen. The valley 
lies alnong the mountains of breccia or conglo- 
merate, called nagelfluh (or nail-stratum) by the 
Germans, and plum-pnddihg stone in English. Of 
such the Rigi, Btetherberg, and Rossberg are 



bonte tl.] 



XuMtol thU liable dom Ud Ul Uw<r4lla7i 
ud the Sad Scplemtier, 1806, te nnurkible for an 

immmH T.anrt.iip from the RoMbarg, occi- 



B earthy parte, left I 



Uey)to 

baiin, villagei, their lubabltute (Bboat 400). utUe. 
flocki, true, flelde, aad flT«Tthln£ bdoDj^nff to 
them, to the fwt of the moontiilii, and into Luke 
Lowerta, 6 nlles off{ where the ttoiiee jmd mnd 

al ■ kmlly wu uted, ifter belnE <^arritd l,eDO 
feeCfiom theli cottage; and a chllfl of two yean 
VAi found nnbnrt, OD Ite mattresB, in the mnd. 
TheTUlageioTerwheIinedirere(3oId&ii.BauliiEen, 
Botben, aad part of Lowertz ; abont tiro ndlllDn 
Iranci' worth of propsfty wa« flenroyod. Maiit 
of Uie track taken by the Landdip are plainly vi ilble 
aefon walk from Arth past tha pew Tlllaj:e of 
00lllail(Stat,); tbe old ilUagB being burled 100 
feet below the rnbblih accnmntated here. At Ihe 
Charch a marble alab gim the parUcolan tl the 
cataitrophe. A path bence leadi up the Blgl, and 
another from Lowerti, which itandi en the little 
LakeDftheeaffiename(troienlnwtnter]. Before 
the Landellp It wai one-thltd larger; but on that 
ooeaalon the laland of Bdiwlnau with Ita eaiUe 
(bnllE 1806) lu the middle of It, wm eompletely 
corered: Seewen Tillage at the ruther end had 
many of Iti bosMa iwcpt awkyi Olten Ch^d 
(of wood) wae mored half a league from ite place; 
and tJve Beh were caitled into SlabMn, half a mile 
from the oortb abor*. 

BCBT7TZ, or 80HWTZ. 

SbIOi: Btlidii Hotel Hedlger. 

Fopolatiio. O^oao, all CathoUei. Chief U 
CantQi Schwytx, and comnonly called Dorf, i 



nMagtlnMAtutrlalallW. InllD7ei 

;wham Tell >hot) ; one of them wi 
UtiDffacher, of Scbwytz. There li : 



It conilitB of two principal and other itreeti, 
witbalarge irregnlarplace or plati, Oneoflbe 
oldest bolldbigi 1> the Mmmar, araclcd laiJ. at. 
Martin's Parish CTmreft, one of the best In Bwllier- 

Tlew from the tower. It hs> jcen altars o( reined 
marlilo, with plttnrei, Ae.; the Chapels of BL Croli 
gnd St.Uichael (caUed the Prtson), and a large 
Cemetery, containing the tomb of the patriot Aleys 
Reding {who fell agaloat the French, IJM), one of 
u family of great fame. The Dominican CODTCDt 
is en the Bile of a castle girUB them, 12T3, and baa 
d Kbool attached. Good altar paintings at the 
Capnchln ConveDt. bunt 1M9. At the Hatbhana 
(Town Hall) are portraits of betweai tort; and fifty 
Landammanns; pafnUngsof theRoisbergiandillp, 
iind the banner given by Jnllns II. to b li Swlis mer- 
ueIuu'le^ with the inscription, aoMlier del OIbb- 
*nu(Defendaraof the Faith), equlTBlent to the title 

PapaJgUt. Same old Swies weapons are preserred 
In the Anenal, which is partly a lalt stare. In like 
Tnanner t^e hospital serres also tos a prison. The 
archires are eiceedlngljr Intereatlng, a* contalnMg 

fedentea. Tha Jcaolts' College, built ISaJ, was 
ab^lihed after the Bonderbond War of 1817. 
There ia also a Publio library- The militia 



The OaotOl Is m 



of Alpine Talleys, out of 
1 OliLmlsch Is fl.OOO feet 
I3S, to 3IHI tqnare miles. 



hl|^; populattan aboDi I 

chiefly pasture; the products helng cheese, butter 
cider, timber, cattle, pigs, horses. They are i 
stnrdy, aquar»-bni1t people, and sonnd CatboUei 
speaking a strong gottnral Oettnan. 



Hythen <0,IU feet abore sea). In a qnlet garden- 
like part of tho Moatta-thal, well suited for 

given name to the whole country (flwitieriand, the 

land of the Swltzera, a 

wai the lacgeit of the three ForMt Omuoa si i oj inu»iuii 'j"m("> cv.-as.-«eii*v.' 



74 



BRABSHAW'S SWlTZfiKLAND AND THSS TTSOL. 



rSection SI. 



red rock, the ascent of which is easy and safe, 
commands a beautiful Panorama of the Frohnalp, 
Umi, Seheidegg, Rigi, Rossberg, Hacken, Ac, all 
within a short distance; the last having a path 
over to Einsiedein (10 miles north-north-east). 
Other charming points are the Sagenmatt and 
Tschiitschi Hermitage. Up the Muotta-thal (5 
Stunden long), is an ancient Franciscan Convent, 
almost depopulated by the plague in 1288, and 
again in 1590. It was along this valley that 
Snwarrow and the Russian army marched against 
the French in September, 1799 He was victorious 
in a desperate encounter, but had to retire before 
fresh French troops, and cross the Pragel into the 
Fanix-thal. See Route 26, page 134. 

Ezoursions may be made to the Chapel at 
Wylen, with a view over the Vierwaldstatter See; 
to Seelisberg which overlooks the Umer See, and 
abounds with fine views; also to Seelisberg Kulm; 
the Sonnenberg, andRigi-Scheidegg, orScheideck; 
the last a bathing-place and whey-cure, in a healthy 
and attractive situation, not far from the Rigi Kulm. 
These excursions may also (perhaps preferably) 
be made from Brunnen, page 60. 

SchWytz to ElnsledellL— There are two ways 
— ^first, by a path (10 mUes) up the Alpthal, and 
over the Hacken (4,570 feet hig^), with a fine 
prospect of the Lake of Lucerne, the Rigi, Ac. 
Second, by diligence along the road (17 miles) 
in 3 hours. It passes Steineil, the birth-place of 
Stauffacher, a companion of William Tell, bom at 
a house now marked by an old chapel. Then 
Sattel, on a ridge, near Lake Egeri; and Rothxk- 
THURM, from which Morgarten may be visited as 
below. ThenALTMATT; followed by BiBRBBRiroKf 
from which Einsiedein is 8 miles distant, past 
several "stations" for the pilgrims to stop at. 

EINSIEDELN (Stat), the " Hermitage.'' 
Also accessible by rail from Wadensweil. 
Hotels: Pfau; Sonne; Drei Konige; Adler; 
Schwan; and many more of one kind or another. 

The village is large and well-built, in a valley, 

among the mountains, in Canton Schwytz 2,900 

feet above the sea, with a large population. Its 

chjef j9ttraction is the famous Benedictine Abbeff, 

roaxitfedSS2, bySLMeinrad; very rich, luid visited 

jr0^>j-jjr bjrjuo^ooo devotees from all parts of the 



Continent. It was originally founded in the 
9th century. As it stands, it forms a handsome 
square pile, 476 feet by 419, with gardens and 
ofiices attached; rebuilt for the seventh time, 
1704-54, some parts of the old Abbey being retained. 
Its abbots maintained princely state, and were 
usually of noble birth; next to St. Gall it was the 
richest in Switzerland. The French plundered it, 
1798. A large Church with two bell towers, includes 
the Sanctuary or Marien Kapelle (Mary Chapel) 
rebuilt 1817; 22 feet by 21, and 17 high, and covered 
inside and out with marble, and ex-voto offerings of 
all descriptions. A splendid black marble image of 
the Yirgfln adorns it. There are also a magnificent 
high altar, an upper and lower choir; many frescoes, 
paintings, and statues over the ten side altars and 
dome; many confessionals; besides the Abbey library 
of 26,000 volumes, and collections of paintings, 
minerals, coins, and engravings, &c.; to which add 
the Mutter-(jlottes Bmnnen (Mother of God 
Spring) in the Square, with its image and fourteen 
jets, surrounded by forty-four shops for the sale of 
relics, images, medals, pictures, &c. The trade in 
these is so considerable that one house employs 
several dozen presses, and more than 700 work- 
men. 

Zwingli was parson here, 1517, and began the 
Swiss Reformation by preaching against indul- 
gences and pilgrunages. The present abbot, styled 
Abbot of Zug, is superior of his Order in Switzer- 
land. The brethren are intelligent and cul ti vated, 
good musicians, affable to strangers, and not bound 
by strict vows. An annual fair takes place on the 
14th September. 

To the south-west, on the Schwytz Road is 
Rothenthurm (Red Tower), already mentioned, with 
its church; and south-west of this, a little off the 
road, at the head of Lake Egeri, is the famous field 
of Morgarten (see page 72), where Leopold of 
Austria and his 20,000 men at arms were defeated 
by 1,200 Swiss, in November, 1315. A chapel 
stands on the spot. Here also Aloys Reding, the 
descendant of a family which sprang from Biber- 
egg, routed the French under General Schaucn- 
berg, 1798. 

Ri(fllter8W6il (Stat.) in Route 24, on the 
Lake of Ziirich, is aboat 6 miles to the north-west 
of Einsledela. 



Boate 12.] 



SCHAlTHAnSfiH. 



75 



IS. 

BaBle to Schaflfhausen and Constance, 
and to Zlirlcli y1& Sdiaflfhansen. 

Direct Rail from the Baden station to Schaff- 
hausen (60 miles) and Constance, 90f miles in all. 
Time about 6 hours. 

TO SCHAFFHAUSKN ON THK 8¥ri88 SIBB. 

To Augst 2i stunden. 

Rheinfeldcn 1 

Laufenburg 8f 

Waldshut 3 

Neunkirchc 6 

SchofFhausen 24 



11 



»» 



i» 



11 



By Eoad, 18{ stunden. 
Or, by Rail to Rheinfelden and Stein (Route 11) 
on the direct line to ZUrich; thence by road. 
The first part of this road, as far as Schaffhausen, 
is described in Route 11, page 67. From Schaff- 
hausen to Constance is as follows:-— 

(a) Bt Road up thb Rhine. 

To Diessenhofen If stunden. 

Stehi 1 

Steckbom 1 

ij^atingen If 

Constance 2| 



11 



11 



11 



i» 



8 stunden. 
K.B. — ^By steamboat it takes 5 hoursr 

From EtzweUen (near Stein), most of this Route 
may be done by Rail to Constance, 18 miles long. 
At Schaffhausen and Etzweilen there is railway 
connection with Ziirich. 

SCHAFFHAUSEN (Stat) 
(Or Schaf house, as the French call it) 

The Fall is atNeillian8en(Stat.), 2 miles from 
the town. 

Hotels: Schweizerhof — excellent first-class hotel 
atNenhausen; replete with every modem comfort; 
deservedly recommended. Splendid views.— See 
Advt. 

Hotel du Chftteau de Laufen, atNenhausen. 

Belle Yue — close to the Railway, at Neuhausen. 

Hotel de la Couronne or Krone, at Schaffiiausen. 

Rheinhof; Miiller; Riese. 

Population, 12,800 (Protestant), who spin cotton, 



the falls of the river below, comes the name of tho 
town, which means Ship or boat houses. It is the 
capital of the canton, and stands on the north slope 
of the Rhine, near the Rheinfall, 1,370 feet above 
sea. Formerly it was an imperial city, and from 
1330, under the Dukes of Austria, till it joined the 
Confederation, 1601. The best view of the town 
is from Feuerthalen opposite it. Never having 
suffered from fire, like most other towns, it has a 
more medimval aspect than any place in Switzer- 
land, in its numerous old-fashioned carved bal- 
conies and gable-roofed houses, which fill up the 
crowded streets. One of the finest of the old houses 
is called "Zum Ritter," its front is decorated with 
16th century frescoes. The ancient feudal towers, 
walls, and gates remain; and above it rises the old 
fort or castle, called Munoth (a corruption of 
UnnothX with walls 18 feet thick, and bomb-proof 
vaults. It was enlarged 1564, merely, it is said, 
to give employment to the poor, in a season of 
dearth. 

All Saints Minster, which belonged to an abbey 
founded in the eleventh century, was built 
1104-1453, but is mostly of the earlier date, and is a 
good solidspecimen of the Romanesque style, having 
a chancel which looks like a tower, and a bell cast 
1486, with the inscription Vivos voco, mortuosplango, 
fulgurafrango — (».e., I summon the living, weep for 
the dead, and break the force of the lightning), which 
sug^sted Schiller's famous song, "Das Lied vender 
Glocke." See also Longfellow's " Golden Legend." 
St. Johann is a large 12th century Gothic church. 
There are also a Rathhaus, Hospital, College, 
Gymnasium, and several Libraries. That belonging 
to the town (Stadtbibliothek) contains rare prints 
and the books and MSS. of John Miiller, the 
historian, a native, whose monument is on the 
Fasenstaub Road close to the town; also a mu- 
seum of shells, insects, minerals, &c., and a model of 
the ingenious wooden bridge over the river of one 
arch, 364f eet span, supported by a single pillar, which 
the French general Oudinot burnt 1799. Another 
library is at the Minster. The Imthumeum has a 
collection of paintings and engravings, especially 
rich in works of native art. Agricultural, Bible, 
and other societies exist li^te.. 



make files, Ac, and do a good deal in the carrying \ Amou^ \>aft -^VdA.* ^1 ^Nss^ ^vs«^ **'^^'*'^^ 
trade. From the bargemen stopping hero to ayoid \ uoXYl, a^i\iVw»s^\»Xv'^^5*^*^''^^^^^^'^ ^^ 



76 



fiRiJ)8HAW's SWlTZEttLAUd) AND Tfifi TITBOt. 



[Section 2 ^ 



eTening), the MUhlenthal, Lohn (from the Parson- 
age), Fasenstaub Qnarry and Garden, Schweizers- 
bild Chalk Works, in the Freudenthal; Griesbach, 
on the Hochranden (3^ stnnden), which is the last 
offshoot of the Jura chain (about 3,000 feet above 
the sea), affording a noble view of the Black Forest 
and the Alps, to Hauenthal and the fine ruins at 
the Hohentmel (2,170 feet), belonging to Wilrt- 
temberg. But the chief attraction is the Great 

Fall of the Rhine, at Lauf en, or Neuhausen 

(8tat.)« 2 miles lower down, and best reached by 
the north bank ; another way, on the Zttrich side, 
passes through Feuerthalen. A boat may be had 
from Schlosschen Worth, which brings you sud- 
denly upon the Fall, landing you under Lat/fen 
Ccuile (Schloss), on a wooded rock, where the artist 
Bleuler formerly lived. From a little balcony, 
built out right over the Fall, you have a mag- 
nificent view of the whole mass of rushing waters, 
which are here 300 feet broad, and tumble down 
45 to 60 feet. One is so near that the gallery 
shakes from the concussion. The balcony is 1,364 
feet above the sea, or 184 feet above the bottom 
of the fall. There are two or three other points 
of view in the Schloss grounds. Admission 1 franc. 
Three or four heads of rocks serve to divide the 
fall, one of these may be reached in a boat from 
Worth Castle, on the other side, where you may 
enjoy a picture of the whole scene in a camera 
obscura (f franc). The passage is quite safe. 

Other points of view arethePfarrgarten (Parson- 
age), the cliff behind Neuhausen Mill, and Weber's 
Hotel (a distant one) on a narrow part of the river. 
The best time of day is 8 a.m. or 3 p.m., when the 
sun's rays form beautiful rainbows in the spray; 
the volume of water is greatest in June and July, 
when the glaciers begin to melt. A spray cloud is 
seen constantly hovering over the spot, and, on 
a still night, the roar is heard for leagues. A 
striking effect is then produced by the glare of 
iron forges across the stream ; the moonlight view 
is also fine. The traveller should stay a night at 
Neuhausen or Dachsen, the former being the most 
usual and convenient sleeping-place. Boats are 
aJfrajTs ready to take passengers over. Salmon 



^«Z7»JF:— 7b Constance, Winterthur, 8t. Gall, 



line towards Singen is Kesserloeh and its Reindeer 
Cave, discovered by Mr. Merk. 

Steamers almost daily, up. to Constance, in 5 
hours; the descent is in half the time. 

The Canton, lying noi*th of the Rhine, covers 
about 153 square miles, with a population of 38,350, 
nearly all Protestants and German-speaking. Large 
quantities of cherries are grown for kirschwasscr 
or cherry brandy. 

From Schaffhausen, on the Constance Road, 
you pass Paradies, formerly a Convent, near a 
ferry on the river; and that of Catharinenthal, 
now a hospital, founded thirteenth century; then 
DiessenhOfen (inn: Adler), in Canton Thurgau, 
where the French crossed 1st May, 1800. Pro- 
testants and Catholics use the same church. 
Stein (Stat.) 

Inns: Sonne; Rabe. 

A small, prettily-seated town, mostly on the north 
(or Schaffhausen) side of the Rhine, here crossed 
by a bridge 148 feet long to BUTg. Above it is 
Hohenklingen Castle, with a noble prospect. 
Several houses have old fresco paintings outside ; 
and there are some curious specimens to be seen at 
the Abbey of St. George, built 1516,«with niched 
figures in the windows. The watchman, when he 
cries two o'clock, chants out "Noch a wyl" (Noch 
eine weile), or, Tet a while; in remembrance of a 
plot in the 14th century to give up the place to the 
enemy, this being the watch-word. It was over- 
heard by a cobbler who gave the alarm, and thus 
saved the town. To the east of it is Ochnlngen 
HiH, where many fossils have been found ; as well 
as at the Randen Mountain, 2,70d feet high- Pass 
Manunem (Stat). — inns: Ochs, at the station, to 
Steckhom (Stat).— /»*».• LSwe; Krone; Sonne. 
It has traces of Roman walls, with a Church and 
an old tower ; and stands on that part of the Rhine 
which forms the Unter-See, or Lake of Tell, or 
lower Lake of Constance, one arm of which runs up 
to Radolfzell, on the Baden side. Close to it is Itz- 
nang^ where Mesmer, the godfather of mesmerism, 
was bom. Many old castles are seen on the hills 
here. In the middle is Reichenau Island (belonging 
to Baden), 3 miles long, with a suppressed Benedic- 
tine Abbey, founded 807, in which Charles the Fat 
was buried, 88S. It V* coveted with vineyards and 
fruit ttefcB. Qtiteg tiomvi^ CQMJt«QR&> w^ ^raA.« 



Boute 12.] 



GOJSrSTAKOB. 



77 



egg Castle, s rain, burnt 1834; Salenstein on a 
hill; Arenenlllirg, which belonged to Qneen 
Hortense (Duchess of St. Lea, who died here, 
1840), and was sold with its costly fittings by 
her son. Napoleon III., 1843, ; Engensberg, above 
Salenstein, built by Eugene Beauhamais, Hor- 
tense's brother; and Wolf sberg, near ErmattngeXL 
(Stat.) A little farther is Gottlieben Castle, at 
the top of the lake, where John Huss (in 1414), 
Pope John XXIII- (1415, before his deposition), 
and Jerome of Prague (1416-16) were imprisoned 
by the council sitting at Constance; which is 3 
miles farther, and belongs to Baden. 

Constance (Stat.) ; German, Konstanz. 

Inns: Konstanzerhof, on the Lake, Insel (or 
Island) Hotel, on the Lake. Hotel du Brochet 
(Hecht Hotel), Halm; Badischerhof ; Krone; 
Anker; Schiff. Hotel de I'Aigle d'Or. 

Population, 15,000. A decayed imx>erial city and 
bishopric, just over the Swiss border, now the head 
of a circle in Baden Duchy, in a charming spot, at 
the bottom of the lake of Constance or Boden See ; 
where the Rhine flows out towards the lower lake, 
turning the large mills on the long, carved, wooden 
bridge which crosses it to Peterhausen Fort. It 
was the Boman Oannodorun\ and afterwards called 
Costnitz; joined to Austria 1549, and given up to 
Baden 1810. But the most important historical 
event belonging to it, is the great church CotmcU 
held here 1414-18, which deposed three popes (all 
reigning together) and chose instead Martin Y. 
who dissolved it. It also sent to the stake John 
Huss (in spite of the Emperor Sigismund's safe 
conduct) and his disciple, Jerome of Prague, and 
condemned Wyclifife. Sigismund here made atreaty 
of peace with the Swiss, 1474, as his ancestor Fre- 
derick I. did with the Lombards, 1183 (in a house 
now replaced by the Ca/d Barbarossa). 

Most of the houses are of the sixteenth century, 
but some are much older, and so give the town an 
ancient, though deserted look. The fine old Gothic 
MUnster or CathedrcU was built about 1052, and re- 
built in the 16th century, and has two towers, 
oaken doors carved with the sufferings of Christ 
(1470), a mosaic pavement, sixteen pillars in the 



of the English bishops at the Council), and stained 
windows in the Chapter House. They show the spot 
where Huss stood (1415) when condemned to the 
flames. At this period he was confined in the 
Dominican or Minorite Convent^ now an hotel on 
the lake; it has the tomb of Emanuel Chryso- 
loras, 1414. The place where he suffered (6th 
July), and Jerome of Prague after him (1416), is 
at Briihl close by. He first lodged, protected by 
the safe conduct, in a house in Paul-street, 
marked by a bust over the door. 

The Council held its meetings in the old Kauf- 
haus or Blerchant's Hall (built 1388), where a 
collection of antiquities and relics maybe seen, 
including the martyr's Bible, his serge coat, a 
model of his dungeon, and a copy of the " Dance of 
Death." At Wessenberg Haas, is a collection of 
paintings and interesting antiquities. There are 
a Town Hall, the Stadt Kanzlei, (built 1593), whei-e 
the archives are kept; College at Petershausen 
Convent, Hospital, Ac. Rosgarten Museum of 
antiquities and natural history. A few cottons 
and muslins are made. 

Promenades on the Munster flats and Haffendam ; 
to Ejreuzlingen Abbey (now a hospital) which has 
aboye 1,000 carved figures in bas-reliefs of the 
sufferings of Christ; Miinsterlingen Abbey a 
little south; and to the beautiful Island of 
MahMUt about 5 miles north (opposite Morsburg), 
a sort of Isola Bella, covered with terraces, and 
joined to the main land by a bridge 650 feet long. 
It is now the property of the Grand Duke of 
Baden ; from the castle (formerly a commandery 
of the Teutonic knights) there is a splendid view 
over the whole lake. The arm of it above this 
island, called Ueberlinger See, leads up past the 
old imperial city of Usbsblingsv (with a fine 
cathedral churoh 800 feet high, a mediieval room 
at the Rathhaus, and mineral springs) to Ladwigs- 
hafen. 

Railway to Ziirich,Schaffhausen, Coire, St. Gall, 
Strasburg, Frankfort, &<r.; and to Romanshom and 
Rorschach, vift Ereuzlingen, <fec See Route 22. 

Stbaheks down the Rhine to Schaffhausen; and 
on the lake to Ludwigshafen; FrL<(&sSsSs£SG>s&-'«^ 



nav?, of a single block eac^i, a splendid altar, and\ xa\lft,to1Jkii<\Ka,^\x'«^^Cs^»^«^'**«=^ 



78 



BRADSHAW'S SWITZERLAND AND THB TYROL. 



[Section 2. 



for the Tyrol ; to Rhelneck, where the upper Rhine 
falls in near Bnchberg, and its prospect; Rorschach, 
Romanshom and Abbok, the old Arbor Felix. 

The Lake, called Boden See (from Bodmen 
Castle, at the upper end) by the Germans, andLcKtu 
Brigantinus (from the Brigantii) by the Romans, is 
about 40 miles long, and 2 to 8 broad; 1,283 feet 
above the sea; 964 feet deep; rather flat on the 
north side, but full of cultivated scenery ; subject, 
however, to sudden squalls and risings. Trout, 
salmon, pike, fowl, <fec., are abundant. The Lake is 
common to the five surrounding states. It was 
frozen over in 1830 and 18S0, when there was 
skating from Bregenz to Lindau. 

The Road from Schaffhausen to Ziirich is as 
under: — 

(a) To Eglisau 4 stunden; Biilach 1^; Kloten 2; 
Zurich If. Total, 9 stunden=28 miles. 

This can be done partly by rail from Biilach, 
to Ziirich. 

(&> Road to Winterthur 4^ stunden; Ziirich 4. 
Total, 8} stunden. 

This second route from the Falls to Ziirich is 
now performed by the Swiss North Eastern Bail- 
way, 35 miles, in about 2 hours. 

Following the road to Eglisau, as in (a) and 
passing Neuhausen, close to the Great Fall, you 
come to lestetten and Lotstetten, in a comer of the 
Baden territory; then to Rafz, in ZUrich Canton; 
and to 

EQLISAU (Stat.) 

Population, 1,700. 

InM: Hirsch; Lowe. 

A little walled town, in a deep, lovely valley of the 
Rhine, among fruit trees and Vineyards. A covered 
wooden bridge crosses the river (here a dark green) 
to Seglingen and its old tower. Eglisau Church has 
effigies of Bemhard Gradner and his wife. Many 
Roman coins have been found. 

Biilach (Stat.)— /nna< Post; Kopf; Kreuz— 

in a wine country, near the Glatt, is the chief 

town of this part, with 1,500 population. Look out 

for a view of the Rigi, and the Alps beyond. The 

<//rea^ J/ne /jvm Triatertbnr to WaldshxA (page 67) 

t,%1^' "^ ^^^' ^fang-Neftenb&ch, BuJacIi, 
'^l^^^^sau, WeJacb'Kai80rfftim, 



Eloten ijnn: Lowe or Lion), an old place, near 
the Glatt, where five roads meet, and many Roman 
coins, Ac, have been found ; supposed to be the 
ancient Claudia. The Archduke Charles had his 
head-quarters here, 1799. The road to Zurich 
leaves Wythgen Mountain to the right. At Oer- 
likon (Stat.), next to Zurich, the branch to 
Biiladl parts off; being 12 miles long, exclusive 
of a short branch to Dielsdorf f rom Olierglatt. 
It passes Wallisellen, near which a line from 
Baden makes a Junction; vid Niedeiglatt, 

Bnchs, Wtirenlos. 

S.OXTTB 13- 
Basle, to Soleiire, Bienne, Berne, and the 
Bernese Oberland; Inclnding Thun, In- 
terlaken, Grlndelwald, Lauterhrunnen, 
Grimsel, &c. 

To Liestal, 34 stunden; Waldenburg, 2|; Ball- 
8tal,2i; Wiedlisbach, 2i; Soleure, 2; [Grcnehen, 
2; BienneorBiel, 2i;] Fraubrunnen, 3i; Berne, 3f ; 
making to Berne, 24J stunden, or 17i to Bienne. 

But all the places on this route, as far as 
Thun and Interlaken, may now be reached by 
Railway from Bftle, by the Central Swiss line, vid 
Olten, Herzogenbuchsee, Ac* (See Bradshaw's 
Ccntinental Railway Guide); or, by the line through 
Del^mont and Bienne. This is the most expedi- 
tious way of travelling, though the high road 
will surely be preferred by those who wish to 
see the country. 

UestaKStat.)— /nn<:FaIke; Schltisscl; Eugel 
Sonne — as in Route 10. 

Passing Bubendorf Spring (where coins have been 
found), HSUstein (which was visited by an inunda- 
tion, 1830), Niederdorf, Ac, you come to 

Waldbnbubg (Botel : Lowe or Lion) at the bot- 
tom of the Oberhauenstein, with an old ruined 
castle, and a waterfall, 80 feet down. Population, 
700. Diligence to Langenbruck. 

The road hence ascends the height (1 hour) of 
the Jura, which is 2,300 feet above the sea, and 
was formerly very difficult to cross. Wenne, near 
it, is 4,200 feet. LangenhrUCk (Hotels : Kurhaus; 
Ochsen; Pension Bider), among pleasant meadows, 
and the highest village in the canton, 2,480 feet. 
Holderbanlc, tYie next -TVSift.'ftfe, \^ ^sv ^wvXrkv 
Soleure. The old CwiClea ol "BwiXs^wa^^ wA'S ^Yrtw- 



Bonte 13.] 



80LET7RE, WEISSENSTEIK. 



79 



stein rise orer the pass. It tnms off near the 
latter under the Passwang (3,900 feet) by some 
beautiful spots, as Miimliswyl, Beinwyl Abbey, 
Thierstein Rnins, Gilgenberg Castle, &c., on to 
Ijaofen and B&le (in Route 10). 

Bal8tlial(i^<o^<: Rossli; Krone or Crown). A 
pretty little place in a valley, with a fine view from 
Boggenberge iron mine, close at hand, and a fall of 
the Steinbach behind the church. The road now 
runs through a deep rocky cleft in the Jura range 
(near some iron works), called the Inner and Outer 
Klus (CTatMtM, shut) which bring into view Aar- 
thal and the Alps. Tou may ascend the Weiss-> 
enstein in 6 hours, from hence through the Dlinner- 
thal, with the advantage of a sudden opening of 
the prospect. Another fine view is to be had from 
Oberbipp Castle further on, built, they say, by 
Pepin. 

80LEUBE (Stat.); German, Solothum, 
On the Swiss Central Railway, which may be 
reached vid Herzogenbuchsee. The Emmenthal 
RaU^ 14 miles long, was opened, 1875,* through 
Biberiftt, &c., to BurgdOlf (Route 14), for 
Berne, &c. 

Inns: Krone; Bargetzi; Adler; Thurm; Hirsch; 
Kreuz. 

Population, 8,000, chiefly Catholic A small 
town, capital of the canton, formerly seat of a 
bishop of Bftle, &c., in a charming spot on the Aare. 
It is the ancient Solodorum, and joined the Confede- 
ration, 1481. The great clock Tower in the market 
place was built (according to an inscription), 600 
B.C.', but perhaps the clock has not kept good time. 
There are fountains here and in other parts, besides 
two in front of St. Ursus Cathedral, which was re- 
built (1762-73), by Pisani. It ranks as one of the 
best in Switzerland ; has a towet 190 feet high, 
paintings by D. Corri, the relics of the saint (not 
a bear as some might suppose, but a Roman 
soldier) over the altar, a good library with MSS., 
and ancient missals, as old as 724. The Professors^ 
or Jesuits* Church was built 1689, in the Italian 
style, and has Holbein's ** Crucifixion "; that of the 
Franciscans has an altarpiece said to be by 
Raphael. The Ramparts, now mostly removed, 
and planted with trees, afford a pleasant walk. 

At the old JtaMums, where the Council meet, 
sjv eigrbtBomm inscriptions; there are others in 



\ 



the public library of 40,000 volumes. The Zevg- 
AatM, or AraencU, contains the arms of the Canton 
militia, a valuable collection of 900 pieces of 
antique armour and weapcms, with old standards 
taken at Morat and Sempach, a model of the 
St. Gothard range, &c. In the Waisenhaus is a 
Museum containing collections of minerals 
and fossils, including fossil turtles fh)m white 
limestone quarries. There are also a Gymnasium, 
or College; Lyceum; Public Library; Priests' 
Seminary; Convents; Barracks; good Theatre; 
Hospital, and Botanic Gardens. Kosciusko lived 
at No. 6, near the Post Office; his heart is buried 
at Zuchwyl, below the town; but the rest of him 
lies in Cracow Cathedral. 

In the neighbourhood are the walks to the 
Wasserplatz, Kreuzacker, Treibentkrenz (on the 
Btiren Road); to the Hb'fli, Hohlberg, and St. 
Niklans, or Gasen, in an arm of the Yisp-thal, 
from whence many other excursions may be made ; 
to St. Yerena's Hermitage, among a labyrinth of 
granite and gneiss rocks, and near an excellent 
marble quarry, and the Wengistein granite pillar, 
which commands a good view. Another view may 
be had at Waldegg Castle and Sulphur Baths. 
But the finest excursion, for the splendid view it 
affords, is that to 

THE WEISSENSTEIN. 

A peak of the Jura, about 4,210 feet high, 1,400 feet 
above Soleure, and 8 miles norih of it, by a very 
zig-zag road, which passes Langendori, Oberdorf, 
and SennhUtten (or Herdsmans* Huts). Chars, 
there and back, 20 to S{5 francs, according to number ; 
or you may walk it in 1^ hour, taking the path by St. 
Verena's Hermitage^ the Reise and Stiegenlos. At 
the top is a good Inn^ with thirty beds, where you 
may spend a night (supper, 2 francs; bed, &c., S^ 
francs; breakfast, 1^ franc) and enjoy the sunset 
and sunrise ; or where invalids desiring a change 
of air and a milk diet, may live for 8 francs a day. 
The sunrise prospect, which is considered the 
finest after that of the Rigi,' and is more extensive, 
and in which the observer will remark the magical 
ettects of the light as it brings the ijeak^^XjbJsjw.^'ftBoa^ 



80 



BlUDgHAW'S gWirZBBLAlTD AND THE TTEOL. 



[Section 2. 



Tyrol, to Mont Blanc (30 leagues); the Santls, 
Gtilmiscb, and Pilatns, near the Rlgri (east) ; the 
I>eak3 of the nearest Bernese Oberland, the TOdi, 
Saddel, Snstenhom, Matterhom, Wettcrhom, Seh- 
reckhom, Flnsteraarhom, Eiger, MSnch, Jungfrau, 
Bltlmlis Alp, &c.; the Blenne, Morat, andNeuchfttel 
Lakes to south-west; making about fourteen 
mountains, fifty towns and villages, andseyen lakes, 
within the circle. From the Hatenmatt to the west, 
which is still higher (4,750 feet), or the Rdth^fiuh, 
about f hour to the east (4,560 feet), the prospect is 
even wider; but there is no such accommodation 
for the tourist. Another, but lower point of view, 
is that fk-om the Wengistein^ near the quarries and 
cliffs of St. Yerena's Hermitage. 

Boleuro Canton contains 270 square miles and 
80,426 i>opnlation, who are mostly Catholics, and 
German-speaking. It is one of the moat produc- 
tive in com, fruit, vegetables, ^., with some 
vineyards and mulberry grounds for silkworms. 

[From Soleure, towards Bienne up the Aar, you 
pass, by road or by Swiss Central Railway : — 

Bellach, the BeUas Aqws of the Romans. Popu- 
lation, 500. 

Belzadl (Stat.X 'v^th a population of 1,000, was 
8alis Aquce of the same people. 

Bettlach, under a mountain cliff, above which 
was Strassberg Castle. Population, 400. 

Orenchen, or Granges (Stat.),a Catholic town 

of 1,200 population, fertile in vines, ftc.,and having s 
church, built out of an old tower which stood here. 
In a charming valley called Bachtilen, hard by, are 
excellent sulphur baths, on the way to Lengenau. 
After passing Fleterlen Station and Bozingen 
(on the Suze) you come to Bienne.] 

From Soleure to Berne by road (7 hours) you 
pass 

Zachwyl, to which the Protestant party mi- 
grated in 1583, from Soleure and Biberist, on to 

BatterUnden, at the bridge on the Emmoi, 
in Canton Berne, where B. Marti, the botanist 
^vs bora. 

;p^oArBiui0ii, M ntuUJ rillMge, about haitwtkj 
^^^^ '*ot0dfartb0 thfmtt of an EaglUh ioldkr, 



marks the si>ot. Hence a road turns olf to Burg- 
dorf, &c., up the Emmenthal. 

Jeglsdorf has 600 population, and a parish 
church which has been rebuilt since the fire of 
1820. An old Chftteau here belongs to the Eriach 
family. The next place is Urtonen, about 3 miles 
west of which is Hofwyl, with the school and 
farm established by Fellenberg. Passing the Papier 
Miihle (Paper Mills), under Bantiger Mountain 
(3,480 feet), you come to Berne, which may be 
reached by Swiss Central Railway from Bftle, 65 
miles, in 2\ hours ; four trains a day, vid Olten, 
Herzogenbuchsee, Burgdorf, <fec. (Seo^rocbAato's 
Continental Cfuide). 

liOXJTB 13 — Continued. 
Berne and tbe Bernese Olierland. 

BEBNE (Stat.) ; Bern iu German. 
Population, 47,000. 

Hotels: Bemerhof ; first-class hotel, delightfully 
situated, commands a full view of the Alps. 

Hotel de Belle Vue, commanding a splendid 
view of the Oberland Alps; comfort and excellent 
accommodation. 

HotelduFaucon,inthefine8tpartof the town; an 
old and good house, moderate charges. 

Schweizerhof ; Zahringerhof ; du Jura; dc U 
Cigogne; Pfistem. 

Numerous Restaurants and Cknf^. 

Post Office and TeUgrafh^ Boulevard Ext^rieur, 
near the station. 

English Church Servke, on Sunday, at the Bur- 
gerspital Chapel. 

Resident Physician.— Dr* Demme. 

Baths, on the Aar Island, 1 franc. 

British Envotf—ChM. S. Scott, Esq., C.B. Envoys 
from other foreign powers reside here; and 
Travellers proceeding to France, Austria, Italy, &c.^ 
bordering on Switzerland may get a vish to their pass- 
ports at Berne. 

RaOiDaif. — Open from Berne to Basle, Thun, 
InterUken, Fribouig, Lausanne, Geneva, &c. and, 
ia fftct, to «XL tb» ^tV&iiAi^Vsvni in North Swit- 



Bonte 13.] fifisirs. 

Capita] of Canton Berne, and of Switzerland, 
seat of the Bundes-rath (or Diet), the National- 
rath, Ac; standing 1,650 feet above the sea, within 
Bight of the Oberland Alps, on a high bend of the 
Aar, which surrounds it, except on the west side, 
where it is fortified. "Bern" in old German 
means a bear^ in remembrance, they say, of one 
killed on this site by Berthold, the founder ; and 
bears are not only blazoned in the town arms, 
and in every variety of stone carving, but a Bear 
Pit has from ancient times been kept at the public 
cost, on the right bank of the river beyond ^deck 
bridge. Inte this pit an English officer fell in 1861, 
and either through the apathy or cowardice of the 
persons around, he was suffered to be torn to 
pieces by the bears, after struggling with them 
for half-an-hour. 

It was founded 1191, by Berthold von Zahringen 
(a Suabian lord); made an imperial city, 1218; 
attacked by Rudolf of Habsburg, 1288 ; and by his 
son Albert, who was defeated at Donner Buhlen, 
1298; attacked again by the feudal nobles, 1339, 
who were defeated at Laupen, by Rudolf von 
Erlach (5,000 against 18,000) ; and joined the Con- 
federation, 1352. The Reformation was estab- 
lished, 1528. It defeated the men of Lucerne and 
the Waldstatter in the last war of religion, 1712; 
and was occupied by the French, 1798. 

On approaching the town from the Zttrich or 
Thun roads, it has a very picturesque look. The 
sandstone rock on which it is built is 100 feet 
above the river, the steep banks (stalden) of which 
are joined by a handsome lofty granite Bridge^ 
called Nydeck-briicke, 900 feet long, the middle 
arch being 156 feet span, 81 feet high. An older 
bridge to Altenburg is 260 feet long. 

Berne was substantially rebuilt of stone, after a 
fire in 1405, with broad reg^ilar streets, which run 
for the most part east and west ; its main artery, 
the principal street, 1 mile long, stretching under 
various names from the bridge to the Ober Thor 
(close to the Hirschen Graben or Deer Garden) ; 
near which, and the Aarberg Gate the best houses 
are found. The older ones rest on heavy dark 
Arcades, or Lauben^ for foot passengers, lined with 
shops, and giving a peculiar air to the town. 

Clear running water is constantly supplied by 



81 

arches, or ctirious stattles of Samson. David, Moses, 
Nemesis, &c. One of them, called KincUifretser 
Brunnen^ near the clock tower, has a man devour- 
ing a child, while other little victims are tucked 
under his girdle. The Gerechtigkeits Brunneu is 
also worth notice ; the SchUtzen Brunuen has a 
statue of a cross-bow-man, attended by a bear; 
and this armorial emblem of the canton appears in 
full state, with a coat of mail, banner, &C., over 
the Baren Brunnen. They are again seen every 
tlu-ee minutes before the striking of the hour, in 
the old Clock Tower (Zeitglockenthurm) in the 
Kram-Gasse. This processional clock is one of the 
sights of the town; usually visited at noon. In 
the same street are the KUfigthurm and St. Cristo- 
phelthurm; the former a prison, the other having 
a great wooden figure in armour on it. 

Promenades on the ramparts; on the Terrasse 
a fine terrace, near the Minster, 108 feet above the 
river, shaded with chestnuts, and adorned with a 
new statue of Berthold, the founder of the town. 
From here, as well as from the Caf ^ du Mont, the 
Murten Gate, but especially the Enge^ near the 
Aarberg Gate, we get the splendid Panorama Of 

the Oladers and other Peaks of the Ober- 
land, as engraved in Studer's View of the Alp*. 
Beginning from the east, we see the white tops of 
the Wetter- horn, Schreck-hom, Finsteraarhom 
(the highest, 14,025 feet above the sea), Eiger, 
MSnch, Jungrfrau (13, 760 feet above the sea). Gross- 
horn, Breithom, Fran or Blumlis Alps, near Altis 
and Gemmi Pass, Nies^i (looking dark), Doden- 
horn. Stock-horn (dark) — the dark ones being much 
nearer, and hanging over the Thuner See. A vast 
number of heights fill in the foreground. The 
effects of sunset upon this wonderful landscape are 
indescribable; the glaciers at first of a deep pink, 
fade into white, but continue to reflect the day- 
light long after night is on the valley. 

One of the best buildings is the Gothic Mlinster 
or Cathedral (fee 20 cents), begun 1421, on the 
site of an older one, by the Ensingers (who reared 
the Vienna Cathedral), and finished 1457, by the 
architect of Strassburg Minster, Erwins von Stein- 
bach. It stands 160 feet by 80, with an nnfiid&K<6A^ 
steeple, 234 feetlLi%\v^^»3K^\3\%^\i'^>'»Si^*»»'»^'^^ 



\>V ^^i «\«ftft ^«e* Vi ^Jttft Vs^^ <acs«ECB!«»S 



S&SS5fe.'«*."OS3^ 



many FounMns, which are usnally set off irtth \ ptwpeftX, TYi^ ^x\»^ V^ \i^»»SfiK2^"i ^ 



82 



BlUDSHAW S SWITZBHLAiri) AlSt UtE lltEOt. 



•tained windowf and carfvd stalls and font (1625) 
are worth notice; the oi^an plays 8 to 4 o*clock 
daily; one monument is to Berthold, the founder 
of the town; another of the Avoyer Steiger. In 
front of it, on the Kirchplatz, is a bronze statue 
of Rodolph von Erlach, the victor at Laufen, 1339. 

Holy Qhoit Church is a simple, but elegant modem 
building; near the Bttrgerspital (Town Hospital), 
with the words (Crista in Pauperibui over it. The 
large handsome stone Zuchthaus, or House of 
Correction, is near the Aarbei^ Gate. Inselspital 
(Island Hospital) fills one side of a street. The 
French Church is near the Arsenal; Nydeck 
Church, on the west side of the town. 

The mueiini, open daily, | franc, and gratis 
Tuesday and Saturday, 8 to 5, is well stocked, 
especially with objects of Swiss Natural History; 
Studer's collection of insects, shells, fossils, Ac.; 
Wyttenbach*s collection of minerals, and other 
natural productions. Here you see stuffed bears 
of all sizes, from the smallest cub to the grizzled 
patriarch, the great lammergeyer (believed to bo 
nearly extinct in Switzerland), the wolf, the 
ehansols, the boar; and a famous St. Bernard dog, 
Barrjft who saved the lives of fifteen persons. 

The Hl«torlcal Maseum, 8 PoUzei-Gasse, 
open daily, 1 ft., Tuesday and Saturday, free, 8 to 
£, has archaological and ethnographical collec- 
tions, flint and bronze implements, weapons from 
the Arsenal, spoils from Grandson and Morat. 

The yiinat™""^"™, Waisenhausstrasse, open 
daily, i fr, gratis on Tuesdays, has a collection of 
antiquities on the ground floor, and of pictures on 
the first floor. Those of Swiss costume, by Bein- 
hardt, are the most remarkable. 

The University near the Museum vras remodelled, 

).<84, and twenty prof essors attached to it. A Gymna- 

«ium, or High School, a Musshafen for poor students, 

«nd several other schools, exist. A Natural 

History SoelAty has existed since 1758. Here is 

a Freemasons' Lodge, called the English Provincial 

Grtrnd Zx)dge of Hope. Other buildings are, the old 

restored Bathbans« built, 1406; Stadtrath-haus, 

(formerly Erlaeb's Hof); two Waisenhanser, or 

Orphan Schools; a handsome Komhaus (Public 

OjvLuujr) on tbirty-iova piUars, with a huge wine- 

^^Marbeiowf the Hotel de Mttsique^ or Theatre, 

€«rf^.^^ Ckfiao/ espoffite whUfb ia the luuidiame 



tSection 2. 

new Bulldesrathhaus, or Federal Council Hall. 
There is a collectioh of antiquities from lake- 
dwellings on the third floor, admission free, on 
application to the porter. The debates of the 
Bundesrath are open to the public. Beyond the 
lower gate is a monument to R. von Werdts. 

The walks, &c., in the town and environs, com- 
prise many fine points of view ; among them are the 
gardens of Monbljou Gottesacker (Cemetery), the 
Bundesrathhaus Terrace, the Casino Platz, MUns- 
ter Platz and Terrace, and the Enge, already 
mentioned, near the Carlsruhe. 

From the Schftnzli, where there is the Victoria 
Hotel, a grand view may be had of the city, backed 
up by the whole range of the Bernese Alps; the 
Wetterhom, Schreckhom, Eiger, M5nch, and 
Jungfrau being specially prominent. 

Short ExcuBSioirs may be made to Reichenbach 
Castle (2 stunden down the Aar) where Rodolf 
von Erlach, the hero of Laufen, was murdered by 
his son-in-law, the latter being torn to pieces by the 
old man's blood-hounds; to the Gnrten (1| stunde 
south-west), and Bantiger (2 stunden north-east), 
both commanding splendid views from heights of 
8,130 feet and 3,486 feet above the sea; the Engis- 
tein Baths (2 stunden) in a beautiful valley on the 
Worblenbach; to Neuhausbad (1 stunde), Bolli- 
gen, and Arzlehle; to the Frieswyler Hubel (3) 
stunden), with a magnificent prospect, and the 
Biitschelegg, 8,600 feet, which has the finest view 
obtainable near Berne. 

Silver filagree, musical boxes, carved work, 
jewellery and powder, a few watches, silks, and 
woollens, with leather, straw hats, beer, Ac, are 
made. 

The Canton of Berne, the largest (after the 
Orisons) and most important of the Confederation, 
which at one time took in nearly all west Switzer- 
land, contains 2,567 square miles, and a population 
of 582,170. Most of them are Protestant, and Ger- 
man-speaking, except in a part formerly belonging 
to the Bishopric of Bftle, where there are about 
40,000 Catholics, and the French language prevails. 
In the lower or north part, fruit (especially cherries 
for the kirschwasser), beer, cider, cheese, cream, 
honey, and butter, are the principal products ; the 
farmers are comfortably of^ having substantial 



llonte 13.]. 



tHfi BB&NfiSli OBBBtAKt). 



sa 



roofs. Pasture land, that of the Emmenthal in 
particular, is rich and abundant ; there are plenty 
of good roads, lined with thick hedges. But in the 
upper or Oberland, among the mountains, poverty 
prevails, one reason being the equal division of 
property. The women are remarkable for their 
peculiar dress. 

JOURNEY THROUGH THE BERNESE 
OBERLAND, 

Or Highlands of Canton Berne, including the en- 
virons of Thun, along the Lakes of Thun andBrienz 
as far as the Grimsel Pass, and the Valleys of Lau- 
terbrunnen and Grindelwald, with the neighbouring 
glaciers. A hasty visit requires at least Three days ; 
but to see this region to advantage requires as 
many weeks. A g^de is not necessary for the 
tour, but local guides may be required at several 
points, to visit which a longer period is needful ; 
nor is it necessary to return to Thun or Berne ; as 
you may cross into the Yalais by the Passes of the 
Gemmi and Grimsel, or continue to Lucerne by 
. the railway over the Briinig. 

The traveller with only One dap to spare, may 
leave Benie by early train at 5-30, take steamer at 
Thun, a char at Diirligento Lauterbrunnen, see the 
Staubbach Fall, dine at Interlaken, and get back to 
Berne by the last train, by 7 p.m. 

From Berne to Than, trains run four tunes a 
day, 16 miles, in about 1 hour ; thence by steam 
to Darligen, and by rail to Interlaken. The Aar 
is navigable for the market-boats, which descend 
it from Thun. Carriages may be hired at reason- 
able charges ; the tariff is to be found in every 
hotel and posthouse. Private carriages may be 
left at Thun for 1 franc a day storage, or must 
be sent round to meet the traveller wherever he 
makes his exit from the Oberland. From Thun, 
steamers run on Lake Thun during the season, three 
times a day, in correspondence with the trains; 
f aresy 1 and 2 francs. On the Brienz Lake they 
also run as often, so as to correspond with the 
Thun steamers. There is also a good coach-road 
on the beautiful south shore of the lake, on to 
Interlaken and Lauterbrunnen, or to Grindelwald.. 

On the arrival of the steamer at Darligen, a train 
starts for Interlaken. Good horses may bo had. 
It is usual to hire for the whole journey through 
the Oberland; the horse being taken out at tbe «nd 



of the coach-road, and ridden, while the driver acts 
as guide. TheTariflF charges for vehicles are:— 
Interlaken to Grindelwald and back the same day, 
one horse, 16 francs; two horses, 30 francs. To 
Lauterbrunnen and back the same day, one horse, 
11 francs; two horses, 20 francs. To Lauter- 
brunnen and Grindelwald and back the same day, 
one horse, 20 francs; two horses, 35 francs. In 
the summer of 1890 a railway was opened from 

Interlaken to Lauterbrunnen and Grindel- 
wald, the junction being at ZwellutSClllnen. 
The line follows the direction of the carriage 
road. From Lauterbrunnen a mountain rail is in 
progress to Miirren. Grhidelwald to Faulbom 
and back, one horse carriage, 17 francs ; to Glaciers, 
6 to 8 francs. Meiringen to Handeck Fall and 
back, 15 to 20 francs. A horse or mule, with a 
man for the day, 15 francs. Carriage, per day, one 
horse, 15 francs; two horses, 30 francs. 

In general, licensed Guides receive 6 to 8 francs 
a day, with aback fare of 6 francs a day; the day's 
journey being reckoned at 8 leagues, or stundcn. 
Drivers of carriages 16 to 18 francs a day for each 
horse; saddle horses, 10 to 15 francs a day. Row 
boats may be had on the Lake of Brienz for 
3 to 8 or 9 francs, there and back, according to 
the distance of the most attractive points; in- 
creasing for every rower above two, besides the 
trinkgeld. It takes at least 3 hours from end to end. 

Leaving Bebne for Thun, the train ascends the 
east side of the Aar (with the Alps in view) to 
Muri-Stalden (where the road to the Emmenthal 
parts off), with the Gurten away to the west. It 

passes Glimlingen (Stat.) to 

MUnsingen (Stat.), 7 miles, inn: Lowe 
(Lion). A village frequently rebuilt, staging 
under the Haube ridge (Heutligen at the top of 
it), with the Belpberg across the river. The village 
is noted for the meeting held here in 1831, before 
the change or " revolution " (once common enough in 
Switzerland) which overthrew the aristocratic 
party. Belpberg, 2 miles west-south-west, is a 
fine green hill, covered with pasture, and forests, 
2,935 feet above the sea, and commanding a good 
prospect of the Oberland, Lake of Thun, &c. At 
3 miles beyond it is the BUUchel^ anoth«x'^^Sis^.^v 
view, 8^485 f«&^\i\^>\ 



{ 



84 



BBADSHAW*S SWITZERLAND iKD TfiB TTHOL. 



tSection 2. 



mGBL and its baths at the foot of a hill, and 3,800 feet 
above the soa. There arc two bitter salt springSf 
Schwarzbriinnli and Stockwasser; either drank 
or bathed in; and good in -weakness and worm 
diseases. The principal sprhig, to which a beautifnl 
walk leads, is about 4,000 feet above sea. It is a 
healthy spot. A fine view from the terrace. 
Alpine plants in abundance. Living, 6 to 8 francs 
a day. The peak above, the Hochgumigely Is 5,070 
feet high. The Ossianische Felsenmauer (Ossian's 
Rocky Wall) may be noticed. 

Blomensteilly 3 miles south-east of this, under 
the north side of the Stockhom, is another delight- 
ful spot, with baths ; the springs contain iron and 
carbonic acid, and are not far from the Fallbach 
Fall, Amsoldingen Lakes, Tagsburg Castle Ruins, 
Dittllgen Lake, Ac. ; while the Stockhom may be 
ascended in 2 or 3 hours.] 

The next places on or near the railway are 
Wichtrach, with the Eiger, Monch, and Jungfrau in 
full view in front, where a road from the Emmen- 
thal falls in ; Ober-Wlchtrach, where General Von 
Erlach was killed by his own soldiers, in the dis- 
astrous year, 1798; Kiesen Chftteau, close to Eie- 
Sen Station, on a stream which comes from 
Diesbach; the Falkenfluh and Heimbergfluh 
cliffs; the forests of Heimberg; and at length, 
after crossing the Sulg, with the Stockhom and 
Kiesen peaks before you, you come to 

THUN (Stat) 

Passengers for the steamer go on to Scherzligen, 
\ mile further. 

Population, 5,200. 

Hotels: Grand Hotel de Thoune (Thunerhof), 
first-class, near the Lake, kept by Mr. C. Staekle. 

Belle Vue. 

Hotel and Pension Falken. 

Hotel and Pension Baumgarten; Crown; Croix 
Blanche; Freienhof. 

Pension : Itten, 5 francs ; Rupenacht, 6 francs. 

Boats, two men, 1 hour, 3 francs; 2 hours, 5 
francs ; the day, 10 francs. 

English Service, at the Church, Hotel Belle Vue. 

A delightful place, either to stop at, or to make 

torus from; on the Aar, about 1 mile from the 

Tbaaer See, in front of the Obetland. It is divided 

^io three parts, nz.:-^The Bollitz, on taL island, 



the Stadt or town, standhig under the third part, 
or Berg— a hill crowned by the ancient castle of 
the Counts of Thun, die Burg, or das Kylurgsche 
Schloss, and by a striking old church, with a tall, 
eight-sided tower. The streets are broad and well 
built. The principal street is remarkable for 
having a double row of^ shops, similar to the 
" Rows " in Chester. At the Vorhalle, in the Neue 
Schloss, are arms of the mayors (Biirgermei&ter) 
from 1375. The Rathhaus has a public library of 
7,000 volumes, and the archives. A Federal 
Military School of artillery and engineers is estab- 
lished here. There are also the Town Schools, 
Hospital, Orphan Asylum, and a Parade Ground, 
near the Allmend Gate. Keramlc Museum; 
collections of birds, minerals, and carved wood at 
several places in the town. 

The Walks and Points of View are nume- 
rous. Such are those to the castle and behind the 
churchyard ; on the Simmenbriicke ; the Jakobs- 
hiigcl (Jacob's Hill), especially for the sunset 
view (an Inscription says:— "Happy are those 
who can stay here ; Happy those who return ; And 
happy if able to quit such scenes"); In the 
Schwabis along the Aar; in the BSchi-Gut, to 
Karthause, a country seat with glass paintings and 
Druid remains ; to Schadau Castle, and the splendid 
view over the lake and environs, the beautiful gar- 
dens are open on Sunday ; Htinegg Chftteau to the 
Kohl em Waterfall on the Hunnibach ; to Staffis- 
berg, Amsoldingen Lakes, and theRhidflelschstein- 
hcihle or "Beef stone" cave (li stunde); to 
Gwatt or Belle-Rlve Castle; Strattllngen and 
Kanden Canal ; to the Baths of Blumensteln and 
Glotschbad, under the Stockhorn (4i stunden) a 
noble peak, 7,195 feet above the sea. Other com- 
manding points are the Blume, 5,140 feet, over 
Schwandl, and back through Teufithal; the Hoh- 
gant, near the top of Emmenthal, and the Entlc- 
buch, 7,215 feet; and the Niesen, 7,765 feet, a 
view taking in all the Alps. Steamer to Splez, 
thence 3i miles to Wlmmls, whence there Is a path 
to the top. A decent inn has been built near the 
top.where the traveller may pass the night. On the 
eastern declivity of the mountain Is the health 
resort Heustriehbad, with three mineral springs. 

The upper valleys of the Aar and its tribntariea 
ce&tre \ieT«f «Aoid2^%\>«Ka\.VLT)l\sV?Ek«\ aa the Sim- 



Bonte 13.] 



THimEB SEE, INTEBLAKEN. 



85 



menthal, leadlngf up to Rawyl Pass and Sion ; the 
Diemtigerthal ; the Engstligenthal and Alp; the 
Kanderthal by which you pass over the Gemmi to 
Leukerbad; and the Kien-thal, ascending to the 
Tschlngel-hom, <fec. There arc some old forts and 
castles to be seen while passing round the beautiful 
shores of the lake. Rallingen ou the north side 
was overwhelmed by the falling in of a mine. 
Good goat's milk cheese is got at Merligcn. 
Many pilgrimages used to be made to the Beaten- 
hShle (St. Boatus Gave), on the BeateXLberg, 
before the Protestants walled it up, a.d. 1566. 

THUNER SEE, or Lake of Thun, 

is about 10 miles long by 2 broad, 700 feet deep, 
1,860 feet above the sea, and fed by the Aar and 
Kander. It abounds with fish, the salmon species 
being most esteemed. To the north-east it is steep 
and mountainous; on the north-west flat; and flat 
also, but picturesque, on the south. Near the lake 
is a red granite block (unlike anything here) 105 
feet long by 90 feet wide, 45 feet thick, transported 
hither by the glaciers. A fine view is got from 
the old tower of Stiattlingen, 150 feet high, now a 
powder magazine, but once (when this part was 
called Zum Ooldenen Lttst, or the Golden Delight) 
the favourite retreat of Rudolph of Burgundy, 
who built Hilterfingen Church in 933. 

The steam passage up the lake along its 
pleasant shores, with the Stockhom, Niesen, &c, 
at hand, and in sight of the distant Alps, is one of 
the most delightful in Switzerland. Among other 
things worth notice at various points are, the 
nagelfluh (plum-pudding stone) and sandstone for- 
mations of the Wand and Ralligflnh Mountains. 
Spiez Castle and old church, on a point of the 
south shore. Merligen (where alphate and petro- 
leum are produced) on an opposite point called the 
Nase (Nose), where the Eiger, Mtjnch, Jungfrau, 
and other snowy peaks of the Oberland come finely 
into view. One of the stations called at by the 
stean^ers is that of the short mountain raU to 
St. Beatenberg, where are a favoprito ^nrhaps 
and seyeral Hotels. 

The Thun steamer runs from Scherzligen to 
Darllgen (Stat.), where the short BMeli Rail 
conneoting with Lake Brienz begins near the 
moutb a/ i^e Mr which oomes from Luke Brieus. 



It passes Interlaken and Zollhaus to Btfnlgeiia 
on Lake Brienz, whence the steamer runs In con- 
nection with the Briinig Rail. About half way 
(1 mile) between the lakes, under the Harder, is 

UnterBeen (Ca/O a small, old walled town, so 
called from its position (unter-seen^ betwixt the 
lakes), and having an ancient rathhaus, and castle 
of the bailiff, who was appointed by the Bernese 
till 1798. Bridge to Splelmatten; with a whey- 
cure. A fine sheltered promenade called the 
Hoheweg (along which lie most of the hotels) 
connects with 

nrrEBLAKEN (Stat.) 
Population, 3,600, with Unterseen and Matten. 

Hotdi : Grand Hotel Victoria, opposite the J ung- 
f rau ; beautiful new hoate opened the 1st of April 
1870. 

Hotel Metropolc, formerly Hotel Ritschard, first- 
class. 

Kurhans and Hotel Jungfraublick, exceptionally 
situated near the finest Promenades and the 
Rugen Park; extensive view over the Valley of 
Interlaken. 

Hotel Jungfrau, situated on the finest promenade, 
recommended to English travellers, comfortable 
and clean. 

Grand Hotel and Pension des Alpes; good, and 
recommended. 

Hotel Beau Rivage, new and handsome, in a 
fine situation. 

Oberland, good second class Hotel. 

Hotel du Belvedere; Schweizerhof. 

Hotel Interlaken; Suisse; Casino; Du Lacj 
Deutscherhof ; RUssli; Kreuz ; National; Adler, Ac 

PentioM: Muller, Fischer, Seller, Ac. 

Church Service^ in the new English Church. 
Free Church of Scotland, in the Schloss Church. 
American Chapel. 

Reading Room, at the Cursaal. 

Telegraph Office, Aarmuhle. 

This pretty place, more English even than Thun, 
stands in a fine spot, inter-laken, or between the 
lakes (its name being derived in the same way as 
Unterseen), in the heart of the magnlficetxivswa^c^ 



86 



BXJlDSH1.W*S 8WITZBBLAKD ASD THB TTBOL. 



[Section 2. 



Aagustlne Church. One of the largest of the fine 
wahint trees surrounding the prefecture was blown 
down in 1859. The Kursaal, on the Hoheweg, is 
kept up by the hotel-keepers, who make a charge 
in the bill. There are reading and concert rooms, 
with music three times a-day. It was established, 
1859, for the goat's whey-cure, and is open from 
6^ a.m. 

Among the nearer walks are the Augustine Con- 
vent of Interlaken, or Mattm (founded 1130), the 
TJntere Bleiche, the Hohbiihl, and the Jungfern- 
blick, so called because of its look towards the 
Jungfrau, the Kleine Rugen, and the AbencR>erg^ 
founded in 18U9, as an Asylum for cretins (idiots). 
It was chosen as being above the height (3,000 feet) 
up to which cretinism prerails. Other points are 
Gsteig Church, as old as the eighth century; BSni- 
gen and Schadenburg, with views of Brioiz Lake; 
Ringgenberg Church and its ancient Chiteau; 
Goldswyl Church, under the Thurmberg; and the 
Schpniffe Platte^ an exceedingly fine point of view, 
4 hours* walk. 

Rail or road to Lauterbrunnen, 2i stunden or 6 
miles. The road passes by orchards and meadows 
to Matten, then by Uiupunnm Castle (the original 
of Byron's "Manfred") below the Abendberg 
establishment; Gsteig Church; Mtlhlinen, where 
the road crosses the Saxetenbach, and enters the 
wild narrow gorge of the Liitschine, with the 
steep Rothenfluh on the right ; to Zweillitschinen, 
jnnction of the road up the Black LUtschinen to 
Grindelwald, having the Wetterhom at the end. 
After this turning, passing Eisenfluh and Hunen- 
fluh, between^vast limestone walls, 1,000 to 1,500 
feet high, you come to 

LAUTERBRtmNEK (Stat) 
Population, 2,700. 
Inns: Steinbock; Staubbach. 
Lauterbrunnen is in a deep part of the pass, 
where the sun hardly shines in winter. It 
abounds with falls, especially the Stanbliacll 
(Dust Fall) which falls over the Balm precipice, in a 
drizzling spray, from a height of nearly 1,000 feet, 
best viewed in the morning sun, and by moon- 
J^AA Bjrron eelehratM this " sheeted silver's wav- 
^£-e0/uma, "mngJng '*UaUne» o/foamtog light" 
Z n/^' ^ ^' -*&>!/>«< the MOMf of whldh 
f^ Wsp^ of Switzerlm^ The cjiangtog 



effecti produced by the wind, the light, and the 
Irregularity of the cliffs, on this fall, are peculiarly 
striking. In general, it is like a gauze veil, with 
rainbows dancing up and down it, and when clouds 
hide the top of the mountain, it seems as if it 
poured out of the sky. The Platschbach falls are 
also near ; and others may be visited by the sturdy 
pedestrian, further up this valley, which is rich in 
Alpine scenery. Scarcely any fruit flourishes, only 
a little spring com: and the climate is rude. 

Among the upper falls, Ac, are the Mlirrenbach, 
Spiessbach, Agerten, and TrUmmelenbach, and espe- 
cially the fine Bdlinadrlbacll Fall, divided into 
nine arms, 200 feet high (seen best from the Bohnen- 
moos Chftlet). Splendid mountain views (of the 
Jungfrau, Ac.) are had at the village of MUrren, on 
the Steinberg-Alp, on the Wengem-Alp (above the 
Staubbach Fall), and from the Wengem Scheideck 
(1| stunde distant) close to the Jungfrau. 

Guides may be got for ascending this valley to the 
LtftBChentlial (8 or lO hours) passing Trach- 
sellauexien (a fine spot for forest scenery), the 
Schmadribach Fall, and thence over the Glaciers of 
the Wetterliicke and Breithom (12,880 feet above 
the sea) to Zneist^Q under the LStsch Glaciers; or 
past Trachsellauenen, and over the Tschingel and . 
Lange Glaciers (between the Breithom, Tschingel- 
hom, &c., on one side, and the Gspaltenhom, Frau, 
and Doldenhom, on the other) to Selden in the upper 
Gastemthal, by which you descend to Kandersteg 
(25 to 30 miles from Lauterbrannen) ; or from which 
you may get round the Altels (11,925 feet), into 
L6t8chen-th al . Again, you may reach Kandersteg 
(25 miles), by turning up Sefinen-thal, beyond 
Miirren (Hotels: Grand Hotel dtfs Alpes ; good 
and comfortable; Electric light; open from May 
till October 81st— See Advt.; and Grand Hotel 
Miirren), or by Furggt or Fwke Pass, (6,760 
feet), to Tschingel village in Kienthal ; thence as- 
cending the Diindengrat Pass (9,246 feet) under the 
Frau, to Oeschinen Lake, and the falls around it, 
to Kandersteg. This route requires a practised 
walker. The Sclllltliom is 9,780 feet high. 
About 8 hours up the ascent from Miirren. a cross 
marks the spot where a young English lady, on her 
wedding trlp^ was stntok dead by lightning. 

a trip oi 1ft \ioTg;y«, v«a\ '?^\wi«t».\.^>Q^^ ^ViJij^'w^ 



Boute IS.] 



LAlTTBBBBITKirBK. GfiXKBELWAXJ). 



87 



Alp, and the TscUngrd Pan (9,260 feet high), down 
to Bied (Inn here) ; Flatten, and Kippel, in the 
LStschenthal. From Bied the Bietsoljioni may 
be attempted, a beantifal peak, 12,910 feet high, 
first ascended, 1859, by Mr. L. Stephens. The last 
l&mmergeyer was killed here, 1887. There is also a 
way (8 to 9 honrs) from Bied over the Birchflnh 
Fass, to the Belalp ; from which an ascent may 
be made of the Qrosse Nesthom and the Qredetsch 
Glacier (11,275 feet high), to Miind and Yisp, in 
the Bhdne Valley, in 12 hours. 

Lauterlmmnen to iEgglscliliom, in 4 

honrs, to the Steinberg, as abore; thence in 14 
hours, by a toilsome and difficult way, over the 
LStschen Glacier (6,176 feet), LStschen Lticke 
(10,510 feet, past the great Aletsch Glacier, to the 
JEgglSChlloni. The Hotel here is 6 hours from 
Belalp Hotel. English church, erected 1885. 

From Lauterbnumen to Grind^wald, the 

next point in the tour, you may go by the char-road, 
back to Zweiliitschinen, and thence up the gloomy 
valley of the Black Ltitschlne (10 miles ); or over 
the Wengemalp and Kleine (Little) Scheidegg (6 
honrs) by a zig-zag path which abounds with mag- 
nificent scenery. Though fatiguing it is perfectly 
safe, and in summer is frequented even by ladies, 
on foot and horseback, so that a guide may be dis- 
pensed with. A steep path winds np the ridge to the 
green pastures of the 'W'OXlgenialp, whence you 
may look down on the Staubbach, and the Lauter- 
brunnenthal, which sinks away as from the edge 
of a precipice. Still ascending over pastui*e and 
heath, you come to the Hotel Jungfrau, in front 
of the dazzling glaciers of the 

Jongfirau, across the valley, rising to a height 
of 13,760 feet above the sea, and 10,000 or 11,000 
above the ravine below. It was first ascended, 
with difficulty, in 1811 ; the top, which is but 4 feet 
square, commands, of course, one of the noblest 
mountain views in Switzerland. Near the sum- 
mit of the Pass of Little Scheideck is the Hotel 
Bcllevue, where those who wish to see the effect of 
the sunset and sunrise on the mountain, as well as 
the glorious effect of the moonlight on her Silver 
Horn, should pass the night. Directly opposite, 
seemingly no further than a stone's cast, the whole 
mass of the mountain is visible, though the hlghegt 
pel* o! 9^lp4Bnof bfseep, e/^Jierhere or at I^wtet- 



brunnen. Every now and theOf but especially 
about mid-day, the avalanches tumbledown the 
sides with a roar like distant thunder ; and Byron, 
in his peculiar style of fiery rant, speaks of th« 
sulphury clouds, ' ' like foam from the roused ocean 
of deep hell ! " which curl up the precipices. 

From the pass of the Scheldetik further on (7,000 
feet above the sea) the prospect takes in the Mdnoh 
(13,440 feet), the QrOSSe Eiger (13,045 feet), th« 
Grosser SchreckllOni or Terror Peak (X9^%i 
feet, ascended 1879 by M. Beiners of the German 
Alpine Club), the Wetterhom, or Storm Peak 
(12,150 feet), and behind these, the Flnsteraar* 
horn (14,025 feet above the sea), the culminatingr 
point of this sea of glaciers, which covers a space 
of 20 or 25 miles long by 6 to 10 broad. The 
Schreckhom was ascended for the first time in 
1842, by Escher von der Linth and two others. 

In descending by footpath (the bridle path passes 
the Hotel des Alpes) from the Scheideck, through 
Wergisthal, you come to a cottage where refresh- 
ment may be had, and whence there is a path to the 
Nellenbalm Cave, 100 feet high, which commands 
a rather good view of the glaciers around. The 
way to Grindelwald is encumbered by broken 
rocks and trees, brought down by the avalanches. 
GRINDELWALD (Stat.) 

HoteU: Bar; De I'Aigle Noir (Adler>-.^«^ZiiA 
Church Service in the season; — Hotel Eiger; Hotel 
and Pension du Glacier. Pensions. 

An Alpine village (population 3,500) among the 
glaciers, with a sharp, bracing climate. It includes 
some good pasture; and cherries for kirschwasser 
thrive well in it. At the church is the gr^ave of a 
Swiss clergyman, who was lost in the crevices of 
the glaciers, 1821. The Heidebrunncn Intermittent 
Spring, the LSgibach Fall, and Dafiloch Cave, are 
here; but it is chiefly known for the beautiful 
glaciers in its neighbourhood, which are easily 
visited from hence, with gruidcs, as they rise imme- 
diately above the forests which skirt them. The 
lower glacier, the most easy of ascent, lies between 
the slopes of the Wcttcrhom and Mettcnberg; 
and between this and the Eiger, is the upper and 
more beautiful one, with its pyramids of ice. In 
some years the under part forms a splendid arch 
of ice. AttheHel8sen.P\.^^.\.^>Vs^*CoR^ss&Ss&\.^^'^'=^~ 



S8 



BBADSHAW'S 8WITZBBLAND AND THE TTBOL. 



[Section 2. 



1 hour, and affords the best view of the lower 
glacier. BSregg Hnt is a good point of view. 

From Grindelwald, a five honrs* walk may be 
taken to the head of the lower glacier and part of 
the Strahleck Pass, (10,995 feet high). Nowhere 
can a better idea of the snblimity of the Alps be 
more easily obtained. There is but little difficulty. 
Ladies may ride, without danger, to the point 
where the glacier touches the side of the g^ in the 
mountains, which is, perhaps, the finest point of 
view. Here a plank, laid by the shepherds, crosses 
the ice, and a few steps bring the passenger round 
the comer of the rock to a green mountain pas- 
turage. Those who have a good head should here 
get on to the ice; the passage, however, to the 
centre of the glacier is very difficult, and the 
crevasses are formidable ; but the nature and for- 
mation of a Steep-lying glacier can scarcely be 
so well seen in any other part of the Alps. In 
1848, this regien was scarcely known to the 
guides except as the beginning of the Strahleck 
Pass, one of the most diflicult in the Alps, but now 
frequently made. 

One of the finest views of the Oberland Glaciers 
is that from the Paulhom, which rises between 
Grindelwald and BrienzerSee, 8,800 feet above the 
sea, with an Inn on the top containing only twenty- 
four beds. Prices are of course somewhat higher 
than in hotels In more accessible situations. It is 
advisable, in case of a party, to send word before- 
hand. Guides are usually taken; ladies maybe 
carried up in sedan chairs, at 6 francs each bearer 
(12 francs if they sleep there) . It may be ascended 
from various points;— from Unterseen, past Sengg, 
very toUsome, in 6 hours' walking; from Glessbach 
on the Bricnzer Sec, in 6 to 6 hours, past the falls 
of the Glessbach, equally steep and toilsome; from 
the Great Schcidcck Pass, in 3i to 4 hours; and 
from Schwendi, on the Ltitschine below Grindel- 
wald, in 3 to 4 hours. But the easiest ascent is 
from Grindelwald, in 4 to 5 hours, past Dlirrenberg, 
Nothalten, MUhlibach Fall, Bachalp Cottage (where 
refreshments may be found), Bachsee (or Lape), 
Obcrbacbsee, and Simelihom. The view from 
the Faulliom takes in a prospect of 86 to 50 
J«<urues, from the Mythen of Schwytz, the Randen 
^y" ScAaObausea, IntbenoHh, to the DiA\Aet^\A in 
^^^onr4u-jgj,^j,^ V4Uer(soum we$t) HQd t^e Ji}ng- 



f ran range (south). Peaks rise np in the following 
order. Eastward, are Wildegrat and the Schwarz- 
hom (9,505 feet) with Titlis (11,355 feet) rising up 
between ; in the foreground are Gemsenfluh, Ritz- 
ligrStli, and Simelen-Wang. To the right of 
Schwarzhom is the mighty peak of Sustenhom 
(11,530 feet), then Trif tengletschcr ; and in front 
of it the Engelhoms, which have on their right the 
dark Wellhom (10,485 feet), surrounded by the 
Black Forest and the Alpigel Glaciers. 

The semicircle from south-east to south-west 
embraces the grandest part of the panorama. First, 
the Wetterhom, then the Berglistock, rising over 
the Ober Grindelwald Glacier, and surmounted by 
the Schreckhom, the Simelihom, Finsteraarhom, 
and Yiescherhom. Close upon these follow the 
Eiger, the Miinch, the Jungfrau, and Silberhorn 
(with the Lauterbrunnen Scheideck in the horizon), 
the Breithom, Tschingelhorn, the Sparrenhora 
(9,890 feet), the Bliimlisalp (12,040 feet), the Dolden- 
hom, and other peaks as far as the Diablcrcts. 
Westward rises the pyramid-shaped Nicscn (out of 
the Thuner See) and the Stockhorn beyond. In 
the horizon beyond, among the blue peaks of the 
Jura, are the Gestler, and Weissenstein. Tlio 
nearest foreground, northward, is formed of the 
ridges about the Brienzer See, from the Augst- 
matthom, to the Rothhom. North-east are the 
crags of the Pilatus. Some parts, but not much, 
of the Lakes of Zug and the Yierwaldstatter are 
also visible, together with the Rigi, Rossberg, 
Stauserhom, and the Mythen of Schwytz. 

From Grindelwald to Meirlngen is 6} or 7 

hours' walking, or riding, over the Orosse Schel- 
deck ; to reach it by carriage, you must go back, 
by Interlaken, and round the Brienzer See. Taking 
the shorter and more inviting route, you pass up 
the defile of the Grindelwald, by the upper Glacier, 
having the Wetterhom in front all the way up to 
the Grosseor Greater Scheideck, about 3 stuiulcn. 
The snow line, which in Switzerland is 8,000 
feet above the sea, is seen here, sharply defined on 
the sides of the Wetterhom; while the avalanches 
which fall from it accumulate in heaps close to the 
path, sometimes without melting through the 
whole summer. From the inn on this Scheideck 
or "ridge" (6,910 feet high), only a few paces 

broad^ th«r^ V& «A ^U^ns^^ tixx^ V^QSpect over 



Bonte 13a.] 



METBIKaBN, BRIENZ. 



89 



the green zheadows and cottages of the valley left 
behind, bounded on the south-west by the pasture 
of the Kleine, or Little Scheideck, and forming a 
striking contrast with the snowy sides of the 
Wetterhom (12,150 feet), Schreckhom, Meltenberg, 
the Eiger, and the Monch ; to the south-east, the 
round top of the Faulhom, and the Hunnenfluh 
are visible. 

About 1^ stunde further is theRosenlaui Glacier (a 
little to the right), remarkable for its white crystal- 
line appearance, and lying between the Wellhorn 
and the Engelhonier. It is not above a century 
old, and is steadily decreasing You then come to 
the Rosenlaui Bad (4,450 feet above the sea) 
and Hotel; from whence there are good climbs to 
the Wetterhom and the Mittelhorn (12,165 feet). 
From this the road descends by the Reichenbach, 
through a very picturesque valley, past the beau- 
tiful Falls Of the Reiohenbacll. These are 
made by a succession of five larger leaps, (there 
nearly 80 in all), by which it descends about 1,000 
feet over the cliffs. • The highest and lowest are 
the best, the latter being near the Aar (3} stunden 
from the Scheideck) at the ferry to 

MEIRING£N, 

Hotels: Victoria ; Du Sauvf^e (Wilder Mann) — 
Opposite the Cascades of Reichenbach and Alpbach. 

Krone; Bar; Reichenbach. 

Pension zum Stein. 

EnglUh Church Service^ in the Gothic Church, 
Hotel du Sauvage, opened 1867. 

A village (population 2,800), the chief place of 
Hasli-thal, in a wild and charming spot, on the Aare, 
1,950 feet above sea. It stands on a plain, 
1 league broad, shut in by steep wooded ridges and 
snowy mountain tops. Three streams from the 
Hasliberg,thc Alpbach, the Miihlhach, and the Dorf- 
hach, pour into the valley immediately behind the 
village, which at times swell into torrents, and 
occasion much damage. In this way it was 
nearly inundated in 1762, since when a canal has 
been cut, opening into the Aar. The Fdll of the 
Alpbach should be visited about 9 a.m., when the 
sunshine makes a triple rainbow across it. There is 
a view also of the fine Falls of the Beichenbacll, 
about the same hour, from behind the Church, 
as they appear beautifully illuminated by the sun. 



about 130, at the north end, were burnt, with the 
former Hotel du Sauvage, February, 1879 ; also, an 
old Castle and watch tower of the Counts of Hasli. 
Good wood carving here. 

In July and August several wrestling matches 
(Schwingfeste) are held in the Haslithal on the 
Tannenalp, the Stadtalp, and the Wengemalp, 
near Meiringen. 

Five^or six Alpine roads and paths meet 
here or near here: — To Brienz and Interlakcn; to 
Lucerne by the fine pass of the Brunig (2 hours), 
or through Melch-thal, the village of which is 
surrounded by mountains 6,000 to 8,000 feet high; 
to Wasen, on the Reuss and Gothard Road, by Sustcn 
Pass; to Engelberg and Stanz, by the Gcn-thal 
and the Engstlen-Alp ; to Grindclwald, by the 
way just described ; and up the GrimscI, as in the 
following Route. 

ROTJOTB ISA. 
Interlaken to Brienz, the Rothhom, Mei- 
ringen, the Grlmsel, Rh6ne Glacier, &c. 

(For the Briinig Pass, on the way to Lucerne, 
see Route 15.) 

By steamer or by road, though the latter is not 
often taken. 

The Lake of Brienz, or Brlenzer See, 

8 miles by 2, is nearly 1,900 feet above the sea, and 
500 to 2,000 feet deep— the latter near Oberricd, 
on the north side. Except the north and south 
end, where the shore is rather flat, the sides are 
hemmed in by lofty wooded mountains. The Aare 
is its chief feeder; but the two LUtschines, which 
rise in the vast glaciers at the head of the Grin- 
dclwald, and traverse the Lauterbrunnen-thal, 
contribute their waters. Among its fish the ling 
or lotte is much esteemed. 

The char-road goes round the north side of the 
lake, past the old towers of Ringgenberg, lying 
among green shrubberies and orchards; then by 
Nieder and Ober Ried, with the Faulhom and the 
Giessbach Falls opposite. In about 3^ hours Brienz 
is reached. By steamer the passage is made in 
about 1\ hour. 

BRIENZ. 

Population, 2,800. 

Hotels : Croix Blanche; Bar, 



90 



BSAI>0H1W'0 fiWITEBBULlTB AKO THB TYSOL. 



rSection 2. 



feet above the sea, separating the lake from the 
Entlebnch. Here you may buy excellent wood 
carvingrs; most of the houses are of wood. 
The village is composed of Dorf, Tracht, and 
Kicnholz. The old Church was built in 1261. 
Behind is the Mtthlibach or Planalpbach FaU of 600 
feet, which scarcely obtains notice here. From 
hence to Schuffen, in the Entlebuch, is SJeagues 
(with a guide). Bat the great attractions are the 
Bothhom and the Giessbach Falls. Rotllhom, 
the highest point (7,915 feet) of the Brienz-Grat, 
is remarkable for the prospect from its top (which 
may be reached in 4 to 6 hours), taking in the high 
Alps and valleys, and the north of Switzerland, 
with some beautiful scenery in the fore-ground. 
Beech and other woods hang round the base, but 
the summit is bare, and there is no inn since one 
was burnt down some years ago. On the opposite 
side of the lake, below the Faulhom, are the 
GieSBbatih Falls, which may be reached by 
steamer in 10 minutes from Brienz; a cable 
tramway takes you up to the Hotel, which is close 
to the Falls. 

They consist of a series of about seven cascades 
from rock to rock, 1,000 ft., set in a framework 
of woods and pasture. At a point under the cli£^ 
about half way, you may stand and look through 
the fall, and enjoy the peculiar effects it produces. 
There are two Hctels close by, where guides may be 
taken to ascend the Faulhom, but it is a difficult 
path. The falls are illuminated every night from 
1 st J ane to 80th September. A charge of i| franc 
is made, which, for visitors staying at the Hotel, 
is reduced to 1 franc. 

From Brienz Dorf, round the top of the lake 

(where the effects of an inundation in 1797, and a 

landslip, 1824, are still visible), you pass Tidbit 

(Hotels: Weisses Elreuz; Bar; Tell, homely), 

famous for its exquisite wood carvings, where 

the road parts to Wyler and the Briinig Pass. 

From the latter to Lucerne, see Route 15. 

Kienholz, near the old castle of Kicn, was the site 

of a village destroyed by a landslip in the fifteenth 

century, now partly occupied by the Bellevue 

Hotel, built by the owner of the lake steamboat. 

CrossJnsrtherlvBT at Brlenzwyler, you can ascend 

iAB Aar, past a BBriea of w^terUilM, tiimb}{|)g 

>^ert^0 ii/erb walls of rock, toMeirfngen, 



From Melrlngen to tlie Orlmsel Pass, is 

miles. The upper part may be done without a guide 
in summer, and is easier on foot than on horse- 
back, from the roughness of someparts of the path. 
Passing through the cleft in Kirchet rock (760 feet 
above the river) through which the Aar has 
forced Its way, you descend into the commence- 
ment of the Ober Hasli-thal, now a green valley, 
but supposed to have been the bed of a lake, and 
come to the villages of Im-Grund and Im-Hof. 
Numbers of huge granite blocks, which geologists 
say have been brought down by the encroaching 
glaciers, are seen lying about. A road turns off 
here (east) by the Gadmen-thal, over the Susten 
Pass to Wasen on the Beuss ; and a path strikes 
south-west to the glaciers In Urbach-thal. The 
mountains on both sides are 9,000 to 10,000 feet 
high. Im-Boden meadows next appear, and then 

GUTTANEV. 

Inn: BSr (Bear). 

The largest village of Ober Hasli-thal 8,630 
feet above the sea, under Wi^KiltMhom (10,350 ft.) 
In the fields are heaps of stones brought down by 
the avalanches, which the people gather up to 
clear the ground. Beyond tUs the road becomes 
gradually steeper, the soil more barren and des- 
titute of trees, except pines ; and after 2 hours* 
walk, the famous Fall of the Aar, called the 
Handeck Fall^ which for volume of water, is 
after the SchaflThausen Falls, the most magnificent 
in Switzerland. " We first viewed (says Professor 
Forbes), the cascade from beneath, but the view, 
though grand, was much less striking than it 
would have been could we have got lower down 
and closer to it. From the top we can at 
once see the whole mad leap of the river and 
more or less perfectly from three points of view, 
viz., from the cliffs on each side, particularly the 
left, and from a small wooden bridge thrown across 
the stream, just over the ledge from which it 
dashes. The whole body of water shoots at once 
into the abyss, a depth of about 280 feet, reaching 
the bottom without touching the face of the rock. 

"A singular feature in this fall is the union of 
two cascades into one. Just at the point over 
which the Aar precipitates itself, theErlenbach or 
Aetlenbadi rashlng down its rooky path On the 
left l^tffiK ft>i<»<\« ^^ ^ ^V»(k<4jl >a^^ %^:q^<& «ltjK^ 



CVTTAXJSK* 



Botite ISa.] 

bnt nearly at right angles to the other ; and the 
two joining in mid-air abont half-way down, dash 
together into the wild grnlf beneath. As might be 
supposed from the great mass of water and its 
high fall, the whole space between the rocks 
is filled with a continuous misty spray, which in 
the morning, from 10 to 12, gives rise to the beau- 
tiful local rainbow when the sun is clear/* An 
artist named Wolf was lowered down with cords 
to obtain a good point of view (marked by a figure 
of a wolf) for sketching this grand scene. Refresh- 
ments may be had at the Handeck Inn, close by. 

After this, only patches of grain or moss, with 
here and there a hardy rhododendron, are seen, and 
the road goes by steep, naked precipices ; and past 
such spots as the BCse Scite (bad side) or Bocks- 
stUge where groores have been made for a foot-hold, 
and the Hehleplatte, another slippery sjwt (for 
horses), a little further. Opposite is a pretty fall 
made by the Gelmerbach, which flows from a little 
lake, between the Gelmerhom and Schaubhorn. 

All vegetation disappears as you ascend the Aar 
Valley, which grows narrower and wilder at the 
two goat-herds* huts in the Batrichsboden, a 
marshy hollow, 2 miles above which is the QrlmBdl 
Hospice, 6,130 feet above the sea, and 940 feet 
below the pass, standing in a desolate hollow 
among bare rocks, but affording an agreeable sight 
to the weary traveller, when he catches the first 
glimpse of it. It is a stone building, where poor 
travellers were once lodged gratis ; but Is now a 
sort of hotel, with tolerably high charges. The 
Hospice is not nnfrequently full, and travellers 
map be compelled to go back to the Handeck 
Inn. The Spitzler formerly lived here In summer 
till November, and was bound In stormy weather to 
give help to stragglers, and to Indicate the road by 
ringing bells, Ac. Close to the Hospice are two 
small lakes or tarns. 

The Aar rises to the west, out of two vast gla- 
ciers called the Upper and Lower Aar-Gletscher; 
among the most remarkable of that class. The 
Unter or Lower Aar Glacier (1^ stunde) is easily 
ascended, and without danger ; it is distinguished 
for its immense blocks of granite and pillars of ice. 
That of the Upper Aar Is 2^ stunden distant. In 
former dayt, the valley now called the Aarboden, 
from tiie 5;>/<<///»roptfteDnter Aar-QUclw,^«R\ 



91 



by a name signifying Flowery Pasture, and was, 
they say, a fertile and pleasant spot, till the 
glaciers and falls of rock made it a desert. 

A steep rocky path (^ houi*) winds up to the 
GrlmBel Pass, between Nagells Gratll and the 
Sidelhom, 7,105 feet above the sea, on the summit 
of which, called Hauseck (where the cantons Berne 
apd Yalais divide), the snow seldom melts except 
In hot summers. A little lake, the Todten See 
(i.e., Deadman*s Lake) lies here, close to which 
the French, under General Gudin, surprised the 
Austrlans in the campaign of August, 1799. From 
the direct way, a path turns off to the Mayen- 
wand and Rhdne Olader. The best view of the 
pass, <fec.. Is got from the SideUxom, which is 9,4fi0 
feet above the sea, but may be ascended without 
difficulty, or a guide, in 4 hours from the Hospice; 
the last mile is rough, from the blocks of granite 
which cover the summit. It commands a wide 
prospect of the glacier region ; the Schreckhom, 
Finsteraarhom, Viescherhom, the Galenstock, and 
the Rhone Glacier (2 stunden to the north-east), 
the chain of the Upper Yalais, the Simplon, and, 
far to the south, Monte Rosa, Matterhom, dsc. 
Oberwalden, in the Rh6ne-thal, may be reached 
in Zl hours. About 4 stunden from the Grimsel, on 
the Zlnkenstock, is a cavern 120 feet deep, where 
many rock crystals have been found. A similar 
mine was opened 1807, by the Spitzler, on the 
other side of the lake near the hospice, and 40 lbs. 
of crystals were gathered. 

From Grimsel hospice It takes about 8 hours to go 
over the pass and descend to Obergestelen, In the 
Valals. 

Out of the Ober Hasli-thal, a disused but once 
practicable road leads through the Miihele and 
Gadmenthals, past the fan-shaped Glacier of Stein, 
over the Susten Pass (so called from a lagerhaua 
or storehouse), and from the inn of which, 7,440 
feet high, Is a fine view. Out of the same valley 
a path leads over the Jochberg; It passes several 
waterfalls, and reaches, in 13 miles, the chftlets of 
the Engstlen Alp, near a lake where there is an 
inn. Close to it is an intermittent spring, called the 
Wwiderbrunnen. The path then crosses the Engel- 
berger Jochy 7.^240 t^«.^ iJws^^ sJor '«r»^ <«saSw^ "«SivsB«. 



n 



BBADBHiiVfl flWlTZ»1 



ENQELBERG. 

Inm: 8oimenberg,first-cla8shotd,CTircc8lab\l8li- 

mcnt, beautifully situated ; Hotel du TltUs, beauti- 
fully situated, -with extensive garden. 

Engel, a comfortable place; des Alpes; Engel- 
berg. Pension MuUer. 

Guides: to the Tltlis, 12 francs; Urlrotbstock, 
17 francs; Hutstock, 12 francs; Gelszberg, 10 
francs ; Engel berg Rothstock, 9 francs. 

Resident Physicians in the season. 

ThisplaccislO stundcnfromMeiringcn, and'3,345 
feet aboye the sea. Here is a convent, founded 
1121, by Count von Sellenblirm, and rebuilt 1732. 
^*The situation is extremely imposing; it stands at 
the foot of the snowy Titlis, among pastures of the 
brightest verdure; the valley below forming a 
beautiful contrast to the eternal winter overhead. 
The convent has not the same pretensions to archi- 
tectural magnificence as that at Einsicdeln ; it is a 
plain, unadorned, white building ; and yet, I think, 
harmonising better with the situation in which it 
is placed, than if it had owed more to decorative 
art." — Ferguson. (Sec also, page 96). It has some 
paintings by Swiss artists in th« church ; a library 
of 20,000 vols, and MSS.; reliefs by MUller; with 
a good school and farm attached. About f hour 
distance is a fall of the Tatschbach. 

Several PaiSUies may be visited from here. A 
lonely path leads under the TltllB and its glaciers 
(11,600 feet above the sea) by a little chapel, up the 
Surenen Pass, which is 7,580 feet high, and com- 
mands a fine view of the Titlis, Ac, one way, and 
the Todl the other way. Thence, in 8 hours alto- 
gether, to Altorf. (Guide, 14 francs). To the east- 
ward, three passes unite Engelberg Valley with 
Url : — 1. The Susten; the Surenen, 7,580 feet; and 
Ahom, 5,230 feet; while to the west it communi- 
cates with the Aar basin by four passes: — ^The 
Joch, 7,245 feet; the Juchli, 7,130 feet; the 
Storegg, 6,705 feet; and the Holzwang, 7,000 feet. 

From the Grlmsel to the Rh6ne Glacier, 
over the Furka Pass, to Andermatt, on 
the St. Gothard Road. 

About 9 leagues; guides 10 to 12 francs a day. 

A good modem Hotel, with every convenience, 

at the Rhdne Glacier. A good carriage road, 

jW'fseif i>jr dj/jg-ence, Is open over ffye Furka from 



_ J Section 2, 

SKOSLBERG. 

^'^^fl?.^**"^ ^''^ PiKSiOK Titlis (Enjrllsh 
Church Service, 8. P.O.). Beautifully situated. 
Extensfv* ^rdeua. First-class. Proprietor, 
E. Cattani. See Advt 

HOTBX EirOBL.— Well-known Hotel Electric 
light. Baths. See Advt. 

of the SbOlld QUuste, vhieh hangs between the 
Gelmer and GertUohorn Mountaihs. It is part of 
a lystem of glaciers which stretch away to the 
Titlis, round various peaks of 9,000 to 11,000 feet 
high. The Glacier has considerably decreased of 
late years. At the foot of it comes out a volume 
of the peculiarly grey water which marks the 
glacier streams; this is the source of the river, 
5,440 feet above the Mediterranean sea, which it 
reaches after a run of 645 miles, and for the most 
part of its course with a velocity which justifies its 
name of the " arrowy Rhone." There is a beautiful 
ice-grotto near the inn. From the Gr imsel Hospice 
to top of the pass is 2| hours on foot. 

The Furka (" Fork ") Pass, which Is now 
ascended, being 7,990 feet above the sea, is seldom 
free from snow, and the ridge of it is so narrow 
that you begin to descend immediately. But it is 
a fine point of view for the glaciers around, and 
takes in a vast range of icy peaks. H6tel de la 
Furca at the top of the pass. Proceeding down 
the lonely Urscroi-tha] at the head of the Reuss, 
you come to the Sidli-alp and Realp pastures, 
where grows almost every specimen of the Swiss 
flora ; and at length to Hospbkthal on the west 
Gothard Road, within 5 or 6 miles of that pass, 
and within a league of Andbrkatt (Route 10). 

Grlmsel to DomO d'OssOla, by the Grles 
Pass, Val Formazza and Tosa Falls, about 16 
leagues; a rough mule path over the pass. A 
guide required as far as the Formazza Valley, the 
new road is finislicd aa f ar ai Andermatten. From 
Obergcstelen to the Falls and back may be done In 
a day. You leave Obergestelen by the bridge on 
the Rhdne, to Im Loch, where the path turns up 
the Eginenthal to Egina, at the foot of the Gries, 
where a way over the Nuf enen Pass, by the Hos- 
pice all'Agua, to the dreary Val Bedretto and 
Airolo, on the St. Gothard Road, branches off. \ 
s(e«p ys^S'^S T^ A^BL^V^^^WV^Adft^'^^c 1,b.e wU4 



jftonte 14.] 



^rOntaktBtlS, LAl^OtTAU. 



93 



glaciers of the Gries or Kufenen, a ridge which 
divides Switzerland A'om Piedmont, and is here 
8,810 feet above the sea. It is hemmed in by high 
and naked peaks, but commands a noble prospect 
of the Oberland Alps, and into the Piedmontese 
territory. The path descends very sharply on this 
side, and after leading by Bcttelmatt and Kehr- 
bachi, brings you to Auf der Fmtt, near the head 
of the Frutval, or Val Formazza, forming the 
bed of the Tosa, which at this part forms the mag- 
nificent Toaa Fall of 400 feet, with a breadth of 
80 feet, but the total extent of the spray is nearly 
1,000 feet. Next, we come to Frutval and Wald, 
where paths strike off into the RhSne Valley, and 
(by Furca di Bosco) into that of the Maggia. 

Below the wild defile of Unterwald or Fop- 
piano, the landscape is distinguished by its rich 
Italian character ; rocky heights, forests, fig trees, 
vines, &c., meet the eye in every direction. From 
II Passo is a way into the Val di Campo ; lower 
down, near Premia (16 miles from Gries Pass), 
another path goes up the river, which joins 
here. The Val Antigorio, the name which the 
valley now takes, abounds in still more delight- 
ful scenery ; descending it, you pass the Italian 
douane at Grodo or Grot, and after abridge or two, 
you fall into the Simplon Road at Grevola, where 
the Vodro joins the Tosa. Domo d'OsSOla is 
Smiles further (see Route 4). 



Lucerne to Beme. 

(1) By road, vid the Entlebuch : — 
To Schachen 3 stunden. 

Entlebuch 2 „ 

Escholzmatt 2f „ 

Langnau ...m. •• 8 „ 

Signau 8 „ 

Worb 3 „ 

Berne If „ 

ISi 8tundon=55i miles. 

(2) Another way, by Sursee: — 
To Sursee 4f stunden 

Huttwyl 3| „ 

Burgdorf d| „ 

Beme 4i „ 

16i stunden. 
(1) By Bail through the £atl6lm6h, vi4 WoM- 



lutusen (12 miles), 8^il]>fheim (9 miles), Lang' 
nan (14 miles), z&siwyl (8 miles), amnlingen 

(10 miles) to Beme, 5 miles. Another rail goes vid 
Olten, Herzogenbuchsee, Ac, by a more circuitous 
road. 

The rail follows the new road round the Bramegg, 
past Wertenstein Abbey, up the Emmc, to 

WohlliaUBen (Stat.)— /nn«: RossH; Kreuz— 
not far from Entlebuch. Inns : Drei Konige ; Du 
Port. At Entlebuch, the Entlenbach and Kleine 
Emmen join, in a valley, 30 miles long, shut in by 
high ridges, 8,000 to 7,000 feet high, and peopled by 
famous wrestlers. They hold Schwingf este (wrest- 
ling matches) in August and September, mostly 
at Schiipfheim, 1 stunde from Entlebuch, and at 
Enneteck, at the foot of the Nap/, 5,195 feet high 
(3 hours), where several small streams rise, and 
which is remarkable for its view. 

The Entle, or Entlenbach, is a little mountain tor- 
rent, which rises about 8 miles south-east, under the 
Schafmatt and Femeren in a wild gorge, 6,360 feet 
above the sea. A way leads up it under the Schlm- 
berg to Samet (12 miles). The men of the 
Entlenbach are not only noted for wrestling, but they 
have a natural turn for humour and music, which 
displays itself especially in the satirical songs 
recited on the last Monday of the carnival (Hlrte- 
montag). The valley abounds with rare plants 
and many fossils. 

Passing Hasli, you come to Schiipfen or Schiipf- 
helm (Stat.), where the valley of the Kleine 
Emme turns off. It runs south past St. Niklaus, 
Glusstalde, and Haglem Falls, to Sorenberg in the 
Mayen-thal, where it rises under the Rothhonr. 
From SSrenberg, paths go to Brienz on the lake 
of the same name (9 miles), and to the little Lake 
of Lungem (4 miles). 

The next place is ESCbOlzmatt (Stat.) Inns: 
Krone; Lowe. A village, 3,020 feet above 
sea. A little further on are Wyssenbach and 
Ilfs,on that branch of the Emme; descending it, 
you come to Kroschenbrun; then Trilbschachen, 
Langnauer Spital (a Hospital), and 

I Langnau (Stat.) Hotels: Bahnhof ; Emmenthal ; 
Hirsch ; Bar ; LUwe. The lat^<lSJ^\.^^'aR5ft.Vs!«^-'^ ^s**^ 



94 



BIUDSHAVS SW]T2SSXJLld> AND tHB TTBOt. 



[Section 3. 



Hocpital. Bitsiaf, a dergymaiif who wrote under 
the name of Jeremias Gotthelf, resided here. It 
is a depOt for the linens, cattle, and cheeses of the 
Emmenthal, which is noted for its rich pastures. 
Rail to Burgdorf (below) 14 miles. 

The Emme rises about 15 miles to the south- 
east, under the mountains round the Brienzer 
See; a road descends it to Burgdorf and Soleure. 
Langnau is one of the few places whore trarellers 
can ride in a char to visit the upland ch&lets, and 
observe all the details of pastoral life; one of these 
is the Auf der Schynen, 2 leagues off, where the 
best cheeses are made. 81gIiau(Stat),/'m.* BUr, 
is another pasture country, a little out of the 
Emmenthal. Thence you pass Steinibach; Z&zlwyl 
(Stat.) and its sulphur baths, where the road to 
Thun, 11 miles, turns off; then Gross Hochstetten, 
a thriving village; Worb^ another (population 
1,800), in a fertile spot, with an old ch&teau; Engis- I 
tehi and its sulphur spring ; to OiUllliXIgen (Stat.) 
junction for Thun and Bemo. 

From nfis, a road turns off past Marbach, Zum 
Wald, Schangnoiau in the Emmenthal, past Reblocb 
Fall on the Emmen, Sudem under the Sattel ridge 
(8,500 feet) to Schazzenegg and Sulg; from which 
Thun is about 2 miles, and 20 from Ilf s. 

The Ball to Tbun and Interlaken turns off at 
QiimliDgen, as above. 

(2.) From Lucerne to Berne, by Snrsee. 

Provided the long railway journey, vid Olten 
and Herzogenbuchsee, be not taken throughout, 
you leave the train at Sursec, and, passing the 
little Mauen Lake, you come to Kottwyl; then 
EttiSWyl (population, 900), and its castle and 
church .(Willisau, a little walled town, is south- 
south-west up the Wigger). A little further is 
the old feudal manor of Kasteln. Then Zell and 
Haswyl ; and Uflfhausen, once the seat of a feudal 
noble. Crossing into Canton Berne, you come to 

HUTTWYL. 

Inn : Krone (Crown). 

A little walled place on the Laageten (which 
descends to Langenthal), rebuilt siaoe it was 
set on fire by lightning, 1884, and having a good 
cattle market. 

^Ze rosd bjr SamaJawaid parts off here ; and 
«w4fir 4*^ £auis:HeD to ErUwyl (SmUeB); thence 



it winds over the Frizenberg to Wasen (4 miles) ; 
and 13 mUeson to Sununlswald (Inn: Bar or 
Bear), on a hill by the Grufegne; having 1,200 popu- 
lation ; a church built 1612 ; and an old landvoght's 
castle. It has also a lending bank, and is an indus- 
trious place. The next place is Ltizelfluh (3 miles), 
at the bridge across the Emmen, in the green and 
fertile Emmenthal. Thence by Bollingen under 
the Bantiger Ridge, you reach Beme (11 miles). 

From Huttwyl, the road passes Diirrenroth, in a 
pretty fertile spot. At Waltringen a branch turns 
off to Sununlswald. Lu^, further on, has a fine 
point of view. Then by Sommerhaus or Lochbad, 
and its sulphur springs, in a romantic spot, to 

BUBGDOBF (Stat), or BerthOOd in French ; 
on the Central Swiss line. Here a branch to 
Soleure, 14 miles long comes in. 

SoteU: Bar; Stadthaus; Guggisberg. . 

A busy walled town (6,900 population), on the 
Great Emme, where the Emmenthal begins, in a 
very pleasing situation. It has a CasOe, as old, 
they say, as the seventh century, commanding very 
fine views, as docs the church near it; a Rathhaus ; 
an orphan school, Ac. Here Pestalozzi founded 
his school in 1798, transferred in 1804 to Hofwyl, 
and finally to Yverdon. At the sandstone quarry, 
ontheBautiger-hubel (3| stunden), is a fine view. 
Two roads part off to Beme; one by Krauch-thal ; 
and the other by HindellMmk, a pretty village, 
where the Erlach family had a seat. In its 
church is a very fine monument to Madame Lang- 
haus, by Nahl, representing the Resurrection, with 
an inscription by Haller. There are also good 
stained windows. From thence you pass Sand, 
Ac, on the Soleure Road, to 

Beme, in Route 13. The direct route by road, 
from Beme to Zflrich, is as follows:— 



ToHindelbank 2f stunden. 

Herzogenbuchsee 4^ 

Murgenthal 2| 

Kreuzstrasse. ll 

Lenztring 4^ 

Baden 3 

Ztirich 4} 



n 



n 



n 

» 



23 stunden; 
but there is nothing striking along it; and it is 
superseded by the Central and United Swiss rail- 



fionte I6.3 



Lucerne to Brlenz, by tUe Briixilg. 

To Alpnach listunden 

Sarnen If 

Qyswyl 1| 



Longern. 
Bronig Pass 
Brienz 



l\ 



n 
n 



i» 



S\ standen. 
„ elringenand 

Brienz, over the Brilnig Pass, the service between 
Giswyl and Meiringen being suspended daring 
winter. Steamer can be taken to Alpnach-Stad, 
the station of the Pilatus Railway, some of the 
sailings being timed to catch the train at Alpnach. 
They mn frequently, calling sometimes at Kehr- 
siten (for the funicular rail up the Biirgenstock), 
sometimes at Hergiswyl, and at other times run- 
ning direct to Stans-stad. The old road over the 
Pass is by far the most picturesque, and those who 
have not crossed it should make the passage on 
foot or in carriage. 

Stans-Stad, in the south-west arm of the Yier- 
waldstatter See, marked by an old tower, is the 
landing place or port (ttad or gettade) of Stans, 
which is 2 miles south-east. 

Eelirsiten, the landing place of the steameri 
for the BUrgeruiock^ on which is the fine Hotel 
Biirgenstock, with extensiye grounds, a much fre- 
quented health resort Wire-rope rail up to the 
Hotel in 20 minutes. 

There is a very fine view from the Hammet- 
schwand, the highest point of the Biirgenstock, 

easily accessible. 

STANS-STAD. 

ffoteU: Winkelried; Bossli. 

Population, 2,200. Chief town of the Nidwald 
(Lower Forest) part of Canton Unterwald^ at the 
end of a picturesque plain, under the Biirgenstock, 
Ac, near the Aa and Botzberg, and its old castle, 
taken from theAustriansin the first rising of 1308. 
The town was taken by storm by the Freach 
General Schauenberg, in 1798. For nearly three 
months in the winter the sun is hidd^i away 
in the afternoon. The parish Church (built 1641) 
has marble piUars, and a dome 219 feet high, the 
old Pilgrimage Chapel of Maria zum Heerde, and 
another chapel to the memory of those who fell in 
1798. It stands on the Platz, whioh is adorned by 



it^i^ AtPNAOfi, 8AltH»r. 05 

WinkelHedf the hero of Sempacb, and a native; 
they show his house on the Sarnen Boad, belonging 
to the Trachsler family, near a memorial Chapel. 
His coat of mail is in the arsenal. 

At the Town House are the archives, with por- 
traits of several landammanns, and of Nicholas 
von der Fliie, the wise and pious councillor at the 
Convention of the Canton held here, 1481. 

Following the Aa, by a char-road, past Dallen- 
wyll, Wolfenschiessen and its castle (whence a 
path runs over the Schonegg to the Isenthal and 
Altorf) Oberdorf Fall, Grafenort, and Schwand, 
you come to 

Bngeiberg (lO miles), see page 92, among snowy 
peaks (6,000 to 8,000 feet high) with a Benedictine 
Abbey founded in the deventh century, at which 
are Caves for the cheese made at the convent farms. 
MtUler, the engineer, was bom here. Hence you 
may ascend the TitliS (8 hours), 11,600 feet above 
the sea, a noble peak covered with the Fim, or 
Alpine snow, and surrounded by glaciers; or you 
may follow the Aa, over the SiSrenen Pass, down 
to the Beuss and Altorf (20 miles) ; or go over the 
Joch to the Genthal and Meiringen (18 miles) on 
to Brienz. 

From Stans as above, the road passes by Rohren, 
Weisserle, and Kerns, with cotton and iron works, 
to Sarnen; but the latter may be also reached by 
way of 

▲LFNACH-STAD (Stat.) 

Inn*: Pilate, good ; RSssli; Stem. 

Alpnach, near a Gestade or Harbour on the Lake, 
has a good timber Church, and was formerly noted 
for its Slide, or wooden trough, 8 miles long, made 
for launching timber from the forests on Pilatus 
into Lake Lucerne, like the sovenda used above 
Bellinzona. Passing Schlieren you come to 

SABNEN (Stat) 
Hotels : Obwaldner; Adler; Hirsch; Post; 

Metzger. 

Capital of Canton Unterwalden and of the 
Obwald (Upper Forest) part of it, with a popula- 
tion of 4,100, where the Melch-Aa joins the Saraer- 
Aa, at the bottom of the Samer See. It has a 
college, hospital, churches, convents, theatre, poor- 
house, Ac. The Arsenal is on the sltA <kt ^Se^s*. ^sSw 
caaU<4 ol \\!A KMJGeubsi ^-^^^^^v^*^ •^^;;^^^ 



two foimtaiQ^ and asUtoe of tbe fanou AmoldV \)«nu iwwt \^^ ^«2d&s«.'W8s5b»5» ^^sst ^ea^'*^ 



96 



BRADSHAIV'S fiWlT2fittLAl^3) AiJi) 1?HB TYROL. 



[Section ?. 



TheTownTTouso contains portraits of landammanns 
from 1331, also of Nikdaus ffon der Flith (St. 
Nicholas) believed with good reason to be the 
original of the children's Santa Claus. His Her- 
mitage is np the Melchthal, about 3 miles from 
the Sarnen. Good view from the Landenberg, the 
RSmerberg, at Schwandi (whey-cure and iron 
spring), and at the ferry on Lake Sarnen (Samer 
See), which is 1,710 feet above the sea, and only 
8 miles long, among hills of a quiet pastoral 
character. Up the Melchthal, which has pleasant 
scenery, is a very old tower called the Heiden- 
thurm (Pagan Tower). 

The Canton of ITnterwalden contains a 

space of 263 square miles, with a population of 
27,350. Good cheese, honey, and fruit are its chief 
products. 

From this you pass Sachseln with the shrine and 
bones of St. Nikolaus (von der Fliih); Ruden, near 
Giswyl, which was nearly overwhelmed by the 
Lanichbach, 1629 (when a lake was formed, which 
was emptied into the Samer See, about 1750). 

GlBWyl (Stat.) Here the mountain-rail begins. 

Lungem (Stat.) inns: L<5we; Brunlg; Bar. 
A village near the end of the Lungem See, a 
charming little Alpine Lake, 2,400 feet above the 
«ea, and noticeable for the successful attempt 
to lower its surface, begun 1790, and accomplished 
1836, by means of a tunnel ; a large tract being 
thus reclaimed for cultivation. Close to it is the 
Breitenfeld Alp (or pasture), with & splendid pros- 
pect of the Bernese Alps. 

From Lungem by carriage, or on foot, over 
the Briinig Pass, a very easy one, 3,660 feet 
above the sea, commanding a beautiful view of tl^e 
Nidwalder-thal and Pilatus to the north, and the 
Hasli-thal to the south, and whence there arc good 
roads to Brlenz (7 miles) and Melzlngen, in 
Canton Berae. 

I^OTJOTE le. 
Thun, by the Genuni Pass, to Leuk. 

To Strattlingen 1 stunden 

Mtihlenen 2 

Frutigen 1^ 

Kandcrsteg 2i 

Schwarenbach (on the Gemmi) S| 
Leukerbad, or Loubche Bath... 3 
Leak ,...*« 8 



It 
II 
»i 
11 
11 
« 



16j stunden. 



The following passes unite th<i Kaudcr and the 
Liitschine Valleys:— 

Col of Tschingel; height, 9,250 feet. 

The Sefinen-Furke; height, 7,990 feet, by the 
Kienthal, Boganggen Alp, and Sefinenthal. 

The Sausgrat; height, about 8,000 feet, by 
the Spiggengrund, and Sausthal. 

The Tanzbodeli or Renggli; height, 6,775 feet, 
by the Saldthal and Saxetenthal. The latter is at 
the bottom of the Albendberg. 

Three passes unite the Kander and Simmen- 
thal:— 

The Hahnenmoos, the Leuk, and Geil's Alp; 
the Frohmatt, by Bcttelried and the Diemtigerthal ; 
and the Meyenberg, north-east of Zweisimmen, by 
the Diemtigerthal. These are 5,736 feet to 6,000 
feet high. 

Our route is from Thun, by Kandersteg, over 
the Gemmi, to Lou^che Baths, or Bad Leuk ; dis- 
tance, 61 miles (17 leagues). Take the steamer 
from Thun to Spiez, whence a diligence runs 
every day to Frutigen, 14^ miles (4f leagrues); 
fare, 2fr. 75c. or to Kandersteg, 23 miles, 6fr. 
76c From Kandersteg the traveller proceeds to 
the pass on foot or on horseback; the passage 
over the Gemmi from Kandcrsteg to Leukerbad 
requiring 6 hours 30 mins. If preferred the tourist 
can proceed direct from Thun to Kandersteg in 
a light carriage. Charge for one-horse convey- 
ance, 17fr.; two horses, 34fr. 

The road proceeds from Thun up the Valley of 
the Kander, amidst very attractive scenery, under 
the Niesen, with the snows of Blumlis Alp shining 
ahead. Frutigen is a thorough Swiss village, 
with Inns, the Helvetia, Bdle Vue, Adler, where 
many persons prefer to stop. It stands on the 
Kander and Engstligenbach, and has a good view 
at the Chtirch. The village was completely burned 
to the ground in 1817, being built, like most 
Swiss villages, of combustible materials, generally 
coniferous wood. 

Kandersteg stands high, in the midst of fine 
pastures, 8,835 feet above the sea. 

Population, 1,052. 

Inns: Victoria; BUr; Gemmi. 

The peasantry about Kandersteg are still In the 
habit of singing the national airs in choras, whb 
the pecoliaT ie:L««\.\A <&«S\fi4 "^^SdUn^^ and the 



XANDBSSTEG, LEXTKJBRBAD. 



97 




not soon forget the pleasant effect 
Is mind, on being awakened by a 
armony of voices under the inn 

who ride to the Gemmi, will do 
horse from here only to the Daube, 
e not necessary), the rest is too 




is a very good centre for several 
id ascents. 1. At the distance of 
■ ■' minutes you reach the little fairy lake 
a perfect gem, surrounded by awful 
ancient fir forests, reflecting in its 
il-dear basin the magnificent snows of 
Alp, rising almost sheer out of the 





Fran, a formidable pinnacle of this 

julis Alp Chain, has been ascended of 

>m Kandersteg, but it is a somewhat 

^^ exploit, by no means to be recommended 

j._ who are not very surefooted and ex- 

in Alpine climbing. 

^^ or summit of the Gemml PaSB, also 

^AHIM, is 14| miles (4| leagrues) from Kan- 

^ander the Daubenhom (9,450 feet). Near 

^mit is a solitary house, the Schwarenbach 

.'hieh a -v^d, unfounded story of murder 

1 attached, relating how, once upon a time, 

>nfiding traveller, who passed the night 

^sappeared, and was eventually discovered 

'^ been plundered and put to death by the 

■ the summit of the pass (7,555 feet), is the 
, solitary, little Dauben See or Lake, with 
I, inky waters, frozen most of the year, and, 
vemus, refusing all forms of life, contrasting 
with the shining virgin snow slopes of the 
and other airy peaks that seem to aspire to 

the empyrean, and rise in their purity and 
', like the pillars of faith and hope, in this 
temple not made with hands. Near it is a 
tiote], the Wildstrubel. 

AltelS (11,925 feet) may be ascended by 
g many steps on its steep, icy declivity ; and 
who have pluck and strength to scale such 
•uttresseH, will be repaid by one of those 
of the Oberland and Valais Chain, including 



of the noblest peaks in the Alps, that bafi^Vc 
H 



all description. The rolling ocean of rocky battle- 
ments and icy minarets sweeps away from the eye 
till lost in the hazy distance; and around and 
below is all the majesty of such mountain solitudes, 
only broken by the occasional thunder of the 
avalanche, the distant roar of torrents, or the wild 
whistling blast of the wind sweeping over the 
snowfields. Guide, 25 francs. 

The Descent from the Gemml to Lenk is 

one of the most striking in the Alps, the mule path 
having been carried by skilful engineering, zig-zag 
fashion, up one of the tremendous limestone preci> 
pices with which the western or calcareous wing 
of the Oberland Alps abound. This beetling 
precipice rises 2,000 feet sheer above the narrow 
basin and valley in which the Leukerbad (or Bath 
of Leuk) is situated; and as the parapets are a 
very insufficient guard, and the cliff overhang^ in 
many places, it is now forbidden to ride down the 
descent, as the slightest interference with the 
mountain horses or mules may cause the traveller 
to be precipitated from the path. A dreadful 
accident occurred in 1861 from a neglect of this pre- 
caution. A French lady, the Countess d'Arlincourt, 
was riding down this formidable descent, a little 
apart from her husband, who was also mounted, 
and on arriving at a certain part of the road, 
interfered with the movements of her horse. The 
consequence was that the animal lost its footing; 
and his precious burthen was thrown over the 
precipice and dashed to pieces. 

Leukerhad, or Lou^che-les-Balns, called 

"Baden'' in the neighbourhood. Hotels:— Bn 
Alpes; Maison Blanche, and its d^pendance, Grand 
Bain; De France; Union; Tell; Brunner, at the 
Baths. 

This bathing place and village (population 700) 
is 4,640 feet above sea, and 8 miles from Leilk» 
or Lou^che-Yille, mentioned below, to which there 
is an omnibus. It lias been almost destroyed on 
several occasions by avalanches ; but as these occur 
generally in winter or early spring, and as mas- 
sive bulwarks liave been erected to protect the 
village, the summer visitors have little to fear on 
this score. The place is much frequented in sum- 
mer on account of its hot Sufpfmr Stivix^x^^ssaxsna^^ 

1 



BRADgHl.w's aWrrzBKLUSD ASD TttB TTEO 

open only to Iho eud of ■ pop. J.MO). 8 miles (roi 

igne d'liallQ I 
ittlred In long gnrmenls, wlio arc loaked loi ! Uic Slmplon. 



Host ot the hoteli tit open only to t 
Bepionibet. 

The Ijirge paTillc Bath-rooms present 
•Iiectacle, being (roiincntHl by putlcii 





beguile 


he lime with o, 






lo«th,B table,. 


nnelng toieoB 




utembly endeav 




ma ohi 




r[« deoonun 1. 




by both bathers 


sltoci. The ei 










daerlbeit a> bed 


th, Witt little VQ 




ugla private bath 



enjoined), ' 



H.OXJTE 17- 
nun, to Variy by Uie Blmmentlua. 



Chateau d' Oi 
hfontbovoilp... 
Gniytres ..„ 



.lelnll). i, full of attraetlo,,,. Stout cltabers (In- CbAlel St. D. 

:lndlng ladles ascd to such with) will be more , Zf'"^ '"""" 
;luui reworded by aKendbiEtheTorrentllorttCibe 
lighcst point o( which 1> called Ihc Malngho 



HeteabouliarethB BlndflTlloni (1 1 .570 feet). For- 
den RoUillOni (ll.MS Icet), and KestI Bothborn 
(B.TGO feet). The ascent is not dangerons, scarcely 
tedlons, and the <lew is olmosl panoramic, bnt 
e"pecially grand In the direction otZcrmotl, where 
the Weissliora, Matlerhorn, Ihe Denl Blanch^ 
TKacbhom, and other mighty peaks rise op Into 



1 to Ihe adoption 
IsvlTl age, haves 



A third ea 



B against which they 
B-, and wood, by the I 



lartigny, Pedcstilans may take 
lootbovon, and thenee go In ^ 
Un de Jaman to Vevsy (sSe pag 
Thliroad Ilea throngh the Shni 
fnl YBller, opening out not far f 
bun, at Wlmmli Castle, betweei 



ranee ol Diem- 



rerthafllockhom, and alio over th 
I MUlllnen In the KanderihaL 
re beds of lignite ooai. 



s Id ■ gorge of the Simmenl 
larkably pure; andiniaUdi c 



Token Tockt Slid 



T-Lenk iirl«iik(/nni: BUr^ Knne), 



^ b« tnkeD (0 the Lidlam, or Ladder 
n JoDtpnth lo the Gumleelbid end I 
> the Setle, or rape hridBA by wlilc 



^t, batoecDlheTUlaeeof Jsun uj 



ABC8nd\nB the valley yon come lo 




BOtTlOEN, 




A vm.«6 ol 400 pop, U-t. la Oberjteg 


iBKr), 




and otti 






MS. Lignite hM been worked obeto eg 


rgocal 


the KlM. The >mM ronumtic vnjley <.t Teeb 




Thi» building, at the tool of the 


Wallal 


Btend^ cleee to the Slmnie, which Saw 






Inedw 


curloM painting. ol.c.nilv«l,otwhle 




lect K ■ gift made by ChH>t (o the P 




were done by the Bnnneret MIc. Msn 


cl, abo 




n which 


new rood wu made ISJIXsignifled by 


plate 








acdiot 


Banneret Wendwhats in ISM. 




ZWUBIUUEN. 








A villsgB at the J unction Of the twa(zwel) hea 




pot.B.1 


feet above theiea. Popalatlon, 9.200. 


Near 1 


school ii an orphan nylnm end hospital 





lo the lOQth-caat the glaclen ol the WiliUnt^ 
<IO.Tli feel) are Hcn In the main chahi oi Hie 
Alps. At Seeflnh ;oa leiTe the gimme (wtaldi 



past t^fjmy a fall, and aarenl chfllets, and by 
■ aerlea of ilg-zaga and dilHcult preclplcM, the 
Hunmtlol theRawyl Ful 1> reached, !,»» feet 

BtaOne Valley Is of the usual icale of gnuidenr. 
Fmm llila point the descant Is tolerably eaiy, 

you can get to Slon, or Slerrs, on the ShBoe.] 

(hroughSouien Land, you eomeneiiloMaaeweld. 
EeichenaLelD, Ac., to Baaneniuoser. n manhy plain 
slgnlflea) between the hUla, half a league 



, lake. 



aAAKEN: theFi 

Chief' place ot the pleasant Alpine Tallay of the 

cheese Is made, 8,3*0 feet above the aea. Popn- 
latlon, S,780. The monntains aronnO, as the Uo- 
neck, Horuberg. RUbll, QumBuh, $.000 to B,0OO feet 
high, are coiered with rich pastures and Alphie 

built of dark wood, with galleries, Ac., on which 

the builder, and perlLape eoma wise aantence. The 



to Slon on the Rhflue, In 10 to H hours' walking, by B broad, partly In Cam 

Matten (where paths strike ofTIo the Dlemtlger- \ mnn^, \o^« c^f^jwn'ok^'AM.c 
tbt}, OB iha out, ma to TarbaOibtO). Tbento I la lue^ «&'»& 1&».\ % 



100 



BKADSHAW'S SWITZERLAND AND THB TTBOL. 




flowers grow; but at the head of the Lauenen 
Valley, near the glacier, the climate is wintry, and 
the snn at one period Is not seen for twelve weeks 
togisther. The breed of cattle is one of the best in 
Switzerland ; and the harder kind of cheese, which 
is rasped like Parmesan when eaten, Is largely 
exported to Italy, France, Holland, America, Ac. 
Immense family cheeses are made for home use; 
another sort, called Fatscherin (Vaeherin), or calf 
cheese, is too soft to be exported. AblandBOhen 
is a little primitive spot, 4,C00 feet above sea. 

[From this place there are ways by the PaSBes 
Of CMten and SanetSCb, into the Rhdne Valley. 
You ascend the Saane to . 

GOftad or Am-Gestad (or Staad), where the 
Lanenbaoh joins the Sarine. This is a village of 
thirty houses, 8,460 feet above the sea, with a 
church built 1402 ; having, about 2 miles east of it, 
the Baths of Turbach, hardly used except by the 
peasantry. They are in a valley under the Giffer- 
hom, across which is a pass to the Slmmenthal. 
The Trome Bath is near the Turbach. 

Three passes unite the Saane and the Simmen. 
1. TheRothhom; 6,590 feet, by the Lauenen Lake. 
9. The Triittlisberg; 6,695 feet, by Lauenen and 
the valleys of Wallbach and Lenk. 3. Zwitzeregg, 
0,810 feet, by the Turbach and St. Seffan. 

Following the Lauenbach, you come to the village 
of that name, 4,090 feet above the sea, under the 
Triittlisberg, where the char-road ends. From this 
a mule path leads to Gelten, and a fall at the foot 
of the glaciers which hang down from the Wildhom, 
and other peaks which flank the pass, 10,660 feet 
above the sea. The Geltin Pass itself is 3,000 feet 
lower, and the descent is made by the Valley of the 
Sion, past Arbaz, Saviese, and Grinclsois, making 
the time about 14 hours from Saanen to Sion, 
on the Simplon Road. 

But the more usual route to Sion (page 40) is by 
the SanetBCh Pass, 7,370 feet high. In this case 
you leave Gstad, and follow the mahi head of 
the Saane on the west, called the Valley of the 
Ch&telet. This brings you to Ladi Bridge and 
Feutersay (population, 300), at the mouth of the 
Scherzis-thal. The next place is 

OSTEIO ; or Ch4telet, in French. 
V Bilrf Sabo. 

wbtre the r<md ends in .i var.ey, about 



[Section ! 

8 hours* ride from Saanen, numbers about 1 
cottages, spread over the valley; and has an o 
massive church, and timber presbytery. The Al] 
to the south hide the sun for six months : 
the winter time, and the river which descends fro: 
the glaciers upon them often causes great injui 
by floods. Paths lead from this, east ^d west, 1 
Ormond (see Route 1), and the Lake of Geneva, li 
the Pillon, and to Lauenen, by the Briichll. The O 
du Pillon, by Gstcig and Ormond Dessus, is 5,0$ 
feet high. 

From Gsteig a mule path (8 hours to Sioi 
leads up the pass by two falls, &c. It is winding 
and in some parts diflScult, and the pass is a mgge 
and desolate spot, 6,820 feet above the sea, bet wee 
the Arbclle and another peak. It is the last an 
lowest of the western passes of the Bernese AIpi 
and commands a fine view of the Mont Blan 
chain. There are two ways to descend to Sion, b 
Saviese or by Champagnol; the latter by sevem 
zig-zags over the precipices near the Morge.] 

After leaving Saanen, with the Rtiblihom, or Den 
de Chamois to the left (7,569 feet high), you come t 
the remains of an old fort of the Gruybres Counts 
and then to Rougemont, in Canton Vaud, whicl 
had a priory, founded 1115, by the same connta 
Flendru or Flendroz is the next {dace, where tw 
little streams fall into the Sarine; one of which I 
supplied by a lake on the Mockausaz Alp above 
periodically formed by the melting of the winter'i 
snow. A 

CHATEAIT D'OEX; German, OesCh. 

Population, 600. 

Jnns: Ours; Berthed; and Pensions. 

Chateau d'Oox, 3,200 above the sea, so calloc 
from an old Castle of the Counts of Gruy^rca 
which stood in the midst of the village, when 
the church is now i>laced. Most of the housct 
have been rebuilt since a fire in 1800. There is a 
sulphur spring near; with fine air, and views oi 
woods, rocks, and mountains. A path to the south- 
west leads over Mont Corion, to the Valley of the 
Ormond, down to Aigle, <m the Rhdne. 

Leaving Oox, you cross the bridges over the 
Sarine and Tomeresse (a branch of it) to Moulins 
on the south bank of the former. Then through 
the narrow defile of La Tine, with woods and rocki 
UimgVng ov« Vl, Itwa VVwk Cxxltvi aud Courjeon 



ALBEUYE, QBUTEBES. 



Boute 17.] 

Mountains, to MontbOYOn or Bubonberg, in Can- 
ton Fribonrg, and noted for good cherry brandy. It 
stands on the little Hongrhi, which falls into the 
Sarine here; though a branch loses itself in a sort 
of a tunnel, and comes out again at Neirivue, 
below. 

lA short cut, on foot or by mule or horse (guide 
unnecessary), may be taken across the Dent de 
Jamany to Vlllencuve or Vevey (6 stunden), on the 
Geneva Lake; the distance round by the char-road 
being about three times as long. It lies over a 
succession of beautiful mountain pastures, and 
begins by ascending Mont d'Alli^res or Allire 
(near the Hongrin), a rugged limestone mountain. 
At Alli^res is the only Inn on the road. Thence to 
the Dent de Jaman, on the border of Canton Vaud, 
a pass 4,870 feet above the sea, commanding a view 
(described by Byron as "beautiful as a dream,") of 
the Juras, the Lakes of Geneva, Neuchatel, &c. It 
comes upon the traveller at once as he attains the 
summit. From this there are paths down to 
Vevey, Clarens, Ac. 

A turning to the left at Alli^res, further up the 
Hongrin, leads to a path round the Naye, the 
highest point ot the ridge (6,115 feet), in which at 
the large chftlet of Naye, is a cavern glacier, called 
Fairtho d'Eigryn; near this is the grotto of Tanna ' 
h rOuro, which sends out constant blasts of cold 
air. Then the way strikes over the Tinifere Pass 
(250 feet higher than the Dent de Jaman) down to 
Yilleneuve, at the head of Lake Leman.] 

One of the most delightful pastoral districts of 
Switzerland is visited by the branch route, by the 
Ormond Valley, to Aigle and Bex. 

1. To Algle by the Col de PiUon, 1^ hours, 
passing Hotel du Diablcrets, a Pension; Vers 
l^EgUse, a Pension; Ck>mballa2, Pension Lys; 
and Sepey, a Pension, 3,500 feet above the sea. 

2. To Bex, by Col do Pillon and Col de la Croix 
(10 hours), following the delightful banks of the 
Dard, and the charming pastoral Ormond Dessus 
Valley. 

Perhaps no part of Switzerland offers a greater 
variety of charming excursions than the Ormond 
or Ormont Valley, yrtAch. is certainly one of the 
healthiest sninmer residences in the world. 



ibi 



ALBSITVE, or Albaigue, 

Formerly Alba Aqiue^ 
On the Sarine, comes next to Montbovon, at the foot 
of the MoMson, the highest peak in Canton Fribourg 
(6,580 feet), and near a torrent, above which is the 
Chapel of Notre Dame. There is a gulf in the cliffs 
behind, producing a curious echo to the south- 
west is the steep height of Ecojalat. 

A little beyond Alb» AquiB, or White Waters, 
you come to Neirivue or Nerigue, a corruption of 
Nigra Aqua, or Block Water ; it has twice suffered 
severdy from fire, a calamity not uncommom 
when the houses are of pine wood. Tlie name Is 
derived trora. the subterranean branch of the Hon- 
grin, which, after a course of I J league, reappears 
here. There is a very wild, deep, and savage 
defile near the village, a gash in the side of the 
Mol^son, called the Passage de I'Evie, and little 
known; it takes about three-quarters of an hour 
to walk through it. 

ViUaxe, or ViUard-Bur-Ollon, in a fine spot, 
4,025 feet above the sea (see page 37). From this 
there is a path to the top of the Mol^on. Then 
come Enney and 

aRXnrSRBS: German, Oreyen, 
Best known from the Swiss cheese it gives name 
to. Population, 400. 

Hotel: Flcur de Lyp. 

It stands 2,490 feet above sea, under the fine 
remains of a (katle of the once powerful Counts 
of Gruyferes, who resided here till a.d. 1665, 
and ruled over the valley. It is flanked with 
towers and rampafts, and the walls are 14 feet 
thick. Count Bodolph III. built the parish Church 
dedicated to St. Theodule, 1254; the family were 
buried in a chapel of it, where they show a crystal 
cross covered with relics. 

The valleys around are populous, and the cos- 
tume of the women is pretty. From La Tour de 
TrSme, further on, there is a path to the top ot 
Mol^SOn (6,580ft.), in 8 hours. It goes by a Car- 
thusian Convent, founded 1307, by a Countess of 
Gruyferes, in a pretty spot, including a church, farm, 
timber work, &c., dispersed about it ; it was burnt 
in 1800. The name of the mountain is ^rQb«.b>V<i 
taken from tki^ \j»JCa^ llo\» Swwwsn.. ''C^'et^ * 



les 



BRADBHAW*8 8WITZBBLAKD AKD THE TYROL. 



[Swtioftl 



Genera, NeachAtel, Morat, and Bienne or Biel, | 
17 towns and villagos and hamlets innumerable 
clustered round its base, the entire range of the 
Jura and the snow-crowned summits of the distant 
Alps, complete a panorama which amply repays 
the small toil of the ascent. Beyond Tour de 
Trdme, you reach 

BULLE (Stat.), or Boll, 
On a branch of the Swiss Central, from Romont. 

Imu: Alpes; Union; DcIaVille; Cheval Blanc. 

A little walled town on the Fribourg Road. It 
stands at the centre of the Gharmey, Bellegarde, 
and the Saancn Valleys, most noted for the Gmy- 
^res cheese, and is therefore their chief dep6t. 
Population, 2,800. At the church is one of Moser*s 
organs. There are also paper works and a convent. 

The mule road to Vevey here turns south, round 
the opposite side of the MoMson, leaving that to 
Fribourg to the north (about 16 miles, passing 
through Vuippens and its ch&teau ; Avry, in a 
pretty part of the valley: Posiens, Ac.) The 
coach between Fribourg and Vevey passes daily. 

The first places out of Bulle are Vauderens and 
Vaulruz. From this you cross over the west 
shoulder of the MoMson to Semsales, from which 
a path leads to the top of the mountain. Then a 
descent to 

Ch&tel St. Denis (inn: De la Ville), a pic- 
turesque town of 2,000 souls, on the Veveyse, 
with a good trade in cheese, standing 600 feet 
higher than the Lake of Geneva, of which there 
is a beautiful view from Mcure Blanche, a little 
lower down. The next place is. 

Vevey (Stat.), on the Iiake; see Route 4. 



Berne to Lausanne. 

(a) By rail to Flamatt 8f miles. 

Fribourg 10* „ 

Komont 14| „ 

[Branch to Bulle.] 

Vauderens 8 ,, 

Oron , 4 ,, 

Pal^zieux 2^ ,, 

Chexbres-Vevey 5 •„ 

Lausanne 8 „ 

61i miles. 



Another way is by road .to Mnrten (Mont^U 
miles; thence by We»i SwUt Bail. From IftsMtt 
this line ascends to Korzers Fasschels, AwtMIEI 
(page 108), and Lyss (page 108), where it joins tbe 
line between Berne and Bienne. From Morat it 
decends to Avenches (page 106), Domirfeire, 
Corcelles, Payeme (junction for Fribourg and 
Yvcrdon), Granges-Marmand, Lucens, MoudOB 
(page 105X Chatillens, Fal^zicux, and Lausanne, 
about 48 miles. Near Biimplitz, on the Morat 
Road, Roman antiquities have been found. 

About halfway to Fribourg is Flamatt (Stati), 
whence there is diligence to Laupen, via NeueB- 
egg, a little village on the Sense, which divides 
it from the hamlet of Singine. Inn. — Bar. At the 
church a treaty of alliance was signed between the 
two cantons, 1271. With its villages the pariah 
numbers over 2,000 souls. 

The Sense joins the Saane at the middle of its 
course, at the Balisa Pass, 4,670 feet ; and the 
united streams fall into the Aar at the ^eeliabuhl 
Col, 5,215 feet. 

At li mile west, down the Sense, a monument 
was set up in 1829 on Bramberg Hill, the spot 
where the battle of Laupen was fought, 1239, when 
the Bernese and their confederates, under Rudolph 
von Erlach,'were victorious over the Barons of the 
Empire, then besieghig Laupen, which is 1| 
stunde lower, where the stream joins the Saane. 
At that time it was an imperial town, making part 
of Burgundy. Its ancient walls, with a castle and 
town house, remain. The anniversary of this 
battle is observed every fifth year. 

The rail, after leaving Flamatt, passes through 
two tunnels, and tlven over the fine bridge over 
the Saane. 

The country imjHroves on entering the Catholic 
Canton of Fribourg, and the line passes DUdin- 
gen, which is built on a little stream. It is 
remarkable for a brotherhood, called the Romer- 
bruderschaft, composed of such as have made the 
pilgiimage to Rome. They have an annual fete 
on a Sunday in July; and the arrival of pilgrims 
is celebrated by tbe ringing of the bells, and other 
marks of rejoicing. 



FSIBOUBG. 



Houte 18.] 

The approach to the capital, which stands on a 
hill, 2,067 feet above the sea, is striking. 

FBIBOURO; German, FreybUTg, 

Hotels: Grand Hotel de Fribourg et Zahringen, 
well situated, comfortable, and very clean. 
(Divine Service). 

Bellevac. 

Cc^fe: Muller. 

Population, 12,200; of whom those In Upper Town 
speak French, those in Lower Town (who are 
mostly artisans), German. 

A fine old place, 2,080 feet above sea, capital tf 
the canton, most picturesquely seated on the rapid 
Sarine or Saane; partly built on the river, partly 
on the steep sandstone cliffs, on both sides, and 
along the ravine which runs under many of the 
old-fashioned houses. Naked rocks, gardens, trees, 
fields, (fee, form a singular contrast with the 
ancient fortress-like appearance of the buildings, 
and the churches and convents which rise above 
them. The b«it spots for viewing it are the t(^ of 
Schonenberg, a field near Bowguillon Oat&, or 
Biirglenthor (between two cliffs), and another 
near the fiomont Gate. A somewhat extended 
walk should be taken round the town, and in the 
environs, with the special object of enjoying the 
unique views. 

The high banks of the river are united by two 
stone bridges, as well as by a remarkable 
SuspeiLBion Bridge, it hangs on four wire 
ropes, is 940 feet long (t'.«. 317 feet longer than 
Mcnai), 167 feet above the water, and was con- 
structed 1832, the architect being Chaley, a 
French engines (who constructed a similar one at 
Beaucaire), at a cost of but £24,000. Two Doric 
Piers on which the chains rest, rise 60 feet above 
the bridge. The iron band to damp the blocks of 
Jura limestone in the piers, is English, and was 
brought by way of Genoa and the Simplon ; but the 
rest is of native yield. Theeffect of this wonderfully 
light and el^ant structure, in connection with the 
beautiful views up and down the river, of the Alps 
one way and-the Jura Mountains the other, is most 
striking. Another narrow Bridge of this kind, 
opened 1840, crosses a deep hollow on one side of 
the town, called Galtemthal, and is not less than 
767 feet long, and 160 feet hi|^. There is a third 
bridge or Viadnct for the rail. A new cart xoa4 



loa. 



leads straight into the town by the Suspension 
Bridge, saving a road of 3 miles, by way of the 
old wooden bridge. 

In Upper Town stand the old JStadthaus and 
RathhaiUj built 1514, on the site of the Castle 
of the Dukes of Zahringen, who founded the 
town 1175 as a ^^free burgh," to strengthen them 
against the house of Burgundy, upon whose 
extinction it came to the Dukes of Austria. 
Near it is an ancient Lime Tree, 14 feet round, 
planted 1480, after the Battle of Morat; on the 
spot where the wounded messenger, bearing the 
lime branch in his hand, died exhausted, crying 
"Victory." St. Nicholas Church or Cathedral (for. 
the Romish Bishop of Lausanne), near the bridge, 
and the cliffs, where they are 200 to 300 feet high, 
was begun 1283, and has a good Gothic Tower, 266 
feet high. In 1880, some shocks of earthquake 
(17-23 September) stopped the church bells. Near 
the portal are some curious carvings of the Judg- 
ment, representing the devil and his angels tum- 
bling four mortals into the flames of hell. It 
contains two or three pictures, a good high altar, 
and a powerful organ by Moser, a rival to that of 
Haarlem, with 7,800 pipes, which may be heard 
daily; Ifr. each. The Vox humana and Vox 
angelica stops are very fine. Tickets at the hotels. 

Some carvings are also noticed at the Franciscan 
and Augustine Churches. In the higher part of 
the town, and looking like a citadel, are St. Michaers 
Church and the Convents of the Jesuits, who had a 
college or pension seat here till 1848, when this 
body was suppressed throughout Switzerland. 
At the Capuchin Church is A. Carracci's ** De- 
scent from the Cross." The Ursuline Convent 
was founded in the seventeenth century; that 
of Moutarge, belonging to the order of St. Francis, 
has another organ, by Moser, and the nuns make 
artificial fiowers of linen. At the Loretto Chapel 
they celebrate an annual f6te called the Dimanche 
de Lorette. There is an English Protestant Church 
here, besides several literary societies. At the 
Lyc^c, close to the College, are to be seen the 
Oantonal Museum, containing Fontaine's Cabinet of 
natural objects, and a well preserved mosaic pave- 
ment, brought from Avenches (ilo«n<tl«lw^V*«»'^^''^-' 
. ai«o & ?V«ixa«i QtiXVwj %si^ ^-R^-r^NsAjsw^a^*^"^ 



104 



BSADSHAW'S BWITZEBLAND AND THB TTBOL. 



[Section i. 



antiquities, Ac. Seyeral important documents are 
preserred in the town archives. 

One street worth notice is that called Court 
Chemin, so bailt that the pavement of Grande 
Fontaine street above it serves for roofs to its 
houses. A poor kind of coal dng at Wiebelsried is 
consuiiM here. Fribourg has been independent of 
foreign rule since 1481, when the Canton joined the 
eonf ederation, but a strip of land, a few miles wide, 
•11 round it, still bears the name of Alte Landschaf t, 
or old country, being that first granted to the 
citixens by the Austrian Dukes. 

Only a few articles, such as straw hats, woollens, 
Ac, are made; but little manufacturing enterprise 
or industry can be expected when people keep about 
100 holidays in the year. An outbreak occurred 
here in 1858, it is supposed at the instigation of 
the Jesuit party. It reckons among its natives, 
Aloys Moser, the organ builder already mentioned, 
and Curti and Schaller, of some note in the 
history of art. Also Father Or€goire Girard, a 
Franciscan friar ot some note as a writer on 
education. 

Fromenades and BzounioxiB.— The Frau- 

enplatz and Welscherplatz, the Belvidere of the 
Lyceum, the views at the Hohen Kreuz, (taking 
in the Juras and Alps), the Biirglenthor (near 
Gotteron defile, or Galtemthal), Motta Mill, near 
Haigrange Ckmvent, and the Schonenberg, which 
commands one of the best prospects of the town; 
the Dilrrenbilhl, SchUtzenmatt, Spitalwiese, Ac. 
and many parts on the banks of theSaane. By 
Galtemthal you get to Berra (8 stunden), and Bad 
Garmiswyl, and Bonnerbad; by Mouret and 
Oberried to the Burning Mountain (8 stunden) as 
it is called, discovered 1840, in the Burgerwalde, 
where the inflammable carbonic acid gas is forced 
out through the crevices of the limestone rock. 
St. Magdalena Hermitage (1| stunde) on the river, 
in an excavation in the cliffs, about 440 feet long. 
More distant are Valsahite, where the Trappists 
had a convent from 1791 to 1814; and the Cistercian 
Abbey of Hauterlve (Altenryf ), founded 1871, by 
Wilhelm von Qlaue, and having some painted 
windows, Ac. 
22r0 OuiUxn of JMbOnxir contains about ffOO 
^ mff et^ Mad mpopultUioa ot JJS,400tall Catho- 



lics (except at Morat), and mostly French-speaking; 
the German language prevails in the lower part of 
the town, and the north-east comer of the canton. 

Railway. — To Beme, Vevey, Lausanne, and 
Neufch&tel, three or four times a day. The rail to 
Lausanne passes Romont, see below (branch to 
Bnlle), thence on to Pal^siieux, where two rails 
meet from Olten {via Berne and Soleure) unite; 
and ChexlireB-Veyey (diligence to Vevey, 
4 miles; with occasional views of the Mol^son, 
Mont Blanc, Dent du Midi, Ac, ending with a fine 
p]ft>spect over the Lake of Geneva, just after 
issuing from a tunnel. 

Bomont or Remund (Cerf Inn), on the Glaue, 
surrounded by old ramparts, takes its name from 
the round hill, Rotundtu Mons, on which it is 
perched, with its old Burgundian Castle and 
Church. It commands a wide circuit of view, 
taking in the snowy summit of Mont Blanc, Ac. 

[Onthe road (or rail) fromFribOOrg to Payeme 
and Tverdon, you pass to Givisier, and then 

BdlfaUX, which with its little hamlets numbers 
1,703 souls. A particular service is held every 
Wednesday in the church, from the festival of the 
Invention of the cross (8th May) to that of the 
Exaltation (14th September), in memory of the 
miraculous escape of a great wooden crucifix, 
which they say was found uninjured when a fire 
burnt down that structure in 1448. 

After Groley, L'Echelle, Ac, you come to 

FATERNE (Stot), 
which the Germans call PeterUngexii in Canton 
Vaud. 
Innt: BSr (Ours) ; Croix Blanche. 

A small Burgxmdian town, population, 8,600, 
the Roman Patemiacum, founded, they say, by 
Patemus (see page 107). It stands on the Broye, 
over which is a stone bridge, in a fertile spot, 
noted for its excelioit peas and tobacco. The 
old com magazine was part of a Benedictine 
Abbey, founded in the year 900. In the church, 
which Bishop Marins rebuilt 595, after the 
northern invaders burnt the town, they show 
the black marble tomb of Queen Bertha and her 
saddle, with a hole In it for the distaff, which this 
patUm of imtoftrv took out with her when riding. 



Boute 18.] 



ESTAYATSfi, MOUDON, UOBAT. 



105 



There is a Roman inscription on the Fcim bridge, 
a little out of the place. The road (or rail) from 
Berne, by way of Morat, joins here; and another 
strikes off to Stafis or EstaTayeTi on the Lake of 
NeuchAtel. 

E8TAVA7EB (Stot.). 
Five miles west-north-west, is a small Catholic 
town in Fribonrg Canton, charmingly seated on the 
lake, founded according to tradition by a Vandal 
leader, Stavins, in 512, and walled round by the 
Burgundian kings. An organ by the famous Moser 
is in the parish Church. The Dominican Convent 
contains the tomb of William d'Estavayer, who in 
his life-time was a Canon of Lincoln Cathedral, and 
gave to his order a house which belonged to him 
here. They continue to observe in this town a 
pretty custom* which was once general in the can- 
ton, of parties meeting to sing national and other 
airs, called caraouMs (carols), in the public place. 
The burden of one of these describes a couple not 
blcss^ with many worldly goods, who comfort 
each other with 

" Qaa I6a aouirou mei^Ton no voitehn 
Qan Ite aoutiou riretron, no pllorerln." 
This will serve as a specimen of the patois (French). 
It means, **When others eat, wo will look on; 
when others laugh, we will cry." 

Tverdon (page ill) is about 10 miles further, 
at the bottom of the lake. Here the railway to 
Lausanne can be taken, viA Cossonay and Bus- 
signy. Near Cossonay the direct line from Pon- 
tarlier comes in vift Vallorbes. If the road from 
Yverdon, up the Broye, is taken, you come to 
Hcnnicz and its sulphur waters, which are excel- 
lent for rheumatism, Ac. Then Lucens or Luzens. 
Still ascending the Broye, you come to 

MOUDON (Stat) ; German, Mllden, 

On the line from Payeme to Lausanne. 

Hotels: Du Pont ; Couronne ; Stadthaus. 

The Roman J/tnidtnium, with old forts; one in the 
market place, another (a square tower) in Upper 
Town on the Bourg, built, they say, by Pepin le 
Brcf. Population, 2,700. Its antiquity is proved 
by an inscription on the walls of the town-house, 
which was part of an altar raised by Quintus .£lius 
to Jupiter and Juno. Below the town walls runs 
the BroyCf which rises in the Mol^son. There is a 



public library of 8,000 volumes ; an ancient church 
dedicated to St. Stephen. A little outside the town, 
at Carouge, a road turns off to Yevey, pastBuOor 
Ruw (8 miles south-east), or Rotavilla, as it wa» 
called, which stands on a picturesque hill, 2,290 
feet above, and commands a noble view, which 
takes in nearly all the Geneva Lake, Mont Blanc, 
the Jura Range, Ac. Further south is Ecublens, 
which gave name to a noble family, one of whom 
was Bishop of Lausanne, 1221. 

From this you ascend the Jorat to ChAlct-k' 
Gobet at the summit, 1,800 feet above the Lake of 
Geneva, which now comes full into view; descend- 
ing thence for about 4 miles, you come to 

Lausanne, sec Route 4.] 

By the other road from BemO (page 10?), you 
pass Frauen Kappelen, up to the field of Laupen, 
after which you descend by Bibcren (on a little 
stream) and Gempenach to 

MOBAT (Stat.) ; German, Murten. 

HoUli: Couronne; Croix; Post; Pcnsiofiy 
Kauer; Railway Restaurant. 

An industrious Protestant town, the only one in 
the Canton (Fribourg), standing in a plcsasant 
spot, on a lake of the same name. Tliat part of it 
nearest the lake is called RyC or Rive (bank). 
Upper Town contains some arcadcd streets like 
those at Berne, and five fountains. At the German 
Church, now modernised, are some carved stalls.. 
The ancient Castle was founded by Peter of Savoy, 
in the thirteenth century, and is Gothic in its style. 
There are also a Protestant College, and a Trades* 
institute. From various remains of buildings, 
medals, inscriptions(someof them are in the castle), 
which have been found, it is probable that a Roman 
station was near this spot, the site of which was 
Miinchwyler Hill, which (from the old linden tree, 
86 feet round, and above 600 years old) commands 
a view over the town and lake. 

Morat is remarkable for the Victory of 22nd 
June, 1476, when the ** miserable peasants,'* whom 
he threatened to exterminate, defeated Charles 
the Bold, and above 15,000 Burgundians perished. 
Their bodies were afterwards gathei^ into an 
ossuary or bone-house by the Swiss, with inscrip' 
tions upon it ; it stood here till, the French Bur- 
gundians dealto^^^LVV'^^'^'^N^s^^^^*'^''^'^^**"^^^^*^ 



106 



BBADIHAW*8 SWRZEBLAKB AVO THE TTBOL. 



[Section S. 



Kapoleon passed this way to the Congress of 1 
Bastadt, 1797, and after snrvejring the field, he said 
to an officer, **Capitaine, si jamais nons livrons 
bataille en ces lienx, soyez persuade que nons 
ne prendrons pas le lac ponr retraite," — that lake in 
which great numbers were drowned in the battle. 
Some of the cannon nsed by the invaders, and the 
inscriptions (one of which by Haller begins— Steh 
still Helvetier I Hier liegt das kiihne Heer) are in 
the old Rathhans. Champ OliTier bathing-place 
Is near this. 

The MURTENER SEE, or Lake of Morat, 

Called Uecht See in the middle ages, is an uninter- 
esting piece of water, 5 miles by 2 in extent, 1,420 
feet above the sea, 170 feet deep, with flat, marshy 
shores nearly all round, and was, no doubt, formerly 
one with Lake Biel and Lake Neuchfttel, from which 
ft is only 2 miles distant. Shad and other fish are 
found in abundance. Its chief feeder is the Broye, 
which runs out at the bottom into Neuchfttel Lake, 
and which the steamers to Ncuchfttel ascend twice 
a week. Pieces of Burgundian armour are fre- 
quently brought up by the fishermen. To Neuchfttel 
by the road is about 12 miles. 

Leaving Morat for Payeme (by road or rail), 
you pass the battle-field (p. 105) under Miinchwyler 
Hill, into Faoug, a little village in Canton Yaud, 
where they make tolerable wine. The next place, 
near the top of the lake, is AyeiLClies (Stat., 
p. 102) which the Germans call Wiflisburg— /»n« : 
Hotel de Ville; Couronne — and which takes its 
name Arom Aventicum^ the ancient capital of Helve- 
tia, or West Switzerland, founded six centuries 
before Christ, and destroyed by the Barbarians. 
Its circuit was upwards of 1 mile, now mostly 
fields and gardens. 

Parts of the Roman walls are left, 12 feet thick, 16 
high ; and near the Morat Road stands a tower, and a 
single Corinthian Pillar, 40 feet high, called Cigog- 
niez by the people, because the storks built on it, 
supposed, from an inscription found 1535, to have 
belonged to a temple of Vespasian. Remains of 
bath, altai^ and bas-reliefs, are collected in a 
Museum, on the site of the Amphitheatre, which was 
supplied with water by an aqueduct. Most of the 
ajatJqaltiM ture now in the mnsenms at Berne and 
■i^aMutae. 



The road hence follows the Broye (and the rail 
p. 102) past Domdldler where the Fribonrg Road 
turns off, and Corcelles to Pasreme, as above, 

thenoe to Lausanne. 



Baile to Bienne, NeuehA,tel, Yrwdxm, 
LausannOi and Qeneya. 



The principal places arc 
cribed as below:— 

Basle 

Dornach 

LaufTen 

Del^mont (Dclsberg) 
[Branch to 
Bassercourt 
Glovelier 

Porrentruy(Pruntrut) 
Dellc. Hence to Mont- 
bellard, Belfort, Be- 
sanfon, in France.] 

Moutier (Miinster) 

Court 

Tavannes (Dachsf elden) 



as under and are des- 

Sonceboz 
[Branch to 
St. Imier, Conyers, 
the Junction for 
Neuchfttel, Chaux- 
de-Fonds, Locle.] 

Bienne (BielX Junction 
for Neuchfttel, Sol- 
eure, Olten, dec. 

Lyss (for SoleureiaA-ar- 
berg, Payeme, and 
Lausanne). 

Zollikofen (for Burg- 
dorf, Olten.) 
Berne. 



By Road, the direct way lies through the Mlin- 
sterthal, via St. Jacob, Miinster, Biel (Bienne), 
Neuch&tel, Yverdon, Lausanne, and Geneva. 
This can now be done by Bail in 11 to 12 hours, 
via the Central Swiss line to Bienne (Routes 10, 13), 
and thence by the West Swiss line to Geneva; but, 
as far as Bi^me, the trip by road is the most inter- 
esting. 

The rail nearly follows the road through the 
gorges of Moutier (or MUnsterthal) and Tavannes, 
in the Jura Mountains. 

Leaving Basle at Porte d'Aeseh, the rail passes 
St. Jakob (James), where, on the 26th August, 1444, 
a small body of 1,600 Swiss fought, for 10 hours, a 
host of adventurers collected by Count d' Armagnac 
under the Dauphin, till only a dozen were left. 
The Monument of St. Jakoh, an armed statue of 
Helvetia, erected 1872, marks their graves, not far 
from the old hospital of St. James, on which is this 
insoription— "Our souls to God, our bodies to our 
, e&eiD&iB.—- B.«M <ItoA^ 'w^QODnQOAX^d and wearied 



BoDte 19.] 

"witb oonqD^n^, 1,300 confedcTatBH 
Tho DsuphLn (Lonl" XI.), made poai 



irlthtli 



(Swlsg bloodl from Clila (amona batCls, Bineck 
Donuicll [Stat.), furlher on. It snolhor cole- 

IDh (Btat). ths pasi bwomei 
I riling 

Ffemngen Caitls li near it, on the Blaaan, at the 

ta LaotieiL (Btat.), TThere tba LUiel falls Into 

(41 leagnea), or Boyhlira (Stat.), ivilb It! caatlt, 



1 orer tha plains of Elaai 



(Stat.)-^o(((: Hlnch {Cart). Farther on i 
llochD. In s trem^Ddona cleft of tha Jura lime 
BWneB. throDKhwliicb tho Blri tumbles. It open 
ngn.ln near HUnStBT or KOuUer. ITarell: Coo 
ronno; HlrBchi CboTil. Here was a miMdMIn 
Bter, fonnded b; St. OemanuB In the seyenti 

Tbe Hiinilerthal (French, Vol ItmOierJ. or Vails; 



llmea deep and narnnr, and both popnlooa and 

well wooded. It wai tr&TSratd by the Bomu 

way from Arenche^ (AtinHciim) to AnErt. 

FtDm lUa tlHrtlg u tiemt U " ~ 



ateln tn fimr honn (p. TCIJ. witb one of the llneit 
pinoramlc Tlswi In Bwitierland, Tbrongh a wild 

OOQTt (HUit.) Sol^! BSr (Onn). It la two 
Don over tbe Hontni (4,IHM feet high), with 



MiiiBTay, to DaobanideiL or TavumM (Btat.) 

^Hoiel : Krone, or Crown—alwnt 3,S<KI fset high, 
iiear the head ol the Bin. It h«l(uiamd to Harihtl 



<ii(pelraf 



le Ixnmdaiy 



IT, of tbe blsboprics of Avenchee. Lanianna, 
I Bftie. A Roman inicTlptlon, Imperfect, but 
lored [beefnnlng JfiinXiil AasJ. itatea that 
I road was made bTTltai Donniui Faternos, 
emTir ol tha Hslictiui colony, Bell«l«y In 
I part, le noled for its cheeie. and b»d a 



ig tbe ScticDsi to La Hnlte, and 



with one of the finest distant rlews of the Alp*. 
Id the plain at the foot of the Jura is 

BIEHIIS (Stat.) ; Qerman, Blel (131 leagnea). 
At the junction of tha West Swiu and Swiss Cen- 
tral lines, naaiaLakaofthe same name. Abraiich 
/>f the Jara-Bem also «omes In here, from Con- 
VBTB, (seepage HI). 

Baicli: Blelerbof; Eronei Kreni ) Ballway 

ASne,otd,wnlIedtown,tndarneclty[roml2SI)to 

still on the gatea. A little river, tho Suie, from 
tbe Jnra, (alls tnto the Lake below tho town, not 
lar from where the Tbl^le, or Zlbl Issoai >»». d. ^ 



'08 BB^nSHAW'fl SWtTZBBLAHD J 

There nt Fntcatiuit end CsllKilio Chnroha 
tawn-tull (DOCS ttmt), boipltil, fte.j nod tli 
WUdtrnutU ha.e u ucellent library of bogk 
»nd numntcripM. Thongh i 



D THE TTBOL. 






, TheB 



le Lake (Ulelersee), it lo miles 

tront. In the middle la SI. Picrr^i Itland, or 

RouBMan lived, 1766. Hla ebuinber <i ibDwn Jnsi 
u he loft II. Tbe ileunar pusea It on the wu;.' 
np lo St. jMn. WjttBnbich, wbo taoght ZwlnBlI 
Md Leo jDdiB, wsi a native. A IIHla shoTO Blenni; 

the Aipa. the Oberland, 4c. A grander one (taking 
the Black Foreit, Ac.) \» obtained froni the Chat 
leral or CMBtler (ica below), H honra' ride to the 
Bouth-iram, one of the highest peaki of the Jon 
(^SSOfeet.) Iteqsali that from the Weluenateln, 

For Banw, by the SwIh Central rail, thaala- 
tloni ua BriigCi "'^ the Zlhl, BOIBWrl, Ben 
the Aar, LfRg, LubarK, Bchiipfen, andgolU- 

kofen. 

By road, the firat place la Nj-dmq, and In old 

the Hew, li a pillar to the 8wl.. who feU In 1798. 
Aarberg (.rroleti: Krone; Bar), en the Aar, 
near LyM IBtat,), where three or four roads 
meet, hu an old Chnrch, on a rock, and a Cai 
which belonged to lie Connla (111 15S1. A 

dnmb ichool, Meykirch, and NeubrUcke (S 
toBeme, inHontcis. 

From Blsl to LamamiB:— 

By Rc-id-To Keu.evlllc i rtunden 

„ St. BI»lio ■ a „ 

Sl.AnbIn af ", 

, Grandaon (Qraniee) SI „ 

Yvcrdun 1 

., Lauaanne ,^ „ 

I 19 gliiDdOIl. 



This l> b« 


t done by iteamer on Ihe l«ke., ud 


by Railway 


between; but the whole diataoce m»y 




ihed by SaiMat, The •latiimi to 


HeucUtel 


are Douaiuw, HettTBvUle, and 


LMderon. 






KSnVBVILLE (Stat.) 




fiotef... Pu 


Faucooi deaTrolaPolawn,. 


A little pi 


ce, under the Chaj.ernl Rldg«, on Ihe 


w«t aWe 


Blaine Lake. A rain culled the 



and St. Jean. 


ear the month n( Ihe Thlelo. 




le Landeron, cleae to St. Jesn 




Nemoura), a Catholic Tillage, 








neit place. CreHdsr OwpnUtloii, 




olic, and haa a quarry of good 



There la an old 
NEDOBATEL 


Jinrdi,«;h 

(Stat.). 


lOlfc 4c. 


hate) 
^1 


called ITmiaillnilK In German. 

6 Belle Voe and Brand Hotel dn 
h belonglne: to Mr, Elake.; Hnely 
ndhig ipltndldvlewof theAJpa. 



£00 popnlaClon. mostly Pi 



. well 



S noitanlt. The Seyen comea down 

» al-de-Rm, a part of the Vallon dla- 

uiton. On tbeae hllla atandi (ho old 

fr. or adilQu (now the Central House, built In 

thirteenth century, and lonnerly the seat of Ite 

Clonnta, unr repreaeatBl by the King of PrnBila. 

OlOM tQ U, \a Ua OAi«hM« duueh, or I^nph ifa 



Bonte 19.] 



NBUFGHAT^L, LAKB OF KEUFOHATBL. 



109 



Haut, chiefly of the twelfth, but in the oldest 
part, of the tenth century; and containing effigies 
of some Counts of the Freyburg (in Breisgau) 
line. Farel, the Reformer, is buried in fi-ont of it, 
but the spot is not marked. 

Down in the Lower Town, which is well built, 
partly on land reclaimed from the lake, and has 
large houses of former merchants, is a handsome 
Hotel de Ville, with a portico. It has portraits of 
Prussian sovereigns, and of David de Pury, born 
here a poor boy, who made a fortune as a banker, 
and bequeathed one million thalers to his native 
town, with which a large town Hospital was built. 
Tliere is a statue of him. Another hospital was 
founded in 1810, by Pourtal^s, a rich merchant of 
the place. 

The College, or Academy, is a fine building, 
erected in 1835, containing the Town Libfary, and 
an excellent cabinet of Natural History, especially 
rich in minerals and fossils (contributed by 
Coulon, Agassiz, who is a native, and others), 
with an herbarium by Chaillct. At the Muu^ de$ 
Beaux Arts^ on the lake, is a OcUlery of Paintings 
of Swiss Artittts, } -franc to the guide. Near here 
is the Musde Chalande, a good collection of stuffed 
Alpine animals. Neucbfttel has also an Orphan 
Asylum, a Society of Naturalists, Bible and 
Missionary Societies, a Patriotic Emulation 
Society, &c., and an Observatory. 

An aqueduct from the Seyon supplies the town 
with pure water. This river flows through a deep 
and rugged limestone pass ; and to save the town 
from the floods it brings down in winter, a canal 
or tunnel was cut in the rock in 1839-42, at a 
point where it bends towards the lake, by which 
the surplus water is carried off thither. 

Neucbfttel has a considerable trade in wine. 
Watches (for which the mountain parts of the Can- 
ton are noted), jewellery, chocolate (made in largo 
quantities), liqueurs, paper, A;c. 

Promenades and Excursions.— Those in or 

near the town are to the pier and shores of the 
lake, which are lined with pretty country houses, 
to the rocky hill Crgt, and the seats of La Rochette, 
Chanet, and BeUevanz^ especially the last, 
where the view of the Alps from Mont Blanc to the 
VmerAips, at evening light, Is exceedingly fine\ 



or mount the Cliaiunont to the castle, and the 
Signal, 8,840 feet above the sea, whence the pros- 
pect is equally grand. Grand Hotel du Chanmont. 
In ascending it yon pass the great granite boulder 
of the Pierre k Bot. The nearest granite rock is 
in the distant Alps, 60 to 80 miles off. The view 
embraces the three lakes of Ncnch&tel, Morat, and 
Bienne, with the whole range of the Alps, from 
Sentis to Mont Blanc, in the background. 

On the road to Chanx-de-Fonds, there is a 
height called Les Logos (3 stunden), with another 
extensive view of the Jura, Vosges, and Alpine 
Chains. Other points worth visiting are the 
Tablette and its rocky summit ; the Pass of Clu- 
sette, near some asphalte mines; Rochefort Castle, 
in the narrow entrance to Val Trovers, a pass, 
through which runs the Pontarller line (page 112> 
The Castle is not far from La Toume, a point 
from which there is a fine view of the lake and 
its environs. 

LAKE OF NEUCHATEL 

{Neuenhurger See, in German), 
At the south foot of the Jura, touches the Cantons 
of Berne, Fribourg and Vaud, as well as Neuchfttel. 
The north shores are limestone, and rather mono- 
tonous ; the south are chiefly sandstone, and are 
more beautiful than the other, from the vineyards 
and fertile districts, interspersed with forts and 
castles, which adorn them; but in general it is 
deficient in the great picturesque charms of the 
Swiss Lakes, though its quiet character is a relief 
after the overwhelming magnificence of grander 
scenes. Length about 33 miles, and breadth 2 to 6; 
it stands 1,420 feet above the sea, or about 200 above 
Lake Geneva, and is in some parts 424 feet deep. 
Trout and other fish of excellent flavour abound. 

It is fed chiefly by the Seyon, Orbe, Mantua, 
Reuse, and Broye— the latter, after flowing through 
the Morat Lake. The district bordering it in the 
Canton, is called Viguotles, from the wine it yields, 
some of which, at Cortaillod, for instance, is 
reckoned nearly as good as Burgundy. 

Excursions by steam-boats may he made to 
Yverdon (at the top) ; to the Lake of Morat thrice 
a-week (ascending the Bro^«.\\ "ksA. "v^ ''Kv'S*. ^-«. 



no 



BRABSHAW'B SWITZERLAND AND THE TTROL. 



[Section 2. 



The Canton of VenGh^tel coyers about 250 
square miles, with an indiistrions population of 
103,735, most of whom are. French Calyinists, well 
educated, and more cultivated than those of any 
other canton. Neuch&tcl is noted for its magnifi- 
cent charitable and educational institutions. It is 
made up of the parallel ridges and valleys of the 
Jura, which run north-east and south-west. 
Through the French House of Longueville it was 
nominally a principality under the King of Prussia, 
who appointed the governor, and ten out of eighty- 
five members of the legislature. Napoleon I. gave 
it to Marshal Berthier, but it came back to the 
king in 1814, and was adopted as a Canton of Swit- 
zerland. Political changes were made in 1848, 
affecting the sovereign's rights, which he protested 
against; but an ill-planned outbreak of the 
king's partisans in 1857 completely severed his 
connexion with NeuchMel, which is now closely 
united to the federal government. The king re- 
tained the nominal title of prince, but surrendered 
all other claims for a sum of money. 

The lines to Locle and the French border are 
described in Route 19a. 

Railway.— Trains run to Locle, Chaux-de- 
Fonds, and Pontarlier, five times a day; also to 
Fribourg, Berne, and Besan9on (in France) vid 
Pontarlier. 

The stations of the West Swiss Ihie to Tverdon, 
are Auvemier (where the Pontarlier line joins), 

B^yaiz, Oorgier, Concise, Onnens, and 
Grandson. 

8t&imer$ daily, in summer, for Yverdon and 
Bieune, corresponding with the conveyances by 
rail to Lausanne and Basle. That to Lausanne 
arrives in time for the afternoon steamer to Geneva. 

From Neuch&tel, the road to Yverdon leads by 
Boats may be hired at a cheap rate at Neuchfttel. 
the side of the lake to Bcrrl^res, a village in a 
hollow through which a Short spring runs to the 
water, and is here carried by a stone bridge on 
arches 99 feet high, built by Marshal Berthier. 
Here the first French Bible was printed, 1535. 
The Gh&teau of Beauregard stands among vine- 
yards above it. 

Auvemier, ColomtAer, anA Cortalllod are 
'ioted for their wines, as is BOUdXJ (population, 



1,500), a walled place near the mouth of the Bease, 
where Marat was bom. Printed cottons are made 
about here. B^vaix (Stat.) (population 750) 
stands among country houses, and an old priory 
suppressed at the Reformation. At €k>rgler 
(Stat.) there is a fine view over the lake from 
a ch&teau above. It is near 

St. Aubin {Inn: Gouronne), under the Grenx 
du Vent and Montaubert ; the latter abounds with 
plants, and has traces of an ancient way, with two 
pyramids near it. 

VAUXMABCUS (Stat.)» or Famergu, 
a village of 300 population, is the last in the Canton, 
and has a Ghftteau, the siege of which preceded the 
Battle of Qrandson. La Lance Convent was 
founded 1320, by Otho de Grandson. Beyond this, 
among vineyards, are Condse (Stat.) and 

Grandson (Stat.). 

Ihree granite Pillars stand near the site of 
this famous Battle, in which Charles the Bold 
(fighting on his own territory against the intrigues 
of Louis XL) and his army of 50,000 were utterly 
defeated by the Swiss Confederates, March, 1476. 

The Swiss, in compact squares, bristling with 
their long pikes, received the enemy with cries of 
" Grandson I Grandson I " the garrison of which 
Charles had massacred. He charged them at the 
head of his 6,000 cavalry, and his men-at-arms stood 
firm; but just then the Burgundians became dis- 
heartened by the loss of a champion, (brother of 
Chateauguyon, the commander of Charles's horse, 
who, banner In hand, rushed at the Schwytz 
standard-bearer, but was cut down by a Bernese, 
Jeanlndergroub); and the sudden arrival of men 
of the Forest Cantons on the heights of Bouvillars 
turned the day. The Burgrundlan men-at-arms 
seeing the cavalry manosuvre, took it for a flight, 
and immediately broke, dispersing, as the old 
chronicle says, ^'llke smoke before the wind.'' 

The spoil was valued at three million florins, 
which in present money would be two ox three 
million sterling. One^f Charles's diamonds, rated 
by him as worth a province, was picked up by a 
Swiss, who, thinking it to be a pretty piece of glass, 
Joyfully sold it for a florin to the Cur^ of Montagnay ; 
the Cnr^ parted with it for two crowns ; and after 
changing Yiax^ T«i^«8X«^^^«sidi «3L^«;:^%^ith pn>> 



Bonte 19a.] 



TTSBDOir, TALLENOIN. 



Ill 



fit to the owner, it now shines in the Pope's tiara, 
and is valued at two millions. Another diamond, 
set in three rubies, called the Brothers, was sold 
to Henry VIII., and being part of his daughter 
Mary's dower, when she married Philip, is now in 
the Austrian crown. A third found its way to the 
regalia of France; and has been bought by an 
Indian Rajah. 

The granite blocks above-mentioned are probably 
prehistoric monuments. 

Grandson (8tat.)—/nn« ; Lion d'Or; Croix 
Rouge — which gives name to the battle, and is a 
little walled town of 1,500 population; having the 
church of an ancient Benedictine Priory, covered 
over with figures, believed to be Pagan; besides a 
public library, and an old castle on the rocks above, 
the garrison of which was massacred by Charles 
the Bold, after several days' siege. It is now a 
tobacco factory. At Fontainizier, near this, are 
many springs. The line leads on close.to the lake, 
and crosses the ThiMe to 

TVERDOK (Stat.); Oerman, Iftrten. 

Hotdi : Hotel des Bains ; de Londres. 

The old Ebfodunum of the Romans, and a pleasant 
walled town of 5,900 population, in Canton Vaud, 
at the top of LakeNenchfttel (somethoaes called Lake 
Yvcrdon), where the Orbc falls into it. The best 
houses (of sandstone) are in the square where the 
three principal streets fall in. An old Castle flanked 
by turrets, built 1185, by the Dukes of ZKhringcn, 
wac used by Pestalozzi for his school, 1806-25. 
It contains the Public Library and Museum. 
The Church and Town house are good modem 
buildings. Here are a new Catholic Church; a Deaf 
and Dumb School, for the canton; a College, and 
several establishments for education. 

On the promenade, which overlooks the lake, 
are Roman inscriptions, found under the old parish 
Church. Chompvent Castle, on the west, affords 
some fine views ; and a poplar walk leads to the 
sulphurated Baths, about 10 miles out of the town. 
The Chasseron (5,285 feet) is three hours distant, 
past St. Oroix^ where musical boxes are made. 
The people are distinguished for their patronage of 
letters and science. 

A road parts off to the south-west, into the li\gl\ 
road from Lansanne to Beson^oa ; and beyond that 



to Mont d'Or, Mont Tendre, and other points round 
the Lac de Joux, at the Orbe's head (see Route 4, 
from Geneva). 

Railway from Yverdun to Lausanne and Geneva ; 
belonging to the West Swiss line, as in Route 4. 
The stations are CliaYOmay, Ecl^pens* COB- 
Bonay, and Busslgny, with views of the Juras, 
to the north, and of Mont Blanc, beyond the Lake 
of Geneva, on the south. Here the Jura-Bern line 
is reached: which passes one way to Sonceboz, 
Courtelary, 8t. ImiOT, <fec, to Conyen ; and the 
other way to Biel or Bienne. At BuBBlgny, the 
line turns off to OeneYa. 



\ 



NeuohAitel to Lode ; and to Val Trayen. 
Motion, and Pontarller. 

By road to Vallengin, 1 stunde; Chaux-de-Fonds, 
3| ; Locle, 2 ; or 6| stnnden in all. 

This is now performed three times a day by two 
Rail ways, opened in 1858. The stations to Chauz- 

de-Fond8 areCorcelles, Chambrellen, Hants- 

Qeneveys, and ConverB, past some long tunnels 
and picturesque viaducts. A direct line from 

Neuclid.tel to Pontarller passhig LeB Ver- 

ri^rOB is also open to meet the line from Dijon 
and Paris. The road ascends the Seyon to 

VALLENGIN, 

on that stream, which traverses the fine Val de Ruz 
by a deepgorge {Inn: Couronne). The Germans call 
it Yaleudis. It has an old castle (now a prison) 
which belonged to the Counts of Yallengin, one of 
whom built the Gothic Church, which in con- 
sequence of a vow (made when he was at sea 
coming from the crusades) that he would build it- 
"on water," over-hangs the stream. 

Still ascending, the road leads by Boudevillier, 
where another road falls in from Cofli'ane (south- 
west), where a battle was fought, 1295, and whence 
a path strikes off directly for Locle, over the Tdto 
de Rang. The next place is HautB-Geneveys 
(Stat.), from which there is a road to the beautiful 
Val de Ruz and its pastures. Fontaine, near this, 
in a delightful spot, is a seat of the watchmakiosE^ 
trade. At C01i:7«t^ ^\a^»^^ -«>o^e&. Nsss^^-*-*^. "•• 



112 



BBADSHAW'8 8WITZEBLAND AND THB TTBOL. 



[Section 1 



Col des Loges, on the ridge of the Tdte de Rang, 
is a fine point of view, 3,220 feet above the sea, 
with a prospect of the Jnra Alps, and Yosges Moun- 
tains. From tliis the road descends to Bomot, and 
then over Mont Sagrne to Chanx de Fonds. The 
rail reaches the latter by a tunnel. 

LA CHAUZ-DE-F0ND8 (Stat) 

Hotds: Fleur de Lis; Lion d'Or. 

This is a town for watch and clock-making. 
Population, 25,500, dispersed over a bare highland 
valley, 3,120 feet above the sea; only oats are grown 
at this height. Each cottage has its patch of garden 
round it. A very large number of watches are 
produced annually; and, as at Clerkenwell, one 
man makes the spring, another the wheels, another 
the hands, and so on, by a very minute division of 
labour. There is a good church, with a casino or 
club, and two subterranean mills. The celebrated 
automaton maker, Droy, was bom here; and at 
La Sagne (population 2,000), in the neighbour- 
hood, D. J. Richards, the founder of watch-making 
was bom, 1665. Pleasant excursion to a ridge, 
called the Pouilleret, 950 feet above the valley, 
dividing it from the Doubs, which marks the 
French boundary here. 

Passing from this, by LOB EsplatnrOB (Stat.), 
and the hills of Le Cr^t, Yaillant (where 300 
men and women routed a force of Burgnmdiaus 
in 1476), you come to 

LOCLE (Stat), or Le Lode. 

Botds: DesTroisRois; National; du Jura. 

A seat of the watch-making trade, with a scat- 
tered population of 11,300 souls. Many of the houses 
have been rebuilt since the fire of 1838. It has 
excellent schools for the poor. The women make 
lace. A little branch of |hc Doubs runs through it ; 
and there is a Tunnel also, 1,049 feet long, through the 
ridge on this side of the valley, for carrying off the 
water which accumulates in winter, the town being 
3,020 feet above the sea. Going down the Ried, 
you come to the Cul des Roches, where the stream 
disappears in a cavern, about 100 feet down; and 
here, in the descent, are placed three water mills, 
one under another. A little further is the Roche 
J^Afifof (Split Rock), a deep cutting where you get a 

r onar the Douba. Abon 1 5 miles south-west of 



the last-named river, and 8 mUes north-east of Lodfl^ 
is the famous Saut du DoubB, where it tmublei 
down a fall of 86 feet, in a mgged spot, the Ifane- 
stono strata being nearly horizontal. The peqAe 
of Franche Gomtd, now Department Doubs, in 
France, and of those on the Swiss side, used to meet 
at this fall for an aimual f 8te. At Brenets, the 
broken fragments of rock have caused the rivor to 
spread, till it looks like a lake. 

From Neuchfttel, through a natural depression of 
the Jura range, a picturesque route passes by 
Corcelles to the ragged mountains of La Tonme, 
near Rochefort, 4,120 feet above the sea; thence by 
La Platte, which is visited for its points of view, to 
the barren valleys of Les Ponts (10 miles) and La 
Sagne. Quitting these, and traversing the pastures 
of La Jeux Mountain, you come to the upland 
parish of La Cliaux dU Cacliot (3 miles), where 
the watch-making trade is carried on. Like many 
valleys here, the waters which come down, having 
no outlet, 'render the soil very marshy. Lode 
is about 5 miles north and Mortean about € miles 
west, on the French side of the Doubs, and wai 
connected in 1885 with Besan9on (France) by a 
line passing through Morteau. 

At Corcelles (page 111), the high road to Fontar- 
lier, in France, parts off. The first place is 

BOCHEFOBT, 

(6 miles) so called from the Old castle which used 
to guard the pass into the Valley of the Reuse. One 
of its Seigneurs, for amusing himself in shooting 
the passers by, was executed in 1410; and in revenge 
his wife bumt the village. Here the people of the 
canton met to concert measures for surprising the 
old government of Neuch&tel, in 1831. Ascending 
the Reuse you come to a narrow door, as it werc^ 
in the pass, called Clusette; near which are a fall, 
and a mineral spring, and the romantic Village of 
Brot. 

Noirague (Stat.) is a vlUage of nail-maken 
and wood-cutters. Then comes Travers (Stat) 
(pop. 900), and a castle which gives name to the fine 
Vai de Trovers, as the upper part of the Reuse is 
called. Above, on the south-east, is the Mountain 
of Bondoy, 4,780 feet above sea, with a curiom 
hollow in the top, like a vast crater, 660 feet deep, 



•MdHean, onlbeBesan^t Read. Lower do¥m \ atid % mWea si<itQw^«.«J^<i^ Creax d* Veivt^ because 



\ 



Boate 19ft.] 



8t. StL^tCB, LtS VEttRtBBES. 



lid 



clouds and winds gather in it, no ono knows how. 
But the same thing is observable in many other 
limestone rocks. On account of its shape it pro- 
duces a remarkable echo. 

Couvet (10 miles), the largest Tillage of Yal 
Travcrs, stands in the finest part of it. Absinthe is 
manufactured here from wormwood. The Moulin de 
la;Roche, over a deep gap, is worth notice. Borthoud, 
the astronomer ^and chronometer-maker, was a 
native of Couvet. The Val de Travers asphalte 
now In use for road-making is procured here. 

MotierS'-TtaTers (inn: La MaisonCk>mmune), 
has a house on the site of that in which Rousseau 
iived, and wrote his "Lettres do la Montaigne," 
when banished from Geneva. Watches, lace, Ac, 
are manufactured here. The mountains behind 
rise 4,000 to 5,000 feet high. 



St. Solpice (Stftt.), at the head of the Reuse. 
Above this is a narrow part of the pass, called La 
Ghaine, ever since a chain was drawn across it to 
stop the guns of Charles the Bold, in 1476. In this 
neighbourhood are several grottoes, the largest of 
which is called the Temple aux Fdcs, in a fine spot 
among forests and pastures, which produce Gruy^re 
cheese. A short line runs to Travers, past Fleurier. 
There is an ascent to 

Ycrri^res de Suisse (9 miles) near LesVeiTl^res 
(Stat.), the last place, next the French frontier, 
which is crossed before you come to Verribres de 
Joux. The douaniers are very strict in their ex- 
amination. From this it is about 8 miles to Poilt- 
arller, at the bottom of the Jura, past the Castle 
of St. ricrre du Joux, where Toussalntl'Ouverture 
and Mirabeau were confined.— (See Bradthato'i 
TravtUcr't Hand-Book for Franco). 



SECTION HI. 



Constance to St. Gall and Appenzell, P21U'- 
fen Batlis, Colre, across the Spliigen, to 
Como and Milan. 



For descrip- 
and the two 



Scnaflliansen to Constance. 

tion of this portion of the route 
towns, see Route 12. 

Railway.— From Constance the rail to Roman- 
Sliom, following the south side of the lake, passes 
Kreuxlingen and other stations indicated below. 

One way to get to St. Gall is to take the steamer 
(daily, in 3 hours) to Rorschach, not far from the 
mouth of the Rhine, at the top of the Lake of Con- 
stance; thence by rail to St. Gall. At Rorschach 
the direct rail to Coire may also be taken. 

The railway follows the side of the lake to 
Krenzlingen (Stat.), in Canton Thurgau, or 
Thurgovie, which has an agricultural school in an 
Augustine Abbey close to the water, on the site of 
a hospital founded by Conrad, Bishop of Constance, 
in the tenth century, of which a chapel remains, 
with some wall paintings. In the chapel is a 
Passion, with nearly a thousand figures in wood, a 
foot high, carved by a Tyrolesc, in eighteen years ; 
also a mitre given to the abbot by Pope John XXII. 
when he lodged here, /nn: Helvetia. 

Mlinsterllngen (Stat.)» on the lake, has a 
Hospital in an old Benedictine Abbey, founded in 
the tenth century, and well endowed by Qaeen 
Agnes. Here the Emperor Sigismund made peace 
with Frederick of Austria, 1418; and here the 
Sfrcdes took up their quarters at the siege of Con- 
w^noe^ in the ThiHy Years' War. 

(8ta,t.) is noted tot its wine, and 



EAST SWITZERLAND. 

FROM SCHAFFHAUSSN AMD CONSTANCE TO ST. QALL, GLARU8, COIRS, AND T^ 
ORISONS, OVER THE SPLt/GEN TO LAKE COMO AND MILAN. 

(ROUTES 22 to 82.) 

has the old chfttean of Moosburg, in a pretty spot, 
where the bailiff of the Bishop of Constance tued 
to lire till 1798. 

Kesswyl is another fertile Tillage, piodnefav 
wine and fruit. 

Vttwjn (Stat.), a pleasant village when* 
road turns off to Bischofszell. The next place il 
Romansliom (Stat.), a charming place on the 
lake, with a trade in fish, &c., supposed to have 
been founded by the Romans. Inn: RSmerhorn. 
Rail to Winterthur. The stations to Winter- 

thur are Welnfelden and Franenftld. 

Friederichshafen, in Wiirtemburg, is directl'! 
opposite Romanshom, and is connected by steam- 
boat service. 

Salmsach is the head of a parish of 2,(K)0 aonli- 
An abbey of canons was here in the tenth centnrT- 

Egnach (Stat.) is in the most fmitftil part of 
Thurgovia, producing the Inselberg wine, wlUd 
formerly belonged to the Bishop of Constance, 
direct road turns off to St. Gall. 

Arbon (Stat) Hotds: Bar; Kreuz; Engel 
This place takes its name from the Roman Arlttf 
Felix^ which the Alemanni ruined in the fifth 
century. A castle was built on the site, 16H 
over the lake. It is a walled town of 1, 
population, on a tongue of land, with a church ha 
a separate bell tower. Good baths at Horn, oi 
the lake to the south of this. 

Rorscliaoll (page 117), Junction for St. GalL 

ST. GALL (Stat); German, St Oallen. 
On the United Swiss line. 

Hotels: Hecht (Pike); Hotel Sticger; Schlfil 



1 



\ 



Ronte 2S.] Bi. « 

The capital of Cinton St, Oalt, ud oneor the chief 



Othmari In the eiehth ccDtory, and a mcntrmqacntcd 
uDlTcrsity. Here Died Kero, NoCkor. Iw, Ac. 



le Confedcn 



vhich It dj 
. The lB>t abbot, FaD< 



ually 



The old sbbey Church, ntr 
entved choir-ttalli, fteaco painting by Morettc 

of the Convent bDlldlngi, called the PTali or palao 



»lih> 



Calholic 



(he Cbronlclei of FrOnd ; a Virgil of the 
lb caituiy ; (he Qoapeli. b; a monk who hat 
lul (WD[«BteaDii iTory! a Fuller o( the ninth 



oa QulDtlllBn, SniDB 



d Diimb School; 11 
ItheHoipltiU. St. I 



hanp, pr Orphan 
I. UuiBen 



It. LaWrAhrs «u rMtond 

ichooli ihd locietlH, u 
Uilant tcnooi; B rldlBK 
iTDOtlcal >choa1), beildu a 
bniidEiY la tangh(i wllh 

iml abject!. Then u« 

> good Nutarnl Blitoiy 
ions (open Sunday and 
tlmeifiOc.) and (he Plo- 



ei and ExonTflDiLS fchleflr' 



tjnrB;BotkonieefConYCnt,atVogllicgg(l.nnndoM 

uiDDntabia! MuichelbcrK; the Stelngnibe (itona 
iliiuTy)8nd Kobcl HUhle, where loaBlIi are picked 
up; Peter and Paul, on Rotmonti; the Tannenbora 

ilftUiray.— To Whiterthnr and Zurich and ta 

iind Ibence by coach over the SplUgcn. Tbe line 
lo Whiteithiir (ice Route 33), paeiei the ilatlDiM 
1)1 Tlnkoln, Oouau, ObeT'UiWTl, Tyl 
JoncUon, ainutdh, EachlUcDn, Aadoit; Beer, 
and BftlerMben. At Ooisau a connectlun waa 
opened, 1876, rii SlUhOfEZSll, "lib Sulgeil, on 
the WmiBrthnr and Romanihom line, AtWU- 
kaln, a ihort line (»1 mllti) paxet HSTlMU 
(pagre 127) (o UrnSieh, Jacobaliad, Gonten. and 
Oonienbad (o Appeniell (page ns). At \(^l 
Junctloll, the Togi-cnbarg lino goes off to 
Etoi&tkaillMli >>] 



D Canton of Bt. Oall eaien lin tqna 



tno-filtha V 
,tiHi4«s*t,-lrt,ttiW>tt •oft-*'"*"' 



nttATSHAw'B swrrxKEi;Ai(D *kd the iraoi.. 

alon of which I Rhode (pdpulalloo. U.9C0, 



TenAn, or TBfcn, /mu: Hocht; Llnde. 
woallhy town or inuiJIn nOKvarn, *c In Cant 
Appnuell. 2,140 tbet ihuve Uio icn, having a lu 

BfUtler, the next plscc, lo citllcl n-oin the hi 

lien, l,eiKI. AL» a thrLvtng msDnftuturlne plui 

0AI8. 

/hh: OchB; Krone t Hlnch; Adler; Rotlibacl 



eicelLenl in oatei of weak digosHon and diaeaaed 
longi. Living ia rather dear. The mllklne wngi 
of the paaiantry ire conitdored melodiona. There 
are tour mineral Sprintjs, the OrUtbad, on the 
Ap[ienzell tide; the 8cheu«Benm(ible, in a narrow 
raLloy on tha north side of Ibe QabrtB; Gaiiwan, 



with an old painting, ai 



AFPEHZELL. 

ht(P!k?); Mw6<Llon). AraUlj 



BltUr. with iDOO Boula, n-here the 
or Afflembly for the Catholic hal 



[Sedioiis. 

Prote.tants), dlfferinB 
I, and occnpatloQ ; the 
lund Trogcn, Ao^ bdog 



In the little capital, which lake, its name fnm 
the Abtoniell, or cell of the ahboW of 8t, Gall, 
who had jnrlttllcUon bom, there are St. Uaorice'i 
parisliCbnrch.founilcd 1061, and rebuilt 1826, -wilh 
n chapel or bone house, tnll of iknlla, Iflljelled with 



The EnTlmns Of Appsmell ai 



ialiaa aud lt> whoy-core to 
leand BwhiHllli, with Heil 



Sitter, with an o^tenaive ojiening view to tho 
a advanct, yoo come to WaiSBbad (, 

I may be had), by (ho 9chwiindi Fall, " 
LakeSt Mcglisalp (nl^ht quarters), and thei 



. Under 11 



Bids is 



"««CMftBUo^« 



\'WIMtlI 



■Bt*,b5-«Wi^lii!Lii\»i.,BUi,lnBj 1,1 



anOAomrlUiadeaorQutei \'WIMtiMa,11aU<wMi\;aftV'Mi'>)a«'tq,K««,ai%^ 



Ronte 22.] 



BORBCHACH. 



117 



ridge at the head of the Thur), 8,630 feet above the 
sea; and i stundo from it is LislgliaUB, where 
Zicingli was bom, 1st January, 1484. A path hence 
strikes over thcmountains to the Wallcnstatter See. 
At the north-east extremity of the Santis, or Sentis, 
ridge, S stunden from the high point called the 

Kamor (5,760 feet), is the Hohe Kasten (5,900 

feet), with the Wetterloch Cave at the top. Hence, 
in 2^ liours descent, to Rfitl, a railway station 
in the Rliine Valley, see page 125. 

St. Gall to Pfaffers BathB. and Chur, 

Colre. 

Two RotTTSs: — 

(1)— By road to Rorschach 2 stnnden. 

Rheinocic IJ „ 

Altsttitten ..« 8 „ 

Buclis 6i „ 

Sargans 3 „ 

Ragatz, for Pfaffers Bath If „ 

Chur 4J „ 

66 miles = 23 stunden. 

(2)— ToTrogen If stunden. 

Alstattcn - IJ „ 

Sennwald 3} „ 

Buclis 3 f, 

Sargans 3 „ 

Ragatz If „ 

Chur 4i „ 

57 miles = 19 stunden. 

The First route is along the Lake of Constance, 
and is now done by the United Swiss Ballway, 
to Chur, or Coire (see Brckhhaw's Continental 
Quide\ past the principal stations above mentioned ; 
the Second is the most direct, though more 
mountainous. A pedestrian may shorten it by way 
•^f Appenzcll, and the mountains around the 
Wlldhaus to Buchs. 

(1)— By the First route, wo come to 

RORSOHAOH (Stat.) 

Inns: Anker; Hotel du Cerf ; Badhof; Bodan; 
Schiff; Posr; Orilncr Banm, Ac. 

A port and corn*market on the Lake of Con- 
i?tanee {popnlntloa,- 5,900). The Market, <m 



\ 



Thursday, is worth seeing. Much of the gralii 
imported from Swabia for the north of Switzerland 
is deposited here in a largo granary. There are 
manufactures of muslin. On the Freudenberg 
above is the old palace of the abbots of St. Gall, 
called Statthalterei, or Mariaberg, now a school; it 
has a good view from the terrace; near it is the 
Castle of St. Anne or Annaschloss. The Rossbtlhel 
and Meldegg are two other good points of view. A 
short branch rail (8 miles) was opened 1875, past 
Schwendl, to Heiden (Stat.), a healthy whey- 
cure, 2,650 ft. above sea, overlooking the Lake of 
Constance. Population, 3,500. Much of it is new 
since thefire of 1838. Jnnt: Freibof ; L5we. 

Steamers to Friedrichshafen on the Wlirttem- 
berg side; to Lindau in Bavaria; to Bregenzinthe 
Vorarlberg; and to Constance. See Bradthavi'$ 
Continental Guide. 

The road and line follow the coast round the 
Buchberg and across the marshy delta of the 
Rhine, to 

Rheineck (Stat.), or Rhelnegg. Inn: Post. 
A village of 1,500 souls, near the mouth of the 
Rhine, with pretty country scats and two ruined 
forts on the hills around, which are covered with 
vineyards. One of these castles was destroyed 
by the AppenzcUers, 1445. 

St. Margarethen (Stat.), which stands among 
gardens and orchards, is .the ferry to Hiichst, on 
the Vorarlberg or Tyrolese (Austrian) side of the 
Rhine ; from whence there are roads to Br^enx, 
or up the side of the river to Feldkirch on the HI, 
which is ascended to the Finstormunz and Innsbriick 
(see Tyrolese Section). A Railway Junction was 
opened hereabouts in 1872-3, between the Swiss, 
Bavarian, and Vorarlberg lines ; vi& Bregons and 
Lindau; vi& Buochs, Feldkirch, and Bludenz; and 
vi& Bregenz and Feldkirch. 

The banks of the Rhine as we follow it are 
marshy and unwholesome, but the neighbourhood 
is well cultivated, and fruitful in grain, and 
covered with timber. The stream itself is only 
navigable for rafts. 

AltStatten (Stat.), or Altstetten. Inns: Drei 
Konige; Krone; Rabe; Zum Spliigen. A ijrctfc^ 
town, with a ^oc^a. ^Vv-vvvScv^ wA.'^^^ ^^-^-Ow^'^ 



w. 



lis 



bkidibaw'b EwimRi.uTS un> t 



i!UTla(era(cltT(iinBt.O<ilI,brwiirorOal>udlti , 
wbar-eub CDinH In hwB, piuing ova the Stmi. ' 

of thg Bhin* ud VorarlbcTc, 

<n—B)' the fiomufBDiitB, trno Bt. Gull, which li 
Biiu[d>nib1r ihocter thu the llnl mate, yon , 
turn off at HotkcrAe^ Codi 
to Sp^ebv. w 
tb) V)i(lluck), 



aght-il 



ncooEit. 

ima (CrowD)^ Cbkf town of the Aiu*« 
4 Pnteatut dlvlilon ol Apptnialt, nil 
milling plncB. with S,3M papDlitlo 
It ttudi at tbo foot of tbe Ojlbrli (U hour), whl< 
ofTen ■ too puorunlc Tlew from 1» numntt, 4.1: 
feet BboTO IhB kk. Among the bnlldlngi u-D It 









naoiu, uhI wbon 



u proibf- 



(UTOrpinoDiwoi the pnbllc library of «,(HH Tol- 
niiHi: and ZellwegEr'iliMarlciJ llbruT. Tbtn 
are alio a eautonal Initltate. a readtng aoclety, and 

pnbllihad here. 






I ■ Tcry itrUtlDg tMw alonr 
( the Lake of Conitanoe ai 
he Alt, Omnd. Ac., deHire n 
at 1 itande hence by Rnp)ie 






uniler the Smtli i thli goea put Sax and Ita oaitK 
rlambi, not far from WUdbaui (where ZwiBfll 
\'iii boni), at the head of the TogKaabnrg *ad 
lirabi, » 

Werdeiiberg (/»: P<»t}, a lltUe waUed ton 
lietwoen the Bhine aod the fool of the KUiflMii. 
(anndod by ibe Coot - — - - 



11 TadU, th* civltal d 

, UTcrelgD principality, and giving origin to ooe 
if tbe mo«t aiKtent tltlat in Europe. Tlie oU 
;aitle li bera. To the wolh-aait, It U bonndel 
BhBtlc Alpi l».7M feet high at Sceuplana), 



leQrlun 
ofGlan 



Trom AJttt)in«n (SUt.), ai abora, the road 
tnnu again towardi the rlrer by Oberrist, through 
a paH to EliU (BUt.). where the 111 talli in, and 

l«imwUd(/wi.'Part). in (he church of which 



aarlj-oppoallB Feldkirch in Tyrol, 
oacfixe to the BhIne. aa tar ai 
bortar ttta tbt one we ItUnr 



the FaU 



Pa»lng BiMlU (Stat.), a Utile beyond Ward- 
cnherg (whore the JnnetlOB (tor Feldkirch U 
fliado): Seielen, tn a fine apot, near Wartan aod 
anttenberg Caatla; and TrQbbach. on the Bhtati 

iMVaiU (Rtal), where yea fall Into tbiiaid 
(t™ZUrichaDdtheWaUenit.ttcn. (SeeRonttK) 
SMCti and Pfltfert Batba tn deacribad Is the 



From Ragati, the iwad, paailnj 
maiH Ibe Bhlne at UDler-ZoUbrlick^ to Ot 
lrl»nt Canton ; learei Haluia, where the CoB- 
I] Iter wine li grown, and the road up tba Landqnait 

the left of Jjuidqiuft (Stat.), Bee pace IV: 
mi gnu on to Igls, In a fertile country, bit 
iffllcted wllb goitre. Tbe town waa rebalit after 

1 Ore bi 17iT, except the old chnnh. nhieb odd- 
alni monnmenti of the Sails family. Abure B 
ire the four towen of HarKhllni CanK bnllt Ttt 
rhe Falielncpberg behind It, 4,770 feet high, hIdM 



^aratea the Bhelntha) Ir 
A little beyond Igll, !• 



w Prilttlgao, wUd 



Boate 22.] 



COISB. 



119 



of Coire, and Aspennont Fort, built as far back as 
368, by the Emperor Yalentinian. Passing: hence 
by Little and Great Riifi and Masans, we come to 

COIRE (Stat) 
In French ; Chur in German ; Quera in Romansch ; 
Colra in Italian. Here the railway terminates 
for the present. It is designed to traverse the Alps 
by the Lnkmanier Tmmel. 

Hotels: Steinbock (Capricome); Lnkmanier; 
Weisses Kreuz; Stern; Rother Lowe; Sonne; 
Drei Konige; Pension RhStia. 

Capital of Canton Grisons, seat of the Grand 
Council, and of a R. Cath. Bishop, in a romantic 
spot on the Plessur, near its junction with the 
Rhine, among high moimtains, one of which, Roth- 
horn, is 9,440 feet high. Population about 9,000, 
mostly Protestant. It was the Roman Curia Kha- 
torum (whence the modem name), formerly the seat 
of the RhsBti, who gave name to the Rhsetic Alps. 
Being on the line of two or three passes, it carries 
on a good transit trade with Italy and Germany. 

This quaint-looking town, surrounded by old 
walls and gates, is divided into two parts — Upper 
Toifv-n, the Hof, on the hill-top, old-fashioned, dirty, 
and picturesque, where the Cathedral and about 
1,900 Catholics are placed ; and Lower Town, where 
the rest, or Protestant portion of the people live, 
the 4cene of business. This little place publishes 
several newspapers, of which H-Orisehum Romansch 
in the Romansch language, was first brought out, 
1836. Angelica Kauffinann, the miniature painter, 
was bom here, 1741. 

Some of the houses are curious. The Cathedral 
or Dom of St. Lucius, on the ancient circular plan, 
is in most part as old as the eighth century, "built 
curved instead of straight, in memorial of the bend- 
ing of our Saviour's head to the right when on the 
cross ; *' and has a curious detached porch, quaintly 
carved; some old tombs; altar-piece, by A. Diirer; 
and painting by Holbein, in St. Lorenzo's Chai)el, 
and two others by him in the choir or Capuchin's 
Chapel. In the sacristy, they show pyxes of the 
fourth century, a cope, brought from Jerusalem by 
the Crusaders, and the shrined head of St. Lucius, 
the British king and martyr. 

A court joins this to the Bishop's Palace, 
which contains a very old chapel, a gallery of epls^ 
copal portraits, book$, mlnertdt^ Ae. Notice the o\d 



ivy-covered MarsSl tower. The Seminary and two 
convents are within the bounds. 

Below are the Rathhaus with the town library; 
an Arsenal; St. Martin's and other Protestant 
Churches; the Vereinlgte (or united) Canton 
School, and another library, and cabinet of natural 
history; besides other schools, and a Museum of 
antiquities, and various excellent public and 
private buildings. Bodmer was the residence of 
the deceased poet Gaudenz von Salis-Seewis, one 
of a family which formerly dominated here. 

From all parts the views are fine, especially fh)m 
the Bishop's house, up the Vorder Rhein-thal, 
towards Dissentis, and down the Rhine to Malans. 
Another beautiful prospect trom St. Lucius's 
Chapel, above the town, under a vine-covered 
height, where formerly was a bath. Short walks 
to the Belvedere Bath (1 stunde), up the Schanfik- 
thal, to Lurlibad and Malix, to Alvenuer Bath, 
Churwalden, &c. Longer excursions by Halden- 
stein (page 129), to the Calanda (8 standen), 9,215 
feet high, or the mountain may be taken by 
way of Reichenau and the Kunkels Pass. From 
Reichenau south into the Via Mala to Thusis. 
To Ilanz, Davos, the Prattigau, Lenz, the 
Jailer Pass. To the valley of Engadin, and 
the village of St. Moritz, with its excellent 
mineral springs; and Poschiavo, with its splendid 
scenery and lake. See Routes 26 to 29. 

The Canton of Orisons (orOraubUnden, in 

German), the ancient Rhtetia. or East Switzerland, 
is watered by the heads of the Rhine and Inn 
(or Engadin), and covers 3,080 square miles, being 
80 miles long; so that it is the largest of the 
Swiss Cantons. The population is 94,990; of 
whom 44 per cent, may be German-speaking, 
while the rest speak Romansch and Italian. 
About 42,000 are Catholics. Its climate is as 
varied as its surface; the fig, and almond, and 
maize, growing in some parts; while nothing 
but the poorest barley and rye can be raised 
in others. A trip of 8 to 15 days will sufllce to 
make acquaintance with this interesting district, 
which, for the combination in its views of 
every feature of Alpine scenery, mountains, val- 
ley«. glaciers, waterfall^ *ak "^^^ ••». ^sst ''*^'*>^ 



120 



BRJLDBHAW'S IWITZSSLiLHD XKD THB TTSOL. 



[SeetloBS. 



than 140 feudal CatUes are seen, ^diich formerlj 
ruled over every one of its sixty or screnty valleys ; 
nuw peopled by a race of simple republicanK, among 
whom universal suffrage is carried out to liji 
utmost practicable bounds. 

They form twenty-six jurisdictions or independent 
republics, originating in a confederacy of the 
people in the fifteenth caitury, against the tjTanny 
of their feudal lords. One league of eight repub- 
lics, now called the Ober Grauebund, or Upper 
Grey League (whence the German name of Orau- 
bUnden as above), was made under a maple tree 
at Trons, 1424, up the Yorder-Khcin ; it took its 
name from the Grey coats of the peasantry ; and 
the very maple was standing till the French cut it 
down, 1798. Another league (of 11 republics) was 
formed, 1396, of the people about Goirc, which 
being under the bishop, was named Casa Dei, Ca 
Db in Romansch, or Gotteshaus (God's House). 
A third, called Zehngerichte or Ten Jurisdictions 
(now seven), about Davos, Mayenfeld, &c., was 
formed, 1436. All these comprise the Canton of 
the Grisons, as the French call it {QrigUmi in 
Italian), which remained in league with the rest 
of Switzerland, till it became a regular member of 
the Helvetian republic, 1803. It is represented at 
Coire by a Grand Council, the members of which 
are styled Euer Weishelt or Tour Wisdom, as an 
Alderman of London is styled Tour \^orship. 
The French overran this canton, 1799, but were 
driven out by Suwarrow. 

As to the language, called the RomailBCll, it 
is a corruption of the Latin ; in common with the 
Langua d'Oc, the language of the Troubadours, 
once spoken in Provence, and nearly all the 
south of France; the dialects of Catalonia and 
Aragon in Spain; the Waldensian in Piedmont, 
and the languages of other countries over which 
the Roman language and influence prevailed ; all 
of which the Germans call Wiilscliland. Some pre- 
tend that it is derived from a band of Etruscans, 
who settled here as far back as 600 b.c, in their 
flight from the power of the Latin kings ; but it is 
so like other forms of corrupted Latin, that it is 
absurd to look for a more ancient beginning. In 
the valley of the Engadin, it is called the Ladin. 
Several MS8^ about eight or nine centuries old, ara 



are written in tho langnoge down to thia day. It 
is spoken at Hani, in aeyeral viUagM of Dom> 
leschg, in the south of Lenx, Ac The first book 
was published at Bonadntz, in tho early part ti 
tho last century. A dictionary was published hj 
H. Ck)nradi, at ZUrich, in 1828. Several news- 
papers are now brought out in it. 

One specimen may suffice, fh)m the 25th Psatai 
^^ Mia orma am eug protai^ Segner, Mei* DeUi» 
tat ni'fld eug, li'tun Uuchar gnir ^ tuorp^ per eUi 
brichia, meis inimit s'aUei gram et *e glien per mk 
cattea. PercMe^ cert^ engOn da quels, cfd guarda 
gniand toi, venian gniand in tuorp : mo a tmf 
vegnen bain a gnir quels, ihi wueantaing fan Moim 
causa. Fa'm a sawxir tiat vitas, JSegner I Muou^ 
tia$ semdas:'* 

From Coire, roads strike np the head ol ttt 
Rhine over the Bemardin and Splfi^n Passes, iito 
Italy, and over the Julier, into tho Engadin. Bifl 
to Zilrich, five times a day, in 4^ to 6 hoars; tin 
to Sargans and St. Gall. Coaches daily to BeUts* 
zona, by the Bemardin, in 16 hours; to Chlavonii 
by tho Spliigen, in 13^ hours ( to Samaden, ii 
13| hours. 

From Coire or Cliur, over the SifllcaL 
and Bemardtn PasBOs, to Como:— 

To Thusis 16i miles. 

Andeor 7^ 

SplUgen ......... 8^ 

Chiavenna 25 „ 

Riva 2\ leagues. 

Yarcnna 7 „ 

Lecco 4} „ 

Como M. 6} hours. 

Diligences daily by the Spliigen towards Cont 
and Milan; a good road all the way. 

REXCHENAU (see page 134). 

The Spliigen Road here parts off sonth. Al- 
lowing the course of the Hintcr Rhein, np tin 
Domleschgerthal or Val Tomiliasca. It afbrdi 



«> 



f» 



^fiojfited In tfie old abbe^of Disojitis; andboolta \ iV»«AisoittiwV 



*Th0 Italiaxi is M follows :— " O Bignore, io I«to TaiiiiM 
mi« & te. Dio mio, io mi eomfldo in te : f» eh' io noa rii 
confnto, e ohe i miei nemici non faoeiano fastadi ma. U 
•ncbe, obe niano di quelli, ebe iperano in te eia oenfiuo: 
Blen confaii qvelli ehe gi portano dislealmente aam 
oft«\aDft. ^MEMR«,lKBXB\«c$oxtnMQ(Qce letne vie, insflgnMii 



Bontc sa.] 

an nntinwllf good 



BKOHUAiT, Tnoni. 



iriooglr IntertwlDed, One Tllliga Is 
idaaothor Frot^MADt; icarcelj any ' 
' the ume Fullh Ihroneliant tbB enti 
uother BtLLI more nDuiul Klo^larlty i 



ChUhIIc 
IVD beliiK 



sordine to IrHdlUon, «mlgrsUd 



to add to 






m th« helgbla. 

Domettka^ from whli^ th« moden 
Id. The Dnt p[ue after Reldienui h 
,DrBaiudiiiiI.CUholloiuidB<IiiiHiiae1 
Bonle, liking Its neme from " Pon 1 
nd lor nU), on KDonnt of the ftrtUi 



TilliBe 



On the opposite sLde o 
istloi of JnTolU and 
at Ortensteln (one of ti 



. Floodi did gtttt (nlory hen In 
Ubnla tlinmgii thejnll«r Paw 





H, Tmb 


unilt-Uian, 


tlon 


i.oro. 








■cliacnta. 






Ma1l^ 


r Bohr 


Iber 


thl 


put) 


Rhstl 


; K. 



as wu moat credibly sopposed, th 



a, when "an Indli' 

« blgblf, Mt flre- 

" ii(hproor«iul 

Btlfaret 



on Sunday nwmlng. A very strong vlnd — one of 
thoK Impetoons Mast* Umt fteqnontly sweep 
throneh th« narroir gorgs of the TU Main— naa 

nm-doirn the whole town, wltb lew siceptlong, 
Uy Id ■•bet"— IVvngfw. To gnatd agdnsl ftnare 
•ccldentt Iho amhlTei ara kept In the chorch. 
The popolatlon Is Gsrman-epeaklng and Pro- 
tertanl. This and other plaeu already men- 
tioned, serve lo riww what a corlons madlBy 
of largnages and religion preiallj In Ihli Inlereat- 
hig rallay. Abont i boun bring yon to Ibe top 
'" ~ .Monlagna),whlcWdlTldo8 



(or Its fertllo putnres, lakei. and pretty TlllagoB. 
A fine view from the NolUbrUAe (bridge) a little 
beyond Thuiia, with Pii BoTerln (S^M feet high) 

Albula and the Soliril PUS, a plclnreB]Da 
rarlne, S mllai long, to SI. Horlti, In the Frgadln, 
fid Tlefonkaaiosi, Brian. Ad. (Sea SooCe 3>.) 
At ma yeiy door of tb* gor^ of the Vlt Mala, 



/oonded lo ff tnoa votary by tb* nV* or\ 



122 



BBi.DSHAW'8 BWITZBBLAND AND THE TTBOL. 



[Seet!<m8. 



** Dreadful Wfty/'whieh was avoided as too danger- 
ous and inaccessible till the new road was cut in 
it, by Pocobelli, in 1823. It is a yast perpendicular 
cleft in the slaty rocks, which in some parts are 
mere walls, 1,500 to 1,600 feet high, and only 15 to 
20 apart ; the road is scooped out of the face of 
the cliffs, with the Rhine sweeping through the 
gulf below. 

From Realt to Zillis the road is about 4| miles. 
It is only wide enough for one carriage, and takes 
first one side and then the other, over three 
bridges. **The workmen employed were almost 
entirely Italian. The Graubiinders (who are 
averse to much manual labour) would not engage 
in any such perilous work, even for double pay. 
A great many lives were lost. The men were 
obliged to work at the blasting of the rocks, sus- 
pended by cords from the top of the cliffs over the 
fearful abyss below;'' into which they were some- 
times plunged, when the cords were cut by pieces 
of rock sent flying about by the explosion of the 
mines. 

Leaving the farm of Ronghella and Obertagstein 
Castle to the right, you pass through the tunnel- 
gallery, called Yerlorenes Loch (after the old name 
of the pass, signifying the Gulf of the Lost), 216 
feet long, then to the first bridge of 170 feet, then 
on to a second or middle bridge, more bold than the 
first, being a single arch 44 feet span, and 450 feet 
above the impetuous river beneath . Beyond this is 
a fall, across which an iris may be seen when the 
sun shines into the gorge. The pass widens at the 
third bridge (1| mile further), near the Chapel of 
St. Ambolse; and you emerge on the cheerful- 
looking valley of Schams, at 

ZUliS, or Ciraun, in Romansch, which is sur- 
rounded by good pastures, and has an old church, 
dating from 940. Population, 400, Protest- 
ants, and Romansch-speaking. There are paths 
from this over the Oberbalbstein ridge into 
the Valley of the Albula. The ruins of Fardiln 
and other feudal strongholds are seen. 

Andeer (inn: Krone), the chief village of 

Schamser-thal, with a population of about 600. 

It stands 3,220 feet above the sea; in view of 

JVf Mgperin (9,845ft.), and contains a prettily 

-•rnted Chureb, with m avlphvx spring. It baa 

'Wf^grw^yfrom jDoaataia floods, 



The valley narrows again at the Caalle of Birai- 
burg, which was built to command the Rofaa or 
Rofein Pass above it. It belonged, in the fifteenfli 
century, to Henry of Werdenhurg, fonnder of ths 
Black League for oppressing the peasantry, ffli 
bailiff having bitterly insulted one of them, awir 
ensued which put an end to feudality here, sal 
B&renburg and Fard&i were the first caiUa 
destroyed. 

The Rhine as it issues out of the Rofna ScUvdil 
and the forest around it, forma two (food FaUa, Hi 
lower one being the finest. The road ascends If 
zig-zags through the pass itself, which is farlM 
savage than the Via Mala. 

On the left, the torrent of the Avers pours hi fna 
the Avener-thal^ or VcU Ferrera. This coolaiii 
several falls, in the midst of very wild aoeomj, 
Tou pass, within a distance of S milea, a snceM' 
sion of three Falls of superior height and vohoi^ 
the last being the most striking. At A«av 
Ferrera the valley opens, where a great laadiUp 
from the limestone rocks took place in 1794. Thi 
village of Ferrera is romantically placed is t 
cultivated basin, and has a church, with iOOpsop^ 
who speak German and are Protestants. Iflssfdi 
abotmd in the mountains. The road then tratoMi 
enormous blocks of granite, covered with moss wi 
lichens, to CanicUl (German, HundelochX 6 mfliN 
where paths strike off on both sides. GMll 
(7 miles), 6,520 feet high, with a pariah chorA 
abotmds in fine cascades made by the Aval 
torrent. About 7 miles further are the SepttaMT 
Roads and Pass. 

Ascending the Rheinwald, with its pine foreiHi 
you come to Sufers (i. e., Super), and at lengtii,to 

Splligen, or Splvga^ in Italian, (Hotel Bodsr 
haus ; Hotel Spliigen), a thriving village of SH 
population, on the Hinter Rhein, 4,190 feet abofi 
the, sea, at the foot of the Pau of the ssi 
name, and of the junction of the Bemardin PsM^' 
which is higher up the river. The large ntf 
church replaces one dedicated to St. Roch. Oi 
the Suvers side are remains of Zur-Borg Tow«i 
supposed to have been a Roman Speculum tf 
look out. Marble is quarried in this neighlKNDP' 
hood. A rail is projected to cross the Splfigen. 



Boute 22.] 



SFLUOEN, CHIAYSNKA. 



1S3 



28), and the Rhelnwald Glacier round Pit Val- 
wMin (11,150 feet), at the head of the Rhine beyond, 
there are paths here over the Calendarl, or Pass of 
Xochliberg (8,170 feet high), into the beautiful 
Savien-thal (4| stunden), and over the Valserbcrg 
<8,225 feet), past the Piz Tomil, to Platz-in-Vals 
In St. Peter-thai (6 to T stunden). 

From the village the road winds up to the summit 
of the Spliigen Pass, which marks the boundary 
of the Grisons and Italy. Passports (which must be 
^Ui by an Italian Ofl9cial) may therefore be asked 
:f or. As usual the road is carried up in zig-zags 
-to the number of 16 ; and in one part is a gallery, 
288 feet long, tunnelled through the rock. The pass, 
C,945 feet high, and about 2,000 feet above the village, 
is one of the oldest in the Alps, having been used in 
Homan times ; but it is since the thirteenth century 
"that the traffic has been most considerable, chiefly 
-with pilgrims and traders. An old watch tower 
still remains. In 1818-22 it was converted by the 
Austrian and Grison Governments into an excellent 
carriage road ; which having suffered greatly in the 
floods of August 1884, was repaired and improved 
in 1835. Macdonald crossed it in November and 
J)ecember of 1800, with his army, in storm and 
«now, under circumstances of great difficulty and 
danger, second only to those which Bonaparte 
endured on the St. Bernard, in the same year. The 
Peaks of Sorette with its glaciers, and the steep 
Tambohorn (10,750 feet) bound it on the east and 
west. About 5,000 mules and 25,000 carts of mer- 
chandise pass along it yearly. On the Swiss side 
the width is 15 feet, which is increased on the 
Italian side, where it is better constructed, with 
a more gentle slope. 

Upon descending the latter, into St. Jakobas- 
thal, or Val St. Giacomo, you come to the first Casa 
Cantoniera, or house of refuge, where the poor 
traveller may get advice and assistance in case of 
danger. The old mule path through the gloomy 
and dangerous abyss of the Cardinell (dangerous 

, from the avalanches which fall), which Macdonald 
traversed, is now given up for the new road. After 

, the Cantoniera, a series of well planned tourni- 
quets or zig-zags brings you to the Italian 

, (formerly Austrian) Dogana, or Custom Honsct in 
fi desolate spot, where luggage is examined. 

Tonr »o)id galleries are next pMsed ftt short 



intervals, strongly built over to defend them from 
the falling rocks and avalanches. These are the 
Buffalora, 770 feet long, near a house of refuge; 
di Val Bianco, a little further, 700 feet long which 
commands a striking view down upon Isola on the 
old line of road; then Air Acqua Rosse (Red 
Water), 1,660 feet, near Pinazo Village, and the 
Passo della Morte (Passage of the Dead) ; and that 
ofPianazo, a short one, about 70 minutes beyond, 
near the fall of the Ler or Lire. Across the bridge 
on this stream is the Fall Of Kadeslmo, in the 
valley of that name — a beautiful fall, 870 feet 
down. The next place is 

Campo Doldno, on the Llro, 8,450 feet above 
the sea, which, with its green meadows, looks 
pleasant after the rigour of the passage above. At 
Prestone an inscription records that Carlo Done- 
gani (the engineer), in the Emperor Francis II.'s 
time, made this road ; which hereabouts traverses 
a steep tract covered with blocks fallen from the 
heights. Another fall of the Liro succeeds ; then 
Sta. Maria Gallivaggio Church (amongchestnuts) 
and Giacomo, the last at the mouth of Val Gratso. 
In half an hour the valley impronres as you reach 

CHXAYENNA; German, Elaven. 
Hotels: Conradi; Specola; Chiave d*Oro. 

The Roman Clatfenna, a walled town in the midst of 
Italian vegetation, at the foot of the mountains;, 
on the Maira or Bregaglia, near where joined by the 
St. Giacomo Population, 4,100; many silk and 
cotton spinners. It belonged to the Duke of Milan, 
whose old Castle, standing on a height, came, upon 
the conquest of the coimtry by the Grisons, into the 
Sails famUy. It affords a good view. St. Lorenzo's 
Church (1538), has an old baptismal font, with 
bas-reliefs of the thirteenth century. The entrance 
to the ossuary is grimly ornamented by bones and 
skulls. Several picturesque sites around are 
covered with country houses, one of the best 
being the Prato Giano. There is a monument to 
Castelvetro, an unfortunate scholar, in the garden 
of Signer Stampa. Asbestos, of which fire-proof 
articles are made, is found in the neigbourhood. 
The people keep their wine in the natural grottoes 
under the hills. 



roQlB by the Bj^lUgc 



BWITEIBLAKD Um TBI TTKOI^ 



[SMdgal 



It <W lot khoTa (he Spiagen. 

tb It ovHlookB the BllKr Bee (' 

nnectod with th> Uulofi 



P»l.; lMr«d 


which li the fiernm 


Ridge. 


The JnU« FftM or JAnf /«Mb- 




>in»l (nek 


theRanunBrmy,lt 


».Uy»«raded. 


and free f nn 


dingere >t ill » 




tlt-ttgroMa. 


a to 18 (tM broad, w 




IMS. by whk 




bed In SI 10 . 




•mmnlt, which t< 


T,60B feet high 


between Pli 








lteitone.,.boTe*J 


Mt high, called 


the CW«mM 


r Juliiu, pliced bei 




ot Angnilui 


Cm«. There !• 


fine pnopect 




high, fi houn 


rrom the top 


ot the P»«. The 


ro^ deuendi 



BUnpl&nk (/nn^ 



Bimti; Wildonn 



ot UiB Upper Engidln or VilUy of th 
heia rlui la two lakei, to the rigbt th 
to the left the Cunpff r, between whlC 



unil. The Bomiui 



>bloy»?MB 


alls In here (lee Bo 


tsBD 


The 


like )• fi,»4ll feet 


above the lea, and 






cbaln of three otf 


mi, uear which the 


lud 




to Cunpftfr and 








8T. BORITZ. 






H-M,; Holol K 






telds 


St. Horltx. eicelU 


ithoteli, hlehljiB 




Dded: 


Hotel Vlctorl.[ 




gi«ll 


erhof; 










JS^IMn,Ma 


. EngHACkurrt, 






A ane br^tag 


.pot. OD th. top o 


the 


fW«r 


Sitgadbu, S.BOS feet above the tea; SOO tee 


above 


ltel>h^near«>II1 




ron eprtaft* 


In Bwltierluid. 


Al Ihe Pauieni b 






t« may be had 


dinner mnel be 


got 




Hotela. It ie more 






tBU, J nan to BBptK 




■boold 


'f/vneMfoibttoMbMai. 







Here are a bank, poat ud Ulaciaph Dffle^ k 
Bnifllth Choreh. The aprlnxa «ra at the !» 

hia«,ljinlle dtitaat frmn the »m«ge : ■i«U(l« 
lon1c,andareut6dfordrIiiklng;iuidb«thlBf. 1^ 
ihonid not be Ukoi without uItIu ot ths I 
Phyeltiani. Stt SraiUiaii-i CanUnaial a 
ThelakalitroieDtianKoT. toKa;: n 
IB Ibe middle of nrnmer, h tliat winter 
are the role here. The climate la eihlUjibi,,™ 
brachig; good boating sod tront flihlng. Hv 
waike and driving eicureloiie may be taka' 
"" * *- ■^- - F.11, urff 



tha Talley 



It {io,o; 



'ciandFedoi; taFontiM]nK,B«niIoaPi«fc 
liB coach goe> on to BunAdUl (page IQ 
hed in ) honrrrora Bt. Uorfti TUIa^^ 

Doim the Sngadintlul, &0111 ntnJMi 
to KBudars, In Ul« TrraL 
Diligence twice a da; Irom Samlden to MA 
nit honn. From Schuli to Nanden intikM 
tot In coDoeotlon with the Sam^den DOa«lL ■• tM 
L itar mut b« made at Bohuli. 

TBS EMOADIH, or »"|fiiHiit, 
)i Tillty of the Uppei Inn, called Xmglal^* 
lomanMli.l<(romMaloIa to MartlnabrHek, U « 
9 itundan long, 9,0)6 to a,*W feet aba** the m, 
Bi thickly populated by an bidaetrioiu Pnl^ 
people, who ipeak Ronuiuch, or rather that thM| 
of It called tbe Lsdin, nearl; approachliw • 
written La(ln ; and auppoied to be tb^ nra^ Ik 
the langnage of the Roman commcn psopla hi (t 
■ otthBEmplreOeoColre,RonteM). Ara« 

alley Into the Oher (or Upper), and VOMf 
r)Engadln. la tie [Tppir EagaOiH tn tt» 
DDontalnlakee. large and ■maIl,irttIiniuiMM 
ua im the higheat polnle; winter whIM 
a about nine montbe (beatdea three mc^ 
hot the Btmoiphere ii aiceedlng-lj' dr^, ■ 
neat and flih keep throngh tbe winter In Ik 
air. ThethermometeraomeUmeadaacoidi* 
Ifbalowiero. Barleyandry^which arettaecM' 
I prodncti, do not alwayinicceed, fruit aearmljai* 



\ 



Boute ^3.] 



WiNtBBTHUfi, FfiAU^N^ELD. 



1^5 



WINTEBTHUR (Stat.) 

Hotels. — Liiwc; Adlor; Krone; Railway Res- 
taurant. 

One of the plcasanteet and neatest towns in the 

Cnnton, with a population of 16,700, and many country 

lion ses round it. ' Mannf acturesof thread and cotton, 

nnd much cotton printing and dyeing with some 

Iron founding, are carried on. There are a large 

-fwo-towercd church, with an organ byMoser, a 

■town-house, college, library (in which are coins 

found in this part), public and orphan hospitals, 

and several old towers used as belfries. Here the 

Tossthal Rail, 29§ miles long, parts off up the valley 

to Bauma, Wsdd, and BtitL See Route 24. 

The old Castle of Kyburg on the Toss (near 
Scnnhof Station, formerly belonging to the 
Hapsburgs) offers good points of view. 
Rail to WaldshUt, 31^ miles, see page 78. 
Ober-Winterthur (Stat.), l^ mile to the east, 
ia the site of the Roman VUvdorutn^ of which the 
modern name is a corruption. From here a line 
passes Ossillgen to Etzweilen, where the lines 
to Constance and Singen divide. 

The line from Ztirich to Romanshom runs 
through Winterthur in a north-easterly direction. 

Tiic stations are Frauezifeld, Felben, Weln- 
feldeXL, Sulgen (branch, through BlBChofoell, 
to Gossan, on the line from Winterthur to 

St. Gaiien), Blirgloxi, Erlen, Axnrlswyl, and 
Bomanshom. 

FBAUENFELD (Stat.) 

Inns: Falke; Hotel fiahnhof. 

Chief town of Thurgau or Thurgovla, on the 
Murg, with a population of 5,800. Most of the 
houses have been rebuilt since the fires of 1771-88. 

Among the most noticeable things arc the old 
Castle of the bailiffs, one of the best in the canton; 
the Rathhaus or government house, whore the Diet 
used to meet ; two churches for Protestants and 
Catholics ; and the Arsenalt An action took place 
here, 1799, between the French and Austrians, 
when General Wiber on the French side was killed. 

In the environs, which are highly cultivated, are 
the Jnngholz Baths, a convent, and the old Carthu- 
sian House of Ittingen, on theThur, founded before 
1461, and rebuilt after the Reformation. 

The Canton of Tbnrgan contains 865 square 
miles, and a population of 99,552, of whom 27,000 
are Catholics, and all are OsnnanrspeakU^. It is 



hilly, but not mountainous; and is noted for its eX' 
treme fertility and the extent of its orchards, com 
fields, vineyards, Ac, there being little pasture. 

The road from Frauenfeld to Constance passes 
Felben (Stat.), with a population of 500, in a 
fertile part of the canton. Traces of a Roman way 
across the Thur, to the station Ad Fine* are still 
to be seen near Pfyn, which takes its present name 
from that station, and is on the borders of ancient 
Rhastia. 

Biirglen (Stat.), must not be confounded with 
the birthplace of William Tell, near Altorf (page 
132). 

From Wlnterthnr to St. Gall by rail (see 
Route 22) you pass Bigg (StatO, at a little town of 
the fifteenth century, with remains of its walls and 
ditch, and a Roman aqueduct. It suffered from 
defeat and fire in the wars of that age. Veins of 
coal are worked near this. It has, on A hill, a 
modem-built Castle, on the site of one as old as 
the ninth century, the birth-place of Nolker, who 
afterwards retired to St Gall's Ck)nvent. He was 
the author of several poems and histories, and 
counsellor to Charles le Gros. Pope Julius canon- 
ised him in 1513. 

Wyl (Stat), or Weil, near a vUlage, with 3,500 
population, in Canton St. Gall, on a hill, among 
vineyards and fruit gardens. Here is a parish 
church with two convents. From the station is a 
fine view of the Santis and the singularly jagged 
Churfirsten ranges. 

It is near a bend of the Thur, where it turns 
south up the narrow valley of Tokenburg or Tog- 
genbnrg to the Rhein-thal, a distance of 15 stun- 
den; now accessible by a branch rail from Wyl, 
past Batzenlieicl and other stations as below. 

[The scenery in the upper part is very attractive 
and the i)eople (about 4,000, all Protestants) 
work muslins, &c. It was once the head of a 
county, which after a time came to the Abbots of 
St. Gall, but not without a protracted "Toggen- 
burgcr war" between the Cantons, which cost 
altogether the lives of 150,000 men. 

Passing Rikonbach you come to the stations 

of Ober-Batzenlieicl, Luisbnrg, and Bilts- 

Chwyl, beyond which there i& «. ^kssssi^ \Na!Ktss« 



126 BBAD8HAW*8 BWITZBBLAKD AHD THB TTSOL. 

Lake Zttrich. Then the stations of Sletftirt, From Wildhan8,nnder th6Geiiifeln,ItisSBfti! 

Llobtenitelg, and Wattwyl (toe below) come to Ckmu, in the Rhelnthal, which may be feUofll 

next, followed by Ebnat-Kappel at the terminus to Constance, or to Coire, see Route 22.1 

htLYing to the right the Hattenbiihl Ridge (4,550 Passing the Thur near the Cattle of 8Ghwi]1a» 

feet high). Another point is the Speer (6,420 feet), bach, yon come to Niederwyl and 

behind which is the Wallonstiitter See. At Ness- (Stat.), where the line to Solfiren turns off. 1 

laa a way leads under the Santis toAppenzell; contains a good church, print wwka, and Ik 

and at Stein another to Wesen and Glarus. Alp *' English Park" of BL Konzli, with a popnlttii 

St. Johann and Wildhans are under the Siintis, of 600, chiefly Catholics. MflttandOll^ 

Mid its beautiful meadows. Besides the Siintis, Catholic Tillage, where J. Schweiscr, a 



the Sommerikopf, and the Old Man, are to the who taught himself sereral ancient and 

north; while to the south the seven peaks of the languages, was bom. After pasBin^ Oberdod, 

Kurfirsten are visible. Post road from Ebnat- Wlnkeln (Stat.), you come to St. GaUnKBMii 

Kappel, through Krummerau and Nesslau, Alt St. 22) by a tunnel. From Winkein, the Appoml 

Johann, Unterwasser, and Gams, to Haag, a branch goes off to Herisau, WaldBtatt (■ 

station on the Rhine-Valley line. below), and UmftBOh, for Appenzell. 

WUdhanS, (8,640 feet), is famous as the birth- Second iZoti/e— By railway to Bapp6ncilW)i| 

place of Zwlngli, Jan. 1,1484. and UmaolL Then leaving the train for iHl 

About the middle of the eleventh century (says '®*^ y^^ *^^® ^ I 

B'Aubign^) two hermits made their way from St. BlldlianB, near the Convent of Sion, on the ridgi I 

Gall to the springs of the little river Thur, and o' **^« HuttenbUhl, and enjoying a magniflGeil| 

erected two cells. " By degrees the valley became prospect over Lake Ziirich, the Mountains of 01s« 

peopled; on its most elevated point there arose round *"d Schwytz, and the Toggcnburg. The dswnt 

a church a village named Wildhans or the Wild Into the latter is by the Riken Hutomelwald and to 
House, upon which now depend two hamlets, Wattwyl, or Wattweil (Inns: Ross; Foggs* 

Le$ighaut or Elizabeth*s house, and Schonenboden. burg), pop. 6,000, a large pretty village on itt 

The fruits of the earth grow not upon these heights. Thur, at the foot of the Hemberg, near the Coon^ 

A g^en turf of Alpine freshness covers the whole of St Mary, and the old Castle of Yberg. Ms» 

valley, ascending the sides of the mountains, above factories of cotton, and cotton printing, are earriel 

which enormous masses of rocks rise in savage on. There is a new church. Lower down tbi 

grandeur to the skies. About a quarter of a leagruc Toggenburg is 

from the church, near Lesighaus, by the side of a Uchtenrtelg (Stat)., see above. Im: 

path that leads to the pasture grounds beyond the ^^^^, ^^^, ii^,^„buhl. The chief ph» 

river, may be still seen a peasant's cottage. Tradi- .^ ^^^ ^^j^y ^^^ „^^^ ^ g^ ^ ^ 

tionrelatesthatthewoodnecessaryfor itsconstnic- ^^^^^^^^^^ j^ «»« Canton, having an industrioof 
tion was felled upon the very spot. Everything , . , , , nAn i •. 'nauswiow 

seems to indicate that it was built in the most ^T^'^^^^^' ' w^ 5 ^ V?^« '^^»'^«' ^ 

remotetimes. The walls are thin, the windows are The church serves both Pi^testant. and Catholk* 

composedofsmallroundpancsof glass; theroofis ^^* *^7^" separate schools From the rutaed 

formed of shbiglcs, loaded with stones to prevent f **"^ «' ^"^ Toggenburg, which belonged to the 

them being carried away by the wind ; before the ^**""^'" ^^""*^ **^^^« ^^ » ^"*^ Vro^^cX. 
door is a limpid stream." Zwlngli was bom seven Bruimad«m, on the Neckcr or Ncker, hsi 

weeks after Luther. His father, though a herds- manufactories of cotton and muslins. Higher up 

man, was amman or bailiff of the parish; his the river is Peterzell, in a charming valley, 
mother's brother was Abbot of Fischingen in Thur- Waldstatt (BtatO, in a pleasant valley in the 

gau. He was first placed with his uncle, the Dean Clnsser-Rhoden division of Appenzell Canton, 2,670 

'^f Wesen, ^riio sent him to St. Theodore's school at feet above the sea^ with some mineral waters at a 

large \)atti-\««*fc, te%\. ^vs«w«t*«i. v\l*i. '^^mev^ vc^ 



tt&RISAIJ, RAPPBBSCHWTL« 



]E(out6 24.] 

eight springs and sixty baths. Line to UrnHsch 
and Appenzell, from Winkeln past Herisau. 

HEBISAU (Stat.) 
Inns: LSwe; Storch. 
Fopalation, 11,085. 

A Tery indtistriotis town; the second in Canton 

Appenzell, near the Glatt, where muslins are made. 

Good points of view from the hills around, formerly 

lorded over by the Castle of Rosenberg, of which 

remains are to be seen. The church, restored 1784, 

lias on its door the Canton arms (St. Peter's keys); 

the clock tower is said to hk of the Mventh century. 

Here and in the market-place are the best houses. 

There are an arsenal and orphan school. Ammonites 

and other fossils are found at hand. An agreeable 

walk leads to Tenfen and Vounesteen Convent, 

past the Umasch, from which you may get to 

Hondwyl, where the district Landsgcmeinde, or 

general assembly of the people meet — composed 

sometimes of 10,000 men ; that is, all above 18. 

One mile to the east is Heinrichsbcui, in a charm- 
ing garden, with an iron spring, and another 
under an elegant bath-house. There is also a whey- 
cure here. 

On the road to St. Gall, you pass the Gorge of 
the Sitter, which is crossed by the Krazembriicke, 
a fine bridge, 650 feet long, 95 feet above the 
stream. Passiqg thence by Bruggen Church, you 
come to St. QaU. (See Route 22.) 



w 



Zurich to Pf&ffers Baths and Chur. 

To Rapperschwyl, 6 J stunden; Wesen, 6J; Wal- 
lenstatt, 4; Sargans,3; Ragatz, 1|; Chur, 4J; or 
26 stunden in all, by road. The whole distance 
from Zurich to Chur (or Coire) is now done by 
Railway, on the United Swiss line, vift Rapper- 
schwyl, on the North side of the Lake ; or by the 
new Linksufrige-Ziirichsee line, on the South side, 

via Horgen (see page 71), Rlchterswell (for 

Einsiedeln), Zlegelbrlidce, and Nafels, where 
it joins the old branch to Glarus (page 126). 
But the steamer, where it can be taken, offers the 
most pleasant mode of travelling. The principal 
Railway Stations are noticed below. Einsiedeln 
(Route 11) may be reached by a short branch 
Railway y of 15 miles from Richierstceil or Fodens- 

u'^//, via BuxghMLvUt 8chlndelegi» in tYi« 



Sihl valley, and BlberbrilOkd, at the meeting of 
five roads, on the Alpbach. 

At Rtiti is the Junction of the Tossthal Line, 
(page 126). 
RAPPERSCHWTL (Stat), or Rapperswyi.« 
Hotds: Schwan; Du Lac; Freihof; Post. A 
small town of 2,800 pop., beautifully seated onabilly 
tongue of land near the top of Ziirich lake; founded 
by its Counts in 1091, and joined to the opiwsite shore 
by a long narrow dam, 5 furlongs in length. A 
railway connection is now open, giving access to 
Hurden and Pfafl9kon on the South Bank line. It 
has a little hafen or harbour, with a good trade. 
The old Graf cnberg, or Castle of its Counts (with 
Count Plater's Polish Museum), and the Capuchin 
Convent (old church rebuilt since 1882), afford good 
views over the lake. In the neighbourhood are 
Mayenburg Castle, Zu Jonen Church, Ufenau, 
Staf a, Ac. Over the bridge or by rail to Pf&fflkon 
(Stat.) on the South Bank line; then past the 
Teufelsbriicke over the Sihl, near which Paracel- 
sus was bom; and the Etzelberg, a good point 
of view. 

From Rapperschwyl, the steamer goes to La* 
Chen (Stat), where you may land for Einsiedeln; 
thence to Schmerlkon (Stat.), at the head of 
the lake, where the Linth Canal falls in, and 
where the Appenzell and Glarus ranges, and the 
Toggenburg, come Into view. The coach road and 
railway to Weesen, on the Wallcnstatter Lake, at 
the head of the canal, pass iTznach (Stat,), a 
little place on a height, where the West Gall road 
falls in, not far from a cotton mill ; but the walk 
along the canal is much shorter, 12 miles, or by 
boat for three francs. 

It runs on the boundary of ancient Rhsetium^ the 
neighbourhood being still called March (mark^ a 
boundary), passing Grynau Castle, Glessen, &c., 
and is an artificial bed for the Linth, cut 1807-22, 
by Conrad Escher, instead of the unhealthy marsh 
it flowed through before, in its course from tlic 
mountains. Near SchUnis, which has a monument 
to Field-Marshal Hotze, and Lind Colonic (a House 

of Industry) is the Zlegelhriicke (Stat.), so 

called from a brick bridge., a.t \.\sa ^ss&wjor.^ v^ssase^ 



\ 






128 



BRADSHAW'0 BWTEZSBLAND AKD TfiS iTBOL. 



(SwtllNli 






memorial hero to tho projector of the canal, who 
■was rewarded by his comitrymcn with tho title 
of "Von dcr Linth," equivalent to baron or a 
knighthood elsewhere. A part of it was destroyed 
by tho men of Schwytz in the Sondcrbnnd war 

WEE8EN (Stat.) 

Hotels: Speer; Schwert; Mariahaldcn; RSssli; 
Railway Restaurant. A little village, seated 
under the mountainous cliffs of the Wallen 
iS«e, from which steamers go to Wallcnstadt ; a 
branch railway goes to (HaxUB (Route 25); and 
Excursions may be made to the Speer, about 
6,400 feet above sea, to the Toggenburg (by way of 
Amden,5 stunden)^ Biberlikopf, Hlrzli (5,370 feet), 
and other peaks. 

The Lake, usually called Wallcnstadt, or Wallen 
See, and Lago della Riva (and to be distinguished 
from the Yierwaldstattcr See or Lake of Lucerne), 
is 10 miles long by 1 to 2 broad, 1,420 feet above the 
sea, and 400 to 500 feet deep. The north side is lined 
with naked walls of rock, 3,000 feet high in some 
parts, and so steep that there is no place for a road, 
and no village, except at Quintcn. It abounds with 
salmon, scarcely ever freezes, and olters a particu- 
larly fine view when the sun happens to shine al<nig 
its surface through a gap in the top of theAfUrtichen- 
itock^ a peak (8,015 feet) behind Murg, accessible 
only to the chamois and eagle. This is on tho south 
shore, where the cliffs leave room near MliUellorxi 
(Stat.)| for a few villages and meadows, command- 
ing magnificent views. Their names, Priimsch 
(prima), Sigons, or Gunz (secunda), Terzcn, Quor- 
tcn, Quinten, are derived from the Latin, perhaps 
from the Romans then in this part. 

Near Wcsen Mountain is an old convent; further 
up is Amdcn village (near Strahleck ruins, a 
good i)oint of view), from which neighbourhood 
the two Falls of Beyerbach and Scrcnbach tumble 
down over the cliffs from the heights of 1,200 
and 600 feet; but with little water in summer. 
Winter congeals them into glittering pillars of 
ice. From Murg (Stat.), on the south side, and 
Murg Alp (pasture), you got fine views of 
Kronzen, of the Miihlethal, and a way to the 
•Mirow Semf , or Kleinthal, past the three Murg- 

lipy or Jf nr^Lakes^ and a waterfall. Towards the 
p/ Mr0 the eight towering Peaks of tiie 



Ochsenkamm and Bichelkamm, or KmrftOti 
range, 7,000 to 7,650 feet abore the sea; imte 
which lies 

WaUenstadt (Stat) or WaUenstatt /«tf: 
Hirsch; C^urfirsten, at the Station. A sbhO 
wdl-built but dull town, in a manhy tfri, 
where the Seez falls into tho lake. TwokmzcA 
boats may be hired, but ^dangerons gusts are qpt H 
blow suddenly. A footpath over the SleheUuma^ 
the Tschlerler Niedere, Ac., to Wildhaus (5 stasr 
den), in the Toggenburg, offers fine views of tb 
ncmeso Oberland, the Cantons of St. Qall ni 
Appcnzell, and of Vorarlberg, In Tyrol. 

The railway runs from Wallenstadtv V9 tki 
pleasant Sees-thal, past Melfl (Stat.), the 6rl|tai 
Castle and Berchis, in Canton St. Gall, to 

Sargans (Stat.), where tho Constance lal 
Rheinthal Roads, and the Swiss North Esstn 
Railway from St. Gall, fall in. Inns : ELrone ; Vhm 
Thoma, at the Station. A place, with 750 popr 
lation, and a mineral spring, at the foot of At 
Gk>nzen range (6,015 feet), in great part rebnflt d 
stone since the fire of 1811. Above it is its flU 
Landvogt's Castle. It is not far (2^ miles) itom 
the Rhine, tho bed of which lies so hlgK^^ 
in 1618, after long rains, it was only by grat 
exertions prevented from overflowing into tbt 
basin of the Sccz. A rise of 20 feet would soffioi 
to make its superabundant waters take this oodtm^ 
through the Wallen See and Ziirich Lake, or 
perhaps make the whole river turn this way, out 
of its present direction to Ck)nstance Lake. 

Leaving Flasch-bad and Maienf eld on the other 
side of the Rhine, with the Folknis beyond (8,311 
feet), you come to 

RAQATZ (Stat.) 

Grand Hotel Hof Ragatz, and Bath establish- 
ment, in a splendid situation. 

Grand Hotel Quellcnhof. 

Hotel National. 

Hotel Krone. 

Schweizcrhof Hotel, very good, near the Bath 
establishment. 

Hotel et Pension Tamina ; first class hotel in can- 
nection with the Bath establishment. 

\ Po8i\ B«v&t«\ 0<;^«\ V(^'i&B»7i^«&^is»au 



Boate 25.] 



BAOATZ, KAPBL8. 



129 



Afayonritebathing-placeontheTamina,-withtwo 
churches, and 1,900 population, among woody- hills, 
At the mouth of the deep gorge of the Tamina, down 
which the waters of Pfaffers Sulphur Springs are 
brought in pipes, 12,600 feet long, to supply the 
Dorfbad near the Tamina Hotel, on the west aide 
of the river; and the New and Helen Baths, on 
the east side, at Hof Ragatz (the Abbot's old 
seat) near the Assembly Rooms, Corsaal, and 
Milk euro. 

Temperature of the waters, 98*; they are useful 
in weakness, and eye and skin diseases. They are 
drunk and bathed in ; In the latter way for an hour, 
until copious perspiration or an eruption takes 
place. In winter the waters cease to flow. The 
source is at PfSfftrs JBad^ up the winding gorge, 
in a striking spot, 2^ miles to 8 miles from 
Ragatz, 2,280 feet above sea, where the old Bath 
Bouseoccopies a gloomy cliff of the limestone rocks, 
} mile long, and 290 feet deep, but so narrow that 
there is Just room for the stream and a planking 
above it for the visitor. A natural Bridge over 
one part is 540 feet high. From this it is 4 to 6 
miles to Ragatz, by way of Pfaffers Dorf (village) 
and the old Abbey, now used as an Asylum. 

Some magnificent views of the wild scenery 
around are obtained from the old Abbey, and the 
Graue Homer (9,840 feet) near Ragatz; from 
Piz Alun (4,860 feet); also at the Solitude on the 
colossal Galanda Mountain (9,215 feet), and the 
Feldkirch, which are towards the head of the 
Pass ; whence there is a way by Wattis, or Yatis 
Fall, to Tamins, on the Yorder-Rhein. 

The ascent of the Galanda (8 hours from Coire) 
is best made from Haldenstein, near Coire; a 
guide must be taken, otherwise the descent is not 
without danger. It is necessary to sleep at Hal- 
denstein (where a guide can bo obtainedX so as to 
start at daybreak. Haldenstein and the old castle 
of Lichtenstein are only a short and pleasant walk 
distant trom Coire. 

From Ragatz the Railway runs direct to Chur, 
but the Road passes under Taborberg (a fine point 
of view) to the Untere Zoll-BrUcke, or toll bridge, 
over the Rhine, which brings you into Canton 
Orisons, at the junction of the char-road up the 
Landquart which aUo ttUM in close bj. From tMs 



you ascend the Rhine past Marschlin, Zizers, Klein 
Riifi, Gross RUfi, and Haldenstein and their old 
castles, to Colre or Chur (page 119X 



Weesen to 01ani8,Pant6nbrilcke,Dl886ntls, 
In the Bheintlial: and to Altdorf, on 
the St. Gothard Boad. 

By road to Nafels li stunden. 

Glarus li „ 

Schwanden 1^ „ 

Linththal 8 „ 

Pantenbrilcke. If „ 
Altdorf 10 n 

181 „ Total to Altdorf 
toDissentis U „ 

88 mile8=29i „ Total to Dissentit. 

The Railway runs, v{& N&fel8, Ketstall, 
GlaruB, Schwanden, and RUtl, to LlnththaL 

Leavhig Weesen (Stat.) (see Route 24) by the 
Ziegelbrttcke, or bridge over the Conrad von 
Escher's Canal, you ascend by the Mollis branch 
of it (which is in fact a new mouth for the Linth 
River, 8,100 yards long), to the bridge over to 

KAFELS (Stat.) 

Inns: Hirsch; Schwert. 

In the low valley of the Linth, still liable to injury 
from its floodings, and those of the Rauti, which 
joins here. It is the chief town (population, 1,600) 
of the Catholic part of Canton .Glarus, having a fine 
church, and the Marienberg Convent, on the site 
of an old castle. Near it is the Rautibach Fall, and 
the famous Rautifelden^ or field of Rauti, where la 
the Battle of Niifels, of 9th April, 1888, the men ot 
Glarus, helped by some from Schwytz, and headed 
by Matthias and Buhl, defeated an Austrian armj 
five times their number. Eleven Stones placed about 
on different parts of the field, mark as many attacks 
made on the enemy's horse. The anniversary is 
still kept as a solemn f6te. It was here also that 
an action was fought between the French and 
Austrians, in 1799. Many of those who fell in 
1888, are buried at MolliB, which t«,«.V»<vt^ vbA. 
populou% ^\»%^ «w*%V\A'«»WaK7*«^^'««^"'*^ 



i4e 



BULDISJLWI IWiranEBLAirD AlTD THB TTBOL. 



rScetioKli 



Great St. Benurd. It lies between the Bchwarx- 
hom (Black Peak), and the ridf^o of the Silvrctto. 
Many icy peaks are visible; but the air of deso- 
lation is extreme. A path descends from thence 
through S User-thai to 8118, in the Engadine. 
(Ronta 99.) 



Landanart, np tlie Pr&ttigftu. to the 
Engadine. 

From Landquart Station, on the United 
Swiss Rail, there is a char-road to Klosters and 
Dayos. 

This road has since 1889 been superseded by the 
railway from Landquart to Davos am Flats, the 
stations being Schiers, Kttblls, Klosters-Dlirfli, 
Klosters, Davos-DSrfli, and Davos-Platx. The 
time is under ^ hours. 

The Pr&ttlgau (or Rhastlan Vale) is a broad, 
green, and fertile trough in the mountains, watered 
by the Landquart, and bordered on the north by the 
Bhatikon Chain on the Tyrol border. Length, 8 
leagues ; width 8 to 3 leagues ; but in some parts 
It narrows so as to leave only room for the river. 
Its name is derived from the ancient RhsetiOy by 
a slight change; in Romansch, it is called Vol Par- 
tent. The people (10,600) are German-speaking, 
Protestants, and breeders of cattle and sheep. Ex- 
cellent wood and honey are produced, with a little 
fruit and com in the warmer division of the valley. 
It was part of the Austrian dominions in the 
sixteenth century. In the Thirty Tears* War, it 
was over-run by both parties. The Confederates, 
with French assistance, drove out the Austrians, 
1628, and it became part of the Grisons Canton, by 
its union with the Zehn-Gerichte. 

The valley is entered by the narrow passage or 
ravine of KlnSt formerly guarded by Fragsteln 
Castle, now in ruins above the river. 

Schmltten, a village of 150 souls, under the re- 
mafais of Solavers Castle, and divided from Griisch 
by a bridge over the Ganci torrent, which flooded 
its banks, 1782, and destroyed a place called 
Pardisla. Six annual fairs are held here, and 
cherries grow, though it is 4,650 feet above the sea. 

Grii8Ch» close to the above, contains sixty-eight 
i>r gereaty houses, with « milli <feC| and is attho 



mouth of the valley leading np to th« 

called also the Saxa plana, Scheooa plana, Pnddc 

Schroffen, Schilan, Sennkopf, Ac 

(This is a trip of 6 or 6 hours, by mule. T« 
pass Solavers Castle, which belonged to tbelMt 
Count of Toggenburg, whose death was the sigid 
of the independence of the Ten Jarladietloas. Abon 
this is SsewU and its Castle; in 1| hoar, tli 
Garey, or Ganey mineral spring; then the dJWi 
of the BeemU Alp, In \\ hour beyond. LeavliC 
these you proceed along the edge of the Bavfaa 
to a plain covered with snow, near a glsda 
This snowy plain is often corered with gral 
numbers of insects, blown this waybjthewfii 
Crossing a rough patch, among broken xoeks,]ii 
reach the summit of the mountain; a conieal p«A 
the highest in the Prilttigaa, 9,780 feet aborsfki 
sea, and commanding a splendid prospect 1> 
the north are seen the Rhine, Constance Lake^tti 
Swabian Hills, as far as Ulm, the Appenidl,iil 
Toggenburg Mountains, Lakes of Ziiiid iri 
Wallenstadt, Mont Albis and part <rf the Jm 
Range. Towards the east are the Vorarihs^k 
Tyrol, the Mountains of Tyrol and Carinthla, aito 
as the Gross Glockner, and Salsburg, indoAl 
the Peaks of the Brenner, Femer, Ae. Oa fli 
south, the mountains about Tarasp in the lose 
Engadine, the Silvretta Pass, and others hi fli 
Grisons. And to the west, those of St. Gothfii 
the Uri and Claris Cantons, Ac. 

A descent may be made from it, cm theTjnl 
side down to Bludenz, passing the ZAMr SK 
which is shut in by high mountains, except at an 
gap, through which the north winds blow withsoEl 
violence at times that the noise is hoard 8 mUesoft) 

From GrUsch to Schlers the valley is 
with sand and broken stones, brought down bythi 
Landquart. Bchlers (Stat.), near the rivei; i 
large village, with a large church, close to wbhk 
the people beat the troops of Boldeson, <nie of thdt 
feudal oppressors, in 1622. An embankment lai 
been raised as a protection against the ravageiif 
the Schaubach, a mountain torrent, which mayb 
ascended under Fanaserberg (7,040 feet) past Sdo- 
ders and Drusen-thal (i. e., the valley of Dnise4 
over Drusen Thor or Pass, in the Rhietlkon (1^ 
\ te«l ^V^^eC)^ es»i ^qtwel Q(Wq«iN2gaX^ v^ Btudfil 



\ 



Ronte 33.J jBNATz, kublis, klostbrb. 147 

Prom Schudera, a shorter path to the left may be of Stadion had a seat here, one of whom was bailiff 

found over the Schweizer-thor (4 hours). to Albert of Austria, and fell In the Battle of 

Pass Lunden to Rtttfaien, where a wooden bridge Nafels, 1888. ^ „ . 

crosses over to Jenatz, on the Fideris side, the main I^* ^^^^ PO*"* y«^ ^""^ «P *»»^ V*»«y of St 

road continuing along the north bank of the river, ^nthony, or 8L AntSuieriiuU, It passes the 

^ i-i X 1 4^ «i J. Luzeinberg, or Castle of Luzein, and the terraces 

past Castels Castle, Ac. .^ J ^ ,«,.,,«., 

*^ near it; then Paner and St. Anthonys Church, 

Jenatl, or Genatz, at the foot of a fertile height, ^^^^ ^^^^^ mountain lakes and rocky heights, 

with one or two villages near, contains 110 houses, jen^arkable for the echoes they send back. Above 

a forge, and two mills; and is the place where ^^^ ^.j^^^jj ^^^ p^^jj divides; one way over the 

most fruit Is grown in the vaUey. It has also a Druserthor, the other over the Sulfhuh Peak, into 

sulphur spring. the Montafaner-thal, down to Bludenz or Lan- 

Fideris, having a population of 500, in a pleas- deck, in Tyrol. Paths also to the right strike over 

Ing part of the valley, is on a grassy height, with a St. Antuni-Joch, towards Landeck.] 

forest behind it. It is noted for its excellent iron SaSB is the next place to Kilblis, in the ascent 

or acid Springs^ which are in a picturesque hollow, of the Landquart, and contains about 600 popula- 

li mile higher up the mountain, 2,940 feet above lation, among rocks and avalanches. The latter, 

the sea, fed by the Raschitscber Brook. There is in 1639, carried away fifteen houses with all their 

good bathing accommodation for 200 persons; and inhabitants. It has been mostly rebuilt since a 

expenses are only 2 to 3 francs a day. There are terrible fire in 1785. 

five springs at Fidoria Baths, of which two are At Mezza-Selon Fall the road winds up in zig- 

most powerful ; one being used for drinking, the zags to 

other for bathing in. They are beneficial in cases KlOStors (Stat.). Hotels^ Ac: Kurhaus Klos- 

of fever, dysentery, and the like complahits. ter DiJrfli; Schweizerhaus ; Hotel et Pension 

On the Fideris Road there are several fine points Vereina; Hotel et Pension Silvretta; Brosi. 

of view, taking in the romantic ruins of Strahleck. The chief village of a jurisdiction of the PrStti- 

on this side, and Luzeinberg and Castels Castles, ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ~*f " [~^ Davos and Engadine, 

o«thoother8lde,oftheLandquart. Excursions andjhe three head stream, of the Landquart 

may be made up the Casana or Fideris Mountain, (S^^rdasca, Silvretta, Vere ina) unite. 3,950 feet 

pa.t a fall over to Fandy, in Schalfik-thal, and *»^^* **)« »«* «" * f f ''^ P^^*" *" *»»*» mountains, 

thence to Davos and Coire. or to the pleasant Valley ^\ *f H' T* <^^1 ''*^"> '"°* * ^«""^^ ^«"^«"* 

of St. Anthony and the Valley of Schelephia, beyond ^' ^^' •^*°'^» *'°'*- ^^ char-road crosses the river 

Klosters. In ascending the Fideris Ridge, you skirt ^ ®'**^^ '^"^ **^"°f ^^^^"^ *^^ ^^"^^ P»««' ^^ » 

a small lake, surrounded by dark conical peaks, of "^^^^^ "P'*"*^' *°^ **^^ *° ^*^<W <«^« preceding 

serpentine form, giving quite a green tint to the - ' ^ . an ** 

y --1 o o n e f^^ ascend to Silvretta, you follow the main 

stream of the same name to Montviel, from which 

Leaving Fideris you pass the ruins of an old . p^th leads up the Sardasca, on the left hand over 

manor house, or castle, called Strahleck, or Slrah- Klost-thor into Tyrol. But taking the path to the 

legg, whence there is a remarkable prospect over rfght up the Vereina, you reach the glaciers and 

the upper Prattlgau. Over the Landquart bridge to abysses of the wUd Silyretta, 11,000 feet above 

Kublis (Stat.), which has a church with the sea. From the summit there are paths down 

an image of St. Chribtopher, out of respect to whom the glaciers to Lav in (by Piz Linard, &c.) or to 

the French spared the place in 1622. The family Stis, in the Lower Engadine, in Route 29. 



SECTION IV. 



TYROL (AUSTEIA). 

nrNSBBUCK AND THE VALLEY OF THE INN. SALZBURG, ISOHL, AMD THE BAI 

MEBairr. the ZILLERTHAL, FINZQAU, and OASTEIN baths, the FIMff 

mUNZ AND BRENNER PASSES, VALLEY OF THE ADIOE, THE ZILLERTHA 

FUSTERTHAL, DOLOMITE REGION, ftc, ON TO MILAK, VEBONA, AND 

VENICE. ROUTES 86 to M. 



I10XJT3 S3. 
Bregenz through Vorarlberg, the Arlherger 
Fass, and down the Inn to Innshruck, 
Salshurg, and IschL 

Railway.— Tho Arlherg line, about lis miles 
lonj?, was opened October 21 st, 18H4, on tlie comple- 
tion of the Arlherg tunnel (6 miles 250 yards long), 
<»mmenced in 1880. There is now through com- 
munication between Llndau (Lake ConstanceX 
Bregenz, and Innshmck. There are about 85 
stations (see BradihMo'» Continental Guide). On 
both sides of the Arlberg tunnel the line rises for 
about 18 miles each way, attaining an altitude of 
4,300 feet above the sea, and it was here that the 
main engineering difiiculties wore encjunterod. 
The most interesting part, from this point of view 
is from Bratz to Langen; after Landeck the line 
mainly follows the valley of the Inn, occasionally 
crossing the tributaries of that river, with fine 
scenery round about. Between Bratz and Langen 
there are 15 large bridges and viaducts, two ai]ue- 
4ucts, and 6 smaller tunnels and galleries as a 
protection against avalanches. The gradients are 
often 3 in 100 metres. The railway from ZUrich, 
or Goire, joins this line at Feldkirch. 

LINDAU. 

Hotels: Bayrischer Hof ; LIndaucr Hof ; Krone ; 
Sonne. 

An old Bavarian town, on an island near the 
north-east corner of the Lake of Constance 
(Bodensee), connected with the shore by a long 
railway embankment and a wooden bridge. On 
tAe qaay ia a monument to Maximilian II., and on 



the pier a largo marble Hon, both by ! 
There is also a fine fountain In the Bel 
and a war monument. Steamers nm fr 
to Bregenz and Romanshom. 

The Lake of Constaiice, 

always spoken of as the BodoilBee (see 
is constantly traversed by steamers 
between tho chief towns, Ccmstance, Fr 
hafcn, Bomanshom, Rorschach, Lndwl 
Lindau, Bregenz, Ac. Between them all 
at leat one daily service, and between the ] 
places 3 or 4 times daily. From Li 
Bregenz, 6 or 7 times daily in summer, 
quently in winter. Tho passage takes ab 
an-hour, and the 1st and 2nd class fares a 
and 27 kr. respectively. 

BREGENZ (Stat.) 

Hotels: D'Aittriche; Europe; Montfort; 
Kreuz; Schweizerhof; UJwe. Popniatloi 
The capital of Vorarlberg circle (Austrian] 
on a hill at the east end of Lake Constanct 
See), where the Aoch falls in. It is very oI< 
well built, especially the modem part on tb 
of the lake. The church is a fine ba|Idl 
the tower is ancient. Museum of lo 
tiquities and natural history interesting 
old Castle shows traces of Roman work; 
supposed to partly occupy the site of the 
Brigantium. Remains of Montfort Castle s 
the Gebhardsberg, or Schlossberg, hard I 
the Church, which commands a fine vie-v 
HolvQ B&tvUft ftxvd the whole of the I 



Boute 85.] 

Constance. A splendid view is also obtained from 
the Pf&ider (8,480 feet), U liour from Bregcnx, 
where there is a commodious and wcll-mauaged 
hotel. The road is not at all difficult. 

The Aberer family hero have some early paint- 
ings of Angelica Kaufmann, who was bom at 
Schwarzenberg, in the Forest of Bregenznear this, 
the inhabitants of which have a peculiar dialect 
and dress. Cotton and flax are spun ; and ready- 
made huts or chftlets are manufactured for the 
Alpine parts of Switzerland. 

Steamers on the lake about 4 times a-day to 
Lindau, In Bavaria, Frcdrichshafcn, in Wiirttcm- 
berg, where the railway from Stuttgart terminates, 
Rorschach in Switzerland (on the road to Con- 
stance, St. Gall, Coire, Ac); and to Constance at 
the other end of the lake. The Ziirich and St. Gall 
Railway, vid Rorschach, is carried on to Brogenz 
and Lindau. 

There is an upper road to Innsbruck through the 
Bregenzer Wald and Lechthal. 

Dombim (Stat.) A market town, with as 
many as 10,000 inhabitants, who make muslin and 
cotton goods, and carry on an important cattle 
trade. 

Hohenems (Stat.) A small place of fi,000 
population, of whom a considerable number are 
Jews. It has a sulphur Spring, frequented by 
invalids, and commands a fine view from the ruins 
of the Alt and Neu Hohenems Castles. At Q6tsi8 
(Stat.), further on, a village of 1,500 population, 
are remains of two more castles, which belonged 
to the Counts of Montfort. 

Next, Rankweil (Stat.X at the entrance of the 
Latcrnserthal. 



Feldklrch(Stal) /nii«.*Eng11seherhof ; L8we; 
SchUflo. Population, 8,800. On the 111, noted for the 
actions between the French and Austrians,. 1799 
and 1800. Schattenburg belonged also to the 
Montfort family; the Pfriindnerhaus (hospital) 
was built 1218. The Kurhaus, in a pretty spot, 
with fine gardens; its waters are saline and 
alkaline, and it is useful in lymphatic complataits^ 
mucous discbargeSf Jko. 



TYROL — DOBKBIRN, BLUDRNZ. l^% 

[A road from here goes oflF by Vaduz, B^Izers, 
and Coiro in the Grisons (see Route 23), following 
the rail which here makes a junction with the 

Coire line at Buchs, viA Schaan-Vaduz (Stat.) 

The Coiro road turns off here, up the east bank of 
the Rhine to Mayenfeld, in the Grisons territory. 
It passes.Neudoln and Schaan, to Vaduz (8 hours), 
in the principality of Lichtenstcin ; then in 8 
hours to 

Mayenfeld (inns: Rbssll; Sonne; Zum Falknlss), 
the Roman Lupinum^ with a i)opulatIoh of 960. 
Much corn and wine are produced here. The chureh 
is good ; the best houses are in the suburbs. Front 
Salcnech tower, one of those belonging to its 
ancient castle (supposed to be of French origin), 
is a good view of the Rhine. Ragatz and the 
Pfafiers Baths are on the other side (see Route 24). 
In the neighbourhood are the beautiful Valley of 
Mayenfeld, among limestone hills; Falknlss, a 
peak of the Rhatikon (8,340 feet high) ; and Flesch 
or FlSsch, with its bad or mineral water, close to 
the Rhine.] 

The rail passes through a tunnel of 850 feet 
under the Schattcnberg and crosses the 111 to 

Frastanz (Stat.X then by Nenzlxig (Stat.) 

and StraBBenhaUB (Stat.), with fine prospects to 

BXudenz (Stat.) inns: Post; Kreus; Ejxme; 
Bludenzerhof; Scesoplana; Arlbergerhof. A dull 
town of 2,000 population, in the Valley of the III. 
The environs are more pleasant; a turn to tho 
south-east leads up from the lU into the populous 
Mtmtqfuner Valleffy which is cultivated with cherry 
orchards, for kirschwasser (cherry brandy). The 
inhabitants differ in many respects from their near 
neighbours, and are evidently i-emains of one of 
the border nations, whose former boundary was 
the Arlberg. It is divided from the Priittigau and 
Engadine in Switzerland by the Rh&ttkon, h 
ridge forming part of the RlueticAlps, 9,740 feet 
high at Scoaaplana. From Schruns, the largest 
place in it, there is a fine view at BartolomKusberg, 
and you may follow it round through the Paz- 
nauner-thal to Landeck. 



DalaaB m miles), under the Arlberg, or Adlers- 
berg, »'.«., Eagles' MQ^xA»ks^^V;^^»S*^^*^'*wcPV'*^'^ 
\ %ta, w^-^w^i^ -^S:*^ ^%x>s. ^gkftOTc? ^S^a^ VwwiW' 



"^jw* 



150 



BBADSHAW*S BWITZERLAKD AND THB TTBOL. 



[Section 4. 



Stnben ilnm: Traubc; Post), at the foot of the 
iLrlberg. The carriage road ascends to the pass 
oyer the side of the mountain, 6,200 feet above 
the sea, where the snow lies till May. Here are 
the Franzensbriicke, and the Hospice, for travellers, 
founded by the Briiderschaft, or brotherhood, of 
St. Christopher. 

The railway tunnel, over 6 miles long, commences 
near here at Langdn (Stat.), and terminates at 
St Anton (Stat.) 

Descending by the road you pass through the beau- 
tiful Stanaer-thal, or valley of the Rosanna, on to 
St. Anton (8i miles) ; then to Sehnan^ where is a 
dark cleft or pass (the Schnaner-Klamm). 

Flirsoh (Stat.) inn : Post. It has a fine view 
f rom Wiesberg Castle, and alabaster quarries. Near 
this is the junction of the Rosanna (or Stanzer) 
with the Trisanna (or Patznaun); the latter 
eoming down from the glaciers of Pix Linard^ 11,310 
feet high. 

Landeck(Stat). inn: Post. 
A village of 1,500 population, on both sides of the 
Inn, where the valleys of the Inn and Patznaun 
join, and the road from Botzen and the Wormser 
or Sanna Joch falls into the main road. The 
Bavarians took it in 1703. Notice here the forts 
of Landeck (now inhabited by poor people) and 
Schrof enstein just above the place ; and the once 
strong Castle of Kronburg, on a cliff on the other 
side of the Inn, underneath which the rail runs. 
The valley of the Inn, which the road follows 
right through north Tyrol, is nearly 100 miles long, 
and in some parts only 3 to 8 broad. 

Leaving Zams to the right, the rail passes by 
SOhdnwleB (Stat), following the windings of 
the Inn, and reaches 

mut (Stat.) Inn: Post. A small market 
town, 3^ miles from the railway, with 2,500 popu- 
lation, who carry on a good trade in Canary 
birds. It was nearly destroyed by fire in 1812. 
Close to Jt are the conical topped Tschiirgant; 
Calrarlenberg Chapel, with a fine range of view ; 
Mnttekop, 9,078 feet high; the gloomy 8e\veaa«T 
T*"f^' wA«re you get a view of the WUdspiU^ 
« Jouaaterspitz, on the north bank of tli© Inn- 



a peak (spitz) of that ridge, to which Tschiirgant 
belongs, and which here divides the upper and 
lower roads to Innsbriick. Six miles farther 
is Oetzthal Station, where the road into the 
Oetltlial turns off. 

For grandeur and variety the Oetzthal is, the 
finest part of Northern Tyrol. From Oetzthal 
Station there are public conveyances daily to Oeti, 
Umhausen, and Lengenfeld. Carriages may be 
hired. Good road to Umhausen, beyond there 
rough to Solden, where it ends. 

To Oetz in half-an-hour by carriage, /im.— > 
Kassel, good. Oetz is 2,500 feet above sea, at the 
foot of the Achenkogl (9,866 feet). To the 
picturesque Piburger See, 45 minutes* walk. From 
Oetz, past the falls of the Ache, at the foot of a 
huge cliff, and the village of Tnmpfea in 3 hours 
to Umliaasen (d,400 feet), with a good inn. 
Excursion to the grand Stuiben-fall. By ke^ng 
on the left bank of the stream the road may 
be reached by a short cut, 25 minutes above 
Umhausen, before it enters the narrow gorge of 
Manraeh, through which rushes the torrent of the 
Ach*. 

The village of Longonfeld is next readied. 
Here iheSultthdl, opening to the left, eomnmwicatci 
with the Stuhaythdl and Innsbruck. A guide ii 
indispensable. Sdldon (4,4^ feet) is dominated 
by the majestic ice-covered N6derk<^l (10,875 fiset). 
Here the road ends. Saddle-horses and mnles nuqr 
be had. The next place is ZwiOB^lStQill. Hefs 
the Oetzthal divides into the Gurgl— . and the 
Fendertlial. From the entrance of the former the 
road over the TimUerJoch branches off to lltftB I 
by the Passeierthal in 14 hours. In crossing the I 
pass keep to the signal-posts ; a guide Is advisaUe I 
in case of foggy weather. The valley to the right 
hand leads directly to Fend by HelllS''Eraill i> 
4 hours. Turning to the left up the Gnrgltlial tin 
Alpine village of Obergnrgl (6,288 feet) H 
reached in 3 hours; grand scenery; ace<nniMds- 
tion at the curb's. From here in 8 honrs OTsrthi 
Ramol Pass (10,500 feet) to Fend(abont 40 mimta 
below the summit there is an Alpine innX 0>i^ 
i% necessary. 

T VSA VSI^ ^"^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ Q' the Thallei-| 






Route 3S.] 



oompnratiTely Alpine and Glncier excursions; the 
Kreusspitae (often ascended by ladies) is to be 
recommended, as lying in the centre of the great 
giants of the Oetsthal. The Alpine clubs hare 
greatly facilitated the ascent of many peaks and 
passes by constructing huts at great Ixeights. 
Reliable guides, officially certified, may be had all 
through the Oetzthal, but in greatest number at 
Fend. 

From Fend to UnflOra Frau by the Kiederjoch 
or the Hoctv)och in 8 to 10 hours. The latter is 
the longer by one hour, but less difficult and more 
interesting. Ladles can take this route. Mules 
may be had ; guide required. At the foot of the 
Glacier, which has to be crossed, an inn, 2} hours 
from Fend, supplies refreshments. Past KUTIgnUI 
to Unsere Frau (good inns) the chief place of 
the beautiful Sehnalserthal, thence in 6 hours past 
Sarthans (inn) to Staben, in Vintschgau. 
Hotel: Adier. From Staben there is a post road 
to Meran. 

The next place down the Oberinnthal is 

Silx (StaD— /nn<; Post; LSwe— ten miles 
from Imst, near Peterberg Castle, the old ruined 
birth-place of Margaret Maultasch, the last native 
sovereign, who in the fourteenth century made 
over her dominions to her kinsman, the Duke of 
Austria. 

Telfil (Stal)— /nn: Post— on the Inn, under 
the lofty Hoho Munde. Peterskirche is orna- 
mented by frescoes and paintings by Zoller, a 
native. Fine views from the Calvarienberg and 
the old fortress of HUrtenburg. 

Zirl (Stal) Inn : JJirre or Lion. A small town 
on the Inn, under the Martill8Wan<l, a vast preci- 
pice dividing the Ober and Unter Innthal. It is 
noted for the rescue from almost certain death of 
the Emperor Maximilian (about 1498) by Zips the 
hunter ; the spot on the cliff's face is marked by a 
cross. Above are remains of Fragenstein Castle. 
The Klammschlucht is worth notice. The Calva- 
rienberg offers an excellent view ; but a noble one, 
of great extent, is obtained by ascending the 
Solstein (7 hours), which is 8,660 feet above tea. 



TTROL— BILt, zniLi IKKSBRtTCS. ISI 

IHN8BBU0K (8(ai), Or Innipniok, 

on the Brenner Rail. 

Population, 38,600, including 3,000 garrison. 

Du Tyrol, well managed by Mr. Land- 



BoteU: 
see; fine views over the town and valley. 

Hotel de TEurope, kept by Mr. H. Scheiner; n«w, 
well placed, and moderate. 

Hotel Ooldene Sonne; Hotel Gtoldener Adl«r; 
Qoldoner Stem ; Habsburgerhof. 

English Church Service^ at Hotel Tyrol. 

Capital of the principality or crown lands of 
Tyrol and Vorarlberg, seat of the Governor and 
Diet, of the law courts, university, Ac^ standing in 
a romantic spot, 1,920 feet above the sea, in the 
Innthal or Valley of the Inn, which is enclosed by 
vast mountains 4,0C0 to 6,000 feet above the valley 
itself. The Sill falls into the Inn close by. jEni 
Pons was the Roman name, and its present one 
(Inn bridge) is derived in the same way. It was 
repeatedly taken and retaken by the Bavarians, 
French, or the Tyrolese, in the memorable year 
1800; and was especially the scone of Hofer*8 
triumphant entry 15th August, after defeating 
Lofevre at Berg Isel. From the many new 
buildings which have sprung up within the last 
10 years, the town has a very improved appearance. 

The Inn divides it into two unequal parts, over 
which two bridges lead; in the town a wooden 
arched bridge, and at Mtihlaue, a handsome sus- 
pension bridge, finished 1848. A triumphal Arch 
to Maria Theresa terminates the principal street, 
the Mariatheresienstrasse. The Rudolph Foun- 
tain was opened 1868, on the anniversary of the 
Union of Tyrol, 1863. 

Buddings and Sights.—Tha Franciskaner or Rof- 
kirche, called Holy Cross, has the remarkable 

Monument of the Emperor Mazlmlllaa, 

one of the largest in Europe (the Emperor is inter- 
red at Nenstadt, Vienna). On a marble sarcophagus, 
18 feet long, 6 high, is a kneeling bronze of Maxi- 
milian ; the sides being covered with twenty-four 
elaborate bas-reliefs of the principal events in his 
life. Around this are twenty-*^^^ <MCk\ss»a>i^>stssKv*. 



Oyer the £MrauMdaeA, to Kematon (Stat). MiA \ \iou«% ol U%.^*wWx^V^ ^"^ ^SflK^?«sse ^''^^J'^ 



SUJ>SKi.*r's iwnzuL^ND uid t 









IS ■ BiWcr VlTgin, vid lilB, « 
ab Qf Archdulta Fardlouid an 
□ l PhUlpplne Welter, a mercb 



m, and reitond ISM. irltb wriona adlstfana. 
D upper gyjoDAALwD (Tharealanom) and botanLA 
trden, with a large quanllty of Alpine idmu. 
alTunltr library In tbe old Jaalta' CoUagi, . 
nil 80,000 Tola. TymlcM ^laai palatlns nod 
Loaalf maanticlary< Schnlei'i rell«f model of 
IB Tyrol, Id the Psdaeogtnm. 



le Garden 






iflanCBAimonX 



sepfe. 1.' 



-esqne VaUey of atiibat, nrlth lU high 
uidgUclriri.maybeTltlted. FaUebU' 
1 feel high. vlCh aflne Tiew, emilaa f ma 
. The flaeneicnnlw la to the bun 



li built in lomDwbat binKco ityle. with a bind- 

Rnbenii JohannlBfclrche with fresco paintings; 
NlcolallilrdhB: the Kapuilnerhlrobe (1698), irilh 
the cell of the Archduke HBilmlllui. At the eld 
palace (Hof borgj It the Rlesoisail (giants- room) In 
which are family portraltsand pictures of thelife or 
. Charlea VI.. and s beantlful chapel built bj Uatli. 
Tlierew ont ol the room in which her huilttnd the 
Euipent Frani I. died suddeuly lieii. Uetore It 
la the handtome and apaclous Kennwe^ (race- 
course), with the equestrian statue cl Leopold V. 
byShslnarl, neu the triumphal arch, and hoanlif ul 
garden laid ont in the English style. Tho Ola 
Fort with itt goWen roof (copper gilt) o.or the 
balcony of the eich&iuer, which originated with 
rrod6rli;k tnlt der Leeren Taschc (Empty Pocket), 
■was once the residence ot Ihe CiTunIa of Tyrol. 
Theatre, erected 1846; Town Kail. The Ferdln- 
acdeum has the Lmda-UoKan (deUy, from » to <: 
eairance. fOkr.; analogne, SOhr.), with works of 
■rtArnar/roart/si^iBeiDOriaJio/Hofer.collectloii 
f^BMaiAiliUtory.ubTtrf, Ac, ijniTerrtty, foondell 



It Igeli-Vlll (Inns), 1} fai 



be Soletelnaj>dUunde{ 



ent, where le a monument, erected b; King 
rig ot Bavaria, to the court player. Bulair, 
lied here IgU. Also the romanthi Talley of 
fn Ortei, 1 itnnden from InDBbmct, tBaa 
ce tbo nearest glacier, tbe Uieuer Feraer, 
feet high, can he Tlslted In 7 to S honra. 

From here or fnnnOrieB In « to t bran to tbe 

Oetzthal. 
SoUoBS AniTM.or Amtna, is l atanda fm 

Innabruck. It 1> now turned Into a mnaanm ot 

weapons, models, furniture, imd hlstgrieal por- 

Arehduke Ferdinand passed hare most o( the time 
of his 30 years' h»ppy MarrlagB with PhUlpptos 
Welieriac 



Bonte d5.J 



is to the Zillerthalf by way of Strass. 
Brenner Pass about 33 miles. 



TYROL — ^HALL, SOHWAZ, BATTBITBBRa. 

To the 



153 



S5 — Con tinued. 
lunabruck to Salzburg. 



By Road, Posts. 

ToVolders 1 

Schwatz, or ) 2 

Schwaz ) 

Kattenberg li 

Worgl 1 

SoU 1 



By Road, Posts. 

ToSt. Ellmau 1 

St. Johann 1 

Co; Waidringen 1^ 

Unken li 

Reichenhall li 

Salzburg 1 



Posts... 12 
= 101 English inile8=23^ German miles. 

(a) At "Waidringen you may turn off by road to 
Gastein by way of Lofer, Zell, Taxenbach, Ac, a 
distance of fif posts. 

By Railway — Innsbruck to 



Kils. 

Hall 11 

Schwaz 80 

Worgl 61 

Kuf stein 76 

Bosenheim Ill 



Kils. 

Uebersee 149 

Trannstein 164 

Freilassiug 193 

Salzburg 199 

10 kils.=6 English miles. 

Thence to Linz and Vienna. 



Innsbruck to Worgl, 61 kils. 

Kils 
St. Johann im Tirol 45 

Zell am Sie 93 

Taxenbach 109 



Thence to 



Lend (for Bad) 

Gastein .j* 

Bischofshofen 140 



Kils 
118 



Branch to 

KUs. 

Eben 18 

Handling 33 



Kils. 

Steinach 80 

Liezen 93 



Branch of 104 kils. from Steinach via Mittemdorf 
to Aussee (on the Lake) — Hallstadt (on the 
Lake)— Ischl— Ebensee (on Traun Lake)— Gmiin- 
den. Thence to Linz. 

Selzthal (next to Liezen) 99 kils. Thence to 
Gratz, Vienna, Ac. 

Bischofshofen to 



Kils. 

Werfen 147 

GoUing 164 



Kils. 

Hallein 175 

Salzburg 193 



The line follows the Vallay of the Inn (known as 
the Unter Innthal) as far as Rosenheim. 

Hall (Stat.) Inns: Bar; Post. On the Inn, 
with 5,400 population; baring a church of the 
18th century, with cnrioiu old Yossels and a plain 
marble momunent to Joseph Speckbaeher, the \)old 



and sagacious comrade of Hofer. He was born at 
Rinn, a little south. The salt works (Salzberg),, 
7 miles to the north, and 5,500 feet above the sea, 
are worth visiting. Since 1236 they have regularly 
produced an enormous quantity yearly. Per- 
mission may be had of the director in the town. 
One road from Hall to Schwaz leads through the 
romantic Vomperthal, past Vomp and Viecht, with 
a beautiful Benedictine Abbey, now a school. Bui 
the high road soon after crosses the Inn to the> 
right bank (leaving the rail, which follows the 
left bank) and brings you to 

Schwaz (Stat.), 8 J miles. Inns: Stem; Post? 
Zum Freundsberg. A small market town, wltb 
5,000 population, on the Inn, and once noted for its 
silver mines (now exhanstedX whence the Pugger 
family drew their immense riches. In 1625 they 
produced nearly £4,000 wprth of silver. About one- 
fourth of its houses were built by the French, 180f. 
Copper is still worked, with a little iron; md 
woollens, hats, tobacco, cutlery, &c., mtfde. At the 
Gothic parish church (which is roofed with copper) 
is a bronze monument by Colin ; there are also the 
Franciscan Church, with some ancient frescoes; 
and in the neighbourhood are remains of the Castle 
of Ritter George of Freundsberg. Excursion to 
the Kellerjoch in about 5 hours, guide advisable. 

From Jenbach, the next station, a road turns ofif 
into the Achenthal, in which is the AclieilBOe, 
shut in by gigantic chalk rocks; thence by Kreuth, 
in Bavaria, and the Tegem See, on to Munich. 

[Strass, not far from Jenbach, is in a beautiful 
country, at the mouth of the Zillerthal (Route 40), 
which turns off here, at Brettfall Hermitage. Thiv 
is a very beautiful excursion, which will not take 
much time. Diligence from Jenbach to Zell ini 
4 hours. From Zell the Gerlosthal and Upper 
Pinzgau may be visited, see page 174.] 

Brlzlegg (Stat.), with 1,100 inhabitants, «ndl 
copper, lead, and other works, at the junction of 
the Alpach with the Inn. Pleasant excursion np> 
the Valley to Alpbach in about 2| hours. 

Rattenberg, ll miles. Jnn: Stem. A small 
mining town, finely placed in the Innthal, of whicb 
there is a good view f romtbft <iVi^«sMSC«k. "^vaEsssftac!^ 



IH 



BRADSUAW ■ BWItXIMLAltD AMD TBI TnOL> 



esnddnvl ■ enn for bimimu 

piH Bt. Lnnuil'I ChDrrh. 

EpipeinT Henry 11^ htftnif curlou urrAd wark^ 

»nd Kimdl [St*t.>. The Innlhal It hen doHd 

Id b; tbc Brudubtrgci Juch. 

WHr8l(Btat.1,9|>°ne>. /nil.' Port. NHrhtn 
b thx HoA< ^IH («,<»0 r«i}, tha tKmi ot which 

te VI), wbUi (he 



to Ltiwt, for Did au<D 



ttnn^hened by B' 



7iiiIIij>. Thonti 



Iclm (nbDilt aftgr 



fielobamuai (Me 

BalibTirs(iHnDi 
From WotkI. b) 
sell. S) mil «i. i 

8t Joiuum, a 

tbe Rdtner Ache, | 



Iheral 



-osd, tha StsI place li 



Anthony Chapel ara 

good road to mtterflUl, 



[Becttil 

uid th* XHibUiIor Horn, vllfa §. gma i^i 
-nil™ Tlew fnm tha top, UOO fast abon ttea 
nnhcr on thronch tha TliDnt pua Into tha R> 
la rogloii, and to Hltlonlll (ptga 1T4). 

The htgh read fnm Bt. JoIubb leadi Onq 
u acoaery )iut Eipftadorf, on to 

TkldrlBV, ■ inllea. /■•■.■ Poai. ^ f ami 

imniar ranrt. Thm throi^h tha daep nJi 

r gorge, of Btnb Paa^ th« old fortUBtta 

rhleh, axecpt * tower, wera daatnyrd U 






h throng 1 



LoAr, wl 
d a iTuul tnma 

inigan. Farther on, thro 

LO ivjtterlag place of 

Dnksn, /aai: Welaaea Idunm; Poat. Bia 






. Thora 

'■ ■ enatDm-haiua d«> 



; whcr. 



pltmU to ins aBothsT cuutnlnatloa nba J 
got Into Aoilrla igUn, about le ullea cs. T 
BiTirlui dDtiant li at MsUeok. 

From MeUaek yon go on ta RlatTalefat, aiirt 
Weldel and Kuhberg Hllla, thence to ll» It 
rLlloga of Bchiialalroot a ataoda fn« 1 
lock), st the foot of the Riatfaloht, which b ti 



the Sal 


chandrm 


• part tlia HQlnorbwf (i0 


feet), a 


d In ) .tn 


ado reacho. tho polat ite> 


the T« 




d tnina off: then« tbnml 




..clgraben 


part the Tbnmna and W 


Klrchborg, to 






ttBTfiTfinni *T.x, (Btat,) 




«ia, on a 


taneh of tho main llaa fr« 








Bolel 




"n™ 


and Pernio 


n Borkert. 


Post 




niteini E»n>. 


A w 


lerine pla 





other Uatht. Tho new Knrg«rt«n hi f 
tfiW pepnlatioo, on the KlMbUhler Achai near , Oradlrpark ii buntifnlly laid ont, tliere 
■UeharaUieCuUHO/SaFabiintiidlieweubiug, \ mul« moislmv *»& vno^&S, and. It li th 



Bonte 35.] 



TTBOL— BBIOHBNHALL, SALSBUBO, 



155 



with Tisltort. (See Bradshaw't Continental Ouide). 
There are about thirty Springs, the best of which 
is the Gnadenquelle (Qrace Spring), which yields 
10,000 of the 16,000 tons yearly produce. Strangers 
are usually taken (tickets 1 mark, overclothing 
being provided) to the Grabenbach, an under- 
ground passage, where they see the pits, boiling 
houses, saw mills, forges, «fec., long pipes or conduits, 
connecting this with the neighbouring towns, 
where brine is found, or wood for boiling is more 
plentiful. ' That to Trauenstein, 8 leagues long, is 
carried over ground which rises 828 feet in one part, 
and was executed by a master carpenter, named J. 
Reifersthul, in the time of Maximilian I. (1618); 
the brine being pumped to the summit level by 
water works. Another to Rosenheim, on the Inn, 
was made by Reichenbach, in 1809, and is 12 leagues 
long. The third brings brine from the springs at 
Berohtesgaden, which, though bntl60feet higher, 
yet, because of the mountains between, the brine 
is first raised 1,680 feet by hydraulic works, and 
then falls 1,740 feet to Reichenhall, by a conduit, 
which is 6^ leagues in extent. 

Rail to Salzburg. The coach Road descends the 
east bank of the Salsach to St. Zeno and its Gothic 
Convent, 380 feet long, founded by Charles V.; and 
having in its church pictures by C. Schwartz, 
Loth, &c., presented by Duke William V., besides 
monuments. From this you pass Froscham, 
Weissbnch, Schwarzbach (leaving Marzoil Castle 
to the right), and after crossing the Austrian 
frontier again, you reach the charming town of 

SALZBURa (Stat.) 

Hotels: Hotel derEurope, finely placed in a park, 
opposite the Station. 

Hotel and Pension Nolboeck. 

Erzherzog Karl; D'Antriche; (Joldenes Schiff; 
Mohr: Hirsch; Tiger; Regenbogen, Ac. 

Ca/^y Tomaselli. There are also some Breweries, 
where you can lodge well and cheaply, though 
with inferior accommodation. 

English Church Service^ at the German Church. 

It is the capital of a crown land or circle of the 
same name, seat of an archbishop, Ac, on the 
8»lzach, J,S40feet above sea, surrounded \sy ^^ 



mountains on three sides, and often likened to 
Naples or Prague for the beauty of its situa* 
tion. Population, 26,000 ; who make calico, 
leather, and hardware, chiefly for their own 
use. The Salzach, which pours down from 
an alpine valley abounding in every variety 
of scenery, divides the town in two parts, which are 
joined by a bridge, 370 feet long by 40 feet broad, 
and lie on the narrow tracts on both banks, at the 
foot of the MdnehOferg (Menkes Hill) and JTopti- 
einerbery^ which command splendid views ttom 
their summits. On one of these peaks is the 
ffohen Saltburg Festung, an old fortress of the 
eleventh century, from which there is a fine pros- 
pect. Tickets, 40 kr. 

Salzburg was the Roman Jwtavia, built by 
Hadrian, and destroyed by the Barbarians; and it 
has produced several remains of antiquity, collected 
by Herr Rosenberger, and now removed to Munich. 
In St. James's Hospital is a Roman bath. 

It was formerly a fortified town, with eight 
gates, one of which stood at a cutting through the 
Mtinehsberg, 450 feet long. This is called the 
Neuthor, and a statue of St. Sigismund, in 
memory of the constructor, stands outside it. 
The houses are built of red marble, from a quarry 
close by, and have flat roofs, in the Italian style. 
The old streets are narrow, and the squares small 
though regular. A terrible fire in 1818 destroyed 
property to the amount of five million florins, in- 
eluding two churches, the archbishop's palace, Ac. 
Since then it has been much improved by new 
streets, squares, and parks. 

The chief square, Residens (or HoO Plats, is set 
off by a magnificent white marble Fountain 46 feet J 
high, erected 1664. On one side is the ResidenM 
Schloss^ a large pile with columns in front of it, 
now used for public offices. It can bo seen on 
application to the porter. It includes various 
rooms, as the RittersaaL, the Karabinersaal, the 
Marcus-Sitticnssaal, the Council Chamber, and, in 
the third storey, portraits of the prelates of Sals- 
burg who resided here as prince-archbishops of the 
province, before the Revolution, in succession from 
Amo, the first archbishop 798, in the time of 
Charlemagne. The \}«q^I'% ■^^t^ ^T:^Qj«a5>s&i«sSa8»*!S 



150 



ISRADSHAW'S BWITZBBLAND AND TfiB TTBOL. 



[Section 4. 



(or Irish) misstonary, who bailt a chapol on the 
Waller Lake. 

Opposite the Hof stands the large Palace called 
the Neubau, used for Government and post and 
telegraph offices; opposite is the main-gnard-honse. 
In MichaeFs, or Mozart's Platz, is a bronze Statue 
to Mozart (bom at No. 225, opposite the Golden 
Crown Hotel), erected by his townsmen in 1842, 
modelled and cast by Schwanthaler and Stiegel- 
mayr. The Mozart Museum is at No. 7 getreide- 
gasse ; entrance, 60kr. Hoars — 8 to 11 and 1 to 4, 
on week days ; Sundays and festivals, 10 to 12. 
It contains collection of relics of Mozart. Mozart's 
House is in Makart Platz. Beautiful mosaic pave- 
ments were found when digging the foundation 
for the statue; one is in the Museum, but the 
finer was taken to Vienna. 

The Domkirche, or Cathedral^ was built 1614-68, 
by S. Solari, of Como, on the plan of St. Peter's. 
It has a front of white marble ; many statues and 
altars of marble in the interior, which is noble and 
simple ; paintings, by Sandrart, &c.; a large organ, 
and some relics and books in the Schatz Kammer 
or Treasury. A gallery connects it with the gar- 
den and new summer palace of the archbishop, 
called Mirabell, which has been rebuilt since the 
fire of 1818. It now belongs to the town. Hero 
Otho, the late King of Greece was bom, in 1815. 

St. Peter's Church is a fine building, containing 
the tombs of St. Rupert, and Michael Haydn, 1806, 
a composer, and brother to the great musician, 
Joseph. There is here an old curious Leichenhof or 
corpse house, where the body rests, as it used to 
do at the lichgate in some church-yards in Eng- 
land (Beckenham for instance); also many ancient 
tombs as far back as the fourteenth century, and 
the bones of St. Maximus. This church is on the 
site of one built, they say, by St. Rupert. From 
the church-yard, a staircase in the rock leads up to 
the former dwelling of St. Maximus, with a rude 
■ chapel which he excavated with the help of his 
fifty disciples. 

The famous Benedictine Abbey of St. Peter has 

a library of 40,000 volumes, many MSS. and rare 

early editions. On the Nonnenberg, or Nun's 

£r/I/, where stood the Roman Fort of Juvavum, 

is the Ursnline Nunnery Charch of the fifteenth 

t^eotmr, behind the hiffh altiwof which is a splendid 



stained window, done 1480. St. Margaret's Churdi 
was built 1486. That of the University, now 
styled the Lyceum Church, on UniversItKts Platz, 
was built 1697-1707, in the Classic style, from de- 
signs of Fischer von Erlach. St. Seba8tian*8 
has been rebuilt since the ^^tX fire of 1818. It 
contains some handsome tombs, and the monu- 
ment of the celebrated physician, Thcophrastus 
Paracelsus of Hohenstein, who lived at a comer 
house. No. 397, near the bridge, where they show 
his figure or portrait, and an inscription stating 
that he lived and died there, anno 1541. There are 
altogether twenty-four churches, only one being 
Protestant. That of Holy Trinity was destroyed 
in the fire. St. George's, in the court of the 
Hohcn Salzburg, has statues in red marble of the 
twelve Apostles. 

A former Marstall, or stable of the archbishops^ 
is now a cavalry barrack. The Sommerreitschule, 
or Summer Riding School, has three galleries cut 
in the rock, shaped like an amphitheatre, for spec- 
tators. The rock is of white marble, and a small 
river rans through it. A Winter Riding-Scbool 
is also attached. 

Among other buildings are the KiinstlexliAas, 
for picture exhibitions ; the Kurhaus and Badhaus 
in the Stadt Park. The Carolino-Augosteum 
Museum {Yt. Josef squai) offers several attractions; 
such as a cabinet of antiquities, another of middle- 
age objects, a plnacothek, or picture gallery; 'a 
collection of natural history, minerals, birds, and 
insects; a herbarium, library, and collection of 
coins.' Almost all are of Salzburg origin, and 
mostly gathered together by the former curator, 
Herr Leihhausverwalter Ftlss. 

The views and ExivlronB Of SalzbUIg are of 
great beauty and interest. Among the best points 
of view close to the town are the MSnchsberg, 
Franzisci-Schlossl, Kapuzinerberg, and the Nock- 
stein. To reach the Kapuzinerberg yoa leave the 
Kapuzinerkloster to the right, and pass through 
a gateway (closed) by ringing a bell. A small 
donation is expected by the porter. Aigen Ckutle, 
belonging to Prince Schwarzenberg, is at the foot 
of the Gaisberg, and commands an unequalled 
view of the Salzach Valley in the morning light. 
TYie bftst poVnlVfc V\v^ Kan^e^^'^lcAfttl^nAy be reached 



Boute 85.] 



TTBOL— SALZBUBO, BBBCHTBSOJLBBN. 



157 



house, following the brook to the upper waterfall 
and then turning to the right to the Kanzel. The 
Chiisberg itself, about 4,200 feet high, is most easily 
ascended from hero, and presents an enchanting 
view over the Alps and the Hochgcbirgo. Further 
away is the Untersberg, 6,490 feet high, having at 
the foot of it the Kugelmiilen, or Shot Mills, the 
celebrated FUrstenquello, and the marble quarry, 
whlcli yields such excellent marble for the town 
buildings. Schloss Hdlbrunn^ an Imperial pleasure 
Castle (tramway from Salzburg), has many beau- 
tiful fountains, and all sorts of amusements for 
holidays, besides a theatre cut in the rock, and the 
Monatsschlosscn. At \ stunde from this is Olaneck 
Castle. Untersberg, a large mountain, at the base 
of which is an immense bog, may be ascended from 
Glancck. There are three peaks: the Geiereck, 
the Salzburger Hochthron (each about 6,000 feet), 
and the Berchtesgadener Hochthron (6,500 feet). 
Guide not necessary in clear weather. 

A railway (12 hours) connects Salzburg with 
Linz and Vienna. From here, if not from Reichen- 
hall, the Bavarian salt town of Berchtesgaden 
(5 stunden) may be visited, as well as the beautiful 
EdnlgSBee, or Lake (1| stunde further). The 
passport will be called for. 

An excellent road runs to the town, passing the 
narrow vavine between the Untersberg and QUll, 
up the course of the Albe. Not far from Griidig, 
you pass St. Leonard's Chapel; Gartenau Castle, 
and two or three defiles, where the Bavarian 
territory commences. Sohellenberg is a salt village, 
in a dangerous part of the Aim, which may one 
day overwhelm it, if a landslip from the hills 
above should stop its course. One of these falls 
occurred in 1880. 

BERCHTESaADEN, 

7/o/e/«;Bellevue;Post. Population, 2,000. Stands 
on n pleasant height over the Aim, and has the 
castles of Lusthcim and Adel, and other country 
scats round it, with the double-headed Watzmann 
rising behind. There are two churches and con- 
vent, besides the Sdlt toorks^ its chief attraction, 
which may be visited by leave of the inspector. 
The entrance is under the Liebfranenberg Hill. 



There are 
variety of 
being the 



neighbourhood being very beautiful, 
numerous pensions, and an endless 
charming excursions, the Kouigssee 
great attraction. 

Limestone mountains compose the beantifnl 
country in the neighbourhood, rising at the ley 
peaks of Gobcl to 8,500 feet and Watzmann, 8,990 
feet high, and circling the KSnlgBSee. Many 
small rivers water this charmhig tract; as the 
Schraiubach, which passes a natural bridge before 
it tumbles into the Lake ; the Albe, or Ache, and 
others; besides six lakes. Cattle, honey, salt, 
chamois, and deer are the chief products. The 
King of Bavaria used to come regularly to hunt 
here, near the KUnlgssee, which is also called St. 
Bartholomew Lake, It is about 6 miles by 1^, and 
lies deep in the mountains. On the north side the 
KSnigsbach falls into it from a height of several 
hundred feet. A good restaurant is found at the 
hunting lodge of St. Bartholomew. About 1 league 
from it is the Ice ^apel, as a sort of vaulted arch 
of ice stretching over*the Elsbach is called. To the 
west of it, in the valley formed by thtf Hackelhopf 
and Simctbcrg, flows the Schrainbach ; it offers a 
fine spray-like fall, and other attractions. 

About 10 minutes further is the Oborsee, a 
lake about a mile long, at the bottom of vast 
mountains, from which the RSthbach and other 
streams pour down. A difficult path conducts you 
hence to BlUhnbach hunting lodge, and, should time 
be favourable, the Rossfeldmay be surmounted for 
the view it commands. At the summit of one of 
the peaks of the Watzmann tliere is another fine 
prospect to be had, from the Rothe Chapel, of the 
Steinemo Meer, «fec. 

Two other beautiful but smaller lakes are within 
8 or 4 leagues. Rumsau and its salt waters should 
oho be visited, as well as the Hintersee, the Kalten- 
brunn, Diesbach, and Wimbachthal In its neigh- 
bourhood. 



► — Continued, 
Salzburg to IbcU, in the Salzkaxnmergut 

By Road— toHof, 2 German miles; St. Gilgen, 2; 
Ischl, 3; total 7=about 32 English miles; or, 
Omnibus to St. Gilgen> &t.<%Asss^<ec v=k '^^asS'Sv^ 






168 



BRADSHAW'S 8WITZBRLAND AND TRX TYROL. 



[Section 4. 



Tbe road winds round the foot of the Oaisberg 
to Kirchbigel, and Hof ; hence it follows the south 
bank of the Fuschl Lake to a village of the same 
name, at the head of it. Between it and the 
Mondsee, another lake to the north, the Bcliaf* 
1>erg rises up 5,835 feet above the sea. It is 
tolerably easily ascended in 8| hours to the little 
Inn on the top, where the entire chain of the 
Styrian Alps lies spread out before you, with nine 
different lakes of the Salzkammergut, one of 
the finest prospects in Germany. Start very early 
in the morning, guide not necessary, unless to 
carry baggage. The last hour is rather steep 
elimbing. 

St. OUgen, or St. Giles (Inn : Post), charming 
village at the upper end of Aber Lake, or St. Wolf- 
gang See. 

A footpath leaves the post road into St. Wolfgang, 
on the east side of the lake, under the Falkenstein 
Roclc, a tall ridge or precipice, with a remarkable 
echo. St. Wolfgang is a market town built round 
a rocky height, on which the Gothic Ckutxh stands. 
In this ancient building, is one of the greatest 
treasures of art or antiquity in the country, namely, 
a large old German altar-piece, of painted canvas 
at the sides, but the middle part carved in wood, 
1481, under Abbot Benedict, of Mondsee, with 
figures of the Virgin, St. Wolfgang, Ac, and in 
excellent preservation, filling the entire breadth of 
the church. A good fountain, cast 1515, stands in 
the court. A path follows the east side of the lake 
down to Strobel. St. Wolfgang can al so bo reached 
by omnibus from Ischl. 

From St. Gilgen the post road on the west side 
follows the border of the lake to Schwarzenbach, 
and thence down the beautiful stream which Issues 
out at the bottom, to 

ISCHL (Stat.) 

Hotels: Hotel do Tlmperatrice Elisabeth (Kalse- 
rin Elisabeth); Zum Goldenen Kreuz ; Hotel de 
laPoste; Stem; Krone. 

Patients pay a kurtaxe after 6 or 12 days, ladies 
being charged half price, and children about one- 
sixth. 

Batba of every description. English church 
service In the season. 

J^odgringr in almost every house, for thirty kreu- 
«*» to one aorin a day. 



This charming bathing place, 1,M0 feet sbOT« 
sea, in the heart of the Sallkainmorgat (^ e^ 
the ** Imperial Salt Domain"), dates <Mily from 
1823, and stands in a valley under the Norio Alps, 
on both banks of the Traun, which is partly navig- 
able here. There are about 5,500 inhabitants. 

Several thousand visitors frequent it yearly, 
including the Imperial Family and the Austrian 
nobility, attracted by the fame of its salt springs, 
and the inexhaustible variety of the walks and 
excursions among the picturesque Alpine scenery, 
in its delightful neighbourhood. It stands, so to 
speak, in the middle of a grarden of mountains, at 
the junction of a beautiful hilly country, with 
the grander masses of the Alps, all clothed with 
forest, and abounding in falls and romantic 
scenery. The most striking points near the town 
are the Kalvarienberg, PostbtMd^ uid SiriuskogI 
or Hundskogl. 

Ischl, behig modem (its celebrity only dates 
from 1828), is one of the best built towns In th« 
province, and numbers among its stractnrea 
a com market; large salt works, including the 
Kolowratscho Sudhaus, or Boiling House, the 
Salzamtgebaflde or Salt Office ; two hospitaU, <m« 
of which is for the poor; a theatre, built 1827{ 
post office, iLC. 

In the market place stands the new Bath-hotui 
(Kursalon), with an appropriate inscription — ** In 
Sale et in Sole omnia eonHstunt^^* or ** Salt and Heat 
are the life of all thingrs." It has a large salocm, and 
twenty cabinets for various kinds i^baths, supplied 
from hot brine springs below, called Maria Theres- 
ienquclle, Maria Louisenquelle, Ac, or the mothw 
lye of the Salt Pans; and which are taken in the 
common way, or in the form of vapour, douche 
(spritz), shower (regen), wave (wcllenschlagX mud 
(schlamm), and other baths. There are also snlidiur 
baths, mud (scblanam) baths, and baths of the fir, 
or pine leaves (fichtennadel) baths. All these are 
excellent restoratives in diseases of the lymphatte 
glands, scrofula, haemorrhage, palsy, weak nerves, 
&c. Wirersquelle is a very abundant spring -of 
cold water. Swimmschule and Gymnastischs 
Heilanstalt for treatment by gymnastic exercises. 

Near the Swimmschule is a Museum with acoUee- 
tVou ol l\ic^ w«A.\vx«\ ^xQ^^<cU(»v« of Styria and the 



Bonte 35.] TTBOL— XBOHL. 15d 



seat of the provincial goTemment, till a fire burnt 
the old Castle, 1705, when it was moved to Gtoisem. 
The Church has been rebuilt since another fire in 
1771 ; in its old tower a Roman inscription is fixed, 
begiiming, ^^Romanvi MoUemiy The principal 
places of amusement are the Rudolf sgarton, the 
Wirergarton, the Sophien-Esplanade, and the 
Schmalnauer Garden, the latter on a heighten the 
other side of the river Ischl (which joins the Traun 
here, after coming down from Lake Wolfgang) ; it 
commands a noble view all round of the mighty 
Alps, and the gigantic Dachstein in the back 
ground, covered with eternal snow. Another 
splendid prospect may be enjoyed from the Kalvar- 



imiberg Belvidere. Every exennlon in the beauti- 
ful environs has its peculiar charm; and almost 
every height, building, or resting place, is dis- 
tinguished by the name of some great personage. 

Besides these nearer trips, more distant ones are 
taken to the finest parts of the Salzkammergut; 
among which, those to the Hallstadt, Gmtlndeii, 
Kammer, and St. Wolfgang Lakes, all at a short 
distance from the town, present an endless variety 
of striking and romantic scenery. As they are 
always referred to, a taU. list of these objects of 
attraction hero follows, with the time to reaoh 
them, Ac: — 



1. — Walks in the Enyibons of Ischl. 

Hour. 

Belvedere On the Kalvarienberg i 

Comtessen Plats (Countess's Place) Near the Theresens HUtte, on the Jainzenberg... i 

Dolca's Abendsitz (Dolca's Evening Retreat) In the Ramsau of Jainzen | 

Eleonorens Einsamkeit (Eleanor's Retreat) On the Kalvarienberg i 

Elisens RUhe (Eliza's Repose) In the Schmalnauer Garden i i 

Emestions Wahl (Ernest's Choice) On the Kaltenbach Road I 

Erzherzog Rudolph's Brunnen (Grand Duke Rud- 
olph's Spring) Ditto I 

Freundschafts Sits (Friendship's Seat) To the left of the Laufen Road | 

FUrsten Platz (Prince's Place) On the Kaltenbach Road i 

Gustav's Platz (Gustavus's Place) Against the Poschlilchel | 

Uenriettens Schirm (Henrietta's Shelter) On a hill to the right of the way to Wirer's 

Wood f 

Hochstokwiese (Hochstok's Field) In the Obereck • | 

Hohenzollems Wasserfall (HohenzoUem Water- 
fall).. In the Ramsau of Jainzen ••• f 

Kaiser Franzcns Alponberg (Emperor Francis's 

Alp) Behind the Volksgarten | 

Kaiserin Platz (Empress's Place) On the Kaltenbach Road | 

Magyarenbank (Hungarian's Bench) On the Sophiensplatz Road i 

Malfatis Himmel (Malfatis's Heaven) In front of the Jainzenberg 4 

Maximilian's Ahorn (Maximilian's Maple) To the right of the Salzburg Road .~ 

Octagon On the Sirius f 

Prater Foot of the Hundskogel i 

Princessinon Platz (Princess's Place) On the FUrstenplatz Road \ 

Protokas Erbauung (Protokas' House) On the Ebensee Road, in front of the Kohlensteen i 

Sophiens Platz (Sophia's Place) Above Elisens Riihe, to the right i 

Sophiens Thai (Sophia's Valley) At the foot of the Katterberg I 

Staudonheims Ubersicht (Staudenheim's Observa- 

tory) lalYi%'BL»\\.«^\As3D.;«o.V>w^"^5>^^^^ 

Btorxens Bttcbe (Stenen 'a B«ech) „„.,.„ Ou tt^U^^^^ «A^Coft^^N.«^«*''^ ...>>>—-' 



160 



BRJLDSHAW'S BWITZERLJLVD AKD THB TTBOL. 



[Section 4. 



fiozanncnt Erholong (Susannahs RccreAtion) ...... Near the Prater .......•.....••tt.fMt*****.**.*;^.*^— 

Ther^sens HUtte (Theresa's Cabin) Passing by the Hofsmidgtitel -.-.m.*... i 

Ugartes Andcnkcn (Ugartc's Remembrance) On the Kaltenbach Road •»,,»^ k 

Yolksgarten (People's Garden) On the main road ......M....M....M...t*.»« I 

Wirers Hain (Wircr Wood) Behind the Hundskogel ^.—» I 



From Ischl, by Roitemdorf and Pcmcgg, to the 
Baizberg or Saltmine, is 1^ stundo. It was first dis- 
covered in 1562, and has been worked over since, by 
means of galleries driven into the sides of the moun- 
tains, of which there are now 18, one over the other. 
The rock is chiefly argillaceous gypsum. Having 
obtained permission from the salt officer at Pemcgg, 
yon find a guide and mining dresses at the salt 
works. The horizontal gallery or tunnel by which 
the visitors enter is the Maria Ludovica (Louisa), 
at the mouth of which arc two granite pillars, 
placed tlicro as a memorial of the two emperors' 
visit in 1808. By successively walking and sliding, 
and a little boating as well, hi the dark recesses of 
the mountain, you at length reach the salt caves. 
The mountain itself is 3,000 feet high. The galleries 
are illuminated once a week. Permit must bo 
obtained at the Salinonarat, Ischl. 

More distant excursions in the Sahkammergut are 
mentioned below. The district bearing this name, 
sigrnifying literally the Salt-chamber-good, or pri- 
vate salt estates of the Austrian Kaiser, is not only 
rich in salt works but in natural beauties ; being an 
epitome of whatever is striking or magnificent in 
Switzerland, while in the simplicity and upright- 
ness of its inhabitants, you are reminded of the 
Tyrolesc. Within an area of 12 square German 
miles, no country in Germany offers more worth 
seeing in proportion to its size than this district ; 
lakes, forests, waterfalls, mountains, glaciers, all 
are here concentrated in profusion. Its population 
may bo 18,000, of whom 5,000 and upwards are 
Protestantr, chiefly settled at Goisem and Ober- 
traun. H&lTstadt, Ischl, Ebensoc, Lanfen, and 
Gmtlnden arc the principal towns, and, for the 
most part, are seats of salt works. 

This beautiful territory may bo reached by three 
routes: namely, from Miinich, or from Switzer- 
land' through Salzburg, by way of St. Gilgcn ; from 
' Gratz by Aasaee (by rail) ; and from Vienna and 
Llnz, by way ofLambach and Qmiindcn (by rail) •, 
tbe last being the most attractive. 



II. Distant Carriage ExcorsionB from Ischl, 
to the principal points in the Salzkammergut :— 

Places around After or Kammer See (Lake). 

LeagaM* 

Weissenbach Klanse... m.. 1| 

liofschmid Alpo 3 

Ilolzaufug If 

Aeussem Weissenbach S| 

By the same to Kammer 

,, Unterach 



tt 



It 



11 



11 

n 



11 



Round the Omunder See. 

Ebonsec S 

By this to Offcnseo 8| 

Rcinbachstmb 8 

Karbachmiihle.....» S| 

Gmiinden » 4 

Fraucnkirchen S| 

the nearer side of the Lang- 
bath See S 

„ the further side S| 

Round the Goumthal, 

Gosauzwang 8 

Gosau Sf 

By this to the nearer side of the 

Gorausee m 4^ 

By this to the further side of the 

Gorausee »*.*.. 6 



Stcg 



Round the ffalstSdteriee. 



u 



\ 



GosaumUhle 8 

HaUstadt S| 

By this to Obcrtraun • t 

„ KoppcnbrUtterloch ...m. 4| 

Kossl • 

Hirschbrunnen 

Waldbachstrub 

Rndolphs-Thurm • 4[ 

The Salzbcrg Mountain ft 

Round the Schicarzetuee. 

Wirers Wasserf all 

Round the StrobUee, 

To Wolfgangersee 

Capitcl Alpe 

St. Gilgen 

By St. Gilgcn and Scharfllng, to the 

Mondsoc M.. 4 

By St. Gilgen to the same 5 

Round the Wolfgangersee, 
St. Wolfgang t 



^ 



^1 



%% 



Route 35.] 



TYROL— HALLBT ATT. 



lill 



The excnnions most recommended are the 
following': — First. By Lanfto In theWelsienbaoh- 
thal to the OhorlXIBky Klause, which is a large 
embankment or dam with flood gates, within 
which the waters of the Weissenbach are eollected 
and when filled with timber felled from the monn- 
tains above, are allowed to rush oat, carrying 
eTerything with them down to the Trann. This is 
done about once a month, the day being announced 
at Ischl. 

Second. From Ischl, by rail, past Lanf en, where 
is a short fall of theTraun, 18 feet high, t( GOisem 
(Stat) : Steg (Stat) opposite, and Hallstatt, 
on the HallBtfttt^r See. Here ore boat; 
which traverse the lake In 3 hours. It is sur- 
rounded by mountains, most of their names 
ending in Kogl (kugel, a ball), and rising nearly 
10,000 feet above sea, close to the shore. There 
is no human habitation or footpath round the lake, 
which presents a scene eqnally gloomy and im- 
posing. 

HALLSTATT (Stat.) 
Hotels: Se&aner; Bcllevuc. 
From Ischl by carriage to Steg, then boat to 

Hallstatt; or by rafl from Ischl to Hallstatt 

station, thence steamer to the town. 
This Is a salt town, of 2,400 Inhabitants, many. 

of whom are Protestants. It stands on the west 

side of the lake, at the south border of the 

Salzkammorgut, and is romantically placed at the 

foot of the Salzbcrg Mountain. There arc three 

churches (besides a Protestant Chapel), the best 

of which, lately restored, contains a good altar- 
piece of wood-work. Notice also the Salt-works 

and Orphan Asylum. The streets Ho close to the 

shore, and are built on an amphitheatre-shaped 

rock, at so steep an inclination that they are con- 
nected by steps instead of cross streets. A brook 

dashing down from a rock fonns a small waterfall 

in the middle of the place. By a good, though 

steep, path you climb in 1 hour to Rudolfs-thurm, 

or Rudolph's Tower, which is perched on a rock 

1,150 feet high, and was built 1299, by the Emperor 

Albert, to protect the salt works from the encroach- 
ments of the Salzburg prelates. It is occupied by 

the Bergbeamttn, or mining officials. 
About 700 leet higher is the opening to the p\i oi \ k\)\eciva 

eAe Salzberg. A 8atep§,fh goei orer this moTUit»!lii \ ^f&fiTi^t. 
in 4 bonn^to the PUumWSMa, 6,400 f «et ^li, ^ cw^ii»^^l ^^ft* 



commanding a splendid prospect. Hall to Auf SM 
and SelltlUtl. 

From Hallstatt the snowy DaohBteiXlf 0«84ff 
feet above sea, is best visited. With a guide, 
whoso foe is 10 florins, you sot out for the glaciers 
towards evening, at the best time, sleep in tlie 
Simony Hut, about 6| miles from tlie town, 
whence you ascend In the morning to the Karls Els- 
field. This Is an immense glacier, surrounded by 
bare marble rocks. The lofty peaks of the QJald- 
stein, Hohe Kreuz, and the magnificent double 
peak of the Dach- (or Thor-) stein are seen shining 
through the mist. A new road and special 
facilities for climbing have made the ascent easy, 
but 8 hours are required to reach the snmrolt. 
In returning, you can pass the WaldbaolUtnil)^ 
in the very beautiful Echemthal, the most con- 
siderable fall in the Salzkammorgut, dashing 
down in three leaps over a steep cliff. One view 
of It may be got from steps out in the rock abovo 
it; another from a projection below. TheSehleler- 
fiall is almost as high. 

The Echemthal (Independently of the Dach* 
stein ascent), Hirschbrunnen, and the Kessel, In 
the immediate neighbourhood, deserve a viiit for 
their picturesque and charming scenery. 

TMrd. In returning to Ischl it is as well to 
make an excursion into the Gosauthal, as yon 
may go by the lake to Gosau-MUhl, or walk by « 
fine footpath along the celebrated Gosauxwang. 
A way for the brine troughs, 450 feet long, ie 
carried over the entire valley on seven square 
stone pillars, 140 feet high in one fall. The Gosan 
Valley itself Is a pleasant wooded hoUow, i stnn» 
den long, widening some^niiat in the middle, ct 
the village of Vorder-Gosau, or 

Qosau, which consists of groups of honsetf, 
scattered up and down the sides of the valley. It 
numbers about 1,800 souls, mostly Protestants. 
From the village a carriage road leads over the 
Gschiltt Pass, through the Russbaohthal, in 5 
hours, to 

Abtenau (inns: Ochs; Post), from which you 
reach the picturesque Lammerthal (3 hours), 
Golling, and the road from Salzburg to Gastein. 

The road w«t \\ATrw\'fc.vSksesii^;:»f«5o."^ '«e:i*w'^NR 



T\^^ ^v« Vwtn. v:^. -U^Nwtfe**^ 



lU BKiniHAw's BWIIZKBLJlHD 

From BaUbnTX to OabMh Baths. 

BrB«dlo Halldn 1 Oanun mlltl. 

OolLIIW 1 „ 

Weifoi » 



[Section 4. 



CoUAvcr ' 



K (Htat) /M.- PaK. A TiUogs of M 
wlUcb tha Due 8chw»rib«ii c 
abont I hour, «ur walktnf. 
0«r ■ pnclplca of tha Hgba GBll or a^hl. tbl 
8r*mrttarh, which li roppoMil to ba u onUat of 
(he KUoln See, diibai down «H teat In Uina 
leopi, foaming, and roihUig, aDd gtllterlng wilh 
tha noit heantlfol colonn in th* noTDinf lljii^ 
upeclallf batwean 10 ud 13 o'eloek. Bloeka (d 



tha I 



ab,.. froi 



berg, at Leo^ldkroi 



Laainre Oardeni, to I 
[1 lomb> of Iha Stolbapgap 
ttmay. ThentoHelIbniaDCB9tlii.BiidtheTllIige( i 
of Anlf Alm,andKal1enhaDun(e:tca1lent baa 

HALLEm (Stat) 
/mm: PdiI; Banna. An ancient iilt toirn, 
u 1» name lodlcatei, of abost 11,000 uuli, oc 
tbe Salia. ud at tba foot at tha DBmberK. li 
whlah are tha ult minei. Thaw Day be viiilad 
by permlMloB of tba Inipactor {whLch the 



I itonde from Qolllnr are the O^tt, 
irifM, through whLcb yon aae flowioA 
lb or M rathoms, tba adntraclad aa)»d^ 

rranthliiiPaiiLoeg.whare thoroadb 
Ihe rock betwean the paaka of the Hi 
iGBbirga. Thla pan li partly aroidl 
■ a Innnal. In ona part Iheia peaki ap- 
near, that no rocm wai laTt for the 

1 ledge hu baan cnt Intht 



lie Sail* 



'enCaKle, hi 












^t out to dayllRbt again i 
, throngb a puaage cat li 
>n paya, for iralda, clotbaH, an 
rty, Ifl. Mkr. eachi bMid 
Epreeeoled wlthaboiof ea 



t a kind of rail- 
the rock. One 
lllgh(l,8lloririli 



f the route. Thli dark ^ 
ia acena. In 1809, of ui otxtl- 
tnean the Tyrolais a: 
3 hat bean ■kllfolly rortUled. 
Tarfen (Btat.) /nn.- Poit. AmarketTUIageii 
10 »iol(, bavbig a chnrch, with a itnsntu 

aiey, <40 feet aboTe Saliburg;. Abont UO (M 
ttlgber than tba TlHage Itiolf li ICi old caatla, bllU 
n AKhhlibop Gehhardt, ai far back, accordla 
Moonm, ae 1078. In ihe nelghbonrtiood ar 
I rtevated peak., a> tha Tcnnan Gabliga (aboat 
i fael abOTC the .ea), tba lUa€aiffaMt»t. 
rck, and Iho Ilmgeblrffe; aUo tba Talley c( 



Ibe BlUhnbacI 
The route divldet here 

lo Badatadt (Stat.), c 



rt gvlng off eai 



ot retjnlre ■ gnlde.' 

e*t pltcf on tbt OMtalp BoMi U 



ithar to GaMcin, which l( (oUowed, kH 
BlIcbObhOfBlL (Btat.) under the BlaotufittKte 
iVd^a, triTii* ^fiu to 



Route 86.] 



8GHWABZACH-8T. TBIT, LEKD, HOF. 



163 



Several good Hotelf . Here the hills begin to sink 
down into rast plains, while the climate and soil 
improre. St. Johann is a very Citable centre for 
•xcnrsions. The Liechtenstein Klammen^ extra- 
ordinarily wild defiles with waterfalls, Ac, are 
well worth a visit, and can be seen in 8 hours 
by taking a vehicle from the station (3 fl. 20 kr, 
there and back) to Plankenau. Overclothing and 
an umbrella should be taken. 

The road from Radstadt, by way of Wagrein,. 
falls in at this point. This part of the valley is 
called the Pongau, and Joins the Unter Pinzgau 
at Lend. 

Passing on up the Salza, the road and rail go 
through Schwanach (Stat.), ^hich has become 
memorable in history as the place of meeting of the 
Protestant peasantry in 1730, when they resolved 
to abandon their country rather than give up their 
faith. At the Inn, where they concluded the Salx- 
bund, or Covenant of Salt, is still preserved a table 
on which the Lutheran peasants ratified the 
league by the ancient custom of dippitig their 
fingers in and tasting salt. On this account Arch- 
bishop Firmian, after the ill success of his over- 
sealous missionaries in bringing them back to 
Ro&anism, ordered the expulsion of 22,000 of 
them, and thereby inflicted an incurable blow on 
the prosperity of his large possessions. 

L6IIII (Stat.) — /nn— on the Ache, which here 
forms an exceedingly beautiful fall as it empties 
itself into the Salza. Several picturesque bridges 
cross the river. There is a fine fall of the 
Gasteiner Ache near its Junction with the Salzach. 
This part was formerly a tract of forest infested 
by robbers. The Unter Pinzgau begins here ; but 
the road leaves it to ascend the Gastein Valley. 
To Hof Gastein (13 miles) 10 fl.; Wildbad Gastehi 
(16 miles) IS fl.; continually rising past the Klamm- 
hShe, which is 1^ stunde long. Diligence to Wild- 
bad, thrice daily in 4 hours. 

The TnyiwrngtAlTi pau is a wild and formid- 
able looking defile, nearly 1 stunde long, Ihied by 
perpendicular precipices. There used to be a 
dangerous way through it, first cut in 1539, 
by Archbishop Mathias, now superseded by an 
excaUent carriage road. Some remains of a fort 
are Men near the Klammstein Bridge, over the 
Acbi^ AtUrtbkjou eaUr the 6MtebierUMl| a 



valley usually called th6 Gasteln, closed in on 
the south by snowy mountains, 9,000 to 10,^00 feet 
high. 

This magntiificent valley, which its early Celtio 
inhabitants called Jastun, the Romans styled 
Oastuna^ whence the modem name is derived. Its 
principal basin which is watered by the Ache and 
its branches, is about 5 miles long, and covers the 
same number of square miles. The soil is a mix- 
ture of lime, clay, and granite, of which last the 
highest peaks are composed; but the rocks in general 
present a great variety of mineral formations and 
are covered with pines, firs, and other coniferous 
trees. A few chamois, lynxes, wild cats, bears, and 
wolves, are found; game is scarce. 

The population may number about 4,000 souls, 
poor but honest, robust, and attached to old customs, 
and living chiefly by cattle breeding, as the 
climate is unfavourable to agriculture. At the 
Reformation it supported a great number of inhabi- 
tants, but many having been compelled to emlg^rate 
on account of persecution for conscience sake, the 
valley has been much depopulated. Traces of a 
Roman way are loft. At a recent epoch, three 
strangers appeared in the valley, and astonished its 
simple people so much by their riches and liberality 
that a memorial is still preserved in the name of 
a chapel between Klammstein and Bavenkogel, 
dedicated to the Drei Waller or Three Travellers. 
Gold and other metals were formerly extracted in 
large quantities. Its mineral springs, for which 
alone it is now remarkable, were discovered in the 
reign of Tiberius. The chief place of the valley Is 

HOF, or Hof Gastein. 

Hotels: Moser; Mttller; BlaueTraube. 

A bathing place of about 100 wooden houses, 
including some ancient ones which belonged to 
the proprietors of the decayed gold mines, who 
resided here from the eleventh century, when the 
place was first founded. It stands 3,000 feet above 
the sea, on each side of the Kirchbach. A large 
stone house was converted by the Bishop of Erlau 
into a bath-house, the Miliiarbcui. There are also 
others, the Aktiettbad^ Outenbrunnbad^ Ac Tlie 
sources are higher up the valley, at Wildbad^ bu.t«w 
supply, is brought d<y?m.\s^ ^<*AsK«v"^$«5i>*^^'^"«N.'«s*«» 



ISi 



BSAI>8HAW*8 8WITZXBLJLND AKD THB TTBOL. 



[Section 4. « 



Fahr. at its outburst, falls to a little over 90* at 
the Bath-houses. The Qamskohrkogl^ and several 
other peaks here, are about 8,000 feet high. 

Leaving Hof, the new carriage road, called the 
Furstenweg, follows the Ache, and crosses a bridge 
to the west bank. Hunsdorf Castle, a ruin to the 
right, was the seat of the Weitmoser, a family of 
rich miners who often entertained their sovereigns 
here. A later proprietor, John Leykofer, was 
obliged to fly in the religious persecutions of the 
sevente^ith century. The villages of Lietersdorf 
and Lavem are also here ; and paths which lead into 
the Valley of Kauris, by way of Bucheben, and into 
the Grossarl Valley. With the assistance of guides 
acquainted with the mountains and short cuts, 
a most interesting series of excursions may be 
made in a few days. 

The valley on each side of the FUrstenweg 
expands as you continue to ascend, and opens up 
many charming sites and points of view. After 
passing the HeSlbad torrent, you reach 

BAD OASTEIir, or Wlldbad Oasteln. 

Hottii: Badeschloss; Straubinger's ; Flink; 
Qrabenwirth; Weismayr; and many Pensions. 

It consists chiefly of a number of lodging- 
houses (several having baths) besides villas, 8,400 
feet above the sea, on the slant of the Graukogel, 
above a narrow defile between this mountain, which 
is 9,840 feet high, and the Schneeberg, which is 
6,660 feet. 

It was the limits space here which induced 
the making of the pipes to Hof Gastein, as 
above-mentioned; there the situation is more open 
and agrreeable; but it is away frran the fine moun- 
tain trips in which the Wfldbad abounds. There 
are a new Catholic Church, a small Protestant 
Church (built by the Emperor William), and a 
Hospital (foundwl 1489, by Strochncr, a rich miner). 
Close to the Castle, built 1794, by Archbishop 
Hieronymus, and now appropriated to bathers, are 
the fine Fetds of the Ache, which tumble down 210 
feet and 290 feet in two principal leaps, from a 
fissure of the Grauk<^l. 

These famous Hot Springs wwe known to the 

Romans, as ** Gastuna tantum una." There are 

aervn gpHagt in all. The Fiirsten and Doctors- 

eaeUea Bupj^y tt9 FBrBtentmiA, wftijdl t/OsMSA* 



Vollbad contains room for fifteen; the Castle ob^ 
Bade-Schloss, room for twenty, at 2 to 6 florins ^=: 
others fewer. Suoh is the number of visitors in th^^ 
season (May to September) that it is necessary tc=> 
bespeak lodgings beforehand, of the bath director*^ 
and sometimes even to supply your self with pro — 
visions. Warm clothing should be taken. 

The Springs, as they issue from the Graukogl, 
are as high as 38* Reaumur, or 117* Fahrenheit ; 
which cools down to 86* Reaumur, in the evening, 
and by 5 o'clock in the morning is reduced to 28* 
Reaumur (94* Fahrenheit), the de|pree of heat at 
which they are usually taken. All the Springs 
are of remarkable purity and softness, so that 
they are valuable for their cosmetic properties, as 
well as for their more important uses, in cases of 
WMik nerves, debility, rheumatic affections and 
lameness, sni^ressed secretions of the skin and 
kidneys. Elderly persons, whose habit of body has 
grown sluggish, find great advantage from these 
waters. The Emperor William I. always declared 
that they " set him up and made him young again." 
The central points are the Schloss Platz between 
Straubinger's Hotel and the Bades<^oss, and the 
Wamdelhahn^ a long glass gallery, with a Caf^ 
and reading-room, which serves as a prcnnenade 
in bad weather. 

Excnrstons over the mountains are numerous, 
uid the splended Alpine scenery of the Hochgebirge 
may be here enjoyed in its full extent. Horses and 
mules, at fixed tariff, including trinkgeld. 

St. Nicholas Church, built 1889, is in the 
Anlanftbal, a charming defile, watered by a 
branch of the Ache, at BSkstein. Above it, the 
HSekerbach tumbles over a precipice. 

The KStSCbadltlial, a fatiguing path, but very 
interesting, passing the SchreckbrQcke (Terrible 
Bridge), the Kesselalpel and Rauchzagel Falls, 
and other scenes of savage sublimity. One vast 
precipice rises 8,000 feet on the face of the Ankogel, 
which is 10,675 feet above the sea. It was as- 
cended by M. Thurweiser, in 7 hours; and a peak 
called Hocktauem was reached, commanding a 
splendid prospect, as far as the confines of Cariu- 
thia, and Italy, Ac. 

To B0cSutelXi. lu passiiig fheflchrekbrfidce, on 
ttie oChMx Ad^ "^^dti^ i!*€iii^ HL ^I'Mty "psXti fitto fKe 



"WW far aung, gt m iStmrgB cf ItoS tlortnt wt^kly. ^ Tidley dltttW«f^Wl*eft^^'VJ^^iM>ft^«B%^^ 



fiouteST.] 



kZ" ^xfncr. 



m 



nUeh has a gocd Bxa isd Cxr^icxf. Trriix. 
this go ovrr za >&* XAi^fui If Rxiiff . :c ^^<{ 
Fldd, a C&e r&Z>7. «: siZ-fi fr:d ii-: frrtxz 
Bunbcrof plesazcsi^^-s z.:ct*jlz* i^i fcrzr> v^.;^ 
abound in ft. Here if i^-s Xi^f il Iz-i-zs. tTKzcL >t 
the Geman A:;iE« Cx^. vz.^rf il: :z :<rv4:l=;; 
part ends. Tr.tx "SasfS^L -±.* Pjirl^or: =iit 
be Tliitad, to tike 7v> L&kM cc :-:# ^^>.ztA-zx. 
which are peof led. not tTftl_lz: ^r uli=u=i<r* 
and n««rH« Oat cf the Imj^t <c.t. the Ur.ier- 
Poekhart See. the Scbe:ier-F*ll Cuc^e tz=:t'.c5 
down. The rlew is exteasiTe and msgni^ceni. 

The giwtff and the Gamttarkogi, each orer 
8^000 feet, are the' faTonrite moantAin ascents 
guide reqoiied for both. The latter is p<iiiap# 
better ascended from Hof-Gastein. and in the 
foimer case the gladers lie somewhat nearer and 
mora accessible and the scenery is more Tsried, 
thoogh the -riews are similar. On the sonthem 
side lie the interesting small lakes, the Rcedsoe 
and the Palf nersee. 

Afoent Of the Flngkogl, near the Wild- 
tad, and ef the Tlsoh, near Btfcksteln.- 

These two mountains, though comparatively low, 
offnr a superb panorama to tho eye. From Wild- 
bad, in 8 to 4 hours, you gain, by an easy path, the 
upper part of the Zitrauer Alp, and tho Thronegg, 
on that pari of the mountain which is nearest the 
Tpfemk(^, called the Flugkogl. Thenco tho eye 
lanfM orer an immense field of alps and rookw, 
and takes In the Grossarl Valley to tho north; 
Lu^ defile to the north-west ; the Schmittonsteiii, 
and the Little Gaisberg, near Ilallciii, to the north- 
west; the long chain of Lungau. the AukogI, 
aboire the Gletscher-Tischelkcr, to tho soutli-caNt. 
Not far from this glacier are the small TiAkcit of 
the Elendscharte. On tho south and srmth- 
west may be seen the PlattenkogI, 8tuhlk(/gl, 
Radhausberg, Mailnitzer Tav^n^ tho Duk<»-Kmeikt 
andTaurls; beyond which and farther sf/uth, l< 
the Bluttanem ; and farther west the Honncnlillok 
«nd Hohe-aar. Nearer are the Vslley* of Jiikk 
statn and Gastein; wfaUe the (iro%*if\'jcknt:r nwl 
Waissbachhoni here appear Iik<', two hHJlUnt 
nmaSds of ice; the Valley of Augertbal and 
^ TIadi are near BSckvtefn, 

thaJaar place /!Q« atMjr n^.h the t/^* *A th« 
im M Mamrn by a tnahltt^jujt h»X guM, 






» * ^ 



.V . 



.•v;* .'i 



XV •>. 5>.-.x ^'AA'.4^ 



np !h« NAMf<ti AUvl o\«i: (>e xiU«^M« ^ 1^^ 
Matlnitter r«iur%\ lo MV.tuiit «l (h^ h«iii( ^a <l^^ 

l8tat«, 9 >iunJ«n\ ami S|Mul, in x^aiiMihla- 

ROXJTK i^r. 

Landeck, hr the Flnetermani and nMf\f^ 
Paaaea. to Lake Omuo and Mtlan* 

ToKlotl I ^»a 



lllll«l»l«ll»1l' 



I 
I 

!' 



I'fund 
Nau«l«>ni 
M»U ,., 
Trua 

Traf.it 

^'^«n»l^nHh^h<t ... 
Hi, Miu'lii ,....,.,> 

Iliirilllu OVtMllia^.... 1 

llollnitorii ,..,,, 1 

Tlrniui ...,,..,, I I 

Hiiiiiirti ,.,. I 

Mnrliruiiii ,.,,, I 

Ciilli'o 1 

Vari>mia ..• •• U 

Ht^ert ........i. II 

(*SrHNiiti(« \\ 

Mmiita I 

Mllnii 14 



II 
II 
11 
II 
•I 
•I 
II 
II 
II 
II 

M 
II 
II 
II 
M 
II 
II 
M 



\m |MikU— NJiiiUl 
VO/ III It ill 

l)iii(C«ni'ir dally frntn Iisinlvrli Id MnI< lit nImhiI 
0| lionrN, ()HiMihu«friiiit Msi« Ut I'lsd. i'<iiiiiiM'Mii|| 
witli thn dally fMiiriifiii'r) dlllir<iiM>ii fi'Hii l^.yM In 
llonnl'i, iMIitri'ii'-M f I"hi flii^iitlo in UtiwttUi, vtUmtk 
thn riifJ to r'oft''o and Milan ifiwy lis iMliiiii 

Tim road A< tnr a< ihf. W'tttHmt oi Hlll/«<i» Jo*h 
tfiteMo^Sn tlnlliiri;, !■ »itif *it II** i#«/,«l HLtn»tk»l4i- 
aiid l.faiitl/iiJ in •!*« 'lyfil 'M«a |/«'« !■ /IMIm 

til*! Jsltif It'Ati^,, lU '^Ith^fMttVft* »;•»* Oi//** o/ H' 

' Ua r'/aAw^Y wa*<Wrt*A^^-* ,♦^%»v^•»AV^^ 



166 



BBADBHAW'S SWITZBULAKD AKD THB TTBOL. 



[Section 4. 



good order. It was planned by Donesrani, and 
eonstmeted 1810-35. Embankments carry it over 
the marshes, and solid bridges across the deep gorges 
of the river; long chains of zig-zag terrace (called 
tourniquets and giravolti), ease the steepness of the 
way along the precipices ; while to break the fall 
of the avalanches, it is in many parts strongly 
arched over and converted into tunnels and galleries 
which render lights necessary to view them. 

Landeck, m in Route 35. From this the road 
goes up the Inn, past Flies and Prutz to the Fiiu- 
term&nx Pau^ at Ried. From Prutz you may 
visit itkB Kaunterthal ; at the upper end of which 
valley is the great Oepaatsch Glacier, the longest 
east of the Adige. In the neighbourhood is Ladis 
sulphur spring, near a bridge called Pontlatzer- 
brttcke (Pons LadU)^ which joins precipice to 
precipice, over the deep gorge below; memorable 
for the defeat of 10;000 French and Bavarians by 
the Tyrolese in 18091 

Bled. Inn: Post. A pretty village, with some 
castle ruins near it, a Capuchin Convent and fine 
views of the Oetzthal Glaciers. It stands at the 
entrance to the Grand Flnstermlinz PaS8, a 
narrow, dark defile, 8,700 feet above the sea, 
and famous like many others for exploits in the 
Tyrolese war against the French. A bridge 
stretches across the narrowest part close to Pf unds, 
which is built on both sides of the river, and has a 
pretty Pfarrklrche or chapel. .The best part of the 
pass is at the foot where the Walstehbach falls in, 
and whence a footpath strikes off into Switzerland. 
Ilere the carriage road leaves it, on account of its 
narrowness, and turns off to 

Kaudon, a place half burnt 1880. Inns: Post; 

Mondschein ; Lowe. It has a Castle. (Excursion 

by way of Martlnflbruck to the upper part of the 

Inn, or Engadine, in Switzerland, by ascending 

which, you may get to Chiavenna on the Como 

Lake.] At the Reschen See, the basins of the Inn 

and Etsch or Adige border on each other. The pass 

beyond it, the Reschen-Sdieideck, 4,600 feet 

above the sea, is the lowest carriage road over the 

principal chain of the Alps. At Graun, on the high 

bridge, you get a view of the top of the OxtlOT. 

^A VjsJeatIn aaf der Heide. On the road to the 

Maiser ffeide, where MsximiliAn lost a battle 

•'"^w/ tAe Swiaa, 1499, yon paB9 »eTcral oatttea 



(the FUrstenbnrg, Ac.) and the Marienberger Stift 
or convent. 

Mais. Inns: Post; Hirseh (Stag). A small 
town 8,400 feet above the sea, from which excur- 
sions may be made into the Schliniger Valley, with 
the Yolgaspitze and its extensive views. 

(There is a footpath from Mais to Prad, through 
Olums (Inn: Sonne, or Sun). This is a small 
fortified town of very ancient date, where fruit is 
raised, 3,000 feet above sea. It is the chief town 
of Upper Vintschgau. Beyond it, still ascending 
this branch of the Etsch, is the Austrian douane 
of Taufers leading on to Munster douane on the 
Swiss side; thence to Sta. Maria, Fnldera, Ac, and 
at length to Zemctz in the Engadine.] 

Along the high road the mountains are snow 
topped, and the Etsch or Adige flows at the bottom. 
The road to Milan turns off below Schlndems, at 
Spondinig, to Prad ; where the proper road over the 
Wormscr Joch Pass begrins — a work which figrurei 
amongst the greatest of modem engrineering under- 
takings. It cost the Austrian Government three 
millions of florins to make it, and requires 17,000 
florins yearly to keep it in order. Tf^e coach takes 
10 to 12 hours to get over to Bormio, about 29 
miles. From the douane behind Gomagoi and Stilfs 
(or Stelvio), where houses seem to hang on the face 
of the rocks, the road leads along the Suldenbach to 

TrafoL inn: Post. A village 5,000 feet above 
the sea, from which a desolate path to the south 
brings you to the Ortlenpitze, the highest peak 
(spitz) in Tyrol, 12,815 feet above the sea, and first 
ascended in 1804. The ascent can now be best 
accomplished by sleeping at the Payerhlitte. A 
guide is necessaiy ; time for the ascent, 9 hours. 
The three Hoiy Springs (of Christ, St. Mary, St. 
John) are at the foot. Near Traf oi are the Glaciers 
of Trafoi and Madatsch. From this the road be- 
comes more wild and grand. It winds up by zig- 
zags past the icy Monte Ciistallo, to the cantoniers 
Framenshofu (cantoniera is a station or refuge) 
where you get a view of Madatsch. Near here 
was the scene of the supposed accident which 
caused the death of Madame de Tourville. From 
Franzenshohe it is 1} mile to the 

Wormser Joch, or Stelvio Fass itself, where 

the road inspector lives, at cantoniera Ferdinands- 
hQhe, 9,11 & iwX. above the sea, and 900 above the 

snow Wive. It V% ^^<^\lV^%ilX>3s2DL^\\Kft.^<!VQJM D 




gaDcrtH, Del 



■Bdlike cBBxanien fi^undalmi^L 
00 of !» nEnoc of aernal num. 

tlie Toad hendt inxc a frijrfazfu: 
Xrfidi. i£ 'vrhicL tbXi^ The f aL 
tTttfhkp nlaof Apreapiot : and 
tbe laai uff tiie tacvBti Italian 
IfaienL Willi -waSs 4 to € f eex thick. 
M fact U^Al near the town of 
csIiiBittc here i£ alreadx mUder. and 

■DowT. Further 
(BlCBiVaa?DaBd 



TT Vazsl ■» to: thr }vr«Mdiitp Hoot*. 
piMC ^Uapv afmr that artr— 

M. •••• ** 



caantke 



OrW^Btm, MM tbe Gcnaaas call it. 
Odeb: La Porta; Albeti^ delU Tarrc. 

A w l MiMfc -piaee(pop^4iM>.pictiire»<mdy»eated 
«■ tke .Adda, in vpfwr Italy, about <iOM feet aboT« 
tfce tea, and 1| ndle from Bagni NnoTi, MO feet 
higher. The French took it from the Grisoos, 1796, 
nd Iiantitl799,bnt it lias reriTed with the making 
of the road. St. Antonio's Church (there are seven 
or flight) has paintings by Canelino, a naUre. The 
hot mlphiur iSiprtn^ at the Bagni Naoyi (good hotel 
here, dooed October 15th) are from 95* to 117* tem- 
pflrttnre^ and used by Tisitors, July to September ; 
the twthing house on the cliffs contains sixty rooms 
•Bd twelve baths. Near this is the Pass of Fraole, 
leading np to Sta. Maria in the Orisons ; the Valleys 
of Colathal in the Yal di Sotto (the AcMh) and 
Padenosthal strike off to the west, under Foicagiio 
Uont; and, to the east and south-east, a diligf'nfle 
road leads through Val Furva, past 8. Nlcolo, tn 
the iron springs of Sta. Caterina, above which are 
Mmte ConfiMle (11,075 feet above the sea) and 
MonU Qawia (?) (11,000 feet) on the TyrolMo 
DOrden. 

Ftam Bonnlo to SooM^ Caileo (00 UkO Convi) 






H rM'^* f^*M«) WeH. <it 11( 
ic IW mil<i» frww 1 iand«Hc. 
7*e whole di«taiM<« can aW V done hy raH 
eran ti» ItoYvm. thvfHot hjr Trent t^ VerMHi . 
past Tertwh end ^Mnd^ma, 
Chnrhnrp Oa^K to ^iwndfnip, %•)»♦«» th* 
mian S4wid mrm off <»>f^N' th* Woimver ,"»vw*h. 
Pnrther on. thntoph Val VeiiMita, th* oW w»«ntty 
! 0* tbe TfKmmrtm (now called Vintw^hre^iV end 
' down tbe conrw «f tbe l^tucb <»r Xdt|r^ wbv^b lb* 
' road f<ta)ows all tbe way t<» Verom*. >Mt» <s^^«♦ tt» 
j Cjm; tb«i by I<aa^ M the 4^trAn^^ of th* 
LaaMTtbal, and Koitw^b l« 

SchlaifedWt. Tn%i rtfrM. Tb^ ^UwaU b« 
eomes milder, and chMttnnln und ft U^- vl«*« «|n^^w*\ 
and the ecenei^- is moM i^tufei^tite. I^b* NaU^^jt 
of ScblandemaunthAl Minnoff toibf >tiMih, l«^«ittnir 
over tbe nuKclicl (or TarvIiI) »t^ih (l»,OftA Xi^\) \ii 
tbe Wdss Kttgal {y%Vih tt^w auH thA 0»tfttHAUt> 
Alpen. Fine M«»w of th« UMff, unU «»r «hi» \\\\W\ 
spltae. At OttflAn nw gtHvl mAi-)»t«« \\\\a\\ Im ahiI A 
white m*rble \\\\\\t^ ov<»r lh<^ K\\\^\y 

lAtlOh. inm lllrioh. U nUiuU In n pH^M)r 
spot, and has st^vernt i*AMlt(t riUiks, ah n|i| fitil, AHtl 
St. Marttii's rilgrltiiAiri* (Miiiirh. 

A walk of IS hiiuri lulu Ainl Mtniiir thn ftiin 
Valtfy qf MitvUllt wllh Ms nlil i'A«lli««, ItHltHS fH)\ 
by thn MutU'iltth Jurh /Smi (I0,n4ii fHi.|), mitl |||h 
groAt OrtltrMpitit (SCI* t»rt|t« 11(1), (M tMfMl. 

FoUowlngthflrMAil yiiii )iAN«Hiii|il»'htMiNr|iiNfHlNtf 

of (/AStnlliPJI, p^ri'hxil MH HtN tM|Mll M hifk NuNf 
this, Inr AJHMil A iMlIf, iUf thh^ ImhiIiI^s '4fi»M 
snrlM of sholvlhif ini'kM, vrnthtUiu^ lljrh ^hUiHUnH 
B«m, ThuH MftittnifijHtf M'fM «thl^ll Mitt #IM 
MfhnalsfiHhflhfi/frHSAHfl Im/Is h|i ^> MiA<llff''l<fMtf 

ff<m» (Im» UfM\n»ii ttt lii»hhnttnitm MifUtmtHi Mm«k 



168 



BSiJ>gHAW*B 8WIT2SSRLAKI> AKD THB tTAOL. 



[dectkm 4. 



across the rood, making a delightful canopy. 

MEBAN (Stat) 

Hotels : Habsbnrgerhof , fine garden, good accom- 
modation; Erzherzog Johann; Graf vonMeran; 
TyrolerHof; Hassfurther; Sonne; Pension Villa 
Begin a, Ac. 

Fopnlation, 5,300, who are chiefly occnpied in the 
cnltnre of the vine and fruit. A great winter resort 
for consumptive patients, for whose comfort ample 
arrangements are made. All travellers (not on 
basioess) who stay above 3 days, have to pay a 
Curtaxe. The KUchelberger red country wine is 
made here. This walled town stands 1,100 feet 
above the sea, in a beautiful and cultivated valley, 
with old castles and villas perched on the peaks 
around ; above twenty ruined forts may be seen 
from the Passeyorbriicke, a stream which joins the 
Adige here. It was the Roman Maja, and the old 
capital of Tyrol, whose Counts were seated here till 
1863, when it passed, through Margaret Maultasch, 
to the House of Austria. 

Their ancestral Ccutle of ScblOSS TlVOl or Tyrol er- 
burg (Teriolis), which gives name to the country, 
stands on a rugged grey rock, in a fine spot, among 
* ravines, waterfalls, &c., overlooking the Valleys of 
the Vintschgau and Passeyerthal. It is grown all 
over with cherry trees. The people uncover their 
heads when they see it. The French tried to des- 
troy it, and sold the remains to a farmer ; but in 
1814, the people bought them back to make' a pre- 
sent of them to their sovereign, and it is now state 
property. The interior is adorned with curious 
paintings and carvings of an early age, and with 
various memorials of Hofer, who was taken by the 
French 1809, up the Passeyerthal near his own 
house. In 1838, the Emperor Ferdinand presented 
the patriot's family with their house and the land 
surroundhig it. 

Among the buildings in Meran are, the Pfarr- 
kirche (parish church) of the fourteenth century, 
having the highest tower in Tyrol; the Spital- 
kirche, built in the fifteenth, a good Gothic speci- 
men ; a Wasserheilanstalt or water-cure ; and the 
new shooting-stand, with the knrsaal for drinking 
whey. In the Laubengasse, which is lined with 
arcades in the Italian style, is the old Burg (80 kr.), 
MaotAer resJdeDce of the I^rolese Counts. Other 
^it^estJa^ Caatiea are Zebmberg and StMnna, 



with four good sulphur Springt^ known for the 
last two centuries, and of low temperature; they 
contain carbonic acid, and cease to run be- 
tween the middle of November and April. There 
are two handsome Bathing houses, with vapour, 
shower, and douche baths. They are beneficial in 
cases of gout, diseases of the skin, &c. West of 
the Botzen Road, near Lana, in the beautiful Valley 
of Ulten,istheifi7/e»*&a^; an iron spring noted for 
its powerful properties. The shepherd boys of the 
valleys around migrate in troops every year into 
Suabia, &c., to tend, cattle, and bring back a few 
shillings. 

From Meran, the road down the Etschthal 
(Adige Valley) goes through a luxuriant but 
marshy vegetation, past many picturesque ruins, 
and vineyards; or the branch rail may be taken 

past the stations of Untemiais ; Oaxgazon, on 

the Aschlerbach ; Vilplan, on the Mi5Itenbach ; 
Terlan, where the best Tyrol wine is produced, 
with an old church spire much out of the perpendi- 
cular; SigmUZldskTOXl, and its very fine castle; to 

BOTZEN (Stat.), or BOZEN, 

Italian Bolsano, on the Brenner line. 

Hotels: Kaiser Krone, in the best part of the 
town, good and moderate; Victoria; Engel. 

Peculation, above 10,600. The Roman Balzanum 
and capital of the circle of Botzen, and one of the 
liveliest places in Tyrol, on the Adige, where the 
Talferbach joins it. It stands in a sheltered valley, 
with an Italian climate, in a sittiation very favour* 
able for trade, for here the chief roads from Italy, 
Switzerland, and Germany meet, and during the 
the prosperity of Venice, it was a very busy centre 
of commerce. Four famous commercial Fairs have 
been held yearly since the eleventh century, and 
are worth seeing on account of the picturesque dis- 
play of the costumes of south Tyrol. The people 
speak Italian and German. The town is neatly 
built. At the Gothic Pf arrkirche, of the fourteenth 
century, are some old tombs, and a good interior. 
The Franciscan Convent has a fine Gothic altar in 
the transept chapel. There are also a Capuchin 
Priory, and a Collegiate Foundation; the Rath- 
haus, or Town Hall, a Merchant's Hall ; the Castle 
or Fort, and the Palace of Archduke Bainei^ 
f onofiily GoTemox of Lombardj. 

The OotUaafiV^T (^^'•QtQ«tkV»^^%«tQwM»«ct> 



nKOir— BOTzitr, lALuMr, olbb. 




V I»rfana«d h}' RaUwfty Ir 1 



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. tte V ■kUBjt qt ^Vusb llA'^ftKetli'.. 



170 



BSADBBAW'S SWITZBSIJUfD AKD TBB TTBOL. 



[Section 4. 



to Vol Rmdma, Piano, Mezzano, to Fueine 
(16 miles), under the Snlzberg, where the v&lley 
divides otl. The branch to the north-west goes 
by Pejo Baths (9 miles), whence a path runs over 
the Como dei Tre Sigrnori, on the Swiss borders, to 
Sta. Caterina and Bormio (23 miles), in Ronte 37. 
The other or south-west branch goes under M<mU 
Tonale^ orer to Ponte di L^no, and thence to Edolo 
in Vai (kttnoniea, and Tirano.] 

LavlS (Stat')» the Roman AvUiuniy a thoroughly 
Italian Tillage, in a very pleasant country, near the 
Monte Corona, where the Avlsio joins the Adige. 
Tou may notice here the hanging gardens of Count 
Melchion, who has a collection of works of art. 

£The Arisio Rirer may be ascended here 
through the ZimmerMial or Yal di Cembra (to 
Yal Floriano), the Yal Fiemme or Fleimserthal 
(to Moena), and the Fassa or Erasthal, in the 
upper part. 

From Laris, you pass Yeria, Cembra (8 miles), 
Spiazzo, Sover to Yal Floriana (12 miles), where 
the Fleimserthal opens, by St. Florean and Castello 
(8 miles), to the chief place, Cayalese (under 
the Schwarzhom Spiz), with Inns where you may 
lay in provisions, as good inns are rare further up. 
It has a Gothic church, and a path strikes west 
into the post road. Tosera and Panchia (where a 
way strikes over the Cima di Lagorei into Yal 
Sugana) bring yon to Predazzo (6 miles), where 
the Yal Travignolo opens into a road to Belluno. 
Iron, copper, marble, d^c, are worked here. At 
Mo^na the Fassnthal, with its basalt and pic- 
turesque dolomite rocks begins, and the Pellegrino 
Yalley turns off east, into the Yal d'Agordo. 
Further on is Yigo (10 miles), where you meet the 
paths from the Grodnerthal (to Brunechen) and 
from Botzen, and are in the neighbourhood of the 
Plattkofel, Rosengarten, and other mountaini, 
9,000 to 10,000 feet above the sea.] 

From Lavis the next place is 

TRENT (Stat.) 
Or TrentO (Italian), or Trient (German). 
Population, 21,000. 

HoTKLS.— Air Europa, in the Contrada Lunga; 
Grand Hotel Trento; Yictoria; De la Yille. 

^xr if/d wnJled town or cJty, capital of a circle, 
tro ^uHrUn spnmtkL ii^ irssJbiowii to the Romans 
^atf WBM girea hythe fimperor 



Conrad to its bishops. On account of its mid-way 
position between Italy and Germany it was chosen 
as the plade for the celebrated Coancll Of Trent, 
held here 1515-63, during the reign of four popes. 
The French captured it after 1809. It stands in a 
beautiful sheltered valley under the mountains, 960 
feet above the sea, on the Adige, which is crossed 
by a covered bridge 800 feet long. Port St. Laurent 
commands a fine prospect of the river and moun- 
tains. It is hot and suffocating at times in the 
summer. It is quite an Italian town, having high 
houses^ with flat roofs, and paved streets, through 
which cool streams are turned from the river. 

The old Romanesque Dom or Cathedrdly built 
tenth to sixteenth centuries, of marble, but still 
unfinished, stands in the Domplatz, where a foun- 
tain plays. It has frescoes in its dome (200 feet 
high), and paintings, by Cignaroli and Moroni; 
with the tomb of Sanseverino, who fell at Calliano, 
1487, and a good organ. The Council met here in 
their last session, 1563. Previously their meetings 
took place in the red marble church of Sta. Maria 
Maggiore^ where they show a large painting full 
of portraits of prelates, Ac. One of the Pope's 
earliest legates to the Council was Cardinal Pole; 
another was the excellent Cardinal Seripando, who 
died 1563, and is buried in the Eremite Church. 

The Seminary Church belonged to the Jesuits; 
that called Delia Annunziata has a high cupoU 
resting on pillars of a single marble block each. 
There are six or seven churches besides these; also 
two convents, and an Ursuline nunnery; a gym- 
nasium (or school), lyceum, a technical school for 
marble workers, hospitals, a well-built theatre, 
new cemetery; and. the palace of the prince bishop, 
whose old seat, Buon Consiglio Castle, built by 
Bishop Closio, is a barrack. Fine view from the 
Torre di Augusto, said to be Roman. The seats 
or palazzi of the Madrucci, Gallas, ZambeUi, and 
Tabarelli families, are worth notice; the first having 
a gallery of pictures, Ac; the last being of red 
marble, built by Bramante. At St. Glovauelli's is 
a collection of models and antiques. 

In the Environt^ among other objects, are the 
Pontalto Bridge, between two hills ; Polvo, and its 
country seats; the village of Pie de Castillo; the 
Sardagna waterfall, and the Buco di Yela, com- 
manding a fi.uft "^ew ot tlift town ; and Pergine, In 



Roat« 38.] 



TTBOL — TBBHT, ROYXREt>0, SIVA. 



171 



tbe Yal Sarca or Oindicaria, leading past Tlone. 
to the bottom of Lago di Garda. From Tione, a 
way leads up Yal Rendena, to PlniOlO under Dos 
di Sebione (a fine riew of this DolomiU Rtgioti, 
page 177); and thence by Yal di Genova, to Monte 
Tonale. Pinxolo is 35 miles from Trent. Jnm: 
Corona; Posta. Traffic is open all the year orer 
the passes. 

[Trent to Riva, on the new Stephanstrasse 
road. Crossing the Etsch from Trent, you conie at 
Piere de Castello, to Buco di Yela, a gloomy hol- 
low, which they say St. Yigilus opened by a blow 
of his hand. The country becomes more pleasing 
at Terlago (with a Lake), where a paths turns off 
to Molvena. Then follow YesUUlO (8 miles) in a 
rocky basin, Massenza or Lake Toblino, Calavino 
(where is the road into the Guidicaria Yallcy 
to Rira), Gavedine Lake, Drena, Dro, and ArCO 
(18 miles), a charming little place (2,500 popula- 
tion), with a castle of the twelfth century, on the 
Sarca, which, rushes hence down to Riva (4 miles). 
The ralleys about here are most beautiful, and 
repay a lengthened visit.] 

From Trent, going down the Adige, you come to 
the narrow Pass of Galliano (defended by the old 
Castle of la Pietra on the heights above) where 
the Yenetian leader, Sanseverino, fell, 1487, in 
battle against the Austrians. Passing Ifatta- 
rellO (Stat.) you come to 

BOVEREDO (Stat) 
Or ROTOreitll, as the Germans call it. 

iSToltl.*'- Corona. 

A thriving town of 11,000 population, who spin 
silk, and export large quantities yearly. It was 
the Roman Rc^tesetum^ and stands among vine- 
yards, mulberry trees, chestnuts, in a pleasant part 
of the Yal Lagarina (Lenzerthal), near the junction 
of tbe Leno with the Adige, here crossed by a stone 
bridge. In 1487, Archduke Sigismund took it by 
storm from the Y^ietians, bombs being used for 
the first time. It suffered in the troubles of 1798. 
Most of the houses are of marble, which is abun- 
dant about here. The town hall, an old high- 
walled building, is on the Piazza de Podestk. 
There are the San Marco and Sta Maria churches ; 
four monasteries, convents (one called the English 
Ck»nTent); a public ilbraiy, law court, gymnaaVum; 
tb^iiin in Cono Knoro (tbe princlpia Btre^t^ 



many dye-houses and silk mills, with a tobacco 
factory and tanneries. Among the villas worth 
notice, are theBridischo (with frescoes), the palazzi 
Federigottc and Albert i. It was here that Mad. 
Saibanti, 1750, established the epicurean academy 
of the Agiati. The neighbourhood offers many 
charming spots, as Sacco, a very old place; Isera, 
where some of the best Tyrolese wines are produced. 
Yilla Lagarina, with a view from the Castle Hill, 
and a waterfall. Pomarolo has beds of coal (?), 
and Brentonico good marble quarries. 

[One of the most interesting Excursions is to the 
beautiful town of Riva, on the Lago di Garda, 
which is done as follows : — 

Passing from Roveredo, over the bridge on the 
Etsch, through a pleasing country to Ravazzone, 
and Mori (4,000 population, and sculpture in the 
church), you come to the Lake of Loppio. Peneda 
Castle has a fine view of the Garda Lake, which is 
approached through the fishing village of Torbole, 
at the mouth of the Sarca. A railway was opened 
from Mori to Riva in 1891. 

RIVA, in German Relf. 
Population, 5,500. 

Hotels.— Bole d*Ore; Hotel et Pension du Lac, 
commanding fine views; Trafellini; Grand Hotel 
Imperial. Cq/V, under the Arcade, near the steam- 
boat pier. Furnished apartments. 

An Austrian town, charmingly seated among 
mountains, at the head of LagO di Garda, in a 
climate so mild that oranges, myrtles, olives, Ac, 
grow in the open air, and entitle it to be called the 
paradise of the south Alps. The Yarone and 
the Albola, two mountain streams, tumble into 
the lake here. At the Minorite Church are some 
works of art; La Rocca Castle, on the lake, was 
built by the Scaligcri family. There is a fine 
promenade in the Colonnade, on the little harbour. 
Yarious excursions may be made on the Lake, 
which is surrounded by hills, castles, country 
houses, Ac, offering a great variety of beautiful 
prospects. A steamboat starts daily to the little 
Port of Desenzano (besides the ordinaria or packet- 
boat, twice a week), calling at six intermediate 
stations. From Riva to Peschiera (steamer daily, 
except Tuesday), at the bottom, it is about 80 miles 
long ; the breadth het^ U Vi \b»ss^\ <sis»^«sx ^'to. 



\ 



172 



bbadsbaw'b swirnttLAirD Air]> tbm ttbol. 



[Section 4. 



the npper part cm each side of Bira belongs to 
Austrian Tyrol. Monte Baldo^ comparatirely bare 
(8,810 f t.)« hangs over the east side ; the west is the 
most picturesque. In the middle is the pretty 
Island of Trimelone, with Count Lccchl's house 
and gardens. Among the spots worth notice, are 
(on the west shore) the Ledro Waterfall^ behind 
Ponale, 200 feet down; Limone, and its citron 
groves; Gargnago; Oardone-Blvlera (hotel and 
pensions) a favourite winter resort for delicate 
invalids ; SalO (population, 3,000), among orange 
groves, one of the most delightful parts of the 
lalce; Manerba, which had a Temple of Minerva. 

Beyond this, at the south end, is* DesenzaUO 
(Stat.), noted for its wines and situation, with 
4,400 populati(m. From this the road and rail 
strike off west to Breflda (18 miles), on the Milan 
line. On Sermione Point, which comes next, are 
remains of the villa of Catullus. PeflCbiera is a 
fortified town where the Mincio flows out ; it is 
16 miles hence to Verona, 20 to Mantua. Then (ap 
the east side) Lazise; Bardolino Harbour and Villa 
Gianfilippi; Garda, with an old fort, and Villas 
Albertini and Bozza; St. Vigilio Point, covered 
with olives and fig trees; Torri, with its old castle, 
gardens, and quarries ; and Malcesina Fort, built 
by the Venetians, under Mont Baldo. Wurmser 
marched down both sides of this lake to meet 
Bonaparte, in the campaign of 1796]. 

Continuing from Roveredo, down the valley of 
the Adige, yon come to Morl (Stat.) near that 
part of the road called the Stony Lake, strewn with 
fragments of rock, the remains of a landslip. The 
next places are Serravalle, Merani, and Ala 
(Stat.), a seat of silk velvet manufacture, on the 
Adige. Population, 8,900. After passing Avio, the 
last station in Austrian Italy, and Borghetto, you 
reach Ossenigo, the first place in Lombardy or 
Italy proper. Near it are Fort Guardara and 
Yirgara Forest. Monte Soldo is seen on the right 
over the Garda Lake. 

Pwl (Stat.) is the first Italian railway station. 

At Ceraino (Stat.), the rail enters the Chiusa 

di Verona^ hemmed in by lofty cll^s. Just 

before Cerains, on the other side of the Adige, 

is BlVOll, where Bcmaparte defeated the Austrians 

aader AJriazi, 14th JamiaTy, 1797, after a hard 

^^tf the town b^ng taken and re-takm twice 

"«ft ^^flcnr Vaidirne^ a roMd tmki otFio QtadA 



Lake, and to Brescia and Mantua. At the ter 
minus of the line is Yerona, on the rail to Man 
tua, Venice, Ac. See BradtheaoU Hand-Book tc 
IMy. 



Innsbrack, by the Brenner Pass, to Botzen 

By Railway.^Part of the German Brindlflj 
Route ; the line runs, for the most part clo» 
to the road, past the stations indicated below 
Distance by Rail, to the Brenner, about 28 j^ miles: 
thence to Botzen, 67, or 81 miles in all. Time frou 
4 (exp.) to 6 hours. By road it is 82 miles. Tli< 
description (of the carriage road) applies almosi 
equally to the rail. 

From Innsbruck, passing up the hill by Wlltec 
Abbey, near the site of the Roman Valdidena^ yon 
come to Berg Isel, a spot marked by a monumeni 
to the memory of Hofer and Speckbacher, tb< 
patriot leaders of the Tyrolese; who here, 29th May 
1809, defeated the French and Bavarians in thre< 
actions. The first station is PatsdL Furthei 
on, on the other side of the river is 

Schonberg {inn: Post), where the Stuhai- 
thai falls in, leading up to Neustift and the 
Stubayer Peaks through fine wooded scenery. 
In ascending it you pass Telfs, Vulpmes, Neustift, 
Kressbach, Ranalt; beyond which a path may 
be followed over the side of the Stubayer to 
SUlden. From this, a difficult way brings you to 
the great Oetzthal Glacier. 

Bfatrei (Stat.), the first place after SchSnberg, 
commands another fine view over the Stubai Pass. 

Steinach (Stat.) Innt: Post; Steinbock. 
The room in which Hofer slept before the battle of 
Berg Isel was destroyed by fire in 1858. The 
Church has three altar-pieces in fresco, by Martin 
Von KnoUer, bom here, 1726, the son of a poor 
painter. The beautiful GtchnUtthal (^)ens here 
out to the west ; and a little further on there is • 
path to the east, into Duxerthal and Zillerthal. 
Before reaching Ories (Stat.) the line forms s 
wide curve, and running close to the Brenner See, 
you come to Brenner (Stat.), on the 

Brenner Pass, with an inn (Post), 4,6€0 feet 
above sea, the lowest mountain road in the AlpSi 
and the most frequented passage from Germaojr 
into Italy. It takes name from the Brenn^ * 
tribe of \]iva4«i« '^om. ^'kqA.V!Ql% Dtutos pursued 
OT«f ttlit \)MS, W^^ ^'Aw.Nw^. Qr6L%i!»«to&. A"^^ 



BoHte io.] 

mountalni around, it affords no eztentWe Tiews. 
The Sill and Eisack rise near, on opposite sides of 
the ridge, one flowing north to the Inn, the other 
aoath to the Adige; and at BrennerlMld, are 
warm baths, similar to those of Gasteln. The road 
nuw along the Eisack past Oosseniass, to 

STBRZINO (Stal) 

Intu: Rose; Post; Schwarzer Adler. 

The rail forms a long loop to the east before 
reaching Qossonsass. 

A small place (3,000 population), composed of 
curious old carved houses with a parish Church, in 
which are monuments of wealthy mining families 
who once flourished hero. Sterzinger Moos (or 
Moss) was once the scene of a bloody fight, 1809, 
with the foreign inrader, when 4,000 of the French 
adTaneed guard were destroyed, chiefly in a gorge 
near this, where stones and trees were rolled down 
on them, or they were picked off with the rifle. 

Sereral roads strike off here, as the Ridnaunthal, 
to the north-west, leading to the Tyrolese 6chnee- 
berg, more than 7,900 fcot above the sea, where 
there are mines and a grand view; another to the 
•onth-weat, over the Jaufen, to the Passeyerthal 
and Meran; another, by Kematen, north-east, into 
Pflticherthal, past hollows, waterfalls, and ice- 
flelds, over the Pfitscher Joch, 7,000 feet above the 
•ea, and through Zemmthal into the Zillerthal. 

The road from Sterzing passes on by Stilfs 
(whence a path turns west, through Samthal, to 
Botsen), and Mauls, to Mittowald. The line parses 
the stations of Grasstein and Mittewald. Beyond 
this, near FraaionBfeBte (Stat.) is Oberau. 
Strong fortifications at Franzensfeste command 
the Brenner route and the Pnsterthal road. This 
is the Junction of the rail which loads to ViUach, 
Ae. (Route 41.) The next place is Nonstift Church 
and Convent; then Vahm-bad, and through the 
Biixener Klause to 

BRIZEN (Stat), 

Br68Sa&0li6 of the Italians. 

ff^teU: Elephant; Sonne. Railway Buffet. 

An ill-built town, in the Italian style, at the 

foot of the Brenner, in a pleasant hollow of the 

Eisak where the Rienz from the Pusterthal joins 

It. Population, 4,900, who make a good red wine. 



178 

whose palace is situated not far from St. Julian** 
handsome Cfathedral^ which has frescoes by Troger 
and Knoller, with carved work, Ac. There are 
also four churches, town hall in the old castle, Ac. 
Fine view from Krakofel. It was here that the 
Council called by the Emperor Henry lY. elected 
the anti-pope Gnibert in 1080 (who reigned for a 
short time by the nominal title of Clement III.) in 
opposition to Ilildobrand. A path to the east lead! 
into Abtoythal and Ennebcrgthal. 

Still following the descending course of the 
Eisak, the road and line enter the narrow part of 
the Eisak Valley known as the Klausener Klamm. 
Here the Yillniissthal runs off eastward. 

KlaUBen (Stat.) it has a Capuchin monastery, 
with some paintings by Murillo or his followers. 

KoT.LMAinT (by road) stands at the entrance to the 
Grttdenerthal, pruardcd by the old castle of Troet- 
burg, and leading round to Bruneckcn. By the 
railway, Waldbrilck is the nearest station to the 
entrance of the Grbdenerthal. After this the road 
is cut through miles of porphyry rocks caUod the 
Kuntcrsweg, past Atr4ran<l (Stat.), Kardaun, 
&c., into the fertile Botxentr Boden, and to 

Botzen (Stat.) on the way to Veroxia as in 

Routo 38. See Brachhau's Uand-Book to Italy. 



40. 

Innsbruok, to the ZUlertbal. Flnigaa. and 

OasteixL 

Rail from Innsbruck to Jenbach (page 158) from 
here the road running by the railway must be 
taken as far as the bridge over the Inn, at Rotttholt^ 
then to the left through the courtyard of Schlosa 
Thumecky as far as StraSfl, in the Unterinnthal, 
where the beautiful Zillerthal opens, and leadi 
up to 

FtLgen (/nn), the prettiest village in it, belong- 
ing to Count Dunhof, whoso seat is here ; with a 
view from the Kellor-Joch, 7,080 feet above sea 
to the west, easily ascended. The church deserve! 
a visit. The people of this valley are fine 
specimens of the Tyrolese, very primitive in their 
dress and customs. 



In BoiDilaa ttaierf It w«f the seat of the iHawn(ei, \ ot \Wft mA \«^^^ -«%.% \s«ww\skc^ MkSK^ n»»«? 

Aw 



in BOBiaa timea n waa we seat oi ine anxwwMy \ oi vww a»a. u&v«^ ^^-^ \sav». wav-«. — -ygKLOmcf 
jRNf laM^ ef an «Adkftl«hop; but B«w of a M^boi^ \ ti\fV(MlvBiVL\Ma ^^QbftTiO\«i!«B^^^^««^^*^ 



BRADSRAV'S eWlTSBKLAaS AVD THB TTBOL. 



uGIul 



lie goJd found At Hftliuen] 



nter-ZUIenbal tndi it UajrlwftiL I 

Ton. aboTi IbyrbOfMI (/hi: Stein t ' 



Poit; NeohMH). Ml 
In; in dlffcmil direc 

Ober aitortbal, < 



±e Btmuptlial (with tiro wKcrfiUs) put 
aufl,bnt hvillf woTtb eij^orto^, eicept lor 1 
rlew from AhoniBpltze; the ZlmmftTtlUll, w 



mUH; sod i)ie DnxerttuO, In 
Finkenberg (by tbe TeufelBte^, or 
Si feet high), Luntnbich, Hlsler 

thsIiuiibnickBDad,tieBrVci]len}i 






ml]e>), 






boggy ipot, w 

le PUttenkoKl. u 






Id SAlzbnrg, being covered -vrlth 



Duceiidlng it, jm come la Rooach ud XrUnml 
(/bb), in the OlMI PlUIga.!!. or V»lley of the 
Baiach, Bbiral 16 mllu from Oertoi, end reniiik- 
tble ror Ihfi Fall der Kriininler Aoba, or FftU of 
Uie AidkO. on' o' >be greitut In tbe Alpa, IsUIng 

There \9 (i path bence Bonth, orer the Krinupler 



lof Rl 



ly be taken 



diet from Krimml). In > prettj 
put. /•■.- Port. A TiUige. t.»aofe«tibontha 
hB/t, In the Unter Pinion, opcb wealthy* bnE 
redaced by war and ing nd al l o n a of tb« rJTcr, 
ifhich prowl eitremely bogCT below Ihli. The 
l.kiaiit'i Cattle remaini. A load leada off Dortb. 
by tbr Thun Paaa to Dtlbolwl and St. Jobsnn 

path leadi UDtta np Telberthal, and between the 
Cilaclen of Urei Hemi SpUie and Qroia Glocknar 
to WindlKh-Hatrel (M mlleiX (D (h« inj to 
JJeu. 

The rrgnlai coach road coDmcBCM at Hittep- 
lill. Paiatng Slnhlfelden, OelHtatn, Utteakdoif 
(Where the Stnbb«hthal openawltta a pathoiu 
ibe Glockner), and NiederaUl. all boggy and on- 
fiealth^ ploti in the Untcr Finagaa, you ODDU to 
ibe Tlllige o( 

Bnck (Stat.) /■■■' Hayr. It itandi on the 
Halaburi-Woigl Rail, and on the Salaach, Bbwt 
20 mllH from MlttenDl, where the Zdlarbach 



paet Zell-am-S«a (I 



aclen, li,**S feet abore 
1 round the HochRiot te 
»).ontheroadtoI)a1Lach 



Id Lieu. (SeeBouiel 



(As JIaltMch, tnd betweea which and Nen- 
t*a, tit Valieyi of Ober and Cntar (Dppei 



The next placei lo Brock, following the road 
and rail, are Hnndadorf, St. Oeorgen, and TftXin- 
UWh (8»t J, where tbe Tallcy Improree, dung- 
ing l« nam* ^"m MM*! ■?\iiiikm. to Pen^s, M 



fUmte 41.] 

perched on a narrow hill top. A pretty path leads 
byan hour*s walk to the mtllOfthWamm, in the 
BanriBthal, a most intcrostiiif? and almost unique 
gorsa and waterfall. The Ranristhal turns off 
■Ofath, and by this (through the Scitcuwinkel- 
thal at the head, and over the Ilochthor) you 
nay get to Heiligonblut, or by a patli to the south- 
Mit to Gaitein BatlUI (in Route 36). The next 
plaoala 

h&oA (Stat.), where the road comes in for the 
Batha, deeeribed in the same Route. 



TTBOL — ^BCUHLBACH, BSUNEOK, TOBLAOH. 



175 



Brtzan to Bnme<A and Lleni, in the 
FDitartbal, and to BUttersill. In the 



BaUway.— Open all the way to Lienz and 
Tmaeh, following the road up the Pustcrthal, 
■ad down the Valley of theDrave. The principal 
ilatlnni are described below. Distance from Fran- 
leaafeate to Liens, 6tf English miles; to Villach, 
HtmUet. 

Tin POBteithal is a long pastoral valley 
w ater e d by oat of the head streams of the Adi^re. 
The rail Joins the Brenner at FraniensfeBte 
Ottati), above Brixen. (Route 89). 

9nm Brixen the road turns off at Yahrcnbad or 
Beth, by Nenstift and its Church and Aicha, to 

■ttUlMUdl (Stat.) — Inn Sonne — nt the 
Mftiance of the Pusterthal, once guanlcd by old 
foitii and having the Yalsorthal and Bachgart in 
ite eavironi. Thence through the narrow MUhl- 
Iweher Klanse to 

Ihltlir-Ylntl (/nn .' Post), which has some of 
ZoUer^a fteaooes at the church. Fn>ni this the 
Ffuidersthal turns off north past the Kidcchsspitsc 
Q^Qfl) and the Somcmspitxo, with a gtxnl view. 
Vuther on are the Tcrcntcn Full, Obcr-VintI, and 
natem, where you may turn off by Khrcnburg 
Cattle (now a prison) through the fine scenery of 
the OrOdnerthal which at length brings you round 
to KoUmann; or over the Dolomite mountains 
Into the Bnckenthal and the road to Belluno. The 
MKt place ia 

BnUiSOk (Stat.) Inm: Post; Sonne; Stem; 
Jlladorbaoher. The principal place in Pustertlial, 
with 1,899 populatlim, a new church, and a goi>d 
finr ihwi <ft« JB/aAc^ of Brixen *s old castle. The 



village suffered severely by an inundation in 188S, 
which washed away road^ buildings, and a long 
stretch of railway line. The peasantry of this part 
are even more old-fashioned and peculiar in their 
dress than those of the Ziilcrthal. Excursions 
may be made to the picturesque Fort of Lam- 
prcchtsbnrg, to Stegcn,to Michaolsburg Castle^ Ac- 
and to the Enncberger, Teffcrschoii, and other 
valleys, which meet at or near this point. They are 
full of little populous villages, whose industrious 
inhabitants set off every year to sell gloves, car- 
pets, and pedlar's goods, in all parts of Germany. 

(Following that to the north, by Stogen and St. 
Georgen,through the rough but picturesque 7b«(/ir<- 
fAo/, you come to Tauf cr*s Bodcn (10 miles), where 
the beautiful Rointhal opens from the east ; then 
through the Valley of Ahren, to St. Jacob (SmilosX 
where a path leads over the Floitsch Fcmer to 
Zillerthttl. Further on, through Prcttau Valley 
to St. Valentin (10 miles), from which a path 
strikes north by the Krimmler Taucm, with the 
Dreiherrnspitz in the east, past the Falls of the 
Ache, Ac, to Ziilcrthal. Another path rises east 
over the ridge of the Tauenihaus Hospice, and 
descends to Pregrntcn and its copper works in the 
Isclthal. Its blue cheese is noted.] 

Passing on the coach road or rail from Bruneck, 
you come by the former to Ober and Nieder Rasen, 
where the narrow Anthoizer Valley turns off to the 
north. It loads by the Salomonsbrunnen and 
Stampfelbad Mineral Springs ; then to Felsen-see 
Lake, and over the Staller Alp to the JefTerecker- 
thitl, and another village of St. JaCOb (36 miles), 
where the well-known Tyrolese carpets are made. 
This valley has in the north of it fine mountains, 
waterfalls, glaciers, Ac. At the bottom is llopf- 
garten, where it joins that of the Isclthal. 

The next points in the Pusterthal are Taisten, 
where a valley opens north up to Sta. Magdalene, 
and Welsherg (Stat.), where the Gsieserthal 
turns off south to the Pragser Baths, with grand 
scenery ; then you come to 

Niederdorf (Stat.)— /«« •• Post— which has a 
gootl church. Further on are the Weiherbadi and 

and at lYv^ Yv«%.^ ol \\v^ V\^ta.^^^^«^ ^^x«^ ^ 



■KABCKAVt «WaZKn.A«II ASB T 



ttfo^b Ok DglAdu bfln (KmU tt) On tbe 
•IkB iMt «( the ToUKber KUfr (w the vnitli- 
^hUMlKtibonlbc HKta Ibi CMflde AIpL ; 
TtHi a* Dnre, or DnB.«Udi puMi the next i 




m Ike OdI, or Gall, tr ■ dlnet 

JUriUUnbub (MUAX (omf^C ■ d«P V^ 
which ia IMS « irr Tfn^sa h«W ^uliui ■ am- 
*ldcnU« nnmber of FrbcIl It U «IT<d a« 
Llom-KUue idmtmt, ilol), fiiim tbe town to 

Um(tUt.> /Mi; Port; Wel-M L«im! 
■see, A T«y ptctnneqne town (3,M9 W- 
l«iK«), ta eMt Ttf* «" the Dnn, wh«" the Iwl 



i leeL ObRiolhKbrr. *t^ arc cl» ta fight ; end 
froB hrrv. toQL H path iBivf off te 8l- Rupert, 
HcOiKBibliit. to Ike OrHctockiKT. aad Oaitebl. 
AnDCbtr tzeankiQ b bj Dobacfc (below Lieu), 
li WhiUeni, la tbe Xulllhal. a mr altncUie 
TiDey; tboKe b; Uk Ziiknlu Fall, at DeUach, to 
t.ie beantUiiI Ti]1a(T or fffiii gi—W irt (M mileiX 
,aeof thcbltbcHtn tbe wS Alps 4,Mi fert abore 



I (FUgrim rbapel). <■ 



1 hOl, la a fine paint ot 
brip^ yoa to Gaateld. 



blfhnt peak o( tbe Aoitrian Atp^ 
1 1,4U reel abore (be ira, « the borden of Cartntbla, 

!nlNl. AiwIfalodidinnifKiaH to Brick, p. 174-1 



Bmnea Uiroash th* BaaalMis aal 



tV*/, S,MO (Mt, and nplltktfa. i.WO feet A 
Bunaa way went tlnimgh Lima to tbe laUey I 
of the Gail (or ZtlUthal), aod thones orer the , 
low Alpi to J<Mwm Oamiaaa (now ZuglloX and to 
A^nfleU OB tbe AdrtatlB. 

t An rrfunlod may be made np tbe fine Dvtfcr- 
enertkal or ImI Taller. P*" UPP" U™'. 
Ml- tn Hnjifgari™ {•" aborej. where yon ■ 
H Ma Iitl, tad tteati anotbtr ttteam tc | 
^fm-Mttnl as mUfX "Itan tbe TlrgentlUl ', 
K)B J'rttttOai (tm abore), md tnm wUi^ 
■■ */i*Mi>TM- tb« relbaj-Taium tolllt»itn\ 



Frmn Bnueck (Stfct.) ai In Roote 41, yoB 
L [im off from the Povlertbal, at St- Lorenaen, Into 
lie EnOQlMl %ia tlttl or Qadertliitl, whlclt 
runlfles In all dlrectlcoe, and thnw^b which rum 
i>ic Oaderbich, and arrire at Sla. Maria ; then 91. 
Vigil, prrchcd bi a fine illiullan on the nxk>; 
and throug-h tbe deep Ponlalj Pan to Bl. Caarian, 
|3 the Ahlellhal; or, if the principal raDej' o( 
.^ta. Maria befonowed. pj by WelBcb-B3]en and 
tbe Plelaber^t and a line of nigged hollow^ to 
Unlermsl and Hi inlpbnr balbi; then by tbe foul 
rf Tbum (at PlecolBin) to Campll. and orer tht 
TlnigvAiKb u the Pontalg Valley, at baton 
TheTiex^^M«'aKAA,n«,.'V*MAnft.«.I«iJli. 
\ aabB\m&VB4&«M£t«ra*K'An«'iaK 



DOLOMITB HOtnrTAIITS, 

to tUi put, ire Hm to grut adTuitar^ ; 
■r UmHlone puki of tbe mon finiutlF 
■Ubontm tTH, coDtlniunj bruklng iwiy 
raUor'^'Biiv^- TheywerAarttducHbed 
«((■, tb« rrtnth Mtnrtllrt, hoaee the niune 
% Tbsnee roa proc«td to Bl. ChHltn, uid 
■U, In Uie BncbtDitelitbil. or Til Llvlni- 
.X puh ludi hsnce lo OorUna, (m 'he 
lokd; ■ good ooDtn foi tbu put (Roate 49). 
AhIiu. iDcnc ijdsDdMBtBaiiUiD •senuy. 
tih na*^ Vudi, to Anbt, froin wblob It 
ItanntsCniuelliitteFiMi-tbsl. Thl> 
V dsira to L»li. netr Trent, ud &baiuid> 
kmlto neii Md Bd* momuin K«i«y. 
' lAlab niy b« obtained by ucndJng tbo 

bMd nut CiDsiel u« th» glaelen of Iho 
SftdA ai,tlO r«et *boT* tk* HI), tbe 

politt of the Dolonlto neki. on tbe 
Ij Imitltr. Then li * raid Iram St. Loeli 
)«n).temi to Bellnnoi ud •aothn from 

la BotHDi onr tb* BoHngirtubcr;. 
tk* AbtM (pig« lit), Dur St. CiHlan. ■ 
• pMt OoiroKO Id the mldit if noble moim- 

Ih* Pluii Wlrtlibitu (or lim). and to t>a 
Irthal (1 boun), or Val 0<t4ma. It li 
iblO'for tbe minafactnre of Jice, uid of 
1 ioyf, imde from the toft wood of the 
I Mont-plne (about S.W(I owt. yeiily). 
la Mid In 111 putt ol Europe. 
tbb, putSti. Mull or WolkeDitBln. Flich- 



TTMI.— DOt-OHin KOtTWTinH. ITT 

RO*CrTB 4G_ 

Uia AoUMoOtlua " 

Vanto*. 



tk«I«Btkofii.io Bt Dlrlcb or 

le^alplice IntbeTalley, i.MtiU 
h ft Uadonna by Ciddti, In »• 



■pa. Patbg lead bence throHgh tbe dark 
4 tbeyiUiy, by St. PMer, on the Troitburg, 
una, on theElHchind Brenner Road. But 

InKreaHnl way li thit to the hdiIi, by 
lack, Bl. lUcbael, to Kiitdrnth, near tbe 

Alp (paNnie); a little Kmlh of which 1> 



*rf»clw.nMiMr8Md, M Mot*. 



..llp< 



aanta CrMe.... 11 

(Or, oM L mnan wn 
put BeUimo, 1). la 



between Ijuubroek 



pitL=141 mli.=l| dayi. 
) a railway la optn.) 
peiianer Struie. In 
Ot, li (ha •borteit roid 
Ten Leo, vid the Bren- 
I abonndi with mock Bn* 



m BmnMk by nil la TdbUOll (BUt.) M 
itall. AtTob1lcbPlale>ti.where1herlTen 
I eonth and eait divide off, tbe road tomi off 
the Fnitwthal, to tbe HoblmitelnertbaJ, or 
• of the RIoii, a romantic hollow, witb <he 




178 



BBAOSHAWS SWITZBBLAMD AND TBI TTHOL. 



[Section 4 



OOBTINA, or Cortixut dl Ampeno, 

Mild to be the richest commane in the Tyrol, at 
the foot of jagged Dolomite mountains. 

HoHU: Aqnila Nera; Stella, Ac. It hat a fine 
Parish Church, and is a good centre for excnnionH 
among the Dolomites. MonU Cristailo is 10,640 
feet high; MonU Tofcmct, the highest, is 10,730 feet. 
A diligence road strikes east to Aoronzo and 
St. Stephen's, on the Pla^e. There Is an Inn at 
Anronzo; above which is the ridge called the 
lIaniiaxole« extending hence to Landro, abont 
10,000 feet high. Below Cortina is Znd, where 
ftpath from Andraz in the Bnchensteinthal fall sin. 
The next place, Acqoa Bnona, is the last Tillage 
in Tyrol. 

The next place is St. Vito, in that part of Venetian 
Lombardy called the Bellnnese. Aboye where the 
Yallesina joins the Boite stands Venas, in a 
beautiful spot; which is surpassed by the beauty 
of Pleye dl Cadore, where Titian was bom 
1480, in a house still shown here. His family name 
was Vecellio. The road hence becomes steeper, 
and leads along the Piaye through a narrow defile 
50 feet deep, to PeraroUo, where the Boita joins the 
Piaye. The next places in the yalley are Perarolo, 
Rucoryo, Riyalgo, and Longar<me\ then Capo dl 
Ponte (a one-arch bridge, 90 feet aboye the water), 
where the road to Bellimo, 6 miles (see page 179), 
down the Piaye, turns off. 

Santa Croce, the next post town, stands about 
midway between Lakes Morto and Paslna; and is 
succeeded by 

Serraralle, not far from a third lake, and 
standing in a deep pass. It belongs to the province 
of Treyisl. Oeneda is a bishop' s see, with a popu- 
lation of 5,000, and two old castles. Join the rail 
(Venice and Trieste line) at Gonegllano (Stat.), 
the next town, which has 6,000 population. Tou 
cross the Piaye again to reach Spresiano ; beyond 
which, on the railway to Venice, Is the capital of 
the province, 

TBEVI80 (Stat) 
Hotels: Stella d'Oro; Albergo Reale. 
The ancient TarviHum under the Gtoths (whose 
last king was a native), now a bishop's see, (fee, iii 
a fertile part of the Slle. Population, 81,000. After 
/ifrtf ZaefgvJbMjrdM or Lombardi held it, it became 
^0 hMd of M district called MturcA Trtvliana; 
^*' Mcqulrtd by' ~ ^Jaiif la the fourteenth 



century, and besieged in 1509 by the German an 
French army. The streets are old and irregulai 
with arcades before the houses. A cross-shape 
Cathedral^ begun by the Lombards, and still incom 
plete, has paintings by Veronese, Titian, an< 
Bordone, a native. The town house, law courtf 
and new prison are near it. In St. Nichola 
Church is a fine Madonna; and a work of Glorgion< 
in the Monte dl Pletk. Other buildings are, ten oi 
eleven Churches; the bishop's palace; thePalazsi 
(seats) of the Pola, Brescia, and other families; 
the hospital; theatre; public library of 80,000 
volumes, and botanic garden; the Athenasum, or 
Academy of Sciences, Ac. Trade In wool, cloth, 
silk, com, wine, fruit, paper. Rail to Bellan(^ 
to Motta dl Livenza, to Vlcensa, and to 
Mestre and Venice. The Province was called 
Trevisiano when it belonged to Venice, and con- 
tained 188,000 populatimi. 

Mestre (Stet), the next place, on the Milan 
and Venice rail. See BradihawU HandrBook H> 
Italy. 



Trent, tbrougb Val Sngana to Bellnno 
(or to Venice). 

Omnibus from Trent to Borgo, and from Borgo, 
to Primolaus and Bassuno. 

Trent (Stat.), on the Brenner line, as In Route 
38. Ascending the little Ferslna, yon come to 
Clvezzano Castle, and to 

Ferglne (9^ miles), or Fermt in German; s 
picturesque town, 3,000 population, with a castle 
and old parish church. Further on to the south 
are the pretty lakes of Caldonazzo and Levlco at 
the head of the Brenta, which, by the name of Val 
Sugana, you now descend toLevlCO, a town of 2,700 
population, with vitriol works, and mineral water 
baths. Fine view of the Val Sugana from the 
Brigitta Hill. The next places are Novaledo, 
Roncegno, and - 

Borgo dl Val Sugana (U mUes), or Borchen, 
in German. Inn : Croce. It is the Roman Burgwm 
Ansugii; With 4,300 population, a good chupch, and 
ruined old castles about it. Much silk is produopd. 
A large stalactite cave is at Olle (to the south), in 
a range called Cima Dodicl (or Twelve-headed), 
which here divides Tyrol fromXiombardy. Beyond 
thlft TKUg^, towtv^ kB&aJS5^, Vgl<& \v«m^ VrfttL (MO^ 



Bonte 44.] 



TTROL— PRIMOLANO, BAMAKO, fiSLLTTHO. 



179 



Commilii or Seren Towns, eonsisting of the 
detoendmntt of German tettlers, numbering about 
90^000^ who, in the midst of Italians, preserve a 
peovliar dress, and, to some extent, language. 
Tkvy are eattle breeders and straw plaiters. They 
are plausibly conjectured to be deecendents of 
tome Alemanni, who came here about 600, b.o. 
Monte NoYigho, oyer Asiago, is 6,570 feet above 
the 



Ttooi Borgo the road runs by CastelnuoTO (where 
a road turns off to the fine castle of Strigno), then 
by Oapidaletto, where a battle was fought in the 
Ftench wars, on to Origno. Here the barren 
Val Tesino turns off to the Cima d'Asta (9,200 feet), 
fkroin which you get by the Cimadi Lagorei, into the 
FMmsthal, at Panchia. Its inhabitant^ migrate 
pedlars, and deal in prints of saints, &c., all 
Europe. The next place down the Brenta, 
and the last in Tyrol, is Le Teiie. with the Aus- 
tiiui Custom House; 1 mile further is the Italian 
and then 



TlfmOlano (l? miles), in the Province of Vici- 
where Napoleon beat part of the Austrian 
I in 1796. The river then rushes through the 
Am Pus Of COValO (so called from a fort hollowed 
oat in the rooks above it), the road being carried 
: the face of the cliffs and commanding fine 
Further down, past Cismonx (where a 
I of the Brenta falls in), Carpane, tuid Solagna 
CirlMTC the architect Terracino is buriedX it is 
iMUly enltivated all the way to 

BA8SAN0 (Stat.), 19 miles. 

PopDlation, 14,000. 

M&kia: Hondo; St. Antonio. 

▲ walled town, archbishop's see, Ac, on the 
iMnta, on a beautiful slope at the foot of the Alps. 
Si belonged to the Exzelino family, one of whom, 
bom at Bomano (to the north-east), and notorious 
iirldaemelty, built a tower, which is part of the 
< W i riMa hop> Palace. After being held by Venice 
1404, it was given to Austria, 1797, by Bona- 
, who defeated Wurmser here in August, 1796. 
flieatre is a good building. The bridge was 
Mbnilt hy CasaroUi, on the site of Palladio's; and 
^Mnraial of its tblr^-ere CbnrchtB are decorated 
patatbigB by GJncomo da Poiito, a native 
"ft cemnmly called Jfeutan0, and hia soqb, 






especially Francesco, also a native. The best is 
in the Oratorio San Giuseppe. The Museum has 
pictures by Bassano and casts of Canova*s works. 
The father died here in his own house. Fine view 
from the Piazza del Terraglio. 

Some of the best prospects are had from the Vill n 
Rezzonica, which has a work, the Death of Socrates, 
by Canqva; who was bom at POBSagno (13 miles 
east north-east, beyond Romano), where they show 
a round church built by him, like the Pantheon 
at Rome, and casts of his statuary at the family 
house. In the church is his t<Hnb, and an altar- 
piece by him, also a good bronze relief. Napoleon 
made Murat Duke of Bassano. Manufactures of 
wooll^s, straw hats (like Leghorn), silk, leather, 
&c. ; and a trade in these, with wine and fruit. 

Bail to Yicenza, Padua, and Treviso on the 
branch railway to Venice. . 

From Primolano (above), on the way to Belluno, 
you pass across the Cismone, up which ii a wky 
to Primiero, and into Fassathal, to 

Feltre (13 miles), where a direct road, down the 
Piave, turns off to Treviso. A rather antiquated 
place, with an old castle, the new Onameri Palace, 
and 13,000 inhabitants. It is one of the towns of 
the Bellunese Province. Railway from Feltre to 
Belluno, 19| miles. Passing hence by road to 
St. Giustina and Brebano (where the Agordo, from 
its copper mines at its head, joins the Piave), you 
come to the chief town of the Dolomite country, 

Belluno. ffotel: Grand Hotel des Alpei (all 
modem conveniences). Seat of the governor, 
bishop, Ac, in a fine spot, on a hill, commanding 
a noble prospect. Population, 10,000 (the province, 
132,000). Among the buildings are the governor's 
house, containing marble^ &e.; the town's 
house, the cathedral, Palladiu's designs; a giKxl 
clock tower, a large public library, gymnasium, 
and hospital. Most of these suffered greatly 
from an earthquake, June, 1878. The cathedrul - 
(restored) was half destroyed. An aqueduct also 
supplies several marble fountains. Mauro Capel- 
Inrl, who became Pope Gregory XVI., in 1883^ waR 
bom \v«<4, IJLw^YL^jL-^NRitfst 'w^'^Xi'^^ ^^ ^'6^«ssvv^» 
From^«\\x«io,l\v^ K«st^^^ tJ5\«^ '°^'^^^^';^^ 
to AgotAo wv(l ^V5P«5Lt^. ^^^^^ ^'^'^ 



i 




^firf iiisMl. 

Is 




i 



ADVBBTISSMXNTS* 



CONTINENTAL HOTELS, &c. 



AIX-LA-CHAFELLK 



CABI. BOIIMBE, Proprietor. 

THIS Urge and well-known Establishment, close to the Karsaal, and opposite the principal Bath 
Houses, has an excellent reputation for its general comfort, cleanliness, superior accommoda- 
tion, and yery moderate charges. The Proprietor lived sereral years in England. Table d*H6te at 
1 and 6 o'clock. Carriages at the Hotel. Arrangements in the Winter season from the Itt October-. 



AMSTEBDAM. 



AMSTERDAM. ' "^ 

FIRST-CLASS FAMILY HOTEL. New palatial building, hcmg the Cen- 
tral Railway Station, centre of the City, 2 minutes from the Royal Palace and the Exchange. 
The finest position of Amsterdam. The only fire-proof Hotel of Amsterdam. Erery modem oonifort. 
Electric Light Hydraulic Lift. Handsome large Public Halls. Aira ngettte n ts a nd Pensioa. 
Charges moderate, danitary arrangements perfect EMIL XAUFFMAHH, MBBBfSW, 



BADEN-BADEN. 



FIBSTOLASS ESTABLISHMENT, nearest to the 

COI«¥KBSAT|ON HOUSE and 

MEW YAPOUmTHS (Fredericsbaths)^ 

Mow surrounded by its own 



beautiful Park. 



B 



ov*W 



pw^& 






ff^U 



i**' Op«i all the year. 

cnuinret atriettjr moacrMe* 

Special arrangements for a prolonged stay. 

Poniion. TaUe d'hote at 1 and 6 (^oIcMk. 

HYDRAULIC LIFT IN BOTH HOUSES. 

A* ROMKBR* Proprietor. 
BRANCH HOTEL:— HOTEL EDEN, PALLANZA, (LAGO MAQGIORE^ 

J70Ti:i« d'ANGIiETEBBJEI. 



Ij^?P^ flRST-CLASS HOTEL, of old nputaUoik, ^aifctwAiw^ Vj v\a XkVgMaft. funUies, 
P^^ti fully Bituated in the best part of tke place, iitat \\« Ytom«BeA%,\a»«>w^w»iktk^\^«swfc^ 

•^^^^^remenL Bathe. Lift. Garden. A»Tau«em*iit%taaA*, ^v«^%3^^a»^<*». 



BADENWEILEB. 



BADENWEILER IN BADEN. 

HOTEL SOMMER 

(FORMERLY HOTEL KARLSRUHE). 

Fixst-dass House. BeautiMly situated, with Mineral Water 

Springs (Einselbader). 
Omnibus meets principal Trains at the Mnlheim Station. 



FREIBURG IN BREISGAU, BADEN. 

HOTEL SOMMER ZUM 




First-class Hotel, near the Bailway Station, situated in 
Oa centre of a beautiftil garden, commanding magnificent view. 

Both establishments have large Dining, Reading, St Billiard Rooms. 
Excellent Cooking. Fine ^Wlnes. Moderate Prlceis. 

SOMMBR BROTHERS, Proprtoton. 

BARCELONA. 



GRAND HOTEL DE8 QUATRE NATIONS. 



THIS Fint Class Family Hotel, muoh frequented by English and Americans, 
li aituAted in the most fashionable quarter of the Town, in the centre of the Theatres, aa^ 
SHmt idaoea of amnsement, near the Post and Telegraph Offices. French Cuisine, Table d'Hott. 
■■(Uiii, Garman, and French spoken. Terms moderate. Special terms for the Winter Season. 

PROPRIETORS s FORTIS dc C: 

BEATTLIEU. 

HOTEL DES A.WiV.6^^^ 

(THB ONLY FIBET OLASa U^TBL:\ ^^vniC^^W 

THOROUGHLY RE-ORGAMISED. fWi. ^VE.'H ^'^ 'VSS. vt.^ 



BELLA6I0, Oir THE XAXE OF COMO (ITALY). 



tPSSS, 



HOTBf. GRANDE BRETAGNE. 

HTDKAVUC UVT amd EEECTKIC UCHT. 



it>r vn i%mtnm akb Bwr iMir*i«T> mnsLB to bt twmion «• naiM ukw Th* rrofrfetc 

ttankwmi0oxtUgl0mmtii»atttmioM»Timan, ML VILLA 11111111 l<m-1itd^lh»ia—i—Mi5^ 
■n^Mwitly illiiliiron 4k» lwl*te Ib tta* nMrt •< estMHlTvpunlHw •vwlookbw- tlMtwo Lfttaai Itelii 
►■»fto»li h«M fa sd^pii Iwling^ to tt» HoW <fcM»l<i Urtl^Mfc • T IfTmi: TtiifililSr 

Ouly ▼Mtow rtaylag at th> Hottf Qnaito BwtBgnt hart Ibm »iiintf.Unf to the bcMttlfal Pitrk of thsYillA 8«rbdLloa 



BEBCET-STTB-MER (Fas de Calais). 





•Iff.' TUx #■•«■ AQMAtatER moncmjun. " 

HoQM highlj reeonunioded to FAmiIieii» Jhe Shore beipg especially faroarable to childreo. Terrace 

; Saloons. F^ll Board f^om 8 francs par daf . 

-Sam(^ho«fle,'flt BouLOOirs-fini-Hxs, Hotel dO I'EUTOPe; near the ^ Plage" and *«CadiM).** 

' TBblA d*H0lM|iil 6 o'dLoA K. XOMBOaSB, Fropxietor. 



qi^sesaBBSssaevssBsaaBasssnaess 

BEKUDI. 



ICOXTOFOL BOTEL-Betlin. 

STATION TRIEDRiCHSTRASSE. 

First-'dass Hotel, vtth renoned Sestanrimt and excellent French Kltchei. 

Proprietora* SifSHJJfim A SCHAVKTE, Wine Mer^uuitg. 



BEX. 



•vpoiite fhe IVew KnirllBb Church* 

TmS fayourlt^^ot^l, renovated and newly re-furnished, with its new •^i^it^ 
Qf M BooniB, new Drawing Room, Dining Boom, Billiard Boom, Smoking Roon, aai 
promenoir; Bath Establishment with Salt Bathaand Tw6.Salle8 dea Douches ; Russian and TnrkiA 
Baths, Electric Battery and Inhaling Rooms ; will now be open all the year. Carriages. OmnlboMf 

at the Station. Large Paric^ith shaded walks. Pension. Terms moderate. C H I E B 



BIABBITZ. 



'J?L _ - 

ffS spieihdid Ekfillfalisiimeat, fsicitis the ^e& Bk<i^&&)^^^W^ii^^«fiaalte 

J*e^«m» tafmmed forita ««at comfort, «wsA\etAw^fi»«,«ftd^too^^^ 



APYE^TISMUtlTTg. 5 

BLon. 



aHAXTI) SOTEL DE BLOIS. 



APARTMENTS for Families. Close' to the Castle of Blois. Comfortable 
CSurUfVforTbitlnf Cluunbordaadtheesnrirons. Omnibus at th« Button. Engiiah cpoken. 

BONN. 



UFT. On ibe Bank! of the Bhlne. LIFT. 

Bnropean Bepntatlon. - 300 Booms and Saloons. 



9 blMHlvs Kngllih Okrdau. Beading, Smoking, aud Billiard Bourns. Ladiea' Saloon. American. French, and 
■■fBdi MmwtpaptrK Warm and Cold Batbs in the HoteL Speoial OmnilinMi belongiBg to the Betabliiihment to and 
Itmn an Tnliia and Stiaaen. Moderate Chaaee. Advantagaoae anangemeuta JEor a prolonad ■afouni. Peniion. 
W^UrrmaammmOA TaUe d'H«to at U audi u'oloek. Mm V^iiKiMWt, MamMier, 



BORDEAUX. 



GRAND HOTEL 

(HOTEL de FRANCE et de NANTES, r^unis). 

0miT WirU CUuM Hotely ftUl sontli, iHttronlsed by H.K.H. tke Prlnee of Wales. 

LIFT. ELECTRIC LIGHT. 

TEIiSFHONB, latest sTstem. communioathig with PARIS. 

CALOBIFEBE HEATISTG DAY AND NIGHT. 

TABLE D'HOTE. RESTAURANT. 

LADIES' ROOM. READING and SMOKING ROOMS. 

BATH ROOM ON EACH FLOOR. 

tfttwtted opposite the Grand Theatre, the Prefectare, the Exchange, the Bank of 
Auee, and tae Poirt. Saloons and dO fiooms from 8 francs upward ; in Pension 
tt k. a week. 

<|b. VBTEB'8 magnificent Cellars under the Hotel, containing 80,000 bott]e8» 
tta be Tisited at any time in the day ; he is^ also Proprietor of the Domaine du 
DmiX, and Parrejor of Wine and Liqueurs to H.M. the Queen of England. 
Ba sells this article in small and large quantities, in bottles or in wood, in full 
confldence. 

L. PETER, Proprietor. 






BB 



B0RDI6?ERA. 



HOTEL D'ANGLETERIRE. 

to-e&iS* ^ii!S?f2f*5** "•^^ '«• * protiwstea stay. ^ii«\»\v ^^^^^^^SbSSSTv^ 



BOTTLOGNE-SUB-HER. 



■ ■ ■— 



HOTEIi FOLKESTONE. 

A DMIRABLT titoatad, eloM to the Casino and Sands. Lariir« <u>d small Apartments Speciil 
^^ terms for Families and Parties. Table d*Hftte and Restaurant (open to non-residenU). 
Bxeellent Cuisine. First Class Wines. Perfect Sanitation. Higlily recommen ded. Cook*s conpom 
accepted. English spoken— On parle Frangais—BIan ipricht Deatsch, W. PBPPBBDniB, RO. 

bregehz. 
HOTEL DE L'EUROPE. 

Hewly kwflt, c1«m io tbe Btotl^B uid to»dl«g Place •€ ike BteMBen. 

SITUATED on the Lake, it commands a splendid riew of the Moantalns^ and afTords erery modero 
comfort. 80 elegantly furnished Bedrooms.' Saloons. ** Salle h Manger." Reading Ssloon. 
Qood attendance. Moderate cluurges. Excellent Restaurant. 

A. BKACHER md T. NOIAK, Proprielom. _ 

BRUSSELS. 

HOTEL MENGELLE 

Hydratdic Lift. (RITE BOTALE). HydranUe Lift. 

THIS LABOE AND BEAUTIFUL nSST-CLASS HOTEL 

Is situated in tbe finest and heattMest part of tlie Ton, 

NEAR TO THE MOST PREOUENTED PROMENADES, 
AMD IS SUPPLIED WITH EVERY MODERN COMFORT. 

TABLE D'HdTE 5 FRANCS. 

RKSTAURANT "k LA CARTK" AT ANT HOUR. 

mCBT KATE COOKIMt AND CBMCK iriNES. 

ACCOMMODATION FOR 150 PERSONS, 

EEADma AND OONVEESATION SALOONS. 



BATHS. LARGE AND 8PUUIDID DIHINQ ROOM. 

POST AND TRli^^iKKVlft.^ 

'^^Jr£rem0/its made with Families during the >NMw |^^^^^^ 



▲DTBXTISBMfelfTS. 

BRUSSVLB OontlnnaA. 



HOTEL DE BELLE VUE. 

^^ FI.ACE BOTAI.B. 

THIS unriTalled EsUbliBhment, overlooking the Park, the Place Royale, and 
the Rue Royale, hat been oontlderablj enlarffed and embellished by the prenent Proprietor, 
Mr. B. DREHEL. Public Haloons, Reading, Smoking, and Bath Rooms. Spacious Terrace Qardtn 
owlooking the whole park. Electric Light in all the Rooms. Ticket and Booking Office for Lug- 
!«§• in the Hotel. Rooms from 4 frs. &0 c, including Electric Light. Hydraulic Lift (Heurtebise 

HOTEL DE FLANDRE. 

PI.ACB ROTAEB. 

LODGING, inclasiye of attendance and electric liffht, from 4 frs. per day. First 
Breakfast, 1 fr. &0 c; Luncheon, 4 frs.; Table d'HOte, fi frs.; Pension: Bedroom, attendance, 
liglit, and three meals daily, ftrom 18 frs. AO c. per djiy. Public Saloons, Billiards, and Bath Room. 
Bleetrie Light. Lift. Ticket and Booking OfBce for Luggage. 

aXU.iri) EOTEL Qt'EOSAT. 

BOULBYABD BOTANIQUE. Oloae to the Station for Germany, Holland, 
France, Spa, Ostend. Antwerp, Ghent, aind Brupres. The Waterloo Coach passes before the 
Hotel erery morning. Charges moderate. Bath! In the HoteL Telephone. 

Dark Roobi for Photovrapha. 

FIRST CLASS AND SPACIOUS APARTMENTS. 

MRS. MATTHYS, 42, Bus du Prinob Rotal, lets good furnished 
Saloons, Bed-rooms bv the Week or the Month, with linen and attendance. Board if 
desired. Beet situation near the Boulerards, the Atcuuc Louise, and the Tramways. Moderate 
tttms. Mrs. MATTHY8 speaks English. 



BUDAPEST. 



HOTEL QUEEN OF ENGLAND. 

Highly Rbcommbndbd First Class Hotel. 

VESfC SITUATED IN TOWN. VIEW ON THE CORSO. 

JOSBV MABCHAL, PFoprietor. 

cadenabbia. 
HOTEL DE BEU-^ N\^^. 

EVRST^TE HOTEL, lately greatly «i*k«.«A,A'««»«^«?;^^;SS^^ 



• 



CAEN. 



HOTEL D'ANaLETEBBE. 

FirBi Class Hotel, best in the Town. 

It, MANCEL, Proprietor. 



CAIRO. 



MEN A HOUSE HOTEL. 

EIGHT nnles f^om Cairdy EjB^ypty within 5 minixteft' walk of the great Pyramids. 
•Foor-in-hand Coach and Break run in regular commnnicatlon with the Hotels d'Angleterrcand 
Cootfarental, Oairo. Public and Private Dining Rooms, Reading, Drawing, and Smoking Rooms. A 
large selection of Books, and most of the English Journals are taken in. 



CALAIS. 



TERMINUS HOTEL 

(GARE SEARTTIHE.) 

Faoing Landing Stag^e, Calais & Dover Boats. 

BATH8. 

POST AND TELEGRAPH OFFICES. ELECTRIC LIGHT. 



CENTRAL HOTEL 

(GARE 7ILLE.) 

Situated in the Centre of the Town. 
POST AND TELEGRAPH OFFICES. ELECTRIC LIGHT. 

CAyMES. 

HOTEL PRINCE DE GALLES, 

f '^SJS^^^^f -Dcai" St. 'Paul's Church, stands oil wi %xMLiweos» y5v>X& ^^fr^ 
**«^7K^^S**?f *rl«/ty hl/J. fh>m the north and *asfc^Vi»A».wiAt»»«BM««Atii«m%t!V 

WE 



ADTSmniSMEllTS. 



cAwmai o#atintt»a. 



GRAND HOTEL DE CANNES. 

k iltaatloii om the prlndpal Pirnnenade, aaxt dow to tbe "Onde Hanttqiw.'' 
IiABQE OABDEN. ULUnX TENNIS. LIFT. 

■iBBf PropilctM*, Muuifler of the KarliMu, St. Morits-Bath, Xngadine, BiiiM*. 



HOTEL PENSION and VILLA DE LA TOUR. 

AT the West Bnd of Cannes, full South, facing the Sea and the Esterel 
Mouitaiiu. Larire Oarden md Terrace waHcs, immediately adjoining' tlie Pine Woods at the 
CmlK di Garde (Family Honae). Lawn Tennis and Croquet Oronnds. Open Ut October. 

BKIIftA MBHrS. ProprtetreM. 
bf ibit ProprletreM has a nicely furnished Tina to let, eeoUlolng 3 Bitting Boooas, 7 Bed- 
etc Board and Benrkse U required. 



CABLSBAD. 



HOTEL GOLDENER SCHILD, 

"With Dependence (Tivo German Monarchs). 

THIS HOTEL has European celebritj, b rerj beaatifully situated, with large 
Gmr^n, and Is newly fnrnlflhed and decorated. TrareUers will tind here erery comfort at 
Moderate prices. English, French, and Qenuan Newspapers. Open all the year. English 
8«rauita. F. B080HBE, Hotelier. 



■nn 



CATJTEBETS. 



GRAND HOTEL D'ANGLETERRE 

ANO rre BBAVTIFUL ANXEXB. EN«USH «ARBRN. 

FIRST CLASS ESTABLISHMENT, particularly recommended. 300 Rooms. 
TaUe d*H6te. Restaurant. Near the Bath JSatablishmeot and t he Ca sino. Lift. English 
nd«tlMr Uaguages spoken. Open all the year. A. MEILLOlf, PropxletOir. 



CEBNOBBIO. 



GRAND HOTEL VILLA D'ESTE AND REINE D'ANGLETERRE. 

T ARGE and splendid bouse of the first order, with extensive Park find Garden on tlko banks of the 
■^ Lake. Former residence of H. M. Queen Caroline of England. Abode chonon by H. M. the 
Ute Empress of Russia in 1868. Arnuifsementa for f aeaOies at very moderate rates. Pemioa. 



CHAMBERY. 



HOTEL DE PRANCE. 

-I aeir «fUbllBhment in an open and airy eltnaUofn, cAttiA \» l\»^«a\^v! ^''S^^JSrSeq 
SS^*P*^ents Bcnpulouair dean. Table tfR(Vle •! W wi^ ^.^f^r^:.-^fc2S*^^ 



10 • ADTSKTUSMXHTS. 



CHAHOUNIX. 



GRAND HOTEL ROYAL et de SAUS8URL 

FmST-CLASS FAMILY HOTEL, delightfully situated in fuU riew of 
MoDt Blade. Lftrg* Park and Garden. Ezealleot Telescope for ft-ee me of tIsIUm^ Baths. 
French Reatonrant. Special arrangenieoU. Under personal management of the proprietor. 



CHAUHONT (Trance) Hte. Maine. 



aZlANS SOTEL SE FBAITCE, 



Ijirge uid MMOl "veiT e«Bifbrto1ile ApartmeBta. 

Large and small Booms. Recommended to Families and Single Tonrists. 

OHNIBIJS Tm AMA TBAIMS, 



CHUB (Coire). 



HOTEL STEINBOCK (Capricome.) 

WMCMSILT EMmmr, Ktlm * Co. B. KU?PBR lUaafftf, Itemerly at the Hotel Bear a« lae, 
' Hotel Vatioaal, LacMnie. 

FIRST CIA88 HOTBI„ wlih Iff Rooma and Mttinm RfMnsa. 
Beet Mtoatlen hi Tewa. Baths on each ioor. Xattwaar Bo«khw OAee for Tlekets aad Laggsffe ia, the 

Oarriaces and extra reels. 
Telaphene eomopondenee between the roei. Poet OfBoe lor Diligvaoea. sod Eztn Poet, in the Hotel. 

COBLENCEe 

HOTEL IDTJ a-EA.:N"T, 



Hewn. EISBVNAHM. Pr«prtet»n. 

THIS well-lcnown' and faronrite first claee hot^ is deltgntfully situated opposite the Castlo of 
Ehrenbreitstein; it is the nearest to the landing-place of the steamers, and oomauinds a most 
beantifnl riew of the Rhine and snrroonding conntry. This highly recommended establishment 
eomMnes superior accommodation with moderate prices. Cold and warm hatha. Purreyer eC Wine 
to His Majesty ihe Emperor of Germany. 



COLOGNE. 



First Glass Hotel, near the Cathedral, on the Bhine. 300 Booouu 

TABLE D'HOTE at One and Six o'clock. Telegraph and Post Offices. Rail- 
way Ticket and Booking Office for Luggage in the Hotel. English Church from June Iffth, 187f . 



THE GENUINE 




l^jO f-tm 3»y ^^"^^ ■^■■^^^ a^HMHOT ^^^m^^ ^^fci^^^ ^^■^■^B ^^*^^^ ^^fc^^*^ «^»^^fc «^h^HV 

m^t.Z^: ^ ^^^Uedetrictlj according to the OTiffiual ^TOsctrD!toa.^i ^^Vki^sbMAx 



cohoamm 



x>oi^ xzorPEsxj, 



COI.O«HB OM TR WnilE. 

MAGNIFICENT New Building opposite the Cathedral. Finest and laigest 
Hotel in Oloflrne. Carefully manai^ea with regard to the comfort and tastt of Saii^ih 
Familiei. Grand Saloont. Smokiup, Reading, Drawing Roomi. Bath, Ac Three Elovaton. 
Eleetric Light. Model ate charges. 

COHO. 



aRAXTD BOTSL VOLTA. 

ON the border of the Lake, opposite the Landing Place of Steamers. The sole 
First Class Hotel in Como. Cook's Conrova Accmnrnp, 

Q. BAZSn, PyoprletOT. . 

COHTREXEVILLE (Vosges). 



Visitors will find this Hotel most comfortable. It is pleasantly situated 

near the Springs and Baths. 

Good CnlBine. EngUsli spokm. The Hotel Onmlbas meets all trains. 
SCHUHKRAFT, Proprietor. 

COBFU, 

GRAND HOTEL ST. GEORGES. 

Pcnsiea at rery moderate prleea. 

THIS First-class Hotel, situated on the best side of the Esplanade, fitted up 
after the English style, well known and highly recommended for its comfort and good attend* 
taee, is under the personal-Management of the sole Proprietor, Alexander S. ManucllJ. 

CUXHAVIiIf 

POLLE'S HOTEL BELVEDERE. 

E. d6uLE» Proprietor* 

FIRST CLASS HOTEL, newlj built, with a splendid view on the Sea and 
Port, newly and comfortably fitted up. Good Cuisine. Choice Wines. Warm Sea Baths in 
the house. Two minutes* walk from the Railway DepOt, fifteen minutes from the New Sea bathing 
SstiU>Uahment. Carriages of the Hotel at the Landing place. 



DARMSTADT. 



HOTEL DARMSTAEDTER HOF. 

A FIRST-BATE HOTEL of old standing, superior accommodsktiotiL !<«. 
Oentlemen or Families. Two ColTee Boomi. ^xc«W«uVt«Si^% ^iaKX^. %«Km!* ^^^ wwm*w- 
mtrnti^ with ererjr comfort in the English slyle, at noA«ii\« ODk«.ti|^'a« ^^rc^RB^'^v^ 

KA ^ThiB Hotel was estoblished more ikiaa ^iJi % c«n^»J7 ^^^l^tl'SS^^ 
uS^'trfriuJ^^^ residence in EngUndeartAw VLt.\f\i»»V*;^^^^^^ 



It ASTSBSXIIMBim. 

_ - - - - - — - _ . ^^ ■ _ _ 

Canton des GrisonsJ BAVOZ FLATZ. [Switzedaad. 

'HOTEL AND PENSION BUOL. 

f^nUST-CLASS HOTEL; on its own meadows near a fine wood, dose to the 
EngUsh Church, with Sonth upect. Dninage on the beat method. Bstra Prlrate Rooms, 
and splendid snite of Pablic Rooms, with a library of English, French, and CFerman Books. 

Ckmiplete Hum and staUe estaUisIinient. VewHQkflorXnTalidB. 
Electric IJsht* ۥ BVOL, Proprietor. 



(France.) DAZ. . (Landes*) 



THIS laige Establishmeaty with ite celebrated Mud and Hot Mineral 
Baths. Open all the year, it is <me of tin best eetablishmeats on the Continent, and is in 
great repute for the treatment and onre of BlMBmathnB« Gout, Paralysis, Neuralgia, Throat 
and Chest Diseases, and is especially patronised by the Goremmeut and the Academy of Medicine 
of Paris. The aecommodation is the same as in .the first class Hotels. Pension K) francs the Winter, 
8 francs the summer. 



BRESDEN. 



Hotel Bristol. 

FIRST CLASS. 

Oppo^te tlie Central Raflfay Station, BISMARKPLATZ, 7. 

Situated in the English-American Square, the finest part of Dresden. 

VERT FAVOURABLE TERlfS EN PENSION. 

ROOMS FROM 2 MARKS. 

O. WENTZEL, Proprtetor. 
EA1IX BONIIES. 



^"^onatUugnm^tg: JBo^lish BerranU. Good¥WtAti«. 



13 



EISEKACH. 



BJIHIRG'S HOTEL ZUM GR08SHERZ0G VeN 8ACHSEN. 

FIBST CliASS HOTEL, the largeit of the Town, date to the Station (Amyal). 

Two << Tables d'Hote" in the Afternoon. 

CONVERSATION SALOON. SLSGANT GA.RRIAGES. 
CABK St ■91I1TNO r5hRIG, Piwprieton Uwd Wine Merckiuite). 

Purreyort to H. Q. the Dnke of Saxo Weinuur. 



EMS. 



HOTEL D'ANGLETERRE. 

F* SCMMITT, Proprietor* 

niHIS First Class Hotel is in the best situation of Ems, opposite the Boyal 

^ B«ths, with A beantifol Garden, and eombines ereiy comfort. Moderate charges. Bxeellent 
Cooking and choice Wines. Reading, Musle, Billiard, aR4 Smoking Booms. Arrangements, on 
Ttrj reasonable terms, are made at the early and late part of the season. The Hotel is lighted by 
ElMtfie Liffht. 



EMOELBEB6. 



KURHAU8 HOTEL & PENSION TITUS. 

inBST-CLASS HOTEL, best situated in the Valley, In the middle of an exteoslTe garden. 
-^ SOO Beds. Lofty Dining Room. Large Conversation Saloon with Veranda. Reading, 
Bffllsxd, and Smoking Rooms. Mnsie Saloon. Lift. Electric Li^it in all the rooms. Warm 
ud Cold Shower Baths. English Chapel In the garden. Qeod attendance. Moderate charges. 

ED. OATTANI, Proprietor. 



HOTEL ENGEL 



nU nOWN HOTEL WITH GOOD ACCOMMODATION, COITAINING 100 BEDS 

OoliYersation Saloon, Beading, and Smoking RoomB. Eleotrio Light. Bat hs. 

•I— S 7B8. A DAT, SVERTTHIKa DnjLXJDZD. SEDVCED PBIOBB IN JVlfB Ain> BEFTEMBSB. 

Fn* W¥R8€H-€ATTANI, Manager. 



FLORENCE. 



PHARMACY OF THE BRITISH LEGATION. 

H. BOBEBTS & CO., 

17, Via Tomalmoni; and Rome, Piazza 8. Lorenzo in Lndna, 36 and 37, 

Pteacxiptious prepared* by English asslstan£a with drngs from the best London Houses. 
FREMCH Airo GERMAir MimSRAK WATERH. 



GENEVA (Switzerland). 



^VaS^^H^on near the Lake unA '^Ta^Xx^^^^;^^^^'^?^^^,^^ 



■ligation from T irmicM ^V^^^S^'**'*^^^ 



14 AOTXBIMKMSHTS; 



OHEMT. 



HOTEL D£ I.A POSTK^PLACE D'ABfiiES. Mr. A. Vande Patte, 
Proprietor of the BoCel, now b«rt to inform Boflish Travellors that he has snceeeded 
Mr. Dnbiu in the ebore well-known, flnt-rete, and beantifnlly- situated Establishment, which 
aUbrds extenstre and superior aoeonunodation for Families and Single Oentlemen. In taking the 
aboTO-named Hotel de U Poste, Mr. VAHDn Purrs is enabled to offer suitable accommodation to 
the most opulent Families, and to Commercial Gentlemen, and pledges himself to spare no 
excrtioBsto deserve the continuation of patronage of all classes of Trarellers. 
During the Winter Season arrangements are made with Families on moderate terms. 



OLIOR. 



HOTEL DU RIGHI VAUDOIS. 

FmST CLASS HOTEL, commanding » splendid yiew of the Lake Leman 
and the Alps. 100 Rooms. Saloons. Beading Room, Billiard Room, Ac 

■ A, HEIMBEMC, Propiietar. 

OMUIIDEN. 



HOTEIi DE BELLE VUE. 

FAcnrc; the steam boat iandhvg place. 

COMFORTABLE Fint-Claas HoteL Highlj recommended. Mr. 'Brachbk, 
the Proprietor, has been in England and America, and knows the wants of English and 
American Travellers. Charges moderate. 

GSENOBLE. 



Mr. TRILLATy Proprleter <Som*lm-law and Snceessor to Mr. MONNSTI* 

THIS HOTEL is situated in the PLAGE GBENETTE, 14; it offers 
excellent accommodation, and will be found deserring the patronage of English Families and 
Single Gentlemen. Post Horsesand Coaches for Aix-les-Bains, AUerard, Aricge, la Motte-Ies-Baina, 
la Sallette, Ac. Omnibus at the Station. 

THE HAGUE. 

HOTEL BELLEVUE. 

OLD Established First Class Favourite House with English and American 
Trayellers, situated in the most beautiful part of the Town, in the ricinity of all the Public 
Establishments, Monuments, Railway Station, and Tramway to Scheveningen. Excellent Cuisine 
Choice Wines. Moderate Charges. Pension during the Winter. 
C. J. TAW VEliSEBr, Jmr«, PropiletoK 

HAMBURG. 

HOTEIa de L'EUROPE. 

VNOWKED First Class Hotel, patromaod \>3 'H.«^.^.^^'Wai<t»<&^^k», 

-"^X aio0t of the Imperial and Royal Famiiiee of "Ruxop^; ^v^«Q.^\^%\VQ»xVwk^w««£Miii^'«% 



' HAVEE. 

HOTEL D'ANGLETERRE. 

SUB nrn PAmis. iM-ut. 

EXOESDINGLT well situated, in the best quarter of the Town, reoommended 
I for itt comfort and moderate charges. Apartments for Families. Mnsic and Conreraation 
BalooBs. Booms from 9 to 6 francs. **Restaarant ^ la Carte.*' Tabic d*Hute. Breakfast 
lfn.Me. Dinners Sfrs. English and German spoken. OSELLB Proprietor. 

HOMBQURG-LES-BAINS. 

HOTEL DE RUSSIE 

FIRST CLASS HOTEL. 

One of the best in the Town, with Dependence 

"VILLA AUGUSTA," 

SITUATED IN THE EXTENSIVE QARDEN OF THE HOTEL. 

Beit pMltloB BMV the Karuud, the Springi, and Bathing EstabUihrnentt. 

PERFECT SANITARY ARRANGEMENTS. 

SPLENDID DINING ROOM WITH COVERED VERANDAHS. 

BEST EIGUSI & FBMCH COOKIHG. FINEST OPEN AIR BESTiUBiNT. 

In tiie early and late part of the Season (Maj, June, September, and October), 
arrangements are made at verj moderate prices. 

S*. iL. ILiJLiri>IO, Px>oprleto]?. 

Pnryeyor to H.B.H. the Grand Pake of MecMenbtirg-Strelttg. 

ROYAL VICTOnIA HOTEL "ona^i^^^^s*"^ 

Has been patronised hf H.S.H. the Frlnee ef Wales and the Boyal Familj. 

Most elevaied sitwaiiom. Fine Garrten. CnclBa Soath. Admlrablr aiilted for Tltitoni 

•«ff«riiMr ftom CiOw$ and Blieamaliiani. 

GVSTAVB WEIGABTD, Proprietor, 

Ppyeyer to H.R.H. the rrlneeefWeles and H.EJ. the grand Pake of MecUenbargStrellta. 

IHHSBBTrCK. 

HOTEL DU TIROL, formerly Hotel d'Autriche. First-class EsUblishment 
■ doee to the Railway Sution and th« New Steam and Salt Swimming Baths Establishment, 
wMMBaads a boaatif nl riew of the Valley of the Ion; and soctouudlnf; mQn^ata,ln&. U «!QiaLtaiLn5L<«^x. 
JM •hgtuMj fumiBb9d Bed fiooma and %\i\,\xi% lL<Mvm%. U«aALVK^%a^^.'S»m<J«\\w%^%*«Ra^ ^!?^ 

«»«««« ffeiUtteB for education in g^eial. l?\J*et ^w^^^^i'^ ^^^S^J^^wAs 
B^altb nm>rt In WiaUr tor weak eoBfUtutlona. Ciaa*^J»^^^^^^^ ^ 



ts 

' ■ 1 ■ — — |_ _!. I 

INTKBLAXXN. 



Grand Hotel Victoria. 



400 Beds. Elevator. 

FROM APRn 11$ TIUL OCVfHUW Uwt. 



HOTEL METROPOLE, 

TOSmBXiT »&&]in> BOTSL BIT80SASB. 

ON the {triocSpal Promenade Every comfort^ and a good table is guaranteed 
at Moderate Prices. 

HOTEL JUNGPRAU. " 

Kept Iqr Hr. SE1I£K »TEB€HI. 

This excellent Hotel is sitnated on tha finest Promenadt, and is snrroonded with a large and 
beantifal Garden, from which an extensive riew is to be had all orer the Glaciers. English 
traTcUers will find at tb(s Hotel large and imall voU-famiahed apartments and rooau for families 
and single tourists. Moderate charges. 

KISSINGEir. 



ROYAL KURHAU8. 

THE LARGEST HOTEL IN TOWN. 

THIS Magnificent Establishment, just opposite the Knrgarten and l^eral 
Springs, contains now 150 Bedrooms, 80 Sitting Rooms, and a Ladiea' Drawing Room, all of 
them with an open view iu the gardens. 

The only Hotel with Kineral Bafbs In the House. 



KONIGSWIMTEB, (Petersberg), Bhine. 

IHITCI IM Tlir DrTFRCRCRP one of the moat beantUtal 
nU I CL UN I nC re l Clf ODCIiUi mountains of the Siel)en8ehlTi& 

TpNTIRBLY new building and every comfloit. Airy lodging-rooms and Saloons with a fine view, large dining and 
■*-^ restaurant rooms. Large plateau with forest and parlu, and beantifal sbady pnnncnadea. Magnificent views in 
greater variety tban from any other point of the Seven Mountains. Ev^ WediwBday. Military Free Ck>Doerfc. " W^ 
d'HMe, week-days at 1 o'clock, Smiday ai^d Htdidays at 12-90 aad 2 o clock; Dlime rs and Suupen at any hour. 
Acknowledged good cuisine and liquors. P6st and Telegranh in the house. Wwe. VETER JOS. MEUJSS. 
Address for letters aad telegrams : HsUes, F sta rs b s rg (ttliins). Communication with KUnigswinter dii«ctly by a 
Cog-wheel Bailway. Corresponds with all tcaiBS of the State Battway and Steamsra. 



LEIFSIC. 



"^^i^Uint^ MHtiMtea rftM CtmM ■otdU «a «iie TTromwMk^^^-ftWtt iBb%>\«d&^ 

^0F«i^r/ £Jectriv Light in every room. CTMli«ft»w>dei«Xa. 






▲I>TXSTI8BMmrT8. 1 7 ' 



LOCARNO. 



T or* A "D ICr A TermiDOs of the Oothard Railway, on LAKE MAGGIORE. Best 

idVVAXvJil V« ttoppingpIaoeontheltallanLaket. OPEN THE WHOLE TBAB. 

THE GRAND HOTEL LOGARNO. 

The situatloii nnriyaUed eltber for a Snxmner or Winter Resort 

PATRONISED by all the Boyal Families of Europe. Most luxurious and 
comfortable borne with large Park and Gardens. Best situation In the' mildest and most 
eonstant climate of Europe, without snow, wind, or fog, but with plenty of sunshine. Entirely 
adi^ad for winter residence. Chemin^s, calorif^res, and stoves. Beautiful walks and Mountain 
excursions. English Church. Doctor. Society. Lift. Exquisite cuisine. Prirate steamer 
and carriages for visitors. Most moderate charges. 

Meeam. BALU, Proprletora. 

LTJGEBNE, 



First class HotsL Largely patronised by BngUsa Tlaitora. i^l«ii«Mly sitaalod. 

BSSf yXEW OF XHB LAKE AKD KOUSTAZm. HTDaAUUO XJFT. SLBOTBIO USBT. 

mBSTAVRANT. FIRST-RATS CVISIlBrK. BATHS ON KTERY FLOOR. 

BILLIARDS. FINE TEBBAGB ALL ALONG THE HOUSE. 
_.. (Been, Uaht, and Service ladaded), tnm 8fr. to lOfr.: Jahr and Auust from Utt. to 14fr. 
aixaacemeats for FamiUet. J. aEIMMERU-OIASER, Proprietor. • 



LDXEMBOUBO. 



GRAND HOTEL BRASSEUR. 

FIRST-CI.ASS HOTEI.. 

THE largest Hotel and Best Restaurant in the Town. In an exceptional situation, near the Park 
and finest Promenades. Replete with every modem comfort. Conversation, Playing, taui 
Reading Rooms. English spoken. Douches and Baths. Electric Light. Omnibus and Carriages. 

P. BBYSIIB WBHRU, Baeeessor. 



LYONS. 



Le GRAND HOTEL de LYON. 

FIRST-CLASS FAMILY HOTEL. Patronised by the NobiUty and the 
Gentry of all Nations. In the centre and most fashionable part of the City. Elevator. 
Baths» Railway Ticket OflSce in the Hotel. Tariff of Charges In every Room. Moderate Terms.. '. 
Telegraphic Address; "QRAHD HOTEL , LYON." 

MACON. 



GRAND HOTEL DE L^EUROPE. 

(Hi the splendid Quai de la Saone. Fiye mtantes' walk from the Statte^ 

yve.BATAILLARD. Oominanding a Ttisw qt \hft JhH%^^aD>a.ltoay»Mas^ 
Firsl Hotel In the Town, Becoirimended to ¥am\\\ea anA »\sk^%TTtc^^\«t^ Vonkt^-^^v^" 
TrMJna from Jf aeon to Vichy, to Bourgca, B\o\v YoVNXwtv «eA'^««*^- 
AU mxp^u Had JFtnt Cimm Tmima UiIl« mv mmA \*sw« lP»»a«**««' •^'^ 

B-^Contin^taJ, 94. 



18 ADTBBTIWnfBirTf. 



MADEIRA— (fnnchal). 



ReID'S HOTEIiS 

ESTABLiaHED 1850. 

By appointment to H.R.H. The Duke of Edinbnr^. 

SANTA CLARA HOTEL. — "Admirablj sitasted, orerlookiiig 
Funchal, line view of the Mountains and Sea. ' — Vide EendeWs Guide to Madeira. 

REID'S NEW HOTEL. — Situated on the Cliffs to the West of 
Tunchal, on the New Road, overlooking the Sea, grand yiew of tho Mountains. 
Sea Bathing and Boating. 

MILES'S CARMO HOTEL.-In sheltered central position. 

HORTAS HOTEL.-German spoken. 

8 ANT' ANNA HOTEL.— ^ood centre for scenery of the interior and 
north of Island. 

These FIRST CLASS HOTELS afford ever/ comfort for families and travellers. 
Excellent Cuisine and Choice Wines. Tennis Courts, large Gardens, Baths, 
Reading, and Smoking Rooms, English and German Newspapers. Billiards. The 
SANITARY arrangements have been carried out bj the Banner Sanitation Co.) of 
liondon. All Steamers met. 

Telegrams, "Beid, FonchaL" Pamphlet free of Fassmore, 
124, Cneapside, London, or Wm. Beid. 

MANNHEIM. 



HOTEL DU PALATINAT (Pfalzer Hof). 

^HHIS first Class Hotel, situate in the middle of the town, and near the Land-. 

JL ing Places of Steamboats, affords large suites of well-fnmished apartments for families, and 
•ooifortoUe and airy rooms for single gentlemen. Good Table and Wines, attentive attendants. 
Moderate cliarges. Foreign Newspapers taken in. An Omnibus from the Hotel meets every Train. 
French and English spoken. BEBNDHAUftEL ft REIFFEL, Proprietonk 



MATENCE. 




^^LL^KSfOWN FIRST GLASS HOT&L. Tbomi^h oomlbrt, ezcdlent 

^ >—*-A<^ ^oice Wloee at moderate .charges. ftfaM» tbe itmoviX ^ ^Dr» til&Msq^^^ «aest 
ttea Motel In. the Town, affording an open t^^ ot \\m 'ft.Vwi. Yw««aae6% «GA.tBMi 
-mST cconlona ia the neighbourhood. ftpedUl «ErtaD«MMnft* Iwt 'vteiMR «Mila> 
^^aaiiig^ rrmd of the Steamers. Oinnl\)U« m«ets siX \.taXti% ^^ \3oft C«ioteiiL?taiaMBu 



▲DTB&TI8BMENT8. 19 



MENTONE (Alpes Maritimes). 



41VBAB T0 THE «AKAVA1I STATION). 

nPHIS el^antly constructed and beautifully furnished Hotel enjoys a high 
jL reputation for its great comfort* 

#itiHirtTig Room and BatbB. Arrangomonta for Familloi. Charges modorato. 

Tbit Hotel it under the pergonal aqpertntcndcnce of the Proprietor, Mr. Charlk« BBawAKP<8wiwX ; 

METZ . 

Formerly HOTEL DE L'EXTROPE. 

FIBST CLASS HOTEL. The largest and most comfortable in the 
Town. Beaatifully situated, with a fine Garden. 



k tmmt^mm^^m 



■ MGNTREirX. 

HOTEL DU CYGNE. 

nnHIS Hotel is situated in close proximity to the Railway Station and 

JL Landing Placo of Steamers. From Its vast garden and terrace a splendid view of the Lake 
•Ad tb« Alps is to be had. Arrangements for a protracted stay. Reduced prices during th« 
Winter Seaspp. A uMPR t Proprietor. 

Montrenx — TE RRITET— Lake of Geneva.^ 

HOTEL DES ALPS AND GRAND HOTEL 

(ALTITUOB 400 1CSTRE8). 

HOTEL MONT-FLEURI (.ifS^)- 

CIIE8HBX, Proprietor. 

r!ES£ EstabliHhrocntR, surrounded with Parks and mag^nificent Promenadesy 
In sheltered positions, afford by their different altitude, and the numerous advantages cf their 
hiitriment, tlie most desirable summer and winter residence. 



MONTREiDX (Clarens). 



PairoHiged by the Royal Families of several Courts of Europe. 

■ PH, BKRMHARPT, >r>prl«Ur. , J 

"_ " MILAy. ' 

SITUATED on the Corso Victor Emmanuel, full south, near to the Cathedral, the Scala Grand 
Theatre, Victor Emmanuel Passage, Post and Telegraph Office. Apartments for fomilics, end 
Single Rooms. *' Tabled* EI Ote** and ''Restaurant.'* Two Reading Saloons, Smoking Room, 
and foreign New.^paper8. HydrauUe Lift to every floor, and Electric Light (Edison's system). 
Ooroibas at the Stat]on. Moderate charges. Pension. Cook's Coupons accepted. 

K. MABCIOXXI» Propr. L. BE KTOLIXI, ^fwuit. , 

sasBBB^ssss. 



MOilTREUX, HOTEIa 1K^EVIS^SS«J^ 

jLFlBBt^LASS Family Hotel, m ^fi Yifs^Ocwx'aX^ ^^^ 

«^« vrOB IK>jril£2)80N. PropTietOT, Late Manoger oj tV« W**^*^* 




-tc 



90 ADTBETUBMSHTfl. 



KUHICH. 



(HOTEL DB BAYIEBB). 

LARGEST, best situated, and finest First Class Hotel in town. Entirelj re* 
' bttUt and enUrged, eontalns ia addition to SOO tingla and double Bed-roomt an elegant Suite of 
PriTate Apartments. Splendid Dining and Coffee Rooms. Restaurant in connection witli Reading. 
Smoking, and Ladies* Drawing Rooms. Electrie Light. Hydraulic EloTator. Bath. In Winter 
the TesUbule, corridors, staircases, Ac, are heated. Fension the whole year. Moderate charges. 

MPRBEK (Switzerland). 

AKTRDBB I,«M MKWmma, 

GRAND HOTEL DES ALPES. 

PEN from 1st May to Slst October. Electric Light throughout. Pennon 

V^ during the whole Season. Recommended for a protracted stay. Magniiicent Tiew. 
If nmerotts Promenades and Excursions. Post, Telegraph and Telephone. Prospectus on application. 



O 



NAPLES. 



GRAND HOTEL. 

FIRST-CLASS AND MOST COMFORTABLE HOTEL, situated in the 
finest and most select part of Naples, with magnificent views of the town, Yesuvint, and tb« 

Bay. Hydraulic Lilt. 

AintED HAVSES, Proprleter. 



ilMte «SAND HOTEL NOBILE), om the New Blome Prtncipe Amedeo. 

FIRST-CLASS HOTEL, entirely renoyated. Healthy eleyated position, with 
fine view of Vesuvius and the Bay. LIFT. Electric Light* 

HAVSEK A MIJI1LBB9 Pivprieiors* 

HOTELS I80TTA, GENEVE & CENTRAL. 

01 ATTa IMCfllll A ^° ^^* Hotel de Geneve has been connected the Hotel de Rome, closed on account of 
r I HA AH IflCUInlle iinprovenient of the St. Lucy Quarter. The Hotel de Qeneve is situated in the most 
salubrious part of the town, ten minutes from the Station by the new large Rectifll Avenue. It stands in the centre of 
the town, oppueite the Royal Palace, near the Port, Post, Telegraph, the principal Theatres, and the wide Toledo Street 
From the upper floors splendid view of the Gulf and Vesuvius. Attentive Service. Moderate chargea. TelephoDC. 
Hydraulic Lift The Centnl Hotel is situateil on the same Piaasa Medina, opposite the Hotel de Geneve. This House 
is more siiecially recommended to commercial travellers. Chaiges very moderate. Tltble d'Hftt e. Restaurant Service 
aiaHytimek Principal Lauffuafes spoken. VltlTOR ISOTTA* l*roprlet»r« 




TiE CONTINENTAL HOTEL. 

the rear round. Quai Partbenope (^ev 1Ei\x^ttMJcM«soL\.^. Splendid 

fon South, tloae to the Public Qardcn and «\e c«iA.tft ol XXi^Vw^'^V^j^M^eiS^mv 
mnd VegnrtuB. Hydraalle Lia, Blectric U«YiV,TA%«t«.V«^ w^^^y<*.^^'«^ ifct^ri 
i^PderatQ Charges No txtra CtiargM lor kVteuAiitittfe %ai^\Ag^ ^ ^ 



MEPHAPSE N-SCHArrHAUSEN (Switzerland). 

FALLS OF THE RHINE 




HOTEL SCHWEIZERHOF. 

WEaEHSTBIH. Proprietor. 

T1IE8T-CLASS HOTEL, tepUte with Gv«ry convenience and comfort. 
■*■ 200 Eooma. FJre Escapes. Hydraulic Liit, Splendid yiews of 

the celebrated Falls of the Rhine and the Chain of Alps, 

including Mont-Blanc, covering an extent of hnndicds of miles. 
Fine Park and Garden. A chaiming Summei Eesort, noted for its 
healthy position, bracing air, and most beautiful landscape. 

SPECIAL ARRANQEMENTS FOR A PROTRACTED STAY. 

■• extra chaise Ut UAU av Serrlrc. K* «raMlll«* to'the BcrTsaU, 

Hotel OmstbOHi ntMt tralni at HenHautn and BobairhMiMn. 

By meant of Electricity and Bengal Ughti, the F&Us of cba Rkvot "* V*^'^»«Ja>-« 

iUttfflfliatfld evarj idgbt, &atiiL)ttiDKi%««sa^- 

xreutB Dtvas buryice in um n«« i 

•f the MdnnltxiiaA»t. 



K AD VBinaEMBlfTg ■ 

WPMMIBEBO. 

WURTTEMBERGER HOF. 

NUREMBERG. 

NEAR THE STATION. NO OMNIBUS WANTED. 

FIRST CLASS HOTEL, situated freely in the midst of tha best place of 
tba toim, oppoalU tb« Ccnlril Poat anil Tcltgrapb OOcr, fwo mliialM from (hi German 
Uiunm ind Lonnu CJinrcb, qolta In pn>xlinAlfl TLclaltj of landir ind i£b,\tt wotidtn pf 
MniMSbttK. 

150 ROOMS AND SALOONS, WITH 220 BEDS. 

0«IT HOMI Ml the ipM wltk m»n Ihaa M ■«< Smmi aa« laUeu m» the 



DININC, CONVERSATION, LADIES', READING, & SMOKING SALOONS. 

BcpBlrd br Fvrrlcacr* m well >■ br nux CsuUtbim (• be ^e .f the hnt 

Hateli af the CoBUaeat fkr Its Terr mederate char«e>. 

IF WANTED, PENSION FOE TEE FULL TEAS. 

BATHS AND CARRIAGES IN THE HOUSE. 

T. 8. KEBBEB. Proprietor. 



HOTEL CONTINENTAL 

C-F" rrOTI JUNE lat TILL NOVEMBER. 



ThB l>vf**tftiat-dbtf 

Hot«i, fiusliw th« 
SeB.snilBatli.B,aloaeto 
the K*w XushaL 




ADTMTISMffBWTS* 

OSTBND Continued. 



THE SPLENDID HOTEL. 

THS most VAsnioiTABLV Hotel and Restaurant in the place. Finest sitoallon, 
faeinjr tht Sm and tho Batht, and next to the Palace Of the Rosral FamllT. 

■USYATOR. ALL MODUKN COMFORT. 1B1EVAT0II« 

900 Beds and Salooot. Omoibas meet* Steamers and Traina. 

_ Gable Address s •• SPIiBBTDIB, OSTENIft.** 

lk« aelel Kwwel aad Bmm SMe, 0«l«ai, la uuUr the mum dtaeetloa 

GRAND HOTEL DU LinORAL, 



LIFT, ELECTRIC LIGHT. BOARD FROM 10 8H. 

GRAND HOTEL LEOPOLD II. 

TTIQHLY recommended English Family First Class Hotel. Splendid situation In the moot 
•^-^ frequents d street of the town, near tho shore, Knrsaal, Casino, Theatre, and Pier, with yiew 
orer the Sea. Eyerr modem comfort. Drawing and Made Saloons. Only Hotel with Electric 
Light iA tho Town. Firstrato cooking, best attendance, semimlous cleanliness, Englisli Seryants. 
J^fty and Airy Rooms from 28. 6d. a day. Full board, S meals, light and attendanoe included, 
from 78. 6d. a day. Adyantageous arrangements for families. Omnibus and Hotel Porter at 



Steamers and Trains. Telephone. Open from 1st May to end of September. 

E. DAVID VANCUYCB; ^prietor and 



M ft n u gftT, 



(Bains de Met). FABAME. (nie et Vilaine). 

(Near St. Malo, St. Servan, and Dinard.) 

BAY OP ST. MALO-PARAME. 

VIA L. S. W. R. TO ST. MALO. 

THB 

HOTEL DE LA PLAGE, 

PARAME. 

UNDER ENQUSW \^VJ\\^:^JS^ ^ 



d 



'*- 






u 

I - ■*- 



FAXIS. 



MIRABEAU 

HOTEL ET RESTAURANT. 

8, RUE DE IiA PAIX, 8, 

(Place Yendome. Place de I'Opa.) 

PEACE. COMPORT. EASE. 

THE GRAND HOTEL 

12, BOULEVARD D A D I C ^ BOTTLE VABD 

DES OAPUOINES. TM K I O . DES APUOINES. 

GRAND HOTEL DU LOUVRE 

PARIS. NEW ENLARGINQ. 

Uru atW Booms Mi4 DmwiBir Booau riehlj fturmMioiU 
Vable 4*lIoie: Bremkfiisf, 5 m.« wlBo iMClw4e«: Dlnaer, • tn^ wlBO tedNl4M« 

Admirably situated, facing the LouTKSf the Pi^cb du Palais Rotal, and ArxxuB db i.*Opiuu. 

SOTEL SES DEUZ ICGXTSES 

L_- ET D'AKGLffreKKR, 



ABTniTIBBllBHTS. 25 



PABIB CMtitanod. 



STEHR'S HOTEL-ENGLISH HOUSE. 

55, B17B DB PBOVENOE, PARIS. 

HIGHLY recommended for its comfort and moderate charges* Yerj central 
potitlon, being close to the principal Boalevardf, the New Opera, and the Dlei^ Station. 
Alij and eomfortAl)Ie Rooms from 2 to 4 f rs. Saloons from S to 6 f n. Attendance, 60 cts. Table 
d*Hdte, S frs.. Wine included^ Very advantageous for Board and Room, all included, by the day from 
• to • f^, by the month from 160 to 300 frs. Sitting Room with Piano. German spoken. 

MM. BTEHR la Bmrtlah, 



HOTEL DU PALAIS (FAMILY HOTEL), 28, Avenue Cours de la Heine 
near the Place dela Concorde, the Maddeine, and the Tuileries Garden, in the centre of one 
of the finest promenades of Paris. This Hotel, facing the South, and built after the English style, 
with only three storeys, is especially recommended for its situation. It contains 80 well-furnished 
Rooma. Large and small Saloons, Reading Room and Garden for the use of Visitors. Arrange- 
ments made for longer stay on moderate terms. Pension from 7fr. 60 c. per day, food included. 
' Telephone. 

60, AMDE d'JENA, CHilFS ELTSEES. 

PENSION AND PRIVATE HOTEL 

SITUATED in the finest and healthiest part of Paris, is highly recommended 
for its comfort and excellent table. The sanitary arrangements are unsurpassed in Paris, the TentI* 
lation of the rooms perfect, and the charges very reasonable. Separate rooms. Large and Small Apart- 
ments. Baths. Heater. Lift. 

Proprietors : Vve NOIBE et fila. 



(Germany.) FTBMONT-LES-BAINS. (Waldeck.) 

GRAND HOTEL DES BAINS. 

P^SSP™ 'J.™* ^^^^^'^^•^ >a«lr^ >Mw aad eoaforlaiae; irst^ato ter FaailiM aad matH 
r. ®?*i2?™^ 'H.?!??^ ^•tSL*?^*'** SpringMhs uiiMipid AUm, and PnoieiuMlas. Ike mv Mud Bi^Sit^ 

nad^. Throm^ Tickets iisMd at Yletoria Station dixwi to Pyrnumt tU Qaa«kboro' Flaaldnf. Lohns. lUaela. 



SATISBON. 



SOTEL aBmrEB EBAUZ. 

B« ^«™^^w , PBTBE WZBTH. Fropriotor. 
E-OPENED 1st June, 1886. Theiarrat Fts^ CA»»^^&a^]&^&aS&3&a«KV^ 
- -r. . *** ^*"7'» orerlooking three atreeti. B«autlIiVb^iSl^Vai( V.^\%'^TCb^Ma»R^iw;^6^*•^^■*^ 
iSS?"-*' *°^ '^i*^ ^^ •^•»y modem eomtoTt. Auv«Aot Cq(Ai2av '^'^^'^-''*^ 
£t2!Sfr*: ?«5«»n« «< the SItctfon. CarrtasM tor ICxcosmV^tA Xa «aja ^-HXiS!m»»- r 
^•w^perg, Modermfclmrtf. Large Saloon to VlLMUux«sxr 



'26 ADTXBTZSBiauraft. 



BOICE. 



CONTINENTAL HOTEL 

BUILT EXFBES8LT FOB AN HOTEL. 

The First opposite the Railway Station, the Hi^est and 

Healthiest part of Rome, and 

NEAREST TO THE ANTIQUITIES AND ATTRACTIONS. 

Sute MMUMKememt m» tke HOTEI. VAIXBaAflin, BSliB. 

HYDRAULIC UFT. CALORIFERES. 

P. LTrOARI, Proprietor. 

PENSION TEIJ^ENBACH. 

•VIA ]>UB ICAOBLIl, 6t uA tT, dOM U FUai dl BpMPMk TJU, BOimL 

THE most comfortable and fashionable Pension of Rome, with accommodation of a First ClM' 
Hotel. Moderate Terms. The whole House warmed. Table d*Hdte and Diners & fart 
Lift. Beading and SmoUnir Rooms. Baths. Greatly improTcd. 



MOST Difltingtiished House in the most elevated and salubrioiu part of Rome. 
Moderate Charges. Arrangements for protracted stay. 

Mnnnir^M t / 0' RITZ, ft om the 8avoy HoteL London. 
nanagerss— l^^ PFYFPBE, from the OrandHotel National, Lnoane. 

GRAND HOTEL CONTINENTAL. 

250 Booms. First Class. Every Modem Comfort. 



p. UTGAin, Fr»vrlet«r« 



HOTEL-PENSION BEAU-SITE. 

FABULT HOUSE, oomer Via Lndovlsl and Anrora, S5. 

THE quietest, hi^est, and healthiest positiea of Boma, all the rooms to the Bonth. Erary Bodsm ao ah rt ^ 
Litt. Baths. Halls and Stain heated. Accommodation of a flnt-claee Hotel (if wanted). Terms fma 7 to IS 
frames per day, wine and afternoon tea included. K. SILEHZZ BBOQJLS^ ISnprfatSI^ 



-^^^ , 1 if 8, BU£ VATIOHALE AMD RUB QUmiNALE. 

Ji^mST-CfLASS H0U8E, fall soutK Sp\TO.^\^ ^^^w5C\cm, ^<fe\«* «^ 

ii««-\/*?if"**'«>»rt ofRam^ close to the Roy&\ Pti\aB«, ovV»>!^ ^^S^**^ «»^ '««^>M«^ 
y^Z^^^«ceJ[idobrundinl. aOXym »0OMS OTSTaT. '^'J^^^^'^^'*^* ,^ 



▲DTXXTXSKlCSirTA. SV 



mom co»tinB»d. 



SUISSE FAMILY HOTEL 



NAZIONALE, 104. 

The most Healthy, Elevated, and Central part of Rome. 

THIS HOTEL, entirelj exposed to the Sun, has l>een specially built with 
0Ferj c(unfort, and perfect Sanitary arrangementa bo as to make it one of the most comfortable 
Hotels. Corridors heated throoghoat. Hydraulic Lift. Open all the year. Special arrangements 
for a protracted stay, particularly for families aud parties during the Summer Season. 

G. PIOTTI, Proprietor. 



VIA TORINO, 185, Pint Floor (3 Doom fixxm Via Kaiionale). 
IGH CLASS English and American Boarding House, in the immediate 

ricinity of the Central Railway Station, English and American Embassies, and the 

American-English Church. The Proprietress, Miss M. MARLEY, gfyes her personal attention to all 
matters pertaining to the comfort oi her guests. TemiS ficom T tO 10 firancs. 



H 



BOTTEBDAM. 



^PHIS FIRST CLASS HOTEL is newlj enlarged. Beautifullj situated, with 

JL fine rieir over the River Maas. Splendid Rooms. Very large Dining Room, Conversation and 
Smoking Rooms, Reading and Writing Rooms, all on the aame floor with view over the Maas. 
80 Rooms and Salons. Bath Rooms. The only Hotel close to the Rhine Railway Station, the 
Exchange, and Boats. Moderate Charges. ClL BRUGMA, Proprietor. 

ROTJEy, 

GRAND HOTEI. de PARIS. 

Terj llnt^lam and best situated Hotel. 

"UIEW on the Seine. Bon Secours, Pont Comeille, and He Lacroiz. Near a Post and Telegraph Office* 
Jl the Thgfctre, and the principal Monuments. Large and small Apartments. Choice Cuisine. 
Benowned Wines. EngHsh spoken. Cook's Coupons accepted and abatement of 5 per cent, for an eis^t 
days' stay. Bicycles may be deposited. Kept hy Mrs. Ttc BATAILUiRD, 

Fonaetly p t op t i etrsss of tbe Hotel de ITiirope, at Maeoa. 



ST. PETERSBURG. 



HOTEL DE FRANCE. 

KEPT BY E. RENAULT. 

y^ijKBAT MORSKAI, best situation in the Town. Opposite the Winter 
vJl Palace, £rmitagQ» Foreign OfficOi and Newski Prospect. Tramway communlcatioa through 
the whole town. 

- |(«MBi| tnun. 1 r* to 25 r. Blniiers flroBt 1 r. M k. to 3 r. ReiL««rmA4. C«lateA.« 

Larg9 Beading Boott, nith. •H'&axQrD^vBi'VlwiBWfiwvL. 

B J the uum twprtfttQi \» "^v^ >^^ ,^_. ^-«l^;SI6S 



98 ▲DTXBnSXMKim. 



Italy. SAW BEMO , Biviera. 

GRAND HOTEL ROYAL. 

rATKONUBO BT BRCLUII ¥I8ITOBfl. 

BEAUnFULLT and healthfully atuated, oommanding magnificent views 
of the Town and Sea. Beautiful large garden. Smoking and Billiard Rooms, Ezeellent 
Ijawn Tennis Ground. Hydraulic Lift. 

L. BBRTOLINI, Prop. The same as the Grand Hotel Royal, Courmayeur (Vallde d^Aoste). 

ORANS HOTEL YZCTORZA. 

Hononred by the ttay of H.R.H. Frlnoe of Walei and H.A.H. Duke of Bdlnburgli. 

THIS old-established and comfortable Hotel has been entirely renovated* and 
its magnificent Garden is more beautiful than erer. Drawing Room, Reading Room, Smoking 
and Billiard Rooms. Restaurant. Lateit Sanitary Arrangements. 

(The Proprietor, Kr. BertoUnl, is also Proprietor of the new Royal Victoria Hotel, at Aosta.) 



SEVILLE. 



GRAND HOTEL DE MADRID. 

NEAB the Hotel is a Branch House, newly built expressly for an Hotel, and 
situated foil South. 200 Rooms and Saloons newly furnished with superior comfort. Smoking 
and Reading Rooms. French Cooking. Moderate charges. Special airangamonts made for the 
Winter season. Careful attendance under the personal direction of the Manager, Louu Ratiua. 
Large Garden. Omnibus to and from the Station. Interpreter. 
Note >-The Hotel dc Madrid is also the Sleeping Cars Agency in ScTllle. 



SPA. 



HENSAKD KICHARD, Proprtetoir* 

FntST-CLASS HOT£L, greatly improved and beautifully aitoated, in doee 
proximity to all the principal EstablishmenU. 140 Beds. Vast Saloons and Richly Fnmislied 
Apartments. Reading Saloon supplied with papers of all countries. Large Smoking Boom. 
EXTENSIVE ACCOMMODATION FOR FAMILIES, threat comfort. 



STRASBOVRO. 



HOTEL D'ANGLETERRE. 

FIRST CLASS HOTEL. Best situated between the sUtion «iid the 
Cathedral. Close to the Telegraph and Post Office. Interpreter. Baths. Hicfalyroeonmiciided 
to English and American Families. Omnibus at the stations. LIFT. OH. MATSlSi SlOpr. 



STTTTTGAST. 



SOTEL ICABQUABPT 

T8 aita&ted in the finest part of tihe to^vm, Vn V)cv<^ VjUQiQS]^! I^aot B<»a)f 

-* -«-//o/»/».-. *f|e JBaUvray Station and the Port Omce,tkMii *'v^v..npvv**k^MA».^'^fc««M\«.fi-^ 
ee, tnd facing the new Odeon. Tb\B HoVeX i 
-nients are elegantly furnished tnA«\»Us&Ae 
'clock, French and EngUsh Iftewij^l^wra* 



ADTBBTHBIOMTS. 2^ 



THUN (Switzerland). 



aBAXTD HOTSL (Thunerliof). 



Adapted specially tor lemr eiays* 
Ptosion dnriBf the whole season, from 8 francs a day. The sole Hotel in Thum with a Lift. Than 
Is recommended as a Spring and Autamn resort. CH. STAEHLE, Proprietor. Also proprietor of 
the HoisL DU Pabaoib, Cakkxs. 



TOULOUSE. 



HOTEL DU MIDI. 

Patronised by the Duke d'Aumale and Duke of Norfolk. 

Beaiitirally aUaated oh the ''Place dn Capltole/* 
mJG. POirneiJIEB, Proprietor. 

TilIRST CLASS ESTABLISHMENT, offering the same comfort as the 

MJ largest Hotels in France. Frequented by the highest class of English travellers. Restaurant 
and Table d*Hdte. Rich Reading Room and Conyersation Saloon. *' Times *' talcen. English and 
Spanish spoken* 



TOURS. 



GRAND HOTEL DE L'UNIVERS, 

OK THE BOULEVARD, NEAR THE STATION. 

EVBOPEAH BSrVTATIOV. 

Highly recommended in all the French and Foreign Qnide Books. 

EVdEHrE OVII.I.AIIHB. 



TBIBESe. 



HOTEL WEHRLE. 

13EST titaation, near the WateifaUa; for a UMig time well known as "HOTEL i. OOHSEN." Every 
^ English comfort. Baths. Electric Light. Milk Core. Omnibus at the Station. Carriages. 
Moderate eharges. Pulsion. The proprietor gives best information for Exoursions in the Black Forest. 
Pie- HoTBL WEHRUB, not very large but very comfortable, is highly recommended by German and 
Foreign Guide Books. F. WEHBLE, Proprietor. 

HOTEL AND PENSION BELLEVUE. 

Opposite the BeliwarjEwald Hotel CBlaelL V«««i!^ l&!^\«^ 

JJX the immedUte nelgbbomrhood of the grand ir&lvrttxWa. 1Vt%V0A&^ V<csvMfc!fc> ^'^^^^^'^^^^^^ 
f Towaaad VMey; surrounded by a Urge gardwu TitwA ^AxVoa. ^^wiX «*^^,^rS«i 

Accommodation at moderate charges. Eng\Uh CoiniotU "ttx»N. Xi^o^^'s^ ^"^^S^*^^ ^"" 

Q/putbug and Landau meet aU tialna^ 




30 ADTXKTI8XXENTS. 



TUBIN. 



GRAND HOTEL DE L'EUROPL 

1 00 ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Piaiza Castello, facing the Bojal Palace. Five 
-^"" minutes from the Station. Centre of Galleries, Post, Telegraph, etc. 

SPLENDID APARTMENTS AND SINGLE ROOMS* 

terms Moderate. Lift- Electric Light Baths, Omnibus to all Trains. 

BMILB 0HRI8TBM, MaiMCW. 
AWENTINO BOBOO, Proprietor. 

VENICE. 



HOTEL DE L'EUROPE. 

rpHIS OLD ESTABLISHED FIRST-CLASS HOTEL, situated on the best position of the Grand 
-^ Canal, has just been repaired and neatly improved. New rich Dining Boom on the ground 
floor overlouking the Grand Canal. ETtfranliC LtfL 

HEW BEADING AND BMOKINa BOOHB. BATHS. FULL SOUTH AfFBOT* 

HAHSEUXB BKOTHEBS, 



HOTEL D'lTALIE BAUER. 

NEAR St. Mark's Square, on the Chrand Canal, facing the Church of St. 
Maria Salute. 200 Rooms. 20 Saloohs. Patronised by English and American TniTellers. 

The Splendid Bestaurant "amnwald" 1>eloiig8 to the same Proi»rietor. 

Pint OmcK ix mx Hotkt. vvtv «vtm m «•*««.«* w «^ w ». 

See Text, under "Venloe," Italy Section. JUUUS GRUNWALP, Hew P>OJ« 

YEHETIAN LACE, DAMASKS, HAHD-EHBROIDERT HAHQflCTORIES. 

M. JE8URUM A CO., 

S. Filippo Glacoxno, near the Bridge of Sighs.- 

These large Manufactories have gained a world-wide reputation and are worthy 
to be visited especially by English and. American Travellers. 

WILDBAD. 

HOTEL KLUMPP, 

Formerly BOTEI. DB E*orRS. ^ 



THIS First-class Hotel, containinfif 45 Saloons and 235 Bedrooms, with * 
separate Breakfast and new Reading and Conyorsation Rooms, as woll as a Smoking Saloon, 
a very cxtensire and elegant Dining Room, and an Artificial Garden over the rivor, is beantUhUy 
situated in connoction with the Old and New Bath buildings and Conversation fioiiM, and Inttt 
immedUte riclaity ot the Promenade and Trinkhalle. It is celebrated for its elegant aad eaafirt* 
£if Z^^'^J^"?^"^?! f**^ Cuisine and Cellar, and deMtvetVls wida-s^read reputation «a an exetuort 
£^!r^^ ^^® <r/fat6 at 1 and S o'clock. Breakta«ta and ft\xww*^^« Carte. _%9wJfa«n« AflaL 
^^•Z^zV^ <i^o principal Banking Housetof liondontoT \YiQ\i«c]«m«i\\.^^»!«^D^^ 

»^^S!ftt ^^^^omtbumm of the Hotd to and from «wa* Twfa^. ^\^% ^Kt«iM(QAta«a. 
^^ ^-^^ Batbt in the HoM. XJft to every floor. "ExwiXVwftlwwowwBftAs^^^ 

^s^rUmg^nrMtmum dmri^m.^^ numtSii fA Awftl%'to>^ ,i>;<t^B^wBBD(te .^fc».t w« Mi i 



AiynESTiBKimm. 8t 



WILDBAD CtaartlliiMd. 



HOTEL BELLE VUE, 



^HIS First-lass Hotel is beautifully situated on a terrace facing the new 

. Trlnkhallef ftt the entrance of the Promenade, and within five minutes* walk from the English 
mrdi. It ta well known for Its oleanllnesa, good attendance, and moderate charges. The 
dslne department and Wines will afford satisfaction to the most fastidious taste. ▲ great partsf 
B Hotel has been newly furnished, and the drainage entirely reconstmcted. Exeellenf Sitti^ and 
id Rooms, famished witli English comfort. Conversation, Ueading, uid Smoking Rooms. Ladlei^ 
isic Room. The Timet and other Papers taken in. Warm and Cold Baths In a separate building. 
m Hotel Omnibus meets every Train daring the season. Covered oommuo^cation between the 
itel and new Bath House. 
— gg= egB=i s==ge-'gg I I I 9 

ZUBICH. 

ioTEL Baur au Lag 

FIRST-CLASS HOTEIi. 

BEST SITUATION. 

BEAUTIFUL GARDEN. 



^atrohised by English and American Families. 

elect rTo light in every Room. 

)PEN ALL THE YEAR ROUND. 



9; 



FOBEzaxr FSRASii Boas:^ 

FRENCH, GERMAN, ITKlAkU, %^t»M»«- 4 

One SUXQivi «MSku 



dS ADTSBTISailBllTf. 



GXTEBNSET. 



CHANNEIi ISLANDS HOTEL 

TUs Hotel ImxnMliaMlj Imm Um Im and eloM to Landing SUca, 

COMMERCIAL AND FAMILY HOTEL. 

Noted CuWne and libenl TaUe. Tennt modsratt. BUUardBoon. 
H. aiUKVBIJU Proprietor: 







Lo-MI ALSO OF THE HIQHI 



SARKy CHANNEL ISLANDS ' 

THE ONLY HOTEL on the Island with a Sea View, and is nearest to 
the Tjanding Stage, and poeeeaaes exodlent deeping aooommodation. PnUio Drawhisud BmoUaf 
Booma. Large Dining Koom (aeparate taUea). Tlie Hotel Groimda have an altttode of 900 feet aboit 
b level. Good liflhrng and Bathing. _ _ [Lo^U. . ._ . D. BOBIH,^ Pr*V 



level. Good Fiahing and Bathing. [Lo^l] D. BOBIlf* Pr*«rletor. 

leaTe GaanMey daOy far Salt altar ttn amral ef Borthaaptoa aaai Wij lataifc Baalt 



SAKK. 



DIXCART HOTEL 

<n A muimnu. anvAnoHk 

T^Pms Moderate. Establiflhed over 60 years. 

DAPK BOOM FOP PHOTOaPAPHEPa. ' TUM 

. JERSEY. 



\ 



GRAND HOTEL. 

STANDS unrivalled for its beautiful position facing the sea, is the 
best appointed, and moat comfortable Hotel in the Channel lalanda. The sanitary ann 
are perfect. Swimming and hot sea water baths in the HoteL ISzoellent and moat libwal tal 
management is now imder the direct sapenrision of Mr. dk Lkidz, late manager of the Gfand ] 
PjMtaandof8wborou^j^^^^_^^^_^^^^^^^_^^__^^^^^^_^^_^^^_^_^_^^^^^^^^^^^JI^ 

BREE'S ROYAL HOTE 

3EII8T.^i.iaXjX813CEIX> SO ITVi^AJEUm 

Lo-393 TELEGRAPHIC ADDRESS ;~BREE8, JERSlYi 

FRANKLIN HOTEL. 

FIRST CLASS FAMILY HOTEL. 

INCLUSIVE TERMS, 6s. 6d. per DAY. 
Lo-881 OlflNIBUS MEETS ALL BOA Ti.1 

«,^ ClianBlBvly Sii«»ieA on ««» SlaoT«« 

•■^ ^Jaimmd. nuift on apiflicatioift. jn» JW^^'S?^ ^ ^SbaaDCM^; 

attbidting ftcUitlM tot *^«^^«*J*^^*1.^^««^ 



AI>TB]I1ISBMRNT». 



BRITISH AND FOREIGN 

BIB LE SOCIE TY. 

3IBLES, TESTAMENTS, 

PORTIONS OF SCRIPTURE 

N THE VARIOUS LANGUAGES OF THE CONTINENT, 

4 %\ Bi: l>ril4'IIA4E» AT HOCICTY'H OEl'OTS l\ 

PAIMS :»?<, liihMle Clirhv. 

PAKIS 1, I'lac.i du TJi.^alrc fraiivais (Palais Rov.il). 

MAKS.KILLi:S .".8, Riu- .le la RrpuLliquf. 

I5UUSSKLS ;■), Uiu* de la lV-|iiui»io. 

ANTWEUP 21, Av(iiu«3 du ( oiiiinerco. 

COPENHAGEN FriMlfriksLcrprgadc, "2^1 

BERLIN :J:',, Wilhehns^trassi.. 

COLOGNE 2 -J, Kninodicnsti'as:<c. 

BASLE 4, Staptblbeig. 

I JERNE Naf;:j;oli»'j^aj?sc. 

VIENNA; «, ElHaLelli Strasse. 

PESTH 1, l)..aks Plilz. 

PK A( 1 U E K nrii an,! Qucriias.<'7. 

MADRID S, VhvAii del Aii'j(d. 

SEVILLE :n. Plaza dr. la CoiiMitucion. 

LISBON Jaiiella? VoivU-s 3l'. 

ROME 51, Via Capo Le Case 

FLORENCE 22, Via della Vigna Nuova. 

GENOA 9, Via Assarotti. 

MILAN Via Carlo Alberto, 31. 

NAPLES 101, Stmda di Chiaia. 

ALGIERS 3, Rue Taiii(cr. 

ST. PETERSBURC} ...4, Now Isakc Street. 

ODESSA 58, IClielsonskaya Street. 

ALEXANDRIA Post Oftvce^ 8U^^\.. ^^ 

rUier information can be obtidned ataxia ^t W<& ^XA^«^j^^!t««»^^^^ 



i umrammn. 



HENRY BLACKLOGK S CO. 

(PROPRIETORS OF BRAOSHAWS aUIOCSI,, 

printers, Cl)romo-Cit|)03rflp]^tif$l 



i 



ENOBAVEBS, AND 

ACCOUNT BOOK MANUFACTURERS. 



mms 



rVBRY DBSOBXFTIOM OP PRIHTINO AND BOOKBIMDDia 



i 



rjff/^, POSTEHS. SPOOL TICKm,MlVW &.mWUBEl 



ADTXBTieUfBllTB, 




mm>mf<mmw»smm!m!'mimmmwvt£ 



S 



Are tmly 

HedlclDBS of blessing & relief 

all who are out oF lieaJth 

Are 7UU suffering 

from IndigeEtion, Want of Eaerfty, 

Diaorderod Slomac)i, Liver trouble, 

ctotTone? 

Try the PiUa, 

and yoQ will rejoice 
natorai] liEaltb, etranglh, and J.ppf3titp 

Have you taken cold 

IT bave CIie»t troablsB, niiLUmBtiam, 
Gont OT Nenjal^P 

Uae the Ointment. 
It acta like a charm. Fur Cats, VfoaaSa, 
Bmisog, Sprains, and all ciusoular COD 
tractions, It has Ho equal. 

These Remedies are Invaluable 

in all complaiuts inoldeatal to Femalos For 
and tha aged tbey are priculcaa 

lO WAY'S