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PAKIS 58, Eue de Clichy. 

PARIS 4, Place du Th^tre f ran^ais (Palais Royal). 

MARSEILLES 38, Rue de la R^publique. 

CANNES 6, Rue des Marches. 

BR USSELS 5, Rue de la P^pinifere. 

ANTWERP 44, Rue Dambrugge. 

BERLIN 81, Koniggratzerstrasse, S.W. 

BASLE 4, Stapfelberg. 

BERNE 9, Naegeligasse. 

VIENNA 6, Elisabethstrasse L 

PESTH 4, Deakplatz. 

PRAGUE Franzens Quai, 6. 

MADRID Leganitos, 4. 

SEVILLE 25, Plaza de la Constitucion. 

LISBON Rua das Janellas Verdes, 32. 

ROME 63, Via Due Macelli. 

FLORENCE 22, Via della Vigna Nuova. 

GENOA 9, Via Assarotti. 

MILAN Via Carlo Alberto, 31. 

NAPLES 101, Strada di Chiaia. 

ALGIERS 3, RueTanger. 

ST. PETERSBURG ...4^ New Isaac Street. 

ODESSA 58, Khersonskaya Street. 

CONSTANTINOPLE... Tunnel Passage, Pera. 

ALEXANDRIA Woivodich Buildings, Tewfik Pasha Street. 

Further infoFmation can be obtained at any of the above addresses, op at 

^^ 146, Queen Victoria Street, LONDON. 















UVBBPOOL:— W. H. SMITH h SON, 81, Dai.« Strbmpj BIBMINOHAM:— W. H. SMITH ft SON. 88, UwiOH ST»««f ; 

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This Hand-Book to Italy, forming one of Bradshaw's series of 
Guides, embraces the whole extent of the Italian Peninsula, according 
to the territorial divisions now established. 

It offers to the Traveller or Resident, in one moderately sized 
volume, a complete description of every place and locality of any 
importance — ^with a particular account of all the Galleries, Works of 
Art, Buildings, Sights, Natural Scenery, and other objects of interest ; 
and, as usual, it is adapted throughout to the latest development of 
the Railway system. Ample details are given of Modem and Ancient 
Rome, as well as of Naples, Florence, Venice, Milan, Turin, Genoa, 
Bologna, &c. (including the latest antiquarian discoveries), under their 
respective heads. 

We shall esteem it a favour if those who use the work will have 
the goodness to forward any corrections or suggestions for improving 
it^ to 59, Fleet Street, London ; or Albert Square, Manchester, 




Carriage Trayelling 








Post Trarelling 

Railways in Italy 

Routes to Italy 

Tables of the former Italian Coinage, 

with its value in English Money 

Weights and Measures 


Ancient divisions of Italy . 


Baths and Mineral Waters. 


Coast Line ^ 























Manufactures xxii. 

Mountains xx. 

Natural Features xx. 

Navy XX. 

Plains xxi. 

Political Features xviii. 

Population xix. 

Ports, principal xxi. 

Products xxii. 

Rivers xxi. 

Volcanoes xxi. 

Winds xxi. 

LISTS, 4kc.:— 

Alphabetical List of Italian Painters, 

Sculptors, and Architects xxv. 

Architecture ^,... xxiv. 

Books xxxvi. 

Chronological List of Important Events, 
Roman Emperors, Popes, Sovereigns, 
Doges, Artists, Ac xxvii. 

Distances of the Principal Railway 
Stations from Florence xxxvii. 

Painting xxiv. 

Schools of Painting xxiv. 

Skeleton Route to Turin xxxvL 



Bonte. Page 

1. Tnrlii to Bvssolino, Susa, Mont Cenls, and 

Mont Gen^vre 6 

2. „ to Pinerolo and the Waldenses* or 

Vaudois Country 6 

8. „ to Saluzzo and Monte Viso, Cuneo, 
Baths of Valdieri, Col diTenda, 

and Nice 7 

4. „ to Alessandria and Genoa, through 
the Lig^ian Apennines; and 
to Alessandria and Piacenza... 9 
f. „ to CblvasRO, VercellJ, Valenza, No- 

van, Moffeata, MDd MiUa 11 

Route. Page 

6. Turin to Ivrea, Aosta, the Great and Little 

St. Bernard, and the Mont Blanc 
District; and to the Gastella- 
monte District 14 

7. „ to Biella, Varallo, Lake of Orta, and 

the Upper Novarese 17 

8. „ to Novara, Arena, and Lake Maggiore 18 

9. Nice to Genoa, along the Riviera di Pen ente, 

or Oorniche Road 19 

10. Genoa, by the Riviera dlLevante, to Spezia, 

Lucca, Pisa, Leghorn, and 
Florence ^ 28 

11. MUan to Gallarate and Lake Mag^oco^... *^ 

12. „ to Lecco^C«cisi»c\«.\.«u>«av^^^'^sv^ — ^^ 
18. „ to "B««emo,^T«R\v^^'^'8^«ft».^«^ 



Route. Pag«. 

14. Milan to the Certoss, Pavis, AleMandria, 

and Genoa 58 

Iff. „ to Piacenza, Parma, Modena, and 

Bologna ff6 

16. „ to TrevlgUo, Cremona, Mantua, and 

Parma 68 

17. Verona to Trento 64 

18. „ to Mantua, Modena, and Bologna ... 64 

19. Venice to Treviso, Undine, apd Tritote ... 69 
19 (Conrtntt«d;. Venice to Vienna 88 

20. Venice and Padua to Arqu&, Este, Rovigo, 

Ferrara, and Bologna 89 

21. Bologna to Florence 98 

22. „ to Gastel Bolognese (for Ravenna), 

Rimini, and Ancona 98 



38. Pisa to Empoli and Florence 109 

21. „ to Lucca, Pistoja, and Florence 118 

26. „ to Leghorn, Cecina, Saline, Volterra, 
Elba, GrosHCto, Civita Vecchia, 

and Rome 116 

26. Floreride id Empoli. Siena. Asciano .Chiusi, 
Ficnlle, Orvieto, Bolseiia, and 
Rome 120 

26. (Continued). Florence to Rome, vid Empoli, 

Siena, Ac 186 

27. Florence to Arezzo, Perugia, Asslsi, 

Foligno, Spoleto, Temi, Orte, and 
down the Tiber to Rome 143 

28. Ancona to Fano,Fostiombrone,Urbino, and 

over the Apennines to Arezzo, and 
Florence; or to Fossombrorie, 
Gagli, SigiUo, Nocera, Foligno, 
&c., and Rome 151 

29. „ to Rome by rail, vid Jesi, FoHsato, 

Nocera, Foligno, Spoleto, Tonii 
Falls, Orta, and down the Tiber... 156 

80. „ to Lo'reto, Fcrmo, and Pescaru, on the 

rail to Foggia, Trani, and BrindiHi 155 

81. Temi to Aquila, Solmona, Popoli, Chieti, 

and Pescara 159 

822. Rome, description of 161-223 



Route. Pagt 

82. (CanUnued), Rome to Naples, by railway, 
vid Palestrina, Frosinone, C^>- 
rapo, Presenzano, Caianello, 
Ccpua, Cancello, Ac.; or vid 
Velletri, Terracina, Fondi, and 

GaSta, and the Coast 337 

88. Castellammare to Chieti, Popoli, Solmona, 
Isemia, Capua, and Naples; acrosa 

the Peninsula 388 

84. Pescara to Termoli, Foggia, A ManfredonJ^ 384 

86. Naples, description of 388-el 

86. (Continued). Naples to Foggia— by raU, vid 
Aversa, Caserta, Bene'vCTtO, and 
Ariano; also Naples toB^n^^ento, 
vid Nola and Avellino 261 

86. Foggia to Potenza, also to Taranto, vid 

Venosa and Gioia del Cotle 268 

87. „ to Eboli, Potenza, Metaponto, 

thence to Taranto and Bart 368 

88. Foggia to Cerignola (for Canosa and 

CannsB), Trani, Bart (for Taranto), 
Ostuni, Brindisi, Lecoe, GalHpoll, 
and Otranto . 264 

89. Bari to Taranto, Torremare, Cartatl, Cot- 

rone, Catan^aro, and Reggto; 
towards Sicily :.... 367 

40. Naples to Eboli, Auletta, CastrQv)l]lari, 

Cosenza, Nicastro, Gioja, Reggio, 
and Sicily .....;.. 369 

41. SiciLT.— Palermo to Messina, by the North 

Coast, vid Bagherta, Termtoi, 
Patti, Milazzo, Ac .^...'....... 278 

42. Palermo to Trapsnl by Calatallaii (for 

Segesta), Castelvetrano (for Seli- 

nunte) and Marsala 280 

48. Palermo to Glrgentl and Porto Empedoele, 
vid Roccapalumba, Lercara, Ae- 
qinyiva, and Aragona Cafdsre... 282 

44. Glrgentl to Syracuse by Palma, Licata, 

Terranova, Modica, and Note; or 
by Tettindft Caltagirone, and 
Lefttlnl 288 

45. Syracuse to Catania and Mount Etna 284 

46. „ • to Messina, across the Island — 

The Lipari Islands 288 

47. Sabdinia.— Porto Torres to Cagliart ;... 390 

48. La Maddalena to Sassari .,..„'.......';.'.... 398 


Vor *om$ LakeSf Moantains, and Valleys, see under those beads in the Index. 

Abano, 63^ 8» 
Abbasanta, 290 
Abblategro880, 12, 37 
Abetome, 116 
Abruzzi, 168-9 
Acerra, 282 
Acl Castdlo, 287 
Aci Beale, 287 
Acquabona, 117 
Acqnapendente, 141 
Acqui, 10 
Acragas, 282 
Ademo, S87, 288 
AiUge BiTer, 84 
Agerola, 250 
Agropoli, 256 
Aimaville, 15 
Airasca, 6 
Ala, 64 
Alassio, 20 
Alatrl, 229 
Alba, 7 

Alba Longa, 220 
Albaclna, 155, 157 
Alban Lake, 220 
Albano, 220,227 
Albate-Camerlata, 87 
Albenga, 20, U9 
Albissola, 1 
Alessandria, 9, 53 
Alicudi, 289 
Alpignano, 6 
Alseno, 58 
Altamnra, 263 
Altavilla, 278 
Alviano, 141 
Ambroglo, 6 
Amelia, 151 
Amendolo, 285 
Amiternmn, 15€ 
Anacapri, 260 
Andomo, 17 

Aquabona, 117 
Aqii8B Albaln. 221 
Aqnila, 158, 160, 233 
Aquino, 230 
Aragona, 282, 288 
Arce, 229, 280 
Arcole, 48 
Arcore, 37 
Ardara, 291 
Arena Po, 11 
Arezzo, 136, 144, 164 
Argenta, 92 
Argiro, 289 
Ariccia, 221 
Arno River, 113, 121 
Arona, 18, 18, 37 
Arpino, 229 
Arqa^^ 89 
Arqnit, 89 
Arqnata, 10 
Arqnato, 158 
Arsiero, 50 
Asciano, 140 
Ascoli Satriano, 263 
Ascoli Piceno, 158 
Asolo, 50 

Aspromonte, 268, 871 
Assemini, 290 
Assisi, 148 
AsU, 9, 12, 87 
Atella, 263 
Atina, 281 
Atri, 159 

AttigUano, 141, 142 
Augusta, 285 
Auletta, 269 
Aulla, 29 
Avella, 262 
Avenza, 29 
Aversa, 229, 261 
Avezzano, 230 
Avigliano, 268 
Avise Castle, 16 . 
Avola, 288 

Baccano, 143 
Badia, 47 
Bagalbuto, 288 
Bagheria, 278 
BagnfUJayaUo, 99 
Bagnara, 272 
I if gnl, 221 

Bagnola, 42, 64 
Bagnolo, 53 
BagnoU, 258 
Baia, 258 
Baiano, 247, 262 
Balsorano, 230 
Balvano, 263 
Bambolo, 118 
Baragiano, 268 
Barbarano, 142 
Barcellona, 278 
Bardonnechia, 6 
Barge, 6 
Bari, 264, 265 
^arile, 263 
Barletta, 265 
Bassano, 50 
Bassano di Sutri, 142 
Bastia, 7, 148 
Battaglia, 89 
Battipaglia, 256 
Baveno, 18 
Becca di Nona, 15 
Belfiore, 157 
Bella, 268 
Bellaggio, 37 
Bellano, 40 
Bellinzona, 19, 38 
Bellizza, 255 
Belluno, 88 
Benevento, 262 
Bergamo, 39 
Bemalda, 263, 268 
Bianconuovo, 268 
Biasca, 38 
Bicocea, 283, 285 
Biella, 17 
Bisceglie, 265 
Bisignano, 268 
Bittonto, 265 
Bivona, 288 
Bobbio, 7 

Academy (Pictures), 96 
Bacciocchi Palace, 97 
Bentivoglio Palace, 97 
Bevilacqua Palace, 97 
Gampo Santo, 96 
Cathedral, 94 
Churches, 94 
Leaning Towers, 93 
Madonno di S. Luca, 96 
Museiun, 96 
Palaces, 9t 
Palazzo P\ib\];^!^, ^ 



Pepoli Palace, 97 

Pinacoteca, 96 

8. Domenico, 94 


S. Michele in Bosco, 96 

S. Petronio, 94 

S. Stefano, 95 

Theatres, 97 

Univei-sity, 96 
Bolsena, 141 
Bonorva, 291 
Bordighera, 20 
Borghetto, 21, 28, 136, 151 
Borgo di Panigale, 98 
Borgoforte, 68 
Borgo Franco, 14 
Borgo S. Dalmazzo, 8 
Borgo S. Donino, 58 
Borgo S, Lorenzo, 102 
Borgo S. Martino, 12 
Borgo S. Sepolero, 154 
Borgo Ticino. 18 
Borgo Vercelli, 13 
Bormio, 38 
Bosa, 291 

Boscolnngo, 98, 116 
Bourg Mont Gen^rre, 6 
Bova, 268 
Bovino, 262 
Bozzolo, 64 
Bracciano, 142, 143 
Bracco, 28 
Brk St. Vittoria, 7 
Brenta River, 70 
Brescia, 40 
Brian9on, 6 
Brianza, 37 
BsEtfDisi, 266 
Brolo, 278 
Broni, 11 
Bronte, 287 
Buccino, 263 
Bnffalora, 18 
Buonalbergo, 262 
Burano, 87 
Bnssoleno, 6 
Buttrio, 88 

Cabbe-Roquebmne, 19 
Cadenabbia, 38 
Cadore, 88 
Cagli, 164 



Lake* (La^)-^Conlinuid. 

Magf^iurc, 18, 37 

Uesrillus, 221 

Trasymene, 146 
La Maddalena, 393 
Lama, 89 
LamoUi, ISi 
Lanciano, 22)4 
Larino, :i84 
La Rocca, 17 
La Rotonda, 269 
La Salle, 16 
La Si^rre, 16 
La Storta, 142, 148 
La Torre, or La Toar, 6 
Lattarico, 268 
Laurla, 269 
Lauroano, 272 
Lavagna, 28 
Laveno, 19, 37 
Laviano, 263 
La%-iuo, 63 
Le Cupanc, 98 
lACco, 266 
Ltcco, 87, 40 
,LtonoBX, 102. 116 
LefTiia/o. 48, 89 
Lentini, 288, 28) 
Leonfurto, 288 
Lorcara, 278 
Loricl, S8 
I^erino, 80 
Lettere; 3SS 
Levaiito, 28 
Levaiizo, 282 
Llcata, 283 
Litnone, 9 
L'Imposta, 143 
Lingueglia, 20 
Llptri, 289 
Llverogne, 16 
liOano, 20 
LOdi, 66 
Lomcllo, 66 
Loiiato, 42 
L<inlgo, 47 
Loretu. 155 
Lovere, 40 
LirooA, 29, 113 
Lucca Baths, 115 
Lucera, 236 
LusHgnano, 140 
Lngano, 88 
Luino, 19, 87 
Lnna, 29 

lUceareae, 129 
Mtfiemto, 166 
MtO'viier, 991- 

M|i[Vti1nnii. 7 
JCaddaloni, '/82, 263 i 

MflBcenatH Villa, 222 
Magadlno, IS 
Maganaro, 288 
Magenta, 18 
Maggiore Lake, 18, 87 
Magioiie, 146 
Magliana, 120 
Maglie, 207 
Magnano, 88 
Maida, 271 
Maiorisi, 229 
Majella (MonteX 380 
Majori, 264 
Malamocco, 87 
Malcontenta, 63 
Manfredonia, 286 
Mantua, 66 
Mapello, 40 
Marano, 63 
Marengo, 10 
Marianopoli, 278 
Marino, 220 
Maritimo, 281 
Marmore, 169 
Marotta, 106 
Marrubiu, 290 
Marsala, 281 
Martico Nuovo, 369 
Martano, 267 
Marzabotto, 93 
Mascali, 287 
Massa, 29, 119 
Matelica, 167 
Matera, 264 
Mazzara, 281 
Melegnano, 66 
MeM, 268 
Melito, 268 
Mellili, 284 
Menagglo, 88 
Mendrisio, 88 
Montana, 143 
Mentone, 19 
Mcrcianise, 261 
Mcrcogliano, 268 
Messina, 279 
Mestre, 68, 88 
Meta, 268 

Metaponto, 268, 268 
Mctapontum, 268 
Metauro, 105 
Migrnanego, 11 
Migrnano, 281 
Milan, 29-87 

Ambrosian Library, 31 

Arco delta Pace, 86 

Brera, 84 

Cathedral, 80 

Hospital, 96 

Last Bapi'Oi' (L. da 
VinciX B3 

Palaces, 88 

Palazzo Reale. 88 

S. Ambrose, 93 ' 


8. Carlo Borromeo, 88 

S. Ijorenzo, 33 

Scala Theatre. 35 
Milazzo, 278 
Mileto, 271 
Mills, 291 
Mlllesimo, 8 
Mincio River, 66 
Mineo, 383 
Minori, 36t 
Mintuma, 228 
Mirandola, 63, 98 
Mirto Grosia, 268 
Misilmeri, 281, 287 
Modena, 62, 69 
Modica, 283 
Mola di Burl, 266 
Mola di Gagta, 228 
Molfetta, 2GI. 
Monaco, 19 
Monastir, 293 
Moncalieri, 7, 9 
Moncah'O. 12 
Mondovi, 7. 8 
Moneglia, 28 
Monfalcone, 88 
Monopoli, 2(:6 
Mons Sacer, 221 
Mon.s<^licc, 89 
Montaguto, 262 
Montalbano, 268 
Montallegro, 281 
Montalto, 14, 119, 270 
Monte, or Mount— 

Astroni, 267 

Cavo, 220 

Ccnis, 6 

Chaberton, 6 

Ciminn, 142 

Cimone. 98 

Etna, 286 

Genbvre, 6 

Gennaro, 221 

Gran Sasso d*Italia, 169 

Luco, 160 

Majella, 230 

Matese, 233 

Motterone, 17, 18 

Nuovo, 268 

Oliena, 292 

Paradis, (?rand 16 

Pennine, 167 

Picchiriano, 6 

Porzio, 221 

Sibilla, 167 

Solfatara, 367 

Soracte, 161, 320 

Vellno, 380 

Vesuviiis, 348 

Vlso, 8 
Monte Amiata, 140 
Monte Gatsino, 380 
Monte Oompatrl, 339 

Monte Cisa Pass, 2l< 
Monte Cristo, 119 
Monte Forte, 264 
Monte Oliveto Maggiore. 

Montebello, 11, 48 
Montebelluna, 68, 63 
Montecalvo, 262 
Montecatini, 116 
Montecorvino, 356 
Montefiascone, 141 
Monteleone, 40, 371 
Montelupo, 113 
Montemarciano, 106 
Montenotte, 10 
Moitepescali, 119 
Montepulciano, 140 
Monterchl, 164 
Monterosi, 143 
Monterosso, 28 
Monte Rotondo, 136, 143 
Monte S. Angelo, 236 
Monte Silvano, 169 
Montevarchi, 143 
Monticello, 38 
Montoro, 232 
Montorso, 136, 161 
Monza, 37 
Morano, 270 
Morbegno, 38 
Mores, 291 
Morgex, 16 
Morreale, 276 
Mortara, 13 
Motta di Livenzo, 88 
Motya, 381 
Murano, 86 
Mnro, 363 
Musignano, 119 
Mutingano, 159 

Nabrcsina, 88 
Naples, 236 

Avernus, 268 

Bay and Islands, 369 

Botanical Gardens, 245 

Camaldoli Convent, 

Camorra, 247 

Carmine Church, 240 

Castles. 238 

Cathedral, 239 

Cemetery, 245 

Churches, 339 

Events of 1860, 346 

Excursions from, 347 


Hercnlanenm, 260 

Hospitals, 246 

Jschia, 261 

King's Palace, 238 

Librarv, 241 

Masanlello, 240 

Mont« OHreto, 341 



KAPLfes— Continued. 

Museum, 241 

Open Places, 238 

Palaces and Villas, 

Passtum, 255 

Pompeii, 250 

Pozzuoli, 257 

8. Chiara, 289 

S. Domeuico, 239 

S. Filippo Neri, 240 

S. Francesco, 240 

S. Gennaro, 289 

S. Martino, 241 

S. Paolo, 241 

8. Severino, 241 

San Carlo,' 238 

Sibyl's Cave, 258 

" Strada Toledo, 287 

Theatres, 245 

Universities, Ac, 244 

Villas, 245 

Vesuvius, 248 

Virgil's Tomb, 246 
Nardo, 267 
Nami, 150 
Narzole, 7 
Naso Capo d'Orlando,278 
Navacchio, 118 
Neml, 220 
Ncttuno, 227 
Nicastro, 270 
Nice, 9, 19 
Nichellino, 6 
Nlcolosl, 2^6 
Nicosia, 288 
Niella, 8 
Ninfa, 227 
Nislda, 266 
Nocera, 232, 254 
Nocera Umbra, 165 
Nola, 232, 262 
Noll, 21 
Norcla, 158 
Norma, 226 
Noto, 288 
Novara, 13 
Nova Siri, 268 
Novi, 10 
Nulci, 294 
Nuoro, 291 

Offida Cast, di Lama, 158 
Oleggio, 18 
Olerano, 221 
Olgiate, 97 
Oliver!, 278 
OmegaSf 18 

Oueglia, 8, 20 
Oppido, 264. 272 
Orbetello, 119 
Orciano, 117 
Ordona, 263 
Oristano, 292 
Orsara, 262 
Orta, 13, 18 
Orte, 136, 151 
Ortler Spitze, 38 
Ortona, 234 
Orvleto, 186,140 
Oslmo, 155 
Ospedalettl, 20 
Ostla, 222 

Ostium Tibemnm, 222 
Ostnnl, 266 
Otranto, 267 
Otrlcoll, 151 
Oulx, 6 
Ozicri, 2^1 

Pabillonls, 291 
Paderno, 87 
Padua, 50-53 
Padnla, 269 
Paesana, 8 
Psestum, 255 
Pag an i, 254 
Pala^onia, 284 
Palazzolo, 40, 283 
Palermo, 274 
Palcstlna, 87 
Palcstrlna, 221, 229 
Palldoro, 120 
Palinuro, 269 
Pallanza, 19 
Palma, 232, 283 
Palml, 271 
Palo, 120 
Panaria, 289 
Panlcale, 145 
Pantellarla, 282 
Paolo, 270 
Paradls, Grand 15 
Paratlco, 40 
Parha, 58, 64 
Partlnlco, 280 
Paslan Schlavonesco, 88 
Passlgnano, 145 
Patemb, 287 
Pattl, 278 

Paulllatlno, 291, 292 
Pausula, 157 
Pedaso, 158 
Pegll, 21 
Penne, 283 
Pentlma, 233 
Pergola, 155 
Perouse, 7 
Fertosa, 269 
Pkbuoia, 146 
Feturo, 104 

Pescara. 159, 234 
Pesehiera, 44 
Pesciu, 115 
Pettorano, 233 
Placenza, 11, 57 
Piadena, 64 
Pianella, 233 
Pianosa, 119 
Pietra, 21 
Pletra Santa, 29 
Pietramala, 98 
Pieve di C adore, 88 
Piguataro, 231 
Pilve di Cadore, 88 
Plnerolo, 6 
Piombino, 118 
Plperno, 226, 227 
PuA, 109-113 
Pisciotta, 256 
Pistlccl, 263, 268 
Plstoja, 98, 115 
Plzzlghettone, 57 
Plzzo, 271 

Pizzuto di Melfi, 263 
Plaisano, 272 
Pliny's VUla, 154 
Ploaghe, 291 
Pogglbonsl, 137 
Poggio Renatico, 92 
Pojano, 50 
Polesella, 89 
Pollcastro, 269 
PoUcoro, 268 
Polignano, 265 
Polistena, 272 
Pompeii, 250-254 
Pomptlne Marshes, 227 
Ponzana, 13 
Pontassleve, 135, 143 
Ponte a Elsa, 187 
Ponte a Moriano, 29 
Ponte a Serraglio, 115 
Pontebba, 88 
Pontecagnano, 255 
Pontecorvo, 280 
Pontecurone, 11 
Ponte della Selve, 40 
Pontedera, 118 ' 
Ponte di Brenta, 58 
Ponte Felice, 151 
Ponte Galera, 120 
Ponte Glnorl, 118 
Pontelagoscnro, 89 
Ponte MoUe. 148, 151, 171 
Pontenuve, 58 
Ponte Plave, 88 
Ponte S. Giovanni, 148 
Ponte 8. Marco, 42 
Ponte S. Pletro, 40 
Ponte Valoitlno, 362 
Pontine Marshes, 227 
Pontremoli, 28, 29 
Ponzana, 18 

Populunla, 118 
Purdenone, 88 
Purlezza, 38 
Porretta, 98 
Po River, 1, 8, 65, 68, 89 
Portella, 228 
Portlcl, 250 
Porto, 223 
Porto Cereslo, 39 
Porto Oivitanova, 157 
Porto d'Anzio, 223 
Porto Empcdocle, 281 
Porto Ferraio, 118 
Portogruaro; 88 
Porto Recanatl, 156 
Porto 8. Giorgio, 158 
Porto Maurizio, 20 
Porto Torres, 290 
Poschiavo, 88 
Posilipo, 256 
Positano, 254 
Possagno, 60 
Potenza, 263 
Potenza Plcena, 157 
Pozzuoli, 257, 258 
Pracchla, 98 
Pragano, 255 
Prato, 116 
Pratollno, 135 
Prato Magno, 148 
Presenzano, 231, 234 
Pr^ St. Dldler, 16 
Proclda, 260 

Quadema, 98 
Qnattro Castelli, 62 

Racalmuto, 283 
Racconlgl, 7 
Ragalbuto, 289 
Ragusa, 288 
Randazzo, 287 
Rapallo, 28 
Rapolano, 140 
Rapolla-Lavello, 285, 
Ravello, 254 
Ravknna, 99, 10 J 
Recanati, 156 
Recco, 28 
Reclna, 156 
Recoaro Baths, 50 
Regglo(Calabrla)268, 278 
Reggio (Emilia), 61 
Regillus Lake, 221 
Rende 8. Fill, 268 
Reslna, 250 
Reslntta, 88 
Rezzato, 43 




Rlgrnano, 148 
Rimini. 108 
Rio Murino, 118 
Rionera, 288 
Bioncro, 968 
Rlpafratta, 118 
Riparbella, 117 
Ripalta, 234 
Ripatrunsone, 158 
Ripomerancio, 118 
ftitoiio, 270 
Riva (Lake Como), 88 
Riva (Lake Garda), 64 
Rivalta, 65 
Rivarolo, 16 

2iviera di liCvante, 28 
iviera di Ponente, 19 
Rivo, 263 
Rivoli, 6, 64 
Rivolta, 279 
Robilante, 9 
Roccadebaldi, 8 
Rocca d'Evandro, 281 
Rocca di Papa, 220 
Roccapalamba, 282 
Roccarasa, 238 
Roccasecca, 230 
Roccastrada, 140 
Rocca Imperial f, 268 
Rocca Romana, 148 
Rocca Yalle Oscura, 288 
Rocchetta, 268 
Roccheti, 50 
Rocella lonlca^ 268 
Roggiano, 268 
Rogliano, 270 
Rogoredo, 58, 56 
Romagnano, 18, 268 
ROHB, 161 

Ancient, 208-18 

Academlet, 2P7 

American Church, 162 

Americjw Legation, 

Apollo Belvedere. 197 

Aqueducts, 170, 210 

Arches, 210 

Atrlura Vest«, 210 

Basilicas, 174 

Bnths, 211 

Benevolent Institu- 
tions, Hoppitals, Ac, 

Bridges, 167 

Sritiih Embassy, 161 
nsiness Pirectory, 162 
Campagna, 219 
Capitol, The, 200 
Carriages, ^61 
Castel S. Ajfgelo, 218 
Catacombs, 196, 9^9 
Chief Obfecti of 

Rome — Continued. 

Churches outside 
Rome, 198 

Circuses, 211 

Clubs, 162 

Colleges, 207 

Colosseum, 212 

Columns, 213 

Dying Gladiator, 201 

Egeria,Fountain of, 214 

English and American 
Bankers, 162 

English Church, 162, 

Excurnions from 
Rome, 2^8 

Forum, The, 209 

Forums and Basilicas, 

Fol^ltain•, 170 

Galleries, 162 

Gates, 171 

Ghetto, 168 

Holy Week, 174 

Hotels, 161 

Inscriptions, 196 

LaocoOn, 197 

Lateran, 180, 200 

Libraries, 207 

Money, 161 

Mosaics, 199 

Municipal Districts, 166 

Obelisks, 170 

Omnibuses, 161 

Painters, 164 

Palaceof theCsesars, 214 

Palaces and Villas, 202 

Pantheon, 215 

Papal Establishment, 

Peter's, St., 176 

Physician, and Accou- 
cheur, 162 

Pontifical Palaces, 198 

Populatiop, W, 178 

Post Office, 162 

Principal Church 
Festivals, 174 

Professional Direc- 
tory, 162 

Pnb^c Offices, 168 

Quirinal and Lftteran 
Palaces, 199 

Railways, 162 

Remains of Ancient 
Rome, 208 

Roads, 172 

Roman Art, 164 

Rostra, 209 


SciUptoni, 164 
Seven HUIt, 11)6, 1^ 
SUtintqifpf}, m 

Rons— CVm/tnufd. 

S. Paolo Faori Le 
Mura, 182 

Squares, 168 

Steam Cornqmnica- 
tion, 162 

St. Peter's, 176 

Streets, Ac, 167 

Telegraph Office, 162 

Temples, 215 

Theatres, 162, 171; 
(Ancient), 217 

Tiber River, 167 

Tombs and Mauso- 
leums, 217 

Tre fontane, 190 

University, 207 

Vatican, 163, 198 

Victor Emmanuel 
Monument, 201 

Via Appia, 219 
' Villas, 163, 206 

Walls, 165 

Week at Rome, 168 

Weights and Measures, 
Ronchi, 88 
Ronciglione, 142 
Ronco, 11 
Ronco River, 99 
Rosamo, 271 
Roseto, 268 
Rossano, 268 
Rovato. 89 
Roverbella, 65 
Roveredo, 64 
Rovigo, 89 
Rubicon River, 108 
Rubiera, 62 
Russi, 99 
Ruvo, 265 

S. Andrea, 268 

S. Andrea del Lido, §7 

S. Augelo in Vado, 153 

S. Antimo, 261 

S. Arcangelo, 108 

S. Basilio, 268 

S. Benedetto TrontOi 158 

S. Bernardino, 88 

S. Biagio, 270 

S. Bonifacio, 47 

S. Casciano, 185 

S. Cataldo, 286, 288 

S. Clementi, 254 

8. Dalmazzo di Tenda, 9 

S. Dona di Piave, 88 

S. Donnino, 118 

S Elpidio, 157 

S. Filippo 4'Argiro, ^89 

S. Gavino, 990 

S. GenesLo, 11 

8. Giorg|4j, m ^ 

S. Oiovanni d'Asfo, 140 

8. Giovanni Man^ano. 88 

S. Giovanni Perticeto, 97 

8. 0iuliano, 118 

8. Giulietta, 11 

8. Giu8eppediCairo,8,10 

S. Giustino, 144, 168 

S. Ilario, 61 

8. Lazzaro, 87 

8. Lorenzo, 20 

8. LorenzoMaggiore,262 

S. Lussurgiu, 291 

8. Marco Argentino, 268 

S. Marino, 104 

8. Martino, 6, 47 

S. M artino d.Battaglia,44 

S. Miniato, 118 

8. Nicolo. 11 

S. Onofrlo; 142 

8. Pier d* Arena, 11, 21 

8. Piero, 116 

8. Pierre, 15 

8. Pietro in Caiale, 92 

8. Quirico, U 

8. Remo, 20 

8. Remy, 16 

8. Sepolcro, 154 

8. Severino, 157 

8. Severe, 284 

8. Sisto, 270 

8. Stefano, 20, 278 

8. Tedoro, 268 

8. Valentino, 283 

8. Vincent, 15 

8. Vincent (Baths); 15 

8. Vincenzo, 118 

8. Vito, 284 

8. Vito d'Otranto, 266 

Sta. Maria Maadalena, 89 

Sacile, 88 

Sala, 269 

Salandra Grotte, 268 

Sale, 8 

Salerno, 255 

Salina, 289 

Salo, 64 

Saluzzo, 8 

Samassi. 292 

Sumoggia, 6Z 

Sangiorgio, 232 

Sanluri, 292 

Sannazzaro, 56 

Sanseverino, 157, 282 

Santa Agata, 229, 278 

Santa Caterina (Xirbi), 

Santa Elena, 87 
Santa Eufemia, 270 
Santafede, 263 
Santa Flaviit, 278 
Santa Marglierita, 28 
Santa Mam degU An- 

gelL 148 " 
SaDUHaria di C Apu»,S» 



Santa Maria della Croot, 

Santa Mnrla Maddalena, 


Sta. Maria MMfi^ra, 382 
Santa Mariael^^ 120 
Santa Sovera, 120 
Santtaia, 12 
Sant 'Orsola, 290 
Santnario, 8 
Sakdinia, 290 
Sarno, 232 
Suronno, 37 
Sarzana, 29 
Sassano-Tegiano, 268 
Sassari, 291, 294 
Sasso, 98 
Sassoferrato, 165 
Sassuolo, 68 
Savigliaao, 8 
Sarignano-Greci, 262 
Savona, 8, 21 
Scaf ati, 254 
Scala, 254 
Scala di Oiocci, 291 
Scaletta, 280, 288 
Scarena, 9 
Schieggia, 154 
Schio, 50 
Sciacca, 281 
Scigliano, 270 
Scilla, 272 
Scoglitti, 283 
Scopa, 17 
Scopoll, 157 
Scordia, 288 
Secngnago, 57 
Sfegesta, 281 
Segni, 221, 229 
Selinnnte, 281 
Seminara, 272 
Seregno, 87 
Seriate, 40 

Sermoneta-Korma, 327 
Sei-ra Capriola* 234 . 
Serradifalco, 286, 288 
Selramantia, 290 
Stii^a S. Qniiieb, 158 
S«rravalle, ^p,. 115, 157 
Sessa Aurnnca, 229 
Sestri di PoU6»t«, 31 
S^tH Le^ante, 28 
Setto, 37, 11$ 
Sesto Calende, 87 
Settimo, 11 
Seveso, 87 
Sezza, 226. 327 
Sgurgola, 229 
Sieignano, 168 
SteUkn VMpen , 875 
SxoiLT, 178 
Si«p», m 

SigiUo, 155 
Signa, 118 
Siliqua, 292 
Simplon, 19 
Sinalunga, l40 
Sinigaglia, 105 
Solfatara, 221 
Solferino, 48 
Solino, 272 
Solmona, 233 
Solofra, 232 
Solopaca, 262 
Bomnia, 37 

Somma Campagna, 44 
Bondrio, 88 
Sora, 229 
Sorrento, 258 
Soapello, 9 
Soveria Manelli, 270 
Bparanise, 281 
Spartivento, Cape, 268, 

Spello, 149 
Spezia La, 28 
Spezzano Albanese, 270 
Spe/. zana-CastroTillari , 

Spigno, 10 
Spinazzola, 268 
Splttgen Pats, 88 
Spoleto, 149 
S|)Otomo, 21 
Squillace, 268, 271 
Starza, 262 
Stelvio, 38 
St. Qotliitrd Tunnel Rail, 

Stradella, 11 
Stresa, 18 
Strevi, 10 
Stromboli, 289 
Strongoli, 268 
Stnpinigi, 6 
Sabiaoo, 222 
Superga, 5 
Siitri, U2 
Bnzsara, 68 
Sybaris, 270 
Sybil's Cave, 258 
Stsacuss, 283 

Taormina, 287 
Taranto, 263, 267 
Tarcento, 88 
Tarda, 268, 270 
Teano, 231 
Telamone, 119 
Telese, 363 
Tempio, 994 
Teramo, 159 
T«rpiini Imerest, 278 

Termoli, 384 

Temi, 150 

Tcrontola, 136, 148, 145 

Terracina, 228 

TerranoYa, 283, 291 

Terra Nuova, 272 

Testrina, 159 

Thiene, 50 

Thrasymenns Lake, 145 

Three Taycma, 220, 227 

Tiber River, 167 

Ticino River, 55 

Tirano, 38 

Tiriolo, 270 

Tissi-Usini, 291 

TivoLi, 221 

Tolentino, 157 

Tora Presenzano, 884 

Torcello, 87 

Torralba, 291 

Torre, 50 

Torre Annunziata, 250 

Torreberetti, 56 

Torre Gerchiara, 268 

Torre de' Confini, 228 

Torre dell' Epitafia, 227 

Torre del Greco, 250 

Torregaveta, 259 

Torre del Lago, 29 

Torremare, 263, 268 

torre Masdea, 271 

Torrenieri, 119, 140 

Torre Pel lice, 6 

Torrita, 140 

Tortona, 11 

Trani, 265 

Trapani, 282 

Trebbia River, 68 

Tfebisacce, 268 

Trecate, 13 

Tf-e Fontane, 190 

Tvento, 64 

Tres Nnraghes, 291 

Ttet TabernsB, 220 

Trevi, 149 

Treviglio, 39 

Treviso, 60, 88 

Tricesimo, 88 

Trieste, 89 

Trino, 11 

Trivigno, 263 

Troflfarello, 7, 9 

Tnrbia, 19 

TtJRiN, 1-6, 8 
Academy of Science, 

Pictures, &c., 4 
Armoury, 8 
Cathedral, 3 
Churches, 3 
Corpus Domini, 8 
Egyptian Museum, 4 
Gran M adre di Dio, 8 
Hospitals^ h 
MonuTK^«T\t«, S 

Museum, 4 
Palaces, 2, 4 
Palazzo Madama, 3 
Piazza Cust9ll0,,8 
Picture OaUeries. 4 
S. Filippo Neri, 8 
Superga, 5 
Theatres, 4 
University, 4 

Tusculum, 220, 821 

Udine, 88 
Umbertide, 144 
Uras, 292 
Urbania, 158 
Urbino, 168 
Usmate, 37 
Ustica, 278 

Vado, 21 
Vaglio, 263, 864 
Val Bregaglia, 88 
Valcimara, 167 
Valdagno, 48, 50 
Valdamo, 136, 148 
Val di Bisenzio, 116 
Val di Bove, 286, 287 
Valdiera, 48 
Valdieri Baths, 8 
Valeggio, 66 
Valenza, 12 

Valle di Maddaloni, 262 
Vallelunga, 278 
Valleys — 

Amo, 135 

D'Aosta, 14 

De Challaht, 14 

De Ghamporcher, 14 

Di Chiima, 145 

Lucema, 6 

Perosa, 6 
Vallombrosa, 185 
Val Mesocco, 38- 
Valmontone, 229 
Valsavoia, 285 
Valtellina, 38 
Valvo, 263 
Varallo, 13, 17 
Varazze, 21 
Varese, 37, 38 
Varigottl, 21 
Vasto, 284 
Veil, 143 
Velleja, 68 
Vellctri, 227 
Venafro, 234 
Venics, 99-^ 

Academy of ^n^ Art4 
(Pietiir«iiV 70 



Vbmicb — Continued. 
CI d'Ore, 86 
Campanile Tower, 74 
Cathedral, 72 
Chioggia, 87 
Correr Miueain, 86 
Castom House, 81 
Doges' Palace, 74 
Fenice Theatre, 83 
8. Francesco della Ylg- 

Frari Church, 82 
Grand Canal, 70 
Orimani Palace, 81 
Law Court, 80 
Libreria Vecchia, 77 
Lido, 87 
Murano, 86 
Piazza 8. Marco, 72 
Procuratie Nuore, 77 
Public Gardens, 76 
Qnerini Library, 84 
Hedentore Church, 81 
Bialto Bridge, 81 

Vevick— Continued. 
Salute Church, 79 
Scalzi Church, 81 
Scuola 8. Rocro, 83 
S. Giorgio Magg^ore, 

SS. Giovanni e Paol, 

8. Marciliauo, 85 
S. Salvatore, 83 
S. Sebastiano, 81 
8. Stefano, 84 
S. Zaccarla, 77 
Palace, 86 

Venosa, 268 

Ventimiglia, 20 

Yenuftinm, 264 

Vercelli, 12 

Vergato, 98 

Vema, 11 

Verola, 229 

Verolanova, 42, 64 

Verona, 44 

Verres, 14 

Vesuvias, Mount, 248 
VctruUa, 142 
Yettica Maggiore, 265 
Yettica Minore, 256 
Vettuone, 14 
Via Appia, 227 
Viareggio (Milan). 36 
Viareggio (Pisa), 29 
Yicenza, 48 
Vico, 263 
Vietri, 264 
Vlgevano, 12 
Yiggiano, 269 
Villa Adriana, 221 
Villa d'Este, 222 
Villafranca, 66 
Villafrati, 281, 288 
Villa Maggiore, 63 
Villa Pallavicini, 27 
ViUarosa, 288 
Villa 8. Gioranni, 272 
Villasor, 292 
ViUa 8pinola, 27 

VillasteUone, 7 
Villefranche, 19 
Villeneuve, 16 
Vlterbo, 142 
Vittoria, 283 
Yittorio, 88 
Vltulano, 263 
Voghera, 11, 66 
Vogogna, 19 
Volcano, 289 , 
Void, 119 
Volta, 65 
Volterra, 118 
Voltri, 21 
Voltumo River, 231 

Waldensian (Vandois, or 

Valdesi) Countrj', 6 
Wormscr Joch, 38 

Za^rarolo. 229 
ZoUino, 267 


To Face Page 

Florence, Town Plan of 130 

Italy, Map of «. Title 

Milan, Town Plan of 28 

Naples „ 234 

Palermo „ .• 274 

Rome „ 160 

Turin „ xL 

Venice „ 68 

Verona „ ** 


Ancona, City of 46 

Catania, Sicily 46 

CIvita Vecchia 46 

Gagta 46 

Genoa 22 

LagoD'Orta 22 

Mgo Maggiore, , ,.«., ».,. ^3 

YlEWSi-^Continued. To Face Page 

Leghorn « •* , 46 

Naples 236 

Palermo t 46 

Rome :— 

Castle and Bridge of St, Angelo 212 

Colosseum 212 

Pantheon, The 212 

Ruins of the Temple of Saturn 213 

Temple of Hercules 212 

Salerno, Piazza di Solofra 46 

Scylla 46 

Trieste 286 

Tubin: — 

Royal Palace 22 

Piazza Vittorio Emmanuele 22 

Venice 236 

Veroiia,t.., , , ,..., ...,•••■«.. 46 



*«* Bbadshaw's Continsktal Railway Guide (published monthly, at 69, Fleet Street, London) 
gives the latest particulars respecting Passports, Hotels, Chaplains, Medical Men, Bankers, Popula- 
tion, Railways, Steamers, Circular Tours, and other matters which are liable to change. It is 
so indispensable a Companion for Visitors to every part of the Continent, that in the course of the 
following remarks we shall take It for granted that the reader has that useful work in his hands, and 
shall therefore make frequent reference to its contents in order to avoid repetition here. 

Passports.— See introduction to Bradshaw'g 
Continental Quide^ for all the necessar>' directions 
on this head. Our agents, W. J. Adams A Sons, of 
£9, Fleet Street, London, will undertake to procure 
the Passport, with its vUat. It is always useful, 
and is in fact a stranger's card of introduction to 
all the ofBcial world on the continent. 

Money.—Circular notes for £5 and £10, payable 
at the principal towns, may be obtained in London 
(see Introduction to Bradshaw'i Continental Guide). 
English coin should always be changed for the cur- 
rent coin of the country, at the money changer's 
(cambia moneta). f'or a visitor constantly moving 
about, the expenses may average 16s. to 20s. a 
day ; including travelling, living, and sight-seeing. 
Sovereigns can be exchanged for paper at 26 lire. 
In Italy, Napoleons pass, worth 20f ., or 16s. ; and 
the equivalent for a l^nc in Italy, is the ''lira 
nuova" ipl. lire), or "Ura Italiana," worth 9id., 
now universally known as **lira" only, though 
sometimes called " franco," and divided into ICO 
**centesimi,'* or centimes. 

The currency of Italy is now uniform for the 
whole kingdom. Bank notes are issued for 1,000 
600, 200, 100, 60, 26, 10, and 6 lire. Those for 
2 lire, 1 lira, and half a lira have been called in 
to be exchanged for silver, and are now rarely 
met with. Bronze pieces of 1, 2, 6, and 10 cento- 
simi (or centi) are coined ; Ic. is worth about half 
a farthing; the 6c. piece •is called a** soldo," and 
prices are not unfrequently quoted in soldi, jast 
as in France they are often stated in sotut. Silver 
pieces of 5 and 2 lire, and 1 lira, and 60c. and 20c. 
Gold pieces of 100, 60, 20, 10, and 6 lire. (See 
the Money Table In BradM^aw's Continental Guide,) 
Soiled or torn notes diould be declined, and no 
notes should be tak^B out of Italy, 

In paper, £1 sterling=26^ lire. One shilling= 
1 lira and 80 centeslmi. One penny=10 ccntesiml. 
These vary a little with the rate of exchange. 
In specie, £1=26-60 lire. 

Obsolete gold coins (before 1868) should be 
declined. As a rule gold and silver coins of 
France, Switzerland, and Belgium, are current at 
full value. 


Many of these terms are disused, and none of 
the coin* are now current, but it is occasionally 
useful to know their names and equivalents. 

Italian. English. 

Bajocco worth |d> 

10 bajocchi=:l paul .»... „ 6id. to 6id. 

Carlino (Naplcs)=10grani „ 4d. 

12 carlini=l piastra „ 4s. l^d. 

Ducato(Naples)=10 carlini „ 3s. i^d. to 8s. 6|d. 

Florin (Austrian) = 100) i« lu 

soldi i" •♦ "• ^***- 

Grano „ |d. 

Oncla (gold)=3 ducati „ lOs. 4id. 

Paul or Paolo (Roman)=) -, , .^ -. . 

lObajocchi ....; " 6id.to6id. 

46to47pauls „ 20s. 

Pistola (Naples) ,.. „ 18s. 8|d.or 7s. 8d. 

Scudo(8ilver),Roman crown ,, 48. 3id. to 4s. 6d. 

Soldo ,, id. 

Zecchino or soqnin (gold) .. „ Ss. lOfd. 

Zwanziger or Austrian lira, y, ^^» 

80 EwauxVg«t%=\^ ku%A «|j^^, 
trlau %V\v^T tLoiVn* «a '''^ 



Hotels.— The usual tiinefl for table d'hdte din- 
ners are 1 and 6 p.m. A plain breakfast may be 
had at a caffb of chocolate, bread and fruit, as 
grapes, figs, Ac. A fair dinner at 4 to 5 lire, not 
including wine. The national siesta after dinner is 
worth imitation by visitors in hot weather. Cigars, 
being a goremment monopoly, are bad and dear. 

At an hotel servants are charged in the bill 
at about 1 lira per day. The " porter '' expects 
a gratuity (buona manb). Boots, or " facchino," 
25 cents. The waiter is called " camericre ;"— at 
a cafft "bottega" (shop). Table d'hdte is "tavola 
rotonda." A cook shop Is " trattorfa." An inn, 
"albergo" (plural "alberghi"), "osteria," "loc- 
anda." See the Vocabulaiy at the end of the 
Special Edition of Bradthatd's Continental Guide. 

As to making a bargain beforehand with the 
host, the following is the advice of Mr. T. A. Trol- 
lope: — "My own long ezperioice of Italian tra- 
Yuling would lead me to say, Never do anything 
of the kind. It indisposes the people to you. It 
is contrary to the habits of the country. It will 
much diminish your comfort ; and in nowise profit 
your purse. Neither imagine that any economy 
will be achieved (except in the case of the g^reat 
cities, where accommodation of different degrees of 
luxury is provided at recognised and avowedly 
different scales of charges) by limiting your de- 
mands to anything less than the best the house 
can give you in point of rooms and fare. Tell 
the host good-naturedly and cheerfully to do the 
best he can for you in both respects; not mean- 
ing, of course, to include in this 'best' foreign 
wines, or such extra articles as are supplied only 
on special demand. Say nothing about prices. 
But when the bill is brought in, if it is an extor- 
tionate one, Just cut it down to a fair charge, 
taking care that the sum you fix is rather more 
than less than the absolutely strict rate. If it be 
done good-humouredly and quietly, and with evi- 
dent knowledge of what the charges ought to be, 
the traveller will find that it will always be 
acceded to with a good grace, and that the opera- 
tion will not be attended by the disagreeables 
inseparable from the work of making a bargain for 
your entertainment on entering the house. The 
striking off of this tara on the bill ought not to be 
done as if the objector considered the innkeeper as 
a rog^ue, but simply as a matter of course." — 
Tbollope'8 Lenten Journey. 

Postaire. — Letters to a traveller in Italy should 
be addressed "Ferma in Posta," that is, to be 
called for ; or else to the care of a banker, or the 
landlord of an hotel. There are three daily mails 
from London to Italy and also from Italy to 

In Italy the postage on letters is 6c. (id.) the 
half oz. in the towns, and 20c. (2d.) to any part 
of the country, payable by stamps, sold at the post 
ofBces and cigar shops. Postage to England, 85c. 
under 15 grammes (i oz.). 

TelesraplL— To the Unltod Kingdom, iaittol 
-*»-jyaI JJra and 80c. por word. 

Weights and Measures ("Pesi e Misure").— 

The metrical system, based on the French, was 
adopted in Italy in August, 1861. It was made 
permissive in England (by Act 27, 28, Vic, cap. 
117) in 1864. 

In the Italian names, " ch " takes the place of 
"k," as ehiJometro for kilometre, by which all 
distances are now measured; and the "h" is 
dropped, as in ettolittro, for hectolitre. " Elm." is, 
however, used in the Official Railway Guide. 


Acre = 4,000 square metri, nearly. 
Barile of wine (Tuscan) = 12 gallons. 
Barile of oil (Tuscan) = 8-8 gallons. 
Bushel = 86-848 littri. 
Chllogramma = 2 lbs. 3 oz. 4*4 drachms. 

10 chilog. = 22 lbs. Of oz. 

51 „ = 112 lbs. 

ChUometri= 1,000 metri=|mlle=l,093 yds., 1 foot, 
10*79 inches. 

10 chilom. = 6i miles. 

(To turn chil. into miles, multiply by 5 and 
divide by 8). 
Ettara (hectare)=:2i acres, nearly; or 2*471 acres; 
or 2 acres 2280*8 square yards. 

10 ettare xs 24f acres. 
Ettolittro (hectolitre) s 2 bushels, 3 pecks, 0*077 

Foot=*305 metro. 
Fathom=l-829 metri. 
GaUon=4-543 Uttro. 
6ramma='5644 drachms avoirdupois. 
Littro (litre)=l-7608 pints =61*028 cubic InohM.. 
Metro=l'094 yards, or=:8 feet 3*8708 inches, or a 

8*281 feet, or =39*87 inches. 
(To turn metri into yards (nearly), add 1-lIth). 

100 metri = 828 feet. 

1,000 metri (chilom.) 8,281 feet, or about f mUo. 
Mile (English) = 1,609*815 metres, or = 1*609 chilo* 

5 miles (English) = 8 chilom. 
Mile (Italian, or geographical) as 9,025 English 
yards = 1,852 metres = I l-7th English milo. 
Mile (Neapolitan) =2,435 yurds. 

„ (Pi edmontese)= 2,697 yards. 

„ (Roman) = 1, 628 yards. 

„ (Tuscan) = 1, 808 yards. 
Moggio = 4-5ths acre. 
Ounce (avoirdupois) =28*35 gramme. 

„ (troy)=31*10 gramme. 
Palmo= lOf inches. 

Post (old) varies from 4i to 11 English milea. 
Quart (imperial)=4'54 littri. 
Quarter (dry mea8ure)=r290'78 littri. 
Quintal (Tuscan) = 100 Tuscan lbs. = 74*8 English 

Pound (avoirdupois) = 458*69 gramme. 

« (troy) = 878*24 gramme. 
Tomola = i qnartar. 
Tardss *9144 metri. or about 8-lOthi. 
(To torn yards into metri (noarl]r),takt off l-12th). 
A square yard sa 0*886 tquaro metre. 



Routes to ttaly.—See itinerary of Routes from 
England, and lists of railways, steamers, diligences, 
Ac, in BradshatD's Continental Guide. Through 
France, vi& Dorer to Calais (three times a day), or 
Folkestone to Boulogne. 

By rail, Genoa may be reached through France 
or Switzerland in 2i to 3 days (80 to 86 hours 
of actual travelling by short route), for £7 lOs^ 
£rst class. Leghorn, in 3 to 3| days, for £8 to 
£9. Florence, in 3 to 3| days (or only 88 hours 
of actual travelling), for £8 10s. Rome, in 2i to 
5 days, for a little over £10, 44 hours travelling. 
Naples, 2| to 5| days, £11 10s. ; 60 hours travel- 
ling by short route. 

The direct Land Routes are through France or 
Switzerland, and through the Tyrol. 

Sea Routes from London by the Orient, British 
India Company and other lines to Naples. Nord- 
deutscher Lloyd, Southampton to Genoa. 

Frqm Liverpool to Genoa, Leghorn, Naples, 
Venice, Ac, by Cunard Steamers. 

Railway Routes are— vi<S France and Mont Cenls 
or Karseilles; vid Switzerland and the St. Gbthard, 
or viA Germany and the Brenner. 

1. Through France. To Paris, Dijon, ChWon- 
sur-Sadne, and MAcon; thence to Amb^rieu, 
Culoz, Chamb^ry, St. Michel, Modane, Mont 
Cenis Tunnel, Turin; thence to Milan, Bologna, 
Genoa, Ac. See Skeleton Route, page xxxvi. 
Or, Paris to Lyong and Marseilles, for Nice, and 
the Rivi^a to Genoa. 

2. Through amtterland. To Calais, Basle Cdt>0e< 
train, avoiding Paris), Lucerne, and the St. Gothard 
to Milan. Or Steamer to Antwerp, Rail to Brus- 
sels, Luxembourg, Strassburg, and Basle, thence 
as above.— See JBradshaw'* Continental Guide. 

Z. Through Germany. To Brussels, Li^ge, Ver- 
▼iers, Aix-la-Chapelle, Cologne, Maycnce, Aschaf- 
fenburg, Munich, Rosenheim, Kuf stein, Innsbruck, 
Brenner Pau, Brixen, Botsm (or Bolzano), Ala, 
Verona; %x\d. thence to Padua, Venice, Milan, 
Bologna, Ac. (At Venice the Peninsular and 
Oriental Steuneni may be taken in connection 
with Brlndisi). Or, through Germany and Switz- 
erland, and the St. Gothard Tunnel. 

Other Routes are as follow: — 

4. To Paris, Lyons, Marseilles; and by steamers 
to Genoa, Leghorn, Givita Vecchia; or Marseilles 
by rail, to Nice, Genoa, Ac. 

6. 1q Paris, Geneva, Martigny, Great Saint Ber- 
nard, Aosta, Turin. About 40 hours of actual 
travelling, to Martigny, under Mont BUmc 

6. To Paris, Geneva, the Simplon, Lake Mag- 
giore, Milan. 

7. Up the Rhine, Basic, Lucerne, the St. Gothard 
Pass or Tunnel, Lake Maggiore, Milan, or Lake 
Como and Milan. 

8. The Rhine, Basle, Lucerne, Coire, the Splilgen, 
Como, Milan. 

9. Through the Tyrol, by Innsbruck, the Enga- 
dint, BtalTlo and othor Passes, to Lake Como, 
Ifilaa, VoroAa, and Vanioo. 

lO.toYitmus Laibacb, Trlestf^ Venice, Aneona, 

Ac. About 80 hours of actual travelling to Vienna. 
Through tickets can be obtained from the different 
railway companies. Circular Tour tickets may 
be got at Milan, and it will be found economical to 
take return tickets to the Italian frontier by those 
who are conversant with foreign travel. There 
is no free luggage allowance with these tickets.— 
See Bradshaw't Continental Guide. 

Italian Overland Route to Egypt.- The 

extension of the Adriatic Coast line (Rete Adriatiea) 
to Brindisi (the ancient Brundi$ium) made this 

filace the most eligible starting-point for the East, 
nstead of Marseilles. It is 700 to 800 miles 
nearer to Port Said, and within about 3 days" sea 
passage of the Suez Canal. A sum of 6 million lire 
was expended in the improvement of the port. 
The loumey may be performed at through fares by 
the Mont Cenis, St. Gothard, or Brenner Route, 
as above, the three meeting at Bologna; whence 
the main line runs on to Ancona, t*escara, Foggla, 
Bari, and Brindisi. Across France, the whole 
distance from Boulogne to Brindisi is about 
1,380 miles, as follows: — 


Boulogne to Paris 157 

Paris, vid Mont Cenis, to Turin, 

about 488 

Turin to Bologna and Ancona ... 386 
Ancona to Brindisi, about 345 

The P. A O. Express, leaving London on Friday 
evening, has attached to it a Sleeping Car from 
Calais for travellers holding through tickets; due 
Sunday, at 4 4i p.m. The steamer leaves Brindisi 
about 6 p.m., and is due at Port Said on Thursday. 
Parties who do not like night travelling may break 
the journey here and there by starting a few days 
earlier, by oi-dinary train; through fares, first- 
class, a little over £12. Refreshment buffiets at 
most of the places mentioned above. 

For particulars of the French and Swiss Routes 
see the Direct Through Tables in Bradshaw's 
Continental Guide. Baggage on the Brenner Route 
is examined at Cologne, Kuf stein, and Ala. 

Railways in Italy.— a railway is called " stra- 
da ferrata," and "ferrovia;" or "strade ferrate," 
and **ferrovie," in the plural. Some are single 
lines. The oldest is Naples to Castellammare, 
opened 30th November, 1839. There are steam 
tramways; the principal lines will be found in 
Bradshaw's Continental Guide, Mid-Europe time 
(1 hour later than Greenwich) is kept on all 

At the end of 1897 there were about 9,500 milds 
open, and 38,665 miles of telegraph. The lines ar^ 
in the hands of the Government, and are divided 
into the Rete Mediterranea, Rete Adriatica, and 
Rete Sicula. Submarine cables are laid from 
Otranto to Velona; from Marsala to La Calle, in 
Africa; Spezia to Corsica ; Cagliari to Bdne and 

In the Italian RaUwa.^ V%5a\«k >Ca^ V?^^\^*^^ 
given to "\\i%^^ MieL^^ti«L\.«AMiC^ ^^V^ ^-^^v^ 



The distances are indicated in "chiloinetri," 
("ch.'). "Arr." signifies arrives; "diret." express; 
"misti," mixed; "tragetto in ore," lime In hours; 
"diligenze," coaches. Passengers shoald look to 
their change at the stations. 

Luggage, ^'Effetti di viaggiatore," may be 
booked and forwarded (locked) by rail. Revolvers 
are liable to be confiscated. It is not safe to put 
valaables among ordinary luggage. There is no 
free allowance of baggage in Italy. For example, 
from Modnne to Brindisl the charge is 3s. fid. per 
20 lbs. There is, however, no charge for a small 
hand-bag, weighing not more than 4^.; maximum 
size, 20 X 10 X 12 inches. 

Carriage Travelllxig.— a ''Vetturino*' is the 

driver of a "vettura," or two-horse carriage. It 
takes four in and one out, and will do 25 to 80 miles 
a day, at a cost of about 80 to 40 francs, besides 
3 or 4 francs, *' buona mano," to driver. 

A "Galesso" is a vehicle for two persmis; 
charge, about 8Jd. a mile. "Calessino," "caret- 
tino," and ^'corricolo " are names for a light vehicle. 

Post Travelling costs about 9d. to lOd. a mile, 
including postilion and ostler. A post is from 7 to 
9 English miles. 

OuideB— called "Ciceroni" (after Cicero), '•ser- 
vitor! de piazza," "commissarj," "facchini," &c. 
For fi or 6 lire a day they will show all the sights. 

Mr. Laing says:— *'A valet de place, cicerone, or 
bear-leader, is a very useful personage, provided he 
if intelligent, and provided you never take him 
with you. If you do, you are the party fairly en- 
titled to be paid for the day's work, for you have 
the fatigue of listening to a rigmarole of names 
and phrases that would tire the patient ear of any 
of his marble statues. But consult him in the 
morning before you sally forth, as a kind of two- 
legged dictionary; get all the information you can 
oat of him about what you intend to see, and the 
way to it; pluck him and leave him at home; and 
the goose is worth his price." — Note* of a Trawlfer 
(Ti'aveller's Library). ' 

Churches, which are generally the principal 
objects of notice, are usually shut from 12 to 8. 
"Chiesa" is a church; "Custode," a person In 
charge; "Pinacoteca," a picture gallery; "Palazzo,'* 
a palace, or family town house; "Piazza," an 
open place; "Si afitta," means "to let.'* 

Turpentine or Condy's Fluid is good for the 
sting of a wasp, or mosquito bite. Carbolic acid 
should be used for bad smells. 


ITALT, or "L'lTALiA," between lat. 46J» N. In the 
Alps, to 36J' In Sicily, and between long. 6^' E. at 
Mont Cenls, to 181° at Otranto, is a boot-shaped 
Peninsula, stretching about 500 miles Into the 
Mediterranean Sea, from the basin of the Po, 
which forms Its northern division, and lies between 
the Alps and Apennines, In a trough, 250 miles 
by 50. It Is bordered on the west by France, 
or "La Francla," and the Maritime Alps. On the 
north by Switzerland, or "La Svlzzera," and by 
the Swiss and lYro^es® Alps ; on the south and 
cast by the Mediterranean Sea ("Mare Moditer- 
raneo") and the Adriatic Gulf (" Mare Adrlatlco"). 
Part of the Mediterranean, between the mainland 
and Sardinia, Is the "Mare Tlrreno," or Tyrrhe- 
nian Sea; and that part at the mouth of the 
Adriatic Is "Mare Jonlo," or Ionian Sea. 

" Up to mid thigh I stand, nor ever stir, 
Deep In the water, yet am Jost ae Mund ; 
I'm good for eporting. good to wear the spur, 
As many aeses to their cost have found. 
All stretch'd compact and firm by Tigorous needle. 
With hem at top. and seam straight down the middle." 
Oiusti's /{ ^ivale (the Boot), translated 
in AfacmiUan'M Mageuine. 
The territories of geographical Italy, as dis- 
tinguished from political Italy, are encroached 
upon by Its neighbours. The province of Nice was 
transferred to France, 1860, followed by Savoy, In 
1866. Parts of the Swiss Cantons of Tcssln, or 
"Tlclno," and the Grlsons, or "Grlgione," stretch 
down the Italian slope of the Alps to Lake 
Maggiore, Ac. Tyrol, or "Tirolo," belonging to 
Austria, comes down to Lake Garda. Corsica, 
which is geographically a part of Italy, belongs to 
Frmce; and Malfa to England. 


Before the revolutions of 1859-60, the divisions of 
the Peninsula were as follow, comprising twelve or 
thirteen States, and seven principal Governments. 
— Sabdiniav States; Lohbabdo-Vsnstian King- 
dom (from the Tlcino eastward) ; Duchy of Pabma; 
Duchy of MODENA and Massa Cabbaka; Tus- 
CANT and Lucca; States of thx Chubch, includ- 
ing the Romagna, Marches, &c.; Kingdom of 
Naples and Sk^ilt; Principality of Monaco, 
and Republic of San Mabino, both Independent — 
the former now surrounded by French territory. 

The Austro-Venetlan territory, before Its cession, 
1866, was, by the treaty of Ylllafranca, confined to 
the tract from the Mlnclo eastward to the Adriatic, 
Including Mantua, Verona, Ylcenza, and Padua. 
The four fortresses of Mantua, Peschlera, Verona, 
and Legrnano, lying close together, constituted the 
famous Quadrilateral. 

The former Papal States, "Stati Pontificl," were 
restricted to the Delegations of Rome, Comarca, 
Vlterbo, Clvita Vecchla, Velletrl, and Froslnone ; 
a space about 100 miles by 40. These, with his 
old possessions, to which the Pope still lays claim, 
viz.:— Umbrla, Romagna, and the Marches, made 
up a total population of three millions. 

The Kingdom of Italy, now consolidated Into 
one united state, under the constitutional rule of 
Humbert I., son of Victor Emmanuel, Is formed 
by the union of the Sardinian States with Lom- 
bardy, Parma, Modena, and part of the Papal 
States, added In 1859; Tuscany, Umbrla, the 
Marches, Naples, and Sicily, added In I860: 
Venetla, add^ 1866; and the rest of the Papal 
States, Added 1870; making about 115,000 square 



miles, irith 26| millions of inhabitants, increased 
to 30i millions in 1891. It numbers 69 provinces, 
as below, each under a Prefect, and divided 
into Circondarii, or Circuits; Mandimenti, or Dele- 
gations; and Communi, or Communes. The Italian 
colours are red, white, and green, with the white 
cross of Savoy. 

Colonies. — Italy has for some time been de- 
sirous of obtaining colonial possessions, and is 
believed to entertain designs on Tripoli and Barca, 
in the event of the dismemberment of the Turkish 
empire. The practical annexation of Tunis 1>y 
France in 1881-2 caused great excitement. In 
1885 the Italians, favoured by the English govern- 
ment, formally garrisoned Massowah, on the Red 
8ea, they having for some years held possession 
of Asab Bay, in the Danakil country, further to 
the south. The district has received the name of 
*' Colouia Eritrea,'* from the classical name of the 
Red Sea. These places cannot as yet be said to 
have added to the national prosperity or resources. 

Population.— Including the Islands of Sar- 
dinia, Sicily, Elba, Ac. 


PiEMONTB 3,262,738 

Containing the Provinces of— Alessan- 
dria; Coni; Novara; Torino. 

LiGUBiA 952,578 

Containing the Provinces of •Genoa; 
Porto Maurizio. 

Sabdbona 731,467 

Containing the Provinces of— Cagliari; 

LOUBARDIA 3,932,111 

Containing the Provinces of— Bergamo ; 
Brescia; Como; Cremona; Mantua; 
Milano; Pavia; Sondrio. 

Vknbzia 3,004,161 

Containing the Provinces of— Belluno ; 
Padua; Rovigo; Treviso; Udine ; Vcne- 
zia; Verona; Vicenza. 


Containing the Provinces of— Bologna; 
Ferrara; Forli; Modena; Parma; Pia- 
cenza; Ravenna; Reggio (in Emilia). 

Lb Marchb 963,942 

Containing the Provinces of— Ancona; 
Ascoli Piceno; Macerata; Pesaro ed 

Umbbia ... 595,579 

Containing the Province of— Perugia. 

ToscAJJiA 2,281,446 

Containing the Provinces of— Arezzo; 
Firenze; Grosseto; Livorno; Lucca; 
IfHSSf^eCf^ara; fisa; Sicnf*, 

DEPARTMENTS— Cbn/<«ti«d. 

Roma(Latiuh) 986,135 

Abbuzzi 1,865,171 

Containing the Provinces of— Chietl; 
Teranio; Aquila; Gampobasso. 

Cahpakia 3,062,011 

Containing the Provinces of— Benevento; 
Napoli; Salerno; Avellino; Caserta. 

PUGLIA ^ 1,778,328 

Containing the Provinces of — Foggia; 
Bai*i; Lecce. 

Basilicata 540,287 

Containing the Province of— Potenza. 

Calabbia 1,315,296 

Containing the Provinces of— Cosenza; 
Reggio (Calabria); Gatanzaro. 

SiciLiA 3,325,203 

Containing the Provinces of— Caltani- 
setta; Catania; Girgenti; Messina; 
Palermo; Siracusa; Trapani. 

Total population, 1891 30,847,291 

Population in 1881 28,459,628 

Population in 1871 26,801,854 

Population in 1861 25,023 810 

The ratio of excess of births over deaths, though 
fluctuating, is increasing, and the increase of the 
population in the great industrial centres is very 
marked. Marriages are rather decreasing. 

There are about 60,000 foreigners residing in 
the Kingdom. 

Besides the resident population there are about 
2,000,000 Italians abroad, mostly in America 
and Europe. Some 220,000 (1888, 290,000; 1896, 
308,100) annually leave the country, about 40,000 
for other European countries, the rest chiefly to 
South America. 

The number of persons of both sexes engaged in 
agriculture, including children over nine years 
(678,042), was, in 1881, 9,169,215 ; in day labour 
and industrial occupations, including mining, and 
inclusive of children (318,168), was 4,683,724; pri- 
soners and beggars amounted to 134,800. Those 
without business, trade, or declared occupation 
amounted to 9,442,976. Of these, 2,172,440 were 
between nine and fourteen years. There are no 
definite statistics as to religious belief. From 
questions addressed in 1881 to ministers of Re- 
formed churches and rabbis, it wou]d appear that 
there are only about 62,000 Protestants (22,000 in 
the Vaudois valleys) and 38,00(1. Jew%, K. ^'srck.- 
siderable proportto\iViv\\i!^Vw\t^ vWX^^b ^svaN^^'V^^ 


Co.rtiea, with its semi-Italian population of over 
a quarter of a million, has been annexed to France 
sinc^ 1770. 

Italy contains many large cities, the most popu- 
lous of which are as below: — 

Rome 461,000 

Naples 627,000 

Milan 472,000 

Turin 848,000 

Palermo 288,000 

Genoa 224,000 

Florence 206,000 

Venice 166,000 

Messina 160,000 

Bologna 148,000 

Catania 128,000 

Leghorn 104,000 

Ferrara 86,000 

Padua 81,000 

Lucca 78,000 

Alessandria 78,000 

Brescia 77,000 

Bari 77,000 

Verona 7|,000 

Modena 66,000 

Piaa 63,000 

Perugia 67,000 

Ancona 67,000 

Pistoja 62,000 

The above are in tome cases the populations of 
the communes, which do not difllbr much from 
those of the towns. 

Income.^Income of the Kingdom of Italy, 
1896, about 64 millions sterling; Expenditure, 
about the same. The former deficit was partly 
caused by bad tariffs and smuggling at the so- 
called free ports. The Public Debt amounts to 
618 millions. Total imports and exports (1896) 
about 141 millions. The annual imports and ex- 
ports to and from England amount to about 3i 
and 6} millions sterling. The maritime trade 
gives employment to 776,000 tons of shipping, 
nearly three-tenths beingsteam; number of vesseli*, 
6,166 sailing, 846 steamers. 

Army.— The regular army (1896) numbers about 
260,000 meti ; In addition there are the active and 
local, or territorial militia; making a total of 
2,000,000. "Leva" means the conscription. Large 
sums have been devoted to the construction of new 

Nayy. — Battle ships, 17; coast defence, 2{; 
cruisers, 21; torpedo craft, 274. Naval statlohs 
at Spezia, Naples, and Venice. 

EdUCatlOXL—There are 17 Government and 
4 free Universities. The most important are 
those of Pisa, Turin, Pavia, and Naples. 

Othor places of education are the Colleges, called 
Lyceums, the Gynuiasiums or High Schools, and 
the ''ScuoleTecniche" (Technical Institutions). 

In 1888, there were 748 elementary, and 66,487 
national schools. In 1863 out of the whole number 
of scholars, some 800,000 in all, 800,000 were in 
Piedmont alone, with its population of 8| millions ; 
and only 126,000 In the Neapolitan and Sicilian 
provinces, with their population of nearly 9 mil- 
lions. Before the reTolatton, Nules bA4 hardlr 
any schools, except some. Indlffertet ones At tlie 
monnftteriee ; bat the people *re qtUek and fUrkr Ao 
learn. At Palermo there are nearly 100 Bcfiooii, 
^'bare there ware only five before. 

Home, to which the govemmeni wm rMxiOTed 
from Florence in June, 1871, is now the eapltal 
of the consolidated kingdom of Italy.. 9ere the 
Houses of Parliameht, consisting of a Senate and 
Chamber of Deputies, now assemble. The Chamber 
of Deputies numbers 608 members; the Senate, 
about 890. 

There are 46 archbishops, and 158 bishops; or 
198 dioceses in all. The peculiar privileges of the 
clergy were abolished by statute in 1861. 

One effect of the consolidation of the different 
governments, and the removal of the custom-h ousel, 
WM a rise in the price of provisions, in consequence 
of the Increased demand. Taxes are high all over 
the country. House rent, in Rome, Florence, 
Milan, Turin, Ac, increased, in some instances, as 
much as one-third. The income and property tatek 
are exceptionally heavy. At the same time nevf 
villas have sprung up near the towns; old hous^ 
were repaired and cleaned; and the lighting, 
paving, sewerage, and other similar matters have 
received great attention. 

A society for draining the southern provinces 
was formed under the Duke della Galllera. Bri- 
gandage has practically ceased, thanks to the 
vigorous efforts of the authorities. A great draw- 
back was the want of roads. In 1861, out of 1,860 
communes in the kingdom of Naples, tvo-thirdt 
were without roAds. At N&ples, the lazzaroni were 
made to work on the rail ; and the facchini, or 
porters, here and elsewhere, were put under better 
regulation. Provision was made for the gradual 
suppression of all the monasteries and convepts 
where the inmates are not employed in preaching, 
education, or the care of the sick. 


Mountains.— The Alps take various names, as 
the Maritime, Gottian, Pennine, Graian, fthetian, 
Camic, Noric, and Julian Alps, ranging f rpm 4,000 
to 16,000 feet high, in a circuit of 600 miles. 

Heights in round numbers of the chief Alpine 
passes and peaks: — 


Col di Tenda, near Nice 6,146 

Monte Viso 12,608 

Mont Cents 6,880 

Little St. Bernard 7,180 

Mont Blanc 18,780 

Great St. Bernard 8,120 

Matterhom 14,706 

Pass (St. Theodule) 10,900 

Monte Rosa 16,216 

Simplon 6,596 

St. Gothard 6,986 

Bemhardin 6,768 

Splttgen 6,946 

Stelvio «,066 

OrtlerSpitf IWW 

Many of the above only border on Italian 
territory, or are only just within it. 




The Apenninu. or "Monti Appennini." begin 
in the Maritime Alps, )\\x\s the cMast (>f the Riviera, 
uetr Oenoa, and from thence run do\m the middle 
o( the peninsula to tiie end of Calabria, a total 
IfPgtH oif 800 miles. Averajru hcisrht, 2,000 to 6,000 
feet. Highest points arc Monte Carno, or Conio, 
or "Gran Sasso," near Aquila, {>..'>80 feet hijrh; 
Monte Majella, near Celuno, 9.150 feot hi^^h; 
>Ionte Sibilla, near Tolentino. 8.100 feet ; Monte 
Cinaone, near Fistoja, 6,975. At the back of 
Oenoa, where they are only '}J>GO feet high, they 
take the name of the Li^urian Apennines, and 
f(nin the sonth border of the ])lain of Lombardy. 
Some of the Passes are — Pontrcmoll, 8,420 feet; 
ColUna, or Pracchia, 8,350 feet ; Pietra Mala, on 
the old Florence Road, 4,100 feet; and others 
near Borgo Sepolcro, Fabrinno, &c., of less 
importance. The Apennines are generally lime- 
Mobe, (^vered with grass, but without trees, 
except chestnuts here and there. Mount Etnf is 
l|),875 feet high ; Vesuvius, 4,200 feet. 

Vpl(^Lll068. — Traces of volcanic matter are 
fodnd nearly all over Italy. In the north, near 
Ylcenza, Padua, and the Euganean Hills; in Tus- 
cany, and^the soil about Rome, especially in ^he 
pmnxMigna; and round Naples, where Vesuvius 
nsf K>r ages been in a state of activity. It threw 
ouf a new crater in 1865. Etna, in Sicily, threw 
out som^ about the same time; and Stromboli, 
wnich la always smoking, was also affected. The 
peak of Ischla is an extinct volcano. In July, 1831, 
a submarine volcano, called Graham's Shoal, Isla 
Julia, Ac, appeared above the sea, off Sicily, and 
disappeared the same year. Sir Walter Scot^ 
landed oh it. 

Biven.— The principal rivers of Italy are the 
Po, Amo, and the Tiber (Tevere). The Po rises in 
the Alps and Apennines, and runs to the Adriatic, 
by a course of about 407 miles. Its affluents are 
the Tanaro (fed by the Stura and Bormida), Treb- 
bia, Taro, Parma, Secchia, and Reno, on the right 
or south bank ; the Clusone, Dorla-Riparia, Doria- 
Baltea, Sesia, Ticino (from Lago Maggiore, Ac), 
Olona, Lambro, Adda (from the Valt^lina), Oglio 
(from L. Iseo), and Mincio (from L. Garda), on the 
north bank. Near the Po are the Adigc, Bacchig- 
lione, Brenta, Piave, Tagliamento, Ac, which rise 
in the Alps and run into or near to the lagoons of 

All the other rivers have their source in the 
Apennines, and are for the most part mountain 
torrents. The Arno runs bv Florence and Pisa to 
^ghom. The Tiber, about 346 miles long, runs 
by Perugia, Orte, and Rome. The Secchia runs 

Gist Lucca. The Garigliano and Yoltumo run 
to the Gulf of GaSta ; and some smaller streams, 
of little note, into the Gulfs of Salerno and Taranto. 
On the Adriatic side are the Ofanto, Pescara, 
Trento, Chienti, Metauro, Rubicon^ and many others, 
ftma 30 to 50 miles long, which pursue almost a 
^raight course from the slope of the Apennipel 
ckywii to tlie sea. 
BaUu fi^ iftMrot |r«firi^At Caldiaro; Val- 

(ticri. near Turin: Acqui; Abatiu mud baths; 
Poi-retttt. Luccrt. Volterra. Solfatara. Ischla, Ac. 

IslandS.—The two largest islands are Sardinia 
and Sicily. 

Elba, between the Tuscan Coast and Corsica, 
with its neighbours, Capraja, Gorgona, Pianbsa, 
Monte Cristo, Oigllo, Gianatrl. Another Capraja, 
or Caprera, between Corsica and Sardinia, was the 
residence of Garibaldi till his death, 1882. 

Off the Gulf of Gaeta~P(Maza, Palmarola, Zan- 
one, Ventolene, <fcc. 

In the Bay of Naples— Ischla, Procida, Capri. 

Lipari Islands— Lipari, Stromboli, Volcano, Fili- 
curi, Allcuri, Saline, &c. 

Ustica is off Palermo. 

Egati Islands— Off Marsala, including Levanzo, 
Maritimo, Favignano. 

Pantellaria, between Sicily and Africa. 

The Tremiti Islands, with Pianosa, Pelegosa, dte., 
off the Gargano Promontory, are the <mly islands 
of any consequence in the Adriatic. 

Corsica is annexed to France, and Malta to 

Coast Line.— Estimated (exclusive of minor 
Islands) at 3,350 miles, one-fourth belonging 
to the islands. In this respect Italy has an 
advantage over France or Spain, and its position 
qualifies it for becoming a first-rate maritime 
power, and to command the Mediterranean. The 
scenery of the .Stviera, or shore of the Gulf of 
Genoa, of the Bay of Naples, and the Straits of 
Messina, is proverbial for beauty. 

Frine^oal Ports.— Tarin, Genoa, Spezia (Royal 
Dockyard). Leghorn, Civita Vecchia, Naples, 
Palermo, Messina, Ancona, and Venice. 

Lakes. — Lago—Laghi — Under the Alps are Lago 
Maggiore, Orta, Varese, Lugano, Como, Lecco, Iseo, 
and Garda, all remarkable for the rich character 
of the surroimding scenery. In Central Italy — 
Trasiraeno, Bols^ia, and Bracciano, shallow and 
uninteresting, except for their historical associa- 
tions. In the Apennines — Celano or Fusino, now 
drained. On the east side — Lcsina and Varano. 

Plains. — The Great Plain of Lombardy, 
the " pleasant garden of fair Italy," in the north ; 
the Campagna, near Rome, remarkable for its 
herds of buffaloes, Ac. ; and Campania, towards 
Naples, both on the west coast; with the plain of 
Foggia, on the east side, on which vast flocks of 
sheep are pastured. In summer they are driven 
up the Apennines. 

WlndS.—The eight principal winds are :— 

N. — Tramontana (" across the mountains "). 

N.E. — Greco. 

E.— LevantcC'Sun Rising"). 

S.E. — Sirocco, the hot wind. Of any thing 
dull, the Italians say "Era scritto In tempo del 
sirocco." (It was written in sirocco weather). 

S.— Mezzogiomo ("Midday"). 

8.W.—Ubeccio(" Libyan,'^ or African). 

W.— Ponenie ("Sun Settfaig'*). 

N.W.Hjaestro (the "lU.ifc.^jfC^ w»!i^<w^ ^^Nk&^- 

Prodttrtl.— Among tlie ciiie! pruducts are:— ■ Legliorn. Pl.tul nml gun barreli, and oulltr; 

haidj-i oli« oil, BJMnl noreiice, Naplei, At; i conil work from Traplii'l, aieliy. Domts Pore 
Dtuitu and lemopa. In tho Biviera. «&; cotton, lain, n.i.l Imilalioii Mnjuiica and DeUa RobbI 
aagiT, Brb, aud olher frulW, In Sonth Italy and nare, f ram the OInorl works, Floreaoe. Porcelaii 

a the mosaic 

' Inl< 

SJtt.— Th» weight of < 
le number employed in I8fl 

which tllree-qnarters o[ a 

n Italy; 

. „.._, Ollomont.nearAoBtB. ' Snlphar, 

from Trapani and Bologna. Slate, from Chlavarl, 

in Massi-Carrara." M»ngani»e, from Fonlanacclo. 

Steel, Iroiu Lovcre. near Bergamo; and <:opper 

,793,0110 lbs. < !!%».— From Canpobaata, Aid, Ce>enB,Uanlal- 
iBDffwaa— I cino. Flnminl (near Cagllarl), Cotenaa, Tranl, 
ilS.\ns. 91ena. Comacchlo, Chiavari. Bondtio, Iinala, Nar- 

tala (aiclly), Benevento. Omano, Itola, Aconl, 

Kep?io (in the Emilia), Caiuw. Meiaioa, Lueca, 
Naples. Genoa, Salcmu, Parma, Ferrara, Onieto, 
Rieti, and other placei. Annual quantity or vine, 
about 3GII,aMI,ll<W gnllona. The Mascat wine of 
SardlnlaislmportedtothcNorlbot Europe, About 
Florence the country Is i "mats of otchards." 
producing oil and wine. Uanally, in Italy, the 

"Aflar bavins Icated the growths from Tarions 

dne. Vino d'Asti hi pririacd, but very undeserrodiy, 
I think. Lacr}-nia ChrlstI Is nsuslly coarse in 
tastcandilavonr. Montepuldano, BO highly praised 
by Redl, Is sweet, but not to be compared to Pron- 

could not be produced In any part of Enrope; but 

seqnently ocgledt 

n Naples. Chain, ■ 


entlal Ila- 

nary marble, from Monte 
co-oncc worked by Michael 


e. Figs, raisins, almonds] 

quantities o( lignite, from which a good fuel (first 

tV irom CagllarL PickiS 

Cllinate."EMremelr Tarlons as hidlcalcd by 

salted eels, honey, Ac., from 

the mean tcmperalDre, rangbig from if at Mllnii 

mMcsshia. Glnnndsplril, 

and Venice, to fiOf at Rome, and G3* at Palermo. 

ce, Genoa, Bari, Calabria. 

Ble'lly, which lie between the arth and Mth'degreea 

stofSardlnia. Eawsilkand 

btezlag point; whereas helwaso the 4Srd and 

il, Ac., fn>m CagllarL Cas- 

inh deg^ee^ as 1(1 the higher parti ot Lombardy, 

e.)ip, from Ferrara, Cotton, 

11 frequwtly descends to 10* belQw lero, wblcb Is an 

nl. Cotton stuns, fustians. 

Immense dlllercnec for a distance <^ S'to S*. A 

sndhats.IromU11an. Floss 

Ik ribbons, at Portlci. near 

latltnd™. as also in the physical and moral 

od buffalo hides, from Leg- 

S) and thur Intalutdl; at' 



ratio to the prevailing tiuiuidity, licat. and siroccal 
ventilation." When, in addition to these circum- 
stances, we take into consideration ''the extent of 
nubmergcd or irrigated land; the beds of numerous 
rivers occasionally overflowing, at other times 
more or less dry; the lakes, the lagruncs, Ac; 
there will be no grounds for surprise at the 
quantity of rain which annually falls, or at the 
partially existing malaria in the summer and 
autumnal seasons/' 

Dr. Lee adds, **Tho transition from spring to 
summer is frequoitly abrupt in Italy. In May 
the sun acquires considerable power. The great 
heats prevail from the middle of June to the middle 
of September. At this period it rains only oc- 
casionally, and during the prevalence of storms. 
The ground is usually parched, and the roads laid 
thick with dust. The towns in the interior, as 
Milan, Florence, Ac, are generally hotter than 
those on the sea-coast, where the heat is somewhat 
tempered by the sea breeze." This daily sea 
breeze blows from noon to sunset, and its influence 
is felt for miles up the valleys. 

*'If you wish to keep your health iu Italy," says 
the author of IMta cU Roma, ** follow the example 
of the Italians. Eat a third less than you are 
accustomed to at home. Do not drink habitually 
of brandy, porter, ale, or even Marsala, but confine 
yourself to the lighter wines of the country, or of 
France. Do not walk much in the sun ; only 
Englishmen and dogs do that, as the proverb goes; 
and especially take heed not to expose yourself 
when warm to any sudden change of temperature. 
If you have heated yourself with walking in the sun, 
be careful not to go out at once, and especially 
towards nightfall, into the lowor and shaded streets 
which have begun to gather the damps, and are 
kept cool by the high thick walls of the houses." 
Buy a skull cap to put on your head when you enter 
the churches and cold galleries. With this precau- 
tion, and by taking care to cool yourself before 
entering such buildings, or on coming into a 
house, and generally not to expose yourself to sud- 
den changes, ''you may live for twenty years in 
the country without a fever. Shut your windows 
when you go to bed. The night air is invariably 
damp and cold, contrasting greatly with the 
warmth of the day; and it is then that miasma 
drifts in upon the sleeper. Do not indulge in ices 
and cold drinks." 

Language.— The '* Italian'* language is the 
Tuscan, as written and spoken by its educated 
population, especially at Florence and Rome, and 
as shaped and polished by the great writers of 
the fourteenth century, or Treeentuti (or " three- 
century men," as the Italians say), viz.. Dante, 
Petrarch, Boccaccio, Sacchettl, Villanl ; succeeded 
by Lorenzo de* MedicL, Pulci, Bojardo, in the 
fifteenth century, or Italian qttattrocmtitti; and by 
Machiavelli, Guicciardlni, Ariosto, Bembo, Vasari, 
B. Cellini, Onarini. Tasso, Bandello, called (Hngue- 
twtUti, or sixteenth century writers.* The prln- 

•ThalttflaiisoftU this ooitaiy ill* 18tk, not UtbjhiBOe 
flMbr I8II1 MAtmy Is <mr 14th, m above. 

j cipal dialects are the Milanese, Venetian, Paduan 
or Lombard, Mantuun. Piedmontese, Genoese, 
Bolognese. Neapolitan, Calabrian, Sicilian, and 
Sardinian (or Island dialect). A few useful words 
and phrases are given in the Vocabularv at the 
end of the 8i)eciai Edition of Bradshaw't Conti' 
nental Guide. 


The North of Italy, above the River Macra (now 
Magrn), near Spezia and the Rubicon, near Rlmlnl 
(both about latitude 44*), was called OaUia Citerior 
or Gallia Cisalpina. The remainder of the Penin- 
sula, to the south, or Italia proper, was styled Auso- 
nia, Hesperia, Ac, by the poets. 

Cisalpine Gaul was divided into Cispadana and 
Transpadana, by the Padns (Po), or Erldanus ; and 
more particularly as follows: — 1. Ligubia— con- 
taining Genoa and Nice. 2. Taubina — About Turin, 
Aosta, Ac. 8. Insubbes — Milan; Pavla, where 
Charles V. defeated Francis I. 4. CsNOMAKin — 
Brescia, Cremona, and Mantua, near the birth- 
place of Virgil. 5. EcoANEi— Verona, the birth- 
place of Catullus. 6. Vekkti — Padua, where Llvy 
was bom ; AquilHa, Frlull. Venice (named after 
this province) had no real existence till the des- 
truction of Aquilela, a.d. 452. 7. Lingonxs — 
Ravenna, where the emperor kept his court, and 
also Thoodorlc, the Goth, after defeating Odoacer. 
8. Boil — Bologna, Modena, Parma, Placenza. 

The ancient divisions of Italy proper were: — 9. 
Etbubia, between the Magra and Tiber, from 
which Napoleon borrowed his name of the short- 
lived kingdom of Etmria. It contained Lucca, 
Pisa, Florence, Leghorn, Volterra, Siena, Arezzo; 
Perugia, near Lake Thrasymcne, where Hannibal 
defeated the Romans for the third time ; Clusivm, 
the city of Porsena ; Tarquinii, of the Tarqulns, 
Feit, and other Etruscan cities ; and CI vita Vecchla. 

10. Umbria — ^Rimini; Urbino, the birthplace of 
Raphael; Spoleto; Terni, the birthplace of the 
Emperor Tacitus, and Tacitus, the historian ; Nami. 

11. PiCENiTH — Ancona, Loreto, Ascoil ; Sulmo, the 
birthplace of Ovid ; Celano, In the country of the 
Marsl; Reata, In the country of the Sabines, in 
which Vespasian was bom ; Amitemum, the birth- 
place of Sallust ; and Horace's Villa, near Tivoli. 

12. Latiuk— Rome, on the Tiber, in the Cam- 
pagna; Tlvoll; Frascatl, or Ttuevlum; Albano, 
Ostia. 13. Campavia — Capua, on the Voltumo; 
Venafro, Cumae, Baite, PuteolL, Naples; Pompeii, 
under Vesuvius; Salerno, and the Islands of Ischla, 
Proclda, and Capri. 14. Sahnium, In the Apennines 
— Benevento, and the Candlne Forks. 15. Apulia 
— Foggia. Manfredonla; Canosa, near Cannae, the 
scene of Hannll)ars fourth great victory; Venosa, 
the birthplace of Horace; and Barl, captured by 
Robert Guiscard, 1067. 16. Calabbia (In the heel 
of the boot, on the Adriatic side; but the name 
was afterwards transferred to the toe, on the Sicilian 
side)— Brlndisi, or Brunausium^ the qH Y*-t\. <A vswl- 
barkatlon for QT^wi^\ ^MwsSuo, ^^K5cw^ 3^ 



17. LucANiA (now Basilicata)— //«rac/tfa; Hibarit, 
the city of the laxarioas Sybarites; Paistum^ and 
it! nun«. 18. BsuTii (now Calabria Gitra)^ 
OostnMli; SclllA or Seylla, opposite Ohnrybdii; 
Be^o, and Cotrone. The 1 ait three prorinces, 
With their ftonriihing Greek eoloniei, constituted 
llagna Gracia. 

20. SiciUA (or Trinacria) contained the ancient 
Greek cities of Meuana, or Messina; Oatana, or 
Catania, under Mount Etna; Sjfracuta^ or Syra- 
cuse; AsnHg^tum^ or Girgenti; Vr^panum^ or 
Tl'apaui, near Marsala; Panormm, or Palermo; 
JEgesta, or Egeste, under Mount Eryx; with the 
Insuix j^oliae, or Lipari Islands. 


The Fine Arts reached their greatest perfection 
in Italy in the fourteenth, fiftcoith, and sixteenth 
Muturies, when she was most wealthy and prosper- 
ous; and when, after a period of darlniess and 
neglect, the remains of earlier times began to be 
collected and used as models. Vast sums were 
f Tstematically spent on the churches and palaces, 
whicli her best 4irchitects were employed to con- 
itruct, and her painters and sculptors combined 
to adorn; the three professions being sometimes 
willed in the same person. These edifices still 
remain ; and ihoug)! Italy is no longer distinguished 
lor producing artists, yet the man of cultivated 
tMte, and Uie student, will always be attracted by 
the rich treasures she possesses of past ages, 
Pagan and Christian, in her public and private 
buildings, especially at Rome and Florence. 

A paHicular account of them is given under the 
resp^tive places in the body of the Hand-Book, 
but • few of t)ie most prominent may be mentioned 

niintin^* — 0^^ mosaics, at Ravenna; St. Mark's, 
Vffiice; Mon^eale, at Palermo. 

Fsseco^. — ^The earliest masters were Cimabue, 
Margaritone d'Arezzo, Quido, Giunta da Pisa, 

giotto, the friend of Dante, S. Memmi, Giottini, 
rcagna, Solari, Fra Angelico, Squarcione, Ac, 
who executed the frescoes still existing at Siena, 

florence, Pisa, Assisl, Arezzo, Ravenna, Bologna, 
adua, and Rome. 

Oil j>alnting was discovered, or perfected, by 
Van Eyck, ctuled John of Bruges (Qiovanni da 
^rngia), and his pupil, Ruggieri. Antonello da 
Messina is also claimed as a discoverer or reviver. 
Sir C. Eastlake places the oldest oil painting at 
Florence about 1460. 

These early x>ainters were succeeded by other 
masters, in frescoes and oils, who, under the 
patronage of the Italian princes, founded various 
•chools, marked by differences of style and colour. 
Which are easily apparent to the practised con- 

Schools of PaintlllS.— The principal are 
named from the placet where some of their best 
works are to be found, as specified in the body of 
the work. 

Genoa— P. delVaga. 

Milan or Lombard— hMinl, Procaccini, Car*- 

fwlua — Mantegna. 

Armra— ^an»klo, D. Dossi. 

|^Mifif*-ai«Uo ftomuio, miMtiedo. 

Verona — P. Veronese. 

Venetian — G. Bellini, C. daConegliano,Giorgion^, 
S. del Piombo, P. Vecchio, Titian, Moretto, Bordone, 
Tintoretto, Bassano, Palma Giovane, Padovanlno, 

Parma — Correggio, Parmegiano. 

Bologna — Francia, Fontana, the three Carrtoci, 
Bdrbieri, Guercino, Lanfranco. 

A'/orc»c«— Masaccio, Masolino, F. Lippi, Folla- 
juolo, Verocchio, Bronzino. 

Siena — Sodoma. 

Perugia or Umbrian — Perugino, Raphael. 

Roman— M.. Angelo, Carraccl, Domenichino, F. 
Albani, A. Sacchi, Barocci, Cigoli, AllorL 

Naples— Q. Penni (Fattore), Spagnoletto, S. Rosa, 
L. Giordano. 

The names of some of the most eminent artists 
are placed in the chronological list below about the 
time they flourished. 

Specimens of very ancient paintings are to be 
seen on the walls of the Palace of Titus, at Rom«, 
the houses at Pompeii^ and on the Etruscan vaseb 
in the Vatican ^nd elsewhere. See Miss Kate 
Thompson's Picture Oalleries qf Europe. 

Architecture. — The most noticeable specimens 
are as follows : Turin — Works of Giuvara. Genoa 
— Works of Alessi, Ac. Vercelli — Lombard 
Church. Milan ~ Italian Gothic Cathedral; 
Church of St. Ambrose. Cremona—Bell Tower. 
Pavia— Old Gothic Churches; and the Certosa. 
Brescia— Semi-Gothicbuildings. Verona— Duomo, 
Lombard Churches, the Scaliger Monument, 
Sammicheli's Fortresses, Roman Amphitheatre. 
Vicenza— Works of Palladio. Padua— Hall, St. 
Anthony's Church, Qiotti's Church. Venice— 
St. Mark's Byzantine Church; Palaces, by San- 
sovino, Scamuzzi, Lombard!. Mantua — Ducal 
Palace; and works by G. Romano. Bologna — 
Leaning Towers; Churches. Pisa — CaUiedral; 
Leaning Tower; Campo Santo. Ferrara— Cathe- 
dral ; ralaca Ravenna — Byzantine Churches. 
Florence— Palazzo Vecchio — Pitti Palace; Duomo; 
S. Miniato. Perugia — Churches. Assist — Chhrch. 
Siena — Lombard Church. Rome — St. Peter's, and 
other Basilica Churches. Caserta — Royal Palaee. 
Naples — Cathedral. Palermo — Norman and Sara- 
cenic Churches. 

Remains of pura Qredan buildings are to be seen 
at Pflsatam,Syraeuie, Girgenti, Trapani. Of JSomoii, 
at Borne, from th« earliest ages of the republio 
dowhwards; but eepeeially of the time of the Em- 


>f pnMtc ind domutlc 

pointed tjlobelonnd in IUI7. 

(mu-ked 0); the nune by which Ihej stebert 
known being pluced Orat. N»ntei In H«lici iro 
not tlie urtln'i finiilr nima. 

Albuio, F. 16M 16M 

Algwdl, A. (O, ».) 

AjDoniiniitl. B. (a) 

AotoncUo dl UnalnB...., 
AinoUo di Llpo (a' 


Buvo^ Fad. Flori ... 

Bu(mi,6. W 

" '^aPonM) 


..1414 inv 

BdUnl, Gkivuuil I'll 

Bvoini, a. L. (d^ (.) 1MB 

Bernini. P, (») IMS 

BarMinl, P.fdsCortonii) ItM 

BibiHi.. G, F. (o) I«S» 

Bologna, Q. d» (t) IBM 

Bordone. P IMO 

BorfagxHUtlte.Coaitiiii} 1*21 

Boir^inl r.(a) .' »» 

fifMeOI (Sindro PllipepI) 1447 

Biuuntefa) .,...,...-.-,. 1441 

Arnxteo (Ab^o Ailorll IWS 

BnuKflsKhk, F. (a) 1371 

BinMMiel 14H 

BnSalmuco IMS 

BnoiiTlclnl, A. (I) HM 

Cmiinccini. V 17T3 

OamaliOa (A. CaaiK) 1S»' 

CuBti,' D !!!!"!!""!""~!!!!w!!'! isw 

CuKEliAsmtiDo 1MB 

CarMol, Annlbsla IMO 

Cincot, Lndovim U6i 

(;kin»w<a (If . Ameriilil) Ism 

c»»tigiione,'B."'."""!!!!!"!""!!!"!'.!! wis 

CelllDl, B, (•} I«(» 

Ce»«rt,6.(C«TillBrd'Alliino) IMO 

Chiiri. Q 1064 

Clgiiiini,C 1«S' 

OIgM (LnttiTlco Cirdi: 
ClmB dl CDnegliuui ... 

Clnabn*. Ofo* 


.. IMO leidi Hut 

CUmle larr-uuc. or Clsudlo dl 





fl(MWtone (Giorgio Barb«r»]]i) .... 



OlDllo, piinter and srchitccl 

OfulitSemam (Olullo P^ppi), p» 



L^T'p' di si IM^ 

longhi, M. the flidtr (a) 

M»ldinJ, p. (1) 








Muaixlo.tliei'.-.-iil IT,. - 






MoHkio, Q 



Pi^taroiH, J- (bom «l 
TMlgted then ItMl 


"".'"' liiio 



'.'.".".'.'. 6M 


iVrJil, B. li»lnl«r>iid»rch 

M«) 4S0 



Birth. DMtk 

floWoJi (F. Rmui .... 
Sinimlcbfill, M. <d)..., 
Bugallo (Iha Blilar, o; 

^atntfimUDCa. B. ShItI) 1M6 

SlgDoreLlI, L. (da Curlonn) IMI 1IM 

u (G. A. Raiil) 1*7* ]H> 

10. A.(ZlngaTu) lUI lUC 

io A. di (Oobbo) liBI 1KW7 

■o. Andrea (MlcMI Aniln*) W) lUi 
^. d* (piliiur tnd archlMcli IIM Ult 
mF.diC) U8t 

■m Kncltr'i" Band-Bonkor Falatlnr<"l*(ilBnMk 
ImulsUd brEutlike; Bnikln'i WotU: TmuT* 
■'UvM or tba PilnUn," b/ PnriMr; LhiI'i 
"HlMoT]' at Fainting." by Bomm; Cr«w* and 
CainJeaHlira "Hlilory ot PalnttUf Hi Italy;" 
HlH Farquluu-'i "Catali>|iie of ptlnitrii" 



Miff Thompton's "Hand-Book to the Fablie 
Fietnre Cilleries of Biurope;'* V%rgtiamm'B ^'Illas- 
trated Hand-BcxA of ATohiteetur«,'* 2 Tolumes; 
Street's "Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages'* 
(North Italy). 


N.B.— Many of the eaiHer dates of Roman eyents, 
Bishops or Popes, are very uncertain . The Popes 
marked thus * are Btmians or Italians by birth. 


758 Rome founded by Romiil«s, first King. Fes- 
tiyalk«pt21st April The **S$S6th year'* of 
the city, A.U.C., wat dnly celebrated 21st 
April, 1882. 
716 Kitm* Pompilins 
673 Tnllus Hostilins 
640 Ancns Martins 
616 Tarqninins Prisens 
678 Serrins TallioB 

£34 Tarqninins Snperbns, last King of Rome 
010-06 Bxpolsloo of the Kings, Repnblie fowided, 

and Consuls instituted 
501 Dictator appointed 
494 Tribunes instituted 
491 Ck)riolanus exiled 
459 Volscian War 

451 Decemvirs instituted. Twelve Tables 
448 Censors created 
896 Veil taken by Camillus 
890 Rome taken by the Gauls 
340 Latin War 

298-90 Third War with the Samnites 
26i-41 Roman Supremacy in Italy; fiMtPosieWar 
Hannibal, 247-183 
Cato, 234-189 
281 Conquest of Sardinia and Corsica 

Scipio, 219-185 
216 Battle of Camus 
Terence, 195-159 
146 Destruction of Carthage 

Cicero, 106-43 
111-06 Jugurthine War 
CsBsar, 100-44 
Locretius, 05-55 
SaUust, 86-34 
86 Death of C. Marine 
82 Sylla, Dictator 

74-63 Second War with Mithridates. Cicero at 
Virgil, 70-19 
65-2 Catiline's conspiracies 

Horace, 65-8 
€S Cicero, Consul 
60 First Trinmviralt between Cesar, Pompey, 

59 C«ffr Oonnl, flfft ttaie 

LIVT, B.C. W— IV A^. 

M-iO Cmar's Camff Igne iiv Gaul 


49 CsBsar, Dictator 

48 Battle of Pharsalia. Death of Pompey 
44 Ctesar assassinated 

43 Second Triumvirate; L^dus,M. Antony, and 
Octavian (Augrustus) 

— Death of Cicero 
Ovid, 43 B.C. to ▲.!>. 18 

42 Battle of Phillppl; Death of Brutus 

31 Battle of Actium 

30 Death of Antony 

27 Augrustus, flf St Romtfi Emperor 


Seneca, 2-65. 
14 Emperor Tiberius 

Martial, 29-104 
33 The Crucifixion 
37 Emperor Caligula 

Lucan, 37-65 

41 Emperor Claudius 

42 ''St. Peter," reputed Bishop of Rome 
54 Emperor Nero • 

Tacitus, 61-110 
65-66 St. Linus, Bishepof Rome 
69 Emperors Galbaj Otho, Titellitts, and Veep^- 

Silius Italicua, about this time 

78 St. Anacletus, Bishop ot Rome 

79 Emperor Titus. Pompeii overwhelmed— Deatb 

of Pliny the Elder 
81 Emperor Domitlan 

Plutarch, 85-120 
91 St. Clement,* Bishop of Rome (9om^lUm%§ 

placed before Linus) 
96 Emperor Nerva 
98 Emperor Trajan 

Pliny the Younger. Died about A.D. 110 
100 St. Evaristus, Bishop of Rome 
109 St. Alexander,* Bishop of Rome 
117 Emperor Hadrian 

Juvenal died a.i>. 128 
119 Sixtus I.,* Bishop of Rome 
127 St. Telesphoms, Bishop of Rome 
188 Emperor Antoninus Plus 
138 St. Hyginns, Bishop of Rome 
142 St. Plus I., Bishop of Rome 
156 St. Anicetus, Bishop of Rome 
161 Emperor Marcus Aurelius 
161 Emperor Lucius Verus 
168 St. Soter, Bishop of Rome 
177 St. Eleutherus, Bishop of Rome 
I 180 Emperor Commodus 
185 or 193 St. Victor, Bishop of Rome 
193 Emperor Pertinax 

— Emperor DidiUs Severus 
193 Emperor Septimius Sevems 

197 or 202 St. Zephyrlnus,* Bishop of Rome 
211 Emperor Caracalla 

217 Emperor Macrinas 

217-219 St. Calixtns L* Bishop of Rome 

218 Emperor Heliogabaloa. or EleA%^«\^M^ 
222 Emperor Atif^mxi, ot ^CMnucMKFC %«^«f«:^% 
222-22^ at. \5t\>mi\.^ "B^sMr^ «{I^Wp»^ ^j 
230 St. PoBtttBWA,* %Vfew^ C*1MWB.« ^ 

Ki St, AnIberDi, Blalnp of I 
33S Bmpemr Hailmlnna 
3H St. Fsblui.* Blilnpiif Hi 
93S F^])en>n Oonllui, I. ui 
HI Empsror FhElip 

anm, BishJpalBwiie 

tSi Einp«n>n Dloclellui ud Kuii 
MS 81, M»I™Uino^• Blibop o( Ron 
IM Bt. Uucellni.* Blitwpur RomB 
gOS Emperon GonBtuillm Ctalorui i 
3M Empenit Conttuitliie the QnU, 

Id CangUDilua III. 

19) (West) Emj 
400-a Alarlc the 

iinperor Theodoiiui II. 

mm, Diihopor Rome 

^ Anlipopa . 

aline 1 , Blibop of Borne 

Velontlnlu UI. 

.m III..* ni>i»|] of Home 

lUn code proclelmvd 

r. tit Oiint, Blibopof Ktait 

(Weil) Empen 

r LIbJul StTerai 

81. BlmplWus 

liiihop of Rmuo 

(Weft) Empen 

rs Aiitbemlui ui 


JT Olyhtu* 

(We-t) Erapen 

IT OlycBrtoi 

(Weet) Em nor. 


(EMt) Ewporo 


(W««) Erape 

-or Bomnlni AoROrtulne 


tiil*). the l»t E 
:m,-d by Odoa^r, 


Oducer. Kitii, 

Clorti tbo Ore 

of thD Emll 


t Klngof Frmce 

St. Felix IIL," 

Blibopof Rome 

(Bait) EmpEm 

St, QelsKlDK, Blihop of Rome 

It Oetrtsolh. Kingof ■'Italy," 
luiIl„>Rl»bQpof Rome 

risking of "It 

fl. Antlpope 
obn II.. Blabopof Rome 




582 (East) Emperor Manritiaa 

684 Autharis, Dnke of the Lombards 

684 Smaragdus, Exarch of Ravenna 

690 St. Gregory I.* (the Great), Bishop of Rome 

690 Romanus, Exarch of Ravenna 

691 Ag^iluph, Duke of the Lombards 
697 Callinicas, Exarch of Ravenna 
602 (East) Emperor Phocas 

602 Smaragdus, Exarch of Ravenna (a secondtime) 

604 Sabinianus. Bishop of Rome 

606 Boniface III.,* Pope. About this time the 

Papal power begins to rise. 
608 Boniface lY., Pope 

610 (East) Emperor Heradins 

611 Johannes Lemigins, Exarch of Ravenna 

615 Deodatns,* or Adeodatas I., Pope 

616 Adawald, King of Lombards 
616 Elentherins, Exarch of Ravenna 

618 Boniface V., Pope 

619 Isaac, Exarch of Ravenna . 
625 Honorios I., Pope 

625 Ariwald, King of I^^mbards 
628 Dagobert the Great, King of France 
686 Rotharis, Duke of Brescia,or King of the Lom- 
688 Plato, Exarch of Ravenna 

639 Severinus,* Pope 

640 John IV., Pope 

641 Theodore I., Pope 

648 Theodorus I., Exarch of Ravenna 

649 St. Martin I., Pope 

649 Olympius, Exarch of Ravenna 
652 Rodvald, King of the Lombards 

652 Theodoras, Exarch of Ravenna (a second time) 

653 Aribert I., King of the Lombards 

654 Eugenius I.,* Pope 
667 Vitalian, Pope 

661 Pertharitas, King of the Lombards 

662 Grimsald, King of the Lombards 
666 Gregory. Exarch of Ravenna 

670 Adeodatus IL,* Pope 

671 Pertharitus, King of the Lombards (a second 

675 Dommus (or Donus) I.,* Pope 
678 Agathon, Pope 
678 Theodore II., Exarch of Ravenna 
682 St. Leo II., Pope 

684 Benedict II.,* Pope 

685 John V., Pope 
685 Peter, Antipope 

685 Theodore, Antipope 

686 Cunibert, King of the Lombards 
686 Paschal, Antipope 

686 Conon, Pope 

687 Sergius I., Pope 

687 Johannes Platon, Exarch of Ravenna 
697 Republic of Venice founded; Paolo Lncio 
Anafesto, Arst Doge 

700 Luitpert, King of the Lombards 

701 Ragimbert, King of the Lombards 
701 Aribert II., King of the Lombards 
701 John VIm Pope 

709 Tbeophilactns, Exarch of Ravenna 


705 John VII., Pope 
708 Sisinius, Pope 
708 Constantinus, Pope 

710 Johannes Rizocopias, Exarch of Ravenna 

711 Eutychius, Exarch of Ravenna 

712 Ausprand, King of the Lombards 

712 Lnitprand, King of the Lombards 

713 Scholasticus, Exarch of Ravenna 
715 Gregory IL,* Pope 

727 Paul, Exarch of Ravenna 

728 Eutychius, Exarch of Ravenna (a second time) 
781 Gregory III., Pope 

741 Zacharias, Pope 

744 Hildebrand, King of the Lombards 

744 Ratchia, King of the Lombards and Duke of 

746 ChilpeHc II. (or Chilperic Martel), King of 

749 Astolf us, King of the Lombards 
752 Stephen II.,* Pope 
752 Stephen III.,* Pope 
752 Pepin, King of France 
756 Desiderius, King of the Lombards and Dnke 

of Istria 

766 Pepin gives the Exarchate to the Pope 

767 Paul I.,* Pope 
763 Stephen IV., Pope 

768 Theophylact, Antipoi>e 
768 Constantino IL, Aiitipope 

768 CharlemagM, King of the Franks 

769 Philip, Antipope 

772 Adrian I.* (of the Colonna family). Pope 

774 Lombardy, Ac, taken by Charlemagne 

795 St. Leo III.,* Pope 

800 Charlemagne (Carolus Magnus> the Frank, 
Emperor of the West. From this time the 
Roman Pontificate was finally separated from 
(he Eastern Empire, and came under the 
influence of the Frank or German Empire 

814 Louis I., Emperor of the West 

816 Stephen V.,* Pope 

817 Paschal I.,* Pope 
824 Eugenius II.,* Pope 

826 Zinzinus, Antipope 

827 Valentinus,* Pope 

827 Gregory IV.,* Pope 

828 Egbert I., King of all England 
828 Boniface I., Marquis of Tuscany 
840 Lothalre, Emperor of the West 
844 Sergius IL,* Pope 

846 Leo IV.,* Pope 

847 Adelbert I., Duke of Tuscany 

(Legend of Pope Joan, or "John VIII." 868-6) 

866 St. Benedict III.,* Pope 

865 Louis II., Emperor of the West 
865 Anastasius, Antipope 
868 Nicholas L,* Pope 

867 Adrian II.,* Pope 
872 John VIU.,* Pope 

872 Alfred, King of England 

876 Carloman, King of Franee . 

880 Charles III., ^Vw% «A \«\-j^*KA.^\M^'t^'«^ ^'*' 



883 liartin II., Pope 

884 Adrian III.,* Pope 
886 Stephen VI.,* Pope 

88Q B«rmf eiv DiUm of Friuli 

889 Guy, Duke of apoleto, i^ag of Italy; and 

Emperor of Qtrmtny, 893 

890 Arnulf, Emptor of Germany 

890 Adalbert IL, Dnke of Tuscany 

891 Formosns,* Pope 

891 Sergrias III., Antipope 
, §94 |«ainb«rt. King of Italy, and Emperor 
897 Boniface VI.,* Pope 
897 Stephen VII.,* Pope 
897 Romanos J., Antipope 

SK7 Theodor* II., Pope 
99 John IX., Pope 
90a LouiA %h» 9Iiod, King of Italy 
900 Benedict IV.,* Pope 
908 Leo v., Pope 

903 Christopher,* Antipope 

904 Sergius III.,* Pope 

905 Berenger, King of Italy; Emperor, 915 

Sll Ana»ta8iu8 III.,* Pope 
13 Landus, or Lando, Pope 
914 John X.,* Pope 
919 Gay, Duke of Tuscany 
922 Rodolph, King of Italy and Borgundy 
926 Hugh, King of Italy 

928 Leo VL,* Pope 

929 Stephen VUI.,* Pope . 
929 Boson, Marquis of Tuscany 
931 Johp XI.* rCiwK< family). Pope 
936 Leo VIL,* Pope 

936 Otho the Great, Emperor of Germany 

996 Hubert, Du](e of Tuscany 

938 Aledran, Marquis of Montferrat 

989 Stephen IX., Pope 

948 Martin III.,* Pope 

94^ Lotbalre, King of Italy 

946 Airapetus II.,* PopC 

950 Beren^cr II. and Adalbert, King of Italy 

956 John XIL* (ContiX Pope 

961 Hugh the Great, Duke of Tuscany 

962 Italy united with German)', under Emperor 

Otho the Great 

963 Leo VIII., Antipope 

964 Benedict Vn* Pope 

965 John XIIL,* Pop« 

972 Domnus or Donus II.,* Pope 

972 Benedict VI.,* Pope 

973 Otho II., Emperor of Germany 

974 Boniface VIA., Antipope 

975 Benedict VII.* (Gontij, Pope 
983 John XIV., Pope 

983 Otho III., Emperor of Germany 

985 John XV.,* Pope 

986 John XVI.,* Pope 

987 Hugh Capet, King of France 

991 Pietro Orseolo II., 26th Doge of Venice 

995 William I., Marqiiis of Montferrat 

996 Gregory Y., Pope . 

i 881 Jolm XVIIm Antipope 
999 SyWeiter It, Pope 


1001 Adalbert III., Dnke of Tuee^ny 
1003 Henry U.^ Bnmaror of OermAny 
1008 John XVUL, Pope 
Gregory VI., Antipope 

1008 John XIX.,* Pope 

1009 Ottone Orseolo, Doge of Venk^e 
1009 Sergius IV.,* Pope 

1012 Beucdictus VIIL* (ConH), Pope 
1014 Rinaldo, Dnke of Tuscany 

1017 Canute, King of England 
Gregory VL,* Antipope 

1018 Normans enter Italy 

1024 John XX.,* (or John XIX.), Pope 
1024 Conrad II., Emperor of Germany 

1026 Pietra Barbolano, Doge of Venice 

1027 Boniface, Duke of Tuscany 

1032 Domenico Flabanaoo, Dogd of Venice 

1033 Benedict IX.,* Pope 
1033 Sylvester III., Antipope 

1039 Henry III., Emperor of Gtermaay 
1043 Will. Braccia-f erro, Count of Apulia 

1043 Domenico Contarini I., Doge Of Venice 

1044 Gregory VL,* Pope 
1046 Clement IL, Pope 
1046 Drogo, Count of Apulia 

1046 Emperor Henry III. deposes three Popee 

1048 Damasus II., Pope 

1049 S. Leo IX., Pope 

1051 Humphrey, Count of Apulia 

1054 Robert Guiscard, Count and Duke of Apulia 

1055 Victor II., Pope 

1055 Beatrice and (Godfrey, Dukes of Tuscaiiy 

1056 Henry IV., Emperor of Germany 

1057 Stephen X., Pope 

1058 Benedict X.* (Conti), Antipope 

1059 Nicholas II., Pope 

1060 Philip L, King of France 

1060 Boniface I., Marquis of Montferrat 

1061 Alexander IL* (Badagio family), Pope 
1061 Honorius IL, Antipope 

1066 William the Conquei'or, King of England. 

1067 Fi-ederick I., Lord of Ferrara 

1071 Domenico Silvio, Doge of Venice 

1072 Roger I., Count of Sicily 

1073 Gregory VIL* (HiUkbrand or Aldobranditchi), 

1073 Clement IL, Antipope 

1076 Matilda, Countess of Tuscany 

1077 Emperor Henry IV., at Canossa. 

1084 Vitale Faliero, Doge of Venice 

1085 Roger, Duke of Apulia 

1086 Victor IIL* C^pi/cMi), Pope 
1088 Urban IL, Pope 

1090 Paschal IL, Pope 

1095 First Crusade 

1096 Vitale Michel! I., Doge of Venice 
Albert, Antipope 

1100 William IL, Marquis of Montferrat 

1101 Roger IL, Sicily. Duke of Apulia, 1127 

Kingof Sicily, 1130 
Theodoric, Antipope 

1102 Ordelafo Faliero, Doge of Venice 

1103 Sylvester IIL, Antipope 



1106 Henry V., Emperor of Germany 
1108 Amadent IL, first Count of Savoy 
1108 Louis YL, King of France 

1117 Domenico Mlcheli, Doge of Venice 

1118 Gelasius II.* (Cattani), Pope 
1118 Gregory VIII., Antipope 

11 18 Guy Salinguerra, Lord of Ferrara 

1119 Clixtus II., Pope 

1119 Conrad, Duke of Tuscany 
1128 Ninth Council of Lateran 

1124 Honorius II., Pope 
Oelestlne II., Antipope 

1125 Lothaire II., Emperor of Germany 

1126 Rinaldo, Marquis of Montferrat 
1180 Innocent !!.♦ (PaparesehiJ, Pope 
1180 Silk brouglit into Italy 

1130 Anacletus II.jAntipope 
1180 Pieto Polani, Doge of Venice 

1131 Ramprest, Presiftent of Tuscany 
1133 Henry, Count of Tuscany 
1188 Victor IV., Antipope 

1188 Conrad III., Emperor of Germany 

1139 Ulderic, Marquis of Tuscany 

1140 William IIL, Marquis of Montferrat 

1143 Celestine II.,* Pope 

1144 Lucius n.* (Cfacciantmiei). Pope 

1145 Eugenius III.* (Pagaw^li), Pope 
1148 Domenico MorosinI, Doge of Venice 
1150 Taurello, or Torelli, Lord of Ferrara 
1152 Fred. I. CBarbarosaa), Emperor of Germany 
1163 Anastaslus IV.,* Pope 

1163 Guelpli. Duke of Tuscany 

1154 Adrian IV. (Breakapeare), Pope; bom at Ab- 
bot's Langley, near Watford 
1154 William I., King of Sicily 

1166 Vitale Micheli II., Doge of Venice 
1159 Alexander III.* (BandineOi), Pope 
1159 Victor IV., Antipope 

1164 Paschal III., Antipope 

1167 William II., the Good, King of Sicily 
1169 Calixtus IIL, Antipope 

1173 Sebastiano Ziani, Doge of Venice 

1178 Innocent III., Antipope 

1179 Orio Mastropiero. Doge of Venice 

1180 Philip Augustus, King of France 

1181 Lucius III.* (Allucfgnoli), Pope 
1185 Urban III.* (Crivelli), Pope 

1187 Gregory VIIL* (Z>« Morra), Pope 

1188 Clement III.* (ScofaH), Pope 

1188 Conrad, Marquis of Montferrat 

1189 Tancred, King of Sicily 

1190 Henry VI., Emperor of Germany 

1191 Celestine III.* (OrnnOi Pope 

1192 Boniface II., Marquis of Montferrat 
1192 Enrico Dandolo, Doge of Venice 

1194 Emperor Henry VI. (Suabia), King of Sicily 

1195 Salinguerra II. (TortlK), Lord of Ferrara 

1196 Philip, Tuscany ; elected Emperor, 1198 

1196 Azzo VI. (E§te\ Lord of Fenara 

1197 Frederick, King of Sicily 

1198 Innooent IIL* (OonH)^ Pope 

1198 Philip, Emperor of Germany 

1199 Jolm, Kiaf of £iitlud 


1205 Pietro Ziani, Doge of Venice 

1207 William IV., Marquis of Montferrat 

1208 Otho IV., Emperor of Germany 
1208 Florence, a Republic, till 1531 
1210-16 Frederick IL, Emperor of Germany 
1212 Aldovrandini I. (Este), Lord of Ferrara 
1216 Azzo VII. (Eiti), Lord of Ferrara 
1216 Honorius IIL* iSavellf), Pope 
1224-74 St. Thomas of Aquinas 

1225 Boniface IIL, Marquis of Montferrat 

1226 St. Louis IX., King of France 

1227 Gregory IX.* (Conti) Pope 

1229 Giacomo Tiepolo, Doge of Venice 

1242 Celestine IV.* (Ccuiiglione), Pope 

1243 Innocent IV.* (FXacM). Pope 

1244 Giacomo (Torelli), Lora of Ferrara 

1249 Marino Morosini, Doge of Venice 

1250 Conrad L, King of Sicily and Emperor of 

1252 Ranieri Zeno, Doge of Venice 
1254 Alexander IV* (Conti). Pope 

1254 William V., Marquis of Montferrat 

1255 Conrad IL, or Conradin, King of Sicily 
1257 Martin della Torre. Lord of Milan 

1269 Manfred, King of Sicily 
1261 Urban IV., Pope 

1264 Obizzio IL (Este), Ferrara 

1265 Clement IV., Pope 

1265 Napoleon della Torre, Lord of Milan 
Cimabue. the painter f 

1267 Charles I. (AnjoU), King of Sicily 

1268 I^orenzo Tiepolo, Doge of Venice 

1270 Salinguerra III. (Tm-tUi), Lord of Ferrara 

1271 Gregory X.* (Vitconti), Pope 

1273 Rudolph of Hapsburg, Emperor of Germany 

1 275 Giacomo Contarini, Doge of Venice 

1276 Innocent V., Pope 

1276 Adrian V.* (Fieschi), Pope 

1276 John XXL, Pope 

1277 Nicholas III.* (Oriini.) Rome becomes in- 

dependent of the Emperors 
1277 Otho Visconti, Milan 
1279 Giovanni Dandolo, Doge of Venice 

1281 Martin IV., Pope 

1282 Charles of Anjou, King of Naples 

1282 Pedro L (Aragon), King of Sicily— (Sicilian 

1285 Charles IL. King of Naples 
1285 Honorius IV.* (SaveUf). Pope 

1288 Nicholas IV.* (Masci), Pope 

1289 Pietro Gradenigo, Doge of Venice 

1292 John I., Marquis of Montferrat 

1293 Azzo VIIL (Estt), Lord of Perraf a 

1294 Celestine v.* (iforronO, Pope; Who made the 
" gran refiuto" (Dante). Giotto, the painter f 

1294 Boniface VIIL {Caetanf), Pope 
1296 Matthew I., Milan 
1296 Frederic IL, King of Sicily 
1298 Albert I. (of Austria), Emperor of Germant:** 
Dante exiled from Florence, t (Bom 1364. 
died 1821) ^^^^__^ 




1803 Benedict XI.* {Boccatini), Pope 

1305 Clement V. The Papal Coui-t moved to 

1806 Theodore Palaeologas, Marquis of Montferrat 
1808 Fulke, or Folco {E$te\ Lord of Ferrara 
1309 Robert, Kbig of Naples 
1311 Council of Ten, at Venice 
1311 Marino Giorgi, l>oge of Venice 
1311 Giovanni Sorazo, Doge of Venice 
1314 Louis IV., Emperor of Germany * 

1816 John XXII., Pope 

1817 Ronaldo Obizieo III. and Nicholas I., Lords 

of Ferrara 
1322 Galeas I., Viscount of Milan 

1327 Edward III., King of England 

1328 Azzo, Viscount of Milan 

1328 Francesco Dandolo, Doge of Venice 

1329 Louis Gonzaga I., Lord of Mantua 
1334 Nicholas V., Antipope in Rome 
1834 Benedict XII., Pope 

1338 Pedro II., King of Sicily 

1833 John II., Marquis of Montferrat 

18 19 Luch hi, Viscount of Milan 

1389 Bartolommeo Gradenigo, Doge of Venice 

1342 Clement VI., Pope 

1343 Joanna II., Queen of Naples 
1843 Andrea Dandolo, Doge of Venice 
1347 Cola di Rienzi at Rome 

1347 Charles IV., Emperor of Germany 
1349 John, Viscount of Milan. 
1349 Charles IV. (Germany) 

1 352 Innocent VI., Pope 
1352 Aldovrandi III., Lord of Ferrara 

1853 Venetian Fleet destroyed 
1354 Marino Faliero, Doge of Venice 

1354 Mat. II. and Galeas II., Viscounts of Milan 

1355 Giovanni Grandenigo, Doge of Venice 

1356 Giovanni Dolfin, Doge of Venice 
1856 Frederick IIL, Kbig of Sicily 

1360 Guy, Lord of Mantua 

1361 Nicholas II., Lord of Ferrara 

1361 Ijorenxo Celsl, Doge of Venice 

1362 Urban V., Pope 

1365 Marco Comard, Doge of Venice 
1367 Andrea Contarini, Doge of Venice 

1369 Louis II., Lord of Mantua 

1370 Gregory XI. ( France) Pope. The Papal Court 

goes back to Rome 
1372 Otho, M. of Montferrat 
1378 Urban VI.* (Prignani) Pope 
1378 John III., Marquis of Montferrat 
1378 Mary I., Queen of Sicily 
1378 John Galeas Visconti, Duke of Milan 
1878 Wenceslas, Emperor of Germany 

1381 Theodore II., Marquis of Montferrat 

1382 Michcli Morosini, Doge of Venice 
1382 Antonio Veniero, Doge of Venice 
1882 Francis I., Lord of Mantua 

1382 Tommaso Albizzi, Lord of Florence 
1882 Charles IIL, King of Naples 
1S86 Ladislas, King of Naples 





143 i 










Clement VII., Antipope at Avignon 

Albert {Este), Lord of Ferrara 

Boniface IX.* (TomacelliJ, Pope 

Amadeus VIII., First Duke of Savoy 

Nicholas IIL, Lord of Ferrara 

Benedict XIII., Antipope at Avignon 

John Galeas, Duke of Milan 

Michelc Steno, Doge of Venice 

Martin, King of Sicily. (United to Aragen, 

John-Mary. Duke of Milan 
Innocent VIL* (Migliorati), Pope. He and 

Benedict abdicate 
Gregory XII.* (Coriaro) 
Guy Torrelli, Count of Guastalla 
John Francis L, Marquis of Mantua 
Alexander V. (Phylargyritu)^ Pope 
Fra Angelico, the Painter 
John XXIII.* (Costa), Pope 
Siglsmund, Emperor of Germany 
Philip-Mary, Duke of Milan 
Tommaso Mocenigo, Doge of Venice 
Joanna II., Queen of Naples 
Nicolo Albezzo, Lord of Florence 
Martin V.,* (Cctonna)^ Pope 
John James, Marquis of Montferrat 
Charles VIL, King of France 
Francesco Foscari, Doge of Venice 
Clement VIIL, Antipope at Avignon 
Rinaldo Albizza, Lord of Florence 
Eugenius IV. (Condolmieri), Pope 
Cosmo de' Medici, Lord of Florence 
Masaccio, the painter 

Alfonzo the Wise, King of Naples and Aragon 
Felix v., the last Antipope 
Frederick IV., Emperor of Germany. The 

last Emperor crowned at Rome 
Discovery of Printing 
Lionel, Lord of Ferrara 
Louis IIL, Lord of Mantua 
John v.. Marquis of Montferrat 
Nicholas V.* (Parentucelli), Pope 
Christopher and Peter Guy I., Counts of 

Borso, Duke of Ferrara 
Francis Sforza, Duke of Milan 
Constantinople taken by the Turks 
Clixtus III. (Borgia) Pope 
Mantegna, the painter 
Pasquale Malipiero, Doge of Venice 
Pius II.* (Piceolomini), Pope 
Ferdinand I., King of Naples 
Guy Galeotto and Francis-Mary, Counts of 

Louis XL, King of France 
Christofero Moro, Doge of Venice 
Paul IL* (Barho), Pope 
Perugino, the painter 
Pietro de' Medici, Lord of Florence 
William VI., Marquis of Montferrat 
Lorenzo (the Magnificent) and Giuliano de 

Medici, Lords of Florenc 3 
Niccolo Trono, Doge of Venice 
















Sixtus IV.* (Ddla Roun), Pope 
Hercules (Ercolo) I., Ferrara 
Ohirlandajo, the painter 
Nlccolo Marcello, Doge of Venice 
Pietro Mocenigo, Doge of Venice 
Ferdinand and Isabella, King and Queen of 

John Galeas-Mary, Dake of Milan 
Andrea Vendramino, Doge of Venice 
Frederick I., Marquis of Mantua 
Giovai&ii Mocenigo, Doge of Venice 
Innocent VIIL* (CT5o), Pope 
John Francis, Marquis of Mantua 
Marco Barbarigo, Doge of Venice 
Agostino Barbarigo, Doge of Venice 
Peter Guy 11^ Count of Guastalla 
Alexander VI. (Borgia), Pope 
Pietro II., Lord of Florence 
Columbus discovers America 
Maximilian I., Emperor of Germany 
William VII., Marquis of Montferrat 
Achilles, Count of Guastalla 
Alfonso II., King of Naples 
The Medici expelled from Florence 
Louis-Mary, Duke of Milan 
Louis XII., of France, Duke of Milan 
Leonardo Loredano, Doge of Venice 
Pietro Sodorini, Gonfalonier of Florence 
Pius III.* CPieeolominiJ, Pope 
Leonardo- da Vinci 

Palma Vecchio, the painter 
Julius II.* (Oiuliano delia Rovet'e), Pope 

Alfonso I., Duke of Ferrara 
Henry VIII., King of England 

Giuliano de* Medici, Lord of Florence 
Maximilian Sforza, Duke of Milan 
Leo X.* (Mtdid), Pope 

Francis L, King of France, and Duke of Milan 
Lorenzo II., Lord of Florence 
Luther and the Reformation 
Boniface V., Marquis of Montferrat 
Charles V., Germany and Spain 
Frederick IL, Duke of Mantua 
Michael Angelo 

Giulio de' Medici, Lord of Florence (Pope, 1523) 
Antonia Grimani, Doge of Venice 
Francis-Mary, Duke of Milan 
Adrian VI., Pope 

Louisa Torelli, Count of Guastalla 

Andrea Gritti, Doge of Venice 
Clement VII.* (CHulio de' Medici), Pope 
John George, Marquis of Montferrat. (United 

to Mantua, 1536) 
Alexander, Duke of Florence 
Paul IIL* (Famae), Pope 
Hercules II., Duke of Ferrara 
Coamo the Great (de' Medici)^ Grand Duke of 

Ferdiiuna de Goozaga, Count of Guastalla 













Pietro Lando, Doge of Venice 

Francis II., Marquis of Mantua 

Francesco Donato, Doge of Venice 

Peter Louis Famese, Duke of Parma 

G. Romano, the painter 

Octavius Famese, Duke of Parma 

William I., Duke of Mantua 

Julius IIL* iCiocchi), Pope 

M. A. Trevisano, Doge of V«iice 

Francesco Veniero, Doge of Venice 

Marcellus II. (Cervini), Pope 




Paul IV.* (Carqfa), Pope 

B. Cellini, the sculptor 

Lorenzo Priuli, Doge of Venice 

Caesar I., Lord of Guastalla 

Elizabeth, Queen of England 

Ferdinand I., Emperor of (Germany 

Girolamo Priuli, Doge of Venice 

Pius IV.* (Medici), Pope 

Alfonso II., Duke of Ferrara 

Maximiliam II., Emperor of Germany 

St. Pius v.* (Ghislieri), Pope 

Tintoretto, the painter 

Pietro Loredano, Doge of Venice 

Luigi Mocenigo, Doge of Venice 

Gregory XIII.* (Buoncompagni), Pope 

P. Veronese, the painter 

Francis, Grand Duke of Tuscany 

Ferd. IL, Duke of Guastalla 

Rodolph IL, Emperor of Germany 

Sebastiano Veniero, Doge of Venice 

Nicolo da Ponte, Doge of Venice 

Siatus v.* (Peretti). Pope 

Pasquale Cicogna, Doge of Venice 

Alexander Famese, Duke of Parma 


Ferd. I., Grand Duke of Tuscany 

Vincent I., Duke of Mantua and Montferrat 

Henry IV., King of France 

Urban VII.* (Castagna), Pope 

L. Caracci, the painter 

Ag. Caracci. the painter 

Gregory XIV.* (Sfrondati), Pope 

An. Carracci, the painter 

Caravaggio, the painter 

Innocent IX.* (Facchinetti), Pope 

Domenichino, the painter 

Guido, the painter 

Clement VIIL* (Alddbrandini), Pope 

Ranutio I., Duke of Parma 

Marino Grimano, Doge of Venice 

Cfcsar I., Duke of Ferrara 

Leo XI * (Medici), Pope 


Guercino, the painter 

Paul v.* (Borghett), Pope 

Leonardo Donato, Doge of Venice 

Cosmo II., Grand Duke of Tuacaxv^ 

Francis 11.^ D\]iY&<A'\^.tc(v\.^«k 



161 2 Matthias, So^itror of 0*rmany 
1612 M. A. M«mma, Doga of Yanioe 
1615 OiovanBi Bembo, Doge of Yanice 
1618 Nioolo Donato, Doga of Yanioa 

1618 Antonio Prinli, Doge of Yanica 

1619 Ferdinand XL, Emperor of Oarmany 
1621 Gregory XY,* (Ludoviti), Pope 

1621 Ferdinand IL, Orand Dake of Tuscany 

1622 Edward, Dnke of Parma 

1623 Urban VIII.* (BarbeHni), Pope 

1623 Francesco Contarini, Doge of Venice 

1624 Giovanni Comaro, Doge of Yenice 

1625 Charles I., King of England 

1626 Vincent II., Dnke of Mantua 
Dedication of St Peter's (founded 1450) 

1627 Charles I., Duke of Mantua 

1629 Francis I., Duke of Modena and Farrara 

1630 CsBsar II., Duke of GuasUIla 

1630 Nicole Contarhii, Doge of Yenice 

1631 Francesco Erizzo, Doge of Yeniea 

1632 Ferdinand III., Duke of Guastalla 
1637 Ferdinand III., Emperor of Germany 

1687 Charles II. and III., Dukes of Mantua 
S. Bosa, the painter 

1688 Charles Emmanuel II., Duke of Savoy 
1644 Innocent X.* (Pan^i), Pope 

1646 Ranntio II., Duke of Parma 

C. Dolci, the painter 
1646 Francesco Molino, Doge of Yenice 
1663 Cromwell, Protector 
1655 Alexander VII.* (Chigi), Pope 

1655 Carlo Contarini, Doge of Venice 

1656 Francesco Comaro, Doge of Yenice 
1656 Bertucci Valiero, Doge of Yenice 
1658 Leopold I., Emperor of Germany 
1658 Alfonso IV., Duke of Modena • 

1658 Giovanni Pesaro, Doge of Yenice 

1659 Domenico Contarini IL, Doge of Yenice 
1662 Frances XL, Duke of Modena 

1665 Charles IV., Duke of Mantua 
1667 Clement IX.* (Rotpigliosi), Pope 

L. Giordano, the painter 
1670 Clement X.* CAltiiH), Pope 

C. Maratti, the painter 
1670 Cosmo III., Grand Duke of Tuscany 
1675 Vict. Amadeus II. , Duke of Savoy 

1675 Nicolo Sagredo, Doge of Venice 

1676 Innocent XI.* (Odetcakhi), Pope 
1676 Luigi Contarini, Doge of Venice 

1678 Charles, Duke of Mantua and Gaastalla 
1684 M. A. Giustiniani. Doge of Venice 

1688 Francesco Morosini, Dogeyof Venice 

1689 Alexander VIII. (Ottoboni), Pope 

1689 William and Mary, King and Queen of Eng- 

1691 Innocent XII.* (PignatelU), Pope 

1692 Vincent de Gonzaga, Duke of Guastalla 
1694 Frances I., Duke of Parma 

1694 Reginald, Duke of Modena 
1694 Silvestro Valiero, Doge of Venice 
1700 Clemeat XL* (Albani)^ Pope 
1700 Alvise Mocenigo I., Doge of Yenloa 
1705 Joseph I., Emperor of Germany 


1709 GioranBi Comaro IL, Dore of Yeniea 
1711 Charles YI.,' Emperor of Germany 
1718 Charles IL, King of Naples 
1715 Antony Ferdinand, Duke of Guastalla 

Canaletto, the painter 
1718 Victor Amadeus IL, King of Sardinia 

1721 Innocent XIIL* CConti), Pope 

1722 A. 8. Mocenigo. Doge of Venice 

1723 John Gastone, Grand Duke of Tuscany 

1723 Carlo Ruzzini, Doge of Yenice . 

1724 Benedict XIIL* (OrHni), Pope 
1727 Antony, Duke of Parma 

1729 Joseph, Duke of Guastalla 

1730 Clement XII.* (GorHni), Pope 

1730 Charles Emmanuel III., King of Sardinia 

1731 Don Carlos, Duke of Parma 

1785 Charles III. (Bourbon), King of Naples 
1735 Luigi Pisanl, Doge of Venice 
1737 Francis II. (Lorraine), Grand Duke of Tus- 
cany. (Emperor of (Germany, 1745) 
1737 Francis III., Duke of Modena 

1740 Benedict XIV.* (Lambertini), Pope 

1741 Pietro Grimani, Doge of Venice 

1742 Charles YIL, Emperor of Germany 
1745 Francis L, Emperor of Germany 

1749 Don Philip, Duke of Parma and Guastalla 

1768 Clement XIIL* (Rttzonieo), Pope 

1769 Ferdinand IV., King of Naples 
1760 George III., King of England 

1762 Marco Foscarini, Doge of Venice 

1763 Alvise Mocenigo IL, Doge of Venice 
1766 Peter Leopold, Grand Duke of Tuscany 

1765 Joseph IL, Emperor of Germany 

1766 Don Philip, Duke of Parma 

1769 Clement XIV.* (OanganelH), Pope 


1773 Victor Amadeus IIL, King of Sardinia 
1776 Pius VL* (Braschi), Pope 

1779 Pablo Reinier, Doge of Venice 

1780 Hercules, Duke of Modena 

1789 Luigi Manln. last Doge of Venice 

1790 Ferdinand IIL, Grand Duke of Tuscany 
1790 Leopold IL, Emperor of Germany 

1792 Francis IL, Emperor of Germany 
1797 Modena. part of Cisalpine Republic 

1800 Pius VII.* (Chiaramonti), Pope 

1801 Jjouis, Grand Duke of Etruria (Tuscany) 

1802 Victor Emmanuel L. King of Sardinia 

1803 Charles Louis, Duke of Etruria (Tuscany) 

1803 Parma united to France 

1804 Napoleon I., Emperor of France 

1804 Francis II. of Germany becomes Emperor of 

1805 Bacciocchi, Prince of Lucca 

1806 Eliza Bonaparte, Grand Duohais of Tuscany 
1808 Joseph Napoleon. King of Naples 

Murat, King of Naples 
1814 Ferdinand IIL (restored). Grand Dnke of 

1814 Maria Louisa, Grand Duchess of Parma 
1814 Francis IV., Duke of Modena. (Massa and 

Carrara added to Modena, 1839) 


IM I^K4Ul•^d IV. (Mftortd as FerdUiftnd I. of 

1S31 Charles Felix, Itinff of Sardinia 
1838 Leo XIL* r^^m^. Pope 
1894 Leopold 11 , Orand Duke of Tuscany 
1834 Charles Loala, Dike of Locca 

1829 Pins VUI,* (Coitiglioni), Pope 

1880 Louis Philippe, King of France 

1830 Ferdinand 11. C'Bomha^'), King of Naples 

1831 Gregory XVI.* (C«p9llari), Pope 

1881 Charles Albert, King of Sardinia 
1888 Isabella, Qaeen of Spain 

1885 Ferdinand, Emperor of Austria 

1887 Victoria, Queen of England 

1846 Flos IX.,* Pio Nono (Miutai-FtmUi), Pope, 

16th June. Bom, 1793 
1846 Francis V., Duke of Modena 
1848 Francis Joseph, Emperor of Austria 
1848 Repnblio in France 

1848 YiUor Emnuuuia //., King of Sardinia, May 

34th, upon the al)d|cation of his f atlter, who 
died at Oporto the same year 


1849 February — June. Rome under the Trinmrirs 

— Maxzlni, SaflB, Ac. 

1880 April 4. Pope Pius returns to Rome from 

1853 Napoleon III., Emperor of France 

1855 Italy joins the Allies in the Crimea 

1859 Francis II.. King of Naples 
„ April 37. Leopold II. leaves Tuscany 
„ „ 29. Austria inrades Piedmont 
„ June 4. Battle of Magenta 
,. 35. Battle of Solferino 
„ July 11. Treaty of Villafranca 
„ „ Lombardy annexed to Sardinia 

1880 March 18—84. Annexation of Tuscany, Mo- 
dena. Parma, and the Papal Legations of 
the Romagna, Umbria, and the Marches 
„ March 34. Savoy and Nice ceded to France 
„ May 11. Garibaldi lands in SicUy 
„ NoTember Naples and Sicily annexed by 
Garibaldi. Monastic houses suppressed 

1861 February 18. First Italian Parliament meets 

at Turin 
March 17. Victor Emmanuel assumes the title 

of BLing of Italy. Constitution of Sardinia 

(March 4, 1848) extended to the countries 

June 6. Death of Cavonr 

1863 Itay 39. Garibaldi captured at Aspromonte 
November. Father Paiteglia and 10,000 

priests declare against thd Pope's temporal 
November. Hall from Rome to Naples opened 

1864 AprU, pUrilMldi vlsita England 

„ VoTfffkDw i. lUU from Turin to Florence 






1865 May 14. At Ftortnee, the iMwaapital of Italy, 

the king optns the Dante mUval, by >n- 
covering Pazzi*sstatne oppoaita AAsta Croce, 
on the 600th anniversary of the poet's birth 

„ August 36. Mr. Moens captured by brigands 

„ The Pope proclaims a jubilee 

„ November 18. First Italian Parliament at 

1866 January 18. Death of D'Aseglio 
„ July 5. Venetia ceded by Austria 

„ July 30. Italian fleet defeated by Anstrians 
off Lissa 

1867 August. Church Property Bill passed 

„ September 38. (Garibaldi st<H>ped at Sinalunga 

and sent to Caprera 
„ October 15. Garibaldi leaves Caprera, defeats 

the Papal forces at Monte Botondo, October 

36 and 27 
„ October 30. French troops at Clvita Vecchia. 

Garibaldi defeated at Mentana, November I; 

sent to Caprera, November 31 

1868 March. New Order of the " Crown of Italy" 
„ November 18. Vesuvius in eruption 

„ „ 38. Etna in eruption 

1869 February 22. Marriage of priests legalised by 

the law courts 

„ Pope summons an (Ecumenical (Universal) 
Council. Dr. Cummingofters to attend the 
Council on the Protestant side 

„ October 5. Italian government protests against 
the Council 

„ December 8. Opening of the Council attended 
by 800 dignitaries. December— January- 
Papal InfallibiUty voted by 450 against 88 
1870. May 8. Republican rising at Catanzaro 

„ September 3. Battle of Sedan followed by 
evacuation of (Clvita Vecohiaby the French 

„ October 9. States of the Church annexed, 
after a plebiscite of 183,681 against 1,507. 
Pope's temporal power abolished 

„ October 20. Rome annexed. The (Ecumeni- 
cal Council adjourned tine die 

„ November 16. Victor Emmanuers son, 
Amadeo, elected King of Spain 

„ December 4. Pius IX. issues another Ency- 
clical letter 

.. December 25. Mont Cenis Tunnel finished 
after twelve years' labour 

„ December 81. Victor Emmanuel visits Rome, 
at the inundations of the Tiber 

1871 January 38. Prince Humbert moves to Rome 
„ May 18. Law of Guarantees passed assuring 

the Pope of his position and income at 

„ June 16 The Pope celebrates the twenty-fifth 

year of his pontificate 
„ Julys. The king and government move to 

Rome, the new capital of Italy 
„ September 17. Mont (3enis Tunnel formally 

opened for traffic 

1872 Death of Maxsinl at Pisa 

1873 February 11. Abdltii&\»&^ ksMj^Mk^^»^ 



1678 September 16. King visits Vienna and Berlin. 

1874 March 28. Celebrates the 25th year of his 

reign, at Rome 

1875 Garibaldi takes his seat in the Chamber 

1876 The King receives the Emperor of Austria at 

Venice, and the German Emperor at Milan. 
„ November 6. Death of Cardinal Antonelli, 

who leaves his collections to the Vatican 
„ November 8. Death of Dachess of Aosta, 
wife of Prince Amadeo (Duke of Aosta) 
1S78 January 9. Humbert I. succeeds upon the 
death of his father, Victor Emmanuel 
„ Feb. 10. Leo XIII.r/*eccOi Pope, in succession 

to Pius IX., who died 7th February 
„ November. King Humbert's life attempted 
1879 March. Queen Victoria visits Baveno, Lago 

1882 June 2. Death of Garibaldi at Caprera 

Books.— Among the books quoted in the body of 

the Italian Hand-book, or deserving the reader's 

attention, are the following: — 

Rose's *' Letters from the North of Italy," 2 volumes 

Forsyth's ^'Remarks on Antiquities, Arts, and 

Letters, in Italy" 
Beckford's ''Letters from Italy," 2 volumes. 1805 
Laing's " Notes of a Traveller in Italy," <tc. (Tra- 
veller's Library). 1854 
"Italy," by Lord Broughton (Sir J. C. Hobhousc), 

2 volumes. 1859 
Whiteside's ''Italy in the Nineteenth Century." 

Arthur's "Italy in Transition." 1860 
Norton's "Notes of Travel and Study in Italy." 

Mrs. Gretton's "Englishwoman in Italy," 2 volumes 
Miss Bremer's " Switzerland and Italy," 2 volumes. 

Miss Catlow's " Sketching Rambles in the Apen- 
nines, <fcc," two volumes. 1861 
Stansfield's "Italian Movement." 1862 
Count Arrivabene's "Italy under Victor Emman- 

nel," 2 volumes. 1862 
Dr. (Bishop) Wordsworth's "Tour in Italy," 1663 
Mendelssohn's "Letters from Italy" 
Gallenga's "History of Piedmont," 2 volumes. 
1855. His "Countrv Life in Piedmont;" and 
his " Italy Revisited." 1875 
Ball's " Guides" to the Western and Central Alps 
King's " Italian Valleys of the Alps." 1858 
T. A. Trollopo's " Tuscany in 1849 and 1859." His 

"Lenten Journey in Umbria." 1862 
Misses Homers' "Walks in Florence" 
Braun's " Hand-Book to the Ruins and Museums 

of Rome." 1858 
J. H. Parker's " Archaeology of Rome" 
C. Hemans's "Historical and Monumental Rome;" 

and his "Medisaval Christianity" 
Dicey's " Rome in 1860." Published 1861 
Wills's "Roman Candles." 1861 
Dean Burgon's "Letters from Rome" 
A. J. C. Hare's " Walks in Rome" 
F. Wey's "Rome," with about 350 engravings 

Farini's " History of the Roman States." 1815-50, 

translated by the Right Hon. W. £. Gladstone 
Robelli's " Rome et ses Environs " 
Nibby's " Itinerario di Roma " 
W. W. Story's " Roba di Roma," two volumes. 1863 
Story's " Castle of S. Angelo, and the Evil Eye" 
Canon Northcote's "Epitaphs from the Cata- 
combs;" and his " Roma Sotterranea" 
S. A. Smith's "Tiber and its Tributaries: their 

Natural History and Associations" 
Kavanagh's "Summer and Winter In the Two 

Sicilies." 1860 
Homer's "Century of Despotism in the Two 

Sicilies." 1860 
Admiral Mundy's " Palermo and Naples." 1868 
" Garibaldi's Campaigns," by Captain Forbes 
Keppel Craven's "Tours in the Abruzzi and 

Admiral Smyth's "Sicily" 

Brydone's " Tour through Sicily and Malta." 1770 
Forester's "Rambles in Sardinia and Corsica" 
Murray's Knapsack edition of " Byron's Poems." 
Ruskin's "Stones of Venice" and "Modern 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle's "History of Painting 
in Italy to the 14th century ; " and the " History 
of Painting in North Italy, 14th to 19th cen- 
Simond's "Tour in Italy,"— praised by Dickens. 
W. Davies's " PUgrimage of the Tiber." 1874 
Shakspere Wood's "New Curiosura Urbis.". 1876 
J. H. Middleton's "Ancient Rome," 1885 
Forbes' "Rambles in Rome." 
Monsign. C. A. Pasini's " Guide de la Basilique 
St. Marc." 1887 


From Paris by rail throughout; for which 
Through Tickets are issued by the different rail- 
ways. A daily international through service is 
now established in this direction; and to Geneva 
for Switzerland, as well ; the two routes parting 
off at Culoz. Paris to 

Ma9on, on Lyons Railway 276 miles 

Culoz (buffet) 334 „ 

[Geneva, 872 miles.] 

Chamb^ry 356^ „ 

St. Michael (buffet) 407 „ 

Susa 457* „ 

Turin 490* n 

PARIS Station, in Boulevard Diderot. 

Past Bercy Wine Stores, Suspension Bridge 
on the Seine, and Viaduct on the Mame, Charen- 
ton, Alfort Veterinary College, and Vincennes 
Castle, in view to the left. 

Villeneuvk-St.-Georoes, 9* miles, on the Seine. 

Brcnot. — Wellington was Duke of Brunoy. 
Brie-Comte-Robert Clhurch to the left. 

Melun.— Capital of department Selne-et-Mame. 
Large old Church and Gothic belfiy. Great House 
of Detention on an island. Amyot, who trans- 



lated Platarcb, was a native. Nangis Castle, and 
Grange Bleneau, to the left; the latter was Lafay- 
ette's seat. 

FontainebleaiL— Old Palace, began as early 
as twelfth century. One ooart is the Conr des 
Adieux, where Napoleon took leave of his Guards. 
Lonis XVI.*s pillar outside the town. Fine views 
in the forest. 

Thomsst, 3| miles. Noted for chasselas grapes. 

MoHTBKBAU. — Buffct for refreshment. On the 
Vonne and Seine. Junction with the Chaumont 
line. Jean Sans-Peur's sword in the old church ; 
he was murdered hero by Charles the Dauphin. 

Sens. — Sous-prefecture. Old gates and walls, 
half Roman. Early Gothic cathedral, with Becket's 
mitre, &c Hotel de Ville. Fleurigny Ch&teau. 

ViLLiNKUVB-suB-YoNNK. — Gothlc gates and 
church ; old castle. 

JoiGNY. — Sons-prefecture. Good views. Hotel 
Dieu. Ancient chftteau. 

Laroghb.— Refreshment Buffet. 

St. FLOKBKTIN.—On the Arman^on. Good views. 
Canal de Bourgogne and aqueduct. Church of the 
XIV. century. Ervy Castle to the left. 

ToNKBSRB. — Buffet for refreshment. Sous-pre- 
fecture, in Burgundy wine district. Rich hospital 
founded by St. Louis's sister-in-law, Margaret. 
Old chftteau. St. Pierre's Gothic Church. To the 
right, Chablis, noted for white wine. The Turin 
Express does not stop here. 

Tanlat. — Fine chftteau of the Tanlay family, in 
the Renaissance style. 

Lkzink Tunnel, 1* 740 feet. Passy Tunnel, 3,280 ft. 

MoNTBASD. — In department Cote d'Or, Buffon's 
Ch&teau, where he wrote his "Natural History." 
Semur is on a rock to the right. 

Lbs Laumes. — Alise Abbey, and sulphur spring 
near ; hilly country, and fine views. 

Vebrey.— Old chftteau. St. Seine Church, in a 
deep pass, to the left. 

BijkiSY Bas. — One of the most remarkable 
tunnels in France, 2^ miles long, at the highest 
part of the line. A succession of tunnels and via- 
ducts hence to Dijon. 

MALAiN.—Combe-de-Fain Viaduct near this, 147 
feet high, on a double row of arches. 

DIJOIL — Buffet for refreshment. Chief town of 
department Cote d'Or, and old capital of Bur- 
gundy. Cote d'Or Hills in view. Cathedral, with 
tail spire, 328 feet high. Old cathedral church. 
Ancient Palais des Etats, with ducal efldgies, &c. 
Large prefecture and theatre. 

Cll&lOll-sar-SadXie.— Sous-prefecture and a 
Roman station. Two churches. Old bridge and 
hospital. Here Ni^pce, one of the French in- 
ventors of photography, was bom. 

TouBircs. — Suspension bridge on the Saone, 
Roman pillar. Grease's paintings in the church. 

H&COn.— Buffet for refreshment. Chief town 
of Saone-et-Loire. Modem Cathedral ; and towers 
of the old one. Lamartine bom here. The main 
line to Lyons follows the river. 

Here the Mont Cenis line turns off to Chambdry 
and crosses the Saone on a viaduct. 

Bourg, or Bourg-en-Brasse.— Chief town of 

Aix, founded thirteenth century. Semi-Gothic 
Church ot Notre Dame. Lorin Museum at Hdtel de 
Ville. Fine Church of Le Brou, built by Margaret 
of Austria. 

Pont d'Ain. — Suspension bridge on the Ain. 
AMBiRiBU, at the foot of the Jura Hills. 
Arteharb.— Mont Colombier, 6,000 feet high. 
CuLOZ. — On the Rhone. Here the branch line 
to Geneva, about 42 miles long, parts off. 

AlZ-lOB-BainS.— In Savoy, now part of France. 
A watering-place, visited for its mineral springs 
and fine neighbourhood. 

Chamb^ry. — For this and the remainder of the 
road to the Italian frontier, over the fine scenery of 
Mont Cenis, see Route 5 (page 692) in the 
Special Edition of Bradshato's Continental OuUk. 
For the great Tunnel^ see page 691 of the same. 

Distances from Turin by rail to 

Genoa (Route 4) ... 103 

Milan (Route 6) 94 

Venice (Route 13).. 260 
Bologna (Route 15) 252 


Florence (Route 21) 268 

Ancona (Route 22). 379 

Brindisi (Routes 30, 

38) 728 

There are refreshment buffets on the Brindisi 
line at Ancona, Pescara, Foggia, and Bari. 

There is also a sei'vice vid Calais, Basle, and the 
St. Gothard to Milan, see under St. Gothard and 
Route 6 in Bradshaw's Continental Guide, the latter 
in the Special Edition. 

♦»*For the approaches to Italy through Switzer- 
land, see the Itinerary of the Alpine Passes and 
Lakes, and Routes 2, ifec, in the Special Edition of 
Bradshaw's Continental Guide, or see Bradshate's 
Hand-Book to Switzerland. For routes vid Mar- 
seilles, see Bradshaw's Hand-Book to France, or 
the Continental Guide. 

Objects of Art, AnUques, Paintings, ftc. 

The sale and export of all works of art, which 
was formerly forbidden, is now permitted by the 
government, which, however, reserves to itself the 
right of purchasing before the expiration of a 
three months' notice which has to be given of 
the contemplated sale. Export duty, 10 per cent, 
on the sale price. 



%nxxn ia ^laxtnct. 


Timm— VAUDOis country- AOSTA— GENOA 










An asterisk [♦] in the/oUomng pages denotes olyects deserving special notice. 


TURIN (Stat); in Italian, Torino. 
Population (1896), 848,000, with environs. 

Hotels: _ .. ,^ ^. 

Hotel de I'Europe, Piazza Castello, opposite the 
King's palace, five minuted* walk from the station. 
Beautiful first-class hotel, entirely refurnished, 
and replete with every modem convenience. 
Becomm^ided. See Advt. 

Hotel Feder, one of the best. Recommended. 
Hotel Trombetta,one of the best in Turin, under 
the immediate superintendence of the new pro- 
prietor, Mr. Leopold Baglioni. 

Grand Hotel de Turin.— Branch establishment 
of the Bemerhof at Berne, and Kraft's Hotel de 
nice at Nice, kept by M. Constant Kraft. 

Grand Hotel Suisse. Advantageously situated, 
facing the (General Station. 

Baglionl'sGrand Hotel andPension d'Angleterre. 
Well and conveniently situated in the Via Roma, 
near the central Station. 
Hotd de Londres. 

BestaiuranUj—l^& Meridiana, 6, Via S. Teresa; 

(7a/A. — Parigl; Ligure ; Romano; Londra; 
Borsa ; Nazionale. Cup of mixed coffee and choco- 
late, called "beccherino," drunk at early morning ; 
bread, in slender sticks, like quUls, two feet long, 
called grissini, crisp and light. The wines are 
Barbera, Barolo, Caluso, Asti, and Soma. 

Omnibuses belonging to the diflferent hotels con- 
vey passengers to and from the station, 1 franc. 
Town omnibuses, from one extremity of the city to 
the other, 10 cents. Cittadine, 1 franc for one 
eonrse, and 1 franc 60 cents by the hour tor first 

TriMiways in many directions from the principal 


j^eam Tramvays run to many of the smaller 
places in the neighbourhood. 

MoneM.—ln lire (or francs) and centesimi (or 
cents). Value slightly less than French francs 
and centimes. 

Port Office.— In Via Principe Amedeo. The latest 
Ikoortor posting FrtnchandEnglish lettersis 1 u p.m . 

ftUgra^ 0.^lc»— Close to the General Post Office. 


Resident English Vice-Consul and American Con- 
sular Agent. 

Church of England Service is performed every 
Sunday, at'l 1 a.m., in the chapel behind the Vaudois 
Church, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II. Entrance 
by the side gate. Via Pio Quinto, 15. 

Railways to Susa, Mont Cenis, Paris, Piucrolo. 
Cuneo, Genoa, Milan, Ivrea, Cirlfe, Castellnmonte, 
Biella, Arona, Ac— One to Marseilles is projected, 
via Saluzzo and Digne. 

Passengers by the Simplon route are booked 
through by rail from Turin to Domo d'OssoIa, 
where they must take a carriage or book again by 

Paper money is accepted at the railway stationp, 
but only for such part of the Journey as is 
within Italian territory. 

In Italy the locomotives are called Alfierl, Dante, 
Tasso, Volta, Galileo, Manzoni, and so on, after 
their g^eat men. The rail is "strada f errata," or 

Funicular Railway from Piazza Castello to La 
Superga, see page 6. 

Races. — End of May, in the Piazza d'Armi, or dei 

*Chie/ Objects of Notice. — Cathedral ; King's 
Palace; Armoury; Palazzo Madama; Palazzo 
dell'Accademia and Picture Gallery; Carigiiano 
Palace; Churches of 8. Filippo, Corpus Domini, 
Madre di Dio, Superga (Funicular Railway) ; Mole 
Antonelliana ; Capuchin Convent; University; 
Theatre Royal; Cavour's House; Statues of 
Cavour and D'Azeglio. Architecture by Guariui 
and Ginvara. 

TuBiN, the capital of the Sardinian States and 
of the hew kingdom of Italy, till the court luuvcd 
to Florence, 1865, is on the west side of the River Po, 
where the Dora Riparia joins it, in a fertile plain, 
adorned with gardens and villas (called vigtie); 
the snowy Alps being in the distance to the north, 
including Mont Blanc, Monte Viso (at the head of 
the Po), and Monte Rosa. This plain lies at the 
foot of the mountains, and hence derives its name, 
Piemonte (Piedmont in French), because it is d pie 
del monte. The nearest range of hills (the Collina, 
on the south) is 1,200 feet above the ^ea on the 
average; but the highest point, on vV\\0^ "^^ns^ 
Superga stand8^ la <vti<i>4XV^^Vi \^ft\. 

fisADSiriw'ii nkLY. 

[Section 1. 

It tak6S name tr6m the TauHniy in Gallia Gisal- 
pina, after whom the Romans called it Augusta 
Taurinorum. The city crest is a Bull — taurus or 
toro. Few antiquities have been found. After the 
tenth century the princes of the house of Savoy 
acquired it, and at length made it their seat, 1558, 
when Duke Emanuele FUiberto, one of the flrst 
soldiers of the age, fixed his residence here. 

The French took it in 1640, in Richelieu's time ; 
besieged it in 1706, when they were defeated by 
Prince Eugene ; and held it from 1796 to 1814, as 
part of France. During the years 1802-14, the 
King, Victor Emmanuel I., retired to his island of 
Sardinia. In all public papers it was styled the 
*' Illustrious City," "Countess of Gruliasco," and 
»'Lady of Beinasco." 

It is divided into sezioni, or sections, laid out 
with almost the regularity of an American city, in 
large broad streets, the views up and down which 
are finely terminated by the mountains. These 
lines, nearly following the direction of the cardinal 
points (those east and west running to the Po, 
those north and south to the Dora), cut up the 
whole into regular blocks of houses, most of 
which are solid, and hig^, and built of brick, but 
with a plainness of style which is rather mono- 
tonous. The unusual regularity of the laying 
out was probably due, in the first instance, to the 
streets having followed the lines of the old Roman 
city, and the extensions have been made on the 
same plan, Arcadea shelter some of the streets and 
squares, which are really square, or at least very 
regularly shaped. Water is to be brought from the 
Avigllana Lakes, near Rivoll. Granite tramways 
are laid for vehicles. A strong f uur-sided citadel, 
one-third of a mile in diameter, formerly defended 
It on the west. It was built in 1566 on Facciotto's 
system. The sites of the old ramparts (reparl) are 
now covered with broad streets («frocto, pi, strode) 
or promenades, planted with trees. 

Turin has become more industrial of late years, 
and possesses looms and factories, works for 
ivory-turning, pipes, lithography, macaroni, choco- 
late, Ac. The old houses are cleaned and painted 
in gay colours; and handsome new quarters have 
sprung up round the Piazza d'Armi, the Dora 
Riparia, Ac. 

OateS, Bridges, &C,— There were formerly 
four Gates, which have left their names behind; 
the Porta di Po on the east or Genoa road. Porta 
Palatina on the north, Porta Susina on the west 
(towards Mont Cenis), Porta Nuova on the south 
or Nice road. Of these only the northern gate, 
thought by some to be Roman, remain;*, forming the 
•modem Palazzo dello Torre, to the north of the 
Piazza Castello. Plnzza Castello is the prin- 
cipal square, where the palace, Ac, stand; whence 
the wide Via di Po leads to Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele I., opposite the Po Bridge and Madre 
de Dio Church, with the Supcr'ga in the distance. 
This bridge is of granite, on five arches of 80 feet 
span, and was begun by Napoleon. Itconuuands 
A fine panorama ; and the test ▼lew of the city 

is obtained from the Captiehin Monastery on the 
hill to the right. On the northern or north- 
eastern side a broad street, the Corso Regina 
Margherita, runs across the whole city, passing 
through Piazza Emanuele FUiberto to the Ponte 
Margherita, over the river Po. From the Piazza 
Emanuele Filiberto a street runs to the Ponte 
Mosca over the Dora, a solid granite arch of 147 
feet. The wide Corso Vitt. Em. II. runs from the 
western side, straight across to the Ponte in Ferro, 
over the Po, near the Nuovo Giardino Pubblico. 
Handsome new streets have sprung up, especially 
on the west side. There are many silk and jewel 
shops, the best are near the Piazzo Castello. 

The Po is a broad, dirty, and turbulent stream, 
much swollen at the time of the spring floods. 

Squares. — There are over a dozen of th«se. 
Piazza di Savoia contains an obelisk, erected 
1850, to commemorate the abolition of ecclesias- 
tical power, and the establishment of the con- 
stitutional maxim— that La Legge e equate per 
tutti (the law is the same for all). In Piazza 
dello Statuto is the massive Mont Cenis Tunnel 
Monument. Piazza Carlo Felice, in front of the 
Central Station, has a statue of Massimo d* 
Aaeglio. In Piazza della Cittk is the Hotel de 
Yille, with a bronze statue of Amadeo VI. Piaaaa 
di S. Carlo contains Marochetti's statue of Smaor 
uele Filiberto. Piazza Carlo Emanuele XI. (or 
Carlina, now improved with new faM>uaes) eo»taiM 
Cavour's monuBoent, inaugnrated 1873. It coo- 
sists of his statue^ surrounded by allegorical 
symbols, and arms of Italian cities. 

*Piazza Castello is the largest square, being 
250 yards by 200, and so called from the old castle 
of the Dukes of Savoy, where the Senate, or 
Chamber of Peers, met till 186$, and the Police 
Oflfice is stationed. The King's Palace and Cathe- 
dral are on the north side ; the Theatre Royal on 
the east. 

Rosral Palaces.— The Castle^ or *Palazzo Ma- 
dama (after Madame, the wife of the Duke of 
Savoia-Nemours, who lived in it) was begun In 
the thirteenth century, restored by Duke Amadeo 
II., in 1416, and Improved by Giuvara*s facade, 
1720. It contains several offices. Monument to 
the Sardinian army, inaugurated 1859. 

The *R<^al Palace (Palatto Seafe) H a large pile, 
built by Duke Carlo Emanuele 11^ from designs 
by Castellamonte, vrith gardens behind, towards 
the Dora. It contains an Armoury. Is the 
hall of the palace is the marble equestrian statue 
of Vittorio Amedeo I. On the staircase, a 
rich collection of Chinese and Japanese vases, 
battle-pieces by Azeglio, &c. ; portrait of the 
Duchess of Burgundy; busts of the Princess 
Clotilda and the Queen of Portugal; sculpture 
by Piffetti (in the grand apartments) ; handsome 
chandeliers; the royal library of 60,000 volumes 
and 1,800 MSB., including valuable historical 
letters (apply to the librarian for permissiooX 
and some 2.000 drawings, among which are 




tweoty by Da Vinci, several by Fra Bartolommee, 
Gorregf iOi Mc ; a collection of coina, carved ivory, 
enamela, Ae. 

The *Rofal Armovrp (Armeria Reale), formed 
1833, is a good collection, containing Eouuiuule 
Filiberto's arms, Prince Engene's sword and 
pistols, several interesting relics of the first 
Napoleon, and much ancient and modern armour 
ana weapons, very picturesquely arranged, some 
being equestrian figures. 

Cliurclies.— Close to the Palace, cm the west, 
and fronting the Piazza di S. Giovanni, is 

The *Cathtdr<A, or Dnomo, of S. Giovanni Battidta 
(John Baptist), on the site of a Lombard church of 
the seventh century. It waa rebuilt by Arch- 
biahop Rovere, 1498-1505, but has nothing strikhig 
about it. The portal is ornamented with pilasters, 
and the pillars are wreathed with vine leaves. It 
contains a marble tomb of a princess of Piedmont, 
with a statue of the patron saint, and the altar is 
very rich. In one of the six side ehapcls are Le 
Gros' St. Teresa Offering her Heart to God, and 
another of St. Teresa with the Palm of Mart>-r- 
dom. Behind the high altar, and lit by a stained 

?lass window above it. Is Gnarini*s Del Sudario 
Chapel, chiefly of black polished marble, with six 
windows in it, and a cupola on columns, at the 
top of which is a marble crown. Among the monu- 
ments is Revelli's of Queen Maria Adelaide (1 A5«), 
and another by Gnzzini. Though adorned with 
white marble monuments, bronzes, Ac, the dark 
colour of this chapel gives it a very sombre appear- 
ance. It takes its name from the Santo Sudario. 
or holy napkin, in an urn over the altar, which 
tfiey say waa brought from our Lord's tomb. 

Some good sculpture and specimens of the groat 
masters of painting arc to be found in the hundred 
and ten Churches and Chapels of Turin. Those 
most worthy of notice are the f(>llowtng : — 

CiMtolata Church, in the Via della Consolata, is 
lightly omanientcd, though irregular in its sluii>e. 
It includes an old chapel of the tenth century. In 
the Piazza, facing it, is an image of the Virgin, 
with a votive marble column placed here after the 
cholera appeared in 1835. Besides the ex-votos 
are two good kneeling figures (by Veda) of Queens 
Maria Theresa and Maria Adelaide. ''A poor man 

f»rayed to the Madonna to reveal to hhn some 
ucky numbers for the lottery: ho had a dream, in 
which, as ho imagined, she* suggested a trio of 
B umbers. He made his purchase accordingly. l»ut 
they turned out blanks. In revenge for this delu- 
sion, he attacked the image of the Madonna della 
Cousolazionc when borne in procession through 
the city to the Supergo, and mutilated it with a 
hatchet. The mob was enraged and would huvi* 
torn hiin to pitoes if he had not been rescued by 
the soldiers, and he was c«>nveyed as a madman to 
A lunatic asylum."'— Cimr>}» Wor<lt¥rorih. 

TtM Church of *& Fttippo Neri, near Plana 
CailinMiMS OD* of the largMt and most iraposing 
churches here; begun by Gnarini, whose vault 

fsll in 1715, and rebuilt tnm Gittvtrt*t deelcag. 
It has a fine portico of fluted eolumns, with punt- 
ings of the Saint in one of the chapels, and of tiie 
Assumption over the high altar, which is rich in 
precious stones, bas-reliefyt, and carvings. 

S. Lorenzo^ In Piazzo Castello, is eight-sided, with 
chapels round it, and a dome over the altar, coift- 
posed of two round cupolas, one above the othai, 
and painted with frescoes of the Four Evangeliets. 
A niarl)1c group of the Assumption Is worth notice. 
The church is a work of Qnarinl of tlie aaven- 
tceuth century. 

*Corpua Domini^ in the Piazza of that naoM, wuf 
built ill 1607, by Vitozzi. and decorated with a pr»- 
f union of ornament by Alfieri. That of S. Spirlto, 
near it, is said to occupy tha site of a Temple of 
Diana, and noted on account of Rousseau's abjuring 
Calvinism here hi 1728. 

Santa Tere$a, in Contrada di S. Teresa, was built 
] fi:!.*), by Duke Vittorio Amedeo 1., and has a later 
fapade by Aliberti (1764), with some alabaster 
groups, paintings, Ac. 

8. Carlo Borrmmeo, in Piazza S. Carlo, built 1619, 
by Duke Carlo Emanuele I., from Valperga's de- 
signs, is a Btrneture of some merk. Near h is 
Giuvara's Church of 8. CritHna, with a very correct 

Facing these churches, in the aquure, is 
Marochetti's bronze statue of Duke Emanuele 
Filiberto, with bas-reliefs of the battle of St. Quea- 
tin (which he won, 1557), and the treaty of Ghiteeu 
Cambresia (1558). 

The Jftfutits" Church was built 1377 from Pelfe- 
grinl's designs, and is very rich in marbles and 

S. Tommatto, one of the oldest in the city. 

8. Francisco de Paoh, by Pellegrini, is a good 
church, with a bust of Carnoll, the sculptor. 

Santa McnHa Mia Piazza, one of the most ancient, 
was restored, 1751, after Vlttone's designs. 

8. Dotnenico was founded 1214, and contafan 
Gnercino's Rosary. 

8. IMmazta has Guorcino's Christ in the Tomb. 

8. FranciMO was foun<Ied by St. Francis d'Ae- 
sifll. 1215, the facade being a work of Vittone. 

8. Rocco, with a dome, includes a front by Beria, 
of an octagon shape, on eight pillars; the interior 
by Lanfranchi. 

8anta Crocette, on the Plnerolo Road, has Tinto- 
retto's Descent from the Cross. 

*DftIa Gran Madrede Dio, across the Po Bri<Ige Is 
a modern church built in 1818 by Bonsignorl, to 
commemorate the return of the Royal House to 
Tnrin, in 1814, anti is a sort of miniature of the 
Pantheon, faced with marble, and having marlile 
pillars. Ac. Above it fs tho Capuchin Church of 
/I A/nnfi\ coniinanding a fine view of the city and 
the plain of the l*» ; bat a more extended prospect 
is obtained from tlie College of the 8up€rga, on a 
mountain beyond, one and a'half hour's walk to 
the east-north-east, but also accessible b«i xx^ 
PnnicuTar RatT. 

The Tcmpio Valdew^ c^x N voAsA^ r^eax^c^ A^' 



[Section 1. 

the Central railway station. A splendid Bynagogut^ 
in the Moorish style, with a massive tower, was 
opened 1871. 

Palaces. —At Paiatxo Carignano^ a large semi- 
circular pile of cat brick, built bv Ouarini, the 
Italian Cnamber of Deputies held their sittings 
till 1865. The rooms now contain the very good 
Natural History Collection (open, free, 1 to 4X 
formerly in the Academy of Sciences. 

Palazzo di CiUii is the Town Hall. There are 

•ereral statues in front of it. 

Palazzo Birago di Borgaro was built by Giuvara. 

Palazzo Priero has an excellent picture gallery 

(prirate). Palazzo Carlo Felice is near the Genoa 

niilway station. 

Thaatras.— *7A0a/r« Royal (Teatro Regio) or 
Opera House, in Palazzo Castello, was built by 
Alfieri, and is the third largest in Italy, with every 
requisite for the public safety and comfort. Depth 
from curtain to back of boxes, 90 feet ; depth of 
stage, 100 feet; width of the curtain, 50 feet. 

Teatro VittoiHo Emanuele, Via Rossini; operas, 
ballets, Ac. 

' Teatro Carignano, in that Place, supported by 
•oUimns, is used for comic operas, ^c. 
- Academy of Sciences, comer of Piazza Carig- 
nano, contains the Museum of Antiquities, and the 
Picture Galleries. The building, by Guarini(1674), 
was formerly the Jesuit College. 

1.— Cabinet of Antiquities (Museo di Antidiit^l), 
Egyptian, Grecian, Roman, and Etruscan, besides 
one of 11,000 models arranged by countries. 
Among the marbles are Cupid sleeping in the Lion's 
Skin, Head of Antinous, a bronze Minerva, a 
mosaic (Orpheus and bis Lyre) found atStampace, 
1766, many Roman and other bronzes, vases found 
at Potenzo, busts of JSsop, Julian, Ac. 

TLho*Egyplian Mtueum, founded on the purchase 
of Drovettrs collection in 1823, by Carlo Felice, is 
very rich and celebrated, having, among other 
objects, statues of Osymandias (15 feet high), 
Thothmes I. and II., Amenophis II. (or Memnon), 
Rameses II. (or Sesostris), in granite or basalt, 
also Egyptian painthigs, ornaments, domestic 
articles, mummies, papyri, MSS. on llr^n (ono 
being part of a cbronulufjry, and a lifit of nboitt lUl 
kings), and the Isaic Table (Table of IsIm), a 
bronze covered with hieroglyphics of doubtful 
character, supposed to have been manufactured in 
the reign of Adrian. Champollion idcntiflcd several 
of the statues here in his visit, 1824. The celebrated 
Turin papyrus is in a room on the secund floor. 

2.—* Gallery of Paintings (open, 9 to 4) in fifteen 
rooms ; chiefly of the Italian and Flemish schools. 
The rooms are named after the principal painters 
and scliools — as the Piedmont Room, Raphael 
Room, <kc ; and the Hpccimens number over 510. 
The best arc in Room xiii. 

Among them are the following:— 
G. Ferrari's St. Paul; Lowering of the Cross; 

Christ in the Clouds; St. Peter. 
Giovenone's Resurrection ; Virgin and Child. 
Raphael's Madonna di Tenda, the original of which 
If at Munich, 

Guide's St. ('atherine. 

Guercino's Virgin and Child ; Prodigal Son. 

G. Romano's Assumption ; God (he Father. 

P. Veronese's Finding of Moses; Christ and Mag- 

Bassano's Rape of the Sabines. 

C. Dolci's Virgin. 

Gentileschi's Annunciation. 

Domenichino's Agriculture, Astronomy, and Archi- 

Titian's Paul III.; Journey to Emmaus; Adora- 
tion of the Shepherds. 

Velasquez's Philip IV. 

Albano's Birth of Venus; Forge of Vulcan ; Ceres, 
Juno, and Flora; Four Elements, with god- 
desses, nymphs, cupids, Ao.. 

Vandyck's Charles First's Children ; Virgin and 
Child; Princes of Savoy. 

Lely's Cromwell and his Wife. 

Holbein's Luther and his Wife; Calvin. 

Rubens' Holy Family; Portrait of himself. 

Rembrandt's Rabbi ; Burgomaster. 

Ravonstein's Portraits. 

Wouverman's Battle-piece. 

Mabus's Christ on the Cross. 

G. Dow's Children Blowing Bubbles. 

Memling's Christ's Passion. 

Honthorst's Samson and the Philistines. 

P. Potter's Cows in a Field. 

Snyders* Hunting the Stag. 

Borgognone's Battle-pieces. 

A. DUrer's Lowering of the Cross. 

C. Lorraine's Landscapes. 

H. Vernet's Carlo Alberto (1834). 

There are many portraits and landscapes, &c., hy 
Claude, G. Poussln.Teniers, Vandyck, Ac, besides 
battlepieces and paintings on porcelain, by Con- 

University, in the Vih dl Po, founded 1465, 
and revived by Vittorio Amedeo in 1710, numbers 
about 2,000 students, under about eighty professors. 
It is a large, well-planned building, with an 
arcadod court, ornamented with bas-reliefs, and 
inscriptions fixed in the walls; forming part of a 
Lapidarlan Museum. Its Library numbers 200,000 
volumes, and 2,000 MSS., of which last 170 arc 
Hebrew, 370 Greek, 1,200 Latin, 220 Italian, 12) 
French. Some of its palimpsests have been deci- 
phered by Peyron , among the MSS. are Theodoret's 
Commentaries on the minor Prophets, an illumi- 
nated Hiblo (from the sack of Rome, by the Con- 
stable Bourbon), an old Testament of the twelfth 
century, Hede's Commentary on Luke of the same 
date, and the Imitatitni of JeAus Christ (called the 
Arona MS.) on vellum, beautifully ornamented 
with nilnlntures and paintings, «fec. Gardens. — 
Oiardino Ilt-ale, near the Royal Palace; near this 
are the Zoological Gardens; Oiardino della Citta- 
della, near the middle of the ViaGar"ibaldi; Nuovo 
Oiardino Pubblico, near the Po, reached by the 
Corso Vittorio Emanuele II., and containing the 
Botanical Garden and the Castle of II ValentioOi 
used by the Polytechnic School. 

Section 1.] TDUK— nNiviBgiTT, 

Tht Alb4rtiiia Jcadamf af rim Aril. In the VJs I 

] IkTgt Hh;1U1 at St. John tbe Bipliil. 

B«hinil tbeRojFil Tbealrt is the RafalMIMtirr 

TIlMcIo Amedee II,, wltb ■ riding Kbogt, Ac., 
FbUharmDnk Soctety. ichoola for the Ulad, [or 
HOipltBla, ^— Amone- tfaeM are the follow- 

lo; IllK, 

mirblMor VlttoTlDAmldw making blirow, ind 
tho Birth «]iil Anuinpllon of the Vlriln. with 

b]F Michael Aneelo. In the gallery ai the urilege', 
from which the best view la obtained, are portrjJtl 

I-opei ai (ar back as St. I'eter and Jeiiu Chrlil. 

•n enatonitcal school, founded bv Catlo Alberto ; 
It U It. Immeoae bnlldlnK, In tho Contrada del 

(1»72), fur aoldloia. (tc; Manlcoulco. or hoapllsl 
for the louiie (1T28) ; Bpedale dtlla Maternity 

Curltii lor chUdren and the aged, ln'tbe Ciiiitrnda 


I ion-ln-1a«. Huirlcs (Itcontiii 
I Dolce); atSliiiiluigtr' 
I off), hulUbyGlnvainaDdAllleii 
at Monrallerl (p«eo V\ Rivol 
Rldln; School la al La Vcnaria ( 

] The illmale of Turin [s hot ii 

; Meudicll)> Refuge, ' 

hi ISia. ag ( Brillsh 

rerti Ktwer-ahaped bnlUlIng 
•lilic,Bol(M from the top. 
ar the riaiia 


Tn the Cematery at the Can 
■re harlod. 
The •BnpHga la 4 nillei diit 

aeTtTa1ycars'banl-hnient.lnl813. CoantC.Dalbo 
followed Dp the efforts of Oiohanl Iti hltSpera^ra 
itlltUa, lud by the lUmvlmrtilo (Reinmietloii) 
newsp.iper, aniited by CuTour, Massimo d'Aietllu, 

1, was Prboe MInli 

Imporunea to wfant otiierwlae would be a small 

an M> ulied np togelfaer, that It Is dllHouli to tell 
wb«n one bia^u ibdllMottisr ends."— ftnnwcn. i 

smorlal tablet. Hadledln ISSI. 
The coiuiiiy lomia TinNii vuiia.* 

BftA3>lHi^W*0 ItALt^ 

fJStctum 1, 


Torln to EiumoIiio, Kont Cdnli, Siuui, 
and MdBt Ooi^m. 

By nil f Sum (opened 1854) in two hours, 
■•wn(UngtlieRiv«rD(M«RipRria, or ancient Zhfrai 
Mimr. The stations are as under:— 


Borgone ^ 22 

[Branch to Uardon- 
nechia, for Mont 
Cenls Tunnel, Mo- 
dane, AcJ] 



to Bassoleno is ths 



Cottegno M 4f 

Alpigaano ^ 7 

Kosta .^„ 10 

Arigliana 18 

iUnbrogio 153 

Condove ...^ I7i 

8. Ijitonino 19} 

The line from Turin 
line of the Mont Cenis railroad. 

Vmu: AlpigiuuiO (fttat.), where the rail 
leares the plain, is 

RivoLi, a small town (population, 6,438), with a 
CMtle in which King Vlttorio Amedeo died in 1782, 
after his abdication. Kail from Turin, 7i miles, in 
M minutes. 

AmlMrQglO (Stal), a little walled place, with 
• population of 1,300, and an eight-sided church. 
lUe old Convent and Castle of Sacra di S. Michele 
are seen on Mont Picchiriano, about 2,000 foot 
high. The castle was restored by Carlo Alberto. 
There are granite quanies near this. 

BlUtOtono (Btat.) Here the Mont Cenis 
Tunnel rail comes in, vui the direct line across 
France. rSeo lioutc 5, in Jiradshaw's Continental 
€htide.) It passes Mcana, CMomonte, Salber- 
trand, OiUx, to Bardennechia. 

Subs, (Stat.) A small city (Hotel de la Poste), 
population, 4,100, at the junction of the Mont 
Cenis and Mi>at Gen^vre carriage routes, in a 
picturesuuc liullow, on the site of the Roman 
Sigutio, founded by Augustus. A smalltriumphal 
arcii, nearly 50 feet high, dedicated to him in the 
year b.c. 8, remains. The Cathedral of St. Just is 
of the twelfth oont-iry. Near it is the ruhied fort of 
Brunctta, denioliiOicd by the French in 1798. The 
rocks here, *' exposed to the full force of the sun, 
support many plants which are rarely seen so far 
from the Mediterranean." (Ball'8 Guide to the 
Weitem Alps.) 

From Susa, over Mont Gen^vre to Briao^n, is 
84 Knglish mlies. By diligence from Susa iu 
8 hours. The dUtances are : — 

Mont Genbvre ...... 26| 

Brian9on ............ S3f 


Exilles 7J 

Oulx 16 

Cesana 20 

At ExUles is a fort, which commands this route 
into Italy. Population, 1,944. 

OnlX (Stat) is 8,514 feet high, at the junction 

of the Bardonnechia with the Dora. Population, 

1,627. Ascending the former river you come 

tf tiM Tillage of BardOOneohla (Stat), near 

9K6/eA /0 tJie soatinrn ten&ixuif of th« iiont CwU 

TmmMi ikiHmgk ibt digm, 9 asilMloiiff, t* Mo«ue, 
0MipleC«d iB DcMBster. 1871 . 

Cmaka (populatlea, £88), «boat 888 feat hie^ar, 
wbare the road from FctteaCr eUe cod PlaMKdo folttt 
with the paths from Serri^res, Ac. 

About 4 hours north-west is Mont Chabert«n. 
10,258 feet high. 

Following the rood, you come to the pass of 
Bourg Mont Oenhre, on the French border, 6,560 
feet high, with a 4<»uiuie. llienee the road (con- 
structed by Napol«oa,ln 1607) descends theraDcy 
of the Durance to Urn picturesfue old fortited 
town of 

Briaafion. (See Brmdthaw's HendrBott U 


Turin to Pinerolo and the Waldttaaes* or 
VaudoU CountTF. 

By rail to Pinerolo, 23| miles, and Torre Pdlice, 
lOi miles further. Tlw stations are :— 

Miles. MUes. 

Sangone .m... 5 Pischia 18 

Nictiellino... ........... 6^ Riva 2I| 

Candiolo 9} Pinerolo 28 

None 124 Torre Pellioe 84 

Abrasca 14| j 

Mi6helllllO (Stat) is near the royal forest and 
hunting scat of ^upimigi (tramway from Turin), 
on the river Sangone. 

AlraBCa (Stat.); from here there is a branch 
line to Vlgone, continued to SalOZZO (page 8), 
and later extended to Cuneo (page 8). 

Pinerolo (8tat.\ or Pignerol in French, onc« 
the terminus. A garrison town and the capital of 
a province of the same name. Population, 17,145. 

Hotel: Corona GroHsa. 

It has a cathedral; a church dedicated to St. 
Maurice, with some frescoes by Pozzi; factories of 
silk, ^. ; and is overlooked by the remains of a 
state prison, in which the Man with the Iron Mask 
was shut up. The line is now continued through 
San Secondo, Capclla Moreri, Bricherasio (branch 
to Barge), Blblana, and Lusema to 

La Torre, La Tottr, or Torre Police. It con- 
tains a liandsome church, college, or grammar 
school, hospital, and other institutions of late 
date; founded by the exertions of Archdeacon 
Gilly, General Bcckwith, and other friends of the 
Vaudoia. //ofe/; Del'Ours. This is the little capital 
(population H,329) of the community, numbering 
about 25,000, in thirteen parishes in the valleys, 
on the slope of the mountains, from which they 
derive their names — Vandois in French (the lan- 
gUH^i^e of tiieir service), Valdesi in Italian, Vald^ 
hi their own dialect, (compare Latin VallU), and 
meaning dwellers in the valleys. The valleys art 
those of the Lucema or Peilice, wliich rises near 
Monte Vise, and runs to the (Jlusone; the Peros* 
or Clusone, which runs to the I'o; and San Mar- 
tino, or Gtermanasca, which rises in Col d*AUrles ; 
a space about 20 miles each way. The prln- 
cipfU Tillages, next to La Torre (or La T^wr 4e 

BbnUi S.] 

TBUn, FoB&i 


ll»lli0Iitl,M«. The 11 
■raged bfttaePipacr.Ra 


'hDoi! 1 Torin to Balnno and Konto mo, OuiM, 
Batlu oTTAldlerl, Ool dl Tend!, and HIM. 

g(^ Church <K Sumo. ItlieBlui- TnHkroUo (Btat), popdUtlon, l,»4i, vbar* 

SoT« dovD TFlhar antnr cu I 

Bon hit mU « cCt Inuii upll c 

ThMK "O.Bittbitn.buraiiul 

()( L« Torre, wi.h .lews of Um) 1i<% 

BobUo, whlcb i) iM» furl >l 

(pcmdMion. 4,6«). Al Cul de ]< 

nadcbrCrcHnwell. HcrvHenrvA 
ibeFnnch lDie6»tO. Vnau hnm 
to Col JsliHi. which coniniiiniln 
prnapect vf UonIC VIho. 

FrucalSB, on the Cluiuiic. it ii 11 nj 


LbjC lUmc. chicfl)' gncL*fi, nilh iDun 
■erpantlne. Several phskcs meet 

to lA Torrt, through Val Amrrot^ 

a Uaskipcit. In which Canjlnil Pacri wi> eunfinrd 
by Kilpi^m. 180(-13. Rr ^cn on mfiint uf 11 

. me (SUU. ponuliUDP, S,M4,n*ir 

OUIXIMBO, un the Po, whfch gtvei s dnkedom 

ibc titni b uf b Iniica 1'nlnH>tog'o< , of Moutf errs t . 

Cumwnola (Mat.) a town, ohm of Im. 
ioi?Jir™"of wM^b Ltu'm ■ clJcl^Siw J"o 

inien.ifalo F.'fiBiioiie, > loldier nf fortuno, who 
Lvan bom a BWlne-her{L and bEcauie one of th« 
liral «e>icnilB In Ital)-. Aflcr Hniiii Pblllp Vli- 
conli. I)Qke uf MUmi. »ud Ilie Vcnvlllli Bepubllc, 

BacconlXl (fltatl _ PopoHtlon, S.IM- A 

CavallennaCTlnra Mtat.) FopniaKon. S.««. 

[Here a branch «ll of 7 i.illcs kad> to 

Bli. or Brit «t VlttWla (fltAt.l-A town „t 

o AlliB ail 

I Aleut 

coal d*Xr"'Hi11nd%rvniiil(anla, which 
imi'd with nnc bnUdlnra, l«viD( hii dwh 



toftADSHAVs Vtktn. 

[Section 1, 

of these two places), Nlella Ceva, Sale. St. 
Giuseppe de Cairo (where the line from 
Alessandria through i^cqul comes in— See Route 
4), SantnariO, and Savoua (page 21), which is 
reached through a tunnel in the Apennines.] 

SaTlgllano (Stat.), on the Macra. Popula- 
tion, 17,411. A town containing two churches, a 
theatre, the Taffini Palace (painted by Molineri or 
Carracino), and a triumphal arch erected when 
Vittorio Amadeo married Christine of France. 

[Here the branch line of 10 miles turns off, vtd 
Lagnasco, to 

SalUIZO (Stat.) Population, 15,641. 

Hotel: Corona Grossa. 

It is the capital of a province, formerly the 
Marquisate of Saluzzo. and a fief of Dauphin^, 
which Henry IV. exchanged for La Bressa, &c. 
The old castle, now a penitentiary, commands a 
fine view. The Cathedral, built 1480, was re- 
stored in 1844, and contains pictures by Mulinari, 
a native. Monument to Silvio Pellico, born 
here 1788. From this you ascend the Po, to 

Paesana, 14 miles, a fine spot, 1,778 feet high, 
whence a path over the hills leads to La Torre, in 
the Vaudols country. Population, 7,465. The 
scenery improves at San Chiaffieddo, where the 
September festa attracts a large gathering, and 
also at 

CrlSBOlO (population, 1,025), 8 miles, the highest 
village in the valley of the Po (4,544 feet), and a 
good station for making the ascent of Monte Viso. 
The scenery is of on Alpine character. Within a 
short distance are La tialma di Rio Martino, a 
celebrated stalactite cavern, in the dolomite; the 
Col del Poreo, 9,604 feet high ; the Piano del R^, 
the largest of the head streams of the Po; and 
Monte Meidassa, 10,991 feet high. 

The Col della Tsaversettr, 7} miles from Cris- 
■olo, on the shoulder of Monte Viso, in the boundai*y 
between Dauphin^ and Piedmont. It commands 
a view as far as Milan in fine weather. Below the 
crest is a remarkable Tunnel, cut in 1480 by the 
Marquis of Saluzzo, to open an easier communica- 
tion with Danphind, at the height of 9,500 feet. It 
in generally filled with snow down to July. From 
this point there is an easy descent by the old 

Saved way, dow^n the valley of the Guil, to Mont 
dauphin (Sis miles) and Embrun. Abri^s, the first 
village m France, is five houi's from the foot of the 

Monte Viso, the ancient Mons Vesulus, in the 
Cottian Alps, rises tier on tier, to the height of 
about 12,640 feet. It was thought to be inaccessible 
till ascended by two members of the Alpine Club, 
in 1861, and again in 1862; in both cases from the 
Val di Vallanta, on the south side, above Sampeyre. 
The whole range of the Western Alps from Pro- 
vence to Monte Rosa is visible. In 1839, Professor 
J. D. Forbes made the complete tour of the moun- 
tain in a hard day's walk of 14 hours; a most 
interesting excursion. (See Ball's (hiide to the 
Western Alps.)] 
r^^nejctsiaiion io-S*yl^Jitno,on the main line, it 

Fosaano (Stat.), on the Stura, and so called 
from Fonte Sano. Population, 18,585. It has 
remains of a castle and old walls. 

[Hence there is a railway to Mondovi, and over 
the hills to Savona, on the Riviera di Ponenteof 
the Mediterranean. 

MondOTl (Stat.), on the branch rail from 
Carru to Cuneo (below), is a city (pop., 17,902), 
and capital of a province, l,93()ft. above sea, 
celebrated for a French victory in 1796. It has a fort 
in the old town, or Piazzi, with a large Cathedral. 
The fine cavern of Bossea, near here, accessible by 
carriage to Frabosa, is much visited. 

Ceva (Stat.), on the Tanaro. Population, 5,420. 
Hence by wayof Mllle8lmo(about 1,550 feet high), 
on the Bormida, where the French beat the Ans- 
trians, 1796, and Altare, on the north slope of the 
Apennines, and Cadibona, at their summit, yon 
come to Savoua, on the sea, 80 kils. from Mille- 
simo. (See Route 9). Savona may be now reached 
by railway direct from Turin (as above). From 
Ceva there is a way, vid, Garezza (13 miles), and 
Ormea (7 miles), to the Col de Nava (2,480 feet 
high), and thence to Pieve (18 miles), down the 
Arrosia, to 

Oneglia (20 miles), on the Riviera. (See 
Route 9).] 

From Fossano, ollowing the main line, up the 
Stura, the only station of importance is 

CTTNEO, or Conl (Stat.), 

Hotels: Barra di Ferro. 

Hotel de^a Source, BrigaMarittima, near Cuneo. 
Comfortable Hotel, situated 5 hours' drive from 
Vintimiglia or Cuneo. See Adrt. 

A bustling town (population, 12,013), at the ter- 
minus of the line, and in the further corner of the 
valley of the Po, strongly fortified down to the battle 
of Marengo, when its walls were razed by the French, 
1800. The Maritime Alps and Monte Viso are in 
view. A branch to MoudOVl (above) wns opened 
1888. There is a short lino to Roccadebaldi. 
Near Cuneo is the Hydropathic Institntiuu of Val 
Pesio. From Cuneo, it is 15 miles to the 

Baths of Valdierl, up the Gesso, 4,226 feet high. 
An omnibus runs thither daily. The accommoda- 
tion consists of an ^tablisscment de bains, well 
appointed, frequented mostly by the Piedmontese. 
Thewatersarc hot and cold, sulphureous, and saline, 
but the most singular curative agent Is a crypto- 
gamic plant, which grows in the hot springs at a 
temperatureof 135°, and forms a gelatinous mass, 
very useful in hot a|)plications to the body for in- 
ternal complaints, old wounds, ttc. The Gesso di 
Entracque wns a favourite resort of Victor Knunan- 
uel, for chamois hunting; and many beautiful and 
rare flowers are seen. 

Rail from Cuneo to Limone, 20 miles, in \\ to 
2 hours. Thence diligence to Nice in about 
16 hours. 

The first place is Boves, then 

BorgO S. Dalmazzo, a small town (population, 
4,242), at the foot of the mouptain. Thence to 

honle 4.] 
BoblUnte, 1 


Umonfl. at lb 

S.SOO tta ibove 

1 TBNIH, ilTI, 

From Turin (ptgr I), ilie first aullon It 

Moncallerl (Btat.), population, inci 
Tro&rello (Stat), popmation, i.aii. wc 

, Chlarl(popiilBI1an.ia,JM>,wltb ItglBrgsOottilt 
Cburcta o( Saiila Uiiis deili ScaJa. An old place, 
witb Bilk anil cotton hctoriu] 

,' ABtl <Btat.), the anolOBl Sails fmnpete. on U» 

TeniUt (popnUtlon, l.TE 

OUndoU or Gospel, ne 


Among Ibebuildlngiate thelargcOolhlcCatbc- 


13*8, Bllh palntlnfra by Csrtool, Poi.i. *c. ; the 

- tt" ■"■""- 

Tnrin M Al«Ba«iidrla «nd Qenoft, 

loniallen 6 


a and 



Kruirarolo SS] 

Feiimno <Btat), oi 



nepartjoftheEnLperorPredci 1 

bnllt Iiae. bjr Vlllorlo Amodeo II. re 
for(lflc!«llon>»i!dDd hsS»v'\»av-^v>'vn' 
by tht Treats otN\«sn».. '^»^*"-'™ 


bramhaVb If lir. 

[Section 1. 

it often Iii«i4at«dby the raio, and ou be pat under 
weter by tbe tlaleeeef tbe Citadel. A new eorered 
biMge oroteee the Tcnaro. The Citadel, like the 
houses, Is built of brick, and its ramparts serve as 
a promenade, for the Apiril and Oetober Mrs, when 
a good deal of business is done. Considerable pains 
have been taken to strenfirthen this fortress. The 
oUier buildings are a Cathedral (Parodies statue of 
8t. Joseph) ; S. Lorenso^s Church, with its paint- 
ings by thePozzI; Town House, Theatre, Hospital, 
and the Ghilino Palace, belonging to the King, 
and erected by Alfieri. 

** I chanced to pass (says Count Arrivabene) 
through Alessandria, so taM of glorious reeollee> 
tlons for a Bonaparte, ontlie day on which Louis 
Napoleon made his entry In ISM. Triumphal 
arches had been thrown across the streets. At the 
gate of Porta Marengo, which leads to the famous 
field of battle, made illnstrions by the First Consul, 
an arch was areoted, on which was emblazoned 
In tri-ooloured letters,— 7b the deaeendimt e/ the 
CSm^neror ofUarmg^. Victor Emnumnel had gone 
to meat the Emperor. The gay and busy appear- 
ance of Alessandria at that time contrasted 
staignlarly with the stem severity of its old 
palaces and half decayed mecUftval churches." 

Ratasfei, the statesman, was bom at this town, 
and a br(Miee statue of him was erected in 188S. 


The site of the' battle which Bonaparte lost and 
won, 14th June, I6M, is 2^ miles east, on the wide 
plain of S. GiuUano, dotted with willows. At three 
o'clock, he was beaten by the Austrians, and ibcir 
eld General, Mclas, had come to Alessandria after 
sending off news of his victory; when, at thiscrlsis, 
Dessaix arrived with C,000 Iresh troops, attacked 
the enemy, and, thouj^h mortally wounded, turned 
the day. Kellerman. by a brilliant cfaaife of his 
cavalry, cut the AuRtriaii infantry in two, drove 
their cavalry in tlifrht to the Borailds, and took 
Zach, who was left in authority, lu-isoncr. The 
total Austrian loss wss 12,d00 ; and that of the 
French, 7,000; but the Convention of Alessandria, 
a few days later, put them in possession of all 
North Italy. A buUUinfr has been erected on the 
site, which contains a Museunj of every object of 
interest found on the field of battle. 

For the rails to Novara, Pavia, and Milan, and 
to Piacensa see page 11, and Routes 14 and 15. 

[From AlOMMUkdri&t a branch rail ascerds the 
Bormida, following the track of the Via Aurelia 
Poethtima, to Acqui and 8avona. The stations 

are: — 


Borgoratto 7 

8eszt 10 

Btrevi 17* 

Acqui » SU 

Font! M 


Spigno 38 

Rocchetta 47| 

S.Giuseppe de Cairo 534 

Santuario 62 

Savona 65| 

ACQUI (Stat), 

On the Bormida, is the Roman Acqua Statidla^ so 

called from the tribe of StatieUl, whose town it 

fTMs and /i-oa tb0 boi miner/i} spriogs which are 

still found nsefhl In curing gout, rfaeomatism, 
paralysis, Ac. Population, 11,297. There are some 
arches of an aqueduct, with a cathedral of the 
twelfth eentnnr, and a theatre. 

In tbe middle ages Acqui was the capital of 
Upper Montferrat ; a district rich in com, wine, 
silk, cattle, Ac., and giving name to the country 
dance, called Monfredlns. 

Passing Bistagno, where the two heads of the 
Bormida join, follow the road for 28 miles, to 

DefO, where Bonsparte beat the Allies, in 1796, 
after deflsating them at Montenotte^ near the Col of 
that name, higher up, over which the old road to 
Sarona used to pass, until superseded by a more 
easy one, constracted In IROO, between Altare and 
Cadibona. By this the descent of the Apennines Is 
made to the Riviera and SavOSA, about 25 miles 
from Dego. 

But the most direct way to Savona, now. Is by 
the rail as above, wlilch falls into the main line 

from Turtn, at B. Oiuseppe de Cairo (Stat), 

as in Route 3. For Savona see page 21.] 

Leaving Alessandria, the next station on the 
main line, is 

Ftngarolo (Stat.), population, 2,494, near 
which is the once richly endowed Bcucdictiue 
Abbey of Bosco, with sculptures by M. Angclo; 
but the country Is flat and dull. 

Novl (Stat.) Under the north side of the 
Apennines; a retreat for the Genoese merchants 
in autumn, conimsnding from iti old tower and 
country houses a fine prospect of the distant Alps. 
Po)>ulation, 6,46S. 

Hotel: La Slrcna. 

Here the French were defeated by the Austrians 
and Russians, in 1799, and General Joubert killed. 

From Ifovl, before the rnilway was made, the 
old road went ovcrlhc Llgurian Apennines, by the 
Col dclln Bochetta, past Gavl and Voltaggio. and a 
sucoessitm of gorges and ravines. Tlie higbcfst 
part of the ('ol is aI)out 2,.'>00 feet above tbe level 
of the Mediterranean. It was crossed by the 
French in 1790. The Valley of Polccverra, 
between this and the hcs, a wild and desolate s])ot 
till reclahned by the Genoese, is now covered with 
gi-ovcM of chestnut, ilex, arbutus, vineyards, 
gardens, and country houses, though it is apt to 
suffer from floods. The railway from Novi pjissos 

Serravalle (Stat.), and begins to enter the 

ArQUata (Stat.), population, 2,795, with ruins 
of a larjrc castle, lmpoi)ing:ly situated. Here the 
tunnels or puUcrici), and viaducts, for penetrating 
the Apoilllines, commence. The scenery is very 
romantic. As far as Ronco the line passes a 
succession of embankments, tunnels, und viaducts 
over torrents and gorges. The Scrivia is crossed 
and ro-croHsed, and there are eleven tunnels in all 
between Ronco and (lenoa. The rise from Aless- 
andria to Arquata is 293 yards. The fall to 
Genoa is considerably greater. 

Jsola del Cantone (Stat), with a fineviadnct. 

Ihronfh ih« gr».t tonnBl, 
1*ih I. over nn nllci loog. 

etomnli. Hlifiuijieeo "Id 

B. Qlnllrtta (n«t.), 

Brad (ttftt.), pcipnUUiMi, «.<I0, »n4 

BtndeUa (SUt.), popaliHrm, s,«», 

Arena PofBtaU.popoltit Ion. t,4M. 

BU HICOU OlAL), nur vUidl Hunllwl lift- 

tprlnc. Trflh > innny, doodle., sky. 

1. Pl«d'*r«ift(«»t.> Poputjiiion, sa,6fK). 

A1»niIioiii«c]iarcb,tbeSpLiiola,^siill, udoUiei 

pHicei. »nd a lDl»cco ficlory. Then by the 

SMdiwlb Ul 

Pl«™z« dol 

C»»"*tB"> 291 

Tnrlm to G&lnMO, TtrMlll, 
Vtntit., Kagvnta, mud MUul 


Bnindiuo -.. I 


I nnond In 1831. 

Montfcrrat, and ■ ttrong mJIKur i. __ 
Ibe ucleiit Caiale, or rortified hODH of i)i 
from vhlcb It Ret' "■ mme, and thfi 

nnond In 1831. Kfn It > nry incltnt Tellom 
M8, of the Ompeli In Lilln. bj Enublui, BLriiop 
of TctHllI In the fourth cenluryi It ii l^und In 
•llTsr. The ctiorclua of St. Criitofon). Simli 
Calerina, md 8. Bemiraino, h»T« fregcocs by 

The old Chnrch of Suta Maria M.gElore hu • 

le in ,lH.iwi,t, ,Flnr=nd ri«. An.™ e^H" 

jnrioul motnlc pafemonti 8. Andrea la nn old 

Lombirdo-Qolhi., building, founded in lll».22, by 

lie bolldingi Bre tho Duomo, or CMhedral. hi 

Cardinal BlwhleH, Papal legile to King John of 

LombnrJ .lyle of the tfnth cenlnrj-, wiih 0. 

Englan<l, wllh a detached bell tower, or ampanlle. 

The dMrs and "Indowj are ronnd-headed. hm the 


ported ar,h appear. In the nave. U i. .;id to b. 

nearly the oldest specimen of this alyle in Italy, 

at lunib la here: > thuire, prsretlum, coUeiri? 

and tohaie bean designed by an Englishman- 

lOdie old pilacea.lntludlng Delia Valle. »hicn 

»ine o[ 0. Bomano'i Utteon. Ratlwayi \„ 

leLll.VBlenii. Ai<[,Uaitar*, Hlian, Pnvia, nnd 

town house, theatre, large old hospital: ihoTiazlnl, 

Motta, Aslgllann, and Galllnam palace., with 

line fromCaMie, acroMlhePo, thronnh fiat, 


°l™""<iw' "" **'^' '" "'''**™ (PopnU- 

I"'86a, aj early aa the eih of March, General 

, I Oynlal.lbeAus 

Mortara to Vlgevano (populilion, ifi.'ilW)! I "umfroiu Iruopii here, on the right bank of the 

which has a Gothic eaihedral and aldcnatle, "'I*: 'noa threat^lng the lineof IhaDora-Bnltea 

b«rdy: thence to Milatt. ' I ""d Qatllnara. with the intention of gelling pos- 

Ahont lOmllBsaouth-weBlof Casale.on theiln-. | '"'"i™ »' Tnrln by a coup rfe rnaf n. In this ihcy 

HODOalVO (Bt&t.), 

In power, and toaiiaw.r Ilic lelegrnplilc deipalchei 
lent to him daily from all |iart* i.l luly. fie rose 

IS. <SeeBoule7.) 
VEKOBLLI <8tat.l 

previous night. It was Ulfficult to Uke the position 

jayoneli and thi Aurtilana were rouled, and eoni- 
itiled to retreat on Bobblo and Horlara, with the 
ois of two guns and many killed and wonndod. 

nnhaalthy rli 

The flBome, bolit'brP.''Erbliwr'ln''Uia' itTlwrnh 

le matm, bollt by P. BlMOdl In Uie aixteenlh BalsoU .""; in! I vilan.a g.i 

'f^. wllh . yeitlbul, added by AMarl, waa ! Casale (see above).. Uj I Aleiirdrii":::::::;;.' U 

Boute 5.] 



At Valenza it joins the line from Milan to Ales- 

After passing BorgO VerceUi ^Stat.), popu- 
Jation 3,552, and Ponzana (Stat.), in a wide 
rice level, in full view of Monte Rosa, we reach 

NOVARA (Stat.), 
On a hill by the River Agogna. Population, 32,689. 

Hotas: Italia: della Villa. 

This ancient town, the Roman Novaria^ once 
fortified by 2 miles of ramparts, still retains some 
remnants of its walls and towers. The Dnomo 
was an early Lombard building, on the site of 
a basilica or temple, but it has been much altered 
in the course of restoration. The portico which 
replaces the atrium contains several inscriptions; 
in the vestibule is the monument of C. Solari, or 
Gobbo. The baptistery is eight-sided and crowned 
with a dome. "Within are Thorwaldsen's Angels (at 
the altar), and paintings by G. Ferrari, Bordone, 
Ac. St. Gaudenzio's Church, rebuilt in the tenth 
century by P. Pellegrini, has frescoes, &c., by 
Ferrari, Caccia, &c. At S. Pietro al Rosario and 
S. Marco are works by Procaccini and others. 

The Palazzo di Giustizia was built 1346. The 
Bellini, Leonardi, Giovanetti, and Falcone Palaces 
are worth notice. Other buildings are the large 
market; the theatre, near Marchesrs statue of 
Carlo Emmanuele III; a large Hospital; and 
Statues of Carlo Alberto and Cavonr. 

Bossi, the historian, and Prina, Napoleoii's min- 
ister at Milan (who was murdered, 1814), were 
natives of Novara. It is memorable for the battle 
of 23rd March, 1849, in which Radetzky, with 
80,000 men and 200 guns, defeated Charles Albert, 
whose forces numbered only about half as many, 
with the loss of 10.000 killed and wounded. This 
defeat led to the king's abdication the same even- 
ing, in the presence of his sons and generals, in 
favour of Victor Emmanuel, then Duke of Savoy. 
He left the country immediately with only one 
servant, and returned to Oporto, where he died 
13th July, 1849. Several of his predecessors hiid 
abdicated in like manner, among whom were Vic- 
tor Amadous, iu 1730 ; Charles Emmanuel IV., in 
1802 ; and Victor Emmanuel I., in 1829. 

It is also celebrated for the victory gained by the 
Sardinians and French Zouaves over the Austrians, 
31st May, 1859, which obliged them to retreat into 

From Novara a line(- pcned 1883) passes through 
Fara, Romagnano, Grignasco, &c., to VaraUO 
(page 17). Another short line runs to BustO- 
ArsislO, about 4 miles from Qallarate on the 
Milan-Laveno line. 

[The line from Mortara, Ac, falls in at Norara, 
and is continued to Arona, 23 miles further, see 
Route 8. From Novara, Lake Orta may be reached 
by a branch rail through CrOZZano. This line is 
continued through dravellona-Toce to Domo 
d'OssolA, see page 19.] 

The next station to Notei a is 
- Trecate (population 8^014), a small town ; after 
whkhth^ Ticino, the old boundary of Sardinia aiid 

Austrian Lombardy, is crossed by a viaduct, not 
far from the Ponte Nuovo Bridge for the post road, 
1,000 feet long, on eleven stone arches, begun by 
the French, 1810, and finished, 1827. The Austrians 
tried to blow it up in 1859, on their retreat, before 
the battle of Magenta. After this comes the Na- 
vlglio Grande, a canal of the thirteenth century, 
cut from Lago Maggiore to Milan; then follows 

Population, 6,392. The ancient Maxentia, the site 
of the famous battle of 4th June, 1859; with a 
monument to mark the spot, erected in 1872. The 
position of the Austrians is described by Count 
Arrivabene: — 

" If, on crossing the Ticino, we place ourselves 
at the extremity of the Bridge of Bulfalora, the 
heights on which the hamlet of Buffalor.i stands 
are on our left, the Ponte Nuovo of Magenta in the 
centre, and the old bridge to our right. We see 
that the ridge which formed the Austrian position 
is a sort of bow, whose arrow would be the road. 
On each side of this road the ground is covered 
with cornfields, vineyards, and groves of trees, and 
intersected by several streams which pour their 
waters into the meadows where rice is cultivated. 
Robcchetto, Castelleto, Induno, Santo Stefano, 
Buffalora (population 1,260), Magenta, Robecco— 
all villages or small boroughs, of greater or less 
importance — are seen amidst that splendid scenery ; 
some relieved against the background of the Alps, 
which lift thch: majestic heads on the far horizon. 
In the valley, the road is elevated 20 or 30 feet 
aboaire the fields, and rises still higher on its ap- 
proach to the eastern slopes. Finally it reaches 
the table-land of the Lombard side, on the border of 
which is carried the Naviglio Grande, whose waters 
run almost parallel with the Ticino. On approach- 
ing this plateau, the railway is seen emerging from 
the bank, about half a mile to the right." 

This well chosen position of the Austrians could 
only be approached by the central road above 
mentioned, the railway on the right, or by a road 
somewhat to the left, towards Buffalora; and could 
not be conmianded at any point. The Austrians 
had 89,000 against 133,C00 French; but the French 
had to cross a river to get at them. Gyulai's head- 
quarters were at Abbiate Grosso with his left 
wing; his right was at Magenta, and main body 
between Abbiate Grosso and Robecco. His object 
was to cut off the French from the bridges of San 
Martino and Buffalora, and to isolate those who 
had crossed the Ticino. On the 4th the French had 
no definite knowledge of the position of the 
Austrians. MncMahon with his corps and the 
Sardinian array marched from Turbigo on to Buf- 
falora; Canrobcrt advanced by the right branch 
towards the Bridge of Buffalora, and Niel was 
ready to join from Trecate. 

Buffalora Bridge was the central point, where 
the French laid a pontoon bridge close to a stone 
one which had been partly destroYcd Vs^ Si««^ 
Austrians. It w&% Vv^^V^ \w vo^kk^ ^^"^T^^^vS^ 


M ; and to tUi ftvtil HbuMnhun, 
Bdtlwm,lMDtalllil>elliittn, bsi- 
•ma DTuw in eAot ( jnuilea wHIi EniBotH. 
Tka nllnnd itiuloa aad Clia cnMom-luiue. loib 
•nna bnUdiBga, flUod wHh Vjlalembamli-mwn, 
wtn dat«Dd«] br CluL Zobal, uid oiber Austiiu 
nMnli. At 1 f.m. Iha AnMrtuii hut >ixi«n 
Grigido, or «l>,im lUODg, raonil tU> point. 

slain, COTU1 

[S«ctkiD 1. 

Ii anllMny trtei, flii«T*i<]t, 

m tlM rtrrr Van BiKi 

Z offlrcn kUlcd. Inrtuil 
I Dcr. IS4 offiRi 

talimprli , . ,. 

■acki, and 11,000 ininlioti 
FnndL nothildciliad abon 
Said. AwMi«i«larnuirlutl 
naeae f«U. At anotber spot 
butted. On Ike «I)i, the ] 

lied, vo[ni4«d, and nbtliif, Thb 
O^MO tilled aitd wounded, amT 4,000 
- and 4 (nni. 1 flaya, 4,<IW knap- 


t of the T^ch RBpoMli 
agmta, nn the (leW. Tlf 

Tlctary was, that Uflan 

re the Gallari 

King. He rci^rivod 

Hon aieTltttloIie, 
B IliH (toward! Lii(io 

BUIOU Teimlaiu. (See RddU II.) 


Tnitn to iTTMi, Aorta, Uie Oreat and 

LttUa SI BMMid. and Um Utmt BUnc 

SUtrlct ; and t* tlte Oart«IlaziiaBt» ma- 


VenUlMDon..-.. U 
ioTfltfuee '- » 

I ChlTauo 

' (Chaitta eaniaci 

lloue Otid". 

SI. VincnTt.'i 

Jbambava ., 



laaod tlcUjenlllTiU 


mdsUit Pll([rlia charci olMadoiuu del MooM," 
Aietndlnj; the -rtlley Ly the D«a BalM^ tha 

KnttaMo, "t Hitte atrtUo (populaalaii, \va\ 
> •mill Tltlago with a ftndal eWIe, r>na at aeraral 
17 which thlg rouu wai gmidod. Tha imnDtali 
lenerj hicrca»> In beanty every ntle. 

BorgofrAnao (popoUtiim, i,t«8}. 

The rock J liutahtabii nn huE^ ftE'khii MH tevHTAd 

lUtfaUT MHoa wiUi the rli 

Haiiau Vtatft 1/ On aiu.) ftbiii or r 

VunpklDBt peacbaa, delklooa Qgt. Ac^ a 
■pile of the IH J •BdoiukilCBlttyleof cu 
Maaj oS tba pn>prMon are noD-rcBid 
CareoM a (food p^e red wine, like cban 
pmdDMd. AiMDlcikl aiirlngi hat. 

ie Lye Tcrrenl, under Mnnte Bdbj. 
Dimai fpopulalion. 1,7M), close to a pass 1 
tie rock lij the Romans. Tonrcl under F 

ha> bHTi ealcniBted that the Weatem 

HOn* Bard (Btat). 

tbeFCBtlRdeCoinic t< 




preelplre. with th* n 

Tbleh ^uLrdf d the pajs h 

aluMow. Then 

Bonte 6.] iTKU, OHATnxov, i.osTA. -Ifl 

St.Tlnmnt (popolatlon.l.lM), in ■ tanit o( . At the CddtsdI of Bt. JoHob annnulUDt an 

AMtDOt «Dd *alnol tnei, l.RHI leet abne lea, li 

amphitheatre, «hlohw« MO (MtloBg^ alKofa 
theatre and a basilica and totnm. Stoaa pa»- 
racuts of the Soman road) hare )>een dlKOTw^ 

a pnltT place, noted [oi Iti mineral 3xMi. oi Iron 

•l^rhip, anelentlr <^BUed Fon. SalntI,; In iolt 
■tMtfte roc*. From here, np (he Col ds Jon, to 

and remalsa ot dralui S la 11 FeeC ban««a (te 

anuonay In T houn. The people live on polenta, 

CMtean d-U«llo, In a chinning Bile on the other 
tldo or tm rsller, o]i the Bummlt of a bold preei- 

The To<Ri Hall. In Placa Clurlaa Alli«R, at 
tim centre of the town. Is uld to be Ike tlM of » 
butillea. Facing It la (lie old Crou,«»ltodlMI. 

token refuKe here, and theorthodoiy of III IdJuU- 

a?WO (eet'h((ch. The old oaatle belongB to Ito En- 
trtTee famSr, ol ChUsaa de Challant, Iho largeM 

In the slim centnry, hut .In^e mDrtemiwd. It 

CiumlWV* prodncei 
line hemiboBta Is — 
■uncry oonataBtly ^ 

llHI (popDlatloD. '. 

From Bua 11 1> S| 

hemiboBta Is 

oonataBtly Tarylnj. , 
9,108). nai 

all, to the Tuurdti Lepreax, or Lepers 

le illrocdon ot Iloci 

tbonght little < 
remark.:--" Qi 

I ffvtiur mlrator in 

lendld prospect t Hont 
r (eat. X path tmr tho 
II (population, I,nH>). 

wf PanuUt, la.Mdreet ubi 

by T. Vam a> a menKtlal 
solidly bnllt, In tolerable coAd 

Porto deRramfam, socalledfromaPrlnceasorBra- 
ftanaa, aald to have bean etarred to death by her 
" m haling aarwd »• a storehouse IB 

3 famine of 1W7. 

Aihilvili.r (pomdatlon. l,en;), bo oalled altar 

AugiL"[u'<,hrt'> another caslle, which beloBBeil »J 
Lhe ChallJint*! anrl haslhjen inodJ:miKd.v1thfoar 
tnrrets and a gnllei-v. Some Iron foigea and tka 

St. rnBU. Hat* Is a Raa euU«. iAhB^'i'"^ 



[Section I, 

Chdtel Argent. Near this is a steep mule path, 
like steps, on the face of the cliffs, for bringing iron 
ore from Cogne. 

; ViLLEKEuvE (population, 847), a pretty place, 
near some iron forges. The ore is brought by 
women and men as well as mules, from the works 
at Cogne, 8,350 feet high. Here the valleys of the 
Rhymes and Savaranche unite. The houses have 
their windows barred with iron gratings. 

Idverogne is beautifully situated and is noted for 
' good wine. 

Avise Castle is on the opposite bank, near Val 
Grisanche. Between this and 

FoBT Roc, Mont Blanc <iome8 into view, at the 
head of the valley, like a brilliant alabaster wall. 
The road here winds round the precipitous face of 
A cliff, over the abyss of the Dora. 

La Salle was a town of the Salassi, and has 
•ome remains, and an old Castle. 

MoBGcx (population, 1,116), among vineyards, 
-pine forests, and waterfalls, is near the valley to- 
wards Col de la Serena, leading up to the Great St. 

Pat St. Didier (population, 859), 26 miles from 
Aosta, near the junction of the Thuile and the 
Dora; where the road parts off to Courmayenr and 
to the passes of AlMe Blanche and Val* Ferrex, 
under Mont Blanc. Hot springs and baths. 

Conrmayeur (population, 2,580). 

Hotels: Royal; L'Angelo; L'Union; Mont Blanc. 

Courmayeur consists of ten small hamlets, in a 
fine hollow of the mountains, so sheltered that 
com is grown to the very edge of the ice. Mont 
Blanc here rises up like a vast wall, 16,780 feet 

1. Aosta, over the Little St. Bern^xrd. to Bourg St. 
Maurice, 46 miles, in fifteen hours' walking. This 
was the pass taken by Hannibal, according to 
Polybius, who travelled over it sixty years later, 
expressly for the purpose of tracing it. * It was the 
way most familiar to the tribes in alii^incc with 
Hannibal. (King's Italian Valleys of the Alps.) 

Several chateaux are passed in aHCcnding this 
beautiful valley, the richness of which contrasts 
with the "poverty, filth, and cretinism" of its 
resident population. I^a Thuile is at the mouth of 
the glen up to the Kuitor Glacier. Hence to the 
Hospice, in 8 hours, the pass being 7.218 feet high. 
It is the boundary of Savoy, and has a column of 
Jupiter and a stone circle. The descent through 
St. Germain to Bourg St. Maurice is made in 8^ 
hours, with the fine peak of Mont Pourri in front.. 

2. Aosta, over the Great St. Bernard, to 
Martigny, 47 miles, in 16 hours. The greater part 
by omnibus. 

At Gigniod, the Val Pellina branches off on the 
right, towards the Matterhorn and Zermatt, which 
is 20 hours' walking from Aosta, through mag- 
nificent scenery. The Col at the top is 11,687 feet 

St. Reht (population, 869), a poor place, where 
the Italian Custom House is passed. Hence it is 
a rather steep road to the Hospice of Great St. 
Bernard, where seventy or eighty travellers may 
be lodged. From 16,000 to 20,000 cross this pass, 
which is 8,130 feet high, and has its mean annual 
temperature at about freezing point. The highest 
heat on record is 69*. At Chenalettaz, or Mont 
Mort, on either side of the pass, there is a very fine 
view of the Mont Blanc range. From this down to 
Martigny Station, in the Valais, is 10^ hours. 

From Settimo (page 11), on the Ivrea line, a 
branch rail runs to Rivarolo and Cuorgnb, with 
another branch f^om Rivarolo to Castellamonto. 
The stations from Settimo are Volpiano, S. 
Bcnigno, Bosconero, and Feletto. Then 

Rivarolo (Stat.), which has remains of a 
fine Roman bridge. At Pont, in Val d'Orco 
(where the river is called Acqua d'Oro, on ac- 
count of its water power), is a cotton factory, 
employing 1,200 hands. The path to Cuorgn^, 
and up to this rocky Val, passes Locano and 
Cescrolo, to the house of our Lady of the Snow, 
near the top of Mont Tseran (13,271 feet high), on 
the border of Savoy, near the head of the Iscrc. 
Here Vittorio Emmanuelc used to come to hunt 
the stambecco, a gigantic chamois, or wild goat. 

The winter is bitterly cold under the Alps, but 
beautiful in its kind. '' The effects of light and 
shade," says Gallenga, "on the high, polished, 
mirror-like surface of the vast surroimding Alpine 
chain, would drive poets or artists attempting to 
paint them to distraction. Such golden risings 
nnd rosy settings the sun never displays at any 
other season of the year, even in Italy;* its light 
grows keener as itsface waxes colder; distinctness 
of outline and depth of ground impart new 
grandeur to the sublime picture of the boundlet-s 
hill-range and interminable plain. Then the 
revelry of the moon, stars, and planets in the 
night! every faii lung candle of the sixth magni- 
tude peeping forth a luminary!" 

Past Salassa and Valpcrga to Cuorgn^ m 
miles). From Rivarolo past Ozegna (5 uiile-) to 

CasteUamonte (Stat.), at the terminus. 
The town (population, 5,997) is tJic head j)l{icc of 
the Canaveee district (or district of Ivrea), the men 
of which arc mostly carpenters, who emigrate 
yearly for employment. It stands on a hill, 500 
feet above the plain, commanduig a fine view of 
Turin, Monte Viso, the Maritime Alps, an 1 the 
Alps to the north. Much silk is made; it is niso 
noted for its pignsttc, or pots. For several ye.trs 
in succession the valleys in this neighhouiliood 
were desolated with vine disease. Castellniixnue 
was the head-quarters of Mr. A. Gallenp.i, when 
writing his entertaining Country Life in I'tednicnt, 
in which he describes how the countrymen of his 
forefathers lived; their simplicity, hospitality, 
sturdiness, and love of huddling in towns, their 
indifference to diet, their industry, and other mixc4 


The line pBBnestbr 

VmrBllo are now be. 

Irom Motb™, jeo pi 

BlAUalBtat.), >i 

71 Candelo.. 
«) Blella..... 

hlBhly fo 

ly Eii'elHh 

c junction i>( Val Miuli 
id of flnc Konery. 
TABALIO (Stat). 

IS Oinoli, (or iiTiprntl 

fcllKht: g. 

d Gruid Hotel, 
Mont*. LUt; 

In this a 



I &ne atlar-plocf of the HUTUge of SI. Cathorfne, 
by Gandenilo Ferrwl, st. erlliit of celebrity hers. 
AI Ibe Santn Mi.rin deUo Graii?. annexod to the 

I Mtanrll... ron...r.r. »rr, M, fre.coes (1607) ot tbe 
a Doctors; and 

upi"dby ise'li^ 

*rar for bla dariog 

Qtnglt.. J. MDC. 

tlie Kkig remarfcbig, "Oo wbt 
wliat you Uks. There l> only on 

tniry, on t hill, omrlooklngths 

wberfi ^ood loiiglJigB may bo had, except nh?r 

CFllgrima ue here. Hydropalhio ErtubliflfaiDaDt. 

Hoat« mMStme. Tbe church hjiB an Image cui 

Inge by Fermi Uld Lumi, Tbe Uydropathli 

Eitahliahaunt here is a faTourite BUmmer re»ort 

From Blella ' — 

'""-'"' -■"°"---. ThcreiakKhMloIdeSignM 
Ihatorthe Adda family. An old 

le hlUfc bj 

IntwaMlDg I 



■ " may), Oamplglla, and Clm» 

Tbleh li a jath into the he*^ 

he riel^ Adsralloii of the Magi. Transaguralloii. 

olta flgnrci of 11(0 size. One of the chapela i> 
ledlcated U HI. FrancU. A Santa Scala, ot nalri, 
ihtch the devoot pilgrim monnla on his poor 
LiK^ee, Icadn to the tliree eniHes on the top, whkh 
mmniHiidi a aueprospccl. (Kixo's VaUii'o/llii 

ne, am 

ElQcci. H mile from IhlH, on Ih 
rk. (or the rich -fcirfmiw. of I.a 
Plede (^astella.41 hours dials 
high. Varallo produce, geod 



t abont 2 


lo Pon" 



to Fella, 




[Section 1. 

Uo»a range. A boat crosses the lake from Pella 
to Orta, on the eastern side, In half an hour. Lake 
Ortm is the onut nttrantive of the sinalier Alpine 
lakes, coiubhiing richness with boldness of form. 
It is about 9 miles long, up to Oinegna, at its head, 
at the mouth of Val Strona. Steamer on the lake, 
now called Lago Cusio. 

The little town of Orta, on the Lake of Orta 
(Albergo S. Giulio), is close to the sanctuary of 
Monte Sacro, with its twenty chapels, dedicated 
to S. Francis d' Assist. Population, 6,850. 

Facing the town is the picturesque Island of S. 
Giulio and its church. Orta is 12 miles from 
Arona ; or it may bo reached by rail vid Novara 
(see Route 5). A few miles from Omegna is 
Monte Motterone^ close to the Simplon Road, over- 
looking Lago Maggiore, and embracing one of the 
finest panoramas in the Alps. (Ball's Guide to the 
Western Alps.) 



Turin to Novaxa, Arona, and 

The stations from Novara (see Route 6) are : — 


Borgo Ticino 17^ 

Arona 28 


BelUnzugo 8} 

Oleggio lOi 

Varallo Pombia ... \b\ 

OlegglO (Stat.) Population, 8,675. Here are 
manufactories of silk. 

Borgo Tidno (Stat.), population, 2,446, near 
the River Ticino, which runs out of Lak<^ Maggiore. 

Arona (Stat.), at the terminus of the rail, near 
the botciim of the lake. Population, 4,500. 

Hotel: D'ltalia and Post, on a fine part of the 

A small town of no great interest, containing 
the Santa Maria Church, in which are paintings 
by G. Ferrari, and an old deserted seat of the 
Borromeo family, remarkable as the birthplace 
of St. Carlo Borromeo (1538). Near this is 
his great metal Statue; it stands on a hill, com- 
manding a superb view of the lake, and is 66 feet 
high, besides a pedestal of 40 feet. By means of 
ladders and some scrambling you may ascend the 
hollow body, and sit in the inside of the ear or the 
nose. It was put up in 1697 by the Borromeo 
family. Here Peter Martyr, the " master of sen- 
tences,'* was bom. 

When Garibaldi arrived here in 1859, he found 
the alarm bells hod been rung in all the districts 
around, in spite of the Austrian flying columns, 
which occupied them in turn. Letting the |>eople 
of Arona believe he whs going to remain there, 
he left secretly by night with his volunteers, and 
marched on Castelctto Ticino. In spite of the 
Austric^i steamers cruising un the lake, ho safely 
landed his Cacciatori on the Austrian side of the 
Ticino, near Sesto Calende, and on the evening of 
the 23rd, made his entry into Varese, in the midst 
of a violent storm. The whole population tamed 
out to welcome their liberators. After being 
hastily fortified, it was ottaekeil by General 
Urban's division, 5,000 strong, but they were 

beaten of! here and at Maluate by the victorious 
Garibaldians In great disorder, with the loss of 
100 men on Garibaldi's side. Among these was a 
member of the Cairoli family, from Pavia, the 
head of which, a high-minded widow, pave her 
four sons to Garibaldi. One was killed in this 
action, another died in the Southern Campaign; 
a third was Prime Minister of Italy in 1879. 
From Arona the road passes by Belgirate, to 

Stresa, a beautiful spot on Lago Maggiore, 

under Monte Motterone. 

Hotels: Des lies Borrom^es, moderate and 
finely placed ; Milan. English Church Service at 
Hotel des lies. 

Thii small place, beautifully situated, and 
surrounded by numerous fine villas, is very 
suitable for a lengthened stay. The ascent of 
Monte Motterone (about 4,900 feet) can be made 
from here. 

She head of the Lake is at 
agadino (population, 770), in Swiss territory. 
The steamer calls here twice daily, starting 
from Locarno, and proceeds to other places on 
Lago Maggiore, landing passengers at the chief 
towns on both shores, and at Isola Bella, the must 
southerly of the Borromean Islands] 
From Arona, by diligence (2 hours), to 


Hotels: Grand Hotel Baveno; Grand Hotel de 
Belle vue. 

English DivineServiee at the Chapel In the grounds 
of ViUa Claray a seat belonging to C. Henfrey, 
Esq. (built by Bulnols), which was occupied by 
Queen Vlctoriaon her visit to the Lake, March, 1879. 

A charming village, under Monte Motterone, 
which is 4,890 feet high, and commands a noble 
view of the lakes and the snowy Alps. There arc 
Inexhaustible quarries of excellent granite, which 
is easily worked and polished. Fine red trout arc 
caught. Boats to the Islands, 5 fr. for two hours. 
Al 1 the steamers call here. 

The nearest of the Borromean Islands is the 

Isola Superiore, or Dei Pescatori (Fishermen's 
Island), and Its picturesque church, with a popu- 
lation of 250. Further out is the Isola Madrb 
(Mother, ie., the Virgin's Island), which is a mass 
of foliage, native and exotic, laid out in alleys 
and terraces, through which beautiful views of 
the lakes and surrounding hills are caught. There 
is a profusion of oranges, lemons, tropical plants, 
besides aviaries of birds, but the only building is 
an unfinished palace of the Borromeo family, 
which the gardener (who shows the island) lives 
in. To the west, in shore, is the pretty Isola di 
S. Giovanni, or the Isolino (little island), with 

Isola Bella (to the south), "Beautiful Island," 
is more a work of art, and perhaps less charming 
than the other. It rises up in a pyramid of ten 
terraces or hanging gardens, first laid out by Count 
Yitaliano Borromeo, about 200 years ago ; planted 
with cedar, laurel, cork, beech, cypress, sugar canes, 
coffee trees, <fec., and many lemons and oranges, . 



The whole is set off with statuary; and there is a 
curious shellwork grotto, close to the water. At 
the summit is the sumptuous Palace of tlie family, 
approaclicd by a staircase, and built by Count 
JFrederico Borromeo, over a century ago. Amon;? 
the pictures inside are those of four battles in 
which he fought, besides a portrait uf him with 
his jester. There are also frescoes and pictures by 
Giorgione, Bassano, Procaccini, Schidoni, Vandyclc, 
Tcmpcsta (an artist who killed his wife and fled 
hither for protection), with monuments in the 
chapel, and a theatre. There is an hotel on the island. 

Pailanza (Grand Hotel Pall an za, good and 
moderate), is a fine summer and winter resort, at 
the angle of the two branches of the Lake, facing 
the Borromean Islands. 

EnglUh Church Service at the Hotel. 

In a small yard attached to the Church of 8. 
Stefano is a Roman pedestal with sculptures, temp. 
Emperor Claudius. At Suna, a village near to 
Pailanza, is a remarkably perfect Roman Arch. 

Intra (Hotel de la Ville) is a short distance 
round the point. Opposite is 

LaTOnO {!&tBX.)— Hotels : Stella; Albergo del 
Moro— 7 miles across from Baveno on the opposite 
side of Lago Maggiore. The best view of the en- 
gaging scenery of the Lake is from a boat in the 
middle. From Laveno a line runs tid Gallanttd 
to mian, 45 miles. This line is continued north 
to Lnlno and BelllxlZOXia, on the St. Gothard 
line, for which see BracUhaw's Illustrated Hand- 
Book to Switzerland. 

From Baveno there is a diligence to 

Grayellona (Stat.), S miles from the beauti- 
ful Lake of Orta (see Route 7). From here rail to 
Domo d'Ossola. passing through 

VogOgna (Stat.), with an old castle. Near 
here the fine Val Anzasca begins, leading up to 
Monte Rosa, and into Santhik (Saasthal), by the 
Monte Moro. The scenery is as grand as anything 
on the Swiss side of the Alps, bnt softened down by 
an Italian sky. In common with those of other val- 
leys here, the people are of German origin. It is 
about two days* journey to Visp, Macngnaga being 
half-way, vid Ponte Grande (inn) and Borca (Inn). 

Domo d'OBBOla (Stat). Hotels : Grand Hotel 
de la Ville; Grand Hotel; Albergo diSpagna; Angtlo. 
Alively little town, near theTosa, in the Eschen or 
Ossola Valley, quite Italian in its character, with 
some of the houses supported by arcades. This 

E&rt of Piedmont belonged to the Duchy of Milan, 
at is now incorporated with the Kingdom of 
Italy. It is an excellent starting point for Ex- 
cursions in the valleys around. For example: — 
one may be taken through the terrace-shaped and 
fertile Val Formazza or Pommat, past the fine 
TuM Fail, above Andermatt, on the Frutt, thence 
OTer the glaciers of the Gries (7,780 feet high), and 
through Bglnenen>Thal to Ober-Gestelen (on the 
RhOne), in the Valais, a distance of 18^ stunden ; 
firom Upper Tosa you may go by Val Bedretto 
to Alrolo, on the St. Gothard Road, IS itundan. 
AnoUier trip from Domo d'OpioU is by tho roAd to 

the cast, through Val Vigezza, or Centovalli, past 
Masera, Bajiesco, Troiituns, Riv-a (near a Fall), 
Malesco, Olgia (the highest part, 3,020 feet), under 
Monte Cridoue (7,000 feet), Borgnone, Verdasio, 
Intragna (at the mouth of Val Onsersone), across 
Ponte Brolla, on the Maggia to Locarno (10 hours), 
at the licnd of Lago Mng^j^iore. 

Hence it is 6 hours by diligence to the Simplon 
Pass. (See Bradshaui's Hand-Book to Switzerland), 

Nice to Genoa, along the Riviera di Ponente. 

By rail, near the Corniche Road. About 1 
hour to Mentone, and 6 to 8 hours thence to Genoa. 
It may be done in 15 hours by steamer, but, as this 
goes by night, all the beauty of the scenery is 
missed. This is one of the routes which should be 
walked over to enjoy it in perfection. 

N.B.— The distances to Mentone, on the French 
side, are reckoned from Nice; after that, from 
Ventimiglia, on the Italian side. 

The principal stations are as follow: — 


Monaco 9^ 

Mentone 141 

Ventimiglia 2]] 

Bordighera 3 

S. Remo 10 

Oneglia 25^ 


Alassio 38 

Albenga 42^ 

Finalmarina 58 

Savona «7 

Voltri 85 . 

Genoa 9<| 

For Nice, see Bradshaw's Hand-Book to France, 
or the Continental Guide. 

The Corniche road, by the Riviera di Ponente 
(i.«., western edge), as this side of the Gulf of 
Genoa is called, is in the direction of the Via Fia- 
minia, and up and down hill all the way, past a 
succession of picturesque towns and villages, and 
never far from the Mediterranean, with its beau- 
tiful winding bays and headlands on one 8ide, and 
the Maritime Alps and Apennines on the other. 
Mulberry, orange, lemon, olive, and other trees are 
abundant. N.B.— The description applies to the road. 

Leaving Villefranca, or viUefHinclie (Stot.) 
on the right, the road ascends to a point 2,100 feet 
above the sea, and then passes 

Esa, or Esa (Stat.), where there was a temple 
to Isis. to 

Tnrbia, called Trophaa Augusti by the Romans, 
from a trophy, or tower, which marked the boun- 
dary of Italia and Gallia on this side, now a ruin, 
with some Gothic additions about it. To the right 
is Monaco (Stat.), population, 8,242, so called 
from a little principality belonging to the Orimaldi 
family, with its ruined castle, on a peninsula, in a 
beautiful bay, the site of a temple to Hercules 
Monotcus. The prince keeps a public gaming table 
at Monte Carlo. The Palace contains sumptU' 
ously furnished apartments, shown three times a 
week in the afternoon. Porcelain and perfumery 
made. Down to the revolution of 1848 th princi* 
pality included 

Cabb^Roqaebmne (Stat.), under bold, 

dark, irregular rocks; and also 

Mentone, or Menton (Stato^tvc^^ ^skclvuj^na 

a«uls: Hutel del Asikli; Hntel Weitiuiaitcr 
HoUld'Oricnt; Holefae Be!l« Vue; 0»nd HoU 
dctlleiBrltinnlquei; Hotel d'ltnUe-Onnd Hotel 
Brand Hotel et Poiiion du Pare ; Hotel ct Pf ngior 
AHidl; Hotf ] de li &«re ; Hotel CamDm; Bote 

I Weit K>iJ Hotel, oomfortabla and well •Knuled. 

Villa Tatlock. taolne tbe lea. near Ihe'rall. 

Sngllih Vice-OHUal; Bnj/Hih Omreh Strtiai; 
SKoliili and olJur fleitdnl m/ticiaiu. 

Ai;iioce CoDgreva,— 10, TIa VlttoiloEinnaDale. 
Banlicrg. Uotue, Eilale, Wine, and Otnaral 

Sagllih CAatndf.— Mr. Oral 

Piweed the 116" French fronOer.and alon j 
TanUmlglla IStat.) 

Mr. Hanbnrya girdsn well deaervM a TlUt. 

BordlSbeTS (Stat) 

Balili: H«»l d'Anj-lcterre, (Irat-claH Hotel, 
eloaa to Ibe Enfrllaii Chnieb. large gaiden, B«e 


n nsbinj; Tiiingp; anil Sail Lonnio (Stat.). 

Porto Blaurlilil (Stat.) (popnlatton. 1,0M), a 
plcmreaqne place, on a nock o( land, with a n»w 
Cathedral overlooking the Harbonr. from irbleb 

VletorU; Hotel M PwnlonSapla; Pension 1 

SnglUh Chunli StrrCti. 

The toi™, lalelj mncb Itoprored, llei on i 
till netghboorhood the date palmi, uaed tr 

•itolaslve pflTllege n( lopplylnB them bailni 
granled by 8i«ni V. Ttamway to Vertlmlg 
:Oip«talBttl [Stat), a new and (a™ 

KD SamO (Stat.)— ^"'"■■— BalleTUB. 
Icldc reuropeet de la Pali, eoa»enlenlly 
•Ituated opposite the ralUfaj- aiatlon. 
Hotel Rnyali Bi<l-cliu hoteU litnaled oi .... 

Stfada Komano, on elevaled groond, commatuling i 
ne Tiew or the obule coail. PropHetori and i 
JIanigeri, J. KanzlorandPalombl. SeeAdn. 

Ugtelde'Nice"; BoteldelaUedllemn^e; Hotel 

nclorla. east and of town, well atted Dp, In ■ 
-baaatirnl (ardcn. 
^otel du Pnradle. 

Grand Hotel Boyal; Hotel du Ilei BrltannlriiHi. 
■"^Ti, wtatortawn. 

amoue Genoese adm 
,y Ihe Prench In I! 
:"ast another cape to 

Piano Mtrena (pi 

~ PopnlntloD, i,9U. rorttacr i 

^ Ajidzea Doiia, the 

e Klver Cents, wllb Mon 
. Itsappleiandorangeiai 

re carried inti) dirtrr 




Hoate 9.] 



by the Turks; BorghettO, Mar t)ie Cape of S. 
Lada; Loano (population, 4,005X where the Aus- 
trians were defeated 1795 ; and Pietra; to Finale- 
ypa.rj|Ti% (Stat.), near Finale Borgo, and Finale 
PiA, three fortified places (with a church in each) 
which belonged to Spain, near the ruins of Castel 
Gavone, and the Roman Finarium. They produce 
the delicious apple called Male di Finale, or Afale 
Carlo, because it was a favourite of Charles III. of 
Spain. Then through a marble tunnel, or gallery, 
to Vabigotti, and 

Noll and its castle, on a bay of the same name, 
the bite of Paulum. Population, 2,000, chiefly 
fishermen. Monte Calo is visible to the left. 
Next, on to Spotomo, with Bergeggi Island and 
its. church ruins in front of it. Genoa comes into 
view. Past Vado, ancient Vdda Sabata, and Cape 
di Yido, to the Roman Savo, now 

SAVONA (Stat.) 

Here the direct lines from Turin and Alessandria 
come in — See Routes 3 and 4. 

Inn : Railway Hotel. 

A large and prosperous town (population, 30,681), 
a bishop's see, and head of a province ; with a 
Cathedral, begun 1604, by Pope Julius II., contain- 
ing life-size figures of inlaid wood in the choir, 
by L. Brea; several palaces; a theatre, built 1853, 
and dedicated to Chiabrera, the poet, a native, 
who is buried in S. Giacomo Church; and the 
Dominican Church, containing A. Diirer's Ador- 
ation of the Magi and A. Semini's Nativity. Small 
pier harbour. Resident English Vice-Consul. 

Up in the bills is the Church of the Madonna 
della Misericordia, with a Presentation by Domeni- 
chino. Besides oil, Savona produces good pottery 
and porcelain, with excellent fruit, peaches, apri- 
cots, oranges, flower roots, white wine, Ac. Its 
harbour was destroyed by the Genoese. Close to 
it is a statue of the Virgin, with a rhyme which is 
quoted as an example of either Italian or Latin:— 
" In mare irato, in subita procdla, 
Invoco te, nostra benigna Stella." 
A railway goes inland to Mondovi and Turin, 
in connection with the one along the coast to 
Genoa. Here a branch of the Via Aurelia went 
np the Bormida to Acqui, Ac. The next place 
if AlbiSBOla (Stat.), the seat of the Rovere 
family, of which were Popes Sixtus IV. and 
Julias II. 

Varasxe, a bostllng port, under the Apennines 
(population, 8,450)^ 

. COgOletO (Stat.), or Cuculetto (population, 
S,dt8), claims to be the birthplace of Columbus, and 
his house is shown. Here the coast l>ecomes flner 
tiian ever, and the towns are more picturesque in 
appearance ; but when examined they are found to 
be dirty and ruinous. The railway now passes 
through deep cuttings and tunnels. 

Voltrl (Stat.) Population, 14,119. It has 
WHne fine churches, villas, paper mills, and sulphur 

Ptgli (Statb) Population, 4,898. A growing 
nMitrar visitors. Here are the Villas Dorla and 
fnQmTlBiiiif tli^ )4t( a show-place^ to sef wbioh 

(10 to 3) a fee of 1 lira is charged. 

Hotels: M^dlterrane'e; Grand Hotel Gargini. 

English Church Service. 

Fine view from the Scoglio Vittoria, so named 
from the Crown Princess, who stayed here in 1871. 

Sestrl dl Ponente (Stat.) Population, 11,286. 
The last town before Genoa, to v\ hich the splendid 
Corniche Road leads by a line of churches, castles, 
villages, and country seats. Here are Villas 
Spinola, Lomellina, Ac. 

Comigllano (Stat.), population, 8,499, near 
Palazzo Scrra, Villa Darazzo, Sec, and the juna- 
tion of the rail from Polceverra Valley. 

Hotel: Villa Rachel, good and moderate. 

Resident Chaplain and Physician. 

s. Pier d'Arena (Stat), population, 32,690, 

in the suburbs of Genoa, which comes into view 
after the Lanterna tunnel. The terminus is ill 
Piazza Acqua Verde, overlooking the harbour Of 
Genoa. GENOA (Stat.) 

Called Genova by the Italians, Gines by the French, 
Genua by the Germans : all from the Latin Janvm, 
a gate, or Genu, a knee. A tunnel under the city 
now unites the ea«t and west lines. 

Hotefs: Grand Hotel de GSnes, first-class hotel, 
situated opposite the Carlo Felice Theatre. 

Grand Hotel d'ltalie et de la Croix de Malte. . 

Grand Hotel Isotta, 7, Rue de Rome, first-clais 
hotel, newly built. OtrBat comfort. 

Hotel des Etrangers, in Via Nuovissima. Well 

Hotel Royal Aquila, well situated, close to tbe 
railway station and port. 

Grand Hotel de la Ville, beautifully situated in 
the centre of the town. 

Hotel de France, well situated. 

Hotel de Londres and Pension Anglaise, well 
situated, near the Central Station. 
Grand Hotel dn Pare. 

Hotel Metropole; de I'Ecu* Victoria ; Bonera; 
del Gran Colombo ; Pension (jlirard. 

Beef and veal are both excellent; fish abundant, 
including the hriglia (mullet); acciqua (anchovy); 
vitelladiappariiaonen.nAdipaisione\ tunny, and the 
little white bianchetti, with a delicate rose tint. 
Pies, some of the best in Italy; good maccaronJ|; 
mushrooms from the Apennines, called boleti when 
red, neri when black, and imported in the dry stat^. 
Snails are a regular arttcle of diet, and aye 
sold in the market. Good fruits, and delicioQi 
green figs and oranges, citrons, apples, pears. Fren<^ 
and Montf errat wines are the best ; of the common 
native white wines that of Polcevera is the mpjit 
agreeable. One of the liqueurs is acqua d'amarina 
(from the cherry); guechero rosato (rose sugar) is 
a conserve, which mixed with water, makes d re- 
freshing drink. Tobacco is a government monopqly, 
but real Havanaa cigars may be bought at the 
Custom House. 

Resident English Consul. 
Bankers.— Ketne. Granet, Browiu and C<s. 
Resident English PWi9MAmx\ »»^^^^Vxv -« 
m^rtt Work«.~\^*^V»«^ V!'^^^"^^'^^'^^' 



[Section 1. 

recommend the roannfActory nnd depdt of Mr. 
Emilio Forte, 165, Via Orefici ; prize medal awarded, 
London Exhibition, 1863. 

Post-Office, Gaileria Mazzini. Telegrajih at 
Palazzo Dncale. 

English Church Service, on Sundays at the new 

Scotch Presbyterian Service every Sunday in the 
Church, Via Peschiera. 

Convejfanees. — Omnibuses attend tlie railwny 
stations in the town. Street omnibuses for eacli 
course, 10 cents. Street calashes, called cittadini, 
1 lira the course; or 1 lira 50 cents, for the first 
hour ; 50 cents, extra at night. 

There is a tariff for boatmen, including any 
ordinary quantity of baggage, either for em- 
barkation or disembarkation, but the fare had 
better be agreed on beforehand. Pleasure boats, 
3 lire the first hour. 

Steamer to various parts, as Marseilles, Leghorn, 
Civita Vccchia, Naples, Palermo, Malta. (See 
Bradshaw's Continental Guide). On the 24th 
April, 18.'J4, the Ercolano left for Marseilles, with 
Sir R. Peel and others on board, and was run down 
by a steamer. Sir R. Peel clung to a floating 
mast, and was saved at the last moment by the 
Sicilia, which brought him and others back to 
Genoa. Mr. Halsey, M.P., and his family were lost. 

Population (1897), 229,397. It is divided into six 
sestiere or sections. 

* Chief Objects of Notice.— VIa degli Orefici, 
Palazzo Ducale, Palazzo Serra, Palazzo Pallavi- 
cini, Palazzo Rosso. Cathedral, Churches of St. 
Annunziata, St. Stcfano, St. Ambrogio, St. Siro, 
Santa M. di Carignano. Villa Pallavicini, at Pegli. 
The pupazzi (marionettes) are worth seeing. 

This renowned city, denominated G^nSva la 
Superba (i.e., the proud), is a free port at the top 
of the Gulf of Genoa; head of a Duchy, and of a 
province ; seat of a governor, archbishop, univer- 
sity, (fee. It stands in the best part of that beauti- 
ful strip of the Mediterranean called the Riviera, 
in a pure and healthy climate, sheltered by the 
Ligurian Apennines. The city proper lies cast of 
the harbour, along which is a noble range of fine 
houses, 2 or 3 miles long. From this it rises in a 
magnificent amphitheatre, with palaces, gardens, 
churches, Ac, stretclUng in every direction, over 
a space of 8 square miles; only one-sixth of 
which is level ground. It is defended by a double 
line of fortifications, the outer one being 7 to 8 
miles in circuit, and commanded by detached forts 
on the highest points beyond; as the Diamante, 
Due Fratelli, Quezza, Santa Tecla, (fee. It is from 
these points and from the harbour that the city 
should be seen. The Protestant Cemetery and the 
Kegri Palace are good standpoints. Many of the 
bouses are painted in fantastic colours, and adorned 
with statues, columns, festoons, &c. 

The streets are generally narrow, steep, and 
irregular, mere lanes in fact, up and down hill, 
with no foot-paths, and encroached upon by pro. 
• -*ia^ ppp^T tiwtyt. They are often lined by tall 

well-built houses, and marble palaces, five, six, 
and even nine storeys high, with light slate roofs, 
and courts fragrant with orange trees, Ac. Some 
of the best streets are Balbi, Garibaldi, Cairoli, 
Carlo Felice, Carlo Alberto, Santa Giulia. The 
Via di Circonvallazione a Monte, and the V. di C. 
al Mare are also fine streets. There is a constant 
succession of priests, nuns, soldiers, monks, and 
porters carrying bales strung from poles over their 

An inscription in the cathedral affirms that this 
ancient town was founded by a grandson of Noah, 
named Janus. It was called Genua (as some think, 
from genu, a knee) in Livy's time, and, as an ally 
of the Romans, was destroyed by Hannibars 
brother, Mago. 

After suffering from the Guelf and Ghibelline 
factions, the first Doge, S. Rocanegra, was elected 
in 1839. Charles VI. of France in 1396, Fran- 
cesco Sforza in 1458, and Louis XII. in 1499, were 
for a time successively masters of the republic, 
which again acquired its independence under the 
famous Andrea Doria, in 1528, and lasted till the 
French invasion of Italy, when it was annexed to 
the Ligurian Republic in 1798. In 1800, Massona 
sustained a siege of two months against the Aux- 
trians and the English fleet, and only yielded after 
the loss of 15,000 men by famine, Ac. In 1814 it 
was taken by LordW. Benthick, and finally united 
to Sardinia. 

Two Moles of solid stone protect the harbour, 
which has plenty of deep water and is lined by a 
marble terrace throughout. Molo Vccchio, on the 
east side, is about 1,250 feet long, and Molo Nuovo, 
on the west side, near the Lazaretto, about 1.000 
feet, with an outer basin protected by a pier. 
Outside the new mole stands the tall Lantern or 
Lighthowe, built in 1547, and looking like a slender 
pagoda ; it is ascended by 355 steps. 

The Darsena, within the port, was begun in the 
thirteenth century, and included, till lately, the 
Marine Arsenal, with its magazines and workshop.«, 
small docks for the Sardinian navy — ^now moved 
to Spezia, — with the Bagnio for convicts, near the 
Bisagno torrent. The inner harbour, or Porto, is 
surrounded by a fine quay, which extends past 
four pontes or stone jetties, to the Porto Franco, a 
collection of eight piles of warehouses, where goods 
are stored free of duty, except for bonding. The 
facchini or porters, on account of the narrowness 
of the streets, are In great request here. They 
are or were a privileged class, exclusively from 
Bergamo, and still form a rather close corporation, 
like the Fellowship Porters of London. Near the 
Porto i'^ranco is the Mandraccio Basin. Above 
the quay is the Via Carlo Alberto, which leads 
along the ])ort past the Piazza Caricamento to the 
cathedral square. 

The Dogana or Custom House, hard by, is the 
old hall of the Banco di S. Giorgio, which was 
founded 1345, and plundered by the French in 
1800. It was this rich trading body which gave 
life to the commercial enterprise of ancient Genoa. 


•nn degti Orrllei, t bustUnc Btn»[, where tho 
eoldtmlUis' >hD|n are foand. OTorwioortlHnLlB 

with BlflM, nnd belonKlng to the Qulldi nenlj 
oppMrie l« n ba.-™ll6f of Ihe Nml.Hy. Here, 

Acqosvei ■ - 

(H-IfimLlDi. The PonteCwiKnano.'i bridge Acr<»> 
■ rsvlne (Kbout SH fc« dcop), ri.lng .boTO tbe 
hoBHi. laalsewortb'laltlnE. II wu built 171 8-^0. 
and iolns iho Carlgnano Mid Sariona bUls. 
The inOEt remarkable buildinpi are tho >p1endt<l 

8. Lorenzo, mostly In 
built alKtulUM, and 
triple portal wlih dt 

c style, waa moBtly 
td poinled areheai 


emsrald. till the lulttakD wan dettcled In Piiiin by a 
lulen line judge. PcrmliiloiiteTlcwIhlaaiKli'tber 
valuable 9 mn>t be obtained from the Muiilclplo. 

•S.airo IBl.CyroD.ln a street ontotVlaS.Luci. 
"ai^h" t lu wElch the Uoge.were ehoaeii l« publle 

It ta supported liy tisteen tall white marble pillar.; 
The painted voult by Carloue. 

:S: Maria JtlltVlfni alio reiti on atzteeii colunini 
of marble, each being a single block. Paiulings of 

Ac; high altar by'Pugeti tbe Virgin Cbapel. richly 

Cerlnllilau columns ol Khile marble, Ihe riuilng 
p«ten"" greet beuily, 'ihe 'loofot the nave la 

cutIods carvings at ntoiisien are visible. The in- 

hat has belter pictuioe, as Rnbcns- ClrcumelsloB, 

vtns Iniproyod by Aleiil. It contaim a bronie 

blaek muble pillars, IG feet high), and Culdu's 

Uadoima, wlib paintings, boat of Culunihos, Ac. 

In thesldeCbapela; oneulwhlchirasburitln liSS. 

hyDflgeaenarev-. AnotherChapaKSt J.Haptlst), 

ol the architect uinsl gl.e way to the feelhigs ol 

111 Ibc Gothic style, by Delia Porta, has st.itnes by 

the painter, and wo must be conlent to be charmed 

the wonderful ehiboratlon ol the deUUs. wiihoni 

In the Baptist's' death. Some good bren.c work. 

by Zabello, Is seen In the cbelr. In the sicrltty 

best taste.'*— fsrvKMon. 

they shew tbe Bncro Catlno Ibasln), a sli-slded 

•9»la tfoiVs Carlgnano. or Church of Iho 

piece of glas^ broBghl from CBsarea, in llOI. and 

Aunmpllon. Piaiia Orlgnano, la one ol the ftiiMt 

n-pnrUd to be IhUwtaleta held tbe paKbal lamb U 

B* CM\tnW(>D %T\&t^''l^^ 

■t the corntri. Wllhln are four sUIuct by Pugft 

slut; iBneorgui; ProcMclnL*. Virgin (with Bt. 
patntingBbythtPloluuidDlhera. Tho walk (rom ' 









duia ohoR 


St, bee 

he Chi 













of lb 



sed by long 

Sanla Marian CmttBc.tnryeli GDtblcc 
of Ihe Marenth cenlnry, bnlit by (he Ci 
fiinifly,h»Tlng three rowsDfgTuillei.illiir>. 

J I with raodlie«al >cilll>lorE. Such are the ololBlwed 
^ I retreats of St. Andrea, aiid the Cliurch of St. 

coBrtyard of 

Tii^in, by Parodl. 
SI. Faippa dt Nen 
Virgin, by Poget, 

I tplendid 

earrled off to Patla, hot were obliged lo glye up ' 

lliuCliAod with the a 
BIT order of thingi. 

:Iil, Is a small plalti olil Gothic church, 

wHh alght-ildad eampanlle. B, ( 

belonged to the Knlghli of St. Jd)i 

Therearcapwardsofility chare 

■ //,e rtin An thoH at tl 

'g'sflect in I'hfi ellniatB. One beautiful feature 

Adei; but dutUul at Uiey an. with a litUe 
ire tail* andjudgnent. they migbt bare bvep nude 

Th«y «re "reou.rk 

ble, flriL 

fw tbolt »l»e, ud 

(he lirgen... of the 


qiullUei which ire 

mmenMly eagprra 



hich thos 

its^tuted. The; 

hare slK the grot 

ch by lt»1(. bat « II in C0.5 


mpl (o bnltatB or r 


rmodela. Aj^etoit those mm 

nM« snd trequBBOy 

only pKloled In, or 


Palam Adont, \ 


rei by, 

mS.U^.'; and Mb 

'PaUaio BoM-Sauirtga to VU BaLbl. 

goodpnrtloo, elevoii 


era; Titian's St. C 

Jo«ph and Iha C 

let Butler, by B. 

ttoiil {(, 

•ftri«<0 BHgm^8-lt. now JWairo So 

•w (Bed) 

ft. Vi. 0«)b>Wi. 

oa. 8U 


Baptist; Del SortD' 


Holy FamiJ)'; diild 

lait male lurvlvor 


with its fine library 

PatauB iManra, 



boye).!. being conV 

I ftiioKO Doria-Tarti, la Via 0»rtb«ldl,foniierly 
(be Jesuits' College, now the UmirlpalUli or Town 
Hull. 300 feet long, including the low .tched 
wtogs, uid li faced with Haccu pilaslera. It c™- 
taiiii antOKTBpbs ol Columboa and A. Dotl.. and 
tbc famous folcntn-a Table, a relic in the ahaps 
of a bronze tablet, found .t PoleeTcrra, In ICO. on 

Gennalae and Veetuili. .s tet^d' by the Romu 
aqthoritles (A.P.C. AM), the risers and mounUini 
being dlitlnctly marked. There la also a plan of 

Palaito Oiorsio DoHa, t. Via Crlbildl. has 
snnie freicoei by Camblaio .nd plclorca by Paolo 

It pile, 

CalYhi; Raphael's Holy Family; Gnldo'sSt.Luhi 
and a Magdalene; three porttAlts by Vandyck; 
Laea. de Leyden'a Descent (rom the Croas, Ac. 

•Poloiio Calalia, in Via Garibaldi, built by 
Aleaal. la one of the largest h, Genoa ; h.Ytng e 

^d^1n™tl,?M'^ln"or' ""V^ '*"' ^^^ ■"' 

l^ Castollo; P. Veronese's Adoration of the Mael; 
Tillan'a Herodlaa with the Baptist's head. 

J'sduioOH-fa, occupying anoble lite on the north 
aide of the port, near the Dareena and " 
bnt now neglected. It was rebnilt by I' 
(or Andrea Bona, the "Prince ' andXdc 


.), bealdei a lnplWr. An, 

((rt'en him hy 

. Doge and o 


rlsl and Majy 



em- PhUlp IV 


a large 


No, 6, Via Balb 

ough aa 







'— «r- 


d, 184!, 

It is MO feet lo 


pallia to style. 


Palatto Cattaaeo, to Piano Cntaneo, wtth a 
limber at portrait! by Vandyck. 
PalaiiB famgglala, In Pluu, fcwjiwwfes 
uppoilte thefiii%»a.i.w*dlGiS«3iiHo*.'»*».i™*s 

ralaao yiiOtil 


Cotonns: jObBDO-i 

The Villa aiu 

Forts rila, has frc9Fi»> by Ta 

■ut of Lord Byron the y,. 

^ iWoz«,S™;<or SKtffthy 

hnt neglected. H 


b >r<:l»3 betw«n. 


ol deiKm in thii pitiice Ihnr 

in any in Ooi^oa; 

■noro pure, it might 

cHallengB comparison, In »m 

in IttAi-r—FrrgiMm. 

orange lEardena, grotloe*. Ac- : fee 1i 

lewiu-of CliiogglB.18 

Palaim PenHjuadB Stdmta, lana<t\y Pali 
aHmaldl. In Via OAribildl, bnlH by AIobsI. 
haaagrtal hall and ■taLrcase, Vandyck'a porlr 
(one on ■ horie). bIniKlf. and Lnl 

a >'onti 


{,. Giordan 

"The real mtrllof th 
lht7 really are what Ih 

Tbe nen Teairo Carlo Fillet, or 0|Kra Honse, 
1 tha /'(oita flsftrrort, was boiil In 1828 by 
'. Baradino. and im large and remarkaUly bund- 

>tlier ^atrea are Iho ' Fsganiii', PoUlfama 

a^talneof the Virgin by Fuget, and H. Ange^o'i 
' flnePleliier DeiACSrUt. 

r B. Boico, 142D, by A, Onollno, for tta< 

iif[ Bgalnft the French, 1T4S, Omdilellii 
the CSM dl Reoovcro dai Paail (Hoine 
J (or LunBlia). fminded IS38. Inr 90 
. The t<«pllal lor /ncwnWffl. In [lir VIi 

eric Mle Fladiini 

^.taiiala Oul-UMro, [rom which lh«™ ll > niaiml- 
fiunl vtew. The Valuta di /Itgro. itltli pabllc 
cudcni. behinil which l» alio ■ very aneilow. 
The Catiipo SanIO, ou»lde lh« UWD, la lluwell 

The lengnagc Is ■ dialed of the Italian, with 
•ome Spanish and Proven(«l words. It has 
no ,; they ilnr Ihe t. I. and ».- -nyluff "iHo" 

drop Ihe final lyllahls li 

wif , Ihe Prenoh Emperorioade hi sentry Into Genoa, 
the saperh gaeen of the U^^ntian Sea. At dawn of 
that day. Ihe Genoese people were bniUy (iiga^ 

balcoulei or their whlls marble palacci with velvel 
dmnerks and fresh flowers. The women were In i 
aelfrlnmofjoytul exprctat Ion. anil one niUhthnve 
said that their only occupation consisted In Inter- 
weaving the laurel leaf with the ipnCleis ouneltia 
of their nrdeng. When I ao back In ihousht tti 
lbs sreiirni! of that day. and think of the magnlH- 
evnt dty otOansa— nnqneet lonablyoneof the most 
beaatUnl towHi of the soDth, and perhapi superior 
to all olli«iai<XB*pllDEl( Hides and CoDaliuiliDafl« 

At VKa »>ltuila. the seat of hla friend, Colonel 
Vecchl. anrlhsldl resided, before his expcdillun to 

fiShllne, 11 Is my duly to go 'o the rescne.- His 
mollowas, "Italy and VlclorEmmannoll" Aregn- 

Ibonsainlsfroniairparttofltaly.nntl embarked un- 
der the very noses of theautharllles, who could not 
,._.i — K — jij__._j,i.._i,^p|t. ,uch waitha 

:1c of Garibaldi's I 

!. Ships c 

ihlniaBllerla" (har.lwarBjran'd""" 
dirou). HflenibarkodBthMay,l 



[Section 1. 

hip litile luny, he Mt tail again, and ran into 
.Marsala llth May. In a few weeks he obtained 
possession of Sicily ; and in 122 days he overran the 
Two Sicilies, and handed over a new Idngdom, with 
nine millions of subjects, to Victor Emmanuel. 


OeiuMi, by tbe RlYlera dl Leyahte, to Spezla, 

Lacca, Pisa, Leghorn, and Florence. 

By road or by rail (opened, 1874)toSe8triLevante 
and Spezia ; thence to Pisa, Sec. The steamer runs 
to Leghorn in 12 hours. (See Bradshaw's Con- 
tineniai Ouide.) Chief stations are as follow : — 


Nenrl 7i 

Becco 13 

Sta. Margherita 171 

Chiavari 24i 

Sestri Levante 28| 

The Riviera di Levante (i.e., east strand), as this 
side of the Bay of Genoa is called, is of the same 
delightful character as the west side, or Riviera di 
Ponente. The road climbs the hill, or sweeps round 
bay sof the sea, continually presentingnew pictures. 
The railwav often runs nearly along the carriage 
road, but tnere are many cuttings and tunnels, 
where the prospect is lost. 

From Genoa, the road crosses the Bisagno, and 
rises towards S. Martino d' Albaro, where Byron 
lived, to 

Nervl (Stat.), population, 6,575, and its coun- 
try-seats. A winter resort in a sheltered part. 
Hotels: Hotel and Pension Victoria, close to the 
Station; Eden; Grand Hotel and Pension Anglaise. 
English Church Service. 

Recco (Stat). The ancient Ricino, on the Via 
Aurelia, a pretty town (population, 5,154), with a 
campanile church. To the right is the promontory 
and harbour of Portus Delphini^ now Porto Fino, 
rising 2,000 feet high at one point. The Ruta Tun- 
nel through the Ligurian Hills, between Camogll 
and Sta. Hargherlta iHotel'. Bellevue), is 8,500 
yards long. 

RapallO (Stat.) Population, 10,509. {Hota : De 
rEurope and Pension Prandon. An old place, and a 
resort for visitors, on a small bay, with a campanile 
and pictui'esque tower. It produces tunny fish and 
coral. Near it is Madonna delM.ontallegro Church. 
English Church Service here and at Stn. Margherita. 

Chiavarl (Stat.) Population, 12,066. On a 
plain, with some old arcaded streets, and good 

sculptures and paintings, 
gnats arc troublesome in 

churches containing 
Aloes flourish here; 

Lavagna (Stat), 

population, 7,192, a town 
with a red marble palace and fine church, among 
quarries of slate called Pietra di Lavagna. 

Seetrl Levante (Stat.), population, io,i94, in a 

beautiful bay opposite Rap|Uo. Hotel de TEurope, 
situated on the sea shorei^ull south. See Advt. 
Fromheretherail inclines coaatwards,pa6tlIoneg- 
11a (Stat) Thence to L^vanto (Stat): an old 
portqi a smallbay : population, 4,562. Past Monte- 
X09$0 (Stftt), or HoRterosso al M«re, to Spejsiii. 


Deiva 87| 

Levanto 43 

Monterosso 46^ 

Comiglia 50 

Spezia 56j 

The carriage rou^e is much. to be preferred. 
It rises up to the Pass of Braoco, one of the 
highest on the road, 1,850 feet above the sea, 
winding through roclis of coloured marble and 
granite, clothed with olives, chestnuts, ^nd myrtles. 
The Apennines are on the left, bounded by the 
old Duchy of Parma. Bbacco has a fine view of 
Moneglla Bay, Sestri Point, Porto Fino, Ac. 
Hence, by road, up to the Pass of Velva, 2,100 feet 
high, where vegetation ends, down to Bobghbtto 
(population, 1,935), where the chestnuts appear 
again. Here the peculiar flat cloth head-dress of 
the women and the small straw hat are seen. Pass 
along the River Vara to the top of Foce di Spezia^ 
commanding a wide prospect of the beautiful Bay 
of Spezia, the Apennines, and Carrara Mountains. 

La Spezia (Stat.) Population, 60,000. 

Hotels: Grand Hotel de la Croix de Malte, 
splendid situation, full south, overlooliiDg the 
Bay, beautiful trarden in front of the Hotel; 
Grand Motel d'ltallc. 

English Vice-Coruul ; English Church Service at 
Hotel Croce dl Malta. 

Spezia is a growing naval port, with a very fine 
Naval Arsenal and Dock -yard, and a harbour of 
160 acres protected by a Mole. Here the great 
Dandolo was launched, 1878; and here the 100-ton 
Gun, 32 feet long, m-tachbore; firing a 2,000 lb. 
shot, with 440 lbs. of powder, was made by Sir 
W. Armstrong. The town has of late years, 
owing to its l)eautiful climate and picturesque 
scenery and associations, become a favourite 
winter resort and much frequented bathing place. 
Sanitary arrangements are good, and there are 
numerous excursions to charming and interesting 
spots in the neighbourhood. It is at the head of 
the beautiful BayofSpeeia, 5 miles by 4, safe, deep, 
and well guarded by forts built by Napoleon, 
and surrounded by villas. Ruins of the old castle 
of St. George. Spezia Is the ancient Portus Lunte, 
or ErydSy giving name to Lebici, on the east 
side (population, 4,700), a fishing port, where 
Shelley, the poet, and his friend, Williams, were 
drowned, 1822. Shelley was then living in retire- 
ment at S. Terenzo. The current story is, that his 
boat was purposely run down, in the belief that 
there was a box of money on board. His body was 
burnt on the shore by Byron, and the ashes were 
then interred in the cemetery at Rome. On the 
west side of the bay Is the promontory of black and 
yellow marble, called Portor, after Porto Venere, 
a picturesque village on the site of a Temple of 
Venus, close to which is Isola Palmaria, and its 
olive groves. Byron lived some time at Porto 
Venere, and here wrote, at "Byron's Grotto," 
some portion of "The Corsair." Steamer from 
Spezia. There is a narrow gauge railway, 
3 kiloms. long, up Monte Cappuccini. 

It was after embarking at Spezia, 30th July, 
1858, to shoot on Capraja Island, 60 miles distant, 
that Victor Emmanuel was nearly lost in the Gover- 
nolo stMtmer, by striking on a sunken rock. 

Rail to PoxTBEMOLi, near the Monte Visa Pats 
oyer the Apennines, 8,400 feet high. 

^ute 11.3 

RlVlfifiA, SPE£1A; CARS Alt A, MiLAN. 


The line to Pisa crosses the wide bed of the 

moch of it to the United States, where it is In 

— — — -»-Jr..-A — Ul„«. „,:*K ♦Urt •iniir KrMnxi 

...'.'f*"* ronnp«t In Rnmnn times it wascollfid Luna 





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h a 


















%|**V*V AAVMU «^M»— MHW^M T 

little ^' 
rsftU lit*' 


Lucca, J 

Bv road o*^ 

.ndSpezla; J 
o Leghorn I 



8ta. Margbet 

Chlavari .••• 


The Rlvleri 

side o( the B 

delightful ch« 

Ponentc. Tn 

bay 8 of the sei 

The railway 

road, but th« 

-where the pr« 
From Geno 

rises towards 

lived, to 

Hervl (8t 

try-seats. A 
Hotdt: Hotel 
Station; Ede: 

English Churc 

AureUa, a prt 

campanile chi 

ftnd harbour 

rising 2,000 fe 

nel through tl 

and Sta. Kfl 
yards long. 

RapaUo (8 

VEurope and i 
resort lor visl' 
and picturesq 
coral. Near 11 
EngHsh Churci 


plain, with 8 
churches con 
^oes flourisl 

Layagna ^ 

with a red mfl 
quarries of sll 


beautiful bay 
situated on tl 

port on a 8mallb*y ; 








. 4 
, tl 


jia (Btat.) ,>j:r/i;,iii2aaH w«- ^•^P^ 

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[ne to Pisa crosses the wide bed of the 
by a viaduct, which with the new bridge 
road, is made especially strong to resist the 
.in torrents from the Apennines. Old 
on the distant heights. 

ana (Stat.), population, 10,047, a l)ishop's 
the birth-place of Pope Nicholas V., the 
r of the Vatican Library; and was the 
I seat of the Bonaparte family, which 
here as a branch of the Counts Cadolonghi, 
it settled in Corsica. Sarzana, when it 
mder the power of Genoa, in 1424 (by ex- 
for Leghorn), was granted to the banking 
tion of S. Giorgio, in that city. Besides a 
, hospital, &c., it contains a handsome 
Duomo, with some fretwork brought from 
asf of Luna — an old Etruscan city up the 
which has yielded many pavements, marbles, 
), inscriptions, (fee, and was a bishop's see 
i, when it was transferred to Sarzana. 
" Bat hark I the cry is ABtor, 
' Andlo! the r^nks divide, 
And the great Lord of Euna 
Comes with his stately stride."- MAOAUtJir. 
listrict, BtlU called Lunigiana, was divided 
1 Modena, Sardinia, and Tuscany. Short 
>m Sarzana to St. Stefano di Magra, com- 
tbe line between Pisa and Milan vift 

I the River Parmignola, on the old frontier 
la, ox Modena, to 

iza (Stat.), population, 3,254, which has 
la (iastle and a port at the month of the 
3, Vrhenoe Carrara marble is shipped, 
rail to (}arrara, 3 miles distant. 

rara (Stat.) A town to the left (popula- 
,143), nndei* the purple and redhiHs, abounds 
ocks of white marble, strewn on all sides, 
^h shops full of ornaments for sale, 
[azza Alberica is a fountain with a statue 
leils Beatrice of the Clbo family, who, by 
rrlAge in 1741 with the Duke of Modena, 
this little Duchy of 30 square miles of 
in, with that of Massa, into the Este family, 
ains a fine Cathedral^ marble of course, of 
LTteenth and fifteenth centuries; Madonna 
razie Church with some good marbles in it; 
omo Hospital; and an Academy of Sculp- 
unded by Princess Elisa, Napoleon's sistei*, 
tVided with casts and medals, placed in her 
which she gave up for the purpose, 
rfaite Carrara marble, so called from the did 
jtiorraruB (whence our old English word 
K, Is found in inexhaustible quantities in th« 
idges of Monte Sagro and Monte Crestola, 
le Rivers Torano, Bedizzano, ^S^c, which 
tear Carrara, in the Carone. Within a few 
i«re are above 400 quarries; those of Cima, 
ft, Palracoio, Zampone, Ac, giving the finest 
tlknre. .Above 6,000 men are employed in 
Mrl«8 and water mills by which the blocks 
Mi* TK6^ are then carried in bullock cai^til 
fstar fide at Ar^nza. Abore 120,000 Mas; 

much of it to the United States, where it is in 
great request. In Roman times it wa^ called Luna 
marble, that being the nearest place to the quarry; 
and nmny blocks and half-worked marbles pre- 
pared for removal to Rome were found here 
which were called fantisaHtfi, from some figures 
of Jupiter, Bacchus, and Hercules, carved near 
them, on which some ancient Roman visitors have 
left their names. A variety called hardiglio is 
streaked with blue and purple. The Caves and 
their spars of the purest water deserve a visit.] 

Massa (Stat.), or Masm Ducdle (population, 
19,000), in the Valley of the Frigido. The head of a 
Duchy, which was incorporated with Modena at 
the beginning of this century. It carries on a tri&de 
in marble; and contains a fine old castle, with a 
Palace formerly inhabited by the Princess EUsit; 
the Church of 8. Pietro, the Mercnrib Pillar, and 
the site only of a cathedral, which the Princess 
razed to improve the prospectfrom her seat. Maasa 
has a mild climate and is noted for its melons. 

Pletra-Santa (Stat.) Population, 14,947. 
The R«man Lneus Feronite, with two churches ^nd 
a campanile, and many marble quarries, partfdu- 
larly that of Saravezza, known for its fine gndn. 
The Church of S. Martino has bronzes by Dona- 
tello. This town is within the bounds of the ex- 
tinct Duchy of Lucca. 

ViaregglO (Stat.), near the sea. A bathing 
place (population, 12,519), in a pine forest under 
the Apennines. Hotels: CJorona; Russie; Anglo- 
Am^ricain. AttheBagni dlNerone are remains 
of Roman baths. 

From Viareggio a line (20 miles) runs through 
Lucca (Route 24) to Fonte atforlano, on the way 
to the Baths of Lucca. Tlie line will be continued 
to Anlla on the line to Fontremi^i (page 28). 

Torre del LagO (Stat.), near the Serchio. 

Pisa (Stat.) See Route 23. 

- ROTJTE 11- 

Mllan to Gallarate and Lake Uagglore. 
MILAN (Stat.). 

Miiano of the Italians, Maikm4 of the Germans, 
It gave name to the Milatners or Milliners^ and Uail 
armour, for both of which it was famous. 

Hotels:— Qrajid Hotel de Milan, th$ largest first- 
class hotel of Milan. Great comfort. HigJbiy 

Hotel de I'Europe, situated Oorso Yittorio 
Emanuele, 9 and 11. Deservedly recopunended. 
See Advt. 

Hotel Terminus, situated in the Inuned^i^te 
vicinity of the railway station. See AdTt'. 

Hotel dn IN^ord, close to the station. Full sout^. 
See Advt. 

Hotel Oavour, Place Gavonr, opposite the public 
gardens, good accommodation. 

Hotel de la Ville, J. Baer, proprietor, weU 
situated, on the Corso Tlctor Emmanuel. 

Hotel de Qrande Bretagne. The $uid^ Attached 
to this hptisl Is recomngtended. 

Grand Hbtel Continfuital. ' 




[Sectidn 1« 

Hotel de f*i'ance, 19, Conrs Victor Emmanuel. 

Hotel de Rome, well sitaated on the Corao (full 
south), Borella Bros., Proprietors. See Advt. 

Hotel Mdtropole; Hotel du Lion; Hotel Central. 

Buffet at the handsome Rniltvay Station. 

Oa/i?*. — Biffi and Gnocchi. in the handsome new 
Qalleria Victor Emmanuel; Cova in Via San 

It is noted for Milanese cutlets, Milan rice 
(riiotto), and other rice dishes ; also mushrooms, 
&c. The pastry, chocolate, and milk preparations 
are also excellent, as well as the dgs, grapes, 
melons, and other fruits. 

Broughams: per course, 1 lira; per hour, 1 lira 
50 cents. There is a better kind, numbered red, 
slightly dearer. Omnibuses: 10 cents, per course; 
from the railway stations, 25 cents. 

Retident English and American Vice-Consuls. 

English Church Service.— S^ Via Andegari. 

Waldensian Church S. Giovanni in Conca. 

English Bankers. — Ulrich and Co. 

Post Offke, 20, Via Rastrelii; 36 hours from 
London. Telegraph 19, Piazza de' Mercanti. 

Bailway Stations^ Central, near Porta Nuova; 
Erba, near the Castello, for Saronno, Laveno, Ac. 

Tramways from the Duomo to the Station, Ac. 
Private carriages, for Milan and the environs, 16 
lire a day. 

Steam Trams.— 'iiil&n to Cagnola, Saronno, and 
Tradate; and to FinoandComo. To Rho, Legnano, 
and Gallaratc. To Sedriano and Gastano. To 
Oorgonzola (noted for its cheese) and Vaprio. To 
Monza and Barzano. To Treviglio and Bergamo. 
To Melegnano and Lodi. To Binasco and Pavia. 

The best shops are in the Galleria Vittorio 
Emmanuele, and in the Corso of the same name. 
Hoases are shaded from sun and heat by green 
blinds; and it is desirable when taking a house 
for a term, to look out one on which he sun shines ; 
otherwise it may be unhealthy. 

*Chie/ Objects of Notice.— The Duomo ; St. Am- 
brogio; St. Carlo; Da Vinci's Last Supper, at 
the Dominican Priory ; Royal Palace ; Ambrosian 
Library; Brera Gallery, and the Sposalizio; La 
Scala; Arch of Peace; Great Hospital; Museo 
Poldo-Pezzoll. The new Victor Emmanuel Gal- 
lery, by Mengoni. 

Population (1897), 470,658, including garrison. 

Milan is the seat of an archbishop, the capital 
of Lombardy, a luxurious city, with fine hotels, 
caff^s, theatres, and vaiious institutions for 
literature, art, and science. It stands at the centre 
of several roads, tramways, and railways, in the 
wide, fertile, and well irrigated plain of iJombardy, 
between the Olona and Lambro, 15 mUes from the 
Po. to which they run. The Consuls M. Marcellus 
and C.Scipio took it in B.C. 221, from the Insubres 
in Cisalpine Gaul, and called it Mediolanum, from 
which comes its present name. Here Constantine, 
in 313, issued his decree declaring all religions 
equal before the law. 

It was given to Austria, 1718; taken by the 
French, 1796; became the head of the Cisalpine 
Republic, then of Napoleon'n UngAQm of Italy, 

1805, under the Viceroy Eugene Beauharnoif, but 
was restored in 1814 to Au^tiia, after an attempt at 
independence, which resulted in the assassination 
of Prina, Napoleon's minirtor, 20th April, 1813. 

Tile Austrians made it the capital of their Lom- 
bardo- Venetian kingdom. Two risings occurred 
in 1821 and 1848; in the latter case they were 
driven out after four days' fighting. They came 
back in 1849. on the iOth of August, the Emperor's 
birthday. Victor Emminuel made his entry 
here August lOtli, 1859, after the treaty of 
Villafranca. Its governor at the annexa- 
tion ^as the able and distinguished Massimo 
d'Azeglio, uncle to the late Italian Ambassador at 
London. Very few ancient remains have survived 
these changes; but it is still one of the richest 
cities in Europe. The snowy Alps are in view. 

The noble Duomo and its spires, the grand mark 
from all sides, stands in the midst of the narrow 
winding streets of the old city ; which is surrounded 
by a branch of the Naviglio Grande, and is an oval 
space li by 1 mile. This canal conmiunicates by the 
Naviglio di Martesana with the streams on each 
side. Beyond it the suburbs, in some parts, stretch 
to the bastione or -ramparts, built 1555, which 
form an Irregular hexagon between 6 and 7 
miles and about 2 miles across. They are well 
planted with trees, as are the Piazza d'Armi, and 
the Foro on the N.W., where the line of circumval- 
lation is most broken. The streets, called in the 
old town contrade {contrada, a street) and calle 
(ealla, a lane), improve in the newer parts, where 
the best houses are found, and as they widen take 
the name of Corsi (corso^ a course) ; they are how- 
ever as a rule not wide, but the buildings are 
tolerably lofty. Many of the streets are known 
by the name of Fta, and those outside, skirting 
the bastions, as Viale. 

The best streets are Corso Victor Emmanuel, . 
Corso di Porta Venezia, and Via Charles Albert. 
The Victor Emmanuel Arcade is a cross 640 
feet by 345, with shops and statuary. This gallery, 
running between the Piazza del Duomo and the 
Piazza della Scala, is superior to anything of the 
kind elsewhere. Milan is the cleanest city in Italy. 
The chimneys of many of the houses are disguised 
under the form of small turrets, castles, and Chinese 

The best promenades are on the ramparts, the 
Gallerio Vittorio Emmanuele, and the Giardino 
Pubblico. Most of the open spaces, or Piazze, 
are irregular; the largest is Piazza del Duomo, 
from which a new street, called Vittorio Emman uele, 
is open to the Leonardo da Vinci Piazza; a Loggia 
Reale, by Mengoni, faces it. That of Piazza For- 
tuna, near it, has a fountain of red granite with 
two marble syrens; the Piazza de' Mercanti fronts 
the Old Exchange; Piazza St. Fedele, opposite 
that church, is regular. Piazza Borromeo has a 
bronze of 8. Carlo Borromeo. 

The Chubohics are usually shut from twelve to 
three. Of all the buildings, the most striking it 
the marble, cross-shaped 

*ZHiQf7ia, or CalMM, reckoneA by S9me to be tbo ; 

Uoutc 11. 1 

MILAK— CUtRClir.S . 


most remarkable church in Italy, after St. Peter's, | 
at Rome, and dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It is | 
for the most part in the florid Gothic style, with a 
profusion of spires and niched statues. There are 
J 00 of the former, and 7,000 of the latter, of which 
2,400 have been put up in the last twelve years, 
one of the latest being the statue of Victor Em- 
manuel. Visitors arc recommended to see it first 
by moonlight, if possible. Though begun by G. 
G. Visconti, Duke of Milan, as far back as 1386, it 
is still unfinished, after various additions and 
alterations from the original design, which seems 
to be due to H. Ahrler, a German. In fact, it is 
in a continual state of repair, in terms of a deed 
under which a certain sum is spent annually upon 
the edifice. Length, 371 feet; width, 226 feet; 
height of the aisles, 92 feet; of the nave, 192 feet 
(about 150 to the vaulting); of the cupola, 197 
feet (or 360 feet to the top of the spire). The front 
is an elaborate piece of work, much broken np by 
small doors, and many windows, in a Gothicised 
Roman style, little harmonising with the scale of 
splendour of the interior. This part was restored 
in Napoleon's time, and decorated with statues and 
bas-reliefs. On each side of the middle door are 
two columns, each of an enormous granite block, 
from Baveno, 85 feet high, carrying statues of 
S. Carlo Borromeo (by Monti) and Marches!. A 
stained window above contains the Assumption, by 
Bertini, a modem window painter, who died 1849. 
The interior, though ill lighted, is vast and impos- 
ing, being a clear space from end to end, only 
interrupted by the great clustered pillars which 
support the vault. There are fifty-two of them, 
69 feet high, 20 feet round the base, and covered 
with niched figures, foliage, tracery, &c. They 
divide the body into two aisles, on each side of the 
nave, and one on each side of the transepts. 

The pavement is of chequered marble. There 
are tombs of archbishops, the Visconti, &c., and 
two popes, Martin V. and Pius IV. Round the 
pulpits are bronzes of the four evangelists, and 
four fathers, by Brambilla. In Pellegrini's choir 
are seventeen bas-reliefs of great excellence. The 
bronze tabernacle of the high altar is another 
work by Brambilla. Here they keep a nail of the 
true cross, which is carried in procession on the 
3rd of May, the anniversary of the great plague of 
Milan, in which its excellent archbishop, San 
Carlo Borromeo, figured so worthily. He died in 
1584, and his body is preserved here. His rich gold 
and silver shrine is in a shrine below, where he 
is seen dressed np in pontifical robes, sparkling 
with diamonds, and his head resting on a gilded 
cnshion. He was the nephew of Pius IV., and 
was canonised by his successor; which cost his 
family so large a sum, that they declined to ask 
for a similar honour for his cousin. Cardinal Fred. 
Borromeo, the one celebrated by Manzoni, in the 
PromesH 8poti. 

An inscnption at the east end of the cathedral 
jg^ves a list of the relics belonging to it, among 
wliich are Clirist^s cradle and swaddling clothes; 
part of tl>e towel with which h^ wiped bis dis- 

ciples' feet; four thorns of his crown; parts of the 
reed, the cross, the sponge, and the spear ; and 
one of the nails ; a piece of Moses' rod ; two of 
Elisha's teeth ; and so on. A charge of 5 lire is 
made for showing the relics of S. Carlo Borromeo. 

" One of the most popular religious books is the 
Filotea, published by one of the confessors to the 
cathedral. It is full of legendary fables and sells 
by thousands. Every disorder of every part of 
the human body has a saint, to whom the patient 
may pray for a cure." — Dr. Wordsworth. 

Here also are St. Carlo's statue, and that of St. 
Ambrose, besides eight pictures, ^c, of the events 
of St. Carlo's life. Behind the choir is a curious 
anatomical statue of St. Bartholomew, by Agrati, 
in the act of being flayed. The Treasury (admis- 
sion, 1 lira) contains an enamelled gospel and a 
diptych of very ancient date, and a statue of 
Christ by C. Solari. 

In the Medici Chapel is a tomb, designed by M. 
Angelo ; built by Pope Paul IV., to his brother. 
Some of the pictures are worth notice from being 
on glass. High up is the portrait of the principal 
architect, with the inscription, "I. O. Antonius 
Homodcus Venerc Fabrice, ML. I., Architectus," in 
a circle. About 520 marble steps bring us at 
length (past Brambilla's statues of Adam and Eve) 
to the gallery round the spire, whence there is a 
noble view over the whole plain of the Po, as far 
as Mont Blanc, Mont Rosa, the Stelvio Pass, Ac. 
Charge, 26c.; guide, 1 lira. The cathedral is open 
all day. 

•' It wants chiaro-scnro, and some of its details, 
especially in the facade, and the Roman erection 
on the roof of the nave, greatly impair the effect. 
But who can describe the interior? After the 
light and somewhat tawdry decorations of many 
other Continental churches, this magnificent 
cathedral, especially when entered from the subter- 
ranean passage which leads from the archbishop's 
palace, produces a powerful impression on the 
mind, by its vast size, its lofty proportions, its 
solemn gloom and sublime grandeur, and the rich 
hues of its stained glass windows. It seems as if 
the ancient spirit of religion, such as dwelt in 
Milan in the days of St. Ambrose, loved to linger 
here. The inscription, which is conspicuous on 
the rood lofl, 'Attendite ad Petram unde excisi 
estes' (Look unto the Rock whence ye were hewn), 
is very significant. There are side altars, but not 
prominent as in many churches." — Dr. Wordsworth. 

The large windows at the east end are modem, 
stained with subjects from the Bible, especially the 
ReveIation,somebyBertini;andreplace those which 
were shattered by the cannonading of 1806. at the 
time when Napoleon was crowned King of Italy. 

The choir has no screen. At the intersection of 
the nave and transepts are the large ambos or 
pulpits, from which the gospel and epistle are read. 
The Ambrosian liturgy, which the Pope has never 
been able to abolish, is a standing proof of the 
independence of the Milanese Church. Priests who 
use the Roman ritual are not allowed to officiate 
except on very urgent occftsions. CajtAA^^S!^'«i>^ 



[S^ection 1. 

teacbing is carried on every Sunday. The whole 
of the facade is to undergo restoration, the plans 
having already been approved. 

In 1859, the day of the Battle of Magenta, Arch- 
bishop Ballerini was nominated to the see by the 
Emperor of Austria; the appointment did not take 
effect, and Caccia was chosen by the chapter as 
Vicar-General; he afterwards retired to Monza. 
At the end of 1862 there were thirty-four vacant 
sees out of the 257 in the new Italian kingdom. 

On the 1st June, the national anniversary, or 
Fe^a deUo Statuta, is celebrated with great splen- 

A aodetli Ecdetiastiea was founded here in 1859, 
and consists of 200 members, the object of 
"vthich is to cultivate religious studies, especially 
those which have a practical influence on the social 
welfare of the people ; but, laudable as it seems, it 
VTM denounced by the Ultramontane journals 
as sohismatical and revolutionary. 

Sta. Maria dOfe Orazie, in Gorso Pta. Magenta, 
attached to the old Dominican Friary (now a bar- 
riEu:k), was built 1468-9a by Leonardo da Vinci's 
patron, Duke Ludovlco 11 Moro, and has a Gothic 
nave, with apicturesqne cupola added by B ramante, 
6$ feet diameter, supported by semicircular tri- 
bunes, "and which externally and internally is 
one of the most pleasing specimens of its class to 
be found anywhere." — Fergusson. 

It has frescoes by G. Ferrari, (fee, and (in the 
refectory, entrance to which is by a door to the 
%^9t of the church) the traces of the famous 
Ceiiacolo, or *Zasi Supper of Da Vinci, painted in 
flresco on the wall, 1497-1 500 (some say sixteen years 
altogether), but how so decayed, partly from sub- 
sequent illtreatment, as to be hardly noticeable. 
The faces of the Saviour and St. Thomas are visible, 
tlie latter with a face worse than Judas's. Twelve 
copies, however, are extant, the best of which is by 
()ggioni (1510), at the Royal Academy, London ; 
'^ile the engravings have made 'the aesini of it 
imiversally Imown. The great painter established 
^school of Arts here, and lived on an estate near 
tAe Porta Vercellina, close by, given him by the 

*St. Ambrogio (Ambrose), in Piazza St. Ambro- 
gio ; built by Archbishop Anspertus in the ninth 
century, of brick, in a very early Romanesque or 
Byzantine style (on the site of one founded 387 by 
St. Ambrose, in honour of two martyrs), and con- 
sists of two naves of equal size; one forming a 
court or Atrium to the other or principal nave, in 
trhich is a brass serpent on a granite pillar (said to 
bMB the very one put up by Moses in the Wilderness), 
and a very ancient tomb with curious bas-reliefs. 
This Atrium, in which the people asked alms and 
]ierformed penance, is bordered by an arcade, and 
has many tablets and inscriptions, some of them 
being Greek mixed with Latin. The ancient 
pillar, at which the Lombard kings took the 
coronation oath, is preserved in the Piazza. Here 
S^ 4.mbrose baptised St. Angelbert, and sang 
fife srAnd U Dmm ZoiMJtimw, MCribed to Um. 

Among the remarkable things to be found in this 
church are the ancient pulpit; the splendid Shrine 
(shown for 5 Ir.) of gold and silver, a remarkable 
specimen of metal work (done 835), adorned with 
inscriptions and coloured reliefs of Augustine's 
life, Ac., and covered with a beautiful canopy; the 
very old chapel behind his choir, and its twelve 
curious Byzantine mosaics on a gold ground. 

The Ambrosian service book is of vellum, very- 
ancient, in six folio volumes, richly illuminated, 
with the musical notes. The large marble ambo, 
or pulpit, is adorned with a bas-relief of an agape 
or love feast. Opposite this is a portrait of St. 
Ambrose on a pilaster. Over the altar is a mosaic 
of the Saviour, with a Greek inscription, signifying 
"Jesus Christ, the King of Glory." By his side 
are the martyrs, Gervasius and Protasius, whose 
bodies were discovered in 386. Some mosaic illus- 
trations of the life of St. Ambrose are seen in the 
choir ; and the archbishop's chair and canons' stalls 
are in the apse behind the altar, near a mosaic of 
the Baptism of St. Augustine, in 387. 

One of the chapels is dedicated to St. Ambrose's 
sister, Marcellina, who is buried with her brother 
(who died Easter day, 397) under the high altar. 
He -was Metropolitan over eighteen Lombardy 
bishops. Another chapel is called St. Satyrus, 
after Ambrose's brother, who was buried here 
close to St. Victor, in a sarcophagus, which was 
found in 1861. 

The paintings, ^Si^c., contained in the side chapels 
are G.Ferrari's Virgin; Lanciani's St. Ambrose on 
his death-bed; Pacetti's statue of Santa Marcel- 
lina; Borgognone*s fresco of Christ and the two 
Angels, Ac. 

The Latin hymns of St. Ambrose have been 
edited by Biraghi, one of the prefetti of the 
Ambrosian library, under the title of "InniSinceri 
di Sant' Ambrogio." — Dr. Worckworth. 

S. Aleuandro (1602), in Corso degli Amadei, has 
two large statues in the front, and a richly orna- 
mented interior, with pahitings on the cupola, by 
Campi, Procaccini, and other artists. 

Santa Maria pretao S. C^so, near the Porta 
Ludovica, opposite the Military College, founded 
by the Viscontis, 1^91, shows a very beautiful 
front, in which are two sibyls, by Fontana; and 
an excellent Adam and Eve at the entrance, by. 
Laurcnzi. Inside, among other work, are Appi- 
qui's frescoes, and Fontana's statue of the Virgin ; 
with a rich altar. <fec. 

S. Vittore al Corpo, in that stvadone, behind a 
barrack, was rebuilt 1560, by Al^ssi, on the site of 
one from which St. Ambrose shut out the Emperor 
Thcodosius, the gates of which are said to be at 
S. Ambrogio; with pictures by Procaccini, Bellon, 

Santa Maria ddla Passione^ in the Via del Con- 
servatorio, is rather a fine church, 820 feet long, 
with a triple portal, three naves, and a dome 106 feet 
high. Note the tomb of the founders (Archbishop 
Blrago and bis brother), bv A. Fusina, 1498; 

paintings of the CrucifizioD, oj Ctmpl; the Last 

Dy i 

Route 11.] 

Supper, by G. Ferrari; St. Francis, by Procaccini; 
a Flagellation, by Salmeggia, «fec. 

S. Paolo^ near Santa Eufcmia, was built in the 
16th century, is richly ornamented, and has 
frescoes by the Bros. Campi. 

S. Stefano-Maggiore, or in Brolo, in that Piazza, 
was rebuilt in the fifteenth century, and han atower. 
three aisles, and a painting of Procaccini in one of 
its handsome chapels. Here Galazzo ViscontI was 
assassinated, 1476. The Calvary Chapel of S. 
Bernardino is close to it. 

8. Naxaro Maggiore, in Corso di Porta Romana, 
is a narrow cross, with an ante-chapel, and other 
chapels all around it. It is full of monuments of 
the Trirulzi family, on one of whom, an active 
soldier and Marshal of France is the epitaph, 
"Qui nunquam quievit, quicsclt, tace " (He who 
never rested, rests here; silence!). 

* 8. Lorenzo, near Corso di Porta Ticmese. is a 
large singular octagonal church, 142 feet diameter, 
with a dome, by Pellegrini, and flanked by two 
small octagons; one of them being an ancient 
chapel in which Ataulphus, the Goth, and his wife 
(sister to the Emperor Honorius) arc buried under a 
curious tomb ; behind is a third octagun, or bap- 
tistery, 45 feet diameter; and in front, beyond 
where the atrium stood, in the Corso, are sixteen 
fluted columns in a line, each above 40 feet high, 
of the Temple or Batfis of Hercules, built, as is 
supposed, by Maximilianus ; almost the sole rem- 
nant of the Romans now left here. An architrave 
of brickwork, with towers at the end, was added 
by Napoleon to assist in their preservation. 

8. Fedele, in the Piazza l)ehind the old Jesuits' 
College, was built by Pellegrini, and has fine bas- 
reliefs in the front, by G. Monti, of St. Ambrose 
Interceding in the Plague of Milan. 8. Angela, in 
that strada, has double rows of columns in front, 
and a campanile tower. 

8. Babila, at the comer of the Via Monforte, is 
built on the site of an old temple of the Son. 

*8. Carlo Borromeo, in Corso Vitt. Eman. is a large 
round church, built 1888-47, by AmatL, with a dome 
copied from ttie Pantheon, 105 feet diameter, and 
120 feet high. "Notwithstanding that it possesses 
internally twenty-two monolithic columns of 
beantifol Baveno marble, and some good sculpture, 
the whole is thin, mean, and cold, to an extent sel- 
dom found anywhere else. Externally the design is 
as bad. A portico of thirty-six Corinthian columns 
is arranged pretty much as in the British Museum. 
Each of them is a monolith of marble, nine feet 
in circumference, and the capital and entablature 
are faultless, but the central portico is crushed into 
insignificance by the dome of the church, which 
rises, like a great dish cover, behind it, and the I 
wings are destroyed by having houses built behind i 
them, with three vtoreys of windows under the 
porticoes, and three more above them, so arranged 
ai to coiB4»ete with, aadf as far ai possible, destroy. 



any little dignity the dome itself might possess.'* 
— Fergtuson. Close by is an ancient statue, called 
"L'uomo di pietra." 

Santa Eufemia, on the site of one founded In the 
fifth century, is nearly opposite S. Paolo, and a 
little out of the Corso di S. Celso. 

8. Etutorgio, just out.<iide Porta Ticinese, close to 
the old Dominican Friary, contains tombs of the 
Torre and Visconti families, and among other 
objects of notice, Balducci's excellent shrine of 
St. Peter-Martyr, with its beautiful figures of Pru- 
dence, Hope, and other virtues. The stone pulpit 
and statue of St. Peter-Martyr face the church. 

8. OoUardo, only a fragment of a former church 
of the Visconti, near the Palazzo Reale. 

8. Mauritio Maggiore, in Corso di Porta Magenta, 
belonging to a convent, is on the site of Jupiter's 
Temple, and has some excellent frescoes by Luiui. 

8. 8atiro, in the Via Torino, has no choir, but a 
capital painted imitation of one, at the end of the 
nave. It was re-built by Bramante. 

8. 8ebastiano, a round church, in Contrada della 

8. 8epolcro, in that piazza, behind the Ambrose 
Library, has an old tower of the eleventh century. 

A noteworthy object is the Statue of Leonardo 
da Vinci, in the Piazza della Scala, of Carrara 
mart)le, above life size, which is placed on a pedes- 
tal, surrounded by statues of four of his principal 
pupils, and embellished with copies of his chief 
works. It was erected in 1872, and is by Magni. 

Palaces. — ^Near the Duomo is the *Paiatzo Reale 
(Royal Palace), rebuilt and enlarged on the site of 
the old palace of the Dukes of Milan. In the 
presence chamber are frescoes by Appiani (the 
apotheosis of Napoleon) and Hayez ; with some by 
Sabatelli. A range of Caryatides, by Celano, 
supports the fine ball-room; and S. Gottardo's 
(Gothard's) Chapel, which was part of the ancient 
palace, was restored and ornamented by the 
late Archduke Maximilian, when Governor- 
General of Lombardy. The large halls adjoining 
the ball-room are hung with silk draper^', or old 
tapestry of the sixteenth century, from the Car- 
toons of Raphael, embroidered by the nuns of San 
Giorgio, near Mantua. Here the German Emperor 
was lodged at his visit, 1875. An elegant I^m- 
bard brick tower, of the fourteenth century, rises 
over the chapel, with a colossal angel in copper 
at the top. Near this palace is the 

Palazzo Arciveeeoviie (Archbishop's), with a 
simple, yet good front, rebuilt by S. Carlo Bor- 
romeo, in the sixteenth century. The architect 
was Pellegrini. The court is surrounded by a 
double colonnade, and contains statues of Moses 
and Aaron. Formerly it formed part of the royal 
palace adjoining. 

Palazzo di Pre/cttura, in Via di Mouforte, an old 
liuiMing with a modem fac^ade. 


[Section I, 

. '/>if{ai^<Haiiu(bja,nurPlaiiaBcc(siria.iltire« 
pile, once bho nsidence of t he Judge hni aii lu tereW- 

Palaaj lirlla Aatrisif, now dbsiI for the Com 

cetitiiry Palattn ittl Ofure^tniuKf. with the Ex- 

or ifunlclpUi, In Plana 3. F«ilele, 

built by 

b« told the I 

111 xrhtit irsT be ullad tbs Holdelbem; ilyle. It har 
so lltllD AlUnlty with the nrlDclpil contempiiniry 
wurkiln luMnacUlar—Perguiua. 

modem edifices, each having t|iisclBl iltraetlon. it 

PaliHia Milii, In Vl« Muln. with |>«lntlng;», by 
CcMns dl Ceeio. Com PoiU, 1«IIi otiilury. In Via 
mgll, lias ft fine p..rlal. In Slraiia ilcl t-oiiicdl 
Biiitn Tereea Is tho Inrgs aoTOnimont Tobacco 

' UjiiMidt'tCaaaCutlglionelitbe 

Mjlaneeo he -would ." make thoni 

LOIlD.l)K<IDOHTDn'a/ldlr. ' . 

AfiMMiB prtrate ralacoe and Tlllas belonelng tc 
tlie noMllly, or bnlli by them, are— Potouo Inivnt, 
or Llutk'n lino lookhiB l>llo, "built by l>-;Hl(!hlnl. 

VIeconli, at Monia, nro iho only rniialiH of that 

Kwerfulfiunlly. Pmaia BtKH^om, built by O. 
fnnariuL Pabaw Btlloni. or Berbelloiil, hj tho 
KarqnH Cigniria. /Wo«»IV(»ii/i(o, built by Mar- 
qnlsTriiulsl ; It baa a libtnry of tM.I>ao tolnnies, 
■ ud S,000 MSB. Villa Bonapane. In tint gardens. 
The Roj-al Villa, formerly occupied by the late 

ItaePubllcQnrdcnssnd Porta Orlontsle. Th'epaluco 
once occupied by Queen Caroline stands In ibc 

Carlo, and contains 1II0,«D0 yolumet. and aboTe 

liniulsl, whert librarian here, dlicotored dcero'i 
lie Itepubllca. pans of bis lost Orations, tbe letter* 
of M. Anrellus, *o. OoeofthemosHnclentMSa. 
le a Latinlrauelatlon of Josephua. by ltDAnna,on 
papyrus, mnposed to be eleven cantnrlet old; 

talnini- Ilia first letter to his patreii; Vlcoiul's 
papers on Mechanics, *c, bis designs and bla will 
(all wrllMsn from right to loft); Ban Carlo's MIsaal 

The paintings and dnwingg are In the PlnaetUai 
(eiilninre from ihe reaiiing room), and Include 
Kaphael's large cartooiii of Ihe achool of Athens 
anil the Bailie of Constantlne and HMeiitlus ; pur- 
tniitsliy IMViiiol, and acopruf lilnLarlSuppei; 
oleieu Titlans! Correin^o's Chrhii and the Ubter 
Dalorosa; fiaphaol's Washing the Dhwlples' t^et ; 
— 1 ..I. — i,y oujrc'no, Del Barlo, C. Dolcl, S. 

Another gnal collecllon Is at the *Bm«, or 
Palaiizo dello ijclonze e delle Aril, a vast bnilSiiff, 
(ornicrly the Jesuits' College ; holU by Hlehlnl. 
and eiilargei! by l-lorinarlnl. It cwDprlits the 

ISl.Pauli A-Carraool 

It, Mark 

at Alex. 

The * Ambrmiaii ittnirii,(open/MoTeniber tg 
Hepieralier, in tn :n. in Contrada della itlbllKieoi, 
iru founded by Cardinal BorromM),nephtw ol San i 

1 his Jervrne; Crcspi'i 

hie porlnlt of Cecilia 'oalleranl (mistress ot 
LudoylcollM'iro); Haphacrs*SpoMll«h>,orEipoo- 
sals of Josepb and Mary; aiurgloiie'a Moses In 
tbe BuUrusbes and his 8L SelMtlan ; Titian's 8t. 
Francis; llnnlfBefo'sCl.rl.t at Emniaus. Ac. Uur- 
..... .._ iiio, H. Lanlnl, *c., are 

I. Free on Thursdays and Sondays. 

o An:liie.'Bt/in. a 

lie Milan 

Route 11.] 



fine collection of ancient and medfaeval works. 
Here are preserved whatever remains of the old 
city have been removed in effecting improvements. 

In the Via del Senato, in the Palazzo della 
Soeieta pelle Belle Arti^ wiih a permanent Art 

The Consei'vatorio della ifusica is the old convent 
near the Church of Sta. Maria della Passione, Via 
del Conservatorio. 

In the Via Manin is the Afus(0 Civico, with 
natural history an i ethnological collections; the 
reptiles are especially worth seeing. Open, 
Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday (gratis), and 
Saturday, 11 to 3. 

Of the theatres, the best, and also the largest in 
Italy, is the "^eatro la Scala, or Opera House, in 
Corsi del Giardiho, on the site of the Santa Maria 
della Scilla,'and facing the new Statue of Leonardo 
da Vinci. It was built, 1777-9, by G. Plermarini, 
and is as magnificent as it is commodious in all its 
parts. San Carlo, at Naples, is its only rival. A 
large vestibule leads into the pit, and by two grand 
staircases to the boxes, which number 240, and 
have a small saloon or cabinet to each; total 
lengthv 320 f eet ;. breadth, 180 feet (length of 
San Carlo's, 210- feet); pit, 105 feet deep, and 87 
wide acfOKS the boxes. ' Its facade is Corinthian 
on a rustic basement It holds above 3,500 per- 
sons. Performan'ces. as a rule, only during the 
Carnival:. "The Scala Theatre is the general ren- 
dezvous of Milan, and those who meet nowhere 
el.s9 meet there. The principal business of the 
audience certainly is not attention to the music; 
ajid munnurs, loud talking, and laughing are heard 
from the beginning to the end of the performance, 
e.xcept during one or two favourite airs, when all 
are still. Those who sit in the pit arc the only real 
audience. Those who stand in tke alleys come to 
hear the news and arrange commercial affairs; of 
the boxes, the two first tiers are the most polite 
and the least amusing; in the third and fourth 
tiers are settled almost all intrigues of all kir.ds; 
in the fifth some of them arc brought to a conclu- 
sion; an^i there also are card-tables, and gambling 
is going on during the whole performance ; the 
sixth is open like the pit." — Lord Brovghton. 

Teatro Cannobbiano, near Cuntrada Larga, and 
the Royal Palace (to which It is joined by a cor- 
ridor), was also built by Plermarini. It is usually 
open only during the carnival. 

Teatro ManzonU ne.)r Piazza San Fedele, is 
handsomely arranged. Carlo Be, on the site of an 
old church Teatro dal Vernie, a new one (1872) for 
grand o^Miras and ballets, occasionally circus. 
Teatro Filo-dranmiatiri, for amateurs. Via S. Da'- 
roazio, is near La Scala, and was built by Pollack. 
Operatic performances. 

The Circo, or Anfiteatro (or Arena), in the Piazza 
di Armi^ built by the French, 1805-6, from 
CanonIco*8 design, is an oval, 3o0 feet by 170 feet, 
for races, shows, Sec ; the Marble Arch stands at 
one end. It may be flooded for boat races. It will 
hold 30,000 spectators in its ten rows of scats, 
which ore nearly all of turf. 

" For some time after the change of government 
the Circus was neglected, and the races discon- 
tinued, but the velvet throne of Napoleon, and two 
figures in the ceiling, representing him and his 
Empress, Josephine, were shown at our first visit. 
At my next visit, in 1822, the Empress was become 
a Minerva; and the former master of the Iron 
crown was an old man with a beaird.'''—Lord 

In front of the Castello or Caserma, a great 
Barrack on the site of the old castle of the Dukes 
(of which some traces remain), is the Foro Bona- 
parte, a public walk laid out by Napoleon. 
Behind it is the Piazza d'ArmI, for reviews; about 
9C0 feet square, planted round the borders. On 
the further side, across the Simplon Road, rises a 
noble marble triumphal arch, called the 

*ArC0 dellaPace, or Arco del SempionCy second 
only to the Arc de I'Etoile at Paris for size. 
It was begun 1807, by Marquis Cagnola, but not 
finished till 1837, and was inaugurated the year after 
at thccoronation of Emperor Francis I. Thus,though 
desthicd to record the triumphs of Napuleon, it 
records only his reverses at Leipsic, Paris, Ac. 
It was re-dedicated to its new masters, 1859. As 
seen from all sides, it is a conspicuous mass 72 feet 
wide, 74 feet high, 42 feet thick; the centre arch, 
24 fcot wide by 48 feet high; two smaller ones, II 
feet by 28 feet. Fluted Corinthian pillars face 
each of the principal wings. There are numerous 
reliefs, statues, &c., including emblems of the 
Rivers Po, Ticino, Adige, andTagliamento, by the 
artists, Cacciatore and Pompeo Marchesi. On the 
top are two bronze Victories, 13 feet high, and 
(in the middle) a colossal bronze figure of JPeace 
(by Sangiorgio), in a car drawn by six horses. Its 
total cost is reckoned at upwards of £140,000. 

Out of the ten gates in the city ramparts, that 
of the Porta Ticinese (formerly Marengo) Is also 
by Cagnola, being composed of two Doric arches, 
with rustic work across the canale ; the old towers* 
have been removed. The Porta Romana is flanked 
by rustic pillars. Porta Nuova is Corinthian in 
style, with good bas-reliefs, by Znnaja (died 1817).' 

*Ospedale ifaggiore, or Great Hospital, with room 
for l,:iOO, is a parti-coloured building in the pointed 
style, 400 feet by 153 broad; made up of two 
square masses, each containing four courts, united 
by a grand court, 243 feet by 223 feet, consisting 
of two tiers of light, elegant arches, ornamented 
with pilasters, reliefs, Ac. It was founded, 1467, 
by Duke F. Sforza, and is richly endowed. Bra- 
mante, Richini, &c., have had a share in the 
building of it, since the commencement, by 
Filarete, of the southern mass; the northern being 
of a modem date, and inferior design. In the 
middle of the cettre court is a domed roof, with 
Guercino's Annunciation, and the portraits of 
benefactors. The smaller donors are drawn 
standing, while the others sit. 

There are also the two hospitals of the Fate- 
bene-Sorello and Fate-bene-Fratelli (Jax vi\^^«.\.«K"%. 
and brethren); atid «. "^wesX^ ^'Si -^NsdCft.^ w. v^^^' 



[Section 1. 

Cassa di Risparmio, in Via Monte di Pietk, is a 
new and handsome building. 

Among the places of education are the military 
college and artillery school, a veterinary school, a 
seminary for the priests, two royal colleges or 
lyceums, &c. 

Near the *Lazzaretto, celebrated by Manzoni, 
is a Foppone, or Cemetery. The large CimiteiHo 
Monumentale is on the north-west side, and is of 
great extent. It contains a Cremation Temple, and 
many handsome monuments. The charge, llr. 50c. 
for the guide is somewhat high. 

Piazza de'Mercanti, near the Piazza del Duomo, 
was the centre of the old city, and formerly had 
five gates. A bit of antiquity, culled the Uomo 
di Pietra, is in the Corsi de Servi. The Mercato, 
or Old Market, is near the Foro. 

In the neighbourhood are Casellago and its gar- 
dens; Casa Simonctta and its Echo, li mile: 
and Montebello, which was Bonaparte's head- 
quarters, 1797. Viareggio is an autumn retreat, 
in a fine spot. 

Among its eminent natives are Csecilius Stotius, 
Valerius Maxiraus, Cardan, Beccaria, Pavini, Ac. 
The late well-known Dr. Granville was born here, 
1773, of the Bozzi (Bos) family ; he was a Gran- 
ville on his mother's side. 

Manufactures.— ^iVs. goods of all kinds, em- 
broidery, cotton prints, goldsmiths' work, and 
jewellery, artificial flowers, glass, soap, leather, 
Ac, while there is trade in the produce of the 
country about, as rice, cheese, raw silk, &c. It is 
noted for its furniture. The plain silks of Lom- 
bardy are still the best in F.uropc. Many resident 
families have vet-y large ijicomes. Families with 
more than X6,000 reckon by hundreds. The 
commerce of Milan has more than doubled since 

Formerly the aspirations of its inhabitants were 
embodied in the ignoble rhyme — 

"Yira Franciii, viva 8p«cii», 
Basta che m mat^na." 

(Hurrah for France or Spain, so that we get enough 
to eat) ; but their sentiments are now of a more 
manly character. They are noted for affability 
and good humour. * 

Fashionables meet at CaflF^s Martini and Cova, 
or the Giardino Club, on an easy footing, without 
diatinciion of class or creed. Provided a man is well 
educated, ''The 'Ciao,' the most familiar form of 
friendly salutation, is freely exchanged between a 
duke and a bourgeois, and titles are generally 
dropped, a noble being addressed by his name, as 
Litta, Borromeo, Archinto, Ac. Even ladies are 
addressed in the same familiar fashion. Some of 
them, owing cither to their remarkable beauty, or 
their grace, are designated by nick-names. One is 
called the Sublime, another the Divine; one the 
Lily, another the Pole Star."— ilrritw6«««. The 
drawing-rooms of the leading families are freely 
open to every gentleman of character, whether 
native or foreign : and if he has a letter of intro- 

ustinn to some oae in the city, he seed be nt no 

loss how to spend his evenings. Once introduced, 
he may drop in at a party where every one may 
be a stranger to him, and will meet with a simple 
and kind reception. 

A very favourite resort of the Milanese are the 
Oiardini PuhUici at the north-eastern corner of 
the city. Here and on the Bastione di Porta 
Venezia, which is on the outside of the gardens, 
there is in the afternoon a long parade of carriages 
and promenaders. In the gardens is the Jfuseo 
Artistico, with some objects of local Interest. 
Open 1 to 4; admission 1 lira. 

The women of Milan possess the true Lombard 
style of beauty, fair and gentle, as seen in the 
Madonnas of Itaphacl and Leonardo da Vinci; 
and they have also the secret of dressing well. 
The middle and lower classes wear black lace 
veils. Many of the men are stunted and weakly. 

When the news of Magenta reached Milan, in 
June, 1859, the people began to barricade the streets 
leading to the camp of the Austrian general, 
Kelhemer, in the Piazza Castello; who, however, 
gave them no trouble, but evacuated the city on 
the 6th. They then met to demand the restoration 
of the Fusione, or Act of 1848, by which Lombardy 
was united to Piedmont. This was done by the 
Assessori Municipali (their mayor, Count Sebre- 
gondi, having run away), from the balcony of the 
palace, and a deputation was sent to announce the 
fact to their newly elected sovereign, Victor Em- 
manuel, on the field of Magenta. 

On the 7th"June, MacMahon, atthe head of the 
2nd corps and a magnificent staff, entered Milan, 
by the Porta Vercellina. He then marched to the 
field of Melagnano. The two Sovereigns made 
their entry the day after so early that most of the 
people were in bed. Louis Napoleon occupied 
Villa Bonaparte, which had been inhabited by him 
when a boy, with his mother, Queen Ilortcnse, 
and by Napoleon I. himself. The Royal Palace 
was placed at the disposal of Victor Emmanuel, 
but finding it had not been cleared of property 
belonging to the late Archduke Maximilian, he 
rode to the palace of Marquis Busca, one of the 
richest of the Milanese nobles.. 

A little while after his entry, Louis Napoleon 
quietly rode to Porta Komana, with an aide-de- 
camp, unknown to the excited crowd, who, how- 
ever, recognised him, on his return, and over- 
whelmed him with such demonstrations of gratitude 
as quite touched him. From the Villa Bonaparte 
he issued his famous proclamation. The rough 
draught of this, in his handwriting, with many 
corrections, is in the possession of the curate San 
Martino, at whose house he passed the night after 

After this, the Emperor and Victor Emmanuel 
made a triumphal procession through the streets 
together; and during their stay there was a con- 
tinual succession of feasts and illuminations. 
Cavour, who had followed the sovereigns to Milan, 
became, of course, one of the lions of the day, and 
his portrait was seen everywhere. 

Houte 12.] 



Several short rails start from Milan ; amonpt 
which are the following : — 

1. From Milan to LagO Magglore. 

Somma Lombardo.. 80^ 

Sesto Calonde 86| 

Arona , 41f 


Rho 8 

Lcg-nano 16| 

Gallarate 26i 

[Branch to Varese] 

Qallaxate (Stat.), the junction for Varese, 

37 miles from Milan, for which see Route 12. 
From Gallarate a line, opened April, 1884, runs 

to Laveno (page i9) and Luino. 

Somma (Stat.)— population, 5.506— near the 
Ticino, which has an old seat of the Visconti family, 
in which is a cypress, 24 feet in girth. Here Scipio, 
the father of Scipio Africanus, was defeated by 
Hannibal, at the battle of the Ticino. B.C. 218, and 
was obliged to retreat towards the Po. 

Sesto Calende (population, 2,817). at the out- 
let, at Ticino. from Lago Magglore. The line ends 
at Arona (Stat.) steamers for Bareno, the 
Borromean Islands, Laveno, and other points on 
the lake. (See Route 8.) 

2. Milan to Casale and Asti (page 12). 

Candia LomclIina...41i 

Casale 50f 

Moncalvo 65| 

Asti 78f 


Gaggiano 12J 

Abbiategrasso ....„ 18 

Vigevano 241 

Mortara 82j 

[Branch to Valenza 
and Alessandria.] 

This line effects a junction at Asti with the 
main line from Turin to Alessandria. 

3. Milan to Pavia and Voghera (Route 14). 

[Branch to Cremona.] 
Voghera 38f 


Locate 9i 

Certosa 17| 

Pavia 221 

4. Line up the Brianza, towards Como, <fec., to 
Rovisa, Bruzzano, Pademo, Bo%i<<io, Seveso, 
Mariano, Lambrago, Indno (ancient Forum 
Ineini), andErl>a(/nn), 1,020 feethigh, overlooking 
the fertile Brianza, and Lake Fusiano. 

5. To Saronno and Como, 28.i miles, hy the 
Riva Lago line. From Saronno to Varese (page 38) 
and Laveno, on Lake Maggiore. At Saronna are 
a number of fine frescoes by Luini. 



to Monza, Camerlata, Como, 
CMasso : and to Lecco. 


Sesto S. Giovanni... 4^ 

Monza 8 

[Branch to Lecco,23.] 

Desio 12J 

Scregno 14i 


Camnago 18 

Cucciago 24J 

Albate-Camcrlata.. 27 

Como 30 

"Chiasso 32J 

Sesto 8b CHO'faimi (Stat.) hM numerous villas 
round it. 

MONZA (Stat.) ; where the line to Lecco parts off. 

Inns: Hotel Castello; II Falcone ;' Angelo ; 
Hotel Monticello (1^ hour from station), In the 
old Nara Palace, at a fine point of view. (See p. 38.) 

On the Lambro: population 11,258. Here arc a 
/•a/off, or royal hunting-seat, built by Piermarini in 
1799. in a park; Broletto, or Tuwn Hall ; a college, 
hospital, theatre, and an old Cathedral, enlarged in 
thefourteenthcentury,whichhasa frontof various 
coloured marble, much ornamented. On the door 
is a bas-relief of the founder (fiOri), Q.Theodolinda 
and her husband. It contains paintings by Guer- 
cino, B. Luini. Procaccini, and others; with the 
celebrated Iron Crown of Lombardy, which was 
used at the coronation of Charles V., and which 
Napoleon placed on his own head, with the warn-, 
ing, Guaia chi la tocca (Woe to him that touches 
it). It was again used at the crowning of the 
Emperor of Austria, in 1838, and was carried off 
to Vienna, 1859. It consists of a circular rim of 
iron, said to have been made from a nail of the 
Saviour's cross, covered with gold and precious 
stones. In the same church is the mummified body 
of Ettore Visconti. Frescoes by Luini at the 
Madonna Church. 

[At Monza, the line for Lecco turns oft. It passes 

the Stats, at Arcore (pop., 2.060); Usmate 

(omnibus to Monticello, p. :i8) ; Cemusco (pop., 
5,758), a pretty spot on the Martcsana Canal; 
Olglate (pop., 2,088); CalOlziO and LeCCO, as in 
Route 13.] 

Seregno (Stat.), line to Bergamo (page 39), 

passing Usmate-Carnate, and Ponte S. Pletro; 
Camnago (Stat.), brarch to Seveso S. Pletro. 

Before the line reaches Como, it passes Baradello 
Tower, on a lofty hill, in which Napoleone della 
Torre, of the Torriani family, Lords of Milan, 
was imprisoned in an iron cage, by his victorious 
rival, Visconti. He at last killed himself by 
dashing his head against the bars. From Albate- 

Camerlata (Stat.) to 

COMO (Stat.), 
On the beautiful Lago di Como. Population, 2S,518. 

Hotels: Volta; La Corona; L'ltalia; Rcgina 
d' Inghilterra; L' Angelo. 

An ancient city, formerly of considerable impor- 
tance, three miles from Camerlata. It has a con- 
siderable trade in silks. Here are the beautiful 
Cathedral of 14th-16th centuries, with paintings 
by Guldo and B. Luini; the Broletto, or Town 
Hall; the Del Crocefisso Church; the ancient 
Basilicas. Abbondio; the Piazza Volta and his 
statue; and the Porta del Torre. The Villa 
d'Este, once the residence of Queen Caroline, wife 
of George IV., at CemobblO, about 3 miles from 
the town, is now the Queen of England Hotel. 

From Como 2^ miles to Chiasso (see next page). 

The exquisite Lake Of Como, 30 miles by 
3 miles, is surrounded, except at the southern 
extremity, by lofty mountains that run down 
from the Alps. BellagdO^ «^ -^xwsiSs^ivstTi ■*^. ^'a. 
Junction ot \.\i^ \:^^» wcsa ^\ \X!l&\*5»a Vkv«!«*"* 



[Sectian 1. 

the most chftrming spot on the Italian lakes 
(population, 3,397). Hotel Grande Bretagriie, with 
its dependence— Magnificent liotel, well managed. 
Villa SerbeUoni belongs to the same proprietor. Mr. 
Augnsie Meyer, and is recommended also. £xo. 

Ch. Srrv. (C.c.c. Soc.) Sec Advt. Cadenabbia, 

opposite, has also a good hotel (Hotel IJclle Vue); 
and is rising into repute. There is also an English 
Chaplaincy established there. The Villas in 
this part of the Lake, Villas Melzi and C.arlotta 
especially (the latter at Cadenabbia), with their 
fine gardens and their tropical vegetation, should 
be visited. Villas Molzi and Giulia, at Bellaggio; 
fee for entrance to the grounds. 

At Menagl^O (opposite) arc Hotels Mcnaggio 
. and Victoria. Villa Vigoni is worth a visit. In 
the wall of a church here, a Roman inscription of 
the first century is built in. Fine v;ews and 
beautiful gardens. Tram from Menaggio to 
Porlezza. Lugano on Lake. 

At Cavbllbsca, a mountain village, near Como, 
Garibaldi had encamped, thinking the Austrian 
General, who occupied a strong position at San 
Fermo, would attack him. A young Lombard lady 
boldly rode acro-s the Austrian lines and brought- 
him news that Urban intended to bar Mh march to 
Como, with a force of 10,000 men, while Garibaldi's 
corps was not more than 3,000. He at once made 
up his mind, took the Austrians by surprise, can'ied 
their position, and drove them lAf all retreat through 
the streets of Como, towards Camerlata and Monza. 

From ChiaSBO (Stat.), on Swiss territory, the 
line is open by rail and steamer to LugaiiO, rid 
MendrisiO, Ac., and connects with the new St. 
Gothard Tunnel Line^ which comes in via Bdlllll- 
ZOna, Blasca, Airolo, &t. (See Bradshaw$ 
Hand-Book to Switzerland.) At the top of Lnkc 
C/'omo the rivers Maira and Adda fall in; one near 
Riva, the other near CoUcO, whence there is a 
line uptheMairatoChlavennia, in Val Bregaglia 
(for the Engadine). Thence up the Liro to Campo 
DoLciNO and the Splilgen or Splvga Pass {X&vaWeti). 
6,950 feet above sea, between hills 10,000 to 11,000 
feet high, on the w«y to Coire. San Bernardino or 
Bernardhin Pass., 7.116 feet high, lies to the west, 
near some good sulphur springs, in Val Mesocco, 
on the Coire and Belliuzona road. From Colico, 
on Lake Como, a line runs up the Valtellina past 
MorbegnOtoSondrlO ('25 miles), thence diligence 
to TiRANO (route to Poschiavo and tha Engaolne), 
and to BormlO, near the warm Sulphur 
Baths, 4,400 feet high; thence 14 miles up to 
the Wormser Joch and the fine Steltio Pass, or 
StUfser Joch, 9,176 feet high, on the frontier of ^ 
Tyrol, which is reached by a splendid zigzag. The i 
great Ortler Spitze (12,816 feet) is to the east.— See , 
Bradshaw's Hand-Book to Switzerland and Tyrol. 

The Brianta^ or district between the two arms of 
the lake, is called the Garden of Lombardy, and is 
remarkable not only for its fertility but for the 
beauty of its scenery. The rail from Como to 
Lecfo, across it, passes near Fusiano Lake (ancient 

Eupilis) and MontlcellO, a fine summer resort, 
on a ridge, Hotel Monticello, in the Palazzo Nara, 
at an excellent point of view. Parini and 
Amaboldi, the poets, came from this part. In the 
neighbourhood of the Lecco, Manzoni has placed 
the scenes of his Promessi Sposi. Omnibus from 
Usmate (p. 37) to Monticello. 

From Como there is a line, 18 miles, through 
Civcllo to 

Varese (Stat.) //o;«/«: Grand Hotel Vareae; 
in a fine situation; first-class, with 200 rooms, 
baths, <kc.; Angelo; La Stella. Resident Phystctan; 
Church Service. Population, 8,877. A good sized 
town, best reached, from Milan, hy,vid Saronno 
(Route 11). 

From Castcllo d'Azzati is a view of the Lake of 
Varese, i.nd of the Convent of Madonna del Monte, 
on a beautiful hill 7^ miles from Varese. From 
this convent a magnificent prospect is obtained. 

"This place (says Count Arrivabene) is remark- 
able for the way in which Garibaldi outwitted the 
Austrians in 1859. After foitifying Como as well 
as possible. Garibaldi proceeded to assault the fort 
of Laveno ; but he had no artillery, the place was 
too strong for him, and the attempt was a failure. 
Hearing of this. General Urban ^to,)ped his retreat 
and suddenly moved again on Varese, "m hich was 
totnlly defenceless and upon which he levied a war 
contributitm of two million francs. Garibaldi 
hastened back, and found the enemy right in his 
way, occupying a strong position, near the hills 
of Sant' Ambrogio and tlie famous Sanctuary of 
Madonna del Monte, and numbering not less than 
10,000 strong." 

" So certain were they of capturing the Italian 
Volunteers, that on the morning of the 4th June, 
Urban telegraphed to Milan, that he had at last 
surrounded Garibaldi and h* ped to have him, dead 
or alive, before the day closed. In fact, the Aus- 
trians had nearly turned his left wing; so that he 
was compelled to fall back upon Colonel Medici 
(who with the Second Regiment occupied the Villa 
Medici-Melagnano) and concentrate the whole of 
his forces on the narrow height crowned by that 
country seat. On the critical day in question, pali- 
sades and chevaujc-de-frise were put up by the 
Cacciatori. To induce Urban to believe that he 
really meant to accept the fight, Garibaldi, as night 
rame on, made a great display of blazing bivouac 
fires, and ordered bis men to march up and down 
behind them. The sky, which had been pure and 
blue during the day, was suddenly covered with 
dense rolling clouds. Taking advantage of the 
darkness and a storm. Garibaldi gave orders for 
retreat. With their bivouac fires still blazing, 
the Cacciatori delle Alpi passed unno' iced close 
to the Austrian outposts, struck along the moun- 
tain paths into the deep gorges, and arrived at 
Como, whilst Urban was awaiting the momei.t 
of attack." 

From Varese there is a line (13J miles) through 
Gavlrate to Laveno (page 19), on Lake Maggiore. 

Route 13.] 



Railway from Varese .(9i miles) to PortO 
CerCMBlO on the beaatlfu) Lake Lugano, which is 
inostJy within Swiss territory. (See bradsftate's 
Hand-Book to Sidtxerlcmd.) , .j . 


Milan to Bergamo, Brescia, Solferino, Lago 
di Garda, Feschiera, Verona, Vicenza, 
Padua, and Venice. ' 

By railway, 176 miles, by Bergamo 
> Miles. 

Limito..; 6f 

MelJBO Ill 

Cassano 16\ 

Treviglio 20 


and Rovato.] " 

Verdcllo 26 

Bbroaho 3-2f 

[Branch to Lecco 

and Lake Como.] 



Palazzolo 46| 

Coccagiio 50f 

Rovato 40 

Brkscia 5li 

[Branch to Cremona.] 

Kezzato 66i 

Ponte 8. Marco 62 

Lonato(T) 6fii 

Desenzano 68f 

Peschiera 77| 

Cassano (Stat.), 


... HO 

Castelnuovo (T) ... 
Somma Campagna.. 
Verona (P Nuova) 
Veroiia (P.Vescora) 
[Branches to Man- 
tua, and to Trent 
and the Brenner.] 

S. Martino 97i 

Caldiero lOU 

San Bonifacio 106* 

Lonigo 110 

Montebello 113| 

Tavernellc llfcf 

ViCENZA 123| 

Pajano Ii8 

Padua 142^ 

Ponte di Brenta ...146^ 

Dolo \iJ2k 

Marano 156| 

Mestre 160^ 

Venice 166i 

, or Cussano dTAdda, the 

ancient CflWJJt'anttm, on'the Adda. Population, 7,613. 
Treviglio (Stat.), on the Adda, a curious old 
town (population, 9,864), near the ancient Pont 
SuresH, with a large and imposing Church, con- 
taining some pictures. 

The direct line runs from here to Chiari and 
BovatO, shortening the distance to Brescia by 12 
miles (see page 40). 

[A branch railway turns off to Crcma and 
Cremona (Houte 16), passing 

CorreggiO, which gives name to the great 
painter, bom here 1669, the son of a builder.] 

BERGAMO (Stat.) 

Population, 89,129. Branch rail to Lecco, on 
Lake Como. 

Hotel: D'ltalia. The thrushes, larks, confetti, 
and fruits are excellent. 

Conveyances. — Railway to Milan, Camerlata 
Verona, Padua, Venice, Lecco. &c 

Chief Objects of Notice. — Hera, Palazzo Nuova, 
Duomo. Tasso's Monument. 

It was the Roman Bergomum, which Alaric 
burnt in hia progress through Italy, and formed 
part of the Austrian possessions till 1859. 

or castle, on the top of MonteVirgillo, commanding 
a magnificent prospect. Its outskirts extend round 
the fortified eminence, the most populous being 
that of S. Leonardo. Its most remarkable building" 
is the *Fiera. or Fair House, where an .nnnual 
August Fair is held; an immense .quadrangle, 
having throe gates on each side, and several streets 
in it, with six hundred shops, and a fountain in the 
midst. Silk and other goods arc sold, but the fair 
has much declined in importance. 

The Palazzo Nuoro, or Town Ilall, is a very 
excellent building, though unfnished, by Sca- 
mozzi. An Academy, founded by one of the 
CaiTara family, has several good casts, and 
paintings by Lotto, Moroni, Ghislandi, Ac. 
Nearly all the buildings of interest are in the 
oldest, or Cittk part of the town. 

The Cathedral, or *Duonio, -was designed by 
Fontana; it contains some pictures, and the 
bones of St. Alexander, its patron saint. 

At Sauta Maria Maggiore, a half Romanesque 
church, are good paintings also, and the marble 
tomb of B. Calleono, a general of the fourteenth 
century, who was the first to employ artillery, on 
a large scale, in armies. His monument is covered 
with bas-reliefs. Here also is the tomb of Doni- 
zetti, the composer. The tower is 300 feet high. 

In the old Augustine Church is the tomb of 
Father Palepino, born at Calepio. on Lake Iseo, 
near this, who published a learned dictionary, in 
seven languages. 1A03. 

The Benedictine Church of San fa Grata is re- 
markable for its profusion of carving, gilding, 
and an altar-])iece by Salmeggia, a native. Paint- 
ings by L. Lotto at S Spirito and.S. Bartolommeo. 
There are besides, two theatres, a nmsical school, 
which has produced some distinguished pupils (as 
Donizetti and Kubini). and a reformatory for 
boys, founded by C. Botta, a priest, in 1815. 

In Piazza Garibaldi opposite the old Palazzo 
Vecchio, or Broletto, where is the public library 
of 90,000 volumes, is a monument to *Torquato 
Tasso, the poet, who was born here; or rather 
he is claimed by Bergamo, because his father, 
Bernardo Tasso, who was also a poet, was a 
native. Another native is Tiraboschi, who has 
written the History of Italian Literature. 

The castle was evacuated by the Austrians four 
days after the battle of Magenta. '• On entering 
the town. Garibaldi learnt by a telcgrai)hicmcsFagc. 
that 1,5(»0 Croats would shortly arrive, and a 
detachment was sent to the station to capture 
them. The trick was frustrated by an Austrian 
straggler, who stopped the train about a mile off, 
shoutujg with all the power of his lungs, 'Gari- 
baldi, Garibaldi.' So great was the consternation 
of the Croats at hearing Bergamo was occupied 
by this Italian Teufel (Devil) that instead of going 

Ber'gftmo is the capital of the province called I back by train to Brescia, which they might safely 
Bergamueo, and a bishop's see, Ac, in an amphi- i have done, they abandoned the cars, and took to 

tbeatro, between the Brembo and Serio, flowing 
from the Valtellina Mountains to the north. It is 
•orronnctocl 1>7 walls an4 ditches, and has a citadel, 

their legs across the open field." — .(lfH«al»«».«.> 
The people are vsvX^\\V?,«\\. wA. NsNft<»»5e^~^ 


fillAl)8HAW*S rrALT. 

[Section 1. 

always t^tit Into the nlotith of Arleqaino, or Harle- 
quin, who, on the dtage, under a simple and rustic 
air, hides mdch acuteness and cunning. He is the 
successor of the old Sannio, or Zany. 

The town gives name to the citrus borgamium, 
which yields the essence of bergamot. Erery 
yard of the fertile soil around is turned to account 
by its enterprising population. 

There is a short ferrovia economica, 18 miles 
from Bergamo to Ponte delle Scire, passing 
through Albino-Desenzano. 

Rail from Bergamo to Sercgno, 24f miles (see 
page 37). 

From Bergamo to Lecco is now open by rail. 
The stations are— Ponte 8. Pietro, 5 miles, the 
nearest to Val Brembana ; Mapello, 7^ miles ; 
Clsano, Hi miles; Calolzlo (where the direct 
line from Milan, see page 87, comes in), IHf miles ; 
and Lecco (population, 8,148), 20} miles, on the 
south-east arm of Lake Como. It is chiefly a 
manufacturing town. The bridge dates from 1335. 
Hotel des Tours. From Lecco the direct line 
from Milan to Bellano 1^ miles, runs through 

Mandello, Liemo, and Varella. Beiiano is a 

steamboat station on the Lake of Como, and a 
small manufacturing place of about 3,000 inhabit- 
ants. It is at the mouth of Val Sassina, which is 
traversed by the Piovema. This river forms a 
tolerably fine waterfall of about 200 feet, not far 
from the town. 

The next station to Bergamo towards Venice is 

Seriate (Stat.) Population, 2, 461. 

OorlagO (Stat.), population, 1,249; whence a 
road goes to Samico and Lovere, on Lake Iseo. 

QrumellO (Stat.), on the road to Sarnioo 
(6 miles), on Lake Iseo, by omnibus. 

Palazzolo (Stat.), or Palazzuello (popula- 
tion, 5,194). An old medieval town, near a fine 
viaduct, on the Oglio, which comes down from the 
Iseo Lake. A branch rail of 6 miles goes o£f to 
ParatiCO (Stat.), on the Labe. 

COCCagliO (Stat.), populatiov 2,260, at the 
bottom of a hill, which commands a fine prospect. 

RovatO (Stat.), where the direct line from 
Treviglio to Brescia comes in. 

[This line passes Vidalengo, Morengo, Romano, 
Oalcio, and 

Obiarl (population, 10,507), with an ancient 
cathedral and clock tower. To the left is 

Iseo (population, 2,161), on the pretty Lake of 
that name, so called from a temple of Isis which 
stood there. This is now united with Brescia by 
a line 15 miles long, opened August, 1885. Steamer 
to L6vere, a small town at the head of the lake, 
a most picturesque spot, once the residence of 
Lady Wortley Montague. It is built on the 
side of a wooded hilL, and is watered by num- 
berless fountains. Garibaldi had his head-quarters 
here when the news of the peace of Villafranca 
arrived. Count Arrivabene describes him thus: — 
*'The General was not dressed in the costume 
with which the English eye has been made fami- 
"%r, nor did he wear the Greek cap or the round 
*6 rarJtaa plume irbicli the fancy of foreign 

painters generally ascribe to him. He was clad in 
the Piedmontese uniform of his rank. Whether in 
peace or war, he always gets up at dawn, and, if 
not prevented by duty, invariably goes to bed a 
tittle after sunset." 

On hearing the news of the peace of Villafranca 
he offered to resign his commission, but the king 
would not accept it; "Italy still requires the 
legions you command," said the king, " and yon 
must remain.*' 

During the war of 1859 the passes were guarded 
by Cialdini and Garibaldi, to prevent an Austrian 
corpt Sarmie from descending upon the rear of 
the allies. Here Garibaldi, with his Cacciatori 
delle Alpi (Alpine hunters), was in his element, 
and showed his great experience and daring in a 
series of well-conducted operations, which enlisted 
the admiration of the Austrian general. In their 
retreat to Bormio before the forces of Garibaldi, 
the Anstrians barricaded the tunnel, blew up the 
Stelvio bridge, and then retired towards the 


Population,58,641 ; of the commune, the province 
(called Bresciano) contains about 1,300 square 

Hotels: New Hotel d'ltalie, best; Gambero; 
Fenice; Posta; Cappello. 

Excellent fish from Lake Garda. Vino di 
Benaco and Guzago are the local wines. 

Conveyances. — Railway to Bergamo, Cremona, 
Milan, Camerlata, Verona, Mantua, Padua, Venice, 

Railway Station near Porta Stazione, about 
400 yards from the town; omnibuses, 1 lira; 
carriages, one horse, 1 lira 25c.; two horses, 
2 lire 50c. per hour. The hotels are in the centre 
of the town. 

*Chief Objects of yotice.— Town House, Broletto, 
two Duomos, Museum in Vespasian's Temple. 

A healthy and busy city ; capital of the province ; 
seat of a bishop, «kc. ; in a rich countrj-, near the 
Mella. Here the Alpine Hills fall into the great 
plain of Lombardy, and offer many charming 
points of view. A naviglio, or canal, passes by 
it from the Mella, to join the Ghiese, and helps 
to supply the seventy-two public fountains in the 
principal squares and streets; besides many 
private ones. The streets are narrow and arcaded, 
but there are many handsome houses and palaces. 
Brescia is nearly square, about 1 mile each way. 
Several buildings are conspicuous, among which 
are the Torre deJTOrologio (clock tower), the 
Broletto, Ac. In the north-east quarter, on a hill, 
is the Torre di Pallata, or bell tower, a castle- 
looking pile. 

*' There are few towns in Italy (says Count 
Arrivabene) in which the summer and autumn can 
be more thoroughly enjoyed than at Brescia. The 
city itself is one of the cleanest in Lombardy ; for 
it is provided with so large a number of fountains 
that there is plenty of water to wash the streets 
and houses. It is situated at the foot of a charming 

Koute 13.] 



le TarHB of I Itkltui mannmcnti at unllqaltr. It wu bnllt 
I. Allolons I l>MwecnB60»nd«73byIwoLomb»rdcoonH.wllh 

the Dobllltr I ityla of arctaltectnrc. Its onler willa an iliTJded 
th* KOlden I Into IventT-four puts by wen-modelleU pllliri. 
t Vsnics. ta | aiinuonntod by a brick frieze oF the siiDplsit de- 
sn occupied .' atgn. A peristyLo of eight pkn in tbc Intortor 

Ing aan, or Ibe moonll^bt on Ibe alDpe, oi 

|gE» b; 

no. Kbaipletnrai 
bis religloni oplnEi 

I Ilnly), In iplle of Um oppoailion of tbelr Ullr«- 
I It bu a copoia. many old toniba, psInllniiB by 

e pile I 

■Inthlan or 

to Bishop 
tile of Ibe 

ceillnf by L. Gnmbara, n nativ 
drfPojutaiaparlodhe origina 

rs of Italy i> new. 
me of the Towi 

lay SanlaUariadeiJtirai 

The old •SoDina (Dnomo Vccchlo), or cathedral, ihe fourth c«nlurT. ODntalna many ^od specimens 
oallHd the Rotondo, near the Brolello. Is of rtono I of Moretto and IJomanlna. a, Cl«™»«.'o.™{a«.^ 
wid brti*, ud la one of the most renuirkabls i, rleh in v»iIB,^l.^4,■\l^ ■ajmNw, 



[Section I. 

' Santa Eu/emia hae frcKoen by Gambara. One of i 
R miaiiino's best pieces is at Santa Maria Cakhera. 

S. Francesco^ of the thirteenth century, has a 
front In the Lombard style, or mixture of Norman, 
and the Byzantine, with a round window, Ac. 

S. Salcatat-e, behind Santa Glulia, an old half- 
mixed Lombard church, was founded ■ by 
DesideriuSf for hit daughter Auspcrga, the first 

In the old church of Santa GiuJia, in the 
C<mtrada dei Padri Riformati, in the Afuseo Civieo 
Eta Cristiana which contains a collection of me- 
dieval remains, the cross of Sta. Elena (8th cen- 
tury) and weapons, also the Mausoleusi of Marco 
Antonio Martinertgo. Entrance, W)c. 

The Great Hospital, founded 1447, has 8. Luca's 
Chim)el, painted by Romaniuo and Moretto. 

The large Theatre is new and wtU built. The 
new Cemetery, or Campo Santo, by Vantini. 
outside the Porta Milano, contains tombs like the 
Roman Columbaria. 

The Muxeo Civieo Eta Romano, open from 10 to 
8. (50c.) is near Piazza NovHrhio, on the site 
of a Roman Temple, built a.d. 72. in Vespasian's 
time, and contains several inscriptions (some from 
the Palazzo Lecchi), bas-reliefs, pavements, pillars, 
altars, and fstatues; one of which is a noble bronze 
Fame or Victory, above 6 feet high, discovered 
1826 ; a rival to the Venus of Milo 

Rcmahis of an aqueduct, called *Aquidotto del 
Diavolo, exist in the way to Valtrompia. 

Brescia was the ancient Brixia, on the northern 
branch of the Via Emilia, and capital of the Cer- 
romani, in Gallia Cisalpina. It was colonised by 
the Romans, 206 B.C., ravaged by the Goths, «fcc', 
and taken by the Lombards, whose last king, 
Desiderius, was a native. 

In 1849. after the rout of the natiunal army at 
Novara, the Brcscians resisted, for ten days, the 
legions of the ferocious Ilaynau. His revenge was 
so bitter that the Austrian General, Prince I hum 
and Taxis, who wa««mortally wounded, bequeathed 
his property to the families of those who suffered 
for heroically defending the town. Their leader, 
Tito Speri, was hung at Mantua, in 1852. 

The Allied Sovereigns spent two days here in 
June, 1859. Louis Napoleon was the gucet of 
Count F'enaroli, using the same bed aiid table 
which the First Consul had used in 1796. Hither, 
also, Colonel TUrr.of Garibaldi's staff was brought 
to be nursed by the ladies of the family, after the 
Indecisive battle at Tre Ponti, between the Volun- 
teers and Austrians, in which two hundred of the 
former were put hors de combat, and Tllrr shot 
through the arm. 

Among natives it reckons the famous Amoldo di 
Brescia, a religious and political reformer, burnt at 
Rome, UDb; (jambara, Moretto, Viuccnzo (ur il 
Brctciann), the painters; Tartaglia, the mathema- 
tician, so named because he stuttered, in conae- 
qneace of his lip being cat io the siege of 1613. 

Brescia was long celebrated for fire-arms, cut- 
lery, sabres, Ac, so that there is a proverb ''Tutta 
Brescia non a rmerebbe.un coglione." Monti con- 
trasts the two in the lines— 

. r 

Brescia idenosa d'ogni vil peaai«ro 
Pin cbe di ferro, di v»lore annata. 

The neighbourhood is populous^ and studded with 
country seats and villages in every ;direction. 

Rail, 15 miles, to Iseo, on the lake of that 
name ; see page 40. 

[Rail to Cremona (page 63) and Pavia (page 
55): — 


Pizzighetione 44 

Codogno 48 

Casalpusterlengo... 51 

Ospedaletto 55 

Pavia 57J 


Bagnolo 8 

Verolanova 17^ 

Olmencta 26 

Cremona 32 

Acquanegra 38^ 

From Pavia to Piacenza (page 57).] 

Leaving Brescia, we reach 

RezzatO <Btat.), population, 1,995, where the 
hills arc left ; followed by 

Fonte 8. Marco (Stat.), on the Chiese, which 
flows from Lake d'Idro and Val Giudicaria. Here 
the hills affsin are approached. A little to the 
right is Calcinato, which was the head-quarters of 
Victor Emmanuel In June, 1859. To the left of 
this is a by-road, from which the famous plain of 
Montechiaro spreads out before the eye. Villa 
Bonoris, in Montechiaro, was the Imperial head- 
quarters, before the battle of Solferlno, at the time 
of the celebration of the Corpus Domini. 

LonatO (Stat.), population, 6,536. An old 
town, not far from Lake di Garda. Here Bonaparte 
defeated the Austrians, 3rd Augrust, 1796. 

A beautiful road runs from Lonato round the 
Lake of Qarda. From the top of a hill some of the 
most enchanting scenery of Italy spieads itself 
before the eye of the traveller. ''At the southern 
extremity (saysArrivabene),amidstthe blue waters, 
rises the Island of Sirmione. Its extensive gardens, 
its Roman ruins (said to be the remains of the Villa 
Catullus), and its high square tower, bearing the 
arms of the Scaligari, are seen on the distant 
horizon. The town of Desenzano is distin tly 
beheld from the top of the promontory of Lonato, 
together with the whole of the picturesque borders 
of the lake, commonly called the Riviera di Garda." 
The effect is heightened when the rising sun shines 
on the snowy summits of Monte Baldo. 

A short distance (4 miles) to the right of lonato, 
on the Mantua Road, is Gaatiglione delle Sti- 
yiere, where the Austrians were Anally beaten on 
the 5th August, 1796, and driven out of Italy. '' It 
stands," says Count Arrivabene, whose paternal 
home was here, "for the greater part on the 
declivity of a beautiful hill. Monte Belvedere 
erects its barren top over it, on the left. In the 
cei.tre, the old Gonzaga Castle, once stained with 
the blood of the Marquis Rodolph, frowns above 
tiie houses, with its strongly built round towers. 


b/de^iil pnlBce>,<sinHJnctiyoutotbeCiithcitriil— on Loke Gardu. aloiiii the RDilcni ridge or hllli, 
* clatalolruclDre en»l«l upon ths wiimrs <op of { rrom LonMo to CniillBlIonij, bcndln;;: back to 

e Chlen." Sothii 

IV IhE Ilireo tlilcii < t Rodolfo GDUisgs. 
r of 9t. LodIi. The nuns are ef t<ro 
ie Slynore. or 1ulie>. and tba Ubinle. or 

Eenlleme n. and entcrtatn Ibcir f rlendo. li> tarnicr 
If Dies eitiT noTlcs unang Ibe Slsnore wM Dblteed 
to proTe hor qnorien or iwlillUy, like tbe KnlKhti 

ol lBrlles'or»m«artbglHiiniirl[lliIBorLa-iibatdr, 
V(!i,i«, and CTen of tranu and S|.Bln. The eoin- 
nmnilf itlll poisesaes a gwd d-al of taiid; and II ii 

oughoul imly. 
Barzlfw l! tbe place 
OMIglloiie m«et at 

cam or bottsci 

from Camtellonc on Cavtlanai NIcI and Cantoben 
b'atUe Ecjraii about slx!^ Their great object Wai to 

eerlain llinei. The large • 

the Duoino. the Cburch of St. Louli Goiii^iga. th 

SOlfWlnO, IbOBCeneol thCKrrat hlltleofJmi 
3itli. l»S9; It ttandi among hills, the highest c 

cilled the RwKB di Solferlno. and also the Spl 

rlno was Anally 

T General 

HarshaH Forey. 

ansundrrStadlon relrei 

rce »nd de 

dly atruBBi 

of mauy hours. 

ck. M'llahe 

n being ool 

, wan lolnr 

d by HI el. 

ron. Hedole. and 

the ofrei» 

npkd hy Lonfs 

at of the An 


ol soinm* 

ander, lightnlnE. 


lid as it w. 

ws. bought hy 


and nitealng. on 

The tot 

e An.trian. was 

esldes Ihirt 

guns and «me 



and boMte 

that they were 

he Held af 

er the bettl 

''Ii I^^b^hy 

Zrinn, wo 

ul.1 not allow that they were 

Their first 

nty an able flank 

the Adda 

a well-concelTod 

nthrlr positions within 

ron Heaa. ihey Ihooghi the diui 

I (oerth time Victor Emmanuel rode Into the m 
I of his troops and aaid. "My elilJllren. wa n 
■ - - ■- • ■ hold It, OP we must n 

right and eat Iheui In two. On 34th June, their I San MaMino." In Italy. 1 

m San Martin's day (UutlniuA. 



[Section 1. 

The TlllAf^e was taken, but wan retaken for the 
fifth time by the Aufttrlans. Mollard's Sardinian 
division had lost one-third of its numi>ers; when 
it was relnforcod by Aosta's liriprade, despatched 
from the field of aolfcrino. The King cried out 
" Avvane allacarica" (to tlic cliur)^<>), and after 
four hours' fi^fhtinf? 8an Martino was occupied, 
Honodolc having received orders to retreat. In 
tliPHP battles, men of the first families in north 
Italy served as privates in the Iloyal army; nicm- 
bors of the Visconti, Trivulzio, Pallavicino, 
Medici, Oradenijr", Rorromeo, D'Addiu Corsini, 
Mosto d'Este, and other well Icnown houses. 

The line now follows a deep cuttin^r, a tunnel, 
and comes suddenly in view of a splendid pano- 
rama of lAigo di o'arda, with Monte Baldo in the 
distance, and the Alps beyond. Then a viaduct, 
of fifteen pointed arches leads to 

Deienzano (Stat.) Population, 4,820. 

Ilot^h: Delia Posta; All)crgo Rcale; Royal 
Mayer; Vittoria; AquilH. 

A little iM)rt, with its old tower, looking on the 
Lake di (iarda, and the Honniimo point, where 
there are ruins of a palace of the Scaligers, now 
called the Grotto of (Catullus. 

Htoainers to Riva, at the head of the lake, in 
Tyrol, in 4 hours. (See page 04.) 

OunilbusoH to the town. Its vino santo is worth 
tasting. Halb was occupied by Qaribaldi on the 
IRtli Juno, 1859, when the Franein Joseph, an Aus- 
trian steamer, wan fired into and sunk. She had 
been ordered to steer to thii side of the lake, at the 
moment a Plodmonteso battery had arrived, 
Claribaldi ordered the officers in command to send 
her a warm salute. It was so well <ione, that two 
round dhot noon smashed her stem : and as she 
was atM)Ut to retreat, a well-directed hand grenade, 
falling on Iwanl exploded the magazine, and in a 
few minuten she was In flames. Before the Benetiek 
could bo sent from Peschlera to help her, she 
sank, with the loss of nearly all on bonrd 

San Martlno della Battafflia (Stat.), 

near the frontier of Venetia, marked by the 
MIncio, which flows out of Lake di Qarda, and is 
crossed by a high level bridge. 

Peschlera (Stat.) Population, 2,800. It had 
A oastlo of the Hcallgers. This is a port on the 
Lake di Garda (stcamhoats to Riva, at its head. In 
4 hours), and a stnmgly fortified position; which 
made one of the Quadrilateral. 

OaitelnuOVO (Stat.) ^^as burnt and almost 
destroyed in 1848. by the Austrlans, in revenge. 

Somma Campagna (Stat.), from which the 

lino runs aen>ss the Adige to the Porta Nuova 
station, and thence to the Porta Ves'covo (the 
principal) station, at Verona. 

VERONA (Stat), styled "la Degna,'.' or 

Population (1889), (18.741. Here the Brenner rail 
falli In, and a branch goes off to Mantua. 

ffotei$: Grand Hotel de Txmdres, and Depond- 
anoo; Ilotcl Royal dcs Deux Tours. The largest. 
Onmd Hotel Colombe d'Or. Well spoken of. 

English Churdt Service in th« Hotel des Denx 


Bufet at the station. 

liailtoay Stations.— Foria, Nuora, | of a mile, 
that of Porta Vescovo, If mile from the centre of 

Conveyances. — Omnibuses. Cabs from station 
fares, 1 lira for two persons; the course, 75c.; 
li lira per hour; cittadini, carrying four persons, 
2 lire, 60c. Tramways through the city from 
station to station. 

*Chief OiyVfrto/JVb/wv.— Amphitheatre; Piazza 
del Erbe; Piazza del Slgnori; Scaliger Tombs; 
Cathedral; Paintings by A. Veronese, P. Vero- 
nese, Brusasorci; Juliet's Tomb; Roman Gate; 
Architecture, by Samniicheli. 

An old, middle-aged looking city, formerly the 
Austrian head-quarters, seat of a bishop, «fec., 
standing on a bend of the swift Adige, at the foot 
of the Tyrol Alps, in a picturesque and healthy 
spot. The river divides it in two, the smallest 
part, to the east, being called Veronctta. Some 
of the streets are wide ; the best are Corso Cavour 
and Corso Vittoria Emmanuele, leading to Porta 

Verona being built on the sides, and at the bot- 
tom of a theatre of hills, it happens that when 
the floods come down the low lying parts of the 
town are put under water. The walls, begun by 
Thcodoric, the Goth, whose favourite seat it was, 
were strengthened by ancient towers, bastions, and 
with five gates, built by Sammicheli, in the six- 
teenth century. Most' of these are gone; and 
Verona is now strongly defended by works to 
the number of forty-four, erected on every possible 
height, by the Austrians, who made it the key of 
their Italian ix>ssessions, whllethey held Lombardy 
down to 1860. With Peschiera, Mantua, and 
Legnano, it constituted the famous military 
QuadrilateraU out of which it was said no army 
could got without defeat. 

It is remarkable for its Roman remains; as well 
as for the (pretended) Tomb of Juliet, who. as 
every reatler of Shakespeare knows, died here a 
victim to the contests of the Montecchi and Cap- 
peletti, or, Montagues and (.'apulets — 

" Two hoiuehulds, bi>th alike in dignity, 
In fair Veruua, wher« we lay our sceue." 
The tomb is shown at an inn, or osteria, which 
belonged to the ('apulets. 

Venma at onetime ranked second to Rome for 
its remains of ancient buildings, and was regarded 
as the bulwark of Upper Italy, by Odoacer, Thco- 
doric, and by King Pepin and other descendants 
of Charlemagne, who occasionally resided in it. 
Here Odoacer was defeated by* Thcodoric, the 
"Dietrich" of •'Bern," as the place is called in 
the Nibelungenlied. 

Besides Catullus and others, it gave birth to two 

well known painters, who are usually designated 

after their native-city— Paolo Veronese (or Cagliari) 

I who lived iHJtween 1632-88, and whose chief works 

■ arc at Venice, marked by a florid style and bril- 

I Hant oolouring. The other, Aless. Verone.<te (or 


Turchi, his family name, or Orbotto, because ho | antiquity, the best part of which is at Munich. It 
had a blind father), lived from 1580 to 1648, and i is intended to be used as a museum. 


* corn 
Brk: a 
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re also 

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rza, in 



m the 

ylio^ or 
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as the 
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rith a 

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4 he 

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kM *- - *- ^ -^ 



Route 13.] 



Turchi, bis family name, or Orbetto, because he 
had a blind fattier), lived from 1580 to 1648, and 
painted in a mixture of the Lombard, Roman, and 
Venetian schools; he is equally noted for his fine 
colouring. His best pictures are at the Miseri- 
cordia and S. Stefano, in Verona. 

Another native was Sammichcli, or Samichcli, 
the first military engineer of his day (died 1559), 
who constructed the fortifications, some of which 
arc yet visib'e. Among them may be noticed the 
Porta Nuova, on the right of the Adige; the tower 
of S. Angelo on the lelt, and the Spanish bastion ; 
but his best work is the Porta del Palio, or *Porta 
Stuppa, of rusticated Doric, which, though im- 
perfect, is reckoned a very excellent performance. 
He was the architect of several Palaces and other 
buildings here. 

In the Northern part of the town are the 
triumphal arches, as the *Porta dc* Borsari, in 
Coiso Cavour, a Roman relic, built about 252-55, in 
tlic Kmperor Galienus's time, by Vitruvius, in the 
form of a noble arch, with small arches above; 
Porta del Foro Giudiziale; Arco de' Leoni (imper- 
fect); and the siie of a fourth (close to Castcl 
Vecchio), a work of Vitruvius, in honour of the 
Gavi family. The old three-arch Bridge at this 
point lias a very wide arch, not in the middle of 
the river, but on one side; it is 130 feet span, and 
rises 40 feet, and was built by Can Grande, the 
second Scaliger. 

Piazza Bra, now Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, has 
a statue of Victor Emmanuel II. 

But the ^Amphitheatre, in Piazza Brh, is the 
great attraction of Verona, and ranks only second to 
the Roman Colosseum. Its external wall is entirely 
gone, except four arches, and the parts above them; 
but the inner circle, with the concentric benches,, and the parts about the arena, are nearly 
perfect. An annual sum is devoted to keep it in 
repair. It is pierced by seventy-two Doric arches, 
supported by pilasters, in each of the three storeys, 
leading into the passages, or vomitoria. Outside 
all it was an oval, 600 feet by 404 feet, and 98 feet 
high. The arena is 242 feet by 146 feet. A theatre 
formerly stood in the midst, over a roscrvoir. 
When a fete was given to Francis I., Its forty-five 
gradini, or rows of steps, accommodated 50,000; 
and on ISth November, 1866. the King was 
received by 70,000 assembled here. At each end 
of the long axis is a principal doorway, with a 
balu8t''ade above. It was built of brick and great 
marble blocks, and completed in the reign of 
Diocletian, about the end of the third century, and is 
intolerable preservation. Entrance 1 lira; Sundays 
free. Near this is the theatre of the Arcademia 
Filarmonieo, built in the last century, by Count 
Pompei, having an Ionic portico (after l*iilladio), 
ornamented by inscriptions and bas-reliefs, belong- 
ing to the Museo Lapidario, by Maffei, author of 
Verona IHiutrata, whose bust is placed over it. 

Amongprivate seats or Palazzi are the following: 
Pakttxo Beoihequa, of rusticated Doric and Corin- 
thian (but unflmihed) with a rich frieze. This is 
by SammlcheU, and contained many remains of 

antiquity, the best part of which is at Munich. It 
is intended to be used as a museum. 

Palazzo Canossa, built for Bishop Canossa, by the 
same architect, 1528 ; a rustic basement and Corin- 
thian pilasters. 

Palazzo della Gran Guardia Antica, now a corn 
market, near the Municipio, in Piazza di Brk; a 
square building facing the amphitheatre, which 
might stand fof " au open place in Verona," in 
Shakespeare's play. 

Palazzo Pompei alia Vittoria (now the Museo 
CivicoJ, by Sammicheli, in the fiuted Doric style, 
with one range of arched windows. The pictures 
arc chiefly of the Veronese school. There are also 
antiquities. Entrance, 1 lira. 

Palazzo Vergi, by the same, on an arclied base, 
with fluted Doric pilasters. 

Villa Gtiisti, in Vcronetta, has fine gardens, 
and commands an excellent view over the city. It 
is reached by step.s and inclined planes. Here are 
cypresses nearly 130 feet high. 

At the brick Palazzo dei Maffei or Trezza, in 
Piazza delle Erbe, ilaffoi, the poet and anti(]UAry, 
was born. It has a good spiral staircase. Fres- 
coes on the houses in this square. 

The Rotari and Gazzola families have collec- 
tions of painting and virtti. At the Palazzo Ridolfi 
is a curious painting by Brusasorci, of the Proces- 
sion of Clement VII. and Charles V., when the 
Emperor was crowned at Bologna. 

On the *Piazza dei Signori stands the Scaligers' 
old picturesque castle, now Palazzo del Consiglio, or 
Basilica, built by Fra Giocondo, a native monk of 
the fifteenth century, after designs by Sansovino, 
and having a facade ornamented with bronzes, 
statues, and marbles. It was restored 1873 as the 
Toicn Hall. The best bronze is an Annunciation, 
by J. Campagna ; the statues are those of eminent 
natives, as the younger Pliny, Cornelius Nepos, 
Catullus, Maflfci, <fcc. A former Town Hall adjoins 

In the same square are the Law Courts (Palazzo 
di Ginstizia) of the sixteenth century, and the Sea- 
ligers' brick Campanile, 300 feet high. " The lower 
part is absolutely plain and solid; the upper storey 
of the square being pierced with one splendid 
three-light window in each face, above which is a 
boldly projecting cornice, marking the roof. On 
this is placed an octagon two storeys in height, 
which, with the cornice, is as graceful as anything 
of the kind in Italian architecture." — Fergtuson, 
A statue of Dante was placed here, 1865. 

In the picturesque* * Piazza delle Erbe, or vegetable 
market, adjoining, is another old building, the 
Casa dei Mercanti (1301), or Exchange, with a 
statue of the Virgin, an ancient Fountain, and 
the pillar of St. Mark, a block of Verona marble. 
This Casa was rebuilt by Pompei ; it has an eight- 
column portico, and is 100 feet long. Tower of 
the Muninjno, 270 feet, fine view. East of the 
Piazza dei Signori, near a small church, Sta. 
Maria Antica, is the * Mausoleum of the Scali- 
gers, who formerly ruled over the town. It is 
curious for the antique taste of it& v(S!^vc^ss^'%.\i&.'i^ 



effigici on horseback, and with its pinnacles, 
statues, pvrauiids, bas-reliefs. Ac, is something 
liice an elaborate Gothic cross in style. One of the 
best monnments is that by Bonino da Campig4one 
of Can Signorio, who murdered his two brothers, 
and is here duly supported by flgures of Charity, 
Faith. &c. Another belongs to Can Grande {i.e., 
the Great Dog), the friend of Dante, who refers 
to him as the ■ ' 

"gran Loiubardo 
Cbfl in su la Scala porta 11 santo Ueeetlo." 

i.e., the ladder and eagle,- which fiu'iire' in the 
family arms, on the beautiful trellis. Thcfre work 
and small statues look quite fresh; ihc stcme 
coffins arc suspended in the air. A third n onu- 
mcnt is dedicated to Bnrtolommeo, in whose reign 
Romeo and Juliet lived. 

The year 1308 is fixed by the Veronese as the 
date of Juliet's story, of which they seem very 
tenacious. Luigi di Porta, of Vlccnzai, was the 
first who gave it a connecteil form in his novel of 
'*Giulietta," published IT/Sd. In his preface he 
sayo it was told him by one Peregrino, " an archer 
(if mine, a pleasant companion, and like almost all 
hiH countrymen of Verona, a great talker." 

The red *marl)le *Tonib, certainl.\ noi the genuine 
one, 'though it may cover the lovers' grave, is in 
the wild and desolate conventual gardenR of the 
Orfanotrofio/ facing the river and railway, once 
a cemetery ; " a situation," says Byron, " appro- 
priate to the legend." 

Of the old Palace of the Cappaletti, marked by 
a cappello or hat, with its ui.couth -halccmy and 
irregular windows, theie is only a gateway in the 
Via Capello, near the Pia/.za Erbe. 

' And ahall I sup where Juliet at the Tnanque 
Saw her loved Montague." — Booem's Jtaljf. 

Of the forty Churches, the 

*Duomo, or Cathedral of Santa Maria Matricolare, 
is a Lombard-Gothic structure, in brick andVerona 
marble, partly built 14&;i-'/3, but in part as old as 
the eighth century, with round and arched 
windows. Its circular apse is ornamented with 
tall Hlendcr pilasters, out of all pro|H)rtioii, 
according to the usual standard : and it has a 
profusion of figures carved on its front, including 
two of Charlemagne's peers, Koland and Oliver, 
and the Adoration of the Magi, with a porch 
rihing arch overarch, adorned w^ith large griti<ms. 
Within is a fine Assumptiim, by Titian; a bronze 
Crucifix in the choir, by Sanmiicholl; another by 
nellino, in St. Nicholas ('hapcl ; also, the tomb of 
Pope Lucius III. (who died here 1185); another of 
Branchini, a rich native ; a library with some valu- 
able MSS. In the Chapter }{<msc. One monument 
is a Roman relic, being that of Julius Apolonius 
and his wife. Its Baptistery, called S. Giovanni in 
Fonfe, has u large old Font, and Farinati's Bap- 
tism of (Christ. At the Bishop's Palace arc paint- 
lims by Brusasorci. a Veronese artist. 

•-Sf. Ztfnone Church, or Zeno Maggiore, built 1045- 
1178, is another fine specimen of the Lombard 
style. There is a descent to it of eleven steps, 
and a rise inside of sixteen to the altar; below 
^.ki^i, jg u,| ancient Crypt. It has bronzed gates 

[Section 1. 

and curions ancient carvings in the portal; and 
the tombs of the saint, of King Pepin (its founder), 
and A. A. Valerian; with old frescoes in the 
Cloister*, and A. Mantegna*s Virgin enthroned, «kc. 
Its pleasing campanile is of the twelfth century, 
and, the cloister is elegant. At the west en*d 
is a red porphyry. tazjsa, 9 feet diameter. "This 
beautiful church shows traces of the same style 
of decoration as is exhibited in the apse of the 
cathedral; pilasters being used here as slight .as 
those, but so elegant and so gracefully applied as 
to form one of the most pleasing decorations of 
the style." — Fergusson. 

S. Bernardino has a chapel {CappeVa P^Vegrini) 
which is one of Sammicheli's best works; being a 
decorated rotunda, 30 feet across, 64 feet high, of 
fine Itronzino stone, that is, of hard stone which 
sounds like bronze. . ' ^ ' 

At Santa Anastasia, a good specimen of Italian 
Iiointcd Gothic (1260-1307), are frescoes said to be 
by Giotto, and others by Michele da Verona and 
Pisanello; with a cinque-cento' altar-piece, a 
beautiful pavement, Ac. In front, statue of Paolo 
Veronese, 1888. At the Capuchin Church is a Dead 
Christ, by A. Veronese, one of his best works. At, 

S. Stefano, in Veronetta, is a work by P. Vecchio,' 
wiih one by A. Veronese, the Passion of the 
Forty Martyrs ; and at the Misericordia Hospital,' 
another, the Descent from the Cross. This church 
was rebuilt by Theodoric. 

S'a. Maria delfa Scala, built 1324, by Can Grande, 
has MafTei's tomb. 

S. Helen's ('hurch contains the Virgin and Con- 
stantine, by Brusasorci. 

Santa Eufemia has Brusasorci's David Playing on 
the Harp, and Mof>es with the Two Tablesof the Law, 
and B. de Moro's St. Paul; also some>of the best 
specimens of Caroto, another native artist. 

Several of the churchesareold; for exi»mplc, that 
of S. Nazzaro e Celso, in Veronetta, tlie Monastery 
of which, with its old wall paintings and galleries, 
was of the seventh century. SS. Siro e Lihera was 
built by Beronparius. S. Corona is a Lombard 
briclc. S. Lorenzo is Gothic. 

S. Fernw Maggiore, mostly built 1313. is partly 
in the Lombard style, with pointed windows. It 
contains several ancient paintings of the twelfth 
century, RIcclo's Torre or Turriani Mausoleum, 
and tombs of the two Brothers Aligbieri. descen- 
dents of Dante. 

Santa Maria-in- Organ o, at Veronetta. begun, 
1542, by Sammicheli. has a fa9ade of columns and 
pilasters. It contains a St. Bernard beaten by 
Dolls, by L. Giordano; Guercino's Guardian 
Angel; and A. Veronese's St Francis: wiih 
various specimens of tarsiatura or inlaid wuik, by 
Fra Giovanni, of the fifteenth century. 

^'. Qior</io in Braida, by the same architect (the 
bo<iy, by Sansovlno), has two good |>ictures by A. 
Veronese; one, the Martyrdom of St. George. 
A so, the Miracle of the Five Thousand, by 
Farinato; BrusHsorci's Manna: and the Baptism of 
('hrist. by Tintoretto. The Palazzo Pompei, ou 
this side of the town, is by Sammicheli. 

-Z" ' 

' • \ 

Route 13.] 



The Interior of S. Tommaso Cantuar (i.e., Thomas 
k Ueckct) is anutlier work of Saniuiiclieli. It con- 
tains an altar-piece by Girolarao dni Libri. -v 

Santa Maria della Vittoria has a Descent from 
the Cross, by P. Veronese. 8. Paolo di Campo 
Marzio was built by Pompel. 

The Church of Madonna diCampagna, at the ril- 
lape of San Miehele (tramway), is a beautiful 
colonnaded rotunda, by Sanimicheli, but eight- 
sided within, and surmounted by a large dome. 

The Lazzaretto^ by Sammicheli, is an immense 
space, 728 feet by 357. surrounded by a wi<le ] 
arcade on pillars, and having a round chapel in 
the middle. It stands 8 or 4 miles from Verona, 
and is turned into a powder magazine. 

A Cemetery, in the Campo Marzio, outside Porta 
Vittoria, laid out by Barbieri, 1832, is 600 feet 
square, within a colonnade, and is one of the best 
in this.part of Italy. 

Statue of Garibaldi (by Bordonl, 1887). repre- 
sented on horseback, in the Piazza dell' ludipen- 
donza, adomcd with gardens, in which is the 

Caldcrari is the architect of the Scminarlo for 
Priests and of the Casa Cocastelli. The Gollegio 
dc' Fanciulli (for children) is the work of Mala- 
carne, 1822. 

The ancient Chapter Library^ annexed to the 
Cathedral, contains 16,000 volumes, and 540 MSS., 
some as old as the fourth century, among which 
arc several poems by Dante. It was here that 
Petrarch <liscovered Cicero's Epi'-tles and Fatni- 
llares; and Niebuhr, in 1816, the Institutes of 
(tains, a Koman lawyer of the time of Antoninus 
Pius. The latter MS. is a palimpsest, consisting 
of 127 skins of parchment, on which the four books 
of Gaius had been first written; these were 
washed or scraped out by the monks of a later day, 
and re-written with the Kpistles of St. Jerome (one 
portion has been used twice over). In this con 
dition the orijrinal, with all its erasures and ab- 
breviations, was made out, and first published in 

Six Bridget cross the Adige, besides the one 
(closed) near the old Castel Scaligerl. That of dl 
Pietra, or Pontc della Pictra, built by Fra Gio- 
condo which has two Koman arches in it. leads to 
the barracks on the site of the Castel and Church 
of S. Piotro, in Veronetta ; this castle was occupied 
by the P'rcnch, 1797, after a hard struggle. From 
it and from Castel Felice bastion, behind it, there 
is a line prosi)ect of the country around, an well as 
from the Ciardino Oiusti on the east of the city. 
Bflow Ca-tel S. Pletro, near the bridge, are re- 
mains of a Honian theatre. 

Some traces are seen of the old wall of Gallienus. 

Pindcmontc, the poet, and Isotta Nogarolo, a 
learned lady of the fifteenth century, were natives 
of Verona, besides those already mentioned. A 
modern name is Alcardi, the poet, author of 
" Arnaldi di Roca," boru 1814. 

Strain Tramway to Cologna Noncta, 2'iJ miles, 
passing through San Miehele, San Martino, Cal- 
diero- (mineral baths), and Lonlgo,.nmi.lng part 
of the way parallel with the line to Vlcenza. At 
Gargagnano, In the hills, bebmglng to Can Grande, 
Dante wrote part of bis Purgatory. ... 

At Ronca and Bolca, many fossil shells, ft»h, 
and plants have been fcmnd in the liraostDneJforma- 
tlons. Ponte della Vlga, In the mounthlns, is a 
natural bridge, 100 feet span. 

Among the products are gloves, oil. and wine. 
The silk trade used to emjiloy 10,u0a hands. 

A Congre$$ was held here. 1S22, by the principal 
powers, ut which the EmjK'rors of Austria ami 
Russia, and the Kings of Pruss-ia. Sardinia, an«i 
Naples, were prestmt, but no British minister 
appeared, though Wellington was sent unoflicially. 
It decided on allowing France to send an army 
into Spain in behalf of the old monarchy. Lord 
Broughton, in his Ita^y, describes a concert given 
to the Allied Sovereigns, in the amphitheatre, on 
this occasion, and how Alexander took pains to 
Ingratiate himself with the people, by "rambling" 
about in pretended incognito ; a legion of spies 
hovering around him all the time. 

Excursions to Chioggia, by a line which pro- 
ceeds vift Dossobuono, Ugnago (page 48), and Badia 
to Rovigo, 66i miles; and thence to Chioggia 
(pages 87 and 89) on the coast. 

The route to Vicenza is through a fertile plain, 
where the vine is twined round thtf* mulberry 
trees. It is bordered ori the north by hills culti- 
vated to their summits, behind which are the Alps 
dividing Italy from the Tyrol. These hills are 
chiefly Umestone, yielding good red and otlier 
marbles. The F.uganean Hills are to the south. 

San Martino (Stat.) Next Vago-Zcvlo, and 

Caldiero (Stat.) The Roman Calderium, so 
called from a sulphur spring, over which a bath 
was built In the year 1 a.d. Here, near Cerea, the 
French wore defeated by the Austrlans, 12th 
November, 179i!, who occupied the heights muL-r 
Alvlnzi. Bonaparte witlidrew to Verona and 
wrote a dcsiMMiding letter to Paris, but on the 
14th he marched out and turned their position at 
Arcole, In 1805 a battle took place here between 
Massena and the Austrlans under Prince Charles. 

Colognola, opposite, was the scat ' of Count 
Alessandro Pompel, the builder of .the Exchange 
at Verona. Soave Castle stands on a hill near 
this. At a spot near the Roman way on the 
Cenera |)lain, about 5,000 «olns (now In the 
Verona Museum) were found 1877. They are of 
the time of Diocletian. Aurellan. Probus, 4c., and 
made of an alloy called billon. 

S. Bonifacio (Stat.) it gives name to a 
family whose old tower here serves as a campanile 
to the Church of Villanuova. At LonigO (Stat) 
is a handsome Church, 230 lect by 99 feet, having 
two weat spires and an octagon tower. Piazza del 
Cavalll is the site of a Castle. 

IB Alpane, S mllM louth, i« the funoni thoM PaLlidl 

On tbo IGth tbo Frucch again attempled to ckt? 
the bridse, only to bo driTon hack vUb lamienac 
luss, ospodally of offlcrra, Tney aicempteil It 
Bsaln the neil day wltboQt incceiii bnt Aogcrtao 
hnvlns by ■ flaiik rooTemont taken tbc lillaee 
oiicc more. Alrlnzi rMrcated on Honubello, vllh 
a total loss of S.ODO In killed and pr* 
lb<^r down tbe Adin are Valdltra o 
(Stat.), on tho Verona-HoTlgo 111 

HdntebeUo ceftat.). a town not to bfl con- 
founded "itb another Montebello. near Voghcra. 
which nave Marahal Lannes bla tKlo. Lannea, 

Artoie"'' "fine protpecl of tho Bericl Hill!, a 

oid'"rniiied"ca«°c'of'lh8 Montecobl fiin.iiy— the ol flhaXoepeare. ElTOU (battle 0( 
1797) iinp the Adige (page SO- 

TIOZHZA. (Stal), 

/ Oliecli 0/ JfwiM,— Teatro Olimplco 
alacei, by Pilladlo; Daomo, Madonni 

eqnal. His bulldinipi are In the Clasileal, as 
itlngolshed fi-giu the Gothic style, well jiropor- 
.ned, and oioally having ■ (rent of two archl 
;tural ordon. Hii natae. by T. Galissl (lUS) 

rhc best work ot Palladlo is the •lialn Ollm- 

*'de"n)!'me'rf Ihe'oldert Instltutlona" In ^^y° 

rcet hTU,irltb a Irluniphal an 

'plUact, 16 feet higb. 
e, In IStS. ' 


greatly admired at Ibe time. Part 
noloeeupied by the proiunlom li 
Gorlnlblan columns, supporting a 


-Bed by the Uacchlglion 

nwie pleaslir Itian the lodlridual 

.. Theimmc- ■ dyek.aVlrgIn,anrtanotl 
:baaubarbof . Bt. Joseph and Ht.Calh 
ffeet Is mneh j of the Masl. both by U 
laminaUun of I at. Succ* healing the PI 



Near the last, and on the same side, is the Monte 
di Pitta. 

The Piazza del Isola^ where the two streams 
unite, is large, but the buildings are not remark- 

Notable works of Palladio are- Palazzo Pot to- 
Barharan in Via Porta. "The Barbaran Palace 
perhaps shows Palladio's style to the best advan- 
tage. The proportion of the orders one t«> 
another is good, so is that of the solids to the 
voids; and the whole has a palatial, ornamental 
air, and with as little false decoration as is perhaps 
compatible with the style." — Fergvsson. 

Also, the Palazzo Franaachini; Palazzo di Porto, 
or Ca del IHavolo, in Piazza del Telle, now the 
Seminary Library; Pa'azzo Valmarano, with its 
colossal pilasters; Palazzo Thiene, a large rusticate' 
but unfinished structm-e, now the Banca Popolarc ; 
PnUazzo Trisnno dal Vtllo cFOro, near the Porta di 
S. Bartolommeo, on the north side of the city. 
This last was one of the earliest of Palladiums 

Another Palazzo Trissino, in Via del Giudeci, 
near the Corso, is by his follower, Scanimo/zi; 
and the Palazzo CordtUino, now the Elementary 
Schools, by another follower, Caldcrari, and a 
native of Vicenza, like his predecessors. In the 
Corso, near Porta di Verona, is Palladio's house. 
That of Pigafetta, the companion of Magellan, is 
near the Basilica, in the half- Venetian style of the 
fifteenth century (U8J). Under the windows arc 
carved roses, and the motto, **I1 nest Rose sans 
Esplne.'' The Palazzo del Conte Schio differs 
from other palaces here in being in the full style 
of Venetian Gothic. 

*' Vicenza is a city dear to all admirers of the 
Renaissance style, not only as being the birthplace 
of Palladio, but as containing by far the greatest 
number, as well as the most celebrated productions 
of his genius. Strange to say, however, it is not 
in Vicenza that these can be studied to the greatest 
advantage, as, unfortunately, most of them are of 
brick, concealed under stucco, and are constructed 
with wooden architraves, and all the shams we 
blame so much in the architecture of the present 
day. The city, too, is now sunk into decay, and 
most of its palaces are deserted, so that the build- 
ings themselves have an air of shabbiness most 
destructive of architectural effect; and are, in 
fact, better studied in drawings." — FiKGUSsoN's 

About forty Churches still remain here; many, 
of course, of inferior class. Specimens of Mor- 
tagna, Andrea Vicentino, and other native artists 
are abundant. 

The Cathedral is a large, fifteenth-century, Oothie 
church, with a crypt chapel under the < hoir, which 
is ascended by twenty steps. It contains some of 
the best works of Zelotti. 

At the Santa Corona are — a fine Adoration of the 
l^Vit^ P. Veronese; a hescentfromthe Croso. by 
Uaaata^ % nttire: a Uoantiful Baptism of Chriat, 
bjr Oi BtQSni; sna (OTer the porch) Ubrist crowned 

with Thorns, by Tintoretto, a lich composition. It 
contains some old (iolliic tunibs, and inusaiu woik 
at the high altar. 

S MichelVi Church possesses a Tintoretto also, 
St. Augusthie Healing the Plague. 

At S. Bavtolomn po, a Descent from the Cross, 
by Buonconsiglio, and the Adoration of the Magi, 
M. I'igoliiio. 

At S. Biagio, The Flagellation, by Guercino. 

At Corpus Domini, the Descent from the Cross, 
by J. IJ. Zelotti. 

At Santa CVoc^, the same subject, by Bassano; 
and Paul Veronese's Dead Christ, in the sacristy. 

At/S Rocca, Healing the Plague, by G. Bassano, 
a fine specimen of this artist. 

At Santa Maria de Campagnano, pictures by the 
same master, and Pordenouc. 

S. Lorenzo's old Gothic church, which had become 
a magazine, was restored iu 1886. It has a fine 
porch, and several monuments, amongst them 

The new *Pinacoteca is in tht Museo Civico, in the 
Palazzo Chiericati, a vast building, by Palladio, 
with an arcaded f ayadc of Doric ajul ionic columns, 
restored in 1866. It contains several pictures, the 
best of which are — a Holy Family, by I'. Veroi.cse; 
a Madonna, by Guido; a iiagdalene, by Titian; a 
half figure, by A. Carracci; Christ ar.d the >*irgin 
on the Throne, by Bassano: portraits by Bonifacio, 
Giorgione, &c. An Assumption, by an old Vene- 
tian painter, Maestro Paolo, is dated 133.<. But 
the most remarkable picture is the copy of *Chjist 
and ^t. Gregory I., of P. Veronese, w liich was the 
chief attraction of the Madonna del Mortc C hurch 
down to 1848, when it was cut to pieces by the 
AustiiiUs; it was afterwards patched together, 
and placed here. The oii^jinal is in the nionastciy 
of Madonna del Monte (see below). Here alsoaio 
the M6S. and architectural drawings of Palladia 
and his disciples ; with cabinets of natural 
history, &c. 

At the Public Library, or Biblioteca Bertoliana, 
open da'ly, are 30,00U volumes and 3U0 Mt-S., 
including a Latin Bible of the thirteenth century, 
and rare copies of Italian and other cla»«sics. 

Out&ide the Porta del Monte is a triumphal Arch, 
by Palladio, whence a covered ftrciulu of JbO 
arches, half-a-niile long, terminated by a staircase 
of 200 steps, conducts to the entrance of the 

*Madonna del Monte, a famous convent or pil- 
grimage, on Monte Berico, whence there is n 
splendid prospect as far as the Adriatic. Ann ng 
the ]>aintings is B. Mantegna's Adoration of iLo 

On the top of a grassy knoll is the cclebralcvl 
Kotonda. or Villa I ailadtana, a mund 1 uilduig first 
built by Palladio for the .Manjulb Capri, and otiea 
imitated: as at Lord llexley's se-at, at ♦ ot,t's('ra), 
and at Chiswiek. "it is a s juare of about lO iavi 
each way. with a recessed poitSco on ejich f«c« . • f 
the ionic order, and endowing a domical apartnu i.t 
of 80 feet diameter in the cent-.-e. It is, peihavKv 
the most cInaNlc aud tevplo-Ukc dii«l^B&^^^^\. v%>«>^.^^ 

The Re 

I ■Tcblt«etiiT«. Tbtn li 

UDU ue bnt raw 
In tho FlgiTelu >n( 


VlcBii« was bombardBd tor eldhteen iKmnbir 
Bsdilxky III iUH. and (orced to capltnlite. 
Btildei Ihtnstlrei aJrcaily nimcd. It reckoni 

heretici; and Zaneila, tbe poet, aothor of "Palche," 

Among other ipota to itill are the Labyrlntb. 

or Grotto del Cavoll; Barhnrano, Iha HUli ol 

Biui>iHiir*> nirt. [Section i.- 

•(Mtf Objtcli of SuHf.—Vtitaw d«1U Raglans, 

PatnHnfi, by 
Stalplurc, by Do 

8areopha«Tii, Llyy'i Qran. Unl- 

Du Zavio {or Altldiloro). 
of tba PadiM MbooL 
and Blccio. ArMUclurt, 

(arllBed c[Iy: capital of aprOTlnce; acBtat 
(■hop, UniTenliy, *c.; In a fortllB part of the 
clitKlliint. It I) a very ancient place, called 
iHum, by Llyy uid Virgil, irbo aiiert Ibat 

by at Abano (pago 8»), nndar the EvoimmK 
HUlt to the nanb, \fl»o feel high. When 

sr^we tTi;ouo,"i6 mtf;; ™ ihTT ™r^ ^';ii vx* w^ A'hVin'„'':x';?JLmn w ,i^ 

ttaia Schlo there le a short line to Ar«l«0 th roogh ; i[ „a> aijiln ™tored by NmoiIJi" generic of 

Ball from Viwnii to TrBTllo (p. Be), p 
throogb Olttadalla and CutfllfrUlcO, the 

Slace of Giertimc (died Isll). Rail [rom 
ella to Bauuio (pop-, li'ili), on the 1 
(p. S3), from which Mnrat gul hli title of 

beate bithi of B«4IOIX0, beaotlfnlly 

PADUA (Btat.), 

Or "Pailofa la Forte" (Tbe Birong), ai tbe Itallam 
ityle It. 
I-opalaliun. i!,174. In Hit tbe popntatlon wu 
only WilKNI. 

TO (Qolden Star); 

r (Gol. 


<InKM>ir« —Bali I" Vlcenia. Ferrara, BelOfiia. 
Turn', and Venice. BaLbE*' 8tUl°>> bait aullg 
(nw Iha UiwB. UiiiMlWWf.'m «sBta. 



It 19 an old.loohing 

Yet, "Mceptbig Fern 
(Lord BrougliUmJ Th, 

ealthy lb 

Ilaiia), wbk 


han that of any Italian ctly,"— 

h Porta QloTanni. and Porta 
boilt I>y Falconetto. Among 
PUtia M aiffMH (or P. Unit! 

imlly tl 

a high belfry, onileonUlna the tMofn 
flCi»»I^(Afteenlh century). It nas the work 
r Falconelto (1133), and baa frcKoei by Florlglri 
n the front. Tbe Palamo del Capltano li now 
leUnlyerelty Library. 'niobeatUaf^i are here, 
'ha fine old cWk tower of the Palaiio del Capl- 
<na )■ by J. llondl, called "Uell' Orotoglo." 

The FUuta dille Erbe (Herb M. 
contains ttfe Mnnlcigilo. In the 

Boiite 13.] 

VtClfiNl^A) MDtTjL— OHtBOHSS. 


A most remarkable building In tbo ^Palazzo 
deUa Ragione^ or Salone (entrance \\\ Via del 
Municipio), with its high pitched roof, built about 
1209, by P. Cozzo, upon arches, and restored after 
a Are, 1420. This vast Halh without ornaments 
or proportion, one of the larpcRt in Italy, 
is 273 feet by 86, and 78 feet high, and painted 
with upwards of 400 faded frescoes, relating to 
the seasons, the planets, signs of the zodiac, astro- 
nomical influences, apostles, and saints, including 
St. Mark on a throne, a symbol of Venetian power. 
They were painted chiefly by G. Miretto, from 
designs by Giotto, furnished by Piotro Apponi or 
d'Abano, a famous astronomer and native, whose 
bust is here. Under St. Mark's picture is the 
Tombstone of a freedman of Livy, whose house 
was in Strada di S. Giovanni (?). There are also 
statues, Ac, of Speroni, the philosopher, Lucretia 
DondL, a learned lady, related to Dondi deir Oro- 
logio, and BelzonL, the traveller, between two 
Egyptian obelisks (?), which he gave to his native 
town ; with the model of a large Horse by Dona- 
tello. At one end is the Lapis Vituperiiy a black 
granite stone, a sort of cutty stool, where it was 
the custom for an insolvent debtor to sit on his 
naked breech, and declare three times that he was 
not worth so much as he owed. He was then 
r^eased from his creditors. Many inscriptions, 
Ac., are placed in the corridors. 

The Cathedral, or *Duomo^ in Piazza del Santo, 
was rob^t in the sixteenth-eighteenth centuries 
by Andrea della Vallc. It is large, but has 
nothing remarkable about it, though M. Angclo, 
they say, gave the design. From a want of 
degance in the details, it produces little good 
artutic effect. It contains some monuments of 
Speroni and his daughter; of Bisliop Barocci; 
a Madonna by Padovanino, paintings by Cam- 
pagnola, Ac, and Riualdo's bust of Petrarch, 
who was a canon of this church, and died at 
Arquh, near this. In the sacristry is a good 
fresco portrait, cut out of the house ho lived in 
at Padua; a Greek silver vase of curiuus work is 
used at coniirmations. They show also a beautiful 
missal ou vellum, printed at Venice, 1408, full of 
miniatures. The detached Baptistery was built 
by Francis Carrara's wife, about 1380, and is 
covered with good frescoes by painters of Giotto's 
school. The chapter library contains 10,000 
Yolumei and some MSS. A bust of Petrarch was 
placed in it, 1817, by A. Barba. 

8. Antonio or 11 Sanio, dedicated to the patron 
saint of the city, and a very ornamental structure. 
St. Anthony died here, 1231 ; and his relics arc of 
course tolerably authentic, and are duly honoured. 
This great brick church was built 126,%1307, 
in the mixed Gothic style, by Niccolb di I'isa(?) 
the seven cupolas being added in the fifteenth 
century. It ts a cross, 280 feet by 140, with a 
front it 117 feet. ^*It8 Eastern domes, German 
qpires^ and narrow galleries of pointed arches 
malci up ta ainpre^ati^ that oould exist no* 

where else. Ah Uglier chttl'ch can hardly be 
found."- (Fergnsson.) The arches arc round* and 
pointed. Above the chief portal are two figures 
of St. Bernard ahd St. Anthony, painted by Man- 
tcgna, but 8ihce retouched. In the square fronting 
it is Donatello'a bronze statue, on horseback, of 
(iuttamelata, or EraHuio da Narni, the Condottierc 
leader; one of the oldest works of the kind. 

The interior is very full of carving, painting, 
.sculpture, ex-votos, especially the sainVt chapel^ 
with its gold and silver lamps, and silver coffin, 
and rich shrine, by Sausovino; having a fa9ado 
of fine arches, above which are niched statues 
by Pironi, Alleo, Ac. The altar, built 1598, is 
of verdo antico, surromided by bronze statues, 
of saints (Anthony, Bonavcntura, Louis, Ac), by 
T. Aspetti ; who also made the angels which carry 
A. Riccio's fine candelabra. One lamp is the gift 
of the Empress Eugenie. Two other groups, by 
F. Parodi and O. Marinali, bear silver candelabra, 
weighing 1,600 and 1,400 ounces resi)cctlvely. 
Nine or ten bas-reliefs on the walls are by Bardi, 
Padovanino, Campagna, Sansovino, Felucca, Ac. 
The silver doors of this chapel were painted over 
by the monks to save them from the French. 

The Chapei of the Madonna Mora (the black 
Madonna) has a sitting figure of the Virgin in 
marble (1392), decked out. In S. Luca's Chapel are 
wall paintings by Padovanino. In the choir 
are bronze gates by F. Aspetti, bronzes on the 
organ by Donatello ; twelve bas-reliefs from the 
Old Testament by Villano (1468) and A. Riccio ; 
bronzes romid the altar; and statues in bronze by 
Donatello and T. Mhicio; a beautiful bronze 
candelabrum by A. Riccio (1607-17); a bronze 
crucifix and bas-reliefs (Christ in tho Tomb), also 
by Donatello, to whom the bas-reliefs in St. 
Sacrament Chapel are also due. The Sanctuary 
(built 1690) has sculptures by F. Parodi, and 
relics of the saints ; the Sacristy, various carvings 
in wood ; and the Chapter House, traces of Giotto's 
frescoes. In S. Feiice Chapel, which, till 1608, 
was dedicated to St. James, are frescoes relating 
to the latter, by Da Zevio and D'Avanzo (1376), 
besides sculptures of the same date. In the body 
of the church are monuments of Sesio (by Parodi) 
who fell when Venice was attacked by tlie Turkish 
fleet, 1683; of Archbishop Trombefta, with his 
bronze bust, by Riccio ; of General ("ontarini, by 
Sanmiicheli ; Helen Piscopia, a learned lady ; Car- 
dinal Bemlio, by Sammicheli ; and Ccsarotti, the 
scholar; with four organs in the choir. 

At the Scuola (school, or brotherhood) dd Santo 
(Antonio), close by, are a series of frescoes 
relating to the miracles of St. Anthony; three or 
four of which are by Titian (one contains his own 
portrait) ; others by Campagnola, Ac. 

A Fiera del Santo, or St. Anthony's Horse Fair, 
is held in June, when the animals are blossed by 
tho priest. Here polcsini di Rovigo are bought 
for exportation to Rome, where the^ wk^ '<«bmL^->- 
thecanriai^oltAi^^CiVc^VMdau ^^asMB^AA&M^ 



[Section 1» 

Anthony U sold, givitag the saint's discourse to 
the fishes, beginning '' Cari ed amuti pesci," and 
ending with the benediction. 

S. Oeorgio, near St. Anthony's Church, was built 
1377, as a Mausoleum for the Lupi family, and has 
some fresco paintings by Avanzi and Da Zevio. 

OH Eremitani (or the Hermitage Church), near 
the Arena, built 1376, for the Augustines, has 
canopied tombs of the Carrara family (an inscrip- 
tion for Jacopo C. is by Petrarch), and Benavides, 
the priest, by Ammanati ; with Guarento's fresco 
d the Last Judgment in the choir ; some by Man- 
tegna and his pupils, &c., in S. Jacopo's Chapel ; 
a St. John Baptist, by Guido, in the sacristy ; a 
funeral urn to William of Orange, by Canova; 
and a bust by him in the cemetery to Mad. Calem- 
berg. The frescoes by *Mantegna, almost the only 
frescoes by this master, are in bad condition, 
and some of the principal figures have disappeared. 

Santa Maria delV Annunziata or *Jfadonna deir 
Artna, on the site of a Roman Amphitheatre, 
which the predecessors of Enrico di Serovegno 
turned into a castle, was built for him, 1303, by 
Giotto, who also adorned it with a series of fres- 
coes. It is a small, plain Gothic building, usually 
called "Giotto's Chapel," pierced with windows 
on one side only, and contains the founder's monu- 
ment by John of Pisa, and his statue. *Oiotto't 
i^rMcoM number forty-three, representing the Life 
of Christ, and the Legends of the Virgin, and 
include the celebrated Lasi Judgment, with the 
Virtues and Vices, which they say was in part 
prompted by Dante, with whom (xiotto lived at 
the time. They are on a blue ground, with ara- 
besques, saints, &c., filling up the spaces, which 
are separated by painted borders, without any 
attempt at architectural ornament. Copies in 
chromo-lithography have been published by the 
Arundel Society. A fee is demanded. 

In Scuola del Carmine are paintings by Cam- 
pagnola, Titian (The Visitation), and P. Vecchio. 

S. Francesco, built by Sansovino, has paintings 
by P. Veronese, and carved stalls. 

Santa Oiuatina is a handsome, lofty building, 
807 feet long, on the site of an ancient temple ; 
rebuilt, 1621-49, by A. Riccio and A. Morone; 
with a fine open lofty nave and eight cupolas, one 
of which is 130 feet high. It contains the tomb of 
St. Luke, by G. Mussato, with P. Veronese's 
Martyrdom of Santa Giustina, including bis own 
portrait; and a Madonna, by Romanino; beside 
some seat carvings in the choir. St. Luke's por- 
trait of the Virgin and Child are also shown. In 
the cloisters of the great Benedictine Convent, to 
which it is attached, are a very old piece of sculp- 
ture (about 1000) and some other clever statues of 
a later date. It has an excellent library, much of 
which was dispersed at the Revolution, but it is 
still rich in first editions, and contains Petrarch's 
letter to G. Dondi. It is further noted as being 
on the supposed site of *Livy''i Grave, to whom 
'^here is an ioecrlption, with a bust marked 

S. Cantione contains Danini's Miracle of the 
Miser (with the portrait of Fabricius, the anato- 
mist), and others by A. Riccio. 

S. Oaetano was built by Scamozzi, 1586. 

The Bishop's Palace (Palazzo Vescovlle) has 
paintings by Ricci and others, one being a portrait 
of *Petrarch. At the Scminario for Priests, 
attached to Santa Maria in Vanzo, is a library of 
55,000 volumes and 800 MSS. It was here that 
Forcellini brought out his great Latin Lexicon. 

The Museo Civico contains the Municipal Library, 
Archives, and a collection of pictures, with some 
antiquities. The best pictures arc by Boccaccino, 
Morone, Garofalo, and Romanino. 

The Palace of the University, called II Bb (ox), 
from standing on the site of an inn with that sign, 
was built 1493-1552, though founded in the thir- 
teenth century, by Frederick II., and numbers 
about 1,200 students, with forty or fifty professors. 
In its palmy state it could boast of 18,000 students, 
but then Padua was able to send 110,000 fighting 
men into the field. It forms a large pile, with a 
double gallery, by Sansovino, round the beautiful 
court, in which are arms of learned membersfrom all 
parts of Europe, with the statue of the handsome 
Helen Piscopia, who took her degree as a doctor, 
and died in 1684. Galileo, Fallopius, Fabricius, <fcc., 
were professors here. It comprises an Anatomical 
theatre (a good collection, as old as 1594), Cabinets 
of physic and natural hbtory. Library of 100,000 
volumes, in the hall of the Gliganti, attached to 
the Capitano (page 50) ; Botanic gardens (near the 
Prato), as old as 1546, in which are many largo 
agaves and cacti, a fan palm (celebrated in a 
poem by Goethe), magnolia, araucarias, and an 
ancient plane tree ; Observatory (in Ezzelino's old 
tower of Tommaso), and an institute of rural 
economy. The Observatory commands a view 
of the plain, the Tyrolcse and Euganean Hills, 
and of Venice (on a clear 'day). 

Forsyth relates that a Venetian Senator, being 
once deputed as a visitor to this university, asked 
the astronomer if the observatory wanted any 
instrument "It wants nothinj," said Chiminclli, 
"except a good horizon." "Horizon!" said the 
most potent signer, "why then we must send to 
London for one." Ezzelino's House is now the 
Santa Lucia Theatre for marionettes. The Uni- 
versity Hospital, or Spedalc, is in the old Jesuit 
College, and has a chapel containing Canova's 
monument of Bishop Giustiniani. Dr. Cuius, 
founder of Cains College, graduated here. 

In Ponte S. Lorenzo, near the house of Dante, is 
the so-called sarcophagus of *Antenor, under a 
brick cano]iy, near the remains of S. Stefano 

PcUazzo del Podesta, of the sixteenth century, has 
paintings by D. Compagnola, Padovauino, <fec. 

* Palazzo Trente Pappa-fava {or Bean Bread) has 
Damini's frescoes; and a marvellous group of 
seventy figures of Falling Angels, cut out of one 
marble block, by A. Fasolata, in the course of 
twelre year^' work. Above is St. Michael, An<| 

Route 14.] 



below is Pluto, and the attitudes and grouping 
of the whole are surprising, considering the 

" It is a group of sixty figures, representing the 
angels cast down from heaven, cut out of one solid 
block of Carrara marble, about 5 feet high. They 
are in all attitudes that the human form could take 
in such a headlong descent, and arc so animated in 
appearance that they are almostliving. Each angel 
is separate from the rest, but the whole are twisted 
and twined together in a complicated manner, and 
are most exqusitcly chiselled, even in the minutest 
parts. The wonder is how the artist reached the 
inner portion of the group. The Archangel Michael 
forms the top of the pyramid. Fasolata, the artist, 
had never executed anything ofconsequence before, 
but his patron, thinking the man a genius, took 
him under his protection, gave him a block of 
marble, rooms in his palace, and liberal pay, and 
desired him to execute a group of figures to prove 
his talent. The artist stipulated that his work 
should not be seen till finished ; and after twelve 
years he produced this, which is certainly unique. 
He was afterwards invited to England to execute 
a similar work, and died there, our guide added, 
of ^home sicluiess.^ The group is now covered 
with glass, as a Russian General, some time ago, 
whilst examining it too closely, had the misfor- 
tune to knock off a small portion of one finger."— 
Miss Catlow's Sketching Ramlles. 

Palatzo Giusiiniani al Santo is a fine building 
by Falconetto, with Campagnola's frescoes, from 
Raphael's designs. Count Lulgi Comaro, who 
wrote on "Long Life," died here, 156G, and It 
includes a musical rotunda built by him. Palazzo 
Lazzaro a San Francesco has a gallery of paintings 
of the Venetian school, with many inscriptions, <fec. 
Palazzo Pisani includes an old chapel, in which 
are frescoes, with portraits of the Carrara family 

The small Picture Gallery of the City, or Museo 
Civieo. in St. Anthony's Cloister, contains a fine 
work by Guercino (Head of St. John the Baptist), 
with Padovanino's Woman in Adultery, with the 
town Library, coins, Ac. 

Other buildings are the Theatres Nuovo and 
Nuovissimo, Hospital of S. Giovanni, and the 
Esposti, or Foundling Hospital, establfshed as far 
back as 1607. Near the Porto dl Torrloelle is an 
old house inscribed "Opifizi di Torricdle," said 
to have been built in 12 1 7. 

Its eminent natives, besides Livy and Piotro 
d'Abano, ar3 A. Mantegna and Campagnola, the 
painters; also A. Musalo, the poet, and Davila. 
Petrarch resided here before his death in 1374; 
and a statue near the Carmini was dedicated to 
him, in 1874, at the fifth centenary of this event. 

Local rail from Padua to Bagnoli, 17^ miles, 
passing through Cagnola. 

Br rail to Ferrara, vid AbaZLO (page 89). Mon- 
SeUCe, Este, ROVlgO, &c. (Route 20). By rail, 

vid Oamposamplero, Cittadella, to Bassano 

(page M), 80 miles, up the Brenta. From Campo- 

sampten to Oftitelftnuioo 4pd Montebelluni^ 

From Padua to Venice the country is flat, inter- 
sected by numberless canals, and highly cultivated. 

A local rail, 26 miles, runs to Venice, vid DolO 
(below) and FUBina. 

Ponte di Brenta (Stat.), near the river, is 
succeeded by 

DolO (Stat.), where the rail leaves the Brenta, 
which may be descended in the barge, or barca, to 
Fusina, from which you cross the Lagoon to Venice. 
But the rail runs vid MaranO (Stat.) to 

Mestre (Stat.), where Palladlo built a splen- 
did palace for the Barbaro family; and to Fort 
Malghera, on the mainland, where the shallow 
Lagoon, or Laguna, not more than thirteen feet 
deep, on which Venice is seated, opens to view. 
Fort Malghera was taken, after a bombardment of 
five days, in 1849, when the Venetians rose against 
their Austrian masters, under the leadership of 
Manln and General Pepe, the patriotic Neapolitan, 
who died In 1855. Forts St. Glullano and St. 
Secondo serve to guard other parts of the Lagoon. 
It is crossed by an immense bridge, or viaduct, 2i 
miles long, 14 feet high, on 220 arches, 33 feet 
span, on 80,000 piles driven into the mud. Besides 
the arches there are several embankments, the 
largest of which is 450 feet by 100. It cost nearly 
£190,000, and terminates at Venice on the Canale 
Grande at Isola S. Chlara. The mainland on 
which Mestre stands was styled the Dogada in 
the old times of the republic. Local rail from 
Mestre to Malcontcnta, Sf miles. 

Venice (Stat.) (See Route 19.) 


Milan to the Certosa, Pavia, Alessandria, 
and Genoa. 


Rogoredo 4^ 

Locate 9| 

Villa Maggiore 12^ 

Certosa 17| 

Pavia 22i 

[Branches to Vog- 
hera (Route 4) and 
Cava Carbonara ... 28 
Zinasco 32 

Pieve AlbignolA ... 38| 

Sannazzaro 36f 

Ferrera 38 

Lomello 41| 

Mede 4flf 

Castellaro 47| 

Torrebcrettl 60 . 

Valenza 64 

Valmadonna 68 

Alessandria 63 

Rogoredo (Stat.), here the line to Piacenza 
and the south branches off. 

The greater part of the line is over flat, rich mea- 
dow land, bordered by trees and Intersected by the 
Navlgllo Grande and other canals. 

Villa Maggiore (Stat.). On the right is 

Blnasco Castle, an old seat of the Duke of Milan, 
In which Beatrice di Tcuda, wife of Philip Vis- 
conti, was beheaded, 1418. 

Certosa di Pavia (Stat.), so called from the 

Carthusian Monastery, 5 miles from Pavia, 
dedicated to the Beata Vergine dftll«w QkX"«a 
Jt is Iff orth v^siUiv^ t'Oit Wna ^■^'tw^-'^. ^vsn>' 




[Section 1. 

and oonventual estabtishment. It was founded 
by G. G. Visconti, first Duke of Milan, 1896, in 
k'emorse for his poisonings; and, after being 
sappressed bj Joseph II., has been again restored. 
Hither Francis I. was brought after the Battle 
of Paria, 1525, which was fought hard by. 

The '^Church, approached by a marble court 820 
feet long, is cross-shaped, 250 feet long; built by 
Henrico da Qamodia, or Zamodia, a German of 
Gmunden, in the mixed Gothic and Renaissance, 
or cinquc-ccnto, styles; but the rich Facade, 
with its doors, pilasters, bas-reliefs, figures, so 
crowded together that scarcely a foot of smooth 
surface remains, is by Borgognone, 1473-5, and 
others. As a frontispiece, it is "certainly one of the 
most beautiful designs of the age. It consists of fire 
compartments, dirided rertically by buttresses of 
bold and appropriate form; the three centre 
ditisions representing the body of the church with 
its aisles; the outer ones the side chapels. The 
otiier features are appropriate and well placed and 
girc relief, with light and shade, to the com- 
position." — (Fergusson.) Eight Chapels run down 
each side of the interior, which abounds with 
frescoes, mostly by Borgognone, including his 
altar-piece of the Crucifixion, gilding, colouring, 
bronzes, bas-reliefs, medallions, and other orna- 
ments. Women were not admitted further than the 
nare of this church, the Order being a strict one in 
its obscrranccs. Only the superior was allowed to 
conrerse. " I went into the two Cloistral quad- 
rangles. The lesser contains a beautiful garden, 
rich in flowers; and the wallcs are adorned with 
graceful bas-reliefs in terra-cotta, representing 
Hcriptural subjects. The large cloister enclosed a 
field of com. The views of the noble monastery 
from these courts are rory picturesque. Each of 
the monks has a separate abode, which opens into 
the garden ; and there is a little window-like 
hutch by which his food i8introduccd."-CZ>r. Words- 
tcorth.) The Certosa is now kept up as a national 
monument, the monasteries having been suppressed 
by government. No gratuities are allowed to be 

Ckrtosa Chapkls. — Down one side are the 
following chapels and altars, the latter t>eingof 
rich marble and mosaic work : — 

Santa Veronica. — A. Langine*s Resurrection; 
C. Procaccinrs altar-piece; Borgognonc's Madonna 
and Angels. 

. S. Ugone (IIugo).—%t. Hugo and Angels ; altar- 
piece, by Borgognone and G. Fava. 

8. Benedetto. — C. Comaro's altar-piece of St. 

S. Crocifisso.- -Borgognone's Crucifixion, one of 
the best of his works. 

5. Siro.—C. B. Sacchi's Mosaics ; Borgognone's 
altar-piece of 8. Birus. 

S8. Pietro e /'ao/o.- Montaldo's St. Paul Re- 
storing a Dead Man, and Martyrdom of St. Peter. 

Annunziata.—Wontaldo^a frescoes. 

The chapels down the ot)ier b|4« ^re the 

Vergine del HoimHo.—Polpiao'B bas-relief of tlie 
Adoration of the Magi. 

S. Anibrogio. — C. Rosnati's bas-relief of St. Am- 
brose expelling the Arians; Borgognone's altar- 

Santa Caterina. — Rosnati's statues of St. 
Catherine of Siena and St. Catherine of the Wheel. 

St. Giuseppe.— E. Procaccini's Three Wise Men 
and Herod, and the Angel and St. Joseph; D. 
Bussola's fine bas-relief of the Massacre of the 
Innocents (1677). 

S. Giovanni Battista. — Carolone's wall-pieees of 
St. John Baptist. 

S. MieheHe. — Nuvoleno's Abraham and the Three 
Angels; Orsolino's bns-relief of Jacob's Dream, 
Ac., at the altar ; Perugino's altar-piece of God 
the Father, one of six by him, the other five being 
replaced by copies. Two originals were carried 
off by the French, 1796, and the other three are in 
the National Gallery. Raphael is said to have 
had a hand in these works of his old master. 

Santa J/ariaJ/odia/ena.— Paintings by F. Bianchi 
and Peroni. 

At the upper end, in the choir and transepts, 
are the 

Sagrettia Nuova (New Sacristy), in the south 
transept wall. G. Rosnati*s bas-relief of the 
Nativity. A. Solario's (or II Qobbo's) altar-piece, 
showing the seams where it was joined together, 
after it had been out for removal by the French, in 
1798. Borgognone's St. Peter and St. Paul. A 
door, by G. Omodeo, leads to the fountain cloisters 
(chiostro della Fontana), which had some good 
terra-cotta reliefs. 

S. Bi'unone''s altar in the south transept is of 
rich alabaster, dedicated to the founder of the 
order, with reliefs by T. Orsolino ; aljove it are 
Bramantino's frescoes of the Visconti presenting 
the design of the Certosa to the Virgin. Near it 
is the 

Mausoleum of G. G. Visconti, the founder, a 
gorgeous cinque-cento pile, by G.Pcllcgrini, erected 
between 1490 and 156a, under a canopy. In the 
north transept is the monument of Ludovico Vis- 
conti and his beautiful wife, Beatrice, by Solario. 

Lavatojo «te' Monad, or Little Sacristy. — Bust of 
the architect, and heads of Duchesses of Milan. 
A. Carrara's bas-reliefs; stained windows (1477). 

Z)om*.- Frescoes in the Dome, by Casolani; 
carved stalls in the choir, by V. dc' Conti; Fres- 
coes in the choir, by I). Crcspi (1563). Two 
marble pulpits ; and six nichod statues of St. Peter, 
St. Paul, Moses, Ac, by 'I'. Orsolino. 

High Altar, under a tabernacle, is richly orna- 
mented with marble, bnmzes, apate, romelian, 
Ac; bas-reliefs by Solario ; angels, by Volpino. 

Sagrestia V&cchia, opposite the Lavatory.— 
Angela, Ac., by O. Awadeo; A. Carrara's portrait o| 

Bonte 14,] 



G. Visconti, and Guido's Cardinal Colonna; B. degli 
Ubbriacbrs ivory bas-reliefs from tbe Hew Testa- 
ment. Near this is the 

Reliquie Altar, where the chief relics were pre- 
served. Fine mosaics by V. Sacchi, the work of 
ten years; A. Funtana's beautiful candelabra; 
statues of the Virgin, «kc.,byOr80lino and C. Sacchi. 

The cupola is a beautiful object, and interesting 
as the only 'important example of a Renaissance 
copy of the form of dome used by the Italians in 
the mediseral period.*' — Fergusson. 

The marble Lavatory has a bust of the architect. 
There are two sacristies, a largo refectory, a 
library, a beautiful fountain court, a brick cloister, 
all equally adorned with bas-reliefs, altar-pieces, 
and frescoes, well adapted for contributing to the 
comfort of the former inmates, who at one time 
had an income of £40,000 a year. 

Borgognone, whose other name was Da Fossano, 
painted the Marriage of St. Catherine (now hi the 
National Gallery) for the Robecchino Chapel, near 
Pa via, which at one time was under the rule of the 

The railway is carried to the west side of Pavia, 
to Porta £k>rgorato, while the Navlglio Grande 
runs round the east side to the Ticino. This canal 
is an excellent work, and was constructed by the 
French in 1807. 

PAVIA (Stat.); Pavia ''laDotta," the Learned. 

Here lines branch off to Yoghera (page 11), to 
.CasaJpns^rlejDgo, Piacenza, Ac, to Yalenza, 
Alessandria, Brescia, and Cremona. 

Population, 39,946. 

Hotels: CroceBianca; TreRe. 

OmnHnUt to or from the railway station, 25 cts. 

•Chief Olffeets of i^Totia.— Duomo, S. Michele, 
University. For the Certosa, see above. 

Capital of the province, seat of a bishop 
with a University, (founded in 1361), on the Ticino, 
near the Po, in a part of the plain of Iiombardy ; 
so fertile that it is called the garden of the Milan- 
ese, but also aguish and unhealthy. In Roman 
times it was called Tidnum^ but Papia when it 
became the seat of the Lombard kings, whose 
palace was replaced by the strong Ccutle of the 
Viscontis, built 1469, and now used as a barrack, 
with a fine court. The celebrated Battle of 1525, 
in which Charles Y. took Francis I. prisoner, was 
fought near the Certosa Convent, on the MUan 
Road. It was plundered by the French a few years 
after, in revenge for the defeat of Francis; and in 
1796, by BoQapartc, who gave it up to storm, on 
account of an attack made on a garrison of 300 
French, who, without artillery, bravely defended 
theijAselvesagainst 4,000 men-at-arms. ()f tlie'400'' 
brick towers which surrounded it, only a few are 
left, about 200 feet high, one of which is a Be]£ry. 
That which wM the prison of Boethius^ when he 

he was beheaded by Theodoric's order, stood till 
1584. A portico runs round the Piazza Grande at 
the centre of the town. The streets are wide, one 
of the best being the Corso Yittorio Emanuele II., 
running down to the bridge, and to the suburb of 
Borgo Ticino. This bridge, of brick, is about 500 
feet long, and, being roofed over Mith marble, it 
serves for a promenade. There is a chapel in the 
middle of the bridge. The views from here are 
especially picturesque. 

S. Stefano, or the *Duomo, is a modern eight- 
sided building, built (from a design by Bramante) 
in 1486, on the site of one of the sixth century, and 
has some good paintings, with a brick tower. 

"The churches of Pavia are very interesting, 
especially the Cathedral and Church of St. Michael. 
There is a sombre, severe, and stem aspect in the 
churches, which, with their fabrics still unfinished, 
seems to connect the spectator of the present day 
with centuries long gone by."— (Df. Wordtworth.J 
The Cathedral contains a tine cenotaph, or altar- 
tomb, of St. Augustine, under a (xothic canopy, 
with more than 200 figures in it, a work begun by 
Campione in 1362. St. Augustine is not buried 
here ; but his remains, after their translation from 
Hippo, were brought to Pavia, in 710, by Luitprand, 
King of Lombardy, and are supposed to lie under 
the altar of St. Peter's Church, because a silver 
chest was found there in 1695, with the name 
"Agostino" in Gothic letters. They also show 
here the lance of the Paladin Roland. The building 
is being restored. 

*S. Miehde (St. Michael) Church, in some parts 
as old as the sixth century, is one of the most 
ancient in Italy, and a genuine Lombardo-Romau- 
esque, with the characteristic round arch , tower, Ac 
It is 190 feet by 80, and full of curious carvings, 
bas-reliefs, and early frescoes. 

*'This church, which took its present form 
either at the end of the eleventh or beginning 
of the twelfth century, is one of the most interesting 
of this age, and presents in itself all the features 
of a perfect round-arch Gothic church. Its well- 
marked vaulting shafts spring from the floor to 
the roof; the pier arches in the aisle are perfectly 
distinct and well understood features; the angles 
of the piers are softened and ornamented by shafts 
and other ornsmental arrangements. With other 
churches of the age, it fails principally from over- 
heaviness of parts, and a certain clumsiness in 
construction, which wants the refinements neces- 
sary for a true worit of art. Externally, one of 
the most pleasing features is the apse, with its 
circular gallery."— /<wsrtM<an. 

The very old Church of S. Pietro in delo d'Oro^ 
which held the tombs of I^uitprand, the Lombard 
Khig, and Boethius, has been rebuilt. Here the 
bones of St. Augustine, as above mentioned, are 
supposed to lie. 

'•'■S. Teodoro may be somewhat older than 8. 
Michele, and has a gallery divided into triplets of 
arcades by l)old flat buttresses sprinchnBL^^E^^nx^*^" 
ground. 8. P*8<ro V» wsw^^^■t^i5^"l \stfiT<^ \ss6a** 



[Section 1. 

tho arcidos hoin? omitted round the itpsc, though 
Introduced in the central dome. It has besides two 
sabordlnate apses of graceful design.** — Ferguuon. 

S. Marino is also ancient. Pantafeone, or Del 
Carmine, is a large Gothic brick church of the four- 
teenth century, with pinnacles in front, and good 

Santa Maria Coronata, or Canapenuova^ is by 
Bramantc (1492), and has some paintings worth 
notice. In the cloisters of the Augustine Conrcnt 
lies a Duke of Suffolk, a title assumed by Richard 
do la Pole, who fell in the battle of Pavia. He 
was buried here by his relative Charles Parker. 

S. Francesco, also of Romancs(|ue brick. S.Sc^va- 
tore, finely gilt; and S. Lan/ranco, in the Lombard 
style, are outside the walls. 

The '^University, founded by Charlemagne, 774, 
and lately restored and enlarged, which gained 
Pavia its former title of *^La Dotta,** is composed 
of thii*teen colleges, with about 1,400 students, 
and ninny professors. Among the latter have 
figured Spallanzani, Scarpa, Volta, Fontana, Ac. 
A good library, museums of Natural History and 
Anatomy, and a Botanic Qarden, are attached to it. 
It was revived by Duke Visconti of Milan, in the 
fifteenth century. The M8S. collected by him 
were taken to Paris. Opposite the University is 
a statue of Itaiy. Near here, in the Corso 
Vittoria Kmmanuele, is. the handsome Galleria, 
completed in 1882. Dorromco College, a fine pile, 
was founded by tlwit family; another, theGhislieri, 
by Pius v., whose bronze stands in it ; a third by 
the Caccia family. 

Other l)uildings are the General Hospital, con- 
taining portraits of hundreds of benefactors; the 
Foundling Hospital; a good theatre (built 1778); 
and several palazzi of the old nobility — as the 
DrHmblliti, Maino,and Ollevano-all well designed, 
with galleries and beautiful gardens. The Mala- 
spln.i Palace is now the Pinacoteca of the city. franc, Archbishop of Canterbury, was born 

Pavia to Voghera (page llX by rail, 16 miles. 
[Pavia, by rail, to Casalpusterlengo (page 67), on 
the main iine from Milan to the South. 

Miles. I Miles. 

Bolgiojoso 9^ Ospedaletto 2lf 

Miradolo 1.5f { Casalpusterlengo... 26 

Hence to Piacenza and Cremona. Routes 15 
and 16] 

Fro-.n Pavia by the viaduct over the Tlcino to 
Cava Oarbonara (Stat.), then the line runs 
parnllol to the Po, crossing the Tordogna at 

Sannazzaro (Stat.), population, 4,262, and 
the (Jro^na at 

LomellO (Stat.) Population, 3,338. 

At Torreberetti (Stat.) it joins the line to 
Valenza, Alessandria, and G^ioa, described in 

Milan to Placenza, Parma, Modezia, and 


By rail, in 6 to 8 hours ; 217 chil., or 135 miles. 


Rogeredo 4^ 

Melegnano 11 

Tavazzano 15^ 

Lodi 20^ 

Secugnago 28 

Casalpusterlengo... 32^ 
[Branches to Pavia 
and Cremona.] 

Codogno 35| 

S. Stefano al Corno 38 

Placenza 43| 

Pontenure 48J 


Fiorenzuola 56^ 

Alseno 61 

Borgo S. Donnino 654 

Castelguelfo 71 

Parma 79i 

S. Ilariod*Enza... 85 
Reggio d*£milia... 96{ 

Modena lllf 

Castelfranco 119 

Samoggia 1244 

Lavino 129| 

Bologna 185 

The line follows the road, which is part of the 
g^eat Roman road, called Via Emilia, after the 
Consul who made it, B.C. 187. It traverses, at first, 
fields of fiax, rice, pulse, and Indian com, spread- 
ing over a marshy but fertile tract along the Po, 
intersected by numberless canals. No fallow 
ground is seen. 

Leaving Milan by the Porta Romana, we pass 
tho old Church of San Giorgio, founded as far back 
as the sixth century, and Cniavialle Abbey, the 
oldest Cistercian house in Italy, founded by St. 
Beniard, ll;^C; and come to 

Here the line to Pavia 

Rogoredo (Stat.). 

turns off. 

Melegnano (Stat.), or Marlgnano, popula- 
tion, 6,'2Si. The ancient Marnianum, on the plain 
of the Lambro, celebrated for the victory of Francis 
I. over the Swiss in 1514; and also as the scene of 
a victory obtained by Marshal M'Mahon, 8th June, 
1859, over an Austrian corps, under General Roden, 
who obstinately defended it, fighting from house 
to house. The Church, the Cemetery, and tlie 
Post Office were carried by storm. The Austrian 
loss was 1,000 besides prisoners, and the French 
900. Near this place a causeway is visi hie, con- 
structed by the Milanese; it is about 88 miles 
long, and traverses parts of the provinces of Lodi 
and Pavia. 

Tavazzano (Stat.) and then 

LODI (Stat) 

Population, 25,804. 
Hotels: Sole; Gambero. 

There are two Lodis; one to the right, on the 

Silaro, called Old Lodi, is the ancient Laus, or Laus 

Pompeia, so named, in honour of Pompey, by the 

Romans. Remains of old buildings still exist 

there, and some antiquities may be noticed on the 

road. The new, or modem, Lodi is the head of a 

province of the Italian kingdom, and a bishop's 

"see, above the Adda, in a rich country, and was 

i founded ll.*)8, by Frederic Barbarossa, after the 

I destruction of the old town by the Milanese. The 

j artificial meadows round it, watered by numerous 

ronnals, yield the rich cheese, formerly called l^odi- 

Route 15.] 



gano, but now nnirersally known as Pannesan. 
rana is the narao for it in Italy. Ttie cows are a 
black and white breed, imported from Switzerland. 

Lodi is a well built, walled town, and famous in 
modern days for the battle of 10th May, 1796, when 
Bonaparte carried the bridgeof the Adda against the 
Anstrians, under Boaulieu. It is long and narrow, 
and the French leader himself helped to plant two 
pieces of cannon at its head in spite of a murderous 
fire from the enemy's grenadiers behind their 
ramparts from the opposite side. Here Massena, 
Berthier, Lannes, and others, first distinguished 
themselves. The Austriana retired in disorder to 

The most important edifices are the Municipalitct, 
or Loggia dei Coralzi, and the Hospital (Ospcdale 
Maggiore) of Piermarini. The public square is 
surrounded by houses with arched porticoes. 
Among the churches the most noticeable is the 

Cathedrai^ or Duomo, an ancient Byzantine 
structure of the twelfth century, containing the 
relics of St. Bassano, and a very old relief of 
the Last Supper. The Incoronato Church,- by 
Bramante (1476), is eight-sided, and painted in 
fresco and oil, by C. Piazza da Lodi, a pupil of 
Titian. S. Francesco and S. Agnese are both in 
the Gothic style, and contain good pahitings. 

There is also a female school, founded by the 
widow of Cosway, the artist. This beautiful 
painter and musician returned hither after her 
husband's death. She was bom at Leghorn. 

Outside the gate is a large pottery work, like 
that at Faenza. 

tHeam tramways to Milan and Payla, to Brescia, 
and to Treviglio and Bergamo. 

Secugnano (Stat.), followed by 
Casaipufltarlengo (Stat.), imputation, 6,836. 

Once a fief of the Pusterla family. Here the rails 
to Pavia and Cremona tuni off. 

[At 8 miles from Casalpusierlengo is Piz- 
Zighettone (Stat.), population, 4,'2SO, on the 
line to Cremona, near a fortified post on the Adda, 
where the Serio falls into it. Here Charles V. 
kept his prisoner, Francis I., after the battle of 
Pavia, and before sending him into Spain. About 
12 miles further is Cremona, sea Route 16] 

Following the main rail, we come to 

CodOgDO (Stat.) A flourishing town of 11,600 
inhabitants, having a trade in Parmesan cheese, 
and some good churches. S. Stefano (Stat.) 

Except the vines and mulberry trees which 
appear, there is nothing particularly worth notice 
ou the road to Piaccnza. Across the river to 

PIACENZA (Stat.). 

Which the French call Plaisance, following the 
Roman name. Placenfia, or Pleasant. 
Population, 37,612. 
Hotels : S. Marcos ; Italia. 
* Chi(^ Objects of Notice. — Palazao Famese, 
Duomo, S. Sisto. 

Wearenow in Parma, or, rather, in thelate Duchy 
of Piacenza, >T)ii?b belonged to tbe ex-Duke of 

Parma, and was formerly held by the Famese 
family, and later by Napoleon's widow. Maria 
Louisa. It is now part of the kingdom of Italy. 

Piaccnza, originally founded by the Romans, 
about B c. V20, is very ple^isantly tcated on a 
fertile plain, surrounded by hills, near the south 
bank of the Po, and the mouth of the Trebbia. A 
bridge of two arches, erected in 1821, crosses the 
latter river near the town. Moats flnd ramparts 
hem it in, but its chief security is a citadel, which, 
under the old system, was garrisoned by Austrian 

The houses and public buildings are of brick, 
which gives it rather a sombre appearance In 
fact, Piacenza is more like a fortress of the middle 
ages, than a bustling town of modem days. It 
has never recovered the blow inflicted by F. Sforza, 
who, on account of its resistance against Milan, 
took it by storm, 1447, and sold 1<»,000 of its 
citizens. From that day its commerce and popu- 
lation have declined. In the earlier days of its 
history, it was lorded over bv the PallavicinI, 
Landi, and Visconti families. ' The Via Diritta, 
leading from the Piazza de* Cavalli, is the 
principal street. 

In the principal square. Piazza de' Cavalli, or 
Gran Piazza, are F. Mocchi's bronze equestrian 
statues of two Dukes of Parma (1620-4), of the Far- 
nesc family, who succeeded to the sovereignty of 
Plncenza in the sixteenth century. One is Alcssan- 
dro, the soldier of Elizabeth's time, and Philip of 
Spain's governor in the Netherlands, against who n 
the lion-hearted queen threw out her "foul scorn," 
hi her celebrated speech at Tilbury Fort, when 
threatened with the Spanish Armadu; and the 
otiier is his son, the tyrannical Ranuccio. 

The Palazzo Comunale, in this square, built in 
the J 8th century, is one of the earliiest large 
municipal edifices. 

In the Piazza della Clttadelia stands the 

*Palazzo Famese, begun from Vignola's designs, 
but not finished. Its style is grand and simple. 
Opposite the Ducal Palace is the ancient Gothic 
Podesteria, or Town Hall, built in the thirteenth 
century, with a Theatre near it. The seat of the 
ex-ducal family was at PnlazzoMandelli. 

Among the religions edifices is the brick Lombard 

*Cat/iedral, or Duomo, at the end of the Contrada 
Diritta, in the Goth'c style, begun 1132, finished 
1283, with nothing remarkable beyond the curious 
figures and ornaments about it. The interior is 
crowded with paintings of little merit, but in the 
cupola and choir are discerned the frescoes of 
Guercino and L. Carracci. Two paintings by 
modem artists deserve notice — Jesus on Mount 
Calvary, by Chevalier Lnndi, and The Presenta- 
tion in the Temple, by Canimucini. There is a 
monument to Sacchini, the musician. The brick 
Campanile is 'iOO feet high, and has an ircn cage 
for prisoners. Close by is 

The old Cathedral, founded 903, now the Church 
of S. Anton ino, rebuilt in 1562. Its octagonal 
tower is as old as 1014, and rests on seyftt«A.\;<«J^»5"«^x 
Its old TestlbulQ 1% <i«S\a^W^Kt^^iSaftx 

(ormurlf belonging to 
'Hcvea, by Pordenone ftod 

BXiDSHJiw'a mcT. 

Philip of Pi 

rorol plctiir«« by ra 

> et Hutln. 

A ordered further 
Iti of wblcb are c 

What buildin^i hove been Dncnv 
oppDHed by a DorLif portico, uii 


:, designtd by Vignole, 

Tin iirchUo«nrB of tbelr eitwlor Is atrlkiiiB. 

Other bulldlDgi nn tb* PalaaaiM TrilmiaH, a 
brtek bBlldfng of the Bftoenth cmlury, rOBtlng on 
Mone archu; ■nd Ui« College Albeiool, outilda 
tba PorU da B. Iaiiud. 

The BOIieUca PatHa contaiat a yalnable 
Paaltar (Mb eantnij) and a ea|iy of Dante {14th 

reach the CollegD Alberonl, 

Fontenure (Stat.) and 
FlorsnnioU (Stat), a>t 

Cardinal Alberonl, ai 

I Hannibal defeated the Connil Sempronlna 
Buwnrrow defealed the French under Mac 
Id. after a bloody Bgbt of three daye, a 
.iClTIB. Theee and other namee »fe hi 
ed on the bHdge. 

lo VeUela) tt**"" 


from [1 


iiMtatO (8tat>>, population, 4,018, w 
BorgO-San-Donnlno (Sbtt.), m a nne piain. 

It baa a larte and aaclenE Itm, omamented with 
frsBOies aod arabeaqoei. PopaladaD, 10,777. It 
elands on the RiT« Btlrohe. The Hoepllal, at 

"pla^at'ihei^reeu'd'convenO. The Cslhedral! 
of brick, with 11a cnrlons mnlinal lonlpturea, Is of 

Castel GuolfO '(8t»t(. 8" called after a 

A Ittllc f?i«iicriS 'he Bnrilone hrldije on ihe 
Taro. built (or Maria Loui.a, by the eufln^e^ C™- 
lon^, by 30 broad. The plera are |:derced by alghteeTi 

n the bod of nblcta (he path leads 1 

nieao. Tbli Ubiet. ityled by anilqna 
Albueiilary Table, waa, in fact, a mnsial 
Tra)iio' > time, pnxldhie for l^o pifvo" ■> 
chlhlrcn, and |b Sf feet loDg by Ef braad. 


Boute 15.] 



* CkieifObjecisof Notice.— Hviomo^ Steccata Church, 
Pinacoteca and Gorreggio*s St. Jerome, Palazzo 
Famese, Academy. Paiutinffs by Correggio and 
Parmigiano, or Parmeggianlno, of the Pannese 
school, one of those dUtinguished by chiaro seuro. 

Living is agreeable in Parma. The air is pure, 
though, from the eleyation of the town and the 
neighbourhood of the Apennines, it blows keen in 
winter. The territory has been always renowned 
for its rich meadows and fleeces. Martial says of 
it, '^Tondet et innnraeros Gallica Parma greges.'* 
At the present day silk is the chief product. 
Scarcely enough com is grown for home consump- 
tion, but It is abundant in salt works, mines of 
iron and c(^per, mineral waters, &c. 

The city, which is a bishop's see, and the capital 
of a province, and late of a duchy, now incorpo- 
rated with the kingdom of Italy, was made a Roman 
colony, called PewnM^ about B.a 200, and may 
therefore boast of its antiquity. Little of the old 
time remains, except two small pillars near the 
Steccata Church, and a cippus and sarcophagus in 
front of the cathedral. It stands on the Parma 
Biver, where the Via Emilia crosses it, and forms 
the main street (1^ mile long), called Strada Mas- 
simo d'Azeglio, Str. Mazzini, and Corse Vitt. 
Emanuele, passing over the middle bridge on the 
river; the others being Ponte Caprazucca and 
Ponte Verde, leading to the Stradore suburb. 

It was surrounded by moated ramparts, about 4 
miles in compass, now turned into promenades, 
with five gates. Its wide streets have rather a 
deserted look. Many of the houses are large and 
if ell built, and it is provided with fountains and 
aqueducts for water; but the principal objects for 
strangers are the works of its three great painters 
— Corregglo, Parmcggianino, and Lanfranco, 
which adorn the churches and public buildings of 
the town. Parmeggianiuo, whose real name was 
Mazzuola, was bom at Parma, 1505. 

The large Lombard Cathedral, or *Ihiomo, is in 
the Gothic stylo of the twelfth century (1106), 
remarkable for its unfinished front, triple 
gallery, and eight-sided cupola, the inside of 
which is decorated with the beautiful frescoes of 
Correggio. The subject is the *As8umption of 
the Virgin, among a crowd of angels and saints. 
It is one of his finest works, though much faded. 
Here are tombs of the celebrated Bishop Turchi, 
A. Mazzo (the musician), and J. B. Bodoni (the 
printer), whose editions of Italian works are much 
admired. There is also a mausoleum to Petrarch 
(with ix>rtrait), who was for many years archdeacon 
of the cathedral. Many valuable sculptures, pic- 
tures, and frescoes by Roudani, Gatti, <kc., may 
bo noticed in the choir and other parts of the 
building, as well as the subtorraucan chapel, with 
Its 28 marble Corinthian pillars. 

At the side of the cathedral are the toll campanile, 
and the Battistero^ or Baptistery ; a rich octagonal 
building of six storeys, of Verona marble, built, 
1196-1900, by Antelami. I^ contains munj highly 

adorned pillars, two being of Oriental granite; 
several curious antique pictures, with Lanfranco' a 
picture of St. Octavius Falling from his Horse, and 
a large holy water Basin of cne single piece of 
marble, of the thirteenth century. 

S. Giovanni Evangeliitcu, a white marble church, 
at the end of the Riolo, belonged to the Benedictine 
Convent, was built in the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, and isenriched with good pictures, among 
which are — a beautiful copy of the St. Jerome of 
Correggio, by Aretusi ; another copy of his famous 
Night, now at Dresden; but especially some superb 
frescoes in the cupola, by Correggio himself. 
This was his first great work, when he was only 
twenty-six. The subject is *8t. John in a vision, 
seeing Christ on his throne, with the Apostles 
around. The same great artist painted in chiaro> 
oscuro the ornaments round the vault of the sanc- 
tuary, and gave the designs of the figures and 
children in bas-relief, in the frieze of the cornice, 
as well as on the candelabras, and the capitals of 
the pilasters down the whole length of the church. 
The arches in the St. Crucifix and St. Gertrude 
chapels have frescoes by Parmeg^ianino; In the 
second on the right is a Nativity by F. Francia. 
Gk>ing to the convent or college, you pass a 
recess over a little door, with a St. John the 
Evangelist by Correggio ; and inside the convent, 
fronting the door of the winter refectory, is a 
pretty niched group of Infants by the same painter, 
in fresco, unfortunately much damaged. In a cor- 
ridor there are four stucco figures, by A. Begarelli, 
of Modena. 

The Church of the Nuori Cappueini was built in 
1569 by G. F. Testa, and, though small, is rich and 
elegant, and crowned by a cupola, in which is the 
Assumption of the Virgin, a fresco by G. B. Tintl. 

The Cappueini Church belonged formerly to the 
Knights Templars. It has a Conception by J. B. 
Piazetta ; two good pictures of the Miracles of St. 
Felix, by L. Spada, in the choir; and two by A, 
Carracci of St. Louis and St. Elizabeth. 

UAnnunziata is composed of ten Chapels arranged 
oil an oval, to the centre of which they all tend. 
Among other ornaments is an Annunciation by 
Correggio, in fresco, removed from the walls on 
account of the injury it has suffered. Panneggia- 
nino's Madonna and Child, and his St. Jerome, are 
in the convent, 

The church of the suppressed convent of St. 
Paul, now dedicated to S. Lodovico, was frequented 
by the Ducal Court. In one of the rooms of the 
convent may be seen the famous frescoes of Cor- 
reggio, representing the •Triumph of Diana, with 
several attendants carrying instruments of chase, 
and compartments round it in chiaroscuro. An- 
other room is painted by A. Araldi. 

8. Teresa Is entirely painted in fresco by Galeatti; 
the subjects being the events in the life of the 
patron saint. 

* Beata Vergine delta Steccatti, so called from a 
steccata or railing before an image of the Virgin^ la 
the fiaest church in Parma •.,atttV\^'Q^5!A\.^'^xvBaaaN- 

silly built ]>f Bern. Zicagnl, i 

oi>|»BlIet1ili church. 

ChDreh.aiDoiiE which nreBt. Itocii and Ht, Anton j 
ot PldW! InJs Holy Virgin vilh SI. John Uuntisl 
■nd St. Fmncli. by 6. B. Srotll. >i>riiiiBud UoIhm 

LB fk^de of itiK/vjintt 4itU O, 

i« groaiul floor. Open, 

IhB » 

aforita. Of the Hay, otherwise culled the 'St. 
Jerome. Innn the principal flinirc. neeainpcinlcd by 
the Virgin nnd Child, Si. H. Ungdulcne, mi two 
iWeli. OtbcrnalleeaUel'lctaruare:— PanncK- 

aan Ino— Madonna, wlih SI . JnrDinij. *t Aim: I m I— 
BdonnaondSalnti. G.Haiinala-Coiicepllouaf 
lb* Virgin. F, Franida— Iho VllaH Madonna, or 
Madonna Enthran«l, with Santa Jiulina. Sl.ltene- 
dlct, Sinta Scolnatlca. B, rincldos {one of the 
portraiiilB a llkciieuut a mcinber of the Vltale 
family). F. Francla— IIOBCcnl from Ihe Orosj. L. 
Carracci — Burial of tba Virgin. Aniil^itUo Car- 
nccl— n Piclk. G. Mai inobi— Adoration of the 
Majcl, Guerclno— Madonna. ClmadaCone^lnno- 
Hadonna on a Throne. Bapboel-Chllit In Glory. 
with the Madnnna. Ac. GorrtZfdo— Martyrdom of 

She reilded, till her dcalb In IS4T. In a building 
her lollclie, ftc.. given by the Clly of Paria to llu 

I a [re«o (Virgin crowned) by Correggln from 8. 
meng the literary eurl»sUlea hen Is i Koran 

, ontheEronndflaoi 


ur rerv elegant defd^ni. by N, Dettoll, of Parma, 
Tiic Lpctupt, or College, sometimes called a Unl- 

In the iHjulh luburbi of the olty. 

Eood paintings by Lanfranco, L, Spado. T. Strln 

aa 1 4BS. by Father dl Fellre.' who first trl Bach a 

nio waiTilf Olid Uben^ 

The foJoiio UauictpOt. dtsf^ed by CMap. 
niinl(8lBlner.tComgKlo).andlheLaGlara Hiding 
Ilouie near the marhet-plsoe, deserYo notice. 

meicglanbiu'sdcslgns, hltBiiptlim of Christ liiainled 

CoBfpe Lalatta. or Maria Lnigia, 1> omamente4 

KoDte IS.J 

Fattxa PaUaoi 


(pigo 68), puiinf 

or,' Baron W 


S. DttrlO (Btftt.), pnpnUtlon. l.SOO. Crou 

Cro>tuJi>. and Ihe next plice la (hs nLlsd ell; 

BSOOIO (SUt.) «Ued Ritalo Emilia. 

The bltilipl«ce of Arlona. iho puct. 

unLly of Etto, 

Harlil^alu. Ttas 

iKh of the fldecntb 
IhQul and wilhln It 

il, Adam and Ere. 


m If 17. 


wdi and SpeiU (fif ■ ^)i 

whilhor ho went 

Htldobmod, to whom ihe l- .- 

I Mind tlia lionwca at Hoiut IV. in lOTI. Tb* 
I Empaanrukspt Urn* ^n oolite (Iw^mUa'*!! 



[Section 1. 

the dress of a penitent, and on the fourth day was 
granted absolution after kissing the Pope^s foot. 
This celebrated incident was brought into promi- 
nent notice by the negotiations between the 
German Chancellor (Bismarck) and the Pope. 
The nearest Station is S. Uario, but Parma or 
Reggio is more convenient. The Countess's Chapel 
and portrait are at Bibbianello. She bequeathed 
her lands to the Church. 

Rublera (Stat.), 7 miles, at a little fortified 
place, near the Secchia. It was the state prison of 
the Duchy of Modeua, and belonged to the an- 
cestors of Bojardo, the author of the Orlando 
Jnnamorato (which Ariosto afterwards took up), 
and Count of Scandiano, a feudal castle a few 
miles off, under the Apennines. The next place is 

MODENA (Stat.). 
The ancient Mutina, where Mark Antony was de- 
feated, B.C. 43, by the Consuls Hirtius and Pansa, 
who were both killed. 

Population, 58,060, including the suburbs. The 
women wear blue kerchiefs on the head. 

Hotels: San Marco; Reale; Italia. Good 
zampone or pettitoes ; spongate, pani speziali, and 
other confections ; yino tosco (red), yino trebbiano 
(white), and vino di Sorbaro, are the usual wines. 

Conveyances. — Railway to Bologna, Parma, and 
Piaceuza. Omnibuses and carriages at the rail- 
way station; the former 50 cents., the latter 1 lira 
to 1 lira 60 cents., to any part of the town. 

*Chi^ Objects of Notice.— Duomo; Ghirlandina 
Tower; Ducal Palace. 

This small capital of the little absolute Duchy of 
Modena, now the principal city of the Italian 
province of Emilia, is a well-built and handsome 
place, between the Secchia and Panaro, shut in by 
walls, and containing several arcaded streets, the 
principal one called Strada Macstra, or Corso della 
Via Emilia, forming part of the Via Emilia. Here 
is a statue to Mnratori, the great scholar. A canal, 
from near the railway station and Porta Castello, 
opens up a communication with the Po. It is well 
supplied with water. At the northern extremity 
is the ciUdcl, in Piazza d'Armi. Of fifty Churches 
and chapels, the most remarkable is the 

*Duomo, or Cathedral, near the Corso, in Piazza 
Grande,, founded, 1099, by Countess Matilda, in the 
Lombard style, and finished in the fourteenth 
century ; has a stone vault and crypt. It contains 
the Rangoni tombs, and an ancient Modenese 
painting of the Crowning of Mary, by 8. de' 
Hcrafini (1385), with a terra-cotta Nativity, by 
Begarelli. Its tall, conspicuous Campanile (1224- 
1509), consisting of a square base of 200 feet, with 
an octagonal spire of 115 feet on top, is of black 
marble, with a bronze garland round it, which 
gives it its popular nnme of * Ghirlandina. It holds 
a famous Bucket^ which, in the civil wars of the 
fourteenth century, was carried off from Bologna 
as a trophy, and is the subjt ct of a burlesque poem, 
JUu BeccMa Bapita (the Rape ol the Bucket), by 
X^saoi^. whose tUtne is hert^and who mnatAot 
^ ^ W/^nnded with TflS60« 

San Pietro and 8dn Francesco both contain terra- 
cottas by Begarelli. 

S. Agostino^ or Santa Margharita, near the 
Reggio Gate. Here is a good Descent from the 
Cross, by Begarelli, a Modenese sculptor, a work 
extravagantly jiraised by M. Angclo; also the 
tombs of two other distinguished natives, Sigonio 
and Muratori. Madonna del Carmine^ in the Corso, 
near the Bologna Gate, has a cupola painted by 
Paradis. 8. Paolo has a Nativity of Mary, by 
Pellegrini, a native artist. S. Vicenzio^ near the 
Palace Gardens, has tombs of the ex-ducal f amily» 
On the cast side of the city, facing the Piazza 
Reale and near the Public Gardens, is the 

* Ducal Palace^ now Palazzo Reale, an extensive and 
handsome pile, begun 1634, by Bart. Avanzini, 
with a fine colonnaded court and gardens, grand 
staircase, &c. 

Museo Civico, in Corso S. Bartolommeo, princi- 
pally small objects, bronzes, &c. 

Albergo Arti, Piazza S. Agostino, contains at 
present the JSstense Gallery and library. Among 
the paintings are the following: — L. di Bicci — Ma- 
donna. S. Aretino — A Marriage. N. dell' Abate 
— Landscapes (ho is one of the best artists of the 
Modenese school). Tintoretto— Madonna and 
Saints. Correggio— Ganymede. Giorgione — 
Portrait. P. Bordone — Adoration of the Magi. 
L. Caracci — Venus and Cupid. Titian — Portraits. 
Garofalo— Madomia and Saints. Guide — S. Roch 
in Prison, and a Crucifixion. D. Dossi — Judith, 
and portraits of the Este Family. G. Francia — 
Assumption. Guercino — Venus sitting, and Mar- 
riage of St. Catherine. A. del Sarto — Holy Family. 
G.Procaccini — Circumcision. Tiarini — Crucifixion. 
Pellegrini — ^Nativity. Pomarancio — ^a Dead Christ 
on the Cross. MurUlo — a Peasant. Velasquez — a 
Benedictine. There is also a collection of drawings 
by old masters. 

The Library, or Biblioteca Esiense, is a fine col- 
lection of 90,000 volumes and 8,000 MSS., besides 
archives. Muratori, the author of *'Ajitichit2i 
Estensc," and Tiraboschi, author of *' Biblioteca 
Modense," <fcc., were librarians here. The Soliani 
Collection of ancient and modern engraved wood- 
blocks (3,611 specimens) was acquired 1887. Some 
of the rarest MSS. and medals disappeared with the 
ex-Duke Francesco V., in 1859. 

His little army of 2,000 men remained faithful 
to him, and was incorporated with the Austrian 
forces. -He used to say he did not want "en- 
lightened men, but obedient subjects and sub- 
missive Christians," the very essence of a despot's 
notions of good government. 

The military barracks, at the Salicetta, were 
used by him as a prison for political offenders. 

The Ducal Palace was occupi»d by Farini, the 
Dictator. It was asserted by the Court faction, 
and repeated by Lord Normanby, that this eminent 
man appropriated all the Duke's linen, which 
being marked " F." (for Francesco), would do as 
well for Farini. When he resigned the Dictatorsliip, 
upon the nnicn of the Duchies with Sardinia, he 
-muiaapooraBirheiibe assumed it; so poor that 

Boute 16.] 



the Prorincial Assembly TOted him an estate and 
a turn of money, both of which he refused to 

Modena is a dnll town, without society, the 
prim^pal noteworthy objects being the tcrra-cottaa, 
which were a speciality in the 16th century. It 
has a good theatre and Public gardens. General 
Cialdini was bom at Castelvetro, near Modena, 
and began service with Don Pedro, in Portugal. 

There is a short line to Sassuolo, 10^ miles 
8onth-east of Modena. Another, 19 miles, runs to 
Mlraadola (this is not the Mirandola mentioned 
on page 98), with a branch at Carezzo to FtDAle. 
Finale is a city of 12,979 inhabitants. 

From Modena the rail continues to follow the 
Via Emilia, to the Panaro, the ancient ScuJtenna, 
which formerly divided Modena from the Romagna, 
or States of the Church. 

Gastelflranco (Stat.), on the site of Forum 
Oattormn^ is so called from a border fortress built 
by Pope Urban VIII. Rail to MontebellUlia. 

Samoggla (Stat.), on a river of the same 

LavlnO (Stat.), on another mountain stream; 
the ancient LavinHu. About 6 miles further, 
through a highly cultivated tract, is 

B<WlNSna» with the conspicuous Monte Delia 
Ouardla to the south. (See Route 20.) 

MUan to Tre^Uillo. Cremozia, Mantua, and 


By rail f romTreviglio (see Route 13) as far as Cre- 
mona, 40 miles, in about 2 hours. The stations from 
Trevfglio arc- 


Caravaggio 3f 

Casaletto Vaprio... 91 

Croma ISf 

Castelleone 20 

iteavagglo (Stat) 


Sorestna ». 24| 

Casalbnttano 30 

Oimeneta 33: 

Cremona 40 

population, 8,164. Has 

^/WaWtT B »0 *V VWIWHW./, t»vrj»w..».».w»», v,AW«. -^~- 

a Lombard church, nnd was the birthplace of 
Michelangelo Amerighi, the painter, usually called 
Caravi^^o, bom 1569, the son of a mason. He 
is the founder of the naturalist, or literal school, 
as opposed to the ideal, which is based on selection. 
His best work is the Pietk in the Vatican. His 
Christ at Emmaus is in our National Gallery. 
Spagnoletto was one of his followers. 

Crema (Stat.), population, 8,2ftl, on the 
River Serio, which comes from Bergamo. It has 
some manufactures, a breeding stud, and a 
cathedral of the fifteenth century, with paintings 
by Guide. S. Maria della Croce, outside the town, 
buflt about 1490. Rich meadow land from hero all 
the way to Cremona. 

CREMONA (Stat.) 

Hotels: L'ltalia (the best); Sole d'Oro ; Albergo 
Beale (Royal Hotel) ; II Capello (Hat). 

Qood cheese, torrone calce, and mostarda; the 
last a pi-eserve flavoured with mustard seed. 

An ancient town and biahop^s see of SO,SOS 
IstebitttitSt onoe n<ited Cor its mannlwstofe of 

"Cremona'* violins, as well as other musical instru- 
ments ; the chief makers of which were Araatl (btorn 
1596) and Stradivarius (bom 1644), in the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries. Another maker 
is J. Guarncrius, born 1683. Paganini's violin, at 
Genoa, is a Stradivarius. Their houses are in the 
great square. 

It stands near the Po, in a fertile but marshy 
part of the great plain of Lombardy, and is the 
capital of the province of the same name. Walls 
and ditches surround it on all sides, the ditches 
being filled by a canal, called the Naviglio di Crema, 
which comes down from the Oglio and runs into 
the Po, which is henceforth navigable to the sea. 

It is about 5 miles in circuit, and though the 
general view of its streets and houses is agreeable, 
yet, being too large for the population, there is a 
decayed look about the place. Many of the gates 
deserve notice ; but the most remarkable object is 
its famous *Tot'razzo,OT Bell Tower, nearly 390 feet 
high, being one of the loftiest in Italy, and visible 
for many miles round the town. It was built 
1261-84,ontheestablishmentof peace with the neigh- 
bour states, and is a plain square tower surmounted 
by an octagon and spire. There are 498 steps up 
to the bells in the spire, which commands a mag- 
nificent view of the great plain of Lombardy, from 
the Alps to the Apennines. 

Among the best buildings are several palaces 
and churches, in the Gothic style ; and the Town 
Hall, or Palatzo Pubblico, of the thirteenth century, 
restorcd,i8 in the'great square, near the Torrazzo; 
it contains a picture gallery (Campi, &c.) and 
mantel-piece. For painting the loggia of this 
building, F. Sacconi and his brother, the founders 
of the Cremona branch of the Lombard school in 
the fifteenth century, were exempted from taxes 
by their fellow citizens. The old brick Palazzo 
de* Oonfalonieri, close by, marked by battle- 
ments and large arches (now filled in), is now a 
school. Cremona possesses several good infant- 
schools, first established here by the Abate Aporti, 
in 1829. Holiday schoolsfor elder boys, i.e. schools 
which they attend on church holidays, also exist 
here. Palazzo Reale has pictures, designs by 
M. Angclo, coins, Ac. The fine fifteenth century 
Gate of the Stanga Palace is now at the Louvre. 

The * Cathedral, or Duomo, close to the tower, to 
which it is united by open loggie, is a Gothic, 
church, for the most part built between 1107 and 
1606, the fa9ade of white and red marble being the 
latest portion. This is ornamented by curious 
carvings of the seasons, signs of the zodiac, and a 
rose window, by G. Porrata, 1274. The interior is 
highly adorned, and contains many paintings by 
Pordenone (the Crucifixion), B. Gatti, Boceaccino 
(the " Raphael" of Cremona, as he is called), Maretti, 
Campi, Marosso, Ac, with frescoes by Diotti, and 
sculptures by Sacchi, a native artist of the thirteenth 
century. A Romanesque eight-sided Baptistery of 
the eleventh century is the most ancient part of the 
cathedral. In the Campo Santo adjoining i& oa. 
ancient payemontt iritli moaalca^ 




[Section 1« 

In S.Nazaro Church are cupola paintings by the 
brothers B. A. and G. Campi, some of whose works, 
as well as other native artists, arc seen in the 
Churches of S. Pletro al Po, S. Abbondio, S. 
Domenico, S. Lorenzo, S. Giorgio, &c. Santa Agata 
in Piazza. Garibaldi is an ancient Gothic building, 
of brick, like the rest, containing G. Carapi's 
Martyrdom of Santa Agata. Another ancient 
church, S. Agostino, has Perugino's Virgin and 
Saints. At Santa Pelagia is a monument to Arch- 
bishop Vida, a native of the city; ''Immortal 
Vida," of Pope's lines, who prophesies — 

" Cremona now shall ever boast thy name 
A» next In place to Mantua, next In fame." 

One mile out of the town, on the Mantua road, 
18 the fine Church of *S. Sigismondo, which was 
part of an abbey founded by F. Sforza I., Duke of 
Milan, who rebuilt it on his marriage with Bianca 
Visconti, 1441. It is full of paintings and frescoes 
by the Camj i, Boccacciiio,Gatti, and other Cremona 

It was at Cremona that Prince Eugene surprised 
Marshal Villeroy, and made him prisoner, 1702. 

Cremona was a flourishing town in the territory 
of the Cenomanni, having been colonised before 
Uannibars March into Italy, so that it may vie in 
antiquity with any of its nelghbouri). Virgil and 
Tacitus both dv scribe the injuries it endured in the 
civil wars of the empire. 

By rail to Casolpusterlengo (Route 15), and 
hence to Piacenza and Pavia. 

By rail to Mantua, 39 miles, opened 1874, in the 
direction of the ancient Via Posthumia; past 
Pladexia (Stat.) near Gannctto, an old fortified 
pobt in the Duchy of Mantua ; BozzolO (Stat.), 
population, 4,436, the ancient Bozzulum^ on the 
Oglio, with a castle formerly belonging to the 
Gonzaga family; CastellucMo (Stat.), on a 
branch of the Mincio; and Le Grazie (Jhurch (see 
page 68). 

Kail to Brescia (page 40), 31 i miles, through 

Olmeneta, Verolanova, and Bagnolo. 

For Parma, proceed to Piadbna, as above, then 
take the line (opened November, 1884) to 

Casal Magglore (Stat.), population, 15,C48, 

at the ferry on the Po. Then to ColomO (Stat.^, 
and by Colonio Castle and the old Abbey of S. 
Martuio, to 

Paxma (Stat.), on the railway to the south 
(Route 15). 

Verona to Trento, 

Up the River Adige, near the Lago dl Garda, by 
railway, on the Brenner route. The stations arc- 


Parona 7| 

Pescanteno llj 

Domea'liara 14J 

Cerainu 18^ 

Peri W| 

Tbli Is partly in Anstr 


Avio 32 

Ala 36 

Mori 44i 

Rovereto..., 464 

Trento 6J 

oil territory, 

Verona (Stat.) Sec Route 13. 

Domegliara (Stat.), near Rivoli, on the 
other side of the Adige, wh«rrc Bonaparte defeated 
theAustrians under Alvinzi, 14tb January, 1797, 
aft( r a hard fight, the town being taken and retaken 
twice over. 

Rovereto (Stat.), which is in Austrian ter- 
ritory, is the nearest station for 

Biva, at the head of Lake di Garda. (See 
Bradshaw's Hand-Book to Switzerland and the 

Hotel and. Pension au Lac, pleasant and comfort- 
able; recommended. 

A town of 6,046 population, seated among 
mountains, in a climate so mild that oranges, 
myrtles, olives, Ac, grow in the open air, and 
entitle it to be called the paradise of the South 
Alps. Two mountain streams tumble into the 
lake here. At the Minorite Church are some works 
of art; La Rocca Castle, on the lake, was built by 
the Scaligeri family. There is a tine promenade 
in the colonnade, on the little harbour. 

Various excursions may be made on the Lake, 
which is surrounded by hills, castles, country 
houses, Ac, offering a great variety of beautiful 
prospects. A steamboat starts daily to the little 
port of Desenzano, besides the ordinaria, or paeket 
boat, twice a week. From Riva to Peschiera at 
the bottom, the Lake is about 80 miles long; 
the breadth here is 10 miles; excellent fish is 
caught. Virgil calls it the Benacui^ and notices 
the storms raised by the mountain winds. Only 
the upper part on each side of Riva belongs to 
Tyrol. Mount Baldo, comparatively bare, hangs 
over the east side; the west is by far the most 

In the middle is the pretty Island of Tremelone, 
with Count Lecchi*s house and gardens. Among 
the spots on the west shore worth notice are — the 
Ledro Waterfall^ behind Ponale, 200 feet down; 
Limone, and its citron groves; the limestone quar- 
ries of Tremosine; Gargnano and its villas; Tosco- 
lano and vineyards; Salo (population, 4,555), 
among orange groves, one of the most delightful 
parts of the lake; Manerba, where was a temple 
of Minerva. WUrmser marched down both sides 
of this lake to meet Bonaparte in the campaign of 

For Trento (Stat.), or Trent, where the Council 
was held, and the Brenner Pass, see Bradshaw's 
Hand-Book to Switzerland and the Tyrol. 

I^OXJTE 13. 
Verona to Mantua. Modena, and Bologna. 

By rail to Mantua, 25 miles, three times a day, 
in ijf hour. 

Verona (Stat.) See Route 13. 

The trains leave Porta Vescovo, from which it 
is 1| mile to Porta Kuova; after which the 
stations are- 


Dossobuono 6| 

[Brancb to Bovigo.] 
VUl4ifrAncA U 


Mozzecane 14^ 

Ro\'erbclla Itt 

MantoA .».. ,.« 2A| 

Ronte 18.] 

branch lino to 

cai Nupoleon III. >nd Francli JoMpb. uin- 
■ buftllng mnrllBMnwii. In Uiis proilnco of 
tna, with > flanie or tha fnnnciiath evotarT. 
two anTwalgnn met pt n b&mia iu Controda 
lucclnl, hcloiiBiugto a Slgnor MurelU-Husno. 
lTit«TvL«w Inatoil an hour, tb« Emporon eoii- 

Taiegglo, < 

ired; Ibv 

rffcct «r lld> nn- 
1 the aihluFsn ol 

:hc Uliidn, and tho tal^ road 

. Maolmi. At Ihbi place, Tllln 

UaOel, a hollilhiB of the scrcntli ccntnry. und the 
Hat or a lanilly rciiriwcntcd by Count WatM, 

KoEland.wastotlti gjtuatlan andllBnminiJriceni!!!. 

Prancli Joit^l eMahUihed hli hcail-i|ii*r<era bora 
heKire the battle of floUertna, anrt It waa occDpIcd 
by Lnobi Kaopl con after iho Lianle. "Moru tlian 
oace," aaja Count Airlfaboie, "wfalto itTollIn^ 

alnnj-s at wort ; for It 1« only dolnc him jostln 

the campaign," The ilmpliclty of bithabiti made 
him 'ery popular with tha pcopla. 

Hawai npal three every momhig, Ponrdlihes, 
unvarying' (arc at tnlilc. Bnt in spite nt (ho free- 

was kept by the pnlice mid the Imperial hmty- 
suard. From here ho tent Genonti Klmry with 
pmpoHia for an armlatle* to ibc Auitrian Katner, 

I'iill It: H dsy which ilmniinl all their brii^thnjWB 

t appear) 

a IduU Hup 

I re»lly 

of a amatl hill. Here is * splendid v)lU^,|i)ii'eiiii; 
to Priucc Ch. Gonaaga. Khv» (amHy ncrc Lord* 
of Mantua, but ware almost reduced to povctty by 
Josejih I. When Kapoloon L pniaed Ibroaigli 
liIanina,thahculoltbi)uld houiewu HponrlhM 
be bad uut a daecut ooat to nltaid tbo ]rytt. 

or JL.IHM wu latlcd on tho Prince. Abmit*!! uillu 
south o( Ibli. Io»-or down ILc Mincio, Is 

Oolta, the hlrttqtlace of Sordello. a faninns 

BlTAlta. parallel to Iho oiurie ol the Mbiclo. 
This li the place whare Count ArrlTalH-ne, 
tha accomplished anthor of IlaJg unifn- VIrlm- 
Smmaiiutl, tpeiii hiaenrly youth, at the icat of hia 
undo, Count Feidlnand. He Elves ■ Tory pleamnf 
d»crl|itlun of hl> return to the old family honio In 
lSt». He »peuks or Ihe delldons neon fl^ anU 
Iniehms grupcs, called iHgliatica. traa comliii; to 
pcrfoctlon Iu July. Two months biter, hit motlier, 
a lady of hluiy-Eie, wan nrrsstert by the Aastrlana 

mof tbei 

m prlio. 

KAHTUA (Btat), 

-^Railiray to Verona. CrenoD 


—Cathedral; St. And 

•p«cU1ly noted m Ui* tilrtb-p1i«, or cIoh iu ihe i 
Birth-plKe, of Vimil. th« ■'M.Dtu.n" ube 1, I 
cillBd. Ha pmltei its be.uljr .nd nitlqoity. 

ind It tcni^b fell under tbepoKcr of tbe OuQiugn i and Cupllupl, Ihepoeti^ Spsrandlo; and P. Tom- 

/■mlly, who ruled here tn grout jprendoar froo. ponmcclo, tfit phnoiopher. 

Ludorlco I.. In 19M, till Vincent II. In 1S!7. Th? I Among tbe beu pictnni ace tbe Annunclallon. 

b. old Wttrm 

II wceln in IJVl 
Tbe Island i 


In St. Longlno'i Cbapel uefreHoetby RIn 

e bridges 

from deilgn) by Romano (St. Sahaitlan 

There ari^ 

Te. a< It Is 

At the high altar ars atatncs of Faith and Ij 


Virglllaao. It wii from ti* fonnor that Fella 

the Ducal Pala 


. finoi 

we. bnlll by 

1.' Roman 


d by hi; 

disci plea. Tbo 


Here la 



aiid»lhylihy P 


pain tin 

cop^a «o Iho 



Sania Apmio 

Al— Plctorei of 

the Ve 

Ice and 

Ferrata Khooll 

(n Ca-U 


lit by G. 

B, Be 

rtanl. and has a 

Tbe B 

pi Ism of 

L. Cmta. trom 





of RoiinaW, by Batianl; St. Pbl'lp.' tv OrfoJtj 
Marriage al Cana, by Magaaia; St. Hebijtian, by 
Fagnii In Iho lacrl at y, a Madonna, by Mnnslgniirl 

Albenl.eieepl the enpola byJnvara. a Span;... 
artltl. The old Gothic lower ol the first cbnrcb 

of luoaldcd btlckwark. but terminated by an Inslg- 
nlllcanl octagon and tplre. Tbe chorch I 

end SS f cat lilgb In thenaFeandtraniepti, "1 
the exterior wblcb Ifl finished, ie wortby of the In- 

i." asaUnted by ai 

Boute 18.] 



condition . Tlie frescoes of Mantegna (whose house 
is close by) in the facade are aliitost faded out. L. 
Costa's Martyrdom of the Saint is here. 

Accademia VirgiKana diSeienze e Belie Arti (Fine 
Arts Academy). — Among several worlis is a Des- 
cent from the Gross, by J. Monsignori. There is a 
Library; with a Mtueo Antiquario, including busts 
of Euripides, Thales, Virgil, Tiberius, Caligula, 
Commodus (as Mercury), and other Emperors; 
bas-reliefs of Philoctetes, Labours of Hercules, 
Battle of the Amazons, Pluto and Proserpine, 
Mercury, Descent of Orpheus to the Shades, Medea, 
with statues of Diana and Apollo; a Muse, without 
hands ; and Etruscan, GreelE, and other urns. 

Among the remarkable houses arA Casa Marc 
Anton AnHmcKO a celebrated philolop-ist, with the 
inscription ** Antimachuni ne longius quaeras'*; 
Ccua Bertani, built by the architect Bertani, 
marked by two columns, illustrating the Corin- 
thian style ; C€ua Biondi, with a picture, supposed 
to be the Ariadne of 6. Romano. 

*Ccua di Oiulio Romano was built by the great 
artist himself, and decorated by Prlmaticcio. A 
small antique Mercury is over the door. In front 
of it is the Palcuzo Colloredo. which Romano also 
designed. It is marked by a gigantic stucco 
caryatid of fantastic character, and contains 
paintings by himself and disciples. 

Palazzo del Diavolo obtained its name from the 
wonderful rapidity with which it was built by its 
founder, P. Ceresara. 

At the Casa Susanni is a gallery of works by 
Maiitegna. Guido, Francia, Parmeggianino, &c. 
Count Beffa possesses a fine Madonna, by P. Vec- 

Near the Porta and Ponte di S. Giorgio, which 
divide the middle and lower lakes (as they are 
called) of the river, and the Ducal Palace, is the 

Castetto di Corte (Ducal Castle), built by B. 
Novara, 1398-1406, for Francis IV., of Gonzaga, 
with machicolated walls and towers, &c. It is 
now used as a repository for archives; one of 
which records the death, 1st November, 1546, of 
G. Romano, "Superintendent of all the Ducal 
buildings, after fifteen days* illness," of fever, 
aged forty-seven. He entered the Duke*s service 
in 1524. Many frescoes of the Gonzaga family, by 
Mantegna and others, are visible, though much 

The *Dueal PalcKe, now Corte Reale^ near the 
Piazza della Fiera, is a vast, old, irregular pile, 
with great machicolated towers and battlements, 
including the Palazzo Imperiale, Palazzo Vecchio, 
and the Corte Imperiale. 

It Iras the ancient seat of the Gonzagas, begun 
by G. Boonaoolsi Bottigella, in 1302, and enlarged 
and renewed by Romano, whose genius and skill 
are visible in every part of it; though many of its 
5€0 romos are in a state of neglect, ruin, and decay. 
In the room called the Scalcheria (Steward's 
0(|lcf)f vrtrlookifig th? Piazza del Fallope, nrf 

fine pictures of the Chase of Diana, and Venus 
caressing Cupid before Vulcan, by Romano ; the 
Car of Apollo, in the ceiling, is by his pupils. 

A the Paradiso apartments, among the decora- 
tions of the cabinets, the name of the beautiful 
Isabella, daughter of Hercules D'Este of Ferrara, 
wife of Francis III., with the motto " forse chc si 
forse che no" (perhaps Yes, perhaps No) may be 
noticed. In the Troja, or Troy Room, are frescoes 
from the war of Troy, by Romano ; and Cupid and 
Love, by pupils of Mantegna. The Camera degll 
Arazzi contains arras tapestry, copied from the 
famous Cartoons of Raphael. The Galleria degli 
Spccchi (glasses) is full of paintings and portraits 
by Romano's pupils; many of which suffered from 
the French Republicans in 1797. All these rooms 
are connected by passages and courts, and deserve 
careful examination, though showing marks of 
great neglect and decay. Two Towers of the same 
age. called Torre della Gabbia, or Tower of the 
Cage (for ci iniinals), and Torre dello Zucchero, are 
near the palace. The former, built 1302, by G. 
Buunuculsi. commands a fine view of the city and 
environs, from a room at the top. 

The *PnIaz7o ileVa Ragione, not far off, was built 
1IJ)8-12'»0. iiiul though ancient, is well preserved. 
Under u canopy is a curious statue of Virgil ; the 
clock tower was added, 1478. " This palace illus- 
trates the great principle of Lombard design, in 
tall buildings, which they always sought to orna- 
ment by increasing the number of openings in 
each storey, and decreasing in consequence their 
size, but making them at the same time more orna- 
mental." — FerguMon. 

Passing out of the Porta Pusterla we come, in a 
little time, to iYie* Palazzo del Tkor del T; a square 
Doric pile, built by Frederic II. of Gonzaga, from 
Romano's designs, and so called either from the T 
shaped piece of ground on which it stands .or from 
tejetto, a drain. It is nearly a square, 180 feet by 
186 feet, but only 30 feet high, with two ranges of 
windows, between Doric pilasters ; and is rusticated 
throughout in coarse yellow stucco. The loggia in 
the court, towards the bridge and garden, though of 
stucco, is of good proportions, and is ornamented 
with subjects from the history of David, by the 
great painter and his pupils; besides bas-reliefs 
by Primaticcio. 

In the Camera dei Cavelli are portraits of 
Frederic's horses, by Pagni and Rinaldo. The 
Camera de Psiche has pictures on oil and fresco, of 
the story of Cupid and Psyche, from Romano's 
designs. In the Camera del Zodiaco the seasons 
are painted on the walls, and the signs of the 
Zodiac, in compartments, on the ceiling, by 
Romano's pupils. Camera di Faetonte takes name 
from Phaeton, whose Fall is painted here ; with 
small pictures of centaurs, (fee, by Romano and 
his pupils. Salo degli Stucchi, so called from the 
fetuccoes representing the Triumphal Entry of 
Sigismund into Mantua, 1438 (when Francis 
Gonzagp. was created Marquis) Scipio and bk<«. 
prisoners j AI?xim<iei: q^%xv\sv% s^^^ ^^ns^sn >ci^ 



[Section 1, 

wMeh he k«eps his Homer; CiBsar bnrnfngr the 
letters of Pompey; nil by Primaticeio. *Sala cM 
CHganti, a small room, aoomcd by the Arnault of 
the Giant Tltana on Olympus, from clesijfns of 
Romano. The figures exceed a scale of two to one. 
In the garden are a Qrotto and Pavilion, t\\e lat- 
ter coutaiuing a scries of piciurcs of Human Life, 
from the Birth to the Resurrection of man, di>ne by 
Romano's pupils under their master's direction. 

*'The charm of his palace" says Ffrguuon ''de- 
pends on the coffering and colouring of the ceilings, 
which display an amount of design and fancy, 
combined with elegance, seldom seen elsewliere; 
but they will not suffice to redeem the Imilding 
from the reproach of being, at least, externally of 
the tamest commonplace, as an architectural de- 

At the Scuolt Pubbliehe is the public Lihrarv^ 
fonadod by Maria Theresa, containing dO.OOO 
volumes, and 1,000 MSS. Among these are Pindar, 
tlic Hecuba,and Orestes of Euripides, a Panegyric 
of Trajan and a Virgil; besides the correspon- 
dence of Voltaire and Bettinelli. The Capilupi 
library possesses 129 valuable MSS., serving to 
elucidate the literary history of the fifteenth cen- 

A little way out of Mantua is Plctole, which, 
agreeably to a tradition preserved by Dante, in 
his Pnrgatorv, is thought to be the site of Andes, 
Virgil's birth-place. An old ruln.ed palace of the 
Mantuan dukes, called La Virgiliana^ marks the 
spot. Hither the Cardinal de' Medici came for 
refuge after the battle of Ravenna ; and here also 
General Miolles gave his banquet in a Temple of 
Apollo, improvised for the occasion; the Saints 
taking the place of the Gods. 

At Curtatone, on the Grazie Road, near the 
Mincio, on the 'J»th May, 1848, the Austrioiis de- 
feated the Tuscans, who came to the assistance of 
Charles Albert. The Tuscan volunteers were 
1,JH6 soldiers of the Grand Ducal army, and 1,166 
of the newly-raised civic guard, with youths from 
the Pisa University, and other equally unwarlike 
sources, to the number of 6,000; all under the 
command of General Langier, assisted by Piedr 
montese ofticers. They were opposed to 35,000 
Austrian troops, commanded by Radetsky. The 
villages of Montanara and Curtatone are li mile 
distant from each other. " For more than six hours 
the devoted little band held in check the enormous 
force opposed to them, and though the i)romi«ed 
Pledmontese support never came, the Tuscans 
gained the object in view, and stoyed the advance 
of the Austrians long enough to enable the I'ied- 
nioutese to win the battle of Goito the following 
day." The loss of the Tuscans was very heavy ; 
but they had done their duty to their country, and 
proved ttiey could fight like heroes. 'IMie names 
of those who fell are recorded in the Church of 
Santa Ci'oce. Two Pisa professors were killed : 
and a third, MontaneUi, supi>osetl to be mortally 
wonndeil, afterwards recovered, and became one 
of theGnind Dukes ministers."— T. A. T«)LM)PR*» 
-^..MM^!^ in 1819 and 16&9. 

Beyond this, 5 miles from Mantua, on the right 
bank of the lake, and within view of the city, is 
the Church of 

Santa Maria delta Qrazit, founded, 1399i, by F. 
Goiuaga and the citizens, in pursuance of a vow 
made during the plague. It contains a miraculous 
portrait of the Madonna, attributed, as usual, to 
St. Luke, and much reverenced. It is still a much 
frequented place of pilgrimage, npecially on 
Assumption Day. The church is an Italian Gothic 
of the simplest style, set off with many ex-votos 
and inscriptions. Within, are paintings by L. 
Costa, L. Gambara, MonsigiK>ri, &c., besides a 
monument of Coradi (1489), the son of the cele- 
brated military leader, and another of B. Castig- 
lione, the friend of M. Angcio and Raphael, and 
author of the Cortcgiano. This latter was designed 
by Romano; the inscription is by Cardinal Ucmbo. 
By his side is his young and learned wife. 

Among eminent persons who have visited this 
church and left their offerings, are Charles V. and 
his son Ferdinand, Pius II., the Constable HourlKm, 
and even an ambassador from Japan. The walls 
are covered with a double row of wax figures (the 
size of life) of these and other eminent personages, 
bishops, cardinals, kings, Ac, who have received 
some benefit or grace from the Virgin. Eacli bejtrs 
an inscription in verse. The art of making them 
was invented by a Franciscan of Acqua Nera, in 
15*21, but they require frequent restoration. 

The miscellaneous offerings are most various and 
singular. One is a crocodile or lizard killed by a 
Mantnan in the rivers about here; and another is 
a piece of rope from a convict about to be hanged, 
who prayed for help to the Madonna, when the 
rope broke and restored him to his place In society. 

A rail is open to Modena, and to Cremona; and 
one, «W Lcgnago and Este, to Monscllce, on the 
line between Padua and Bologna. (See Routes 16 
and 20.) 

From Mantua to Modena, on the Central Italian 
rail, the stations are as under: — 

Miles. Miles. 

Carpi 29 

SoUlera 32| 

Modena 38 

Borgoforto 7 

Suzzani 12 

Reggtolo 17 

Rolo-Novl 21i 

Borgofortd (Stat.), a fortified castle on the Po, 
built 1211, near the junction of the Mincio. 

SUZSara (Stat.)— population, 9,668~wher« 
Prince Eugene fought an indecisive battle on 1st 
May, 1703. with the French under Vendome. 

[Rail from Snzzara to Parma (page 68), 
27| miles, through Brescello aiid Guastalla. 

GKiaStalla (10,599) inhabitants, near the .Sotith 
bank of the' Po, a bishop's see, and formerly the 
heAd of a little cmmty and duchy, united to Panna 
in 1749, and to Modena in 1847. Its history has 
bren writtnn in four great quartos, by a native 
author. P. AtVo. Guastalla. now finally annexe4l 
!■» tt.e kingdom of Italv, Mtniid* on the Cnft-iiD. a 

Ro«te 19.] 



brancta of the Po, which was the boundary towards 
ICodena. It contains a Cathedral, and live or six 
other churches, public library of 6,000 volumes. 

■nhfw.1 nt music, and a statue, in bronze, of Gon- take these. Ferry across Grand Canal. 6 cents. 
'^■" ^ ' ' ^- ..-.-. --i^ i — *— an i8 5uffioitnt. 

Gondolas, with otie boatman, 1 lira the first 
hour, and W) cents, for eacb successive hour; 
Omnibus (rondolas. '25 cents., it is not advisa)>Le to 

k •*J fH HWWfcKJ B; -Which la at thefHrtirof ttieattion, 
ciqJMe a grondola, return for your baggage, with 
m poner, U> ifhom point out your gondola ; ft cents 
p^^pfMfcflpe is expected at his fee. 
TMrif tf • upwards of 4,000 gondolas at Venice. 

nus. one boait- 
, two boatmen, 
ggage in the 
door of yonr 
mdolicr serves 
^ led to most of 

etti) are found 
, bat the port 

rieate, Ancona, 

The P. * O. 

ere to Aneona 

the OTerland 

on Piazsa San 

k Co., damasks 
arge estabUsli- 
:hy of a visit, 

e del Traghetto. 
uid the Bialto, 
Idoni, both near 

on distil a fine 

h moist. The 
•sphere favonr- 
rdfula, rickets, 
excellent inti- 
place when the 
e the Adriatic, 
one may even 
ge. Hartshorn 
the ''crtiwliag 
ling and flying 
all have at the 

litecture by the 
tto, Sansovino, 
sts of fm early 
he^ral, Palace, 
jadeniy, 9calzi 
o, S. Salvatore, 
dentore Church, 
tttola. S. Rocco, 
Salnte Church, 
la, Ok d'Oro. S. 
Ua Vigna (Pal- 
o Glass Works, 
n Art. 

PutnHn^ bjr Mtntma, «#. Bellini, Yivaripi, 
PalmaTecchio, Titian (the As9iimptiop),Pordenone, 
Bordone, Bassano, Del Piombo, Thitoretto, ^. 
Veronese, Palma Glbvanc, Psdovanino, 8. Rlcclx 
Canaletto, and Titian. 

wMHi he keeps hta H. 
letters of Potiikpey; aU 
CHganiis * nnaU room, 
the Qlant Titans on 
. Romano. The figures ( 
In the garden arc a Gr 
ter coutaiiiing a scrle» 
from the Birth to the R « 
Romano's pupils undeir 
''The charm of his {» 
pends on the coffering 9^ 
whiah display an aiTm. 
combined with elegaim 
but tbcy will not safl' 
from the reproach of 1 
the tamest commonpl 

At the ScuoU Puhh^-A 
founded by Marii^ '^^i 
volumes, and 1,000 Ma fJl 
the Hecuba, and Orest-^BM 
of Trajan and a Yi rfipi 
dence of Voltaire aT>«4 
library possesses 12d -^ 
elucidate the literary ^ 

A little way out r>f? 
agi^ably to a trad it* 
his Purgatory, is thoiJ>; 
Vlrgil'sbirth-place. J 
Mantnan dukes, eall^ 
spot. Hither the an* 
refuge after the battl «* 
General Miolles gav^ ) 
Apollo, Improvised f o 
taking the place of \^rmA 
At Gurtatone, omii; 
Mincio, on the 29th 1> 
feated the Tuscans, "^ 
Charles Albert. Tb 
1,916 soldiers of the C3 
of the newly-raised ol 
the Pisa University, i 
sources, to the nuxa.1 
command of Genera/ 
monteso officers. 1? 
Austrian troops, con 
villages of Montanar 
distant from each otb 
the devoted little bad 
force opposed to thtf 
Piedmontese siippof 
gained the object in ' 
of the Austrians k>n| 
moutese to win the 
day." The loss of t 
but they had done thi . 
proved they could figiht lUfce heroM 
of those who fell are record^iTTi. i*?? "•««^ , 

Santa Croce. Two Pisr^'SsiSr?lF*''S* <»' ^MTU tb- pw. t 

and a third, MontaneUi, sinnS!!!? ? T*« «"««l : ^S^fJ^' * *»«»P • se* - ff ^ 

wonnded, afterwards reiovSSf^ *f ?• moit«lly i.f^j? *'!?'• <*»«n*r«ild dSht .**.*"*•--' '.y .« Ir 
of theGrand Dukes mi^S^^' »"? bp^-mT^nJ bo« ^lS?*» *? ^'^Tfnt&P "S^ to ^at^^^ H 


Ro«te 19.] 



branch of the Fo, which was the boundary towards 
Modena. It contains a Cathedral, and tive or six 
other churches, public library of 6,000 volumes, 
■chool of music, and a statue, in bronze, of Gon- 
xajfa I.] 

Modena (Stat.), on the Central Italian line; 
which comes this way from Parma and Re^o, 
and goes on to Bologfna. (See Routes 16 and SO.) 

Venica to Treviso, Undine, and Trieste. 
VENICE (Stat.) 

" Thf re is a glorioa* City in the sea : 
Tbe sea is m the broad, the narrow streets. 
ICbbiog and flowing ; and the salt seaweed 
CliBf9 to the marue of her palaoes."— Koobrs's Italjf. 

Vinezia, of the Italians; VenecUg, of the Germans. 
Population (1891), 169,000 (including suburbs), in 
2,000 streets and alleys. 


Grand Hotel (formerly New York Hotel), 
Palazzo Fcrro, newly fitted up; well situated on 
the Grand Canal. 

Danieli's Royal Hotel. 

Grajid Ijiotel de l*Europe, on the Grand Canal. 
Comfort combined with moderate charges. See 

Hrttel d*ltalic Bauer, with a large terrace, on 
the Grand Canal. Recommended. 

Hotel de Rome and Pension Suisse, advan- 
tageously situated on the Grand Canal. 

Hotel Bean Riyage, facing the Lagunes. 

Hotel d'Angieterre, Qnai des Escalrons. 

Hotel Britannia, first-class hotel, with excellent 

Grand Hotel Yittoria, old jestablisbed first-class 
hotel, situated near to St. Marc Square; Monaco; 
ilotcl I^una. 

Boardhig House, 1159, Callc del Lngancglier. 

Cafes: Florian, Piazza San Marco. English and 
French papers. Cafd Svizzers, Piazza San Marco. 
IBaner-Qrunwald, near Grand Hotel d'ltalic. 

Resident English Consul and American Consul. 

Church of England Service. — At the English 

Presbyterian Service. — At 96, Piazza San Marco. 

Waldensian Church.— Palazzo Cavagnis. 

Heading /foom.— Piazza St. Marco, in the Pro- 
cjiratie Vecchic. i^nglish and other newspapers 
by the week or month. 

Cfenwyanres.— Railway, to Udine and Nabresina 
(for Vienna and Trieste); to VeKMia and Milan. 

On arrival at Venice there is often confusion. 
When you alight from the train call out the name 
of your hotel, and the porter belonging to It will 
engage a gondola and see to your baggage. Or, pro- 
ee^Ml to the canal, which is at the A'ontof the station, 
enigmge a gondola, return for your baggage, with 
m porter, to if horn point out your gondola; d cents 
porpJMkf^ it expected as his fee. 

T&eM are npwtfrdi of 4,000 gondolas at Venice. 

Gondolas, with one boatman, 1 lira the first 
hour, and 60 cents, for each successive hour; 
Omnibus gondolas. '26 cents., it is not advisable to 
take these. Ferry across Grand Canal. 6 cents. 
For going aljout the city one <)oatnmn is sufficient. 
The gondolas at the railway terminus, one boat- 
man, *i lire (without luggage, 1 lira), two boatmen, 
3 lire; these men loiul your baggage in tbe 
gondola, and deliver it at the door of your 
apartment, at the hotel. A good gondolier serves 
Q.B valet de place. Guides are attached to most of 
the hotels. Steam launches (vaporetti) are fouAd 
on the Grand Canal during the day-time. 

The tide rises two or three feet, bat the port 
is gradually drying up. 

Steamers to the station ; and to Trieste, Ancona, 
Chioggia; office at the PiazzeUa. The P. * O. 
Company run mail boats from here to Anoona 
and Brindisi, in connection with the Overland 

Post and Telegraph Offices, both on Piaxsa San 

Lace Manufatlory. — M. Jesumm A Co., damasks 
and hand embroideries, old lace; large establisli- 
ment (with working rooms), worthy of a visit, 
S. Filippo Giacomo, near Bridge of Sighs. 

JSa»it«'4.— Blumcnthal k Co.,Calle del Traghetto. 

Theatre*.— AW near St. Mark's and the Bialto, 
Fenice, or Phoenix; Rossini, and Goldoui, both near 
S. Jjuca's; Maiibran, near S. Giau Crisostomo. 

Chemist. — Zampironi. 

The Capuchins of the Redemption dijBtil a fine 
liquor, called acqua dl mcUssa'. 

The climate is healthy, thougph moist. The 
marsh exhalations create an atmosphere favour- 
able to pulmonary complaints, scrofula, rickets, 
kc.^ for which sea-bathing is an excellent inti- 
dote. Venice is not a pleasant place when the 
rain comes down, or storms move the Adriatic. 
Then boats ply in St. Mark's, and one may even 
get jammed in them under a bridge. Hartshorn 
or cari)olic acid is an antidote for the '*crtiwliag 
animals, skipping animals, humming and flying 
animals, which (says Thackeray) all havs at the 
traveller at once.*' 

*Chief Objects of Notice.— Architecture by the 
Lombard!, Sammicheli, Falconetto, Sansovino, 
Palladio, besides Byzantine artists of an early 
date. Piazza of St. Mark, Cathedral, Palace, 
Bridge of Sighs, Campanile, Academy, Scafzi 
Church, Rialto, Madonna del Orto, 8. Salvatore, 
8. Giorgio Maggiore (Palladio), Redentore Church, 
8. Sebastiano, 8. Stefano, Frari, Scuola. 8. ilocco, 
8. Zanipolo, 8. Zaccaria, Arsenal, Salute Church, 
Fenice Theatre, S. Maria Formosa, Ok d'Oro. S. 
Trovaso Church, S. Francesa della Vigna (Pal- 
ladio), Gesniti Church, and Murano Glass Works, 
New Permanent Gallery of Modem Art. 

Paintings by Mantegna, G. Bellini, Vivarini, 
PalmaVecchio; Titian (the As8iimptlon),Pordenone, 
Bordone, Bassaho, Del Piombo, Tintoretto, IP. 
Veronese, Palma Giovane, Padovanino, 8. Rlccl, 
Ganaletto, and Titian. 



[Section 1. 

Sculpture by the Louibardi. Sansovino, and Ca- 
nora, who was born and died in Venetian territory. 

Spurions old furniture and Canalettos are two 
branches of manufacture carried on here. 

Venice is outside the lagunamorta, in the lap'una 
Tlva, which, at high water, is a lalce of some few 
feet depth ; but at low water (the fall being about 
2 feet) offers a number of banks of sand and 
weed, in the middle of which are the streets, or 
canals, practicuble for small boats or gondolas 
only. This lagoon, 5 miles long and H to 2 broad. 
Is shut in from the sea by a tongue of land called 
the Lido, which has three fortified entrances. 

Al)out 150 Canals cut up the city into seventy or 
eighty little islands. The largest, called Canalc 
Grande, and crossed by the Rialto Bridge, whids 
through the city in the form of an 8. Another, 
called Canale Gludecca, divides the city frgm the 
raburbs of Quidecca Island. Near the north end 
of the Canale Grande is a small branch, called 
Cannareggio, leading towards Mestre. The smaller 
canals are joined together by upwards of 300 short 
bridges, to facilitate the communication. The 
houses are founded on millions of piles, their front 
or back being turned to a canal. Each door has a 
flight of steps to the water, and the gondolas are 
moored to the carved and painted side posts. 
Good drinking water from public cisterns, sup- 
plied from the mainland by pipes laid along the 
railway, or from artesian wells, sunk in 1847. 

Venice comprises six sestieri, or administrative 
divisions, and has forty-one open places, of which 
S. Marco, or St. Mark, is the finest ; twenty-nine 
parish churches, besides the patriarchal church, 
the churches of the Greeks, Armenians, and Pro- 
testants, and seven synagogues. 
' It has lost the glory and commercial importance 
it enjoyed in past times, when it boasted of twenty- 
four ships of the line and 200 armed galleys. 
It had a Bank (so called) as early as 1157. 
During 1815-17, upwards of seventy old palaces 
had been demolished by their owners, and many 
are still deserted, or converted into hotels and 
warehouses. Books are printed bere. It is a free 
port (so-called) since 1829, but its harbour is 
gradually filling up. 

The last scene in its fall is described in Darn's 
nutoire. Out of 537 patricians, only 200 at most 
refused to vote for the Treaty of May, 1797, which 
transferred the Venetian territory to Austria. The 
Doge's sword was received by an apothecary, who 
bore the historical name of Dandolo. The Golden 
Book and the Ducal ensigns were burnt, and as 
the French marched out the Austrians marched in. 

The latest important event in its history was the 
revolution of 1848, when the Austrian garrison was 
driven out, and the Republic of St. Mark proclaimed 
under Manin and Tommaseo. On the defeat of 
Charles Albert, it was attacked by Radetzky and 
Ilaynau, and Venice once more came under the 
iron rule of Austria. But now a better state, of 
things prevails; and here the King of Italy and 
the Austrian Emperor met as friends on the 5th 

of April, 1873. A statue of Manin stands in 
Cimpo di S. Paterniano. 

To the traveller who sees it for the first time. 
Venice presents a curious spectacle, with its m irble 
palaces, buildings, and spires rising out of the 
water. It was begun in this manner when the 
ravages of Alaric and Attila (407-52) made the 
people fiy from Aquileia. Padua, <fcc., on the main- 
land (which was called Venetia), and settle here, 
round a church built on the rivo alto, or Rialto. 
There arc mfiny narrow quays and dry alleys 
between tall dark houses, where you may walk on 
foot, and where shops for meat, vegetables, jewel- 
lery, &c., are found, but they are not suitable for 
carriages and horses, which, being useless here, 
are never seen. Their place is supplied by the 
gondola, a gloomy-looking, high-prowed iKiat, 
shaped something like the lord mayor's barge. 
The word is of doubtful origin. It is first men- 
tioned at Avignon. 12th century, and at Venice, 
in the Cronico di Altino, 1200. 

The favourite colour of the gondola is black. It 
Is a 

"long covered boat that'a common here, 
Carved at the prow, built lightly, bat compactly, 

Bowed by two rowers, each called gondolier. 
It glides along the water looking blackly, 

Just like a cofflu clapt in a canoe, 

Where none can make out what you say or do." — Byron, 

Some are used as floating shops, and even the 
beggars go about in gondolas. Gondoliers (called 
barcaroli) are found at several points, or traghetti, 
where the trafilc is greatest. Though useful, and 
at times necessary, to reach certain quarters, and 
obtain good points of view, yet, the canals being 
bridged, every part of the city may be reached on 
foot, though footways are not to be found on the 
sides of all the canals. Steam gondolas run to 
the station. 

In spite of its aquatic advantages, and the cheap 
convenience of its gondolas, the visitor, ''accus- 
tomed to expatiate on terra firma,'* may soon grow 
impatient of the ''moated imprisonment of a town 
where one's walks are incessantly crossed by a 
canal, and the thread of talk or thinking is cut at 
the steep steps of a bridge."— Lord Broughton's 


Itinerary of objects to be noticed in going from 
the quay of St. Mark's to the railway station, 3 
miles long, by gondola. The palaces marked * are 
in the pointed, or Gothic, style. The style of the 
Lombard! school is marked by richness and ele- 
gance. The palaces stand on massive stone base- 
ments of a simple uniform character, rising out of 
the sea, " but above the water they are as various 
as their architects. Some display the light elegance 
of Sansoviuo, others the exuberant ornament of 
Longhena. and a few the correct beauty of Pal- 
ladio."^/\>r«yfA.) Most of them have two or 
three gates, with steps to the water, in the middle 
of their fronts, over which are finely decorated 
balconies and arcades, and the windows are gene- 
rally arched, either Gothic pointed, or circular. 

Hotite 19.|] 



Dogana. or Custom 

Seiniiiario Patrlarcale 

and collection. 

Church of Sta. Maria 

della Salute. 
Palazzo Dario (by the 

Palazzo Yenier. 
Palazzo Manzoni(ditto). 

Royal Gardens. 

Palazzo Giustiniani * 
(now Hotel de TEurope) 
Palaz zo Treves (or Emo) 
Palazzo Zuchelli (now 

Hotel Britannia) 
Palazzo Contarini-Fa- 

san. * (Lieut. Gov.) 
Pal.Ferro(Grand Hotel). 
Palazzo Comer dclla 

Ck Grande or Prefet- 

tura (by Sansovino). . 


Aecademia and Picture 

Palazzo Contarini degli 
Scrigni (two — one by 
Scamozzi, the other 

Palazzo Rezzonigo (by 

Palazzo Giustiniani.* 

Palazzo Foscari.* 

Palazzo Balbi. 
Palazzo Grimani. 

Palazzo Pisani a 

Palazzo Barbarigo. 
Palazzo Bernardo. * 


Palazzo Dona. 
Palazzo Papadopoli (by 

Palazzo Pisani Moretta. 

S. Vitale Church. 

Palazzo Giustiniar i-Lo- 

lin (by Longhena). 
Palazzo Cavalli* 

Palazzo Grassi. 

Palazzo Moro Lin. 
Palazzo Contarini. 

Palazzo Mocenigo (By- 
ron's residence). 

Palazzo Comer-Spinelli 
(by the Lombardi). 

Palazzo Grimani, now 

Law Court (by Sam- 

Palazzo Farsctti, now 

the Town Hall, and 
Palazzo Loredano, now 

the Municipio. 
Palazzo Bembo.* 
Palazzo Dandolo 
Palazzo Manin (by 

Sansovino); belonged 

to the last Doge, now 

a bank. 


S. GUcomo di Rialto. 
Palazzo de*Camerlengbi 
(Court of Appeal). 


Fabbrictie Vecchla 
Sansovino), in 


Palazzo Comer della 
Rcgina, now the 
Monte de Pieta. 

Palazzo Pesaro, or Be- 

Palazzo Tron. 
Palazzo Battagia (by 



Palazzo MangiliValma- 

Palazzo Michieli dalle 
Colonne, or Martin- 
Palazzo Sagredo.* 
Ck d'Oro, belonged to 
Mdllc. Taglioni. 

Palazzo Grimani della 
Vida(by Seamozzi). 

Palazzo Vendramin Ca- 
lergi, (by P. Lom- 
bardo) ; belongs to 
Duca della Grazla. 

Fondaco de' Turchi. 
MuseoCorrer; bequeathed 

to the city, with its Cannareggio. 

paintings, marbles, 


short canal are — 

Palazzo Manfrin, 
lazzo Galvagna. 

Palazzo Labia. 

Scalzi Church. 


S. Simeone Church. Railway Station. 


S. Lucia Church. 
Corpus Domini Church. 

Fondaco de' Tedeschi, 
now Custom House. 

Palazzo Papadopoli. 

La Croce Church. 
Santa Chiara Church. 

*' Whilst other Italian cities have each ten or 
twelve prominent structures on which their claim 
to architectural fame is based, Venice numbers 
her specimens by hundreds, and the residence of 
the simple citizen is often as artistic as the palace 
of the proudest noble. No other city possesses 
such a school of architectural ai*t as applied to 
domestic purposes ; and if we look for types from 
which to originate a style suitable to our modern 
wants, it is among the Venetian examples of the 
early part of the sixteenth century."— {/Vr^iMion.) 
The churches are profusely ornamented witti 
marble, porphyry, alabaster, agate, Jasper, mosaics, 
ifec, more remarkable for richness than good taste. 

"Canaletto and Stanficld are miraculous in 
their truth; Turner is very noble; but the reality 
itself is beyond all description of pen or pencil. 
I never saw the thing before that I should be 
afraid to describe ; but to tell what Venice is I 
feel to be an impossibility." — DickenSy 1844. 

The canals are " water streets " without foot- 
ways on the sides. ** You may (says Lord Brough- 
ton) from the back of most houses, and sometimes 
from the front, step from the hall door into your 
boat at once, and may row through the city almost 
the whole day without tutpecting there are any 
streets in it ^ or yon may wander through innu- 
merable lanes and narrow alleY«.N V*«k sJesswi v*. 


BEAl^flUAW « ITjU^T. 


[S^Uou 1. 

London, without coming on a single canal or nce- 
iujiftbe water once." The profound quiet of the 
canals and streets at night is very striking. 

Wo shall' notice the best buildingH in a series of 
TtoAuCM wblcb may be done un foot, or in gondola, 
aeK»rd3ng to circumstances, and niuy he varied ut 
]ili>a8ure. The charge for a gondola is about 4s. 
u day ttf 10 hours, 80 lire a week. 

The great point of attraction is the square of 8. 
Marco, or St. Mark (the patron saint), on the south 
fcide of Venice, which, with the ancient cathedral 
and its belfry, the great palace ot the I)<^, the 
Moorish arcades and coffee iiouses, <kc., figure so 
i'lcturesqncly in crery view of this marvellous old 


'Plana S. Xaroo. This piazza, or square, is 
rurronnkMd byWagnificent edifices, all valuable as 
historical monuaMiits of the rise and progress of 
the fine arts from the tenth century to the present 
day. On the east si<ie are St. Mark's Cathedral, 
with its campanile and three pedestals for the Vene- 
tian flags; on tlie north side, the Procuratie 
Vecchieand tlie Orologio Tower. The west side 
■occuides the #ite of S. Gcmininno's Church. On 
the south are the Frocuratie and the Libreria, now 
the Royal Palace. 

The dimensions of this piazza are al>out 580 feet 
lo:)g by an average Ibrcudth of 230 feet. The 
riazzetta (or little square), 820 feet by 150 feet, 
runs from the campanile down to the Mole at the 
water slAe, between the Doge's Palace on the east 
side and the Zecca on the west. On the Mole, or 
(^uay, arc the Colonne, or two pillars of St. Mark 
and iit.'l%eodore, from wliich the quay raus past 
the PonCe della Paglia to tlie Kiva del 8cliiavoni 
and the Albergo tteiale (formerly the Manimocenigo 
Palace), towards the arteoaj, Ac. On tlie three 
tironze pedestals (by Leopardi, of the sixteenth 
centur}') in front of 8i. Mark's— now carrying the 
Italian colours— the three standards of tlio subject 
fclngdomsof CypitiSi Ciwdia, and Morea used to fly. 
The Torre ddl' Orologio, or dock-tower, at the 
comer of the Merceria, was built, 1494, by P. Lom- 
bardo. It bears an astronomical clock, marked 
with tlie S4 lioars, as usual in Italy; wliich has a 
gold and blue face, made by the Hinaldisof It^gio, 
and rq>aired in 1766. Two hronze Moors strike 
tlte hoars, aii<l above tliesc are a bronze Virgin and 
the ^oa of St. Mark, l^umbc^s of pigeons are 
fouod ill the Piazza. 

The picturesque CatbMlral or *Ihiomo of S. 
Maroo, isOreek in shape; and purely Byzantine (or 
Constantinople) in style, having been begun in 976 
byaitlsis from that city,and finished 1071. It is sup- 
posed to have been copied from a church at Alex- 
undria. The intomoi decoralitws, porticos, Ac., 
were finished in the next century. It is only 906 
fe«t long by 164 feet through the transepts. It Is 
«cecntrlc when compared with later and more re- 
0Vt«l- patterns, bat it is exceodiogly rich in deUil, 
*nmt til* Immtnte profusion of beantlfol Oriental 

marbles, bas-relief h, and other sculpture, in bronzes, 
gilding, and mosaic, executed between the tenth 
and eighteenth centuries. The tessellated pave- 
ment is slightly undulating, like the waves of the 

It is surmounted by a heap of ten or twelve oval 
domes round the five larger centre ones, besides 
several pinnacles. The iron tic roun<l the chief 
doqie is called Sansovino's Girdle. They count 
atwut 600 pillars of verde antico, porphyry, serpen- 
tine, veined and otlier rare marbles; the exterior 
sides, basement, and pavement arc encrusted with 
rich materials; in fact, all that is not gold, br 
hronze, or mosaic, is covered with Oriental mar- 
bles. ' 

Tiic facade presents in its recesses a numerous 
collection of columns, as valuable for the quality 
and variety of the marbles as for their Greek woA- 
manship. There are five large gold mosaics in 
the lower recesses. The first two (to the right) 
represent the Raising of the Bones of St. Mark, at 
Alexandria (whence they were first brought), hy 
P. Vecchio, 1650; the middle one Is the Last Judg- 
ment, by P. Spagna; in the next is the Doge's 
Reception of tlie Patron Saint's Relics, by L. de 
Pazzo, after S. BiccI ; and the last is an old mosaic 
of the sixteenth century of the church itself. 

The four mosaics in the upper vaults are the 
Descent from the Cross, tlie Descent into IJmbo 
(or hell), the Resurrection, and the Ascension ; all 
by L. Gaetano, from designs by M. Yerona, about 
1617. On one of the four tironze gates (to the left 
on entering) is the name of Uieir artist, " M.CCC. 
Bertucius, Aurifcx, Venetus, me fecit; *' he being 
a Venetian gold worker of the day. In this facade 
arc the famous four Ifoi'ses of St. Mark (weighing 
only 1,860 lbs.), by Lysippus (?), bronze, but pre- 
serving traces of their former gilding. They are 
the same which, after being cast at Chlo and trans- 
ferred to Athens, were sent to ornament the tri- 
uni))hal arches of Nero and Trajan, at Rome. They 
accompanied Theodosius to Byzantium, and in Uio 
tliirteenth century were transported to Venice; 
from wliich they were moved to Paris, by Napoleon, 
to the top of the Arc du Carrousel, to be again 
returned in 1816 to their old place at Venice. This 
is alluded to in the gold inscription on the church 
porch. As wjth the famous Conmation Stone at 
Westminster, possession has been taken of them at 
various times, as an emblem of power or conquest. 
A near view should be got from the staircase. 

Alwve the great door of the vetstibule is St. Mark 
in his pontificals, by the Zuccati, after Titian's 
designs. In 1646. 3elow him are seven sniall 
mosaics of the tenth century, representing the 
Crucifixion and Burial of Christ, the work of the 
same artists, 1649. On two crescents to the right 
and left, aY)ovc the principal entrance, arc the Re- 
surrection of Lazarus, and the Burial of the Virgin, 
also by the Zuccati. In the tower side corners, 
the Four Evangelists; in the upper, eight Prophets; 
on the frieze, the Angels and Doctors; all by the 
same. *'High up on the outside of the church 
we one ereniog obf erved two small lamps huru- 

ft. Oeoree. In (he i 

with bM-rtllefi. by tiio pupH» of B^imoTUio. iOili 

Si. John the Bnptlil. On' the wnlli nro inonumsnti 

mcuurur leluIeT In wiir ucolnft theTu^i. snri 

filKory of th« Repnbjlc, tluwn lo lS4a. 

Iji tAQ rtglit troniept of tlm ohui^:li iii the Oralorv 
of ihe O'pff, formed by bIk rich colamniiH one of 

idi>nied with 

khiiiiw*. ke„ botwocn IfiW mid ItSII. 
In n dinniicil ehapel. ' " ~ 

\i Titian 

ho uorli, _, 

lud liiluid woik. by Zuc«iito, 

r. Mart, contilnlnic ai 

re burled In th^r own cbun^itt. The 
B l> ■ Tery lingalur pDo. Thmiith 



[Section 1. 

combination is neither Greek nor Gothic, nor Basi- 
lical, nor Saracen ; but a fortuitous juinblo of all. 
A front divided by a g-allery and a roof lKX>ded by 
inosquish cupolas give it a strange, uncliristian 
look. Nowhere have I seen so many columns 
crowded into so small a space. Near 300 arc 
stuck on the pillars of the front, and 800 more on 
the balustrades above. A like profusion prevails 
in the Interior, which is dark, heavy, and bar- 
barous." — (Fortyth). But, notwithstanding this, 
the general efifect is striking and historical. 

From the Pietra del Bando, a red stone close to 
the church, the laws were first promulgiited. It is 
a trophy from Acre; another trophy, called the 
pillars of 8. John of Acre, was brought from 
Ptolemais in 1256. 

The ancient Crypts have been cleared of water, 
and are n >w accessible. 

The best book of information is " Guide de la 
Basi/igue St. Marc^"' by Monsign. 0. A. Paslnl. 

At the junction of the Piazza di S. Marco and 
the Piazzetta stands the brick 

*Campanile Toufet\ so conspicuous in all Vene- 
tian Tiews, forming a detached belfry to the Cathe- 
dral, 820 feet high. It was begun in 902; In 1178 
A spire on an antique model was added, in the 
shape of an extinguisher, which was reconstructed 
by Martin B. Bnono in 1510, as It now appears, 
and ornamented with Oriental marbles. At the 
base on one side is a loggetta by Soverlni, a small 
and elegant building covered with marbles, sculp- 
tures, and bronzes. Four bronze statues of Pallas, 
Apollo, Mercury, and Peace, are by J. Sansovlno. 
Of the bas-reliefs, the best are the three in the 
attic and those below two of the statues. 

**Its locality and associations have earned for 
it a great deal of inflated laudation ; but in point 
of design no campanile in Italy deserves it less. 
The base (42 feet square) is a mere unomamented 
mass of brickwork, slightly fluted and pierced 
unsymmctrlcally with small windows to light the 
inclined planes within. Its size, its height, and 
apparent solidity are Its only merits."- {FerguMon). 
Cost of admission, 15c. The ascent is by a series 
of inclines — not steps. Napoleon rode his horse to 
the summit; whence there is a view over the city 
and islands, distant hills, ^. But this prospect 
from the top, though good, gives no adequate view 
of the canals within the city. 

* Ducal Palace, or Palazzo Ducale, the old seat 
of the Doge (doge from dur). Is open from nine to 
four. (For Doges, see Introduction.) It is about 
240 feet square. The principal part has one side 
towards the Mole and the other towards the 
Piazzetta, and is remarkable for its singularity, 
the solidity and magnificence of Its details, and 
for its style, which Is Saracenic, of the fourteenth 
century In the oldest portion, which is the work of 
Calendarlo. An arcade, called the Broglio, sur- 
rounds it. It was formerly the seat of government, 
and contains the halls of the various departments— 
as the Hall of the Senate, the Hall of the Council 
"^ Tea (now the picture gallery), the Hall of the 

Great Council (now the library), the Plorobl or 
State Prison, the Pozzi, or dungeons, Ac. 

Near the sea front, at the end of the Piazzetta, 
are two red granite pillars, brought from (j recce in 
the twelfth century. One bears the famous 
winged Lion in bronze, calle<l the Lion of St Mark^ 
a copy of which was repeated in every subject 
province (hence the word Pantaloon, a nickname for 
the Venetians); and the other has a statue of St. 
Theodore (Teodoro) standing on a crocodile. This 
part and the quay adjohilng are sometimes callcxl 
"II Colonne," after these pillars, which thus sei*vc 
as a mark. Public executions took place between 
them, and hence It was considered unlucky to pass 
this way. Here Silvio Pelllco stood before he was 
sent to Spielberg. 

"The two arcades which constitute the base arc, 
from their extent and the beauty of the details, 
as fine as anything of their class executed during 
the middle ages. There is also a just and pleasing 
proportion between the simple solidity of the 
lower, and the airy, perhaps slightly* fantastic 
lightness of the upper of these arcades, which are 
pierced with light fretwork. All the beauty ascrib- 
ed to this storey arises from the polychromatic 
mode of decoration introduced by disposing pieces 
of different coloured marbles In diaper patterns. 
The slabs are built Into, not stuck on." — Fergusson, 

The palace forms a quadrangle surrounding an 
interior court, the north side of which stands 
alongside St. Mark's, which until 1807 was nothing 
but the chapel of the palace. The east side, which 
rests on the Rio or Canal delta Paglia. was the work 
of A. Rlzzio and A. Scarpagnino. 1490-1550. The 
other two sides towards the Mole and Piazzetta 
were restored by A. da Ponte, after the fire of 1677. 
They arc marked by two large windows decorated 
with sculptures; that on the Mole side, constructed 
1404; that on the side of the Piazzetta at a later 
date, 1523-38. The carvings above them date from 
1577. Over the central window on the Piazzetta 
side i* fixed an alto relievo of the Lion of St. Mark, 
with his paw on the Bible, and the Doge Gritta 
kneeling before it, placed there in 1898. The walls 
are diamonded In pale red and white. The palace 
entrance is near the church, by the Porta della 
Carta, where the scribes used to stand, and the 
ornaments of which are due to Giovanni and 
Bartolommeo Buon. This leads to the Interior 
court and the Giant's Stairs. Its principal defect 
is that " it reverses all the principles of all other 
architecture. Here the solid rests on the open, a 
wall of enormous thickness rests on a slender fret- 
work of shafts and arches and Intersected circles." 
— Forsyth. 

The beautiful Internal court was rebuilt 1486- 
1550, by A. Bregno and Scarpagnino. Its pointed 
and circular arcades, partly Imitated In the School 
of Mines, Piccadilly, its richly sculptured friezes 
and ornamented wall spaces, altogether make up 
a singularly pleasing design. In the middle of the 
court are two circular bronze reservoirs, covered 
with reliefs, both of the sixteenth century. They 
are filled dally with fresh water brought by th« 

Route 19.] 


women of Friuli. It is surrounded by busts of 
einiueiit natives of Venice. In the facade l^ tlie 
clock tower. I)uilt 1607-15, and ornamented with 
eight beautiful Greclc statues. 

The Arcade, opposite the Giant's Staircase, is 
probably due to Master Bartolommeo, the author 
of the Delia Carta Gate. A smaller and elegant 
facade to the left of the Giant's Stairs, in the 
Senators* Court, is attributed to G. Bergamasco 
and J. Lombardo. 

The Giant's Stairs (Scala del Giganti) is a niasrni- 
fieent work of the fifteenth century, by A. Bregno 
or A. Pizzo; with delicate marble carvings by two 
Mantua artists, and Sansovino's two colossal statues 
of Mars and Neptune, which gave name to the 
staircase. Below them, at the foot of the staircase, 
are A. Rizzio's Adam and Eve. The Doge was 
crowned on the landing of these steps; here he 
took the oaths; and here Byron makes Marino 
Faliero deliver his piece of eloquent rant before 
bis execution, 1355. 

"The gory bead roils down the OiAnt't oter«." 
His corpse was removed in a barge, with eight 
torches, to his tomb in the little Chapel of Santa 
Maria della Pace, in the Church of SS. Giovanni 
e Paolo; but this was placed outside the church 
about the time of the French invasion. On the same 
landing the captain of the Bucentaur mounted 
guard during an interregnum. In the *'Two 
Foscari" Byron makes the old deposed Doge die 
suddenly after descending the steps, upon hearing 
the bell of St. Mark ring for his successor; though 
it really took place five days after. 

The Golden Stairs (Scala d'Oro). constructed 
1566-77, is a fine work by Sansovino. It led to the 
room In which the Libro d'Oro, or Golden Book of 
the Venetian nobility, was kept, in charge of the 
Avrogadorl. In the vestibule is Tintoretto's Justice 
with the Sword and Scales. The Hercules and 
Atlas at the bottom are by Aspetti. 

Sala del Oran Consiglio, or Hall of the Great 
Council, a splendid room, looking into the Piaz- 
zetta, 175 feet by 82, originally built by Calen- 
dario, and restored after the fire of 1577, which 
destroyed the paintings of Titian and Bellini, by 
which it was decorated. Every square foot of its 
surface, both walls and ceiling, is covered with 
paintings, gilding, and other ornaments by late 
artists; the paintings relating to events in the 
history of the Republic, and being remarkable as 
including some of the oldest existing works on can- 
Tas. Portraits of Doges run round the frieze, and 
are continued in the Sala dello Scrutinio adjoining. 
Both rooms are filled with the books of St. Mark's 
Library. To the right, on entering, is Tintoretto's 
Tast picture of the Glories of Paradtse, 82 feet 
long by 83 high, full of figures, the largest < ii 
painting in Italy. Then come the following pic- 
tures, to the number of twenty-one: — G. Leclcrc— 
Allianee Batifled between Doge D^dolo and the 
Crusaders, in St. Mark's, 1201. A. Vicentino— 
Assaalt of Zitra, 1302, by blind old Doge Dandolo. 

D. Tintoretto - Surrender of Zara (above the win- 
dow). A. Vicentino-Alexia invoking tlie protec- 
tion of Venice for his Father, the Emperor of 
Constantinople. Palma (Jiuvane- First Taking' 
of Constantinople. 1*203, under Dandolo. D. Tin- 
toretto—Second Taking of (Constantinople, 1*204. 
A. Vicentino— Election of Baldwin as King of 
Jerusalem, in 8. Sophia's. L'Aliensc— Dandolo 
crowning Baldwin. P. Veronese— Doge Contarinis 
Return after the Defeat of the Genoese, at 
Chioggia, 1378, when Venice was saved from ruin 
(between the windows). G. del Moro— The Pope 
presenting the Banners to the Doge, at St. Peter's. 
G. Gambarato— Arrival of the Pope, the Emperor 
Frederick Barbarossa, and Doge, at Ancona (above 
the door^. F. Zuccaro— Frederick kneeling to Pope 
Innocent, 1177. Palma G.— The Pope releashig 
Otho, the Emperor's Son. A. Vicentino— Dope 
presenting Otho to Pope Alexander III. (above 
the door of the Scrutinio). D. Tintoretto- Otho 
taken prisoner by the Venetians, at a pretended 
naval battle, oflfls'tria. P. Fiammengo— Pope bles- 
sing the Doge (above the window). F. Bassano- - 
Pope presents a sword to the Doge. Tintoretto — 
Venetian Ambassador and the Emperor, at Pavia ; 
L. Bassano— Pope presenting the Doge with a 
lighted candle (above the window) ; the Pope and 
Doge sending an Embassy to the Emperor; Alex- 
ander III., in disguise, recognised by the Doge, 
at La Cairitk. 

In the balcony of the window is a St. George, one 
of the earliest works of Canova. Round the frieze 
are seventy-six portraits of Doges, beginning with 
the ninth, Obelerlo Antenorlo, in 804, with the 
omission of Marino Faliero, whose place in the 
black oval Is painted over with "Hie est bvus 
Marlni Falierl, decapitati pro crlminibus." They 
are by Tintoretto, Bassano, the Palmas, &c. 

In the richly ornamented ceiling are three la*ge 
fine pictures: P. Veronese— Venice crowned by 
Glory. Tintoretto — Venice among the Divinities, 
Pa'.ma Vccchlo — Venice crowned by Victory. 

Among the smaller ones are : P. Veronese— Tak Ing 
of Smyrna; De'ence of Scutari against Sultan Ma- 
hommed. F. Bassano— Battle with the Duke of 
Milan. 1446; Defeat of Hercules of Ferrara. Tinto- 
retto— Victory on the Lake dl Garda, 1440; Defeat 
of the Prince of Este. Tintoretto— Brescia de- 
fended against the Viscontis, 1483; Victory over 
• the Aragonese. F. Bassano — Victories over the 
Duke of Milan, and over the Imperialists, 1607, 
Palma Giovane— Battle at Cremona, 1427; Recap- 
ture of Padua, ISno. 

Sala dello Scrutinio, where the voting at the 
election of the Doge took place, Is joined to the 
Great Sala by a corridor, the portraits being con- 
tinued so as to make up the 115, including Manin, 
the last Doge. There are also Eight Prophets, by 
A. Vicentino. It Is now used as a library for MSS. 
and printed books. The pictures are— beginning 
on the right:— Tintoretto's Taking of Zara (above 
the window). A. Vicentlno's Taking of Cattaro 
Battle of Lepanto. P. Bellottl'a D<i.%<3ras^Sss«^ 


HmgtritMBO, In Albiiili. P. Llb«rl'> Victury at 
OirtlaKslleL legs. A. VIcentliiu'i PeMln heatcgiii); 

ths OrraRD c'uniil. S. Pu*ndii-> UeAit of lUe 
OallphafEgvM. L'AIUniM'»<:«ptore otTyre. M. 
VcctlUo'ii'ntJan'inepheii) Victury OTerKoEcrol 
SieUj. PalniA Olcnmie'ii I^nt Judgment.-- with I 
threa poRraltiof bisWIle, In lltwrai, PurKiitory, i 
■nil Ibll. A pidiit«d trtamplial Arch, In hononr I 

In tfa> Millhig cgnipartmentrire:— "f. Bim'^'i 
Tikhwor PhIiu. 14U. B. del Muni'n Tatljiit at 
Jnlfa, 1»S. C. Bulllnl-i Victory OTer the Ocnoei 
ntTrnpaiil. P. Montemoiisno'" Victory nt Aon 

iKBldei twelve ullegoiicsl iqbjccta by focdcDoni 
Tho Litrary. contclucd In Ibexi roomi, wg 
louniliid by Petrucb and Curdlnal Daaaatlon, th 
latter helnz the chief contrlbntar. They were a 
'—' " ' I'lLlbreria.ontheopposIt 

loHaizel.-, _ 
Royal PalBci 

IIO.OOI) Toluiuea 
■n Cicero's Epiet. ad Famll 
prtnled at Venloe. 11BD; a 
vellnm, DBS; UariM Polo'i 
llerbal, painted by A. Am 

ntinlatarei, Ac. At Venice, 
out the Decanuron, I4T1, n 
Aldni HanaU^^ be^n the . 
ArekiMlofirat Uauiim.—t 
ttataei, brontCB* maps, coln» 

C^era irgtt Scarlatti, or 
(IreatConndli Baladello8< 
at the reigning Doge was v 


uiceliiig the Dob-e on bla return fror 
with the artlat'e poHralt belihid tl 
Bologna, ]S3t. The line celling. 

eepcclally cognlnblB by Uw Coiincl) of 

Initi aret-~a. ConUrlnl'i Bocj 

before lb* Vlnrlnj 
._._nchC) Tlie Natua- 

ccntino's Henry ifl/.KiKEpt Ion al the Udoi 
C, Cagllarl's Reccptlun of the Fenian EDiba>iy. 

C. CaKUarl 

"- - -era rocolTlng a Cony at 
Iccntino's Henry iri.'.I 

_ -igllarr- •-' 

The ceil! OK 

oge with their ad'lc 

>vlaur.° K. Vecolllo— Election of the Patrlanh 
iuxtliiUiii. Tintoretto— The Dead SarloDroB the 
'OH (behind the throne). Palms GloTgne—Di»a 
ernlor before Venice. Doge Clcogna bofiiretne 

trape.). Tlnh 
Irgfn. Intbe 

Liof^t Mouth, by meni 
M. VIcellio'i PrcwDti 

liiu; "Cut«deaLlbertatii,"i 
ft.— Bonlfaclo-eChrlit Drlvbn 
ta by Tintoretto. D. 

■talrcaio ailjoinlng). 
Soio iii Ana-Callrgio. whei 

»2™ ?'4e<™//*», 

the Three Cblefa of II 

nngeona below. On tl 
iagel drlTtog away tl 

made a tourney to Parii; Ba«ana-> Jacob relnni. 
Ing to Canaan. P. Veronete'e Venice Knihroaoc 
On theeelllng). 

aula iW OolKgio. or Rtctplloa Keom.— Her. an 
Tlntorttlo'lDoge Oi\ Via,'3\MlVj»SL 

Bottte 19.] 


If arriam of S. Catherine, the Virgin in Glory, and 
Dogfe MoGenlgo before the Saviour; P. Veronese's 
Christ in Olory (abore the throne), and Doge 
Venier's Victory; C. Cagliari's Venice. The 
celling was designed by Da Ponte, and is full 
of allegorical and other subjects, by P. Veronese. 
The tapestry dates from IMO. 

I%e FiombU or Leadt. — The leaden roofs referred 
to by Israel Bertuccio, the conspirator in '^^Murino 
Faliero," wore the state prisons, close under the 
attics of the building. Here Silvio Pellico was 
coBfined, as he relates in tiis rather sentimental 
account of his iinprisoninent. At the bottom of 
the buildiBf are the *' mystic cells which undermine 
your palaee," called the Pozxi^ sunk into the tliick 
walls; damp and dismal enough, but not worse, 
perhaps, than other prisons were in those hard 
times. There were twelve, in the thick walls of 
the palace; only one prisoner, a murderer, was 
found when the French came. He had Itecu con- 
fined sixteen years, was released, and died four 
days after, "of fresh air." One of the inscrip- 
tions scratched on the walls, ran thus : 

" De ehi ml fklo gaardaml dlo 
De ehl son mi fldo ird guardaro io 

^UBta.Ch. Ka. Bha." 

Tlie last line stands for '^Viva la Santa Chiesa 
Kattolica Romana." 

Another is "Viva Andrea Tardivclo Oresc da 
Padoa Bone on pagno,'' where the last word stan<is 
for "Uon compagno." When the prisoner was 
brought out to die, ho was taken to the cell iu the 
middle o( the covered gallery, or bridge, over the 
Kio di Palaszo Canal, which led to the prisons 
beyond, and there strangled. The cell is wullcd 
up, but the open gallery is the famous 

*Bridgt of Sighs, or Ponte del Sospiri. 

The public Prisons (Pubbliche Prigione), or Car- 
cere, Ixihind the Ducal Palace, form a massive 
Doric pPe,on a rustic Iwsement, built, 1589. by A. 
da Ponte. When Howard saw them he considered 
them among the best he had ever visited. 

On the north-oast side of Piazza S. Marco is the 
Jorre del Oroiogio, over a lofty gateway. 

On the north side of the Piazza is the Procuratie 
Vticekity a large old building on arches, with two 
•toreya above them: erected, 1500-10. by Master 
B. Bnona, for the Curator », or Guardians, of St. 
l^ark; an ancient and important body of nobles, 
from which the Doge was usually chosen. As 
they increased in numbers, a later structure on 
the south side was a<idcd, 1581 (by Scamozzl), for 
their use, viz.. the 

*Procuratie Nuove, now the Royal Palace, which 
was continued to the west, by G, Solini, in 1814, 
on the site of S. Gteminlano's Church. It is a rich 
line of baildtog, fronted with all the Greek orders. 
'Hie biMldhig Joining this, down the west side of 
tha ^^fEatta. ik the old library, or 

*IAbr«riPk VeechiOj where the hooks were kept tiU 

traaahimMl to the DacnJ Palace, in 1812. This 

LibreiiB In two ntoroyn. Doric b«low. and Ionic 

above, is 270 feet long, on twenty-one arches, in- 
cluding three in the turrets at each end. it was 
begun, 1536, by Sansovino, and fmished by Sca- 
mozzi. The details are rich and admirable, and 
may be compared with those of the Ducal Palace 
opposite. A noble staircase, in the middle, ir 
adorned with ornaments in stucco, by A. Vittoria. 
The first hall was finished by Scamozzi, for a 
museum of statuary, which has been turned over to 
the Doge's Palace, along with the books. Another 
room contains pictures i)y Titian, Salviati, &c. 

In the OalUries and Chapel of the Procuratie 
Xuovo are several good paijitings, as— Basaauo'.s 
Presentation ; Tinti>rett(>*s Adoration of the Magi, 
and S. Joachim Chased out of the Temple; Gior- 
giono's Christ in Limbo; Titian's Passage of the 
Red Sea. and his Wisdom Crowned ; Tintoretto's 
8. Mark saving a Mussulman from Shipwreck, and 
his Two Venetians Finding the body of S. Mark : 
P. Veronese's Venice rturrounde*! by Herculo.s, 
Ceres, and other divinities, and his Christ on the 
Mount of Olives; Dead Christ at the feet of God 
the Father, by (■. (-a^liari, son of P. Veronese: 
and Adam and Kvc Repentant, by the same; P. 
Veronese's Institution of the Rosary ; P. Bordonc'.n 
Dead Christ, Ac. 

The Mint (Zocca), which appears near the qii:iy, 
as a part of the Libreria, is a work of solidity and 
good taste., by Sansovino. 15:)5. having two unlike 
fronts ; the one joining the library accords with it, 
but that facing the sea is in the rustic style. It has 
rooms for the coining of money and medals. From 
this were issued the gold zecchini, or sequins, still 
known in the Levant; and the silver ducats whoso 
loss tried the soul of Shylock so bitterly— ''My 
ducats! Oh, my ducats ! Oh, my daughter!" lie- 
hind the Royal Palace, but fnmting the 
and the sca'in the Giudecca, is the Royal Gar- 
den, or Oiardino Reale. 


*S. Zaccaria, or St. Zachary, near Rio dl S. r/>- 
renzo, is a tall, rich-looking church, rebuilt Hfl7- 
1515, by M. I^mbardo, in a half Lombard and half 
cinque-ccnto (fifteenth centurj-) style, and adorncil 
with paintings and marble.^. It stands on the site 
of one founded in the ninth century. The pedi- 
ment of the front is circular, and it has a carved 
roof. Three altars arc of wiM)d, ornamented with 
inlaid work, and several rare paintings, by O. and 
A. Murancsi, 1445. The choir contains four altars 
in a semicircle. At the third is a small but valu- 
able Circumcision, by G. Bellini, and a Madonna 
by the same hand. A birth of John the Baptist is 
by Tintoretto; St. Zncharj', by Palnia, whose 
Madonna, «tc., arc here. Near the Sacristy is the 
monument of A. Vittoria, with a good bust by 
G. Bellini, 1505. It was in the neighbourhood of 
this church that Doge V. Miche.le ^a."^ ^'»»»»ffi«N».vv^., 
1 172, wWcV^ \^v\ \.v>» \>cv^ Vqt'-^isMwxvx ^A "C«^^ '^^L''^^ 

Piazza ^. 7.a.;evvTv;v VwV.^ ^ t^T^-^^^^xwS-.v 



[Section 1. 

then by two bridges at the end to the Quay 
de' Greci, where stands the 

St. Giorgio de' Greci, the Greek Church. It is an 
imposing pile, with a rather heavy fa<^de, by 
Sansovino, 1550, adorned with mosaics inside and 
out. Go back to the first bridge, turn to the ri^ht 
along the quay, then by the last bridge to the 
right you come to 

S. Lorenzo, or St. Lawrence, built by Sorclla. 
The richly-adorned high aliar is supported by six 
pillars of Pono Vcnere marble, the work of Cam- 
pagna. The Commenda di Malta is opposite it. 
Go back to the Ponte de' Greci, and follow the 
street before you, to Ponte S. Antonino; at the 
end of which is 

S. Antonino, having a chapel on the left side, 
with paintings by Palma. Follow the quay close 
at hand till you come to the Convent of 

S. Giorgio degli Schiavoni (of the Sclavonlans). 
The front was built 1650. It has fine paintings 
by Carpaccio. Take the street or strada of the 
Furlani, turn to the right and continue over the 
bridge to 

*S. Francesco delta Vigna, near the Caserma, or 
barracks, a large and handsome church, by Sanso- 
vino, 1534, with a front by Palladio. It has two 
wings in its front, like S. Giorgio Maggiore. It 
numbers seventeen chapels and altars. Second 
. Chapel — The Resurrection, by P. Veronese. In the 
Cappella Santa is a Virgin and Child, by G. Bellini. 
In the Great Chapel are two fine marble monuments 
of the same shape (supposed to be by Scamozzi) 
to T. Gritti and to Doge A. Gritti. his nephew. 
The Giustiniani Chapel, in the right aisle, is 
covered with good marble sculptures. Above the 
pulpit in the Cloisters Chapel are the Father and 
Son, by G. Santa Croce. In a chapel on the left 
is P. Veronese's Madonna and Saints. 

S. Pietro di Ccutello, or St. Peter, near the Public 
Garden!*, on the Isola di S. Pietro, at the east end 
of the city, rebuilt, 1594-1621, by Crapiglia. It 
was the Cathedral church of the city down to 1807, 
when precedence was given to the Ducal Church 
of St. Mark. To the right on entering is a very 
ancient marble pulpit, like a chair, with an Orien- 
tal inscription, said to have been used by St Peter 
at Antioch. In the Grand Chapel is a picture 
8. Lorenzo Giustiniani delivering Venice from the 
Plague, by A. BcUucci; another represents the 
same Saint distributing Alms — one of the bent 
works of G. Lazarini. Others are — P. Veronese's 
SS.' Peter and Paul, Padovanino's Martyrdom of 
St. John, S. Giordano's Virgin and Angels ; with a 
good mosaic, by A. Zuccato, <kc. The Vcndramlni 
Chapel is by B.Longhena. The fine belfry attached 
to this church was rebuilt 1474. The scenes of 
the " Brides of Venice," were enacted here. 
Going towards the Public Gardens you pass 

S. Giuseppe di Castello, or St. Joseph. At the 

/j/s-A a/tar is the Nativity, by P. Veronese. The 

^/endJd mausoleum of Dope M. Grim«iil and his 



The Public (7a^rf<nJ(Giardhii Pubblici)areatthe 
extreme east end of the city, facing the sea, on a 
sort of peninsula. There are a monument of 
Garibaldi and a fine view. Turning back by the 
Riva degli Schiavoni, you come to the Piazza di S. 
Biaglo (S. Blaise), and the Church of the Madonna 
dell Arscnale, which contains Toretti's tomb of the 
Grand Admiral Emo, the last naval commander of 
the Republic, who died 171*7. To the right is the 

* Arsenal (Arsenale Reale), within a wall 
ab<mt 2 mile^i round, now the Steamer Dock, 
but much reduced from its former importance. In 
the fourteenth century there were as many as 
16,000 workmen sometimes employed here. About 
the middle of the last century the Venetian fleet 
included forty ships, of which twelve were three- 
deckers, and there were 4,000 pieces of ordnance 
in store. It has somewhat revived under the 
present government, but has to contend with the 
rival port of Trieste, on the opposite side of the 
Adriatic. The oldest part dates from 1804. The 
principal gate is a noble work, in the Corinthian 
style, on four columns of Greek marble, constructed 
ahont 1480, and adorned with statues, &c. At 
the sides are four Lions, brought from Mount 
Hyniettus, near Athens, in 1687, by DogeMorosini. 
Written application must be made for admission. 

Within the walls arc the old and new arsenals, 
or basins, the galley docks, and a large modem 
dock (Novissima Grande), many building slips, a 
Naval College, Marine Barracks; a rope walk on 
pillars, 100 feet long; foundries, timber yards, 
model room, and an armoury for 12,000 stand of 
arms, containing some old arms and armour, with 
the Turkish flag taken at Lepanto, and Canova's 
monument to Admiral Emo, one of the great sculp- 
tor's earliest performances. This dockyard was 
attacked or blockaded by the Sardinian fleet In 
1848. after Venice had set up a Republic, and was 
bombarded by the Austrian s. 

The famous Bucentoro, the State Galley of the 
Republic, was here laid up until the French burnt 
her, 1797. Hcrname is of doubtful origin. Hershape 
was like that of the Lord Mayor's barge, though 
larger and more costly ; the size being 100 feet by 
21, with forty-two oars, and four men to each oar, 
beside the regular crew of forty men. She was 
covered with gilding and carved syrens, tortoises, 
mosques, flowers, shells, medallions, winged lions, 
birds, allegorical emblems. Ac. An avniing of 
crimsfm velvet was stretched over her. In the 
course of centuries she had been so often planked 
and caulked, that not a part of her original timbers 
was left. Some fragments of her are shown. 

Every Ascension Day, in memory of Doge 
Ziani's victory over Frederick Barbarossa, 1177, the 
Doge embarked at the Piazza, and proceeded to 
the Arsenal Chapel, thence to the Chapel of Santa 
Helena (where the archbishop blessed the water), 
and the Lido, at the mouth of the port. Here he 
dropped a ring into the Adriatic, with the words, 
" We wcA l\\oc v?\\Y\ \\\\s t\xv^ Vcv token of true and 
perpeU\a\ soveT^X^l-^ :* '\\v^v^^%\^w^R\\\ ^\\'4\x>^\,^ 



In a grant, as was said, of Fope Alexander III., in 
whoso behalf the battle was fouj^ht. When Julius 
II. was at war with the Republic, and asked the 
Venetian ambassador where the terms of this grant 
were to be found, he was told to look for it on the 
baek of Constantine's donation of the States of the 

lieaving the Arsenal, turn to the right, and you 
come to 

8. Martino, built by Sansovino in the sixteenth 
century. It contains Santa Croce's Last Supper, 
and a beautiful marble monument to Doge F. 
Erizzo. From this church, to the left, you come to 
the Calle della Pegola (Pitch Street), then to the 
Teml (Ovens), which terminates on the Riva da;?!! 
Schiavoni. When here turn to the right, pass the 
first bridge, and on the right, at No. 3,833, is 

The Palazzo Oraglietta, with a collection of paint- 
ings by celebrated masters of the Venetian and 
Flemish school, as Vivarini, Bellini, Pordcnone, 
Titian, P. Veronese, Canaletto, Rubens, A. Diircr, 
«fec. Follow the quay towards St. Mark, as far as 
the fourth street on the right, Calle del Dose, and 
by this you reach the square, or Campo, on which 

S. Giovanni in Brdffora, or in Bragola, a building 
of the fifteenth century. At the high altar is a 
large Baptism of Christ, by Cima da Concgliano. 
From this church go back to the Riva degli 
Schiavoni, follow the quay towards St. Mark's, and 
pass over the first bridge, beyond which is the 
Church of 

Santa Maria ddlaPieth, an elegant oval building, 
containing a painting by Morctto, which is worth 
scehig, subject, Christ in the house of Simon. 


*8. Giorgio Maggiore (St. George the Great), on 
an island opposite St. Mark's, at the east end 
of the Giudecca. This fine work of Palladio 
(1556-60) is in the shape of a Latin Cross, with a 
dome and Corinthian fa9adc, in which we see his 
expedient for combining a larger and smaller 
order, viz., by placing the principal order on 
pedestals, and bringing the subordinate order down 
to the floor line. In this way the disproportion 
between becomes less glaring. The door is flanked 
by two pillars, on each side, of fine-veined Greek 
marble, and the Four Evangelists by A. Vittoria. 
Abo^e the door is the monument of Doge L. Dona. 
To the right, on entering, one to the general and 
procurator, L. Venier. At the first altar, the 
Nativity, by J. Bassano. The high altar is com- 
posed of marbles and bronzes, by G. Campagna. 
In the choir are forty-eight beautiful carved stalls, 
referring to the life of St. Bernard, by Albert de 
Brule, a Flemish artist Six of Tintoretto's pic- 
tures are here, including the Supper, the Resur 
rrctitm, Ac. Among the tombs is that of Doge D. 
Michleli, the crusader and "Terror Graecorum," 
as he is called, from his exploits in the Archipelago, 
and at the capture of Tyre. A fine view of Venice 
and the U^^ne may be obtained from the Cam- 
panlfet accewibfe from the interior, 

Dogaxia di Mare (Custom House),at the castcnd 
of the Grand Canal, was built 1682, by G. Bcnnoni, 
ill the rustic style. Its tower has a globe carrlea 
by two Atlases, on which stands a Fortune or gilt 
cupper. It is near 560 feet in circuit, and contains 
200 rooms and offices. 

*Santa Maria dtUa Salute, i.e., Madonna of 
Health, near the Dogana, on the Grand Canal, built 
by Longhcna, a follower of Palladio, in 1631-82. 
It was founded after the great plague, and is 
eight-sided, wiih two cupolas and two slender cam 
panlles. The great Dome, 65 feet diameter, is 
surrounded by eight chapels, one of which, in the 
rear, carries the second dome, 42 feet diameter, 
flanked by two half-domes, and having a square 
chapel behind. It contains as many as 125 statues, 
some of which surround the richly-adorned high 
altar. A candelabra in bronze, 7i feet long, Is by 
A. A. Bresclano ; six others, also of bronze, arc at 
the communion table. On the ceiling of the choir 
are J. Sulviati's three large pictures of Elijah, 
Habakkuk, and the Manna. On that of the sacristy 
arc the Death of Abel, and in other paits are 
the Descent of the Holy Ghost, and the Four 
Doctors, both fine works by Titian, in his best style. 
Another most excellent performance is Tin- 
toretto's Marriage of Cana. There are also the 
Birth of Christ, the Presentation, and the Assump- 
tion of the Virgin, by L. Giordano, and Samson, by 
P. Vecchio, with Padovanino's Madonna della 
Salute, at the altar. The little sacristy contains 
portraits of Doge F. Dandolo and his wife. The 
large convent attached to this church is now the 

Seminario Patriarcale. Here are the Manfredini 
pictures, with some old inscriptions. In the oratory 
is Vittoria's bust of J. Sansovino, the architect, 
who is buried here. 

*Accad6mla dl Belle Artl, on the Grand 
Canal, was built by Palladio, 1561, for the Convent 
of La Carit2^ partly burnt about 1650, and lately 
altered by Lazzini, for its present purpose. Notice 
the Cortile (or Court), by Palladio. It is close to 
the new iron bridge over the canal, built, 1854, at 
the St. Vitale Ferry. It contains a numerous col- 
lection of the best works of the most celebrated 
painters, chiefly of the Venetian school, besides 
drawings, models of sculpture, &c. The Academy 
was instituted by Napoleon, in 1807. The present 
Pinacoteca, as arranged by Count Clcognara, fills 
twenty-three room many of which are elegantly 
carved and gilt. Open 10 to 3 every day, 
admission. 1 lira; Sundays and holidays free. 

In the SaJa deW Assunta is Titian's celebrated 
^Assumption of the Virgin, considered to be his 
best work, and painted at the age of 30; it is 
alK)ut 12 feet wide and 22 high. It was found In 
the Frari ('hurch, neglected and covered with dust. 
" But if I am to speak of Titian, I must do so in a 
more reverent mood. Till now I never knew tJ&sA. 
he was the feUcVloxiA «lX\\s\. Wxv^'t 'Cw^'s. ^^-^ «*.v^«!v 
Wm to bft. T\v^\ \v^ W\wo\vfe\\\N[ «^^V3>:*J^^^^^^.^?;:^. 

but \xe \xa^ Ul\vv>w^ v\v* e^^^W^ ^^ \vxwv.*;^ 

anty— TheScnlplu 

brfiiht, I of modcli and 

iretto— I RDme. Nnples 

pputltfl an the Rlghi 

IftoTScHuk. Olberi 

K Cnn. hli Jut work 

LMl hyPfllmaOHrtKioi 

Tintoretto— the Fot- 

JamciandSt. Doinlnlc! St. Frinclsuidat, Paul; 
WoiiuUL in Adnltprj ; Jndipnanr of Solomon ; Ado- 
ration of tho MkeI. A.TIoentlnn— PktoreofHiiJntn. 
l(.B«Matt--CAl!inff.rfZeb«lM'ii*nn.— . 
St. Mark anil the Tempeit. O. Delllnl— Had 

tMi^Omt 1 [all or SlitiTjinii 
^ Ac. 'o'or 

Four has-ralii 

!d Catalli. belonging tt 

"Two Foiearl 
ici) I. lodged In 


Hwnnilit Still Kw>ta.-G. t 

<»«> UluMlnlanl 
' with «lli«r work! 

II St. Miirk'iriaua.rn 

and Ihn prDjvction tflTHi l» the npppr com 
rxciv ol that and in the lower oMm lirlni 
nlinlf Into harnxHiy. Iln tatwk i> 9:1 f«1 l> 
-(ftr(i™»>v-% Tlift •" ■■ ■- ■'■-■--- -- 

Route 19.] 



Further on is the seat of the Town Council, in 
the Palazzo Farsetti, which is close to the Palazzo 
Loredan, of the same date. 

*Ponte dl Rialto!(»^. Rivo alto).— This famous 
bridge, which until 1854 was the only one which 
crossed the Grand Canal, is a covered arch, built 
15S9-91, by A. da Ponte, 75 feet span, very solid, 
and set off with deep bas-reliefs and statues of 
8. Marco, &c., and other carvings. Three passages 
lead across it, the middle one being lined with a 
double row of shops. Near it are the old 

Fdndaeo dei Tedeschi^ or warehouses for German 
goods (now the Dogana), and the Fabbricht Nttove di 
JtialtOy by Sansovlno (1655), on a rustic arcade of 
twenty-five arches, composed of the Doric and 
Ionic orders, in its front. This was the great centre 
of trade in Shylock's time, and is "the Rialto" 
which he speaks of when complaining of Antonio's 
rating him for his usances. Close by is the Church 
of 8. Giacomo di Riaito, the oldest in Venice, said 
to date from a.d. 530. 


In Gondola, or by steamer up the Grand Canal. 

Church of 8. Oeremia^ at the entrance to the 

PaUuKO Labia^ on the Canareggio, with frescoes, 
by Tiepolo. 

PalUuzo Manfrin^ on the Canareggio Canal, 
was noted for its fine gallery of pictures, of native 
and foreign masters, among which were the three 
portraits by Giorgione, which Byron mentions in 
his "Beppo," and which his favourable notice con- 
tributed to bring into fashion. A copy of Titian's 
Entombment, which was here, is at the Louvre. 
The pictures yet remaining are for sale. 

Further up, on the right side of the Canareggio, 
is the Ghetto Vecehio^ leading to the Ohetto Nuovo. 

Returning to the Canale Grande, the steamer 
will take you to 

*Oli Scaizi, the church of the barefooted Car- 
melites, built by B. Longhena, which is fantas- 
tically ornamented with sculptures, paintings, and 
inlaid work, and cost S09,00u sequins. The front 
was restored in 1859. In one of its fifty Chapels is 
a fine altar by J. Pozzo ; that of Sebastian Venere 
it all marble, bronze, and gilding. A statue of 
Santa Teresa is by Baldl. Behind the high altar 
is G. Bellinrs (?) Madonna and Child. 

8. Andrea^ near Santa Chiara Island, contains 
a fine St. Jerome in the Desert, by P. Veronese. 

Vtom this part a gondola may be taken to the 
island of the Giudecca, passing the Campo di 
Marte, and calling at three churches, S. Nicolb, 
S. 8«bastiano, and I Carmini. 

8, Vieolb dei Mmdkoli. The third chapel has an 
altar on four pillars of excellent stalactitic marble 
eRllwl oQCAto di Corfu, Six cglumns of beautiful 

Greek marble, highly polished, divide the choir 
from the body of the church. In a chapel on the 
left is a marble altar and a carved altar-piece 
above it. 

*S. Sebastiano (1506-18), on Canale S. Basilio, 
near Campo di Marte. In the Second Chapel are 
statues ot the Madonna and Child and St. John 
the Baptist, by I. Lombardo, a pupil of Sansovlno, 
whose mausoleum of Archbishop Podacataro is 
here. On the high altar is the First Martyrdom 
of St. Sebastian, by P. Veronese, 1660. A little 
further off is his Second Martyrdom, and near 
this the Martyrdom of SS. Mark and Marcellino, 
both by P. Veronese, 1565. His bust and tomb 
are here. The Punishment of Serpents is by 
Tintoretto, who painted the roof, organ doors, Ac, 
and whose Tomb is also here. The St. Nicolas, by 
Titian, was painted in his eighty-sixth year. 

Close to S. Sebastiano is Madonna del Carmine, 
or Vlrgine del Carmelo. Over the altar is the 
Presentation of Jesus in the Temple to Simeon, by 
Tintoretto. One large picture represents St. 
Liberal delivering (as his name implies) Two Men 
condemned to die ; a work of Padovanino, 16S7. 

Near this church is Palazzo Aforo, which belonged, 
it is said, to Shakspearc's Othello (Cristof ero Moro). 

*// Redentare, or the Redeemer Church of the 
Francisca, in the Giudecca, is a fine and harmo- 
nious building (though unfinished) by Palladio 
(1570-6), having a Greek portico with a double row 
of columns, a dome 24u feet high, and slender 
spires. "One unbroken entablature, surmounting 
one unvaried Corinthian order, reigns round the 
interior." — Forsyth. In the sacristy is a Virgin 
and Child and Two Angels, a celebrated work, 
formerly attributed to G. Bellini. There are two 
other fine Madonnas also formerly supposed to be 
by G. Bellini. In front of the high altar and also 
behind, reliefs by Massa di Bologna. From the 
Giudecca across the Giudecca Canal to the 

Madonna del Rosario, or the Gesuati, on the 
Giudecca, by Massari, is a church fronted by lofty 
columns. The high altar is decorated by a vcry 
nch and elegant tabernacle, supported by pillars 
of lapis lazuli of unusual size. Thence to 

88. Oerveuio e Protano, or San Trovosa as it is 
usually called, was built in 1583. On the fourth 
altar are good marble bas-reliefs of the fifteenth 
century by an unknown artist. At the rich high 
altar is G. Lazzarini's picture of the two patron 
saints in Glory. 


Though a gondola is not absolutely requisite for 
this tour, it will be convenient to the visitor, if 
he goes on fout from St. Mark's be «bj&-^<^A3aA2il'«> Vvc^ 
St. 8tefauo'%\ \\x«tv<t% \,«i\X!A'\^x^sew<scva^'fe n»- ^"»- 


S. Tomi,. or St tbomas, .biiiit iii.l742by.tii. 
Ilogitola. Titian lired io i^. small oo^^t pear this, 
anil nut far from S. Silvestro (p. 83). Crusythe 
square to the Calle del Gristo, and turn tu thele^t 
over tlic Donna Oi^esta Bridge; then bv tlie Calle 
ilella dpcziale to the Square and Church of 

S, FantcUeoM, built 1668. The high altar is 
crowned by a maguiflccut tabernacle by J.Sardi. 
The painted ceiling is bjr J. A. Fumioni. Here 
4Lra> P. Veronese's St. Pantaleoue Healing a 
Child, and the Coronation oi the Virgin, by Q. 
and A. da Murano. In the Loretto Chapel is a 
marble altar of the fifteenth century. Cross the 
square fig^in to the Piazza deile Mosche: then 
io.the left to Miuolli Quay, at the end of which, to 
the x^htt yo<i come to the Toleutlni Quay, and the 

ToltMtiai Churchy or S. Kicolb ^el Tolentini, near 
llio dpgli Tolentini, built in 1595 by ScamozzI, 
witfia Corinthian portico added by A Tiroli in 
ilje last century. The cul)oIa orer the centre of 
tlie church, which is a cross, is ornamented with 
frescoes by Zamplnl and Algcri. On the righi, 
UAOX t^c choir, is a confessional, with a picture 
uver it of S. Lorenzo Giustiniani Distributing the 
Cioods of the Church to the Poor. 

. Laavijig this building, take the quay to the 
right attd proceed to ttic Tcdcschi Square; further 
ctu is Che Kagabella and its bridge ; and beyond 
(his the curious old Church of 

JB. Qiacomo. ^tUlV Orio. — On^ good picture is 
iestts Ciirlst supported by an Angel, by Q. Palma. 
Koa^ the side door is a ceiling in fi-ve compart- 
.yieiits; the middle one being a t)ainting or the 
Thaologieal V.iriuea, the others the Four Doctors, 
by ^' Veronese. Close to the door of the sacristy 
is a picture of St. Sebastian, St. Roch, and St. 
Lawrence, one of G. Buonconslglio's best works. 
Go out by the. sacristy door and turn to the right, 
and a short dUtancc brings you to 

Santa Maria Mater Domini, built by Sansovino, 
1510. In one comer of this church is the Invcn- 
iiun of the Cross, a fiqe work by Tintoretto. 
itHA chapel contains statues by L. Bregno. Pass 
4iuit W fcfe great door, turn to the right of Calle 
|,unj?a tiid make for the Piazza del Frari, in which 

*San tm Maria Oloriosa deiFrari, a fine old church 

(« the f edeseo-Ootico (Gennan-Gothic) style of 

i%% tblrtcenth eentury, .built by the Minor Friars 

of St. Francis <1250-1S8B). Its campanile is of the 

fourteenth century. The firHt altar on the right is 

rlJi in marble work, by Sardi or Longhena.- The 

second altar is close to the uwrtal remains of 

I'lzliino Vccellio, or Veeelll, best known as Titian, 

^Uo ''^^^ \^^^' The large monument to hhn, 

doied 18W, has a sitting figure under a canopy. 

)0ext Ukls is tlie statue of St. Jerome, a fine work 

js>t A. VlUoHa, with a head of Titian. Farther on, 

dAepieimre ot the llartyrdom of St. Catherine, by 

^Mimd aJovMfts. la the sacristy door is the man- 

jtoieam of GenerMl Pes&ro, with his statne, by L. 

^ZT^'^'J"'^ "* ^«^ii« of Mars, by Baecfo da Mon- 

^«po, M TaacMB MIH. The MlUr of tlie iJicriity 

BBlbSHlW*S itih^. 

[Section 1. 

Reserves noiicQ, witJi its pictures In three com- 
parliucnts, by G. Bcllino, |488, of the Virgin and 
Four Saints. Two magnificent tombs in the Great 
Chapel, of iioffe Francisco Foscari and Doge M. 
Trou. The latter immense composition contains 
nineteen statues in all. That of the Doge, with 
some othern, is by A. Bre^^o. At the high altar is 
an Ascension, by Salviati. In the sixth chapel 
on the right is the monument of General Trevl- 
sano, a simi)lc but elegant work. 

Near the transept is the Orsini Tomb, by an un- 
known hand, but supposoil to be of the fifteenth 
century. Thcu a rich monument in marble to the 
mepnory of J. Vcuier of the seveuteenth century. 
The Cbapcl of St. Peter is full of statues and 
sculptures of ilie fifteenth century. Further on is 
a decorated monument to G. Pcsaro, a general 
and bishop, who died 1647; and then Titian*> 
aU4^-piece of the Virgin with St. Peter and other 
sainis, ii^qludlng. porti;aits of members of t^e 
Pesaro family. We then come to the large cbau- 
solcum of Doge G. Pesaro, by B. Longhena, sup- 
ported by four n^roes in white. On one side of 
this is a monument to Canom, erected by public 
subscription, 1827, and executed by Zendomenighi, 
Ferrari, Bosa, Fabris, Martini, Rinaldi,andFadiga, 
all Venetian artists of the day. It is a pyramid, 
with a procession of Art, Genius, <fec., walking 
into the door, copied from his own design for the 
Archduchess Christina. Beyond this is an elqgant 
altar of inlaid wood, by two Florentine artists. 
A statue of S. Jphn the Baptist, in the middle, is by 
Donatcllo. Between the altar and the great door 
is a fine marble tomb of P. Bernardo, who died 
1558. Above the door is the monument of J. Vai>- 
zoni. In the midst of the church is a choir with 
160 stalls of wood, superbly inlaid with marbles, 
Ac, 1408, by one of the Canozzi family, CiUled 
Marco da Viccnza. The cloister surrounding this 
choir is adomeil with statues and bas-reliefs, 1476. 
In tlic neighbouring convent the 

*J*i^lic Archives are kept, which Darn U8e4 in his 
" History of the Republic," and the best of which, 
like many other Italian works, made a journey to 
Purls and back. This collection fills 300 rooms. 
It is w^ond erf ully voluminous, going back to the year 
883, and coming down to the ])rescnt time; and is 
especially rich in documents of the thirteenth to 
the sixteenth, century. One important relic is a 
Description of the States formerly under Venetian 
rule, in four folio volumes, of which only seven 
copies were printed, for the use of members of the 
government. Open daily from 10 to 3, after i)er- 
mlssiim has been obtained from the authorities. 
Some divisions are closed to every one. 

Leaving Mater Domini on the left, you come to 
the (Jhun-h ofS. Roceo, or St. Roch. built 1495, and 
restored 1725. Here arc paiutings of St. Roch 
before the Pope, St. Rocli in the Desert, and 
another: all by J. Tintoretto. These are described 
bv Ruskin. in "Stones of Venice." The Annun- 
ciation ai\a CViT\«t In thehands of the Executioners, 
by Titian. TYve YA^Vv kWw \% Yrj "^ixvtadne, 
beginning ol Vtie »\x\,^tvX\i <&Ka\.'QXi . 

Boute 19.] 


Un-M, fay I 

jh. Ill 

rauw-kuUt for Hi ilcbneu an 
" palnlluga by J. Tlntoivlti 
,|d(tcd by a^ui 

lUiHupilllcMl lUlrmie wu 
iMSninu, AtlhanMdlaol lt&iu>~u puliu a, mi: 
Aiimuiclullun by Tlllui, null ibo VMtittOD, by 
Tinlurcito: inil at (li> bHtlum lb* podculali of Itae 
coliumu are earrtd vllh tulijKU trorn sa«red 
htMory. TbeOu«llHlaRi>inn,tHllDBCin murble 
outnmna, Ii adurncd Mill Bliiren ar bcvmtcoi 
p^nllDga by Tintoretto, anil with iciiIptuiM on 
wood of Iho lits (it SI. KocbJiy G.MareliiwIi and 
It! An e Umber c^llni !■ by F. I'lsntu aniSM. Ang^ 
of t'larencn, a nameuke at thi: grcsC icDtMor. 
Above Ihe bctutUal murble dgar, IGIT, Mauds the 

Crraltof TUilorctto, paLuted by himself. Id73. 
ihewRlllntlmnoxl ruoni. called the Albergo, 
facing Ihle, It bli greal work of Ihe •(Siieyfjioa. 

or Itt eieculloo. 

Rukln uy> (hlgibuiild be 

the Church of 

ai.FiUmdSI.POMl. It. 


lloni In the doorway dcim 


twitted round one of the Uo 

■truiigllnft Iti 

llie other hulde Jn tt. piiw« u 

juet cut from a 

human boily. Thow are nuppo.ed 


■Uueloni ti- Gm. Cannainial 

. wb 

u wan beheaded 

theend^'campoPaoUi. 1. 

Near ildB ebutcb, at 

Palana Ca-iur-J/emlfa, 

a i 

t b«Udlni by 

b>- Calle delie 



prloelpol chapel 

t> a large picture uf the Lo> 

ilier, by Faliiie 

TecchlD. UlorKlane 1Itc<1 

Tam to the left Into Ihe 

['nhkb leade 

to Ihe Klalto Bridge, c 


Buga Vec^'bla. 


I tbi: Church of 


IS30. FalDlliigi by Tilkiu (al the bluh uitar)! 
PerdeBODe, Ac FVum tfaK orer tbo Rlultu, to Ihe 

li., tbo Cioclflilou, Dueciit Into Uell, and 

) family, one uf Ihe t 

11-knuwn I.udurlco ranua, aMIbei of 
(■i|i*ran«r, which Wmhjr ItanalaM)!. 
I'adUft, lU yean old, llHHi)[h bit Gon- 
-' '-jn alBiDrt deatroyHl by dlnlpaUon 
-'-■■ -■ear, when be refonncd. 

1 fottiath J 

bapel to U 

I'alailt FaHrro. of the thirteenth century, the 

■" " "■ ilhigowhowai beheaded in ItU. 

' "■" ■"-"- another bridge 

Dwarda Ihe Rlallo, 

St. John Chrnmlan or S. ZanarlutltiM, m the 
^eiietbina coll It. Imlll IKtB. FalBtluge by Dal 
l-li.nibo(althehlgh ellir) and U. llellliii. |ic*r 
tbiii It the MaJibroH Theatrt. (he moat popular In 

Biuarc of™. ItI!iw"«iM'«o'owaid!i*lheK™^a* 

buted to O. del Miiro. The iwHid altar hat a 
Virgin and Child, a bMUIllul work, ■uiiniKd to bo 
I.V G. Cumpngna. Then cornea Iho Uik UHmiiaiait 
el Dog* F. Vmier, by SoiuotIiio; aulhor il» bt 
the two tiatuea vu tueb ilile of the Dm. At the 
(hlrd altar, by SaiuunlBo, bi a pulntiug of Ihc 
ADnNilcl«tb>n,byTlti*u.luhliio]diig<j. Inonalilo 
to the right la (lie large maiuflleuni of Catherine 
Curuaru, (Jdch. of CypiDH. by wboie uarriagg 
with Jauiea LluIgBaH Ihe VcBetlani Bin got 

T. Ixmbunlu, one of the architect! iif Ike chnra 
Thni « Jorge«men( (oihe liogee L. and G. 
Priul^ nqipoiKd lo he by C. Franco. Ujion laavlw 
Barrnllrrt Brtdgi, hcyuud which. I hnHigb a paaaun 
on Ihe n^\, la tbo cWcb ot St. Jnllun. eauT*^ 
S. aiKHme. or Znilun, iiy the Teneilani. bnill hr 

Saiiiuvlno; palnllugabyHan'-'' ■■ ■• - 

*c. Uronn iKIiieot Tonu-.. ... _„ „, 

SuiuoTlMu. yidlowlblatolbe I'luiitii B.Marr£, 

Crutj iW ifVuM* !» * . V bMAi 

or of the UIhI*- 

aAipuri tafMtnff and ii /| 


BBADIHAw'K ITjktif. 

nureh. Here *re tm miirbic mono- 
Ulnlh centiiiT. Aboit Ibe door of 'the ucrlaty 
bV'o. Betllnl. Leave by Ihli 'Isar aud yoii 

jMleuin of G. i 

of the Virgin »nd CUldl wllh <pthor fij oroi by ui 
unknown BTtltt. IdHdng thlt, wilk down the 

■SoBte Jfono Formula !• in tbe Cimno uf the 
ume nurne, ud aeir tbe plctureviuo Hurts del 
Findlw, of the faurtaenth century. Ruilt URI, 

■Uitue or Oen, Cipallo. At the altsr to the r<;;hl, 
on entering. Is » plcturo In eli divlnioin, hyP«lm» 
TcccblD. hiving 3. Dubvii In the u.iadle. From 

Sriia of Vmia were carried olT by the IiirUin 

epplicdticiti In be made to tbe llbrarlaii. Leaving 
by the rlaht aisle, tnrq. to the riehl, and we come 

tbe ntlKhlKiurtng bridge, lothe Plan* B, Manrtiio; 
eo called after tbe Chorch of 

tar^B by D. ridlga. a modem' artlit. Turn to the 
i5r'to"o/X Jl'^^a^ndXaU IfJna'zsbiHSf^. 

Tarn bad 

ra lived, at No. 8,118. H 
lice. -'£« Fabirldie pi* 1 

■ara. both by Canova, »hnpre«nli 
Chevalier! also a bait of Canova, 
Rinaldl, copied from one by Canova 

From tbe Clcognara Palace proceed Ihroogli 
Calie Lunga: tbence, turning to the righl. and 
then to the left, yoa come to the Baro»i Conrt. 

ridite. to the Calle do' Mirac .11. and the Sr)Dare 
nd Chnrch of 

•SuKlaMariairi IfimaiH. bDlltl491-S,an elegant 
iBlliliugln tbe 6atly-polnleditylc,Kiniclhlng: like 
I. ZacorU, with ■ great chipel much admired, 

oarble. by the Lombardl. Leaving thUchurch, go 

•8B. OiOVMinl » PuIO, ot SS. John and Paul, 

Boale 19.] tihici — »». qiovakmi 

Doge MD«niga. by the Lombardt lanUy. At 

in the HQH TTu. The high iltor 1> i miKnia^il 

Annnnc^Blion. ^L. Csrona! The pirtitlon irills 

Ihc Life of Christ, the oork of several iirll>» he- 
me™ ISOO und l7Bi. M BUD.IZ1, Tanliaplelr., 
DuTptto (CaiioTi'i idulcr). tc; be^det beaiitifnl 
eirrliiEe In vood. To the left. Dear Ihe Hscristy 

to Bragadlno. the defrn 

The SArcophdgni of the Dogi Hatlno yAlLcro 
fonqerlT ttood Inside the little chape] o( Bu. If aria 

C'aced ODtilde the wall. Close to this cbDnb. al 
ombarill'i Scnsia of 9, Marcn, now a holplt.1, Is the 

InthUn •i^Ji. Ii ancb admfred for tb« Tlcbneia 
imtrUe emrrlBga. Rankin Mr« 11 Is ona of 
wtg^rlouipltca of acBlpmre fa Ihe norW, 

Leaiin}? this, walk to 

ni Palace. Aftw 

/enri" C)iiir(»° genual I y^nnwn a> Ihn asinltli 
a modem icrey and green baUdlng. by D. KoasI, 

enl niece o[ ■"'■*.'>)' 

a tine nion»Rient lo Uoge P. CIcugna, hy Cam- 
pumi. 01»crve among the paintlngj, the 
Marlj-dnm of 8. Lawrence, by Titian i the 
C.'lrcinrclr^lon and the AsBumptlon, both by Tln- 
toretlo; the Preachinc of S. Francis Xavler. by 
LIbeili and the Vl^n In Olory, by Falma 

Ihc I) nay to 

^nta Cajerina, betonglng to the Llceo-Conrltto 
CMIritc. (cnnded ISDT, by Ihe French. Al tb* 

rinc. Thenee down the canal, called Traghetto dl 

Aiitg (^urch, nr Abbadlaiia delta Mlierleordla. 
It contains Ihe Toblat of Cloia da Concellano. 
From Ihla. fallow the quay over the Hnli Urldg*. 
and along the Mori Quay, past- " ' 

■PPOrt ;h 
chapEl on the rlKhi Is 
Golden Calf, with Mom 

;e Judgment Dayal 

™panlon plclutebylh 
buried bcre-{sce "i 

of the Conlarinl family. ' Sear this church, and 

denlsclnseby. Cross the Madonna dell' Ortoand 
Mori Bridges; follow the quay on the left, to 3. 
Marclllmo Srldgo and the Churob of 

bu\H HW.'wVW iv%».\« \"!i»** *M«^ 


•Unmlty of ths city, )Kynnd tbs Cunils 
■sd In llw Hamo qnuttr an th« !■ 
ttanSbM. atUt'im Tl>lUd:~-8. Foiiu, 1 
nUtnOia)!) FHIIdt! V AnnuncUta, mu- 
TOTl CooTenti B- Hinilala, oppuiilti the 
diiTtilBhl; S.'I.6i>n4nlA,'nurtlisCiu>niin 

iU Canalc dl Mi 


riiul. Saala nriH 

If tk« Oindt 

_ Marlalf^ 

wa IMT llM UniniKi a Martn CF^K "f Ki 

ImUiiiiiiki c 

H ■>' III t1 

iC tbe Ola 


ddTab«h1)._ £i t'(n7«t(aiul5>Mfr<iBi(rtiiraiM 

. neiir Hlude I'.ait. 

s tldeiiif 



Cantl- 8ueb «n 

■'- ■' cntniy. bfui BDknuirD arclillMI. 

Kb rouhur hnlilly inukail buitrMMMi ; 

uid Intiwiiilsl dlvliiluns pttrad* tli* 
DsiiRu 1 ina iTcry part <• p«rvad«d lijr ■ taiiclful 
TlldiMH, cliaracl«rlatlc of Uw Inxurtnu nfliioinnlt 
ol lli« Baiit.--{ftivia»>i). Th» arsbci are lar- 
TMUidfld by a cuii'mi daiital iiiouiiLliiir pocullir to 
VfiilCD, ai mil uto ibe linlldln)[i ul tha pointed 


[ Ciltrai, liv r. Iiniulii 
into ttyli. "NothtnK 
1 pranortloni n[ tha I 


«iinleii).niidll>a~dltnilly wl- — 
Tha ban, ton, ti ■uMdHitty miild irllhiiiil IhsIiiie 
hMTT, and tha vlnd»wg bdng all nAillhined, and 
tha qiacaa balnir rkliUorscd irllh tbraa-cjnnrter 
eolDiiuit, Ibara It nu appoarane« ol waakiieu tfny- 
whm."-tftrffBj™.) It U M bj» M Icrt, 

OppotUa thi) U tba FMdatt at' nmhl (iir 
Laviuil WnrelionH). now ernirartad Into tha 
Mbmo OtIm e Oam, emitafni the colltedna* 
Mquatkad tn IhK dlj liV Count l!nrrar. and li .•pen 
dal&. Buideaanll<ialltH.inndal><,H^4„HiBr1i|M, 
ewravlnin (liidndlnK a plan nl VenMs, a> md a« 
leW), uhJFCti In fiwH and mitlullca, will] idMiila; 
dajOtarikknlva^^umnDia *c.,ot Vviiloanakr, 
It onibilBa a Rallary nt drawIvRii and iMlnllnua, 
AnMHiK IbD IbM are (1. IKilllnl'i IlDSe Mocfhrin 
an4 nvaral <itlicr |»rf nil! if Ilnsu 1 MniilpRni^i 
TraaallifurBll.m 1 H- Hrbmi't (»H>I HearlnKlhi 
Cnna. Ilcroiliulb CaniTa'a earllatl wnA, fwn 

nfiida, tn four atorayi. liM Icct hy 7G, tfa« lai 

ra Otniir tltetnl^, iii 

and link iHllHn 

tba I'lp, nnd In linltah'd'in 
(llnh. ¥m mm. 

IWiuK Balbi. n( 

IB Itlaltu. It al 

attrentory. It iuu a [J 
a> tho wat of tlio latt I: 
'■Blind old liiindulo." 

A naar tHa Frnrl Chnrcl 
I In three •torayi or a 

PaloM Batlagia hat a cnrloiu Irr.iit, l>y B, 
IjniKhcna. JVatm aincanefH li a ilGlily-adnmed 

niahed. E*»iBl>ili>n mnit h« olitalned hefurahand. 
Palatta Ftutrf, now BnHatfua, annthar work of 
l^michi'na'a, wilh a rnMlo liaae tnpp<iHlB« • noU* 
fatadexftwonrdon. "rnini Ihewalarllnelntha 
auriiU'e It la a rieh, rarlail,aml appropriate detlsn" 

Olia-flmf^l 7/0 

[111.. ii».r Ihi 

bbiaiUI, Id tba Dorlli.liaKBhfintl.DSfiinpula- 
tiiSI, UidWua oiKe remarkable tor lUinanuhataraa 
o( Kbua, pliito-itlinv iiiiiiini.-l vuhph crystal. Ae_ 
HiaMlriieil hern In the tlilrtei'iilh ri-atHry. whru 
the iDdrn imlrad rxrliiidrc iirlTllritet hmn tlM 
Heiiale. Hiink |iMrl) ami nnUilr. nr lieaila, arr Iba 
elilrl prodlirta now. (Ilaw l<ead» an made In Ik* 
fnlliiwlne way: "Twmwii, with ton).' iron niii, 
limknntul Hie (Vr* lar»<i lunipa '■( mill (ilaM, liefno 
%)iiiul (he cuniViH«iitlj lA v\AA\Km«j.iV\Oi vta^ 

plnnmil liilo tho bulni rpinuutiT Ul\ u 

Ttniwii tbs'urtlnn. Rv tlilimciui^ thnir 

•ixallly done.'-— Hiu Cati,i>w'« ateUlanf , 

At Iha Church o{ S. HIehcK over the s" 

It the mDiimneiit of (JanUnat DoMdd, iv 

with m«ny wnliitorsd nurtilM; nnd the 
lltuicMhei li highly ocniuiiHiteil, There ii 
dieoti t» Fm Faak>aarpl, the hlrtnTlniunod 
the Khalar, a former llhrnrlnn of SI. Mark 
On Iho tettia Urn Cappcltn EniULanB, ■ 

To the left al Ihli. neur tho wall. I 
B Thtune, with the liiAuit Jeans an 
work hy VlTuinl. Ftaulliie Ihi: 
A.Varbcrli^ andethar ]<er>oni, I 
heK LravlnethliohurchcrofiSlhc 
t'lun ta l|ie left, and on tba qnay [■ 
Dtga AnftU CAurcA.— Tho lacr 

&om thLi, beyODd the brltlire. ti 

moM ctirlaag church here, In tho 
of fhs twelfth century. Ten Greek 

a orihe 1 

ientury. 1 
It. and tbi 

IT 1140. 

r* almott aa 

Thm coiiiea TorMllO, which hu ■ flnci old 
chnmh, bollt IMS. h. Itlilioii OotoIo, eowrcd wllh 
RioHlea and marlile. IjiKhlvoD plllarJ), wllh 
curluualy Kliiped u^laU. hrild ap the save, 'flie 
hniy waler ha>hi waa (cmoarly a Pann altar, 
Tha aanet nary , tartbtr Id, la ailomed with huiitlf ql 
uiarble BHlnlBm: wUhln Ihia, lii nU tiniu. nnly 
thad<irt:V#eraalloii«il<<ieafiM, IMiInd the hlKh 
vIvlineMthep'i ainh cBilr, unilcrfi vWl 


heenreatored. Theanl 
Iron hlnffca nre worth i 

dnian 1nilldln)ni, ' 
1 J^ia Contordia. 
I hy thi 
wllb |dl 

n ||H Dultdand. 

ited wllb idUan In the li 

It hai a Dnile niUblatvrr, ._. 
'lileet, manyiif wh 

lots', aanmof £»n,OD 

.If-hour froDi Venica 

DoKTa. ntler 

\cn«U«v <™\« ^^V^'-^J^i^S^-: ■ 


M Admlnl. P. DuU, balot kl 

HOXTXB 1©— Can(tnu«^. 

! Pordena 

Codroijw TO) 

PHlinSchlivaiiuco TH 

unent to Culidpi or CuUld, irho 

IBTe firit UDRbl the DM Ol DMtHbl* 

T here li /Hne dl Caiart. Ihe binh 

IBO ...._ n\ L-din« „ M 

IM » til llHttrlo BU 

•■BO „si| I B.OiorninlHdiiiiiDugfl 



■nd Orljnsna. 

' From Venlo, ictost thi Ugoon, to 
HertnCStat). »<>l RoaU 13. 

■ llnoniiiiihroiigha. Dona dt FUve 10 Porto- 
(TUaro, corlinupd to L'dlne (He beJaw). Tbe 
Best pl»CB ol Imporlancc l> 

TnTiM (Stat.i 

/■•>: SteLlid-OTD{ ALbergoR< 

>0(1I1«U»II0 (SUlt.^ PopulBi 
pjjl(«. by Q. B. Clmn, cslled dm 
!• op.n to VlttOrtar* ni»M. 

The eiHhqnake of June. IB 
denlrayed Bellvno, dLd eretit djiinj 
nMrConeglUinOi -here the Chu 
a rotlcn old botirttng. wu ove 

Baolie (Btatl, on ilic Tlvcnm 
PardtDons (Stat.) Fuimimi 

Coa&ru (Btat.) The rait croeui the •tonr 
Md of the Tngl lament 0. by ■ long Tladact. to 

Godrolpo (Stat.i Theneilpltceli 
^Failano 8clllilTOn«aco (Btat.), nur Campa 

■cqntrcd by Venice In 141fi. It woB ravaged by 
peaillenee In IS] I andl^i^. Anion^Ihe bDildtngi 

IhePiUMoPnbllco, nenrihe PllUtot 8l.M^| 

a h^i^i^ai ' V i" "*~h"rt ii '~m I Son"*! (Stat), Uoiltelccme (BtaV). and 

■*«> rn™^3S /o JTMtt dl UfwuIJ!.;. ' irabrtrilia (Wat), on the CK o1 IVIerte. 

'»R^ /*"""*"»•*"*»■ ''•'• "" brunch. Mont.kone L«lgn»no-S«B 

Kl yA^r'/SJ." ''■""*•**' «"«■ fc> OlorgtodlNoEi"».\>»*»«iVM'R'*«iho™t, Then 

**'■*""'''* «WJ«Id««»rfi>«W. which throuth 


33.0XJTE SO, 
i, Eate. BoTli ~ 
d Bologna. 

31 Arni] 
I Polls 

lo LonrasosniSVeroB*. 

BkttaKll*. (BUt) in<l If ul<l rail 
untlquesl natural hot apdnn anil vi 
indBslh Homo, beam if nil; illuBUd 
•Idcrabl; rBpDtc. Alwot ! mile. BOnt 

Anini, the Romnn Argvala. a heoltl 
F.UKanctui Hlllo. which. likorlH. cnnl 

ftmmAlnhhl--- ■■—- -■--- — -■'- 

■M. Ibo wide tract lowardi wblcb has bi 
np by river depoHU.] 

Aiquil IStet). not to lie cnnr»uDd«l 
Arnni o( Prtraich, near Batuglla, abi 

FolenllA (Stat) or Pamela, on th 

Bta. Maria Haddalena (Stat.), w 

a bonk In hll llbl 

n hll llbraiy. 

IIimMllMlStal) PoiHiUllun. ia.4T»i. WUcre 
■iMaroadmaybetakentaArciiUi. It hag ( ' 

111 FonteluoKmra it i> e miti 

PE&BAKA (Stat.) 


lo Ekte, Monm 
Manlu|Up.»re 65). 
B8TE (Stat) 
town (poputsllon. 10.A43), us 





■fflf ; 

whlk P.«e 

; GlDitce*. inu\\ntt 

S\ to, '•v;^ 



[Section 1. 

railway station to tlie Poita di Mare. The 
town itself, from t|ie !Porta'di S. Benedetto to 
Porta JI S. Giorgio, is not less than two miles 
in extent. Its fortified walls, nnti) 1869, were 
garrisoned by an Austrian detachment, to support 
the anthoHly of the Pope's legate. A strong 
citadel on the west side, on the site of the Piazza 
di Armi, was razed in 1859. 

Compared with other Italian cities, Fcrrara is 
modem, having grown up since the sixth century, 
when it was first enclosed by the Elarchs of Ra- 
venna. Though exhibiting in its deserted streets 
many marks of deciay— noticed by Addison, 1670, 
who speaks of it as "very large, but extremely 
thin of people" — its population has Increased 
lately, and it carries on a good trade, which may 
possibly extend under the new order of things, 
assisted by the railway. About 2,000 Jews are 
settled here, who, an usual, live by themselves in 
their Ghetto quarter, where they hare a synagogue, 
Ac. The people of Fei*rara have the reputation of 
being agreeable in their mamiers, and hospitable; 
but its chief drawback arises from the marshy 
exhalations to which it is at all times subject. 

In 1208, Azzo VI., of the line of Este,wa8 chosen 
by the ciiizens ns vicar, or lord over them : being 
the first instance of a free Italian cHy doing what 
in the course of time became a regular practice 
with all, to save themselves from those internal 
contests with which it has always been tlieir 
misfortune to be afflicted. One of his descendants, 
Azzo Novello, of the Guelf party, and a great 
patron of learning, invited the troubadours here, 
and founded schools and a famous university. 
Niccolo III., called "Azo" in the poem, was the 
husbsmd of Byron's Parisina Malatesta. who was 
executed in 1405. Bcrso, another descendant, 
was a generous and enlightened prince, andbccanr^e 
the first Duke of Fcrrara. Modena, Ac. After him 
came his illegitimate brother, Ercolc. who estab- 
lished a theatre and a Hebrew press hero, and 
delighted in the company of scholars, as Bojardo, 
Tebaldeo, Ac. Alfonso I., his successor, who mar- 
ried Lncretia Borgia, was the patron of Ariosto. 
In the time of Ercole II., 1535, Calvin sought 
refuge here with the Duchess, the daughter of 
Louis Xn., till he was driven away by the Inqui- 
sition. Upon the death, without issue, of Alfonso 
II., who shut up Tasso In the madhouse. Ferrara 
was taken possession of by Clement VIII. lf-98; 
a change so unfavourable that its population 
gradually fell from 60.000 to 20.000. 

The author of the "Diary of an Invalid" des- 
patches Ferrara in few words, an "old town 
where there is nothing worth seeing." But this 
is the hasty opinion of a sleepy traveller. 

The chief place is the Piazza Ariosfea in Corso di 

Porta Mare, named after the poet, whose column 

stands here. lie was not a native, though his father 

was. After ten vcars" ].ilx>ur he produced his great 

poem, <^/-Axnifo J^ri^tso, in fortv cantos, dedicated to 

Ail^"^J^."''P«'r^n. Cardinnl'lpf*nliiniV¥MQ. The 

had "picked up so many absurd stories." Du|^6 
Alfonso made up for this, treating the i)c«t'8o 
bountifully that lie was able to build himself a houfe 
opposite St. Benedetto's Church. The garden' is 
gone, but the house is still shown, as well as his 
father's house, called Casa degli Ariosti. 

The*(%i<Aetfr<i^,ln Piazza del M6rcat6, is a Greek 
cross, marked by a campanile of red marble. It 
was begun in 1135, and is a mixture of the Qothic- 
Byzantine, or Romanesque and Italian. The 
facade is plain below, but the upper part is filled 
in with round Gothic arches, and other ornaments 
of a harmonious and pleasing character, and 
includes reliefs of the same and later dates; such 
as the Passion; Last Judgment, with ITcU and 
Heaven (t.e., Abraham's Bosom): the Sieveh Capital 
Sins, <fec. Notice also an antique bust by N. da Pisa, 
which is reverenced as a Madonna, aoove the side 
door on the left; and a statue of Albert d'Pste on a 
pilgrimage to Rome. In the interior, "which is 
modernised, are Garofalo's Madoiina on a Throne, 
SS. Peter and Paul, and the Assumption ; Bastia- 
nino's Last Judgment, with portraits of many of 
his acquaintances in it, including a woman who 
refused to marry him, and who is put in hell for 
a punishment; C. Tura's Annunciation, and St. 
George; Dossi's tomb of Urban III.; tomb of Clem- 
ent XI ; and C. Tura's curious series of miniatures 
in the twenty-three missals of the choirs. An 
ancient altar, near Francia's Coronation of the 
Virgin, is adorned with bronze statues by Biondellf 
and Marescotti. Some parts of the choir are of 
the last centur>'. An echo repeats 20 times. 

S. Francesco Church, near the Giovecca, founded 
by Ercole I., 1498, contains Qarofalo's petrayal of 
Cflirist, a Madonna and Saints, the Holy Family, 
Resurrection of Lazarus, and his Massacre of the 
Innocents; Ortolano's Holy Family; with otheH 
by Monio and Scarsellino; also various tombs' of 
the Este family, and that of Pignia who wae 
Tasso's rival. Here also is a good echo wbieft 
repeats seventeen (or sixteen) times. 

The Church of S. Benedetto was attached to the 
Benedictine Convent, now used as a militaiy 
barrack. It is a fine building, deserving attention t 
rebuilt 1693. in place of the old one in which 
Ariosto was buried. 1533. For the new church, a 
hands'jmc monument of the poet was prepared by 
' hiM pupil. A. Morti. and placed on the right of the 
1 altar, over his remains. In 1612. these were moTed 
, to a more magnificent tomb, raised by his grand- 
nephew, on the left side of the altar. This wae 
• moved, in 1801, to the Studio Pubblico. There 
I are frescoes in the barrack, by D. Dossi (tbe 
Crucifixion). Garofalo, Scarsellino (Martyrdom 
I of St. Catherine). P. Veronese. &c., with ff. 
C'remonesi's St. Mark. There is also Garofalo*! 
Paradise in which a portrait of the poet Arlbete 
; is introdureil alM)ve the ch«>ir of anirels. 
j S. Paolo. Paintings by E. Grandi. Bonone, 
; Scan>elIinM (thu Holy Ghost), and others; with 
monuments of G. B. Dossi. Bastamolo, and' JL 

if^'nnl^'' ^^^'^^^r, was m soldier, with little taste \ MontecaWno; x\\^ Iscs^ being the wor^ of k. 
r^rrj'. Mtid sffor reading if, ^sked whcrp be ^ VlccnUw 

fioute 20.1 



S. Dotnenieo, near the Gastello. Here arc carved 
•flfgltostn the front; rtfod paintinf^s, by Garofalo 
(St. Peter-Martyr), Bononl, and other' native 
mfastert; and the monument of C. Calcagnini, a 
learned man of the sixteenth century. 

Santa Maria del Vado, bnllt as far back as 1171, 
it the oldest church here, and has some quaint 
carvings on its front. It is full of paintings, among 
which are Bononi's Miracle of the Host, Crownuig 
of the Virgin, Ac; and a copy of D. Dossils John 
the Divine, and the Whore of Babylon. The latter 
was painted naked, but has been decently dres-^cd 
by the care of some scrupulous Bologneso artist. 
Also, I). Panetti's Visitation; P. Vecchio's Cliriat 
shid the Tribute Money; Carpi's Mlrncles of St. 
Anthony:" and N. Caffacclo's Death of St. Mary. 
On the picture of Justice and Force, is the enigma 
of Alex. Gnarinl. In Latin, which no person his 
hitherto made out. Tlie sacristy contains Panetti's 
Annunciation, and a Flight Into Ejfypt by Sea. 
There are tombs of the painters, Garofalo. Ortolano, 
Bonotie, Rastianino. and Dielai: and of tlic ])octs, 
T. V. I^trozzi. and his son Rrcole, a branch of the 
great Florentine house of that name, which settled 
here in the fifteenth century. Ercolc, the best 
poet of the two, and a friend of Ariosto, was killed 
one night by twenty-two stabs. His widow, a 
poetess, wrote a sonnet to his memory. 

S. Spirito. Garofalo's fresco of the Last Supper, 
in the refectory of the convent adjoining. 
' S. Andrea, near the Montegnonc Prumcuadc. In 
thccholrlsGarofalo'sMadonna andSabits; painted, 
sonic sAy, under the direction of Raphael. 

S. Qim'gio. in the south-west corner of Ferrara. 
Here Eugenius IV. called a Council to efTcct a 
onion between the Eastern and Western f -hHrches, 
in 14H8. Cosmo, or Cosimo Tura. the pahitcr, is 
buried at tlie entrance of the campanile. 

Santa Maria deila Connolazione, with an epitaph 
composed by E. Bentivoglio, for his daughter Julia, 
a child of four years. 

The Campo Santo C'hurcb was founded bv 
d^Este, first Duke of Ferrara, and was desigried 
by Sismsovino. There are twelve chapels, contain- 
ing the Mysteries, by N.'Koselli, besides paintings 
by Bastianino (a St. Christopher), Dieiai. &c. 
Several old tombs, worth notice, arc in the grave- 
yard (Campo Santo) of the old Cortosa Convent, 
including that of Garofalo, with Canova's bust of 
Count Cicognaro. 

In that of // Oesu, is the tomb of Alfonso's second 
Duchess, Barbara. Other churches are those of 

S. MaureJio, or the Cappucini Church, and />«' 
l^eatini, which has Guercino's Presentation. 

•The CanlcUo, or Palace of the old Dukes of 
Ferrara, in the Giovccca. somotimu the scat of the 
Papal Delegate, is a large, brick, moated castle, with 
angular turrets, in the feudal style. There arc 
hei^ though in a partly decayed condition; works 
in oil and fresco of the hrothers Dossl; such as the 
Aurbra'and the Bacchanals, of D. Dossi; besides 
other paintings. " At the toot of the Linn's ToVv^cr, 
in tJjeifffogvoffi uader (bis cb/unber, PurUlna tiid 

Ugo, or Hugh, were executed on the night of 21st 
March, 1405, and buried In StiFrancesco's Cemetery. 
"Ferrara," says Byron, "is much decay c<l and 
depopulated, but the castle still exists entire, and I 
saw the court where they were Insheadod." Pari- 
slna's room is shown. Some of the oldest buildings 
surround this palace. 

The Town Hall, or Palazzo del Munieipio, near 
the Castello. has a fortified look, and is the place 
where the Accademia Ariostea holds its sittings. 

Atenro Civico, containing the *Pinftcotera, or 
Picture Gallery, is in the old Palazzo Ercole- 
Villa (1403), or House of the Diamond (Dia- 
mante) as it is called, from the diamond-shaped 
stones in its front. The paintings have been 
collected from the churches, and arc in eight 
rooms. Amonjr them are specimens of the Ferrara 
school of artists, including their chief, *Garofa!Oy 
via., hisCMd and New Testament: Mount of Olives; 
Descent of thelloly Spirit; Resurrection : Adoration 
of the Magi: an<l Christ in the Garden. His 
Madonna and Child, painted as an altar-piece for 
the suppressed Convent of 8. Guglielmo. is in the 
National Gallery. His real name was Tisio, but 
he is called Garofalo from the griHyflower or mark 
by which his pictures are known. C. Bononi's 
Marriage of Cana; P. Vecchio's Tribute M<mey; 
Tintoretto's Virgin of the Rosary; D. Dossl's 
Resurrection; Guercino's St. Bruno; MazzoUno's 
Adoration; A. Carraccl's Manna in the Desert; 
E. Grandi's Adoration of the Magi; D. Dossi's 
Madonna and Child Enthroned, with Saints, a 
large picture, said to be his master-piece; C. Tura's 
portrait of a Cardinal. 

* Palazzo Srhifanoja, or Scandiana, near S. An- 
drea's Church, rebuilt on the site of one burnt in 
1469 by Duke Ercole, was decorated with C. Tura's 
frescoes, illustrative of the achicvcuients of Borso, 
the duke's brother, which were recovcreil from the 
whitewash in 1840. It is now a Deaf and Dumb 

Palazzo CMfeiWK.— Here is C. Tura's St. George 
and the Annunciation, painted in 1 169 for the organ 
dome of the Cathedral, and reputed to be his mas- 
ter-piece. His portrait of T. Strozzl the poet, it 
at the Palazzo Strozzi. Palazzo Rorerella, now 
Casino del Negocianti, near the Hospital, was built 
in lfi08. Palazzo Berilacqua has a gtMHl collection 
of paintings, «tc. Palazzo ilazza. paintings by 
Garofalo and D. Dossi. Palcuzo dei Lconi ((.'ount 
Prosperl) has a fine portal by B. Pcruzzi On* 
marble palace was Lncrctia Borgia's. 
i The Ch.amber of Commerce is at Palazzo della 
liagione. a Gothic brick pile, in Piazza del Mercato, 
near the Duomo. 

A *Studio Pubhlico, or Lyceum, which replaces 
the old university, comprises faculties of medicine 
and jurisprudence, and al)out lUO stndents. In the 
portico are several classical inscriptions and ba::- 
reliefs, a cypher or grave-stone of one P. Pnbllu*. 
and a largip, sarco^lM^'M^ ^.vAlvw8\»^ ""^ V*^*^^*. 



[Section 1. 

100,000 volumes and 1,000 MSS., some as old as the 
thirteenth century. Here are portraits of Ferrara 
celebrities, including Cardinal Ippolito d'Este, to 
whom Arlosto dedicated his Orlando. «Ariosto's 
monument, containing his ashes, which the French 
transported from San Benedetto in 1801, reaches 
to the ceiling ; being of marble, with three inscrip- 
tlons on it— one by Guarini, beginning "Notus et 
Hesperiis jacet hie Ariostus et Jndis." Here are 
his books, wooden chair, inkstand, and the MS. of 
his poems — an imperfect copy, wanting the title, 
and having many corrections. It has Alfieri's auto- 
graph, with "Vide e venera, 18 Giugno, 1783," 

Among the other literary treasures are Cardinal 
lientivoglio's books, bequeathed in 1730; a com- 
plete coll ection of the writings of Ferrarese authors ; 
Greek palimpsests (»'«., parchments written over 
afresh) of Gregory Nazianzen, Chrysostom, Ac; 
antiphonaries, or anthem books, with miniatures of 
the fifteenth century; also, the Oerusalemme of 
Tasso, with his notes and corrections, and several 
unedited sonnets composed by him in his confine- 
ment in the present hospital of Santa Anna; 
Ariosto's medallion likeness, chair and writing 
desk, and the MS. of Guarini's Pastor Fuh^ or 
Faithful Shepherd. 

Guarlnl was a native, and bom here 1557. His 
lumse, the seat of the Marchese Guarini, has an 
inscription on it, beginning '^Hercules etMusarum 
commercio," dec. Arlosto's house, in which he died 
(1523), in Via dl Mirasole. has his bust, and is 
marked by another verse, '• Farva sed apta mihi," 

Another interesting building Is the old Hospital 
of *8anta Anna, where Tasso was imprisoned be- 
tween 1579 and 1586. 

" And Taaso is their glory and their sh«me ; 
Hark to his strain, and then lurrey his cell l"—B^ron. 

It was at the court of Alfonso 11. that he wrote the 
best part of the Oerusalemme LiberatOy which he 
frequently read to his patron ; but having fallen in 
love with Alfonso's sister, the Princess Eleonora, 
he was shut up as a madman in the Convent of St. 
Francis, 1577. He escaped after a fortnight's con- 
finement, but coming back, he was placed In Santa 
Anna's, see above, from which he was finally 
liberated at the intercession of V. Gonzaga. A 
small Priflon room on the ground floor is shown as 
that in which he was actually confined ; and here, 
though it i 8 as doubtful as Raleigh's cell in the 
Tower, the visitor will perceive the names of Byron, 
Delavigne, Lamartine. and others, who have made a 
pilgrimage hither. Much of the wail is chipped 
away. But it appears that though under restraint, 
he was treated with kindness and consideration. 
Here he wrote and published many of his smaller 
poetical and philosophioal works, and was visited 
by Montaigne, and Aldo, the printer. In one of his 
/fftera he writes that "from the windows of his 
/frisojj, Jic can aco the tower of the palace where 
^t^r,^^' «f77'//*. " which may help to Sx the exact 
rf^fj^Xy/'{^y.^'^^^^^''^''P^^<^e duripff this unhappy 

The Theatre^ in the Strada Giovecca, near the 
Post Office, is very large and handsome. 

Some old MSS., with a letter of St. Jerome, are in 
the Cotaini Library; and the Scalatrini Museum 
contains some inscriptions. 

A line was opened, February, 1884. to ArgCXLtA 
(21 miles S.E.), thence continued to Ravenna. 

About 25 miles east of Ferrara is 

CoxnmaclliO, near the sea (population, 8,380), 
in the midst of a marshy tract, about J 5 miles 
square, called Valli di Coramachio, abounding 
with eels and other fish, which are used for pickling. 
It is divided into fishing farms, the inhabitants of 
which are a curious aquatic race, living in houses 
built in the shallow water. On the north-east of 
it, about Volano, Ac, wild boar, game, and deer, 
are hunted in the forest. 

From Ferrara, by rail, 29 J miles, in 1^ hour, to 
Bologna. The stations are — 

Miles. Miles. 

Poggio Renatico ... 8 Castel Maggiore ... 23| 

S. Pietro in Casale 14) Corticella 25 

S. Giorgio 18 Bologna 29i 

The line passes over a fertile plain, which is 
liable to be flooded in the season, and produces great 
quantities of hemp, rice, and other ^ain. 

PogglO BenatiCO (Stat.) Population, 8,438. 
Near the Reno, which rises in the Apennines, and 
winds round in this direction towards the Po. 

From 8. Pletro in Casale (Stat.), a diligence 
runs to 

Cento (population, 19.881), higher up the Reno, 
and the birih-placu, 1590, of Guercino, t.«., the 
Sqnlntcr, whose real name was Barbieri. His 
father was a wood-cutter. The house in which he 
lived twenty years is full of his paintings, as well 
as the Church, or Galeria, as it is styled by his 

Castel Maggiore (Stat.), on the Navlgllo, or 
Canal, which makes a sliui t cut from the Reno to 

BOLOQNA (Stat.), 
Called La Dotta (learned) and La Grassa (fat), 
the ancient Bononia, or FeUina, on the Via iEmilia, 
known for miles around by its Leaning Towers. 
Population (1891), 147,000, with suburbs. 

Hotels : 

Grand Hotel Brun, by Mr. Frank; comfortable 
and recommended. (Church Service here in the 

Grand Hotel d'ltalie; first-class hotel, fitted 
up with every comfort and good taste ; centrally 

Hotel Pcllegrlno; well-conducted, comfortable, 
and moderate. 

Noted for large and small Bologna sausages 
(hence the word "polony"), called mortadella and 
cotichini; fruit, and the OIUOOO di Pallono, a 
favourite game at ball, see page 97. 

Here the B^eTmex an<V 'tt.owx. C%v\\% xwa\,^% \si%%i 
the ro\iles (rom ^tVuA\a\ aM^QWx^. 

Boate 90.] BoLoask—^irancTtKi. 93 

llndiiTinji di S. Lncfl, B. Mlchrle In UoMo, Uulvft- the countes.'. brother, MirqDli Pepall. Bderwanli 

Illy, tlie BucclMchl, anil otber Falocea. Mumum, Mininer uF Commerce, irhoie paLaceB. black and 

Accideinis dalle BcJIe Artl, and a fine Campn irblle family anna, and lomba an aecD every- ■ 

The race of Bolognu dof i, wtilcli flsore In the '^""^"^^''"{Jlj^f^j^o^'n'''"'™'''"''''"'"'*' 

Hlphtl"of bat"".'! »hlch''»lion'°Sw in ttie 'Jun ""he'faraM^mMa M^KCorred here while the 

anerclno, Lanftanco, P. F. Molii. and C. Clpianl. ^ jJi^'|i*,[o''j™^"'t^"'lj5luJ°^ th°t'plM''t" 

thJuwK^oiuTi^i ™«VS'*n'"mRomea'S^^ 'be ''"' '"I"'*''". hid'tH-MgarfSd the"rtile! of eyen 

l^"e"Ro"magn?^(ii-''dM^oS*n™h'Dl*th7'4Sn! ™^rt.on.Id'ln the To'ri^YA, oL ta a i^'a.l.e 

ouih only uTor lap fcMl 

ilaof the ! Oolhle styl* and reetorad In W»6 -.. 

ila. Oul \ o( Ctnamwi*. V.\»K»ov™.'«>«t'>^'^-™'^£^^j^ 

chief opm ipu:* In Bolopia, ii 
irllh One bnildlnrs > ifilneot 
Uld s funtino pubHcs, by tjare 

U.T. [^ciion i. 

aiuIUno. Tlio.olharituniiiniiirlt.Triboloud 
ProiHU-ilit de' KiMii. « (epmletnlM. ln>ld*.iii« 
bu-relleri of AJuu And Rvt, uid th« AmuacU- 
tLon* by the LomlffrdL CbiirletY' wnaciiJwiMd 
lnibl>cbu[i:hl«3a,lHCI«nient VU. Thenilddlc 
vault I8.H6 feci blgb, 9ud cbsH] un tl»bl-A 
Uaduniiu iiid Suliili, by L. ds Penwla uud F. 
Ingin. 4Ui— CruciUi, rcntorad by F. Friniln. 

KHUpoliitlM|!^)ira.dBTrevlio; and palulluei on 
KiBBf. d™lgii«l by M. Angelo. Hill— Trllwlu'. 

Uin br Drsmanlo; B tUlue of AlCtanJpt VI 
{n the FnrneM Eoojp; A. Lombirdo-! »liiluc 
lltrcnliw, iu the HerculeoOallscy; and frcMau t 
ClEnoul, Ac, of Ihe gcrcnUentb and elghtecni 

IMb— r.nulglmo'i fll. Koch: aod Ib< MtriMan 
Lint, trarol hy Ca.ialiii. Ifias. tbe gnoniiin wfaf ch 
I lhru«> lbs ahaduw bcbig 80 feet bigb. lllh— L. 

Popo John XXII. N«r bcre li the larfte church 

The /"orrtBi da' Bantlii going roaud two nldoJ 
of tbe PiiEia, waa buill by VlpioU. In lESi. 
CnunciiN— The ehnrche* aro ahM from II (o S. 

•Catliflrat, or itiioNii? iif 3. Pltlr», ngtth of Iho Below tho choir Imn old crypl. Ch».__. 
Honie-L. Catr«cei;« S(. Peter omf the Vlr»li 

hk'lut mn-k In freaco. 

•S. PHroniB. on the aouth aide of I'Uizs VII 

church In Bolngna. iledloated to Ita palron sain 

Tha peicnt ont bt^n IMft by A. VIncenit, I 
obedience to a decree it the Cuindl of Ihe R 
public, was to hare been TM feet lone, rin<1 K 
wide, anil tu cuntalD fifly-rmr fha|H4«; but I) 
dnlim na^ Inlerrnpleil, and In Ita prewnt Incon 
nlete ninle It la 3K feet lol« and MO wide (mal 
Idr It oniT oiie-flfth of the Intended ■lie}, with flt 
nialn^lDthiiltallnn-aaUilcMyl*. TbetbrmHii 
— '—--- ■ -f grr nrrumeuteA wllh carvlnjH < 
w/ii* AntiM of praphtt* anil ilhrl 

'AMte Onor by IMIa Querela fI4aB), 
lav/lal Uvwa ton 

phur'a W 
Iwly hue 

"5. Homtnlco, null 

right, worthy of noltGO 
andnalitlnjni. The baa 
tonin. uf erenla In tbe 

I work of 

baniLlMl The fresco of •81. Ilom 

labvOulrio! St. Donlnlc Bartihig Ilereltcal Booka, 
brL.Hpada; llieRealoredOblld,byTtarlni. Imb^ 
Onereliio-a SI. Thonua Aqninui Writing on the 
Euchurlat. Tbe nurquetrie work ii> the cbolr 
alalia In liy two Damlnlean ntonki. At the blgh 
Bltarlnlt.Ceil'BAdorallonoriheUael. lathcbupel 

cnlh 01 


ycBra* cuptlvlty. Aline of bin epitaph refcn 

dug In the tlly axnia: ^'Slc cant: nun maieUD aBpa 

tenctnr aper.^' lllh chanel-O. Friincla'a St! 

aiid'Ellialjethi oTldo'a' A.innii^lloii, ' Tbao 
BIO Inblfia to Outdo and bla poplk EllraUelh 

him hi tbli chnrch. a3od 'i:baiwl— I, L:Brracel'a 
S. Itaynwnd (;roa.lng Iho Sea on hii Hantlc. 
BacrlBty ai\aC\u\HtT--\^>iiA<lV>a, Jerorae. The 
Trlhnual ot the letrttA* Smi; lim*o, m YBiii 

Rirate ao.] 

AlinelllTawer, re-bnlU 1W3^ but Ihs handivmi 
tMitlco tiy MoTchMl (IfiSB), lidungFd tu B lunuei 
chotch. -tad chupoL— U C«mitcr» S. CiirEo il (k< 
tomb of VHrallo. 41b- -Albuia'a AimiiDcimlun 
7lh— Mwlyrdom of S, B«iH1»1oid™, by FruiicHi 
ehlni. ISili— Tlarluft S. Anlhwiy ut I'nilua. 

S. BarUlemmvi di Beni. Iiutit \1»». AroiiIIik 
CumwriNMiTlty; L. CirrKcl'tClrcunicULon. 

A 3«nd«/o, near tho Mnntienoln, In the north 

I. Tlnrlnri Vlrpln nnd I 

fioLoo H A — ca vbc Ut B. 

h of Cbriit. 


I. O. FranclB, Chlodsrolo, Ac. 
:Siinla CUloHnu, itylcd £a 

appar, MthriUeb Slti^.^X one M 
C^btLstAppej.rli.gto Ibo Virgin and 

.0 Uuonuii fxade 



Aibano'. mr. 

unr vkwfne tbc Cnua. 



nto WaHn Jfowtorf. 


rf t 

e Virsl.U by 

A. Lf 

InKriptlon to 


DMIe Ohlallij 

^JToWi'iia, built 1217 a 


! I.. 


■. SI- JBKBiei 

ma Maria AVa 



ch. bum 17IW 

il the 

ceU of St. Domi- 




wblch It uld to 

cunpnoiK and Its Ibie aa\ 
ot "Vftn«tlan iciUptflf fl. In IB 

Both. 1' 
tbe arehl 


S. Uallia. now dliuaed. Hero Is Gnldn'i Vlrsln 

id Oipidalt degliEtfotUi, ax Foandling 

8t. FranclB, SI, Jottiih, and 8t, Jerome. ', 

S. Oiii«)ijwhaB«oniepatBtlngjoItb6(onrteMit\i I 

ctaitDry, aad |i neat Ibr Oifidali de Silluagtnari, 

1 d( lUe Ordar: adorned 

•3. AtCono, In Tla S. Stefano, Is fanned by a 
nblch. 8. a«i»lcro, a 

uodsl ol till] lluly Stpubibre. 

a. Cr^K)rto, In Slrada Poiortalc. HMO Bto Annl- and (hs wbolo form a eurtum emup, Joined by 
bala Canaccl-» Baptltm of Chtinl— one of bii corridor! ind nauageB, Im cbnpcl -llel Uro- 
teiUestollpalstlii^. U.Ca]Tasn'a3l,Giegor;,at ciflgtoi hoa wall palntineiof tbe CmclSiion. 9nd 

taS, Vltale. belunfslo 


'r~Piopini» de' Hcmi. 

IrauL Ac ■ and a library. ■ ttb — \ v.uTvlt»\» v ^^TT^ ^' t«fi\*v^tt^*i-. .^"^^^ 

Xademna M Botocom. aar the Porta Stefuo. i BaiilalrtnVl^ ''^'»--*»*™™^^^^;S^w!3U- 
irtba*iiirbtTlttln,bxA.Loatbudo. P«rt I SB- ''*"'*»* *-'^^'kJ*^^SS]*>"™ '''*' 

B,Ttt*\e, to^^teS.^ * 


CuiUrinl (or reMnmo) In in (his ^ilLery. TlnUi - 
I re IWi Virgin und at. KKiaholh. lUnhiwI'. 'Si. 
CecUia ill ecitiicy, liitcninR to the Muilc ot tha 
Angi'l.: palnteil In lilS, for Elena Uali' Oflio 
Ungllail (arterwsrdi ctiiDnlieii). ElliutKtb Sl- 

VlrglT. IQ the fi7«t,tln« •y;'''L,'""'^""^," BL«,'cSJSirtn°ivUri%7«'LltdL»3.rWM'."y?! 
U.U.I » 81 Luke, Bnaj^>ruBgW^(™n Lunilanlln- j„„, „, g, (.„„„ Uonienlcliino'i -Miirtynibin 

Xadoaoo <« Utaaralla, near Fori 

•S. MiOwU in BetcB. near Puna d'Aiegllo. o 
■ irietDnnue hill, ii allaclied (o a ticb conTcn 
foandHl UVI, iii<l partly oHiTgrtwl Into ■ barrac 
■ndprifonln lltl. The rllla part waiawuntr 
aeat of the Cardinal I^Kate. which wan Btt«d u 
lor Fiui IK.. In hli laat proRresi In IS97 ; new ■ 
OrthoiKdlc iDitltuU. hcuialiii uf lrs9«Ki li 

Collaffi, near I'orta 3. Donati -' 

andulbtrworki. AgoUlnoCarn 

« MeHaratt. The 

fi« helow) |9 a fine library < 

mnng bo nEgloctoii. fllatno i 
GilranI In fmnt of the Arclilg 
The Uftivftttt, >ald to hit 





\m, by Terrlbiiii. and Utely roitared, 

in body wn« Brst dlMcetvd, 
idinU and galvanlun xai dl^ 
QnlTani. n 

] by Count 

ih« Unlier- 

-ned Qr<i< 

lain, originally built by Tlbaldk 

/^•''-nrrlamnd amid, with iagtittniai.'mU. \ tM nhVtaaoBlHsal ln«lrumenn o'( the IhlK 

Bante aO.] BOLOBHi- 

giirden: ■1m i^brJUTirtlh 1M,0«I lolnnm and 
COM MSB., It— ■-■■ •— n— J1-" -rn 


loanddd tn Benedict — 

— ipt SnudrnT, The lateraitini Goo- 

The gTut llneotBt, Cudlnil UuEolutl (bora 
I- BolOE^i^ mi, the HDafBD«rp<aiter),wu chief 
rurlan before hl> repiDvtl lo Rome. H^JP"** 

enlly, a 

_ , ^ [nEn(rlHil,i< 

■poke not only good Engl lib, bat gooi 


IHrtlhthe une reidln eit 
TiirioM col leiTM were founded at different timet 
forforelgr n«llon^-.» the Coll ^o fle'Fl.mmlnKh^ 
(or Flemlih rtndenta; Collcgio dl Lulgl, for French 
(tadenti; the Tenluioll College, far HangarlMi 
itDdcntu (now for »tiident> In arolitlKtnre) ; bnl 
Ihe onlj ope that mnlves 1> the Coflfffio dtOa 
Naiioiu Bpa^tsla, founded ISM, by Cardinal 

of moftTo, directed by Rosrinl, It hia a Muilcal 
M»nS, a co'mpojBr of the serenleenth century. 
Rogglnl'i honM It In Tia Magilore, marted by a 
punning gilt InncHptlon from Cicero- ."Son dome 

■re dlipened, and aom* bave eoUentloni to >ell};— 
PalaiK AOtrgari, In Vis di Sucagoaia, built In 
Palata i(ito*rondi, In 3tiaiii Qajllera. rebuilt 

Bonaparte, bad appotnled to 
glyen In the following Kyle: 

>retaead, mlrldlini;; 
Ig; month, ralddlloi 

•Palatie Bmttmlie' * haodiioroe building I 
tbtVitSMtmtlliAitli Iftk caotnrr. 

lOuo d( BiantAi, in Via S. SUIano, 

Ig by Quldo. 

laao Biagt, or FaOaticiM, In VIA 8. t 

PaHuto Qraui, In 
L. Carracol. 

niiauo Moffnani-BtiiicitH, In Via S. Doncto, 
built by Tlbaidi, In ISIl, bsi ■ One fiBCD tt 

JPalaiBi SralOKi. in Via Haulnl. waj built by 

Palaao Uatttai-MalM, In Via Zambonl. er S. 
Donato, wai bnllt In lUO. In B. Triaohlnl. 
Palaao italtoH-Campegsi, In Via dl S. Donato, 

Heniy VIII. to Cardinal Campegglo, when Papal 
Logaie In England. 
Palaao UareKaleh' ' •- " -■ * - - ■ 

built by TlbaldL I 

'■ by L. Carracel 

•palaao Ptpoll, In Via dl CattlgUone, a machl- 
eolated hrick pile, bnlll Id 1M4, with ■ terra colta 

PiAuta PitUa, or Bo«W, near the Duomo, bnllt 
by Vignol a« for BocchI, the founder of the Academy 

Paiaim RanfiOi, or Limbortlnl, In Via 8. Bts- 

Paiaao Sttmpieri. or Zanipieri, in Via Hazitpl, 
hafiBnewall paintings of thahlatory of Hcrciile« 
in ave roomi. In the argt-Battle with Japller, 
^^rtQB, by An! Cauaccli tblrd— Hercnlea and 

andfotMbortenlng); fldh— Genlni andStiengtli, 
by Gnerclno. 
Paiattino VMo. or SaileaifiiB, n»r the Orlo 

The Ziaa, or Mint, bnlll by Terrlbilla in IBTS. 
The Palaao Balaonini, near Via dl S. Stefano, la 
a music caalno ana readlnif room. 

tbe Bentlvogllo Palace, wai erected In 1T6^ b; 

Conlaealli, 1S14, In an old Canncllta Conxent. 

playfd with leather balla (pallonc), about the ilae 

tected by a wood or ai««S. tawsavBi. k.\vw^^'»'^ 



[Sectiou 1. 

RotUet.—Ho Parma (by rail), Route 18; to Man- 
tua, Route 16; to Ferrara (by rail); to Ravenna 
(by rail) and Aucona, Route 22; to Florence, 
Lucca, and Leghorn, Route 21. (Sec BracMiaw's 
Continental Guide). 

Bologna to Florence. 

The old route over the Pietra Maia Pass in the 
Apennines, 4,100 feet high, by diligence, 71 miles, 
in 12 hours, is not now used by travellers. The 
pass is a dismal spot, with a wretched inn (Del Sole), 
a half-ruined church, and forty or fifty cottages. 

The present much preferable route, is by rail- 
way to La Porretta Baths; thence over the 
Collina Pass to Pistoja, on the Leghorn and Florence 
line, or 88 miles in all to Florence. This line was 
planned by the Austrians. 

From Bologna (Stat.) the itations are— 


Riola 29| 

Porretta 37 

Pracchia 46^ 

Pistoja 61} 

Florence 83 

Borgo Pauigalc ... 8^ 

Oasalecchio 6| 

II Sasso 121 

Marzabotto 17 

Vergato 24^ 

The lino ascends the Reno to 

Borgo dl Panlgale (Stat) 

CaBaleCChiO (Stat.) Population, 2,093. Near 
Uic site of a French victory over Pope Julius II., 
m 1511, and of the defeat of the Bologiiese and 
riorcutiues, by the Duke of Milan, 1402. At 

SaBBO (Stat ), the line begins to ascend the 
Apennines up the defile of the Reno, passing some 
deep cuttings, Ac, to 

Marzabotto (Stat.), where are remains of an 
Etruscan town, and 

Vergato (Stat.) Here the valley of the river 
opens. Riola (Stat.) On the left the peaks of 
Monte Ovolo and Monte Vlgese. 

Porretta (Stat.) A vlUage (pop., 2,976), in a 
picturesque valley of the Reno, 1^ 30 feet above 
■ea, under Monte Cardo, and frequented in 
summer for its warm mineral Springs^ which 
are useful in cases of rheumatism, paralysis, 
and diseased glands. Temperature, 90* to 100*. 
They are used both for drinking and bathing, and 
give ont carbonic acid and hydrogen gases, the 
latter being turned to account to light up the 
Baths ; a discovery first hit on by a clever shoe- 
maker of the village. The air is temperate and 
bracing among these sandstone and limestone bills. 
Hence the line ascends towards the pass tu 

Lk Capane, near the Reno, which fornted the old 
boundary between Tuscany and the Papal States. 
Here a tunnel is cut through the ridge for the rail- 
way ; above which is the pass of La ColHna itself, 
by which the Apennines were for a time rrossed 
by means of articulated engines. It is a low one, 
oiily 3,350 feet above the sea, but commands a fine 
jorospect of the hills and valleys around. Monte 
cV/zt^y^, to I /jo north, i» 6,976 feet high. The road 
'f*f*eent /jrjna^/c hy a BOrlcit of zlg-zafTH to 
-^S^^ r^-tefeA t/te hlghcBt point of the rail 
/^er^ tAe tuaaeJ corner oup, M^d tQ (Jie riiley Qi 

the Ombrone. Diligence to S. ^arcello, where 
conveyance can be procured to BOBCOllingO 
(a good centre for mountain ezcnralonsX Abetone, 
Many viaducts and tunnels to 

Pistoja, or PlBtOla (Stat.), whence it is 21 
miles to Florenoe. (See Route 24). 


Bologna to Ca8telBologne8e(forBayenna), 
Rlm^ and Ancona. 

By rail, 126 miles, in 6 to 8 hours. This is part 
of the Overland Route vid Brindisi. At Castel 
Bolognese is a branch line of 26| miles to Ravenna. 

The stations are — 

Miles. { Miles. 

Mirandola 7 Savignano CO4 

Quadema ]0| S.Arcangelo 68 

Rimini 69i 

Pcsaro .... 

Fano 97 

Senigallia 110 

Ancona 127| 


Castel S. Pietro 15 

Imola 22 

Castel Bolognese ... 26 

Faenza 31 

Forlie 40 

Fortimpoli 46 

Cesena 61{ 

This Route towards Rimini is one of the pleasant- 
est in Italy, leading through a richly-cultivated 
plain, and past many industrious and cheerful- 
looking towns, with views of the Apennines all the 
way, which corresponds with the ancient Via 
Emilia. It crosses a succession of streams flow- 
ing down the east slope of the mountains into the 
Adriatic. After crossing the Savcna and Idice, the 
line comes to 

Mirandola (Stat.), and 

Quadema (Stat.), near the Romam Clatema. 

Castel S. Pietro (Stat.), near an old fortified 
castle, on the River Sillaro. 

Imola (Stat.), on the site of Forum Comelii. 
Population, 13,997. 

it was built by the Lombards, and incorporated 
with the States of the Church by Julius II., and is 
a bishop's see, with a Cathedral dedicated to St. 
Cassianus, hi which Archbishop St. Peter Chryso- 
logus, a native of the fifth century is buried. 
Pius IX., was Bishop of Imola. Innocenzlo da 
Imola, a pupil of Francia, who painted between 
1606 and 1649, was born here. Across the Santemo 

Castel Bolognese (Stat.), where the Bologna 
Republic erected a fortress in 1380. 

[Here a branch railway turns off to Ravenna, 26) 

The stations are — 
„ , , Miles. I Miles. 

Solnrolo 33 ; Rnsfi 151 

L:;go 8| Godo 18 

Hagnacavallo Hi | Ravenna 2^ 

LagO or Lugo (%ta.t\ near the ancient lucus 

Boute 52.] 

ilognoK. 0« Oi« 

left li FastitniuiD, tb« binh-placi 
poet, ftnd CorelJI^ tbA mtiilcl^n. 

BuiUUniTkllo (Stat.) The old nberiaaim. 
ud urthplaca of tba palntir RumeDghl, who la 
known by the nune of BagnKUTHllo. 

Between ibl. uid R«enii»w6pM.Bug«l(Blat.) 
(pi^illlUlon, T.MS), the DBIIvs lows of Farini, one ' 

■en: Porta Ndots liesi). on it 
iliaM8\ne«thl. -....-..1.. 
drlana (lUf ), on 

friend o[ CiTonr; w«i appointed 
Parma and Uodma, and eientiially b 
M miner. 

RAVBNKA (St&t.) 
-' Ravenna U AntLca," or the a 
Statue olFarlnl In front o[ the Rail 
Fopulatlon, M.^TS. 
Beltlt; LaHpadtt; Grand Hotel Bj 
•CMtfOdtcu o/Jlf.fte,— Danlej To 

Tile Piatra n'/.-fmonwi^ the largest open plave. 

has statoei of BS. Apolllnarli and Vllale on two 

pill ar^ erected bythe Veneliana, 1 483. Willi bat- 
, relief! by F. Lombardo. Tbere la also a itttoe of 

Clement XII., and a portico of elgbt tall colnmni. 

which beloiieedlu a temple of Hercules, facing ■ ha 
, aoeemaUiK. The Town Hall or Paluzo Hunlcl- 
I pale, whore the archlvei are placed, 1> alee Lero. 

Near Ihli Pla.ia li the Tbrrtdtl Ptiblito. a louare 

wbi'cb Hmorlns 1., Valentinianni III. 

Empire, ar 
the Adrian 

ig erected H81, by 'the Vi^eila, Berai 
ind re«orcd 17S0. by Cardinsj V. I 

%; HouH(in Via O. Maiilal). i, marbe 

Dryden, and Byron. These pines served Co make 
piles (or the (onndatlon of Iho early city, and also ^ 

TheiaareflveoriliGalM—PortaSerralB, built | 

of Oair eludal{I-Ur) and of Tbeodoric's Tomb; , 
Peru Altmoi (17tf). OB (A* cut, toward! the 

implifylng the R 
i^OafAedral or DiutntQ. a abort dleta 
I stones of one founded by' St. Vni 



[SecHon 1. 

IHnitnn, Mil KIIJaIi Kiel liy HAV«n»; nonotii'* liftl- 
4l»«NXNr'N FniiNl niul ( lnmilw.lnrN HI. 1 'r«ii«. Tkura 
tn lilMi Nil iitir|«inl nWvpr firiir.tnn, uikI Ht. Maftl- 
mlliliitr»i U'lty flmlr, llifilKU^ToriliiiHlftLli MUitiiry. 
Ttui llniilUlri'ii, f.loMi hy, In an <N-.tuK*/"Hl rtOir, 
r(i«loit«t til -IM, mill iiii|iiifiiw«<l I'l Imvit liMiiii hiillLliy 

fiL, 111 mm. 'I'lvii niwN u' wrv.mU^fk wUliln, omh nvi^r 
lin iiLliar. nif cuvMri''! wHIi !>«« rflt'-fii; iiii'l Lht 
WmIIh nimi tu|i'ilii Mrtlh iiiuHiili'. iirnlinw|i|i'N of Uiii 
Aflii iniihiry. Tim fi'Hil \n "f |Mir|itiy ry iitiil iiiiir' 
liltM llm liiily ivnifii- liH«liMKinn fr'iiii ii t<-iii|>lu of 


'Hilfirl, ,, . „ ^ , 

fovM'rii Willi iiiiiiinIrN iiihI iiiitililn; itU'i H llliriiry 

Iiiiri . 
'Iiii t'lihiiw Arrlve»ravitr nr ArrlililHli<i|i'N I'lilarc, 
|iN« n iUutprl, liiiIlL 't'lil iiy HI. I'litPi- CliryiHiliiKUN, 

Af MHH., NtHl nillni'lliiiiiKir liiNi-rlplluiiN, iVc 

Huntii Ai/iiht, iimr l'iirlnHlNl,ii |irltitt(lvi* liKikliitr 
i«huMi, rtiM ImiUi 417, Willi lltn'tintNkH mill lidniili 
fill tiiititilriitliiirN. , , 

*f1 AlMUtntv* Nuavii, tii I ho Cnr^n (iRrllmMl, 
Un loHnlNt-tinntJli'n.iMtcnli'iiloHl. Murliii (alllrNl) 
l»y 'rhiMiiliirli', 4,11. MiO, fur nil Ailnii Ciilliodrnl. 
It Imn 1hii«n nUlrw mmti* liy twiMily fuiir |itUiirN iif 
vntiipil (iiiMikitirtrbtrriuiii Cnimtniillniiiilo; niiiiiiNO 
NtlliniMiili ImirliMMt ili'ltntlnrN wtlli ihrtny luiiilm ; 
llip lilMtmii'ii '*"<*li iii"l p«>rtrntu of prolitlfN, iVi' , lu 
llin vt'i V Ntii'Imil Uit*nn'» on tin* wnlM ufllii^ iinvi', 
itnliiitf nniii AMI. AiumiH |ht«Hi« itriMlio Ailni'Mlun 
i»r Ihn Miiul nitil iwiMity Iwn VlrKlim; tin* |H»it of 
iMiwul*. wUh lln •lilpn; iwiMily llvi' Hnlntu niid 
Mm I VI* rtiloiliiH ('liiUi; n rU«w uf oM Hrtvi'Uii* 
mnrl'lii«inl«Mli»'n /%i/iit'f, tl'p riMiiHlunuf wlili'li «io 
kllll -iMm iipur |hl» nhuroh. 

J* fM.ini. Ill iMiln«. Imn wall iuilnMiiK». wnlil «" 
Iiii U\ (Hollo. 

N ■ /NiiN«ii«ii>, lo ll>«^ ""•■Ih **•*•' "« rlM//.n > . 
l•'.lt«'nl1Ul^ll«. A I'hiiroli of thi* llflh i'«»ulmy, nhu'o 
AlldriHt II hiiM RoiuUiirlirH Anituitoliitlim: itUo 
I. lrtiunl\l'iiM\«loil0«orihoHi»'«iii.v. rtuil hlthivon 
lion or Ihp I'uw*. l.«««irltl I" biirioil horc. 

M rtsiHi-#*i«. H****" l»t«"l«**"» Tomb •mi Hyivu'ii 
Uo»»*i». i»ml i» '•lrtl««» »»f Ali'tnuilor Vll. An oM 
(liiuih im»»l««n»NiMh with iwonly Iwo iii*rhli« 
oohimu* U» ll»» in*^**- *' I'l'lt'OK-^'tl to tho Mhimtto 
Film* «"'! Prti»l»» ^rt* ** "'"' l'««'»'«l *" 1^ '»> '*»« 
|Sili«i\l'rt Mmllv. Uciv *ro i'.uvhiif» l»y V. i^mi 
iHkiiM. Ill lilt* i'«"»*>"^ riwiu^l; • Mrtiioim*. l»> H. 
lU Imolnt ^lU» »m*l»« «»l o»ii««''l«»urt Polonu \U»«» 
illiMl ii Vi*m'l*«'««« mouK. uml of F.urloo Alilvrl, 
Ui»i\iMiilol tli*»Oi,lci. Him* tkxwwn 10 Aivhl'Uhop 
I Ihoilwt ol »ho roiu Ml i»«^ttl«iy 

•.s t.'*,>iMniii .•V.i-»,».;«*M. m»«i- tho ii»u^*y M*- 
iloM rolMilH IrtSS. bii« toiimli^l \\\ 4H. I») tirtUrt 
l»U«'liUii ilrtiirtlJloi ol niOt^lo*liiv III oluslloiu'o lo 
M ^o^ U »»!»* ilnvom^lwi. »li^Mo»l l\\ i\\»MUy four 
ixlMii* «i,MO ^l».^ m*i »l»uuh. \Mth v.»MmKN»»(ni«« 
jlitiioiuth rtHiM.wiUvmli ivmuno* ovoi th«» »Um-. 
imiiiniiK" I'N *•' 1 .»i»itl»t. *»«• * fvoMM l»y lliotio; 
.il»o rtii iJtHi ot iioiv»'"tmo iUi.l is»ipli\i\ In tho 

.V f.v. •/!«««# i^^^^i.4f. iifMi roi-fji S«ilC|ltA. MUt^ 
f:um,/Mst ^1 !««//« IViii itiM 4:t|l. Mim il>itullt l*SA. 
^'" f/if .Ht/M|fl|tJi IM rft* fllfMIOI •I'V Mil Ol lh« 


iV(«»to i/oHa in CMnudin, close to i7. jSMrOo (i 
liAl'iw), WAV orlKliiiilly a sixth ccnturv baptistery 
to tlmt Ariflii church; of an octa^'m shape, with a 
mosaic (Otli (Hjtitury) of the Jiaptism in the cupola. 

HiMla Maria in Porto, In the CJorw), near Porta 
Ntiovtt, rcliiiilt 1038, out of the HtoneH of B.Lorenio 
of risNArea (another llonian iK)rt In this quarter). 
It liitN im ulfl marble relief of the Madonna, 
I*. OlovAiKi'it MartynlAm of HI. Mark, and L. 
IxinKhTN VlrKln niid HaintH. 

H. MUhfJ* in AjMciiiro, of the sixth contnry, 
In MOW almoHt di'fitroyctd. 

*HS. Nntario » fJe.lAo, or the Matmol^tm of Qalla 
PlrtcitHa, near Porta A<lrIano, was built 488-40, by 
that KiiiprcNN, for horself. In the shape of a Oreoc 
(TOSH, 41) f»M«t by 40 fwt, under a larfye cupola, 
coynri'd with iiiarblo and nioHnicM. Aincmf? these 

urn N I the ('hrlNtlan syintiolsof thntafft'; a", the 

lamb for ChrlMt, birds for dcpurtwd houIs, Ac. 
Ilchlnd the nitar Is the larffc sarcophaffus of the 
Kmpii'NH (4A0), which at mw timo held her sitting 
llRuii'. dri'Mwd III robi'H. She was a clcvor woman, 
boinal (NiiiHtunttiioplu, tlmdauirhtor of Thcodosius 
iho Orcnt. A HarroplmKU" I" the rl^hl transept con- 
tnliiN hor brother, lloiiorius II.; anotherin the loft, 
ConNlnntluN, her si-fond husband. Her flrst wat 
Alarle'H son, Ataulphus. Two small sarcophagi 
aiv »ald to hold the tutors of her children. 

H. i\i<roU\ near Porta Mamante, founded in 768. 
Here In the Ht. Moulea of (\'sare dl Uavenna, a 
nntire arlNl. 

if. NoNiHttMo or f VfMW. neartbe Duomo. Inatt achea 
to the College, formerly the rertojMi Content, and 
Wrtu built IrtSO. Here an* Ouerrlno'» Ht. Komuald, 
S. riK'niml's H. lleiuMllot, and 0" the oolleffo) frei- 
eoen by I,, and K. Umtrhl. 

,s. SniHto or TVihftifv, > built 493-«26, by 
The.Mlorle the (Ireat. for the Avians, and rc-named 
when taken jhjswshIou of by iho ovthortox party; 
the Impllslery bolnj: I'rtlbM Sf. J/.iWii in Cosmmn 
^see alHive^, It has an anolout marble chair. 

*N ^»^I/^ near Torta Adrians, w«s built iu 526, 
In lh« lime o( the Kmperor Justinian, ifio., and 
detllosliMl to HI. Vllaltit. who MiiVoied martyrdom 
I on I be hpot. 1 1 is uouallx cited a» the most 
eomplete hpwlmen of (he U>/.rtntluo style in 
Itrtlx. and *s « copy of St. Sophui's at i\mstantl- 
I nopie. Mr. Korjrussou thlnk« it ».■»» meant for a 
ettpy '*' (he MUiervH MisIUm. at Kome. It Is an 
I ivi aiftMi oivw ned by s cnpola. ronui! on arches, sup- 
1 polled by a double'irtn>w of granite columns Wlow, 
bolween which «»e mMuc circular rcce**oa. The 
' ei»jblh !»pnco oiH^n-* into the v;inctn*r\ and apse; 
and the t^liole i* >nnvnnded b> a «j01; »*> that 
while the ouiMde diAineicr i^ \W i<xi. th« inside U 
oiil> ."^0 leot I'hcrc i* a > c*Uery for 
t^.MUcn. i-ou!i,i I be uppci v*n|ic of pilars. The 
wi«d»«»* jin.l .ir»-bc« ;u-e aU rvMiui bc;ulo.l. The 
»'hou i"» pl.iiv.l .u'iv>5» »»nc ol tbc c^rner'^ outside 
the (SMacxmi. like A un^vni. >i\ith cnli-anco At each 
1 *n»^ VV.e c\\\v'l* ■.» noj nuiilco( "lone, but of lipht 
I ^svlVvow roV"* *n ikwvv^«»A\Vt*B««*« v"'xU«bu»ldiiija 

XA.VKSXA — cunKOau, ru^oB c 

.Bonl^ Ik.] 

«liic« dluppeared, u 

««D of US. VlUUi, the liTuifieUali nnd AiHutln, 
Christ the Kwd Shtptierd, AbeJ uid UelablBcdek, 

tU i-tddmcB uf tha Eurelw, 

porphyry tiimin, with i^ecH o1 
anlctt; multicOtcf urniima 
by Cburtgmiigne. "In all lU 


work! bj Ui« LoBghl, D. d«VollBTTi, 
^c. ami isrermt Fltmlah mul«i; niati 
(ffliry of 1 ynztiot, ca11«d BrMet«forte 

Mnga being k ineiUl of Cicero, eti 



Id falm only «l 
I Oreok ci 


EhUtOl hi 
Aluut > 

Lwean ia Cetarta. ■ church founded 30A. ^t 
fhniwror Honofiiu'B treuurer, "' 

mi«l list, vhen 9anta Unrlii li 


the umer ilurey. Thle la mimi 
hsiHtlifl round Ito c<lffe, 1iy v 

. Atthe(;gJf(^afthcCsnh 

Ths Lihrarv, dt £Wfii(a 
1714, by Abbe Onuiictll. t 
loiaDici uid ;o« UtiS. AiDone ci.c cunoiiiioii irc 
■boat. TOO eAMita* of the founccnlb ecnturv. 
Indudlue: the Uecrelals of B»u[fnce V111. »*W, 
a Vsnica Fllnv (U«9). n Venice Bible (147S) with 
mlnlUnrea. a Hllan Uonte (147S). nleo ■ MB. of 

ntjIoHi-vol Flctarm ud Statanry Mmtalna 

t 4I0.UU0 

It IMS, by D 

il aiie. and renulno i 
or ini[i1lfl of biB HChD< 

of tha R^an port of C/avU, of w. 
only i-allc, built £54-49, when Mt 

r Malatasta nf Ulmlnl 

;hureh of St. Fniieie thfw. HSO. Twanty-four 
Tnnltaplllanilndnela blorkx diTlde the eliiiRh 
nio three nialu. AhniK IhD vnUi ara ilx isrcop- 





Iti of a 


nl» do 

irn to Ihe pro-en 




Kiniwrcit (»llio-- nune c 




liar Is ""^dgck 

Mid w 



■re adomeil wit 






pteachlii(;\ ftiB&»ei*Mii <A Wwi, ^^'"'^^^J^iSS 

llki * lltbttMOH, TbctowDorCt'tHiirMIIenrojrHl 
b]' Lalljiruul, Kinc ol thf Lmnbsrdi, Ln Tl». 

Tira mllei OBtiUc Poni Sltl, cloie lo the Ronco. 

el lb* bit 

11th Anrlt, 
Fol», oy- 

'Itb u-sbtuDH uid inKtip- 


Jullni II. and tbe BpBiili)i 

The*PlilBta,orPlnePorsrt.tathseutof tht 
town, n mllu lonr. It ii toll of P«d, pLcturuque . 
wilki, ind li otbirirlis InlMMtliiB from !M mtl- 

iOlly und aHocllElon with miny celebrated DsnitH, I 
hi VfnU M Pttia mirki ■ fiTourlte ruutt of 
Dwle, who ipulu of It ("ramn In rsmo >1 
r««»»Ms')lnhi.DlvtreCom*dy. HereBocoiiMlo 
tHaou thg Keoi of hli ngvel of Nutaglo degll 

vtnlBnl In bl> tabi* of tbo Proud Honoria ponucd 

UDMtor of Thwdars, who coma to her rocne I 

it mtterwl uTarelr di 

intntee wltta 

ti CtDce, latdr 

•ilbeTrHchHllhetiKiu. In lUS.wbrn Oartbaldl 
fave up (he cunmvid of the Ctutf*] ItilUn 
l«a|Br. upon hli tlUrenDn wilh Oeneral Panli. 

HaTmna. In Ibr middle aim. wai a republic 
■■ilw IbF luAiMiee ot Uw Polenia family, one of 

bud'a Imtfber. ra<ilDi,lslhe aubjtrl M 
tHwu epludr la Danle'i /i^ilrnH, Van 

Cupola of tbe Chapel of the Madunnt del Pmoui 
(or fire) wbi<:h took him twcDtf yean lo 
palnl. St. FIJEppo ban paintlapa br CIpnanL C\ 

fll. GiioluDO H OnUa'a 

oriale. worka bj Pa]»«.< 

collen eoXailB paHttBgl 
ciuno. Ci^oaal. Mtlousi. 
■oru at FodL abonl 14M: 

baiUeol IM^ and 
)U*. r»H RaTti 


whiefe wxi deativyad ^ 

uthe Caaar Bv)rla. ■* 

Koute 22.] 



lation, 89,490. The PaUxio Pubblico has a paint- 
ing by F. Francia; at the Capuchin Church is a 
Guercino. There is a statue of Pius VII. (Chiara- 
monte), who was bom here, as was his predecessor, 
Pius yi., who died at Avignon, 1799. In the 
library of the college, collected by the Malatesta 
funily, among other MSS., is the Etymologin 
of St. Isodorus, of the seventh century. The 
Benedictine Church of Madonna del Monte, on a 
hill near the town, is the work of Bramante. Pius 
VII. was a monk in this convent. 

This place was at the mercy of a secret society 
between 1849 and 1864, which in the name of 
liberty perpetrated more than sixty political mur- 
ders, and was not put down till Farini came with 
a itrong band in 1861, and arrested its leaders. 
There are mines of good sulphur in the neigh- 

Between this and Savignano the line passes the 
rivers Pisclatello, Fiumicino, and Rigossa, all of 
which, with the Uso, have at one time or another 
been identified with the famous 

BulliOOllt the boundary line between Cisalpine 
Gaul andUmbria in Italy proper. Ctesar,inB.c.49, 
was at Ravenna when M. Antony came to him with 
news that the Senate had resolved that he should 
dismiss his army or be declared a public enemy. 
Sending on his cohorts before, he came to the 
Rubicon, the boundary of his province. **We may 
go back," he said, ** but when we pass this little 
bridge everything must be done by arms." He 
made up his mind, waded the stream, saying, 
** Alea jacta est" (the die is cast), took Ariminium, 
and in two months was master of all Italy. Close 
to a Roman bridge on the Fiumicino is a pillar of 
modem date, with a pretended Senatus coruultum^ 
prohibiting any general from crossing, under the 
heaviest penalties. This stream, however, into 
which the real Rubicon, which was probably the 
upper part of the Pisclatello, formerly fell, may 
stand for the real boundary with as much pro- 
priety as any other. The next place is 

8. ArcanxelO (Stat.), on the River Uso, 
which is the fourth stream claimed as the Rubicon. 
This little town is the birthplace of Clement XIY. 
(Ganganelli). The next station is 

RIMINI (Stat.) 

The ancient ilHm»'nt«m, in Umbria, where the Via 
Emilia ended, or joined the Via Flaminia. The 
modem boundary of Umbria, or Urbino, is further 

Population, 37,916. 

Hotels: Aqnila d'Oro; Posta. 

Tram/UHMif from the station to the Bathing Estab- 

This ancient Roman town stands on a plain 
•i the nK>uth of the Marecchia (ancient AHtniniut), 
where the Ausa Joins it near the sea, which has 
somewhat retired from the old port made by 
Augustus. The marble stones of the port were 
used in tb^ eoaHractioa of the cathedral . Farther 
down f$M harbour for fOMll crnH. 

Rimini is on the whole Well built ; It is a bishop's 
see, and, besides its remnants of Roman occupa- 
tion, it contains a fine Cathedral, churches, college, 
lyceum, the palace of the Malatesta family (now 
a prison), Lords of Rimini, and remains of their 
fortress, with two open places. OneisthePescheria, 
or Fish Market, surrounded by arcades, in which 
is a pedestal stating that Csesar addressed his 
soldiers here after passing the Rubicon. Suetonius 
and Lucan make him out to have done so, but he 
says nothing of it himself. The other, or Piazza 
Grande, is ornamented with a bronze statue of 
Paolo v., and a fountain. The Fanal and Para- 
diso offer good points of view. 

*Areo dFAitgtuto, or Porta Romana, is an arch 
across the road to Rome, erected in honour of 
Augustus. It is a simple and massive pile of white 
stone, like marble, supported by four Corinthian 
colunms, 82 feet high, with medallions of Venus, 
Jupiter, Neptune, and Minerva. It is 60 feet high 
and 27 thick, and the archway is 31 feet wide, 
being wider than any other in Italy. 

*Pont€ d'Augiato, or bridge which carried the 
^milian way over the Ariminius (now MarecchiaX 
is of five arches, 820 feet long, made of blocks of 
Istrian marble. An inscription states that it was 
finished by Tiberius. There are some slight traces 
of an amphitheatre of Brutus, at the Capuchin 

The Cattedrale, or Tempio dei McUcUetta^ was 
founded in the fourteenth century and rebuilt 
in the fifteenth, by L. B. Albevti, in the mixed 
Gothic and classical style, at the cost of Sigismund 
Malatesta, whose arms (the rose and elephant) and 
family monuments are visible all over the building. 
Under a series of arches down the outside are 
seven Sarcophagi dedicated to certain celebrities 
of this little court, one being that of a Greek 
writer on Aristotle. Near the door is the tomb of 
Isotta, fourth wife of Sigismund Malatesta. two 
others having been poisoned. There are also 
monimients of Sigismund and his son-in-law; a 
portrait of the architect; a fresco by P. della 
Francesca, and bronze bas-reliefs by Ghibcrti. 

AtiS. Oiutiano'sChxiTctXy near Augustus's Bridge, 
is a Martyrdom of St. Julian, by P.Veronese ; and 
at S. Girolamo is a St. Jerome, by Guercino. At 
the Capella S. Antonio, on the canal, St. Anthony 
preached to the fishes. 

The Palazzo del Comune, or Town Hall, contains 
a Pietk by G, Bellini, and a painting by Ghirlan- 
dajo. The Library of 80,000 volumes and MSS. was 
founded in 1617, by A. Gambalunga, a jurist. 
The Palazzo Riiffl is the site of the Cistemi Palace, 
in which Francesca da Rimini and her lover Paolo 
de Malatesta lived, whose guilty passion is cele- 
brated by Dante. Here she was killed in the arma 
of her paramour. It is also celebrated for the 
Council between the Arians and Ath&xsL«:&VAac>^. 

RimVul, %waft 's^w^ *ak^^ -«*» 'Cs\a ^'s^.^,^, 
Vf ink\iv« HaA^ioiv ^^^V^'^v'^^SJ^^iis 

r«Wivrii«iriinih1|ii>llhu Vli'Hln. llttT. nnniiMrle hitiaTcil witb oItIIUt to tM 

lAI'iul It iHllil MHIth wail ul Kiiulul up tha <""^>«>t rqnbllc. 080(4 t« onliiri:* lli Wrltorf, 

nUn ..( Hi* Auh <dlll|t.iiLi. In 4 luiun, Amu "I'lch wu dneUDal, utd i«Te It foar t)l«ai H 

IkoM*) li llitt r.m.iui iltU» cmmim. 

. -, . - „ A trutr wu conelndM In an«[ormln ISTSfttr 

BBPDILIO OF UM ■iSUTO, riKulUInc uul HUIliwlli«r«IMion« l)al*i:«ii tb< 

WI1I-I1 iii'.'ii|iliH II aiiuauf tt Hivin nill« un tka "'• f.''|K:|;;"' „",'„l'"'f,,i'";\j'i,"^ 77ji'"'iafc'^ 't 

nfii" (i.HiI.'.fly mhS"!IKu "fluno^ «buli " ^■•i"-i" !■ I' I ■' i>:Mv.-niai( (i.(]Uffl for 

llwaiMK'r* lit m.-IUrlfnit lunalr, wbutiM " i l«fH, anJolwy-,. 

• ■tNI«fuiliuiMuMnni*T>aill<dl(<imBiuiiil "'k:' "■ ""''""■ H|a 

I thirlTl luii'a tHrHDuMou. 
MbM iir tM ■lint, ant 

_ r _,.. luwarm*( 

HiaMtl^ wMahniBnlHiiiiidivinaiiirflkSMiBiiMM. 

'■-"- "lail IM I* Itiuk, tha mt of mm 

.L^. .... „f ^. 

TuiUAiMi'ii LmttM Jemiur- 
woth-wnt ul 8. MarlH la tha 
ID HRi* Hi 

LHuriw aiulHlni'- ihi'lait hrlBir kiw In raid I'uunt I'airilMln^ Thn «n(nirica In wUt 

■ri Araraltil In ilir n-rki iiiir linnrli iir xiiim y»«>K. HHl wa* ulird u;i irhh Itw afli 

iiHhrtuiv ■• ikiuitvr vhtrli I1 a iniTrruunii I'anlbial R-ihan iuhI Ibr lUannaHl nKklue, 

ii.ii.ilj- In Ih.- ri^i vr 'lialj-. *ot •» hy (hr l-or*. w.1 illnl ITOl] 

('.wfiiililnilii.n'iinMli^ lnilirl\.anrlIi'lMnl-fr 

«* \t»* «t i>obM, ■ .liiilnral^hnl rlilun. awl a 
uly rainll^, l<r II. KMiun.i. 

r Rluilnl, tli» nil w 
umn »[iy. cU»m> trt Ihtf c«l"r 

'u Oattollw «at) 

mlHlHii u[ II Suu 

•».«i..-ii«v».i»i-«.i«ih..«(ivauiyiiKT|.»,ikr f""?"' »■' »Peii».w"'h.<«K». ™*jp.«. 

fiia**). -lM«y Biiwbm. wil'irt, •hhII |ii.i.rt<.. lVl'liUil.fli.i|t.imiinno. W.S.*. 

liK>,aiH irdJan, t.a*ihl(J ul nirh; Md 1^ i«.> ti l< walM mttaJ. villi rAvt^Mf ortrtu, an.! 

t'i|.|iauil>i It.vnwulr.qiiiKf.iihtichaafTTVcrr li btad i^T a nnnhirA nut ■ Mihdp'xr* ll <oa- 

Mt iihia/u ^JitJg,. anj Jivivr, nihn «■>■ Iv tahnibfuUiulaiwuf tlivl>ak*>.( VTldiw.>4 )hr 

f""yfrn ^nrlfntj^ihrrryfir*, Flimhli alitmHk MMurr. inik'naiu. Kim * ikw* ti ■ 

.■.AWAi^il3^'^'*'l»**«""**WI**nkll iMii M»»iw«l VAtawVni-i l-alh-lriV uklwoAiw 

' A,fS2?CL"^*""' '■^"'W •l»'i «'" e,p»iiJlt«r. rtjhi n.«rA«. «»< rt ■.WA. ».*"-«-* ka 

Itoute 22.] 

sue HARtNO, PlBAttO, ViLNO, StKiaAGLU. 


with 50,000 Tolimies and many MSS., especially 
one of Tasso. Pictures and a bait of Napoleon 
by CanoTa. Museum of medals, bequeathed by 
Olirieri, the antiquary and a native. Collection 
of majolica; this class of pottery came to great 
perfection at Pesaro. All these collections are at 
the Ateneo, in Via Mazza. 

Collenuccio, a chronicler of the fifteenth century, 
and Romini, were natiyes. Its Albanella and S. 
Giorese wines are sent to Egypt. 

Good olires and figs are grown here and coal 
has been found. In the neighbourhood is the 
YiUa Bergami, which belonged to Queen Caroline, 
when Princess of Wales. The grounds contain 
two monuments to her daughter, the Princess 
Charlotte, and her brother, the Duke of Bruns- 
wick, who fell at Waterloo. 

Vffla Imperiale was a seat of the Dukes of Ur- 
bino. At Casino del Barchetto (now a farm) 
Bernardo Tasso, the father of Torquato, resided, 
and composed his Amadis. S. Angelo, about 8 
miles olf (where the best figs come from), is the 
birthplace of Gioranni Branca, who is claimed as 
the author of a work on steam, printed as early as 

Pesaro by diligence, in 5 hours, to Urbino. 
(See Route 28.) 

The next place is 

FaXLO (Stat.) Called by the Romans Fanum 
Fortutue^ from a temple erected to commemorate 
the defeat of Asdrubal on the Metaurus, near the 
month of which it stands, in a charming situation. 
Its fort, restored by Paul V., is now useless. Popu- 
lation of commune, 21,787. 

It is walled like the other towns in Italy, and 
one of its gates was a triumphal arch over the Via 
Flaminia, dedicated to Augustus, and restored by 
Constantine. It Is a bishop's see. In the market- 
place is a fountain, with a statue of Fortune, 
allusive to the old name of the town, which is 
also perpetuated in the 

DwmOt dedicated to S. Fortunato. It has four 
lions in the Gothic front, and Domenichino's St. 
Mary and L. Carracci's Madonna. 

S. Agostino has Guerclilo's Guardian Angel, and 
8. FranceMOy some fine Gothic tombs of the Mala- 
testa family. 

At Santa Maria Nuova are Perugino's Madonna, 
a Visitation, by G. Santi (Raphael's father), and a 
Pietk, attributed to Raphael himself. 

8. Patemiano has Guercino's Sposalisio (Mar- 
riage), and others by C. Bonone, d'Arpine, Ac. 

8, Pietro has an Annunciation by GuidQ. 

The CoUeffio once contained Domentchlno's fine 
David with Goliath's Head (which has been 

temporarily located elsewhere), and the Hospital 
(or S. Croce Church), has a Madonna by G. Santi. 

Fano has a good theatre and public library. 
Small fish, of the sort called cavallo marino, from 
the likeness to a horse's head, are taken along the 
coast. There is a road to Fossombrone and 
Urbino, and over the Apennines to Arezzo. (See 
Route 28.) From Fossombrone over the Furlo 
Pass to Fossato. Diligence daily from Fano to 

From Fano, on the line, cross the Metauro, or 
Metaunts, on whose banks the Consuls Livy and 
Nero defeated Asdrubal, 207 b.c, and so turned 
the tide against Hannibal and (Darthage. Then 

MarOtta (Stat.), near Cape Marotta. Cross 
the Rivers Casiano and Misa, to 

Siniga«rlia (Stat.), also called Senigallia. 
The Sena Oalliea of the Romans, plundered by 
Pompey; the birthplace of Madame Catalaniand 
of the late Pope, Pio None. Pius IX., whose 
name was Giovanni Maria, was born 1792, of the 
house of Mastai-FerrettI, a noble family long 
resident here ; became bishop of Imola, 1832, and 
was elected Pope, 1846. A cottage outside the 
town, in which his foster-nurse lived, records that 
Pio Nono was suckled there. It is noted for a free 
mart, or Fair, formerly of much resort, called the 
Fair of S. M. Magdalene, beginning 30th July, 
and chartered as far back as 1200. Traders came 
to' it from many parts ; the whole town and 
neighbourhood were for a time alive with business, 
and its small port was full of shipping. Popula- 
tion, 9,602. 

It has a fortress; Cathedral of S. Pietro; leveral 
churches, that of Delle Grazie, outside the walls, 
having a painting said to be by P. Perugino, and 
a Madonna by P. della Francesca. 

In 1502, Sinigaglia was taken by treachery, by 
the infamous CsBsar Borgia, and its defenders 
massacred in cold blood, with their leaders, 
Oliveretto, Vitelii, and the brothers Orsini. They 
were mercenaries who had formerly served 
under him. Machiavelli, the envoy for the 
Florentine Republic, gives an account of the 

After Sinigaglia, the line passes 

Montemardano (Stat.), not far from the 
mouth of the Esino, the ancient uEsio^ with the 
bold promontory of Ancona in view. 

Falconara (Stat.) 

Here the junction rail to Foligno and Rome falls 
in. (See Route 29.) Then comes 

Ancona (Stat.), wtUch is by the water side. 
(See Route 28.) 








HOTJTB i33- 

plM ^ Empoll uul Florenoa. 
riu. (BtatJ 

facing tht Amo; * 
™( OJfc«.-Nciir Ponie di Mmm. 
Ji^F/iri C*ar(*, PlMii S. Lnda, Vi 

• ChiV O^pta of S 


huQ>«. It Is n«rl7 6 mlln round by ths wbUh, 

Karden groaod. Though not in rnin, yet It hu a 
look gf [>ded gruidenr and want ol llf^ vliicti 

morUL""!! hM'neier rcMTweifflie de«lrdclli>n gl 
lU port hy the Gtnoae \a IWO, »nd lu flnal irab- 
Jei!UontgFJorpnce,14«. ThehirbottrdiKlTnUicn 
by UiB nenocH mn rentored ISM. Ittpg[iDUtlgn 

gToira In tlietticett. LlkePiidns,»ndigiucgther 
old Igwni which hiTSiccn Iheirprlioe, it Is now In 

nomtierot bfggir.loboiJcoii. As . rwidenca, It 

WHk Irnigi; but tb* rdny days ue estlmited it 
oDBln ibreti,uid EHoaDDnfl InctiMstforty-ievtn. 
ronyth, who lli»d i-t" *ova lliD», Mypi ft* 
»|B "('•MvarVrMli'olf/l'fniuiddn^diTtcd* 

dump and clota. Tb< cUmata, In 
squbkinluly." Avant 

:sDsl lo'Lrghorn was cut hy "ft-'cdcMcIL" 

wu the 9ldo>t, buUt 1191, on Ive inhak rmlared by 
old Torre On«lf«, In fiiml o/ u'e CltadfUm. 

Pout di y«io. or IheOld Bridge, ao callod. It in 
the middle at tho lunctlon uf the chief thurougb- 
farea leadiug iiotLti to Lucoa Ciate and sonth to 
the tailway Xatlun. It Is dose to Ibe Dogana and 
l-oet USim. and leplacu a [orinci bridge -A ana 
arch. Two eenluites bai^ the fine niuily cam* 
of tbe Battaglle del Ponte used lo uke placchen, 
when Uie youth ol tbe town cither imanned, or 

mgck figbl and wctMicg match. At tbe tooth 
]606,byBuuulalcoll, ucw'a Cgni Market, ' Near 

allc Fiagge, and not (ar from a tmall ancient toH. 
I tbe new Pmit di &>(AWno. 

I At the trtcimlal testlTal of the patron sahn, l«ll 
Jonn the qnafs and brld^H (It. U^UA.'o^ 

I 01 lb* wilB ■« My** «»*?i?*\^'^ 



[Section 2. 

paloni*! sUtue of L«opold I. Piazsa de' Cavalieri, 
■unrounded by S. Stefano and other fine boildinf s, 
and haring a fountain witb FrancaTilla's statue 
of Cosimo I. Near the Orologio is a white house, 
with grreen shatters, the site of the famous Torre 
dfl Fame^ celebrated by Dante, and in Reynolds's 
picture, in which Ugolino della Oheradesca was 
■tarred to death, in the thirteenth century. Being 
appointed Captain-General, and having ruled tyran- 
nically, he was seized in an insurrection headed 
by the archbishop and confined here, with his two 
sons and two nephews. The archbishop threw 
the key into the river and left them to die of 

Piazza di S. Silreetro and Piazza dl 8. Niccola 
face those churches. The centre of interest, how- 
erer, is 

The Piazza del Duomo, at the north-west comer 
of the city, near Porta Nuova. containing its four 
chief attractions— the Cathedral, Baptistery, Campo 
Santo (or Churchyard), and the Belfry or Leaning 
Tower, all here concentrated together; **all built 
of the same marble, all varieties of the same archi- 
tecture, all venerable with years, and fortunate 
both in their society and their solitude.*'— /(DriyM. 

*Ii6aBi2lg Tower, or detached Belfry of the 
Cathedral, Is a round building 62 feet diameter 
up to the top storey, which is reduced to 40 
feet, and was added about 1460. It is 180 feet 
high, and declines 18 feet from the perpendicular. 
It was begun 1174 by William of Innsbruck and 
Bonano da Pisa, of marble and granite, in eight 
storeys of pillared arches or open galleries (207 
pillars in all), divided by cornices; and is a grace- 
ful and firm structure, showing no signs of decay 
though upwards of 660 years old. The lower 
storey is 86 feet; the rest about 20 feet. It shows 
signs of having begun to settle about the third 
storey. 8ome euppose (as they suppose of the 
Bologna towers) that it was designed to lean over; 
but this ophiion is disproved by the fact that the 
lowest row of pillars is sunk in the earth on one 
side, and the mouldings and stairs are all inclined. 
Besides this, among the carvings of St. Ranierl, in 
the CamiK) Santo, done 100 years later, there is 
a picture of the tower standing upright. In fact, 
the soil is so soft and yielding that water is 
found at the depth of a few feet ; and the Obser- 
vatory in the next street, and a neighbouring belfry 
both incline as well as the tower. The ascent 
(fee, 60 c.) is by 294 steps. In the upper storey 
are seven bells, the he avient (six tons) being placed 
on the oflTsido to balance the inclination the other 
way. The view takes in Leghorn and the Medi- 
terranean. This tower is memorable for the use 
which Galileo made of it in his experiments on 
failing bodies. 

The venerable *Catliedral i« a five-aisled cross, 

310 feet long, with a nave 106 feet wide, having a 

jSjtt wooden roof, while the aisles are vaulted, 

rgmtlngr oa InBuJated colamnB, which by their 

'9tjr mad eolonr produce m Atf effect It waa built 

riJS, by BuBchetto, or Bueketufi, but nuiiiy 

•-rv 00n/ed, BO tbmt the i/iief «re wrren. 

In front it looks like a small temple placed on a 
larger, with three doors and five rows of false archei 
and pilasters (fifty-eight in all), one over the other, 
which are carried down the sides, so that the total 
number of small columns is 450. Every part of the 
exterior is covered with striped marble, ornamented 
and coloured in an elegant style. 

"It is certainly one of the finest and most 
complete churches in Italy, and the typical 
example of a style that arose here out of the clas- 
sical during the dark ages. It shows a con- 
siderable tendency towards the Gothic, especially 
in the extension of the transepts and apse."— 
Ferguston. But it hardly differs internally from 
Roman examples, ** except in the introduction of 
bold and well-defined triforium galleries over the 
pier arches." The arches are carried all round, 
and rest on columns of the Greek order, on some of 
which are figures of lions, dogs, boars, and men. 
The bronze doors are carved with subjects from 
the Life of Christ and the Virgin, by Giovanni da 
Bologna (1602), and replace others burnt 1696, 
except an ancient one in the south transept (1181). 
This interesting front has been restored. 

The inside is gorgeous with gilding, sculpture, 
and paintings, and a hundred rich glass windows 
of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Columns 
of red granite, with antique bases and capitals, run 
down the aisles, supporting rows of arches for the 
triforium. Its lofty painted cupola is lined with 
gilding and mosaic, by Riminaldi (1630). At the 
east end is a large mosaic (by Gaddi) of Christ, the 
Virgin, and St. John. The inUid work of the sUlls 
in the choir deserves notice. There are twelve 
beautiful altars, designed by M. Angelo, or by 
Staggi. The Sacrament Chapel has a silver altar, 
the gift of Cosimo I. It is covered with bas-reliefs, 
and cost 86,000 crowns. 

The high altar is splendid with inlaid marble 
and two porphyry columns, one of which holds the 
bones of S. Ranierl, the patron saint. Here are A. 
del Sarto's St. Catherine and St. Agnes, also his 
Virgin and Saints ; Ghirlandajo's Angels; and Bec- 
cafumi's Moses and Aaron. 

In S. Ranieri's Chapel is a mosaic by Gaddi. 
A statue of Mars, found near this, has been baptized 
and turned into a San Piso, or Potitus. An ancient 
Greek Madonna is shown for a fee. There arc 
monuments of Archbishops Rinuccini and G. dc* 
Medici. The pulpit has some work by Giovanni 
da Pisa ; and in the sacristy are baa-reliefs by his 
pupil, AgneUi. The bronze lamp in the nave is 
said to have suggested to Galileo the theory of the 
pendulum. Facing the cathedral is the ancient 

^BaptlBtery, where all the baptisms take 
place; begun 1168, by Dioti Salvi; a rich and 
complete structure in a mixed Romanesque and 
Gothic stylo, cased with marble. It is circular, 
and over 100 feet in diameter inside. '*The 
central part, 60 feet wide, is a circular colonnade, 
with four polygonal piers and pairs of pillars 
between tVietn. ThV« nupports a lofty cone, 176 

Route 33.] 


ntx—cjMTo s^H 

MindceTUlnlT ^ Thtrc 
t. EiUnullj I tt,b\e w 

■lUTEquiiUf DmBmmUd; and > beugon Fajplt, Coante 
emnd wltb bu-nlltfi, on nliis rlcta miibl* | Vv»i. 

Fluiu>.19ea, It ullTeKDlptor, Ha «u Oia father | Ona rel 

of GloTannl. the arehtMct o( [b« vaicrable hour, ci 

•CunpoBantOor HoljPlcLd.ontlienorttaglde - Florent 

of tba Htbednl. the old borinl-ptK*, eaimanded , IMO. ■ 

n The I '^*" ' 

reilored in IMS xn 

Idownwllh Bft;ihlplo*dio( isU broni 
ntlna by ijT:liblBbap Ubaldo. 1338. n 

feet, sppsrentJT by n 
l..boollMfeel. Therei 
rsiey nnedreogle. 11 )i 

Id. U^ aim tliat Initli d[ < 
■riaili ilz ul baolHd br an 


d iQrniDg to iba left. Ihey run in <b 


l"l'n the«inlh->.Ml catotr—HMOTy 

o( Jo 

■o pletoTB, by atotw (IMO). Four 


3. m the w»t corridor— HlMoiy of 

It) (.c 

oor freacoeeV Plelro <U Orvlelro 


flcco (IMO-M>. Til, :-Th6 Univeroe 


ulhof Abel; Delngc. 

i. In the re« of the corridor, t-rmly 

«.by n. Gotuli (Ufle-M), Til. : -Dru 



y QothlE TiDdon 
■arcophagL, mnlL 

portrslUof theHodklfiuDllr; Adoration of Hi". 
Higl. above the Anunaoatl Chapel, which hn I 
frescoeibyGlaUoandOtiddl: Abraham refiuo t'> 
■doreBelnai Abraham and Lot InBgypt; DellTi-r- 
anca of Lot. and HelchUedak'e SacrtAce; Kini.i- 
lion of Hagar; Dcatmctlon of Sodom; Sacrlitii- 
of Abraham; luae and Rebecca : Birth of JifoW 

ing of Ei'au and Jai^ob, and Uinali'i Abd'octiuK ; 

tomb of GoimIC iho painter (UIS) ^'moi*. in 

a,byBnffalmacco.DrA.Vite; Canel la Grande, 
th Olunta da Pi9a> ChrIM on the Crou (DMi. 
t In the sonlh corridor, east comer— Trluniiph 
Deal^ by A. Orcagna. a remarkable picture 



[Section 2. 

(1840<^), Tiz., his Conycrsion, Pilgrimage, Temp- 
tation, Embarkation, Dcatli, and Miracles. 

& Tliree of the Life of St. Ephesos, by S. Are- 
tino (three others are destroyed). 

The Campo Santo "exhibits the art growing 
through Bcreral ages, from the simplicity of Indi- 
gence to the simplicity of strength. As yon follow 
the chronology of the wall (1380-1670) yon catch 
perspectire entering into the pictures, deepening 
the baek-gronnd and then adjusting the groups 
to the {dans; yon see the human figure first 
straight, or rather stretched, then fore-shortened, 
and then enlarged, rounded, salient, free, various, 
expresslre." — Fomyth. The artists hare giren 
ns the dress, furniture, and the humours of their 
own day, and introduced portraits of illustrious 
Tuscans, according to a common practice. 

ClmrclieB. — Some of the most noticeable 
churches, after the Duomo, are the following: — 

Santa Caterina. in the north-east of the city, was 
the ehurcli of the Dominican Convent, in which St. 
Thomas of Aquinas lived, and was built in 1369 
by O. AqucUi. It contains F. Trainl's Christ and 
St. Thomas, with Popes, Bishops, ftc; St. Thomas's 
Pulpit; N. da Pisa's statues of Faith and Charity, 
and his tomb of Archbishop Saltarelli (1843); 
Vanni's Santa Caterina receiving the Stigmata. 

iSan/a Chiara is the church of the hospital, near 
the Duomo. 

S. Francesco, near Santa Caterina, has old 
frescoes by T. Gaddi, Bartoli, Ac. (al>out 1890). 

*Santa Maria della Spina, on the south quay, is 
a beautiful little gem of white marble, begun 1230, 
and MO called from a thorn of Christ^s Crown, 
brought from Palestine by a Pisa merchant. It is 
chiefly in the Gothic stylo, but has some round 
arches. Two good statues by G. da Pisa, over the 
front, in riciily canopied niches; and within are 
X. da Pisa's statues of the Madonna del Flore, St. 
Peter, and St. John the Baptist. 

iS.JUTar/ino, in the south-east, has PalmaGiovane's 
St. Benedict among the Thorns. Kear this is a 
small statue, let into the wall, of a certain Chentiai, 
a heroine who once saved Pisa from a night attack 
of the Saracens. 

S. Uichele in Borgo, of the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries, has a ceiling cracked by an 
earthquake in 1846, on ancient crypt, and a monu- 
ment of G. Grandi, a matliematician. 

S. Niccolb, or Nicola, near the theatre, has N. da 
IMsa's campanile, a little out of the perpendicular, 
and a spiral staircase witliin. 

S. Paolo, oT Duomo Vteckio, near the Porta a Mare, 
0. tine old ciiurch of the twelfth century, lately 
roHtoreii, with a sarcophagus of J. Borgondio, a 
Hcliolur of the twelfth century, and granite pillars 
in the aisles. 

S. Pietro in Vincx>li, built in 1100 over an earlier 
church, whicli has lieen disused. 

8. Sepolcro, near Ponte di Mezzo, a round church 

/?/" tht* twelfth century t built for the Knightk 

f^'^?/^'^" ''^ ^- ^^^'' ^•UJeo'B Hon»$ (bom h#re 

^Od^jJa ii0ur it. • 

B. SUfano, near Via del Borgo, and the Piasxa d$ 
CavoUert^ belongs to the Khights of the Order of 
St. Stephen, instituted In 1861 oy Coslmo I. to flglit 
against pirates; and was built 1060^96 by Vatalt, 
with the palazzo adjoining It. Beside a fiM 
organ, it contains several trophies taken fronp mt 
Turks; also Cigoirs Instttntlon of tlie Order? 
Ligozzi's Battles of Prevesa and Lepanto; ' Ol 
Allori's Embarkation of Catherine de* Medici; ^. 
da Empoli*s Attack on Bona; and |3roniino*p 

PalaC6B.— -Palofzo Carooana^ formerly tha seat 
of the order, is now a normal sdiool. The front {% 
decorated with Taeca't bast of O>simo II., boats of 
five other members, and with arabesouea in »gr€^f- 
fitto, ».«., scratched in the wUte plaster to thf 
black ground below. Fountain, and statue of 
Cosimo II., by Franca^ iUa. 

Palano Agoitini, Gothic of 18th century. Catth 
Ussero in the ground floor. 

Fakuio Seotto was built by one of the richest 
men in Tuscany, who began lift as a lazxaroiu^ 
and postboy. 

Falauo TotcanMi, on the north auay, was called 
Lat^franeM, when the residence of Byron in 18i3, 
after he left Ravenna. It was built by M. Angelo. 

Palatto Lanfreducchi, or UpetzingM, on the lu^h 
quay, has a chain over the front with the motto 
''alia giomaU" (daily), and Guide's Earthly and 
Heavenly Love in its picture gallery. 

The *Univertitp, founded in the year 1339 by B. 
della Gherardesea, was afterwards settled in the 
present building or Saptenza, near 8. Frcdlano's 
Clmrch, begun in 1493, and enlarged by Cosimo III. 
It was so well endowed that the average salary of 
its professors was 3,000 crowns, when Macl&iavelli, 
secretary to the Florentine Republic, received 
only 180. QalUto^ bom at Pisa in 1591, and the 
founder of experimental philosophy, was mathe- 
matical lecturer at this university, which claims 
to have first introduced (through liConardo 
Bonacci) Algebra into Europe from the East, 
under ttie name of '*regola della coso," the cosa or 
thing being the unknown quantity. The Biblio- 
teca has 60,000 volumes, chiefly law and polemics, 
and MSS. by Grandi, the mathematician; also a 
statue of Galileo, by E. Demi, in 1848, in conse- 
quence of the part taken by tlie students, the 
government moved certain university cliairs to 
Siena, which was a great blow to Pisa. 

In Via Santa Maria is the Muneum of Natural 
Ilittory, with a Cabinet of Physic, an Observatory, 
or Torre della Specolo, and a Botanic Garden, 
established as far back as 1644, containing many 
exotics. Cesalpbia was a director. 

Theatre, near Via Santa Maria, and the Univer- 
sity. Aceaiiemia di Belle Arti, in Vlii di S. Frediano, 
has a collection of old Pisa and Florence musters — 
Giotto, Lippi, Cimabue, Gozzoli. Giunta da Pisa, 
Memmi, &c. Tbe authenticity of some is doubted. 

^oarthc Porta di Lucca are some remain? of 
baths, called Bagni di Ifh'&nt, alttost the oniy 
v^st\g« ol Komaiv otcuv^Wnv. 

Route 24.] 



About 3 miles west of Pisa, towards the coast, 
is the Royal Acclimatisation Farm of 

II Oambo (formerly Le Cascine), so called from a 
fort of that name on the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean, and belonging to the King of Italy; near 
which Shelley was drowned, 1822. It has a 
fine ayenne (3 miles long) of elms and poplars; 
and numbers 2,000 wild cows, 1,500 horses, and 200 
camels employed in the work of the farm. I'he 
sea has retired here, and loft a sandy soil, which 
is suited to the work of the camels kept here. 
They were first imported from the Levant by a 
Grand Prior of the Order of St. John. To Ihc 
south is the mouth of the Arno, and the ancient 
Porto Pisano. 

La Certota della Valle Orazina a Carthusian 
Conyent, is under Monte Verruca, a fine r«nge of 
liiUs, 1,760 feet high, 6 miles east of Pisa. 

Pisa, in the twelfth century, was distinguished 
for its commerce and maritime enterprise, and the 
number of its galleys, by which it made many suc- 
cessful attempts against the Turks and Moors. 
Along with Genoa it conquered Sardinia, Corsica, 
and the Balearic Islands, and even attempted to 
reduce Sicilv. After frequent wars with its rival, 
Genoa finally obtained the supremacy in 1284, at 
the naval battle of Meloria ; 13,000 prisoners were 
taken to Genoa, and its hai'bour at Port Pisano, 
or Calambrone, was filled up. Having sided with 
the Ghibelline or Imperial party, it was in 1445 
seized by the Florentines, and thenceforth be- 
came subject to the Medici. 

From Pisa there are two railway routes to Flor- 
ence; 1st: by way of Empoli, 49 miles; 2nd: by 
way of Lucca, 62} miles. (See Route 24.) 

1st. By way of Empoli, up the richly-cultivated 
valley of the yellow Arno, which winds among 
Tineyards and fields of com and flax. 

The stations are — 


Ehnpoli 29i 

Montelupo 33 

Signa 40} 

S. Donnino 4S 

Florence 49 



Navacchio ff 

Cascina 8 

Pontedera ...m...... 12| 

S. Romano 20 

S. Miniato 28| 

From the terminus at Porta Florentina, to 

NayacoMO (Stat.) Across the Arno 
Monte Verruca, 1,760 feet high. 

Pontedera (Stat.), population, 12,013, where 
the Era falls into the Arno. There is a road to 
Volterra and the copper and borax works in its 

8. Miniato (Stat.) An old cathedral town 
(population, 16,739) on the hills, with a conspicuous 
church and tower. Here, in 1799, Napoleon paid a 
visit to a Canon Bonaparte, a connection of his 

Bmpoli (Stat.), on the Arno, where the rail- 
way to Siena and Rome branches off. (See Route 
36). Population, 17,207. It stands in a fertile 
pUin, and is memorable for a meeting of the 
Ghibellinefl^ in 1260, after the battle of Monte 
Aperto, on the Arbla, and the defeat of the 

Florentines, when a proposal for razing Florence 
to the ground was successfully opposed by 
Farinata degli Uberti, as described in Dnnte's 

It hasan ancient collegiate Church, of theelevcnt h 
century, with frescoes by Giotto. Jacopo da Em- 
poli, tbc. ; and nn equally ancient Baptistery, with 
an altar-piece by Ghirlandajo. 

Montelupo * (Stat.) Populntfon, 5,859 80 
called from a castle of that name (meaning Wolf's 
Hill), built on the Arno, by the Florentines. 12(3, 
to \vatch another one opposite it. called Caprqf'a 
(the goat), which belonged to their rivals of Pis- 
toja. Terra cotta vases aic made. Near this ii 
Ambrogiana, a villa of the late Grand Duke. 
Cross by an iron bridge to the north bank of the 
Anio, which here enters the narrow defile of Gon- 
folina, between rocks of sandstone. Then cross 
the Ombrone, which comes down from Pistoja and 
the Apennines to the north. (See Route 21.) 

Signa (Stat.) A fortified town (population, 
7,669), on the Arno. Cross the Hisenzinio to 

S. Donnino (Stat.) ; the next one to 

Florence, which is entered near the Cascina. 
(See Route 26.) 

Pisa to Lucca, Pistoja, and Florence. 

Pisa to Florence, by way of Lucca and Pistoja, 
62i milcji, by rail in four hours. (See Bradshcnv's 
Continental Guide). 

The stations are — 


S. Giuliano 5^ 

Rigoli 7i 

Ripafratta 9| 

Lucca 15 

Porcari 20i 

S. Salvatore ... 20^ 

Pescia 29| 

Borgo-a-Buggiano. . 81 1 
Montecatini 33f 


Serravalle 88| 

Pistoja 42 

Montale A 47 

Prato 62 

Calenzano 55^ 

Sesto ."js 

Castello 60 

Rifredi 61^ 

Florence 62^ 

Pieve-Mons 34^ 

Leaving Pisa, near the Porta Nuova terminus, 
the first place is 

S. Oinliano (Stat), near Bagni San Giuliano, 
or the warm baths of St. Julian, known to 
the Romans as the Aquae Pitanfs^ and revived 
by the Countess Matilda, in the twelfth century. 
Temperature, 84' to 109*. They are useful in com- 

?laints of the stomach, rheumatism, gout, dsc. 
'wo Bath Houses, and private Baths named after 
Jupiter, Mars, &c. 

Bipafiratta (Stat), on the Serchlo, near 
some old towers, and the Monte Dicro Castle, ou 
the Pisan Hills, to the right. After this comes 

LUCCA (Stat), 

The ancient Lvca, on the Auur, now the Serchlo. 
Over the principal gate U <.\vfe^«^^ ^''XiJssfs5\»jfer 

Hotels : Cxocfc ^V ^*\\.twv ^^'^^^l^^.^?^^^^ 




UiuMibuus to aiui from the railway station, ov 
cents.; street carriages, 1 lira the course or 8 
lire the hour; to put down and take up at night, 
5 lire; to the Baths, 12 lire. 

At the Baths^ 16 miles distant, is a Resident 
Ena^ish Physkian. By tramway and omnibus, 3 lire. 

*Chi^ directs o/xVo/ic*.— Duomo, S. Fredlano, S. 
Michele, S. Romano, Public Palace. 

Lucca " rindustriosa " is a clean and well-built 
city, shut in by ramparts, planted with trees, 
about 9 miles in circuit, and standing in a rich, 
marshy plain, cultivated like a garden, to the foot 
of the surrounding hills. A large proportion of 
its industrious population are image-makers and 
plasterere. There are manufactories of silk, linen, 
and paper. It is the oldest seat of the silk trade 
(1814) in Italy. 

It is the seat of a province, and an archbishop, and 
was for a time the head of a small duchy. create<l 
by Napoleon for his sister Elisa ; which in 1847, on 
the death of his widow, Maria Louisa. Duchess of 
Parma, was annexed to Tuscany. For two centuries 
previously it had been governed by an oligarchy 
like that of Venice. 

The chief buildings, Post Office, Theatre. Ac, are 
near the Cathedral and Palazzo Pubblico. which 
face a large open Piazza Grande, and a statue of 
Maria Louisa, 1843. In Piazza Mercato, near 
Porta Santa Maria, on the north side, are the 
rooiains of a Roman Amphitheatre of fifty-four 
arches. Water is supplied by an aqueduct on 459 
arches, 3 miles long, built 1823-32, by Nottolini. It 
has fifty churches, and many palaces. 

The *Z>tM>mo, or Cathedral of S. Martino, near 
Piazza Grande, is a cross, in the Italian-Gothic 
•tyle, with three aisles, circular and pointed arches 
in the nave, and painted windows; and was 
founded 106Q, by Bishop Badagio, afterwards Pope 
Alexander II. The front by Guidetto (1204), has 
three galleries and rows of arcades, and a porch 
carved with subjects from the life of St. Martin, 
including figures of griffins, serpents, lions, eagles, 
Ac, and St. Regrulus in controversy with the 
Arians; above which is Miccolb da Pisa's Descent 
from the Cross ; and below it, Giovanni da Pisa's 
Adoration of the Magi, much defaced. 

It contains several works of a Lucca sculptor of 
he fifteenth century, Matteo Civitali ; as the mar- 
ole pulpit, 1498 ; a monument of P. Noceto, 1472, 
•Aeretary to Nicholas V.; tomb of Count Bertlni ; 
ftngels in the Sacrament Chapel; statues of St. 
Sebastian and St. John the Baptist, in the Chapel 
of St. Regulus, a small domed octagon of marble 
and porphyry, resting on eight pillars. Another 
St. Sebastian is in the Volto Santo Chapel, an 
octagon, so called because of a miraculous crucifix 
found in 782, which is commemorated in C. Ros- 
•elli's fresco on the door. 

Among the paintings are—Passignano's Nativity 

and his Crucifixion; F. Zucohero's Adoration of 

tbeMsgl; TJntoretto^a Last Supper; Qhirlandajo's 

JUddonna and Saints: Olovannl da Bologna's 

MesurrmeUoB, and D. </• Foitorra*« Santa Petro- 

[Section S. 

nilla.iu the Libeity Chapel, which commemorate! 
the deliver}- of Lucca from the Pisana. by Chariei 
IV.. in 1369: Fra Bartolommeo'8 Madonna, in the 

The archbishop is allowed to dress in porple, 
like n cardinal, and all its canons are mitred. 

The Crocc del Pisani. a richly ornamented piece 
of goldsmiths' work of the fourteenth c«itary, ia 
shown upon application. 

5. Carmine, near the Piazza Mercato, belongs to 
the Carmelites, and has a Madonna, by Perugino. 

& Crist<ifor<K with a half-Lombard, half-Gothic 
front, is the burial-place of M. Civitali, the scolptor, 

5^. Crocifiaso de' Bianchi. An Assumption by 

& Francesco, near Porta Santa Maria, bnilt 1442, 
now a magazine. Here is buried Castraccio 
Castracani, who delivered Lucca from the Plsans, 
and governed it till his death, 1828. There Is an 
inscription on the wall. 

S. Oiovanni, near the Duomo, built In the twelfth 
centurj', and joined through the north transept to 
the city Baptistery, a square vaulted pile. In the 
nave is a head of St. John the Baptist in a char^r. 
The small church of S. Oiusto has a good porch. 

Santc Maria in Corte OrkuuliM is attached to 
the Convent of della Madre di Dio, founded in 
the seventeenth century, by Giovanni Leonard! 
a native of Lucca ; built 1187, and rebuilt 1662. 
L. Giordani's Assumption at the high altar. A 
librarj' of 20,000 volumes at the convent. 

*S. FrediawK or Basilica Longobardomm, close 
to the ramparts, near Piazza Mercato, is the largest 
and most ancient church after the cathedral, and 
iscited as a completeexampleof the Lombard style. 
It was built in the seventh century (686) out of 
the stones of the neighbouring amphitheatre which 
the Lombards had raised ; but to make room for 
the walls, it was »o altered in the twelfth century 
that the apse stood where the front now stands! 
This front has a mosaic of Christ on a Throne. A 
tall Campanile adjoins it. The interior consists of 
throe aisles; the middle one fluikod bv round 
arches, resting on twenty-two fine columns of 
various coloured marbles. The baptismal font is 
carved by Niccolb Civitali, the nephew of Matthew • 
the old one by a certain Maglster Robert. * 

Among the paintings are— Franola's Coronation 
of the Virgin ; and Aspcrtlno's freseoes relating to 
the finding of the Volto Santo and to the Miraclci 
of St. Fredlano, in the Augustine Chapel. In the 
Sacrament Chapel, carvinffi by Delia Querela 
1422. ' 

iSr. Maria Foris-Fortam, near Porta Santa Croce, 
in the east wall, built in the ninth century, and 
enlarged 1516. Here are Guercino's Madonna with 
Bt Francis and Alexander II.; and a Santa Lucia. 

*S. Michele, near Piazza Grande, built 764, with 
an ornamented front, bv (liudetto, added 1188, in 
the style of Pisa Cathedral, with several storeys of 
imaW axcihaft vn^^VWexv TVa \ioc^ AiiiBel at the 



top has bronze wings, which sliuke in the wind. 
It contains a Madonna Knthroncd. by F. Lippi. 

S. Pieti'o Somaldi, near Porta S. Pletro, in the 
south wall. The front with a bas-relief of St. 
Peter and the Keys, was built 1206. Palma 
Vecchio's St. Anthony tlic Abbot, with St. Francis, 

S.Romano, behind the Ducal Palace; an old 
church, rebuilt seventeenth century, by Biionaniici. 

8. Salvatore has above the doors two bas-reliefs 
of the twelfth century, by Biduino, an old niastcr. 

iSf. Trinita contains M.Ciritali's Madonna on the 

The palaces include :- 

Palazzo Ducale (now P. Pubblico), a large edi- 
fice, begun 1578. by Ammanati. and continued by 
Giabara, lli9. It has a good marble staircase, a 
public Library of 40,000 volume^ and a small 
PUturt Qalierp, including two good pictures by Fra 
Bartolommeo — the Madonna della Misericordia 
Praying for Lucca; and God the Father, with 
St. Mary Magdalene and St. Catherine of 
Siena. Among the MSS. are Gospels of the 
tenth century, and Latin jwcms by Tasso. The 
statue of Maria Louisa by Bartoliui faces the 

Palazzo Preiorio, facing 8. Michcle, is a large 
■olid building of the fifteenth century, formerly 
used as law courts. 

Palazzo Borghi, built 1418, by P. Guinigi, is now 
the Deposito di Mendicitk, founded 1413. 

Palazzo Giudirione, where the archives are kept. 

There are sevei*al hospitals for the poor and help- 
less, for foundlings (esposti), and orphans; with a 
College andhigh school, the latter having a library 
of 20,000 volumes. 

Teatro del OigHo, built 1817, faces the Piazza 
Grande. Another, called Teatro Diurno, is near 
Porta S. Donato, in the west wall. 


16 miles up the Serchio; by tram to Ponte a 
Mariano, thence diligence. 

Hotels: Del' Europe; New York. 

Church 8erviee~ln the season. 

Rezident Engluh Phyncian— Dr. Gason. 

The road passes Marlia, 3 miles, a royal country- 
seat, with a convent and gardens, copied from 
those at Marli near Paris; Ponte della Maddalena, 
or del Diavolo, with its high pitched middle arch, 
12 miles ; then the Lima to 

Ponte a Sbrraglio, 15 miles, in the midst of 
the warm sulphur springs, and the villages which 
have grown up aroimd them. The veal, trout, 
olives, and oil are all excellent. Under the names 
of Bagni alia Villa (old palace), and Bagni Caldi, 
Doccebassi, Bernabo, Ac, the *Batht occupy a 

Sleasant and healthy part of the valley of the 
erchio, and are mach frequented from May to 
October. The temperature ranges from 93* to 
180*, they are clear and contain sulphates of lime 
and magnesia, with iron ; and are useful in skin 
diseases, fevers, nervous complaints, and diseases 
of th« glands. 
Jlifif^ if M good supply ot hotels, iodging-houaes, 

sliops. reading rooir^s, ponies, donkeys, etc., with an 
English church and book club. The Casino is a 
fine building, 140 feet long. 

Excursions to the pretty village of Lugliano and 
its ash trees, and Sun MarcoUo, up the Lima; to 
Pruto Fiorito, and Montugna di Celle; to the Bar- 
gello Tower; and to tho more distant height of 
Tre Potenze and Rondin^jo, 3,'200 feet, in the 
Appenines, commanding extensive prospects of 
land and sea, even as far as Corsica. Boscoiungo 
(see p. 98) is about 6 hours distant. 

[From Lucca there is a rail (starting at 
Viareggio, page 29) to Ponte a Moriano, named 

Following the rail, the first large place is 

Pescia (Stat-) Population, is, 318. Amongmul- 
berry grounds and paper works. Red! praises its 

Montecatini (Stat.), population, 4,768, under 
a hill about 500 feet high. Here are some old 
fortiQcations, and waters drunk in cases of 
dysentery and liver complaints; temperature, 
70* to 80'. Flo f el: Locanda Maggi re. Near 
Pleve (Stat.) is Monsummano (with hot springs 
at the Jiath HouseX the birthplace of Oituti, the 
famous patriotic poet, who died 1849. He was the 
friend of Azcglio and Ridolfi. At 

Serravalle (Stat.) Population, 6,022. Here 
an old fort guards a pass in the hills, a tunnel 
through Monte Albano. Cross the Ombrone to 

PiStOja (Stat.), where the Bologna railway 
joins. (See Route 21.) This is the Italian Birming- 
ham, styled ''La Ferrigna,'* from the arms and 
other iron goods made here, among which are 
pistols, first invented here by Camillo Vitelli, about 

Population, 80,951. 

Hotel: Albergo del Globo e di Londra. 

It is the ancient PistoHa, at the foot of the Apen- 
nines, of a square shapes, with bastions and gates 
at each comer, and good wide streets. It is the 
seat of a diocese, one of whose prelates was Sclpioue 
di Ricci, a reforming bishop of the last century; 
and in mediaeval history it is celebrated for the 
invention of the Bianchi and Neri, or Ghibellines 
and Guelphs. These originated in a quarrel, in 
1296, between the Cancellicri and Panciatichi 
families, whose old palaces are here. In 1806, Its 
first walls were razed by the Florentines, which 
proved a fatal blow to its prosperity. 

In the Piazza dol Duomo at the centre of the 
town, near the cathedral, is the 

Palazzo Pretorio, now the Law Court, an Italian- 
Gothic building of the fourteenth century, the seat 
of the Podestk in the time of the republic. Facing 
this is the picturesque 

Palazzo Comunale, or degli Anzianl, built 
1295-1885. Over the middle window is a black 
marble bust of TedicI, who betrayed Pistoja to 
his father-in-law, Castrucclo Castracani, of Pisa^ 
in 1826. In the advocates' ^w\vcv Ss. ^ ^^8J>5^^Sss. 
sketch ol & C«co\.«tov Qix«caaKti\^ A^ ^<i.^^.^e^seo^- 
1 The Dwmo, w C^'CBfciisiX ^\ '^•^^;S^^;L^^ 

UonunKnCof Cardlniil Portlgunra, > pHlron and 

p^iC« remains b«re. C. AlLorl'q BeHurrficllon, 
In 3, JocopD Chnpcl Is the "SLTtpt Altar^ liAvLng 

f.>chl. 4c.) ol the fonrtKiilt «iitnrj-, r«\dciit at 

Facing the csthedrsl 1b the Ruptlaterr, ar 
a. OLaTBnni Rolonilo, i marble oaagoa. from 
tlBtigna by Arilrea da Pisa, 1SS7, it has an 
eilerDal pulpll. 

Tho BHW« Palsce, a handionia building. 




Qhlrluidajo'a Si. Se 

, or Fareirtla. an a 
le Hie city walta. w 

ecnturUa. ThafontlabrGlominida Pisa. 

Ihe C0TliiUilBn9tyle,*nJ oiie of the beat In Pill 
beican UM. by VilouL. uid finiahed by Vasail 
bulltlhacBpoIa. At one or (he allars ]> the | 

■he coiiMcrated (o the Virgin. "■ " 

*i,r. [Section a. 

S. .SpMlo. Iinili by Ramlgiiini, with a lilgh altar. 

untlM, from IheVllla Papa Oiulio at Rome, 

The luptiale OiaiKledrl Ceppo, fanndedlnl31B-1T. 
ind ahicc realorcd, faai uine bai-rellera. by th* 
Delia Bobblai, and othery, and a good cornice. 
Amons Ihe nalWetor Pletoja ate Pope Clement IX., 

the painter. Near here ate Abetone and BOi^ 
OOlimgO (p. 9»\. mouiilalii reaorfB near Manlt 
Ctnume, and OUIlsUano, another health resort 

Plata (Slat.), on the Blienilo, nnder the 
Apeuuhiei. PopDlatlon, 19,35\, An old walled 

Florenet IBUt.) (See Route 28). 

Plia, to Lagborn, Cecina, Sallns, Volt«m, 
Elba, arowwto, Clvlta Vscchla, atid Borne. 

Thl« is the wealem « — 

especially as 1 


LEOHOBM (Stat.) 

iieomoln Italian: lltmimeln 

Population (IBSl), IM/HXi, with in 

tinvit i, cmlled Tomlia dS d 

hi. flight ftDm Rome, I 
tnef^hboHrliood, The i 


LcEbon ttuid 

PW.M J/fTOtfil, 

or L^u 

mi. nod 

lb. FloomlbiM 

1*J1), upon Lbe 



wiclt-ptred ttn 

U. Th 


Greek cburchei. i> 

lochutch; TbMWIBi 


reii Hurt nar the hur- 

Opira Home. " 
Tbe Enaliib CeiBttery, on th* rimpirt •, tontilm 


the gnTei of Bmolletl, with an ep[upli by h<> 


Homer, irllh i likeneis bj- Chintrey on hit muble 
tomb. SmoUoll wrote bl> "Huniphrey Clinker" 


•BTOoT ''Itls »b^' IHO 

Leghora, hiyliift » good mild eltmate, l> fro- 
qnented for bftlbing in snrDmer, jind alio for ill 


tulphar waten at Huiinlenta and Monlenero, oot- 

(nun Colc^nole, made 

■prbiBm, are covered wUh rlliaa of lbe mereharti. 


I iDp^Ued. The English ire liked, and i 
ngiuge !• Dot Hnknuwn to the natlvei, I 

. 'Bealdes many EnBliah^ ^^cb, Ameri- ' 

li July, and fa! 
Kid and bora: 

' Colls SalT«tU (Btat.) Pop 

, FangUa ind Ordano (Stat.) 

j Acquationa (Btat), near the I 
I Ceclna (Stat.), ou the KUa 

roadi. Hers Lord Keltli'i Sanlilp, the Oueea Voltern. 
Olurlotte,toakarelnie0i>,whaD7D0aatofSG0meii m\> \«\'ai\\e« Vn>«'. >-'»> 
•m btml or drowaed. Sna Ihe Danena. or KWlANiO*.. ^\ m'i\». 
AHft bT tie iBoer kuiKiar, Im OjoTanai dell" I <1<,|\1UI 0\^«CSV ""^ 



[Section 2. 

Ponte Qinorl, 4imil(5f; and 

Volterra (Stat) (4| mUes), near which are 
extensive salt leorks and brine springs. These are 
a government monopoly, and produce a large 
revenue. Diligence from the station, about four 
miles, to 

VOLTERRA, on the site of Volaterroe, 

One of the most ancient and interesting cities of 
Etrnria, on a hill about 1,800 feet high, composed 
of soft marl and tufa, in which the ancient 
sepulchres were excavated, and whence so many 
Etruscan urns have been obtained. The hill com- 
mands an extensive view over the Maremma (or 
marsh land of the coast), of Monte Catini (large 
coj^r minesX and of Elba, Capraja, and Corsica. 
Population, 14,325. 

YolteiTa is made up of narrow streets and many 
tower-looking houses, and is inclosed by walls, 
which are contained within the circuit of the first 
Etruscan walls. Of these there are some remains 
in the shape of massive uncemented blocks at 
Porta dl Diana, and an arched gateway at Porta 
deir Arco, having three heads on it, in good 
preservation. On the south side is a fort, or 

CUadd, built 1848 by the Duke of Athens. It 
•ontains theMastio, or Maschio Tower, an old state 
prison of the Dukes of Tuscany, in which Lorenzinif 
who was confined here (1682-93) by Cosimo III., 
wrote his work on geometry. 

The Palazzo PubblieOy the old seat of the Podestk, 
when Volterra was a republic, is of the thirteenth 
•entnry, and has a high tower, in wUch P. 
Inghiarami, the Capitano, and his party, were 
suffocated (1472) in an insurrection. 

At the Museo Nazionale are the Library and 
Museum of Antiquities, including the Guarnacci 
collection of coins, bronzes, urns, MSS. The 
antiquities are chiefly Etruscan; as gold ornaments, 
gems, bronzes, corns, candelabra, vases, <fec., in 
terra cotta, but especially Urm, or sarcophagi, 
to the number of 5S0, in which the other relics 
were placed, along with the ashes of the dead 
body after burning. These urns are of tufa and 
alabaster — rarely of terra cotta, and hare been 
found in the sepulchres, or Ippogei, cut in the rock 
on which the city stands. 

The entrance to each vault was down steps, to a 
doorway closed by a large stone, and having an 
upright stone or cippus placed before it, bearing 
an inscription. The urns were ranged on steps 
rising one above another along the sides of the 
vault, or piled up in the middle round a column. 
As many as forty to fifty urns have been found in 
one cave. Tiie urns have a lid, which sometimes 
rises like the roof of a house; they are carved with 
bas-reliefs of mythological subjects, occasionally 
Kilt and coloured, and have the names of ancient 
Etruscan or Roman families inscribed on them. 

Aiabsster carving is the chief business here. 

TJie Cir/4giifra/ waa founded 1120, enlarged by 

fi^ »^i^j!'' ^'-'^ ^^^^ ^"^ restored 1574. Among 

-ozzo/ioM frescoeM of the Virgin. In St. 

Octavian's Chapel is Settignano's statue ot the 
saint (1525). 

The Baptistery of S. Giovanni is an octagon, built 
1283, on the site of a Roman temple. The fonts are 
by Sansovino (1502). 

8. Lino's Conventual Church, founded 1480, by 
Maffei, a theologian, contains his tomb and statue, 
by Silvio da Ficsolc. 

Casa Ricciarclli was tlic bii*thplace of Daniele 
da Volterra, a native of this town, and a painter, 
who assisted M. Angelo at the Vatican. 

Some Etruscan tombs, in their original state, 
may be seen at Villa Inghirami. 

About 7 miles west of Volterra are the Monte 
Catini and La Cava Copper Mines, worked since 
the fifteenth century but of late diminished in 
production; and Monte Massi, 1,900 feet high. 

Carriage should be taken from Volten*a Station 
to RiPOMEBANCio, or Pomeraucc, near the Lagoni, 
or borax lakes of Monte Cerboli and LardereUo, 
which takes name from its founder, an enter- 
prising Frenchman, Count LardereUo, who estab- 
lished works here in 1818. The hot vapour Itscl 
which issues from the soil is turned to account 
in the manufacture of boracic acid, which is ex- 
ported to England for glass-making, &c. The 
production is over 2,000 tons annually.] 

Leaving Cccina Station, on the main line, the 
rail comes to 

Castagneto (Stat.), and 

S. Vinceuzo (Stat.) and Campiglla (Stat.). 

Near here a road parts off close along the coast, 
towards Elba, passing 

[PopuLOMiA (6 miles), close to an old castle and 
the remains of the Etruscan town and port of 
Pupluna. Further on is Piombino (diligence from 
Campiglia), a small town (population, 4,076). 
once the head of a prhicipality, at the comer ii 
a peninsula, which is 6 miles from the nearest 
point of the 


And 14 miles from Porto Ferrajo, its chief town, 
sometime the residence of Napoleon I., upon his 
abdication, from the end of May, 1814, to 26th 
February, 1815, when he left for Cannes. Steamer 
from Piombino daily. 

It is the Roman /ira, about 18 miles long, and 8 
to 10 broad, with several small bays, the best of 
which is that of Porto Ferrt^o, which NapoleoB 
compared to Tor Bay, when he saw it in 1815 from 
the deck of the Northumberland. The surface is 
hilly and bare, the highest point being Monte 
Capanne, 8,600 feet above the sea. Its rich iron 
mines at Rio Marina (Scotch Church hereX which 
were worked by the Romans, are contained in a 
lilll about 2 miles round, and 500 feet high, and 
yield 50 to 75 per cent of metal, the ore being 
smelted at Cecina, Follonica, &c., on the mainland. 
Here ancient bronze and stone implements, arrow 
heads, knives, and adzes were found, 1865. 

Popa\aUoTi^^l,755; of whom 5,064 are at Porto 
FtrroiOy the capVlaV, ^s^aat^eAV^ lotVA^^tSksaxA aad 
Stellft, wMch'Savo\eoT\ aTtvt*%^\v\TO.Wi\VVs v^i^v^C^- 

Route 25.] 



ening. He also mado a road across the island to 
Porte Longone (populatiim, 1,200), which faces 
Tuscany. Napoleon was allowed to keep his title 
of Emperor ; and Marie Louise that of Empress 
and Duchess of Parma; while the members of his 
family were styled Princes. But the island was 
so placed as to be faronrable for intrigue, as sub- 
sequent events proved. 

Elba Is SO miles from Bastia, in Corsica. The 
small islands around it are 

Cteprq/a (16 miles north-west) ; PioiioMs, 10 miles 
south, to which Agrippa was banished by Augustus; 
Formieti, 10 miles south of this; and Monte CrUto^ 

12 miles south-east of it, the scene of Alexander 
Dumas's novel of the same name.] 

Returning to Oamplglla (Stat.), near the river 
Cornia, which descends from Monte Rotondo, with 
the town and its old castle on the left, we come to 

FoUonlca (Stat.), where the high road from 
Massa and Volterra falls in. Iron from Elba, about 
18 miles distant, is smelted here, but only from 
December to May, on account of the malaria. 

Massa, called Massa Maritima to distinguish It 
from Massa Ducale, is about 12 miles north-east, 
and has a population of 18,840, and a cathedral of 
the thirteenth century. 

There are two roads from FoUonlca to Grosseto, 
one following the coast, the other striking Inland. 
The distances along the coach route, are : Grilli, 

13 miles; Grosseto, 18 miles; Fontebranda, 16 
mUes; Nanziatelli, 15 miles; Montalto, 14 miles; 
Cometo, 12 miles ; Civita Vecchia, 12 miles. Taking 
the rail, the next place is 

CktVOrrano (Stat.) Then across the Bmna to 
Hontepescall (Stat.), junction of a line from 
Siena, to 

OrossetO (Stat^), on the Ombrone, and the 
road to Siena (60 miles by coach). Here the rail 
from Siena comes in via Asclano and TorrenlCitl 
(Route 26). Grosseto (population, 7,211), the capital 
of the Maremma, Is 8 miles from the sea. The site 
of RtuellK, one of the twelve Etruscan cities, on the 
Via Claudia, is near this place. 

Leaving Maglione on the left, the rail passes 
Talamone (Stat.), near Talamone Point, then 
Albegna (Stat.) on the Albenga, and reaches 

OtbetellO (Stat.) a small fortified town 
(population, 7,089), Strikingly placed in the middle 
of a salt lake, near Monte Argentario, a hilly penin- 
sula, the ancient MonM Argentarius, which separates 
it from the sea. Its highest point, Tre Croci, or 
Three Crosses, is 2,000 feet above sea level, and 
> Porto Eroole is on the south side. About 8 miles 
west of it is the Island of Giglio (population, 1.900), 
the Igilium of the Romans ; and 8 miles south of 
it is Gianutri, which they called Dianum. 

Leaving Orb^tello, the i&H and road pass the site 
of Ck>ia and the remains of walls, and follow the 
borders of the salt lake of Buano, 8 miles long, 
close to the sea. Across the old Tuscan border, 
and into the former Patrimony of St. PtttVy now 
»imextd to tbe lUngdom of Italy. 

HontaltO (Stat.) On the River Flora, ths 
ancient Forum Aurelii^ which had a Papal Custom 

Up the river is Voici or Vnlcl, a famous Etruscan 
town, which defied Rome, after the defeat of Its 
allies, but was finally subdued 280 B.C., by t]ie 
Consul Coruncanius. In 1828, upwards of 2,000 
urns were discovered by the Prince of Canlno, in 
its necropolis. In one tomb was the skdeton of a 
warrior, with a casque on his head and a child b^ 
tween his knees. Musignano and Canino, whert 
these treasures were collected, are a little further 
Inland, not far from Toscanella, or Tmcania, 
another Etruscan city. 

From Montalto the line passes 

Cometo (Stat.), close to Tarquinii^ the seat 
of the proud Tarqulns, of which there were traces 
down to the fourteenth century. Above 2,Wi0 
tombs have been opened in this neighbourhood, 
many of the contents of which are dispersed 
throughout Europe, but there is a good coUectioa 
here at the Museo, and the Necropolis (lee, 6 Ir.) 
Is worth visiting. The objects found in some of 
the tombs are now at Rome. Hence (IS miles) to 


Chief port of the Roman province, from which 
the rail to Rome Is continued. Population 11,988. 

Hotels: Orlando; Europa; both hodlflfbrent. 

Refreshment room at the raUway station, where 
breakfast, &ti., can be had at moderate charges. 
An omnibus attends the station, outside the ram- 
parts, to convey passengers to the town, 26 cents., 
carriage, k Ir. to 1 Ir. Boat hire, embarking or 
disembarking In the Harbour, | Ir., besides 1 Ir. 
for baggage. All the steamers enter the harbour. 
J..anding by sea, luggage for Rome should be 
phmbi io save re-examlnatlon. 

Reiidmt EnglUh Contul and American Consular 

Conveyances.— To Rome, by rail. If hour; by 
coach, to Viterbo, 86 miles. By steamer, to Naples, 
12 hours; Leghorn, 12 hours; Genoa, 24 hours; 
Marseilles, 86 hours. 

Civita Vecchia is on the site of Centum Cellse, on 
the Via Aurelia, which having been ruhied by the 
Saracens, was restored under its present name, 
signifying Old Town. Its harbour, the ancient 
Portus Trajani, founded by Trajan, was created a 
free port by Clement XIL An armed schooner, 
Which represented the whole Papal navy, was for- 
merly stationed here. The Inner harbour covers 
6 acres. An Outer basin Is formed by two moles— 
the Becchlcre mole 900 feet long, and the Quaran- 
tine inolc 480 feet, with a Breakwater of 1,060 
feet across the mouth, carrying a Lighthouse. Fort 
Angelo is near the Arsenal. Sulphur and ainm 
works at Tolfa. 

The French army laj\d«.<l >\«*^ ^^^ "^tb ""^^ 

tuidolhetintlqnltlu. ', 


middle, and 1 poimlalLDn ot 4DD.0I» (Initead of 
three mill Ions). All thliipHca.tnlladlngOrvleta, 
Teml. und BleM, with the City. In mineiKl Is 
the kingdom ofltBlr. 

FiDia CiTlis VcocbU. b} nil, to Rome, tH mitt*. 
Tht tutiimi are oe toltowi : — 

HUM. I Ulles. 
„.j....- t) HMUr«M S»i 

rem 114 Ponte Oalen S«] 

Fnrbar* .._..„...„ lU [Bruich lo Flnmldna.] 

Pilo ~ Ml kiEllus 41) 

Palidoro ») I Roma 4tl 

The anclem riortrula, called Firmu \ij Iha 
lUllani. and ityled the " Hower ot aU cltloa. and 

dill>a[aeWe-Ui). which fieuret on tbeeompaM 

Onnd Holel da la Villa, comfarlatale and vail 

Santa Harlnalla (Stat.) 
the lite of Funfemn. 

Santa Sarera (Stat.), neai 
FnTbara (Htat.) 

clly, wl 

reeled to 

by Hiony.lui, the i 
AglllnorCiJrf, nnBlrnscgn I 

BihlnE vjllace, near All 
eilnted down lo Ihe 1 

QrgDd Hotel Ruyal de la Palii WaeblDgtent 
Hotel el reoilon des ile> Biitannlqaei, Rne da 
Holel'de Rome, ». Plaiza Marie Novella. 

eof I'orlueTr^jnnl. The line ' 
fiber to ' ] 

ft (Stat) Here l.anewbrldiraover I ' 
Arterlhls-tbenewChurchof Bl. Paolo ' 
rl le Mura anil tbo Alban Hlll> aoncar. mid ' | 

r» fJfoute sy.) ( ' 

.retlco. Ac. 

tween Borgognleai 

Pott Ogia, at tbe UIBtl. TtitgrajJi: 12, Via 
SctldenI EngllihaadAmcrtMAOnnti. 

Route 26.] VLOEBMCE. 121 

^gHth(^ut^Sen4eeinihtMwEngUBhChnTch, l booses bnre sprung np in the Magllo quarter, and 

M— I 1 -.^ . **_'"' ^"^ I ^ *h» AfnhankmAnf In lamic' Amo GoiccUrdiiii. 

ong the hills outside 

6, the Senate was in 
of Archirrs in the 
hamber of Deputi* b 
le Palazzo Vecchio. 
.he Riccardi Palace. 
pal Seminary. These 
icipal and other Qses>. 

o in the midst of a 

ty and fertility, and 

fourteenth centiir>-, 

are, and are pierceil 

six principal roads. 

e the walls. On the 

itches to the foot of 

15 miles, and rising 

rht of 8s200 feet at 

ist is Fiesole, on a hill, 

round, with gardens 

itBoMi Garderunnd 

•e of another hill, to 

nt points of yiew for 

Lhe plan of the city 

listance are the bine 

sted with old cities, 

he times of the early 

ban Rome. Beneath 

its noble buildings. 

of Santa Croce, the 

ice; more to the left 

of Florence, with its 

ipanile, and the roof 

nore to the left, the 

:hat of Santa Maria 

Imo flowing towards 

'dneorth. TheBoboli 

nday and Thursday 

nrs are obtained from 

ry, Villa Mozzi^ and 

ed far beyond the 
a, which are now 
5s. The oldest part 
bank of the Arno, 
Here narrow streets, 
buildings or towers 
built in a half-mili- 
; the name of Floren- 
.rbulent old days of 
lar and aristocratic 
>ower used to fight 
palace to palace. 

Churches and np- 
sses are painted on 
*dirt and the devil." 
locks of pietra forte 




[Section 2. 

the riveff and the secondo Cerchio, i.e. the ancient 
walls of 1087, the extremities of which were at Ponte 
alle Orazie and Ponte alia Carraja. The banks of 
the rirer, which is mnddy and shallow, except at 
the floods, are Ihied with quays called the Longo 
d'Amo or Lung' Arno^ stretching up and down as 
far as the walls. Those between the Carraja Bridge 
and the handsome new Cascine quarter, towards 
the Junction of the Mugnone, are a favourite 

BrldgeB. — There are six bridges, Including two 
wire sumension bridges above and below the city> 
Ponte itae Oratie, or Ponto di Rnbaconte, the 
oldest and southernmost bridge, was built 1207, so 
solidly as to have resisted the floods which have 
undermined the others. It has some small houses 
on the piers, and the houses between it and Ponte 
Yecchlo are ancient * Ponte Veeehio, rebuilt 1845 
by T. Gaddi, is lined with small jewellers' shops 
and houses, over which runs Vasari's gallery, form- 
ing a oommunlcation between the Pitti Palace and 
the Ufflfei and Palazzo Yecchlo. Ponte Santa 
THnitit, built by B. Ammanati, 1659, is the best of 
all, on three elliptic arches, one of which is 90 
feet span. Ponte atta Carr<va, rebuilt 1334 by Fra 
Bracettl, and restored 1567 by Ammanati. Below 
this is one of the wire Suspension Bridges con- 
necting the Cascine with the opposite bank, near 
Piazza le Tittorlo Emanuele. 

Water is supplied by pump wells, by Artesian 
wells in the Santa Maria Novella and S. Marco 
squares, and by fountains in Santa Croce, Ac, fed 
by an aqueduct from Monterezzi, near Fiesole. 

Time is still reckoned by some old clocks up to 
24 hours, beginning at Ave Maria or sundown 
(about 6 p.m.) 

Gates. — The gates are tower-like structures, 
pierced by an archway, and connected by broad 
Boulevards, or Yiale, named after the reigning 
house, as Yiale yit.-Em,, Yiale Umberto, Ac. 

Porta 8. OaOOf so called from a convent which 
stood here, is oa the Bologna Road. Here is a 
triumphal arch to the Emperor Francis I., built 
1789 by a Lorraine architect, with a frescoe by 

Porta Pinti, towards Fiesole, with some early 
frescoes by B. Daddi. Near the Protestant Ceme- 
tery. Porta tMa Croce, on the Casentino Road. 
Madonna by Ghirlandajo. 

Porta S. Nieeold, with an old tower, built 1324-7, 
and Porta 8. Miniato, are across the river, on the 
south side. The drive from here to Porta Romana, 
round the Yiale delle Colli, is worth taking. 

Porta 8. Giorgio, near the Belvedere Fort, or 
Fortczza di S. Georgio, but shut up. 

Porta Romana, built 1327, on the Poggio Road, 
near the Boboli Gardens. In an old house near 
this, Mrs. E. Browning, the poetess, lived and died. 

Porta 8. Frediano, on the Pisa Road, near the 
Jews' Cemetery. Porta alPrato, built 128i, near 
tAe CaacJne and railwAv «tatJQns. Fresco by 

'^i?3?'^^'^ °^^ i%^« 8Ution and the For- 
^^ ^^ ^''"'Of or di 8. aioY»nni ButtlatB. 

Open PlaC6B» or PlaZZL— The most important 
and interesting Is the ^Piazza delta Signoria^ or 
Piazza Oranduea, the central point of Florence, sur- 
rounded with ancient buildings and works of 
art, &c. On the south side is the Palazzo Yec- 
chlo and its high tower, with the statue of Cosimo L, 
and the Neptune fountain. Hei-e were (pro tern) 
the Chamber of Deputies and the Foreign Office. 
Facing this, the Uguccionc Palace and the Pds^ 
Office. On the south side, the Loggia de' Lapzi 
and its groups of statuary. Close to it are tbb UMzi 
or Florence Gallery, with its gems of art. the 
Podest&, and the Yecchlo and Nuoro markets for 
fruit, straw-plait, flowers, Ac 

Piaxza del Duomo, in which are the cathedrdi, 
the campanile, and baptistery; with the statues ox 
Amolfo and Brunelleschi, and Dante's Stone. The 
western prolongation of this piazza is called the 
Piazza S. Giovanni. 

Piazza di 8anta Maria NoveUa, near that church 
and the Pistoja Station. It has two obelisks rert- 
ing on tortoises in the middle, and an arcade on 
stone pillars on one side. Here the races of St 
John's Eve formerly took place. The Piazza 
Yecchia is on the east side. 

Piazza di 8. Lorenzo, facing that church. 

Pictzza Maria Antonia, near the Fortezza 8. 
Giovanni Battlsta; a modem square, the largest 
and most regular in Florence, now called ih^Piazxa 
dell Indipendenza. 

Piazza di 8. Marco, with a statue of General Fanti. 

Piazza M. Angelo, a beautiful drive outside the 
Oltramo, with a cast of the great sculptor's" David'* 
on it. Piazza Cavour, with a triumphal arch. 

Piazza deW Annunziata, in the north-east, near 
the Gherardesca Garden, is surrounded by loggie 
or double arcades, on Corinthian columns. Facing 
the church is the Spedale degl' Innocent!, or 
Foundling Hospital, by Brunelleschi. Here is 
G. da Bologna's equestrian statue of Ferdinand I., 
and bronze fountains. 

Piazza di 8anta Croee, facing that church, and 
surrounded by old houses, decorated with frescoes. 
Here is Pazzi's statue of Dante. 

Piazza M<min, on the Lungamo Nuova, with a 
statue of Goldoni, the poet. 

Piazza del Orano, or Loggia dd Orano; an Arcade, 
by S. Tirati, 1619. Piazza di 8anta Triniti, near 
the Trinitk Bridge. It has a granite pillar from 
the Baths of Caracalla, the gift of Pius lY. to 
Cosimo I., surmounted by del Taddi's porphyry 
Justice, with bronze drapery. 

Piazza Pitti, on the south side of the Amo, faces 
the Pitti Palace. Piazza 8. 8pirito and Piazza del 
Carmine are on the same side of the river. 

Clmrclies.— 1. The *DtlomO, or Cathedral of 
8anta Maria del Fiore, that is, of the Flower, or 
Red Lily, which figures in the city arms, and 
corresponds with its name. It was designed by 
the republic to be the largest and most sumptuous 
building that could be invented, in order that it 
might correspond with a "very great heart," 
because orVgVtvalVag Sxv \Xv^ mVaoi ol most of the 
cHizens un\t«d tog«tti«t Vcwotv^-wV^. <A\ \w\'^ <t<ix- 

Route 26.} 



rispondente ad on caore che vleh f Atto grandissimo, 
perchfe composto dair animo di piu cittadini uniti 
insiema in un sol yolere). Begun 1298, by 
Amolfo di Lapo, pupil of Cimabuc, and continued 
1332, by Giotto, who built a fine marble front, 
which was demolished 1586 by the Medici. Ser 
Filippo Bmnelleschi, a native of the city, finished 
the church, and was the author of the great Dome, 
which M. Angelo used to look at with unbounded 
admiration, and say it could never be surpassed, 
and which is only excelled by his own at St. Peter's. 

The walls are cased with a thin renoer of black 
and white marble, and adorned inside and out with 
many statues. Leng^th, 600 feet, by 810 feet 
through the transept ; width of the nave, 128 feet, 
andheight, 153 feet. There are three great doors in 
front, and two on each side, all richly carved. 
Among the Madonnas on the frcmt is the Mad(mna 
del Fiore, by Giovanni di Pisa, with Ghirlandajo's 
mosaic of the Assumption. A new Fofode^ by 
De Fabris, was completed in 1887. G. Gaddi's 
mosaic of the Coronation of the Virgin is over 
the middle door within the church. 

The interior is of dark mottled stone, with a 
variegated marble pavement, inlaid with lilies in 
red, black, and white marble, desig^ned by F. di 
San Gallo (in the nave), and M. Angelo (round the 
choir). It is lit by narrow stained windows, by a 
Lubeck artist, 1484, from designs by Ghiberti and 
Donatello. This produces a dim religious light, 
which becomes almost darkness under the closed 
dome. The vast nave is flanked by four great 
pointed arches on each side of the middle aisle 
(55 feet wide), which are carved with armorial 
bearings. The windows of the side aisles are 
small, and those of the clerestory are mere circular 
holes, and the vaults are ill-shaped. The walls are 
not painted, and look cold and gloomy. The choir 
is octagonal, enclosed by an Ionic colonnade, and 
corresponds in sliape with the Dome above, which 
is also eight-sided, and double-cased (one dome 
within another). Its interior is painted with fres- 
coes, by Vaaari and F. Zucchero. It is 140 feet 
diameter inside and 100 feet high. 

From the pavemoit to the top of the cross is 350 
feet. There is a hole in the top through which the 
sun shining in line with a mark on the pavement 
of the north transept, shows the direction of the 
meridian, first traced in 1468 by Toscanelli. In 
the choir, finished 1568, are bas-reliefs by Bandi- 
nelli and his pupils. Behind the high altar is a 
Pieti^ the last work (unfinished) of M. Angelo. 

Among the monuments are the following: — 
Giotto, the paints, with a portrait bust by Majano. 
Brunelleschi, with a bust, and epitaph by Marzap- 
pini, ^' Poet and Secretary of the Republic ; '' 
which tells the visitor to look at the cupola, to 
judge of the great ai-chitect's genius— something 
like the "circumspice'* at St. Paul's. Ticino, the 
friend of Lorenzo de' Medici ; that Lorenzo who 
on 26th May, 1478, when his brother Giuliano was 
killed at the high altar by the Pazzl, iBScapod 
death hy/Moftato the old sacristy. Portrait of 
j!^/iti by MicbpUno, near the choir in the north 

aisle, placed there by decree of the republic, 1465. 
N^ar this is a bust of Amolfo di Lapo, the archi- 
tect ; then a fresco of Sir John Hawkwood,^ or 
Johanne Acutus, as he is styled, an Essex man and 
soldier of fortune, who died 1393. lie is called 
Aucud, Auchovod, Aguto, in the current histories. 

In the five chapels round the tribune are statues 
by Bandinelli, Rovezzano, and other early sculp- 
tors. The door of the sacristy near it is by L. 
dclla Robbia. These chapels, with their pictures 
and other relics, are contained in the three east 
apses which surround the base of the dome. 

On Easter Eve the church is crowded with far- 
mers, to watch the motion of an artificial dove, 
which at the Gloria in Excelsis glides along the 
nave on a rope, sets fire to a combustible car (pro- 
vided by the Pazzi family) in the street, and theo 
flies whizzing back. All the hopes of the piotis 
farmers for the harvest are fixed on the safe return 
of this dove to the altar; according to the saying 
''Quando va bene la columbina, va bene U Fio* 

At the comer of the principal «itrance is Giott6*s 

*Campanlle, or detached belfry, b^un 1384, 
and finished by T. Gaddi; a light and degant 
tower, 42 feet square, relieved by octagonal pro- 
jections at the comer; covered like the church 
with slices of variegated marbles, and adorned 
with fiif ty-four bas-reliefs and sixteen statues. It 
is in four storeys (lighted by windows) 290 feet 
high, and was to have carried a spire which would 
have made it 90 feet higher ; the reliefs, of Bible 
subjects, being in the ground storey. It is ascended 
by 415 steps. It is adorned with statutes of 
Evangelists, Prophets, Patriarchs, and Sibyls, 
with series of bas-reliefs, the whole by Donatdlo, 
Niccolb d'Arezzo, Giotto, A. Pisano, and L. della 
Robbia. They say here a thing is as "beautifttl 
as the Campanile. Macchiavelli relates that when 
its six bells sounded at mid-day, they would bring 
together 185,000 armed men in the course of a few 
hours. Facing the church and campanile is the 
Battistero, or 

* Baptistery, on the site of a Temple of Mars, in 
which all the children of the city are christened, 
the water being blessed by the archbishop twice a 
year. It is an octagonal building of the thirteenth 
century, 108 feet diameter, rebuilt by A. de Lapo, 
on the site of what was at first the Cathedral, 
founded in the sixth century by the Lombards. 
It is cased inside with marble, with a low dome, 
on sixteen granite pillars from the older structure, 
and lined with mosaics, by A. TaflS, and other 
artists. The three beautiful bronze Doors are 
covered with reliefs of the History of St. John the 
Baptist, and other scriptural subjects; one by 
Andrea di Pisa, 1330, the other two by Gldbertl 
(1410-24), which M. Angelo said ought to be 
the Gates of Paradise. At the middle door are 
two columns of porphyry given by the Pisans tA 
Florence, for protecWxi^ YS»»-,\Si.^NX\N"'^^^"'^ 



[Section 2. 

their final triumph orer Pisa ; namely, part of an 
iron chain, with which the Pisans used to block up 
their harbour. This, like the one carried off by 
the Oenoeae, has been returned to the Pisans, in 
token of a more brotherly state of things in Italy. 
There is a St. John the Baptist orer the altar, with 
some bas-reliefs on the railings. On the black and 
white floor is a mosaic of the sun and zodiac, by 
S. StroKzi, the astrologer; with a sentence, ^'En 
giro torte Sol ciclos et rotor igne," which reads 
the same both ways, and signifies the ''sun drives 
on oblique his fiery car.*' 

In front of the Baptistery is a pillar erected in 
18X0, to commemorate a miracle which accom- 

Sanied the remoyal of the relics of Bishop Zanobl. 
l^ind it is the Bigallo Orphan Hospital, of the 
fourteenth century. On the north side of the 
Duomo are Pampalonfs statues of Amolfo di Lapo 
and Brunellesbbi ; the latter looking up at his 
church. Near these, a Stone called the '■'■ Sauo di 
Dante,'' on which the poet used to sit, is built 
into the wall of a house. The large open Piazza 
near the Cathedral presents an especially gay 
scene on any of the chief festivals. 

To the west of the Baptistery is the Archbishop's 
Palace. On the south side of the Campanile is 
the Oratory of the Brothers of the Misericordia, 
who perform their pious functions in robes having 
cowls with apertures for the eyes only. 

2. *Sa]lta Groce» belonging to the Black Friars, 
is the Pantheon of Florence, the " holy precincts" 
in which Galileo, M. Angelo, Machiavelli, and 
Alfieri are buried. 

"Hen npoM 
Angdo's, Alferi'i bones, and his 
The wUairj OaUleo'e, with hie woes ; 
Here Machlavelli'eeMrth returned to whence it roee."—£yroii. 

Begun, 1294, in the Germano-Tuscan style, by 
Amolfo, and restored by Vasari, except the new 
facade, the first stone of which was laid by Pio 
Nono, 32nd August, 1857. The last is from Cro- 
naca's designs; and was mostly done at the cost 
of an English resident. The Church is 490 feet 
long. Many marble slabs are in the pavement, 
and some ancient frescoes are at the east end. 
On the portal is Donatello's bronze statue of 
St Louis, of Toulouse. Stained rose window, over 
the central door, by Ghibertl. In the 

Second, or Buonarotti Chapel^ on the right — 
Monument of M. Angela^ with his portrait looking 
towards the dome, and statues of Painting, Sculp- 
ture, and Architecture. Vasari's Crucifixion. 
Monument of Lanzi, author of the History of 
Painting. Then follows Ricci's monument of Dante, 
with figures of Italy and poetry. His body lies at 
Ravenna. Monument of AlJUri, by Canova, at 
the cost of the Countess of Albany. Monument of 
Machiavelli, by J. Spinazzi, erected at the cost 
o/ Lord Cowpcr, in 1787. Castagno's monument of 
jAff CMTMlcsntl; and DonateiWi Annunciation. 
ffflfjSi'"''' 'o^^nument of Leonardo Btxmi, the 
^22' rff/''"/JfJ^'°^^"'' trMsferred hither 

^ri^r i637, will bf covered by « nifunment. 

Going on round the transepts are the following 
chapels: — 

Cnapel of the 5(icra*n«nr.— Santarelli's monument 
of the Countess of Albany (died 1824), widow of 
Charles Stuart. Vasari's Last Supper. L. della 
Robbia's statues of St. Bernardino and St. Dominic. 

Baroncelli or Qiugni Chapel.— Treacoea by T. 
Gaddi. BandineUi's Pietk. 

Medici Chapel.— ^Qiotio'n Madonna Incoronata. 

Rinueeini Chapel— Bacristj, and Velluti Chapel. 
Frescoes by A. Gaddi, and others of the school. 

Bonaparte Chapel. — Monuments of the wife and 
daughter (''Charlotte B. digne de son nom") of 
Joseph Bonaparte, whose monument also is here, 
but his remains are in the crypt. 

Pertuti Chapel.— Dei Sarto's altar-piece of the 
Virgin and Saints. ♦Giotto's fine frescoes. 

Bardi Chapel (next to the high altar)— Bronze 
inscription to the Florentine citizens, "who laid 
down their lives for Italy, at Curtatone and Mon- 
tanara, 29th May, 1818." (See Route 18.) ♦Giotto's 
grand frescoes. 

Behind the high altar are* A. Gaddi's frescoes 
and stained windows. • 

In the ^ocrif^y— frescoes, ancient missals, and 
fine cabinets. 

Among the Chapels, on the left of the altar, are 

Riea&oH Chapel, belonging to Baron Ricasoli. 
Paintings by Sabattelli. 

Pidci Chapel— B. Daddi's frescoes. 

St. SilvcMtro Chapel. — Giottino's frescoes. Monu- 
ment of B. de BardL 

Niccolini CTka/W.— Bronzini's Coronation of the 
Virgin. Figures of the Virtues and Sibyls. 

St. Ludovieo Chapel — Donatello's Crucifix. 
Monuments of the Bardi. 

Borgheu or Salviate Chapel — Countess Czarto- 
ryski's Monument, by Bartollinl. 

Among the latest memorials are those dedicated 
to N. Tommaseo, the friend of Manin, the defender 
of Venice and Carlo Botta, the historian. 

On the left of the nave are — ^Monuments of 
Cocchi, the philosopher, and R. Morghen, the 
artist; Vasari's Descent of the Holy Ghost; 
Bartolini's monument of Fossombroni; Vasari's 
Unbelief of St. Thomas; Ricci's monument of 
Signorini; Fogglni's monument of Galileo, with 
his bust, carved in 1737. His remains were left in 
uiiconsecrated ground for more than a century. 
Da Settegnano's monument of Marsuppini, in the 
fifteenth century style. Monument of Filicaja, 
the poet, author of "Italia! oh. Italia! thou so 
crowned!" and other fine sonnets; Bronzini's 
Descent from the Cross. The marble pulpit is 
carved with Majano's bas-reliefs. 

In the cloisters adjoining are the Pazzi Chapel, 
by Brunelleschi, with the Four Evangelists and 
Twelve Apostles. L. della Robbia's terra cottas ; 
and some frescoes by the Giotto school; including 
T. GaddVs Last Supper, in the refectory. 

Near the Batvla CtowiMe V\v^YVs.xxs^ w\d houses 
of the Pera»»V.oTil\i% %V\ftol%'Rwsi%swwsi^\v\N^\R»\x^, 

ri.obexcR — saxta csocm. 

g uc lilt mot! Th«iub|Fcl 


,„ j Itae Trltiiite Moiwy. The lin ot Ibt Apoitlei Ii a 

' p»rtriill»riliepslntsr. Uppl: Rcaloring ■ Yamic 

I HanloLKe.begiinbyHiiiiciD, Lippl: 'Si. Pelrr 

riiey wen en 

j' I Msgui Iporlralt in 

■eter. uid SJnu 
Drntr). HuoLIIK 
. LIppI: Bt. P«l< 

. of the virgin old tombs, ■ndplctnres of iho.chdol or OiDtta. 
b< 1 mlnculong ^ t. S. Ftikt, comcc at Via Romana, 
if Cbrlil, by Del Angallca'a akor-plere! vllh a Cbriit and Ft 
WalklDi! on the dta. by H. and R. Gbirluidi 
'• Uadanna En- »"'' "lolher altar-piece, by 8, Roaa. 

10. Saila Fcllelli, near Ponte V«cliio, 
O. da Boliipui'i "jJ^Qj^Jl^'iJ^f^/^ '"iiVchs n*a"o»c 
■. ™.rhl. P.P.V lf>-''""«Cros;,byPQnto?SS'!'T.hc^'«lth'lro™ 
'S paJntedtheEvatiKellaH, tiitheianit. 

.. the tribune. 

St. LMia CKapd.—Vai\t by Fn Angalico, 
AlJorl. Vaaari, ^. The /Swci CAapiI Miiiahi 
B[. Bebutlao. oal* ihown by ipeclal permliiloi 

«. aa. ApMtoH. near Ponu Vecchlo. ncrou 
Amo, U a half-Lombard chorch, on the ilu of 
lonnded by Charlenufo* aud bl> petrt. It 
tern* old treuoea 

<. La Snlia. In Via Procanaolo. near 

It. a. Oimlam, (SL Jen 

Ii Chap' 

panile *a. hoilt by AmoUo. Ite 

S- Mine da Fiewile i loiLh ot J 
ajanoj the AMumntlon, by Vai 
Madonna and An^la, in Ibe Bio 

!.lflnl, by 
a Lippr. 

tangera hia oldest 

IE. 'S. Loram. In FiaiiadlB.'Loi 
balldlnK. hegon 14«S. by BmnellHc 

crated sat, by Bl. Ambroae (the (H 

crola-ihaped, IBO feet Iook and 171 

CapptUa ihfH Optra.— T. Llppl'a 

th< Bfteentli century, of great lalue in tbe biitory 
of modem painlinga. They were comraBoced by 



[Section 2. 

Neu} SaerUty or Depotiti Cfiapel, constructed by 
M. Aneelo, 1526-31 . It contains his famous *Sta- 
tues of Oiuliano de' MedicL, Dake de Nemours, 
brbtlier of Leo X., and of Lorenzo, Due d' Urbino, 
the father of Catherine; the casts of which are in 
the mediseval court of the Crystal Palace. With 
the former are the figures of Kight and Day ; and 
with the latter those of Morning and Evening. 
Also, an unfinished Madonna, by M. Angelo, 
attended by two saints—^. Damiano (by Monte- 
lupo) and S. Cosimo (by Montorsuli). Several 
niches are empty. 

*JfedM or Prineipi Chapel, founded by Ferdi- 
nand L, 1604, is behind the choir, and is a splendid 
octagon mausoleum covered with rich marbles, 
Jasper, agate, giallo antico, and other precious 
stones, in the Florentine style, as practised at the 
government mosaic factory; small minute pieces 
being laid together in imitation of paintings, 
coats of arms, flowers, and other oi'naments, with 
the nicest effects of shade and colour. It forms 
*'the richest crust of ornament that ever was 
lavished on so large a surface." Here are G. da 
Bologna's statue of Ferdinand I., the founder, and 
P. Tacca's Cosimo II. Benvenuti's frescoes in 
the cupola are a late addition. 

The cloister of the convent leads to the 

Biblioteca Laurenziana, founded by the Medici 
family. Open daily. It was erected by M. Angelo 
and Vasarl, and contains about 10,000 MHS., many 
being almost of priceless value (see p. 133). 

Facing the church of S. Lorengo is Bandinelli's 
statue of Cosimo I/s father, Giovanni, which used 
to stand in the Palazzo Vecchio. 

16. Santa Lucia Church. — D. Ghirlandajo's Birth 
of Christ, at the high altar. 

17. Santa Lucia de'MagnoH. — Terra cotta, by L. 
dellaRobbia; Fra Filippo Lippi's Annunciation. 

18. *8. Marco Church, in the Piazza di S. Marco, 
near the Cathedral, attached to a Dominican Con- 

. vent, now untenanted, of which Savonarola, the 
reformer, and Fra Angelico and Fra Bartolommeo, 
were brothers (frari). Begun 1436-7, by Miche- 
lozzOf and the front completed by Fra Pronti, 
1777. Over it is Giotto's Crucifix, on a gold 

Sound. In the choir, an illuminated missal by 
a Benedetto (the brother of Angelico), and a 
psalter, by Fra Eustachio (1505). In the 

Antonino Chapel, by G. di Bologna, 1588, are seven 
statues of S. Antonino, S. Thomas, S. Dominic, 
4ec., by G. di Bologna and Francavilla; three 
Angels, by Portigiani ; pictures by Bronzino. 

Chapel of the Sacrament, by 811 varii (1678). Paint- 
ings by Passigrnano, S. di Tito, Ac. Near this, 
a virgin and Saints, by Fra Bartolommeo. 

Cappdla Rieci. — Ancient mosaic of the Madonna 
and Saints, of the eighteenth century, brought 
from old St. Peter's at Rome. There are also 
monuments of Pico della Mirandola (a sort of 
Admirable Crichton), G. Benevieni and A. Poll- 
jF/M£ro, orBoUtlmn (1404). 

^^rP*^ ^^o^ten^ cbApter-bottBe. corridon, Ac., of 

frtKoes by Poccetti, Gherardini, «fcc., but especially 
the works of Fra Giovanni da Fiesole, or Fra 
Angelico as he is called, the earliest of the 
fifteenth century artists of the Florentine school. 
They occupied him al>out nine years (1486-45), 
and he always began with prayei*. The subjects 
are generally illustrative of the suflferings and 
death of Christ, and the acts of S. Dominic and 
other saints. In the small refectory is *D. Ghirlan- 
dajo's Last Supper. From this convent, Savonarola 
and two others, were taken and burnt in the 
Piazza Granduca, 23rd May, 1498. He is described 
as '' Apostolicus" in the inscription in his celL 
Bishop Kicci was confined here before his recanta- 

19. Santa Maria Maddalena del Pazzi, in Via 
di Pinti. Built by Brunelleschi and G. da 
Sangallo, who added the clock-tower, 1479. Over 
the front is Poccetti's fresco of St. M. Magdalene. 
It contains 8. di Tito's Christ in the Garden: Pon- 
tormo's Madonna and Saints; Cos. Uosselli Coro- 
nation of the Virgin; and in the Chapter House, 
Perugino's ^Devotion of the Cross, visible daily, 
12 to 4, fee 25c. 

20. Santa Maria Maggiore, built in the thir 
teenth century, on the site of a very early church 
It has a St. John by A. Gaddi ; and is annexed to 
a convent. 

21. *Santa Maria Novella, with its Dominican 
Convent, was built in the purest Italian-Gothic 
style, 1256-1357, by certain brothers of the order; 
the front being completed in 1470. Over the great 
door is one of Giotto's Crucifixions. There is a 
tall campanile attached. The Sepolcreto adjoin- 
ing, with arched tombs, dates from 14O0. 

This large and imposing church, which has lately 
been restored, was «o much admired by M. Angelo, 
that he used to call it his Sposa, or Bride. It is an 
Italian-Gothic cross, 320 feet long, with three 
naves, between pointed arches, which purposely 
diminish towards the high altar, to increase the 
perspective eS'ect. Close to the door is Settlg- 
nano's tomb of Santa Beata Yillana. Its chapels 
areas follows: — 

Choir Chapel— This is covered by D. Ghirlan- 
dajo's frescoes, finished 1490. On one wall are 
several pictures of the History of St. John the 
Baptist ; the first of which contains portraits of 
Politian, of the Tomabuoni family, and of others 
of his friends and patrons ; and in the second is a 
celebrated portrait of Ginevra de' Benci, a young 
and beautiful Florentine lady. On the oi»posite 
wall is the History of the Virgin, in seven pictures, 
with portraits in the first, of the painter, of his 
father and brother, of three of the Medici, and of 
another patron, Tomaquinci. Round the large 
stained window are frescoes of the History of St. 
Dominic and St Peter the Martyr; and four of 
his Evangelists are in the ceiling. 

Oondi ChopeL — ^Here is Brunelleschi's wooden 
Cruci&x, "vrMdi hft carved to rival that at Santa 
Croce, &nd i^0& lo MXoTi\^<b^. T^c!iu«.\.«l\o that he 

^Route 26.] 



cried out " You make Chriats, while I make pup- 

Otiddi Chaptl. — Two tombs by M. Angelo. Bron- 
zino^s Raising of Jalrus' Daugliter. Bas-reliefs 
by Q. dell' Opera. 

Strotzi Chapel, in the transept. — Frescoes of the 
Heaven and Hell of Dante, full of figures, by 
Andrea Orcagna (assisted by bis brother Bernardo), 
one of whose works, the Coronation of the Virgin, 
is in the National Gallery. His best work is here, 
yiz., the altar-pieco of Christ and the Virgin on a 
Throne, with his name on it, painted 1357. 

iSacmty.— Three reliquaries by Fra Aujjrclico; 
and Masaccio's Crucifix. 

Pcuquali C/iapel. — Vasari's Resurrection, painted 
over a work of Masaccio's, the Italian Trinity, dis- 
coTered in 1857. Near M. Lazzaro's pulpit is 
Ghiberti's bronze monument of Fra Leonardo; 
also one of Joseph, Patriarch of Constantinople, 
irbo attended a Council here, 1439. 

RuuUai Chapel. — Cimabue's Madonna and Child, 
ft large picture on a gold ground, said to have been 
caxried in solemn procession from the painter's 
studio to the church. Monument of P. Kucellai. 

FUippo Strozzi Chapel.— B. da Majano's marble 
tomb of the founder; F. Lippi's frescoes of St. 
John restoring Drusiana ; St. Philip driving away 
the Dragon, Ac 

ChiostroVecehio (Old Cloister), or Chlostro Verde, 
bniH 1320, and so called from the prevailing shades 
of its cameo frescoes of the Deluge, by P. Uccelli. 
Hence through corridors lined with early frescoes, 
to the old Chapter House, or 

Cappella Degli Spagnuoli, built 1350, by Fra 
Jacopo, and covered all over with frescoes, by 
Memmi and T. Gaddi, of the school of Giotto, now 
much decayed, and very ill lighted. The subjects 
are the Church Militant and Triumphant, with the 
Life of St. Thomas Aquinas, a great Dominican 
doctor. There is a profusion of figures, many of 
them portraits of eminent personages of the day, 
as Benedict XI., Clement V., Philip of France, 
Petrarch, Laura, Boccaccio, Cimabuc, <&;c.; and 
the Domini Canes, or faithful black and white 
Dominican dogs, are seen driving away the here- 
tical wolves from the flock. Gaddi's frescoes on 
the west side include niched figures of fourteen 
Christian Virtues and Sciences, coupled with por- 
traits of eminent exemplars, in this order:— Civil 
Law and Justinian ; Church Law and Clement V.; 
Speculative Theology and Peter Lombard ; Prac- 
tical Theology and S. Bogthius; Faith and Diony- 
' ains the Areopagite ; Hope and John of Damascus ; 
Charity and St. Augustine ; Arithmetic and Pytha- 
goras; Geometry and Euclid; Astronomy and 
Piolemy ; Music and Tubal Cain ; Dialectics, or 
Logic, and Aristotle; Rhetoric and Cicero ; Gram- 
mar and Priscian. 

Chiostro Grande. — Under the arcades are frescoes 
of the life of S. Dominic, &c. In the refectory, 
frescoes by Bronzino. In the Spezeria, where the 
monks- prepare their noted essences, liqueurs, and 
perfumes (especiallj the alkermes, which makes a 
phM^tint drink with barley water), are S. AreUno's 

twelve paintings. Facing the church are two 
obelisks on bronze tortoises, by G. da Bologna. The 
open loggia of Brunelleschi, opposite, was re- 
stored in 1789. The piazza presents a gay scene 
on a church festa, when the people come out with 
their di'csses and banners. 

*J*2. Santa AfaHa Nuova, near the Piazza di 
Duonio, built 1418, as the church to an excellent 
hospital and medical school, founded 1287, by 
Folco Portinari, the father of Dante's Beatrice. 
In the loggia are wall paintings, by L. di Bicci. 
Within are Allori's Madonna on a Throne, Cas- 
trtgno's Magdalene, D. Veneziano's Flight into 
Egypt, A. Vcrrocchio's (terra cotta) Madonna, and 
Van der Goes's altar-piece. Remains of Fra 
Bartolommeo's Last Judgment, in the Cemetery. 

23. St. Martino, an oratory of the Buonuomini, 
founded 1441, and destroyed by an earthquake in 
May, 1896. 

24. *0v S. Miehde, or S. Michele in Orzo {i.e., 
among the barley), in the Via Calzaiolo, near 
Piazza Granduca, was first built for a granary on 
arcades, and converted into a church in 1837, 
completed 1412. Arnolfo's old Gothic church, 
which it replaces, is now called 8. Carlo. The 
upper storey, shice 1359, is used for the archives, 
while the lower or church part rests on the ancient 
market pillars. We here have examples of two 
arches divided by columns included within a 
larger arch, as in some Norman churches. It has 
some old frescoes (Gaddi' s Jesus in the Temple), 
good stained windows, and a beautiful marble 
* Tabernacle, by Orcagna, 1359, most richly carved 
with reliefs from the History of the Virgin, and 
standing behind an elegant screen which matches 
it. It contains a miracle-working image of the 
Virgin. There are. also a marble group, by F. da 
Sangallo and Mino da Fiesole. 

Around the church is a series of niched statues, 
erected by the old trading guilds of Florence, whose 
arms are placed over each. Among them are 
Donatello's St. Mark, St. George, and St. Peter; 
G. da Bologna's St Luke; Ghilberti's St. John the 
Baptist, St. Matthew (bronze), and St. Stephen; 
N. di Banco's St. James and St. Eloy (or St. Eligius), 
and four saints in a group; besides A. del Vcr- 
rocchio's St. Thomas, and B. da Montelupo's St. 
John the Evangelist. 

25. S. Miniato. (See page 135.) 

26. S. Niceolb, across the Amo, near Porta S. 
Miniato, built by Vasari. It suffered from the 
inundations of the river, in 1557, and has a cam- 

? anile in which M. Angelo hid away from the 
mperialists. A. Allori's Sacrifice of Abraham and 
St. Catherine; D. Ghirlandajo's Madonna and St, 
Thomas, in the Sacristy. 

27. Ognissanti, or All Saints, annexed to a Fran- 
ciscan House, and restored in 1627. It has L. della 
Robbia's reliefs on the door-way ; D. Ghirlandajo's 
St. Jerome; Botticelli's St. Augustine, Ac. 

28. S. Onotfrio, in the Refectoc^ ^x^ -^^ Ci«wM^^ '^ 
the achocA ol "^wrojigwtfi «sA %Ks«t^ ^s<SN!et^y»^ 

\ %5 centB. 


tllllI>SlllW*« ITILI 

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uhI rwrlMnlh eentntlie. 
Abom hi* u Mu Ti)b«ni«le. br 
St. Peter, by Clmabne (!). 

glgllo on » Willie 4e]J. whlcl 
renrilfrom IMO^W) 111! he n 


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t. Willi M chapels I 
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le'ot iKe Temlnr" Tlie Poantil 

U. Oamla TMoUh, bulll l»l), Inth* Oolhlci 
and rMtiirad by DuimtaJeiill. In 1170. The 

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d-AnliL euiuuleted 1MB, the beil of which 1 
Ralnl'a Death. Thla •erloi containt nonialla of 
LwMlode' Medici and ■>! her eminent Floren tinea. 

VUTernabuonlla the Lllirerla Erai 

near llit |j(a°eb>ne Palace, bgllt b; A, Palladlo. 

On Ihe Knlh ilde of the aquare li Ihe Loggia 
and plllari, deelgned by Bend dl Clone, IMA, (or 
Medici Uuke) uaed II ai a itruardhoDae for their 

Amonfrthegronptof Btatoarylii(heLoMli,Ihe 

which herelaleilti hli ■^Autoblogrnphy." Othera 
WQiih notice are — O. da Bolo^a'a Ra|w of the 
Sablniw: a DyhiR AJai. an antique (reatored by 
Salvdll); Donatello't bronie Judllh and Helo- 

The'lnner court of the poloce H surrounded by 

dl Fa"naai "^liu "handl^^ounU^a, wl"h°!l 

On Ihe Aru floor 'l> the Grand Saloon. SaU de' 

broad, and 01 feci lilgb, bultt IMS, for popular 
nlectlng^ by Cronoca. at the Inttance of the 

h, wUbtUhed i 
here in limi, ny ina Muiiance oi ine Free Kirk of I 
Hcollaiid, Itwaa Iraniferied from Torre, whore : 
II waa Hrat t<nind«l. IBU, by the exerllont of lit. 
QlUy ami Ueoaral Beckwlth. TheSynngoiue la 
■ handiDnwbulldlaii, _ 

ftllMm.—*P'*"" Ttrrhlo, In the PUaia Oran- 
dMa, or SlgnoHa. the old teal of the Bennbllean 
andUKcal fioTero»enl, and lately of the Chamber 
a( Itepulleaaud tWelgii OIBm, lea ano maatlTt and 

ndaled balllemeuti ; anil wm boguii ISM l.v 

ma, and Viuarf. 

t ApirM ih* red Illy nr 

dlflerent lUlca wore all Fiorentlnei. They are 
aald to haie repretented France. England. Ger- 
many, Bohemia, Raffia. Piaa. Terona, Naplee. 
Sicily, CameHno, Ualla. and the Khan of Tartaryl 
The Bail* dell' Udlonia. or Audienea ChanibEr, la 


a, with 01 

Blanca Cappello; an annaury and a prliatt 
Chanel, painted by S. Ohirlandajo. 

■MUUT of FloruiM, Fnw di iftdM. *r. 
ThU ma^\tLceiA eo>^vi;i\aA \« o^en dally, from 

lloute '26.] 



Uffizit or Offices, a range of buildings fonuiug 
three sides of an oblong court, between the Pal- 
azzo Vccchio and the Amo. about 600 feet long, 
and 125 broad ; originally serving as pait of the 
corridor— 260 or 260 fathoms long, to the Fitti 
Palace. It was constructed by Vusari, 1660-74, 
as an open loggia or roofed terrace, but after- 
wards filled in with windows and enclosed. To 
this, other rooms, as the Tribune, Niobc Kuom, Ac, 
were added by Buontalenti, and Inter architects. 
Part of the east wing, near the Archives, is occu- 
pied by the Italian Senate. The Etruscan Gallery 
dates from 1863. The collection was founded by 
Cosimo I., and sncceeding Princes of the Medici 

It compriaes paintings of all the Italian and 
Foreign ichools, ancient and modem sculpture, 
designs and engravings, bronzes, gems, pottery, 
Ac^ the archives, and the Magliabecchi Library ; 
most of which are (»i the first floor. Shops fill up 
the Doric colonnades below. The entrance is near 
the Piazza Signoria. Around the court is an 
interesting series of niched marble statues of 
eminent Florentines, of modem date; as the 
founder, Cosimo I. (by G. da Bologna) ; Lorenzo 
the Magnificent ; Orcagna (by Dupre) ; Niccolb da 
Pisa (by Fedi, one of the best) ; Giotto (by Duprfe, 
the sculptor of the Dead Abel); Donatcllo (by 
Torrhii); Alberti, da Vinci, M. Angclo, Dante, 
Petrarch, Boccaccio, Machiavelli, Guicciardini, 
Amerigo Vespucci, Galileo, P. Micholi, Mascagni, 
Cesalpino, S. Antonino, Accorsi, Guido, B. Cellini, 
F. degl' Uborti, P. Capponl, G. de' Medici (or delle 
Bande Nere), and Ferncci. 

First Vestibule fh>m the stairs.— Bronzes of 
SUonus and Bacchus, and of Mars; busts of the 
Medici, including Cosimo (pater patrias, as he is 
called), the founder of the family; which derives its 
name from Medicus^ and whose arms are the three 
pills or balls now adopted by pawnbrokers. He 
died 1464. Also Lorenzo the Magnificent, whose 
life with that of his son, Giovanni (Led X.), was 
written by Roscoe; GiuHano, or Clement VII.; 
and Cosimo I., the first Grand Duke. Catherine 
de* Medici (or Medicis, as the French spell it), 
grandniece of Clonent VII., was the mother of 
Francis II., and two other King^ of France, and 
mother-in-law to Mary Stuart. 

Second VestffnUe. — Mastiff dogs ; statues of 
Apollo, and of Augustus, Adrian, and Trajan. 
This leads into the three 

Corridor*, surrounded by paintings of the old 
masters (thirteenth to sixteenth century); among 
which arc Giottino's Entombment ; Fra Angelico's 
Altar-piece; Giotto's Christ in the Garden; and 
a fine St. Cecilia. Here are over 600 portraits of 
eminent Florentines; busts of the Roman Emperors, 
and fourteen sarcophagi. Among the busts, the 
moit striking are Nero, Otho, Titus, Antoninus 
Pina, M. Aorelius, Caracalla, and Commodut. 
About three parts up the first long (or east) 
ooiTldor, turning to the left, is the 

^HtaniL— 4. finap close octagon room, about M 
feet dismttm ooaMaiag « "world of art,'* ike 

t gems of sculpture and painting of the whole col- 
lection. It was constructed by Buontalenti, and 
has a marble floor and a mother-of-pearl dome. 
Here stand five master-pieces of statuary; and, 

' first, the '' statue that enchants the world,'' the 
1. ^Venus de' Medici, an undraped figure, so 
called because placed here by Cosimo III. of the 

' Medici family, and which is so well known by the 
innumerable copied of it. It was found at Villa 
Adrianu, broken Lu three pieces, and wanting the 
right arm and half of the loft, which were restored 

' by Bernini. It i84 feet 11 \ inches high, of pentelic 
(or Athenian) marble, and is said to be the work of 
Cleomenes, the son of Apollodorus. 2. L' ApollinOy 

j or Little Apollo, 4 feet 6 inches high, and attributed 

I to Praxiteles. 3. V Arrotino, a figure whetting 

; his knife, found at Rome, in the sixteenth century, 
and supposed to be a Scythian preparing to flay 
Marsyas. 4. / Lottatori, or The "Wrestlers,— one 
head of which is supposed to have been restored. 
6. Dancing Faun. Head and arms restored by M. 

The Paintings in this room are-L. Carracci's 
Eliezer and Rebecca ; L. Cranach's Adam and Eve; 
A. Diirer's Adoration of the Magi; Domenichino's 
Portrait of Cardinal Aguccia; Titian's Venus and 
Cupid with Flowers ; M. Angolo's *Holy Family, 
in a Circle — painted for A. Doni ; Lanfranchi's St. 
Peter near the Cross ; A. Mantegna's Circumcision, 
Adoration of the Magi, and Resurrection ; A. del 
Sarto's *Madonna, St. John the Evangelist, and 
St. Francis; Corroggio's Head of St. John the 
Bdptist; B. Luini's Herodias and the Baptist's 
Head; Titian's Portrait of Cardinal Beccadelli*; 
Corregglo's Holy Family in Egypt; Titian's 
♦Venus, with the Dog (this Is "Titian's Venus," 
supposed to be the portrait of the mistress 
of the Duke d'Urbino); Guercino's Samian Sibyl ; 
Raphael's Portrait of Maddalena Doni (or one of 
the Doni family?), painted 1606; P. Veronese's 
Madonna and Child. St. John, St. Catherine, Ac; 
A. Carracci's Bacchante; Raphael's *Portrait of 
Pope Julius II. (a copy Is in our National Gallery) ; 
♦Madonna del Cardellino (so called from the gold- 
finch in the Infant Saviour's hands — painted as a 
wedding gift to surprise a friend); Vandyke's 
Portrait of J. de Montfort; Perugino's *Holy 
Family and St. Sebastian; Raphael'sSt. John the 
Baptist, Madonna del Pozzo; Spagnoletto's St. 
Jerome; G. Romano's Virgin and Child; O. 

i Alfani's Holy Family. Raphael's *Fornarina, so 
called; his mistress, the little baker's daughter, 
but differing from the Barberini and other Foma- 
rinas ; some say it is Vittoria Colonna, or Beatrice 
de Ferrara; others attribute the painting to (^ior- 
gione. Rubens' Hercules, between Venus and 
Minerva; Schidone's Holy Family ; Guido's Ma- 
donna; Corregglo's Virgin and Child; F. Bar- 
rocci's Portrait of Duke d'Urbino; Fra Barto- 
lommeo's *Job* and Isaiah; Vandyke's Portrait of 
•Charles V. on Horseback, by the &««. ^Vssapt^v"^^ 
da Voltert«J% l^MiiMtt^ ^\ hSbl^ \xsb»ww4w».% \*- ' 


130 iiHAUJt 

VJnrl— I Portrait and Mcddn>Hi»d, JChlim 
iir Bmpolf— St. Ives nnd the Widow- and Orphi 
Fr. AneellM-lour pl«i-— -' ■■- '••--•" 
Vlncl— Adoration ot tbe 
B. Zanobi <two plctnrc). 
Family, his ]a<t work. . 
with HolofHTiM- H«d, b: 

Bronilno— Chriit In LlmL _, 

bMdii. VB»rl— Portralti of L. anri A. de~ Medlct. 
P. Llppl— Adontlon uf tli« Alael. r. Llppl-St. 
AtinMln. At Iheback of thia room Ih thcSata 
M AnHchi llaalrl. In which arc abont 2S pictures 
ot Ilallaii srtliU of the IStb to the I«t]i centurlfi. 
^JtaUm *»ool_.— Guldo'i Vlrgli 

■ U«7l nnJ the Villi Pi 

Hagl. R. Gtilrlandajo— 
ipll of Gublo. 

Uadut^. _ 

Dutch &AaaI.— Lund 

hli WIFd, Holni 

Prederlclt! A.: 
■rail' Schttl 

Id Child. 

■alts, by Js 

of Allwny. ^ ..- 

Father's Sword i Q. Poii<i>lii'> Lsiidapapci Bor- 
BOSiiono-a Bnltle-pleces; Mlgnard'a PoHralts of 
Uadnme da Bevlgni! and Madame do Orlgnnn. 

at the long gallary noil the Anio, la the 
CablatI 0/ flttfif.— l>ecornted with 

in F1or< 

Comiola; THnmph of Coilnio I., by 1). Honiuia; 
Uu-rallata In gold and moulc. by <i. ds Dolopia ; 
Clement Tll.'a ctvatal casket, by V, Vlccnllno, In- 
tended aa a wedding gift for Cathnlnc de' Medici; 
tapis laiDll enp. by B. CeUlnl; and a plate In 
cryatal and eold. by the same i Venae and Cupid, 
Injiorphyry, by Pescla. 

I'oiM^iifMMlL— Many of thorn puilraiU, Glor- 
glnne'i JudEinrnt ot Solonion i TKInn'H Hanaorlno. 
ItnoluoB ft Urblno, and Duke of Kovric. Ac. ; 

I. C. Dolel. A, Allorl, Clgoli, L. Lippt. 
ular and rnggtd). 
Roea, L. da Vlncl. 

iolnano. Rap/atl {au 
creen), Peniglno, Mo 

9atoon of Irucriptions ar 

o tbe SiiJa dl LaceoRO 

JIiill a! SiOit, constrnclod In 17;>. and so called 

Kiobe nnd her Children Panaed by' Apollo and 
Dianoi found at Poits H.Paolo, Rome, in IS8». 
Paint hies-byVundyke: tho Mother or Bobcns{f), 
HaniliantTASappetScencindaOlpiy. Rnbcns; 
Henry IV. al Ivry, and hie Entry Into Parii. 
Lely; Portraits o( Prince Unpen aid Monk. The 

thougbtlobeBHCchus.noi>declded lobe Mercury, 
found ur es&rf>. V^Vl-, Etruacui atatnettes, utenril^ 

Batgni ana Entrartnfi.—Aboiil : 
from Gloltino to lie slitcenth cen 
varda at 30,000 eii£r«vlnB«, many i 

pold de- Uedkl. ud added to b; | 
bequeM. It Is Inieodiul to srrme 

Blt)110t«ca NailOiiAle, on ihe 

H brar (oimpd bj k. Mai 

•> d rfu uem ry. >pd the BMIbih 
mbcn IMM.000 VDlumu uid i 

printed si (lonnce, 14SB. The CcdI 

Plgafetla, th» hlsloriiin (»» quolf 

fpfiikit7'«^"£litHlcryMn IhoUffli 



On the lint floor ar i\\t 

pbael: 'Po 
Donl, 1M7, . 
■nd Cirdim 
Tilau; Plet] 

JCinflaun.— Goldo: Manlilei 
JulluiII. Eubeni: Portroltsaf bl 

'e.' Kembrwdt: Old Man. 
note: Portraitof h[> Wlfa. 
fly. MnrllLo: Virgin. Ha- 
AoKiolo and Haddalena 
X. Cardinal do' Hedicl^ 

Kenibrandt: Portrait of 
RapbasI; Popa 

lo1ot*m« (hla own nonrait). A. . 
I»lj-Faml1r. Titlaa, Portrait. 
JiifiUr Room. — M.Angclo(t): •Thr» 

Palntineii— by A. dtl Sarto: La Dlipii 

■ioimiito itUaOiiia. ^d -Mad. d^' 
Peragino; Daeenl from Ihs CroH. 
•Hadonna del Baldaccblno (of Ihc 

a Throne. aior;lan< 

John llie Baptist.' Volaiqaaz! P. 
tuielto: Descfot from the tioit. 

till; A. dal 

floU of JiOtiCt.- 

Plura Hwm.—Cau 

n ITALY. LSectio. 

rc«i)redlnl7»4by(hetiHndUukeLeoiK>Jd; t 
firiBlng Mhiwli of daign, pilntlng, «rchll«( 

ioUidKniiA. with Dhjgdia Thniwliig hLi Cap Awa j- 

'Pbc^IH Room.— CiiioiB't biut of Hipoleoui 
TItlan'i Portrait ol T. Ho«L 

aabinaii! dtali Argtall (let \ lira).- aolilanill li; 
wockfBciivcniitu CbHIiiI, ic.) ud Hid rof ^ Dint.'. 

Th« rorrldor between the PLIU and the UffliL 
li lined «lth uaiil or lapMltlei. 

Claie by la Ibe JAim di Fltka t Storla Katurah, 
fonnded by Leoixild I.. liHludlog eoUectluliB of 


1, with a 

le by CoBtulU 


holy *Pamllr. Angela and Fropheta. Oiollo ; ten 
lubjMla 111 the LKa of St. Fruncls. Pra Angdico: 

iriit— with . 

;■!' 'thr-orc 

Chriit— with an angel, by L. da Vlncl, fla pnpU. 
PErugliio; Chrlat In theOiirden. and MiAanunp- 
tlon, from Vallombroaa (IKK)). F. Lippt and 
PETD^Ino; Dejcen_c from tbe Croai. A. dcJSarto : 

^N'nn)t TbreeMsryi 
and BBliitB—lhoaainta having a lemlnint appHT- 
ani^a, aa Sitter Plantilla wai not allowed to 

de' Medici. CigoU; St. Frsncli RecelTing tbe 
Stigmata. PraAngelleoi eight plctniM,io thlrty- 
flTS companmenti. of tbe Life of Chrlat. Fn 
DartolomiqeO! Portrait of Sa«onarola. Fra 
Angellco: T.ait Judgment. C.Dolcl: Portnltof 
FtsABgelico. F.Lippl'Comnaltonodhe Virgin. 
a. da Pabrlano: AUoralion of the Magi. There 

le Mtdici C/iapil at 

Tha . 

apeitrlea of tl 

KaLn llyle,lIlth^onnlalll^ terraceMnd ilatunry, 
lwlI,Angelo(lheFDurPrlaanara)i G.daBoloirnu 
(■foonlahi); BandlnelU. Roal. Ac.: andconmn^ul 
i Ihw proipeit of the elty and *alley "f the Amu-. 
lit gHlyHuKen are trtebratcd. Open free ciu 
Sunday! an.l Thnrtdayt at noon i for other («>* 
Uckotimoit beobulnadattheolftceodhe Pjiii 


ClorElii. 01 

Orand Dn 

Xe>ar& preriODt X-i 

1 plhbeinorneeoglie-— 1 

I FilTste P»l«ee«.— i 

palacH il^'aVli'maad-I 

/■WJt nAA-fi cxptaBd blM dyottty from Tnacan; 

•■'-y-tfirrnfa a*Ba JMlu irtt ( AcHieor 

^*wx*a» Fn SfenV, nau- St Ifart 

«*« i-r M KKtttr m wtMr la MMt ■ 

tnA i uin. uAnnon&toUM. 

BouU S«.] 
Paiaao AllaMti. Id B 

1; now ttas Hold di 
[iJOhlgh, Inlhreett 

high. Begun by fi- 

ilon of tha InijnMtkn 

Li> Via dOU Vina »«**. 
3. AlhBTtl; in tliree nHtlcaMd 
b4&d«d "wtadovn. lepArtitod bf 

[mpiMtng and fortt«i-lihe. 

m. by a. 


Cam Bnontrrotl, vie 

[• bnit, bj 

Ricol*r»lli( hl> portrait, by h 

ilao, hlB dlnUig-roDin, painted wLch grouM of tti« 
liippers, crucial, and irtlclea at fumitoM. Hia 


aDdt.OOO M8S., open niae lo two. Some Son 
InicrtpllDin arc here with baB-rollcfa byUonate 

•PodBBU Palaco, or BarKellD, in via P 

hit birth wu obaerved In May, 1B«5. There ii a 
math or hIa face at Palmo del Neri. 

Pantc Santa Trinitk. Here die<l, In iso'l, the 
■■I'rhice of Tragefly," ai bo |9 ityled in the lo- 

■— —- —H privately married to the nldoir 

wboaatvlveit till 1811.. 
_ ilaihiaaU(i_IlcuK. in Vja Gulcclardinl, No, 

lied, 1S2T, o 

if Magltu 


tl,""^"!"; ' 

liy Giotto, 

public. II waa ador 
Ohlrlandajo, Ao.. wblch had gone t 
thawaabroDgtitM light in IMO, with a portrall 
of lJant«. Tho collection (catalogoe S lire) conalati 
of baa-rsHnTl, HDMim. caRi, ponalatB bnatt, 
bronia^ earrtnn. nunltnra, Jnrsllery, UMMiy, 
colB*, asd OMiUen irllh o/d amour and arnH, 
MrfO.«M(*SlArta(fn^ VJctory, ofM, Angslo. 

<lf BulaiardiBiytb 

At the comer of PUiu de^la 
It the boute In >hicb died. 1S««. 
T. A. TrviUiqio, anth(iro(h|jforlMl 

Uii. Browning, the poctou. waa 

of Florence Nightingale. 

BiMiolMO LaurmtUM W \ji»,\»*' 



[Section 2. 

Clement VII. and Cosimo I. Vestibule by M. 
Angelo; the rest by Vasari. The vestibule, though 
only 23 feet square, is so skilfully contrived that it 
gives one *' an idea of size and even magnificence 
on entering it." — (Miss Berry). The rotunda was 
added 1841. It includes Alfieri's books, presented 
by his executor, Fabr^ the painter. Among the 
rare books are early printed Bibles, and a Lucia n, 
with miniatures of Lorenzo de' Medici. The 10,00 J 
manuscripts include— a Virgil of the fourth or 
fifth century, the earliest manuscript known. 
Pandects, sixth or seventh century, brought from 
Amalfi, by the Pisans. Two manuscripts of Taci- 
tus, between seventh and tenth centuries; the 
older is the only one containing the first five books 
of the Annals. Boccaccio's Decameron, 1384. The 
Valdarfer edition of Boccaccio was printed here, 
1471; the sale of which in England, in 1812, led 
to the formation of the Roxburghe Club. Cicero's 
Letters «d Familiares, copied by Petrarch. Horace, 
twelfth century. Letter of Dante, declining to 
return to Florence, on condition of asking pardon 
of the party in favour. Catalog^ies of the MSS. 
have been published. 

Biblioteca Marucdliana^ in Via Cavour, founded 
by Abbate Marncelli, 1702, and containing 120,000 
volumes. Open daily 9 to 4. The Mare Magnum, 
or General Index, in 1 12 volumes, is a list of all 
the books read by the founder, almost rivalling in 
number those devoured by Magliabecchi. 

Btbilioteea Nationale^ at the Ufiizi, which see. 
Biblioteca Riccardana, at Palazzo Kiccardi with 
38,000 volumes and 4,000 MSS , open daily, 9 to 2. 

Theatres.— T'ea^ro delta Perffola, in Via della 
Pergola, for operas. Built 1 638, by P. Tacca, with 
five rows of boxes, and will hold 2,500 persons. 
Pagliano, Via Ghibellina. Interesting fresco inside 
the entrance. Ificcolini. Via Ricasoli Salvini, 
Via dei Nerl. Nazionale^ Via Nazionale. Affleri, 
Via Giardino. Rossini^ Via Borgo Ognlssanti. 
Goldoniy in Oltr' Amo. Nuovo, Via Bufalini, 37. 
The performances commence generally about half- 
past eiofht and continue till midnight. The price 
at the Pergola is 3 lire, at most of the others only 
1 lira. PoHteama^ Corso Vittorio Emanucle. 

Sonic performances are devoted to the Florence 

One of the chief places of resort is the 

Casclne Promenade, on the west ; a fine green 
spot outside Porta al Prata, near the Leopoldo rail- 
way terminus, at the end of Lung' Amo. It takes 
name from a dairy farm which belonged to the 
Grand Duke, whose butter was stamped with thd 
three Medici palle, or balls. It is a gay resort on 
festas, especially the assumption and tlie Ist Sun- 
day in June, the Festa dello Statuto, and has a 
view of the environs and the distant mountains. 
Here is a Monument to an Indian Prince, the last 
Maharajah of Kolapore, who died here In 1870, and 

^Aoae oodjr was bamt with due Hindoo rites on 

iA/s spot. 

CAai^chf^^f'^i!' ^"'"^^ «''« "««^ the English 

Hospitals (Ospedale or Spedale). — Spedale di 
Santa Maria Nitova, close to the church of the 
same name, founded 1287, by Folco Portinari; is 
the largest in the city, with room for about 1,000 

SpedaHe di Bonifacio, or Lunatic Asylum, near 
Porta S. Gallo, with n church, in which is Fra 
Bartolommeo'8 Santa Biigltte, or Bridget. The 
Spedale di Lucia faces it. 

Spedale di S. Giovanni di Dio, an institution of 
the Bcni Fratelli brethren, on the site of Amerigo 
Vespucci's house. 

Spedale degV Innosenti, in Piazza dell' Annun - 
ziatn, is the Foundling Hospital of Florence. It 
was designed by Brunelleschi, and has frescoes 
by L. and A. Della Kobbia, and an altar-piece 
by Ghlrlandajo. 

Pia Lasa di LaMro, or Mendicity Institution, 
founded by the French, near Santa Croce. 

The Confraternita della Misei'ieordia is a 
voluntary mstitution, founded in the thirteenth 
century *for rendering good offices to the dying 
and dead. They meet in the Piazza del Duomo, 
close to the cathedral, at the sound of the bell, 
dressed in a black hood, with holes for the mouth 
and eyes. 

Mendicancy Is forbidden in Florence, the only 
exception being made in favour of the blind. 

Manufactures carried on at Florence — Linen, 
silk, satin. Porcelain at La Doccia, founded 1740, 
by Ginori. Specimens of this were shown in the 
Italian Court of the Exhibition of 1862. Mosaic, 
or pietra dura. Beautiful specimens of this inlaid 
work, as flowers, birds, Ac, are sold at the mosaic 
shops. The smallest particle of stone is tunied to 
account. Tuscan, or Leghorn, straw hats. 

Copies of the best " Italian masters " may be 
bought for £5 to £50, according to merit; the 
frame being generally the best part of the work. 

Climate. — Dr. Lee says, "From the end of 
November till April, Florence is less adapted than 
any other place of resort in Italy, to persons 
labouring under pulmonary, bronchial, or rheu- 
matic complaints. It generally agrees well with 
dyspeptic and nervous patients, who lack mental 
recreation; and I have known it suit several 
asthmatic cases better than any other Continental 
town. Those of a strumous, inert, and lymphatic 
temperament likewise generally find the climate 
suited to them." 

October and November are usually fine and 
warm. The winter is cold. About April the 
weather is charming, and the Vale of Amo appears 
in all its beauty. 

Villas, Walks, BxcurBlonS.— l . OntheFiesole 
Road, out of the Porta S. Gallo, or Porta Pinti, on 
the north-east, towards the Apennines. On or 
near these roads, after crossing the Magnone, is 
Villa Careggi, a favourite seat of the Medici, 
in which Cosimo the elder, and Lorenzo the Mag- 
nificent, died. Here the latter presided over bis 
Platonic Academy, !ix\A. T«c,«VNtd a visit fr<»m 

Koute 26.] 



above it commands a fine view of Val d'Aitio. 
Farther on. are the Villas of the late Madame 
Oatalaui and Lord Normanby; Villa Mario, -which 
belonged to Mario, the singer ; Villa Palmiori de' 
tre Vise, where Boccaccio places his story-tellers 
of the Decameron during the plaf^ue of 1348, Villa 
Mozzi del Garbo and Villa Melzi, both seats of the 
Medici; Villa Guadagni, in which B. dell a Scala 
wrote his History of Florence. Here also is the 
Villa of Baron Ricasoli (the statesman, and a 
descendant of an old Tuscan family), on the 
site of St. Girolamo Convent. The estate produces 
good wine. The Fi'anciscan Badia, or Abbey of 
St. Bartolommeo, is near. 

FleSOle, or Fcsulca, the ancient Fxsulx; an 
Etruscan city, the mother of Florence, on a con- 
spicuous hill, ],OuO feet high, about 4 miles from 
Florence, now marked by a cathedral. There are 
remains of massive stone walls, and of an amphi- 
theatre. From the "top of Ficsole" half the 
extent of Val d'Anio may be descried, with its 
villas, palaces, convents, farms, and towns in 
every variety of combination. 

Protestant Cemetery, outside the Porta Phiti. 

Here A. F. Clough, the poet, is buried (1861); with 
other former residents. On the Bologna Road, is 

FratOlinO, marked by a colossal statue of the 
Apennines, by G. da Bologna, 60 feet high, in a 
garden ; the view is nearly 20 miles all round. 

" Who can reach the summit of the hill of Prato- 
lino and not feel a sense of delight and admiration ? 
Florence, the city which derives its name from the 
abundance of flowers blossoming in its fields and 
gardens, glitters in all the pride of its beauty 
across that sunlit valley, through which the waters 
of the Anio flow now, as they flowed in the old 
days of Tuscan gloiy. Its porticoes, its domes, 
its spires, the massive tower of the Bargello, and 
the dusky prisons hard by, rise in varied groups 
of sculptured marble, of ornamented loggle, of 
painted palaces. Below the Ponte Vecchio, which 
spans the river with its old fashioned jewellers' 
and goldsmiths* shops, the winding Arno is seen 
shut in by swelling hills, whose declivities arc dotted 
with churches, castles, and villas. 

"The distant aspect of Florence is brighter than 
the appearance of the streets themselves, which 
are severe and sombre. Yet the more the traveller 
advances into them, the more he becomes aware of 
the greatness of Italian genius. The rugged, 
and the numberless churches, bring to his mind 
the grandeur and wealth of the past, a grandeur 
which still sheds light upon the world" — 

2. Passing out of the gate by the Casein e, on the 
Pistoja Road, are — the ViUa S. Donato, a ciiuutry 
seat of the the Dcmidoff family (built 1828), who 
farmed the government tobacco revenue; Pctraja 
di Castello and Villa di Quarti, both favourite seats 
of the Medici; La Doccia, a factory of Marquis 
Ginori, famous for its porcelain, called doccia, from 
the duct or coodidt, which carries the water to the 
r//f'; iffl</ 4/ Jeng:pfi, Pogglo a Cajapo, th^ sUe 

of another Grand Ducal seat. Here Francesco I. 
and Bianca Cappello died of poison. 

3. From the south side of Florence, out by Porta 
S. Miniato, a road passes up the Arno, to Monte 
Santa Croce, and the Franciscan Church of S. 
Salvatore, by Cronaca; above which, in the ceme- 
torj', is the old Church or Basilica of 

*S. Miniato, rebuilt 1013; a beautiful and well- 
proportioned specimen of a Romanesque church, 
165 feet by 70, divided into three aisles. It con- 
tains bas-reliefs, paintings, and frescoes, and an 
ancient crypt, or second choir below the other 
choir. In the sacristy are S. Spinelli's series of 
frescoes from the life of St Benedict. This vener- 
able church stands among cypresses, and is reached 
by a Via Crucis, ending in a beautiful prospect. 
Here Giustl, the poet, was buried, 1849. 

4. The road from Porta Romana passes Poggio 
Imperiale (Poggio means a hill), another seat of 
the Medici. Villa Albizzi, on Monte Bellosguardo, 
in which Galileo lived for a time. Arcetri, another 
hill, celebrated for its vino verde, or green wine, 
the "verdea soavissima," celebrated by Redi, 
which they say Galileo amused himself by cultiva- 
ting. He was considered a good judge of wine 
and used to say, "11 vino b un composito di luce 
e d'amore." On the hill and marked by his bust 
over the door, whenjce there is a fine prospect, 
stands his Torre del G.iUo, or Observatory ; and 
close to it the Villa del Oiojello, in which li'o spent 
his last years under the censure of the Inquisition. 
"There it was," says Milton, "that I found and 
visited the famous Galileo, grown old, a prisoner 
('under arrest,' as it were), to the Inquisition, 
for thinking in astronomy otherwise than the Fran- 
ciscan and Dominican licensers thought." But, 
"€/)«;• si muove,*' the world moves in spite of them. 
In this direction is the shrine of Santa Maria Im- 
pruneta, a black Virgin, held in great honour. To 
the west, near the Pesa, 8 miles, are the tonic 
springs of S. Casciano (/«n, Campana), near a 
house where Machiavelli lived. 

6. Railway Excursion — To Pontassieve, on the 
Arezzo line: whence it is 10 or 12 miles to the 
"Etrurian shades "of Vallombrosa, under the 
Apennines (once a convent); now a Forest School, 
with 6 professors, an arboretum, and plantations. 
See Bradshaw's Continental Guide. 

The country parts round Florence are divided 
into field.s, edged with ditches and poj)lars, and 
planted with vines, corn, olives, «tc. There are 
two harvests yearly. The wheat being thick sown 
and cut down before it is ripe, furnishes the valu- 
able straw which is plaited for Leghorn hats. 
Barley is now grown for beer. The farmers are 
an industrious and intelligent race, healthy and 
comfortable, neither rich nor poor. They are not 
able to keep servants, but every member of tlu» 
family works havd. A black beaver hat and 
yellow umbrella are not uncommo^i. The oxen 
are dun-coloured and stall-fed. 
"Itv lYve tVq\\ «v\<^l^\XN\^N^<^363:^^>'^^^'^;| 



[Section 2. 

they would mftke two Romea — the farmer and pro- 
prietor look lest to the com and wine than to the 
oil, as a source of profit and wealth. The Oil is the 
great thing. Always below rather than above the 
demand in quantity, the golden oil is readily ex- 
changeable at any moment into solid gold; and by 
a recognised usage of long standing all transac- 
tions are paid in ready money. Nothing can be 
more primitive and unimproved than the Tuscan 
method of obtaining this valuable produce from 
the berry, or than that of settling accounts between 
landlord and tenant. Almost every estate has its 
rilla, the country residence of the landowner. 
Often his fattore or bailiff inhabits it, or a portion 
of it. Nor is it rare for the house of the contadino 
or farmer to be close to that of his landlord, or 
even under the same roof. To the villa is brought 
all the produce of the land. The grapes are there 
pressed into wine, and the olives into oil, by a 
clumsy process which has not varied for centuries. 
The oil when drawn off is poured into small barrels 
of a regular size, containing a certain number of 
flasks, and supposed to form each half an ass*s load. 
Then one barrel to the landlord, and one to the 
tenant, till the whole yield is equally divided be- 
tween them. So also with the wine and so with 
the com. Money rents are almost if not altogether 
unknown. This is the metayer system which 
prevails throughout Italy, ^nd from which the 
onlv thing excepted is the produce of the beehives, 
which goes entirely to the tenant." — T. A. TroUope. 

Florence is a delightful place to live in. It has a 
fine climate; proviadons are cheap ; there are good 
libraries and reading-rooms; the people are 
sprightly and polished, and noted for thrift. There 
is a saying that when a child is sent to school they 
give him a piece of bread and half a lemon for 
luncheon. His greediness makes him eat the 
lemon first; and his teeth being set on edge, he is 
obliged to leave the bread, which is thus spared 
for another meal. 

It was founded by a colony of Roman soldiers 
settled here by Octavianns. In the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries the republic was at the 
height of its prosperity, through its great trade, 
its banking operations, and its manufactures of 
silk, woollen, &c. Its revenue was8(H),000 florins, 
equal to £60,000 in the present day. The gold 
florin (which took its name here) or zecchlno, had 
a figure of St. Giovanni Battista on one side. 

Large transactions were entered into with Edward 
III. of England, to whom the citizens lent upwards 
of a million and a half of florins; and his inability 
to repay it produced distress and bankraptcy. 

Florence became predominant over its neigh- 
bours, Pisa, Slcna, &c. ; but bitter party contests 
raged at home, between the Gnelphs (neri, or 
blacks) and Ghibellines (Bianchl, or whites) ; in 
one of which Dante, who was a white, was 
f^^^^ At "quello Jngrato popolo maligno," in 
Jix\ 4/^''^^ Adventurer, Walter de Brlcnne, 
ZjSA'^,^^^" ^J^ ^ ^'« *^«m ^or a time, wai 
^^' "'"'' ^'P^Ued; mnd the Mnnirerury of thlf 

I *'cacciata di Dnca d' Atene," or expulsion of the 
Duke of Athens as he is styled, was long observed, 
' by a procession of the Gonfaloniere, the Knights of 
, St. Stephen, an Order created to fight the Saracens, 
and all the trades to St. Michele. Every citizen 
was obliged to be free of the twelve greater 
or lesser Arti or trade companies, and each of 
the seven Arti Maggiori, in turn, elected a Priori 
or Chief Magistrate every two months. The grandi 
or nobles were excluded. This form of government 
subsisted more or less till the Medici obtained 
supreme power in 1612, by the overthrow of P. 
Loderino, the Perpetual Gtonfaloniero. 

After the peace of Villafranca, 1860, the people 
made up their mind, come what would, not to take 
back the Grand Duke. The arrival of the Com- 
mendatore Buoncompagni as Governor-General, and 
the energy of Ricasoli as Dictator (descended 
from a Florentine family of the thirteenth century), 
settled the matter, against the intrigues in behalf 
of the old dynasty ; and the annexation of Central 
Italy was virtually accomplished. A plot was tried 
to blow up Buoncompagni and others, at a ball, at 
the Palazzo della Crocelle ; and even some English 
residents were found to exert themselves in oppo- 
sition to the new order of things. It remained tlie 
temporary capital of Italy till 1871, when the king's 
government moved to Rome, followed by the Britfab 
and other legations. 

Among the natives or residents of Florence in 
later times are Giusti and LeopardL, the poets; 
Nicolini, author of "Araaldo di Brescia," who, 
when prosecuted for his liberal opinions, wa« 
protected by the late Grand Duke; Cotint 
Guicciardini, the leader of the Protestant party; 
Giuseppe Dolfi, the patriotic baker, who was 
denounced by Lord Normanby ; P. Giudici, author 
of the '* History of Italian Literature;" Guerazzi, 
the author of '* La Battaglia di Benevento," who 
was sent to Elba, the Tuscan Botany Bay, and be- 
came minister during the events of 1849 ; and O. P. 
Vieusseux, editorof the ** ArchivioStoricoItaliano.'* 

Rail to Faensa (page 102), opened 1898, making 
communication between the west (Leghorn) and 
east (Ravenna) coast. 

ROXJXE i2Q— Continued, 

Florence to Rome, vik Empoll, Siena, 
Orvieto, Qrte, ftc. 

The old hijrh road to Rome, now done by rail; 
and offering an alternative route to the more inland 
rail vid Arezzo, Perugia, Foligno, Ac, in Route 
27. Since 1875, these two raUs have been linked 
together between Cortona and Chiusi in such a 
way as to give a Direct Eall to Bome, vid 
Pontassieve (sec page 148), Arezzo, Cortona, 
Terontola, Chiusi, Orvieto, Orte, Monte Rotondo, 
and Rome; or 186 miles, in 8 to 12 hours. Most 
of these are described in Routes 26, 27, which are 
left, to some extent, as formerly arranged, to salt 
the convetAesnce ol \t«cT%\\«t% ^<Ati^ leisurely from 
plac« to p\iic«. 

Boute 2&] rLOKBNca, cbrtaldo, roooiBOXHi, BaitA. 

ImpoU {SQ^mUH). HI !u Houd! 3>. "Ifuir one," ufi Counts 






[B«M|, Iram 




Monte RdUd do 189 

... (BoQto »n.] 
Pont« a Eua (I 

th« Vlcftr of the Gemun Empemn In luly fl: 

CftaMl-Florentliio (Btat.), popnii 

nenTMOldndUl ■ — ■— s--— - 


UMMi-norentuio (bmi.), popnution, B.asa. ■ 

or (n DldndllUiy pait. f onlBea b y Ibe Flonnllnei. 
OertaMo (Stat.) Apntty llitle wnlled toim [ 

<t lUUin 

ITSa, by I bigoted friar. The book uf signDtare 

Psnuill, H PLorence poet, lolhe eflffecf that the poopli 
beliovt Messer Giov.iini to be n moetcHm. vrhi 
bollt a poDtc dl crltt^lo, or bridge of glnBii. dowi 

thediannofhlsstjle.— (T^TKOLLOPB'a/Bip™ 
tioato/a Wandtrtr}. Liiiidor, In one of bl» "Ima 

111 twelve toirera, 10 mi 

thirty-one ehur'ches. The prlnctpal one l> ft 

fighting with III nelghhoDrg. Stem nnd Vollcr 

PosgHKOUd (fttftD PopDlatiuLi, H,47Q. 
old ^£n aa*UU, vHh nmalni of n ceiUe or 
hUl. Hhortllnaof fi mElei to OollB d'BUft, 

hewUe^of the SiflBgia.nlih tilt 

Ll mignlfl- 

HoleU: Grind Hetel dl Slenai Grand HoUI 
;h?Llt^"d other yi™e> into be h^Id! 

FqH ami T^cip-aph Offla. Via Cutout. 

EBftM (flwrck Sintu at Hotel Continental. 

Waldentitat Chimh, near H. Docaeuico. 

'CMcf ObjnU aS Notia. — Plana de) Campo, 
'atazao Pubbllco, Daamo. S. Domenlco, Academy, 
a height of ita proaperity, before the plagne 

t tbrougti thf 

.St extremity Is th. 
n^de. tLoIJi 

OHmHmbmi tie left. 

Biena hai a health; and agreeable lamperatnrc, 
andwunotlDTaded byobolera. Ithaaar^nU- 
tlon for Ui handsome women and for apc^ln« 
foodIl»U«n. It Is the e«»*,oS.»,-v«<»™>»*^^ 
bwioo, aiA ». mftiw*!!.-^ . ■^*='**3i2^i^-2^ 
' SMitaCdleHwidAWe"-""'™^-^'''^'^ 

[Section 2. 

hecnif remarkable by her Ictlera and oxertloi 

Calhollct) In thoDght a craiy Impotlor, and 1. 
othcrB a >Eraphbc sninl. She pretended that ibe 

teenlh century, aiid numbers sffcral cailymoaters, 
~ai Ducclo dl BuDnb»«na. L. Meinnii, Bodanja, 
FacehlBrotlo, BeccafDml. B. Prniiil. Ac., down to 

. Oat of it! Ihlrly-tbieo old Oalii, eight 
open In tho walli. Fort* Bomana wn> bo 
by the brothen Agnolo and Agoatlno. at 
tmca of Iho Coronation ol Ihe VIrein 
Porta CamulUa, nn the Florence Soad. 
hoiplHblelnacrlplloB!— "CormaBlstlbIB 
«ll> Porta Plsplnl baa Bodoma'a frew. 
nativity. Porta Fonte Brmda 1> n 
nomlDlcan Church and the old Branda F 

ffi? "•""»•""-"'"-" 

Tho •riaaa del Oaopt, or Vf«orfo E 
—the Pabam rfrf Otrnmo (now eoataln 

It. IS*;. 

d haia 



). a bandtoQie pile, built by Plus II., as < 
■"— niomliil, with a loBBia -added '"" 

fonnerlythe Chamber o( 
S. Paolo, bolUUlT. An 
Fmlt gaja {at joyful), 

Commerce, or loggia o 


Ac. Each ward nuii n hontc. At 11 

■nd hell, parade bi' quaint loBom. 
plaaiB of lbs town Hall. 11 was Ibi 

Central Italy. (See Stoby's An^a iH J 
The •Palaia PuMillco.ot Uella B 

■fwBT. ealltd TbmdilJ/atvie vim 

, l^alI^ Ac, by T. Bartoli: and aodonin'e Holy 
' Tamily. Conalatory Room—Co II Init by Beecafuml, 
I with hiichlaro-OKuroflguroof Ju>tlco,dariiatlhe 
feet Biid tbe light gradually Increatlng towardi 
I Ihe head; Fortralle of Alexander VII. anil other 

j AttianJa- 111. Bala delta Paee—freicoet by A. 

I Minerva, and ii .triped with blaek 
Itallan-Golblo. iW feel long, over- 
id lo a noble and majeitic tlmpliclly, 
med to the ean. la by Oiovannt da 

leaded porula of equal aiie, ■ large 

!^°'AuH>ng Che aenlptnrea wliieb 
lella Quercla'i pronheltand angali. 
loua heraldic animala figurUig In the 

). aa the Mork for Perugiei gooae, 

bui^. amiBlo. 

.. of Glennl 
buUt 1989. 

Within, the Milan are wreathed with leaves and 

iK dome 'l"s8"?celTn" diameter. The marble 
iMvoment la adorned with eight enrloui Blbl* 
-' ' -- -id SOtli, by Beceafnmi, done Inr the 

Florentine Guelpha, at the great battle of Monte 
ApcrtolnlJlO. ThchlghBUarltbyB.Peruiili 11a 
lirunie tabernacle occupied another aniat for a 
period of nine yeara notice tbe painted wlndowa 
...■,. .^.,._... "ope, und Aiitl-popea, 

II : lyni, Lu 

iclndlng Gregory VII and Alex 
ativaa. Tbecholrpnlnlingt, " "" 
Bgna (ISll). werelhnoghtaQ 

itelow Iho choir la tlie ola octagon }lai>titUri 
John, called In rn"*-'-- -"'■ -«»»-""<"'• '■ 

I by Donatello, Qhlbeni 
I CMyi C^OIlel, WW. 

aa-reliefi on the line font. 

Boate SB.] 

bronitM. At, aiti hu Boniiiir> iiituu of Si. 
Jerome sad Hagdolene, uiA C. UaHtU'a nwaBlci. 
8. Oinanni BaUitla Clapel, by B. Pgnizil, It 
bu OEII. Querela'. Adim md Eve; ud Uoiis- 
tello'a lUtus ot St. John the BaiHtsL The oclaeoo 

Plu and hi) bdqi. On tbo left of t)ic nsie Is thB 
£iiirn-fa, iDunded bjr Fins II. <.£aeu 8yli[nt). 
and bDlJt b]- hli nepbeir Cardinal PicmloiiUiil 
<Pln> I[I.). It Is oruamaDlcd, oatilde, wllhan- 
besQacs. by Marrlna, andafreitcoby Pbitnrlcchloj 
DDe of tbe eleren gand; i^ctareB (tbc real being 
Inside). llliislrMIng Ihe princi— ' '■~"'- i" fi"- 
n.-« life »nd mbiled UOS-T; 

- ■eneaiiyM- A ■ ■ ' 
only ■ few b« 

fbe Opera ddDmmoi 
group of tbe Thm On 
Of tswth coTitnry. 

Tbe Catliednl Saa, 

IbIhb idctnret by FernglnD (Ghrlut on Ihe Crou), 
Sodoma. Katteo dl Siena. Spagnuletlo. -L. Meminl. 

o( 1797. Here are Sodoma's (hroo picturei of Ihe 
Ecitacy, Fainting, Ac, of Santa Catorloa da SItna, 
whowaaa Domlnlean ilster: and her portrait by 
A. dl Vannl. It bai G. dl Paolo'i Madonna (14M) 

Oratory, or Hunac of SI. CaOurint. nhlch occuplos 

anob as her rscelTlng the Bllgmala, by Bodomai 
and her TMtIo the Body ot at. Agnes. Sheirei.t 

was hen till UK). The°"Fontc B^nda faees'll'i^ 
Fmli ai<ala CItiirth, near Purta Camullla, built 

! Birth ol 
iia,iuid» ietall/ul aim" 

near Ports Oil 

uiii ms. 



onna and Child, 


Finefresooes by 


fine chnrch 

ront by Fon 

wUlne Del 

. Qncrcla's coloured 

b»'» Martyrdom of 

aow. Goldo-a 





ml (ISiS' 

when It waa 

ought oglsldo 



a. Spb-Un. 

nfiar Porta Plsplnl, b 

upola, ISH 

I added br B 

Femiil. II 


bjocti In th 

SL Hyacinth 

{ amla good 



The Itlilvt 

M Stlle 

Arii, or 'Ac 

«deT-v, ont of 

Siena la eel. 







Facing th 

w la the Unim-Miif, 

founded 120 

luia tlic mon 




Thi ami 


la In the roo 

m of 

llw Academy 
Stnplda). ft 

degr Inlron 

ij.. tbe Heavies or 

cmtaln, stKW) 

Tolomea and 



among whle 

of the iEneld 

ol thethlrt« 

century, Gre 


angelarloa of 


ena, dlcuted 

by her (.he 

not write); a 


tera of L. and 

F. Boclnua . 


zihH) {bolh n 


olth Desl^ 

of D 

Peruiil. Ac. 

Open dally" 


1, and B lo a. 

luFortS. UarberaOUO) Open to the public. 

Moat of the Pal«« bore are without the dls- 
llnaTiUblngronrt, and aome of them are In a lialf- 
tiulhlc style, wlthcurlouilret-mrk In tbe ii'ai^tsiw. 

roloiu ItiuiuisiWH'^wxt ''^ 

a Uajni/leo, Mit (ha cutbednl, built j 


£pflfu(. In ■ plauuit •TDt, Popatitlon, B,SN. 

j._ )tbele(tl<Cortoiia(««Eoitt*ai). 

(behind the tillla) 

™'™»™k*b?' Torrlta (8tot.> ti 

n/«'the^Carnilne TbelhiethtnpajKtlSoat^nloiMloandOliUp, 

19,987), on the Bite a( an Elriwui c4tr 
■ "iWKl (eot high, ■ ■^ ' '-- 

7 the Carmine Churchy (Mob 
irchlt«ct and painter w i ^j^^ 

-.r ritv •rrhil'vi'' at glmn i '. . S 

ilyled b) 

hlrth-placB I 


i Cardinal Bellan 

I tOlaeamenliKRou 

PwoMl, eipeclally taU Judgme 

t ot Pull, from 

the de^lgna of Eapl««I. Here 

1, Catharine had 

of a TDlcanIc character, chiefly 

rable kH. with a 

few olive treei and rinoyard.. 
Leaving Siena, the rail paiaea n 

ear MonU Aperto. 

.lis scene of the great Tlctiiry at 


tlena and Ft.a over the Flotent 

lues, lnI2«ll; and 

AMlfUlO (Btat). popnlaiio 

. S,OW, on the 

Ombrone. A< 6 mlies dlitance 

MbJiUotb, jiti, 

Tliebronie, and other aotlquitiee dlunvered In 
thla nelghbonrhoDd sre dsKrihed hi Deimia'i Cenig- 
tcria sfEltvrta. Matt of them are collected at 
the Mvia ElruKB. where a golde cao be ehtalned 

the Deprudto del Colle, De^lla della ScIidIl 

to'''be''lhe^Wqib ol Porama, ileacrihed V Fllni. 

N.B.— Artlfldal BnU<iDltie< arc made bcrt; pu- 

10 Chlan 

le urt 

I from the IMItDW della Belle , ««* della PievsCpop, 7.89«),on a hill. In fha 

province of Pemghw, th? birtbplaca of Flfltro 

hr-anchaiofl down the river to I PerD£lDO(aboDtI4l(Q,oneof the chief qnatCrocentd 

•t; paet 8. Glonumo d'lMO I muterttWhoBe AdoratloDof theUa^andBamlaoi 

Inmeror^Henry VII. dle(K^»B. ihe voicauic l!^s (},l>0« to i,m feel high), rouia 
jnlo, it was »ald. Then Tw- , Celona s"^ --'■—'—■ — -•- ■- — ■ -■ -■-- 

rttot): to the i 

rsQlerl (Mat.), i 

ItiThicyard.: followed hy MonteAmlata, under ncnUS (8tat.>. from whence the 11ns de«»ula 
apeak i,W>0 feet high; ftoccaatrada, anii OrOB- ,„ Orvlelo (on the Chiana); (hen lo Ofte (on th» 

The neit place nnlhi 

Bapolauo (8tatj. i 

Ing pfaec on a hill, \.i 

.t.>. (r- 

the Cli.__ ,, . 
1« M>. where th 

OBVIBTO (Stat.) 

Zaaigmuio (8tAt) Btlween Ibli and Areiio and capital oi 
'•rZfr'^3^""™'^ n«™6yra(I»yo/ CMiina, ■ llQn,\e,*M. 
-a,^ ■'™*° "f ' cMBaJ, ud eonreriii lata rich i — — = — 

Houte 26.] 



and was formerly a residence of many Popes of the 
Guelph party who found a refuge here. Mesides 
the Palazzo PabbUco(Town Hall) and the Collc^re. 
its most remarkable buildini^ is rho handsome 
*ZHiomo,an interesting specimen of Itulinn-Oothir. 
founded in honour of the miraculonH Host at 
Bolsenn. and of an ancient inuiijn of the Rliidonna. 
It was begun In 1'2JI0. by L. Muitlni. of Siona, 
nearly finished in the fourteenth century, but not 
finally completed till about 16()0, after neai'ly 4(K) 
architects, sculptors, painters, &c., haul contributed 
to build and adorn it. Its three-gu bled AVon/, like 
that of Siena, is 132 feet wide and 160 feet high, 
oruamented, chiefly on the four iiilaners, with 
a profusion of carvings, mosaics, and statues, by 
Giovanni da Pisa and his pupils; the subjects 
being events from the Old Testament, the Life of 
Christ, the Last Judgment, Ilell, and I'aradise. 

The church contains the following objects of 
notice: — Colossal statues of the twelve Apostles; 
the best being Giovanni da Bologna's St. Matthew, 
and Ippolite Bcalza^s St Thomas; T. Zuccaro's 
Cure of the Blind Man ; Muzianc's Christ in the 

The paintings in the tribune and stained windows 
are of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries ; 
Mochi*8 two statues of the Annunciation, at the 
high altar. S. Mosca's Adoration of the Magi. 
San Micheirs Visitation : a group of nine figures, 
executed by Mosca's son, aged fifteen years only. 
Scalza^s pulpit; his statue of Ecce Homo; and a 
fine one of St. Sebastian. The 

Madonna Chapel — has an old image of the Virgin 
della Stella; statues of Adam and Eve ; Scalza's 
Pietk, a group of four figures (1579); frescoes in 
tb« ceiling, by Fra Ucato and B. Gozzoli ; and L. 
Slgnorelirs fine frescoes on wood of the Last Judg- 
ment, Paradise, and Hell, painted 1499, remarkable 
for the beanty of some of the figures and the cnri- 
oni mixture of heathen poets and mjrthological 
cfaaraeters with Christian. 

Otapel of Santi$8imo OorporaU— bo called from 
the Napkin stained by the Bleeding Host of Bolsena, 
is richly ornamented. It has R. da Montelnpl's 
■tatne of Christ ; a silver reliquary containing the 
napkin, by U. VIerl, a Siena goldsmith (1338), with 
twelve enamel paintings of the Miracle of the Host. 

Mttseo Afunicipale, in the Opera del Dnomo, 
opposite the Cathedral, contains Etmscan remains 
from the necropolis near the town, which should 
be visited. 

S. Andrea and S. Oiovinaie are old chnrches. 

8. Domenico Church, has Amol f o' s fine tomb of Car- 
dinal di Brago, and S. Memmi's Virgin and Saints. 
Some old Palaces and Convents deserve notice. 

The Potto di 3. Patritio (».«., St. Patrick) Is a 
deep well In the tufa rock, with two spiral stair- 
cases down to the water, constructed by Sangallo; 
wide enough for mules to go down the 250 steps. 
In 1863 some very interesting Etrtuean Tombs were 
foond St P<^gio del Roccolo (1 hoiur's drive), 
wNb llrMeoed walls quite f^esh. Others have 
diteorensd dofe to the town. 

or \'2 miles west of it la Aoiuapendente, an old town 
on a cliff, so called from its cascades ; the birth* 

) place of Fabricius. the anatomist. 

, From Orvioto the Hall Is continued past AlvlailOt 
Attdgllano (branch tu Viterbo, page 142), and 
other unimportant station?, to Oixe, and thence 
to Rome, by Civith Castellana (page l.'il). 

If the Roml be taken it brings you to 

(12 miles), on the Lake of Bolsena, in former Papal 
territory,near the ancient Etrurian city of Volsinii, 
on Via Cassia, taken after a sicgo, 2»>6 b.c, by the 
Consul Fulvius Flaccua. A new Volsinii was 
founded, in which Scjanus. the favourite of Tiberius, 
was l)om. There is a Gothic Castloou the heights. 
Of the antiquities found hori', in the sepulchres, 
Temple of Nurscia, <fec., a granite vase and urn with 
fragments of pillars, face Matita Cristina Church ; 
and other urns are in the vestry. This church is 
the scene of the miracle of the Bleeding Host, re- 
lated in Church legends, and made the subject of one 
of Kaphaers pictures in the Vatican. In l^f64, a 
Bohemian priest, troubled with doubts about the 
doctrine of transubstantiation, was saying mass 
here, when he was astonished to sec the Napkhi 
which held the Host or consecrated wafer, stained 
with blood, proving, of course, that the wafer wais 
converted into real flesh. Struck with the pretended 
miracle, he went to Urban IV.. at Orvieto, confessed 
his error and received absolution. The Napldn, or 
Corporal e, was carried in solemn procession to Or- 
vieto, where a fine church was, in time, raised 
over the relic, and the festival of Corpus Domini, 
on Holy Thursday, appointed to commemorate It. 

The Lake of Bolsena, the '^great Volslnlan mere" 
of Macanlay's ballad. Is a shallow and unhealthy 
piece of water, about 70 square miles, surrounded 
bv picturesque basalt hills, woods, and vineyards 
of red and white wines. It abounds with wild fowl 
and eels, which are excellent stewed In wine. On 
one of the two Islands (Martana), Amalasuntha, 
daughter of Theodorlc the Goth, was confined and 
strangled In 580 ^.d. The peak of Montefiascone 
is seen away to the south-east. 

The Post towns from Bolsena to Rome are as 
follow, the route being along the old Via Cassia. — 

Post. } Post 

Montefiascone 1 Baccano 1 

Viterbo 1 La Storta. 1 

Rome \\ 



li Imposta 1 

Roncigllone 1 

Monterosl (or Mon- 

torso) 1 

(Equal to 65 miles.) 
The road passes a forest of oaks near the lake, to 
MoMTKnASCOKB, an old cathedral town (popula- 
tion, 7,829), on a conspicuous hill, noted for its sweet 
Muscat wine. It contains a Duomo with a cupola, 
built by Sammichell; a medissval castle; and a 
Ghothlc ofaureh of S. Flavlano^ whtelLh.«A^SekSB.\n«3^«!A- 
theOtermitL Qmwti '^^Jjeiiw >^ve«i '"^«»^'*^\^^SS. 
•«n\otft «^^V^ ^^«T«^NJ«^ ^ '^^ — -«>Ma^^ 

at fa^uffl Vttltm«wi, now ™ch«! 
ml]«) from AtU^Lnotiw page Ml) 

int city reached by the 

ben ol irblcli BM In the Plazzs Grinde. and 
Pluu della Itocci (hy Tlgnola. IMi). Its Pice- 
rtne cIksdh !• eicellml. Hllhor Hreral Popei 

themKlven inmblEBinic! aftiir It lisd been com- 
pollcil la Kuhmit til the rontllT). and kIts up to 

IB EnKllnhnian, It laldto have made the Eoipemr 
Frederick Barbaroeiw hold bis nirrap here (111S). 
while he mounted hit ninlc, befurc ^LvJajr him th' 
bemeetbiff really took place a 


(page Itl}, neater Rome. 

- ralludnil ol H. Lorenn In a Gothic ch 

I iltc nt a 

01 rupei juiin XXI. (killed at the Blihop> Palace, 
bythorolllneol a trail). Alexander IV., AleiBiidet 
v.. Clement IV. ; also, C. Haraltl'a BL Lawrence. 
F.Ronuineliri>Rt. Lawrence In aiory(alllietiltiir), 
and A. Ullrer'i ChrlJit niiil the EvangellUi (lu the 
•acrlaty). It wm at tlili high altar thai Henry of 
Cornwall, nephew at our Henr; III., wai, in I2T». 
ulalibed liy Guy lie Munltott, In revenge for the 


•0 Gregory X., nnd Uarlhi IV., after 

I'B patron; anil the latter, s Frenchman, 
ected In ohe<ltenH to Charlee ol Anjau, 

w ilio FonndlIng Hoi. 

ick Temtn. hewn In the solllary »»llfly> around It; 
ader Monte Clmlno, are DIeda. ancient Bin-a. and 

HtLI-i <pi]palatlon, 11.(100) Is 

ElTM In the pugaraphi below. Mod of the 

B™Ma™t™!' Vet'^la (afcoJej^jSl' °top- 
r&nlca (Jenellon (or BondgUons (helow). 6 
mllei), Itegiano dl Sntrl. Orlolo, BrftCdAno (|>bec 
143X Croclcclile, Angulllara, Ceuno, La Stoita 
(poBe \At). a. Onofrlo, Roma 8an Pietro, and 

vlKR Vlterho. the road agccnde the elope of 

[.' iHFOSTi. near the top of Ihli Tolcanlc range, 
e panoramic proiiMt li ir]oyeil. Deaeend to 
loiciauosB (popnlallon, <,IX»), an eld place. 

_ 10 QT t)in* <■!&« Kuth-wHt of It le StttBi, the 
toAvO. fliitrh™,oii'ftn'i\»CM**.'^'*\'«»™uo 

Route 37.] vitBHBO, 

of RonclgUoiie la Caprarola. a palace bnllt liy 
Vljiiola. fur Cunlinal Farnf m, on a rock, and aur- 
roiuid«d by pent^Dnal walla. Tha pidiilln^ are 

Fsrtfaecon, tcwanls tin Tiber, ]■ Civita Castil- 
liKA, BO called (rom a nrong tort bull! by Julloi 
IL (See Route ST.) 

Adet leaving Ronclgllune. we enter tbe Cam- 
pa«na or Omarca. a vrldo. level, and (or the noel 

Tond Boiue. a> far at Tcrraclun, on the Naplei 

TrrmMa: whence H p 
one. Lea.b.gtbe«nt 

Tails to Porta alU C 
itbeAmo. TheaMt 

fX"" ill 

Nepct, where Lncreila Borgia onoe resided. 

hllla. round Lahe Bracclano, or Lacui Sabalvi, lo 

The line rollowi the north tide of the Hnr Id 
ComplObbi {Btatl.wlth Beiole, *«., in H 

K.OXJTE 37*. 
Florencs to Rome, via Anno, Perugbt, 
Afl*lBl, FoUgno, BpoI«to, Tend, Orte, ajid 
down tbe Tiber. 

liDllt here. ITDO, 1 

d St. Ignatiun, In IGST. 

when Che Fibll were cut off by the V 
the family.' ItwaslnkenVy theDJcti 

and wo loan enter Bome by tbe Porto del Popola! 
(See Route il.) Cuming trom Moulorso bv rail, 
the line pastei Honte BotondO (SUlt), IC 
mllta rrom Rome, near Menlami, where Qarlbaldi 

IMT. TbellnefDllowatho Via Saiara fiMOtMbd 
CHvbllea, whore a bridge hai been buHt (l««t) 
over lhoTlb*r. 

thelwo benda la the Prate Magno Hilge<4,TIXHe(it 
high). In a gorge of which l> Vaaombniia, t! mllet 
from Pontaaaleie (Route »). Camaldol I. another 

worth visiting, li high up the Apeonlnea, abDnt 

anilly. Here the nppcr Arno, or 
lepra, beglni. 
laclWl (Stat) SoeaUedfrom 

■r lilny To 
'orkg are to b. 

ii(tonterarclil(atat.i, ?owiiMij»,-vs!a>'. , -^w* 

■ ■ -■'^-T.Mtwatia.N.T.'K^^s^'^'^'- 

Man. W.tll. 

all, the UictalldK bLihuu, by the brotben AgDMLna 
ind Agnolo (im-W). irltb « tertFi or iliiuD bsF- 
elUfioC tbacvenlilnhliitlrrlngMfe. Margarl- 
snc'ilombafGngoryX., whadt«d)iera. Statue 
)r FerdlDuid d*' Medici, bv Olovuinl di Bolagna. 
Manumaiti of Redl, Usrearltone. Ac. The fucade 

It C( 

•niiin. ara the Paluin Pub 
OntiTah of La Plerc 

Tbe irotpUal o/Oanla Maria drila Mim-lcordia li 
aOmhlcbuUdlngof UietaurtGeDth«iiiiirr. It In 
noT tbe teat of the lav caarta. At the Abbey or 
Baiiaat S, FInre U a Inrgv painting o[ tbe Foiit 

PuhHc Uiaeam Jbronzca^ mtjollea unia. and Taaea 

built ism. 

li Vuarl waa born, with 

■Ir. TablrtK 

irltb baa-nllala i ot tbe fiEoAi, aB& nnt& ^\ 

m &V(U>&SiAo\ulkI<ktWrlii>ttHU. 


Boute 27.1 


Leaving Arezzo, the stations towards Rome are 
as follow: — 



Frassineto 62| 

Castiglione Fioren- 

tino 66 

Cortona 72* 

Terontola 76i 

[Branch to 
Castiglione del 

Lago 82i 

Panicale 86| 

Chinsi (Route 

26) IMi] 

Passignano 84| 

Magione 90 

Ellera 97 

Pontc S. Giovanni.. .110 

Bastia 116 

Aasisi 118 

Spello 125 

Foligiio 128 

Trevi 138i 

Spoloto 144 

Tcrni 162 

Nanii 163f 

Orte 179i 

Hence ria Bor- 

ghctto, &c. (as on 

page 137) to 
Rome 2324 

Perugia..... 103 

Castiglione Florentlno (Stat.) A small 

town on a height, with two churches, command- 
ing a fine prospect of the Yal di Chiana. The hills 
on the east divide it from the Vale of the Tiber. 

Cahuscia, at the bottom of the hill of Cortona, 
where the road to that place (1 mile) meets those to 
Arezzo, Figano, and Montepulciano. 

Omnibus, 1 lira, to the town from Cortona 

CORTONA (Stat.) 

Hotels: Kazionale; Stella. 

A bishop's see (population, 3,691) and the ancient 
Cory turn or Cortona^ the capital of Etruria and one 
of the oldest of the Etruscan cities; the vcalh of 
which, made of the blocks of unccmeiitcd stone, in 
what is called the Cyclopean or Pelasgic style, 
still exist as foundations to the modem ones. 

There are also traces of Roman baths; and out- 
side Porta S. Agostino is an Etruscan sepulchre, 
called (by a conf usioiPbctwoen (vortona and (Jroton, 
the residence of Pythngurafi) tho Grotta da Pita- 
gura. In the medieval troubles, Cortona sided 
with the Ghibellines, and had the misfortune to be 
plundered by its Arezzo neighbours, who razed its 
castle. Afterwards it came under the Casali 
family, and. was sold to Florence in 1410. Cortona 
stands on the slope of a steep hill, among vineyards 
with black mountains behind, looking like a ''pic- 
ture hung on a wall" (Forsyth), and overlooking 
the beautiful Yal di Chiana and the Thrasymenean 
Lake. It has all the marks of an old town in its 
houses and narrow winding streets, &c. It gave 
birth to two painters, whose works are to be seen 
here, viz., Pietro Berrettlnl, or P. da Cortona, who 
designed and painted St. Martin's at Rume; and 
Luca Signorelli. 

The Cathedraly built in the eleventh century, and 
restored in the eighteenth, has Si^iorcIIi's Descent 
from the Cross, 1512, and Last Supi)er; Pietro 
da €ortona's Annunciation; and monuments of 
Berridino the painter, of Card. Nereo, styled ''Lu- 
cumone," a title formerly given to the local rulers, 

with a sarcophagus of the Consul Flamhiius (?), 
with bas-reliefs of the Dionysos and the Amazons. 
S. Agostino — P. da Cortona' s Virgin and Saints, and 
another, by J. da Empoli. S. Domenico. built in the 
thirteenth century — Fra Beato's Madunna En 
throned; PalmaGiovanc's Assumption; and another 
piece, with portraits of Lorenzo and Cosmo de' 
Medici. S. Francesco, another church of the thir- 
teenth century — P. da Cortona's Annunciation ; and 
Cigoli's Miracle of St. Anthony's Ass. Del Gesu— 
L. Signorelli' s and Fra Beato's Annunciation, 
«fcc. ^. Margherita — a conspicuous Gothic church 
and nunnery, by Niccolb da Pisa and his son. 
Here arc some richly ornamented chapels. One, 
coutnining a gold crown, presented by P. da Cor- 
tona; also paintings by L. Signorelli, Baroccio, 
Empoli, Vanni, Ac; and the tumb of St. Margaret, 
with its bas-reliefs of the thirteenth century. S. 
Niccolb has an altar-piece by L. Signorelli. 

The Palazzo Pretoria, or Town Hall, is the seat 
of the Accadeniia Etrusca, founded 1726, with a 
library of books and M88., and a museum of fine 
bronzes, «fcc. Among the portraits is one of Lord 
Cowper, who was an Italian scholar. 

Terontola (Stat.), where the direct line 
towards Rome turns off, by Castlgllone del lagO 
(i e., on the Lake of Thrasymene, as below) and 
Panicale (two of Pemglno's pictures to be seen) 
to ChiUSi, as in Route 26 (page 140). 

Retui-ning to Camuscia, tbe Road ascends past 
Ossaja, the last place on the old Tuscan frontier, 
to the summit of the S[>elunca chain, which looks 
on Val di Chiana and the famous Tlirassrmene 
Lake below, where Hannibal defeated the Ro- 
mans, under Flaudnius, for the third time, B.C. 217. 
Pass Monte Gualandro, the Montes Cortonenscs of 
Livy, and the Ponte di Sanguinetto, or Bloody 
River, and descend to the flats of 

Case del Piano, which was till lately the firtt 
place in the Papal province of Perugino, now an- 
nexed to the khigdoin of Italy. The road, hemmed 
in by the Gualandro Hills, enters the defile by the 
Borghetto Tower, to the lake, where the 
Carthaginians were in ambush, and winds ronnd 
the comer of the lake to the Torre de Annibale, 
and another defile near 

PaselgnanO (Stat.), between which and tho 
Borghetto, 4 miles, the battle was fought which 
ended so disastrously for tho Romans. Their Con- 
sul was killed, and only 6,000 Romans escaped. It 
lasted three hours, during which an earthquake 
occurred, which overthrew many towns hi Italy, 
but was uimoticed by the combatants. 

"I rAam 
By Tbnuymene'a Lake, in the dellles 
Fatal to Ruiuau rashneoa, mure at home 
For there the Carthaginian's warlike wiles 
Come back before me. as his skill begulleit 
The post between the moimtaius and tbe shore.— Ay/-oN. 
Human bones, it is said, are still found here. 
The iMCtis Thrasymenus or Trasimeaa^^v«s«« Visc*?* 
Trasimeno or dV 1?«roL-^\.v ^^ «- ^^^S^ktw -sJnr^^ "* 


cumone, ' a title lormeriy given to tne local rulers. \ "waltt, awyox >;> \cv\\v".% «>^«\j.^^\ w» Y'TIli^&jssa^. 
aod of Tommft»l, Grand Mfuter o! MalU, 1103; ^ \)ei\>tt*WlW^.^w^^^'^^»'^"«^^^^^^^^'^ 

ona of Iwa 1>twid> near Paulgnuio li a eonTent. 

UmUj HaTins In the hoiue. eereral penona were 

II 1> bordered b. low milt covered with irinei. oaki, 
■ndoUren; and abonndi with r>ad trout and Mia. 

Pamela l> Tcry ipeciallir noted for the number 

11 ba> no vl.UiLa outlet, and to prevent the overflow 

which Died U> follow the r«in^ a atone tunnel or 

tien aHordi. and l> a pleasant and not eipsiiive 

BBteorto wai conrtnieled In the fi[t*enlh centnty 

out from the »uth-ea»t rtdB.near 8. Savioo, oppoifte 

palntlne, the Umbrian 'school, founded hy /•. 

work ts S leet lllg-ta, and S.MG feet long, with Hven 

Pmvino (144C-16J4), who.e real n.n.e waf P. 

shaft! in it. The dralnaee, after pamlni; throngh 

Vannncoi, of Cajlello della Pleve, or de Ca.tto 

the tunnel, turns leyeral mlllt, and mna to the 

from Perugia, where he learried his art. and painted 

the line proceed, to 

several plcturoa (ot IheCamWo, Ac; alio the Virgin 

HsglonelStat.), and thence acrQSB the Calna, to 

and Cbfld, now In onr National Gallery. He was 
the teacher of Raphael, the great founder of Ihe 

PESnOlA (Slat.) 

Roman school. Other pupils were Bernardo dl 
Bello or Plnluricehlo. a naUte of Perugia (1464- 

Tincei seat of a nnlvenlly, hiehop, Ac 
Popnlitlon. 61.961. 
Holds: Grand Hotel; Poito. 

16181; Glann. di Paolo Mannl; Spagnuolu or 
Lo Spagna; and R, Zoppo, a Florentine. 

"After those three or fonr cities of Italy, the 

flood b«l. mutton. Dork. Teal, and iweetmeits. 

chapters of the hielory of European civilisation. 

\ made the boundary between Etrurla ani 
„ lying beyond lowirdi the Apennlnei 
rers Toplno and Chlascio )oln the Tiber a 

he enmnilt of a double topped hill, 
t high, and w«a snrroonded hy old 

The plague ot 1348 c 
the Oaelph side, and i 

ii'^cJ"icd''"hy ihe new ¥ "f^uro." The ctroot 

f'^fpff, in ^vly. ISS&, who ptaced the unresisting 

ihabitAntBAi thatr merer, pitiadared the Renedlc- 

"'^fS''^'"^ '*« 'andlcmf of th» Hotel de 

-■"c lilt door, and netrlyUlHi an AmulcHi 

iltles of Italy, haT. 
Fbollops's Lmlm . 
The Cathedral, o 

s Via Baslloiii (leading 

ind called JrcotU.^ 

eighty plan 

18S4', by Verthniglioll, with 
son. Uavid and Goliath, 

AbonAaiuiB, ■Ssa^\«, *« . 

Boate 27:] 

PBHUoiA — crubcheb; btc. 


Th6 PcUauo Comtinale, or Town Hal], of the thir- 
teenth century, now the seat of the Municipalityf 
has some carvings near the doors and windows, 
and an Ecce Homo, by Perugino, in the chapel. 
Here are the city Archives. Here also, is the 

*Pinacoteea or Gallery of Paintings, chiefly of the 
Umbrian school; as G. Manni's Madonna En- 
throned; Perugbio's Madonna and Saints, and his 
Nativity and Baptism of Christ; Plnturicchio's 
Evangelists and Saints; B. Gozzoli's Madonna; 
T. Bai-toti's Madonna; and other works by Lo 
Spagna, Alfani, Ac. 

The Biblioteca Pubblica in the same building 
contains 30,000 vols., and some valuable MSS. 

* H GambiOy or the old Exchange^ in the Corso, is of 
the fifteenth century, and is adorned with a series 
of freicoe* by Perugino (1500), which are reckoned 
among his best. They include God the Father, 
with Sibyls and Prophets; the Nativity and Trans- 
figuration; and figures of Pittacus, Socrates, Leo- 
nidas, N. Porapilius, Fabius Maximus, Trajan, and 
other classical personages. The planets are on the 
ceiling; and on the pilasters are portraits of Peru- 
gino and others. Some of the wood carvings were 
designed by Raphael Altar-piece by G. Manni 
in the chapel. Perugino' s House is in Via Deliziosa, 
with his name on the door. 

Statue of Victor Emmanuel II. in the Piazza 
Yitt. Eman. Monument to Garibaldi in Piazza del 

The old Podestk(Cap{tano) and old University 
are now occupied by the Law Courts. 

Out of 103 churches, not to speak of about fifty 
convents, which flourished here, the following are 
the most remarkable: — 

The *Duomo of St. Lorenzo is of the fifteenth 
century, Gothic and Norman, and contains three 
naves, with handsome-looking, but common, marble 
columns; with Baroccio's Descent from the Cross, 
his best work; L. Signorelli's high altar-piece; St. 
Peter and St. Paul, by Giannicola, a pupil of Peru- 
gino. Thestalls were designed by Raphael; and the 
stained windows, in stripes of green and blue, were 
done 1665. Tombs of Innocent III and Martin V. 

In the Canon's library are MS. Bibles of the 
seventh and eighth century, and the first book 
prhited here (1496), B. Capra's / Consigli. 

In Piazza Danti to the north, is V. Danti's 
bronze statue of Julius III., erected 1555. Danti 
was a native. 

S. Agnese^ near the University, has its cloister 
chapel painted by Perugino ; God the Father, and 
the Madonna. 

S. Agostino, near Porta S. Tommaso. Pcrugino's 
bas-reliefs in the choir. D. Alfani's ceiling, in 
the Conf ratemitk. 

S. Angelo, near Porta S. Angclo; a perfectly 
Round Church of the fifth and sixth centuries, 11 
feet diameter, built on the site of a Temple of 
Vesta, of which it contains sixteen pillars out of 
twenty-eight in the whole periphery. It has two 
Gothic portraits. The (Jothlc porfal is 14th cent. 

Oratorio diJ9, Bernardino has a fine front, by A. 
dlDaceiOflig^^, in abulf-QoibXc style. 


S. Domenico, near the Corto Cavour, rebuilt 1682 
by C. Maderno; except the choir, which bdongs to 
an old Gothic church, by Giovanni da Pisa, 1304, 
and has a grand stained window belongring to th« 
old church. The tomb of Benedict XI. (died here 
1304 of poison) is a well-carved work, by Di Pisa; 
the Adoration of the Magi, by B. Bonflglio. 

S. Ercolano, near the Porta Marzia, is of the 
thirteenth century. 

*3. Francesco de' Conventuali, near Porta della 
Conca, an old Gothic church 1230, restored 1757. 
It has the remains of Braccio da Montone, who was 
killed 1424; Perugino's St. Sebastian, done at the 
age of seventy-two; Saints, bv C. Alifani; and T. 
Bartoli's Virgin and Child (1403), the only one of 
this master in the city. 

S. Francisco del Monte, outside Porta S. Angelo, 
has a Nativity, by Perugino; S. Oirolamo, at the 
end of Via Papale, an altar-piece, by his pupil, 
Piuturicchio ; and^. fftu/iana (built 1292), outside 
Porta del Castello, has another Perugino. 

Madonna di Monte Luce, outside Porta Pese, is a 
half-Gothic church, by G. Danti. 

Santa Maria Nuovct, neai' Porta S. Tommaso, has 
Perugino's Adoration of the Magi (with his own 
portrait), his Transfiguration, and S. del Piombo^s 
St. Sebastian and St. Roch. 

8. Maria del Popolo, built 1547, by G. Alessi, who 
is buried in St. Fiorenzo's Church. 

*8. Pietro fuori di Mura {i.e., outside the wail, 
but now inside Porta Costanza), a basilica churdi, 
annexed to the great Benedictine Convent, founded 
about A.D. 1000 by Pietro Vincioli di Perugia. It 
is otherwise called 8. Pietro cfe' Casinensi. It has 
eighteen old granite and marble pillars, and several 
Perugia masters — as Penigino's Dead Christ, and 
five small paintings in the sacristy; Raphael's 
St. John, and the Infant Jesus, one of his earliest 
works. Also ten pictures by Aliense : V. Salem- 
beui' 8 Vision of St. Gregory; Lo Spagna's Madonna; 
P. Alfani' s Assumption ; B. Bonrigli's Descent from 
the Cross; Sassoferrato's Judith; FVescoes,by Vasari; 
Mino da Fiesole's bas-reliefs; Caravaggio's Sta. 
Francesca ; D.Dossi's Head of Christ ; Titian's Ecce 
Homo; Bassano's Crown of Thorns; Guercino's 
Christ Bound. The wood carvings and inlaid work 
of the choir are by two Bergamo artists. 

8. Pietro Martire has a fine Madonna and Angels, 
by Perugino. 

/S. 8evero College, at the Camaldoli Convent, has 
Raphael's first fresco (1505), with additions by 
Perugino (1521). Their names are inscribed. 

8. Tommaso has the Unbelief of St. Thomas, a 
fine work by Giannicola, of the Perugia school. 

The University, 01' Coll egioddle Belle Arti, founded 
1320, has a place in the Olivetan Convent near 
Porta S. Angelo, and is well attended. It com- 
prises a library ; cai)inet8 of minerals and plants, 
Ac. Here is the Archteological Museum (Gabinetto 
Archeologico), containing Etruscan and ^<ss<sa:^ 
bronzes and silver «vil\0c<fc^.^%&-TO^'i&s»c***»''*>':™^^^'''^'*' 
and feV%\i\.^ \\i%R.x\^\Xo\i%\ wsft>^^^^?«*'t:^^'**S 

diiaB^ of l-eruglna'> 
Bnliqnltle>; Bine ot 


(seen u the public 
Minerva, no 

letn. In piod preierritlon, of lii Anted Corl 
coltiipirfl, BA feet hieti. litclndlng the be 

when he .IrilHl A«i»l In lJg«.' I^glnK 

CS. Kh^bo, oI 

Huoenm (page 147) eonlahn lome unique htoinpn Sanla Chiara, bgllt 1163. by F. da Campello, la 

thentdund. About ISiulIci dlslant Is CflmildDll dedicated to a female ditelple of St. Frantii. 

Couient of HoDiecorona, iniong forests of plnca. founder of tbe St. Claica, tuid baa sume freicoes 

From PenoglMhedlreclroad to Rome !• down by Glottlno. 

Order tram tbe Denedlclfi»s In 1511, dig: 

and 4th October, lo benefit b>- the lndnlir<nc( 
SI. Francis. This pile wai damaged liy tbc et 

Popalttlmi, IS,4Tf. 
^-ss»».- Alhrr^ Lenne: del HuftMlo. 

"". ortvioeklBt tlH, YMlhy ol lb* Toplno, a 

Gflnlortes, its painted windows, Ac. 
This church of 'S. Franenre. bnllt for the most 

IneUidLne the crypt), cme over tbe other 1 lie stepi. 
on the slope of the hill ilde. The lover cbureh^s 

nlrtlnirs to 

1. Tbeerypl'u 

Uln behind. a1 
slo, rises 3.8SC 


I variety and of the most besutt 

Bonte 270 



The entrance is through the Lower Church, which 
is always open, and is reached by a narthex, or 
restibule, added in the fifteenth century, close to 
chapels painted by Buifalmacco and C. Scmici. 
The side chapels within are as foUowai—St. Louis's 
or Stephen's Chapel (on the right)— Frescoes, by 
Spagna and A. Doni, whose Prophets and Sibyls 
are in the ceiling. St. Anthony's C'Art/W— Frescoes, 
by C. Sermei, painted in the sixteenth century, 
over those of Giottino, except his Coronation of 
the Virgin. Magdalen (TAopef— -Frescoes, by Buffal- 
macco. Right Transept — Frescoes, by T. Gaddi and 
his pupil, Giovanni of Milan; and the Annuncia- 
tion, by P. Capanns. Right Transept Chapei — 
Frescoes, by Giottino and L. and S. Memmi. 
Between the Choir and Aaoe— ^Frescoes, by Giotto, 
of the Franciscan vows of Poverty, Chastity, and 
Obedience, and St. Francis in Glory; with the 
Crucifixion, by P. Cavalliui. Left Transept— P. 
Capanna's Life of Christ, and the Stigmata of St. 
Francis, whose portrait, by Giunta da Pisa, Is in 
the sacristy adjoining. Chapels on the left side — 
Coronation of the Virgin, by Giottino or Fra 
Martino; T. Gaddi's Crucifixion, and Frescoes 
by S. Memmi. 

The Upper Churchy seen for a fee to the custode, 
is adorned with frescoes on the wa^Is and ceilinsr, 
by Giotto, Cimabue, and Giunta da Pisa ; but the. 
exact share of each is disputed by art-critics. The 
subjects are from the Bible and the life of St. 
Francis. In the cloisters and refectory of the 
convent are portraits of some early Franciscans, 
and a Lord*s Supper, by A. Doni and Soliraena. 
Like other buildings, this one was much shaken 
by the earthquake of 1854. The few brethren 
here have been permitted to remain until their 

The Giardino Pubblico affords a good view of 
the town, and near it arc ruins of a itomnn amphi- 
theatre. The m nastery of San Damiano contains 
frescoes by San Giorgio. 

From Assist the rail runs under Monte Subasio, 

SpellO (Stat.), popultitlon, 6,076, close to a 
small town, steep and ill built ; the ancient Hispel- 
lum, containing a Roman gate, called Porta Veneris, 
and some fine *frescoes by Pinturicchio, in the 
churches of S. Francesco and Santa Marii Mag- 
g^iore. Those of the latter (in the Uaglioni Chapel) 
have been engraved by the Arundel Society; and 
it has also two frescoes by Perugino. It was 
damaged by the earthquakes. At 

FOLIONO (Stat.), 

The ancient Fulginium, the road joins the Via 
Flaminia. and the road and railway from Ancona 
to Rome. (See Route 29). To Fano, over the Furlo 
Pass, 12 hours. 

Population, 23,202. 

Hote/f: Aquilad*Oro; La Posta. 

Folimo, before its incorporation with the States 
ottbe CburebJa 1469, w/uan independent republic; 
BOW part <^ the lUlian kingdom. It is a hand- 

some bustling town, and overlooks the fine valiey 
of the Clitumnus, or Maroggia, famous for its fine 
long-homed white cattle, which furnished the 
victim a maxima for the Roman triumphs and 
sacrifices. It joins the Topino, a little below. 

It has a small, Gothic cathedral, dedicated to 8. 
Feliciano, with red marble lions at the door, and 
several churches; one of which, Santa Anna, built 
by Bramante, contained Raphael's ** Madonna di 
Foligno." nowin the Vatican. This,like N. Alunno 
da Foligno's altar-piece, at S. Miccolb, made a 
journey to Paris. Opposite the Purgatory Church 
is an obelisk, surmounted by a crucifix, and a 
lamp kept perpetually liglited. Here the Flaminian 
Way made a loop line to Nanii, passing Bevagna, 
or Mevania (under Monte Falco), the birthplace of 
Propertius, though he is claimed by Foligno and 
Stello and, with some probability, by Assist 

Trevl (Stat.) The Roman Trebia^ in an amphi- 
theatre of hills. 
Population, 5,300. 

At the Pinacoteca are three pictures by Lo 
Spagna, and the church of S. Emiliano has fine 

Before reaching the I^ Venc post-house, the 
road passes the source of tlic Clitumnus, or 
Clitunno, a little crystal stream at the head of the 
Maroggia, if not identical with it; on the banks of 
which is the Temple of Clitumnus, of "small and 
delicate proportions,'' as Byron describes it; 
originally Roman, but altered or converted Into a 
wayside chapel. 

" Hine aibi Clittinme, greget, et maxima, taurus, 

Pliny says the water had the reputation of 
whitening the skin of the cattle which fed on its 
banks. Themusical description in "Childe Harold" 
should not be forgotten here: — 

" Past not onbleit the Oenitu of the place I 
If through the air a zephyr more serene 

Win to the brow. 'tiH his ; and if ye trace 
Along his margin, a more eloquent green. 
If on the heart the f reshneas of the scene 

Sprinkle its coolness, and from the dry dust 
Of weary life a moment lave it clean 

With Nature's baptism, 'Us to him ye must 

Pay orisons for this BaspenaioD of disgust." 

The next place is 

SPOLETO (Stat.), 

The ancient ^^Spo'etum, Umbrife caput," in a very 

picturesque country on the Maroggia, traversed by 

an aqueduct and dotted by villas. An archbishop's 

> sec and formerly the head of a Papal delegation, 

! now united with the kingdom of Ital}\ 

1 Population, 11,885. 1 wo small hotels. 

It was made the head of a duchy by the Lom- 
bard Kings, 672 ; was burnt by Frederick Bar- 
barossa for siding with the Pope; and, duriu«. 
French rule, became tl\«. \\ft,«A vA N>cv'fc ^vs«5<Ktfvss>K^ 

^ \at« Cia\.^ XXvtcK. \x\% VWsv*^ x«R.«^^^^^ 



. i^i, •^.-.. -- — 

r^ulse, when ke attempted to adrance towards 
wnse after the battle of Tbrasymenns. Its other 
s)gns of Roman o^upation include a triumphal 
arch of Druius and Germanicus; a Temple of 
Jupiter, at St. Andrea's; part of a largfe theatre; 
a house (restored) once belongingr to the mother of 
Vespasian ; and remains of a Temple of Concord, 
of which fourteen pillars are seen in the Crucifix 
Church, outside the walls. 

The lofty Aqtteduet, which also serres as a road- 
way, Is 680 feet long, and in one part nearly 290 
high ; it is on ten Gothic arches, and is supposed 
to be of the seventh or eighth century. There are 
traces of Theodoric's Palace, which was rebuilt by 
Karses, after its ruin by the Goths. It has a foun- 
tain, with figures of Diana. Ac. 

The Cathedral is a handsome church, originally 
in the Lombard style, restored in 1644. It has a 
gold mosaic on its front, of 1207; and contains 
Hadonnas by Annlbale Carracci, and Fra Filippo 
Lippi, who was buried here by Lorenaco de* Medici, 
with an epitaph by Politian. 

S. Pietro, outside Porta Romana, is another Lom- 
bard church. The citadel commands a view of the 
Apennines, Perugin, &c. It was gallantly defended 
by the Irish Brigade on behalf of the Pupe, in 1860. 

At the Palazzo Pubblico, or Town Hall, is a 
fresco by Spagna. 

Preserved meats, fruits, and truffles are the 
principal productions of Spoleto. 
- Its old castle, standing on a basement of cycle- 
pean walls, commands a fine prospect. 

MoKTE Luco, 1 mile east, across the valley, 
which is spanned by the aqueduct, is a charming 
spot; covered with fine old oaks, one of which is 
upwards of 50 feet round. The ascent requires 
^mewhat under two hours. Here is the ancient 
lifonastery of S. Giuliano, on the site of a Temple 
of Mars, with some hermitages. 

From Spoleto the Road ascends Monte Somma, 
4.040 fedt high, with fine views of the Vale of 
CIitunn\us, Monte Luco, &c. ; it then descends the 
Strettura Pass, the hotel of which was a villa built 
by Leo XII. The Rail passes through Monte 
Somma by n tunnel (its highest point), to 

TEBNI (Stat.) 

The Roman Interamna, between the Velino and 
the Nera, celebrated as the birthplace of Tacitus 
the historian (at least he is claimed by the town); 
and for the magnificent FaJU of Temi, which are 
6 miles distnnc. 
Population, 15,773. 
Hotels: Europa ed Inghiltcrra. 
It is u bishop s sec and has an old Cathedral, with 
several Roman remains, viz., part of a Temple of 
the Sun, in the Church of S. Salvatore ; of an Am- 
/>bltheatre, in the Bishop's Garden; a Temple of 
J^BTca/efi, /// tbe CoIIeg-e of S. Slvo ; and Baths in 
j^f^ SpAda. Outside the walla is part of a Roman 
^^^Z-ept^ced by one of Clement VIII., built 

^-'^^^SfAl^Vl ^*' ^«^a •applied with good 
jr w^mzmr. Tbm £mperon TaoltUM and Fiorlan 

{SectiO{l f . 

were uativet of Tenri, as well at the historian. 
Its wine and peaches are noted. 

The *Fall8 of Tntii, or of the Velino, are 6 miles 
up the Nera, at the Junction of the Velino, which 
comes down from Rieti at a much higher level. 
Conveyances may be hired at the Hotel (7 to 10 
lire). The way lies through a beautiful country. 
The Falls are heard at some distance. 

andiit amnia 

SaUmnA Nar albas aqui, funt«aque VeUxii.— Virgil. 

Like those of Tivoli, these Falls, called Caduta, 
or Cascate della Marmore, are artificial in their 
origrin, having been made, in the first instance, by 
the Consul, M. C. Dentatus, B.C. 240, who, to drain 
the surplus water which inundated the valley of 
the Velfaio, made or widened a cut through the clifT 
down to the lower level of the Nera. Here the 
water "clears the wave-worn precipice," and falls 
into the gulf below, over 600 feet. In three leaps, 
the middle one being 880 feet perpendicular, and the 
lower one a succession of rapids. The channel is 
about 50 feet wide. Some estimates make the total 
fall only 455 feet, which is nearlv equalled by the 
Fall of Foyers, in Scotland ; a fall which, hi Dr. 
Clarke's opinion, ranks next to that of Tcrni. 
This fall far exceeds the Falls of Schafihausen, in 
Switzerland. One striking view can be got from 
the Specola, a pavilion- built by Pius VI., over- 
hanging the fall, and here also is a fine prospect of 
the valley and hills around ; but the best view of 
the waters is obtained from the Nera below. 

Look back I 
Lo where it cornea like an eternity, 
As if to sweep down all things in its track, 
Charming the eye with dread ; a matchless cataract. 

Horribly beautiful i— but on the verge 
From side to side, beneath the glittering mom 
An Iris sits, amidst the infernal surge 
Like Hope. —Byron. 

These rainbows are seen at different parts of the 
falls in the sunshine. The waters here, as in other 
parts of Italy, have a petrifying quality, and 
deposit much tartrate uf lime on the wood and 
mosses. Near this is a villa, once inhabited by 
Queen Caroline. 

Fr*>ra the Falls the road may be followed up the 
Velino, to the Pie di Luco Lake ; and on to RietL 
in the Roman Tempe, and Aquila, among the Sabine 
Hills in the Ahruzzi, and thence round to Naplee. 
(See Route 31). 

LeavlngTemi, for Rome, the country continuesto 
have the same hilly and picturesque character, to 

Narni (Stat.) a small old cathedral town 
(population, 11,410), on a height over the valley of 
the Nera, Ui a beautiful spot, the site of the ancient 
yequinum, or Narnia, a Roman colony, which re- 
fused to help the mother city after the battle of 
Cannae. The Duomo is of the thirteenth century; 
at the Town Hall is a fine (jhirlunditjo (the Coro- 
nation of the Virgin); and in the neighbourhood Is 
thePonleUoUo.a Roman bridge, built by Augustus, 
acToaa a tavVxve, oxv IYv^'^wk. 't\v%\«ccv»Aa» conelst 
o! OB* \tx%% aatciti^ wi^>iU\Xx«wfe\ q\ X-^q q!Cbwc%, 

Bonte 3S:} tirni, kabmi, bosohbtto, oitita ciaTKtiLAit^ ancoma. 

ifl Wgh foid from 

town, >dd ■ blihop-i m, l> «i»y lo tba tlgt- — . -- .... 

tovirdi the Tiber. To Ort« (Stat), » mile 
M the jdnction o( ths rail from Tcml, Poligno, an 
AnaHiL Root's IB. W. with the main Hue froi 

Siena (Ropto 2G); 

ot tho Tiber, which makoi 

. MenpoliUnii, iu 1J08. PasBUiB 

Bor^MtO (Eltat.), on the roll, ■ medisval 

(flTltaCaatellaiuKStat.), It picturesque town 

(population, 4,S^i), un a volcanic pcnlnflnln, the 
ille ot Falrriwn Vttw. one of (he Twelve Klrnacan 
eitiea! between IheTrciaaiiii Bio Maitf[lore, -which 
runs tn the rnTlne. A bridge, for the rond and 
oquednct. called Pontc del Torrono. 130 feci hlBh, 
crosses iha latter. Here In ■ Oothlc Cnthe£il 
(pvrtlce. 1110). with a caitio commanding a fine 


AucDna to Fano, FMiombron*, Vrblno, 

and ovar the ApennliLei to Arenm uid 

Florence; or, to FoiBombraDe, Cagll, 

SlgUlo, Nocero, Follgna, Ac., and Bome. 

AHCONA (Stat ), 

IfoM'! Delia Pace; L'Gnropn; La Vittoriaj 
Delia Pcrroila. Good Ssh got here. 

mosl^'lMnK In' email densely cwwded slrBcn" 
with an Indescribable want u[ cleanilneH, light, 


Ki B, 

ned by a Temple ut Apollo, 

Tciiice and^rln 

It bad been Tltlbl 
road (from Flor 

e P. and O. Company, l 

ijoys. Bi might tie eipei 

Ftwi Cinta Can 
b* lolltwad. rid tli 
Mgaedwt), to 



[Section 2. 

amphitheatre, between Monte Gunsco and Monte 
Astagno or Capo di Monte. 

The promontory is shaped like an elbow, and 
from this circumstance it derives its name of 
Ancon, bestowed upon it by the restless Dorians 
from Syracuse, who made a settlement here. It 
was also, and is still, celebrated for the beauty of 
its women, like many other Greek colonies, iiut 
it was Trajan who converted it into a usetul port 
and naval station by the erection of a Mole or Pier. 
The Lombards made it the seat of a governor, 
with the title of Afarchesus, whence the itame of 
La Marca, the Mark, or March of Ancona, given to 
the province (LeMarche In the plural), afterwards 
incorporated with the States of the Church by 
Clement VII. Previously to this, though be- 
queathed to the Pope by the Countess Matilda, it 
had remained a free city, and had held out against 
a brilliant siege by the jealous Venetians, till 
vuccoured by the Guelphs of Fcri'ara. It was 
occupied by the French, 1797-1814, and again 
1832-8, and in 1849 it was subjected to ten days' 
bombardment from the Auslrians. In 18GI it was 
occupied by Lamoricibre after his defeat at Castel 
Fidardo, and taken by Cialdini after a bombard- 

The Citadel^ built by the Popes, commands the 
town, but is partly commanded by the heights 
above. Other forts have been erected for its 
defence by its new master, the King of Italy— one 
near the Capuchin Convent will render it almost 

Close to the Old Mole, which is of Roman origin, 
U the fine marble *Arch of Trajan (Arco Trajano), 
t-rected. as the inscription states, by the "Senate 
and people of Rome to Trajan, Emperor, and 
(Jassur, son of Nerva, tl'c, a most provident 
prince, who, at his own cost, erected the Mole, and 
thus made this access to Italy safer to navigators." 
It is of white Parian marljlc, and of good propor- 
tions, with one gateway, supported by four 
Corinthian columns in each front. The bronze 
statues of Trajan, of his wife Plotina, and his 
sister Marciana, which stood on the top of the 
arch, have disappeared. 

Near this U a Doric Arch, by Vanvitelli, called 
the Ari'o C-i'mentirio, in honour of Clement XII., 
who built the four-sided lazzarctto and the second 
Afofe with its lighthouse. The Mole is 2,000 feet 
long and 100 broad. The lazzarelto in now a 
bonded warehouse. 

The streets of Ancona are steep and narrow, the 

best one being the Corso, built by Pius VI., which 

leads down to the harbour, through the principal 

gate, close to the Dogana. Statues of (jlement XII. 

and Cavour, in the new town. 1 1 has few remarkable 

buildings. A commercial fair begins on the 20th 

An^nst, soon after that of Sinigaglin; and at nil 

t/mea much of the buBtle of a thriving seaport 

provHtls hero. 

ruf,i^^'^' *"' (^^tJ^odra! of 8. Clriaco (Cyriac), 

J^iJz^ ^^eci?/7/«, occupies the very suniniit of the 

^^^„?"J^f ^^^^ of « ^^ite cliff, which 
oat of the acn, on the site of a Temple 

of Venus, ten pillars of which arc contained In 
the church. It was built in the tenth century, but 
the ornamented Gothic door, with its red marble 
columns facing the Dalmatian coast, is of the 
thirteenth century. It has a fine dodecagon 
cupola, and crypts in which the patron saint with 
two or three others, and the Prsetor, Gorgonius, 
are buried. The praetor's sarcophagus is orna- 
mented with reliefs. Within the memory of man 
large masses of cliff, close to the church, have 
been swept away by the sea. 

S. Affostino has bas-reliefs and statues, by Moccio, 
in its half-Gothic, half-classical front. 

S. Domenico, rebuilt 1788, has Titian's Virgin and 
Saints, and tombs of Marcolta, the poet, Tar- 
cagnosta, the historian, and Rinaldi, a Florentine, 
exiled by the Medici in 1452. A statue of Clement 
XII. faces the church. 

S. Frapresco has a rich Gothic portal. It is 
now used as a barrack. 

Santa Maria delta Piazza is a Gothic church; 
and Santa Pelagia has a Guercino. 

The Palazzo Comunale (Town JlouseJ, once the 
seat of the Papal Legate; Prefettura and Tibal- 
di's Fountain ; the Ferretti (by Tibaldi), Manci- 
porte and Benincasa Palaces; and the old marble 
Loggia del Mercanti, or Exduinge, with its Gothic 
ornaments and frescoes, by Tibaldi; all deserve 
notice. Also the arched gateway, <kc., of a build- 
ing which was once a commando of the Templars. 
Cose to the church of 3. Domenico, in the Piazza 
del Picbiscito, is the museum, with antiquities, 
and pictures l>yPodcsti, Titian, Crivelli, L. Lotto, 
and others. 

Ancona, in Roman times, was noted for its pur- 
ple dyes. It has a trade in oil, silk, wool, and 
corn. The steamers for lirindisi, Piroeus, and 
Couhtantinoplc leave every Monday; to Venice, 
once a week; to Zara, weekly, by the Navigaziono 
Generale Ituliana. (See JJradshatc's Continental 

To Loreto, Castcllanunare, and Foggia, by rail, 
for Rome and Naples; or to Foligno and Orte 
for Rome. 

Both the road and rail wind inward from Ancona, 
toward Osimo, In order to pass round the great 
chalky down which springs up here, between An- 
cona and Loreto, and reaches its full height at 
Monte Conero, 1,761 feet above the sea. 

The new quarter is on the land side; the pros- 
pect outside is ''unique in its combination of the 
softest features of a pastoral region, with the lofty 
cliffs and sea views of a grander landscape." — 
The Englishtcoman in Italy. 

One of the best avenues was cut down to make 
barricades against the Austrian^ in the siege of 
1849, whlcij lasted twenty-eight days. They took 
the town and held it for the Pope till 1859, ruling 
with great severity; for which there was some 
excuse, a* M\coua had been previously in the 
hands ot aw aft%oc\aX\oTv ol a%*aM\na(C This body 
OTiKlnaleA Vtv \%i^, vj>^fe^ ^^^^ ^*-^*^ ^'^^'^^^ ^'"^ 

tKlort Ibe people tisd time to lonn a dcclKtun. 
They proolBlmed the didalorship ot VIetor Em- 
mmnomum the DolegKto left; but A.I 1:1.1.1 wa, 
obliged til CBplInlale Id Alleerlna. He counlved at 

and bis Swl» cune, set aside the capltDletlon, Im- 

Thle etale oI°thing>^ut°d till'' Ua anneiatlon t^ 
the kingdom of lUly. after Ihe battle of CaBltlH- 

tallour, and the dtatance about K milea :— 

Fo««ombnme.„ ISi I Lamolll °t 

Urbino Ilj TonotPaM i 

UrbanU llj B.&lMtliK. 10 

8. Angelo-ln-V«do. S Borgo 8. Sepolcro ... a 

Merc.tedo 4 | Areizo SI 

Fuio li .Itoaled at llie mouth of the River 
HeUsro. which the road aicendi. (oUovrlnB! tha 
dlrectlod of Ihe Via FUminia. 

lloii°'9^"''n^'t ™tltB° of *tho iS'fflit'Km 

Theatrg, a Cathedral, with aomepalntlnRg and hi- 
■crlptioni. nod a good bridge. The ailk made here 
la aooic of the beet In Italy. The yiapilnlaii Way 
here paiHt np the PuHo towards Cagll, pigc 16t, 
Dlll^nce to 

Near the Roman Urbiium llfUnH. the seat of an 

Hon, 17,011)! It remarkable a< the hinhplace of 
fiaffaello Sanilo. or Sanll. uxualiy called kapliael, 
the prince of patnlera. The Hmk 111 wlilch he was 

Madonna, by O. Santl, Ills father', but none of 
Raphael's own worke remain in the town. Uewai 
bom and he died on Good Friday. The hoose Just | 

o( the Cbiircb In IBK, wat the head' of a Ducby 

They weravreat patrone of learning' and art,eBpec1- 
ally Oiild' Vbtldo I„ Ibe AnilMnd ol the beaotlfiLl ' 
BUMtbeit Omttga, who rtlaaed hera durliii 

sa eontrlbtited to 
ilo.thepalntsr; B. 

to otinajolliia poller}', ornamented i 

(Baby Baphuforby the artists of hia day 
la Pmam Daealt, now the goremot'e bout- 
ndiome bDlldliis(reator»a erected in Ihe I 
ury. Id the re^i of the brst Duke Fcdei 

LeFederlgo, by O, Can 

factory of m 

[The first 


<U OaiMUo iSlat.), p< 

o Flori 

le betel Is 

iracesoi fi^scoes, Ac Both tbia and a. <iWi.-w 
''11 ha. "a ■m»a«.\HWse.<«« •** "^'^^^^ 


BtLXnmkw'n t¥ltir. 

[Section 2. 

Florido, and sereral other Churches, adorned with 
painting^ &c; the Palazzo Comonale, in the 
Gothic style ; and four or fire palaces of the Yitelli 
family, formerly lords of the city. These and most 
of the large buildings here were cracked by the 
earthquake of 1789, which spoilt the old and fan- 
tastic frescoes, chiefly by Ghcrardi or II Doceno, 
by which they were adorned ; and caused the re- 
building of the churches. One of the Vitelli 
Palaces is inhabited by the Marchese Bufalini; 
another, now a merchant's warehouse, has a fine 
hall, 1 20 feet long, painted with arabesques ; a third, 
built 1540, contains many family portraits, one 
being a beautiful girl, dying of a stab in the neck. 
It stands in a garden, with a loggia painted by 
Gherardi, fresh as if done yesterday, and "covered 
with the most extraordinary and fantastically 
grouped assemblage of birds, beasts, fishes, fruits, 
and flowers, that it is possible to imagine."— 
Trollope's Lenten Journey. 

The Pinacoteca now contains the best works 
of art and paintings that were formerly in the 

About 3 miles east is Passerine farm, the site of 
Pliny's VHIa, described in his sixth book. 

About 12 miles below this is 

Fbatta, or Fratticciola, a small picturesque 
town (population, 9,500), where the road to Gubbio, 
16 miles, and Ancona turns off, over the mountains; 
past the old Castle of Civitella Ranieri. Fratta 
has a pottery manufacture, and stands 2,920 feet 
above the sea. In Santa Croce Church is a fine 
Descent from the Cross, by L. Signorelli. The 
hills here are well wooded, and the country richly 
fertile. On one stands the Convent of Monte 

Perugia (Stat.) is 20 miles further. See 
Route 27.] 

From S. Giustino, ascending the Tiber, the next 
place after crossing the old Tuscan boundary at 
C!ospaja, is 

San Sepolcko, or Borgo S. Sepolcro, a bishop's 
see (population, 8,068) which belonged to the 
Papacy, but was ceded to Tuscany 1440. It stands, 
as usual, on a hill, and takes its name from an 
oratory, built by two pilgrims, to hold a piece of 
stone brought from the Holy Sepulchre. It is the 
birthplace of the painters, Santo di Tito, Piero 
della Francesca, and Raffaellino dal CoUe ; whose 
works are to be seen in the Cathedral (a building 
of the eleventh ccntuiy), the Misericordia and 
other churches. Monument to P. dclla Francesca, 
erected in 1892. 

The Tiber rises about 40 miles north of Borgo S. 
Sepolcro under Monte Falterone, in the Apennines, 
close to the source of the Amo. Ii flows through a 
g^reen basin, once a lake, now rich in corn, wine, 
oak and other trees. The nextpl ace towards Arezzo, 

MoKTEKcm, the old Mons Hercules, on the ridge 

Jif,rf!,^ ^^^ Fi/etfo/ Tiber and Chlanti; a little 

JLnil^ ZP' ^^i^^ belonged to Bishop Tarlate, of 



Ponte Centesimo 



For Bome the route turns off lonth from Fosaom- 
brone, as above, the towns from which are as 
follow : — 

Post. Post. 

Acqualagna 1 Gualdo 1 

Cagli f 

Cantiano | 

Schieggia 1 

Sigillo 1 

This road is identical with the Via Flamhiia. 
follows the Caudigliano up the Pietralata Hill, or 
Monte cTAsdrubaie, which commemorates the defeat 
of Hannibal's brother, Hasdrubal, here, by the 
Romans, B.C. 207, on a plain called Piano di 8. Sil- 
vestro. A tower on Monte d'Elce, near the river, 

marks his grave. 

oocidlt, occidit 

Spes omnia, et fortuna noetri 
'Somhiia.— Horace. 

The Roman road here has been tumielled through 
the solid rock, and through a cutting half a mile 
long, called the Passo del Furlo, a work which an 
inscription ascribes to Vespasian. It then crosses 
a Roman bridge, Ponte Maulio, to 

Cagli, the ancient Callis, under Monte Nero, 5,500 
feet hij?h. A small town (population, 10,604), with 
several churches. S. Domenico contains a good 
fresco of the Madonna, by G. Santi, father of Ra- 
phael, whose portrait is given in one of the angels. 
It is published by the Arundel Society. 

The road passes another Roman biidge, Ponte 
Grosso, on the way to 

Canttiano, a small fortified town (population, 
3.296), with a Holy Family, by Perugino, in one of 
its churches. The road ascends to a point 2,310 feet 

Schieggia, another small town (population, 
1.320), near the remains of the Temple of Jupiter 
Apenninus at Clavemium, now Chiascema, on 
Monte Petrara. 

[Here is a steep road through the shoulder of 
Monte Calvo to 

OubbiO (Stat.),thc ancient Tguvium^ on the west 
of the Apennines, at the source of the Chiascio, a 
branch of the Tiber. Population, 2S590. It was 
a republic till 1383, when it came under the Dukes 
of Urbino, who had a splendid palace here. It was 
noted for its dyes, woollens, and Majolica ware, 
desijmed by Maestro Gorgio. a native. The best 
spfecimena of this ware in the Soul ages collection 
were obtained from Gubbio. The town hangs- on 
a kind of step at the base of Monte Calvo, In the 
basin of a dried Lake, 12 miles by 2; and the 
houses rise one over the other in steep zigzag 
streets. It is supplied with water by an aqueduct, 
2 miles long, from an artificial reservoir in the 
mountains, 330 feet long and 80 deep, made by 
damming up the head of a valley. 

There are some ft-escoes by Raffaellino dal CoUe 

and other Umbrian masters in the Cathedral, and 

the Dominican and Santa Maria Nuova ChurchM. 

In thai ot "W\%w\c»x^Vvv.\% «t fine fresco by O. NelU. 

In the ptftftctvl 1oN«rcv'ft«L\\.,'w\iJvs3cvVv»'^\3tt!feP«l«a«a 

, del Cou»o\VA* «^'*'^^*«^'B^>'«'^'^'^'^'*^'*^'^^^ 

Rovto* 39 and 30.] 

Inga. on* bf Duniuil, Ino 


, AtlnetnnaFiibrtiino 
(page 117} paiMi Uilellci, 

hemoiDbuLltlin^hy Alo^Rin, ' 

bronie. >nd tlw Micrlptl 


HoliiB down lo Fratta, 1 

From Schleggl* IJw rood 


tbroogb in 

Foaiato (Biat), popuiaiion, i,e3«, rbH i 

ArSMO, we page 144. 
On&lilo Tadlno (Btat.), at (be foot of ti 


Ancona to Borne, Its mil, vU Jeil,FoMato, 
Hoeeia, roilgna, Spoleto, Teml Falla, 
Ort«, and down Iha Tiber. 


[of the S Ivor TopLi 

rad iDillHu? 
Hi Churcb In 
Ull. near the 

e qel^bbour- 

FollniO (8Mt), as In Route 27, wblch Irom 
licnoo follows the line lo Rome. 

Ancona to Loroto.Fermo, andPeicaxa, on 
the nOl to Fossla, Tranl, and Biindisl. 

I Cip^ncrl 1BS3; »3) mlleB lo PcHtara; In 4lo fi 

Tbe Una tnmi i 

FalDonani and cuaravalle, on the FMn 

legi, .^ili. or ^nujn. as the Bomaos ca 

>orto S. Giorgio ... S 
•odaneo 4 

Aneona (Btal), a 

Ths line then tnmi 
Bonic Conem to 
Oslmo (Stat), 01 

PoBoliitlDn.T«M. Then Albadna (Btat) and I kla-«n (.VI>»o\».^.^w,,a^5*s^»»^^*-■ilM«f,^'™; 
~hbnaII0 (8(«tA -* bmlllng town (ponn- \ woTVw»olliw«i'0>*>"i*«»>^i;™^!JS^ 
A&il i7,»5 md tLiflop'a „a, luviog large m™- \ U X-ta* "Saiita Oo«, m -an^^ 


There li l comfeltable little Inn oalalde the gate, Tbe 
feeing tbe wa, Accordlnglo the legend, the Santi Zoa 
Cm VII Inblblled by Hut "t Nuareth ; WKS HHd 

The freaceei in the chlpeK and MCHitT are br 
Zoochero, P. Tlbnldl, D. Venliijuw, At, tUb • 

■ flne bran le re I lei. hy T. Vercelll, Hud otbers. 
Tbe njity biDcli Lmageof the Virgin, cerred, It [i 

Imllt room. 29 feet by 13 (eel. and la fed hlRb; ' me' knee' T her Iror™«, who'deporit I 
Mlhadoor.ohlniney.Bhidow.niidaiiicbeoontain- offerlngf In the Santa SwdcUa, a dish w 

tained In Blihop M 

loipMlaret" of Mariolatry. ai Mr. Trollopi 

Lorelo. belna; a modeni town, which bA^ 

ont of ths Santa Cau. le comparatively n< 

Slitua V. walled it roond tor prolecllon 

dnet, by Pan™ '"^ 

Tbe nne itadmna Church, which enclosea the 
Santa Caaa. wu re-bullt IM4-1S13. by Sangallo; 
except the cupola and front, which arc of later 
date, and the tail campanile, by Vonvltclll. The 

Ilea pottery, the e\it o 
le growth ol five eenturlca,wi 

if flfleoilh centary 

T> 1798. m 


the charcb li the Palace of tbe KiDg. and 
loUiihup; ahandsomepllebyBramantei 

ie a picture gallery, with works by Tlllan 

(Woman In Adaltcry). A. Carrncci, Guereins. Ao.; 
and a collection of MAJollca. Here are the 
hoDKi of Ihe caiioni, the baeki of which look 

Cftltel FidAtdoi on a bill, oier Ihe Muaone, 

noted for Ihc defeat of the Papal troopa, under 
Lainoricl^rc. by Claldlnl. ISlh Scuember, 18H. 

■dby MaJorO'Bellly: and 


Buppotted by tl 

orielire eapltnlaled 

-. to )oln Garibaldi, 

hl> pupils. Cnkaeni. T. Vcrcelll. *c. The 'church. ' »'">'" * "I''' '"J*"^ ;, "'« t'^*" 1"^ .'" *'"'''' "^ 

Jicareerammedwllhex-roloofferingifrompll- . 'he town beyond. Is direct from Lorelo. 

g^im^ more curious than elegant; but amongat i [HiCABAIi. a cathedral town (population. ».4»^ 

tine marl.]'* caaJ»g"to the Hoiy Houee. wlthMe- I a brunsc etatue'to the Virgin. In the public gquan. 

• -be town I. one Ionic street. It waa taken and 

unit by the Papal party, HIS. By road lo 

mphlthoatre, balll by Se|4iniui i^ererua CrOii 

•"S-at/o. tf^!,. 

Ibyti are Introduced. 

^*gon capoia ovei , 

ft « n.,_..^ ._ (j^^ ^ PoniBrwicIc 

of prophets 

(Stal-X cai^tal o( 

a hill, 

Bonte 30.] 



aronnd. It was founded by the Goths in the fifth 
or sixth ccntnries. It is a well-built, bustling 
iriace, having a population of 20,768. One of its 
grates, Porta Pia, is a triumphal arch, erected by 
Cardinal Albornoz, with his bust over it. The 
Cathedral of S. Giuliano has a Madonna, and 
other paintings, by Umbrian masters. At S. Gio- 
vanni is an Assumption, by Lanfranoo. Among 
the others worth notice are the Town Palace ; the 
University, with a library of 20,000 volumes; a 
College for priests ; Court of Appeal, for the pro- 
vince ; the Palazzo Compog^none, which has collec- 
tions of antiquities and inscripticms from Rieina; 
and several other Palaces built of white brick, 
and mostly deserted by their owners. Outside the 
walls is the Delle Yergine Church, by Bramante; 
besides a large brick-built amphitheatre, used for 
the game of pallone, Ac. 

Monsignor Savelli, a former Legate here, was, 
says Count Arrivabcnc, ^'nicknamed the 'Corsican 
mad dog,' for his eagerness in persecuting citizens 
suspected of liberal opinions. A wretched criminal, 
condemned to death, refused in his last moments 
to receive the ministers of the Catholic religion. 
The Legate, hoping to bring the convict to a more 
religions frame of mind, went to see him in the 
Confortatorio, and urg^ed him to repent. He pro- 
mised he would confess and receive the connnunion 
if fifty scudi were given to his family, which was 
done. Communion was then administered, and the 
next day he was executed. He was hardly buried 
when Savelli sent for the wife and demanded back 
the money; which he gave her, he said, because 
he only wanted her husband to die as a penitent 
and good Catholic." Gregory XVI. dismissed the 
Legate for this mean piece of treachery-, and sent 
the wife two hundred scudi; but the same man 
was made a Cardinal, and President of the Con- 
BultJ^ by Pius IX. 

A road tunts south-east to Fermo (26 miles); 
winding among hills crowned by towns and castles. 
It passes S. Claudio; M(tntnlino, the birth-))Iace of 
Lanad, the historian, and the site of Pausulse, an 
ancient town and bishop's see, destroyed in the 
fifth century; 8. Giusto Monte Granaco; and the 
River Lete Morta, or "Dead Lethe." 

Following the rail along the coast, the next place 
to Porto Kccanati is 

Potenza Flcena (Stat.) a long strip be- 
tween the coast and the hills, was the ancient 
Picentun, full of old cities and sites; whose history 
by Brandiuiartc in his "Plinio Seniore, illustratc'd 
in a descri|)tion of Picenum," is the best guide to 
their investigation. 

Porto Ciyltanova (Stat), at the mouth of 

the Chienti. 

From Porta Clvitanova, a line runs up the 
Chienti to Maoerata (see preceding page), 

T^lMitlno, a Severlno, Matelloa, nud Albar 

A small cathedral town, once fortified, cele- 
brated for the Treaty of Tolentino, signed between 
Bonaparte and Pius VI., in February, 1797; and 
also for the decisive Battle of 3rd May, 1815, gained 
by the Austrians under General Bianchi, over 
Murat, King of Naples, by which he lost his king- 
dom. Its site is marked by the Castello della 
Rancia, on the Maccrata Road. The Duorao is 
dedicated to S. Niccolb. It is the ancient Tolen- 
tinunt, and was under the Accoromboni family, 
before it was annexed to the Papal States. 

From Tolentino by road up the Chienti, towards 
the Apemiines, to 

, Valcimaba, in a valley, above which are PonU 
deila Trave and the narrow pass and village of 

Sekbavallb, on the boundary of Umbria, with 
remains of an old Gothic castle which guarded the 
defile. Monte Pennino^ and Monte Sibilla, the 
ancient Mons Tetricus^ 8,100 feet high, are close at 

Cambbimo is reached by a zigzag turning off to 
the right from the Chienti, after leaving Valcimara 
as above. This is an old Duchy and cathedral 
town (population, 11,761), on a solitary hill, 2,030 
feet high, shut in by the Apennines, on the site of 
Camerinum in Umbria, which furnished Scipio 
with 600 soldiers for his African expedition. It 
has several churches and silk factories, and is the 
birthplace of Carlo Maratti, the painter. The 
earthquake of 1799 entirely destroyed the former 
cathedral, and ruined an ancient renovated church 
of the thirteenth century, down the hill. But the 
large palace of the Varani family escaped. They 
were lords of the town till it came under the 
Papacy, and were nearly extirpated by its adherents 
in 1431. Their old feudal castle is on the Chienti, 
at the Junction of the Scortachiari. While the 
men of the family were generally worthless, the 
women were remarkable for beauty and talent. 
The women of Camerino are distinguished for good 
looks. Its history has been written by C. Lilli. 

Pioracco, to the north of this, on the Potenza, is 
the site of Prolaqueum, and from it the Roman road 
went through the Apennines to Nucerea or Nocera. 
The present road turns south-west to Serravalle. 

From the Serravalle pass the road crosses the 
Apennines by 

CoL FiORiTO, 2,700 feet high, by a narrow way 
cut on the face of the cliffs (which are covered with 
snow several months in the year), so narrow that 
carriages can hardly pass each other. Here is a 
little lake in the midst of verdure and wild flowers. 
The descent is rugged and winding along the preci- 
pices to Case Nuove and Scopoli; after which the 
country improves to Bdfiore and the beautiful 
valley in which FoHgno Is placed. (See route 27.)] 

S. ElpldlO (Stat.), between the small port 
and town of S. Elpidio. The town, on a hill, is the 
site of Cluana or Cluentutn. These \)attA ^x^ >>p» 
porta at ftU, buV o\\\n «L\\^\vat«>.^^% Vst ■». ^'^^^^'^^ 



[Section 2: 

Porto S. OlorglO (Stat.), three miles from 

Fermo, the site of the ancient Firmum Pieenum, 
destroyed by the Goths; an archbishop's see and 
the head of a province in the kingdom of Italy, on 
a steep hill, 6,100 feet high, near a small stream, 
the mouth of which makes a little port, 4 miles 
below the town. Population, 18,726. 

It is reached by a winding road, and consists of 
many narrow and abrapt streets, shut in by old 
picturesque walls. On the rery top of the hill, in 
Piazza Qirone, stands the Cathedral, command- 
ing a wide prospect of the towns and villages 
around, and half way over the Adriatic. It was 
the site of a castle, which was razed in 1447, to 
prevent it being turned against them by the 
powerful families of the town. It was so strong 
that an old punning rhyme declares— 

"Qaando Permo tuoI ferxoKr*, 
Tutu rMuca te tmiuure." 
That is— 

"As long M Ferm^ standi up Jirm, 
She inikkes the Marohes tremble." 

"There is a rather unusual, but not unique fea- 
ture in the construction of the Cathedral, consisting 
of a sort of porch or proncuM at the west end, across 
the entire width of the nave and aisles, so placed 
that the west front wall, instead of giving access 
to the church, is but the side wall of this adjunct 
to the building, which is entered through it by a 
door in that part of the north side which is the 
north end of the porch.— (T. A. Trollops's Lenten 
Journey.) Here are tombs of a Visconti, by Tura 
(Bonaventura) da Imola, and a member of the 
Knflnrodicci family. Another member, Ollverotto, 
who figured here, and is buried in S. Francesco 
Church, is cited by Machiavelll as a model tyrant, 
in a chapter of his "II Principe," relating to those 
who have raised themselves to power by their 

Fermo is one of the richest bishoprics in Italy, 
worth about £11,600, and was held by Cardinal de 
An^^olis, who was designated by Pins IX. as his 
Kuccossor. Lattanzio, sumamed Fermiano, was 
born here. 

The next place along the lino is 

PedaSO .(Qtatb), at the mouth of the Aso, 
which comes dpwn from Monte Sibilla, 7,200 feet 
high, SO miles inland. 

Ciipra Marltttma (Stat), at the mouth of 

the Tesino, near the site of Cupra Maritiuuk, 
where there was a temple of the Cyprian Venus. 

Orottamare (Stat.) 

A little distance inland, on a hill, is Rii*atran80nb. 
or Cnpra Montane, a small cathedral town (popula- 
tion, 9.925). It is near the Josina, on the other 
side of which are the old castles of Cassignano 
and Affida. 

S. Benedetto del Tronto (Stat.), near Porto 

d'A»eoU, at the 7>outo (ancient lYmtntmm), which 
wms/onatfirly the boumitiry of Xh» Pontifical and 
i:2???^f^ ^ftett' Here a ro»d, the ancient Via 

^J'^^jr superseded bym line to Ai»coli,M| I 

miles l(mg, which passes through OflSda Castel di 

[AbCOU FloenO, so miles from the sea, is the 
ancient Asculum Pieenum, the chief town of the 
Picentes, and a large, well-built cathedral town, 
with a population of 28,000, on a hill, in a fertile 
plain, at the junction of the Castellano with the 
Tronto, both of which are crossed by old Roman 
Bridges. Another piece of antiquity is the Porta 
Bomana, a triamphal arch over the Via Salaria, 
which runs through the town. There are also re- 
mains of a theatre, Ac. Ascoli is still sometimes 
called Eschio, supposed to be derived from tetevlus^ 
an oak. It took a prominent part in the Social 
War against Rome, but was captured and plun- 
dered by Porapeius Strabo, Pompey's father. 

It is surrounded by walls of travertine, and con- 
tains nine Churches full of paintings, by Trasi, 
Ghezzi, and other native artists, with sculptures 
by Glozafatta. 

The Duomo, an ancient structure on the site of 
one founded by Constantine, has paintings by C. 
Crevelli, a Venetian, whose works are to be found 
in the churches of Santa Margherita, Ac. 8. 
Oregorio Magno contains the Corinthian pillars of 
a Roman temple, which stood on this spot. The 
Paicuzo AniiancUe, near the Duomo, includes a 
museum, library, and theatre. In Piazza del 
Popolo is the Town Hall. The citadel was built 
by Saugallo. 

In the mediteval period, Ascoli was governed by 
the Falzetta and Miglianitti families; and it was the 
birthplace of Nicholas V.; of B. Bassus, the orator 
and friend of Cicero; and also of Ventidius 
Bassus, who was a child when P. Strabo took the 
town, and who afterwards defeated the Parthians, 
under M. Antony. Another native was F. Stabili, 
called the Cecco d' Ascoli (blind man of Ascoli), a 
scholar of Dante's time. 

The road ascends the Tronto. past Acqua Santa, 
or Ad AquM^ still known for it.s sulphur springs, to 
Abquato (20 miles f^om Ascoli). near another 
Roman station. Ad Centegimum^ on the Via Salaria. 
From this there is a way, by the Pass of Castelluccio, 
near Monte Sibilla, over the Apennines, to Norcia 
(10 miles), an old episcopal town at the bead of 
the Nera, and the birthplace of St. Benedict. From 
this it is 16 miles to Spoleto, in Route 27. 

From Aj-quato (see above) the Via Salaria con- 
tinues to ascend the Tronto. past Ad Marti*; then 
over the Apennines and Monte Teja to Civita Reale, 
at the head of the Velino, and down that river to 
. Civita Dacale, to Rieti, and thence to Rome; or 
' past Ad Mortis to Amatrice and Montereale, at the 
head of the Pesaro.and down that river to Aquila 
(ia Route 31), the capital of the Farther Abruzzi, 
or Abruzzi Ultra.] 

The coast railway, after crossing the Rivers 
Tronto and Vibrate, in the province of Abruzzi 
\r\lTa,come%t,Q\h«Salinello, up which is Cevttblla 
i>u. Tyokio, iLioTi\&«^ \«wiv^'<K\\^ %, Y^^dsLtiom ni 


e ViM ViOsrU. Tho 




1.1, popnl 


ahSeLd): t 

AdrUtIc to th 

Hants SUTBno IBtat 

) \, («Uo- 


on (or Aqnlla 



t h.l[.«.y 

lo Pnt 

Tsrnl, to AqollA, Solmoua, Popoli, GlUetl, 

ic«i. by rail past Ten 

■■■"'ill Aq»«... 


I; Antrodoco. 33 mile 

■uthots (Stat.); [too her* tt 
BlsU IStftt), lbs ancient £a<u, a 

fnraiio. PoiL,ie,l8T. U hkialarge mi 

Vellnl" of Virgil. 


'?■"'.• I 

I explored by KepiielCraven in liSS(EiruriiBm 
/le offen maDycydupun rcinajne 
tie dwelliaEi of the oM Sibina, Henca to C&r- 
. U miles, and to BoDie, |«Bt Tlvoll, Mmlleit 
a CarMll. SnblMO. Amma, and FrosUnonii, 

, Antrodoco (St&t.). ' 

UTor a plctureeqne moui 




Bcivflai gelladi Cknrao (Stil) and vunumo 

CHfttu) the watershed i« croMed. From \ iglUno 
it is Smiles to 

Aqinila (8tat), «t the head of the Atemo. the 
capital of Ahnxzi Ulteriore I'rimo. in a rich valley 
in the midst of tame of the hi;diet>t peaks of tbie 
Apennines — ^Monte Cort>aro. M. Vellino. Delia 
Dnchessa. M. Calvo, and M. Como. or O'ran JSasto 
^/eolte, 9,^80 feet hijrfa PofmlatioD.lil.027. It U 
abisbop'sfiee.Ac..aDdaooaii>aratively modem place. 
baring been founded by the F^tuperor Fredeiick II.. 
ont of theminsof ^efia and Amitemum. and called 
AqpOa Miter the imperial ea^e. The stroiiir Castle 
or citadel in the upper part of the town was bnilt by 
Charles V^ 1534. It was the second city in Naples 
and eonJd muster L5,000 armed men; is walled 
nmad, and has eight out of its twelve Gates blocked 
up. It is pretty well built, tliouirh the streets are 
narrow and half the space inside is garden ground. 
It suffered from tlie eartliquakes of 1688, 1703. and 
1706, which last swallowed 2,000 persons. There 
are two large squares, with fountains. Formerly 
it had 100 Churches, of which twenty-rix remain, 
chiefly in the Gothic rtyle. That of B. Bernar- 
dino da 8iena was built by Cola della Amatrice, 
the sculptor and ftainter. and iias a tomb of the 
saint, 1^'t. Among ttie other bui!dinpi are the 
Palazzo della Citta; the Dra^ronetti and Torres 

Palaces: a College or Liceo Beale. 
pital, Hkeatre. Ac. At the Palazzo della 
are interesting Roman inscriptions. AqoJte 
noted for its sweetmeats and saffron, 
wealth}' families reside here. The mutton, 
lags, ham, sausages. Ac of this nei^ibourJ 
are all good. 

The ascent of the Gran Sasso can be made 
here, but it is only adapted for tolerabl y 
ccmstitutions. The Guide to the Gran 
d'ltalia, written by Dr. Abbate, and pab: 
BfMKc. should be obtained. 

To Celano on Lake Celano. 24 miles, by a : 
tain ruad. over Honte Vellino. 8.397 feet liigii,1 
the sununit. It commands a wide proqiect oi ' 
part of the Apennines. 

Cklaso (population. 8,599), with its old caattifei' 
was nearly swallowed up by an earthqnakeTlSC 
The lake was drained. Ib'Si. It gives 
Thomas of Celano. composer of the fine eranj 
hymn "Dies Ire'" It is now a station 
line from Solmona to Home. 

From Aquila the road and rail descend Qto 
Atemo to Solmona and I'opoli. Thence to ChWtl, 
Pescara, and Caf^teUammare (page 159) by nMt 
or to Capua and Naples, by road and rail. tB^m 
Uonte 33 for ail th(»e place's.; 



16 winter 
om, and 
; serrke 
at aboTe 
10 lire, 
tsily ob- 

ha franc 
Hve cen- 
u Soldo 

ly. The 
is 11-6S 
is 8796 
18 of the 

r station 

L. e. 


L. 0. 


>5e 880 



8 60 


i«nts. in 
7 extra 
»re than 
i person 


(Stat.) the 

it is 6i mil 


capital of j 
in the mid 
aitalia, 9,i 
a bishop's s 
having bc€ 
out of the 1 
Aquila aftc 
or citadel i 
Charles V. 
and could 
round, and 
up. It is ] 
narrow an 
It suffered 
1706, whic 
are two la 
it had 100 
chiefly in 
dino da & 
the sculpt' 
saint, 130 
Palazzo c 


A SuTTcnr it ns Jtmanov er Lmi nou Fuiuaci, Luawoax, J 
Fopalitlan (iml), M(i,MO, igiinn tO«,4«7 !■ IB81. 

:RO"uxiii sa. 

HoMi, or Albcixbl:— Hoit ot Ilie taoMli Bi 
■ItojLted In the EDgJlAb qiurta, b4tir«en Pltzi 
- - ■ "■!«« di 8p»gn», VtaConiiotU, «■ 



[Section 2. 

Dnriiif^thc eight days of Carnival the price mnst 
be settled beforehand when hired for the Corso. 

Well arranged Omnibuses run frequently 
throagh rarious parts of the city; faro, 16c. 

British Embassy, via Ventl Settsmbre. 
BritUh Co'iitii, 96, Piazza S. Glandlo. 

American Legation and Consulate General, 13, 
Via Nasionale. French Emhassp^ Palazzo Farnese. 
German, Palazzo CaffareUi. Austrian, Palazzo 
Venezia. Spanish, in Piazza di Spagna. 

ChXIXCillBB,—Engl**^ CAurcA— All Saints, Via 
Babnino, with a regular chaplain. The new 
eharch of Holy Trinity, in Piazza S. Silvestro. 
St. PauVs American Episcopal Church, Via Na- 
zionale (by Street), 1876. Several new churches 
for various denominations have sprung up inside 
the city, from which they have hitherto been 
excluded. See Bradshaw's Continental Guide. 

Post Office, Piazza S. Silvestro; open 8 a.m. to 
9-80 p.m. There is a room for writing letters, 
whore paper and envelopes can be obtained. 

Telegrapll OffloO at the General Post Office 
and at the railway station; always open. Branch 
offices close at 9-0 p.m. Word rate of 40 cents, 
to England, in addition to a fixed charge of I lira. 

Hallways. — ^To Frascatl, in 45 minutes; to 
Civlta Vecchia and Leghorn, vid the Maremme or 
coast line ; to Naples, vid Velletri, Frosinone, and 
Oaserta, in 6| hours ; to Ancona, in 8 hours, vid 
Orte, Temi, and Foligno; to Florence, in 6 hours, 
vid Orte. Orvieto, Chiusi, Terontola, and Arozzo 
(Route 26) Stazlone Centrale, Piazza delloTcrme. 
There is another station, little used, at Trastevere. 
(See Brad^iow's Continental Guide.) 

Tram (by steam) to Tivoli, 1| hour ; to Ciam- 
pino, Ac. 

Steam Commnnioatlon :— 

Fraissinet and Co.'s French Steamers ; Agency 
Office, 48, Piazza Nicosia. (3enoa to Marseilles. 

The Anchor Line, Naples to New York direct. 
Naples to Alexandria direct. Agent in Rome, 
Mr. S. B. Forbes, 93, Via Babuino. 

Professional and Business Directory:— 

Medical.— \^T. Thomson, M.D., 60, Via de' Due 
Macclli. Dr. Young, M.D., 20, Piazza di Spagna. 
Dr. v.. Spurway, 48, Via Condotti. Dr. Gason, 
F.(7.P. Dub., physician and accoucheur, 65, Via 
Babnino. Drs. A. Jameson and Thomson Bonar, 
114, Via del Babnino. 

Surgeon Dentists.— Dr. Curtis, 93. Piazza di 
Spagna. Dr. Chamberlain, of Boston. 114, Via 
del Babuino. Dr. Van Mamr, Palazzo Marotti, 
Via Naziotiale. 

English Chemists. — Sinimberghi, Evans, «fc Co., 
5, Via Condotti. H. Roberts A Co., 36 and 87, 
Piazza S. Lorenzo in Lucina. See Advt. 

English and Am^'ican Bankers. — Sebasti and 
Keale, 20, Piazza di Spagna. 

Bankers and Commission Agents. — A. Macbcan nnd 
/"//A, SJ, PiaxzH H. Sllretitro. Messrs. Giorgl and 
BJmcoBBi, ii». Vin FrattltiB. As false coins and 
^otoBan ia circulation it is best to bare WCOWBt 

to respectable bankers, as above. National paper 
money is taken at full value at all public offices 
and railway stations. 

}*hotographs. — Alinarl and Cook, 90, Corso, 
especially for originals from old masters, statues, 
and views 

Forbes's Tourist Ogtee, 93, Via Babuino, and 
office of the Tourist's Directory. Agent for the 
Anchor line. Mr. Russell Forbes, historical and 
archsBological guide, conducts visitors to the 
museums, galleries, and antiquities of Rome and 
its environs. Terms moderate. Tickets for the 
Palatine Hill to be had at the above address. 

Engli^Librcu^ and Reading Room. — Piale, Nos. 1 
and 2, Piazza di Spagna. The largest subscrip- 
tion Library in Rome. Bookseller and Stationer, 
Photographs, Ac. 

CiX&s:— English Club.—n€id at No. 78, Via 
della Croce. Anglo-American Club, 11, Via Con- 
dotti. Italian Alpine Club, 26, Via Collegio 

British Academy.— Kx, Via 8. Nicolo da Tolen- 
tino. For a List of Studios of Sculptors and 
Artists, see Forbes's Tourists'' Directory^ issued 
regularly during the season. 

British and American Archaological Society of 
Rome. 76, Via della Croce. 

ArchiBological Association, 93, Via Babuino. 

'Sh»B.\XWL—Argentina, or Comunale. Via Terra 

Fa//e.— Drama, Via Teatro Valle. 

Costanti, Via Nazionale. 

(See daily papers, especially the Italic, published 
in French.) 

Saddle Horses. — 800 to 500 lire a monti 
RoKcs at Prati Fisceli, in the Campagna. 

Galleries :— [The attendants expect a gratuity. 
Where orders are required, they can generally bo 
obtained at the Libraries. Only the Capitol and 
the Rircher Museum are open on Sundays.] 

Academy of St. Luke. — ^Via Bonella, orders to 
be had at the Uotel, or a Banker's, or the office 
near the Capitol; open daily, except Saturday, 
from 9 to 3.. Closed in July and August. 

Barberini.—YitL Qunttro Fontane, open daily, 
from 12 to 4. 

Borghesc^ln the Casino at Villa Borghese. 
outside Porto del Popolo; Tuesday, Thursday, 
and Saturday: 1 lira. 

Capitol. — Open to the public every day. Half- 
a lira, from 10 to 3. Sundays and holidays, free. 

Colonna. — Pia%/.a del SS. Apostoli, Palazio 
Colonna ; Tucsdav, Thursday, and Saturday, from 
11 to 3. 

Corsini.—\isi della Longara. at Palazzo Corsiiii; 
Alonday, Thursday, and Saturday, from 10 to 3. 
: At F.:ister. daily, 

Doria. — Via del Corso, at Palazzo Doria ; open 
! on Tuesdays and Fridays, from 10 to 2. If these 
I lire Festivals, the day following. 

Farnese. — On Saturday; 5i>eciol order from 
¥ron-:h Embassy, located hee. 

f arneiin««'-\%X«oAV)>^^l mQwlh; 10 to 3, freif . 





Bonte 32.J 



- €fttSeria cTArte Modema^ Via Nazionale; open 
daily* except Sunday and Wednesday, 9 to 8. 50c 

Kircheriano, and MedUewU Museum (Collegio 
Bomano). — Daily, 10 to 3; 1 lira. Holidays, free. 

Lateran l/tMeum.^ Open daily, from 9 a.m. 

Ro9piglio8i. — On the Quirinal; open on Wednes- 
days and Saturdays, from 9 to 3. Guido's Anrora. 

Spada. — Palazzo Spada; by special introduc- 
tion from an influential personage. 

Buott€Qmpagni-Museum. — Via Yeneto. Tues- 
days, Thursdays, and Saturdays, 9 to 12, 2 to 5. 
Permesto from the Embassy. 

yaiBSl^ViUa Borghese.— Tutsdtiy, Thursday, 
and Saturday, after 1, free; Casino on the same 
days, 1 to 4, 1 lira. 

Villa Medici (otherwise the French Academy). — 
Open Wednesdays and Saturdays, 8 to II, 2 till 
dusk, \ lira. 

VUla Pan^i-Doria. — Open, for two-horso 
carriages only, on Monday and Friday afternociis. 

ViUaLudovisi. Casino dell' Aurora. Before 9 a.m. 

Villa Albani.^C\osed at present. 

WblJtotuki. — ^Wednesday and Saturday, 2 to dusk. 

Palace of the Caaars. — Daily, 1 lira. Sunday, free. 

N.B.—The ♦'Edelweiss" collection of handy 
guide>books to the Roman Galleries, published 
oficially^ are useful. 

Vatican and St. Peter's.— ^a/wo« OaiieHes 

and Mtueum, daily, 10 to 3. Apply at the bronze 
door right-hand colonnade, St. Peter's. Museums 
and Etruscan Gallery closed on Thursdays. 
Saturdays all closed. Dome of St. Peter's^ open 
from 8 to U, and Mosaic Factory^ by order at 
8, Tia della Sacrestia. The Catacombs of St. 
Agnese, by order. No other orders required; they 
are always given gratis. For audience of H.H. the 
Pope, by written application to Monsignor Macchi, 
at the Vatican. 
Public Offlces— Ministries.— iToffM Ojke, 

Pal. Braschl. ^or«^n,Gonsultk Palace. Finance^ 
Old Conyent of S. Maria-Sopra-Minerya. War, 
Piazza delle Terme. Marine, Convent of S. Agos- 
tino. Justice, Palazzo di Firenze. Commerce, Via 
della Stamperin. 

Week at Borne.— Those who are unable to 
dcyote more than a week to Rome, may perhaps 
find the following suggestions useful. By carry- 
ing out these directions, they will be able to see 
Rome very well within that time. It will be import- 
ant, however, to adhere closely to the order given 
below ; many of the most interesting palaces and 
villas, containing the choicest collection of art- 
trcasurcs, being only opened to the public once or 
twice a week. When a fee is required, 60 cents, 
will be sufficient for a party of two Over that 
number, it will be advisable to give a lira. 

Monday. — Church of St. Carlo in Corso, St. 
Peter* 8, Vatican Museum and Gallery (this alone 
will occupy several hours). The gardens on the 
Pincian Hill are worth seeing. They are within a 
few minutes' walk of the principal hotels, and 
form a delightful evening's drive. 

TuBSDAT should be devoted to the galleries of 
painting* in the (oUowing pnUcQs ; and, m the; 

close at between 1 and 8, it will be advisable to 
start early. Visit the following in succession : — 
Palazzo Doria, Palazzo Colonna, Villa Albani. 

Wbdnesdat.— Pantheon, Column of Trajan, 
Capitol Museum, Roman Forum, and Arches of 
Soptimius Severus, Titus, and Constantine, the 
Colosseum, Lateran Museum and Church (with 
the two striking chapels of Corsini and Torlonia), 
St. Maria Maggiore. 

Thursday. — Terme di Diocleziano, St. Paul's 
Basilica (a magnificent church, erected at the 
cost of about one million sterling). Pyramid of C. 
Cestius, Temple of Hercules. 

Friday. — Mr. Forbes's Excursion. Start early 
in tramway for Tivoli (the ancient Tibur), 18 miles 
from Rome. Stop an hour en route at the Villa 
Adriana, one of the finest ruins in Italy. 

Saturday. — Palazzo Barberini, Churches of 
Gesh and S. Maria-Sopra-Minerva. Mr. Forbes's 
Excursions every other Saturday. 

Observation. —Nearly all the churches of Rome 
are worth seeing ; and none should be passed over. 

A carriage will be absolutely necessary oo 
Wednesday or Friday. 

*Clllef Objects of Notice are as below (those 
belonging to ancient Rome are in Italics). See 
Forbes's Tourist's Directory, and Mr. J. P. Parker's 
Archaeology of Rome, with 3,300 Historical Photo- 
graphs. An interesting book is The Marvds of 
Rome, an English version of the (Latin) Medisval 
Guide Book. 

Piazza del Fopolo, page 

Pincian Hill, page 165. 
Sistine Chapel, page 194. 
Church of Trinitk de' 

Monti, page 192. 
Cappuccini Church, page 

Piazza Barberini, page 

Villa Ludovisi, page 206. 
Garden ofSallust, p. 206. 
Piazza de' Termini, page 

Church of Santa Maria 

degli Angcli, page 187. 
Palace of the Quirinal 

and Gardens, page 199. 
Church of Santa Maria 

Maggiore, page 181. 
Church of St. Giovanni 

Lateranoand Museum, 

page 180. 
Church of S. Croce in 

Gerusalemme, p. 185. 
Claitdian Aqueduct, images 

170 and 210. 

page 216. 
Colosseum, page 212. 
Meta Svda.^M^\^,%^ViK. 

Palatine Bill Excava- 
tions, page 214. 
Church of St. Gregorio, 

page 186. 
Church of St. Stefano 

Rotondo, page 192. 
Baths of Titus, page 211. 
Baths of Caraealla, page 

Tomb ofScipio, page 21 8 
Catacombs, page 219. 
Columbaria, page 213. 
Gate of St. Sebastian, 

page 171. 
Fountain ofEgeria, page 

Appian Way, page 219. 
Arch of Janus Quai'ri- 

frons, page 2 10. 
Cloaca M axiina, page 2 1 2 
Templeof Vesta, page 217. 
Bocca della Verit^ 168. 
Protestant Cemeterv, 

page 193. 
Pyramid of Caius Sestius, 

page 218. 
Church of St.Paolo f uori 

le Mura, page I82. 
Roman Forum, page 209. 
Arch of TvlMA^^sji^'^kiKV- 

Ar^ ./ Cou.t««»i«»,^**\^^;j^^^^^^^i^ 


lery, and Mosaic Man- 
ufactory), page 193. 

Capitol, page 200. 

Hospital of St. Spirito, 
page 208. 

St. Onof rio, page 190. 

Paoline Fountain, page 

Villa Doria Pamfili, page 

Church of St. Pietro in 
Montorio, page 191. 

Church of St. Cecilia in 
Trastcvere, page 184. 

Corsini Palace, page 208. 

Palazzo Spada, page 205. 

Fountain of Trevi, page 

Church of St. Pietro in 
Vincoli, page 191. 

Mamertine Prison, 214 

Church of the Jesuitt, 

page 186. 
Roman College, page 

Church of St. Andrea 

delle Yalle, page 188. 
Doria Palace, page 203. 
Sciarra Palace, page 206 . 
Borghese Palace, page 

PmUheon^ page 216. 
Matuoleum of Aufftuttu, 

page 217. 
St. Peter's, page 178. 
7^m»b ofHadnan (Castel 

Sant' Angeio), p. 218. 
Santa Scala, 181. 
Vatican (including Sis- 
tine Chapel, Pauline 

Chapel, Museums, 

Library, Picture Gal- 

These are some of the principal sights in Rome, 
but there are many more which the visitor will 
have little difficulty in finding out. See '' Rome *' 
in the Index at the beginning. 

Roman Art. — Principal Roman AreMtecU from 
the period of the Renaissance, or reyival of modem 
art— (N.B. Our 15th century, here given, is the 
Italian 14th century; and so on): — 

- IMh century. — O. da Majano, R. Pintelli. 

16th century. — Bramante (died 1514), Sangallo, 
Michael Angeio, B. Peruazi, Raphael, O. Romano, 
Vignola, Aramanati, G. della Porta, D. Fontana 
(died 1607). 

17th century.—C.Mademo(died 1629), F.Ponzio, 
O. Rainaldi, G. B. Soria, Bernini, Algardi, 
C. Rainaldi, G. A. de' Rossi (died 1695). 

18th century.— Fontana (died 1714), A. Galilei, 
SalvL, Fuga, Vanvitelli, C. Marchionni, R. Stem. 

Painters. — 16th century.— Raphael (the Trans- 
figurati<m); M. Angeio (the Last Judgment); 
G. Romano, G. Penni, P. del Vaga, G. da Udine. 
Garofalo, F. Zuccaro, D'Arpino, Caravaggio, An- 
nlbale and Agostino Carracci. 

17th century. — Baroccio. Domenichino, Guido 
(the Aurora)^ Guercino. Lanfranco, A. Sacchi, 
C.Maratta, P. da Cortona, Claude, S.Rosa. Poussin. 

18th century. — P.Pannini, P. Battone, R. Mengs. 

- iScu/p^or«.— Sansovino, B. Cellini, M. Angeio, 
G. della Porta, Bemini, A. Algardi, Canova. 

*' Rome, in all her vast dimensions,'* says Men- 
delssohn, "lies before me, like an interesting 
problem, to enjoy ; but I go deliberately to work, 
dally selecting some different object appertaining 
to history. One day I visit the ruins of the 
ancient city ; another I go to the Dorghese Gallery 

or to the Capitol— or to St. Peter's— or to the 

Vatican. Each day is thus made memorable, and, 
as I take my time, each object becomes forcibly 
and Indelibly impressed on me. .Just as Venice, 
with her past, reminded me of a vast monument — 
h«r erunibling modem palaces and the perpetual 
remembrance of former spltndour, causing sad and 

wmmpt senMtion»''-BO does the past of Rome 


[Section 2. 

suggest the Impersonation of history. Her monu- 
ments elevate the soul, inspiring solemn yet serene 
feelings ; and it if a thought fraught with exulta- 
tion that man is capable of producing creations 
which, after the lapse of a thousand years, still 
renovate and animate others." 

There is a grreat deal of second and third-rate 
painting and sculpture at Rome, which the experi- 
enced or fatigued visitor will soon leam to pass over ; 
but even inferior objects are sometimes of service at 
a foil to the best, by showing how some artists paint 
or carve. In this Guide we have endeavoured to in- 
dicate every object worth notice, according to Its 
position and locality; recording all, or the sub- 
stance of all that is usually said of each, with its 
history and present appearance . But these accounts 
muAt be taken with some reserve, since the history 
of many remains of antiquity, their names, sites, 
original appearance, Ac, are in dispute, and by no 
means attended with that certainty which the full 
and positive accounts given in grave authorities 
would lead one to believe. The best plan is for 
the stranger to make himself well acquainted 
with their names and positions as here indicated, 
to read what is said of them by ordinary guides, 
and then to turn to more critical writers, such as 
Forsyth and Braun, who classify their subjects, 
and view them according to their respective schools 
or styles, in chronological order; carefully weigh- 
ing them in the critical balance, and sifting the 
chaff from the wheat. 

Bono, or Roma^ the capital of the Kingdom of 
Italy and the Catholic world, the scat of the Gorem- 
ment of Italy and of the Pope's Court, formerly the 
capital of the Roman and Western Empires, Ac, 
stands on the Tiber, 15 miles from the sea, on the 
undulating table land of the Campagna, or Agiro 
Romano, on a site from 30 feet to 200 feet high, 
the greater iMtrt on the Latin or east side of 
the river. The famous Seven Hills are ridges 
of moderate height, which, when covered with 
buildings, and the valleys between them filled up, 
are hardly more discernible than the hills of Lon- 
don. These are the Quirinal, Viminal. Esqnillne, 
Coelian, Aventine, Palatine, and Capitoline Hills; 
of which the Quirinal and Esquiline are tiie 
highest. al)ont 200 feet. 

TheoIdRoman city occupied the Coelian, Aventine, 
Palatine, and Esquiline Hills tor the most part; the 
Palatine and Aventine being in the middle of it. 
These four hills lie to the south, but have been 
abandoned for the plain of the Campns Martins, to 
the north, where the modem city now for the most 
part stands. ThiH waf« an open, prassy field in the 
Republican period, used for military exercises; oo 
which, under the Emperors, temples, baths, theatres. 
Ac, rose in every direction: one of the earliest 
being the Pantheon. Modem Rome may be said 
to begin where ancient Rome rnded, and to be built 
iXtt of its ruins; in other words the Capitoline, or 
Campidoglio. serves to mark the division between 
the Old City and its ruins on the south and east, 
from ttie New City, to the north and west, along 
both sides of the river. The palaces, chorebes. 

Boute 33] 



eolumns, ob6li8ks,ancl fotmtaingare in the iuhabited 
piuta of Rome; the new quarters are described by 
a Roman artist (1S87) as "commonplace, shabby, 
and tasteless." 

The Pincian, Vatican, and Janiculum Hills were 
enclosed at a later date. The FJblClail wm, or 
Collis Hortulorum, to the north-east, was the site 
of Domitian's Villa, Sallust's Villa, and Lucullus's 
Gardens. It was converted into a line promenade 
by the French, and looks on the Piazza del Popolo, 
the Borghese Gardens, city, &c. It is the Hyde 
Park of Roman idlers, and has a statue of Victor 
Emmanuel. The other two hills are in the 
Trasteverc suburb, west of the Tiber, which 
includes St. Peter's and the Vatican Palace, in that 
part called the Borgo, behind which, but outside 
the wall, the hills rise 450 feet high. The neigh- 
bourhood of the Vatican (so called from the Votes) 
was noted for its bad air and bad wine, even in 
Martial's time. The Janiculum (from Janus) is 
usually called Montorio, i.e. Mous Aureus, from the 
colour of the soil, and is the highest hi Rome 
within the walls. The siege of 1849 was on this side. 

Coming by road from the north, Rome is entered 
by the fine Porta del Popolo, under the Pincian 
Hill, leading to the Piazza di Spagna (the English 
quarter). Via Condotti, and the Corso. 

Monte Testaccio (testse, potsherds) is an artificial 
mound of rubbish, chiefiy broken pottery, close to 
Porta 8. Paolo, at the south corner of the walls, 
over 100 feet high. Poussln used to come here to 
catch the effect of the setting sun. It is near the 
former Prato del Popolo, the Protestant Cemetery, 
and the Pyramid of Cestius. It has been suggested 
that this mass of broken pottery was brought here 
to be worked up in optt9 testaceum, the hard 
cement with which the channels of aqueducts, &c., 
were covered. 

The whole space within the Walls is about 3} 
square miles; much of which is occupied by ruins, 
gardens, scattered churches, and convents. 


1. The Capitoline Hill, so called from a head 
{caput) found in digging the foundations of the 
Temple of Jupiter, is now marked by the Ara 
Coeli Church on its site, the Senators' Palace, and 
the Museum on the Inteniiontium. The Forum is 
on the oast side. On the south side is the supposed 
Tarpcian Rock, entrance through a garden, in- 
scribed "Qui se vedo la Rocca Tarpea.") It is 
now only 40 feet high, almost hidden by houses, 
and its identity is more than doubtful. "It was at 
Rome," says Gibbon, " on the 15th October, 1764, 
as I sat mushig amidst the ruins of the Capitol, 
whilst the barefooted friars wore singing vespers 
in the Temple of Jupiter (Ara Coeli Church), that 
the idea of writing the Decline and Fall of the City, 
first started to my mind." This hill was, anciently, 
a fortress and a sanctuary, the repository of the 
Fatal Oracles, the seat of the Tutelar Deities of 
the empire, and the site of many temples and altars. 
Of all tb«ae nothing remains but the solid founda- 
tions of certain buildings, the stables of the Sena- 

tor, and the Mamertine Prison, to which criminals 
were let down througph a hole. 

S. The Palatine Hill, between the Forum and 
Circus Maximus, was the site of Augustus's Palace 
(whence the name), which was extended by Nero 
to the FiSquiliue, under the name of the Golden 
House. The ruins existed till the eighth Gentury^ 
and wore partly covered by the Orti Famesiani, 
bought in 1870 by the Italian government. 
Excavations ai'e now carried on, which mav be 
seen every week-day (1 lira) and Sundays (free). 
Cicero made an Oration, "Pro Domo," on behalf of 
a mansion here, which had been taken from him; 
Up to the time of the excavations being made 
(1726, 1848, 1857, and finally 1861) the place was 
almost deserted. "I have gone over the whole 
hiU," says Forsyth, "and not seen six human 
beings on a surf ace \i^ich was once crowded with 
the assembled orders of Rome and Italy." See 
page 314. I'he visitor should put himself under the 
guidance of Mr. It. Forbes— tickets, 4 lire each. ' 

li. The QuiHnal Hill, also called Monte Cavallo, 
from two marble horses, still extant in the Piaxza 
del Quirinale. Here was the Temple of Qulrinus, 
dedicated to the founder of Rome. 

4. The Coelian HiU (Cello) was formerly an oak 
grove, and has some ruined heaps, with the 
Churches of S. Gregorio and S. Stefano Rotondo, 
the latter a round building. The Lateran Church 
and Palace are close by. 

5. The Aventine Hill is the lowest and most 
deserted. It was formerly covered with the Tem- 
ples of Diana (imitated from that of Ephesus), 
Juno. Bona Dea, &,c., replaced by monasteries. 
The Don of Cacus was on the river side of the hill. 

6. The Viminal HiU, near the railway terminus,' 
between the Quirhial and Esquiline, is so called 
from the willows (vimhia) which g^i'ew roxmd it. 
Here is the Church of Santa Maria degli Angeli, 
with some other buildings, on the site of the Baths 
of Diocletian. 

7. The EsqttHine Hill, between the Colosseum 
and Santa Maria Maggiorc. Here Msacenas had 
his gardens, and here are remains of the Baths of 
Titus on the site of Nero's Gtoldcn House. Part of 
it was used for burning the dead before depositing 
the ashes in the tombs and catacombs al<m^ tlie 
Via Appia and elsewhere. 


The i)resent walls form an irregular polygon, 
the longest diameter of which is 3 miles north-west 
and south-cast. Their circuit is about 12 miles. 
They were begun by Aureliau, a.d. 271, in place of 
the earlier walls of Servius TuUius, built of square 
uncemented blocks, B.C. 500 ; and were restored by 
Honorius and later rulers, who fortified them 
with numerous towers, and made use of the brick, 
stones, &c., in the old walls and buildings, where- 
ever they could get them. In 852, Leo IV. took in 
the Vatican or Leonine suburb across the Tiber. 
The last reparation of the walls was made in 1749, 
by Benedict XIV. They are seldom more than 
16 to 20 feet high outside, from the acoumuls^' 



[Section 3. 

of rubbifh, but Inttde they are in lome places 50 
feet high; are without a ditch, but retain many 
towers and bastions. They are pierced by eleven 
gates, at which are bureaux of customs and gen- 
darmerie. There were over twenty Gates in the 
old walls. Under the Empire the public ways 
were lined with houses, and^Nero, who was great 
in his projects, intended to have inclosed half the 
Campagna within the city walls. 

Borne is divided into fourteen Rioni, so called 
(since 1748) from the ancient Regiones of Augus- 
tus, with which, however, they do not correspond 
in name or boundaries. 

1. Campo Marzo (Campus Martins), near Porta 
del Popolo. ^Here are Piazza del Popolo, Piazza 
di Spagna, Pincian Gardens, Villa Medici, Trinitk 
del Monte Church, Borghese Palace. 

2. Colonna, from the Aurelian Column. — Part of 
Campus Martins, Piazza Colonna, Curia Innocen- 
xiana. Casino Ludovisi. 

8. Trevi, on the Pincian and Quirinal, where 
three roads join. — Quirinal Palace, SS. Apostoli 
Church, the Torlonia, Colonna, and Barberini 
Palaces, Trevi Fountain. 

4. Sant* Eustachio, in the lower town. — Churches 
of S. Eustachio, La Sapienza, S. Andrea della 
Valle, Valle Theatre, 8. Luigi Church, 8. Carlo dei 

5. Pigna, in the middle of the lower town, from 
the pine trees once here.— Pantheon, Church of 8. 
Ignazio, Doria, Yenezia, Altieri, Minerva Palaces. 

6. Ponte, in the north-cast, near Ponte S. Angelo. 

7. Parione, in the north-east. — Piazza Navona, 
Cancellaria, Campo dei Fiori. 

8. Regola, near the east bank of the river, said 
to be a corruption of areola, or arenula, from the 
lands of the river.— Famese and Spada Palaces. 

9. Saiit* Angelo in Peschiera, between the Capi- 
tol and the river, on the west side, the smallest 
region of all.— Theatre of Marcellus, Orsini, and 
Mattel Palaces. 

10. Monti, the largest, on the site of ancient 
Rome, north-east part.— Includes the Esquiline, 
Viminal, Baths of Titus and Diocletian, St. John 
Lateran, 8anta Maria, St. Peter in Yincoli, Palazzo 

11. Campitelli, south-east part of the same site. 
— Cnpitoline and Palatine Hills, Forum, Colosseum. 

12. Ripa, south-west part of the same site, near 
the river side. — Baths of Caracalla, Aventine, 
M. Testaccio, Temple of Vesta, Santa Maria hi 
Cosmedin Church. 

18. Trastev'gre, on the west side of the Tiber. — 
Janiculum, Porto di Kipa Grande, S. Pietro in Mon- 
torio, S. Onofrio, Corsini, Salviati, and Famesina 
Palaces, Villa Lanti, Acqua Paolo Fountain. 

14. Borgo, on the west side, or Cittk Leonina. — 
St. Peter's, the Vatican, Castel 8. Angelo, 8. Spirito 
Hospital, Palazzo Giraud. 

Independently of its municipal districts Rome 
consists of three great divisions, viz.: — The Lower 
'"own, or baaygmrt, between the eastern hills, the 

Tiber, and Capitol; Upper Town, alon^ the east 
hills; and the town across the river, or '^astevere, 
on the west bank. 

I. The Lower Town contains the former Campus 
Martins and Campus Tiberinus; the Corso, 
1 mile long from Piazza del Popolo to the foot of 
the Capitol; Piazza di Spagna; Cafffe del Greco, or 
Artists' Club ; Ripetta Landing and Ferry; Piazza 
Colonna and Antonine Pillar; Curia Innocenziana, 
or Courts of Justice ; Palazzo Borghese : Corea, 
or Amphitheatre of Augustus ; Caff^ di Fontana 
di Trevi, or Antiquarians' Club; Cafffe di Monto 
Citorio, or Club of Men of Letters; Palazzo di 
Venezia; Strada del Gesu and its church ; Piazza 
Navona, one of the largest open places; La 
Sapienza University; Pantheon and La Minerva 
Church; Palazzo Famese; Strada Giulia; San 
Bartolommeo Island and Hospital of Ben Fratelli, 
so called from their motto, Fatt bene, Fratelli^ 
" Do good, Brethren ; " Santa Maria in Cosmedin, 
one of the oldest churches; Coclian hill and its 
churches ; Lateran Church and Palace ; Monte 
Testaccio; Colosseum. 

II. The Upper Town, or east part of the city, on 
the slope of the Pincian and Quirinal, consists 
chiefly of palaces, villas, churches, convents, with 
their courts and gardens. It contains the Quattro 
Fontane, at the intersection of two main streets, 
one from the Quirinal to Porta Pia, the other from 
Piazza Barberini to Santa Maria Maggiore; Pro- 
menade, on the Pincian ; Trinith de' Monti Church; 
the ViaSistlna; Palazzo Barberini; Villa Piom- 
bino; Quirinal Palace, on Monte Cavallo; Santa 
Maria Maggiore Church; Campo Vaccino, or 
Forum; Capitol,or Campidoglio; Trajan's Column, 

III. The third division, on the west bank, or 
Etruscan side, of the Tiber, is generally called 
TrastevereC«.c., trans-Tiber); but the Trastevere 
proper is confined to the south part beyond the 
Aurelian wall, where the Roman slaves, and tha 
barracks for soldiers and sailors, were quartered; 
now the seat of the manufacturing population. 
Here are the tobacco factoiy, potteries, and wax- 
candle works; the last an Important branch of 
trade in Rome. Trastevere is divided from the 
Borgo (round the Vatican) by walls and gates, and 
joined to it by a road called the Lungara. This 
division contains St. Peter's and the Vatican 
Palace; Inquisition (now a barrack); the new 
Piazza Pia: S. Angelo Castle and Prison; 8. 
Spirito Hospital and CJemetery, open on All Souls* 
and other days : Salviati Palace and the Botanic 
Gardens; Via Luuj?ara, along the Tiber; Janicu- 
lum Hill; Palazzo Corsini: S. Caiisto and S. Fran- 
cesca a Ripa Churches; Villa Pamfili, and its 
promenade; Acqua Paolo Fountain, the largest in 
Rome, of which it coninmnds a good view : Santa 
Maria in Trastevere Church ; 8. Michele House of 
Industry; Ripa Grande Quay, Lighthouse, and 
Custom'House ; Porta Portese. In one part, called 
the Lungaretta, is the mediaeval tower of Everao, 
Count of Anguillera, now used as a factory for 
enamels and painted glass. 

It«ilt« 31.} 


■Hk Tlb«r (TOtrtt, or mm*} ri 
AstBDlDH. In ToKur. IM mllti fro 
wlQdi for a mLl« through the city, f 
fc«twid>. Al BoiKo e. Stpolcro, 11 
It la I mile «er. It li d( ji dlrly : 

I kokX. I ST 

I AerlppB(!) up to i.D. MO— Poni Aunltai. op to 
I MC,— h>ni VilentlBlMint, Dp lo TI3.— anil Jtar- 

md PliiiU QM«r* 


prov«fl good and sweet titer KULLag. 
ie Rlpetti^ th«n ue no guayi alon^ Its 

w brtdgl bu bon e 
■r Pom Portaie. u 

dockyard. Another' 

!• me Dia i-oot •.eiiini or uiuiuni. PofiM 
; OnriftaAK. /\n>to llarfhirila. and /'onW ITniliirM 

I Remalni o[ anettnl BHdfH:— font TriompJuttt, 

dsftrored In Ihs arth or tlxth centnr;, andt'li* r*- 

. BirtoloDHUeo! ibeTeniiUoiorihneirchaiirelaft 
of [b[i brIdgA, wblota vfti flnt boUt by Comelliu 
Sctpio, tamed iDtomrurblfl-covered wavbTAainia- 
tu>, rebDilt by Plot Ul. ud Gregorr XIII., and 
then hroken down. Tbij It ooh (1»BS> enllrely re- 
pl>o«d bT the new PaUt EmUla, Tha Cloaea 
kaibna 1> seen bere. Poaa Boblleliu, Innber 

■ rew'treeesareeeeD at low water near a windmill* 

Id the reign of AugnHua. It wai the acene oj 
Hoiatlni Coeles' fanwuB eiplolt. and waa eaiTl*l 
away by the flooda, Id the time of Adrlati 1. 

.Ldc-walki, and the cLly hn^been very much Im- 

SiVwi" Venti™tleml>?&''^d'l!unearl (In 
Traatevere). llcnt itioia In the Cone, Plaau dl 

Prmic Kar^itHIa (isn), between tbe Vallc 
the PoBsAllat of Hadrian, i)lEbtly reitered 

tbe rlTer being 300 feel. Pont A;iiui waa bnUI 
by Badrtan to lead acros tbe rlTer lo hli Hamo- 

ItiM aim. SM (Mt loDE, rebnilt. 147S. by 
Slitoi IV., OQ tha alu of ths brld(« called Pont 

the three hot montha. Tbe temparatori la mUd^ 
and aeldom below W. Flannel ationld ba wc~* 
bf the rtiMoili. WliMi tli* bUM( ^ 



[Section S. 

tana, ur nortb-eaat wind, blows, it briuufs the 
temperature down to 40* and 4A? in the shade, and 
*25* at night; covers the fountains with ioioles 
and freezes the dykes. The rainy season is 
durlnff Norember and December. It la healthy 
from thia to May. In summer there is abundance of 
flowersand fruit, with tine sunrise and sunset effects 
on the hills, but the plague of moths, flies, fleas, mos- 
qnitoesi ants, and spidera, is very tormenting. 

Home is miserable in wet weather. " Everything,*' 
as MondeUsohn says, ^ is arranged for flue weather: 
ao that the bad Is borne like a public calamity and 
in the hope of better times. Indoors the water 
piburs in throuf^h the windows, which will not 
shut fast; the wind whistles through the doors, 
which will not close ; the stone floor chills you in 
aj^te of double matting t and the smoke from the 
calmhey is driven into tne room, because the fire 
wtll not bum. But it is a positive misfortune to 
be out of doors. Rome, as everyone knows, is 
built on seven large hills; but there are a number 
of smaller ones besides, And 'all the streets are 
aloplng, so the water potars down them and rushes 
towards yon. The Tiber has overflown its banks 
and imuMlatcd the adjacent streets. The houses 
have no water-spouts, and the long roofs slant l>re- 
clpltonsly; but being of different leng^ths, this 
causes an incessant violent inundation on both 
sides of the streets; so that go where you will, 
•lose to the houses, or in the middle of the streets, 
yoa are sure to be deluged, and, quite unawares 
you And yourself standing under a tromouduus 
abower-batli, the water pelting on your umbrella, 
while a stream is nmning l)efore you that you 
cannot Jump over." But the fine weatlicr makes 
amends for all. 

The principal and most lively thoroughfare is 
the Oorso. Almost equally animated is the broad 
Via Nazionalo. Entering Kouic by the fine Gate and 
Piazisa del Pi>|>i)Io, three prhidpal streets diverge 
through the city, viz.:— the Via di Ripctta and 
Via del Babuino. to the right and left of the 
middle one, which is the Corsu. The Corso 
atretc'iies acroHS the modem city aliuoHt as far as 
the Forum and the (*upitoIiuc Hill. Here the 
horse-raceH take place ut the Curnirul time. 
Half a dozen aniinulH, hihuH and lively, without 
riders, but lulonied with MtiuiltH and Hpikcd balls 
tied to their backtf. start from the IMazza del 
PoiNilo iuid down the Corif), urged by the shouts 
of the i>cople, who close up behind thuui. They 
are caught by their owners at the end. The 
flCakes were once paid by the JewH, to purchase 
exemption from being themselves hunted down the 
C6rso. On the laHt evening of the Carnival, the 
peof)le traverne the CorHo with lighted ciuidlcs; 
and it is the object of everyone to put everyl)ody 
«1se*s candle out with the cry of "Senza moccolo !'' 
XiadJes should then avoid the Corso. 
^^e principal Roman driven are Jn the Corso; 

£5*55?' '^''^ ^^'^^ *^^' Popolo, and the Porta Pla; 

V£j""*". "'Hi '*« ^-rcoKexr/naMarghorlta; 

• ^^oofimtM timrghenui; Mnith9 Via Appl*. 

II Ghetto, or the Jews' quarter, now de- 
molished, was situated between Via della 
Peschiera and the Tiber, is on the site of tbe 
Amphitheatre and the Frumentarii of Minntius. 
It consisted of " wreteh^v narrow andtortuotu 
streets, with tali tumble-down houses, and the 
dirtiest, most disgusting alleys and doorways^ 
swarming with men, women, and children; soT' 
rounded by old clothes, old iron, heaps of fritters, 
roasted apples, shoes and boots, dirt, bad smells, 
and abominations unutterable.'*— (Miss Catlow*s 
Sketching Rambles.) Over the gate was a crucifix, 
with the text: — **A11 day long have I stretched forth 
myhands unto adisobedient and gainsayingpeople." 
The Synagogue was once a Christian church. 
There are about 4,000 Jews in Rome. Evelyn, in his 
Diary, relates that an annual sermon was preached 
to them, at which they were constrained to sit, but 
with so much " malice in their countenances, spit- 
ting, humming, coughing, and motion, that It la 
impossible they should hear a word ; ** and a conver- 
sion was very rare. All restrictions upon the 
jews are now relaxed. 

Among the improvements are the Law Ck>nrt8, 
Aeademy of Sdence, Polytechniea, Mew Houses of 
Parilamcnt, Palace of Fine Arts in Via National e. 
Central Market, Barracks and Military Hospital, 
the Victor Euuuauuel Monument, sereral bridges, 
electric lighting (1899), and a bolter water supply 
and drainage. 


There are nearly 150 open sriuures in Rome, 
called Piazza, plural Piazzc, luoHtly ornamented 
with fountains. Some of the most noticeable 
are: — Fiatta Barberini, facing the Barberinl 
I'alace, on the site of the (circus of Flora. The 
Fontana del Tritone, by Bernini, is composed 
of four dolphins carrying a large shell and Triton. 

PiaxtaBoeea delta Vet'ita^ part of the site of Forum 
Boarium (cattio market), near the Tilier, facing 
the Church of Santa Maria in Cosinedin. It takes 
its name from a marble mouth seen in front of tha 
church, which occupies the site of the Temple of 
Ceres and Proseri'lne. It was said that a liar wlio 
should put hU hand into this mouth could not 
withdraw it. The ruined Temple of Herculea 
(once flupiKMcd of VcMta) IscIom^ by; a circular 
building, de<licuted to Santa Maria del Sole. 

Fiona tM CampidogliOyW of the (-upitol at the 
north end of the; Foruin. (See ('apltol, further on.) 

Piagta di Camjw de' Fiore, in Via de' CJnpeilari, the 
siteof a Tcmplcof Flora. Heretics were burnt here. 
Among these was Giordano Bruno (1(100), to whom 
a statue was erected in 1880. A travertine 
fountain, fed by the Acquu Vergiue, bears this 

" Aioft Dio, e non fallir* 
Fa d«l beue, « Imu din." 

Fiaua Colonna. in the middle of the Corso, on 
the site o( the Foruin of Anton inc. It contains the 
Marcus Aut%\V\3Ln ^Xxxovw <^v)y V/v>Vu«siv from which 
thft ^aic» M tf «W a« V\a V^Awook Ivui^i N^^msbm^V, 

Hoate 3^0 



« foonUio, by Delia Porta; the Chlgi, Piombino, 
and Bracadoro Palaoea. A portloo of twelve mar- 
ble pillars (from the ancient Etmacan city of Veil) 
marks the old Post Office. 

JPiaxza Famete faces the Famese Palace, near 
Plazsa Navona. Two granite basins from the 
Baths of Garacalla stand here. 

Fiona di S. Oiovawni in Latet'cmo, facing tho 
Lateran Church and Palaoe, at the south end of Via 
in Memlana. Here are the Obelisk of Constantius, 
from Tliebes, and the BiqAlstery of Constantlne. 

Fiazta di 3. Maria Maggi^re^ facing that church, 
under the Esqniline, at the north end of Via in 
Merulana. In the midst is a marble pillar from 
the Basilica of Constantlne, placed here 1614. 
Behind the church is an Obelisk from the mauso- 
leum ofAngustuSk 

Piazza di Santa Maria in Campo Marzo^ so called 
from the small Church of the C<uioezione di Maria. 

Piazza ddta Minerva^ near the Dominican Church 
of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, which occupies the 
aite of the Temple of Minenra. It is adorned by a 
marble elephant, erected in 1667 by Bomini, on 
the back of which is a small obelisk from the 
famous temple of Isis. 

PioMza di Monte Cavallo, or Quiriiial, facing the 
Qnirinal Palace. So called from the colossal 
natoes of the Horse Tamers, which once adorned 
tne Baths of Constantino ; ascribed to Phidias 
and Praxiteles, but with better reason supposed to 
be of the time of the Roman Erai^erors. In the 
midst is an Obelbk of red granite, placed here in 
1786; also a granite basin fountain, transplanted 
from the Forum by Pius YII. The palace of the 
Oonsulta is on one side, near the Rospigliosi Palace, 
which contains Guide's Aurora. 

Piazza di Monte dtorio, facing the Curia Inno- 
centiana, now the Houses of Parliament. The 
name comes from Citatorum, or Citatorium, 
because the Centuries were cited to meot here by 
the criers. The red granite Obelisk in the midst 
was brought from Heliopolis to serve as a gnomon 
to mark tho time in the Campus Martius, and 
transported hither in 1789, by Pius YI. 

*PUuza Navona^ now the Circo Agonale, one of 
the largest and most handsome in Home, on the 
site of the Circus Agonalin of Alexander Sevcrus, 
of which it takes the oblong form, as well as the 
name, by a corruption of agone, a fight; thus 
nagone^ nagona, narona. The htmscR arc built on 
the foundations of the scats which 8urn>unded it. 
A market was held here, but is now tranBferred to 
Oampo Flore asa promenade. Formerly on Satur- 
days, in Aug^ust, it was converted into a Rhallow 
lake^ for public amusement, by letting out the water 
ftrom the fountains ; when the people drove through 
in carriages. The Fountains (fed by Acqua 
Vergine) are by Bernini, two being composed 
of tritons and dolphins, while the centre one is 
a large marble Basin, with a miniature rook in the 
nddat, from wliioh the waters flow in the direction 
of fbnr statiMs, dedicated to a river, in each quarter 
of the globe, vix., the Danube, Kile, Ganges^ and 
L» F24t^' Jfut 0/ Oe Nile is covered with a veil, 


by way of allusion to the mystery of its source (now 
diqwiied by the discovery of modem travellers) ; 
but it is said, by way of a joke against Bernini, 
that the statue hides its face from the fa9ade of 
St. Agnes' Church opposite, the work of Borromini. 
The Egyptian Ofre/tsl: over the fountain was brought 
from the Circus of Maxentius, on the Via Appia, in 
1651. The Pamfili-Doria and Braschi Palaces are 
towards the south extremities of the Piazza. 
There is here also the little Agonizzanti Church, 
in which public prayers were offered for a male- 
factor's soul, before his execution. 

Piazza del Pantheon, facing the Pantheon. The 
Fountain, by O. Lnnghi, supports a small Eg^yx>tian 
Obelisk, placed here 1711, by Clement XI. 

Piazza di Pasguino, near the south end of Piazza 
Navona, so called from an anonymous mutilated 
statue at the comer of the Braschi Palace, which 
took its name from Pasquino, a satirical tailor who 
lived hard by, and fVom which we got the word 
'^pasquinade.'* Pasquino (the statue) used to play 
at question and answer with Marforio, another 
statue which stood near the Arch of Severus, but is 
now placed in the Capitol. 

Piazza Pia, named after Pius IX., is situated 
between the Bridge of Sau Angclo and St. Peter's, 
adorned with a fountain on Ionic columns. 

Piazza di Pietra, facing the Dogana di Terra 
(or Exchange), with remains of a Temple of 

Piazza di S. Pietro in Vaticano. (See St. Peter's.) 

Piazza della Pilotta, the site of a portico to the 
Baths of Constantlne. 

Piazza del PODOIo, inside the Porta del Popolo, 
by which the traveller enters Rome, coming from the 
north, on the Via Flaminia, near the Protestant 
Church. It is decorated with semicircular ter- 
races, statues, (fee, by Valadier, hi the reign of 
Pius VII., and opens on the east side to the Pincian 
Gardens. At the centre is a granite Egyptian 
Obelisk, bronjrht from the Campus Martius, in 1689, 
by Foutana, who designed the Lion fountain at the 
base. The fine Church of Santa Maria del Popolo 
is close to the gate. From here, three main streets 
diverge, viz.. Via del Babuino, to the Quirinal; 
the CJorso, to the Capitol and Forum; Via di 
Ripetta, to Piazza Navona and the river. At their 
jimction are the twin churches, Santa Maria in 
Monte Santo and Santa Maria de' Miracoli. Fire- 
works here on tbe Festa dello Statuto, the first 
Sunday in June. 

Piazza delfe Quatfro Fontane, at the meeting of 
four roads, near the Qnirinal. 

Piazza della Rotonda^ facing the Pantheon, be- 
tween the Corso and Piazza Navona (sec above). 

Piazza di Spagna; so called from the Palace 
of tho Spanish Embassy. Here, and in the neigh- 
bouring btreets, are many hotels and cafTbs. and in 
Via Condotti is Cc^fe del Oreco, where the Artists' 
Club meets. This is the English part of the city, 
sometimes called the "English«i." Ifije&.^'dck- 
sohu lodv^ei sX^Q. ^^VcL ^ wa»5^^«^-''*^^*i^« 


BSADf haw's iTJLLT. 

tSection i. 

eompoied part of hit Walpurgii Night. A 
fountain, shaped like a boat, designed by 
Bernini, and called Fontana della Barbaccia, 
stands near the steps which lead np to the 
Church of Trinitk de Monti, under the Pin- 
cian. Here Beppo, now dead, the king of the 
beggars, kept court (see Stort's Roba di Roma, 
chapter III). The Collegre of the Propaganda, 
where missionary priests are educated, is close by. 
A marble column, at the comer, commemorates the 
publication of the dogma of the Immaculate Con- 
ception in 1864. 

Pieuaa Rtutieucci, facing the portico of St. Peter's, 
of which it commands a view, forming an entrance 
to Piazza S. Pietro; enlarged some years ago, 
when the house, in which Raphael died, was 
pulled down. 

Piazza di S. SUvettro, with a monument to 
Metastasio (1886). Part of the old monastery has 
been converted into the handsome Post Office, 
and the Offices of Public Works. 

Piazza dette Tartarughe (Tortoises), near the 
Mattel Palace ; and so called from the fountain on 
tortoises, a work of Delia Porta. This is one of 
the finest fountains in Rome. 

Piazza deUe Terme, or di l^ermini, facing the 77^- 
mce, or Baths, of Diocletian, and S. Maria degli 
Angeli Church; near the Railway Station and 
the Fontanone deir Acqua Felice. 

Piazza deUa Tribuna, behind the Church of Sta. 
Maria Maggiore. 

Piazza Trinitit, facing the church of theTrinita 
de* Monti, on the Pincian, near the house and 
gardens of Sallust, containing an imitation obelisk 

Piazza di Venezia, at the south end of the Corso. 
Here are the Palazzo di Venezia (now the Austriun 
Embassy) and the Torlonia Palace. 

Picuza Vittorio Emanuele^ in the new quarter. 


Rome is well supplied with water from about 
fifty public fountains, besides smaller ones, making 
a total of nearly 600. Several of these are noticed 
above, under the head of the Piazzas in which they 

Fontanone delV Acqua Felice, near the Baths 
of Diocletian. It is supplied by the Acqua 
Felice Spring, and is a handsome pile constructed 
for Sixtus v. (whose name was Felix, or Felice), 
by D. Fontana. Between the statues of Aaron 
(by Della Porta) and Gideon (by F. Vacca) is a 
colossal, but inferior, Moses Striking the Rock, 
by a Brescian artist. 

*Fontana Paolina, on the summit of the Jani- 
culum, near Porta S. Pancrazio, is supplied by the 
Acqua Paola of Paul V.. who gave his name to 
both. It looks like a triple triumphal arch, and 
was constructed by G. Font^ia, 1612. The marble 

e liars are from the Temple of Minerva which stood 
the Forum Transitorinm ; the granite columns 
'"tine from the old church of St. Peter. 

aVThrtf^ ia front of the Palazzo PoU, a 

large mass of water f applied by the Acqua Yerglne. 

It is the work of N. Salvi, in Clement Xn.*8 reign. 

The Neptone is by P. Bracci; Abundance and 

Health are by Delia Valle. 
One of the attractive features of Rome is the 

number of sparkling fountains. 

" From yon blue hills 
Dim in the olondt, the radiant Aqnedneta 
Turn their innumerable archeB o'er 
The niacioQa deaert, brighten^ in the sun. 
Proud and more proud m their august approadii 
High o'er irriguous vales, and woods, uid towns. 
Glide the soft whispering waters in the wind. 
And here united pour their silver streams 
Among the Hgnred rocks, in murmuring falls. 
Musical erer.^'— Dm's Ruint cf Borne. 


Three still remain, and supply the fountains with 
an ample abundance of water. 

Acqua Vergine comes from Collatia, 14 milee 
distant, and supplies the conduits in Via Condotti 
(whence the name). Fountains of Trevi, La Barcac- 
cia, Famese, Piazza Navona, and nine others, in 
the lower city. 

Acqua Fdice (formerly Aqua Claudia) takes its 
name from its restorer, Felice Peretti, afterwards 
Pope Sixtus v., and supplies the fountains of 
Moses, of the Tritons (Piazza Barberini), Monte 
Cavallo, and twenty-four others, in the Upper 
Town, vid Porta Pia, from springs 37 miles o£f. 

Acqua Paola (formerly Trajana) comes in from 
the Bracciano Lake by Mons Janlculum, and 
supplies the Vatican quarter and Trastevere, the 
Paolina and St. Peter's fountains, crossing the 
Tiber by the Ponte Sisto. It was begun by- 
Augustus, and restored by Paul V . and Clement X.; 
the engineers being G. and D. Fontana. 

At Aquss All>ul89 (Station Bagni, 13 miles from 
Rome) is a sulphur spring, with a Bath House. 


A peculiar feature of Imperial architecture. 
Most of theni were imported from Egypt, after the 
conquestof that province; and are usually single 
square-sided blocks of red granite, with hiero- 
glvphics, similar to those now at London and Paris. 
After being overturned and neglected they were 
again made use of to adorn modem Rome, by 
Sixtus v., who set the example with the one before 
St. Peter's. 

Obelisk of S. Giovanni in Laterano (Constantins 
Obelisk), facing the Lateran Palace. The highest 
in Rome, the shaft being 105^ feet, or with base, 
Ac, 149 feet. The shaft weighs about 445 tons. 
Two sides 9 feet S^in., and the others only 9 feet. 
This difference is observable in all, more or lees. 
It was brought from Heliopolis (in a galley of SOO 
rowers) to the Circus Maximus. and raised oo Us 
present site by D. Fontana, 1688, In the reign id 
Sixtus v. 

Obelisi of MonU CavaUo (Quirinale ObeliskX 
fixed here 1786. No hieroglyphics ; 95 feet hif 1^ 
or 48 feet the shaft only. 

Obeiiik of Monte OU^rio (Oampense ObellfkX f i 

noDBUM moldk 

Bottle 3d.] 

Heliopolis, 71| feet high. Brought from the 
Campus Martius (where it ferved as a gnomon to 
mark the hours by its shadow), by Pius YI., in 1789. 

Obelitk of Santa Maria Maggiore, 183i feet high, 
or 48^ feet the shaft only. No hieroglyphics. After 
adorning the Mausoleum of Augustus, and being 
broken in three pieces, it was put together and set 
up here in 1587, by D. Fontana. 

Obdiik of Santa Maria Sopra Minerva (MInerreo 
Obelisk), 89| feet high, on the back of a grotesque- 
looking elepliant. 

Obdisk of the Pantheon (Mahuteo Obelisk). A 
small one, 47( feet high. Set up in 1711, with a 
• fountidn round it. 

Obelisk of the Pineian Hill (Aureliano Obelisk), 
from the Variant (or Barberini) Gardens, 1822; 
66| feet high. 

Obdiak of Piazza Nawna (Pamfilian Obelisk), 99 
feet high, in five parts, pieced together. Brought 
from the Circus of Maxentius, by Bernini, 1661; 
originally from Domitian's Alban Villa. 

Obditk of Piazza del Popolo (Flaminio Obelisk), 
116 feet high, to the cross on the summit, or, 78^ 
feet the shaft only. Transported from the Campus 
Martins, by Fontana, in 1589. 

Obelizk of St. Peter, or the Vatican, 132 feet 
high to the cross, or 83 feet the shaft only. Dedi- 
cated to the Sun, but without hieroglyphics. At 
first it stood in the Circus of Nero, not far off, 
on the site of the sacristy, and was moved to the 
front of St Peter's, lOth September, 1686, by I). 
Fontana, by what was considered a great engiiieer- 
ing feat in that day. Above 800 men and 140 
horses were employed. Sixtus and his court at- 
tended to witness the experiment, after a solemn 
mass. Complete silence was ordered and observed 
by the crowd, till, at a critical moment, when the 
cordage was found defect ive, a sailor, who knew 
the remedy, cried out, "Wet the ropes with water," 
which was done, and the obelisk was safely fixed 
in its place. The Pope rewarded the sailor, a native 
of the Riviera, by giving his family the privilege 
of selling the palms for the Roman churches, on 
Palm Sunday. This obelisk is nearly 9 feet square 
at the base, and 6 feet square at the top. 

Obelisk of Trinita de Monte (Sallustiano Obelisk), 
100 feet high. Placed here in 1789, by Pius VI. 
It stood on the spina of the Circus of Sal lust, and 
was a Roman production. 


Argentina, or Comunale, in Via di Tor Argentina. 

Nazionale (drama), in Via Nazionale. 

Teatro Fa//«.~{Drama), near the Sapienza. 

Caztanzi (Drama), in Via Firenze. 

Goldoni (Marionettes), Via de' Soldati. Consult 
the Jonmmli, eapeoially L'ltalie (in French). 



The ancient names are open to dispute, and the 
ancient ways cannot be always brought up with 
certainty to the gates. Several were restored 
during the reign of Victor Emmanuel. 

*Porta del Popolo (Porta Flaminia), on the 
Flaminian Way, or great north carriage road into 
Rome. Built by Honorius ; and decorated under 
Pius IV., by Vignola (from Michael Angelo's de- 
signs) and Bernini, when Queen Christina entered 
Rome. From here there is an electric tramway 
(opened, 1890) to the Ponte Molle, an old bridge 
over the Tiber (see pages 143 and 161). 

Porta Pineiana, long closed, but opened in 1888, 
is on the Pinclan Hill. It was built by Hcmorius, 
and rebuilt by Belisarius. At the siege of 1849 
an attack was made near this gate. 

^ Porta Salara (1873), near the remains of the old 
one (close to the Villa Albani), built by Honorius, 
in place of the Porta CoUina of Servius Tullius. 

•Porta Pia, built by M. Angelo, for Pius IV. It 
stands near the old Porta Nomentana, built by 
Honorius, and now closed. Here is the Palace 
of the Engl ish Embassy. The Ministry of Finance 
and other public buildings are close by, and a 
new quarter is springing up on the site of the 
Pretorian Camp close by. 

•Porta S. Loreruo, on the road to S. Lorenzo and 
Tivoli, or Tibur, and once called Porta Tibnrtina. 
It was built by Augustus, altered by Aurelian, 
and strengthened by Honorius. It is now closed 
and kept as a monument, a new gate having been 
opened instead. Close to it is a monument, at the 
junction of Aqua Marcia, Aqua Tepula, and Aqua 

•Porta Maggiore, one of the best gates, is a hand" 
some arch of travertine stone ; close to the old P. 
Labicana and P. Praaiestina (at the junction of 
those two roads). It consists of two great arches 
with rusticated Corinthian columns, above which 
are channels for the Cfaudian Aqueduct. This, 
according to the inscriptions on it, was made by 
Claudius, and restored by Vespasian and Titus. It 
was a union of three or four earlier aqueducts. 
The Tomb of Enrysaces, the baker, is near at hand: 
and the railway to Monte Albano, Tusculum, and 
Frascati passes in this direction. 

•Porta S. Giovanni, on the road to Naples, was 
built by Gregory XIII., in place of P. Asinaria, now 
a picturesque brick ruin, near St. John Lateran, 
through which Belisarius entered the city. The 
routes to Frascati or Albano, by Appia Nova, from 
this gate, are superseded by the rail. 

Porta Latina (on the Via Latina), made by 
Honorius, a.d. 402, and repaired 550, by Justinian. 
Closed in 1808. 

Porta Capena (re-opened in 1877) is below Villa 
Mattel, near the Baths of Caracalla. It stood in 
the old walls of Servius Tullius, and inside the 
inresent walls. The battle of the Horatii and 
Curiatii took place outside this gate. 

•Porta S. Seboiiiano^ on the Via Appia, <»• '^- 



[aecUon 8; 

aouth road, and otherwise oalJed P. Appia, boiltby 
Honorius. The two brick towers were built by 
Belisarius or Narses. 

*Porta 3. Paolo, on the road to Ostla, the old 
seaport of Rome; rebuilt by Belisarius (?) in place 
of one (temp. Claudius) inside it, called P. Osticnsis 
(a double arch at a lower level), which replaced 
the still older gates of S. Tullius, called Trif^oniina, 
Navalis, Ac. Close by are the tomb of Gains 
Cestius, on the Almone, and the splendid new 
Church of St. Paul. A turn to the left leads past 
S. Paolo to the Tre Fontane, and Ardea and 
Lavinium, founded by JQneas; also Larentium, 
the site of Pliny's Villa, near a coimtry palace 
of the Borghese family. 

*Porta Portese, on the way to Fiumicino, the 
modem harbour of Rome, stands on the Tiber, in 
Trastevere ; built by Urban VIII., in place of P. 
Portaensis. A railway station at Fiumicino; trains 
in one hour. 

*Porta 6. Pancrazio, on the Janiculum, 300 feet 
above the river, rebuilt since the 8ie>;e of 1849, 
when battered by the French. It stands near 
Villa Pamflli-Duria. the old P. Janiculeusis, or 
Anrelia, and the Church of S. Pancrazio, which 
is outside ; the road passes the Villa. When the 
vestry of St. Pancras presented an address to 
Oaribaldi in I^iidon, in 1864. he told them, " Oh 
yes, I know St. Pancras well ; I foujrht at St. 
Pancras at Rome ; I shall not forget St. Pancras 

*Porta Cavalleggiei'i, on the Civita Vecchia Road, 
near the Leonine City and St. Peter's, The Con- 
stable Bourbon was entering by this gate with his 
army, 1.527, when he was shot by B. Cellini, with 
an arquebuse. He had on a white mantle, and 
was just about to nm up a scaling-ladder. This 
is the account given by Cellini, in his Memoirs. 

Porta Fabbrica is closed up. 

Porta Angelica, north of St. Peter's, built by Pius 
IV. It leads out to Monte Mario. 

Porta Castello, or Chiusa, noi-th of Castel S. An- 
gelo, is walled up. 

Po7'ta S. Spirito, in the Borgo S. Spirito, in 

Porta Settimiana, on the Luugara, in Trastevere. 

Porta Flumentana. was an ancient gate in the 
wall of ServluH Tullius. near the Tiber (flumen) ; 
afterwards called Ar^riletana, from the name of 
the locality in which ('io<?n>'8 brother lived. Near 
this is the Via du Porta Leone, after a Pier Leone 
of the twelfth century, who turned the theatre of 
Marcellus into a fortrcHs. and got his son elected 
Anti-Pope, as Anaclettis II. 


The roads out of Ronie iire more or les« identical 
with the old Vix, as follows: — 

• Via Appia, or great south road, leads out from 
£'ojts S. Hebastiano. It was made of square 
blacks of basiUt, which are rtili sound, though 

^erebL\T^ ^^^ ^^ ^^'^ ^y ^^® ^''■^^ atrewed 

• Via - LatuM^ from Porta Latiaa, went mora 
iulaad to Tu«calum, Ac. 

*Via Labioana went from Porta Esquilina; at 
did the Via PrwnesHna. It follows the rail past 
Villa Gordianorum, and the route to CoUaUa and 
Oabii, and passes near Acqua Felice, and the tomb 
of Santa Helena, called the Church of S. Peter 
and Marccllinus. 

• Via Tiburtina, from Porta 8. Lorenzo. 

Via Nomentana, from Porta Collina or Porta Pla. 
It leads to La Mentena, the ancient Nomentwm. 
Along the road are Villa Patrizi; Villa Torlonia; 
Ponte Nomentana, or Anio ; and the Mons Sacer, 
to which the Romans retired and held out against 
the Senate. The ancient town of Antemnie is to , 
the left. About C, lulles from the gate is the old 
Church of S. Alessandro, with its catacomb, dis- 
covered 1868. 

Pcmte Nomentana is "a solitary dilapidated 
bridge, in the spacious green Campagna. Many 
ruins from the days of ancient Rome, and many 
watch-towers from the middle ages, are scattered 
over this long succession of meadows. Chains of 
hills rise towards the horizon, now partially 
covered with snow (January), and fantastically 
varied in form and colour by the shadows of the 
clouds. And there is also the enchanting vapoury 
vision of the Alhan Hills, which change their hues 
like a chameleon, as you gaze at them ; where you 
can see for miles little white chapels glittering on 
the dark groimd of the hills, as far as the Passionist 
Convent on the highest summits, and whence you 
can truce the road winding through thickets, and 
the hills sloping downwards to the Lake of Albano. 
No luck of music there; it echoes and vibrates 
on every side." — Mendelssohn. 

*Via Solaria, or great salt way, from Porta Via 
Sal Collina also, in the direction of the rail to 
Ancnna. It passes bv Villa Albani; Catacombs 
St. PriscUla; Villa Chigi; the Ponte Salara, over 
the Anio, rebuilt by Narses, and crossed by the 
hosts of Attilu, Brennus, «fec. ; Villa Spada; (Pastel 
Giublleo. on the site of Fidenee. The Allia, where 
Aluric defeated the Romans, a.I). 409, is a little 

• Via Flaminia, or great north roud. went from 
the Porta Flaminia, and gives namo to the Emilia 
provinces on the ea«<t cojtst. It also went through 
the city in the direction of the Corso. but is not 
identical with it. as tlic Curso is now 12 to 20 feet 
aborf the old Via. It was lined witli tombs and 
villas like th« Applun Way. Out*ifle the walls It 
passes Villa IJorghese; the Protestant Church; 
the Atnazzatio, ov shambles, near the Tiber, and 
Villa I*ai»a (itulio. It then crosses the river by 
I'onte Molle, or Milvia, nn ancient bridge which, 
has been restored, and is so called by corruption 
from Ponte Kmilia. the censor. Beyond this was 
the villa of L. Verus, and the camp of Haimihal. 
Across the Cremera where the Fabii were cut off 
by the men of Veil ; then comes Prima Porte, or 
Saxa 'ftu\iT«i ^«o caW^^ Itosok. tVv« colour of tha 

tuia)^ Il«aX \.\l% CNIX^ Ol ^\»JlKQXVBA>'<l<t«^ ^SMaBEt 

Bonte 32.J 



defeated Maxentins here, a.i>. 819, driving his 
opponent into the river. The Via Claudia tarns 
off towards Lake Bracciano, leaving Via Flaminia 
to tnm to the north-east; at the eighth mile is the 
Villa of Empress Livia, where the statue of 
Augnstns (now In the Vatican) was found, and 
important excavations are in progress. 

via Cassia was a branch of the Via Flaminia. 

♦Ffti Aurelia, from Porta Aurelia, or 3. Pan- 
crazio, along the west eoast. 

*Via Campana (or Portuensis) and *Via Osfiensis 
went to the mouth of the Tiher, and thence along 
the coast of Latium. It led to OsHa^ which once 
had a population of 80,000, and now has not more 
than 60. It was ruined, first by the sea, which re- 
tires at the rate of 4 yards a year, and then by 
the Saracens and other invaders. Beyond Ostia 
was Ardea, the capital of the Rutuli, founded 
by Tumus; then Antium, the capital of the 
Volscl, the site of Nero's House, in which the 
Apollo Belvedere and the Gladiator were found. 

Via Ardeatina, a branch of Via Ostiensis. 


The present Pope, Joachim Pecci, styledLeoXIII., 
was bom at Carpineto, 1810, and elected 20th 
February, 1878, on the death of Pius IX., to whom 
he was Camerlengo. He is S68th in the line of 
succession. Pio None lived to celebrate the 
twenty-fifth aimiversary or his pontificate, or 
"make St. Peter'a," as the Italians say, in 1871, 
and Leo XIII. has seen his episcopal jubilee. 

Till the annexation to Italy, 1870, the Boman 
government was ecclesiastic and despotic. The 
council of ministers was presided over by a Secre- 
tary of State (the late Cardinal Antonelli). The 
Governor was a prelate, presiding at a municipal 
body, consisting of a Senator and Conservatore, for 
ornament. No officials were employed but such as 
went to confession and were good Catholics. 

Under the new system, the Pope is treated as an 
independent sovereign, with the right of sending 
and receiving envoys. His person is to be sacred 
and inviolable. The support of his establishment, 
about £130,000 a year, and the payment of the 
Roman public debt, have been assumed by the 
government of Italy. He retains the Vatican and 
Lateran Palaces in the city, with his country scat 
at Castel-Oandolfo. 

The population of Rome for 1862, as derived 
from the report of the Cardinal Vicar, was 197,078, 
made up as follows: — 29 Cardinals; 35 Arch- 
bishops and Bishops; 1,629 Prelates and Ordained 
Ecclesiastics; 339 Lay Ecclesiastics; 2,509 Monks; 
2,031 Nuns; 4,486 Jews; 186,120 Laity, including 

In 1888the population wasl63,600; in December, 
1881, it was 300,600. The average death-rate 
is 26 per 1,000. 

In the year 1847, a Papal decree summoned an 
Assembly of Notables from the provinces, to serve 
as the foundation of a oonstitutional system. On 
UthNovraibar, J848, Cbancellor RoBsi was.asMS- 

slnated, and on the S4th, the Pope fled to GaSta. 
Rome then fell under the government of the trium- 
virs, Mazeini, SaflS, and Armellini. After a siege 
which lasted some weeks, and in which Garibaldi 
distinguished himself, Rome was taken by the 
French, in July, 1849, and the Pope was brought 
back 12th April, 1860. The city became almost 
French; 12,000 troops were quartered In the old 
palace of the Inquisition, in Ara Cosli Convent, 
and many other convents: and the Castle of S. 
Angelo was a French powder magazine. Persons 
were not allowed to mount the tower of the Capitol, 
lest some daring revolutionist should have taken 
the opportunity to plant the Italian flag on its 
summit. In September, 1870, on the outbreak of 
the Franco-German war, the French withdrew 
their troops, and Rome was occupied by the 
Italians as their natural heritage, and the goal of 
all their endeavours in making Italy. The tem- 
poral power of the Pope was abolished. The 
Pontifical States were annexed to the new and 
consolidated kingdom, by decree of 9th October, 
after an almost unanimous vote of the people. 

Among the improvements effected during the 
reign of Pius IX. were the introduction of gfas in 
some of the streets; the railways to Frascati, 
Naples, and Civita Vecchia ; a suspension bridge 
on the Tiber; the restoration of the gates, walls, 
and monuments; the new Piazza Pia, near St. 
Peter's; and the rebuilding of the splendid churdi 
of St. Paul. The Pope was also very liberal in the 
purchase and distribution of antiquities. — (Sea 
Mr. Goodwin's papers on Rome, in the Builder, 

The general effects of the former Pupal rule, now 
at an end, were thus summed up by Dr. "Words- 
worth: — "Uncultivated tracts of land, even to 
the gates of Rome ; grass growing in the streets; 
a large part of the city itself untenanted; the 
commerce of the place languishing; its mari- 
time traffic represented by two or throe wretched 
steamers, and three or four barges now lying in 
the port of Ripetta; the streets swarming with 
beggars; an organised system of espionage; and 
the confessional itself used as an instrument of 


At Rome the chief business of the place is 
religion and the observance of church festivals; 
and hence great prominence is given to its 
ecclesiastical buildings and institutions. 

There arc nearly 400 churches, besides chapels 
and oratories ; and in these will be found sources 
of interest which no other capital in the world can 
afford. Most Catholic countries have a represen- 
tative church at Rome; as S. Sfanislao, for the 
Poles. Many Italian cities have them also; as 
S. Giovanni di Fiorentini, for the Florentines; S. 
Croce^ for the Lucca men. Some of the largest are 
under the patronage of sovereigns : as the Latenm^ 
under the French; Sawt*. ■lJt^x\"«!."^*.^^wS'wc^N2*^^ 

\ palTOTia««i oW^i^^Vi^^^V^'^^^^*^^^' 



[Section 2. 

older are located on the Etquiline, Calian, and 
Aventine Hills. 

**The chorchesol Rome/' sayi Forsyth, '*are ad- 
mirable only in detail. Their materials are rich, 
the workmanship is exquisite; the orders are 
all Greek. Every entablature is adjusted to the 
axis of each column with a mathematical scrupu- 
losity which is lost to the eye. One visionary 
line runs upward, bisecting supentitiously every 
shaft, tryglyph, ove, bend, dentel, mntule, modil- 
lion, and lion's head that lies in its way. But 
how are those orders employed? In false fronts, 
in pediments, under pediments, Ac." The dis- 
tribution of the parts is nearly the same in all. 
*' Their aisles are generally formed by arcades. 
Over these are sometimes grated recesses, but 
never open galleries. The choir terminates in a 
curve, which is the grand field of decoration, 
blazing with leaf-gold and glories. In the middle 
of the cross is the high altar. The chapels of the 
Holy Sacrament and the Virgin are usually in the 
transept. Those of the saints are ranged on the 
sides; and each being raised by a different family, 
has an architecture of its own at variance with the 
church, which thus loses its imity amid nests of 
polytheism." The Church of S. Paoli fuori le 
Mura (outside the WaU8\ and a few others, are 
adorned with finely stained windows. 

Some of the oldest and most remarkable churches 
are the Basilicas ; so called from being planned 
after the Roman courts of justice. That of S. Cle- 
mente, founded in the fourth and fifth centuries, 
though rebuilt 872, retains the characteristic 
atrium, or court-yard, narthex for penitents, aisles, 
and other arrangements. The earliest churches 
of this class are Santa Sabina, Santa Maria Mag- 
giore, S. Pictro ad Vincula, all of the fifth century; 
for others, see the chronological list, page 176. 
8. Giovanni in Laterano, of the tenth century, has 
five aisles; as have St. Peter's and St. Paul's, the 
predecessors of whcih were fourth century churches, 
the two oldest in Rome. The present St. Paul's 
was rebuilt on the old plan and scale, after 
the fire of 1823. Santa Maria sopra Minerva, 
built 1370, is the only church approaching the 
Gothic style (in the Italian sense) in Rome. 

The five patriarchal Basilicas are — St. Peter's, St. 
John Lateran, Santa Maria Maggiore, St. Paul's, 
nutside the walls, and St. Lorenzo, also without 
the walls; corresponding to the five patriarchates 
of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, 
and Jerusalem, respectively. Most of the churches, 
especially the oldest, have mosaic pavements, and 
pictures in mosaic at the upper end; and all are 
lich in marbles, precious stones, paintings, and 
gilding. Little stained glass is seen, except at the 
new St. Paul's. Mosaic is peculiar to Rome and 
Florence, where it is carried on by the aid of govern- 
ment factories. Each church has relics to boast of, 
which are exposed to view on the festa of the patron 
MiJa^. Due notice of the sttuione are given in the 
*'l>Jario Romano, "from which, or from the Libra- 

^itiinJi. ^"^^"°^^^^° *^^^ *^« •erricei may be 

The five patriarchal churches are open all day. 
Most others are closed from 12 to 3 ; some all the 
week, and a few all the year, except at the/e$ta. 


For a particular account of the church cere- 
monies and festivals, see chapters 4 and 5 of 
Stost'8 Roba di Roma. They are now less 
numerous than formerly, especially since the 
Pope has discontinued his public visits. It is 
very difiicult to obtain admittance at the Sistine 
Chapel on the high festivals. 

January 6th. Epiphany.— The Bambino, at Ara 
Cosli Church. Exhibition of the Presepe (cradle) 
and child. 

17th. — Blessing of the Horses, at S. Antonio. 

21st. — St. Agnese fuori le Mura. Benediction 
of the lambs, from whose wool the palllums for 
the new Archbishops are made. 

Carnival, races, Ac, about ten days before Ash 
Wednesday. Shrpve Tuesday, — '^Senza Moccoll" 
llluminati<xis in the Corso. 

March 26th. —Annunciation. Service at S. Maria 
sopra Minerva. 

Holy Week (Settimana Santa). 

Palm Sunday. — Distribution of consecrated 
Palms at S. Peter's. 

Wednesday. — Miserere, at the Sistine Chapel. 

Gtood Friday. — Tre Ore (three hours), at most of 
the churches. Miserere, at St. Peter's. 

Saturday. — Armenian Mass at S. Biagio. 
Baptism of Converts at the Lateran. 

Easter Sunday. — High Mass at St. Peter's. 

Corpus Domini (or Christ!). — Adoration of the 

May 26th.— S. Filippo Neri; at Santa -Maria in 
Vallicella, otherwise ChiesaNuova. 

June 24th. — St. John Baptist; at the Lateran. 

29th.— SS. Peter and Paul. Papal Mass at St. 
Peter's. Visit to the Crypt. 

July 31. — S. Ignatius Loyola; at the Gesu. 

August 1.— St. Peter's, at St. Pletro in Vincoll. 

5th. — Assumption ; at Santa Maria Maggiore. 

September 8th. — Nativity of the Virgin; at Santa 
Maria del Popolo. 

November 1st. — All Saints. Visits to the Ceme- 
teries ; especially Santa Maria in Trastevere, the 
Lateran, the Hospital of S. Spirito la Morte, in 
Via Giula. &c. 

2nd.— All Souls' Day. 

4th. — S. Carlo Borromeo; at S. Carlo in Corso. 

December. — Advent Sundays. Services in the 
Sistine chapel, with the Papal band. 

25th. — Christmas. The Bambino, at Santa 
Maria Maggiore. Papal Mass at St. Peter's. Ex- 
hibition of the Culla, or Cradle, at the Ara CoeU, 
and S. Francesco, till the Epiphany. 

The following is a description of the ceremonies 
as conducted prior to September, 1870. 

Holy V^^k.— The first ceremony is on Pain 
L Bungay. "T\vt t\tf>Vt" *«c^^ l^KoARVw«\m^ "aaii|^ 

Boute 32.] 



ffosanna in ExtdsU^ and intoned yarious hymns, 
while twisted palms are offered to the Pope, which 
he distributes among the Cardinals. The palms are 
long branches decorated with buttons, crosses, and 
crowns, all entirely made of dried palm leaves 
which makes them look like gold. The Cardinals, 
who are seated in the chapel, in the form of a 
quadrangle, with the Abbatti at their feet, now ad- 
vance each in turn to receive their palms; then 
oome the bishops, Ac. This makes a long proces- 
sion, during which the choir continues to sing un- 

" The Pope*s throne is then carried in, on which 
he is elevated in all processions {vide the Heliodo- 
ms of Raphael, where he is portrayed). The 
Cardinals, two and two, with their palms, head the 
procession, and the folding doors of the chapel be- 
ingthrown open, it slowly defiles through them. 
The singing which has hitherto incessantly pre- 
vailed, like an element, becomes fainter and fainter, 
for the singers also walk in the procession, and at 
lengrth are only indistinctly heard, the soimd dying 
away in the distance. Then a choir in the chapel 
bursts forth with a query, to which the distant 
one breathes a faint resiwnso ; and so it goes on 
for a time, till the procession again draws near 
and the choirs reunite. Let them sing how and 
what they please, this cannot fail to produce a fine 
effect; and though it is quite true that nothing can 
be more monotonous and even devoid of form than 
the hymns aW unitono, being without any proper 
connection and sung fortissimo throughout, still I 
appeal to the impression that as a whole it must 
make on everyone. After the procession returns, 
the Gospel is chanted in the most sing^ar tone 
and is succeeded by the Mass." 

There is nothing on Monday or Tuesday; but 
on Wednesday^ at 4-30, the Noctums begin with 
the antiphon, Zelus Domus tuae. Each Noctum 
(says the little Manual of Ofilces for Holy Week) 
contains three Psalms, signifying that Christ died 
for all, and also symbolical of the three laws, the 
natural, written, and evangelical. The Domine 
labia mea and the Deus in adjutorium are not smig 
on this occasion, when the death of our Saviour and 
Master is deplored, as slain by the hands of wicked, 
godless men. The fifteen lights which are ex- 
tinguished in succession represent the Twelve 
Apostles and the Three Maries. 

''The Psalms, beginning with the 68th, 69th, and 
70th. are chanted /or^tmmo, in alternate verses by 
two male choirs, though invariably by one class of 
voices, basses, or tenors. You cannot conceive how 
tiresome and monotonous the effect is, and how 
harshly and mechanically they chant through the 
Psalms. They sing with the accent of a number 
of men quarrelling violently, and as if they were 
shouting out furiously one against another. 

** During this time the lights on the altar are all 
extinguished, save one which is behind the altar. 
Six wax candles still continue to bum high above 
the entrance; the rest of the space is already dim; 
aad now the whole choir intont wiUq^q witli tVie 

full strength of their voices, the CantieumZacheuHm 
in D minor, singing it slowly and solemnly, during 
which the last remaining lights are extinguished. 
The mighty swelling chorus in the deepening gloom 
and the solemn vibration of so many voices have a 
wonderfully fine effect. At the close all is pro- 
found darkness. An antiphon begins on the sen- 
tence, 'Now he that betrayed him gave,' Ac., and 
continues to the words, 'That same is he,* Ac. 
Then the Pope leaves his throne and kneels before 
the altar; all present fall on their knees, and one 
solitary voice softly sings, Christus foetus est pro 
nobis obediens usque ad mortem. On Thursday is 
added, Mortem autem crucis. On Good Friday, 
Propter quod et Deus exaftavit tiluniy et dedit iUi 
nomen, quod est super omne nomen. 

" A pause ensues, during which each person re- 
peats the Pater Nostcr to himself. A death-like 
silence prevails in the church. Presently the 
Miserere commences with a chord, softly breathed 
by the voices, and gradually branching off into two 
choirs. This beginning, and its first harmonious 
vibration, certainly made the deepest impression 
on me. For an hour and a half previously, one 
voice alone had been heard chanting almost with- 
out any variety. After the pause comes an ad- 
mirably constructed chord, which has the finest 
possible effect, causing every one to feel in their 
hearts the power of music. It is this indeed that 
is so striking. The best voices are reserved for the 
Miserere (Baini*s), which is simg with the greatest 
variety of effect; the voices swelling and dying 
away, from the softest piano to the full strength 
of the choir. No wonder that it should excite deep 
emotion in every heart. 

" A second short silent prayer ensues, when all 
the cardinals scrape their feet noisily on the ground, 
which betokens the close of the ceremony. This 
noise (says the Manual) is symbolical of the tumult 
made by the Hebrews in seizing Christ. It may 
be so, but it sounds exactly like the commotion in 
the pit of a theatre, when a play is delayed or 
finally condcnmed. The single taper still burning 
is then brought from behind the altar, and all 
silently disperse by its solitary light. I must not 
omit to mention the striking effect of the blazing 
chandelier lighting up 4he great vestibule, when 
the cardinals and their attendant priests traverse 
the illuminated Quirinal, through ranks of Swiss 
guards." — ^Mendelssohn's Letters. 

On Thursday, at 9 in the morning, the solemnities 
recommence, and lart till 1. There is high mass at 
10 30. At the Gloria in Excelsis, the choirs burst 
in, and all the bells in Rome peal forth, and are 
not rung again till after Good Friday, the hours 
for that interval being marked in the churches by 
wooden clappers. Afterwards there is a proces- 
sion, when the Pope is borne aloft in his state 
chair, and confers his benediction from the Loggia 
of the Quirinal. He then washes the feet of thir- 
teen priests, who are su^?^«ftA.\» v^s^x^js^^. '^^^'^; 




[Section 5t, 

togrether. The Psalms begin again in the afternoon, 
foRowed by the Lamentations, Lessons, and the 
Miserere^ scarcely differing from those of Wednes- 

On Oood Friday morning the chapel is strii^d 
of every decoration, the altar oncovored, and the 
Pope and Cardinals appear in monming. **The 
history of the Passion, according to St. John, is 
chanted after an established formula. The whole 
appeared to me trivial and monotonous. Prayers 
are then offered np for all nations and institntions, 
each separately designated. When the prayer for 
the Jews ^/¥o perfldit JudsHs) is nttored, no one 
kneels, as they do at all the others, nor is 'Amen' 
said. Then follows the Adoration of the Cross. A 
small crucifix is placed in the centre of the chapel, 
and the Pope and all, taking off their shoes, ap- 
proach and kiss it. During this the Improper^ of 
Palestrina is sung: one of his finest works, and 
they sing it with remarkable enthusiasm. Tlie 
ceremony is very solemn and dignified, and the 
most profound silence reigns in the chapel. They 
sing the oft-recurring Greek ' Holy' (Agios Theot, 
Sanctus Deus) in the most admirable manner, each 
time, with the same smoothness and expression. 
This is repeated again till all in the chapel have 
performed the ceremony of adoration. I quite 
understand why the Improperias produced the 
strongest effect on Goethe, for they are nearly the 
most faultless of all ; as both music and ceremonies, 
and everything connected with them, are in the 
most entire harmony." — Afevdelssohn. 

A procession follows, to fetch the Host, which 
has been exposed and adored on the previous 
evening in another chapel of the Quirinal, lighted 
up by many hundred wax lights. The morning 
service closes at 1 30, with a hymn in canto fermo. 
At 8 80. the first noctum begins, with the Psalms, 
Lessons, and Miserere^ as before mentioned. 

Early on Saturday, in the Baptistery of the 
Lateran, Heathens. Jews, and Mohammedans are 
baptised, all reju'esented by a littfe child; and, 
subsequently, some young priests receive consecra- 
tion for the first time. 



S. Peter's (old one) founded about 830 

8. Paul's (rebuilt 1824 to IBM) 386 

Santa Sabtna alwut 425 

Santa Maria Maggiore about 43*2 

S. Pietro ad Vincula 442 

S. Ijorenzo fuori le Mura 580 

Santa BalMna 800 

Santa Ajmese about 625 

(^uattro ('oronati about 625 

S. Giorgio in Velabro 682 

8. CrisDgono 730 

8. Giovanni a Porta Latina about 790 

Santa Maria in Cosmediu 790 

A VIceiiMo s}2e Tre Fontane 790 

S. Lftrpaxo In LucinM about 7JK) 

f^^'ereo Acbilleo. about WO 

^'•Prmated^ .^^ 


Santa Haria in Dominica , 83{> 

S. Martino ai Monti :,. about 844-tf 

S. Clemente ;, ;...., $71 

S. Niccolb in Carcere WO 

S. Bartolommeo in laola about 966 

S. Giovanni in Lateraao (St. John. Ev.) 9lb 

Santa Maria in Trasterere ; IIW 

Santa Ooce ^ abo^^ 1144 

Santa Maria in Ara Coeli —r-r 

Santa Maria sopra Minerva (Gothic)... about ISTO 
S. Agostino about 1480 


8t. Peter** Church, the largest Christian teiiqrf« 
in the world, is on the Yaticaa Hill, on the idte 
of Nero's Circus, where many early ChriatUuui 
suffered martyrdom, and where ConstoBtine bvUt 
the first church (about 830), which stood till the 
twelfth century. Except a few feet in the weat 
front, of a large and sidendid design, commAiOMli 
1454, by Nicholas V., the present Baailioa was 
begun, 1506, by Julius II., as part of a Greek 
oross proposed by Bramante. His design (which 
is copied in Raphael's cartoon of Paul preaching 
at Athens) was followed out in 1547 by M. Angelo, 
who worked eighteen years at it, and was suo- 
oeeded by Vignola, Delia Porta, and C. Mademo, 
by whom the original |rfan was altered to thai of 
a Latin cross, in order to take in the site <rf Coo- 
stantine's old church. The front was oonopleted, 
1622, by Paul V. Thus the building of it eovered 
a space of 116 years, and the reigns of eighteen 
Popes, one of whom was Leo X., whose scheme 
of raising money for the work by the sale of indvl- 
gences produced the Reformation. The total cost 
was 40,000,000 crowns, or £8,000,000 sterling; and 
the annual charge of keeping it up is 30,000 crowns. 

The style is the classical, which prevails in 
all the churches here, in three storeys, cut up by 
enormous pilasters and columns of equal height all 
round. Both church and cupola are of travertine 
stone: and it Is said there is more stone below 
ground than above it. Inside length of the croM, 
615 feet, or one-seventh more than our St. Pavl's; 
breadth through the transept, 448 feet. Height 
from piazza to top of cross, 448 feet. Its prineipal 
front (which looks to the east and not to the WMt) 
is plain, and only imposing by its size, which la 880 
feet wide, 148 high, and, unfortunately, hides the 
view of the dome. This bad effect is increased t^ 
the sloping down of the ground in front. It la not 
shut in by houses, but approached by a circular 
atrium^ or court, 740 feet by 590. enclosed by eoloB- 
nades restintr on 284 columns, in four rows, formliig 
three al leys between them, and crowned with atatnca 
and saints, by Bernini. In the middle is the Egyp- 
tian Obelisk (see above), bmujriit from tlie Ctrcvs 
of Nero, by n. Fontana. which serves as arHnuitto 
gnomon, and is surrounded by |K>ints of the coaiiaM 
on the ground lielow. It is flanked by C. M ai l ww/ e 
two tall Fountains. 50 feet high, each eom poeei of 
three basins, tthe lowest 30 feet diaaseCn*. The 
waler n«ea\oXkKt^tlk«\iX q& IQl^v^.^mlltag throofli 

MOU^HH tlOMIt~- 

Itia untre of the obeltalL. vo iho two cenlrei at rlldlng. and lliniriH, eivieA Irom llic DaiUlca ui 
Ihc colonudet, ilaiidlDK ■! which ill thsealumm ' CoiiiWntlge, Foiiriiiclir>.40fcM ir|iU-.[uni[airii 

bAA-nllef», opcD bilo the VofttlbulBn <tp|KHlte 

thflm, the PortA dintL li opened cnily at the { ■ moulc ol Gnrl I 
Jubilee, every twenty five yeu-i i ak Tor example, pllelly juhI ^andt 


t Capola h 



1 a italRsau 

or aECeDdinf! 

1. The d 

ri ot 

■.d wvndnxl. 

Bud IK led. 

1 the lunrbla 

op of 




/Vh-iu, el mpa 

/V/™». to- 

•cli lolte 




adarned w 




lighted from 


rteht hand 

:ala ReRla. In the \ 

.4|ei"l"g, by 

d plane, 




•eter (IMS). 


interioHi to well props 

first glai 

ce. hut It e 

deti>^-'^"' ""'" 

the ej 

gati o.ed 



'hSdtaB the 

et high 


.•^Sf -S"' i 


)( proportion 

1, Peler'i. lorin t< 
J architcclural conception, thut tin 
t aeen. and one ivorthy of Hie prlnci 
the ChrHtlau reilBlon."— F«rin«»«. 

de.r a hronie canopy, or 'baidlicchino 
imna, 9a feet hitrh, made from mela 
the Panlhcon, the gliding of whici 
udl. Abool ninelj Ismpa ore alway 
1 and at the tomb, or ehapellby C 

lile'i and traniept let In the IIkM. The lemper 
Ire la remarkably eqnat all the year through. 
"Tho building lorpauet all poweri ol deictV :,,„ rf„., ,..„„„.„, a, »■,„, . _„,t „, ,iL,„i 
l™. It aneanto me like »me great work of ^ JSj'-i','' "V ™..hrf '. .^„f ? i?^ i 
.tn«-B^ RreK. 1 in»H_o[ rock., or wmethli^ JJ'ihl{,^^i^'™wo^a^s tS^u ^( t"/,"?; 
ig, 11 naed lo he kliMd by the Pope ei 

The angela In the Baptistery are mraiitroDs glanta; look like palntlDgi, arc eonled from original! In 

IdesoT moaimment with the eye, orproportlon; Beglnnlne on the right ot the enlrauw, Ihe 

«dwt.*hJd«.nott«.lhl.hcarlc.pand when chaiiel.,altara.andobject.o(nollce aieufcUows 

itandlngimdertliB dome, and gailngupat It, I n^A/>»nivrf— M *nc-»ln'. relshmied murhl. 

went w the Terj-farthni end. whence there wa., J™,';'?"^^- r^f't ,h. nl?- rhSf. i! 

IndMd, a wondarfnloHipd'iF't. When the mniic r°"i'" '"■ ,, ^"^ ' ?' "^ ""' "**'' l-brlil ta. 
eocmmicw, the •enndi do not reach you for along i """"». caneu a nera. \«tf,<i.-i™» 

■ward. yaa. "-^Mtndilu^ai. 

that ! Lantrani 



[Section S. 

fM/a»tJ>oi Chun^.t. MoMfc of Dotnetifchino^t Mar- 
iyn\itm of Ht, HehfMtfMi. 

Tombff of Inn^/cfffit XII. (by I>elle Valle) and 
thft ffimotm (Uiwnittnn Matilda (by Hemlnl). 8he 1» 
Oanto'N Urania, who be/|ti«attied the Marches, Ac, 
t^i thft (/hurch. 

tonn'H Ui'Mfjn */ the Trinity, and ('aravafftflo'* 
KntotiilitiK'.nt. Totiib of Hlxtufi IV. (by Polla- 
jtioio;, m\vt built the Pfmte HiMo, Hintlne (Jhapcl, 
Ao. Tomb of JulliiA II., nephew (if HixtUM, only a 
fflmple Atone, thou((h hid intention wa«i to hare 
orneted a Nplendid tomli for tiimnelf, ont of which 
tlioiiffhi f(niw the new ('hurnh of 8t. Peter'fl. 
MfMialn by Muxiano. Monument of Ore^orv XIII. 
<bv Kufiefmi), who built the Quirinal ; and (iregory 
AiV., who WAH Pop** <'t>ly f'"" '*ix months. 

(frtgorian dfutptd. TonibN of Orejforv XVI. (by 
Amiel); Delia Porta's rich Altar, from M.Angelo^n 

Near hear In Oomenlchino's moMic of the Com- 
munion of Ht. Jerom«. 

Ma«ii of Ht. Ilanil, near the Tomb of Benedict 
XIV., hv Hracci. 

The North Tramieni wan the place where the Council wan held. It containii 
UomIon <if Valentlnl'N Martyrdom of H8. ProceHiio 
• Martlnlano, (JaroMtllt'ii Ht. Wenceslaus, and 
PouiiNin*N Martyrdom of Ht. Kratimuii. 

Tlie prolongation of the aifilo contains Lan- 
franoo'sHt. Peter WalktuK on the Hea, and Canova's 
Tomb of *C'lement Xlll., with flKuros of Religion 
And (lenlus, and two Lions, which occupied him 
•itfht years. 

8, itkihtuU Chapid. - Mosaic of (luldo's St. Mloliaol 
the Arohanffel. Near by are Uueroino^s uiosalo of 
Bant A Potnmella, one of the bust lu the church, 
and the Ton>b of Clement X. 

BS. I*ftn' nnd Tabitha Chapel.- Mosaic of Cos- 
tanai> Kalslnir of Tabltha by Potor. 

Vpfmr 9ml of Vhwrh.—M. Angulo's Tribune of 
Bt. I'etori and llornlni's tfWt bronae chair of St. 
Peter, eneliislnir a more ancient wooden ohnlrsup- 

Bvrteil by four doctors of tlio ohurdi. ThcM* are 
H. Oretfory, AuKUstlnc, Ambrose, and Jerome. 
The ohair was last shown In 1807, bat photos can 
t>« bouirht III Any shop. Delia Porta*s tomb of Paul 
fit., with a bronxo of the Poite, and marble fiiruros 
of Justice and Prudonoo. The former was nnkod 
At first and was so much admired that nomlni was- 
•mployed to cover her with a tin robe. 1)««rninrH 
tomb of Url)an VIII., ^ith fljrurcs of Justice nnd 
OhArity. Mosaic |Kirtralt of rlo None, placed here 
In IH71, on the completion of the Sftth year of his 
Pontiflcnte, " the year of St. Peter." 

Knterluir tho west division of the left aisle, therl^ 

la on the rtirht the Tomb of Alexander VI 1 1, (by 

RoMt), who nronounoed the boll, Intft mutt^ie^, 

jyrAlnit the Krenoh olenry, on his deatlk-bed, 161S. 

OpiMtmtt0, 8t. Vvtcr llcalioff the CrlMilo, aft«r 

gtiiia^^^^ ^^ <?>«w/.-a/«rAfrfPi bAf-r«U«f of 
"^ Ct^ft^.^Mnch Vifnfd Statae of tUo I 

V*irgfn, Harcobhagu« co:it.iinlng the remains of 
. Leo II., Leo IIL, and Leo IV. 
I In the next chspel are the Tomb of Alexander 
i VII., with gilt copper statue, by Bernini, and 
Vannfs Simon Ma^nis, on slate. 
In the South Transept are CamnccinPs mosaic 
' of the irnt>elief of St. Thomas, the Tomb of Pales- 
; triria, Ouclfixion of St. Peter (Gnido Renl), and 
! St. Francis (Domenichino). Near here, in the 
left aisle, is the door of the Sacristy (see below). 
Opposite is Koncalli's Ananias and Sapphlra. 

(jontlnuing down the aisle, the Clementine Chapd 
Is entered. This contains the Tomb of Gregory 
the Great, A. Sacchl's mosaic of the Miracle of St. 
Gregory, and Thorwaldsen's Tomb of Pins VIL, 
with figures of Strength and Wisdom. Near iiere 
are tlie Tombs of Innocent XI. and Leo XI. (in- 
scritHid ''Sic floruit''), who was Pope for twenty- 
seven days only. 

Choir Chapel^ closed by Delia Porta*s gilt bronase 

Tombs of Pius VIII. and Innocent YIII.; tlie 
latter by Poliajooio. 

Fresentation CAopef.— Mosaics, by KomanelU and 

Stuart Tombt. — Erected at the cost of George 
IV.; including the Pretender, styled ''James III." 
and his two sons, the Chevalier, "Charles UL/' 
an<l Cardinal York, "Ilcury IX." They are by 
Canova, and were naked figures at first, but were 
covered in 1860. Bracci*s tomb of the Cheyalier's 
widow, Maria Sobleskl, Countess of Albany. 

Baptistery (loft of the entrance). — Three moAaies, 
by C. Mnratta, Ac. The font is a porphyry vase, 
which covered the sarcophagus of Otho II. (who 
died ii74), with omnmcnts added by C. Fontana, 
lAOA. In the right-hand corner as you enter, 
within rails nnd kept midor lock a^ key, you read 
" Hie est ilia C'o/«m»a"— the column'agaijist which 
Clirlst leant In the Temple when tea^n^; the gift 
of (/iirdtnnl Orsinl. Similar relics abonnd'^in every 
church in Rome. Here, in St. Peter's, over the 
statue of Ht. Helena, is ^^Partem cntds ^ank"^ Ac. 
(imrtof the true cross). Over S. Longrmus Martyr 
is " fjonginilanceam;'^ the spear whl<^ pierc ed the 
Redeemer's side, sent by Bajazct to Innocent viil. 
Over St. Andrew- -"JSf.ilttdWtK CaptU,'* hfs head, 
the gift of Plus II. His ribs are at Santa Maria in 
Campitelli ; his leg Is'al 8S. Apostoll. Over Santa 
Veronica, the so-called "portrait" of the Sa-viour, 
on the nankin, or handkerchief with which hia face 
was wiped. A supposed portrait of Christ is shown 
only by the Pope; others are exhibited at 8. Sil- 
vestro al Quirinale and S. Maria Trastevere. \ 

Hacristv, built by Plus VI. (1776), from destgns by 
C. Marchlonno, in three parts. At the entrance ere 
statues of St. Peter and St. Paul, from the Piasia 
outside. In the central chapel is a jrvide; 
foe, I frAno. Palntiugs of the Virgin and BAints, 
bv CT. Romano, Ac. Old frescoes, by M. di Porli 
(1473), and three paintings by Giotto. The eArred 
wooden vi^eaaAa are full of rich robes, yeatiiMBtt, 

AltA9r^\Q^V \^^A^ tev^ C;\x«X\«CGA:CQA*S eORHIAtlQil 

:Roate d2.j 



Aiigelo and B. Cellini ; a cup given by the Stuarts i 
and the seal ring of the last Pope, u new one being i 
made for each. I 

The Crypt (Sagrc Grotte Vnticaue), not shown 
comprises the Grotte Vecchlc and Nuove, in a space ^ 
11 feet high, between the pavouients of the old \ 
and new church, to whicli women are not 
admitted; and four Chapels, adorned with mosaics 
by A. Sacchi. In the Grotte Vccchie are tombs of 
Otho II., Charlotte II. of Jerusalem and Cyprus, 
Christina of Sweden, Adrian IV., Boniface VJIl., 
Nicholas v.. Urban VI., I'ius II.; and an ancient 
carved sarcophagus of Bassus, Prefect of Home, 
who died 359. 

To ascend the Dome, open eveiy day, 8 to 11. 
The ascent is made by three galleries of 142 steps 
inside the cupola, between the outer and inner 
walls, which arc 20 feet apart. The bronze ball at 
top holds several persons, and is 7^^ feet diameter. 
Among the inscriptions by sovereigns and other 
personagres, one records the ascent of the Prince of 
Wales hi 1869. In 1750, two Spanish monks were 
tip here during the shock of an eartliquake, when 
one died from sheer fright. The cross is 13 feet 
high. Waterton. the traveller, with his friend Cap- 
tain Jones, mounted to the top of the cross, and left a 
glove at the end of the conductor as a memorial of 
their visit. The view from the dome is extensive 
and magnificent, embracing the city, river, Cam- 
pagna, the sea, the Alban Hills, and the Apennines. 
Fermession to be obtained at No. 8, Via della 

On the flat roof of the cathedral live the San 
Petrini, or workmen, who look after the edifice, and 
form a corporation from father to son. In one of 
the chambers in the piers of the dome is Sangallo's 
model of the basilica, which included a splendid 
fa^de, a more lofty dome, and two spires to 
match it in height. 

The exterior of St. Peter's should next be ex- 
amined all round. The west end Is 162 feet high, 
composed of a gigantic order of Corinthian pilasters, 
108 feet high, on a base of 15 feet, with an attic of 
89 feet. The acanthus Icavjes of the capitals are 7 
feet Ugh. This order is repeated all round the 
building. There are 748 columns and pilasters 
inside and outside, and it contains 390 statues, of 
various degrees of merit. 

"Between these pilasters there are always at 
least two storeys of windows, the dressings of which 
are generally in the most obtrusive and worst taste, 
and there is still a third storey in the attic; all of 
which added together make us feel more Inclined 
to think that the architect has been designing a 
place of several storeys on a gigantic scale, and 
trying to give it dignity by making it look like a 
temple, rather than that what we see before us is 
really a great basilican liall degraded by the adop- 
tion of palatial architecture." — Fergusson. 

Good points for viewing St. Peter's at a distance 
in the city are, the tower of the Capitol, open daily, 
for I a lira; the front of the Quirinal, the Bridge 
of St. Ajiselo; the Aelda beMod St. Peter's; but tke 
't>egt of aJU, teea through a deep blue sky aad deu 

atmosphere, Is from the puldic walks uiitbePincian 
Hill. It may sometimes be caught sight of b> 
ships at sea, sailing down the coast. 

At the west end. on the north side of the altar, 
are slabs in the wall, commemorating the Decree 
of 8th December, 1854, when the new Dogma of the 
Immaculate Conception was propagated to "satisfy 
the longings of the Catholic world," with the names 
of the prelates who were present. Father Passaglia, 
a learned Jesuit, who was chosen to write in do- 
fence <»f the new dogma, is the same, who, having 
afterwards written against tlie temporal power, 
had his paper seized by the Inquisition, but 
fortunately escaped from Rome by the lielp of some 
English fr.ends, and then resided at Turin, where 
he edited a journal, which became the organ of 
a large number of priests who were opposed to the 
temporal power. 

Here the ceremony of the Canonisation of the 
twenty-seven Japanese martyrs, who died at 
Nagasaki, fith February, 1697, was attended by 
nearly 300 cardinals and prelates, and 3,000 clergy, 
hi 1862, on Whit Sunday. The expense, 40,000 
scudl, was borne by the Franciscans, to whose order 
they belonged; it included 37,0001b8. of wax candles 
for illuminating the church. Medals were struck, 
on which Religion, with the cross, palm, tiara, and 
keys, looks to twenty-seven stars m heaven, with 
the motto, "Sanctorum mater quos dat nova sidera 
caelo." St. Peter's was ornamented In a somewhat 
tawdry style, having the pilasters covered with 
coloured paper, and the arches with silk and velvet, 
and hung with hasty frescoes of the sufferings of 
the martyrs. Pasquin said of this display of up- 
holstery, that the Pope was going to leave, and had 
already packed up St. Peter's (ha imballato 8. 

At the time of the canonisation, the Procurator 
knelt before the Pope, entreating him earnestly — 
instanter—io comply with the wishes of the Church 
and to canonise the martyrs. But the intimation 
from above— the insi)lration of the Holy Ghost- 
had not yet been received. "They must pray again 
for it. The Procm-ator must kneel again before 
the Pope and reiterate his entreaty, earnestly and 
more earnestly— «w«^an/e;' et instantitis. But still 
the petition is not granted; he must wait longer 
and must pray again. Then the Pontiff himself 
invokes the Holy Spirit; he Intones »Veui Creator 
Spirltus.' The Procm-ator repeated his petition for 
the third time, earnestly, more earnestly, and most 
earnestly— tn«?a«ter, instantius, et instantissimh— 
that the martyrs may be enrolled by the Pope hi 
the catalogue of the saints, and venerated as such 
by all the faithful of Christ. Then, at length, the 
Roman Pontiff, having his mitre on his head, and 
sitting on his throne at the west end of the church, 
with long lines of cardinals, archbishops, and 
bishops, ranged on his right hand and on his left, 
pronounced the memorable words, 'Beatoa <Jsftxss.\>s6. 
recited the names ot iVsa \£kasV^"f^^ -^sssisisRi** «6.'«»*ft^ 

adB<iiV)a\nxx», %\.^\.xx^\.^^ ^.-^'^^S^^^T 

_..._, . . ,_...• ■,.,„_; HI. Peter's he li'SoTerelBn'ponllff. Uilsnilion 

or. Wardimrlh. 

niimlnoHm of Si. Ptttr't m Eai 
bMnlltnl idghL it provHl, Iho d 
Iitrytlks apitenraiico to the chuicl 

Ivor The fiiQade. 
Ih produced hy Wvi 

ptiwcdeooe In pulnt ol Mnctltyof St. Ppior"i. Tlie 
Ave e^neral eoimcila kmiwn u Laleras CmaHIt 
were held here. The nreieRt lurjie church vim 
begnn bj Pliu IT. nnd Dnitfud by Clement XIJ. 
AnltuerlFtlon,eiiilIi«wlth"aimiiini urbiset nrbli 
eeeleKlemm viAter et flaptit" (the toother and head 
ol all the flhimhu of the city md the world). 

% by A 

I (ITW). 8 

ployed, who all wait, torch In hnnd, for Ihe first 
■truke of the cloek. to llehl Ihe lampe within their 

fill elTecl. which it certainly oni of the most heauli- 
fiil we have ever wen. This Kcond, called the 

t lUow and oil. whlcli^ qnlte overpowering Ihc white 

who lights DP the cross, on the highest point of the 
church, receives considerably more. There are 
nearly «.<"XI lamps Id the Silver Illnmlnatlon. and 
an additional l.OOO m the Golden."— Mi99 CtTLOw's 

Baths. Over the middle door are the uudont 
Senate Honiw.'ln Ihe Forum, now S. Adrian's 

of the rtoSn Is op^'mly eve?|''tw™"!h yij, 
at the Jnbilee, as b. IfiSS. " The balustrade on the 
top Is too high and Ihe (standing) Bgorea it supports 

could with dllBcally 

nagnlficent inter 


and was Ihe 




ce VIII. procla 

eeot woo, 

being prcfciil. 

Here the P 

pe gave his 



mer church) 

elve colossal 


. Prophet.". 

jrders, secular Clergy, the roemberaof the Papal . The great arch resta on two pillars of redgranlle, 
;ourt. the prelates and airdlnals. ending with tne „ f ^ |^|^^ i|,,,j ,p,e at the end of the chancel 
Pope iwtwoen the while peacock's (oalliers, bomo I |,^, „ mwwic of Ihe fifth century, with saints on an 

!Ung Is by St- \ uuui« «H 

"Fufe lingua (lorlDsl 
EKSlhKlllgenOuiii." ,« , v ""I 

The Corslnl Chapel, built by A. GallleL tor 
Clement XII.. and dedicated to SI. Andrea CmiIbI, 
richest in Rome; it east MO.OOW. 

XH., Ill ■ porphyry sarcophagsa, 


lanl (n Laliraio. Piazia di S. 

'ai of the Pope, of which he ; 

Under the high aUar 
^anni, and St. Paul ! and nc> 
valls^ I Uarlln V. Themagnll 


«aid to be from the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. 
Gravesof A.SacchiandCaTallered'Arpino(Ccsari), 
side by side. Bronze of Henry IV. of France, in the 
portico of Sixtus V. The Torlonia Chapel, built in 
1850, is all marble and gilding. The cloister, of 
the thirteenth century, is being restored. 

The Baptistery of Constantine is an octagon, 65 
feet diametcr,the roof of which is supported, intern- 
ally, by eight columns of red porphyry, standing 
on the heads of eight others below. The font is 
of green basalt. "Like all Constantino's works, 
this is but a compilation of classical spoils -a mere 
thief of antiquity. Built in an age when converts 
went down in crowds to be baptized, this edifice 
blends the temple with the bath. Hence its grand 
and central object is the font ; hence, too, the font 
is sunk below the pavement, and large enough for 
the total immersion of adults." — (Forsyth.) It was 
also meant for a tomb. An inscription states that 
Constantine was baptized here by Pope Sylvester, 
though ho was really baptised later, on his death- 

Visitors soon learn to form a reasonable doubt 
as to the authenticity of many of these in- 
scriptions, which are discarded by all respectable 
Roman Catholic writers ; indeed, as Bishop Words- 
worth observes, if the Congregation of the Inquisi- 
tion were to apply some of their industry and zeal 
to the t&sk of compiling an Index Expurgatorius of 
the falsehoods which disfigure the columns, 
churches, and altars of Rome, they would confer a 
great benefit on church history and the cause of 
religion. They pretend to show here, pillars from 
the Temple, the Well of Samaria (in the garden), 
and the very Table used at the Last Supper. The 
paintings of the cupola are by A. Sacchi. An 
earlier court of the baptistery is converted into 
chapels. It leads to the Chapels of S. Vcnanzio and 
of St. John the Baptist. In the latter is a bronze 
copy of Donatello's statue of Christ. 

The Scala Santa, or Holy Stairs, on the north, 
or palace side of the church, and detached from it, is 
composed of twenty-eight black marble steps (now 
cover, d with wood to preserve them), said to have 
belonged to Pontius Pilate's palace, at Jerusalem, 
which penitents ascend on their knees, praying as 
they go, to visit the likeness of the Saviour (done 
by St. Luke when he was twelve years old) in the 
Sancta Sanctorum at the top. They descend by 
other steps, and thus they acquire so many days' 
or years' indulgence. The Triclinium of Leo III. 
is near these stairs, containing a mosaic represent- 
ing the Investiture of Charlemagne. 

In the Piazza S. Giovanni, where the church 
stands, are the ohelisk, the Latcran Palace and 
Museum, Ac; and the view commands a prospect 
of the old city walls, the Nero Aqueduct, the 
Campagna, the Sabine Hills, &c. June 24, or 
St. John the Baptist's Day, is a great festa. 


In Piazza di Santa Maria Maggioro. on the Esqui- 
Une, ntwir tl\9 railway terminus. Ope of the four 

chief basilicas (after St. Peter's) within the walls, 
and the principal church dedicated to the Virgin. 
Founded about 352, by Llberius I., as the Liberian 
Basilica, or Santa Mafia ad Nives (from his tracing 
the plan on the snow which had fallen, though it 
was in August), afterwards enlarged, and at length 
reconstructed for Benedict XIV., by F. Fuga. 
Notice the old mosaics over the portico, which are 
preserved. The buildings adjoining are by F. Pon- 
zio and C. Rainaldi. The clock to>vcr nt the west 
end, the highest in Rome, was added by Gregory 
XI., in 1576. Here stands an obelisk, put up by 
Sixtus V. 

Facing the east, or principal front, is a handsome 
Corinthian column, about 60 feet high, with a 
bronze Madonna on top. From a balcony over the 
middle one of its five doors, the Pope blessed 
the people on Assumption Day. There Is also 
a statue of Philip of Spain. The Interior 
(250 feet long by 100 broad) is composed of three 
naves, dlvid^ by forty-four marble Ionic columns, 
which belonged to the Temple of Juno Luclna, and 
is paved in the Alexandrine style. Some of the 
surrounding mosaics are supposed to bo of the 
fifth century. The ceiling was gilt with the first 
supply of gold which came from America to the 
Spanish court, and was regilt in 1825 ; it was de- 
signed by G. Sangallo. Notice the tombs of 
Clement IX. and Nicholas IV., by Guido and 
D. Fontana respectively. 

The high altar has a porphyry urn under a rich 
canopy, by Fuga, with marble angels. Here Pius 
IX. is buried, in a splendid Crypt, built in 
honour of the Assumption, adorned with marble, 
gilding, Inpis lazuli, and other precious stones. 
Near it is the Sistine Chapel of the Holy Sacra- 
ment, built by Fontana, for Sixtus V., on a scale 
large enough for a church. Notice the tombs of 
Sixtus V. and Pius V., and the richly-ornamented 
Presepio and Borghese chapels. The former has 
Christ's cradle, and the latter has the tombs of 
Clement VIII., Paul V., and the late Princess Bor- 
ghese (Lady G. Talbot). The altar of the Virgin 
rests on four pillars of Oriental jasper, agate, and 
gilt bronze. Her miraculous picture (said to be 
the work of St. Luke!) is above the altar. In 
the Baptistery is a fine bas-relief by Bernini. It 
faces the chapel, dedicated to a certain patrician, 
who was joint founder of the church and founder 
of the Patrizi family. 

The Chapel of Santa Lucia contains a very inter- 
esting sarcophagus, now used as an altar. There 
are two rows of bas-rcUefs; and in the middle of 
the upper row are two figures within a shell, like 
an oval frame. The subjects in the upper series 
are the Raising of Lazarus, St. Peter's Denial, 
Moses Receiving the Law, Sacrifice of Isaac, Pilate 
Washing his Hands. In the lower row are the 
Smitten Rock, Christ's Apprehension, Daniel and 
the Lions, a Man Reading, Blind Man Restored to 
Sight, Miracle of the Loaves. Each subject oon- 
sists of two to four figures ; and there are about 
thirty-six in all. "There is great beauty in it« 
internal colonnade, all the \3lll«.'c% q\ -<qIS52^ 



[Section 2. 

one design, and bear a moxt pleasing proportion to 
the gnperstnictnre. The clerestory, too, is orna- 
mented with pilasters and panels, so as to make it 
a part of the general design; and with the roof, 
which is panelled with constructive propriety and 
simplicity, combined with sufficient richness, serves 
to make up a whole, giving a far better and more 
complete idea of what a basilica either was origi- ( 
nally, or at least might iiave been, than any other 
church at Roifie." — Fergtuson, 


A basilica, outside Porta 8. Poola and the Pro- 
testant Cemetery, on the road to Ostia. This is a 
large and handsome new church, opened in 1847, 
on an uninhabited spf>t, to mark the site of a 
venerable and interesting one, burnt in 1823, and 
first founded by Constantine, over the grave of St. 
Paul. The great clock tower is in the Lombard 
style, and cost 120,000 sciuli. The present splendid 
edifice, which was rebuilt under Pio Nono's eye, 
(and who was to have been buried here). Is 
400 feet long, exclusive of the atrium in front, 
and is divided into five aisles, by eighty noble 
pillars of Baveno marble and granite, in single 
blocks, of which two supp<jrt an arch over the 
altar, dedicated to the sister of Ilonorius, who 
completed the former church, and whose design 
has been copied in the present one, which contains 
also copies of the old mosaics, by Giotto's pupils. 
The front is a copy of the former one, and will 
contain a groat mosaic, to cost 80,000 scudi. The 
timber roof is richly carved and gilt. There are 
no side chapels. The friezes in the nave arc orna- 
mented with mosaic heads of all the popes, chiefly 
modem, from the government studio, but sonic are 
ancient. The alabaster plUurs of the high alUir 
were presented by the infidel Pasha of Kgypt, and 
a malachite altar in the transept is a gift from the 
heretic Emperor of Russia . 

The granite pillars of the nave are from the 
Emperor of Austria: among which is the one cele- 
brated by Wordsworth, when It stood on the 8im- 
plon, which Napoleon lnteiid<'.d for the triumphal 
arch of Milan. A Jew bequeathed a large sum 
for the supjKirt of the church. The King of Hol- 
land gave 50,000 frnncH. A painting of the Con- 
version of St. I'aul is by (Janmccini; choir, by C. 
Modenio. A fine St. IJenedict Is by Ralnaldl. An 
adjoinhig cloister of the thirteenth century, belong- 
ing to the Henudictlne Convent, which rents on 
fluted andtwlHted pillars, has In the library cloister 
a small collectiim of Christian gravestones, from 
A.i). 355. One bears the figure of an organ, with 
the words RVSTK^VH SK Vlllv FICCI. The atrium 
of the old ehureh, tli('(llstln;rnlHhlngHl;:n of a husl- 
Ilca, existed down to the seventeenth century, and 
is replaced by a nuxlei'ii court. In its ])lan the 
former church wos a duplicate of the old St. Peter's. 
About twenty-four of its colmnus wore taken from 
the tomb of Hadrian ; and It wna further romark- 
ablo as having been luider the patronage of Eng- 
)}Mh kJnjrs down to Henry VIlI. "Long before 
//^r e/egtractton hy fire, ttint church had been so 

altered as to lose many of its most striking pecu- 
liarities. Decay and whitewash had done much to 
efToce its beauty, which nevertheless seems to have 
struck all travellers with admiration, as combining 
in itself the last reminiscence of Pagan Rome with 
the earliest forms of the Christian world." — 
(Fergiuson.) Near this is S. Paolo alle Tre Fontane 
(page 190), witth its Trappist Convent, among 
eucalyptus plantations. 


(In alphabetical order). 

Santa Agnete (St. Agnes), near the Pamfili Palace, 
Piazza Nttvona, founded hi the fourth century. Re- 
built at the cliargc of Innocent X., by Rainaldi 
(I650)jind Borromini, who added the cupola and 
front. The interior is a handsome Greek cross, in 
marble; cupola, painted by C. Ferri and Baciccio; 
paintings by Ferrata, Guido, &c. Santa Agnese'a 
Martyrdom, by Algardi, is in the chapel dedicated 
to her, her naked figure hidden by her long hair. 
In the i)ortlco is the tomb of Innocent X. At his 
death his family refused to bury him. One of bis 
major-domos iM)ught the coffin, and another gave 
five crowns for the funeral expenses. 

Santa Agnesefuori le Mura — (See page 193.) 

S. Adriano, at the Foi'um, at the comer of Via 
Bonella, lately identified as on the site of the Curia 
as rebuilt by Diocletian. 

Santa Agata in Suburra, Via Mazzarini, restored 
In 1633, was a church of the fifth century. In pos- 
session of the Arians. It now belongs to the Irisk 
College, and is behind the Aldobrandini Palace. 

S. Agostino (St. Augustine), north-eost of Piazza 
Navona. Built by I'letrasanta, about 1480, its dome 
being the oldest In Rome (by some years earlier 
than St. Peter's); and restored by Vjmvitelli, who 
added the Angelica Library, annexed to it. Notice 
a cele])rated fresco of Isaiah, by Raphael; St. 
Augustine, by Quercino ; a monument of St. Monica, 
his mother ; a Madonna of Loreto, by Caravaggio ; 
Bracci's tomb of Cardinal Imperial!; and a fine 
marble *Madonntt and Child, by Sonsovino. Thie 
last is the Santa Maria SSa. del Parte, which is 
supposed to work miracles to mothers, ond Is covered 
with ne.ckluccH, crowns, ear-rings, and other finery; 
while the foot is almost kissed away. An image 
of the Virgin, supposed to be German, is popularly 
attributed to St. Luke. Close by is the Angelic* 
Library of 100.000 volumes and 2,900 MS8., open 
daily, Hxcei)t Sunday and Thursday, U to 2. 

S. Atessandfo. See Excursions ft-orn Home, p. 219. 

*S'. Almsio, on the Aventine, near Santa Sabina 
ond the Til)er, facing the Ripa Grande, wasfoimded 
In the ei^Mith century, on the site of S. Bonifaco*s 
Church, and has been modernised Internally. The 
wooden stuirs, luuler which St. Alexis lived seven- 
teen years for self-mortification, are shown. It 
stands next to the Blind Asylum (De' Ciechl). 

In a small piazza, close by, is a door with a 
small aperture, which affords' a peculiar view of 
the dome of S- Peter's. The door gives accesp to 
9. Maria AvcpUna, page 187. 


lilt, 1410, ud by F. Ft 

>f Clem 

la. ITOl. ITppel' n't 

i^ls tiom'TtaJan-i Korani. Tumb 
-. (C«ngMBlll), by CMOimjrhen 

«w), <m HontaCavallo. Inclnc 
, on Iba lit* of iho Temple r^ 
)«nilnl lor the Jeudt nurlli- 
f by Bulcclo and C.Hantta. 

A highly d 

irho thdlCBted 1831. and became a Jemlt. Stitne 
ot at. Btanlili* Koatka. by Legroi. Tbe ilte of 
Iho Toaple ot BomDlm la In tba cooiant gardwi. 
a. Amirea AUa Fn»U (of th* Buliei), near Plaiia 
do SlMKna, partlT by Barromlal; with a front by 
ValBdlertaddnllSM). nollceBemlnl'iAneel'.bi 
St. Franeli da Fanl'i Cbapal, wHb the lomtia sr 
Angelica KanSiiiann and Scbndow, and a prinoe of 

a.Andmdtiaaiiaf. on the Quliinal. nnr the 
BaiberlDl Falaoe, balongs to Iho SooUh CoUtfc, 
'3. A»<bvi ADe FalU, Lo Via del Sudarlo. on the 
'- -theCariaofFompey; tome iwy tba idh li 
>t wbete Cbut wu Ulled. IHh Much, 
ism, by OllTierl and flnlihed by Madcroo; 
HI 1> by Rainaiai. Notice the lino Cnpola, j„,.. ^.,„ .., „ 
painted by Lonlninco, which unployed him four trlAln Yoii man tu 
year.. He wii the HdI lo paint aGlory In all Iti ■ trianJovo stood oi 
iplendonr. ThetonrETangTlirti byDomnilchino; - .■.■"u ui 

" - Tbe Lancllloltl. Hti^izl. Rwinli. and Bar- 

I. and Flaa UI. An bucrlptloD renrdi that 
idy o( Bt. Sebaitlan was thrown Into a aewer 

. hy Miira- 

rl. Tomb of Cardlbal RIaxlo, by M. An^olo. 
itiolaph to K- Angeto, In the corridor or tba 
>DV«iit; aald to be a ^rooil llkeneHe. Alaa tin 
mb of Carrllnal Benarion. The Wac OBIce waa 
ce aealcd hen. The Via In front 1> tbe old VIcu 

•ix$. Ctta," Banta MaHa in Art Caii, a Fran- 
• thoeUeof thoTeiDpleof Jnplter, 
the Capltollne. It lirsnchedby 134aIciia.fniB 
s.tep.otlbeTenipUof QiilrlDlni|andl.dlTided 

which are Egyptian gran- 
- ■■ ' -McuIoAr— - 

Aagn4toruinH"on Ibetbird- A 
rich high altar and Image of tho Vlr^. An attU 
Inthe Irausept made of a porphyry urcopbagu. 

■ r!!:K.'.?r.'Sf3 

Iter Cipllollnni 

of the Infant Joins, 
' the nick, wai dropped In the porch at mldnlgbt, bjr 

The CoDTsnt of the chnrnb haa been damallibed 
to make way for tba great raonumeot of Victor 

I KTlbed "(Jnlil 

10 by (pBit a door Ik- 

ed "qm il Tcde la Rocca Tarpeia"), u 
le palnec of tba Senator of Rome, Call 

XIV. Palntlnga by Femglno an 
ea. AfeuotHHolf Apaatlea),'lnPla»a 

lpMU«(HDly A 
1, w della iat 

la of ConataDtlne'i bullleai. 

Ichl < paieed oL 
n- I toTbatbi 

la Pablloa. 



[Section 2. 

It croMcd the Via Appia at Porta Capena, close to 
the bridge over ttie Almo, wliicli runs through 
the Circus Maximus to the Tiber. 

8. Bartohmmeo (St. Bartholomew), on the Isola 
di S. Bartoloraraeo, founded in the tenth century. 
Its fourteen granite columns are said to have be- 
longed to a Temple of ^sculapius, which stood 
here on the site of the hospital of 8. Gioranni 
Galabita, which faces it. Its frescoes, Ac, hare 
been injured by the inundations of the Tiber. In 
the garden are remains of the travertine bulwar)c 
which protected the upper part of the island. 

8. BemardOt in Piazza d' Termini, on part of the 
site of the Baths of Diocletian. A round church, 
made by incorporating the calidarium of the baths, 
in 1600. Remains of a theatre and hemicycle are 
in the grrounds adjoining. 

8. Biagio (or St. Blaise), in Via Oiulla, near the 
Tiber, is the church of the Armenians. 

8anta Bibiana, near the railway and Porta 8. 
Lorenzo. Rebuilt by Urban VIII., out of one of 
the fifth century, dedicated to the^emory of a 
daughter of Flavian, prefect of Rome. The front 
is by Bernini (1625), and the statue of the saint, on 
the high altar, is by the same; the *' nearest ap- 
proach he has made," says Forsyth, '* to the serene 
pathos of the antique." On this altar is one of the 
finest alabaster urns in Rome. Paintings by P. da 
Cortona, and Ciampelli. This church is seldom 
opened. Not far off is the round Temple of 
Minerva Medica, so called. 

8. Bonaventura, on the Palatine, with a convent 
adjoining, in which is a solitary palm tree. 

Cappuccini, or S. Maria delta Concezione, in a 
square near Piazza Barberini; built by Urban 
VIII.'s brother, Caidinal Barberini. On the front 
is a copy of Giotto's Kavicella, or Bark of St. Peter. 
Notice Guide's ♦St. Michael; the "Catholic Apollo. 
Like the Belvedere god the archangel breathes that 
dignified vengeance which animates without dis- 
torting."— Cfor<y<A^. Domenichino's St. Francis 
in an ecstasy. A. Sacchi's St. Anthony, and his St. 
Bonavcntura, with the Virgin and Child. P. da 
Cortona's St. Paul and Ananias. The founder's 
tomb, with the inscription, "Uic Jacct pulvis, 
cinis et nihil." In the crypt below the bodies and 
skeletons of the dead monks are preserved, and 
made a show of. The vaults are illuminated 
November 2nd. 

8. Carlo a* Catinavi, in Piazza Catinari (where 
the porringer makers used to live), near the 
Ghetto, between the theatres of Pompcy and Bal- 
bus; built 1612, on the site of S. Biagio, like a 
Greek cross, with a front by Soria. The cupola 
is one of the largest in Rome, and is adorned with 
♦Domenichino's Cardinal Virtues. Notice, also. 
Guide's fresco of St. Charles ; A. Sacchi's Death 
of St. Anna; G. Brande's Martyrdom of S. Biagio; 
P. da Cortona's altar-piece of St. Charles, under a 
dais. One of the monks of this convent was the 
learned C. Vercellone, editor of the Vatican MS. of 
the Septnagint and New Testament, prepared by 

*8. Carlo al Cormi^ on the Corso. Begun, 1612, 
by Lunghi, and finished by P. da Cortona. It is 
rich in marbles, paintings, and stuccoes. It is the 
church of the Lombards. Notice C. Maratta's 
Presentation of St. Carlo to the Saviour, at the 
high altar; and a fresco by Maratta in St. 
Charles's Chapel. Tomb of A. Verri, author of 
'* Notti Romane." The heart of S. Carlo Borromeo 
is deposited under the altar. 

8. Carlo (or Carlino) aHe quattro FontanOy on 
the Quirinal. A small church by Borromini, said 
to fill a space less than that occupied by one of the 
great piers of St. Peter's. The style is extravagant. « 

8anta CaUrina de" JFunari, Via de' Falegnami, 
has a Dead Christ, by Mnziano, with other pic> 
tures by F. Z. Znccari. 

8anta Caterina di Siona, in the Solita del Grille, 
a pretty church, attached to a large Dominican 
nunnery; in the grounds of which is a fine mediaeval 
tower, called Torre di Milizia. Near this, in Via 
Nazionale, is the Palace of the late Cardinal Anto- 
nelli, under which remains have been found of 
the Baths of Constantine. 

Santa Cecilia in Trcutevere. Rebuilt in the 19th 
century ; having been restored in the ninth century, 
on the site of one first erected about 280 a.d. by 
Pope Urban. Notice St. Cecilia's statue, beneath 
the High Altar, by S. Mademo ; and some ancient 
mosaics from the former church. The naves rest 
on ancient granite pilasters. 

8. Cesareo, on the Via Porta di S. Sebastiano, 
near the Baths of Caracalla ; an ancient church 
of the seventh century, with some modem mosaics 
by d'Arpino. 

*S. €n,emont6, out of Via di S. Giovanni, on the 

Esquiliae ; originally one of the oldest churches 

in Rome, founded by Clement I., and restored by 

Clement XI. It retains its ancient basilica form 

(fourth century) in a more complete state than 

any other in Rome, having an atrium, or court, in 

front, surrounded by a columned portico. Inside 

are three aisles, divided by granite and cipolino 

columns, with two old ambos, or reading desks. 

The vault in the apse is inlaid with mosaics of the 

thirteenth century, representing the Four Rivers 

of Paradise issuing from the Cross. Below it are 

the remains of an earlier Church, and of a Temple 

of Mithra(?), first discovered by Dr. Mullooly, 

and standing on the site of St. ClemenCt ffouaOj 

close to remains of the city Wall, built by 

Servius TuUius, B.C. 500. It contains an ancient 

fresco of Roman bishops in this order— 1. Linus; 

2. Clemens; 3. Petrus. Notice a mosaic of the thir- 

teenth century in the vault; Christ's Passion, a 

fresco, by Massaccio; St. John the Baptist, a 

statue, by a brother of Donatello; tomb of St. 

Clement. It was near this that, accordfaig to the 

old scandalous story, "Pope Joan" (a young 

woman of Mayence) was delivered of a child. A 

statue of her, with a tiara on her head and a ebU4 

in her army, was ihown in Lather's time. 

Boute 32.] 

MODsmw mom^ouuBCBBs. 


S. Coitansa. (See ** Churches outside Rome '*) 
page 198. 

S. CoHmato^ in Via di 8. Francesco, in Traste- 
Tere; a, small chorch of the tenth century, with 
an image of the Virgin, which came ashore at 
Ponte Rotto. Fine Glbb tomb. 

88. Cosmo e Damiano (SS. Gosmus and Damian), 
in the Via Saera^ near the Forum, on the site of a 
Temple, which was made into a church, 527, by 
Felix III.; restored, in 780, by Adrian I., and 
partly rebuilt by Urban VIII., in 1635. Part of 
the cella of the temple of Romulus, son of Max- 
cntius, is incorporated in the restibule of the 
church. Mosaics of the sixth century. 

8. CriiOifonOt In Trastevere, near the Ponte Gari- 
baldi; fine mosaic parcmtnt and ancient columns.' 

88. Cri^no e CrUpiniano, in the Lungaretta, In 
Trastevere, was given to the corporation of shoe- 
makers in 1705, before which time it was called 
Santa Bonosa. It contains the monument of Cola 
di Rieazi, the Last of the Tribunes. There is an 
Inn of this name at Rochester. 

8anta Croee^ in Via dei Lucchesi, belongs to the 
natives of Lucca. It stands on the old Forum 
Suarium, or Pig Market, and was at first called S. 
Niccolb in Porcilibus, from that circumstance. 

8anta Croee in GeruMlemme, near Porta Mag- 
giore, close to the wall ; one of the four basilicas 
in Rome, on the site of the gardens of Helioga- 
balus, or Horti Variani. Built in St. Sylvester's 
time, by Constantino's mother, St. Helena, in 
honour of a [dece of the true cross, found at Jeru- 
salem, and of some earth from Mount Calvary; 
and rebuilt by Benedict XIV., in 1745. It has a 
square tower, and contains three aisles, divided by 
massive pillars, with frescoes by Pinturicchio. 
Over the altar is an antique basalt urn, orna- 
mented by four lions' heads. Among the relics 
they show the original inscription placed over the 
Saviour ('* Jesus of Nazareth"), Ac, found in 
1493; an evident forgery. The subterranean chapel 
of St. Helena, who lived in this quarter, is at the 
farther end, decorated with mosaics; ladies ad- 
mitted on 20th March only. The Basilica was 
once called the Sessoriana. 

8. Etuffbid, on the Esquiline, near the railway ; 
dedicated to Pope Eusebius, in the fifth century, 
and rebuilt in the 18th. The vault is painted by 
Mengs. It stands on the site of the house of Lici- 
nius. At the Junction of three or four roads, near 
this, is the Nymphsenm of Alexander Severus, an 
ancient fountain. 

Sanf EustacMo, facing Piazza Eustachio, near 
the Pantheon. The saint's relics, with those of his 
wife, are in an urn at the high altar. 

8anta Franeetea Romana, or the Annunziata, 
near the Basilica of Constantine. Built on the 
remains of the Forum of Cupid by Pope Sylvester, 
and called at first Santa Maria Antiqua. Notice 
the tomb of Gregory XI., by Olivieri; mosaics 
of the ninth century. Open only on the feast of 
Santa Francesca, the Annunciation, and the eve of 
flo\y Thursday. Stones in the wall have impres- 

sions, it is said, of the knees of St. Peter and 
St. Paul, made when they knelt to pray for inter- 
position against the arts of Simon Magus. 

8. FraneeKo di Paola, on the north-western slope 
of the Esquiline, was built 1623, and has paintingrs 
by Sassoferrato. It is attached to a large convent, 
now converted into the Reale Istituto Tecnico, 
and occupies the site of a Temple of Diana and the 
house of Servius Tullius, the builder of the old 
wall. When he was killed by his son-iuolaw, 
Lucius Tarquin, and his dead body thrown into 
the street, it was driven over by bis own daughter; 
an act of wickedness perpetuated in the old name 
of the street. Via Scelerata, now Via di S. Fran- 
cesco di Paola. 

8. Francesco a Ripa, near the Ripa Grande, is 
the most southern church in Trastevere, and was 
founded (under Gregory IX.) by S. Francesco 
d'Asaisi, with a large hospital attached, in which 
his room is shown. It has a Pietk, by A. Carracci; 
and a St. Francis, by d'Arpino. Near it, is the 
little church dedicated to the Sant' quaranti Mar> 
tiri, or forty Christian soldiers, executed under 

Santa Oalla, near the Suspension Bridge, with 
its hospital attached, was called Santa Muia in 
Portico, being near the portico of the Forum Oli- 
torium, or Herb Market. Near this was the Porta 
Triumphalis, made in the old wall of Servius 
Tullius, on the Triumphal Way. 

8. Oallieano, in Piazza Romana, in Trastevere, is 
dedicated to a Consul, who suffered martyrdom 
under Julian the Apostate, and is part of a Hospital 
for cutaneous diseases ; founded by Benedict XIII. 

8. Oiacomo, near S, Agnese, Piazza Navona, 
built 1450. The national church of the Spaniards. 

*Q68il(Jesu8), Piazza del Gesh, near the Palazzo 
diVenezia. The Jesuit Church, and one of the 
finest and most richly ornamented in Rome, with a 
large convent attached. Begun, 1568, by Vignola, 
and carried on by his pupil, Delia Porta. Notice 
frescoes in the cupola, &c, by Baciccio; C. Ma- 
ratta's Death of St. Fr. Xaviei' ; also the rich chapel 
and altar, of St. Igrnatius, by Pozzi — a blaze of 
precious stones, with a unique globe of lapis lazuli ; 
a silver-gilt statue of the Saint (replacing that 
which the French melted down), and marble 
groups, both by Legros. Tomb of the famous 
Cardinal Bellarmine, by Bernini. Painting by 
F.Zuccari. High altar, rebuilt 1842 ; andMuziano's 
Circumcision. July 31st is the Feast of S. Ignatius, 
and on this day, on the 31st December, and the 
two last evenings of the Carnival, it is brilliantly 

8. Giorgio in Velabro, in the street of the same 
name, in the Forum Boarium, near the Arch of the 
Money-changers and the Arch of Janus; the first 
one being incorporated in the wall of the church. It 
is an ancient building, with a square tower, dedi-. 
cated to St. George of Cai^adocia, the patron saint 
of England, whose head and banner are here. It was 
Cardinal Newman's Church; and is open 28rd April. 
Th« Vclabrum was a manby traet^ h^tm* — *- 



QSection 2; 

Tiber and Mount Palatine, freqnently inundated 
by the river. Here were the public markets of the 
ancient city. 

S. Giovanni Batti$ta, in Via del Genovesi, in 
Trastevere, belongs to the Genoese; it stands next 
the S. Pasquale Asylum, and on the site of the field 
in which Porsenna's camp was cstabliHhed; after- 
wards the Gardens of Cassar, which he bequeathed 
to the Roman people. 

8. Giovanni Decollato possesses a good St. John 
Baptist, by Vasari. The Cemetery, in which crimi- 
nals are buried, is resorted to, says Mr. Burgon, 
by "persons of the humblest class, in order to ob- 
tain from the souls in purgatory a suggestion as 
to lucky numbers for the lottery." 

8. Giovanni Evangelista, in a solitary spot, near 
the Porta Latina, founded 772, on the site of the 
Temple of Diana. It has three naves, divided by 
marble pillars, and an altar-piece, l)y Zuccari. 
Close to the gate, across the road, is the round 
Chapel of S. Giovanni in Oleo, where the Evangelist 
was dipped in boiling oil. The Tomb of the Sciplos 
is near at hand. 

8. Giovanni de' Florentini{%t. John of the Floren- 
tines), on the Tiber, at the north end of Via Glulia, 
nearthe remains of Pons Triumphalis. Built from 
Sansovino's designs, at the charge of a Florentine 
brotherhood, but not finished till 1724, by A. Galilei. 
The interior is by Delia Porta. Notice 8. Rosa's 
Deliverance of 88. Cosmus and Damianns St. 
Jerome and St. Francis d'Assisi, both by Santa 
Titi, a Florentine artist. B. Cellini's l)rother. 
Francesco, is buried here. Near this is the Church 
of 8anC Eligio, the patron of goldsmiths. 

8. Giovanni in Laterano. (Sec page 180.) 

SSj Giovanni e Paolo, on the Celian, in a fine 
situation, facing the Palatine. A modern church, 
handsomely restored in 1880 by Cardinal Howard, 
on the site of one of the fourth century, dedicated 
to two brothers beheaded by Julian the Apostate. 
Its Ionic portico was built by the EngUsh Pope, 
Brakespeare. The convent is resorted to by 
e^ercisti, or persons disposed to pious meditation. 
It has a fine palm, which, with the scenery around, 
as well as other parts of Rome, is described in 
Madame de Stagl's Corinne. 

8. Girolamo della Caritd, Via di Monserrnto, 
founded In the fourth century, and rebuilt by 
Borromini. St. Philip resided and founded his In- 
stitute here. Communion of St. Jeix>mc, copied by 
Cammuccinl from Domenichino. St. Peter* and 
the Keys, by Muzlano. Near this is a Collegio 
Inglese, for English clerical students. 

8. Girolamo degli Schiavoni (St. Jerome of the 
Sclavonians), at Porta di Ripctta. Built by M. 
Luiighi and 0. Fontana; and redecorated, in Id^/i, 
with frescoes, by Gagliardi. 

8. Giuseppe (Joseph), Via di Capo le Case, near 
the Pincian, has an altar-piece, by A. Sacchi. The 
festa is kejit on 19th March, during Lent, with 
fri telle, &c 

8. Gitueppe de' Falegnami^ over the Mamertine 
J'rfsoo, beloagM to the corporatiim of carpenters, 

and has C. Maratta's first work-^tbc Birth of Christ. 

*8. Gregorio Magna, on the Celian, facing the 
Palatine and the Septizonitun of the Palace of the 
Caesars. Erected by Gregory the Great, in the- 
seventh century ; rebuilt, 1754, by Ferrari, on the 
site of St. An(irew'8. Gregory lived in his own. 
house, on the Clivus Scaurl. It contains sixteen 
ancient pillars, froin the old church. The front is* 
by Soria. In St. Andrew's Chapel, one of three 
attached to this church, arc two fine frescoes, viz., 
Guido's St. Andrew Adorning the Cross, and 
Domenichino's Flagellation of St. Andrew; with 
a stone altar-piece, by Pomerancio. . A fresco of 
St. Sylvia, the mother of Gregory, by Gnido, is in 
another chai)el. There is a painting of her by 
John Parker, an English artist. They show, also, . 
St. Gregory's marble table and chair, and his cell.' 
Statue of St. Gregory, by N. Cordicri. There was 
an inscription here (since rraioved) to ** Impera, ' 
cortisana Romana," an Aspasia of the age of Leo 
X. In the colonnade is the tomb of Sir E. Came, 
Henry VIII.'s envoy, jointly with Cranmer, in 
1530. The detached chapels of S. Silvia, S. Andrew, 
and S. Barbara are shown by the Sacristan, foe, 
50 cents. An inscription on the wall records that 
this mona«rtery produced not only St. Gregory, who 
was abbot here, but St. Augustine, the Apostle of 
the English; St. Lawrence, St. Mollitas, and St. 
Honorlus, Archbishops of Canterbury; St. Pauli* 
nus, Archbishop of York; St. Justus, Bishop of- 

8. Grifognono, in Trastevere, was founded in the 
fifth century, and rebuilt 1623, several granite pil- 
lars, from temples hereabouts, being employed. 

8. IgnaziOy in Piazza 8. Ignazio, between the 
Corso and the Pantheon, with its convent, is on the 
site of a temple of Juterna, sister of Tumus, and 
adjoins the olJ Jesuit Collegio Romano. A church* 
of travertine, begtm 1626, in honour of St. Ignatius 
de Loyola, the architects being Algardi andGrassi. 
Pozzi, another Jesuit, adorned the high altar and 
vault, which is regarded as a triumph of perspec- 
tive, when seen from a special point of view. 
Notice a statue and bas-relief of Louis de Gonzaga, 
and the tomb of Gregory XV., both by lAsgrot ;, 
also of Cardinal LudovisL, the founder of the 
church. The time ball in front is regulated from 
the Observatory, and its fall gives the signal for 
the mid-day gun at 8. Angelo. 

8. Isidoro, on Monte Pincio, belongs to the Irish 
Franciscans, whose annals have been written hj 
Dr. Wadding, who is buried here. Built 1623. 
Notice paintings by A. Sacchi and C. Maratta, and 
a slab to Curran's daughter. 

8. Lorenzo, a basilica. (See Churches outside 
Rome, page 193.) 

8. Lorenzo in 2>amaM>, next the Cancel leria, near 
Via del Pellegrino, a church of the third century ;- 
rebuilt 1405, by Bramonte, and restored lttl6 and 
1880. Portico, by Vignola. Altar-piece, on slate, 
by Zuccari. Tombs of A. Curo, a translator of the 
JEneid, and of Chancellor Rossi, assassinated in 
1848, on the steps of the CanccUafia, before the 
Pope's flight to <ia^^, 

Route 32;} 



S. Lorenzo in Fonie^ or in Panisperna, on the 
Viminal, a small church next the Santa Chiara Con- 
vent, on the site of the house of St. Hippolytus, a 
convert of St. Lawrence, who was martyred here. 
It has a large fresco, by P. Cati, and a miraculous 

S. Lorenzo in Lucina, opposite Palazzo Ruspoli, 
in Piazza di S. Lorenzo, on the site of the Temple 
of Juno Lucina. Rebuilt by Paul V. Guide's 
Crucifixion, at the high altar ; Tomb of N. Poussin, 
erected by Chateaubriand. At the comer of Via 
delle Vite, in the Corso, was the arch of Marcus 
Aurelius, pulled down by Alexander VII. 

S. Lorenzo in Miranda, in the Forum, on the site 
of the cella of the Temple of Antoninus and 
Faustina, of which ten venerable pillars form the 
portico of the church, each 50 feet high. 

S. Luigi <fe' Francesi (St. Louis of the French), 
cast of Piazza Navona, near the Madama Palace, 
on the site of the Baths of Nero. The Church of 
the French residents, built by Catherine de' Medici, 
in 1589, from the designs of Delia Porta. Notice 
a fresco of the Acts of St. Cecilia, by Domenichino. 
A copy of RaphaersSt. Cecilia, by Guido; Assump- 
tion of the Virgin, by Bassano, at the high ultar. 
St. Louis's Chapel, designed by Plautilla Bricci, a 
female artist. Monuments of Claude Lorraine, by 
Lemohie ; and of the father-in-law of Sobieski, a 
priest, who became Cardinal when 82 years old, 
and died at 105. 

La Maddelena, near the Pantheon. Carvings in 
wood. S. Lor^izo Giustiani, by L. Giordano, a 
rapid painter (surnamed II Fulmine, or Lightning), 
who is said to have done this work in a night. 

Madonna de' Monti, on the north-west side of the 
Esquiline, hasMuziano's Birth of Christ, and faces 
the Convent della Vive Sepolte. 

*JSJS. Marcellino e Pietro, or Tor Pignattara, out- 
side Porta Maggiore, on Via Labicana, is called 
the Tomb of Santa Helena, Constantine's mother. 
It is a round thick building, similar to the tomb of 
Caecilia Metella, on a basement (containing the 
orypts), about 100 feet square. The circular part 
is in two storeys ; the lower, about 66 feet diameter, 
surrounded by eight niches; and the upper, having 
the niches internal and pierced by windows. The 
roof is made of terra-cotta pots, called pignatte, 
from which the common name is derived. Here a 
sarcophagus, now in the Vatican, was found. 

S. Marcdlo, in Piazza di S. Marcello, on the 
Corso, facing the Simonetta Palace. Founded 
in honour of Pope Marcellus, rebuilt, 1519, by 
Sansovino, except the front, which is by C. Fontana, 
and since modernised. Tomb of Cardinal Gonsalvi, 
the companion of Pius VII., at Fontuineblcau. 

3. Marco, part of Palazzodi Vcnezla. Rebuilt 
(and with a front added in 1455, by G. da Majano), 
on the site of a basilica, founded in the fourth 
century, by Pope Marco, who is buried here. 
Notice some early Christian epitaphs, intheportico, 
and a mosaic in the tribune. C. Maratta's Adora- 
tion of the Wise Men, and the tomb of L. da 
pi^ro, 01)0 of the ei^rlies^ vrorks of Cfuiovf^. ^ 

colossal female bust by the aide of the churob is 
called ''Madama Lucrezia." Op St. Mark's day all 
the Roman clergy used to walk hence to St. Peter's, 
Santa Margherita, in Via della Lungarctta, in 
Trastevere, a small church near the Royal Tobacco, 
Factory and the Convent of the Sisters of the 
Sacred Heart. 

* Santa Maria degll Angell (St. Mary of the 

Angels), one of the largest in Rome, belonging to 
tlio Ciuthusian House, in the Cella Calidaria, or 
Pinacutheca of the Baths of Diocletian, near the 
railway station. Built for Benedict XIV., by 
Vanvitelli, after a church on a more elaborate plan 
had been commenced by M. Angelo, for Pius IV. 
The interior is some steps lower than the ground 
outside, a defect which M. Angelo had proposed to- 
correct by raising the floor 6 or 7 feet, and covering 
tlie bases of eight ancient granite colunms, 
which are preserved. Other eight columns were 
cleared from bricks in a modem restoration. . The 
length of the church is 200 feet. Vanvitelli made 
a circular chamber (or laconicum) of the Baths, 
with a vestibule for his church. Notice a fresco 
of the Martyrdom of Stephen, by Domenichino, 
transferred from St. Peter's in 1756. C. Maratta's 
Baptism of Christ ; Costanzi's St. Peter and Tabitha; 
Pomerancio's Death of Ananias and Sappbira; 
Houdon's statue of St. Bruno, of which Clement 
XIV. said, "He would speak if the rules of his 
onier did not forbid him." Under the vestibule 
arc two chapels, containing the tombs of C. Maratta 
and S. Rosa, facing those of Cardinals Parisio and 
Alciati. The epitaph on the former states that 
while his body is gone to the earth, his fame fills 
the world and his soul has ascended to heaven. 
The Certosa cloister, behind the church, was 
designed by M. Angelo. The colunms, to the 
numl)er of 100, are of travertine. Many remidnsi 
of the baths are seen here. To the left of the 
church are the Deaf and Dumb Institution, a large, 
workhouse for the poor, the site of the Praetorian 
Camp, now a barrack, and the ofilces of the 
Ministry of Finance, in v ia Venti Settembre. 

Santa Maria delV Anima, in Via dell' Anima, 
near Piazza Navona, belongs to the Germans. 
Built by B. Peruzzi, and composed of three naves 
of the same height. It has a Corinthian portico; 
a painting by G. Romano, at the high altar; tomb 
of Adrian VI., by Peruzzi; tomb of Holstenins, a 
Catholic convert and Vatican librarian. The 
Chm-ch of 8. Niccolb, belonging to the natives of, 
Lorraine, faces Santa Maria. 

Santa Maria in Aquiro, near the Capranica Col- 
lege and Theatre, founded in the fifth century, by 
Anastosius I., on the site of the Temple of Jutema, 
a Goddess of Health. "Aquiro" comes from the. 
old Equiria, or horse-races, in the Campus Martius.; 
An orphan asylum, founded by Loyola, is attached' 
to the church. 

Santa Maria in Ara Cceli. (See Ara Cceli, on 
page 183.) 

Santa Maria AvenHna, on tt^e A'^entine, olose to 
S. Alessio, belongs to the Prior of the Kniss^ 



[Section 2. 

Malta. Cloie by the church is the Villa Magistrale, 
with portraits of all the Grand Masters. Open 
Wednesday aad Saturday. 

Santa Maria in Campitetti, in the Piazza of that 
name, west of the Capitol, or Campidoglio (by cor- 
ruption, Campitelli), near the site of the carccrcs, 
or stables, of the FUminian Circus (Piazza Mor- 
gana). Built (1658) by Rainaldi; the nave being 
supported by twenty-two pillars, from the Portico 
of Octavia, which stood hard by. It is sometimes 
called Santa Maria in Portico. Notice a tomb, 
with lions supporting a pyramid, having '' umbra'* 
on one and "nihil" on the other. St. Anne, by L. 
Gordona. A cross of shining alabaster in the cupola. 
Near this is a fountain by Delia Porta, on the site of 
the Delubrum, or lustral fountain, from the Temple 
of Apollo, which occupied a place here, along with 
the Temple and Column of Bellona. The Oblata 
Convent of Tor de* Speech! is also close by, next 
the steps to the Capitol. 

Santa Maria in CarinU, Via del Tempio della 
Pace, behind the Basilica of Constantine, to the 
north-east of the Forum. A small church, so 
called from the Carinas quarter (the ground took 
the form of a ship's hull) in which Pompey lived 
in the Villa Rostrata, a house adorned with the 
beaks of a ship. 

Santa Maria in Campo Santo^ behind St. Peter's, 
on the site of Nero's Circus, now the German 
Cemetery. St. Helena, it is said, covered the spot 
with holy earth from Mount Calvary. Caravaggio's 
Descent from the Cross; an Infant, by Qnesnoy, 
or Fiammingo, a Brussels artist. The old Palace of 
the Inquisition (SS. Uffizio), near it, is now a 

Santa Maria ddla Concezione^ or Santa Maria del 
Cappucciui, see Cappuceini (supra). 

Santa Maria ddla Consolazione is attached to the 
Consolazione Hospital, for wounded persons. 

Santa Maria in Cosmedin^ Piazza Bocca della 
Verith, on the site of the Temple of Fortune. 
It is marked by a square campanile of seven 
storeys. 110 feet high, only 15 feet broad. Founded 
by Pope Dionysius, and rebuilt by Pope Adrian, 
782, and again, by Gregory IX., in the thirteenth 
century. "Cosmedln" is said to be a corruption 
of cotmos, ornamental. In the portico is a 
gaping mouth (bocca), or mask, of marble, into 
which, as the story goes, If a liar puts his arm he 
cannot draw it out again. Hence the name of the 
Piazza. The interior is divided into three naves 
by antique columns, with a mosaic pavement of 
Alexandrine work. The high altar is made of 
Egryptian granite. An ancient crypt under the 
choir was part of the temple. Near this is the 
round Temple of Hercules. 

Santa Maria in Domnica, or Santa Maria della 

JVjtr/ce//a; bo called from the ancient marble boat 

Jn front of it, near Nero'a Aqueduct and 

«««^*? Stefano Rotondo. Rebvdlt by Leo X., from 

is? ^ ''•*<swii; incJudiag eighteen graniU pll- 

»^ /*ro o/ porphyry, from the ol4 ohitfch 

founded by Paschalis I. ; with a frieze, painted by 
G. Romano. A mosaic of the year 817. 

Santa Maria Egitiaea^ or the Armenian Church, 
near Ponte Rotto, is on the site of the Temple of 
Fortuna Virilis (?), one of the few antiquities of 
the Republic, now incorporated with it. It is 
constructed of tufa and travertine, the pillars being 
adorned with stucco ornaments and frieze, with 
festoons of candelabra and bulls' heads. In the 
portico is a model of the Temple at Jerusalem. The 
altar-piece, by F. Zuccari. Facing it is a building 
called the House of Rienzi, or of Pilate. 

Santa Maria di Loreto, Piazza Trajano. De- 
signed by Sangallo. Statue of St. Susanna, by 
Fiammingo. Near this church is another dedicated 
to the Santissimo Nome di Maria. 

Santa Maria Maggiore(t^e page 181.) 

Santa Maria ad Martyres is the ecclesiastical 
name of the Pantheon since its dedication in 608. 
Another name more generally given to the 
Pantheon is Santa Maria Rotonda. 

*Santa Maria sopra Minerva (on Minerva), near 
the south-east of the Pantheon, wa^t attached to 
the chief convent of the Dominicans, whose 
general presided over the Santo Uffizio, or Inquisi- 
tion, now the Ministry of Education. Rebuilt in 
the fourteenth century on the site of the Temple 
of Minerva, and remarkable as one of the 
very few Gothic Churches in Rome, simple 
in style, but much spoiled by modem Pal- 
lauian restoration. In front are marked the heights 
of the waters of the Tiber in the floods from 1422 
to 1698; that of 1530 is recorded by B. Cellini, in 
his ' Life." Notice a *Christ Bearing his Cross, by 
M. Angelo; Statue of Urban VII., by Buonvicino; 
Altar-picture, by F. Lippi, or Beato Angelico; 
Frescoes, by F. Lippi; rich Tomb of Paul IV.; 
Picture of C. Maratta, in the Altieri Chapel, with 
a Crucifixion, by A. Sacchi : Tombs of Leo X. and 
Clement XII., by A. Sangallo ; with one of Cardinal 
Bembo, and another of Fra Angelico, the monk 
and artist (beginning "Hie jacet Ven. PIctor"); 
Tomb of St. Catherine of Siena; Gothic Tomb of 
Bishop Durand. covered with mosaics, Ac. ; Tomb 
of Benedict XIII. 

The Biblioteea Casanalensis of Cardinal Casanate 
is a part of the old Convent. Open daily, except 
Sundays. This library has 200,000 volumes, and 
comes next in size to the Vatican. Facing the 
church is an Obelisk on an elephant's back. 

Miss Catlow describes a ceremony in this churchy 
at which the Pope was present : — " Again the 
music sounded. *Dunois the Brave' was played 
when General Guyon entered; but now it was a 
more solemn air. Hundreds of people poured In; 
and soon we saw, coming down the opposite aisle, 
two large fans of white ostrich feathers stuck full 
of peacock's eyes; an emblem either of the Pope*f 
all-seeing power, or denoting that all eyes are 
upon Yv\tu. TYvcTv twa^ Pvo None, borne aloft in 
hU c^aVr, >o'S *i tvwxDXiw o\ \BfcTk. vQ^f^vdVA,^ the 
1 poles. U* \ooV.^^ %o Wife WW ^w\.«tv ^sWi «« \^ 

i SOME — CnOftCHII. 

,la Maria dtl «mw (i.e^ wMplng), In Vl« 
fsMwnls. DMr tbc OhctU: (ucilliil fniini 

on!^ BomwlniB. a took «a> held bcforo hLui from I Chapel. 

-Jrchnrch. HI 

HKlerriMd I™ Ber- 


ibolri CHsntts'i 

illalDrst.CBlherlDe,Sl. Andnw 

DD tbe higli 
re which (he 

<l, it!., bj 
la Uarte 

B, Diego, bF A. CiTiMi. TwonorgUB, ili.. Tope ' to [he "psrto d 

biirl«dh«ra- TAbema Herlto 

Banla Maria in ManUt^li, near Fonte ai>tn, bnllt latema meriari 

mbant tbt jeu ),«<W, with a mOBale of Ihal dau. veterani, and In 

It bolongiw the Tfachlng Brother!. I finl marked the i 

»iiUiiJ*ap(a de/r Orto. in TramoMre, tonndcri bTlnnocfnt II. 

on [he .lie ol Servim Tnlllin'i Ttmple of Fortuna Sisr. added In 

Pone. In tbe Gardeni (Onl) ol Csaar; uid built ' ^^ granite eol 

by O, Homano and M. I.nnKhl for memberi ol „g„^ ^j,i, , 

IlngDlsbvd by their ereilB, via., a cock lor the j serapla. The J 

mil iflvlde 
^tumprloii, I 

ol CJirlttendom. Iti (ronl ii a circnlar colonnade. 

Kotlee Eaphacl-i calcbrated freteo of the •Sibrli. „ , -a.™ v-wbi 

■amewbat tn the .tjle of M. Angelo, who deilgnod i «w^>n^ « ^^ CM«a ^'™°;\ '■*:^^V-»«.1» 

Saala^Mtiria In TWrio, new Via Foll"'AnBall 
plmi church foonded itf Belluiiue aboni-etn . 
la Jlarinfn Vimki*itt,\Ji*«.-^w 



[Section 2. 

hid Diaiy, 1045); U tlie Church of the Orutoriaiis, 
or Pilippini, a society founded by S. Philip Neri 
by whom a musical entertainment of a religious 
character is given every Sunday evening, half-an- 
hour after Ave Mai*ia. None but men are admitted. 
From this institution we derive the word Oratofio. 
It is one of the finest cliurches in Rome, and was 
rebuilt accordinj,' to tlie plans of Borromlni. The. 
interior decorated by P. da Cortona. Notice a 
Virgin and Child, and two other paintings, l)y 
llubens, at the high altar. Copy of Caravaggio's 
.Descent from the Cross. Guide's fresco of St. 
Philip Neri, and a statue of him, by Algardi. 
Tombs of Cardinals Baronius and Maury. Above 
the oratorlum of the convent is a valuable Libniry 
— open Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. 

Santa Maria in Via Lata, in the Corso. Kebuilt 
1662, on the site of an Arch of Claudius (pulled 
down 1485) and of the primitive Church of S. 
Ciriaco. Here, it is said, St. Paul, with St. Luke 
for his companion, lived in "his own hii-ed house," 
with the soldier who guarded him. It is orna- 
mented with marbles, &c., and has an oratory in 
the crypt below. 

Santa Maria della Vittoria, in the Via di Venti 
Settembre, opposite to the Acqua Felice near the 
Baths of Diocletian ; founded in 160.!>, alter a defeat 
of the Turks ; the front, by Soria, being added by 
Cardinal Borghese, hi return for a present of the 
statue of the Hermaphrodite, which had been 
found here. The interior is the work of C. 
Mademo. The flags were taken at the battle of 
Lepanto. Notice i)omenichino's Virgin and St. 
Francis; Guercino's Trinity; and Guido's frescoes, 
with his Crucifixion. Bemhii's St. Teresa in 
Ecstacy, with an Angel about to thrust an arrow 
through her heart. The high altar is new since 

SS. Martina e Luca, comer of Via Bonella. Two 
churches, the lower very ancient, founded by 
St. Sylvester, the other built, seventeenth centuiy, 
by P. da Cortona, who bequeathed 100,000 crowns 
to the chui'ch, and adorned its ancient crypt. It 
telongs to the Academy of St. Luke. 

S. Martino ai Monti, on the Esquiline, near the 
'^Baths of Titus. A fine church, restored in 1650, 
1)7 Filippini, on the site of one of the sixth century. 
It contains twenty-four antique pillars, with instru- 
ments of martyrdom in the frieze, frescoes by 
Poossin, &c., and a high altar designed by P. da 
Cortona, who also designed a subterranean chapel, 
or oratory, in which the remains of Popes St. 
Sylvester and St. Martin are kept. Here the Pope 
presided over two councils. It communicated with 
the ancient Baths of Hadrian. 

SS. Nereo e Aehilleo^ on the Via di Porta Sebas- 

tiano, near the Baths of Caracalla, founded, 523, by 

John I., to the memory of two martyrs under 

Domitimi, and rebuilt in the ninth century. It 

WSB AjraJn rebuilt in the sixteenth century, but 

joot modernised. The arcades are supported by 

^pfi ootasron plera. ifotice the marble work of 

^A ^<^^ ^^5ar, resdiDf desk, ifcc., ornamented 

S. yiccolu in Curcere, near the Tiber, f«)unded in 
the ninth century, and rebuilt in 1855, on the site of 
the three Temples of Juno Sospita, Hope, and Pity, 
erected hi the Republican period, over some earlier 

Prisons, in the Fornm Olitorium, or Herb Market, 
t lias three naves, with columns from the temples. 

Sarif Oinobono, in Via della Consolazionc, was 
granted to the Tailors' Corporation, 1578, before 
which it was called S. Salvatore in Porticu. 
Paintings by C. Maratta and Baciccio. 

*S. Onofrio, on the Janiculum, above Porta S. 
Spirito, is the head-quarters of the Girolammi (or 
followers of St. Jerome), where their Prior- 
General resides. Built in the fifteenth century, 
and noticeable for the Tomb of Tauo, who found 
refuge and died in the convent adjoining. 1595. It 
is near the door, not far from Domenichino's Vir- 
gin and Child. Ilis effigy, by Fabris, is the gift of 
Pio Nono. Here are A. CJarracci's Madonna; and 
a Madonna by L. da Vinci; d'Arpino's frescoes. 
Notice also, the Tombs of Guidi, the poet, who 
died here; Barclay, the author of "Argenis"; 
Mezzofanti, the great linguist, who died 1848. In 
Tasso's Cell they show a mask taken from his face, 
his inkstand, girdle of bark, chair, and an auto- 
graph letter. His favoui'ite oak was injured by 
storms in 1842 and 189 1 . In the corridor is a fresco 
of the Virgin, by da Vinci. The gardens command 
a fine prospect of Rome and its environs. 

S. PancraziOy near the Porta di S. Pancrazio, 
on the summit of the Janiculum. Built by 
Symmaohus, about the sixth century. It was 
much damaged in the siege of 1849, and is of no 
great interest. 

8. PantaJeo, near the Cancellaria, in Via di 8. 
Pantalco. Monument of S. Joseph Calasanzio, a 
Spaniard, who established the first school for poor 
children at Rome, under the religions order of 
Scolopi, a corruption of seuole pie. 

S. Paolo fuori le Mura. (See page 182.) 

8. Paolo alia Kegola, near Ponte Sisto, formerly 
called the Scuola (school) di S. Paolo, because St. 
Paul came here to teach the people ; living cloM 
by in a house pointed out by ancient tradition as 
his "own hired house." St. Frances, by Parmi- 
giano. The Church of S. Salvatore in Cixmpo 
faces this one. 

S. Paolo alle Tre Fontane (St. Pa\il at the Three 
Foimtains), on the same road as the new Basilica 
of S. Paolo (page 182), a little farther from Rome. 
It was built, 1590. by Della Porta, on the spot 
where St. Paul was beheaded. They say that his 
head made three bounds, and that three Jets of 
water sprung up, which were enclosed by the 
church. Close to this are the Church of Santa 
Maria SccUa Cceli, an octagon, bnilt about 1683-90, 
with some early mosaics by Zucca, and the Church 
of 88. Vin^ienzo ed Anastasio, a Gothic building ((m 
the plan), with three naves. It was built about 
790, and, though of brick, with few omameoti, 
it shows ''both externally and internally an 
TmSiormity of design, and a desire to make eveiy 
paTi OTTv&tnexvJuB^^ \.^ibA. \xq^'^<^% «k very pleaalnf 
i effect:'— ForgwMO*. 

Sonte 32.] 
St. PETE K 3. 

id by CoiHtm- 

L'sTruiafleniratlun now in 

tar JnlioB II., and restored, in' 1/M. liy Foutniin. 
Tb« DBvei an sniiported by twEoly antique pillua. 
It has * MroonhsBra of the "Holy Moocabfcs,'' 
Hen !■ ttie (bowdi 'Slalue d/Uoki, by M. Angslo. 

by tbat Pope, in IBM, bot ne«r finiahed ;' In hct, 
the remit wu the banding of 3t. Peters. Tlu 
other BgBiBs, o( Ellai. Ac, ue by • pupil of the 
groatniMler. Notlco. aiso,Doinenlchhio'8 Deliver- 

&uto/V(uIHli,neu9iuililHailaMBggiare. An 
old charcli, founded In 820; rebuilt by B. Carlo 
Bomnieo, and dlrfded Into three nsyes by ilxleen 
granite ijoltimni. Notice the antlfloe slepi of red 
.niuW* Mockh leading to the trlbdne, Which Napo- 

moiHlcI of Ihe ninth centnry; Zneehcro't Cbrlst 
Bearing the Cinai, at the high altar; G. Romano i 
naeellallon. A pillar, or holy colnmn brought 

SUl^to be'l'hat lo whiih Christ wns Iwnnd to he 

an two confraternities of nieo and women in eaeh 
of the fifty wriihes In Soma. The SrsI hidlcathm 
iraa a nued erndBi tmetiing at tba door. On 
MtlHu- Me of tht eblei rHnodniUry walked cum 

narly of tfniaies in black closed the pro 
The three or six in tiont were ovldcnllj' lai 

esHliiif eiiiercd slowly at the west dooi 

deserted locality, 

Euly'chlfl^^^ m MO. it has twenty-fo 


of Ihtrty-one iters leads lo the crj-pt below, w 
the relics are kept. This ohnrch Isusually d. 

marMe, or pietrapldocchio. Some of the mosaics 



[Section ^» 

originally 1,100 feet lottg, ftnd 225 feet wide. Leo 
X. built the loggie on the west side of the Cortile 
Damaso; Paul III. erected the Pauline Chapel; 
Sixtus v., the transrerse gallery for the Library, 
now dividing the two principal courts within, and 
began the east side of the Damaso Court. Clement 
XIV. and Pius VI. built the Pio-Clementino 
gallery; Pius VII., the Braccio Nuovo, another 
transverse near that of Sixtus V.; and Gregory 
XVI. added the Etruscan Museum. 

For entrance, apply at the Portone di Bronzo, 
on the right of the Vestibule of St. Peter's. Open 
every day, except Sundays, and f§te days, from 
10 to 3; Saturdays, 10 to 2. The visitor must 
take a supply of 60 cent, pieces, &c., as fees are 
the rule. The guides are of little use. The 
permesso requires to be renewed for each visit. 

The Vatican Museum is unequalled in the 
world. Besides the Sistlne and Pauline Chapels, 
the Loggie, Stanze, and Phiacoteca, with their 
display of works of art, it comprises the Museum 
proper, viz.. as the Gallery of Inscriptions ; Chiara- 
M onti and Braccio NuovoMuseum ; Pio-Clementino 
Museum; the Square and Round Vestibules; 
Meleager Room; Belvedere Court ; Room of Ani- 
malStatuary; Statuary Gallery; Bust Room; Cabi- 
net of Masques ; Muses' Chamber ; Round Room ; 
Greek Cross Room; Biga Chamber; Candelabra 
Gallery; Map Gallery; Egyptian Museum; Etrus- 
can Museum; Room of Archives; Library; Museum 
of Christian Antiquities; Papyrus Cabinet ; Aldo- 
brandiui Chamber; Cabinet of Medals; Borgia 
Room. The Statuary, aid Egyptian and Etruscan 
Museums are closed on Thursdays. 

Opinions naturiHy differ, according as the critical 
faculty is exercised or not. Thus one authority 
of eminence writes as follows: — "Even the Vatican 
statue gallery disappointed me. Amid acres of 
80-80 statues and nameless busts, the ey9 wanders 
in vain for something to admire. It finds all it 
craves in the Apollo and Laococin and the Torso, 
but it grows weary long before it reaches those 
famous works. The critical faculty begins to flag 
after it has been exercised upon so many hundred 
objects, few of which are very good, and none of 
which are first-rate. To discover traces of modem 
handling is a sad discouragement. The beautiful 
little head of the young Augustus (very like the 
youth ul Napoleon) has tieen chiselled all over, by 
a modem hand. The tooling of the fifteenth cen- 
tury artists is to be traced in every direction. So 
many supplemental noses, fingers, feet, hands, arms, 
beads, at annoy you; and I was not impatient 
for a second visit." 

Such a work as Brauh's Ruins and Museums of 
Rone will be useful to the visitor who wishes to 
enter upon a critical examination of the objects 
before him, and to give good reasons for admii ing 
the best of them. 'I'he Lo<rgic of Raphael, which 
n»r0 Aar^/y reeoffttisabh, have bem restored. ! 

On the other hand, *"There In, " iay^ Mendelssohn, 
'^0 ttnerular «;/</ fcrtunite peculiarity here, ^ 
»i?'5£SLf '//'f '^'^J^^" have bem. a thousand time* \ 
wr, an9rlb0d^ ct^lpd, and criticised, In praise or 

blame, by the greatest masters and the most insig" 
nificant .scholars, cleverly or stupidly ; still, they 
never fail to make a fresh and sublime impression 
on all, affecting each person according to his own 

The Sala Regia, a room by Sangallo, ornamented 
with frescoes, including Gregory XI. returning 
from Avignon, by Vasari, and the Pauline Chapel 
(see below) can only be seen by applying to the 
custodians of the Sistine Chapel. 

At the first landing on the Scala Regia, a passage 
leads to a small flight of steps, ascending which 
the visitor sees a small red baize door on the right; 
this leads to 

The Cappella Sistlna, so called after its 
founder, Sixtus IV., was built by B. Pintelli, 140 
feet long and 60 wide. It is a dark, heavy- 
looking, oblong room, remarkable for the frescoes 
of M. Angelo, including the celebrated Lcut Judg- 
ment, at the entrance, and the Prophets and Sibyls. 

The *LaBt Judgment, executed 1533-41, is 
faded and decaying. Some older frescoes, by 
Perugino, were painted over by M. Ang< lo, to make 
room for this great work. On the left of the Christ 
(copied from Fra Angellco's, at Orvieto), the 
wicked fall, thunderstruck with terror, through 
the air, and are seized by the devils from 
below. All the attitudes of the body, and all 
the passions and feelings of the soul, are said to 
be expressed in this work. One of the figures 
in hell, with an ass's ears, is Biagio, master of 
the ceremonies to Paul III., put here by the artist 
for affecting to be shocked at the naked figures in 
the picture. When he complained, the Pope said: — 
" Had it been in purgatory, I could have got him 
out, but being in hell, it is quite beyond my 
power." At a great height overhead is the faded 
ceiling, painted 1508-13 for Julius II., many years 
before the Last Judgment. It contains three series 
of frescoes; when Raphael saw these he thanked 
Grod he had been born In the same age as so great 
an artist, and also changed his own style ; but they 
are unfortunately blackened by time and the smoke 
of candles. The first series includes the separation 
of Light and Darkness, the creation of the Sun and 
Moon, the Earth and Waters, of Adam and Eve 
(ihe latter under the Creator's arm), the 
history of Noah and the Deluge, the Almighty 
being personified. In the next series are the Pro- 
phetx. Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Joel, Isaiah, Daniel, 
Zachariah. and Jonah; alternating with the 
Cumaian, Delphic, and oihor Sibyls. In the third 
series are, Ahusucrus, Esther, David and Goliath, 
Judith, and Holoferncs. with many other figures 
to fill up. Down the sides of the chapel are several 
frescoes, by Botticelli, Perugino, «fcc., with twenty- 
eight Popes, by Botticelli, between the windows. 

Pauline Chapel, built by Sangrallo, for Paul 
III., is a li«:hter and more cheerful room than the 
Sistine. Two frescoes, by M. Angelo— the Con- 
version of St. Paul and the Martyrdom of St. Peter; 
w\t\\ o\\\M*\u the cell in sr by Zucchero. Ac. 

la«uVi\iC Itowv \\\fe 'a\%\\\\%^\v^v^»«^wd a'oendlnf 

irH« lormeHy a eh«pe!, ■ 

The Btasze FrsBCoea ■ 

la Bluiie Of BapIUMi. 

jiled hy the Papal 
'a dtlla Sifoalura (where 

IT), Perniino (hli masl 

L .»<! ChrirtLan 

nd Apotio and the 


r Jorisp 


Bllfnl fltrare. 

( Tsdiperanoe, For.liuile, 

cludee T 


and Gre 

gory IK.' and the 


rem ontctin?), Ite 


,1 ™bjec 

o( tb» Temple ol 


em by angeU 

on to^the millt^ 

M of Julius 1 

, whoa 

The her mblectt ■ 


of Leo !L, siopDine At 

ila at the Galea of 

Bleedlne Hon) of 

BQl.™», Julio. 

performing maM; 

xauple o( R 


eolouring. 4lh- 
.lon tt liio rettaM 


of Leo 

X., after Ihs 

ct of ttt Ihre 


llghU, itom Ibe 

la dt'ChlaroMUrl. and th* 

Loggia (plural of logt^ia), one oier the other, 

coHtJnned bj; incceedinK arcUileclj, Tbey 'were 
painted by Raphael, and repreienl Ihe principal 

For enlranee lo (he PtCtlira Oftllsry (/" 

Raphaera greateHt worlt, the 
•Transflgnratlon— painted for clement Til,. 

erj). The Traniflenrition 

Other pictures are Ihe following ;- 
^Baphaeri 'Madonna dl Foligno. 

ilB Coronation of the Vltghi. •■ Hen 

the effect 'of tbe three diiferent llghU, from Ibe 

80 crowns, and neKlecteil till 11. Sreal meriu were 

The third roo'm. or Simla iui IwouUq (flnt In 

proclaimed by FouMln. J. SarcAC'Vlalon of Ro- 
mualdo, which rank, among the "foor great 

orderl contains the Dnrnlng of the BorgD, or 
Kibnrbi of the city (817). built by Fope Leo. The 

picture. ■' of Home. He 1. .iitlng under a tnt'u 

Ihe Triley of Camaldoll. telling the vision lo uma 
monki of bl. order. />oib«b'i Martyrdom ot St. 

Pope drive, back the with the .Ign of the 

Eraraio.: a repulsive plclare, like many other 

Leo IV.'i Vletory over the Saracen., at OslLa. 

Jerome and St. Thoioat Caranw*.*.' Christ In 

TVHoB'f' 'Madonna and Child, with St. Seba.- 

''TSelm f ^. or aWD di CoitaMino. \s the work 

Ihre'e etage^ aa In the TrMufiguratlon. " Belowt 

of C, Romano, F. Pennl, and olhor^ from Raphael*. 

Jjateran, 1858, Here are, Irt— Conalnntine'. Vlc- 

Notice the ugly Jeatar with a helmet op. Std- 
Cauiitntuift Dtmilon 9t lb* Cliy t* the Pope. 

lee let, »lM«»i« ta ^tnftV «A •l-mtj.w.™- >gqg 


by Migeln, who 

d mrroondeiJ by Migeln, 

eBrlandi. The Ho^ Child li 
IhcH. wid Kemg » If iU»nt tn crDwn tl 

the moment. The ointraat Iwtwoon the < 
.ufferinK hclgw, whence 8t. BebutlHii Iw 

iraly >< 

^™?.'?h"aoiy 8,l!S.;lr 
whom eminitfii a bright Blruunlng Light. thu< 

Goethe, at Ihe beslnDinE of his first visit to Rome, 


It on Aulnliow. Jfan- 
of Chrt.1. 

LS RapJutet Tapettriet, OJ 
lrstwov<9i)t fromdaslBHsbythea 

I. The>c teputdei 
were ordered by Leo X., fi>r tlie Pspat wwnmenti 

"ueat to Henry Vlll. Out of twouty-DTe cortoona 
prepued by Kaphsel and hli pujUlt, leien are now 
■I Ijouth Kenaliiglon. (Entnuice from Clie HiueuiD. 
•CO pi|;e 1*9.) 

TheprlDclpiileiilrencc to the Vatican Mnssnia 
not at present open; the viiitor must thereTore 
Mcend the stops on tbe left aide of the entrance 
to St. Peter's, pass round the Cathedral and alone 

and the Palace to the Sala delU Biei, Hog, and 

14. Oallirla Lapidaria, 01 
■ortetloni, fomnlcd by F 
by ulirlui. who died ISII. 

in tho TomlH and C&tftaomtM. 

lit ! " coluji;! " fur canjagt, and BBCli 

£ or ^ 

s added; slgnlfybig th 

Anothsr faTouritt 

[Inr.w), Christ (;e(""»l. 8™ o* ' 
lf,.(). Saviour (Stmf)." Tlie allurii 
plahied by a sajhig of TertulHan. that " 


(Arethusa. In Qod). 
PACE KT IN (monoCTam to. 
Ictorlna. In peace and In Ctarbtl. 



the soda' ma. 
epitaphs. Sey 

7 Ulba-ifron, 



wed from 




3ENE ' 3E ' NE ' VLLA QVE ' RELLA fvfot 
ICeclllos, her husband, to CecUla Plaeldiu. my 

lived happily forten years, without onv quarrel). 
At the end li the favourite monogram of lb* earlj 

A dated insorlpHon rnni thus (It is usratcbed «■ 


lU «U^h& 1At,UA (^0« 

Bonte 82.} 



(To the well-desenrlng Libera, in peace, who 
lived eight years a neophyte. Buried the third 
of the Nones of May ; Gratianas, for the third 
time, and Equitins being Consuls), «*.«., a.d. 374. 
The early Christian frescoes are as rude as their 
sculptures and inscriptions. 

There is a curious and interesting collection of 
specimens of gilt glass; most of which are de- 
scribed in P. Garucci's " Vetri Antichi." They are 
sometimes mounted in bronze, sometimes inserted 
in drinking cups, and sometimes they are found in 
the graves. 

12. Museo Chiaramonti, entered from the Atrio 
Quadrato (Square VestibuleX founded by Pius VII., 
whose surname was Chiararaonti, and who added, 
1817-23, the new gallery, or Braccio Nuovo, which 
crosses the great square of the Vatican, Raphael 
Stem being the architect. It is devoted to busts, 
bas-reliefs, and other antiques, and has a mosaic 
pavement. The objects in the Chiaramonti Corri- 
dor are placed in thirty compartments along each 
side; among which are heads of Neptune and Venus; 
bas-relief of a Gladiator, with the retiarius, &c.; 
Alexander the Great; Julius Caesar, as Pontifex; 
Sarcophagus of C. Julius Evodus; Scipio African us; 
Venus Anadyomene (coming out of the bath); 
Augustus, a fine bust found at Ostia ; Demosthenes; 
Cicero; Cupid of Praxiteles; Tiberius, a fine 
sitting figure ; Isis, a large bust, found in the Vati- 
can Garden ; Ganymede and the Eagle ; Colossal 
Hercules Sleeping, found at Villa Adriana; 
Daughter of Niobe; Satyr playing on a flute; 

'Commodus; Antiuous; iBsculapius; Nerva; Euri- 
pides; an Amazon; Minerva; and Mercury. 

13. Braccio Nuovo (or New Arm). A long and 
handsome gallery, with its antique columns from 
the tomb of Cecilia Matella, and a fine mosaic 
pavement. Here are Greek Caryatides, restored 
by Thorwaldsen. Two colossal masques oif Medusa, 
from the Temple of Venus. Basalt Vase, in the 
middle of the room. Fine Statue of Demosthenes. 
The Athlete, Apoxyomenos, at the end ; a fine statue 
found in Trastcvere in 1849 (with the bronze horse 
at the Capitol), and supposed to be the work of 
Lysippns. Colossal allegorical * Statue of the 
River Nile, surrounded by sixteen little Infants, 
emblematical of its sources. Found in Leo X.'s 
reign, and supposed to be of the time of Adrian. 
" In a reclining posture, and sixteen of the love- 
liest little children in the world creeping about 
him, which are emblematic of the rise of the river. 
Some are playing at his feet with crocodiles; 
others creeping up the body; one perched on his 
shoulder, and another tiny elf higher up still, 
seated in a cornucopia, and evidently proud of his 
elevation ; whilst tlie giant is looking complacently 
on all."— Miss Catlow' a Sketching Rambles. 

Minerva Medica, found in the sixteenth century ; 
one of the finest statues at Rome. Faun, of Praxi- 
teles. Mercury, in pentelic marble. Diana and 
JSndyraion. Apollo; the body and head were found 
at different times and in two different places. 

The group of buildings surrounding the Bel- 
ye^er^ Court, at tlie north end of the Yatloan, 

is called the Mtueo Pio-Ciementino. On one 
side is Bramante's spiral staircase ; on the other, 
the Circular Room of Simonetti. Foimded (out of 
collections made by former Pontiffs) by Popef 
Clement XIII. and XIV., but especially by Piua 
VI., in whose reign most of the rooms were erected 
by Simonetti. It contains the world-renowned 
Apollo Belvedere, the Laocoon, the Discobolus, 
and other celebrated statues. The Belvedere Court 
(so called from the view it affords) is octagonal, 
surrounded by a portico on sixteen granite columns 
and by four cabinets, in which the chief master- 
pieces arc placed. It gives a kind of* surname to 
some of them, as the Apollo Belvedere, the Belve- 
dere Mercury, and so on, by which means they 
are distinguished from others. 

11. Square Vestibule. — Arabesques, by D. da Vol- 
terra. Torso Belvedere, by ApoUonius, supposed 
to be part of a Hercules, and remarkable for its' 
muscular expression. It was greatly admired by 
M. Angelo. Tomb of Scipio Barbatus, great-grand- 
father of Scipio Africanus, with a bust crowned 
with laurels; both of peperino, or gray volcanic 
stone from the Alban Hills. When the tomb was 
opened, in 1781, the skeleton was found inside with 
a ring on the finger, which Pius VI. gave to Lord 
Algernon Percy. On the walls is an inscription 
NATVS." Another begins "HONCOINO. PLO- 
FILIOS. BARBATI . . . . " which in book Latin 
would be, ** Himc unum plurimi consentiunt Romas 
bonorum optimum f uisse virum Lucium Scipionem, 
filius Barbati . . . . " 

9. Round rMfJdtt/e.— Here is a balcony enjoy- 
ing a fine prospect (Belvedere), with an ancient 
dial, on which the points of the compass are 
marked in Greek and Latin. 

10. Meleager Room, so called from the statue of 
Meleagcr, with his Dog and the Boar's Head ; a 
group, white and fresh-looking, from the Baths of 
Titus. An ancient inscription commemorating the 
taking of Cor^ith byMummius, the Consul, 147 B.C. 

8. Belvedere Court contains four cabinets, and 
has at the entrance two Molossian dogs; in the 
centre a fountain. 1st Cabinet — The ^LaOCOdU. in 
the folds of the serpent, found 1506, on the Esquilme, 
and styled by M. Angelo a "miracle of art," 
The arm of the father and the arms of the children, 
who are trying to extricate themselves, have been 
restored. 2ud Cabinet— The "'ApollO Belvedere, 
of Carrara marble, found at Porto d'Anzio, or An- 
tium, and bought by Julius II, ; supposed to be of 
the time of Nero, and, in Canova's opinion, to have 
been copied from a bronze statue. An arm was 
restored by Montosorl i. 3rd Cabmet — The Perseus, 
with Medusa's Head, and the Creugas or two 
Boxers; both by Canova. 4th Cabinet— Belve- 
dere Mercury, discovered in the rclggtv <s^ ^•sjnSs.xsx, 
The right atm «.tvd.\«.V\.V«cA ^x^ ^'"^V^^^l'^I^S^^ 



[Section 2. 

idols,** and ordered the Belvedere to be walled oat 
o( sight. 

4. Hwm of Animal Utatvary (Sala degli Ani- 
mali). Paved with mosaics, and divided into two 
parts by a vestibule commtmicating with the Bel- 
vedere Court and the Hall of the Muses. Here 
are several groups, chiefly Grecian, as— Marine 
Centaur and a Nereid ; Lion tearing a Man ; Table 
and Cup of greenstone; Hercules killing Diomedes 
and his Horses; Commodus on horseback; large 
Lion in grey marble. 

6. Statue Gallery (Galleria delle Statue). -Cupid, 
by Praxiteles; sometimes called the Vatican 
Genius. Apollo Sauroctonos, by Praxiteles, found 
1777, on the Palatine. Posidippus and Menander, 
formerly in the Church of S. Lorenzo, in Panis- 
pema, where they were worshipped as saints. 
Ariadne Sleeping. Two very fine Candelabra, from 
Villa Adriana. An Amazon. 

6. Bust iZoom.— Several Emperors, Ac, all re- 
stored, more or less; with a colossal Jupiter. 

7. Cabinet of Masks (Gabinetto delle Maschere). 
— Paved with mosaics from Villa Adriana; and 
contains some pictures, with groups of masks, a 
Venus at the Bath, Faun in red marble, fine Adonis, 
and other antiques. 

3. Hall of the Muses, an octagon room, supported 
by sixteen marble pillars, with ancient capitals 
from Villa Adriana. Here are the Muses— Thalia, 
Polyhymnia, Ac, found at Tivoli, 1774; also 
^schines, Demosthenes. Aspasia, Pericles. &c. 

2. Round Room (Sala Rotonda), consti'ucted like 
most of the buildings at this end of the Vatican, 
by Pius VI. A handsome room, lit by six windows, 
with a mosaic pavement found at Otricoli, and a 
fine porphyry basin from the Baths of Titus, 44 
feet round. Among the busts and statuary are 
Jupiter; heads of Tragedy and Comedy, from 
Villa Adriana; Augustus sacrificing; Antlnous; 
Bacchus and a Satyr; Barberini Juno. Here 
Pio Nino placed the Mattal Hercules, a fine gilt 
bronze statue, found 1864, under an old palace, 
near the Campo del Fiori and the Famese Palace, 
and given by its owner to Pius IX. It is 12 feet 
high, and has the hair in a net. Coins of Domitian 
were discovered with it. 

1. Oreek Cross Room (Sala a Croce Greca), so 
called from its shape, as built by Simonetti. It 
has a portico of Egyptian granite, and is adorned 
with ancient mosaics and arabesques. Here are a 
red porphyry sarcophagus, from the tomb of Con- 
stantine's daughter, near the Church of S. Agnese, 
outside the walls. Another sarcophagus of the 
Empress Helena, with bas-relief of a battle. Venus 
of Praxiteles, supposed to be copied from the 
Venus on coins of Cnidus ; it is covered with a 
drapery of metal. 

Up stairs is the Biga Chamber (Sala della 

B}g'aX a circular room, so called from the marble 

JSJg-M^ or antique two-horse car, which stands in 

^^m/dd/e. Here is the IHseobofus, or quoit player, 

?m/f ^^ '**^ ^^ Myron, from Villa Adriana. 

faJ2i/!fi*" <im are modem restorations. 

^afira ^ai/ery, on me aepon^ tlorcv, b^ilU 

by Pius VI. Among the candelabra, sarcophagi, 
colunms, &c., are a sarcophagus, with bas-reliefs of 
Protesilaus and Laodamia. This is in line with the 
Oallery of Tapestries, containing the old tapestries 
executed from Raphael's cartoons, which are here, 
(18 out of 25 being originals) and accessible from 
the Candelabra Gallery (see page 196). 

For the following, closed only on Sunday, 10 to 
8, no special permit is now required. 

Egyptian Museum, entrance from the Greek 
Cross Room, close to the steps. Founded by Plus 
VII. and Gregor>' XVI. It contains colossal statues 
in granite, sarcophagi, &c. 

Above the Egyptian Museum (monnting the 
staircase lea ling to the Sala della Biga) is 

Pope Gregory's Etruscan Museum, founded by 
Gregory XVI., and opened 1837. To be seen every 
Thursday, from 9 to 3, accompanied by the cus- 
tode. This is a large and interesting collection, in 
twelve rooms, of early Italian antiquities recently 
discovered in the Etruscan cities, Vulci, Veii, Ac; 
the principal remains of which are described in 
Mr. G. Dennis's Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, 
1818. Some were found buried under currents of 
lava. The collection includes Etruscan portraits, 
urns, tombs (one from Cometo, the ancient Tar- 
quinii, has an inscription in Latin and Umbrian), 
vases of yellow and red colour, and elegant shape, 
cups, dishes (or tazze), bronze figures, domestic 
utensils and ornaments, some of very delicate pat- 
tern, copies of Etruscan paintings, Ac. One design 
is a picture of three legs joined together, like the 
arms of the Isle of Man. Note specially in one 
room, a restoration of an Etruscan sepulchre ; in 
another, a Mercury in terra-cotta. 

The famous Vatican Library (Biblioteca) is open 
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Friday; no 
special permesso required. It is entered by a glass 
door at the bottom of the staircase of the Sala a 
Croce Greca. It was founded by Nicholas V., 
who began with 9,000 MSS., but was neglected till 
Sixtus IV. set apart a sum for its maintenance. 
It occupies the long west gallery, as well as a 
branch across the interior courts. This branch, 
constructed in 1588, by Sixtus IV., and ornamented 
with frescoes by GaStani, Ac, is 216 feet long; 
while the great gallery is nearly 1,000 feet, ter- 
minated by the museum of Christian Antiquities 
and a fine staircase at one end, and by the Profane 
Museum at the other end. It contains a malachite 
Christ and Vase, from the Emperor of Russia, with 
several other vases ; and Is adorned by frescoes; 
it has the French Prince Imperial's christening 
font. The walls, Ac, are covered with arabesques. 

The MSS , in which this libraiy is peculiarly 
rich, now number about 26,000 Latin, (jreek, and 
Oriental, shut up in bookcases. Among the Ori- 
ental MSS. are seventy-one Ethiopian, ten Chinese. 
There are 200,000 printed books. Special permesso 
required for readers, obtainable through tha 
Embassy. Among the most remarkable MS8. 
are :— a Grfte\LBVb\e of the third or fourth century, 
caYYe<i the Codei Valicanu*. WV&t^ ^-QAitto roluma 

Boute 32.] 



printed in 1857 by Cardinal Mai. Illustrated Virgil, 
of fifth century. Terence, of the eighth century. 
Petrarch's Rime. Part of Tasso's Oerwialemme. 
Cicero's Republic, a palimpsest deciphered by Car 
dinal Mai. Henry YIII.'s MS. book on the Sacra- 
ments, written against Luther, for which he received 
the title of Fidei Defensor (Defender of the Faith). 
Henry VIII.'s letters to Anno Boleyn ; which are 
always shown to English vlMtors. Luther's MSS, 
Illuminated Virgil, of the fourth or fifth century. 
Dante's Divina Commedia, illuminated. Gregory 
Kazianzen's Homilieo, illuminated, of the eleventh 
century. Four Gospels, of the tenth century, 

The Profane Afiueum, with the exception of a 
very fine bronze head of Augustus, contains 
nothing very remai'kablc. In a Cabinet at the end 
are various metal ornaments; with part of a 
Roman barge, found at the bottom of Lake Nemi. 

Sacred Mtueum, or Museum of Christian An- 
tiquities, founded by Benedict XIV. It contains 
various articles used by the early Christians in 
their rites, as lamps, chalices, rings, cups, vases, &c. 
All ivory bas-relief of the Descent from the Cross, 
designed by M. Angelo. Some curious early paint- 
ings on wood, in distemper, by Greek or Byzantine 
masters; one is a portrait of Charlemagne. 

Papyrus Cabinet (Stanza de' Papiri), contain hig 
documents of the fifth to the eighth centuries, on 
papyrus. Frescoes, by Mengs. The decorations 
of the room are all Egyptian, 

Room of Byzantines and Early Italian Masters. 
Specimens of Margharitone, Cimabue, Giotto, Ma- 
saccio, Fra Angelico, Ac, collected by Gregory 
XVI. • 

- In the Aldobrandini Chamber (extra fee) is a re- 
markable ancient painting, the Marriage of Peleus 
and Thetis, found 1606, in a Roman house on the 
Esquiline, and sold by Cardinal Aldobrandini to 
Pius VII., for the large sum of 10,000 crowns. 
Prior to the discovery of the Battle of Issus and 
other subjects at Pompeii, it was regarded as an 
almost unique specimen of Roman art, and was 
valued accordingly. It is on stucco, and contains 
ten figures in three groups, done with great merit 
in respect of composition, drawing, and colour. 
Some other paintings of equal antiquity, found 
1830, in Via Graziosa, are seen here. The roof has 
frescoes, by Guido. Two chairs of wood and ivory, 
presented to Pio Nono by the bishops of Etruria. 

The Cabinet of Medals is uot now shown to 
strangers. Some of the rarest specimens were 
stolen 1848-9. 

Borgia Apartments; four rooms once full of 
printed books, and formerly the residence of Alex- 
ander VI. (Borgia). They are decorated with stuc- 
coes, by G. da Udine and P. del Vaga ; frescoes, by 
Pintnricchlo, and ancient bas-reliefs. Closed at 

The Studio del Mosaico is under the Gallery of 
Inscriptions: entrance in the left angle of the 
Gortite S. Damaso. A permesso must be obtained 
At the Sacris^. 
^ /as^vw Mmu/<i€0ry 0/ ffO«aiQS.— ''Two 

long rooms are devoted to it. with presses on Aach 
side containing the materials used, which are a khid 
of earthenware manufactured for the purpose, and 
not stones of various colours as we had supposed; 
that being the case at Florence. They are, however, 
in shades and colours of all kinds. iBach artist en- 
gaged had before him a rather coarse but spirited 
painting of a Pope, whose likeness he was taking 
for the new Church of St. Paul; and this he copied 
in mosaic as closely as the nature of the material 
allowed him; fixing small and properly-shaped 
pieces of the earthenware into a cement, which is 
previously laid on to the portion he can execute 
before it dries. It seemed most tedious work; for 
every piece has to be selected of the proper shape 
and size, and fitted into those that have been 
arranged before it. As these heads of the Popes 
were to be placed very high in the new church, they 
were large and coarse : but one man was making a 
copy of Murillo's beautiful picture of St. Catherine ; 
another, of RaphAel's Madonna della Scggiola; 
which were much finer and more tedious. These 
would take several years to execute— the single 
heads about twelve months each; but the larger 
pictures in St. Peter's are not completed under 
twentv years "—Miss Catlow's Sketching Rambles. 

Vatican Gardens (Giardini Pontifici). — That 
part of the interior court, between the Bracio 
Nuovo and Museum, is called the Giardhio della 
Pigna, from a large bronze pine, which came from 
the Tomb of Hadrian. It contains two bronze 
peacocks, and other antiquities. The larger garden 
is to the west of the Library, and sloping up the 
Vatican hill to the city walls. It contains the 
Villa Pia, or Casino del Papa, built for Pius IV., 
by P. Ligorio, in the style of an antique villa, and 
restored by Leo XII. These are now closed. 


Quirinal Palace (al Quirinale), at Monte 
Cavallo, the residence of King Umberto, or 
Humbert I., and his wife Margherita. It was 
formerly a summer residence of the Pope, who 
now retains Castcl Gandolfo, in the envii-ons, for 
a country retreat. Begun, 1674, by Gregory XIII., 
from the designs of F. Ponzio, and completed by 
Mascherino and D. Fontana. That part called 
the Famiglia is the work of Bernini and Fuga. 
When the king is in residence, the greater part 
is not shown. Permesso at the Mmistero deila 
Casa Reale. 

The principal court is 603 feet (?) long, and 
surrounded by a portico on three of its sides. It 
contains some choice paintings bv great masters. 
Thorwaldscn's bas-relief of the Triumph of Alex- 
ander; pieces of Gobelins tapestry; also frescoes 
by Albano, with Guide's Annunciation, in the prl- 
vatechapel. Thelargegardenbehindthepalacewas 
added by Urban VIH. It contains a khid of musi- 
cal fountain, made by jets of water; and a Casino, 
by Fuga. It is not open to the public . 

The name v% d«tVN %!iLlxwscL^Xv'fc^>a^'evNs^3K«v'^«ssa^^ 



[Section St. 

the hones, which once gave name to the locality; 
and the GonnnltH Palace. Fine views of the city 
and up the Via Vcnti Scttembre. 

Here the Cardinals met in Conclayc (i.e., locked 
np) to choose a new Pope, on the tenth day, 
or day after the fancral of his predecessor. 
Under the new circuniKtanccs elections talce 
place at tlie Vatican. During an interrc^^mm 
a Cardhml Chamberlain (Camcrlcngo) enjoys 
supreme power, and fonnerly mij^ht even coin 
money. The Sacred Collo^fc, when full, consists 
of six Cardinal hihliops, fifty Cardinal priCKtn, and 
fourteen Cardinal deacons. The Pope must he an 
Italian and fifty-five years old. Two-thirds of 
the Cardinals must elect him ; but France, Aus- 
tria, and Spain have each a veto on one name. 
"When Gregory XVI. was chosen the Cardinals 
had been sitting for fifty days, without coming 
into the open air. His election was made known 
by a voice from the balcony, "Annuncio vobis 
gaudinm mag-num. Habemus Papam, K. E. Domi- 
num ('appcllari, qui nomen assumpsit Gregorius 


Tlie new Pope appears, with the golden cross 
carried before liim, and l)lesses the people for the 
first time. Next day a state service is held at St. 
Peter's. The Pope is bonie on his throne, preceded 
by the peacock's feathers, and intones *'Tu es 
sacerdos magims " at the high altar. The Cardinals 
kiss his feet and hands and are emt>raced by him, 
Witli the oscu^um pads, or kiss of peace. He is next 
Consecrated as bishop. 

Lateran Palace and Museum, adjoining the 

Church of St. fJohnLatcran(S.(x io vanni in Latcrano). 
The palace was built by J). Foiitana, for Sixtus V., 
ami afterwards deserted. Gregory XVI. I>egan the 
Museum of anti(]ue marbles, paintings, <Src., by re- 
moving hither many objects from the growing col- 
lection at the Vatican. Open 9 to 1 ; in Spring, 10 
t«) 8. Admission. 1 lira; Saturdays, 10 to 1, free. 

Iteontainsabas-relief of Ht^natorsandlictors, from 
the Trajan Forum. The Braschl Antinous, from 
Villa Adriana, II feet hi^b, bought by (iregory 
XVI., for 11,0(>0 crowns. Sophocles, found at Ter- 
racina. Mosaics of Athletes, from the Baths of 
Caracalla. Statue of St. lllppolytns, blsliop In the 
third century. Palntlnfirs from the Catacombs 
(copies). Among the paintings are — Guercino's 
Assumption; O. Romano's Martyrdom of St. 
Stephen ; F. F. Llppl's (Coronation of tlie Virgin ; 
A. del Sarto's H<»ly Family. 

The *Miineum of Christ ian Antiquities (entrance 
to the right In the cimrt, was formed by Pope 
Pius IX., in ISM, and Is a very Interesting 
collection of sarco]>lmfrl, frescoes, and inscrip- 
tions ffotbered from early ClirlHtlan graves in the 
(Catacombs. At the eml of the j,'allery is the now 
famous statue of ♦.V. I/ipjtofytus, the martyr, a 
dlscl])Icof S. IronrouH, and BIsbopof Portus, in the 
e/ir//or part of the third century. Portus was the 
ttartfwrn woiitlt of the Tiber, vrhere a tower of 
^^J> Churcti of St. Wn/ntlytUM ntlll rcnialns. The 
if/l'H'^!^*"^' PrtthHbly tho oltlest CfirUtian statue 
rf fonfjd in a wutllatcil atate, in 1561, \\\ a 

suburban cemetery on the Via Tiburtina, near 8. 
Lorenzo's f uori le Mura, was repaired by Pius IV., 
and transferred from the Vatican by Pius IX. It 
is a sitting figure dressed in a pallium, and is 
identified by the Greek inscriptions on the chair. 
A few years ago, a lost treatise of S. Hippolytus 
was discovered in the Convent of Mount Athoa, 
which has been turned to account by Bunsen, 
Wordsworth, and other writers, in their works on 
the early history of the church. Near the statue 
of Hippolytus is this epitaph to a young lady, 
with herfifrure in the attitude of prayer: — 

QVEVIXIT ANNOS XVIII." (Felicia, a mos^ 
faithful maiden. In peace. Sixth of the coming; 
calends of September. Who lived eighteen years). 

There are fifty-four or fifty-five sculptured 
sarcophagi, of great interest, roost of which have 
been photographed. The favourite 8ul)jects aro-r 
the Smitten Rock, Daniel in the Lions* Den, 
Noah's Ark, Creation of Man, Sacrifice of Isaac^ 
History of Jonah; and the Birth, Life, and Miracles 
of Christ (see S. Maria Maggiore). Our Lord is 
nearly always represented as a beardless young( 
man ; not with a beard and parted hair. There ar6 
some good pictures and ancient mosaics. 


The Capitol, with which name the greatness of 
Rome is so much identified, stands on the slope of 
the Capitoline Hill, at tlie west end of the Forum 
and the Via Sacra, and is reached by steps, which 
were first opened at the visit of Charles V., in 1686. 
All that remains of the ancient glories of this 
famous site are some massive foundations of build- 
infrs and the Mamertine Prison under S. Giuseppe. 

The modem Capitol, or square of palaces, so 
called, as designed by M. Angclo, and completed 
by Delia Porta, is a monumental building, with 
three porticoes, or fi*ont8, facing the Piazza del 
(Jampldogllo. The Museum and Palace of the 
('onservatori were bej;un by M. Angelo, at>out 
1642, and arc "early specimens of the style of 
Corhithian pilasters, running through two store]^ 
which afterwards became so fashionable, and, it 
must be admitted, are used here with a visroTjr, 
which goes far to redeem the impropriety of their 
introducti<m." — Fergusson. 

At the foot of the steps are two Egyptian Lions, 
copies of those placed there by Pius IV. Colossal 
statues (on the top) of the Twin Brethren, Castor 
and Pollux, and their horses, found in the Ghetto, In 
tho sixteenth century. Two marble groups of arms, 
Ac, called the Trophies of Marius, found on the 
Es(iuillnc. Statues of (-onstantine and his son, from 
the Baths of (^onstantine. A miliary (or mile) stone 
of Vespasian's time, from the Appian Way, marked 
*'I." In the Piazza stands tho unique bronze 
ecjuestrian statue of *Marem Aurelius, which, after 
many changes, was fixed here l)y Paul III., in 
l!>'<^&, ou \\\e H\Mit where Arnold di Brescia was 
bunA. Vu\\\ \»ft» t\c^\<w^«\. ' laurel on the 

Bonte 3a.] 
0( lh( Tribnnei, 

Ihe Ar> Cocll Chun 

On the right, ir psitlng nil the acinare 
Capitol In rronl, ere Ihe I'alaaB dd Cov 
and Ihe C&pltoUiia Ha> gam,— Open ev 

thellmeof ClnaflDg. Stataeot ChvtHarAiOoa, 

). Ihe mob )n laH. I Boy eilrncting i 

aaded b; Clem 

e f^tim Ballen (Flnaeotici 
let XIV. AmonE tomenDticitil) 
lit of Ouido, by hlmsEif. Gnldr 

del Contemtori. ire cra» t h 

<e Huienm of tbe C&^to] 

lit !xn. And sacceedinjf Popci 

I Capitoi, pige 30D). 
copho^UB of PcnloliD 

iraid doling 
leen piftea 



«w andXu^ 

hlminlf. Another (f of 3oTcto!) Willi BCoae 

the life or Achillea. 




»n lAc SKiircaK, » m*ny ii twcnty-tli pic 
on anrfent Plan ut Rome, found under the p 

of the Temple of Vcnua and Borne (the Chn 


S3. Coamo end Dimiano}. neir the Fonu 



Tarqulnil to 

.nppoMd to be of the time of Caraeallo. II 

of art. founded by Plug VII.. with bn>t>. Ac, of 
lllmtrlotu Ilalloni, pslnters, posts, muilcioDa, Ac,, 
Inciodlng M. A. Colonna, the adniirjtl who fought 
at Lvponto. ta whom a Trium]^ wu granled. 

nild Bemui theae Sgnni i 

TItgi, Marcellus Theatre, Theatre of Fotnpey, Ac. 

Boom of lllmlrloia JCn— Inctndlns poets and 
or doubtful. Statue of'w^C. MTrLllna™™^"™' 

&(fDaa,— HecDbs, asa PrieGca. or mourner; Ju- 
piter, in block murble; Ccntaun, In gray muble. 

Room of 0« *OjiItg COadlator.— So cal led f mm 
ilta>t-t Villa, perfect forltianalotni. ^ ' ' 

ot the ciiplt»i'."'Fau' 


andhunccnpledmanyyearAlnhsfonnBtUm- ilany 
ortheKulpIutenarp nnlntie. EKCclt«^n(CAtilogii«, 
by VlKODtL. lent lo vl^liort. Unfortunately lbi> 
nHgnllicenl tDUMam 1> m preient clo«,l. 

In the CoUesla ftomano (we pane 207), In ■ 
■irettoff ihe^Dno. neu PUiia Xtlirn, Hhlch 

Tha JTuKO l-nMorIco snd the Humo Klrcherlsno 
(opm dully, 1 lira; Bundavi free) eontstn a 
ruuarksbla collcctlDn of Uroniei and Anllqnlllea. 

«boDt.'0l>^000TDlan]ci,ai><l'iDanyMS3','lKing the 


Palnim ft 

^etion 1. 



with the lllntory ol Miobo, painted in ohlato-OKUi 
bj P. da Caravagfflo. macn faded. 
*"#/, /«?« a_K a >, BoMl. The cornice haa a to 

Tenipioof HoMi » Urge and Dlcltire«|oe 
liiir, bD».-mi aboni ISM. by Cardinal F. fiarl 

Galli'ry of Plctntei, In Cliree raniD>, open II to e. 
Notice Baphael'ii Fomariua. Portrait of Beatrice 
CcncU ny Onido. Cliude Lorratne'i Landuape, 
Holy Fomliy, by A, del Sarto. The*Trlnmph of 
(llurv, Ijy P. da Cottona. All* tbe tsdII of the 
rrl.icHml Mloon. On tbe wall of the court la an 

rnilni- hln conqueiti In Itrltain, beglnnlne "Tl. 
CLAVl'IO, C«8 AVavSTO." and ending 
8VBEQKBIT," Thorwaldnen'a ilndlo iraa nour 

MS9.. inclndlng some ol 
ua''of Aijolfo anil of Thor- 

IJU", Ijy M. Lnnitlil, for Cirdlnal IK»», and 
fi.,uln-il by F I'oi.ilo. Tbe areaded court la lur- 

objeuta of n'rlB nerc Mid by aucllon. The ground 
floor li now occupied by a dealer In anllqnlllu. 

fianti GaBerf, the mort eitenalTe next to Ihit 
ViTIa Horgiieie, aee pa)t< 206. Open Tneidaya, 

Nc-ii.i- portrait of SaTOnarula, by F. Llppli i>or- 
italiKiilaCardinal, and of Cmar Borgia. atlrlbuled 

wlifir''lirw«t only Wcnly-fcnr; Fran'cU'a St. 

Gatofalo'g Madonna. Dsntle. by CorreralO! Dei 
Plqmbo'a Chrlal at tboColnmn; Cnmaian Sibyl, 

, by Vutdyek. 
a Venella. bnllt, 

Iwn ^AWantit Oi\(W,t,\ i«4 1"* 

oiled Palaao dtlta Comiilla. oi 

iither an potlti 

olpnbWa opinion." 
Palaizti Cafulfli. 

Capllol; IhoKStof I 
Caneaiaria (Palaiiii 

Rlurt tamlly, md enUrsed by Fng*. tor Cltmfnl 

Tucirisy, ii^rt "sst'urd^',°T^Io "3™ Porlralli 

E^marlna! C. Dolci't' Virgin snd Child; Marllla'a 
Vlrffln and Child ; A. del SarWs Virgin uid Chlid, 

luin, CUude. CiuiHlel' 

Built b; Bromante. (or Cardinal Rlirl 
ponies wai added by Fontana, of trari 

>d by Kpai 

I (OHO CMal. 

i/mid Oilnifia, Flizzi del SS. Apmtoli. known 


b Italy n 

h the Glorlona 

Ine DP tlie Qultlnal. Gallery opi>n Tnegtlay. 
Tiarsdai-. and SMUrdny, (fr. Hollcc :— portrtll 
of TlHorlaColonna. by Miiilano; another Colonna. 
by Vandyhe; TUImi's O. PanYino! BonllEciu-. 
Holy Family; Ivnry bat-rellelt, copied from M. 
Angelo ind Eaphael. Great Hall, or Qollcrla— 
Frexwes In honour of the Colonni family ; Titian's 
Holy Family; Forlrail, b; F. Veroneiei Gior. 
gione'a G. S. Colonna; the Colonna Btllka. with 
B Bgure of Mart on 11. a imall ttHsted Qothii 
pillar of medlsTal tlmei. Entrance, 17. Via 
dello Fllotta. In the gardensfentrancr, Via del 
Qnlrtnale. 11) are remalna wJKch belouged to the 
ffit/f^dvMpflB* 00 tbe IJntrlnaJ, 

h gon by C d 

del larto. JanMnlus and A. Uorln, b) Titian. 
Velatrineii'^of'Ka^Ta^ero and Beaiiano. by Raphael 1 

In Rome, now belonging to France, by pnrchiH 
fr.iin the M-KinK of Naplci; on a space, SCO feet 

The principal front, bulll IH4. In Ihree itore] a, of 
simple dealgn. ia ISO feet long. 97 feet high, and 

Bold 'and "deep areadei, turroondcd by a equaro 

Mcrcory Dladyniero.. Faun and Infant B 
Apollo, b:., were told |o the British V 
Delia Forta finished tin palace In 1«S». tav 

Id Vm PBgnafcm bnllt \>j Ylgnc 

IStttlm i. 

Palatw LanffM, 

ieL Llncel), H* 

by L. Clgoll, lor 

Palaiio Mariftoli (new), in the Cono. 
PalaiKi Uaulml alle CBhnne. Vl« S. Piuit 

iTcre. lit front In ti 
project Ine wInn. 

't ciiigi, t"- -•-■- 

Mlgn, »fterwKrd> bought ^ Cnrdina 

a S'mIU. ': 

i uf 81. Philip Ntri, oi«n 18th March. The famUt 

iIdi. by C. UhIhiu. IBIe. 

^ by Pomeruiclo 

Linphlltaeatre of StBtillui Tan 
Lmhcr, Camerii de' Depntlti. 

•Palaia di gran Braiagna (Kngllili EmbiHy), 
8781 compoieil of VUU Turlunla, liitllt 1710, by 

1. byRaBKl.fnclurtlngal 
Wauo OfHMlnfonl. Via 

I Scrofa. Built 

Hadcm'ii l>iit 

''""•- I'll* Ibo F^u'g. 

ow. Thl9 wai oclKinally 

ellt latally. 

ta S. Agiiisic CliiiTch. la the 

Ibo Tsmplo of Vmat, irhlch (iirnied part of tba 
ThfalMDf IViiupM, OiB firatthralrBbnill inRonM, 

Curia Pompria. Bronio Hatue ot Herenlea, 
(ouna Jion, fs iiow In Ihe Vatlcm. 
Palaao Italifim, or Papal Palace. (8m Ih* 

•Palaae RwpigHait. Via dt^l Qnlrlnale, on th* 

UOHB — tklACM, 


nscam ul AMiqUitici la 

but lUo aiifcreiiM Lie. el.e»herc."— f&wddMotB j 
BorEhe»ftiDiiJy. BmsllEOllectioiiaritiwd pictures. 

Falam Slreui.'la : 

Falaita Sardiilli, ii 
(or hH own reiiden 

obJIffatLoiu to bis pal 

uuj Belli l^onniti ciauils's Fllgbt Into Eg>-pt; da 
VlDCl'lModcstjand Vanilj-MKilruleii; Haphael'. 

Violin FUj-er 
imill-, by Titi'm 

I Qwdal (vlth a fii^ivD . 

Built by O. 

■-mn™. '"s^^'ii 

^■lilp, UHia whicb thB cou 

trJaVt la. bnji'v d 

knui, iQ pui 

a di Spaena; 

CMS^'di" Hint 

lii floma; a 

t by (jol^ 
'i Iniublua \t 

i« tor 300 cdwu. V CniK«BtaK'**«» ""''»** 

Vjanw. ■mcV.Hk'Cb&vms™. 

BBlDBHlw'g IT*IT. 

[Sectiim 1. 

'Ciilea anil af ■ Temple of 

takcntol-arlihy Nip 
}tlllji. AJimntnci, Ac. 

II Pilmio R«plKJIo>l 

'basin. ^UMIlard rmin nn 
len, vlth > round portico o granite i 

fVIa Barfliat, QUI 

Cardinal llorRhen, 

Camilla KoTKhen 

" " ' f paliiiliigi: t, llcnuaph'nicUle; t. 

It was built by Bapha^l and G. Romano, for 
I Clcmenl VII. Th« licw commandi a beanltfnl 

and Albnn HIIK' Loggia with damaged frcMom. 
AdmiMlon dally, 60c. 

nulled ilown, (he only reuiini bdOft the Caiiiw 

Danio, Ariosto and T*«o, by Koch. Vett. Selmorr, 
Oierbfcli, and FUhrlch, all Orrman artlna. 

Filla HfdiH. now the French Academy, near the 
Plnclan Uardcna. Kcbollt by Lto XI. |of the 
hDiueorMedlcl).(ronide>l|in9 hy M.Angela, iu 

III.; and In I6US tbe Villa wai bought by Iht 

carries Acqua Vcrglno to Plana dt SjiagnB, *c, 
may beaccn, Horace Vcrnct here pabilcdMmdel' 
HBobn'H punralt. Open Wedtieiday and Saturday. 

*ruia Pamfili Duria. 1 milelrom Porta 8. Pan- 

•/ the Otrdcia of Sillnit; whow mnHuit 

•"ow, /HvUeo, ^c. wtn ratatd by AKlla »nd hit ' 
*«V«> irjito ibey faleitd tbt cKy OD tWl «lde. , 

I! III., by Vlgnola. 
e lor nnuliu (ma 

fioute 32.] 



Villa Wolkonskff, near the Piazza di Porta 8. 
Giovanni (Lateran), open after 12, Wednesday 
and Saturday. The grounds are very carefully 
arranged, and contain some antiquities. Admission 
by pettnesso^ obtained through the British Consul. 


Wniversith delta Sapienza, between Piazza S. 
Eustachio and Piazza Navona, was founded by 
J^us III. and Julius II., and finished by their 
successors. M. Angelo, Delia Porta (1575), and 
Borromini had a hand in its erection. It is simple, 
and in good proportion. The chapel, with its spiral 
cupola, is by Borromini. Over the door is the 
verse, Initium Sapientite THnior Domini, whence the 
name is taken. It has a library of ]G,000 volumes, 
founded by Alexander VII. (open daily), and a 
collection of Roman fossils. It is closed from July 
to November. Its Botanic Garden is in Trastevere. 


Collegia Romano (formerly the Jesuits' College), 
with the BiMioteca Vittorio Emanuele, near the 
Corso. facing'the Doria Palace. Built 1682, for 
Gregory XIII., by Ammanati, round a large court. 
It contains above 600,000 vols, from the Jesuits* 
Library and dissolved monasteries, and also a large 
number of modern works. Of the various collec- 
tions the best is the Kircherian Museum, contain- 
ing antiquities in bronze, marble, fee. Here is a 
very interesting * Graffito^ or caricature, found 
on the wall of a chamber in Cesar's Palace on the 
Palatine, and excavated jn 1857. It is a sketch, or 
scrawl (meant to ridicule the Christians), of a man 
with the head of a donkey, stretched on a cross, 
with a legend signifying " Alexamenos is adoring 
God." The Cavalier Do Rossi says it is the very 
earliest representation of the Crucifixion known to 
exist. Notice, also, some epitaphs of Jews, from 
the catacombs, in Greek characters, with the seven- 
branched candlesticks, and often ending with the 
Hebrew word " Shalom " (peace). Most Hebrew 
inscriptions begin with "Here lies," and end with 
*' His sleep is in peace." 

The extensive new Ethnographical and Prehis- 
toric Museum, containing the famous Treamre of 
Prxneiie. Open daily, from 9 to 3, fee 1 lira; 
Sunday free. The small Observatory, so well 
known under Padre Secchi, is here. 

CoUegio de Propaganda Fide, in Via del la Propa- 
ganda, near Piazza di Spagna. Begun by Bernini, 
1627, and finished by Borromini. Founded by 
Gregory XV. for training converted natives of 
distant countries for foreign missions. It has a 
library of Oriental works, and an Oriental print- 
ing office. The '* Annals of the Propagation of the 
Faith" are published here. 

Aceademia di' Uneei, the Science Academv, in 
Palazzo Coriinl (which see, paye 203} la the Lun- 

The English College, or CoUegio Pio, is annexed 
to the Church of St. Tommaso, in Via Monserrato. 
The IHsh College, to S. Agata, in Via Mazzarini. 
The Scottish College, to S.Andrea, on the Quirinal. 

Academy of Fine Arts, or of St. Luke, No. 44, Via 
Bonclla, adjoining S. Martina Church, near the 
Fonmi. Founded by Gregory XIII., for the promo- 
tion of painting, sculpture, and architecture. It has 
a gallery of paintings by several masters, including 
G. Cagnacci's Lucretia, Velasquez's Innocent XI., 
and Guido's Fortune. Ceiling by Guido. Raphael's 
fresco of St. Luke Painting the Virgin, and his 
Garland Bearer. G. Romano's copy of Galatea 
(Farnesina). Maratta bequeathed to the academy 
a skull which was supposed to be Raphael's till 1 833, 
when his skeleton was found entire in the Pantheon. 
Biblioteca Sarti, containing about 15,000 volumes 
relating to art. Several governments have students 
pensioned here. Open daily, 9 to 3, Saturday and 
Sunday excepted. Closed in July and August. 

Academy of France, at the Villa Medicis or Medici. 
Founded, 1666, by Louis XIV., for the benefit of 
French students at Rome. Collection of casts, 
open daily ; see Villa Medici, page 206. 

German Archaeological Institute, at a house on the 
Tarpeian (?) Rock, where the Germans celebrate 
Winckelmami's birthday. 11th December. 

French Arc^teological Institute, or Ecole de Rome^ 
in Palazzo Famese. 

British and American Archaeological Society, Via 
S. Basilio, 20. 


Vatican Library, open Mondays, Tuesdays, Wed- 
nesdays, and Fridayn, from 8 to 12. (See Vatican.) 

Minerva Library, or Biblioteca Casanatense, be- 
queathed by Cardinal Casanata, is at the Domini- 
can Convent, attached to the Church of Santa Maria 
sopra Minerva, and is the second richest in printed 
books (200,000). Open from 9 to 3. Closed on 

Angelica Zifrrary, near the Church of S. Agostino, 
ranks third in Rome, and has about 100,000 volumes 
and 3.000 MSS. Open daily, 9 to 2, except Sundays 
and Thursdays. 

Libraries at the Sapienza and CoUegio Romano, 
as above mentioned, also at the Corsiiii and Bar- 
bcrini Palaces. 

TALS, ftc. 

"The charities of Rome are numerous and well 
endowed. The revenues of the institutions for the 
poor, sick, and orphans arc estimated at 840,000 
scudi, partly derived from the lottery, besides sums 
collected by the confraternities, «kc. But it can- 
not be said that the money is well administered. 
The deaths at the hospitals are large ; among the 
foundlings it is upwards of seventy per cent." — 
Story's Roba di Roma. 

S. Michele a Ripa Hospital is a large iadxMA.x\»S^ 
institution, on, tVv^ %Vv.% ^\ ^wax^-*. ^wissi»s2^^> 

d ud rotti; 

pHkd, on tho ce1luJ<r ijrtnu. 

Oiiwfafe « S. SpMlo, in Uic BorRn S. Splrlto. 
FouDdwl In T17 hy n kins of "ic 8a»on«, and henc 
■iirnanied auitu Hiiirllu In HiibhIs, RtTuunded and 
rIobiT endowed by Innocent 111., im. Kebullt, 
1171. hy B. PiiitejFl. for Sliint IV., who ilju de- 


! bot it la lentlli 


wllh Bfly iretBiinMfattlKlehiUrtd, 
na 1 IU1IBIIC asylum. The IwaidUl ucouuuhIb. 

.unU^nK lioaiiUal can like In ntarly S,OM. 
S. flopco Lfing-in-Bo^Ual. alto In TraBtc™.ro. 

»inm 7Wfi»i dri Piilt^M h n liogpltal (or con- 
In Ing accoin'modstlon (or nearly t,«W. 
Thai cif 3an OUmimi. In Via dol Cono, U lor 

ThcIoundRr st Drat eu11«ci 
of St. John of Jenualein, wt 
Tu ibc iiruoit hulldins la at 
M. Oknonnl di Ui«, ob the 
Juiillur. or ilSaciiliipiiu. . 

iJra/aad Dumb Uotirilal (Sun 

la founded by 
la. a Hnanlard. 
ns. /We f>»». 

1 1 he Charch of 
uf aTeinide of 

>, In Yls 

JVwtt A />MA, In VU del JL 
I ae Tiber, la b public abop Foi 
jng money, evtabltahed by Fao 

J^rottla. T^o previa ^ id th< 
the Chit/ Office of PolKi in a 
(jaeitura. In Via SS. Apo.toll. 


Foe the Willi. »e page l«e; for the Galea. pa«« 
1 Tl ; fur Ibe Bridget, page tG7 ; ind for thb Beren 

There are three lUiclcnl Bomei — "Tbat vhlfai 
Uie (laula deatrvyed (I.e. WO) ; that which Nero 
bomc (A.D, M) : and that which he and hla mc- 

Tho oldMt b 


aDblteUn UrldKC ; of It 

Brldb-cend the Temple of 

c. ti»-30. The 

cum, and a 

I. Ihcalrcs. tumba, Ac 

left to decay and ruUi after 

The Torre del Coiitl and C.>la dl Slenir> beuH 
•r* utdlBvil bnlldlnn; bnt tereral chorchaa 
■ro older than theae. Aa a rule.n30il oT thctfM 
of ancimt bHiiiHngt are taartfj fry chttnitetf an^ 

thlivaythc Cbrlxtlana perpetuated the record ef 
aTlMlbletrlunipliuTcr Ihe old rcllglan. Hinyef 

d lM|Dld 

(or out 

Eoate 32.] AMCiiHT >omi. 100 

lu°rE,<>rsuexpand«dtheipaceinwlilQhlhersUnd, rmiain In dlapalc aowiiK iin1li|uariaii>i though 

1, will be InlalUbly d 

BdbyLord BrooghlDa. The 

r, begin by n $iipp^ fiotM. 

It clt)-, and make tt 

fleiDi-cryolalliteil I lm«4tL>De) preferred by the flTBt 
tmperori, the alternate tnfa and brick employed 

1! Spa^a and Via Cniido 

c DecemvirH Applui Clau 

victory gained by 

Bt popnlaufl part of 

i« Boilri.. Bthiii.l 

(the Plndan and Vatican not being reckoned) 
were the Cspllol. ATentlne. Palatine, Ca" — 
Eiqulllne. VimlnaL. and Quirinal (before . 
tlonail, on page I Cil. 

tween the Capitollnr and TnUtlne lllUs, la a i 

^apasian. Eight 

and Vandal), and e.en lo the elovenlh ceolD 
when aej were mined and hnnit. and their 
malDi eoTsred orer by the soil, under -hlch tl 
are bnrleil 20 feel deep. In coniMnmce of [hit, ■ EK»TU.\nni 



[Section & 

Some of the sites around &re the f ullowing :— 
The base of the Tabularium, in the Senators' 
Palace, on the slope of the Capitol, near Via di 
Monte Tarpeo. Traces of the cella of the Temple 
of Concord, near the Church of S. Giuseppe sopra 
la Carcere, or St. Joseph over the Prison, i.e., the 
Mamei-tlne Prison, which is below. S. Adi'iano is 
on the site of the Curia Julia, comer of Via 
Bonclla. S. T^orenzo in Miranda is on the site of 
the Temple of Antonlne and Faustina, ten columns 
of which are in the portico. SS. Cosma e Daniiano, 
the rouud part of which was the Temple of 
Romulus, son of Maxcntius. Three arches, Ac, of 
the Bcudlica of Conxtantine (good view of the 
ColoMieum), near the Arch of Titus and the 
remains of the Temple of Venus and Rome. 



Aqtm Appia, the oldest, was constructed B.C. 318, 
by Applus ClaudluK, from Prcneste, and was 
Smilcslonp:, under ground. It entered by Porta 
Capena. The Anio Vettu (B.C. 273) was a branch 
of this, from Tivoli ; remains of which exist near 
Porta Magglore and Tivoli. 

Agua Maveia (B.C. 145), Aqua Tepula (b.c. 127), 
from near Marino, and Aqua Julia (by the Agrippa, 
B.C. 35), joined so as to malce a single pile, one over 
tiAe other. Aqua Marcia came from Tivoli and 8u- 
biaco, and was increased by Augustus. It was 
restored by Sixtus V. as Acqua Felice (page 170), 
and runs on 6 miles of peperino arches to the 
Aventine and Palatine Hills. It is fed l)y Aqua 
Claudia, Aqua Alexandria, and the Auio Novus. 

Aqua Augusta, or Akietina, made by Augustus, 
from Lake IJracciano. 

Aoua Virgo was brought from Tusculum, by M. 
Agrippa, for hi** baths (behind the PanUieon), and 
was restored 16fi8, as Acqua Vergine (page 170). 

Aqua Claudia^ made a.d. 50, feeds the Acqua 
Felice, and branches off to the Temple of Claudius, 
on the'CoelianHill. .,. , , ,* 

Anio Novtu, a.d. 50, is another feeder of Acqua 
Felice or Aqua Cl ludla, which It crosse<l In one 
part. Keniains of it are bccu, 110 feet high. 

Aqua Trajana, a.d. Ill, was incoriwratcd with 
Aqua Alsietlna, and forms Acqua Paola (page 170), 
which supplies the Trastevere. 

Aqua Antoniana, a.d. 212. 

Aqua Aterandrina, a.d. 230, made by Alexander 
Severus. It feeds Acqua Felice. 

Aqua Jovia, a.d. SCO. 

or House of the Vestal Virgins, near the Forum 
Romanum and the slope of the Palatine. This 
hixh\\ intcrcwtlnv' relic of remote antiquity was 
iiiicovcnul in JHM. AmongHt other things there 
trvre found J3 marble pedestals with insorlptltms ; 
fJf btiatm and hvada; 12 BtAtuet of Chief Vcstala 
(theaeare now In the Masco UTazlooalc), and the 
oaudMUou of the PaJUidiam, 


There were about twenty-one of these. 

*Areh o/Constantine (Aroo di Constantino), front- 
ing the Colosseum, across the Via Triuniphalis. and 
built to commemorate his victory over Maxentins, 
at Ponte Molle. It is formed of three archways, 
supported by four handsome giallo-antico pillars 
on each side, ornani^ited with eight statues and 
bas-reliefs, which were taken from an earlier arch 
of Trajan . It was half-burled In the soil, when* 
excavated by Plus VII. This is one of the latest 
monum«its of the Empire and of ancient Rome. 
In 1533 the heads of the statues were stolen by 
Lorenzo de' Medlcf, and are replaced by others by 
P. Bracci. 

MrcAo/Z)o7a6tf//a, between the Churches of SS. 
Giovanni and Paolo, and S. Tommaso in Formis, on 
the ('oclinn, is usually called Arco di Donnabclia.. 
Built A.D. 10, by Publius Cornelius Dolabella and 
his brother Consul. It is a single arch of^ traver- 
tine, standing at the entrance to the CastxaPere- 
grlna. or dei)dt for foreign cavalry. At the top is 
an arch of Nero's Aqueduct, and some niches of 
his Nymphflcum (or the Temple of Claudian) are 
on the side of it. 

*Arch o/Drmw, on the Via Appia, close to Porta 
S. Sebastinno. Built by the Senate in honour of 
Claudius Drusus. It is a single marble arch, sup- 
ported by composite pillars, and was used by Cara- 
calla as part of the aqueducts to his Baths. 

*Arch of Oallienus, near Santa Maria Maggiore, 
on the site of the Esqulllne Gate, in the old wall. 
Dedicated, a.d. 260, by M. Aurclius Victor, to Gal- 
Ucuus and Sulonina. It was a single arch of tra- 
vertine blocks, adorned with pilasters. Part of a 
buttress Is left close to S. Vito Church, which 
stands on or near the Macellum Llvlaoum, built 
by the wife of Augustus. Formerly a chain hun|r 
from this arch, to which woj-e fastened the keys of 
the Porta Saslcchla, at Viterl)o, taken by the 
Romans In the thirteenth century. 

*Arch o/JanuM Quadri/rons, in Via 8. Giorgio in 
Velabro, iienr the church of that name. A square 
marble block, 73 feet each way, pierced by four 
arches, forming an open vault below, with twelve 
niches In each of the piers. It was fortified and 
half ruined in the civil wars of the mcdiscvaJ age. 

Arch of the Money Changers, near the Church of 
S. (Giorgio in Velabro, close to the Arch of Janus, 
Built by the bunkers and merchants of the Forum 
Bonriuin (or cattle market), In honour of Septi- 
mius Severus, his wife Julia, and Caracalla. Qeta's 
name was also nicntlone<l In the Inscription, hot 
was afterwards erased by Caracalla. It Is a small 
enriched arch, supported by broad pilasters. 

*Arch of Septimiui Severus, in the Forum, 
Built A.D. 207, in honour of Severus and hit 
sons, ('araciilla and Geta, after the victories over 
the ParthiiUiM, as mentioned in an inscriiitioa; 
in w^^VaYv tsv&v be noticed an alteration by 
CaracaWa (.ftXVw YWWwv^ \i\% Vx*i\.Vvw G«ta), from 

' The cfDIr 
IniT dl>li<t< 
Tllta, under 1 


PalMlne, fadni; lh< 
.nurinnii. UulU on tho Via 
lb« tixkin^of Jcnualrm li>- 

by VWdtv, wilh 


n ■Fii'ns'ln n'o 

li nlno full of fleiirps. The inscripliun. nn tlis «lr 

nii> Una. Mill tberefurc fti-fed Dlvu>. Unnaii 
»r tlie Palace of Iho Caanrti, nnd of Itae Form 
cif Cuidd, ai* near tbli arch. It i> ulil no Jc 
iv)ll puK under It. " Titiu'i sreh Is >d rloh tbBt 
can hardly Iliink It elefcanl. The entablature, tF 
LnlpoIt^ the keyitonci, are all crowderl wH 

°"^' ' BATHBW(««B»-TEBHE). 

!la/ii of U. Agrippa. built about B.C. 2S. lo 11 

uriaa, A.t>- MT, They 


afC-r^alla. In 



«1 by Caracalla. Hclint- 

uloff 1 

the ilegc by Be 

liehen. conilccs, Ac.. 

It about A.D. mi. fill , 

Aldubranllni and near the ftanrn NmlonBlc. 
Porlluni ot the hrlok wall* are hi the beanilfol 
garden of PalauD rolonns. 

'Batlu of IMeemthr. built alKnl a.d. 3M. Iiy 
lllocinlan. «n the Tlinlnal. One nf ilu' RiJt«Dilna 
1> Inniciiiiraleil Into the Chnrrh u[ S, Iteniardo, 
and the Cdla ralldarta In the micbtle naa eon- 
verted Intu the church and mnrent ot Sanb) Maria 
d^l AiiRril, hr H. An^ln. fiomo of the lariro' 
liriek archei are icen In thD ruoT of the church,' 
InelndlOK the uuter porllcnpn and couita. The; 

nt I.lti 



a ihapeleiii mln, im the iiile e 

lilt A. 


«, la thD year ur the k-nut , 
l» an exlenslmi of the »iUli( 
of Airippa. A hnlf-elrvulnr renmanl Ig left hi (he 
AKiert-n, In the Plaiia Itmidanlnl. 

*Lallaaf1iln. Iitillt nhont a.k. SO, In the gar- 
den* gf Hero'i Gnldcn Ilotme, un tlie KtqullUin; 
and wcro 400 l«et hy miO feet in eitent. Wltii 
IlKK were Inoorporatad the AMi8/IV*faii,bcnin 
by DoniltUii, nnd llnlihrd hy TTAJan. eeenpylni; 
an areanf l.leofeetbyWnfeet. The Tew reinainp. 
east of Iho GoIosKnm. hrlnu| slniuat enlircly tu 
the hnlldlntt erected h]- Kcro, cupeelally thrcurri-' 
riura, which were mnauwntcd wlih otueeuoi and 
frcMoei. Uueof IlKiieUapicture of thalhterlor. 


J palming ar, .- - . .. 

li'i>ltaK ebunld be caraf ul, the i 
ng very (treat. 

idiiiacnforstatneion (bonurth andaouth itden. 
ma: cglgnred arabnqura and fre^cnea are lUll 
Bible In the Taulti of a part of Metv'i Gulden 
uuis. AecCHlhle after a.m.; Sonday, 10 ajii. 
~ ' ' "le K(|nile« fllncularwr, the 

me. nith 411 biacribtd nierbhi ]>edt9iali. 
CutrenalUI AnptllUlMtre, iienr the I'lntn 
,._.j — .....J... ...,. ,.^,„|, o( g.,rvi„, xuiiimi. 

It jiinpiiund.aliiiiit IIk 
l>r lI.«ior1n> to cMKXmx 

Al»iekhalt*.__. ._ _ 

«rM ceninri, but okU hy H.^iorL 

lu luid To 

he Applui 

W»7, two 

• rrom Rod.e. It w.g. 


f»C lOfW. 


MO f»l wide, sdd If 


tbe tmlvt 

■cerw, or mnbig plac 

mre arched 

nd. tn the 

nlddl* of I 

> Minlolrcle.wiilliii ForU Tr 

by which 

m.dB tlie 

eirenit »e« 

the goat 

bcliij m»rl 

dlvlilon riuiiiing reirly 


alune the 


ud imBll templM. The 




. of tb« Porn Trlnmphai 

CTrcH, « 



Salarii Di> 

The (MouFuni, orlglnnlly FjmritirTi JinpAjMaili-uin, 

jcret. on the >Ue of the l^kehi Nero'i Golden Honti. 
It w»B l>u1ll (A.D. 72-901 In eight yc»^^ by VtspMlBii 

Jewlahptiionenlclnj^ernployed, To* brick nUe. 
Mgun by Kero aa put of hit Gulden Houe. Vea- 
Fiaiian added atoiio cgrridon and an aiternal wall 
at iraiertlne bloeka. The brieka «e thin, ten to 

ihe Mnd| wai JSO feel bj ISO (eel. Fonr principal 

CIrtai tif ^ero^ oc 

Lively. The sailer)- al the ton. resllnj on elililj- 
I The .lepi, or eeata. were reitored by PIni IX, 

■ClOMft lU ll mO, or 

rmott betnir about 14 Trot rllamolcr. The 

mt M null! admlalon, ZOo. A briiht 

V. nallnl Acqua Argrnlina. rnni In'.o 

nomi w»t and fa allll a well draloea 

Tralao-. trimnph; and 
Bithl. lii»hlchX.OOain 

illtclfvied thai Ihe real b»e of thi 


of a>ntB Coalniii.. It U tJiB fipU l.lilldiiijr 111 
which buuieiw. hm ■|>pti«l lo Bin amt^Ot U 

3- Ftahcoscji KinDAiia, tming the L 

it BltOEethcr, tho liglldint l> ceruliily. bolh u 

gronile nllliin<. nnd the nileniljd <1od 

niortxcliuiliBcluuiclcDtHunii]: «nil In IbMC r.- 

•pccu u Itr iuncrtur lo (lie Pmillifon ■> it It in- 

ferior Is Ihst teoiidc lii siis. indeed then am 

-Ji™.'* .//ft«,d«. neuthe Tlbe 

it Is lujiMied. hy Vmuailan. Acin: 

'TtrnpU of tiari Ullor. at the end nt the Vlt 
Boni^lU. nhkh ia cloKd en the nortn by a vrul 

plimOfT remain of lliie well-built ittDclurc; c1<in 
to iMch i> ilic Torre di Conti, erected. IrtS, hj 

ho'd li a block of (he Second Wail. 

BaiUira of Comtmline {fonncriy called Ihi 
Temiile of Peacej, faeini;: (he ealatlne, boUt bj 
Uaxoiitlnson the slle of tlio Horrea Pl|Krntorla 

le eight matble columnH which Bupportcd (hi 

le FUi» <ll a«ita Maria Hagslore: M (aoman 

Temple far nmt; ^ AgmiiJui. Ij mile from Parti 
Sebauiiiio, un Via Apjrfa, > clrcnlar-buli 

Temple of Itomti'ut 
».0, t!J, was made 

lelle Uaroiie. Tlie ancient roof hu dluViieareii, 
rToneoutlri™led'tlie!Vmj>'eo/Keila.' "™" ' 

nnUno/Balbiii, near the Dirmer Ghetto, wai 

mnarter. Thenar 

rlam. lluilt by Au^Atu 
nephew Marceilos, on 11 
Fiflul Flety. Tbe luwc 

e DamlanoCfwln brolhot , „„„,„„„„. 
like Ibe founders of H™ie) and the Via Cracla Cailrsniiaa AmphiVirau 

SfjralDiy. An Etratcan bronze door (from I'oru- | ffniM^u aun ai 

a) and two porphyry 
rbuiVIII. See pate 1 

'•pti. In a ttrcct near the Cairpo dl 

ilia ballt Into the Puloi.lo I'lo, or 
irwasklUed In the Curia Fompea, 

of which he fell. i> lo b« Hen In 

a Pontifei Unxlmoi , 



[Section 2. 

and tribes ; with swords on the right side, a sticlc 
on the left situulder for a wallet, and tij^ht panta- 
loons to the knee. Archers are defended with 
plate armour. The Dacians wear loose pantaloons 
to the ancle, and curved swords. There is a cast 
of it at South Kensington. 


Basilica and Forum are almost synonymous, but 
the basilica was the court of justice, usually within 
the forum. It was divided into three naves, ».e., a 
central nave and two aisles, by a row of columns 
on each side, with a tribunal for the judges at the 
end. This was railed in with cancelli, or lattices, 
; whence we get chancel and chancellor ; the one 
le^al and the other ccclasiastical. It became the 
model for churches, into which the basilicas which 
remained were afterwards converted. Souje of the 
so-callod basilicas {Basilica of Constantine, see page 
210), have a transept, which never existed in the 
ancient court of justice. 

FornmofA uf/nstus, north of the Forum Romanum. 
Part of a massive pepcrino wall, pierced by an 
arch, romahis; with two fluted Corinthian colunms 
of the Temidc of Mars Ultor. 

Forum Transitorium, leading to the principal 
place or Forum Romanum. It contains two 
columns, remains of a Temple of Minerva, the 
most picturesque ruin in Rome. 

Forum Populi is Identified by Gell, with the re- 
•mains round the Temple of Jupiter Latralis, on 
Mount Alhano, Here fairs were held, and the 
Roman people celebrated the Latino) Fcrise, or 
holidays, in April, with their country allies. 
■ Forum Romanum. (See Forum, page 209.) 

Forum of Trepan. This adjoined the Forum of 
Augustus. Most of the site of this once magnificent 
basilica, which had five naves, as constructed by 
:Apollodoru8, is now covered with houses, standing 
16 or 16 feet above its level. It was surrounded 
by a palace, gymnasium, library, triumphal arches, 
])orticoes, columns, and gilt statues, which made 
Cassiodorus. in the sixth century, style it a "per- 
fect miracle." All that is now seen is the Trajan 
Column (see preceding page! and a few granite 
pillars of the Basilica Ulpia (probably not in situ), 
with some fragments of capitals, entablatures, «fcc., 
which were excavated by Sixtus V. (1.590), and by 
Pius VII.. in 1812-13, and are ranged around it. 
They arc near the church of Madonna di Loreto. 

Fountain of Egerla (so-called) in a valley, 
close to the Via Latina, 2 miles from Porta Appia. 
It is an unroofed chamber containing eleven niches, 
the work being partly reticulated ; at one end is an 
old mutilated statue. The spring still runs from 
it. The walls are covered with maidenhair feni. 
The Egcrian Fountain of ](?uma is close to the 
Porta (/apena, under the Coelian. Application to 
.be made to Barou Hoffmann, in whose grounds it is. 

fmamertine and TnUiAn Prisons, on the 

^^pitoUne, close to the Forum and the Capitolitim. 
Z^J-^ed by Serviaa Tnllina, and repaired under 
'^nam, ^j,, 22, That paH above ground is made 

of large blocks of uncemented tufa, and is 45 feet 
loiig, 18 feet high; one of the remains of ante- 
repul)lican times. A dark hole is shown through 
which prisoners were dropped to the dungeon 
below. It is described by Sallnst, near the end of 
the Catilinarian War, "Est in carcere locus, quod 
Tullianum appellabatur," Ac. Outside there were 
steps, called ncaloe gemonise, on which the dead 
bodies of nmlefactors, after their execution, were 
shown to the people. A post is shown to which 
St. Peter was tied, with his bust and miraculous 
well ; which was there, however, before his time. 
Sejanus was strangled here, and Jugurtha died of 
hunger in it. The Chui'ch of S. Giuseppe, in the 
Via di Marforio, is built over it. 

Meta Sudans, a fountain on the Via Sacra, 
which served to mark thcbotrndary (meta) of four 
regions of old Rome at their junction, near the 
Colosseum. As restored by Domitlan, it was a 
cone, at the centre of a brick basin, about 80 feet 
diameter, covered with marble, part of which 
remains near the Arch of Constantine. 

Milliarium Aureum, in the Forum, close to the 
Arch of Soptimius Severus, whence distances were 
recorded. The distances were measured from the 
Gates. A circular terminal on a marble base is 
seen on the left hand, facing the Capitol. 


(The Palatine Hill.) 

The first Paiaee was begun by Augustus Csb*Br. 
on the Palatine, on the site of the houses of 
Catiline and Hortensius, and enlarged, probably 
by Domitian ; and the erections on the Palatine 
were added to by his successors till they covered 
the plain as far as the Coelian and Esquiline Hills, 
and the gardens of Maecenas. 

Though injured by the Vandals, they were 
inhabited by Heraclius, in the seventh century, 
and were nearly all standing as late as the 
eleventh ceutuiy ; but till lately the mins were 
buried some feet below the soil. Paul III. began 
the Villa Farnese out of the relics, and left it 
unfinished as a heritage to the King of Naples. 
Remains of the foundations and basements of the 
respective palaces of Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, 
and Nero have been uncovered, the ground having 
been bought by the Italian Government, and 
systematically excavated. 

The marble floors and carvings of the banqueting 
room, with the Porta Mugonia, a gate of early 
Rome, have been uncovered ; and some of the cor- 
ridors of Caligula's Theatre exist, towards the 
Circus Maximus. On the Palatine are parts of 
Augustus's Palatine Library, and of the Temple 
of Apollo, built by him after the battleof Actiom; 
close to which are the two small Baths of Liria, 
in good preservation, with the gUding and painting 
still visible. From the extent of the mins, and 
tYve de^cTiv^lons that have come down, these palaces 
tntiftt Yvav« \)e«Tv \.\v<« x&io^mtjeQ^Sfifteat and apleodid 
1 thai ©'?w ^xV^X'i^. 

( TlbertO!, hi 


on ot the HErefir«bur1t>dAiipJar'.B.Pcraiil,b.daUdIiie. 
ficnTSliM!. J(l Vagn, T. Zticcbeto, A. CaiTncel. sud Tllloi 
ildcotthe Enim.iiiuel (IS7S). The bomt o( Ritpliiirl were 

ifoiurchsl. KispnbllcHn. °tind"lmperlirr iieriodV. 
Nq obo in Home i> brtlcr otqiialnWd with the 
hlitOTT of theie remarkable rnino. Tlckels to be 
bad at «S. Via Babnino, In tbe City. 
•Pmll^il, in nana della Rotonda (ImiUted 
at the late Coloaaeam in Regent's Park), Is In 

bTg mannineDta'oI nneleiit' Bonio. The best tIcw 

briek, itnecocd OTar, ISS teet diameter out- 
■Idc, 14li feet - - " 

I Aerlpplna' 
ipccially. In Itiefr 

" ^yJ. 

>r Harcelluii and 

Thfl portico has an inscriinlon 
to Auguitua's son-in-law, Astl\ 
Bath) were behind. It was al 

frinpn, I,. 

Korttoo by Urban VIII., but most of the bronio 

And for the canopy of St. Peter's aJtar. Formerly 

(unoDK other thinn) the Caitle of CreMenUni (or bnld Uik ^ u]d\Vc < 
a. Angela), tbe MUi^ and Santa Uarla Rotonda ', Vatt V« mta. \i\' 

PrtEtoi-ian Camp^ or CnNtrn Prstoriana, to tlia 

I been erected en the all 

I oatiide iho iri 

tbe Capitol, was bnilt h» 1^. I.i\«.V» "i 
hold «16 ^o]o\ta mW yjuXitsm "^ws«i « 


10 Uliorah ol 

icre met me 
a him. The 
." Upmi tbl». 

onnd toiah o[ 
here the Vie 
, oil tho Via 


J19X Iwyond which tli 
.he Via A|>|iin Plgmi 

ApiiU Anda. PaHinir iho *n 

iih Cai>«inb ( VIkdi Bi 

^""hrCnmiwt-n^ htlwoon Via Appk en<t Vis 
Ar^lostina. A ).>itli cit.«rgli.g (roni the Clmt-^b of 
D^Hnhieqiio Vadl9(ebovc| Mill leail, t» the left, ta 
the lo-ciilled Temple of the Ueui Rcdlculni *nl 

3- To Fraacatl, TaBralam, and Altauo, 

from Bnuie. «fd Ihc 

Aibaoo (Btal) !■ »•■ 

I St mllei, peulntt th 

. Fmio'al 

1 Cltunpliut. 

t gide Df Ihe A/ban . 

Albano, wli 

Ihc weH tide. . 

del'uhtfully it 
■oeson. li la H 

partly ocraplv 

tmnil rmi, nmy be hlV^ wliiib 
III the Uorle OardoDe eni t— 
PompeyaiHl DoiuiUan.HlUi 

a. Paolo. ' The dlpuchin Con'i 

The Alban LOtt, or Lago Caalello. 

>f the Roman nobJilty, 
:ood lodKlngi. lur a 


.111^ B«de 

n>, and 



tomuns cu 

rwky side 



feet by 

to tb 



A than 


. tlio 


elake. ThepaJa 

added 10 

SmiM ta 




, rupula 

Inn. 6 



lido hy 

w tAe TaiKBlitt Hllh'l. 

Orhtti Fekeita (population. 600), tin) mllo 
rroBi Harliui, near the Via Latlna. fiat a Greek 
nnventnTBaBlIlantnonlu. In the library are eomt 

OreckMSS. TliechurchhaaaBallKr-Iilraeby An. 
Llarraeel. anil eoiue rrcaunei by Donenlchhib. who 
:i>i>lETefu^ here from the th reatii of SalvalorKoaaj 

and hlmulf .Threat ^sta li held here. »lb March. 
J Farther mi. on Ihe eail lide of the lake, near 

Route 32.] ROHB — PBASC^TI, 1 

thm sprnns np. or whlcb there nre muix Klid iieUlng by i;. MarnUs: VmllRIlalncl]l^orTllKI 

thl.loiheljttle town of kocMBi'pii-irj'opu™ 

tion.2,0O(l),andipLaiucnl]ed(heCainpodlAiini- Bonaparte, then lo Victor 1 

hcHsfamilr, Onthelop o( the bill, bshlnil.wu 
the ancient Latin dtjr of ToBcnlHIlI, the birth- 
place of CilD the Etdon which teveral Popei 

iemph, by the Via Triumph alli. of whli 
ia. bounded by the Sahlne HUKi. Hon 

r Latt yanl. the 

ind thU volcanic hill Is another. 
I, abniUJ.OtD feet hl|,-h. They i 
:VU LaUna. On the opposite 
the site or Lati BtgUlia, [an- 

imlly, hntlt by the Colonnni. Oii the wesl ■ 

' the lake, near the Via Appla. is 

GiNziHo (populalion. 4,;UU). Ydth the Gesai 

FraaoKtl (StaL). popntati 

Avrippa. Is on the li^t. ^ine mIleA after eroeslUff 

then lo Banljsial), thc.l9N.ii.4'AiIi«iDlphai 

we lave Iho deierled CampaeTia lor Ihc miln, near 
the Tonih of tho I'lautll. a inaffiiie round toner 
IlKrihnI tu M. rijullui Sllvanus. About two 
nllc* to tlio right la 'Villa Adtlautl (the iteam 

Kadrlan'a Palace, now on extensive circle n' 
minx. Thii mi^fnlAeent dualj^i embraced an 
epIiDmo of ererylhiiiE beaulUn] In naroro aiui 
art which the fimnder bail Ken In Ihe conr» of lili 
ei)>nllUoiia; and wsi, altoicether, ihree mlloi long 
and one broad. Tbcra waa a Brest Lyceum, an 
Academy, nu Kgyjitlon Sorapoon, nValoof Temne, 
laveral Tlieatreii. Tomiileii. llallu, Itnrraekn fur Ilia 
troapa, eJlled C.'nU Uanicrellc. Naumaebia. Illp- 

... ^ ea fuund here vc^ 

JlnpurHil lir """■* "* — """^ 

I 114S, wUh B ', t:a\<:\\u,amw^'>\\i'i 

BBA.Dfllf AW'B lTAI.r. 

bonlen. Uoliln Bisslnsi Slbilli. Its healthy 
ration of aclplo ^milliinut. Miiiiu, U, Pluncas. 
aiidUoraco cania herotuTlB]tUsc«iia«.aud<2acen , 

Migt nt I'onte Colin, or FonHallL 
suae WM liuill by Plas H. Massl.i 
Ihc Claudlan Aqncdnct ors u«i here 

fTis^lee/ llu BiisHa 



a truly pIcturcKi 

.«o„of Aiigu. 


riimaln. Boani 


Milt It the Moo 



of Emrlnndi an 

Lord Brl.10 


bnmgtit the OTiglnal 

to England, 





tawD and tho city cf Riht 

Knted out by tho euidcs tu 
J(MJOfl»■^ HO&r BolfuWra 
nlu thoVlllBOf Sallnst(ne 

dcd Into nniiHraiiii owcailet (S'iO foot •lownj li; 
niok* vhlcli H umtn In tho cnnrKOor acnnpir n 
•: Taa/mttfinylnhliiLeltanprataKilhoilitli 

he Blbyr. Temple. 

B a little cattle WIS 
ji llie vrry brink ol 

to Cardinal Prince llohcnlu he liT gift from th( 
)nke of Modenai bnllt In 15*», by Curdiiial 
te, with fre«oe» bj Zuoiart aiid HozlHno 

acMMlblo. Oray 

qnatTlei yield the 




and porso 


erapca aro 

am nhlc 

ucmT KoTl 
The DlECH 



wlileb tnlla 


IB D>U» dltt 
The road In ak 

thopyramlil ul Calsi Oeniui. u 

of Hcrculea. ul 

■•" oa Uie top oae, tt tbc Mfremity ol one of the ■ an oce»«\oo«i «■"«*««>*■« 

Bonte 32.] 



flocks of sheep, with few shrubs or trees, and 
scarcely any houses. On the right is the muddy 
and monotonous Tiber. Traces of the paremcnt 
of the ancient Via are seen ; the road is good. 

The modem Ostia, on the south fork of the Tiber's 
delta, is a bishop^s see, founded by Gregory IX. 
in 830, but is decayed, like its predecessor, having 
a regular population of scarcely fifty inhabitants. 
It contains a .small cathedral, a bishop's palace, a 
small castle, built by Sangallo for Sixtus IV., and 
a few houses. The Osteria is a very humble inn. 

About i a mile from it, near Torre Boacciana, 
is the site of the ancient city of 

Ostium THbemium, the old port of Rome, founded 
by Ancus Martins; which once had a popula- 
tion of 80,000. For a time it had no regu- 
lar harbour, but was a mere unprotected anchor- 
age, which Claudius improved by building 
two moles and a light tower. It is now 2 to 3 
miles from the sea, which recedes at the rate of 
12 feet a year. From this causae it was choked up 
In Strabo's time, and by the sixth century it was 
deserted. Several of its buildings have been 
broken up for lime. "A view of recent excava- 
tions will make amends," says I )ean Burgon, " for 
the rough journey." It is another Pompeii. Whole 
streets have been uncovered, and remains of 
palaces and baths displayed in perfect order, with 
bases of columns, bits of marble, and other frag- 
ments of gates, houses, shops, temples, and theatres. 

Extensive and systematic excavations are now 
being conducted under the superintendence of Prof. 

The old deserted Church of S. Ippolito, near this, 

is named after the celebrated Ilippolytus, one of 
the first bishops uf this see. Opiiosite it, on the 
north fork of the delta (or Isola Sacra, as it is 
called), is Flumicino (Statj, near Porto, and 
the site of Portus Trajani. now choked with sand. 
Fiumicino is the modem port, now under improve- 
ment according to plans of Garibaldi and Prince 
Torlonia, and accessible by a branch rail from 
Pontegalora. It has a pier, cliurch. inn, shops, 
good bathing, and a Stabilimento di Bngni. 
Cathedral and Torlonia Villa, at Porto. 

From Ostia the Via Scveriana passes along the 
coast, southwards, formerly lined with villas, 
through Castel Fusano, a fine seat of tlie Chigl 
family, in a pine forest, with a view of the Mo(ii- 
terranean; and on to Porto d'Anzio, or Antiuni, 
which furnished the beaks of the sliips in the 
Rostra at Rome. It was occupied by II. M.S. Kdin- 
burgh in 1811, for the Pope. Ht-re are mo(!ern 
Villas of the Borghcsc, Corsini, and other f miilios, 
with remains of old ones built by the Romann, 
with whom it was a favourite sea-side rctrc;it. 
Claudius and Nero were l)orn here; and here the 
Apollo Belvedere was discovered. Anzio may bo, 
reached from Rome by rail to Cecchina, thence 
steam-tramway, with through tickets. 

For Veil, and other Etruscan towns, sec Route 2fi, 
page 143. Cori (ancient Cora) and Segni 
(ancient Signia), in the Volscian Hills, are old 
towns, with remains of massive walls. The first 
is accessible by rail from Rome; diligence, 3 miles, 
from the station to the town. Segni is a station 
on a branch line from Velletri; the old city is 2 
hours distant (by walking) from the railway sta- 
tion. See continuation of this r(^ute on page 227. 



^omt I0 1|akrm0* 

the abkuzzi—basilicata— calabria— &c. 

:naples and its environs. 

vesuvius— pompeii— sorrento—