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Full text of "Bradshaw's illustrated hand-book to Italy"

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Found AT ONCE! 



POI 




olliera Can we tfet a Note Book 
where the page last written upon 
will be found without eearohing?" 

By tliia iuveution tliu page lant written upon, 
ot any particular page in the 1>ook, cor Le at 
once fouutl, and tlic pencil ready to hand. TIjp, 
peuCil can also be placed so that any required 
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matically open at any given page, thus 
BilPlblTY and SECURITY, 
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literacy, scientific, and bnsineBs man 
simplicity and utility of the invention 
its appreciation and use by the general pi' 
prove a boon to all sorts and coudi^oii^ 



ADTERTI8BMENT8. 



r 



PRIESTLEY'S. 

The HIGHEST CLASS of BLACK DRESS GOODS. 



FROM TNE LEADING 
DRAPERS. 



GOURTAULDS' 

CRAPE. 

KNOWN A3J. OVER. THE WOIlU>. 



I 



fBvtwnnumim- 




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BRADSHAW'S 

ILLUSTRATED 

HAND-BOOK TO ITALY, 

osroi^Tia: ajsiid sotjtkc; 

INCLUDING 

SICILY AND SARDINIA: 

FORMING A COMPLETE GUIDE TO THE WHOLE COUNTRY 

UNDER ITS PRESENT TERRITORIAL DIVISIONS : 

ADAPTED TO THE RAILWAY SYSTEM ; 

WITH MAPS AND PLANS. 



NEW EDITION. 



LONDON : 

W. J. ADAMB * SONS (BRADSHAWS GUIDE OFFICE). S9, FLEET STREET. E.a; 

MANOHnTlR:-UBNBY BLACKLOCK * CO.. ALBERT SQUARE; 

And 8HEFFIICLD:-14. Paiiiuti; 

UTBRPOOL:—W. H. SMITH* 80V, 61. Oalb Strut; BIRMINOHAMi-W. H. SMITff A80N. 83. Ukiuk Street: 

BRIOHTONt-H. A O. TRBAOBSIL 1. Nortv Strbct; SOUTH AMKT0N:-C0X * 8HARLAND. Hioa Strrkt: 

BDIJIBUB0H:-J0HNMRNZIBS*00..1S. Harovkr Strbrt; OLASOO^^ :-JAMB8 RBIO, 144. Arotm Strut: 

DUBLIN :—0AB8O2f BBOTHBRS. 7. Graptoit Strsrt <(i Doors mom Nahao StrutI; 

PABIS:>Ths GALIQNANI UBBART. 894. RobsbRivou; URENTANO. 17. Avbjtoi os l'Opua; 

■B0aBBIi8»-SAKQUBT A VANDBBBrBBN (Brambaw's Goiob OrrtCM), 9, Pamaos on Pobtbb, 

BOOLBTARO AjrATACe; 

aOMBt-^LXNABI * OOOK; Ml Vu OBI.* OoRw; GENEVA :-H. 8TAPBLM0HR S4, CoRRATBMit 

BOBJOHt—fl. F. LBUTHOLD. Rob obr Poms a Con ob Ii'Motbl Baor; 

MRMANy:-J. P. KOBHLER, L8JMl«| 

fOBT SAID t- J. HORN: ALBXANDRIA AND CAIRO :-M. PBNA880N; 

OVITSD BTATBBi-CHARLSS SORIBNBR A SONS. 74S Ajro 740. Broaoitat. Nbw YoBKf 

BBBNTANO. 8. Uxior Sqoarb. KkW Yorx ; 
w s UARRISON*80ir.98,SBOoiio&nuur, BzOBAjraBBofLOiiios,BALTr«oRB; 
jai Brti ty Ml Bookstlters amt alall BMHrof BtRtlooa throotboot Grrst Britain. li«lRod« syaA^aa^^a wsMaM i wIV . 

JLb96. 



P R E B^ A C E . 



This Hand-Book to Italt, forming one of Bradshaw's series of 
Guides, embraces the whole extent of the Italian Peninsula, according 
to the territorial divisions now established. 

It offers to the TraveUer or Resident, in one moderately sized 
volume, a complete description of every place and locality of any 
importance — ^with a particular account of all the Gralleries, Works of 
Art, Buildings, Sights, Natural Scenery, and other objects of interest ; 
and, as usual, it is adapted throughout to the latest development of 
the Bailway system. Ample details are given of Modem and Ancient 
Bomb, as well as of Naples, Florence, Venice, Milan, Turin, Grenoa, 
Bologna, &c. (including the latest antiquarian discoveries), under their 
respective heads. 

We shall esteem it a favour if those who use the work will have 
the goodness to forward any corrections or suggestions for improving 
it, to 69, fleet' Street, London ; or Albert Square, Manchester. 






/, 



M 



CONTKNTS 



mTRODUCTION. 



Iw—USBFUL INFORMATION:— 



Carriage TrareUlng 

Churches 

Guides 

Hotels 

Luggage 

Money « 

Passports 

Posti^e. 

Post Trayelliog 

Railways in Italy 

Routes to Italy „... 

Tables of the former Italian Coinage, 

with its value in English Money 

Weights and Measures 

II.— SKETCH OF ITALY:— 



Anoient divisions of Italy . 

Army 

Batiu and Mineral Waters. 

Climate 

Coastline 

Education 

Income 

Islands 

Lakes 

Language....... 



Page 

xviiL 
xvlii. 
xviii. 
xvi. 
xviii. 

XV. 
XV. 

xvi. 

xviii. 

xvii. 

xvii. 

XV. 

xvi. 
xxiii. 

XX. 

xxi. 

xxii. 
xxi. 

XX. 
XX. 

xxi. 
xxi. 

xxiii. 



SECTIOl^ L 

NORTHERN ITALY. 

Route. Page 

1. Tufiato Bmssolino, Susa, Mont Cenls, and 

Mont Qen^vre 6 

2, tf to Pinerolo and the Waldenses' or 

Yaudois Country 6 

8. „ to Sahizzo and Monte Viso, Cuneo, 
Baths of Yaldieri, Col diTenda, 

and Nice 7 

4. n to Alessandria and Genoa, through 
the Ligurian Apennines; and 
to Alessandria and Piacenza... 9 
5k M to ChlTaMo, yerodli, Yalenza, No- 

Twa, XagcBta, and Milan 11 



Page 

Manufactures xxii. 

Moontains xx. 

Natural Features xx. 

Navy XX. 

Plains xxi. 

Political Features xviii. 

Population xix. 

Ports, principal xxi. 

Products xxii. 

Rivers xxi. 

Yolcanoes xxi. 

Winds xxi. 

III. — THE FINE ARTS— CHRONOLOGICAL 
LISTS, Act- 
Alphabetical List of Italian Painters, 

Sculptors, and Architects xxv. 

Architecture xxiv. 

Books xxxvi. 

Chronological List of Important Events, 

Roman Emperors, Popes, Sovereigns, 

Doges, Artists, Ac xxvii. 

Distances of the Principal . Railway 

Stations from Florence xxxvii. 

Painting xxiv. 

Schools of Painting xxiv. 

Skeleton Route to Turin xxxvi. 



Route. Page 

6. Turin to Ivrea, Aosta, the Great and Little 

St. Bernard, and the Mont Blanc 
District; and to the Castella- 
monte District 14 

7. „ to Blella, Yarallo, Lake of Orta, and 

the Upper Novarese 17 

8. „ toNovara,Arona, and Lake Maggiore 18 

9. Nice to Genoa, along the Riviera diPonente, 

or Comiche Road -• 19 

10. Genoa, by the Riviera di Levante, to Spezia, 

Lucca, Pisa, Leghorn, and 
Florence - 28 

11. Milan to GaUarate and Lake Maggiore... 29 

12. „ to Lecco, Camerlata, and Como ... 87 
18. „ to Bergamo, Brescia,Solferino.L«^ 

di Garda^PwtfstoSiBt^^'^^twBS^'^- 



<V4 



Tl. 



OOKTBITTS. 



Route. Page. 

14. Milan to the Certoia, Patia, AleMandria, 

and vreuoa »••••.•••... .•••••■••••t***** oo 

15. „ to Piacenza, Parma, Modena, and 

Bologna 66 

16. „ to Treriglio, Cremona, Mantua, and 

Parma 68 

17. Verona to Trento 64 

18. „ to Mantua, Modena, and Bologna ... 64 

19. Venice to Treviso, Undine, and Trieste ... 69 
19 {Continued). Venice to Vienna 88 

20. Venice and Padua to Arau2^ Este, Bovigo, 

Ferrara, and Bologna 89 

21. Bologna to Florence 98 

22. „ to Castel Bolognese (for Rarenna), 

Bimini, and Ancona 98 



SECTION II. 



CENTRAL ITALY 



28. Pisa to Empoli and Florence 109 

24. „ to Lucca, Pistoja, and Florence 118 

25. „ to L^hom, Cecina, Saline, Volterra, 

Elba, Orosseto, Civita Vecchia, 
and Borne 116 

26. Florrace to Empoli, Siena. Asoiano .Cliiusi, 

Ficulle, Onrietb, Bolsena, and 
Rome 120 

26. (Continued). Florence to Rome, vid Empoli, 

Siena, ix 136 

27. Florence to Arezzo, Perugia, Assisi, 

Foligno, Spoleto, Temi, Orte, and 

down the Tiber to Rome 143 

i8. Ancona to Fano,Fo8Sombrone,Urbino, and 
over the Apennines to Arezzo, and 
Florence; or to Fossombrone, 
Gagli, Sigillo, Nocera, Foligno, 
&C.J and Rome 151 

29. „ to Rome by rail, viA Jeei, Fossato, 

Nocera, Foligno, Spoleto, Temi 
Falls, Orta, and down the Tiber... 155 

30. „ to Loreto, Fermo, and Pescara, on the 

rail to Foggia, Trani, and Brindisi 155 

81. Temi to Aquila, Solmona, Popoli, Chieti, 

and Pescara 159 

82. Rome, description of 161-228 



SECTION in. 



SOUTH ITALY -SICILY-SABDINU. 

Route. Page 

82. (Continued). Rome to Naples, by railway, 
vid Palestrina, Frosinone, Cep- 
rano, Presencano, Caianello, 
Capua, Cancello, Ac.; or vid 
Velletri, Terracina, Fondi, and 

GaSta, and the Coast 227 

88. Castellammare to Chieti, Popoli, Solmona, 
Isemia, Capua, and Naples; across 
the Peninsula 988 

84. Pescara to Termoli, Foggia, A Majifredonia 284 

86. Naples, description of ...» 286-41 

85. (Continued). Naples to Foggia— by rail, vid 

Aversa, Caserta, Benerento, and 
Ariano; also Naples to BeneTanto, 

vid Nola and AveUino MI 

36. Foggia to Potenza, also to Taranto, vid 

Venosa and Gioia del Colle. - 268 

87. „ to Eboli, Potenza, Metap<mt<H 

thence to Taranto and Bar! ,„-, 268 

88. Foggia to Cerignola (for Canosa ami 

CannsB), Trani, Bari (f orTaranto), 
Ostuni, Brindisi, Lecce, Gallipoli, 
and Otranto » m. 264 

89. Bari to Taranto, Torremare, Cariati, Cot- 

rone, Catanzaro, and Beggio; 
towardfl Sicily 267 

40. Naples to Eboli, Auletta, CastroTlllari, 

Cosenza, Nicastro, Gioja, Reggio, 
and Sicily 269 

41. SiciLT.— Palermo to Messina, by the North 

Coast, vid Bagheria, Termini, 
Patti, Milazzo, Ac «.... 278 

42. Palermo to Trapani by Calatafimi (for 

Segesta), Castefvetrano (for Sdi- 
nunte) and Marsala 180 

43. Palermo to Girgenti and Porto Empedocle, 

vid Ruccapalumba. Lercara, Ac* 
quaviva, and Aragona-Caldiure... 282 

44. Girgenti to Syracuse by Palma, Llcata, 

Terranova, Modica, and Note; or 
by Terranova Caltagirone, and 
Lentini 288 

45. Syracuse to Catania and Mount Etna 284 

46. „ to Messina, across the Island — 

The Lipari Islands 288 

47. Sabdikia.— Porto Torres to Cagliari 290 

48. La Maddalena to Sassari 298 



INDEX. 



Fc/r wm Lakes, Mountains, and Valleys, ms wufer ihou headi in ths Index. 



S 58,89 
ante, 390 
tegTosso, IS, 87 
ae, 116 
;ai, 158-9 
^383 

uteUo,287 
dale, 387 
kbona, 117 
ipendente, 141 

,10 
as, 389 

0, 387, 288 

Blver, 64 

89 

la, 350 
,888 
011,856 
111^15 
ta,6 
I 

0,30 
^839 

joafa,330 

na, 155, 157 

Lake, 320 

3,830,337 

hCamerlata, 37 

f«, 80, 119 

ola, 1 

0,280 

ndria, 9, 5S 

no, 267 

ro,291 

11,289 

iano,6 

s58 

ara,368 

11a, 378 

10, 141 

,864 

igto,6 

a, 151 

9k>lo»885 

miini,16( 

prl,3IO 

1,889 

A, 105, 151 

ID, 17 

854 

tYtr, 321 

MCI, 159 

UilO 

Mlloiintain8,xxi., 

i,UI,]M,15S,8M 



Apiee, 363 
Aqnabona, 117 
AquiB AlbuUs, 381 
Aqoila, 158, 160, 388 
Aquino, 380 
Aragona, 288, 288 
Arce, 229, 280 
ATCole,48 
Arcore, 87 
Ardara, 291 
Arena Po, 11 
Arezzo, 186, 144, 154 
Argenta, 93 
Argira, 289 
Ariccia, 221 
Arno River, 118, 121 
Arona, 18, 18, 87 
Arpino, 229 
Arqnk, 89 
Arquk, 89 
Arquata, 10 
Arquato, 158 
Arsiero, 50 
Asciono, 140 
Ascoli Satriano, 263 
Ascoli Piceno, 158 
Asolo, 50 

Aspromonte, 268, 371 
Asseminl, 290 
Assisi, 148 
AsU, 9, 12, 37 
Atella, 263 
Atlna, 281 
Atri, 159 

Attigliano, 141, 143 
Augusta, 285 
Auletta, 269 
Aulla, 29 
Avella, 262 
Avellino, 232,362 
Avenza, 29 
Aversa, 229, 261 
Avezzano, 280 
Avi^liano, 268 
Avise Castle, 10 
Avola, 288 



Baccano, 143 
Badia, 47 
Bagalbnto, 288 
Bagheria, 378 
Bagnacavallo, 99 
Bagnara, 878 
B«ini,881 



Bagnola, 42, 64 
Bag^nolo, 58 
BagnoU, 268 
Baia, 258 
Baiano, 247, 263 
Balsorano, 280 
Balvano. 268 
Bambolo, 118 
Baragiano, 268 
Barcellona, 278 
Bardonnechia. 6 
Barge, 6 
Bari, 264, 265 
Barile, 263 
Barletta, 265 
Hassano, 50 
Bastia, 7, 148 
Battaglia, 89 
Battipaglia, 256 
Baveno, 18 
Becca di Nona, 15 
Kelfiore, 157 
Bella, 268 
Bellaggio, 87 
Bellano, 40 
Bellinzona, 19, 88 
Bellizza, 255 
Belluno, 88 
Benevento, 362 
Berg'amo, 89 
Bemalda, 268, 368 
Bianconuovo, 268 
Biasca, 38 
BibbiaiieHo, 62 
Bicocea,283, 285 
BieUa, 17 
Bisceglie, 265 
Bisignano, 268 
Blttonto, 265 
Bivona, 288 
Bobbie, 7 
BOLOONA, 92 

Academy (Pictures), 96 
Bacciocchi Palace, 97 
Bentiroglio Palace, 97 
Bevilacqua Palace, 97 
Gampo Santo, 96 
Cathedral, 94 
Churches, 94 
Leaning Towers, 93 
Madonno di S. Luca, 96 
Mnsenm, 96 
Palaces, 97 

Palazzo Pubblico, 94 j 
Pepoli Palace, 97 i 

Pinacoteca, 96 \ 



BOLOGKA— Con/mifec^. 

8. Domenico, 94 

S.OiacomoMaggiore,95 

S. Michele in Bosco, 96 

S. Petionio, 94 

S. Stefano, 95 

Theatres, 97 

Unirei-sity, 96 
Bolsena, 141 
Bonorva, 291 
Bordighera, 20 
Borghetto, 20, 28, 136, 151 
Borgo di Panigale, 98 
Borgoforte, 68 
Borgo Franco, 14 
Borgo S. Dalmazzo, 8 
Borgo S. Donino, 58 
Borgo 8, Lorenzo, 102 
Borgo S. Martino, 12 ■ 
Borgo S. Sepolero, 154 
Borgo Ticino. 18 
Borgo Vercelli, 13 
Bormio, 38 
Bofta, 291 

Boscolungo, 98, 116 
Bourg Mont Oen^vre, 6 
Bova, 268 
Bovino, 262 
Bozzolo, 64 
Bracciano, 143 
Bracco, 28 
Brh. St. Vittoria, 7 
Brenta River, 70 
Brescia, 40 
Brianfon, 6 
Brianza, 37 
Brindisi, 266 
Brolo, 278 
Broni, 11 
Bronte, 287 
Buccino, 263 
Buffalora, 13 
Budnalbergo, 262 
Burano, 87 
Bussoleno, 6 
Buttrio, 88 



Cabbe-Roquebrune, 20 
Cadenabbia, 38 
("'adore, 88 
Cagli, 154 
CagUaxV^^Vi 



TIU. 



INDBX. 



Calataami, 280 
Galacibetta, 288 
Calclano, 263 
Caldare, 278 
Caldiero, 47 
Callmara, 267 
Calolzlo, 87, 40 
Caltagirone, 283 
Caltanisetta, 288 
Calaso, 14, 16 
Calvi, 231 
Camaldoli, 143 
Camerino, 167 
Catuerlata, 37 
Camnago, 37 
Cumogli, 28 
Cumpagna, 151, 218 
Campiglia, 119 
Campiglia Marittima, 117 
Campobasso, 234 
Cainpobello (Castelve- 

trano), 281 
Cainpobello (Licata), 286, 

288 
Campo Doloino, 38 
Canipotnarino, 234 
Campomela,' 291 
Camposamplero, 53 
Campotense, 270 
Camuscia, 145 
Cancello, 232 
Candela, 263 
Canicatti, 288 
Cuniga, 291 
Canlno, 119, 142 
Cann8B,264 
Canosa, 264 
Canossa Castle, 61 
Cantlano, 154 
Cape Passaro, 283 
Cape Spartivento, 268 
Capistrello, 230 
Capraja, 119 
Caprarola, 143 
Caprera, 293 
Capri, 259 
Capua, 231 
Caravagglo,68 

Cariatl, 268 
Carlgnano, 7 
Carlnl. i80 
Carinola, 229 
Carmagnola, 7 
Carnla, 88 
Carplneto, 229 
Carrara, 29 
Carrh,7, 8 
Casa degr Inglenl. 286, 

287 
Casalbuono, 269 
Casaldani-Ponte, 262 
Casale, 12, 37 
Casalecchlo, 98 
"^Mal Maggiore, 64 



Casalnaovo, 282 
Caaalpusterlengo, 57 
Casamlcclola, 261 
Casara, 88 
Cascano, 229 
Case del Piano, 145 
Case Niiove, 157 
Caserta, 232, 261 
Casino Chiriaco, 271 
Casino dlFerra, 117 
Casorla, 261 
Cassano, 39, 268, 270 
Cassino, 230 
Casteggio, 11 
Castel Bolognese, 98 
Castel dl Sangro, 238 
Castel Fidardo, 156 
Castel-Fiorentino, 137 
Castelfranco, 50, 58, 68 
Castel Gandolfo, 220 
Castel Ginblleo, 148 
Castel Guelfo, 58 
Castellaccio, 142 
Castellammare, 252 
Castellammare (Sicfly), 

280 
Castellammaro Adrla- 

tico, 159, 233 
Castellamonte, 16 
Castellancta, 264 
Castello Catarina, 288 
Castelluchio, 64 
Castel Maggiore, 92 
Castel Nuovo, 151 
Castelnuovo, 44 
Castel S. Giorgio, 232 
Castel 8. Pietro, 98 
Castel Sardo, 290 
Castelvetrano, 281 
Castiglione del Lago, 145 
Castiglione della Stlvere, 

42 
Ca8tiglloneFiorentlnol45 
Castro, 267 
Castrofilippo, 286 
Castrogiovanni, 288 
Castrovillarl, 270 
Catania, 285, 286 
Catanzaro, 268, 270 
Caudine Forks, 232, 262 
Cava, 254 

Cava Carbonara, 56 
Cavallermagg^ore, 7 
Cavellesca, 38 
Ceccano, 229 
Cecchlna, 227 
Ceclna, 117 

Cefala Diana Baths, 281 
Cef alti, 278 

Celano and Lake. 160, 230 
Cellole Fasini, 229 
Cento, 92 
Ceprano, 229 
Ceriale, 20 



Cerlgnola, 264 
Cemobbio, 87 
Cemusco, 37 
Certaldo, 137 
Certosa della Valle Gra 

zina, 118 
Certosa di Pavla, 68 
Cervaro, 263 
Cervia, 102 
Cesana, 6 
Cesena, 102 
Cesenatlco, 102 
Cetara, 254 
Ceva, 8 
Chambave, 15 
ChAtel Argent, 16 
Cbatillon, 15 
Cherasco, 7 
Chestnut Tree, 287 
Chiaravalle, 155 
Chiarl, 89, 40 
Chiasso, 38 
Chiavari, 28 
Chlavenna, 38 
Chienti Serracapriola, 

234 
Chieri, 9 
Chieti, 233 
ChUlvani, 291 
Chloggla, 87 
Chinsaforte, 8 
Chiusi, 136, 140, 145 
Chivasso, 11 
Ciampino, 227, 229 
Cianciano Baths, 140 
Cigoglona, 64 
Clneto Romano, 222 
Cuique Denti, 294 
Cisano, 40 
Cisterna, 226, 227 
Cittadella, 50, 58 
Cittk della Pleve, 140 
Citik dl Castello, 144, 158 
Cittk Ducale, 159 
Cittanova, 268 
Cividale, 88 

Ci vita Castellana,143, 151 
Civita d'Antino, 230 
Civita Lavinia, 227 
Civita Vecchia, 119 
(JivitcUa del Tronto, 169 
Coccaglio, 40 
Codogno, 67 
(Jodola, 234 
Codroipo, 88 
Codrongianus, 291 
Cogne, 14, 15 
Cogoleto, 21 
Col della Bochetta, 10 
Col della Traversette, 8 
Col de Nava, 8 
Col di Braus, 9 
Col di Tenda, 8 
Col Fiorito, 157 



Colico, 88 
Col Jullen, 7 
Colle d'Elia, 187 
Coliepardo, 229 
Colle Salvetti, 117 
Colognata, 47 
Cologna-Veneta, 47 
Colomo, 64 
Comitini Inferiore, S 
Coniitini Zolfare, S8t 
Commachlo, 92 
Como, 37 ; Lake, 87 
Compiobbi, 148 
Conca, 255 
Conegliano, 88 
Consentla, 270 
Contursi, 268 
Copia, 270 
Cori, 223, 226, 227 
Corigliano Calabria, 
Corioli, 227 
Corleone, 281 
Cometo, 119 
Comigllano, 21 
Correggio, 89 
Cortona, 136, 146 
Cosenza, 968, 270 
Cotrone, 271 
Courmayeur, 16 
Covlgliajo, 98 
Crapollo, 264 
Crema, 63 
Cremona, 63 
Crescentino, 111 
Crissolo, 8 
Cuglleri, 291 
Cnma, 269 
Cuma-Fusars, 268, 
Cuneo, 8 

Cupria Maritima, : 
Curinga, 271 
Cnrtatone, 68 
Custozza, 66 
Cutigllano, 116 



Decimomannn, 2f 
Dego, 10 
Desenzano, 44, 64 
Diano, 269 
Diano Marcna, 2 
Dolo, 63 
Domegliara, 64 
Domo d*Ossola, 
Domusnovas, 2£ 
Donnaz, 14 
Dora Baltea, 12 
Dora Riparia, 1 
Doria-Cassano, 
Dossobuono, 47 
Dueville. 60 
Dngenta, 262 



lNb£k. 



Jx. 



\ 



£boli, 255, 26&, 369 
Egeste, 281 
£lba, 118 
Elnuis, 290 
Embrun, 8 
Kmpoli, 118, 136 
Engadine, 38 
Erba, S7 
Esa, 19 
Este, 89 
Etna, 285 

Euganean Hills, 50 
Ezilles, 6 
Fabriano, 155 
Faenza, 102, 186 
Falconaro, 105, 155 
Fano, 105, 153 
Fara, 13 
Farigliano, 7 
Fariglione Islands, 287 
Fasano, 266 
Fanglia, 117 
Favignana, 282 
Fclizzano, 9 
Feltre, 88 
Fenestrella, 7 
Ferentino, 229 
Feretto, 88 
Fermo, 158^ 
Ferrandina, 263 
Ferrara, 89 
Ficarazzi, 278 
Ficulle, 140 
Fiesole, 135 
Flgline, 143 
Filicuri, 289 
Finale, 63 
Finale horgo^ 21 
Finale Marina, 21 
Finale Sia, 21 
FirensnoU, 58 
Fiumicino, 223 
Floksncx, 102, 120 

Academy of Fine Arts 
132 

Arcetri, 185 

Baptistery, 123 

Bargello or Podestit, 
133 

Boboli Gardens, 121 

Bridges, 122 

Campanile, 128 

Carmine Church. 125 

Caselne,I84 

Churches, 132 

Duomo(Caihedral) 122 

English Chnrch, 128 

Environs, 184 

Fiesole, 185 

Qalfleo'sHotuM.US 

Gates, 123 

Hospitals, 184 

Houses of Dant« and 

a 



h\otltisct^C\>ntinwd. , 
Library, 181, 183 
Medici Chapel, 126 
Museum, 133 
Or' S. Michcle. 127 
Palaces, 128, 132 
Palazzo Vecchio, 128 
Piazza Granduca, 122 
Pitti Palace, 121, 131 
Poute Vecchio, 122 
Pratoliiio, 135 
8. Annunziata, 224 
S. Croce, 124 
S. Lorenzo, 125 
8. Marco, 126 
8. Maria Novella, 126 
8. Miniato, 185 
S. Spirito, 128 
8quares (Piazzi), 122 
Theatres, 134 
Uffizi GaUery, 129 
Valdamo, 135 
Vallombrosa, 135 
Venus de' Medici. 129 
Villas, 184 

Foggia, 234, 262, 264 

Fognano, 102 

Foligno, 149. 155 

Follouica, 119 

Fondi, 228 

Foria,26i ■ 

Forli, 102 

Forlimpopoli, 102 

Formia, 228 

Formica, 110 

Fomovo, 61 

Fort Bard, 14 

Fort Roc, 16 

Fosolano, 272 

Fossacesia, 234 

Fossano, 8 

Fossato, 144 

Fossombrone, 153 

Francavilla, 234, 268 

Frascati, 221 

Frasso-Dugenta, 261 

Fratta, 154, 155 

Fratta Grumo, 261 

Frosinone, 229 

Frugarolo, 10 

Furbara, 120 

Fusiano Lake, 87 

Fusignano, 99 



Ga8ta,228 
Galati, 287 
Galatone, 267 
Gallarate, 19, 87 
Gallera, 148 
GaUipoli, 267 
Oai^sgnfino, 47 



Garibaldi, atGenoa, 27; 
Varese, 39 : Lovere, 
40; Rome, 1C8; the 
Voltumo, 281 ; Naples, 
246; in Calabria, 269 ; 
at Eboli, 269 ; Aspro- 
monte, 271; Roggio, 
273; in Sicily, at Pa- 
lermo, 277; Mclazzo, 
:!78; Calatafimi, 281; 
Marsala, 282; Capre- 
ra,293 

Garibaldi's Englishman, 
278 

Garibaldi's Island, 293 

Gavorrano, 119 

Gemoua, 88 

Genargentu, 291 

Genoa, 21 
Academy of Fine Arts, 

26 
Acquarola, 23 
Brignole Palace, 25 
Cathedral, 23 
Churches, 23 
Consolazionc Church, 

24 
Ducal Palace, 24 
Palaces, 24 
Pallavicini Palace. 25 

Do. Villa, iW 
8. Ambrogio, 23 
S. Anuunziata, 23 
8. Maria in Carigna- 

no, 23 
8. 8lro, 23 
8. Stefano, 24 
Serra Palace, 26 
Town Hall, 25 
ITniversity. 26 
Via degli Orefici, 23 
ViUas, 26 

Genzzano, 221 

Gerace, 268, 271 

Gesso dl Entracque, 8 

Giandolj, 9 

Giardinctto, 262 

Giardini-Taormina, 287 

Giarre Riposto, 287 

Glave, 291 

GInosa, 263 

Giola del CoUe, 268, 267 

Gloia Tanro, 271 

Giovhiazzo, 265 

Girgenti, 281, 288 

Giulianova, 159 

Goito, 65 

Golfo d'Aranci, 281 

Gorizia, 88 

Gorlago, 40 

Gozzano, 18 • 

Graglia, 17 

Gragnimo, 258 

Graham's Island^ ^^\ 



I 



Grand Paradls, 15 
Gran Saaso, 160 
Giassano, 263 
Gravellona, 19 
Gravellona-Toce, 18 
Gravina, 263 
Grignano, 89 
Grignasco, 13 
Grivoia, 16 
Grosseto, 119, 140 
Grotta del Cane, 256 
Grotta Fcrrata, 220 
Grottamare, 158 
Grottole, 263 
Grumello, 40 
Gruno, V64 
Gualdo Tadino, 155 
Guastalia, 61, 68 
Gubbio, 144, 154 



Herculaneum, 250 
Hone Bard, 14 
Hypsn, 281 



lesi, 155 

Iglcsias, 292, 293 

Imola, 98 

Incino, 37 

Incisa,' 143 

Ischla, 260 

Iseo, 40 

Isenila, 231. 233 

Isles of the Syrens, 253 

Isola, 230 

Isola Bella, 19 

Isola del Cautone, 10 

Isola Famese (anct.Vell) 

143 
Isola san Giulio, 18 
Isola Superiore, 18 
Isoletta, 280 
Itri. 228 
Ivrea, 14 



La Cattolica, 104 
Lacco,261 

Lacinium Prom., 271 
La Comia, 119 
La Duchessa, 269 
Lago, 98 
Lagonegro, 269 
Lakes (Logo)—' 

Agnano, 256 

Albano, 220 

Avemus, 258 

Bolsena, 141 

Castello, 220 

Como, 37 

Di Fucino, 230 





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MoKT.,orMoni.l- 


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Mignimo. 131 


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INDEX. 



XL 



Kaplss— Con/tntiedL 

MtMfWB,341 

Qp«BPl«Mt,2l8 

PalftMt tnd YIMm, 
344 

Pffistnm, 200 

Pompeii, 850 

Pounon, 257 

S. Ciiiara, 299 

S. Domeolco, 289 

S. Filippo Neri, 240 

S. Franoeaoo, 240 

S. Qennaro, 299 

8. Martino, 241 

S. Paolo, 241 

S. Seveiino, 241 

San Carlo, 288 

Blbyrt CaT6, 258 

Squares, 288 

Strada Toledo, 287 

Theatres, 245 

UnivertHiea, Ao., 244 

Villas, 24ft 

VesiiTlas, 248 

Virgirs Tomb, 246 
Nardo, 267 
Kami, 150 
Narzole,7 
Nas,15 
Nato Capo d'Or]ando,278 
Navacchio, 118 
Nemi, 2-20 
Nenri,28 
NettuBO, 227 
Nicastro, 270 
Kice, 9, 19 
Nichelliiio, 6 
Nicolosi, 2t6 
Nkosia,288 
NitilA, 9 
Ninfa, 227 
BIsida, 256 
Koe«M,n»,a84 
Nocera Umbra, 155 
Nola,282,f82 
Noli, 21 
Norcia, 158 
Norma, 228 
Nolo, 388 
Novara, 18 
Nora 8lri, 288 
NoTi,10 
N;aQl,294 
N«ofe,2ll 

Offida Caat di Lava, 158 
Olegglo, 18 
Olevano, 321 
Olgiate, 87 
OlFrarl,278 
OUv«to,2«8 
OlM«tiH4S,84 



OnegUa,a,20 
Oppido, 264, 272 
Orbet^o» 119 
Orciano, 117 
Ordona, 268 
Orifltano, 292 
Orsara, 262 
Orta, 18, 18 
Orte, 186, 142, 151 
Ortler Spltze, 88 
Ortona,234 
Orvieto, 136,140 
Osimo, 155 
Ospedaletti, 20 
Ostia, 222 

Ostium Tibennim, 222 
Ostuni, 266 
Otranto, 267 
Otricoli, 151 
Oulx,6 
OzierK 291 



Pabillonis, 291 
Paderno, 87 
Padua, 50-53 
Padnla, 269 
Pacsana, 8 
Psstun, 255 
Pagan], 254 
Palagonia, 284 
Palazzolo, 40, 263 
Palermo, 274 
Palestina, 87 
Palestrina, 221, 229 
Palidoro, 120 
Palinuro, 269 
Pallanza, 19 
Palma, 232, 288 
Palmi, 271 
Palo, 120 
Panaria, 289 
Panicale, 145 
Pantellaria, 282 
Paolo, 270 
Paradis, Grand 15 
Paratico, 40 
Pabma, 58, 64 
Partinico, 280 
Pasian Schiavonesco, 88 
Passignano, 145 
Patcmb, 287 
Pattl, 278 

Paulilatino,291, 292 
Pausula, 157 
Pa^ia, 11,55 
Pedaso, 158 
Pegli, 21 
Penne, 283 
Pentima, 283 
Perouse, 7 
Pertosa,269 
Pbbuoia, 146 
PefArO|l04 



Pesctra, 159, 284 
Pesehiera, 44 
Peseta, 115 

Pettorano«288 
Piaccnza, 11, 57 
Piadena, 6t 
Pianella, 233 
Pianosa, 119 
Pietra, 21 
Pietra Santa, 29 
Pietramala, 98 
Pieve di Cadore, 88 
Plgiiataro, 281 
Pilve di Cadore, 88 
Pinerulo, 6 
Piomblno, 118 
Piperno, 226, 227 
Pisa, 109-113 
Pisciotta. 250 
Pisticci, 263, 268 
Plstoja, 98, 115 
Pizzighettone, 57 
Plzzo, 271 

Pizzuto dl Melfi, 263 
Plaisano, 272 
Pliny's Villa, 154 
Ploaghe, 291 
Pogglbonsi, 187 
Pogglo Renatico, 92 
Pojano, 50 
Polesella, 89 
Policastro, 269 
PoUcoro, 268 
Polignano, 265 
Polistena, 272 
Pompeii, 250-254 
Pomptine Marshes, 227 
Ponzana, 13 
Puntassiere, 135, 143 
Ponte a Elsa, 187 
Ponte a Moriano, 29 
Ponte a Serragllo, 115 
Pontebba, 88 
Pontecagnano, 255 
Pontecorvo, 280 
Pontecurone, 11 
Ponte della Selve, 40 
Pontedera, 113 
Ponte di Brenta, 53 
Ponte Felice, 151 
Ponte Oalera, 120 
Ponte Oinori, 118 
PontelagoBcuro, 89 
Ponte Molle, 148, 151, 171 
PontenuTe, 58 
Ponte Piave, 88 
Ponte S. Oioyanni, 148 
Ponte S. Marco, 42 
Ponte S. Pietro, 40 
Ponte Valentino, 262 
Pontine Marshes, 227 
Pontremoli, 28, 29 
Ponzana, 18 
Popolif288 



Populonia, 118 
Pordenoae, 88 
Porlezza, 38 
Porretta, 98 
PoRiver, 1,8, 55, 68,89 
Portella, 228 
PorticI, 260 
Porto, 223 
Porto Cereslo, 89 
Porto Civltanova, 157 
Porto d'Anzio, 228 
Porto Empcdocle, 281 
Porto Perraio, 118 
Portogmaro, 88 
Porto Recanati, 156 
Porto S. Giorgio, 158 
Porto Maurizio, 20 
Porto Torres, 290 
Poschlavo, 88 
Posilipo, '25Q 
Positano, 254 
Possagno, 50 
Potcnza, 263 
Potenza Picena, 157 
Pozzuoli, 257, 258 
Pracchia, 98 
Pragano, 255 
Prato, 116 
Pratolino, 135 
Prato Magno, 148 
Prosenzano, 231, 234 
Fr4 St. DIdler, 16 
Procida, 260 
Pula, 295 

Qnadema, 98 
Quattro CastelU, 62 

Racalmuto, 283 
Kacconlgi, 7 
Ragalbuto, 289 
Ragusa, 288 
Randazzo, 287 
Rapallo, 28 
Rapolano, 140 
Rapolla-Larello, 235, 363 
Ravello, 254 
Ravekka, 99, 102 
Recanati, 156 
Recco, 28 
Recina, 156 
Recoaro Baths, 50 
Reggio(Calabria)268 273 
Reggio (Emilia), 61 
RegiUus Lake, 221 
Rende S. FUi, 268 
Resina, 250 
Resintta, 88 
Rezzato, 42 
Rho, 14 
Riardo, 281 
Ribis Riszolo^Q^ 



■ ■ * 



tNDKX. 



Ulgrnano, 148 
Rimini. 108 
Rio Marino, 118 
Rionera, 333 
Rionero, 263 
Ripaf ratio, 113 
Riparbclla, 117 
Ripalta, 234 
Ripatransone, ]58 
Ripomerancio, 118 
Ritorto, 270 
Riva (Lake Como), 38 
Riva (Lalce Garda), 64 
Rivalta, 65 
Rivarolo, 16 
Riviera di Levante, 28 
Riviera di Ponente, 19 
Rivo, 263 
Rivoli, 6, 64 
Rivolta, 279 
Robiiante, 9 
Roccadcbaldi, 8 
Rocca (I'Evandros 231 
Rocca di Papa, 220 
Roccapalumbo, 282 
Roccarasa, 233 
Roccasecca, 230 
Roccastrada, 140 
Rocca Imperial e, 268 
Rocca Romana, 143 
Rocca Valie Oscura, 283 
Rocchctta, 268 
Roccheti, 50 
Rocella lonica, 268 
Rosrgiano, 268 
Rogliano, 270 
Rogoredo, 58, 56 
Romagnano, 13, 263 
Rome, 161 

Ancient, 208-18 

Academics, 207 

American Church, 162 

American Legation, 
]62 

Apollo Belvedere, 197 

Aqueducts, 170, 210 

Arches, 210 

Atrium Vestae, 210 

Basilicas, 174 

Br-ths, 211 

Benevolent Institu- 
tions, Hospitals, &c., 
207 

Bridges, 167 

British Embassy, 161 

Business Directory, 162 

Campagna, 219 

Capitol, The, 200 

Carriages, 161 

Castcl S. Angelo, 218 

Catacombs, 196, 219 

Chief Objects of 
Notice, 163 

^ai'ches,162,173 



Uoiiit— Continued. 

Churches outside 
Rome, 193 

Circuses, 211 

Clubs, 162 

Colleges, 207 

Colosseum, 212 

Columns, 213 

Dying Gladiator, 201 

Egeria.Fountain of .214 

English and American 
Bankers, 162 

English Church, 162, 
193 

Excursions from 
Rome, 218 

Forum, The, 209 

Forums and Basilicas, 
213 

Fountains, 170 

Galleries, 162 

Gates, 171 

Ghetto, 168 

Holy Week, 174 

Hotels, in 

Inscriptions, 196 

Laocoiin, 197 

Lateran, 180, 200 

Libraries, 207 

Money, 161 

Mosaics, 199 

Municipal Districts,166 

Obelisks, 170 

Omnibuses, 161 

Painters. 164 

PalaceoftheCaeflar8,214 

Palaces and Villas, 202 

Pantheon, 215 

Papal Establishment, 
173 

Peter's, St., 176 

Physician, and Accou- 
cheur, 162 

Pontifical Palaces, 193 

Population, 161,173 

Post Office, 16 i 

Principal Church 
Festivals, 174 

Professional Direc- 
tory, 162 

Public Offices, 163 

Quirinal and Lateran 
Palaces, 199 

Railways, 162 

Remains of Ancient 
Rome, 208 

Roads, 172 

Roman Art, 16* 

Rostra, 209 

SantaM[ariaMaggiore, 
181 

Sculptors, 164 

Seven Hills, The, 165 

Sistinc Chapel, 194 



Rome — Continued. 

S. Paolo Fuori Le 
Mura, 183 

Squares, 168 

Steam Communica- 
tion, 162 

St. Peter's, 176 

Streets, Ac, 167 

Telegraph Office, 162 

Temples, 215 

Theatres. 162, 171 ; 
(Ancient), 217 

Tiber River, 167 

Tombs and Mauso- 
leums, 217 

Tre Fontane, 190 

University, 207 

Vatican, 168, 193 

Victor Emmanuel 
Monument, 201 

ViaAppla,219 

Villas, 163, 206 

Walls, 165 

Week at Rome, 163 

Weights and Measures, 
Ifil 
Ronchi, 88 
Ronciglione, 142 
Ronco, 11 
Ronco River, 99 
Rosamo, 271 
Roseto, 268 
Rossano, 268 
Rovato. 39 
Roverbella, 65 
Roveredo, 64 
Rovigo, 89 
Rubicon River, 103 
Rubiera, 62 
Russl. 99 
Ruvo, 265 



S. Andrea, 268 

S. Andrea del Lido, 87 

S. Angelo in Vado, 153 

S. Antimo, 261 

S. Arcangelo, 103 

S. Basilio, 268 

S. Benedetto Tronto, 158 

S. Bernardino, 38 

S. Biagio, 270 

8. Bonifacio, 47 

S. Casciano, 185 

S. Cataldo, 286, 288 

a. Clemcnti, 254 

S. Dalmazzo di Tenda, 9 

S. Dona di Piave, 88 

S. Donnino, 113 

S Elpidio, 167 

S. Filippo d'Argiro, 289 

S. Oavino, 290 

S. Genesio, 11 

S. Giorgio, 290 



S. Giovanni, 143,29^ 

S. Giovanni d'Atso, 140 

8. JKovanni Manzano. 88 

SfGIovanni Persiceto, 97 

B. Giuliano, 118 

S. Giulietta, 11 

S. Giuseppe di Cairo, 8, 10 

S. Giustino, 144, 153 

S. Ilario, 61 

S. Lazzaro, 87 

S. Lorenzo, 20 

S. LorenzoMaggiore,263 

S. Lussurgiu, 291 

S. Marco Argentine, 268 

S. Marino, 104 

S. Martino, 6, 47 

S. M artino d. Battaglla 44 

8. Miniato, 113 

8. Nicolo, 11 

S. Pier d' Arena, 11, 21 

S. Piero, 116 

S. Pierre, 15 

S. Pietro in Casalc, 92 

S. Quirico, 11 

8. Remo, 20 

S. Remy, 16 

S. Sepolcro, 154 

8. Severino, 167 

S. Severo, 234 

S. Sisto, 270 

S. Stefano, 20, 278 

8. Tedoro, 268 

8. Valentino, 283 

S. Vincent, 15 

S. Vincent (Baths); 15 

S. Vinccnzo, 118 

8. Vito, 231 

8. Vito d'Otranto, 269 

Sta. Maria Maddalena, 89 

Saclle, 88 

Sala, 269 

Salandra Grotte, 368 

Sale, 8 

Salerno, 255 

Salina, 289 

Salo, 64 

Snluzzo, 8 

Samassi. 292 

Samoggla, 68 

Sangiorgio, 232 

Sanluri, 293 

Sannazzaro, 56 

Sanseverino, 167, 283 

Santa Agata, 229 

Santa Caterina (Xirbl), I 

288 
Santa Elena, 87 
Santa Eufemia, 270 
Santafede, 363 
Santa Margherita, 38 
Santa Maria, degli An 

geli, 148 
Santa Mar(ii di CafiQ^, 

•82 



INDEX. 



xiii. 



Santa Maria della Croce, 

281 
Santa Maria Maddalena, 

89 
Santa Maria Maggiore, 

232 
Santa Marindla, 120 
Santa Scvcra, 120 
Santhia, 12 
Sant 'Orsola, 390 
Santuario, 8 
Sardinia, 290 
Samo, 232 
S:iroDno, 37 
Saranna, 29 
Sassano-Tegiano, 263 
Sassarl, 291, 294 
Sasso, 98 
Sassuolo, 63 
Savigliano, 8 
Sarignano^reci, 262 
Savona, 8, 21 
Scafati, 251 
Scalu, 254 
Scala di Gioccl. 291 
Hcaletta, 280, 288 
Scarena, 9 
Schieggla, 154 
Schio, 50 
Sciacca, 281 
Scigliano, 270 
Scilla, 272 
Scoglitti, 283 
Scopa, 17 
Scopoli, 157 
Scordia, 28S 
Sccugiiago, 57 
Scgesta, 281 
Begni, 221, 229 
Seiinunte, 281 
Seminara, 272 
Sercgiio, 87 
Seriate, 40 

Sermuneta-Norma, 227 
SerraCaprioIa,^234 
Serradif alco, 2S6, 288 
Serrnmanna, 290 
Scrra S. Qnirico, 155 
Scrravallc, 10, 115, 157 
Sessa Anrunca, 229 
Sestri di Ponente, 21 
Sestrl Levante, 28 
S«sto, 37, 116 
Sesto Calendo, 87 
Settimo, 11 
Sereso, 87 
Sezza, 2-26. 327 
Sgurgola, 229 
Sibari, 268 
Slcignano, 263 
SIciJUn Vespers, 275 
SlcitT, 273 
Sicnlitna, 283 
SicfUi, 197 



Sigillo, 155 
Signa, 113 
Siliqua, 2(2 
Simplon, 19 
Sinalunga, 140 
Sinigaglia, 105 
Solfntiira, 221 
Solfcrino, «3 
Solino, 272 
Solmona, 283 
Solofra, 232 
SolopacA, 262 
Somma, 37 

Somma Campagna, 44 
Sondrio, 38 
Sora, 229 
Sorrento, 253 
Sospello, 9 
Sovcria Manelli, 270 
Sparanise, 231 
Spartivento, Cape, 268, 

273 
Spello, 149 
Spczia La, 28 
Spczzano Albanese, 270 
Spezzana-Castroviilari, • 

268 
Spigno, 10 
Spinazzoln, 263 
Spltigen Pa88, 38 
Sjwlcto, 14^ . . ■ • 
Si-otomo. 21 
Squillace, 2C8, 271 
Starzo, 262 
Stelvio, 88 
St. GotharU Tunnel Rail, 

38 
Stradella, 11 
Stresa, 18 
Strevi, 10 
Stromboli, 289 
Strongoli, 2t8 
Stupiuigl, G 
Subiaco, 222 
Supcrga, 5 
Susa, 6 
Sutri, 143 
Snzzara, 68 
Sybaris, 270 
Sybil's Cave, 258 
Sy&acuse, 2ti3 



Taormina, 287 
Taranto, 268, 267 
Tarecnto, 88 
Tarsia, 268, 270 
Teano, 231 
Telamone, 119 
Telcse, 262 
Tempio, 294 
TeiMla,9 
Teramo, 159 
Termini Imerese, 278 



Termoll, 234 

Temi, 150 

Terontola, 136, 143, 145 

Tcrracina, 238 

Terranova, 283, 291 

Terra Nuova, 273 

Testrina, 159 

Thiene, 50 

Thrasymenus Lalce, 145 

Three Taverns, 220, 227 

Tiber River, 167 

Ticino River, 55 

Tirano, 88 

Tiriolo, 270 

Tissi-Uf^ini, 291 

TivoLi, 221 

Tolentino, 157 

Tora Prcsenzano, 234 

TorccUo, 87 

Torralba, 291 

Torre, 50 

Torre Annunziata, 250 

Torreberetti, 56 

Torre Cerchiara, 268 

Torre de' Confini, 228 

Tor'e deir Epitaf la, 227 

Torre del Greco, 250 

Torrcgaveta. 2i9 

Torre del Lago, 29 

Torremare, 263, 268 

Torre Musdca, 271 

Torrenieri, 119.140 

Torre Polli-e, 6 

Torrita, 140 

Tortona, IL 

Trani, 265 

Trapani, 282 

Trebbia River, 58 

Trebisaccc, 268 

Trecate, 13 

Tre Fonlane, liO 

Ti onto, 64 

Trcs Nuraghes, 291 

Trcs Tabernaj, 220 

Trevi, 149 

Trcviglio, 39 

Treviso, 50, 8S 

Tricesimo. 88 

Trieste, 89 

Trino, 11 

Trivigno, 263 

Troffarello, 7, 9 

Turbia, 19 

Tdkin, 1-5, 8 
Academy of Science, 

Pictures, Ac, 4 
Armoury, 3 
Cathedra], 3 
Clmrclics, 3 
Corpus Domini, 3 
Egyptian Museum, 4 
Gran Madre di Dio, 3 
Hospitals, 5 
Mouiuuents, 5 



Tvviiyf— Continued. ' 
Musettm, 4 
Palaces, 3, 4 
Palazzo Madama, 3 
Piazza Castello, 3 
Picture Galleries. 4 
S. Filippo Neri, 3 
Snperga, 5 
Theatres, 4 
University, 4 

Tusculnm, 220, 221 

Udine, 88 
Umbertidc, 144 
Uras, 292 
Urbania, 153 
Urbino, 163 
Usmate. 37 
Ustica, 278 

Vado, 21 
Vaglio, 263, 264 
Vnl Rregaglia, 38 
Valcimara, 167 
Valdagno, 48, 60 
Valdarno, 135. 143 
Val di Bisenzio, 116 
Val di Bove, 286| 287 
Valdiera, 48 
Valdicri Baths, 8 
Valeggio, 65 
Valonzu, 12 

Valle di Maddnloni, 262 
Vallelunga, 278 
Valleys — 

Anio, 135 

D'Aosta, 14 

I)c Challant, 14 

De Charaiwrchcr, 14 

DiChiana, 115 

Lucema, 6 

Perosa, 6 
Vallombrosai 135 
Val Mesocco, 38 
Valmontone, 229 
Valsavola, 285 
Valtellina, 38 
Vrtlvo, 263 
Varallo, 13, 17 
Varazze, 21 
Varesc, 87, 38 
Varigotti, 21 
Vasto, 234 
Veil, 143 
Velleja, 58 
Velletrl, 227 
Venafro, 234 
Venice, 69-88 

Academy of Fine Arts 
(Pictures), 79 

Archives, 8i 

Arsenal >'?> 



XIV. 



INDEX. 



Yksicz— Continued, 
Ci d^Ore, 86 
Campanile Tower, 74 
Cathedral, 72 
Chio^gia, 67 
Correr Museum, 66 
Custom House, 61 
Doges* Palace, 74 
Fen ice Theatre, 86 
S. Franoefco della Vlg- 

na,78 
Frari Church, 82 
Grand Canal, 70 
Grimani Palace, 84 
Law Court, 80 
Librerla Vecchla, 77 
Lido, 87 
Murauo, 86 
Piazza S. Marco, 73 
Procuratio Nuove, 77 
Public Gardens, 76 
Querinl Library, 64 
hedoitore Church, 61 
Bialto firidge, 81 



y^mcE—Continued. 
Salute Church, 79 
Scalzl Church, 61 
Scuola S. Roero, 66 
S. Giorgio Maggiore, 

79 
SS. GioYanni e Paol, 

84 
8. Marciliauo, 85 
S. Salratore, 68 
S. Sebastiano, 61 
S. Stefano, 84 
S. Zaccarla, 77 
Veml raminl-Calcrgi 
Palace, 86 

Venosa, 268 

Ventimiglia, 20 

Venusiiun, 264 

Vercelli, 12 

Vergato, 98 

Yema, 11 

Verola, 230 

VerolaiioTa, 43, 64 

yen)iia,44 



Verres, 14 

Vesuvias, Mount, 346 
VctruUa. 142 
Yettica Maggiore, 356 
Yettica Minora, 355 
Yettuone, 14 
Yia Appia, 237 
Yiareggio (Milan), 66 
Yiareggio (Pisa), 3» 
Yfcenza, 48 
Yico, 253 
Yietri, 254 
Yigerano, 13 
Yiggiano, 269 
Yilla Adriana, 331 
Yilla d'Este, 823 
Yillafranca, 65 
YUlafrati, 281, 888 
Yilla Maggiore, 56 
Yilla Pallavieini, 37 
YiUarosa, 268 
Yilla S. Giovanni, 873 
Yillasor, 293 
Yilla Splnola, 37 



YillatteUone, 7 
Villefrancfae, 19 
Yilleneuve, 16 
Yiterbo, 142 
Yittoria, 388 
Yittorio, 86 
Yitulano, 363 
Yoghera, 11, 56 
Yogogna, 19 
Yolcano, 289 
Yolci, 119 
Yolta, 65 
Yolterra, 118 
Yoltri, 21 
Yoltumo River, 38J 



<. 



Waldensian (Yaadoit, or 

Yaldesi) Country, 6 
Wormser Jocb, 86 



Zagarolo, 339 
ZoUino, 367 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



To Face Page 
MAPS AND TOWN PLANS:— 

Florence, Town Plan of 120 

Italy, Map of Title 

Milan, Town Plan of 28 

Naples „ 284 

Palermo „ 374 

Rome „ 160 

Turin „ xl. 

Yenice „ 68 

Yerona „ ' 44 

YIEWS:— 

Ancona, City of 46 

Catania, Sicily 46 

Clvita Yecchla .T 46 

GaSta 46 

Genoa' 22 

Lago D'Orta 32 

Lago Maggiore ,.... „,...,„.„....,. $3 



YlEWS-.'-Continued. To Face P«g« 

Leghorn « „ 46 

Napl&<) M fSf- 

Palermo 46 

Roue :— 

Castle and Bridge of St, Angelo...^ Ht 

Colosseum ^ 91^ 

Pantheon, The „., MS 

Ruins of the Temple of Saturn 91t 

Temple of Hercules fit 

Salerno, Piazza di Solofra 4l 

Scylla .M..M.M 4$ 

Trieste 318 



Tubin:— 

Royal Palace. 

Plazsa Yittorio Emmanuele 

Yenice » , 

Y^ona...,„M..»MnM..t«..M «••.... 



8f 
It 



INTRODUCTION. 



I.— USEFUL INFOEMATION. 



*«* BsiiMRAWs CoHTiirxKTAL RAiiWAt Gtn>B (pablishcd monthly, tt 59, Fleet Street, .X^odfi^ 
gives the latest parlicnlarB respeeting Passpofts, Hotels, Chaplains, Medical Meti, Bankera, TpjtijjA^ 
tion. Rai}w«ys, Steamers, Girealar Tours, and other matters which are liable to change. ..It U. 
so Indispensable a Companion for Visitors to every part of the Continent, that in the (ioorse ojt thd> 
following remarks we shall take it for grranted that the reader has that usefnl work in hiiliancUf JB^4' 
shall therefore make frequent reference to Its contents in order to avoid repetition here. .. /. 



PaJUrportfl.— See lutroduotion to Bradshaui't 
CdntinenUtl Ouide^ for all the necessary' directions 
on this head. Our agents, W. J. Adams & Sons, of 
59, Fleet Street, London, will undertake to procure 
the Passport, with its visas. It ia always nsefU, 
and is in fact a stranger's card of introduction to 
all the official world on the continent. 

: ItOIWy.— Circular notes for £5 and £10, payable 
at the principal towns, may be obtained in London 
(see Introduction to Bradsnato's Continental Ouide). 
finglish coin should always be changed for the cur- 
rent coin of the country, at the money changer's 
(cambia mooeta). For a -^sitor constantly moving 
about, the expenses may average 168. to 20s. a 
day ; including travelling, living, and sight- seeing. 
Savereigns ean be exchanged for paper at 36 lire. 
In Italy, Ni^ioleons pass, worth 30f ., or 16s. ; and 
the equivalent for a frano in Italy, is the ** lira 
nuova" (ja. Ure). or."lira Italiaua," worth 9id., 
now universally Known as '^ lira " only, though 
sometimes called " £rancot*' and divided into 100 
"centesimi," or centimes. 

The currency of Italy la now uniform for the 

>whole kingdom. Bank notea are issued for 1,000 

fiOO, 200, 100, 50, 25, 10, and 5 lire. Those for 

2 lire, 1 lira, and hUf a lira have been called in 

to be exchanged for silver, and are now rarely 

met with. Brohva pieces of 1, 9, 5, and 10 cente- 

slliil(or.o<iiia)ara.isolii«d$ le^is worth about half 

a farthing ; the 5c. piece is called a *^ soldo," and 

prices are not vnlMqUently quoted in soldi, Just 

as in France they aca often stated in sowt. Silver 

pieeea of 5 and 2 lire, and 1 lira, and 50c. and 30c. 

CM4 oieces of 10«, W, tO, 10, Md 5 lire. (See 

tw miuy TIlMt ta m^gf aia^i Comttrnkd ChMt.) 

flofled or tMB Mtii- IfeMUl b» 4«eUmd, and no 

notei ilioiild be taken out of Italy. 



In paper, £1 8terlings=25'76 lire. One ihlUifig^ 
1 lira and 30 centesimi. One penny^lO centeiiiAi. ' 
These vary a little with the rate of elL6hiaige,' 
which has been lately rising. 



TABLE OF THE FOBMEB XTALUM COiyAGB, WITK 
ITS VALUE Vf BlfOLZSH MONET: — 

Many of these terms are disused, and none of 
the (xkns are now current, but it is occasionally 
useful to know their names and equivalents. 



Italian, 

Bajocco worth 

10 bajocchi=l pauI ...... „ 

Carlino (Naples)=10 granl „ 

12 carlini=l plastra „ 

Ducato(Naple9)=10 carlini „ 
Florin (Austrian) = 100) 

soldi f " 

10 florins (Austrian) „ 

Grano „ 

Lira (Austrian) ^ 

Oncia (gold)=8 ducati „ 

Paul or Paolo (Roman)=> 

lObaJocchi ) " 

45 to 47 pauls „ 

Piatola (I^aplea) „ 

Scudo (silver), Roman crown „ 
Plastra or scudo (silver,) 

Naples)=12 carlini... J" " 

Soldo „ 

Zecchlno or sequin (gold) .. „ 

ZwAncigerorAuitrUuiltfa ,« 

80 zwanzigers=10 Aqs-> 
trian sllret tV0TVu% ..A '*'' 



English^ 

id. 
5|d. to 5|d. 
4d. 

4s. l|d. 
8s. 4|d. to 88. 5ld. 

Is. lid-. 

208. 
Id. 



Id*. 



10s. 4|d. 

5id. to 5|d«. : . 

20s. 

18s. 8id. or 78. 8d. 

4s. Sid. to 4s. ed.^ 

4i. lid> 

Id. 
8s. lOfd. 



XVL 



IXTR01>UCTION'. 



Hotels.— The U8aal times for table d'hute din- 
ners are 1 and 6 p.m. A plain breakfast may be 
had of chocolate, bread and butter, and fruit, as 
grapes, figs, Ac. A fair dimier at 4 lire, not 
including wine. The national siesta after dinner is 
worth imitation by visitors in hot weather. Cigars, 
being a government monopoly, are bad and dear. 

At an hotel servants are charged in the bill 
at about 1 lira per day. The " porter " expects 
a gratuity (buona mano). Boots, or ** facchino,'* 
26 cents. The waiter is called " camericre »"— at 
a catlh "bottega" (shop). Table d'hote is '^tavola 
rotonda." A cook shop is '^ trattorfa.*' An inn, 
"albergo" (plural "alberghi"). "osteria," "loc- 
anda.'* See the Vocabulary at the end of the 
Special Edition of Bradshato's Continental Guide. 
■ As to making a bargabi beforehand with the 
host, the following is the advice of Mr. T. A. Trol- 
Ippe: — **My own long experience of Italian tra- 
V.fdling would lead me to say. Never do anything 
of the kind. It bidisposes the people to you. It 
is contrary to the habits of the country. It will 
inucli diminish your comfort ; and in nowise profit 
your purse. Neither imagine that any economy 
will be achieved (except in the case of the great 
cities, where accommodation of different degrees of 
Ipxury is provided at recognised and avowedly 
different scales of charges) by limithig your de- 
mands to anything less than the best the house 
can give you in point of rooms and fare. Tell 
the host good-naturedly and cheerfully to do the 
best he can for you in both respects; not mean- 
ing, of course, to include in this *best' foreign 
wines, or such extra articles as are supplied only 
cm special demand. Say nothing about prices. 
Bat when the bill is brought in, if it is an extor- 
tionate one, just cut it down to a fair charge, 
taking care that the sum you fix is rather more 
than less than the absolutely strict rate. If it be 
done good^humouredly and quietly, and with evi- 
dent^nowledge of what the charges ought to be, 
the traveller will find that it will always bo 
acceded to with a good grace, and that the opera- 
tion will not be attended by the disagreeables 
inseparable from the work of making a bargain for 
^our entertainment on entering the house. The 
atriicing off of this tara on the bill ought not to be 
done as if the objector considered the innkeeper as 
a rogue, but simply as a matter of course.** — 
Trollopb^s Lenten Journey. 

PCMtai^. — Letters to a traveller in Italy should 
be addressed "Posta Restante,** or *'Ferma in 
Posta,** that is, to be called for ; or else to the care 
of a banker, or the landlord of an hotel. There are 
two daily mails from London to Italy and three 
from Italy to London. 

In Italy the postage on letters is (>c. (id.) the 
quarter oz. in the towns, and 20c. (2d.) to any part 
of the conntry, payable by stamps, sold at the cigar 
•hops. Postage to England, 25c. the 15 grammes 
(i o«.). 

Telegraph.— To the United Kingdom, initial 
cbftrg« 4 Ura and 30c. per word. 



Weights and Meanires c*Pesi e Misure**).— 

The metrical system, based on the French, was 
adopted in Italy in August, 1861. It was made 
permissive in England (by Act 27, 29, Vic, cap. 
117) in 1864. 

In the Italian names, *' ch " takes the place of 
"t" as ehilometro for kilometre, by which all 
distances are now measured; and the "h" is 
dropped, as hi ettoWtro, for hectolitre. " Km," is, 
however, used in the Official Railway Guide. 

ALPHABETICAL TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES, 
NEW AMD OLD. 

Acre = 4,000 square metri, nearly. 
Barile of wine (Tuscan) = 12 gallons. 
Barile of oil (Tuscan) =s 8*8 gallons. 
Bushel = 36-348 littri. 
Chilogramma =: 2 lbs. 8 oz. 4*4 drachma 

lOchilog. =5 22 lbs. Of oz. 

51 „ «= 112 lbs. 

Chilometri=: 1,000 metri=2 mile=l,093 yds., 1 foot, 
10-79 inches. 

10 chilom. = 6i miles. 

(To turn chll. into miles, multiply by 5 and 
divide by 8). 
Ettara (hectare) =2| acres, nearly; or 2*471 acres; 
or 2 acres 2280*3 square yards. 

10 ottare = 24f acres. 
Ettolittro (hectolitre) = 2 bushels, 8 pecks, 0-077 

pints. 
Foot = -305 metro. 
Fathom=l-829 metri. 
Gallon=4*548]ittro. 
Gramma=:-5644 drachms avoirdupois. 
Littro (Iitre)=l*76U8 pints = 61*028 cubic inches. 
Metro=l 094 yards, or=3 feet 3*3708 inches, or ss 

8*281 feet, or = 89-87 Inches. 
(To turn metri Into yards (nearly), add 1-lIth), 

10<» metri = S28 feet. 

1,000 metri (chilom.) 8,281 feet, or about f mile. 
Mile (English) = 1,609815 metres, or= 1*609 chilo- 
metri. 

5 miles (English) = 8 chilom. 
Mile (Italian, or geographical) = 2,025 English 
yards = 1,852 metres = 1 l-7th English mll«. 
Mile (Neapolitan) =2,435 yards. 

„ (Piedmontese) = 2,697yard8. 

„ (Roman) = 1,G28 yards. 

„ (Tuscan) = 1,808 yards. 
Moggio = 4-5ths acre. 
Ounce (avoirdupois) = 28*35 gramme. 

„ (troy)=3J*10 gramme. 
Palmo= lOf inches. 

Post (old) varies from 4} to 11 English milea. 
Quart (imperial)=4*54 littri. 
Quarter (dry measnre)=290'78 littri. 
Quintal (Tuscan) = 100 Tuscan lbs. k 74*8 Engliih 

lbs. 
Pound (avoirdupois) = 453*59 gramme. 

., (troy) = 873*24 gramme. 
Tomola = i quarter. 
Yard = -9144 metri, or about 9-lOths. 
(To turn yards into metri (nearly), take off M2th). 
A aqutire yard =s 0*836 square metr«, 



INTRODUCTION. 



XVU. 



Routes to Italy.— See itinerary of Routes from 
England, and listsof railways, steamers, diligences, 
Ac, in Bradshaw^s Continental Ouide. Through 
France, via Dover to Calais (three times a dayX oi* 
Folkestone to Boulogne. 

By rail, Qenoa may be reached through France 
or Switzerland in 2i to 3 days (30 to 36 hours 
of actual travelling by short route), for about 
£8, first class. Leghorn, in 3 to 3^ days, for £8 
to £9. Florence, in 3 to 3^ days (or only 44 hours 
of actual travcUhig), for about £9. Rome, in 2^ to 
5 days, for £10 to £11, 43 to 48 hours travelling. 
Naples, 2| to 5| days, about £12; 50 hours travel- 
ling by short route. 

The direct Land Routes are through France or 
Switzerland, and through the Tyrol. 

Sea Routes from London by the Orient, British 
India Co. and P. A O. boats to Naples. Nord- 
deutscher Lloyd, Southampton to Genoa. 

From Liverpool to Genoa, Leghorn, Naples, 
Venice, Ac, by Canard Steamers. 

Railway Routes are— v»*d France and Mont Cenis 
or Marseilles; vid Switzerland and the St. Gothard, 
or vi& Germany and the Brenner. 

1. Through France. To Paris, Dijon, Ch&lon- 
^{lur-SaOne, and Mftcon; thence to Amb^rieu, 

Culoz, Chambdry, St. Michel, Modanc, Mont 
Ccnls Tunnel, Turin; thence to Mitnn, Bologna, 
Genoa, &c. See Skeleton Route, p.oge xxxvi. 
Or, I'aris to Lyons and Marseilles, for Nice, and 
the Riviera to Genoa. 

2. Through SwUzerland, To Calais, Basle fi^trec^ 
train^ avoiding Paris), Lucerne, and the St. Gothard 
to Milan. Or Steamer to Antwerp, Rail to Brus- 
sels, Luxembourg, Strassburg, and Basle, thence 
as above. — See BracUhato's Continental Guide. 

3. Through Oermany. To Brussels, Lidge, Vcr- 
viers, Aix-la-Chapcllc, Cologne, Mayencc Aschaf- 
fenburg, Munich, Rosenheim, Kuf stein, Innsbruck, 
Brenner Paes, Brixen, Botzen (or Bolzano), Ala, 
Verona; and thence to Padua, Venice, Milan, 
Bologna, Ac. At Venice the Peninsular and 
Oriental Steamers may be taken, in connection 
with Ancona and Brindisi. Or, throufch Germany 
and Switzerland, and the St Gothard Tunnel. 

Other Routes are as follow : — 

4. To Paris, Lyons, Marseilles; and by steamers 
to Genoa, Leghorn. Civita Vecchia; or Marseilles 
by rail, to Nice, Genoa, Ac. 

h. To Paris, Geneva, Martigny, Greit Saint Ber- 
nard, Aosta, Turin. About 40 hours of actual 
travelling, to Martign^y, under Mont Blanc. 

6. To Paris, Geneva, the Simplon, Lake Mag- 
griore, Milan. 

.7. IJp the Rhine, B&le, Lucerne, the St. Gtothard 
Pass or Tunnel, Lake Maggiore, Milan, or Lake 
Como and Milan. 

8. The Rhine, B41e, Lucerne, Coire, the Splligcn, 
Como, Milan. 

•9. Through theTynd, by Innsbruck, the Enga- 
dlne, Stclvio - and other Passes, to Liikc Como, 
MIliMi, Ven>n«i iui<l Venice^ 



10. To Vienna, Laibach, Trieste, Venice, Ancona, 
Ac. About 36 hours of actual travelling to Vienna. 

Through tickets can be obtained from the different 
railway companies. Circular Tour tickets may 
be got at Milan, and it will be found economical to 
take return tickets to the Italian frontier by tlwse 
who are conversant with foreign travel. There 
is no free luggage allowance with these tickcts.<« 
See Bradahavo's Continental Guide. 

Italian Overland Route to Egypt.— The 

extension of the Adriatic Coast \\r\e(Rete Adriatica) 
to Brindisi (the ancient Brundisium) made this 
place the most eligible starting-point for the East, 
instead of Marseilles. It is 700 to 800 miles 
nearer to Port Said, and within about 3 day»^ sea 
passage of the Suez Canal. A sum of 6 million lire 
was expended in the improvement of the port. 
The journey may be performed at through fares by 
the Mont Cenis, St. Gothard, or Brenner Route, 
as above, the three meeting at Bologna; whence 
the main line runs on to Ancona, Pescara, Foggia, 
Bari, and Brindisi. Across France, the whole 
distance from Boulogne to Brindisi is about 
1,380 miles, as follows: — 

Miles 

Boulogne to Paris 157 

Paris, via Mont Cenis, to Turin, 

about 488 

Turin to Bologna and Ancona ... 336 
Ancona to Brindisi, about 845 

The P. A O. Express, leaving London on Friday 
afternoon, has attaclied to it a Sleeping Car from 
Calais for travellers holding through tickets; due 
Sunday, at 4 p.m. The Mail steamer leaves Brin- 
disi at 6 p.m , and is due at Port Said on Thursday. 
Parties who do not like night travelling may break 
the journey here and there by starting a few days 
earlier, by ordinary train; through fares, first- 
class, a little over £12. Refreshment buffets ut 
most of the places mentioned above. 

For particulars of the French and Swiss Routes 
sec the Direct Through Tables in Bradshaw's 
Continevtal Guide. Baggage on the Brenner Route 
is examined at Cologne, Knfstein, and Ala. 

Railways In Italy.— A railway is called " stra- 
da ferrata/' and "ferrovia:" or "stradc ferrate," 
and "ferrovie," in the plural. Some are single 
lines. The oldest is Naples to Castellammarc, 
opened 30th November, 1889. There are steam 
tramways; the principal lines will be found in 
Brctdshaw's Continental Guide. 

At the end of 1889 there were 8,164 miles open, 
1,414 miles of steam, Ac, tram lines, and 22,076 
miles of telegraph. The lines are in the hands of 
the Government, and are divided Into the Rete 
Mediterranea, Rete Adriatica, and Rete Sicuia. 
Submarine cables are laid from Otranto to Vclona; 
from Marsala to La Callc, in Africa; Spezia to 
Corsica; Cagliari to Rone and Malta. 
In the Italian Railway tables the prices are 
, given in "lire" and "centesimi" ("1." «Lwk '•'•^rv 
I A smpU additional t«x U ^Vm*^^w^«^^2o.nnr>«^' 



i 



xviii. 



IKTRODUOTIOK. 



Tht dlHaneM ftre Indicated In '' chUometrl,*' 
("ch."). "Ant." (a.m.), rtgnlflei morning; •»pom." 
(p.m.). Afternoon; "arr." arrivet; '*diret." ezpresi; 
•'»liti," mixed; "tragettoinore,"timeinhour8; 
** diligence," coaches. Pansengers ihoald look to 
their change at the stations. 
^ Lnnrage, " Effettl di riaggUtore,'* may be 
booiced and forwarded by rail. ReTolrere are 
liable to be confiscated. It is not safe to put vala- 
ablet among ordinary laggage. There is no free 
allowance of baggage in Italy. For example, 
from Modano to Brindisi the charge is Ss. 6d. per 
20 lbs. There is, howerer, no charge for a small 
hand-bag, weighing not more than 44n>., maximum 
Bice, 30 X 10 X 12 inches. 

OairlflCe TZmTeinng.— A "Vettnrlno** is the 
driver of a "vettura," or two-horse carriage. It 
takes fonr in and one out, and will do 35 to 80 miles 
a .day, at a cost of abont 30 to 40 francs, besides 

8 or 4 francs, ''buona mano," to driver. 

A ^*Cale8«o'* is a vehicle for two persons; 
charge, aboat SH- a mile. *'Calesiino," *'caret- 
tino, * and ''corrieolo*' are names for a light vehicle. 

Post Trayelling costs aboat Od. to lOd. a mile, 
including postilion and ostler. A post is from 7 to 

9 English mUea. 



OvldM— ealled "Ciceroni" (after Cicero), "ser- 
vitori de piazia," "commissaij," "facchini," Ac 
For 6 or 6 lire a day they will show all the sight*. 

Mr. Laing says:— "A valet de place, <dcerone, or 
bear-leader, is a very useful personage, provided ha 
if Intelligent, and provided yon never take him 
with you. If you do, you are the party fairly en- 
titled to be paid for the day's work, for you have 
the fatigue of listening to a rigmarole of names 
and phrases that would tire the patient ear of any 
of his marble statues. Bat consult him in the . 
morning before you sally forth, as a kind of two- 
legged dictionary; get all the information you can 
out of him about what you intend to see, and the 
way to it; pluck him and leave him at home; and 
the goose is worth his price."— Jfo^w of a lYopelfer 
(Traveller'* Library). 

Churches, which are generally the principal 
objects of notice, are usually shut from 13 to S. 
'^Chiesa" is a church; '^Custode," a person In 
charge; "Pinacotcca," a picture gallery; "Palaaxo,"' 
a palace, or family town house; "Piazza," an 
open place; "Si afltta," means "to let." 

Turpentine or Condy's Fluid is good for the 
sting of a wasp, or mosquito bite. Carl)oUc add 
may be used for bad smells. 



II.— SKETCH OF ITALY. 



Italy, or "L'Italia," between lat. 46i* N. In the 
Alps, to S^• in Sicily, and between long. 61* E. at 
Mont Cenis, to 18J* at Otranto, is a boot-shaped 
Peninsula, stretching al>out 600 miles into the 
Mediterranean Sea, from the basin of the Po, 
which forms its northern division, and lies between 
the Alps and Apennines, in a trough, 350 miles 
by «0. It is bordered on the west by France, 
or "La Francia," and the Maritime Alps. On the 
north by Switzerland, or "La Svlzzera," and by 
the Swiss and I'yroiese Alps ; on the south and 
east by the Mediterranean Sea ("Mare Mediter- 
raneo") and the Adriatic Gulf ("Mare Adriatico"). 
Part of the Mediterranean, between the mainland 
and Sardinia, is the "Mare Tirreno," or Tyrrhe- 
nian Sea; and that part at the mouth of the 
Adriatic is *'Mare Jonio," or Ionian Sea. 

" Upto mid tliigh I staiid, nor ever itlr, 
Deep in the water, yet un Jcut m eoond ; 
Fm good for sporting, good to wear the spur, 
As many amm to ineir ooet have found. 
All atratch'd oompaoi and flxm by Tisorona needle, 
with hem at top, and team straight down the middle." 
Oiosti't II Stivale (the Boot), translated 
in JfaemlUan'$ M<igiuAn: 
The territories of geographical Italy, as dis- 
tinguished from political Italy, are encroached 
upon by its nelghl>ours. The province of Nice was 
transferred to France, 1860, followed by Savoy, in 
1866. ParU of tht Swiss Cantons of Tessin, or 
"TIeIno," and the Orisons, or "Origione," stretch 
down the Italian slope of the Alps to Lake 
UtMgfloHs Ac. Tyrol, or "TIrolo," balenglng to 
Amma. aamea 4own to Lake Oarda. Cortiea, 
'^pUeaUy a part of Italy, baloofft to 
Malta, to England. 



POLITICAL FEATURES. 
Before the revolutions of 1859-60, the divisions of 
the Peninsula were as follow, comprising twelve or 
thirteen States, and seven principal Governments. 
— -Sasdinian States; Lombardo-Venbtiak King- 
dom (from the Ticino eastward) ; Duchy of Pabma; 
Duchy of MoDBKA and Masra Carrara; Tus- 
cany and Lucca; States of the Church, includ- 
ing the Romagna, Marches, &c.; Kingdom of 
Naples and Skjilt; Principality of Monaco, 
and Republic of San Marino, both independent— 
the former now surrounded by French territory. 

The Austro-Venetian territory, before its cession, 
1866, was, by the treaty of ViU'afranca, confined to 
the tract from the Mincio eastward to the Adriatic, 
including Mantua, Verona, Vicenza, and Padua. 
The four fortresses of Mantua, Pcschiera, Verona, 
and Legnano, lying close together, constituted the 
famous Quadrilateral. 

The former Papal States, "8tatlPontiflci,"werft ' 
restricted to the Delegations of Rome, Comarea, 
Viterbo, Civita Vecchia, Velletri, and Frosinone; 
a space about 100 miles by 40. These, with hit 
old possessions, to which the Pope still lays claim, 
viz.:— Umbria, Romagna, and the Marches, made 
up a total population of three millions. 

The Kingdom of Italy, now consolidated into 
one united state, under the constitutional rule- of 
Humbert I., son of Victor Emmanuel, is formed 
by the union of the Sardinian States with Lom- 
bardy, Parma, Modena, and part of the Papa! 
Statae, added in 18f»; Tnieany, Umbria, tb4 
Marekea, Kaplae, Md Slelly, added In 1860 1 
Venetia, added 1866; and tht net of the Papal 
SUtes, added 1870; making about 115,000 square 



INTRODtTCnON. 



XIX. 



mUes, with 26| millions of inhabitants, increased 
to 80i millions in 1891. It numbers 69 provinces, 
as below, each under a Prefect, and divided 
into Circondarii, or Circuits; Mandimenti. or Dele- 
gations; and Commnni, or Communes. The Italian 
colours are red, white, and green, with the white 
cross of Savoy. 

COlOlliM. — Italy has for some time been de- 
rirous of obtaining colonial possessions, and is 
believed to entertain designs on Tripoli and Barca, 
in the event of the dismemberment of the Turkish 
empire. The practical annexation of Tunis by 
France in 1881-2 caused great excitement. In 
1885 the Italians, favoured by the English govern- 
ment, formally gaiTisoned Massowah, on the Red 
Sea, they having for some years held possession 
of Asab Bay, in the Danakll comitry, further to 
the south. The district has received the name of 
** Colonia Erythrea,*^ from the classical name of the 
Red Sea. These places cannot as yet be said to 
have added to the national prosperity or resources. 

Population.— Includhig the Islands of Sar- 
dinia, Sicily, Elba, <fec. 

Population, 
DEPARTMENTS. 1891. 

PlSMONTS 8,259,788 

Containing the Provinces of— Alessan- 
dria: Coni; Novara; Torino. 

LiGUBiA 952,678 

Containing the Provinces of— Genoa; 
Porto Maurixio. 

Sakdkgna 781,467 

Contabiing the Provinces of— Cagliari; 
Sassari. 

LOICBAEDIA 8,932,111 

Containing the Provinces of— Bergamo ; 
Brescia; Corao; Cremona; Mantua; 
Milano; Pavia; Sondrio. 

Yenezia 3,004,161 

Containing the Provinces of— Belluno; 
Padua; Rovigo; Trcviso; Udlne ; Vene- 
zia; Verona; Vicenza. 

ElOLXA, OB ROVAGHA 2,260,848 

Containing the Provinces of— Bologna; 
Ferrara; Forll; Modcna; Parma; Pia- 
censa; Ravenna; Reggio (In Emilia). 

Lb Mabchb 968,942 

Containing the Provinces of — Ancona: 
AscoU Piceno; Macerata; Pesaro ed 
Urbino. 

UiOBXA „.. 595,579 

Containing the Province of— Perugia. 

TOSCAHIA 2,281,446 

QoBUliiiiig thf ProYinces of-ArwfO; 
- IMlM; <Sh«iMto: t4N^u«1i; LttCca: 
MuMi • CaiTM^ft; Pita; SUna. 



DEPARTMENTS— Omfltivsd: 

Population, 
1891. 
Roma (LiAtiuii) .•»....*•.....•»••.• 986,186 

Abbuzzi 1,865,171 

Containing the Provinces of— Chieti; 
Teramo; Aqulla; Campobasso. 

Campania 8,062,011 

Containing tlTeProvinces of— Benevento; 
Napoli; Salerno; Avelllno; Caserta. 

PUGLIA 1,778,828 

C(Mitaining the Provinces of — Foggia; 
Bari; Lecce. 

Basilicata 540,287 

Containing the Province of— Poteuza. 

Calabbia 1,815,296 

Containing the Provinces of— Cosenza; 
Reggio (Calabria); Catanzaro. 

SiciLiA 8,825,208 

Containing the Provinces of— Caltani- 
setta; Catania; Girgenti; Messina; 
Palermo; Siracusa; Trapani. 

Total population, 1891 80,847,291 

Population in 1881 28,459,628 

Population in 1871 26,801,854 

Population in 1861 26,028,810 

The ratio of excess of births over deaths, though 
fluctuating much, is increasing, and the increase 
of the population In the great industrial centres 
is very marked. Marriages are rather decreasing. 

There are about 60,000 foreigners residing ia 
the Kingdom. 

Besides the resident population there are about 
1,600^00 Italians abroad, mostly in America 
and Europe. Some 220,000 (1888, 290,000; 1891, 
293,600) annually leave the country, not quite half 
for other European countries, the rest chiefly to 
South America. 

The number of persons of both sexes engaged in 
agriculture. Including children over nine years 
(678,042), was, in 1881, 9,169,216; in day labour 
and industrial occupations, including mining, and 
inclusive of children (818,168), was 4,683,724; pri- 
soners and beggars amounted to 184,800. Those 
without business, trade, or declared occupation 
amounted to 9,442,976. Of these, 2,172,440 were 
between nine and fourteen years. There are no 
definite statistics as to religious belief. From 
questions addressed hi 1881 to ministers of Re- 
formed churches and rabbis, it would appear that 
there are only about 62,000 protestants (29,000 in 
the Vaudais valleys) and 88,000 Jews. A V>.^> 
siderable proportion in tha U.t%|^ OiSt\«^ v^<A«n% ^« 
religtofiB belief, 



xx« 



lNTK01>UCTI0y. 



Corsica, with iU semi-Italian population of over 
a quarter of a million, has been annexed to France 
bincc 1770. 

Italy contains many large cities, the most popu- 
lous of which arc as below: — 



Top. 1891. 

Rome 43G,000 

Naples 536,000 

Milan 425,000 

Turin 329,000 

Palermo 272,000 

GLcnoa 210,000 

Florence 190,000 

Venice 159,000 

Holopna 147,000 

Messina 142,000 

Catania 112,000 

Leghorn ;. 100,000 



Pop. 1891 

Padua 80,000 

Fcrrara 76,000 

Lucca 69,000 

Verona 69,000 

Brescia 68,000 

Alessandria 64,000 

Bari 63.000 

Modena 58,000 

Pisa 5*.000 

Pistoja 52,000 

Perugia 62,000 

Ancona 48,000 



The above are the populations of the commimes, 
which do not differ much from those of the towns. 
The latter will be found under the respective 
headings. 

Incoxae.— Income of the Kingdom of Italy, 
1891, about 78| millions sterling; not equal to the 
Expenditure. The former deficit was partly 
caused by bad tariffs and smuggling at the so- 
called free port.s. 'i here is still nn annual deficit, 
causing an increase of the national debt. The 
Public Debt amounts to 520 millions. The annual 
imports and exports between Italy and England 
amount to about 7 and Si millions sterling. The 
maritime trade gives employment to 820,716 tons 
of shipping, nearly three-tenths being steam; 
number of vessel ••, 6,412 sailhig, 290 steamers. 

Army.— The regular army (1891) numbers about 
839.354 men ; in addition there are 449.016 active 
militia, and 1.559,938 local, or territorial militia; 
mailing a total of 2,448,308. '* Leva *' means the 
conscription. Large sums are devoted to the 
construction of new fortifications. 

Navy. — About 270 steamers and iron-clads, in- 
cluding 17 torpedo shi|ts and 134 torpedo boats, 
manned by 22,095 seamen and marines. 

Education.- -There are 17 Government and 
4 free Universities. The most important arc 
those of Pisa, Turin, Pavia, and Naples. 

Other places of education are the Colleges, called 
Lyceums, the Gsrmnasiums or High Schools, and 
the ''ScuoleTechniche" (Technical Institutions). 

In 1888, there were 748 elementary, and 55,487 
national schools. In 1863 out of the whole number 
of scholars, some 800,000 in all, 300,000 were in 
Piedmont alone, with its population of 3| millions ; 
and only 126,000 in the Neapolitan and Sicilian 
jjrovinces, with their population of nearly 9 mil- 
lions. Before the revolution. Naples had' hardly 
any schools, except some indifferent ones at the 
monasteries ; but the people are quick and eager to 
Icam. At Palermo there are nearly 100 schools, 
wlipre there wer« mily five before, 



Rome, to which the government was removed 
from Florence In June, 1871, Is now the capital 
of the consolidated kingdom of Italy. Here the 
Houses of Parliament, consisting of a Senate and 
Chamber of Deputies, now assemble. TheChamber 
of Deputies numbers about 508 members; the 
Senate, about 390. 

There are 45 archbishops, and 153 bishops; or 
198 dioceses in all. The peculiar privileges of the 
clergy were abolished by statute in 1861. 

One efTcct of the consolidation of the difTcrent 
governments, and the removal of the custom-houses, 
was a rise in the price of provisions, in consequence 
of the Increased demand. Taxes are high all over 
the country. House rent. In Rome, Florence, 
Milan, 'J'nrin, Ac, Increased, in some instances, as 
nmch as one-third. The income and property taxes 
are exceptionally heavy. At the same time new 
villas have sprung up near the towns; old hou*et 
were repaired and cleaned; and the lighting, 
paving, sewerage, and other similar matters have 
received great attention. 

A society for draining the southern provinces 
was formed under the Duke dolla Galliera. Bri- 
gandage has practically ceased, thanks to the 
vigorous efforts of the authorities. A great draw- 
back was the want of roads. In 1861, out of 1,850 
communes in the kingdom of Naples, two-thirds 
were without roads. At Naples, the lazzaronl were 
made to work on the rail ; and the facchinl, or 
porters, here snd elsewhere, were put under better 
regulation. Provision was made for the gradual 
suppression of all the monasteries and convents 
where the Inmates are not employed in preaching, 
education, or the care of the sick. 

NATURAL FEATURES OF ITALY. 

MouiltaillS. — The Alps take various names, a> 
the Maritime, Coitian, Pennine, Grolan. Rhetian, 
Caniic. Noric, and Julian Alps, ranging from 4,000 
to 15,000 feet high, in a circuit of 600 miles. 

Heights in round numbers of the chief Alpine 
passes and peaks: — 

Feet. 

Cul dl Tenda, nciir Nice 6,146 

Monte Viso 12.608 

Mont Cenis 6,830 

Little St. Bernard 7,180 

Mont Blanc 15,780 

Great St. Bernard 8,120 

Matterhom 14,705 

Pass (St. Theodule) 10,900 

Monte Rosa 15,215 

Simplon 6,595 

St. Gothard 6,985 

Bemhardin 6,768 

Spliigen 6,946 

Stclvio 9,066 

Ortler Spitz 12.815 

Many of the above only border on Italian 
, territory, or arc only Just within It, 



l^TRODUCttoJ^. 



>:xi. 



l^he ApenniniK or ''Monti Appennini/* begin, 
in the Maritime Alps, hug the coast of the Riviera, 
near Qenoa, and from thence run down the middle 
of the pcniusula to the end of Calabria, a total 
length of 800 railos. Average height, 2,000 to 6,000 
feet. Highest points are MonU Camo^ or Gomo, 
or ^'Gran Sasso,** near Aquila, 9,580 feet high; 
Monte Majella, near Celano, 9,150 feet high; 
Munte Sibilla, near Tolentino. 8,100 feet; Monte 
Cimone, near Pistoja, 6,975. At the back of 
Genoa, where they are only V,560 feet high, they 
take the name of the Ligurian Apennines, and 
form the south border of the plain of Lombardy. 
Some of the Passes arc — PontremoH, 3,420 feet; 
Collina, or Pracchia, 3,350 feet ; Pietra Mala, on 
the old Florence Road, 4,100 feet: and others 
near Borgo Scpolcro, Fabriano, Ac, of less 
importance. The Apennines arc generally lime- 
stone, covered with g^ass, but without trees, 
except chestnuts here and there. Mount Etna Is 
10,875 feet high ; Vesuvius, 4,200 feet. 

Volcanoes. — Traces of volcanic matter arc 
found nearly all over Italy. In the north, near 
Vlcenza, Padua, and the Euganean Hills; In Tus- 
cany, and the soil about Rome, especially In the 
Campagna; and round Naples, where Vesuvius 
has for ages been in a state of activity. It threw 
out a new crater in 1865. Etna, in Sicily, threw 
out some about the same time; and Stramboll, 
which Is always smoking, was also affected. The 
peak of Ischia is an extinct volcano. In July, 1831, 
a submarine volcano, called Graham's Shoal, Isla 
Julia, dsc, appeared above the sea, off Sicily, and 
disappeared the same year. Sir Walter Scott 
landed on It. 

EiTOrs.— The principal rivers of Italy are the 
Po, Ajno, and the Tiber (Tevere). The Po rises In 
the Alps and Apennines, and runs to the Adriatic, 
by a course of about 407 miles. Its atSuents are 
the Tanaro (fed by the Stura and Bormlda), Treb- 
bia, Taro, Parma, Secchla, and Reno, on the right 
or south bank ; the Clusone, Dorla-Riparla, Dorla- 
Baltea, Sesla, Ticlno (from Lag^o Maggiore, &c.), 
Olona, Lambro, Adda (from the Valtclllna), Ogllo 
(from L. Iseo), and Mlnclo (from L. Garda), on the 
north bank. Near the Po are the Adige, Bacchlg- 
liono, Brenta, Piave, Tagllamento, Ac , which rise 
in the Alps and run Into or near to the lagoons of 
Venice. 

All the other rivers have their source In the 
Apennines, and are for the most part mountain 
torrents. The Arno runs by Florence and Pisa to 
Leghorn. The 7i&er, about 245 miles long, runs 
by Perugia, Orte, and Rome. The Secchla runs 
past Lucca. The Garlgllano and Volturno run 
into the Gulf of GaSta; and some smaller streams, 
of little note, into the Gulfs of Salerno and Taranto. 
On the Adriatic side are the Ofanto, Pescara, 
Tr«nto, Chienti,Metauro, Rubicon^ and many others, 
from 20 to 50 miles long, which pursue almost a 
straight coarse from the slope of the Apennines 
down to the sea. 

$mt and A(?fi«ral TTa^er*— At CaWIcro; V^I- 



dierl, near Turin; Acqul: Abano rotid baths; 
Porretta, Lucca, Volterra, Solfatara, Ischia, Ac. 

IslandB. — The two largest Islands are Sardinia 
and Sicily. 

Elba, between the Tuscan Coast and Corsica, 
with its neighbours, Capraja, Gorgona, Planosa, 
Monte Crlsto, Gigllo, Gianatri. Another Capraja, 
or Caprcra, between Corsica and Sardinia, was the 
residence of Garibaldi till his death, 1882. 

Off the Gulf of Gaeta — Ponza, Palmarola, Zan- 
one, Vcntolene, Ac. 

In the Bay of Naples— Ischia, Procida, Capri. 

Liparl Islands— Llparl, Stromboll, Volcano, Fill- 
curl, Allcuri, Saline, Ac. 

Ustica is off Palermo. 

Egatl Islands— Off Marsala, including Levanzo, 
Maritime, Favignano. \ 

Pantellarla, between Sicily and Africa. 

TheTremltl Islands, with Planosa, Pelegosa, Ac, 
off the Gargano Promontory, are the only Islands 
of any consequence In the Adriatic. 

Corsica is annexed to France, and Malta to 
England. 

Coast Line.— Estimated (exclusive of minor 
islands) at 3,350 miles, one-fourth belonging 
to the Islands. In this respect Italy has an 
advantage over France or Spain, and its position 
qualifies it to become a first-rate maritime 
power, and to command the Mediterranean . The 
scenery of the Riviera^ or shore of the Gulf of 
Genoa, of the Bay of Naples, and the Straits of 
Messina, is proverbial for beauty. 

Principal Ports,— TwTin, Genoa, Spczla (Royal 
Dockyard), Leghorn, Clvlta Vecchia, Naples, 
Palermo, Messina, Ancona, and Venice. 

Lakes. — Logo —Laghi — Under the Alps are Lago 
Maggiore, Orta, Varcse, Lugano, Como, Liccco, Iseo, 
and Garda, all remarkable for the rich character 
of the surrounding scenery. In Central Italy — 
Trasimeno, Bolsena, and Bracclano, shallow and 
uninteresting, except for their historical associa- 
tions. In the Apennines — Celano or Fuslno, now 
drained. On the east side— Lesina and Varano. 

Plains. — The Great Plain of Lombardy, 
the " pleasant garden of fair Italy," in the north ; 
the Campagna, near Rome, remarkable for its 
herds of buffaloes, Ac. ; and Campania, towards 
Naples, both on the west coast; with the plain of 
Foggla, on the east side, on which vast flocks of 
sheep are pastured. In summer they are driven 
up the Apennines. 

Winds.— The eight principal winds are : — 

N. — Tramontana (" across the mountains "). 

N.E. — Greco. 

E.— LevanteC'Smi Rising"). 

S.E. — Sirocco, the hot wind. Of any thinfr 
dull, the Italians say " Era scritto in tempo del 
sirocco." (It was written in sirocco weather). 

S.— Mezzogiorno ("Midday"). 

S. W.— Libeccio (" Libyan," or African). 

W.— Ponente ("Sun Setting"). 

N.W.— Maestro (the " Master \" ^^S^Rft. ^^'^S** 
tral," at Mar8clll<i% wv\^ww\x«t^V 

i 



xxli. 



IKT&ODUCTIOK. 



Products. — Amon^ the chief products are:— 
Iron, lead, BleiUan lalphur, Cfarrara marble.- 
Com, in Sicily, dte.: rice, in the plain of Lom- 
bardy; olive oil, about Florence, Naples, Ac; 
oranges and lemons. In the Riviera, Ac; cotton, 
su^ar, figs, and othe^ fruits, in South Italy and 
Sicily. Abundance of iron in Sardinia and Elba. 

Cotton. — From Sulcrno to Torre del Qrcco, at 
Terranova, Patcrno, Ac, a certain quantity is 
raised. 

Silk. — The weight of cocoons in 1898 was 
104,772,600 lbs.; the yield in raw silk, 8,792.000 lbs. 
The number employed in 1888 in winding off was — 
men, 4,839; women, 81.1 G5; children, 2-5,U73. 

The value of exported silk in 1889 was £14,000,000, 
of which three-quarters of a million was wuven. 

The Metayer system is very common in Italy ; 
that is, the produce of the farm is divided equally 
between the tenant and the landlord, who receives 
his half lor rent. Land is much divided; but 
many small owners arc worse off than labourers. 

MannftjCtureg.— Silks, woollen, gauzes, por- 
celain, artificial^ flowers, printed cottons, hats, 
wax matches. 

A more complete notion of Italian products wiU 
be obtained from a list of articles shown at the 
International Exhibition of 1862: — Lead and cop- 
per, from Palanza, near Novara. Iron, from Bard, 
in Val d'Aosta. Copper, from Bisano, near Bo- 
logna ; and from Ollomont, near Aosta. Sulphur, 
from Trapani and Bologna. Slate, from Chiavari, 
near Genoa. Statuary marble, from Fivizzano, 
in Massa-Carrara. Manganese, from Fontanaccio, 
near Lucca. Antimony and load, from Cagliari. 
Steel, from Lovere, near Bergamo; and copper 
and lead, from Valsassina. Mineral and marble, 
from Messina. Statuary marble, from Monte 
Altessimo, near Florence— once worked by Michael 
Angelo. Borax, from the Lagoons, near Volterra. 
Mineral deposits, from the Baths of Lucca. Rice, 
from Novara, Imola, Ac Figs, raisins, almonds, 
olives, &c., from Trani. Indian com, from 
Arezzo. Pistachio nuts, from Cagliari. Pickled 
olives, smoked mullet, salted eels, honey, Ac, from 
Oristano. Tobacco, from Messina. Gin and spirit, 
extracted from the arbutus. Wax, from Savona. 
Olive oil, from Florence, Genoa, Bari, Calabria, 
^. Coral, from the coast of Sardinia. Rawsilkand 
cocoons, from Parma. Merino wool, from Grosseto. 
Bark, sumach, castor-oil, «fec., from Cagliari. Cas- 
tor-oil, from Trani. Hemp, from Ferrara. Cotton, 
from Coscnza and Trani. Cotton stuffs, fustians, 
damask, woollen, yarn, and hats, from Milan. Floss 
silk, from Lucca. Organzine and velvet, niudc at 
Turin. Galoon and silk ribbons, at Portici, near i 
Naples. Straw plait and buffalo hides, from Lc;:- ' 
hom. Bonnets, from Parma and Tcramo. Gloves, ' 
from Naples. Chairs, from ChiavarL Rice, ! 
Indian com. sorgho, bamboo cane, sugar cane, { 
Ac, from Florence. Collection of 121 siliceous [ 
stones employed in the Pietre Dure mosaics, made 
at the Royal Factory, Florence. Brooches, in 
flcagliola, in imitation of Floi«iitiiie mosaics, from 



Leghorn. Pistol and gun barrels, and cutlery, 
from Brescia. Cutlery, from Campobasse. C<»ai 
necklaces, brooches, ^c, froiu Naples; and rtd 
coral work from Traplnf, Sicily. Docoia Porce- 
lain, and imitation Majolica and Delia Rebbla 
ware, from the Ginori works, Florence. Poroelaln, 
from Faenza. Coloured mosaics, from Venice. 

Smalts from the mosaic manufactory, at the 
Vatican. Indian com, from the Pontine Marshes. 
Inlaid tables and pavements, in imitation marbles, 
breccia, Ac Statuary, from Rome. 

Wine.—From Campobasso, Asti, Cesena, Montal- 
ciuo, Flumini (near Cagliari), Cosenza, Trani, 
Siena, Comacchio, ChiavarL, Sondrio, Imola, Har- 
sula (Sicily), Benevento, Omano, Isola, Acqui, 
Reggio (in the Emilia), Caluso, Messina, Lucca, 
Naples, Genoa, Salerno, Parma, Ferrara, Orvieto, 
Rieti, and other places. Annual quantity of wine, 
about 350,000,000 gallons. The Muscat wine of 
Sardinia is imported to the North of Eurupe. About 
Florence the country is a *^mass of orchard*," 
producing oil and wine. Usually, in Italy, the 
vine is trained to elms and poplars, in festoons. 

" After having tei^tcd the growths from various 

Sualities, I must say I have not seen one that is 
nc. Vino d* Asti is praised, but very undeservedly, 
I think. Lacryma Christi is usually eoarse m 
taste and flavour. Montcpulciano, so highly pralsad 
by Rcdl, is sweet, but not to be compared to Froa- 
tignan or Rivesaltes. Throughout the whole 
country wines are made: and better qualities 
could not be produced in any part of Europe ; but 
where wine is so abundant that all mav mink It, 
little money value is attached to it, and it is oou- 
seqncntly neglected. Good wine demands akin, 
experience, patience, and capital. Influential Ita- 
lians arc now directing their attention to this 
source of wealth.''— T. G. Shaw'8 Wine, the Fine, 
and the Cellar. 

Coal is not found in Italy, but there are enormous 
quantities of lignite, from which a good fuel (flitt 
tested on the line from Rome to Frascati) is prepartd. 

Cllnuit6.~Extrcmely various as indicated by 
the mean temperature, ranging from 65* at ICIUn 
and Venice, to 60^" at Rome, and 63* at Palermo. 
Dr. Lee says— "In tiie plains of Calabria, and in 
Sicily, which lie between the d7th and S9thdegrMS 
of latitude, the thermometer rarely descends below 
freezing point; whereas between the 4ftnd aad 
46th degrrecs, as in the higher parts of Lombardy, 
it frequently descends to 10* below zero, which Is an 
immense difference for a distance of 6* to 9*. A 
corresponding difference is observable in tbt pio- 
duct ions of the earth — from the pine of the north, 
to the palm tree and plants indigenous to warmer 
latitudes, as also in the physical and moral 
qualities of the various populations." 

Another characteristic of the climate Is the 
general diffusion of Malaria. "Italy contains^ in pfo- 
portion to its extent, more marshes than anj otiier 
country in Europe. Many of them, moreover, are 
salt water marahes, being upon, or close to, the aes- 
shore; and tbetr insalabzity always hcvt a dlrMt 



IKTBODUGTION. 



xxUi. 



ratio to the prevailing hamidity, heat, aind slroccal 
vcntUatlQii.^ Whem In addition %o tMaf clroum- 
etaaeaa, we take Into eondderation '*the extant pf 
iubmerged orlrrleatad land; thebedt of nnmeront 
rlvef* ocoaalonally overflowin{r« &t other times 
more or less dry; the lakes, the lafunea, Ac; 
there will be no grounds for surprise at the 
quantity of rain whleh annually falls, or at the 
partially existing malaria in the summer and 
autumnal seasons." 

Dr. Lee adds, "The transition from spring to 
summer is frequently abrupt in Italy. In May 
the sun acquires considerable power. The great 
heats prevail from the middle of June to the middle 
•f September. At this period it rains <mly oc- 
easionally, and during the prevalence of storms. 
The ground is usually parched, and the roads laid 
thick with dust. The towns in the interior, as 
Milan, Florence, Ac, are generally hotter than 
those on the sea-coast, where the heat is somewhat 
tempered by the sea breeze." This daily sea 
hreexe blows from noon to sunset, and its Influence 
is felt for miles up the valleys. 

*^If you wish to keep your health in Italy," says 
the author of Roba di Boma, '^follow the example 
of the Italians. Eat a third less than you are 
accustomed to at home. Do not drink habitually 
of brandy, porter, ale, or even Marsala, but confine 
yourself to the lighter wines of the country, or of 
France. Do not walk much in the sun; only 
S^glishmen and dogs do that, as the proverb goes; 
and especially take heed not to expose yourself 
when warm to any sudden change of temperature. 
If you have heated yourself with walking in the sun, 
be oarefnl not to go out at once, and especially 
towards nightfall, into the lower and shaded streets 
which have begun to gather the damps, and are 
kqit oool by the high thick walls of the houses." 
Buy a skull cap to put on voar head when vou enter 
the churches and cold galleries. With this precau- 
tion, and by taking care to cool yourself before 
entering such buildings, or on coming into a 
house, and generally not to expose yourself to sud- 
^en ohanges, **you may live for twenty years in 
the oonn^ without a fever. Shut your windows 
when you go to bed. The night air Is invariably 
damp and oold, contrasting greatly with the 
warmth of the day ; and it is then that miasma 
drifts in upon the sleeper. Do not indulge in ices 
•Bd oold drinkSb" 

LangaagS.— The ** Italian" language is the 
Tnsoan, as written and spoken by its educated 
fopvdatlon, especially at Florence and Rome, and 
M shaped and polished by the great writers of 
the fourteenth century, or TrecentUti (or " throc- 
oentury men,** as the Italians say), viz.. Dante, 
Petrarch, Boecaccio, Sacchettl, Villani ; succeeded 
by Lorenzo de* Medici, Pulci, Bojardo, in the 
fifteenth century, or Italian qualtroeentisti; and bv 
MachiaveUl, Ouicciardlni, Ariosto, Bembo, Vasarl, 
B. Cellini, €hiarlnl, Tasso, Bandello, called dnque- 
amMUi^ or sixteenth century w riters.* The prin- 

*Xks Italians mil thk Motaxyths 18th, set 18U i huM 
IMr^KhMBlaiy to cur Mth. ai alievsb 



cipal dialects ^e the MUfneee, YeMf^^Ji, Pf dnau 
or l/Hnbard, ll^tnan, ^edmontfia, QeooffM, 
BolQffnese, Neapolitan, Qalabrian, SioUiaa, and 
Sardinian (or Island dialect). A few usefii) words 
and phrases are given in the Vocabnlarv at the 
end of the Special Edition of BratUkaw^t CmM- 
nmtal Guide. 

ANCIENT DIVISIONS OF ITALY. 

The North of Italy, above the River Maera (now 
Magra), near Spezia and the Rubicon, near Rimini 
(both about latitude 44"), was called Gallia Citerior 
or Gallia Citaljrina. The remainder of the Penin- 
sula, to the south, or Italia proper, was styled Anso- 
nia, Hesperia, &c., by the poets. 

Cisalpine Gaul was divided into Cispadana and 
Transpadanai, by the Padus (Po), or Eridanus ; and 
more particularly as follows: — 1. LionBiA->oon- 
tainhig Genoa and Nice. 3. Taubik A-— About Turin, 
Aosta, Ac. 3. IxsuBBxa— Milan ; Pavla, where 
Charles V. defeated Francis I. 4. CsiioiiAmn— 
Brescia, Oemona, and Mantua, near the birth- 
place of Virgil. 5. Edoakbi— Verona, the birth- 
place of Catullus. 6. Vbiibti — Padua, where Livy 
was bom ; Aquileia^ Friuli. Venice (named after 
this province) had no real existence till the des- 
truction of Aquileia, a.d. 452. 7. LinooBBS — 
Ravenna, where the emperor kept his court, and 
also Theodoric, the Goth, after defeating Odoacer. 
8. Boil — Bologna, Modena, Parma, Piaoenza. 

The ancient divisions of Italy proper were: — 9. 
Etbubia, between the Ma^ra and Tiber, from 
which Napoleon borrowed his name of the short- 
lived kingdom of Etruria. It contained Lucca, 
Pisa, Florence. Lefrhom, Volterra, Siena, Arezzo; 
Perugia, near Lake Thrasymene, where Hannibal 
defeated the Romans for the third time ; CluHwn^ 
the city of Porsena ; Tarquinii, of the Tarquins, 
Veii, and other Etruscan cities ; and Civita Vecchia. 

10. UxBBiA— Rimini ; Urbino, the birthplace of 
Raphael; Spoleto; Temi, the birthplace of the 
Emperor Tacitus, and Tacitus, the historian ; Nami. 

11. PicxMUM — ^Ancona, Loreto, AscoU ; Suhno, the 
birthplace of Ovid ; c3elano, in the oountry of the 
Marsi ; Reata, in the countrv of the Sabines, in 
which Vespasian was bom ; Amitemwn, the birth- 
place of Sallust ; and Horace's Villa, near TivoU. 

12. Latidm— Rome, on the Tiber, in the Cam- 
pa^a; Tivoli; Frascati, or TuactiJum; Albano, 
Ostia. 18. Caupakia— Capua, on the Voltnmo; 
Venafro, Cunue, Baiie, Puteoli, Naples; Pompeii, 
under Vesuvius ; Salerno, and the Islands of Ischia, 
Procida, and Capri. 14. Samkium, in the Apennines 
— Bunevento, and the Caudine Forks. 15. Apulia 
— Foggia. Manfrcdonia; Canosa, near Cannas^ the 
scene of Hannibal's fourth grrcat victor^'; Vcnosa, 
the birthplace of Horace; and Bari, captured by 
Robert Guiscard, 1067. 16. Calabbia (in the heel 
of the boot, on the Adriatic side; but the name 
was afterwards transferred to the toe, on the Sicilian 
side) — Brindisl, or Brunatuium^ the old port of em- 
barkation for Greece; Otranto^ GftSli-vN^ *^\^ 
Tarento, near the birth.vVM^ ^^ '«md&s»> ^^ V^!*^ 



XXIV. 



isTRODrcTToy. 



17. I.UCAXIA (now H&Hilicafa)— //(f/'ac/^a; Stbaris. 
the city of the iaxnriuas SybariteM; Pxttum^ and 
its ruins. 18. Brutii (now Calabria Citra) — 
Cosenza; Scilla or Scylla, opposite Charybdis; 
Kegprlo, and Cotrone. The last three provinces, 
with their flourishing Greek colonies, constituted 
Magna Grtecia. 



20. SiciLtA (or Trinacria) contained the ancient 
Grceli cities of Mettana, or Messina; Vatana, or 
Catania, under Mount Etna; Syraeuta, or Syra^ 
cnse; AffHgentum^ or Qirgenti; DrqMtium, or 
Trapani, near Marsala; Panormut, or Palermo; 
j£gut<t, or Egeste, under Mount Eryx; with the 
Iruidae ^oUte^ or Lipari Islands. 



III.— THE FINE ARTS— CHRONOLOGICAL LISTS, &c. 



The Fine Arts reached their greatest perfection 
In Italy in the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth 
centuries, when she was most wealthy and prosper- 
ous; and when, after a period of darlcness and 
neglect, the remains of earlier times began to be 
collected and used as models. Vast sums were 
systematically spent on the churches and palaces, 
wlUcii her best architects were employed to con- 
struct, and her painters and sculptors combined 
to adorn; the three professions being sometimes 
united in the same person. These cdi6ces ftill 
remain ; and though Italy is no longer distinguished 
for producing artists, yet the man of cultivated 
taste, and the student, will always be attracted by 
the rich treasures she possesses of past ages. 
Pagan and Christian, in her public and private 
buildings, especially at Rome and Florence. 

A particular account of them is given under the 
respective places In the body of the Hand-Book, 
but a few of the most prominent may be mentioned 
here. 

PaintlXlg. — Old mosaics, at Ravenna; St. Mark's, 
Venice; Monreale, at Palermo. 

Fbescoes. — The earliest masters were Clmabue, 
Margaritone d'Arezzo, Guldo, Glunta da Pisa, 
Giotto, the friend of Dante, S. Memmi, Glottini, 
Orcagno, Solari, Fra Angelico, Squarcione, &c., 
who executed the frescoes still existing at Siena, 
Florence, Pisa, Asslsi, Arezzo, Ravenna, Bologna, 
Padua, and Rome. 

Oil painting was discovered, or perfected, by 
Van Eyck, called John of Bruges (Giovanni da 
Brugla), and his pupil, Rugglcrl. Antoncllo da 
Messhia Is also claimed as a discoverer or reviver. 
Sir C. Eastlake places the oldest oil painting at 
Florence about 1460. 

These early painters were succeeded by other 
masters, In frescoes and oils, who, under the 
patronage of the Italian princes, founded various 
schools, marked by differences of style and colour, 
which are easily apparent to the practised con- 
noisseur. 

Schools of Painting.— The principal are 
named from the places where some of their best 
works are to be found, as specified in the body of 
the work. 

Genoa— P. delVaga. 

MUan or Lombard— huinU Procacclni, Cara- 
Taggio. 
Padua— Mantegna. 
Ferrara — Garofalo, D. Dossl. 
' MantiM^QiuiiQ Romauo, Primaticclo. 



VerotM — P. Veronese. « 

Venetian— Q. Bellini, C. da Conegllano, Giorgione, 
8. del Piombo, P. Vecchio, Titian, Moretto, Bordone, 
Tintoretto, Bassano, Palma Giovane, Padovanlno, 
Canaletto. 

Parma — Corregglo, Parmeglano. 

Bologna — Francla, Fontana, the three Carracci, 
Barbleri, Guerclno, Lanfranco. 

Ftoi'cnce—Masacclo, Masolino, F. Lippi, Folla- 
juolo, Verocchlo, Bronzino. 

Siena — Sodoma. 

Perugia or Umbrian — Perugino, Raphael. 

Roman— li. Angelo, Carraccl, Domenichino, P. 
Albani, A. Sacchl, Baroccl, Ciiroli, AllorL 

Naples— G. Pennl (Fattore), Spagnoletto, S. Rosa, 
L. Giordano. 

The names of some of the most eminent artists 
are placed in the chronological list below about the 
time they flourished. 

Specimens of very ancient paintings are to be 
seen on the walls of the Palace of Tltns, at Rome, 
the houses at Pompeii, and on the Etruscan vases 
In the Vatican and elsewhere. See Miss Kate 
Thompson's Picture Galleries of Europe. 

ArchltdCtura. — The most noticeable speclmcni 
are as follows : Turin— Works of Giuvara. Genoa 
— Works of Alessl, Ac. Vercelll — Lombard ' 
Church. Milan — Italian Gothic Cathedral ; 
Church of St. Ambrose. Cremona — Bell Tower. 
Pavia— Old Gothic Churches; and the Certosa. 
Brescia — Semi-Gothic buildings. Verona — Dnomo, 
Lombard Churches, the Scallger Monument^ 
Sammlcheli's Fortresses, Roman Amphitheatre. 
Vicenza— Works of Palladio. Padua— Hall, St. 
Anthony's Church, Glotti's Church. Venice-*- 
St. Mark's Byzantine Church; Palaces, by San* 
sovlno, Scamozzi, Lombardi. Mantua — Duod 
Palace; and works by G. Romano. Bolognft— 
Leaning Towers; Churches. Pisa — Cathedral; 
Leaning Tower; Campo Santo. Ferrara^— Cathe- 
dral; Palace. Ravenna — Byzantine Churches. 
Florence— Palazzo Vecchio — Pitti Palace; Duomo; 
S. Miniato. Perugia — Churches. Assist— Church. 
Siena— Lombard Church, Rome— St. Peter's, and 
other Basilica Churches. Caserta — Royal Palace. 
Naples — Cathedral. Palermo — Norman and Sara- 
cenic Churches. 

Remains of pure Grecian buildings are to be sees 
at Pffistum, Syracuse, Glrgentl, TrapanL Of Bomtmit 
at Rome, from the earliest ages of the r^nblie 
downwards; but especially of the time of th^ Bm? 
plre, In the 9fttb9,Colo8soani, PantlieQiii aadToiiil^ft 



taildlngi BHl .nie.. Nun.!, .qnednct .nd bridge. 

TVT little of whil ii uJled In Engliad Gothic or 

potDled 1> 10 befonnd In Idy. 

AUHABETICALLISTodTALIANPAlNTERS, 
HCDLPTOR8 (mirkod 1,}. AND ARCHITECTS 
(murkcd o); Iho nuns by which Ihey are bo.l 
lEDOvn being placed fltil. Nmnsj In Hallo are 

' ™ ' Birth. Da«b. 
AHMmo, F 1W8 !«M 




... «M 
... MO 




AleMLO. (b) 


«11 


SsSX^i-ii'ta;:- 


■ ^11 


(8( 














B«»«lo,Fed.nort 


*■■ M7 




J^^tpjPj^) .-•■ 


■■■ "J 
















BarrMlnl. P. (d« CortoM) 


'.'.! i«s 


660 










... MO 


97S 


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::: J« 




SSXfe",r:*i;;::::::: 


... 101 












::: J" 


lan 


gSSS.!".::::::::::::::::::::;::- 


.;:; m 


IBM 


S«S :=::;:::;;;:::. 


... m 


I Silt 


gS#^:.^:='.°,:;;::: 


.... M» 


1819 


?SS:l:!8i*iii-irii=r 


ziS! 


1(40 


cwiibiw.ai«T. «„.-ii~ u 


.... ItN 


,«, 



Bb^h. Death. 



Cairtgglo (A. Allegrl) .. 
Cortone, P. da 



grUoadaFleaal*) 1W7 



Faga, F. (a 
aaddl, O. . 



Irlanflaji.. 

[>n*>M {"3101^0 iSarbaMlIf) 



.. un inst 



llo,n»lnter 



(Qlnllo P«ppl), luln- 



Ooldottl, P )U» 



Lanratl. P. dl Siena IWW 

Llppl, Pr» r. 1413 

toDibardL C. <o) ISM 

T<onghl,U.tliaeIder(a) 



HadBTiv), B. <i) 

Halano, B. ds (0 ... 
lUano, O. da (a) .. 

l^dlni.F.(') 

HaBt«giw,A 

Mnfjaritone 



.'. I4U 1M4 



.. 1S3S ISM 
.. I4M lUl 

., i4r« 1SW 



. 148B urn 



BMWUllll, P. (D) 1*11) 146J 





Birth. 


Ro«i;o.A.de(-) 

S-.M.«.liiL A. . 
S"rhl. A 

BaltL, N <0) 
Salniali ie.K^->-i) 

3«nwv-Lii., V. („., . , . 


















aolarlo, A.{ZinKiin.) 


:::::::.'::: m* 


sr""^* 


IMJ 






?:;:S2! ::::;:. 






jgj 


JiSr'"'' ■ 


jj>l 


[Ictellu. PkiI.i 

ViinvilElIU U (r.) 


ie« 

IMX 

Urai of 










I'lcnUlnD, .l>idrAi {Mlcbel Andrui) IKW 
Vfncl. L. di (pslBlor and HrchlLect) ItU 
V.,ltBrr«,F.dB«i) 







B« Kogler't " Hand-Bookof Pilntiog^" 
tranalaled by EuIIoIh! KDiklo'i Worki; Vuul'i 
"I Ivc) of [ha PaknUn," by Fortttri laul'i 
..Hlxtucy of Fibttlng," by Hcncoe; Cnnr« wid 
Coalcuelll'l "Hiitory n! PiIuIIde In Ifllyi" 
Hlu Fkrqnhu'i " CaUlofDe of FiMm;" 



ISTRODUCTIOS. 



xxvii. 



Bliss Thompson's "Haiid-Book to the Public 
Picture Galleries of Europe;" Fergrussou's "Illus- 
trated Hand-Boole of Architecture," 3 volumes; 
Street's "Brick and Marble In the Middle Ages" 
rNorth Italy). 

CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF IMPORTANT 
EVENTS IN ITALY, ROMAN EMPER0R3, 
POPES, SOVEREIGNS OF STATES, U0GE3, 
ARTISTS, Ac. 

If. B.— Many of the earlier dates of Roman events. 
Bishops or Popes, are very uncertain . The Popes 
marked thus * are Romans or Italians by birth. 

753 Rome founded bv Romulus, first King. Fes- 
tival kept 21 8t April The " 2i>35th year " of 
the city, A.U.C., was duly cclebra cd 21st 
April, 1882. 
716 Nnma Pompilius 
878 Tullns Hostilius 
640 Ancns Martins 
616 Tarqninius Priscus 
678 SerTius Tnlllns 

A81 Tarquinius Superbns, last King of Rome 
610-09 Expulsion of the Khigs, Republic founded, 

and Consuls instituted 
601 Dictator appointed 
494 Tribunes instituted 
491 Coriolanus exiled 
469 Volsclan War 

451 Decemvirs instituted. Twelve Tables 
443 Censors created 
896 Veil taken by Camillus 
39 * Rome taken by the Gauls 
340 Latin War 

398-90 Third War with the Samnitcs 
361-41 Roman Supremacy in Italy; fir«t Punic War 
Hannibal, 247-183 
Cato,284-:89 
331 Conquest of Sardinia and Corsica 

Scipio, 319-185 
216 Battle of Cannse 
Terence, 195-159 
146 Destruction of Carthage 

Cicero, 106-48 
111-06 Jugurthine War 
Csesar, 100-44 
Lucretius, 95-55 
Sallnst, 86-84 
86 Death of C. Marlns 
83 Sylla, Dictator 

74-63 Second War with Mithridates. Cicero at 
Rome 
Virgil, 70-19 
66-3 Catiline's consitiracies 

Hora:;e, 05-8 
63 Cicero, Consul 
60 First Triumvirate between Onsar, Pompey, 

and Crassos 
M C«s«r Consul, Arst tim« 

Lfrf,m.c 6d'-17A.i>. 
M-M Cmuar't OampattTis bi Gnul 



B.<'. 

49 Cajsar, Dictator 

48 Battle of Pharsalia. Death of Pumpey 
44 Cffisar assassinated 

43 Second Triumvirate; Lepidus, M. Antony, and 
Octavian (Augnistus) 

— Death of Cicero 
Ovid, 43 B.C. to A D. 18 

42 Rattle of Philippi; Death of Brutus 
31 Battle of Actium 

50 Death of Antony 

27 Augustus, first Roman Emperor 

A.D. 

Seneca, 2-65. 
14 Emperor TU)erius 

Martial, 29-104 
83 The Crucifixion 
37 Emperor Caligula 

Lucan, 37-65 

41 Emperor Claudius 

42 "St. Peter," reputed Bishop of Rome 
54 Emperor Nero 

Tacitus, 61-110 
6.^-66 St. Lhms, Bishop of Rome 
69 Emperors Galba, Otho, Vitelllus, and Vespa- 
sian 

Sillus Itallcus, about this time 

78 irt. Anacletus, Bishop of Rome ~ 

79 Emperor Titus. Pompeii overwhelmcd^Death 

of Pliny the Elder 
81 Emperor Domitian 

Plutarch, 85-120 
91 St. Clement,* Bishop of Rome (sometimes 

placed before Linus) 
96 Emperor Nerva 
I 98 Emperor Trajan 

! Pliny the Younger. Died about A.D. 110 

' 100 St. Evaristus, Bishop of Rome 
109 St. Alexander,* Bishop of Rome 

117 Emperor Hadrian 
Juvenal died a.d. 128 

119 Sixtus I.,* Bishop of Rome 

127 St. Telcsphorus, Bishop of Rome 

138 Emperor Antoninus Pius 

1 18 St. Hyginus, Bishop of Rome 
142 St. Pius I., Bishop of Rome 
If 6 St. Anicctus, Bishop of Rome 
161 Emperor Marcus Aurelius 
161 Emperor Lucius Verus 
168 St. Soter, Bishop of Rome 
177 St. Eleutherus, Bishop of Rome 
180 Emperor Commodus 
185 or 193 St. Victor, Bishop of Rom«j 
193 Emperor Pertinax 

— Emperor Didius Severn s 
19.3 Emperor Septimius Severus 
197 or 202 St. Zephyrinus,* Bishop of Rome 
211 Emperor Caracalla 

217 Emperor Macrinus 
217-2L9 St. Calixtus I.* Bishop of Rome 

218 Emperor Heliogabalus, or Elagabaius 
232 Emperor Aurelius, or Alexander Severus 
232-323 St. Urban I^* Bishop of Roul*!^ 
280 St. Pontianus^* BteYwvol'BtfnsA 



isTaoDncnoH. 



i St. AnHHrni, Blibap of Room 
e Emrwror Uniimlnna 

i8 Emperort Oordlun, I, uid II. 

.» Emperor l>hlJli> 



-J7S Emperor H.ClandlDiTultui 

^84 EniparDri Dloclelliui JtDd UaxImtiilH 



na at. Em 


cMm, BlriiopotRoiiie 
chIiideg,lil>£onorRoQie 


sit Cinina 


Bit At Mil 


n, he prMlilm» th« eqaelltj « 




ywltholharrellKlon. 


JIU Bt, By] 


ester,' Blihopol Homo 


SSe B[. Ha 


kI..*HI>hDporRuide 


337 BI. Ju) 


D> I.,* flUhop of Horn* 


::;i.t: 




riu> !.,• Blihupof Rome 


8Se Feu. I 


..•AntliBpa 




rJollim,lh«ApotUW 






aaa Bt. Dn 




La«i>I..BiibopafR(nns 
r Theodoeiui the Orwi 


878 Einpfr< 


3SS {We«) 


Emperor Velontlnlm II. 


m (E»i) 


Emperor Arodlue 




elm * Bl>hop of Rome 


g»S <Wc>l 


Einperor Honoriu. 




ilailuiL. Btahopof Roma 




c the Goth enter. Il.ly 


108 (Eslt) 


TCEol l.,Bl«lmi of Borne 
Emperor TlModoelnt II. 




»oka ttnme 


417 Bt. Zurimni, BWiop o( Rome 




l(«el.."BHliopo(ll™. 


410 EnlBll 


fcAnllpope 


4St St C. 


.tl»I,BlabeperR«ii* 


49e (Wen Vftlentmiui IIL 

tn Bt SUtM III..- ItUOop of Borne 




4« St. Leo L llM OrMt, Blihoi. of »*««• 



•n Anthemloa and progopliu 



414 (Eait) Emperorl 

474 (Eari) EiDperor i 

4Tt (Wett) Emporoi 

•tTl-d In rldlei 

4Tt Odoacei, King"!! 

481 CloTli the Grekt, 



.(. [he lilt Enpetnrar the 

by Odowier, tft 

Ihn Bmll ("IWlj"), .1 



Iclbo 6>tro»iil!i, King of 



'6 SI. Felix I., llltliop of Rom 
le Atlulerlc, Klnsof "Ilely. 
17 (Eait) Emperor JaUmla 



m Bt. Agapeti 
IB Vltlge^ Kti 



■lyfnmi 
s Vlglliu^■Bilhopof Bom 
lebald.Klngo( "ftBly" 



SM Clotalre. Klngof Fruiu 
MO Bt. JohnI[I..*Uiilwpafltomi 
Mi (Eiut) Emperor Ja«in II. 
sea A1b:>bi. King of the Lombenli 
MS Lon^ui, Burch of Rarenna 
Mi Bt. Benedict I.,' Biitaop ol Ro 
(78 Cleoph or Claophlg. Klag ot tl 
178 at. Palafliu ir.,* Blabop of E 
^78 (EMt)£nipeTOrTlberliuII. 



tKTBODUOTION. 



xxix. 



Lb. 

683 (East) Emperor Matirttiug 

584 Antharia, Duke of the Lombards 

684 Smaragdus, Exarch of Ravenna 

690 St Gregory I.* (the Great), Bishop of Rome 

690 Romanus, Exarch of Ravenna 

691 Agrilnph, Duke of the Lombards 
697 Callinlcns, Exarch of Ravenna 
602 (East) Emperor Phocas 

602 Smaragdus, Exarch of Ravenna (a secondtlme) 

604 Sabinianus. Bishop of Rome 

606 Boniface III.,* Pope. About this time the 

Papal power begins to rise. 
608 Boniface lY., Pope 

610 (East) Emperor Heraclius 

611 Johannes Lemigius, Exarch of Ravenna 
616 Deodatns,* or Adeodatus I., Pope 

616 Adawald, Ring of Lombards 
616 Elentherius, Exarch of Ravenna 

618 Boniface Y., Pope 

619 Isaac, Exarch of Ravenna 
626 Honorius I., Pope 

625 Ariwald, King of Lombards 
628 Dagobert the Great, King of France 
686 Rotharis, Duke of Brescia, or King of the Lom- 
bards 
688 Plato, Exarch of Ravenna 

639 Severinus,* Pope 

640 John lY., Pope 

641 Theodore I., Pope 

648 Theodorus I., Exarch of Ravenna 

649 St. Martin I., Pope 

649 Olympins, Exarch of Ravenna 
662 Rodvald, King of the Lombards 

662 Theodoras, Exarch of Ravenna (a second time) 

663 Aribert I., King of the Lombards 

664 Eugenios I.,* Pope 
667 Yitolian, Pope 

661 Pertharitos, King of the Lombards 

662 Grimsald, King of the Lombards 
666 Gregory. Exarch of Ravenna 

670 Adeodatus II.,* Pope 

671 Pertharitus, King of the Lombards (a second 

time) 
676 Dommus (or Donus) I.,* Pope 
678 AgatlMm, Pope 
6T8 Theodore II., Exarch of Ravenna 
662 St. Leo II., IV>pe 
684 Benedict IL,* Pope 
686 John Y., Pope 
686 Peter, Aiitipope 
686 Theodore, Antipope 
686 Cunibert, King of the Lombards 
686 Paschal, Antipope 

686 Conon, Pope 

687 Sergins I., Pope 

687 Johannes Platon, Exarch of Ravenna 

697 Republic of Yenlce founded; Paolo Lucio 

Anafesto, first Doge 
7Qi Loitpert, King of ^he Lombards 
74l ]RagImbert, lung of the Lombards 
701 Anbert IL, King of the Lombards 
m John YL, Pope 
T09 TbMphn«etiu» Ez^rcii of Bnvenna 



A.]>. 

705 John YIL, Pope 

706 Sisinins, Pope 

708 Constantinus, Pope 

710 Johannes Rizocopius, Exarch of Ravenna 

711 Entychius, Exarch of Ravenna 

712 Ausprand, King of the Lombards 

712 Luitprand, King of the Lombards 

713 Scholasticus, Exarch of Ravenna 
715 Gregory 11.,* Pope 

727 Paul, Exarch of Ravenna 

728 Entychius, Exarch of Ravenna (a second time) 
731 Gregory III., Pope 

741 Zacharias, Pope 

744 Hildebrand, King of the Lombards 

744 Ratchia, King of the Lombards and Duke of 

Friuli 
746 Chilperic II. (or Chilperic Martel), King of 

France 
749 Astolf us. King of the Lombards 
752 Stephen II.,* Pope 
752 Stephen III.,* Pope 
752 Pej^n, King of France 
756 Desiderius, King of the Lombards and Duke 

of Istria 

756 Pepin g^ives the EXarchate to the Pope 

757 Paul I.,* Pope 
763 Stephen lY., Pope 
768 Theophylact, Antipojw 
768 Constantine IL, Antipope 

768 Charlemagne, King of the Franks 

769 Philip, Antipope 

772 Adrian I.* (of the Colonna family). Pope 

774 Lombardy, Ac, taken by Charlemagne 

795 St. Leo III.,* Pope 

800 Charlemagne (Carolus Magnus) the Frank, 
Emperor of the West. From this time the 
Roman Pontificate was finally separated from 
the Eastern Empire, and came under the 
influence of the Frank or German Empire 

814 Louis I., Emperor of the West 

816 Stephen Y.,* Pope 

817 Paschal I.,* Pope 
824 Eugenius II.,* Pope 

826 Zinzinus, Antipope 

827 Valentinus,* Pope 

827 Gregory lY.,* Pope 

828 Egbert I., King of all England 
828 Boniface I., Marquis of Tuscany 
840 Lothaire, Emperor of the West 
844 Sergius II.,* Pope 

846 Leo lY.,* Pope 

847 Adelbcrt I., Duke of Tuscany 

(Legend of Pope Joan, or ''John YIII." 868-6) 
855 St. Benedict III.,* Pope 
855 Louis II., Emperor of the West 
855 Anastasius, Antipope 
858 Nicholas L,* Pope 
867 Adrian II.,* Pope 
872 John YIIL,* Pope 
872 Alfred, King of England 
876 Carloman, King of France 
880 Charles III., King of Italy, and Emperoc ^1 

Germany 



INTBOnUCTIOH. 



lU Lonl. tho BUlirl, KLiigor IHlj 
1 U«nedWH'.,«Po,«. ' 

I' Len v., pope 

^ Ber8iig.r, King «t Inly . Eiiin 

I Ai>ii>iuiu.iii,*ro». 

» Guy" Uoko nfroMnv 

3 R.rf..l[.li, KlngDrimiynnil Dn 

Id AJMrui. HurDuln at MDnlfrrm 
» S((phun IX.. Pope 



«es OlhDilI., EnperoioIOen 



I Aa»lb«ri 111^ Duke of TuMtny 

I Joliii XVI[I.ri'o^'" ennwiy 
Oregorj-VL, Amlfope 



l8jlvaBietlir..Aimpin.o 

Henry III., Enipororof Oonnony 
I IVIII, Bncclii-ferTU, Count of Apulls 
I BoaniilcoCoutiirii.i L. Uot-B o( Vanln 



ln»I Slephon X., Ponr 

IWB Benedict X,* tV'"il!i. Anilpopo 

> Philip I.. KhiT i>r Ftunrt 

I ItiniKeee r.. lifurrinl) of Mniilfcrrjit 

I AlcMnitErIL*r»Kiairf(.lliiiilly), I"oi>e 

I mmai,! U<T l\ip,pima: Klrj ot ISngUnd. 
; FraderiekL, Lord nf Fomirn 

! Riiaor l."count of slaw 
I GroBorj-VlL*fSilifa6™rido 



le FaUero, Dogif at VtHlc* 
^r, nuke or Apalla 



*KtROJ>CCTtoK. 



txxi* 



1106 Henry V., Kmperor of Qermaiiy 
1108 Amadens II., first Comit of Savoy 
1108 I^ioiiis VI., King of France 

1117 Domenlco Micheli, Doge of Venice 
Jil8 Gelasiufl II * (Caetani), Pope 

1118 Gregory VIII., Antipope 

1118 Guy Sallnguerra, Lord of Ferrara 

1119 Clixtns II., Pope 

1119 Conrad, Duke of Tascany 
1128 Ninth Council of Lateran 

1124 Honorius II., Pope 
Celestine IL, Antipope 

1125 Lothaire II., Emperor of Germany 

1126 Rinaldo, Marquis of Montferrat 
1180 Innocent IL* (Puparetekij, Pope 
1180 Silk brought into Italy 

1130 Anacletus IL, Antipope 

1130 Pieto Polani, Doge of Venice 

11 31 Ramprest, President of Tuscany 
1183 Henry, Count of Tuscany 

1138 Victor IV., Antipope 

113S Conrad III., Emperor of Germany 

1139 Ulderic, Marquis of Tuscany 

1140 William HI., Marquis of Montferrat 
1148 Celestine IL,* Pope 

1144 Lucius IL* (CtKcianHnici)^ Pope 

1145 Eugenius III.* (PagantHK), Pope 
1148 Domenioo Morosini, Dc^ of Venice 
1150 Taurello, or Torelll, Lord of Ferrara 

1152 Fred. I. CBarbarossa), Emperor of Germany 

1153 Anastasins IV.,* Pope 

1158 Gnelph. Duke of Tuscany 

1154 Adrian IV. (Breakspeare), Pope; bom at Ab- 

botts Langley, near Watford 
1154 William L, King of Sicily 
1156 Vitalo Micheli IL, Doge of Venice 

1159 Alexander III.* (Bandinetti), Pope 
1159 Victor IV., Antipope 

1164 Paschal III., Antipope 

1167 William IL, the Good, King of Sicily 

1169 Calixtns III , Antipope 

1178 Sebastiano Ziani, Doge of Venice 

1178 Innocent III., Antipope 

1179 Orio Mastropiero, Doge of Venice 

1180 Philip Augustus, King of France 

1181 Lucius III.* (AllvcffftioU), Pope 
1185 Urban III.* (CriveUi), Pope 

1187 Gregory VIIL* (De Morra), Pope 

1188 Clement IIL* (Scolari), Pope 

1188 Conrad, Marquis of Montferrat 

1189 Tancred, Kbig of Sicily 

1190 Henry VI., Emperor of Germany 

1191 Celestine III.* (Or«inO, Pope 

1192 Boniface IL, Marquis of Montferrat 
1192 Enrico Dandolo, Doge of Venice 

1194 Emperor Henry VI. (Suabia\ King of Sicily 

1195 Salinguerra IL {TorelK)^ Lord of Ferrara 

1195 Philip, Tuscany; elected Emperor, 1198 

1196 Azzo VL iBsu\ Lord of Ferrara 

1197 Frederick, King of Sicily 

1198 Innocent IIL* {Oonify, Pope 

1198 Philip. Emperor of Goinany 

1199 JotaB, King of England 



A.D. 

1205 Pietro Ziani, Doge of Venice 

1207 William IV., Marqnis of Montferrat 

1208 Otlio IV., Emperor of Germany 
1208 Florence, a Republic, till 1581 
1210-15 Frederick IL, Emperor of Germany 
1212 Aldovrandinl I. (Este), Lord of Ferrara 
1215 Azzo Vll. (Est'), Lord of Ferrara 
12K Honorius III.* (SavelK), Pope 
1224-74 St. Thomas of Aquinas 

1225 Boniface IIL, Marquis of Montferrat 

1226 St. Louis IX., King of France 

1227 Gregory IX.* (Conti) Pope 

1229 Giacomo Tiepolo, Doge of Venice 
1242 Celestine IV.* (CasHglume), Pope 

1248 Innocent IV.* (FUteM), Pope 
1244 Giacomo (Torelli), Lord of Ferrara 

1249 Marino Morosini, Dog^e of Venice 

1250 Conrad L, King of Sicily and Emperor of 

Germany 
1252 Ranieri Zeno, Dogre of Venice 
1254 Alexander IV.* (Ctrnti), Pope 

1254 William V., Marquis of Montferrat 

1255 Conrad II. , or Conradin, King of Sicily 
1257 Martin delta Torre, Lord of Milan 
1259 Manfred, King of Sicily 

1261 Urban IV., Pope 

1264 Obizzio U. (Este), Ferrara 

1265 Clement IV.. Pope 

1265 Napoleon della Torre, Lord of Milan 
Cimabue, the painter f 

1267 Charies I. (Anjm), King of Sicily 

1268 Lorenzo Tiepolo, Doge of Venice 

1270 Salinguerra III. (ToreUi), Lord of Ferrara 

1271 Gregory X.* (ViaconH), Pope 

1273 Rudolph of Hapsburg, Emperor of Germany 

1275 Giacomo Contarini, Doge of Venice 

1276 Innocent V., Pope 

1276 Adrian V.* (Fiesehi), Pope 

1276 John XXL, Pope 

1277 Nicholas IIL* (OrHni.) Rome becomes in- 

dependent of the Emperors 
1277 Otho Visconti, Milan 
1279 Giovanni Dandolo, Doge of Venice 

1281 Martin IV., Pope 

1282 Charies of Anjou, King of Naples 

1282 Pedro L {Araqon), King of Sicily--(8iciliaii 

1285 Charles IL, King of Naples 
1285 Honorius IV.* (Savefli), Pope 

1288 Nicholas IV.* (M€usci), Pope 

1289 Pietro Gradenigo, Doge of Venice 

1292 John I., Marqnis of Mcmtferrat 

1293 Azzo VIIL (Este), Lord of Ferrara 

1294 Celestine V. * (Morront\ Pope ; who made the 
" gran refiuto" (Dante). Giotto, the painter f 

1294 Boniface VIIL (Caetani), Pope 

1295 Matthew L, Milan 

1296 Frederic IL, King of Sicily 

1298 Albert I. (of Austria), Emperor of Germany, 

Dante exiled from Florence, t (Bom 1265, 

died 1821) * 

t Theae pRlnters. writ«n, te., an nlaecd ab«at tSi*>fci9M 



XXXII. 



IKTRODUCTlOK. 



A.D. 

1803 Benedict XL* (Boeeanni), Pope 

1305 Clement Y. The Papal Court moved to 

Avignon 
1806 Theodore Palseologus, Marquis of Montferrat 
1808 Fulke, or Folco (Este), Lord of Ferrara 
1309 Robert, Kin? of Naples 
1811 Council of Ten, at Venice 
1811 Marino Giorgi, Dogo of Venice « 

1811 Giovanni Sorazo, Doge of Venice 
1814 Louis IV., Emperor of Germany. 
1816 John XXIL, Pope 
1317 Ronaldo Obizzo IIL and Nicholas I., Lords 

of Ferrara 
1322 Galcas L, Viscount of MUan 
1827 Edward III., King of England 
1328 Azzo, Viscount of Milan 
1328 Francesco Dandolo, Dogo of Venice 
1H29 Louis Gonzaga I., Lord of Mantua 
1834 Nicholas V., Antipopc in Rome 
1834 Benedict XII., Pope 

1338 Pedro II., King of Sicily 

1883 John II., Marquis of Montferrat 
13J9 Luchin, Viscount of Milan 

1339 Bartolommeo Gradenigo, Doge of Venice 
1342 Clement VL, Pope 

1843 Joanna II., Queen of Naples 
1843 Andrea Dandolo, Doge of Venice 
1347 Cola di Rienzi at Rome 
1347 Charles IV., Emperor of Germany 
1849 John, Viscount of Milan. 
1849 Charles IV. (Germany) 
Boccaccio 

1352 Innocent VI., Pope 

1852 Aldovrandi III., Lord of Ferrara 
Petrarch 

1353 Venetian Fleet destroyed 
1854 Marino Faliero, Doge of Venice 

1854 Mat. II. and Galeas II., Viscounts of Milan 

1355 Giovanni Grandenigo, Doge of Venice 

1356 Giovanni Uoltin, Dogo of Venice 
1356 Frederick IIL. King of Sicily 

1360 Guy, Lord of Mantua 

1361 Nicholas II., Lord of Ferrara 

1361 Lorenzo Celsi, Doge of Venice 

1362 Urban V., Pope 

1865 Marco Comaro, Doge of Venice 
1367 Andrea Contarlni, Doge of Venice 

1369 Louis II., Lord of Mantua 

1370 Gregory XL ( France) Pope. The Papal Court 

goes back to Rome 
1372 Otho, M. of 3Iontferrat 
1378 Urban VL* (.Prignanx) Pope 
1378 John III., Marquis of Montferrat 
1378 Mary I., Queen of Sicily 
1378 John Gateas Visoonti, Duke of Milan 
1378 Wcnccslas, Emperor of Germany 

1381 Theodore II., Marquis of Montferrat 

1382 Micheli Morosini, Doge of Venica 

1382 Antonio Veniero, Doge of Venice 

1383 Francis I., Lord of Mantua 

1382 Tommaso Albizzi, Lord of Florence 
1832 Charles IIL, King of Naples 
188S Ladislas, King of Naples 



A.D. 

1387 (MemcntVn.,Antipope at Avignon 

1388 Albert (£1/0), Lord of Ferrara 

1389 Boniface IX.* (TomaeeUi), Pope 
1391 Amadcus VIII., First Duke of Savoy 
1:^93 Nicholas III., Lord of Ferrara 

1394 Benedict XIII., Antipope at Avignon 

1395 John Galeas, Duke of Milan 
1400 Michclc Steno, Doge of Venice 

1402 Martin, King of Sicily. (United to Aragon, 

1410) 
1402 John-Mary, Duke of Milan 
1404 Innocent VIL* (Migliorati)^ Pope. He and 

Benedict abdicate 
1406 Gregory XIL* {CofHaro) 

1406 Guy Torrelli, Count of Guastalla 

1407 John Francis I., Marquis of Mantua 

1409 Alexander V. (Pliylargyrius)^ Pope 
Fra Angel ico, the Painter 

1410 John XXIIL* (Cmm), Pope 
1410 Sij^ismund, Emperor of Germany 
1412 Philip-Mary, Duke of Milan 

1414 Tommaso Mocenigo, Doge of Venice 

1415 Joanna II., Queen of Naples 
1417 Nicolo Albezzo, Lord of Florence 

1417 Martin V.,* (Colonna), Pope 

1418 John James, Marquis of Montferrat 

1422 Charles VIL, King of France 

1423 Francesco Foscari, Doge of Venice 

1424 Clement VIIL, Antipope at Avignon 
1427 Rinaldo Albizza, Lord of Florence 
1431 Eugcnius IV. (CondolmieriX Pope 
1484 Cosmo de' Medici, Lord of Florence 

Masaccio, the painter 
1435 Alfonzo the Wise, King of Naples and Aragon 

1439 Felix V., the last Antipope 

1440 Frederick IV., Emperor of Germany. ThA 

last Emperor crowned at Rome 
Discovery of Printing 

1441 Lionel, Lord of Ferrara 

1444 Louis III., Lord of Mantua 

1445 John V., Marquis of Montferrat 
1447 Nicholas V.* (ParentveelliJ, Pope 

1449 Christopher and Peter Guy I., Coonift ol 

Guastalla 

1450 Rorso, Duke of Ferrara 

1450 Francis Sforza, Duke of Milan 
1453 Constantinople taken by the Turkt 
1455 Clixtus IIL (Borgia) Pope 
Mantegna, the painter 

1457 Pasquale Mali^ro, Doge of Venice 

1458 Pius II.* (Piccolomini), Pope 
1458 Ferdinand I., King of Naples 

1460 Guy Galeotto and Francis-Mary, Coontt of 

Guastalla 

1461 I^uis XL, King of France 

1462 Christofero Moro, Doge of Venice 
14tJ4 Paul II.* (Barbo), Pope 

Perugino, the painter 
1464 Pietro de' Medici, Lord of FlorenQ* 
1464 Willlada VL, Marquis of Montforni 
1469 Lorenzo (the Mf gnifioent) «nd QinlianQ do 

Medici, Lords of Floreno ) 
1471 Niccolo Trono, Doge of Venice 



INTRODUCTIOK. 



XXXIU. 



▲.D. 

1471 Slxtus IV.* (DeUa RovereJ, Pope 
1471 Uercales (Ercolo) I., Ferrara 
Ohirlandi(jo, the painter 

1473 Niccolo Marcello, Doge of Venice 

1474 Pietro Moccnigo, Doge of Venice 

1474 Ferdinand and Isabella, King and Qaeen of 

Spain 
1476 John Galeas-Mary, Dake of Milan 
1476 Andrea Vendramino, Doge of Venice 
1478 Frederick I., Marquis of Mantua 
1478 Giovanni Mocenigu, Doge of Venice 
1484 Innocent VIII.* (Ci6o), Pope 

1484 Jotin Francis, Marquis of Mantua 

1485 Marco Barbarigo, Doge of Venice 

1486 Agostino Barbarigo, Doge of Venice 
1486 Peter Guy II., Count of Guastalla 
1492 Alexander VI. (Borgia), Pope 

1492 Pietro II., Lord of Florence 
Columbus discovers America 

1493 Maximilian I., Emperor of Germany 
1498 William VII., Marquis of Montferrat 

1494 Achillea, Count of Guastalla 
1494 Alfcmso II., King of Naples 

1494 The Medici expelled from Florence 
1491 Louis-Mary, Duke of Milan 

1500 Louis XII., of France, Duke of Milan 

1501 Leonardo Loredano, Doge of Venice 
1503 Pietro Sodorini, Gonfalonier of Florence 
1503 Pius III.* (Piccolomini), Pope 

Leonardo da Vinci 

Maqhiavelli 

Palma Vecchio, the painter 
1503 Julias IL* (Giuiiano della Rovere), Pope 

Ariosto 
1505 Alfonso L, Duke of Ferrara 
1509 Henry VIII., King of England 

Raphael 
1512 Giuiiano de' Medici, Lord of Florence 
1518 Maximilian Sforza, Duke of Milan 
1518 Leo X.* (MediciX Pope 

1515 Francis I.. King of France, and Duke of Milan 

1516 Lorenzo II., Lord of Florence 
Lather and the Reformation 

1518 Boniface V., Marquis of Montferrat 

1519 Charles V., Germany and Spain 
1519 Frederick IL, Duke of Mantua 

Michael Angrelo 
1519 Giulio de' Medici, Lord of Florence (Pope, 1523) 
1521 AntmUa Grimani, Doge of Venice 

1521 Francis-Mary, Doke of Milan 

1522 Adrian VI., Pope 

1522 Louisa TorcUl, Count of Guastalla 
Conreggio 

1523 Andrea Gritti, Doge of Venice 

1528 Clement VIL* COiulio de' Mtdici), Pope 
1630 J<^n George Marquis of Montferrat (United 

to Mantua, 1536) 
1581 Alexander, Duke of Florence 
1534 Paul UL* (Fanut^, Pope 
1^34 Hercules 11., Duke of Ferrara 
1587 Cosmo the G^reat (de' Medid)^ Grand Duke of 

Toacany 
15W FerdivaiM d« QonsA^ Coimt ot Oaafltalla 



A.D. 

16S9 Pietro Lando, Doge of Venice 
1540 Francis II., Marquis of Mantua 
1545 Francesco Donato, Doge of Venice 
1645 Peter Louis Famese, Duke of Parma 

G. Romano, the painter 
1547 Octavius Famese, Duke of Parma 
I5J0 William I., Duke of Mantua 
1550 Julius IIL* (Cioeehi), Pope 

1553 M. A. Trevisano, Doge of Venice 

1554 Francesco Veniero, Doge of Venice 

1555 Marcellus II. (CerviniJ, Pope 
Titian 

Palladio 
Sansovino 

1555 Paul IV.* (Carafa), Pope 
B. Cellini, the sculptor 

1556 Lorenzo Priuli, Doge of Venice 

1557 Csesar I., Lord of Guastalla 

1558 Elizabeth, Queen of England 

1558 Ferdinand I., Emperor of Germany 

1559 Girolamo Priuli, Doge of Venice 
1559 Pius IV.* (Medici), Pope 

1559 Alfonso IL, Duke of Ferrara 

1564 Maximiliam IL, Emperor of Germany 

1566 St. Plus v.* (GhUlitri), Pope 
Thitoretto, the painter 

1567 Pietro Ijoredano, Doge of Venice 
1570 Luigi Mocenigo, Doge of Venice 
1572 Gregory XIII.* (BuoHCompttgni), Pope 

P. Veronese, the painter 

1574 Francis, Grand Duke of Tuscany 

1575 Ferd. IL, Duke of Guastalla 

1576 Rodolph IL, Emperor of Germany 

1577 Sebastiano Veniero, Doge of Venice 

1578 Nicolo da Ponte, Doge of Venice 
1585 Slxtus v.* (Peretti), Pope 

1585 Pasquale Cicogna, Doge of Venice 

1586 Alexander Famese, Duke of Parma 
Tasso 

1587 Ferd. L, Grand Duke of Tuscany 

1587 Vincent I., Duke of Mantua and Montferrat 

1589 Henry IV., King of France 

1590 Urban VIL* (Castagna), Pope 
L. Caracci, the painter 

Ag. Caracci, the painter 

1590 Gregory XIV.* (S/rondati), Pope 
An. Carracci, the painter 
Caravaggrio, the painter 

1591 Innocent IX.* (FacchintUi), Pope 
Domenichino, the painter 
Guide, the painter 

1592 Clement VIIL* (Aldobrandim), Pope 
1592 Ranutio L, Duke of Parma 

1595 Marino Grimano, Doge of Venice 
1597 Cfesar I., Duke of Ferrara 
1605 Leo XI * (Medici), Pope 

Galileo 

Guercino,-the painter 

1605 Paul v.* (Bori^uteX Pope 

1606 Leonardo Donato. I>Q9c,<^KA.N«&sfih 
1609 Coainol\.,Q!T«w\\i>&t^V't?a»»Ki 
1612 FxMicia IL, I>^ik<^ ol'ttacata^. 
16W FOTA\TlWw3l,T>^tQl^^»»^^»»• 



XXXIV. 



IXTRODUCTIOX. 



A.n. 

ir.»2 Matthias, Emperor of Oonnanv 
1012 M. A. Menimo, Dope of Venice 
1015 Giovanni Bcmbo, Dope of Venice 
1018 Nicolo Donato, Doge of Venice 
IBIH Antonio Prluli, Doge of Venice 
ICI9 Ferdinand II., Emperor of Germany 
1021 Gregory- XV.* (Ludocisi), Pope 

1021 Ferdinand II., Grand Duke of Tuscany 

1022 Edward, Duke of Parma 

1028 Urban VIII.* (BarbeHni), Pope 

1623 Francesco Contarini. Doge of Venice 

1624 Giovanni Comaro, Doge of Venice 
1025 Charles I., King of England 
1626 Vincent II., Duke of Mantua 

Dedication of St. Peter^s (founded 1450) 
1027 Charles I., Duke of Mantua 
1629 Francis I., Duke of Modena and Ferrara 

1030 Cffisar II., Duke of Guastalla 
1680 Nicolo Contarini, Poge of Venice 

1031 Francesco Erizzo, Doge of Venice 

1032 Ferdinand III., Duke of Ouastalla 

1687 Ferdinand III., Emperor of Germany 
1687 Charles II. and III., Dukes of Mantua 

S. Rosa, the painter 
1638 Charles Emmanuel II., Duke of Savoy 
1644 Innocent X.* (Pamfili), Pope 
1646 Ranutio II., Duke of Parma 

C. Dolci, the painter 
1646 Francesco Molino. Doge of Venice 
10.53 Cromwell, Protector 

1655 Alexander VII.* (Chigi), Pope 
1665 Carlo Contarini, Doge of Venice 

1656 Francesco Comaro. Doge of Venice 
1056 Bertucci Valiero, Doge of Venice 
16.58 Leopold I., Emperor of Germany 
1658 Alfonso IV., Duke of Modena 
1658 Giovanni Pcsaro, Doge of Venice 

1669 Domcnico Contarini II., Doge of Venice 
1662 Frances II., Duke of Modena 

1665 Charles IV., Duke of Mantua 
1667 Clement IX.* (RotpiglioH), Pope 
L. Giordano, the painter 

1670 Clement X.* (Altieri), Pope 
C. Maratti, the painter 

1670 Cosmo III.. Grand Duke of Tuscany 
1^675 Vict. Amadens II., Duke of Savoy 

1675 Nicolo Sagrcdo, Doge of Venice 

1676 Innocent XL* (Odetcalchi). Pope 
1676 Luigi Contarini, Doge of Venice 

1678 Charles. Duke of Mantua and Guastalla 
1684 M. A. Giustlnlani. Doge of Venice 

1688 Francesco Moroslni, Doge ,of Venice 
1089 Alexander VIII. (Ottoboni), Pope 

1689 William and Mary, King and Queen of Eng- 

land 

1691 Innocent XII.* (PignattilU), Pope 

1692 Vincent de Gonzaga. Duke of Guastalla 
1694 Frances I.. Duke of Parma 

1694 Reginald. Duke of Modena 
1694 Silvestro Valiero, Doge of Venice 
1700 Clemest XL* (Albani), Pope 
1700 Alvise Mocenigo I., Doge of Venice 
1706 Joseph I , Emperor of Germany 



A.D. 

1709 Giovanni Comaro II., Doge of Venice 
1711 Charles VI., Emperor of Germany 
1713 Charles IL, King of Naples 
1716 Antony Ferdinand, Duke of Guastalla 

Canaletto, the painter 
1718 Victor Amadeus II. , King of Sardinia 

1721 Innocent XIIL* (Conti), Pope 

1722 A. 8. Mocenigo. Doge of Venice 

1723 John Gastone, Grand Duke of Tuscany 

1723 Carlo Ruzzini, Doge of Venice 

1724 Henedict XIIL* (Orsini), Pope 
1727 Antony, Duke of Parma 

1729 Joseph, Duke of Guastalla 
1780 Clement XIL* (Cortini), Pope 

1730 Charles Emmanuel III., King of Sardinia 

1731 Don Carlos, Duke of Parma 

17*5 Charles III. (Bourb&n). King of Naples 

1786 Luigl Plsanl, Doge of Venice 

1737 Francis II. (Lorraine), Grand Duke of Tut- 
cany. (Emperor of Germany, 1745) 

1787 Francis IIL, Duke of Modena 

1740 Benedict XIV.* (Lambertini), Pope 

1741 Pietro Grimanl, Doge of Venice 

1742 Charles VII., Emperor of Germany 
1745 Francis I., Emperor of Germany 

1749 Don Philip. Duke of Parma and Guastalla 

1768 Clement XIIL* (Rezzonieo), Pope 

1769 Ferdinand IV., King of Naples 
1760 George IIL, King of England 
1762 Marco Foscarlnl, Doge of Venice 

1768 Alvise Mocenigo IL, Doge of Venice 
1765 Peter Leopold, Grand Duke of Tuscany 
1765 Joseph IL, Emperor of Germany 

1765 Don Philip, Duke of Parma 

1769 Clement XIV.* (OanganelU), Pope 
Alfieri 

Canova 
1773 Victor Amadeus IIL. King of Sardinia 
1775 Plus VI.* (Bronchi), Pope 

1779 Pablo Reinler, Doge of Venice 

1780 Hercules, Duke of Modena 

1789 Lulgi Manin, last Doge of Venice 

1790 Ferdinand IIL, Grand Duke of Tuscany 
1790 Leopold II. , Emperor of Germany 

1792 Francis IL, Emperor of Germany 
1797 Modena, part of Cisalpine Republic 

1800 Pius VIL* (Chiararmnti), Pope 

1801 Louis, Grand Duke of Etruria (Tuscany) 

1802 Victor Emmanuel L, King of Sardinia 

1803 Charles Louis, Duke of Etruria (Tuscany) 

1803 Parma united to France 

1804 Napoleon L, Emperor of France 

1804 Francis II. of Germany becomes Emperor of 

Austria 

1805 Bacciocchi, Prince of Lucca 

1806 Eliza Bonaparte, Grand Duchess of Tuscany 
1808 Joseph Napoleon. King of Naples 

Murat, King of Naples 
1814 Ferdinand IIL (restored). Grand Duke of 

Tuscany 
1814 Maria Louisa, Grand Duchess of Parma 
1814 Francis IV., Duke of Modena. (Massa and 

Carrara added to Modena, 1839) 



IXTKODUCTIOK. 



XXXV. 



An. 

1815 Ferdinand IV. (restored as Ferdinand I. of 

Naples) 
1821 Charles Felix, King of Sardinia 

1823 Leo XII.* (Oenga), Popo 

1824 Leopold II , Grand Duke of Tascany 

1834 Charles Louis, f)iike of Lucca 

1829 Pius VIIL* (Castuflioni), Pope 

1830 liouis Philippe, King of Franco 

1830 Ferdinand IL ("Bomba"), King of Naples 

1831 Gregory XVI.* (CaptVari), Popvj 
1831 Charles Albert, King of Sardinia 
1838 Isabella, Q<iecn of Spain 

1835 Ferdinand. Emperor of Austria 
1837 Victoria. Queen of England 

1846 Plus IX.,* Pio Nono CMastai-Ferretti), Pope, 

16th Jnnc. Born. 1792 
1846 Francis V., Duke of Mod.-na 
1848 Francis Joseph, Emperor of Austria 
1843 Republic in Franc3 
1SI9 Vidor Emmanue' ff.. King of Sardinia, May 

24th, vfsnn the abdication of his father, who 

died at Oporto the «Rne 3'e«r 

LEADING EVENTS IN THE REIGNS OF 
VICTOR EMMANUEL AND UMBERTO I. 



February— June. Rome under the Triumvirs 
— MazzinI, Saffi, &c. 

April 4. Pope Pius returns to Rome from 

GaSta 
Napoleon III., Emperor of France 
Italy joins the Allies in the Crimea 
Francis IL, King of Naples 
April 27. Leopold II. leaves Tuscany 

„ 29. Austria invades Piedmont 
June 4 Battle of Magenta 

„ 25. Hattle of Solferino 
July 11. Treaty of Villafranca 

„ Lombardy annexed to Sardinia 

March 18 — 24. Annexation of Tuscany, Mo- 
dena, Parma, and the Papal Legations of 
the Romagna, Umbria. and the Marches 
March 24. Savoy and Nice ceded to France 
May 11. Garibaldi lands in Sicily 
November Naples and Sicily annexed by 
Garibaldi. Monastic houses suppressed 

February 18. First Italian Parliament meets 

at Turin 
March 17. Victor Emmanuel assumes the title 
of King of Italy. Constitution of Sardinia 
(March 4, 1848) extended to the countries 
annexed 
„ June 6. Death of Cavour 

1862 May 29. Garibaldi capture<l at Aspromonte 
„ November. Father Passaglia and 10,000 
priests declare against the Pope's temporal 
powftr 
,, November. Rail from Rome to Naples opened 
1861 April. Garibaldi visits England 

November 4, Rail from Turin to Florence 
opened 



1849 

1850 

1852 
1855 
1859 

w 

1860 






1861 



»i 



«t 



»» 



1867 



ft 



1868 



A.D. 

18ti5 May 14. At Florence, the new capital of Italy, 

the king opens the Dante Festival, by un- 

coveringPazzi'sstatuc opposite 8antaCroc4», 

on theHOOth anniversary of the poet's birth 

„ August 26. Mr. Mocns captured by brigands 

„ The Pope proclaims a jubilee 

November 18. First Italian Parliament at 
Florence 

1866 January 18. Death of D'Azeglio 
„ July 5. Venetia ceded by Austria 
„ July 20. Italian fleet defeated by Austrians 
off Lissa 
August. Church Property Bill passed 
September 23. Garibaldi stopped at Slnalunga 

and sent to Caprcra 
October 15. Garibaldi leaves Caprera, defeats 
the Papal forces at Monte Rotoudo, October 
26 and 27 
October 30. French troops at Civita Vccchia. 
Garibaldi defeated at Montana, Novembers; 
sent to Caprera, November 21 
March. New Order of the " Crown of Italy " 
„ November 13. Vesuvius in eruption 
„ 98. Stna te vruptian 
1869 February 22. Marriage of priests legalised by 
the law courts 
„ Pope summons an (Ecumenical (Universal) 
Council. Dr. Cummingoffcrs to attend the 
Council on the Protestant side 
„ October 5. Italian government protests against 

the Council 
„ December 8. Opening of th3 Council attended 
by 800 dignitaries. December — January. 
Papal Infallibility voted by 45 ) against 83 
May 8. Republican rising at Catanzaro 
September 2. Battle of Sedan followed by 
evacuation of Civita Vecchiaby the French 
October 9. States of the Church annexed, 
after a plebiscite of 133,681 against 1,507. 
Pope's temporal power abolished 
October 20. Rome annexed. The CEcumcni- 

cat Council adjourned sine die 
November 16. Victor Emmanuel's son, 

Amadeo, elected King of Spain 
December 4. Pius IX. issues another Ency- 
clical letter 
December 25. Mont Cenis Tunnel finished 

after twelve years' labour 
December 81. Victor Emmanuel visits Rome, 

at the inundations of the Tiber 

January 23. Prince Humbert moves to Rome 

„ May 13. Law of Guarantees passed assuring 

the Pope of his position and income at 

Rome. 

„ June 16 The Pope celebrates the twenty-fifth 

year of his pontificate 
„ July 2. The king and goveniment move to 

Rome, the new capital of Italy 
„ September 17. Mont Cenis Tunnel formally 
opened for traffic 
1872 DeaVYi o! lA.axxVw\ «X'^\%^ ^ ..,^>jLveo' 

I 1873 FobTuatyW. K\i^Vc^Vtfs«v q\ Kxa^^R^^**'^ ' 



1870. 



»t 



»i 



i» 



11 



11 



1871 



XXXYl. 



INTRODUCTION;. 



»» 



A.D. 

lo73 September 16. King visits Vienna and Berlin. 

1874 Marcli 28. Celebrates the 26tli year of his 

reign, at Rome 

1875 Garibaldi takes his seat in the Chamber 

1876 The King receives the Emperor of Austria at 
Venice, and the German Emperor at Milan. 

November 6. Death of Cardinal Antonelli, 
who leaves his collections to the Vatican 
„ November 8. Death of Duchess of Aosta, 
>vife of Prince Amadeo (Duke of Aosta) 
1S78 January 9. Humbert I. succeeds upon the 
death of his father, Victor Emmanuel 
„ Feb. 10. LeoXIII.rP^cct;;, Pope, in succession 

to Pius IX., who died 7th February 
M November. King Humbert's life attempted 
1879 March. Queen Victoria visits Baveno, Lago 

Mngglore 
1882 June 'J. Death of Garibaldi at Caprera 

Books. — Among the books quoted in the body of 

the Italian Hand-book, or deserving the reader's 

attention, are the following: — 

Rose's *' Letters from the North of Italy,'' 2 volumes 

Forsyth's "Remarks on Antiquities, Arts, and 

Letters, in Italy" 
Beckford's "Letters from Italy," 2 volumes. 1805 
Laing's " Notes of a Traveller in Italy," Ac. (Tra- 
veller's Library). 1854 
"Italy," by Lord Broughton (Sir J. C. Hobhouse), 

2 volumes. 1859 
Whiteside's "Italy in the Nineteenth Century." 

1860 
Arthur's "Italy in Transition." 1860 
Norton's " Notes of Travel and Study in Italy." 

1860 
Mrs. Gretton's "Englishwoman in Italy," 2volumc8 
Miss Bremer's " Switzerland and Italy," 2 volumes. 

1861 
Miss Catlow's " Sketching Rambles in the Apen- 
nines, Ac," two volumes. 1861 
Stansfield's " Italian Movement." 1862 
Count Arrivabene's "Italy nnder Victor Emman- 
uel," 2 volumes. 1862 
Dr. (Bishop) Wordsworth's "Tour in Italy," 1863 
Mendelssohn's "Letters from Italy" 
Oallenga's "History of Piedmont," 2 volumes. 
1855. His "Country Life in Piedmont;" and 
his "Italy Revisited." 1875 
Ball's " Guides" to the Western and Central Alps 
Ring's " ItaUan VaUeys of the Alps." 1858 
T. A. Trollope's " Tuscany in 1849 and 1859." His 
. "Lenten «roumey in Umbria." 1862 
Ifisses Homers' "Walks in Florence" 
Braun's " Hand-Book to ihe Ruins and Museums 

of Rome." 1853 
J. H. Parker's " Archaeology of Rome" 
C. Hemans's "Historical and Monumental Rome;" 

and bis "Medieval ChrUtianity" 
Picey'8 " Rome in 1860." Published 1861 
Wills's "Roman Candles." 1861 
Dean Burgon's "Letters from Rome" 
A. J. C. Hare's "Walks in Rome" 
F. Wey's " Rome," with alwut 850 engravings 



Farini's " History of ttie ftoman States." 1815-50, 

translated by the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone 
Robelli's " Rome et ses Environs " 
Nibby's " Itinerario di Roma " 
W. W. Story's " Roba di Roma," two volumes. 1863 
Story's " Castle of S. Angelo, and the Evil Eye" 
Canon Northcote's *' Epitaphs from the Cata- 

combs; " and his " Roma Sotterranea" 
S. A. Smith's "Tiber and its Tributaries: their 

Natural History and Associations" 
Kavanagh's "Summer and Winter in the Two 

Sicilies." 1860 
Horner's "Century of Despotism in the Two 

Sicilies." 1860 
Admiral Mundy's " Palermo and Naples." 1863 
" Garibaldi's Campaigns," by Captain Forbes 
Keppel Craven's "Tours in the Abruzzi and 

Naples" 
Admiral Smyth's " Sicily" 

Brydone's " Tour through Sicily and Malta." 1770 
Forester's " Rambles in Sardinia and Corsica" 
Murray's Knapsack edition of " Byron's Poems." 
Ruskin's "Stones of Venice" and "Modern 
Painters." 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle's "History of Painting 
in Italy to the 14th century ; " and the " History 
of Painting in North Italy, 14th to 19th cen- 
turies" 
Simond's "Tour in Italy,"— praised by Dickens. 
W. Davies's " Pilgrimage of the Tiber." 1 874 
Shakspere Wood's " New Curiosum Urbis." 1875 
J. H. Middleton's "Ancient Rome," 1885 
Forbes' "Rambles in Rome." 
Monsign. C. A. Pasini's '* Guide de la Basilique 
St. Marc." 1887 



SKELETON BOUTE TO TURIN. 

From Paris by rail throughout; for which 
Through Tickets are issued by the diflferent rail- 
ways. A daily international through service is 
now established in this direction ; and to Geneva 
for Switzerland, as well ; the two routes parting 
off at Culoz. Paris to 

Ma9on, on Lyons Railway 276 miles 

Culoz (buffet) 384 „ 

[Geneva, 372 miles.] 

Chamb^ry 356J ., 

St. Michael (buffet) 407 „ 

Susa 457* „ 

Turin 490* „ 

PARIS Station, in Boulevard Diderot. 

Past Bercy Wine Stores, Suspension Bridge 
on the Seine, and Viaduct on the Mame, Charen- 
ton, Alfort Veterinary College, and Vincennes 
Castle, in view to the left. 

Villbneuvb-St.-Gbobgxs, 9| miles, on the Seine. 

Bbumot. — ^Wellington was Duke 6f Brunoy. 
Brie-Comte-Robert Church to the left. 

Melun.— Capital of department Seine-et-Mame. 
Large old Church and Gothic belfry. Great House 
of Detention on an island. Amyot, who trans- 



INTRODUCTIUN. 



xxxvii. 



laled PIutarclL, was a native. Nangis Castle, and 
Grange Bleneao, to the left; the latter was Lafay- 
ette*8 seat. 

FontatneUeaU.— Old Palace, begun as early 
m» twelfth century. One court is the Cour des 
Adienx, where Napoleon took leave of his Guards, 
liouis XVI.'s pillar outside the town. Fine views 
in the forest. 

Thokert, d( miles. Noted for chasselas grapes. 

MoVTBSBAU. — Buffet for refreshment. On the 
Voime and Seine. Junction with the (*hanmont 
lino, Jean Sans-Peur's sword in the old church; 
be was murdered here by Charles the Dauphin. 

Bkns. — Sous-prefecture. Old gates and walls, | 
half Roman. Early Gk>thic cathedral, with Beckct's • 
mitre, Ac Hotel de Ville. Fleurlgny Chftteau. j 

Viix»irBDVB-8UE-YoNNK. — Gothic gates and i 
church; old castle. 

JoiGirr.— Sous-prefecture. Good views. Hotel 
Pieu. Ancient chftteau. 

Labochs.— Refreshment Buffet. 

St. Flokbntin. — On the Arman^on. Good views. 
Caoal de Bourgogne and aqueduct. Church of the 
XIV. century. Ervy Castle to the left. 

TomiBBRE. — Buffet for refreshment. Sous-pre- 
fecture, in Burgundy wine district. Rich hospital 
founded by St. Louis's sister-in-law, Margaret. 
Old chftteau. St. Pierre's Gothic Church. To the 
right, Ghablis, noted for white wine. The Turin 
Express does not stop here. 

Taklat. — Fine chftteau of the Tanlay family, in 
the Renaissance style. 

LvziKB Tunnel, 1,740 feet. Passt Tunnel, 3,380 ft. 

MoNTBABD. — In department Cote d'Or. Button's 
Chftteau, where he wrote his "Natural History." 
Semur is on a rock to the right. 

Lbs Lauxes.— Alise Abbey, and sulphur spring 
near ; hilly country, and fine views. 

YEBBBT.—Old chftteau. St. Seine Church, in a 
deep pass, to the left. 

BitAisT Bas. — One of the most remarkable 
tunnels in France, 2| miles long, at the highest 
part of the Ihie. A succession of tunnels and via- 
ducts hence to Dijon. 

MAiAiN.—Combe-de-Fain Viaduct near this, 147 
feet high, on a double row of arches. 

BiJOXL — Buffet for refreshment. Chief town of 
department Cdte d'Or, and old capital of Bur- 
gundy. Cdte d'Or Hills in view. Cathedral, with 
tali spire, 828 feet high. Old cathedral church. 
Ancient Palais des Etats, with ducal effigies, Ac 
Large prefecture and theatre. 

Cll&UnirB1ir-8&d]l6. — Sous-prefecture and a 
Roman station. Two churches. Old bridge and 
hospital. Here "Slipfs^ one of the French iu- 
Tentors of photography, vm bom. 

TouBNUS. — Suspension \3riigfi on the Sadne, 
Roman pillar, Greoze's paint^^s ^n the church. 



lULcOXL— Buffet for refreshment. Chief town 
of Sadne-et-Loire. Modem Cathedral ; and towers 
of the old one. Lamartine bom here. The main 
line to Lyons follows the river. 

Here the Mont Cenis line turns off to Chamb^ry 
and crosses the Sadne on a viaduct. 

Bonrg, or Bourg-en-Bra8S6.— Chief town of 

Aix, founded thirteenth century. Semi-Gothic 
Church ot Notre Dame. Lorin Museum at Hdtel de 
Ville. Fine Church of Le Brou, built by Margaret 
of Austria. 

Pont d'Ain. — Suspension bridge on the Aln. 
Amb^bieu, at the foot of the Jura Hills. 
Abtemabe. — Mont Colombier, 5,000 feet high. 
CuLOZ, — On the Rhone. Here the branch line 
to Geneva, about 42 miles long, parts off. 

AiX-les-BaillB.— In Savoy, now part of France. 
A watering-place, visited for its mineral springs 
and fine neighbourhood. 

Ghamb^ry. — For this and the remainder of the 
road to the Italian frontier, over the fine scenery of 
Mont Cenis, see Route 5 (page 692) in the 
Special Edition of Bradshaw's Continental Ouide, 
For the great Tunnel, see page 591 of the same. 

Distances from Turin by rail to 

Miles. 
Genoa (Route 4) ... 108 

Milan (Route 5) 94 

Venice (Route 13).. 260 
Bologna (Route 15) 252 



Milee. 

Florence (Route 21) 268 

Ancona (Route 22). 379 

Brindisi (Routes 30, 

88) 728 



There are refreshment buffets on the Brindisi 
lino at Ancona, Pescara, Foggia, and Bari. 

There is also a service vid Calais. Basle, and the 
St. Gothard to Milan, see under St. Gothard and 
Route 6 in Bradshaw's Continental Ouide, the latter 
in the Special Edition. 

*«*For the approaches to Italy through Switzer- 
land, see the Itinerary of. the Alpine Passes and 
Lakes, and Routes 2, kc, in the Special Edition of 
Bradihaw's Continental Outde^ or see Bradshaw'* 
Hand-Book to Switzerland. For routes vid Mar- 
seilles, see Bradthavo's Hand-Book to France, or 
the Continental Ouide. 



Objecte of Art, Antiques, Palntiiiss, Aec 

The sale and export of all works of art, which 
was formerly forbidden, it now permitted by the 
government, which, however, reserves to itseU the 
right of purchasing before the expiration of a 
three months' notice which has to be given of 
the contemplated sale. Export duty, 10 per cent, 
on the sale price. 



SECTION L— NORTHERN ITALY. 



Cxtrhi ia ^loxtntt. 



PIEDMONT— LOMBARDY—VENETIA— EMILIA— EOMAGNA. 
TURIN— VAUDOIS COUNTRY— AOSTA— GENOA 

AND THE RIVIERA. 

MILAN— LAKES MAGGIORE, COMO, &c. 

BRESCIA— VERONA— MAGENTA— SOLFERII^O—YICENZA— 

PADUA— VENICE— PAVIA— 

MANTUA— PARMA— MODENA—FERRARA— RAVENNA- 
BOLOGNA- SAN MARINO, ifeo., &c. 



'■n Con^ 

ererj' 
audois 
tfance 
at the 



»--- W4vavbt; 



"oiite, 
ecte<l, 

ooked 

lin by 

«*ion», 
«a is 

>aBte, 
after 

•ror 

La 

>rdel 

ing'a 
aasaco 

lUIUO 

s of 
(UriD) 

and 
oved 

Ialn» 

•TIC); 

>rth, 
Id of 
:tho 
»nie» 



SECTION I.— NORTHEBN ITALY. 



N.B. — FOR THE ROUTES ACROSS EUROPE TO ITALT, SEE INTRODUCTION. 

An astei-isk [♦] in the foUotcing pages denotes objects deserving ^fecial notice. 



I 



TURIN (Stat.); in Italian, ToHno. 
Population (1891), 329,000, with environs. 

Betels: 

Hotel de i'Europe, Piazza Castello, opposite the 
King's palace, five minuted' walk from the station. 
Beautiful first-class hotel, entirely refurnished, 
and replete with every modern convenience. 
Becommended. See Advt. 
Hotel Feder, one of the best. Recommended. 
Hotel Trombetta,one of the best in Turin, under 
the immediate superintendence of the new pro- 
prietor, Mr. Leopold Baglioni. 

iQrand Hotel de Turin. — Branch establishment 
of the Bernerhof at Berne, and Kraft's Hotel de 
Nice at Nice, kept by M. Constant Kraft. English 
Churcli Service. 

Grand Hotel Suisse. Advantageously situated, 
facing the General Station. 

Baglloni's Grand Hotel and Pension d'Angleterre. 
Well and conveniently situated hi the Via Roma, 
near the central Station. 
Hotel de Londres. 

Restaurants.—ha Meridlana, 6, Via S. Teresa; 
Cambio. 

Cafes. — Parigi; Svizzero; Romano; Londra; 
Borsa ; Nazionale. Cup of mixed coffee and choco- 
late, called "beccherino," drunk at early morning ; 
bread, in slender sticks, like quills, two feet long, 
called grissini, crisp and light. The wines are 
Barbera, Barolo, Caluso, Asti, and Soma. 

Omnibuses belonging to the different hotels con- 
vey passengers to and from the station, 1 franc. 
Town omnibuses, from one extremity of the city to 
the other, 10 cents. Cittadinc, 1 franc for one 
course, and I franc 50 cents by the hour. 

Tramways in many directions from the principal 
squares. 

Steam Tramways run to many of the smaller 
places in the neighbourhood. 

Money.— In lire (or francs) and centesimi (or 
cents). Value slightly less than French francs 
and centimes. 

Post Ofiee. - InVia Principe Amedeo. The latest 
• urf or posting Fmu^and English lettersis 10p.m. 

1 Jegraph Ofk^-'QXoie to the General Post Office. 
B 



Resident English Vice-Consul and American Con' 
sular Agent. 

Cliurch of England Service is performed every 
Sunday, at 11 a.m., in the chapel behind the Vaudois 
Church, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II. Entrance 
by the side gate, Via Pio Quinto, 15. Also at the 
Grand Hotel de Turin. 

Railways to Susa, Mont Ceuis, Paris, Pincrolo. 
Cuneo, Genoa, Milan, Ivrea, Cirl^, Castellamonte, 
Biella, Arona, &c.— One to Marseilles is projected- 
via Saluzzo and Digne. 

Passengers by the SImplou route are bookedl 
through by rail from Turin to Domo d'Ossola, 
where they must take a carriage or book again by 
diligence. 

Paper money is accepted at the railway stations, 
but only for such part of the journey as is 
within Italian territory. 

In Italy the locomotives are called Alfieri, Dante, 
Tasso, Volta, Galileo, Manzoni, and so on, alter 
their great men. The rail is **strad» f errata," or 
"ferrovia." 

Funicular Railway from Piazza Castello to La 
Superga, see page 5. 

Races. — End of May, in the Piazza d*Armi, or del 
AiTui. 

*Chief Objects of Notice. — Cathedral ; King'a 
Palace; Armoury; Palazzo Madama; Palazzo* 
dell*Accademia and Picture Gallery; Carignaua 
Palace; Churches of S. Filippo, Corpus Domini, 
Madre di Dio, Superga (Funicular Railway) ; Molo . 
Antonelliana ; Capuchin. Ci.nveut; University; 
Theatre Royal; Cavour's House; Statues of 
Cavour and D'Azeglio. Architecture by Guarini 
and Giuvara. 

TcBiif, the capital of the Sardinian States and 
of the new kingdom of Italy, till the court moved 
to Florence, 1865, is on the west side of the River Po 
where the Dora Riparia joins it, in a fertile plain 
adorned with gardens and villas (called vigne) • . 
the snowy Alps being in the distance to the nort»*' 
including Mont Blanc, Monte Viso (at the head of 
the Po), and Monte Rosa. This plain lies at the 
foot of the mountains, and hence derives its name 
Piemonte (Piedmont in French), because It V.% «. v^ 
del monte. The nearest r&n%«k q1 \v\^% V^^ C>vi^^ss».> 
on the souths is \^*9L^^ l««x «Jcw>^* \X\* ■««». ««^ ^^ 
average; but tVifc Yv\^\v^«.\. '^Vft^^ «^ 'w^vV^ 'ons 



a BHACSBAWS lIAt.r. [Seclioil I. 



b( thi Bnt loLdlcn ot cli 
'I'lio Fronch took 11 In 1 



KLn^, Victor EmmBDUOl I^ roLtrcd la bla laLand of 
SAtilliilA. In nil ptiUUc papcn It wm ftfylod tho 
"IlLanrCoui Clty/-"CounleHaf Grulliui.'o,-'aiid 
"LadyofBoiniHco." 
It 1> divided Into Ktiimi. or tisctLoni. laid ont 



whM nrt'olH, I 



A,lBll-nal 



1o Zriibroui^htrrofDtbe 



ot promenndei, pinnled with Uesn. 



Ost«B, Brldgas, fte'.—Thcrc wcm Inrmorlv 
f.iiir Qatoi, vhicG hnve Isft their imniesbehltKl: 



(townrd-M. 








. OfthOKO 


lylho 


ih"iiabtby« 


motohcBoins 




iiiodEro Fai 


MO drfle Tur 










Mr-; 


Srre 


ri*p 


Emsnuele, 


opo«ltc the r 




rtaDI"Chu 


:h, with the S 


niierpi 


Thl« bridge 

•pOT, BTll « 


11 bpgiiii Cy > 


Ave an 



MoTBherim, runs ■ 




he whole 


Pity, passlnj 




niiel 




to the Poiin 


M^haftH'^t^th 




Po. Fro 


the Plaiin 








he bridge on 


the Dora, which 1 






te Mch, ur 






lUbyMoi 


ca. Another 










KroMtothePonte 


M.T 






Iha NnoTO Glirdln 


Pohl,lioo. H 




wreen ipriiig up, 


spec 


ally on ih 




There nrc tonny ai 




Jewel ih 




HBocsrlhePlKJo 




li. 




The Po li B Urond 


dirty, sndtnrt) 


lent slrcain. 


mDch swollen at the 




riheipri 




8iinareB,-Therc 




over a do 


en ol thew. 


Plaiis dl Savoln 




i< an obe 
















bll^hnien 


of Iho con- 


stimtronal nuixlm- 




Ltt Lranc 


c equale r^r 


iHfK {the Ibh Is (ho same rorall) 


In Pini« 






iTe Mont 


Cenbi Tunnel 


Monumi!.f! p'siia 


Csr 


l-ellcc. in 


front of tho 




notue ot 


HiHlnio <!■ 


Aiegllo. In rinzi 




he Hotel do 



Boyal FalaCSl— The aaet, or *PalaMO Wo- 
Inmn (nftcr Mnilame. tho wife of Iho Dokc of 
Jaiola-Nemoun, who lived In It) wn> bcgnn In 

[1.. In 1416, nnd Improved hy Ulnvnra-t (atailo. 

old lowers is nswl ns nn Obsorvalorv. 

The •Aonif /VonfAi/atEsffdWi; lis Inr|i« pile, 
built by llnke Carlo Emnnnelo lU from di»l|;ns 



bsttle-iiiecei by Awglin, Ac: portrait of tlio 
Ducheis of Bnteundy; hnits ot ti.e Priii.wH 
ClotlWn nnd tho Qaeen of Poitunal; Knlpluro 



StiCtioti 1.] 



trnts*— PALACfefl, cnrRCMEs. 



i 



twenty by Da Vinci, sevei-al by Raphael, Correg-g-Io, fell In 1715, and rebuilt ffom Qluvtlra's designs. 



\ 



and Titian: a collection of coins, carved Ivory, 
enamels, He. 

The *Royal Armout^y (Armeria Reale), formed 
1833, is A good collection, containing luunnm*Ie 
Flllberto's arms, Prince Kngcnc's sword and 
pistols, several Intcrestin;? relics of the first 



It has a line portico of fluted columns, with paint- 
ings of the Saint in one of the chapels, and of the 
Assumption over the high altar, which is rich In 
precious stones, bas-reliefs, and carvings. 

.9. Lorenzo, in Piazzo Custcllo. is cisrht-sidcd, with 
chapels round it, and a dome over the altar, com- 



riapoleon, and much ancient and modern armour powd of two round cupolas, one alwve the othcf. 



and weapons, very jdcturcsquely arranged, some 
being equestrian figures. 

ChurCheB.—Closc to the Palace, on the west, 
and fronting the Piazza di 8. Giovanni, is 

The •Ca<A«/ra/, or Duomo.of S.Giovanni Ddttlsta 
(John Baptist), on the site of a Lombard church of 
the seventh century. It was rebuilt by Arch- 
bishop Rovrre, 1498^1505, but has nothing striking 
about it. The portal Is ornamented with pilasters, 
and the pillars arc wreathed wiih vine leaves. It 
contains a marble tomb of a princess of Piedmont, 
with a statue of the patron saint, and the altar is 
very rich. In one of the six side chapels arc Ixj 
Oros' St. Teresa Offering her Heart to God, and 
another of St. Teresa with the Palm of Martyr- 
dom. Behind the high altar, and lit by a stained 
?las8 whidow above it, is Guarini's l)el Sudario 
Ihapcl. chiefly of black polished marble, with six 
windows in it, and a cupola on columns, at the 
top of which is a marble crown. Among t he monu- 
nients is Revelli'sof Queen Maria Adelaide (1855), 
and another by Gazzini. Though adorned with 
white marble monuments, bronzes, Ac, the dark 
colour of this chapel gives it a very sombre appear- 
ance. It takes its name from the Santo Sudario. 



and painted with frescoes of the Four Kvangelists. 
A marl)le group of the Assumption is worth notice. 
The church is a work of Guarini of the seven-' 
teenth century. 

*Corpta Domini, in the Piazza of that nnme, wa« 
built in 1607, by Vitozzi. and decorated with a pro- 
fusion of ornament by Alfieri. That of S. Spirito, 
near it, is said to occupy the site of a Temple of 
Diana, and noted on account of Rousseau's abjuring 
Calvinism here in 1728. 

Santa Ttresa, in Contrada di S. Teresa, was built 
1635, by Duke Vittorlo Amcdco I., niui has a later 
fa9;ide by Aliberti (1764j, with some alabaster 
groups, paintings, &c. 

S. Carlo Dorromeo, in Piazza S. Carlo, built 1C19, 
by iJuke Carlo Kmanucle I., from Valperga's de- 
signs, is a structure of some merit. Near it is 
Giuvara*s Church of S. Cristina. with a very correct 
front. 

Facing these churches, in the square, is 
Marochettl's bronze statue of Duke Kmanucle 
Filit>erto. with bas-reliefs of the battle of St. Quen- 
tin (which he won, 1557), and the treaty of Chflteau 
Cambresis (1558). 

The Jexuiti' Church was built 1677 from Pello- 



or holy napkin, in an urn over the altar, which grini's designs, and is very rich in marbles and 



they say was brought from our Ijord's tomb. 

Some gxx)d sculpture and specimens of the great 
masters of painting arc to lie found it) the hundred 
and ten Chunhes and i.hapels of Turin. 'Ihose 
moat worthy of notice are the follow hig: — 

Comolata Church, in the Via della Consolata, is 
lightly ornamented, though irregular in its shape. 
It includes an • Id chapel of the tenth century. In 
the Piazza, facmg it, is an Image of the Virgin, 
with a votive marlile column placed here after the 
cholera appeared in 18-35. Besi«lcs the ox-votos 



bronzes. 

S. Tommajto, one of the oldest in the city. 

S. Francisco de Paolo, by Pellegrini, is a good 
church, with a bust of Cariioli, the sculptor. 

Santa Maria delta fHazza. one of the mo^t ancient, 
was restored, 1751, after Vlttone's designs. 

S. Domenico was founded 1214, and contains 
Guerclni)'s Rosary. 

S. Delmazia has Guercino's Christ In the Tomb. 

S. Frana'gro was ftmnded by ht. Francis d'As* 
sisi. 12 15, the facade being a work of Vittone. 

S. Rocco, with a dome, includes a front by Beria, 



jr^'J'^II,?""^ kneeling flgurcs (by Veda) of Queens of an octagon shape, on eight pUlars; the 'interior 
Maria Theresa and Maritt Adelaide. ''A poor man by Lanfranchl. " ° *^ * 

prayed to the Madonna to rcveril to him some 
lucky numl)ers for the lottery : he had a dream, in 
which, as he imagined, she suggested a trio of 



numbers. He made his purchase accordingly, but 
they turned out blanks. In revenge for this delu- 
sion, he attacked the image of the Madonna della 
Consolazlonc when borne in procession through 
the city to the Superga, and mutilated it with a 
hatchot. The mob was enrage«l a<'d would hove 



Santa Crocstte. on the Pincrolo Road, has Tinto- 
retto's Descent from the Cross. 

^JJella Oran Madrede Dio, across the Po Bridge Is 
a modern church built In 1818 by Bonslgnori, to 
commem<»rato the return of the Royal House to 
Tnrbi in 1814. and is a sort of miniature of the 
Pantheon, faced with marble and having marble 
pillars, Ac Alwve It is the Capuchin Church of 
// Motiti, commanding a fine view of the city and 



torn him to pieces if he had not been rescued by ^^g ^,xa,h\ of the Po ; but a more extended prospect 



the soldiers, an<i ho was conveyed as a madman to 
a lunatic asylum."— Canow Wonhicorth. 

The Chnrch of *H Filippo Neri, near Piazza 

C«rlsm«no^ one of the largest and most Imposing 

9hiin:bcs here; begun by Gaarlid, whoso vault 



Is obtained from the CoUege of the Superga, on a 
mountain beyond, one and ahalf hour's walk to 
the east-north-east, but also acce&«A.VA<^ Vs^ >2«ib!^ 
Funicular Rail. 
TUe Tempio Vald<Wv<>xN^>wVa\».<i\s«ix«2«^N\'H'»K« 



/ 



BRAD8HAW 8 ITALV. 



[Secticu 1. 



antral rallwuv station . A splendid Synagogue, 
ie Moorish style, with a massive tower, was 

-ned 1871. 

Palaces.— At Palcuxo Carignano, a large semi- 
ircular pile of cut bricic built by Guarini, the 
Italian Chamber of Deputies held their sittings 
till 1865. The rooms now contain the very good 
Natural History Collection (open, free, 1 to 4), 
formerly in the AcAdeniy of Sciences. 

Palazzo di Citta is the Town Hall. There are 
several statues in front of it. 

Palazzo liirago di Borgaro was built by Giuvara. 

Palazzo Priero has an excellent picture gallery 
(private). Palazzo Carlo Felice is near the Genoa 
railway station. 

Theatres. — ^Theatre Royal (Teatro Regio) or 
Opera House, in I'alazzo Uastello, was built by 
Alfi ri, and Is the third largest in Italy, with every 
requisite for the public safety and comfort. Depth 
from curtain to back of boxes, 90 feet ; depth of 
stage, lOOfcet; wi«Uh of the curtain, 50 feet. 

Teatro Vittoino Emanuele, Via Rossini; operas, 
ballets, &c. 

Teatro Carignano, in that Place, supported by 
columns, is used for comic operas, &c. 

Academy of Sciences, comer of Piazza Carlg- 
nano, bontains the Museum of Antiquities, and the 
Picture Galleries. The building, by Guarini (1674), 
was formerly the Jesuit College. 

1.— Cabinet of Antiquities (Musco di Antichith), 
Egyptian, Grecian, Roman, and Etruscan, besides 
one of 11,000 models arranged by countries. 
Among the marbles are Cupid sleeping in the Lion's 
8 kin. Head of Antinous, a bronze Minerva, a 
mosaic (Orpheus and his Lyre) found at Starapace, 
1766, many Roman and other bronzes, vases found 
at Potenzo, busts of .£sop, Julian, Ac. 

The ^Enyplian Museum, founded on the purchase 
of Drovetti's collection in 1828, by Carlo Felice, is 
very rich and celebrated, having, among other 
objects, statues of Osymandias (15 feet high), 
Thothmes I. and II., Amenophis II. (or Mcmnon), 
Bameses II. (or Sesostris), in granite or basalt, 
also Egyptian paintings, ornaments, domestic 
articles, munmiies, papyri, M3S. on linen (one 
being part of a chronology, and a list of about 100 
kings), and the Isaic Table (Table of Isis), a 
iHronze covered with hieroglyphics of doubtful 
character, supposed to have been manufactured in 
the reign of Adrian. Champollion identified several 
of the statues here in his visit, 1824. The celebrated 
Turin papyrus is in a room on the second floor. 

2. — *Oallery of Paintings (open, 9 to 4) in fifteen 
rooms ; chiefly of the Italian and Flemish schools. 
The rooms are named after the principal painters 
and schools — as the Piedmont Room, Raphael 
Room, &c ; and the specimens number over 510. 
The best are in Room xiii. 

Among them are the following: — 
G. Ferrari's St. Paul; Lowering of the Cross; 

Christ in the Clouds ; St. Peter. 
Glovenone's Resurrection ; Virgin and Child. 
Raphael's Madonna dl Tenda, the original of which 
J»>t lionitk. 



Goldo's St. Catherine. 

Guercino's Virgin and Child; Prodigal Sou. 

G. Romano's Assumption ; God the Father. 

P. Veronese's Finding of Moses; Christ and Mag- 
dalen. 

Bassano's Rape of the Sabines. 

C. Dold's Virgin. 

Gentilcschi's Annunciation. 

Domenichino's Agriculture, Astronomy, and Archi- 
tecture. 

Titian's Paul IIL; Journey to Emmaus; Adora- 
tion of the Shepherds. 

Velasquez's Philip IV. 

Albano's Birth of Venus; Forge of Vulcan ; Ceres, 
Juno, and Flora; Four Elements, with god- 
desses, nymphs, cupids, Ac. 

Vandyck's Charles First's Children ; Virgin and 
Child; Princes of Savoy. 

Lcly's Cromwell and his Wife. 

Holbein's Luther and his Wife; Calvin. 

Rubens* Holy Family; Portrait of himself. 

Rembrandt's Rabbi ; Uurgomaster. 

Ravenstcin's Poitraits. 

Wouverman's Battle-piece. 

Mabus's Christ on the Cross. 

G. Dow's Children Blowing Bubbles. 

Memling's Christ's Passion. 

Honthorst's Samson and the Philistines. 

P. Potter'M Cows in a Field. 

Snyders' Hunting the Stag. 

Borgognone's Battle-pieces. 

A. DUrer's Lowering of tue Cross. 

C. I^rraine's Landscapes. 

H. Vernet's Carlo Alberto (1834). 

There are many portraits and landscapes, Ac, by 
Claude, G. Poussin, Teniers, Vandyck, Ac, besides 
battlepieces and painthigs on porcelain, by Con- 
stantlne. 

University, in the Vlk di Po, founded 1465, 
and revived by Vittorio Amedeo hi 1710, numbers 
about 2,000 students, under about eighty professors. 
It is a large, well-planned building, with an 
arcaded court, ornamented with bas-reliefs, and 
inscriptions fixed in the walls; forming part of a 
Lapidarian Museum. Its Library numbers 200,000 
volumes, and 2,000 MSS., of which last 170 are 
Hebrew, 370 Greek, 1,200 Latin, 220 Italian, 12 » 
French. Some of its palimpsests have been deci- 
phered by Peyron; among the MSS. areTheodorct's 
Commentaries on the minor Prophets, an illumi- 
nated Bible (from the sack of Rome, by the Con- 
stable Bourbon), an old Testament of the twelfth 
century, liede's Commentary on Luke of the same 
date, and the Imitation of Jesus Christ (called the 
Arona MS.) on vellum, beautifully ornamented 
with miniatures and paintings, Ac. Qardens. — 
Giardino Reale, near the Royal Palace; near this 
are the Zoological Gardens ; Giardino della Citia- 
della, near the middle of the Via Garibaldi; Nuovo 
Giardino PuhUico, near the Po, reached by the 
Corso Vittorio Emannele II., and containing the 
Botanical Garden and the Castle of II Valentino, 
naed by the Polytechnic School. 



Section 1.] 



TUKIN — UNIVEHSITY, U08P1TALS, 8UPERGA. 



The Albertina Academy of Fine Arts, in the Via 
drir Accademia Albertina, contains cartoons by 
Oaudenzio Ferrari and others, and a small 
collection of pictures. Open 10 to 4, on payment 
of a fee. 

MuMO Civico is nc:ir the Royal Gardens, and has 
a collection of ancient and modem sculptures and 
paintings, pottery, Ac. Admission by fee, 60c. 

Afuseo Industriale, near the Exchange, and the 
large Hospital of St. John the Baptist. 

Behind the Royal Theatre is the Royal Military 
Academy, founded in the seventeenth century by 
Viltorio Amedeo II., with a riding school, Ac , 
attached. 

Philharmonic Society, schools for the blhid, for 
the deaf and dumb, &,c. 

Hospitals, &C. — Among these are the follow- 
ing :— Hospital of St. John (S. Giov. liatta.) as old 
as the fourteenth century, with about 400 beds, and 
an anatomical school, founded by Carlo Alberto ; 
ic is an immense building, in the L'ontrada del 
Ospedale. Hospital of St. Maurice and Lazarus 
(1672), for soldiers, Ac; Maniconico, or hospital 
for the insane (1728) ; Spedalc della Matcrnitli, 
for lying-in women and infants ; Spedale di 
Caritjt for children and the aged, in the Contrada 
del Po. An Albergo Reale di Vertu (or House of 
Industry) was founded, 1680, for the l>cnefit of the 
poor, and revived in 1851 ; its inmates work at 
various trades. Ospedale S. Luigi Gonzaga (1794), 
for poor and incurables ; Mendicity Refuge, 
founded 1838; the Ketiro, founded, 1745, by Rosa 
Govona, for poor girls who support themselves. 
There is a well-managed Monte di Pieth, or 
public pawii-shop, which serves as a loan fund. 

The Mole Antomlliana, or Templo Vittorio 
Emanuele II., is a singular and very lofty (over 
500 feet) tower-shaped building with a cupola and 
long spire, not far from the top of the Via Rossini. 

The Arsenal, near the Piazza d'Armi, was begun 
by Carlo Emanuele I., and improve^ by Carlo 
Emanuele III. It contains various Trophies, a 
foundry, laboratory, plans of fortifications, school 
of metallurgy, and a cabinet of Natural History. 

In the Cemetery at the ('Umpo Santo, beyond 
the town, Silvio Pcllico and Massimo d' Azeglio 
arc buried. 

The *Saperga is 4 miles distant, on a hill about 
2,000 feet above the sia. It is a striking object 
from any point, and consists of a college annexed 
to a circular church, with an octagon dome 60 feet 
in diameter, built by Giuvara, in consequence of 
the vow of Vittorio Amedeo before the battle of 
1706, and his victory over the French. It is regu- 
larly designed, T^ith a portico, side towers, Ac, and 
is *' very cloveriy arranged, so as to give size and 
Importance to what ottterwjse would be a small 
church ; but in doing this, the ohni-ch and convent 
UB^BO 9iiX(4 w togatbcr, that it is difficult to tell 
ffbere one hvifitM and tit4 other e^^n.^'—Fergusttm, 



Many of the royal family are buried here, in- 
cluding the founder, and his son Carlo; alto, 
Vittorio Emanuele I., and Carlo Alberto, king, 
who died at Oporto, 1842. There are also 
marbles of Vittorio Amadeo making his vow, and 
the Birth and Assumption of the Virgin, with 
pictures by Ricci. At the foot of the s'teps lead- 
ing 10 the vault is a statue of the Angel of Death, 
by Michael Angelo. in the gallery of the college, 
from which the best view is obtained, are portr^s 
of Vittorio Amedeo on horseback, and all ttie 
Popes as far back as St. Peter and Jesus Christ. 

The best way to reach the Superga, from which 
there is a magnificent view, Is by steam tramwaj 
starting from the Piazza Castellt>, and running 
through the town to the village of Sassi; thence 
by funicular railway to the top, the time is nearly 
1 hour, and there is no changing of carnages by 
the direct trains. No one should omit this visit. 

The King has country seats at Vigna delta Regina^ 
on a hill by the Po, built by Vittorio Amedeo*s 
son-in-law, Maurice (it contains a lovely Carlo 
Dolce) ; at Stupinigi Forest, on the Sagono (4 miles 
off), builtby Giuvara and A Ifieri. with a good park; 
at Moncalieri (page 9), Rivoli, Ac. A Royal 
Riding School is at La Venaria (8 miles). 

The climate of Turin is hot in summer, and cold 
in winter, and, on the whole, unfavourable to in- 
valids, who are advised to be exceedingly careful. 
(See Introduction, pp. xxii. and xxiii.) 

It was at Turin that the French authorities 
arrested Forsyth, the traveller, in 1803, as a British 
subject, and sent him, with others, to Valenciennes. 

Among the natives of Turin (most of whom 
have statues here) are Lagrsnge, snd Gioberti, 
the famous priest, at one time (1848-9) Prime 
Minister, and author of the Primato Morale e (Hvile 
dltalia, advocating a free Italian confederation 
of states, under a free Po])e; an idea which 
Pio Nono attempted to carry out till he fell t»ack 
to the Jesuits. Gioberti returned to Turin, after 
several years' banishment, in 1848. Count C.Balbo 
followed up the efforts of Gioberti in his Speranza 
cT Italia, and by the Risorgimento (Resurrection) 
newspaper, assisted by Cavour, Massimo d* Azeglio, 
andottiers. D'Azesrlio, a pamter, novelist, soldier, 
and statesman, all in one, was Prime Minister 
to Charles Albert, and afterwards governor of 
Lombardy. By the influence of these great men, 
the Statuto, or fundamental law of the kingdom, 
promulgated on 4th March, 1848, was preserved 
through the reactionary period, and constitutional 
government settled on a firm basis in Italy. 

CavOUr'S Monument (by Duprd of Florence), 
in Piazza Carlo Emanuele II. (or Carlina, now 
improved with new houses), was opened by the 
King in 1873. It consists of his statue^su.rtcj\scssAstSs. 
by allegorical sytnbol%^\«v\vvrcsA«!\^x\S5^5!C5\.«2^^ 

The <»ttiary tow^«. 'Xx^rtja tsV^^'^ ^-«t»x«c^^^^ 



ROTTTE 1. 

Tniin to Sii((cil«iio. Hont Oanli, 8nM, 

trad Uoat atnivn. 

By rail to Suna (oprneil JKt) In two hnurn 
■•cMndlnKIIieKlvnrlKiaKLnnrin, orHiicleiitCum 
J/inor. Tbexuiluninreu uniicr:- 



Nm' Alplgnwio {Btkt.), wlioro tho.nin 

M.He In »iii-;h King VlKoX AmedUaii-l In IIW, 
Blwr hi. sbdlojiilim. Kill fp«u Turin, ;}iqllrislu 

AmbrogtO (Stat.), ■ llltia oo'lcd plier. wlili 

The uUl C..n.-i.nt Biid'CMlle «l Sacr» dl B. MIeholt 
nro acaji on M ^,( i'levhiHniio. ■IWBt ZOM fret 
til,;h. Thii cMili <ru realonyl liv Culo Alberts 
Tharc lie gran Lie qn.rclH n«r tlili. 
SniMleilO {Stat) H-ra the Mont Canli 



eiuldt.) It pa.M» Ml , ,.„„ 

irnnd. Onlx. to BiLTdoimMhla. 

Sna& (Stat.) A •moll cU^ (Hittlile In Poate). 

IdcUffeiOBC linllow, on the site of I'h- Ku.naii 
w^n^ foaificd bv AnjifualiiB. AHinalUtlamphAl 

uftheiWfth'eiiit.r,-. Noirtl Ifllioruiiio.ifurt o( 

■nnwri iMnjr plii.ti whlgh era rarely uen lo fjr 
Horn the ttedlieiTdiHSJu." (Ball's auMt to Iht 



At EzUlei 11 1, run, which <:oniniiinail1.I> re 

Onll (Stat ) i» 3,514 i.a Ligh, x f e iunci 

l,Si7. AicoudtiiB the fonnor rIvVr you co 
to ihi Tiiliige of Bar<ioiiii«idil& (Btat). n< 



Km. Ooe O^idiAiiu'i nani-Book It 

E.OX7XE S, 
a Flnerolo and tbe Valdeniea' or 
Vaudoli CiiuiitT7. 



.. nl llivn .. 



...13\ Turn Pull Ice 



(atat.) ■> """ tUo royal toreiit auit 

■■Hi.iinii aeat ••! majknlti (Innawny ffam Turin), 
iin itaQ river (tnngone. 

Alraw* (Stat); (rem h™ lliere i«a branch 
line tu Tlcona cjnllnncd to Balnno (i-age 8), 
and lulcr eweiidBil In Cmico (iiase 8). 

PllUIOla (BtatS or Flgitnl in French, ones 



iT tlie uine ni 



■a. fopul 



n. 17,11$. 



Mauilcc wllll■l■UHf^»olaafayl^lEEl: taetorleiof 
illk. Ac.; and la ofarluoked by Um r<inidn> of ■ 
iiato ntiaini, In wlildi tho Nan with ths Inn Huk 
wui^Dtnii. The line li iKiw cmtinaed IhruBsh 
Sun Heconilo, CanelU Morari, Brlsliorjilii (brnnrli 
to BaifA lliblana, Bud Lniema tu 

Lft Ivm, Im Tour, or Tarrt Ptllkt. Iicon- 
tuini n liinii<Muw eliureli. «ill<i|te. nr Knuaniv 
whoul, iHnnllil. and olher InitltBtiDiia of litv 
line: (ounded by Ibe exartloni of Arrhdeacon 
fiiIly,.Qeneriil Beokwith. and other liienda of lite 
Vaudolt. Ifoltl: UerOura. Tlilili the little eipllal 
(|io]HilBi[on 3.SM) of the commanlly. namberliig 
about 1S.MII, In thirtaen |«rl«liea tn the valleys, 
oD the tlu)* of tlie moBntaina, from which they 

Runjteof their •ervlcc),ViUdo<l In Itatlnn. Vnld^t 
incanlu/dnoilet* In' Ihe vallcyt. x'be rnlleya an 



Route 3.] 



8U8A, LA TORRE, FENE8TRELLA, CARIGNANO, ETC. 



Luscnic), are St. Giovanni, Angrogna, Bobbio, 
ViUaro, Pomarctto, St. Martino, Villasccco, and 
Perera. Each village has a church and school, 
besides a chapel for Roman Catholics, of whom 
there are about 2,000. The persecutions to which 
they were subjected by the Dukes of Savoy, 
encouraged by the Papacy, gave rise to the missions 
from Charles I. in their behalf, to Sir S. Morland's 
mission, under Cromwell, and to Milton's famous 
Bonnet — 

*' Avenge, O Lord, thy sUughtered Balnts, whoM bones 
Lie acattered on the Alpine uiuuutaiuA culd." 

The particulars of those persecutions, of their 
transportation to Switzerland, and their daring 
return across the mountains, under Henry Arnaud, 
in 1689, are related hi Gilly's ''Kxcursions among 
the Vaudois." Under the present equal system all 
their disabilities are removed. 

The Valdds dialect is a ml.Kturc of Romance and 
Italian, nearly the same us that of the ^'Nobla 
Ley^n," their ancient confession of failh, com- 
posed in the twelfth centurj-, when they were, as 
they had been from time immemorial, independent 
of the Church of Rome. It begins — 

"O Frayres, eutSde una nobla Icyzon ; 

Sovei dcv5 velhar erstar en ozon 

« * * « 

Ben ha mil e cct iinus upli entermt. 
Que fo septa lora car sen al den 5 tep." 

That is, " 0, Brethren, hear a noble lesson. We 
ought often to watch and pruy. Eleven luindred 
years are fully completed since it was written, 
'The end of all things is at hand.'" 

There is some fine scenery in the neighbourhood 
of La Torre, with views of the neighbourhig Alps 
as you ascend (2^ hours) to 

BobMO, which is 2,838 feet above sea level 
(population, 4,545). At Col de la Croix is an 
embankment on the relUce, erected with u grant 
made by Cromwell. Here Henry Arnaud defeated 
the French In 1GS9-90. From hence it is 4 hours 
to Col Julien, which connnands a magnificent 
prospect of Monte Viso. 

From Pinerolo, up the Val de Perouse and Val 
Pragelas, on the Clusone, it is 12 miles to 

PeroUSd. past the Malanagglo quarries of build- 
ing stone, chiefly gneiss, whh masses of schist and 
serpentine. Several passes meet here; and the 
vine and mhlberry flourish. It is 5 to 6 hours 
to La Torre, through Val Angrogna and the pic- 
turesque defile of Pra del Tor, the scene of a 
Vaudes victory in 1560; 9 hours past Porrero, 
in Val Gennanasca, in AbriSs, an easy pass, used 
in winter ; and 9 miles to 

Fenestrella, a small town (population. 1,614), 
remarkable for a strong fortress or state pi ison, on 
a bleak spot, in which Cardinal Pacca was confined 
by Napoleon, 1809-13. He gives an account of it 
in his '' Memorio Storiche.'' From this it is 20 miles 
und«r Mont Gen^vre to Cesana, on the Dora; and 
5 "hovn tcross Col de la Fen^tre to 8u99, (acmx 
Ibc Mopt CcDln fpts, 



Turln to Saluno and Monte VIbo, Cuneo, 
Baths of Valdierl, Col di Tenda, and Nice. 

By rail from Porta Nuova terminus, to Saluzso 
and'Cuneo. The distances are as follow : — 



Miles. 

Savigliano 82| 

[Branch to Lagnasco, 

Sflluzzo. 10] 

Fossano .<<<..i 39f 

Maddalenfl.<.i...4 44 

Centallo ««i<.. 47 

Cuneo 414. ti 54| 



Miles. 

Moncalleri 5 

Trofarello 8 

Villastellone 12i 

Carmagnola 18 

Racconigi 23^ 

Cavallennaggiore... 28 
[Branches to Br^ Albi, 

Alescaiidria, Mondovi, 

and to Savona.] 

Moncalleri (Stat.) Or Moncaglieri (popula- 
tion, 11,659), on the Po, a snunner residence of the 
Kings of Italy, in a castle restored by Vittorio 
Emnuuele I. (who died here 1823), and built by 
Yolande, wife of Amadeus of Savoy. It is the 
site of the ancient Testona. Tram from Turin. 

Trofarello (Stat.), population, 1,242, where 
the line to Alessandria and Genoa parts oflT. 

VlUaatellone (Stat.), pojiuiation, 2,6C4, near 

CarlgnanO, on the 1*0, which gives a dukedom 
to the royal house. Population, 7,230. It has 
three churches, one of which, Santa Maria, contains 
the tomb of Biauca Pahvologus,of Montferrat. 

Carmagnola (Stat.) A town, once of im- 
portance, and formerly defended by walls and 
towers, one of which serves as a clock-tower to 
St. Filippo ( hurch. It gave the surname of Car- 
magnola to F. Bussone, a soldier of fortune, who 
was born a swine-herd, and became one of the 
first generals in Italy. After serving Philip Vis- 
conti, Duke of Milan, and the Venetian Republic, 
he was beheaded in 1432. 

Racconigi (Stat.) Population, 9,185. A 
favourite seat of King (?arlo Alberto. 

Cavallermagglore (Stat.) Population, 5,646. 

[Here a branch rail of 7 miles leads to 

Brii, or Br4 St. Vittoria (Stat.)— -^ town of 

14,853 inhal)itants, on a hill-side, above the Stura. 
Near this is PoUenzo Castle, on the River Tanaro, 
on the site of the Roman PoUentia. Here a line 
to Alba and Alessandria (53 miles) parts oflT. 

Alba (Stat.) On the Trfnaro, with a popula- 
tion of 12,2.')J), is the ancient Aiha Potnpeia; near 
which the Eujperor Pertinax was born, the son of 
a charcoal dealer. He lived at Villa Mart is, which 
he adorned with fine buildings, leaving his own 
cottage untouched. 

From Bra to Savona, the stations !>> the new 
line of 97 kil., opened 1874, past many tunnels and 
viaducts are Clierasco (population, 9,511), where 
the treaty of 1796 was 8lel\edV^<i^."«5i55:^'^^Tc^s*."5^«^^ 
Piedmoul,^%XWJVb,'«ViN«i^S»«.^.5«^S8^'^ 
a btawcYv ol '1T»\ toW^^ Vaxwb ^^^^ 'J^S^vU: 



\ 



8 



BRAD SHAW S ITALY. 



[Section 1. 



of these two places), Nlella Cova, Sale, St. 
Oinseppe de Oairo (where the lino fi-om 

AlessjiiKliin through AcqUl comes in — See Route 
4)i SuLtuario, niid Savona (pajjro 21), which is 
reached tbroug-Ii a tuiincl in the Apciniiues.] 

. BavigllaiLO (Stat.), on the Macm. Popula- 
tion, 17,411. A town cuntnining two clinrclics, a 
theatre, the Tnflini Palncf (painted by Molineri or 
Cnrraclno), and a triumphal arch erected when 
Vittorto Amadeo married Cliristine of France. 

[Here the branch line of 10 miles turns off, vid 
Lagiiasco, to 

SalUZZO (Stat.) Population, 15,641. 

Hotel: Corona Grossa. 

It is the capital of a province, formerly the 
Marquisate of Saluzzo. and a fief of Dauphin($, 
which Henry IV. exchanged for La Bressa, <fec. 
The old castle, now a penitentiary, commands a 
fine view. The Cathedral, built 1480, was re- 
Uored in 1844, and contains pictures by Mnlinari, 
n native. Monument to Silvio Pelllco, born 
here 1788. From this you ascend the Po, to 

Paesana, 14 miles, a tine spot, 1,778 feet high, 
whence a path over the hills leads to La Torre, in 
the V^audois country. Population. 7,466. The 
. scenery improves at San Chiafiieddo, where the 
September festa attracts a large gathering, and 
Ulso at 

CrlSSOlO (population, 1,025), 8 miles, the highest 
village in the valley of the Po (4,544 feet), and a 
good station for making the ascent of Monte Viso. 
The scenery is of an Alpine character. Within a 
short distance are La Malma di Rio Martino, a 
celebrated stalactite cavern, in the dolomite; the 
Col del Poreo, 9,604 feet high; the Piano del Re, 
the largest of the head streams of the Po; and 
Monte Meidassa, 10.9:)1 feet high. 

The Col urlla Tuaversette. 7^ miles from Cris- 
«olo, on the shoulderof Monte Viso, in thc1)0undary 
between Dauphin^ and Piedmont. It commands 
41 view as far as Milan in fine weather. Below the 
crest is a remarkable Tunnel, cut in 1480 by the 
Marquis of Salu/zo, to open an easier communica- 
tion with Uaiiphln^. at the height of 9.500 feet. It 
Is generally filled with fnow down to July. From 
tills point there is an easy descent by the old 
paved way. down the valley of the Ciuil. to Mont 
l)auphin (o6 mile-«)and P^nibrun. Abrics, the first 
villaifc u\ Franco, is iiw' hours from the foot of the 
ntouutaiii. 

Monte Vho, the ancient Afons VrS'ihn. in the 
Cottian Alps, rises tit-r on tier, to the height of 
about 12,610 feet. It was thought to bo inaccessible 
till ascended by two members of the Alpine Club, 
in 1861. and again in 1862; in both cases from the 
Val di Vallanta. on the south side, above Sampe\*re. 
The whole range of the Western Alps from Pro- 
vence to Monte Rosa is visible. In 1839, Professor 
J. D. Forbes made the complete tour of the moun- 
tain in a hard day's walk, of 14 hours; a most 
{hjteresting excariion. (9^9 Bail's Ouide to the 
n'ttiem Alps.)) 



The next station to Savigliano,on the main line.is 

FOSSano (Stat.), on the Stura, and so called 
from Fonte Sano. Population, 18,685. It has 
reniahis of a castle and old ualls. 

[Hence there is a railway to Mondovi. nnd over 
the hills to Savona, on the Riviera di Ponente of 
the Mediten'anean. 

MondOYl (Stat.), on the branch rail from 
Carm to Cuneo (below), is a city (pop., 17,902), 
and capital of a province, 1,930ft. above sea, 
celebrated for a French victory in 1796. It has a fort 
in the old town, or Piazzi, with a large Cathedral. 
TJie fine cavern of Bossea, near here, accessible by 
carriage to Frabo!?a, is much visited. 

Ceva (Stat.), on the Tannro. Population. 5,420. 
Hence by way of Mllleslxno (about l,550feet high), 
on the BojTuida, where the French beat the Aus- 
trians, 1796, and Altare, on the north slope of the 
Apennines, and Cadibona, at their summit, you 
come to Savona, on the sea, SO kils. from Mille- 
simo. (See Route 9). Savona may be now reached 
by railway direct from Turin (as above). From 
Ceva there is a way, rid Garezza (13 miles), and 
Onnea (7 miles), to the Col de Nava (2,480 feet 
high), and thence to Pieve (13 miles), down the 
Arrosia. to 

Oneglia (20 miles), on the Riviera. (See 
Route 9).] 

From Fossano, following the main line, up the 
Stura, the only station of importance is 

CUNEO, or Com (Stat.), 

At the junction of the Gesso with the Stura. 

Hotel: Barra di Ferro. 

A bustling town (population, 12.018), at the ter- 
minus of the line, and in the further corner of the 
valley of the Po, strongly fortified down to the 
battle of Marengo, when its walls were razed by 
the French, 1800. The Maritime Alps and Monte 
Viso are in view. A branch to MondoVi (above) 
was opened 1888. There is a short line to Rocca- 
debaldi. Near Cuneo is the Hydropathic Insti- 
tutim of Val Pesio. From Cuneo, it is 15 miles 
to the 

Baths of Valdleri, up the Gesso. 4,226 feet high. 
An omnibus runs thiiher daily. The acconnnoda- 
tion consists of an etal)lisyement de bainp, well 
nppointed, frequented mostly by the Piedmontese. 
Thcwatersnre hot and cold, sulphureous, and sjilino, 
but the most singular curative agent is a crypto- 
gamic i>lant. which grows in the hot springs at a 
temperature of 135". and forms a gelatinous mass, 
very useful in hot applications to the body for in- 
ternal complaints, old wounds. &c. The Grsw cli 
/Cntracquewas a favourite resort of Victor Kmni.nn- 
uel. for chamois hunting; and many beautiful and 
rare flowers are seen. 

Rail from Cuneo to Llmone, 20 miles, In 1^ to 
2 hours. Thence diligence to Nice in about 
16 hours. 

The first place is Boves, then 

BorgO S. DalmazzO, a small town (populatioq, 
4,242), at the foot of the mountain. Thence io 



Route 4.] 



8ALUZZ0, CUNEO, COL DI TENDA, ASTI, ALE88AMDBIA. 



Bobllant6, in the picturesque valley of the 
Vermenagna. 

Llmone, at the foot of the Col di Tenda, Is about 
8,800 feet above the sea, and has a population of 
2,915, many of whom arc muleteers. About 3 
hoars ea^t is the ancient Certosa (Carthusian house) 
di Pesio, now a hydropathic establishment, in a 
warm and pleasant spot : and an excursion may be 
made to the head of the Vcrmanagna, in a wild glen, 
and the Abisso, 9,193 feet high. At Limone the 
ascent of the Cot begins, over the Maritime Alps, by 
a narrow winding carriage road, full of sharp zig- 
zags, made by Vittorlo Amedeo IV. The summit is 
fthont 6.1()0 feet high, and commands a fine view 
of the Western Alps. Here is the limit of the 
Apennines on one side, covered with green to their 
summits, and of the Alps on the other side, as 
marked by a combination of snow or Ice, with rock. 
The new road is by a tunnel through the Ten da, 
about 2^ miles long, with electric lighting, and 
avoids the ascent of the Col. Through the valley 
of the Roja, to 

Tenda (population, 1,734). An old castle of 
Beatrice di Tenda. Pass the old abbey and Hydro- 
pathic house of S. Daimazzo; then Fontan, oil the 
new French boundary, where passports arc asked. 
The scenery is romantic, especially about the detile 
of Saorglo, on the Roja, which forms the French 
boundary down to Ventiinlglia, since the annexa- 
tion of the country of Nice. 

OiandOla or Gospel, near the Col dc Orouis, 
which rises and falls about 1,500 feet. 

SospellO (population, 3,600), on the Bevera, a 
branch of the Ruja. 

Hotel: Cdrenco. 

Here the road rises again to surmount a third 
ridge, the Col de Braus, 3,300 feet high. The next 
place is 

Scarena, on the Pagllone. Population, 2,000. 

Nice (Stat.) (Sec Bradshaw's Hand-Book to 
France.) 

Turin to Alessandria and Genoa, 

Through the Liguriax Apekkines. 



Miles. 

Moncalleii 5 

Trofarello 8 

Vlllanova 19^ 

Boldichicri 28 

8an Damiano 31 

Asti 85 

[Branches to Alba and 
Casale.] 

Annone 41} 

Fttlizzano 47f 



Miles. 

Alessandria 56$ 

Frugarolo 62f 

Novi '^2 

Scrravalle 75 

Arquata 79 

Ronco S7 

MIgnanego 92 

S. Quirico 96^ 

8. Pier d' Arena 102 

Genoa 104 



By rail, commenced in 1848. and openrd through- 
out in 1854, at a cost of 5| millions sterling. Time, 
about 8i hours. There are some tunnels on this 
line, one of which, throAgh the Apennines, is 2 milel 
Jong; and f^reral y|ad|^ts, some rt^th^r loftjr. 



From Turin (p«ge 1), the first station is 

Moncalierl (Stat.), population. 11,559, and 

its royal castle, of large red brick, a favourite seat 
of the King's, on the l*o. At 

Trofarello (Siat.), population, 1.242, wo 

li-avc the Cunco line. The Superga and the Alps 
to the north are in view, with glimpses of the 
Maritime Alps. The country on both sides is part 
of the old Marqulsatc of Montferrat, which merged 
Into the Duchy of Savoy, In 1620. 

[A short line. 5| miles, to 

Chieri (population, 13.2R0), with Its large Gothic 
Church of Santa Maria dclla Scala. An old place, 
with silk and cotton factories.] 

Asti (Stat.), the ancient Hasta Pompeia, on the 
Tanaro. at its confluence with the Borbore. Popula- 
tion, 33,-233. Branch lines to Alba (Route 3), and 
to Casale (Route 5) and Milan. 

Hotels: Albergo Reale; Leone d'Oro. 

This Is the capital of a province, and the centre 
of a district producing one of the bdst wines of 
Italy, the Vino d'Astl, both red and sparkling 
white ; it Is also noted for truffles and silk goods, 
and has some mineral springs. 

Among the buildings arc the large Gothic Cathe- 
dral, on the site of a Temple of Diana, built 
1348, with paintings by Carloiil, Pozzi. A:c. ; the 
Churches of S. Ptetro In Concava and S. Secondo 
(Gothic); 8. Giovanni, with a 6th century crypt; 
8. PI»*tro, eight-sided; and the Trlnco, Massettl, 
and Alflcrl Pnlacos, In the last of which Alfleri, the 
poet, was born, 1749 ; they show his room, with his 
portrait and autograph. His statue Is here. The 
site of the old walls and most of the one hundred 
towers of Asti Is now coverert with gardens. It Is 
80 ancient as to have been taken by Hannibal. 

Branch lines to Casale and Mortara (page 12) 
and to Caistagnole. 

FelizzanO (Stat.), on the Tanaro. Further 
down this stream, which is crossed by a viaduct on 
fifteen arches, is 

ALESSANDRIA (Stat.), 

The centre of various tines which strike off to 
Novara, Pavla, Milan. Piscenza, and Acqui. 

Population, with suburbs, about 62,464. 

Hotel: Kuropa. 

This Is the capital of a province, a city, and a 
fortress of the first class, on the confines of the 
MarquisatcR of Montierrat and Pavezano, at the 
junction of the Tanaro and Bormida, built by the 
Lombard liCague of free towns. 1 168, os n barrier 
against the GhlbelinepartyoftheEmperorFredeiick 
Barbarossa. It was named after Pope Alexander 
III., the hea'i of the Guelph party. When the 
Emperor tried to take it in 1174. his soldiers nick- 
named it Alessandria dclla Paglla, or straw Alex- 
andria, because Its houses were covered wlih straw ; 
but itwaaabletodrivcthcmoffafterafourniontfia* 
siege. It is still one «>f the strongest military 
fort 8 in Italy, though nothing but the Great CAt«Aft.\x 
built 1728, by Vlltorlo AjKv«i^<feQ \\. x'k«s»S»».\ 'C«w'««^ 

fort\flcet\oxl%8A«kftA^il^«^«^^^^^^*'^*^'^'»''^'?^^^ 



10 



''« 



BRADSUAW'S ITALY. 



[Section I. 



is often inandatcdby the rain, and can be put under 
crater by ihe sluicesof the Citadel. A n«-w covere<l 
bridge crosses the Titnaro. The Citadel, like the 
houses, is built of brick, and its ramparts serve as 
a promenade, for the April and Octol>er fairs, when 
a goo'i deal ot business is done. Considerable pains 
have been taken to strength<»n this fortress. The 
oilier buildings are a Cathedral (Parodi's statue of 
St. Joseph); S Lorenzo's Church, with its paint- 
ings by ihePozzi; Town House, Theatre Hospital, 
and the Ghilhio Palace, belonging to the King, 
and erected by Alfieri. 

" 1 chanced to pass (says Count Arrivabene) 
thn-ugh Alessandria, so full of gb-rious reccUec- 
ilons for a Bonaparte, on the day on which Louis 
Najwlton made liis entry in 1859. Triumphal 
arches had been thrown across the streets. At the 
gate ot Porta Mmengo, which leads to the famous 
field of b ittle, made illustrious by the First Consul, 
an arcli was erected, on which waa emblazoned 
in trl-col6ured letters— Tb the descendant of the 
Conquer&r of Marengo. Victor Emmanuel had gone 
to meet the Emperor. The gay and busy ai»pcar- 
anc« of Ale«santlria at tliat time contrasted I 
singulnrly with the stem severity of its^ old j 
palaces and half decayed mcdiat;val churches." \ 

liutazzi, the statesman, was bom at this town, ] 
and a bronze statue of him was erected iu 1S83. 

MABEN60, 

The site of the l)at:le which Bonaparte lost and 
won. 14 h Jui'C, 1800, is 2^ mi es east, on the wide 
plain ot S. Giuliano. dotted with willows. Atthn-e 
o'cl<i4k, he was beaten by the Ausirians, and iheir 
old Gt-nerxl, Melas, had come to Alessandria after 
senningoff news of his victory; when,atthl»cri8is, 
Dcssaix arrived with 6.000 Iresh troops, attacked 
the enemy, and, though mortally wounded, tumed 
the day. Kcllerman. by a brilliant charge of his 
cavalry, cut the Austrian infantry in two, drove 
their cavalry in flight to the Bomiida, and took 
Znch, who was left in auihority, prisoner. The 
total Austrian loss was 12,000 ; and that of the 
Fren* h, •>,000; but the Convention of Alessandria, 
a few days later, put them in po8se8>ion of all 
North Italy. A budiiing has been erected on the 
site, which contains a Musi-um of every object ot 
interest found on the field of battle. 

For the rails to Novara, Pavia, and Milan, and 
to Piacenza fee page 11. and Routes 14 and 15. 

CFrOXn Alessandria, a branch rail ascends the 
Bormida, following the tr^ck of the Via Aurelia 
Posthuma, to Acqul and Savona. The stations 

arc : — 

Miles. 

Br.rgoratto 7 

Sezzfe 10 

Street 17i 

Acqul 21i 

Poiitl 30 

ACQXJI (Stat), 
On the Bormida, is the Roman Acqva; Statiellce^ so 
called from the tiibe of gtatielll, whose town it 
er, aaef/jrom the hol m)mTti\ s;>ring8 which ajre 



still found useful in curing gout, rheumatism, 
paralysis, &c. Population, 11,297. Therearesome 
arches of an aqueduct, with a cathedral of the 
twelfth century, and a theatre. 

In the middle ages Acqul was the capital of 
Upper Montferrat; a district rich in corn, wine, 
silk, cattle, &c^ and giving name to the country 
dance, called Monfredina. 

Passing Bistagno, where the two heads of the 
Bormida join, follow the road for 28 miles, to 

DegO, where Bonapane beat the Allies, in 1796, 
after defeating them at Montenotte, near the Col of 
that name, higher up, over which the old road to 
Savona used to pass, until superseded by a more 
e«sy one, constructed in 1800, between Altareand 
Cadlbona. By this the descent of the Apenninef> is 
made to the Riviera and Savona, about 25 miles 
Irom Dego. 

But the most direct way to Savona, now, is by 
the rail as abov«», which falls Into the main line 

from Tuiin, at s. Oiuseppe de Cairo (Stat.), 

as In Route 3. For 8avonn t.co page 21.] 

Leaving A'cssandrla, the next station on the 
main line, U 

Frugarolo (8ta*.), population. 

I which is the once lichly endowed 
Abbey of Bosco, with sculp* nres by 
j but the country is flat and dull. 

Novi (Stat.) Under the north side of the 
Apennines; a retreat for the Geno*-60 merchmts 
in autumn, commanding from it^ old tower and 
country houses a fine prospect of the distant Alps. 
Population, 6,4C3. 

Hotel: La Slrona. 

Here the French were defeated by the Austrlans 
and Russians, In 1799, and General Joubcrt killed. 

From Novl, before the railway was made, the 
old road went over the Llgurian Apennines, by the 
Col delta Bochctta, past Gavi and Voltagglo, and a 
succession of gorges and ravines. The highest 
part of the Col Is about 2,500 feet above the level 
ot the Mediterranean. It was crossed by the 



Miles. 

Spigno 38 

Rocchetta 47i 

S.Giuseppcde Cairo 524 

Santuario 62 

Savona 65| 



2,494, n-ar 
Benedictine 
M. Angelo; 



rrjg^. 



French in 179G. The Valley of Polccverra, 
between. this and the sea, a wild and desolate spot 
till reclaimed by the Genoese, Is now covered with 
groves of chestnut. Ilex, arbutus, vineyards, 
gardens, and countrj' houses, though It Is apt to 
suffer from floods. The railway from Novl passes 

Serravalle (Stat.), and begins to enter the 
mountains. 

Arquata iStat.), population, 2,79$, with ruins 
of a large castle, lmpo>lngly situated. Here the 
tunnels or galleries, and viaducts, for penetrating 
the Apenxilxies, commence. The scenery is very 
r.anantic. As far as Ronco the line passes a 
succession of embankments, tunnels, and viaducts 
over torrents and gorges. The Scrivia is crossed 
and re-crofsed, and there are eleven tunnels in all 
between Ronco and Genoa. The rise from Aless- 
an.iria to Arquata Is 293 yards. The fall to 
Genoa is considerably greater. 

iBpla d^l Cfiptope (Stat.), witii n fine > ipduct. 



Route 5.] 

0«-|ll![ lo til 



S. atnUetU (Sttt.). 

Bnml (Stat.), popaliiion, a-tlo. u 

StradsIlK (SUl), popoJuiloii. 



8. Qi^TlcO itBiloni Km now pniied. and il 



loFlftceuia. 

Mile*. I 

rcinoni m \ b. njuiictu 

C.mlMorono l«i ' Bronl 

fatinn aij | 9tr»di;llB. 

:Br«.ich to l-BvU . Ajrm Po 

aiid Milan]. ; HnnKlcolit 



K.OTJXE B- 

TorlD to OblTAiia, VercBlll, Vilenxft, 

HOTKra, HaSmM, Ukd BIUUL 



Briiiiiliiia ~ IS I llor)^ Vercplll ... Mk 

Ulilvaiw ISJ Puniniii BSl 

TiirUEi,..._ 31 NovarntlluDct)... SH 

Baln^gU ..._ in Trau-e Wi 

IJvornu VwdtllMo aw I MsgtuU — 7(ii 

TnnzKiio 3M j VIUnonB — KO 

Samhtt „ »J Rho - » 

Siiii Ocmuna 40) I Ul Ian M) 



TartonK (Stat) Poimi 



Pantecnront (Btit.) rupui>ii»n. s.s;». 

VOKhera {Bt«t.> Pupulatlun, 13,rM.-Tho 

Duchy of PlacQnii. It wu houKliI of Ilio Poiio 
ramllr by Carlo Euimannijle I. The iMIhiiilna la 
■ good linlldliii; of [b« seTCnloonrb canlDiy. and 
haa inlntlnRi Iit S. Creapl. It wu hall rained 
hy a tomado lii July, IHSl. Bmi.cli line lo 
PiitIl pmgc 6C. 

asateSElO <£tat.), popnlallon, «.9», near 
tlH CoppiD, a brancli of Ilif Po. Tha anolont 
■ - It by IlBiiiiibal, 



la porpoluJilad in 01 



SetUmo (Stat.) oi 



RiTarolo (Btat.), 14 n 



[llnUKli tiiiF. SO) mllH. dm 

Crewentlao, i' » "*«, »ft 



Good jampr»'a 



1 tho Po, lo Cauls. 
rcroi>lne the Dora 



Ned, bntilliuiiantled by ItaDFrriuh. 
Trtno, llPlllo^1ll*lrlCtof lao.t 

,_ ,. dowinnd; hanv"^\^.\\qD.^^^v^^^ 

c »[ Dnkf ol Iui\iau\(\isui&^iKU- 



CABALS (8tst.), 



ii'Mortara (popnii 

3 (popiilntlon* l5,0Ba 



Hm'o&lVQ (8tet), popniati 



I, i-tea. iierisa 
ilile^itljeJilllsto 
UtolA and IJitec 






VBRCBLLI (Etat.) 



ti"r 



ilnfl mn -WO' 
f eloclFd liln 



n. Seven! of ihi 
dsiL Hli hero^ni 
third lEelnirNt u 






Ullei. 
io B, llnnliid... 18) 

ole r-.. SIJ 

C«Mle (i«B Rbowj.',' ii| Are'iMiidrii",!i.'."li." »r 



lM!iiipdrJa,aSinlln». 
A>l(["Bno ; J 



Route 5.] 



CASALB, VfiROBLLI, KOVABA, MAGENTA. 



IS 



At Valenza it joins the line from Milan to Ales- 
sandria.] 

Af tet* passing BorgO VerceUl ^Stat.), popu- 
lation 3,352, and Ponzana (Stat.), in a 'v\-ide 
rice level, in full view of Monte Rosa, we reach 

NOVARA (Stat.). 
On a hill by the River Affogna. Population, 32,689. 

Hotels: Itaiia; dcUa Villa. 

This ancient town, the Roman NovaHa^ once 
fortified by 2 miles of ramparts, still retains some 
remnants of its walls and towers. The Duomo 
was an early Lombard building?, on the site of 
a basilica or temple, but it has been much altered 
in the course of restoration. Tno portico which 
replaces the atrium contains several inscriptions; 
in the vestibule is the monument of C. Sulari, or 
Gobbo. The baptistery is eight-sided and crowned 
•with a dome. Within are Thorwaldsen's Angels (at 
the altar), and paintings by G. Ferrari, Bordone, 
ArC. St. Gandenzio's Church, rebuilt in the tenth 
century by P. Pellegrini, has frescoes, &c., by 
Ferrari, Caccia, &c. At S. Pietro al Rnsario and 
8. Marco are works by Procaccini and others. 

The Palazzo di Giustizia was built 1846. The 
Bellini, Leonardi, Giovanetti, and Falcone Palaces 
are worth notice. Other builiings are the large 
market; the theatre, near Marchesrs statue of 
Carlo Emmannele III; a Inr^ie Hospital ; and 
Statues of Carlo Alberto and Cavour. 

Bossi, the historian, and Prina, Napoleon's min- 
ister at Milan (who was murdered, 1814), were 
natives of Novara. It is memorable for the&a^//e 
of 23rd March, 1849, in which Radetzky, with 
80,00U men and 200 guns, defeated Charles Albert, 
whose forces numbered only about half as many, 
■with the loss of 10,000 killed and wounded. This 
defeat led to the king's abdication ihc same even- 
ing, in the presence of his sons and generals, in 
favour of Victor Emmanuel, then Duke of S.ivoy. 
He left the country immediately with only one 
servant, and returned to Oporto, where ho died 
) 8th July, 1849. Several of his predecessors had 
abdicated in like manner, among whom were Vic- 
tor Amadeus, iu 1730 ; Charles Emmanuel IV., in 
1802 ; and Victor Emmanuel I., in 1829. 

It is also celebrated for the victory gained by the 
Sardinians and French Zouaves over theAnstrians, 
81st May, 1859, which obliged them to retreat into 
Lombardy. 

From Novara a line(opened 188.1) passes through 
Fara, Romagnano, Grignasco, &c., to VaiuUO 
(page 17). Another short line runs to BUBtO- 
ArslZiO, about 4 miles from Gallarate on the 
Milan-La veno line. 

[The line from Mortara, &c., falls in at Norara, 
and is continued to Axona, 23 miles further, see 
Route 8. From Novara, Lake Orta may be reached 
by a branch rail through (Soszano. This line is 
continued through Gravellona-Toce to Domo 
d'OssoIa, see page 19.] 

The next station to Novara is 

Treoate<popTilatiun 8,014), a small town; after 
which the Ticino, the old boundary of £l«rdijiia and 



Austrian Lombardy, is crossed by a viaduct, not 
far frum the Ponte Nuovo Bridge for the post road, 
1,000 feet long, on eleven stone arches, begun by. 
the French, 1810, and finished, 1B27. The Austrians 
tried to blow it up in 1859, on their retreat, before 
the battle of Magenta. After this comes the Na- 
vlglio Grande, a canal of the thirteenth century, 
cut ft'om Lago Maggiore to Milan; then follows 

MAGENTA (Stat.) 
Population, 6,392. The ancient Maxentia, the site 
of the famous battle of 4th June, 1859; with a 
monument to mark the spot, erected in 1872. The 
position of the Austrian s is described by Count 
Arrivabene: — 

''If, on crossing the Ticlno, we place ourselves 
at the extremity of the Bri<Jgo of Buflfjilora, the 
heights on which the hamlet of Buffalor.i stands 
arc on our left, the Ponte Nuovo of Magenta in the 
centre, and the old bridge to our right. We see 
that the ridge which formed the Austrian position 
is a sort of bow, whose arrow would be the road. 
On each side of this road the ground is covered 
with cornfields, vineyards, and groves of trees, and 
intersected by several streams which pour their 
waters into the meadows where rice is cultivated. 
Robcchctto, Castelleto, Induno, Santo Stefano, 
Buffalora (population 1,260), Magenta, Robecco— 
all villages or small boroughs, of greater or less 
importance — are seen amidst that splendid scenery ; 
some relieved against the background of the Alps, 
which lift their majestic heads on the far horizon. 
In the valley, the road is elevated 20 or 30 feet 
above the fields, and rises still higher on its ap- 
proach to the eastern slopes. Finally it reaches 
the table-land of the Lombard side, on the border of 
which is carried the Naviglio Grande, whose waters 
run almost parallel with the Ticlno. On approach- 
ing this plateau, the railway is seen emerging from 
the bank, about half a mile to the right." 

This well chosen position of the Austrians could 
only be approached by the central road above 
mentionerl, the railway on the right, or by a road 
somewhat to the left, towards Buffaiora; and could 
not be commanded at any point. The Austrians 
had 89,000 against 133, COO French ; but the French 
had to cross a river to get at them. Gyulai's head- 
quarters were at Abbiate Grosso with his left 
wing; his ri;rht was at Magenta, and main body 
between Abbiate Grosso and Robecco. His object 
was to cut off the French from the bridges of San 
Martino and Buffaiora, and to isolate those who 
had crossed the Ticlno. On the 4th the French had 
no definite knowledge of the position of the 
Austrians. MacMahon with his corps and the 
Sardinian army marched from Turbigo on to Buf- 
faiora; Canrobert advanced by the right branch 
towards the Bridge of Buffaiora, and Niel was 
ready to jain from Trecate. 

Buffaiora Bridge was the central point, where 
the French laid a pontoon bridge close to a.«.\5s»s!i, 
one which had beeu ^%x\.V3 ^'«xt«^'6.^ ^Tj?*" 

Ntel and Owiio^J^tV. ^^wft»^\>^ x>^^sK««^»^ ^x^«^ 



_ Tba AuiU'lan m*la body irii at the VlUw^ DIu) i Dldn com-iia 
BrklgflofUagcnla! audio ihlg point MncMuHu.i hemp, maiic >l 
whiiibadlKorend them, bent afl hit enim. i,ur. 
Ing in vlev to effcei a jnnctlgn with t^nnltmiiK 
The nllKuid UMlon aiid Ihe cuitotu-liouH, liot] 



cd with It'll' 
<uiid thte ixiliii 



and Clor. 181 officei 



inalMt 8.001) killed SI 

I. ItothtldeibadalK 
A wbllc rlllor niarlH 



2flaB».<,000»nn|.- 
Bpgi where Enil- 



tad-guarten al Hngenta. onil created UacHAhnn 
olo Presldmt o[ Ihe Krench BepnMIe) a Hanlinl 
idDukeufHairciitn.onlbcfie1d! Thereeallocthe 
ciury ivat. that Milan, the capital ol Lombard}', 



I MlUn depmatlcn on the Bald a( battle. leadaup to QrcKnoniif (S honn) and 

Lder UagcDlatbe u»t ■(■tloni are Vltt11(UU, ottbei.yt Torrent, under Honle Itau 



li.htSH. This iMhe ancle 



Borgo&aitoo {pepnio 



<n boib sldee 
UB rvrcnn ot nine, cfa 
amooE which lines 



.tpr''oi{U^-T 



Valliyt of tht Alpi.i Frnlti i 
" " ■ ' ■ I flgl, Ac, 



e, like chunpagiie, Iji 



HOTJTE e. deep;,orBC, 

Tnfln to Ivna, Aoata, the Ureat uid !^ '^''^Vd' 
Uttle St. Benuml, and tti« Uont BUnc I bui^igje, a 
Slstrlct ; and totbe CiBtellsinante DU- 



Seltimo m Chlvai 

Brandiiio IS | (Cha 

From Chlram the dlManeei an 



„ IS Chanbare ... 

.. 701 Kui 

.. 3tt Aoils 

.. SS I 



US*), clox 

rortllltd poit In Ihe middle of n 
mawive rock. 11 was cnplurofl 

,lEop Mde> beliiK cui off by the jlv.r. and (He 
ruurth (acroii the Tolley) flllcd nji Hllb Htronj; 

11 hai been cnlcolated (hat Ihe Wcitem Alpa 
is'c been the theatre ol warlike einlelli on idxly- 
di ureal oceatloni (rom Uannlbar to Mapolci^n. 

HAne Bard (Stat.). 

,p the Fen«tre de C^ne t.i (he Glnclemof c'cinsi' 
jrlnclpally'tpoken. ' ansBoge 

Terrif (SiatX with n popolntlon o[ l.zgo. hm 
pldurmquosaaile (which guardnt the pnsi be'e> 
I the Jancliini of Val ile Challani. Iinlll afamit 
jet. Tbl>vnlleadaup(bininehunn)iorhe base 

he aara« "f'Monl Jovel, alunn the face of a 
rcclplce. with Ihc Uoralar below. Tlie Kenery 



iionte G.] 

> preily piste, no 



pin orer tliii Dors. 1 
iorom lino the hllli 
S.OOorectbltth. ThcD 



To« itm Tonninn 



FUi (nopnlHtion. S,»B), ntar aomc old ta 
From Nus It 1> 8i mllo> to 
AOSTA, 



h. JoHph an nmaliii of m 



isU, In PliUJO Chsrle. 



CoISb/foI. ■hniKlwiue Giilhlci'hurcb.HntfuuiKlrrl 

™t«ln»mnniIStiri?i(Hiii!lL«n,or T^n«i."l. ..( 
S»aT.on<l of Hbibnpi I>c Quart tind Dei frbil 
th* iK.iwa of «. Ortt, iha pniron .ilnt. nt tJiii 

fonuiiclwir 

iJc, mid u good cJfllftler. 

irclalci '.iiS Suviiy prtncr.. The mid-day bell* 

s ■ col Iced here, from ohlch ■ mad leaili out. jmst 
he hoipllsls, to Ihc Tour dn Lfnnux, or Lrpcri 



cr WllllHiu Rutni; « 



prlnetpml utrceU. The ■nlld .lone will., hnllt br Emlllun.™"™™!. It ll.fffiTwt. ST^h ivenho 
' -"- -~ •»■-■.— ^■■■-i ~ . imijtionj.Boa). 





Locann. Pnnte. anil Turin, takei abont It hon 


feolbljh. andfonlflcdhylor: 






the hiitbeitof tbeCHlaii AlpiLanddrlvoIa. In 


S:. Ilun (fouiidnt about MS by 


dsCogne, ia.»IWfeot. Paradl. WHflml a»ppn 




InlMD. (>ieenjki.L-sO<iiiHH>riitWe^rmAlpt. 


old J-Brta iVsloria. a ni<wi>ive 
by IS, flomed by tbrce arehej. 


AlMire Aoati the valley eontlnne) to U cnh 


n tbo ButblQr Tiimiit. whieh 
ffed It. ™u™ and left a marble 
to the e»>t. hlKli and dry. 
the trlumpbjil 'An-h rrccm.l 


both aldea. The Tlnei hanit'ln Irelllies up 
ilopen. In Ihe way ao often dreamt of. bnt to ra 

chettnuti. and old caillea porrhed on Ihc el 
The road I.Kood and ea.y.' 












Calm Aiiuoi. a lloiuan general of the Ilm 




AuiniHuo.baii anotber cisllo, nhleb Iwlonjre.! 




(he ChallaiiU and ban bron nwdemluHl. irllh 


.nealledfrooialTlnn-iiialBra- 


Mimla anil a raller>-. Sonu Iron lomea and 




Torode Hiieyacds an near t,W»t\\\».tft- 


«Tlii( wrvcd as a jlorcbouvc iii 


BT.Viuns. H«o\»»,4mtM^^R^^*^**■ 



tTALr. 



[Section 



ViLitN^DVE (pspulmion. 817). » pKtty plBce, 
!ar some Iron toigei. Ths ore IK bVQUgbt by 
omcn onil men ■> well m mules, from Iho irorki 

Uineg and 3Dri>nmcis'<iniIe. Tbe houiei have 



Bt. KeM (popBlUloD. SM). ■ P«n plue, when. 

Ihe Itflllan Cauom Hdum It P»Md. Htgce It Is 

Bernard, whore sevcnly or eletly (ravcllerjmay 
be lodged. From 16,00010 20,00] croia thil paat. 
which la 8.130 leel lilirh, (].il bu Its mean annua) 

h™!*"™ reco'rd'i 1 V" Al"ch(iuilelui,°or Sl™i 
Mart, on either aide ot Ihe pasa. thero is a very fine 

Hartlgny Staliop, Id the Valaii, li I0( houn. 
From Setllnio {pajre 11), on tlie Ivtei lint, « 






RlVUnlO (SUt.), which has remalni ot n 
fine Boinan bridge. At Ponl, In Vil d'Orco 
(where the river la called Acqaa d'Oto. on ac- 
connt ot Ita water power), la a cation (aclery, 
employing 1,200 handa. The path to Cnor^^, 

nearthe'top oCMonl Iieran (10.271 feet high), oil 



beanllfulinltakind. "The eDecta of light' and 
shade," saya GallenfEA, "on the high, polished, 
mlrrur-llke anrrace of the vast anrranndlng Alpine 
chain, would drive poeti or arllils attemptln;^ lo 
paint Iheni to dlslncllon. Such golden Hslngi 



1. AoaTi,OTertheti«laai.ifc™iirrf,toBoiirp:S( 
Maurice, 40 mllH. In flCtten hoars' walklnE. Thl 
wa> Ihe paaa taken by Huinlbal. according t 
Polyhias, "ho travelled over it aiaty yean lalei 
eipreaslyforlhepurpoae of tracing It. Itwaith 

Hannibal, (Klsa'a Jlalian FalUtH!/ I>lt Alpt.) 
Several chateaux ara paased in ascending Ihi 



le «Ien ■ 



10 the fiullor Glacier. Hones lo 
to Huurg St. Maurice is made li 



Part fialasB* and Vnlporea lo Cnorinb (01 

I caateUamonto (8lat,i, at the t™inaa. 

, the CsTiavesB dlslricl lor'dlKrlctol Ivrea), (ha men 

Tnrln, Monte Visa, ihe Maritime Alps, anil the 
Alps to the north. Mnch illk Is made; It H also 
noted for its pignatle, or polB, For several yeara 



!. Aoar*. over the Brtai ». Btrnanl, to 
Manlgnv. 41 mllta, in 1« boars. The greater part 

AlGlgnod. IheVal Pelllna branches off on the 



I. Gellenga. when 
H Li/t in >ialmenl. 



Koille 7.] COL r. MAY El" R, CASIELI.ASIOSTE, D 

E.OXJTE 7. 

Tnrlii to BMla. Vanllo, Lak* of OiU, 

— "-» Upper HoTan bo. 



mlhl^ (U 



::,!! Est;::: 



SJlIf 



in Imt nncticd bj- ibe ]|iimii]>fiif<1 
He poff* IS. 

A), ntltttcmliHi'.— A hbhop'.Me, 
if Vdl Anclnmo. FopDlmluD, U.llT. 



Cilhcdnil 






iilenly ot In 



Uydranilhlc EitililiibiBent. 

'■ "'ilU U (he bonM of b Pl*i)nio 
teen, nlll nrrMTTed wltb ^real 
( sidled III IHiS, wh— ■■ 



rntnc 



• tth HHy. 



y of Cudalar[ ihsli' Alpl, left B 



■ataernph reiFiipt f ri 



what j-on like. TbMDltoulyoncregrtt.Ihiit 



unduart, de<llca(i!dtolhe Midannii.on Ihetaiiol 
Honlr Mactane. Tb* ebnnh hu in Ininge em 
from ■ cedar of Lebanon, and Mniie unrlonn paint- 
liigia by Ferrari and Lnnl. The Bydropitbli 



f al S»ia, 7 nll» beh Iff Vi 



or Vul' 8«ibi. dovii to l>tude and Bcu|>a. ur Sruiullii. 



no m m 



Primi Aoii'j 
eiijbboiul 



It taunn down the ScsIb to 

TABALLO (8tat ). 

•Ui Holla! CreceDlsnce. 

y's. Ilmay bcreaetanlTidiiulfioni 

l-he ivonle of Val tkpln aiB hooH 
kt the Chimb ol B. Ganrt«nila |g ■ 

._ - ,-Ce .rf Ibc MarrlaRB o( SI. Catbertne, 

by OaudenilA Ferrari an nrtlM of celcbrliy here. 
AC Ibe Santa Maria deOa Uraile. aimexcii to the 
MiiHitllet ConvcnI. an bti freicoes (IMT) o/ Hie 
nrcnmrlrlun, and Cbrlit and the Docton; and 

Mj-«lerl™. or IlWwr ef Ihe Saviour, tialiilcd on 

m I'l^iiia Ferrari. There Ih a Khool of dcxlgn at 



in,Hy./ 



d uuctdary, 



An.rtber palp™ \> that -I the Adda I 
Urldipj croMMthe Val Manal'>ne. n. 
Dl a. rieiro Uanlre, at the mouth 
Uaa II f resctf by Ferrari. 

On Ihe 5Brn> IfSHU, a lilll 170 fee 
foresta of rliriJunlt. Ii a celcliral 

foundfd lUa-XK by B. faliBo, • pl-^ 

Uoly Land. It ii eaniHiFFil of a ehiuvli at tbo 
Hunnifi. called Xnofn flcniMltniint. a eopj of th* 
lluly t<en(ikhr>. anil forty-rix onall rbaneli and 
onlorln on the airent. built by f. TIbaldl, and 

the PlplJi. Adoration of the Maifl, TransflKiiration. 



'"S'l^La R. 

■Uiiatrd on 
t.«W feet I 



iinbradnf all ihA 



If Bll the 



m Orcnonay, up (ho valley. \ Orltt\» ttmniott 



IfiMIe Milltronf, < 



(0 the SEmplon R 



Belllnimni 81 DorpiTli^o IT) 

OUe^o IM Arona M 

VirsHoPombLi... IGJ | I 

OlandO (Btkt.) PopuliUon, S,«TI. Hm are 

Borgo TkdUO (StM.), population, !,Me.n«ir 
()i«KlverTliilno,i>blcbrniuoiilarLakfMiWK>ore. ' 

AroiUK8Ut.),BttheUimiinusofthorBll,ntflr ' 
the boitom ur ths lake. Popnlaiion, 4.saO. , 



I lOlt men on Ouibaldl'i aide. Amone Ibcga <rat a 

bend of wbJeh. a hlith-iiilndad widow, ears her 
I four ion> to Oarlbaldl, One wai klllsd in Ibli 

' a Ibfrd ira> Prtim Mlnleler of Holy in im!'" ""' 

Fram Arena Ihq rvad paaeee by Rulgli'ate, to 

Btreu, n beautiful spot an L««o Maeglon, 

IIoUU: Uea Ilea Bammdin, n>oi)c-r^t<^ and 
I fliiely placed : Ullan. EagltiA Chuirh S:ritre nl 

•ollable for a hn)[(hen«l Hay. The aagent lif 
Itenle Uollcrme (about i.WO feet) can be made 

rrbeheadoftbeLalielsat 
HaCadlniXpopnlatlon.TTO), in Snlii territory. 



Eagliili lUtintSa'tiamt 



of Bt, Carlo Borromco (IKSS). 
hli great nHUI amtse: It stands c 
maDilne a luperb »lsw of the lake 



note, ll wai put up in IflS? by 
famUy. Here Pelarllartyr, the 'i 

When aaMlialdi arrived bero in 



csuKlil. Uonte to Ibe I>lnndi, « fr. for two lioun. 
Allthesteanieri call here. 
! Tbe neaieit of the Unrroinean Iilandi it Ih* 

j liland),andlla pictureaque cbnrcii, wlthanopu- 
; (Motber, <.i.. Ih« VIrgln'i liland), wblch li a maas 



he left aeerelly by nlghl i 
marched on Ca«ta1etto T 
Auttrlan neunota crultin 
landed Ui Cacclatori on t 
TIelno. near BeXo Oalenilc 

of a Ylolent itorm.^ Tbo i 

hatiiiir fort I 



. LeUlni^tbepeaple I 



,„ After being 

It wBi ntlwked by Ocnaral 
11,001) atroni. but they wsrt 



I tarracea or btuiglug gardeue, I 



Ronte 9.] ARONA, BAVENO, LAGO MAGGIORB, DOMO d'OSSOLA, RIVIERA. 



10 



Vitaliano Borromeo, about 200 years ago ; planted 
with cedar, laurel, cork, beech, cypress, sugar canes, 
coffee trees, Ac, and many lemons and oranges. 
The whole is set off with statuary; and there is a 
curious shell work grotto, close to the water. At 
the summit is the sumptuous Palace of the family, 
approached by a staircase, and built by Count 
Frederico. Borromeo, over a century ago. Among 
the pictures inside are those of four battles in 
which he fought, besides a portrait of him with 
his jester. There are also frescoes and pictures by 
Giorgione, Bassano, Procaccini, Schidoni, Vandyck, 
Tempesta (an artist who killed his wife and fled 
hither for protection), with monuments in the 
chapel, and a theatre. There Isan hotel on the island. 

Pailanza (Grand Hotel Pallanza, good and 
moderate), is a iine summer and winter resort, at 
the angle of the two branches of the Lake, facing 
the Borromean Inlands. 

English Church Service at the Hotel. 

lu a small yard attached to the Church of ?. 
Stefano is a Roman pedestal with sculptures, tenip. 
Emperor Claudius. At Snna, a village near to 
Pallanza, is a remarkably perfect Roman Arch. 

Intra (Hotel de la Ville) is a short distance 
round the point. Opposite is 

Laveno (StSLD—Jfotels .* Stella ; Albergo del 
Moro — 7 miles across from Uavcno on the opposite 
side of Lago Maggiore. The best view of the en- 
gaging scenery ot the Lake is from a boat in the 
middle. From Laveno a line runs vid OallaratO 
to Milan, 45 miles. This line is continued north 
to Lnlno and Belllnzona, on the St. Gothard 
line, for which sec Bradshaui'* Jllustrated Hand- 
Boole to Switzerland. 

From Baveno there is a diligence to 

Gravellona (Stat.), 5 miles from the beauti- 
ful Lake of Orta (see Route 7). From here rail to 
Domo d'Ossola. passing through 
' VogOgna (Stat.), with an old castle. Near 
here the fine Val Anzasca begins, leading up to 
Monte Rosa, and into Santhi^ (Saaisthal), by the 
Monte Mnro. The scenery is as grand as anything 
on the Swiss side of the Alps, but softened down by 
an Italian sky. In common with those of other val- 
leys here, the people arc of German origin. It is 
about two days' journey to Visp Macugnaga being 
half-way, vtd • onte Graufie (Inn) and Borcn (Inn). 

Domo d'Ossola (Stat.). Hotels: Grand Hotel 
de la Ville; Grand Hotel; Albergo diSpagna;Angtlo. 
Allvftly little town, near tricTosa, In the Eschun or 
Ussola Valley, quite Italian in its character, with 
some of the houses supportei by arcades. This 
port of Piedmont belonged to the Duchy of Milan, 
but is now incorporated with the Kingdom of 
Italy. It Is an excellent starting point for Ex- 
cursions fn the valleys around. For example: — 
one may be taken through the teiTace-shaped and 
fertile Val Formazza or Poannat, past the tine 
Ti>sa Fall, above Andermatt, on the Frutt, thence 
over the glaciers of the Grlus (7,78 feet high), and 
through Egtnenen-Thal to Obor-Gestelen (on the 
RhOne), tn the VaUiifl, fi distance of V4^ stunden 



fi-om Upper Tosa you may go by Val Bedretto 
to Airolo, on the St. Gothard Road, 15 stuiiden. 
Another trifi from Domo d'Ossola is by th6 road to 
the east, through Val Vigezza, or Centovalli, past 
Masera, Bajiesco, Trontans, Riva (near a Fall), 
Malesco, Olgia (the highest part, 3,020 feet), under 
Monte (Jridone (7,0hO feet), Borgnone, Verdasio, 
Intragna (at the mouth of V»il Onsersone), aerosa 
Ponte Brolla, on the Maggia to Locarno (10 hours), 
at the liead of I^ago Maggiore. 

Hence it is 7^ hours to the Simplon Pass. (See 
Bradshaw's Hand-Book to Switzerland). 

Nice to Genoa, along the Riviera dl Ponente. 

By rail, near the Coruichc Road. About 1 
hour to Mentone, and 6 to 8 hours thence to Genoa. 
It may be done in 15 hours by steamer, but, as thi» 
goes by night, all the beauty of the scenery is 
missed. Ttiis is one of the routes which should be 
walked over to enjoy it in perfection. 

N.B. - The distances to Mentone, on the French 
side, are reckoned from Nice; after that, from 
Vcntimiglia, on the Italian side. 

The principal stations are as follow: — 



Miles. 

Monaco 9^ 

.Mentone 141 

Ventimiglia 21} 

Bordighera 3 

S. Remo 10 

Oneglla 264 



Miles 

Alassio 38 

Albenga 42| 

Finalmarina 5S 

Savona 67 

Voltri 85 

Genoa 93} 

For Nice, see Bradshatc's Hand-Book to France^ 
or the Continental Guide. 

The Corniche road, by the Riviera di Ponente 
(i.e., western edge), as this side of the Gulf of 
Genoa is called, is in the direction of tlie Via Fla- 
minia, and up and down hill all the way, past a 
succession of picturesque towns and villages, and 
never far from the Metliterranean, with its beau- 
tiful winding bays and headlands on one ^ide, and 
the Maritime Alps and Apennines on the other. 
Mulberry, orange, lemon, olive, and «»ther trees aro 
abundant. N. B.— The description applies to the road. 

Leaving Villcfranca, or Vllle&anclie (Stat.) 
on the right, the road ascends to a point 2,100 feet 
above the sea. and then passes 

Esa, or Eza (Stat.), where there was a temple 
to Isis. to 

Turbla, called Trophwa Augwti by the Romans, 
from a tropliy, or tower, which marked the boim- 
(iary of Italia and Gallia on this side, now a ruin, 
with some Gothic additions about it. To the right 
is Monaco (Stat.), population. 3,242, so called 
from a little princinality belonging to the Grimaldi 
family, with its ruine<l castle, on a peninsula, in a 
beautiful hay. the site of a temple to Hercules 
Monoecus. The prince keeps a public gaming table 
at Monte Carlo. The Palace contains sumptu' 
ously furnished a|)Artments, shown thte«,<5ra<R.^tN. 
week in the afternoon. V^^T<;.^^s^:?cv -^.w^ ^'^^'qsss.'kic^ 



20 



BRADSUAW'S ITALY. 



[Sectio 



.^Cabb^Boquebnine (Stat), under bold, 

d irk, irregular rocks ; and also 

Mentone, or Menton (Stat.), now annexed to 
Franco. 

Hotel*: Hotel dcs Anglais; Hotel Westminater; 
Hotel d'Orient; Hotel de Belle Vue; Grand Hotel 
desIlenBrltanniques; Hotel d'ltalie; Grind Hotel; 
Grand Hutel ot Pension du Pure; Hotel ct Pension 
<iuMidi: Hotel de la Gare; Hotel CamunK: Hotel 
Prince of Wales; Hotel et Pension d' A nglctcrre. — 
fiee Bradsfiaip's Continental Guide. 

Resident Physician*. English and Scotch Church 
Services. 

Eng'ish Chemist. — Mr. Gras. 

A winter residence for invalids, in ;« finebay,witli 
a l)cautiful climate, visited by Quyen Victoria, 
1882. It consists of long, narr«>w, steep j-troctn, 
leading to the Cathedral of St. Glorf^io, which is 
hnng witli silk damask. Some of the houses are 
nine storeys high ; three spire churches. Moun- 
tains shelter it nil round. At the back is the 
valley up the River Coreille, to CastigJlnne, and 
I^ Monte'e, with innumerable walks and rides. 
- Proceed over the new French frontier, and along 
a beautiful road to 

.- VentimigUa (Stat.) 

Hotels: Croce di Malta ; Knropa. 

An ancient town (population, 5,444), the Roman 
Albium Intermelium, on a slope with a cantle above 
it, at the mouth of the River Koja, which comes 
down from the Col di Tenda, and is crossed by a 
long narrow bridge. It has a Gothic cathedral. 

Mr. Hanbnry's garden well deserves a visit. 

Bordighera (Stat.) 

Hotels: Hotel d'Anglcterre, first-class Hotel, 
c^oseto the En}.rlls1i Church, l.nrge garden. Sec 
Advt. Angst, first-class Hotel, in a beautiful 
sheltered p»sItlon; Bc'vederc, in an excellent 
position, with back to the sea; dcs lies Writtan- 
niqnes, large garden : Hotel West End; Windsor; 
Victoria; Hotel et Pension Sapia ; Pension Bella 
Vista. 

English Church Service. 

The town, lately much improved, lies on a hill 
side, with a genial climate, suitable for invalids. In 
this neighbourhood the date palms, used in the 
ceremonies of Holy Week, at Rome, are grown, the 
exclusive privilege of supplying them havlnif been 
granted by Sixtns V. 

Ospedaletti (Stat.), a new and favourite 
winter resort. 

San Bemo (Stat.)— iSfotei*.— Belie vjc. 

Paix, near the station. 

Hotel de Nice; Hotel de la Mediterrande; Hotel 
d'Anrleterre. 

Victoria, east end of town, well fitted up, in a 
beautiful garden 

H«rtcl du Paradia. 

Grand Hotel Royal; Hotel des lies Britanniques. 

Hotoi Palmieri. 
• I/mdra, west of town; Hotel de TEnrope. 

iVffst KnA Hotel, comfortable and well situated. 



Russic. and Di San Renio, in the town. 

Villa Tatlock, facing the sea, near the rail. 

EngltAh Vice-Consul; English Church Ser, 
English and other Rfsident Physicians. 

House Agent and Wine Merchant: Mr. J. 
grcve. 

Population, 14,002. 

The old town, on the largo fiolid sti-ep side 
hill, unile** Capo Nero, couhists of h>m^ei« r 
one over the ether, crow)jed by the llcrniita 
St. Uomolo, nndor Mount Bignouc, and a 1 
some Gothic chunh. 

At the new town, below, nearer the sea, rai 
hotels, villas, and bojirdin^r houses have bee 
tablisbed, with a club, fountains, «^c. ; an< 
inviting spot, under a mild dry climate, is 
a favourite winter residence. 

Near it is a Convent for fifty ladies. Plan. 
Rfe is 3,.!»00 feet high. 

The road ascends Capo Verde to the Chap 
the Madcmna della Guardia; then d- wn in 
River Taggla, past Arno; t'len S. Stefano St 
a fishing village; and San Lorsnzo (St 
noted for its olives and sweet wine, to 

Porto Maurlzlo (Stat) (population. 7,0( 

picturesque place, on a neck of land, with a 
Cithedral overlooking the hnrbour, from w 
olive oil, lithoarrapliic stones. Ac, are expo 
Over a suspension briJge, on the Iinpero, t j 

Oneglia (Stat.) 

Hotels: Railway: Victoria. 

P«»pulstion, 7,272. Here Andrea l)..ri:i, 
famous Genoese admiral was born. It was h 
by the French in 1792. Its figs are celebr 
Past another cape to 

DlanoMdrena (population, 2,igi), sndacn 
on a bay, in the Diano Vnlley Up Tapo i 
Mele, and descend to another hay, termlnatpi 
Capo delle Croce. Past the town of LalgTUO 
(Stat.>, to 

AlasBlo (Stat.) 

Hotels: Alassio: de Londrcs; Roma. 

Resident Chaplain and Physicians. 

Bankers: Me*^sr«. C<»ngrevo. 

An ol<i place, with ■% littln h irbour: now i gror 
resort for invalids. Its figs arc the best on 
coast. Populatitm, 5,243. Further on is 

Albenga (Star.), orAWema (popuiiitioo, 4." 
A beautiful sp« t (when the fl oMs ce ikc to c 
di'wn). on the River Ceiiti, with Monte ^ 
»t the head of the Po, in view, ^pcii over th« ne 
Maritime Alps. Its app'e? and oranges ure cj 
Ic' t. and olives are grown. It whs the Ko 
Alhiufli Tngaunvm, and i* so ancient as to I 
made an alliance with Carth 'pe. IJcsi'cs 
i*onte Lungo, nnd some other Roman antiqui 
it contains a Gothic cathedral and two old fc 
cisfes, called Tone del Guel/o an<i Torre 
Marchese Malates-ti. Ii fro it of it is Galliu 
Island, once noted for a breed of fowls. 

The road passes Cdrlale, half of whose pop 
tion, two centuries ago, were carried Into s «' 
by the Turks; BorgbettO, near the Cape < 



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SAN UKMO. SAVONA. COGOrKTO, GKXOA. 



21 



Lncla; LOEDO d-opulation, 4.00:.). where the Aus- 
trian'' were iiefe iti d 179'. ; and Pietra; to Finale- 
marina (Stat), near Finalk BoRco^and Klvale 
PiA, three f .rtitied pliicos(with a church in each) 
wliich bolongrd to ripain. » ear the ruitis of Castel 
G *vonc, and the Komui Finarium. They produce 
the delicious app!e ca led Male di Finale, or Male 
Carlo, because it was n favourite of Charles III. «f 
SpaM). The • throiijrh a marble tunnel, or gallery, 
to Vauigotti, and 

Noli and its castle, on a b.iy of the siuic name, 
the >itc of Paulum. Popuiatioi;, 2,000, chiefly 
t>sheriiicn. Monte Calo is visible to the left. 
Next, on to Spotomo, with Berpeprpi Island and 
its c»iurch ruins in front of it. Genoa comes into 
view. Past VadOr anciei.t Vada Sabata, and (-ape 
di Vido, to the Roman Saro, now 

SAVON A (Stat.) 

Here the direct linos from Turin and Alessandria 
come in— Sec Routes 3 and 4. 

Inn : Railway Hotel. 

A large and pn>sperous town (population, 80,681), 
a bishrp's see, and hc.td of a province ; with u 
Catfiedral, begun Ifi'H. by Pope Julius II., contain- 
ing life-size figures of inlaid wood in the choir, 
by L. Brea; several palaces; a theatre, built 1853. 
an<i dedicated to Chial)rera, the poet, a native, 
who is buried in S. Giacomo Church; and the 
J>ominicnn Church, containing A. Diirer's Ador- 
ation of the Ma^ii and A.Semini's Nativity. Small 
pier harbour. Resident EnalifJi Vire-Consul. 

Up in the hills is the Church of the Madonna 
della Misericordia. with a Presentation by Domeni- 
chino. Besides oil, Savona produces good pottery 
and porcolHin, with excellent fruit, peaches, api i- 
cots, oranges, flower roots, wliito wine, &c. Its 
harbour was destroyed by the Genoese. CI' sc to 
it is a statue of the Virgin, with a rhyme which is 
quoted as an example of either It.ilian or Latin: — 
" In mare irato, in aabita prooell*. 
luvooo te, uostra beni]{ua Stella." 
A railway goes iuland to Mondovi and Tuiin, 
in coimcftion with the one along the coast to 
Genoa. Here a branch of the Vii Aurelia went 
np the Bormida to Acqni, Ac. The i>ext pbce 
it AlbiBBOla (S'at.), the s^at of the Rovirc 
family, of which were Popes Sixtus IV. and 
Julias If. 

VarasSdi a bustling port, under the Apennines 
(population, 8,450). 

CogOletO (Stat.), or Cwulrtto (population. 
%MXy, claims to be the birthplace of Columbus, and 
his house is shown. Here the coa^t becomes finer 
than ever, and the towns are more picturepque in 
appearance; but when cx»nijined they are found to 
be dirty and ruinour. The railway now passes 
through deep cuttings and tunnels. 

Voltrl (Stat) Population. 14,119. It has 
some fit ecburclies, villas, pajer mills, and sulphur 
springs. 

Pegli (Stst.) Population. 4,898. A growing 
resort for Tititoni. Here are the Villas Doria and 
Pallavicint; the last a bhow-placc, to see which 
(10 to 3) a fee ot§l Ura /« charged. 



7/o/f/»; M^diterrane'e; Grand HotelUargiui. ' 

Knglish Church Service. 

Fine view from the Soogllo Vltioria, so named 
from the Crown Princess, who stayed here in 1879. 

Sestri dl Ponente (S'at.) Population, n.286. 

The last town before Gcno •, to w hich the splendid 
Corniche Road leads by a line of churches, castles, 
villages, and country scats. Htre are Villas 
Spinola, Loniellina, &c. 

Comisliano (Stat.), population, 3,499, near 
Palazzo Serra. Villa Darazzo, <frc., and the junc- 
tion of the »ail from Polccverra Valley. 

Hotel : Villa Rachel, cood and moderate. 

Resident Chaplain and Phytiiian. 

S. Pier d' Arena (Stat.), population. 22.690, 

in the suburbs of Genoa, which comes into view 
after the Lantorna tunnel. The terminus is in 
Piazza Acqua Verde, overhx.klng the fcarbour of 
G enoiu 

GENOA (Stat) 

Called Oenora by the Itali.nis Gines by the French, 
Oenva by the Germans: all from the Latin Janua^ 
a gate, or Oenu, a Icnce. A tunnel under the city 
no-v unites the ea^t and west lines. 

note's: (irand Hotel de Gdnes, iiist-class hotel, 
situated opposite the Carlo Felice Theatre. 

Grand Hotel d'ltalie et dc la Cmix de Malte. 

Grand Hotel Isotta. 7, Rue de Rome, first-class 
hotil, newly built, (irert comfort. 

Grand Hotel de la Ville, beautifully situated in 
the centre of the town. 

Hotel de Frmce, well situated. 

Hotel de Londres and Pension Anglaise, well 
situated, near the Central Station. 
Grand Hotel du Pare. 

Hotel des Etrungeri<, in Via Naovissima. Well 
recommended. 

!!• tel Metropole; de I'Ecu ; Victoria; Boncra; 
del Gran Colombo; Pension Girard. 

Beef and veal are both excellent; fish abundant, 
including the 6nV/ia (mullet); arciqua (anchovy); 
I vitella di apparizione and di paisione\ t uimy, and the 
; little white bianchetti, with a delicate rose tint. 
I Pies, some of the i)est in Italy; good maccaroni; 
mushrooms from the Apennines, called boleti when 
red, neri when black, and imported in the dry state. 
Snails are a regular article of diet, and are 
sold in the market. Gootl fruits, and delicious 
green figs and orai ges,citrons,apple!:. pears. French 
and Montferrat wines are the best ; of the common 
native white wines that of Polce^era is tne most 
agreeable. One of the liqueurs is aequo tTamarina 
(from the chtrry); zvcckero rosato (rose sng'^r) is 
a conserve, whhh mixed with water, makes n re- 
freshing drink. Tobacco is a i? overnmeiit monopoly, 
but real H .vanna cigars may be bought at the 
Custom House. 

Residcn t EnglUh Cot. »\a . . ^ 

. Rnidtni Efgl ish Pln»«lcja«» ; ^^\SSS^ ^^• 
Filigree Woiki.- \xv *\\n« «A <^^^»^*^» ^ 



22 



llftll>SHAW'B ITALV. 



[Bectioii 1, 



Irecommcud the manufactory {iiul ilupOt of Mr. 
Emllio Forte, 155. Via Orefici; prize me(ial awarded, 
London Exhibition, 186'i. 

i*o»t-Office, Oallerla Mazzini. Telegraph at 
Palazzo Ducalc. 

English Church Service, on Sundays at the new 
Church. 

Scotch Presbyterian Service every Sunday in the 
Church, Via Peschiera. 

Conveyances. — Onniibuses attend tlie railway 
stations in the town. Street omnibuses for each 
course, 10 cents. Street calashes, called cittadini, 

1 lira the course; or 1 lira 50 cents, for the first 
hour ; 50 cents, extra at night. 

There is a tariff for boatmen, including any 
ordinary quantity of baggage, either for om- 
bai*kation or disembarkation, but the fare had 
better be agreed on beforehand. Pleasure boats, 

2 lire the first hour. 

Steamer to various parts, as Marseilles, Leghorn, 
Civita Vecchia, Naples, Palermo, Malta. (See 
Bradsliato's Continental Guide). On the 24th 
April, 18't4, the Etxolano left for Marseilles, with 
Sir R. Peel and others on board, and was run down 
by a steamer. Sir R. Peel clung to a floating 
mast, and was saved at the last moment by the 
Sidlia^ which brought him and others back to 
Genoa. Mr. Halscy, M.P., and his family were lost 

Population (1891), 211,790. It is divided into six 
aestiere or sections. 

*Chie/ Objects of Nolice.-'\i& degli Orofici. 
Palazzo Ducale, Palazzo SeiTn, Palazzo Pallavi- 
cinl, Palazzo Rosso. Cathedral, Churches of St. 
Annunziata, St. Stcfano, St. Ambrogio, St. Slro, 
Santa M. <U Carigiiano. Villa Pallavicini, at Pegli. 
The pupazzi (marionettes) are worth seeing. 

This renowned city, denominated GfenSra la 
fihiperba-^i.^., the proud), is a free port at the top 
of the Gulf of Genoa ; head of a Duchy, and of a 
province ; seat of a governor, archbishop, univer- 
sity, &c. It stands in the best part of that beauti- 
f\il strip of the Mediterranenn called the Riviera, 
in n pure and healthy climate, sheltered by the 
Ligurian Apennines. The city proper lies east of 
the harbour, along which is a noble range of fine 
houses. 2 or 3 miles long. From this it rises in a 
magnificent amphitheatre, with palaces, gardens, 
churches, Ac, stretching in every direction, over 
iw space of 3 square miles; only one-sixth of 
■^hich is level ground. It is defended by a double 
line of fortifications, the outer one being 7 to 8 
miles in circuit, and commanded by detached forts 
on the hi^rhcst points beyond; as the Diamante, 
Due Fratclll, (juezza, Santa Tecia, &c. It is from 
these points and from the harbour that the city 
should bo seen. The Protestant Cemetery and the 
Negri Palace are good standpcdnts. Many of the 
houses are painted in ^;lnta^tlc colours, and adorned 
with statues, column^, festoons. «fec. 

The streets arc generally narrow, steep, and 
Irregular, mere lanes hi fact, up and down liUl, 
■wjth nd foot-paths, and encroached upon by pro- 

' '«5r upper storeys. Tliey are often lined by tal 1 



well-built houses, and marble palaces, five, six, 
and even nhie storeys high, with light slate roofs, 
and courts fragrant with orange trees, Ac. Some 
of the best streets are Balbi, Ganba'di, Calroll, 
Carlo Felice, Carlo Alberto, Santa Glulla. The 
Via di Circonvallazlone a Monte, and the V. dl C. 
al Mare are also fine streets. There is a constant 
succession of priests, nuns, soldiers, monks, and 
porters carryhig bales strung from poles over their 
shoulders. 

An inscription In the cathedral afiirms that this 
ancient town was founded by a grandson of Noah, 
named Janus. It was caUed'Oenua (as some think, 
from genu, a knee) In Livy's time, and, as an ally 
of the Romans, was destroyed by Hannibal's 
brother, Mago. 

After suffering from the Guelf and Ghlbelline 
factions, the first Doge, S. Hocanegra, was elected 
in 1339. Charles VI. of France in 1396, Fran- 
cesco Sforza in 1458, and l-rouis XII. in 1499, were 
for a tunc successively masters of the republic, 
which again acquired its independence under the 
famous Andrea Doria, In 15V8, and lasted till the 
French invasion of Italy, when it was annexed to 
the Ligurian Republic in 1798. In 1800, Massena 
su.stained a siege of two months against the Aus- 
trians and the English fleet, and only yielded after 
the loss of 16,000 men by famine, «fcc. In 1814 it 
was taken by Lord W. Bentinck, and finally united 
to Sardinia. 

Two Moles of solid stone protect the harbour, 
which has plenty of deep water and Is lined by a 
marble terrace throughout. Mola Vecchio, on the 
east side, is about 1,260 feet long, and Molo Nuovo, 
on the west side, near the Lazaretto, about 1.00() 
feet, with an outer basin protected by a pier. 
Outside the new mole stands the tall Lantern or 
Uvhthoufe, built in 1547, and looking like a slender 
pagoda ; it is ascended by 355 steps. 

The Darsena, within the port, was begun in the 
thirteenth century, and included, till lately, the 
Marine Arsenal, with Its magazines and workshops, 
small docks for the Sardinian navy — now moved 
to Spezia, — with the Bagnio for convicts, near the 
Bi.sagno torrent. The Inner harbour, or Porto, is 
surronnded by a fine quay, which extends past 
four pontes or stone jetties, to the Porto Frjinco, a 
collection of eight piles of warehouses, where goods 
are stored free of duty, except for bonding. The 
/ocr/iint or porters, on* account of the narrowness 
of the streets, are in great request here. They 
are or were a privilegecl class, exclusively from 
Bergamo, and still form a rather close corporation, 
like the Fellowship Porters of London. Near the 
Porto l"ranco is the Mandraccio Basin. Above 
the quay Is the Via Carlo Alberto, which loads 
ahrng the port past the Piazza Carlcamento to the 
cathedral square. 

The Dogana or Custom House, hurd by, is the 
old hall of the Banco di S. Giorgio^ which was 
founded 1345, and plimdercd by the French in 
1800. It was this rich trading body which gav« 
life to the commercial enterprise of ancient GenoA. 



d ovtr tbe ^1« bang ■ H^i t-MnMr jad 
Ln Khich wn» brunghl (n.ni .aluohk. mi 



* mlitilw wm d(t<eted In Farli by ■ 



!B0 outoIfrnUrn.lniitMdoi.der Ihe n«* order ,aod^iiied iiy a Grecian from, low drani. te.l 
thiiiffs. Tbe Urtf* bonded WHehouiei of lh« ,™,ihMln which Ihe Doireenerecbwenln publto 
cpD.iio orPotlo Fmibo. mooUonod nbovcaiay o„cn,i,iy; and u l.lehlyonnunfntedwlth marblM. 



■ LtKT), psliillngL Ac. 



gold'«'lniS'Bh^flIT^lm.M'"?)Ti™Tf'li"m'^t *^i b™hSu«rby'Po^["'h«Tl^i.Ch«|lel.VkLr 

P. Pinln's picture of llie Holy Family, covered udoinod. MiiriielUno'. Chrljl on ibo CroM.ta 

with SUM, «iid bsloniiiit to the Qnild; nemly •™"''i ">'' Solaru'i bm-rellet of the Virgin snU 

little' .'i'vii nrinit""(nJ Ac, are mnds'for e^-vMo •VAn*<utziaM. M Ihe comer of that Plmit wm 



tEo''"jiiitenrn.l'lwiy''s(nlToTi'i IherelJ'o^equn'lly ill* d'>°w 1" "iisli snd unflnlihed. Ferguuoo 

good one iicsr tKo other iimion, ahoTC Pimm '^"""'.L" "^j^^j "'''^'"^"^'^J.lf.t.^;"!?' 

i^rned i(5i« 1/ CWimiM .wndi'" " "" elusive of tbe ilde ch«po*k»nd »» fo 

Another wiilk ir»y be lakBT on the rtmpirli SI " " 

liy ihe Aqtieduct, whlcb 0QpplkB all thelowD wli 



- „ DfH 

nriSinllei. ThePontoCiirlgiiino.atarldEeucroH 
1. ravine (ubool 100 feet deep), rhlrg above tbe 
lu>UK9.1>alsowarlliTlilUHK. Itwaebnlltlll8-ait, 

" Tlie"mo>t tcuinrkatile bnlldlngi are Ihe apliaidld 

Dome of°whlcb°a Baraeenlc variety of the Oulhie 
may be noticed. All the cbnreb belli ring alSa.m. 



larbis, the 1 






onehoul, Ir 



ticallyailtcosldbede 



. Lore"iiio, mostly in the Gothic style, we. mostly weak to support the pler-arehes, Ihongh this crlll- 
ulltabonl IIOO, end restored inlMO, md hiu a clam Is eqoaliy applicable toalltheorlglnalRoman 



othlKh. Over the* 
>ii saint (3t, Law 



Inthe-MldeC'hspeisi oi 



elaganl. that 11 Is probably 
I Its dsss In Italy- 
] 'St. ATObngio, Via Belial nndPtizzaNuova, bnill 

!r pictures, a'sBnbens'Circvnieltlonl 

IG feet high), and Ouldo'e 

1 chnrcliea as S. Ambroglo thi 



nd hie 3l. Ignati 
lack marbl- "' 
.ssumptloD 



byDogeSenatejia, 'AnotherChapal(9l.J.BaptlsO, ""*'* "cliltect must give way to tbe reellngi ot 
1.1 the Ooihlc style, by llolla Porta, has stntocsby I J*'',^°'J"J;|'^''o7°^",^^ ™'jj|*l*" ?* 'j'X'J* t 

tur show' the Sacm Calino (basin), a six-ilded I * Sanla Maria Ciritnana, at CVcax<i!<i <A sxa 
pteMoTglais, bronght (rom Cmarea, In 1101. and Asaumpiioti, PSa.titiC»rtw!iwo,'Vimi»a^'*»*'^*' 

thi UN Supper. It w«« j-lren ont Ube apart ' to t\iB Cartpumo lii\48"'w 



24. 



iii(Ai>9iiA\v 8 italV. 



the top of 'iiO stops. Built by AlessI for the Saull 
fHinily in the sixteeiitli century. It isshnpedliku a 
(Jreok cro«8. 1(j5 feet each Way, witli piUiKters in 
front, a dome 46 feet <U.nnet«r over llic centre 
(Whence there is a noble pfospcct), and four towers 
at the corners Within tire lour statues by I*ujet 
and David, nndcr the cupola, the bc5t of which is 
Pnjct's Sebastian ; rich bronzes by Snldahi on the 
altar; afincorfran; Procacchii's Virpin (with >t. 
Francis and St. Charles); Guerclno's St. Francis; 
pAintin<;s liy the IMolas and others. The walk: from 
this church along the walls and ramparts of 
8. Chiara gives a splendid view. 

St. Matteo (Matthew), in the Salito S. Mattco, 
Isa Gothic church of the thirteenth century, by the 
Doria family; one of whom, Conrad, Itumbled Pisa, 
1290, and another, I^amba, defeated the Vene- 
tiHn«, under Dandolo, at the naval battle of 
Curxola, 12i^6. The interior was restored by 
Moutorsoli, who built (in the crypt) the tonib o*f 
the great Andrea Doria, to whom Paul III. sent a 
Rword, now kept placed above the liign altar. The 
picture of St. Anne is by B. Castello. 

St. Sebastiano, 14th century Gothic, has the 
Martyrdom of ttiat saint by Giulio Romano. 

St Mary of the Schools has nine marble bas- 
reliefs by SchiifRno and Cacciatore, with Guido's 
Passion. 

Santa Maria di Castello, & very old Gothic church 
of the eleventh century, bui t by the Castclli 
family, having three rows of granite pillars. Near 
the altar are two curious pictures on wood — All 
S.iints, and the Annunciation, by L. Brea, a native 
artist of the fifteenth century. Another worth 
notice is Greghetto's Virgin; but the best is the 
St. Sebastian of Titian, in the sacristy. 

St. Carlo contains a good marble statue of the 
Virgin, by Parodi. Sculptures by Algardi. 

St. Filippo de Neri is well worth notice for its fine 
Virgin, by Puget. 

St. Francesco di Paolo, ouiside Porta S. Tommaso. 
commands a fine view over the city and port, and 
contains several parti-coloured marble pillars, fres- 
cpes, and paintings, especially the Adoration of the 
Shepherds, by Cambriaso, which the French 
a«rried off to Paris, but were obliged to give up 

.*Santa Maria della Consolatione, one of the 
l%rgost and handsomest churches here, has a dome 
and a beautiful altar of black marble, veined wiih 
gold. Onfi of L. Breads old fashioned paintings is 
liare. S, Bartolommeo has a '^likeness" of Christ, 
painted by St. Luke for Agbarus. King of Edessa. 

S. Stefano delta Porta, on the left of the Piazza 
degli Arcbi, is a small plain old Gothic church, 
containing a celebrated work of art. the Martyr- 
dom of St. Stephen, by Raphael and G. Romano. 
It was the gift of Leo X., and has performed a 
Journey to Paris. S. Agostino is a Gothic chu ch, 
•with a brick tower. S. Donate, a Roman temple, 
with eight-sided cimpanlle. S. Giovanni di Pre 
belonged to the Knights of St. John. 

There are upwards of sixty churches and chapels. 
Bt^ond the walls arc those of the Capucini and 



[Section i. 

Zoccolanti(Francli?canB). The Protestant chnrchos 
are five. The Kngli.sh church is In Via (Joito. 
The large Vaudols church is in the Via As-nrottl. 
Dr. Dc Sanctis, formerly a priest, became mini^t(•r 
of theChlese Evnng«?lica Italiana. or Italian Evan- 
gelical church, and published an Almanacco. 

"Genoa (says Dr. Wordsworth) is one of the 
moRt intcre-«ling cities in Italy for old conventual 
buildings. You jmiss out of a busy street, by one of 
those long, narrow, and rather steep thoroughfares, 
brilliant with gold, jewellery, and silver filigree 
work, and coral ornaments, and tr-tverscd by long 
trains of mules, tied to one another's tails, and 
muzzled with corded nosebags; you enter a bye- 
lane, and come into an old cloistered quadrangle, 
shaded with orange trees, with an old monastic 
well in the centre, and you stc walls engraved 
with venerable ancient inscriptions, or adorned 
with medlffival sculpture. Such are the cloistered 
retreats of St. Andrea, and the Church of St. 
Matteo. founded in the twelfth century, with its 
interesting relics of the Dorias." On the front Is 
an Inscription recording the victory of Lamba 
Doria over the Vene ians at Curzola, 1296; tind 
the cloisters contain the remains of a colossal 
stittue of Giannelto Doria, the victor of Lepanto, 
1571, which the Genoese mob upset in 17!)'. 
One half of the old Dominican Convent is turned 
into a barrack. Not far from the ruined Church 
of St. Agostino, with the date, 12C3, on its front, is 
a remnant of a Roman wall and aqueduct, near 
the courtyard of an old monastery. 

Palaces. — Among the PaJaces of the nobility are 
the following: most of which are open to public 
view l>etween 10 and 8, for llr. The twelve or f(mr- 
teen in Via Garibaldi were designed by Alessi, 
who d cd 1572, and was one of the first archi- 
tects who figured at Genoa. Some along the 
harbour, with their marble stairs and splendid 
rooms, are turned into hotels, such as the Grlmaldl 
Palace, &c. Those within the city are beginning 
to be renovated by their wealthy owners, who had 
for a time neglected them. The old nobility, who 
were dissatisfied with the annexation with Pied- 
mont, are now becoming more reconciled to 
the new order of things. They are pious and 
charitable. When the matron of one of the great 
hospitals left it for fear of the cholera, her place 
was taken by a Genoese noble and his wife. " i he 
palaces, I apprehend (says Forsyth), gave to this 
city the apiMjlIatlon of Proud; their black and 
white fronts were once distinctive of the highest 
nobility; but most of those noble mansions have 
disappeared. The modern palaces are all faced 
with stucco, and some are painted in fresco, a 
fashion first Introduced at Venice by Glorgione." 

M«ny of thera are painted red or yellow; some 
green or blue, which produces a rich and spark- 
ling effect In this climate. One beautiful feature 
is their court-yards, consisting of ranges of marble 
arcades; but beautiful as they are, with a little 
more taste nndjndgment, they might have been made 



ty to tho BBili mid tiny nn alKi. » K ml 
m Any atrnnpt In Imltntc or K-produi 
I or jiiiy other DifKh'lft. ^nlnAtthcHWUHL 

I frthiiunlly tha Ineunirnilly of ths detail 

ia'^ 111, or ftcccntiuitvil hypalnt, whli 
H T«T7claMlyii|i|iraaiHila(rla Toltpirlij'. "- 



nuU>l. It hu . 
Ktiityeli. Cnmrcl 



ji.i, anil Dihi 



*J\ilaaa BrtanaliSalr, nan Palaiia . 
In Vil Oartbdldl, one at Ibe l>cM lii C 
rooDH. PortrallBbyVsnrlycki DuVinc 
UaptUtj Del Surta'i Huluunn: Ouercl 
EnthroneduiilChrlot Id Uh Templet 1 
HolyFanllyi Guldo'i St.BcbulUii. 

marrleil Ihe Duke of Gllliem, mndo 
df IhlB noblo rBlace. wllh its fine tlbni 



iiid B Mi^lcnB! throe pnnnltt W Vsnd)-ck: 
LucM de Leyden't DSBCenl from lbs Crom, *c. 



hy Cailelloi P. VeronMC-. Adorntl .n of tbe Magli 
Tlllim'i Uersdlu with the BaptlitB boad. 
Palarv Aorf a. occupying ■ noble >lte on the north 

Bot now nUS^ct^"""! ™. rebnUl by Moo1oi"?fl' 
for AnrtreBDori«,lbe "Prince" oiiilAdi ' ■ ■ ■ 



of • bronio UblBi, found «t PolCBTeiT*. Ill 110. nn 
whtoh 1> onxrumd the baniidiiTy line betirmi Iho 

ilillHirltkxi (A.U.C. «S3). the'rivert uid luount aim 
bclnE diathidly markod. There Is alio a pljii uf 

Palauo Ulargia Btrla. 8, Via Gartb-l.li, h-.» 
anin* (reKoea ^ Canilila»> and pLetnrfs by Pa.lu 

fieeiil pile. Ill) feet hlKli. in Piazza Noova, m,v 

andiheUiHiloAHlal-oHilafPollpeOfflrp). Itiraa 
nearly nil rebuill after the lire cif 1777, by f..l<jne, 
it piiiiled marble, no wood Iwhif need! in llio 
nolilc IM.OT Sala dl Gr.m Coii.Iglio, arc ploMer 

which were dertn.ycd l>y tSe^renow'ican. inirSr! 



t. Bianco (?X and enUrpxl 1^ 
inriha>Tltlan-aNa 



might enjoy his well 



" (he 



in^B, alpcco, and other ornamental eivupi, 
el Vaga, who. nnderthe patroiinj™ of Dorti, 
iced a ncv style In Genoa, In tbe jnrdcni 



A. CuTaccl'a Miicdalenj Del Bario'i Uadonna 
Gnldo-a Charity, Ht. Jerome. St. John, and Clcn 
palrB! Veroneae'a Marriaj™ o( at, Catberlni; 
Ap"llD and the Muaci (freico), bv Paolo: Van 
dyek'a portraltnof a Doje and other Ilnraiioa 



by Charlci Albert. II liSeO feet lone;. 7j feet hlili, 
and like the HDnklpalitk In Uyle. Ihe deulla helne 

'if palntlnga; a pirtniii of Mirchefa'Dnraiin, liy 



nmnlier of iiortralta by Vand^t't. 
i^ifaiio Foragniata. \% %\>:__ 



26 



BRAD61IAW S ITALY. 



(_ Section 1. 



relief representing scenes In the life of the 
latter. 

Palazzo Parodi, in Via Garibaldi, built by Alossi. 
Hero arc frescoes, said to be by Carl one and Luca 
(-■nmbiapo. 

^Palazzo Pallamcini, in Via Carlo Felice, Ko. 
12. Vandyck'8 portrait of a Lady and Child, and 
Coriolanus; Franceschini's Sacrifice of Abraham, 
Virjfin and Child, Bathsheba in the Bath, and Birth 
of Adonis: L. Carraccl's Dream of Joseph: 
Guercino's Music, and his St. Jerome; Strozzl's 
St. Francis and Madonna at Prayer— (Strozzi 
is called the "Preto Genovese," or Genoese priest); 
Raphael's Madonna della Colonna; Albano's 
Diana and Actaeon; Rubens' Ang-cl and St. Peter; 
A. Durer's Descent from the Cross. 

Palazzo Peschiera, built by Alessi, with frescoes 
by Semini, stands in a spot commanding a fine 
view, and has many fishp(mds (whence the name) 
In its beautiful gardens. It was for a time occu- 
pied by Dickens; who also resided at Villa Bella- 
vista. 

Palazzo Saluzzi, called "Paradise." outside 
Porta Pila, has frescoes by Tavarone, and was the 
seat of Lord* Byron the year before his death. 
Lady Westmoreland lived in it afterwards. 

Palazzo SauH or Saole^ by Alessi, is one of the 
largest and most pleasing here, but neglected. It 
consists of a central block, with the wings thrown 
forward, in two storeys, wiih arches between. 
"There is more light and shade, and more variety 
of design in this palace than in any in Genoa; 
and if its details were a little more pure, it might 
challenge comparison, in some respects, with any 
in Italy." — Ferguuton. 

*Palazzo Serra, Via Garibaldi, No. 12, built by 
Alessi, and restored by Tagliafico. Its saloon is 
so richly gilt and decorated with marble, glass, 
tapestry, Ac, that it is called the Palace of the 
Sun (del Sole). The gilding was done by melting 
down many thousands of sequins. "The Serra 
Palace boasts the finest saloon in Europe. This 
celebrated object is oval in plan — the elevation a 
rich Corinthian ; the walls are covered with gold 
and looking-glass ; the fioor consists of a polished 
mastic stained like oriental breccia. Here the 
<?eillng oorrows and lends beauty to the splendour 
below." — Forsyth. 

Palazzo Ferdinando Spinola, formerly Palazzo 
Grimaldi, hi Via Garibaldi, built by Alessi. It 
has a great hall and staircase, Vandyck's portraits 
(one on a horse), Cambiaso, by himself, and Luini's 
Madonna. 

Palazzo della Ccua, formerly Spinola, near the 
Piazza Fontane Morose. Here are Vandyck's 
Madonna ; L. Giordano's Destruction of Troy, and 
the Samaritan; Lesuenr's Joseph before Pharaoh; 
Guido's St. Sebastian, Magdalene, and Flight hito 
Kgypt: Domenichino'sFamilv of Tobias; Borgog- 
none*s Sacrifice of Abraham :* Wnel's Landscapes; 
Parmegianino's Adoration of the Magi. 

"The real merit of the Genoese palaces is that 

Xhty really are what they seem. If the pilasters 

ane umea they are mere\j decorations. Pillars are 



never introduced when not wanted, and. above all. 
are always the principal feature of the design, and 
always at the top of the wall— attics being almost 
unknown in Genoa; and windows are only intro- 
duced when and where they arc wanted. With 
these elements it is difllcult to fall ; and Alessi 
only wanted a little more elegance in designing 
his details, and a little better material to work 
with, in order to have attained a great success. 
The last-mentioned is, in fact, one of the principal 
defects of the Genoese buildings, though not the 
fault of the architect ; ft.-r. though it is usual for 
tourists to talk of the * marble* palaces of Genoa, 
it is a melancholy fact that, except some of the 
black ar.d white medieval edifices, there is not a 
single facade in the city built wholly of that 
material.'' — Fergusson. 

The Villa Giustiniani, outside the walls, is a very 
harmonious pile, by Alessi, having an ancient 
granite Isis in the grounds. 

Villetta di Negro stands in a fine spot, and has a 
small Natural History Muf<eum. 

Villa Scoglietto is another charming seat, with 
orange gardens, grottoes. Ac. ; fee to gardener, 
1 lira. The Palazzo del Padri delle Commune is 
now used by the Chamber of Commerce. 

In Via Balbi. opposite the Royal Palace, is 
the Palazzo deir Untversitif, founded by the Balbi 
family, having a fine court, with frescoes, bronzes, 
and statues by Giovanni di Bologna, and a public 
Library of 70,000 volumes, containing a Hebrew 
Bible in seven folio volumes with coins, &c. There 
are also a royal college, priests' seminar^', com- 
munal schools, school of navigation, and a marine 
hospital. 

In Piazza Deferrari is the *Aeeademia di Belle 
Arti (fine arts), founded by the Dorias. It has a 
collection of sculptures and pictures, and a public 
library of 40,000 volumes; open daily. In the 
Piazza Acquaverde, near the marine college, is an 
Armoury, in which are shown a wooden cannon, 
bound with copper, taken from the Venetians in 
the war of Chioggia, 1372-81, and the rostrum or 
beak of a Roman galley, which made a figure, 
according to tradition, in the Carthaginian attack 
on Genoa. 

The new Teatro Carlo Felice^ or Opera House, 
in the Piazza Defen-ari, was built in 1828 by 
C. Baradino, and is large and remarkably hand- 
some, especially the portico, staircase, saloon, &c. 
Other Theatres are the Paganini^ Politeama 
Oenovese, and Politeama Regina Margherita. 

One of the most extensive charitable institutions 
is the Alhergode' Poveri (Poor House), on the north- 
east side of the city, founded in 1654 by Emmnnuel 
Brignole, for the benefit of the infirm, the aged, 
orphans, the unfortunate, Ac, who arc employed 
in work. It is a tall pile, 650 feet square, with a 
front 120 feet high in the middle; behind which 
are four courts and a chapel, where you sec the 
Ascension by Piola, a statue of the Vir^n by 
Puget, and M. Angelo's fine Pietk or Dead Christ. 

The vast Ospedaledi Pamatone, one of the finest 
buildings in Genoa, is near the Acquasola, and was 



9.] c;enoa— PA 

r B. Boico, U20. by A. Oitallno, (or lh» | 
ck pti-aanB. lylHf -jn vookej], and urphAn^ i 
maluB of the boy BilIU*. »hn BjhikJ at | 
11 UEslii't rbeFnndi. 17411. ODtaMolfaai 
ihe Cnu m Beenvtn dd Fuzl (Hnmu ol 
y tnr Lunatla), rounitcil lilS, for WD ' 
. The liiHpUal lor /rnvroMn; In tbo Via i 



th IheuriMlitluii, Hbaki 



.tDO,wii.Lnbi 
cure mfghl bi 



r fifty »ach; 

i^JfuH. or Ilrsf an<i 

lam.byFiilIifrAMi 



« wilh mulilc tUtnrn; fmr 



I>unib AoylniH. «ni> 



!, hy ih<j Fleschl family. 






BrliDcUil llowen 

: li n Proieuanl 

lapiHirt from Enitliah vlsllorf 



T I ho Sinleri 

ant lIiMiil - 

..,. -t from En„ 



languHEe In ■ dialed 



nJlthlcE 



ImlldlDinoftbflContMdaBalbl. Tht piclnmiine 
hlllt which (klrt hot h ildoi ol thDinlley of BIsaRno, 
wlththeirele|ran(vl1liiB.wfri: Inahlaieof llsht, 

hinpitable of all— to tbr far-(niiwd Vllletla dl 

oiHf Vieior Kmmantift. 

Sinii«oftho manuf act arci cairlpd on here are gold 
flllSTM work, chains. ga^-rt^*e^brol>cb*B. Ac. Bnoh 

C~ ito, wood and mnrblo cnrvln^i Inlaid cups and 
«»», from II j-t«D wood J worlia In eo|iner, iFory, 

■ilk. riWmn». cotlon, hnti. dowcrii, aoan. tobacco, 
paper. inacAvnl or panti ; all thone. wlt^ tlce. nil, 
olives, (mllii. onin([0\ cll^oll^ *c,, Ihc ptodnco 

£S,ll»D,IIO« a yonii Iho Impoitx. Inclndlng raw illk 
from South Ilaly. ACm cotton from tbc Levant, 
llnon (ram North Enmpe. anionnt to i:IC.I)MI,00«. 



• raia Palla<*inl. at Peoli. about « miles. 
Open. 10 to a, 1 Ir.j or Sir. for a party. Hisaiott 

wcnltby owner with En|rti«h.ll"lin".TurUsb, and 



waithatonof nweaTernamedCotoniln, Pngnnlnl. 

city. Haiiinl wai bom here. ISIiS. 
"OntfaalIthofMay,lU«.lbayearof IhelUllan 

the inperb qi»en orthe LlKUiian Bon. At dawn of 
that day. the Qftnocie pei^e wore liu«ily engro^^d 
In oreetlnElrinrnphalarchiJi, and In adorning thu 
balconleioCllielrwhlte marble palaces with velvet 
draperlr) and freib flowers. The women were In a 
delirium ot joyful expectation, and one miicht liave 



ibe eranlnii ol that day, and think of thi 

ccntdtyof Qenoa— nnqtiflitlonablyoneoL 

heaolUnl town* of tbe Hnitb. and parbapi anpuior 
Id alloihers, Hoaxing Ktfdei and C«nBtBnUnap\a 



lie highest point 
il. GaXildi resided, he 



-e hi> eipedlllun 



agnlnstlhoHonrbong. "InovcradvlsvdtblBSIcilian 
mnveoient" he snld. "bnt since oar brethren are 
flghllne. It la my dnty to go to the resena." His 
motto was. "Italy and Victor Emmanuel !" A regn-' 
tar emaade began; oflkcra and men came in by 
t hoDsnnds from all pari A oil taly. and embarked nn- 

(and perhaps did notwlidi lo> "top It; sncb waittae 
niuKleof Qaribaldl't name. Ships cleared out with 
taltpet ro, rlSos, and mnikets. whHdi worecnleredM 
"aodM." "chlnc«Blierla" (hardware), and "'(orra- 
reecU" (oldlren). He onibarked Sth Uay. In two 
ateauwrs, with I.OST tried man, leavlneR™«s*.»» 
Waagcnt.toforwKiTeittA'Kwsnww*. ''*'>^*'-"'*^ 



28 



BltAl SHaU S ITALV 



[Section 1. 



<^rbitello. on the Tu'^cr.n lioi-dos, to orgniise 
his little army, he set sail again, ami ran into 
Vnrsala 11th May, In a few weeks he obtained 
jM Hsessionof ?*iciry, and in I'J'i days he oven nn the 
'J wo Sicilies, and handed over a newkinjrdnin, wiih 
i.ine millions of subjects, to Victor Emmanuel. 

K.OXJTE lO. 

Genoa, by the Riviera dl Levante, t o Spezla, 

Lucca, Plea, Leghorn, and Florence. 

By road or by rail (opened, 1874)toSc8trlI.evante 
andSpezia; thence to Pisa, *c. 'Ihc steamer runs 
to Leghorn in 12 hours. (Sec liradshaic'x Con- 
tinental Ouide.) Chief stations arc as follow: — 

Miles Milrs. 

Nervi 7i Deiva OT^ 

Itecco 13 Levanto 43 

8ta. Marghcrita 17^ Monterosso 40^ 

Chlavari 24i Corniglia 60 

Seatri Levante 28} S|)ezia SCj 

The Riviera di Levante (i.e., east strand), as this 
side of the Hay of Genoa is called, is of the same 
delightful character as the west side, or Riviera di 
Ponentc. The road climbs the hill, or sweeps round 
bay sof the sea. continually presentingnew pictures. 
The railway often runs nearly along the carriage 
.road, bnt there are many cuttings and tumuls, 
where the prospect is lost. 

From Genoa, the road crosses the Bisagno. and 
rises towards S. Marthio d' All aro, where Byron 
lived, to 

Nervl (Btat.), population. (>,r>75, and its coun- 
try-scats. A winter resort in a sheltered part. 
Hotels: I lot el and Pension Victoria, close to the 
Station; Eden: Grand Hotel and Pension Anglalse. 
Enqlialt Chvreh Service. 

&ecCO (Btat). The ancient Ricino, on the Via 
Aurclia. a pretty town (population, 5,154), with a 
campanile church. To the right is the promontory 
and harbour «.f Portus De^phini, now Porto Flno, 
rising •-?,00n feet high at one point. The Kuta Tun- 
nel through the Llgnrlan Hills, between Camogli 
and Bta. Margherlta (Uotel: Bellevuc), is 3,500 
yards long. 

RapallO (Stat.) Population, 10/>09.(^o/f/ .-De 
I'Europc and Pension Prandon. An old place, and a 
resort tor visitors, on a small bay, with a campanile 
and picturesque tower. It produces tuntiy fish and 
ex>ral. Near it is Madonna delMontallegro Church. 
Kntflifft C/iuirh Service here and at Sta. Margherlta. 

Chlavari (Stat.) Population, 1?,0«6. On a 
plain, with some old arcaded streets, and good 
churches containing sculptures and paii>tings. 
Al« es flourish here; gnats aro troublesome in 
autumn. 

Lavagna (Btat.), population, 7,192, a town 
with a red marble palace ami fine church, among 
quarries of slate called Pietra di Lavagna. 

Sestri Levante (Btat.), population, io,i9i, in 

a beautiful bay opposite Rapallo. From here the 
rail inclines coattwards, pa^t Moneglia (Btat.) 
Tbenco to L^yantO (Stat.); an ohl port on a 
small bay; population, AM2. Past MontWOSSO 
(Btftt.)| or Monterosso el Mare, to Spezla. 



Tlie carriage rou'e is much to be preferred. 
It rises up to the Pass of Bracco, one of the 
highest <'n the road. 1,3A0 feet above the sc.i. 
winding tljrough rocks of coloured marble and 
granite, clot hed with oil vos, chestnut?, and myrtles. 
The Apennines arc on the left, bounded by the 
old Duchy of Partna, BitAOCo has a fine view of 
Moneglia Bay, Sestri I'oint, Porto Flno. jfec. 
Hence, Ijy roail, up to the Pass of Velva. 2, 100 feet 
high, where vegetation cn''8, down to Bonr.iiKTTo 
(population, 1.936), where the chestnuts appear 
again. Here the peculiar flat cloth head-dress of 
the women and the small straw hat are seen. Pass 
a'ong the River Vara to the top nf Foce di Spezia^ 
commandiog a wide prospect (»f the beautlfnl Bay 
of Spezla, the Apennines, and Carrara Mountains. 

La Spezla (Stat.) 

Jloteh: (irand Hotel de la Croix de Malfo, 
splendid situation, full south, overlooking the 
Bav, beautifnl ffMrden in front of the Hotel; 
Grand Hotel d'ltalie. 

English Vice-Con s ul ; English Church Set vice at 
Hotel Crocc dl Malta. 

SpezlH Is a growing naval port, w^ith a very fine 
Naval Arsenal and Dock-yard, and a harbour of 
150 acres protected by a Mole. Here the great 
Dandolo was launched, 1878; and here the J 00-ton 
Gun, 82 feet long, 17J inch bore; firing a 2,000 lb. 
shot, with 440 lbs. of powder, was made by Sir 
W. Armstrong*. The town has of late years, 
owing to Its beautiful climate and picturesque 
scenery and associations, become a favourite 
winter rejort and much frequented bathing i»lace. 
Sanitary arrangements arc good, and there are 
numerous excursions to charming and Interesting- 
spots in the neighbourhood. It is at the head of 
the beautiful BapofSpezia, 5 miles by 4, safe, deep, 
and well guarded by forts built by NaiM.le n. 
and surroun'ied by villas. Ruins of the old cast'.c 
of St George. Spezla is the ancient /*o»-/i« Z,Mn;e, 
or Erycis, giving name to LERin, on the east 
side (population, 4,700), a fishing port, where 
Shelley, the poet, and his friend, Williams, were 
drowned, 1822. Shelley was then living In retire- 
ment at t». Terenzo. The current story Is, that his 
boat was purposely run down, In ihe belief that 
there was a box of money on board. His body was 
burnt on the shore by Byron, and the ashes were 
then intcrre<l in the cemetery ot Rome. On the 
west side of the bay is the promontory of black and 
>ellow marble, called Portor, after Porto Venerc, 
a picturesque village on the site of a Temp'c of 
Venus, close to which Is Isola Palmarla, and Its 
olive groves. Byron lived some time at Porto 
Venerc, and here wrote, at "Byron's Grotto." 
some portion of "The Corsair." Steamer from 
Spezla. There is a narrow gauge railway, 
3 klloms. long, up Monte ('appHccliii. 

It was after embarking at Spezla, 30th July, 
1858, to shoot on Capraja Island, 60 ndles distant, 
that Victor Emmanuel was nearly lost In the Gorer- 
noh steamer, by striking on a sunken rock. 

Rail to PoKTREMOLi, ucaf the Monte Visa Past 
over the Apennines, 3,400 feet high. 



RlVIEllAj Sl'EZIA, CAHKAIiA, MILAN. 




much of it to the United States, where it 






-^ 



2) 

is ill 
iiUiia 
rry; 
pre- 
en^, 
ire» 
leir 
avo 
. U 
mid 

1 
ion, 

Ufa 

I ab 

nde 

h a 

i8a; 

and 

iess 

issa 

)47. 
ind 
cu- 
ain. 
na» 
es.- 

Ing 
der 
rlo- 
ins 

»gi 
'a-' 
10 I 



e. 

n : 

'a I 

•sS 
11/ 

rlo 
ed. 

I ) 

th. 
lie 
ell 



Arc in* •« «•• . .. --. — - . — 

to the water aide at ATensa. Above 120,< 00 tons, 
in carsfoes of ftO tons each, arc shipped yca'-ly, 



Grand \lo\«A C,viw\.Vo«\\V«\. 

Grand \loX«\ ^VwiVw, o^^%V«. 'Ofi^''^ -^ws.- 




28 

<^rbitello, c 
his little ar 
>'nrsftla lit 
111 sscssioiiui 
'j wo Sicilies 
iiine million 



Genoa, by 
Lucca, 

By road c 
andSpezia: 
to Lcffhoni 
tinental Out 

Kcni 

Hecco 

Sta. Margh' 
('hiavari .. 
Sostri Leva 

TheRivit 
Ride of the 
delightful c 
Ponente. 1 
bavsofthci 
Tlic railwn 
road, bat 1 
where the • 

From Oc 
rises towar 
lived, to 

Nervld 

try-sentj*. 
Hotel »: IIo 
Station: K 
Enqliali Chi 

Recco C 
Aurclia. a 
campanile 
and harbo 
rising ?,00< 
nel throug 
and Sta. ! 
yards long 

Rapallf 

I'Europea; 
resort tor ' 
and pictur 
coral. Nei 
Kngiifii Ch 

CMava 

plain, wit 
churches 
Ales floi 
autumn. 

Layag] 

with a rec 
quarries r 

Sestii 

a beaut if u. ^^j ..^ 

rail inclines coastwardm past MOKIIMIUl UfWS.; 
Thence to L^yantO (Stat.) : an old port on a 
small bay; population, 4M2. Past MontOrOSSO 



lOBK V ICiUl iiiiiim*«.>»v« •• ••- ■- ■ . 

woh iteMMr, bf «trikliifr<n a ranken rock- 
Rail to PoNTREMOLi, near the Mtmt9 Cita Patt 



(Btat.), or Monterosso cl Mare, to Spczia. I over the Apennines, 8,400 feet higb. 



Route 11.] 



RIVIEUA, SPEZ2A, CAllUAIiA, MILAN. 



2) 



The line to Pisa cruKSPs the wide bed of tho 
Kaxra by n viaduct, wliich with tho new bridij:e 
'or the road, is made cspei-ially strong ti> resist tlie 
aounttiin torrents from tho Apennines. Old 
astlcs on the distimt heights. 

Sarzana (Stat.), population, 10,047, a bishop's 
«e, is the birth-place of Pope Nicholas V., the 
unnder of the Vatican Library; and was the 
liginal scat of the Bonaparte family, which 
furcd here as a bra»>ch of tho Counts Cad. »longhi, 
efore it settled in Cors ca. Sarzana, when it 
ame under the power of Genoa, in 1424 (by ex- 
aangc for leghorn), was granted t > the banking 
•rporation of S. Gi«»rgio, in that city. Hcsides a 
centre, hospital, &c., it contains a handsome 
arble Duomo, with some fretwork brought from 
I e ruins of Luna — an old Etruscan city up the 
Agra, which has yielded many pavements, marbles, 
'oiizes, inscriptions, Ac , and was a bishop's sec 
. i 14G5, when it was transferred to Sarxana. 
" fiat hark ! the cry U Astur, 
And lo! the ranlu divide. 
And the great Lord of Luna 
Oomf with hia stately stride." - MACAUUAr. 
The district, still called Lunigiana, wavdivided 
tween Modena, Sardinia, and Tuscany. 
Cross the lllver Parmignola, on the old frontier 

Massa, or Modcna, to 

Aveoza (Stat.), population, 3,2'5i, which has 
Rne old castle and a port at the mouth of the 
trronc, whence Carrara marble is shipped. Great 
r>cks of this marble, which is the kind most pre- 
Pred h\ sculptors, are brought down by immense 
ien, noted for their grey and white coloured 
lining skins, and large, soft, patient eyes. Branch 
il to ('arr.tra, 3 miles distant. 

CCarrara (Stat.) A town to the left (popuia- 

m, 30,143), utidcrthepurple and red hills, abounds 
Ith blocks of white marble, strewa on all sides, 
id with shops full of ornaments for sale. 
In Piazza Alberica is a fountain with a statue 
r Duchess Beatrice of the Cibo family, who, by 
er marria»:e in 1741 with the Duke of Modem, 
irried this little Duchy of 30 square miles of 
lountain, with that of Massa, into the Est^family. 
: contains a fine Cathedraf, marble of C3ur8e, of 
ic fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; Madonna 
die Grazie Church with some gco I marbles in it; 
. Giacomo FFospital; and nn Academy of Sculp- 
ire, founded by Princess Elisa, Napoleon's sister, 
nd provided with casts and medals, placed in her 
'aleKe, which she gave np for the purpose. 
The white Carrara marble, so called from the old 
atin quarrarix (whence our old English word 
larry). is found in inexhaustible quantities in the 
war ridges of Monte S^igro and Monte Crcstola, 
jar the Rivers Torano, Bedizzano. <fec, which 
iiite near Carrara, in the Carone. Within a few 
lies there arc above 400 quarries; those of Cima, 
re^tola, Palvaccio, Zamponc,<fec., giving the finest 
T sculpture. Alwve 6,000 men arc employed in 
•* quarries and water mills by which the blocks 
16 ft<»wn. They are then carried in bullock carts 
the water side at Avonza. Above 120,(00 tons, 
carsfoes of dO tons e«cb| are •hipped yearly, 



much of it to the United States, where it is in 
great request. In Roman times it was called Luna 
marble, that being the nearest place to the quarry; 
and mnn)' blocks and half-worked marble^ pre- 
pared for removal to Rone were found her?, 
whioh wore called fantifcrifti, from sonie figures 
of Jupiter. Bacchus, and Hercules, carved ne:ir 
them on which some ancient Roman visitors have 
left their names. A variety c.Uled bardiglio i« 
streaked with blue and purple Tho Cjire» and 
their spars of the purest water deseive a vinit.} 

Massa (Stat.), or Ma»9a Ducale (iiopulation, 
19.000), in the Valley of the Frigldo. The head of a 
Duchy, which was incorporated with Modena at 
the be^'inning of this century. It carries on a trade 
in marble ; and contains a fine old castle, with s 
Palace fonnerly inhabited by the Princess Elisa; 
the Church of S. Pietro, the Mercurio Pillar, and 
the site only of a cathedral, which the Princess 
razed to improve the prospect from her scat. Massa 
ha4 a mild climate and is noted for its melons. 

Pietra-Santa (Stat.) Population, i«,947. 

The Roman Lwus Feronix, with two churches and 
a campanile, and many marble qua''ries, paitlcu- 
larly that of Saravezza, known for its fine grahi. 
The Church of S. Martino has bronzes by Dona* 
tello. This to*n is within the bounds of the ex* 
t net Duchy of Lucca. 

ViareggiO (Stat.), near the sea. A bathing 
p1ac3 (population, 12,519), in a pine forest under 
the A|)ennines. Hofefs: (Jorono; Russie; Anglo- 
Amdricain. At the Bagni di Xerone arc remains 
of Roman baths. 

From Viaregglo a line (20 miles) runs throng'i 
Lttcca(Route 21) to Ponte aMoriano.on the wa / 

to the Raths of Lucca. The line will be contlrue I 
to Aulla on the line to Pontremoll (page 'i8). 

Torre del LagO (Stat.), near thu Serchlo. 

Pisa (Stat.) See Route 23. 

ROTJXE 11. 

Milan to QaUarate and Lake Magglore. 
MILAN (Stat.), 

Mildno of the Italians, Mailand of the German < 
It gave name to the Milainersor Milliners^ and Ma I 
armour, for both of which it was famous. 

Hotels: -Gran i Uotcl de Milan, the largest firsS 
class hotel of Milan. Great comfort. Hlghl/ 
recommended. 

Hotel *de I'Europe, situated Corso Vi*^torio 
Emannele, 9 and 11. Desenredly recommo.ided. 
See Advt. 

Hotel Terminus, situated in tlie immed'a ) 
vicinity of the railway station. See Advt. 

Hotel dn Nord, close to the station. Full siutH. 
See Advt. 

Hotel Cavour, Place Cavour, opposite the public 
gardens, good accommodation. 

Hotel da la Vllle, J. Baer, proprietor, well 
situated, on the Corso Victor Emmanuel. 

Hotel de Grande Bretagne. The Guide attach ^d 
to this liotel is recommended. 

Grand Hol«\ Co\\\,Vi\e\\\.«\. 

G rand lloU\ "MojAti, ovV>*\^^ ^"^ \».t^- 



30 



BKADSUilW'S ITALr. 



[Section 1, 



Hotel de France, 19, Cours Victor Emmanuel. 

Hotel de Rome. 

Hotel Miftropole; Hotel dn Lion; Hotel Central. 

Buffet at the handsome Railway Station. 

Cafes. — Biffi and Gnocchl. in the liandsome new 
Galleria Victor Emmanuel; Cova in Via San 
Gniscppe. 

It is noted for Milanese cutlets, Milan rice 
(risotto), and other rice dishes ; also mushrooms, 
Ac. The pastry, chocolate, and milk preparations 
are also excellent, as well as the rigs, grapes, 
melons, and other fruits. 

Broughams', per course, 1 lira; per hour, 1 lira 
60 cents. There is a better kind, numbered red, 
slightly dearer. Omnibuses: 10 cents, per course; 
from the railway stations, 25 cents. 

Resident English and American Vice-Consttls. 

English Church Service.— S, Via Andcgari, 

Waldensian Church.— S. Giovanni in Conca. 
• English Bankers.— VMch and Co. 

Post Office, 20, Via Rastrelli; 36 hours from 
London. Telegraph, 19, Piazza de' Mercanti. 

Railway Stations, Central, near Porta Nuova; 
Erba, near the Castello, for Saronno, Lavcno, Ac. 

Tramways from the Duomo to the Station, <fec. 
Private carriages, for Milan and the environs, 16 
lire a day. 

Steam Trams.— lAil&n to Cagnola. Saronno, and 
Tradate; and to Finoand Como. To Rho, Legnano, 
and Gallarate. To Sedriano and Castano. To 
Oorgonzola (noted for Its cheese) and Vaprio. To 
Monza and Barzano. To Trevlglio and Bergamo. 
To Melegnano and Lodi. To Binasco and Pavia. 

The best shops are in the Galleria Vittorio 
Kmmanuele, and in the Corso of the same name. 
Houses arc shaded from sun and heat by green 
blinds; and it is desirable when taking a house 
for a tenn. to look out one on which he sun shines ; 
otherwise it may be unhealthy 

*Chie/ Objeca of Notiee.— The Duomo ; St. Am- 
broglo; St. Carlo; Da Vinci's Last Supper, at 
the Dominican Priory; Royal Palace; Ambrosiah 
Library; Brera Gallery, and the Sposalizio; La 
Scala; Arch of Peace; Great Hospital; Museo 
Poldo-Pezzoli. The new Victor Emmanuel Gal- 
lery, by Mengoni. 

Population (1891), 425,000, including the suburbs. 

Milan is the seat of an archbishop, the capital 
of Lombardy, a luxurious city, with hne hotels, 
ca£Fbs, theatres, and various institutions for 
literature, art. and science. It stands at the centre 
of several roads, tramways, and railways, in the 
wide, fertile, and well irrigated plain of Lombardy, 
between the Olona and Lumbro. 15 miles from the 
Po. to which they run. The Consuls M, Mnrcc»lu8 
and C.Scipio took it in B.C. 221. from the Insubrcs 
in Ci^alpinc Gm\\. and called it Me<iiolanum, from 
which comes its pr< sent name Hero Constantine, 
in 313. issu£<i his decree declaring ail religions 
equal beiore the law. 

It was given to Austria, 1713; taken by the 

French, 1796; became the head of the Cisalpine 

^e/fab}}t^ then of Napoleon'0 kingdom of Italy, 



1805, under the Viceroy Eugene Beauhamoi.", but 
was restored in 1814 to Austria, after an attempt at 
independence, which resulted in the assassination 
of Prina, Napoleon's minister, 20th April, 1813. 

The Austrians made it the capital of their Lom- 
bardo- Venetian kmgdom. Two risings occurred 
in 1821 and 1848; in the latter case they were 
driven out after four days' fighting. They came 
back in 1849, on the 1 0th of August, the Emperor's 
birthday. Victor Emm«nuel made his entry 
here August 10th, 1859, after the treaty of 
Villafranca. Its governor at the annexa- 
tion was the able and distinguished Mas«imo 
d'Azeglio, uncle to the late Italian Ambassador at 
London. Very few ancient remains have survived 
these changes; but it is still one of the richest 
cities in Europe. The snowy Alps are in view. 

The noble Duomo and its spires, the grand mark 
from all sides, stands in the midst of the narrow 
winding streets of the old city ; which is surrounded 
by a branch of the Naviglio Grande, and is an oval 
space 1 i by 1 mile. This canal communicates by the 
Naviglio di Martesana with the streams on each 
side. Beyond it the suburbs, In some parts, stretch 
to the bastione or ramparts, built 1555, which 
form an irregular hexagon between 6 and 7 
miles and about 2 miles across. They are well 
planted with trees, as are the Piazza d'Armi, and 
the Foro on the N. W., where the line of circumval- 
lation is most broken. The streets, called in the 
old town contrade (contrada, a street) and calle 
(calla, a lane), improve in the newer parts, where 
the best houses are found, and as they widen take 
the name of Corsi (corso, a course) ; they are how- 
ever as a rule not wide, but the buildings are 
tolerahly lofty. Many of the streets are known 
by the name of Via, and those outside, skirting 
the bastions, as Viale. 

The best streets arc Corso Victor Emmanuel, 
Corso di Porta Vonczia. and Via Charles Albert. 
The Victor Emmanu'l Arcade is a cross 640 
feet by 345, with shops and statuary. This gallery, 
running between the Piazza del Duomo and the 
Piazza della Scala. is superior to anything of the 
kind elsewhere. • Milan is the cleanest city in Italy. 
The chimneys of many of the houses are disguised 
under the form of small turrets, castles, and Chinese 
temples. 

The best promenades are on the ramparts, the 
Gallerio Vittorio Emmanuele, and the Giardino 
Pubblico. Most of the open spaces, or Piazze, 
are irregular; the largest is Piazza del Duomo, 
from which anewstreet, called Vittorio Kmmanuele, 
is open to the Leonardo da Vinci Piazza : a Loggia 
Reale, by Mengoni. faces it. That or Piazza For- 
tuna, near it, has a fountain of red granite with 
two marble svrens; the Piazza de' Mercanti fronts 
the old Exchange: Piazza St. Fedele, opposite 
that fhurch. is regular Piazza Borromeo has a 
bronze of S. Carlo Borromeo. 

The Churches are usually shut from twelve to 
three. Of all the buildings, the most striking is 
the marble, cross-shaped 

*DuomOy or Cathedral^ re^oned by some to be the 



Boute 11. 1 



MILAN— GHUBCHEg . 



31 



most remarkable church in Italy, after St. Peter's, 
at Rome, and dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It is 
for the most part in the florid Gothic style, with a 
profusion of spires and niched statues. There are 
100 of the former, and 7,000 of the latter, of which 
2,400 have been put up in the last twelve years, 
one of the latest being the statue of Victor Em- 
manuel. Visitors are recommended to see it first 
by moonlight, if possible. Though begun by G. 
G. Visconti, Duke of Milan, as far back as 1386, it 
is still unfinished, after various additions and 
alterations from the original design, which seems 
to be due to H. Ahrler, a German. In fact, it is 
in a continual state of repair, in tenns of a deed 
under which a certain sum is spent annually upon 
the edifice. Length, 371 feet; width, 226 feet; 
height of the aisles, 92 feet; of the nave, 152 feet 
(about l.'iO to the vaulting); of the cupola, 197 
feet (or 360 feet to the top of the spire). The front 
is an elaborate piece of work, much broken up by 
small doors, and many windows, in a Gothicised 
Roman style, little harmonising with the scale of 
splendour of the interior. This part was restored 
in Napoleon's time, and decorated with statues and 
bas-reliefs. On each side of the middle door arc 
two columns, each of an enormous granite block, 
from Baveno, 85 feet high, carrying statues of 
S. Caiio Borromeo (by Monti) and Marchesi. A 
stained window above contains the Assumption, by 
Bertini, a modern window painter, who died 1849. 
The interior, though ill lighted, is vast and impos- 
ing, being a clear space from end to end, only 
interrupted by the great clustered pillars which 
support the vault. There are fifty-two of them, 
S9 feet high, 20 feet round the base, and covered 
with niched figures, foliage, tracerj', &c. They 
divide the body into two aisles, on each side of the 
nave, and one on each side of the transepts. 

The pavement is of chequered marble. There 
are tombs of archbishops, the Visconti, Ac, and 
two popes. Martin V. and Pius IV. Round the 
pulpits are bronzes of the four evangelists, and 
four fatherfj, by Brambilla. In Pellegrini's choir 
are seventeen bas-reliefs of great excellence. The 
bronze taberaacle of the high altar is another 
work by Brambilla. Here they keep a nail of the 
true cross, which is carried in procession on the 
3rd of May, the anniversary of the great plague of 
Milan, in which its excellent archbishop, San 
Carlo Borromeo, figured so worthily. He died in 
1584, and his body is preserved here. His rich gold 
and silver shrine is in a shrine below, where he 
•is seen dressed up in pontifical robes, sparkling 
with diamonds, and his head resting on a gilded 
cushion. He was the nephew of Pius IV., and 
was canonised by his successor; which cost his 
family so large a sum, that they declined to ask 
for a similar honour for his cousin. Cardinal Fred. 
•Borromeo, the one celebrated by Manzoni, in the 
Fromeui SpoH. 

. Jkn inscription at the east end of the cathedral 
.giTm a list of the reficx belonging to it. among 
whkh wra Christ's cradle and swaddling clothes; 
^•rt ol tibt towel with wbicb lie wiped Us dis- 



ciples' feet ; foui> thorns of his crown ; parts uf (he 
reed, the cross, the sponge, and the spear ; and 
one of the nails; a piece of Moses' rod; two of 
Elisha's teeth ; and so on. A charge of 5 lire is 
made for showing the relics of S. Carlo Borromeo. 

" One of the most popular religious books is the 
Filotea, published by one of the confessors to the 
cathedral. It is full of legendary fables and scUn 
by thousands. Every disorder of every part of 
the human body has a saint, to whom the patient 
may pray for a cure.'"— Dr. Wordstcorth. 

Here also are St. Carlo's statue, and that of St. 
Ambrose, besides eight pictures, Ac, of the eveutp 
of St. Carlo's life. Behind the choir is a curious 
anatomical statue of St. Bartholomew, by Agrati. 
in the act of being flayed. The Treasury (admis- 
sion, 1 lira) contains an enamelled gospel and a 
diptych of very ancient date, and a statue of 
Christ by C. Solari. 

In the Medici Chapel is a tomb, designed by M. 
Angelo ; built by Pope Paul IV., to his brother. 
Some of the pictures are worth notice from being 
on glass. High up is the portrait of the principal 
architect, with the inscription, "I. O. Antonius 
Homodeus Venere Fabrice, ML. I., Architectus," in 
a circle. About 620 marble steps bring us at 
length (past Brambilla's statues of Adam and Eve) 
to the gallery round the spire, whence there is a 
noble view over the whole plain of the Po, as far 
as Mont Blanc, Mont Rosa, the Stelvio Pass, Ac. 
Charge, 25c.; guide, 1 lira. The cathedral is open 
all day. 

•' It wants chiaro-scuro, and some of its details, 
especially in the facade, and the Roninn erection 
on the roof of the nave, greatly impair the effect. 
But who can describe the interior? After the 
light and somewhat tawdry decc^ations of many 
other Continental chui-ches, this magnificent 
cathedral, especially when enteredfrom the subter- 
ranean passage which leads from the archbishop's 
palace, produces a powerful impression on the 
mind, by its vast size, its lofty proportions, its 
solemn gloom and sublime grandeur, and the rich 
hues of its stained glass windows. It seems as if 
the ancient spirit of religion, such as dwelt in 
Milan in the days of St. Ambrose, loved to linger 
here. The inscription, which is conspicuous on 
the rood loft, ^Attendite ad Petram undo excisi 
estes' (Look unto the Rock whence ye were hewn), 
is very significant. There are side altars, but not 
prominent as in many churches." — Dr. Wordncorth. 

The large windows at the east end are modem, 
stained with subjects from the Bible, especially the 
Revelation,8ome by Bertini; and replace those which 
were shattered by the cannonading of 1805. at the 
time when Napoleon was crowned King of Italy. 

The choir has no screen. At the intersection of 
the nave and transepts are the large ambos or 
pulpits, from which the gospel and epistle arc read. 
The Ambrosian liturgy, which the Pope has ncveii 
been able to abolish, is a standiw.^ \rtv«aR. ^A. 'Cc^ 
independence otlVv<i^V5L«»»»feCVv«e^- 't^'^'^t!^>^ 
use t-Yv© ^ovfttmTVuasCL w^ xv^ ^^^^'^SJ^^ 
\ except on xcry \««boX <J««sea."»i»«»' ^^ 



le Battle of Magfcata, A 



A Sorlfli ErdalaUka wu fonndcd here In ISfiV. 
and conilili of !M luomlwn. Ilie object of 
which t» to cultlrUo nllKioua itniliu. eagwelsiry 
t hnu nhich huvc a priictlCBl InHucnca nn ths mkIiI 

■wat denoQiiced liy the UltnunonUne Jannula 

Sla. ilaria dtllt Oiaiie. In Cnno Pli, Mugenla, 

rack}.wn9 built IU3-t& hy Leonirdo dnVliicl'i 
imtron, Duke Lndovieo II Hbro, and hsa h Qothle 



■,nilBuppei-»fU«.y\Be\. paliili 
11, HSI-ltWCMmeMyHiIeeii J 
; iiaw SO decjiyert. partly from 
tiiient, AB to 1>a hartlly nutlcp 
fla'lonr nnd St.ThooiiH are vl. 



liTerKilly known. The ureal painter oitabll'he 
School of km here, anil llT«d on an eitata nea 
e Porta VcroBlliua, eloH by, given hlin by th 



wrLpilanB and eolonred r« 



>e found In this 

'k<d<>ne DM)' eikinied with 

life. jie^andcoTerrdwIlhabeanllfglcaiinpy: the 

Sold ehapel behind bli choir, and lie twelTs 
>u> Hyiaiitlne musates un a gwld ground. 

r luro fcaat. Opposite this Is a portrait of St. 



■dl^Birere^l 



It, the Kliiff ol Qlory." Bi 
'r>, aerraalun and Protaali 



Another chapel it called St. Sat; 
31. Victor, In a aa^caphasn^ which 



SSSt, 



>f Cltrlii and the iv 



AiiKcla, kt: 

The Latin hj-inns ui ei. jLinuroec n 
edited hy Ulroxhl, one of the nrefel 

Anibrua ibrarj-.nnacrllietUleof "In 

di 3ant' Amliroi^lo."— £r. WordBttirlh. 



Campl, Prooaecli 



:ini, and olber arlirti. 



ie Hllltary ColleRO, founded 
*l. ahowB a very beautiful 
M Bihyla. by Fontana: and 

lana-artatm of the Virgin; 



court or Alrium to the other or principal nave. In 



people aakod 


Ima and 


8. AmbroBioi»Hhpletuteibj-Proca™hil,B«lloii, 


or*d by an are 


ade, and 




icriptlons, i-ome 


of them 


a lata if-a^ Mia Pautiiue. in the VladelCon- 


Latin. The 


ancient 




mbard hle^ 


ook the 




ed In the i'la.-^ 




hlKh. Nolethotombof thefounden. (Archblabo|. 


AngcllKTi. a 




Blraw anri hli brelher). by A. Vualna. ]4tR: 


aniw, ascribed 


10 him. 


paliitingi Dl (bo Ciuciaxlon, by CampU Ibe Lail 



fiOSM Il>] HLUB— CEUBCHBB, 

guppsr. b; a. Forrarl; Ht. Frani 

a. Paolo. Diuu Binti Eufemli 
lath «ntor», li rlohlj orru 
fmwei by Uie BrH. Cimpl. 



>, by Procacctal; 

WBi bnlh In the 
lentcd, and bai 



little dlgDltr tt 



The CbIvht Chapel of 8. j 
- _ ,,. ir(. In Corm dl Porta Rouana, | 
ramadll. 11 1. (tall of moi'iamenlB of | 



"Qal nunqnam qa1«Tlt« nnleKl 



i'rf 


Sf.P^llm^y 


■foJB'rtc'ch 


pu 


rdo 


only 


Ihfl Falax 


«He'™" 


chm 


"if 


M<-gg 


«:'i°™" 


LOKllcof J 


iwn 



n (he Vlt ToHno, hai no ( 



larM ilnroiar ootairoD^ chuicb. 143 feet dlauKter^ caplloL palDtad tniltallon of ono, at tlia und of tho 
with ■ donw, by Pdleplnl, and flanked by li>o i naw. It waa ro-bolit by Bromanle. 
amall cKtacaiu; ona ol Ibem being an ancient j s. SdiaslianB. a round cburch, In Oonlrada dells 
chapel Id which .Usolplina. tha Oolh. and his wife p„|j, 

™Z.1^b^^KEd i™'??w "ta'^^^t" ! .t^-^ir^'n M"t/»^"„?-,^""rl"','i,^"?"^ 



of tbg Tev^t ot S<Mt q, 
■appoied, hrMaTlrnlllanp 



S. fWtlt. Id (ba Pluia bt 

Coilece. wae bnlll by Pelleg 
relletiln the front, by O. 1 
Inlarcedins In the Plagae ol 



bnilt gn the ilta of an old lemple of the »i 
'S. Carlnaerrmiti, In Coiia VltC.Bman. i 
roond choich, bnUt 1808-47. by Amatl. wit 
cooled from lbs Panlbeon, llUteet dUnu 
ItD [act bigb. "HotwltbataDdloe tliat l( ] 

be.Bllfnl 



la icol High, da Vlud, m 



mnrbiraP 




hl.i>lno8don«p«dej- 




bM by il«t'u« 


fonr or biB principal 


pin.tl^ an 


<!uibellUliod wJ 


b coplei of hl> chief 






72, and t. by Map.l. 


F*UCM 


—Near the Uuom 


oLtbCPotausffa.;* 


(Royal Pi 


aw), rebuUl and 






lj.cc of <he Unk 


oa of Milan. In the 






»e. by Appiaiil <tbe 


a pot habile 


if Nnp^coa) Ini 


UareiiwithiooMbv 


Sabatclll. 


A range of CaryuUdca, by Celano, 




oi and fl. aotwrdo'a 




Chapel, which v 


11 part of the ancient 


palace, w 


a rculorcd BPd 




Uto An'b 


iDka Uailmllia 




Ocnei^l of 


I^nibsidy. Th 


torna halli BdjobilnR 


tba l«U-to 






tapeatty o 




ntu'4.''f™^he°Car'l 


t..Oneont 


ph.cl, embroidered by the nune of San 


2!."'^-)!^J" 




tlio aetman Eniprur 



'ound anywhere alaa, ijivtamelly ._ 
d. A portico of thirty-Bin Corlnlhij 
an gad pretty r—'- ------- "-■--• 



wlii^ are daatrayed by 
them, with lima Hon 
portlcDca, 



hiiiarble.aodeoineiroodeau]pture. wae loilirnl n 

la cbnpFl, with e coIoxmhI angel In coit[>cr 

OToTuh' oFiuiir'bial "inrfeet J^''"'™ ArriraaitUi (ArcbbWiop-a), with n 

Pellmrinl. The court la anrronnitcd by n 
. ., J , ,„ ^j „_^^ 

ifortc, an old 



n cIrcninfeTahee, and ^e capital . 

ira lanlileu. biol the canlml poctlea la cnwhad hilo 






idow. nn'ler the palace adjolnlne. 
ipota with, md, ai far aa poirfblc, deitroy, hnildlng with a modern fai^Oe, 



r. ViKODtL 

Palaae dl GUuHiia, near PUiu BeccarLa, i 
nlle, OD«j thorcildence of the lodge, bai in lilt 

Palam Mia ioflanr. now oiod (or the 
ElDlimga mil tbe ArclilTei. lUh centw 
PUuu de' Hercmitl. wlicrs 1i >lnn the 

cbuE* ond Telcsrnpli oncf . 



I 10,040 USS. and psilnipnsti 

lIll^lH. frtibn ItbrArEan 1i£r 
DDRepublLcA, parts of blilo: 



anuther, of th« Uoapela I 



kHaBom 
loni, IW 
, llDllt \ij 



. . tni;ni«it of M. Cyril 
..n letlonof Lncratla Uorela, anil 
brli;hi yellow taulr; a HH. Tolanw of 



I are now occupied b; Ilie local Qoren: 
»<nii iheffronnd Soot). "TIili Imnor 
iHanHIUI bDlldlue-. Iti necullarlly li tl 
I inon like our Ellzabecliaii. or u If oi 
hat may bo called Iho Hcldolbers' atylo, 
Hie ■Mull] 



s:.?ifi;: 



baildlu^ tituated IntbeCinMl 

P^atia Uriti, In Via Hanln. with patntinit. t 
Cuara dl Cmta. Caia Poatl. leib CBntiuy. In V 
mgU, baa a line portal. In "-"'- '■ ^ 

Opputltc CantCutlglkineli 
occuirtcdby Bonoimno In 17 



Is dcT^'omo < 



I Kauhaera lar^ cartooniof tho Hchool of AtlKiiB 

eleven Tlllanii cimegdo'a OhrM nOil the sKler 
, ' DolarDU; Kaphael'i Wiutaliiic tho UUclplot' lre» : 
, and othcra by Gnercino. l>el Bnrto, V.. Ihdcl. S. 

Roaa. Schldona, A. DUrsr, Cransch, Uullielii. and 
, . by Uruughol (hl> Eleoienti of Fire). 
, I Another great collection la at the •BlsnL or 

\ . (onncrlT the JuulU' College ; built by RIchliili 
I and cntargod by Plermarlnl. It compriics the 

\ \ IBUi; tbc academy Df'anoarta; the nubile 11 bruty 
J of ovei 30(1.000 Toluniei, and 1,000 M89., and nn 



JMIniio riKMH, Via LonionU t 



nnlly. Pataa 



■only. " 



It by a. 



Marqula CasTiola. fWotm rifcufiio. built by i 
qnhiTrlTnlil; It has a library of M,000 rolni 
■nd 2,<I0« UHH. Villa Bonapute. In Ancgatdeui 

The Royal Villa, f oinurly occupied by Iha 111 
Archduke Maxlnillliin, aa ImnnriilVlceroy, la nei 
IharubllcaardeneandPortaOrUaiole. Tbepalii 
ouca occupied by Uueau Carallne atandi In tt 
PMk Oanieni; nud anialda the gate on Ihla Oi 
la the •LoiiarctlD mentioned ill ManaonrafVonH 
fipEuf, au old quadrangle of one aiorcy. 

Ifiuto PolM-Ptaoli, Vli 



SahiliiWora Ct 
Con«Bli.ni.-.M» 









Saptembrr. 10 lo 31. In Cnnlrada dells tjiblloteca, 
l>*9foiuidedbyCanllDi'Doir«ii*o,D<pheirolBui 1 1 



ult of Joseph an'il Uary; Glurglone'i Uo>ei In 
tbe Bullruabes and his St. Sebastian; Titian's St. 

{ognone. with Dramuilbio, «. Laiilnl, tc., an 
painters uf tho Mllanose school, ftfteonlh and lax- 
teenth century. Ftac on Thursday! and Bundiiyi. 



Koute 11.] 



MILAN — ^THEATRES — ABCO DELLA PACE, ETC. 



35 



fine collection of ancient and mediscval works. 
Here are preserved whatever remains of the old 
city have been removed in effecting improvements. 

In the Via del Senato, in the Palazzo deffa 
Sociefa pelle Belle Arti, with a pennancnt Art 
Exhibition. 

The Conservatorio delta Afuska is the old convent 
near the Church of Sta. Maria della Passionc, Via 
del Conservatorio. 

In the Via Manin is the JIusfo Cicico, with 
natural history and ethnological collections; the 
reptiles are especially worth seeing. Open, 
Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday (gratis), and 
Saturday, 11 lo 3. 

Of the theatres, the best, and also the largest in 
Italy, is the *Teatro la Scala, or Opera House, in 
Corsi del Giardino, on the site of the Santa Maria 
della Scala, and facing the new Statue of Leonardo 
da Vinci. It was built, 1777-9, by G. Picrmarini, 
and is as magnificent as it is commodious in all its 
parts. San Carlo, at Naples, is its only rival. A 
large vestibule leads into the pit, and by two grand 
staircases to the boxes, which number 24u, and 
have a small saloon or cabinet to each; total 
length, 320 feet; breadth, 180 feet (length of 
San Carlo's, 210 feet); pit, 105 feet deep, and 87 
wide across the boxes. Its fa9adc is Corinthian 
on a rustic basement It holds above 3,A00 per- 
sons. Performances, as a rule, only during the 
Carnival. "The Scala Theatre is the general ren- 
dezvous of Milan, and those who meet nowhere 
else meet there. The principal business of the 
audience certainly is not attention to the music; 
and murmurs, loud talking, and laughing are heard 
from the beginning to the end of the performance, 
except during one or two favourite airs, when all 
arc still. Those who sit in the pit are the only real 
audience. Those who stand in the alleys come to 
hear the news and arrange commercial affairs; of 
the boxes, the two first tiers are the most polite 
and the least amusing; in the third and fourth 
tiers are settled almost all intrigues of all kinds ; 
in the fifth some of them are brought to a conclu- 
sion; and there also are card-tables, and gambling 
is going on daring the whole performance ; the 
sixth is open like the "pit." — Lord Broughton. 

Teatro Cannobbiano, near Contrada Larga, and 
the Royal Palace (to which it is joined by a cor- 
ridor), was also built by Piermarini. It is usually 
open only during the carnival. 

Teatro Manzoni^ near Piazza San Fedele, is 
handsomely arranged. Carlo Re, on the site of an 
old church. Teatro dal Verme, a new one (1872) for 
grand operas and ballets, occasionally circus. 
Teatro FUo-drammatici^ for amateurs. Via S. Dal- 
mazio, is near La 8cala,and was built by Pollack. 
Operatic performances. 

Tlie Circo, or Anfiteatro (or Arena), in the Piazza 
cU Armi, built by the French, 1805-6, from 
Canonico's design, is an oval, 350 feet by 170 feet, 
for races, shows, Ac ; the Marble Arch stands at 
one end. It may bo flooded for boat races. It will 
hold 30,000 spectators in its ten rows of scats, 
which arc ncnrljr ail of turf. 



'*For some time after the change of government 
the Circus was neglected, and the races discon- 
tinued, but the velvet throne of Napoleon, and two 
figures in the ceiling, representing him and his 
Empress, Josephine, were shown at our first visit. 
At my next visit, in 1822, the Empress was become 
a Minerva; and the former master of the iron 
crown was an old man with a beard."— Zwd 
Broughton. 

In front of the Castcllo or Cascrma, a great 
Barrack on the site of the old castle of the Dukes 
(of which some traces remain), is the Foro Bona- 
parte, a public walk laid out by Napoleon. 
Behind it is the Piazza d'Arml, for reviews; about 
9C0 feet square, planted round the borders. On 
the further side, across the Simplon Road, rises a 
noble marble triumphal arch, called the 

*ArC0 della Pace, or Arco dd Sempione^ second 
only to the Arc do I'Etoile at Paris for size. 
It was began 1807, by Marquis Cagnola, but not 
fini^hcdtill 1837, andwasinauguratedthe year after 
at thecoronation of Emperor Francis I. Thus,thougli 
destined to record the triumphs of Napoleon, it 
records only his reverses at Leipsic, Paris, &,c. 
It was re-dcdicatcd to its new masters, 1869. As 
seen from all sides, it is a conspicuous mass 72 feet 
wide, 74 feet high, 42 feet thick; the centre arch, 
24 feet wide by 48 feet high; two smaller ones, 11 
feet by 28 feet. Fluted Corinthian pillars face 
each of the principal wings. There are numerous 
reliefs, statues, &c., including emblems of the 
Rivers Po, Ticino, Adige, andTagliamcnto, by the 
artists, Cacciatore and Pompeo Marchesi. On the 
top are two bronze Victories, 13 feet high, and 
(in the middle) a colossal bronze figure of Peace 
(by Sangiorgio), in a car drawn by six horses. Its 
total cost is reckoned at upwards of i! 140,000. 

Out of the ten gates in the city ramparts, that 
of the Porta Ticinesc (fonnerly Marengo) is also 
by Cagnola, being composed of two Doric arches, 
with rustic work across the canale ; the old towers 
have been removed. 1'he Porta Romana is flanked 
by rustic pillars. Porta Nuova is Corinthian in 
style, with good bas-reliefs, by Zanaja (died 1817). 

*Osjpedale Maggiore^ or Great Hospital, with room 
for 1,300, is a parti-coloured building in the pointed 
style, 400 feet by 153 broad; made up of two 
square masses, each containing four courts, united 
by a grand court, 243 feet by 223 feet, consisting 
of two tiers of light, elegant arches, ornamented 
with pilasters, reliefs, <fcc. It was founded, 1467, 
by Duke F. Sforza, and is richly endowed. Bra- 
mantc, Richini, «S:c., have had a share in the 
building of it, since the commencement, by 
Filaretc, of the southern mass; the northern being 
of a modem date, and inferior design. In the 
middle of the centre court is a domed roof, with 
Gucrcino's Annunciation, and the portraits of 
benefactors. The smaller donors are di'awn 
standing, while the others sit. 

There are also the two hospitals of the Fate 
bcne-Sorclle and Fate-bene-FteA5s,WS.^^x ^^-^saxsx^ 
and brclKtwy, wcv<i «.^V«wV!. ^Sa^JVi^.^^ ^x5s^x% 



36 



BSADSHAW'S ITALY. 



[Section 1. 



Caua di Ritparmio^ in Via Honte di Piet2^ is a 
new and handsome building. 

Amongr the places of education are the military 
college and artillery school, a reterinary school, a 
seminary for the priests, two royal colleges or 
lycoums, &c. 

Near the *Lazzaretto^ celebrated by Manzoni, 
is a Foppone, or Cemetery. The large Cimiterio 
Monumentdle is on the north-west side, and is of 
great extent. It contains a Cremation Temple, and 
many handsome monuments. The charge, llr. 50c. 
for the guide is somewhat high. 

Piazza do^Mercanti, near the Piazza del Duomo, 
was the centre of the old city, and formerly had 
five gates. A bit of antiquity, called the Uomo 
di Pietra, is in the Corsi de Servi. The Mercato, 
or Old Market, ip near the Foro. 

In the neighbourhood are Cascllago and its gar- 
dens; Casa Simonetta and its Echo, 1^ mile; 
and Montebello, which was Bonaparte's head- 
quarters, 1797. Viareggio is an autumn retreat, 
in a fine spot. 

Among its eminent natives are Gtecllius Stotius, 
Valerius Maximus, Cardan, Beccaria, Parini, Ac 
The late well-known Dr. Granville was bom here, 
1778, of the Bozzi (Bos) family ; he was a Gran- 
ville on his mother's side. 

Jfanu/actures.— Sills, goods of all kinds, em- 
broidery, cotton prints, goldsmiths' work, and 
jewellery, artificial flowers, glass, soap, leather, 
Ac, while there is tr.ade in the produce of the 
country about, as rice, cheese, raw silk, Ac. It is 
noted for its furniture. The plain silks of Lom- 
bardy are still the best in Europe. Many resident 
families have very large incomes. Families with 
more than jC5,000 reckon by hundreds. The 
commerce of Milan has more than doubled since 
1852. 

Formerly the aspirations of its inhabitants were 
embodied in the ignoble rhyme — 

"YWa Franci*, viva BpiugoB, 
Ba«ta che m magna." 

(Hurrah for France or Spain, so that we get enough 
to eat) ; but their sentiments are now of a' more 
manly character. They are noted for affability 
and good humour. 

Fashionables meet at Caflf^s Martini and Cova, 
or the Giardino Club, on an easy footing, without 
distinctionof classorcrecd. Provided a man is well 
educated, "The 'Ciao,' the most familiar form of 
friendly salutation, is freely exchanged between a 
duke and a bourgeois, and titles are generally 
dropped, a noble being addressed by his name, as 
Litta, Borromeo, Archinto, Ac. Even ladies arc 
addressed in the same familiar fashion. Some of 
them, owing either to their remarkable beauty, or 
their grace, are designated by nick-names. One is 
called the Sublime, another the Divine ; one the 
Lily, another the Polo BtAT.''—At'rivdbene. The 
drawing-rooms of the leading families are freely 
open to every gentleman of character, whether 
native or foreign : and if he has a letter of Intro- 
raa to aomo one J/i the city, h« seed be nt no 



loss how to spend his evenings. Once introduced, 
he may drop in at a party where every one may 
be a stranger to him, and will meet with a simple 
and kind reception. 

A very favourite resort of the Milanese are the 
Giardini Pubblici at the north-eastern corner of 
the city. Here and on the Bastione dl Porta 
Vonezla, which is on the outside of the gardens, 
there is in the afternoon a long parade of carriages 
and promenaders. In the gardens is the Museo 
ArtUtico, with some objects of local interest. 
Open 1 to 4; admission 1 lira. 

The women of Milan possess the true Lombard 
style of beauty, fair and gentle, as seen in the 
Madonnas of Raphael and Leonardo da Vinci; 
and they have also the secret of dressing well. 
The middle and lower classes wear black lace 
veils. Many of the men are stunted and weakly. 

When the news of Magenta reached Milan, in 
June, 1859, the people began to barricade the streets 
leading to the camp of the Austrian general, 
Kelhemer, in the Piazza Castello ; who, however, 
gave them no trouble, but evacuated the city on 
the 6th. They then met to demand the restoration 
of the Fusione, or Act of 1848, by which Lombardy 
was united to Piedmont. This was done by the 
Assessori Municipali (their mayor, Count Scbre- 
gondi, having run away), from the balcony of the 
palace, and a deputation was sent to announce the 
fact to their newly elected sovereign, Victor Em- 
manuel, on the field of Magenta. 

On the 7th June, MacMahon, attho head of the 
2nd corps and a magnificent staff, entered Milan, 
by the Porta Vercellina. He then marched to the 
field of Melagnano. The two Sovereigns made 
their entry the day after so early that most of the 
people were in bed. Louis Napoleon occupied 
Villa Bonaparte, which had been inhabited by him 
when a boy, with his mother, Queen Hortenso, 
and by Napoleon I. himself. The Royal Palace 
was placed at the disposal of Victor Emmanuel, 
but finding it had not been cleared of property 
belonging to the late Archduke Maximilian, ho 
rode to the palace of Marquis Busca, one of the 
richest of the Milanese nobles. 

A little while after his entry, Louis Napoleon 
quietly rode to Porta Romana, with an aide-de- 
camp, unknown to the excited crowd, who, how- 
ever, recognised him, on his return, and over- 
whelmed him with such demonstrations of gratitude 
as quite touched him. From the Villa Bonaparte 
he issued his famous proclamation. The rough 
draught of this, in his handwriting, with many 
corrections, is in the possession of the curate San 
Martino, at whoso house he passed the night after 
Magenta. 

After this, the Emperor and Victor Emmanuel 
made a triumphal procession through the streets 
together ; and during their stay there was a con- 
tinual succession of feasts and illuminations. 
Cavour, who had followed the sovereigns to Milan, 
became, of course, one of the lions? ' the day, and 
his portrait was seen everywhere 



Eonte 12.] 



MILJLN, SOMMA, MONZA, COHO. 



37 



Miles. 
Somma Lombardo.. 30| 

Scsto Calendo 86| 

Arona 41| 



Several short rails start from Milan ; amongst 
which are the following : — 

1. From Milan to LagO Magglore. 

Miles. 

Rho 8 

Legnano 16} 

Gallarate 25} 

[Branch to Vorese] 

Gallaxate (Btat.), the junction for Varese, 

37 miles from Milan, for which see Route 12. 

From Gallarate a line, opened April, 1884, runs 
to Laveno (page 19) and LuiXlO. 

Somma (Stat.)— population, 5,606 — near the 
Ticino, which has an old seat of the Visconti family, 
in which is a cypress, 24 feet in girth. Here Scipio, 
the father of Scipio Africanus, was defeated by 
Hannibal, at the battle of the Ticino, B.C. 218, and 
was obliged to retreat towards the Po. 

SeBtO Oalende (population, 2,817). at the out- 
let, at Ticino, from Lago Maggiore. The line ends 
At Arona (Stat.) steamers for Bareno, the 
Borromean Islands, Laveno, and other points on 
the lake. (See Route 8.) 



2. Milan to Casale and Asti (page 12). 
MUes. 

Gaggiano 12| 

Abbiatcgrasso ....m 18 

Vigevano 24 

Mortara 82 

[Branch to Yale^za 

and Alessandria.] 

This line effects a junction at Asti with the 
main line from Turin to Alessandria. 



!1 



Miles. 
Candia Lomellina...41i 

Casale 50$ 

Moncalvo 65| 

Asti 78f 



3. Milan to Pavia and Voghera (Route 14). 



Miles. 
[Branch to Cremona.] 
Voghera 38f 



Miles. 

Locate 9i 

Certosa 17| 

Pavia 22i 

4. Line up the Brianza, towards Como, Ac, to 
Boviso, Bruzzano, Pademo, Bovisio, SeveSO, 
Mariano, Lambrugo, IncinO (ancient Forum 
Incini% and£rba(/Rn), 1,020 feet high, overlooking 
the fertile Brianzo, and Lake Fusiano. 

5. To Saronno and Como, 28} miles, by the 
Jiiva Lago line. Prom Saronno to Varese (page 38) 
and Laveno, on Lake Maggiore. At Sarouna are 
a number of fine frescoes by Luini. 

OaOTJTB IS. 

Milan to Monxa, Camerlata, Como, and 
CUaMO ; and to Lecco. 



Miles. 
Sesto S. GioTanni... 4} 

Monza „ 8 

[Branch to Leoco,S8.] 

Desio 12f 

Seregno 14} 



Miles. 

Camnago 18 

Cucoingo 24} 

Albate-Camerlata,. 27 

Como 80 

Chiasso 32} 



Sesto 8. Qlayipillt (MUt.) bos numerous villas 
pound it. 



MONZA (Stat.) ; where the line to Lecco parts off. 

Inm: Hotel Castello; II Falcone; Angelo; 
Hotel Monticello (1} hour from station), in the 
old Nara Palace, at a fine point of view. (See p. 88.) 

OntheLambro: population 11,258. Here are a 
Pa/ac0, or royal himting-seat, built by Piermarini in 
1799. in a park; Broletto, or Town Hall ; a college, 
hospital, theatre, and an old Cathedral, enlarged in 
the fourteenth century, which has a frontof various 
coloured marble, much ornamented. On the door 
is a bas-relief of the founder (695), Q. Theodolinda 
and her husband. It contains paintings by Guer- 
cino, B. Luini, Procaccini, and others; with the 
celebrated Iron Crown of Lorabardy, which was 
used at the coronation of Charles V., and which 
Napoleon placed on his own head, with the warn- 
ing, Ouaia ehi la tocca (Woe to him that touches 
it). It was again used at the crowning of the 
Emperor of Austria, in 1838, and was carried off 
to Vienna, 1859. It consists of a circular rim of 
iron, said to have been made from a nail of the 
Saviour's cross, covered with gold and precious 
stones. In the same church is the mummified body 
of Ettore Visconti. Frescoes by Luini at ihe 
Madonna Church. 

[At Monza, the line for Lecco turnsofi. It passes 

the Stats, at Aroore (pop., 2,060); Usmate 

(omnibus to Monticello, p. 88) ; CemiUOO (pop., 
5,758), a pretty spot on the Martesana Canal; 
Olglate (pop., 2,085); CalOlsiO and LeOOO, as in 
Route 13.] 

Seregno (Stat.), line to Bexvamo (iiage 39), 

passing Usmate-Carnate, and Ponte S. Pietro; 
Camnago (Stat.), branch to Seveso S. Pietro. . 
Before the line reaches Como, it passes Baradello 
Tower, on a lofty hill, in which Napoleone della 
Torre, of the Torriani family. Lords of Milan, 
was imprisoned in an iron cage, by his victoriouii 
rival, Visconti. He at last killed hihiself by 
dashing his head against the hai's. From Albate- 
Camerlata (Stat.) to 

COMO (Stat.), 

On the beautiful Lago di Como. Population, 25,518. 

Hotels: Volta; La Corona; L'ltalia; Regina 
d' Inghilterra; L' Angelo. 

An ancient city, formerly of considerable impor- 
tance, three miles from Camerlata. It has a con- 
siderable trade in silks. Here are the beautiful 
Cathedral of 14th-16th centuries, with paintings 
by Guido and B. Luini; the Broletto, or Town 
Hall ; the Del Crocefisso Church ; the ancient 
Basilica S. Abbondio ; the Piazza Volta and his 
statue; and the Porta del Torre. The Villa 
d'Este, once the residence of Queen Caroline, wife 
of George IV., at Cemobbio, about 8 miles from 
the town, is now the Queen of England Hotel. 

From Como 2} miles to Chiasso (see next page). 

The exquisite Lake Of Como, 30 miles by 
3 miles, is surrounded, except at thA iMsssaS^'Bcs^ 
extremity, by lotV^ \£L.Qraw\»\w% SXy»N. "rQ». ^^"^^i 
from lYie Mpa. Tte\^a«i^<c^^ *. ^"^T^^TlS^eS 



88 



BBADSHilW'S ITALY. 



[Section 1. 



tho most charming spot on the Italian lalces 
(population, 8,897). Hotel Grande Bretagne, with 
Its dependence — Magnificent hotel, well managed. 
Villa SerhtUoni belongs to the same proprietor. Mr. 
Anguste Meyer, and is recommended al»o. Eko. 

Ch. Srrv. rc.c.c. Soc.) See Advt. Cadenabbia, 

opposite, has also a good hotel (Hotel Ucllc Vuc); 
and is rising into repute. There is also an EngliKh 
Chaplaincy established there. Tho Villas in 
this part of the Lalco, Villas Mcliii and Carlolta 
especially (the latter at Gadenabbia), with their 
fine gardens and their tropical vegetation, should 
be visited. Villas Melzi and Giulia, nt Uellaggio; 
fee for entrance to ttie grounds. 

At M62iagglO (opposite) are Hotels Mcnaggio 
and Victoria. Villa Vigoni is worth a visit. In 
the wall of a church here, a Roman inscription of 
tho first century is built in. Fine views and 
beautiful gnrdcn«). Tram from Mcnaggio to 
Forlezza. Lugano on Lake. 

At Gavellesca, a mountain village, near Gomo, 
Qaribaldi had encamped, thinking the Austrian 
General, who occupied a strong position at San 
Fermo, would attack him. A young I>ombard lady 
boldly rodo across the Austrian lines and brought 
him news that Urban intended to bar liis march to 
Como, with a force of 10,000 men, while Garibaldi's 
corps was not more than 8,000. He at once made 
up his mind, took the Austrians by surprise, carried 
their position, and drove them in full retreat through 
the streets of Gomo, towards Camcrlata and Monza. 

From ChiaSBO (Stat.), on Swiss territory, the 
line is open by rail and steamer to Lngfano, vtti 
MendXlSlO, ftc., and connects with the new St. 
GoUiat'd Tunnel Line^ which comes in vi& Bellln- 
ZOna, BlaACa, AlrolO, &c. (See Bradaltattfi 
Hand-Book to Switzerland.) At the top of Lake 
Gomo tlie rivers Maira and Adda fall in ; one near 
Riva, the other near CoUcOt whence there is a 
line uptheMairatoChiaveXLXia, in Val Bregaglia 
(for the Engndine). Thence up the Liro to Campo 
DoLCiNO and the SplUgen or Spluga Pass (16 mWcn), 
6,950 feet above sea, between hills 10,000 to 11,000 
feet high, on the wny to Goire. San Bemai'dino or 
BeiTiardfiin Pass^ 7.115 fuet high, lies to the west, 
near some good sulphur springs, in Val Mesocco, 
on the Goire and Uellinzona road. From Golico, 
on Lake Gomo, a line runs up the Valtelliim past 
Morbegno to SondriO (25 miles), thence diligence 
to TiRANO (route to Poschiavo and tho Engaaino), 
and to BormlO, near the warm Sulphur 
Baths. 4,400 feet high; thence 14 miles up to 
the Wormser Joch and the fine Stelvio Pass, or 
Stil/ter Joch, 9,176 feet high, on the frontier of 
Tyrol, which is reached by a splendid zigzag. Tlie 
great Ortler Spitze (12,815 feet) is to the east.— See 
Bradshaw's Hand-Book to Switzerland and Tgrol. 

The Brianza, or district between the two arms of 

the lake, is called the Garden of Lombardy, and is 

remarkable not only for its fertility but for the 

h^aat^ of Its scenery. The rail from Gomo to 

''"'va^ acr'osf/f,pafaesnearPaaiimo'Lfi\iQ (ancient 



Eupilis) and MontloellO, ft fine summer resort, 
on a ridge. Hotel Monticello, in the Palazzo Mara, 
at an excellent point of view. Parhii and 
Amaboldi, the poets, came from this part. In the 
nciglibourhoud of tho Lccco, Manzoni has placed 
the scenes of his Promessi Sposi. Onmibus from 
Usmate (p. 87) to Monticello, 

From Gomo there is a line, 18 miles, through 
Givello to 

Varese (Stat.) //o/«/«: Grand Hotel Varese; 
in a One situation; fir8t-class. with 200 rooms, 
baths, «&c.; Angclo; La Stella. Resident /^^i/nWan; 
Church Service. Population, 8,877. A good sized 
town, best reached, from Milan, by rail,vtaiSaf'0}mo 
(Route 11). 

From Gastello d*Azzati is a view of the Lake of 
Varese, and of the Gonvcut of Madonna del Monte, 
on a beautiful hill 7^ miles from Varese. From 
this convent a magnificent prospect is obtained. 

"This place (says Gount Arrivabcne) is remark- 
able for the way in which Garibaldi outwitted the 
Austrians in 1859. After foitifying Como as well 
as possible, Garibaldi procceJcd to assault the fort 
of Laveno ; l)ut he had no artillery, the place was 
too strong for him, and the attempt was a failure. 
Hearing of this. General Urban stopped his retreat 
and suddenly moved again on Varese, »v hich was 
totally defenceless and upon which he levied a war 
contribution of two million francs. Garibaldi 
hastened back, and found the enemy right In his 
wav, occupying a strong position, near the hills 
of Sant' Ambrogio and the famous Sanctuary of 
Madonna del Monte, and numbering not less than 
10,000 strong.'' 

^' So ccrt&in were they of capturing the Italian 
Volunteers, that on the morning of the 4th June, 
Urban telegraphed to Milan, that he had at last 
surrounded Garibaldi and h(>pcd to have him, dead 
or olive, before the day closed. In fact, the Aus- 
trinn^ had nearly turned his left wing; so that he 
was compelled to fall i>ack upon Colonel Medici 
(who with the Second Regiment occupied the Villa 
Medici-Melagnano) and c<mcentrate the whole of 
his forces on the narrow height crowned l)y that 
country seat. On tho critical day in question, pal i- 
sades and chevaux-de-frise were put up by the 
Cacciatori. To induce Urban to believe thot he 
really meant to accept the fight, Garibaldi as night 
came on, made a great display of blazing bivouac 
fires, and ordered his men to march up and down 
behind them. Tlie sky which had been pure and 
blue during the day was suddenly covered with 
dense rolling clouds. Taking advantage of the 
darkness and a storm. Garibaldi gave orders for 
retreat. With their bivouac fires still blazing, 
the Cacciatori dcUe Alpi passed unnoticed close 
to the Austrian outposts, struck along the moun- 
tain paths into the deep gorges, and arrived at 
Gomo, whilst Urban was awaiting the moment 
of attack." 

From Varese there )s a line (ld| miles) throi(gh 
Gavirato to Layeno, on ^<a|cc if aggjoyc. 



Route 13.] 



CADBKABBU, YARESB, BKBGAHO. 



89 



Diligence from Varese (7J miles) to PortO 1 or castle, on the top of MoiiteVirpIHo, commanding 
CereslOonthe beautiful Lake Lujrano, which Is 1 a magnificent prospect. Its outskirts extend round 



mostly within Swiss territory. (See Dradshaws 
Hand-Book to Sicitzerland.) 

3ROTJTE IS- 



tho fortified eminence, the most populous being 
that of S. Leonardo. Its most remarkable building 
is the ♦Fiera. or Fair House, where an annual 
August Fair is held; an iunnense quadrangle, 



MUan to Bergamo, Breecla, SolferlnO. LagO i haying three gates on each side, «nd several ^^^^^ 
Ai novHft PAonhlAm. VATAna. Vinanss. ' in it, with six hundred shops, and a fountain hi the 

Padua, and Venice. 



Miles. 
Castelnuovo (T) ... 80 
Somma Campagna.. 84J 
Vkroija (1*. Nuova) 91 
Verona (P. Vescova) 9Sf 
[Branches to Man- 
tua, and to Trent 
and the Brenner.] 

S. Martino 97* 

Caldicro lOH 

San Bonifacio lUCi 

Loiiigo 110 

Montebello 118| 

Tavcmclle lltif 

ViCBNZA 128f 

Pajano I'lS 

Padua 142J 

Fonte di Brenta ...146i 

Dolo U2i 

Marano 156^ 

Mestre 160| 



By railway, 176 miles, by Bergamo. 
Miles 

Limito 6 

Meizo 11 

Cassano 16 

Trcviglio 20 

[BranchestoCremona 
and Rovato.] 

Verdello 26 

Beroaho 32f 

[Branch to Lecco 

and Lake Como.] 

Goriago 89f 

Palazzolo 451 

Coccaglio 50| 

Rorato 40 

Brescia 51i 

[ B ranch to Cremona.] 

Rezzato 06i 

Ponte S. Marco 62 

Lonato (T) 65^ 

Pesenzano 68f 

Pcschiera 77| i Venice 165 

Cassano (Stat.), or Cassano (TAdda, the 
ancient CasHanum^ on the Adda. Population, 7,518. 

T7eTlgll0 (Stat.), on the Adda, a curious old 
town (population, 9,854), near the ancient Pons 
Suresli^ with a large and imiiosing Church, con- 
taining some pictures. 

The direct line runs from here to Clllarl and 
Rovato, shortening the distance to Brescia by 12 
miles (see page 40). 

[A branch railway turns off to Crema and 
Cremona (Route 16), passing 

CorregglO, which gives name to the great 
painter, born here 1569, the son of a builder.] 

BEBGAMO (Stat.) 

Population, 39,129. Branch rail to Lecco, on 
Lake Como. 

Hotel: D'ltalia. The thrushes, larks, confetti, 
and fruits are excellent. 

Conveyaneee. — Railway to Milan, Camerlata, 
Verona, Padua, Venice, Lecco, &c. 

Chief Objeete of Notice. — Fiera, Palazzo Nuova, 
Duomo, Tasso*s Monument. 

It was the Roman Bergomum, which Alaric 
burnt in his progress through Italy, and formed 
part of the Austrian possessions till 1859. 

Ber'gamo is the capital of the province called 
Bergamasco, and a bi«hop*s see, Ac., in an amphi- 
theatre, between the Brembo and Scrio, flowing 
from the Valtellina Mountains to the north. 



midst. Silk and other goods are sold, but the fair 
has much declined in importance. 

The Palazzo Nuovo, or To'wni Hall, is a very 
excellent building, though unBnished, by Sca- 
mozzi. An Academy^ founded by one of the 
Carrara family, has several good casts, and 
paintings by Lotto, Moroni, Ghislandi, dsc. 
Nearly all the buildings of interest are in the 
oldest, or Clttk part of the town. 

The Cathedral, or *Duomo, was designed by 
Fontana; it contains some pictures, and the 
bones of St. Alexander, Its patron sahit. 

At Santa Maria Mapgiwe, a half Romanesque 
church, are good paintings also, and the marble 
tomb of B. Calleone, a general of the fourteenth 
century, who was the first to employ artillery, on 
a large scale, in armies. His monument is covered 
with bas-reliefs. Here also Is the tomb of Donl- 
, zetti, the composer. The tower is 800 feet high. 
In the old Augustine Church is the tomb of 
Father Palepino, bora at Caleplo, on Lake Iseo, 
near this, who published a learned dictionary, in 
seven languages, 1503. 

The Benedictine Church of Santa Grata is re- 
markable for its profusion of carving, gilding, 
and an altar-piece by Salmeggla, a native. Paint- 
ings by L. Lotto at 8. Spirito and .9. Bartotommeo. 
There are besides, two theatres, a musical school, 
which has produced some distinguished pupils (as 
Donizetti and Rnbini), and a reformatory for 
boys, founded by G. Botta, a priest, in 1815. 

In Piazza Garibaldi opposite the old Palazzo 
Vecchio, or Broletto, where is the public library 
of 90,000 volumes. Is a monument to *Torqnato 
Tasso, the poet, who was bom hei-c; or rather 
he is claimed by Bergamo, l)ecause his father, 
Bernardo Tasso, who was also a poet, was a 
native. Another native is Tiraboschi, who has 
written the History of Italian Literature. 

The castle was evacuated by the Austrian s four 
days after the battle of Magenta. " On entering 
the town, Garibaldi learntby a telegraphic message, 
that 1,5U0 Croats would shortly arrive, and a 
detachment was sent to the station to capture 
them. The trick was frustrated by an Austrian 
straggler, who stopped the train about a mile off, 
shouting with all the power of his lungs, ' Gari- 
baldi, Garibaldi.* So great was the consteraatlon 
of the Croats at hearhig Bergamo was occupied 
by this Italian Te^fd (Devil) that instead of going 
back by train to Brescia, which they might SafeW 
have done, they abandoned tV^'^ ^-ax^x vocA^'ss3»-'^'=* 
their leg» «l«o%%\\v% «^^^'^''>^-^— ^'*';r^tS^'^« 



from the Valtellina Mountains to the north. It la \ TYv© ^o\>\ft w^ v\v\«<\V«,«»x "®^^aS^ 
surrounded bjrwiaiB fad (Htciie«, and has a cltiidel,\ «pe«L>Axi^ «l ro^^Xx'^^t^'sa*''*^'^ '^ 



40 



BRADBHAW'B ITALY. 



[Section 1. 



always put Into tho mouth of Arlequino, or Harle- 
quin, who, on the stage, tinder a simple and mstlc 
air, hides much acutcness and cunning. He is the 
successor of the old Sannio, or Zany. 

The town gives name to the citrus bcrgamlnm, 
which yields the essence of bergamot. Every 
yard of the fertile soil around is turned to account 
by its enterprising population. 

There is a short ferrovia economics, 18 miles 
from Bergamo to Ponte delle Sclve, passing 
through Alt)ino-Desenzano. 

Rail from Bergamo to Seregno, 24f miles (sec 
page 87). 

From Bergamo to Lecco is now open by rail. 
The stations arc—Ponte 8. Pletro, S miles, the 
nearest to Val Brcmhana ; Mapello, 7^ miles ; 
ClsaJlO, Hi miles; OalOlzlO (where the direct 
line from Milan, see page 37, comes in), 16f miles ; 
and LeCCO (population, 8.148), 20} miles, on the 
south-east arm of Lake Como. It is chiefly a 
manufacturing town. The bridge dates from 1835. 
Hotel des Tours. From Lecco the direct line 
from Milan to Bellano 15 miles, runs through 

Mandello, liemo, and Varella. Beiiano is a 

steamboat station on the Lake of Como, and a 
small manufacturing place of about 8,000 Inhabit- 
ants. It Is at the mouth of Val Sassina, which is 
traversed by tho Piovorna. This river forms a 
tolerably fine waterfall of about 200 feet, not far 
from the town. 

The next station to Bergamo towards Venice is 

Seriate (Stat.) Population, 2, 46I. 

OorlagO (Stat.), population, 1,249; whence a 
road goes to Samico and Lovere, on Lake Iseo. 

QmmellO (Stat.), on the road to Sarnico 
(6 miles), on Lake Iseo, by omnibus. 

PalauolO (Stat.), or Palaaauello (popula- 
tion, 6,194). An old mediaeval town, near a fine 
viaduct, on the Oglio, which comes down from the 
Iseo Lake. A branch rail of 6 miles goes off to 
Paratioo (Stat.), on the Labe. 

COOOairllO (Stat.), population, 8,260, at the 
bottouTof a hill, which commands a fine prospect. 

RovatO (Stat.), where tho direct line from 
Trcvlglio to Brescia comes in. 

[This Tine passes Vidalengo, Morengo, Romano, 
Calcio, and 

Clllari (population, 10,607), with an ancient 
cathedral and clock tower. To the left is 

Iseo (population, 2,161), on the pretty Lake of 
that name, so called from a temple of Isis which 
stood there. This is now united with Brescia by 
a line 16 miles long, opened August, 1885. Steamer 
to L6vere, a small town at the head of the lake, 
a most picturesque spot, once the residence of 
Lady Wortley Montague. It is built on tho 
side of a wooded hill, and Is watered by num- 
berless fountains. Garibaldi had his head-quarters 
here when the news of the peace ofVillafranca 
arrived. Count Arrivabcne describes him thus:— 
"The General was not dressed in the costume 
with which the English eye has been made fami- 
-WLsjj Bor did ho wear the Greek cap or the round 
^^^ fr/tJi J*ar/tan plume wblcb the fancy of foreign 



painters generally ascribe to him. He was clad in 
the Piedmontese uniform of his rank. Whether in 
peace or war. he always gets up at dawn, and, if 
not prevented by duty, invariably goes to bed a 
little after sunset.** 

On hearing the news of the peace of Villafranca 
he offered to resign his commission, but the Ungr 
would not accept It; ** Italy still requires the 
legions you command,*' said the king, *' and you 
must remain.'* 

During tho war of 1859 the passes were guarded 
by Cialdini and Garibaldi, to prevent an Austrian 
corpi cTarm^e from descending ui>on the rear of 
the allies. Here Garibaldi, with his Cacciatori 
delle Alpi (Alpine hunters), was in his element, 
and showed liis great experience and daring in a 
scries of well-conducted operations, which enlisted 
the admiration of the Austrian general. In their 
retreat to Bormio before the forces of Garibaldi, 
the Austrians barricaded the tunnel, blew up the 
Stclvio bridge, and then retired towards the 
Tyrol.] 

BRESCIA (Stat.) 

Population, 68,641; of the commune, theprovince 
(called Bresciano) contains about 1,800 square 
miles. 

Hotels: New Hotel d'ltalle, best; Gambero; 
Fenice; Posta; Cappello. 

Excellent fish from Lake Garda. Vino di 
Benaco and Guzago are the local wines. 

Conveyances. — Railway to Bergamo, Cremona, 
MUan, Camerlata, Verona, Mantua, Padua, Venice, 
&c. 

Railway Station near Porta Stazione, about 
400 yards from the town; omnibuses, 1 lira; 
carriages, one horse, 1 lira 25c.; two horses, 
2 lire 60c. per hour. Tho hotels are In the centre 
of the town. 

*Chie/ Objects of Notice.— Toym House, Broletto, 
two Duomos, Museum in Vespasian's Temple. 

A healthy and l»usy rity; capital of the province; 
seat of a bishop, drc; in a rich country, near tho 
Mella. Here the Alpine Hills fall into the great 
plain of Lombardy, and offer many charming 
points of view. A naviglio, or canal, passes by 
it from the Mella, to Join the Chiese, and helps 
to supply the seventy-two public fountains in the 
principal squares and streets; besides many 
private ones. The streets are narrow and arcaded, 
but there are many handsome houses and palaces. 
Brescia is nearly square, about 1 mile each way. 
Several buildings are conspicuous, among which 
are the Torre deWOrologio (clock tower), tho 
Broletto, Ac. In the north-east quarter, on a hill, 
is the Torre di Pallata, or bell tower, a castle- 
looking pile. 

"There are few towns in Italy (says Count 
Arrivabene) in which the summer and autumn can 
1)0 more thoroughly enjoyed than at Brescia. The 
city itself Is one of the cleanest in Lombardy; for 
it is provided with so largo a number of fountains 
that there is plenty of water to wash the streets 
and bouses. It is situated at the foot of a charmidf 



Boate IS.] 



BSROAMO, BRE80IA. 



41 



cluster of hills, often mentioned in the verses of 
Gatullns, together with the River Mella. All along 
the ridgo of these hills, which are called roncAt, 
some very beautif al and even splendid yillas have 
been built, scmie of them belonging to the nobility 
of the city, and dating as far back as the golden 
times of the Most Serene Republic of Venice, to 
which Brescia was once subject; others occupied 
by rich merchants, or posndenti, whose residences 
are designated by the humble appellation of ccuini. " 
Nothing can be prettier than the effects of the 
setting sun, or the moonlight on the slope, on 
which stands Vespasian's Temple, now a museum. 

^Palazzo ddla Loggia^ or Muuicipio, is a richly- 
canred marble building, in the style of the fifteenth 
century, that is, a mixture of Gothic and Roman, 
by Formentone and Sansovlno. It has pictures by 
G. Campl; and one representing the condemnation 
of the priest, Beccarelli, for his religious opinions, 
1710. 

The Bishop't Palace is worth notice. 

Close to It Is the BiNioteea, founded In the 
last century, by Cardinal Qulrlul, and containing 
about 40,000 volumes, with some ancient MSS., 
inclndlag the letters which passed between the 
Cardinal and his French correspondents, Agues- 
aeau, Fleury, Montfaucon, &c. 

There are also a collection of designs and models 
for the study of the fine arts, cabinet of natural 
history, and medals and some paintings. Among 
other curiosities is the Cross of Deslderlus, the 
Lombard, ornamented with cameos. 

The old brick BroJetto, with its towers and bat- 
tlements, built 1187-1213, offers some interesting 
examples of ornamented work, and has a painted 
ceiling by L. Oambara, a native artist. The Torre 
dd Popolo is part of the original building. Several 
ancient inscriptions are let into the walls of the 
Monte dl Pieta. Remains of frescoes may still be 
discerned on the houses in many streets — as Corso 
del Teatro, Corso di Mercanti, Strada dl Gambara. 
The monument to the Defenders of Italy Is new. 

The Pcdazzo Tosoi, now one of the Town 
Museums, is remarkable for a beautiful Christ, by 
Raphael, painted on wood; Thorwaldsen's Day 
and Night; Pampalone's Child Praying; and some 
other relics. 

Th^ older paintings, more especially those by 
Moretto, Romanino, and Gambara, are in Palazzo 
Mariinengo, in Contrada San Gaetano, which was 
left as a legacy to the to>vn. Admission to this 
and most of the Museums is 50c.; free on certain 
Sundays, 1 to 4. On other days 10 to 4, in winter, 
10 to 3. 

In the Cigola Palace Bayard was nursed by 
the ladies of the house (1513), having been wounded 
when Brescia was stonned by Gaston de Foix. 

The old ^Duomo (Dnomo Vecchio), or cathedral, 
called the Rotondo, near the Broletto, is of stone 
iwi4 briplf, 4na Is 000 of the moat remarkable \ 



Italian monuments of antiquity. It was built 
between 660 and 673 by two Lombard counts, with 
the help of Grimaldl, King of the Lombards, and 
Is an Instance of their preference for the round 
style of architecture. Its outer walls are divided 
into twenty-four parts by well-modelled pillars, 
surmounted by a brick frieze of the simplest de- 
sign. A peristyle of eight piers In the interior 
supports circular arches under the dome. "A 
splendid funeral mass, in honour of the memory of 
Charles Albert, was celebrated here in 1869 by 
the clergy (who rank among the most patriotic In 
Italy), In spite of the opposition of their Ultra- 
montane bishop," — Arrivabene. 

It has a cupola, many old tombs, paintings bj' 
Moretto (a native) and P. Rosa, and the ancient 
crypt in the Chapel of S. Filastro. Close to It Is 
the 

*Duomo Xuovo, a round church of later date, 
and a good marble pile of the Corinthian order, 
begun 1604, and covered with statues, bas-reliefs, 
and other ornaments. The dome is by Vantlnl ; 
many of the paintings and statues Inside were 
the gifts of Cardinal Qnlrinl and various 
families. A handsome monument to Bishop 
Nava Is by Monti. They show the relic of the 
Santlsslma Croce, a copy. It Is said, of the very 
cross which appeared to Constantino. There is 
also a curious poQm in the Brescian dialect, 
which Slsmondl notices as peculiar. The title is 
"Vers Brcsa rccltag da du Angal ao Caradar cho 
conduse en clttli I legnam per la Fabrica del Dom " 
(a Brescian verse recited by two angels to the 
carters who bring timber to the town for building 
the Cathedral). The " Prim Angel," or first Angel, 
begins thus :- - 

Omega del Si&r che ght tat« premura, 
Devidi terminad* la sd Cieea, 
Che'l pdae en premia de sta bela empresa, 
Mautignif bianch e rto finch6 la dura. 

And the "Second Angel" responds In the same style. 

There are about forty more Churches, many of 
them decorated with frescoes and paintings of the 
yenctian and other schools, with several by native 
artists, as Moretto (at 8. Clemonte, Giovanni 
Evangelista, Miracoli, and Grazie Churches) and 
Romanino. 

Santa Maria dei Miracoli, built 1487, has a richly 
ornamented front. 

Santa Maria delle Grazie, which belonged to the 
Jesuits, has good frescoes. 

Santa Afra, once attached to a convent, and the 
oldest here, is the site of the Temple of Saturn, and 
contains Titian's fine picture of the Woman taken In 
Adultery. 8. Bernardo, of the fourteenth century, 
is on the site of the Temple of Hercules, S. Domenico 
has many frescoes. 

S. Nazzaro, rebuilt 1780, has a large and splendid 
altar-piece, by Titian, and Moretto's Coronation 
of the Virgin. 

8. Giovanni, rebuilt on the «ltA <A Ks\N».*s»^3A.'*a' 
the fourth e«xiVuTv^<iCKv\.aSsvfc\siKcc3 ^Q^fe.'ws'w^assss^^ 



42 



BRADSHAW'S ITALY. 



[Section 1. 



Santa Enfemia has frescoes by Gambara. One of 
Romauino's best pieces is at Santa Maria Calchera. 

S. Francesco^ of tlie thirteenth century, has a 
front in the Lombard stylo, or mixture of Norman, 
and the Byzantine, with a round whidow, &c. 

S. Salcalorfi, behind Santa Giulia, an old half- 
mixed Lombard church, Avas founded by 
Dosidcrius, for his daughter Auspcrga, the first 
abbess. 

In the old church of Santa Givffa, in the 
Contrada dei Padri Kiformati, in the Atuseo Civico 
nth Crixtiana which c(mtnin» a collection of me- 
diaeval remains, the cross of Sta. Elena (8th cen- 
tury) and weapons, also the Mausoleun of Marco 
Antonio Martincngo. Entrance, 60c. 

The Great Hospital, founded 1447, has S. Luca's 
Chapel, painted by Uomanino and Moretto. 

The large Theatre is new and wtll built. The 
new Cemetery, or Campo Santo, by Yantini, 
outside the Porta Milano, contains tonibs like the 
Koman Columbaria. 

The Mu*eo Civico Eth Romana, open from 10 to 
3. (50c.) is near Piazza Movarino, on the site 
of a Roman Temple, built a.d. 72, hi Vespasian's ; 
time, and contains several inscriptions (some from 
the Palazzo Lccchi), bas-reliefs, pavements, pillars, 
altars, and statues ; dhe of which is a noble bronze 
Fame or Victory, above 6 feet high, discovered 
1826 ; a rival to the Venus of Milo. 

Remains of an aqueduct, called *Aquidotto del 
Diavolo, exist in the way to Valtrompia. 

Brescia was the ancient Brixia, on the northern 
branch of the Via .£milia, and capital of the Cer- 
romani, in Gallia Cisalpina. It was colonised by 
the Romans, 206 B.C., ravaged by the Goths, &c., 
and taken by the I^ombards, whose last king, 
Desiderius, was a native. 

In 1849, after the rout of the national army at 
Novara, the Brescians resisted, for ten days, the 
legions of the ferocious Haynau. His revenge was 
so bitter that the Austrian General, Prince Thum 
and Taxis, who was mortally wounded, Iteqneatbed 
his property to the families of those who suffered 
for heroically defending the town. Their leader, 
Tito Speri, was hung at Mantua, in 1842. 

The Allied Sovereigns spent two days here in 
June, 18-')U. I^uis Napoleon was the guest of 
Count Fenaroli, using the same l)od and table 
which the First Consul had used in 1790. Hither, 
also. Colonel Tlirr. of Garibaldi's staff, was brought 
to be nursed by the ladies of the family, after the 
indecisive battle at Tre Ponti, between the Volun- 
teers and Austrians, in which two hundred of the 
former were put hors de combat, and TUrr shot 
through the arm. 

Among natives it reckons the famous Anioldo dl 
Brescia, a religious and political reformer, burnt at 
Rome, lldA; Gambara, 3foretto, Vincenzo (or il 
Bresclano), the painters ; Tartaglia, the mathema- 
tician, so named because he stuttered, in conse- 
^ue/rce o/Maiip beijig cnp in the sie^ of 1§1?. 



Brescia was long celebrated for fire-arms, cut- 
lery, sabres, &c., so that there is a proverb "Tutta 
Brescia n<m armerebbe un coglione." Monti con- 
trasts the two in the lines— 

BresrU tdanom d'ogni vll penttero 
Piu che di ferro, di vnlore armatii. 

The neighbourhood is populous, and studded with 

country seats and villages in every direction. 

Rail, 15 miles, to 1860, on the lake of that 
name ; see page 40. 

[Rail to Cremona (page 63) and Pavia (page 
56) :- 



Miles. 

Bagnolo 8 

Verolanova 17i 

Olmeneta 20 

Cremona 32 

Acqnnnegra 38| 



Miles. 

Pizzighetione 44 

Codogno 48 

Casaipusterlengo... 61 

Ospedaletto 65 

Paria 67i 



From Pavia to Piacenza (page 57).] 

Leaving Brescia, we reach 

RezzatO (Stat.), population, 1,995, where the 
hills are left ; followed by 

Ponte 8. Marco (Stat.), on the Chiese, which 
flows from Lake d'Idro and Val Gindicaria. Here 
the hills again are approached. A little to the 
right is Calcinate, which was the head-quarters of 
Victor Emmanuel in Jnne, 1859. To the left of 
this is a by-road, from which the famous plain of 
Montechiaro spreads out before the eye. Villa 
Bonoris, in Montechiaro, was the Imperial head- 
quarters, before the battle of Solferino, at the time 
of the celebration of the Corpus Domini. 

LonatO (Stat.), popnlation, 6,636. An old 
town, not far from Lake diGarda. Here Bonaparte 
defeated the Austrians, 3rd August, 1796. 

A beautiful road runs from Lonato round the 
Lake of Qarda. From the top of a hill gome of the 
most enchanting scenery of Italy spreads itself 
before the eye of the traveller. "At the southern 
extremity (saysArrivabene),amid8t the blue waters, 
rises the Island of Sirmione. Its extensive gardens, 
itsRoman ruins (said to be the remains of the Villa 
Catullus), and its high square tower, bearing the 
arms of the Scaligari, are seen on the distant 
horizon. The town of Desenzano Is distinctly 
beheld from the top of the promontory of Lonato, 
together with the whole of the picturesque borders 
of the lake, commonly called the Riviera di Garda." 
The effect is heightened when the rising sun shines 
on the snowy summits of Monte Baldo. 

A short distance (4 miles) to the right of Lonato, 
on the Mantua Road, is Castlglione delle Sti- 
Vlere, where the Austrians were finally beaten on 
the 6th August, 1796, and driven out of Italy. " It 
stands," says Count Arrivabene, whose paternal 
home was here, *'for the greater part on the 
declivity of a beautiful hill Monte Belvedere 
erects its barren top over it, on the left. In the 
ceLtre, the old Gonzaga Castle, once stained with 
the blood of the Marquis Rodolph, frowns above 
tbe hQlues, irifh its ^trongl^ bDi)t rou|id foweif. 



Boute 13.] 



BRESCIA, LONATO, 80LFBRIN0. 



43 



A Btecp ascent, which the people of the town, in 
their sharp and lively dialect, cull La Rata, leads 
to the elegant Piazza Fontana, adorned with lofty 
porticoes — the winter promenade of the beaumonde 
of the city. Farther on, a large clean street, flanked 
hy elegant palaces, condncts yon to the Cathedral — 
a classic structure erected upon the square top of 
a small hill, which, from the building, is denomi- 
nated the Monte Chiesa." Solferino is a short 
distance to the south-cast, and from the summit of 
St. Peter's Church, Louis Napoleon beheld the field 
of battle on the eventful 24th of June, about 5 a.m. 

Here is a convent of the Nol)le Virgins of Jesus, 
founded by the three sisters of Rodolfo Gtonzaga, 
the father of St. Loui?. The nuns are of two 
classes, the Signore, or ladie», land the Oblate, or 
women of the inferior classes, who attend to the 
household duties. It is not a monastic order, 
strictly speaking, for the nuns are not cloistered. 
They go out in couples, receive visits, even from 
gentlemen, and entertain their friends. la former 
times every novice among the Signore was obliged 
to prove her qunrtors of nobility, like the Knights 
of Malta, and even now the majority is composed 
of ladies of some of the best families of Lombardy, 
Venice, and even of France and Spain. The com- 
munity still possesses a good deal of land; and it is 
famous for delicious cakes or biscottini, which 
enjoy a great reputation throughout Italy. 

The caff^ or bottega of Barzisc is the place 
where the fashionables of Castigliono meet at 
certain times. The large churches were turned 
Into hospitals for the wounded, after the battle of 
Solferino. Hundreds of them were collected in 
the Duomo, the Church of St. Louis Gonzaga, the 
Oratory of St. Joseph, &c. About 3 miles east- 
south-east of Castiglione is 



and Castiglione; the key or centre being SoJferino^ 
where the hills are highest and slope down to 
Mincio. They held almost the same position as 
WUrmser in July. 1796, in his descent from the 
Tyrol. The allied forces extended from Dosenzano, 
on Lake Garda, along the western ridge of hllK 
from Lonato to Castiglione, bending back to 
Carpenedolo on the Chiesc. The ground is covered 
with small farms and fields of 4 or 5 acres, divided 
by low stone walls. At two, l)efore sun-rise, the 
allies began to move. Victor Emmanuel advanced 
on Pozzolengo with Bcnedck in front; Baraguay 
d'Hillicrs, from Esenta to Solferino; M^Mahon 
from Castiglione on Cavriana; Niel and Canrobert 
in the plain, on Guidizzuolo and on Mcdole. The 
battle began about six. Their great object was to 
carry Solferino at any cost, an<l then by flank 
movement to beat the Austrians out of Cavriana. 

Louis Napoleon and his staff were on Monte 
Fenile. The Tower Hill of Solferino was finally 
carried by General (afterwards Marshal) Forey, 
the Austrians under Stadion retreating to Cavriana, 
after a fierce and dc.idly struggle of many hours. 
At 2 o'clock, M'Mahon being out>numbcred by the 
Austrians, was joined by Niel, from Medole, and 
assumed the offensive; at 4, Cavriana was car- 
ried and the Austrian Emperor left Casa 
Pastoro, which was then occupied by Louis 
Napoleon. The retreat of the Austrians was made 
in a fearful summer storm of thunder, lightning, 
and rain. 

The victory, splendid as It was, was bought by 
the loss of 1*/,000 killed, wounded, and missing, on 
the French side; and 5,500 on the Sardinian. 
Among them were 72J French officers, and 220 
Sardinian. General Forey was among the 
wounded. The tot^l loss of the Austrians was 



SOlferlnOt the scene cf the great battle of Jmie I upwards of 20,000, besides thirty guns and some 



24tli, 1859; it. stands among hills, the highest of 
which commands a view of a large part of 
Northern Italy. 'From the top of a tower, 
called the Rocca dl Solferino, and also the Spia 
d'ltalia (t'.«.,the look-out or watch tower of Italy), 
and which was part of a castle belonging to the 
Scaligers, there is a prospect which extends from 
the Alps to the Apennines; Mantua; Verona, 
Ceresnra, Bozzolo, Cremona and its broad plain, 
are distinctly seen; while the Lake of Garda is 
just visible in the heart of the Tyrolese Alps. Its 
geographical position has made * it f am(ms in the 
military annals of Italy.'''— Arrivabene. 

The Austrians were nominally under the Em- 
peror, but General Hess had planned the campaign. 
After calling in their garrisons, they had 140,u00 
men, all fresh, in two armies. Count Schlick led 
the right wing, designed to take Cantiglione and 
Lonato; and Count Wimpffen the left wing, to 
march to Montechiaro. The ground was familiar 
to them, from having been their exercise ground 
since 1815. Their ot{}ect wasto outflankthe French 
right, and cat them in two. Qn 24th June, their 
positions covered a parallel space of hilly ground^ 



banners. They believed their position at Solferino 
to be impregnable, and boasted that they were 
certain to be in Milan in five days. The appear- 
ance of the field after the battle is described by 
Arrivabene. 

. The Austrians would not allow that they were 
I beaten. Their first defeat was only an able flank 
' march on the Adda ; the second a well -conceived 
retreat on their positions within the Quadrilateral. 
I Svith a month's rest, and under the real leader- 
I ship of Baron Hess, they thought the disasters of 
I Magenta and Solferino might be retrieved. 

I Victor Emmanuel's army at San Martino was 
opposed by Bcncdek*s division, and had such hard 
work to keep ground, that Benedek told the Kaiser 
he would cut them off from the French by the 
10th. Contracania and other positions were taken 
and retaken three and four times over: at the 
fourth time Victor Emmanuel rode into the midst 
of his troops and said, **My children, wo must 
retake San Martino and hold it^ or vto^ xscc*.'^ -woSr*. 
San Martino,'' \w W-^X-s, \\. \% cQ^KssvaMc-s '^'^'^^, 



J2 mijei? by 9, \^V9WlomU>f Peschiera, Volt*, \ fl\U\xv6Vftca\\^^X<x^^x5M.Yfc'Si«ft.^»^*s^'^^^> 



Engllth Church Sen 



11 wm 



nforced by AoBtn'i brigade, dea 
field of SoiroHno. The King ci 

b' eghllng San Mutlno wai oi 



Benede 

IUlTier>eda>'prlV°te<[nth"RoP^ H^y" m«ni- 
ben of the VlKond. TrLvnIKo, FallaKcliui. 
Medici, Orndffliiio. liorrnmeo, R'Adda. goralni, 
Minto d'Este, and otbiyr neU knoim hmiBCi. 

and comei inddenly In vLew of n uplwuliil pono- 

dLniancB. and the Alps 'beyond. Then ■ Tlsduct, 



•CT.V ObjrrU D/yo» 






Catb. 



O (Stat) Population, 4,I!I). 

Belett: Delia Posia; Albetgo Bealc; Royal 
Mayer; Vlttorla; Aoulla. 

A little pan, with tie old toner, looting on the 
Lake dl darda, and the Sermloue point, wbcre 
thert are mine of s palace of the Scalleon, now , 
called tbe arotto of Calullnt. 

Steameri to RlTa, at the head ol tbe lake, In I 
Tyrol, In 4taonr9. (BecpsfeM.) i 

OmnlbDsei to the town. Itii vino santo li wortb ' 
tasting. Salbwaa occnpied by Garibaldi on Iho 

trian steamer, Wosflrgd Into and aonk. Hbo had 
been ordered to steer la Ilila side of tbe lake, at the 
momont a Flodmontese battery had nrriied. ' 



■ank. with the loss of nearly all on board 

Ban Kartlno daUa BattaxlU (Stat.), 



by^ j£™^«. ' 

anding on a bend o[ the s»lll Adlire, at 
Tyrol Alps, in a plctnreeqne and 



. The 



re Cone 



and Corio VlttorUi Emnu 

Verona being balk on the sides, and at tl 
torn of a Ihentre of hills. It happen! that 

Theodnrle, the Goth, whose favoorito seat '. 
tvere strengthened l>yancientto»en,liAst In 
with five gales, bnilt by Sammlcheli. In tl 
teonth centnry. Moat of these r— — 



rongly d 



i by w 



helRht, by th 



fony-toor, erected on every p 



PSECMsra (Wt.) Fopnlatlon, 



ongly fortieed position: w 



principal) ttalion, at Verona. 

VraOHA (Btat.), btylad "1« Degna," or 
Worthy. 

PopulalJon(]SNX«^'*l' Here the Brennerratl 
falls In, and a branch goes off to Manlaa. 

Uolelt: Grand Hotel de Londres, and Depeod- 
anee; Hotel Boyal de> Deux Tonrt. The largest, 
''-aui] Hotel ColDiiibe d'Or, Wei] (pokes of. 



Qaadrilaleral. out of which U was* said 

It Is i^markaTlo fot'l^' Roman remaini 
as for the (pretended) Tomb of Juliet. 

victim to the conlcstioS^lhc Monlecchi* 



Its remains of anclentbuildings.snd was rs, 

doric and by King P^in end'other desea 
o[ Charlemaen*. who occasionally resirled 
Here Odoacer was defeated bv Thcodor 
"Dletrleh" of "Bern," as the place Is ol 
the Nllwlnngenlicd. 
Bealde* Catulins and others. It gave birth 

wholired between 1532-88. and whose chief 



ection 1. 
des Deuxi 



' a mlle,\ 
centre ol 



i2?' ^^ACES. 



r • 






Jh. 

byti 
Corii 

» cor 

whic 
a," ii 

styJe 
ctures 
re also 

i base, 

•rdens, 
:y. It 
2re are 

iza, in 

quary, 

Fres- 

collcc- 
Ridolfl 
'roces- 
en the 

'liffcrs' 
P'^w, or 
onk of 
*ovino, 
'onzes, 
as the 
iatiou, 
ninent 

Nepos, 

itljoins 

'alazzo 
Je Sou- 

Blow^er 
■ storey 
>lendid 
•chis a 
•f- On 
lieig-ht, 
ything 
gusson. 

rotable 
gr. the 
«^ith a 
n, and 
"arble. 
eight- 
»wer of 
of tlie 



44 



Thevil 
fifth timf ■ ' ' - .... 

division ! 
it was re 
from the 
" AvvaiM 
four hou 
Benedek 
these ba 
Italy ser 
bers of 
Medici, 
Mosto d* 

Thelil 
and com 
rama of 
distanca 
of fifteei 

D0Bei 

Hotels 
Mayer; 

A littl 
Lake di 
there ar* 
called tt 

Steam 
Tyrol, Ir 

Omnil 
tastinf>r. 
18th Jni 
trian 8t< 
been ore 
moment 
Garibal< 
her a "Wi 
round a 
wasabo 
falling < 
few min 
could b 
sank, w 

San 

near tl: 

Mincio, 

crossed 

Pesc.' 

a castle 
Lake di 
4 hours 
made of 

Cast 

destro5^ 

Som' 

lino riL 
station, 
principf 

VBR 
Worth: 

Popu ^ 

falls in, and a brauou vuvs va vu jmuiiui*. ' ^"^ 

HoteU: Grand Hotel de LoHdna, atod Di|MB4l- 
ance; Hotel Royal des Deux Tours. The largest. 
Grand Hotel Golombe d'Or, Well spoken of. 



: L 

iHid Ihvd 1iet#eeii i0tt-88, and whose chief works 
afe at Venice, marked by a florid style and bril- 
liant colouring. The other, Aless. Veronese (or 



^ute 13.] 



VERONA — AMPHITHBATBB, PALACES. 



45 



vchi, his family name, or Orbetto, bccanse ho 
<i a blind father), lived from 1580 to 1648, and 
inted in a mixture of the Lombard, Roman, and 
knctian schools; he is equally noted for his fine 
louring-. His best pictures are at the Miseri- 
rdia and S. Stefano, in Verona. 
Another native was Sammicholi, or Samicheli, 
B first military engineer of his day (died 1559), 
lo constructed the fortifications, some of which 
B yet visible. Among them may be noticed the 
►rta Nuova, on the right of the Adige; the tower 
S. Angelo on the lett, and the Spanish bastion; 
t his best work is the Porta del Palio, or ♦Porta 
uppa, of rusticated Doric, which, though im- 
rfect, is reckoned a very excellent performance, 
e was the architect of several Palaces and other 
lildings here. 

In the Northern part of the town are the 
lumphal arches, as the *Porta cfe* Bonari^ in 
orso Cavour, a Roman relic, built about 252-55, in 
le Emperor Galienus's time, by Vitruvlus, in the 
•nn of a noble arch, with small arches above; 
orta del Foro Giudiziale ; Arco de* Leoni (imper- 
ict); and the site of a fourth (close to Gastel 
eccliio), a work of Vitruvius, in honour of the 
avl family. The old three-arch Bridge Ki this 
»int has a very wide arch, not in the middle of 
.0 river, but on one side; it is 130 feet span, and 
ses 40 feet, and was built by Can Grande, the 
cond Scaliger. 

Piazza Bra, now Piazza Vlttorlo Emanuele, has 
statue of Victor Emmanuel II. 
But the "Amphitheatre^ in Piazza Brk, Is the 
cat attraction of Verona,and ranks only second to 
a Roman Colosseum. Its external wall is entirely 
no, except four arches, and the parts above them; 
It the inner circle, with the concentric benches, 
lircases, and the parts about the arena, are nearly 
rfcct. An annual sum is devoted to keep it in 
pair. It is pierced by seventy-two Doric arches, 
ipported by pilasters, in each of the three storeys, 
ading into the passages, or vomitoria. Outside 
1 it was an oval, 500 feet by 404 feet, and 98 feet 
gh. The arena is 242 feet by 146 feet. A theatre 
rmerly stood in the midst, over a reservoir, 
''hen a f6te was given to Francis I., Its forty-five 
radlni, or rows of steps, accommodated 50,000; 
nd on 18th November, 1866, the King was 
(celved by 70.000 assembled here. At each end 
' the long axis is a principal doorway, with a 
ilustrado above. It was built of brick and great 
larble blocks, and completed in the reign of 
locletiun, about the end of the third century, and is 
itolerable preservation. Entrance 1 lira; Sundays 
'ee. Near this is the theatre of the Accademia 
'Uarmonico, built in the last century, by Count 
ompei, having an Ionic portico (after Palladio), 
namented by inscriptions and bas-reliefs, belong- 
\g to the Afuseo Lapidario, by Maffei, author of 
srona lUmfrata, whose bust is placed over it. 
Amongprivate seats or Palazzi are the following: 
akuzo BeviUtcqtut, of rusticated Doric and Corin- 
JUi (but unfinished) with a rich frieze. This is 
r Sammicheli, and contained many remains of 



antiquity, the best part of which Is at Munich. It 
is intended to be used as a museum. 

PaiatKO Canossa, built for Bishop Canossa, by the 
same architect, 1528 ; a rustic basementand Corin- 
thian pilasters. 

Palazzo della Oran Ouardia Antica, now a com 
market, near the Municipio, in Piazza di Brh: a 
square building facing the amphitheatre, which 
might stand for " an open place in Verona," in 
Shakospearc^s play. 

Palazzo Pompei alia Vittoria (now the ifuseo 
(Hvico), by Sammicheli, in the fluted Doric style, 
with one range of arched windows. The pictures 
are chiefly of the Veronese school. There are also 
antiquities. Entrance, 1 lira. 

Palazzo Vergi, by the same, on an arched base, 
with fluted Doric pilasters. 

Villa Oiusti, in Veronetta, has fine gardens, 
and commands an excellent view over the city. It 
is reached by steps and inclined planes. Here are 
cypresses nearly 130 feet high. 

At the brick Palazzo dei Maffei or Trezza, in 
Piazza delle Erbe, MafFei, the poet and antiquary, 
was bom. It has a good spiral staircase. Fres- 
coes on the houses in this square. 

The Rotari and Gazzola families have collec- 
tions of painting and virth. At the Palazzo Ridolfi 
is a curious painting by Brusasorci, of the Proces- 
sion of Clement VII. and Charles V., when the 
Emperor was crowned at Bologna. 

On the *Piazza dei Signori stands the Scaligcrs' 
old picturesque castle, now Palazzo dei Consiglio, or 
Basilica, built by Fra Giocondo, a native monk of 
the fifteenth century, after designs by Sansovino, 
and having a facade ornamented with bronzes, 
statues, and marbles. It was restored 1873 as the 
Toum Hall. The best bronze is an Annunciation, 
by J. Campagna ; the statues are those of eminent 
natives, as the younger Pliny, Cornelius Nepos, 
Catullus, Maffei, <kc. A former Town Hall adjoins 
it. 

In the same square are the Law Courts (Palazzo 
di Giustizia) of the sixteenth century, and the Sea- 
ligers' brick Campanile, 300 feet high. '' The lower 
part is absolutely plain and solid; the upper storey 
of the square being pierced with one splendid 
three-light window in each face, above which is a 
boldly projecthig cornice, marking the roof. On 
this is placed an octagon two storeys In height, 
which, with the cornice, is as graceful as anything 
of the kind in Italian architecture." — Fergusson. 
A statue of Dante was placed here, 1865. 

In the picturesque *PiazzadelleErbe, or vegetable 
market, adjoining, is another old building, the 
Casa dei Mercanti (1301), or Exchange, with a 
statue of the Virgin, an ancient Fountain, and 
the pillar of St. Mark, a block of Verona marble. 
This Casa was rebuilt by Pompei ; it has an eight- 
column portico, and is 100 feet long. Tower of 
the Municipio^ 270 feet, fine view. East of the 
Piazza dei Signori, near a small churchy 9^.'%^. 
Maria Antica, is the *ifauMAeum qI\. >iXsa '3s»«tsk!Cv- 
gers, who toTvofttXv txjX'cA «r<?«c >Icv^ Vqhtbv. ^V^\>, 
curious lor \Avo mAV^vj^^ VM^^ ^^ "^^^ xsiw««w«*.*^ 



46 

cfiigies on borgebtck, and with Its pinnacles, 
statnes, pyraoiidti, bas-reliefs, ^1^, is something 
like an elaborate Gtothic cross in style. One of the 
best monuments is that by Bonino da Gampiglione 
of Can Signorio, who murdered his two brothers, 
and is here duly supported by figures of Charity, 
Faith, Ac. Another belongs to Can Grande (i.«., 
the Great Dog), the friend of Dante, who refers 
to him as the 

" gran Lomhardo 
Che in su la Scala porta il lanto Ucoello." 

i.e., the ladder and eagle, which figure in the 
family arms, on the beautiful trellis. The fretwork 
and small btatucs look quite fresh; the stone 
coffins are suspended in the air. A third monu- 
ment is dedicated to Bartolommeo, in whose reign 
Romeo and Juliet lived. 

The year 13U3 is fixed by the Veronese as the 
date of Julicfs story, of which they seem very 
tenacious. Luigi di Porta, of Vicenza, was the 
first who ^fwti it a connected form in his novel of 
'' Giulietta," published 1535. In his preface he 
saytf it was told him by one Peregrino, " an archer 
of mine, a pleasant companion, and like almost all 
hiH countr>'men of Verona, a great talker." 

The red marble ^Tomh, certainly not the genuine 
one, though it may cover the lovers' grave, is in 
the wild and desolate conventual gardens of the 
Orfanotrofio, facing the river and railway, once 
a cemetery ; " a situation," says Byron, ** appro- 
priate to the legend." 

Of the old Palace of the Cappaletti, marked by 
a cappcllo or hat, with its uncouth balccmy and 
irregular windows, there is only a gateway in the 
Via Capello, near the Piazza Erbe. 

' And shall I sup where Juliet at the maHqne 
Saw her loved HontagQe."—BoaEB8'B Italg. 

Of the forty Churches, the 

•Z)ttomo, or Cathedral of Santa Maria Mat^ieolare, 
is a Lombard-Gothic structure.in brick andVcrona 
marble, partly built 1463-73, but in part as old as 
the eighth century, with round and arched 
windows. Its circular apse is ornamented with 
tall slender pilasters, out of all proportion, 
according to the usual standard ; and it has a 
profusion of figures carved on its front, including 
two of Charlemagne's peers, Roland and Oliver, 
and the Adoration of the Magi, with a porch 
rising arch over arch, adorned with large griffons. 
Within is a fine Assumption, by Titian; a bronze 
Crucifix in the choir, by Sammichcli ; another by 
Bellino, in St. Nicholas Chapel ; also, the tomb of 
Pope Lucius III. (who died here 1185) ; another of 
Branchini, a rich native ; a librarj' witli some valu- 
able MSS. in the Chapter House. One nionnmcnt 
is n Roman relic, being that of Julius Apolonius 
and his wife. Its Baptistery, called 8. Giovanni tn 
Fonte, has a large old Font, and Farinati's Bap- 
tism of Christ. At the Bishop's Palace are paint- 
ings by Brusasorci, a Veronese artist. 

*8. Zenone Churchy or Zeno Maggiore^ built 1045- 
1178, is another fine specimen of the Ijonibnrd 
style. There is a descent to it of oleven Hto|>s, 
andariso inside of sixteen to the altar; lielow 
which is an ancient Crypt. It has bronzed gates 



BBADSHAW'S ITALY. 



[Section 1. 



and curious ancient carvings in the portal ; and 
the tombs of the saint, of King Pepin (its founder), 
and A. A. Valerian; with old frescoes in the 
Cloistert, and A. Mantegna's Virgin enthroned, Ac. 
Its pleasing campanile is of the twelfth century, 
and the cloister is elegant. At the west end 
is a red porphyry tazza, 9 feet diameter. *' This 
beautiful church shows traces of the same style 
of decoration as is exhibited in tlie apse of the 
cathedral ; pilasters being used hero as slight as 
those, but so elegant and so gracefully applied ns 
to form one of the most pleasing decorations of 
the style." — Fergusson. 

S. Bernardino has a chapel (Cappella Pellegrini) 
which is one of Sammicheli's best works; being a 
decorated rotunda, 80 feet across, 64 feet high, of 
fine bronzino stone, that is, of hard stone which 
sounds like bronze. 

At Santa Anastatia, a good specimen of Italian 
iwintcd Gothic (1260-1307), arc frescoes said to be 
by Giotto, and others by Michele da Verona and 
Plsanello; with a cinque-cento altar-piece, a 
beautiful imvcnient, &c. In front, statue of Paolo 
Veronese, 1888. At the Capuchin Church is a Dead 
Christ, by A. Veronese, one of his best works. At 

S. Ste/ano, in Veronetta, is a work by P. Vecchio, 
with one by A. Veronese, the Passion of the 
Forty Martyrs ; and at the Miscricordia Hospital, 
another, the Descent from the Cross. This church 
was rebuilt by Thcodoric. 

8la. Maria della Scala, built 1324, by Can Grande, 
has Maffxii's tomb. 

8. Helen'i Church contains the Virgin and Con- 
stautine, by Brusasorci. 

Santa Eufemia has Brusasorci's David Playing on 
the Harp, and Moses with the Two Tablesof the Law, 
and B. de Moro's St. Paul ; also some of the best 
specimens of Caroto, another native artist. 

Several of the churches are old; for example, that 
of 8. Naizaro e Celso, in Veronetta, the Monastery 
of which, with its old wall paintings and galleries, 
was of the seventh century. 8S. Siro e Lihei'a was 
built by Berongarius. S. Corona Is a Lombard 
brick. S. Lorenzo is Gothic. 

8. Fermo Afaggiore, mostly built 1313, is partly 
in the Lombard style, with pointed windows. It 
contains several ancient paintings of the twelfth 
century, Riccio's Torre or Turriani Mausoleum, 
and tombs of the two Brothers Alighieri, desccn- 
dcnts of Dante. 

Santa Maria-in-Organo, at Veronetta, begun, 
1542, by Sammichcli. iuis a fa^de of columns and 
pilasters. It contains a St. Bernard beaten by 
Devils, by L. Giordano; Gnorclno's (iuardian 
Angel; ond A. Veronese's St Francis; with 
various specimens of tarnatura or inlaid work, by 
Frn Giovanni, of the fifteenth century. 

8. Giorgio in BraiJa, by the same architect (the 
body, by Sansovino), has two good pictures by A. 
Veronese; one, the Martyrdom of St. George. 
A'so, the Miracle of the Five Thonsond, by 
Farinato; Brusasorci's Mannn: and the Baptism o'f 
(Mirist, by Tintoretto. The Palazzo Pomitei, on 
this side of the to^vn, is by Sammichcli. 




-^ 



V 



Route 13.] 



VBBONA, CALDIEBO, 8. BOKO^K^IO. 



47 



The interior of S. Tomnuuo Cantuar (t.e., Thomas 
a Becket) is another work of Snmmichcli. It con- 
tains an altar-piece by Girolamo dni Libri. 

Santa Maria delta Vittoria has a Descent from 
the Cross, by P. Veronese. ^Sf. Paolo di Campo 
Marzio was built by Ponipoi. 

The Church of Madonna diCampaffna, at the vil- 
Ia<;c of Sam Michcle (tramway), is a beantiful 
colonnaded rotunda, by Sammichcli, but eight- 
sided within, and surmounted by a large dome. 

The Lazzaretto, by Sammicheli, is an iniraonso 
s]Micc. 728 feet by 357, surrounded by a wide 
arcade on pillars, and having a romid cha])cl in 
the middle. It stands 3 or 4 miles from Verona, 
and is turned into a powder magazine. 

A Cemetery, in the Campo Marzio, outside Porta 
Vittoria, laid out by Barbieri, 1832, is 600 feet 
Kiiuare, within a colonnade, and is one of the best 
in this part of Italy. 

Statue of Garibaldi (by Bordoni, 1887). repre- 
sented on horseback, in the Piazza dell' Indipen- 
denza, adorned with gardens, in which is the 
Post-OJice. 

Calderari is the architect of the Seminario for 
I'ricsts and of the Casa Cocastelli. The Collegio 
de' Fanciulli (for children) is the work of Mala- 
carne, 1822. 

The ancient Chapter Library, annexed to the 
Cathedral, contains 16,000 volumes, and 540 MSS., 
Momc as old as the fourth century, among which 
arc several poems by Dante. It was here that 
Petrarch discovered Cicero's Epistles and Fami- 
liares; and Nietmhr, in 1816, the Institutes of 
Gains, a Koman lawyer of the time of Antoninus 
Pius. The latter MS, is a palimpsest, consisting 
of 127 skins of parchment, on which the four books 
of Gains had Ikjcu first written; these were 
washed or scraped out by the monks of a later day, 
and re-written with theKpistlesof St. Jerome (one 
portion has been used twice over). In this con- 
dition the oriirinal, with all its erasures and ab- 
breviations, was made out, and first published in 
1820. 

Six Bridges cross the Adigo, besides the one 
(closed) noiir the old Castel Scaligeri. That of di 
Pietra, or Pontc della Pietra, built by Fra Gio- 
condo. which has two Roman arches in it. leads to 
the barracks on the site of the Castel and Church 
of S. Pictro, in Venmetta ; this castle was occupied 
by the French, 1797, after a hard struggle. From 
it and from Castel Felice bastion, behind it, there 
is a fine i»rospect of the country around, as well as 
from the Giarditio Giusti on the east of the city. 
Below ('a*tel 8. Pietro, near the bridge, are re- 
mains of a Itonian theatre. 

Some traces are seen of the old wall of Gallicnus. 

Pindemonte, the poet, and Isotta Nogarolo, a 
learned lady of the fifteenth century, were natives 
of Verona^ besides those already mentioned. A 
modern name Is Aleardi, the poet, author of 
" Arnaldi di Koca," born 1814. 



Steam Tramway to Cologna Neneta, 25f miles, 
passing through San Michele, San Martino, Cal- 
diero (mineral baths), and Lonigo, running part 
of the way parallel with the line to Vicenza. At 
Gargagnano, in the hills, belonging to Can Grande, 
Dante wrote part of his Purgatory. 

At Ronca and Bolca, many fossil shells, fish, 
and plants have been found in the limestone fornm- 
tions. Ponte della Vlga, in the mountains, is a 
natural bridge, 100 feet span. 

Among the products arc gloves, oil, and wine. 
The silk trade used to employ 10,UOO hands. 

A Congress was held here, 1822, by the principal 
powers, at which the Emperors of Austria and 
Russia, and the Kings of Prussia, Sardinia, and 
Naples, were present, but no British minister 
appeared, though Wellington was sent nnofticially. 
It decided on allowing France to send an army 
into Spain in behalf of the old monarchy. Lord 
Broughton, in his Italy, describes a concert given 
to the Allied Sovereigns, in the amphitheatre, on 
this occasion, and how Alexander took pains to 
ingratiate himself with the people, by "nmibllng" 
about in i)retendcd incognito ; a legion of spies 
hovering around him all the time. 

Excursions to Chloggia, by a line which pro- 
ceeds vi& DoMobuom, Ugnago (page 48), and Iktdia 
to Rovigo, 56^ miles; and thence to Chloggia 
(pages 87 and 89) on the coast. 

The route to Vicenza is through a fertile plain, 
where the vine is twined round the mulberry 
trees. It is bordered on the north by hills culti- 
vated to their summits, behind which are the Alps 
dividing Italy from the Tyrol. These hills are 
chiefly limestone, yielding good red and other 
marbles. The F.uganeau Hills are to the south. 

San Martino (Stat.) Next Vago-Zevio, and 

Caldiero (Stat.) The Roman CaJderium, so 
called from a sulphur spring, over which a bath 
was built in the year 1 a-d. Here, near Ccrea, the 
French were defeated by the Austrians, 12th 
November, 1 796, who occupied the heights under 
Alvhizi. Bonaparte withdrew to Verona and 
wrote a desponding letter to Paris, but on the 
14th he marched out and turned their position at 
Arcole. In 1805 a battle took place here lietween 
Masscna and the Austrians under Prince Charles. 

Colognota, opposite, was the seat of Count 
Alessandro Pompci, the builder of the Exchange 
at Verona. Soave Castle stands tm a hill neiir 
this. At a spot near the Roman way on the 
Cenera ploin, about 6,000 coins (now in the 
Verona Museum) were fomid 1877. They are of 
the time of Diocletian. Aurelian, Probus, Ac, and 
made of an alloy called billon. 

S. Bonifacio (Stat.) it gives name to a 
family whose old tower here serves as a campanile 
to the Church of Vlllauuova. At LonlgO (Stat.) 
is a handsome Church, 230 feet by 99 fect^\^»^(^^v«« 
two west spires and (uvQ^\A'^'=»Vk.\.Q"««st. '^Naarcv^sX 



[Doim the Alpone, S mill) loulli, It 
lebrldge n 



d«( 


nded 11 


TheF 


encht^le" 


srft'rf 


nn 




midst B 




( s»pe> 








ImeBo 




ad»l them wtl 










{ Ibo bridge 1 t 








^^Bd 








pond and ng 


rlylo« 










n the 161 


b the Fn 


mohaBaii 


iltonipted to Co 


■ry 




brldgo. 


nivto 




»ck with inime 






..^Vlly of 




Tbey altcinpted 








It day w 


tbout sue 


Be>a;UntAuBMe 




hav 


nff by 








iS 



whole lbs ceneral uppearnTice of the town U 
uneqasl. hTs building! are bi tbe CIbbsIciI. » 
dljllngulsbed Irom the Gothte ilyle, well propor- 

tecluriil order., ftn Mslue, by V. Qabiagl (IBM) 



Moiitebellt.. with 
s total IDM ol a.OflU In killed nnd priaoneri. l-nr- 
ther down the Adlge are Taliiiera and Lenuso 
<St»t.), on the Vorooa-Boilgo line, s Snreis 

'"HmtebaUoitrtftt.). 

fonnded with ■ " 



*Chiif OUccu of Jfoliix 



another Aonlebello, ntar Voghe^^ 
Marshal Luinca his title. Lnnncs. 


(set by *(, with a Irtuinphsl arch (la honoD 
UeKulB«)lllielhemlrincBloatown. This! 
proscenlnm. a place (or the spoetalon, who e 


no nrospcet of the Berlci Hllli, a 

■e. o^ns^m, on one of irhlch Is an 

BBtle of (he Montoechi family— the 

Sbak»i.oare. ElVOll (bettle of 


l™bnne"or'bilconJ'on'p"lli.'S l's'f°eol"'high 
bold, .bout 2,400 person^ but is seldom op 
eicept lor ball, and concerts in hononrof g 
personages ; for instance, in 188), 


Adtge(p.gefl*). 
VIOEKZA (8tat). 



1, and traveraeil by the BaccbigUon' 
monntiJn lortenl, which frequentl; 
tlielr inundalioni. Wf sli bridge, 
1 1-unle dolie Itarcbc, or dl 8. Hichcb 



irved in relief, and adjusted according to por- 
lectlTe. All this Is etylsd mere gingerbread and 
nmpeiy by Mint archilacl^ Ihoujh It iras 
tatly admired at Iba time. Part of the facade 
iloeeupicd by the pHucenium i. decorsted by 
jrlntblon colnmns, supporlhig an alllc, with 



lo' Slgnorl, It la a Gothic edifice (with ■ tow 
105 fcDt high), improted by Palladlo'i loggia ai 



" Near Vlcciiia the whlto Tlllace. and ganrty | 

diatc approach to the city 1> throogh a .ahurli of 
detached Tilla.; but the general effect I. much , 



f the Gothic period," 



dydtaVirgin.andanothDrpictoreUyP.Venmaie, 
Si. Joseph and 8t. Catherine, and Ihs Adoration 
of the riagi, both by U. FigoUnl, and Buuao'i 
SL Rocca healing the Plagaa. 



Houte 13.] ABGOLE, VICBNZA— OHUBOHES, FICTUBE 6ALLEBT. 



49 



Near the last, and on the same side, is the Monte 
di Pieta. 

The Piazza dtl Isota^ where the two streams 
unite, is large, but the buildings are not remark- 
able. 

Notable works of PaUadio are — Palazzo Porto- 
Barharan in Via Porta. " The Barbarau Palace 
perhaps Khows Palladio's style to the best advan- 
tage. Tiie proportion of the orders one to 
another is good, so is that of the solids to the 
voids ; and the whole has a palatial, ornamental 
air, and with as little false decoration as is perhaps 
compatible with the style." — Fergusson. 

Also, the Palazzo Francttchini; Palazzo di Porto^ 
or Ca del Diavolo, in Piazza del Tello, now the 
Seminary Library; Palazzo Valmarano, with its 
colossal pilasters; Palazzo TMene, a large rusticate 
but unfinished structure, now the Uanca Popolare ; 
Palazzo Trissino dal Velio d'Oro, near the Porta di 
S. Bartolommeo, on the north side of the city. 
This last was one of the earliest of Palladio*s 
constructions. 

Another Palazzo Trissino, in Via del Giudeci, 
near the Corso, Is by his follower, Scammozzi; 
and the Palazzo Cordellino, now the Elementary 
Schools, by another follower, Calderari, and a 
native of Viccnza, like his predecessors. In the 
Corso, near Porta di Verona, is Palladio's house. 
That of Pigafctta, the companion of Magellan, is 
near the Basilica, in the half- Venetian style of the 
fifteenth century (148J). Under the windows are 
carved roses, and the motto, '* II nest Rose sans 
Espine." The Palazzo del Conte Schlo differs 
from other palaces here in behig in the full style 
of Venetian Gothic. 

** Vicenza is a city dear to all admirers of the 
Renaissance style, not only as being the birthplace 
of Palladio, but as containing by far the greatest 
number, as well as the most celebrated productions 
of his genius. Strange to say, however, it is not 
in Vicenza that these can be studied to the greatest 
advantage, as, unfortunately, most of them are of 
brick, concealed under stucco, and are constructed 
with wooden architraves, and all the shams we 
blame so much In the architecture of the present 
day. The city, too, is now sunk into decay, and 
most of its palaces are deserted, so that the build- 
ings themselves have an air of shabbiness most 
destructive of architectural effect; and are, in 
fact, better studied in drawings." — Firgusson's 
Architecture. 

About forty Churches still remain here; many, 
of course, of inferior class. Specimens of Mor- 
tagna, Andrea Vicentino, and other native artists 
are abundant. 

The Cathedral is a large, fifteenth-century, Gothic 
church, with a crypt chapel under the choir, which 
is ascended by twenty steps. It contains some of 
the best works of Zelotti. 

At the Santa Corona are — a fine Adoration of the 

Mngi, by P. Veronese; a Descent from the Crosa by 

Bassano, a native; a beautifttl Baptism of Christ, 

by G. Bellini; and (over the porch) Christ crowned 

E 



with Thorns, by Tintoretto, a rich composition. It 
contains some old Gothic tombs, and mosaic work 
at the high altar. 

S MiclieWs Church possesses a Tintoretto also, 
St. Augustine Healing the Plague. 

At S. Bartolommeo, a Descent from the Cross, 
by Bnonconsiglio, and the Adoration of the Magi, 
M. Figolino. 

At S. BiagiOy The Flagellation, by Gucrcino. 

At Corpus Domini, the Descent from the Cross, 
by J. B. Zelotti. 

At Santa Crocc,thct same subject, by Bassano ; 
and Paul Veronese's Dead Christ, In the sacristy. • 

At S.Rocca, Healing the Plague, by G. Bassano, 
a fine specimen of this artist. 

At Santa Maria de Campagnano, pictures by the 
same master, and Pordenone. 

8. Lorenzo's old Gothic church, which had become 
a magazine, was restored in 1830. It has a fine 
porch, and several monuments, amongst them 
Mortagna's. 

The new *Pinacoteca is in the MuseoCivico, in the 
Palazzo Chicricati, a vast building, by Palladio, 
with an arcaded f ayadc of Doric and Ionic column?, 
restored in 1856. It contains several pictures, the 
best of which are — a Holy Family, by 1'. Veronese ; 
a Madonna, by Guide; a Magdalene, by Titian; a 
half figure, by A. Carracci; Christ and the Virgin 
on the Throne, by Bassano; poitraits by Bonifacio, 
Giorgione, &c. An Assumption, by an old Vene- 
tian painter. Maestro Paolo, is dated 133;^. But 
the most remarkable picture is the copy of ♦Christ 
and et. Gregory I., of P. Veronese, which was the 
chief attraction of the Madonna del Monte Church 
down to 1848, when it was cut to pieces by the 
Austrians; it was afterwards patched together, 
and placed here. The original is in the monastery 
of Madonna del Monte (see below). Here also are 
the MSS. and architectural drawings of Palladio 
and his disciples; with cabinets of natural 
history, «fcc. 

At the Public Library, or Biblioteca Bertoliana, 
open daily, are 30,000 volumes and 300 MSS., 
including a Latin Bible of the thirteenth centurj-, 
and rare copies of Italian and other classics. 

Outside the Porta del Monte is a triumphal Arch 
by Palladio, whence a covered arcade of 180 
arches, half-a-mile long, terminated by a staircase 
of 200 steps, conducts to the entrance of the 

*Madonna del Monte, a famous convent or pil- 
grimage, on Monte Berico, whence there is a 
splendid prospect as fur as tlie Adriatic. Among 
tlie paintings is B. Mantcgna's Adoration of the 
Virgin. 

On the top of a grassy knoll is the celebrated 
Rotouda, or Ki2/aPa//ac^tana, a round building, first 
built by Palladio, for the Marquis Capri, and often 
imitated; as at Lord Bexley's scat, at Foot's Cray, 
and at Chiswick. '*It is a square of about 70 feet 
each way. with a recessed portico on each face, of 
the Ionic order, and enclosing a domical apartxsal5iL-^^^^ 
of 80 feet diameter in tha <tecv\:^«fc.. ^xK'^^^vvse^^ssv5..^ 



no BO^DBHAW'a ITALI. [SfiCtiOD 1, 




•C*(t^ OiJtiUgfXoHa.—Viltiio UElla Bagiciie. 








Cloll""; froKoJ'i M Uadouna'd.ir Arou'a. sTg".': 






ngD. and of ■ paLiiu, tn »en In Iba Plgir«iu sud 


Tculty. Pcirarcb'B portrait, Pappafaia Tatace. 


BBpllitclUOardeni. Thnorcheiat an iqueducl 


Palnlln^t, by aiDtto, Da Zevlo <ot Altlchleto), 


rBmi.li..tth.imM™o(Olbi.. 






.Sci^Xiirb'by DODHtelloand Hleclo. ArchtUcntrt, 


tower. TlieCoinc[ery,onlhaTro"ijoaLde, contdm 




Afurtlfleil idt)'! capital of a proTlBc* : geat ot 
n Biehop, Unlienlly, Mc.; In ■ fertile part of tb* 




R«.latiky In IBM. andfuteedlo cipllulotc. 




Baildsi 1h( naavei alreidy named, It rijckani 


PaiatiuiH. by Uyy anil VinjU. who aiien (hat 




Ajittnor foanded It. and planted bli Trojana here. 






herellMi nnd' Zanclla, Uiii poel, anthor of " I'llche." 




Amonn other apol. to -l-it are the Labyrinth, 
or Qrotto del CtyM; Barbarano, Iho Hllli gf 


Liry. who ii clalmodu anatlve, wai bom cIom 
by at Alwno (page 89), under ilio Easantan 
BUI, to the north, 1,880 leet blah. When 




and TMeW to SoUO, 16 mile. 01 the Tr^Sjl^ 
Rocehette, and anothor of S niilo 10 Torw. 
S^Mt and Val8*n"nTma ""linied'"'"' *'"' 


AttlU plnndetsd it, 4Si, the people dlsperaed and 
built ■fiuia. which had no exliienco till that dole. 
It wai ngabi restored byNarMii. the general ol 
Jnninlan, after defeating Ihe Oolh., later. II wai 




an Initependent repobllc eiceut when Eixellno 


Ran from Vlcenia to TrsVlM (p. SS). pxHlng 


being taken byVenlce.I4fl».tlthen«ifortb became 
•nbject to the great city, of which it wa> the parent. 








deiu to Suaano (pop. ll.OVS), «a tlie Brema 


It ie an old-looking town, with many narrow 


India niX."M.l of twi'irPoMAoVo, the hlUE: 






Invalid) arc leiit hither from ail parti of Italy. 


place of Oinow, containing cuti ol hli wor*>. 


Yet. "eir»p(iiigFerrara.ll hu an air of deeoia- 



Vtldssno, where a carriage cap lie olitaiced (or 
the chalybeate hatha at BbooitU, beautifully 
Bituated among Dolomite mouatalne, with good 



Croce d'Oro (Golden C 
Curt; aire Pedrocchl 



n ISIfl the jwiiulatioii wai 
1 d'Oro (Oolden Btar): 

DM). 

inoblebnlldlng.inclndiDg 



Satonarola, were built by Falconetto. Among 
the uDarei are lbs Plaaa M Slanari (or P. Unltk 
d'ltalla), which takei name Irou Ihe isat of the 
Carrara familj-. the Falaiu del Co^itlaiH, with a 
fine gate, and abigh belfry, and contain! the Ijagfia 
del ContlgUe (Sfteentb ceuCury). It wai Ihe work 
of Falconetto (ISStJ. and hai frcKoei by Florlglrl 
on the front. The Palaiiao del Capltano li now 
thaUnlvanltyUbrary. The beat Caf^ are here. 



Bna*^ cTocI 



e Pall 



. Uondi, a 

aatronDinlcal clock In Italy, There are Statoei ol 
Dante and Qlotto at the Loggia Amulea, In tlia 
Ptalo. 

ThelHauadim Erhe (Herb Market) and Plana 

contains IliB Mnnicipla. In the PLaiaa delie Uva 

YrJU^'ov V^mVttlotio Emm°anuele Il^'oma- 



-BailtoVlcenia.Fetral 
nice. Hallway Btat Ion 
Omnlbuics. iSo ccnt<. 



Route 13.] 



VICENZA, PADUA — CHURCHES. 



51 



A most remarkable building is the * Palazzo 
della Ragione, or Saione (entrance in Via del 
Municipio), with its high pitched roof, built about 
1209, by P. Cozzo, upon arches, and restored after 
a fire, 1420. This vast Hall^ without ornaments 
or proportion, one of the largest in Italy, 
is 278 feet l>y 86, and 78 feet high, and painted 
with upwards of 400 faded frescoes, relating to 
the seasons, the planets, signs of the zodiac, astro- 
nomical influences, apostles, and saints. Including 
St. Mark on a throne, a symbol of Venetian power. 
They were painted chiefly by G. Miretto, from 
designs by Giotto, furnished by Pietro Apponi or 
d'Abano, a famous astronomer and native, whose 
bust is here. Under St. Mark's picture is the 
Tombstone of a freedman of Livy, whose house 
was in Btrada dl 8. Giovanni (?). There are also 
statues, Ac, of Speroni, the philosopher, Lucretia 
Dondi, a learned lady, related to Dondi dell' Oro- 
logio, and Belzoni, the traveller, between two 
Egyptian obelisks (?), which he gave to his native 
town ; with the model of a large Horse by Dona- 
tcllo. At one end is the Lapis Mtuperii^ a black 
granite stone, a sort of cutty stool, where it was 
the custom for an insolvent debtor to sit on his 
naked breech, and declare three times that he was 
not worth so much as he owed. He was then 
released from his creditors. Many inscriptions, 
Ac, are placed in the corridors. 

The Cathedral, or *J)uomo, in Piazza del Santo, 
was rebuilt in the sixteenth-eighteenth centuries 
by Andrea della Valle. It is large, but has 
nothing remarkable about it, though M. Angclo, 
they say, gave the design. From a want of 
elegance in the details, it produces little good 
artistic effect. It contains some monuments of 
Speroni and his daughter; of Bishop Barocci; 
a Madonna by Padovanino, paintings by Cam- 
pagnola, &c., and Rinaldo's bust of Petrarch, 
who was a canon of this church, and died at 
Arquk, near this. In the sacristry is n good 
fresco portrait, cut out of the house he lived in 
at Padua; a Greek silver vase of curious work is 
used at confirmations. They show also a beautiful 
missal on vellum, printed at Venice, 1498, full of 
miniatures. The detached Baptistery was built 
by Francis Carrara's wife, about 1H80, and is 
covered with good frescoes by painters of Giotto's 
school. The chapter library contains 10,000 
volumes and some MSS. A bust of Petrarch was 
placed in it, 1817, by A. Barba. 

3. Antonio or 72 Santo., dedicated to the patron 
saint of the city, and a very ornamental structure. 
St. Anthony died here, 1231 ; and his relics are of 
course tolerably authentic, and are duly honoured. 
This great brick church was built 1265-1307, 
in the mixed Gothic style, by Niccolb di Pisa (?) 
the seven cupolas being added in the fifteenth 
century. It is a cross, 280 feet by 140, with a 
front o( 117 feet. **Its Eastern domes, German 
spires, and narrow gmllerles of pointed arches 
make np an aggrcfate that could exist no- 



where else. An uglier church can hardly be 
U>ani\."' —(Fer<jusson.J The aiches are round and 
iX)inted. Above the chief jwrtal are two figures 
of St. Bernard and St. Anthony, painted by Man- 
tegna, but since retouched. In the square fronting 
it is I)onatello'8 bronze statue, on horseback, of 
Gattamelata, or Erasmo da Narni, the Condottiere 
leader; one of the oldest works of the kind. 

The interior is very full of carving, painting, 
sculpture, ex-votos, especially the saint's chapel, 
with its gold and silver lamps, and silver coffin, 
and rich shrine, by Sansovino; having a facade 
of fine arches, above which are niched statues 
by Pironi, Alleo, &e. The altar, built 1698, is 
of verde antico, surrounded by bronze statues, 
of saints (Anthony, Bonavcntura, Louis, &c.), by 
T. Asi)ctti ; who also made the angels which carry 
A. Kiccio's fine candelabra. One lamp is the gift 
of the Empress Eugenic. Two other groups, by 
F. Parodi and O. Marinall, bear silver candelabra, 
weighing 1,600 and 1,400 ounces respectively. 
Nine or ten bas-reliefs on the walls ore by Bardi, 
Padovanino, Campagna, Sansovino, I'clucca, &c. 
The silver doors of this chapel were painted over 
by the monks to save them from the French. 

The Chapel of the Madonna Mora (the black 
Madonna) has a sitting figure of the Virgin in 
marble (1392), decked out. In S. Luca's Chapel are 
wall paintings by Padovanino. In the choir 
are bronze gates by F. Aspetti, bronzes on the 
organ by Donatello ; twelve bas-reliefs from the 
Old Testament byVillano (1488) and A.Riccio; 
bronzes round the altar ; anil statues in bronze by 
Donatello and T. Mincio; a beautiful bronze 
candelabrum by A. Kicclo (1607-17); a bronze 
crucifix and bas-reliefs (Christ in the Tomb), also 
by Donatello, to whom the bas-reliefs in St. 
Sacrament Chapel arc also due. The Sanctuary 
(built 1690) has sculptures by F. Parodi, and 
relics of the saints; the Sacristy, various carvings 
in wood ; and the Chapter House, traces of G Wtto's 
frescoes. In 8. Felice Chapel, which, till 1608, 
was dedicated to St. James, are frescoes relating 
to the latter, by Da Zevio and D'Avanzo (1376), 
besides sculptui'es of the same date. In the body 
of the church arc monuments of Sesio (by Parodi) 
who fell when Venice was attacked by the Turkish 
fleet, 1683; of Archbishop Trombelta, with his 
bronze bust, by Uiccio; of General Contarini, by 
Sammicheli; Helen Piscopia, a learned lady ; Car- 
dinal Bembo. by Sammicheli; and Cesarotti, the 
scholar ; with four organs in the choir. 

At the Scuola (school, or brotherhood) del Santo 
(Antonio), close by, arc a scries of frescoes 
relating to the miracles of St. Anthony; three or 
four of which are by Titian (one contains his own 
portrait) ; others by Campagnola, &c. 

A Fiera del Santo, or St. Anthony's Horse Fair, 
is held in June, when the animals are blessed by 
the priest. Here polesini di Rovi^go ^.t^sw x^ssssgcvv. 
for exportation to ll«wv«i, -^Xvet^ n>enr73 vct^s. •>^^%.^>» 
the cavtVagt^ oi t^i^ C.we^\wv\%. K^^R«s&^^^**^^^^ 



52 



BSADSHAW'S ITALY. 



[Section 1. 



Anthony is sold, giving the saint's discourse to 
the fishes, beginning *' Cari ed amati poscL," and 
ending with the benediction. 

S. Georgia, near St. Anthony's Church, was built 
1877, as a Mausoleum for the Lupi family, and has 
some fresco paintings by Avanzi and Da Zevio. 

Oli Eremitani (or the Hermitage Church), near 
the Arena, built 1376, for the Augnstines, has 
canopied tombs of the Carrara family (an inscrip- 
tion for Jacopo C. is by Petrarch), and Benavides, 
the priest, by Amman at i; with (Juarento's fresco 
of the Last Judgment in the choir ; some by Man- 
togna and his pupils, &c., in S. Jacopo's Chapel; 
a St. John Baptist, by Guido, in the sacristy ; a 
funeral urn to William of Orange, by Canova; 
and a bust by him in the cemetery to Mad. Calem- 
berg. The frescoes by *Mantegna, almost the only 
frescoes by this master, are in bad condition, 
and some of the principal figures have disappeared. 

Santa Maria delV Annunziata or ^Madonna delV 
Arena^ on the site of a lioman Amphitheatre, 
which the predecessors of Enrico di Serovegno 
turned into a castle, was built for him, 1303, by 
Giotto, who also adorned it with a series of fres- 
coes. It is a small, plain Gothic building, usually 
called "Giotto's Chapel," pierced with windows 
on one side only, and contains the founder's monu- 
ment by John of Pisa, and his statue. *Oiotto"s 
Frescoes number forty-three, representing the Life 
of Christ, and the Legends of the Virgin, and 
include the celebrated Last Judgment, with the 
Virtues and Vices, which they say was in part 
prompted by Dante, with whom Giotto lived at 
the time. They are on a blue ground, with ara- 
besques, saints, &c., filling up the spaces, which 
arc separated by painted borders, without any 
attempt at architectural ornament. Copies in 
chromo-iithography have been published by the 
Arundel Society. A fee is demanded. 

In Scuola del Carmine are paintings by Cam- 
p.i.^olo, Titian (The Visitation), and P. Vecchio. 

/?. Francesco, built by Sansovino, has paintings 
by P. Veronese, and carved stalls. 

Santa Oiustina is a handsome, lofty building, 
807 feet long, on the site of an ancient temple; 
rebuilt, 1621-49, by A. Riccio and A. Moroue; 
with a fine open lofty nave and eight cupolas, one 
of which is 130 feet high. It contains the tomb of 
St. Luke, by G. Mussato, with P. Veronese's 
Martyrdom of Santa Giustlna, including his own 
portrait; and a Madonna, l>y Romanino; beside 
some scat carvings in the choir. St. Luke's por- 
trait of the Virgin and Child are also shown. In 
the cloisters of the great Benedictine Convent, to 
which it is attached, are a very old piece of sculp- 
ture (about 1000) and some other clever statues of 
a later date. It has an excellent library, much of 
which was dispersed at the Revolution, but it is 
still rich in first editions, and contains Petrarch's 
letter to G. Dondi. It is further noted as being 
on the supposed site of *Livy's Orate, to whom 
there is an iuscription, with a bust marked 
" P. T. L. C." 



S. Canzione contains Danini's Miracle of the 
Miser (with the portrait of Fabricius, the anato- 
mist), and others by A. Riccio. 

S. Gaetano was built by Scamozzi, 1586. 

The Bishop's Pafare (Palazzo Vescovile) has 
paintings by Ricci and others, one bemg a portrait 
of *Petrarch. At the Seminario for Priests, 
attached to Santa Maria in Vanzo, is a library of 
ai>,OOU volumes and 800 MSS. It was here that 
Forcellini brought out his great Latin Lexicon. 

The Museo Civico contains the Municipal Library, 
Archives, and a collection of pictures, with some 
antiquities. The best pictures are by Boccaccino, 
Moroue, Garofalo, and Romanino. 

The Palace of the University, called II Bb (ox), 
from standing on the site of an inn with that sign, 
was built 1493-1552, though founded in the thir- 
teenth century, by Frederick II., and numbers 
about 1,200 students, with forty or fifty professors. 
In its palmy state it could boast of 18, UOO students, 
but then Padua was able to send 110,000 fighthig 
men into the field. It forms a large pile, with a 
double gallery, by Sansovino, round the beautiful 
court, in which are armsof Icarnedmembersfrom all 
parts of Europe, with the statue of the handsome 
Helen Piscopia, who took her degree as a doctor, 
and died in 1684. Galileo, Fallopius, Fabricius, «fcc., 
were professors here. It comprises an Anatomical 
theatre (a good collection, as old as 1594), Cabinets 
of physic and natural history. Library of 100,000 
volumes, in the hall of the (Siganti, attached to 
the Capitano (page 50) ; Botanic gardens (near the 
Prato), as old as 1546, hi which arc many large 
agaves and cacti, a fan palm (celebrated in a 
poem by Goethe), magnolia, araucarias, and an 
ancient plane tree; Observatory (in Ezzelino'sold 
tower of Tommaso), and an 'institute of rural 
economy. The Observatory connuands a view 
of the plain, the Tyrolese and Euganean Hills, 
and of Venice (on a clear day). 

Forsyth relates that a Venetian Senator, being 
once deputed as a visitor to this university, asked 
the astronomer if the observatory wanted any 
instrument "It wants nothing." said Chiminclli, 
"except a good horizon." ''Horizon!" said the 
most potent signer, "why then we must send to 
London for one." Ezzeiino's House is now the 
Santa Lucia Theatre for marionettes. The Uni- 
versity Hospital, or Spedule, is in the old Jesuit 
College, and has a chapel containhig Canova's 
monument of Bishop (jiusthiiani. Dr. Cuius, 
founder of Coius College, graduated here. 

In Ponte S. Lorenzo, near the house of Dante, is 
the so-called sarcophagus ol *Antenor, under a 
brick canopy, near the remains of S. Stefano 
Church. 

Palazzo del Podesta, of the sixteenth century, has 
paintings by D. Compagnola, Padovanino, «kc. 

^Palazzo Trente Pappa-fara (or Bean Bread) has 
Damini's frescoes; and a marvellous group of 
seventy figures of Falling Angels, cut out of one 
marble block, by A. Fasolata, in the course of 
twelve years' work. Above is St. Michael, and 



Route 14.] 



PADUA, DOLO, MESTRE, CERTOSA. 



53 



below is Pluto, and the attitudes and groupinff 
of the whole arc surprising, considering the 
circumstances. 

"It is a group of sixty figures, representing the 
angels cast down from licavcn, cut out of one solid 
block of Carrara marble, about 5 feet high. They 
are in all attitudes that the human form could take 
in sach a headlong descent, and are so animated in 
appearance that they arc almostliving. Each angel 
is separate from the rest, but the whole are twisted 
and twined together in a complicated manner, and 
are most cxqusitely chiselled, even in the minutest 
parts. The wonder is how tlie artist reached the 
inner portion of the group. The Archangel Michael 
forms the top of the pyramid. Fasoluta, the artist, 
had never executed anything ofconsetiuence before, 
but his patron, thinking the man a genius, took 
him under his protection, gave him a block of 
marble, rooms in his palace, and lif)eral pay, and 
desired him to execute a group of figures to prove 
his talent. The artist stipulated that his work 
should not be seen till finished; and after twelve 
years he produced this, which is certainly unique. 
He was afterwards invited to England to execute 
a similar work, and died there, our guide added, 
of ' home sickness." The group is now covered 
with glass, as a Russian General, some time ago, 
whilst examining it too closely, had the misfor- 
tune to knock off a small portion of one finger." — 
Miss Catlow's Sketching Rambles. 

Palazzo Gimtiniani al Santo is a fine building 
by Falconctto, with Campagnola's frescoes, from 
Raphael's designs. Count Luigi Coniaro, who 
wrote on "Long Life," died here, 1566, and it 
includes a musical rotunda built by him. Palazzo 
Lazzaro a San Francesco has a gallery of paintings 
of the Venetian school, with many inscriptions, &c. 
Palazzo Pisani includes an old chapel, in which 
are frescoes, with portraits of the Carrara family 

The small Picture Gallery of the City, or Museo 
Civico. in St. Anthony's Cloister, contains a fine 
work by Guerclno (Head of St. John the Baptist), 
with Padovanlno's Woman in Adultery, with the 
town Library, coins, &c. 

Other buildings are the Theatres Nuovo and 
Nuovissimo, Hospital of 8. Giovanni, and the 
Esposti, or Foundling Hospital, established as far 
back as 1697. Near the Porto di Torricelle is an 
old house Inscribed " Opifizi dl Torricelle," said 
to have been built in 1217. 

Its eminent natives, besides Livy and Pictro 
d'Abano, ar3 A. Mantegna and Campagnola, the 
painters; also A. Musalo, the poet, and Davila. 
Petrarch resided here before his death in 1374; 
and a statue near the Carmini was dedicated to 
him, in 1874, at th« fifth centenary of this event. 

Local rail from Padua to Bagnoli, 17 J miles, 
passing through Cagnola. 

By rail to Pcrrnra, vid At>anO (page 8P). Mon- 
Selioe, Este, BOYlgOi &c. (Route 2u). Bv rail, 

viA Camposamiilaro, Clttadella, to Bassano 

(page 50), 30 miles, up tbo Urcnta. From Campo- 
gampiero to CasttUzailOO and ]roilt0l>eUima. 



From Padua to Venice the country is flat, inter- 
sected by numberless canals, and highly cultivated. 

A local rail. 26 miles, runs to Venice, vid DolO 
(below) and Fuslna. 

Ponte di Brenta (Stat.), near the river, is 

succeeded by 

DolO (Stat.), where the rail leaves the Brenta, 
which may be descended in the barge, or barca. to 
Fushia, from which you cross the Lagoon to Venice. 
But the rail runs vid MaraHO (Stat.) to 

Mestre (Stat.), where Palladio built a splen- 
did palace for the Barbaro family; and to Fort 
Malghera, on tlie mainland, where the shallow 
Lagoon, or Laguna, not more than thirteen feet 
deep, on which Venice is seated, opens to view. 
Fort Malghera was taken, after a bombardment of 
five days. In 1849, when the Venetians rose against 
their Austrian masters, under the leadership of 
Manin and General Pepe, the patriotic Neapolitan, 
who died in 1856. Forts St. Giuliano and St. 
Secondc) serve to guard other parts of the Lagoon. 
It is crossed by an innnense bridge, or viaduct, 2 j 
miles long, 14 fer»t high, on 220 arches, 33 feet 
span, on 8;),000 piles driven into the mud. Besides 
the arches there are several embankments, the 
largest of which is 450 feet by 1(0. It cost nearlj' 
£190,000, and terminates at Venice on the Canale 
Grande at Isola S. Chlara. The mainland on 
which Mestre stands was styled the Dogada in 
the old times of the republic. Local rail from 
Mestre to Malcontenta, 3| miles. 

Venice (Stat.) (See Route 19.) 

ROXJTEJ 14. 

Milan to tbe Certosa, Pavia, Alessandria, 
and Genoa. 



Miles. 

Rogoredo 4J 

Locate oj 

Villa Magglore J2J 

Certosa 17^ 

Pavia 22i 

[Branches to Vog- 
hera (Route 4) and 
Casalpusterlengo.j 
Cava Carljonara ... 28 
Zinasco 32 



Mile«. 
Pieve Albignola ... 33f 

Sannazzaro 36f 

Ferrera 38 

Lomello 41i 

Mcde 45f 

Castellaro 474 

Torrebcreltl 50 

Valenza 54 

Valmadonna 58 

Alessandria 63 



Rogoredo (Stat.), here the line to Piacenza 
and the south branches olf. 

The greater part of the line is over flat, rich mea- 
dow land, bordered by trees and intersected by tho 
Naviglio Grande and other canals. 

Villa Maggiore (Stat.). On the right la 
Binasco Castle, an old scat of the Duke of Milan, 
in which Beatrice di Tenda, wife of Philip Vis- 
conti, was beheaded, 1418. 

Certosa dl Pavia (Stat.'i^ ^^^ «t.^Vi.^vt««vNx^ 

Carthusian Mo\\tt»\.%X'^% ^ vcNv-cs. Vwco. "^^^^^i 



54 



BBADSHAW'S ITALY. 



[Section 1. 



and conventual establishment. It was fonndcd 
by G. O. Visoonti, first Duke of Milan, 1896, in 
remorse for his poisonings; and, after bein^ 
suppressed by Joseph II., has been again restored. 
Hither Francis I. was brought afior the Battle 
Of Pavia, 1526, which was fought hard by. 

The * Churchy approached by a marble court 320 
feet long, is cross-shaped, 250 feet long; built by 
Henrico da Gamodia, or Zamodia, a German of 
Gmundon, in the mixed Gothic and RcnaiHsancc, 
or cinque-cento, styles; but the rlcli Facade, 
with its doors, pilasters, bas-reliefs, figures, so 
crowded together that scarcely a foot of smooth 
surface remains, is by Borgognonc, 1473-5, and 
others. As a frontispiece, it is ''certainly one of the 
most beautiful designs of the age. It consists of five 
compartments, divided vertically by buttresses of 
bold and appropriate form; the three centre 
divisions reprcsenthig the body of the church with 
its aisles; the outer ones the side chapels. The 
other features are appropriate and well placed and 
give relief, with light and shade, to the com- 
position."— f/Vfj/tM^on.^ Eight Chapels run down 
each side of the interior, which abounds with 
frescoes, mostly by Borgoguono, including his 
altar-piece of the (Crucifixion, gilding, colouring, 
bronzes, bas-reliefs, medallions, and other orna- 
ments. Women were not admitted further than the 
'nave of this church, the Ordorbehiga strict one in 
its observances. Only the superior was allowed to 
converse. ** 1 went into the two Cloistral quad- 
rangles. The lesser contains a beautiful garden, 
rich in flowers; and the walks arc adorned with 
graceful bas-reliefs in terra-cotta, representing 
scriptural subjects. The large cloister enclosed a 
field of corn. The views of the noble monastery 
from these courts are very picturesque. Each of 
the monks has a separate abode, which opens into 
the garden; and there is a little window-like 
hutch by which his food isintroduced. "-rZ^r. Wordn- 
vorth.) The Certosa is now kept up as a national 
monument, the monasterieshaving been suppressed 
by government. No gratuities are allowed to be 
giten. 

Ckrtosa Chapels. — Down one side are the 
following chapels and altars, the latter being of 
rich marble and mosaic work : — 

fkmta Veronica. — A. Langine^s Resurrection; 
C. Procaccini's altar-piece; Borgognonc'a Madonna 
and Angels. 

8. Ugone (Wugo).—8t. Hugo and Angels; altar- 
piece, by Borgognone and G. Fava. 

S. Benedetto. — C. Comaro's altar-piece of St. 
Benedict. 

S. (7roct/lMO.— Borgognonc's Crucifixion, one of 
the best of his works. 

8. 8iro. — C. B. Sacchi's Mosaics ; Borgognone's 
altar-piece of 8. Sims. 

88. Pietro e Pao/o.— Montaldo's St. Paul Re- 
storing a Dead Man, and Martyrdom of St. Peter. 

><nnf<»ria/a.— Montaldo's frescoes. 

7»a cfyapela down the other side are the 



Vergine del jR<Mario.— Polplno't bas-relief of the 
Adoration of the Magi. 

8. Arnbrogio.—C. Rosnati's Ims-relicf of St. Am- 
brose expelling the Arians; IJorgognone's altar- 
piece. 

8anta Caterina. — Rosnati's statues of St. 
Catherine of Siena and St. Catherine of the Wheel. 

8t. Giuseppe.— ¥j. Procaccinl's Three Wise Men 
and Herod, and the Angel and Ht. .Joseph; D. 
Bussola's fine bas-relief of the Massacre of the 
Innocents (1677). 

8. Giovanni Battista.—CarolonG's wall-pieces of 
St. John Baptist. 

8. Midiele.—'SnyolcnoB Abraham and the Three 
Angels; Orsolino's bas-relief of Jacob's Droam. 
Ac, at the altar; Perugino's altar-piece of God 
the Father, one of six by him, the other five being 
replaced by copies. Two originals were carriccl 
of! by the French, 1796, and the other three are in 
the National Gallery. Raphael is said to have 
had a hand in these works of his old master. 

8antaMariaJfaddalena.—PalntingBhy¥.lMauchl 
and Peroni. 

At the upper end, in the choir and transepts, 
are the 

8agre»tia Ntiova (New Sacristy), in the south 
transept wall. G. Rosnati's bas-relief of the 
Nativity. A. Solario's (or II Oobbo's) altar-piece, 
showing the seams where it was joined togeihor, 
after it had been cut for removal by the French, in 
1798. Borgognone's St. Peter and St. Paul. A 
door, by G. (>modeo, leads to the fountain cloisters 
(chiostro della Fontana), which had some good 
terra-cotta reliefs. 

8. Drunone's altar in the south transept is of 
rich alabaster, dedicated to the founder of the 
order, with reliefs by T. Orsolino ; above it aro 
Bramantino's frescoes of the Viscontl presenting 
the design of the Certosa to the Virgin. Near it 
is the 

Mausoleum of G. G. Viscontl, the founder, a 
gorgeous cinque-cento pile, by G.Pellegrini, erected 
between 1490 and 1562, under a canopy. In tho 
north transept is tho monument of Ludovico Vis- 
contl and his beautiful wife, Beatrice, by Solario. 

Lavatojo de' Monody or Little Sacristy. — Bust of 
the architect, and heads of Duchesses of Milan. 
A. Carrara's bas-reliefs; stained windows (1477). 

Dome. — Frescoes in the Dome, by Casolani; 
carved stalls in the choir, by V. de' Conti ; Fres- 
coes in the choir, by D. Crespi (1563). Two 
marble pulpits ; and six niched statues of St. Peter, 
St. Paul, Moses, Ac, by T. Orsolino. 

High AltaVj under a tabernacle, is richly orna- 
mented with marble, bronzes, agate, cornelian, 
Ac; bas-reliefs by Solario ; angels, by Volpiuo. 

8agrestia Verchia, opposite the Lavatory. — 
Angels, Ae.tbyO. Amadeo; A. Carrara's portrait of 



Konte 14.] 



CE&TOSA, PAVIA — CHURCUES. 



£5 



G. Visconti, and Guide's Cardinal Colonna; B. degli 
Ubbriachrs ivory bas-reliefs from the Hew Testa- 
ment. !9ear this is the 

Reliquie Altars where the chief relics were pre- 
served. Fine mosaics by V. Sacchi, the work of 
ten years; A. Fontana's beautiful candelabra; 
statues of the Virgin, &c., by Orsolino and C. Sacchi. 

The cupola is a beautiful object, and interesting 
as the only 'important example of a Renaissance 
copy of the form of dome used by the Italians in 
the medisBval period." — Fei'gtason. 

The marble Lavatory has a bust of the architect. 
There are two sacristies, a large refectory, a 
library, a beautiful fountain court, a brick cloister, 
all equally adorned with bas-reliefs, altar-pieces, 
and frescoes, well adapted for contributing to the 
comfort of the former inmates, who at one time 
had an income of £40,000 a year. 

Borgognone, whose other name was Da Fossano, 
painted the Marriage of St. Catherine (now in the 
National Gallery) for the Robecchino Chapel, near 
Pavia, which at one time was under the rule of the 
Certosa. 

The railway is carried to the west side of Pavia, 
to Porta Borgorato, while the Naviglio Grande 
runs round the east side to the Ticino. This canal 
is an excellent work, and was constructed by the 
French in 1807. 

PAVIA (Stat.) ; Pavia "la Dotta,'' the Learned. 

Here lines branch off to Voghera (page 11), to 
Gasalpnsterleni^, Piacenza, Ac, to Yalenza, 
Alessandria, Bresoia, and Cremona. 

Population, 20,945. 

Hotels: CroceBianca; TrcRe. 

Omnibus^ to or from the railway station, 25 cts. 

*Chief Objects of Notice.— Dnomo, 8. Michelo, 
University. For the Certosa, sec above. 

Capital of the province, seat of a bishop 
with a University, (founded in 1361), on the Ticino, 
near the Po, in a part of the plain of Lombardy ; 
80 fertile that it is called the garden of the Milan- 
ese, but also aguish and unhealthy. In Roman 
times it was called Ticinum, but Papia when it 
became the seat of the Lombard kings, whose 
palace was replaced by the strong Castle of the 
Viscontis, built 1460, and now used as a barrack, 
with a fine court. The celebrated Boittle of 1525, 
in which Charles V. took Francis I. prisoner, was 
fought near the Certosa Convent, on the Milan 
Road. It was plundered by the French a few years 
after, in revenge for the defeat of Francis; and in 
1796, by Bonaparte, who gave it up to storm, on 
account of an attack made on a garrison of 300 
French, who, without artillery, bravely defended 
themselvesagainstAfOOOmen-at-arms. Ofthe^lOO'' 
brick towers which sarrounded it, only a few are 
left, about 200 feet hJfb, one of which is a Belfry. 
That which WM the prlion of BoetMtts^ when he 
wrote his*'Conaol«tiontof Philosopbjr/*aiid wherein 



he was beheaded by Theodoric's order, stood till 
1584. A portico runs round the Piazza Grande at 
the centre of the town. The streets are wide, one 
of the best being the Corso Vittorio Emanuelell., 
running down to the bridge, and to the suburb of 
Borgo Ticino. This bridge, of brick, is about 500 
feet long, and, being roofed over with marble, it 
serves for a promenade. There is a chapel in the 
middle of the bridge. The views from here are 
especially picturesque. 

S. Ste/ano, or the *Duotno, is a modem eight- 
sided building, built (from a design by Bramante) 
in 1486, on the site of one of the sixth century, and 
has some good paintings, with a brick tower. 

"The churches of Pavia are very interesting, 
especially the Cathedral and Church of St. Michael. 
There is a sombre, severe, and stem aspect in the 
churches, which, with their fabrics still unfinished, 
seems to connect the spectator of the present day 
with centuries long gone by. ''—(Dr. Wordsvcorth.) 
The Cathedral contains a fine cenotaph, or altar- 
tomb, of St. Augustine, under a Gothic canopy, 
with more than 200 figures in it, a work begun by 
Campione in 1362. St. Augustine is not buried 
here ; but his remains, after their translation from 
Hippo, were brought to Pavia, in 710, by Luitprand, 
King of Lombardy, and are supposed to lie under 
the altar of St. Peter's Church, because a silver 
chest was found there in 1695, with the name 
"Agostino" in Gothic letters. They also show 
hero the lance of the Paladin Roland. The building 
is being restored. 

*3. Michele (St. Michael) Church, In some parts 
as old as the sixth century, is one of the most 
ancient in Italy, and a genuine Lombardo-Roman- 
esque, with the characteristic round arch, tower, &o. 
It is 190 feet by 80, and full of curious carvings, 
bas-reliefs, and early frescoes. 

"This church, which took its present form 
either at the end of the eleventh or beginning 
of the twelfth century, is one of the most interesting 
of this age, and presents in itself all the features 
of a perfect round-arch Gothic church. Its well- 
marked vaulting shafts spring from the floor to 
the roof; the pier arches in the aisle are perfectly 
distinct and well understood features; the angles 
of the piers are softened and ornamented by shafts 
and otlier ornamental arrangements. With other 
churches of the age, it fails principally from over- 
heaviness of parts, and a certain clumsiness in 
construction, which wants the refinements neces- 
sary for a true work of art. Externally, one of 
the most pleasing features is the apse, with its 
circular gallery."— /Vw-jriMioti. 

The very old Church of 8. Pietro in Cielo drOro^ 
which held the tombs of Luitprand, the Lombard 
King, and Boethius, has been rebuilt. Here the 
bones of St. Augustine, as above mentioned, are 
supposed to lie. 

"<8f. Teodoro may be somewhat oldat Vci«»..'«»- 
Michele, and has a sbWot? ^v«SSkfe^\^v» '«^;^^^^, 

ground. S. PUlro \* <iQti«e,\A.«t^>^V3 ^«^^ ^ 



T. [Section I. 

HOXTTE IB, 
« Piaceius, Vaxnut, Koil«ii&, and 

BolOKtlft. 



Pulo. who fell In the buttle of I 
iri«a here by hl> relUIvs, Cliiirle 

nely gill: niid a. Lanftann. In th< 



ertillcot "L» Dolt 



A i;oed llbrnrvT mtiitcmiLA vf Katuru] HiBtory and 



I ftocuffii'iigo.'.""™; 






ItWMKV 




rAUss!'!,;-.!.'. 




































ay 






family. 






lldlnn arc tfae Genarn 




























ijdiin P.li 




f theclly. 


Laufrn.. 


, Archbiabop of Cinter 


urj-, Wttsbwn 



lu»i^ted'°by' numbcrteai euiali. Ko fiOtuv 
Loavlri; Milan by the Porta Boidiuia, nc pue 



SogondO (Stat). Heie the Una to Pavla 

Halenutna (SUt.), or Karignaiio, popn'a- 

tlan, t.'iii. The ancient Uarniaaum, oii (he plain 



rho'obstlnstely i)efcnd«lit. flRhllng J 
o houM. The Church, the Coicelfri 
>o.t OWcc were cnrrled by >lo™. Th 



and !«.] 

Fro-.u Pa.la by the vUrtiict 
Oavtt Oarbonara (Btat.) t 



dl 1> Iho heiul of ■ 



Route 15.] 



PAVIA, LODI, COD06NO, FIACBNZA. 



67 



ffiano, but now nnivorsally known as Funnesan. 
Grana is the name for it in Italy. Tlie cows are a 
black and white breed, imported from Switzerland. 

Lodi is a well built, walled town, and famous in 
modem days for the battle of 10th May, 1796, when 
Bonaparte carried the bridge of the Adda against the 
Austrians, under Beaulicu. It is long and narrow, 
and the French leader himself helped to plant two 
pieces of cannon at its head in spite of a murderous 
tire from the enemy's grenadiers behind their 
ramparts from the opposite side. Hero Masseua, 
Berthier, Lannes, and others, first distinguished 
themselves. The Austriana retired in disorder to 
Crcma. 

The most important edifices are the MunicipcditdL^ 
or Loggia dei Comizi, and the Hospital (Ospedale 
Maggiore) of Piermarinl. The public square is 
surrounded by houses with arched porticoes. 
Among the churches the most noticeable is the 

Cat/iedraf^ or Duomo, an ancient Byzantine 
structure of the twelfth century, containing the 
relics of St. Bassano, and a very old relief of 
the Last Supper. The Incoronato Church, by 
Bramante (1476), is eight-sided, and painted in 
fresco and oil, by C. Piazza da Lodi, a pupil of 
Titian. S. Francesco and S. Agnese are both in 
the Gothic style, and contain good paUitiugs. 

There is also a female school, founded by the 
widow of Cosway, the artist. This beautiful 
painter and musician returned hither after her 
husband's death. She was bom at Leghorn. 

Outside the gate is a large i)ottery work, like 
that at Facnza. 

Steam tramways to Milan andPavia, to Brescia, 
and to Trcviglio and Bergamo. 

Secngnano (Stat.), followed by 
CasalpiiBterlengo (Stat.), iwpuiation, 6,830. 

Once a fief of the Pnsterla family. Hero the rails 
to Pavia and Cremona tum off. 

[At 8 miles from Casalpusterlengo is Piz- 
ZlghettOne (Stat), population, 4,'i80, on the 
line to Cremona, near a fortified post on the Adda, 
where the Scrio falls into it. Here Charles V. 
kept his prisoner, Francis I., after the battle of 
Pavia, nnd before sending him into Spain. About 
12 miles further is Cremona, sec Route 16 ] 

Following the main rail, we come to 

COdOgBO (Stat.) A flourishing town of 11,600 
inhabitants, liaving a trade in Parmesan cheese, 
and some good churches. S. Stefano (Stat.) 

Except the vines and mulberry trees which 
appear, there is nothing particularly worth notice 
on the road to Piacenza. Across the river to 

PIAGENZA (Stat.). 
Which the French call Plaisancc, following the 

Roman name, Placmtia^ or Pleasant. 
Population, 37,612. 
Hotels: S. Marcos; Italia. 
♦ CVit^ Ofyectt of Notice. — Palazzo Farnese, 
Duomo, S. Sisto. 

WeareuowinPannftfOr, rather, in the late Duchy 
of Piacenza, whieh belonged to the ex-Dnke of 



Parma, and was formerly held by the Famesc 
family, and later by Napoleon's widow. Maria 
Louisa. It is now part of the kingdom of Italy. 

Piacenza, originally founded by the Romans, 
about B.C. 220, is very plessantly seated on a 
fertile plain, suri'oundcKl by hills, near the south 
bank of the Po, and the mouth of the Trebbia. A 
bridge of two arches, erected in 1821, crosses the 
latter river near the town. Moats and ramparts 
hem it in, but its chief security is a citadel, which, 
under the old system, was garrisoned by Austrian 
troops. 

The houses and public buildings are of brick, 
which gives it rather a sombre appearance. In 
fact, Piacenza is more like a fortress of the middle 
ages, than a bustling town of modem days. It 
has never recovered the blow inflicted by F. Sforza, 
who, on account of its resistance against 3Iilan, 
took it by storm, 1447, and sold 10,000 of its 
citizens. From that day its commerce and popu- 
lation have declined. In the earlier days of its 
histtory, it was lorded over by the Pallavicini, 
Landi, and Visconti families. The Via DIritta, 
leading from the Piazza de' Cavalli, is the 
principal street. 

In the principal square. Piazza de* Cavalli, or 
Gran Piazza, are F. Mocchi's bronze equestrian 
statues of two Dukes of Parma (1620-4), of the Far- 
nose family, who succeeded to the sovereignty of 
Piacenza in the sixteenth century. One is AJessan- 
dro, the soldier of Elizabeth's time, and Philip of 
Spain's governor in the Netherlands, against whom 
the lion-hearted queen threw out her " foul scorn," 
in her celebrated speecli at Tilbury Fort, when 
threatened with the Spanish Armada; and the 
other is his son,4he tyrannical Ranuccio. 

The Palazzo Comwiale^ in this square, built in 
the 13th century, is one of the earliest large 
municipal edifices. 

In the Piazza dcUa Cittadclla stands the 

*Palazzo Farnese, begun from Vignola's designs, 
but not finished. Its style is grand and simple. 
Opposite the Ducal Palace is the ancient Gothic 
Podesteria, or Town Hall, built in the thirteenth 
century, with a Theatre near it. The scat of the 
ex-ducal family was at Palazzo Mandelli. 

Among the religions cditices is the brick Lombard 

*Cath€drai, or Duomo, at the end of the Contrada 
Diritta, in the Goth'c style, begini 1132, finished 
1233, wiih nothing remarkable beyond the curious 
figures and ornaments about it. The ulterior is 
crowded with paintings of little merit, but in the 
cupola and ch<dr are discerned the frescoes of 
Guercino and L. Carracci. Two paintings by 
modern artists deserve notice — Jesus on Mount 
Calvorj', by Chevalier Landi, and The Presenta- 
tion in the Temple, by Cammucini. There is a 
monument to Sacchini, the musician. The brick 
Campanile is 200 feet high, and has an iron cage 
for prisoners. Close by is 

The old Cathedral, founded 903, now the G^\«^5«v 
of 8. Antonhio, rebuilt. V\\ VaRa. ^Na» ^V^"^^ 



Hoott fimllT. Dunl* ipeiki of HIehacI Bcott. (li 



PhlUp al PsTDia ordered funher i 






LftljjncJ by VIpioLtt. ; 



ip Iha bed of Ihc Addn lo Lugfgn«n 

i( » iDtJe^ over rugeed htll. down toVelW on 



B Moda and 
10 Vfo Emilia, wi 






I, niter s bloody fij[ht of thre« diir>, i 



Irescnei and u-aheiignei. Ponuluion. 10,771. U 
Ktindi on the RlTer Stimne. The Hoipjtil, or 
.-yluiB (or (lie poor, wm ealsUlthed bx the French, 



here to V«ll«lft, th 
p.il,«lh<!too<o[( 



Oastal OneUO (Stat), 

wltb niicliic0litloniiiDd uvoi 
A little lurtber li tba fine 



Ibe ouTlige roBd itopi. PoKlni; Coiitel Badag- 



iv«, •v,d/,ai/ieilBnifbyii>}Tia'i. In 17S0, J 






TUtLodI, Good bAm (tpallt 
Liploei; Amdfa'a BtUiHgoB, 

y to PiiceiiTH, ModEBS, und 



Boute la.] 

•CtefOijiclio/Jfolki.— 



iilingB hj CorT«relQ i 






nelgbbaurlinod of (he Apennknen, It blowa keen In 

(or Ita rich mtnilows and floocei. MnrtLcil "nyi of 
H. "Tondet ct Innuraotos GnlliM Panna grawf 



clouv, lalled Parma, abont B.C. JM, and may 
rliercJDn boast a( l» snllqullT. LllUe of lbs r>l<l 
tIniF ruualiia, eicepttwu •QuLt pUIara naar the 
HIcccata Cbutcli. aud a clppai and •arcopbA}^! ill 
fruut of the calbednil. Itilsnda an the Panna 
Bivor, Kfaen tho VU EmIIU oroiMi It. anil Unat 
tbe malii slrwt (U mil* long), called Slrnda Ma.- 
sinio d'Aieitllo, Str, Uaiilnl. aud Corio Vltt. 
Emanncla, paulns OTor tho mlddlo bridge on ihe 
riTer; tlie otbon beloe Ponte Capnzucca anil 

It was smronnded by moated ^anlpa^t^ abonl 4 

— Correggio. ParmMgianlno. and Lanlranco, 
irhlch adorn the churehei aad publin Latldlnip. o( 

The large Lombard Calbednl. or •Z>iio<ng, li In 
Corragglo. Tho .nbjecl Is (he 'Aaioniptlon of 



larhle, of tjio Ihlrteontb ctntnry. 
entnrlcs^andlsenrlrhod with good pLctur 



engthof 
li andS 

, _ _.-me(!8;i«i ... . 

riglit jg s NUlTlly by F. FnincI 
Gofnit lo tho ronvont or coIIoko, yon past ■ 
recesH OTcr a litlle .luor, wllh a St. John tbo 

(rontfiig the door of the ttinler roftclory, 1» • 

,.^_., llnftintibr-' — - 

^1y moch da 



s.hyA.B<jean[ll, 



:pf tho A''itoH Cappueini 



M by G. n. Tl 



Tho Chnr... , 

leeaby G.F.Tc 

ologant, and crowuvu u/ u ui 
Aaiumptloa of the Virgin, a . 
The CoriptKfiif Church belo 
Knigbti Templars. It has ■ Cancopllon by J, B. 
PI vetta ; two r«hI plclBren of tho jllracles ot Bt. 
Felli. by L. Siwda. In cho cholri and tno by A. 










««.i«fort(o, wa. freqn 




iio Due 








rihe 




bosoen 




asA«™« 


Cor- 


io. rapt. 


Montlog 


tho -Trlu 


nph of Diana, 


icllh 


ral atle 


d«lt. c 






hiue, 






chlvoBcuro. 












J^reMl 


o'ntlrely 


palot;., ■ 


(roicobyGa 





! It wmaldi many bIghiT '' IhBftnBet'ittttie^MvV*.! 



60 



BRAD8HAW*8 ITALY. 



[Section 1. 



but really built by Bern. Zuccagni, about 1599. 
In the crypt are the tooibu of the Ducal houses, 
the Sforza, Furnesc, and other families. Its mar- 
bles and inlaid work, though rich, are exceeded 
by the beauty of the pictures, in fresco and oil, 
which it c aitains. Among others are the Three 
Sibyls, under the organ; a Moses breaking the 
two Tables, on an arch close by; and an Adam 
and Eve in chiaro-oscuro, all fine works by Par- 
moggianino. The remainder arc works by Anselmi, 
TiarinI, B. Gatti, Sogaro, Franccschini, «fcc. Two 
Roman pillars of the time of Constantine stand 
opposite this church. 

Some good frescoes are seen in Trinita Vecchia 
Church, among which are St. Roch and St. Antony 
of Padua ; and a Holy Virgin with St. John Baptist 
and St. Francis, by O. B. Srotti, sumamcd Molosso. 
There arc also several inscriptions. 

S. Alessandro. — Here are paintings by G. Mazzolo 
and Tlarini. At S. Francesco de Prato arc frescoes 
by Ansclml. The facade of Madonna delle Orazie 
deserves attention. 

The *Ptlotta, otherwise called the Palazzo Far- 
nese, between Piazza Grande and Ponte Verde, is 
not remarkable except for the great mass it is 
composed of, though it was never completed. Here 
is the 

Acc/zdemia de* Belle Arti, comprising a Pinacoteca 
or picture gallery, and a library in fourteen or 
iiftcen rooms on the first floor, and a Museum on 
the ground floor. Open, 10 to 3, 1 lira ; Sundays 
free. 

The Pinacoteca contains some of the most re- 
markable of Corrcggio's works. Among these are 
the Madonna della Scalti, a fresco from Porta 
8. Michole and the Scala Oratory; the Madonna 
della Scodella(t'.0., of the platter which she holds); a 
Descent from the Cross; but above all, his II 
Giorno, or the Day, otherwise called the ♦St. 
Jerome, from the principal figure, accompanied by 
the Virgin and Child, St. M. Magdalene, and two 
Angels. Other noticeable Pictures are : — Parmcg- 
gianino — Madoinia, with St. Jerome, Ac. Anselmi— 
Madonna and Saints. G. Mazzuola - Conception of 
the Virgin. F. Francia — the Vitale Madonna, or 
Madonna Enthroned, with Santa Justina, St. Bene- 
dict, Stnta Scolastica, S. Placidus (one, of the 
portraits is a likeness of a member of the Vitale 
family). F. Francia — Descent from the Cross. L. 
Carracci- Burial of the Virgin. Annibalc Car- 
racci — a Pieth. G. Mazzuola — Adoration of the 
Magi. Guercino — Madonna. CimadaConogliano — 
Madonna on a Throne. Raphael— Christ in Glory, 
with the Madonna, &c. Correggio — Martyrdom of 
S. Flavia and S. Placidus. Parmcggianino — Martyr- 
dom of St. Catherine. A. del Sarto — a Pieta. There 
are also portraits of Correggio, Parmcggianino, 
Ac; Chevalier Toschi's drawings of Corroggio's 
works, and colossal basalt statues of Bacchus and 
Hercules, found in the Famese Gardens at Rome, 
with other relics from Veleia. 

At one end stands Canova^s fine statue of Maria 

Louisa, who, on the banishment of her husband 

/e^-^. IfeJe/j/i, lifJ5, was made Dncbess of Parma. 



She resided, till her death in 1847, in a building 
close to the Palace Farnese, snd there they show 
her son's (the Duke of Reichstadt) rich cradle, and 
her toilette, &c., given by the City of Paris to the 
Bride of Napoleon. 

Two great galleries are filled by 2 \00ft voluiucs 
and 4, 000 MSS. of the Library, f ou..dcd J 770. There 
is a fresco (Virgin crowned) by Correggio from S. 
Giovanni'sChurch,and a large collection of prints 
Among the literary curiosities hero is a Koran 
taken from the Grand Vizier's tent at the battle of 
Vienna; a MS. of Dante by Petrarch which 
belonged to Francis I. ; Luther's Hebrew Psalter ; 
and 3,400 volumes of books and MSS., which 
belonged to Rossi, the Hebrew scholar, and were 
brought in 1816. Here also are 80,000 engravings, 
and the types of Bodoni, the famous printer. 

The Museo, on the ground floor, is rich in bronzes 
and medals (about 30,000), inscriptions, and other 
monuments of ancient Veleia above mentioned, 
including the Trajan Table, and the Lex Riibria. 

A large theatre, the Teatro Farnese, which forms 
part of the Palace, was built by G. Aleotti for 
Duke Rauuccio. It is of wood, 1,033 foct long, 
nearly 100 feet wide, and could hold iilwut 6,000 
persons. It is the largest in Italy, and has been 
carefully restored. The semicircular body rests 
on Corinthian pillars 66 feet high, and has 
fourteen rows of seats for the spectators. 

The Teatro Nuovo, near the Palace, Wi.s built by 
Maria Louisa in 18*29. A third, more modern, is 
of very elegant design, by N. Bettoll, of Parma, 
the decorations by Chevailer Toschl. 

The Lyceum^ or College, sometimes called a Uni- 
versity, is established in the old College of the 
Jesuits, and attended by about 200 studentK. 
Three or four professorships are attached. It 
possesses also a theatre of Anatomy, a museum of 
Natural History, laboratory, observatory, «kc., 
with a Botanic garden in the Stra<ione promenade 
in the south suburbs of the city. 

At the military college of Santa Caterina are 
good paintings by Lanfranco, L. Spada, F. Stringa, 
&c., and an interesting plan of attack and defence, 
modelled by P. d'Aubencourt, director of the 
plans at the Louvre. It is 52 feet long. Besides 
these educational establishments there arc a Monte 
di Picta for helping the poor, founded as far back 
as 1488, by Father di Feltre, who first set such a 
scheme on foot; a Miscricordia, and other hospitals 
for the aged and insane: and various 1)cnevolent 
institutions projected by Maria Louisa; whoso 
rule was mild and liberal. 

The Palazzo ifunicipale, designed by G. Mag- 
nnni (Statue <'f Correggio), and the La Giara Riding 
House near the market-place, deserve notice. 

The Palazzo SanvitalehdH a rich collection of Par- 
mcggianino' s designs, his Baptism of Christ (painted 
when lie was sixteen), a gallery of ancient and 
modem masters, an excellent library, and a theatre, 
built of wood and occasionally open to the public. 

College Lalatta. or Maria Luigia, is ornamented 
with Gambara's frencoes. 



Route 15. J 



PABMA, SEOGIO, CAKOBSA CASTLE. 



61 



Palazzo Pallavicini possesses fine pictures by 
Galeotti, Tcmpcsta, &c. 

At the Palazzo del Oiardino Reale, another seat 
of the ex-ducal house across the Ponte Verde, are 
some admirable stuccoes, Gobelin tapestries, and 
one room containing the frescoes of A. ('arracci 
and Ci^nani. Owing to its being now a military 
school, entrance is not always allowed. 

The Casani de Vignola is a small but elegant 
house, injured, however, by time and improper 
restorations. 

Near the Porto di S. Michcli, built, according to 
some, by the celebrated engineer, Sammicheli, is 
the Citadel, which, though reg^ularly planned »nd 
laid out, is incapable of much resistance. A fine 
esplanade lies between it and the town, close to 
the Stradone and the Botanic Garden. Statue of 
Correggio. 

By the Treaty of Villafranca (1859), the Duchies 
of Parma and Piacenza were to bo restored to 
their runaway sovereigns, subject to the concur- 
rcu're of the people; an important reservation, 
which they were quick to use against them. As 
soon as the Austrian bayonets wore withdrawn 
the whole edifice of tyranny tumbled Into ruins. 
The small Ducal army joined its protectors at 
Mantua. Farini was appointed Dictator of Mo- 
dena and Parma by the lespective Chambers; 
Uicasoli governed Tuscany, under the Assembly; 
and Cipriani the Legations. 

In the course of a short time deputations pro- 
ceeded to Turin to offer the sovereignty of Central 
Italy to Victor Emmanuel, which he accepted 
conditionally ; and Garibaldi being appointed to 
the command, an army was soon organised. The 
lute Duke (Ferd. Ch. III.) was stabbed March, 
1854; his prime minister. Baron Ward, once an 
English jockey, was dismissed, and his widow 
became Regent. She died 1864. 

On the 6th October, 1859, Colonel Anviti, one of 
the most active and detested agents of the Duke 
was recognised by the mob at the station, and 
though taken by the police to the San Bamaba 
barracks, they broke in and massacred him. This 
unhappy event was a great stain on the Italian 
cause, and the population was disarmed by Farini. 

Beyond the gates, near Sala, is the Casino de 
Bixchi, a favourite retreat of Maria Louisa. The 
Viletta, or public cemetery, is also outside the town. 

About 9 miles from it, at Calobno, on the Castel 
Maggiore Road, is another ducal scat, a fine build- 
ing, in extensive gardens. The wood of Selva 
Plana to the south, up the Apennines, was 
Petrarch's favourite retreat. His house is gone, 
but the noble prospect remains as beautiful as 
when he lived to enjoy it. 

Among the natives of Parma were Cassius, the 
friend of Brutus ; another Cassius, a poet, whom 
Horace speaks of; and Macrobius; besides the 
painter, Parraeggrianiiio, already mentioned. Some 
of his best works are at Bologna, whither be went 
in 1527. 

Rail, 14^ miles, to Fonu»vo, on the road to Pontre- 
moli and Spezia (page 28) 



Roads from Parma. — That by Colomo leads to 
Castel Maggiore (2 posts), on the Po, whence 
there is a direct road to Mantua and another to 
Bozzo, on the (/remona and Mantua Road. The 
direct post road to Mantua passes Sorbolo, on 
the Enza, Bresccllo (2 posts), and Guastalla (1 
post), with a population of 9,544. near the Po; 
thence to Mantua, as in Route 16. Fertile meadows 
are seen all the way. A ferrona economiea (27^ 
milefi) is open to Sazzara (page G8), passing 
Brescello and Guastalla. 

Many of the inhabitants of the province, belong- 
ing to the mountainous or barren parts of the 
state, emigrate to England to earn a small inde- 
pendence with their street organs and monkeys. 

Leaving Parma at the railway station near 
Porta S. Bamaba, the line continues to traverse 
the great plain, close to the Via Emilia, and in 
view of the Apennines. Cross the Enza, which 
was the boundary of the now extinct Duchies of 
Parma and Modena. 

S. narlo (&tat.), population, 1,800. Cross the 
Crostolo, and the next place is the walled city of 

REGOIO (Stat.) called Reggio EmUia. 

The birthplace of Ariosto, the poet. 

Population, 50,953. 

Inn: Albergo della Posta. 

This is the ancient Rhegium Lepidi, founded by 
iEuilIius Lepidus, whoso name survives in bis 
Emilian Way and the new Italian province of 
Emilia. This road, under the name of the Strada 
Maestra (the master road), is the chief thorough^ 
fare, with another called the Corso della Ghiarra. 

After being ruined by Attila and rebuilt by 
Charlemagne, Reggio came to the family of Este, 
which Ariosto, in the last canto of his Orlando 
Furioso, makes to spring from the marriage of 
Bradomante and Ruggiero, a converted Saracen 
knight. *Ariosto's House, or the site of it, is shown 
near the Town Hall, or Municipio. 

One remarkable building is the Duomo, in Piazza 
Grande, an unfinished church of the fifteenth 
century, having statues without and within it 
by one of M. Angelo's pupils, Clemcnti, who is 
buried here. Over the portal, Adam and Eve. 

The Madonna della Ghiara^ belonging to the 
Franciscan Convent of the Zoccolanti (>.f ., sandal- 
wearers), in the Corso, contains a Crucifixion by 
Gucrcino, with frescoes by L. Ferrari and Tiarini. 
Nearer this is a granite obelisk, erected 1842, on 
the marriage of the Grand Duke. 8. Prospero^ In 
Piazza Miuore, an old church, rebuilt in the six- 
teenth century. It has frescoes by Procacchii, 
Campi, and Tiarini. At the Ifuseo is a Natural 
History collection, made by Spallanzani. 

Not far from this, in the Apennines, are the 
remains of CaXlOBSa Castle, which belonged to 
the Great Countess Matilda, and in which Pope 
Hildebrand, to whom she gave shelter here^i:«&.- 
ccived the homage of Heut^ \M . Nax VSW, '^"v^. 
Emperor vrsi* Vl^^x Wtt^jk ^A-j'i <i>aX'^Vtft >c»& 's.^^'Cv'^ ^^^^^ 



62 



BBADSHAW'S ITALY. 



[Section 1. 



the dress of a penitent, and on the fourth day was 
granted absolution after kissing the Pope's foot. 
This celebrated incident was brought into promi- 
nent notice by the negotiations between the 
German Chancellor (Bismarck) and the Pope. 
The nearest Station is S. Ilario, but Parma or 
Reggio is more convenient. The Countess's Chapel 
and portrait are at Bibbianello. She bequeathed 
her lands to the Church. 

Rubiera (Stat.), 7 miles, at a little fortified 
place, near the Secchia. It was the state prison of 
the Duchy of Modena, and belonged to the an- 
cestors of Bojardo, the author of the Orlando 
JnnamorcUo (which Ariosto afterwards took up), 
and Count of Scandiano, a feudal castle a few 
miles off, under the Apennines. The next place is 

MODBNA (Stat.), 

The ancient Mutina^ where Mark Antony was de- 
feated, B.C. 43, by the Consuls Hirtius and Pansa, 
who were both killed. 

Population, 58,060, including the suburbs. The 
women wear blue kerchiefs on the head. 

Hotels: San Marco; Keale; Italia. Good 
zampone or pettitoes; spongate, pani speziali, and 
other confections; vino tosco (red), vino trebbiano 
(white), and >ino di Sorbaro, are the usual wines. 

Conveyances. — Railway to Bologna, Parma, and 
Piacenza. Omnibuses and carriages at the rail- 
way station; the former 50 cents., the latter 1 lira 
to 1 lira 50 cents., to any part of the town. 

*Chi(tf Objects of Notice.— J>Viomo\ Ghirlandina 
Tower; Ducal Palace. 

This small capital of the little absolute Duchy of 
Modena, now the principal city of the Italian 
province of Emilia, is a well-built and handsome 
place, between the Secchia and Panaro, shut in by 
walls, and containing several arcaded streets, the 
principal one called Strada Maestra, or Corso della 
Via Emilia, forming part of the Via Emilia. Here 
is a statue to Muratori, the great scholar. A canal, 
from near the railway station and Porta Castello, 
opens up a conmimiication with the Po. It is well 
supplied with water. At the northern extremity 
is the citadel, in Piazza d'Armi. Of fifty Churches 
and chapels, the most remarkable is the 

*Duomo, or Cathedral, near the Corso, in Piazza 
Grande, founded, 1099, by Countess Matilda, in the 
Lombard style, and finished in the fourteenth 
century ; has a stone vault and crypt. It contains 
the Rangoni tombs, and an ancient Modcnese 
painting of the Crowning of Mary, by 8, de' 
Serafini (1885), with a terra-cotta Nativity, by 
Begarelli. Its tall, conspicuous Campanile (1224- 
1509), consisting of a square base of 200 feet, with 
an octagonal spire of 115 feet on top, is of black 
marble, with a bronze garland round it, which 
gives it its popular name of ^Ghirlandina. It holds 
a famous Bucket, which, in the civil wars of the 
fourteenth century, was carried off from Bologna 
as a trophy, and is the subject of a burlesque poem. 
La Secchia Rapita (the Rape of the Bucket), by 
Tassoni, whose statue is here, and who muat not 
2f^ /v>j!}/onnded with Tasso. 



San Pietro and San Francesco both contain terra- 
cottas by Begarelli. 

S. Agostino, or Santa Margharita, near tho. 
Reggio Gate. Here in a good Descent from the 
Cross, by Begarelli, a Modenese sculptor, a work 
extravagantly praised by M. Angelo; also the 
tombs of two other disthiguished natives, Sigonio 
and Muratori. Madonna del Carmine, in the Corso, 
near the Bologna Gate, has a cupola painted by 
Paradis. S. Paolo has a Nativity of Mary, by 
Pellegrini, a native artist. S. Vicenzio, near the 
Palace Gardens, has tombs of the ex-ducal family. 

On the east side of the city, facing the Piazza 
Reale and near the Public Gardens, is the 

* Ducal Pal(tce,noyf Palazzo Reale,B,nexi&nsiyfiK\\di 
handsome pile, begun 16^ by Bart. Avanzini, 
with a fine colonnaded court and gardens, grand 
staircase, &c. 

Museo Civico, in Corso S. Bartolommeo, princi- 
pally small objects, bronzes, &c. 

Albergo Arti, Piazza S. Agostino, contains at 
present the Estense Gallery and library. Among 
the paintings are the following:— L. di Bicci — Ma- 
donna. S. Aretino — A Marriage. N. dell' Abate 
— Landscapes (he is one of the best artists of the 
Modenese school). Tintoretto— Madonna and 
Saints. Correggio— Ganymede. Giorgione — 
Portrait. P. Bordone — ^Adoration of the Magi. 
L. Caracci — Venus and Cupid. Titian — Portraits. 
Garofalo — Madonna and Saints. Guide — S. Roch 
in Prison, and a Crucifixion. D. Dossi — Judith, 
and portraits of the Este Family. G. Francia — 
Assumption. Gnercino— Venus sitting, and Mar- 
riage of St. Catherine. A. del Sarto — Holy Family. 
G.Procaccini — Circumcision. Tiarini — Crucifixion. 
Pellegrini — ^Nativity. Pomarancio — ^a Dead Christ 
on the Cross. MurUlo — a Peasant. Velasquez — a 
Benedictine. There is also a collection of drawings 
by old masters. 

The Library, or Biblioteea Estense, is a fine col- 
lection of 90,000 volumes and 8,000 MSS., besides 
archives. Muratori, the author of **Antichitk 
Estense," and Tiraboschi, author of ** Biblioteea 
Modense," Ac., were librarians here. The Soliani 
Collection of ancient and modern engraved wood- 
blocks (3,611 specimens) was acquired 1687. Some 
of the rarest MSS. and medals disappeared with the 
ex-Duke Francesco V., in 1869. 

His little army of 2,000 men remained faithful 
to him, and was incorporated with the Austrian 
forces. He used to say he did not want ** en- 
lightened men, but obedient subjects and sub- 
missive Christians," the very essence of a despot's 
notions of good government. 

The military barracks, at the Salicetta, were 
used by him as a prison for political offenders. 

The Ducal Palace was occupied by Fariui, the 
Dictator. It was asserted by the Court faction, 
and repeated by Lord Normauby, that this eminent 
man appropriated all the Duke's linen, which 
being marked **F." (for Francesco), would do as 
well for Farini. When he resigned the Dictatorship, 
upon the union of the Duchies with Sardinia, he 
was as poor as when he assumed it; so poor that 



, cA&ivAaaio, I 



>c CsslfllvelrQ. .. . 
line to awMnalO, lOi mllei 



It Qguaa, in 



I SliidWariDi. 



KvigUoiJtCi-ar 
omlhe OBlloanilniiisli 



to UoulAlMllnna. 



LaWuo (Stat.), 01 

aa uicleat Lantaiiu 

IhrmiBli t hieSlj cnlt 

Bologna, vftb 1h 



TDrm 


lo.or Boll Towsr, 


early MO f* 










leesla 






Ithtliereig 












<l spire 


Theroa 


«4e8Me|«u 




.piro, 




foands » mi 


wMl 


eictoM 


JalnotL 


mbKrd)', (rui 










t hullil 








the Qotblc style! 


and <be TDK 




VMHco. 






111 the 


[Teat! 


.nro,tieiir 


he ToTTBH 



CMmareln M j SoreslM SI} 

Croma.„° ~ l») \ OLinenata ...'.'.'.'."'.'.'. SSI 



OanTWKlo (Blat.), popniajiun, a.ioi. Ha> 

s Loiobardehqruh, and win the blrthnlaoe o( 
Michelangelo AmBrtghl, (■ 






, IStat.), popuUtlon. S. 

inuTacturefl. s breedlne 
of Ihe fifteenth canmry. i 

jtliso. Rich moidDW l.n( 
Ci-cinonn. 

CBEHOHA (Stat.) 
flUlia (the beat); Boled' 
lysl Hotel); H Cnpollo lilt 

Krveflaroored wllh motta 
ilent towD ud blihoo'g 
its, onee potid [or 



w ci^eni. The M ^ 



here by the Abate AportI, 
iirch holldayi, also eilit 



If. Auffclo. tat 
Gate or the fi 



„d a '»^'" 
' hUWy 

mpi. 



Pordfi..... 
I (lhe"Baphi 
);AIborgo ; Campi. 



of »0,»? ' 1 



nl'pMB 



he icaeoni, gigns of thi icdHc. and a 
■,byO.Porrtln,lJT4. The Intoriom 
lod, and contain! many paintings by 
tbe CmclBiion), B. aatfl, Boccacclnn 

ithl, a native mrli.l of the Ihtrte'enUi 
aneiqne slKht-aldtd Daptlatery ol 

ha C«iiv> *KnU» lAf^aii-tt^ "''- ' 



64 



BSADSUAW'S ITALY. 



[Section 1. 



In S.Nazaro Church are cupola paintings by the 
brothers B. A. and G. Campi, some of whose works, 
as well as other native artists, are seen in the 
Churches of S. Pietro ai Po, 8. Abbondio, S. 
Domenico, S. Lorenzo, S. G iorgio, &c. Santa Agata 
in Piazza. Garibaldi is an ancient Gothic building, 
of brick, like the rest, containing G. Campi's 
Martyrdom of Santa Agata. Another ancient 
church, 8. Agottino^ has Perughio's Virghi and 
Saints. At Santa Pelagia is a monument to Arch- 
bishop Vida, a native of the city; "Immortal 
Vida," of Pope's lines, who prophesies — 

" Cremona now Mhall ever boast thy name 
Am next in place to Mantua, next in fame." 

One mile out of the town, on the Mantua road, 
is the fine Church of *S. Sig^smondo, which was 
part of an abbey founded by F. Sforza I., Duke of 
Milan, who rebuilt it on his marriage with Bianca 
Visconti, 1441. It is full of paintings and frescoes 
by the Campi, Boccaccino,Qatti,and other Cremona 
artists. 

It was at Cremona that Prince Eugene surprised 
Marshal Villeroy, and made him prisoner, 1702. 

Cremona was a flourishing town in the territory 
of the Cenomanni, having been colonised before 
HannibaVs March into Italy, so that it may vie in 
antiquity with any of its neighbours. Virgil and 
Tacitus both describe the injuries it endured in the 
civil wars of the empire. 

By rail to Casalpusterlengo (Route 15), and 
hence to Piacenza and Pavia. 

By rail to Mantua, 89 miles, opened 1874, in the 
direction of the ancient Via Posthumia; past 
Piadena (Stat.) near Gannetto, an old fortified 
post in the Duchy of Mantua ; BozzolO (Stat.), 
population, 4,436, the ancient- Bozzulum, on the 
Oglio, with a castle formerly belonging to the 
Gonzaga family; CastellUCMO (Stat.), on a 
branch of the Mincio; and Le Grazie Church (see 
page 68). 

Rail to Brescia (page 40), 3U mile-s through 

Olmeneta, Verolanova, and Bagnolo. 

For Parma, proceed to Piadena, as above, then 
take the line (opened November, 1884) to 

Casal BbMSgiore (Stat.), population, 15,648, 

at the ferry on the Po. Then to Colomo (Stat. \ 
and by Colomo Castle and the old Abbey of S. 
Martino, to 

Parma (Stat.), on the railway to the south 
(Route 15). 



IT. 

Verona to Trento, 

Up the River Adige, near the Lago di Garda, by 
railway, on the Brenner route. The stations are — 



Miles. 

Parona 7i 

Pescanteno ll| 

Domegliara 14| 

Ceralno .............. 18| 

Perl 25^ 



This is partly in Austrian territory. 



Miles. 

Avio 32 

Ala 35 

Mori 444 

Rovereto , 46^ 

Trento 51 



Verona (Stat.) See Route 13. 

Domegliara (Stat.), near Rivoli, on the 
other side of the Adige, where Bonaparte defeated 
the Austrians under Alvinzi, 14th January, 1797, 
af t(-r a hard fight, the town being taken and retaken 
twice over. 

Rovereto (Stat.), which is in Austrian ter- 
ritory, is the nearest station for 

Blva, at the head of Lake di Garda. (See 
Bradsfiaw's Hand-Boot to Switzerland and the 
Tyrol) 

Hotel oxiA Pension au Lac, pleasant and comfort- 
able; recommended. 

A town of 6,046 population, seated among 
mountains, in a climate so mild that oranges, 
myrtles, olives, <fec , grow in the open air, and 
entitle it to be called the paradise of the South 
Alps. Two mountain streams tumble into the 
lake here. At the Minorite Church are some works 
of art ; La Rocca Castle, on the lake, was built by 
the Scaligeri family. There is a tine promenade 
in the colonnade, on the little harbour. 

Various excursions may be made on the Lake, 
which is surrounded by hills, castles, country 
houses, &c., offering a great variety of beautiful 
prospects. A steamboat starts daily to the little 
port of Desenzano, besides the ordinaria, or packet 
boat, twice a week. From Riva to Peschiera at 
the bottom, the Lake is about 30 miles long; 
the breadth here is 10 miles; excellent fish is 
caught. Virgil calls it the Benaeiu^ and notices 
the storms raised by the mountain winds. Only 
the upper part on each side of Riva belongs to 
Tyrol. Movnt Baido^ comparatively bare, hangs 
over the east side; the west is by far the most 
picturesque. 

In the middle is the pretty Island of Tremelone, 
with Count Lecchi's house and gardens. Among 
the spots on the west shore worth notice are — the 
Ledro Waterfall^ behind Ponale, 200 feet down ; 
Limone, and its citron gloves; the limestone quar- 
ries of Tremosine; Gargnano and its villas; Tosco- 
lano and vineyards; SalO (population, 4,555), 
among orange groves, one of the most delightful 
parts of the lake; Mauerba, where was a temple 
of Minerva. Wtirmser marched down both sides 
of this lake to meet Bonaparte in the campaign of 
1796. 

For Trento (Stat.), or Trent, where the Council 
was held, and the Brenner Pass, see Bradahaxc's 
Hand-Book to Switzerland and the Tyrol. 

I^oxJTE le. 

Verona to Mantua, Modena, and Bologna. 

By rail to Mantua, 25 mile s, three times a day, 
in 1^ hour. 

Verona (Stat.) See Route 13. 

The trains leave Porta Vescovo, from which It 
is 1| mile to Porta Nnova; after which the 
stations are- 



Miles. 

Dossobuono 6| 

[Branch to Rovigo.] 
Villafranca 11 



Miles. 

Mozzecane 14f 

Roverbella 18 

Mantua 25^ 



Route IS.] CBEMONA, HIVA, VILLjkFRAXCA, 1 

AlmpMiJDgltOHOtniono (Btat), nherelbe ; dlignsK 
CcBioizi tr> ihB righl, wlicre Ihd PlHlmontese for the! 

•Ken beaten by the Ausirlaiia, aoih July. IMS. c™. 

Tlien conici ^^t «i 

Vmatranca (BUU «,TS1I nopulatlon. whirt ii«me[r 



ion o( lliii July, 1859^ ot a small hill. Here ii a tplcudld rills'liolonVl'n'ff 

1 FniiiclB JoHpb, coil- , to Priiico Cb. aoniafii. irbmc family tFcro Lordi 

Iftrliio.lSmileailiiUuI. ' of Mnntnn, Irat wore BimOMt rtdncnl lo povnt y liy 

iwii, in Ihe provliicc of ] Jowph I. When Nnpotnin I. inHod ihruoirh 

it a hoDK In ConCraiU j lie had nM a Accent coal tii ■llcml tlialerji. 

SIgnor MotelK-BuKDn. I After a long f niE in Ihc Anatrlan mnrta, * Muini 



H-, niileb were placed on I 
«n here, ciaclty n> they . _. _ 
Napoloon mecliankally picked 






Klvalta. pan 



expected peace an the Italians; the caldneai nf 

refllened, to be replaced by Hleaecill and Batazzl, 
IlHiD|;hheconlinned tobcthomalnnpringof every 

people In their pnbllc reoeulioii. About & miles 
wdtofVUlafrancali 
VsleggiO. OD the Ulnc 



iraily rcpres 



Francis Joicph established 
by Louis Kapolcon after Ih 



hiKh road 
lace, Villa 

lit Maflei* 



to say that besnwto almost everything hiniBel 
and did aai spare cither fatlgnie ar tnnible durln 
Ihecainpaltni." The slnipllclty of hit habits mad 



f tun "«*'■ I'Ww- 



I of the deilduua erceii Sgt, anil 

perfection in July. Two looiillit later, lib mother, 
a lady o( Blxty-MTe, vasarreiteil by tha Autrlano 

From Ihla place It is a ^liort dlitsncc lu Mantua"*'' 
ROTsrbelljKBUt.) Piq>ulat ion. 3.040. Cele- 

Blvaiu.; above meutloiied, which lle% few'tn"'. 
west on iboMincio. 

KANTUA (SUt), 

Population, iS,Mi, il whonit,liVi)aie Jen-i. 
ffol^?j; Aqullad'Oro; Eeu dc Franee; Croce 

Cm Ksraacfi.— Railway to Verona, Cremona, and 
to Hodena, for Bologna on Ihe Central Italian line 
OninlbuMi to and froui llie railway itatloo, ti 



d plenty of 'fruit was the I '^f^^ (We" il^/nlmW.- Cathedral: St And 
. But fn spite of 'the free- »""! Palacei O. Romano'. IlouKe; Hag 
list, the mrlctem vigilance Pals"; Paiaiiodel T., or Te. and O. Roms 



waa kept by the poUee a _, ^ 

guard. From liero he sent General Flonry with 

all It: 4 day which damped all tholr bright hopes 
tit reqoTertng Venclia. Besides considerations of 
pallay, it apponri that Louis Kspoteon was reallf 



seated on an island in a lagoon ol the mini: 
been slrong'y tonlBed 



■nd nC lenglb fell under tbe power of Ihe Qunza^ 
fkinlly. who ruled bens In giest iplcndoiir from 
Ludovlcol.. InlSIS, imvtncsiit II. In IGSr. The 
French took II in ITBT, after a yalinnt roidttaniSc 



1 A. 'HanlwD* md hit pnpili, wlik 
I by A. and F. K^. Xbm ara lombt 
eiiil and hli Wfti J. Oouitga, by 
>r Miinl«(ns, Kith bli lironia )>d«, by 

and P. Clemtntl rcqweliTtiy. 



alionodhoMsyl, a 



at. LouElno-j Chapel arefroMOMby EinaMo. 

romid, liluincd 10 tbe mainland by looBUridgts, (rem deiigni by Romano (SI. Sebnillan fot 
orcBuicwaya, of nul leu than l.OOO feel. TberearD InilanceJ. and a St. Anne, by Brunsuircl, 



id Fradella— bdlb fun I. 

a S. GiorBlo and the I 
d.' The principal llioi 



pnplli. Theyahov.isamei 
LMglnmJw'lioplenedhl.. 



one bridge o 
oiigbfare la ] 



inM Jpol/onia,— Plcti 



laVlrBlllana. I Bood cairpanilo. Notice here-The Bapllnn of 
lldtheTealro ^- Coala. from Berlani'> dealgTia. with IhB Marty t- 



by O. Homaiio, loada out to one ul the Bridges (as I ,. ^ 
aid ai 1190) and tbe twolTB Did water MilU wlilch '"« > 



I, PaiUp,' by Ortolt; 



AHdriit was rebuilt In tbe 
"'Th^Tld Gothfc'"ti>V« 01 



and hy O. B. Mantova 
Romano. The tomh of 



(ftiVBBOi 
(erlor. Illi 



),^[«et blgbln thenareandtranHjpbi, "Inter 

r'i dowuwirdi. iTMted In Italy and in mm 
o( Enroin doriBB thai ait tbrcectntnriei."- 



.rchVw^Hl 



honour of Charlei ttIlouIs XtV„ and Napoleon." 



JF. near Port , , , 

by L. OoDiaita. from deslfnt by L. B. Albertl, the 
— v......,o. .... — .. ,. t. ,. . dilapidated 



lot I ocIilteetoC 



aga. from daalpis by L. 
St.AndreVi. It li it 



ftdute 18;] 

eohdiiion. liie fret6ol»8 of Mantegna (whose hoase | 
!• close by) in the fa9aae are almost fad^ out. L. ; 
Costa's Martyrdom of the Saint is here. 

Accademia Virgiliana diSdenze e Belle Arti (Fine 
Arts Academy). — Amonf? several works is a Des- 
cent from the Cross, by J. MJonsignori. There is a 
Library; with a Museo Antiquario^ Including busts 
of Euripides, Thales, Virgil, Tiberius, Caligula, 
Commodus (as Mercury), and other Emperors; 
bas-reliefs of Philoctctes, Lal)ours of Hercules, 
Battle of the Amazons, Pluto and Proserpine, 
Mercury, Descent of Orpheus to the Shades, Medea, 
with statues of Diana and Apollo; a Muse, without 
hands ; and Etruscan, Greek, and other urns. 

Among the remarkable houses are - Casa Move 
Anton Antimaco a celebrated philologist, with the 
inscription ^'Antimachum ne longius quajras"; 
Casa Bertani, built by the architect Bertani, 
marked by two columns, illustrating the Corin- 
thian style ; Casa Biondi, with a picture, supposed 
to be the Ariadne of G. Romano. 

*Casa di Oiulio Romano was built by the great 
artist himself, and decorated by Priuiaticcio. A 
small antique Mercury is over the door. In front 
of it is the Palazzo Colloredo, which Romano also 
designed. It is marked by a gigantic stucco 
caryatid of fantastic character, and contains 
paintings by himself and disciples. 

Palazzo del Diavolo obtained its name from the 
wonderful rapidity with which it was built by its 
founder, P. Geresara. 

At the CasaSusanni is a gallery of works by 
Mantegna, Guido, Francia, Parraeggianino. ^c. 
Count Beffa possesses a fine Madonna, by P. Yec- 
chio. 

Near the Porta and Ponte dl S. Giorgio, which 
divide the middle and lower lakes (as they are 
called) of the river, and the Ducal Palace, is the 

Castello di Corte (Ducal Castle), built by B. 
Novara, 1393-1406, for Francis IV., of Gonzaga, 
with machicolatcd walls and towers, <fec. It is 
now used as a repository for archives; one of 
which records the deatli, 1st November, 1546, of 
G. Romano, '^Superintendent of all the Ducal 
buildings, after fifteen days' illness," of fever, 
aged forty-seven. He entered the Duke's service 
in 1524. Many frescoes of the Gonzaga family, by 
Mantegna and oth^s, are visible, though much 
decayed. 

The *Dttcal Palace, now Corte Reale, near the 
Piazza della Fiera, is a vast, old, irregular pile, 
with great machicolated towers and battlements, 
including the Palazzo Imperiale, Palazzo Vccchio, 
and the Corte Imperiale. 

It was the ancient scat of the Gonzagas, begun 
by G. Buonacolsi Bottigella, in 1302, and enlarged 
and renewed by Romano, whose genius and skill 
are visible in every part of it; though many of its 
SCO rooms are in a state of neglect, ruin, and decay. 
In tlie room called the Scalcheria (Steward's 
Office), oyerlooking the Piaxsa del P»llone, are 



MAKTUA — AOADRMT, COBTK, THE T PALACB. 



67 



fine pictures of the Chase of Diana, and Venns 
caressing Cupid before Vulcan, by Romano ; the 
Car of Apollo, in the ceiling, is by his pupils. 

At the Paradise apartments, among the decora- 
tions of the cabinets, the name of the beautiful 
Isabella, daughter of Hercules D'Esteof Ferrara, 
wife of Francis III., with the motto "forse chc si 
forse die no" (perhaps Yes, perhaps No) may be 
noticed. In the Troja, or Troy Room, are frescoes 
from the war of Troy, by Romano ; and Cupid an<l 
Love, by pupils of Mantegna. The Camera degli 
Arazzi contains arras tapestry, co]ued from tlio 
famous Cartoons of Raphael. The Galieria degli 
Spccchi (glasses) is full of paintings and portraits 
l)y Romano's pupils; many of which snflTered from 
the French Republicans in 1797. All these rooms 
are connected by passages and courts, and deserve 
careful examination, though showing marks of 
great neglect and decay. Two Towers of the same 
age, called Torre della Gabbia, or Tower of the 
Cage (for criminals), and Torre dello Zucchcro, are 
near the palace. The former, built 1302, by G. 
Buonacolsi, commands a fine view of the city and 
environs, from a room at the top. 

The *Palazto della Ragione, not far off, was built 
1198-1250, and tlwugli ancient, is well preserved. 
Under a canopy is a curious statue of Virgil ; the 
clock tower was added, 14i8. " This palace illus- 
trates the great principle of Lombard design, in 
tall buildings, which they always sought to orna- 
ment by increasing the number of openings in 
each storey, and decreasing in consequence their 
size, but making them at the sametime more orna- 
mental." — Fet'gusson. 

Passing out of the Porta Pusterla we come, in a 
little time, to the* Palazzo del Teordel T; a square 
Doric pile, built by Frederic II. of Gonzaga, from 
Romano's designs, and so called either from the T 
shaped piece of ground on which it stands, or from 
tejetto, a drain. It is nearly a square, 180 feet by 
186 feet, but only 30 feet high, with two ranges of 
windows, between Doric pilasters; and is rusticated 
throughout in coarse yel low stucco. The loggia in 
the c(/urt, towards the bridge and garden, though of 
stucco, is of good proportions, and is ornamented 
with subjects from the history of David, by the 
great painter and his pupils; besides bas-reliefs 
by Primaticcio. 

In the Camera dei Cavelli are portraits of 
Frederic's horses, by Pagni and Rlnaldo. The 
Camera de Psiche has pictures on oil and fresco, of 
the story of Cupid and Psyche, from Romano's 
designs. In the Camera del Zodiaco the seasons 
are painted on the walls, and the signs of the 
Zodiac, in compartments, on the ceiling, bv 
Romano's pupils. Camera di Faeionte takes name 
from Phaeton, whose Fall is painted here; with 
small pictures of centaurs, Ac, by Romano and 
his pupils. Salo degli Stucchi, so called from the 
fctuccocs representing the Triumphal Entr>j <A 
Sigismund into Mantua.^ l.\^% ^V^svv ^x'«sss2n». 
Gonzagr- ytw ct«a.\.^ "tt.w«ca\'^\ ^^W^^^^^J)?J! 



6^ 



nRADSHAW's iTALt. 



[Secti 



which he keops his Homer; Ciesar burning the 
letters of Pompey; all by Prlmatlcclo. *Sala dei 
Oiganti^ a small room, adorned by the Assault of 
the Qiant Titans oii Olympus, from designs of 
Uomano. The fia^urcs exceed a scale of two to one. 
In the garden are a Grotto and Pavilion, the lat- 
ter containing a series of pictures of Human Life, 
from the Birth to the Resurrection of man. done by 
Homano's pupils under their master's direction. 

"The charm of his palace" says Fergusson "de- 
pends on the coffering and colouring of the ceilings, 
which display an amount of design and fancy, 
combined with elegance, seldom seen elsewhere; 
but they will not suffice to redeem the building 
from the reproach of being, at least, externally of 
the tamest commonplace, as an architectural de- 
sign." 

At the SeuoU Pubbliche Is the public Librarv^ 
fonided by Maria Theresa, containing 90,000 
volumes, and 1,000 MSS. Among these are Pindar, 
the Hecuba, and Orestes of Euripides, a Panegyric 
of Trajan and a Virgil; besides the correspon- 
dence of Voltaire and Bettlnelll. The CapUupi 
library possesses 129 valuable MS8., serving to 
elucidate the literary history of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. 

A little way out of Mantua is Pletole, which, 
agreeably to a tradition preserved by Dante, In 
his Purgatory, Is thought to be the site of Andft, 
Virgil's birth-place. An old ruined palace of the 
Mantuan dukes, called La Virgiliana^ marks the 
spot. Hither the Cardinal do' Medici came for 
refuge after the battle of Ravenna ; and here also 
General Mlolles gave his banquet in a Temple of 
Apollo, Improvised for the occasion ; the Saints 
taking the place of the Gods. 

At Curtatone, on the Grazle Road, near the 
Mincio, on the 29th May, 1848, the Austrians de- 
feated the Tuscans, who came to the assistance of 
Charles Albert. The Tuscan volunteers were 
1,!»16 soldiers of the Grahd Ducal army, and 1,166 
of the newlv-ralsed civic guard, with youths from 
the Pisa University, and other equally unwarllko 
sources, to the number of 6,00); all under the 
command of Genenxl Langier, assiste I by Pied- 
montese officers. They were opposed to 3'>,nO0 
Austrian troops, commanded by Kadctsky. The 
villages of Montanara and Curtatone are 1^ mile 
distant from each other. " For rhore thSin six hours 
the devoted little band held In check the enormous 
force opposed to them, and though the promised 
Plcdmontese support never came, the Tuscan.? 
gained the object in view, and stayed the advance 
of the Austrians long enough to enable the Pied- 
montesc to win the battle of Goito the following 
aay " The loss of the Tuscans was very heavy ; 
but they had done their duty to their country, and 
proved they could fight like heroes. The names 
of those who fell are recorded in the Church of 
Santa Croce. Two Pisa professors were killed: 
and a third, Montanelll, supposed to be mortally 
irounded, afterwards recovered, and became one 
of e/tcOrand Duke'H uiIal8ter8.*'—T. A. TilOLLOPE's 
Jitfeaajf ta J 849 and 1899* 



Beyond this, h mllc4 from Mantua, on th 
bank of the lake, and within view of the 
the Church of 

Santa Maria dtlla Qrazie, founded, 1899, 
Gonzaga and the citizens, in pursuance of 
; made during the plague. It contains a mini 
portrait of the Madonna, attributed, as us 
St. Luke, and much reverenced. It is still ( 
frequented place of pilgrimage, o.^^pccla 
Assumption Day. The church Is an Italian 
of the simplest stj'le, set off with many e? 
and Inscriptions. Within, arc paintings 
Costa, L. Gambara, Monsignoii, «fec.. bcs 
monument of Coradl (1489), the son of i\v 
brated military lender, and another of B. ( 
lionc, the friend of M. Angelo and Raphac 
author of the Certcglano. This latter was dc 
by Romano; the Inscription is by Cardinal I 
By his side is his young and learned wife. 

Among eminent persons who have visit* 
church and left their offerings, are Charles 
his son Ferdinand, Pius II., the Constable Bo 
and even an ambassador from Japan. The 
are covered with a double row of wax figur 
size of life) of these and other eminent perse 
bishops, cardinals, kings, Ac, who have re 
some benefit or grace from the Virgin. Eacl 
an inscription In verse. The art of makluj 
was Invented by a Franciscan of Acqua N 
1521, but they require frequent restoration. 

The miscellaneous offerings are most vario 
singular. One is a crocodile or lizard klllc 
Mantuan in the rivers about here; and ano 
a piece of rope from a convict about to be h 
who prayed for help to the Madonna, wh 
rope broke and restored him to his place In s< 

A rail is open to Modena, and to Cremonj 
one, vid Legnago and Este, to M6nsclice, < 
line between Padua and Bologna. (See Roi 
and '20.) 

From Mantua to Modena, on the Central ] 
rail, the stations are as under: — 
Miles. 

Borgoforte 7 Carpi 

Snzzara 12 Solliera 

Reggiolo 17 Modena 

Bolo-Novi 21i 

Borgoforte (Stat.)f a fortified c-istio on I 
built 1211, near the junction of the Mincio, 

Snzzara (Stat.)— population, 9,652- 
Prlnce Eugene fought an Indecisive battle 
May, 1703. with the French under VcndOmc 

[Rail from Suzzara to Parma (pag 
27^ miles, through Bresccllo and Guastalla. 

Guastalla (10,A93) inhabitants, near the 
bank of the Po, a bishop's see, and formei 
head of a little county and duchy, united to 
in 1749, and to Modena In 1847. Its histoi 
been written In four great quartos, by a 
author. P. XSo. Oxx^^XoWa.. wvk-w ^wtCCv^j «: 



19.] 



MANTUA, CURTATONE, VENICE. 69 



f the Po, which was the boundary towards 

It contains a Cathedral, and five or six 

urrhPH nubile library of 6.000 volumes. 



Gondolas, with one boatman, 1 lira the first 
hour, and 50 cents, for each successive hour; 
Omnibus gondolas, 25 cents., it is not advisable to 

. sross Grand Canal , 5 cents. 

sufficient, 
one boat- 
boatmen, 
e in the 
of your 
ier serves 
o most <<f 
arc found 

• 

; the port 

2, Ancona, 

e P. «fc (). 

;o Ancona 

Overland 

iazza San 

., damasks 
: establish- 
of a visit, 

IS. 

Traffhetto. 
the Rialto, 
i, both near 
ostomo. 

llstil a fine 

oist. The 
?rc favour- 
la. rickets, 
client anti- 
c when the 
ic Adriatic. 
c may even 
c. At the 
oes abound, 
Hniishoni 
I "crawllnjy 
' and flying 
.)) all have 

•ture by the 

Sansovino, 

of an early 

irul. Palace, 

emy, Scalzi 

3. Salvatore, 

itore Church, 

la. S. Rocco, 

lute Church, 

Ch d Oro. S. 

Vi^a (Pal- 

. Slaas Works. 

nl, Vlvarinl, 

i),Pordftucs«CNSs^ 



6i ftRADSIfAW's iTALt. [ScCtioil 




which he keeps his Homer; Cie^ftr burning the 

l«ttors of Pomney ; ail by Prlmaticcio. *S(ua dei 

Oiganti, a small room, adorned by the Assault of 

the Giant Titans on Olym 

Uomano. Thnfinfiiwn* 

In the ;;ar 

ter contai 

from the B 

Homaiio's 

"The eh 
pcndsontl 
which dis 
combined 
but thcyi* 
from the re 
the tamest 
sign." 

At the & 
foiiided b; 
volumes, an 
the Hecuba 
of Trajan i 
dence of V 
library posi 
elucidate th 
tury. 

A little VI 
agreeably ti 
his Purgato 
Virgil's birti 
Mantuan dc 
spot. Hith< 
refuge after 
General Mio 
Apollo, impi 
taking the pi v 

At CUTtal 
Mincio, on tt 
feated the Ti 
Charles Albc 
1,416 soldiers 
of the newiy- 
tho Pisa Uuin 
sources, to tl 
cDmmand of 
monte«e officr 
Austrian troo 
villages of M'l 
distant from o 
the devoted lit 
force opposed 
Plediuontese 
gained the obj- 
of the AtiAtriat 
montoac to win 
day." The loi 
but they had di 
proved they cc 
of those who i 
Santa Crocc. 
and a third, M 
wounded, after 
of thcGrand Dc 
./kuifiajfjt in 1SI9 



Beyond this, b milc4 from Mantua, on the rijj 
bank of the like, and within view of the city, 

the Church of 

1 _. 



Roate 19.] 



MANTUA, CURTATOSE, VENICE. 



69 



knuich of the Po, which was the boundary towards 
Modeiia. It contains a Cathedral, and live or »ix 
other churches, public library of 6,000 volumes, 
sebool of music, and a statue, in bronze, of Gon- 
Xftfra I.] 

Hodena (Stat.), on the Central Italian line; 
which comes this way from Parma and Repr^rio, 
and goes on to Bolo^m. (See Routes 16 and 20.) 

Venlce to Treviso, Undine, and Trieste. 
VENICE (Stat.) 

** Ther« is a glorioxxt City in the me : 
The sea is in the broad, the narrow streets, 
Kbbing mod flowing ; and the salt seaweed 
ClioRB to the marble of her ijalaces."— Rooers's Ital}/. 

rennia, of the Italians: Venedig. of the Germans. 
Population (1S9I). 159,000 (including suburbs), in 
8,000 streets and alleys. 

JFoieU: 

Grand Hotel (fonncriy New York Hotel), 
Palazzo Ferro, newly fitted up; well situated on 
the Grand Canal. 

Danieli's Royal Hotel. 

Grand Hotel de I'Europe, o^i the Grand Canal. 
Com'ort combined with moderate charges. See 
Advt. 

H.tel d'llalie Bauer, with a largre terrace, on 
the Grand Canal. Recommended. See Ad\t. 

llotfrl de Rome and Po.nsi- n Sui-se, advan- 
tageously situated on the Grand Canal. 

Hot*»l Beau Rivage. facing the Lagunes. 

Hotel d*Angleterre, Qtiai (ie8E»C!iIron!». 

Hotel Biiiannla, firat-class littel, with excellent 
accommodation . 

Grand Hotel Vittoria, old established first-class 
hotel, situated near to St. Marc Square; Monaco; 
Hotel Luna. 

Boarding House, 1150, Calle del Lnganeulicr. 

Cafin: Florlan, Piazza San Mar. o. English and 
French papers. CafcSSvizzers, Piazza San Marco. 
Baner-Grliiiwald. near Gran«l Hotel d'I«nlie. 

Resident Engliih Consul and A via'ican Consvl. 

Cf-urch of England Service. — At the English 
Church. 

J'resbyterian Sertice. — At 95. Piazza San Marco. 

Waldensian C^wrcA.— Palazzo Cavagnis. 

Heading lioom. — Piazza St. Marco in the Pro- 
carat ic Vecchle. English and other newspapers 
by the week or month. 

*(7ont?eyanrc5.*-Railway, to Udinc and Nabresina 
(for Vienna and Trieste); to Verona and Milan 

(in arrival at Venice there is often confusion. 
When you alight fro<ii the train call out the name 
of your hotel, and the porter belonging to it will 
engage a gondola and see to your baggage. Or, pro- 
ceed to thocnnal, which la at tbefront of the statioh . 
engage a gondola, return for your baggage, witt 
a porter, to whom point out your gondola ; 5 cents 
p«rpae1uig« to eaqpeeted at his fee. 

Tvfff.i^re apri|n|B<¥f 4,000 gnndolqs at Veiiicc. 



Gondolas, with one boatman, 1 lira the first 
hour, and 60 cents, for each successive hour; 
Omnibus gondolas, 25 cents., it is not advisable to 
take these. Ferry across Grand Canal, 6 cents. 
For going about the city one boatman is suflicient. 
The gondolas at the railway terminus, one boat- 
man, 2 lire (without luggage, I lira), two boatmen, 
3 lire: these men load your baggage in the 
gondola, and deliver it at the door of your 
apartment, at the hotel. A good gondolier serves 
as va!et de place. Guides are attached to most t-f 
the hotels. Steam launches (vaporetti) arc found 
on the Grnnd Canal during the day-time. 

The tide rises two or three feet, but the port 
is gradually drying up. 

Steamers to the station: and t» Trieste, Ancona, 
Chioggia; office at the Piazzetta. The P. <fc O. 
Company run mail boats from here to Ancona 
and Brindifi, in connection with the Overland 
Route. 

Post and Telegraph Offices, both on Piazza San 
Marco. 

Lace Manvfactory. — M. Jesurum A Co., damasks 
and hand embroideries, o'd lace; largo establish- 
ment (with working rooms), worthy of a visit, 
S. Fillppo Giacomo, near Bridge of Sighs. 

5rt«ir/-«. -BInmenthal &, Co.,Calle del Traghetto. 

Theatres— X\\ near St. Mark's and the Rialto, 
Fenice, or Phoenix; Rossini, and Goldoni, both near 
S. Lnca's; Malibran, near S. Glan Crisostomo. 

Chemi.tt— Zampironi. 

The Capuchins of the Redemption distil a fine 
liquor, called acqua di melissa. 

The climate is healthy, though moist. The 
marsih exhalations create an atmosphere favour- 
able to pulmonary con plaints, scrofula, rickets, 
Ac, for which sea-bathing is an excellent anti- 
dote. Venice is not a pleasant place when the 
rain comes down, or storms move the Adriatic. 
Then boats ply in St. Mark's, and one may even 
got jammed in tlieni under a bridge. At the 
fall of the year smells and mosquitoes abound, 
ai d cold whids blew from the Alps Hartshorn 
or carbolic .add is an antitloie for the "crawling 
animals, ^=kipp ng animals, humming and flying 
animals, which then (says Thackeray) all have 
at the traveller at once." 

* Chief Objects of Xotice. — Architecture by the 
Loujbardi, Sammicheli, Falconetto, Sansovino, 
Palladio, besides Byzantine artists of an early 
date. Piazza of St. Mark, Cathedral, Palace, 
Bridge of Sighs, Campanile, Academy, Scalzi 
Church, Rialto, Madonna del Orto. S. Salvatore, 
S. Giorgio Maggiore (Palladio). Redentore Church, 
S. Sobastiano, S. Stefano. Frari, Scuola. S. Rocco, 
S. Zanipolo, S. Zacearia, Arsenal, Salute Church, 
Fenice Theatre, S. Maria Formosa, Ch d Oro. S. 
Trovaso Chorch. S. Franeesa della Vigna (Pal- 
ladio). Gesuiti Church, and Murano Glass Works. 

Paintings by Mantegna, G. Bellini, Vlvarini, 
PalmaVecchio, Titian (the A8Sumption),Fordenono, 
Bordone, Bassauo. Del Flombo, Tintoretto. P^ 
Veronese. Palma Giovanc, PadQvanlno, 8. KlccV 
Canaletto, and HtUi^. 



70 



BRA1>8UAW 8 ITALT. 



Sculpture by the Lombard!, Sansovino, and Ca- 
Bova, who was born and died in Venetian territory. 

SpnrloQs old fumltnre and Canalottos are two 
branchex of mannfitcture carried on here. 

Venice is ontsidc the lagunamorta, in the lap^ana 
viva, which, at hijrh wa'cr, is a lake of some few 
feet depth ; but at low water (the fall hein^ ahont 
2 feet) offers a nnmhcr of banks of sand and 
weed, in the middle of which are the streets, or 
canals, practic«ble for small boats or gondolas 
only. This lagoon, 6 miles long and U to 2 broad, 
is shut in from the sea by a tongne of land called 
the Lido, which has three fortified entrances. 

About 150 Canals cut up the city into seventy or 
eighty little Islands. The largest, called Canalc 
Qrande, and crossed by the Rialto Bridge, winds 
through the city In the form of an 8. Another, 
called Canale Gindecca, divides the city from the 
pubnrbs of Guidccca Island. Near the north end 
of the Canalc Grande is a small branch, called 
Cannaregglo, leading towards Mcstre. The smaller 
canals are joined together by upwards of 300 short 
bridges, to facilitate the communication. The 
houses arc founded on millions of piles, their front 
or back being turned to a canal. Each door has a 
flight of steps to the water, and the gondolas are 
moored to the carved and painted side posts. 
Good drinking water from public cisterns, sup- 
plied from the mainland by pipes laid along the 
railway, or from artesian wells, sunk In 1847. 

Venice comprises six sestlerl, or administrative 
divisions, and has forty-one open places, of which 
S.Marco, or St. Mark, Is the finest; twenty-nine 
parish churches, besides the patriarchal church, 
the churches of the Greeks, Armenians, and Pro- 
testants, and seven synagogues. 

It has lost the glory and commercial Importance 
it enjoyed In past times, when it boasted of twenty- 
four ships of the line and 200 armed galleys. 
It had a Bank (so called) as early as 11 57. 
During 1815-17, upwards of seventy old palaces 
had been demolished by their owners, and many 
are still deserted, or converted Into hotels and 
warehouses. Books are printed here. It is a free 
port (so-called) since 1829, but Its harbour is 
gradually filling up. 

The last scene In its fall is described in Daru's 
Htstoire. Out of 537 patricians, only 200 at most 
refused to vote for the Treaty of May, 1797, which 
transferred the Venetian territory to Austria. The 
Doge's sword was received by an apothecary, who 
bore the historical name of Dandolo. The Golden 
Book and the Ducal ensigns were buiTit, and as 
the French marched out the Austrians marched In. 

The latest Important event In Its history was the 
revolution of 1848, when the Austrian garrison was 
driven out. and the Republic of St. Mark proclaimed 
under Manln and Tommaseo. On the defeat of 
Charles Albert, it was attacked by Radetzky and 
Flaynau, and Venice once more came under the 
hron rule t>f Austria. But now a better state of 
lbinfsprevai)e; nn^h^re the King of Italy an4 
^hfi An»tT\Kn Emperor met as friends on the 5th 



[Section 1. 

of April, 1878. A statue of Manln stands in 
Campo di S. Paterniano. 

To the traveller who sees it for the first time, 
Venice presents a curious spectacle, with its mtrble 
palaces, buildings, and spires rising out of the 
water. It was begun in this manner when the 
ravages of Alarlc and Attlla (407-52) made the 
people fly from Aqullela, Padua, Ac, on the main- 
land (which was called Venetia), and settle here, 
round a church built on the rivo alto, or Rialto. 
There are many narrow quays and dry alleys 
between tall dark houses, where you may walk on 
foot, and where shops for meat, vegetables, jeweU 
lery, Ac, are found, but they are not suitable for 
carriages and horses, which, being useless here, 
are never seen. Their place is supplied by the 
gondola, a gloomy-looking, hlgh-prowed boat, 
shaped something like the lord mayor's barge. 
The word Is of doubtful origin. It is first men- 
tioned at Avignon, 12th century, and at Venice^ 
in the Cronico dl Altlno, 1200. 

The favourite colour of the gondola is black. It 
Is a 

"long covered boat that's common here, 
Carved at the prow, bnilt lightly, bnt comjMMtljr, 

Bowed by two rowers, each called gondolier. 
It glides along the water looking blackly, 

Jtut like a cofflu cliwt in a canoe. 

Where none can make out what you say or do." — Byron. 

Some are used as floating shops, and even the 
beggars go about In gondolas. Gondoliers (called 
barcaroli) are found at several points, or traghetti, 
where the traffic Is greatest. Though useful, and 
at times necessary, to reach certain quarters, and 
obtain good points of view, yet, the canals being 
bridged, every part of the city may be reached on 
foot, though footways are not to be found on the 
sides of all the canals. Steam gondolas run to 
the station. 

In spite of its aquatic advantages, and the cheap 
convenience of its gondolas, the visitor, "accus- 
tomed to expatiate on terra firma," may soon grow 
impatient of the "moated imprisonment of a town 
where one's walks are incessantly crossed by a 
canal, and the thread of talk or thinking is cut at 
the steep steps of a bridge."- -Lord Bkoughton's 
Jtalf/. 

CANALE GRANDE, or GRAND CANAL. 

Itinerary of objects to be noticed in going from 
the quay of St. Mark's to the railway station, 3 
miles long, by gondola. The palaces marked * are 
in the pointed, or Gothic, style. The style of the 
Lombard! school is mnrkod by richness and ele- 
gance. The palaces stand on massive stone base- 
ments of a simple uniform character, rising out of 
the sea, *' but above the water they are as various 
as their architects. Some display the light elegance 
of Sansovino, others the exuberant ornament of 
Longhena. and a few the correct beauty of Pal- 
ladio.""— (Forsyth.) Most of them have two or 
three gates, with steps to the water, in the middle 
of their fronts, over which are finely decorated 
balconies and arcadea, and the windows are genev 
rally arched, either Gothic pointed, or eircnl»(r, 



Route 19.] 



VENICE— GRAND CANAL. 



71 



Do^ana, or Custom 

House. 
Seminario Patriarcale 

and collection. 



Church of Sta. Maria 

della Salute. 
Palazzo Dario (by the 

Lombard!). 
Palazzo Vcnier. 
Palazzo Manzoni(ditto). 



Right, 
Royal Gardens. 

Palazzo Giustiniani * 
(now Hotel de I'Europe) 
Palazzo Treves (or Enio) 
Palazzo Zuchelli (now 

Hotel Britannia) 
Palazzo Contarini-Fa- 

san. • (Lieut. Gov.) 
Pal.Ferro(Grand Hotel). 
Palazzo Comer della 

Ck Grande or PreTet- 

tura (by Sansovino). 



8. TITALS BRIDGB. 



Accademia and 
Gallery. 



Picture 8, 



Right. 
Vitale Church. 



Palazzo Contarini degli 
Scrigni (two — one by 
Scamozzi, the other 
half-Gothic). 

Palazzo Rezzonigo (by 
Longhena). 

Palazzo Giustiniani.* 

Palazzo Foscari.* 
(College). 

Palazzo Balbi. 
Palazzo Grimani. 

Palazzo Pisani a S. 

Paolo.* 
Palazzo Barbarigo. 
Palazzo Bernardo.* 

Palazzo Dona. 
Palazzo Papadopoli (by 
Sansovino). 

Palazzo Pisani Moretta. 



Palazzo Giustiniani-Lo- 

lln (by Longhena). 
Palazzo Cavalli* 



Palazzo Grassi. 



Palazzo Moro Lin. 
Palazzo Contarini. 

Palazzo Mocenigo (By- 
ron's residence). 



Palazzo Comer-Spinelli 
(by the Lombard!). 

Palazzo Grimani, now 

Law Court (by Sam- 

micheli). 
Palazzo Farsetti, now 

the Town Hall, and 
Palazzo Loredano, now 

the Municipio. 
Palazzo Bembo.* 
Palazzo Dandolo 
Palazzo Man in (by 

Sansovino); belonged 

to the last Doge, now 

a bank. 



BIALTO BBID6B. 



S. Giaeon^ <il Biil^. 

Palazzo d#*G«»«rtiBflii FonOACo <ie' Tede^hi, 
(Court of iippMl). uow Custom Houw. 



Left. 

Fabbriche Vecchle 
Sansovino), in 
Pescaria. 



(hy 
the 



Palazzo Comer della 
Regina, now the 
Monte de Pieti. 

Palazzo Pesaro, or Be- 
vilacqua. 



Palazzo Tron. 
Palazzo Battagia (by 
Longhena). 



Right. 

Palazzo MangiliValma- 
rana. 

Palazzo Michicli dalle 
Col on lie, or Martin- 
engo. 
Palazzo Sagredo.* 
Ch d'Oro, Ijclonged to 
Mdlle. Taglionf. 



Palazzo Grimani delfit 
Vida (by Scamozzi). 

Palazzo Vcndrarain Ca- 
lergi, (by P. Lom- 
bordo) ; belongs to 
Duca della Grazia. 



Fondaco de' Turchi. 
Museo Correr; bequeathed 
to the city, with its Cannareggio. Up thW 
paintings, marbles, short canal are-r- 
&c. Palazzo Manfrln, Pa- 

lazzo Galvagna. 
Palazzo Labia. 
Scaizi Church. 

IBON BRIDGE. 

S. Simeone Church. Railway Station. 

Palazzo Papadopoli. 8. Lucia Church. 

Corpus Domini Church. 
La Croce Church. 
Santa Chiara Church. 

"Whilst other Italian cities have each ten or 
twelve prominent structures on which their claim 
to architectural fame is based, Venice numbers 
her specimens by hundreds, and the residence of 
the simple citizen is often as artistic as the palaco 
of the proudest noble. No other city possesses 
such a school of architectural art as applied to 
domestic purposes; and if we look for types from 
which to originate a style suitable to our modern 
wants, it is among the Venetian examples of the 
early part of the sixteenth century." — (Ferqusson.'^ 
The churches are profusely ornamented with, 
marble, porphyry, alabaster, agate, jasper, mosaics, 
•fee, more remarkable for richness than good taste. 

^^Canaletto and Stanfield are miraculous in 
their truth ; Turner is very noble ; but the reality 
itself is beyond all description of pen or pencil. 
I never saw the thing before that I should be 
afraid to describe; but to tell what Venice is I 
feel to be an impossibility." — Dickens, 1844. 

The canals are " water streets." without foot- 
ways on the sides. "You may (says Lord Brough- 
ton) from the back of most houses, and sometimes 
from the front, step from the hall door .into your 
bo^t at OQce, and may row through the ci^y almost 
the whole day withoat suspecting tbere are any 
stt^ets in it; or you may ^«3\^'s. •C«svs^'©s^>«ss«^- 



BRADt»nAW*8 ITALY. 



[Section I. 



I^oiidun. wittioQt cuiiiing on a Miiglc canal or see- 
ing the water once." The profound quiet of the 
caiialt and streets at night Is very striking. 

Wc shall notice the best buildings in a scries of 
Tonn which may be dune on foot, or in gundola, 
Mcc<>rding to circumstances, and may be varied at 
pleasure. The charire for a gond^^la is al>out 4s. 
a day of 10 hours, no lire a week. 

The great point of attractiun is the square of 8. 
Marco, or 8t. Mark (the patron saint), on the south 
side of Venice, which, with the ancient cathedral 
and its l>elfry, the great palace of the Doge, the 
Moorish arcadci and coffee houses, &c., figure so 
pietureiquely in every view of this marvellous old 
citv. 

HEST TOUE. 

*PiaZ2a 8. MarcO' This piazza, or square, is 
surrounded by magnificent edifices, all valuable as 
historical monuments of the rise nnd progress of 
the fine arts from the tenth century to the present 
day. (in the cast side arc St. Mark's Cathedral, 
with its campanile and threepe^lestalsforthe Vene- 
tian flags; on the noith side, the Prucuratie 
Vecchic and the Orologio Tower. Tli'i wi-st Fide 
occupies tlie («ite of 8. Geminiano's Church. On 
the south are the Procurutie and the LiLrcria, now 
the Ituyal Palace. 

The dimensions of this piazza are about />80 feet 
h'Mg by an average breadth of '230 feet. The 
Piazzetta (or little square), 320 feet bv l-Wfeet, 
runs from the campanile down to the Mole at the 
water side, betwi'en the Doge's I'alace on the east 
side and the Zerea on the went. On the Mole, or 
t^uuy, are the Colonue, or two pillars of St. Murk 
and Ht. Theodore, from which the quay runs pu«t 
the I'unte della Puglia to the Hiva del Behiavoni 
and the Albergo Heule (formerly the Manimoceiiigo 
Palace), towaris the arsenal, A'c. i)n the three 
bronze pedchtnis (by Leopardi, of the sixteenth 
century) in front of St. Mark's— now carrying the 
Itiilinn colours— the three standards of the subject 
kingdoms of Cyprus, ('andia. and Morea used to fiy. 
The Torre dell' Orologio, or clock-tower, at the 
comer of the Merceria, was built, H94, by P. Lom- 
bardo. It bears an astronomical clock, marked 
with the 21 hours, as usual in Italy; which has a 
gold and blue face, made by the Kinaldisof Reggio, 
and repaired in 1755. Two bronze Moors strike 
the hours, and almve these are a bronze Virgin and 
the Lion of St. Mark. Numbers of pigeons arc 
found in the Piazza. 

The picturesque Cathedral or *Duomo of 8. 
Marco, is Greek in shape, and purely Hyzantine (or 
Constantinople) in style, having been begun in 976 
by artists from that city, and finished I tJI. Itlssup- 
IK)scd to have been copied from a church at Alex- 
andria. The Internal decorations, porticos, Ac, 
were finished in the next century. It Is only 205 
feet long by 164 feet through the traiuents. It is 
occwttic when compared with later artd mor« re- 
gular patt4»rn9. but it Itexccedipgly rich in d^all 
/Crrt/n fh^ }mmf*>f» ;>rof^siop of be^^tlfol Oriental 



marbles, bas-reliefs, and other sculpture, in bronzes, 
gilding, and mosaic executed between the tenth 
and eighteenth centuries. The tessellated pave- 
ment is slightly undulating, like the waves of the 

It is surmounted by a heap of ten or twelve oval 
domes round the five larger centre ones, besides 
several pinnacles. The iron tie round the chief 
<lomc is called Sansovino's Girdle. They count 
about 500 pillars of verde antico, {wrphyry, serpen- 
tine, veined and other rare marbles; the exterior 
sides, basement, and pavement are encrusted with 
rich materials; in fact, all that is not gold, or 
bronze, or mosaic, Is covered with Oriental mar- 
bles. 

The facade presents In Its recesses a numerous 
collection of columns, as valuable for the quality 
and variety of the marbles as for their Greek work- 
manship. There are five large gold mosaics in 
the lower recesses. The first two (to the right) 
represent the Raising of the Bones of St. Mark, at 
Alexandria (whence tlicy were first brought), by 
P. Vecchio. 1650: the middle one is the Last Judg- 
ment, by P. Spagna; in the next is the Doge's 
Reception of the Patron Saint's Relics, by L. de 
Paz/.o, after 8. Ricci ; and the last is an old mosaic 
of the sixteenth century of tlie church itself. 

The four mosaics in the upper vaults nic the 
Desernt from the Cross, the Descent into Limho 
(or hell), the Resurrection, and the Ascension : all 
liy L. (liaetuno, from denigns by M. Verona, nlwnt 
1617. On one of the four bronze gates (to the left 
on entering) is the name of their arti»t. "M.CCC. 
Bertucius, Aurifex, Venetus, me fecit; " he being 
a Venetian gold worker of the day. In this fu(;>a(ic 
are the famous four IJoi'set of St. Mark (weighing 
only 1,860 lbs.), by Ly8lppU8(?), bronze, but pre- 
serving traces of their former gilding. They are 
the >*aine which, after being cast at Chio and truiis- 
ferred to Athens, were sent to ornament the tri- 
unq.hul arches of Nero and Trajan, at Rome. They 
accompanied Theodosius to Byzantium, and in the 
thirteenth century were trnnsjKjrtcd to Venice; 
from which they were moved to Paris, by NajM^lcon, 
to the top of the Arc du Carrousel, to be again 
returned In 1815 to their old place at Venice. This 
Is alluded to in the gold inscription on the church 
porch. As with the famous Coronation Stone at 
Westminster, possessI«)n has been taken of them at 
various times, as an emblem of power or c( nquest. 
A near view should be got from the sttiircnse. 

Alwve the great door of the vestibule is St. Mark 
in his pontificals, by the Zuccati, after Titian's 
designs, in 1545. Below hini are seve)! small 
mosaics of the tenth century, representing the 
Crucifixion and Burial of Christ, the work of the 
same artists, 1549. On two crescents to the right 
and left, above the principal entrance, are the Re- 
surrection of Lazarus, and the Burial of the Virgin, 
also by the Zuccati. In the tower side comers, 
the Four Evangelists; In the upper, eight Prophets; 
on the friere, the Angels and Doctors; all by the 
same. " High up on the outside of the choreic 
we one erenlpg obterred two small Uinj>t bt)m- 






•n BlUr by (lie Lon 
■gluslon of broiiici a 

le BapllK, vld St. Psli 



'. Tlw TDUlt or tt 



'Irglii and Chilli, at, Juli 



ai« dT III* BaptlBm of CUriat, h 
iJI bppanltu lo Ulo door opcukiiff ti 



us ictta. i) will tn be u old w 



mid 1 bnniie Muuea 



or Duge Siniiio. uid of Doge £i 

thewiilerol an ncdlent Chruni 
llUtoty of tbs Ri^mbllc. dimn to 



c of ForullHs, iltrlbulcd U> 
1. by KUotll. 
ID lAft AU$ (ntertng Ir 



inosalcB or tho Hlttoty of thVvirgln, by 31. Cloiu. 

Tho Clispel or S. Iiidoro li corercd with moulH 
of the ftnirtemlh oenlury. repruKiilluir tho tUo ot 

cenenloiclcal tree of Ibo Viritlu, liy N Ulanclilnl, 
fntni Salvlatr<< df>lini<- l'^3 On the marlilu 
ApOfllei, 



brothcn 



carved in ISSlb; 

coMly plllBri. and near them iwo ii 

1; B>id tiro dooki. wllb 



idF-Mnnegnii. 
je by P. Loin- 



[q tho CMr I 

>ti broiiiobaa- 
J. a.iuioT' - ' 
tl<o bigli 



ootKhl^ 



>r hall 



flUppoApd to bobr J.Calllari.oT 
Tho Utgli Albir Ranai midc 
unop)-, on lonr plllani ot Ore 



adoL near 



tlH Or«elt Blyte, In oil, on wood. In foHrteen dlvl- 
uliiii. relatlnit to the Ufe uf Christ, by MiiPstm 
PhoIo. juid hi> lone. I.ucca anil riloTsniil. lUn. 
<vb.>K names are InKiIbed on It. llu i> Iha olilnt 

iHSInt; Lorenui of Veiiko. wliou: work In lo bo Hen 
at llic Accadimla. The Mcuiid ■llar-|ilcco. eilllRl 
the Pala d' Om. Ii a UTimitlna aiauiol a» gold 
andiilvcrpbiting, let offbychaied wotltnenrtN 
caineua. and Dthor pieeloiu elmioi. Tlili fi anly 
shown htlKHn 13 and 3; llckel Si eent*. Beliliul 
Mie high altar ia aiwther altar, on dssr qiirnl 
alahancriilllBTii irltli bai-rell«r>, In utarblo DUd 
gilt hnnm ; all by Siiuiwlno. 

Tin bai-KlloIa In while nuriile. and on Ibo 
limtiEe gate of iIh aBcrinly. aro by Sanwvliio. 
Tliey tuok Idin aboot twenty yoan lo exocille. 
Among Ibc hcaili ate tlwse of Titian. P. Arellno, 
— ' SunioTlno iilmiwK. The lacrJnv ii rirbly 

I adiauaed cliapel, oppoaito Madonna de Uas- 

thoapoiige, and thereat nuti at the Cnieldxioiij 
il^h-bunc of St. Julin tho Baptlit ; and Innu- 



Crynl !• 81 feet by 01 feel 
"Sc. UaiWt V« Lxtr; 



^ohoicbea. TbA 



74 



BBADSUAW 8 ITALY. 



[Section 1. 



combination is neither Greek nor Gothic, nor Basi- 
lical, nor Saracen ; but a fortuitous jumble of all. 
A front divitled by a gallery and a roof hooded by 
roosqnish cupolas give it a strange, unchristian 
look. Nowhere have I seen so many columns 
crowded into so small a space. Near 800 are 
stuck on the pillars of the front, and 300 more on 
the balustrades above A like profusion prevails 
in the interior, which is dark, heavy, and bar- 
barous." — (Forxyth). But, notwithstanding this, 
the general effect is striking and historical. 
' From the Pietra del Bando. a red stone close to 
the church, the laws were first promulgated. It is 
a trophy from Acre; another trophy, called the 
pillars of S. John of Acre, was brought from 
Ptolemais in 1256. 

The ancient Crypts have been cleared of water, 
and arc n'>w accessible. 

The best book of information is " Ouide de la 
Beuilique St. Marc,"" by Monsign. C. A. Pasini. 

At the junction of the Piazza di S. Marco and 
the Piaxzetta stands the brick 

*Campanile Tower, so conspicuous in all Vene- 
tian views, forming a detached belfry to the Cathe- 
dral, 820 feet high. It was begun in 902 ; in 1178 
a spire on an antique model was added, in the 
shape of an extinguisher, which was reconstructed 
by Martin B. Bnono In 1610, as it now appears, 
and ornamented with Oriental marbles. At the 
base on one side is a loggctta by Soverini, a small 
and elegant building covered with marbles, sculp- 
tures, and bronzes. Four bronze statues of Pallas, 
Apollo, Mercury, and Peace, are by J. Sansovino. 
Of the bas-reliefs, the best arc the three in the 
attic and those below two of the statues. 

'*Its locality and associations have earned for 
it a great deal of inflated laudation ; but in point 
of design no campanile in Italy deserves it less. 
The base (42 feet square) is a mere unomamented 
mass of brickwork, slightly fluted and pierced 
unsymmetrically with small windows to light the 
inclined planes within. Its size, its height, and 
apparent solidity are its only merits."— {/(grj/MMow). 
Cost of admission, 15c. The ascent is by a series 
of incHncs — not steps. Napoleon rode his horse to 
the summit; whence there is a view over the city 
^and islands, distant hills, &c. But this prospect 
from the top, though good, gives no adequate view 
of the canals within the citj*. 

* Ducal Palace, or Palazzo DucaJe, the old seat 
of the Doge (doge from dur), is open from nine to 
four. (For Doges, see Introduction.) It is about 
240 feet square. The principal part has one side 
towards the Mole and the other towards the 
Piazzctta, and is remarkable for its singularity, 
the solidity and magniflcenco of its details, and 
for its style, which is Saracenic, of the fourteenth 
century in the oldest portion, which is the work of 
t^alcndario. An arcade, called the Broglio, sur- 
rounds it. It was formerly the seat of government, 
and contains the halls of the various departments — 
as the Hall of the Senate, the Hall of the Coimoil 
«' Ten (now the pictore gaUery), the Hall of the 

«•/ Cotmc/r {now tht Wbrarr). the Piombi or 



State Prison, the Pozzl, or dungeons, J^c. 

Near the sea front, at the end of the Piazzetta, 
are two red granite pillars, brought from Greece in 
the twelfth century. One bears the famous 
winged Lion in bronze, called the Z^ton of Si Mark, 
a copy of which was repeated in every subject 
province (hence the word Pantaloon, anickname for 
the Venetians); and the other has a statue of St. 
Theodore (Teodoro) standing on a crocodile. This 
part and the quay adjohiing are sometimes called 
"IlColonne," after these pillars, which thus servo 
as a mark. Public executions took place between 
them, and hence it was considered unlucky to pass 
this way. Here Silvio Pellico stood before he was 
sent to Spielberg. 

''The two arcades which constitute the base are, 
from their extent and the beauty of the details, 
as fine as anything of their class executed during 
the middle ages. There is also a jnst and pleasing 
proportion between the simple solidity of the 
lower, and the airy, perhaps slightly fantastic 
lightness of the upper of these arcades, which are 
pierced with light fretwork. Had the upper storey 
been set back according to the original design, 
instead of being brought forward even with the 
arcades, which it overpowers by its ill-proportioned 
mass, a much more beautiful building would have 
resulted. All the beauty ascribed to this storey 
arises from the polychromatic mode of decoration 
introduced by disposing pieces of different coloured 
marbles in diaper patterns. The slabs are built 
into, not stuck on." — Fergituon. 

The palace forms a quadrangle surrounding an 
Interior court, the north side of which stands 
alongside St. Mark's, which until 1807 was nothing 
but the chapel of the palace. The cast side, which 
rests on the Rio or Canal della Paglia, was the work 
of A. Rizzio and A. Scarpagnino. 1490-1650. The 
other two sides towards the Mole and Piazzctta 
were restored by A. da Ponte, after the fire of 1677. 
They are marked by two large windows decorated 
with sculptures; that on the Mole side, constructed 
1404; that on the side of the Piazzctta at a later 
date, 1523-38. The carvings above them date from 
1577. The walls are diamonded in pale red and 
white. The palace entrance is near the church, by 
the Porta della Carta, where the scribes used to 
stand, and the ornaments of which arc due to 
Giovanni and Bartolommeo Buon. This leads to 
the interior court and the Giant's Stairs. Its 
principal defect is that "it reverses all the princi- 
ples of all other architecture. Here the solid rests 
on the open, a wall of enormous thickness rests on 
a slender fretwork of shafts and arches audi 
Intersected circles."— JFbriy/A. 

The beautiful internal court was rebuilt 1486- 
1550, by A. Bregno and Scarpagnino. Its pointed 
and circular arcades, paitly imitated in the School 
of Mines, Piccadilly, its rfchly sculptured friezes 
and ornamented wall spaces, altogether make up 
a singularly pleasing design. In the middle of tM 
court are two cirenlar bronze reservoirs, oovered 
with reliefs, both of the sixteenth century. Tiity 
are fiOed daily with fresh water bro\iffbt h^ thi 



e 19.] MANTUA, CURTATOSE, VEXICE. 69 



\ of the Po, which was the boundary towards 

and five or six 




Gondolas, with one boatman, 1 lira the first 
hour, and 60 cents, for each successive hour; 

cents., it is not advisable to 
il, 5 cents. 

* sufficient. 
, one boat- 
o boatmen, 
?c in the 
r of your 
'lier serves 
to most I'f 

• arc found 
le. 
It the i>ort 

te, Ancona, 

he P. & (). 

to Ancona 

i Overland 

Piazza San 

o., damaslcs 
c ostal)li8h- 

of a visit, 
*ha, 
1 Traffhctto. 

the Rialto, 
li, l>othnear 
sostomo. 

distil a fine 

aoist. The 

lerc favour- 

ttla. rickets, 

cellont aiitl- 

rc when the 

he Adriatic. 

c may even 

re. At the 

:oca abound, 

Hnrtshoni 

e "crawling 

? and flying 

ay) all have 

dure by the 

, Sansovino, 

of an early 

dral, Palace, 

Icmy, Scalzi 

S. Snivatore, 

:itore Church, 

»la. S. Rocco, 

iliite Church, 

Ck d Oro. S. 

^Vigna (Pal- 

jlasR Works. 

Inl, VivarinI, 

^),Pordenono, 



■.J' 



6 J ItRADSIfAW's iTALt. [SeCtlOll 1. 



which he keeps his Homer; Cie^ftr burning the 
Mtors of Pompey ; all by Prlmatlccio. *Sala dei 
Gigantic a small room, adorned by the Ass ault of 
the Giant Titan s oii Olyui ' " 

Koraano. ^**'--^' 

In the gar 
ter cantai 
from the B 
Homauo's 

"The eh 
pcndsontl 
which dis 
coinbhicd ' 
but they T» 
from the re 
the tamest 
sign." 

At the <S 
foinded b; 
volumes, an 
the Hecuba 
of Trajan i 
dence of V 
library poss 
elucidate th 
tury. 

A little ^ 
agreeably t« 
his Pnrgato 
Virgil's blrt 
Mantnan di 
s|v»t. Hithi 
refuge after 
General Hl«* 
Apollo, Impi 
taking the pi V 

At Curta 

Mincio, on tl 
feated the T 
Charles Albi 
1,416 solilicrfl 
of the newly- 
the Pisa Uui« 
sources, to t 
c3mmand of , 
monte^e offio 
Austrian tro« 
villages of M« 
distant from c 
the devoted 11 
force opposed 
Plcdmontese 
gained the obj 
of the Aii-^rla 
montcdc to wli 
day." The lo 
but thoy had d 
proved they c 
of those who 
Santa Croce. 
and a third, > 
wounded, aftc: 
of theGrand D 
f0»caajf in 181^ 



Beyond this, 6 mile* from Mantua, on the right 
bank of the lake, and within view of the city, is 
the Church of 



Boate 19.] 



MANTUA, CURTATONE, VENICE. 



69 



branch of the Po, which was the boundary towards 
Modena. It contains a Cathedral, and five or six 
other churches, public library of 6.000 volumes, 
school of music, and a statue, in bronze, of Gon- 
ztLfta. I.] 

Hodena (Stat.), on the Central Italian line; 
which comes this way from Parma and Rojrjrio, 
and goes on to Bologna. (See Routes 16 and 20.) 

Venlce to Treviso, Undine, and Trieste. 
VEKICE (Stat.) 

" Ttaerv is a glorioiis City in the sea : 
The sea is in the broad, the narrow streets. 
Kbbing and flowing ; and the salt seaweed 
ClioRB to the marble of her palace*."— Roo em's Italf/. 

l>ii«i'a, of the Italians: Venedig, of the Germans. 
Population (I891X l''i9,000 (including suburbs), in 
2,000 streets and alleys. 

Jfoiels: 

Grand Hotel (formerly New York Hotel), 
Palazzo Ferro, newly fitted np; well situated on 
the Grand Canal. 

Danieli's Royal Hotel. 

Grand Hotel de TEuropc. o^i the Grand Canal. 
Com'ort combined with moderate charges. See 
Arlvt. 

H«tel d'llalie Bauer, with a large lernicc, on 
the Grand Canal. Recommended. See AdU. 

Hotfrl de Rome and Ponsi' n Suisse, advan- 
tageously hituated on the Grand Canal. 

Hot*»l Beau Rivage. facing the Laguncs. 

Hotel d'Angleterre, Qual <lcs E^csilrons. 

Hotel Biitannia, firbt-class httel, with excellent 
accommodation. 

Grand Hotel Vlttoria, old established first-class 
hotel, situated near to St. Marc Square; Monaco; 
Hotel Luna. 

Boarding House. 1159, Calle del Luganeirlier. 

Cafix: Florian, Piazza San Man o. English and 
French papers. Cafe Svlzzers, Piazza San Marco. 
Bancr-Cirliiiwald. near Grand Hotel d'l'nlie. 

Resident EnglUh Consul and AmeHcan Consvl. 

Church of England Service. — At the English 
Church. 

J'resbytei'ian Sertice. — At 9.5, Piazza San Marco. 

Waldensian CAurc/i.— Palazzo Cavagnis. 

Reading Room.— Vi&zza St. Marco in the Pro- 
caratic Vecchie. English and other newspapers 
by the week or month. 

*Conreyanf«a*-Railway, to Udine and Nabresina 
(for Vienna and Trieste); to Verona and Milan 

On arrival at Venice there is often confusion. 
When you alight from the train call out the name 
of your hotel, and the porter beltmging to it will 
engage a gondola and see to your baggage. Or, pro- 
ceed to the canal, which is at the front of thestatioh . 
engage a gotadola, return for your baggage, witt 
• porter, to whom point out your goudola ; 6 cciita 
per package is escpeeted at his fee. 

Th^r^ %Tt opirf|r4a Qf 4,000 gondoliis at Venice. 



Gondolas, with one boatman, 1 lira the first 
hour, and 60 cents, for each successive hour; 
Omnibus gondolas, 25 cents., it is not advisable to 
take these. Ferry across Grand Canal, 6 cents. 
For going about the city one boatman iti sufficient. 
The gondolas at the railway terminus, one boat- 
man, 2 lire (without luggage, 1 lira), two boatmen, 
3 lire; those men load your baggage in the 
gondola, and deliver it at the door of your 
apartment, at the hotel. A good gondolier serves 
as vafet de place. Guides are attached to most i-f 
the hotels. Steam launches (vapoietti) arc found 
on the Grand Canal during the day-time. 

The tide rises two or three feet, but the port 
is gradually drying up. 

Steamei's to the station: and t» Trieste, Ancona, 
Chioggia; office at the Piazzetta. The P. «fc (). 
Company run mail boats from here to Ancona 
and Brindisi, in connection whh the Overland 
Route. 

Pott and Telegraph Offices, both on Piazza San 
Marco. 

Lace Manufactorv. — M. Jesnrum A Co., damasks 
and hand embroideries, o'd lace; largo establish- 
ment (with working rooms), worthy of a visit, 
S. Filippo Giacomo, near Bridge of Sighs. 

5anicr«.— Blumenthal &, Co.,Calle del Traghetto. 

Theatres— AW near St. Mark's and the Rialto, 
Fenice, or Phoenix; Rossini, and Gol<loni, both near 
S. Luca's; Malibran, near S. Gian Crisostomo. 

Cheiiii.^t.— Zampironi. 

The Capuchins of the Redemption distil a fine 
liquor, called aequa di melissa. 

The climate is healthy, though moist. The 
marsh exhalations create an atmosphere favour- 
able to pulmonary con plaints, scrofula, rickets, 
ttc, for which sea-bathing is an excellent anti- 
dote. Venice is not a pleasant place when the 
rain com.es down, or storms move the Adriatic. 
Then boats jily in St. Mark's, and one may even 
got jammed in them under a bridge. At the 
fall of the year smells and mosquitoes abound, 
aid C(»ld whuls l»lcw from the Alps Hartshorn 
or carbolic Jicid is an antidote for the "crawling 
animals, i'kipp'ng animals, humming and flying 
animals, which then (says Thackeray) all have 
at the traveller at once." 

* Chief Objects of Notice. — Architecture by the 
liOmbardi, Sammicheli, Falconetto, Sansovino, 
Palladio, besides Byzantine artists of an early 
date. Piazza of St. Mark, Catliedral, Palace, 
Bridge of Sighs, Campanile, Academy, Scalzl 
Church, Rialto. Madonna del Orto, S. Salvatore, 
S. Giorgio Maggiore (Palladio). Redentore Church, 
S. Seba?tiano, S. Stefano. Frari. Scuola. S. Rocco, 
S. Zanipolo, S. Zaccaria, Arsenal, Salute Church, 
Fenice Theatre, S. Maria Fonnosa, CJi d Oro. S. 
Trovaso Chorch. 8. Francesa della Vigna (Pal- 
ladio), Gesuiti Church, and Murano Glass Works. 

Paintings by Mantegna, G. Bellini, Vivarini, 
PalmaVccchio, Titian (the As8umptlon),Pordenono, 
Bordone, Bassauo. Del Flombo, Tintoretto. P^ 
Veronese, Palma Giovanc, PiidQvanlno^ 8, BLtesJ^ 



BRADBUAW*S ITALt. 



t^etldn i. 



then by two bridges at the end to the Quay 
de' Qreci, where stands the 

St. Giorgio de' Oreci, the Greek Church. It is an 
imposing pile, with a rather heavy facade, by 
Sansovino, 1650, adorned with mosaics inside and 
out. Go back to the first bridge, tuni to the right 
along the quay, then by the last bridge to the 
right you come to 

JS. Lorenzo, or St. Lawrence, built by SorcUa. 
The richly-adorned high altar is supported by six 
pillars of Porto Venero marble, the work of Cam- 
pagna. The Commenda di Malta is opposite it. 
Go back to the Ponte de' Greci, and follow the 
street before you, to Ponte S. Antonino ; at the 
end of which is 

S. Antonino^ having a chapel on the left side, 
with paintings by Palma. Follow the quay close 
at hand till you come to the Convent of 

S. Giorgio degli Schiaroni (of the Sclavonians). 
The front was built 1550. It has fine paintings 
by Carpaccio. Take the street or strada of the 
Furlani, turn to the right and continue over the 
bridge to 

*S. Francesco della Vigna, near the Cascrma, or 
barracks, a large and handsome church, by Sanso- 
vino, 1534, with a front by Palladio. It has two 
wings in its front, like S. Giorgio Maggiore. It 
numbers seventeen chapels and altars. Second 
Chapel — The Resurrection, by P. Veronese. In the 
Cappella Santa is a Virgin and Child, by G. Bellini. 
In the Great Chapel aretwo fine marble monuments 
of the same shape (supposed to be by Scamozzi) 
to T. Gritti and to Doge A. Grittl, his nephew. 
The Giustiniani Chapel, in the right aisle, is 
covered with good marble sculptures. Above the 
pulpit in the Cloisters Chapel are the Father and 
Son, by G. Santa Croce. In a chapel on the left 
Is' P. Veronese's Madonna and Saints. 

S. Pietro di CastellOy or St. Peter, near the Public 
Garden!!, on the Isola di S. Pietro, at the east end 
of the city, rebuilt, 1594-1821, by Crapiglia. It 
was the Cathedral church of the city down to 1807, 
when precedence was given to the Ducal Church 
of St. Mark. To the right on entering is a very 
ancient mflrble pnlpit, like a chair, with an Orien- 
tal inscription, said to have been used by St Peter 
at Antioch. In the Grand Chapel is a picture 
B. Lorenzo Giustiniani delivering Venice from the 
Plague, by A. Bellucci; another represents the 
same Saint distributing Alms — one of the best 
works of G. Lazarini. Others are — P. Veronese's 
8S. Peter and Paul, Padovanino's Martyrdom of 
St. John, S. Giordano's Virgin and Angels; with a 
good mosaic by A. Zuccato, &c. The Vendramini 
Chapel is by B.Longhena. The fine belfry attached 
to this church was rebuilt 1474. The scenes of 
the '•Brides of Venice," were enacted here. 
Going towards the Public Gardens yon pass 

a. Giuseppe di Ceutelto, or St. Joseph. At the 

high altar is the Nativity, by P. Veronese. The 

splendid mausoleum of Doge M. Grimani and his 

wife Is by Scamozzi, with bronze and other 

^«eof»tJoa9 Ifjr Catnpagno. 



The PuUie (7ardeii4(GiardiniPubblici)areatthe 
extreme east end of the city, facing the sea, on a 
sort of peninsula. There are a monument of 
Garibaldi and a fine view. Turning back by the 
Riva degli Schiavoni, you come to the Piazza di S. 
Biaglo (8. Blaise), and the Church o^tfae Madonna 
dcll Arsenale, which contains Toretti's tomb of the 
Grand Admiral Eino, the last naval commander of 
the Republic, who died 17b7. To the right is the 

* Arsenal (Arsenate Rcale), within a wall 
about 2 miles round, now the Steamer Dock, 
but much reduced from its former importance. In 
the fourteenth century there were as many as 
16,000 workmen sometimes employed here. About 
the middle of the last century the Venetian fleet 
included forty ship?, of which twelve were three- 
deckers, and there were 4,000 pieces of ordnance 
in store. It has somewhat revived under the 
present government, but has to contend with the 
rival port of Trieste, on the opposite side of the 
Adriatic. The oldest part dates from 1304. The 
principal gate is a noble work, in the Corinthian 
style, on four columns of Greek marble, constructed 
aoout 1480, and adorned with statues, <tc. At 
the sides are four Lions, brought from Mount 
Hymettus, near Athens, in 1687, by Doge Morosini. 
Written application must be made for admission. 

Within the walls are the old and new arsenals, 
or basins, the galley docks, and a large modern 
dock (Novissima Grande), many building slips, a 
Naval College, Marine Barracks; a rope walk on 
pillars, 100 feet long; foundries, timber yards, 
model room, and an armoury for 12,000 stand of 
arms, containing some old arms and armour, with 
the Turkish flag taken at Lepanto, aud Canova's 
monument to Admiral Emo, one of the great sculp- 
tor's earliest performances. This dockyard was 
attacked or blockaded by the Sardinian fleet in 
1848, after Venice had set up a Republic, and was 
bombarded by the Austrians. 

The famous Bucentoro, the State Galley of the 
Republic, was here laid up until the French burnt 
her, 1797. Her name is of doubtful origin. Hershapc 
was like that of the Lord Mayor's barge, though 
larger and more costly ; the size being 100 feet by 
21, with forty-two oars, and four men to each oar, 
beside the regular crew of forty men. She was 
covered with gilding and carved syrens, tortoises, 
mosques, flowers, shells, medallions, wiuged lions, 
birds, allegorical emblems, &c. An awning of 
crimson velvet was stretched over her. In the 
course of centuries she had been so often planked 
and canlked, that not a part of her original timbers 
was left. Some fragments of her are shown. 

Every Ascension Day. in memory of Doge 
Ziani's victorj* over Frederick Barbarossa, 1177, the 
Doge embarked at the Piazza, and proceeded to 
the Arsenal Chapel, thence to the Chapel of Santa 
Helena (where the archbisliop blessed the water), 
and the Lido, at the month of the port. Here ha 
dropped a ring into the Adriatic, with the wards, 
** We wed thee with this ring in token of tma aii4 
perpetual sovereignty.'* This ceremony otigliMtil 



HoUte 19.] VENICE — AKSENAL, ACCADSMIA DI BELLE ARTI, ETC. 



79 



in A grant, as was said, of Pope Alexander III., in 
wUose'bdialf the battle was fought. When Julias 
H. was at war with the Republic, and asked the 
Venetian ambassador where the terms of thisg^aut 
were to be found, he was told to look for it on the 
back of Constantine's donation of the States of the 
'Church. 

Leaving the Arsenal, turn to the right, and you 
come to 

5. liartino, built by Sansovino in the sixteenth 
century. It contains Santa Croce's Last Supper, 
«nd a beautiful marble monument to Doge F. 
Erizzo. From this church, to the left, you come to 
the Calle della Pegola (Pitch Street), then to the 
Temi (Ovens), which terminates on the Riva degll 
6chiaToni. When here turn to the right, pass the 
first bridge, and on the right, at No. 8,833, is 

The Palazzo Oraglietta, with a collection of paint- 
ings by celebrated masters of the Venetian and 
Flemish school, as Vivarini, Bellini, Pordenone, 
Titian, P. Veronese, Canaletto, Rubens, A. Diirer, 
Ac. Follow the quay towards St. Mark, as far as 
the fourth street on the right, Calle del Dose, and 
by this you reach the square, or Campo, on which 
stands 

S. Qiovanni in Brdgora, or in Bragola, a building 
of the fifteenth century. At the high altar is a 
large Baptism of Christ, by Cima da Conegliano. 
From this church go back to the Riva degli 
Schiavoni, follow the quay towards SI. Mark's, and 
pass over the first bridge, beyond which is the 
Church of 

Santa Maria ddlaPietit, an elegant oval building, 
containing a painting by Moretto, which is worth 
seeing, subject, Christ in the house of Simon. 

THIRD TOUR. 

•iSf. Oiorgio Maggiore (St. George the Great), on 
an island opposite St. Mark's, at the east end 
of the Giudecca. This fine work of Palladio 
(1556-60) is in the shape of a Latin Cross, with a 
dome and Corinthian facade, in which we see his 
expedient for combining a larger and smaller 
prder, viz., by placing the principal order on 
pedestals, and bringing the subordinate order down 
to the floor line. In this way the disproportion 
between becomes less glaring. The door is flanked 
by two pillars, on each side, of fine-veined Greek 
marble, and the Four Evangelists by A. Vittoria. 
Alx>ve the door is the monument of Doge L. Dona. 
To the right, on entering, one to the general and 
procurator, L. Venier. At the first altar, the 
Nativity, by J. Bassano. The high altar is com- 
posed of marbles and bronzes, by G. Campagna. 
|n the choir are forty-eight beautiful carved stalls, 
referring to the life of St. Bernard, by Albert de 
Brule, a Flemish artist Six of Tintoretto's pic- 
tures are here, including the Supper, the Resur 
rection, Ac. Among the tombs is that of Doge D. 
Michieli, the cnuader and "Terror Graecoinim," 
as he is called, from his exploits in the Archipelago, 
and at the captor* (rf Tyre. A fine view of Venice 
and the loffunB WAj oe obtained from the Cam- 
panile, accessible frten th« interior. 



DoganadlMard (Custom HouseXattheeastend 
of the Grand Canal, was built 1682, by G. BennonI, 
in the rustic style. Its tower has a globe carriea 
by two Atlases, on which stands a Fortune of gilt 
copper, it is near 560 feet in circuit, and contains 
200 rooms and oflices. 

*Santa Maria della Salute, i.e., Madonna of 
Health, near the Dogana, on the Grand Canal, built 
by Longhcna, a follower of Palladio, in 1631-82. 
It was founded after the great plague, and is 
eight-sided, with two cupolas and two slender cam • 
paniles. The great Dome, 65 feet diameter, is 
surrounded by eight chapels, one of which, in the 
rear, carries the second dome, 42 feet diameter, 
flanked by two half-domes, and having a square 
chapel behind. It contains as many as 125 statues, 
some of which surround the richly-adorned high 
altar. A candelabra in bronze, 7i feft long, is by 
A. A. Brcsciano ; six others, also of bronze, are at 
the communion table. On the ceiling of the choir 
are J. Salviati's three large pictures of Elijah, 
Habakkuk, and the Manna. On that of the sacristy 
are the Death of Abel, and in other parts are 
the Descent of the Holy Ghost and the Four 
Doctors, both fine works by Titian, in his best style. 
Another most excellent performance is Tin- 
toretto's Marriage of Cana. There arc also the 
Birth of Christ, the Presentation, and the Assump- 
tion of the Virgin, by L. Giordano, and Samson, by 
P, Vecchio, with Padovanino's Madonna della 
Salute, at the altar. The little sacristy contains 
portraits of Doge F. Dandolo and his wife. The 
large convent attached to this church is now the 

Seminario PatriarcaJe. Here are the Manfredini 
pictures, with some old inscriptions. In the oratory 
is Vittoria's bust of J. Sansovino, the architect, 
who is buried hei*e. 

*Accad^iiiia di Belle Arti, on the Grand 

Canal, was built by Palladio, 1561, for the Convent 
of La Caritk, partly burnt about 1650, and lately 
altered by Lazzini, for its present purpose. Notice 
the Cortile (or Court), by Palladio. It is close to 
the new iron bridge over the canal, built, 1854, at 
the St. Vitale Ferry. It contains a.numerous col- 
lection of the best works of the most celebrated 
painters, chiefly of the Venetian school, brides 
drawings, models of sculpture, &c. The Academy 
was instituted by Napoleon, in 1807. The present 
Pinacoteca, as arranged by Count Cicognara, fills 
twenty-three rooms, many of which are elegantly 
carved and gilt. Open 10 to 8 every day, 
admission. 1 lira; Sundays and holidays free. 

In the SaJa delV Assunta is Titian's celebrated 
^Assumption of the Virgin^ considered to be his 
best work, and painted at the age of 80; it is 
about 12 feet wide and 22 high. It was found in 
the Frari Church, neglected and covered with dust. 
"But if I am to speak of Titian, I must do so in a 
more reverent mood. Till now I never knew that 
he was the felicitous artist I have this day seen 
him to be. That he thoroughly enjoyed life in all 
Its beauty and fulness.. tVWk^\s*:^x^>NC^*xN».'«««^«w* 
but Yve Yift,% iBtWtfycaa^ Vfefc ^'b^'Cca ^\ Xfiosaa*. "wsrtw*^ 



i 



Ills Elorlo 
Won tnily 






■n<l » icrxphlc." — (Jftji*/«>*i..) TinloKlto- 
NlroclB of 6t. Uarli ilcllverlne: b SUve (uppoaitt 
TllUn-t), iinullKr uriuiiLly lliirwork uf IheVciiB- 



PkturoorSi. . 

Jama iml Bl. Uomlnli;: 8i. Fruidii and St. P 

Wnmiui In Ailiilurj' i Judgmail irf Soloni 



Hklcl aud iHlnh. two csm«i> 



IJaH— Olvlgt Ihsb 
IflTd't Supper. D. Marconi 
and St. Jvtin. D, Cninpoiniot 
Hid cflllUd), "■ ■ " 



D. Marconi— Chrtsl. Et Peter. 



riilliiat Id f At CsTT'iior.— SlBluirj' M 



CtrrUan It l»4 Sala iTMrt.— Il«adi, A 
Tliliii>.TIiilor«IM.O. nrlltBl. Ar. 

J-rlma S'lla .Vimn.— TltlMI'* miml»ll.<l1 
Tginple; P. Panlnmiiic'a^ S. LDrgiiw> Uinst 



It Sola dei Dlitgni {DrawlDgs) are h 



cnlplnreaallerylncludcg. 



intlwOrvat Hall o( Blllinm lia cnrnicu onii- 

taeul«.Ae. Over a dwrareoxcoliont Iwi-rijlldi,' 
atlrlbuled to Doi'UeUo. Four bni-telteh of the 
[nventkmoftheCroaiarahTA.Bicclo. InaHcond 
iwnn li tlH ChcroJIer Boal'i cnllution of deiiitiu 

many by DaVlnei, Raphael, and H. Angelo. 



below the Acesdeni 

A Utile alwva [t !• 
Darun FtonFlietll. •> 
Pa'ano F/acari. or 



PalatEO Monnifjo. 01 



of St. Mark Here Hjroi 



JWntfi Piiani. on Ih* Cunale 
iW), contained the <neple)a 

old In l-SFls the KMhmal ( 
.ndhuCanova'aDicdalD] nni 
srlld works. 
Pn*oiio Barbariffv wa4 the I 



It In now the Coun nf Appeal. " II rmhrncei all 
llir vlriraiKe of clinical ait. with ihr i«wi perfect 
anpraprUlciim to Ibgpnrpomof a nwdem palace. 
BTin the IntmdnciioD of a niagazlncon IhCBPDBwl 
Hoor la u rlOTcrly managed ai not Id be offenalve. 
and the projeciiDii iltra to the nnpn' eomtn In 
cices-iotthatandlii the lower orilera bringa Iha 
whole Into harowny. Iia faead* I" M (ect br Wi.- 
-iFirptMoa.\ The ol.l Grimnnl Pnloce. near St. 



Boute 19.] 



VBNIOB — ^RIALTO, ETC. 



8X 



Further on is the seat of the Town Council, in 
the Palaz2o Farsetti, which is close to the Palazzo 
Loredan, of the same date. 

*Ponte dl RlaltO'(t'.0- Rivo alto).— This famous 
bridge, which until 1854 was the only one which 
crossed the Grand Canal, is a covered arch, built 
1589-91, by A. da Ponte, 75 feet span, very solid, 
and set off with deep bas-reliefs and statues of 
8. Marco, d;c., and other carvings. Three passages 
lead across it, the middle one being lined with a 
doable row of shops. Near it are the old 

Fbndaco dei Tedeschi, or warehouses for German 
goods (now the Dogana), and the Falbbrich«Nuove di 
Rkiito^ by Sansovino (1555), on a rustic arcade of 
twenty-five arches, composed of the Doric and 
Ionic orders, in its front. This was the great centre 
of trade in Shylock's time, and is " the Rialto ** 
which be speaks of when complaining of Antonio's 
rating him for his usances. Close by is the Church 
of S. Giacomo di Rialto, the oldest in Venice, said 
to date from a.d. 620. 

FOURTH TOUR. 

In Gondola, or by steamer up the Grand Canal. 

Church of 5. Otremia^ at the entrance to the 
Canaregg^o. 

Palaxff> Lahia^ on the Canareggio, with frescoes, 
by Tiepolo. 

PaUuzo Manfrin^ on the Canareggio Canal, 
was noted for its fine gallery of pictures, of native 
and foreign masters, amcmg which were the three 
portraits by Giorgione, which Byron mentions in 
Ills *'Beppo,'* and which his favourable notice con- 
tributed to bring into fashion. A copy of Titian's 
Entombment, which was here, is at the Luuvre. 
The pictures yet remaining are for sale. 

Further up, on the right side of the Canareggio, 
is the OMto Veechio^ leading to the Ghetto Nuow. 

Returning to the Canale Grande, the steamer 
will take you to 

*Qli Seahi^ the church of the barefooted Car- 
melites, built by B. Longhena, which is fantas- 
tically ornamented with sculptures, paintings, and 
Inlaid work, and cost 800,00u sequins. The front 
was restored in 1859. In one of its fifty Chapels is 
a line altar by J. Poxzo; that of Sebastian Venere 
is all marble, bronze, and gilding. A statue of 
Santa Taresa is by Baldi. Behind the high altar 
is G. Bellinra (?) Madonna and Child. 

B. Andrea, near Santa Chiara Island, contains 
a fine St. Jerome in the Desert, by P. Veronese. 

From this part a gondola mny be taken to the 
Island of the Giadecca, passing the Cnmpo di 
Marte, and calling at three churches, S. Nicolb, 
S. SebasUano, and I Gmrmini. 

m^^iodb dei MwifgpW. The third chapel has an 
altar on fo«r pfllftnaf axeeUefti atalactMo aarblo 
called eoieeiad^Ooffii. Ste ealumnsof beautiful 



Greek marble, highly polished, divide the choir 
from the body of the church. In a chapel on the 
left is a marble altar and a carved altar-piece 
above it. 

*S. Sebastiano (1506-18), on Canale S. Basilib, 
near Campo di Marte. In the Second Chapel are 
statues ot the Madonna and Child and St. John 
the Baptist, by I. Lombardo, a pupil of Sansovino, 
whose mausoleum of Archbishop Podacataro is 
here. On the high altar Is the First Martyrdom 
of St. Sebastian, by P. Veronese, 1660. A little 
further off is his Second Martyrdom, and near 
this the Martyrdom of SS. Mark and Marcellino; 
both by P. Veronese, 1565. Ills bust and tomb 
are here. The Punishment of Serpents is by 
Tintoretto, who painted the roof, organ doors, «kc., 
and whose Tomb is also hero. The St. Nicolas, by 
Titian, was painted in his eighty-sixth year. 

Close to S. Sebastiano is Madonna del Carmine^ 
or Virglne del Carmelo. Over the altar is the 
Presentation of Jesus in the Temple to Simeon, by 
Tintoretto. One large picture represents St. 
Liberal delivering (as his name implies) Two Men 
condemned to die ; a work of Padovanino, 1637. 

Near this church is Palazzo Moro, which belonged, 
it is said, to Shakspearc's Othello (Cristofero Moro). 

*Il Redentore, or the Redeemer Church of the- 
Francisca, in the Giudccca, is a tine and harmo- 
nious building (though unfinished) by Palladio 
(1570-6), having a Greek portico with a double row 
of columns, a dome 24U feet high, and slender 
spires. ^'One unbroken entablature, surmounting 
one unvaried Corinthian order, reigns round the 
interior." — Forsyth. In the sacristy is a Virgin 
and Child and Two Angels, a celebrated work, 
formerly attributed to G. Bellini. There are two 
other fine Madonnas also formerly supposed to be 
by G. Bellini. In front of the high altar and also 
behind, reliefs by Massa dl Bologna. From the 
Giudecca across the Giudecca Canal to the 

Madonna del Rosario, or the Gesuati, on the 
Giudecca, by Massari, is a church fronted by lofty 
columns. The high altar is decorated by a very 
nch and elegant tabernacle, supported by pillars 
of lapis lazuli of unusual size. Thence to 

88. OervaHo e Protasio, or San Trovosa as It is 
usually called, was built In 1583. Oii the fourth 
altar are good marble bas-reliefs of the fifteenth 
century by an unknown artist. At the rich high 
altar is Ot. Lazzarini's picture of the two patron 
saints in Glory. 

FIFTH TOUR. 

Though a gondola is not absolutely requisite for 
this tour, it will be convenient to the visitor. Jf 
he goes on foot from St. Mark's he should make for 
St. Stofano's; thence to the Traghetto de la Gat- 
jEoni; then across the Grand C^sSaX %.w^\st ''^"■^ 
roadQiitlk%\siXNA 



1 



82 



BHADS1IAW*8 ITALY. 



[Section 1. 



S. Tottki, or St. Thomas, built in 1742 by B. 
Bo^iola. Titian lived in a Hmall conrt ne-trthis, 
and not far from S. Silvestro (p. 88). Cross the 
square to the Calle del Cristo, and turn to the left 
overthe Donna Onesta Bridge; then bv the Calle 
dclla Spoziale to the Square and Church of 

S. Pantdleone, built 1668. The high altar is 
crowned by a magnificent tabernacle by J. Snrdi. 
The painted ceiling is by J. A. Fumiani. Here 
are P. Veronese's St. Pantaleone Healing a 
Child, and the Coronation of the Virgin, by O. 
and A. da Murano. In the Lorctto Chapel is a 
marble altar of the fifteenth century. Cross the 
square again to the Piazza delle Mosche ; then 
to the loft to Minolli Quay, at the end of which, to 
the right, von come to the Tolentini Quay, and the 

Tofentint Church, or S. Niculb del Tulentlni,near 
Rio degli Tolentini, built in 1595 by Scamozzi, 
with a Corinthian portico a<lded by A. Tlroli in 
the last century. The cupola over the centre of 
tlie church, which is a cross, is ornamented with 
frescoes by Zampini and Algeri. On the right, 
near the choir, is a confessional, with a picture 
over it of 8. Lorenzo Giustiniani Distributing the 
Oooils of the Church to the Poor. 

Leaving this building, take the quay to the 
right and proceed to the Te^lcschl Square; further 
on is the Ragabella and its bridge ; and beyond 
this the curious old Church of 

S. Oiaeoino deW Orfo.— One good picture is 
Jesus Christ supported by an Angel, by 0. Palma. 
Near the side door is a ceiling in five compart- 
ments; the middle one being a painting of the 
Theological Virtues, the others the Four Doctors, 
by P. Veronese. Close to the door of the sacristy 
is a picture of St. Sebastian, St. Roch, and St. 
Lawrence, one of 6. Buoncunsiglio's best works. 
Oo out by the sacristy door and turn to the right, 
and a short distance brings you to 

Santa Maria Mater Domini, built by SauMvino, 
1540. In one comer of this church it the Inven- 
tion of the Cross, a fine work by Tintoretto. 
One chapel contains statues by L. Bregno. Pass 
out by the grreat door, turn to the right of Calle 
liUnga and make for the Piazza del Frarl, In which 

stands 

*»S(iN/a Maria Oloriosa dfiFrari, a fine old church 
tn the Tedcsco-Gotlco (German-(tothic) ityle of 
the thirteenth century, built by the Minor Friars 
<if St. Francis (1*250-1898). Its campanile Is of the 
fourteenth century. The fir>t altar on the right is 
rlih In marble work, by Sardl or Longhena. The 
•ocond altar Is close to the mortal remains of 
TUl.ino Vccelllo, or Vccelli, best known as Titian, 
who died 1566. The large monument to him, 
dated 1852, has a sitting figure under a canopy. 
N«xt this is the statue of St. Jerome, a fine work 
of A. Vlttorla, with a head of Titian. Furtheron, 
the picture of the Martyrdom of St. Catherine, by 
PaUna Glovane. In the sacrlnv door \% the man- 
MtlMim of General Pesaro. with hl« statue, by L. 
T»o.- Mnd m statne of Mnrs, by Baccio da Mon- 
% # 7V.*ojf/» /trtM. The MltMT Of tht ^vrl^ty 



deserves notice, with its pictures in three com- 
partments, by O. Bellino, 1488, of the Virgin and 
Four Saints. Two magnificent tombs in the Great 
Chapel, of Doge Francisco Foscarl and Doge M. 
Trou. The latter immense composition contains 
nineteen statues in all. That of the Doge, with 
some others, is by A. Bregno. At the high altar is 
an Ascension, by Salviati In the sixth chapel 
on the right is the monument of General Trevi- 
sano, a simple but elegant work. 

Near the transept is the Orsini Tomb, by an un- 
known hand, but supposed to be of the fifteenth 
century. Then a rich monument in marble to the 
meaiory of J. Venler of the seventeenth ccnturj*. 
The Chapel of St. Peter is full of statues and 
sculptures of the fifteenth century. Further on is 
a decorated monument to G. Pesaro, a general 
and bishop, who died 1547; and then Titian's 
altar-piece of the Virgin with St. Peter and other 
saints, including portraits of members of the 
Pesaro family. We then come to the large mau- 
soleum of Doge G. Pesaro, by B. Longhena, sup- 
ported by four negroes in white. On one side of 
this is a monument to Canova, erected by public 
Fubscription, 1827, and executed by Zendomenighi, 
Ferrari, Bosa, Fabrls, Martini, Rinaldl,and Fadiga, 
all Venetian artists of the day. It is a pyramid, 
with a procession of Art, Genius, Ac, walking 
Into the door, copied from hie own design for the 
Archduchess Christiim. Beyond this is an elegant 
altar of inlaid wood, by two Florentine artists. 
A statue of S. John the Baptist, in the middle, is by 
Donatello. Between the attar and the g^reat doof 
is a fine marble tomb of P. Bernardo, who died 
1556. Above the door is the monument of J. Var- 
zonl. In the midst of the church is a choir with 
150 stalls of wood, superbly Inlaid with marbles, 
Ac, 1408, by one of the Canozzi family, called 
Marco da Vlcenza. The cloister surrounding this 
choir is adorned with statues and bas-reliefs, 1475. 
In the neighbouring convent the 

*PiMie AnAives are kept, which Dam used in his 
" History of the Republic," and the best of which, 
like many other Italian works, made a joume>- to 
Paris and back. This collection fills 300 rooms. 
It Is wonderfully Tolumlnons, golngback to the year 
888, and coming down tb the present time; and Is 
especially rich In docni^ents of the thirteenth to 
the sixteenth century. One Important relic Is a 
Dewriptlon of the Stat cm formerly under Venetian 
rule. In four folio volumes, of which only seven 
copies were printed, for the use of members of the 
government. Open tlally from 10 to S. after per- 
mission has been obtained from the authorities. 
Some divisions are closed to every one. 

Lenvlng Mater Domini on the left, yon come to 
the Church of iST. Rocw, or St. Roch, built 1495. aifd 
restored 1725. Here are paintings of St Roch 
before the Pope. St. Roch in the Desert, and 
another: all by J. Tintoretto. These are described 

! bv Ruskin. In * Stones of Venicft** The Ammn- 
elation and Christ in the hands of the Execotiooeni 

i by Titian. The high altar is by Vent«rla», 

' beginning of the «ixtMntb century. 



Kuute 19.] VENICE— FRARI, 8CUOLA Dl b. KOCCO, CUURCHE8, ETC. 



83 



The*<S<rtto/a diS. Roeco^ an institute for charitable 
purposes, founded by a religious coiuuiunity of 
laymen and attached to the church, was built 
1617-50, by B. Buono and Santo Lombardo, in a 
mixed style. It is remarkable for its richness and 
solidity, and for its wall paintinj^s by J. Tintoretto. 
Its mainiificent staircase was completed by Scar- 
pagnino. At the middle of it are two pictures, the 
Annunciation by Titian, and the Visitation, by 
Tintoretto; and at the bottom the ])cdestal8 of the 
columns are carved with subjects from sacred 
history. The Cancelleria Room, rcstin)^ on marble 
columns, is adorned with sixteen or seventeen 
paintings by Tintoretto, and with sculptures on 
wood of the life of St. Roch, by G. Marchesi; and 
its fine timber ceiling is by F. Pianta and M A'*gclo 
of Florcmce, a namesake of the great sculptor. 
Above the beautiful marble door, 1547, btands the 
portrait of Tljitoretto, painted by himself. 1572. 
On the wall in the next room, called the Albergo, 
facing this, is his great woik of the *CruciJi.rion, 
Idtfd, with portraits of himself and Tititui, and as 
remarkable for its coitiposUlon as for its execution. 
Rash in savs this should be si en, whatever else is 
missed in Venice. 

In the square of St. Paul stands the Church of 

St. Peter and St. Paul. Its belfry and two marble 
lions in the doorway deserve notice; a serpent is 
twisted round one of the lions as if strangling it ; 
the other holds in its paws a head jiit«t cut from a 
human body. These are supposed to be symbolical 
allusions to Gen. Carmaguola, who was beheaded 
by the Republic for treason. Near this church, at 
the end of Campo Paolo, is 

PaJaxzo Corner-ifocenigo, a fii»« building by 
Sammicheli. From this you pass .by Calle della 
Madonetta to the Kialto, and reach the Church of 

S. SHvestro, or Silvester.— In its principal chapel 
is a large picture of the Lord's Supper, by Pulma 
Vecchio. Giorgione lived opposite this church. 
Turn to the left into the street which leads 
to the Rialto Bridge, called Ruga Vecchia, 
where, by the side of an old tower, is the Church of 

St. John the Almoner (S. Giovanni Elemosinario, 
or 8. Zuane di Rialto), built bv Scarpagnino, about 
1680. Paintings by Titian (at the high altar), 
Pordenone, &c. From this, over the Rialto, to the 
Charnh of 

S. Giaeomo di Rialto, rebuilt 1531, on the site, 
and in the shape, of the earliest church founded in 
the city, viz., a.]>., 431. Here are some handsome 
pillars and bronzes, but the church is now closed, 
being quite out of repair. In this neighbourhood 
is the Church of 

S. Ca$ticmo^ containing three good Tintorettos, 
viz., the Crucifixion, Descent into Hell, and 
Resurrection. 

8DETH TOUR. 

On foot or In gondola, according to the in- 
clination of the visitor. 

SS. ApotloU^ or Holjr Apostles* Church, is an 
elegant building', and i« full of marbles and 



sculptures. It contains two fine monuments to 
the Comaro family, one of the members of which 
was the well-known Ludovico Comaro, anthor of 
a work on temperance, which Wesley translated. 
He died at Pailua, \ii4 years old, though his ccn- 
sti4ution had been almost destroyed by dissipatitn 
down to his fortieth year, when he reformed. 
This family claims a descent from the Cornelia 
family of old Rome. Another chapel to the right 
has a magnificent altar. Cross the bridge on the 
left, close to the 

Pa/atzo Faiiero, of the thirteenth century, the 
residence of the Doge who was bcheadi^ in J 866. 
Then go towards the Rialto, o\er another bildgo 
to the Church of 

St. John Chrytostom or S. Zangritostonw, as the 
Venetians call it, built 1489. Paintings by Del 
Piondjo (at the high altar) and G. Bellini. Near 
this is the Malibran Theatre, the mo^t ]»opular in 
Vei.ice. Continueon towards the Rialto, across the 
square of S. I aitolonimeo towards the Men eria, 
where the firs^t church in view is the rchtored 

♦5. Salcatore or St. Saviour, a large and elegant 
structure, by T. Lombardo, Sansovino, and Scam- 
mozzi; built UOO-64, with three transepts. There 
is a fine mausoleum of A. Dolfino and his wife, attri- 
buted to G. del Moro. The second altar has a 
Virgin and Child, a beautiful woik, su]>potcd to bo 
by G Campngna. Then comes the fine monument 
of Doge F. Venier, by Sansovino; author also of 
the two statues on each side of the uni. At the 
third altar, by Sansovino, is a painting of the 
Annunciation, by Titian, in his old age. In an aisle 
to the right is the large mausoleum of Catherine 
Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus, by whose marriage 
with James Lusignan t4ic Venetians first got 
possession of that island. 

In the next chapel is the Supper at Emmaus, one 
of the best pieces of G. Bellini. The organ front 
was designed I y San^^ovino, and painted by Titian*8 
brother, Francis Vecellio. At an altar further on, 
by G. Bergamasco, is the statue of St. Jerome, by 
T. Lombardo, one of the architects of the churcli. 
Then a large monument to the I oges L. and G. 
Priuli, supposed to be by C. Franco. Upon leaving 
this church and the Merceria Tower, crossover the 
BarratteriBridge, beyond which, throuj^h a passage 
on the right, is the Church of St. Julian, called 

S. GiuHano, or Zulian, by the Venetians, built by. 
Sansovino; paintings by Santa Croce, P.Veronese, 
&c. Bronze statue of Tommaso di Itavenna, by 
Sansovino. Follow this to the Piazza S. Marco, 
and then by the passage near the grand staircase 
of the Royal Palace, to the Church of 

S. Moise, in which Law, the author of the Missig- 
sippi scheme, is buried. He died in 1729. Leave 
the church lyihe great door, and the bridge in 
front of it. till you come to the Palazzo (L'ulctti 
Cross the Piazza di S. Fantino, to the 

*FeNiie Theatre (PhcBuliOj^vcw^ vA. \NNR,\«vx^t'bN.N:w 
Italy, tebuWt %\w<i^ W^t ^T't *A\^\t». XXVvJAs. ^»>i.v.^ 






1 V. If uidulo, 
VliKirand li 



la AnUln Frlun. It conMlni i 



I'la mil Pliwnl, hath Komi, uiil U» lul 
rgn *liia the Pulwitu Monidiil. buUi in 
cnrh nntUPT. In Ihli nquiin li n itiiti 



ID Iha ilnM ui tht> rtKht nl.K hi 



hhimrliixbrldi 
d «(HT As t'ht 



lliiriuiilH.MiliirUlo 



a. Maurfifi'. m m. Miurlee, In whlth ue lealo- 
tiiTUby II. Fiiillitii,niu«lemAntM. Tumtotba 
rlBM onr twu hrldjtai. mar tho ChnrrbtniiT fimta 
Mmrf tt Oh Lilt and SmUii Jtarla Xtinlmt 
Tb* latter rhunh, by H. amll (ItROXbat a pie- 
lureatae faniU*, tall at chIiibuh «id MatuH. ami 
raihararenldiHiwIth atnamral. The rem of the 
hulldlns. wllh Hi apln, li plilu. Vollow the yn,j 
Irtwunlii ai. Slam-t Amarh o»r Oridrhe Bridie! 
bgynnd whU-b, " " ' " " "' '" ' 



Eft ti a tHmlnit nllod Plihia dl it llvltf. whei 
^annt t'lruiinan lived, at !!n. S.tlB. He wu iii 
uDiuler uf Ibe Aeademy of Riw A 



anihiv of H atiltiHlU wurt 



'mire. " U Fiii^lehc pia nupinrr df 

ivraUcr rin«- 
n4r4i VHiEi iiy I'anma. wnn pmvni^d then lo Ihe 
l*hi.TAller; al*n a huiil of t^aDiiva, by hbi papn, 
HliialOi wplf d turn «•» hjr (Miuvnt hluwdf. 

Prwn (he C'liH^Enan Falare pniee*d tbivajrh 
Cull* LwBiPii tb™«, lirnlDK lo ihe rlKht. and 
Ibfii t.i thf l(«. yoB euHie to Ibe Baiuul Cvart, 
Inwblrh.atNVI.IM.IXb* 

r\i\iiiJ Kmt-rrmt. uh ike Onuidranal um 
(he ll.*.-! .h'lr Ealapa, euutalulnf ('aiixvai 
nd»«tl>i>irblpiM(a«>(rHH«iira«(J>u- t'n>a 
tb>> n»n>(il Biblie, and hbmhI loiranlt St. 
tlak'* riaw. .Vl ihf ^VnneUo Palace li Canon't 
- •-/rM.y 'if Siwnlei TaklDE LMve ol Ui Putllj 



•Sanla Maria ./■orniMa i> in th« Camwi of <be 
■eraUlsn. oi the ("urt»iUh century. Built U»). 



t It. Croei the Urldse to Calle Kuga Giufia, In 
reOHmart^bulltby tb«PAtriarcbGrinuiii1 



e fifteenth ci 



•rated wl 



-n11er^ tn 



_.,. The . 

eolleetton of ancle 



1. On Ihe left, ■■ we enter. Is a 
eohnnl Mark Agrlppa, fmm tbe Teiilhule ol the 

called an Aujciuliui. but really a manntactund 
AlClire. ArnmiK the j>lctureB In Ihe ronniBof ihe 
palace l> A. I>Brer'9 luilltullon of the RDury. fall 

wlfo, F/tc plciuro ore devoted lo tbo HHIorj- of 

F.Salviatl. of Florence. 

the Biura aiofTa Bridtie. Is ttarPrlDll "p^c^ 



Mnbanll, Learlng ttalsTfaarch. n 

I In sncceMtDD. to the Charcb of 

II a Pudo, or S:}. John and Paul, 
I ZmipDlD" 1^ Ihe Venetiami tha 
tu Si. Hark In pMnt of Inlerm uUt 



- "tyle <l*«-fU,„ 
and «andt near Iberitil Hnndul (lOnHrlT t^ 
Sruohi ..f :<. Jlare* hy M. L«nhardo, llUt, anltba 
Itk> del Hedleault. It it full of DunaiBaMa ud 
MMneh of ihe pidnied and BrniltauMa putodi; 



Uoute Idi] YBKlOB — 88. OIOVaKKI E PAOLO, ORTO, ETC. 



85 



Near the entrance, on the right, is the tomb of 
Doge -Mocenigo, by ttie Lombard! family. At 
tlie first altar, is the Yii^in and Child and Saints, 
one of the best works of G. Bellini, in distemper, 
almost destroyed by time ; and a monument to M. 
i/ancia, by Barthel, 1674 ; observe the expression 
of a woman who is weeping. At the second altar, 
which is rich and elegant, is a picture in nine 
divisions, of a Dead Christ, the Annunciation, St. 
Christopher, <kc.; a celebrated work by Uartolom- 
meo or L. Vlvarhii. Then comes the large mau- 
soleum of Doge Yalier, near a stained glass 
window, by J. Mocetto in the sixteenth century. 

At the eighth altar the Saviour and his Apostles, 
a beautiful work of Marcori. In the great chapel, 
on the right wall, is the monument of Dogo M. 
Morosini, decorated with many sculptures and 
some mosaics of the fourteenth century. A tine 
mausoleum of Doge L. Loredano, by J. Grafiglia, 
in 1672. Opposite this, another of Doge Vendra- 
mini, or the "New Man," who was made a noble for 
his great services at Chioggia, against the Genoese. 
It is one of the most elegant monuments in Venice. 
There is another to Admiral C Zcno, who figured 
in the same war. The high altar is a magnificent 
work, byM. Camero (161?'), behind which is the 
Annunciation, by L. Carona. The partition walls 
of this altar are covered with marble bas-reliefs of 
the Life of Christ, the work of several artists be- 
tween IGOO and 1732, as Bonazza, Tagliapietra, 
Doretto (Canova's master), Ac. ; besides beautiful 
carvings in wood. To the left, near the sacristy 
door, is the monument of Doge P. Malipiero. 
Below it, a picture of the Crowning of the Virgin, 
attributed to Carpaccio. Further on. Ae various 
monuments, including that of General P. Gius- 
tiniani on horseback, by F. Terilli, of Feltre; that 
of Doge T. Mocenigo, and another of Doge N. 
Marcello, about the end of the fifteenth century. 

Other tombs are to the memory of Captain - 
€leneral Orsini, and to Bragadino, the defender of 
Famagosta. Near the great door was Titian's 
famous picture on wood of *8. Peter Martyr (a 
Dominican monk, at Milan, killed in \'2i7), con- 
sidered the third or fourth best picture existing, 
but unluckily burnt, 1867. Titian's bust is over 
the church doi^r. Near the same door is the large 
monument to Doges A. Mocsnigo and G. Bembo, 
by Ofapiglia ; and below it an elegant one to B. 
Bragadino; and two stone landscapes, by Doretto, 
the master of Canova, deserve notice for their 
delicate finish. 

The Sarcophagus of the Doge Marino FaUero 
formerly stood inside the little chapel of Sta. Maria 
della Pace, but when Byron was here he found it 
placed outside the wall. Close to this church, at 
Lombardi'sScuola of S.Marco, now a hospital, is the 

CoVeoni Monument, to the memory of Bartolom- 
meo. Colleoni, of Bergamo, a celebrated leader 
under the Venetian Republic, and one of the first 
who made use of cannon. The pedestal, in the 
Corinthian style, is mach admired for the richness 
of its marble earrings. Bnskin says it is one of 
the most glorious pieces of Soulpture in the world. 



Leaving this, walk to the Comiani Palace. After 
this Is visited, return to the Fondamentc Nuovo 
Quay, and then over a bridge to the 

Jesuits' Church, generally known as the Gosuitl; 
a modern grey and green building, by D Rossi, 
1728, but richly adorned with coloured marbles 
and sculptures. The marble pulpit lias a canopy 
and curtains of marble, and even a marble carpet. 
The high altar is a magnificent piece of work, by 
Fra J. Fo/zo. enriched with lapis lazuli and verdo- 
antico pillars. Here is the flag of the last Doge, 
Mnnin. A chapel on the left, close to the wall, has 
a fine monument to Doge P. Cicogna, by Cam- 
pagna. Observe among the paintings, the 
Martyrdom of S. Lawrence, by Titian ; tho 
Circumcision and the Assumption, both by Tin- 
toretto; the Preaching of S. Francis Xavier, by 
Liberi ; and the Virgin in Glory, by Palma 
Vecchio. From this church turn to the left, follow 
the quay to 

Santa Caterina, belonging to the Liceo-Convitto 
College, founded 1807, by the French. At the 
high altar is P. Veronese's Marrlaere of S. Cathe- 
rine. Thence down the canal, called Traghetto di 
Santa Caterina, to the 

Abbetj Church, or Abbadlazza della Misericordla. 
It contains the Tobias of Cima da Conegliano. 
From this, follow the quay over the Muti Bridge, 
and along the Mori Quay, past Tintoretto's House; 
at the end of which, turn to the right, cross tho 
Madonna dell' Orto Bridge, to the Church of 

*SantaMaria deJV Orto, alarge and ancient Gothic 
structure, built. 1850-1480, of brick; with a cam- 
panile tower 175 feet high. Ten pillars of veined 
Greek marble support the nave. This church has 
for many years been in course of restoration. In the 
chapel on the right is the large Judgment Day of 
Tintoretto; and to the left, the Adoration of tlie 
Golden Calf, with Mount Sinai, and Moses receiving 
the Two Tables, a companion picture by the same 
artist, who was burled here— (see "Modem 
Painters"). His S. Ajrnes, which the French 
carried off to Paris, with other pictures, is now at 
the Academy. Two rich marble monuments fill 
up the sides of this chapel, on which arc six busts 
of the Contarini family. Near this church, and 
the railway station. Is the Church of 

>S. Giohbe (S. Job), built, 145 1-98. by the Lombard!. 
It contains a fine choir. The former Botanic Gar- 
den is close by. Cross the Madonna dell' Orto and 
Mori Bridges ; follow the quay on the left, to 8. 
Marciliano Bridge and the Church of 

S Marciliano, or S. Martial. At the first altar, 
inside the principal door, is a famous picture of 
♦Tobias and the Angel, by Titian. Return over the 
last briilge, take the turning to the rlirht, and at 
the end of the quay is the Convent of Misericordia. 
Cross the bridge of this name, turn to the right, 
and follow the quay to the Church of S. Ftlix. 



Besides the churches already xs^<«*J«fSN.'fc.^N'<^'s*'^ 
are S. EtwtocMo, ct ^.^V«L*^ «^ •Cc*. ^^^^^5*:^^ 



dl.i.Djtet. anil a beanliful Corlutlilnii twillcu, 
La MitdiaUna. by Toman is. 



s foilDwni^ 



Ciiinl. Si«la TtrtKi ant Sinls Uaria Kimton 
lirtrmithci>eii'TohtiRoFtictor]-(Ni"ora'Fiil>brlca 
■te Ml 'be Cunalx "l CDSUItDaud tlie vet.- v'"- 

the enil » "the Oludecca, 

There are alM many other F^lMMI dewrvinc 
aTliLI. Most ofthemlinethea<de>iurihea'aiid 
Canal. Sach are the foHowlnB: 'OKfor Ca»n) 
cf Uro. wlilrh liaia rich but unflnlsbed rafdo. of 

derfKm anil nvery part 1> iwrraded by a (ancHul 



14M, In the cLnfluo-ceiilo >lylB. " 



Pa'arro C-iifr Horn 
and bawmont, by 8an 

'a OrandTt It by Hann 



[titttloii 1. 

r'i>ul"g <>f tbe ilxtoenih 
iJ tUfH Scrlfni. iKcauHC 



II (or Centr). ralM 



Palaa 



n the I 
orders, and w 



liiiitaled In Ihc Ani 
n, near the Dlalln. is a 

.._ ..I'thtM^Titthe l""l 
laeof "Dllodold Daiiilul.," 
now a tnli. 

Palaao Halhi, near tlie Frarl Chore 
Inria (IMj). Ja tn three storeyi or i 

l-alaiiB Bellagia hai a cnrioui 

Hon«"enr Sl™Po,c"''and It'h.n 

iilihail. Pennl4l<niRiutII>eobt>bi€ 

Falatro Pftaro. now B/vltwqua^ ait 

laiiltbena'a. with a rustic ba» luppc 



Opnoilia thi! 

Knaso CH.VI00 s Oorrer, 

beaneatned to 
dalV- Beildc 

ItOQl, object* 



byfioo; 



rx 






Uinil. oppMlle the Cll d" Oro, by 


u. 


Ro»l. i;a4, 


ba.ar1ehfapide,.odl.cmiv 




Into 


Ihe Motile 


lie PUsttu 








Oisrthiurt Hitut Ltin lilra 


ell- 


Oil 




The laoit pnpular pramiaia 






«/« d^i 


















EIOHTH TOffR. 






a ™do!Il''' "" """" '" "■ 


liig: 


Ih 


l<land) In 


MnnulO, to the north, ha 


abo 




OSS populi- 








of glait. plate^lau. e.i»»el 






ryual. 4c. 


I'^lablNbed here hi Ihelhlii 








the nuken recidreil cxclmlve 




lie 


™(?iJ^b! 


Senate. Hock pearli and rsn 


Fit 




ud>,arethe 


chief product! now. Qlu.he 


ad. 




nX in tbi 








took onl of Ihg Sre large luni 


• of tofl eIoh, belBff 



IHfv irilki 



Thli. 



enmhta 



htrt,by 
bcadu belon thoin. and h 

BylhljTiwi 






!a re4dy threaJAd^ ii 



•red tbo at 



If Ion 



S. Andres del Udo.Oio old pt 






—Miss Cat 



ofS. Ml.'helfcai 
la (he monanient of CardlnH) I 
IMJehlolIybyBenHni. — ' ' 

ler la hl^ly an 

> Fn I>Bi>la aan>l. the hlalorian, 



«ct, nany of whoae worti ttlll eilat 
'here la alarge >eii-bnthlii|ceiiabllili- 
SI. ■ eum o[ fiiiio.OW waa TOled fur 
mbKikwaUrkAc^ Hsrc ByrMi uaed 



as.PitlrttPuali>C 



■neleiit Upe.try 



cupola o( St. Gooreo, leivca hli old jrarple light 
npoii Lhe dl^tnnt aiiovr-Alpa anil far-seen pro- 
mimtDrlesor luliia." ^ Lord Jiroughlon- 
There am atoamera avery tailf-hour fmta Vefil« 

KduoOOOO, or HnlamaDco. puarillns one at 
Ihe clUcrenlrBjiCHfrDin the Adriatic (with 17 f«t 






r, beyond tba biiilgo, 



> TorcellO, which haa a lino nid 
008, by Bishop Omrolo. ooveml wllh 
niurblc. LlKhlecii plllan, 'with 
IH^ capiuia. hulJ up thv nave. The 
Hill WM foTinarly a Pa^^an altar. 
', rnrtber In, liadomed with beautiful 
■ hlB, inoh[Ilffli»,on1y 
line. Bohlnd the hl^ 



dlrllona^ or the language. 

OUMXlft, Iho iouthoriiino-t laland of (ho La- 
goona (iSJi inllM from Ro>Iki>. piurc 59). coiitaliiB n 

cathedral, theatn, Ac. He^.Ul IB8d! the Genoiuii 
were flnally defeated after a long and donbllnl 
Hmgsie, and 4.1)00 made prltoiiora by lli« 
Venetlana, Budor Doge ttaiviV. " — ^^ '- " 



HOTJTE IG—Contiimtd. 



ALY. [StctioD 1. 

From Trcviio there U ■ line. Ml mllcK b. 

Bellnnc, tbroDKh Cornnda and Faltre, wiDch 

hat I inunnmeul lo CaslilpI or Ciitalal. who 

I place or TUIiin, to whom there 1< ■ annx He dleit 
Vlccn^a. 'Hc"^ge ID. 

OonegUano <8tat.i Popuutioii, 8,flss. ii 

piece, by O, ft. Cliiia. cslleil Cima da Cvnfgliaio. 



hoqn°'toVli^ 


are u [01 


oTrleXe, IMmileilnit 
CM, In ei honn. 
ow:— 

J—.. S! 

Codnilpo 70) 


)• open to VlttorlO, » ratlei. 
The cnrtlintuke of Jniir. IS7S, wliicb hair 

nearCoiieglUno! wbrre Iho Clinrdi ofSl. Peler, 
a rotten old bnlldlnp. ms overlnrunl dnrlnc 
•ervle?. *nri M p^runii killed. 
BUU* <8tkt.), u» the Tli-cnxa. P.>p. i>.3SD. 






.dM^?fi''i*^'8a«£ren«3-.'pi^tn.^l'o' 




;:::;::!( 


Biit«an> .... 


nnltiio „ SDl 





Oasana (Stat.) The i 



nestre (Slat.), s« in SouU is. From here 

■ iins runs thronifh 8. Dona dlPlaveio Porto- ' 

(TOatO, continued to L'dloe (eee below). Thf | 



-Titian, and Dordiiiie(Adarall(Ki of the Shepherd!). 
■ nalivc. The town-hall, and Putasio ProHnelale 
are near It. Ht. Klcholaa'g OMhlc Cbnnb hni 
woTlia by Bellini and H>1>iu[ianodelPloiiibO( and 
there 1> a woik by GlacKlone(<>rPardeuoiie!).ln 
the Monte dl PlelV Other bnlldlngiare. ten or 
eteien Clinrehea, the Blihup'g Palace, the Palaz^l 









Ic library of M.(MI) 






























/roa 




Motta^^ UTMIU 



' J?a/rrray U open acrou Ihe plain oFFrlull, ta£ 
Ftrofio, n-icahao. Tarcailo, itat/naivt-ArUvi 

I OblaiafOrtt, and POUMbba, on the Auttrl 
I fmntl.r >I.«.r» la VLpnnB. Short line fn 
fm-vm Jalii, wl 



Con>toiu(Stat),thcAns 

tttK Prague lime li kopt. 
Oorisia (Btat.), on the 1 



Route 20.] 



TBEVISO) UDINK, S8TS) VSRBARA. 



89 



Miles. 

Arquk 3>2§ 

Pollesela ?6\ 

S. Mnria Mnddalena..43S 

Pontela^oscuro 45 

Ferrara 47| 



I Qrlgnano (Stat.), to the terminus at 

Trieste StatiOD. i&ee Bradshaw's continental 
GuideJ, 

HOTJTE 520- 

Padua to Arquk Este, Boylgo, Ferrara, 

and Bologna. 

By rdil, as follows, from Padua: — 
Miles. 

Abano 6^ 

Battarlia Hi 

Monselice 16^ 

Este 18 

Rovijiro 27i 

[Brs.to Adria A Verona.] 

Abano (Stat.) Population, 4.003. Near hot 
sprlujrs and mud baths (Pons Aponl) which have 
been u»ed by invalids from Roman times. One is 
up to 180 degrees: they are {»ood for rheumflti>m 
and thcslcin. Hotels: Orologlo; Due Torre: snd 
a Bath House. There are similar springs at other 
spots around. Livy was actually born at Abano, 
though claimed as a Paduan. It U aNo the birth- 
place of Pletro d' Abano, a philosopher of the 
fourteenth century. 

Battaglia (Stat.) and its old Castle (valuable 
antiques), natural hot springs and vapour bath<i, 
and Bath House, beautifully situated .tnd of con- 
siderable repute. About 2 miles south-west is 

Arqn^, the Roman Armata, a healthy spot in the 
Buganean Hills, which, likewise, contains mineral 
springs, but is most celebrated as the residence of 
Petrarch in his last days ; where he died peacefully, 
in 1374, with his head over a book in his library. 
"They show his 'I'omb, which, with his bust, stands 
on four pillars of red marble in the Chapel of the 
Virgin, which he built; also his house, chair, 
stuffed cat, and other relics. Several of his later 
works were written in this quiet retreat. The fifth 
centenary of his death was observed by a f@te 
here 1874. 

Monselice (Stat.) Population, 10,479;. Where 
also a road may be taken to Arquk. It has a fine 
old Ca^tte ox\ the volcanic heights. 

[A line runs from here to Este, Montagrnana, 
Legnago. and Mantua (page 65). 
B8TE(Stat.) 

Inn: Speranaia. 
. An ancient town (population, 10.M3), near the 
Roman Alette, in a fine part of theEnganean Hills; 
having a round Lombard church, with a lean- 
ing tower or Campanile, and the feudal Rocco, or 
Castle of the Este family, one of the oldest In 
Europe. Its head, to go no further back, was 
Oberto, Count of the Palace, and son-in-law of the 
Emperor Otho, who died 972. His grandson, 
Albcrtazzo II., received the fief of Este about 1010: 
.and his great great grandson. Albertazzo, was Wulf 
"or Welf IV.. from w horn descends the Royal House 
of Brunswick, or Este-Guetpb, now represented bj' 
Qaeeu Victoria and ot^er branches. Azzo V., In 
the twelfth century, was elected Lord of Ferrnra, 
which henceforth became their seat ; - while Este 



was taken by the Paduans, 1293; and by the 
Venetians, who rotained it, 1405. In the year 
1288, the family acquired Modena.] 
After crosslnar the Adige, you come to 

BovlgO (Stat.) The head of a small water}' 
province, between the Adige and Po, and a bustling 
town of 11,411 inhabitants. Among its noticeable 
buildings are the ('athedralof the Bishop ot'Adria, 
and the Palazzo Comunale. facing the column of 
St. Mark, with a largo library and good picture 
gallery. Richeno, or Rhoviginu.«, the scholar, wai 
a native. Another was Erminia Fusinato, the 
poetess, bom 1834, and buried at Rome. 

Brrtuch Lines to Lama, Adria, and Chloggia 
(page 87), 35 J miles; and to Legnago and Verona. 

[Adria (Stat.), or Uadria, ab(mt 15 miles east of 
Rovigo. was once a Roman municipinm and port on 
the Adriatic, to which it gave name, but is now 15 
miles from the $ea. Pojmlition. 10,152. Reniabis 
still exist of the walls, baths, amphitheatre, 
aqueducts <fec., of the ancient towni, which lay some 
feet lower than the modem one, and nearer the 
sen, the wide tract towards which has been filled 
up by river deposits.] 

Ar(|u4 (Stat.), not to be confonndod with the 
Arquk of Petrarch, near Battaglia, above men- 
tioned. 

Folesella (Stat.) or PolUsella, on the Po, the 
Docche or mouths of which are 30 miles below. 

Sta. Maria Maddalena (Stat.), where the 

line crosses the river to Ponte Lagoscnro, in the 
Forrarese and the Romagna. now part of the king- 
dom of Italy, by the popular vote of 12th March, 
1860. All this' region of marsh and swamp is 
protected by strong dykes from the encroachments 
of the Po. 

From PontelaiTOBCUro it is 5 miles to 

FEBBABA (Stat.) 

Population, 76,421. 

Hotels: Stella d'Oro ; I)e I'Europe; Tre Mori; 
Tre Corone. 

* Chief Objects of Notice. — Ariosto's House, Cathe- 
dral, St. Benedetto, Santa Maria del Vado, Campo 
Santo, Dnoal Palace, Pinacoteca, Santa Anna and 
Tasso*a Cell, Schifahoja Palace, Lyceum, Guarini's 
House. 

Ferrara, situated in a rich plain, has declined 
in magnificence, population, and commerce, since 
Ariosto, its most eminent native, praised his 
•'Cittli bene avventurosa,"a8 "dl tutta Italia 11 
pregio e'l vanto." But being large and well built 
its aspect is still Imposing. It is the seat of the 
Governor of the Province, and of an archbishop, 
and was formerly part of t><c Papal dominions, 
standing near the Po, to which several canals or 
naviglios run. 

Among its "wide and grass-grown streets." 
the best are Corso V. Emsnuele and Strada della 
Giovecca, meeting at the Castle in the chief 
square, and Corso di Po^ ^Wcw Vn.% ^K'c^^«^N«^^ss^> 



i 



'M 



.». 



RRADflHAW'fl ITALV. 



[Section I. 



railway ttAtlon to tlie Porta «U Mare. The i 
town itself, from tire Porta Ui S. Benedetto to j 
Vo ta Ji S. Qlorgrio, Is not less than two miles { 
in extent. Its fortific^l walls, until 1869, were 
^•irrisoncd by an Austrian <leta«hmcut, to support 
the authority of the Pope's Icsrate. A strong 
vitiulcl on the west side, on the site of the Piazza 
<ll Armi, was razed in • 859. 

Compared with other Itilia-i cities, Ferrara is 
ntotern. hdviug grown up since the sixth century, 
when it was first enclosed by tlie Kxarchs of Ra- 
venna. Though exhibiting in its deserted streets 
many marks of decay -noticed by A'ldison, 1670, 
who speaks of it as "very l^rge, but extremely 
thin «if people" — its population has increased 
l«ttely. and it carries on a good trade, which may 
l)OSHih'y cxten«l under the new order of things, 
nssistej by the railwHy. About 2,000 Jews are 
settled here, who, a -i usual, live by themselves In 
their Ghetto quarter, where they have a synagogue, 
*c. The people of Ferrara have the reputation of 
being agreeable in their manners, and hospitable; 
but its chief dr»iwba<'k arises from' the marshy 
exhalations to which it is at all times ►ubject. 

In li'08, Azzo VI., of ihe lit?eof Este,was chosen 
by the ci izens as vicar, or lord over tliem : being 
tlie first instance of a free Italian city doing what 
in the course of time became a regular practice 
wih all, to save themselves from those internal 
contests with which it hat always been their 
misfortui>e t" be afHicte<I. One of his descendants, 
Azzo Novelio. or the Guelf party, and a grent 
patron of leiming, invited the troubadours here, 
and founded schiwls and a famous university. 
Niccolo III., called "Azo" in the poem, was the 
husband of Byron's Parisina Malatesta, who whs 
executed in 140.^. Berso, another descendant, 
was a generous a»«d enlightened prince, andbecao e 
the first Duke of Ferrara, Modena. <&c After Iiim 
came his illegitimate brother, Erc<^le, who estab- 
lished a theatre and a Hebrew press liere, and 
dciiglitcd in the company of scholars, as Bojardo, 
Tebalileo, <S:c. Alfonso I., his successor, who mar- 
ried Lucretia Borgia, was the patmn of Ariosto. 
I.I the ti ne of Eroole II.. 1535. Calvin sought 
refuge here with the Duchess, the daughter of 
Louis XII.. till he was driven away by the Inqui- 
sition. Upon the death, without issue, of Alfonso 
H., who shut up T.tsso in the madhouse. Ferrara 
was tAken poss,}48ion of by Clement VIII , Ir-OS ; 
a change so imftivourable that its population 
grndiuilly fell from 60.000 to 20.000. 

The. author of the "Diary of an Invalid*' des- 
patches Ferrara In few w<ird8. an "old town 
where there is nothing worth seeing.'' But this 
is the hMSty opinion of a sleepy traveller. 

The chief place is the Piazza Arioziea in Corso di 
Porta Mare, named after the poet whose column 
stands liere. He was not a native, though his father 
was. After ten years' labour he produced his great 
iwom, Orlando Furioto^ in forty cantos, dedicated to 
hit generous patron, Cardinal Ippollto d'Este. The 
Cardinal, however, was a soldier, with little taste 
^~ vortiy-. mud Miter readin|^ it, asked where he 



had "picked up so many absurd stories." Duke 
Alfonso made up for this, treating the poet so 
bountifully that he was ableto build himself a house 
opposite 8t. Benedetto's Church. The garden is 
gone, but the house is still shown, as well as his 
fathci-'s house, called Casa dogli Ariosti. 

ThOi* Cathedral, in Piazza del Mercato, is a Greek 
cross, marked by a campanile of red marble. It 
was begun in 1185, and is a mixture of the Gothic- 
Byzantine, or Romanesque and Italian. The 
facade is plain below, but the upper part Is filled 
in with round Gothic arches, and other ornaments 
of a harmonious and pleasing character, and 
includes reliefs of the same and later dates; such 
as the Passion; Last Judgment, with Hell and 
Heaven (t.«., Abraham's Bosom); the Seven Capital 
Sins, Ac. Notice also an antique bust by N. da Pisa, 
which is reverenced as a Madomia, al>uve the side 
door on the left; and a statue of Albert d'Kstc on a 
pilgrimage to Rome. In the interior, which is 
modernised, are Garofalo's Madonna on a Throne, 
88. Peter and Paul, and the Assumption; Bi»8ti.a- 
nlno's I^st Judgment, with portraits of many of 
his acquaintances In It, Including a woman who 
refused to marry him, and who Is put In hell for 
a punishment: C. Tura's Annimclatlon, and St. 
George; Dossl's tomb of Urban III.; tomb of Cl«»m- 
cnt XI ; and C. Tura's curious scries of miniatures 
In the twenty-three mls-^als of the choirs. An 
ancient altar, near Francla's Coronation of the 
Virgin, Is adorned with bronze statues by Blondelll 
and Marescottl. Some parts of the <holr are of 
the last century. An echo repeats 20 times. 

S. Francezco Church, near the Glove<-ca, founded 
by Ercole I., 1498, contains Garofalo's Betrayal of 
Christ, a Madoima and Saints, the Holy Family, 
Resurrection of Lazarus, and bis Massacre of the 
Innocents; Ortolano's Holy Family: with others 
by Monlo and 8carselllno; also various tombs of 
the Este family, and that of Pigna who was 
Tasso's rival. Here also Is a good echo which 
repeats seventeen ('»r sixteen) times. 

The Church of S. Benedetto was attached to the 
Benedictine Convent, now used as a military 
barrack. It Is a fine building, deserving attention; 
rebuilt 1598, in place of the old one In which 
Arlosto was burled, 1533. For the new church, a 
handsome monument of the poet was prepared by 
his pupil, A. Morti. and placed on the right of the 
altar, over his remains. In 1612, these were moved 
to a more magnificent tomb, ralsel by his grand- 
nephew, on the left side of the altar. This was 
moved, in 1801, to the Studio Pubblico. There 
are frescoes In the barrack, by \). Dossi (the 
Crucifixion), Garofalo, Scar^elllno (Martyrdout 
of St. Catherine), P. Veronese, Ac, with G. 
Cremonesl's St. Mark. There is also Garofalo's 
• Paradise In which a portrait of the poet Ariosto 

is introduced above the choir of angels. 
I a. Paolo. Paintings by E. Grandi, Booone, 
: Scarscllino (the Holy Ghost), and others; with 
I monuments of G. B. Dossl, Bastamolo, and A. 
! Montecatlno; the last being the work of A. 
' Vicentino. 



Koiite 20.] 



FRRRJlfii. — CHCRCllEA. PALJlCKi*. 



91 



5. Domenico, near tbo Castdlo. Ilere ar<w;arvcd 
efligies in the front; good paintlnjrs by Uftrofalo 
(St. Peter-Martyr), Bononi, and other native 
masters; and the monument of C. Calcagnini, a 
leaincd man of the sixteenth century. 

$SanUi Maria del Vado, built as far back as 1171, 
is the oldest church here, and has sonic quaint 
c irving-a on its front. It is full of paintings, among 
which are Bononi's Miracle of the Host, frowning 
of the Virgin, «fec.; and a copy of I). Dossi's John 
the pi vine, and the Whore of Babylon. The latter 
was painted naked, but has been decently dres.«ed 
bv the care of some scrupulous Bolognese artist. 
Also, I). Panetti's Visitation: P. Vecchio's Christ 
and the Tribute Money; Carpi's Miracles of St. 
Anthony: and N. ^'affacclo's Death of St. Mary. 
On the picture of Justice and Force, is the enigma 
of Alex. Guarinl, in Latin, which no person h-is 
hitherto made out. The sacri ty contains Panetti's 
Annunciation, and a Flight iiito Egypt by Sea. 
There are tombs of the painters. Garofalo, Ortolano, 
Bonone. Bastianino, and Dielai: and of the |)Octs, 
T. V. Strozzi. and his son Ercole. a branch of the 
{^reat Florentine house of that name, which settled 
h<?re in the fifteenth century. Ercole, the best 
poet of the two, and a friend of Ariosto, was killed 
one night by twenty-two stabs. His widow, a 
poetess, wrote a sonnet to his memory. 

S. Spirito. Garofalo's fresco of the' Last Supper, 
In the refectory of the convent adj<ining. 

8. Andrea, near the Montegnone Promenade. In 
the choir is Garofalo's Madonna and Saints; painted, 
some say, under the direction of Raphael. 

8. Giorgio, in the south-west comer of Ferrara. 
Hero Engcnius IV. called a Council to effect a 
union between the Eastern and Western Churches, 
in M88. Cosmo, or Cosimo Tura. the painter, is 
buried at the entrance of the campanile. 

Ranta Maria deHa ConmazV'Vf, with an epitaph 
c >mposed by E. Benti voglio, for his daughter Julia, 
a child of four yc.irs. 

The Campo Santo Church was founded by B -rso 
d'Este, first Duke of Ferrara, and was designed 
by Sansovino. There are twelve chapels, contnin- 
iiig the Mysteries, by N. Rosel I. besides paintings 
by Bastianino (h St. Chiistopher), Dielai, Ac. 
Several old tombs, worth notice, are In the grave- 
yard (Campo Santo) of the old Certosa Convent, 
including that of Garofalo, with Canova's bust of 
Count Cicognaro. 

In that of // Oesu^ is the tomb of Alfon.so's second 
Duchess, Barbara. Other churches are those of 

S. Maurelio, or the Cappuciai Church, and Z)e' 
Teatini^ which has Guercino's Presentation. 

•The Caftlln, or Palace of the old Dukes of 
Ferrara. in the Oiovecca, sometime the sent of the 
Papal Delegate, is a large, brick, moated castlo. with 
angular turrets, in the feudal style. There are 
here, though in a partly decayed condition, works 
in oU and fresco of the brothers Dossi; such as the 
Aurora and the Bacchanals, of D. Dossl; besides 
other paintings. At the foot of the Lion's Tower, 
lu the dnngeons under this chamber, Parlsina and 



Ugo, or Hugh, were executed on the night of '21st 
March. 140'% and buried in St.Francc9co''s Ccmetcrr . 
"Ferrara," says Byron, *'i« much decayed aiid 
depopulatctl, but the' castle still exists entire, and I 
saw the court where they were beheaded." Pnri- 
sina's room is ;<hown. Some of the oldest buildings 
surround this palace. 

The Town Hall, or Palmzo del Aftinicfpfo near 
the Castello, ban a fortified look, and is the place 
where the Actademia Arioxtea holds its sittings. 

Afeneo Cioico, containing the *Pinacoteea, or 
Picture Gallery, is in the old Palazzo Ercole- 
Vllla (I40S). oV House of the Diamond (dia- 
mante) as it is called, from the diamond-shaped 
stones in it.4 front. The paintings have been 
collected fnnn the churche-». and are in eight 
riKtms. Anwmg them are s]>eclmeosof the I'errara 
school of artists, including their chief. ^Garofalo, 
viz.. his Od and New Testament; Mount of Olives; 
DescentoftheHoly Spirit: Resurrection; Adoration 
of the Magi: and Christ in the Garden. HU 
Madonna au'i Child, paint&l as an altar-piece for 
the suppressed CJ«»nvent of S. Gugllelmo. is In the 
National (Jallcrv. His real name wa-* Tlsio, but 
he is* called Garofalo from the gillyflower or mark 
by which his pictures arc known. C. Bononi's 
Marriage of Cana ; I*. Vecchio's Tribute Money ; 
Tintoretto's Virgin of the Ro«ary; D. [k>ssl's 
Resurrection; Guercino's St. Bruno; Mazzollno's 
Adoration; A. Carracci's Manna In the Desert; 
E. Grandl's Adoration of the Magi; i>. Dossfs 
Madonna and Chi*d Enthroned, with Sahits, a 
large picture, said to be his master-piece; C. Tura's 
portrait of a Cardinal. 

*f'alazzo Schi/anoja, or Scandiana, near S. An- 
drea's Church, rebuilt on the site of one burnt in 
1469 by Duke Ercole, was decorated with C. Tura's 
frescoes, illustrative of the achievements of Borso, 
the duke's brother, which were recovered from the 
whitewash in 1840. It is now a Ueaf and Dumb 
School. 

. Palazzo Costabili. ^Uere is C. Tura's St. George 

I and the Annunciatioit, painted in HCti/ for the organ 

i dome of the Cathedral, and reputed to be his mas- 

j ter-piece. His portrait of T. Strozzi the poet, is 

I at the Palazzo Strozzi. Pakuzo Ruverella, now 

I Casino del Negociaiiti. near the Hospital, was built 

; In 1 508. Palazzo Bevilacqua has a good collection 

of paintings, «fec. Palazzo Uazza^ paintings by 

Garofalo and I). Dossi. Palazzo dei Lconi (Ctmnt 

Pi-osperl) ban a fine portal by B. Peruzzi. One 

marble p>ilace was Lucretla Borgia's. 

The Chamber of Commerce Is at Palazzo delta 
Rayione, a Hothic brick pile, in Piazza del Mercato, 
near the Duomo. 

A *Studio PubUico, or Lyceum, which replaces 
the old university, comprises faculties of medicine 
and jurisprudence, and about 100 students. In the 
portico are several classical inscriptions and ba->- 
roliefii, a cypher or grave-stone of one P. Publlus, 
and a large sarcophagus dedicated by Aurelia 
Eutydiia to her husband, a Syrian by birth. T^s& 
large and valuable Uhtacc^ ^«v«^. ^'^'°^'^'^V*'"x*t^^ 



92 



BHADSHAW's ITALY* 



[Section 1. 



100,000 vdamjefl and 1,000 MSS., flonie at old as the 
thirteenth ceqittiry. Here are portraits of Ferrara 
eelebrlties, including" Cardinal Ippolito d'Este, to 
♦vhora Ariosto dedicated hlH Orlando. •Ariosto's 
monument, containing liio ashes, which the French 
transported from San Bcncilctto in 1801, reaches 
to the ceiling; being of marble, with three inscrip- 
tions on it— one by Guarini, beginning "Notus et 
Uespcriis jacet hie Ariostus et Jndis." Hero are 
his lxx>lc8, wooden chair, hikstund, and the MS. of 
his poems — an imperfect copy, wanting the title, 
and having many corrections. It has Alticri's auto- 
granh, with "Vide e venera, 18 Giugno, 1788," 
added. 

Among the other literary treasures arc Cardinal 
Bentivoglio's IkmIcs, bequeatlicd in 1780; a com- 
plete collection of the writings of Ferraresc authors ; 
Greek palimpsests (te., parchments written over 
afresh) of Gregory Nazianzen, l.'lirysostom, <kc.; 
antiphonarios, or anthem books, with miniatures of 
the fifteenth century; also, the Geriuaiemme of 
Tasso. with his notes and corrections, and several 
unedited sonnets composed by him in his confine- 
ment in the present hospital of Santa Anna; 
Ariosto's medallion likeness, chair and writing 
tlesk, and the MS. of Guarini's Pcutor Fido, or 
Faithful Shepherd. 

Guarini was a native, and l)oni here 1557. His 
house, the seat of the Marchese Guarini, has an 
inscription on it, beginning "Hercules etMusarum 
commercio," <fcc. Ariosto's Iiouse, in which he died 
(1528), in Via di Mirasole, has his bust, and Is 
marked by another verse, " Parva sed apta mihi," 
Ac. 

Another interesting building is the old Hospital 
of *Santa Anna, where Tasso was imprisoned be- 
tween 1579 and 15H6. 

" And Ttmo is their glorr and their shame ; 
Hark to his vtraia, and then survey his cell \"— Byron. 

It was at the court of Alfonso II. that he wrote the 
best part of the Oertualemme Liberata, which he 
■frequently read to his patnm ; but having fallen in 
love with Alfonso's sister, the Princess KIconora, 
he was shut up as a madman in the Convent of St. 
Francis, 1577. He esca))ed after a fortnight's con- 
anemtot, but coming back, he was placed in Santa 
Anna's, tee above, from which he was finally 
liberated at the intercession of V. Gonzaga. A 
•mall Prison room on the ground floor is shown as 
-that in which he was actually confined; and here, 
though it is as doubtful as Raleigh's cell in the 
Tower, the visitor will perceive the names of Byron, 
Delavigne, Lamartine. an<i others, who have made a 
pilgrimage hither. Much of the wall is chipped 
away. But it appears that though under restraint, 
he was treated with kindness and consideration. 
Here he wrote and published many of his smaller 

Eoetical and philosophical works, and wa» visited 
y Montaigne, and Aldo, the printer. In one of his 
letters he writes that "from the windows of his 
prison, he can see the tower of the palace where 
Leonora dwells,'* which may help to fix the exact 
*«i/J^u7 of his dwelling-place daring this unhappy 



Thejheatrt, in th« Strada Oiovecca, near the 
Post Onice, is very large and liandsome. 

Some old MSS., with a letter of St. Jerome, are in 
the Cotaini Library; and the Scalatrini Museum 
contains some inscriptions. 

A line was opened, February, 1884, to Argentft 
(21 miles S.E.), thence continued to Ravenna. 

About 25 miles east of Ferrara is 

ComxnachlO, near the sea (population, 8,880), 
in the midst of a marshy tract, about )5 miles 
square, called Valli di Connnachio, abounding 
with eels and other fisli, which are used for pickling. 
It is divided into fishing farms, the Inhabitants of 
which are a curious aquatic race, living In houses 
built in the shallow water. On the north-east of 
it, about Volano, Ac, wild boar, game, and deer, 
are hunted in the forest. 

From Ferrara, by rail, 29j miles, in IJ hour, to 
Bologna. The stations are — 



Mlb's. 
Poggio Renatico ... 8 
S. Pietro in Casale 14^ 

8. Giorgio 18 

The line passes over 



a 



Miles. 
Castcl Mflgglore ... 28^ 

CorticelU 25 

Bologna 2»i 

fertile plain, which is 



liable to bo flooded in the season, and produces great 
quantities of hemp, rice, and other grain. 

PogglO BenatlCO (Stat.) Population, 8,483. 
Near the Reno, which rises in the Apennines, and 
winds round in this direction towards the Po. 

From S. Pietro in Oasale (Btat), a diligence 
runs to 

Cento (population, 19.881), higher up the Reno, 
and the birth-place, 1590, of Guercino, i.e., the 
Squinter, whose real name was Barbieri. His 
father was a wood-cutter. The house in which he 
lived twenty years is full of his paintings, as well 
as the Church, or Galeria, as it is styled by his 
townsmen. 

Castel Hagglore (Stat.), on the Navlglio, or 
Canal, which makes a short cut from the Reno to 

BOLOaNA (Stat.), 
Called La Dotta (learned) and La Grassa (fat), 
the ancient Bononia, or FeUina, on the Via Emilia, 
known for miles around by its Leaning Towers. 
Population (1891), 147,000, with suburbs. 

IloteU : 

Grand Hotel Brun, by Mr. Frank; comfortable 
and recommended. (Church Service here in the 
season). 

Grand Hotel d'ltalie; first-class hotel, fiUed 
up with every comfort and good taste ; centrally 
situated. 

Hotel Pellegrino; well-conducted, comfortable, 
and moderate. 

Noted for large and small Bologna sauaages 
(hence the word "polony"), called morladella nod 
cotichini; fruit, and the OiUOOO di PallOlie, A 
favourite game at ball, see page 97. 

Here the Brenner and Mont Cenis routefBiMt 
the routes from Brindi.ii and Rome. 



Route 20.] 



fiOLOGN A— C HUKCHBS . 



93 



*Chief Objects of Notice. — Two Leaning Towers, 
Pulazzo Comnuale, Duomo, S. Petronio, 8. 
Dom^nico, 9. Gljcicomo Mngariore, 8. Stefnno, 
Madonna di S.Xoicn, S.Michelc in Bo^co. Unirer- 
slty, the Bacciocchi, and other Palaces. Museum, 
Accadcmia delle Belle Arti, and a fine Campo 
Santo — the last outside the Porta d'Isaia. 

Tlie race of Bologna dogs, which figure in the 
city arms, is extinct. The Bologna stone is a 
sulphate of barytes, which wiien laid in the sun 
attracts its beams and shines in the dark. It gives 
name to the Bolognesc school of painters, viz. : — 
Of the fifteenth century — M. Zoppo, Francia. and 
L. Costa; sixteenth century— Lodovico (Jarracci, 
Agostino Carracci, and Annibalo Cnrracci; 
seventeenth century — Domcnicbino,Gnido.Albano, 
Guercino, Lanfranco, I*. F. Mola, and C. Cignani. 

This large, wealthy, and ancient city, which till 
the late revolution ranked next to Rome among the 
possessions of the Church, and was the first place 
in the Romagna (or division north of the Apen- 
nines), stands on a hill in a fertile plain betweoa 
the Rivers Reno and Savena, and communicates 
with Ferrara by a canal or naviglio. It is sur- 
rounded by brick walls of a hexagon shape, pierced 
by twelve gates, and is divided into three sectkms, 
called respectively Levante, or oast; Fonente, or 
west; and Mezzogiomo, or south. 

The Cathedral, Basilica, Leaning Towers, Pal- 
azzo Comunale, A;c., are near the Via Rizzoli and 
Via Ugo Bassi, which run east and wcsr, and 
are traversed by another main thoroughfare 
running north and south from Porta Galliera 
and Montagnuola, near the Railway Station, to 
Porta d'Azeglio. Montagnuola is a hilly, open 
spot in the north of the city, laid out in public 
gardens, with a Piazza d'Armi adjoining, and a 
hall for playing the game of Pallonc. Many of the 
narrow and winding streets are shaded by Arcades, 
which, though useful for shelter, give the town 
rather a gloomj'^ appearance. Latterly, some have 
.been widened and improved. The bouses are large 
and massive. Water supplied by a new Aqueduct. 

In the civil war between Antony and the Senate, 
Bononia sided with the Senate and Pansa, the Con- 
sul, who died here of his wounds, after his defeat 
at Mutina. On an island in the Rhenus (now the 
Reno), four miles distant, near the Borgo Paiiigale, 
Antony, Octavins (afterwards Augustus), and Lepi- 
dus, concluded the Second Triumvirate. During 
the middle ages, when it was an independent 
republic, it adopted " Libertas " for its motto, and 
took the Guelph side against the Emperor; and 
its own little war with Modena is celebrated in 
Tassoni's "Secchia Rapita." It became subject 
to the Pope about 1512, and remained so down to 
the last revolution. In 1848 it firmly resisted 
15,000 Austrians under Weden and Degenfeld. In 
1859 it seized the first opportunity, on the departure 
of the Austrians, to desert the paternal rule of the 
Papal Legate and annex itself to Sardinia. Out 
of 29,000 pn the elec^rfil l^ipf ^^,000 voted for the 
change. 



The political movements were guided by the 
Countess Tatinl, a grand-daughter of Marat, the 
('ommendatorc Minghetti, late Prime Minister, and 
the countess's brother. Marquis Pepoli, afterwards 
Minister of Commerce, whose palaces, black and 
white family arms, and tombs are seen every- 
where in the streets and churches. The Coontess. 
Gozzadini-Se'rego-Alighicri, a descendant of Dante, 
was another patriotic woman. 

The famous Mortara case occurred here while the 
city was under Papal rule. A Jewish child was 
taken from its parents by the Holy Office^ on tho 
pretext that it was baptised, two yours before, by 
a servant, a woman of bad character. An appeal 
was made for her release to tho Holy Office and 
Pope without elFect When the Papal governraciit 
fell, the father brought the case before the Minister 
of Justice, who came to the conclusion that Felletti, 
the Inquiiiitor, had disregarded the rules of even 
his own tribunal. His arrest was ordered and he 
was imprisoned in the Torrione, a room in a massive 
tower of the Palazzo del Qovemo. He declined 
all explanation on the ground that he had acted by 
tho orders of his only superiors, the Grand Inquisi- 
tor and the Pope, and ho refused to admit the lay 
jurisdiction. He was finally released, on the 
ground that when the offence was committed tho 
Holy Office was the highest authority in the state. 

Bologna is tho birth-place of Benedict XIV. and 
seven other Popes, and about lUO Cardinals; of the 
painters Domenichlno, the Carracci, «tec.; and of 
Malfighl, Zambecarri, Mezzofanti, and other emi- 
nent men, whose lives have been written in nine 
folio volumes. Statue of Gal van i. In Piazza 
Paragllone. It Is the seat of an archbishop and 
imiverslty, and contains about 130 churches and 
twenty monasteries. 

At "the West end of the Via Rizzoli, where It 
joins with Via Mazzini and other streets, are the 
famous brick Torri Inclinate, or 

^Leaning Totcers, built during the feuds which 
prevailed in the times of the republic, and looking 
like factory chimneys. One, called Torre Asinelli, 
erected 1109, by the Asinelli family, is a plain 
square structure, about 320 feet high, inclining 
four feet from the perpendicular. It is ascended 
by 449 steps, and takes in a prospect of Modena, 
Ferrara, the Apennines, Ac. The other, Torre 
Oarisenda, or La Afozza, built by the Garisendi, 
In 1110, thouerh only 140 or 150 feet high, leans as 
much as eight or nine feet. Dante compares it to 
the stooping Giant Antasus. That the inclination 
is caused by the slipping of the earth below, is the 
most natural supposition, as the timber and stone- 
work of both towers throughout are proportion- 
ately inclined. But some persons argue that they 
were built so purposely, to show the skill of their 
architect. 

The Foro <fe' MereanH, or Palazzo della Mercan- 
zla, near the Asinelli, was built 1294 in the 
Gothic style, and restored in 1886 for a Chamber 
of Commerce. It ik an open loc^i«k<vt %x<s.%^<«>.. 

I^ttA Vitttyrto EtnaaMiiA«^ \<sraAsec3 '^«***T^ 
\ %lt\i«X«^ Silt V>^^ .«lAs:X ^tfSBta^ <& ^i&» 'a*?* > '«' ""^ 



[Se 



1 ]. 



•f Alexiuider VII_ 
In tho Fumes Room; A. UinibirdD'i ttatuo ol 

Clinaiit. Ac, of the iiiviulcnitli' Itid eli^emlli 

Palaxio dtl Pcdrila, liicing thii, wm b*(nm 12"*. 

ihe Foor PMron Salnlt oi Bulomii. lu Iho full 
dol Rfe EdKu (m called from Hcnclui. uit »f Ihe 
Emperor Frederick lU *he dltd a priimier Imrc), 

Pope John XXI[. Near hero !• ihe lirgs chursh 
of 6. PUtonlo. 



riithl— E.GraiiMl'iiSI.PTtprindBlrfiopApolllnii- 
PHeT V^I ihe v'rgl" 



Id GlullMO. The other dunr. are hj-M.Tril)olo»i.il 

in tlen. by the Loiubardi. Charles V. *■» crowiie | 
) I ill thlichunh,lS».by Clement VII. Thomlddle 
s. I vnull la 14» tert l.lKfL ind ehBpe: on rlght-A 
I Midoim* Md Biinti. by I> dn Peru^U and F. 
,. I Imoia. Ith-Cniclflx. reMotcd hj F. Fraiicla, 
n Sth-ainiorliio'i ilntue of M. Anihonv of i'ldua; 
. 1 wsllpaiiitlngibyG.daTieviMi Hiidpalntlninon 
,, . |t]a>^ dcii^iied bv H. Antielo. Illh— THboto'i 
J ABiumptloM i the AneelR by PropM-ilm do' RomI ; 

— ParTiilgiiinoi 8t. Roch; and liio MtriditM 
wt the shadow being 80 fwl high. IJIh-L. 



House— L. Cur 
licwilling ■ bt 
bl! lost work In 

ThePoVoiioJ, 
1877. lichnaby 

•S. Prirmio, t 
Enunnele. an o. 
church In Bologi 






■Men. In the Ilallnn-Oothto Myle. The three nni 
BlbM lubjectn. with headiol prophtti and d)^ In 



ady hu Introduced porualtfl ol 

thelWeirihcmitui 
K. PawoitBlerl u 



e FoKhorari r«nilly, < 



le SBinC 



iyNlecolb""ir 



and icHne lalor bu-isllofa are the woik of A. Ixmi 
iurdl,I£ai. 'rnc[reM»of*St.DumlnlcinratadlH 
lit^dDidoi at. Dominic BDmlneHcrcilcilU<H.ki< 
byLSpadai theRe9lorodChlld.EyTlorlui. loth-. 
Gueiclno'i S[. Thomaa Aqulnu Writlnir r>n Ihi 
Bucbarltl. The marquetric work 1" ■'"' '*<-' 

aiUrliII,Cc<4'aAdarwlonoriheHafrl. 
—Tomb ol King Eiiilo. — '■---■- 



hlifh 



captivity. 



-, who died h> 
"" coIhJi 



of a. Thomai Aquliuh by SImuii dii 



, Raymiind Croanlng the Scm on hit Hantle. 
Bacrlaly.qdClol8Icr-I,.Si.ada-jB. Jerome. Tho 
I Trlbuiiul of the icrrible Sam' rmilo. or Holy 



Route 20.] 

S. Bartolommeo di Pvtfa Rategnana, near the 
Asinelli Tower, re-built 1653; but the handsome 
portico by Marches! (1680), belonged to a former 
church. 2nd chapel- -L. Carracci's S. Carlo at the 
tomb of Varallo. 4th- -Albano's Annunciation. 
7th — Martyrdom of S. Rarrholomew, by Frances- 
chini. 12th— Tiarini's S. Anthony of Padua. 

S. Bartolomnveo di Reno, built 1733. Agostlno 
Carracci's Nativity; L. Carracci's Circumcision. 

8. Benedetto, near the Montajrnola. in the north 
of the town, built, 1606. Tiarini's Virgin and Mag- 
dalene, weeping over the death of Christ. 

S. CedHa, a small chnrch, restored 1871, in Piaz 
del Tcatro; built 1481, anrd remarkable for the 
iilnefrescoesoftheLifeof St. Cecilia, by F.Francia 
andbispupils, L. Costa, G. Francia, Chlodarolo, <fcc. 

Corpus Domini^ or Santa Catarina, styled La 
Santa. Franccschinl's frescoes. In the cupola : and 
his Lord's Siipper, at the high altar. In one of 
the chapels, Christ Appearing to the Virgin and 
another by L. Carracci. 

8. Cristina, near Porta Mazzini. L. Carracci's 
Ascension, at the high altar ; G. Francia's Nativity 
and the Magi. 

8. Francesco, a large church, formerly used as 
the Custom House, or Dogana. It has an old 
campanile, and its fine marble altar was the work 
of Venetiaiwscalptors, in 1388. 
*S. Giacomo Maggiore, near the Asinelli Tower 
and the Liceo Filarmonica ; begun 1267, with a fine 
vaulted ceiling, added 1497. It contains thirty- 
fiteehspels. Ist chapel — Francia's Madonna della 
Clntura, a small fresco. 10th— L Carracci's St. 
Roch. r2th— Frescoes by P. Tlbaldl, who was 
the architect of the chapel. 18th, or Bentivoglio 
Chapel — Francia's fine Madonna Enthroned ; bas- 
reliefs by N. dell' Area and F. Francia, those by the 
latter relating to Pope John II. 20ih - E. Procac- 
clijl's Slglsmund, King of Poland. 2l8t— Cesl's 
Virgin and Saints. 

S. Giovanni in Monte^ near Via S. Stefann, 
rebuilt 1221 in the Gothic 8t.\ le, and again 1824, 
on the site of one founded by S. Petronlo as far 
back as 453. In two of the chapels are Guercli^o's 
St. Francis, St. Joseph, and St, Jei-ome. 

8. Giuseppe has some paintings of the fourteenth 
century, and is near the Ospedale de Settuof/tnari, 
or Hospital for old people. 

8 Oregorio, In Strada Pogglale. Here are Anni- 
bale Carracci's Baptism of Christ — one of his 
earliest oil paintings. D. Cal vaert's St. Gregory, at 
the high altar. Albano, the painter, is buried here. 

8. Levnardtf, near the Porta S. Vitalc, belongs to 
the Orphan Asylum. L. Carracci's St Catherine 
in prison, and his Martyrdom of S. Ursula; A. 
Tiarini's Annunciation. 

S. Lucia^ the Bamabite's Church, In Via di 
CastigUone. Paintings by E. Procaccini, Cignani, 
Calvaert, Ac.; and a library. 

liadotma dd Barmeaho„ near the Porta Stefauo. 
Orer the door is a Tirgiii, by A. Lombardo. Part 
of th« high attar it ^ rropertia dc* Rossi. 



BOLOGNA — CHURCHES. 



95 



Madonna di 8. Cohmbano. Frescoes by the 
pupils of L. CaiTaccl, and by Albano. 

Madonna di G^Uiera, near the Duomo; fn^adc 
of 1470. 8rd chapel — Franceschlni's Madonna. 
4th -Teresa Muratori's Unbelief of St Thomas. 
6th— Albano's Infant Saviour viewing the Cross. 
7th-Guerclno'8 St. Philip Ncri. 

Santa Maria Maggiore. Bas-relief of the Death 
of the Virgin, by A. Lombardo. Inscription to 
Bonaparte Ghlsllcrl. 

8. Martina, built 1217 and restored 1836. Peru- 
gino's Assumption; L. Carracci's St. Jerome; 
F. Francia's Madonna and Saints. 

Santa M»ria della Purificazione, or the Mascarella 
Chnrch, built 1706. Here is the cell of St. Domi- 
nic, with the Image of the Virgin, which is said to 
have spoken to him. 

8. Mattia^ now disused. Hero is Guido's Virgin 
appearing to S. Hyacinth; also I. da Imola's 
Madonna Enthroned. 

8. NUxold di 8. Felice. An. Carracci's Crucifixion. 

S. Paolo, in the Via Barberia, built 1611, and 
restored 1819. On the front are MlrandolaS 
St. Peter and St. Paul. 2nd chapel— L. Carracci's 
Paradise. 3rd — Cavedone's Nativity, and the 
frescoes in the celling. 4th— Guercluo's Souls In 
Purgatory. 

8. Procolo Is attached to an old Benedictine 
Convent and Osjtedale degli Esjtositi, or Foundling 
Hospital. 

5. Salrafore, west of Piazza Vltt. Emnnuelc. 
Garofalo's St. John the Baptist kneeling to Zacha- 
rldh. Guercino is buried In this church. 

Ai Servi, or Santa Maria del Scrvi, In Via 
Mazzini, built 133^^, with a marble portico, by 
Fra A. Manfrcdl, General of the Order; adorned 
with frescoes, by Tlarlnl, at the age of ninety. 
22nd chapel— I. da Imola's Annunciation. 24th — 
Bibiena's St. Andrea. 26th— Albano's Noli me 
tangere. 

*8. StefanOy in Via S. Stefano, is formed by a 
union of Seven small churches or chapels, one* of 
which, S. Sepolcro, a b tptistery at the centre, is 
a model of the Holy Sepulchre. It U of the eleventh 
century, ai<d Is annexed to an Atrio di Pilato. 
or Pilate's Court, supposed to be on the site of a 
Temple of Isis. Each chapel has a particular name ; 
and the whole form a curious group, joined bv 
corridors and passages. Ist chapel— Del Cro- 
clfisso; has wall paintings of the Crucifixion, vnd 
—Chapel of S. Gluliana de' Banzl. 3rd— S. Sepol- 
cro, circular, or rather an irregular octagon, about 
sixty feet diameter, having In the middle a small 
circle of pillars, some single, some coupled, sup- 
porting a dome. From this there is a way to 
several subsidiary chapels. 4th— SS. Pietro e 
Paolo, said to have been a cathedral formerly. 
6th — I Confessl, a crypt or confessional. Gth-- 
Snnta Trinitk. 7tli — ^Madonna d<^\V«.C.^\vN^v<"i\.vwNR- 

88. Vitalt td Agri«A<«sw«i\\^3«w52^\^\^^"^N^ 



\ 



regtondinIB?!. and chapel— Tiuin I' 
T.xfTI. Slh— FrtMli-tAngeli flndln, 



unKata. oat«We Porl« d'Aiegllo, bpluiigj 
Ctrtoia, or CarthuiUn Cbnrcb. neu Por 
«an ABCendaii, byBkbtriena: andaBapUn 



'■ n±LV [Section I. 

Iinoli'm St.MlcbMl,thsAKh«n(rei. L. M»a»iri'i 

Son! lo tbe Trinity, PenniglBninu's St. MsrearM 
IQueen uf Scotland) on ber. Kneei. <ioldo-> 
■Hiuloiiua d<[la PIMk nlLta Si. Pelronlui, St. 



1-1/39. nnilB! I 



J. MicJult 



near Po 



iria Caitiglione, 
la d'AH«[lo, on 



[aundedHVI, audiurtlycanTcrteo 
Aiid niiwHi In I7B7. Tbe tIH" P"' 
Wit ol Ibe Cardlnsl Legate, orb' 
(or Plu. IX., Ill hlilaatprijgresi 
Oniii^Hdle iDititute. Bemaliii 
Tlnrbii, Clgnanl, fte,. bi tbe Chun ... ....__ 

ol lblrty-M»i)" by tbe Carracci, In tbe elolmcM. 



n 1IS67 : nuw 1 









I nearly e( 
Ttit Accmbmiailelle Belli srli.in Ibi 
College, near Purta 8. Donaw and 
Harden, Indodes tbe /"Mw-efia/krir, 01 
fit about 40U voris. chlcajf o( the Holes 






ilaiit Clirtit (all paruilu of tbe BargelUnl 
Tit and iHOliB atbB pietnr». Q, Cire- 
I •Vlriln KuL CbUil, with Aaaala aod Balnts. 
xoMVfFiixtoand CUId,»ndBalnta. I. da 



elto-e Virgin 1 
Lngelil''pllnl! 



tie) Is in Ihl) gallery! Tlnlo- 
:t, Klliabetb. lUpbael'B *SI. 

UI3, for £lena dair Ogllo 

o( PadoB, and 01b" ^rkt^ 
icuunJyt«enty-atx. TIarini-i 
Iciandris: Bt. Catberine of 



later atlidei, (ound 



nnu yean. In the adjoining Arci^isaiia Antlco 
(lee below) Is a fine ll&rary of 400.(100 book, and 
baa. The Elrnican anUqaltlee ihoald by no 



edIHee bnllt IMS, by Terrlbllla, and lately reilornd. 

Here the bnman body wag Aral directed, 
about me. by Modinl, and galvanlno was dli- 
covered. In 1701. by Galvanl. who was a lecturer 
ol the tOOiM Mlt SMnii (fonnded by Coont 

eighteenth century! and Clotilda Tam'bronI, a 
learned Greek •eholar, who died as late as 1817. 

In ITM the University wag rcvlied, and was 
Via S. Dooaio originally Lilt by TIbaldl, 



Hueg by P. ■ 
r Attate, anatomical, Ac, 
.phlcal Jnftmmeoca c^ Ihe 
rtb-uy, an olwerrator;, ■ 



Route 3 



aoiMQ NA— ru^oH. 



fuieiis il>o B llbruTirllta 1S0.M0 T<diiniei and 
OOD MHS., foDDdad by nnncriict XIV. : It 1> opiiii 

Tha grria llngulit. CardLnBl HfwiofBntl (bom 
lit Ki>logna.l7T4. lbs Knot ■ carpenter). waiEbLcf 

Atly LuiKuas« Huenllr. and wai olile to eiproi 
hliusolf In BOventy-cleht. lu EngUih, for example, 
he spoke iiol only p»d Enfflleh, but Kood SomeTBet- 

and SlLakcBpcare; and Iheii turn off to 30inG otbcr 
Unguag a«nd ooutotm Inllvvltbtbc amc roadlncsL 

torf'relimiiatlani— nithoCoLLairioda'Flaminliighl. 
for Flcmlita itndmtii Conegrlo dl Lulgl. tor Freneh 



Caraltl, wai rsrlTed Id 180S. and bMame a (chool 
nf mule, direeteil by RoMlnl. II hai a Mualcid 
Ubrary of U,l»0 ToWa. baqnaalhed by Father 

Koislni-i honae l> In VU HagjcLore. marked l^a 
pnunlim; gill iiiacrlptlon from Cleero— " Nun donw 

blm In mi. 
Pa lacks.— Amonff thepTlTalepal aees at Bolofcn^ 

Palata AOtroaU, In Via dl Buragoua, built In 
1MB, by B. Peruiil, 
Palaiio Aldobrimdi. In Strada Galllera, robntlt 



big; moulti. nilddUngi llpa, thicki beard, brown; 
moBBtHchix.llibt: TlaaKe.OTal; «rap(exloii,ii«lei 
head lunk between tno broad ghoulden; bach. 

•Falam Bnilaqiux, In Via d'Aiagllo, bnllt, It 

*paiiata Bakttfilt' « bandaoma bnlldlng In 
tbeVUdelleBa11*Artl| imheontinr. 



iMIiiBS </l MnrAf, In Via S. StaTana. li 

collln« by Ouldo. 
Palam Blaai. or PaOarMHi, In Via B, atci 



Tflcct. Albanl, li. ( 
Jnutf, In Via Han 



n (re.co by 



M ■ ant fioco of 

bnilt by 

JfalHiri-llKHM, in via Zambonl, or S. 



oinnltu and Seniui. by II 

Ptlatio ErmlaHi, In Vis 

cnlDToll : and contalni a 

Palaiio Ualrtiii-UiM'i, 

onalo.wai bnllt In ICM, 

Palam tfalrrrrl-Cawp^, . . ,, , 

hai iomc lapeslry by Loeaa of Leyden. rlTen bv 
Henry VIII- lo Cardinal Cnmpcerfo. wh™ Fapti 
Lcirnte In England, "^ 



leilgni by And. Harchul, baa 
Via dl CmtiifUono, a maclil- 



/M/ain> Piella, or AmAI, near Ibo 
by VIgnolB, for Bocchi, tho founder of 
of Fine Art). 

Palam Annuiii, or Lambertlnl. li 
fano. buDI tw Trlachlnl, bu old 
Sabbailnl. Tlbaldl, *c. 

Falaito Sampitri, or ZampirH, In 

Vlrtno, by An. Carraecl; tbird— H 
AllM. by Alt- Carraecli fourth— Hi 
Antien.. by Ouerclno (eicellant for 
and foraaburteninB) [ flfth— Qcnina ai 



with Jupliar. 



The Ziaa, or Mint, bnllt by Terribllla In UJ8. 
Tbe J'atatu Btlofnial, near Via dl 8. Stefano, ii 

Iho Benllrogllo Palace, waa erecied In IIM, by 
lllHilma; noti-o del Corio, bnllt In ISM: Itof™ 
ConlaralU, I Bit. In an old Carmelite ConTent. 

lected by a wood or metal bracelet, A largo Vail 



98 



B&AI>fiHAW*8 ITAI.T. 



[Section 1. 



Routes.— To Parma 0»y rail). Route 18; to Man- 
tua, Route 15; to Fermra (by rail); to RaTenna 
(by rail) and Ancoua. Route 2*2; to Florence, 
Lucca, and L^horii, Route 21. (See AruMaufs 
Contmemtal Guide). 



ROTJa?B Sl- 
Bologna to Flarenoe. 

The old route orer the Pietra Mala Pass in the 

Apennines, 4,lf0 ftei high, by diligence, 71 miles. 

In H hours, is not now used by traTdlers. The 

pass is a dismal qwt, with a wretched inn (I>e] S<^e), 

' a half-ruined church, and forty or fifty cottages. 

The present much preferable route, is by rail- 

.way to La Porretta Baths; thence OTer the 

CoUina Pass to Pistoja, on the Li^om and Florence 

line, or 8S miles in all to Flwence. This line was 

. planned by the Austrians. 

From Bologna (Stat.) the stations are— 



BCUes. 
Riola .^.^.....»^.. 29| 
Porretta 
Pracchia 
Pistoja 
Florence 



•••«•••••• 



S7 

as 



Miles. 
Borgo Panigale . 
Casalecchio ....... 

II Sa:HO ..^.^..... 12| 

Marzabotto ..^...». 17 
Tergatb ........^.. 241 

The line ascends the Reno to 

Borgo di Panisalo (Stat.) 

GamlOCClliO (Slat.) Population, 2,093. Near 
the site of a French rictory orer Pope Julius II., 
in 1511, and of the defeat of the Bolognese and 
Florentines, by the Duke of MHan, 1402. At 

Sasso (Stat.), the line begins to ascend the 
Apennines up the de&le of the Reno, passing some 
deep cuttings, Ac, to 

■anabotto (8tat.X where are remains of an 
Etruscan town, and 

YergatO (Stat.) Here the ralley of the rirer 
opens. BUda (Stet.) On the left the peaks of 
Monte OtoIo and Monte Vigese. 

Ponrvtta (Stat.) a village (pop^ 2.976), fai a 
picturesque valley of the Reno, 1.190 feet above 
sea, un«lsr Monte Cardo, and frequented in 
summer for its warm mineral J^pr^t, which 
are useful in cases of rheumatism, paralysis, 
and diseased glands. Temperature, 90" to 100*. 
They are used both for drinking and bathing, and 
give out carbonic acid and hydrogen gases, the 
latter being turned to account to light up the 
Baths ; a discovery first bit on by a clever shoe- 
maker of the village. The air is temperate and 
bracing among these sandstone and limestone biiU. 
Hence the line ascends towards the pass to 

Lb Cataxe, near the Reno, which formed the old 
boundaiy between Tuscany and the Papal States. 
Here a tunnel is cut through the ridge for the rail- 
way ; above which is the pass of La CoHnut itself, 
by which the Apennines were for a time crossed 
hy means of articulated engines. It is a low one, 
oaly lt,350 feet above the sea, but commands a fine 
pcoqpect of the hills and valleys around. Momts 
Ctniaue, to the north, is 8,975 feet high. The road 
descent is made by a series of aig-aags to 

Ptaodda tfttal). the highest point of the rail. 
wh^re the tunnel comes out, and to the valley of 



the Ombrone. Diligence to 8. Marcello, where 
conveyance can bo pnKured to B0600llDlgO 
(a good centre for mountain excnndonsX AbOtOlIt, 
Jcc. 
Many viaducts and tunnels to 

Pi8ta)a, or PlstOia (Stat.), whence it is 31 
miles to Florenoo. (See Route 24). 



Bologna to Castel Bolognese (for Bayenna), 
Rimini, and Ancona. 

Bvrai/, 126 miles, ha 5 to 8 hours. This is part 
of tne Overland Route rtd Brindisi. At Castel 
Bolognese is a branch line of 26| miles to Raveium. 

The sUtions \ 



Miles. 


Miles. 


Mirandola ............ 7 


Savignano ............ 60| 


Qnadema 10} 


S.Aicangelo ......... 6d 


Castel S. Pietro ...... 15 


Rimini ... ... 69^ 


imoia .....M. ••..•«*.•• 22 


Cattolica — ....... 81 1 

Pesaro ........m....... 9e^ 


Castel Bolognese .» 26 


Faenza 31 


Fano .................. 97 


Forlie 40 


Senigallia .« 110 


Fortimpoli ........... 45 


Ancona.................. 1 27| 


Cesena 51} 





This Route towards Rimini is one of the pleasant- 
est in Italy, leading through a riehly-cultivated 
plain, and past many industrious and cheerful- 
looki&g towns, with ^ews ci the Apennines all the 
way, which correqxmds with the ancient Via 
iEmilia. It crosses a succession of streams flow- 
ing down the east slope of the mountains into the 
Adriatic. After crossing the Saveaa and Idice, the 
line comes to 

Htrandola (Stat.), and 

Qaadema (Stat.), near the Romam CUUena. 

Then 

Castel S. Pletro (Stat.), near an old fortified 
castle, tm the River Sillaro. 

Inola (Statw), on the site of Fonsm OomtHi. 
Population. 13,997. 

It was built by the Lombards, and incorporated 
with the Sutes of the Church by Julius IL. and is 
a bishop's see, with a Cathetbral dedicated to St. 
Cassianus, hi which Archbishop St. Peter Chryso- 
logus, a native of the fifth century is burled. 
Pius IX., was Bishop of Imola. Innocenxlo da 
Imola, a pupil of Francia, who painted betwMn 
] 506 and 1549, was bom here. Across the Santertto 
to 

Castel Bolognese (Stal), where the Bologna 
BepubUc erected a fortress iu 1380. 

(llere a branch railway turns olf to SaTenaa, S6| 
miles. 



The stations I 

Miles. 
Solarolo ...m....... 3] 

Lugo .....M.M.....M. oi 

Bagnacavallo ...... \\\ 



MUes. 
RussI ................. 1^ 

Crodo ................. 18 

Ravenna............... )S| 



LsgO or Logo (Stat.), near the aadeat £i 
Diaiue. Population of commune, 9ft)6Se. The 



.Boute 22.] 



PORRETTA, IMOLA, RAVENNA — TOMB OP DANTE. 



99 



xnodoni town was built by the Bologiicse. On tbe 
left is Fusi^ano, tlio bii'th-placc uf Monti, tho 
.poet, and Curelli, the inusicinu. 

BacnacavallO (Stat.) The old TibeHaeum, 
And birthplace of the painter Uamenghi, who is 
known by the name of Bagiiacavullu. 

Between this and Ravenna we pass RttSBl (Stftt.) 
(population, 7,569), the native town of Farini, one 
of tho leading; Italian patriots, of the school of 
Cnvour, He joined in the insurrectionary luove- 
jucnt of 1831, at Bologna, in which Louis Napoleon 
and his brother took part. lie afterwards became 
tutor in Jerome Bonaparte's family, and a member 
of the Roman Parliament. He was the intimate 
friend of Cavour; was appointed Dictator of 
Parma and Modena, and eventually became Prime 
Minister. 

RAVENNA (Stat) 
" Ray<mna la Antica," or the ancient. 
Statue of Farini in front of tho Railway Station. 
Population, 60,578. 
Iloteh : La Spada ; Grand Hotel Byron. 

*Chi^ Objects o/^o/ice.— Dante's Tomb; B>Ton's 
House; Cathedral and Baptistery; S. Apollinare 
Nuovo ; S. Giovanni Evang. ; S8. Nazario e Celso ; 
Theodosius Palace; Mausoleum of Theodosins; 
S. ApoUinarc In Classe; Pino Forest. 

Ravenna, tho seat of au archbishop, became in 
A.D. 402, tho scat of the Empire of the West, at 
which Honorins L, Valentinianus III., and other 
Emperors resided after deserting Rome. Hence this 
province came to bo called Romania or Romagnc^ 
a name it still bears. Theodoric, the Goth, or G teat, 
upon his defeat of Odoacer hard by, in 49^, made 
it the capital of his kingdom, and in Justinian's 
time, his great general, Narses, fixed the seat of 
the Exarchate hero. In 754, Pepin gave it to the 
Pope. As early as the time of Augustus it was 
noted as one of the two great ports of the Roman 
Empire, and a starting place for the East; but 
. owing to the gradual accumulation of mud and 
sand brought down by the ]*o, along this side of 
tho Adriatic, it is now full 6 miles from the sea, 
and of course in a state of decay. 

It stands near the Rivers Ronco and Montone, in 
the midst of a wide marshy plain, covered with 
ruins, and divided from the sea by the famous 
Pinetct, or pine forests, 15 miles long, which have 
been celebrated by Dante (whoso tomb is here), 
Dryden, and Byron. These pines served to make 
piles for the foundation of the early city, and also 
to build vessels for its navy. Through its con- 
nection with the East, Ravenna is more Greek- 
built than any other Italian city, containing, next 
to Rome, a greater quantity of marbles, mosaics, 
&c^ from Greece and Africa, in its churches and 
buildings. One-half of the space within tho walls 
is garden ground. 

There are five or six Gates — Porta Serrata, built 
by the Venetians, on the north, near tho remains 
ot their citadel (1457) and of Theodoric's Tomb; 
Porta Albcront (1789), on the oast, towards the 



Pineta and the sea; Porta Nuova (1658), on tho 
south ; l»orta Hisi (1668), near this, and also on tho 
i south; Porta Adriana (1585), on the west, adjoin- 
ing a suburb on this side. Here was the Porto 
Aurea, of which only a fragment remains belonghig 
to a wall built by Til>eriu8. 

Fi-om Porta Serrata, a wide street runs 
through the town to Porta Nuova, which leads 
out to Ponte Nuovo, on the Ronco and Montone, 
and to S. Apollinare, on the site of Classis, the 
old port. Anuviglio or canal, of 7 miles, was cut 
hi 1737 to tho new port. The Porta Sisi leads out 
past the tomb of Gaston de Folx. 

The Piazza Vitt. Emanuele, the largest open plaoc, 
has statues of 8S. Apollinaris and Vitalo on two 
pillars, erected by the Venetians, 1483, with bas- 
reliefs by P. Lombnrdo. There is also a statue of 
Clement XII., ond a portico of eight tall columns, 
which belonged to a temple of Hercules, facing tho 
Oovernativo. The Town Hall or Palazzo Bfunici- 
pale, where the archiv.es are placed, is also here. 
Near this Piazza is the 7\>rre del Pvhhlico, a square 
brick tower of the eleventh century, which leans 
like those at Bologna. 

The Piazza Byronh^n a bronze statue of Alexander 
VII., 1675. In tho Piazza del Duomo is a statue 
of the Virgin, 1669; and in tho Piazzetta Alighieri, 
a column to Cardinal Gaetani, 1609, whoso crest 
was an eagle; as was that of the Polenta family, 
which long ruled here. 

• Tomb of Dante, adjoining the church of S. 
Francesco, not far from Byron's House (see below). 
The great Italian poet died here 14tli September, 
1321, an exile from his "ungrateful Florence," and 
under tho protection of Guido da Polenta, Lord of 
Ravcnuiu Tho mausoleum, dcsigrned by P. Lom- 
bardo, was erected 1481, by the Podesta, Benmrdo 
Bembo, and restored 1780, by Cardinal V. Gon- 
zaga. It is a little domed temple, **more neat 
than solemn," with his bust, inscriptions, and other 
ornaments. Near here is a small court, containing 
a numl)er of very old Christian sarcophagi. 

* Byron' 9 Hotue(ln Via G. Mazziui). is marked by 
an inscription stathigthat he entered it 10th June, 
1819. He lived here, and at the house of Countess 
Guiccioli till November, 1821, involving himself 
and the lady's connections with the secret societh's 
in plots against the Papal Government. They 
were so seriously committed that her family was 
exiled from Ravenna, and took refuge in Tuscany, 
whither he followed them. 

Ravenna has two perfect basilicas, both dedicated 
to St. Apollinaris, and some roimd buildings, as 
St Vitale, «fcc., all exemplifying tho Romanesque 
style. 

The * Cathedral or Duomo, a short distance west of 
Dante's Tomb. Rebuilt 1734-49, by Buonamici, out 
of the stones of one founded by St. Ursus, or Orso, 
in the fourth century, of which the only remnant is a 
I'ound slender campanile of the eighth or ninth cen- 
tury. It had five aisles. Somopiecesof the old vine- 
wood door are let into the preseut <i<C)iks^. Kxs^vsvn^;^ 
the paiutUv^a wl^Cxu^^^K?%VTVi%RR^^<i\^Xv'8^^Kvtv!^'fc^A 



100 



BBADBHAW'S ITALY. 



[Section I. 



Manna, and Elijah Fed by Ravens; Bonone^s Bel- 
shazzar*s Feast and Camucciurs St. Ursas. There 
is also an ancient silver crucifix, and St. Maxi- 
minian's ivory chair, the latter of the sixth century. 

The Baptittery, close by, is an octagonal relic, 
restored in 451, and supposed to have been built by 
St. Ursus. Two rows of arcades within, one over 
the other, are covered wiih bas-reliefs; and the 
walls and cupola with mosaic arabesques of the 
fifth ccnlurv. The front is of porphyry and mar- 
ble ; the huiy water basiu came from a temple of 
Jupiter. 

The Palazzo Areiveacovile or Archbishop's Palace, 
has a C/iapel^ built 449 by St. Peter Chrysologus, 
covered witli mosaics and marble ; also a library 
of MSS., and collections of inscriptions, &c. 

Santa Agata, near Porta Sisi, a primitive-looking^ 
church, first built 417, with three aisles and beauti- 
ful marble pillars. 

*S. ApoUinare Nuovo, in the Corso Garibaldi, 
isa regularbasilica, dedicated to St. Martin (atfirst) 
by Theodoric, a.d. 500, for an Arian Cathedral. 
It has three aisles made by twenty-four pillars of 
vehied Greek marble front Cbnstantlnople; anapse 
at the end; fourteen rich altars with many tombs ; 
the bishop's seat, and portraits of prelates, &c , in 
the very ancient Mosaics on the walls of the nave, 
dating from 559. Among these are the Adoration 
of the Magi and twenty-two Vhgius; the port of 
Classis, with its ships; twenty-five Suints and 
Martyrs adoring Christ; a view of old Ravenna 
and Theodoric's Palace, the remains of which are 
still seen near this church. 

S. Chiara, in ruins, has wall paintings, said to 
be by Giotto. 

S, Domenico, to the north-west of Piazza V. 
Emanuele. A church of the fifth century, since 
altered. It has Rondinelli's Annunciation; also 
L. Longhi's Mysteries of the Rosary, and his Inven- 
tion of the Cross. Longhl is buried here. 

8. Francesco, near Dante's Tomb «nd Byron's 
House, and a statue of Alexander VII. An old 
church modernised; with twenty-two marble 
columns in the nave. It bclonGred to the Minorite 
Friars, and Dante was at first buried in it, by the 
Polenta family. Here are carvmgs by P. Lom- 
banlo, in the Crucifix Chapel ; a Madonna, by 8. 
da Imola; with tombs of Ostasioda Polenta who 
died a Franciscan monk; and of Enrico Alfieri, 
General of the Order; also an urn to Archbishop 
Liberius of the fourth century. 

*S. Oiovanni Kvangelista, near the railway sta- 
tion, rebuilt 16x3, but founded in 444, by Galla 
Plucidia, daughter of The<»dosiu8, in obedience to 
a vow. It hiis three aisles, divided by twenty-four 
pillars from the first church ; with carvings of the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries over the door, 
paintings by F. Longhl, and a fresco by Giotto ; 
also an altar of serpentine and porphyry in the 
crypt. Some of its ancient Mosaics are gone. 

8. Giovanni Battista, near Porta Serrata, also 
founded by Galla Placidia 488, was rebuilt 1683, 
but the columns in the interior are part of the 
ori^innl church. 



Santa Maria in Cosnudin, close to 8. Spirito (see 
below), was originally a sixth century baptistery 
to that Arlan church; of an octagon shape, with a 
mosaic (6th century) of the Baptism in the cupola. 

Santa Maria in Px/rto, in the Corso, near Porta 
Nuova, rebuilt 1583, out of the stones of S. Lorenzo 
of Ccsarea (another Roman port in this quarter). 
It has an old marble relief of the Madonna, 
P. Giovano's Martyrdom of St. Mark, and L. 
Longhi's Virgin a'ld Snints. 

8. Alichele in Affricisco, of the sixth century, 
is now almost destroyed. 

*S8. Naxario e Gel so, or the Mausoleum of OaVa 
Placidia, near Porta Adriana, was built 488-40, by 
that Empress, for herself, in the »hape of a Greek 
cross, 49 feet by 40 feet, under a large cupola, 
covered with marble and mosaics. Among theso 
are seen the Christian symbols of that age; as, the 
lamb for Christ, birds for departed souls, Ac. 
Behind the altar is the large sarcophagus of the 
Empress (450), which at one time held her sitting 
figure, dressed in robes. She was a clever woman, 
born at Constantinople, the daughter of Theodosius 
the Great. A sarcophagus in t he right transept con- 
tains her brother, Honorius II.; another in the left, 
Constantius, her second htisband. Her first was 
Alaric's son, Ataulphus. Two smsll sarcophagi 
are said to hold the tutors of her children 

8. Niccolb, near Porta Mamantc, founded in 768. 
Here is the St. Monica of Cosare dl Ravenna, a 
native artist. 

S. Romualdo or Clcuse, near th e Duomo, is attached 
to the College, formerly the Certosa Convent, and 
was built 16 10. Here are Guercino's St. Rorauald, 
S. Cignuni's S. Benedict, and (In the college) fres- 
coes by L. and F. Longhl. 

8, Spirito or Teodoro, was built 408-523, by 
Theodoric the Great, for the Arians, and re-namel 
when taken possession of by the orthodox party ; 
the baptistery being called St. MaHa in Cosmeiin 
(see above). It has an ancient marble chair. 

*S. Vitale, near Porta Adriana, was built in 536, 
in the time of the Emperor Justinian, Ac, and 
dedicated to St. Vitalis, who suffered martyrdom 
on the spot. It is usually cited as the most 
complete specimen of the Byzantine stylo in 
Italy, and as a copy of St. Sophia's at Constanti- 
nople. Mr. Fergnsson thinks it was meant for a 
copy of the Minerva Modica, nt Rome. It is an 
octagon crowned by a cupola, resting on arches, sup- 
ported by a double range of granite columns below, 
between which are some circular recesses. The 
eighth space opens into the sanctuary and apse; 
and the whole is surrounded by a wall ; so that 
while the outside diameter is 110 feet, the inside is 
only 50 feet. There is a separate gatlory for 
women, round the upper range of pillars. The 
windows and arches are all round-headol. The 
choir is placed across one of the comers outside 
the octagon, like a tangent, with entrances at each 
end. The cupola is not made of stone, but of light 
earthen pots or amphorsB, like some other boildiagt 
in Italy, and is covered wi^h wood. 



Boute 22.] 



BAVBNNA — CHURCHES, PALACE OF THBODORIC. 



101 



Its walls within aro lined with marble, up to the 
cornice, where the *Mo»a%c9 began, wliich Imve 
since disappeared, except in the choir. Here they 
still remain in a fine state of perfection. One of the 
most interesting is the Consecration of the Church, 
showing Justinian and his courtiers, the Empress 
Theodosia (who was an actress) and her ladies, 
and Bishop Maximlanus and his priests. Other 
mosaics on the walls arc dedicated to the Martyr- 
dom of St. Vitalis, the Eivangclists 4ind Apostles, 
Christ the good Shepherd, Abel and Melchizedck, 
Abraham, Moses, Isaiah, Jeremiah, «kr.; with ara- 
besque borders, and other ornaments. Near the 
high altar is a bas-relief from a temple of Neptune, 
which occupied the site of t he church, and there 
is another of the Apotheosis of Augustus, in the 
sacristy, witu a sf>.rcophagus, and paintings by 
Longhi, &c. An interesting tomb of the Exarch 
Isaac, who died 641, is behind the church. 

The ^Palace of Theodoric^ so called, is in Corso 
Garibaldi, but is only a fragment, consisting of a 
portico on eight granite columns, of a wall of the 
old residence of the Exarchs, now fronting the 
Franciscan Convent, wliich occupies its site. A 
porphyry basin, with pieces of towers and walls 
are left ; but its chief ornaments were carried off 
by Charlemagne. "In all its details it shows a 
close resemblance to the Palace of Diocletian of 
Hpalatro, more especially to the Porta Aurea, and 
the most richly (and least classically) decorated 
parts of that edifice, mixed with mouldings and 
details belonging to the Gothic styles which were 
coming into use." — Ftrgusson. 

A short distance outside Porta Serrata, is the 
Rotonda, or 

*Mauso!eum of Tlteodoric^ built about 530, 
in imitation of that of Hadrian (or Castcl 
S. Angelo), at Rome; and now turned into a 
church, dedicated to Santa Maria deVa Rotonda. 
Its lower storey is a stone decagon, 45 feet diameter, 
with a deep arched niche in each face at bottom. 
At the top is a flat terrace on which stood a range 
of small pillars supporting arches which surrounded 
the upper storey. This is surmomited by a cupola, 
remarkable as being made out of a single block of 
hollowed stone, 35 feet diameter, with twelve 
handles round its edge, by which it must have 
been raised to its present position. Its weight is 
calculated at 450 tons. A modeini staircase leads 
up to the to}), where his sarcophagus or m'U was 
placed. 

At the CoUegio of the Carthusians at S. RomuaUlo, 
near the Duomo, are the Town Librarj% Museum, 
and Fine Arts Academy. 

The Library, or BiMiotecKt Comunale, foilndcd 
1714, by Abbe Caimetti, contains about 60,000 
volumes and 700 MSS. Among the curiosities are 
about 700 editions of the fourteenth century, 
including the DecrctiUs of Boniface VIII. (14G0), 
a Venice Pliny (I4C9), a Venice Bible (1476) with 
miniatures, a Milan Dante (1478), also a MS. of 
Dante of the fourteenth century with miniatures, 
and a rare AristophaiieB of the tenth century. 

The Academy of FhsturtB and Statuary ooutalns 



works by the Longhi, D. de Volterra, Gucrcino, 
&c., and several Flemish masters; mosaics, and an 
effigy of a warrior, called Bracciafortc (or strong- 
arm), from S. Francesco's Church. 

In the Museum is a fine collection of Italian 
medals, ancient and modem, with bronzes, jwttery, 
inscriptions, &c.; one of the most remarkable 
things being a modal of Cicero, stnick at Magnesia 
in Asia Minor. Mtueo Bizantino, with ancient 
sculptures and inscriptions. 

The Ttatro Comunale was built 1724; the Teatro 
Xttovo, in 1848. 

Good water is scarce here, and was so in Martial's 
time. In one of his epigrams, he says — 

" Sit clstema mihl quam vinea malo Bareimse, 
Dum poasim luulto veudere plori* aquaiu " 

" Lodged at Baveuua, wa'er aells so dear, 
A ciiiteru to a viueyard I prefer."— ,^(i(<t«on. 

In another, he complains that he paid for a mix- 
ture of wine and water, and the rascally vintner 
cheated him aird sold him only wine. 

About a quarter of a mile outside Porta Nuova, 
at La Crocetta, a Greek cross, is the site of 8. 
Lorenzo in Cesarea, a church founded 396, by the 
Emperor Honorius's treasurer, in the midst of 
Augustine's more ancient town of Ctesarea. It was 
razoii 1553, when Santa Maria in Porto was built. 
From this there is a wiiy to Ponte Nuovo on the 
Canal, and to the solitary Church of Santa Miria 
in Porto Fuori (i e., without the walls) near tho 
site of tho old port. Built 1096, by B. P. Onesti, 
or II P&scatore^ and rebuilt in the sixteenth century. 
It has a tall campanile, three aisles, between arches 
of unequal size, and remains of several frescoes, 
by Giotto or pfipils of his school. 

The railway should bo taken to Classe, for 

*S. ApoUinare in Classe, on the site (now a marsh) 
of the Roman port of Classis, of which this is the 
only relic, built 534-49, when Maximinian was 
Archbishoi>, on the site of Apollo's t emplc. This 
basilica corre8p<mds in ago and style to its name- 
sake inside the walls, and is allowed to possess the 
true body of the saint, to which both are dedicated. 
It wants a portico, and its marble casing, which 
was used by Malatesta of Rimini to cover his 
Church of St. Francis there, 1460. Twenty-four 
granite pillars in single blocks divide the church 
into three aisles. Along the walls are six sarcop- 
hagi of prelates of the seventh and eight centiuics, 
and there is a scries of 126 oval portraits of all; ho 
prelates down to the present time, from a.d. 74, 
The Emperor Otho's name commemorates an act 
of i)cnitcnce performed by liini in 1000. One of the 
altars has a marble canopy of the ninth century, 
Tho high altar is of black and white marble, 
porphyry, and verde-antico, and the pulpit is of 
marble. 

The walls arc ndome^l with Mosaics; as Moses 
and Klias; St. Aiwllinaris, the patron sahit, 
preaching; tho Sacrifices of Abel, Abraham^ A;c^ 
Christ and the Apostles; awk ^gcwa^-e. vA. ■«»&£»&». 
The toiuh ol \.\\ft \*«XTatk.^«Jvw\. Na^Va. "^^ 'x!^'^ Vr>«^« 



BSU)BHAW'S 1TA1,T. 
Mdestrojed kind which 



Klne. The GheTnLicr B 
dC Merticl(Lr)oX), and 
M,OOOmHiweti!km«!Dn 



>«ni£ed In hla fnble of Ihs Proud Honorii punned 
by the Bnectro honerann, Onldo Csvalcaiitl, 



canfinsmcnC. irnlkcd 

Mlheyr«MhS"th 
J.™ up^lhe wn, 

before loaiinsB»TiM.iia,B. 

nftemardi retired to Cupi 



Inharhunband'sitni 
iinsnd ar tbo 'Ccnlnil Itnll 



biittla dT IBII; 



}f the Polenta rn 
hoM AduJteTv wl 



■. TheTaiiitlanih 
takon by tha Freoct 



lotitdlcsnrronndedhy tbo Cathedral, ClockTover, 

taint some palntlnnt: and the Town Kail was the 
palace of 0, Mwifrodl, who was mnrdorod bete, 

wards put todoath at Rome, on IhB anrrendcr of 
Faeuza to Cnur Itorgta In lEOI . 

met. "" 



Picture OallsTT in the Oyninai 



with 



Hall lo HoTWiea.sfa Fognano, Mnrradi, BofRO 
8, LoroDzo, and VaffIJA, op«niiiR up direct com- 
mnnlontion between EaTenjUl and Legliom. 

Pom (Btat). near tho Montone, is the Roman 
Fbrum Lirii, founded b; LWIns Salinalor, after 



paint. 81, nilppe hi 



hoAlblciiil.QDarlni, 

Madonna del Fnooa 
In^by^'ci^^l, cl 



llegfl eontalni pabitlnB 



&c, Pnlmozzano waa bom at roni, anoui j,*inii 
bis portrait is preaerred by hla fainily. His 
Depodllon Is now to tbo NaHonal Gallery. 
Tram to RaTenna, and to Heldola. 
Crois tbo Ronto (ancient BtdtMK) to 
ForllmpopoU (Stat), eo called after F,Tum 
PompUii. ol the Romani. which -was destroyed by 



li n tram line to Forll (below] In ]) honr 

neit station to OMtel BolagneBS Is 
PUnia (Stat.l, the anelenl FaMnti 

' yi^ir rAani ca/onieil and glMMBd pottery, Ol Ihe . biehop' 



CeBana (Btat.), t 



Boute 22.] 



RAVENNA, FOBLI^ BUBICON, RIMINI. 



103 



lation, 89,490. The Palazzo Pnbblico has a paint- 
ing by F. Francia; at the Capuchin Church is a 
Guercino. There is a statue of Pius VII. (Chiara- 
nionte), who was bom here, as was his predecessor, 
Pius VI., who died at Avign(ni, 1799. In the 
library of.the college, collected by the Malatesta 
family, among other MSS., is the Etymologiss 
of St. Isodorus, of the seventh centmy. The 
Benedictine Church of Madonna del Monte, on a 
hill near the town, is the work of Bramantc. Pius 
yil. was a monK in this convent. 

This place was at the mercy of a secret society 
between 1849 and 1854, which in the name of 
liberty perpetrated more than sixty political mur- 
ders, and was not put down till Farlni came with 
a strong band in 1861, and arrested its leaders. 
There are mines of good sulphur in the neigh- 
bourhood. 

Between this and Savignano the line passes the 
rivers Pisciatolto, Flumicino, and Rigossa, all of 
which, with the Uso, have at one time or another 
been identified with the famous 

Bublcon, the boundary line between Cisalpine 
Gaul andUmbria in Italy proper. Csesar, in B.C. 49, 
was at Ravenna when M. Antony came to him with 
news that the Senate had resolved that he should 
dismiss his army or be declared a public enemy. 
Sending on his cohorts before, he came to the 
Rubicon, the boundary of his province. "We may 
go back," he said, **but when wo pass this little 
bridge everything must be done by arms.'* He 
made up his mind, waded the stream, saying, 
" Alea jacta est" (the die is cast), took Ariminium, 
and in two months was master of all Italy. Close 
to a Roman bridge on the Fiumicino is a pillar of 
modem date, with a pretended Senatus consultum, 
prohibiting any general from crossing, under the 
heaviest penalties. This stream, however, hito 
which the real Rubicon, which was probably the 
upper part of the Pisclatello, formerly fell, may 
stand for the real boundary with as much pro- 
priety as any other. The next place is 

S. ArcanfrelO (Stat.), on the River Uso, 
which is the fourth stream claimed as the Rubicon. 
This little town is the birthplace of Clement XIY. 
(Ganganelli). The next station is 

RIMINI (Stat) 

The ancient Ariminium, in Umbria, where the Via 
iEmilia ended, or joined the Via Flaminia. The 
modem boundary of Umbria, or Urbino, is further 
on. 

Population, 37,916. 

Hotels: Aqnilad*Oro; Posta. 

Tramway from the station to the Bathing Estab- 
lishment. 

This ancioit Roman town stands on a plain 
ai the mouth of the Marecchia (ancient Ariminius)^ 
where the Ansa Joins it near the sea, which has 
•omewhat retired from the old port made by 
Augustus. The marble stones of the port were 
nsed iq the eonstroction of the cathedri^l. Further 
down is a harbour fof fimall cn^t. . 



Rimini is on the whole well built ; it is a bishop's 
see, and, besides its remnants of Roman occupa- 
tion, it contains a fine Cathedral, churches, college, 
lyceum, the palace of the Malatesta family (now 
a prison). Lords of Rimini, and remains of their, 
fortress, with two open places. Oneis thePescheria, 
or Fish Market, surrounded by arcades, in which 
is a pedestal stating that Crosar addressed his' 
soldiers here after passing the Rubicon. Suetonius 
and Lucon make him out to have done so, but ho 
says nothing of it himself. The other, or Piazza 
Grande, is ornamented with a bronze statue of 
Paolo v., and a fountain. The Fanal and Para- 
dise offer good points of view. 

*Arco cFAuffusto, or Porta Romana, is an arch 
across the road to Rome, erected in honour of 
Augustus. It is a simple and massive pile of whit« 
stone, like marble, supported by four Corinthian 
columns, 32 feet high, with medallions of Venus, 
Jupiter, Neptune, and Minerva. It is 60 feet high 
and 27 thick, and the archway is 31 feet wide, 
being wider than any other in Italy. 

*Ponte cCAugusto, or bridge which carried the 
.^milian way over the Ariminius (now Marecchia), 
is of five arches, 320 feet long, made of blocks of 
Istrian marble. An inscriptiop states that it was 
finished by Tiberius. There ai u some slight traces 
of an amphitheatre of Brutus, at the Capuchin 
Convent. 

The Cattedrale, or Tempio dei Malatesta, was 
founded in the fourteenth century and rebuilt 
in the fifteenth, by L. B. Alberti, in the mixed 
Gk)thic and classical style, at the cost of Sigismund 
Malatesta, whose arms (the rose and elephant) tfnd 
family monuments arevisibleall over the building. 
Under a series of arches down the outside are 
seven Sarcophagi dedicated to certain celebrities 
of this little court, one being that of a Greek 
writer on Aristotle. Near the door is the tomb of 
Isotta, fourth wife of Sigismund Malatesta, two 
others having been poisoned. There are also 
monuments of Sigismund and his son-in-law; a 
portrait of the architect; a fresco by P. della 
Francesca, and bronze bas-reliefs by Ghibcrti. 

At 8. &iti/tano'« Church, near Augustus's Bridge, 
is a Martyrdom of St. Julian, by P. Veronese ; and 
at S. Girolamo is a St. Jerome, by Guercino. At 
the Capella S. Antonio, on the canal, St. Anthony 
preached to the fishes. 

The Palazzo del Comune, or Town Hall, contains 
a Piet2i by G, Bellini, and a painting by Ghlrlan- 
dajo. The Library of 80,000 volumes and MSS. was 
founded in 1617, by A. Gambalunga, a jurist. 
The Palazzo Rt^ is the site of the Cistemi Palace, 
in which Francesca da Rimini and her lover Paolo 
de Malatesta lived, whose guilty passion is cele- 
brated by Dante. Here she was killed in the arms 
of her paramour. It is also celebrated for the 
Council between the Arians and Athanasians. 

Rimini, some years ago, was the scene of a 
Winking Madonna, which took greatly with. Ojla. 
peasantry, who came tA l^!et \sv^xw«^aK^Gc«*K^»^ 



104 



Bilti. Tlie more Intelll^ci y^n a,<lei, 

tan; bnttba FrancfKu'riuo^ki w^o 
tb( Irlcli fan oat [but IIk-bb mlrnclni 



BRAMBAV'a ItALT. 

MvonrcU t<; Th« law! i 
Ifi « cLum.y, IHulriMlm. 



[Scclion 1. 

ttttled "StHuU 



uli, " 






BEPUBLIC OF BAIT BARIKO, 

h occiiploi n ipacc ol 23 •nuarc miloB on Ibe 



.LcSoiorKltbaAiicmi 
it St. Marl 



:b, perched on the ■nmnilt or 



Id fled tram Klmlii: 






onlf by il^ag patba cm In tbo ■[inoit porpeii- 

Tbo auborb ontilde Ihc city willm «DD (iii4 bo- 
low. Ii called 11 Borgo; nndihEiKiiiulntlonofbotb 
BBumntitol.MO. Tbntoftho republic In Utwbole 



new klnedoin of Ilaly mnd (lie repolilk: 
■till flgurci vamg tbc Indc^ndait it 

polItlcBl lefu 



oiylBP 



ImiurtUlboipltiilltF. I 
m»t dlitlnKulilioil wu UtUiin, a NupolitM, who 

•Ipied'blmadf "Cltudlno dl S. Muli»." iflii 
Home 1> pulntHl uul, u well ■<■ Uinl or theCaTsller 

coBri of Dainutla. utoh the Adtlallc, can be ueu 
atHBo-lK. "FewrachMBrtKosiirRl thlnttobo 

llie srndiiully kluiHlng path ol tiro Rthwurt the 
cold deep blue of the Adrlalle. Then one after 



h^Sld^i 



Rlndnl, wbieh leem 



nnrhe."— TBOLLon'i J 



contalni HHno ifoad putiii > . 
>llkwoniii,Bndwlno: the i.> 




tJount Coijlloilru. who pretended to niahe old 








Z!I^l'y"%he^''o"ilnl';-; '' ' 




Cardinal Rubin and Ihe diamond necklace, woe 




■hut np by the Pope, and died !!».] 


Tbero li in Inn In the rliy, and 




LenTlne Rlmlul, the rail now follow, the Ftani- 


Doreo. Iti .iroeta nro dlflloult Bn 


only naod by 


lulonwny, dote to theeoaul, and the next place 


niDlca. donkeys, and oien. 

At tbo Capocliln Chnrch la n Dot 
Crou. Thoiearo thno other ebur 
convent) In Iheropobllo. In the Co 


"» o™''fuur 
nell Chnmbor 


La CftttOllM (Stat.) A lanre Tillage. In 
tbo Uuchy ol Urblnn, >u called when llie orlbodoi 




lltzni, and a 




Holy FBmlly. by 0. Rnnuino. 

A;.'ipT;.n,s;:;.':','r.,i'.? 

eleotlT* donOTBle Oonalilln. colled 1 




CrowtlieFogllolor ancient /nwiu), near llio 
rcnubiB ti a Koinan bridge, lo 
FemTO(Btat) The Roman ««i„.|,«, at tbo 


niouth of the Foell^ which fonn. a „uall ,«.t. 


Prlaee), ol ilxly uiembern. nobler, 


!ii*llp«,rt<; 




tors, and Iradara. ono-thlid -f caci 


and by'two 


11 [• wollcd round, wllh BO«l wide .IreMm and 


Copltanol lor town ond eonulry, nbo 






alK montbi. A }nd;n awl iKietor, 




iBlni the old polocc of the Duke ol Urblno. of tbo 


lorolgner., arc elottSl for .hree y^ 


, ThoUBhll 


Blxteenlh cenluy. In tho Flniia. where (here ]■ a 


boBaU an anny of MO mce, all rolan 


eej^ltbaaa 


•tBtne of UrWno VIII.; C.thwlral, and iovoi or 


model bodgetol about efi,IKK), ulih a 




eight Cbnrehca, one of which. S. Francevw, hai 


' "^tmma; and no publle D 


cbl. 


O. BeUlBl'i Coronation of the Virgin. BlUlotaoa, 



Route 22.] 



BAN MABINO, PBSAKO, CAKO, BINIGAOLIA. 



109 



with 50,000 volumes and many MSS., especially 
one of Tasso. Pictures and a* bast oif Napoleon 
by Canora. Museum of medals, bequeathed by 
Olivier!, the antiquary and a native. Collection 
of majolica; this class of pottery came to great 
perfection at Pesaro. All these collections are at 
the Ateneo^ in Via Mazza. 

Collenuccio, a chronicler of the fifteenth century, 
and Rossini, wore natives. Its Albanella and S. 
Giovese wines are sent to Egypt. 

Good olives and figs are g^'own here and coal 
has been found. In the neighbourhood is the 
Villa Bergami, which belonged to Queen Caroline, 
when Princess of Wales. The grounds contain 
two monuments to her daughter, the Princess 
Charlotte, and her brother, the Duke of Bruns- 
wick, who fell at Waterloo. 

Villa ImperiaJe was a seat of the Dukes of Ur- 
bino. At Casino del Barchetto (now a farm) 
Bernardo Tasso, the father of Torquato, resided, 
and composed his Amadis. S. Angelo, about 8 
miles ofiT (where the best figs come from), is the 
birthplace of Giovanni Branca, who is claimed as 
the author of a work on steam, printed as early as 
1629. 

Pesaro by diligence, in 5 hours, to Urbino. 
(See Route 28.) 

The next place is 

Fano (Stat.) Called by the Romans Fanum 
Fortunce, from a temple erected to commemorate 
the defeat of Asdrubal on the Metaurus, near the 
month of which it stands, in a charming situation. 
Its fort, restored by Paul V., is now useless. Popu- 
lation of commune, 21,787. 

It is walled like the other towns in Italy, and 
one of its gates was a triumphal arch over the Via 
Flaminia, dedicated to Augustus, and restored by 
Constantino. It is a bishop's see. In the market- 
place is a fountain, with a statue of Fortune, 
allusive to the old name of the town, which is 
also perpetuated in the 

Duomo, dedicated to S. Fortnnato. It has four 
lions in the Gothic fronr, and Domenichino's St. 
Mary and L. Carraccfs Madonna. 

S. Agostino has Guercino's Guardian Angel, and 
S. Francesco, some fine Gothic tombs of tlie Mala- 
testa family. 

At Santa Maria Nuova arc Pcrusjino's Madonna, 
a Visitation, by G. Sjmtl (Raphael's father), and a 
Pieth, attributed to Raphael himself. 

S. Paterniano has Gucrcino's Sposalisio (Mar- 
riage), and others by C. Bononc, d'Arpino, &c. 

8. Pietro has an Annunciation by Guido. 

The Coflegio once contained Domenichino's fine 
David with Goliath's Head (which has been 



temporarily located elsewhere), and the Hospital 
(or S. Croce Church), has a Madonna by G. Santi. 

Fano has a good theatre and public library. 
Small fish, of the sort called cavallo marino, from 
the likeness to a horse's head, are taken along the 
coast. There is a road to Fossombrone and 
Urbino, and over the Apennines to Arezzo. (See 
Route 28.) From Fossombrone over the Furlo 
Pass to Fossato. Diligence daily from Fano to 
Fossato. 

From Fano, on the line, cross the Metauro, or 
Metaurus, on whose banks the Consuls Livy and 
Nero defeated Asdrubal, 207 B.C., and so turned 
the tide against Hannibal and C!arthage. Then 

MarOtta (Stat.), near Cape Marotta. Cross 
the Rivers Caesano and Misa, to 

Slnigaglla (Stat), also called SenigalU'a. 
The Sena Galliea of the Romans, plundered by 
Pompcy ; the birthplace of Madame Catalan! and 
of the late Pope, Pio Nono. Plus IX., whose 
name was Giovanni Maria, was born 1792, of the 
house of Mastai-Ferretti, a noble family long 
resident here ; became bishop of Imola, 1832, and 
was elected Pope, 1846. A cottage outside the 
town, in which his foster-nurse lived, records that 
Pio Nono was suckled there. It is noted for a free 
mnrt, or Fairs formerly of much resort, called the 
Fair of S. M. Magdalene, beginninar 30th July, 
and chartered as far back as 1200. Traders came 
to it from many parts; the whole town and 
neighbourhood were for a time alive with business, 
nnd its small port was full of shipping. Popula- 
tion, 9,602. 

It has a fortress; Cathedral of S. Pietro; several 
churches, tliat of Dellc Grazic, outside the walls, 
having a painting said to be by P. Perugino, and 
a Madonna by P. della Francesca. 

In 15r2, Sinigaglia was taken by treacherj*, by 
the infamous Cassar Borgia, and Its defenders 
massacred in cold blood, with their leaders, 
Ollverctto, Vitelli, nnd the brothers Orsini. They 
were mercenaries who had formerly served 
luulvT him. Machiavelli, the envoy for the 
Florentine Republic, gives an account of the 
tragedy. 

After Sinigaglia, the line passes 

Montemardano (Stat.), not far from the 
mouth of the Esino, the ancient ^sio^ with the 
bold promontory of Ancona in view. 

Falconara (Stat.) 

Here the junction rail to Fuligno and Rome falls 
in. (See Route 29.) Then comes 

Ascona (Stat.), which is by the water side. 
(See Route 28.) 



SECTION II. 

C E N T K A L ITALY. 



TUSCANY— UMBEIA— THE MAECHES— THE ABEUZZI— 
AND EOEMEE PONTIFICAL STATES. 

PISA— LUCCA— LEGHOEN— ELBA— FLOEENCE AND ITS 
ENVIEONS— SIENA— PEEUGIA—ANCONA— FOGGIA— 

EOME AND ITS ENVIEONS. 



SECTION IL— CENTRAL ITALY. 



ROTJOTB S3. 

Pisa to EmpoU and Florence. 

PISA (Stat) 

Population, 54,348. 

Hotels: Grand Hotel; Vittoria. well situated, 
f acingr the Amo; Minerva; Grand Hotel de Londres ; 
Grand Hotel Amo. 

Pott Opce. — Near Ponte di Mezzo. 

English Church, Piazza S. Lucia, Via Solferino. 
During the seven winter months ser^'ice is per- 
formed each Smiday. There is an excellent library 
of general English literature at the English Church. 

Routes. — To Leghorn, by rail, 11 miles; to 
Florence, by rail vid Lucca, Pistoja, Ac, in 4 
hours; or vid Empoli, along the Amo, 2} hours; 
to Volterra, by rail and coach; to Siena, by rail; 
to Cecina, Grosseto, Civita Yecchia, and Rome, bv 
rail. 

* Chief Objects of Notice. — Duomo, Baptistery, 
Leaning Tower, Campo Santo, Santa Maria dclla 
Spina, University. 

Pisa, the Roman Pisx^ on the Pisantts, now 
called the Amo, is supposed to be of Greek origin, 
and is one of the most ancient towns and ports in 
Italy ; about 5 miles from the Mediterranean by 
the river, and 12 miles by rail from Leghorn. It is 
the scat of a province, university, and archbishop; 
and occupies both sides of the river, the banks of 
which are lined with well-built quays and tall 
houses. It is nearly 6 miles round by the walls, 
but at least two-thirds of the space within is 
garden ground. Though not in ruin, yet it has a 
look of faded grandeur and want of life, which 
has brought upon it the designation of ^*Pisa 
morta.** It has never recovered the destruction of 
its port by the Genoese in 1290, and its final sub- 
jection to Florence, 1445. The harbour chains taken 
by the Genoese were restored lt<Ci). Its population 
is only a fifth or sixth of what it was; and grass 
grows in the streets. Like Padua, and some other 
old towns which have seen their prime, it is now in 
a stage of venerable decay; one sign of which is the 
number of beggars to be seen. As a residence, it 
is mild in winter, being sheltered by the surround- 
ing hills, and is, therefore, suitable for persons with 
weak lungs; but the rainy days are estimated at 
one in three, and the annual inches at forty-seven. 

Forsjth, who lived here some time, says, .the 
rain *' generally foUsin lai'ge round drops direct to 



the ground. It never breaks into mist, nor dims 
the air, nor penetrates the houses, nor rusts tho 
metals, nor racks the bones, with the searchhig 
activity of an English shower. The spring is 
short; in summer the mornings are very hot, at 
noon the sea-breeze springs up, the nights are 
damp and close. The cUmate, in winter, is con- 
sidered—next to Rome— the mildest and most 
equable in Italy." Average wintertemperature,46*. 

The thick, gray water of the Amo is not good 
for drinking, but excellent water is supplied by an 
aqueduct, 4 miles long, from Monte Asciano; built 
1C01-I3, by Cosimo II. On llth and 12th Decem- 
ber, 1869, the yellow river rose to tho first and 
second store> s of the houses in tho Lung' Amo. 
The canal to Leghorn was cut by Frederic II. 

Three bridges cross the river (one of them of 
marble), besides the viaduct, or lowest one. Tho 
one next to it, Ponte al Mare, or di Ferro, at the 
west end between Porta al Mare and the Citadel, 
was the oldest, built 13dl, on five arches, restored by 
Brunelleschi, and lately rebuilt. Close to it is the 
old Torre Guelfa, in front of the Citadella. 

Ponte di Mezzo, or the Old Bridge, so called, is in 
the middle, at the junction of the chief thorough- 
fares leading north to Lucca Gate and south to 
the railway station. It is close to the Dogana and 
Post Ofiice, and replaces a former bridge of one 
arch. Two centuries back, the fine manly game 
of the Battaglie del Ponte used to take place here, 
when the youth of the town either unarmed, or 
clothed in mail and armed with clubs, met for a 
mock fight and wrestling match. At the south 
end is the Loggie de'Bandii, an open arcade, built 
1606, by Buontalenti, now a Com Market. Near 
this is the Palazzo del Comune, with the Archives. 

Above this is Ponte alia Fortezza. near the Porta 
alle Piagge, and not far from a small ancient fort. 

Between Ponte di Mezzo and Ponte di Ferro is 
the new Ponte di Solferino. 

The walk along the quays, or Lung^ Amo, is a 
favourite promenade. Here you may still see the 
rusty iron rings on the walls of the Palaces, to 
which the galleys of their owners were moored. 
At the triennial festival of the patron saint, I7th 
June, the quays and bridges are lighted np. 

Of the twelve or fifteen open PiartU \SGi.5i>.A!E)fai^v. 
striking arc Plai.i^^V%«sw\."^vi^sXvse\si.'^^^>S«^ 



110 



BBADSnAW'S ITALY. 



[Section 2. 



\mUm\'» >»tatu<! of lAutmhl I. 
" *ttnu 



V\nzzti d«' CavttHoH, 
iiurroundc-'l liy H, HUifniio aikI other fine buildlii^H, 
Olid ImvliiK (I fouiitiilii with FrniicttvillfrN Htntue 
of (/OMlitio I, Nciir th(f Orologlo in n wliltn hountt, 
with K^'-mi ithitttttrN, th« nIIo of tho futnou* 7*orr« 
c//;/ /'am^, cvlfhratttd by l>iinti«, and In lUsynoldw'it 
idciitn;, In which (Jf<ollno dtdU (ilienulUMca 'wan 
Ntiirvfd to d(!Uth, in the thirteenth century. Being 
fiiipoinUid (/'tiptiiln-Cienerul.und having rulciltyrun- 
nlenlly, he witM Meijsed In un InNurrcctlon htMided 
by tlie iirehblHliop and nonnnnd here, with hlx two 
nm\* and two nefdiowN. The arohhlxhop throM' 
ttm Icny into the rivor and left them to die of 
hnnger. 

I'iaxsA dl H. nilvoitro and Piazza dl H. Nlccola 
tnv.tt thoM churcho*. The centre of Intercut, how- 
over, In 

The IMazza del Duonio. at the north-went corner 
of tliA city, near Porta Nuova. containing its four 
chief attractlonN- the(/athedral, HantiMtory.C^anipo 
Hanto (or (Churchyard), and the Jiulfry or Leaning 
Tower, all here cunctmtratod together; "all built 
of tiio ■ainc nmrble, all varietieit of the Name archi- 
tecture, all venerable with yearn, and fortunate 
both in their Nociely and their Nolilude." Forti/th. 

*ZfOftning Tower, or detached Ucl/i'i/ of the 
(>ath«dral, Tn a round building 62 feet diameter 
up to the top Ntomy, which In redtjced to 40 
feet, and wan added about 1460. It In ]H0 feet 
high, and deolinoN 18 feet from the i)orpondicuiar. 
Jt waM begun U74 by William of innNbruck and 
llonano da PlNa, of marble and granite, in eitrht 
NtoreyN of pillaroU arohOM or open gallerloM ('207 
plllarN in all), divided by comtcoN) and in g grace- 
ful and tirm iitruoture, Nhowing no NlgUN of docay 
though upward* of 000 yearH old. The lower 
iitoroy In hli feet; the rent about 90 feet. It nIiown 
NigtiN of having begun to nettle about the third 
utorey. Home NMpi»ONO (aN they Nuppono of the 
Dologna towern) tlint it waNdoNlgned to loan over; 
but thlN opinion In dlNpn)ved oy the fact that the 
lowcNtrowof plllnri U Nunk in the earth on (mo 
Ntde, and the mouldingN and i^tairN are nil inclined. 
DcNldoN thlN, among theoarvingNof Ht. Kanierl, in 
the dampi) Hnnto, done 100 yoarN later, there U 
n picture of the tower Ntanding upright. In fact, 
the Noll In no Noft and yielding that water In 
found at the depth <»f a few foot; and the Obner- 
yatory lt> the next ntrect, and a neighbouring belfry 
both hicllne an well an the tower. The ancent 
(fe(\ AU u.) In by 204 NtepH. In the upper Htortty 
nre novou bellN, the hcavicNt (h|x tonn) being placed 
on the offNlde to balance the Inclination the other 
way. The view takon In Leghorn and the Medt- 
terranoan. ThU tower in memorable for the uno 
which (inllleo made uf It in hl» oxperlmuntN on 
falling N»dleN. 

The venerable *Oath«dral is a nvo-aUledcroRN, 
BIO feet long, with a nave 100 feet widts having a 
Hat wotuleu iHMif, while the aUloM are vaulted, 
renting on InnulatiHl colunmn, which by their 
variety and colour produce a tine eflbot It waa built 

"" iJIH, by Hunchetto, or lIUNketun, but many 
0ytf /iftttJvU, to that'tho lino$ are unovou. 



In front it lookn like a nmall temple placed on a 
larger, with three d(j<jr« and five rowH of f alne arches 
and pllastcrM (fifty-eight In all), one over the other, 
which are carrle<l down the Kblefl, ho that the total 
number of Nmall columns In 400. Every part of the 
exterior is covered with striped marble, ornamented 
.and coloured in an elegant style. 

^*It is certainly one of the finest and most 
complete churches in Italy, and the typical 
example of a style that arose here out of the clas- 
sical during the dark ages. It shows a con- 
siderable tendency towards the Gothic, especially 
In the extension of the transepts and apse.'* — 
Fergwnon. Kut it hardly differs internally from 
Roman examples, *' except in the introduction of 
bold and well-defined triforiam galleries over tho 
pier arches." The arches are carried all round, 
and rest on columns of tho Greek order, on some of 
which are figures of lions, dogs, boars, and men. 
The bronise doors are carveil with subjects from 
the Life of Christ and the Virgin, by Giovanni da 
liologna (1002), and replace others burnt 159G, 
except an ancient one In tho south transept (1181). 
This interesting front has boon restored. 

The inside is gorgeous with gilding, sculpture, 
and paiutings, and a hundred rich glass windows 
of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Columns 
. of red graidte, with antique bases and capitals, run 
down the aisles, supporting rows of arches for tho 
triforlum. Its lofty painted cupola is lined with 
gliding and mosaic, by Kiminaldi (1630). At tho 
(tast ond is a large mosaic (by Gaddi) of Christ, tho 
Virghi, and St. John. The inUiid work of the stalls 
in the choir deserves notice. There are twelvo 
beautiful altars, dcsigited by M. Angolo, or by 
Htoggl. The Sacrament Chapel has a silver altar, 
the gift of (yonimo I. It in covered with bas-rellcf s, 
and cost 86,000 crowns. 

The high altar is splendid with Inlaid marble 
and two purnhyry columns, one of which holds the 
bones of H. ilaniorl, the patron saint. Ilcro are A. ' 
del Sarto's St. Catherine and St. Agnes, also his 
Virghi and Saints ; GhirlandaJo*s Angels; and Boc- 
cafumrs Moses and Aaron. 

In S. Kaniori's Chanel is a mosaic by Gaddi. 
A statue of Mars, found near this, bus boon baptized 
and turned into a San Piso, or Potitus. An ancient 
Greek Madonna is shown for a fee. Thcro are 
monuments of Archbishops Uinuccinl and G. do' 
Medici. Tho pulpit has some work by Giovanni 
da Pisa; and in tho sacristy aro bas-reliefs by his 
pupil, Agnelli. The bronze bimp in the nave is 
said to have suggested to Galileo the theory of tho 
pendulum. Facing tho cathedral is the ancient 

*Baptlltery, where all the baptisms tako 
placo; begun HAS, by Diutl Salvi; a rich and 
complete structure in a mixed Komoncsque and 
Gothic style, cased with marble. It is circular, 
and over 100 feet in diameter inside. ''Tho 
central part, AC feet wide, is a circular colonnade, 
with four i>olygonal piers and i)alrs of plllara 
betwoen them. This supports a lofty cone, 175 
feet high, tho lower iHirt of which is now covered 
oxtemully with a dome, which from the ornaments 



-BoTtte 23.] 



PISA— CAMPO SANTO. 



Ill 



Is evidently of the fourteenth century, and certainly 
not a part of the original design." There is a fine 
musical echo undenieath the dome. Extcmnlly 
the " beauty of its details and exuberance of its 
ornaments, render it a most captivating building." 
— Fergtuson. It has a mosaic floor ; a large broca- 
tell a and marble font, big enough for immersion, 
and ontamented with rosettes and mosaics; an 
altar equally ornamented; and a hexagon Pulpit, 
covered with bas-reliefs, on nine rich marble 
pillars, standing on animals designed by Niccolb 
Piaano, 1260, a native sculptor. He was the father 
of Giovanni, the architect of the venerable 

*Cla]lipo SaatO or Holy Field, on the north side 
of the cathedral, the old burial-place, surrounded 
with a cloister, built 127&-88, and so called because 
laid down with fifty shiploads of soil brought from 
Palestine by Archbishop Ubaldo, 1228, vrh&a. the 
Pisans^ with other crusaders, were driven out by 
Saladin. It is now a beautiful green sward. The 
marble cloister, or corridor, is an oblong on sixty- 
two arches, of which five are at each end, and 
twenty-six on each side; but, curiously enough, it is 
iiot a purfoct rectangle, their lengths being 430 
and 410 feet, apparently by an oversight. The 
breadth is about 136 feet. There are four cypresses 
in the gn^assy quadrangle. It is open daily (fee, 
60c.). The view here is described by Words- 
worth, when he paced 

" In Pisa's Campo 8ant«, the smooth floor 
Of its aroades, paved wltii sepulcshral slata. 
And through each window's open fret-work looked 
O'er the blank area of sacred earth, 
Fetched from Motint Oalrary. • • • 

• • • * 

And, high above that length of cloistered roofs, 

Peering in air and backed by asure skjr. 

To kindred contemplation ministers 

The BaptUtery't Jiomt, and that which swells 

From the CotAedral pile ; and with the twain 

Conjoined in tnrospect mutable or fixed, 

(As hurry on in eagerness the feet. 

Or pause), the summit of the Lecming Tower. 
• • • 

Oh I what a 8i>ectaele at every ttim 

The place unfolds, from pavement skinned with moss, 

Or grass-grown spaces, whan the heaviest foot 

Provokes no echoes, bnt must softly tread ; 

Where solitude, with sllenee paired, stops short 

Of Oesolation, and to ruin's scythe 

Decay submits not." 

—Tour in Italy— Mutingt at Aequapendente. 

The corridors are 46 feet high and 34 wide, covered 
in and lit by Gothic windows, paved with grave- 
stones of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and 
surrounded by about 300 monuments, consisting 
of ancient sarcophagi, mutilated statues, inscrip- 
tions, bas-reliefs, and altars, by G. di Pisa, Ac, 
while the walls are lined with an interesting series 
of frescoes of subjects from the Bible, Dante, or 
Legends of the Saints, by Giotto, Memmi, Or- 
cagno, S. Aretino, and other old masters; many of 
wMch are much decayed, or spoilt in attempts to 
restore them. The Campo Santo had greatly suf- 
fered from neglect tlD the Princess Elisa appointed 
Cav. Laainlo as consMTAtor, by whom a specia.1 
work was pablished, 1812, with engravings of all 
the subjects. 



There are few modem tombs. Some of the 
latest are AlgarottI ; PIgnotti, the best of Italian 
fable writers; and Cavour. Among the most re- 
markable monuments are — statues of Emperors 
Frederic I., Henry VII., and Henry VIIL; statue 
of Hercules; a bronze Grifiin, with Oriental 
characters, which surmounted the cupola of the 
Duomo; tombs of B. dclla Gherardosca, and 
Countess Beatrice; Thorwaldsen's bas-relief of 
Vacci, the surgeon; and a tablet to the Pisans, 
who fell in the war of 1848 against the Austrians. 
One relic is the massive iron Chain of Pita har- 
bour, carried off centuries ago by the triumphant 
Florentines and Genoese, but restored in 1848 and 
1860, as tokens of fraternal concord in united 
Italy. 

The *Freseoes on the walls are in two rows, one 
over the other. The style of costume, &c., of the 
subjects is curious and interesting. 

Entering by the door opposite the Baptistery, 
and turning to the left, they run in the following 
order:-- 

1. In the south-west corner — History of Job, in 
two pictures, by Giotto (1330). Four others by 
him are gone. 

2. In the west corridor — History of Esther and 
Judith, by A. Ghirlandajo and P. Giudotti (seven- 
teenth century). 

3. In the long north corridor, near the comer — 
Four frescoes by Pietro da Orvietro or Buffal- 
raacco (1880-90), viz.:— The Universe; Creation; 
Death of Abel ; Deluge. 

4. In the rest of the corridor, twenty-four fres- 
coes by B. Gozzoli (1469-85), viz.:— Drunkenness of 
Noah, with a female Peeping Tom looking through 
her fingers; Ham Cursed; Tower of Babel, with 
portraits of the Medici family ; Adoration of the 
Magi, above the Ammanati Chapel, which had 
frescoes by Giotto and Gaddi; Abraham refuses to 
adore Belus; Abraham and Lot in Egypt; Deliver- 
ance of Lot, and Melchisedek's Sacrifice; Expul- 
sion of Hagar; Destruction of Sodom; Sacrifice 
of Abraham ; Isaac and Rebecca ; Birth of Jacob 
and Esau ; Marriage of Jacob and Rachel ; Meet- 
ing of Esau and Jacob, and Dinah's Abduction ; 
History of Joseph, in two frescoes, above the 
tomb of Gtozzoli, the painter (1478); Moses in 
Egypt; Passage of the Red Seji; Mount Sinai; 
Brazen Serpent; Fall of Jericho; David and 
Goliath ; Solomon and the Queen of Shcba. 

5. In the east corridor— Belshazzar's Feast, by 
Rondisoni ; the Passion, Resurrection, and Ascen- 
sion, by Buffalmacco, or A. Vite; Capella Grande,' 
with Ginnta da Pisa's Christ on the Cross (1258). 

6. In the south corridor, cast comer — *Triumph 
of Death, by A. Orcagna, a remarkable picture, 
crowded with figures; ♦Last Judgment, by the 
same— one of the finest of all; Hell, by B. Or- 
cagna, the brother of Andrea ; Anchorites in the 
Desert Tempted, by P Lorenzetti; Assumption, 
by Memmi (above the door). 

7. Between the doortK «teiLtt^i5»w*, «:»\ Njc»»w''Ksa«- 



i 



<IMO-SD), vii.,hliCon' 



n, Pll(iHm«K6, Tomp- 



lO ^k-eroi 






tbo ohnnb of Uia Dominica 
ThCFiDu of AquliiDi llvod. ana was i>uiii iii miii 
brQ.AqneUL li eonUlnt F. Ttalnl's Chriat and 
Sl.TboiiiBi.irltbFopee,Biihi)pi.Ac.{ St.Tbomi>'i 
Pnlplti N. da Piu'i »t«toe« of Failh aod Charily, 
Bdd hli tomb ot Arcbblsfaop eolUrclU (1343); 

Saula Chiara la the chstcb of tbe hoipltol, ucu 



. froKMt by T. Gsddl, Battoll, Ac (aboDl 19U0). 

•&ala Maria defla ySpCna, on the Huth qnaf. ■■ 
a benntUul little S»m of while muble, b«gun IIM. 
BDd u called from ■ Ihom of Chtiat'i Crown, 
bmugtat troin PoleitliK br b FIh marehut. It la 
chiefly In tbe Golhic uylB. but bu lome rowia 
aretkeSp Two good BUtuu by G. da Plai, ovar tbe 
tronl. Id ricbly Muopled nkbea; and within Ire 
M. dn Piu'i itilaeg of tb> Undonna del Flora, Bl. 
Petar. and St. John tbe Biptiit. 

a.JtarUmo, hi tbD nath-eul, baaPaJmaOloTine'i 
Su Bfinadlct among tha Tfaorns. Nenr (his Ib a 
•null itntne, lot hilo tba wall, of a certain CAnuini. 
a henhie who once uvad Hw from a night attack 



[Section 3, 
inJlbanouadi 



St. Sltpben, Initltuted In ItiU by Cui 
against plratoii and wat hullt IMS- 
wlth lbs jiataizD adjoining It. U 
organ, It coutalna nveral (rophloi t: 
Tnrka; alM> C^l'a tnttltutlim d 






and Lepnntu: C. 
i;atnorl.iodo'Mcdlcli J. 

'Diniu. [onDerly Iha >eat 

iitof CoilmoII^bDMiuf 
with arabcaqDei in tffrqf- 

Ic of IJtb ccntoiy. Calls 



Lanfraiirld. when the realiience of Byron In 18 
after be left RiTenna, It wai bulll by M. Angr 
I*alatw Lattfrwdutxhi, or OptainffAi, on the no 



dclla OlienmicBca, was afterwards settled in tb 
present bnlldlng or Bapitjua, near B. Fradlano' 
bhnreh,bognnln 149S, and enlarged l>y Coalmo II 



onnder of eipcrlmental philosophy, was mattve- 
D have flrtt Introdnced {thru ugh Leonardo 

bltigbcUig IhcDnknowD qnantlly. The Blbllo- 
sca bu &tl.00a lolnines. chicflv lav and polenila. 
nd WSS. by Grandl. the matbcmallolsn; also a 
latue of aalileu. by £. Demi. In IMS. In conae. 



I eatabllsbcd ai 
I eaotlcs. Ceo 



lUMUArti. In Via dl B. F(«dtuio, 



ilTl. flail 



I, calltd Bagiil dt /ftram, almoai the only 



Bottte 24.] 



PISA, PONTEDSBA, EHPOLI, MONTELUPQ, LUCCA. 



113 



About 3 miles west of Pisa, towards the coast, 
is the Royal Acclimatisation Farm of 

II Oombo (formerly Le Ccueine)^ so called from a 
fort of that name on the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean, and belonging to the King of Italy ; near 
which Shelley was drowned, 1822. It has a 
fine avenue (3 miles long) of elms and poplars; 
and numbers 2,000 wild cows, 1,500 horses, and i'OO 
camels employed In the work of the farm. The 
sea has retired here, and left a sandy soil, which 
is suited to the work of the camels kept here. 
They were first imported from the Levant by a 
Grand Prior of the Order of St. John. To the 
south is the mouth of the Amo, and the ancient 
Porto Pisano. 

La Certosa delta Vdlle Ovazina, a Carthusian 
Convent, is under Monte Verruca, a fine range of 
hills, 1,760 feet high, 5 miles cast of Pisa. 

Pisa, in the twelfth century, was distinguished 
for its commerce and maritime enterprise, and the 
number of its galleys, by which it made many suc- 
cessful attempts agauist the Turks and Moors. 
Along with Genoa it conquered Sardinia, Corsica, 
and the Balearic Islands, and even attempted to 
reduce Sicily. After frequent wars with its rival, 
Genoa finally obtained the supremacy in 1284, at 
the naval battle of Meloria ; 13^000 prisoners were 
taken to Genoa, and its harbour at Port Pisano, 
or Calambrone, was filled up. Having sided with 
the Ghibellino or Imperial party, it was in 1445 
seized by the Florentines, and thenceforth be- 
came subject to the Medici. 

From Pisa there are two railway routes to Flor- 
ence; 1st: by way of Empoli, 49 miles; 2nd: by 
way of Lucca, 62| miles. (See Boute 24.) 

1st. By way of Empoli, up the richly-cultivated 
valley of the yellow Amo, which winds among 
vineyards and fields of com and flax. 

The stations are — 



MUes. 

Empoli 29i 

Montelupo 83 

Signa 40J 

S. Donnino 43 

Florence 49 



is 



Miles. 

Navacchio 5 

Casclna 8 

Pontedera 12^ 

S. Romano 20 

S. Miniato S8| 

From the terminus at Porta Florentina, to 

NayaCChlo (Stat.) Across the Arno 
Monte Verruca, 1,760 feet high. 

Pontedera (Stat.), population, 12,013, where 
the Era falls into the Aino. There is a road to 
Voltcrra and the copper and borax works in its 
neighbourhood. 

S. Miniato (Stat.) An old cathedral town 
(population, 16,739) on the hills, with a conspicuous 
church and tower. Here, in 1799, Napoleon paid a 
visit to a Canon Bonaparte, a connection of his 
family. 

Empoli (Stat.)f on the Ajmo, where the rail- 
way to Siena and Rome branches off. (See Route 
26). Population, 17,S07. It stands in a fertile 
plain, and is memorable for a meeting of the 
Ghibellines, in IMO, after the battle of Monte 
Aperto, on the Arbia, and the defeat of the 



Florentines, when a proposal for razing Florence 
to the ground was successfully opposed by 
Farinata degli Uberti, as described in Dante*s 
Inferno. 

It hasan ancient collegiate Church, of theelevcnth 
century, with frescoes by Giotto, Jacopo da Em^ 
poll, &c. ; and an equally ancient Baptistery, with 
an altar-piece by Ghirlandajo. 

Montelupo (Stat.) Population, 6,859. So 
called from a castle of that name (meaning Wolf's 
Hill), built on the Amo, by the Florentines, 1208, 
to watch another one opposite it, called Caprcffa 
(the goa^), which belonged to their rivals of Pis- 
toja. Terra cotta vases are made. Near this It 
Ambrogiana, a villa of the late Grand Duke. 
Cross by an iron bridge to the north bank of the 
Amo, which here enters the narrow defile of Gon- 
folina, between rocks of sandstone. Then cross 
the Ombrone, which comes down from Pistoja and 
the Apennines to the north. (See Route 21.) 

Signa (Stat.) A fortified town (population, 
7,669), on the Amo. Cross the Bisenzinio to 

S. Donnino (Stat.) ; the next one to 

Florence, which is entered near the Casclna. 
(See Route 26.) 

KOXJTE S4- 

Pisa to Lucca, Pistoja, and Florence. 

Pisa to Florence, by way of Lucca and Pistoja, 
624 miles, by rail in four hours. (See Bradshato't 
Continental Out<ie). 

The stations are — 

Miles. I Miles. 

S. Giuliano 5^ SeiTavalle 88f 

Rigoli 7i I Pistoja 43 



Montale A 47 

Prato 52 

Calenzano b^ 

Sesto .» j»8 

Castello 60 

Rifredi „ 61 

Florence 62; 



Ripafratta 9^ 

Lucca M 16 

Porcari « 20i 

S. Salvatore ....... 26^ 

Pescia 29* 

Borgo-a-Buggiano. . 8l| 

Montecatini 83f 

Pieve-Mons 34^ 

Leaving Pisa, near the Porta Nuova terminus, 
the first place is 

S. Giuliano (Stat.), near Bagni San Oiuliano, 
or the warm baths of St. Julian, known to 
the Romans as the Aqua Pisanse^ and revived 
by the Countess Matilda, in the twelfth century. 
Temperature, 84* to 109*. They are useful in com- 
plaints of the stomach, rheumatism, gout, <fcc. 
Two Bath Houses, and private Baths named after 
Jupiter, Mars, Ac. 

Ripaftatta (Stat), on the Seichlo, near 
some old towers, and the Monte Diero Castle, on 
the Pisan Hills, to the right. After this oomes 

LUCCA (Stat.), 
The ancient Luctt, on the Auter, now the Serchio. 
Over the principal gate is the word " Libertas " 

Population, 69,000. 

H<rt^8: Croce di ^«\\.^\\!kT\?«««^i!iV55^s«fc\si'Oa«!i 



114 



BRADBHAW'g ITALY. 



[Section 2. 



OnmUfUtes to and from the railway station, 60 
cents.; street carriages, 1 lira the coarse or 8 
lire the hour; to put down and take up at night, 
5 lire; to the Baths, 12 lire. 

At the Baths, 15 miles distant, is a Resident 
English Physician. By tramway and omnibus, 8 lire. 

* Chief Olgeets of Notice. — Duomo, 8. Frediano, 8. 
Michele, 8. Romnuo, Public Palace. 

Lucca " rindustriosa " is a dean and well-built 
city, shut in by rami)arts, planted with trees, 
about 8 miles in circuit, and standing in a rich, 
marshy plain, cultivated like a garden, to the foot 
of the surrounding hills, A large proportion of 
its Industrious population are image-makers and 
plasterers. There are manufactories of silk, linen, 
and paper. It is the oldest seat of the silk trade 
(1814) in Italy, 

It is the scat of a province, and an archbishop, and 
was for a time the head of a small duchy, created 
by Napoleon for his sister Elisa ; which in 1847, on 
the death of his widow, Maria Louisa, Duchess of 
Parma, was annexed to Tuscany. For two centuries 
previously it had been governed by an oligarchy 
like that of Venice. 

The chief buildhigs, Post Office, Theatre, &c., are 
near the Cathedral and Palazzo Pubblico, which 
face a large open Piazza Grande, and a statue of 
Maria Louisa, 1848. In Piazza Mercato, near 
Porta 8anta Maria, on the north side, are the 
remains of a Roman Amphitheatre of fifty-four 
arches. Water is supplied by an aqueduct on 459 
arches, 2 miles long, built 1828-32, by NottollnL It 
has fifty churches, and many palaces. 

The *Duonio^ or Cathe<lral of 8. Martlno, near 
Piazza Grande, is a cross, in the Italian-Gothic 
style, with three aisles, circular and pointed arches 
in the nave, and painted windows; and was 
founded 1060, by Bishop Badagio, afterwards Pope 
Alexander II. The front by Guidetto (1204), has 
three galleries and rows of arcades, and a porch 
carved with subjects from the life of St. Martin, 
including figures of grifllins, seri)ent8, lions, eagles, 
&c., and 8t. Regulus in controversy with the 
Arians; above which is Miccolb da Pisa's Descent 
from the Cross ; and below it, Giovanni da Pisa's 
Adoration of the Magi, much defaced. 

It contains several works of a Lucca sculptor of 
the fifteenth century, Matteo Civitali ; as the mar- 
ble pulpit, 1498 ; a monument of P. Noceto, 1472, 
secretary to Nicholas V.; tomb of Count Bertini ; 
angels in the Sacrament Chapel; statues of St. 
Sebastian and St. John the Baptist, in the Chapel 
of St. Reguliis, a small domed octagon of marble 
and porphyry, resting on eight pillars. Another 
St. Sebastian is In the Volto Santo Chapel, an 
octagon, 80 called because of a miraculous crucifix 
found in 782, which is commemorated in C. Ros- 
leili's fresco on the door. 

Among the paintings are— Passignano's Nativity 

and his Crucifixion; F. Zucchero's Adoration of 

the Magi; Tintoretto's Last Supper; Qhirlandajo's 

Jtfjidonna and Saints; Giovanni da Bologim's 

jft^ajrectlottf and D. de VpJtarrft's Santa Pctro* 



nilla,inthe Liberty Chapel, which commemorates 
the delivery of Lucca from the Pisano, by Charles 
IV., in 1869; Fra Bartolommoo's Madonna, in the 
Sanctuary. 

The archbishop is allowed to dress in purple, 
like a cardinal, and all its canons are mitred. 

The Crocc del PisanI, a richly ornamented i)iccc 
of goIdHuiithH* work of the fourteenth century, i« 
shown upon application. 

8. Carmine, near the Pia/.za Mercato, belongs to 
the Cannelites, and has a Madonna, by Perugino. 

<S. Cristoforo, with n half-Lombard, half-Gothic 
front, is the burial-place of M. Civitali, the sculptor. 

SS. Crocffisso de" BiancfU. An Assumption by 
Spagnoletto. 

8. Francesco, near Porta Santa Maria, built 1442, 
now a magazine. Here is buried Ca^trurcio 
Castracani, who delivered Lucca from the PisanH, 
and governed it till his deatli, 13'.8. There is an 
inscription on the wall. 

8. Giovanni, near the Duomo, built in the twelfth 
centurj', and joined through the north transeiit to 
the city Baptistery, a square vaulted pile. In the 
nave is a head of St. John the Baptist in a charger. 
The small church of 8. Oivsto has a good porch. 

Sante Maria in Carte Orland'me is attached to 
the Convent of delta Madre dl Dio, founded in 
the seventeenth century, by Giovanni Leonardi, 
a native of Lucca; butit 1187, and rebuilt 1662. 
L. Giordani's Assumption at the high altar. A 
library of 20,000 volumes at the convent. 

*8. Frediano, or Basilica Longobardorum, close 
to the ramparts, near Piazza Mercato, is the largest 
and most ancient church after the cathedral, and 
is cited as a complete exampleof the Lombard stylo. 
It was built in the seventh century (685) out of 
the stones of the neighbouring amphitheatre whicli 
the Lombards had raised; but to make room for 
the walls, it was so altered in the twelfth century, 
that the apse stood where the front now stands. 
This front has a mosiiic of ChriHt on a Throne. A 
tall Campanile adjoins it. The intcriur consists of 
three aisles; the middle one flanked by round 
arches, resting on twenty-two fine columns of 
various coloured marbles. The baptismal font is 
carved by NIccolb Civitali, the nephew of Matthew ; 
the old one by a certain Magister Robert. 

Among the paintings are — Francia's Coronation 
of the Virgin ; and Aspertlno's frescoes relating to 
the finding of the Volto Santo and to the Miracles 
of St. Frediano, in the Augustine Chapel. In the 
Sacrament Chapel, carvings by Delia Querela. 
1422. 

8. Maria Foris-Portam, near Porta Santa Crocc, 
in the east wall, built in the ninth century, and 
enlarged 1516. Here are Guerclno's Madonna with 
St. Francis and Alexander II.; and a Santa Lucia. 

*a. Michele, near Piazza Grande, built 764, with 
an ornamented front, by Giudetto, added 1188, in 
the stylo of Pisa Cathedral, with several storeys of 
small arches and pillars. The large Angei at tho 



Ronte 24.] LUCCA, baths of ltjcca, moktecatina, fistoja. 



115 



top has bronze wingfl, which shnke in tho wind. 
It contains n Madonna Enthroned, by F. Lippi. 

S. PUtro Somatdi^ near Porta 8. Pletro, in tho 
south wall. The front with a bas-relief of St. 
Peter and the Keys, was bnilt 1205. Pnlma 
Vocchio's St. Anthony the Abbot, with St. Francis, 
&c. 

8. Romano, behind the Ducal Palace; nn old 
church, rebuilt seventeenth century, by Buonamici. 

S. Sa'tatore has above the doors two bas-reliefs 
of the twelfth century, by Hiduino, an old master. 

8. Trinita contains M.Civitali's Madonna on tho 
Throne. 

The palaces include :- 

Palazzo Ducale (now P. Pubblico), a large edi- 
fice, begun l'!)78, by Ammanati, and continued by 
Giubara, 1729. It has a good marble staircase, a 
public Library of 40,000 volumes, and a small 
PUtnre Oallery^ including two good pictares by Fra 
Bartolommco — tho Madonna della Misericordia 
Praying for Lucca; and God the Father, with 
St. Mary Magdalene and St. Catherine of 
Siena. Among the MSS. are Gospels of tho 
tenth century, and Latin poems by Tasso. The 
statue of Maria Louisa by Bartolinl faces tho 
palace. 

Palazzo PretoHo, facing S. Michcle, is a large 
solid building of the fifteenth century, formerly 
used as law courts. 

Palazzo Borghi, built 1418, by P.Guinigl, is now 
the Deposito di Mendicith, founded 1413. 

Palazzo Giudizione, where the archives are kept. 

There are several hospitals for the poor and help- 
les^ for foundlings (esposti), and orphans; with a 
College and high school, tho latter having a library 
of 20,000 volumes. 

Teatro del Gfgfio^ built 1817, faces the Piazza 
Grande. Another, called Teatro Diurno^ is near 
Porta 8. Donate, in the west wall. 

BATHS OF LUCCA, 

15 miles up the Serchio; by tram to Ponte a 
Mariano, thence diligence. 

Hotels: Del' Europe; New York. 

Church Service— in the season. 

Resident English Physician —Dr. Gason. 

The road passes Marl ia, 3 miles, a royal country- 
seat, with a convent and gardens, copied from 
those at Marii near Paris; Ponte delta MaddaUna^ 
or del Diavolo, with its high pitched middle arch, 
12 miles; then the Lima to 

PoxTE A Sbrraolio, 15 milcs, in the midst of 
the warm sulphur springs, and the villages which 
have grown up around them. The veal, trout, 
olives, and oil are all excellent. Under the names 
of Bagni alia Villa (old palace), and Bagni Caldi, 
Doccebassi, Bernabo, &c., the ^Baths occupy a 
pleasant and healthy part of the valley of the 
Serchio, and are much frequented from May to 
October. Tho temperature ranges from 93* to 
130*, they are clear and contain sulphates of lime 
and magnesia, with iron ; and are useful in skin 
diseases, fevers, nonroiu complaints, and diseases 
of the glands. 

There is a good supply of hotels, lodging-houses^ 



shops, reading rooms, yonies, donkeys, Ac, with an 
KngliKh church and book club. The Casino is a 
fine building, 140 feet long. 

Excursions to the pretty village of Lugliano and 
its ash trees, and San Marcello, up the Lima; to 
Prato Fiorito, and Montagna di Celle; to the Bar- 
gcllo Tower; and to the more distant height of 
Tre Potcnze and Uondinajo, 8,200 feet, in the 
Appeuincs, commanding extensive prospects of 
land and sea, even as far as Corsica. Boscolimgo 
(see p. 98) is about 6 hours distant. 

[From Lucca there is a rail ^starting at 
Viareggio, page 29) to Punte a Moriano, named 
above.] 

Following the rail, the first large place is 

Pescia (Stat.) Population, 13,818. Amongmul- 
berry grounds and paper works. Kedi praises its 
wine. 

Montecatinl (Stat.), population, 4,768, under 
a bill about 5U0 feet high. Here are some old 
fortifications, and waters drunk in cases of 
dysentery and liver complaints; temperature, 
70* to 80*. note!: Locanda Maggl re. Kear 
Pieve (Stat.) is Monsununano (with hot springs 
Htthe bath House), the birthplace of Giusti, the 
famous patriotic poet, who died 1819. He was the 
friend of Azeglio and Kidolfi. At 

Serrayalle (Stat.) Population, 6.022. Here 
an old fort guards a pass in the hills, a tunnel 
through Monte Albano. Cross the Ombrone to 

PifltOja (Stat.), where the Bologna railway 
Joins. (SeeKouteZl.) This is the Italian Birming- 
ham, styled "La Ferrigna," from the arms and 
other iron goods made here, among which arc 
pistols, first invented here by Camillo Vitelli, about 
1620. 

Population, 80,951. 

Hotel: Albergo del Globo e di Londra. 

It is the ancient Pisto*'ia, at the foot of the Apen- 
nines, of a square shape, with bastions and gates 
nt each corner, and good wide streets. It is the 
seat of a diocese, one of whose prelates was Scipione 
di Kicci, a reforming bishop of the last century; 
and in medieval history it is celebrated for the 
invention of the Bianchi and Neri, or Ghibellines 
and Gtielphs. These originated in a quarrel, in 
1296. between the Cancellieri and Punciatichi 
families, whose old palaces are here. In 1806, its 
first walls were razed by the Florentines, which 
proved a fatal blow to its prosperity. 

In the Piazza dol Dnomo at tho centre of the 
town, near the cathedral, is the 

Palazzo Pretorio, now the Law Court, an Italian- 
Gothic building of the fourteenth century, the seat 
of the Podesth in the time of the republic, l-'acing 
this is the picturesque 

Pa!azzo Comunale, or degli Anziani, built 
1295-1385. Over the middle window is a black 
marbTe bust of TedicI, who betrayed Pistoja to 
his father-in-law, Castrnccio CastracanI, of Pisa, 
In 1825. In the advocates* room Is a q^I^ikm^Sk. 
sketch of a Captain Gratvdft\v\»A^V^'^^^'^- ^ 

The Duomo, ox VL«!«\\^iJw«\ vA ^•5i^'5K>>5<^.^:^^ 



Coontcu MatUils, and restored b; Hlcuilii da 

h»» boen inudemlBod. The Ctuuponlls, frontlug 
Torre del Fodeali. is by Olovaunl da Plea. 

relief, by A. dent Bobbia, tthicb wai glided lu 
\5<IB. ItcontaiiiBBnioiinonaitottholntlat and poet 
Clao, the [[lend ol Dante and Pctrari^h, littinR in 

aildremd. Portrait of Petroreh. Tctrocchio's 
Monninent dI Cardinal Fortlgucrra. n pstron and 



a. SfiHIo, built by Ramienanl, i 
ly Bcmlni, loppDrted by lonr o 

The O^edale Orandiilel Ctppn, to 



[Section 3. 



Icilgns by Andrea da PlKa, 



Kriifo'^pJ 














the adYocacy o[ wl 






tbe .ynod Hie Bi 


1 (irw) ■■Aocti 


















Cardinal Fonignom 


iLlbraryaudSta 



Delia Rotiblai. and otlien, and a imid cornice. 
Among tho natlYciot Piitoja are Pope Clemen tlX^ 

the pointer. Near here arc AlMtOHS and BOi^ 
Colimso (p. 681, mountnln remna near UonU 
Ci'noue, and CntigllAlLO, another health rcGort 

PratO (Btat.), on tbo Blsonsio. under the 
Apennlnog. Fonulntlon, 1«,3SI. An old walled 
tonni. iritb A Cathedral of (he InelFth and flflcenUi 
ccnturiea.einil>iiiiiie tbe VIrsln'a Girdle, and paint- 
Inita by F. LI|hi1, A. Oaddl. tK.; a Oolbio cnm- 

I tbe chief attraction. Diligence tbrougb tbe Val 
I dl BltmziO to Vemlo. 

EeatO (Stat), population, 14,j;i>, near Moiito 
Morcllo(8,<K»fecthish). 
.' FlOPence (Btat.) (See Route M). 

HOTJTB SB- 
Plas, to LeEhom. Osolua, SaUue. Volterra, 
Elba, aTDsseto, ClTlta VseoMa, ajid Eome. 



eo-> Uadenna: Enipoii'a Mirat 



.-i and tomb of Loisai ^ 

S-Giooaaai EBOH^eiuta, or FordvUtt, BO cnllcd 
from havlnjT been outaldo tbe eity walK whi{:h 

centuries. The [onli> by Giovanni da Plan. 

aaala MaiM deir r7ni«lA,an Dclagan church, in 
tbe Corinthian ity lo. and one of the best In Pifit^a^ 
bosuu ISOO, by Vitonl. audBnlahodby VaaBrl,wbit 
buUt the cupoln. At one of the attari ia the gold 
loOKl emirn of Coiilla Ollmplca, a peeteai, whieh 
(ha conacerated to the Virgin. 

a. atanlen, i«buUt 13TU. Here Catiline li uid 

defeat by tho ConenK in this neighbourhood. The 






Camplglialt 
The line f> 



'Tl 



Qroueto ., 
Talomouo.. 
Albcgna .. 



LEOHOBH (Stat.) 
£ir<«'iiDinTUillnni LirmimelBt 
Population (1891), 1(KI,000, with Kiili 
IMelt: Grand Hotal; Aqnlln Ner^ 



Route 25.] 



PISTOJA, LEOHOBN, CBCINA. 



117 



as there maybe somoditncuUy in obtaining change, 
oven for Englinh sovereigns, at the smaller places. 

Post-office^ IMnzzo Carlo Alberto. Telegraphy Via 
del Tclcgrafo. 

Bntish Chapel^ near the old English Cemetery; 
service at 11 a.m., and in the afternoon. 

Scotch PrtsbyteiHan Chwrh, near the old English 
Cemetery; service at 11 a.m. and 6 p.m. 

Resident English and Amencan Consuls. 

Commission Agents and Bankers. — Macbean & Co. 

English and American Bankers. — Messrs. Maquny 
and Hooker, 7. Via Borra.; Macbean <fc Co., 12, 
Via della Madonna. 

Conveyances. — Railroad to Pisa, Pontedera, and 
Florence. Steamers almost daily, during the 
season, to Clvita Vecchia, Naples, and Siciiy, 
and Genoa. 

Leghorn stands on a plain on or near the site of 
Poi'tvs Ilerculis, or Libumi^ and was founded by 
the Florentines (to whom it was ceded by Genoa in 
1421), upon the decay of Porto Pifwmo. Being 
comparatively modem, it is regularly built, with 
wide-paved streets. The west part, near the har- 
bour, called Nuova Venczia, is traversed by canals 
into the Arno, leading up to the merchants' ware- 
houses, and the old magazine, &c. A principal 
street, the Via Vittorlo Emauuelo, runs from the 
harbour to the Pisa Gate, across the Piazza d' Amii, 
at the middle of the town, in which stands the 
Duomo and Palazzo del Governo. It Ih about two 
miles round, exclusive of Borgo Cappucini and 
other suburi)S. It is well lighted, and supplied 
with water by an aqueduct from Colognole, made 
1792. 

Leghorn carries on an active trade with England, 
France, the Levant and the Black Sea; it was 
formerly a great nest of smuggling; and, as 
might be expected, the shops are numerous 
and well supplied. The English are liked, and 
their language is not unknown to the natives, 
who, as a class, are industrious, peaceable, and 
tolerant. Besides many English, French, Ameri- 
can, and Greek residents, hero are fuund the 
descendants of Jews and Moors expelled from 
Spain, and of refugees and traders from other 
nations, such as Konian C'atholicR from England, 
and merchants from Marseilles, invited to settle 
here by the liberal policy of Cosinio I., Ferdinand I., 
and their successors, who created it a free port, 
and steadily favoured its progress. From 1808 to 
1814, it was almost annihilated by Napoleon's con- 
tinental system; but since that period it has 
recovered. 

There is an old or inner harbour for smaller 
vessels, protected by a mole, half a mile long, to the 
lightbouso at the end; besides a new or outer 
harbour protected by a breakwater begun by the 
Austrians and lately finished. Elephants' tusks 
were found in the soil near the Docks, in 1882. 
Large craft lie inside this or anchor outside in the 
roads. Here Lord Keith^s flagship, the Queen 
Charlotte, took flro in 1800, when 700 out of 850 men 
were burnt or drowned. Kear the Darsona, or 
basin of the inner hubonr, is Giovanni doW 



Opera's large statue of Ferdinand I., surrounded 
by a group of four Turkish slaves, by Tacca 
There arc also extensive lazarettos, and a prison. 

Tbo Piazza del Duo Principi Is so called from 
tho statues of Ferdinand III. and I^eopold II., 
which stand here. The old Torre Bossa, or Red 
T<»wer, with its lion for a weathercock, is the only 
piece of antiquity here. 

Leghorn U a bishop's see, and has a Duomo or 
Cathedral, built by Yasari, with a front designed 
by Inigo Jones, who travelled in Italy in tho 
early part of his career, and imported the Italian 
style of Palladio into England. It has paintings 
by Ligozzi, Cigoli, and Empoli. There are several 
other Chxirches — as Santa Maria Virginc, 8. 
Domcnico, S. Giovanni, &c., all adorned with 
marbles; an English chapel and cemetery; a 
Dutch church and- cemetery, laid out with flowers; 
a handsome Synagogue, richly ornamented ; two 
Greek churches, witii some curious paintings t 
Armenian church; Maronite church ; Theatre and 
Opera House. 

1 he English Cemetery, on the ramparts, contains 
the graves of Smollett, witii an epitaph by his 
friend. Dr. Armstrong, the poet, and of Francis 
Horner, with a likeness by Chantroy on his marble 
tomb. Smollett wrote his " Humphrey Clinker " 
here. 

Leghorn, having a good mild climate, is fre- 
quented for bathing in summer, and also for its 
sulphur waters at Puzzolenta and Montenero, out- 
side the walls. The Montenero Hills, near the 
springs, are covered with villas of tho merchants, 
who reside here; and command fine views of the 
sea and the islands of Gorgona, &c. At tho 
monastery on the summit is a miraculous portrait 
of the Madonna, about six centuries old. Victor 
Emmanuel landed hero in 1860, after the annex- 
ation of Central Italy, and his progress hence to 
Florence and Piaccnza was one long triumph. 

There is a great trade carried on in oil, straw 
hats, boracic acid and borax, marble and ala- 
baster, wine, coral, mercury, hides, hemp, and 
cnndicd fruits. Large constructing dockyards of 
Orlando Bros. 

Routes. — By rail to Pisa, Lucca, Empoli, Siena, 
Florence, Cecina, Saline, Follonica, Ac; by steamer 
to Genoa. 9 hours; Marseilles, 20 hours. (See 
Rradxhaui's Continental Ottide). 

From Leghorn the railway bends to the north, 
and then turns south to 

Colle Salyettl (Stftt.) Population, 9,436. 
Junction of the line from Pisa. Followed by 

Faufflia and Ordano (Stat.) 

Acquabona (Stat), near the River Fine. 

Cecina (Stat.), on the River Cecina. Hero 
are smelting works for Iron from pjiba, and a branch 
railway turns inland up the river to Saline and 
Volterra. 

gt is 18{ miles long; the 8tatlQ9&%vs5&. — 
iparmUa.> ^^ x&>\<i». 



iia 



BBADSHAW S ITALY. 



[Section 2. 



Fonte Glnorl, 4|mncH; and 

Volterra (Stat.) (4| miles), near which are 
extensive salt works and brine springs. These are 
a government monopoly, and produce a large 
revenue. Diligence from the station, about four 
miles, to 

VOLTERRA, on the site of Volatevroe, 

One of the most ancient and interesting cities of 
Etrnria, on a bill about 1,800 feet high, composed 
of soft marl and tufa, in which the ancient 
sepulchres were excavated, and whence so many 
Etruscan urns have been obtained. The bill com- 
mands an extensive view over the MMre[nm>i (or 
marsh land of the coast), of Monte Catini (large 
copper mines), and of Elba, Capraja, and Corsica. 
Population, 14,2*25. 

Volterra is made up of narrow streets and many 
tower-looking houses, and is inclosed by walls, 
which are contained within the circuit of the first 
Etruscan walls. Of thefcc there are some remains 
in the shape of massive uncementcd blocks at 
Porta di Diana, and an arched gateway at Porta 
dell* Arco, having three heads on it, in good 
preservation. On the south side is a f orr, or 

Citada, built 1843 by the Duke of Athens. It 
contains the Mastio, or Maschio Tower, an old state 
prison of the Dukes of Tuscany, in which Lorenzini, 
who was confined here (1682-93) by Cosimo III., 
wrote his work on geometry. 

The Palazzo PtMlieo^ the'old seat of the Podesth, 
when Volterra was a republic, is of the thirteenth 
century, and has a high tower, in which P. 
Inghiarami, the Capitano, and his party, were 
suffocated (I47*i) in an insurrection. 

At the Museo Nazionale are the Library and 
Mnseum of Antiquities, inclnding the Guamacci 
collection of coins, bronzes, urns, MSS. Tiic 
mitiquities are chiefly Etruscan; as gold ornaments, 
gems, bronzes, cohis, candelabra, vases, &c., in 
terra cotta, but especially Urns^ or sarcophagi, 
to the number of 550, in which the other relics 
were placed, along with the ashes of the dead 
body after burning. These urns are of tufa and 
alabaster — rarely of terra cotta, and have been 
found in the sepulchres, or Jppogei^ cut in the rock 
on which the city stands. 

The entrance to each vault was down steps, to a 
doorway closed by a large stone, and having an 
upright stone or cippus placed before it, bearing 
an inscription. The urns were ranged on steps 
rising one above another along the sides of the 
vault, or piled up in the middle round a column. 
As many as forty to fifty urns have been found in 
one cave. The urns have a lid, which sometimes 
rises like the roof of a house ; they are carved with 
bas-reliefs of mythological subjects, occasionally 
gilt and coloured, and have the names of ancient 
Etruscan or Roman families in8crit)cd on them. 

Alabaster carving is the chief business here. 
The Cathedral was founded 1120, enlarged by 
Kiccolb da Pisa, 1254, and restored 1574. Among 
its paintings are Signorelli's Annunciation, and 
B. Gozzoiio's frescoes of tho Virgrin> In Bt. 



Octavian's Chapel is Settiguano*s statue of tho 
saint (1525). 

The Baptistery of S. Giovanni is an octagon, built 
1283, on the site of a Roman temple. The fonts are 
by Sansovino (1502). 

S. Lino's Conventual Church, founded 1480, by 
Maffci, a theologian, contains his tomb and statue, 
by Silvio da Fiesolc. 

Casa Ricciarelll was the birthplace of Daniele 
da Volterra, a native of this town, and a painter, 
who assisted M. Angelo at the Vatican. 

Some Etruscan tombs, in their original state, 
may be seen at Villa Inghirami. 

About 7 miles west of Volterra arc the Monte 
Catini and La Cava Copper Minet^ worked since 
tlie fifteenth century but of late diminished in 
production; and Monte Massi, 1,900 feet high. 

Carriage should be taken from Volterra Station 
to RiPOMERAKCio, or Pomcrancc, near the Lagoni, 
or borax lakes of Monte Ccrboli and Lardercllo, 
which takes name from its founder, an enter- 
prising Frenchman, Count Lardercllo, who estab- 
lished works here in 1818. The liot vapour itself 
which issues from tlie soil is turned to account 
in the manufacture of boracic acid, which is ex- 
ported to England for glass-making, &c. The 
production is over 2,000 tons annually.] 

Leaving Cecina Station, on the main lino, the 
rail comes to 

Castagneto (Stat.), and 

S. Vincenzo (Stat.) and Campiglia (Stat). 

Near here a road parts off close along the coast, 
towards P2lba, passing 

[PopDLONiA (6 miles), close to an old castle and 
the remains of the Etruscan town and port of 
Pupluna. Further on is Piohbimo (diligence from 
Campiglia), a small town (population, 4,076), 
once the head of a principality, at the comer of 
a peninsula, which is 6 miles from the nearest 
point of the 

ISLAND OF ELBA. 

And 14 miles from Porto Ferrajo, its chief town, 
sometime the residence of Napoleon I., upon his 
abdication, from the end of May, 1814, to 26th 
February, 1815, when he left for Cannes. Steamer 
from Piombino daily. 

It is the Roman lira, about 18 nUlcs long, and 3 
to 10 broad, with several small bays, the best of 
which is that of Porto Ferrajo, which Napoleon 
compared to Tor Bay, when he saw it in 181 5 from 
the deck of the Northumberland. The surface is 
hilly and bare, the highest point being Monte 
Capanne, 3,600 feet above the sea. Its rich iron 
mines at Rio Marina (Scotch Church here), which 
were worked by the Romans, are contained in a 
hill about 2 miles round, and 500 feet high, and 
yield 50 to 75 per cent of metal, the ore being 
smelted at Cecina, FoUonica, &c., on the mainland. 
Here ancient bronze and stone implements, arrow 
heads, knives, and adzes were found, 1865. 

Population, 21,755; of whom 5,064 are at Porto 
Ferrajo, the capital, guarded by forts Falcone and 
Stella, whichNapoleon amused himself by strength- 



Route 35.] 



TOLTBBBA, ELBA, OBBBTELLO, CIVITA TBCCHIA. 



119 



cning. Ho also made a road acrof s the island to 
Porto Lonprono (population, 1,200), which faces 
Tuscany. Napoleon was allowed to keep his title 
of F.mpcror ; and Marie Louiso that of Empress 
and Duchess of Paroia; while the mem1>ers of his 
family were styled Princes. But the island was 
80 placed as to ho favourable for intri}^e, as sub- 
sequent events proved. 

Klba is 30 miles from Bastia, in Corsica. The 
small islands around it are 

Caprqja (16 miles north-west) ; /^anoM, 10 miles 
south, to which Agrippa was banished by Augustus; 
Formica^ 10 miles south of this; and Jlonte CHsto^ 

12 miles south-east of it, tho scene of Alexander 
Dumas's novel of the same name.] 

Returning toOaxnplglia (Stat.), near the river 
Cornidi, which descends from Monte Rotondo, with 
the town and its old castle on the left, we come to 

FollOnlca (Stat.), where the high road from 
Mnssa and Voltorra falls in. Iron from Elba, alrant 
18 miles distant, is smelted here, but only from 
December to May, on account of the malaria. 

Mabsa, called Massa Maritima to distinguish it 
from Massa Ducale, is about 12 miles north-east, 
and has a population of 13,840, and a cathedral of 
the thirteenth century. 

There are two roads from Follonlca to Grosscto, 
one following the coast, the otlior striliing inland. 
The distances along the coach route, arc: GrillL, 

13 miles; Grosseto, 18 miles; Fontebranda, 15 
miles; Nun ziatcllL, 15 miles; Montalto, 14 miles; 
Corncto, 12 miles ; Civita Yccchla, 1 2 miles. Taking 
the rail, the next place is 

Gayorrano (Siat.) Then across the Bruna to 
Montepescall (Stat.), junction of a lino from 
Siena, to 

OrOSSetO (Stat.), on the Ombrone, and the 
road to Siena (50 miles by coach). Here the rail 
from Siena comes in via Asciano and TorronidXl 
(Route 26). Grosseto (population, 7,211), the capital 
of the Maremma, is 8 miles from the sea. The site 
of RuseUx^ono of the twelve Etruscan cities, on the 
Via Claudia, is near this place. 

Jjeaving MagUono on tho left, tho rail passes 
Talamone (Stat.), near Talamoue Point, then 
Albegna (Stat.) on the Albenga, and readies 

OrbetellO (Stat.) A small fortified town 
(population, 7,089), strikingly placed in the middle 
of a salt lake, near Monte Argentario, a hilly penin- 
sula, the ancient Mont Argentaritu, which separates 
It from the sea. Its highest point, Tro Croci, or 
Three Crosses, is 2,000 feet above sea level, and 
Porto Ercole is on the south side. Al)out 8 miles 
west of it is the Island of Giglio (population, 1.900), 
the JgiHum of the Romans ; and M miles south of 
it is Gianutri, which they called Dianttm, 

Leaving Orbetello, the rail and road pass the site 
of Cosa and tho remains of walis, and follow the 
Iwrdcrs of the salt lake of Buano. 8 miles long, 
close to tho sea. Across tho old Tuscan border. 
And into the former FUtrimony of St. Peter^ now 
annexed to tho kingdom of Italy. 



Montalto (Stat) On the River Flora, the 
ancient Foi'um Aweiii, which had a Papal Custom 
House. 

Up the river is Vo'ci or Vulci, a famous Etruscan 
toifvii, which defied Rome, after tho defeat of its 
allies, but was finally subdued 280 B.C., by tho 
Consul Coruncanius. In 1828, upwards of 2,000 
urns were discovered by the Prince of Caniuo, in 
its necropolis. In one tomb was the skeleton of a 
warrior, with a casque on his head and a child be- 
tween his knees. Musignano and Canino, whore 
these treasures were collected, are a little further 
inland, not far from Toscanella, or Tuscania. 
another Etruscan city. 

From Montalto the line passes 

OometO (Stat.), close to Tarqninii, tho scat 
of the proud Tarquins, of which there were traces 
down to tho fourteenth century. AI>ovc 2,000 
tombs have been opened in this neighl)ourhood, 
many of tho contents of which are dispersed 
throughout Earope, but there is a good collection 
here at the Mnseo, and tho Necropolis (fee, 6 Ir.) 
is worth visiting. The objects found in some of 
the tombs are now at Rome. Hence (12 miles) to 

OIVITA VSGCHIA (Stat) 

Chief port of the Roman province, from which 
the rail to Rome is continued. Population 11,938. 

Hotels: Orlando; Europa; both indifTcrent. 

Reft-eshment room at the railway station, where 
breakfast, <fcc., can be had at moderate charges. 
An omnibus attends the station, outside the ram- 
parts, to convey passengers to the town, 25 cents., 
carriage, i Ir. to 1 Ir. Boat hire, emlmrldng or 
disembarking in the Harbour, i Ir., besides 1 Ir. 
for baggage. All the steamers enter the harbour. 
Landing by sea, luggage for Rome should bo 
plombe to save re-examination. 

Resident English Consul and American Consular 
Agent. 

Convej/ances.— To Rome, by rail, If hour; by 
coach, to Viterbo, 86 miles. By steamer, to Naples, 
12 hours; Leghorn, 12 hours; Genoa, 24 hours; 
Marseilles, 86 hours. 

Civita Vecchia is on the site of Centum Cellx, on 
the Via Aurella, which having l)ccn ruined by tho 
Saracens, was restored under its present name, 
signifying Old Town. Its harbour, the ancient 
Portus Trajan i, founded by Trajan, was created a 
free port by Clement XII. An armed schooner, 
which represented tho whole Papal navy, was for- 
merly stationed here. Tho inner harbour covers 
5 acres. An Out«r basin is formed by two moles— 
the Bccchlerc mole 900 feet long, and the Quaran- 
tine mole 480 feet, with a Breakwater of 1,050 
feet across the mouth, carrying a Lightiiouse. Fort 
Angolo is near the Arsenal. Sulphur and alum 
works at Toifa. 

The French army landed here in 1819, and 
fought its way to Rome. Tho town was the scat 
of a cardinal-bishop, and a delegation; and h&A «. 
Cathedral Church w\ ^Vi. 's.^'i^'^ ^^R«^ "^^s*. -v^^s^** 



to Iho PUrimoDy <tl St. Paei. tmilbt proTlncc 
VItcrbo,8iibln», mul thu CnmpaBiis; n ipiice at 

Blddlo, aiKl > 'pfniiiljUKm' of t«0,iHW (tnitud 
thiH in[lllonii). All tbli ipsce, InclsdlnirOrTl 
Teml. and Rlotl. wllh thD Cltf, L> unniixoi: 
tiMlilneiJom of Italy. 



iHaccanie iU 
Punto flnlera SS| 
I TRranoh tr> FiumlclIHi.] 
Fllo. .„..„... SOI Iforllans 411 



Intartor lo a iDciwHlmi o( ■welling hllli and wldo 
iSntin. dowlato wd poorly cnkliato.): wlih b fow 

dikpldatfid cait^e or a rulnad medieval fortrsBi." 
Ban-ta Hulnella (Stat,) The kb and Iho 

tbeilloot/'imfciiBi. 
Suita S«T«ni (SUt.), naar an old caille, on 

Ihe Bile of Pyral, a towji plllaf cd liy DionyBlna, the 

tyrant. The Saiio Hllli are on tha loft 
Parbu« (Stat.) To tha left 1> Ccrveirl. 



Maildo retort of Ladiigioll. wliltlior the Huin 
rapair In inDiiner lor bathing. 

PaUdorO (Stat), tha centre of many Etrm 
ralM. Here tho Aurellan Way Birlkesondij 
10 Home. 

HMearew (Stat.), on the An, or Am 
noar a aeat of the Koaplglloil family. 

Fonte Oalera (Stat.), on a branoii oi 



r. [Section 

ROTTTB Se- 

U, Siena, A»aaao, 

D, Bolaana, and Roma. 
FLOSENCE (Stat), 
aneleiit Flormtla. celled Htbim by tb* 
1, and Blyled tlie " Flower of all cUlei. and 

^Ityarm. !• n ff^llo. ot Kj ; alio Hen I m- 
on the Bold Jtorin, or fioriwi. which was 





and'HolelNew York 


Lung- Amo. 


aflTBt- 












do" 


and Hotel d 

lo Cathedra 


e Hllan, 
, and near 


«•.£."" 


Tclanl, 




)el Kara] de 




Brelagne. 




ItotetdeVAm 











«nd Hotel 


ConllnentD 


de la Faiji, 


Lnne- 






llenlflnndaB betel. 




Mr. 


tllf 


SiSf 


ood. The pro 


rletor. 




groat com 


rt, beautiful garden a. 


M^ 


n and Lung 


RniBle, w 


11 .Itnaled on 


Plajia 


H 


t«1 MlnerT. 
dsBnd. 

on Baiuo; 


Hole! U 


Ivetla; Hotel 


tPcn- 


3 


loval do la Pali; Waih 
■Italia. 


ngton. 


H 


Ul et Peiii 


un da> IloB 


unumnlqDei, 


Rnoda 











Holll dc^f'AniD, la Lung' Amo : HotM Monaco. 

(Itand Holol a PenBlou Andlo-AmerloHn. 

RataarinHi: Uoi Etrnntrera and Brnaacrlt, Place 
Uanln, cloeo lo ttia Hoteh de Huatlo, do la Vllle. 
and lie la Pali; Delia Palria, D'lt^lo, Uonay. 
Elmrla. Ac.; Ualla Luna or Rotalnl, near Palacio 
Vocohio, 

Ciffii: Uoncy; d'ltalUi! Elvctlco, As. 

AparlmiaU! cblcfly on Long' Arao AcolaJolL 



llMllaTia (Stat.) Hon li a new bridge over 
the Tfber. After thlt. the new Cliiirchor Bt. Paolo 

£^a^// ''"?'"*'" oar ibe Batbi ot Jftoclelian, 



PeTitUm. at Mad. Bmncltl's, », Via Natl 

Banbr,: Ueam. Huknrd and Hon, i. 
S. Goetano (Falaiio Antlnorl). 

Pott omee, al th« DBii. Tclearafli: 
dot ProconwJlo. 

Aettdnit EaflHrt. ond Amtrltai OoMiAt 



26.] FLOBBNOB. 121 

^^^^^^^^fff^'^ ^^^^'^^^^^ is^^^mmmmmmmmmmm^^^^ ^j^^ Maglio quarter, and 

ong* Amo Ghiicclardini. 

I along the hills oatside 

tome, the Senate was in 
Rice of Archives in the 

- . -.— • ■ •' - ," ' ■ ' le Chamber of Deputies 

■ n the Palazzo Vecchio. 

in the Riccardi Palace, 
scopal Seminary. These 
lunicipal and otner uses. 

irno in the midst of a 

■ jauty and fertility, and 

- ■ • ■ / ^he fouilccnth century, 

. / ... - 'jquare, and are pierced 

...-'' on six principal roads. 

* ■',..■■' .side the walls. On the 

... ' . ' stretches to the foot of 

■ ,' ' ■" lut 16 miles, and rising 

' •- y i icight of 8,200 feet at 

i-east is Fiesole, on a hill, 

all round, with gardens 

The Boboli Gardens and 

,' .•' lope of another hill, to 

jllent points of view for 

•f the plan of the city 

. ' , - 3e distanof^ are the blue 

;'.' crested with old cities, 

n the times of the early 

It than Rome. Beneath 

ith its noble buildings. 

/■ ch of Santa Croce, the 

rcnce; more to the left 

I's of Florence, with its 

•^ nmpanile, and the roof 

II more to the left, the 
,- .'' ■ . ■ , d that of Santa Maria 

' 10 Amo flowing towards 

.' * ' Vbrdstcorth. The Boboli 

,-;'v '.' Sunday and Thursday 

'lews are obtained from 
.itory, Villa Mozzi, and 



/V 



..•/ 



nded far beyond the 
alls, which are now 
ades. The oldest part 
th bank of the Arno, 
I. Here narrow streets, 
e buildings or towers 
s, built in a half-mili- 
, led the name of Florcn- 

turbulcnt old days of 
. pular and aristocratic 
.'' r power used to fight 
• >m palace to palace. 

.* . 170 Churches and up- 

■■,,'. Srosses are painted on 

1 "dirt and thft.*w*'*."i" 

M W«pite7, H has become fuUer fhaa \ 'I^*i«««X'''^*"'S;l^^?S^i^S!>^^ 
9^ hare risen, new hotela have been \ gates otAi "t«o^«^^^T.SJ^!i£SSt«cwSX^^ 
ndtbe traffic has greatly Increased. Ne^ \ ao as to VneVaA^i^Xv^^^^^'* ^^^ ^ 



1^ BBADSHAW'S ITALY. [SeCtion 2. 

office, A Museum of Ftmnrin nr-' ~«^*->" "•*■«'—«*«■ 

a fort desifnied by M. Ar 
prison. The former I 
annexation of Umbria. t\ 
to the new kin^om of II 
to the Patrimony of St. I 

Vlterbo,8abina.andtho . . • ' — ^- ..--.. ■ -.- - • ....--.. . 

100 miles Ion£^, 40 broi 

middle, and a popalati( 

three millions). All this i 

Temi, and Rieti, with i 

the kingdom of Italy. ; 

From Civitavecchia, I ' - 

The stations are as follo' 

Miles."*-*' . . \ 

Santa Marinella CJ ■ ..^^ i 

Santa Severa ll| * "' ■ ^, , 

Furbara 14} ' .* . ; 

Palo 20§ """•"" ^ I 

Palidoro 24| - -- . .... . ^ 

The line for the first : < 

near the flat coast and , . \ 

interior is a succession o ^g^ .- ' * 

plains, desolate and poorl '\j^\j0 •' 

cabins and buffaloes, mat *^riF^ 

dilapidated castle or a ri . '^ t 

Santa KarlneUa (8 . 

Alban Hills come into v 
the site of Punicum. 

Santa Severa (Stat _. 

the site of Pyr^ a town p ,• •, 

tyrant. The Basso Hills 

Fntbara (Stat) i • 

under a hill, the site of A| 

city, where remains exist 

which runs down to Ad 1\ ■> * 

on the coast. Towers 

erected for defence again ; 

Palo (Stat) A fishi ' 

on the sea, which exist *. 

century. From here the . . ■ '' 

seaside resort of Ladisp« ' 
repair in summer for bati ' •/■ 

Palidoro (Stat), the ( 

ruins. Here the Aurella] 
to Rome. 

Maocareee (Stat.), < . 

near A seat of the Rospigrll 

Ponte Oalera (Stat 

Tiber, where the Via Ca • 

rail go off to Porto and t 
distant, near the site of Pt 
here runs near the Tiber t 

KEagUana (Stat.) He 

the Tiber. After this, the • ; 

fnorl le Mura and the A • ovn 

the line terminates near tc . , rm^vmB9..9nim umU. rmfffapn: l», Via 

in the city of de! KoeonsMo. 

]^ni9 (Route 82.) ( Rericfent English and American Consult, 




iIont« 26.] 

ftjjNj* (n>nA SiTriM In tha ' 




122 



BRADSUAW'S ITALY. 



[Section 2. 



the river, and the secondo Cerchio, i.e. the ancient 
walls of 1087, tlic extremities of which were at Ponte 
alle Grazic and Poute alia Carraja. The banks of 
the river, wliich is muddy and shallow, except at 
the floods, are lined with quays called the Lungo 
d'Amo or Lun(f' Arno, stretching- up and down as 
far as the walls. Those between the Carraja Bridge 
and the handsome new Cascino quarter, towards 
the junction of the Mugnoue, are a favourite 
promenade. 

Bridges. — There are six bridges, hicluding two 
wire suspension bridges above and below the city. 
Ponte alle Oratie, or Ponto dl Rubaconte, the 
oldest and southenmiost bridge, was built 1257, so 
solidly as to have resisted the floods which have 
undermined the others. It has some small houses 
on the i)iers, and the houses between it and Ponte 
Vecchio are ancient. * Ponte Vecchio^ rebuilt 1345 
by T. Gaddi, is lined with small jewellers' shops 
and houses, over which runs Vasari's gallciy, form- 
ing a communication between the Pitti Palace and 
the Uffizi and Palazzo Vecchio. Ponte Santa 
Trinita, built by B. Ammanati, 1559, is the best of 
all, on three elliptic arches, one of which is 90 
feet span. Ponte alia Carraja^ rebuilt 1334 by Fra 
Bracetti, and restored 1557 by Ammanati. Below 
this is one of the wire Suspension Bridges con- 
necting the 9ascine with the opposite bank, near 
Piazza le Vittorio Emanuele. 

Water is supplied by pump wells, by Artesian 
wells in the Santa Maria Novella and S. Marco 
squares, and by fountains in Santa Croce, &c., fed 
by an aqueduct from Monterezzi, near Fiesole. 

Time is still reckoned by some old clocks up to 
24 hours, beginning at Ave Maria or 8undo>vn 
(about 6 p.m.) 

Qates. — The gates are tower-like structures, 
pierced by an archway, and connected by broad 
Boulevards, or Viale, named after the reigning 
house, as Viale Vit.-Em,. Viale Umberto, &c. 

Porta S. Oallo, so called from a convent which 
stood here, is on the Bologna Road. Here is a 
triumphal arch to the Emperor Francis I., built 
1789 by a Lorraine architect, with a freseoe by 
Ghirlandajo. 

Porta IHnti, towards Fiesole, with some early 
frescoes by B. Daddi. Near the Protestant Ceme- 
tery. Porta alia Croce, on the Casentino Road. 
Madonna by Ghirlandajo. 

Porta S. Nlccolb, with an old tower, built 1824-7, 
and Porta 8. Afiniato, are across the river, on the 
south side. The drive from here to Porta Romana, 
round the Viale delle Colli, is worth takhig. 

Porta S. Giorgto, near the Belvedere Fort, or 
Fortezza di S. Georgio, but shut \\\y. 

l*orta Bomana, built 1327, on the Pogglo Road, 
near the Boboli Gardens. In an old liouse near 
this, Mrs. E. Browning, the poetess, lived and died. 

Porta S. Frediano, on the Pisa Road, near the 

Jews' Cemetery. Porta alPrato, built ^'28h, near 

ryyef Oa.ic}/jo and railway stations. Fresco by 

wa^dZ^'f'"^ "^^ Pif^Ja Station and tbo For- 
^ */« ^ns^, or dJ S. Oioyannl Battista. 



Open Places, or Plaaai.— The most important 
and interesting is the *Piazta delta Signoria^ or 
Piazza GVa»(/(/ca, the central pohitof Florence, sur- 
rounded with ancient buildings and works of 
art, &C. On the south side is the Palazzo Vec- 
chio and its high tower, with the statue of Cosirao I., 
and the Neptune fountain. Here were (pro tern) 
the Chamber of Deputies and the Foreign Office. 
Facing this, the Uguccionc Palace and the Post 
Ojfice. On the south side, the Loggia de' Lanzi 
and its groups of statuary. Close to it are the Uffizi 
or Florence Gallery, with its gems of art, the 
Podesta, and the Vecchio and Nuovo markets for 
fruit, straw-plait, fiowers, «fcc. 

Piaxta del Duomo, in which are the cathedral, 
the campanile, and baptistery; with the statues of 
Aniolfo and Brwiellcschi, and Dante's Stone. The 
western prolongation of this piazza is called the 
Piazza S. Giovanni. 

Piazza di Santa Maria Novella, near that church 
and the Pistoja Station. It has two obelisks rest- 
ing on tortoises hi the middle, and an arcade on 
stone pillars on one side. Here the races of St. 
John's Eve formerly took place. The Piazza 
Veechia is on the east side. 

Piazza di 8. Lorenzo, facing that church. 

Piazza Maria Antonia, near the Fortezza S. 
G iovanni Battista ; a modem square, the largest 
and most regular in Florence, now called the Piazza 
dell Jndipendenza. 

Piazza di S. Marco, with a statue of General Fanti. 

Piazza M. Angelo, a beautiful drive outside the 
Oltramo, with acastof thegreat sculptor's "David" 
on it. Piazza Cavour, with a triumphal arch. 

Piazza delV Annunziata, in the north-east, near 
the Gherardesca Garden, is surrounded by loggie 
or double arcades, on Corinthian columns. Facing 
the church is the Spedale dcgl' Innocent i, or 
Foundlhig Hospital, by Brunelleschi. Here is 
G. da Bologna's equestrian statue of Ferdinand I., 
and bronze fountains. 

Piazza di Santa Croce, facing that church, and 
surrounded by old houses, decorated with frescoes. 
Here is Pazzi's statue of Dante. 

Piazza Manin^ on the Lungamo Nuova, with a 
statue of Goldoni, the poet. 

Piazza del Orano, or Loggia del Orano; an Aicade, 
by S. Tirati, 1619. Piazza di Santa Trinith, near 
the Trinita Bridge. It has a granite pillar from 
the Baths of Caracalla, the gift of Pius IV. to 
Cosimo I., surmounted by del Taddi's porphyry 
Justice, with bronze drapery. 

Piazza Pitti, on the south side of the Arno, faces 
the Pitti Palace. Piazzi S. Spirito and Piazza del 
Carmine are on the same side of the river. 

Churches.— 1. The *I>UOmo, or cathedral of 
Santa Maria dtl Fiore, that is, of the Flower, or 
Red Lily, which figures in the city anns, and 
corresponds with its name. It was designed by 
the republic to be the largest and most sumptuous 
building that could be hivented, in order that it 
might correspond with a "very great heart,*' 
because originatVng \\\ IVvc^ mVwd ot most of the 
citizens imited togcVtw Nxvow^i^VW <A\ \w\^ wt- 



Route 26.] 



FLOBENCB — DUOMO. 



123 



rispondentc ad an cuoro che Tictn f atto grandissimo, 
pcrche compo8tu dair animo di piu cittudini uniti 
insicnm in nn sol volerc). Begun 129R, by 
Aniolfo di Lapo, pupil of Ciiuabuc, and continued 
133-i, by Giotto, who built a fine marble front, 
which was demolished 158G by the Medici. Ser 
Filippo Brunelleschi. a native of the city, finished 
the church, and was the author of the great Dome, 
which M. Angcio used to look at with unbounded 
admiration, and say it could never be surpassed, 
and which is only excelled by his own at St. Peter's. 

The walls arc' cased with a thin veneer of black 
and white marble, and adorned inside and out with 
many statues. Length, 500 feet, by 810 feet 
through the transept: width of the nave. 128 feet, 
and height, 153 feet. There are three great doors in 
front, and two on each side, all richly carved. 
Among the Madonnas on the front is the Madonna 
del Fiore, by Giovanni di Pisa, with Ghirlandajo's 
mosaic of the Assumption. A new Fofode, by 
De Fabris, was completed in 1887. G. Gaddi's 
mosaic of the Coronation of the Virgin is over 
the middle door within the church 

The interior is of dark mottled stone, with a 
variegated marble pavement, inlaid with lilies in 
red, black, and white marble, designed by F. di 
San Gallo (in the nave), and M. Angcio (round the 
choir). It is lit by narrow stained windows, by a 
Lubcck artist, 1434, from designs by Ghiberti and 
Donatello. This produces a dim religious light, 
which becomes almost darkness under the closed 
dome. The vast nave is flanked by four great 
pointed arches on each side of the middle aisle 
(55 feet wide), which are carved with armorial 
bearings. The windows of the side aisles are 
small, and those of the clerestory are mere circular 
holes, and the vaults are ill-shaped. The walls are 
not painted, and look cold and gloomy. The choir 
is octagonal, enclosed by an Ionic colonnade, and 
corresponds in shape with the Dome above, which 
is also eight-sided, and double-cased (one dome 
within another). Its interior is pahited with fres- 
coes, by Vasari and F. Zucchero. It is 140 feet 
diameter inside and 100 feet high. 

From the pavement to the top of the cross is 350 
feet. There is a hole in the top through which the 
sun shining in line with a mark on the pavement 
of the north transept, shows the direction of the 
meridian, first traced in 14 f^ 8 by Toscanelli. In 
the choir, (inished 1568, are bas-reliefs by Bandi- 
nelli and his pupils. Behind the high altar is a 
Piet^ the last work (unfinished) of M. AngelO. 

Among the monuments are the following: — 
Giotto, the painter, with a portrait bust by Majano. 
Brunelleschi, with a bust, and epitaph by Marzap- 
phii, ^^Poet and Secretary of the Kepublic;" 
which tells the visitor to look at the cupola, to 
judge of the great architect's genius— somethhig 
like the "circumspicc" at St. Paul's. Ticino, the 
friend of Loroizo de* Medici ; that Lorenzo who 
on 26th May, 1478, when his brother Giuliano was 
killed at the high altar by the Pazzi^ escaped 
death byOybifflnto the old sacristy. Portrait of 
^/f/i^ by MJcieJiDo, near the choir in the north 



aisle, placed there by decree of the republic, 1465. 
Near this is a bust of Amolfo di Lapo, the archi- 
tect; then a fresco of Sir John Hawkwood, or 
Jolumne Acutus, as he is styled, an Essex man and 
soldier of fortune, who died 1393. He is called 
Aucud, Auchovod, Aguto, in the current histories. 

In the five chapels round the tribmie are statues 
by Bandinelli, Rovezzano, and other early sculp- 
tors. The door of the sacristy near it is by L. 
della Robbia. These chapels, with their pictures 
and other relics, are contained in the throe east 
apses which surround the base of the dome. 

On Easter Eve the church is crowded with far- 
mers, to watch the motion of an artificial dove, 
which at the Gloria in Excelsis glides along the 
nave on a rope, sets fire to a combustible car (pro- 
vided by the Pazzi family) in the street, and then 
flies wiiizzing back. All the hopes of the pions 
fanners for the harvest are fixed on the safe return 
of this dove to the altar; according to the saying 
^^Quando va bene la cotumbhia, va bene il Fio- 
rentino." 

At the comer of the principal entrance is Giotto's 

^Campanile, or detached belfry, began 1884, 
and finished by T. Gaddi; a light and elegant 
tower, 42 feet square, relieved by octagonal pro- 
jections at the comer; covered like the clmrch 
with slices of variegated marbles, and adorned 
with fifty-four bas-reliefs and sixteen statues. It 
is in four storeys (lighted by whidows) 290 feet 
high, and was to have carried a spire which would 
have made it 90 feet higher; the reliefs, of Bible 
subjects, being in the ground storey. It is ascended 
by 415 steps. It is adorned with statutes of 
Evangelists, Prophets, Patriarchs, and Sibyls, 
with series of bas-reliefs, the whole by Donatello, 
Niccolb d'Arezzo, Giotto, A Pisano, and L. della 
Robbia. They say here a thing is as "beautiful 
as the Campanile" Macchiavelli relates that when 
its six bells sounded at mid-day, they would bring 
together 135,000 armed men in the course of a few 
hours. Facing the church and campanile is the 
Battistcro. or 

*BaptlBtexy, on the site of a Temple of Mars, in 
wlilch all the children of the city are christened, 
the water being blessed by the archbishop twice a 
year. It is an octagonal building of the thirteenth 
century, 1U8 feet diameter, rebuilt by A. de Lapo, 
on the site of what was at first the Cathedral, 
founded in the sixth century by the Lombards. 
It is cased inside with marble, with a low dome, 
on sixteen gr^anite pillars from the older structure, 
and lined with mosaics, by A. Tafii, and other 
artists. The three beautiful bronze Doors are 
covered with reliefs of the History of St. John the 
Baptist, and other scriptural subjects; one by 
Andrea di Pisa, 1330, the other two by Ghiberti 
(1410-24), which M. Angelo said ought to be 
the Gates of Paradise. At the middle <is*st, ^ct^ 

two columns of \Kit^\V\T^ ^N«fiV^B^>J'C»R."«^»^»•'^^ 

Close \i^ X.VA% >wa» ^^'^^v^'S?i^^«^^^«*^- 



124 



BBADSHAVS ITALY. 



LSection 2. 



their final triumph over Pisa ; namely, part of an 
iron chain, witli which the Pisans used to block up 
their harbour. This, like the one carried off by 
the Genoese, has been returned to the Pisans, in 
token of a more brotherly state of things in Italy. 
There is a St. John the Baptist over the altar, with 
some bas-reliefs on the railings. On the black and 
white floor is a mosaic of the sun and zodiac, by 
S. Strozzi, the astrologer; with a sentence, "En 
giro torte Sol ciclos et rotor igne," which reads 
the same both ways, and signifies the "sun drives 
on oblique his fiery car." 

In front of the Baptistery is a pillar erected in 
1880, to commemorate a miracle which accom- 
panied the removal of the relics of Bishop Zanobi. 
Behind it is the Bigallo Orphan Hospital, of the 
fourteenth century. On the north side of the 
Duomo are Pampalonrs statues of Amolfo di Lapo 
and Brunelleschi ; -the latter looking up at his 
church. Near these, a Stone called the " Sasso di 
Dante^'' on which the poet used to sit, is built 
into the wall of a house. The large open Piazza 
near the Cathedral presents an especially gay 
scene on any of the chief festivals. 

To the west of the Baptistery is the Archbishop^s 
Palace. On the south side of the Campanile is 
the Oratory of the Brothers of the Misericordia, 
who perform their pious functions in robes having 
cowls with apertures for the eyes only. 

2. * Santa Croce. belonging to the Black Friars, 
is the Pantheon of Florence, the " holy precincts" 
in which Galileo, M. Angolo, Machiavclli, and 
Alfieri are buried. 

"Here repose 
Angelo'a, Alferi's bones, and his 
The starrjr Galileo's, with his woes : 
Here Machiavelli's earth returned to whence it rose."— Ayron. 

Begun, 1294, in the Germano-Tuscan style, by 
Amolfo, and restored by Vasari, except the new 
fafaijle, the first stone of which was laid by Pio 
Nono, 22nd August, 1867. The last is from Cro- 
naca's designs; and was mostly done at the cost 
of an English resident. The Church is 490 feet 
long. Many marble slabs are in the pavement, 
and some ancient frescoes are at the east end. 
Oh the portal is Donatello's bronze statue of 
St. Louis, of Toulouse. Stained rose window, over 
the central door, by Ghiberti. In the 

Second, or Buonarotti Chapel^ on the right — 
Monument of M. Angelo, with his portrait looking 
towards the dome, and statues of Painting, Sculp- 
ture, and Architecture. Vasari's Crucifixion. 
Monument of Lanzi, author of the History of 
Painting. Then follows Ricci' s monument of Dant&, 
with figures of Italy and poetry. His body lies at 
Bavenna. Monument of Affieri, by Canova, at 
the cost of the Countess of Albany. Monument of 
MachiaveUi, by J. Spinazzi, erected at the cost 
oTZfonJ Coirpcr, in 1787. Castagno's monument of 

^Z^Z^ S^"?'^,f"^ ""^ I^eonardo Bratti, the 
^'^^rS, jiLT"''^^'^^'^'^ tran»f erred hither 
^^ Jssr, wnibe covered by a monvLmeni. 



GU)ing on round the transepts are the following 
chapels:-^ 

Chapel, of the jStocram^n^— Santarelli's monument 
of the Countess of Albany (died 1824), widow of 
Charles Stuart. Vasari's Last Supper. L. della 
Robbia's statues of St. Bernardino and St. Dominic. 

Baroneelli or Qiugni Chapel.— Frescoes by T. 
GaddL Bandinelli's Picth. 

Medici Chapel. — * Giotto's Madonna Incoronata. 

Rinuecini C%flp«/.— Sacristy, and Velluti Chapel. 
Frescoes by A. Gaddi, and others of the school. 

Bonaparte Chapel. — Monuments of the wife and 
daughter ("Charlotte B. digne do son nom") of 
Joseph Bonaparte, whose monument also is here, 
but ills remains are in the crypt. 

Peruzzi Chapel.— Dc\ Sarto's altar-piece of the 
Virghi and Saints. *Giotto's fine frescoes. 

Bardi Chapel (next to the high altar)— Bronze 
inscription to the Florentine citizens, "who laid 
down their lives for Italy, at Curtatone and Mon- 
tanara, 29th May, 1848." (See Route 18.) *Giotto*s 
grand frescoes. 

Behind the liigh altar are A. Gaddi's frescoes 
and stained windows. 

In the Sacristy— frescoea^ ancient missals, and 
fine cabinets. 

Among the Chapels, on the left of the altar, are 
the 

Ricasoli Chapel^ belonging to Baron Ricasoli. 
Paintings by Sabattelli. 

PwW Chapel.— H. Daddi's frescoes. 

St. Silvestro Chapel. — Giottino's frescoes. Monu- 
ment of B. de Bardi. 

Niccolini Chapel. — Bronzlni's Coronation of the 
Virgin. Figures of the Virtues and Sibyls. 

St. Ludovico Chapel. — Donatello's Crucifix. 
Monuments of the Bardi. 

Borghese or ScUoiate Chapel. — Countess Czarto- 
ryski's Monument, by Bartollinl. 

Among the latest memorials are those dedicated 
to N. Tommaseo, the friend of Manln, the defender 
of Venice and Carlo Botta, the historian. 

On the left of the nave are — Monuments of 
Cocchi, the philosopher, and R. Morghen, the 
artist; Vasari's Descent of the Holy Ghost; 
Bartolini's monument of Fossombroni; Vasari's 
Unbelief of St. Thomas; Ricci's monument of 
Signorini; Fogginl's monument of Galileo, with 
his bust, carved in 1737. His remains were left in 
anconsecrated ground for more than a century. 
Da Settegnano's monument of Marsuppini, in the 
fifteenth century stylo. Monument of Fllicaja, 
the poet, author of "Italia! oh. Italia! thou so 
crowned!" and other fine sonnets; Bronzini's 
Descent from the Cross. The marble pulpit Is 
carved with Majano's bas-reliefs. 

In the cloisters adjoining are the Pazzi Chapel, 
by Brunelleschi, with the Four Evangelists and 
Twelve Apostles. L. della Robbia's terra cottas ; 
and some frescoes by the Giotto school; including 
T. Gaddi' 8 Last Suppet, Vtv \Vift v^tectory. 

Near the Santa CroeftaT<i\.\iftY\«ctx«k«LTv^\Mij«A«fc 
of the Peruzzi, on the %\le ot «L"B.omMv\im\)\i\\\\^\x«5.» 



Bonte ae.] 

0( other dmrohei t 
remarkablA;^ 
8. St. Ambroffio, n«n 



PLOBBKCK — BAKU CmOCE. 
rlu; are tbo molt I Tbe aubjcrt 



I *Ffaeoa. bi 
1. are 13 [olla 



IJppl:*St. Peter 



del Sotvl. lonnded In the thirteouth Mntnry , ho Apostle's Shadow (psrtratt of Mnsollno to the 
Ip « hrolherhood ealled llw Ber»L, or Servants of | rigbtof St. I'etcr), MiiiKclo! St.PotcrllBptbilngi 
the Martoona, the colonnaded court or strlnj. In ,,„d gt. po^. Giving Alm«. MasoUno: 81. Peter 






I Faradiac. Lipid: i 









of the Virgin 
bo a mlmcnlous 
f CbrlJl, by Del 

—P. Penigino'a Madonna En- 

Tergine del Smxim Chapd.—O. do Bolagns'i 

Baadinelli C%]t»r— BandlncIU'i marblD Flotli, 
with his own ponrall. u Nlcodemoe. 

atcdSel Gl>apd.—B. Donatella'! tomb ol Orlando 
do' Medlid. a. OaUo-i tomb of A. Haid-Hodlel li 

SI. Lmia Ciiajrf.— Works by Fra Angelico, A. 
Allori, Vasari, Ac. Tho AkcI Ctiapel contains a 
St. Sebastian, only sbonn by ipeclal permlaalOD 

fi, SS. Apoitoti, notr Ponte vecchio, across the 

Piiiia Graoduca, rebuilt 1«K, In the shape of 
. Orcpk cross. lor the Benodictinci. Its tall cam- 
panile vni built by AnioUo. It contains n (ou-blo 



implion, by Vnaari 



of modem palntlngi. They irere ei 



lodi^lini, by 



^ano'i lomli ol P.Sodsrini. porpetoal Gonfalonlere. 
Inlfid?; a Madonna, by a Greok artist iSatcopbaoiu 
of St. Andrea Cordnl, In the Ceraini Clupel; 
dbiilandajo's Holy Supper, and other treseoea, In 
tbo refectory. 

8. CiTtotOy or the Cemetery Cbnreh, hM some 
irld tombs, and pictures of the setiool of Qlotto. 

». S. rcUce, comer of Via Rom.no, Fr« 
Aoitetlco's altar-plecej with a Christ and Peter 



a. Qhlrla 



I FcHcib 



raddeo Gaddl. In the Capponi Chapel la a DeKeiit 

lainted the EvoncellsU, In the rault. 

11. a. Ffreme. biMl IMS, and dodlcateil to St. 
Philip NcrL Some ancient altat-|)icc(n of tha 



founeeoih < 
ahlrlaudaJo'sSL j( 



It IMS, hi 



doing Per 
FOiti f beyotid the fortlfloatlouB) 
-In the Horelll Cbapel Is Del Bnrto's Noll mo 
taneere, bis oldert work in oil. 

14. S. Ztaiardo'i ChanA, nt Porta B. Giorgio, 
Polpit reliefs of IweUlh eontoiy. 

19. *S ^oriaio, In PlazzadlS, Lorcnio. a brick 
tinildlnjc. begnn U15, by Bmnell«chl, lo contain 
the Medici monuments, on the site of one conso- 
cralcd BM, hy SI. Anibroao (the friend of Zeno- 

cTom-hhaped, SM (ect long and 171 through the 






left designs. The foil. 

■a.— F. LIpiiVs Aiinunc; 
ir which are A. Bron 
rdomnf S. Lorenzo, am 



jdlarnCruclfli, byB. 
.narked "Pater Patrl. 



md \i\BVmi'ii qV WuMBHtO- 



\-«.eaic\(,\"»t- «" 






l/at SacHilg or Dtpnlli Chaptt, i 
tC Angdo, lStG-81. Itcontaliwh: 
ll^ of Glulluo de' MedlcL Dak 
bnlha-iX Ldo X., anil of Lorenio. 



BBADSaAW'g ItAtr. 

inrtrortod hy fitumti by Ft 



tSection 3. 

hil, Ac., bnt upnliilly 



izisO»iulucii.igrdMBy,l4SB. IlelxlacTlbal 
hop aieti was conaiml here litforc bli roMntii- 



<i ItadMiBa dei 



crss 



Bolo''"*''"'l't'"''f'FerS?''"'ifi' ttfT "d'^' *d ^""Sliio'i 'DeTollon' ol theCrou, Tfaible dolly, 
P. T»™i'. C«l™o II._..B<«™u.r. (riscoa in "^*^'X"«i»*. J^a™to«. hnlU ta. th. .hlr- 
,^,J tnonlh coiilury. onlhoslMirf n yory early cborch. 



The clDlMer of the conienl leads lo the 
BMMiea Laareiuiiaui, tonnded by Ihe Med[cl 
fimllT. Open dally. II wu eroded by M, Angela 
sndVauiilDd canU[niib(M( l»,OM MSS..maay 
being ■Imoit of pricoleii yalae (>iio p. 189). 

Mstaet^Cotlnutl'irelher, aiarannl, which nied 
to atanil In the Pulaiio V«cbK 

«. Santa ^nefii <»iiK'A.—D. flhlrlandojo'g Birth 
of Cbriit, St tho lilsii aHar. 

17. BaMa Ltieia &l/aiiiiaH.~-Tena eottA. by L. 
dolln Robbia; Fra Fliippa LIppl's AnnnnclaUon. 

18. -a. Marco Cbnrch, hi the Piniin dl B. Marco, 
near Ihe Cathedral, alliKhod to a [tomlnlcan Con- 

tefonner. and Fnt Aneolleo and Fra Dartoioniiiiao. 
wore hrolhcri (fmri). Begnn 14SS-T, by Ulche- 
loiio. and tho (rout coniplctod by Frs Prontl. 
17J7. Over It ii Giollo'ii Cruclfii, on a mli 

Fra Beuedato (the brother of Angelloa), anit a 
psalter, by Fra UnitacMo (l£0vj. In the 

Attomino Chapel, by G. lU llolD^a.lSB8. are tcren 
nalua of S. Anlontno. 9, Thomai, B. DoiDlnIc, 
Ac, by a. dl Sologna and FraoeaTlIbi; three 
Anjcola, by PortlElanlj pieturea by Ilmnilno. 

<»<u«lo/(Ai»Knimn><,byailvanl(l«7B). P^nt- 
Injn by I'amlipiano, S. dl Tito, Ac Ncor thli, 
a VIrKin and Saliiti. by Fra llartulornnioo. 

Cappelta Ricrl. — Ancient motaiouflbeMndonna 
And 8alulH, of the eighteenth eontory. Lirou^it 



•1 0494}. 



ig, with arched tomhis dates 


r^rtw^ 


adjoln- 


■nil rwtorod, wa* » mneb admired hy M 
lal he nied to call it hl> Sposa, or Bride. 


*. lately 


.■:S'-s;L°3™.S'.,'";t- 

Imlntsh Utwnnlnthe high alter, to liic 
emnoclive effect. Clone to the door 
ano'i tomb of SanU Deatu VllUiiia. It 


irposel) 

3 


re « (ollonji:— 






CAoft- Cfintw'.— ThU U core 
lajo's frEKocs, Hnlahed 1490. 


"?)u*o?e 


Gbirlan- 
wall are 



celebrated portrait oT Glnetra At/' Benei, a younft 
and beautltnl Florentine lady. On the oppoidte 
wall Is the Hintory of theVimln, In aeven pictures 



Domlolc and St Peter tho Uartyr; and '(on 
hiB Evangellua are In the eeiling. 

OoRiH Phoprf,— Were \» aroiwtttKM'a woo 
(iniclfli, wlilth ho tarvtrt vu rt'iA v\\« «ft 
Cro«s and wWoU so n.s\on\*io4 VJonaVSiVi V^ 



Roatd 26.] 



FLOBBNCS— CBUBCBBS. 



127 



cried oat *^ You make Gkrists, while I make pap- 
pets." 

Gaddi Chapi I. — Two tombs by M. Angelo. Bron- 
zino's KuiNing of Jairus' Daughter. Bas-reliefs 
by G. dell' Opera. 

Strotzi Chapel^ in the transept. — Frescoes of the 
Heaven and Hell of Dante, full of figures, by 
Andrea Orcagna (assisted by his brother Bernardo), 
one of whose works, the Coronation of the Virgin, 
is in the National Gallery. His best work is hero, 
viz., the altar-piece of Christ and the Virgin on a 
Throne, with his name on it, painted 1857. 

ScKritty. — Three reliquaries by Fra Angclico; 
and Masaccio's Crucifix. 

Pcuquali Chapel. — ^Vasari's Resurrection, painted 
over a work of Masaccio's, the Italian Trinity, dis- 
covered hi 1857. Near M. Lazzaro's pulpit is 
Ghiberti's bronze nionuincnt of Fra Leonardo; 
also one of Joseph, Patriarch of Constantinople, 
who attended a Council here, 1439. 

liucellai Chapel. — Cimabue's Madonna and Child, 
a large picture on a gold gn>und, said to liavc been 
carried in solemn procession from the painter's 
studio to the church. Monument of P. Rucellai. 

Filippo Strotzi Chapel. — B. da Majano*s marble 
tomb of the founder; F. Lippi's frescoes of St. 
John restoring Drusiana ; St. Philip driving away 
the Dragon, &c 

Chiostro KeccWo(OId Cloister), or Chiostro Verde, 
built 1320, and so called from the prevailing shades 
of its cameo frescoes of the Deluge, by P. Uccelli. 
Hence through corridors lined with early frescoes, 
to the old Chapter House, or 

Cappelfa Degli Spagnuoli, built 1350, by Fra 
Jacopo, and covered all over with frescoes, by 
Mcmmi and T. Gaddi, of the school of Giotto, now 
much decayed, and very ill lighted. The subjects 
arc the Church Militant and Triumphant, with the 
Life of St. Thomas Aquinas, a great Dominican 
doctor. There is a profusion of figures, many of 
them portraits of eminent personages of the day, 
as Benedict XI., Clement V., Philip of France, | 
Petrarch, Li^ura, Boccaccio, Cimabnc, &c.; and 
the Domini Canes, or faithful black and white 
Dominican dogs, are seen driving away the here- 
tical wolves from the flock. Gaddi's frescoes on 
the west side include niched figures of fourteen 
Christinn Virtues and Sciences, coupled with por- 
traits of eminent exemplars, in this order: — Civil 
Law and Justinian ; Church Law and Clement V.; 
Speculative Theology and Peter Lombard ; Prac- 
tical Theology and S. Bocthius; Faith and Diony- 
sius the Aroopagite ; Hope and John of Damascus ; 
Charity and St. Augustine ; Arithmetic and Pytha- 
goras; Geom^ry and Euclid; Astronomy and 
Ptolemy; Music and Tubal Cain; Dialectics, or 
Logic, and Aristotle; Rhetoric and Cicero; Gram- 
mar and Priscian. 

Chiostro Grande. — Under the arcades are frescoes 

of the life of 8. Dominic, &c. In the refectory, 

frescoes by Bronzino. In the Spezeria, where the 

monks prepare their noted esacnces, liqueurs, and 

pcrfumoa (etfpeoMly the aiteniios, which makes a 

pleasant tlJinH with barley water), arp S. Aretiuo's 



twelve paintings. Facing the church are two 
obelisks on bronze tortoises, by G. da Bologna. The 
open loggia of Brunei leschi, opposite, was re- 
stored -in 1789. The piazza presents a gay scene 
on a church festa, when the people come out with 
their dresses and banners. 

22. Santa Maria Nuova, near the Piazza di 
Duomo, built 1418, as the church to an excellent 
hospital and medical school, founded 1287, l)y 
Folco Portinari, the father of Dante's Beatrice. 
In the loggia ai*e wall paintings, by L. di Bicci. 
Within are Allori's Madonna on a Throne, Cas- 
tagno's Magdalene, D. Veneziano's Flight into 
Egypt, A. Verrocchio's (terra cotta) Madonna, and 
Van der (Joes' s altar-piece. Remains of Fra 
Bartolommeo's Last Judgment, in the Cemetery. 

23. St. Martino, an oratoiy of the Buonuomini, 
founded 1441, and adorned with twelve pictures 
of works of charity. 

24. *0r S. Miehele, or S. Michcle in Orzo (» «., 
among the barley), in the Via Calzaiolo, near 
Piazza Granduca, was first built for a granary on 
arcades, and converted into a church in 1337, 
completed 1412. Arnolfo's old Gothic church, 
which It replaces, is now callcMi 8. Carlo. The 
upper storey, shice 136l>, is used for the archives, 
while the lower or church part rests on the ancient 
market pillars. We here have examples of two 
arches divided by columns included within a 
larger arch, as in some Norman churches. It has 
some old frescoes (Gaddi's Jesus in the Temple), 
good stained windows, and a beautiful marble 
^Tabernacle, by Orcagna, 1359, most richly carved 
with reliefs fi'om the History of the Virgin, and 
standing behind an elegant screen which matches 
it. It contams a miracle-working image of the 
Virgin. There are also a marble group, by F. da 
Sangallo and Mino da Fiesole. 

Around the church is a series of niched statues, 
erected by the old trading guilds of Florence, whose 
arms are placed over each. Among them are 
DonateIlo*s St. Mark, St. George, and St. Peter; 
G. da Bologna's St Luke; Ghilberti's St. John the 
Baptist, St. Matthew (bronze), and St. Stephen ; 
N. di Banco's St. James and St. Eloy (or St. Eligius), 
and four saints in a group; besides A. del Ver- 
rocchio's St. Thomas, and B. da Montclupo's St. 
John the Evangelist. 

25. S. Miniato, (See page 185.) 

26. S. iViccold, across the Anio, near Porta S. 
Miniato, built by Vasari. It suffered from the 
inundations of the river, in 1557, and has a cam- 
panile in which M. Angelo hid away from the 
Imi)erialist s. A. Allori's Sacrifice of Abraham and 
St. Cathei-ine; D. Ghirlandajo's Madonna and St. 
Thomas, in the Sacristy. 

27. Ognissantt, or All Saints, annexed to a Fran- 
ciscan House, and restoretl in 1627. It has L. della 
Robbia*s reliefs on the door-way v i;i.QkN!^xSsc5cic8c^'«» 
St, JeroHWi-, ^v»\.V\<:.si\VC'9.'e>V. ^^^.^x^sJC«^R,^^. 

\ ^5 <i<jtv\%. 



I white Held, which wai adoptM u tha 
mngi. Co>lRiDl.regldedlTillforafev 
m IMA-BO) tin ho movfl] hl> conn to [he 



thirteenth ana toortecnlh contBi 

SB. S. Simoni bus nn altar 'i iDetnacic. iiy l. , 
dcIlB Itobbls. nnrl n St. Peter, hy ClDjabuo <!). ' 

SI. ig. :^i'fl<i. In the Ollr' Anio. near the Triiillk 
Brldge,mi AugDiIliie Church, dnignedlii 1433, liy ' 
DrDSeUatcht, and finlihcd HS3, dote to the i 
renulnaof oncdcstro^Hlby Are. II ii n lianiluine 
Corlutblnn crou. WS feet tnnt;, with 38 chcpcla 
and ■ cnpoln. The chglr and Hilar are richly dcco- '. 
rated. It hat a fine canipanlle. EntcrluK, we ' 
hare P. dl Coilmu'i Agiuinptlont M. UIeIu'b ' 
inarhlo FMH; and near It, A. Baneovlno'i SI. 
Mloholai. 

Strli CAopel.— mippliw Llppl'> Uadunna, SI. < 
Martin. Ac. 

CIrHiuUf ChijwI.- Ban<K>vlnD-> earvlnei. Near 
thia. U. Ohlrlandajo'K Chrltt on the Cron. I 

BtOon (»apeL— Clotto'i Mailnnna. 

BUMH Chipd.— BottkelU'a Madoima. I 



a, hai I glitllo 
inncl- city an 
^and \yar,(l 



jBdany of Fine Arti, hat a cait itands 



r.is. 



Termini. The Pot 
icrsca and Trltono, 

B work of a. da E 



main of Neptnne. 
Ii bv AmmnnBtl, 
dm(il„()n horsc- 



88. aoTifa !Wn*(4, built IStO, 111 the 

a<meM ChapA near the high altar^ 

d'Anlfl, comiileled 1840. tl 



onl«ln> portriJW < 

Tcbl'luVliUHannora. I 
IB LIbrerIa ETangeUcn, whet 
itrnnds Is carried on. by mean 
Iportafto. The Cam Salpian 
college for thelheoloiflcal iti 



Qllly ( 



. ttwai 



icneral Bockwith. The Bynigognela 
hnlldbiR. 
Pnl««M -JPalatro Veahio, Inlhc rinaia Gran- 

nd Dncnl Oorornment, anil lately of the Chainlwr 
ri)enntlo>nndPorelEnOfltcii.liiaflnoniualTeand 
imnrhat Kinomy pile, remarkable (nr Ita machl- 
ilaled haltlemeiits; ond waa bennn ISSS by 

>wer or Torre della Vacea, now goo feet hltrh, lt<i 



Reernllon of Bonl 
lan), whm iweiv 



1. by V 



One 



. city 



QieoM, la the ' 
. .,. ..,. Jubilee year, 
adors from aa many 

■liB, Verona, Maplea, 
IheKhanof TertaVvt 
^Bdlanoa Chamber, li 



The ^alla deir U> 

painted In (reaco . , . . ... .._ ^ 

traltuDf vreat Ftarenllnea, with one of Dnchna 

chape], pointed hy_B. Ohlrlandajo. 

Thla majnlRcent wMtctton \» ovon ia.'fti, Vtwa 
10 a.m. to ♦ p.m., 1 IVtai •.ii4\«™n*S.i"*'m\1» 



Koute 26.] 



FLORENCE — PALACES, UFFIZI GALLERY. 



129 



Uffizli or Offices, a range of buildings forming 
three sides of an oblong court, between the Pal- 
azzo Vecchio and the Amo, about 600 feet long, 
and 125 broad; originally serving as part of the 
corridor— 250 or 260 fathoms long, to the Piiti 
Palace. It was constructed by Vasari, 1560-74, 
as an often loggia or roofed terrace, but after- 
wards filled in with windows and enclosed. To 
this, other rooms, as the Tribune, Niobe Room, Ac, 
were added by Buontalenti, and later architects. 
Part of the east wing, near the Archives, is occu- 
pied by the Italian Senate. The Etruscan Gallery 
dates from 1863. The collection was founded by 
Cosimo 1., and succeeding Princes of the Medici 
family. 

It comprises paintings of all the Italian and 
Foreign schools, ancient and modem sculpture, 
designs and engravings, bronzes, gems, pottery, 
&c., the archives, and the Magllabecchi Librai-y; 
most of which are on the first floor. Shops fill up 
the Doric colonnades below. The entrance is near 
the Piazza Slgnoria. Around the court is an 
interesting series of niched marble statues of 
eminent Florentines, of modern date; as the 
founder, Cosimo I. (by G. da Bologna); Lorenzo 
the Magnificent; Orcagna (by Dupre); ^'iccolb da 
Pisa (by Fedi, one of the best); Giotto (by I)ui)re, 
the sculptor of the Dead Abel); Donatello (l)y 
Torrini); Alberti, da Vinci, M. Angelo, Dante, 
Petrarch, Boccaccio, Machiavelli, Guicciardini, 
Amerigo Vespucci, Galileo, P. Micheli, Mascagni, 
Cesalpino, S. Antonino, Accorsi, Guido, B. Cellini, 
F. degr Uberti. P. Capponi, G. de' Medici (or delle 
Bande Nere), and Fcrucci. 

First Vestibufe from the stairs.— Bronzes of 
Silenus and Bacchus, and of Mars; busts of the 
Medici, including Cosimo (paief patriae, as he is 
called), the founder of the family; which derives its 
name from Medicus, and whose arms are the three 
pills or balls now adopted by pawnbrokers. He 
died 1464. Also Lorenzo the Magnificent, whose 
life w ith that of his son, Giovanni (Leo X.). was 
written by Roscoe; Giuliano, or Clement VII.; 
and Cosimo I., the first Grand Duke. Catherine 
de' Medici (or Medicis, as the French spell it), 
grandiiiece of Clement VII., was the mother of 
Francis II., and two other Kings of France, and 
mother-in-law to Mary Stuart. 

Second Vestibule. — Mastiff dogs; statues of 
Apollo, and of Augustus, Adrian, and Trajan. 
This leads into the three 

Corridors, surrounded by paintings of the old 
masters (thirteenth to sixteenth century): among 
which are G lot thiols Entombment ; Fra Angelico's 
Altar-piece; Giotto's Christ in the Garden; and 
a fine St. Cecilia. Here are over 600 portraits of 
eminent Florentines; busts of the Roman Emi)eror8, 
and fourteen sarcophagi. Among the busts, the 
most striking are Nero, Otho, Titus, Antoninus 
Fins, M. Aurelius, Caracalla, and Commodus. 
About three parts np the first long (or east) 
corridor, turning to the left, is the 

Tribune.— A small close oct&gon room, abotit 24 
feet diameter, eontAining a "world of i\rt;' tYie 



gems of sculpture and painting of the whole col- 
lection. It was constructed by Buontalenti, and 
has a marble floor and a mother-of-pearl dome. 
Here stand five master-pieces of statuary; and, 
first, the "statue that enchants the world," the 

1. *Venus de* 1)0 edict, an undraped figure, so 
called because placed here by Cosimo III. of the 
Medici family, and which is so well known by the 
Innumerable copies of it. It was found at Villa 
Adriana, broken in three pieces, and wanting the 
right arm and half of the left, which were restored 
by Bernini. It is4 feet 11 J inches high, of pentelic 
(or Athenian) marble, and is said to be the work of 
Cleoraenes, the son of Apollodorus. 2. V ApoUino^ 
or Little Apollo, 4 feet 6 inches high, and attributed 
to Praxiteles. 3. L' Arrotino, a figure whetting 
his knife, found at Rome, in the sixteenth century, 
and siTpposed to be a Scythian preparing to flay 
Marsyas. 4. / Lottatori, or The Wrestlers, — one 
head of which is supposed to have been restored. 
6. Dancing Faun. Head and arms restored by M. 
Angelo. 

The Paintings in this room are - L. Carraccl's 
Eliczcr and Rebecca ; L. Cranach's Adam and Eve; 
A. Diirer's Adoration of the Magi; Domenichino's 
Portrait of Cardinal Aguccia; Titian's Venus and 
Cupid with Flowers; M. Angelo's *Hcly Family, 
in a Circle — painted for A. Doni; Lanfranchi's St. 
Peter near the Cross; A. Mantegna's Circumcision, 
Adoration of the Magi, and Resurrection ; A. del 
Sarto's *Madonna, St. John the Evangelist, and 
St. Francis; Correggio's Head of St. John the 
Baptist; B. Luini's Herodias and the Baptist's 
Head; Titian's Portrait of Cardinal Beccadelll ; 
Correggio's Holy Family in Egypt; Titian's 
♦Venus, with the Dog (this is "Titian's Venus," 
supposed to be the jwrtrait of the mistress 
of the Duke d'Urbino); Guercino's Samian Sibyl ; 
Raphael's Portrait of Maddalena Doni (or one of 
the Doni family?), painted 1505; P. Veronese's 
Madonna and Child, St. John, St. Catherine, Ac; 
A. Carracci's Bacchante; Raphael's *Portralt of 
Pope Julius II. (a copy is in our National Gallery) ; 
♦Madonna del Cardellino (so called from the gold- 
finch iu the Infant Saviour's hands — painted as a 
wedding gift to surprise a friend) ; Vandyke's 
Portrait of J. de Montfort; Perugino's *Holy 
Family and St. Sebastian; Raphael's St. John the 
Baptist, Madonna del Pozzo; Spagnolctto's St. 
Jerome; G. Romano's Virgin and Child; Oi 
Alfani's Holy Family. Raphael's ♦Fomarina, • so 
called; his mistress, the little baker's dangfatcr,' 
but differing from the Barberini and other Foma- 
rinas ; tome say it is Vittoria Colonna, or Beatrice 
de Fevrara; others attribute the painting to (3ior- 
gione. Rubens' Hercules, between Venus and 
Minerva; Schidone's Holy Family ; Guide's Ma- 
donna; Correggio's Virgin and Child; F. Bar- 
rocci's Portrait of Duke d'Urbino; Fra Barto- 
lommeo's ♦Job, and Isaiah; VRnd^kftI«.^«ifsB«isx«R. 
♦CharlcR V . o\\ ^w%^^<iJ«.>\s^ '^^ ^'«*v^?^'^^^^k^ 



fionte 26.] 

At the ^d of the long west corridor is the 
Qalleria Feroni^ containing the collection be- 
queathed by the Marchese Leopoldo Fcroni in 
1850, placed here in 1866. There are a good 
Teniers, three Carlo Dolci's, a Nicqlas Ponssin, 
Ac. 

The rooms at the comer are deroted to 

De$ign$ and Engravings.— XhovX 20,000 designs, 
from Giottino to the sixteenth century ; and op- 
wards of 30,000 engravings, many of which have 
been photographed. This is one of the finest col- 
lecticms of drawings of the ancient masters in 
existence. It was commenced by Cardinal Leo- 
pold de' Medici, and added to by purcliase and 
bequest. It is intended to 'arrange the whole 
chronologically and according to schools. Cata- 
logue, \\ fr. 

BlbliOteca Nasionale, on the first floor of 
the UffixL Open 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. This consists 
of the library formed by A. Magliabecchi, a 
voracious reader and book collector, with a 
wonderful memory, and the Biblioteca Palatina. 
It numbers 800,000 volumes and 8,000 manu- 
scripts. Among the literary curiosities are two 
Mayence Bibles, 1462. The first book, Cicero 
ad Famlliares, printed at Venice, 1469. The 
Landini Dante, Rorence, 1481. The first Homer 
printed at Florence, 1488. The Central Archives 
of Tuscany are also here. 

Pigafctta, the historian (as quoted by Mr. T. 
A. Trollope, in his "Impressions of a Wanderer") 
speaks of a "distillery'^ in the Uffizi, where the 
most skUled masters of the art were continually 
employed in distUling waters of virtue, extracting 
oils, and composing unguents, confections, liqueurs, 
medicaments, and powders, for the Grand Duke ; 
who gave them to prelates, ambassadors, and 
nobles ; and most charitably to all when prompt 
remedies were required; thus showing himself in 
truth, as well as in name, a real Medico, generous 
and kind to those in need. The Medici spent 
large sums in these secret compounds, some of 
which very much resembled quack medicines. 

•Pltti Qallery.— The next in importance to 
the Ulfizi is at the Palazzo Pitti, once the seat of 
the Grand Ducal Court, in Oltr' Amo; begun 
1440, from the designs of BrunelleschI, for Luca 
Pltti, a rich merchant, who wished to rival the 
Palazzo Vecchto, and sold in 1649 to the Medici, 
who thenceforth made it their residence. Inclu- 
ding the whigs, which were added by Parigi, in 
the seventeenth century, the facade is 480 feet 
long, three storevs high In the middle, each storey 
40 feet high, with large windows 24 feet apart. 
Themassivefrontis constructed of brown rusticated 
stone blocks j: but, unfortunately, it wants a 
cornice at the^op. The court behind, leading out 
to the Boboli Qardena, eonsists of three orders, one 
above another, and also rusticated. It contains a 
grotto faced by a Doric colonnade, with some 
statues ; one of irhleh la a Moses produced out of 
an antique torso. 



FLORENCE — UFFIZI AND PITTI OALLEKIES. 



131 



On the first floor of the Palace is the Gallery of 
about five hundred paintings, the rooms being 
named after the Roman Deities, &c, and the 
ceilings are decorated by P. de Cortona. They are 
approached by a Sala delle Nicchie, containing six 
niched statues. Gallery open 10 to 4. Fee, 1 lira ; 
lift, 1 lira extra. Some beautiful Florentine 
mosaics should be noticed. 

Venus Room (Sala di Venere). — Tintoretto : 
Cupid, Mars, and Venus. Garofolo: St. James. 
Rubens: Market, and View in Spring. Titian: 
Betrothal of St. Catherine; " La BeUa di Tiziano.'* 
A. Diirer : Adam and Eve. Rembrandt : Old Man. 

^/)o//o Room.— P. Veronese: Portrait of his Wife. 
A. del Sarto : Holy Family. Murillo : Virgin. Ra- 
phael: *Portraits of Angiolo and Maddalena 
Doni, 1607, and of Leo X., Cardinal de' Medici, 
and Cardinal Rossi. Fra Bartolommeo : a Pietk. 
Titan: Pietro Aretino. Rembrandt: Portrait of 
himself. 

Mars Room. — Guide : Magdalene. Raphael: Pope 
Julius II. Rubens: Portraits of himself, his brother, 
Lipsius, and Grotius. Raphael: Holy Family, 
called Madonna dell' Impannata, because of the 
papered sash window. C. Allori : Judith (portrait 
of his mistress, Mazzafirra), with the head of 
Ilolofemes (his own portrait). A. del Sarto: 
Holy Family. Titian: Portrait. 

Jupiter Room. — ^M. Angelo (?) : •Three Parcae, or 
Fates. Garofalo : Augustus and the Sibyl. Fra 
Bartolommeo: St. Mark. L. da Vinci: Portrait of a 
Woman. Salvator Rosa : Battle-pieces. 

Saturn Room. — Porphyry tables and busts; 
Paintings— by A. del Sarto: La Disputa.. Van- 
dyke: Charles I. and Henrietta Maria. Raphael: 
*Madonna della Sedia, and *Mad. del Granduca. 
Perugino: Descent from the Cross. Raphael: 
•Madonna del Baldacchino (of the Canopy). 
G. Romano : Muses and Apollo. Raphael: Portrait 
of T. F. Inghirami, and his •Vision of Ezekiel (a 
fine picture). 

Hiad Room. — Frescoes by L. Sabatelli; A. del 
Sarto : •Two Assumptions. Titian : Philip II. and 
Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici. Fra Bartolommeo : 
•Madonna on a Throne. Giorgione : The Concert; 
Guercino : Susannah and the Elders. 

Room, called the Education of JupH€r.—B.ere is 
a work by Raphael, called "La Donna Veleta." 
Fra Bartolommeo: Holy Family. A. del Sarto: 
John the Baptist. Velasquez: Philip IV. Tlu- 
toretto: Descent from the Cross. 

Sala ddla iS<fi/a.— Frescoes by Cortona. Statues. 

Ulysses Room. — Painting on ceiling by Martel- 
lini ; Return of Ulysses. A. del Sarto : Madonna. 

Prometheus Room. — A table of Itoence Mosaic- 
Paintings— by Fra Lippi: Madooaa and Child. 
Fra Bartolommeo: Exe Homo. 

J5faW of Justice. — Leiy's Cromwell (sent by tbA. 
Protector to the Grani Duk«\. %*i^. ^^l^NssbSs**^ 
Man unYaiQiNni. 



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. Vign. Not. 


!UiiHW,l.yI,. 


1. Albcrtl: In 


tlircc niitlulo 




hf«lert wli.ll 








inoTC cIcEiut i 




r'lml'i^i;'. 






Ill OKr- Amn, near Pont 




luo gallerj- 





capetofS. RoHiindDllKriniiauri. . 
PataizoUarltUi, Via delta Force ; a eood gallery. 
Palazia Moai. In Pluia del Maul, notir Poute 

Palai'o Pando'pii. or Nmcliil. In Via B. Oallo. 



•Pahixe nieaifdi. formerly Medici. Via Cavonr ; 
buill In n eolld rurtlcalpil .tylf. for CokIhio dc" 
Mcdlcl,1>yMlchcI»i:l,aii<tnilunccdliy1l»HlccanII 

ratodb U« feet hHig and M high, h <n twe ■t(lrey^ 



■nd S.WW M9B.. ojien nine to two. Some Komen 

liiKrliitloiH are here wjlh has-rellefB by UonaWllo. 

■PodMta PtlUfc or BanallO, 111 Vbi Fro- 

consolo, nar the BadU UlmrcJi. la n dark and 

Slm-looklni old pile, restored na a HftUoiml 
niBnui oC HodliBval Art and ntiilqultiei. 



bronioi, catrLiga, (onillllte, Jtwellery, lap 
lolni. and marblai, vlth old armour and 
and ihe Bacchnt, Atiadne, Vlclory. of U. Angelo 



Hondayt and Thurtday*. It coiitahii bii bntt, by 
Ukclarrllli Ma portrait, by hluiKlf; sketebei 

rol'lefi (Centaurs and^LaplIbai. and n Kadonnali 
also, hli diniiiB-roon], palnied with gruopa of tba 

fai>t^ac«idantmanledan°Knyiebwunian. ' 

Allglilcrl. wbers 
liuiulrcdlhyearol 






rn. HI I I 



A'JIf-ri //Okie. Ill Lung- Anio Corilnl. near 

■Prineo of Tragedy." 8» ba la alyled in the lu- 
crl|,tlon. He wai privately married tu Ihe widoiK 
<I ili« Pretender, xhu inrvived till iSU. 



IB, near the PIttI Palace. 
oppo.lte,i»tlicffoi«o/(i-a*r 
S. CttlinCi Hem. Via del 



18i 


UBIDRHAU 


's ItALY. [Section 2. 


Cltmeot VII. und (!owmo 
Aagtia; merest b^Vaurl 


I. Veitlbule by M. 
ThoGillbule, tbouKli 


*?«sia's.-.'K'r^rt'-,s 


«S?afe«.qmri,i.«,»k 


lIullycontrlTedlhat 11 


ume name, (oanded 1287, by Foleo Fortinari; la 
the largoal In Ihe clly. with pjoin (or abont 1 ,000 




mid oven ma^lficenco 


^dfdlMT "i '^fd' *" 




l«tlanM. 






8ptM, * B^^^•if<^Ho. or Lnnallc Aiylom. near 


byhHexecQlor, FXrili 


ffi".nd^a°L.°ci'.n' 


Porta S. QaJlo, with a cimrch. in which i. Fra 


rare booka are ™riy prlntec 
wllhmini.mte,(,(L,renio 






BpedalodlLnrlaliicesU. ' 










Ulan u script known. 




PuidFctB,slithi>r>eTei>th 


onlury, lirodKlil fluia 


Voapocel'a booK. 


Amnlft. by the PiMn.. Tw 




Sp«tofc dief !H-s«nli. In Plaaza dell' Annnr- 


»1der'irih°o*"nlvo™'lnU! 


InKthonrMflTebooJa 


ilaM. Is Ibe FoBOdllDK Hoapical of Plorence. II 



Valdarter edition of Boccaccio was printed here, ' 
1171 i Ihe sale of whlob In EngUnd, In 181!, led 

Lelten ad FitmUiara, copied iy Petrarch. Horace, 

retum to Florence, on condition ol aiklnit pardon . 
ol the futj In faTonr, CataJoguei ol the MSS. 
haie been published. 

BaiioUca MamaUliaia. In Via Caronr, founded . 
b; Abbate Harncelll, 1703, and containing 110,000 
Tolnmea. Open dally S to 4, The Hare MagnoiD. 



rlraUlne 



BWioUca Slccardaaa, 



Coplca of tl 
boue-ht for £ 






Cuolna PTDmeiUtile, on the west; 



, l^liramcnt tlk^lM gwleraU? find Ihe^rinTatS 
I '"oclobcJ and NOTCmbcr are naually fine and 






' HehaTaJahof Kolapure, whodiedhere In 1&70, and ' 
vhote Dodr wu burnt with doe Hindoo rit« on 

The Bolanlt Oardnu arc near the Eoiliih j 



VUlsJiTalkaiBxctirBlons.— 1. omh' 



Houte 26.] 



FtORENCB — THEATRES, HOSPITALS, EXCUBSIOKS. 



185 



above it commands a fine view of Vol cTAi'no. 
Farther on. are the Villas of the late Madame 
Catalan! and Lord Normanby; Villa Mario, which 
belonged to Mario, the singer ; Villa Palmicri de' 
trc Vise, where Boccaccio places his story-tellers 
of the Decameron during the plague of 1848, Villa 
Mozzi del Garbo and Villa Melzi, both seats of the 
Medici; Villa Gaadagni, in which B. della Scala 
wrote his History of Florence. Here also is the 
Villa of Baron Kicasoli (the statesman, and a 
descendant of an old Tuscan family), on the 
site of St. Girolamo Convent. The estate produces 
good wine. The Franciscan Badia, or Abbey of 
St. Rartolommeo, is near. 

Fiesole, or Fcsulea, the ancient FtuuUe; an 
Etruscan city, the mother of Florence, on a con- 
spicuous bill, 1,000 fpct hig^h, about 4 miles from 
Florence, now marked by a cathedral. There are 
remains of massive stone walls, and of an amphi- 
theatre. From the ''top of Fiesole'' half the 
extent of Val d'Anio may be descried, with its 
villas, palaces;, convents, farms, and towns in 
every variety of combination. 

Protestant Cemetery, outside the Porta Pintl. 
Here A. F. Clough, the poet, is buried (1861); with 
other former residents. On the Bologna Road, is 

PratOllQO, marked by a colossal stattde of the 
Apennines, by G. da Bologna, 60 feet high, in a 
garden ; the view is nearly 20 miles all round. 

'' Who can reach the summit of the hill of Prato- 
lino and not feel a sense of delight and admiration ? 
Florence, the city which derives its name from the 
abundance of flowers blossoming in its fields and 
gardens, glitters in all the pride of its beauty 
across that sunlit valley, through which the waters 
of the Amo flow now, as they flowed in the old 
days of Tuscan glory. Its porticoes, its domes, 
iti» spires, the massive tower of the Bargello, and 
the dusky prisons hard by, rise in varied groups 
of sculptured marble, of ornamented loggie, of 
painted palaces. Below the Ponte Vecchio, which 
spans the river with its old fashioned jewellers* 
and goldsmiths* shops, the winding Amo is seen 
shut in by swelling hills, whose declivities are dotted 
with churches, castles, and villas. 

'*The distant aspect of Florence is brighter than 
the appearance of the streets themselves, which 
are severe and sombre. Yet the more the traveller 
advances into them, the more he becomes aware of 
the greatness of Italian genius. The rugged, 
strongly-bullt palaces of theGhibellinesandGucIphs, 
and the numberless churches, bring to his mind 
the grandeur and wealth of the past, a grandeur 
which still sheds light upon the world." — 
Arrivc^tene. 

2. Passing out of the gate by the Cascine, on the 
Pistoja Road, are — ^the VUia S. Donato, a country 
seat of the the Demidofif family (built 1828), who 
farmed the grovemment tobacco revenue; Pctraja 
di Castello and VWa di Quai-ti, both favourite seats 
of the Medici; La Doceia^ a factory of Marquis 
Ginori, famous for its porcelain, called doccia, from 
the duct or conduit, which carries the water to the 
city; and at length, Foggio a Cajano, the site 



of another Grand Ducal seat. Here Francesco I. 
and Bianca Cappello died of poison. 

3. From the south side of Florence, out by Porta 
S. Miniato, a road passes up the Ariio, to Monte 
Santa Crocc, and the Franciscan Church of S. 
Salvatore, by Cronaca; above which, in the ceme- 
tery, is the old Church or Basilica of 

*S. Miniato, rebuilt 1013; a beautiful and well- 
proportioned specimen of a Romanesque church, 
160 feet by 70, divided into three aisles. It con- 
tains bas-reliefs, paintings, and frescoes, and an 
ancient crypt, or second choir below the other 
choir. In the sacristy are S. Spinelli's series of 
frescoes from the life of St. Benedict. This vener- 
able church stands among cypresses, and is reached 
by a Via Crucis, ending in a beautiful prospect. 
Here Giusti, the poet, was buried, 1849. 

4. The road from Porta Romana passes Poggio 
Imperiale (Poggio means a bill), another seat of 
the Medici. Villa Albizzi, on Monte BeUosguardo, 
in which Galileo lived for a time. Afxelri, another 
hill, celebrated for its vino verde, or green wine, 
the "verdea soavissima," celebrated by Red!, 
which they say Galileo amused himself by cultiva- 
ting. He was considered a good judge of wine 
and used to say, *' II vino ^ un composite di luce 
e d'amore." On the hill and marked by his bust 
over the door, whence there is a fine prospect, 
stands his Torre del Gallo, or Observatory ; and 
close to it the Villa del OiojeUo, in which he spent 
his last years under the censure of the Inquisition. 
"There it was," says Milton, "that I found and 
visited the famous C^alileo, grown old, a prisoner 
('under arrest,* as it were), to the Inquisition, 
for thinking in astronomy otherwise than the I^an- 
ciscan and Dominican licensers thought.** But, 
"■epur si mtiow,*' the world moves in spite of them. 
In this direction is the shrine of Santa Maria Im>- 
pruneta, a black Virgin, held in great honour. To 
the west, near the Pesa, 8 miles, are the toniq 
springs of S. Casciano (inn, Campana), near a 
house where Machiavelli lived. 

5. Railway Excursion — To Pontassieve, on the 
Arezzo line; whence it is 10 or 12 miles to the 
"Etrurian shades ''of VaUoxnlirosa, under the 
Apennines (once a convent) ; now a Forest Schoolj 
with 5 professors, an arboretum, and plantations. 
See Bradshaw's Continental Guide. 

The country parts round Florence are divided 
into fields, edged with ditches and poplars, and 
planted with vin»}, corn, olives, &c. There are 
two harvests yearly. The wheat being thick sown 
and cut down before it is ripe, furnishes the valu- 
able straw which is plaited for Leghorn hats. 
Barley is now grown for beer. The farmers are 
an industrious and intelligent race, healthy and 
comfortable, neither rich nor poor. They are not 
able to keep servants, but every member of the 
family works hard. A black beaver hat and 
yellow umbrella are not uncommon. The oxen 
are dun-coloured and stall-fed. 

" In the rich and fertile Valdamo, so thickly 
studded with villas as to have suggested Ar\fii4^%^ 
well-remembered w.^^^^:ft3bX'&.^st5s«M^!^-^**^^*^^'* 



a[ proflt inil wuttli. Tliot 






ils/arfsrvorhnllimnhal 



81. 8lB|ih«q. ail Order cTMIeii 0. llRlit |1« Biracetu, 
: nnd all tho trwlni lo Si. Mlclale. KieryclirMM 
, WM uWlgeci lo bo trro «t iho tirdvo e»><" 

or Chief Moi^rtralu every iwo moulhu. The jfrandl 

I uliiitted mure ur Liari lill Ihe Modlol obnIiMiil 
tiipnma pewtr lu IGII. by ths ovenbrow of P. 

Artel- Ihe peioe of Vllliilrancii. 18M, llH people 

biic<i (he <3«ml Holw. Tbe arrival of the Com- 



nf ■ r^cnliir iliii. CO 
Thea one baml U 



A ball ail ■»'• load. 



Ilbrariei and reidliiK-roDmB; ihe people are 
■prlghtly and polishes, and noted for thrift. ""■ — 

give him a piece of brand and half a iemc 
luncheon. Hl< t^reedbiefli n^akes hini eo 



[[HivwatiiniuiliyaeeonpllihMl. A plot wa> tried 
tu blow un BnoncompaEn) nnd olbon, at n ball, nt 
the PalasBO della Crocelle : and even ■omo BiigH.h 
"I'onto'llie" wotder of Ihin((>. It rraialnedthe 



later limes are Olmll and IrfniardJ. tho poota; 



I GImeppo Doin, the patrtolie laker, who wai 
' donoanMibyLordNormanliy; P. aiudlcl.oulhor 
of lho"BlMoryof Ilallan Uleralure;" Oueraijil, 
the anlhor of "La Dalliglia dl Benevento," who 



h^bt of It* ivoiperily, Ihrough itg (treat trade. 

diji:. woollou, *c Ita revenue waiSOO.DOD tlurins. 
aauil to £6D,nM In the proncnC day. The fml<l 
Sorln (wliloh look iU name l.orol or locehlno. bad 
KflKureofSl-Gforaniil. 

Ill.oftnitland.towlioii 



1 with Edward 
1 bla Inability 



Kail to Fftenta (paite IM), opened 1B9J, maklnc 
comiounlcalion between Ibo west (Leghorn) and 
cast (Havenna) com. 

B.OXTTB Se— Cjnf/nifed. 

Florenee to Kome, tU. Empoll. 81en&, 

OzyMo, Orte, Ice. 



Iilirh road K 



10 repay U produced dlitrcea b 

ra^od at home, belffcen the tiocJtihi (iicrl, or | 

J^i°"^ 5y ■•qaelto lUgnuo pnpolo iiinllBii''." 'n I 



y "Hi 

PrruKin. Follk-llo. ^c. In RonlD 
le-e two rnll> haye boon linked 

a btreet Rail to Roma, ma 

piiim US). Areiio, CortonL 
. Urvleto, Orio, Hunlc Hotondu, 



Koute 26.] 



FLOREKCK, CERTALDO, POGGIBON'SI, SIENA. 



I nm 



Florence to Empoli (20| miles), as in Route 2-j. 
After this, the stations are: — 



Miles. 

Ficullc 105 .J 

Orvicto 120 

Castiglione 128 

Alviano 182 

AttifflianD 1374 

Bassano 14U 

Orte 14Ci 

[Branch from Foligno 
(Route 27).] 

Gallese 152 

Clvitk Castellana 154J 

Stiraiglla.io 162| 

Fara Sabina 174 

Monte Rotondo 182 

Rome 198 



Miles. 

Ponte a Elsa 3 

Ciistel-Kiorentino... Hi 

Certaldo 15i 

Popgibonsi 23^ 

Siena 40 

Aiiciano 59^ 

[Branch to M. Amiata.] 

Uapolano 63 

Lncignano 71i 

Sinalunga 75 

Torrita 78 

Montepulciano 82 

Chianciano 88f 

Chlusi 95 

[Branch from Cortona 

and Terontola comes 

in (Route 27).] 

Ponte a Elsa (Stat.). To the right is Santa 
Miniato dei Tedcschi, on a hill ; so called because 
the Vicar of the German Emperors in Italy fixed 
his scat here. 

Cistal-Florentino (Stat.), population, 8,8B0, 

near an old military post, fortified by the Florentines. 

Certaldo (Stat.) A pretty little walled town 
(population, 7,984), overlooking Val d'lilsa, among 
the Tuscan Hills, the birthplace of Boccaccio, the 
father of Italian prose, who died here (1376). A 
road winds up to the old place, once the feudal seat of 
the Counts Alberti, then of Its Florentine governors 
and Ticars, whose armorial bearings cover the walls 
of the Rocca or Castle. His tomb bears his efiigy 
(not older than 1503), in the costume of his day, 
with a round cheerful face, and his epitaph. Near 
the church is his small house (with A. Passagliu's 
statue), in which are preserved Eome of his 
furniture and MSS., bin autograph, early editions 
of his Decameron, a fresco on the wall, and 
pieces of his tombstone, which was removed 
1783, by a bigoted friar. The book of signatures 
contains the name of Sismondi, and some line<i by 
Fananti, a Florence poet, to the effect that the i)eople 
l)elicve Mcsser Giovanni to be a magician, who 
built a ponte di cristallo, or bridge of glass, down 
to the valley ; but that his magic consists entirely in 
the charm of his style. — (T. A. Trollopp/s Impres- 
sions of a Wanderei-). Landor, in one of his "Ima- 
gin.nry Conversations," describes Boccaccio's recep- 
tion of Petrarch in this house. From the top of it 
there is a view of 8. Gimignano, or Geminiano, and 
its twelve towers, 10 miles off ; a curious old decayed 
mediaeval town, which, in 1220, had as many as 
thirty-one churches. The principal one Is full of 
frescoes, by Ghirlandajo, Gozzoli, cfec. It was always 
fighting with its neighbours, Siena and Volterra. 

POggibonsi (Stat.) Population, 8,47G. The 
old Podium Bonitii, with remains of a ensile on the 
hill. Short line of 5 miles to CoIle.d'Elsa, on a 
hill, the seat of iron and glass works.' 

The line enters the valley of the Stagrgia , with the 
C/^$aftn//m* on the left. 



•'Ifany one," says Count Arrivabelio, "should go 
to Tuscany, not merely for the sake of running 
through the galleries of Florence, or in order to 
walk up and down the Cascine, but with a view to 
acquiring some knowledge of the country, 1 would 
advise him not to miss a tour in the valley of Chiant i. 
lie will there sec Italian nature and agriculture in 
their fullest development , he will find green and 
refreshing lawns, picturesque mountains, and 
secluded spots of unrivalled beauty. The Gastle of 
Broglio, a massive edifice of the middle ages, is not 
the least of the attractions of this valley. It is still 
intact, and speaks eloquently of the power and glory 
of the Ricasoli family. The towers, with their 
strongly-built battlements, the large court-yardi*, 
the marble watch-boxes of the sentries, the draw- 
bridges, and other accessories of feudal magnifi- 
cence ai'c yet to be seen in nearly the same con- 
dition as when the castle was inhabited by the first 
Baron Bettino in the fourteenth century." 

Then through a tunnel under Monte S.Dalmazzo, 
to Siena Station, near Porta S. Lorenzo. 

SIENA (Stat). 
The ancient Sena Julia, on the Via Clodia. 
Population, 23,445. 

Hotels: Grand Hotel di Siena; Grand Hotel 
Continental; Le Anne d'Inghilterra; La Scala. 
Chianti and other wines are to be had. 

Post and Telegraph Office, Via Cavour. 

English Church Service at Hotel Continental. 

Waldensian Church, near S. Domenico. 

*Chief Objects of Notice. — Piazza del Campo, 
Palazzo Pubblico, Duomo, S. Domenico, Academy. 

At the height of its prosperity, before the plague 
of 1348, Siena had a population of 180,000. It was 
a republic in the eleventh century, and after 
passing through the revolutions common to most 
Italian cities, and falling under the dictatorship of 
the Petrucci family, it became part of Tuscany in 
the sixteenth century. This ancient place stands 
on the slopes of three elevated tufa hills, at the 
junction of three or four roads, and is surrounded 
by walls about 5 miles in circuit, though one-half 
of the space enclosed is garden ground. 

The narrow streets run in and out betwecai 
tall old houses which look like castles, and are faced 
with stone and tiles. Water is liberally supplied 
by 15 miles of Aqueducts to the public Fountainst 
&c. At the north-west extremity is the Forte san 
Barbera, or Citadel, erected by Cosimo I., and 
facing the Lizza Promenade. The old rococo gate- 
way, which stood here, was demolished in 1887. 

From being so high, 1,300 feet above the sea, 
Siena has a healthy and agreeable temperature, 
and was not invaded by cholera. It has a rexjatss.- 
tion for its handsoxstfi ^wsnk^ ^'s^^ V^t '^'^'^^^^^^ 



\fiw-<H^ 



Santa Catwina di SUtia-s^'^^^^^- 



bencK rnurkiUe by her letten ud e: 
on b«bsir of tb« rapniij; who by torn 
CathoHea) <■ thoDght i craiy Impouor, 



list eipoiuod bur by pnltLni a rbig on her riRbt Vndannii Chaprl. bulll 1348. sfKr Itae Great 
hanil. So one ever uw the rtnK, but she penisteS Plugut which swept bwbj- 30,000— FrcKoe., por- 
Ibat It wu slwaya lUerei uid the aDbJect has , trails. Ac, by T. Dartoll; itid Sodons'i Holy 

.ei's^.rfa°siisr:".?,^r"'r^ir" ;;i'£'sX"ir;?ar/.;;'.i!o°sdt"£ra',^s 

™t»ry. Allth»lrproduotlon.areotad"Toti™.l ^„'™^^ "'* ^'^ ''•"' ^-^t'""^' I'V A. 



hotpLtablo LnacrLptiDD :— 
dit." Porta Plaplnl bt 
Mslirlty. Porta Fon 



at the centre of tb.. town, whence eleven street. ^j°o7[o™^7n^°^llod ™,"Bitn>*("pr™^ 
»Sh^S?del-'edb"JI?c?7ei''m7iaiK'L^\°Jln^^^ Oy a >ho-wDl/), ai lh« nork for Pemela; ffooae. 

-thi" aS^o X^S^(now <r™Cn"nK iL ■ 0"l^^^ elephant. Borne; dragon. Ptsloja; haro. 
^l^^Xi^lJ^^^ bnm brPlui ft, « PI"; rhlnocero^Vlterbo, bo«e.ATe«o; vnltore. 
«,'^""af.o"j!rb' iL." r lIJ C^^lrt 'and Prl"": T£l'^"^i'« J-SnTTbe'rottrciick?^*;; 



Agnoto and Agoitt 



>i.r£C"'ror']oy4.^°i^'?he'w™'^^^ 

S'ra'lerDJomo'.'' T)^''°R«ffl"!''"a°rcd'" P^^S, i ™bJeT and MM-' by Oe™(i..ni™do.i"'by Ihl 
^£g), ^ar.^ held ^^J^y^^'^X^'-'^J'^^^^^ 1^" «roTerf^Jt""a" .CI," f" rVee" On ™ 

SrJrtM'ih'. hl.l^'.nrf'il,';'' w?rTT.?i'h T^ln P^'ot'nlne yea«"' jTotkotho painted wbiii^. 
7^ h^ -...^? l.^ :^.^ri.,. „!,...™^n%.:i ^K initerra-iutta ponraitaof Hoiw.and AiiH-popea, 

fc Vlrt« E^inalSera rroBTM. in 1860 h ran^ »«""•■ n>« choir iBlntb.pi, hyl>n™lodl Buonhi- 

fientMlItalJ^ (S»rHTn«?r»»Ld/H»-;al ««"• (1311). were Ibouebt « much o(. that they 

(.entraL Italy. (See aionr a «oM Hi noma.) ^^^^ brought to the ehnrob In pablic prowsslon. 

The •I^Oaite PuWIm, -r Delia Slemorli, Is a I Below the cboir Is the olo octagoo BaptUtem of Bl. 

by (he earthquake of 1197^ III high and graceful I by Beecafniut. Ac, and haa-rellefi on the fine font, 
ft>»w ctlici Tern del Mmgia waa added. IIM. i by Doiiatelio, Ghlbeni, Bella querela. Ac. 
^t jronalat wortt of early Siena maaett. worth | Araraig Itae Chapels are the (nllowlngi— 
;^o^« ^'ie B/cclierBM Boom— SodoniH'i Madonna I CMfli Choprl, \ju\U M Meitaint Vll„ ot that 
"'""•.■ 'md p. LoraiiettTt CorooMoa oi tb« \ lamllj, I" i^li "W*- iM.t\i\M. Vi\iw, \».^\»\vi>i>i. 



MBKX — CHVHCHKfl, E 



Jannne and Hagdileoe, anil C. Haralli'i mc 
S. Btatanni BalUila Ohapel, by B. Peruzi 
hu Delia Quorcta'g Adam and £>ei Bud 
Ullo'B alatno ol St. Jobn lh« Bapllgt Tho oc 
marble polpH Is a colebraMd work, by Nieo 



ID by. with palDilngB 



'(Flight Into EBj-pL 



II.'i lire and pal 
UoKagnh and ajl 
dealgneJ by M. i 



la. andafretcoby Plntnricchlot 
gaudy picture! (IhereM 1-' — 
g the principal eventa iu 



Ttio Optra (M Dvmo ■ 
eronp of Ihe 1*™ ffnicfi, lounu 

The Cathedral Square la ann 
PaUiio'Realo.the Great Hosplul 



of old 
heiatlfol antlqoe 



S. SptHU. near Foi 
capola. UM; the froi 
hai painting by Sodoi 
subjects In tbe Life of 



,a"™ 



^afumi. Sodona. and Ci 
t Coaarione, near Forto 
paUitlniri by Matteo 



f h ce>. Open dally (enoai 
F 1 g (be Palaiio Puhblloo li t 



Ecilacy, Faint bw. t 



u Q. dl Paolo-i Madon 



^(lio Th BiiUoleca 



lo (l»74). 

[eavlea or Stnplda). It 



was herailll laas). The i 



F. Socbiiis ar 
Open dally lH 



nauneing the Birth of Chriit 
eloTQ and otb*r tx-rvic offiriagi 
bai, laid m bttalllal a/Mr. 



le aibyl an- 
t by Colnm- 



othlc style, wit h cartons frel-wo 



lHll-MiyP.l'eliuCL-l,l)rfliilu(Si™:i. Jliiu-hlr 
tvalKohlniadi nioU.'l tyrnlili llial usuic h: 

J-alairo Pnti (lOTO) HimiilBfiay rwtorEd. 



Pataito Toknnti, a 



Qieat HoiplUI. The UrRO nmln. next I 
u» PubMko. Ii tram the deBigni of Bibb 
About S mllci f mm the city is tho Villai 



Slnaiunga (Stat). 



ictHontepnlolaiioiiiKi OUan, 

{papalitlw. 13,187), on ths site of nn KlrnKui Elty 
{JVUH /WManu). 1,00(1 r«l MrIi, eeCclimed for 
-liK.iijiled br Bidl. "iI'okdI vliKi il Bs" (llw klnic 



]brBidl."il'oKDlv|j 
rhli wat ■]« bIrMi 



irdlnsl T 



>NZA, Iho bh1h-pliice or twi 
and Plui 111., Bboto iIk TsDey o1 
CbbiA (Stat.), wliere the brsi 



ieke, on ths >lta of tha BE 



I The bn 
m I thI.iietRl 



the J/ttim EIrvKO. when. 
Puirgio GajelU; tbe 



AaclaiW (Btat.), totmlmlon. !,ixk>. on tin 
Oiiibnnic. At « nUfes diilnncc 1> Oie EoppresiH 

■nonuury <■{ Hants oilTetu Magclart, win 



Cro'BMo. Diilhscoasti r»"t S. OlOTMino d'ASIO 

(Bt»t.); to Ihe l*fl of whlth It Boimciiiivmto 

retdeil (Stat), i>ol fur from Momc Alclno, and 
II. yliievird.: followBd liy HontBAffilata., under 
npcaks.eoiXeFt lili^h; KDCCMtriftda, und OrOB- 



■ald (wllhout authorlly} 
ena. deKrlbeil b^ Pliny. 



Bapolano (Stat), neat a little inland wator- 
inK pTucc on n IKII, l.SM (oet hlgli, resoowl to In 

rt^'anir'^hiumalira)! Ho"ol, ThMtrero'ld"churcli, 
Hnd Civile, 'nxj hills uKcnd and dG>e«id Into the 

LueiiraMlll (Btat) Belwecn Ihii and Areiio 
to tlie north 1> Ihconcis niintay Tnl]«y of Chlana, 



,' Cttt^ detla ?1«T* (iwp, 7.«SI),W n hll 
Perughio (about HIE), one'of llie chief quit 

IlioTOlcuilc hllla (i,OMtoS,BUnf«lhli[h 
Cntona Kod lUdleofgiil. en old hunlUig^nea 
Grand Duke, of TuKany. 

Fletllle (Btat), (mm whence the line il 
to Orvlelo (nn the Chiann); then to 0ns 
Tiber— leo Koulc 27), where the rill frem 

OBVIETO (Btat) The Vrbi tiIui 
Lonibai-ds, tlio Uonian Vrblbmlvni. 

andcanllBl otnfo 
lion, iiAU. 



Route 26.] 



CUIUSI, URVIETO, BOL8ENA, MONTEriASCONE. 



141 



and was formerly a residence of many Poi)es of the 
Guelph party who found a refuge hero. Hesides 
the Palazzo Pubblico(Town Hall) and the College, 
its most remarkable building is the handsome 
*Duomo, an interesting specimen of Italian-Gothic, 
founded in honour of the miraculous Host at 
Bolscna, and of an ancient image of the Madonna. 
It was begun in 1290, by L. Maitini, of Siena, 
nearly finished in the fourteenth century, but not 
finally completed till about 1600, after nearly 400 
architects, sculptors, painters, &c., had contributed 
to build and adorn it. Its three-gabled Front, like 
that of Siena, is 1-32 feet wide and 160 feet high, 
ornamented, chiefly on the four pilasters, with 
a profusion of carvings, mosaics, and statues, by 
Giovaimi da Pisa and his pupils; the subjects 
being events from the Old Testament, the Life of 
Christ, the Last Judgment, Hell, and Paradise. 

The church contains the following objects of 
notice: — Colossal statues of the twelve Apostles; 
the best being Giovanni da Bologna's St. Matthew, 
and Ippolite Scalza's St Thomas; T. Ziiccaro's 
Cure of the Blind Man ; Muzianc"s Christ in the 
Garden. 

The paintings in the tribune and stained windows 
arc of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries ; 
Mochi's two statues of the Annunciation, at the 
high altar. 8. Mosca's Adoration of the Magi. 
San Michcli's Visitation ; a group of nine figures, 
executed by Mosca's son, aged fifteen years only. 
Scalza's pulpit; his statue of Ecce Homo; and a 
fine one of St. Sebastian. The 

Madonna Chapel — has an old image of the Virgin 
della Stella; statues of Adam and Eve ; Scalza's 
Pleti^ a group of four figures (1579); frescoes in 
the ceiling, by Fra Beato and B. Gozzoli; and L. 
Signorelli's fine frescoes on wood of the Last Judg- 
ment, Paradise, and Hell, painted 1199, remarkable 
for the beauty of some of the figures and the curi- 
ous mixture of heathen poets and mythological 
characters with Christian. 

C/iapel of Santissiino Corporale—so called from 
the Napkin stained by the Bleeding Host of Bolscna, 
is richly ornamented. It has R. da Montelupi's 
statue of Christ ; a silver reliquary containing the 
napkin, by U. Vieri, a Siena goldsmith (1338), with 
twelve enamel paintings of the Miracle of the Host. 

Mmeo Municipale, in the Opera del Duomo, 
opposite the Cathedral, contains Etruscan remains 
from the necropolis near the town, which should 
be visited. 

S. Andrea and S.Giovinale are old churches. 
S. Domenico Church, has Arnolfo's finetomb of Car- 
dinal di Brago, and S. Memmi's Virgin and Saints. 
Some old Palaces and Convents deserve notice. 

The Pozzo di S. Patrizio (i.e., St. Patrick) is a 
deep well in the tufa rock, with two spiral stair- 
cases down to the water, constructed by Sangallo; 
wide enough for mules to go down the 250 steps. 
In 1863 some very interesting Etruscan Tombs were 
fonnd at Poggio del Roccolo (1 hour's drive), 
with frescoed walls quite fresh. Others have 
#ince been discovered close to the town. 
' Orvleto produces a good white wine. Aboat 10 



or 12 miles west of it is Acquapendente, an old townj 
on a cliff, so called from its cascades; the birth- 
place of Fabricius, the anatomist. 

From Orvieto the Rail is continued past Alvlano, 
Attigliano (branch to Viterbo, page 142), and 
other unimportant stations, to OrtO. flnd thence 
to Rome, by CivitH Castellana (page 151). 

If the Road be taken it brings you to 

B0L8ENA 

(12 miles), on the Lake of Bolsena, in former Papal 
territory,near the ancient Etrurian city of Volsinii, 
on Via Cassia, taken after a siege, 266 B.C., by the 
Consul Fulvius Flaccus. A new Volsinii' was 
founded, m which Sejanus, the favourite of Tiberius, 
was born. There is a Gothic Castleonthe heights. 
Of the antiquities found here, in the sepulchres. 
Temple of Nurscia, Ac, a granite vase and uni with 
fragments of pillars, face Santa Cn'xtina Church ; 
and other urns are in the vestry. This church is 
the scene of the miracle of the Bleeding Host, re- 
lated in Church legends, and made the subject of one 
of Raphael's pictures in the Vatican. In 1264, a 
Bohemian priest, troubled with doubts about the 
doctrine of transubstantiation, was saying mass 
here, when he was astonished to see the Napkin 
which held ihe Host or consecrated wafer, stained 
with blood, proving, of course, that the wafer was 
converted into real flesh. Struck with the pretended 
miracle, he went to Urban IV., at Orvieto, confessed 
his error and received absolution. The Napkin, or 
Corporale, was carried in solemn procession to Or- 
vieto, where a fine church was, in time, raised 
over the relic, and the festival of Corpus Domini, 
on Holy Thursday, appohitcd to commemorate it. 

The Lake of Bolscna, the "great Volsinian mere" 
of Macaulay's ballad, is a shallow and unhealthy 
piece of water, about 70 square miles, surrounded 
by picturesque basalt hills, woods, and vineyards 
of red and white wines. It abounds with wild fowl 
and eels, which are excellent stewed in wine. On 
one of the two islands (Martana), Amalasuntha, 
daughter of Theodoric the Goth, was confined and 
strangled in 535 a.d. The peak of Montefiasconc 
is seen away to the south-east. 

The Post towns from Bolscna to Rome are as 
follow, the route being along the old Via Cassia. — 

Post. Post 

Montefiasconc 1 Baccano 1 

Viterbo 1 La Storta 1 

L' Imposta I Rome li 

Ronciglione 1 — — 

Monterosi (or Mon- 8^ 

torso) 1 

(Equal to 65 miles.) 

The road passes a forest of oaks near the lake, to 

MoNTEFiASCONE, an old cathedral town (popula- 
tion, 7,829), on a conspicuous hill, noted for its sweet 
Muscat wine. It contains a Duomo with a cupola, 
built by Sammichcli; a mediaeval castle; and a 
Gothic church of S. Flaviano, which has the tomb of 
theOerman Canon Fugger, with the well known 
curious epitaph, written by hU «w.^'*s>N.— '■'•^^'^n 
eat, est, et ipto^^tYvVKvVocca. <ft.'g,\.,,^Q!«Ko«%.^'*i^^^^s^^> 



domlnni meai, oionaoB uL" Tha Mthnp II 
thnmgli too mucb eat. 



TTTEHBO 

(Ben the ilte of Fantini Vommtr). now reached ' 
bjTrtll (Mlii.llBi)(roniAt[igUBno(MopagBl«) 



Thl. 1 



vnulDlng Mty CI 



Pupal domlni 



'Otto S. ifoWfi'o.'UloiiKinK 1 
iau> Olimpla Maldalchlnl. 1 






ViUrbo lo Civil 



Fi»ia delU Roccii (by Vlicnolo. Ia«e), 

thcmKtvo IniDbtcKrme ; ofler II hud bt 
pellod tQ whmlt lo Ifce Ponllffi, anrt pi' 
tbeiD the cbain ot Ita principal gtt«. Ad 
in EngllghiDtii], is uld lo have made the 

while h« moimtMl him mqle, before ^vlnir 
otnlMmpaeta; bulltaameetlnir reallTIook 
NenI (pft 10 
The Callmti 



a B. lorenio li a Golhic c 



(rf Popet John XXI. (klllod a[ the Blshop'a 1 

trelhtfalllneof avulO.AIemr' ' " 

T., Clement IV.; b1». C. Uari 

MHl A. DUr«-» Chrlm and the 

uciiitf ). It v» at thli hiKh altar that Menty at 

•tabbed by GUI' de Mnallort. in reVenge' tor Ihe' 
king'a treatment ot his grandfather. "' 



was onl7 elected In obedleni 



U) Charie. of Anjoo. 



'tallaam, of 3ie tblHeaatb ceotnry. '. 

• loabM of AdrUti T., and 



lalhevilULaiill, built by ViRiiolai and XUl' (aiO 



Emperor 
a (11(B), 


Desccnfllog towai-di Orte It the Basiaoo Lake, 
ancient Laaa radimonli, nliere the Roniani dg . 






under the name ot JTorla, a nillltarr tolonj-wai 




eMabll>hed bj- Angaaloa. and among clhcr rello 




ts a bridge called Ponte d'Agnetlnn. 




To IbeweilofVllerbo. Smiley [.Cailcld'ABo, or 




CaiTEttACCIO. tlio jtlo of the Etruacaii Catlelliim 






i-rence. 


rock Tbm^ hewn In Ihe eolltarv Talleyi around It! 
and abont 8 to li miles nulh-wcit of Vllerbu. 




under Monlo Clmlno, are Bleda, ancient Stera. ami 


"S 


Ifordila. equally remarkable for Elmran remalna 


of the same character. They run In lerracei. aiid 






imon do 





"witlgaMon"" "' '"' '""' "" "™™" "' '"'' 
LeaviiiR Vlterbo, the road ascenda (he alope of 
Monte Clmlno to 

which Is a.OMflMhlg'h, and from'whl™ane«Sl 
•Ive panoramic protpecl 1> enjoyed, laktagln tha 

Rosciouona (populatlun, B,0B9). an old plact 

Lake, the an^«i^ Locu Ci.miEiiiuA^ ^ ^^ cratar. 
Two 01 thies m\\»» emAVw** oV Vt \» ».OT».v'a>» 
ancient Strtrium, on 0>6\\«.CM*in,-"Vai'«*'*oiBiBi 



of Soncleltone Is Gaprtvi 
Vlgnol*. for Curdlnil Fami 



I aOXTTB ST- 

Fiorenoa to Rome, via Jovmo, F«raclA, 
I Aulii, FoUgno, Spol«to, Taml, Oito, and 



by Zdi: 
to tho F( 



ilyle. 



!?"Ji'' 



untry el 



pAgiu or CoBurcm » widB« tp 



il Via Oula and Via Oao 



fmm VonUoieve (Roule M). C.inaUoli, anoll.H 
"onti vliltliiE, l> hl^h up Ihf Apeimlnes, aboot 
I'lIS mllu} from ArcEW to PriitDTccclilO'Siia, 
(Stet), BTmno^froiB A?Mio. '"° "" "' 
Rlgnuio (Stat), pDimlatlon. S.tn. about ( 

„ ., >7..,,._. Onlheolherelrteol th» 

■■t high). 



>taH. Onthto 



iQdU (Stat) fi 



Veil reiinlrei two to Ihiw honn. and a guide. 
Marllims, wlth'^BWall and Albanoin vii^w! and 



FIglllW (Stat.) nwr which many fossil boi 
i>Eihdmastodon,h]ppopoUTDnB. elephant, Ac, hi 
briu fonnd. It was theblnhplBCeof Flgnoltl, I 



tha line pbbhs Konte Kotonde iScai). ^n 

WH defeated by tbe Pwal Irooni, Srri Nci'i'iuljiT, I 
IA8I. Thellnefol]omb«roi,&^i<HHLCs.BUl 
(Hi)UI<^ i^ar* I Urtagt Dm twen bnllt (18M) 






144 



BBADSHAW'S ITALY. 



[Section 2. 



ABEZZO (Stat.) 



The nncicnt Afreiium, now the capital of a pro- 
vince, and a bishop's sec. 
Population, 39,477. 
Hotds: Vittoria; Inghilterra. 

It stands on two hills, in a fine plain, 3 miles from 
the Arno. on or near the site of the old Estruscan 
city, which was occupied by the Consul Flarainius, 
when Hannibal made his flank movement down the 
Clusine marshes, and defeated him at Thrasymene. 
The present walls, 3 miles round, with four gates 
in them, were made by its wai^ike bishop, Guido 
Tarlati, who fortified the town, made roads, fought 
the Pope and the Florentines in several pitched 
battles, was a good statesman, and raised Arezzo 
for a time to a great height of power. He died at 
last in his bed, 1327, in spite of a thundering 
excommunication from the Vatican. In 1384 it 
was taken and plundered by Ingelram de Coucy, or 
Cosse, who sold it to Florence; and it was stormed 
by the French in 1800. It is well built, the streets 
being paved, and comparatively wide and airy. 
The main street is called Corso Vit. Emanuelc. At 
the top of one hill is the citadel ; and near the 
I'assionist Convent there are remains of an Amphi- 
theatre, overlooking the town. In this, the principal 
square, arc the Palazzo Pubblico, Theatre, and old 
Church of La Pievc. 

Arezzo is remarkable as the birthplace of many 
eminent men, from Maecenas downwards. The 
modern list includes Petrarch, accidentally bom 
here, his parents being Florentines; Vasari, the 
painter, architect, and art-historian ; Guido or 
Guittonc d' Arezzo, the inventor of the musical 
staff and the musical scale, do, re^ mi, &c.; another 
Guittone, a poet of Dante's age ; Pope Julius III. 
and Cardinal Bibbiena; Leonardi Bruni I'Arctlno, 
whose monument Is in Santa Croce; and Pietro 
TAretino, the satirist, sometimes called *'I1 
Divino," being one of those, says Forsyth, who 
"owe their celebrity to the meanness of their con- 
temporaries;'' Cesalpini, the naturalist; and Kedi, 
the scholar, and author of " Bacco in Toscano," 
who of course praises the wine of his native town, 
as "Fa superbo I'Aretino." Under the name of 
AUeatico, it ranks as the best in Tuscany. 

Michael Angelo, who was himself bom at Castel 
Caprese, near this town, puts the credit of this 
"nella sottilitii dell' aria" to the fineness of the 
air. Tablets of these celebrated " Aretlne," great 
and small, are seen all over the city. 

In the old or upper town, called Sobborgo, stands 
the 

Cathedral of S. Donato, built about 1277, in the 
Italian-Gothic style, by Amolfo di Lapo. and Mar- 
garitone, who was an Arezzo man, and a painter, 
sculptor, and architect, an I is buried here. It was 
enlarged in the fifteenth centliry, and ornamented 
nr//A fine stained whidows by a French monk, 
^aJJe/mo da Mnraiglia; who also be/ran the frescoes 
fj^i^fT'*^^^ /Zo/^Aerf by CaateJJuci d'Arezzo. High 

'^tie^Ht^nl^"/*^^.^^^ <^^>^ ^"^ bas-reliefs 
^epHtron eamt Tomb and effigies, Ac, of Tar- 



lati, the fighting bishop, by the brothers Agostino 
and Agnolo (1327-30), with a series of sixteen bas- 
reliefs of the events in his stirring Ufa Margari- 
tonc's tomb of Gregory X., who died here. Statue 
of Ferdinand de' Medici, by Giovanni da Bologna. 
Monuments of Rcdi, Margaritone, &c. The fa^.tde 
is unfinished. 

Among the paintings are a Magdalene, by Piero 
della Francisca; a St. Jerome, by Delia Gatta; a 
Judith, by a townsman, Benvenuto Aretino. 

Close by the Duomo is Petrarch's House, in which 
he was bom, 1304; it is two storeys high, and has 
an inscription on the front. Monument to the poet. 

At the churches o\ Annumiata and S. Bernardo 
are paintings by Vasari and Spinello Aretino. 

8. Francesco contains some good frescoes of the 
Legend of the Cross, by P. della Francesca; an 
Annunciation, by Spinclli; and a window by 
Gulielmo da Marslglia. S. Maria della Pieve, in 
Piazza Grande, on the site of a Temple of Bacchus, 
a very old church, partly re-built, 1262, by Mar- 
chione, and later restored, has three rows, one 
over the other, of round, angular, and twisted 
columns in its front, with many figures. It con- 
tains Vasari's St. George and the Dragon, and 
other paintings by him, with family portraits. 

The Hospital of Santa Maria della Misericordia is 
a Gothic building of the fourteenth century. It is 
now the seat of the law courts. At the Abbey or 
Badia of S. Fisore is a large painting of the Feast 
of Ahasncrus, by Vasari; and a ceiling by Pozzi. 
Public Museum of bronzes, majolica ums, and vases 
of red ware, for which Arezzo was celebrated. 
Cav. V. Funghini's Museum of majolica and porce- 
lain; admis«<ion on application. 

The Palazzo Comunale, or Town Hall, built 1332, 
has been modernised. Next to this is a gallery or 
Loggia, 400 feet long ; a handsome pile, by Vasari. 
Here is a statue of Ferdinand III. with portraits 
of P. Aretino, «fcc., and at the end of the promenade 
is a colunni to Mtecenas, erected by his admirmg 
"concives." 

Palazzo Brilandi, or Muntati, in Via di S. Vito, 
was the house in which Vasari was bom, with 
works by him. 

Rail to Fossa to (on the line between Ancona 
and Home, page 155), 8^^ miles, through S. 
Giustino (page 163), Citth Castello (page 163), 
Umbertide, and Gubbio (page 154). 

Rail to Pratovecchio-Stia, see preceding page. . 

The Palus Clusina, or Clusine Marsh, to the west 
of Arezzo at the head of Val di Chiana, was 
drained by the Knights of St. Stephen, at Florence, 
and rendered one of tiie most fertile tracts in Italy. 
Its waters, which formerly ran into the Clanisand 
Tiber, are now diverted north, into the Arno. To 
reclaim the soil, great dykes were first erected to 
confine the waters, which, during their stagnation 
for a time, left a deposit of good earth, and were 
then sluiced off. This, being repeated, gave solidity 
to the bog, and gradually raised it above the level 
of the ftoodft, and l\XTtv«^ \\, Nxv^o xV<iVv atahle soil, 
noYT div\AeA Vnto \aTge 5atlov\c qt lavBA. 



Boute 27.] 



AREZZO, CORTONA, THRASTHfiNB LAKB, PASSIONANO. 



145 



Leaving Arezzo, the stations towards Rome are 
ay follow:— 



Miles. 

Frassineto 62J 

Castiglione Floren- 
tine 66 

Cortona 72i 

Terontola 76i 

[Branch to 
Castiglione del 

Lago 82i 

Panicale 86| 

Chiusi (Route 

26) 94§] 

Passignano 84^ 

Magione 90 

EUera 97 



Miles. 
Ponte S. Giovanni...llO 

Bastia 116 

Assisi 118 

SpcUo 125 

Foligno 128 

Trevi 133J 

Spoleto 144 

Tcrni 162 

Nami 163| 

Orte 179i 

Hence via Bor- 

ghctto, Ac. (as on 

page 187) to 
Rome 232J 



Perugia 103 

Castiglione Florentino (Stat) A small 

town on a height, with two churches, command- 
ing a fine prospect of the Val di Chiana. The hills 
on the east divide it from the Vale of the Tiber. 

Camdscia, at the bottom of the hill of Cortona, 
where the road to that place (1 mile) meets those to 
Arezzo, Figano, and Montepulciano. 

Omnibus, 1 lira, to the town from Cortona 
Station. 

CORTONA (Stat.) 

Hotels: Nazionale; Stella. 

A bishop's see (population, 8,591) and the ancient 
Corytum or Cortona, the capital of Etruria and one 
of the oldest of the Etruscan cities; the walls of 
which, made of the blocks of uncementcd stone, in 
what is called the Cyclopean or Pelasgic style, 
still exist as foundations to the modem ones. 

There are also traces of Roman baths; and out- 
side Porta 8. Agostino is an Etruscan sepulchre, 
called (by a confusion between Cortona and Croton, 
the residence of Pythagoras) the Grotta da Pita- 
gora. In the mediceval troubles, Cortona sided 
with the Ghibellines, and had the misfortune to be 
plundered by its Arezzo neighbours, who razed its 
castle. AfterwaKls it came under the Casali 
family, and was sold to Florence in 1410. Cortona 
stands on the slope of a steep hill, among vineyards 
with black mountains behind, looking like a ''pic- 
ture hung on a wall" (Forsyth), and overlooking 
the beautiful Val di Chiana and the Thrasyraenean 
Lake. It has all the marks of an old town in its 
houses and narrow winding streets, <kc. It gave 
birth to two painters, whose works are to be seen 
here, viz., Pietro Berrettini, or P. da Cortona, who 
designed and painted St. Martin's at Rome; and 
Luca Signorelli. 

The Catliedral, built in the eleventh century, and 
restored in the eighteenth, has Signorelli' s Descent 
from the Cross, 1512, and Last Supper; Pietro 
da Cortona' s Annunciation; and monuments of 
Berridino the painter, of Card. Nereo, styled "Lu- 
cumone," s title formerly given U) the local rulers, 
andaf Tommmsi, Grand Master of Malta, 1103- 



with a sarcophagus. of the Consul Flaminius (?), 
with bas-reliefs of the Dionytos and the Amazona. 
S. Agostino — P. da Cortona' 8 Virgin and iSaints. and 
another, by J. da Empoli. S. Domenico, built in the 
thirteenth century — Fra Beato's Madonna En- 
throned; PalmaGiovane's Assumption; andanother 
piece, with portraits of Lorenzo and Cosmo de' 
Medici. »Sf. Francesco, another church of the thir- 
teenth century — P. da Cortona' s Annunciation ; and 
Cigoli's Miracle of St. Anthony's Ass. Del Oesu— 
L. Signorclli's and Fra Beato's Aimunciation, 
Ac. S. Margherita — a conspicuous Gothic church 
and nunnery, by Niccolb da Pisa and his son. 
Here are some richly ornamented chapels. One, 
containing a gold crown, presented by P. da Cor- 
tona; also paintings by L. Signorelli, Baroccio, 
Empoli, Vanni, Ac; and the tomb of St. Margaret, 
with its bas-reliefs of the thirteenth century. S. 
Niccolb has an altar-piece by L. Signorelli. 

The Palazzo Pretorio, or Town Hall, is the seat 
of the Accademia Etrusca, founded 1726, with a 
library of books and MSS., and a museum of fine 
bronzes, Ac. Among the portraits is one of Lord 
Cowper, who was an Italian scholar. 

Terontola (Stat.), where the direct line 
towards Rome turns off, by Castiglione del LagO 
(i e., on the Lake of Thrasymene, as below) and 
Panicale (two of Pemgino's pictures to be seen) 
to CMusi, as in Route 26 (page 140). 

Returning to Camuscia, the Road ascends past 
Ossaja, the last place on the old Tuscan frontier, 
to the summit of the Spelunca chain, which looks 
on Val di Chiana and the famous Tbrasymene 
Lake below, where Hannibal defeated the Ro- 
mans, imder Flaminius, for the third time, B.C. 217. 
Pass Monte Gualandro, the Montes Cortonenses of 
Livy, and the Ponte di Sanguinetto, or Bloody 
River, and descend to the flats of 

Case dfx Piano, which was till lately the first 
place in the Papal province of Perugino, now an- 
nexed to the kingdom of Itr.Iy. The road, hemmed 
iu by the Gualandro Hills, enters the defile by the 
Borghetto Tower, close to the lake, where the 
Carthaginians were in ambush, and winds round 
the comer of the lake to the Torre de Annibale, 
and another defile near 

Passignano (Stat.), between which and the 
Borghetto, 4 miles, the battle was fought which . 
ended so disastrously for the Romans. Their Cmi- 
sul was killed, and only 6,000 Romans escaped. It 
lasted three hours, during which an earthquake 
occurred, which overthrew many towns In Italy, 
but was unnoticed by the combatants. 

"Iroam 
By Thrasjrmene's Lake, in the defilee 
Fatal to Bomaa raahnees, more at home ; 
For there the Carthaginian's warl^e wiles 
Come back before me, as his ikill begailes 
The poet between the mountaiiu and the ahjOR.^.^^&'ctvn. 
Human bones. It 1% ^^cv.^ vt'i %\ja.VsNas»fiOQsst^ 
Ihe Lacus TKra«8mea>u w'^^^M^e.w^^,^*^^ 
TraaVmeno ox (Vi ^s.r^^^ N^ ^vS'^Ni^^^*'^ 






by BtaccLo An Monlone, Lord of FemeiB, tuniilhf; 

mrk Is A fDct'hIgb.andl.MsreeClang.wlthaiien 

Cilns, uid Ihtnw lo the Tiber. From rrnBleiiiuio 
IbeJlne proceed! 10 
HWlOIM OBtat), and Ihenco ju^om tlie Caiiia, to 

PBanau (Stat.) 

The Hiicl«il Penuia or Penmam , head of a pro- 



*Chltf O^eclt of Solici. 



brli. lying beyond t 



valli e miles tn circuit, which bate licen partly de- 
mollshad. with wide clean streets and old maanlvt 

belug only a (ractloii of wliat It was formerly 
Tha plagae of IMS eairlnl off 100,00(> pemna <>i 
the city andenvlront, but 11 hu escaned the cholf n 
isent cenlnry. In the middle aees it too) 
■isldc.nnd then f " ■ ■ 



DTerwhelmed by an eanbrguake, My May. \WV 
and variety of Sic prospects which Us lofty slliia- 

palnlliiB, the TJiubrlan ' School, founded by K 
PcTv^m (IM6'U3J), whose real namo wu p. 



Is perhaps no more inlerestlnB elly In the 



orynt a single city. The Importanci 
ully recojn^lsed by a great numb 



'oumtf iti Vb 



10 Gnciph sli 



111., 



of 
It by Paul 



iLLOPK'a Lenten Jottmef in Vntbria, 



]allyaiiclcnt,biii altered by theRomi 
acallcd^rcoilJjlv^tto.orl'onaAug 



'F/>nte Maggitrt. one c 



Apennines and Lake Thra^pnene. Fart of the tlii 
Is occniiiBd by the new Pretectnre. tlie clicm 



day It hk 



IM mcTcenurlcs of tha 
■ "_" Jleljng' I 

""r, a-H oetrly killed ati Atncr 



eighty plitH. It conilsts of three basins, one over 
the other, two of marble, by Niecolii da Plu an<l 
AmoKo dl Lapo,and Ihc third at top of bronie, 
bj-MeieerKoiso. The ba«-relie[son the arslbasln 

iyalld Adam^anY^vc. Baiusa" David and Qallatli, 



Hie Qntlphi], grimii (for Pen 



KoUte 27.] 



I'KtKJGlA^CUURCHR?*, ETO. 



147 



The Palazzo Comunale, or Town Hall, of the thir- 
teenth century, now the seat of the Municipality, 
has some carvings near the doors and windows, 
and an Ecce Homo, by Perujrino, in the chapel. 
Here are the city Archives. Here also, is the 

*Pinacoteca or Gallery of Paintings, chiefly of the 
Umbrian school; as G. Manni's Madonna En- 
throned; Periiglno's Madonna and Saints, and his 
Nativity and Baptism of Christ; Piiu.uricchio's j 
Evangelists and Saints; B. Gozzoli's Madonna; i 
T. Bartoli's Madonna; and other works by Lo j 
Spagna. Alfuni. Ac. I 

The Bibliotcca Pubblica in the same building 
contains 30,000 vols., and some valuable MS3. 

* // Cambio, or the old Exchange, in the Corso, is of 
the fifteenth century, and is adorned with a series 
of fresroei by Perugino (1500), which are reckoned 
among his best. They include God the Father, 
with Sibyls and Prophets; the Nativity and Trans- 
figuration; and figures of Pittacus, Socrates, Leo- 
nidas, N. Pompilius, Fabius Maxiraus, Trajan, and 
other classical personages. The planets are on the 
ceiling; and on the pilasters are portraits of Peru- 
gino and others. Some of the wood carvings were 
designed by Raphael. Altar-piece by G. Manni 
in the chapel. Petttyino's House is in Via Deliziosa, 
with his name on the door. 

Statue of Victor Emmanuel II. in the Piazza 
Vitt.Eman. Monument to Garibaldi in Piazza del 
Sopramuro. 

The old Pode8tk(Capitano) and old University 
are now occupied by the Law Courts. 

Out of 103 churches, not to speak of about fifty 
convents, which flourished here, the following are 
the most remarkable: — 

The *Diiomo of St. Ijorenzo is of the fifteenth 
century, Gothic and Nonnan, and contains three 
naves, with handsome-looking, but common, marble 
columns; with Baroccio's Descent from the Cross, 
his best work ; L. Signorelli's high altar-piece ; St. 
Peter and St. Paul, by Giannicola, a pupil of Peru- 
gino. The stalls were designed by Raphael : and the 
stained windows, in stripes of green and blue, were 
done 1565. Tombs of Innocent III and Martin V. 

In the Canon's library are MS. Bibles of the 
seventh and eighth century, and the first book 
printed here (1496), B. Capra's / Consigli. 

In Piazza Danti to the north, is V. Danti's 
bronze statue of Julius III., erected 1555. Danti 
was a native. 

S. Agnese, near the University, has its cloister 
chapel painted by Perugino ; God the Father, and 
the Madonna. 

S. Agostino, near Porta S. Tomraaso. Perugino's 
bas-reliefs in the choir. D. Alfani's ceiling, in 
the ConfrateniitJi. 

**>'. Angelo, near Porta S. Angelo; a perfectly 
Rountl Church of the fifth and sixth centuries, 11 
feet diameter, built on the site of a Temple of 
Vesta, of which it contains sixteen pillars out ol 
twenty-ciA'Zjf in the whole periphery. It has two 
aothJc portraits. The Gothic portal is 14t\\ cent. 

d/ Diiecio, 14:^9-01, in a lialf-Gothic stvle. 



-Gothic style. 



S. Domenico, near the Corso Cavour, rebuilt 1632 
by C. Mademo; except the choir, which belongs to 
an old Gothic church, by Giovanni da Pisa, 1304, 
and has a grand stained window belonging to the 
old church. The tomb of Benedict XI. (died hero 
1304 of poison) is a well-carved work, by Di Pisa; 
the Adoration of the Magi, by B. Bonfiglio. 

S. Ercofano, near the Porta Marzia, is of the 
thirteenth century. 

*S. Francesco de' Conventuali, near Porta del la 
Conca, an old Gothic church 1230, restored 1767. 
It has the remains of Braccio da Montone, who was 
killed i424; Perugino's St. Sebastian, done at the 
age of seventy-two; Saints, by C. Alfani; and T. 
Bartoli's Virgin and Child (1403), the only one of 
this master in the city. 

S. Francisco del Monte, outside Porta S. Angelo, 
has a Nativity, by Perugino; S. Oirolamo, at the 
end of Via Papale, an altar-piece, by his pupil, 
Pinturicchio ; and <S^. Giuliana (built 1292), outside 
Porta del Castcllo, has another PeruRino. 

Madonna di Monte Luce, outside Porta Pcse, Is a 
half-Gothic church, by G. Danti. 

Santa Maria Nuova, near Porta S. Tommaso, has 
Perugino's Adoration of the Magi (with his own 
portrait), his Transfiguration, and S. del Piombo^s 
St. Sebastian and St. Roch. 

S. Maria del Popolo, built 1547, by G. Alessi, who 
is buried in St. Fiorenzo's Church. 

*S. Pietro fuori di Mura (i.e., outside the wall, 
but now inside Porta Costanza), a basilica church, 
annexed to the great Benedictine Convent, founded 
about A.D. 1000 by Pietro Vincioli di Perugia. It 
is otherwise called JS. Pietro de' Casinensi. It has 
eighteen old granite and marble pillars, and several 
Perugia masters — as Perugino's Dead (Christ, and 
five small paintings in the sacristy; Raphael's 
St. John, and the Infant Jesus, one of his earliest 
works. Also ten pictures by Aliense : V. Salem- 
beni's Vision of St. Gregory ; Lo Spagna's Madonna; 
P. Alfani's Assumption ; B. Bonrigli's Descent from 
the Cross; Sassoferrato's Judith; Frescoes, by Vasari; 
Mino da Fiesole's bas-reliefs; Caravaggio's Sta. 
Francesca; D.Dossi's Head of Christ; Titian's Ecce 
Homo; Bassano's Crown of Thonis; Guercino's 
Christ Bound. The wood carvings and inlaid work 
of the choir are by two Bergamo artists. 

S. Pietro Martire has a fine Madonna and Angels, 
by Perugino. 

S. Severo College, at the Camaldoli Convent, has 
Raphael's first fresco (1505), with additions by 
Perugino (1521). Their names are inscribed. 

S. Tommaso has the Unbelief of St. Thomas, a 
fine work by Giannicola, of the Perugia school. 

The Unirersity,or CoUegiodelle Belle Arti, founded 
1320, has a place in the Olivetan Convent near 
Porta S. Angelo, and is well attended. It <ifiKSN.- 
prises a library ; cabl.w^\.<«. ^\ xssssvvst^^s.'«.^ssv^'<^«3G^^ 
&c. \\fcxvt\*\Xv^Ar«lv8M>\oqvtaX^\>»R.>v«v ^S^f^^, 



o^;i\'5vC.\^^^>^^^^'^--' 



148 



BttADftHAW^S ITALV. 



[Section 2. 



There art. feTttral prira^ galleries of paintings, 
chiefly of Pmrugino's school, and oolleotions of 
antiquities; some of which are on sale. The 
largest gallery is that of Palazzo Penna. Raphaers 
fine Madonna del Libro at the Palazzo Conestabife- 
Staffa, a small one and one of his earliest works, 
was sold by the family to the Emperor of Russia, 
1872. There is a Theatre iicar the Corso. 

In Palazzo Baldeschi, in the Ck>rso Yannucci, 
is to be seen (60c.) a drawing by Raphael for one 
of the frescoes in Siena Cathedral. 

About one mile outside the city, near Ponte di 
S. Giovanni, on the road to Rome, an Etruscan 
necropolis was discovered in 1840, called the 
Qrotta or Sepolero de' Volumnii. On the Florence 
Road, near Commenda, is another Etruscan relic, 
called Tempio di S. Manno. Further discoveries 
of Etruscan remains were made in 1887. and the 
Museum (page 147) contains some unique bronzes 
then found. About 12 miles distant is Camaldoli 
Convent of Montecorona, among forests of pines. 

From Perugia, the direct road to Rome is down 
the Tiber, vid Todi and Nami (50 miles); but the 
rail vid Assist, Foligno, Spolcto, and Narni is the 
most interesting, though 20 or 25 miles longer. 
Todi, along the direct road, is the ancient Tuder, 
on the Via Amerina, where are extensive ruins 
of a temple and the handsome church of La Con- 
solazione. 

Leaving Perugia, the rail crosses the Tiber or 
Tevere, at Ponte S. Glovaiml (Stat.), near 
the ancient necropolis above mentioned, into Um- 
bria. It passes Baatla (Stat.), near a small town 
(population, 8,128), half-ruined by the earthquake 
of 12th February, 1854. Near the station is 

Santa Maria dboli Angeli, so called fV-om the 
fine Church of the Madonna, built 1669 by Vignola ; 
round the little stone cottage, or Oratory, of St. 
Francis, in which he began his ascetic way of life, 
1206. On the front is a large modem fresco, by 
Overbeck. in imitation of the early masters of the 
Umbrian school. It contains some old frescoes by 
Lo Spagna, and is annexed to the large metropo- 
litan convent of the Franciscans, called the Porti- 
uncula, as being the first portion obtained by the 
Order from the Benedictines in 1611. Pilgrims 
flock hither and to Assisi, 21st July to 1st August, 
and 4th October, to benefit by the indulgences of 
St. Francis. This pile was damaged by the earth- 
quakes of 1882 and' 18.34, but has been restored. 

From here it is li mile to Assisi, up the hills, a 
little out of the hij;h road, which may be joined 
again at Spello, farther on. This excursion takes 
ft or 6 hours. 

ASSISI (Stat.) 

2!I^ jtjteiest AsHtium^ a bishop's see, and the 
MrtAjf/mee of St. Francis d' Assisi and Metastasio. 
J^alatioa, ie,47i. 



branch of the Tiber ; and contains several relics of 
the old Roman town or munieipium; among which 
are remains of a forum, baths, aqueducts, vases 
(seen at the public fountains), and a *Temple of 
Minerva, now turned into & Church of the Madonna. 
It stands in the market-place; where the portico is 
seen, in good preservation, of six fluted Corinthian 
columns, 85 feet high, including the base and 
capitals. It was the only buildmg which Goethe, 
whose taste was hypcr-classlcal, would look at, 
when he visited Assisi in 1786. Lodgings for a 
lengthened btay can be obtained at very cheap 
rates. 

The Duomo dS. Rujlno, of the twelfth century, 
was restored in the sixteenth centuiy by G. Alestti. 
It has an ancient crypt and a fine Roman sarco- 
phagus, with a bas-relief of Diana and Endymion, 
now used as an altar. 

Santa Chiara, built 1253. by F. da Campello. is 
dedicated to a female disciple of St. Francis, 
founder of the St. Clares, and has some frescoes 
by Giottino. 

Chieza Nuova, or the New Church, occupies the 
site of the house in which St. Francis was born, 
1182. He became the founder of one of the four 
mendicant orders, known as the Franciscans, or 
Grey Friars, or Brothers of the Oratory, and died 
here 1226; soon after which a Church was built on 
his grave, and dedicated to him, which is the chief 
object of notice with most visitors, on account of 
its early frescoes of the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries, its painted windows, Ac. 

This church of *S. Francesco, built for the most 
part between 1228 and 1253. by a German architect, 
Jacob or Jacopo, consists of two churches (or three, 
including the crypt), one over the other like steps, 
on the slope of the hill side. The lower church is 
dark and grim-looking, in comparison with the 
cheerful one above it; and there are but few 
characteristic mouldings to mark the style, which 
is rather German than Italian. The crj'pt under- 
neath contains the body of St. Francis in a tomb 
cut in the rock. The mountain behind, about 8 
miles off. called Monte Subasio, rises 8,990 feet, 
and here is the "Carceri" or Grotto to which the 
sidnt went to pray: near a small priory, which has 
a splendid view over the vale of Umbria. 

"This Church,"' says Fergusson (Hand-Book of 
Architecture), ''depends on its painting much more 
than on its architecture, for its magnificence and 
character. In the first place it is small, the upper 
building being only 226 feet by 86 in width; and 
though the lower one has side aisles which extend 
the width to 100 feet, the upper church is only 
60 feet in height, and the lower about half as high; 
so that it is far too small for much architectural 
display. The whole church is covered with fresco 
paintings in great variety and of the most beauti* 
ful character, -which render it one of the most 
celebrated and admVceAol a\\l\.«\-^'. '^WXvoxjXM* 
f rescoea, and \t louivd oulYi^ ivot1\v«.\^% q\ \X» iiX^^ 
It would )iAxdly aUmtX mvv «A.\«a\N»ii:' 



Route ST.] Aasisi, bfei 

Tfacsntrancelatbron^the^iiKn-CAtircAiwhlcb i ioihf buttling toon, uidaTsriaol 
1. .1 ...J 1. ...J 1.... _.-..,._ .. oflheCllluniuD), orM«roegis,t« 



TUtlhnle, udded In (he Mtesiith ctnlDrr, clogs to ' iDDEbomcd ohlte callle, 

cliapels pBincad by BuSalmaeno ud G. Bermel. cicSm a inaiima (or t)i« Roman trlumptag n 

Tbe >lda chupeliirftliln are u toUowt:— 31. Limli'i lUrtficFi. It joins tbc Topino, ■ little below. 



e Pnptaeti and Slbifs 



ths Virgin. Ha^daicn CAapel— FroicoM.by Buflal- | Ja Fo 

Bot-eenW CA^r and *»^F™<»o., H GI«t'o, ^"^,^5^ (^^^^^^ 

Cipanna-g U(s of Chrlal, anil IbeSHgniaMof 8t TrevlJBtat.) The Bomon IWMa, In an alDphl- 

FranoU, whoic portrait, by GInntada Plwi. H in "'"'",'>', ^""„,„ 
the .aerigty ndtolnlD^. Chapd, on (fte I'fl lidi— PopnIallon. 6,30*. 

Maitinoi T. Qaddi'a Cracltdon, and Frcscoea j Spaifoi. and the church of S. Ealliano haa flu 

The Upper CAbtc*. icen tor a fee to the cuiiode, ' Before reaching the Le Vcne poal-honw. Ih* 
~.„™. nn..»» ... ™. „„ > little cryiUUtream at the head of Iba 






t-criilca. The 



_. ... _, , he TimpU of CI- 

of the ; delicale proporliona,' m 
iecsna, ' o'lelnally Kooian, but alte 



death. 
The Oiardiiie 



" FMt oM luUiM tlu (hnlu at UwplM 



fi»>eo«by San Giorgio, I wij Su^JST 'm'iiiI^S'Ti 

'Spelio (Btat.), popDinll™, S.07B, eloae t* a I *'S?^i?l'5??Sii^t^.S('ei™™ 

anull town. Meep and ill baill; the andenl/fliiii!!- wiih NUilie'i taUlnD, Ui u> Uiii r> b<m 

fun, contnining a Roman gate, callad Porta Venerla, Fij urisoiutiir iHi loipnulin cI dlvoil." 

■nd tome fine •freKoos by Pinlntlcchio, in the The next place is 

ohurchea at B. Franceeco and Santo Maria Mag- 

h-lore. Tboscorilielaller(ln thcBatiilonlOliap^J ' BFOL&TO (Blat.), 



FOLIGHO (Stat.), 



I, over the Furlo I 



le head of a Inchy by the Lon- 



i'ollgno, tuiimit* iaoorporitloD wl 

lMCt>r*IAitf«.iraaufiid*pend „ , , ,- 

r ptrioftitlMlaa Jtlnydooj. It li a hMtfl. 1«,VW ftate *•'»«» ^ 



150 



B&ADSUAW S ITALY. 



[Section 2. 



repulse, when he attempted to advance towards 
Rome after the battle of Thrasymeims. Its other 
signs of Roman occapation include a triumphal 
arch of Drusus and Gcrmanicus; a Temple of 
Jupiter, at St. Andrea's; part of a larje theatre ; 
a house (restored) once belonging to the mother of 
Vespasian ; and remains of a Temple of Concord, 
of which fourteen pillars are seen in the Crucitix 
Church, outside the walls. 

• The lofty Aqueduct, which also serves as a road- 
way, Is 680 feet long, and in one part nearly 290 
high ; it is on ten Gothic arches, and is supposed 
to be of the seventh or eighth century. There arc 
traces of Theodoric's Palace, which was rebuilt by 
Karsos, after its ruin by the G <»ths. It has a foun- 
tain, with figures of Diana. &c. 

• The Cathedral is a handsome church, originally 
in the Lombard style, restored in 1644. It has a 
gold mosaic on its front, of 1207; and contains 
Madonnas by Annibale Carraccf, and Fra Filippo 
Lippi, who was buried here by Lorenzo de' Medici, 
with an epitaph by Politian. 

S. Pietro, outside Porta Romaua, is another Lom- 
bard church. The citadel commands a view of the 
Apennines, Perugia, «fec. It was gallantly defended 
by the Irish Brigade on behalf of the Pope, in 1860. 

At the Palazzo Pubblico, or Town Hall, is a 
fresco by Spagnn. 

■ Preserved meats, frnits, and truffles are the 
principal productions of Spoleto. 

Its old castle, standing on a basement of Cyclo- 
pean walls, commands a fine prospect. 

Monte Luce, 1 mile east, across the valley, 
which is spanned by the aqueduct, is a charming 
spot ; covered with fine old oaks, one of which is 
upwards of 60 feet round. The ascent requires 
pomewhat under two hoiirs. Here is the ancient 
Monastery of S. Giuliano, on the site of a Temple 
of Mars, with some hermitages. 

From Spoleto the Road ascends Monte Somma, 
4.040 feet high, with fine views of the Vale of 
Clitumnus. Monte Luco, «fec. ; it then descends the 
Strettura Pass, the hotel of which was a villa built 
by Leo XII. The Rail passes through Monte 
Somma by a tunnel (its highest point), to 

TERNI (Stat.) 

The Roman Interamna, between the Velino and 
the Nera, celebrated as the birthplace of Tacitus 
the historian (at least he is claimed by the town); 
and for the magnificent Falls of Ttmy which are 
£ miles distant. 

Population, 15,773. 

Uoteh: Europa ed Inghilterra. 

It is a bishop s see and has an old Cathedral, with 
several Roman remains, viz., part of a Temple of 
the Sun, in the Church of S. Salvatore ; of an Am- 
phitheatre, in the Bishop's Garden ; a Temple of 
Hercules, in the College of S. 8ivo; and Baths in 
I Cassa Spada. Outside the walls is part of a Roman 
ifrf^g-G. rcpiiccd by one of Clement VIII., built 
^f^, ^^aceJS40it has been /mpplicd with good 
arf„t/„^ ,r^/e^. j'jti. Emperors TncituB nnd Fioriaii 



were natives of Temi, as well as the historian. 
Its wine and peaches are noted. 

The *FaUs of Terni, or of the Velino, are 5 miles 
up the Nera, at tlie junction of the Velino, which 
comes down from Rieti at a much higher level. 
Conveyances may be hired at the Hotel (7 to 10 
lire). The way lies through a beautiful country. 
The Falls are heard at some distance. 

audiit amnis 



Salfurdl Nar albus aqu&, fouteeqne Veliid.— Virgil. 

Like those of Tivoll, these Falls, called Caduta, 
or Cascate dell a Marmorc, are artificial in their 
origin, having been made, in the first instance, by 
the Consul, M. C. Dentatus, B.C. 240, who, to drain 
the surplus water which inundated the valley of 
the Velino, made or widened a cut through the cliff 
down to the lower level of the Nera. Here the 
water "clears the wave-worn precipice," and falls 
into the gulf below, over 600 feet, in three leaps, 
the middle one being 330 feet perpendicular, and the 
lower one a succession of rapids. The channel is 
alMHit 50 feet wide. Some estimates make the total 
fall only 455 feet, which is nearly equalled by the 
Fall of Foyers, in Scotland ; a fall which, in Dr. 
Clarke's opinion, ranks next to that of Temi. 
This fall far exceeds the Falls of Schaflhausen, in 
Switzerland. One striking view can be got from 
the Specola, a pavilion built by Pius VI., over- 
hanging the fall, and here also is a fine prospect of 
the valley and hills aromid; but the best view of 
the waters is obtained from the Nera below. 

Look back! 
Lo where it comes like an eternity, 
As if to sweep down all things iu its track. 
Charming the eye with dread ; a matchless civtaract. 

Horribly beautiful !— but on the verge 
From side to side, beneath the glittering mom 
An Iris sits, amidst the infernal surge 
Like Hope. —Byron. 

These rainbows are seen at different parts of the 
falls in the sunshine. The waters here, as in other 
parts of Italy, have a petrifying quality, and 
deposit much' tartrate of lime on the wood and 
mosses. Near this is a villa, once inhabited by 
Queen Caroline. 

From the Falls the road may be followed up the 
Velino, to the IMe di Luco Lake ; and on to Rieti, 
In the Roman Tempe, and Aquila, among the Sabine 
Hills in the Ahruzzi, and thence round to Naples. 
(See Route 31). 

LeavingTemi, for Rome, the country continues to 
have the same hilly and picturesque character, to 

Nami (Stat.) A small old cathedral town 
(population, 11,410), on a height over the valley of 
the Nera, hi a beautiful spot, the site of the ancient 
yequinum, or Narnia, a Roman colony, which re- 
fused to help the mother city after the battle of 
Canute. The Duomo is of the thirteenth century; 
at the Town Hall is a fine Ghirlaudajo (the Coro- 
nation of the Virgin); and iu the neighbourhood is 
the Ponte Rotto. a Roman bridge, built by Augustus, 
across a ravine, on the Nera. The remains consist 
o! one large mcY\, m\A bwUxcvw* q\ \^q ovVrtv 



Route S3.} TBUtI, HARMI, 

AuiLTi. ttae Bnciont Ameria, another Umbrlan ; 
towii, and n blsW '"'. » ""s? " 'ha clgbt 

lowam. the Tibtr. To Orta (Btat.), a mile", 

at the jnncllon of the rail from Tonii, Follgno, and 



toward., and then ar— ' - 






The road cnuHi the Tiber at 
PoirTE Felice. » called fn>m an old th 
brjdne. built by AagiiatuL and reitored 
v., the tamona Cardinal feUcc (Felix) ol 

Here the French, uiidor MacdanaM. dc 
NeapallUni, In IIM. PaisInK 
Borshotto tBtat). on the rail, i 



CirilA CAITELLAMA, AMCOHA. 131 

HonUroal, where it joint Iha high road from 
^lena (Route SS); ur we may take ths aboner 

C*HTiL Ncovo, the lite of Ad Viunilmane, 
I i mllei from Cl>lta Caitellana. the Sabine HUli, 
Tl'oll. Albino. Ac, ure In sight. ¥nm ihig It t> 

j'nnclion ol Via Tlberlona: and la MiLu'firiha'r, 
pint /•oXe ITolH. to 
RonwCStat.) See Route 33, 

ROXJTE as. 

AncoiuL to Fauo, Vrntomltioao, UrUno, 

' and over tbe AptnnlneB to Artuo and 

I PloruiM; or, to FoBBombron*, Oa<U, 

Stglllo, Hocara, FoUsno, Ac, and Borne. 

ANCOVA (Stat >, 



-een tbe Tret, and Rio Magelore, which 
rnTino, A brldjp, for the road and 



r Is thonglit Df 
:oDathe"Uorlo 
bare done much 
of the port, hot 



ZXfSSl 



and which has rcmalne DI 
feci hig^ with gates, *c,. 
tnte of preservation. This 


KabitiilJliiaH'k aiid Amtrinn Ceonl: 
*o(rA PrtAtltrlim Servkr. 




The railway waa opened lo Ancona in May, IBAI, 




!>y the KlnR of Italy, and was later rctended to 




Tranl, Brindlal, etc. 




Stramors to Venice, Trieste, florfit. and Alex- 




andria (lee B'-adiKWi cmUnHibH Onidi). Tbe 


nl aorocfe, a limestone bill, 




wned by a Temple of Apollo, 


Venice and BHndlal, touch here. 


vent, dedicated to a certain 


"Tlie Hrst Iniprcaslnn the aspect ol Ancona pro- 


CBliea from a hemillBBO to 




n, Carloman, King of Aui- 


It had been visible lo us for Iholasl Mmilei of 


mlnce). retired bi feed piga 
Tillage on the slope. Kenr 


road (from Florence), and looked exceedingly 


picturesque rising from the very eiige of the water 


eipeclcd, a wide [tfLnornmlo 





1Ioi™A eid Nfpl (a wsJled « 






152 



BRADSHAW'S ITALY. 



[Section 2. 



lunpbitheatre, between Monte Quasco and Monte 
jistagno or Capo di Moute. 

The promontory is shaped like an elbow, and 
from this circumstance it derives its name of 
Aneon^ bestowed upon it by the restliess Dorians 
^rom Syracuse, who made a settlement here. It 
was also, and is still, celebrated for the beauty of 
its women, like many other Greek colonies. But 
it was Trajan who converted it into a usctul port 
and naval station by the erection of a Mole or Pier. 

The Lombards made it the seat of a governor, 
with the title of ilarchasus, whence the name of 
La Marca, the Mark, or March of Ancona, given to 
the province (Le Marche in the plural), afterwards 
Incorporated with the States of the Church by 
Clement VII. Previously to this, though be- 
qoeathed to the Pope by the Countess Matilda, it 
had remained a free city, and had held out against 
a brilliant siege by the jealous Venetians, till 
succoured by the Guelphs of Ferrara. It was 
occupied by the French, 1797-1814, and again 
1832-8, and in 1849 it was subjected to ten days' 
bombardment from the Austrians. In 1861 it was 
pccapied by Lamoricibre after his defeat at Castel 
Fidardo, and taken by Cialdini after a bombard- 
ment. 

The Citadel, built by the Popes, commands the 
town, but is partly commanded by the heights 
above. Other forts have been erected for its 
defence by its new master, the King of Itftly — one 
near the Capuchin Convent will render it almost 
tmpregnKible. 

Close to the Old Mole, which is of Roman origin, 
is the fine marble *Arch of Trajan (Arco Trajano), 
erected, as the inscription states, by the ''Senate 
and people of Rome to Trajan, Emperor, and 
Caesar, son of Nerva, &c., a most provident 
prince, who, at his own cost, erected the Mole, and 
thus made this access to Italy safer to navigators." 
It is of white Parian marble, and of good propor- 
tions, with one gateway, supported by four 
Corinthian columns in each front. The bronze 
statues of Trajan, of his wife Plotina, and his 
aister Marciana, which stood on the top of the 
arch, have disappeared. 

Near this is a Doric Arch, by Vanvitelll, called 
•the Arco C/ementino, in honour of Clement XII., 
who built the four-sided lazzaretto and the second 
Ifole with its lighthouse. The Mole is 2,000 feet 
long and 100 broad. The lazzaretto in now a 
bonded warehouse. 

The streets of Ancona arc steep and narrow, the 
best one being the Corso, built by Pius VI., which 
leads down to the harbour, through the principal 
gate, close to the Dogana. Statues of Clement XII. 
and Cavour, in the new town. It has few remarkable 
buildings. A commercial fair begins on the 20th 
August, soon after that of Sinigaglia; and at all 
times much of the bustle of a thriving seaport 
/freraDs here. 
Tiie^/ufMu?, or Cathedral of 3. Ciriaco (Cyriac), 
^£^^^^ V'^cJfla, occupies the very Bummlt of the 
^f^Jj^^ ?"J^*> cdgo of a, white cliff, which 
r^s^Jieer out of tbe aca, on the site of a Temple 



( 



of Venus, ten pillars of which are contained in 
the church. It was built in the tenth century, but 
the ornamented Gothic door, with its red marble 
columns facing the Dalmatian coast, is of the 
thirteenth century. It has a fine dodecagcm 
cupola, and crypts in which the patron saint with 
two or three others, and the Praetor, Gorgonius, 
are buried. The praetor's sarcophagus is orna- 
mented with reliefs. Within the memory of man 
large masses of cliff, close to the church, have 
been swept away by the sea. 

<S. Agoitino has bas-reliefs and statues, by Moccip, 
in its half-Gothic, half-classical front. 

S. Domenico, rebuilt 1788, has Titian's Virgin and 
Saints, and tombs of Marcolta, the poet, Tar- 
cagnosta, the historian, and Rinaldi, a Florentine, 
exiled by the Medici in 1452. A statue of Clement 
XII. faces the church. 

S. Francesco has a rich Gothic portal. It is 
now used as a. barrack. 

Santa Maria della Piazza is a Gothic church ; 
and Santa Pdagia has a Gucrcino. 

The Palazzo Comunale (Town House), once the 
seat of the Papal Legate; Prefettura and Tibal- 
di's Fountain ; the Ferretti (by Tibaldi), Manci- 
porte and Benincasa Palaces ; and the old marble 
Loggia del Mercanti, or Excftange, with its Gothic 
ornaments and frescoes, by Tibaldi; all deserve 
notice. Also the arched gateway, &c., of a build- 
ing which was once a commando of the Templars. 
Close to the church of S. Domenico, in the Piazza 
del Plebiscito, is the museum, with antiquities, 
and pictures byPodesti, Titian, Crivelli, L. Lotto, 
and others. 

Ancona, in Roman times, was noted for its pur- 
ple dyes. It has a trade in oil, silk, wool, and 
com. The steamers for Brindisi, Piroeus, and 
(Constantinople leave every Monday; to Venice, 
once a week; toZara, weekly, by the Navigazionc 
Generale Ituliana. (See Bradshaw's Continental 
Guide.) 

To Loreto, Castellammare, and Foggia, by rail, 
for Rome and Naples; or to Foliguo and Orte 
for Rome. 

Both the road and rail wind inward from Ancona, 
toward Osimo, in order to pass round the great 
chalky down which springs up here, between An- 
cona and Loreto, and reaches its full height at 
Monte Conero, 1,761 feet above the sea. 

The new quarter is on the land side; the pros- 
pect outside is "unique in its combination of the 
softest features of a pastoral region, with the lofty 
cliffs and sea views of a grander landscape."— 
The EnglisliiDoman in Italy. 

One of the best avenues was cut down to make 
barricades against the Austrians in the siege of 
1849, which lasted twenty-eight days. They took 
the town and held it for the Pope till 1869, ruling 
with great severity; for which there was some 
excuse, as Ancona had been previously in the 
bands of an asaociation of assassinati. This body 
originated Vn \%49, 'wXactv VV^ ^«.^«\ ^V^\ft* wore 
governed by \V\<i Tev^XA\QWv^> w\^ %>%\t\«\ »Xvi^Vs^% 



)d by ft bund of fourteen < 
in, Orslnl wai gent here by the Rome 
executed br Uie Fspil Govenmun 



; Riphul'i yoatb, ud donbtlaa e 

' " — ' ■-" — ; BiLi«ila.tlie]^i*ri B. 



J 3th Jiuiei 


buUhe^ctS 


'wtt occnnied hy Pii 


IroopMm 


er 0«ie»l AILe^na. fivm Hwxra 




iwopls hid 






ainifd the dt 




Dunnel. A, 


d I he Dcliig. 




DbllfBli to 


fffi"\«^ 


legrLn'a. He connive 


th«eK»pc 






uid h[» Sw 




jldetbfciptliitiitLon, 


Cfl'S 


o[ lOO.OW do 


Laie. Hid mado a Ooii 




M'lhfngi°l« 


"d tliMt°ann™tloi. 




r the biule of Caue 


A.^. 


Finn by 


^way. u in Boulo 


A««- tim 


the towDj b 








baut9«mllea:— 


FouoDibrone 1S| 




Drblno .... 


lU 


K£r::::E::: 


Crb>DU... 


Ill 






Boiyo S. Sepolcro ... 


Iferciulki 










tto Dofoii;. now the goremor^a bouso, le 
hiilldlnit(r8Horcd). erected In the 1Mb 
_. .. ^^. ^^^ Duko PcdBrLgo 
. are by A, Barocdo 



atatuo of Dako Fedcriiio, liy G. CluupMDa. with 
HtmeinicrlKluDa; bnt the best part ^ lt> colkc- 

Al Palaiio Atbani. Clement XI. and aome cvdl- 
I naUof the Albano family were bom. 

The Cathedral iMnulni Baroceio'. Laat Boiler 
and St. BobaJttaii ; with a St. Manln, by Timoito 



, a amill town (papulatloD, E,l«» on the 
> called after Ur1»ii VIII.. baa ■ muu- 
iBJoliu. with 1 CollcElate Chnrcb (S. 









Thcatro 


aCath< 




acrlptlon 


■.inda 


good bridge. The 








itln Italy. TheE 






oiupt 


eFliriolowjird.C«ell,piBelM 


Dillec 




UKBIMO, 








Urbinum Horltnu 






p. and 




hid (pepul 


tlon. IT,* 




re"'markaWo"M"u. 


Wrthplaco 


BoSaello 




or Swtl, uanally called flop*" 


thcprlnc 




ten. The/Zou/l 


which be wd 


bon.<U S)h.>a 


"'f.'^f'^.-'L.". 





ilelning Bsncclo'i 



iX'fS^rtSrt" 
the AIpe del la 



Ld tho ApcDnlnci, 

DO and Fcderigo 
-known palflCen 



bom and he died on Good Friday. The houac just 
mentioned waa boitght in ISTS by sabictlptlan, { 



.ttft (U cmmio tBtat: 



>n with the Sti 

__ .. , Id Uoli* Hovered | 

Tliay w«regTutiiatiDDBollunjin£'Badilt,eB]ied- i 
■IIt Gold' 0baJdeA t*e hatbvid at (he beautUnl I 



at the Cbnrcb In 16H. waa 1 



the ancient VfftrawNl 
The hotel 



DBse 144. 
U haa ft »i!o4Kii\«\4*fctp<« 



t54 



DRAD8UAW*8 ITALT. 



[Section 2. 



Florido, and several other Churches, adorned with 
pahitlngs, &c; the Palazzo Comunalc, in the 
Gothic style ; and four or Are palaces of the VitcUi 
family, formerly lords of the city. These and most 
of the large bnildings here were cracked by the 
earthquake of 1789, which spoilt the old and fan- 
tastic frescoes, chiefly by Ghcrardi or II Doceno, 
by which they were adorned; and caused there- 
building of the churches. One of the Vitelli 
Palaces is inhabited by the Marclicse Knfalini; 
another, now a merchant's warehouse, has a fine 
hall, J 20 feet long, painted with arabesques ; a third, 
built 1640, contains many family portraits, one 
being a beautiful girl, dying of a stab in the neck. 
It stands in a garden, with a loggia painted by 
Gherardi, fresh as if done yesterday, and "covered 
with the mo&t extraordinary and fantastically 
grouped assemblage of birds, boasts, fishes, fruits, 
and flowers, that it is possible to imaghie."— 
Teollope's Lenten Journey. 

The Pinacoteca now contains the best works 
of art and paintings that were formerly in the 
churches. 

Al>out 3 miles east is Passerine farm, the site of 
Pliny's VV/a, described in his sixth book. 

About 11 miles below this is 

Fratta, or Frutticciola, a small picturesque 
town (population, 9,500), where the road to Gubbio, 
16 inilcH, and Ancona tunis off, over the mountnins; 
• past the old Castle of Civitella Ranieri. Fratta 
has a pottery manufacture, and stands 2,920 feci 
al>ove the sea. In Santa Croce Church is a fine 
DcHcent from the Cross, by L. Signorclli. The 
hills here arc well wooded, and the country richly 
fertile. On one stands the Convent of Monte 
Corona. 

Perugia (Stat) is 20 miles further. See 
Route 27.] 

From 8. Glustino, ascending the Tiber, the next 
place after crossing the old Tuscan boundary at 
Cospaja, is 

San Sepolcdo, or Borgo S. Sepolcro, a bishop's 
see (population, 8,068) which belonged to the 
Papacy, but was ceded to Tuscany 1 440. It stands, 
as usual, on a hill, and takes its name from an 
oratory, built by two pilgrims, to hold a piece of 
stone brought from the Holy Sepulchre. It is the 
birthplace of the painters, Santo di Tito, Piero 
dclla Franccsca, and Raffadlino dal Colic; whoso 
works arc to bo seen in the Cathedral (a building 
of the eleventh century), the Misericordia and 
other churches. Monument to P. dclla Franccsca, 
erected in 1892. 

The THber rises about 40 miles north of Borgo S. 
8c]K)lcro under Monte Faltcrone, in the Apennines, 
close to the source of the Arno. It flows through a 
green basin, once a hike, now rich in corn, wino, 
oak und other trees, Thcpextplaco towards Arezzo, 
is 

MoNTRnciii, the old Afons Hercules, on the ridge 

between the Vales of Tiber and Chiantl: a little 

rra//ed toivn, which belonged to Bishop Tar late, of 

i?^iL '*^^ £0m//c8 farther, by a zigzag road, is 



For Rome the route tnms off south from Fosaom- 
brone, as above, the towns from which are as 
follow: — 



Acqnalagna . 

Cagli 

Cantiano .... 
Schieggia .... 
Sigiilo , 



Post. 
... 1 
... f 
.... f 
... 1 
.... 1 



Post. 

Gualdo M. 1 

Nocera 1 

Poute Centesirao 1 

Foligno 1 



Tlus road is identical with the Via Flamuiia. It 
follows the Caudigliano up the Pietralata Hill, or 
Monte dAsdrubale, which commemorates the defeat 
of HannibaPs brother, Hasdrubal, here, by the 
Romans, b.c. 207, on a ]>lain called Piano di S. Sil- 
vestro. A tower on Monte d'Elce, near the river, 

marles his grave. 

occidlt, occidit 

Spes omnk. et fortuna nostri 
Nomiiiis.— Horace. 

The Roman road here has been ttmnelled throu.2rh 
the solid rock, and through a cutting half a mile 
long, called the Passo del Furlo, a work which an 
hiscription ascribes to Vespasian. It then crosses 
a Roman bridge, Ponte Maiilio. to 

Caoli, the ancient Colli*, under Monte Nero, 5,500 
feet hij?h. A small town (population, 10.604), with 
several churches. 8. Domenico contains a good 
fresco of the Madonna, by O. Santi, father of Ra- 
phael, whose portrait is given in one of the angels. 
It is published by the Arundel Society. 

The road ]>asse8 another Roman bridge, Ponte 
Grosso. on the way to 

Cantiano, a small fortified town (population, 
3.295), with a Holy Family, by Perugino, in one of 
its churches. The road ascends to a poUit 2,310 feet 
high. 

Schieggia, another small town (population, 
1.320), near the remains of the Temple of Jupiter 
Apenninus at Clavemium, now Chiascema, on 
Monte Pctrara. 

[Here is a steep road through the shoulder of 
Monte Calvo to 

Gubbio (Stat.), the ancient Igumum, on the west 
of the Apeimines, at the source of the (-hiascio, a 
branch of the Tiber. Population, 2«,690. It was 
a republic till 1383, when it came under the Dukes 
of Urbino, who had a splendid palace here. It was 
noted for its dyes, woollens, and Majolica ware, 
designed by Maestro Gorgio, a native. The best 
specimens of this ware in the Soulages collection 
were obtained from Gubbio. The town hangs on 
a kind of step at the base of Monte Calvo, in the 
basin of a dried Lake, 12 miles by 2; and the 
houses rise one over the other in steep zigzag 
streets. It is supplied with water by an aqueduct, 
2 miles long, from an artificial reservoir in the 
mountains, 330 feet long and 80 deep, made by 
damming up the head of a valley. 

There are some frescoes by Raf!aellino dal Colle 
and other ITmbrian masters in the Cathedral, and 
the Dominican and Santa Maria Nuova Churches. 
In that of Misericordia is a fine fresco by O. Nelll. 
In the present Tovm Hall, which faces the Palazzo 



fitmtM 29 and 30.] oubbio, rABKtxtio, n 

tnn. one by DKnilml. inclDdlng uvnral jMrtrillt | lu) 
ol the Gnhrlelll family. • .(so 

cmtnry, isBS- ™i8 on inlSertliiB monl^^ot (w 
tha republie. vith n CAmpiuiilo, standing on a pro- I I'ol 

oflt.joln«ltotheinaliibuiLdiugbrii*]OBElH.laIhe I 8 
Millie Llbtarj'. girat b; Biihop apecelll. The VU 



CEBA, OBUO, LOSETO. ISS 

I. i;,8SJ) and bishop's KB, hiTlng luge muiD- 
rei of pwHT ADd puchmrnl and a trade la 

UJ) paaaai Hiteliu. Hacerta (page lie). 
itliiD(psgelG7),*iidH.8cverliiadelleUBrche. 

iiLLD. the Ramui UOtlhint, in Umhrla. un tha 



ArSBM.McpnEi'lrt, 

aualdo Tadlno (8Mt), at ino fo 






HOCflt&UmbmStat.) The ancient JVuMrfo, 
underlho Apennines, tnkrn by the Bomans, 307 a.c. 
aftcrwudt crcucd a inunlclnlnm and military 






idClteadlCinellD. (See a)i 



ROXJTE SB. 
« Rome, br iftU, tU Jeit^oiuto, 
ofte, and dovn t^ 



sort) on 



nelghlK 



Tttaiao (Stttt), as In Route !7. which from 

liOXJTE SO. 

Auoonn to Lnreto. Feimo, and Psloara, on 

tiis rail to FoKKia, TraJil, and BrlndliL 

Opened KSS; SH miles to Teseara; In 4 toe 



Ullo 



.'. m \ Gnaldofiidi 



Plaiilo ...._ «6i 

i. Qulrlco ... SOj \ Fallgno ., 
all from Anoona (>oe Sotiie : 



Ivlng irade In silk, Fopuli 

_ iUrra B. Qutrtca Wtot), 



The line then tnn 

ObUuo (Stat.), ' 






HUe>. 
Cupra HarlttlmB... 4S 

S. Ben. de Tronio." SS 

Multiniiino 'Z 7«| 

Fescorn ....J.Z".'Z Ml 

Boole ta. 

ward round the bue of 

hill eoo feet high, the 



pnpulallon. XWD, Then AlIuelJI& (StBt.) Rnd t«.iVnceolHw».iM.k,w^*'^»w*-^™^X?i^^ 

fiblWlO (BUt). A battling tonn (popa. \ S HifSanla (WW, ■« '*'•^■^ '*»'»*'* ^'^ 



156 



BRADSHAW'g ITALY. 



[Section 2. 



Tbore is « oomforUble little Inn ootside the gate, 
facing the aea. According to the legend, the Santa 
Casa was inhabited by Kary at Nazareth; was 
miraculoasly carried entire through the air, In 1391, 
to tlic coast of Dalmatia, near Flume, and in 1294 
was transplanted across the Adriatic to a hill, near 
the sea, belonging to a certain Laura, or Lauretta, 
who gave name to its present site. It is a brick- 
builtrooni, 29 feet by 13 feet, and 13 feet high; 
with a door, chimney, window, and a niche c(»itain- 
ing an inuige of the Virgin, in cedar wood. Round 
this sanctuary a splendidly-adorned Church has 
been erected; which is visited by thousands of pil- 
grims every year. 

Tasso describes the wonderful transportation of 
this relic in a poem beginning — " Ecco fri le tem- 
posto ed i fieri vcnti." A more sober and veracious 
account is contained in Bishop Martorclli's two 
folios of the Teatro Utorico della Santa Casa; the 
substance of which is given in an authorised hand- 
book published here, the " Historical account of 
the Prodigious Translation of the Holy House of 
Nazareth," to which the doubter is referred for 
further particulars of this "most impudent and 
most monstrous of all the impudent and monstrous 
Impostures" of Mariolatry, as Mr. TrollojKj says. 

Loreto, being a modern town, which has grown 
out of the Santa Casa, is comparatively well built. 
Sixtus V. walled it round for protection against 
the corsairs. The chief thoroughfare is crowded 
with shops and booths for the sale to pilgrims of 
rosaries, chaplots, aguus-dei medals, ribbons, arti- 
ficial flowers, devotional books, and other memo- 
rials, to the amount of £15,000 or £20,000 a year. 
Beggars are numerous, to exercise the piety of the 
faithful. It was supplied with water by an aque- 
•duct, by Paul V. 

The fine Ma(i6nnn Church, which encloses the 
Hanta Casa, was re-built 1464-1613, by Sangallo; 
except the cupola and front, which are of later 
date, and the tall campanile, by Vanvltolli. The 
front was added by SIxtus V. (1587), whose bronze 
Htatue, by Calcngni, stands over the fountain 
facing the church. 

The bronze Virgin is by Cil. Lombardo; and the 
three bronze door«, with their bas-reliefs, are by 
his pupils, Ciilcagnl, T. VercoUl, A'c. The church, 
•to., arc oruiunied with ex-voto offerings from pil- 
grims, more curious than elegant; but amongst 
the objertM of art deserving of notice, is Bramante's 
fine marble casing to the Holy House, with bas- 
reliefs of the History of Mary, by A. Sansovino, 
R. Bandinelll, Raffaello da Montelupo, G. Lom- 
bardo, G. della Porta, Tribolo, &c. 

The subjects of these bas-reliefs ai'e the Birth of 
Mary, her Marriage, Annunciation, Visitation, 
Return to Bethlehem, Birth of Christ, Adoration 
of the Magi, Death of Mary, and the journeys of 
the Santa Casa ; am<mg which figures of prophets 
Mnt/0j/>yJa sre Jn traduced. 

s»j!ifn*^1^" ^^PoJt^ orer the Santa C«sii, by 
*yv»r//<7, /s pointed $„ freaco, by Pomernnclo. 



The frescoes in the chapels and sacristy are by 
Zucchero, P. Tibaldl, D. Veniziano, &c.. with a 
Madonna, by A del Sarto. In the baptistery is 
a fine 1t>ronze relief, by T. Vercelli, and others. 

The ugly black image of the Virgin, carved, it is 
said, by St. Luke, and dressed in a rich robe, with 
crown and sceptre, is placed over a magnificent 
altar, the marble pavement of which is worn by 
the knees of her worshippers, who deposit their 
offerings in the Santa Scodella, a dish which 
the Virgin is believed to have eaten from, but 
which is really a coarse piece of fifteenth century 
ware. The Treasury is a fine hall, 80 feet long, 
painted with frescoes, &c., and lined with presses, 
in which the gifts of the faithful are preserved. 
Here is kept the collection, dusty and battered, of 
Majolica pottery, the gift of Francesco-Maria, 
Duke of Uri)lno, to the Virgin. This rich treasury, 
the growth of five centuries, was despoiled in 179/, 
by Pius VI., to enable him to pay a sum due, by 
treaty, to the French ; who, in 1798, made a fur- 
ther sweep of its contents ; and on this occasion 
the saci-ed image made another journey as far as 
Paris. Splendid view from the Campanile. 

Facing the church Is the Palace of the King, and 
that of the Bishop ; a handsome pile by Bramante; 
containing a picture gallery, with works by Titian 
(Woman in Adultery), A. Carraccl, Guercino, Ac; 
and a collection of Mtgolica. Here are the 
houses of the canons, the backs of which look 
towards the country, upon the little town of 

Castel FidardOi on a hill, over the Musone, 
noted for the defeat of the Papal troops, under 
Lamorlclbre, by Cialdlni, 18th September, 1860. 
Lamorlclere had 11, (=00 men and fourteen guns, 
organised by Caidinal de Merode, including an 
Irish brigade, coumianded by Major O'Reilly ; and 
was supported by the garrison from Ancona. 
Claldinl took 600 prisoners, six guns, arms, Ac, 
with (Jcneral Pimodan. Lamorlclere capitulated 
at Ancona, on the 29th September, and the Sardi- 
nians were enabled to march on the Abruzzi, over 
the Neajwlltan frontier, to join Garibaldi. 

Porto Eecanati (Stat.), at the mouth of the 

Potenza, where there is an anchorage for a few 
small craft. It is the port to the town of RecanatL, 
about 5 miles inland ; the high road to which, and 
the town beyond, is direct from Ix)reto. 

[Recakati, a cathedral town (population, 5,400), 
on a hill, 1,000 feet high, with several churches, and 
a bronze statue to the Virgin, in the public square. 
The town is one long street. It was taken and 
burnt by the Papal i)arty, 1313. By road to 

Rkcina, on the Potenza, near the site of Ricina^ 
or Elvia Becina, on the direct Roman way from 
Ancona, towards Rome. There are remains of tm 
Amphitheatre, built by Septimus Severus. Cross 
the river to 

Macerata(Stat.X capital of a province, and a 
bishop's sec, in the March of Ancona, on a hill, 
between tYie ¥ontoi«L «s\<Si C\v\.«xlU^ 'with a Ttew of 
the sen «(M tY\e X\«xv\\\Tve^x «w^ ^\ W^\!eN\w«^ 



e 30j 

J. 11 wu 

or ibft)! oSDlurl 



; TOLENtlMO, POTENKA PIOXSA, i. BLPIDIO. 

Toumnto (Bttt) 



plw. having B pppaUiion „f m,7S8. line ofTe ' t ."^V ."..'"iiS^ ^T2!; '^■* f""^^'^- «"!'- 




tUCw" •?^**'"'™ (Stat.), at the mouth n/ 

Pun. ClvlUnov.. n line runs np the 
lo Kaoarat* C™o prtoridlng paitel 



158 



Is&ADSllAW^g t-iXlY 



[Section ± 



Porto S. Oidrglo (Stat.), three miles from 

FennO, the site of tlie ancient Firmiim Picenum, 
destroyed by the Goths; an archbishop's see and 
the head of a province in the kingdom of Italy, on 
a steep hill, 6,100 feet high, near a small stream, 
the mouth of which makes a little port, 4 miles 
below the town. Population, 18,726. 

It is reached by a winding road, and consists of 
many narrow and abrupt streets, shut in by old 
picturesque walls. On the very top of the hill, in 
Piazza Qironc, stands the Cathedral, command- 
ing a wide prospect of the towns and villages 
around, and half way over the Adriatic. It was 
the site of a castle, which was razed in 1447, to 
prevent it being turned against them by the 
powerful families of the town. It was so strong 
that an old punning rhyme declares— 

"Quando Fermo \uo\ fennare, 
Tutta I'Marcft fa tmnare." 
That is— 

" Ai long M Fermo stands vpjlrm. 
She makes the Marchee tremble." 

"There is a rather unusual, but not unique fea- 
ture in the construction of the Cathedral, consisting 
of a sort of porch or pronaos at the west end, across 
the entire width of the nave and aisles, so placed 
that the west front wall, instead of giving access 
to the church, is but the side wall of this adjunct 
to the building, which is entered through it by a 
door in that part of the north side which is the 
north end of the porch. — (T. A. Trollopjd's Lenten 
Journey.) Here are tombs of a Viscontl, by Tura 
(Bonaventura) da Imola, and a member of the 
Bn£nredicci family. Another member, Oliveretto, 
who figured here, and is bnried hi 8. Francesco 
Church, is cited by Machiavelli as a model tyrant, 
in a chapter of his "II Principe," relating to those 
who have raised themselves to power by their 
atrocities. 

Fermo is one of the richest bishoprics in Italy, 
worth about £11,600, and was held by Cardinal de 
Angelis, who was designated by Pius IX. as his 
successor. Lattanzio, sumamed Fcrmiano, was 
bom here. 

The next place along the lino is 

Pedaso (Stat.), at the mouth of the Aso, 
which comes down from Monte Sibilla, 7,200 feet 
high, 30 miles inland. 

Cnpra Marlttlina (Stat.), at the mouth of 

the Tesino, near the site of Cupra Maritima, 
where there was a temple of the Cyprian Venus. 

Orottamare (Stat.) 

A little distance inland, on a hill, is Ripatraksoxb, 
or Cupra Montane, a small cathedral town (popula- 
tion, 9.935). It is near the Josina, on the other 
side of which are the old ciistles of Cassignano 
and Afilda. 

B, Benedetto del TrontO (Stat.), near Porto 

d'AseoJi, jtt the Tronto (ancient Truentum), which 

j^Jj^ff"^r/y the boundary of the Pontifical and 

-aSKSr?— '*'tl' "^'^ « '^^' *'»« ancient Via 

/«/t/j superseded by a Hw to ijcoli, 20| 



miles long, which passes through Offida Castel dl 
Lama. 

[ASCOII Plceno. 20 miles from the sea, is the 
ancient Asculnm Picenum, the chief town of the 
Picentes, and a large, weil-built cathedral town, 
with a population of 23,000, on a hill, in a fertile 
plain, at the junction of the Castcllnno with the 
Tronto, both of which are crossed by old Roman 
Bridges. Another piece of antiquity is the Porta 
Romana, a triumphal arch over the Via Salaria, 
which runs through the town. There are also re- 
mains of a theatre, &c. Ascoli is still sometimes 
called Eschio, supposed to be derived from asscu^us, 
an oak. It took a prominent part in the Social 
War against Rome, but was captured and plun- 
dered by Pompeius Strabo, Pompey's father. 

It is surrounded by walls of travertine, and con- 
tains nine Churches full of paintings, by Trasi, 
Ghezzi, and other native artists, with sculptures 
by Giozafutta. 

The Duomo, an ancient structure on the site of 
one founded by Constantinc, has paintings by C. 
Crevelli, a Venetian, whose works are to be found 
In the churches of Santa Marghcrlta, *c. S. 
Oregorio Magno contains the Corinthian pillars of 
a Roman temple, which stood on this spot. The 
Palazzo Anzianale, near the Duomo. includes a 
museum, library, and theatre. In Piazza del 
Popolo is the Town Hall. The citadel was built 
by Sangallo. 

In the medieval period, Ascoli was governed by 
the FalzettaandMiglianitti families; audit was the 
birthplace of Nicholas V.; of B. Bassus, the orator 
and friend of Cicero; and also of Ventidins 
Bassus, who was a child when P. Strabo took the 
town, and who afterwards defeated the Parthians, 
under M. Antony. Another native was F. Stabili, 
called the Cecco d' Ascoli (blind man of Asooli), a 
scholar of Dante's time. 

The road ascends the Tronto, past Acqua Santa, 
or Ad Aquas, still known for its sulphur springs, to 
Abquato (20 miles from Ascoli). near anotber 
Roman station. Ad Centesimmn, on the Via Salaria. 
From this there isaway,bythePassof Castelluccio, 
near Monte Sibilla, over the Apennines, to Nobcia 
(10 miles), an old episcopal town at the liead of 
the Kera, and the birthplace of St. Benedict. From 
this it is 16 miles to Spoleto, in Route 27. 

From Arquato (see above) the Via Salaria con- 
tinues to ascend the Tronto. past Ad Mortis; then 
over the Apennines and Monte Teja to Clvita Reale, 
at the head of the Velino. and down that river to 
Civita Ducale, to Rieti, and thence to Rome; or 
j past Ad Martis to Amatrice and Montereale, at the 
I head of the Pesaro.and do^^ni that river to A<iUiLA 
j (in Route 31), the capital of the Farther Abmzzi, 
■ or Abruzzi Ultra.] 

I The coast railway, after crossing the Rivers 
I Tronto and Vibrata. in the province of Atnnixzi 
I Tritra,cotae*\ol\iftftAVtav%\\o^\x^'w\\VXiV%Cx>at«uj^ 
' DEL T»0T»TO, a lon\ti<iA \o^rv\^x?\\\L ^\iQ^f(iN«C«i«i ^ 



ftoate 31.] PERMO, A4COLt, ATBI-SHTlOfcAHO, BIEII. 

Jb«™. Branch(16inilo-ll.|.lhl,rlv«» Rail 1 TlKhco 1 


■qnfldncn, an nmphllhwlro, *c„ nith acrffal 
CroMtheVomanoto 


(For the part Iroin Aqulln to Pcica 
SMnivwrMonltr.) 

EleM (Stat), 111* andeot «™tf. 



•. 11 DvcrlooXt the Ploniho, whkh tiibtldca 

Ino. Thin tait glreani eonmi down Monte 
otCDrno-lhohlghcmpilinoflherangscalleil 
laatitJIalia (Groat Rock of luly), snd thii 



KadlKb 



.11 (Mr. 



•ered irilh an 






Mont* SUvaiio (StnL) isfoiiuwci 
OutaL 

MS. Jnn 






lea4). 



KOXJTE 31. 
TWBl, to AqullA, BolmiHui, Popoli, CUett, 

peBCara, and CastaUumnare 



uid ThorwahlHn ; bovot*] oilier f bnrct 
^ Me. Hlcll la noted tor Iti breed of » 
aKn'. The plain aruuud havlnit been « 

I filehlj- cnltlvatcit with mnrhe^^ie^ vir 



'"I" I 0? the dweSngti" the old Mablnea. Hence ™C«r- 






Popoll ..."'.'.'.'.'.'. 



Hollua Ki 



nainia* and Froal^om 



AntrodocoiBtat.).' 



160 



BSAD8HAW*8 ITALY. 



Between SelladL OdYUft (Stat) and yiffllano 
(Stat.) the watershed is crossed. FroA Vigliano 
it Is 6| miles to 

A(|1llla (Stat), at the head of the Aterno, the 
capital of Abruzzi Ulteriore Primo, in a rich valley 
in the midst of some of the highest peaks of the 
Apennines — Monte Corbaro, M. Vellino, Delia 
Duchessa, M. Calvo, and M. Como, or Oran Sobso 
cP Italia, 9,680 feet high. Population, 19,027. It is 
a bishop's see, &c.,and a comparatively modern place, 
having been founded by the Emperor Frederick II., 
out of the ruins of Aveia and Amiternwn, and called 
Aquila after the imperial eagle. The strong Castle 
or citadel in the upper part of the town was built by 
Charles V., 1534. It was the second city in Naples 
and could muster 15,000 armed men; is walled 
round, and has eight out of its twelve Qates blocked 
up. It is pretty well built, though the streets are 
narrow and half the space inside is garden ground. 
It suffered from the earthquakes of 1688, 1703, and 
1706, which last swallowed 2,000 persons. There 
are two large squares, with fountains. Formerly 
It had 100 Churches, of which twenty-six remain, 
chiefly in the Gothic style. That of S. Bernar- 
dino da Siena was built by Cola della Amatrice, 
the sculptor and painter, and has a tomb of the 
saint, 1305. Among the other buildings are the 
Palazzo della Cittii; the Dragonetti and Torres 



[Section 2. 

Palaces; a College or Liceo Reale, Seminary, Hoe- 
pita), Theatre, Ac. At the Palazzo della Cittk- 
are interesting Roman inscriptions. Aquila i». 
noted for its sweetmeats and saffron. Many 
wealthy families reside here. The mutton, lamb/ 
pigs, ham, sausages, «fcc., of this neighbourhood, 
are all good. 

The ascent of the Gran Sasso can be made from 
here, but it is only adapted for tolerably robust 
constitutions. The Guide to the Gran Sasso 
d'ltalia, written by Dr. Abbate, and published in 
Rome, should be obtained. 

To Cclano on Lake Celano, 24 miles, by a moun- 
tain road, over Monte Vellino, 8,397 feet high, at 
the summit. It commands a wide prospect of this 
part of the Apennines. 

CELA170 (population, 8,599), with its old castle, 
was nearly swallowed up by an earthquake, 1695. 
The lake was drained, 1862. It gives name to 
Thomas of Celano, composer of the fine evangelical 
hymn "Dies Ira." It is now a station on the 
line from Solmona to Rome. 

From Aquila the road and rail descend th« 
Aterno to Solmona and Popoli. Thence to Chieti^ 
Pescara, and Castellammare (page 159) by rail; 
or to Capua and Naples, by road and rail. (Se« 
Route 33 for all these places.) 



E8. 



'. situation 
m in tho 
•ho winter 
partment, 
x>m, and 
i; service 
■ardf from 
ma above 
to 10 lire, 
asily ob- 

tho franc 
Five cen- 
h. Soldo 
roign=26 
lang^. 

n libra, or 

ily. The 

I gallons, 
is 11-63 
is 8796 

:hs of the 

I. 

y station 

Agna. 



a Hones. 


lADdAn. 


Diy. 


N^ 


L. 0. 

a 


L. c. 
280 


• • 


• • 


260 


280 


8 
070 


800 
085 


4 
080 


• • 

• • 


860 
086 


4 



cents, in 
«ry extra 
lore than 
rd person 



^ 



160 

• 

Belweei 
(Stat) th- 

it is 6| ml 

Aqulla 

capital of . 
in the mil 
Apenninci 
Duchessa, 
cPItalia, 9,1 
a bishop' ss 
having be€ 
out of the 1 
Aquila afte 
or citadel i: 
Charles V. 
and could 
round, and 
up. It is p 
narrow anc 
It suffered 
1706, which 
are two lar 
it had 100 C 
chiefly in 1 
dino da Si- 
the sculptoi 
saint, 1305. 
Palazzo de! 



ROME, OR ROMA, 



IKOXJTE SJ3. 

EOtola, or Albnghl:— Mut of th* faotcl 

•ttuted In the Engllib qnarUr, bttwsan pi 

: 4*1 Popolo, PiiEzndl BpiEUM, VUContloLCJ, 



II Ilea Brltaimiqtui; 
il new hDDw on ihe 



Itm Loorre; Holi 
lijiKlo-AnDerlcB nf 
■"-; HoleldaJ 
ttlifae: Hoi 



Loodra; Hotal Moll 



LoOKingi In prl.iilr liQUK> ura rerj 
li.>sLinl=id. EriBllsh. Lira =:9Jd. EpgUahl 



Ironaptr, necordlnff lo tho ralo rf aiclianSe. 
WeU;litB and HMUmrsE.— Tho Boman Ubn. nr 
' '■ ' Ji«=l3oi.Eogliihiinlr. Th8 



WeU;ht 



leta. Tho barilo I 
ID palm {l-IC 



InchM. Tboltoir. 

EnElt.h; or, 87 EiigLlih milcjc 
Omnibuses and Cabs.— ' 







162 



BRADSHAW'S ITALY. 



[Section S. 



Dnrlnf^the eight days of Carnival the price must 
be settled beforehand when hired for the Corso. 

Well arranged Omnibuses run frequently- 
through various parts of the city; fare, 15c. 

British EmbaBSy, Via Vcnti Settembre. 
British Contnl, 96, Piazza S. Glaudio. 

AmeiHcan Legation and Consulate General, 13, 
Via Nazionale. French Embcusy, Palazzo Farneso. 
Oerman, Palazzo Caffarelli. Austrian^ Palazzo 
Vouezia. /Spanish, in Piazza di Spagna. 

CbxacheB.— English Church^AM Saints, Via 
Babaino, with a regular chdplain. The new 
eharch of Holy Trinity, in Piazza S. Silvestro. 
St. Faul*8 American Episcopal Church, Via Na- 
zionale (by Street), 1876. Several new churches 
for various denominations have sprung up Inside 
the city, from which they have hitherto been 
excluded. See Bradshaw's Continental Guide. 

Post OfflC0, Piazzas. Silvestro; open 8 a.m. to 
9-80 p.m. There is a room for writing letters, 
where paper and envelopes can be obtained. 

Telegraph Office at the General Post Office 
and at the railway station; always open. Branch 
offices close at 9-0 p.m. Word rate of 40 cents, 
to England, in addition to a fixed charge of 1 lira. 

BaUwayS.— To Frascati, in 45 minutes: to 
Civita Vecchla and Leghorn, vid the Marrmmo or 
coast line ; to Naples, vid Velletrl, Frosinone, and 
Gaserta, in 5^ hours; to Ancona, in 8 hoars, vid 
Orto, Teml, and Foligno; to Florence, in 6 hours, 
vid Orte, Orvieto, Chiusi, Terontola, and Arezzo 
(Route 26) Stazione Centrale, Piazza dellcTcrme. 
There is another station, little nscd, at Trastevere. 
(See Bradshaw's Continental Guide.) 

Tram (by steam) to Tivoli, IJ hour; to Ciam- 
pino, Ac. 

Steam Communication :— 

Fraissinot and Co.'s French Steamers ; Agency 
Offlce, 48, Piazza Nicosia. Genoa to Marseilles. 

The Anchor Line, Naples to New York direct. 
Naples to Alexandria (Ilrcct. Agent in JRome, 
Mr. S. R. Forbes, 93, Via Babuino. 

ProfesaiOBal and Business Directory:— 

Medical.— Dr. Thomson, M.D., 00, Via de' Duo 
Macelli. Dr. Drnmmond, M.D., 3, Piazza di Spagna. 
Dr. Young, M.D., 20, I'iazza di Spagna. Dr. 
C. Spurway, 48, Via Condottl. Dr. Miles, M.D., 
Via Sallustiana, E. Dr. Gason, F.C.P. Dub., 
physician and accoucheur, 65, Via Babaino. 

Surgeon Dentists.— Dr. Curtis, 93. Piazza dl 
Spagna. Dr. Chamberlain, of Boston, 51, Piazza 
di Spagna. Dr. Van Martcr, Palazzo Marotti, 
Via Nazionale. 

Ekgliih Chemists. — Sinimbcrghi, Evans, & Co., 
5, Via Condottl. II. Roberts A Co., 88 and 87, 
Piazza S. Lorenzo in Lucina. See Adrt. 

English and American Bankers. — Haquay and 
Hooker, 20, Piazza di Spagna, in correspondence 
with Messrs. Maquay and Pakonham, Florence. 

Bankers andCommistion Agents. — ^A. Macbean and 

Co., 81, Piazza S. Silvestro. Messrs. Giorgi and 

Biscossi, 113, Via Frattina. F. M. Ilandley, 

A5 rjajfza d/Spagna. As false coIdb and notes are 

yyy cJrcaJatJon It Ja best to have recotWBO to respect- 



able bankers, as above. National paper money 
is taken at full value at all public offices and 
railway stations. 

Photographs. — Alinarl nnd Cook, 90, Corso, 
CHpecially for originals from old masters, statuei, 
and views 

Forbes" s Tourist Offlce, 98, Via Babuino, and 
office of the TourisVs Directory. Agent for the 
Anchor lino. Mr. Russell Forbes, historical and 
archaiological guide, conducts visitors to the 
museums, galleries, and antiquities of Rome and 
its environs. Terms moderate. Tickets for the 
Palatine Hill to l>e had at the a))0ve address. 

English L^rary and Reading Roam. — Piale, Noa. 1 
and 2, Piazza di Spagna. The largest rabscrip- 
tion Library in Rome. Bookseller and Stationer, 
Photographs, &c. 

Clubs :— English Club.— Held at No. 78, Vis 
della (Jroco. Anglo-American Club, 11, Via Con- 
dotti. Italian Alpine Club, 26, Via College 
Romino. 

British Academy. — 22a, Via S. Nicolo da Tolen* 
tino. For a List of Studios of Sculptors and 
Artists, see Forbes's Tourists' Directory^ issiiod 
regularly during the season. 

British and American Archaeological Society of 
Rome, 76, Via della Croco. 

Archajologlcal Association, 93, Via Babaino. 

ThezXTeB.— Argentina, or Comunale, Via Torre 
Argentina. 

Va//e.— Drama, Via Tcatro Valle. 

Costami, Via Nazionale. 

(See daily papers, especially the Italic, published 
in French.) 

Saddle Horses.— 300 to 500 Uro a month. 
Races at Prati Fisceli, in the Campagna. 

Galleries : — [The attendants expect a gratuity. 
Where orders are required, they can generally be 
obtained at the Libraries. Only the Capitol and 
the Kirchcr Museum are open on Sundays.} 

Academy of St. Luke. — Via BoncIIa, orders to 
be had at the Hotel, or a Ranker's, or the office 
near the Capitol ; open dally, except Saturday, 
from 9 to 3. Close<l In July and August. 

Barberini. — Via Quattro Fontane, oimju daily, 
from 12 to 4. 

Borghese. — In the Casino at Villa BorghesA, 
outside Porto del Popolo; Tuesday, Thursday, 
and Saturday; 1 lira. 

Capitol. — Open to the public every day. Half- 
a lira, from 10 to 8. Sundays and holidays, free. 

Colonna. — Piazza dci HS. Apostoli,* Palasae 
Colonna; Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, from 
11 to 3. 

Corsini. — Via della Longara, at Palazzo Corsinif 
Mondaiy, Thursday, and Saturday, from 10 to 9. 
At Easter, daily. 

Doria. — ^Via del Corso, at Palazzo Doria ; open 
on Tuesdays and Fridays, from 10 to 2. If these 
are Festivals, the day following. 

Famese. — On Saturday; si>ocial order from 
French ¥^m\)aa>y , \oe«A.«di \v«tT« . 



Rente 82.] 



MODBBK BOMB. 



I6d 



GetHeria (fArte liodema. Via Nftzionale; open 
daily, except Sunday and Wednesday, 9 to 8. 50c. 

KirduHano, and Mediaval Mtueum (Collegrlo 
Romano). — Dafly, 10 to 8; 1 lira each. Holidays, 
free. 

Lateran Mweum.—O'pen daily, from 9 a.m. 

RotpigfioH. — On the Qnirinal; open on Wednes- 
days and Saturdays, from 9 to 3. Gnido's Anrora. 

Spada. — Palazzo Spada; by special introdnc- 
tlon from an influential personage. 

Torlonia Museum. — Cfosed at present. 

Buoncampagni-Museum. — Via Veneto. Tues- 
days, Thursdays, and Saturdays, 9 to 12, 2 to 5. 
Permesso from the Embassy. 

Vlllaa:— Vt'Wa 5orgfAe»«.— Tuesday, Thursdny, 
and Saturday, after 1, free; Casino on the same 
days, 1 to 4, 1 lira. 

Vttla Medici (othenrise the French Academy). — 
Open Wednesdays and Saturdays, 8 to 11, 2 till 
dusk, I lira. 

Villa Pam/ili-Doria. — Open, for two-horse 
carriages only, on Monday and Friday aftemot ns. 

Villa LudoviH. Casino deir Anrora. Before 
9 a.m. 

VUla Albani. — Closed at present. 

Wdkonski. — Wednesday and Saturday, 2to dusk. 

Palace of the Caesars. — Daily, 1 lira. Smiday, free. 

Vatican and St. Peter's.— Fortran Oalleries 
and Museum, daily, 10 to 8. Apply at the bronze 
door right-hand colonnade, St. Peter's. Museums 
and Etruscan Gallery closed on Thursdays. 
Saturdays all closed. Dome of St. Peter's^ open 
from 8 to 11, and Mosaic Factory^ by order at 
8, via della Sacrestia. The Catacombs of St. 
Agnese, by order. Ifo other orders required; they 
are always given gratis. For audience of H.H. the 
Pope, by written application to Monsignor Macchi, 
at the Vatican. 

Public OfflceB— Ministries.— -HiMne OJlee, 
Pal. Braschi. /V>reism,Consultli Palace. Finance, 
Old Convent of S. Maria-Sopra-Minerva. War, 
Piazza delle Terme, Marine, Convent of 8. Agos- 
tino. Justice, Palazzo di Firenze. Commerce, Via 
della Stamperia. 

Week at Rome. — Those who are unable to 
devote more than a week to Rome, may perhaps 
find the following suggestions useful. By carry- 
ing out these directions, they will be able to sec 
Rome very well within that time. It will be import- 
ant, however, to adhere closely to the order given 
below; many of the most interesting palaces and 
villas, containing the choicest collection of art- 
treasures, being only opened to the public once or 
twice a week. When a fee is required, 50 cents, 
will be sufficient for a party of two Over that 
number, it will be advisable to give a lira. 

Monday.— Church of St. Carlo in Corso, St. 
Peter's, Vatican Museum and Gallery (this alone 
will occupy several hours). The gardens on the 
Pincian Hill are worth seehig. They are within a 
few minutes' walk of the principal hotels, and 
form a delightful erveniujr's drive. 

TussDAT sboald he devoted to tho galleries of 
paintiags in the following palaces; and, as tliey 



close at between 1 and 3, it will be advisable to 
start early. Visit the following in succession : — 
Palazzo Doria, Palazzo Colonna, Villa Albani. 

Wbdnesdat. — Pantheon, Column of Trajan, 
Capitol Museum, Roman Forum, and Arches of 
Septimius Severus, Titus, and Constantine, the 
Colosseum, Lateran Museum and Church (with 
the two striking chapels of Condni and Torlonia), 
St. Maria Maggiore. 

Thursday.— Terme di Diocleziano, St. Paul's 
Basilica (a magnificent church, erected at the 
cost of about one million sterling), Pyramid of C. 
Cestius, Temple of Hercules. 

Fhiday. — Mr. Forbes's Excursion. Start early 
iin tramway for Tivoli (the ancient Tibur), 18 miles 
from Rome. Stop an hour en route at the Villa 
Adriana, one of the finest ruins in Italy. 

Satubday. — Palazzo Barberini, Cfhurches of 
(Jesti and S. Maria-Sopra-Minerva. Mr. Forbes's 
Excursions every other Saturday. 

Observation. —Nearly all the churches of Rome 
are worth seeing; and none should be passed over. 

A carriage will be absolutely necessary on 
Wednesday or Friday. 

*Cllief Objects of Notice ore as below (those 
belonging to ancient Rome are in Italics). Se& 
Forbes's Tourist's Directory, and Mr. J. P. Parker's 
Archaeology of Rome, with 3,300 Historical Photo- 
graphs. An interesting book is The Marvels <tf 
Rome, an English version of the (Latin) Mediasval 
Guide Book. 



Piazza del Popolo, page 

169. 
Pincian Hill, page 165. 
Sistine Chapel, page 194. 
Church of Trinitk de' 

Monti, page 192. 
Cappuccini Church, page 

184. 
Piazza Barberini, page 

168. 
Villa Ludovisi,page 206. 
Oarden o/Sallust, p. 306. 
Piazza de' Termini, page 

170. 
Church of Santa Maria 

dogli Angeli, page 187. 
Palace of the Quirinal 

and Gardens, page 199. 
Church of Santa Maria 

Maggiorc, page 181. 
Church of St. Giovanni 

Lateranoand Museum, 

page 180. 
Church of S. Croce in 

Gerusalemme, p. 185. 
Clandian Aqueduct, pages 

170 and 210. 
TempleofMinervaMedim, 

page 216. 
Co(os8etim,^«t%ei IVl. 
Meta Sudan*., ^^.^^IV^- 



Palatine Hill Bxeam-. 

tions^ page 214. 
Church of St. Gregorio, 

page 186. 
Church of St. Stefano 

Rotondo, page 192. 
Baths of Titus, page 211. 
Baths of Caracalla, page 

211. 
Tomb o/5bipu>, page 218. 
Catacombs, page 219. 
Columbas'ia, page 218. 
Gate of St. Sebastian, 

page 171. 
Fountain ofEgeria, page- 

214. 
Appian Way, page 219. 
Arch of Janus Quadri- 

frons, page 210. 
Cloaca Maxima^ page 212 
TempleofVesta, pago217. 
Bocca della Veritk, 168. 
Protestant Cemetery, 

page 193. 
Pyramid of Coins Sestius, 

page 218. 
Church of St.PaoIo fuori 

leMura, page 182. 



Arch 0/ Cou«tttt^^we,\^^%A^C«^5^^^JJ^.^.*tf*:k 



164 



BBADSHAW'S ITALY. 



[Section 2. 



leiy, and Mosaic Man- 
ufactory), page 193. 

Capitol, page 200. 

Hospital of St. Spirito, 
poge 208. 

St. Onofrio, page 190. 

Pauline Fountain, page 
170. 

Villa DoriaPamfili,page 
206. 

Church of St. Pietro in 
Montorio, page 191. 

Church of St. Cecilia in 
Trastevere, page 184. 

Corsini Palace, page 203 

Palazzo Spada, page 205. 

Fountain of Trevi, poge 
170. 

Church of St. Pietro in 
Vincoli, page 191. 

Mamcrtine Prison, 214 



. Church of the Jesuits, 

page 185. 
Roman College, page 

207. 
Church of St. Andrea 

delle Valle, page 183. 
Doria Palace, page 203. 
Sciarra Palace, page 205. 
Borghese Palace, page 

202. 
Pantheotk, page 215. 
Mausoleum cif Augustus, 

page 217. 
St. Peter's, page 176. 
Tomb 0/ Hadrian (Cast el 

Sant' Angelo), p. 218. 
Santa Scala, 181. 
Vatican (including Sis- 
tine Chapel, Pauline 

Chapel, Museums, 

Library, Picture Gal- 

These are some of the principal sights in Rome, 
but there are many more which the visitor will 
have little difficulty in finding out. See " Rome" 
in the Index at the beginning. 

Roman Art. — Principal Roman Architects from 
the period of the Renaissance, or revival of modem 
art— (N.B. Our 15th century, here given, is the 
Italian 14th century ; and so on) : — 

16th century. — G. da Majano, B. Pintelli. 

16th century. — Bramante (died 1514), Songallo, 
Michael Angelo, B. Peruzzi, Raphael, G. Romano, 
Vignola, Ammanatl, G. della Porta, D. Fontana 
(died 1607). 

17th century.— C. Mademo (died 1629), F. Ponzio, 
G. Rainaldi, G. B. Soria, Bernini, Algardi, 
C. Rainaldi, G. A. de' Rossi (died 1695). 

18th century.— Fontana (died 1714), A. Galilei, 
Salvi, Fuga, Vanvitelli, C. Marchionni, R. Stem. 

Painters. — 16th century.— Raphael (the Trans- 
figuration); M. Angelo (the Last Judgment); 
G. Romano, G. Penni, P. del Vaga, G. da Udine, 
Garofalo, F. Zuccaro, D'Arpino, Caravaggio, An- 
nibale and Agostino Carracci. 

17th century. — Baroccio, Domenichino, Guido 
(the Aurora), Guercino, Lanfranco, A. Sacchi, 
C.Maratta, P.da Cortona, Claude, S.Rosa, Poussin. 

18th century. — P.Pannini, P. Battone, R. Mcngs. 

8&dptors. — Sansovino, B. Cellini, M. Angelo, 
G. della Porta, Bemini, A. Algardi, Canova. 

" Rome, in all her vast dimensions," says Men- 
delssohn, "lies before me, like an interesting 
problem, to enjoy ; but I go deliberately to work, 
dally selecting some different object appertaining 
to history. One day I visit the ruins of the 
ancient city ; another I go to the Borghese Gallery 

or to the Capitol — or to St. Peter's— or to the 

Vatican. Each day is thus made memorable, and, 

as I take my time, each object becomes forcibly 

and indelibly impressed on me. Just as Venice, 

rrUJr borpasi, reminded me of a vast monument — 

. Atf^ eraoibJJjigr modem palaces and the perpetual 

r^etoe/abrance of former Bplovdour, cauaing sad and ( 

a/M0oaaat sensationa^so doca the past of Home ' 



suggest the impersonation of history. Her monu- 
ments elevate the soul, inspiring solemn yet serene 
feelings ; and it is a thought fraught with exulta- 
tion that man is capable of producing creations 
which, after the lapse of a thousand years, still 
renovate and animate others." 

There is a great deal of second and third-rate 
painting and sculpture at Rome, which the experi- 
enced or fatigued visitor will soon learn to pass over ; 
but even inferior objects are sometimes of service as 
a foil to the best, by showing how some artists paint * 
or carve. In this Guide we have endeavoured to in- 
dicate every object worth notice, according to ita 
position and locality; recordhig all, or the sub- 
Ktance of all that is usually said of each, with its 
history ond present appearance. But these accounts 
muKt be taken with some reserve, since the history 
of many remains of antiquity, their names, sites, 
original appearance, &c., arc in dispute, and by no 
means attended with that certainty which the full 
and positive accounts given in grave authorities 
would lead one to'believe. The best plan is for 
the stranger to make himself well acquainted 
with their names and positions as here indicated, 
to read what is said of them by ordhiary guides, 
and then to turn to more critical writers, such as 
Forsyth and Brami, who classify their subjects, 
and view them according to their respective schools 
or styles, in chronological order; carefully weigh- 
ing them in the critical balance, and sifting the 
chaff from the wheat. 

Rome, or Roma, the capital of the Kingdom of 
Italy and the Catholic world, the seat of the Govern- 
ment of Italy and of the Pope's Court, formerly the 
capital of the Roman and Westem Empires, Ac, 
stands on the Tiber, 15 miles from the sea, on the 
undulating table land of the Campagna, or Agro 
Romano, on a site from 80 feet to 200 feet high, 
the greater part on the Latin or east side of 
the river. The famous Seven Hills are ridges 
of moderate height, which, when covered with 
buildhigs, and the valleys between them filled up, 
are hardly more discemible than the hills of Lon- 
don. These are the Quirinal, Viminal, Esquilinc, 
Coelian, Aventine, Palatine, and Capitoline Hills; 
of which the (Quirinal and Esquiline are the 
highest, about 200 feet. 

TheoldRomancity occupied the Coelian, Aventine, 
Palatine, and Esquiline Hills lor the most part ; the 
Palatine and Aventine being in the middle of it. 
These four hills lie to the south, but have been 
abandoned for the plain of the Campus Martins, to 
the north, where the modem city now for the most 
part stands. This wan an open, grassy field in the 
Republican period, used for military exercises; on 
which, under the Emperors, temples, baths, theatres, 
Ac, rose in every direction: one of the earliest 
being the Pantheon. Modem Rome may be said 
to begin where ancient Rome ended, and to be built 
ir.t of its ruins; in other words, the Capitoline, or 
Campidoglio, serves to mark the division between 
the Old City and its ruins on the south and east, 
from the Heyr CVVy, lo l\vft wotlYvwcvd 'Wftwt^ wUm^ 
both sides ol the tVvet. 'Y>as4 -v«\«tKA%^ ^\\'vyx^'«A<^ 



Route S3.] HODBS 

c^>lIUIm^obeli»k^,»ndtoaIlUlnIll^e^ntheillh<ll.l[ell 

■ Roman nrtiat (1387) as •conunonpUco. shabby, 

The PLnclsn. Vatican, and .lanlculnm HIIH were 
cncloseit at a ]at«r dale. The Plttalan Hill, or 
Coins tlortu!<.^^^^ lo tha north-east, was tha alta 
of Uoniitian'i Villa, aalliut's Villa, and Luculliu'i 
Qatdena, It waa coOTertod Into a flne promciiadB 
by the French, and Iwki on the Flazis del l>opolo. 
tho Bocgbem Qardons, clly. Ac. It Is Iho H;de 

Bmmanuel. The o 



iiicludcB St. Peter-a and the Vatican Palace, In thai 
part called Ihe Borgo. behind which, hut out^de 


a mansion here, which bad been token from him. 


(17M, WIS. 1S6T. and Anally ISSl) the plaoe vaa 


the wall, tho hllla rise *60 feet hieh. Tho nclgh- 
bonrhood or the Vallcan (so called from the Valal 
was noted for Its bad air and bad wlue, even In 


hill," >a;a Porayth. "and not wen sin bran an 
boliiesonasnrfacewhleh was once crowded with 


usually called Mon[orio,i.a.Mon.Aurcns, from the 
ealonr ol the goll. and la the highest In Rome 
within the walls. The siege o{ 1848 vat on this aide. 
Comhig by road (rom the north. Boms is entered 
by the line Porta del Ponolo, under the Pinclan 


pape 3U. The visitor shonld pnt himself under tha 

guidance of Mr. It. Fo^bea-tlcket^ 4 11k each. 

B. 'J'lw (iirfrtM/ifiH, alBO called Monte Csvallo, 

(Vom two marble horses, still eitant In the Plana 


Hill, leadhie to the Piazza dl Spagna (the English 
quarter). Via CondottI, and the Coraa. 

Monte Testaeolo {lain, potsherds) la an artlBclal 
mound of rubbish, chiefl)- broken pottery, cl«« to 
Porta 3. Paolo, at lbs south comer of the walli 


4. The <T«KiiJi MH (Cello) w»i* (ormerly an oak 
the latter a round building. Tho Laleran Church 






THE SS7ZH KILLS. 

Temple o( Jupller, Is now marked by (he An 





Onthcac 


Tarpeian Roek^ 




Bcribed "Qui se 




now onljlp (0 


thlsh, a 



In the Temple of Jupiter (Are Crell Church), that 
Ihe Idea o( writing the Decline and Fall at (he City. 
Brat started to my mind." This hill was, anciently. 

Fatal Oracle^ Ilia aeaf otlbe Tncelar DelUea ol 
lie smplre. Mod Ihe Milt oliaaaj Mmplea and altars 
O/Hll thcte nolMngreaiaSat ^^t tlie solid toufttiii- 



tlons of certain building the alablei of the Sena- 
to^lhe F.squlHne, under the name of Iha Golden 



Cicero made an Oratkin, "Pro Domo," on behalf of 



It was formerly eOTcred with the Tem- 

otCacuswasimtberlre/aldenflhehlll! 
Vimiual Hill, near the railway tennlnua, 
the Quirlnal and Esqnlltoie, Is ao called 

he c'h^h'J's'a''nt7Mari/^^l?ASseli; 

EtqaiUm Hill, between the Colosseum 
a Maria Magglore. Hero Majcanas bad 

od for burning Ihe dead before depositing 

enent walla form an Irregular polygon, 
e begun byAurellan. a.d. SIl. In place of 



166 



BRADSHAW'B ITALY. 



[Section 2. 



of mbbiili, bat inside they are in some places 50 
feet hi^h; are without a ditch, but retain many 
towers and bastions. They are pierced by eleven 
gates, at which are bureaux of customs and gen- 
darmerie. There were over twenty Gates in the 
old walls. Under the Empire the public ways 
were lined with houses, and Nero, who was Kreat 
in his projects, intended to have inclosed half the 
Campagna within the city walls. 

HUNICIPAL DISTRICTS. 

Rome is divided into fourteen Rioni, so called 
(since 1748) from the ancient Regionos of Augus- 
tus, with which, however, they do not correspond 
in name or boundaries. 

1. Gampo Marzo (Campus Martins), near Porta 
del Popolo.— Here are Piazza del Popolo, Piazza 
di Spagna, Pincian Gardens, Villa Medici, Trinitk 
del Monte Church, Borghese Palace. 

2. Colonna, from the Aurelian (Column. — Part of 
Campus Martins, Piazza Colonna, Curia Innoceu- 
ziana, Casino Ludovisi. 

9. Trevi, on the Pincian and Qnirinal, where 
three roads join.— (Qnirinal Palace, SS. Apostoli 
Church, the Torlimia, Colonna, and Barberiui 
Palaces, Trevi Fountain. 

4. Sant* Eustachio, in the lower town. — Churches 
of S. Eustachio, La Sapienza, S. Andrea dell a 
Valle, Valie Theatre, 8. Luigi Church, S. Carlo dei 
.Catenari. 

fi. Pigna, in the middle of the lower town, ft'om 
the pine trees once here.— Pantheosi, Church of S. 
Ignazio, Doria, Venezia, Altieri, Minerva Palaces. 

6. Ponte, in the north-east, near Ponte 8. Angelo. 

7. Parione, in the north-east. — Piazza Navona, 
Canoeliaria, Campo dei Fiori. 

8. Regola, near the east bank of the river, said 
to be a corruption of areola, or arenula, from the 
sands of the river. — Famese and Spada Palaces. 

9. 8ant* Angelo in Peschiera, between the Capi- 
tol and tlic river, on the west side, the smallest 
region of all.— Theatre of Marcel lus, Orsinl. and 
Mattel Palaces. 

10. Monti, the largest, on the site of ancient 
Rome, north-east part. — Includes the Esquiline, 
Viminal, Baths of Titus and Diocletian, St. John 
Lateran, Santa Maria, St. Peter in Vincoli, Palazzo 
Rospigliosi. 

11. Campitelli, south-east part of the same site. 
— Capitol ine and Palatine Hill«, Forum, Colosseum. 

12. Ripa, south-west part of the same site, near 
the river side. — Baths of Caracalla, Aventine, 
M. Testaccio, Temple of Vesta, Santa Maria in 
Cosmedin Church. 

18. Trastev'Sre, on the west side of the Tiber. — 
Janiculum, Porto di Ripa Grande, 8. Pietro in Mon- 
torio, 8. Onofrio, Corsini, Salviati, and Famesina 
Palaces, Villa Lanti, Acqua Paolo Fountain. 

14. Borgo. oa the west side, or CittJk Leonina. — 
A, Peiar'a, the Vatican, Castel 8. Angelo, 8. SpiHto 
-figja'/auj fmlMzzo CHrmnd. 

^2S^^^^-^ ^^ '^' municipal dUtrieU Rome 

SSSStJ- AiS^fT^lf'^'*'^*^ Tte.;-Tbe Lower 
^ or t^uMjrgmrt, between the eoBtem WJls, th« 



Tiber, and Capitol ; Upper Town, along the east 
hills; and the town across the river, or Trasterere, 
on this west bank. 

I. The Lower Town contains the former Campus 
Martins and Campus Tiberinus; the Corso, 
1 mile long from Piazza del Popolo to the foot of 
the Capitol; Piazza di Spagna; Caff^ del Greco, or 
Artists' Club ; Ripetta Landing and Ferry; Piazza 
Colonna and Antonine Pillar; Curia Innocenziaua, 
or Courts of Justice ; Palazzo Borghese : Corea, 
or Amphitheatre of Augustus; Ctdfh di Fontana 
di Trevi, or Antiquarians' Club; Cafffe di Monto 
Citorio, or Club of Men of I^etters; Palazzo di 
Venezia; Struda del Gesu and its (^urch ; Piazza 
Navona, one of the largest open places; La 
Sapienza University; Pantheon and La Bfinerva 
Church; Palazzo Famese; Strada Giulia; San 
Bartolommeo Island and Hospital of Ben Fratelli, 
so called from their motto, Fate bene^ Fratelli, 
*' Do good, Brcthron ; " Santa Maria in Cosmedin, 
one of the oldest churches; C<dian hill and its 
churches ; Lateran Church and Palace ; Monte 
Testaccio; C!olosseum. 

II. The Upper Town, or east part of the city, on 
the slope of the Pincian and Qnirinal, consists 
chiefly of palaces, villas, diurches, convents, with 
their courts and gardens. It contains the Qnattro 
Fontane, at the intersection of two main streets, 
one from the Qnirinal to Porta Pia, the other from 
Piazza Barberini to Santa Maria Maggiore; Pro- 
menade, on the Pincian; Trinit&de' Monti Church; 
the Via Sistina; Palazzo Barberini ; Villa Piom- 
bino; Qnirinal Pala'ce, on Monte Cavallo; Santa 
Maria Maggiore Church; Campo Vaccino, or 
Forum; CapitoI,or Campidoglio; Trajan's Column. 

III. The third division, on the west bank, or 
Etruscan side, of the Tiber, is generally called 
Trastevere (ix.^ trans-Tiber) ; but the Trastcvere 
proper is confined to the south part beyond the 
Aurelian wall, where the Roman slaves, and the 
barracks for soldiers and sailors, were quartered ; 
now ttie seat of the manufacturing population. 
Here are the tol>acco factory, potteries, and wax- 
candle works; the last an important branch of 
trade in Rome. Trastcvere is divided from the 
Borgo (round the Vatican) by walls and gates, and 
joined to it by a road called the Lungara. This 
division contains St. Peter's and the Vatican 
Palace; Inquisition (now a barrack); the now 
Piazza Pia; S. Angelo Castle and Prison; 8. 
Spirito Hospital and Cemetery, open on All Souls* 
and other days; Salviati Palace and the Botanie 
Gardens ; Via Lungara, along the Tiber; Janicu- 
lum Hill; Palazzo Ciorsini; S. Calisto and S. Fran- 
cesca a Ripa Churches; Villa Pamfili, and its 
promenade; Acqua Paolo Fountain, the largest in 
Rome, of which it commands a good view: Santa 
Maria in Trastevere Church; S. Michele House of 
Industry; Ripa Grande Quay, Lighthouse, and 
Custom House ; Porta Portese. In one part, called 
the Lungarcfcta, \a \\iftTn«&\»^al iawvc of Eveno, 
Count of AngulQi\«rl^ uqv -umA. sa % ta«X»r| Vst 
enamels and pa!Uii«^ «\Ma. 



BI7SBTISEB. 

The Tiber fTtbtrit, or TmertJ riiei nndcr tbc 



AeripiH<I) np to A.D. SOO—Pon) AnnUiu. Bp to 
M«.— I'Qnn VKlaitUduDi, np to 7K.-4iid titet- 



£ic^ atlheKlpfltn.Ihcreirenoiiiinyi ■luiiE Itt 
buiki. There lire two porta, or [jindlnit-plBee«. 



Aogi^ Brtdge. Hen 






ndcnt roni 
. TlMMher 



reietl 



buiki. In lUO, I 



ce deacjlbeisn iDTUidatioD 



briilKC, whlcb wn> Sret Iji 
EnmrdtntuBoi^rble-ftiroFedmybvAimiH- 
bnlU bj Flue in, «id Oreffori- lln., nod 
■ok™ down. Tbl»linowa««)eoUt«l*re- 

bf tbe Dsw Pmie BntiUo. The Clous 

nndsr tbe ArentlDe. near Porta Trlgcmlni ; 

m-eiirs uen u loir water near ■ wtndnitll. 

lige at Rome : built lint ol 

AdbdMiu, 



near ■ wtndnitll. 
n«; builiaijt " 
«ood(rabllelnB)byAn™MitcllUi lheno(Btona,i 
I ihreeirclic^byk.finlMiuLepiiluii, the eenic 



nails came down 10 11 Ihrungh Porta Miuuela, in 
' Via della Mjinnorata. fAclii^ Elpa (jruide, and 
nnoj b; Via delta Balarla. 



Tbere an nine bHdEes, me a injiicntlon, 
PnUt Mar^trUa (1889). between tbe Vallun and 
PlaiHdel Popfrfo qnnrten. Fimli Sam' An^o li 
tbe Pani.£ltna of Hadrian. »lieblly reMorcd. nnder 

tho rinr hslDgMt feet. Pone iGlIni waa bnlli 
byHadriuital«MI*eroMtlie rlrer to hie Man«- 
lenm an* Clrcna. 

PimU. amt, tm ttat loag, rsbnllt, 147e, ' 
am- IT., oa Ibe titt of tbe brldgs colled P< 




■ b^ tt* ii!i\iBn.\*. 



, or aDrUi-«tut wind, blowi, II 

it right; coren tha fonnUln. 
freeio. tha dykei. 






qultoei, ante, And Bpidor3j9 very tonnteDtin^. 

will n 



which will not al 

Sit* or doabiB u 
Imnoy la drlvai 






[Section S. 

Btttt, now d*- 
een Via dalU 



' rounded by old clothea, old Iron, beapi of Mtien, 

, and nboniliiatliniB uDDtterabla."— <Uiaa Citlow'i 
StilMns RanMciJ Om the gaXt wat a crucifix. 
! wlthtbetext;— 'Alldaylonghavelunlctaedfonh 
I myhanda unto a disobedlentand galnsaylngpsoplB." 
,' The Sjna^Bue waa onca a Clirlitlai] church. 



dpltoualy; 



fat T\lt AHi°ln Via Na' 
iirncka and Mllltaiy H 



SQUABBS. 



il and ™.t IWely tt 
Inwiteqiallyanlniat. 



loiphlne cAirylng a large a 



throngh tho city,' yl..i— the Via dl RiMlla and i ?/'''S^"' ("".'L* f'u"?' V*/ "" J^"""!.'."? 
Via del Babnlno, m th* right and left o( the [,7„';j^'^J^ a ma'hie'mouth ^1n fi^l ol'th 



Popolo and down the Con 
ot Ihe people, who doH t 
ate caught by- thalr own 



Ladlei ifaDDld then avoid the Cono. 

The principal Boman dHv« are In the Cor«) 
tmtOdelha Parts dtl Pi>fwH and the roitaPlai 
■fl'.^"^*° ■*■"''' "" P'reoSeglnABtarrbariUt 



Uarcni AanUai COlDmn (<n ColoaiA, tTom which 
the place M ntW w IV toVwai* laioft's \»owBft4i\ 



Roate 32.] 



MOBBBN BOMB. 



169 



a fountain, by Delia Porta; the Chigi, Piorabino, 
and Bracadoro Palaces. A portico of twelve mar- 
ble pillars (from the ancient Etruscan city of Yeii) 
marks the old Post Office. 

Piazza Farnese faces the Famese Palace, near 
Piazza Navona. Two granite basins from the 
Baths of Caracatia stand here. 

Piazza di S. Giovanni in Laterano^ facing the 
Lateran Church and Palace, at the south end of Via 
in Merulana. Here are the Obelisk of Constantius, 
from Thebes, and the Baptistery of Constantine. 

Piazza di S. Maria Maggiore^ facing that church, 
under the Esquiliue, at the north end of Via In 
Merulana. In the midst is a marble pillar from 
the Basilica of Constantine, placed here 1614. 
Behind the church is an Obelisk from the mauso- 
leum of Augustus. 

Piazza di Santa Maria in Campo Marzo, so called 
from the small Church of the CcHiceziono di Maria. 

Piazza delta Minerva, near the Domhiicah Church 
of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, which occupies the 
site of the Temple of Minerva. It is adorned by a 
marble elephant, erected in 1667 by Bernini, on 
the back of which is a small obelisk from the 
famous temple of Isis. 

Piazza di Monte Cavallo^ or Qnirinal, facing the 
Quirinal Palace. So called from the colossal 
statues of the Horse Tamers, which once adorned 
the Baths of Constantine ; ascribed to Phidias 
and Praxiteles, but with better reason supposed to 
be of the time of the Roman Emperors. In the 
midst is an Obelisk of red granite, placed here in 
1786; also a grr&nite basin fountain, transplanted 
from the Forum by Pins' VII. The palace of the 
Consulta is on one side, near the Rospigliosi Palace, 
which contains Guido's Aurora. 

Piazza di Monte dtorio, facing the Curia Inno- 
cent! ana, now the Houses of Parliament. The 
name comes from Citatorum, or Citatorinm, 
because the Centuries were cited to meet here by 
the criers. The red granite Obelisk in the midst 
was brought from Heliopolis to serve as a gnomon 
to mark the time in the Campus Martins, and 
transported hither in 1789, by Pius VI. 

*Piazza Navona, now tlie Circo Agonale, one of 
the largest and most handsome in Rome, on the 
site of the Circus Agonalis of Alexander Severus, 
of which it takes the oblong form, as well as the 
name, by a corruption of agone, a fight; thus 
nagone, nagona, navona. The houses are built on 
the foundations of the seats which surrounded it. 
A market was held here, but is now transferred to 
Campo Flore as a promenade. Formerly on Satur- 
days, in August, it was converted into a shallow 
lake, for public amusement, by letting out the water 
from the fountains ; when the people drove through 
in carriages. The Fountains (fed by Acqua 
Vergine) are by Bernini, two being composed 
of tritons and dolphins, while the centre one is 
a large marble Basin, with a miniature rock in the 
midst, from which the waters flow in the direction 
of four statues, dedicated to a tirer, in each quarter 
of the fflobe, viz., the DanabOf Nile, Ganges, and 
Za Plata. That of the Nile is oorered with a veil, 






by way of allusion to the mystery of its source (now 
dispelled by the discovery of modem travellers) ; 
but it is said, by way of a joke against Bernini, 
that the statue hides its face from the facade of 
St. Agnes' Church opposite, the work of Borromini. 
The Egyptian Obelisk over the fountain was brought 
from the Circus of Maxentius, on the Via Appia, in 
1651. The Pamfili-Doria and Braschi Palaces are 
towards the south extremities of the Piazza. 
There is here also the little Agonizzanti Chnrchf 
in which public prayers were offered for a male- 
factor's soul, before his execution. 

Piazza del Pantheon^ fachig the Pantheon. The 
Fountain, by O. Lunghi, supports a small Egyptian 
Obelisk, placed here 1711, by Clement XI. 

Piazza di Pasquino, near the south end of Piazza 
Navona, so called from an anonymous mutilated 
statue at the comer of the Braschi Palace, which 
took its name from Pasquhio, a satirical tailor who 
lived hard by, and f^om which we got the word 
"pasquinade." Pasquino (the statue) used to play 
at question and answer with Marfoiio, another 
statue which stood near the Arch of Severus, but is 
now placed in the Capitol. 

Piazza Pia, named after Pius IX., is situated 
between the Bridge of San Angelo and St. Peter's, 
adorned with a fountain on Ionic columns. 

Piazza di Pietra, facing the Dogaua di Terra 
(or Exchange), with remains of a Temple of 
Neptune. 

Piazza di S. Pietro in Vatieano. (See St . Peter's. ) 

Picuza della Pilotta, the site of a portico to the 
Baths of Constantine. 

Piazza del PopolO, inside the Porta del Popolo, 
by which the traveller enters Rome, coming from the 
north, on the Via Flaminia, near the Protestant 
Church. It is decorated with semicircular ter- 
races, statues, &c, by Valadier, in the reign of 
Pius VII., and opens on the east side to the Pincian 
Gardens. At the centre is a granite Egyptian 
Obelisk, brought from the Campus Martlus, in 1689, 
by Fontana, who designed the Lion fountain at the 
base. The fine Church of Santa Maria del Popolo 
is close to the gate. From here, three main streets 
diverge, viz.. Via del Babuino, to the Quirinal; 
the Corso, to the Capitol and Forum; Via di 
Ripetta, to Piazza Navona and the river. At their 
junction are the twin churches, Santa Maria in 
Monte Santo and Santa Maria de' Miracoli. Fire- 
works here on the Festa dello Statute, the first 
Sunday in June. 

Piazza delle Quattro Fontane^ at the meeting of 
four roads, near the Quirinal. 

Piazza della Botonda, facing the Pantheon, be- 
tween the Corso and Piazza Navona (See alcove). 

Piazza di Spagna; so called from the Palace 
of the Spanish Embassy. Here, and in the neigh- 
bouring streets, are many hotels and caffbs, and in 
Via Condotti is Caff^ del Oreco, where the ArtVstel 
Club meets. This is tlv<i Exv^gsSsfivv^gsoX. ^\ ^'*' ^1;: 

waU«W, Nwu«^.^ ««^^ "0^^ ^^^ 



170 



BRADBHAW'g ITALT. 



[Section 2. 



composed part of fail Walpnrgit mgrht. A 
fountain, shaped like a boat, designed by 
Bernini, and called Fontana della Barcaccia, 
stands near the steps which iSfed op to the 
Church of Trinitk de Monti, under the Pin- 
dan. Here Beppo, now dead, the Idng of the 
beggars, kept court (see Stobt'b Boba di Roma, 
ctiapter III). The College of the Propaganda, 
where missionary priests are educated, is close by. 
A marble column, at the corner, commemorates the 
publication of the dogma of tlie Immaculate Con- 
ception in 1854. 

Piazza Rtutieueei, facing the portico of St. Peter's, 
of which it commands a view, forming an entrance 
to Piazza S. Pietro ; enlarged some years ago, 
wh«i the house, in which Baphael died, was 
pulled down. 

. Piazza di 8. Silve$tr», with a monument to 
Metastasio (1886). Part of the old monastery has 
been eonverted into the handsome Post Office, 
and the Offices of PubKc Works. 

Piazza dale Tartarugfie (Tortoises), near th€ 
Mattel Palace ; and so called f rcHn the fountain on 
tortoises, a work of Delia Porta. This is one of 
the finest fountains in Rome. 

Piazza dene Terms, or di Termini, f acingthe l^ier- 
mce, or Baths, of Diocletian, and 8. Maria degli 
Angeli Church; near the Railway Station and 
the Fontanone deir Acqua Felice. 

Piazza della Trihuna, behind the Church of Sta. 
Maria Maggiore. 

Piazza Trinita, facing the church of the Trinita 
de' Monti, on the Pincian, near the house and 
gardens of Sallust, containing an imitation obelisk 
<ancient). 

Piazza di Venezia, at the south end of the Corso. 
Here are the Palazeo di Venezia (now the Austrisn 
Embassy) and the Torlonia Palace. 

Piazza Vittorio Emanude^ in the new quarter. 

FOUlfTAIK& 

Rome is well supplied with water from about 
fifty public foimtains, besides smaller ones, making 
a total of nearly 600. Several of these are noticed 
above, under the head of the Piazzas in which they 
stand. 

Fontanone ddr Aequa Fdiee, near the Baths 
of Diocletian. It is supplied by the Acqua 
Felice Spring, and is a handsome pile constructed 
for Sixtus V. (whose name was Felix, or Felice), 
by D. Fontana. Between the statues of Aaron 
(by Della Porta) and Cideon (by F. Vacca) is a 
colossal, but inferior, Moses Striking the Rock, 
by a Brescian artist. 

*Fontana Paolina, on the summit of the Jani- 
culum, near Porta 8. Pancrazio, is supplied by the 
Acoua Paola of Paul V., who gave his name to 
both. It looks like a triple triumphal arch, and 
was constructed by G. Fontana, 1612. The marble 
jJilfMv sre from the Temple of Minerva which stood 
^^.«vzM? TnuiBitoHum; the grasdie coJnmns 

''^^^^OfTyep^ in front oi the P$1$mzo Poli, a 



large mass of water supplied by the Acqua Vergine. 

It is the work of N. Salvi, in (Jlement XII.'s reign. 

The Neptune is by P. Bracci; Abundance and 

Health are by Della Valle. 
One of the attractive features of Rome is the 

number of q>arlding fountains. 

" Vroxa. jtm MLue hills 
Dim in tlie cloodB, the radiaiit AquedncU 
Turn Uieir innumerable arches o'er 
The spacious desert, brif htening in the son, 
Proud and more proud m their august araroaoli 
Hiffh o'er irriguous vales, and woods, anil towns, 
Glide the soft whispering waters in the wind. 
And here united pour their silver streams 
Among the figured rocks, in murmuring falls. 
Musical erver.^'— DrKR's Bwhu of nome. 

AQTTEDUCTS. 

Throe still remain, and supply the fountains with 
an ami^e abundance of water. 

Acqua Vergine comes from Collatia, 14 miles 
distant, and sui^ies the conduits in Via Condotti 
(whence the name), Fountains of Trevi, ha. Barcac- 
cia, Famese, Piazza Navona, and nine others, in 
the lower city. 

Acqua Fdiee (formeriy Aqua Claudia) takes its 
name from its restorer, Felice Peretti, afterwards 
Pope Sixtus v., and su]q)Ues the fountains of 
Moses, of the Tritons (Piazza Barberini), Monte 
Cavallo, and twenty-four others, in the Upper 
Town, vid Porta Pia, from springs 87 miles off. 

Acqua Paola (formeriy Trajana) comes in from 
the Bracciano Lake by Mens Janiculum, and 
supplies the Vatican quarter and Trastevere, tbe 
Paollna and St. Peter's fountains, crossing ths 
Tiber by the Ponte Sisto. It was begun by 
Augustus, and restored by Paul V. and Clement X. ; 
the engineers being G. and D. Fontana. 

At Aqvua AlbllUft (Station Bagni, 1^ miles from 
Rome) is a sulphur sprhig, with a Bath House. 

OBELISKS. 

A peculiar feature of Imperial architecture. 
Most of them were imported from Egypt, after tbe 
conquest of that province; and are usually singla 
square-sided blocks of red granite, with hiero- 
glyphics, similar to those now at London and Paris. 
After bdng overturned and neglected they were 
again made use of to adorn modem Rome, by 
Sixtus v., who set the example with the one before 
St. Peter's. 

Obdisk of 8. Giovanni in Laterano (ConstantiuB 
ObcliskX facing the Lateran Palace. The highest 
in Rome, the shaft being 105| feet, or with base, 
&c., 149 feet. The shaft weighs about 445 tons. 
Two sides 9 feet 8|in., and the others only 9 feet. 
This difiForencc is observable in all, more or less. 
It was brought from Heliopolis (in a galley of 800 
rowers) to the Circus Maximus, and raised on its 
present site by D. Fontana, 1588, in the reign of 
Sixtus V. 

Obdiik of UonU Cavallo (Quirinale Obelisk), 
fixied here 1786. No hieroglyi^Lics ; 95 f eet hl|rl>t 
or 48 f eei the ikAlt ctuV^ . 



Boute 82.] 



MODEBV BOMB. 



171 



Heliopolis, 71| feet high. Brought from the 
Campus Martlus (where it gervod as a gnom(m to 
mark the houis by its shadow), by Pius YI., io 1789. 

ObaUk of Santa Maria Maggiore^ \%^ feet high, 
or 48^ feet the shaft only. No hieroglyphics. After 
adorning the Mausoleum of Augustus, and being 
broken in three pieoes, it was put together and set 
up here in 1587, by D. Fontuna. 

Obelisk of Santa Maria Sopra Minerva (Minerveo 
Obelisk), 39^ feet high, on the back of a grrotosque- 
looklug elephant. 

Obai$k of the Pantheon (MahvLteo OheMsk). A 
small one, 47^ feet high. Set up in 1711, with a 
fountain round it. 

Obelisk of the Pindan HUl (Aureliano Obelisk), 
from the Variani (or Barberini) Gardens, 1822; 
56| feet high. 

Obaisk of Piauta Jfavona (Pamfilian Obelisk), 99 
feet high, in fire parts, pieced together. Brought 
from the Oircus of Maxentius, by Bernini, 1601; 
originally from Domitian's Alban Villa. 

ObaUk of Piatxa del Popolo (Flaminio Obelisk), 
116 feet .high, to the cxow on the smnmit, or, 7fi^ 
feet the shaft only. Transported from the Campus 
Martins, by Pontana, in 1589. 

Obeili$k of St. Peter^ or the Vatican, 132 feet 
high to the cross, or 83 feet the shaft only. Dedi* 
cated to the Sun, but without hieroglyphics. At 
first it rtood in the Circus of Nero, not far off, 
on the site of the sacristy, and was moved to the 
front of St Peter's, 10th September, 1686, by D. 
Fontana, by what was considered a great engineer- 
ing feat in that day. Above 800 men and 140 
horses were employed. Sixtus and his com-t at- 
tended to witness the experiment, after a solemn 
mass. Complete silence was ordered and observed 
by the crowd, till, at a critical moment, when the 
cordage was found defective, a sailor, who knew 
the remedy, cried out, "Wet the ropes with water," 
which was done, and the obelisk was safely fixed 
in its place. The Pope rewarded the sailor, a native 
of the Riviera, by giving his family the privilege 
of selling the palms for the Roman churches, on 
Palm Sunday. This obelisk Is nearly 9 feet square 
at the base, and 6 feet square at the top. 

Obelisk of Trinith de Monte (Sallustiano Obelisk), 
100 feet high. Placed here in 1789, by Pius VJ. 
It stood on the spina of the Circus of Sfdlust, and 
was a Roman production. 

THBATBE8. 

Argentina, or OlMntmo/e, in Via di Tor Argentina. 
Nazionale (drama), in Via Nazionale. 
Tealro Foffe.— (Drama), near the SapLenza. 
Coitanti (Drama), in Via Flrenze. 

Oofd0ttf(MarionettfiaX VIm de* SoJdatl. ConroU 
tbeJonmalB, eepeeUdly ZVtaUe (in French). 



GATES. 

The ancient names are open to dispute, and the 
ancient ways canaot be alwayv broi:^t up with 
certainty to the gates. Several were rertored 
during the reign of Victor Emmanuel. 

*Porta dd Popolo (Porta Flaminia), on the 
Flaminian Way, or great north carriage road into 
Rome. Built by Honorius; and deeorated under 
Pius IV., by Vignola (from Michael Angelo's de- 
signs) and Bernini, when Queen Christina entered 
Rome. From here there is an electric tramway 
(opened, 1890) to the Ponte Motte, an old bridge 
over the Tiber (see pages 143 and 151). 

Porta Pindana, long closed, but opened In 1888, 
is on the Pincian Hill. It was built by Honorius, 
and rebuilt by Belisarius. At the siege of 1849 
an attack was made near this gate. 

* Porta Salara (1873), near the remains of the old 
one (close to the Villa Albani), built by Honorius, 
in i^ace of the Porta Collina of Servius Tullius. 

*Porta Pia, buUt by M. Angelo, for Pius IV. It 
stands near the old Porta Nomentana, built by 
Honorius, and now dosed. Here is the Palace 
of the English Embassy. The Ministry of Finance 
and other public buildings are close by, and a 
new quarter is springing up on the site of the 
Pretorian Camp close by. 

* Porta 8. Lorenzo, on the road to S. Lorenzo and 
Tivoli, or Tibur, and once called Porta Tiburtina. 
It was built by Augustus, altered by Aurelian, 
and strengthened by Honorius. It is now closed 
and kept as a monument, a new gate having be^i 
opened instead. Close to it is a monmnent, at the 
junction of Aqua Marcia. Aqua Tepula, and Aqua 
Julia. 

*Porta Maggiore, one of the best gates, is a hand- 
some arch of travertine stone ; close to the old P. 
Labicana and P. Prsmestina (at the junction of 
those two roads). It consists of two great arches 
with rusticated Corinthian columns, iU)ove which 
are channels for the OlawHan Aqueduct. This, 
according to the inscriptions on it, was made by 
Claudius, and restored by Vespasian and Titus. It 
was a union of three or four earlier aqneduets. 
The Tomb of Eurysacea, the baker, is near at hand ; 
and the railway to Monte Albano, Tusculum, and 
Frascati passes in this dircctitHi. 

* Porta 8. Giovanni, on the road to Naples, was 
built by Gregory XIII., in place of P. Astnaria^ now 
a picturesque brick ruin, near St. John Lateran, 
through which Belisarius entered the city. The 
routes to Frascati or Albano, by Appia Nova, from 
this gate, are superseded by the rail. 

Porta Latina (on the Via Latlna), made by 
Honorius, a.d. 402, and repaired 550, by Justinian. 
Closed in 1808. 

Porta Capena (re-opened in 1877) is below VUW. 
Mattel, near the Batha <^1 CAX«R»S^sk.. ^^ «svRn^ ^ 

*Porta S. SeVwtiauo, otv^^^N»- ^^^ 






•irolhniid,indotlMrwlHcsiill«iir.Apidii,bDlltbT i 
Ilonorliu. The two brick towen were bultl b; 
BollurliuarNaraci. 

'ParlaB. Paolo, on (he road to Oatla, tbo old 
MMpttrtofEoniBi MbnlltbyBellMrfntp) liiplnce 



the nil] older gates of S. TMiw. caJted Tiisemluii. . 
NbtjiIIi, /m. CloH by are the tomb of Caliu j 



the lite of Pllny'i VIM 
□r Ihe Bonchew iiaaSJy. 



Tro Fontane, and Ardea wiil 

n by Maeia: alto LanaliHm, 

Villa, near a country pUaoc 



I It leads to La Men 
' Along me roed ere 1 
, Ponle Noinentana, o 



a FnHa Enqulllna; m 

e route to Oallatia uit 
a. Felice, and the toml 



ancient Stm. 
rizh Villn Torinniaj 
and the ilo*t Bartr, 



e, bulk by Drban YIII.. In plsca c[ I 
K. AraltwayUatlonatFlmuidnai train 

9. Paneratfo. on the Janlculum. MO fer 



nrled In [orm and colnur by the thadoin ol th_ 
cloudi. And there !■ aleo the enehnnting Tapotirr 
•iFdoii ol the AJban llJIIa. which change their hiiea 

can nee tor mllei IKtU white chapele iflllleMng on 
■he dark groiuid nf Che hllla, aa far aa Ihe Paulonlit 






ul about to run up a scaling-ladder, 
account giien by Cellini, tu his Uemilr 
ta Fabbriea Is closed up. 
MJn^iM. north o( SI. Peter's, built by Plus 



1 by Ihe 



OS Tnlllna. near [he Tiber (fluit 
which Cicero-i brother llred. 



'I Ihe twelfth century, wbe tur 
KOASB. 



! Puna Plemlnia. end gi»e. 
6 city in the direction of I 



m Giullo. It then 



HOSSBN 

I. driving his I 



ilnaled, uid on the MIta. the Pope fled to QMti,. 
ftome Ihco fell aadcr tho j-oTennmnlof tba trimn- 
vir>. Haiilnl, Beffi. siid Anuelllnl. After i ■legs 



lK)aiid*FtoO> 



Apollo") 



PAPAL 001JAT. 

It Pope, Joachim Focci. MyledLooXIIT., 
t Carplnrto, laid, and elected lOlh 



twenty-fifth minl.eraBiy of his pontlBiMte, o 

Tin tho aiinoxMlon to Italy, IsJO, Iho Bonni 
govcmmeiil wDi eceleBlsellc end despotic. Th 

Oovonior"BS a prelate, pre.ldlnir at « muiiletpi 
emo™nt. No official, wero employe/but gucb I 

Inilependent soTorclpi, Trlih the rlglit of icndlni 
and InTlolsble. The enpport of hie ealabliahojcnl 



Letftrati Palacea In Ibo cU 



, irlth hli country 



Iho Fruico-OenDon war. the French withdrew 
their iroop^ snd Homo wai occupied by the 
Italians as their natoml nontax, and the ^oal of 
all their endeavoura in making Italy. Tho teni- 



if aullqultleL — (See 



tlioe traffic represented by two or three wretched 

the port 'of Hlpella; the streets swaiming with 
bogBare; on orsanlsed lyitem of espionage; and 

OBQRCBES OF ftOHS. 






yoar 1847. ■ Papal decree siinuiione 
y of HotaMaa from (he pravlncae. Co aerrB 
iindailano/ m coiMiICnIlonal ayttem. On 
wber. late, CbtactiloTRotai »a< niiu. 



undei toe ¥™.c*.-. »«"*'***^^^S^^i:>«' 
1 patroMBB ottt>B-!i-Bt'>V^**'-** 



174 



BRAD8HJLW*S ITALY. 



[Section 2. 



/ 



older are located en the Esqtiilinef Coriifui, and 
Arentine Hills. 

"The chnrchesof Rome," says Forsyth, "are ad- 
mirable only in detail. Their materials are rich, 
the workmanship is exquisite; the orders are 
all Greek. Er&ry ontablatnre is adjusted to the 
axis of eacli column -with a mathematical scrupu- 
losity which is lost to the eye. One visionary 
line runs upward, bisecting superstitiously every 
shaft, tryglyph, ovc; bend, dentel, mutule, modil- 
lion, and lion's head that lies in its way. But 
how are those orders employed? In false fronts, 
in pediments, under pediments, &c." The dis- 
tribution of the parts is nearly the same in all. 
"Their aisles are generally formed by arcades. 
Over these are sometimes grated recesses, but 
never open galleries. The choir terminates in a 
curve, which is the grand field of decoration, 
blazing with leaf-gold and glories. In the middle 
of the cross is the high altar. The chapels of the 
Holy Sacrament and the Virgin are usually in the 
transept. Those of the saints are ranged on the 
sides ; and each being raised by a different family, 
has an architecture of its own at variance with the 
church, which thus loses its unity amid nests of 
polytheism." The Church of 8. Paoli fuori le 
Mura (outside the Walls)^ and a few others, are 
adorned with finely stained windows. 

Some of the oldest and most remarkable churches 
are the Basilicas ; so called from being planned 
after the Roman courts of justice. That of S. Cle- 
mentc, founded in the fourth and fifth centuries, 
though rebuilt 872, retains the characteristic 
atrium, or court-yard, narthcx for4)enitents, aisles, 
and other arrangements. The earliest churches 
of this class are Santa Sabina, Santa Maria Mag- 
giore, S. Pietro ad Vincula, all of the fifth century; 
if or others, see the chronological list, page 176. 
S. Giovanni in Laterano, of the tenth century, has 
five aisles ; as have St. Peter's and St. Paul's, the 
predecessors of whcih were fourth century churches, 
the two oldest in Rome. The present St. Paul's 
was rebuilt on the old plan and scale, after 
the fire of 1823. Santa Maria sopra Minerva, 
built 1370, is the only church approaching the 
€k)thic style (in the Italian sense) in Rome. 

The five patriarchal Basilicas are — St. Peter's, St. 
John Lateran, Santa Maria Maggiore, St. Paul's, 
outside the walls, and St. Lorenzo, also without 
the walls ; corresponding to the five patriarchates 
of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, 
and Jerusalem, respectively. Most of the churches, 
especially the oldest, have mosaic pavements, and 
pictures in mosaic at the upper end; and all are 
rich in marbles, precious stones, paintings, and 
gilding. Little stained glass is seen, except at the 
new St. Paul's. Mosaic is peculiar to Rome imd 
Florence, where it is carried (m by the aid of govern- 
ment factories. Each church has relics to boast of, 
which are exposed to view on the festa of the patron 
ra/jrt. l>ne notl^ of the stcieione are given in the 
w^J^^^iF ^«b/»iww, "from which, or from the Libra- 
>S^ta. ^^""^^^^ «*^o* *Ae jerviees may be 



The five patriarchal churches are open all day^ 
Most others are closed from 12 to 3 ; some all tb* 
week, and a few all the year, except at the/esto. 

FRmCIPAL CHUBCH FESTIVALS. 

For a particular account of the church cere- 
monies and festivals, see chapters 4 and 6 of 
Story's Roha di Rama. They are now less 
numerous than formerly, especially since the 
Pope has discontinued his public visits. It is 
very difiicult to obtain admittance at the Sistine 
Chapel on the high festivals, 

January 6th. Epiphany.— The Bambino, at Ara 
Cceli Church. Exhibition of the Presepe (cradle) 
and child. 

17th. — Blessing of the Horses, at S. Antonio. 

21st. — St. Agnese fuori le Mura. Benediction 
of the lambs, from whose wool the pallinms for 
the new Archbishops are made. 

Carnival, races, Ac, about ten days before Ash 
Wednesday. Shrove Tuesday, — "Senza Moccoli" 
illuminations in the Corso. 

March 25th. —Annunciation. Service at S. Maria 
sopra Minerva. 

Holy Week (Settimana Santa). 

Palm Sunday.— Distribution of consecrated 
Palms ai S. Peter's. 

Wednesday. — Miserere^ at the Sistine Chapel. 

Good Friday. — Tre Ore (three hours), at most of 
the churches. Miserere, at St. Peter's. 

Saturday. — Aimenian Mass at S. Biogio. 
Baptism of Converts at the Lateran. 

Easter Sunday. — High Mass at St. Peter's. 

Corpus Domini (or Christi). — Adoration of the 
Sacrament. 

May 26th.— S. Filippo Neri ; at Santa Maria in 
Vallicella, otherwise Chiesa Nuova. 

June 24th. — St. John Baptist ; at the Lateran. 

29th.— SS. Peter and Paul. Papal Mass at St. 
Peter's. Visit to the Crypt. 

July 81. — S. Ignatius Lovola; at the Gesu. 

August 1.— St. Peter's, at St. Pietro in Vhicoli. 

5th. — Assumption ; at Santa Maria Maggiore. 

September 8th. — Nativity of the Virgin ; at Santa 
Maria del Popolo. 

November Ist. — All Saints. Visits to the Ceme- 
teries ; especially Santa Mnria in Trastevere, the 
Lateran, the Hospital of S. Spirito la Morte, in 
Via Giula, Ac. 

2nd.— All Souls' Day. 

4th. — S. Carlo Borroraeo ; at S. Carlo in Corse. 

December. — Advent Sundays. Services in the 
Sistine chapel, with the Papal band. 

25th. — Christmas. The Bnml)ino, at Santa 
Maria Maggiore. Papal Mass at St. Peter's. Ex- 
hibition of the Cttlla, or Cradle, at the Ara Cmli, 
and S. Francesco, till the Epiphany. 

The following is a description of the ceremonies 
as conducted prior to September, 1870. 

Holy ^ ©WL— 11^^ ^r%\. <s,ct«wtfVK^ V% Oft. Palm 
Sunday. "T\» OioVtC' %«?% Uftn^sSowitefc^ * im» 



Bonte 32.] 



MODEBN ROMS— CHURCH FESTIYALS* 



175 



Hoianna in Excelsis^ and intoned various hymns, 
while twisted palms are offered to the Pope, which 
be distributes among the Cardinals. The palms are 
long branches decorated with buttons, crosses, and 
crowns, all entirely made of dried palm leaves 
which makes them look like gold. The Cardinals, 
who are seated in the chapel. In the form of a 
quadrangle, with the AbbatH at their feet, now ad- 
vance each in turn to receive their palms; then 
come the bishops, &e. This makes a long proces- 
sion, during which the choir continues to sing un- 
remittingly. 

*' The Pope's throne is then carried in, on which 
he is elevated in all processions (vide the Ueliodo- 
rus of Raphael, where he is portrayed). Tlie 
Cardinals, two and two, with their palms, head the 

{procession, and the folding doors oi: the chapel bc- 
ng thi-own open, it slowly defiles thi'ough them. 
The singing which has hitherto incessantly pre- 
vailed, like on element, becomes fainter and fainter, 
for the singers also walk in the procession, and at 
length are onlv indistinctly heard, the sound dying 
away in the distance. Then a choir in the chapel 
bui'sts forth with a query, to which the distant 
one breathes a faint response ; and so it goes on 
for a time, till the procession again draws near 
and the choirs reunite. Let them sing how and 
what they please, this cannot fail to produce a fine 
effect ; and though it is quite true that nothing can 
be more monotonous and even devoid of form than 
the hymns alV unisono, being without any proper 
coimcction and sung /ortisximo throughout, still I 
appeal to the impression that as a whole it must 
make on everyone. After the procession returns, 
the Gospel is chanted hi the most shigular tone 
and is succeeded by the Mass." 

There is nothing on Monday or Tuesday; but 
on Wednesday, at 4-30, the Noctums begin with 
the antiphon, Zeius DomtiA ttue. Each Noctum 
(says the little Manual of Offices for Holy Week) 
contains three Psalms, signifying that Christ died 
for all, and also symbolical of the three laws, the 
natural, written, and evangelical. The Domine 
labia mea and the Deus in adjutorium arc not simg 
on this occasion, when the death of our Saviour and 
Master is deplored, as slain by the hands of wicked, 
godless men. The fifteen lights which are ex- 
tinguished in succession represent the Twelve 
Apostles and the Three Maries. 

"The Psalms, beginning with the 68th, 69th, and 
70th. are chanted fortissimo, in alternate verses by 
two male choirs, though invariably by one class of 
voices, basses, or tenors. You cannot conceive how 
tiresome and monotonous the effect is, and how 
harshly and mechanically they chant through the 
Psalms. They sing with the accent of a number 
of men quarrelling violently, and as if they were 
shouthig out furiously one against another. 

** During this time the lights on the altar are all 

extinguished, save one which is behind the altar. 

Six wax candles atill continue to bum high aboye 

tlie entrance; the rest of the space is already dim; 

and now the whole choir Intone unisono with tbo 



full strength of thefr voiced, the CttntkumZackarim 
hi D minor, singing it slowly and solemnly, durfaigr 
which the last remaining lights are extinguishedL 
The mighty swelling chorus in the deepening gloom 
and the solemn vibration of so many voices have a 
wonderfully fine effleet. At the close oil is pro- 
found darkness. An antiphon b^ns on the sen- 
tence, 'Now he that betrayed him gave,' Ac, and 
continues to the words, *That same is he,* Ac. 
Then the Pope leaves his throne and kneels before 
the aKar; all present fall on their knees, and one 
solitary voice softly sings, Christm foetus est pro 
nobis obediens tuque ad mortem. On Thursday is 
added. Mortem autem cruris. On Good Friday, 
Propter quod et Deus exaltavit Ulum, et dedit iUi 
nomen, quod est super omne nonmt. 

'* A pause ensues, during which each person re- 
peats the Pater Noster to himself. A death-like 
silence prevails in the church. Presently the 
Miserere commences with a chord, softly breathed 
by the voices, and gradually branching off into two 
choirs. This beginning, and its first harmonious 
vibration, certainly made the deepest impression 
on me. For an hour and a half previously, one 
voice alone had been heard chanting almost with- 
out any variety. After the pause comes an ad- 
mirably constructed chord, which has the finest 
possible effect, causing every one to feel in their 
hearts the power of music. It is this indeed that 
is so striking. The best voices arc reserved for the 
Miserere (Baini's), which is sung with the greatest 
variety of effect ; the voices swelling and dying 
away, from the softest piano to the full strength 
of the choir. No wonder that it should excite deep 
emotion in every heart. 

"A second short silent prayer ensues, when all 
the cardinals scrape their feet noisily on the ground, 
which betokens the close of the ceremony. This 
noise (says the Manual) is SNinbolical of the tumult 
made by the Hebrews in seizing Christ. It may 
be so, but it sounds exactly like the commotion in 
the pit of a theatre, when a play is delayed or 
finally condenmed. The suigle ta^ier still burning 
is then brought from behind the altar, and all 
silently disperse by its solitary light. I must not 
omit to mention the striking effect of the blazing 
chandelier lighting up the great vestibule, when 
the cardinals and their attendant priests traverse 
the illuminated Quirinal, through ranks of Swiss 
guards." — ^Mendelssohn's Letters. 

On Thursday, at 9 in the morning, the solemnities 
recommence, and last till 1. There is high mass at 
10 30. At the Gloria in Excelsis, the choirs burst 
in, and all the bells in Home peal forth, and are 
not rung again till after Grood Friday, the hours 
for that interval being marked in the churches by 
wooden clappers. Afterwards there is a proces- 
sion, when the Pope is homo alcstt. \sn.V!!Ss. '^"'^^ 
chair, aud <iO\vl«%V\&\sKSM&«&s*^ft\s^^^^^^!^>^^ 

teen \>iVvi«.ta,'w\vo w^ ^'^^^^r^^^^-^^^'^-^^ 
gr\ma, wifli «x^ ^^'^-^^ ^^|^ 1^; ^^n.'SC^^^' 



176 



BSADBHJLW*8 ITALY. 



[Section 2. 



together. The PsalniB begin agaiu in the afternoon, 
followed by the Lamentations, Lessons, and the 
Miserere^ scarcely differing from those of Wednes- 
day. 

On Oood Friday morning the chapel is stripped 
of every decoration, the altar uncovered, and the 
Pope and Cardinals appear in mourning. *'The 
history of the Passion, according to St. John, is 
chanted after an established formula. The whole 
appeared to me trivial and monotonous. Prayers 
are then offered up for all nations and institutions, 
each separately designated. When the prayer for 
the Jews (Pro perJidU Judseis) is uttered, no one 
kneels, as they do at all the others, nor is 'Amen* 
said. Then follows the Adoration of the Cross. A 
small crucifix is placed in the centre of the chapel, 
and the Pope* and all, taking off their shoes, ap- 
proach and kiss it. During this the Improperia of 
Palestrina is sung: one of his finest works, and 
they sing it with remarkable enthusiasm. The 
ceremony is very solemn and dignified, and the 
most profound silence reigns in the chapel. They 
sing the oft-recurring Greek ' Holy' (Agios Theos^ 
Sancttu Deus) in the most admirable manner, each 
time, with the same smoothness and expression. 
This is repeated again till all in the chapel have 
performed the ceremony of adoration. I quite 
understand why the Improperias produced the 
strongest effect on Goethe, for they are nearly the 
most faultless of all ; as both music and ceremonies, 
and everything connected with them, are in the 
most entire harmony." — Mendetuohn. 

A procession follows, to fetch the Host, which 
has been exposed and adored on the previous 
evening in another chapel of the Quirinal, lighted 
up by many hundred wax lights. The morning 
service closes at 1 80, with a hymn in canto femw. 
At 8 80, the first noctum begins, with the Psalms, 
Lessons, and Miserere^ as before mentioned. 

Early on Saturday^ in the Baptistery of the 
Lateran, Heathens, Jews, and Mohammedans are 
baptised, all represented by a liWe child; and, 
subsequently, some young priests receive consecra- 
tion for the first time. 

LIST OF SOME OF THE OLDEST CHURCHES. 

A.D. 

8. Peter's (old one) founded about 830 

8. Paul's (rebuilt 1824 to 1854) 386 

8anta Sabina about 425 

Santa Maria Maggiore about 482 

8. Pietro ad Vincula 442 

8. Lorenzo fuori le Mura 680 

SanU Balbina 600 

Santa Agnese about 625 

Quattro Coronati about 625 

8. Giorgio in Velabro 682 

8. Crisogono 730 

8. Giovanni a Porta Latina about 790 

SjuifB Maria in Cosmedin 790 

Jf. VIcenzo alle Tro Fontane 790 

^J^renxo In Lactna ahoxii 790 

S-i^r ^"^^^^"^- ««>0«* ««> 

820 



A.D. 

Santa Maria in Domhiica 820 

8. Martino ai Monti about 844-55 

S. Clemente 872 

8. Niccolb in Carcere 900 

S. Bartolommeo in Isola about 900 

S. Giovanni in Laterano (St. John Ev.) 910 

Santa Maria in Trastevere 1185 

Santa Croce about 1144 

Santa Maria in Ara Coeli 

Santa Maria sopra Minerva (Gothic)... about 1370 

S. Agostino about 1480 

ST. PETEB'S. 

St. Peter^s Church, the largest Christian temple 
in the world, is on the Vatican Hill, on the site 
of Nero's Circu.s, where many early Christians 
suffered martyrdom, and where Constantino built 
the first church (about 330), which stood till the 
twelfth century. Except a few feet in the west 
front, of a large and splendid design, commenced, 
1454, by Nicholas V., the present Basilica was 
begun, 1506, by Julius II., as paii; of a Greek 
cross proposed by Bramante. His design (which 
is copied in Raphael's cartoon of Paul preaching 
at Athens) was followed out in 1547 by M. Angelo, 
who worked eighteen years at it, and was suc- 
ceeded by Vignola, Delia Porta, and C. Mademo, 
by whom the original plan was altered to that of 
a Latin cross, in order to take in the site of Con- 
stantine's old church. The front was completed, 
1622, by Paul V. Thus the building of it covered 
a space of 116 years, and the reigns of eighteen 
Popes, one of whom was Leo X., whose scheme 
of raishig money for the work by the sale of indul- 
gences produced the Reformation. The total cost 
was 40,000,000 crowns, or £8,000,000 sterling; and 
the annual charge of keephig it up is 80,000 crowns. 

The style is the classical, which prevails in 
all the churches here, in three storeys, cut up by 
enormous pilasters and columns of equal height all 
romid. Both church and cupola are of travertine 
stone; and it is said there is more stone below 
ground than above it. Inside length of the cross, 
615 feet, or one-seventh more than our St. Paul's; 
breadth through the transept, 448 feet. Height 
from piazza to top of cross, 448 feet. Its principal 
front (which looks to the east and not to the west) 
is plain, and only imposing by its size, which is 880 
feet wide, 148 high, and, unfortunately, hides the 
view of the dome. This bad effect is increased by 
the sloping down of the ground in front. It is not 
shut in by houses, but approached by a circular 
atrium, or court, 740 feet by 590, enclosed by colon- 
nades resting on 284 columns, in four rows, forming 
threealleysbetweenthem, and crowned with statues 
and saints, by Bernini. In the middle is the Egyp- 
tian Obelisk (see above), brought from the Circus 
of Nero, by D. Fontana, which serves as a gigantic 
gnomon, and is surrounded by points of the compass 
on the ground below. It is flanked by C. Mademo's 
two tail FountaVns, 60 feet high, each composed of 
three basVns, the \o'w<i^ Wi l^^X ^VqsmXki. TVa 
water rises to tVv© YieVgYvl ol lQ\^«\.^\A\VB.^>JNtw^g^ 



nun In th« BDcrlily. Over ibe fofntJe are Christ 
anil hln Apostle*! »nd Iwoclncks. aiTlrtert by Iho 

four hours from snniet to inn«e(. Three princlpjil 

bus-relleh, open Into (he Venlbnlo, oppmilie u 

them, the PoHn Brnitii. !■ openeil only nt Ihe 

In'lbo ye" 1886. The Vestlhnlo 1> «bnut 470 

o( Chiirleinsgne {by Cnrnncchlnl) »int ConrtBiitlne 



J ■1ie<nitor at flnt Rlance, bnt It anlu 
' 'iBit until the eye gels need to 



middle iHHbelnBK7 
h to IhB top or tiie 
Itb annk puHlllDg, 



It. The dlaiDetorg of this "nut and wondroul 
dome" sre 138 md ISt feet. From the niarble 
[nTetncnt to the lop at the roniid Inelde 1b StS fOM, 
nr 44R feel clear to the hlebeit point. Aronnd It 
In the text. Tit a Pttiia, et it^wr nanc Pftrom^ tn^ 
each letter bdni; Ihe height of ■ man. It li 
adorhed idth salnte In mnealc, and Is lighted front 

pllclty and grandeor About the roof of the n««e 
Brchea«biehsD]ipartU: and (he lour great Tsnlte 



world hi _...., , 

pal teniple of Iho Christian rellBl™."— ftrjiMuii. 
High Altir, which 



r haldacohlDC 



ra 



feet high, under a bronse oanopy, 

oneplral colnmna, 96 (cet hleh, mi.- . 

taken Irom tbo Pantheon, the gildbig of whleh 

Madernu), he^ncaih the pavement, In which halvei 

depoalted. The other' halves ate at St. Paal't. 

kiieelhiic atatue of I'lua VI. is seen In thli ehasel. 
On Good Friday, IJie ohtirch Is darkened. leaVlDg 
only a tow lamps bumln^r under the dome, with 
p-eat oTTeet. Near the lost tder fif Ihe alsK on 
the rl^-lit, le a sla(uc of at. Peter, a work of abont 

with the (hot aiinoM worn away, throunh freijnont 



FHday 






idi'a ef measnremeot with the cya, or proportion; 
and yet, who does not feel hli heart ex^aod. when 



id In Bt. Peter's i 
ig about £t,tK>0. 



1o not reach yon for a lonf: i 
time, hut echo and Ooat In tiie nut apaco. >o thai i 
the most slD^oIar and ngae hannonlei are borne 1 
iowiu\lsj<iu."-MmMii^. ' 






178 



BBADBUAW'S ITALY. 



[Section 2. 



Sebastian Chapel. — Mosaic of Domenichino's Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Sebastian. 

Tombs of Innocent XII. (by Delle Valle) and 
the famous Conntoss Matilda (by Bernini). She is 
Dante's Urania, who bequeatlied the Marches, &c., 
to the Church. 

Sacrament Chapel (closed by a gate). — P. da Cor- 
tona's fresco of the Trinity, and Caravaggio's 
Entombment. Tomb of Sixtus IV. (by Polla- 
juolo), who built the Ponte Sisto, Sistine Chapel, 
Jkc. Tomb of Julius II., nephew of Sixtus, only a 
simple stone, though his intention was to have 
erected a splendid tomb for himself, out of which 
thought grew the ntfw Church of St. Peter's. 
Mosaic by Muziano. Monument of Gregory XIII. 
(by Rusconi), who built the Quirinal ; and Gregory 
XIV., who was Pope only for six months. 

Gregorian Chapel. — Tombs of Gregory XVI. (by 
Amici); Delia Porta's rich Altar, from M. Angelo's 
design. 

Near hear is Domenichino's mosaic of the Com- 
munion of St. Jerome. 

Mass of St. Basil, near the Tomb of Benedict 
XIV., by Bracci. 

The North Transept was the place where the 
(Ecumenic^ Council was held. It contains 
mosaics of Valentini's Martyrdom of SS. Processo 
e Martiniano, Caroselli's St. Wenceslaus, and 
PouBsin's Martyrdom of St. Erasmus. 

The prolongation of the aisle contains Lan- 
f ranco's St. Peter Walking on the Sea, and Canova's 
Tomb of •Clement XIII., with figm-es of Religion 
and Genius, and two Lions, which occupied him 
eight years. 

a. Michael Chapel.— Mosaic of Guido's St. Michael 
the Archangel. Near by are Guercino's mosaic of 
Santa Petronella, one of the best in the church, 
and the Tomb of Clement X. 

SS. Peter and Tahitha C/wrpe?.— Mosaic of Cos- 
tanzi's Raising of Tabitha by Peter. 

Upper end of Church. — M. Angelo's Tribune of 
St. Peter; and Bernini's gilt bronze chair of St. 
Peter, enclosing a more ancient wooden chair sup- 
ported by four doctors of the church. These are 
SS. Gregory, Augustine, Ambrose, and Jerome. 
The chair was last shown in 1867, but photos can 
be bought In any shop. Delia Porta's tomb of Paul 
III., with a bronze of the Pope, and marble figures 
of Justice and Prudence. The former was naked 
at first and was so miich admired that Bernini was 
employed to cover her with a tin robe. Bernini's 
tomb of Urban VIII., with figures of Justice and 
Charity. Mosaic portrait of Pio Nono, placed here 
in 1871, on the completion of the 25th year of his 
Pontificate, " the year of St. Peter." 

Entering the west division of the loft aisle, there 
is on the right the Tomb of Alexander VIII. (by 
Kossi), who pronounced the bull, Inter mu/tiplices, 
against the French clergy, on his death-bed, 1612. 
0/>po»ite, St. Peter Healing the Cripple, after 
JWaucIaJ. 
^wui^^'^'^^ '^ <?>war/.— .^/^rtrdJ'tf bas-relief of 

Ci^^^'tna Ciiapaf.—Miich venerated Statue of the 



Virgin. Sarcophagus containing the remains of 
Leo II., Leo III., and Leo IV. 

In the next chapel are the Tomb of Alexander 
VII., with gilt copper statue, by Bernini, and 
Vanni's Simon Magus, on slate. 

In the South Transept are Camuccini's mosaic 
of the Unbelief of St. Thomas, the Tomb of Pales- 
trina, Crucifixion of St. Peter (Guldo Reni), and 
St. Francis (Domenichino). Near here, in the 
left aisle, is the door of the Sacristy (see below). 
Opposite is Roncalli's Ananias and Sapphira. 

(Continuing down the aisle, the Clementine Chapel 
is entered. This contains the Tomb of Gregory 
the Great, A. Sacchi's mosaic of the Miracle of St. 
Gregory, and Thorwaldsen's Tomb of Pius VII., 
with figures of Strength and Wisdom. Near here 
are the Tombs of Innocent XI. and Leo XI. (in- 
scribed *'Sic fioruit"), who was Pope for twenty- 
seven days only. 

Choir Chapel^ closed by Delia Porta's gilt bronze 
gate. 

Tombs of Pius VIII. and Innocent VIII.; the 
latter by PoUaJuolo. 

Presentation Chapel. — ^Mosaics, by Romanelli and 
Maratta. 

Stuart Tombs. — Erected at the cost of George 
IV. ; including the Pretender, styled " James III." 
and his two sons, the Chevalier, *^ Charles III.," 
and Cardinal York, "Henry IX." They are by 
Canova, and were naked figures at first, but were 
covered in 1850. Bracci's tomb of the (Chevalier's 
widow, Maria Sobieski, Countess of Albany. 

Baptistery (left of the entrance). — Three mosaics, 
by C. Maratta, Ac. The font is a porphyry vase, 
which covered the sarcophagus of Otho II. (who 
died S)74), with ornaments added by C. Fontana, 
1698. In the right-hand comer as you enter, 
within rails and kept under lock and key, you read 
"JKc est ilia Columna'^ — the column against which 
Christ leant in the Temple when teaching ; the gift 
of Cardinal Orsini. Similar relics abound in every 
church in Rome. Here, in St. Peter's, over the 
statue of St. Helena, is ^'■Partem crueis quarn^*^ Ac. 
(part of the true cross). Over S. Longinus Martyr 
is ^'■Longini lanceamf the spear which pierced the 
Redeemer's side, sent by Bajazet to Innocent VIII. 
Over St. Andrew— "/S. i4mii*ia Caput" his head, 
the gift of Pius II. His ribs are at Santa Maria in 
Campitelli ; his leg is at SS. Apostoli. Over Santa 
Veronica, the so-called "portrait" of the Saviour, 
on the napkin, or handkerchief with which his face 
was wiped. A supposed portrait of Christ is shown 
only by the Pope; others are exhibited atS. Sil- 
vestro al Quirinale and S. Maria Trastevere. 

Sacristy, built by Pius VI. (1776), from designs by 
C . Marchionne, in three parts. At the entrance are 
statues of St. Peter and St. Paul, from the Piazza 
outside. In the central chapel is a guide; 
fee, i franc. Paintings of the Virgin and Saints, 
by G. Romano, Ac. Old frescoes, by M. di Forli 
(1472), and three paintings by Giotto. The carved 
wooden presses are full of rich robes, vestments, 
altar-cloths, plale, &.e., C\v«x\«ECA.'^«'«caTQnation 
robe, cr\xcVftn.e*, aaVveT* wv^ cwp*^^^*««^*^V!>^., 



Bonte 32.] 



MODERN BOHE — ST. PETER 8. 



179 



Angelo and B. Cellipi ; a cup given by the Stuarts ; 
and the seal ring of the last Pope, a new one being 
made for each. 

The Orypt (Sagre Grotte Vaticane), not shown 
comprises the Grotte Vecchie and Nuove, in a space 
11 feet high, between the pavements of the old 
and new church, to which women are not 
admitted ; and four Chapels, adorned with mosaics 
by A. dacchi. In the Grotte Vecchie are tombs of 
Otho II., Charlotte II. of Jerusalem and Cyprus, 
Christina of Sweden, Adrian IV., Boniface VIII., 
Nicholas v., Urban VI., Pius II. ; and an ancient 
carved sarcophagus of Bassus, Prefect of Rome, 
who died 859. 

To ascend the Dome^ open every day, 8 to 11. 
The ascent is made by tlu-ee galleries of 142 steps 
inside the cupola, between the outer and inner 
walls, which are 20 feet apart. The bronze ball at 
top holds several persons, and is 7^ feet diameter. 
Among the inscriptions by sovereigns and other 
{lersonages, one records the ascent of the Prince of 
Wales in 1859. In 1Z50, two Spanish monks were 
up here dming the shoc)c of an eai'thquake, when 
one died from sheer fright. The cross is 13 feet 
high. Waterton, the traveller, with his friend Cap- 
tain Jones, mounted to the top of the cross, and left a 
glove at the end of the conductor as a memorial of 
their visit. The view from the dome is extensive 
and magnificent, embracing the city, river, Cam- 
pagna, the sea, the Alban Hills, and the Apemiines. 
Permessiou to be obtained at No. 8, Via della 
Sagrestia. 

On the flat roof of the cathedral live the San 
Petfini, or workmen, who look after the edifice, and 
form a corporation from father to son. In one bf 
the chambers in the piers of the dome is Sangallo's 
model of the basilica, which included a splendid 
facade, a more lofty dome, and two spires to 
match it in height. 

The exterior of St. Peter's should next be ex- 
amined all round. The west end is 162 feet high, 
composed of a gigantic order of Corinthian pilasters, 
108 feet high, on a base of 15 feet, with an attic of 
39 feet. The acanthus leaves of the capitals are 7 
feet high. This order is repeated all round the 
building. There are 748 columns and pilasters 
inside and outside, and it contains 390 statues, of 
various degrees of merit. 

''Between these pilasters there are always at 
least two storeys of windows, the dressings of which 
arc generally in the most obtrusive and worst taste, 
and there is still a third storey in the attic; all of 
which added together make us feel more inclined 
to think that the architect has been designing a 
place of several storeys on a gigantic scale, and 
trying to give it dignity by making it look like a 
temple, rather than that what we see before us is 
really a great basilican hall degraded by the adop- 
tion of palatial architecture." — Fergusson. 

Good points for viewing St. Peter's at a distance 

in the city are, the towerof the Capitol, onen daily, 

for i a lira; the front of the Qoirlnal, tJie Bridge 

of St. Angelo f the Belda behind 8t Peter's; but the 

l/est of all, seen through a dee;^. blue sky and clear 



atmosphere, is from the public walks on the Pincian 
Hill. It may sometimes be caught sight of by 
ships at sea, sailing down the coast. 

At the west end, on the nortii side of the altar, 
are slabs in the wall, commemorating the Decree 
of 8th December, 1854, when the new Dogma of the 
Immaculate Conception was projMigated to ''satisfy 
the longings of the Catholic world," with the names 
of the prelates who were present. Father Passaglla, 
a learned Jesuit, who was chosen to write In de- 
fence of the new dogma, is the same, who, having 
afterwards written against the temix>ral power, 
had his paper seized by the Inquisition, but 
fortunately escaped from Rome by the help of some 
English friends, and then resided at Turin, where 
he edited a journal, which became the organ of 
a large number of priests who were opposed to the 
temporal power. 

Here the ceremony of the Canonisation of the 
twenty-seven Japanese martyrs, who died at 
Nagasaki, 5th February, 1597, was attended by 
nearly 300 cardinals and prelates, and 3,000 clergy, 
in 1862, on Whit Sunday. The expense, 40,000 
scudi, was borne by the Franciscans, to whose order 
they belonged; it included 37,0001bs. of wax candles 
for illuminating the church. Medals were struck, 
on which Religion, with the cross, palm, tiara, and 
keys, looks to twenty-seven stars in heaven, with 
the motto, " Sanctorum mater quos dat nova sidera 
caelo." St. Peter's was ornamented in a somewhat 
tawdry style, having the pilasters covered with 
coloured paper, and the arches with silk and velvet, 
and hung with hasty frescoes of the sufferings of 
the martyrs. Pasquin said of this display of up- 
holstery, that the Pope was going to leave, and had 
already packed up St. Peter's (ha Imballato S. 
Pietro). 

At the time of the canonisation, the Procurator 
knelt before the Pope, entreating him earnestly — 
instanter — ^to comply with the wishes of the Church 
and to canonise the martyrs. But the intimation 
from above— the inspiration of the Holy Ghost- 
had not yet been received. "They must pray again 
for it. The Procurator must kneel again before 
the Pope and reiterate his entreaty, earnestly and 
more earnestly — instanter et instantivs. But still 
the petition is not granted; he must wait longer 
and must pray again. Then the Pontitf himself 
invokes the Holy Spirit; he intones 'Veni Creator 
Spiritus.' The Prociu*ator repeated his petition for 
the third time, earnestly, more earnestly, and most 
earnestly — instanter, instantius, et instantissimi— 
that the martyrs may be enrolled by the Pope in 
the catalogue of the saints, and venerated as such 
by all the faithful of Christ. Then, at length, the 
Roman Pontiff, having his mitre on his head, and 
sitting on his throne at the west end of the church, 
with long lines of cardinals, archbishops, and 
bishops, ranged on his right hand and oa IvVs. W^^ 
pronounced the mcmoveJa\<i^^t^.>'''^t"aXws»'i;5ss«Si"\>5ei 



derotlaae recall ileher«. In naialnt Paltli it Fllll tt 
f!i Deum, vid allorlt tie prnyecKo Ihf nevrtftinli. 



ze la the churcti. E>ei 






'8 iTALr. [Section 3. 

Home, nieiropoUtsa of the lubnrliiin churcCu, 
Bt. Petcr'i he !•' aoierelgn PonliO. It lUndi on 



ot Conitsntlne, found in h)i 
o<l to haTe belonged to ttae 



le the n 
™iriTdBrabi> 

■miaCi 
it Corpni Chtlstl, or Corpus RomlnL, 
iBf^lficunt dlKiilAVr The Pope wu 



nearly 6.000 limpg in tbe^Silver III; 
SielrMng Rai 



by Bt. ThL>inu Aqulnaa, beffLnnin^: 
diGdbyUrbuiIV„«f"rlh( 



Thl>fMllT>lw> 

ST. JOSIf LATBJtAV. 

'^^o/ ibe foar cblel busiaat ■wliOn the w«llii 
™* *"* "' ">« Pof. ft wblcb be flrrt Ukee 



byculnmnfl of vcrd-Antlriue from (he former cburch) 

41 feet hlich. The atn* at the end of tbe chancM 

azure and gold gremid. An •imna! ordination le 
held In this ehurch on the 8atord»y before Trinity. 
The Cominl Chapel. TiiilU by A. OaHlol. (or 
Clement XII.. and dedicated to Bl. Andres Corain], 
Issald lobe tbe riclieitin Rnine> Iti-Mt 400.Dnni 
It has a moulcby Oi 



a porphyry 






orthehl^haltu'ir 



Bonte 9S.] MODBEN Boua— si 



d LJIIBBAN, aAHTA MABIA 






tett 



l>efram theTempUe 



ruptlsr Cipllolint 



-.trnV. The Torloola Chanal, built In 
s ui mubla lind EltdlnK. Th< clol>l«r, nf 
Irteaith caiiuiT. I* buLiig raiiotwd. 
BA|itLRtaiy of OoiutnntlnQ la an octagnn, AA 

lTIv^ by ci^bt mlamiifl of T«d porpnytj, Htnndbif 

-'■--■---"- -'ilghliilhetii belo*. The (onl 1. 

■■■■■-- -■■ ■JmiMnntine't works, 



<s belied. Ibli Bdit 
.hath. HencoiUera 

t, mil liir^ (noDjKh I 
u."-fft.r.ltfAJ lf» 



qui 17. Built 






^».':l?' 



B Byl™, 



Vltltora toon lonni to (onu amuonahlo doubt 
lU 111 llie Hntbcnddtr o( many ot Ibcm in- 
Mrlptlniu. which nra dlgcoided by all nupoctable 
Boman Catholic wrltor* i bideed, u Bhihop Words- 
vonb obumi, if tbc Coofirogatlun of the Inqulal- 
llon were to Hpply »ioo of thnlr industry and zeal 

ttao falHjbouda which dlgfignre tbe columns, 
cbnrchei, and altaii ot Bomo, they would confer a 
great benoAt on church hiitury and tho cause of 
rclfKion. They weiend 10 riiow bote, pillars from 
the Tomple.theWellof Bamarla(lr ■'- — ' — 



f the I 



• by A 






cour of Donalollo'i statue of Christ. 
Tbe B(ml» luita, or Koly Htaln, on the noMh, 



91. Peter'i) within the wall), 
Kb dedicated to theVlr^B, 

la ad Nlres (from his tnebig 

rarda enlarged, and at length 
■nedlct xrv., by F. Puga. 



Id C. Ralnald: 
he hitches in 
n I>T«. Itcn 



Facing the eatt, or principal front, 1> a handiome 
Corinlblan column, aboul 6« feel hlRli. with > 

middle one of Its Sm doo™. the Pope blesied 
the people on AaBumntion Day. There la al» 
a alatno of Philip of Spain. The interior 



supply of KOldwl 



celllnir WIS gilt with thee 

MsregHi In 18111 it was 
ralio. Nutlce Ibe toniba 
I IV., by Quldo 1 



LI. Fnnlana rcspecllTolv. 

The bly:h altar b»i a porphyry um tu 
canopy, by Fufrn, with marble angels. 
IX. <s borled. In a splendid Cr]-p1 






of the old city walla, lbs Nero Aqneducl. the 
CsRipagna, the Babina Hllli. Ac June 24, or 
at, John the Baptlat'a Day. la a great fcsla. 

BAin-A HAXU mOOIOBS. 
In PtatMa dl amnU, Ukris Ma^^oro. on tha Eaaal- 
Una, near ibt rallwy UrmlBBM. One of the loo' 



estlnR-sarcophairua, now uacdaa an altar. There 
the upper row are two fitfuros within a ahail, llln 



the Lions, a Kmi ^e»«»5,"»tai\"».K» _ 



182 



BBADSHAW*8 ITALY. 



[Section 2. 



one design, and bear a most pleasing proportion to 
the saperstmcture. The clerestory, too, is orna- 
mented with pilasters and panels, so as to make it 
a part of the general design; and with the roof, 
which is panelled with constructive propriety and 
simplicity, combined with sufficient richness, serves 
to make up a whole, giving a far better and more 
complete idea of what a basilica either was origi- 
nally, or at least might have been, than any other 
church at Rome." — Fergusson. 

*S. PAOLO FUOBI IE MUBA. 

A basilica, outside Porta 8. Paola and the Pro- 
testant Cemetery, on the road to Ostia. This is a 
large and handsome new church, opened in 1847, 
on an uninhabited spot, to mark the site of a 
venerable and interesting one, burnt in 1823, and 
first founded by Constantino, over the grave of St. 
Paul. The great clock tower is in the Lombard 
style, and cost 120,000 scudi. The present splendid 
edifice, which was rebuilt under Pio Nono's eye, 
(and who was to have been buried here), is 
400 feet long, exclusive of the atrium in front, 
and is divided into five aisles, by eighty noble 
pillars of Baveno marble and granite, in single 
blocks, of which two support an arch over the 
altar, dedicated to the sister of Honorius, who 
completed the former church, and whose design 
has been copied in the present one, which contains 
also copies of the old mosaics, by Giotto's pupils. 
The front is a copy of the former one, and will 
contain a great mosaic, to cost 30,000 scudi. The 
timber roof is riclily carved and gilt. There are 
no side chapels. The friezes in the nave are orna- 
mented with mosaic heads of all the popes, chiefly 
modem, from the government studio, but some are 
ancient. The alabaster pillars of the high altar 
were presented by the infidel Pasha of Egypt, and 
a malachite altar in the transept is a gift from the 
heretic Emperor of Russia. 

The granite pillars of the nave are from the 
Emperor of Austria ; among which is the one cele- 
brated by Wordsworth, when it stood on the Sim- 
plon, which Napoleon intended for the triumphal 
arch of Milan. A Jew bequeathed a large sum 
for the support of the church. The King of Hol- 
land gave 50,000 francs. A painting of the Con- 
version of St. Paul is by Camuccini ; choir, by C. 
Modemo. A fine St. Benedict is by Rainiddi. An 
adjoining cloister of the thirteenth century, belong- 
ing to the Benedictbie Convent, which rests on 
fiutcd and twisted pillars, has in the library cloister 
a small collection of Christian gravestones, from 
A.D. 355. One bears the figure of an organ, with 
the words RVSTICVS SE VIBv FECI. The atrium 
of the old church, the distinguishing sign of a basi- 
lica, existed down to the seventeenth century, and 
is replaced by a modem court. In its plan the 
former church was a duplicate of the old St. Peter's. 
About twenty-four of its columns were taken from 
Me tomb of Hadrian; and it was further remark- 
jj^/^^f ^^^i"sr been tinder the patronage of Eng- 

J^d^^aJ'''^ ^ "^nr VIII. "Long before 
^ d^t^ct/on by Bre, that church had been so 



altered as to lose many of its most striking pecu- 
liarities. Decay and whitewash had done much to 
efloce its beauty, which nevertheless seems to have 
struck all travellers with admiration, as combhiing 
in itself the last reminiscence of Pagan Rome with 
the earliest forms of the Christian world." — 
(Fergusson.) Near this is S. Paolo alle Tre Fontane 
(page 190), witth its Trappist Convent, among 
eucalyptus plantations. 

OTHER ROMAN CHURCHES WORTH 
NOTICE 

(In alphabetical order). 

Santa Agnese (St. Agnes), near the Pamfili Palace, 
Piazza Navona, founded in the fourth century. Re- 
built at the cliarge of Innocent X., by Rainaldi 
(1550) and Borromini, who added the cupola and 
front. The interior is a handsome Greek cross, in 
marble; cupola, painted by C. Ferri and Baciccio; 
paintings by Ferrata, Guide, &c. Santa Agnesc's 
Martyrdom, by Algardi, is in the chapel dedicated 
to her, her naked figure hidden by her long hair. 
In the portico is the tomb of Innocent X. At his 
death his family refused to bury him. One of his 
major-domos bought the coffin, and another gave 
five crowns for the funeral expenses. 

Santa Agnese fuori le ifura — (See page 193.) 

S. AdrianOy at the Forum, at the comer of Via 
BoncIIa, lately identified as on the site of the Curia 
as rebuilt by Diocletian. 

Santa Agata in Suburra, Via Mazzarlni, restored 
in 1633, was a church of the fifth century, in pos- 
session of the Arians. It now belongs to the Jrisfy 
College, and is behind the Aldobrandini Palace. 

S. Agostino (St. Augustine), north-east of Piazza 
Navona. Built by Pietrasanta, about 1480, its dome 
being the oldest in Rome (by some years earlier 
than St. Peter's) ; and restored by Vanvitelli, who 
added the Angelica Library, annexed to it. Notice 
a celebrated fresco of Isaiah, by Raphael; St. 
Augustine, by Guercino ; a monument of St. Monica, 
his mother ; a Madonna of Loreto, by Caravaggio ; 
Bracci's tomb of Cardinal Imperiali; and a fine 
marble ♦Madonna and Child, by Sansovino. This 
last is the Santa Maria SSa. del Parte, which is 
supposed to work miracles to mothers, and is covered 
with necklaces, crowns, ear-rings, and other finery; 
while the foot is almost kissed away. An imi^o 
of the Virgin, supposed to be German, is popularly 
attributed to St. Luke. Close by is the Angelica 
Library of 100,000 volumes and 2,900 MSS., open 
daily, sxcept Sunday and Thursday, 9 to 2. 

8. Alessandro. See Excursions from Rome, p. 219. 

S. Alessio, on the Aventine, near Santa Sabina 
and the Tiber, facing the Rlpa Grande, was founded 
in the eighth century, on the site of S. Boniface's 
Church, and has been modernised Internally. The 
wooden stairs, under which St. Alexis lived seven- 
teen years for self-mortification, are shown. It 
stands next to the Blind Asylum rDe' Cicchi). 

In a small piazza, close by, is a door with a 
small aperlxjic, wMch affords a peculiar view of 
the dome ol S.'PeleT'a. IV^t ^wix \gv.N^^ «.<ift«t%\A 
8. Maria A'venlVaa, ^«i%e\W . 



bnlH, 1420, and by F. Font 
i ot Ciaoisnt IV. CGBnguK 






nuLna ol Eom» QasaraW «b near at hand. 

S, .^ii*«i{at.Aimrew),OBMcm[eCfl«ano.f6 
Ibe Qultlniil Onrdei.t, on tbo .lie ot the Tomplo o( 
QBlrW^ Ua»t by B.mU,l_fc,r the J«uit no^^^^^ 



de 8i»«iiM«rt1ir ■ ■■" - '■ 



et. FtukIi d< 



hapel, wi 



iiiif6Angidi,li 



Angelica KauOiiiBiin and actaadow. and a pripct ot 
Moroc™ (I'M). 
5. An^'W'M&DiKif, on the Qnirinal. near tb* 

*S. Andrea <fcU*' Vallc, in Via del Bndailo. on the 



*Ara ClBll,or Santa Maria 

ntlie Capitoilne. 

"o'lhKe nave., bi t" 

I which are Egyptian KrsD I.e. n 

Ik thfftranieut made of a porphy: 
ver (be .Ite of the Ate. A f>EBC 

l^lMo" Tomb of Pletio Sella 
■rtler, A highly dressed AimMm 




„ la Magpiore. 

CDiloua Iniwee. He Is the patron of ic 
animals, ffhicsb wera fonoerly brought her 

a. AnlMiia de' I'erloalieit, noar the Ai^ 
3. ApolUnan. facing tlm Allcmps Palac 



i( Jupiter CapltolinnB ; In other wordB, that graollo 

Ljf the Christian pjoty of AngMtns, Ton must be- 
lieve that a naiien tlgnro of the Infant Jeeni. 



The Tarpelan Rock is doje by (past s floor In- 
icribed " Qni si vede la Hooca Tarpeta"), a> well 
k> the pnlace of the Senator of Rome, Caffatelll 



B, and I Sanki BalUna 



. Paintlngx b 
ApBllaU (Ho 
. Thil It Otta of CiaMtatiBe't'bt^<Mi, II 



~ "sk'AJmiiiu (Boix Apoitlei). lu Plana del BS. 
ApoaUtU, ordaUa Tarme, faeiog llie "^ '■"■' 






184 



B&AD8HAW*8 ITALY. 



[Section 8. 



It croMed the VU Appia at Porta Capena, dose to 
the bridge oyer the Alnio, which runs through 
the Circiu Maximal to the Tiber. 

B. Ba/rtolommeo (St. Bartholomew), on the iHola 
di 8. Bartolommeo, fonnded in the tenth century. 
Ite foorteen granite oolumns are said to hare be- 
longed to a Temple of .£ffonIapiu«, which stood 
here on the site of the hoRfrftal of B. Giovanni 
Oalabita, which faces it. Itn frescoes, <fec., have 
been injured by the inundations of the Tiber. In 
the garden are remains of the travertine bulwark 
whieh protected the npper part of the island. 

8, il0»*n«fvi9, in Piaasa d* Termini, on part of the 
aite of the Baths of Diocletian. A round church, 
made by incorporating the calidariura of the baths, 
in 1400. Remains of a theatre and hemicyclo are 
in the grounds adjoining. 

a. Bioffio (or St. Blaise), In Via Oiulia, near the 
Tiber, is the church of the Armenians. 

Bantu Bib4ana, near the railway and Porta S. 
Lorenso. Rebuilt by Url)an VIII., out of one of 
the fifth oentury, dedicated to the memory of a 
daughter of Flavian, prefect of Homo. The front 
is by Boniini (1625), and the statue of the saint, on 
the high altar, is bv the same; the ^'noarcHt ap- 
proach he has mode, says ForHyth, '^to the serene 
pathos of the antique." On this altar is one of the 
tlnost alabaster urns in Rome. Paintings by P. da 
Cortona, and Ciampelli. This church is seldom 
opened. Not far off is the romid Temple of 
Minerva Medioa, so called. 

B. Boma»mtura, on the Palatine, with a convent 
act)oining, in which is a solitary palm tree. 

Cappuccini^ or 8. Maria della Conoezioue, in a 
squaiu near Piazza Barborini; built by Urban 
VIII.*8 brother, Gai'dinal Barborini. On the front 
is a copy of Giotto's Navicolla, or Bark of St. Peter. 
Notice GulUo*8*8t. Michael; the "Catholic Apollo. 
Like the Belvedere god the archangel breathes that 
dignified vengeance which animates without dis- 
torting."— C/br*y<AJ. Domenichino's St. Francis 
in an ecstasy. A. Sacchi's St. Anthoiw, and his St. 
Bonavcntura, with the Virgin and (Thild. P. da 
Cortona*s St. Paul and Ananias. The founder's 
tomb, with the inscription, ''Hie jacet pulvis, 
olnls et nihil.** In the crypt below the bodies and 
skeletons of the dead monks are preserved, and 
made a show of. The vaults are illuminated 
November 3nd. 

S, Carlo a* CMiHat% in Piazza Catinari (whore 
the porringer makers used to liveX near the 
Ghetto, between the theatres of Pompey and Bal- 
bus; built 1619, on the site of S. Biogio, like a 
Greek orosa, with a front by Sorla. The cupola 
is one of the largest in Rome, and is adorned with 
*Domenichino*s Cardinal Virtues. Notice, also, 
Qutdo*s fresco of St. Charles; A. Sacohi's Death 
of St. Anna} O. Brande'a Martyrdom of S. Biagio; 
P. da Cortona's altar-pieoe of St. Charles, under a 
a^M Ou0 oi the monkt ot this convent was the 
/mr^^. VeroeUon», editor ot the Vatican MS. of 
iSulSu!*^ ^w/ JV«»rarba/«in«ii*, prefiared by 



«A. 



*B. Carlo al Corso, on the Corso. Begun, 1012, 
by Lunghi, and finished by P. da Cortona. It is 
rich in marbles, paintingH, and stuccoes. It is the 
church of the Lombards. Notice C. Maratta's 
Presentation of St. Carlo to the Saviour, at the 
high altar; and a fresco by Maratta in St. 
Charles's Chapel. Tomb of A. Verri, author of 
" Notti Romane." The heart of S. Carlo Borromeo 
is deposited under the altar. 

3. Carlo (or Carlino) aU$ qmittro Fontane^ on 
the Quirinal. A small church by Borromini, said 
to fill a space loss than that occupied by one of the 
great piers of St. Peter's. The style is extravagant. 

Santa Caterina de' Funari, Via de' Falegnami, 
has a Dead Christ, by Muziano, with other pic- 
tures by F. Z. Zuccari. 

Santa Caterina di Siena, in the Solita del Grillo, 
a pretty church, attached to a large Dominican 
nunnery; in the grounds of which is a fine medisDval 
tower, called Torre di Milizia. Near this, in Via 
Nazionale, is the Palace of the late Cardinal Anto» 
nclii, under which remains have been found of 
the Baths of Constantino. 

Santa CeciUa in Trastevere. Rebuilt in the 19th 
century ; having l)cen restored in the ninth century, 
on the site of one first erected about 280 a.d. by 
Pope Urban. Notice St. Cecilia's statue, beneath 
the High Altar, by 8. Madcmo ; and some ancient 
mosaics from the former church. The naves rest 
on ancient granite pilasters. 

8. Cesareo^ on the Via Porta di S. Sebastiano, 
near the Baths of Cai'acalla ; an ancient church 
of the seventh century, with some modem mosaics 
by d'Arpino. 

*S. Olsmento, out of via di S. Giovanni, on the 
Esquillne ; originally one of the oldest churches 
in Rome, founded by Clement I., and restored by 
(Element XI. It retains its ancient basilica form 
(fourth oentnry) in a more complete state than 
any other in Rome, having on atrium, or court, in 
front, surrounded by a columned portico. Inside 
are three aisles, divided by granite and cipolino 
colmnns, with two old ambos, or reading desks. 
The vault in the apse is inlaid with mosaics of the 
thirteenth century, representing the Four Rivers 
of Paradise issuing from the Cross. Below it are 
the remains of an earlier Church, and of a Temple 
of Mithra(?), first discovered by Dr. Mullooly, 
and standing on the site of St. Clement's Hcuse^ 
close to remains of the city Wall, built by 
Servius Tullius, b.o. 600. It contains an ancient 
freaeo of Roman bishops in this order— 1. Linns; 
2. Clemens; 8. Petrus. Notice a mosaic of the thir- 
teenth century in the vault; Christ's Passion, a 
fresco, by Massaodo; St. John the Baptist, a 
statue, by a brother of Donatello; tomb of St. 
Clement. It was near this that, according to the 
old scandalous story, "Pope Joan" (a voung 
woman of Mayenee) was delivered of a child. A 
statue of Yvwr, w\t\i a xVata. oxvY^w Ysas^^ «sA *. %\d\<\ 
In her vrma, "waa AiowxLVa\*TjL\\«ai'%xX\a%. 



MODBH ftOKB— «H1nlOHBB. 18B 


(Sm rnrther oo, pige let. 






St.P,ol,id*l«when lh.ykn.lt 10 prky (or Inter - 


Vi»dlS. FrmnCMoo, In Trmte- 


position ^slmt Ihe urti o[ Simon Mugm. 


Ofchof the lonth Mntury, wdlh 
Virgin, which come uhan it 


5. JiVanfMco di Paolo, nn the north-wortem ilaju 


of the Etquillne, na> hnllt ISSS, md hit pilntlngi 


miafia (BH, Ci™in» Mid Drnnliin), 


by Saaioferratn. It Is atlHched to a large eonrent, 




»nd oceoplcB the site of a Temple o( Diana »lld the 






".*i'J" '.f!;.*^ *^"'" '■ ""■ 




f Urbm VllI,. In 1«M. P«l of 


Lucius Tarquin, miil his deed bodjr thrown Into 



the .Irect. i 


wai Uri-en o?cr h J his own daoghler ; 








of the str« 


,¥l. acolorati now Via dl B- Fran- 










co a Bip«. near the 


(Ipa Br^e, t. 




ulbera chnreh in Trn 




founded (B 


dor Gregory IX.) 








Jached, In wbidi 


hli room it 


So^f'^llhl^'pi'e.l 


by A. Catraoal, 




Mnd., by dArrluo. 




dedlealed to the Sa 








eseouted mider 








Sania o'alla. near the Supena 


o> Bridge. wJih 




atlaehed, was called 


Suits Haria In- 


(■ortlco, Del 


e near the porlimo 


(hoForomOIt- 






dsw« the Port. 






he Triumphal Way. 




S. aallUm 


», Id PiMia Bomana, 


fnTr»«toTer»,l» 




a ConsaL who iOlTered nmrtyrdoni 




the Apostate, and Is p 


art of a Hospital 






1 Benedict EIII. 








■riia national chonh 


! the B pan lard 1. 


•OeaifJ 


.ns},PKiz.dolGeih, 






The Jeinlt Church 


and one of the 








larce conTe 


t attached. Bceun, 1568, by Vignoli, 




on byhlspnpll. Del 


a Porta. NolfcB 


Irescoos In 


^'.s^^K'^t-.y^.} 


aclcclo^ C. Ma- 



Ihe Pornm of Cupid by Pope Syli 

of Gregory 21., by OlWori ;' ra 
Ih colitiiT7. Open only- on Ihe fe 



Fr.Xarier; also therlchchapel 

a sllver-gtU statne of the Saint (replacing Ih"' 



In the Fonun Boarinm, i 



Is in andent bnlMln^s-v* 
o«eaio 61.. liBOT^B &V C.i 
o! I ot¥.TiK\M.4,-«\>a«> 
nu uie cy« ol \ CKa\n«.\SswmB.n 
hare Impra*- \ 'nia'Ve\>.\>iwm -i 




and the Arch of Jani 



BBlSBHAW'a 






to tba Roman peuple. 



1< DtCOUlUO POJIHIK 

Dv ^aiarL TheCcoieto 
Wicd.1i resorted M, 



Gregory ILved 
eold'chnrch, T 



uti in imrgalor^a »OBgeiliuni 
aji^Ma, in a Boliury ipot, net 



ry. hy N.Conllcri. Then 



. IHe Tomb of till 
llovannide' FlornHnHat. John or tlii 



III. B. Coll In rs 
■e. Near Ihiaii the 
marKoldgmithi. 



wu Abbot hera, but St. Ausiifltln«, the Apoatlfi of 

iiiu, Archbishop d( Vork; St. JustM, Biibop of 
S. (TriwjmiM, in Trasleva-o, ws« founded In 1h» 

S. lyaazio. In Pia££4 3. Igiiaa^io, betwocn the 



ti lietagAlgBrdl andC 



Midline 



eSliK 






Borramini. SI. Phliip resided and I 
•tltntohoro. Communion of HI. Jor 
CammDcclnl from Dumcnlchino. 1 
the Koyg, by MuiimiD. Near tiili 
Ingloic. lor gngltah clerical ttadenl 

a. aimlama drglf Sdiiawnl (^t. . 
SclBvonlini). al Porta di RliKtta, 
Lnne:hi and O. Kontana; and ledeo 
with trescoe* by aagllapll. 

a. aiumjipe {JuHf" ""- ■" "— 



^"ssBs.-'./S'is,: 



1 by Lwros; 






iiw Iha MimerUnB 1M8, o« ftio »U 
/ cupeuMn, \ Pove'iMjWW) 



Mttl ^;il4 ^nA^^AA\l^AA\VE%Vb4 



KoQte 3a.] 

fl. Lorenat in 



IT In rwlgpimii. on (he 



"Hadamn Lncceila," On Bt. Msrk'i day aU 
la Maraherita, lii Via della LDngirctla, In 
7- «nii mo Conyeiit of tho Slaters of Iho 



3. Lorento in Miran'ta, Id tho Fo 

rtkoo of the churdh, each JVC feet 
S. Luisi ill' /VoiKKf <8t. Louis 



111 I58», from the doalgna of DelU Ports. Notice 
a fresco of tbe Acti of St. Cecil ia. by Domenlchlno. 
Acopyof BiipliBErBet.C«lllii,byCiildo; AHDinp- 
tLoii of the VLrglD, by Baaujio, At tho hlgrh iiltar. 
Bt. Loala'a Chapplf doalgncd by FlaullUa DKccl, a 

Lopolnc ; and of tha f athw-ln-law of BobioakL, a 



La Xaddetena. 



(ho Pinl 



I, hy L. Qlordano, 

Madenm d>' ifonM, on tho iwrth-wai( ildo o[ tl 
EiquUlne, ha> Mudano'i Birth of ChrIM, and fac 
tbe ConrenC delta Viva Bepolle. 

•3S. Maraaitm t Fieirt, or Tor Plgnattara, oi 
aide Porta Magelore. on Vu Lablcana, It c»U 

srypti), ulnnt lOD feet •qnare. Tho circular pi 



i™.? 









ct by ralslog (h? 

baws of clKhl ..»:..». I «i. 

Ii ace pragerrcd. Other eight 



by M. Angelo, tor Pine IV. 
h M. Aagelo bad proineett (o 



of the Uartyrilom of Stophon. 

traniferred from St. Petcr-e In 17 

Baptlsmof Christ; Cas(anil'9et.PctoriuidTabllhai 

Pomorsnclo'a Death of Ananias and Bapphlra: 

llondon's Btatne of Bt. Bmno. of wbldi Clemenl 



not forbid h 


my V 


dc 


the 






apele. containing the. 


ml 








>a. facing thi 






als Parlsl 




he epitaph 










that 


body Is gone 




his 




fills 


and hie «, 


Ihaa a» 










Mi clolsler 




th 


chi 


reh 


was 



the compmkm of Flu VII., at Pontainebleau. 

S. Mara, part of Palaziodt Venczja. Rebollt 
(and with a front added In 1*M, b; O. da Majano), 
on tbe aiu of a baallloa, founded In tho toortb 
eentniy, by Pope Karoo, who Is borlad here. 
Notice soma early Cbristlan epitaphs. In (hapcvUeo, 
and a nioealo In Uie trllnD*. C. Uaratta'a Adora- 
tion of tia Wit MtB, tad (be tomb of L. it. 
I'imate, one or the nritest work* of Canori 



leslgned by M. Angalo 

hnrch aro tbe Deaf and Domb InstKntl 



Lif the same height. It has a C^lnthlan portico i 
ji painting b^ a. Romano, at the hUh altar; (omb 
iif Adrian VI., by Peruiiii tomb of Holrteoloa, a 

Chnrch of S. Nlccolb, helonginB to (ho natlTci of 

Santa Maria in Amiro. near the Capranlea Col' 
lege and Theatre, (nunded tn the fifth century, by 
Anastasius I., on the site of the Temple of Jntema, 

Id EquirU, or horw^races, in tho Campus Uartliu. 
Ln orplian aaylun, founded by Loyola, la atuntA^ 

Sonln Uoiio te Ara 0*1^. 'S** '■"■ "i***-* 



188 



BXADBHAW'fl ITALY. 



[Section 2. 



Malta. ClMe by the church is the Villa Magittrale, 
with portraits of all the Qrand Masters. Open 
Wednesday and Saturday. 

Santa Maria in Campitelli, in the Piazza of that 
name, wetit of the Capitol, or Gampidogllo (by cor- 
ruption, Gampitelli), near the nite of tiie carccros, 
or stables, of the Flaminian Circus (Piazza Mor- 
gana). Built (1668) by Rainaldi; the nave being 
supported by twenty-two pillars, from the Portico 
of (jctaria, which stood hard by. It is sometimes 
called Santa Maria in Portico. Notice a tomb, 
with lions supporting a pyramid, having ** umbra'* 
on one and "nihil" on the other. St. Anne, by L. 
Oordona. A cross of shining alabaster in the cupola. 
Near this is a fountain by Delia Porta, on the site of 
the Delubrum, or lustral fountain, from the Temple 
of Apollo, which occupied a place here, along with 
the Temple and Column of Bellona. The Oblata 
Convent of Tor de* Specchi is also close by, next 
the steps to the Capitol. 

Santa MatHa in Carinis, Via del Tempio dell a 
Pace, behind the Basilica of Constantine, to the 
north-east of the Forum. A small churcli, so 
called from the Carlnse quarter (the gromid took 
the form of a ship's hull) in which Porapey lived 
in the Villa Rostrata, a house adorned with the 
beaks of a ship. 

Santa Maria in Campo Santo ^ behind St. Peter's, 
on the site of Nero's Circus, now the German 
Cemetery. St. Helena, it is said, covered the spot 
with holy earth from Mount Calvary. Caravaggio's 
Descent from the Cross; an Infant, by Quesnoy, 
or Fiammingo, a Brussels artist. The old Palace of 
the InquiHtion (SS. UfflzioX near it, is now a 
barrack. 

Santa Maria delta Concetions^ or Santa Maria del 
Cappnccini, see Cappuccini (supra). 

Santa Maria della CoMolazione is attached to the 
Consolazlone Hospital, for wounded persons. 

Santa Maria in Cosmedin^ Piazza Bocca della 
Verltk, on the site of the Temple of Fortune. 
It is marked bv a square campanile of seven 
storeys. 110 feet high, only 15 feet oroad. Founded 
bv Pope Dionysius, and rebuilt by Pope Adrian, 
782, and again, by Gregory IX., In the thirteenth 
century. "Cosmcdin'^^ls said to be a corruption 
of coimoty ornamental. In the portico is a 
gaping mouth (bocca), or mask, of marble, into 
which, as the story goes, if a liar puts his arm he 
caimot draw it out again. Hence the name of the 
Piazza. The interior is divided into throe naves 
by antique columns, with a mosaic pavement of 
Alexandrine work. The high altar is made of 
Egyptian granite. An ancient orypt under the 
ehoir was part of the temple. Near this is the 
round Temple of Hercules. 

Santa Maria in Domniea, or Santa Maria della 

^sr)ce))n; bo called from the ancient marble boat 

Jia /iwit of H, near Nero's uianeduct and 

£SiLf<^^^"? ^^to"do. Rebuilt by Leo X., from 

^SUSaZj^^'' inolndtng eighteen granite pU- 

" **^ ofponAyry, /«,«, the old chui-ch 



founded by Paschal is I. ; with a frieze, painted by 
G. Romano. A mosaic of the year 817. 

Santa Maria Egiziaca^ or the Armenian Church, 
near Ponte Rotto, is on the site of the Temple of 
Fortuna Vlrilis (?), one of the few antiquities of 
the Republic, now incorporated with it. It is 
constructed of tufa and travertine, the pillars being 
adorned with stucco ornaments and frieze, with 
festoons of candelabra and bulls' heads. In the 
portico is a model of the Temple at Jerusalem. The 
altar-piece, by F. Zuccari. Facing it is a building 
called the House of Ricnzi, or of Pilate. 

Santa Maria di Loreto, Piazza Trajano. De- 
signed by Sangallo. Statue of St. Susanna, by 
Fiammingo. Near this church is another dedicated 
to the Santlsslmo Nome di Maria. 

Santa Maria Maggiore (see page 181.) 

Santa Maria ad Mar tyre* is the ecclesiastical 
name of the Pantheon since Its dedication in 608. 
Another name more generally given to the 
Pantheon is Santa Maria Rotonda. 

*Santa Maria »opra Minerva (on Minerva), near 
the south-east of the Pantheon, was attached to 
the chief convent of the Dominicans, whose 
general presided over the Santo Ufllizio, or Inquisi. 
tion, now the Ministry of Education. Rebuilt In 
the fourteenth century on the site of the Tempio 
of Minerva, and remarkable as one of the 
very few Ghthic ChurcJtes in Rome, simple 
in style, but much spoiled by modem Pal- 
ladi an restoration . In front are marked the heights 
of the waters of the Tiber In the floods from 1422 
to 1598; that of 1580 is recorded by B. Cellini, in 
his " Life." Notice a *Chri9t Bearing his Orou, by 
M. Angelo; Statue of Urban VII., by Buonvicino; 
Altar-picture, by P. Lippi, or Beato Angelloo; 
Frescoes, by P. Lippi; rich Tomb of Paul IV.; 
Picture of C. Maratta, in the Altleri Chapel, with 
a Crucifixion, by A. SacchI ; Tombs of Leo X. and 
Clement XII., by A. Sangallo ; with one of Cardinal 
Bembo, and another of Fra Angelico, the monk 
and artist (beginning "Hie jacet Ven. Pictor"); 
Tomb of St. Catherine of Siena; Gothic Tomb of 
Bishop Durand, covered with mosaics, Ac. ; Tomb 
of Benedict XIII. 

The Biblioteea CkuancUenHs of Cardinal Casanate 
is a part of the old Convent. Open daily, except 
Sundays. This library has 200,000 volumes, and 
comes neat in size to the Vatican. Facing the 
church is an Obelisk on an elephant's back. 

Miss Catlow describes a ceremony in this church, 
at which the Pope was present: — "Again the 
music sounded. *Dunois the Brave' was played 
when General Guyon entered; but now It was a 
more solemn air. Hundreds of people poured in; 
and soon we saw, coming down the opposite aisle, 
two large fans of white ostrich feathers stuck full 
of peacock's eyes; an emblem either of the Pope's 
all-seeing power, or denoting that all eyes are 
upon him. TYiwa ceim« YVo "Notvo, borne aloft in . 
hia chair, by «i xvumtewc ol tmitv «^\f^TN\Tv^ \Jcva 
poles. HelooVftA %o Wt* «ocv ^wiXwrD. ^fe\\.i vt V^a\ 



bj-lwollll 






CardlnolB approncbed to klu Lis foi 
uLLci IhlB ccrecaoDy mails ba^aa, darlnR 1 

!°hL»mllro BBS l^en off'sirfl'Thaii Bgain j 

:li he rumd ■ few vorda. Wbcn ho rou, I 



alktdlK 



tier. After 



aaBhW 



s. and moonling hta chair ™a. carrlKl awny. 
Queen (ChrlBIliia ol Bpuln. who nai present 
I ber buibani!, tho Doke uC UUnzirog, and 
Uer) paai€d; tbe Fren^ and SwlH loldleni 



itreeta, wlili^ lend Inln the clly. 

li tbo chnrch of Ihc Bpanlatda; bnlltby Sangallo. 
8. IHeso. bvA.Caraccl. TwoDorgiai, i1i.,Po[b 
Calliloa ril. and Aleiander VI., hL» nephew, are 

Saxla Maria in MtmicaH, near Tonte Slato. bolit 



atta'i VlBltatlon, In tha enpola. Th* 
iDlhahlghaKu, bjAlbmil. The conn 
la.ury (1584) In hy Bramanu, 
mill Uaria cW fiatia ftj„ w«|Mng). I 



•Sa»W JfDi-*i*( Fopolo, near PoMa dat Fopglp 
nnatherinclanaardeai. BeboDt UIl, for EUitua 
IV,. hy PiuteUl, on tho lite of Ihe Doinitlan tomb 
,mi of an earlier drareh, and niodenilied by Ber- 
nini, Notice FlntUTlccbio'iNailvlty In IheVennti 
Ohapcl, anaiiltfrcKooilnllieclioIri C.MaralU'a 
Coocenllon ; Baa-reliet o[ 81. CathErlnc,Bt. Andrew 
,>r Padua and at. Vincent— ■ irark ot Ihe BfUenth 
,™inry. An Imngo ot Iho Virgin (on the hlt:h 
iiltar), repnted to he by St. I.iibe.^>efare which the 



Tomba of Cardinal! 
C. da BaniuTlno. The 
. __.„..._ by Raiihacl; and tha 
cnpoln, where .lujillcr, Diana, and 
other Pagan dellieBMirronndJehovali. Sebaatiano 
Jel flornVs NatiTlIy. BtatDes of Daniel, Ac., b; 

Uarlo del Prttntto, tm Sa„la Maria 




i •BlUyU, 
dulled 
'i PreMalntlon, and C, 



vet. whb a pavement of AUx 

rapiH. The Asaumptlon, b> the celling, Ij b; 
iiDciilclilno. Mu«alcA of Ibe twelfth eaalary, 
nib u( Cardinal D'Alcnfon, by Paolo, of the 
inocnth centnry. Neu-thla la Iho Benedletbit 
luivh ol^. CariiIii,laDndod In Ihe third oentnry, 
ilnh hiu a Latin RIbIa of ntaarlemanna'a. 

A"V«"^"" ■ ""* 

liortaVwV. 

■Stnuttfc, « ttM C"' 
(.ttioag^i ifta w — 



190 



BBADSUAW 8 ITALY. 



[Section 2. 



hU Diary, 1645) ; is the Church of the Oratorlans, 
or Pilippini, a society founded by S. Philip Neri 
by whom a masical entertainment of a religious 
character is given every Sunday evening, half-an- 
hour after Ave Maria. None but men are admitted. 
From this Institution we derive the word Oratorio. 
It is one of the finest churches in Rome, and was 
rebuilt according to the plans of Borromini. The 
interior decorated by P. da Cortoua. Notice a 
Virgin and Child, and two other paintings, by 
Rubens, at the high altar. Copy of Caravaggio*s 
Descent from the Cross. Guido's fresco of St. 
Philip Neri, and a statue of him, by Algardi. 
Tombs of Cardinals Baronius and Maury. Above 
the oratorium of the convent is a valuable Library 
— open Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. 

Santa Maria in Via Lata, in the Corso. Rebuilt 
1662, on the site of an Arch of Claudius (pulled 
down 1485) and of the primitive Church of S. 
Ciriaco. Here, it is said, St. Paul, with St. Luke 
for his companion, lived in "his own hired house," 
with the soldier who guarded him. It is omar 
mented with marbles, Ac, and has an oratory in 
the crypt below. 

Santa Maria della Vittoria, in the Via dl Venti 
Settembre, opposite to the Acqua Felice near the 
Baths of Diocletian ; founded in 1605, after a defeat 
of the Turks ; the front, by Soria, being added by 
Cardinal Borghese, in return for a present of the 
statue of the Hermaphrodite, which had been 
found here. The interior is the work of C. 
Mademo. The flags were taken at the battle of 
Lepanto. Notice Domenichino*s Virgin and St. 
Francis; Guercino's Trinity; and Guidons frescoes, 
with his Crucifixion. Bernini's St. Teresa in 
Ecstacy, with an Angel about to thrust an arrow 
through her heart. The high altar is new since 
1888. 

SS. Martina e Luca, comer of Via Bonella. Two 
churches, the lower very ancient, founded by 
St. Sylvester, the other built, seventeenth century, 
by P. da Cortona, who bequeathed 100,000 crowns 
to the church, and adorned its ancient crypt. It 
belongs to the Academy of St. Luke. 

S. Martino ai Monti, on the Esquillne, near the 
Baths of Titus. A fine church, restored in 1650, 
by Filippini, on the site of one of the sixth century. 
It contains twenty-four antique pillars, with instru- 
ments of martyrdom in the frieze, frescoes by 
Poussin, &c., and a high altar designed by P. da 
Cortona, who also designed a subterranean chapel, 
or oratory, in which the remains of Popes St. 
Sylvester and St. Martin are kept. Here the Pope 
presided over two councils. It communicated with 
the ancient Baths of Hadrian. 

SS, Nereo e Aehilleo, on the Via di Porta Sebas- 

tiano, near the Baths of Caracalla, founded, 523, by 

John I., to the memory of two martyrs under 

Domiti^, and rebuilt in the ninth century. It 

vnw ^g-Bin rabnilt in the sixteenth century, but 

not modernised. The arcades are supported by 

"'ih^'^^^'^P P'^"- Notice the marble work of 

7ae>j^^^ ^««<ft^^ desk, Ac, ornamented 



S. Niccdb in Carcere, near the Tiber, founded in 
the ninth century, and rebuilt in 1855, on the site of 
the three Temples of Jimo Sospita, Hope, and Pity, 
erected in the Republican period, over some earlier 
prisons, in the Forum Olitorium, or Herb Market. 
It has three naves, with columns from the temples. 

Sant* Omohono, in Via della Consolazione, was 
grranted to the Tailors' Corporation, 1573, before 
which it was called S. SiUvatore in Portlcu. 
Paintings by C. Maratta and Baciccio. 

*S. Onofrio, on the Janiculum, above Porta S. 
Spirito, is the head-quarters of the Girolaminl (or 
followers of St. Jerome), where their Prior- 
General resides. Built in the fifteenth century, 
and noticeable for the Tomb of Tasso, who found 
refuge and died in the convent adjoining, 1595. It 
is near the door, not far from Domenichino's Vir- 
gin and Child. His efligy, by Fabris, is the gift of 
Pio None. Here are A. Carracci's Madonna ; and 
a Madonna by L. da Vinci; d'Arpino's frescoes. 
Notice also, the Tombs of Guidi, the poet, who 
died here ; Barclay, the author of " Argenis " ; 
Mezzofanti, the great linguist, who died 1848. In 
Tasso's Cell they show a mask taken from his face, 
his inkstand, girdle of bark, chair, and an auto- 
graph letter. His favourite oak was injured by 
storms in 1842 and 189 1 . In the corridor is a fresco 
of the Virgin, by da Vinci. The gardens command 
a fine prospect of Rome and its environs. 

S. Panerazio, near the Porta di S. Pancrazio, 
on the summit of the Janiculum. Built by 
Symmachus, about the sixth century. It was 
much damaged in the siege of 1849, and is of no 
great interest. 

S. Pantaleo, near the Cancellaria, in Via di S. 
Pantaleo. Monument of S. Joseph Calasanzio, a 
Spaniard, who established the first school for poor 
children at Rome, under the religious order of 
Scolopi, a corruption of scuole pie. 

S. Paolo fuori le Mura. (See page 182.) 

S. Paolo aiia Regola, near Ponte Sisto, formerly 
called the Scuola (school) di S. Paolo, because St. 
Paul came here to teach the people ; living close 
by in a house pointed out by ancient tradition as 
his '*own hired house." St. Frances, by Parmi- 
giano. The Church of S. Salvatore in Campo 
faces this one. 

S. Paolo alle Tre Fontane (St. Paul at the Three 
Fountains), on the same road as the new Basilica 
of S. Paolo (pa^-e 182), a little farther from Rome. 
It was built, 1590, by Delia Porta, on the spot 
where St. Paul was beheaded. They say that bis 
head made three bounds, and that three jets of 
water sprung up, which were enclosed by the 
church. Close to this are the Church of Santa 
Maria Scala Coeli, an octagon, built about 1582-90, 
with some early mosaics by Zucca, and the Church 
of SS. Vincenzo ed Ancutasio, a Gothic building (on 
the plan), with three naves. It was built about 
790, and, though of brick, with few ornaments, 
it shows "both externally and internally an 
nniformVty of de«\^> and a desire to make every 
part omameiitaX, tYia\. ■^To^'^t^% «k x^rj T^%«.<e&A% 
effect."— FerijMwn. 



Roate 33.] 

BI.PBTEtca. I 



lubnlla d[ Spain, b; B. FlntsUl. in Ib« Hlteei 



•a, tnta the yalLow oo 



MODBBIf BOH8 — CauKOHER, 



UlbrFInU!]. 
bytonlsn. 



■ Imge eudlet ind sbmie Udrtr or lOTtjr 

''"lTB 



Jf tho KKlclj 

'«, brought ui 



The Ihroe or il. In (rout were OYidenllJ^K^li^^ Ibe 

rum End proprlelr or IhBlr demeanour. Tha pro- 
ceaalon entered slowly at the vf9t Ooor, moved 
Dp towinlB the Altu-, uid when Ibo foremost were 



l.ap€l.wl 



.lowly 









roonded In 810; 



aria Magglorfl. An 
robullt by S. Catk 
eenaveabylxeen 



A eu-Mlled pomalt ol Christ, bIyoi 



:a Praaxde. The; 



approacb o[ a coDtraunilty to thli eh 
are two coafratamltlet of men and w 
ofthaOltypuWiMlnBoaM. Tbefli 
wai a teiled ermMx MoptMrini 
eHher llda of Ih* CtM /EOCtlf 



rnVlnrnp'" 



1 al tar-iiloco by PaiilRnfln 



at Simla UurU Magglora, In (he aiiclimt Vtcna 
Patrlclm. whero the |MiIrlcliunli>ed. Thlni>Mldlo 
bo the molt ancient chureh (ounilalloii In Rome, and 

which the two listen, his daunhtem, rccolvea St. 
Polor. It waiiebullt In 11198. by Cardinal Qa«Unl ; 

dlscDierlct were made by Hr, Parkin', ISM. 
They show a pit In which Santa Pudenilana, ac- 
cordbi^ to the legend, deposited the blood of more 

marble, er pletra pidoccblo. Bome ef the mcnalea 



/Eocttoury walked one \ t.hsC> 



SS. Ciuntro CwoMtt *5<i 



nigii. It pTMem tbe b 
fFHOoeB «nd painting' 



>Flw«Mi the Bath< 0( 



Arentme, tKlng the Tiber, 
)Ter s Temple of UlaEfl, an 



cCuu™ MrtVioa ?J.tLi^r "bS 



!■ Aiipl* Antlu, neu th 



to the Jewiih Ci>t> 
time or r 
■Itsnd li 



5.,«/Kilro.lnVLtidciqulrlnale! ■ little chorcb 
with pulntlngB by Ooraenlchlnfi, in thf cupola ol 
one of ila chuKla. Them are loine other worb 
by hli paplli. Torob □( Cardinal Benllvogllo. 



H. Spirilo In Bauia, with aplaln but ruber flni 
mpanlle. In the Boreo S, Bplrlto, attached lo th 
ipedalB 8, Bplrlto, near the Vatican. 
S. Sttio, near the Dalha ol Caracalla, on Via i 



One at them twre a do^-beaded monitar, called 

•a. Stefaiu Rolo«de, on Honte Cello, near Villa 
Mattel and Oratory ol i. Flllppo Nerl. within > 
donble circular Ionic i»rtlCD, on twenty itranlte 
plllan Irom older ballUln«, no two o( whicb are 
alike; and ii iupfKncd to hare been a Temple oT 
PaDnu% Bacohui, or Clandlan, or ■ (inbllc market, 
with an ambulatory round It. Fomided by Pope 
aimpllclui. In m, and rcrlorod by MchiilaK V., I4SU. 
It l> aiO teet dlameler ; and It. wall-palntlnim, b>- 
Pomeranclo and Tonipbna. reiirencnt the pereeea- 



'I iTALr. [Section S. 

Simla Sinanna. next to Santa UarU delta Vlt- 
lorla. behind the Qulriniil, (i.unded hy Pope Calm 

by Hi«m IV.. with a travertine (font. ' Frewoes bjr 
B.Croce. TheChapel otS. Lawrence waaerect«d 

Milter), who lefl a manias iwnlon of lirty erownt 



B. IbmmaMi in /Vmfi. a 

& Tbmmmo 4^i litgletl, li 
I attached to the Bngllifa ( 

>y Oreicory XIIU aniT to th . 

Donded byPltialX.. lor Bntttleheo 







*9t,Thom«:< 




man wai head of thli eolls|!e. 






5flnft.JWnila.ta Via de'Cond 


Ml.n 


arlbeCor», 


bclonEt to the Spanlth monks. 


AI'l 


ttbyVclaA- 


qoei i a St. Aplei, by Benofla 






Santa Trinm *■ Uoali. ab. 


.0 the PlBJ.«a dl 




(the 


SacedUeart. 


Built by Charle> VUI. of Fr.£ 




d rentored by 


Louie XVlll, Notice D. da V 




I 'line f [GK» 


o( the De««it from the Cro.i 




a drawing of 


contalni a portrait o( M. An 


S.f 


e^«me^l,V 




>y V 








ncian Prome- 


lade by a lofty fllffht of ilcpl 


ntn 


thl> chnroh. 



from tbo caidlmule. 'mid obelliA In front. The 
French nuna flinr bare. Open only on Sondaya, 

Sania Trinilll dri Portal (of the pIlRrimiX 



SSSS.^'^i-' " »- B^w"^"^"'^ 



■Holy Trinity, at thi 
IntheVia'Haislonali) 






Inotf ouWe, ti«4 Wt ol 



ImtaalHUli, 



iofonme 



Boute 32.] 



MODERN ROME — CHURCHES, VATICAN. 



193 



urbanity of all in superior station, disarms your 
prejudices, and conciliates your good will. But 
the day has gone by when learning flourished in 
the cloister, and piety made it her favourite refuge. 
I doubt whether one ecclesiastic in five thousand 
can read Greek."— Bubgon's Letters from Rome. 

CHX7BCHES OUTSIDE ROME. 

* Santa Agnese fuori le Mura («".«., outside the 
wall), a basilica, 1^ mile from Porta Pia, on Via 
Nomontana, near the entrance to the Catacombs. 
Founded by Constantino, and has been .thoroughly 
restored on its original plan, by Pio Nono, so as to 
offer a good specimen of the ancient basilica; 
which at first was designed as a court of justice, or 
exchange, and was copied in the early churches. 
Being some feet below the level of the soil there is 
a descent of forty-five steps to the vestibule, or 
narthcx. This leads into the nave, suiTounded by 
sixteen ancient pillars, above which fourteen others 
rest and hold up the roof and walls. The mosaic 
in the tribune is of the seventh century. Notice 
an alabaster statue of St. Agnes, on the altar, made 
out of the torso of an antique figure, and bronzed 
over. The monastery was rebuilt 1856. The cata- 
combs, entrance in the left aisle, may be visited by 
application to the sacristan. On 21st January this 
church was opened, and the Pope blessed two 
lambs, which furnished the wool used for the 
polliums for archbishops. Notice the paintings of 
the Flagellation of Christ (one on stone) by Del 
Piombo, from M. Angelo's designs, the work of six 
years ; also one of Pio Nono held up by angels when 
the floor gave way with him and his suite, 1847. 

Santa Costanza (Constantia), close to the Basilica 
of St. Agnese. An edifice, 73 feet diameter, 
sometimes called a Temple of Bacchus, but built 
by Constantino as a baptistery for his sister and 
daughter, and made to serve as a family tomb. Its 
interior is of a Byzantine character. Its dome, 
pierced with twelve windows, is supported by 
twelve arches, resting on as many couples of granite 
columns, placed one behind the other, on the radii 
of the plan. The mosaics are of the fourth century, 
and correspond with the bas-reliefs on the red 
porphyry sarcophagus of Santa Costanza, found 
in one of the twelve niches, which is now in the 
Vatican, close to that of St. Helena. There are 
remains of a Circus, about 180 feet by 530 feet, 
formerly surrounded by arcades. 

^8. Lorenzo fuori delle Mura^ a basilica, half-a- 
mile outside Porta S. Lorenzo, adjoining the Ceme- 
tery and the Catacombs of St. Ciriaca, and known 
by its square tower. Founded by Constantine, 
rebuilt by Pelagius II., in 678; and restored by 
Honorius III., who, in fact, added another and 
larger basilica at the end of the first one, which 
now serves as the tribune to the whole building, 
the Church of Honorius forming the nave. The 
portico of six granite, and marble columns has a 
mosaic in the frieze. The naves rest on twenty-two 
pillars of granite and cipolino. The tribune, or o\d 
Church of Pelagitu, on forty-four columns, -was 
alfore the imrBf at halt Hit height of the aix 



ancient columns on each side, and has a pavement 
of Alexandrhie work, with other marks of anti- 
quity, hicluding the bishops' chair. Pope Zozi- 
ums's tomb, a women's gallery, holes for windows, 
and some mosaic work of the sixth century. Notice 
the mosaics at the high altar, the two ambos in the 
chuii', and the sarcophagus of Cardinal Fcsch (Napo- 
leon I.'s uncle), with bas-reliefs of a Roman Mar- 
riage on it. A small collection of Christian and 
heathen inscriptions, seen in the cloisters, was 
found in the catacomb of CiriacJl, now closed up. 
S. Paolo (St. Paul's)/Mor« le Mura. (See page 182.) 
S. Paolo alle Tre Fontane. (See page 190.) 
S. Sebastiano, a basilica, 2 miles outside Porta S. 
Sebastiano. Rebuilt in the seventeenth century, by 
F. Ponzio, on the site of one erected in 367, in the 
Cemetery of St. Sebastiano, now called the Cata- 
combs. It has a single nave. The entrance to the 
catacombs is through the church, and they can be 
seen without an order. 

S. Stefano, another ancient basilica, founded by 
Leo the Great, on the Via Latina, and discovered 
in 1854-5. 

The Protestant Church, outside Porta del Popolo, 
has now been closed. In consequence of the 
permission granted by the Italian Government, 
suitable buildings have been erected inside the 
walls. (See page 162.) 

The beautiful Protestant Cemetery is on the 
opposite side of the city, near the Porta S. Paolo 
and the Pyramid of Caius Cestius. Here Shelley, 
and Keats, with his friend Severn, are burled. 
Shelley was drowned in the Bay of Spezia. Keats's 
tomb was restored 1875. There is an unnamed 
stone to a Miss Bathur&t, who was drowned in the 
Tiber. 

VATICAN PALACE AND MUSET7M. 

This palace is the residence of the Pope, whose 
Swiss guards, in yellow and red livery, are seen 
here on duty. It is a small part of a vast and ugly 
range of buildings, looking like a barrack, on the 
north-east side of St. Peter's, but fortunately 
hidden to some extent by its colonnade. It is the 
work of successive architects, from Bramante 
downwards, and consists of two irregular gproups, 
which at first were some distance apart, but are 
now joined by long corridors, three storeys high, 
with several courts inside, in which the collections 
of the Museum are placed. It is 1,150 feet long, 
and 770 wide, and comprises 20 courts, 8 grand 
and 200 small staircases, with '^several" thousand 
rooms. 

It is called Vatican from the Mens Vaticanus on 
which it stands, where was a palace in which 
Charlemagne resided; but the Popes lived at the 
Lateral! till the return from Avignon. John XXIII. 
joined this palace to S. Angelo's Castle (then used 
as the Papal seat) by a covered gallery. Nicholas 
V. enclosed it within walls. Sixtxi^ m . \»cK!is. NSosei. 
Library tt.ud «>\^\wti V:>\v«^. '^^'^'^^^^ 



194 



BUAD8HAW 8 ITALY. 



[Section 2. 



originally 1,100 feet long, and 225 feet wide. Leo 
X. built the loggie on the west side of the Cortile 
Damaso; Paul III. erected the Pauline Chapel; 
Sixtas v., the transrerpe gallery for the Library, 
now dividing the two principal courts within, and 
began the east side of the Damaso Court. Clement 
XIV. and Pius VI. built the Pio-Clementino 
gallery; Pius VII., the Braccio Nuovo, another 
transverse near that of Sixtus V.; and Gregory 
XVI. added the Etruscan Museum. 

For entrance, apply at the Portone di Bronzo, 
on the right of the Vestibule of St. Peter's. Open 
every day, except Sundays, and f6te days, from 
10 to 3; Saturdays, 10 to 2. The visitor must 
take a supply of 50 cent, pieces, Ac, as fees arc 
tlie rule. The guides are of little use. The 
permesso requires to be renewed for each visit. 

The Vatican Museum is unequalled in the 
world. Besides the Sistine and Pauline Chapels, 
the Loggie, Stanze, and Pinacoteca, with their 
display of works of art, it comprises the Museum 
proper, viz.. as the Gallery of Inscriptions ; Chiara- 
monti and Braccio Nuovo Museum; Pio-Clementhio 
Museum ; the Square and Round Vestibules ; 
Meleager Room; Belvedere Court ; Room of Ani- 
malStatuary; Statuary Gallery; Bust Room; Cabi- 
net of Masques ; Muses' Chamber ; Round Room ; 
Greek Cross Room; Biga Chamber; Candelabra 
Gallery; Map Gallery; Egyptian Museum; Etrus- 
dan Museum; Room of Archives; Library; Museum 
of Christian Antiquities; Papyrus Cabinet ; Aldo- 
brandini Chamber; Cabinet of Medals; Borgia 
Room. The Statuary, and Egyptian and Etruscan 
Mnseumi are closed on Thursdays. 

Opinions naturally differ, according as the critical 
faculty is exercised or not. Thus one authority 
of eminence writes as follows: — "Even the Vatican 
statue gallery disappointed me. Amid acres of 
so-so statues and nameless busts, the eye wanders 
in vain for something to admire. It finds all it 
craves in the Apollo and Laocoiju and the Torso, 
but it grows weary long before it reaches those 
famous works. The critical faculty begins to flag 
after it has been exercised upon so many hmidred 
objects, few of which are very good, and none of 
which are first-rate. To discover traces of modem 
handling is a sad discouragement. The beautiful 
little head of the young Augustus (very like the 
youthful Napoleon) has been chiselled all over, by 
a modem hand. The tooling of the fifteenth cen- 
tury artists is to be traced in every direction. So 
many supplemental noses, fingers, feet, hands, arms, 
heads, at last annoy you ; and I was not impatient 
for a second visit." 

Such a work as Brauk's Ruins and Mtueums of 
Rome will be useful to the visitor who wishes to 
enter upon a critical examination of the objects 
before him, and to give good reasons for admiring 
the best of them. The Loggie of Raphael, which 
irere Jtardly rccogutsahle, have been restored. 
Oa the other hand, ''There is," says Mendelssohn, 
eia^ular and foHmiAte peculiarity here. 



'one 



2vZ„Mrh^fi^ir'' ^?^ fortxmAte peculiarity 

^rX^ilb^d ""^^fi **^« '^""•^ X\iOJi^lii times 
, aeBcribed, copied, and criticised, in praise or 



\ 



blame, by the greatest masters and the most inaigr- 
nificant scholars, cleverly or stupidly ; still, they 
never fail to make a fresh and sublime impression 
on all, affecting each person according to his own 
individuality." 

The Sala Regia, a room by Sangallo, ornamented 
with frescoes, including Gregory XI. returning 
from Avignon, by Vasari, and the Pauline Chapel 
(see below) can only be seen by applying to the 
custodians of the Sistine Chapel. 

At the first landing on the Scala Regia, a passage 
leads to a small flight of steps, ascending which 
the visitor sees a small red baize door on the right* 
this Ic.ids to 

Tlu! Cappella Sistlna, so called after its 
founder, Sixtus IV., was built by B. Pintelli, 140 
feet long and 50 wide. It is a dark, heavy- 
looking, oblong room, remarkable for the frescoes 
of M. Angelo, including the celebrated Last Judg- 
ment, at the entrance, and the Prophet* and Sibplt, 
The *La8t Judgment, executed 1533-41, is 
faded and decaying. Some older frescoes, by 
Perugino, were painted over by M. Angelo, to make 
room for this g^eat work. On the left of the Christ 
(copied from Fra Angelico's. at Orvicto), the 
wicked fall, thunderstruck with terror, through 
the air, and are seized by the devils from 
below. All the attitudes of the body, and all 
the passions and feelings of the soul, are said to 
be expressed in this work. One of the figures 
in hell, with an ass's ears, is Biagio, master of 
the ceremonies to Paul III., put here by the artist 
for affecting to be shocked at the naked figures in 

the picture. When he complained, the Pope said: 

" Had it been in purgatory, I could have gt>t him 

out, but behig in hell, it is quite beyond my 

power." At a great height overhead is the faded 

ceiling, painted 1508-13 for Julius II., many yean 

before the Last Judgment. It contahis three series 

of frescoes; when Raphael saw these he thanked 

God he had been bom in the same age as so great 

an artist, and also changed his own style ; but tlier 

are unfortunately blackened by t ime and the smoke 

of candles. Thefirst series includes the separation 

of Light and Darkness, the creation of the Sun and 

Moon, the Earth and "Waters, of Adam and Eve 

(the latter under the Creator's arm) the 

history of Noah and the Deluge, the Almishtv 

being personified. In the next series are the /W- 

phets, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Joel, Isaiah, DanieL 

Zachariah, and Jonah; alternating with the 

Cumeean, Delphic, and other Sibyls. In the thlid 

series are, Ahasuerus, Esther, David and Goliath. 

Judith, and Holofemes, with many other fimirn 

to fill up. Down the sides of the chapel are sereral 

frescoes, by Botticelli, Perugino, Ac, with twentv- 

eight Popes, by Botticelli, between the windows 

Pauline Chapel, built by Sangallo, for Panl 
III., is a lighter and more cheerfin room than tha 
Sistine. Two frescoes, by M. Angelo— the Con- 
version of St. Paul and the Martyrdom of St Peter • 
"wUVv olYvet* Vtv Wife c<i\\Vcv?; ^^ T^xicchero, Ac ' 

l88u\ng ItOTSi \.\vfe ^\<iC«vfe ^>evi>.-st<t\.^ ^A %a^aM> At„. 
the »U\Tcaafe me\i"<.\ft\i*i^ «X»wfe^ -f?^ "wwiMr^ 



Route 32.] 



MODBBN SOME — VATI01.K. 



I9ft 



a white door, where sticks, Ac, are left, and enter 

the aallery of Modem Pictures. These 

paintings are of no special value and are contained 
in two rooms, but the gallery connecting them 
was formerly a chapel, and has a painted cnpola 
and some rich stained glass. Traversing the Sala 
deirimmacolata, with frescoes of the Immaculate 
Conception, we come to the BtaXLZe of RaphaeL 

The Stanze Frescoes are in four rooms, 
which in Raphael's time were occupied by the Papal 
Court. The room first painted by him (1511) is the 
second in order, the Camera delta Segnatura (where 
the Pope signed briefs, &c.), covered with alle- 
gorical subjects — Pagan and Christian — on the 
walls and ceiling. The four principal ones are: 
Ist — Theology, or the Disputa del Sacramento, 
between the Doctors and the Church. Notice th^ 
portraits of Dante, Savonarola, and Bramante. 
2nd— Philosophy, or the achool of Athens; in 
which are portraits of Raphael (by himself, when 
27). Perutrino (his master), and the Duke 
d'Urbino (nephew of Julius II.). 3rd — Literature 
and Poetry, or Parnassus. Here Homer, Virgil, 
Petrarch, Boccaccio, and other great names — 
classical and Christian — surround Apollo and the 
Muses. 4th — Justice, or Jurisprudence, supported 
by beautiful figures of Temperance, Fortitude, 
and Prudence. This includes Trebonian, with the 
Digests of Justinian, and Gregory IX. and the 
Decretals. 

Stanza cTEliodoro (the third from entering), the 
second room painted in order of time (1512), so 
calledfrom the principal subject, viz., Heliodorus, 
the Salian Oeneral, chased out of the Temple of 
Jerusalem by angels, in allusion to the military 
successes of Julius II., whose portrait is seen. 
The other subjects are: 2nd— Leo I., with the 
features of Leo X., stopping Attila at the Gates of 
Rome. 8rd — The Miracle (a Bleeding Host) of 
Bolsena, where Julius II. is seen performing mass ; 
a fine example of Raphael's colouring. 4th- • 
Deliverance of St. Peter, in allusion to the release 
of Leo X., after the battle of Ravenna. Notice 
the effect of tbe three different lights, from the 
angel, the torch, and the moon. 

The third room, or Stanza del Jneendio (first in 
order), contains the Burning of the Borgo, or 
suburbs of the city (847), built by Pope Leo. The 
Pope drives back the fiames with the sign of the 
cross. Old St. Peter's is in the distance. Corona- 
tion of Charlemagne by Leo III. Death of Leo III . 
Leo IV.'s Victory over the Saracens, at Ostia. 
All these are intended to compliment Leo X. 
Notice portraits of him and Francis I. The roof 
is by Perugino. 

The last room, or Sofa di Costantino, is the work 
of G. Romano, F. Pehni, and others, from Raphael's 
designs. Its floor is a fine mosaic, found near the 
Lateran, 1858. Here are, 1st — Constantine's Vic- 
tory over Maxentius at Ponte Molle, a large fresco. 
2nd — Appearance of the Cross to Constantino. 
Notice the ugly Jester with a helmet on. 3rd — 
Baptism of CooBtaatttiB at tbe Lateran. 4th — 
Constantlne'M I>oaatkm of the CUy to tbe Pope. 



\ 



This room leads to the Sala de'Chiaroscuri, and th« 
Cappella di Niccolb V. (shown by a keeper of th« 
Sala Costantino for 50c.), in which are frescoes by 
Fra Angelico. 

On leaving the Sala Costantino we next come 
to the 

Loggle (plural of loggia), one over the other, 
begun by Bramante and his nephew Raphael, and 
continued by succeeding architects. They were 
painted by Raphael, and represent the principal 
events in the Bible. Only the first, Cfod Creating 
the World, is from Raphael's own hand; the rest 
are by his pupils, G. Romano, del Vaga, &c.; but 
all are from his drawings. The frescoes were 
restored by del Piombo and C. Maratta. The 
loggie on the second storey, planned by Raphael, 
and ornamented with his graceful stucco ara- 
besques, give name to the fifty-two frescoes from 
his designs, painted in fours on thirteen compart- 
ments of the ceiling of the arcade. 

For entrance to the Picture Oallery (Pma- 
coteca), ring the bell at the second door on the left 
of the Central Loggia. This choice collection, 
filling four rooms In the third storey, includes 
Raphael's greatest work, the 

*Tran8flguratlon— painted for Clement VII., 
as an altar-piece for Narbonne Cathedral, of which 
he was archbishop. He was so pleased with it, 
however, that he kept it at Rome, and sent instead 
del Piombo's Resurrection of Lazarus (now in our 
National Gallery). The Transfiguration was left 
unfinished at Raphael's death, was carried in pro- 
cession at his funeral, and then finished by G. 
Romano. 

Other pictures are the following : — 
Raphael's * Madonna di Foligno, painted for 
Gismondo Conti (1512), the Papal secretary ; and 
his Coronation of the Virgin. " Here," says Men- 
delssohn, *'the Madonna dawned on me in the 
whole splendour of her loveliness." Domenichino't 
♦Communion of St. Jerome ; regarded as his mas- 
ter-piece. Painted for the Church of Ara Coeli, for 
60 crowns, and neglected till its great merits were 
proclaimed by Poussin. A. Sacchi's *Vi8ion of Ro- 
mualdo, which ranks among the "four great 
pictures " of Rome. He is sitting under a tree in 
the valley of Camaldoli, telling the vision to some 
monks of his order. Poussin's Martyrdom of St. 
Erasmus: a repulsive picture, like many other 
martyrdom subjects. Ouido's Madonna, with St. 
Jerome and St. Thomas. Caravaggio's Christ in 
the Tomb. 

Titian's *Madonna and Child, with St. Sebas- 
tian, St. Francis, &c. In this picture there are 
three stages, as in the Transfiguration. "Below 
saints and martyrs are represented In suffering 
and abasement ; on every face Is depicted sadneas, 
nay almost impatience. One figure in. ^-^\!»cjcs^'«2s. 
robes looks upward "wSJsXv "Ooa \sis«\. ^••..'^wt 'uxw^ 

Bee a\\tti«A.V%i\o*.\\sv?; ^^^^>>^^!?S;2r ^^ 
toe w>e, «tMv«&xv« \tv 1t«^\. o\ ^Xo^^^^»=^^ 



196 



BRAD«HAW*8 ITALY. 



[Section 2. 



joy and sorronnded by nngcls, who have woven 
many garlands. The Holy Child holds one of 
these, and seems as if about to crown the saints 
beneath, but his mother withholds his hands for 
the moment. The contrast between the pain and 
suffering below, whence St. Sebastian looks forth 
out of the picture with such gloom and almost 
apathy, and the lofty unalloyed exultation in the 
clouds above, where crowns and palms are already 
awaiting him. Is tmly admirable. High above 
the grroup of Mary hovers the Holy Spirit, from 
whom emanates a bright streaming light, thus 
forming the apex of the whole composition. 
Goethe, at the beginning of his first visit to Home, 
describes and admires this picture. Titian has 
imbued it with his genius and poetical feeling." — 
Mendelssohn. 

ti^uercino'« St. Magdalen. Fra Angelica's S.NiccoIb 
di Bari. Correggio's Christ on Rainbow. Man- 
tegna's Pletk. Pervgino's Resurrection of Christ, 
with portraits of Raphael, his pupil, and of Peru- 
gino, by Raphael. Afurillo's Holy Family; and 
the Prodigal Son. P. Veronese's Empress Helena. 

The public are again freely admitted to see the 
famous Raphael Tapestries, or Arazzi, (so styled 
from Arras, in French Flanders, where such works 
were first woven), from designs by the artist on the 
large paper Cartone, or cartoons. These tapestries 
were ordered by Leo X., for the Papal apartments 
and chapel, a duplicate set being intended as a 
present to Henry VIII. Out of twenty-five cartoons 
prepared by Raphael and his pupils, seven are now 
at South Kensington. (Entrance from the Museum, 
see page 198.) 

The principal entrance to the Vatican Museum 
(closed Sunday) is from the Cortile Daniaso, 
not at present open; the visitor must therefore 
ascend the steps on the left side of the entrance 
to St. Peter's, pass round the Cathedral and along 
the walk between the Vatican Gardens (closed) 
and the Palace to the Sala dolla Biga, ring, and 
give up his permesso. 

In consequence of this alteration, the following 
descriptions will, for the present, have to be used 
in the order indicated by the number attached 
to each. 

14. Oa'leria Lapidaria, or gallery of stone In- 
SCrlptiOILB, founded by Pius VII., and classified 
by Marini, who died 1817. This is not at present 
open to the public. It contains above 5,000 
funeral inscriptions and memorials— Heathen and 

Christian— from the Tombs and Catacombs. 

In these, bad spelling occurs frequently: as 
"mesc" or "mcses," for menses; "bise" or 
"blzlt," for vivit; "coiugi" for co/^'u^, and such 
like; showing how illiterate the stonecutters 
were. The favourite monogram was a contraction 
of the Greekname of Christ, XP (or CHR), thus:— 



if or 



P 



or 




In the third one, A and at, for alpha and omega, 
are added; signifying that Christ is the beginning 
and the end of their faith. Another favourite 
symbol was a fish, t;^^vi (ichthus), because made 
up of the five Greek initial letters of "Jesus 
(Ifltf-flt/f), Christ (;^fi*'Tflf), Son of God (6f«i; 
Ttof), Saviour (Iwtjji)." The allusion is ex- 
plained by a sayhig of Tertullian, that we " pcsci- 
culi, secundum I;^^t»», nostrum Jcsum Christum, in 
aqua nascimur.'* 

Bottles, lamps, palm branches, wreaths, Ac, 
which were supposed to be exclusively Christian, 
and to mark the grave of martyrs, have been also 
found in Heathen and Jewish tombs. Other 
emblems were the dove, ark or ship, lyre, anchor, 
crown, palm, vine, lamb, shepherd. 

Simple inscriptions are most common: — 
ra) LOCVS HERMETTISSE VIVO FECET 
(The place of Hermes. He made it in his lifetime;. 

(bj CLAVDIAQVKVIXITANNI8 PiK^VlNQVAOIXTA 

(Claudia, who lived fifty years, more or less). 

(c) ARETV8A 

IN UEO 

(Arethusa. In God). 

(d) VICTORI NAIN 

PACE ET IN (monogram for Christ) 
(Victorina. In peace and in Christ). 

(c) INNOCINTVS INFANS 

ANIMA DVLCIS QVE VIXIT 
ANNIS VII. MENSES X. 

(Innoeentius, an infant, sweet soul, who lived 
seven years aud ten months). 

Another is dedicated to "Assertor, our dear, 
sweet, innocent, and incomparable son." 

Some begin with "D.M.V." or "D.M.S.," 
(Sacred to the gods' manes), a form borrowed from 
heathen epitaphs. Several of the most striking 
are given in Letters XIV. to XX. of Dean 
Burgon's Letters from Home. 

Among the " E pitaphia dictionis singularis Christ- 
iana " is the following :— 

CECILIV8 • MARITVS • CECILIAE 
PLACIDINAE ' COIVGI • OP TIME 
MEMORIAE • CVM • QVA • VIXI ANNIS X 
BENE • SE • NE • VLLA QVE • BELLA t^fvf 
(Cecilius, her husband, to Cecilia Placidina, my 
wife, of most excellent memory, with whom I 
lived happily for ten years, without any quarrel). 
At the end is the favourite monogram of the early 
Christians. 

A dated inscription runs thus (it is scratched on 
a stone a few inches across): — 

BENEMERENTI 
INPACBLIBERA 
QVEVIXIT • AN • 6ii 
^E0YTk*\3F.PDIE. 
Ill 1*0^ xa ^k\k.a C«>3> 



Route 32.] 



MODXHK ROME— VATICAN MUBEHM. 



197 



(To the well-deserving Libera, In peace, who 
lived eight years a neophyte. Buried the third 
of the Nones of May; Gratianus, for the third 
time, and Equitius being Consuls), i.e., a.d. 374. 
The early Christian frescoes are as rude as their 
sculptures and inscriptions. 

There is a curious and interesting collection of 
specimens of gilt glass; most of which are de- 
scribed in P. Garucci's "VetriAntichi." They arc 
sometimes mounted in bronze, sometimes inserted 
in drinking cups, and sometimes they are found in 
the graves. 

12. Mtueo Chiaramonti, entered from the Atrio 
Quadrato (Squure Vestibule), founded by Pius VII.. 
whose surname was Chiaramonti, and who added, 
1817-22, the new gallery, or Braccio Nuovo, which 
crosses the great square of the Vatican, Ilaphael 
Stem being the architect. It is devoted to busts, 
bas-reltefs, and other antiques, and has a mosaic 
pavement. The objects in the Chiaramonti Corri- 
dor are placed in thirty compartments along each 
side; amongwhichare heads ofNeptune and Venus; 
bas-relief of a Gladiator, with the retiarius, Ac; 
Alexander the Great; Julius Czcsar, as Pontifex; 
Sarcophagus of C. JuHusEvodus; Scipio Africanus; 
Venus Anadyomene (coming out of the bath); 
Augustus, a fine bustfomid at Ostia ; Demosthenes; 
Cicero; Cupid of Praxiteles; Tiberius, a fine 
sitting figure ; Isis, a large bust, found in the Vati- 
can Garden ; Ganymede and the Eagle ; Colossal 
Hercules Sleeping, found at Villa Adriana; 
Daughter of Niobc; Satyr playing on a flute; 
Commodus; Antinous; ^sculapius; Nerva; Euri- 
pides; an Amazon; Minerva; and Mercury. 

13. Braccio Nuovo (or New Arm). A long and 
handsome gallery, with its antique columns from 
the tomb of Cecilia Matella, and a fine mosaic 
pavement. Here are Greek Caryatides, restored 
by Thorwaldsen. Two colossal masques of Medusa, 
from the Temple of Venus. Basalt Vase, in the 
middle of the room. Fine Statue of Demosthenes. 
The Athlete, Apoxyomenot, at the end ; a fine statue 
found in Trastevere in 1849 (with the bronze horse 
at the Capitol), and supposed to be the work of 
Lysippus. Colossal allegorical * Statue of the 
River Nile, surrounded by sixteen little Infants, 
emblematical of its sources. Found in Leo X.'s 
reigni, and supposed to be of the time of Adrian. 
*^ In a reclining posture, and sixteen of the love- 
liest little children in the world creeping about 
him, which are emblematic of the rise of the river. 
Some are playing at his feet with crocodiles; 
others creeping up the body ; one perched on his 
shoulder, and another tiny elf higher up still, 
seated in a cornucopia, and evidently proud of liis 
elevation ; whilst the giant is looking complacently 
on all."— Miss Catlow's Sketching Rambles. 

Minerva Medica, found in the sixteenth century ; 
one of the finest statues at Some. Faun, of Praxi- 
teles. Mercury, in pentelic marble. Diana and 
Endymion. Apollo; the body and head were found 
at different times and in two different places. 

The ffronp of bulldinga snrroonding the Bcl- 
redere Coart, at the north end of tho Vatican, 



is called the ifttseo Pio-Cfemeniino. On one 
side is Braniante's spiral staircase; on the other, 
the Circular Room of Simonetti. Founded (out of 
collections made by former Pontiffs) by Popes 
Clement XIII. and XIV., but e8j>ecially by Pius 
VI., in whose reign most of the rooms were erected 
by Simonetti. It contains tho world-renowned 
Apollo Belvedere, the Laocoon, the Discobolus, 
and other celebrated statues. The Belvedere Court 
(so called from the view it affords) is octagonal, 
surromided by a portico on sixteen granite columns 
and by four cabinets, in which the chief master- 
pieces are placed. It gives n kind of surname to 
some of them, as the Apollo Belvedere, the Belve- 
dere Mercury, and so on, by which means they 
are distinguished from others. 

11. Square Vestibule. — Arabesques, by D. da Vol- 
terra. Torso Belvedere, by ApoUonius, supposed 
to be part of a Hercules, and remarkable for its 
muscular expression. It was greatly admired by 
M. Angelo. Tomb of Scipio Barbatus, great-grand- 
father of Scipio Africanus, with a bust crowned 
with laurels; both of pepcrino, or gray volcanic 
stone from the Alban Ilills. When the tomb was 
opened, in 1781, the skeleton was found inside with 
a ring on the finger, wliich Pius VI. gave to Lord 
Algernon Percv. On the walls is an inscription 
beginning "CORNELIVS. LVCIVS. SCIPIO. 
BARBATVS. GNAIVOD. PATRE. PROG- 
NATVS." Another begins "HONCOINO. PLO- 
IRVME. COSENTIONT. R . . . BVONORO. 
OPTVMO. FUISE. VIRO. LVCION. SCIPIONE. 
FILIOS. BARBATI . . . . " which in book Latin 
would be, ** Himc unum plurimi consentiunt Romaa 
bonorum optimum fuisse virum Lucium Scipionem, 
filius Barbati . . . . " 

9. Round Vestibule.— Here is a balcony enjoy- 
ing a fine prospect (Belvedere), with an ancient 
dial, on which the points of the compass are 
marked in Greek and Latin. 

1 0. Meleager Room, so called from the statue of 
Meleager, with his Dog and the Boar's Head; a 
group, white and fresh-looking, from the Baths of 
Titus. An ancient inscription commemorating the 
taking of Corinth by Mummius, the Consul, 147 B.C. 

8. Belvedere Court contains four cabinets, and 
has at the entrance two Molossian dogs; in the 
centre a fountain. 1st Cabinet — The *LaOCOdn» in 
the folds of the serpent, found 1506, on the Esquiline, 
and styled by M. AngelO'a "miracle of art." 
The arm of the father and the arms of the children, 
who are tryhig to extricate themselves, have been 
restored. 2nd Cabinet — The *ApollO Belvedere, 
of Carrara marble, found at Porto d'Anzio, or An- 
tium, and bought by Julius II. ; supposed to be of 
the time of Nero, and, in Canova's opinion, to have 
been copied from a bronze statue. An arm wos 
restored by Montosorli. 3rd Cabinet — Tho Pei*seus, 
with Medusa's Head, and the Creugata <^v. ^;«^ 
Boxers ; both by Ca.wi^»».. ^^:^ ^^^^s^a^&\.— ^'«;-""^ 



196 



HttADBHAW^S ITALY. 



[Section 2. 



idols,** and ordered the Belvedere to be walled out 
of sight. 

4. Room of Animal statuary (Sala degli Ani- 
mall). Paved with mosaics, and divided into two 
parts by a vestibule communicating with the Bel- 
vedere Court and the Hall of the Muses. Here 
are several groups, chiefly Grecian, as— Marine 
Centaur and a Nereid; Lion tearing a Man ; Table 
and Cup of greenstone; Hercules killing Diomedes 
and his Horses; Commodus on horseback; large 
Lion in grey marble. 

5. Statue Gallery (Galleria delle Statue). -Cupid, 
by Praxiteles; sometimes called the Vatican 
Ghenius. Apollo Sauroctonos, by Praxiteles, found 
1777, on the Palatine. Posidippus and Menander, 
formerly in the Church of S. Lorenzo, in Panis- 
pema, where they were worshipped as saints. 
Ariadne Sleeping. Two verj' fine Candelabra, from 
Villa Adriana. An Amazon. 

6. Bust /Zoom.— Several Emperors, Ac, all re- 
stored, more or less ; with a colossal Jupiter. 

7. Cabinet of Masks (Gabinetto delle Maschere). 
— Paved with mosaics from Villa Adriana; and 
contains some pictures, with groups of masks, a 
Venus at the Bath, Faun in red marble, fine Adonis, 
and other antiques. 

8. Hall of the Muses^ an octagon room, supported 
by sixteen marble pillars, with ancient capitals 
from Villa Adriana. Here are the Muses— Thalia, 
Polyhymnia, Ac, fotmd at Tivoli, 1774; also 
^schines, Demosthenes. Aspasia. Pericles, &c. 

3. Round Room (Sala Rotonda), constructed like 
most of the buildings at this end of the Vatican, 
by Pius VI. A handsome room, lit by six windows, 
with a mosaic pavement found at Otricoli, and a 
fine porphyry basin from the Baths of Titus, 44 
feet round. Among the busts and statuary are 
Jupiter; heads of Tragedy and Comedy, from 
Villa Adriana; Augustus sacrificing; Antinous; 
Bacchus and a Satyr; Barberini Juno. Here 
Pio Nino placed the Mattal Hercules, a fine gilt 
bronze statue, found 1864, under an old palace, 
near the Campo del Fiori and the Famese Palace, 
and given by its owner to Pius IX. It is 12 feet 
high, and has the hair in a net. Coins of Domitian 
were discovered with it. 

1. Oreek Cross Room (Sala a Croce Greca), so 
called from its shape, as built by Simonetti. It 
has a portico of Egyptian granite, and is adorned 
with ancient mosaics and arabesques. Here are a 
red porphyry sarcophagous, from the tomb of Con- 
stantino's daughter, near the Church of 8. Agnese, 
outside the walls. Another sarcophagrus of the 
Empress Helena, with bas-relief of a battle. Venus 
of Praxiteles, eupposed to be copied from the 
Venus on coins of Cnidus ; it is covered with a 
drapery of metal. 

Up stairs is tho Biga Chamber (Sala della 

BIgra), a circular room, so called from the marble 

^•^4^ or Antique tiro-bone car, which stands in 

^J» /a/oWfe. Here la the Discobolus, or quoit player, 

^0 jf^^°' i^*^^ of Myron, from VlUa Adriana. 

*^»SKaSS-ff i*f! **"'^ *" modem restorations. 

"^aora 0ai/m^^ on the eeoond storey, buUt 



by Pius VI. Among the candelabra, sarcophagi^ 
columns, <fcc., are a sarcophagus, with bas-reliefs of 
Protesilaus and Laodamia. This is in line with the 
Gallery of Tapestries^ containing the old tapestries 
executed from Raphael's cartoons, which are here, 
(18 out of 25 being originals) and accessible from 
the Candelabra Gallery (see page 19()). 

For the following, closed only on Sunday, 10 to 
3, no special permit is now required. 

Egyptian Museum^ entrance from the Greek 
Cross Room, close to the steps. Founded by Pins 
VII. and Gregory XVI. It contains colossal statues 
in granite, sarcophagi, Ac. 

Above the Egyptian Museum (mounting tbe 
staircase leading to tbe Sala della Biga) is 

Pope Gregory's Etruscan Museum^ founded by 
Gregory XVI., and opened 1837. To be seen every 
Thursday, from 9 to 3, accompanied by the cns- 
tode. This is a large and interesting collection, in 
twelve rooms, of early Italian antiquities recently 
discovered in the Etruscan cities, Vulci, Veil, Ac; 
the principal remains of which are described in 
Mr. G. Dennis's Cities and Cemeteries ofEtruria, 
1848. Some were fomid buried mider currents of 
lava. The collection includes Etruscan portraits, 
urns, tombs (one from Comcto, the ancient Tar- 
quinii, has an inscription in Latin and Umbrian), 
vases of yellow and red colour, and elc;>:ant shape, 
cups, dishes (or tazze), bronze figures, domestic 
utensils and ornaments, some of very delicate pat- 
tern, copies of Etruscan paintings, Ac. One design 
is a picture of three legs joUicd together, like the 
arms of the Isle of Man. Nuto specially in ona 
room, a restoration of an Etruscan sepulchre ; in 
another, a Mercury in terra-cotta. 

The famous Vatican Library (Biblioteca) is open 
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Friday; no 
special permesso required. It is entered by a glass 
door at the bottom of the staircase of the Sala a 
Croce Greca. It was founded by Nicholas V., 
who began with 9,000 MSS., but was neglected till 
Sixtus IV. set apart a sum for its maintenanca. 
It occupies the long west gallery, as well as a 
branch across the interior courts. This brancb, 
constructed in 1588, by Sixtus IV., and omamentM 
with frescoes by Gaetani, Ac, is 216 feet long; 
while the great gallery is nearly 1,000 feet, ter- 
minated by the museum of Christian Antiquities 
and a fine staircase at one end, and by the Profana 
Museum at the other end. It contains a malachita 
Christ and Vase, from the Emperor of Rnssia, with 
several other vases ; and is adorned by frescoes; 
it has the French Prince Imperial's christening 
font. The walls, Ac, are covered with arabesques. 

The MSS, in which this library is peculiarly 
rich, now number about 26,000 Latin, (}reek, and 
Oriental, shut up in bookcases. Among the Ori- 
ental MSS. are seventy-one Ethiopian, ten Chinese. 
There are 200,000 printed books. Special permesso 
required for readers, obtainable through tha 
Embassy. Among the most remarkable MSA. 
are : — a Gxee^'BVVAfcot tbe third or fourth century, 
called lYie Codex Yaticauut. \\. V& «k qcqaxNa '^^luma 
1 in red mototco, «)aowX ^\ VwiSv^% \>d\^ vbA, ^%a 



Route 32.] 



MODERN ROME — VATICAN, QUIRINAL. 



199 



printed in 1857 by Cardinal Mai. Illnstrated Virgril, 
of fifth century. Terence, of the eighth century. 
Petrarch's Rime. Part of Tasso's Gertudlemme. 
Cicero's Republic, a palimpsest deciphered by Car 
dinal Mai. Henry YIIL's MS. book on the Sacra- 
ments, written against Luther, for «vhich he received 
the title of FideiDefensor (Defender of the Faith). 
Henry VIII.'s letters to Anne Boleyn ; which are 
always shown to English yiaitors. Luther's MSS. 
Illuminated Virgil, of the fourth or fifth century. 
Dante's Divina Commedia, illuminated. Gregory 
Nazianzen's Homilies, illuminated, of the eleventh 
century. Four Gospels, of the tenth century, 
illuminated. 

The Profane Museum^ with the exception of a 
very fine bronze head of Augustus, contains 
nothing very remarkable. In a Cabinet at the end 
are various metal ornaments; with part of a 
Roman barge, found at the bottom of L^e Nemi. 

Sacred jktueum^ or Museum of Christian An- 
tiquities, founded by Benedict XIV. It contains 
various articles used by the early Christians in 
their rites, as lamps, chalices, rings, cups, vases, &c. 
An ivory bas-relief of the Descent from the Cross, 
designed by M. Angelo. Some curious early paint- 
ings on wood, in distemper, by Greek or Byzantine 
masters; one is a portrait of Charlemagne. 

Papyrus Cabinet (Stanza de' Fapiri), containing 
documents of the fifth to the eighth centuries, on 
papyrus. Frescoes, by Mengs. The decorations 
of the room are all Egyptian. 

Room of Byzantine, and Early Italian Masters. 
Specimens of Margharitone, Cimabue, Giotto, Ma- 
saccio, Fra Angelico, Ac, collected by Gregory 
XVI. 

In the Aldobrandini Chamber (extra fee), is a re- 
markable ancient painting, the Marriage of Peleus 
and Thetis, found 1606, in a Roman house on the 
Esquiline, and sold by Cardinal Aldobrandini to 
Pius VII., for the large sum of 10,900 crowns. 
Prior to the discovery of the Battle of Issus and 
other subjects at Pompeii, it was regarded as an 
almost unique specimen of Roman art, and was 
valued accordingly. It is on stucco, and contains 
ten figures in three groups, done with great meiit 
in respect of composition, drawing, and colour. 
Some other paintings of equal antiquity, found 
] 830, in Via Graziosa, are seen here. The roof has 
frescoes, by Guido. Two chairs of wood and ivory, 
presented to PIo Nono by the bishops of Etruria. 

The Cabinet of Medals is not now shown to 
strangers. Some of the rarest specimens were 
stolen 1848-9. 

Borgia Apartments; four rooms once full of 
printed books, and formerly the residence of Alex- 
ander VI. (Borgia). They are decorated with stuc- 
coes, by G. da Udine and P. del Vaga ; frescoes, by 
Pinturicchlo, and ancient bas-reliefs. Closed at 
present. 

The Studio del Mosaico is under the Gallery of 
Inscriptions; entrance in the left angle of the 
Cortile S^ Damato. A permesso must be obtaiued 
at the Saerishr. 

Fa/^ean JfOMfffaeiorp of MOBaiCS. — '' Two 



long rooms are devoted to it, with presses on each 
side containing the materials used, which are a kind 
of earthenware manufactured for the purpose, and 
not stones of various colours as we had supposed; 
that being thecase at Florence. They are, however, 
in shades and colours of all kinds. Each ai'tist eu- 
gagcd had before him a rather coarse but spirited 
painting of a Pope, whose likeness he was ts^dng 
for the new Chiu'ch of St. Paul; and this he copied 
in mosaic as closely as the nature of the material 
allowed iiim; fixing small and properly-shaped 
pieces of the earthenware into a cement, which is 
previously laid on to the portion he can execute 
before it dries. It seemed most tedious work ; for 
every piece has to be selected of the proper shape 
and size, and fitted into those that have been 
arranged before it. As these heads of the Popes 
were to be placed very high in the new church, they 
were large and coarse : but one man was making a 
copy of Murillo's beautiful picture of St. Catherine ; 
another, of Raphael's Madonna della Segg^ola; 
which were much finer and more tedious. These 
would take several years to execute— the single 
heads about twelve months each; but the larger 
pictures in St. Peter's are not completed under 
twenty years "—Miss G}lX\.o^'% Sketching Bamhl^. 
Vatican Gardens (Giardini Pontifici). — That 
part of the interior court, between the Bracio 
Nuovo and Museum, is called the Giardino della 
Pigna, from a large bronze pine, which came from 
the Tomb of Hadrian. It contains two bronze 
peacocks, and other antiquities. The lai*ger garden 
is to the west of the Library, and slophig up the 
Vatican hill to the city walls. It contains the 
Villa Pia, or Casino del Papa, built for Pius IV., 
by P. Ligorio, in the style of an antique villa, and 
restored by Leo XII. 7%ese are now closed. 

QUIBINAL AND LATBRAN PALAGES. 

Qnirinal Palace (al Quirlnale), at Monte 
Cavallo, the residence of King Umberto, or 
Humbert I., and his wife Margherita. It was 
formerly a summer residence of the Pope, who 
now retains Castel Gandolfo, in the environs, for 
a country retreat. Begun, 1574, by Gregory XIII., 
from the designs of F. Ponzio, and completed by 
Mascherino and D. Fontana. That part called 
the Famiglia is the work of Bernini and Fuga. 
When the king is in residence, the greater part 
is not shown. Permesso at the Ministero deOa 
Casa Reale, 

The principal court is 603 feet (?) long, and 
surrounded by a portico on three of its sides. It 
contains some choice paintings by great masters. 
Thorwaldsen's bas-relief of the Triumph of Alex- 
ander; pieces of Gobelins tapestry; also frescoes 
by Albano, with Guido's Annunciation, in the prl- 
vatechapel. Thelargegardenbehindthepalacewas 
added by Urban VIII. It contains a kind of musi- 
cal fountain, made by jets of water; and a Cajate**^ 
by Fuga. It is not opeu t<4 VVvt. ^xM^ss.. 



DBAbanAIV B ITALY. 



tlie liunoi, wlileh oli 



■ Cardlnol Cham 



1 <c™«rl, 
actly n.igl 






ea Ihfl peopla for tha 



lAtmaa Palace and HiiBeam, adioinini 

Church of St. JohnLiitctanta.Olcivsnn 1 In Latere 
Thepaldcewu " 



MtaiKa.Olovsiu 
. _. by D. Fonts 



moving hitbot muiT objects from the ^rowlos col- 
leetlon at the Vsllcan. Ouenllloli la ["prliie, 10 



)/ 8t, Hlppolytnfc blsho 



A few yenn sgo, a loM IrealiH of S. Hlppolytni 
wu dtacorered in tho CoiiwTit of Mount Athoi, 
which ha* been (utned Co accDont by BinHn. 

the early lititor; of tho c^ha^cb. Near the xtatue 
of Hippolytaa is this epitaph to a youn^ lady» 
irith herflgqroln the attitude Of prayer;— 

"DELLICIA FEDEI.ISSIMA VIRGO IMPACB 
QVEVIXIT ANN03 XVIII." <FeilciiC a moit 



Hielory oi Jonah; and th 


Birth, Life 




of Chritt (HO 




Hag^ori). 




neariy alwayi 




od an a he 




man; not with 


beard a 


:.cts. 




wmegoodpiot 




CB. 




TEE CAPITOL. 




TbeCi^toi. 


Mlh-hk 


h dame the 





B Tiait of Cbirlea VVln l«f 



dlKtpleof e. 1 



■ Ulmolytm uni remalna. I'ho 
bablf Hie alileit CiHiliat lUtoe 
' autUBlod Mltte, In IWI, Id b 



, and are "aariy ipBclmeiu of the atyie ot 
rthlan pilaitera. panning (hrongh two storeya, 

; the foot ol tlia nops are two Bgrplan Uoni, 
eaaf thons placed there by Plus tV. Coional 
leg (on the top) o[ the Twbi Breihmn. Cutor 
Polinx, and their horwa, found Is the Ghetto, Id 
iliieailheentnry. Two marble itronpa of arnii, 

r elun^ei, waa died here by Paol III., In 

___.;t. Poltatc^i-«aa«wimEft™\'Oft\BiiA™thB 
Capitol, 8Ui Jflfrtl, \»tti »a4 «Mm.\, I'm \wi, 



Rnnte 33.] iiODBiiM MoiiR— cafitol. Sni 

ol the Trlbonos, vu kU1»d bjr Die moli tn ISM, Boy estriMliiK a Ihom Iram his fool, Hur«. 
Kven ycsn alter he hid been prodalmod from MlthHdntei Vm. A Rmiiwr. Hecue, Ac Jtall 

uf the aaialoi (or Mayor) of^ome.ln the middle; collsctlim lIlnslnUiiK thh Kinn ol '' 

tlio lefl: and the U 



__ .. _ a eiilun aalltrt (Pina 

IS Capllot. The fr>iindedhylklHdlclXIV. Amon^iwnenol 



the caiilUil, In front dI B. Haiti An TcbU. Ib ining Cortona'i Hnpool the Safilnei and hliDati: 
erected the mud Homuneilt tO VlDtOI - — - 

Ptnwiam ml Tf. 



Palace of lUi Setaloi- h 



Birth of Uie Virgin. Tlllan'i 

I^nUii; Ihe Paluio del Coniier>a1orl. Ke ero« the 
nUiia, and enler the UnMtun Ot tba CapltoL 
Founded br ClomenC Xll. and nicceedlnfr Pt>peii. 
Open. 1« 10 1, fee I lira. InlliecounintheArnrftrfs. 

denca with Puituln. (See Palatto llraicM.iiigK iia.) 
Egyptian Liona of iiaaalt (a»o Capitol, page SOO). 
In IHt CorrWar.— Fine aarcopliagus ol! Pentellc 



Bapllain of Chritt. 



flab— iria caught lii 



1 chief of Ihe tatUrkll 



lere la I«o ZU.'i raooament to Cuoova, by Fabria,' 
riip/JnH«ef.—lrt.Cbalr of Slate. Romm 



Charlut. . 



>/ Cttai, w 







-Com 






Kmpe 


or. d 






aiEm 






■lis, and 


fine at 




Aer 
















doubtful 


aiatu 


of M 


"c. 



Hympb. Apollo, Harayap, ShepbcrdCAS, 
and head of Mscenu, >» emongat the c 
worth;. BaitoJ rnrii-Cona.— QIOH. i 

ffoJlo/Br«H«.^Hercnlei. Urntoa. TL 

»e-»'s(r;DrWalfaf theGipl'Dl.iuckllnsI(oiiniliu \ 

wol/liiappiMdto be Ok BOB ipoken of 



n c/Ws 'Dyliig Oladlator.— 



■n. but IhB mlniple,be*m.\!tt\,im4V4-&'A"^K^^- ^ 

by CiMTO. 'i U &wvm.a? \,ie»a&o.»,«A I* **««■'- 



■riH wlikb (upwirU tli* iMdv li on tha pulnt a[ 
(IvIiiK war, uuf than h« mnH fall.'--~JAH CailoK. 



ibmm at tk* Sbh*, tu iuIImI (rum lbs HdmIs of 
|Ii> hiiir riliiv'K Ihiyan, fmu VIII* AilrUiia, 1737, 

TOELOKU HnEVK (Tnitnwe), 

'lliiaiHilaiiillilaiiltHtldn uf ■eul|llurI'^ mnile lif 
I'rliioa Torlnnlii, raiikaiwittiiihiitiif ihnVsrloiin, 
aiid haaiHHinplnlnMiiyjraaPiliiltafnraiatlDii. Many 
iir Ihaauulmurta an uiiliiun, Kai"'Urul calalriirnp, 
l.y Vl>.»ult, \m\ i» •lillnra llntnituniiloly (hli 
inafiilllciPiit nuaauui la at piamil olaaari. 

UVIBO HAZIOKALB, or DSLIB TEBKB, 

Naac am. Maria Jsdl Aniall, omiialiilnK valu- 
ualnlliiRi «o.i haraata plauxa all lUu antlqultlaa 

0|Hnidaliy.«l<>ll| (lira. &unaByi.« Ml; (rM. 
HirUO KIROHBBLUFO. 
In lUa OOUhIO BODUUIO (■» unire M7). In n 
•inal "IT iBi nirau, naar l>lM» Bularra, wbU'li 
•liu ruhtalna Iha MHaMM F«Mrt> JAwaulr. 
'I'ha tfwaii f^paWiirlr* uil (ha Uoaau KIrcliarUnu 
(iigian dally, I llrai Bnuilay* ftw) sunlahi a 
rwnarkahln willaMlan (it nnmata ami ABilqnIilca. 
viiwi'Ully pnblMnrlo. and lha TrMiuro of 
PcwiaM*, Tlw lUbllulnia, npon dally. I'unlalna 
alHiultWiWd vnluniaa, auauauy Ua3..betn4t th« 
' - Jt»Hlt Pathsra' llhrary, with thv apulU ot 



ly anriT 



■ad HI 



PALMU iniBUCL^D nuTATB) AHD 

fWMM .(Nkwt, 111 Vlft dollB tlutlni Kinilaiw. 
tVrWHly iho pruiwiy ul Itutm Uuta L'hrUllua. 

tMNuM> JMUnmNat, tu Via dl <tHlrliuil*, a 
)««• iwla**. tariiw llM (\aT<ol nI as, Ikumanlw » 
ai>(«.aiM)llH>t'livir(>hi>(ASIIvtatni. Ttwyiwunr 
lh»>ltf ut lh« lUIha oC riHittantluo. 

^UImwJMww, In riaaa* S-Apullloani, facing 
». Aiullhianl'hnKh. Hallr IMV by M. 1 juwhl 
Iba itilrc, aiut 11. IVrniil. Th» rhaivl liwilalni 
■ Vlrrbl ^w «H>»d. by Kapharl. Il l> aald. aail Ibo i 
nauhtaul l\<H AalMtoa, biouatM ffxn ihd'Ma- ' 
HWlulnlUU. ( V«, l!th A)>riT. A hua.^ N'n, ;, 

wllh Ibf lltiM>V) u(NMHVMlnl*dla«hlacv-<WHni 

i,_»?*'r!!^' -''Mvit rt»»f M Uwii. a larin Iwu**: 
y^^ifft fy- O. A. H,>.,l. nM«<uiik«Wt». : 
„J™:'|;^JJ**• H^aMJ-inir^A vkkhteHrata (h* 



■■ ITALT. 


[Section i. 




.>i}e ul tba lane 


at Id Rome, on tba .Ite ol the 




iist'^ Card?nll'^.'BMt«rlni 




Tn; rMJ"«ii facada. In Ihnw iloteya, U by Borro- 


itiUil. Two (In* 


road jpiral ataJrcMe., by Borro- 


niUJi mil Bemio 




Oollf ry nl PIcl 




K'rtlse llaphad'a 




ansL l>y Qnldo 


A. del Sarto. The •Tnumph ot 
CuitHiB, fllla the vaolt of the 


prtfielpal aaloon. 


On the wall ot Iha court l> an 


Inwrliitlnn trum 






at! In Britain. bcglnnlnB "TI 


Or.AVI'IO. \ 


J&a AVGVBTO." sad endlnK 


-'IIENTEaVK.BARBAIlAS PBIMVS. INDICIO 






itiiur""' *° 


uiptore room, with fine Qreek 


I.llirary, with 


7,000 HS3., iDcludlns Kme o 






Qsnlnii, wltb 


.tatuM ot Apollo and ot Thor 


wilrlson, lately a 


rected. 


./^W.m Jfc™*«, in Pi.;.. Borehna, Via d*H. 



Fimlniiella. Burgtieie <i 

liii lie and handums palace waa erecitd. BegDn, 
inwi. by M. Lonehi, for Cardinal lleia. and 
BnlnhwIhyF Ponato. The arcaded oourl 1. aur- 
ruunUudlO'nlnaty-.lxeoBplcdgranliBplllartwltb 
funr Koloaial Uatuei. Cloied In ISUl. whan Iha 
whula ol III* culleoUiina of unaller Mllqultlea and 
olilpDti ol rirtu wart aold by aactlon. Th* grennd 



Vata fliiv'l'a'i "t pas* 'lO"- Op<» TaFidaya, 
Tbundaya, aod Saturday!, 1 to*. ndmlMtoo. 1 lira. 
Notlre pbrlrall of SaTonarola, by F. Llppl: por- 
train of a Cardhial. and of ('mar bar):!., attributed 
to U.pbael. Bntonibmtnt. by K.pharl. painlad 
when be wa. only Iwenty-lunr; FruTU'l 81, 
Slepbnii Portrait ol Raphael, hy T. il'Urbliw: 
Uaiutalii'i Hadouoa. nanXo, bj Coneftlo: Dtl 
riiniibu'a ChrlM at the l^lunm i CniaaaB SibrL 
bytuianolrhhw: DUuwHnnllidut.b] " - 
All>iin,.-a Keaaonai H-'- ■' — "■■ '"■ 



/Wduu BDao/WH |K>nocrly RiDOCClnl). at th* 

l«i»i,bv K.tfil. Heie>lad.iucl.rililB.iheiaDlhtr 
oF B<4ia)MLne. dird. Fel^tuary Sud. l£a«. 

/M.'aaM BrmiM. In lb* via 3. PaataloB, by 
C.Uu>iiU.Hn>w«*Udbr tba HanOMe*. 1 



itU««B i^la»«t <>iV<iaMi TtA.«n>!iM. 



miljr, a 



ilarged by F 






rsmBlned, and i> still occsiloi 


aliyoseiiMMi 


f'aiiuio Caffiu-dK. Finn 




AriccBli. If 


Capitol; the .«l«flhaGe 


man Eiuba>ty 


Cattc^laria {Palain, M!a) 


next to S. Lur< 


D.inii«,bMwMi.Plai«»N« 


OMirndPtai 



XII. Oallrrf In nine i 
Tuesday, and Saturday. S to S. Foitri 
W Titian, Vandyck. Hblbsln, *c.; Rapha 
Foraarinai C. Dofci-t Virgin and Child; Mniil 
Virgin and Child; A. del Barto'i Virgin and Ch 
palnlliigibyGnldo,Gnerclno.Ac.;Tmaii-aCha 
VII.-8 »nt: S. Ro.a'8 (our Baltle-plecM. Ij 
Cuialetlo. Fall ci 



eaby Pnu: 






•I-alaito Daria. m th« 
*glin by Cardinal aan 
It iBieth, thrnugh the 



naule. Oalliry ol 



Piriata Cnei, near the ol 



Icryof pictures and library; admltalon, lOlo 12, bj 

aeclal pemtito, thrtjn^h a cansul. Among thi 






J, styled bypelrarch 

Column, on which Ilaly rested hei 
byMarUnV. Three or four brldgei 
Dalle-Oanndla unite the bouflo to Itii 
log DP tba Quirinal. Oillery o 
Thnrtdar, and Baiurdny, )(r. Moi 
ofVltlorli>C(>1oQna.liyMuzlsnD! an 
by Vandyke; Titian'. O, Fanvin. 
Holy Family; Ivory bas-rellefa, c< 
Angelo and Bapliael. ''^'-' "-" 



VlaOlulla. Bull! 



I from the ex-Klng of Naples; on n space. 260 feet 
' i>yl»Ofeet,de!lgiiedbySangalli>.rorGard!aal Far- 



is by M. AngclD, 
"m, Auge^lo ; It eon- 
X { bu^l the Famese 



iiully; ■] 



Sllar of Dwdlianl liinei. Entrance. 11. Via . 
<lla PllctU. Id tba««r<l«i9(entrance. Via del '' 
QnlrtatlD, It) are ramalai which belonged to tbt 
"-"- -""' — ' — '--* OB Iba QnlriiuJ. 






'Jm 



I«A1>0I1AW'0 ITALY. 



[Section 2. 



TIUJLB. 



Th«iM ftr« iwuntry httwm* nntnldft the older Wftllf , 
In ih«i mMiit of fomiAl f(%rdm», oni«in«nt«d with 
UtrrAcoii, foiintninii. iiutti«ry, Ac, in wtiat i« 
ti»n«lly nallml iho lUMsn iityl«, 

•r'W/tf Atbanly oiiUlde I'ortu flaUria, Rome, 
an Ali'trant rilla, Iniilt by ('. Marchlont, in tiie 
p\v:hUu'.ui\i r^ntiiry, for (/'ardinal AUmni, a man of 
Kfftiit taut*!. It wan purctiaM'il liy Prlnw Torl/^nla. 
Thft cholcd collffction, arranKcri oy Winclielniann, 
tbn wnll'known antlf|iiaHan critic, and illaMtratnd 
in hi* **Mtorla di^ll' Arti*' and *'Monuini!nti Inn- 
ditl/' Mill rankN alt<tr thn Vatican, and Capitol, and 
Torlonla: thonicli many of tiin hcNt thin^n wcro 
taken to ParlH tiy NaiKifnon, or iK>ld to thn Kinjr ( f 
Bavaria. It nommandM Ann proii|Htctii of the AlTian 
HIllN, Ap<'nntncN, kc. Not now open Ut the public, 
t)iit ponnlMlon mlf(ht hn olitainnd, a« a favoar, by 
MpplyinK In writing to Trince Torlonla, Palazzo 
TorI*»iila, 

Anionic thn ntntunn, biintii, and baN-reliefii, arc - 
llanket-lMiarintr : (^aryatldeN, in the ventibule; 
MarrlaK" of Thftln, baii-ri)licf ; Minnrva. and 
thn Nhlp ArKo, baH-rnllnf ; IlioKonnii in hid Tub; 
AntlnoiiN, a baii-rnlief from the Villa Adriana; 
FamaMiiii, In thn nnilinK of the fCAHery, the 
bflMt work of UaphanI Monff*; A|Kilk} Hauroc- 
t«>noN, a bronxn I'raxitnloii, found cm thn Avcntlne; 
llnrr.ulnN KnmnM*, a bronso copy; Laboum of Jler- 
nulnN, in a finn niarbln baiiin. Hilliard room and 
cofTnn room, in thn tritrdmi, with a round portico on 
iwnnty-Mlx Kranitn piUurii. 

ViUa JUtffffwuf, outnldn Porta dol I'oimiIo, built by 
(/ardinal HorichcNn, nnphnw of Paul V. Prince 
(/anillla Horichnun niarrind Nat)olnon'ii MiNtcr, 
Paulina, and Nold thn hnnt part oftnu collection to 
thn Knipnror, for rnmoval to thn lx)Uvro. In the 
(-aMlno nrn nnti(iuttt(*Han<l pictures, open Tuciiday*, 
ThuradiiyN, and Haturdayn, aftnr 1 n.m., 1 lira. Por- 
tico llaN-rollofN from the Arch of (Uaudiuii. 
Haloon KrcNCiinM, by RonnI; arabniinucfi, moNaim, 
Ac. Room 1, Juno; 'i, Amazon, llnrcuipti ; 3, Aimllo; 
4. (Inllory of paintinKx; 6. Hermaphrodite; fl, 
TyrtnUN; 7, Kt(yptian room. On thn Hecond Floor: 

A|)olIo and liaphnc. by Rnnilni; Htatnc of 
Prlncnim Paulina, ai Vonuii Vlctiix, by ('anova. 
Hc« pairn %Wi. under Palagto Rorghe»^^ for lint of the 
moRt remarkable picture*. The l*ark^ 8 or 4 mileR 
In extent, In open on the lame dayi ai the Casino, 
free, 1 till dunk. Itn laurtd and myrtle Kn>veii were 
half cleared, for Rtratefrlcal roaiionii, by the trovcni- 
ment of IH49. Entrance near the Porta del 
Ptipolo. It contaluR a temple and hlp))odr«>mc, 
irrottoeN, fount rtiMN, Ac. On a Ntatue Is an inscrip- 
tion tnvltlnir the Htrantcer to "come and 90 when 
he 



I 



le nlenHeN. and ask for what he likes." 

vilUt /IW(»NfiiHir/r(iormerly rtclarra and Paollna), 

s just Inside Porta Pla, olosu to the site of Porta 

€'tf////if$, on fhn old wall. 

n//a /l^rAiv-ffti. on the VU di Vcnti 8cttcmbre, 

hJuMf ''"'ff,''*'*' **J ^^« (^M^tiM of SAllnnt; whow 

^ '^^«« tiivjr gater^d the cliy on thU tido. 



There are traces of arcadea and of a Temple of 
Venus. 

VUia (kdimontantk, or Mattel^ on the Ccelian. 
Antiquities, fine riews. Admission by card on 
Ihnrsday afternoon. 

Villa Farw.sina, in the Lnngara, opposite PaL 
Corxini, see p.ige 204. 

Villa Ludaviti, on Monte Plucio, belonging to the 
Piorabino-Buoncompagni family, is now demo- 
lished. A Museum, the Moseo B noncampagni, 
has been built to ci>ntain the fine collection of 
antiqnities. Here are Orestes and Electra; Head 
of Juno; Gaul killing his wife; Pluto and Proser- 
pine, by Hemini; Mars and Cupid; Patns and 
Arrla. Open Sunday, Tuesday, and Thursday. 
Gtmreino's ^Aurora^ a fresco, which may be com- 
parod with Guldo's, at Palazzo RospigliosL, is in 
thn casino in the Via Lombardia, the only remains 
of the Villa. Open before a.m. 

Villa ifadama, two miles from Porta Angelica, 
on Monte Mnrir>, overlooking a picturesque valley, 
is so called after ('harles V.'s natural daughter, 
Margaret of Austria, who married the Duke of 
Parma. It has Insen a farm, the rooms being stored 
with fodder, and cattle driven through the saloons. 
It was built by Raphael and O. Romano, fur 
(Memcnt VII. The view commands a beautiful 

K'ospoct of Rome— of the course of the Tiber, the 
ilvian Bridge, Mount Soraote, and the Sabine 
and Alban Hills. Loggia with damaged frescoes. 
Admission daily, fiOc. 

Villa MoiHmi, on the IMncian, on the site of 
HaUmt'» Garden, as indicated by an inscription, 
'*Hortl maximorum in SalluRtianis.'* It is now 
pulled down, the only remains being the Casino 
Mauimi (no admission), containing frescoes from 
Dante, Ariosto and Tasso, bv Koch, Volt, Schnorr, 
Overbcck, and Klihrich, all German artists. 

Vifla ifniici, now the French Academy, near the 
Pinrlan (iardens. Rebuilt by Leo XI. (of the 
housn of Medici), from designs by M. Angelo. Its 
collcctbm was transferred to Florence, by Cosmo 
III.; and in ItftiO the Villa was bought by the 
French Government. Part of the tunnel whieh 
carries Ac(|ua Verglne to Piazza di Spagna, Ac, 
may bo seen. I loriice Vemet hero pahitcd Mendel- 
ssohn's p<»rtralt. Open Wednesday and Saturday. 
Garden open for a small fee. 

• Villa PamJUi Doria, 1 mile from Porta S. Pan- 
orazio, is one of the largest at Rome. Built by 
Algardi, for Innocent X. It commands a good viei* 
of Ht. Peter's. In 1A49, it was the head-quarters 
of Garibaldi. Open Monday and Friday afternoons. 
Permcsso at Pal. Dorla. Cabt not admitted. To 
Columbariay 6O0. to custodian. 

Villa di l*apa Oiulio^ almut a mile from Port* 
del Popolo. Built for Julius III., by Vignola. 
Frescoes, by Zucoaro. Now fitted up a« a 
mnscwnv; chiefly remarkable for romslna froia 

Fa\QT\i^ |kl\C\«ti\. ltV>^ ^<)mXlV \Att«AQtUl, Ao. 

Dally, \ Ura\ ^>mdAvi* ^t^- 



Route 32.] 



BOMK — VILLAS, INSTITUTIONS. 



IH): 



VUla Wolkonikf, near the Piazia di Porta S. 
OioTanni (Lateran), open after 19, Wednesday 
and Saturday. The grounds are very carefully 
arranged, and contain some antiquities. Admission 
by jperm«MO, obtained through the British Consul. 

COLLEGES, ACADEMIES, LIBRA- 
RIES, INSTITUTIONS, &c. 
THE UNIVERSITY. 

L* University deHa Sapienza, between Piazza S. 
Eustachio and Piazza Navona, was founded by 
Pius III. and Julius II., and finished by their 
successors. M. Angelo, Delia Porta (1576), and 
Borrominl had a hand in its erection. It is simple, 
and in good proportion . The chapel, with its spiral 
cupola, is by Borrominl. Over the door is the 
verse, InUiumSapientiK Timor Domini^ whence the 
name is taken. It has a library of 10,000 volumes, 
founded by Alexander VII. (open daily), and a 
collection of Roman fossils. It is closed from July 
to November. Its Botanic Garden is in Trastevere. 

C0LLB0B8. 

Collegia Romano (formerly the Jesuits* College), 
with the BiNioteca VUtorio Emanude, near the 
Corso, facing the Doria Palace. Built 1682, for 
Gregory XIII., by Ammanati, round a large court. 
It contains above 5(K>,000 vols, from the Jesuits' 
Library and dissolved monasteries, and also a large 
number of modem works. Of the various collec- 
tions the best is the Kircherian Museum, contain- 
ing antiquities in bronze, marble, Ac. Here is a 
very interesting • Orc^ffUOy or caricature, found 
on the wall of a chamber in Caesar's Palace on the 
Palatine, and excavated in 1867. It is a sketch, or 
scrawl (meant to ridicule the Christians), of a man 
with the head of a donkey, stretched on a cross, 
with a legend signifying *' Alexamenos is adoring 
Gk>d.'* llie Cavalier De Rossi says it is the very 
earliest representation of the Crucifixion known to 
exist. Notice, also, some epitaphs of Jews, from 
the catacombs, in Greek characters, with the seven- 
branched candlesticks, and often ending with the 
Hebrew word " Shalom " (peace). Most Hebrew 
inscriptions begin with "Here lies," and end with 
" His sleep is in peace." 

The extensive new Ethnographical and Prehis- 
toric Museum, containing the famous Tre<uure of 
Praneste. Open daily, from 9 to 8, fee 1 lira; 
Sunday free. The small Observatory, so well 
known under Padre Secchi, is here. 

CoUegio de Propaganda Fide, in Via della Propa- 
ganda, near Piazza di Spagna. Begun by Bernini, 
1627, and finished by Borrominl. Founded by 
Gregory XV. for training converted natives of 
distant countries for foreign missions. It has a 
library of Oriental works, and an Oriental print- 
ing office. The "Annals of the Propagation of the 
Faith" are published here. 

Aeeademia A* limeH^ tha Science Academy, In 
Palazzo Conini (wbieb aee, page S03) in the Lun- 



\ 



The English College^ or CoUegio Pio, is annexed 
to the Church of St. Tommaso, in Via Monserrato. 
The Irish College, to S. Agata, in Via Mazzarini. 
The Scottish College, to S.Andrea, on the (^uirinal. 

Academy of Fine Arts, or of St. Luke, No. 44, Via 
Bonella, adjoining S. Martina Church, near the 
Forum. Founded by Gregory XIII., for the promo- 
tion of painting, sculpture, and architecture. It has 
a gallery of paintings by several masters, including 
G. Cagnacci's Lucretia, Velasquez's Innocent XI., 
and Giiido's Fortune. Ceiling by Guide. Raphael's 
fresco of St. Luke Painting the Virgin, and his 
Garland Bearer. G. Romano's copy of Galatea 
(Famesina). Maratta bequeathed to the academy 
a skull which was supposed to be Raphael's till 1 888, 
when his skeleton was found entire in the Pantheon. 
Bibtioteca Sarti, containing about 16,000 volumes 
relating to art. Several governments have students 
pensioned here. Open daily, 9 to 8, Saturday and 
Sunday excepted. Closed in July and August. 

Academy of France, at the Villa Medicis or Medici. 
Founded, 1666, by Louis XIV., for the benefit of 
French students at Rome. Collection of casts, 
open daily; see Villa Medici, page 206. 

Oerman Archteologieal Institute, at a house on the 
Tarpeian (?) Rock, where the Germans celebrate 
Winckelmami's birthday, 11th December. 

French Archasological Institute, or Ecole de Rome, 
in Palazzo Famese. 

British and American ArehsBological Society, Via 
S. Basilic, 20. 

LIBRARIES. 

Vatican Library, open Mondays, Tuesdays, Wed- 
nesdays, and Fridays, from 8 to 12. (See Vatican.) 

Minerva Library, or Biblioteca Casanatense, be- 
queathed by Cardinal Casanata, is at the Doniini- 
can Convent, attached to the Church of Santa Maria 
sopra Minerva, and is the second richest in printed 
books (200,000). Open from 9 to 3. Closed on 
Sunday. 

Angelica Library, near the Church of S. Agostino, 
ranks third in Rome, and has about 100,000 volumes 
and 3,000 MSS. Open daily, 9 to 2, except Sundays 
and Thursdays. 

Libraries at the Sapienza and Collegio Romano, 
as above mentioned, also at the Corsiiil and Bar- 
berini Palaces. 

BENEVOLENT INSTTTUTIONS, HOSn- 
TALS, ftc. 

** The charities of Rome are numerous and well 
endowed. The revenues of the institutions for the 
poor, sick, and orphans are estimated at 840,000 
scudi, partly derived from the lottery, besides sums 
collected by the confraternities, A;o. But it can- 
not be said that the money is well administered. 
The deaths at the hospitals are large; among the 
foundlingrs it is upwards of seventy per cent." — 
Story's Roba di Roma. 

S. MichdA a Ripn Hotf^UoA. Na. *. ^*»>fO^^>=**^^ 

and Scuie wiax««i^v>>XMii.VN.>«'^"« "^^^ 



Oipiiaalf dl S. Bpfrilt, In tbe JialfH B. Splrlto. 
Founded In Jiriiv K tLlnn ol tht Bkom. and licnee 
BUriHincilSanUHptrltolnSiiuli, Hglnunilcd anil 
rli^hW rnduHcd lir liniocail III., UW. Hcl.ullt, 
HTI, hy B. I'lnlelfl, tor Slltua IV., -ho aim ilc- 

miuiilcrl. Tho [sfiidri wa> Icnmlieiied by F. Fd». 
bedii In all halJafur 1.300 patlanl*, and m nltnhy 

SlUcra of Charity, Ad uialoiDlcal 'gchiKil and 



r»Ubllib< 



I by P.0, 



Pcrqgia, The prollu go id the eovernaitiil. 

The CM^OJICi o/Polict 1< ut Ibe Palalw della 
Qnaalura, Id Via SS. Apogloll. 

BEMAIKS OF ANCIENT ROME. 






-"That whlel 
It which Nen 



dor VI„ 



FIno Arti foniid«l by k\e 



Thni of aiB aiacama. In Via del Corto, le (or 
eurglc.1 CUL-I. 

La CenidaiUnie irmp/lal, on tho west tidcoC tbe 
Capllul, la [ucanrHlcal canst, and hog li! bcdt. 

Laletan Ifeipilal. 



KW hi'di roi 

flsi. /VovfH, or Co 
B. Uortolommeo. on I 



aged r«Dialc< with ct 



I Tiber, wag [e 
Iteetfc crylnB. 



a Spaniard 

fi-alettt, "I>o ^id, . 

Thay give IheuigelTog on tu norne the ali:!! poor. 
Tbetimndarat Mrtt coUecIcd aim. fur a bo.pltnl 
ol at. JuliD ot Jemaalein. irbtch occniileit^ the iiut. 

B, Gluraiiul dl Ulo, on tho elte ot a Temple ot 
jDpJter. or itiacuLaplnt. It adDilti malm wltb 

Tata Oitmmi Jloipilal, tor founilllnR. In Via 
Florida, hebbid Ihe Pantheun. wa> fouiultd by a 

Suhn"),Rl«iliedlT«B, Itlaannoied loSC.Anna'a 
Church, on the flte of Fompey'i Theatre. 
Dr>tfandDumi/Io>plUHBoriH-MaU)it Dearthe 

-^fr^it^/iv e^ /luarH, la tbo Luurara. Itoon- 
'*Aw 4iVp,Ut„tm. 







eilat 


an o[ three dillei 








lit. TImeer lb 


King. B.c,T53- 
«)lld felniKan 


09. Thea 






atylc, of 1 








Then»gt 


crV 


brarcdin.hcr/™ 


"ifarimaTorm 




lyTarqulntheB 










Rotto BrWKoan 


1 theTeinple of 


ie^Xs. \ln. 


ofthe-i-ill. ofS«.lngTri 




iithsrfepcodh 


e ATcntine, and n 








W of RoD^a Qa. 




thii 




MamcrtlDO I'tl 






jMepb-g Church 








ind. TLDie of 


bo Hcpnbllc, B. 




Tho 


Via Appla, mad 


of baialt blocks. Part 


tbe 


SabliclhuUHdKO 


of the Tabnlar 




bSH 


of Iho Cajritol; 




' ^"m If 





Csur fell. Kcinalng ol lhre«lpmpleg under S. 
Nlccolb In Carcore. Temple ol Furliuia VIrllli, 
In IhcChnroh of Santa MaHa Lgliia. Dear the 
Ponic Butto, Three culumni of the Temple of 
Caatur aud FoUut. near the Forum. Tomba of 
mbulus, Sciplo, and S, Sulp. Qalba. Jni" v«,.. 
aDd AquaUarclaAqucducta. The Alrl 
il. Tjnieof Auitugtua and the £di[ 



mVeitB. 






11.476. The 



iuipica, bathe, 



id UD gold 
I Fonyth) 



Boate 32.] 

Kome. hdi so «u«<nua Ui raini ud uchliK- ; of "■nUqUtrliB poloBlea." ua donbtliil, ud 
liiTe,oriaeipuidedtli*ipaa*ln>iblohtbey itimd. < rflnnln in dlipu(« imoDi inliqaBrluii ; thoBgli 



iHdl by t) . . 
. pobiled." 



Ifao F.aqollbie, Cmlli 






BtltlU 


tbthav 


bcaia 


Creel- girl. 


r a (Mr, or 


ThcFu 






cPnlurlM li 


(ore Chrlrt, 




rsb, wh 






lbs Cloac. 








runtilng ben 








tb= BM« 




Icbrale 


[tRllSO 




ab[n« Wome 




iveta* 


n place 










hM»rc 


■ Curt 


us leaped V 


b hui horse. 




tb«Fo 




Virginia, o 




hool, -w 




"by lb. 




us, the 




Ihewckcdlcn; b 


dheranear 




sot Veil 


a.Clo« 




stabbed by 
















Infernal god 


Iho head ol 



cause ul UleCoI^^lun^a^^i^be^c-establlrtln»ntof 
the Tiibunts. Here state aQiIrs were debated In 

s^caUad because 'adornel°wltb°the 'beak* of 







Dm. Upon Ibis tribune 


cic 




sluct. with his hands, atte 


aen 


,byo 


.6 Forum brought 10 ligh 





CspUol. ATta 




Bsqullln 


Vlmiaal, and Qulrinal (bo 




page 166). 






THE FORUM. 


Fervnl 




end of Ibe 


Iwtanlh 


Cspltollne and 


alatine Hills, 


lying no 




beast, now 


KomuF 












been[oand.Tlz„tbcCouii 






DomlllaiT, Basil 




Deified J 


lia>,AlrlninVc 


ta, Ac. 'Opaa 



d the p»tb called CHtm 
•I Fboeas (fiUl.) and other 






1 Rei5\>, ^M 
■n BBTMO w na at^. ja oonsegnonce ol thin, I Bx™TB.ttoM mi ,- - 



Som«at Uic iltoa arotuid uethe fullowini; :— 
Ths lute oC Ihe T^nUrium. In the Ben.lon' 
Filace, on tbe ilops at Ihe Cipltol. near Vis dl 
Monte T*tp«i. Trawiof thectllnof IheTample 
or CDncord, near Ihe Chorch at 6. Gluneppc to]>n 
la Career*, or 8t. Joseph over ths Priiuin. (.(.. the 

oii"lhe Mt of"i"ie"carIa' Julia." cotiicr gf Via 
Donella. S. Lotcnm in Miranda 1» on the the of 

Hie Batiliea of Cimilaitine (good vIdw of llie 

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF OTHER REMAINS 

AOOBDVCTS. 

Jjiia ^w^ the oldCBt, -was oonalmtted B.C. 818, 
and. It cnterei by Pi 



by Aprl"> Clandiu., from 
emlleaLoiiK, 1--'" "-"■■"■' 
Caiwna. Th. 

PorU Maggioi 






'Uich ei 






Aaxa Jwrcw (s.e. 1*6). Agaa Trpa!'- {».c. 1J7). 
from near Marlim, and Aqm Julia (by the AEtiW*. 
the other. Aqua Marcla c»bib from Tjvoll «iid Bu- 



AvrnXo and Palatine Hill.. It Is ltd by J 
Claudia. Aqo» Alexandria, and the Anlo Sot 

AQUa ^Htriuro. or AIcii:iHti, made Ijy Augn 
from ^"J^,.'"'^^J'J|'|^„g,,t f„n, TmcoIudi, b 
Agrlppa, (or bi« iiailii tbehlnd the Panlhemi) 
Soi TMtored Itas, a> Ae^ia Veraine {pane I.< 

Aqtia CTnurfto, made *.d 60. f cali the A 
Felice, and bianrhu off to the Temple of CIdu 



D. 60. Le anothiir feeder of Aiaiu 



I itALV. [Section i. 

ABOHEB. 



mpporled by four handume Rlaiio-nntlco plllura 

i»-rellcr<, which were taken from''dn earlier arch 
il Trajau It wai half-biuied In Che toil, when 



Iri^renzo de' Medici, and are replaced by othera by 

■JnAo/floIaJeJ/B. between tho Churches of SS. 
(llo>iinnl and Paolo. andS. Tomniaiw In Fomiii. on 
Ihe Callan. I> usually eallcd Aroo di Donnabelln. 
Dullt ij>. iV. by Fubllui Comellui Dolabella and 
MsbrolhorConiul. It Is a tingle arch of trBTer- 

BtIbb. or dopil for foreign ca'airr. At the top ]■ 
Ml arch ol Kero'a AqiicdDet, and annie niches of 
hie Nymphmim (or the Temple of Claadian) ars 

S. Scbattlaiio. Dullt by the Senate in honanr ot 
•Archo/OaUimui, near Santa Maria Magglor*, 



uj Quadrifi'ons, ir 
I nil open vault I 






. pierced by foor 

was f ortlflod and 
le medlBTal an. 



3. Qlorgio In Velabro. elote to 

iiidlt by the bankers and owtcu—:~~, -u. .....u.. 

Bnniinm (or cattlo market), In houoor o( S«pll- 
mlui BoTcrut. his wife Julia, and Carscalla. QeU'i 

was afterwards erased by Caracalta. It la a null 



eMalawlth In script Ions-, 
Ufnca of Chief Veilab 
ICO Hnilonalc}, and tbe 



\ "Et. r. Btynniw- ■ 



, li^R-'-^SS, 



KDlpture^ And i 
tot th<i HQiuKn style 



AXCIBtiT BOBIE. 
I. MgUy Monio Cav 



IK of Jemulom by 



iialn on t 



d by Victory, icilh tho golden tabl< 
ed cuullcitlcks. trnmpett. tilicrhotn. 
polta brouglil rrom the Tciniile, The 
full ot ftfrnreB. Tlis biicrlptbn, on tb 
S the CoToaenm. iroi put there when 
1 styled Dlvn " 



or the 



if the Csi^ 



neagre In profile! bnlitlsbardt 



*0 feel long by 700 br 
I del Coetarl', In the < 

! AqtlB Virgo, oil: 









Diocletian, on the VIminn 

and the CclM CalldurU 
verted Into the church oin 
dCKll AnjrelL by M.Anj 



One at It 



!. Ly 



iTCiit of Santa UerU 

tnemauig tne outer porllcnea and courts. They 

rfnervoirs and furnace were behind, 

Lalgl Chorcb. ic.betweeiilhePoulhamnnd Plana 
MiJenia; buUt a.d. Bi, lu the year or the fmsat 

i( Agrlppo. 

cJdon'HouK, 

•nd wefo 400 led by SCO feet In extent. Witli 
theee were Incorporated the Sa'fti o/ TYi^ao. btpnn 
by Domlttan, and finlihed by Trajan, occnpylng 



tMubrooehitolightat 
Did be CDieful, Iho chan 



OBBtri, Teters of the Equltcs BinEnlarca. ih 
inpcrlil Horie-Guarde. diacoverci, leso.ln the VI 
rnnso, bailt m Iho retlcnlatcd work of Hiflrinn 
Ime. with 43 Inecrlbcd mirblc pcdcstali. 

Caitrenilan AmpUtlieatni, near th« Port 



CIBCDBES. 

Hi (tor wrOHtlIng, Jec.>— OdIm ^ 



[ but e.n tMoaa. »ttatfc,Vii VwS. s 
\ lor gVtina B. la'ii Ana*. V> Vl* M 



• Cireiii e/ MtmnHut, ueir Ihe Tomb ot Ronm 
I and Tomb of GacUU UeleDs. do the Ai^lu 



ITALY. [Section U, 

OOLOBSBDH. 

-' WhUfiUnd* the CoUhdid. BotrJH Kbmll aUitd i 
Colotitum, OTigEniiry Flavium Amp^Uisafi-um, 



wiu^^''/!l«™!«n'd?mBll ^m^l^' Thecal*"" h ^JT""'" "**'"' TI.*"A"k "«".hln" ^710 

Cirna.oi-Hcuieofaan<ul,De^TPi,naBhlHrlii.in m" w^oyf ""the nrenimd' «eal8 by" nieiins "of 

dt" ^b" A*Srl^" D"l«'^'som8'retD"Xa"™ntst'm '^^^'^ openings or »rchw»ja. called coiuWwde 

which adorned the Spina tares iho CHorch of ,t,g "wnrfal'ind 'dlWdi'Ahe wMe msM Tnlo'ai 






. Lo the pguetlreM, populi* pullati (ar rol^le) fsapec- 

wSh"".]. "ThT'pISaUne M^r Via do^^Fenm ""''^- ^ho galfery at the top rc.ting on elghly 

ud Iha Chorch of Suita Ajlaslaala, on IhsTla de' '^'""' ''°' ''™™ "" ""' 

a^ta, and almllar ipeclaclsa nndcr tho nin 



HoiTDunded by a deep cornice and entablature, and 
by eighty dooi-s. Is Tuscan, or debased I>oilc In 






nn, or velarinm, In hot weallier. The Ciriai' 
•enm would bold 100,000 spectator), littlnr ud 
•Oloua WftTlma, or main lewer of ancient ' ilanding; as many aa 10,000 gladialora foi^lp 

S.iB the Prood, 2,600 years aeo, and kept np by yentlioue, or wild beast fight of 6,000. In on* day, 
e censora, Hdile, and lailerly by curatort. It besides a sea fiehl, \n which a,000 men eiblblted. 






the edge of the podlnm. It could be BooilCd for 
bails at the naval lights. £xcantlona nour In 

.. progress have disclosed that the realbauofOa 

A bright I Colotieam -nu 2a feet Inwer than Iht plMf^m, 

•^H. 1„t.^ ' >,l,an.tV,i,„litMfLlnTiLf,NnvVl-.fn,hVn«,titnqgfB^d 



^CU^'-^""'* -*"«"" Argnntlna, ran. Inlo wheieVtBRVa4\i'.ot»loa»'B^-,iffi(i«B»vttwMB(i 
^ ««-. Rom, •"< sod f..fJH a weU drained l>tlE»i-"OiK,™-«>-\e'aft«i™'^*--<ftV'*~ 



Bonte 3S.] 

The Coloueuili (luHRMUr, bi 
eighlh century. Tblsnarat dori 



AMUIENI BOXB. 

callHl (be I Oltorlo. It wi 

ind In the The pedeitiL li 



Farnew, Berbcrini, Ilio Cincollerle, Ih" Rl|-ell. ,„_ , ,_ ,„ _, ,^, „, 

Qu-iy. 4e., were built, Suine iilt^oipH h.ve Imo ,,„|gn md pmponion to thoM o[ tha Trajan 
OMBjlonalty mads at reparatlcpii, *J^^^'J^^[ «)lninii^ Iti height H IM feel, _lnclnrtlna IS (eel 

In the year 404. an EaUeni monk, named Alwa- 
chioB. or Teloniachns, ru.hcd In iiuong the glaiila- 

AlypiuB, ordered them to riayhlm.'whichtbey did! 
All In-crlplloii over the entrsnco >tate< thai the 
aaipbiihealro wm dedicated to the wor.hip o» the 
Maityi^ III the year ol Ilio Jubilee, ie7S. UiiUI 
ISVl all the bcnchea were cOTcred with wcede and 

w™Mflo''i■™^ anemone " m^^e"iC\c. " Tha» 

pMullar"lSlhe tiltee.'TgrTen iu Denis's Hoib of 

Via Srtora, with lbs Forum Komanuni, In »low. 
"Tbe •Dormoui Amphit)H*tce lidiiild I 

A eUwiII tui lad b'lih ; am IwSm hdJ 



the Arch of SepUmiui Sevcrui. Ii 



n ofPhxat, was dedicalcd to the Emperor 
by the Exarch 8^l»^aedo^ «.P. MS, In 
iDi Romaiiam. The pedettal. which w>a 

j was flWiitcrred In 181B. at the coal of the Dueheei 

•Colnmn of najan, near the Chnrch at Ub 

of thirty-throe pleceaol marble; Iu total height 



tB«,'*U?^'lll'.'"""^'"" '" ^™° "" ""' i Apollodoru., 
COLUUBABIA. the' York Pillar, 



af Pnbtic Iiietmctlon, 



I may be followed h^j -.<»,\V.v,i t;^&\'..jV^^^ 

; bigii ^tXitty ■»•* vn)!». ;^™^ '^'* *™!?=.^ 



FOBUHS AMD BABIUOAB. 



1 ildD, with a tribunal ^Mlie judgrant ths 
fhls iva> rilled In wlDi csncclli. or IMtlco. 



cl for . 



irchw,! 



eix:tulw>tlBii]. It hi 
(BmiHeaiifCa 



Forumt/Aagialiu. neOh of tb o Forum Rom annni. 
Part *)t n nuuBk'K pfpcrliio wnIK plArccd hy jiii 
nrch. romilni; with Im flatcd Corinthlnii colnomi 
at Iho Tcmiils of Hits Ultor. 

J'Snni PBfiali is IdflillDcil In^ Odl. with Iho re- 

Sonian peopi* GDlobrnlcil ths Lulins Fcrln. or 
holldnys In April, with their Muntry mini, 
/brum Aanwuun. {Sc« FOBDH. lUlK MS.) 
/bi-iin 0/ Tr^ioii. Thl> adjoined ths ForuDi of 
Au(tmtB(. Most otiho site ol tJils mice mBjmlfieciit 
lu^Ucd^ which had Avs naves. a& sotutmctod by 
ApollodoruB, ig now caTErod with limiaca, Btuidlnjf 









CWimiri (MS prccndlnit pagej. and a lew itranito 
plllan of ths Boillka Ulpto (prxbafalv nnl In tilii\ 
with BOips frojutivla of capital t,entablnturcs^c., 
which were HCAcalnl liv SlilDsV.(1SW),Bnd by 
l>lus VII^ In 1813-13, and are ranged around It. 
They are nfar ttic church of Madonna dl Lorelo. 

Fonntajn of Eserta ("o-called) In a Tallej-, 
It la an unrMfcJ chamber containing eleven niche^ 



'fi^-^^ilr.... 

bulltoierll. 
Hela EodftltS, a foui 



PALACE OP THB 0£SAKB. 

(The Palalhie mil.) 
The llrtt Pa.'aw was bejun bj' Anea«tnsCie'9i 



■nUriicd, pn*ably 
id Edinlllno mill, 






Did mutllaled ai 
The E«cr] 



; ni\\ n 



don' <l Callgulii'i Tb< 



CapilolUm. the dBJCtlptiiin' 



Roate 32.] 4K01BKT BOMB. 


The frtBter part, with (he eicoptlon of th« 
Palace ot Tibcrlna. hai now been eicafated. 

Palat'iie' Bi^d tbe rtiBaln™are vast. Part oflhem 


Jel Vara, T. Znceliero, A. Carracol. and 
Jel Saaso. Many houiei aroond the bu 



Mr. Bniaeil Forbeg condncts Ttiltsrs OTer tl 
PaLaline Hill, dejcribing the remains of tb 
Monarchal, Republican, and Imporlal period 
No om hi Rome ia bctler acquainted with 11 

bad at 93. Via Bahnlno, In the City. 
FANTHEOH. 



and capital. The hite 



The portico haa an Iniierijition ("M. Agrippa. I.. 

to Auguetus'fl Bon-ln-law. Agrippa, n,c, ^7, whose 

BevcrnJ A.D. Mi. accordhiE to another insorlpllon 
on the architrave. Hr. Fergngaon thought that 



The Paolheon was once adorned wlthgUdine, 
bronzes, statue. o( deities and great men; and 
waa turned hito a cburch In m. It was entire 






johicd toifcthc 






J cspoe 


the llnesl wh 


eh Bo 






injured by be 




a«di 




imwori It and 


doesn 


It him 


oni-CB 






mally 


perhap 




ulldln 




want o 


perpcndlcnlar 


Sh 


■hleh 


the d< 








slake 










i:^""!?".""! 




over 


lelow 






n the architect 
CDllarlty of the 











are 




piers are 


slandbie. It 


exiendc 




Ch 


irchof 


Santa M 








toiha 


Theatre 


f Balbu. hy a 


fine port 


CO. 






Prxlor 


OR Camp, or 


Caatra Prxtoriana, 


totha 






r space, w 




by Bejan 


.1, (n the time 




us,fo 




Impc- 


rial Guar 


i, and dismal 


leflhyc 






Threo 




e iohied by H 










A new bor^sch has he 










remolus 


o[ corridun 


nd sepu 














wamo 


r agBtr, of 














•*pfc. 


Hum, or Bctt 


HbIc, 


ear th 


B 


thaof 



the Scn.itor of^mno took an oath to defend ltmCa\Alo\,-wia\oA\^\rj 'a,"\^^^"^„ 
funone other thln»s> Us Cattle of Cr«Bcanllu« (or hn\4 «i6 vaW'te bkX* l,a&\.xii» 'f*'*^" 
S. Ai^lo), ihililM. Old 8»ai„ JXarU Rotoadt \ Pan,U»wm\i^\'W^'™«'^^JJ;>^-^- 



In Ihe ^pte of Saturn. TwD|Hlhi, opQcaUal ! 
CllTua Cipilollniu. I;d lo (he Intcrmonllnin b«bind. 



[Section S. 

ill ibe slctatli cntiu}-, sod hatni In 
lains, nhlcb hid * pirsmenC D[ rliilla 



Mid Ihit or VckU, the latter al TItoII, 

J-wi.p/rD/^nBiiininrtiu.nro/A'tjUuM.lnPlsi 
<]) I'ielra, nnd loulh of the Anlwilne Culnn 
ElcTcii baltereit Corlulhlnn pllltr^ ■npportlnji 

trwromierUnttilii 



JVTnpl* n/ JJtrcttlti, I 

In the valley ot Egeri 
An clenanl llltie «tr 

other. The apiielliil' 






•nmplUffAtilBMlMi 



. Thli I 



nute lu Ihs KmiKi 



imple of Fortana ViriHi. on the Tiber, on U 
. .,.v df one bnllt by Serrlui TD1lln^ Is one at II 
few remaining antlquillen of the Repnbllc, tonulD 
part of (he Armenian Chntch of^ Santa Matl 

toft, ornamented with marble sImcmi. The ^i 



if doubtful authen 



, Tbe CoriPlhlan partko, in 
no marble, remain*: with 11. 
intonlno" above "Dlv* Fa 
itt In (he Jrieio. Tliero wa, 
Mity-oneKepa abara the Via 
ot a. Lorenio In Miranda oce' 



Ttmptt of Barchat, or, raom | 
tomb, now part of the Church 



nm/Hi of Ualan. in the Forum, on the Hope of 
linrnt; accordins; to (he Inwrlplion, "8. P. Q. R. 



le public acrlTenera, bnllt by 
>rated II) 



Thre« fljwly proportioned Cr 
about «0 feet high, of fluted 



Taipit of JvpiUr 1 



Tiber. Eiitht flut< 



k thi> I 



T«nplo o( I 



Fortune, orteliiaily built by 

Idcoiiflcailon li doubtful in botU ..«■»•. i 

«(""■"/, /j/ye /ra'gmenU of the bflaementi ha^c . 

*^K^o^ «;«»«/ i-ramplo dalls Concordia), 
■ •r»a cmrertta laio the Churrh of 



*TimBlt of ttlntrm UtMni lomlKaUad) wu a 
domed haW M l^ \,VAn\«> Qu&ha. «i ^tH. 



Ront« Si.] 

P«ti or the wKll 



One of them nrlglnaled tbe name. The tenth objeclfram all pnrti, rertior en enriched irohl 
■Ids wes occupied by the doorwBv. Mr. Fci^uwHi trevc- and (riiMO with other (ragmenta are left 

"on'll^'mnrtJ^lion'and* re^^n"'^' ^^rlhl B™'"^""*"'""''' >"eap°cndrddonb"Mlo™!Si 

le2''iDwnttoD."i?'thB 'Saddle «g°e/that arc not Bo^™^'„°{/j?|^^'B^^'a^,J||vrrtU^r°rio™d 

that I cannot help belioTlng that It Is 
modem than la generallj anpposed." 
'Temp/a of Van eilor. at the end 



■dbj-nlnt 



twenty) flo 
arblc. of n 



the Contl iamily, and overlnmcd by an oarth- 
qnake, me. The abo.a (tateway la called Arco 

hood 1> a block'of the Second WsU. 



the present one le of wood. It irat ronnerly 
erronpoualy at jlcd the Temple of Vata. 
THEATRES. 
Theatre tf BallMt, near 



ed by portlcoi 






^Tf^atre oj Marailv*^ ni 
luui. Built hyAugnatua 






Aaria Ma^glore ; 4S {Eoman 



,ve orlElnally .. 

Campodl 



tii™ wiJoJ^ .IIU It 1. . part. It had i portico' K'|J«'J, „^™Jtf„^"'y wHh'lt'i''col'o™XS 



leSpuTa Palace. The a 



B"a) and two ponfliyry eollUDne ware addod by *v»*fcww b»» »»»-**-. — - ^ (-_v-^_ 

rbuiVIU. £«WBW. Tr.™. of the il«^ Manv o**-^™'^'""*-^'^* ■">•** S?i'™^^^ 
A, (Aa f/a BterM, wten tbe PoBiifu Miilnnu I Mauieleum ef A»p«l'M. ^'IJifc^wB^'w*'' " 



d by AapuEtnB. Ln h 



DSisBHAw's tTi.LT. [Section 3. 

»nBulDtc to I [r>r H builat place, irlien that of Aaeualni, on ths 



Cc. Here Iho Ixjrij- of Kienil wi 
•Tjmb c/ Cmilia MtMla. oil t 



Younger CrsBsui, A rsund hoilding. 62 feot high, by a spiral ■na.y lo the cbiiubua liiildt. vblcb 

or Irayenlnc. with a detoratod trleie. lii wblch CardLnal Carnffa ™ .Iranglffll, IWl, b» order of 
arebuUi' bands, uid a tropfar of Victory nrlllm[ Paul 111. A hronie Angel on thciuinnillroplacM 



d. liytop refers to it-- 


which must be punctiiallj otaerred. 




A very beaatirul ilnlus Df the romhfnt SaccfiDi 




was dIBCUTCtcd in 1Bdl niideniealh a ilalreane. 


35 feet ihlek. so thul It Is neju-ly 


II nndonbtediy oneo stood on tin npper part. 


111 ■ plaatjmt spot, witb vlowiol 
Alluin Hills, "This Is tbo ulriest 




•erlsl Rotno. of aii anlheiitlc date. 


in a vinej-ard. bclweeu Via Appis mid Via Latins. 


cclmeu lit a Konum tooib reniabi- 


It teenii tu have been originally n quarry of tiita 




rock, ill which sepulcbra were eicsvatcd. TIio 




entrance is through a pl:iln urih, whieb was 


1^'Jed" «".' II is°n"n.srb?s 
aiertlne bate. The vaulted ehain- 


CDTcnxl with stucco amameiite, and pnlntoJ. A 


in Ihs Vatican. It is (hat of Sclpio Ilarbalua, 










Is the Tomb of tbo Kre*dd«i. of OeUvl^ In the 


u ftiWfcfui SWb'w Id the wall of 
Marforlo, at the cud of theCorso. 




^mJi of Santa Coilmia, bulltbyConilantiDc.an 






"EST HOC MONIMKSTVM HARCEt VER- 
GILtll EUBTSAC'ia l-ISTORia MBUEMPTO- 
HIS APPAIIET." 
Tomb of Strgim StOp. Cofto, ereot-grandfather 



le dty were sItDated, 



KlamiuU (see further 



oii]e)i has lately been excavated, and a Unedis. 

nl&ed (UUiB of Adkuhus found, II feci bigb. 

_. __ wlthtcaeeiotaAow ottftwtaiijir]-, t^HHwiii, 



BoQte 32.] BOME — BXCCBIIOMS. 

BXOtntsioNS FBOK ROUS. Hon <ir««rk> In p,U und gea,. fo 

The»ll ot Ihewmntry nesr Ilonf e, Aarr Romania, Mnilu and Btnudun lonibs. 
orOimPMB*. ''"'""'"."ItharollingiurfaM, .*''?1' P^'"" »"* ni«rtyn wi 



C«pp.;i. . 



< burled li 



«y«i, 11 



the ciplut and 

jthoioil.bntW 

cnlUfsUon .nrroundi the c[lji Willi; Iben comes 

tirnllnn reappears. Tbe Und !■ chiefly piulurc. 

Fnrms In tbe Ciinpnitiiii run lo 10,000 aeres; and 
the whole are rented by a corporate body. ctlTcd 



■i>rd.iiearlbeCharcA< 
Inpla. They were so 
318-19) transported tl 



ristbuii eslabll^ed hi 



oppusite SI. Sebasl 



I. during which pel 

aljo'uiiidby the Jews 
u the Vlinia Randan 



e.peclallvln e work by the lale Caralleredl Rosa 
IniixtolUrnlumes. Ho examined ll.OOOImcni 



From ths ronjh drawjnpi tonnd In thcae Ob»h, i 
«-#TO((»«irBffBtttoworJ."8T0(eiqne." BIkiidt I *' 



Mshop" (i.D. i50|i "Lnclns" (i.D. 2i'i); -Eoly- 
chlaiius, bishop" (A.D.iJ3). The slabs were foond 
ISM. Only two oJ Ihose are ealltd nwrlyrs, 
moQgh birth Anteroa and Lucius are bicloded In 

It o( Cyprian. It '- 




230 



BRAD8HAW 8 ITALY. 



[Section 1. 



The Tomb of the Scipios is inside the grate of 
S. Sebastian, formerly called Porta Appia. It 
was not discovered till 1780, when the contents 
were transferred to the Vatican, and counterfeit 
inscriptions pat here instead. The next objects 
are three Columbaria, in Vigna Codini. Cross 
the Almonc, or Acqnataccio, to the Church of 
Domine quo vadis ("Lord, whither goest thou?"), 
so called, according to tradition, because St. Peter, 
when flying from persecution, here met the 
Saviour