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Bulletin 



ricultural Expe 
:ate entomoloc 




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Weeds of Montana 

' By J. W. Blankinship. 



[Issued September lo, 1901] 

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BULLETIN NO. 30. 



MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 



EXPERIMENT STATION 



• ••"■"••• 



THE nONTANA COLLEQE OP AQRICULTURE. 



WEEDS OF MONTANA. 



Bozeman, Montana, June, 1901. 



lOOI. 

The Avant Courier Publishing Co., 
Bozeouui, Montana. 



I 



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Montana Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Bozeman, ilontana. 



STATte BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

Joseph K. Toole, Governor \ 

James Donovan, Attorney General >ex-officio Helena 

W. W. Welch, Supt. of Public Instruction J 

J. M. Hamh^ton Missoula 

J. P. Hendricks Butte 

N. W. McConnell Helena 

O. F. Goddard Billings 

O. P. Chisholm Bozeman 

J. G. McKay Hamilton 

G. T. Paul Dillon 

N. B. HoLTER Helena 



EXECUTIVE BOARD. 



Walter S. Hartman, President Bozeman 

John M. Robinson, Vice President Bozeman 

Peter Koch, Secretary and Treasurer Bozeman 

Joseph Kountz .' Bozeman 

E. B. Lamme Bozeman 



STATION STAFF. 



Samuel Fortier, Ma. E Director and Irrigation Engineer 

F. W. Traphagen, Ph. D., F. C. S Chemist 

RoBT. S. Shaw, B. S. A Agriculturist 

J. W. Blankinship, Ph. D Botanist 

R. A. CooLEY, B. Sc Entomologist 



Post Office, Express and Freight Station, Bozeman. 

All communications for the Experiment Station should be 
addressed to the Director, 

Montana Experiment Station, 

Bozeman, Montana. 



The Bulletins of the Experiment Station are sent free to all resi- 
dents of this State upon request. 



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riontana Experiment Station. 

Bulletin No. 30. June, 1901. 

WEEDS OF MONTANA. 



J. W. Blankinship, Botanist. 



I. GENERAL STUDY OF THE WEED FLORA. 

INTRODUCTION. 

In the study of the economic features of a new state like Mon- 
tana, where relatively little has been done toward a systematic 
biological survey of its natural productions, the botanist is 
seriously handicapped by the lack of available scientific collections 
to represent the different species of plants in the state and to show^ 
their relative abundance and distribution. Practically all this 
flora is of economic import, either to benefit or injure the indus- 
tries of man. The forests are utilized for wood and lumber; the 
shrubs serve as forest nurseries, the herbs and grasses for forage. 
Many are capable of economic cultivation for their fruit, for shade 
or for ornament, while others are harmful and need restraint. 
Parasitic fungi attack our crops and greatly reduce the yield; 
many plants are poisonous to stock and cause extensive loss; some 
ill-flavor the milk of cows or the hone3^ of bees; while the spines of 
cacti and the awns of grasses seriously injure the mouth of stock, 
and weeds mar our yards and highways and compete successfully 
with growing crops. 

In order to combat these pests intelligenth- or to make the 
best use of the native plants in our industrial life, it is necessary to 
know their life history, their habits and their distribution within 
the state, and these facts can be secured only from a representative 



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4 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

collection of the species in a herbarium and from the study of the 
different plants in the field. Without this data, it is impossible to 
draw accurate conclusions as to the abundance and utility or 
harmfulness of any economic group. Although much has now 
been done at this Station toward securing the necessary collections 
of the native flora and in the study of the economic conditions of 
the various parts of the state, any prje^ent treatment of a large 
economic group, like the weeds, must of necessity be very imper- 
fect, as large and important sections of the state are nearly 
unknown scientifically and several large agricultural districts have 
not been visited. 

The study of the weeds of any region must include the sources 
of infection and the means by which they spread over the country 
when once introduced, as well as the adaptation of native plants 
to conditions of tillage and habitation and the means to be 
adopted for their restraint and eradication. The subject is of 
special interest in a new state like Montana, where the population 
is relatively scant and the agricultural districts are widely 
separated from each other and often from direct weed infection 
from abroad and where the distribution and composition of the. 
native flora is rapidly changing, owing to the increased settlement 
and effects of grazing immense herds of stock over the unculti- 
vated portions. It is also desirable to make note of the present 
status of these weeds in the state in order to observe their future 
history. Many introduced species are unsuited to our climatic 
conditions and die out or maintain a precarious existence here, so 
that they may well be disregarded as a source of danger. Others 
that appear harmless in the Eastern states may here develop most 
dangerous habits and require the combined efforts of acommunity, 
or even the aid of the state, to check their spread or effect their 
destruction. It is the object of this paper to present a suminary 
of our present knowledge of the weeds of this state, to indicate 
the most dangerous introductions and suggest means for their 
restraint or eradication. It is hoped that farmers, stockmen and 
others interested, will send this Station specimens of any plant 
found troublesome or threatening to become a pest in their 
vicinity, so that the species may be determined, its habits studied 
and timely warning given to other parts of the state, that prompt 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 



steps be taken to effect its extermination should it prove a serious 
danger. All the plates used are from the Division of Botany of 
the Department of Agriculture at Washington by whose kind- 
ness we are able to give a fair representation of many species 
which would otherwise be difficult to describe. 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WEEDS. 

Of the various groups of plants troublesome to man, the 
weeds are of prime importance because of their abundance and 
general distribution, and from their unceasing struggle with the 
farmer for the possession of the fields. The weeds are that group 
of troublesome plants, which promptly occupy soil on which the 
native vegeitation has been greatly weakened or destroyed by the 
operations of man and his domestic animals and which grow and 
flourish under conditions of habitation, cultivation, travel and 
pasturage, and occur but rarely' removed from these conditions. 
They are objectionable because they tend to crowd out plants 
more desirable in our lawns, meadows and pastures, because they 
render our yards, streets and waysides unsightly and spread 
thence into our gardens and fields, where they choke out the grow- 
ing crops and rob them of needful food and moisture, and because 
their seeds, mixed in the grain used for food by man 'and stock are 
unpalatable, or even hurtful. Yet, in most of their characteris- 
tics, weeds differ from cultivated plants only in their lack of 
economic value and their greater hardiness, and the cultivated 
plants themselves, under favorable conditions, not infrequently 
escape and become pernicious weeds, like the carrot, radish and 
turnip in certain sections of the Union. 

But there are certain characters and adaptations of weeds, 
which enable them to grow and spread faster than other plants 
and give them a peculiar relation to civilized life. 

Their habit of occupying lands denuded of their natural vege- 
tation renders them free from all competition except among them- 
selves. They have often wide-spreading basal leaves and spread- 
ing or prostrate branches, which enable them to crowd aside other 
plants, or their vigorous growth permits them to overtop and 
shade out more slow growing species. They are usually pro- 
tected a&:ainst herbivorous animals by growing within fenced 



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6 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

enclosures or in streets and lanes, where there is less pasturage. 
Those found in meadows and pastures are frequently acaulescent 
(stemless), like the dandelion and plantain, while along streets 
and highways they are often prostrate, as in the case of pigweed 
pursley, knotgrass, vervain, carpet weed, and wild tomato, a 
habit which puts them beyond the reach of most grazing animals. 
Many have bitter or poisonous secretions or excretions whiph 
cause them to be avoided by animals, and others develop spines, 
prickles or stinging hairs for the same purpose. A considerable 
number of weeds are able to germinate on and penetrate with 
their roots the packed soil of street and roadside and to with- 
stand the excessive dryness of the later summer, when many other 
plants would die under similar conditions. 

But one of the most remarkable characters of weeds is their 
wonderful power of reproduction. Manj- annuals begin blooming 
almost as soon as they are out of the ground and produce seed 
until the frosts of autumn, not rarely going through several gen- 
erations in a single season, while the number of seeds produced by 
a single plant often mounts up into hundreds of thousands. With 
most other plants the season is far advanced before the}*" attain 
maturity, or their period of fruiting is limited to a short season in 
early spring and the number of seeds produced is relatively small. 
The seeds of many weeds are also remarkable for their vitality, 
and are often able to germinate a dozen or more years after being 
exposed to ordinary soil conditions, and it is this property which 
renders the sunflower, wild oat, wild mustard, pigweed purseh% 
wild tomato, tumble-weed and others so diflicult to exterminate 
when they have once become established. A number of species are 
more or less fleshy so that they are able to take root again after 
being dug up, or are at least able to mature the seeds already set, 
and this habit makes them palatable for stock and thus aids in 
the distribution of their seed. The large fleshy roots of the 
dandelion and docks are difficult to kill while the underground 
stems of the wild morning glory, the Canada thistle, sheep-sorrel, 
milk-weed, wild liquorice, &c., not only spread the parent plant, 
but are even aided by the processes of cultivation. 

But weeds also labor under certain disadvantages. Nearly all 
species are desirable food for stock, of which they take advantage 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 



to scatter their seeds. By far the larger part are annuals 
and are hence unable, when left to their own resources, to lon/a^ 
compete with the more enduring native species. Biennials are 
particularly weak, being unfitted for the annual upturning of the 
soil in cultivation or for extended contests with the perennial 
species, finding their natural conditions only in waste places and 
along highways. Weeds must also contend in unceasing passive 
warfare with man, whose interests they endanger, but who pro- 
vides them with conditions best suited for their growth. 

MEANS OF DISTRIBUTION. 

Weeds, like other plants, are dependent upon physical agencies 
for the distribution of their seed, but rely more largely upon man 
and domestic animals for this aid. It may be well to enumerate a 
few of the principal means thus employed. 

A considerable number of species depend upon the wind to 
scatter their seeds and such weeds produce feathery, hairy or 
winged seeds or have their seed envelopes so modified as to aid in 
such dissemination. Among these are the thistles, fireweed, 
dandelion, milkweed, sow-thistle and rag weed (Erigeron), while 
the docks, pennycress and orache are likewise assisted by their 
winged fruit pods and appendages. Again, a group of plants 
called ** tumble-weeds," adapted particularly to the plains, grow in 
large globular clusters and have the curious habit of breaking 
loose from the ground in the winter and are then rolled about over 
the country by the wind, scattering their seeds throughout their 
course. We have here the tumble-weed (Amaranthus albus), the 
tumbling mustard (Sisymbrium altissimum) and the Russian 
thistle (Salsola Kali Tragus), while the tumble-grass (Panicum 
capillare) is found to some extent eastward. 

Another large class depends more particularly upon the water 
for seed transportation and such seeds have light, water -proof 
envelopes, which enable them to float for considerable distances 
before saturation. Indeed, the seeds of nearly all weeds are thus 
distributed to a greater or less extent, but the sunflower, the 
horse-weed (Iva), wild mustard, pigweeds and the sweet clover 
seem to depend mainly upon irrigation for their spread, and the 
docks come largely under the same class. 



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8 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

A third class requires the agency of animals to assist their 
migration. Some of these have hooked, barbed or awned fruit 
which cling to the fur and wool of stock and hence are particularly 
injurious to the wool industry of the state. Among them may be 
mentioned the cuckleburs, beggar-ticks, wild liquorice, buffalo-bur, 
spear-grass and foxtail. The weeds so common along streets and 
highways, in yards and pastures, are distributed mainly by the 
mud of passage, which adheres to the feet of animals and the 
wheels of vehicles, while the adhesiveness of a considerable num- 
ber is further increased by developing a gummy secretion from 
their outer coat or envelope to assist in the process. These seeds 
are usually small and frequently depend in part upon water for 
their extension. Those with mucilaginous envelopes are the 
plantains, shepherd's purse, bird-seed (Lepidium), Matricaria, 
Monolepis and Euphorbia, while the sticky contents of the berry 
of the wild tomato serve a similar purpose. Many of these weeds 
are edible and have small seeds with impervious coverings, which 
enable them to withstand the various processes of digestion and 
they are thus scattered in the oflFal of animals. Hence barn-yard 
manure is a prolific source of weeds and always tends to restock 
our fields with these pests. 

But the agencies above enumerated tend only to scatter weeds 
already established in a community, while foreign species come in 
chiefly through the agency of man, and it is against these intro- 
ductions that we are able to guard most effectively. A large 
number of these imported weeds first reach us through the rail- 
ways traversing the state, being transported in merchandise, in 
hay and in the bedding of stock cars and these seeds are dropped 
en route or in the transfer of goods at the several 
stations. Hence, it is a matter of common observation that new 
weeds are frequently first observed along the railways and in the 
vicinity of such stations. The Russian, the Canada and the 
Scotch bull thistles seem to arise mainly from this source. 

It is probable that the chief means of foreign infection is 
through the importation of impure seed. New weeds are con- 
stantly appearing in our fields and gardens traceable directly 
to this source and all such weeds should be promptly exterminated 
before they secure a foothold. 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA.' 



A great part of the weeds of the grain fields, besides providing 
for independent distribution, ripen their seeds at the same time as 
the cultivated grains and depend upon the farmer to exercise like 
care in planting them again. Hence it is necessary, if these weeds 
be kept out of our fields, that all seed sown be first carefully win- 
nowed, and thus the farmer may later be saved much labor and 
expense in their extermination, or in the reduced yield from the 
grain planted. The cockle, sunflower, wild oat, and wild mustard 
are largely distributed in the seed planted and these are counted 
among the worst weeds in the state. Garden and lawn seeds are 
notoriously contaminated and the most troublesome weeds of the 
East are thus imported, particularly the dandelion, plantain, chick- 
weed, sow-thistle, ragweed, Canada thistle and many others 
equally troublesome. 

ORIGIN OF OUR WEED FLORA. 

Some plants in every country acquire the weed habit by 
adaptation to meet certain conditions, which have resulted in the 
destruction of the normal vegetation over areas more or less 
extensive and of fair permanence. Under natural conditions such 
denuded soil is found in cases of forest fires, landslides and floods. 
The first two are of infrequent occurrence and the areas eff*ected are 
soon re-covered, mainly with wind-disseminated species. The 
floods resulting from melting snows and spring rains are fairly 
regular in time and permanent in place, so the alluvium deposited 
each season affords a fertile and permanent ground for the growth 
and reproduction of the seeds transported in the water. It is 
these native alluvial weeds, of which the annual sunflower and the 
horseweed (Iva) are examples, that spread so readily to our fields 
and gardens with the water used in irrigation and there become 
j>ermanent pests. 

To an appreciable extent, too, weed conditions are afforded by 
the soil excavated about ant hills, gopher burrows and prairie-dog 
towns, and here flourish in abundance such species as Krinitzkia 
crassisepala, Echinospermum Redowskii, Plantago Patagonica, 
Malvastrum coccineum and Cleome integrifolia^ which now find 
themselves equally well adapted for growth in yards, streets and 
waste places. But man in his various pastoral, agricultural and 



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10 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

commercial operations, is the chief agent in providing conditions 
suitable for weed growth. 

The occupation of a country by nomadic tribes or a pastoral 
population essentially disturbs the previously existing balance of 
native vegetation in that region. The native species are killed 
about the temporary camps and habitations and the pasturage ot 
flocks and herds tends to reduce or even exterminate many of the 
more nutritious forage plants and to introduce others, which take 
the place of those destroyed. A large proportion of the weeds of 
the Plains probably owe their wide distribution to the Indian and 
the buffalo, and the stockgrowing industry has merely continued 
and extended the conditions previously prevailing. 

The change in the flora following the settlement of a country 
by an agricultural population is relatively much greater, owing to 
the increase of population and the extent of the changes produced 
by cultivation, travel and commerce which facilitate the intro- 
duction of many foreign species. 

Thus the weeds of any particular region are of two kinds 
native (or indigenous) and introduced, the latter coming in from 
other regions adjacent or remote. It is often desirable to separate 
these two groups, as it is manifestly impossible to prevent the 
introduction of species already a component part of our flora, 
while the foreign species may be prevented from securing a foot- 
hold, exterminated, or confined to certain limited sections already 
invaded. 

In the older and more densely populated states it is often diflicult 
to distinguish the introduced plantsfrom the native species without 
long study and careful comparison over an extended area, and sys- 
tematic botanists are often lax in this discrimination. In a new state 
like Montana, the problem is greatly simplified because of the 
sparsity of settlement and because the sources of weed infection 
are relatively few and easily traced. Even here many introduc- 
tions pass as native species by reason of their abundance in 
certain sections and our uncertainty as to their natural distribu- 
tion, yet there are certain rules by which we may form a fairly 
correct judgment as to whether a given species is native or intro- 
duced. In general, other conditions being the same, we may infer 
that a species is introduced if— 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 



11 



1 . It is most abundant at the supposed point of introduction, 
decreases in numbers departing therefrom and is wholly absent in 
distant or isolated localities. 

2. It does not occur in isolated localities growing wild under 
natural conditions and forming an integral part of the indigenous 
flora, or is known to be a recent introduction into such localities. 

3. It is sporadic in localities widely separated and is much more 
abundant or occurs in greater perfection in another region from 
which its introduction may be inferred through known agencies. 

4. It is normally found occupying locaUties in which the 
native vegetation has been weakened or destroyed by the presence 
of man and his domestic animals and is rare or lacking in the 
country adjacent. 

The source of its introduction is (1) from a region of its known 
occurrence adjacent or remote, or (2) from the direction of its 
greatest abundance in the state, of (3) from the usual source of 
seed importation into the state, or of travel through it. 

Judged by these criteria, the following species may be con- 
sidered indigenous, although a number (here starred *) by their 
present restricted distribution in the state and the fact that their 
bounds are being still extended, indicate that they are of compara- 
tively recent introduction and may best be termed **subindigenes,'' 
while a few (t) are doubtful. 



I. ANNUALS. 



*Amaranthus albus, L. 
•A. blitoides, Wat8. 
*Chenopodiutn glaucum, L. 
•Cleome integrifolia, T. & G. 
Draba nemososa, h. 
*Dracocephal«ni parviflorum, Nutt. 
*Echinospermum Redowskii, Lehm. 
*Euphorbia glyptosperma, Engel.n. 
•Franscria Hookeriana, Nutt. 
*EUisia Nyctelea, L. 



^Helianthus annuus, L. 
tH. petiolaris, Nutt. 
tlva xanthiifolia, Nutt. 
•Krinitzkia crassisepala, Gray. 
•Lepidium apetalum, Wild. 
tMonolepis chenopodioides, Moq. 
•Plantago Patagonica, J acq. 
tSisymbrium inciaum, Engelm. 
•Solanum triflorum, Nutt. 



Cnicus eriocephalus, Gray. 
•Gaura parviflora, Dougl. 
*GrindeIia squarrosa, Dunal. 



II. BIENNIALS. 



•Hordeum jubatum, L. 
tOenothera biennis, L. 



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12 



THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



III. PERENNIALS. 



fAchillea Millefolium, L. 
Artemisia Ludoviciana, Nutt, 
*Cnicus undulatus, Gray. 
Epilobium angustifolium, L. 
Gaura coccinea, Nutt, 
Glycyrrhiza lepidota, Pursh. 
Helianthus Nuttallii, T. & G. 
Iva axillaris, Pursh. 



•Lepachys columnaris, T. & G. 
Lupinus pusillus, Pursh. 
Lupinus sericeus, Pursh. 
Lygodesmia iuncea, Don. 
♦Malvastrum coccineum, Gray. 
Platago Asiatica, L. 
♦Rumex salicifolius, Weinm. 
♦Verbena bracteosa, Michx. 



♦Lactuca pulchella, DC. 

This would give the composition of our weed flora as 





Native. 


Introduced. 


Total 


Annuals... 


19 

5 

17 


66 

9 

16 


85 


Biennial8r--tT,--t-r 


14 


Perennials 


35 








41 


93 


134 



It thus appears that more that two-thirds of the weeds 
already noted in the state are of foreign origin and may be kept 
out of districts in which they are not already established, while, 
unless preventive measures are taken, the number of such intro- 
ductions will be greatly increased. 

The species enumerated below appear to be extending gradu- 
allv westward from the Plains. 



AUionia nyctaginea, Michx. 
Amaranthns albus, L. 
A. blitoides, Wats. 
Cerastium nutans, Raf 
Cleome integrifolia, T. & G. 
Cnicus undulatus, Gray. 
Echinospermum Redowskii, Lehm. 
Euphorbia marginata, Pursh. 
Franseria Hookeriana, Nutt. 
Gaura parviflora, Dougl. 



Grindelia squarrosa. Dunal. 
Helianthus annuus, L. 
Iva xanthiifolia, Nutt. 
Hordeum jubatum, L. 
Krinitzkia crassisepala, Gray. 
Lepachys columnaris, T. & G. 
Lepidium apetalum, Willd. 
Monolepis chenopodioides, Moq. 
Panicum capillare, L. 
Plantago Patagonica, Jacq. 
Solanum triflorum, Nutt. 



A few species are coming into the state from the Pacific coast: 

Artemisia biennis, Willd. Madia filipes. Gray. 

Chenopodium capitatum, Wats. Matricaria discoidea, DC. 

Echinospermum deflexum, Lehm. Rumex salicifolius, Weinm. 

Epilobium paniculatum, Nutt. Sisymbrium incisum, Engelm 

Madia glomerata, Hook. Xanthium spinosum, L. 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 13 

The following, supposed to be natives of tropical America, 
are now common over mnch of the Eastern United States, and, 
with many of the weeds of the plains, are probably our inheri- 
tance from the prehistoric American civilizations. 

Amaranthus chlorostachys, Willd. Erigcron Canadensis, L. 

A. retroflextis, L. Solanum rostratum, Dunal. 

Ambrosia artemisiaefolia, L. Xanthium Canadense, Mill. 
A. trifida, L. 

All the other species enumerated in this paper, with two or 
three doubtful exceptions, are from the Old World and have 
reached us mainly from the Eastern States. 

THE ROOT SYSTEH. 

The root system is of great importance as indicative of the 
life duration of a species and hence must be taken into account in 
fixing upon methods for weed extermination. 

An annual plant germinates, bears fruit and perishes in a 
single season, while a biennial bears only a tuft of leaves the first 
year and fruits and dies the second. A perennial species lives and 
bears fruit for many years in succession. The roots of annuals are 
tender and of about the same size as the stem; biennials are 
usually tender and often thickened and fleshy, but are sometimes 
difficult to distinguish from annuals, otherwise thaw by 6bserva- 
tion, while a number of weeds appear to be either, as emergency 
requires. Perennials usually have thick, woody, deeply penetrat- 
ing roots, t)r long underground stems, or tubers, which enable 
them to endure indefinitely. The weeds in cultivated ground are 
mostly rapid-growing annuals, or perennials with fleshy or tuber- 
ous roots or rootstocks; those of pastures and meadows are 
perennials almost exclusively and cannot withstand cultivation* 

CLASSIFICATION BY SITUATION. 

Weeds may be grouped roughly by means of the localities they 
affect and the causes that make them objectionable. 

I. W^EDS OF Yards, Waysides, and Waste PLACES.—These 
are often tall and unsightly or tend to spread to adjacent fields 
and gardens. They replace the native plants exterminated by the 
feet of man and the domestic animals and the wheels of vehicles. 



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14 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Their seeds usually are spread by the mud of passage or by the 
wind. The following species may be enumerated as more or less 
common in these situations: 

Amaranthus albus, L "Tumble-Weed." 

A. blitoides, Wats **Pigweed-Purseley." 

Ambrosia trifida, L "Horseweed" (Eastern.) 

A. artemisiaefolia, L / "Ragweed." 

Anthemis Cotula, DC "Dogfennel." 

Arctium Lappa, L "Burdock", (true), rare. 

Artemisia biennis, Willd "Wormwood." 

Atriplex patula hastata, Gray 

Arenaria serpyllifolia, L "Sandwort," rare. 

Brassica campestris, L "Kale." "Wild Mustard." 

Brassica nigra, Koch "Black Mustard;" a rare escape. 

Bromus racemosus, L 

B. tectorum, L 

Capsella Bursa-pastoris, Moench "Shepherd's Purse." 

Chenopodium album, L "Pigweed," common. 

C. Botrys, L "Jerusalem Oak," common where introduced 

C. capitktum, Wats "Red Pigweed," westward. 

C. hybridum, L "Maple-leaved Goosefoot." j 

Cleome integrifolia, Torr. & Gray "Indian Pink," frequent in sandy soil. 

Cnicus arvensis, Hoffm "Canada Thistle," rare. 

C. lanceolatus, Willd "Scotch Bull Thistle." j 

Echinospermum deflexum Americanum, 

Gray "Beggar Ticks." 

E. Redowskii, Lehm "Tickseed." 

EUisia Nyctelea, L 

Epilobium paniculatum, Nutt "Cottonweed." 

Erigeron Canadensis, L "Ragweed," rather infrequent. i 

Euphorbia marginata, Pursh ' 

Franseria Hookerania, Nutt i 

Helianthus annuus, L "Sunflower," common east of the Di\nde. I 

Hordeum jubatum, L "Foxtail Grass," common. ' 

Iva xanthiifolia, Nutt "Horseweed," common. j 

Lactuca Scariola, L "Prickly Lettuce." I 

I^pidium apetalum, Willd "Birdseed," common. j 

Madia glomerata, Hook "Tarweed." 

Marrubium vulgare, L "Ilorehound," infrequent. ! 

Matricaria discoidea, DC "Rayless Dogfennel," frequent. 

Monolepsis chenopodioides, Moq "Poverty Weed," common. 

Panicum capillare, L "Tumble-grass," frequent eastward. 

Plantago major, L "Plaintain," infrequent. 

Polygonum aviculare, L "Knotgrass," common. j 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 15 

Rumex crispus, L "Curly-leaved Dock," frequent. 

Rumex salicifolins, Weinm *lWillo\v-leaved Dock." 

Salsola Kali Tragus, Moq "Russian Thistle." 

SisjTnbrium incisum, Engelni "Tansy Mustard." 

Stsymbrium officinale, Scop "Hedge Mustard," infrequent. 

Solanum rostratum, Dunal "Buffalo Bur," infrequent. 

S. triflorum, Nutt ".Wild Potato," common. 

Taraxacum officinale. Welder "Dandelion," common. 

Trajfopogon porrifolius, L "Salsify," infrequent. 

I'nica gracilis. Ait "Stinging Nettle," frequent. 

Verbaacum Thapsus, L "Mullein," in some localities common. 

Verbena bractcosa, Michx "Vervain.** 

Xanthium Canadense, Mill "Cuckle-bur," infrequent. 

II. Weeds of Lawns, Meadows and PASTURES.—These are 
usually perennial and are obnoxious because they are not only 
unsightly, but tend to crowd out the more desirable grasses. 
The seeds of many of these are wind disseminated; some appear 
to come in with the seed sown. In hay fields they materially 
injure the quality and selling power of the product. 

Achillea Millefolium, L "Millfoil, Yarrow." Common. 

Cnicus eriocephalus, Gray /..In mountain meadows. 

Cnicus undulatus. Gray "Thistle." Common. 

Grindelia squarrosa, Dunal "Rosin Weed." Common in pastures. 

Hordeum jubatnm, L "Foxtail Grass." Common in low ground. 

Lepachys columnaris, T. * G "Coneflower,** pastures. 

Plantago Patagonica gnaphalioides. 

Gray "Woolly Plantain.*' Pastures. 

P. major, L "Plantain." Troublesome in lawns. 

Rumex Acetosella, L "Sheep-sorrel." 

Taraxacum officinale, Web:'r "Dandelion." Frequent in all situations. 

III. Weeds of Gardens and Cultivated Grounds— These 
are the pests against which the farmers wage incessant war- 
fare, as they tend to crowd out the cultivated plants. By- 
far the greater part of these are annuals, probably importations, 
recent or remote. Seven are perennials with long creeping root- 
stocks, all native species (the Canada thistle excepted), while 
two are often biennials. 

A. ANNUALS. 

Amaranthus albus, L "Tumble-weed." Abundant in loose soil. 

A. blitoides, Wats "Pigweed-Pursle^-." Common with the last. 



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10 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

A. retroflexus, L "Careless Weed.*' Common in gardens and 

rich soil. 

A. chlorostachys, Willd Much less frequent; confused with the last. 

Artemisia biennis, Willd ../^Wormwood.*' Frequent in many places. 

Capsella Bursa-pastoris, Moench ''Shepherd's Purse." Common in gardens. 

Chenopodium album, L "Pigweed." Common in cultivated ground. 

C. glaucum, L A weed not infrequent in gardens. 

Cnicus undulatus, Gray "Thistle." 

Draba nemorosa, L Common. 

Erigeron Canadensis, L "Ragweed." frequent. 

Helianthus annjuus, L "Sunflower." One of the worst weeds in the 

state. 

Iva xanthiifolia, Nutt "Horseweed." Common east of the Divide. 

Lepidium apetalum, Willd "Birdseed." 

Monolepis chenopodioides, Moq "Poverty Weed." 

Polygonum Convolvulus, L "Wild Buckwheat." 

Solanum rostratum, Dunal "Buffalo-bur." 

Solanum triflorum, Nutt "Wild Potato.'* 

Sonchus asper, Vill "Sow Thistle." 

B. PERENNIALS. 

Artemisia Ludoviciana, Nutt "White Sage." 

Cnicus arvensis, Hoffm "Canada Thistle." 

Epilobium augustifolium, L "Iron-weed." In mountain regions. 

Glycyrrhiza lepidota, Pursh "Wild Liquorice." In low ground. 

Lactuca pulchella, DC "Milk-weed." 

Lupinus sericeus, Pursh "Lupine." Persistent in new ground. 

L. pusillus, Pursh "Little Lupine." Root tuberous. 

Lygodesmia juncea, Don "Wild-asparagus." Plains. 

IV. Weeds of the GRAiN-FiELDs.—Mostly annuals fruiting: 
at the same time as the grain; the thistle is a biennial and sheep- 
sorrcl and Gaura are perennial with creeping root-stocks. These 
from their size, rapidity of growth, or undue multiplication tend 
to choke out the grain in which they grow and are difficult to 
repress on account of the iact that, after seeding, about the only 
way to get at them is b\' hand-pulling, a slow and expensive 
process. 

Avcna fatua, L "Wild Oats.'' Common all over the state. 

Brassica Sinapistrum, Boiss "Wild Mustard.** Very bad in manj* locali- 
ties. 

Bromus secalinus, L "Cheat." Troublesome in some places. 

Camclina sativa, Crantz "False Flax." 

Cleome intcgrifolia, Torr. & Gray "Indian Pink." 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 17 



Euphorbia glyptosperma, Engelm "Spurge.'* 

Gaura coccinea, Nutt 

Helianthus annuus. L "Sunflower. * 

Iva xanthiifolia, Nutt "Horseweed." 

Lactuca pulchella, DC "Milkweed.'* 

Rumex Acetosella, L "Sheep Sorrel." 

Polygonum Convolvulus, L "Wild Buckwheat.*' 

Saponaria Vaccaria, L "Cockle." 



II. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS. 



HETHOD OF ERADICATION. 

1. Crop RoTAXiON—It will be seen from the foregoing lists 
that our weeds, troublesome in cultivation, fall naturally into 
three groups: (1) weeds of grain fields, (2) of meadows and (3) of 
cultivated ground and that our ; yards, ^roadsides - and waste 
places are the chief sources of local infection. The natural method 
for the suppression of weeds then must be by crop rotation, as the 
growth of one kind of crops tends to restrain or destroy the weeds 
peculiar to the other two groups. Therefore, when our grain fields 
become foul with the sunflower or wild oats, they should be put in 
timothy, alfalfa or clover till the weeds have been crowded out; or 
the land may be cultivated in some root crop like potatoes, ruta- 
bagas, &c., and the weeds • destroyed by frequent cultivation. 
Unfortunately, here in Montana, the climatic conditions limit this 
crop rotation almost to cereals and hay-lands, as maize can be 
grown profitably in but few parts of the state and root crops and 
garden truck can not be planted over any great area, on account 
ol the expense and labor involved and the certainty of swamping 
the market. 



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18 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

2. Summer Fallow.— Where it is desired to grow a grain 
crop as continuously as possible, it is hardly profitable to seed 
down in timothy, alfalfa or clover for a single year, and, as exten- 
sive cultivated crops, such as are grown in the Mississippi valley, 
are not here feasible for the reasons stated, in many parts of the 
state a system of summer fallow has been adopted, which consists 
usually in plowing under the weeds late in May or June before they 
have matured and then going over the soil once or twice 
afterwards with a disk or cultivator to prevent the new growth 
attaining any size. This effectually reduces the growth of the 
annual weeds so troublesome to grains and materially increases 
the fertility of the soil, but the loss of income from the fallowed 
land and the expense of cultivation, far offset any advantages 
thus derived, while, unless the land is disked after plowing, it is 
often worse seeded in weeds than before. It is much more profita- 
ble either to seed down foul wheat lands in some hay crop or in 
grain suitable for pasturage and thus secure some return from the 
land while the weeds are being killed. 

3. Pasturage. There are some weeds like the sunflower, 
wild oats, and wild mustard, which are very difficult to tlear out 
of land, when once they have a good foothold. For such weeds, 
and other of like nature, a very effective and profitable method of 
eradication is to sow the land down in some grain suitable for 
pasturage, such as rye or oats, or in clover or mixed grains, and 
to keep this closely cropped by sheep, so that no weeds that come 
upwill have any chance to mature seed. Two or three years of suc- 
cessive pasturage in this manner should effectually clean the worst 
infested lands. Other kinds of stock will do, but they are more 
prone to exercise selection and permit the growth of the less 
edible varieties. Sheep clean off" all alike. 

4. Special Methods. — ^In some cases special methods may be 
employed with advantage. Hand-pulling is frequently possible in 
small fields or patches of grain infested with the sunflower, wild 
mustard, tumbling mustard, etc. This may be done by boys 
under competent supervision, and is best undertaken when the 
weeds first come well into bloom and before they have matured 
any seed. The bright yellow flowers serve as guides to the loca- 
tion of each individual and their absence clearly marks the strip 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 19 

cleared. The work should not be left till the seeds begin to mature, 
else it will be necessary to remove the' plants pulled to prevent 
them from re-seeding the ground cleared. This method is slow, 
and expensive, especially here in Montana where labor is such a 
desideratum, and it can rarely be employed with economy. 

In a few instances hand weeding is practically the only method 
available. This will apply particularly to weeds affecting lawns 
and meadows. The broad-leaf plaintain can only be dug up one 
plant at a time, and this is also true of the dandelion and thistles, 
but with the last two a chisel-like instrument (**spud'') with a four 
foot handle may be employed to cut them off just below the crown 
of leaves and is usually found effective. 

There are a few species of weeds which are particularly difficult 
of extermination on account of the spread of underground stems. 
A few of our native species exhibit this tendency to a greater or 
less extent, such as the Poverty Weed (Iva axillaris), the Wild 
Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota), the Milk-weed (Lactuca pul- 
chella), the Wild Asparagus (Lygodesmia juncea), the Iron-weed 
(Epilobium angustifolium), and the Lupine (Lupinus sericus), but 
these usually disappear after a few years cultivation and persist 
only in specially favored localities, where they may be treated like 
the next. But it is from a few foreign introductions that the chief 
trouble arises and these should be exterminated before they have 
become firmly established. The Canada Thistle is the worst and 
a law has been enacted to enforce its destruction in the state. It 
is established in many places along the railroads and is frequently 
imported with garden seed. It is found only in small patches and 
appears to show little disposition to spread by seed in this state. 
The most effective method to get rid of it is probably to dig it up^ 
removing every particle of the root-stocks and then await growth 
to indicate the location of any root remnants in the soil. Its 
growth can be restricted by keeping it cut down, but this will 
scarcely exterminate it. It can be smothered out by building 
£traw or haystacks over the spots affected, or by covering with 
manure dumps, and it may often be killed by plentifully sprinkling 
salt or kerosene over the freshly cut stumps. Sodium arsenite 
is more effective, but also more expensive. 

The wild Morning-glory (Convolvulus arvensis) and the Sheep. 



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20 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION, 

sorrel (Ruraex Acetosella) are nearly as difficult to eradicate and 
much worse to spread than the Canada thistle, but fortunately 
they have as yet appeared in but few localities in the state. They 
should be treated in much the same way as the Canada thistle 
above. For lawn weeds which tend to spread and crowd out the 
grasses, such as dandelion, plantain, chickweed (Cerastium vul- 
gare), rosin-weed (Grindelia squarrosa) and others of like nature 
there is nothing we can do more than to dig them up by hand, or 
treat them with chemicals, which also will kill the grass around. 
The process is slow but the areas affected are usually not large. 
Walks and driveways can be kept clear by the aid of salt, kerosene, 
arsenite of soda, or some of the various chemicals sold by seedsmen. 
Much time and labor can be saved, if it be remembered that the 
streets, roadsides and waste places are the natural storehouses for 
the growth and propagation of weeds and that these places must 
be kept clear, or at least the weeds must be kept from seeding in 
them, if the yards, gardens and fields adjacent are to be free from 
these pests. 

The Russian thistle, of which so much has been said and written, 
does not appear to exhibit such dangerous characteristics in 
this state. I have found it nowhere in any abundance except in 
the Milk River and Yellowstone valleys, and there as well as in all 
other places observed it is confined to the railway grades and 
waste places about the towns. It makes no headway against the 
native vegetation and has not yet, in any case noted, invaded 
cultivated land. Nevertheless, its wide advertisement as a most 
dangerous pest must be based upon its tendency to invade grain- 
fields and cultivated ground and it is comparatively little trouble 
to prevent it from securing a footing in an3'' locality', if taken 
when it first appears and every plant be uprooted, piled and 
burned. It is possible that it may yet proye a valuable forage 
plant for the arid regions, and instead of a most dangerous, immi- 
grant, it may prove a valuable addition to our native vegetation. 

The Scotch bull thistle is not nearly as dangerous as the dan- 
delion and sheep-sorrel, the wild oats, the wild mustard, tumbling 
mustard and the sunflower. It is very rare in the state, occurring 
mostly about railway stations and towns, in no considerable 
quantity except in the Flathead valle\' in the vicinity of Demers- 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 21 

ville, where it has proven a dangerous pest. It should be dug up 
or cut oflF below the crown of the root before it blooms. It is not 
a perennial like the Canada thistle and only needs to be kept 
down for a year or two and prevented from seeding. It should not 
be allowed to become established in any locality and any person 
permitting it to grow on his land should be prosecuted under the 
law now in force. 

A great difficulty in the extermination of weeds is the fact that 
the seeds of many species will lie in the soil for several years with- 
out losing their vitality and when turned up to the surface will 
germinate and produce a new crop of weeds in ground which is 
considered cleared. It is for this reason that several years of dili- 
gent culture is necessary before a field can be cleared of such weeds 
as the sunflower, wild oats and wild mustard and it is for this rea- 
son that summer.fallow, unless followed b^' cultivation, will result 
in seeding the field with weeds more than before. A field can not 
be cleared of noxious weeds until all the seeds can be caused to 
germinate and then killed. 

There is no question but that the injury done the growing 
crops in this state by the growth of weeds amounts to many hun- 
dred thousand dollars every year and yet there is no systematic 
method devised for their eradication. Each man tills his own fields 
with little regard to the growth and distribution of weeds from 
infected localities; and no combined attempt is made to stamp out 
the pests in such affected areas. If we treated contagious diseases 
it this way, it would be utterly impossible to stay the deadly epi- 
demics. Isolation and united effort is made against such diseases 
in every community, and a similar effort against weeds would cer- 
tainly be successful in this state, where the agricultural communi- 
ties are naturally more or less isolated from each other. 

The only feasible method then for combatting weeds in Mon- 
tana where few of the more dangerous and troublesome species 
have yet more than secured a foothold, is by the organization of 
the farmers into districts designated by the valley or irrigation 
system and the appointment or election of a competent weed in- 
spector for each district, whose duty it shall be' to keep a lookout 
for the appearance of any new or dangerous weeds in his district 
and to cause the eradication of such pests as may alreadx' be es- 



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22 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

tablished, and this inspector shall have similar powers to road 
supervisors to call for a certaim amount of aid from each farmer 
to be used in the common interest of stamping outthesepests from 
infected localities, or to compel individuals to clear their lands of 
such pests. 

It would thus be possible to hold one man responsible for keep- 
ing down these noxious weeds, while now the responsibility is 
fixed upon no one and the interests involved are certainly as great, 
if not greater, than in the maintenance of a good road system. It 
should also be made the duty of the road supervisors to keep the 
weeds cut or plowed under along the different public highways 
within their jurisdiction. Unless some effort of this kind is soon 
made, the labor of the farmer will be greatly increased. 



THE WEED LAW NOW IN FORCE IN MONTANA. 

[Penal Code, Approved March 18, 1895.] 

**gll97. Be it enacted that the weeds known as the Canada 
thistle, the Scotch bull thistle and the Russian thistle aie hereby 
declared to be a common nuisance for all the purposes of this Act. 

§1198. Any person or persons owning any lands within this 
State, or occupying or having control of any lands, whether with- 
in the plat of towns, villages or cities, or otherwise, within this 
State, knowingly permitting or suffering any Canada, Scotch bull 
or Russian thistle or thistles to go to seed upon any land or lands 
thus owned, occupied or under control of such person or persons 
shall be deemed guilty of supporting and maintaining a common 
nuisance, and upon conviction thereof in any court of competent 
jurisdiction, of the offense, shall be punished by a fine not exceed- 
ing fifty nor less than five dollars. 

§1199. In case any person or persons, railroad or other cor- 
poration, owning or occupying any lands within this State, under 
his or her or their control, as the case may be, shall refiise or neg- 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 23 



lect to destroy any Canada, Scotch bull or Russian thistle or 
thistles growing or standing upon any land or lands so owned, oc- 
cupied or controlled, on or before the fiftecHth day of August, it 
shall be the duty of the county commissioners, road supervisors, 
or other person or persons having control of the public highways, 
streets or alleys where any such thistle or thistles may be found 
grounng or standing, to immediately destroy or cause the same to 
be destroyed, and pay therefor at the same rate that is paid for 
road labor; and every supervisor or other person hereinbefore 
authorized to destroy said thistles shall keep a correct account 
of all moneys paid out for that purpose, and charge the same to 
the person or persons or corporation owning, occupying or con- 
trolling the land or lands upon which such thistle or thistles were 
destroyed, and the person or persons or corporation owning, oc- 
cupying or having control of such lands shall be liable in a civil 
action for the amount so charged against them and costs of suit; 

Provided that if any supervisor or other person having, under 
authority of this Act, destroyed an\' of the said thistles, and is un- 
able to find the owner of the land, or is unable to collect such 
money, the same shall be paid by the authorities of the town, vil- 
lage, city or county where such thistles were destroyed; and pro- 
vided farther, that in case any railroad company becomes charge- 
able under the provisions of this Section, the supervisors of the 
township where same has become chargeable may certify to the 
same to the county attorney of their county, whose duty it shall 
be to bring and prosecute a civil action against the railroad com- 
pany tor the amount so charged and costs of suit aforesaid. 

§1200. It is hereby made the duty of every person having 
knowledge of any Canada, Scotch bull and Russian thistle or 
thistles growing or standing upon the lands of another to immedi- 
ately destroy the same, or give the person owning or occupying 
such lands immediate notice thereof 



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24 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



III. ANNOTATED LIST OF MONTANA WEEDS. 

In order to note the introduction and spread of weeds in this 
state, and to give the farmer some idea as to the names ot the 
weeds troublesome in any particular locality and facilitate their 
destruction, if dangerous, the following enumeration of the known 
weeds of Montana, with brief popular descriptions of the more 
troublesome species and notes of their origin, occurrence and dis- 
semination is appended. In case of doubt, specimens of any weed 
with flower or fruit and leaves should be sent this Station for 
determination. 

In a general work of the nature of this bulletin, it seems desir- 
able, in the main, to use the older, more conservative nomencla- 
ture and to adopt the wider limitation of species, not necessarily 
because they are better or more accurate, but because they are 
more easily understood by the ordinary reader and are more 
readily found in the usual works of reference. For the same 
reason technical terms have been avoided as far as possible, and 
the popular names of plants have been employed whenever itcould 
be done without ambiguity. Yet, as common names are frequent- 
ly used here, for two or more very different species, or tor different 
plants in other sections of the Union, as in the case of the pursely, 
cucklebur, horse weed, ragweed, milkweed, iron weed, poverty- 
weed, &c., it is necessary to make the scientific name the basis of 
classification and description. Hence the plants hereafter enumer- 
ated are arranged alphabetically according to their scientific 
names, but the index of popular names appended will enable these 
to be used with equal facility. 

A few terms need explanation. Flowers and fruit are ar- 
ranged in a spike when they form a close slender column like those 
of the plaintain and timothy; they form a panicle when they are 
scattered on slender stalks, like the oat, and they are called a head 
when they are aggregated in a dense cluster, as in the case of the 
clover and the sunflower. 

In the list below the weeds most troublesome in the state are 
printed in black letter and the rare introductions are starred (*). 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 



25 



I. ACHILLEA niLLEFOLIUM L. Wild Tansy; Milfoil. 

A perennial plant about two feet high with finely divided 
leaves and white flowers in a level-topped cluster. Frequent in 
pastures and meadows, where its bitter herbage makes it dis- 
tasteful to stock. 



2. AGROSTEMMA GITHAGO. L. Corn Cockle. 

A purple-flowered annual occasional in grain fields, but hardly 
troublesome here, as it is in the East. Noted in but few localities. 
It has narrow leaves and fewer and more scattered flowers than is 
the case with the ordinary cockle (Saponaria Vaccaria) and is 
silky hairy throughout. 



3. ALLIONIANYCTAGINEA,Michx. 

A tall (2 to 4 leet high), smooth, 
much-branched perennial with heart- 
shaped opposite leaves and clustered 
purplish flowers. Occurs as a weed in 
fi:ardens in the extreme eastern part 
of the state (Calais and Wibaux) and 
promises to spread westward. 

4. AHARANTHUS ALBUS, L. 

Tumble-weed. 

A widely-spreading annual weed, 
common in loose or cultivated 
ground. It begins blooming in earlj' 
spring and produces seed all the seas- 
on. It is killed down by the first 
heavy frost and the large globular 
mass breaks off* from the root and is 
driven about by the wind, scattering 
its seeds throughout its course. Ap- 
parently native east of the Divide. 
Hybridizes with the next. [Fig. 1]. 




Fig. 1. Amaranthus albus, L. 
Branch ^ natural size. 



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26 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

5. AriARANTHUS BLITOIDES, Wats. Pigweed-Pursley. 

A prostrate-growing, reddish annual, closely related to the 
preceding and much resembling the eastern **purseley" (Portulaca 
oleracea, L.) Common in waste places and roadsides east of the 
Divide and not infrequent as a weed in cultivated ground. Forms 
mats sometimes three feet in diameter; apparently native. 

6. *AMARANTHUS CHLOROSTACHYS, Willd. Pigweed. 

Closely resembling the next in habit and appearance and popu- 
larly confused with it, but its fruiting spikes are long and slender 
and it is much more rare in gardens and waste places. At Colum- 
bia Falls and Troy; here apparently coming in from the West. 

7. AriARANTHUS RETROFLEXUS, L. Pigweed; Careless Weed. 

A fleshy annual common in our gardens and imported from 
the East in garden seed; shows little tendency to spread to fields 
except in rich and moist situations. These four species of amar- 
anth are easily uprooted and should not be allowed to seed in our 
gardens. The3' should be piled, dried and burned to prevent the 
seeds matured from re-seeding the ground from which they have 
just been removed. 

8. AMBROSIA ARTEMISI^FOLIA, L. Ragweed; Hogweed. 

An annual weed, one or two feet high, with opposite many- 
divided leaves and slender, green-flowered terminal spikelets. This 
is now coming in from the East along the railways. Frequent on 
the Great Northern from Havre eastward and occasional as far 
west as Kalispell. Often abundant in waste places, but with little 
disposition to take to fields and gardens. 

9. AMBROSIA PSYLOSTACHYA, DC. Creeping Ragweed. 

Occurs occasionally in the eastern part of the state, but has 
not yet been found very troublesome. It is very similar to the one 
above, but has long perennial rootstocks which make it diflicult to 
eradicate. 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 



27 



10. AMBROSIA TRIFIDA, L. Horseweed; Tall Ragweed. 

A large annual with opposite 
three-lobed leaves and flowers 
very similar to the two above, a 
It IS here rarely more than two I 
or three feet high, and is found I 
occasionally with leaves entire. 
Like A. artemisiaefolia it is com- 
ing in from the Mississippi valley 
along the railways and is found 
principally in waste land about 
the stations, but in low situa- 
tions is spreading to adjacent 
fields and gardens. Extends as 
far west as Havre and Savoy on 
the Great Northern and to Boze- 
man on the Northern Pacific. In- 
frequent except eastward. Seeds 
disseminated by water and in 
mud. [Fig. 2.] 

11. ANTHEMIS COTULA. DC. 

Dog Fennel; Mayweed. 

An annual ill-scented weed 
about a foot high, with a level- 
topped mass of white-rayed 
flowers; leaves alternate and fine- 
ly divided. Not infrequent in waste places in nearly every part of 
the state and shows some disposition to spread and become troub- 
lesome as it does in the more humid climate of the eastern states. 



Fig. 2. Ambrosia trifida, L. 



12. 'ARCTIUM LAPPA, L. Burdock. 

A coarse biennial about three feet high, with large leaves and 
purple flowered heads disposed in a many-branched terminal panicle 
each surrounded with a bur-like involucre. A European introduc- 
tion common in the eastern states, but noted here only at Libby, 
Thompson Falls, Plains and Big Timber, along roadsides and 



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28 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

in waste places, where it shows a strong disposition to spread 
and become troublesome to the sheep industry. 

13. *ARENARIA SERPYLLIFOLIA, L. 

A small, inconspicuous annual two or three inches high, or 
prostrate, of European origin, well established about the streets 
and waste places at Columbia Falls, but not otherwise noted in 
the state. 

14. ARTEHISIA BIENNIS, Wllld. Wormwood; Ironweed. 

Ah annual or biennial coming in from the west, two or three 
feet high, with a slender, reddish stem, finely divided leaves and a 
narrow terminal spike-like panicle of inconspicuous flowers. Be- 
coming common in streets and waste places about the larger 
towns and thence spreading to the highwa3TS and neighboring 
fields, where it is beginning to be a troublesome pest. 

ir>. ARTEMISIA LUDOVICIANA, Nutt. White Sage. 

A native perennial sage with long creeping rootstocks which 
tend to persist in new ground and meadows and is often difl[icult 
to eradicate. 

16. *ATRIPLEX HORTENSIS, L, Orache. 

Escaped from cultivation, particularly the ornamental variety 
lUrosangvineay Hort. Not infrequent in yards and waste places 
about Helena and Bo2eman,but not likely to become troublesome. 
An annual much resembling its relative the Lamb's-quarter. 

17. ATRIPLEX PATULA HASTATA, Gray. 

An annual much resembling and often confused with Lamb*s 
Quarter; occurring along streets and in waste places; apparently 
introduceil from the East. Occurs occasionally in nearly every 
part of the state but is rareh' troublesome in cultivated ground. 

18. AVENA FATUA, L. Wild O'ats. 

This is one of the most common, if not the worst weed in the 
state. lntroduce<l from the Old World, but now common through- 
out most parts of arid America where oats have been cultivated. 
The wild oat differs from the cultivated variety in its usual ranker 
gn^wth, deej>er color of the foliage, more diffuse panicle, earlier 



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Fig. 3. Avena fatua, L. Fruit, natural size. 



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30 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

ripening and prompt shelling of the fruit, its black hull (flowering 
glume), hairy at base and with a twisted awn and in its smaller 
and lighter seed. Its fecundity, rapid growth and self-seeding 
qualities soon enable it to take a field sown continuously 
* in any kind of grain and the persistent vitality of its seed in the 
soil makes it diflicult to eradicate. It can best be combatted by 
sowing down infested fields in clover, timothy or alfalfa, or by 
close pasturage by sheep for several years of such fields, planted in 
some annual grain suitable for forage. There is a general belief 
among farmers that the wild oat often originates as a degenerate 
form of the cultivated variety with which it seems to intergrade, 
and, while it is propagated in general from its own seed, its gen- 
eral occurrence and abundance in fields sown in oats throughout 
the arid region seems to favor the idea of such reversion. ^More- 
over, the cultivated oat is supposed to have been derived from the 
wild species, and several authenticated instances are known of the 
production of the tame varieties from the wild form by cultivation 
and reversion under suitable climatic conditions is much more 
probable, as is certainly the case with many other cultivated 
plants, such as the radish, carrot, turnip, mustard and parsnip, 
which in many places readily revert to the wild iorm and become 
troublesome weeds. [Fig. 3.] 

19. BRASSICA CAMPESTRIS. L. Kale; Wild Turnip. 

An annual closely resembling and usually confused with the 
wild mustard (Brassica Sinapistrum, Boiss.), but is smooth 
throughout and is rarely so common or troublesome as the latter 
species, though occasionally found in grain fields and waste places. 
Its smooth, bluish stem and upper leaves, sessile and clasping, 
easily distinguish it from the two below. 

20. * BRASSICA NIGRA, Koch. Black Mustard. 

An occasional escape from gardens, but nowhere troublesome 
or diflScult to restrain. Rarely persistent. 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 



31 



21. BRASSICA SINAPI5TRUM, Boiss. Wild Mustard; Charlock. 

Resembling the B. Campestris above, but is inore or less hairy 
throughout. One of the worst weeds of the state, fairly taking 
many of the grain fields in low land. 
Should be combatted like the wild oat 
and the sunflower. Hand pulling 
may be employed when it occurs only 
in small patches. Every effort should 
be made to prevent its introduction 
into a community and combined ac- 
tion should be taken to clear infested 
fields, as the seeds appear to be 
spread largely by irrigation. [Fig. 4.] 

22. BROMUS RACEMOSUS, L. 
An annual Brome-grass not in- 
frequent as a weed in fields and waste 
places; commonly confused with the 
next, which it closely resembles. 

23. BROMUS SECALINUS, L. 
Cheat; Chess. 
Differs from the last in its more 
diffuse panicle and its larger and flat- 
ter spikelets. Not rare in agricultural 
districts of the state and often a very 
bad weed in grain fields in the Flat- 
head valley. 

24. *BROMUS TECTORUM, L. 
A small annual grass with long-awned pendulous spikes well es- 
tablished at Columbia Falls and Missoula, in streets and waste 
places and promises to spread into other parts of the state. In- 
troduced from Europe. 

25. CAMELINA SATIVA, Crantz. False Flax. 
An annual with light yellow flowers and a pear-shaped pod of 
the Mustard family and resembling somewhat the cultivated flax. 
A frequent and occasionally troublesome weed in grain fields 
throughout the state. Usually imported in the grain seed sown. 




Fig. 4. Brassica Sinapistrum, 
Boiss, M natural size. 

Downy Brome-grass. 



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32 



THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



26. CAPSELLA BURSA-PASTORIS. Moeiich. Shepherd's Purse. 

A common annual of yards, gardens and waste places. Blooms 
throughout the season. A ioot or two high with white flowers 
and a triangular pod. A European introduction. Seeds develop 
a mucilaginous coat when wet and thus facilitate their dispersion. 

27. *CERASTIUM NUTANS, Raf. 

A small inconspicuous chickweed with sticky foliage and 
curved pods notched at the orifice. Occasionally introduced from 
the East. In waste places infrequent. 

28. 'CERASTIUM VULGATUM. L. Mouse-ear Chickweed. 

Found very troublesome in lawns at Kalispell, where it forms 
patches and crowds out the grass and its perennial habit makes it 
difiicult to exterminate, except by dig- 
ging up and removing every plant. 
Also in waste places at Thompson Falls 
and Borax; coming in from the West. 

29. CHENOPODlUn ALBUH, L. 
Lamb's Quarter. 

A common and troublesome annual in 
waste places and cultivated ground in 
nearly every part of the state. It fairly 
takes uncultivated fallow land in many 
localities. An Old World species. [Fig. 5] 

30. ♦CHENOPODIUM BOTRYS. L. 
Jerusalem Oak. 

A bitter, ill-smelling annual from Eu- 
rope localh' established in waste 
places at various points in the state, 
and seems well adapted to our climate. 
Resembling the preceding species in size 
and appearance^but the leaves are more fi^^. o!*Thenopodmm Album, 
deeply lobed. L. ^nat.siie. 




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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 33 

31. CHENOPODIUM CAPITATUM, Wats. Strawberry 
Bute. Red Pigweed. 

An annual weed in yards and waste places coming from the 
west along the railway?; rare east of the Divide. Somewhat like 
the Lamb's Quarter, but the fruit is in red globular clusters re- 
sembling the strawberr3'. 

32. CHENOPODIUM GLAUCUM, L. Oak-leaved Goosefoot. 

A prostrate or spreading annual much resembling the Povert\'- 
weed (Monolepis chenopodioides), frequent in low grounds by 
roadsides, in alkali places and occasionally troublesome ia^gardens 
and cultivated ground. Possibly native here, although it has 
the habit of a true weed. 

33. CHENOPODIUM HYBRIDUM, L. Maple-leaved Goose- 

FOOT. 

Another of the introduced Pigweeds, two or three feet high 
and with a widely spreading panicle of fruit, found occasionally in 
waste places about the towns along the railroads. Its leaves have 
little resemblance to those of our native maple. It is probably 
truly indigenous nowhere in America. 

34. 'CHRYSANTHEMUM LEUCANTHEMUM, L. 
Ox-eyed Daisy. 

A European perennial found troublesome in the Eastern states. 
Apparently persistent in meadows here in a few isolated localities 
in small numbers, and showing no disposition to spread. Imported 
in grass seed from the East. 



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34 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



35. •CICHORIUM INTYBUS, L. Chicory. 



Fig. 6. Cichorium Intybus, L. Flower natural size. 

A tall, widely branching European perennial with large blue 
flowers which close in the afternoon, related to and somewhat re- 
sembling the lettuce. A few specimens seen near Holt, in the Flat- 
head region; but observed nowhere else in the state. This weed is 
adapted to growth in dry situations and should not be allowed to 
become established in the state, lest it become a dangerous pest. 
[Fig. 6.] 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 35 

36. CLEOME INTEQRIFOLIA, Torr & Gray. 

Indian Pink; Stinkweed. 

A native annual about two feet high with 3-foliate leaves and 
pink flowers, often troublesome in sandy soil. Frequent in grrain 
fields and waste places east of the Divide and now spreading 
w^estward along the railways, where it threatens to become 
a bad weed. 

37. CNICUS ARVENSIS, Hoffm 
Canada Thistle. 

A perennial European spec- 
ies with long creeping root- 
stocks most difficult to extir- 
pate. Very similar to our na- 
tive thistles, but the heads are 
much smaller and the plants 
tend to grow in clumps or 
patches, never scattered. In- 
frequent as yet in the state 
but becoming established 
along railroads and in waste 
places. Occurs at Helena, 
Bozeman, Libby, Craig and 
Demersville. Can be eradi- 
cated only by persistent dig- 
ging, by smothering with 
straw, manure heaps, &c., or 
by choking out with a rank 
growth of clover. Attack on 
first appearance and do not 
permit it to become establish- 
ed. One of the three plants out- 
lawed in this state. [Fig. 7.] 

Fig. 7. a. Cnicus arvensis, Hoffni. Plant 
one-fifth. 



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36 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



38. CNICUS ERIOCEPHALUS, Gray. Mountain Thistle. 

A tall unbranched thistle with a mass of heads aggregated at 

the top of a thick ,h6llo w , leafy, 
stalk, frequent in mountain 
meadows iand pastures above 
5,000 feet altitude. Rarely so 
abundant as to be trouble- 
some. 

39. CNICUS LANCEOLATUS, 

Willd. Scotch Bull Thistle. 

The second outlawed weed 
of the state. A European 
biennial sparsely introduced 
along the railroads of the 
state, but nowhere observed 
to be troublesome except in 
the Flathead valley about 
Demersville. It is easih' des- 
Fig. 7. b. Cnicus arvensis, Hoffm. Leaf troyed by digging Up the 

and head about natural size; i\.t_r ^r. x^t j 

plants before they bloom and 

should not be allowed to secure a foothold. The plant is very 

similar to our native thistle described below, but has much less 

of the cotton}^ tomentum on the under side of the leaves and the 

leaves and heads are exceedingly prickly with long vellow spines. 

[Fig. 8.] 

40. CNICUS UNDULATUS, Gray. Field Thistle. 

The common thistle of the plains and yalleys throughout the 
state and troublesome in man\' places, particularly in fallow land, 
old fields, pastures and meadows, replacing C. eriocephalus below 
5,000 feet; biennial, or sometimes apparently perennial with 
deeply penetrating roots. A tall, branched thistly with scat- 
tered heads and leaves covered with a dense cottonv tomentum. 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 37 

41. *CONVOLVULUS ARVENSIS, L. Wild Morning-glory. 

A European perennial vine similar to the cultivated moming- 
glory, but with small white flowers; occasionally established in 



Fig. 8. Cnicus lanceolatus, Willd. Leaf and head 
natural sire. 

gardens and waste places; quite as difficult to exterminate as the 
Canada thistle and should be treated like it. Noted at Manhat- 
tan, Helena, Missoula, Flathead Lake, Kalispell, Bozeman and 
Crow Agency. 



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38 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

42. *CUSCUTA EPITHYMUM, Murr. Alfalfa Dodder. 

Specimens of this species have come in from Livingston re- 
ported as troublesome in alfalfa fields. It is a golden yellow para- 
sitic vine on alfalfa and the clovers; imported from Europe, where 

it is often a most pernicious weed. 
The infested spots should be 
mowed closely and the plants 
burned when drN'; they should not 
be allowed to seed as it may be dif- 
ficult to clear the field of the para- 
site. A native species of dodder 
{Cuscuta arvensis) also occurs 
sparingly on the clovers and alfalfa 
in this state, but is not apt tQ take 
the fields like the European species. 
[Fig. 9.] 

43. *CYNOGLOSSUM OFFICIN- 
ALE, L. Hound's Tongue. 

A European biennial established 
in waste places at Big Timber. 

44. DRABA N^MOROSA, L. 
Field draba. 

A small annual of the Mustard 
^ family with yellow flowers and 

\ spreading pods, native of this reg- 

ion but inclined to multiply and 
grow rank in gardens and waste 
^ places. 

45. DRACOCEPHALUM PARYI- 
FLORUM, Nutt. Dragon-head. 

Pis: 9. Cuscuta Epithymuni. Murr. An annual plant with dense 

Plant natural sixe. square stems, opposite leaves and a 

terminal flowering spike inclined to frequent streets and waste 
places and occurs occasionally in cultivated ground. Doubtfully 
nati\*e here. 



^ 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 39 

46. ECHINOSPERMUM DEFLEXUM AMERICANUM, Gray. 

Beggar Tick. 

A slender annual one or two feet high, widely branching above 
and with small blue flowers and slender racemes of reflexed burs. 
At Deer Lodge and Helena (Rydberg), Box Elder Creek, on the Ft. 
Peck Reservation, Arlee, Plains and abundant and troublesome 
in the streets, highways and waste places about Kalis pell, 
where it is rapidly spreading into the country adjacent. It 
threatens to become a bad pest throughout the state. Certainly 
an introduced species in this region and doubtfully native in 
America. 

47. ECHNOSPERMUM REDOWSKII, Lehm. 
Tickseed: Beggar Ticks. 

A native annual resembling the preceding, but is smaller and 
has fewer erect fruit; common in loose soil about gopher hills, ant 
hills and prairie dog towns. A common weed in. waste places 
throughout the Yellowstone region and in many places east of the 
Divide, but more rare westward. Occurs here as the varieties 
occidentaky Wats, and cupulatuniy Gray, the latter much more 
rare. 

48. ELLISIA NYCTELEA, L. 

A small, diffusely branched, spreading annual with deeply 
lobed leaves anii inconspicuous flowers. Not infrequent in low 
grain fields and waste places. Rarely abundant enough to be 
troublesome. Doubtfully native here. 

49. EPILOBIUM ANGU8TIF0LIUM, L. Ironweed; Fireweed. 

A tall, slender plant, about three feet high with a terminal 
raceme of large purple flowers, blooming about the first of August. 
Common in the foothills and mountains and the lavge perennial 
rootstock is often difficult to kill out in new ground. 

50. EPILOBIUM PANICULATUM, Nutt. Cotton Weed. 

A tall and very slender, smooth, widely branching annual with 
inconspicuous leaves and small red flowers, spreading eastward 
from the Pacific along the railways and principal lines of travel. 
Common along streets, highways and waste places in the western 
part of the state; the cottony seeds are distributed by the winds. 



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40 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

51. ERIQERON CANADENSIS, L. 

Ragweed; Fireweed; Horseweed. 

A slender, hairy annual with narrow leaves and a large ter- 
minal broom of greenish flowers and cottony fruit imported from 
the eastern United States. Becoming frequent in waste places, 
gardens and grain fields, and a serious pest in the Flathead Yalle\'. 
Size varies from a few inches to several feet; seed spread by 
the wind. 

52. EUPHORBIA GLYPTOSPERMA. Engelm. Carpet Weed. 

A small, much branching annual, lying flat on the ground and 
forming circular carpets a foot or more in diameter. Apparentl3' 
native but frequent by roadsides and in grain fields and waste 
places; rarely troublesome. 

53. EUPHORBIA MARGINATA, Pursh. Snow on the Mountain. 

An annual, one to two feet high, with milky juice and upper 
leaves white margined. In waste places and along railway 
grades from Miles City to Gleildive. Coming in from the east- 
ward. Reputed poisonous. 

54. FRANSERIA HOOKERIANA, Nutt. 

An annual weed very much like the Ragweed (Ambrosia arti- 
misisefolia), but with fruit of conspicuous burs. Frequent in sandy 
soil along highways and in streets and waste places in many 
parts of the state east of the Diyide. Possibly native, although it 
has all the habits of an introduced weed. 

55. GAURA COCCINEA, Nutt. Butterfly Weed. 

A native perennial with long, deeply penetrating rootstock, 
frequent in new ground and occasionally found in grain fields and 
fallow land, mainly as the variety glabra, T. & G. Leaves nar- 
row,^flowers white or rose-colored, turning to scarlet in fading. 

56. GAURA PARVIFLORA, Dougl. 
A tall, hairy annual or biennial, two or three feet high, with 
small flowers and long, slender spikes of spindle-shaped fruit, oc- 
casionally troublesome in grain fields and waste places in the Mis- 
souri river region. Apparently- introduced from eastward. 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 41 

57. GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM, L. Crane's-bill. * 

The typical form occasional in waste places; the form G. Bick- 
nelliij Britt. not infrequent in waste places in many parts of the 
state. 

58. *GERANIUM PUSILLUM, L. 

W(^U established as a weed in fields and waste places about 
St. Ignatius, Flathead Reservation, and at Plains. 

59. GLYCYRRHIZA LEPIDOTA, Pursh. Wild Liquorice; 

CUCKLEBUR. 

A native perennial in low ground with pea-like leaves and 
bearing clusters of burs very like those of the true cucklcbur 
(Xanthium). Its long, creeping, underground stem makes it 
difficult to eradicate from new land, and it is frequently abundant 
and troublesome in meadows and pastures. Persistent cultiva- 
tion or digging seems to be the only remedy other than close 
pasturage. 

60. QRINDELIA SQUARROSA, Dunal. Rosin-weed; Wild Arnica. 

A biennial doubtfully native in this region. About 18 inches 
high with a stiff stem and many heads of yellow-rayed flowers 
covered with a gummy secretion. Common in the plains and val- 
leys east of the mountains and spreading westward. More fre- 
quent along roadsides and waste places and troublesome in mead- 
ows and pastures, where it is difficult to eradicate after having 
once obtained a foothold. Stock rarely will eat it in any situation. 
Just being introduced in the Flathead and Bitter Root valleys 
bv roadsides and should be exterminated before it becomes 
established. Old settlers say the plant has come into much of 
this region since the advent of civilization and there seems now 
to be a steady advance westward, although its distribution is 
effected mainly by the conveyance of its seeds in the mud on the 
feet of animals and the wheels of vehicles and in hay. 

6i. HELIANTHUS ANNUUS, L. Sunflower. 

An annual weed, three or four feet high, with large notched 
leaves and large yellow-rayed heads three inches in diameter, com- 
mon everywhere east of the Divide and one of the worst weeds in 



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42 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

grain fields and cultivated ground. Occasional along the rail- 
\vav8 in the western part of the state, but not troublesome there 
except in the Bitter Root valley. It is confined to one or two 
small areas in the Flathead valley and shows small disposition 
to spread in the absence of irrigation, but if the farmers are wise 
they will stamp out this pest at once, lest it become as trouble- 
some there as it has in other parts of the state. Seeds seem to 
be distributed largely by irrigation and in the mud adhering to 
to feet and to the wheels of vehicles. Its seeds seem to lie in the 
ground many years before losing their vitality and it can best be 
combatted by sowing the infected fields in some annual grain 
suitable for forage and pasturing with sheep for several years. 

62. HELIANTHUS NUTTALLII, T. &. G. 

A native perennial sunflower, more 
slender and with narrower leaves than 
the last; roots tuberous and with 
frequent underground stems. Usually in 
small patches, and can best be destroyed 
by pulling or digging after irrigation. 
Often troublesome in grain fields and 
low ground in the western part of the 
state. 
63. HELIANTHUS PETIOLARIS, 
Nutt. 

An annual very like and commonly 
confused with H, annuus above and fre- 
quent in dry, sand^- situations in the 
Milk River and Yellowstone valleys. It 
has smaller heads than the common sun- 
flower (H. annuus) and narrower, en- 
tire leaves. 

64. HORDEUM JUBATUM, L. Foxtail; 

Sv>l'lRREL-TAlL GraSS; SloUGH-GRASS. 

F^*: 10. HonWum jiilMUum. L. An annual or biennial grass with a 
Natural site. large, bushv spike of fruit, whose long 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 43 

awns when ripe pierce the lips and tongue of stock and cause ex- 
tensive ulceration. A common weed in pastures and waste places 
seemingly introduced from the east; doubtfully native. It makes 
little headway against the native vegetation, but tends to become 
established in low ground wherever that vegetation has been dis- 
turbed or kept down by close pasturage. Said to make fair hay, 
if cut before heading out or after the head breaks awa^- in August. 
It may be killed out in most situations by plowing it under in 
June or by seeding the fields in giain for a few seasons. It is also 
doubtful if it can make much headway against a good stand of 
clover, timothy or alfalfa. [Fig. 10.] 

^ - 'H YOSC YAMUS NIGER, L. 
Black Henbane. 
>arse European annual or 
al established in waste 
at Billings (E. V. Wilcox), 
imber, and rarely about 
lan. Poisonous. 

*HYSSOPUS OFFICINA- 
LIS, L. Hyssop. 
ge-like perennial with nar- 
eaves and clustered blue 
s, occasionally escaped 
gardens. Roadsides in Flat- 
ralley, rare. 

[VA AXILLARIS, Pursh. 
.e-weed; Poverty-weed. 

ative perennial a foot or 

igh growing in clumps or 

ig extensive patches in low 

d, particularly in alkaline 

Its long creeping under- 

d stems make it most dif- 

! bo eradicate. Probably best 

Fig. 11. Iva xanthiifolia, Nutt. Plant combatted by seeding down in 

1-12 natural size; leaf and fruit Va. meadow. 



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44 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

68. IVA XANTHIIFOLIA, Nutt. Careless-weed; Horse-weed; 

Giant Rag-weed. 

A tall, coarse native annual, three to six feet high, with large, 
heart-shaped toothed leaves opposite on the smooth stem. 
This is one of the worst weeds in the Gallatin valley, by roadsides, 
in waste places and cultivated ground, and is not intrequent in 
low ground east of the Divide, but apparently rare west of it. 

Its small, black seeds seem 
to be distributed wholly by 
water and the mud of pas- 
sage and so it is not apt to be 
very troublesome except in 
irrigated districts. [Fig. 11.] 

69. KRINITZKIA CRAS- 
SISEPALA, Gray. 

Frequent in loose soil with 
Echinospermum Redowskii 
in the Yellowstone region; 
apparently not west of the 
Divide. 

70. LACTUCA PULCHEL- 
LA, DC. Milkweed; 

Wild Lettuce. 

A native perennial of the 
lettuce family common in 
all situations throughout 
the eastern part of the 
the state; leaves smooth, 
often with long, slender 
teeth; flowers blue, closing 
Fi>r. 12. Lactuca Scariola, L. a, 1-9; b, nat- in the afternoon. In low 
ural size; c, enlarged. ground the long under- 

ground rootstocks makes its extirpation diflScult. The black seeds 
with a tuft of hairs at apex are distributed by the wind. 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 45 

71. LACTUCA 5CARI0LA, L. Prickly Lettuce; Chinese 

Lettuce. 

A European biennial resembling the preceding species, but 
the flowers are light yellow and the leaves are prickly-fringed 
and not lobed, and have a curious habit of twisting to the vertical 
with a tendency toward a north and south direction, like a **coni- 
pass plant." A most pernicious weed introduced along the rail- 
roads in nearly every part of the state but most frequent from 
Missoula west and south and worst abou,t Plains and Hamilton. 
It should be destroyed in the localities in which it is established 
and not permitted to spread and increase the number of our 
already too numerous European pests. [Fig. 12,] 

72. *LAMIUM AMPLEXICAULE, L. Dead Nettle. 

A European annual introduced with garden seed from the east 
and well established near Ennis. A prostrate or creeping plant 
resembling the Ground Ivy, having small, rounded, opposite leaves 
with purple flowers in the axils. Unlikely' to become trouble- 
some except in irrigated gardens. 

73. *LEONURUS CARDIACA, L. Motherwort. 

A European perennial wdl established in waste places about 
Missoula, and one or two other points in the state. 

74. LEPACHYS COLUMNARIS, T. & G. Cone-flower. 

A native perennial of the plains region, one or two feet high, 
with rough divided leaves and long-stalked flowers with a dark 
columnar disk and drooping yellow rays. Spreading westward 
and often troblesome in meadows, pastures and waste places, 
particularly in dry sandy soil. 

75- LEPIDIUn APETALUn. Willd. Bird-seed; Pepper-grass. 

A small acrid-tasting annuar a few inches to a foot high, 
frequent in dooryards, waste places and cultivated ground. 
Doubtfully native, although well distributed throughout the 
plains region. Seeds become mucilaginous when wet and thus 
facilitate their distribution by animals. 



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46 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

76. LUPINUS PUSILLUS, Pursh. Dwarf Lupine. 

A small bulbous-rooted perennial, less than a foot high, with 
a long-stalked seven-foliate leaf and spike-like racemes of blae 
flowers, frequent in sandy soil in the Yellowstone and Milk River 
regions, and often troublesome in grain fields and cultivated 
ground. Native. 

77. LUPINUS 5ERICEUS, Pursh. Lupine; Prairie Beans. 

A native perennial common in dry ground throughout the 
state. Like the last but larger, one to three feet high. Persistent 
with long, creeping rootstocks in new ground and difiicult to ex- 
terminate except by digging or long cultivation. 

78. LYGODESMIA JUNCEA, Don. Wild Asparagus; Skele- 
ton-weed. 

A slender-stemmed branching native plant, one or two feet 
high, apparently leafless, with purplish flowers and long penetrat- 
ing rootstocks, often troublesome in cultivated ground in the 
region east of the Divide. [Fig. 13.] 

79. * MADIA FILIPES, Gray. Small Tarweed. 

A small,. slender. Pacific Coast tarweed, which has reached our 
borders along the railways in the western part of the state. Well 
established in waste places about Troy, Libb^' and Thompson 
Falls. Annual. 

8o. MADIA OLOMERATA, Hook. Tarweed. 

Another Pacific Coast annual similar to the last but much 
larger, about two feet high, with sticky, ill-smelling herbage and 
terminal clusters of inconspicuous flowers. In waste places, pas- 
tures and along roadsides eastward as far as Bozeman and ap- 
pears to be rapidly spreading eastward in the state. 

81. *MALVA PARVIFLORA, L. Running Mallow. 

A small annual European mallow, noted in waste places about 
Conrad on the G. F. & Can. Ry. (R. S. Williams), Thompson Falls 
and Plains. 



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I 




'< 




rig. 13. ivYgoaesniia juncea, uon. riant natural size; t>-e eniarged. 

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48 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

82. MALVASTRUM COCCINEUM, Gray. Wild Hollyhock. 

A small native perennial about six inches high, with divided 
leaves, and brick-red flowers, not infrequent in waste places east- 
ward, and often persistent in new ground; hardly large enough or 
sufficiently abundant to be troublesome. 

83. HARRUBIUM VULQARE, L. Horehound. 
A white- woolly European perennial, one or two feet high, 
with opposite, roundish leaves, and the flowers and fruit clustered 
in the axils of the upper leaves. Seeds disseminated by the bur- 
like calyx. This has been found to be one of the worst weeds in 
Idaho and Utah, and is becoming very troublesome in streets, 
roadsides and waste places along the railroad from Missoula west- 
ward, but rare elsewhere in the sta^e. Coming in from the west. 

84. MATRICARIA DISCOIDEA, DC. Rayless Dogfennel. 
A Pacific Coast annual resembling the dog-fennel (Anthemis 
Cotula) and similarly ill-scented, but without the white rays and 
much smaller. Frequent in streets and waste places and along 
highways throughout the western part of the state. Introduced 
from the west and rapidly spreading eastward. 

85. MELILOTUS ALBA, Lam. Sweet Clover; White Melilot: 

Honey Clover. 
A» annual or i>iennial, three to six feet high, frequwt in many 
places along irrigation ditches and in waste places, particularly in 
the Yellowstone valley, where it has been found most troublesome. 
Much resembles alfalfa, but is taller and more slender and has 
white flowers, while its value as a forage plant is questionable. 
It appears to grow best in alkali ground. Introduced from Europe. 
Seeds appear to be scattered by water and in hay. 

86. *MELILOTUS OFFICINALIS, Willd. Yellow Melilot. 
Like the preceding, but with yellow flowers. In waste places 

at Helena (F. D. Kelsey), White Sulphur Springs (R. N, Sutherlin), 
and Miles City. Infrequent. 

87. nONOLEPIS CHENOPODIOIDES. Moq. Poverty Weed. 
A native annual prostrate or ascending with green inconspicu- 
ous flowers and abundant fruit; fruiting throughout the season, 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 49 

much resembling Chenopodium glaucum. One of our most troub- 
lesome weeds in 3'ards, gardens and waste places. 

88. *NASTURTIUM ARMORACIA, Fries. Horse Radish. 

In waste places an occasional escape from cultivation. 

89. *NEPETA CATARIA, L. Catnip. 

A well-known European perennial becoming established in 
waste places at Helena (F. D. Kelsey), Columbia Falls, Holt, 
Thompson Falls, Plains and a few other places in the state. 

90. CENOTHERA BIENNIS, L. Yellow Evening Primrose. 

A slender biennial three or four feet high with yellow flowers 
and spindle-shaped fruit about an inch long, introduced along the 
railroads and highways in most parts of the state and frequently 
so common as almost to appear native in lowground (O. depressa, 
Greene and Onagra strigosa, Kydberg). 

91. PANICUM CAPILLARE, L. Tumble-Grass. 

A" hairy annual grass with a widely spreading panicle of fruit 
easily detached when ripe; occurs occasionally in fields and waste 
places particularly in the Plains region. Here doubtfully native. 

92. *PANICUM CRUS-GALLI, L. Barnyard Grass. 

An introduced annual rare in fields, yards and waste places; 
here usually prostrate and spread by irrigation. At Ulm (R. S. 
Williams), Bozeman, Malta and Chinook. 

93. *PANICUM SANGUINALE, L. Crab-Grass. 

Occasionally imported from the east in grass seed, but shows 
little or no disposition to spread. Noted at Great Falls and 
Bozeman. 

94. PASTINACA SATIVA, L. Parsnip. 

Often escapes from cultivation and is found occasionally in old 
fields, waste places and along irrigation ditches. 

95. PLANTAGd ASIATICA, L. Native Plantain. 

The common plantain in ditches and low ground by roadsides 
and in waste places, apparently native. 



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50 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION, 

96. PLANTAQO MAJOR, L. Plantain. 

A European perennial abundantly introduced in lawns, pastures 
and waste places about Deer Lodge, Columbia Falls, Bozeman and 
most of the larger towns and cities of the state. Like the dande- 
lion, it is difficult to eradicate from lawns except by digging. It 
should not be allowed to secure a foothold in a community. This 
species is very difficult to distinguish from the one above, except 
that it is smaller and more smooth, has shorter and more abrupt 
spikes of fruit, central dehiscence of the capsule and a more 
pestiferous habit of frequenting lawns, yards and waste places. 

97. PLANTAGO PATAGONICA GNAPHALIOIDES, Gray. 

RiBGRASS. 

A native annual of the plains region, frequent in dry ground 
and with a decided tendency to crowd out the grasses in pasture 
land, when close cropped. The variety aristata, Gray, occurs with 
the other form but is much less frequent. This has been quoted as 
a weed from this state, but has value as a forage plant. The seeds 
of all these plantains becomes mucilaginous when wet, adhere to 
everything they touch and so are easily transported in the mud of 
passage. 

98. *POA ANNUA, L. 

A small annual grass from Europe, a few inches high in streets 
and waste places at St. Ignatius, Columbia Falls and a few other 
places in the state, but of no special importance. 

99. POLYGONUM AVICULARE. L. Knotgrass; Yardgrass; 

GOOSEGRASS. 

An introduced annual forming carpet-like patches in yards, 
waste places, streets and along high ways, often trailing for several 
feet. It has a smooth, wiry stem, small leaves and inconspicuous 
flowers. Common in beaten ground throughout the state: mainly 
in the coarser, blunt-leaved form (P. littorale. Link.), though both 
occur. 

100. POLYGONUM ERECTUM,L. 

An introduced weed very similar to the last, but is usually 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 51 



erect and with bioad oval leaves. Noted at Bozeman, Malta, the 
Ft. Peck Reservation near Calais, Forsyth and Glendive. 

loi. POLYQONUn CONVOLVULUS, L. Wild Buckwheat. 

A climbing or trailing vine with heart-shaped leaves and buck- 
wheat-like fruit common in yards, waste places and cultivated 
ground in th^ settled parts of the state. An annual introduced 
from Europe and the East and now become one of our worst weeds. 

102. POLYGONUM LAPATHIFOLIUM, L. Smartweed. 

A smooth annual with swollen joints and small terminal spikes 
of purplish or white flowers, one to three feet high. Introduced 
about waste places, gardens and in cultivated ground; not in- 
frequent. 

103. POLYGONUM PERSICARIA, L. Smartweed. 

A not infrequent introduction in wet places, but hardly trouble- 
some. Like the last, but lower and with thicker and more brightly 
colored sj^kes. ^ 

104. *PORTULACA OLERACEA, L. Purseley. 

A brittle, fleshy annual with small yellowflowers, forming broad 
mats. This eastern pest has appeared in gardens occasionally, in- 
troduced with garden seed, and grows vigorously in irrigated 
ground. Not likely to be more than locally troublesome, but should 
be exterminated in every case lest it become established and diflScult 
to control. Noted in gardens and in waste places at Bozeman, 
Ennis, Craig, Forsyth and Glendive. 

105. RUMEX ACETOSELLA, L. Sheep Sorrel. 

A perennial one or two feet high with small leaves, having ear- 
like lobes on each side near the base and a strong acid taste, and 
with slender terminal naked sprays of small green flowers or fruit. 
Forms patches in meadows, pastures and waste land, spreading 
by means of long underground rootstocks, and, like the Canada 
thistle, very difiicult to exterminate after it gets established. This 
is going to be one of the worst weeds in the state, as it is well 
adapted to our climatic conditions and has a footing in manj- 
places over the state, particularly westward. It has fairly taken 



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Fi>?. 14. Ru.iizx A'jjtosella, L. Plant natural sir^gilz^tft;^ vJ enlarged^ 



WEEDS OF MONTANA. 53 

some grain-fields in the Gallatin Vallev and is bad in several parts 
of the Flathead ValW, while it is common along the railroad from 
Missoula westward, apparently coming in from the Pacific coast. 
This should be included among the outlawed w^eds of the state. 
[Fig. 14.] 

106, RUMEX CRISPUS, L. Curly-leayed Dock; Burdock. 

A large perennial dock established in streets and waste places 
about most of the larger towns of the state but not as yet common 
or verA' troublesome. The large thick roots must be removed bj- 
digging. 

107. RUMEX SALICIFOLIUS, Weinm. Willow-leayed Dock. 

A coarse weed like the last but with narrower leaves; frequent 
along roadsides, in waste places and pastures. Apparently intro- 
duced from the west; possibly indigenous. 

io8. SALSOLA kali TRAGUS. Moq. Russian Thistle. 

An introduced annual with little or no resemblance to a thistle. 
It has awl-shaped leaYes, a green stem, stnped with red, and 
prickly truit-bracts, becoming hard and spiny in age; flowers and 
fruit sn^ll and inconspicuous. It often forms a large globular 
mass a yard or more in diameter, which finally becomes detached 
and is rolled about by the wind like the tumble-weed. It favors 
sandy or alkali soil for growth and frequents railway grades, 
streets and waste places abdut towns and cities; seems to make 
no headway against the native vegetation in the open fields and 
plains. This is one of the three outlawed weeds of Montana and 
doubtless well deserves to be included in the list, but, as far as my 
observation goes, it has not yet become a pest here in cultivated 
ground, although well scattered over the state, and hardly deserves 
the bad reputation given it. In its younger growth it makes fair 
forage and is occasionally cut for hay, so that it may yet prove a 
valuable forage plant adapted to alkali situations, where little 
else will grow. Well scattered in the Milk River and Yellowstone 



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Fig. 15 b. Salsola Kali Tragus, Moq. Seedling and branch natural size; 

flower and fruit enlarged. # ^ ^ ^ i ^ 

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56 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

regions; at Missoula and Helena and reported from Manhattan, 
Livingston, Billings, Cinnabar, Great Falls and at points along 
the railway in Silver Bow and Bea,verhead counties. It is easily 
uprooted with a hoe and should be piled into heaps and burned 
when dry, as the smallest plants bear fruit and will serve to re- 
stock the soil, if simply dug up and left. Mowing the plants, as 
is frequently done, is of little aid toward their extermination, as 
the stubs remaining will bear enough fruit to replant the soil for 
the ensuing season. It is better adapted to the conditions existing 
in the Milk River and Yellowstone Valleys than elsewhere in the 
state and may there prove a serious menace to the agricultural 
interests, but should be exterminated wherever found, as the law 
requires. Seeds distributed principally by the railways, irrigation 
ditches and mud of passage. [Fig. 15 a and b.] 

109. SAPONARIA VACCARIA, L. Cockle; Cow Cockle. 

A smooth European annual, one or two feethigh; with opposite, 
clasping leaves and conspicuous pink flowers terminating the level- 
topped spread of branches. A common and pernicious weed in 
grain fields in the eastern part of the state, but rare westward. 
It should not be allowed to secure a footing in regions not yet in- 
fected and may be hand-pulled where the plants are few or its dis- 
tribution limited. Usually introduced and spread in the grain 
seed and, apparently, by irrigation. [Fig. 16.] 

110. *SENECIO VULGARIS, L. Groundsel. 

An annual, about a foot high, with divided leaves and incon- 
spicuous heads of flowers, somewhat resembling a thistle. In 
waste places at Columbia Falls and Big Timber. From Europe. 

111. *SILENE NOCTIFLORA, L. Catchfly. 

An introduced annual noted in fields and waste places about 
Bozeman. An herb one or two feet high, with sticky hairs, op- 
posite leaves and white flowers. Unlikely to become troublesome 
in this state. 



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Fig. 16. Saponaria Vaccaria, L. Plant about one-half "amr^J^ SIJ^GoOqIc 



58 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



112. SISYMBRIUM ALTISSIMUM, L. Tumbling Mustard. 

A European annual of 
the mustard family, two 
or three feet high, with 
upper leaves narrow or 
finely divided and the 
lower broader-lobed, and 
having a widely branch- 
ing, level-topped spread 
of yellowish flowers and 
slender fruit pods two 
or three inches long. This 
has been found to be a 
most pernicious weed iii 
Canada north of this 
state and is extending 
southward. Specimens 
have been collected at 
Great Falls, Helena, Cen- 
tral Park and Belgrade, 
and it is fairly taking the 
grain fields in some parts 
of the Bitter Root and 
Flathead valleys. It 
should not be allowed to 
secure a footing in any 
Fig. 17a. Sisymbrium altissimum, L. a and d agricultural section as 

V3\ b and c natural size. . , x* ^-rx . 

its enormous fertility, 

tumbling habit, and special adaptation to our climate will 

probably make it far more dangerous to the farmer than an\' of 

the weeds already outlawed in the state. [Figs. 17 a and b.] 

113. SISYMBRIUM INCISUM. Engelm. Tansy Mustard. 

A slender annual of the mustard family, one to three feet high, 
having small, yellow flowers, short spreading pods and finely 
divided leaves. Common along roadsides, in grain fields and 
waste places. Has the appearance of a native in some parts of 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 59 



Fig. 17b. Sisymbrium altissimum, L. Fruit 
M natural size; b enlarged. 

the state east of the Divide, but is local in its distribution. Seeds 
scattered by water and in mud. 

114. *SISYMBRIUM OFFICINALE, Scop. Hedge Mustard. 

Another introduced annual, occasional in waste places, but 
not likely to become troublesome. At St. Ignatius, Troy, Helena, 
Bozeman and Missoula. 

115. *SOLANUM NIGRUM, L. Deadly Nightshade. 

An introduced annual in waste places at Columbia Falls (R. S. 
Williams), and Selish (V. K. Chesnut). 



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GO THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

116. SOLANUM ROSTRATUM, Dunal. Buffalo Bur. 

A prostrate annual, with yellow flowers and a bur-like fruit, 
thickly covered with long, yellow spines. Coming into the state 
from the east along the railways and becoming troublesome in 
yards, waste places and cultivated ground. At various points 
along the Yellowstone, Missoula, Box Elder Creek, Glasgow and 
Culbertson. It should be killed out in all localities before it be- 
comes a pest. It spreads slowly, but holds well where established. 

117. SOLANIUM TRIFLORUM, Nutt. Wild Tomato; Stinkweed. 
A prostrate spreading annual with lobed leaves, small white 

or pale blue flowers and numerous green, many seeded berries. 
Frequent in gfardens, waste places and cultivated ground through- 
out much of the region east of the Divide. The host of the Colo- 
rado potato beetle. Doubtfully native. [Fig. 18]. 

118. 50NCHUS A5PER, Vill. Sow Thistle; Yellow Thistle. 

A thistle-like annual with spiny clasping leaves and yellow 
flowers; two or three feet tall. Introduced from Europe by wa^- 
of the eastern states and now frequent and often troublesome in 
gardens and cultivated ground, particularly about Bozeman and 
Kalispell. Seeds feathery and scattered by the wind. 

119. *SONCHUS OLERACEUS, L. 
Ver3' similar to the last and commonly not distinguished from 
it. It is more slender, less prickly and has cross-ribbed seeds. It 
occurs with the other species, but is far less frequent. 

120. *SPERGULA ARVENSIS, L. Field Spurry. 
An annual introduced from the Old World with slender, 
branching stems and numerous clusters of thread-like leaves. In 
grain fields at Bozeman but not elsewhere noted. 

121. *STELLARIA MEDIA, Smith, Chickweed. 

A small, spreading annual naturalized from Europe, in yards 
and waste places; occasional about Bozeman and other towms of 
the state. 

122. *SUCKLEYA PETIOLARIS, Gray. 

A prostrate annual, very much resembling the pigweed-pursely 
(Amaranthus blitoides, Wats.) but with larger and more orbicular 



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Flii. 18. Solanu'ni triflorum, Nutt. Branch natural size. 

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62 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

leaves. It has as yet been noted in this state onh^ in the Milk 
River region and, as far as my observation goes, only in a single 
locality in the town of Glasgow. Its abundance and decided weed 
habit may hereafter make it a pest in that region. Although the 
t\'pe locality, it is doubtless introduced here from the southern 
plains. 

123. ^SYMPHYTUM OFFICINALE, L. Comfrey. 

A large coarse European perennial sparingly introduced in 
waste places about Bozeman. 



Fig. 19, Taraxacum officinale, Weber. Plant about M natural size. 

134. TARAXACUM OFFICINALE, Weber. Dandelion. 

A perennial of European origin, with a long, deeply penetrat- 
ing root which makes it difficult to eradicate. It has a cluster of 
lobed ground leaves from which arise the slender flower stalks 
with yellow flowers and round balls of plumose fruit, which are 
carried long distances by the wind. One of the worst weeds in the 
state in lawns, waste places and pastures about the larger towns. 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 63 

and can be exterminated only by cultivation or by digging; the 
latter is most effective when the roots are cut off just below the 
crown of leaves during the flowering season. Apparently well dis- 
tributed in the state about towns. [Fig. 19.] 

125. *THLASPI ARVENSE, L. Pennycress. 

An introduced annual of the Mustard family much resembling 
the birdseed (Lepidium apetalum) but having larger pods. Oc- 
casional in grain fields and waste places. 

126. *TRAGOPOGON PORRIFOLIUS, L. Salsify; Oyster-plant. 

In gardens and waste places; not infrequently escaped from 
cultivation. 

127. *URTICA DIOICA, L. 

A perennial nettle about barn- 
yards and in waste places in the 
Koutenai region. Infrequent. Ap- 
parently here, coming in from 
the west. 

128. URTICA GRACILIS, Ait. 

Stinging Nettle. 

A tall slender unbranched per- 
ennial with green fruit clusters 
in the axils of the upper leaves, 
and with stinging hairs. Not in- 
frequent in streets and waste 
places and along highways in 
the region east of the Divide, but 
sparsely introduced westward. 
Usually regarded as native, but 
in this state its habit is wholly 
that of an introduced species and 
occurs onh^ where its seeds may 
have been transported in hay, 
Fi^. 20. Urtica gracilis, Ait. Branch water or mud from points of 
^ natural size. settlement. [Fig. 20.] 



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64 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



129. VERBASCUn THAPSUS, L. Mullein. 

A thick, woolly-leaved biennial with a tall (two to six feet) 
unbranched stem and a terminal spike of yellow flowers. An in- 
troduced plant well established in many places about the state in 
fields and waste places and by roadsides. Most troublesome from 
Missoula south and west along the railroads. Common in the 
Flathead valley near Columbia Falls, along the Missouri below 
Craig and occasional in the Gallatin valley near Bozeman. Seems 
well adapted to our climatic conditions and is liable to become a 

serious pest. 

130. VERBENA BRACTEOSA, 

^ichx. Trailing Vervain;Vervain. 

A perennial, native in the region 
ast of the mountains. It forms 
road mats along roadsides, in 
ards and waste places. A pros- 
rate and bristly hairy plant with 
mall blue flowers along the ends 
f the branches. 

31. VERONICA PEREGRINA, L. 
A small annual not infrequent 

ere as a weed in grain fields and 
ultivated ground, but hardly 
roublesome. 

32. *VERONICA BYZANTINA, 

B. S. P. 
A small weed occasionalh' intro- 
uced in garden seed, but has not 
et become well established. Noted 
t Bozeman. 

33. XANTHIUM CANADEXSE, 

Mill. COCKLEBUR. 

A coarse annual with heart- 
haped leaves and clusters of burs 
ished along ditches and in low 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. • 65 

ground in many parts of the state and seeds spread by stock and 
by irrigation. Rarelv troublesome here in cultivated land. 
[Fig. 21.] 

134. *XANTHIUM SPINOSUM, L. Thorny [Cucklebur. 

Specimens of this weed have been sent in from the vicinity of 
Victor and the plant is said to be well established about 
sheep camps in the Bitter Root region, probably brought in 
from the Paciifip Coast with imported sheep. It has burs like the 
preceding but the leaves are more lobed and white beneath with 
long, three-divided yellow thorns in the axils. It should not be 
allowed to secure a footing in the state lest it become a serious 
pest to the wool industry and to agriculture. 




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66 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT .STATION. 



ADDENDA. 



135. *ERODIUM CICUTARIUM, L'Her. Alfilaria; Pin Clover. 

A prostrate or spreading, much-branched annual with -finely 
divided leaves and rose-colored flowers; fruit similar to that of the 
Geranium. Well established" in waste places at Thompson Falls 
and Plains and is a fair forage plant. Imported from the Pacific 
Coast. 

136. *MADIA SATIVA, L. Tall Tarweed. 

Resembling M.glomerata,but is a taller plant (2 or 3 feet high) 
with heads terminating slender scattered branches. Frequent along 
roadsides and waste places at Thompson Falls, coming in from 
the Pacific Coast. 

137. *VERBASCUM BLATTARIA, L. Moth Mullelx. 

A smooth slender biennial 2 to 4 feet high with a cluster of tooth- 
ed basal leaves and a terminal raceme of white (rarely 3'ellow) 
flowers. Established along the railroad at various points west of 
Missoula and exhibits a strong disposition to spread. Noted at 
DeSmet, Weeksville and ^Thompson Falls. 

138. *VICIA SATIVA, L. Vetch. 

A European pea CvStablished along the railroad at Plains and 
its growth here would indicate that it might be profitably em- 
ployed as a forage plant, as it is in Europe. 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 



67 



SUBJECT INDEX. 



Figures Refer to Pages. 



Adaptations cf weeds, 5, 6, 9. 
Alluvial weeds, 9. 

ADimal trausportatiOQ of seeds, 8, 9. 
Annuals, 6, 7, 12, 13. 
Biennials, 7, 12, VS. 
Burs, 8. 

Characteristics of weeds, 5, 11. 
Classitication by situation, 13—17. 
Crop-rotation, 17. 
Cultivated ground, weeds of, 15. 
Dissemination; Distribution, 7. 
Eastward extension of weeds, 12. 
Eradication, 17—22. 
Fire weeds, 9. 
Fleshy habit, 6. 
Foreign origin of weeds, 12. 
Gardens, weeds of, 5, 9, 15. 
Grain fleids, weeds of, 5, 9, 16, 17. 
Head, 24. 
Impure seed, 8,9. 
Indigenous weeds, 10, 11. 
Introduced weeds, 10, 11. 
Introduction, 3. 

Irrigation in weed dissemination, 7, 9. 
Lawns, weeds of, 5, 9, 15. 
Legislation needed, 21, 22. 
List of the weeds of Montana, 24— 66. 
Man as agent in weed dissemination, 
9, 10. 



Meadows, weeds of, 5, 6, 15. 

Mud in weed dessemination, 14. 

Native weeds, see "Indigenous weeds." 

Origin of the weed flora, 9—13. 

Panicle, 24. 

Pasturage, 18. 

Pastures, weeds of, 5, 6, 15. 

Perennials, 12, 13. 

Railways in weed dissemination, 8. 

Reproduction, 6. 

Root-system, 13. 

Rules for recognition of introduced 

weeds, 11. 
Seeds of weeds in food, 5. 
Special methods of eradication, 18—20. 
Spike, 24. 
Subindigenes, 11. 
Summer fallow, 18, 21. 
Tumble-weeds, 7. 
Vitality of weed seeds, 6, 21. 
Waste places, weeds of, 5, 13, 14, 15. 
Water in weed dissemination, 7, 9. 
Waysides, weeds of, 5, 6, 13, 14, 15. 
Weed flora, origin of, 9, 12. 
Weed law, 22. 23. 
Westward extension of weeds, 12. 
Wind in weed dissemination, 7,9. 
Wool industry, relation of weeds to, 8. 
Yards, weeds of, 5, 13, 14, 15. 



GENERIC INDEX OF SCIENTIFIC NAMES. 



Achillea, 12, 15, 25. 

Agrostemroa, 25. 

Allionia, 12, 25. 

Amaranihus, 7, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 25, 26, IK). 

Ambrosia, 13. 14, 26, 27. 



Anthemis, 14, 27, 48. 
Arctium, 14, 27. 
Arenaria, 14, 28. 
Artemisia, 12, 14, 16, 28. 
Alriplex, 14, 28. 



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68 



THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION, 



AyenA, 16, 28, 29. 

Bras&ica, 14, 16, 30, 31. 

Bromus, 14, 16, 31. 

CamtliDa, 16, 31. 

Capsella, 14, 16, 32. 

Cerastium, 12, 20, 32. 

Chenopodium, 11, 12, 14, 16, 32, 33. 

Cbrysanthemum, 33. 

Gichorium, 34. 

Cleome, 9, 11, 12. 14, 16, 35. 

ODicuB, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 35, 36, 37. 

GooYOlYulus, 19, 37. 

Codcuta, 38. 

Cynoglossum, 38. 

Draba, 11, 16, 38. 

Dracocephalum, 11, 38. 

Echino8permum,9, 11, 12, 14, 39, 44. 

Elliflia, 11, 14, 39. 

Epilobium, 12, 14, 16, 19, 39. 

Brigeron, 7, 13, 14, 16, 40. 

Erodium, 66. 

Eapborbia, 11, 12, 14, 17, 40. 

FraDseria, 11, 12, 14, 40. 

Gaura, 11, 12, 17, 40. 

Geranium, 41. 

Glycyrrhiza, 12. 16, 19, 41. 

Grindelia, 11, 12, 15, 20, 41. 

Helianthus, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, 41, 42. 

Hordeum, 11. 12, W, 15, 42, 43. 

Hyoscyamus, 43. 

HysBopus, 43. 

Iva. 7, 9, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, 19, 43, 44. 

Krinitzkia, 9, 11, 12, 44. 

Lactuca, 12, 14, 16, 17, 19, 44, 45. 

Lamium, 45. 

Leopurus, 45. 

liepachys, 12. 15, 45. 

Lepidium, 11, 12, 14, 16, 45, 63. 

Lcpinus, 12, 16, 19, 46. 



Lygodesmia, 12, 16, 19, 46,47. 
Madia, 12, 14, 46. 
Malva, 46. 

Malvastrum, 9, 11, 48. 
Marrubium, 14, 48. 
Matricaria, 12, 14, 48. 
Melilotus, 48. 

Monolepis, 11, 12. 14, 16, 33, 48. 
Nasturtium, 49. 
Nepeta, 49. 
(Enothera, 11, 49. 
Onagra, 49. 
Panlcum, 7, 12, 14, 49. 
Pastinaca, 49. 

Plantago, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 49, 50. 
Poa, 50. 

Polygonum, 14, 16, 17, 50, 51. 
.. Portulaca, 26, 51. 
Kumex, 12, 15, 17, 20, 51, 52, 53. 
Salsola, 7, 15, 53, 54, 55, 56. 
Baponaria, 17, 25, 56, 57. 
Senecio, 56. 
Silene, 56. 

Sisymbrium, 7, 11. 12, 15, 58, 59, 
Solanum, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 59, 60, 61. 
Sonchus, 16, 60. 
Spergula, 60. 
Stellaria, 60. 
Suckleya, 60, 62. 
Symphytum, 62. 
Taraxacum, 15, 62, 63. 
Thlaspi. 63. 
Tragopogon, 15, 63. 
I'rtica, 15, 63. 
Verbascum, 15, 64, 
Verbena, 12, 15, 64. 
Veronica, 64. 
Vicia, 66. 
Xauthium, 12, 13, 15, 41, 64. 65. 



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WEEDS OF MONTANA. 



69 



INDEX OF POPULAR NAMES. 



Alfalfa Do;ider, 38. [Fig. 9]. 

Alfllaria, 60. 

Arnica, 41. 

Baniyard Grass, 49. 

Bazzleweed, 43. 

Beggar-ticks, 14, 39, 

Birdseed, 14, 16, 45. 

Black Henbane, 43. 

Black Mustard, 14, 30. 

Brome-grass, 31. 

Buffalo-bur, I5,il6, 60. 

Bordock, 14, 27, 53. 

Butterfly- weed, 40. 

Canada Thistle. 6, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 19, 

20,21,22,23.25,36. [Fig. 7]. 
Careless- weed, 16, 26, 40. [Fig. 11]. 
Carpet-weed, 6, 40. 
Carrot, 5, 30. 
Catcbfly, 56. 
Catnip, 49. 
Charlock, 31. 
Cbeat , Cbess, 16, 31. 
Chickweed, 9, 20, 60. 
Chicory, 34. [Fig, 6]. 
Chinese Lettuce, 45. [Fig 12J. 
Cockle, 9, 17, 25,56, c7. [Fig. KiJ. 
Corofrey, 62. 
Cone-flower, 15, 45. 
Corn Cockle, 25. 
Cottonweed, 14. 39. 
Cow Cockle, 56; see "Cockle." 
Crabgrass, 49. 
Cranesbill, 41. 
Creeping Ragweed, 26. 
Cocklebur, 15, 24, 41, 64. [Fig. 21]. 
Curly leaved Dock, 15, 53. 
Dandelion, 6, 7, 9, 15, 19, 20, 62. [Fig. 19]. 
Dead Nettle, 45. 

Deadly Nightshade, 59. 
Dock, 6, 7,53. 
Dodder, 38. [Fig. 9]. 

Dog-lennel, 14,27,48. 



Downy Brome-grass, 31. 

Draba, 38. 

Dragon-head, 38. 

Dwarf Lupine, 16, 46. 

Evening Primrose, 49. 

False flax, 16. 31. 

Field Draba, 38. 

Field Spurry, 60, 

Field Thistle, 36. 

Fireweed, 7, 39, 40. 

Foxtail, 14. 15, 42. [Fig. 10]. 

Giant Ragweed, 44. [Fig. 11]. 

Goesegrass, 50, 

Ground Ivy, 45. 

Groundsel, 56. 

Hedge Mustard, 15, 59. 

Henbane, 43. 

Hogweed, 26. 

Honey Clover, 48. 

Horehound, 14, 48. 

Horseradish, 49. 

Horseweed, 7, 9, 14, 16. 17, 24, 27. 40, 44. 

[Fig. 2]. 
Hound*stongue, 38. 
Hyssop, 43. 

Indian Pink, 14, 16, 35. 
Ironweed, 16, 19, 24. 28, 39. 
Jerumsalem Oak, 14, 32. 
Kale, 14, 30. 
Knotgrass, 6. 14. 50, 
Lamb's-quarter. 32. 33. [Fig. 5]. 
Liquorice. 41. 

Little Lupine, 16; see 'Dwarf Lupine". 
Lupine, 16, 19, 46. 
Mallow. 47^ 

Maple-leaved Goosetoot, 14, 33. 
Mayweed. 27. 
Milfoil, 15. 25. 

Milkweed, 6, 7. 16, 17, 19, 24, 44. 
Morning-glory, 37, 
Motherwort, 45. 
Moth-mullein, 66. 



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70 



THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Mountain Thistle, 36. 

JSlouse-ear Chick weed, 20, 32, 

Mullein. 15, 64. 

Mustard, 30; see "Black Mustard". 

^Native Plantain, 4^. 

Nettle, 63. [Fig. 20]. 

Vightshade, 59. 

Oak-leaved Goosefoot, 33. 

Orache, 7, 28. 

Ox-eyed Daisy, 33. 

Oyster plant, 63. 

Parsnip, 49. 

Pennycress, 7, 63. 

Pepper-grass, 45. 

Pigweed, 7. 14. 16, 26. 

Pigweed Purseley, 6, 14, 15, 26. 

Pin clover, 65. 

Plantain, 6, 9, 14, 15, 19, 20, 50. 

Poverty-weed, 14, 16. 19, 24, 33, 43, 48. 

Prairie Beans, 46. 

Prickley Lettuce, 45. [Fig. 12]. 

Piarseley, 24, 26, 51. 

Radish, 5, 30. 

Ragweed. 7, 9, 14, 16, 24, 26, 40. 

Rayless Dogfennel, 14, 48. 

Red Pigweed, 14, 33. 

Ribgrass, 50. 

Rosin- weed, 15, 20, 41. 

Running Mallow, 46. 

Russian Thistle, 7, 8, 15, 20, 22, 23. 53 

54, 55. [Fig. 15]. 
Salsify, 15, 63. 
Sandwort, 14. 
Scotch Bull Thistle, 8, 14, 20, 22, 23, 36, 

37.[Fig. 8J. 
Sheep Sorrel, 6, 15. 17, 19, 20, 51, 52. 

[Fig. 14] 
Shepherd's-purse, 14, 16, 32. 
Skfleton -weed, 46. 47. [Fig. 13]. 
Slougl)-gras8, 42. (Fig. 10]. 
Small Tarweed, 46. 
bmartweed, 51. 
Snow on the Mountain, 40. 
Sow Thistl?, 7, 9, 16, 60. 
Spurge, 17: see "Carpet weed". 



Squirrel-tail Grass, 42. [Fij:. 10]. 

Stink weed, 35, 60. 

Stinging Nettle. 15, 63. [Fig. 20]. 

Strawberry Blite, 33. 

Sunflower, 6, 7, 9, 14, 16, 17 18, 20, 41, 42. 

Sweet Clover, 7, 48. 

Tall Ragweed, 27. [Fig. 2]. 

Tall Tarweed, 66. 

Tansy Mustard, 15, 58. 

Tarweed, 14, 46, 66. 

Thistle, 6, 7, 8, 15, 16, 19, 36. 

Thorny Cucklebur, 65. 

Tlckseed, 14, 39. 

Trailing Vervain, 64. 

Tumble-grass, 7, 14, 49. 

Tumble weed, 6, 7, 14, 15, 25. [Fig. 1]. 

Tumbling Mustard, 7, 18, 20, 58, 59. 

[i^ig. IT]. 
Turnip. 5, 30. 
Vetch, 66. 
Vervain, 6, 15, 64. 
White Melllot, 48. 
White Sage, 16,28. 
Wild Arnica, 41. 

Wild Asparagus, 16, 19, 46, 47. [Fig. 13]. 
Wild Buckwheat, 16, 17, 51. 
Wild Hollyhock, 48. 
Wild Lettuce, 14, 44. 
Wild Liquorice, 6, 16, 19, 41. 
Wild Morning-glory, 6, 19, 37. 
Wild Mustard. 6, 7, 9, 14, 16, 18, 20, 30, 

31. [Fig. 4). 
Wild Oat, 6, 9, 16, 17, 18, 20, 28, 29. [Fig. 

3]. 
Wild Potato, 15, 16. [Fig. 18]. 
Wild Tansy, 25. 

Wild Tomato, 6, 60, 61. [Fig. 18]. 
Wild Turnip, 5, 30. 
Willow-leaved Dock, 15, 53. 
Woolly Plantain, 15. 
Wormwood, 14, 16, 28. 
Yardgrass, 50. 

Yellow Evening Primrose, 49. 
Yellow Melllot, 48. 
I'ellow Thistle, 60. 



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BULLETIN No. 31. 

MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 

EXPERIMENT STATION 

"OF THE" 
MONTANA COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE. 



REPORT OR 

GRAZING AND FEEDING TESTS. 

BEEF CATTLE AND LAMBS. 



I Grazing alsike clover under irrigation. 

IT Feeding steers for shipment. 

Ill Feeding lambs for shipment and for local markets. 

1. Utilizing waste products of the farm. 

2. Rations of clover and grain, clover and screenings and 
clover only. 

ii. Ration of clover vs. grain hay. 

4. Rations similar, with and without constant acct^ss to water. 



BOZEMAN, MONTANA, JUNE 1901. 



Qallatin County Repabllcan, 

Bozeman, Montana. 

1901. 



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NARVAtD CmiBE LIBRARY 

FROM THC lltRARY OF 

ARiHUR B. SEYMOUR 

APRIL 2, 1933 



MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 
BXPBRIMEINT STATION, 

BOZEMAN, MONTANA. 



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

Joseph K. Toole, Governor, ) 

J AMES Donovan, Attorney-General, { Ex Officio Helena 

W. W. Welch, Supt. of Public Instruction, ) 

J. M. Hamilton ; Missoula. 

J. P. Hendricks Butte. 

N. W. McConnell Helena. 

O. P. GoDDARD Billing. 

O. P. Chisholm Bozeman. 

J. G. McCay Hamilton 

(i. T. Paul Dillon. 

N. B. HoLTER Helena. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD. 



Walter S. H artman. President Bozeman . 

John M. Robinson, Vice-President Bozeman . 

Pfter Koch, Secretary Bozeman . 

Jo8E.*H KouNTz Bozeman. 

E. B. Lamme Bozeman . 



STATION STAFF. 



Samuel Fortier, Ma. E Director and Irrigation Engineer. 

R W. Traphaoen, Ph. D., P. C. S Chemist. 

Kort. S. Shaw. B. S. A Agriculturist. 

J. W. Blankinship, Ph. D Botanist . 

R. A. CooLEY, B. Sc Entomologist. 



Postofflce, Express and Freight Station, Bozeman. 



All communications for the Experiment Station should be addressed to the 
Director, 

Montana Experiment Station, 

Bozeman, Montana. 



NOTICE.- The Bulletins of the Station will be mailed free to any citizen of 
Montana who sends his name and address to the Station for that purpose. 



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Montana Experiment Station. 



BULLETIN No. 31. JUNE, 1901. 



GRAZING AND FEEDING TESTS. 

R. S. SHAW. 



INTRODUCTION. 



This bulletin has been prepared especially for the farmers and 
stockmen of Montana. It contains a simple statement of the results 
obtained from pasturing cattle on clover, and from the feeding of steers 
and lambs. In nearly every arable portion of the state the feeding of 
stock for market is a new industry. Many enquiries come to us asking 
for information relative to the work. Hence, as the work is new, we 
have commenced at the beginning and tried to secure the most import- 
ant and practical data first. The more theoretical and scientific lines 
relating to this work we hope to take up later. 



PART I. 

Pasture Experiments. 

In the month of June, 1900, an experiment was started to deter- 
mine the productive capacity of our irrigated clover lands, under a graz- 
ing system. In other words to find how many animals a given area 
could support during the growing season, the number of pounds 
increase in the live weight and the value of this increase. 

Land Chosen. 

This consisted practically of five acres, 5.04 by measure, fenced 
off from an alsike field, which had been seeded down during the sum- 
of 1897. The soil consisted of a deep, rich humus, somewhat loamy, 
with a gravelly subsoil. This lot was divided into two parts about 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



tHiual in size. The two lots were irrigated alternately every two weeks 
from June 18 to August 18, and pastured in the same way. As the 
season was late, the animals were withheld until June 9, 1900, in order 
to give the clover a good start. It would have been better, however, to 
have turneil them on a week earlier, as there was some loss owing to a 
rank growth of stems, which rendered the food less edible. 

Animals Used. 

These consisted of 12 high grade Shorthorn and Hereford yearling 
steers, and later seven grade Jersey heifers, one and two years old. 
The steers were thin at the time when put on the pasture. They had 
come from the range in April and had been kept on slough, grass 
pasture up the time of going on clover. The steers were turned -on the 
cbver June 9, and the heifers June 18. The animals remained on this 
lot continuously to the first of October, with the exception of a few 
days early in August during which the pastures were too wet. Through- 
out this short interval they were maintained on a timothy pasture 
which had been closely grazed and would not provide more than enough 
for maintenance. Water was supplied by means of an open ditch run- 
ning across the bottom of the pasture. 

Gains Made by Steers on Alsike Pasture. 

Weight April 14. 1900, when shrunk, 12 steers, 5820 lias., average 485 lbs. 

June 9, " when put on aLsike, 12 steers, 6540 lbs., average. . . 545 " 

Oct. 1, '* when removed from alsike, 11 steers, 8613 lbs, av'ge 783 " 
One steer died from bloat on August 24, then weighing 721 lbs. 

(Jain made by steer which died, June 9 to August 24 176 " 

Gain made by 11 steers, from June 9 to Oct. 1st 3278 " 

Total Gain 3454 " 

Gain per day per head while on pasture 2.75 " 

Gains Made by Jersey Heifers Grazing With Steers. 

Weight June 18, 1900, 7 heifers 4575 lbs. 

" Oct. 1, " " * 5681" 

Total gain from 7 Jersey grade heifers 1106 " 

Gain per head per day while on pasture 1 .69 " 



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GRAZING STEEKS AND HEIFERS. 



Relative Gains. 
An instructive feature of this experiment is ])rouj^ht out in the 
relative gains made by the l>eef steers as compared with the Jersey 
jrrade heifers. In the case of the steers, a gain of 2.7o lbs. pcT head, 
per day, was made, in comparison with 1.75 lbs. from the heifers. It 
should be said of the steers, however, that they were very thin at the 
tiaie of going on the clover, hence, ti\ey not only grew rapitlly but 
fattened very fast as well. Some of the hfufers were a year older and 
comparatively in better flesh. The results, however, tend to indicate* 
the f^eater meat producing powers of the steers, and that* for this 
special purpose beef blood is essential. 

Capabilities of Alsike for Pasture Under Irrigation. 

One question more freely asked than any other is *'What area of 
clover is necessary to support a given number of animals throughout 
the growing season?'' It was for the purpose of answering the al>ove 
question that this test was ma le. The following is a stattnni^nt of th(» 
number of days a given numl)er of animals were kept on the 5.04 
acres : 

The 11 beef steers were on the pasture the wjuivalent of lOH days. 

The 7 Jersey heifers were on the pasture the ecpvalent of 91] days. 

Trom the time of turning on the pasture thc^se animals were only 
removed once for a few days on account of irrigation and this has been 
considered in the computation. The 5.04 acres of alsike therefore not 
only maintained the 'eighteen steers and heifers for 102 days but 
enabled them to make a very profitable gain. 

Gains, in Pounds Increase from 5.04 Acres Alsike. 

Total increase from 11 steers 3278 lbs. 

*• 1 steer which died 170 " 

" 7 heifers 3106 " 

Sum total 4560 " 

Cash Value of the Increase in Live Weight. 

4rj60 lbs. gaiD at 4c. per pound $182.40 

Cash return from each acre 36. 19 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



The Only Source of Danger. 

This arises from loss by bloating. As already stated one steer 
died from bloat on August 24, 1900. This took place on a warm, bright 
morning following two days of drizzling rain, but while the pastures 
were still wet. Each individual has his own theories as to the con- 
ditions which cause Wonting, and yet no one seems to hold good, for it 
takes place under an endless variely of conditions and is a great menace 
to the pasturing of clovers and alfalfa. It has been claimed by many 
that alsike is less liable to cause bloating than red clover or alfalfa 
and this seems to be true to some extent. 

Results Encourage Grazing by the System Outlined. 

The possibilities for securing large returns from pasturing alsike, 
red clover and alfalfa are very great. In fact the results from this, 
the initial experiment, may seem overdrawn, but such are the facts. It 
must be remembered, however, that each half of the tract pastured was 
irrigated every two weeks. As an illustration of the produ3tivene88 
of clover in the Gallatin Valley, we wish to call attention to the mar- 
velous results obtained from the red clover hay which was secured 
from a portion of the Station farm during the summer of 1900. This 
tract of red clover, including 7.26 acres, at two cuttings, yielded 36 
tons, 918 lbs., of well cured hay. It was irrigated three times, once 
before the first and twice before the second cutting. There was thus 
a return of 5.02 tons of red clover per acre from two cuttings. 

As regards the productive and grazing power of red clover and 
alfalfa, in comparison with alsike, we as yet have not secured any data. 
This question will be tested as soon as the proper conditions can be 
secured. It is our opinion, however, that alsike will stand tramping 
and close grazing much better than red clover. It is a thick, matty, 
persistent grower. On a rich soil, with an abundance of water, its 
productive power is very great. 



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FATTENING BEEF CATTLE. 



PART II. 

Fattening Beef Cattle. 

There is a growing demand for fat cattle to supply our local mar- 
kets, which is worthy of the attention of the Montana stockman and 
fanner. Hitherto, the state has produced large numbers of fat cattle 
from its ranges, but these have all reached a finished condition at one 
season of the year and, consequently, have had to be shipped at that 
time in order to prevent loss from scanty food supplies and severe 
weather. Conditions, however, are rapidly changing with the settle- 
ment of the rich valleys which are being brought under irrigation. In 
many places the large stock owner is now able to supply food for his 
breeding herds or flocks during the winter season. In other sections, 
devoted more largely to strictly agricultural work, the farmer can pro- 
duce enormous quantities of forage which cannot be disposed of to 
better advantage than in the fattening of live stock during the winter 
season. It is possible for our farmers not only to supply the local 
demand for beef and mutton throughout the year, but to prepare large 
number for shipping as well. During 1899-1900 steers were successfully 
fattened by this Station and placed on the local market as reported in 
bulletin 27. The following winter of 1900-1901 others were fattened, 
not so much for the purpose of carrying out feeding tests as for making 
a shipping trial. 

Amimals Fed. 

These consisted of the 11 steers used in the clover grazing experi- 
ment on the station farm during the summer of 1900, and also twenty 
steers secured from the range. Both lots were yearlings and mostly 
Shorthorn grades with one or two showing some Hereford blood. Those 
pastured on clover were in very much better flesh when put on feed, as 
the ranges of the autumn of 1900 were very scant. The twenty range 
steers were also at the disadvantage of having to be flehorned a few 
days before feeding began. The latter were purchased on Oct. 15, 
1900, and both lots were given the run of the Station farm until Nov. 
13, at which time they were put on feed. Their food during this time 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



consisteil of such material as could be gleaned from 112 acres of stubble. 
57 of which was clover. Representatives of these two types are shown 
in Fij^B. 1 and 2 before shipping. 

On Nov. 13, 1900, the steers were divided into three lots, weighe<l 
and put on feed. The divisions were made according to quality. Lot 
(1) uj-ed in the pnsturage experiment, showed the lalx^st infusion of 
beef blood, lot (2) a clow? second and lot (3) the least typical. 

The objects chiefly sought were, first, finished condition from the 
ns(» of clover as roughage with a minimum amount of grain, and. 
st^cond. the profits which could be secured from shipping. 

Total Food Consumed. 

Lot I., 11 steers, tlover from November 13, 1900, to March 30, 1901 .37,4oo Ib^. 

I., 11 *' barley meal from - " '' *' 7,530 " 

II., 10 " dover " • 29;}3o " 

II., 10 ' barley meal ' " 7,315 - 

III., 10 • clover " v 29,235 " 

III., 10- barley meal 7,380 ' 

Average Amount of Food Consumed per Day. 

Lot I Clover hay consumed per head per day 24.8 lbs. 

" I Barley meal '* " " " " 5 

" II Clover hay 21.4 " 

" II Barley meal " *' " " *' 5.34 '* 

• III Clover hay 21.33" 

" III Barley meal " 5.,39 '* 

Increase in Live Weight from Food Fed. 

Lot I. 11 steers, weight Nov. 1.3, 1900, 9060 lbs., average 823. G IKs. 
•I. 11 " • Mar. 30, 1901, 12075 " * 1097.7 '• 

Total gain 3015 " ' 247.1 *' 

Average<laily gain per ^ead during 137 days, 2 lbs. 

Lot II. 10 steers, weight Nov. 13, 1900, 7985 lbs., average 798.5 lbs. 
* IL 10 " " Mar. 30, 1901, 10395 • " 1039.5 " 

Total gain 2410 " " ^LO - 

Average daily gain per head during 139 days, 1.75 lbs. 



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FATTENING BEEF CATTLE. 



Lot III. 10 steers, weight Nov. 13, 1900, 7375 lbs., average 737.5 lbs. 
" III. 10 " " Mar. 30, 1901, 9720 " " 972.0 " 

9'otal gain 2345 " " 234.5 " 

Average daily gain per head during 137 days, 1.71 lbs. 

Attention is called to the fact that the amount of food used was 
small considering the gains made. This may be attributed in a large 
measure to the quality of the food. The clover consisted of both first 
and sejond cutting hay, which had been cured in perfect condition 
under a cloudless sky. This clover retained all the blooms, which 
presented the same colorations they possessed on the day of 3utting. 

Throughout the 137 days during which the steers were fed there 
was not a single pound of waste from the roughage. Attention is also 
called to the fact that not more than one-half pound of bariey meal, 
per 100 lbs. live weight, was fed each day. This is the amount which 
we had planned to follow throughout the feeding period. We believe 
that not more than this is nscessary to give maximum results when fed 
along with roughage of the quality which can be produced in Montana 
We are also convinced that maximum gains can be secured in cattle 
feeding in this state from a minimum amount of food. This is due to 
two agencies, first, an unexcelled quality of food, and, second, climatic 
conditions which are most favorable, viz., continual sunshine, proper 
temperature and quiet atmosphere. 

Cost of Foods Used« 

Lot I. Hay fed. 37,445 lbs., at $5.00 per too $ 93.63. 

•• I. Barley meal feed, 7530 lbs., at 70c. per cwt. . . 52.71. 

Total value 146.34. 

Cost per 100 pounds increase (including maintenance) 4.85. 

Lot II. Hay fed, 29,335 lbs., at $5.00 per ton $ 73.33. 

" II. Barley meal fed, 7315 lbs., at 70c per cwt 51.20. 

Total value 124 53. 

Ck)6t per 100 pounds increase (including maintenance) 5.16. 

Lot III. Hay fed, 29,235 lbs., at $5.00 per ton $ 73.08. 

** III. Barley meal fed, 7380 lbs., at 70c. per cwt. . . 51.66. 

Total value 124.74. 

CoBt per 100 pounds increase (including maintenance) 5.31. 

In the figures above given attention is called to the fact that the 
cost of increase diminishes according to the quality of the animals fed. 



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10 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Financial Statement. 

Nov. 13, 1900, To 31 steers at $25.00 per head $775.00. 

Mar. 30, 1901, To cost of feed, Lot 1 146.34. 

II 124.53. 

Ill 124.74. 

" " " *' " shipping to Seattle 150.80. 
April 6, 1901, By 31 steers, 28880 lbs, at 5c. . .$1444.00. 

Tonetprotit 122.59. 

$1444.00 $1444.00. 
Net profit per head, $3.95. 

It will be noticed that feeding these yearling steers for 137 days, 
securing an average price for the food consumed by them and defray- 
ing all expenses, there was left a net profit on the carload of $122.59, 
or $3.95 pfer head. These steers were shipped to Seattle. Had there 
been a sufficient number of cars in the shipment to secure passage 
by stock train time, the shrinkage would not have been so great and 
the net profit relatively larger. The officials of the Northern Pacific 
railroad were extremely obliging in forwarding our car of cattle as 
expeditiously and comfortably as possible. 



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FATTENING LAMBS. 11 



PART III. 

Lamb Feeding Experiments. 

These comprised the third series which have been conducted con- 
secutively. The object sought has been to secure data relating to the 
fattening of lambs unier Montana conditions and with home grown 
foods. The work of 1898 and 1899 consisted of a test of the compara- 
tive values of alfalfa, red clover antl alsike hays, in which results were 
obtained showing that there was comparatively little difference among 
tbem. In 1899-'(X) tests were made as to the gains and cost of pro- 
duction with the following rations, viz: (1) clover alone, (2) clover and 
unmarketable wheat, (3) clover and oats, with the following results: 

From ration (1) a gain of 8.1 lbs per head, per month, at a cost of 
$3.54 per 100 lbs. increase*, from ration (2) 10 lbs. per head per month, 
at a cost of $3.22 per 100 lbs. gain; and from lot (3) 10.5 lbs. per head, 
per month, at a cost of $4.49 per 100 lbs. gain. 

During the feeding season of 1900 and 1901, the following tests 
were made: A comparison of the results from the following: first, 
the feeding of clover and marketable grain, viz: Oats and bariey. 
second, the feeding of clover and screenings, and third, the feeding of 
clover alone. A test was also made between clover and grain hay. The 
difference in results was also ascertained between two lots fed on the 
same ration but one with constant access to water and the other with 
water but once each day. A sixth lot was also fed, but not under ex- 
periment, the object being to produce a superior quality of lamb for 
the home markets. 



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12 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Animals Used. 

These consisted of grade Merinos, showing some Leicester and 
Cotswold blood; they had been reared on the range and were thin at 
the time of purchase, Oct. 15, owing to the scarcity of food on the 
ranges during the autumn of 1900. In all 225 lambs were purchased, 
not picked, but cut out from a flock of several hundred. At the time 
of purchase these lambs averaged 50.86 lbs. The purchase price being 
$2 per head, the cost per cwt. amounted to $3.95. After having been 
weighed these lambs were given the run of the farm for thirty days. 
When the crop had been secured, 112 acres of the Station farm became 
available for pasturage. This area consisted of stubble from the fol- 
lowing crops, viz: 14 acres of oats, 7 acres of wheat, 10 acres of barley, 
12 acres of peas, 4 acres of plat grain, 4 acres grain hay and 4 acres of 
root and potato ground. The balance comprised 57 acres of clover 
stubble, five of which had been pastured closely throughout the season 
and two cuttings removed from the balance. The barley and wheat 
stubble grounds both possessed gCKxl stands of clover. On Oct. 15, 
1900, 230 lambs went on the fields, weighing 11699 lbs., averaging 50.86 
lbs. On Nov. 15, these were removed to the feed lots after having 
weighed 13948 lbs., averaging 60.64 lbs. The increase was therefore 
9.78 lbs. per head for the month. This increase, which is large, was 
no doubt due to the great variety of food secured and the great abun- 
dance of the same. The benefit thus derived is a double one, arising, 
first, from the conversion of waste products into meat, and, second, to 
the thorough cleaning which the farm received. 

Test No. 1. 

This was made up of three lots of lambs of 53 each, with like yard 
and shed accomodation and constant access to an abundance of pure 
water which ran through the yards. Lot I was fed on clover and a 
grain ration of oats and barley, consisting of No. 1 marketable grain. 
Lot II received clover and screenings and Lot III clover only. 

Food Consumed and Cost. 

Lot I. Nov. 16, 1900, to Fed. 13, 1901, clover hay 13872 lbs at $5 per ton ....$ 34.68 
♦'I. grain 2686 lbs at 85c. per cwt 22.83 

Total 57.51 



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Fig. 5. Back View of Fig. 3 

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s 

H 
Z 





< 







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FATTENING LAMBS. 13 



liot II. Nov. 16, 1900, to Feb. 13, 1901, clover hay, 14055 lbs. at $5 per ton. .$ 35.13 
" 11. * " Screenings 2659 lbs. at 55c per cwt.... 14.62 

Total r 49 . 75 

liOt III. .Nov. 16, 1900, to Feb. 13, 1901, clover hay, 35875 lbs at 85 per ton . . 39.68 

Total . . . : 39.68 

It will be noticed in Lot I, where clover and marketable grain 
were fed, that the cost of feeding is raised high above the other two 
because of the costliness of the grain and that as hereafter pointed out 
the increase wjus not enough to counterbalance the extra expense. Also 
that while the food of Lot III cost the least, the increase was not 
sufficient to render it the cheapest producer in the end. 

Gains Made. 

Ix>t I. 53 lambs, weight Nov. 16, 1900 3215 lbs., average 60f66 lbs. 

Ix>tl. " *' " Fob. 13, 1901. 4538 " " 85.62 - 

Total gain 1323 " " 24.96 " 

Ix)t II. 53 lambs, weight Nov. 16, 1900 3260 lbs., average 61.5 lbs. 

Ix>tn. Feb. 13, 1901...... 4748 " " 89.58 " 

Total gain 1488 " " 28.08 " 

Ix)t III. 53 lambs, weight Nov. 16 1900 3245 " " 61.22 •* 

Lot III. " " " Feb. 13, 1901 4366 " * 82.37 " 

Total gain 1121 " " 21.15 " 

Relative Amounts of Food Consumed. 

Lot I. Clover consumed per head per day 2.9 lbs. 

" I. Grain .56 " 

" II. Clover " " " " 2.94 " 
" II. Screenings " " '* *' 55 " 
" III. Clover 3.32 V 

Relative Cost of Production. 

Lot I. Cost per 100 pounds increase including maintenance 84.34 
t* jj^ " .» " " »* " " 3.34 

** III. " *• " " " " " ^-^ 



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U MONTA.NA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

We conclade, therefore, that the most satisfactory results were 
secure I from the ration of clover and screenings. More profitable 
because the increase was greater and the cost of production 
less. That the per capita gains should be greater from the lot fed 
screenings than those receiving first class grains may seem strange, but 
such are the results of this test. While Lot I ivceived a few pounds 
less hay than Lot II this was about offset by thejr having received a 
little more grain. From practically the same number of pounds of food 
fed, Lot II receiving screenings, made a greater gain by 165 pounds 
than Lot I, receiving grain. While this is contrary to the general 
expectation, it no doubt depends largely upon the character of the 
screenings and the variety which it affords. In thi^ case they were 
seconrl screenings, containing an endless variety of grain and weed seeds 
and practically no light ot chaffy material. In addition to the larger 
gain, the screening fed lambs cost $1.00 less per hundred pounds in- 
crease. JVhile the gains and cost of production from the clover fed 
lot were moderate, still they were not so satisfactory as those from Lot 
II, for the reason that the lambs were not in as good condition for 
market nor for withstanding the hardships of shipping. 

We conclude, therefore, that it is best to use some grain along 
with alfalfa or clover in preparing lambs for shipping, that a largei 
amount is not necessary because of the quality of our coarse foods. 
Not more than one-half pound of grain per day throughout a feeding 
period of ninety days, or the equivalent of this if fed only throughout 
the latter portion of the period. This will of course only apply in those 
cases where Montana grown legumes are used as roughage. Where 
first-class marketable grains are used it makes the ration too expensive. 
Good results can be secured from screenings or from cheap or unsal- 
able grains. 

TEST NO. 2. 
Clover and Grain Hay Compared. 
In many sections of Montana grain hay is grown to a large extent. 
It is most commonly grown at altitudes too high for the maturing of 
the grain or on foul tracts of land where weeds are being combatted. 
It has been used most extensively as a food for horses or for wintering 
over cows and calves. Enquiries have come regarding its use as a 



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FATTENING LAMBS. 15 

fattening food, which lead us to secure data relative to its value for 
fattening lambs. 

For this purpose, 7.38 tons were grown upon an area of 3.7 acres. 
Thus, while the yield is large, it does not give more than half the fod- 
der secured from the same area of clover. The grains mixed for sowing 
were spring wheat, barley, oats and peas in equal amounts. This mix- 
ture was drilled in, irrigated twice during the summer* and cut and 
cured as for hay when in the milk stage. Because of the bright, rich 
appearance of this fodder, intermixed with a good strong growth of 
peas and containing much immature grain, we expected excellent 
results from it. 

Two lots of lambs of 53 each were used, one receiving clover and 
the other grain hay. One of these lots was the same as that used in 
the preceding test. The test was not conducted longer than 60 days 
because of the supply of grain hay giving out, some of which had been 
used for other purposes. These two lots were put on feed on Nov. 16, 
1900, all other conditions except those of food being practically the 
same. 

Food Consumed. 

By 53 lambs receiving clover only, — 
From Nov. 16, 1900, to Jan. 14, 1901, 10780 lbs. clover at $5 per ton . . . .$26.95. 

By 53 lambs receiving grain hay only, — 
Prom Nov. 16, 1900, to Jan. 14, 1901, 10420 lbs. grain hay at 15 per ton $26.05. 

Increase in Weight. 

Nov. 16, 1900, weight clover fed lambs, 3245 lbs., average. . . 61.22 lbs. 
Jan. 14, 1901, " " *' '' 3987 " " ... 75.22 '' 

Total gain 742 " " 14.00 " 

Nov. 16. 1900, weight hay fed lambs, 3210 lbs., average... 60.56 lbs. 
Jan. 14, 1901, " ' 3776 " " ... 71.24 - 

Totalgain 566 " " ... 10.68 " 

Therefore, during the 60 days trial* the clover fed lambs made a 
gain of 14 lbs. per head, while those receiving grain hay gained only 
10.68 lbs. each. Throughout this period of 60 days the clover lot pro- 



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16 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

duced 100 lbs. gain at the rate of $8.63, as compared with $4.60 from 
the grain hay. It should be noted, however, that a small amount more 
clover was consumed than grain hay, but not sufficient to materially 
affect the data. 

While these figures represent in a practical way the comparative 
feeding values of clover and grain hay for fattening lambs, still, they 
may not reprtsent accurately their relative food values for other classes 
of stock or from a standpoint of composition. While horses and cattle 
consume these readily there was much waste from the lambs, consist- 
ing of grain stems and vines of peas. The results from the use of the 
grain hay fell far below our expectations. 

TEST NO. III. 

Effect of Water Supply on Fattening Lambs. 

The impression prevails to some extent, fortunately not, however, 
among experienced she ep men, that a sheep can thrive and even fatten 
with the use of much less water than is really necessary. We, there- 
fore, made it a part of our work to secure data relating to the results 
obtained from lambs on similar rations where in one case they had 
constant a3cess to water, while in the other they were turned to water 
but once a day. In this case we were unable to handle a full pen of 
53 lambs in each lot. Seventeen lambs of like quality, but a trifle, 
lighter were chosen and fed on the same food and in the same manner 
as Lot II, heretorore described as receiving clover hay and screenings. 
The seventeen lambs were given access to water but once a day while 
those of Lot II had constant access to water which ran through their 
yards. 

Food Consumed by 17 Lambs. 

From Nov. 16. 1900, to Feb. 13, 1901, clover 4722 lbs, at $5 per ton Ill .80 

" " •* " " ** " screenings 884 lbs., at 55c. per cwt 4.64 

Total $16.44 

Gains Made by 17 Lambs. 

Nov. 16, 1900, weight 961 lbs., average 56.53 lbs. 
Feb. 13, 1901, " 1326 " *' 78.00 *' 

Total gain 365 " " 21.47 - 

\ 



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FATTENING LAMBS. 17 



Average amount of Food fed per day to Lambs Watered Once 

a day. 

Clover consumed per head per day 3.08 lbs. 

Screenings " " '* " " 55 " 

Average Amount of Food fed per Day to Lambs with Water. 

Clover consumed per head per day 2.94 lbs. 

Screenings " " * " " 55 " 

Comparative Gains. 

Lambs with constant acceas to water gained — 9.36 lbs. per month. 
" watered but once a day, ** 7 . 15 '• *' " 

Comparative Cost of Increase. 

Lambs with constant access to water $3.34 per 100 lbs. gain. 

watered but once a day $4.51 " 

It will thus be seen that a constant supply of pure water in the 
feeding pens materially affects both the increase in live weight and 
financial returns. From these two lots, fed the same food under pre- 
cisely the same conditions except as to watering, those having con- 
stant access to the water made a larger gain per head per month by 
2.21 lbs. and also produced 100 pounds gain at the rate of $1.17 less. 
This data emphasizes strongly the necessity for a constant supply of 
pure water for fattening lambs. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

In all 225 range lambs were purchased and put on feed to which 4 
others were added. Of. these 516 only will be considered in our finan- 
cial statemeut as they comprised the carload which reached Chicago. 
The remainder were used for slaughter and placed on the local market. 



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18 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Food consnmetl by 229 lambs from Nov. 16, 1900, to Mar. 15, 1901: 

Clover, 65919 lbs. at $5 per ton $164.79: 

Grain hay, 10420 lbs. at $5 per ton 26.0). 

No. 1 grain. 3446 lbs. at 85c. per cwt 29.29. 

Screenings, 4515 lbs. at 55c. per cwt 24.83. 

Total cost of food for 229 lambs $244.96. 

Cost of food per lamb 1 .06. 

Cost of food for 2J6 lambs shipped 230.90. 

Nov. 15, 1900, to 216 lambs at 12 per head $ 432.00 

Mar. 15, 1901, to cost of food 120 days 230.90 

Mar. 15, 1901, to freight, feed, yardafre, commis.sion, etc 181.39 

Mar. 27, 1901, by 216 lambs sold in Chicago $908 . 29 

Mar. 27, 1901, by net profit 64.00 

$906.29 906.29 
Net profit per head .30. 

After the ninety day feeding test had closed the lambs were held 
for a number of days, as shown by the data. This was done in onler 
to join other shipments and to take advantage of the rise in price. 
During this interval the gains were very unsatisfactory due to the 
annoyance and injury of many of the lambs by dogs from the city, the 
f( ceding yards being but a few hundred yards from the city limits. 
During the first visitation no less than forty lambs were bitten, a few 
dying afterwards. Though precautions were taken to prevent dogs 
from gaining access to the yards their presence in the vicinity at night 
kept the lambs constantly in a state of nervous excitement which i*eu- 
dered the feeding very unsatisfactory. 

Shrinkage. 

Before shipping' the lambs were taken from the feed yards and 
weighed, averaging 88 pounds per head. At the time of sale in Chicago 
the average weight was 80 pounds. The lambs were six days on the 
road between Bozeman and Chicago, there being but two cars of sheep 
in the train. We believe that this shrinkage is much larger than 
would take place when running on regular stock train time and with 
l)etter conditions for feeding. 

Unfortunately a heavy fall of snow preceded the shipment which, 
having melted, made it difficult to feed along all lines owing to water 
and mud. 



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Fig. 4. Carcass of Lamb Grown on Range and Fattened on Clover. 
II Months Old; Weight 54 Lbs. 



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Fig 3. Carcass of Lamb ii Months Old, Grown on Clover 
Ranch. Weight, 74 Lbs. 



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FATTENING LAMBS. 19 



Market Prices Received. 
The price received for the majority of these lambs in Chicago was 
80.8O per cwt., within ten cents of the top market price on the day of 
sale; some of the thinner ones sold at $5.20. Because of i\w fact that 
this ear lackeil uniformity, consistinj^ of lambs from five ikmis, each 
fed differently and some without any ^ain. we were well pU»ase<l with 
the sale. The lambs were sold by Messrs. Clay, Robinson & Co., of 
the Union Stock Yards, Chicago. These gentlemen were exct^edingly 
diligent in keeping us posted as to the market conditions and the l)est 
time to forward the lambs. By acting on their advice wi* were enabled 
to secure the advantage of advanced prices after a depression extend- 
ing over some two months, as shown by the market reports. 

Fattening Lambs for the Local Market. 

In order to seek further information regarding the demands of our 
local markets 59 high grade Shropshire lambs were purchastnl from 
Mr. Roy Martin, of Bozeman, on Nov. 1st, 1900, and fed during a 
l)erio(] of 135 days. At the time of purchase these land)s averagtnl 
78.5 ll>8. and the purchase price being $3.00 i>er head, cost $3.82 pt»r 
cwt. The cost of feed for these lambs during 135 days was $1.56 p(*r 
bead. These lambs were placed on the Bozeman market at a weight 
of 119.5 ll>s. each. The price received for them was $5.25 pt^r head or 
$4.40 per cwt. After charging up the feed at prices aln»ady given a 
net profit of 69 cents per head was realized. This profit would pro- 
bably have been still larger had the lambs been dispos^nl of earlier in 
the season, as they were fed Ix^yond a condition of pi^rfect finish. 
Figs. 3 and 5 show both front and rear cuts of a carcass from this lot 
which dressecl 74 lbs. Fig. 6 shows the band of grade Shropshires 
which were fed and sold on the local markets. 



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20 MONTAJJA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Conclusion. 

The data relating to stock feeding furnished in this bulletin is 
given to the farmers and stockmen of Montana with the hojje that it 
may at least provide some useful information relating to the feeding of 
stock for shipment. We wish to call particular attention to the fact 
that these statements may be regarded as very safe, for two reasoittk 
first, where larger numbers are being purchased they can be secured 
more cheaply. While we paid $2 per head for 225 lambs a band <rf 
1300 near by was purchased for $1.75 each; second, the market at the 
time our lambs were sold, though better than for some weeks, was 
much lower than the average the same season during a number of 
years past. 

According to reports the western feeder came out about even dur- 
ing the past season, the live stock reports show this to have been the 
case. In the face of this fact, then, is it not encouraging to know that 
the shipment from this station netted a fair profit. 

We cannot ui^e too strongly the practicability of sheep feeding in 
particular in our Montana valleys. Use alfalfa, red clover, or alsike 
with a small amount of grain. The secret of success in the future iriD 
be found in finishing a product better than the average which reaches 
the market. Those are the kind which feed and sell profitably. 



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EIGHTH 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



AGRICULTURAL 



EXPERIMENT STATION 



OF THE 



AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



OF 



MONTANA 

FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30. 1901 

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BULLETIN NO. 32. 



EIGHTH 

ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



AGRICULTURAL 

EXPERIMENT STATION 



OF THE 



AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



OF 



MONTANA 



FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1901 



BOZEMAN CHRONICLE PRINT 
1902 



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HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

FROM THE UBRARY Or 

ARTHUR 6. SEYMOUR 

APRIL 2, 1933 



CONTENTS- 



RANSMITTAL. 
ICERS. 

*HE Treasurer. 

HE Director. 

URE IN Montana. 

IK OF THE Station. 

N Station Policy. 

Staff. 

Council. 

^ THE Station. 

^lONS. 

' Institutes. 

:)NDENCE. 
ES. 

lL Department. 

< Treatment for Grain Smut. 

RODucTs OF Western Farms. 

;g Lambs on Clover in Gallatin Valley. 

epartment. 

)epartment. 

:al Department. 

KAL Department. 

)epartment. 



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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



BozEMAN, Montana, January 29, 1902. 
To His Excellency, Joseph K^..Xoole, 

Governor of xVIontana. 

Dear Sir:— In accordance with the Congressional act of March 
2, 1887, I have the honor to transmit herewith the eighth annual 
report of the Montana Experiment Station for the fiscal year end- 
ing June 30, 1901. 

Very respectfully, 

S. FORTIER, 

Director. 



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1 



MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 

EXPERIMENT STATION 

BOZEMAN, MONTANA. 



StATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

Joseph K. Toole, Governor, 1 

James Donovan, Attorney-General, > Ex-Officio Helena 

W. W. Welch, Supt. of Public Instruction, J 

J. M. Hamilton Missoula 

J. P. Hendricks , Butte 

N. W. McCoNNELL Helena 

O. F. GoDDARD BilHngs 

O. P. Chisholm Bozeman 

J. G. McCay Hamilton 

G. T. Paul Dillon 

N. B. HoLTER Helena 



EXBCirriVE BOARD. 

Walter S. Hartman, President Bozeman 

John M. Robinson, Vice-President Bozeman 

Peter Koch, Secretary Bozeman 

Joseph Kountz Bozeman 

E. B. Lamme Bozeman 



STATION STAFF. 

S. FoRTiER, Ma. E Director and Irrigation Engineer 

F. W. Traphagen, Ph. D., F. C. S Chemist 

RoBT. S. Shaw, B. S. A Agriculturist 

J. W. Blankinship, Ph. D Botanist 

R. A. CooLEY, B. Sc Entomologist 



Post Office, Express and Freight Station, Bozeman. 

All communications for the Experiment Station should be 
addressed to the Director, 

Montana Experiment Station, 
Bozeman, Mont. 

NOTICE— The bulletins of the Station will be mailed iiree to 
any citizen of Montana who sends his name and address to the 
Station for that purpose. 



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REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 



The Experiment Station of the Agricultural College of the State ol 
Montana in account with the United States appropriation^ 
1900-01. 

Dr. 

To receipts from the Treasurer of the United States as 
per appropriation for fiscal year ending June 30, 
1901, as per Act of Congress approved March 2, 
1887 $15,000.00 

Cr. 

By Salaries 8,129.38 

Labor 3,000.00 

Publications 1,518.31 

Postage and stationery 171.62 

Freight and express 286.37 

Heat, light, water and power 266.45* 

Chemical supplies 89.82 

Seeds, plants and sundry supplies 477.05 

Fertilizers 9.50 

Feeding stuffs 73,47 

Library 116.25 

Tools, implements and machinery 422.10 

Furniture and fixtures 162.50 

Scientific apparatus 277.18 

Total $15,000.00 

We, the undersigned, duly appointed Auditors of the Corpora- 
-tion, do hereby certify that we have examined the books and 
accounts of the Experiment Station of the Agricultural College of 
the State of Montana for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1901 ; 
that we have found the same well kept and classified as above, and 
that the receipts for the year from the Treasurer of the United 
States are shown to have been $15,000.00, and the corresponding 
disbursements $15,000.00; for all of which proper vouchers are 
on file and have been by us examined and found correct, thus 
leaving no balance. 

And we further certify that the expenditures have been solely 
for the purposes set forth in the Act of Congress approved March 
2, 1887. Signed : 

Attest: John M. Robinson, 

Peter Koch, Peter Koch, 

Custodian. Auditors- 



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REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR. 



The past year has been one of the most successful in the 
history of the Experiment Station. The various lines of work 
that were begun in the past have not only been maintained and 
their scope and usefulness extended, but new investigations have 
been undertaken. Each member of the Station Staff has striven 
to promote the particular industry which he represents, but at the 
same time there has been a disposition on the part of all to w^ork 
harmoniously together for the two-fold purpose of benefitting the 
Montana farmer and building up a great exjjeriment station. The 
prevailing sentiment among the Station workers is one of con- 
fidence in the present, and iaith in the future. It is felt that this 
Experiment Station will soon occupy its rightful place at the head 
of the Agricultural College and lead the State in all those varied 
and important industries which are usually grouped under the 
term of agriculture. 



AGRICULTURE IN MONTANA. 



It is a great privilege to assist in laying the foundation of 
what is destined to become the chief source of wealth to many 
millions of human beings. This State has been one of the last to 
develop its agricultural resources, but having now made a good 
start in this direction we believe that few states in the Union will 
be able to keep pace with it. There are good reasons for such 
belief. The State is well watered. Under arid conditions the 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 



water suppl}' is of first importance. Such streams as the Yellow- 
stone, Madison, Jefferson and Missoula, the combined summer 
flow of which would irrigate one and a half million acres, are for 
the most part unutilized. The native grasses cannot be excelled. 
When these fail it needs but the thrifty farmer and the irrigation 
stream to convert the native meadows into productive alfalfa 
fields. With extensive pasture lands on the mountain slope and 
alfalfa stacks dotting the valleys, the stockmen should lead every 
state in the Union. Montana is also admirably adapted to 
diversified farming. The large yields of vegetables and fruits, 
grains and fodders that have been harvested for the past few years 
on the Station farm prove this fact. It will also become in time 
we believe, one of the leading dairy states. Wisconsin has made 
w^onderful progress in the creamery industry'. Last year the value 
of this product amounted to 22 million dollars. Yet, judged 
impartially, Montana is capable of surpassing Wisconsin in the 
production of butter and cheese. 



THE WORK OF THE STATION. 



Having faith in the agricultural possibilities of Montana the 
Station officers are endeavoring to so plan and perform their 
-work as to accomplish the most lasting benefits to the people of 
this State. A skilled mechanic must have tools and appliances 
before he can perform his allotted task. In like manner the 
Station scientist needs equipment. Several years have been spent 
in securing apparatus, fitting up laboratories, making collections 
and training assistants. This preliminary work is not yet com- 
pleted, but enough has been done to enable the several depart- 
ments to do good work along certain lines. 

The chemical department is one of the best equipped and the 
excellent results which it has accomplished have fully justified the 
expenditure. Most of the knowledge that we now possess ol the 
injurious ingredients in Montana soils, the analysis of potable 
waters, the adulteration of foods and the excellent quality of the 
Montana sugar beet has been derived from the Station chemist. 



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8 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Through the untiring efforts of the agriculturist the Station 
farm has been transformed from a weed producing tract to a 
model farm, and his feeding experiments with idomestic animals 
have attracted the attention of all Western stockmen. 

The head of the botanical department has spent years of 
arduous toil in collecting specimens for its herbarium. He has 
now over 10,000 specimens of neatly mounted plants, forming 
one of the best collections in the West. During the past year 
considerable time has been given to injurious weeds and plants 
poisonous to stock. 

The department of entomology was only recently established 
and in consequence much was required to be done in fitting up a 
laboratory, indexing the literature pertaining to the subject and 
making a collection of the insects injurious to the farmer and 
horticulturist. 

The horticultural department is continuing to advance the 
interests of that important industry. Varieties of all kinds are 
being tested and those that prove the best are distributed in small 
lots at low figures among the home-builders of the State. 

The poultry buildings and yards are now fairly well equipped 
and although a comparatively small amount of money has been 
expended on this industry, the character of the results has been 
excellent. 

Through the liberality of the last State legislature an appro- 
priation of $2,500 was made to erect and equip a dairy. It is 
earnestly believed that the State will receive in the years to come 
one hundred fold from this investment. 

In recognition of the fact that the Experiment Station is the 
only irrigation bureau in Montana the last legislative assembly 
voted the sum of $2,000 to be expended in collecting data on 
irrigation. If one may judge from the nature of the correspond- 
ence which reaches this office, the irrigation investigations con- 
ducted by the Station have been highly valued by the irrigators of 
Montana. 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 9 



CHANGE IN STATION POLICY. 



The most important change in the policy of the Station has 
been made in the interests of the stockmen of the State. The 
feeding experiments with both sheep and cattle were carried on 
last winter in car load lots and sold in the principal markets. By 
this means a larger number of individuals were included in each: 
test, the shrinkage in shipping as well as the actual expenses^, 
selling prices and profits were determined. 

The live stock owned by the Station has also been greatly 
improved. The scrub swine have been sold and replaced by 
thoroughbreds, the poorest cows have been exchanged for high 
grades and a sum of money set aside from both the College and 
Station funds for the purchase of thoroughbred Shorthorns and 
Herefords, as well as Rambouillet, Lincoln and Shropshire sheep. 

The field of investigations has also been broadened. For a 
number of years nearly all the experiments were conducted either 
on the Station farm or in the immediate neighborhood. Farmers 
in other parts of the State formed the opinion that the Montana 
Experiment Station was established for the sole benefit of Gallatin 
county and not for the entire State. At the present writing there 
are over sixty farmers in different sections of Montana co-operat- 
ing with this Station in the raising of grains, vegetables, legumes 
and grasses. The work of the chemist, agriculturist, botanist, 
entomologist and irrigation engineer have also been extended and 
include, as far as means and opportunity will permit, the entire 
State. 

Greater freedom of action has been accorded the Station 
officers in performing the work alloted to each but with this 
privilege has been given greater responsibility. The harmony and 
good feeling that have prevailed as well as the excellent character 
of the work performed seem to have shown the wisdom of this 
change. 



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10 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



STATION STAFF. 



With one exception there have been no important changes in 
the personnel of the Station staff during the year. Mr. S. M. 
Emery, who occupied the position of director and horticulturist 
for a number of years, resigned June 30, 1900, and the writer was 
appointed to succeed him. My term of office, as director, began, 
therefore, with the fiscal year just closed. In addition to my 
duties as director I was also placed in charge of the civil eng^neef- 
ing course of the College and the irrigation department of the 
Station.. Under such circumstances it was deemed advisable to 
group.;the work of the Station into several departments and place 
a competent Station officer at the head of each. In this way the 
head of each department could be held directly responsible not 
only for the character of the investigations conducted under his 
supervision, but also for the extent and quality of the contribu- 
tions and publications. 

Dr. F. W. Traphagen retained his position as Station chemist 
-and supervised all sugar beet investigations within the State as 
well as the investigations pertaining to the adulteration of foods 
which were made in co-operation with the Bureau of Agriculture, 
Labor and Industry of Montana. 

Prof. R. S. Shaw was placed in charge of the Station farm and 
given the care and management of all live stock. His most 
important duties were to conduct experiments in grain raising, 
Jorage crops and stock feeding. 

Dr. J. W. Blankinship continued to act in the capacity of 
Station botanist and in addition to the labor involved in collect- 
ing specimens of the economic plants, investigated the plants 
poisonous to stock and the injurious weeds of the state. 

Prof. R. A. Cooley succeeded himself as entomologist of the 
Experiment Station and inspector-at-large to the State Horti- 
cultural Board. 

The horticultural department was placed in direct charge of 
Mr. Charles Wilson, who was to act under the supervision of the 
agriculturist and the director. 

Mr. H. C. Gardiner was continued in charge of the sub- 
department of poultry. 

All irrigation investigations and water supply measurements 
were placed under the supervision of the director. 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 11« 



STATION COUNCIL. 

The mem^)ers of the Station staff have held meetings once a 
month for the purpose of considering matters pertaining to the 
welfare of the Station. The candid expression of opinions at 
these meetings on all topics of vital interest has greatly aided the 
director and executive board to adopt wise measures in regard to 
plans for future work and the expenditure of Station funds. 



NEEDS OF THE STATION. 



I desire to call the attention of the members of the governing 
boards to the urgent needs of the Experiment Station. 

In the first place it has no barns, granary or outbuildings 
worthy of the name. In this respect we rank below every other 
station in the Union. All our feeding experiments have had to 
be done under the most laborious and primitive methods. Our 
agriculturist has done splendid work in raising hundreds of 
varieties of grains. These have to be stored in log buildings and 
the mice cause endless trouble in mixing the varieties. 

For the past two years the water supply for irrigation has 
been deficient. During the past season the flow was fi*equently 
less than 40 miner's inches for 160 acres of land. An additional 
supply of at least 25 miner's inches is required. More water is 
needed for experimental purposes than for ordinary farming. . 

It would also add greatly to the appearance and utility of the 
Station farm if a tract of land of about 10 acres, now unoccupied 
and for sale, located at the northeast corner of the farm could be 
purchased. In feeding sheep and cattle in car load lots it is 
difficult to raise enough feed on our limited area and likewise 
provide experimental tracts for the several departments as well as 
pasturage for live stock. 

The present Station building is over crowded and provision 
must soon be made for additional class-rooms for farmers' boys 
who attend during the winter months. More space for Jabora- 
tories and offices is also needed. The heating plant is now in the 



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■ MP -V^V 



12 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

basement of the main building with no facilities for extinguishing 
fires. There should be a separate heating building. 

The Experiment Station should have a skilled veterinarian, 
thoroughly competent to undertake the bacterological investiga- 
tions of animal diseases. The stockmen of the State and the State 
veterinary surgeon desire it. Dr. M. E. Knowles has rendered 
valuable services to the State in many ways, but particularly in 
preventing Jhe spread of animal diseases. The territory is so vast 
and the number of domestic animals so great that his time is fiiUy 
occupied in police duties and the identification of diseases. It is of 
the utmost importance to the stock interests of Montana that 
this Station supplement the valuable work now done by the State 
veterinarian. 



PUBLICATIONS. 



The following bulletins have been published during the year. 
Of these, numbers 25, 26 and 27 belong to the previous year. 
No. 25. Paris Green and London Purple in Montana, by F. W. 

Traphagen. 
No. 26. Poultry Raising, by H. C. Gardiner. 
No. 27. Live Stock Feeding Tests, by R. S. Shaw. 
No. 28. Seventh Annual Report. 

No. 29. The Quantity of Water Used in Irrigation, by S. Fortier. 
No. 30. Weeds of Montana, by J. W. Blankinship. 
No. 31. Grazing and Feeding Tests, by R. S. Shaw. 



FARHERS' INSTITUTES. 



Through the efforts of the friends of agriculture a bill provid- 
ing for the holding of Farmers' Institutes was passed by the last 
legislative assembly and received the approval of the Governor 
March 14, 1901. The Board of Administration consists of the 
Governor of the State, the presidents of the Montana Wool- 
Growers' Association, the Montana Live Stock Association and 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 13 



the Montana Horticultural Society and the director of the 
Montana Experiment Station. Provision is also made to add the 
presidents of the dairy and agricultural associations to the board 
when these latter associations are organized. The Administrative 
Board is required to meet in November of each year to make the 
necessary arrangements to hold institutes during the winter 
months and also in March to arrange for the publication of the 
proceedings in a Farmers' Institute Annual. 

The annual appropriation is $2,000, but since a large portion 
of this sum will be expended in reporting and publishing the pro- 
ceedings the balance will scarcely be. sufficient to pay' for traveling 
and incidental expenses. 

The members of the Administrative board met in Helena June 
10, 1901, and organized by electing A. L. Stone, of Missoula, 
president and S. Fortier, of Bozeman, secretary. On account of 
the lack of funds it was decided not to appoint for the present a 
superintendent of Farmers' Institutes and the secretary was given 
authority to arrange the dates and places of meeting as well as to 
secure voluntary speakers for each county institute. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



The correspondence of the Station is increasing rapidly. This 
may be regarded as a true index of the interest that is being taken 
in experiment station work in Montana. During the year over 
2,500 letters have been received and answered. A large number 
of these came from the rural districts of the State. Many 
of the letters received from farmers and stock men required con- 
siderable time to answer for the reason that there were no Station 
circulars or bulletins which contained the desired information. As 
the number of the Station publications increase a greater variety 
of topics will be discussed and we hope to have in the near future 
4 more information to send to our correspondents. 

Meanwhile we beg to assure all those who are interested in 
agricultural pursuits that we will cheerfully do what we can to 
reply to their enquiries and we hope that the farmers of the State 
will avail themselves of this opportunity^ of obtaining such 
information as this Station can give. 



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14 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

EXCHANGES. 



Agricultural Experiments, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Agricultural Epitomist, Spencer, Ind. 

American Fancier, Johnston, N. Y; 

Avant Courier, Bozeman, Mont. 

Baltimore Sun, Baltimore, Md. 

Belt Valley Times, Belt, Mont. 

Big Timber Pioneer, Big Timber, Mont. 

Beet Sugar Gazette, Chicago, 111. 

Billings Times, Billings, Mont. 

Bozeman Chronicle, Bozeman, Mont. 

Butcher's Advocate, Chicago, IlL 

Carbon County Chronicle, Red Lodge, Mont. 

Chicago Drover's Journal, Union Stock Yards, Chicago, 111. 

Commercial Poultry Journal, Draper Pub. Co., Chicago 111. 

Dairy and Cream, 315 Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 

Dillon Tribune, Dillon, Mt)nt. 

Elgin Dairy Report, Elgin, ID. 

Farmers' Guide, Huntington, Ind. 

Farm Home, Springfield, 111. 

Farm Journal, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Farmers' Institute, Chicago, 111. 

Farm News, Sprmgfield, Ohio. 

Farmers' Review, Chicago, 111. 

Farm Poultry, Boston, Mass. 

Farm Stock and Fireside, Sioux City, Ta. 

Farm Stock and Home, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Feather, Washington, D. C. 

Florist's Review, Chicago, 111. 

Gallatin County Republican, Bozeman, Mont. 

Glendive Independent, Glendive, Mont. 

Garden and Farm, Chicago, 111. 

Home and Farm, Springfield, Mass. 

Home and Garden, St. Paul, Minn. 

Horticultural Visitor, Kinmundy, III. 

Holstein Register, Brattleboro, Vt. 

Independent, Helena, Mont. 

Inter-Mountain, Butte, Mont. 

Industrialist, Manhattan, Kan. 

Inter Lake, Kalispell, Mont. 

Inland Poultrj^ Journal, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Irrigation Age, 916 W. Harrison St., Chicago, 111. 

Jersey Bulletin, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Livingston Post, Livingston, Mont. 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 15 



Madisonian, Virginia City, Mont. 

Milwaukee Journal, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mining World, Butte, Mont. 

Montana Fruit Grower, Missoula, Mont. 

Modem Farmer, St. Joseph, Mo. 

National Stockman and Farmer, Chicago, 111. 

Northwestern Poultry and Pets, Spokane, Wash. 

Ohio Farmer, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Opportunity, St. Paul, Minn. 

Orange Judd Farmer, Marquette Building, Chicago, 111. 

Park and Cemetery and Landscape Gardening, Chicago, 111. 

Progressive Farmer, New Port, Va. 

Plainsman, Plains, Mont. 

Poultry Culture, Kansas City, Mo. 

Poultry News, Lincoln, Neb. 

Poultry Herald, St. Paul, Minn. 

Poultry Journal, Spokane, Wash. 

Pacific Poultrymen, Tacoma, Wash. 

Rural Spirit, Portland, Ore. 

Rural New Yorker, New York, N. Y. 

Rural North West, Portland, Ore. 

Reliable Poultry Journal, Quincy, 111. 

Stock Growers* Journal, Miles City, Mont. 

Strawberry Specialist, KittreU, N. C. 

Stockman and Farmer, Helena, Mont. 

Southern Farm Magazine, Baltimore. Md. 

Tribune, Stevensville, Mont. 

The Weekly Chronicle, San Francisco, Calif. 

The Sentinel, Boulder, Mont. 

The World, Vancouver, B. C. 

Tribune-Review, Butte, Mont. 

Tribune, Great Falls, Mont. 

Up-to-Date, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Western News, Hamilton, Mont. 

Wallace Farmer, Des Moines, la. ' « 

Wisconsin .Agriculturist, Racine, Wis. 

Western Fruit Grower, St. Joseph, Mo. 

West Virginia Farm Re\iew, Charleston, W. Va. 

Western Home Journal and Inter-Mountain, Spokane, Wash. 

S. FORTIER, - 

Director! 



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16 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT. 



R. S. Shaw, Agriculturist. 

Tbre«ighout this year the work of introducing and testing 
varieties of grains, grasses, forage and fodder plants and potatoes 
has beeBCOo tinned. The fourth season *s work in the six year crop 
rotation has also been successfully completed. Much attention 
has also been given to culture methods relating to their effects on 
weed destruction and the maintenance of fertility. Some time and 
money have also been given to permanent improvement work and 
land reclamation. The greater portion of my time has been spent 
in the direct supervision of the farm labor, even to the routine 
work. 



VARIETY TESTING OF GRAINS. 



W&eate.— Forty-three varieties were grown under irrigation. 
These consisted of a few new introductions, the balance of which 
had been gprown from one to several years. The number was 
greatly decreased this year, some twenty-five or more worthless 
varieties having been discarded. The average yield from these 
forty-three varieties was 52.6 bushels per acre, and as the result 
of this season's work in conjunction with the data secured from 
previous years five selections were made on the basis of quantity 
and quality of product. These varieties are : Kubanka, Red Fife, 
Russian 2955, Wild Goose, Wellmans Fife and McKissocks Fife. 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 17 



Oa^s.— These included thirty-three varieties chosen and handled 
in the same way as the wheats. The average yield was 87.9 
bushels per acre. Four selections were made, viz. : Poland White,. 
American White, White Wonder and Nameless Beautj'. Two 
varieties chosen the previous year were increased this season to be 
put in the hands of farmers in various portions of the State, these 
were the Nameless Beauty and White Russian. From 1.48 acres 
the former yielded 129.7 bushels, or 87.3 bushels per acre, while 
the latter yielded 215.8 bushels from 1.96 acres, or 110 bushels 
per acre. After cleaning and grading, the White Russian oats 
weighed 44 pounds per measured bushel. Of these two oats, lots 
not exceeding five bushels were sent out to fifty farmers in different 
parts of the State. These were cleaned and graded and sold at 
the rate of $1.25 per cwt. in response to inquiries for seed. In 
addition to this smaller trial lots, consisting of a few pounds, 
were distributed for trial in other locations. From this work 
we expect to secure returns which will tell us to what extent 
these varieties have been successful and also where the seed i^ 
located. 

Barley. — Twenty-four varieties were grown in the same 
manner as the two preceding grains, giving an average y\e\A of 
48.9 bushels per acre. Seven varieties of the brewing kind, 
imported from Germany, were selected this year. Three kinds of 
hulless barlej', viz. : Black, White and Smooth, selected and 
increased from previous years, were disposed of to farmers in 
several sections of the State to be grown for feeding purposes. 

Peas. — From some ten or a dozen varieties tested, all have been 
discarded except two, viz. : Mummy and Canadian Golden Vine. 
Of these two, the former is a crown pea, an early maturing sort, 
characterized by a short, strong straw, producing large grain 
Which all ripens at once. The Canadian Golden Vine is an 
indeterminate grower producing a much longer, more slender and 
yet heavier yield of straw per acre. These are a later kind. We 
recommend them where a large quantity of fodder is desired which 
can be controlled by the water supply. This pea will ripen up and 
produce an abundance of grain unless grown on moist ground or 
watered too freely. There has been a greater demand for the seed 
of thes^ two peas than could be supplied. 



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18 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Rye. — Some attention has been given to varieties of spring rye 
Avith the result that one has been chosen which yields 30.6 bushels 
per acre and produces a large yield of straw of a fine leafy 
character. 



GRASSES AND FORAQE PLANTS. 



Twenty-six grasses have been grown, both with and without 
irrigation. Though this work is incomplete, and should extend 
throughout a number of years, some results are being secured as 
the work progresses. Of the total number, Brome Grass has 
proved to be the most drouth resistant ; it is the first to start in 
the spring and the last to remain green during the season of 
drouth, quickly recuperating again in the autumn. It has pro- 
duced one and one half tons of hay per acre where timothy, under 
^similar conditions with scant soil moisture supply, only produced 
one half ton to the acre. Many failures to start Brome Grass 
have been due to the use of poor seed. When the germinating 
power of the seed is not known it is very difl[icult to get the right 
kind of a stand. If the grass comes up too thickly, matting soon 
results, and the growth becomes fine and spindly. Second in 
importance, as a drouth resister, followed a native rye grass, but 
while it possesses these good qualities they are partly offset by a 
growth somewhat too stemy devoid of leaves. The English and 
Italian rye grasses were found to be vigorous growers without 
irrigation, but failed to withstand the severity of the winter. The 
tenacity of life shown by Blue Grass under these dry conditions 
was surprising; it makes a remarkable growth early in the season, 
'then dries up and makes a fine nutritious growth in the autumn. 

Among the information of practical importance secured in this 
work was the discovery that the Montana grown grass seeds all 
possess a remarkably high germinating power, and we believe 
that the production of grass seeds can be made both practical and 
profitable. 

Of the forage crops Dwarf Essex rape made a remarkably 
strong growth with one irrigating. It was, however, subject to 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 19 



attacks from the green aphis which almost totally ruined the 
rutabaga crop during this same season. 

Root Crops. — Of these, mangolds, sugar beets, carrots and 
rutabagas were grown for feeding purposes. The mangolds gave 
the largest yield per acre with carrots second and sugar beets 
third. The rutabagas were almost totally destroyed by the green 
aphis. These roots were all used for feeding purposes on the farm. 
The carrots proved to be an excellent food for horses feeding on 
straw. The mangolds were used for chicken and hog feed and the 
sugar beets were used exclusively^ by the hogs. Too much cannqt 
be said in favor of the use of sugar beets for pigs which are being 
wintered over. They can be fed whole and raw and require little 
grain along with them to keep the pigs in a thrifty growing 
condition. From twelve to fifteen tons of sugar beets can be 
produced from one acre of land at a cost not exceeding $25.00, if 
properly handled. 

Potatoes. — In all fifty-two varieties were tested. In making 
selections of the best, most attention was given to those produc- 
ing the largest percentage of marketable potatoes which was 
determined after culling out the small and large rough ones. It 
frequently happens that the sorts producing the greatest total 
yield per acre do not give the highest percentage of a marketable 
product. The following selections were made, viz. : 

Early Varieties.— Six Weeks Market, Acme. Early Ohio, Early 
Oxford and Early Vaughan. 

Medium Varieties — Rural New Yorker No. 2, Lees Favorite, 
Snow Drop, American Wonder and Oregon Pearl. 

Late Varieties.— White Maine. 



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20 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

ROTATION TESTS. 



During this season the fourth trial of the six year rotation 
experiment was made, with the following result : 

YIELDS OF ROTATION ACRES FOR 1900. 

Acre of Wheat, grain 38.3 bu. 

'' '' ** straw 3,000 fts. 

** ** Clover, hay 3,170 n)S. 

'* ** Barley, grain 87.2 bu. 

** ** '' straw 3,980 lbs. 

** '* Sagar Beets 16,310 tt)s. 

** '* Oats, grain - 75.5 bu. 

** '' '' straw i 2,345 tbs. 

** ♦' Peas, grain 37 bu. 

** " ** straw 

With the exception of the sugar beets this record shows a 
steady increase in the productiveness of these six acres during the 
past four years. This season the sugar beet plants were badly 
damaged soon after coming through the ground as the result of 
the ravages of a flea beetle. Some fluctuations occur, due to 
climatic conditions, but in general the yields are satisfactory. 
While this is the case, how^ever, the rotation is too wnde for 
practicability. 



CO-OPERATION WITH FARMERS OF THE STATE. 



Because of the great diversity of conditions, it was found 
necessary to adopt some means by which the work of the Station 
could be supplemented in as many other portions of the State as 
possible. In order to accomplish this, small quantities of grains, 
potatoes etc. w^ere placed in the hands of private individuals for 
trial. The only conditions required were that accurate reports 
would be furnished. No less than seventy co-operators were 
secured. While results have not as yet been obtained from this 
work we feel that it will be of great benefit to the farmer directly 
and will bring much valuable information back to the Station 
which may be used in a practical way. 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 21 



LIVE STOCK BRERDINQ AND FEEDING. 



Importations of Berkshires and Poland Chinas were made 
during the year and both herds established with first-class stock 
to breed from. In all eighteen sales of breeding hogs were made 
as follows: In Gallatin county 12, Lewis and Clarke 2 and one 
«ach in Madison, Cascade, Missoula and Park. 

In addition to these, two sales of breeding bucks were also 
made. 

QRAZINQ AND FEEDING. 

Grazing Tr/a/s.— In June of 1900, 5.04 acres was fended ofiF in 
two equal parts from an alsike field which had been seeded in 
1897. The soil consisted of a deep, rich humus, somewhat loamy 
with a gravelly sub-soil. The two lots were irrigated alternately 
every two weeks from June 13th to August 18th and pastured in 
the same way. Twelve yearling Shorthorn and Hereford steers 
were chosen for the experiment. They were turned on the clover 
June 9th, remaining until October 1st. It was thought at first 
that the steers would be sufficient to consume the clover, but on 
June 18th it was necessary to add to their number to prevent 
waste. Consequently seven Jersey grade heifers belonging to the 
Station were turned in upon the clover also. During the experi- 
ment one steer died from bloat and all were removed for a few 
days while the pastures were wet. 

On June 9th the twelve steers which were thin from wintering 
on the range averaged 543 pounds per head, on October 1st the 
eleven remaining averaged 783 pounds, making an increase of 
3,278 pounds which with the gain of 176 pounds made by the 
steer before death gave a total increase of 3,454 pounds. The 
Jersey grade heifers, which were one and two years old, weighed 
4,575 pounds on June 18th and 5,681 pounds on October 1st, 
making a total gain of 1,106 pounds. The relative gains were, 
therefore, for the steers 2.75 pounds per head per day, and for the 
heifers 1.69 pounds during the same time and under the same con- 
ditions. 



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22 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



This tract of 5.04 acres provided food for maintenance and the 
gains given, for eleven steers during the equivalent of 108 days, 
and also for the seven heifers 93 days, after taking into considera- 
tion the loss of the twelfth steer and the few daj^s the cattle were 
removed from the pastures. 

A sum total oC 4,560 pounds animal increase was secured from 
the 5.04 acres of alsike clover, which amount valued at four cents 
per pound, gives a cash value of $182.40, or $36.19 per acre. 



FEEDING STEERS FOR MARKET. 



Thirty-one steers were fed for shipment, consisting of the 
eleven steers used in the grazing test and twenty additional 
yearlings secured from the range. The feeding began November 
13th, 1900, when the steers were divided into three lots according 
to quality. Those from the clover were fed separately. 

The food consumed by the steers from November 13th to 
March 30th was as follows: Lot I (eleven steers) 37,455 pounds 
clover and 7,530 pounds barley meal. Lot II (ten steers) 29,335 
pounds clover and 7,315 pounds barley m^al. Lot III (ten steers) 
29,235 pounds clover and 7,308 pounds barley meal. The aver- 
age daily consumption of food, per capita, during 137 days 
was, for Lot I, 24.8 pounds clover and 5 pounds barley meal ; lot 
II, 21.4 pounds clover and 5.34 pounds meal; lot III, 21.3 pounds 
clover and 5.39 pounds meal. 

The following gains were made during the 137 day feeding 
period : 

Lot I, eleven steers, 3,015 tbs. averaging 247.1 tbs. per capita 
'' II, ten '* 2,410 '* '' 241 

'' III, '' '' 2,345 ** '' 234.5 ** ** 

The average daily gains per capita for the three lots through- 
out the period were 2, 1.75 and 1.71 pounds respectively. 

The large gains from such light feeding are attributed to the 
superior quality of the food and the extremely suitable climatic 
conditions. The clover had been cured beneath a cloudless skv 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 23 



and the feeding period consisted of an almost uninterrupted suc- 
cession of bright still days. The steers were fed in open yards. 

We have found with legumes of such quality as can be pro- 
duced in our valleys that maximum gains can be secured from the 
use of a minimum amout of grain. Not more than one half pounds 
per daxy per one hundred pounds of live weight is required. 

The foods were charged up at $5.00 per ton for clover and 70 
cents per cwt. for barley meal, resulting in a total cost of $146.34 
for lot I, $124.53 for lot II and $124.71 for lot III. Therefore 
from the data given we get the following comparative costs per 
one hundred pounds increase, viz.: $4.85, $5.16 and $5.31, the 
cost increasing as the lots lacked in beef type. 

These steers were shipped to Seattle, where the sale resulted in 
a net profit of $122.59 on the car load, notwithstanding the 
disadvantage of their age, weight and the heavy shrinkage result^ 
ing from the five day trip. 



SHEEP FEEDING EXPERIHENTS. 



Test yVo. /. — Consisted of three lots of lambs of 53 each, receiv- 
ing the following rations : Pen (1), clover and grain ration of oats 
and barley; pen (2), clover and screenings; and pen (3), clover onh.. 
The relative amounts of food consumed per head per day were: 
Pen (1), clover 2.9 pounds, grain .56 pounds; pen (2), clover 2.94 
pounds and .55 pounds screenings; pen (3), clover 3.32 pounds. 
The average gains per head per month throughout the 90 days 
were: Pen (1) 24.96 pounds; pen (2) 28.08 pounds and pen (3) 
21.15 pounds. The relative cost of production per 100 pounds 
was, pen (1) $4.34, pen (2) $3.34 and pen (3) $3.53. We con- 
cluded, therefore, that the most profitable results were secured 
from the clover and screenings because the increase was greater 
and the cost of production less. Clover was charged at $5.00 per 
ton, oats and barley at 85 cents per cwt. and screenings at 55 
cents. 



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24 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

CLOVER AND GRAIN HAY COMPARED. 



Test No. //.—The same number of lambs was used as in the 
previous test and under the same conditions. The grain ha^- con- 
sisted of a mixture of oats, peas, barley and spring wheat grown 
together and cut earh' in the milk stage. The test was conducted 
for 60 days and both foods charged up at the price already given 
for clover. 

During these 60 days the clover fed lambs made a gain of 14 
pounds per head, while those receiving grain hay gained only 
10.68 pounds. The former also produced 100 pounds increase at 
a cost of $3.63 as compared with $4.60 from the grain hay lot. 
There was too much waste from the grain hay and we believe that 
horses or cattle could have used this food to better advantage. 



EFFECT OF WATER SUPPLY ON FATTENING LAMBS. 



Test No. III. — Two lots with food and surrounding conditions 
alike were treated differently as to water supply. One had 
constant access to water in the yard, the other was turned to 
water but once a day. The lambs with constant access to water 
gained 9.36 pounds each, per month; the others gained but 7.15 
pounds in the same time. Those which were permitted to take 
water at will produced 100 pounds gain at $3.34 while those 
with restricted supply cost $4.51 for the same amount. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



The correspondence sent out b}' me from m^^ departhient for 
the year amounted to 442 letters. Man3' of these were answers 
to inquiries relating to methods of cultivation, seeding, treating 
seed grain and requests for information relating to the various 
kinds of farm products. Many inquiries were also made in regard 
to live stock and methods of feeding. 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 25 



PRESS CONTRIBUTIONS. 



Seventeen articles were contributed to the local press. These 
treated of subjects relating directly to the agriculture of Montana 
and presented in greater part some minor results of Station work 
not sufficiently important to warrant special publications. Some 
of the subjects presented were : Sheep Feeding in Montana, Stock 
Feeding Tests at the Experiment Station, Formalin Treatment for 
Grain Smuts, Alfalfa for Seed, Co-operation Between the Montana 
Farmer and the Experiment Station, a series of seven articles on 
Swine Feeding, Utilising the Waste Products of Western Farms, etc. 



FORMALIN TREATMENT FOR GRAIN SMUTS. 



About one year ago reports were sent out from the Experi- 
ment Station regarding the use of formalin as a preventive of grain 
smuts. Since that time another yearns experience has been added, 
verifying the work of the three preceding years. 

As requests are coming in daily, asking for instructions as to 
the use of formalin, we find it necessary to again make our reports 
far-reaching through the kindness of the press of the State. 

Though many different methods of treatment for grain smuts 
have been devised and tried, none have proven to be more perfect 
preventatives than formalin. It is pre-eminently a germ destroyer 
and its work is perfect. It does not in any way injure the vitality 
of the grain. It is a comparatively inexpensive method and is 
easily applied. 

For oat, barley and wheat smuts a mixture of one pound or 
pint of formalin to forty gallons of water will be effectual. We 
have used one pound to thirty-five gallons of water withoutinjurv'. 
One pound of formalin used in the proportion given will treat from 
forty to fifty bushels of grain. 

Application. — Either the dipping or sprinkling method may be 
used with good results and the method chosen will depend upon 
the facilities at hand for doing the work. 



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26 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Sprinkling Method. — May be used where floor space or a num- 
ber of sheets are available. The grain should be spread out thin 
and the moisture applied with a common watering can, while the 
grain is being constantly shoveled to insure a thorough applica- 
tion, upon which the eflectiveness depends. After a thorough 
application has been made, the grain should be heaped and 
allowed to stand for two hours before being spread to dry. 

Dipping Method. — This is the most sure as the application is 
likely to be the most perfect. The sacks containing grain can be 
immersed in a barrel or trough containing the mixture. The grain 
should be allowed to remain in the sacks at least two hours before 
being spread to dry. In both cases the grain should be dried 
perfectly, except when sown immediately after. In all cases the 
sacks should be treated. With wheat it is only necessary to wet 
the outer surface of the grain, but with oats and barley, the appli- 
cation should be made to penetrate the hulls, where spores may 
have found lodgment. This is accomplished by immersing for a 
few minutes dnd then allowing the grain to stand in the sacks as 
directed, or in a pile if sprinkled. 

Formalin has also been successfully used for potato scab by 
immersing the uncut seed for from one to two hours in a mixture 
of one pound of formalin to thirty gallons of water. 

Formalin is also known as formaldehyde and formic aldehyde. 
It is a powerful germ destroyer and an extremely active substance. 
It is sold in the liquid form at about fifty cents per pound and can 
be secured in most of the drug stores of the State. We cannot 
urge its use too strongly. Farmers in the vicinity of Bozeman, 
who have used formalin, report favorably. 



WASTE PRODUCTS OF WESTERN FARnS HAY BECOHE A SOURCE OF 
PROFITABLE QAIN THROUGH THE USE OF LIVE STOCK. 



After the season of harvest is past, the work of threshing 
completed and the crops removed for storage or shipment, large 
quantities of food products still remain on the western farm. 
While the enormous crops of grain are being secured, there is 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 27 



always some loss occuring during the process of harvesting, 
handling and threshing, thus leaving some grain on the fields of 
even the most careful farmer. These losses are due to the falling 
of many heads of grain from the sheaf in harvesting or subsequent 
handling; or, because of their plumpness and weight, some break 
loose from the istem and are lost ; in other cases, again, innumer- 
able grains ** shatter out'* and fall to the ground as the result of 
climatic effects peculiar to the arid west. Thus, it follows that 
much grain remains on the stubble field. It is to these we refer as 
** waste products," and such they are, unless recovered and con- 
verted into a marketable product. And it is through the use of 
live stock only that they can be turned to profitable account. 

In addition to the grains left among the stubble, the meadows 
or clover fields provide a late growth, which may be used by some 
kind of stock. Then there are always some weeds and grasses, 
found bordering along ditches, fences and roads, which can be 
made use of. 

On the majority of western farms no return is secured from 
these so-called waste materials, except such as is picked up by a 
few swine on an occasional ranch. The greater portion of this 
material is, however, generally lost. 

In securing lambs, prior to the time of winter feeding, the 
Montana Experiment Station was enabled to obtain data which 
gives valuable information relating to the relative capabilities of 
cattle, sheep and swine, to utilize the waste products of the farm 
and also the return which could be secured from it. 

After the crop had been secured, one hundred and twelve acres 
of the Station farm became available as a run for stock. This 
area consisted of stubble from 14 acres of oats, 7 acres wheat, 10 
acres barley, 12 acres field and garden peas, 4 acres plat grain, 4 
acres grain hay and 4 acres root and potato ground. The balance 
comprised 57 acres clover stubble, 5 of which had been pastured 
closely throughout the season and two cuttings removed from the 
remainder. The barley and wheat stubble grounds both possessed 
good stands of clover. 

On October 4th, 11 yearling steers, 8 Jersey heifers, 3 colts 
and 25 pigs were given access to the fields. And on October 15th 
230 lambs were added. This stock continued on the fields until 
November 15th. 



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28 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



The 11 yearling steers were put on the fields at a weight of 
8,613 pounds, averaging 783 pounds. They were removed to the 
feed yards on November 15th, weighing 9,060 pounds, with an 
average of 823. During the 42 days, these steers required 3,344 
pounds hay, because of frosts and storm, in addition to the waste 
materials consumed. Therefore the 447 pounds gain made by the 
steers, at 4V2 cents a pound, is worth $20.11, which sum, minus 
the hay consumed, viz. : 3,344 pounds at $6.00 per ton, gives a 
profit of $10.08 gain from the steers, from increase in weight, in 
addition to food required for maintenance. 

The 230 lambs went on the fields on October 15th, weighing 
11,699 pounds with an average of 50.86 pounds. On November 
loth these were removed to the feed lots, after having weighed 
13,948 pounds, averaging 60.64 pounds. We therefore have a 
total increase of 2,249 pounds of mutton, or 9.78 pounds per 
head. The increase of 2,249 pounds, at 5 cents, gives a return of 
$112.45, minus 1,100 pounds clover hay at $6.00 per ton, leaving 
a clear profit of $109.15 from the lambs consuming waste farm 
products. 

The 24 pigs, consisting of Berkshire and Poland China sows 
and young stock, were turned on the stubble fields on October 4th. 
They then gave a total weight of 2,731 pounds, averaging 113.79 
pounds, including all ages. 

On November 15th, these pigs were prevented from securing 
further supplies from the fields by severe weather. Thej^ were then 
found to weigh 3,608 pounds, an increase of 877 pounds over the 
weight at the time of going on the stubble. During this time 410 
pounds of barley meal, at 60 cents per cwt., was fed in time of 
storm, amounting to $3.28. The 877 pounds gain, at 5V4 cents 
per pound, gives a return of $46.04, which sum minus the value of 
the food fed, amounting to $3.28, leaves a clear profit oi $42.76 
from the 25 pigs while consuming waste grain. And this is, of 
course, over and above the food required for maintenance. 

We regret that data was not secured relating to the colts and 
and Jersey cattle. 

From a financial standpoint, a clear profit of $161.99 was 
obtained from the cattle, sheep and swine, as follows: $109.15 
from 230 lambs, $10.08 from 11 steers and $42.76 from 25 pigs. 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 29 



Nor is this all* for no account is made of the value of the waste 
products secured and used for maintenance of the animals. We 
have considered only the value of the actual pounds of flesh 
produced, and have also given credit for the supplementary food 
used. 

Attention is called to the percentage rate of increase, in 
pounds, of cattle, sheep and swine feeding on waste materials, 
including the supplementary foods fed. As the original weight of 
the steers was 3,613 pounds, and 447 pounds increase was n\ade, 
the percentage rate of increase was 5.19 per cent. The original 
weight of the lambs being 11,699 pounds, and the increase made 
2,249 pounds, the percentage rate of increase was 19.2 per cent. 
In the case of the swine an increase of 877 pounds was added to 
the original weight of 2,731 pounds, giving a percentage increase 
of 32.1 per cent. The 3,344- pounds of hay fed to the 11 steers 
was just sufficient to supply their needs 12 days out oi the 42 ; the 
1,100 pounds of clover fed the 230 lambs during the month was 
used during a stormy period of 2V2 days. The 410 pounds barley 
meal was required by the pigs during a similar stormy period 
when they were oft' the fields. In the case of the lambs the hay 
led would not account for more than 100 pounds increase, and the 
grain fed to the hogs not more than 70 pounds. 

These results show conclusively that sheep and pigs, both 
being close feeders, are better able to recover the waste products 
of the farm than cattle. And that the three can be used together 
to best advantage. That under the conditions described, steers 
are enabled to maintain themselves for a long period, but the 
gains will not be great. While the pig secures most of the fallen 
grain, the sheep, with appetite suited to a limitless variety', gleans 
from all sources alike, securing grain, grass, weeds and late 
pasture growths. 

The sole benefit is not derived entirely from a monetary stand- 
point, but from the most thorough cleaning which the farm 
receives, especially from the sheep, which does the work of the 
scavenger in handsome fashion. They more than pay their way 
by the weed seeds which they destroy. There are few plants that 
the sheep will not eat if allowed access to them before they become 
dead and woody. And any weed seeds consumed b}- them do not 



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30 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

esca^ being destroyed. While the pigs secured their food mostly 
from shattered peas and wheat, the lambs consumed all classes of 
waste grain and vegetation. During the time the stock was on 
the fields 55 acres of the tract was plowed, as late as possible, for 
spring sowing beginning first with those possessing least food. 

Where clover can be grown, sheep can be used most advantag- 
eously in gathering the waste products of the farm. Coming from 
the scant range they are thus prepared to go on winter feed in good 
form. Strange to say, no losses have occured during two seasons 
from sheep and lambs grazing on frozen pastures, even though 
death from bloating has caused serious loss earlier in the season. 
This experience, with regard to late grazing on clover, is also sup- 
ported by that of others in the valley. Contrary to eastern 
experience our clover pastures come out in better form in the 
spring when grazed oflF late in the fall. Luxuriant growths re- 
maining on the fields seem to cause smothering or winter killing. 
The fields are also benefitted by the return of much fertilizing 
material. 

As the result of utilizing the ** waste products'* of 112 acres 
on a Montana farm, by the means of live stock, we have a clear 
profit of $161.99 or $1.44 per acre over and above the value of the 
food secured b}'- the animals and required for maintenance. And 
And these profits resulted practically without any expenditure for 
labor. If all the waste products of western farms were thus 
utilized they would become a source of revenue of great magni- 
tude. The best financial successes result from securing all the 
revenue obtainable irom these apparently worthless and insignif- 
icant sources. 



FATTENING LAHBS ON CLOVER IN GALLATIN VALLEY. 



The Gallatin valley has long been famous for the production of 
brewing barley, wheat and oats, of unsurpassed quality. The 
conditions giving rise to such favorable results have been known 
to find their source in a deep, rich, easily worked soil, with an 
abundance of water for irrigation, and climatic conditions which 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 31 



bring all the forces of nature into harmony in the perfect develop- 
ment of these products. But while the production of these grains 
is unsurpassed, both in quantity and quality, the same conditions 
which favor their growth produces marvelous results in the pro- 
duction of clover. As the result of experiments along this line, the 
Experiment Station has secured much valuable data relating to 
the growth of clover, its effect on the fertility of the land, and 
utility as a food factor. These facts will appear in future publica- 
tions. And while the Station most earnestly advocates the 
growth of clover in Gallatin valley, the constantly increasing area 
has lead to another important question, viz : The most economic 
use which can be made of clover in order to secure the greatest 
possible return from it. 

Two years ago experiments were conducted in lamb feeding, in 
which alsike, red clover, and alfalfa were the chief foods used. 
Careful comparison showed these three to possess feeding value in 
the order named, though with slight differences in any case. So 
that, what hereinafter is, said of red clover, and its feeding value 
will apply much the same to alsike and alfalfa. During the last 
winter season, comparative results were obtained from the fatten- 
ing of lambs on clover alone, with those receiving both clover and 
grain. These results have been so satisfactory, both by way of 
quantity and quality of product and financial return, that as the 
harvest season of 1900 closes, with innumerable clover stacks 
dotting the valley, w^e feel that the results of our work may at 
least offer some suggestions regarding the use of clover in mutton 
production. 

On* December 12th, 1899, 60 lambs were started on a 90 day 
feeding test. These were divided into three lots of 20 each ; lot (1) 
received clover and wheat, lot (2) clover only, and lot (3) clover 
and oats. Within this period of 90 days, the lambs feeding on 
clover alone, consumed an average amount of 3.16 pounds per 
head, per day. The two lots receiving an average of .93 pounds 
wheat and oats respectively per head each day, consumed onh' 
2.14 pounds clover. 

The gains made during the 90 days were as follows : Lot (1), 
fed clover and wheat, 30 pounds each; lot (2), clover only, 24.3 
pounds ; lot (3), clover and oats, 31.75 pounds each. Considering 



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32 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

the fact that nearly a pound of grain was fed to each lamb, per 
day, to two of the lots, the showing made by clover alone is 
remarkably good. With lambs of the range type, feeders seldom 
reach a gain of ten pounds per head, per month, when both hay 
and grain are used. The two lots receiving grain and clover also 
had a slight advantage from the use of a small allowance of roots. 

Cost of Feeding.— The clover hay was charged up at $6.00 per 
ton, damaged wheat at 40 cents per cwt., and oats at 90 cents per 
cwt. At this rate the cost of food for each of the three pens of 
20 each, for 90 days, was as follows : Lot (1), clover and wheat, 
$19.38; lot (2), clover only, $17.21; lot (3), clover and oats, $27.95. 
The total gains per ton, in order, above given, were: Lot (1), 601 
pounds: lot (2), 486 pounds; and lot (3), 635 pounds. Considering 
these gains, and the cost of foods, the clover and wheat ration 
produced mutton at a cost of $3.22 per cwt. increase, clover alone 
$3.54, and the clover and oats $4.30. These results show con- 
clusively that, though clover alone did not give absolutely the 
most rapid or cheapest increase, still, there was little diflFerence 
between it and the clover and wheat ration, and that satisfactory' 
gains and financial returns can be obtained from the clover alone. 
They also show that oats at the price charged, cannot be profit- 
ably used except in small quantities. 

The profits derived from these three methods of feeding, at the 
end of 90 days, were : 

Net profit per head, from lambs fed clover and wheat 96 dls. 

** •* '* ** only 82 *' 

'' and oats 62 ** 

The lambs were bought at $3.00 each and sold at the rate of 
$4.68 per cwt., live weight. We conclude from the results of No. 
1, that cheap grains, otherwise unsalable, can be used to good 
advantage along with clover for fattening lambs, and also, that 
while the clover alone gave good results, we believe that where 
possible a small amount of grain fed with it, will increase the gain 
and add to the quality, but large quantities are not necessary with 
the quality of clover here produced. From the data obtained it 
was found that 11.8 pounds of clover was required to maintain 
the animal and produce a pound of gain. Thus one ton of clover 
produced 169.5 pounds of mutton, which, at the selling price of 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 33 



$4-.68 per cwt. was worth $7.93. Is this not a good market value 
for one ton of clover hay ? Is it possible to dispose of it to better 
advantage in any othet way? 

The necessity of securing the proper type of lambs for feeding 
is very important. During the past two seasons, comparative 
results have been secured by feeding lambs of the mutton type, and 
wool producing kind by similar methods. Those of the mutton 
type used, contained a large percentage-of Shropshire blood. They 
were large framed and strong boned, cylindrical of form, possess- 
ing broad evenly fleshed backs, with good width at brisket, chest, 
and shoulders. The other class, composed of Merino grades, were 
almost the reverse as to general form and quality. The compact 
lamb, of the former class, carrying a large quantity of natural 
flesh, when fed on an expensive ration of clover and oats, produced 
100 pounds gain at a cost of $4.39 per cwt., while those of the 
inferior type, using the same kind of food, in the same amount, 
cost $4.65 per cwt. increase. The lambs of the mutton type 
required over one-half pound less clover to each pound of increase. 

The results obtained lead us to conclude that, with the condi- 
tions which Gallatin valley presents, the possibilities for mutton 
production are unparalleled, for in the first place, the best foods 
can be grown abundantly, and secondly, we have the stock near 
at hand to consume it. Individual acres of clover, grown at the 
Experiment Station, for three successive years produced over one 
and one-half tons of hay, at from 119 to 133 days from date of 
sowing. 

During the season just closed, a field of 7.26 acres produced, at 
two cuttings, a total of 35 tons 1,451 pounds of well cured clover 
hay. And while this food can be produced in such great abund- 
ance, it has the advantage of possessing a large percentage of 
those nitrogenous compounds or flesh formers which the eastern 
feeder, who relies chiefly on com or screenings, cannot buy. The 
clover produces a much better quality of meat than the starchy 
foods, such as screenings, com, barley, etc., and this will apply to 
beef and dairy productions as well. 

While the production of clover, and its conversion into mutton 
is desirable, this need not interfere with the grain output. On the 
contrary, clover must materially assist the grain producer, taking 



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34 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

the place, as it is, of the vast summer fallow area. We therefore 
have the clover for feeding purposes without decreasing the grain 
area. 

The question of the disposal of finished mutton is one which 
confronts us in a serious way, as the local demand does not require 
but a limited quantity. It is the purpose of the Experiment 
Station to fatten a car load each of lambs and steers, for shipment 
to Chicago in the early spring. Several others have also signified 
their intention of feeding in time to join this experimental ship- 
ment. We have found that it will pay to feed lambs from 70 to 90 
days and steers at least 120. 

Results justify conclusions to the effect that mutton can be 
successfully produced on clover alone, though the use of a small 
grain allowance is desirable especially because of its ultimate effect 
on quality. Where clover or alfalfa may have been damaged and 
unsaleable, it cannot be used in a better way than as a sheep food. 
We cannot urge too strongly the growth of clover in Gallatin 
valley and its subsequent conversion into mutton. 

What has been said of the clover and Gallatin valley condi- 
tions, will apply in much the same way to the numerous alfalfa 
regions of Montana. 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 35 



CHEMICAL DEPARTMENT. 



F. W. Traphagen, Chemist. 

The usual lines of work have been carried on by this depart- 
ment during the past twelve months. A considerable amount of 
time was given to an examination of the condition of the foods 
fonnd in our market and a resume of the results is introduced here. 
A detailed report of this work has been published in the Biennial 
Report of the Bureau of Agriculture, Labor and Industry. 

Much interest has been manifested in this work and numerous 
newspaper articles have been written, and addresses given in an 
effort to better conditions by arousing public sentiment and 
securing the enactment of proper legislation for the protection of 
our citizens. Through the eflForts of Senator Hoffman a bill was 
introduced into the legislature at its last session and its passage 
through the Senate secured. The activity of a lobby of grocers, 
mainly from Butte, caused the defeat of the bill in the House of 
Representatives, not, however, without the disapproval of a large 
number of our best citizens. 

It is to be hoped that funds will be found for the purchase of 
another series of samples to be used as an object lesson in another 
campaign for protection. 

RESULTS OF FOOD EXAMINATION. 

Found Not Found 

Adulterated. Adulterated. 

Canned Vegetables 6 25 

Soups 5 9 

Tomato Catsups 12 

Jams, Jellies and Preserves 26 

Cereal Breakfast Foods 30 

Baking Powders 9 6 

Flour 18 

Miscellaneous Foods 15 13 

Vinegars 21 6 



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36 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

The sugar beet investigations of the past season have not been 
at all satisfactory. Because of changes in the administration of 
this part of our work, seed was not sent out sufficiently early to 
secure active co-operation on the part of our farmers and very few 
reported having planted. 

This season we have projected the most general test yet carried 
on, and every agricultural section of the State will be represented 
in the trials. The seed has been sent out sufficiently early to secure 
the benefit of planting as soon as conditions permit and the results 
should be of considerable value. 

On the Bitter Root Stock Farm, near Hamilton, Mont., the 
most systematic series of experiments, yet made within the State, 
are being carried on. Small tracts selected at different points on 
the farm have been chosen, affording a great variety of soil and 
conditions. Sugar beets are being grown on these plats under the 
direction of a skilled sugar beet culturist from Utah, and will be 
handled far better than they ever have been in this State. Hercito- 
fore the crop has been grown incidentally, usually merely as a 
favor to the Experiment Station, and has received attention when 
everything else has been looked after. While we greatly appreciate 
the assistance we have received from co-operating farmers, it is no 
less true that sugar beets have been greatly neglected in the past 
and the excellent results previously obtained have been in spite of 
very unfavorable conditions. 

Besides the tests above mentioned, through the efforts of Hon. 
W. A. Clark, seed has been widely distributed throughout the 
valley of Clark's Fork of the Yellowstone river, and a new field 
will be studied here. There is little doubt that, if the results of the 
present season are satisfactory, a beet sugar factory will be estab- 
lished at some point within the State. This means much, not only 
to the favored community, but to the State at large. 

In connection with our study of the alkali problem we have 
been making a series of experiments to determine the limit of 
tolerance for alkali of our different crops. These tests have been 
very satisfactory and serve to show that there are very few places 
in our State where the alkali alone is in sufficient quantity to 
prohibit the growth of our usual crops. A number of interesting 
points have been noted in this investigation, which will be pre- 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 37 



sented in a bulletin soon to be issued. Successive series of experi- 
ments have been planned with various plants, which, taken in 
connection with our analysis of the soil of diflFerent sections, will 
enable us to prescribe the crop most likely to succeed in any 
instance. 

Pot experiments have been instituted to determine the best 
methods of handling such soils as resist ordinary methods of 
treatment. The effects of tailings and tailings waters from the 
copper smelters, ufK)n hay and grain crops, have been carefully 
studied and the results will be embodied in a bulletin to be issued 
soon. It may be said that the conclusion was reached that 
chemically there has no evil resulted from the presence of metals 
in solution and that the mechanical effects are the same as would 
come from the presence of the same amount of sand or clay under 
similar conditions. 

A resume of the analytical work shows the following as the 
work of the year : 

Soils 285 

Foods 201 

Water 10 

Milk, etc : 4 

Butter 12 

Beets 7 

Coal 8 

Miscellaneous 36 

Total 563 



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^ 



^; 38 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



:^ 



BOTANICAL DEPARTMENT. 



J. W. Blankinship, Botanist. 

The work of the botanist during the past year has been con- 
fined chiefly to a study of the weeds of the State and the prepara- 
tion of a summary of our knowledge of the same, issued as 
Bulletin No. 30 of this Station, and a continuation of the study of 
the plants poisonous to stock and the conditions under which 
that poisoning usually occurs. Unfortunately the field work 
could not begin until June 1, after the main period of poisoning 
was over, so that relatively few cases could be investigated 
immediately after the poisoning occurred. Nevertheless, through 
the co-operation of the various railways traversing the State, 
a large amount of data was accumulated and the distribution of 
the plants chiefly concerned was largely determined. 

In addition to this work a considerable number of plants sent 
in for identification have been determined and more than a thous- 
and specimens have been added to the herbarium, among which 
was a set of the grasses of the United States from the Division 
of. Agrostology at Washington. 



A NATIVE HEDGE PLANT. 



Hedges are desirable in every country' not only for their per- 
manent utility in fencing yards and fields, but also for their 
ornamental value. As yet no plant has come into general use in 
Montana for this purpose, but a series of independent experiments 



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1 



ANNUAL REPORT. 39 



have been made in various parts of the State to utilize the buffalo- 
berry shrub (Shepherdia argenteay Nutt.) for this purpose, and, 
while not fully successful, the results seem to show that with 
proper care the plant can probably be made to answer the pur- 
pose. 

Shepherdia argenteay Nutt. grows in the lowlands along 
streams throughout the Great Plains region from Manitoba and 
Kansas westward to the mountains and in the Great Basin to the 
Sierra Nevada range. In Montana it is found in more or less 
abundance east of the Divide, along the Missouri, Yellowstone 
and their tributaries, often forming dense impenetrable thickets in 
the lowlands. It is a shrub, or small tree, rarely exceeding 25 feet 
in height and a diameter of 5 or 6 inches, with widely spreading, 
tough and thorny branches and bearing a dense cluster of pale red, 
rarely yellow, berries, ripening in autumn and having a sharp acid 
flavor, esteemed for jelly-making, for which they are extensively 
used. 

Although the plants grow naturally only in the low ground, 
there is no reason why they should not be made to grow wherever 
the roots can be kept moist by irrigation in the plains or valleys in 
any part of the State. The following gentlemen give the results of 
their experiments with the buffalo-berry plant for the benefit of 
others who may care to continue the work. 

Mr. John Matheson, living 8 miles east of Chinook in the Milk 
river valley, writes ( December 21, 1900) as follows : 

**The buffalo-bush hedge was planted three years ago as an 
experiment and seems to answer the purpose. It grows in alkali 
land, stands the climate and bears trimming. It is not a very fast 
grower and it will take about 6 years before it can be depended on 
for a fence. I tried to grow the plants from the seed,- but failed, 
owing to the place being flooded in the spring. The plants should 
be reset, when not more than six inches high, in a double tow 
about twelve inches apart each wa}'. The cost of such a fence will 
not exceed 50 cents a rod. The Osage orange will not grow; I 
tried it and failed.** 

Mr. Olney Taylor, of the State Board of Horticulture, has 
performed a similar experiment at Park City on the Yellowstone 
and gives his conclusions (November 12, 1901) as below : 



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40 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

" In regard to the buffalo-berry as a hedge plant I will saj'that 
my experience with it is rather limited. A few years ago I planted 
some seeds along the road, which grew well and, if they had been 
properly pruned, I think would have made a good hedge, but they 
have been allowed to grow naturally and are tall and not as thick 
as they should be. The greatest objection I have to them is that 
they sprout quite badly where the ground is cultivated near 
them.'* 

Mr. A.M. Crawford, of Billings, is another who has tried the 
plant for this purpose and writes under date of November 13, 1901: 

** The buffalo-berry makes a beautiful and effective hedge. The 
land should be in good tillable condition before planting. If new 
ground, a strip about four furrows wide and two furrows deep- 
as deep as the plow can be made to run— should be prepared in the 
fall for early spring planting. While the buffalo-berry is native 
along our river bottoms, I find that the young plants can be 
readil3^ established on uplands, but with difficulty on low, soggy 
ground ; and that, while in the former position they must be care- 
fully irrigated, in the latter they are likely to get in a way trouble- 
some brush. One more weaving and you have a hedge that cattle, 
and even boys, are willing to let alone. From this time on it is a 
question of neatness and the pruning shears. The work of weav- 
ing can be greatly facilitated by having smooth wires at stated 
intervals under which to bend the young wood.'' 

The buffalo-berry will not grow in the foothills above 3,000 
feet altitude, but it maybe possible to utilize the black and red haw 
{Crataegus coccinea, L. and C. Douglasii, Lindl.), which take its 
place in those situations and grow in abundance. For ornamental 
hedges the barberry {Berberis Canadensis^ Push and B. vulgaris ^ 
L.) and the privet (Ligustrum vulgarly L.) may well be employed 
as they are perfectly hardy in most situations below 5,000 feet and 
have been grown successfull3^ in the gardens of the Station at 
almost that altitude. 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 41 



THE "ARCTIC BERRY" FRAUD. 



For a number of years a man, with a camping outfit, has been 
canvassing various parts of the State selling a so-called **Arctic 
berry," taking orders throughout a particular section during the 
spring and summer and delivering the plants in the fall. He 
exhibits a number of the ** berries '' preserved in a liquid in a bottle 
and they are said to have a very attractive appearance, being 
'* three times the size of a strawberry and with the color of an 
orange.*' He claims the fruit is of his own production, resulting 
from crosses between a number of berries of which the huckleberry, 
sarvice berry, strawberry, wild cherry and several other unnamed 
species, play a part, the whole combining to form the wonderful 
fruit then exhibited. He claims the fruit was first grown by him- 
self in Idaho, and is now cultivated successfully in the Gallatin 
valley, near Bozeman. From reports it seems that this plausible 
gentleman has ** worked " a great part of the State, including the 
region about 'Great Falls, the Gallatin valley and the Madison 
river and spent the summer of 1901 in Sweet Grass and Carbon 
counties. The matter was called to the attention of the Station 
in time to advertise the fraud in the newspapers before the delivery 
of the *• berries *' and relatively few were disposed of. It was then 
stated that any man knowingly making such statements as those 
attributed to him in regard to the origin of the fruit in question, 
was a fraud and subject to prosecution under the laws of the 
State, and he was asked to submit some of the fruit and plants to 
this Station that we might pass upon the value of this remarkable 
hybrid. Notice was also given in all the Bozeman papers for 
information in regard to this new plant, from anyone cultivating 
it in this vicinity, but no responses have been received either from 
the agent or from any successful grower, for all the plants sold in 
this vicinity are either dead or killed down each year by the frost, 
and we have yet been unable to secure living specimens for exami- 
nation. Horticulturists, who have seen the growing **Arctic 
berry,'* report the plant sold as the white mulberry (Moras alba^ 
L,) and some leaf-scraps examined seem to agree with that species. 
The thing is a palpable fake, for such crosses as those mentioned 



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42 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



are botanically impossible. Space is here given the subject in order 
to protect the people of the State from such imposition hereafter, 
and to warn our neighbors of adjoining States to look out for this 
smooth-tongued ** nurseryman.'' 



POSSIBILITIES OF STRAWBERRY CULTURE IN THE STATE. 



In a state with great variations in climate, due to the difier- 
ence in altitude found in mountainous regions, it is possible to 
extend the fruiting period of seasonal fruits, such as the straw- 
berry, over considerable time by taking advantage of this progress 
of season at the different altitudes, and this fruiting period may 
be still further extended by planting early and late varieties. As 
far as can be yet judged by the native vegetation, there appears to 
be a difference of about a week in the opening of flowers and the 
ripening of fruit for each 2,000 feet of altitude and as our 
altitude ranges from about 1,800 to over 11,000 feet, it seems 
that advantage might be profitably taken of this fact for growing 
a fruit for which there is always a ready market. 



THE ALKALI DISEASE OF PLANTS. 

Several times recently my attention has been called to a sup- 
posed parasitic disease affecting plants in certain localities, but 
upon examination no fungus was found, but the plants had every 
indication of poisoning by alkali, either through the rise and 
settling in low ground of the waters of irrigation containing these 
salts in excess, or through watering potted plants with such 
water. In general, plants thus affected show it by the gradual 
yellowing of the foliage, or by .the withering of the leaves at tips 
and edges, until the3' die and drop off, causing the death of the 
plant. A considerable number of the trees in the park along the 
river side, at Great Falls, appear to have died from this cause and 
the same trouble has been found with shade trees in certain locali- 
ties at Helena and Bozeman. The remedv in such cases is clearly 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 43 



underground drainage to carry off the excess of salts accumulat- 
ing in the water in such situations, or a reduction in the irrigation 
on the higher ground near by. The trouble seems also to affect 
pK)tted plants and gardens, when watered with water containing 
an excess of alkali, and cases have arisen seemingly from this cause 
at Columbia Falls and Helena and will doubtless be noted from 
other localities in the eastern part of the State, the remedy here 
being to secure water from some source not thus contaminated. 

The effects of alkali upon plants are thus described by Dr. E. 
W. Hilgard, director of the California Experiment Station : ** In 
the case of herbaceous plants the first effect is a dwarfing of the 
whole system, and as the salts accumulate at the surface, they will 
cause a corrosion of the root-crown. In the case of trees also the 
root-crown usually shows a darkening of the bark, and a brown- 
ing of the liber, if the alkali is strong enough. It is then that the 
leaves yellow, but short of such an effect upon the root-crown the 
essential symptom of alkalied plants is a dwarfing." 



INVESTIGATIONS OF PLANTS POISONOUS TO STOCK IN MONTANA. 



This work, begun during the preceding summer has been con- 
tinued for most of the present season, but has been confined mainly 
to field work to determine the plants causing the various cases of 
poisoning reported, the times of the year when such poisoning is 
most apt to occur with the conditions then prevailing and the 
localities in the State found to be most dangerous to stock, with 
the reasons therefor; also, to determine the distribution over the 
State of the plants known or suspected of causing this poisoning 
and to devise methods for avoiding the same, as far as possible. 
The work of experimentation to ascertain the exact effects of 
suspected plants upon animals has been left, by agreement, to the 
specialists of the Department of Agriculture, who are conducting 
their work at this Station during the present summer. 

In order to call the attention of stockmen to this work and 
secure their assistance in conducting the same, the following circu- 
lar was issued : 



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44 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

NOTICE TO STOCKHEN. 

The Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in co-operation with the 
Department of Agriculture at Washington and the State Veterinarian at 
Helena, is attempting during the present season to make a study of the pluits 
poisonous to stock in this state. In order to fully determine the conditions 
under which the poisoning normally occurs and the plants to which it may be 
referred, it is desired that detailed reports be made to this Station of losses 
now occurring, as well as any losses which may have occurred in the past, 
noting, as far as practicable, (1) the exact locality in the State in which such 
poisoning occurred and the local conditions, whether lowland or upland, 
plains, foothills or mountains, about springs or along streams; (2) the time of 
the year of such poisoning; (3) stock affected, whether horses, cattle or sheep; 
<4) the number poisoned, their symptoms and treatment pursued, as well as 
relative proportion of deaths; and (5) the plants suspected, with descriptions or 
specimens. It is only by the compilation of such data that the dangerous 
zones in the State can be accurately determined, as well as the time when they 
must be avoided. 

By the co-operation of the stockmen of the State in this work, particularly 
in reporting promptly for investigation, all new cases of poisoning that may 
occur, it is hoped that definite results may be secured and the present loss due 
.to this cause prevented. 

Address all communications and specimens to, Montana AoRicuLTrRAL 
Experiment Station, Bozeman, Montana. 

June 5, 1901. 

The results of this investigation will be issued as a bulletin 
early next spring in time to be of service to the stockmen during 
the dangerous season. 

In order to make this work as practical as possible, the Station 
bas had sets of the plants, suspected or known to be poisonous, 
mounted and framed for general distribution in the principal 
stock-growing centers and these will be sent to anyone w^ho will 
pay the expense of framing and transportation and agree to place 
them on exhibition in some public place in his locality. A number 
of these frames have already been distributed. It is hoped that 
next season portfolios can be prepared of the most dangerous 
species for distribution to stockmen to be placed in the hands of 
their foremen and herders to make known the plants, which must 
be avoided or destroyed, but at present not enough specimens 
have been collected to enable this to be done, except in a few cases. 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 45 



ENTOMOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 



R. A. CooLEY, Entomologist. 

An account of five insect pests, not previously mentioned in 
the publications of this Experiment Station as being present in 
Montana, is herewith presented. All are of first-class importance, 
some having proved themselves very injurious to our vegetation 
and the others being well known for their destructive habits 
elsewhere. 

The year's experience has emphasized the importance of the 
entomologist's being about the State as much as possible in order 
that the presence of injurious insects may be detected and made 
known. The widespread belief in Montana that injurious insects 
have not yet found their way to our fields is only partially based 
on facts, but is due, rather, to a lack of knowledge of the real con- 
ditions. It seems clear, then, that the actual conditions should be 
published as rapidly as possible so that the fruit grower and 
rancher may not, through ignorance of their presence, allow them 
to gain a foothold. The past year has developed a knowledge of 
the presence and distribution of a considerable number of very 
important pests and there can be no doubt that the coming year 
will reveal many more. 



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46 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

THE STRAWBERRY LEAF-ROLLER. 



Phoxopteris comptana, Frol. 

So far as is known to the writer the strawberrj'- leaf-roller has 
not yet been very destructive in Montana, but for many years the 
species has been fairly well known in other parts of the country 
and in some localities has been exceedingly destructive. In Wash- 
ington it is looked upon as being the most destructive pest affect- 
ing the strawberry in that state. We therefore have reason to 
fear that in a few 3'ears we too may suffer from its ravages. It 
has been discovered in Helena, and has been reported from Miles 
City. 

The insect feeds upon strawberry, blackberry, raspberry and 
various other plants. 

It receives its name from its habit of rolling and crumpling the 
leaves of its host-plant. The larva, which is small and of a 
greenish color, lives within the rolled or crumpled leaves where it 
feeds from the inside. When abundant, the larvae not only devour 
the foliage but cause it to turn brown. They are very active and 
when taken into one's hands will quickly wriggle out and drop to 
the ground. There are two broods of the larvae each year, the 
first brood appearing in June and the second in August. The 
parent moths are very small and of a reddish brown color. 

The best remedy to be employed is to cut the vines after 
harvesting the crop, and, after allowing them to dry bum them as 
they lie. If there are not enough vines to bum well some old hay 
or straw may first be spread over the field. No harm will be done 
to the vines by burning in this way. 

If it is preferred the vines may be sprayed after harvesting the 
crop. The insecticide used should be arsenate of lead in preference 
to Paris green since it remains on the foliage very much longer. 
This insecticide has a distinct advantage for this pest since, re- 
maining so persistently on the foliage, will be rolled by larvae into 
the leaves where it is needed. 



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. — . . -^^^ 

THE NATIVE CURRANT SAW-FLY. j/ 



ANNUAL REPORT. 47 



Gymnonychus appendiculatus. Hartig. 

This insect was very destructive to gooseberries and currants 
during the year in the vicinity of Kalispell, showing preference for 
the first named fruit but entirely defoliating currants also. The 
species also occurs in Miles City and like many other pests 
probably exists unrecorded in other parts of the State. 

The larvae are pale green even when full grown and lack the 
black spots found on the larvae of the European relative of similar 
habits, which is very common in the United States. 

The adults are four- winged fly-like insects, black in color with 
yellow markings. Two broods of the larvae occur, one appearing 
late in June or early in July and one in August. 

White hellebore, either dusted on the foliage while the latter is 
damp, or sprayed in water at the rate of one pound in twenty-five 
gallons, is a good remedy. 

The hellebore should be secured in advance since when needed 
it may not be found in sufficient quantity. 



THE CABBAGE LEAF-HINER. 



Plutella craciferaram. Zell. 

The cabbage leaf-miner is a European pest which has been 
imported into this country and has become widely distributed. In 
Montana it is known by the writer to occur at Hamilton, Boze- 
man, Missoula and Miles City, It has doubtless been brought 
into the State on cabbage heads intended for consumption. 

The species occurs on the leaves of cabbage and related plants 
as small green worms, one-fourth of an inch long, tapering toward 
both ends and having the head yellowish. When ready to trans- 
form the larva spins a delicate gauze-like cocoon of white silken 
threads and the enclosed pupa may be readily seen through the 
silken case. The moth is about three-quarters of an inch long, 



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^r'l 



48 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



with gray, white, black and brown, markings. Three diamond 
shaped spots on the back of this long, slender and shy moth make 
it easily recognized. 

Spraying the affected plants with water is said to be a good 
remedy. The insect thrives only in dry weather. Pyrethrum 
insect powder has given satisfactory results. The larvae often 
co-exist with the cabbage aphis, discnssed below, and are readily 
destroyed by the substances used in controlling that pest. 



THE CABBAGE APHIS. 



Aphis brassicae. Linn. 

A great many fields of cabbage and related plants were wholly 
or partly destroyed during the year by this species and a large 
number of letters concerning it were received and answered. The 
insects were present in almost incredible numbers completely cover- 
ing all parts of the plants and working into the heads of cauli- 
flower in such numbers as to destroy their value. Affected plants 
withered and appeared as if suffering from dry weather. 

The real color of the lice is greenish gray, but this is obscured 
by the waxy or mealy secretion which covers their bodies and gives 
them a leaden color. 

The species attacks cabbage, turnip, cauliflower, rape and 
other plants of the same natural family (Cruci ferae). 

As a remedy for the pest, kerosene emulsion, one part of the 
emulsion in ten of water, or whale-oil (more correctly fish-oil) soap 
one pound in fourteen gallons of water, may be used. 

The insects readily succumb to these substances, the onlj' diflfi- 
culty in the treatment being to get the insecticide in contact with 
all the lice. 

The lice cover both surfaces of the leaves thereby making it 
necessary to spray the under as well as the upper surface. The 
spray-nozzle must be lowered among and under the leaves. It 
may, if desired, be fastened to the end of a piece of half-inch tubing 
which will allow the operator to stand erect. 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 49 



THE ROSE CURCULIO. 



Rhynchites bicolor. Fab. 

This insect is generally distributed throughout the United 
States and while having been seen by the writer only at Bozeman, 
Missoula, Hamilton and Kalispell,in Montana, it is almost certain 
that it occurs in all parts of the State. 

The rose curculio is a beetle one-fourth of an inch long, red 
over the entire upper surface from the head to the tip of the 
abdomen, with the ventral surface, beak or snout, antennae and 
legs black. 

It aflFects both wild and cultivated roses, boring by means of 
its long snout into the buds and cutting the stems causing the buds 
to lop. It is particularly destructive west of the range where 
roses are grown more readily than on the east side. 

Great injury to roses is caused b3^ this species. It takes very 
much the same place that the rose chafer {Macrodactylus sub- 
spinosus) occupies in the east. 

No very satisfactory remedy is known. The writer is making 
observations on the habits of the species and hopes to find some 
means of defense against it. 

Temporary relief ma3' be secured by hand picking or by drum- 
ming them off into a pan of kerosene, or kerosene and water. 



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r V 50 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



SUB-DEPARTMENT OF POULTRY. 



H. C. Gardiner. 

student in ClmrKe. 



During September, October, November and December 1900 
three pens of fowl were fed separately, with a view to determine 
the best method of feeding and caring for hens during the moult- 
ing period. While this work was not carried far enough for con- 
clusive results, we w^ould from the results obtained, advise a liberal 
ration for moulting hens, and attention early in the fall. It was 
found that flax seed was a valuable addition to the ration, and 
that a full ration tended to stimulate the growth of feathers. 

Although we must depend chiefly upon early hatched pullets 
for winter eggs, still it is an additional source of profit if the year 
old and two year old hens can be made to contribute their share 
to the egg-basket. In order to secure these results fowls must be 
fed liberally commencing in September, in order to hasten the 
moulting of those who have begun, and to start those whose low 
condition, resulting either from rearing a brood of chicks, or lay- 
ing late in the summer, has left them without vigor enough to 
moult before cold weather. Owing to this general low condition 
which follows the summer's work the flock msiy not respond 
readily to their feed, and it is advisable to stimulate and tone the 
digestive sj'stem with Ca3^enne pepper, assafoetida, etc., and give 
** Douglas mixture '' in their drinking water twice a week. Doug- 
las mixture consists of four ounces copperas, one ounce sulphuric 
acid in two gallons of water, using it in the proportion of a 
tablespoon in a quart of drinking water twice a week. Such pre- 
cautions will to a great extent fortify the bird's system against 
roup and colds which occur so generalh^ in this State in the fall 
and winter months. 

During the past year we have received many inquiries about 
how to treat flocks which are affected with roup and colds, and 
we have advised maintaining all stock in a vigorous condition in 
order that they may successfully withstand our broken fall and 



\ 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 51 



winter weather. Debilitated animals are the most susceptible to 
diseases of any kind, and improper quarters ahd poor feed only 
add to the danger. In order to secure freedom from roup the 
houses must be dry, free from draft, of reasonably even tempera-- 
ture and well ventilated. Frame houses are best because they are 
easily kept dry, and we believe that it is a mistake to construct 
poultry houses of stone or concrete, as the walls of such buildings 
are almost invariably damp, and fowls kept in such buildings are 
particularly liable to disease. In order to maintain an even 
temperature all chinks and cracks should be kept closed and the 
building made as tight as possible, with a window space of about 
one-eighth of the front in a building six feet high. Too large an 
area of glass causes the building to heat very quickty during the 
middle of the day, while at night it aflFords a large radiating sur- 
face, chilling the interior and producing catarrh and colds among 
the inmates. This difficulty may be overcome best, by the proper 
glass area, and by the use of a stove on cold nights and during 
long cloudy spells. Last, but not least, comes the ventilation 
question, while a building should be built as nearly air tight as 
possible, it should also be well ventilated. Nothing poisons the 
animal system more quickly than impure air laden with gases 
exhaled by the fowl, and arising from the droppings. These gases 
being naturally heavier than the air settle in the lower portions of 
the house, and it is from these lower, levels we must ventilate. 
Ventilators opening at the roof are inefficient; while they may 
remove a portion of the lower body of air, they remove chiefly the 
upper portion which is warm and pure and which should be 
retained. To thoroughly, cheaply and easily ventilate, run a 
common six-inch stove pipe from the roof to \vithin six inches of 
the floor, having a damper in it at a convenient height. The 
warm air near the roof warms this pipe, which in turn warms the 
air inside, and this enclosed air rising creates a draft which gradu- 
ally' and successfully removes the impure air in the vicinity of the 
fow^l. We believe if the many inquirers and others, whose flocks 
are affected, would follow these directions, this disease which is so 
prevalent throughout the State would soon become checked. 

During January, February and March another feeding experi- 
ment was conducted in which six pens, comprising 90 birds in all,. 



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Ks^-fT^-'V ' 






52 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

were fed to determine the feeding value of three of our most i^-idely 
grown grains, wheat, oats and barley, and further what advant- 
age is to be gained from mixed grain rations. Although this work 
vnU be continued further before any definite conclusions are drawn 
we believe that oats and wheat is the most profitable mixture and 
wheat is the most desirable to feed alone. 

The department also published a bulletin designed to meet the 
needs of beginners in this branch of farming, which discussed the 
following topics: Breeds of poultry best suited to Montana's 
market and climatic conditions, artificial incubation and the care 
of incubator chicks, general management of breeding stock and 
laying birds, advantages of pure-bred stock, construction and 
ventilation of buildings, construction of brooders and brood coopis, 
incubator oils, and egg-preservation. The results of feeding ex- 
periments which were planned to show the necessity of variety 
rations in egg production were also given, together with data 
relative to the effect of these different rations upon egg fertility, 
and upon the composition of the egg. 

During the winter months we were forced to keep several of 
the pens confined on account of lack of yards, the ground about 
the building being only partially graded. We found as a result of 
this confinment that even with careful precautions the vice of egg 
eating developed to a ver3' considerable extent among the hens, and 
cutting the beaks was only a temporary check. Darkening the 
nesting place also had no effect, and at a loss to stop the 
practice by any specific means, we dug post-holes in the frozen 
ground with giant powder and erected temporary fences. This 
proved an effectual remedy, for as soon as the birds secured the run 
of the yards the practice ceased with the exception of one or two 
individual cases. This practice is evidently the immediate result of 
idleness resulting from close confinement and is best remedied by 
removing the cause of the evil. 

The spring months were devoted almost exclusively to raising 
pure-bred chicks, and with the stock raised this year we have been 
able to replace all the old mongrel stock and culls, and now have 
for the first time all our pens filled vrith first-class breeding stock 
which adds much to the value and attractiveness of the depart- 
ment. 

Numerous enquiries are received from time to time with refer- 
ence to construction of buildings, feed of fowl, diseases, incubators, 
etc., all of which are answered as required. 






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ANNUAL REPORT. 53 



HORTICULTUTAL DEPARTMENT. 



Charles Wilson, Gardiner. 

Temporarily in Charge. 



ORNAMENTAL SHRUB CULTURE. 



In all fifty deciduous shrubs have been tested for four consecu- 
tive years. This year's work has confirmed the results of the 
three preceding years. Twelve varieties have been found to be 
hardy, nineteen semi-hardy and nineteen worthless. 

HARDY. 

Berberis Canadensis, American Barberry.* 

Berberis Vulgaris, European Barberry.* 

Berberis Vulgaris purpurea. Purple-leaved Barberry.* 

Comus Sanguinea, Crimson Dogwood.* 

Legustrum, White-berried Privet.* 

Rihes aureum, Yellow-flowering Currant. 

Symphoricarpus racemosus. White Snowberry.* 

Sjrringa Caerulea Superba, Lilac. 

Syringa Villosa. 

Syringa Vulgaris, Louis Spath. 

Syringa Vulgaris, Princess Alexandria. 

Viburnum opulusSterilis, SnowbalL 

•Those starred have had young wood slightly winter killed 
two or three seasons, but not sufficiently to interfere seriously 
with the progress of the shrub. The balance do not suffer In the 
least from the severity of winter weather, and will probably give 
good results throughout the State where the altitude does not 
exceed 5,000 feet. 



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.64 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



SEMI-HARDY. 

Berberis Aquifolia, Mahonia.* 

Elaeagnus longipes, Silver Thorn.* 

Hydrangia paniculata grandWora* 

Lonicera Tartarica grandiflora, Pink-flowering Honej'suckle.* 

Lonicera Tartarica alba, White-flowering Honeysuckle.* 

Prunus triloba, Double-flowering Plum. 

Pyrus Japonica, Japan Quince, Scarlet.* 

Pyrus Japonica, Japan Quince, Blush.* 

Rhus glabra laciniata, Cut-leaved Sumac* 

Sambucus nigra aurea, Golden-leaved Elder.* 

Spiraea Van Houttei. 

Syringa, Garland.* 

Syringa, Golden. 

Syringa, Large-flowering. 

Tamarix. 

Viburnum. 

Syringa rothomagensis. . 

Saulbucus nigra laciniata. Cut-leaved Elder.* 

* Young wood half kills back each winter. While this occurs 
under our local conditions there are more suitable localities in the 
State where these will answer well. Those not starred in this 
group do well here. 



SHADE TREES. 



The Russian and Carolina poplars have given the best results 
being particularly hardy. The former is a fast grower, branching 
and symmetrical with large leaves. The yellow cottonwood fol- 
lows these two closely. 

Box elders, raised from seed, are hardy and growthy, but this 
does not seem to be the case with imported stocks. 

Mountain ash has proved to be hardy and a rapid growler of 
good shape. 

The ash, elm, English elder, maple and burr oak have proved 
to be worthless unless under verv favorable conditions. 



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ANNUAL REPORT. 55 



ROSES AND FLOWERS. 



Of the 28 kinds tried only two are hardy so that they can be 
grown without covering. These are the Persian yellow and 
Magna Charta. The former produces a great profusion of large 
yellow roses. 

In the green houses 30 varieties of chrysanthemums and 20 of 
carnations have been propagated. These lend much attractivenes 
to the place and are a source of income as there is a great demand 
for them. 

EXPERIMENTS IN FRUIT CULTURE. 



APPLES. 



The varieties given below have bepn set in the orchard most of 
them six years, and the balance four and five. The relative hardi- 
ness of these has now become a certainty and much more has been 
learned this year regarding their bearing capabilities and the 

quality of the fruit. 

HARDY. 
Anisette Langfield 

Bogdanoff Number Twelve 

Ben Davis Orel 

Duchess of Oldenburg Okabena 

Gano Royal Table 

Gipsey Girl Thompson's No. 10 

Good Peasant Voronesh 

Gideon Wealthy 

Hibernal Yellow Transparent 

Lead 3 N Zuzoff 

These kinds have all came into bearing with good results 

except for Orel, the fruit of which fell before maturity. 

NOTES ON FRUIT. 

LoBgfield.^QooA yielder, medium size, medium early fall apple. 
Wea//Aj^.— Late fall or winter, big yielder, attractive fruit. 
Qideon. — Late, large and attractive. 
HirbernaL—GooA yielder of large greenish red fruit ; winter. 



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MONTANA EX'PERIMENT STATION. 



CRABS. 

iley*s Crimson Pride of Minneapolis 

Drence Russet 

eenwood Transcendant 

rslop Whitney No.. 20 

irtha White Arctic 
ange 

tse are now in bearing and may be classed as hardy 

Whitney and Orange. 

se Transcendant was one of the most satisfactory^ being 

yielding a large quantity of medium sized fruit. 

9y. — Also produced well but is a little tender. 

.—Ripened early, fruit sweet and pear shaped. 

>.— Has been a continuous bearer for three years, large 

>f medium sized fruit, but a little late. 

's Crimson. — Good yielder, early and medium size. 

I. — Good size, medium early. 

if Minneapolis. — Small, green, sweetish, medium early. 

?.— Late and semi-hardy. 

PLUMS. 

many varieties tried, but one, the Moldorka, has sue- 

ripening fruit. Two trees of the same age came into 

roducing 30 pounds of large blueish fruit which ripened 

ber 10th. 

STRAWBERRIES. 

) large number tried in the original tests only five axe 
3ed, viz. : Splendid, Bisel, Ivanhoe, Crescent and 
i. Of the 37 varieties of more recent introduction only 
been selected, the Wolverton and William Belt. 
RASPBERRIES. 

arlbprough, Hausel and Brandy wine, only, have given 
Its under the local conditions. The former freezes back 
ut yields well. The two latter are the hardiest and are 
ers of good quality. 

h the Clark and Gumer freeze back they produce moder- 
but the berries are soft and of little account, 
bian. Early King and Cuthbert have been tried, but 
n every winter. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ANNUAL REPORT. 57 



IRRIGATION DEPARTMENT. 



S. FoRTiER, Irrigation Engineer. 



ONE SOURCE OF WASTE IN IRRIGATION, 



In Montana, water for irrigation is conveyed for the most part 
through channels in earth. Ordinary earth is porous and will not 
retain water without considerable loss. When large volumes are 
carried in open canals over long distances the loss or waste of 
water from this one cause frequently exceeds one-fourth of the 
total flow. The percentage of loss varies in accordance with the 
physical conditions. In retentive clay soils the seepage loss is 
usually small. On the other hand when canals are located around 
foothills and over sandy and gravelly benches the loss is usually 
great. 

In the absence of accurate measurements the loss in convey- 
ance was not known. Irrigators were aware that much less 
water was available at their respective headgates than entered the 
main canal, but they attributed the deficiency largely to evapora- 
tion and absorption along the route. The water that seeped 
from the bottom of the canal could not be seen by the ditch rider 
and its effects were not always apparent on the land bordering 
the canal. The joint efforts of this Station and the Department 
of Agriculture in making a series of measurements on each of 
several typical canals in the State and publishing the results have 
directed general attention to the subject of the seepage loss from 
canals. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Dr two seasons the loss due to seepage on several of the large 
^ of the State has been ascertained. The following table 
in brief the principal results : 

Total Plow Distance Loss Percentage of 
)ate. at Head. in in total 

Sec.-Ft. Miles. Sec.-Ft. Supply Lost. 

Middle Creek Canal, Gallatin County. 

),1899 98.9 4 21.5 21.7 

1,1900 63 4 12.2 19.4 

Farmers' Canal, Gallatin County. 

, 19(K> 133:1 10'^4 23.59 17.71 

West Gallatin irrigration Canal, Gallatin County. 

,1900 114.45 38^4 38. aS .34 

The Big Ditch, Yellowjstone County. 

9-13,1900 254.47 22 65.05 25.55 

The Republican Canal, Ravalli County. 

24, 1900 120.49 12 1-5 38.84 31.32 



EQUITABLH DIVISION UNDER CO-OPERATIVE CANALS. 



hile enormous yields can be produced under irrigation the 
ti is not without its drawbacks. One of these is the difficulty 
itered in dividing water equitably among a large number of 
lolders. In average years water is fairly abundant in this 
but owing to a light snowfall for two winters in succession 
ater supply has been deficient in many sections. The diffi- 
has been aggravated in not having proper headgates anB 
ring boxes. The division of water is usually based on the 
uesses of the water master. 

• long also as the loss in conveyance was not even approxi- 
y known it was impossible to give each user his proper share, 
rigation department of the Experiment Station has begun a 
^vork in determining for the canal owners the percentage of 
1 their canals and devising suitable methods by which the 
:hrough each farmer's headgate ma}^ be controlled and 
red. Measuring devices, including both weirs and rating 
, have been built under the supervision of the Station officers 
?rent cultivated valleys of the State for the purpose of intro- 
^ more modern methods. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



59 



THE USE OF WATER IN IRRIGATION. 

For the past two seasons experiments have been carried on by 
this Station in co-operation with the Office of Experiment Stations 
at Washington, D. C to ascertain the actual quantities of water 
used in irrigation. Without this knowledge it would be impossible 
to reach any definite conclusions as to the agricultural possibilities 
of any irrigable tract of land. One might know the amount of 
the available water supply and the extent of the land to be irri- 
gated, but if he did not know the average amount of water that 
should be applied per acre, the number of acres that might be 
reclaimed by the flow^ of a stream could not be determined. 

In Kke manner, when a storage reservoir is to be built it is 
important to know, before the enterprise is begun^ how much land 
a given quantity of water will irrigate. It is comparatively easy 
to obtain the capacity of the reservoir before any construction 
work is done, but if no tests have been made in the vicinity on the 
amount of water required per acre the area which the stored 
water will irrigate can only be roughly estimated. 

Then, too, one of the first steps necessai;y in defining a water 
right is to ascertain the amount of water economically used. One 
of the greatest difficulties experienced by the courts in settling 
water rights is the lack of knowledge on this particular subject. The 
following table contains a brief summary of the more important 
investigations on the use of water in irrigation : 

Duty of Water in 1899. 



Kind 


Name 

of 
County. 


.Vrea 

IrrUated 

Acres. 


Depth of Water. 


Water* AppUeti 

per Acre. 

Tons. 


No of 
Irriga- 
tions. 


Yield 


of 
Crop. 


Irriga- 
tion. 


Rain. 

.44 
.41 
.42 
.42 
.41 
.38 
.36 
.36 
.44 


Total. 


per 
Acre. 


• 

Red Clover. 

Peas 

Barley 

Wheet 

Barley 

Oats 

do 

do 

do 


Gallatin 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 


27.44 
4.23 
5.25 
6.02 

66.39 

23.41 
7.26 
2.48 

25.09 


1.02 
1.10 
1.98 
1.98 
.98 
1.53 
1.34 
2.16 
1.28 


1.46 
1.51 
2.40 
2.40 
1.39 
1.91 
1.70 
2.52 
1.72 


1386.8 
1495.6 
2692.05 
2692. a") 
1332.4 
.2080.2 
1821.9 
2936.8 
1740.3 


2 
2 

1 

1 
1 
2 
2 
1 


3.0 tous. 
31.25 bu. 
45.00 bu. 
57.89 bu. 


51.00 bu. 
72.75 bu. 
72.75 bu. 


. 



JM 



* Not including Rainfall. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1 



NTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Duty of Water in 1900. 



Area 

Irrigated 

Acres. 


Depth of Water. 


Water 
Applied 
per Acre. 

Tons.t 


No. of 
Irriga- 
tions. 


Yield 


Irriga- 
tion 
Ft. 


Rain 
Ft. 


Total 
Ft. 


Acre. 


66.39* 
4.14 

25.09 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
8.51 
4.42 
7.26 

35 90 
) 53 40 

40.00 
161.70 
102.2 


1.98 

1.50 

.64 

.77 

.77 

.56 

.56 

1.17 

1.39 

1.96 

2.70 

1 79 

1.30 

1.46 

1.30 

6.06 


.44 
.28 
.39 
.30 
.30 
.39 
.39 
.28 
.40 
.42 
.44 
.44 
.44 
.13 
.13 
.13 


2.42 

1.78 

i.a3 

1.07 
1.07 
.95 
.95 
1.45 
1.79 
2.38 
3.14 
2.22 
1.74 
1.59 
1.43 
6.19 


3290.3 
2420.2 
1400.4 
1454.8 
1454.8 
1291.6 
1291.6 
1971.5 
2433.9 
3236.0 
4269.2 
3018.3 
2365.8 
2161.9 
1944.3 
8416.0 


2 

2 

2* 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

4 

3 

1 

4 

2 

2 




46.5 bu. 


38.33 bu. 
1.58 tons. 
.75.58 bu. 
, 1330 lbs. 
87.29 bu. 
74.67 bu, 
68.59 bu. 
5.02 tons. 


5.17 tons. 


33.37 bu. 
34.03 bu. 



d on second irrigation, t Irrigation water. 



MOUNT OF WATER REQUIRED. 



1900, a tract of land on the western edge of 
as set apart for experiments on the proper 
apply in irrigation. Sixteen rectangular plats 
d off, with an intervening space between every 
(Fig. 1) extended along the west edge of the 
>nveyed water from the nearest ditch to each 
f water applied to any one plat was measured 
: head of the flume. • 

eded to oats May 21, 1900, at the rate of two 
ere. On May 30 the percentage, by weight, of 
jpper two feet of soil over the entire number 
n 17.29 to 20.95 and averaged 18.95 per cent, 
^ives the results obtained on plats No. 1 to 8, 
1 was not irrigated, but it received some 
jacent ditch. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



61 



Xo. of Plat. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 



Depth of 
Irrigation 


Yield per Acre. 




in 


Grain 


Straw 


Inches. 


Bushels. 


Pounds. 





46.1 


1655 


2 


61.7 


2345 


8 


68.2 


2823 


9 


73.5 


2988 


12 


74.8 


3075 


16 


78.2 


3398 


20 


77.6 


3284 


24 


83.5 


3215 



Yield per Acre 


Water 


of 


Used per 


Grain^nd Straw 


Acre. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


1.61 




2.29 


227 


2.57 


906 


2.74 


1020 


2.81 


1360 


3.03 


1813 


2.96 


2266 


3.03 


2719 



No. Tons 

Water Applied 

for Each Ton 

Produce. 



99 
353 
372 

484 
599 
765 



DISCHARGE OF THE PRINCIPAL RIVER5 OF HONTANA. 



For several years the irrigation department of the Station has 
supervised and conducted the hydrographic work of the U. S. 
Geological Survey in Montana. Gaging stations are established 
and maintained at favorable locations on the principal rivers of 
the State and measurements made of the flow at each station 
from four to twelve times during each year. An observer residing 
near the gaging station observes and records the height of water 
at least once a day. These records are mailed to the Experiment 
Station and are forwarded from thence to Washington, D. C. The 
data obtained from a number of stream measurements, together 
with the daily records of the observer, enable the engineer to com- 
pute with reasonable accuracy the daily flow, or discharge, 
throughout the year. The records for the year 1900 have been 
thus computed and are herein given for the following rivers : Yel- 
lowstone, Gallatin, West Gallatin, Middle creek, Madison, Jeffer- 
son, Miesoula, Big Blackfoot, Bitter Root and Milk river. It 
should be observed that when ice forms on the surface of a stream 
neither the gage heights nor the flow can be accurately determined. 
In the accompanying tables the discharges are given in cubic feet 
per second. Since 40 Montana miners' inches are equivalent to one 
cubic foot per second the flow may be converted into miners' inches 
by multiplying the figures given by the number 40. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



charge of West Oallatin River, in Second-feet, for 


1900. 






Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct, 


Nov. 


Dec. 




500 


630 


1200 


4165 


1300 


560 


440 


560 


500 330 




500 


•700 


1300 


3610 


1300 


560 


440 


560 


500 


330 




500 


700 


1460 


4570 


1105 


560 


440 


500 


500 


358 




500 


700 


1745 


4900 


935 


580 


560 


560 


500 


385 




500 


775 


1995 


4985 


935 


580 


560 


560 


500 


440 




500 


850 


2610 


5410 


935 


500 


560 


560 


500 440 




500 


1020 


2327 


4827 


935 


500 


560 


560 


500 


440 




500 


850 


2465 


4325 


935 


500 


530 


500 


500 


385 




500 


775 


2610 


4405 


935 


500 


440 


500 


500 


385 




500 


775 


3223 


4165 


850 


500 


440 


500 


500 385 




500 


775 


40a5 


4652 


850 


500 


440 


500 


440 


385 




500 


775 


4005 


3145 


850 


500 


385 


500 


385 


385 




500 


775 


3223 


3223 


775 


500 


440 


500 


440 


385 




500 


775 


2835 


3223 


775 


500 


440 


500 


440 


3S> 


1 500 


775 


2760 


3533 


775 


500 


500 


500 


440 


385 


) 500 


850 


2610 


3145 


700 


500 


440 


500 


440! 358 


1 1 500 


775 


2610 


•2835 


700 


518 


440 


500 


440 ' 330 


) 1 500 


850 


2685 


2610 


700 




500 


500 


385 1 330 


> 500 


935 


2395 


2685 


700 


"566' 


500 


500 


330 330 


) , 500 


1062 


2535 


2760 


700 


500 


500 


500 


280 33t) 


) 1 500 


1200 


2610 


2835 


630 


500 


500 


385 


280 330 


) , 500 


1352 


2990 


2685 


10() 


500 


440 


440 


330 3a^ 




500 


1572 


3067 


2685 


&30 


500 


560 


500 


330 33L> 




500 


1250 


3377 


2685 


630 


518 


500 


500 


aSQ 358 




500 


1105 


3533 


1995 


630 


518 


500 


500 


330 358 




500 


1200 


4325 


1995 


630 


560 


500 


500 


330 1 330 




500 


1200 


5155 


1630 


665 


530 


500 


440 


330 


330 


) ■ 500 


1300 


5410 


1405 


630 


530 


560 


385 


330 


330 


. 630 


1300 


4652 


1405 


560 


530 


500 


385 


330 


330 


.1 630 


1200 


4652 


1300 


616 


500 


518 


440 


330 


330 


J 630 

1 




4005 




630 


440 




440 




320 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



J 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



Daily Discharge of iladison River, Near Red Bluff, in Second Feet, foi 
(Including Cherry Creek) 


Dy.|jan.| Feb. 

1 1 


Mar. 
(a) 


Apr. 


May 


June . July 


Auk. 


Sept. 


Oct. j Nov. 


1 






860 
860 
860 
1430 
1430 
1430 
1640 
1430 
1430 
1430 
14:30 
1430 
1430 
1430 
15a5 
1640 
1745 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
2075 
2300 
2530 
2530 
2530 
2530 
2530 
2530 
2577 


3005 
3645 
4040 
4040 
4173 
3775 
3908 
4040 
4173 
4:305 
4624 
4840 
5110 
4840 
4438 
4173 
3775 
3645 
:3260 
3515 
3593 
3515 
3645 
3960 
4173 
4570 
5110 
5380 
5655 
5655 
5518 


4840 
4305 
5110 
5110 
5326 


2075 
lW5 
19a3 
1850 
1850 


1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1(>40 
1640 
1640 
1745 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1745 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 


1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1610 
1640 
1640 
1850 
1850 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 


1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
18>0 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
18nO 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 


1850 


2 
3 


.... 


(a) 


1850 
1850 


4 


(a) 






1640 


5 






1640 


6 








5380 


1850 


1640 


7 








5380 1850 


1640 


8 
9 




(a) 


860 


5110 
5110 
5110 
4840 
4705 
4040 
3775 
3515 
3260 
4305 
2648 


1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 


1640 
1640 


10 








1640 


11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 

2;^ 

24 
25 
26 
27 

28 


(a) 


t 


1640 
1640 






1640 






1640 




(a) 860 


1640 
1640 






1640 


(a) 




1640 


1 


2530 ; 1850 
2300 1 1850 
2300 1 1850 
2300 1850 
2188 ' 1850 
2075 1850 
2075 1850 
2075 1850 
2075 1 1S50 
2075 ' 1850 
2075 ' IH.^ 


1640 






1640 






1640 


1 


(a) 860 


1(340 
1640 







1040 


(a) 




1640 




1640 






1640 






1640 


t>9 






860 


1640 


30 






2075 


1640 
1640 


1640 


31 



















(a > Ice. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



:>f Jefferson River, at Sappington, in Second Feet, for 


1900. 


ir. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 


AuK. 


1 Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Doc. 


) 


2020 


3870 


5890 


1870 


600 


515 


1090 


1590 


1590 


) 


2170 


3870 


5705 


1725 


600 


515 


1205 


1590 


1590 


) 


2565 


4050 


5520 


1590 


600 


515 


1265 


1590 


1590 


) 


2810 


4140 


5705 


1590 


515 


515 


1364 


1590 


1590 


) 


2980 


4410 


5890 


1455 


515 


600 


1455 


1590 


1725 


) 


3150 


4688 


4050 


1455 


515 


600 


1495 


1455 


1725 


) 


3330 


5058 


5705 


1455 


515 


600 


1455 


1455 


1725 


\ 


a330 


5248 


5705 


1455 


515 


600 


1455 


1455 


1725 


) 


3330 


5613 


5a35 


1325 


015 


600 


1455 


1455 


1725 


J5 


3065 


5985 


5150 


1325 


515 


685 


1455 


1455 : 1725 


>0 


2810 


6365 


4965 


1205 


515 


685 


1455 


1455 1725 


JO 


2645 


6850 


4410 


1205 


515 


685 


1455 


1455 ; 1590 


50 


2645 


8050 


4050 


1205 


515 


685 


1325 


1455 ; 1590 


JO 


2645 


8665 


4050 


1090 


515 


685 


1325 


1455 1590 


ro 


2645 


8973 


3870 


980 


515 


685 


1325 


1455 1590 


lO 


2810 


9075 


36W 


875 


515 


685 


1325 


1455 1590 


55 


2810 


8773 


3870 


775 


515 


685 


1325 


1455 1455 


lO 


2810 


8358 


4050 


775 


515 


775 


1325 


1455 1455 


50 


2810 


8050 


4230 


685 


515 


825 


1205 


1455 1 1455 


50 


21)80 


7740 


4410 


685 


515 


875 


1205 


1455 1455 


ro 


2980 


7445 


3870 


685 


515 


875 


1205 


1455 1 1455 


(0 


3150 


7350 


3420 


685 


515 


875 


1205 


1455 1455 


55 


333H 


6948 


2810 


685 


515 


875 


1325 


1455 1 1455 


i5 


3420 


6850 


2645 


685 


515 


875 


1325 


1455 1 1455 


^5 


3600 


66rv5 


2485 


685 


515 


875 


1325 


1455 1455 


^5 


3G90 


6558 


L>325 


600 


51 5 


9S0 


1455 


1455 1455 


)5 


3870 


6460 


2170 


609 


475 


980 


1455 


1455 14® 


L8 


3870 


6460 


2095 


GOO 


475 


980 


1455 


1455 1335 


50 


3870 


6655 


2020 


600 


475 


980 


1455 


1590 1325 


[0 


3870 


64CA) 


2020 


600 


515 


980 


1455 


1590 1325 


ro 




6175 




600 


515 




1590 




1325 



Digitized by VjOQQIC 



ANNUAL KEPORT. 



Daily Di5chars:e of Qallatin River, at Logan, in Second-Feet, for 19 



Dy. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


I 
May 


June 


July 


Auk. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


I 
1 

3 
4 






940 
940 
940 
940 
940 
940 
940 
940 
940 
940 
940 
940 
940 
940 
1030 
1030 
1030 


1575 
1575 
1638 
1950 
1950 
2210 
5665 
2505 
2665 
3078 
3595 
4055 
4240 
3415 
3243 
2995 
2995 
LW5 
2995 
2995 
2995 
21>95 
2995 
3078 
3505 
3(W5 
4a33 
4805 
4805 
4055 
4240 


3870 
3870 
4240 
4240 
4^33 
4615 
4520 
4055 
3685 
;M15 
2585 
2210 
2210 
2013 
1763 
1575 
1575 
14(Ji) 
12.35 
12:15 
1080 
1030 
1030 
10:50 
940 
940 
850 
765 
(WO 
005 


605 

5:w 

530 
460 
460 
460 
460 
460 
4(K) 
345 
345 
291) 
240 
240 
240 
240 
240 
240 
1^40 
240 
240 
240 
•J40 
240 
240 
240 
290 
290 
21 K) 
2iK) 
290 


290 
2<K) 
29(^ 
290 
2^^ 
290 
290 
345 
345 
345 
345 
:M5 
345 
345 
:{45 

:w5 
:W5 
:\\^^ 

345 

:i45 
:i45 
:J45 
:m5 
:M5 

345 
400 
400 
4CK) 
400 
4C0 
400 


400 
400 
460 

m) 

460 
460 
460 
460 
4(50 
460 
460 
460 
460 
460 
460 
400 
460 
460 
5:30 
530 
5:50 
5: JO 

530 
530 
5.30 
5:50 

5:i() 

530 

5:30 
5:30 




530 
530 
530 
605 
643 
680 
6S0 
680 
605 
605 
605 
605 
605 
6(^r) 
(^)5 
(i05 
605 
(J05 
6(^5 
605 
(505 
(505 
605 
(K)5 
(505 
(505 
(505 
605 
6(X) 
605 
(505 


605 






605 


765 






605 






605 








605 
(505 




7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12- 
13 
14 
15 

in 










1030 


1:^5 


605 
605 








605 


850 






605 








(K)5 








605 








605 




(a. 


940 


605 
(505 







(505 


17 


a'lO 






605 


18 







1130 
1130 
1130 
1130 
1130 
1345 
1460 
1575 
1638 
1575 
1575 
1575 
1575 


72:3 


19 








895 


20 




1 


10:30 


21 


(a) 

t 


1030 


1080 
1030 


23 

24 
25 
26 
27 

28 
29 
30 


iceo* 






940 
850 


_ i 


7(55 


•":"; 1 


680 




1 

i636''"856' 


(580 
()S0 
(58() 




1 


680 


31 


1030 


1 








1 





<a} Ice. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATIOK. 



ly Discharge of Yellowstone River, above Uvlngrston, in Second-Feet, 

for 1900. 



Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July 



1380 



) I 



142C) 



i:uo 



(a) 
(a) 
(a) 

(a) 

(a) 

, (a) 

I ^^ 

(a) 

I (a) 

1 (a) 

(a) 

I (a) 

I (a) 

I (a) 

i (a) 

(a) 

(a) 

I (a) 

(a) 

1340 



1340 



(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
^a) 
1340 



1265 



VM 



1265 
1340 
1420 
l5iK) 
1500 
1500 
1670 
1950 
1850 
1585 
1585 
1585 
1585 
1628 
1628 
15a5 
1585 
1585 
1670 
1950 
2150 
2375 
2923 
2605 
2605 
24W 
2375 
24! >0 
2605 
2663 



2490' 

'J855 

3060 

4075 

4730 

5980 

5740 

562>l 

()f)2() 

8970 

ia37o , 

11540 

9140 

7215 

5980 

5930 

6420 

6220 

5670, 

086O 

6170 

6600 I 

7070, 

7550 ' 

79,33 

9J)55 

12485 i 

14H0> i 

13375 I 

11450 1 

10660 



10660 
11540 

12975 
137-25 
15080 
1536:^ 
13:375 
14530 
11315 
10875 
10455 
10250 
11773 
12730 
12485 
12150 
11090 
10660 
11090 
IKKK) 
11315 
in. 05 
10373 
10170 
9861) 
9245 
8570 
8150 
7935 



I 




7270 


3395 


2100 


1715 


1500 


1305 


6945 


3270 


21(K) 


17S3 


1500 ; 1355 


6600 


3240 


2050 


1760 


1500 


1310 


6470 


3130 


2050 


1733 


1500 


134(1 


6220 


3060 


2050 


1715 


1500 


1340 


5981 > 


3060 


2050 


1715 


1500 


1340 


5812 


2990 


2000 


1715 


1475 


1340 


5-75 


2990 


2000 


1688 


1460 


1340 


5:.05 


2923 


1950 


1670 


1460 


1340 


5:; 15 


2855 


1950 


1645 


1420 


1340 


5165 


2790 


1900 


1628 


1356 


1340 


5005 I 2725 


1{)00 


1585 


1340 


1340 


4a30 


2725 


1900 


1585 


1395 


1190 


4690 


2665 


1900 


15*3 


1420 


1265 


4630 


2665 


1850 


1545 


1380 


1265 


4495 


2605 


1823 


1585 


1460 


1265 


4345 


2548 


1805 


1585 


1395 


1265 


4305 


2490 


1805 


1585 


1305 


126o 


4250 


2490 


1850 


1585 


(a) 


1265 


4160 


2433 


1850 


1545 


(a) 


1265 


4075 


24a3 


1805 


1585 


(a) 


1265 


4040 


2433 


1805 


1545 


(a) ! 12© 


3900 


2375 


1760 


1585 


(a) 


3815 


2375 


1760 


1585 


1190 Ua» 


3730 


2375 


1760 


1545 


1205 1110 


3730 


2375 


1733 


1545 


1340 1155 


3730 


2318 


1715 


1545 


1380 1155 


36:)5 


2318 


1715 


1545 


1340 \m 


:fe75 


2260 


1715 


1545 


1265 , 10311 


3500 


22(K 


1715 


1500 


1265 ' 


3420 


2150 




1500 


(a) 

1 



(a) Ice. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 











ANNUAL REPORT 










67 


1 


>aiiy Discharge of Milk River, at Havre, 


In Second-Feet, for 1900. 




■ 1 


fan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


Juuo j July 


Aug. 


- 
Sppt. , Oct. 

■ 


Nov. 


Doc. 










355 
438 
396 
315 
^0 
248 
216 
189 
189 
169 
149 
129 
149 
149 
189 
820 
1575 
1205 
880 
640 
587 
760 
587 
485 
438 


355 
315 
280 
216 
216 
216 


76 
76 
63 
63 
63 

as 


21 

12 

12 

• 12 

12 

12 

12 

8 

8 

8 

12 

232 

2ai 

149 
109 
76 
63 
39 
30 


30 

12 

12 

12 

39 

39 

50 

76 

91 

169 

149 

149 

149 

76 

76 

63 

63 

63 

63 


76 
76 
91 
109 
149 
355 
355 
280 
248 
216 
189 
189 
169 
169 
248 
280 
315 
280 
248 
216 
216 
149 
149 
129 
129 
129 
129 
129 
129 
109 
109 


129 
129 
129 
109 
109 
109 
109 
109 
109 
76 
63 
109 
149 
109 
169 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 


(a) 

(a) 

(a) 

(a) 

(a) ■ 

(a) 

(a) 

(a) 

(a) 

(a) 

(a) 

(a) 

(a) 

(a) 

la) 

^^ 

12 
i-i 
12 
12 

30 

(a) 

(a) 

(a) 

(a) 

(a) . 

(a) 

(a) 

(a) 

(a) 

































- I 












1 




. 










216 , 50 


. 


j 






189 

189 

149 

149 

149 

129 

129 

129 

129 

129 

149 

109 

109 

109 

109 

109 

91 

91 

109 

91 

91 

91 

76 


50 
63 
76 
91 
50 
5C) 
39 
39 
39 
39 
39 
30 
30 




1 












485 
485 
840 
587 
587 
485 
438 
315 
396 
280 
280 
280 
280 
280 
355 
438 




;:!"i;::::: 




•* ' 


•""i 






. . . . 1 




-• 


1 






1 




































:^ 


63 










30 21 

30 1 21 
21 1 12 
21 ; 12 
21 12 


76 
109 
109 

91 

76 
76 




1 
























1 




438 


:{96 


21 
21 
30 
21 
21 
21 


12 




1 





280 
355 
280 
315 


a')5 

280 
315 
280 
315 


12 


76 








12 
12 
12 

30 


63 
63 
76 





































'4^ 
■J 

'i* 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



m' 



68 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



I 



Dally Discharge of Middle Creek, above Flander'a Mill, In Second-Feet, 

for 1900. 



Day 


Junp 


July 


.Vuff. 


Sept. j 


1.... 




118 


^ 66 


48 


2. 




118 


66 


48 


3.... 




88 


66 


48 


4.... 




88 


66 


48 


5 




118 


88 


48 


6.... 




88 


66 


48 


7.... 




88 


66 


48 


8.... 




118 


66 


48 


9.... 


.. . . . 


118 


66 


48 


10.... 




118 


57 


48 


11.... 




118 


57 


48 


12.... 




88 


55 


48 


13.... 




88 


53 


48 


14.... 




88 


53 


48 


15.... 


1 


118 


51 


48 



I 



June 



48 

48 I 

48 ! 

48 I 

48 

48 

48 

48 

48 

48 

48 

48 

48 



July 



2:t2 

192 
232 
321 
232 
368 
232 
232 
192 
192 
192 
163 
118 



88 
88 
88 
88 
88 
66 
66 
66 
66 



88 
66 
66 



Auk. Sept. 



^ 



51 
51 
51 
51 
51 
51 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
48 
48 



48 
48 
48 
50 
50 
50 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 



Oct. 



'^■: 






Digitized by VjOOQIC^ 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



6< 



\y Discharge of Bitter Root River, Near Hissoula, in Second -Feet, for i 


900 


Jan. 1 


Feb. 


Mar. 


.\pr. 


May 


June 


July ] Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct, 


Nov. 


Dec 


1255 


• 
1255 




1930 


i 7210 


3570 


950 


1080 


1165 


1880 


112 


1165 


12o5 




2040 


7;^55 


3260 


950 


1080 


1080 


1930 


11-2 


1123 


1255 




2540 


6400 


8100 


3110 ; 930 


1010 


1080 


1930 


112; 


1 123 


1165 


9x6 


3035 


7070 


9000 


2680 910 


950 


1165 


1730 


IVZ 


1165 


1045 


930 


3570 


87001 9600 


2540 890 


950 


1165 


1635 


116 


1135 


1010 


930 


3810 


9600 10200 


2475 i 870 


1010 


1123 


1635 


116 


1165 


1)80 


980 


3975 


10800 10650 


2475 870 


1045 


1165 


1445 


125 


1165 


950 


1045 


3730 


10500 1 9300 


2475 870 


1045 


1210 


L350 ia5< 


1123 


950 


1080 


3490 


9750 8700 


2280 , 870 


1010 


1210 


1540 


125 


1080 


980 


1080 


3410 


10950 7800 


2220 ' 870 


1010 


1165 


1350 


12a 


1080 


(a) 


1255 


3.335 


12650 6400 


2220 870 


1010 


1165 


1255 


116 


1123 


(a) 


1303 


3260 


14638 ^150 


1930 853 


980 


1165 


1210 


112 


1165 


(a) 


1350 


3335 


18150. 6150 


1830 i 85:3 


980 


1080 


1210 


10» 


1350 


^a) 


1445 


3260 


15200 5910 


1830 853 


950 


1045 


1165 


1081 


1540 


(a) 


1493 


3260 


11700 ! 5910 


1730 853 


950 


1045 


1165 


1081 


1540 


(a) 


16a3 


3410 


10200, 8700 


1635 1 858 


950 


1010 


1165 


108< 


1445 


(a) 


1830 


3730 


10350 


8250 


1540 853 


1350 


1010 


1165 


116 


1398 


(a) 


1930 


4145 


10500 


7800 


1445 853 


1350 


1045 


1165 


116 


1350 


(a) 


1985 


4230 


10650 


7500 


1398 1 a35 


1350 


1045 


(a) 


1251 


ia50 


(a) 


2040 


4320 


9()00 


6795 


1398 1 835 


1255 


1080 


(a) 


1251 


1255 


(a) 


2040 


4410 


8400 


7210 


1255 ' 800 


1255 


1165 


(a) 


125 


1210 


(a) 


2100 


4600 


SlOi) 


7500 


1210 800 


1255 


1255 


(a) 


125 


1210 


(a) 


2100 


4410, 


8400 


7a50 


1165 


800 


1210 


1350 


(a) 


125 


1210 


(a) 


2160 


4230 


8250 


7500 


1165 


835 


125.1 


1445 


(a) 


116 


1123 


(a) 


2160 


4060 


8100 


7800 


1123 


8:^ 


1255 


1165 


1255 


116 


1123 


'a) 


2280 


4060 


8100 


6660 


1123 


835 


1350 


1540 


1165 


116 


1123 


(a) 


2160 


3975 


8250 


5670 


1123 


853 


1350 


1730 


1165 


108 


1165 


(a) 


2040 


3975 


8250 


4800 


1123 


870 


1350 


1780 


1165 


101 


1165 




2 LOO 




8250 


4230 


1123 


870 


1255 


1780 


1165 


95 


1165 




1930 




7355 


4060 


JOIO 


950 


1255 


1830 


1123 


95 


1255 

i 




1930 





6795 




980 


1010 




1880 




95 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 






70 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATfoN. 



Dally Discharge of Big Blaclcfoot Ri 


ver, Near Bonner, 


in Second-Feet, 










for 1900. 




* 








Dy. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


Jime 


July 


i Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1 


824 


743 


662 


1310 


3514 


3908 


1830 


1026 


986 


824 


743 


(a» 


2 !824 


,662 


662 


1391 


3988 


4064 


1781 


1026 


905 


824 


743 


(a) 


3 DOp 


662 


702 


1435 


a98b 


4064 


1733 


986 


905 


824 


783 


(a) 


4 864 


662 


581 


1733 


4160 


4064 


1643 


986 


905 


8-24 


743 


(a) 


5 783 


702 


380 


1980 


5106 


,3749 


1643 


986 


905 


824 


783 


(a) 


6 702 


621 


420 


2325 


5877 


3988 


15,53 


986 


905 


8-24 


824 


1067 


7 824 


662 


500 


2520 


6005 


3749 


15i3 


986 


905 


743 


783 


986 


8 783 


581 


702 


2650 


5877 


.3514 


1512 


986 


905 


743 


783 


8-24 


9 7a3 


540 


903 


2715 


5.363 


.3514 


1472 


945 


824 


8-24 


7a3 


743 


10 783 


621 


1512 


2585 


6005 


a357 


1472 


1026 


824 


824 


824 


702 


11 '783 


702 


2085 


2585 


6648 


3125 


1391 


986 


905 


743 


783 


783 


12 


702 


702 


2980 


2520 


8061 


2980 


1391 


905 


90o 


743 


743 


702 


13 


^5 


581 


3125 


2455 


12559 


2910 


1391 


905 


905 


74S 


783 


702 


14 


905 


581 


208 '» 


23-25 


11274 


2980 


1391 


905 


905 


743 


702 


702 


15 


864 


5i0 


1781 


2455 


9989 


2<)80 


1310 


<K)5 


824 


743 


743 


662 


16 


864 


460 


1598 


2520 


8704 


3125 


1350 


1067 


824 


8-24 


743 


662 


17 


783 


621 


;643 


2520 


9089 


3592 


1350 


905 


824 


945 


783 


581 


18 


864 


540 


1350 


2520 


8961 


3514 


12a9 


1067 


905 


783 


(;62 


621 


19 


864 


702 


1391 


2780 


8575 


3125 


1229 


905 


824 


702 


702 


621 


20 


743 


662 


1148 


2980 


7676 


2910 


1269 


864 


824 


702 


(a) 


602 


21 


783 


662 


1107 


3200 


7290 


2980 


1229 


905 


905 


662 


ta) 


864 


22 


824 


702 


1107 


3278 


7162 


2845 


1188 


9(J5 


824 


74:3 


(a) 


905 


23 


743 


702 


1188 


3592 


6.3111 


2715 


1107 


905 


824 


702 


(a) 


783 


24 


662 


662 


1269 


3749 


6:^1 


2650 


H.26 


905 


824 


783 


(a) 


824 


25 


702 


662 


1229 


3071 


.5877 


2520 


1026 


805 


824 


702 


(a) 


783 


26 


743 


581 


1188 


3671 


52,34 


2.3-25 


1148 


905 


743 


743 


(a) 


824 


27 


G62 


621 


1269 


3671 


5106 


2200 


1229 


905 


743 


824 


(a) 


783 


28 


702 


621 


1310 


3435 


4977 


2085 


1067 


905 


824 


783 


(a) 


702 


29 


702 




1188 


.3.357 


4977 


20.30 


1067 


864 


824 


743 


(a) 


7(^2 


30 


743 




1229 


3278 


4720 


1880 


1107 


945 


824 


783 


(a) 


702 


31 


743 




1310 




3988 




1107 

• 


864 




743 




581 



(a) Ice 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



71 



Daily Discharge of Missoula River, at Misso 


ula, in Secon 

Au«. ' Sept. 


d-Feef 


t, lor 


1900. 


Dy. Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. Apr. May June 


July 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1 (a) 


I 
(a) 


15rW 2480 1 6540 


94^0 


3260 1 1404 


1278 


1430 


1560 


(a) 


2 I la) 


(a) 


1560 2645 1 6880 


9050 


3160 ; 1340 


1245 


1495 


1560 


(a) 


3 (a) 


(a) 


14a"> 316t) 1 7475 


905<J 


2980 , 1404 


13(K) 


1470 


15(50 


(a) 


4 I m) 


(a) 


1365 3.580 1 8175 


8875 


2760 1340 


1278 


1664 


1625 


(a) 


5 ' (ai 


la) 


980 4100 9L55 




267S , 1245 


1404 


1600 


1664 


1860 


♦; 


(a) 


(a) 


1030 , 4400 10000 




2678 1245 


1404 


1560 


1625 


1885 


7 


^a) 


^a) 


1365 4900 10600 


8i75' 


2645 ' lliH) 


1495 


1(564 


I6'25 


1820 


8 


(a) 


(a) 


1560 , 4650 1(H20 


8175 


2.513 


1190 


14.30 


1625 


16-26 


1820 


9 


(aj 


(a) 


lWo 4725 ; 9800 


i too 


24.30 


1245 


1404 


1560 


1600 


1690 


10 


(a) 


(a) 


3tK)0 ' 4475 11120 


7580 


2.315 


iia5 


1.365 


1560 


1625 


1600 


11 i (a) 


(a) 


5400 4400 12950 


6775 


22.32 


1.30) 


13(r) 


• 15.34 


15.34 


1470 


12 


(ai 


(a) 


6950 , 4400 I 23600 


6240 


2150 


1245 


i:iiK) 


1495 


1430 


1.365 


13 


1690 


la) 


6300 4225 123600 


5940 


2070 


1245 


1278 


1495 


14,30 


1.30() 


14 


l!^iO 


(a» 


4025 , 4350 


20V)0 


555' » 


2025 i 12-23 


1245 


1470 


1470 


1.300 


15 1730 


(a) 


3400 4275 


17980 


5700 


19.50 ; 1190 


1278 


1495 


14.30 


1.3(55 


16 11604 


(a) 


2545 4475 


16200 


5940 


18a5 1 119.) 


2348 


1495 


14,30 


1340 


IT ;i534 


450 


276 1 4475 


168 -.0 


r)775 


iHtJO lOSO 


16lK» 


1470 


161)0 


l,3a5 


18 11560 


930 


264i , 4400 


16700 


7580 


1820 


1U3 


1625 


14.30 


(a) 


L340 


19 1560 


(a) 


2215 4725 


15*50 


63J)0 


1755 


1113 


1690 


1470 


(a) 


1.300 


2i> 11560 


(a) 


234S 5100 


15450 


6(K)0 


1625 


1080 


10(54 


1470 


(a) 


1,340 


21 aooo 


(a) 


2392 5:V>0 


13950 


5575 


1;\34 


UX30 


10-25 


143i» 


(a) 


1664 


22 11534 


1495 


2480 1 585J 


13100 


5490 


1470 


1245 


15<J0 


15(50 


(a) 


I8a5 


'2:i i|534 


15:i4 


2678 6150 


12850 


5150 


1;5;U 


1278, 


•l56u 


1560 


(a) 


15(50 


24 [1495 


1664 


2513 . a3(V) 


12120 


5025 


1495 


1:{40 


i625 


15(K) 


(a) 


14.30 


15 11223 


1664 


2480 . 6;«)0 


11520 


4900 


1534 


1404 


irm 


15.34 




1.340 


26. m 


1625 


2562 


6450 


10880 


4900 


1534 


14.30 


1560 


1495 


* '(aV * 


1.300 


27 980 


1625 


'2562 


6450 


109-20 


4400 


1495 


1430 


15')M 


1470 


(a) 


1.340 


28 730 


1625 


2562 6:^00 


UOiK) 


4025 


1495 


1340 


ir.34 


1495 


(a) 


11J)0 


20 i (ai 




2430 


630t) 


1060 » 


3700 


1534 


1.3(M 


15.34 


)(J(K) 


(a) 


1013 


30 (a» 




2265 


6300 10000 


34(»0 


1430 


1365 


1430 1534 


(a) 


980 


31 (a) 




2348 




9600 




1430 


1340 


1560 




(a) 



(a» Ice 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 






INDEX. 

BULLETINS ag to 33. 



Bulletin Paife 

No. No. 

Alkali and Crop Growth 32 36 

Alkali Disease of Plants 32 42 

Alsiko Clover, ^^razin^ under irri^n- 

tion 31 3-6 

Agriculture in Mont^iua 32 6 

Agricultural Department ReiMirt Si 16-34 

Amount of Water Re<iuired for Irri- 

ffation 32 60 

Apples -. 32 55 

Arctic Berry 32 41-42 

Barley 32 17.20 

Botanical Department Repf>rt 32 38-43 

Cabbage Aphis 32 48 

C:abbaffe Leaf-Miner 32 47 

Ch«'mical Department Report .32 35-37 

Classification of Weeds 30 13-17 

Clover and Grain Hay Compared 31 14-16 

:e 24 

Co-o|M»ration with Farmers ."12 20 

Ctw>^)erative Canals, e<iultable di vi- 
sum under 32 58 

Ct)rrespondeuce 32 13, 24 

Crabs 32 56 

Curculio «)f Rose 32 49 

Currant Saw-Fly ...IfZ 47 

DirecU>r's Report :«J 6-13 

Discharfire of the Principal Rivers of 

Montana ;i2 61-71 

Duty of Water 29 7-25 

.T2 59, 60 
EntomoloKical Department Report . .S2 45-49 
Equitable Divisitm under Co-opera- 
tive Canals 32 58 

Eradication of Wee<ls 30 17-22 

Exchanges 32 14, 15 

Exi>eriments, Feedin*? Betjf Cattle. . .31 7-10 

PIks ':<1 27,28 

Sheep 31 11-20 

:i2 23,30-,3^l 

in Fruit Culture 32 .55 

with Poultry SI 51 

Farmers' Institutes 32 12 

Fattening Lambs 31 11-20 

32 30-:M 
Feeding Experiments, see "Experi- 
ments." 

Foo<l Examination ;i2 :^ 

Formalin Treatment for Grain Smut.32 25 

Fruit Culture Experiments .T2 55 

Grain Smut 32 25 

Grasses and Forage Plants 32 18. 19 

Grazing Alsike (iov»'r uiuIit Irriga- 
tion 31 :i-6 

Grazing and Feeding To.sts 31 3-20 

.T2 21 

Grazing Steers and Heifers 31 3-<) 

Hedge Plants :r2 '.iS-iO 

Horticultural Depart ment Report.. . 32 53-5<i 

Irrigation 29 1-44 

32 57-71 

Irrigation Department Report 32 57-71 

Lamb Feeding Experiments 31 11-20 

32 23.30-34 



Bulletin Pajfe 

NcK No. 

Laws Relating to WchhIs ;«) 22, .3 

Live-stock Breeding,' and Feeding — 32 21 

Loss from Seepage m Canals 29 2ir42 

Native Currant Sa w-Fly 32 47 

Native Hedge Plants 32 38-40 

Needs of the Station 32 11-12 

Oats 32 17-20 

Ornomeutal Flowers 82 55 

Ornamental Shrub Culture 32 53 

Pasture Experiments 31 5W 

Peas 32 17,20 

Plants Poisonous to SU)ck 82 43, 44 

Plums 32 56 

Poisonous Plant Invt*stigation 32 43, 44 

Pota toes ". :i2 1» 

Pcmltry Department Report 32 50-52 

Press Contributions 32 25 

Publications 82 12 

Suantity of Water to Apply 29 iy 

aspberries. ..' :J2 J*5 

Ration Tests 82 20 

ReiKirt of t he Agricultural Dep't 32 16-S4 

Botanical Department. 32 8S-4S 

Chemical Department. 32 35-37 

Director 32 ti-15 

Entomological Dep't ... 32 45-49 

Horticultural Dep^t ... .32 M-56 

Irrigation Department. 32 57-71 

P<ml t ry Depa rt ment. . .. 32 50^*^2 

Treasurer. lH ^5 

Rivers of Montana. Discharge of 82 61-71 

Root Crt>p.s tJ2 19-20 

Rose Curculio 32 4? 

Roses and Flowers .32 55 

Seepage of Water 29 26-42 

Shade Trees 82 54 

Sheep-Feeding Experiments 31 11-20 

32 2.^80^ 

Source of Waste in Irrigation 82 57 

Station Ctmucil 32 10.11 

Policy, change in 32 9 

St ra wherries 32 42, 56 

Strawberry Leaf-Roller 32 46 

Sugar Be^t Investigation 32 M 

Treasurers Report 32 5 

Use of Water in Irrigation 32 59 

Variety Tests of Grains 82 16 

Waste Product Utilization 81 12 

:t2 26f) 

Water in Irrigation, u.se of,.: 32 59 

Duty nt 29 7-25 

Quantity to apply .29 4-7 

Supply, I'ffect on fattening 

lambs :i2 24 

Wee<ls of Montana -V) 8^70 

Characteristics 30 5-7 

Distributi<m 30 7-9 

General Study of 30 8-5 

Laws relating to 30 22, 28 

Origin 30 «-« 

Root-System 80 18 

Wheats 32 16,20 

Work of the Station 82 7, 8 






Digitized by VjOOQIC 



sScc K-^^. 3b 



-LETIN NO. 33. 



MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 

XPERIMENT STATION 

THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE OF ilONTANA. 



^UGAR BEETS IN MONTANA, 

THE CROP OF 1901. 



SUGAR BEET SERIES NO. a. 



BOZEHAN, MONTANA, JANUARY 1902. 



TiM Avant Courier Publishing Co., 
BoieuMui, 'MoatMM. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

FROM THE LIBRARY OF 

ARTHOR B. SEYMOUR 

APRIL 2, 1933 



itana Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Bozeman, Montana. 



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

>H K. Toole, Governor ^ 

s Donovan, Attorney General >ex-officio Helena 

^ Welch, Supt. of Public Instruction J 

Hamilton Missoula 

Hendricks Butte 

. McCoNNELL Helena 

GoDDARD ! Billings 

Chisholm Bozeman 

McKay Hamilton 

Paul Dillon 

HoLTER Helena 



EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

rER S. Hartman, President Bozeman 

M. Robinson, Vice President Bozeman 

R Koch, Secretary and Treasurer Bozeman 

►H KouNTZ Bozeman 

Lamme Bozeman 



STATION STAFF. 



EL FoRTiER, Ma. E Director and Irrigation Engineer 

. Traphagen, Ph. D., F. C. S Chemist 

. S. Shaw, B. S. A Agriculturalist 

Blankinship., Ph. D .* Botanist 

CooLEY, B. Sc Entoniolgist 



Post Office, Express and Freight Station, Bozeman. 

11 communications for the Experiment Station should be 
issed to the Director, 

Montana Experiment Station, 

Bozeman, Montana. 



Bulletins ot the Experiment Station are sent free to all 
residents of this state upon request. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Montana Experiment Station. 



BuUetin No. 33 - January, 190a. 



SUGAR BEETS IN MONTANA. 



CROP OF 1901. 

F. W. TRAPHAGEN. 



The results of sugar beet culture in Montana for the past season 
have been most gratifying, and we feel renewed confidence in the 
opinion expressed in Bulletin No. 19, that ^'Montana conditions are 
lavorable to the production of sugar beets of high sugar content and 
standard purity." 

Great interest has been taken in the sugar beet work this year, 
because, for the first time, the question of our ability to meet the 
commercial conditions of this crop, has been taken up seriously by 
capitalists. Because of this, our work has been supplemented in 
uvo important agricultural valleys by others, and, on account of 
this additid^l interest, more attention has been given to careful 
culture. Tbi« attention is shown in the results, which, in general, 
are far better than in any preceding year. 

On the Bitter Root Stock Farm in particular, a series of very 
careful tests were conducted, and the results, in richness, purity and 
yield, were iuch as to fully satisfy the most exacting. These tests 
were conducted by Mr. Thomas Loynd, an experienced sugar beet 
cuhurist, from Utah, and -were made on different varieties of soil, 
including the poorer as well as the richer. A perusal of the tables 
containing the results of these tests will show very striking figures. 

Sugar beets in the past have received very scant attention at 
the hands of those who have planted them in this state. Put in as 
an accommodation to the Experiment Station, they have been at- 
tended to after every other interest has been considered. When 
irrigated, if at all, they received water not when they most needed 
it, but when most convenient to the farmer. The same is true of 
cultivation, and this crop, which responds so readily to painstaking 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Lt' - 









^ 






V' 



'•^r 
^ 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



care, has been left to grow almost unattended. In spite of this, the 
results have been very pleasing. Montana seems to be the natural 
habitat of root crops, and the difficulty is to keep down the groifvth, 
^^ and prevent the formation of too large roots. 

^> . Even at the Experiment Station where the results have been 

g." such, that the culture would always have been profitable, both from 

P^. the standpoint of the producer and of the manufacturer, the sugar 

f^f- beets have been part of a rotation, in which they have been far from 

being the favored crop. 

In the valley of Clark's Fork of the Yellowstone River, the 
^;> first experimental work was carried on the past year, with an out- 

come that would indicate this valley as an ideal locality for the 
establishment of a factory. In the three localities just mentioned, 
the experiments have been carried on in a sufficiently large scale, 
to demonstrate the question of profitable sugar beet culture to any 
who make a careful study of the conditions and results. 

The yield, sugar content, and purity, can be kept far above the 
standards adopted as the minimum values, by- sugar beet experts, 
as demonstrated by the past season's work, which can be improved 
upon as cultural conditions are bettered. Fuel. is easily obtainable 
and cheap, water is pure and abundant, limestone of great purity 
is available and land sufficient to produce the crop, and at the same 
^. time sustain a logical three year's rotation, is at hand in each of 

these sections. 

No doubt many other sections of the state could show just as 
good figures, but, unfortunately, the experiments have been lacking 
in magnitude sufficient to satisfy the intending investor. Many 
results have been obtained by farmers in different portions of the 
state, which are entirely satisfactory in themselves, but, which, in 
order to possess their full value, must be supplemented by experi- 
ments by their neighbors. 

A factory will not be established anywhere where there is not 
1^ at least fifteen thousand acres of land within easy reach of the 

factory, either by rail or country road, which will contribute the 
y * beet crop to the factory. This amount of land planted to a three 

^.. year rotation of clover, grain and beets, would maintain a factory 

i?; of fair size, but, a smaller area of available land would hardly be 



1^, considered. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



It is the custom of the beet sugar companies to pay for the 
railroad haul, and where the beets are siloed, to await their call, 
they pay twenty cents additional per ton. The method of siloing 
in use is very simple, consisting only in making a trench' more or 
less deep, and as wide as necessity demands, and, after filling with 
beets, covering over with the loose soil previously removed. 

The consumption of sugar in Montana is sufficient to use up all 
the product of at least one large factory and the protection afforded 
by the long freight haul, with attendant high tariffs, together with 
the excellent crop returns, will certainly prove incentives, sooner 
or later, to the establishment of factories within our borders. 

Feeding Beets and Pulp. 

Until the product of the sugar beet fields is absorbed by beet 
s^^t^sr tacrories, and while the experimental work, necessary to 
prove the claims of various localities, is going on, the roots can be 
very profitably fed to stock, and prove a very welcome addition to 
the ordinary' dry ration, as well as yielding a distinct gain in flesh, 
equivalent to a high money return for the beets fed. 

The striking results obtained at the Montana Experiment 
Station in swine feeding experiments, conducted by Prof. Shaw, 
^hich are described in Bulletin No. 27, to which readers of this 
Bulletin are referred, will show the value of beets as food. 

This subject has been previously taken up in Bulletin No. 19, 
and work subsequent to that publication, shows that as a succulent 
addition to the usual food, the beet is valuable and acceptable. 
This is particularly true in our own state, where succulent foods 
are so scarce, especially in winter. 

Climate. 
The old saying "that the proof of the pudding is in the eatinpf" 
applies particularly to the discussion of the Montana climate in 
reference to sugar beet culture. When we can get yields of 25.6 
tons per acre, of beets of 19.38 per cent sugar content, and 86.4 per 
cent purity, as was done in one specially favored portion of the 
Bitter R^)ot Stock Farm, and when almost every valley in the state 
produces crops of beets above the general commercial average, who 
^\ill say the Montana climate is not adapted to sugar beets? 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Experiment Station — ^Variety Tests. 




1805 Miscellaneous 20-00, 16.8 

i83iiKleinwanzlebener, 5770 24.8 15.8 

i832iUtah Seed 25.4 '16.5 

i833|Zehringen, 3942 16.8 1 15.6 

i834lBraune, 2885 23.00! 16.1 

18351 Kleinwanzlebener, Dippe, 3944.. 19.6 16.3 
1836 Kleinwanzlebener, Russia, 3943. 23.4 15.00 

18371 Vilmorin '20.2 115.8 

1 8381 Unknown Variety 20.4 [ 16.6 

1842 Kleinwanzlebener, '5770 20.5 |i6.i 

i843|Utah Seed 2i.oo;i7.9 

i844;Zehringen, 3942 ; 22.00 15.9 

18451 Braune, 2885 J20.00J17.7 

1846, Kleinwanzlebener, Dippe, 3944. .;i9.oO| 19.5 
1847! Kleinwanzlebener, Russia, 3943.' 18.00; 17.6 
1848 Vilmorin 26.5 1 14.00 

1869 Kleinwanzlebener, 5770 '25.5 I17.0 

1870 Utah I17.00118.5 

1871 Zehringen, 3942 '15.5 118.3 

i872;Braune, 2885 I16.5 ii8.5 

1873'Kleinzwanzlebener, Dippe, 3944.. 14.00 19. 1 
1874. Kleinwanzlebener, Russia, 3943. 14.5 18.6 

1875I Vilmorin ; 17.00 19.2 

1882, Kleinwanzlebener, 5770 ,1500 18.4 

i883;Utah 18.00,19.3 

1884 Zehringen, 3942 j 14.6620.00 

1885! Braune, 2885 1 16.66 19.9 

1886 Kleinzwanzlebener, Dippe, 3944. i8.66'i8.3 

1887 Kleinwanzlebener, Russia, 3943. 14.6(^)18.2 

1888 Vilmorin i 17.00; 17.9 

i966!Kleinwanzlebener, 5770 20.8 I17.90 

1967 I'tah 17.4 I20.10' 

1968 Zehringen, 3942 20.00 19.70I 

1969 Braune, 2885 !2i.oo;i9.7o| 

1970 Kleinwanzlebener, Dippe, 3944... 23.0019.50! 
19711 Kleinwanzlebener, Russia, 3943.'i9.oo|i9.3o| 
1972, Vilmorin '22.00I17.97I 



5.96:84441 Sept 
5.3 18i.oo.Sept 
5.67J85.5 ISept 
[4.82!88.2 ISept 

5i9,83.3 JScpt 
5.58.82.o2iSept 
4.25;78.oojSept 



5.01 179.7 
577I85.5 
5.29!76.3 
7.00I87.5 
5.10I74.6 
6.71I82.3 
8.52J88.6 
6.72i86.i 



3-3 
6.15 



72.9 
86.00 



7.3883.3 I 

7.57I86.3 

8.1490.5 

7.6788.5 

8.24I87.6 

7.48I82.9 

8.33:86.1 

9.0087.00 

8.9 187.6 

7.38J85.9 :Oct 

\q^^ Oct 

Oct 
Oct. 



Sept 
Sept 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct, 
Oct 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 



7.29J86.6 
7.00184.00 
7.00181.8 
9.o5|85.oo!Oct 
8.76I85.5 lOct 
8.74^87.00, Oct 



8.46 

8.35 
7.07 



88.oo|Oct 
87.5 'Oct. 
86.ooOct. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Averages of all Tests. — Experiment Station. 



o < 

.c 



99 

IB 






f 






o 

B 



" d 



iwanzlebener, 5770 

ingen, 3942 

ne, 2885 

iwanzlebener, Dippe, 3944. 
iwanzlebener, Russia, 3943 

orin 

jeneral Average 



21.32 
19.76 
17.8 

1943 

18.85 

17.91 

20.5 

19-37 



17.04 
18.44 
17.91 
18.38 
18.53 
1775 
1713 
17.88 



16, 
17 
17 
17 
17 
16. 
16, 
16.98 84.9 



•31 

•SI 
.01 

•42 
■.61 

i.85 

1.27 



81.6 
85.8 
837 
853 
87.00 

85.3 
84.00 



13s 
11.7 

"•45 
10.5 
10.4 
9-25 
9.5 
10.9 



4403 
4007 

3f9S 
3658 
3662 

3"7 
3091 
3690 



Averages for Successive Dates. — Experiment Station. 



Date 190t. 




*n 


•fl 


M. (t 


«. n 


1 


a n 


n 

S '* 


n 


? * 


9B 


: c 


: c 


: OQ 


: Vq 


: P9 


: » 


•t 


1 


15.96 


15.20 


16.96 


16.13 


18.46 


17-53 


18.86 


17.92 


19.18 


18.25 1 



Is 



imber 28 
t>er 5... 
^er 12.. 
t)er 19.. 
^er 26. . 



21.7 oz. 
21.0 oz. 
17.14 oz. 
16.38 oz. 
20.45 oz. 



82.90 
81.19 
86.73 
8573 
85.83 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



8 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



[ Clark's Fork Valky.--Bridger and GdK>. 

The * indicates that the P. O. address is Gebo ; the address of all 
others is Bridger. 



r 

Z 

o 



o ^ 

c 



e 






I 



r 

» ? 

ft .■ 

3. 



1850: 

1854' 

1881 

1889 

1891 

I903;C. M. 



P. R. Miller * . . 

C. F. Sexton 

A. E. Parker... 
William Barclay 
James Barclay. . 

Larkin 

Bostic. . . 

Bostic... 
1935 W. F. Gibson . . . 

H. Smith. 

Morrow. . 

Teesdale . 



1907 
1934 



1936 
1937 
1938 



W. H. 
C. H. 



Lucy. 

Hugh 

R. B. 

1939IE. T. Bostic 

1940IJ. R. Stevens 

1941IS. H. Mendenhall. 
i942iThomas Barnett.. 
1943IA. G. Duffield.... 

1944IL. G. Preno 

I94:;|F. O. Jennings. . . . 

1946IB. F. Bayler 

1947; Richard Barrows.. 

1952II. A. Goff * 

1953IF. E. Stevens 

1954I Frank Hiser 

1955 E. D. Lovegreen.. 

1956 E. T. Preuitt 

1957 W.A. Cowan * . . 

1958' E. Cowan 

1959 X. Webber 

i960 C. M. Laughery... 

1961 T. E. Stearns 

1950 R. A. Duncan (4). 



8.8 
29.00 

315 
147 
1943 
10.8 
24.9 
9.4 

35-5 

28.00 

26.5 

28.S 

5500 

14.8 

20.8 

32.00 

245 

31.00 

3300 

25-5 
1 1.6 
21.00 
9.2 

14-33 
18.66 

21.00 

154 
18.6 

17-5 

18.66 

25.00 



17.1 

159 

14.3 

16.2 

21.3 

16.88 

195 

15-5 

18.00 

20.1 

19.7 

18.8 

21.9 

14.81 

18. u 

16.5 

17.8 

17.9 

17.6 

22.7 

18.6 

134 
i6.oo 

193 
16.3 
19.1 
16.8 
19.8 
18.7 
19.9 
14.7 
17.7 



6.22 



5.10 
3 

5-39 
20.23 

6.00 

8.52 
4.72 

7-1 

9.09 

8.71 

y.86 
20.8 
4.06 

7.2 
5-67 

6.9 

7.00 

6.7 

21.56 
7.67 

2.73 

5.20 

8.33 
548 

8.14 

.'5.96 
8.81 
7.76 
8.90 
396 

6.8 



5869 



79-9 
80.3 

•4 
78.2 
82.88 
80.00 

78.3 
67.1 

744 

837 

74.5 

854 

88.3 

774 

83.8 

80.00 

83.00 

79.6 

75.00 

853 
82.00 

74-44 
82.05 
84-65 

77-94 
86.80 
80.00 
igo.oo 
86.12 
88.83 
76.96 
80.00 



25.00 

9.00 

12.00 

20.00 

20.00 

24.00 
20.00 
15.00 
25.00 



2108 

7552 
2444 

369s 
8092 

7408 

8208 

7636 

5613 
8930 



20.00 
12.00 
25.00 
15.00 
15.00 
20.00 

20.00 

20.00 



15.00^ 

20.00 ( 
12.00I3 

25.00 1 
20.006800 



4218 
6880 
J760 
8450 



7068 

W5 
7600 

5499 
4644 

7356 

7524 
7560 



(4) P. O. Address is Rockvale. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Bitter Root Stock Farm.— Hamilton, Mont, 



o < 

c 

SI 



99 



99 

IB 



n 



o 

s 



3 S 



lamilton Ranch, No. i 

lamilton Ranch, No. 2 

lamilton Ranch, No. 3 

lamilton Ranch, No. 4 

jilchrist Ranch, No. i 

iilchrist Ranch, No. 2 

Vendergast Ranch, No. i . . 
Vendergast Ranch, No. 2. . 
-ower Ward Ranch, No.i. 
-ower Ward Ranch, No. 2. 
Jpper Ward Ranch, No. i . 

Ravalli Ranch 

'orvallis Ranch 



17.8 


20.1 


19.09I87.3 1 


16.6 


193 


18.33 


86.9 


15.2 


20.1 


19.9 


82.4 


8.8 


21. 1 


20.04 


87.5 


11.00 


20.6 


1957 


88.4 


1 1.6 


22.00 


20.9 


91.2 


1 1.8 


19.8 


18.81 


87.6 


13-6 


22.1 


20.99 


92.00 


13.00 


21. 1 


20.04 


90.6 


12.4 


20.8 


19.76 


89.2 


134 


20.3 


19.28 


87-5 


13.00 


20.2 


19.19 


90.00 


15.6 


20.4 


19.38 


86.4 



18.9 
13.6 

22.00 

12.7 
18.4 

20.00 
18.00 

18.3 

14.00 
12.00 
14.6 

25.6 



7216 

4985 
8756 

5090 

7201 

7524 
7556 

7334 
5532 
4627 

5603 
9922 



Missoula County. 



Name. 



17.5 
16.00 



V. H. Daykin, Missoula . 

Kleinwanzlebener 

Vilmorin 

Utah I21.5 

'has. E. Coleman, Missoula. I 

Kleinwanzlebener I32.66 

195 
10.4 




Vilmorin 
lenry Buckhouse, Missoula. 
:. C. Willis, Plains 

Kleinwanzlebener 

Vilmorin 

Utah : . . . 



10.8 
13.00 
9.00 



17-3 
17.9 
17.00 

16.5 
197 
15-5 

17-4 
18.1 
16.6 



3 % 






P s 

2 9k 

3 2 



16.5 

19.00 

12.4 

"•5 
9.00 

11.00 
12.5 



i6.43!77-5 
17.00I81.3 
16.15 84.9 

15.67i76.03 
18.71 186.4 

14.72:85.1 

I 
16.53I87.7 
I7.iql88.3 
15.77181.7 112.003784 



5610 
6137 

3886 

4303 
2650 

3636 
4297 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



lO 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Gallatin Valley. 



r 

cr 







I 
1919 

1930 



1933 



Name. 



879 John A. Moore, Belgrade. . . 
W. A. Caldwell, Belgrade. . 
A. A. Spaulding, Bozeman. 

Kleinwanzrlebener 

Vilmorin 

M. M. Ferguson, Bozeman. 

Kleinwanzlebener 



is- 



33-5 
18.6 

17.66 
25.66 

19.00 



2 



12.00 
17.00 

16.5 
15.4 

16.4 



11.40 
16.15 

1567 
14.63 

15.58 



n 



3f ^ 



75.00 
80.5 

80.5 
78.5 

80.00 



27.008; 

I 
30.009^ 
36.0010 



Cascade County. 



p 

c 
c 



Name. 



Paris Gibson, Great Falls 

1839 Utah 

1840 Kleinwanzlebener 

1841 Vilmorin 

1892 C. H. Campbell, Great Falls. 
1906 John H. C. Dale, Great Falls. 

I Daniel Payne, Monarch 

1899I Utah 

1900; Kleinwanzlebener 

1901 ; Vilmorin 






t^ S 

C 9q 



44.00 


13-5 


30.00 


11.6 


48.00 


15-4 


12.00 


17-5 


3300 


17.00 


1 1.8 


16.8 


9.66 


19.2 


77 


19.2 



12.82 

11.00 

14.63 

16.62 
i6.t5 

15.96 
18.24 
i 18.24 



65.00 
63.00 
70.00 
80.00 
86.28 

82.00 

80.3 

78.68 



:;.oo8c 



25 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



II 



Yellowstone County. 



y 
Z 



1785 
1786 
1902 
1965 



I929IC 



Name. 



Wm. Birely» Billings 

Wm. Birely, Billings . . 
I. D. O'Donnell Billings. 
I. D. O'Donnell, Billings. 
D. Hatch, Laurel 



H 
21 



5* ? 



41.00 
38.00 
38.00 

40.3 
21.00 



4.00 

54 
13.02 
12.27 
18.1 






c 
3. 



I 



liS 

3 I 



3.8 

12.36 
11.65 
17.2 



41.00 

56.2 

70.00 

66.00 

80.00 



r 
35 



Park County. 



Name. 



1920 
I92I 
1922 
1897 

i948 

1962 



L. M. Jones, Myersburg. 

Kleinwanzlebener 

Vilmorin 

Utah 



17.4 
16.00 

14.5 
Gus Nelson, Livingston j 23.66! 16.9 



> 

of 

8?- 



«? 



17.50 
18.00 
32.00 



5S 



Andrew Lyall, Livingston I12.5 

Geor ge J. Allen, Livingston. . 115.5 

^ Excluded from average. 



174 
18.5 



16.53 
15.20 



. L 

77.6 
70.17 



•1 m 

n 



r 
2 n 



13.77 69.0447- 



16.05,78.00 
l6.53i62.i4 
17.57:81.5 



20.006612 
21.006384 
12944 
6498 



20.5 



Flathead County. 



Name. 



tfi 



i896|Theodore Koenig, Kalispell. . .14.00 21.2 
1904MC. C. Winiger, Kalispell 14.00 17.3 



1951 C.- E. Pettit, Kalispell '25.5 

iX. S. Proud, Kalispell 

1926J Utah 

1927 Vilmorin 

19281 Kleinwanzlebener . 



119.7 



14.2 


174 


21.2 


17.7 


9.8 


20.2 



tfi 

5 


Purity coef 




20.14 81.7 

16.4^82.38 

18.6483.4 


i 
10.00 3286 
19.007083 


16.53 
16.8 
19.19 


80.53 
78.00 

87.4 


10.00 3306 
14.004704 
11.004222 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



12 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Miscellaneous. 



r 

o 



Name. 



>• 

0» ft- 


: ^ 


32.00 


16.00 


29.2 


13.9 


32.00 


14.5 


14.00 


12.6 


17.00 
18.00 


154 
14.6 


15.6 


21.00 


14.00 


157 


24.8 
16.00 


18.4 


18.6 


14.00 


1 1.8 


15-3 






^3 









Its 
as 



1880 W. N. Aylesworth, Deer Lodge 

1852 James Fullerton, Red Lodge.. . 

1890 D. McNeil, Boulder 

1898 John Flaherty, Cold Springs.. 

1853 J. S. Growder, Lewistown 

1923 R. Parkhurst, Victor 

1982 Sidney Ward, Hamilton 

1868 W. M. Wooldridge, Hinsdale. . 
1949 W. M. Wooldridge, Hinsdale. . 

1963 Arthur Millard, Miles City 

1 85 1 John Bamber, Glendive 

1849 Geo. W. Dana, Deer Lodge. ■ . . 



152 

13-2 

1377 
11.87 

1463 
1397 
1995 
14.91 

13.96 
17.48 
133 

14-53 



88.00 

66.5 

80.1 

85-9 
71.6 

74-4 
90.5 
80.5 

84.9 
78.01 

76.5 

75-7 



16.00 
23.00 
20.00 



4224 

7552 
5964 



General Variety Tests. 

(Exclusive. of the Experiment Farm, Bitter Root Stock Farm, and 
Clark's Fork Valley.) 



Variety. 

Kleinwanzlebener 

Vilmorin 

Utah !. 



Av. weight 
in ounces. 

"78.4" 
21.4 



Sugar 
in juice. 

17.00 
16.85 
16.00 



Per cent of 

sugar 

in beets. 

~l6. IS ^ 
16.00 
1520 



Per cent of 
purity. 

"81:3^'' 
79.2 

75-99 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



n 



LOCALITY AVERAGES. 



Locality. 






fl0 

« c 



1 • 

3 i 






c 



ide County (i) 

wstone County.... 

ead County 

y County (i) 

County (2) 

T County (i) 

jon County (i) 

11 County 

js County 

•son County 

yn County (3) 

)ula County*. 

Hi County (4) 

tin County (5) 

r Root Stock Farm. 

iriment Farm 

:'s Fork Valley. . . . 



24.5 
35.66 

16.45 
19.40 

195 

16.00 

18.6 

21.9 

17.00 

23.00 

29.2 

16.7 

16.8 

22.88 

13-37 

19.37 

22.7 



16.25 

10.56 

18.9 

15.2 

16.66 

18.4 

14.00 

15.6 

15.4 

13.50 

13.9 

17.3 

17.8 

15.46 
20.60 
17.88 
17.84 



15.4 

lO.OD 
17.95 
14.43 
15.94 
17.5 

14.86 

14.63 

12.82 

13.2 

16.46 

16.5)6 

14.68 

19^4 

16.98 



75.4 
62.6 
82.24 
82.7 

73.07 
78.00 

76.5 

81.8 

71.6 

83.00 

66.5 

83.00 

82.45 

78.9 

87.46 

84.9 



;?5.0o 

112.8 

20.00 
20.5 



i6.97i8o.5 



8075 

4520 
5968 
16498. 



23.00 

16.00 
13.00 

31.00 
16.5 

10.9 
18.00 



7552 

4244 
4288 

9332 
6771 
3690 
6174 



[I)- 
(2). 

(3). 

(4). 
(5)- 



One lot only. 

One locality only. 

Excluding Clark's Fork Valley. 

Excluding Bitter Root Stock Farm. 

Excluding Experiment Farm. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

SON OF YIELDS IN MONTANA AND ELSE- 
WHERE. 



Average Montana Results in 1901. 





Beets 


Per cent 


Lbs. 


Locality. 


per acre 


sugar in 


sugar 




Tons 


the beets 


per acre 



: Stock Farm 

: Farm 

•k Valley 

mnty (a) 

!!ounty. 

nty (a) 

ty 

unty 

jnty (b) 

Tounty , 

mnty (c) 

)ne lot only. 

ixcluding Clark's Fork Valley, 

Excluding Experiment Station. 



16.5 

10.9 

18.00 

25.00 

12.8 

20.00 

20.5 

23.00 

16.00 

13.00 

3J'QQ 



19.64 
16.98; 
16.97 
15.40 
1795 
1443 
15.90 

14.63 
13.20 
16.46 
14.68 



6771 
3690 

6174 
8075 
4520 
5964 
6498 
7552 
4244 
4288 
9332 



Germany. 



No. of 
factories. 



I9OO-I9OI 



406 

403 
401 

405 
405 

397 
399 
402 
401 
399 
395 



Acreage. 

'~825,825 
861,583 
869,829 

945^995 
1,090,801 

930,749 
1,049,881 
1,079,810 
1,154,229 

M54,355 
1^095,790 



Tons beets 


Per cent 




su£;ar 


per acre. 


in beets. 


1303 


12.09 


1 1. 41 


12.06 


11.29 


11.94 


II. 12 


12.34 


13.27 


12.15 


12.55 


I3.II 


13.07 


12.66 


8.62 


12.79 


11.52 


I315 


11.79 


14.4 


12.06 


14.91 



per acre. 



3150 

2752 
2696 

2744 
3225 
3290 

2205 
3029 
3395 
3596_ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



/\ careiui scruiiny oi inese laoies snoAVS me sieaay increase in 
sugar per acre in Germany and France, under constantly improving 
methods of cultivation. But even with the extreme care in culture 
and the constant application of fertilizers, the results are far below 
those obtained in Montana, in every locality in which the experi- 
mental work has been carried on. Certainly in some of these 
localities we have good reason to hope for the location of a beet sugar 
factory soon. 

For an explanation of terms and a general discussion of the 
problem, the reader is referred to Bulletin No. 19 of this Station, 
on Sugar Beets in Montana. 

An extended Bulletin at this time has been considered unnecces- 
sar}', for it is believed that the figures given *'speak for themselves." 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



LLETIN No. 34. 

MONTANA AQRICULTI 

^periment S 



■=^0F THE^ 



Agricultural College 0/ 



FARMERS' WEI 

ONE METHOD Of^ MEASURI] 



PUBLICATION IS THE FIRST OF A S 
BULLETINS ON IRRIGATION 1 



Bozeman, Montana, Febru; 



REPUBLICAN* 

Bozeman, Montami, 

190a. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 

EXPERIMENT STATION. 



BOZEMAN, • MONTANA. 



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

JoBBPH K. Tools, Qoyemor. ) 

Jambs Donovan, Attorney-Qeneral, ( Ex-Offioio Helena 

W. W. Wbloh, Supt of Fublic Instruction, ) 

J. M. Evans MiasotiU. 

C. D. Leonard Butte. 

N. W. McOoNNRLL Helena 

O. F. GoDDARD Billings 

O. P. Chisholm Booemao 

J.G. MoKat Hamiltoa 

G. T. Paul Dillon 

N. B. £U>LTBR. Helena 



EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

Waltbr S. Hartm AN, Preetdent. Boseman. 

J. M. Robinson, Vice-President BowmaD. 

PsTER Koch, Secretary Boaeman. 

Joseph Kountz Bowman. 

E. B. Lamme Booeman. 



STATION STAFF. 



Samuel Fortier, Ma, E Director and Irrigation Engineer 

F. W. Traphagen, Ph. D., F. C. S Chemist 

RoBT. S. Shaw, B. S. A Agriculturist 

J. W. Blankinship, Ph. D Botanist 

K. A. CooLBY, B. Sc Entomologist 



Postoffice, Express and Freight Station. Bozeman. 



All communications for the Experiment Station should be addressed to the 
Director. 

Montana Experiment Station, 

Bozeman, Montana. 



NOTICE.— The Bulletins of the Station will be obailed free to any citizen of 
Montana who sends his name and address to the Station for that purpose. 



HARVARD COLLEGE Udh'M 

FROM THE LIBhA.V OF 

ARTHUR B. SEYMOUR 

APRIL 2, 1933 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Montana Experiment Station. 



BULLETIN NO, 34. ... FEBRUARY 19M* 



FARMERS' WBIRS. 



By S. Fobtieb, Dibbotob. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Daring the crop growing season the irrigators of Montana divert 
]aige Tolames of water from the nataral channels of the stream. When 
the nataral supply is limited to the flow of a small creek a few farmers 
may convey the entire amoant throagh small ditches. When the 
stream is large a score or more of canals, each supplying water to 
hondreds of farmers, may be in ase. In all cases other than exclusive 
individual ownership the equitable division of irrigation waters is a 
necessity. 

For a long period after the first settlement of the fertile valleys 
of the state, water was abundant and little attention was paid to 
accurate measurements, or a just division. In some favored sections 
these conditions still prevail. So long as water for irrigation is cheap 
and plentiful western farmers, as a rule, do not trouble their minds 
about either irrigation laws or suitable measuring devices. Until 
March 12, 1885 Montana had no legal standard for measuring water in 
motion. In that year the legislature enacted the following: 

''Sec. 1262. The measurement of water appropriated under this 
chapter shall be conducted in the following manner: A box or flume 
shall be constructed with a head gate placed so as to leave an opening 
of six inches between the bottom of the box or flume and the lower 
edge of the head gate, with a slide to enter at pne side of and of suffi- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



cient width to close the opening left by the head gate, by means of 
which the dimensions of the opening are to be adjusted. The box or 
flume shall beplp,eed level,) a^ndt so hxxjBm^&d, thatrthe stream in passing 
through the aperture is not obstructed by back water, or an eddy below 
the gate; but before entering the opening to be measured the stream 
shall be brought to an eddy, and shall stand three inches on 'the freaid 
gate and above- the opening. The number of square inches contained 
in the opening shaJl be the .njeasure^ of inches pf water." 

From 1885 to 185)0 the miners' inch" box just' described was the 
only legal method of measuring-imgation water and the court decrees 
o^ that period in relation to all water right suits are expresssed in 
Montana statutory inches. ^ ^ • • 

This box which was desiguedJto. measure miners' inches consisted 
generally of a short flume having a bottom and two sides. At the 
upper end a board three inches wide weksifafitened six inches above the 
top of the floor. The opening formed between the lower edge of the 
board and the floor was con troU^ by a slide, or gate, whi:;h moved 
horizontally. When the box was in place thfe irrigation stream: to be 
measured was turned on arid the slide -so adjusted that the surface of 
the water at the upper end of the' l>dx was level with the top of the 
three inch board; ■ It Was an easy way of measuring water under a six 
inch pressure, for the distance irom the top of the three inch board to 
the center of the opening was intended to be six inches. In measuring 
a stream if the slide were drawn out 15 inches at the time the water 
was level with the top of the three inch board the opening thus made 
would be six inches high and 15 inches long and contain 90 square 
inches. The amount of "water flowing through this opening^ of 90 
square inches under an average head of six inches would represent 90 
miner's inches. 

This method of measuring water has been severely criticised by 
the engineers of the state. Their objections may be summarized as 
as follows: ' 

(1) It is not accurate. 

(2) It can only be used to measure small streams, 

(3) It is not adapted to continuous measurements. 

(4) It favors the large consumer. 

(5) The flow may be considerably increased or diminished by 
slight changes. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FARMERS' WEIRS. 



5) Miners' inches vary in quantity in diflferent localities of the 

1 1898 the state legislature established a new standard unit, 
d the Montana miners' inch and repealed all laws in conflict 
rith. This enactment is still in force and the standard units 
thers will be described under the next heading. 



DEFINITIONS. 



UBic Foot peb SECX)ND.-^The standard unit for flowing water in 
ina as well as in most of the western states and territories, is a 
Dr cubic foot of water, moving at the rate of a lineal foot in one 
I of time. Each foot in length of a flume one foot wide and one 
igh inside measurement and flowing full of water would contain 
I or cubic foot of water. Now if this flume were placed on such 
e that the average rate of flow of water within it would be just 
ot of distance for each second of time it Would carry a volume 
to the standard unit. This unit is often abbreviated into the two 

SECOND-FOOT. 

% considering this standard for flowing water, irrigators should 
nclude that a volume of- a certain definite si^ is . necessary. It 
3 apparent to all that a flpme six indhes wide* and six inches high 
water flowing at the average rate of 4 feet; per second would 
jliyer one cubic foot per seoQud. -; In general, the flow of any 
L may be obtained by multiplying the width and depth of ; the 
channel in feet- by the average rate of flqw: iii feet. A flume, for 
Aei whieh is six^feipt v^ie-i^side and carries water to a depth pi 
jt would contain j8xl-^ or 9 square foetof-iiffater area. Now, if it 
id that the average rate o| flow is two feet per second the total 
e is 2x9, or 18 sVbic feet per second. In the case of a ditch in 
with a curved bottom the,%rea is not so readily found but i the 
pie involved is the same, i . 

[oNTANA Miners' Inch. — Like the bushel measure for grain' the 
nlTiiBreMinrtrirllkigtyT5tfe'i30^ ol 

measurement has been abandoned. I do not know of a single 
kna farmer that now measures his grain by means of a bushel 
ire and yet the large majority indicate their yields in bushels 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



f^rf ^A7/y jAmm^^ 
lil^einr Boone/ th^umc 




$1 

ti 



IS 

r 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FARMERS' WEIRS. 



Bill of Material for Weir Box No. 1. 



No. erf 
Pieces. 


Actual 
DimeoiioDa* 


B. M. 

.Feel 


Where 
Uaed. 


Remarks. 


4 


lo. Id. Ft. Id 
3 X 18 X 8 


64 


Lining Sidee. 


Lumber, Rongb. 


3 


2 z 13 X 8 


48 


Lining Bottom. 




1 


2 X 10 X 8 


18K 


(1 41 




8 


3 X 4x4 3 


33M 


Silli and Ties. 




8 


3 X 4 z 3 10 


16 


Potts. 




3 


3 X 13 X 4 3 


16X 


Aprons. 




3 


3 z 13 X 8 1>^ 


1%H 


Weir Board. 


Glear Lumber Snrfaoe. 


4 


1x3x3 


IH 


Oleats. sides. 


14 4« «« 


2 


1x3x8 


1 


Oleats, bottom. 


•1 •• «« 



7 lbs. 80d wire nails. 
a lb. 6d wire nails. 



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8 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

per acre. Scales of all kinds have now become so common that the 
old fashioned mea^urfe of our. ,gt4nd|ath^r's, . tUMie is ; no longer used. 
There have been like changes in the devices used, to measure water 
and while we still retain the term miners' inch we seldom ascertain 
the flow by the miners' inch box. For small streams df water such as 
are applied to orchard and garden tracts the miners' inch is a conven- 
ient unit and there are advantages in continuing its use. In adopting 
a new standard the members of our state legislature foresaw the ex- 
tended use of the old unit ^d. so defined it in accurate terms. Forty 
(40)Montana miners' inches are the exact equivalent of one cubic foot 
per second. An irrigation stream containing 80 miners' inches would 
be described as two secoijd-feet by the new., standard, one^ containing 
120 miners' inches as three second feet, and so on. 

iCRE-FooT. — The second-foot and the miners' irict can only be 
used for water in liiotion. It'^^ia often, convenient in irrigati(Mi to 
describe, a, certain ^ volume of water in a state of rest. The cubic foot 
might have been adopted for this purpose 'had it not been too small. 
It would have been btit fi duopcina bi«ikq.t when compared with the 
large quantities usedinirrigatipn.^ Aqcordipgly the acre-foot has been 
quite generally udogted. __ 

This unit represents t|;ij9,Qi^nj^ty of v;;a^r which would cover an 
acre to the depth of one foot ^ Since there are 43560 square feet in an 
acre, an acre-foot contains'43560 'ciibic feet: Rainfall is measured in 
depth over the surface and of late years the tendency has been to 
measure water for irrigation in the same way. One frequently hears 
it stated by practical irrigators that forty acres of spring wheat will 
require 40 miners' inches. But this statement conveys no definite idea 
as to the actual amount of water applied to the wheat field because the 
number of days the stream has been allowed to run on the field is not 
given. When, however, one states that 60 acre- feet were applied in 
two irrigations it shows that a certain definite volume of water was 
used during stated periods and that this volume was sufficient to have 
covered the 40 acre field to a depth of 1-^ feet. 

One Irrigation. — How much water does it require for one irriga- 
tion ? The amount will, of course, vary with a score or more of condi- 
tions. It may interest the reader to know that of 44 experiments 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FARMEKS' WEIRS. 



made by this Station in different parts of Montana the average was 10 
inches of water over the surface irrigated. This anaount included all 
waste incurred on the field but did not include the losses in conveying 
the water from the natural channel to the borders of the field. The 
writer has found that with well made field laterals and skilled irrigators 
6 inches of water will suffice to wet the soil to an average depth of 
one foot. 

The Standard Unit and the AcRE-FooT.—Irrigators frequently 
wish to convert running water into volumes. It may interest them to 
learn that a second-foot, or 40 miners' inches, flowing on an acre for 
one hour will cover it to a depth of one inch. If this stream is allowed 
to flow on an acre for a day it will cover it to a depth of two feet. 
This rule is not quite exact but may be used in general practice. 

IrrigatiQii Water Shotild be Measured. 

Throughout the irrigated portions of Montana, 40 acres , of land 
with 20 miners' inches of water wijl produce more than 80 acres with- 
out water. If this be true, and the statement would seem to be 
extremely conservative, a miners' inch of water apart from the cost of 
irrigation is equal in value to two acres of land. Still one finds that 
land ifirmeasared and mapped and when sold the purchaser is careful 
to see that tlie deed is valid and properly recorded. -Whereas, in the 
case of irrigation water probably less than.fi ve per cent of the total vol- 
ume used in the state has ever been measured. » 

The New Standard. 

I am often* asked tp explain 'the new wgiy of measuring water. 
The Montana legislative has prescribed no new method. It has merely 
adopted a standard unit in which grll volumes of running water are 
hereafter to be expressed. 

The same legislative assembly might have adopted the hundred 
weight as the standard unit for the sale of all grains and defined the 
hushel as equivalent to 50 pounds. Such a law would not have com- 
pelled farmers to use a particular make of scale or prevented them 
from using the bushel measure. The citizens of the state may measure 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 







a 



^ 



1^ 



f 



^5 



P 



\ 



B 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FARMERS' WEIRS. 



11 



Bill of Material for Weir Box No. 2. 



Na of 
Pieoet. 


Acttsal 
Dimeniioos. 


B. M. 
Feet. 


Where 
Uaed. 


Remarks. 


6 


In. Id. Ft. In 

2 z 13 z 10 


120 


Lining, Bidet 


Lumber, Bongh. 


4 


2 z 12 z 10 


80 


Lining, Bottom 


«« it 


J 


2 z 6 z 10 


10 


Lining, Bottom 


<« 44 


8 


2 z 4 z 6 


26^ 


SilliandTiet 


44 


8 


2 z 4 z 8 4 


17Ji 


POftt 


44 44 




2 z 12 z 6 


20 


Apront 


44 4« 




2 z 12 z 4 


16 


Weir Board 


Clear Ltmber Surface. 




2 z 10 z 4 


«X 


Weir Board 


44 44 44 




1 z 2 z 2 6 


IX 


Oleate, Sidea 


44 44 44 




1 z 2 z 4 


iH 


Oleati, Bottom 


44 44 44 



7>( Iba. 20d wire naili. 
H lb. ed wir« naili. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



12 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

irrigation water by any accurate method providing the results are 
expressed in cubic feet per seooiwJ,^ . .,*/.. ; ^ 

Current Meter Measuremants. — Of late years small insturmente 
called current meters have been manufactured- by several firms at 
prices ranging from $50 to $200 each. .These meters indicate the 
velocity of the water in any open channel and the mean velocity when 
multiplied by the area of the section gives the discharge. This mode 
of measuring water has .become quite popular owing to the ease and 
rapidity with which it can be done and also to the fact that fairly 
accurate results can be obtailied without the use of flumes, boxes, or 
other devices. 

Rating Flumes. — For occasional measurements the earthen 
channel of a ditch, or canal, answer's all purposes but when more 
accurate and continuous measuicements are, desiired rating flumes are 
usually constructed. These consist of wooden flumes as wide as the 
the water channel and from 8 to 24 feet in length placed to conform 
with the. grade of thei canal. ,Th^ velpcity.pf the water is found by 
a current meter and the depth of water is of ter recorded on a sheet 
attached to a self registering machine which needs attention only every 
seventh day. , ., . . 

Weir Boxes. — A wc^^ ,];>ox us^Uy consists of a flume with the lower 
end enclosed. In the micldle of the top of the lower end a notch is ent 
through which. the ..lYatfir to J?e-^eagjtu:,€alja$^W£b_::W^ilS^^^ 
instruments other then a foot rule, they are easily and cheaply made 
and measure flowing watet -with iif two? peir 'cent of accuracy when all 
the requisite conditions aiJefnMi lied, . Weit; boxes as compared with 
miners' inch boxes are more accurate can be built for the same if not 
for less money and can be used to measure much larger volumes. The 
chief defects of this device are that the box often flflls with sediment 
which must be removed and that the water as it issues from the notch 
requires a drop of at least double the depth of water flowing through 
the notch. 

Where to Place Farmers' Weirs. 

For nearly half a century western irrigators have tried to devise a 
way by which water might be measured as it flows through a headgate. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FARIkiER'S WEIR6. 



y hoped to make one structure answer two purpo^s. In tl 
1 have failed for the reason that water is so much agitated and 
gular in flow as it passes through a headgate as to render 
ossible to secure an accurate measurement. Of late year»r'!»^a»i 
boxes have been placed at the most suitable points below the hea 
^ and the latter control the stream while thQ former indicate tl 
imes. This rule applies to weiJis. It is well to have a space of 
t 50 ft. between the two structu^rJejs and if a better site can be s 
jd farther down the ditt^ thei^3tt®*vemng^d4fiftftHee»^^ be increas< 
several hundred feet. ' ' . ~ v 

The weir boxes from No. 1 to No. 4 inclusive sketched in tl 
etin are intended to be plac^ near the head gat^s of tarme] 
ral& which divert water from natural streams or canals. The 
Bs a^e designedio measure from 5 to 300 miners' iiches and a 
nded for indiyftlual, and in th^ case of the larger sizes, for partne 
) use. Weir box No. 5 may be -used at the head of a large later 
n one of the branches of a canal. It will measure si^cient wat 
iipp^y the needs of from 5 to 15 farmers. 

How to Place Weir Boxes. 

Attention has already been called to the fact that weirs requi 
Jl and with this in mind select for a site a part of the ditch th 

a heavy grade. 

The weir box should be placed on a level in both directions havii 

floor at the lower end on a level with the bottom of the ditc 
\ ditch banks above the weir box should be raised in order th 
water may flow through the notch in the weir board. Wh< 
weir box is in position the apron is inserted in front andmoi 
h carefully tamped around the side. The ditch for a distance 
eet, or more, above the weir box should be regular and equal 
th and width to the inner dimensions of the box. Care mi 
t;aken that no water escapes either beneath or at the sides 
box. 

In the case of the smaller sizes, the box may be built at t 
\t convenient place, hauled to the site and then put in place. 

It is usually more convenient to build it on the site. T 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION- 







r 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FARMERS 



Bill of Material for 



>. of 

8068. 


Aotual 
DimensioDB. 


B. M. 

Feet, 


\ 


6 


Id. 


In. Ft. In 
12 z 12 


144 


Unit 


2 




10 z 12 


40 


Unit 






12 z 12 


72 


Unit 






10 z 12 


80 


Unit 






4 z 6 4 


84 


! 






4 z 6 4 


24 




16 




4 z 4 2 


67 


1 






12 z 6 4 


asH 


A 






18 z 5 4>i 


16 


Weir 




2 z 


12 X 6 4)4 


aiJi 


Weir 




1 z 


2 z 8 4 


3K 


Oleat 




1 z 


2 z 6 4>i 


iH 


Cleat 



11 IbB. 20cl wire nails. 
}4 lb. 6d wire nails. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



16 



MONTANA 'EXPERIMENT STATION. 



I 






TP^ 



rrys>.iw»fe<K>'3>ww 



^ 



.... 



« 



§■' 



I 






n'"' f\ 



^w 



if^ 



I: 



^ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FARMERS' WEIRS. 



17 



Bill of Material for Weir Box No. 4. 



Of 


Aotnal 
DimeDsioDS. 


B. M. 

Feet, 


Where 
Used. 


Remarks. 




In. In. Ft. In 
2 X 12 X 16 


190 


Lining, Sides 


Lumber, Rough 






2 X 10 X 16 


533-3 


Lining, Sides 








2 X 12 X J6 


128 


Lining, Bottom 








2 X 10 K 16 


106% 


Lining, Bottom 








4 X 4x7 8 


40S.9 


Sills. 








8 X 4x7 8 


80% 


Ties. 








2 X 6x4 4 


69K 


PostH. 








2 X 12 X 7 8 


30% 


Aprons. 








2 X 16 X 6 4 


16 8-9 


Weir Board 


Clear Lumber surfaced. 






2 X 14 X 6 4 


29 5-9 


Weir Board 


<« tt II 






1 X 2x2 6 


1% 


Cleats on Sides 


II II II 






1 X 2x6 4 


2 1-9 


Cleats, Bottom 


II II 1 > 




13 lbs. 20d wiie nails. 








L lb. 6d wiie nai 


Is. 









Digitized by VjOOQIC 



18 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 







\ 



%, 



\ 



i 



i 



9 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FARMERS 



Bill of Material fa 



Actual 
DimeDsioDB* 



B. M. 

^eet 



Id. Id. Ft. Id 

3 X 12 X 18 

2 X 12 X 18 

4 X 6 X 13 >^ 
2 X 6x5 8 
2 X 13 X 13 3^ 
8 X 30x 10 8)<^ 
8 X 14xl0 8>|^ 
2 X 4x3 6 
2 X 4 X 11 



860 
432 
193 

91 

48 

53K 
113 

14?i 



Lin 
LiD 
Sill 



Wei 

Glea 
Clea 



10 lbs. 30d ^ 
1 lb. 6d wir 
83 % in. X 1 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



20 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

f 

frame work or yokes are first framed and put into position after 
which the flooring and sides are nailed on and last of all the weir 
board is inserted. 

Weir Gauges* 

When great accuracy is required the depth of water over the crest 
of the weir is found by means of an instrument called a Hooke Gauge. 
The farmer uses simpler if less accurate methods. When the weir 
box is placed, care should be taken to have the bottom of the notch, or 
crest, level. An ordinary carpenter's spirit level may be used for this 
purpose. When the crest is horizontal, one end of the spirit level is 
placed on the center of the crest and when level the other end will 
mark the point for the zero of the weir gauge. In rough work a nail 
may be <lriven part way into the side of the box, the top of the nail 
being level with the crest of the weir. A thin plate of brass is to be 
preferred to a nail. In other cases gauges are inserted on the sides of 
the flume and properly marked in tenths of feet or inches. At other 
times a post from 1 to 2 inches square is placed in the center of the 
box and several feet above the weir board. The top of this post is on 
a level with the crest. 

Drawings of Weir Boxes. 

The first sketch represents a weir box in use and is introduced 
for the purpose of conveying some idea of the manner of placing such 
boxes in a lateral, or ditch. The gauge post referred to in a former 
paragraph is shown beneath the second tie-beam. Measurements are 
made from the top of the post. 

Weir Box No. 1 — is designed to measure from a few miners' 
inches up to 40 miners' inches. The length of the weir notch is 12 
inches. 

Weir Box No. 2 — will measure volumes from 25 to 100 miners' 
inches. If extreme accuracy is not required it will also measure from 
1 to 25 miners' inches. The preceding statement applies to all the 
sketches introduced in this bulletin. 

Weir Box No. 3 — should be used for all streams that do not ex- 
ceed 200 miners' inches. 

Weir Box No.4 — has a length of weir of 3 feet and will measure 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FARMERS' WEIRS. 21 

quantities of water ranging from a few miners' inches to 300 miners' 
inches. 

Weib Box No. 5 — represents the kind of box to insert on main 
laterals which supply a number of individual shareholders. If it be 
desired to measure volumes larger then 1000 miners' inches the length 
of the weir may be incressed from 7 to 8, 9 or 10 feet. Any increase 
in the length of the weir should be followed by a like increase in the 
other parts of the box. On the other hand if the volume to be meas- 
ured be less than 1000 miners' inches the length of the weir in No. 5 
may be decreased to 5 or 4, feet decreasing the other parts in proportion. 

Weir Tables. 

Table No 1 — was prepared by Mr. J. S. Baker, Instructor in Civil 
Engineering, assisted by Mr. W. B. Freeman. To accommodate the 
fanners who use for the most part a carpenter's rule or a square, the 
depths over the crest are given in inches and fractions of an inch. 
The discharges are given in Montana miners' inches and were com- 
puted to the nearest whole number from the formula. Q - 3.3| L. 

Table No. 2 — is inserted for the benefit of engineers and canal 
superintendents who use decimal parts of a foot instead of inches and 
fractions thereof. The discharges are expressed in cubic feet per 
second. This table is taken from Bulletin No. 86 of the Irrigation 
Investigation series of the Department of Agriculture and was com- 
puted by Mr. C. T. Johnston under the surpervision of Professor 
Elwood Mead. 

How to Measure Water Over Weirs. 

The method to follow can best be shown by examples. Let us 
suppose that a farmer has made and placed a box similar to the one 
shown in drawing No. 1. After turning in the water and allowing it 
some time to attain a uniform flow he proceeds to the weir box and 
with an ordinary rule measures the depth of water flowing through the 
weir notch. Bear in mind that this measurement is not made at the 
weir board but at the regular gauge whether it be a nail, brass plate, 
or post as described under that head. We will assume that the depth 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



22 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

as found by the rule is 3^ inches. Now by referring to Table 1 he 
follows down the first colnmn until 3^ is reached. The weir used is 
one foot and under the column marked *l-foot weir' and opposite the 
figure 3^ already found he finds the number 21 which indicates the 
number of miner's inches flowing over a one foot weir when the depth 
of water is 3| inches. If the depth had been 4 inches, the flow would 
have been 26 miners' inches; if 6 inches, 48 miners' inches and so on. 
As a second example, let us suppose that Weir box No. 3 is put 
in place and the water turned on. The depth as measured is, say 4 
inches. N 3w we search for figure 4 in the first column and then find 
the discharge in the column marked *2-foot weir' which is 52 miners' 
inches. If the depth had been 8 inches the discharge would have been 
147 miners' inches thus showing that the discharge over weirs is not 
in proportion to the depth. 

Acknowledgment. 

It is fitting that we should express our indebtedness to Cesare 
Cippoletti, the celebrated Italian Engineer who has given to the world 
the Cippoletti Weir and to Director L. G. Carpenter of Colorado for 
introducing this weir into Western America. In the foregoing pages 
the writer has attempted to describe how Cippoletti weirs may be 
made and used by Western farmers. 

I have also to acknowledge the assistance rendered by Professor 
Elwood Mead of the oflSce of Experiment Stations, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. K. C. Schaub, a former student of the writer, prepared the 
drawings. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FARMERS' WEIRS. 



23 



TABLE I. Discharges of Farmers' Weirs of Different lengths, ex- 
pressed in Montana Miners' Inches. 



Depth 

of 
water 


Ifoot 


IH-ft. 


2foot 


3-foot 4-foot 


5-foot 


6 foot 


7-foot 


8-foot 


9foot 


10-ft. 


OD 

crest. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


Inches. 


Miner's, 
laches. 


Miner's' 
Inches. 


Miner'8 
Inches., 


Miner's 
Inches. 


Miner's 
Inche.s. 


Miner'.s 
Inche.-*. 


Miner'H 
InchoH. 


Miner'H 
.Inches. 


Miner's 
Inches. 


1 Miner's 
Inches. 


Miner's 
Inches. 


H 


S 


U 


5-16 


7-!6 


9-16 


11-16 


\ 


1 


14 


14 


I 7-16 


U 


S 


s 


\ 


1 3-16 


I 9-16 


2 


2 5-16 


2h 


34 


34 


4 


^B 


•\ 


1^8 


IS 


2^4 


3 


3\ 


^H 


^h 


6 


6% 


'JH 


H 


1^8 


1\ 


2»4 


^H 


^h 


5\ 


6^8 


8 


»S 


lOS 


llH 


h 


l^iJ 


2 


3 


5 


6 


8 


10 


11 


13 


14 


16 


h 


2 


3 


4 


6 


8 


11 


13 


15 


17 


19 


21 


7 
8 


3 


4 


5 


8 


11 


13 


16 


19 


21 


24 


27 


1 


3 


5 


6 


10 


13 


16 


19 


23 


26 


29 


32 


1'. 


4 


6 


8 


12 


15 


19 


23 


27 


31 


35 


39 


1^4 


5 


7 


9 


14 


18 


23 


27 


32 


36 


41 


45 


Ih 


5 


8 


10 


16 


21 


26 


31 


37 


42 


47 


52 


1,4 


6 


9 


12 


18 


24 


30 


:36 


42 


48 


54 


60 


i»« 


7 


10 


13 


20 


27 


34 


40 


47 


54 


60 


67 


1% 


7 


11 


15 


22 


30 


38 


45 


52 


60 


67 


75 


1'* 


8 


12 


17 


25 


as 


42 


50 


58 


67 


75 


83 


2 


9 


14 


18 


27 


37 


46 


55 


64 


73 


83 


92 


2>, 


10 


15 


20 


30 


40 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 


100 


2}^ 


11 


16 


22 


33 


44 


55 


66 


77 


87 


98 


109 


2S 


12 


18 


24 


36 


47 


59 


71 


83 


95 


107 


119 


2K 


13 


19 


26 


38 


51 


64 


77 


90 


102 


115 


128 


^% 


14 


21 


28 


41 


55 


69 


83 


97 


110 


124 


138 


2% 


15 


22 


30 


44 


59 


74 


89 


103 


118 


133 


148 


27i; 


16 


24 


32 


47 


63 


79 


95 


111 


126 


142 


158 


3 


17 


25 


34 


51 


68 


85 


102 


119 


136 


162 


169 


3M 


18 


26 


36 


54 


72 


90 


108 


125 


143 


161 


179 


3« 


19 


28 


38 


57 


76 


95 


114 


133 


152 


171 


190 


3?» 


20 


30 


40 


60 


80 


100 


121 


141 


161 


181 


201 


3H 


21 


32 


42 


64 


85 


106 


127 


143 


169 


191 


212 


3?» 


22 


34 


45 


67 


89 


112 


134 


157 


179 


201 


224 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



24 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Table 1. Diecharges of Farmers' Weirs of Different lengths, ex- 
pressed in Montanjj Miners' Inches. — Continued. 



Dej,th 
water 


1-foot 


IH-foot 


2-foot 


3-foot 


4-foot 


5-foot 


6-foot 


7-foot 


8-foot 


9-foot 


lO^oot 


on 
crest. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


Inches. 


Minere' 
Inches. 


Miners' 
Inches. 


Miners' 
Inches. 


Mil ers' 
Inches. 


Miners' 
Inches. 


Miners' 
Inches. 


Miners' 
Inches. 


Miners' 
Inches. 


Miners' 
Inches. 


Miners' 
Inches. 


Miners' 
Inche>. 


3M 


24 


35 


47 


71 


94 


118 


141 


165 


188 


212 


235 


m 


25 


37 


49 


74 


99 


124 


148 


173 


198 


222 


247 


4 


26 


39 


52 


78 


104 


130 


155 


181 


207 


233 


259 


4}8 


27 


41 


54 


81 


109 


136 


163 


190 


217 


244 


271 


m 


28 


43 


57 


85 


114 


142 


170 


199 


227 


255 


284 


^% 


30 


44 


59 


89 


119 


148 


178 


207 


237 


267 


296 


^% 


31 


46 


62 


93 


124 


155 


185 


216 


247 


278 


309 


4« 


32 


48 


64 


97 


129 


161 


193 


226 


258 


290 


322 


4M 


34 


50 


67 


101 


134 


167 


201 


235 


268 


302 


335 


4Jg 


35 


52 


70 


105 


139 


174 


209 


244 


279 


314 


349 


5 


36 


54 


72 


109 


145 


181 


217 


254 


290 


326 


362 


5M 


38 


56 


75 


113 


150 


188 


225 


26^J 


301 


338 


376 


5Ji 


39 


58 


78 


117 


156 


195 


234 


273 


312 


350 


390 


5% 


40 


61 


81 


121 


161 


202 


242 


282 


323 


362 


m 


bH 


42 


63 


84 


125 


167 


209 


251 


292 


334 


376 


418 






65 


86 


130 


173 


216 


259 


303 


346 


389 


432 






67 


89 


134 


179 


223 


268 


313 


357 


402 


447 






69 


92 


138 


ia5 


231 


277 


323 


369 


415 


461 






71 


95 


143 


190 


238 


286 


333 


381 


429 


476 






74 


98 


147 


196 


246 


295 


344 


393 


442 


491 






76 


101 


152 


202 


253 


304 


354 


405 


455 


506 






78 


104 


156 


209 


261 


313 


365 


417 


469 


521 






81 


107 


161 


215 


269 


322 


375 


429 


483 


537 






83 


110 


166 


221 


276 


asi 


387 


442 


497 


552 






85 


114 


170 


227 


284 


341 


398 


454 


511 


568 






88 


117 


175 


234 


292 


350 


409 


467 


525 


584 






90 


120 


180 


240 


300 


360 


420 


480 


540 


600 






92 


123 


ia5 


246 


308 


370 


431 


493 


554 


616 






95 


126 


190 


253 


316 


379 


443 


506 


569 


632 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FARMER'S WEIRS. 



25 



Table 1. Discharges of Farmers' Weirs of Different lengths, ex- 
pressetl in Montana Miners' Inches. — Ck)NTiNCED. 



I>e|>th 

of 
water 

oo 
cre&t. 


1-foot 
weir. 


l-Hfoot 
weir. 


2-foot 
weir. 


3.foot 
weir. 


4-foot 
weir. 


5-foot 
weir. 


6-foot 
weir. 


T-foot 
weir. 


Woot 
weir. 


9-foot 
weir. 


10-foot 
weir. 


1 
Xncbes. 


Miners' 
rnrhes. 


Miners' 
Inches. 


Miners' 
Inches. 


Miners' 
Inches. 


.Miners' 
j Inches. 


Miners'JMiness' 
Inches. Inches. 


Miners' 
Inches. 


Miners' 
Inches. 


Miners' 
Inches. 


Miners' 
Inches. 


7^8 


65 


97 


130 


195 


260 


324 


389 


454 


519 


584 


649 


7^3 


67 


100 


133 


200 


266 


333 


399 


466 


532 


599 


665 


7-s 


68 


102 


136 


205 


273 


341 


409 


477 


546 


614 


682 


T^-4 


70 


105 


140 


210 


280 


349 


419 


489 


559 


629 


699 


'^'s 


72 


107 


143 


215 


286 


358 


430 


501 


573 


644 


716 


8 


73 


110 


147 


220 


293 


367 


440 


513 


586 


660 


733 


S^s 


75 


113 


150 


225 


300 


375 


450 


525 


600 


675 


750 


8^4 


77 


115 


154 


230 


307 


384 


461 


637 


614 


691 


768 


8*3 


79 


118 


157 


236 


314 


393 


471 


550 


628 


707 


785 


s^i 


80 


120 


161 


241 


321 


401 


482 


562 


642 


722 


803 


8?8 


82 


123 


164 


246 


328 


410 


492 


574 


656 


739 


821 


su 


84 


126 


168 


252 


335 


. 419 


503 


587 


671 


755 


838 


S-i 


86 


128 


171 


257 


343 


428 


514 


599 


685 


771 


856 


9 


87 


131 


175 


262 


350 


437 


525 


612 


700 


788 


875 


9^8 




134 


179 


268 


357 


446* 


536 


625 


714 


804 


893 


91:* 




137 


182 


273 


364 


456 


547 


638 


729 


820 


911 


9?T5 




139 


186 


279 


372 


465 


558 


651 


744 


837 


930 


9ii 




142 


190 


285 


379 


474 


569 


664 


759 


. 854 


949 


9^ . 




145 


193 


290 


387 


484 


580 


677 


774 


861 


967 


9*V 




148 
151 


197 

201 


296 
302 


394 

402 


493 
503 


592 
603 


690 
704 


789 
804 


888 
905 




9-8 . 




1006 


in 




154 
157 
159 
162 
165 


205 
209 
213 
217 
220 
224 
228 
232 


307 
313 
319 
325 
331 
337 
342 
349 


410 
417 
425 
433 
441 
449 
457 
465 


512 
522 
532 
541 
551 
561 
571 
581 


615 
626 
638 
650 
661 
673 
685 
697 


717 
731 
744 
758 
771 
785 
799 
813 


820 
835 
850 
866 
882 
898 
913 
930 


922 

939 

957 

974 

992 

1010 

1027 

1046 


1024 






1044 






1063 


-in3» 




:083 


Xv 8 • 




1102 






1122 








1142 








1162 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



.E 1. Discharges of Farmers' Weirs of DiflFerent lengths, 
pressed in Montana Miners' Inches. — Continued. 



l-foot 
weir. 



m-footi 2-foot 3-foot 



weir. weir. 



4-foot 



I, 



J>-foot 6-foot ; 7-foot 
weir. 



weir. , weir. 



S-foot ! 9-foot 10-f 
weir. ! weir. ' w€ 



Minere 
Inches. 



Miners' Miners* i Miners' 
Inches . ! Inches . I Inches . 



Miners' j Miners' Miners' Miners' i Miners' i Miners' Min 
Inches., Inches. I Inches.' Inches., Inches. 'Inches, jind 



236 


355 


473 


591 


709 


827 


946 


1064 


240 


361 


481 


601 


721 


841 


962 


1082 


244 


367 


489 


611 


7a3 


856 


978 


1100 


249 


373 


497 


621 


746 


870 


994 


1119 


253 


379 


505 


632 


758 


884 


1011 


1137 


257 


385 


514 


642 


770 


899 


1027 


1156 


261 


391 


522 


a52 


783 


913 


1044 


1174 


265 


398 


530 


663 


795 


928 


1060 


iia3 


269 


404 


539 


673 


. 808 


943 


1077 


1212 




410 


547 


684 


821 


958 


1094 


1231 




417 


556 


694 


a33 


972 


nil 


1250 




423 


564 


705 


846 


987 


1128 


1269 




4^30 


573 


716 


859 


1002 


1145 


1289 




436 


582 


726 


872 


1017 


1162 


1308 




442 


590 


737 


885 


1032 


1180 


13^ 




449 


599 


748 


898 


1048 


1197 


1348 




456 


607 


759 


911 


1063 


1215 


1368 




462 


616 


770 


924 


1078 


1?32 


1389 




469 


625 


781 


938 


1094 


1250 


1409 




475 


634 


792 


951 


1109 


1268 


1429 




482 


643 


803 


964 


1125 


1286 


1449 




. . . 


652 


815 


978 


1140 


1303 


1469 




■ . • 


661 


826 


991 


1156 


1321 


1489 




. . . 


670* 


837 


1005 


1172 


1340 


1509 






679 


849 


1019 


1189 


1359 


1530 






688 


860 


1032 


1204 


1376 


1550 






697 


871 


1046 


1220 


1394 


1570 




. . . 


706 


8a3 


1059 


1236 


1412 


1590 




... 


715 


894 


1073 


1252 


1431 


1610 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FARMEKS' WEIRS. 



ABLE 1. Discharges of Farmers' Weirs of different lengths, € 
pressed in Montana Miners' Inches. — Continued. 



epth 

of 

'ater 

on 

rest. 


1-foot 
weir. 


IH-foot 
weir. 


2-foot 
weir. 


3-foot 
weir. 


4-foot 
weir. 


1 
5-foot 

weir. 


6-foot 
weir. 


7-foot 
weir. 


8-foot 
weir. 


9-foot 
weir. 


10-f< 
we 


ches. 


Minen' 
Inches. 


Miners' Miners' 
Inches. Inciies. 


Miners' 
Inches. 


Miners' 
Inches. 


Miners' 
Inches. 


Miners' 
Inches. 


Miners' Miners' 
Inches. Inches. 


Miners' 
Inches. 


Mine 
Inch 



725 906 


1087 


:268 


1449 


1631 


1^ 


734 918 


1101 


12a5 


1468 


1652 


1^ 


743 929 


1115 


1301 


1487 


1673 


1^ 


753 941 


1129 


1317 


1506 


1694 


li 


.... 953 


1143 


1334 


1524 


1715 


a 


.... 965 


1158 


1351 


1543 


1736 


U 


977 


1172 


1368 


1562 


1757 


li 


989 


1186 


1385 


1580 


1778 


U 


.... lOOI 


1201 


1402 


1600 


1801 


2C 


.... 1013 


1215 


1419 


1620 


1822 


2C 


.... 1025 


1229 


1437 


1639 


1844 


2C 


.... 1037 


1244 


1455 


1659 


1866 


2C 


.... 1049 


1259 


1472 


1678 


1888 


2C 


.... 1061 


1273 


1489 


1698 


I9I0 


21 


.... 1073 


1288 


1506 


I7I7 


1932 


21 


.... 1086 


1303 


1523 


1737 


1954 


21 


.... 1098 


1318 


1539 


1757 


1976 


21 


.... 1110 


1333 


1556 


1777 


1999 


• 22 


.... 1123 


1348 


1572 


1797 


2021 


22 


.... 1135 


1363 


1589 


1817 


2044 


22 


.... .... 


1378 


1607 


1837 


2066 


22 


. • . . .... 


1393 


1625 


1857 


2089 


23 


. • * • . . . • 


1408 


1642 


1877 


2II2 


23 





1423 


1660 


1897 


2134 


23 


•••• ..•• 


1433 


1678 


I9I8 


2157 


23 


•••• ..•■ 


1454 


1696 


1938 


2I8I 


24 


, 


1469 


I7I4 


1959 


2204 


24 


.... • • • • 


1484 


1732 


1979 


2226 


24 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



28 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Table ii. — Discharges of Cippoletti Weirs of dififerent lengths, com- 



puted from the formula Q — 3.3f LH2 



Depth 
























of 
water 

OD 


1-foot 


mfoot 


2-foot 


3-foot 


4-foot 


5-foot 


6-foot 


7-foot 


8-foot 


9-foot 


10-foot 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


weir. 


crest. 


























C^TtT 


Cu. ft. 


Cu. ft. 


Cu. ft. 


Cu. ft. 


Cu.ft. 


Cu. ft. 


Cu.ft. 


Cu. ft. 


Cu. ft. 


Cu. ft. 


Foet 


per Bee. 


per sec. 


per Bee. 


per sec. 


per sec. 


per sec. 


per sec. 


per sec. 


per sec. 


per sec. 


per sec. 


0.01 


0.0034 


0.0051 


0.0067 


0.0101 


0.0135 


0.0168 


0.0202 


0.0236 


0.0269 


0.0303 


0.0337 


.02 


.0005 


.0143 


.0190 


.0286 


.a381 


.0476 


.a571 


.0667 


.0762 


.0857 


.0»2 


.03 


.0175 


.0262 


.(mi) 


.0525 


.0700 


.0875 


.ia50 


.1225 


.1400 


.1574 


.1749 


.04 


.0269 


.04(W 


.ft>:i9 


.0808 


.1077 


.1.^7 


.1616 


.1885 


.2155 


.2424 


.2693 


.05 


.oan 


.0565 


.0753 


.1129 


.1506 


.1882 


.2258 


.26.35 


..3011 


..3:iss 


.3764 


.06 


.0495 


.0742 


.099f) 


.14M 


.1979 


.2474 


.2969 


..34IU 


..3958 


.4453 


4948 


.07 


.0624 


.09:v» 


.1247 


.1871 


.2494 


.3118 


.3741 


.4.365 


.4988 


..5612 


.6235 


.08 


.0762 


.1143 


.1524 


.22H5 


..3047 


..3809 


.4.571 


.5.33:1 


.6095 


.(>^56 


.761.S 


.09 


.0909 


.l.VU 


.1818 


.2727 


.3636 


.4.545 


..54.>4 


.6.363 


.7272 


.81. SI 


.9(W0 


.10 


.1065 


.1597 


.2129 


..3194 


.4259 


..532:1 


.6.388 


.7452 


.8517 


.9.XS2, 


1.0646 


.11 


.1228 


.m2 


.24.57 


.3685 


.4913 


.6141 


.7.370 


.8598 


.9826 


1.10-4 


1.2281 


.12 


.1399 


.2099 


.2799 


.4198 


..5.598 


.6997 


.8397 


.9796 


1.1196 


1.2.595 


1.3995 


.13 


.1.578 


.2:i67 


.3156 


.47.34 


.6312 


.7890 


.9468 


1.1046 


1.2624 


1 .4202' 


l..*»7» 


.14 


.1764 


.2^5 


.3.527 


.5291 


.7a>4 


.8818 


1 .a>81 


1.24.'>5 


1.4108 


1. 58721 


1 7.33f5 


.15 


.1956 


.2934 


.3912 


..5868 


.7823 


.9779 


1.17:i5 


1.3691 


1..5647 


1.7603' 


1.95.59 


.16 


.2155 


.3232 


.4:^*9 


.64m 


.8619 


1.0773 


1.2928 


1.5083 


1.7237 


1 .9.392 


2.1547 


.17 


.2:160 


.3.540 


.4720 


.7079 


.»44I9 


1.1799 


1.4159 


1.6519 


1.8878 


2.12:*i' 


2.3598 


.18 


.2.571 


.;^8.57 


.5142 


.7713 


1.02^ 


1.2H.M 


1.5426 


1.7997 


2.a568 


2.31.39 


2.5no 


.19 


.2788 


.4182 


.5.576 


.8365 


1.115:1 


1..3941 


1.6729 


I.a5l8 


2.2:«6 


2.5094, 


2.7882 


.20 


.3011 


.4.517 


.6022 


.OOM 


1.2045 


1..5a5J 


1.8068 


2.1079 


2. 4000 


2.7101 


3 0112 


.21 


.3240 


.4860 


.64.80 


.9720 


1.2960 


1.6199 


1.9439 


2.2679 


2.5919 


2.9159' 


3.2399 


.22 


.UU 


..5211 


.6948 


1.0422 


1.3896 


1.7.370 


2.08U 


2.4318 


2.7792 


3.1266^ 


3.4740 


.23 


.3714 


.5570 


.7427 


1.1141 


1.4854 


1.8.568 


2.2281 


2.5995 


2.9709 


3.3422! 


3.71« 


.24 


.3958 


.59:j8 


.7917 


1.1875 


1.. 58:14 


1.9792 


2.3750 


2.7709 


3.1667 


3.562.5 


S.9.V4 


.25 


.4208 


.6312 


.S417 


1.2625 


1.6833 


2.1042 


2.. 5250 


2.94.58 


3.3666 


3.7875 


4.2083 


.26 


.446:^ 


.6695 


.8927 


l..%390 


1.7853 


2.2317 


2.6780 3.1243 


3.. 5707 


4.0170 


4.4633 


.27 


.4723 


.7085 


.9447 


1.4170 


1.88a3 


2.3617 


2.8340 1 3.30'>3 


3.7787 


4.2510 


4. 7233 


.28 


.4988 


.7482 


.9976 


1.4964 


1.9952 


2.4941 


2.9929 3.4917 


3.9905 


4.489:11 


4.9881 


.29 


.5)258 


.7887 


1 .0515 


1.5773 


2.1031 


2.6289 


3.1.546 3.6804 


4.2062 


4.7.319 


5.2577 


.30 


.5532 


.8298 


1.1064 


1.659f) 


2.2128 


2.7660 


3.3192 


3.8724 


4.4256 


4.9788 


5.5320 


.31 


.5811 


.8716 


1.1622 


1.74:« 


2.3244 


2.9054 


3.4865 


4.0676 


4.64.87 


5.2298 


5.8109 


.32 


.6094 


.9141 


1.2189 


1.82Ki 


2.4:177 


3.0472 


3.6.566 


4. 26-10 


4.87.54 


5.4,849 


6.0943 


.33 


.6382 


.9573 


1 2764 


1.9147 


2.5529 


3.1911 


3.829:1 


4.4675 


5.1058 


5.7440 


6.3822 


.34 


.6674 


1.0012 


1.3349 


2.002:1 


2.6698 


3.:iH72 


4.0047 


4.6721 


5.. 3396 


6.0070; 


6.6745 


.35 


.6971 


1.(4.57 


1.3&42 


2.0913 


2.78H4 


3.4.V,6 


4. 1827 


4..S798 


5. 5769 


6.2740; 


6.9711 


.36 


.7272 


1.0908 


1.4r>44 


2.1816 


2.90H8 


3.6360 


4.36:r2 5.0904 


5.8176 


6. 544s; 


7.2720 


.37 


.7577 


i.iim 


1.5154 


2.27.31 


3.ai08 


3.7885 


4.. 5463 5.3040 


6.0617 


6.8194. 


7.5771 


.38 


.7886 


1.1m 


1.5773 


2.36.59 


3.1545 


3.(4:12 


4.7:118 5.5204 


6.3091 


7.0977, 


7.8863 


.39 


.8200 


i.2;«K) 


i.em 


2.4599 


3.2799 1 


4.0098 


4.9198 5.7398 


6..W97 


7. 3797 i 


8.1997 


.40 


.8517 


1.2776 


i.iim 


2..V)51 


3.40!58 


4.2585 


5.1102 5.9619 


6.8137 


7.66.54 


8..-.171 


.41 


.8838 


1.3258 


1.7677 


2.&515 


3.53.54 1 


4.4192 


5.30:« ! 6.1869 


7.0708 


7.9.546. 


8.8384 


.42 


.9164 


1.3740 


1.8328 


2.7491 


3.6655 


4.. 5819 


5.4983 1 6.4146 


7.3:no 


8.2474 


9.16.38 


.43 


.9493 


1.4239 


1.8986 


2.8479 


3.7972 , 


4.7465 1 


5.6958 ' 6.64.51 


7.5944 


8.-54.37' 


9.4930 


.44 


.9826 


1.4739 


1.96.52 


2.9478 


3.9.304 


4.91.30 


5. .8956 6.8782 


7.8608 


8.84.34' 


9.8261 


.45 


l.Olffi 


1.5244 


2.0326 


3.0489 


4.06.52 1 


5.0815 


6.0978 1 7.1141 


8.1.303 


9.1466! 


10.1629 


.46 


1.0504 


1.5755 


2.1007 


3.1511 1 


4. 2014 1 


5.2.518 1 


6.3021 7.35ri 


8.4029 


9.4.532' 


lO-VOS 


.47 


1.0S48 


1.6272 


2.1696 


3.2.VU ' 


4.3:192 1 


5.4240 


6.. 5088 1 7.59.36 


8.67.S3 


9.76.31 


10.8479 


.48 


1.1196 


1.6794 


2.2392 


3.:i5HS 


4.4784 


5..5'>0 . 


6.7178 7.8372 


8.9567 


10.0764 


11.1960 


.49 


1.1548 


1.7321 


2.:j095 


3.lfil3 


4.1)191 , 


5.773.S ' 


6.928»5i 8.08.34 


9.2381 


10..3929 


11.5477 


.50 


1.1903 


1. 78.54 


2.. 3806 


:i.5T(r.i' 


4.7612 


5.9515 : 


7.1418 1 8. .3321 


9..5224 


10.7127 


11.9030 


.51 




l.m:i 


2.4.524 


: .';;s5 


4.CO47' 


6.1309 1 


7.:i571 8.5833 


9.8095 


11.0356 


12.2618 


.52 




1.89:16 


2..524.S 


:..7H73 


5.01l»7 1 


6..3121 


7.. 5745 1 8.8370 | 


10.0994 


11.3618 


12.6242 


.53 




1.94^5 


2.5980 


3..V.70 


5.1961 1 


6.4951 


7.7941 9.0931 


10..3921, 


11.6011 


12.9901 


.54 




2.UKJ9 


2.6719 


4.(079 


5.:u.3.S 


6.671W ' 


8.0157 1 9.3.517 1 


10.6876 


12.0236 


13.35^ 


.55 




2.0598 


2.7465 


4.lli«7 


5.4iil9 


(i.m\2 I 


8.2.394 9.6126 \ 


10.9859 


12.3.591 


13.7323 


.56 




2.1163 


2.8217 


4.1 :;::<; 


5.64:i4 


7.0513 


8.46.51 L 9.8760 
8.0929 ho. 1417 


11.2868 


12.6977] 


14.1085 


.57 




2.1732 


2.8976 


4.:^u , 


5.7953 , 


7.2441 


11.5905 


13.0393 


14.4881 


.58 




2.2:j07 


2.9742 


4.4613 


5.1484 


7.4355 


8.9226 1 10.4097 


11.8969 


13.3840 


14.8711 


.59 




2.2886 


3.0515 


4.5772 


6.1029 


7.6287 


9.1.544 1 10.6801 


12.2059 


18.7613 


15.2573 


.60 




2.3470 


3.1294 


4.6940 


6.2587 


7.8234 1 


9.:i881 1 10.9527 


12.5174 


14.0821 


15.6468 


.61 




2.4059 


3.2079 


4.8119 


6.41.59 

1 


8.0198 1 


9.6238! 


11.2278 


12.8317 


14.4357| 


16.0996 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



FARMERS' WEIRS. 



29 



Table ii— Discharges of Cippoletti Weirs of difierent lengths com- 
puted from the Formula Q— 3.3| LH*— Continued. 



iJepth 1 


1 


1 


1 


1 




^Li Ifoot ,14-footl 2-foot 1 


3-foot 1 


4-foot ' 


5-foot 1 6-foot 


7-foc 


crest.' 


weir, i weir. 


weir. 


weir. 1 


weir. 1 weir. 

1 


weii 


„ C-u. ft.iCu.ft. iCu.ft.l 


Cu. ft, 1 


Cu. ft.i 


Cu. ft.l Cu.ft. 


Cu. i 


Feet, per sec. per sec. 1 


per sec. 


per sec. 


per sec. 1 


per sec. per sec. 


per s< 


o.c 


2.4654 


3.2871 


4.9307 1 


6.57fi| 


8.2178 9.mU 


11. 5C 


« i 


2.5252 


3.3670 


5.05(X> ' 


6.7310 


8.4175' 10.1009 


11.7^ 


.f>* ' 


2.5856 


3.4475 


5.1712 1 


6.WM9 


8.6187! 10.3424 


12.0661 1 


&'. 


2. (mi 


3.5286 


5.2929 1 


7.05721 


8.82151 10.5857 


12.35001 


m ' 


2.7077 


3.6103 


5.4155 


7.220J)' 


9.0258 10.8310 


12.6:)«1 


«^: i 


2.7«85 


3.6927 


5.5390 


7. 3854, 


9.2:^17 


11.07811 


12.9244! 


M 


2. 8317 


3 . 7757 


5.6635 


7.55131 


9.4392 


11.32701 


13.21481 


.fi9] 


2.8944 


3.8593 


5.7889 


7.7185 


9.6481 


11.5778 13.50741 


.70 


2.»76 


3.9435 


5.9152 


7.88ti9 


9.8586 


11.8304' 13.8021' 


.71 


3.0212 


4.0283 6.0424 1 


8.0565 


10.0706, 12.0848 14.0989, 


70 1 


3.0852 


4.1137 1 6.1705 


8.2273 


10.2H42 12.3410 


14.:)5i78 


73 ... 1 


3.1497 


4.1997 1 6.2995 


8.3S»93| 
8.5725 


I0.49i»2 12.59i)0 


14.6988, 


«*' 1 


3.2147 


4.2863 1 6.4294 


10.7156| 12.8.588 


15.00191 


'•J| . 


3.2801 


4.3734 ! 6.5601 


8.74691 


l0.iW:«')| 13.120') 


15.:)070i 


.76' 




4.4612, 6.6918 1 


8.92241 


ii.i5.'K)' \s.:ifm\ 

11.3728 13.6186 


15 6142 


•*• 




4.5495 6.8243 , 


9.09911 


15. 923;) 1 


.781 . 


4.6384 6.9577 


9.2769, 


11.5961 13.915:)! 


16.2:U5 


•^' ... 1 

.80' 


1 4.T279 7.0919 


9.4559 


11.8198 14.I8:)8| 


16.5477 


. 1 4.8180 7.2270 


9.63r)0 


12.O450I 14.45:)9 16.8629, 


••^1 . . 1 


1 4.9086; 7.3629 


9.8172 


12.27151 14.7258 17.1801 1 


.82i 


4.9998 7.4997 


9.9996 


I2.4m5 14.999;)) 17.49i»2 


.83 




5.0915 1 7.6373 


10. 181)0 


12.7288 15 2746 17.82021 


.84 




5.1838 1 7.7757 


10.3676 


12.9595 15 55141 \H.\iXi 


85 




5.2767 1 7.9150 


10.5533 


13.1916 


15.830()l 18.468:) 


•861 


, 5.3700; 8.0551 


10.7401 


13.4251 


16. 1101 1 18.7952 


.87' 




5.4640 


7.1960 


10.9280 


13.6599 


16.3919 19.1239 


■SS' ... 




5.5585 


8.3377 


11.1169 


13.8961 


16.6754 19.4546 


.89' . 




5.6535 


8.4802 


11.3069 


14.1337 


16.9604 


19.7872 


.90 




5.7490 


8.6235 


11.4980 


14.3726 


17.2470 


20.1216 


M'l 




5.8451 


8.7677 


11.6902 


14.6128 


17.5353 


20.4579 


921 




5.9417 


8.9126 


11.8834 


14.8.543 


17.8251 


20.7960 


98 ... 




6.0389 


9.0583 


12.0777 


15.0971 


18.1166 21.1360 


.94 




6.1365 


9.2018 


12.2730 


15.3413 


18 40961 21.4778 


^) ... 


1 6.2347 


9.3520 


12.4694 


15.5867 


18.7041 21 8214 


.%^ . 


.. .. 1 6.3334 


9.5001 


12.6668 


15. 83^)5 


19.00(r2 22.1669 


.97' 


6.4326 


9.6489 


12.8652 


16.0815 


19.29791 22.5142 


.98 . 


.;.:.. 1 6.5323 


9.7985 


13.0647 


16.3309 


I9.5970I 22.8632 


.99 . 




6.6326 


9.9489 


13.2652 


l6.58i5 


19.89781 23.2141 


l.OOi 




6.7333 


10.1000 


13.4667 


16.8333 


20.20001 23.5667 


1 Oil 












20 50:)8 23.9211 


1.02 












20.804)0 24.2772 














21.1158 


24.6^51 


l.ft*.l ■■• 

1.061 

1.07' 

1.08' ; 

1.091 

i.ioi 

1.11' 

1.12 

1.13! 

i.ui 

1.151 

1.16; :;:;;; 

j-18' : 

\'^'--- 
1.21 

I oo 












21.4240 


24.9947 












2I.73.')8 


25.:i561 












22.0450 


25.7192 












22.3577 


26.0840 












22 6719 


26.4505 












22.9875 


26.8187 












23.3045 


27.1886 












23.62:)0 


27.5602 












23.9430 


27.9:):)5 












24.2644 


28.3084 


1 .. 










24.5872 


28.6850 


1 










24.9114 


29.0633 












25.237C 


29.44:)2 












25.5641 


29.8248 












25.8925 


30.2079 












26.2224 


30.5i)28 












26.5536 


30.9792 








1 






31-3672 


i:s :::;;; 








1 






31.7569 








1 






32.1481 



13.7899 

14.1143 

14.4413 

14.7707 

15.1027 

15. 4.370 

15.77:)8 

16. 11:^/) 

16.4547 

16.7<>9 

17.1450 

17.44i:)7 

17.8447 

18.1981 

18.5r>:)8 

18.911 

19.2719 

19.6344 

19.9S»91 

20.:)66l 

20.7352 

21.1066 

21.48(y2 

21.8559 

22.2.3:)8 

22.6i:)« 

22.9961 

23.3804 

23.76(>9 

24.1554 

24.5461 

24.9:)88 

25.333(i 

26.7305 

26.12t>4 

26.530:) 

26. 93:^ 

27.3:)84 

27.7454 

28.1544 

28.5654 

28.9784 

29.3933 

29.8103 

30.2291 

30.64i»9 

31.0727 

31.4974 

31.9240 

32.3525 

32.7829 

33.2152 

33.6494 

34.08.54 

34.52.%! 

34.9631 

35.4048 

35.8483 

86.293»') 

36.74071 



15.5136 

15.8786 

16.2465 

16.6171 

16.91X)5 

17.3667 

17.7456 

18.1272 

18.5115 

18.8985 

19.2881 

19.6804 

20.0753 

20.4729 

•:0.87.TO 

21.2757 

2».68(R> 

22.0887 

22.4990 

22.9118 

23.3271 

23.7449 

24.1652 

24.5879 

25.0131 

25.4406 

25.8706 

26.3a')0 

26.7377 

27.1748 

27.6143 

28.0561 

28.5003 

28.9468 

29.395<J 

29.8467 

30.3000 

80.7556 

31.2135 

31.6737 

:)2.1361 

32.6007 

:)3.067, 

33.5:)65 

:)4.0078 

34.4812 

34.9568 

35.4346 

35.9145 

36.8965 

36.8808 

37.3671 

37.85.56 

.38.344'>I 

38.8:)88 

39.3335 

39.8304 

40.3293 

40.8303 

41.3333 



10-foot 
weir. 



Cu. ft. 

per sec. 
16.4857 
16.8349 
17.2373 
17.6429 
18.0516 
18.4634 
18.8783 
19.2963 
19.7173 
20.1413 
20-5683 
20.9983 
21.4313 
21.8671 
22.3059 
22.7476 
23.1922 
23.634J6 
24.0899 
24. 54.30 
24.94»89 
25.4.576 
25.9191 
26.38;)3 
26.8.502 
27.3199 
27.7923 
28.2674 
28.7451 
29.22,55 
29.7086 
30.1943 
30.6826 
31.1735 
31.6670 
32.1631 
82.6617 
33.1629 
38.6667 
34.1729 
34.6817 
.35.1930 
35.7067 
36.2230 
36.7417 
37.2628 
37.7864 
38.3124 
38.8409 
39.. 37 17 
39.9050 
40.4406 
40.9786 
41.5190 
42.0617 
42.6068 
48.1542 
43.7039 
U. 2.560 
44.8103 
45.8670 
45.9259 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



LLETIN NO. 35. 

MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 

Experiment Station 

OF THE 
AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE OF HONTANA. 



Report of Feeding Tests. 

BEEF CATTLE AND SHEEP. 



;. Comparative Result? from Feeding Lambs, 1-year 

fiERS, 2-yEAR Wethers and Aged Ewes. 

[. Fattening Steers with Different Quantities of Grain. 



BOZEMAN, MONTANA, MAY I, 1902. 



'19OJ. 

The Avant Courier Publishing Co.» 

Bozeman, nontana. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



HARVARD COLLEC 

FROM THE LtBI 

ARTNIM 8. SI 

Af Rli t, I 

Ion tana Agfricultural t 

Bozeman, M< 

STATE BOARD OF 

[osEPH K. Toole, Govemor 
[AMES Donovan, Attorney General 
W. W. Welch, Supt. of Public Instr 

^. W. McConnell 

iV. M. Johnson 

3. P. Chisholm 

[. F. McCay 

J. T. Paul '. 

^. B. HOLTER 

[. M, Evans 

Z. Leonard 

EXECUTIVE 

kVALTER S. Hartman, President 

OHN M. Robinson, Vice President.... 

r*ETER Koch, Secretary 

OSEPH KOUNTZ 

2. B. Lamme 

STATION S 

5amuel Fortier, Ma. E Dii 

^. W. Traphagen, Ph. D., F. C. S..'.. 

^OBT. S. Shaw, B. S. A 

. W. Blankinship, Ph. D 

I. A. CooLEV, B. Sc 

Postoffice, Express and Frei; 

All communications for the Ex 
iddressed to the Director, 

Montana 



Notice.— The Bulletins of the St 
my citizen of Montana who sendi 
station for that purpose. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



s 
.2 

d 

c 
E 





d 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Montana Experiment Station. 



Bulletta No, 35- - - - - Hay 190a. 



BY R. S. SHAW. 



SHEEP FEEDING. 



i COMPARATIVE TESTS WITH LAMBS, YEARLING 

WETHERS, TWO-YEAR WETHERS, 

AND AGED EWES. 



Thejritnary object of this work during the past season was to 
secure-ibta concerning the relative profits from feeding sheep of 
different dg;es for market. In procuring this data secondary deter- 
niinatiatti were made demonstrating many practical requirements 
and rcfttkft in a comparative way along the following lines, viz : 

(1) Amount of food required, per head, daily. (2) Relation of 
^in te'COarse food for sheep of different ages. (3) Actual and 
percoiljpjt gains in live weight. (4) Air dry food necessary per 
ptJund itefease. (5) Relative cost of food and increase. (6) Rel- 
ative fM&ts. (7) Report of slaughter test. (8) Shrinkage in 
transit- , 

This tVOfk was found to be necessary because of the rapidly in- 
creasifl^ interest which is being manifested throughout the state in 
fitting -jflieep for market. l>ecause of climatic conditions peculiar to 
the arid west and the kind and quality of its product, determinations 
even of the simplest and most practical character must be made 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



4 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

under these local conditions to supply the great demand foi 
mation. There has been a great demand for data relating 
suitability of sheep of different ages for the purpose stated, 
great majority of cases it is a matter of choice as to which clai 
be used, for the feeding stocks are nearly all purchased by the 
from the ranges when the feeding season begins. 

For the purpose of these experinients, four lots consisi 
wether lambs, yearling wethers, two-year wethers, anc 
ewes were purchased for the Station, in Oct., 1902, by J. M. 
son. The object in selection was to secure animals presentii 
formity in blood characters and the average of Montana rani 
duction. These sheep were purchased by the head, at the fol 
prices: Lambs, $1.62; yearlings, $2.50; two-year-olds, $2.6 
aged ewes, $2.50. The average weights when feeding begar 
Lambs, 62.9 lbs. ; yearlings, 94.Q lbs. ; two years, 11 5.7 lbs. ; ani 
91.6 lbs. The sheep had the run of the farm for a few days 
being put on feed. The feeding period began- Nov. 22d, 19 
closed February 17th, 1902, thus extending over a period of S 
The same kinds of food were used in each case and under 
conditions. The four lots were fed in yards, side by side, usin 
for the hay and troughs for grain. The sheep had constant ac 
sheds and water which ran through the yards. Owing to the p< 
ly favorable climatic conditions, the sheds were not used 
sheep more than a few days when the protection was badly ne 

Though it was the original intention to have fed lots 
numbers of 55 each, this was not possible, owing to error in 
the various bunches out from a large band. However, the dat 
after given shows the difference was not great and in no way 
the results. Some few average individuals from each lo 
slaughtered at home for photogyaphic purposes. The data tli 
out is based on the number which reached the Chicago marl 
upon which the slaughter test was reported. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Total Food Consumed and Cost of Same. 



ding period began Nov. 22d, 1901 and ended Feb. 17, 1902, 
ing 88 days. 

nbs consumed 9958 lbs. clover, @ $5.00 ton $24.89 

nbs consumed 3304 lbs. barley, @ 90c per cwt 29.73 

Total $54.62 

T. wethers consumed 16,960 lbs. clover, @ $5.00 per ton. .$42.40 

r. wethers consumed 3073 lbs. barley, @ 90c per cwt $27.65 

Total $70.05 

r. wethers consumed 18,905 lbs. clover, @ $5.00 per ton. .$47.26 

T. wethers consumed 3195 lbs. barley, @ 90c per cwt. . . . . 28.75 

Total \, .$76.01 

es consumed 10,904 lbs. clover, @ $5.00 per ton $47.26 

es consumed 3195 lbs. barley, @ 90c per cwt 28.75 

Total .' $56.01 

I figures given above represent the actual amounts of food con- 
i, the percentage of waste having been deducted. While the 
method is to feed without waste, under conditions such as these 
st be taken into account in making accurate determinations, 
e such close feeding is practiced that there is absolutely no 
, the gains will be somewhat affected as the ration in part be- 
> forced. The coarser and less edible the food the greater will 
is loss. Under ordinary conditions, with the quality of foods 
I can be produced in Montana when properly cured, the loss 
d not exceed two or three per cent. 

this case the coarse food consisted of first and second crop 
r hay. In general the quality was good, though a small amount 
liscolored in the stack. It had been cut in the first stages of 
1. 

e grain food consisted exclusively of Chevalier barley and was 
nground in every case. While some question has arisen as 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



to whether better results would have been obtained had this grain 
been ground, there was no evidence to show that it was not perfectly 
masticated and digested. The ewe mouths were examined and 
found to be in fairly good condition with one exception only. A 
combination of grains was not used because of the fact that many of 
our feeders will of necessity be forced to use some one kind. Both 
wheat and oats have been used separately along with clover in pre- 
vious tests. Good results have been secured from all three, with a 
slight gain in favor of oats, with wheat and barley about equal and 
very close to the oats in gains. The oats have proved to be far the 
most expensive food of the three, owing to local prices. 



Food Consumed Per Head Per Day. 



Lambs Clover, 2.05 lbs. Barley, .68 lbs. Total, 2.73 lbs. 

i-year Wethers. . .Clover, 3.77 lbs. Barley, .68 lbs. Total, 445 lbs. 
2-year Wethers. . .Clover, 4.05 lbs. Barley, .68 lbs. Total, 4.73 lbs. 

Aged Ewes Clover, 2.33 lbs. Barley, .68 lbs. Total, 3.01 lbs. 

The figures given above represent the average daily consumption 
of hay and grain aod also the average amount of total dry matter 
used per head throughout the 88 days. In the case of the lambs 
the amount of food actually consumed per head, per day, is a little 
less than we had expected. Under similar conditions, in previous 
tests, about three pounds has teen required for a daily ration and 
the feeder should figure on no less than that amount in making esti- 
mates of the food required by large bands. 



Relation of Grain to Coarse Food. 



From the foregoing data we find the following relation to exist 
between the grain and the coarse food : 

In Lamb ration 24 per c^nt consisted of grain. 

In I -year Wether ration 15 per cent consisted of grain. 

In 2-year Wether ration 14 per cent consisted of grain. 

In Aged Ewe ration 22 per cent consisted of grain. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



lis relation of grain and coarse food (clover) was planned in 
• to give the four lots of different ages a uniform finish for the 
et. In the case of the lambs the largest percentage of grain 
given, not as being necessary to produce a large increase in 
ht, but to give the carcass fatness; the tendency in the lamb 
r to an increase of a growthy nature rather than fat. The weth- 
)eing practically mature sheep, were supplied a smaller percent- 
►f grain as the increase in live weight is mostly fat. It is on this 
that we advocate the fattening of lambs only, when some grain 
>e used, and the selection of wethers where alfalfa or clover only 
vailable. The larger ration of grain was furnished the ewes be- 
; of poor condition and vitiated digestive and assimilative 

TS. 

tention is especially called to the results secured in these experi- 
s where grain forms less than one quarter of the ration. It is 
through the use of legumes such as red clover, alsike and alfalfa, 
such results can be secured. Wh^e carbonaceous coarse foods 
as native hays, corn fodder, sorghum, etc., are used, then the 
i must form one half to two thirds of the ration in order to 
e equivalent gains. 



Weights and Increase in 88 Days from Food Fed. 



-4RI0US LOTS. 


1 

% 

a 
c 

10 


, 


> 


1 
f 

1 

i 

to 


( 


1 


P 
1 




X 


C 
P 

c 



: 


1 

X 

p 


lbs. lbs. . lbs. lbs. Ibj.. , 


IbH. Ib8. perct. 


«ambs 


3459 
4840 

6133 
4858 


62.Q 


4764 
6040 
7420 

5684 


86.6 


1305 

1200 

1287 

826 


2:1.7 i 8.08 


377 


year Wethers. .. 
-year Wethers. . 
.ged Ewes 


9 
II 

S 


•4-9 
57 
II. 6 


II 


8.4 
p. 

)7.2 


2' 
I, 


5.5 

^3 
v6 


8.01 
8.28 

5-31 


24.7 
20.9 

17. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

he weights above given were neither secured from the an 
er full feed nor yet under a shrinkage. The practice fol 

to weigh from eight to nine hours after the morning feed, 
jhts were taken every two weeks but owing to the unifc 
lese the final results only are reported. Attention is partic 
*d to the column above giving the percentage increase i 
jht. With the exception of .the ewes the gains per hex 
lays, as well as the gains per month, appear to be quite si 

until presented in a way in which comparison is made 
r, the differences are not so manifest. The percentage 
se added to the original live weight was as follows: 1 
>er cent, i-yr. wethers 24.7 per cent, 2-yr. wethers 20.9 pei 

aged ewes 17 per cent. 



3unt of Air Dry Food Consumed Per Pound Increase Inc 

Maintenance. 



lbs Dry food consumed per pound gain, 10. 

. Wethers Dry food consumed per pound gain, 16. 

. Wethers Dry food consumed per pound gain, 17. 

d Ewes Dry food consumed per pound gain, 17. 

wing to the small proportion of grain in the ration, viz.: 
head per day, the total amount of dry food required to p 
)und of gain is larger than where more grain is used. In pi 
eriments where about one pound of grain was used in thi 
Dn for lambs, along with clover, only 8.75 pounds of dry 

required to produce a pound of increase. 
1 the above, the comparison between the lambs and e 
le on an equal basis, but in the case of the wethers the \ 

of hay is greater, consequently, the amounts given foi 
a little high in comparison. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Relative Cost of Production. 



IS Cost per loo pounds increase in live weight, $4.18 

W^ethers Cost per 100 pounds increase in live weight, 5.83 

Wethers Cost per 100 pounds increase in live weight, 5.90 

Ewes Cost per 100 pounds increase in live weight, 6.78 

i cost of production is a matter which of course materially 
s the financial results. In the figures given above we find 
lore striking illustration of the fact that the younger the 
l1 the less will be the cost of increase in live weight produced 
And then in referring to the sale statement, we find the value 
Dy given is in about an inverse proportion to the age of the 
lis. 

ention is called here to the fact that an accurate comparison 

nly be made between the lambs and ewes, as about the same 

Dfishlp existed in these two cases between the grain and coarse 

The lamb and ewe rations contained 24 and 22 per cent of 

respectively, while the wether rations contained only 14 and 
^ cent of grain. As the grain, however, was worth about i cent 
ound and the clover J4 ^^^^ per pound, this difference in price 
1 about even things up in the case of the wethers. 



Per Capita Cost of Food Consumed. 



)s, value of food consumed per head during 88 days, $ .99 

Wethers, value of food consumed per head during 88 days, 1.37 

Wethers, value of food consumed per head during 88 days, 1.43 

Ewes, .value of food consumed per head during 88 days, 1.05 



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10 . MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Financial Statement. 



LAMBS. 

Nov. 22, 1901, To 55 lambs at %\. 62^/2 per head, $ 89.37 

l^"'eb. 17, 1902, To cost of feed for 88 days 54-62 

Feb. 25, 1902, To cost of .shipping 42.96 

Feb. 25, 1902, By 55 lambs, 4340 lbs. at $6.50 per cwt. $282.10 

Feb. 25, 1902, To net profit. 95-15 * 

$282.10 $282.10 

1-YEAR WETHERS. 

Nov. 22j 1901, To 51 i-yr. wethers at $2.50 per head...$i27.50 

Feb. 17, 1902, To cost of feed for 88 days 70-O5 

Feb. 25, 1902, To cost of shipping 5484 

Feb. 25, 1902, By 51 wethers, 5540 lbs. at $5.85 cwt. $324.09 

Feb. 25, 1902, To net profit 71 70 

$324.09 $324.09 

2- YEAR WETHERS. 

Nov. 22, 1901, To 53 2-yr. wethers at $2.65 per head.. $140.45 

Feb. 17, 1902, To cost of food for 88 days 76.01 

Feb. 25, 1902, To cost of shipping 67.30 

Feb. 25, 1902, By 53 wethers, 6800 lbs. at $5.40 cwt. $367.20 

Feb. 25, 1902, To net profit 83.44 

$367.20 $367720 

AGED EWES. 

Nov. 22, 1901, To 53 ewes at $2.50 per head .$132.50 

Feb. 17, 1902, To cost of food for 88 days 56.01 

Feb. 25, 1902, To cost of shipping 49-89 

Feb. 25, 1902, By 53 ewes, 5040 lbs. at $4.75 cwt. $239.40 

Feb. 25, 1902, To net profit i.oo ^ 

$239.40 $239^0 

In determining the relative profits from each of the four lots it 
was necessary to divide the expense of shipping, consisting of frieght 
charges, feed, commission, etc. This was done on the basis of 
weights, as the two most important features of expense, freight and 
feed, are in proportion to weight. Owing to stop-overs for feeding 
the expenses in this case were considerably above the average, 
which prevents our profits from being still larger. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 11 



Relative Profits From the Pour Lots. 



lambs gave a net profit of $95.15 or $1.73 per head. 

i-year wethers gave a net profit of $71.70 or $1.40 per head. 

2-year v^ethers gave a net profit of $83.44 or $1.57 per head. 

aged ewes gave a net profit of $1.00, or 1.8 cents per head. 

le figures given above do not represent the total profits. The 

was charged up at $5 per ton and grain at 90 cents per cwt. 
prices being above cost of production, a secondary profit oc- 
here which is not considered in the data. It is the custom 

I feeding experiments to oflfset the cost of labor by the value of 

nanue left on the farm to maintain fertility. The greater profit 
the two-year wethers as compared with the yearlings is due 

e purchase prices. While 94.9 lb. yearlings cost $2.50, 11 5.7 lb. 

y^ear olds were purchased at $2.65. 



Report of Slaughter Test, by Swift & Co. of Chicago. 



lambs, average 79 lbs., $6.50, dress 54.2 per cent, 
i-year wethers, average 108 lbs., $5.85, dress 52.9 per cent. 
2-year wethers, average 128 lbs., $5.40, dress 53.5 per cent, 
ewes, average 95 lbs., $4.75, dress 50.6 per cent. 
\fe consider all of these sheep and lambs a useful class of stock,. 
00 fat, and they dress about 2 per cent above the average com- 
o the Chicago market at the present time." 
he percentage of dressed weight is figured on a basis of actual 
ht immediately after killing, shrunk 3 per cent , which is about 
the mutton will shrink after hanging over night.'' 



Shrinkage. 



lis was- determined from weights when sheep were taken off 
on February 17th and the weights given in sale bill from 
ago February 24th. 



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12 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Lambs shrunk 7.6 lbs. or 8.7 per cent. 

i-year wethers shrunk 10.4 lbs. or 8.7 per cent. 

2-year wethers shrunk 12. lbs. or 8.5 per cent. 

Aged ewes shrunk 12.2 lbs. or 11.3 per cent. 
For the benefit of those interested in shipping and that the figures 
relating to shrinkage may be better understood, we give the follow- 
ing detailed account of the trip, as provided by Mr. Robinson, who 
accompanied the shipment. The sheep left Bpzeman about noon 
of the i8th of February and arrived at Mandan on the 19th 
at 3 p. m., where they were fed hay only. Left Mandan at noon on 
20th and arrived in St. Paul at 5:30 a. m. 21st, where the sheep re- 
ceived a grain ration with the hay. Left St. Paul at noon 23d and 
reached Chicago at 4 a. m. 24th. The sheep were weighed and sold 
at 10 a. m. The time actually in transit was three days and four 
nights. Mr Robinson suggests that it would be of material interest 
to shippers to stop and feed at a point nearer Chicago. 



Cost of Marketing. 



This includes all expense of shipping, such as transportation, 
yardage, feed, commission, etc. As before stated, these expenses 
were divided in proportion to the weights of the four lots in determ- 
ming the relative profits from each, on the basis that freight tariff 
is the same per pound and that the food consumed while in transit 
is in proportion to the weight of the animals. On this basis, we get 
the following relative cost of marketing: 

55 lambs, weight 4340 lbs., cost of marketing $42.96, cost per 
head, $ .78. 

51 i-year wethers, weight 5540 lbs., cost of marketing $54.84, cost 
per head, $1.07. 

53 2-year wethers, weight 6800 lbs., cost of marketing $67.30, cost 
per head, $1.27. 

53 ewes, weight 5040 lbs., cost of marketing $49.89, cost per 
head $ .94. 

Average cost per head, $1.01. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 13 

e shipper will be safe in accepting the above data as regards 
ost of marketing, as in this instance, the expenses are a trifle 
t normal. This is due to the necessity of holding over in St. 
for two and one-half days in order to complete the trip with a 
al stock train. In this case the expense of marketing was 
ically one cent per pound with the various classes. 



Summary of Facts. 



I. The feeding of lambs for market is more profitable than 
ers or ewes, providing the ration is so adjusted as to give their 

increase a finish. 

I. Owing to the growthy tendency of the lamb, its ration must 
:ss more fat producing material than the mature sheep. 
I. Where grain is not available, the mature wether, though 
ng a smaller proportionate increase, will fatten more readily 

the lamb on clover or alfalfa alone. The use of from 
lalf to three quarters of a pound of grain, along with clover 
Falfa, throughout a period of from 70 to 90 days, is necessary to 
jce a proper finish for shipping. 

L For lambs, yearling and two year wethers and aged ewes, 
bllowing amounts of food were consumed per head, per day, 
2.73 lbs., 4.45 lbs., 4.73 lbs., and 3.01 lbs. Attention is called to 
ict that the amount consumed by the lambs is small, due to their 
weights. 

). In order to secure an even finish, the grain fed formed the 
wing percentages of the ration, viz : For lambs 24 per cent., 
ir wethers 15 per cent , 2-year wethers 14 per cent., aged ewes 
er cent. 

). The relative increase in live weight is represented in the 
wing percentages: For lambs 37.7 per cent. i-year wethers 
per cent, 2-year wethers 20.9 per cent, ewes 17 per cent. 
). The following amounts of air dry food were required for 
tenance and per pound increase, viz: Lambs 10.16 lbs., i-year 
ers 16.6 lbs., 2-year wethers 17 lbs. and ewes 17.5 lbs. As here- 



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14 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

tofore explained, this comparison applies properly to lamb 
ewes only, owing to difference in the proportionate make up 
^vether rations. 

(8). Relative costs of production per loo lbs. increase: 1 
?4.i8, i-year wethers $5.83, 2-year wethers $5.90, aged ewes $6. 

(9). Per capita cost of food consumed during 88 days: I 
)9c, i-year wethers $1.37, 2-year wethers $1.43, ewes $1.05. 

(10). Relative profits per capita from the fotir lots: 1 
>i.73, I-year wethers $1.40, 2-year wethers $1.57, aged ewes 1.8 

(11). Percentage of dressed carcass after deducting 3 pei 
rem same: Lambs 54.2 per cent , i-year wethers 52.9 per ce 
rear wethers 53.6 per cent , ewes 50.6 per cent. 

(12). Shrinkage in transit, covering 1400 miles, determine( 
weights while on full feed and those of sale : Lambs 8.7 per 
I -year wethers 8.7 per cent , 2-year wethers 8.5 per cent., ew( 
Der cent. 

(13). The suggestion, resulting from personal experier 
offered to the effect that sheep will withstand shipping better : 
)n a limited allowance during transit, rather than on full feed 
hat feed and rest are essential toward the close of trip. 

(14). The total net profit from the car of mixed shee 

>251.29. 

(15). Even though the cost of marketing is a large item 
his is offset by cheap feeders and an abundance of cheap f 
^ood quality which renders the feeding business a profitable 

TV. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 15 



PART II. 



CATTLE FEEDING. 



The objects sought in this work were to determine the relative 
results from feeding light, medium and heavy grain rations in con- 
junction with legumes for fattening purposes. Though similar 
work has been done along these same lines in other portions of the 
country, still, it was thought best to repeat it here owing to the 
marked difference in the quality of Montana grown food stuffs. 
Figures were also sought to support previous assertions of the fact 
that only a minimum amount of grain is necessary along with our 
legumes to produce a good quality of beef or mutton. 

For the purpose of this experiment twenty-two 2-year old steers 
were purchased by Mr. Jos. Kountz. These animals were grades 
showing Shorthorn blood and were growthy but thin and in a condi- 
tion to put on flesh rapidly as the figures show. They were about 
the average of range production. 

The feeding period was divided into three parts, viz: preliminary 
test and final. The preliminary period of twenty four days extend- 
ini2f from Dec. 9th, 1901 to Jan. y\, 1902, was necessary in order to get 
the animals all under full feed after the operation of dehorning. The 
trial test proper was a short one extending from Jan. 3d to Mar. 
28th. a period of eighty five days. In the final the animals were 
merely kept on feed till April 12th when they were disposed of. 

The feeding was done in open yards with sheds provided for 
shelter and with constant access to water. The sheds were used 
at night almost continually while in the case of the sheep very sel- 
<iom. In general the weather was a little too mild during the test 
proper. The yards thawed out nearly every day. The best condi- 
tions seem to be when the thermometer does not rise above 32 
degrees during the day. 



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16 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Food Consumed by Three Lots and Cost of Same. 



LOT I. 7 STEERS. 

Clover fed Jan. 2d to Mar. 28th, 11,540 lbs. at $5 per ton $28,85 

Barley meal fed Jan. 2d to Mar 28th, 2975 lbs. at 90c per cwt. 26.77 
Total $55.62 

LOT II. 7 STEERS. 

Clover fed Jan. 2d to Mar. 28th, 11,560 lbs. at $5 per ton $28.95 

Barley meal fed Jan. 2d to Alar. 28th, 4008 lbs. at 90c per cw^t. 36.07 
Total $65.02 

LOT III. 8 STEERS. 

Clover fed Jan. 2d to Mar. 28th, 13,500 lbs. at $5 per ton $33-75 

Barley fed Jan. 2d to Mar. 28th, 6057 lbs. at 90c per cwt.. . .$54.51 

Total $88.26 

The clover hay was fed twice each day in racks so constructed 
that there was no waste. The barley was ground and the meal ted 
in flat troughs raised about three feet above the ground. 



Average Amount of Food Consumed per Day. 



Lot I. Clover consumed per head per day 19.3 lbs. 

Lot L Barley meal consumed per head, per day 5. lbs. 

Total 24.3 lbs. 

Lot IL Clover consumed per head per day 19.4 lbs. 

Lot IL Barley meal consumed per head per day 6.73 lbs. 

Total 26.13 lbs. 

Lot in. Clover consumed per head per day 19.8 lbs. 

Lot IIL Barley meal consumed per head per day 8.9 lbs. 

Total 28.7 lbs. 

Attention is called to the fact that the amounts of clover consum- 
ed daily are about the same for the three lots, even though the 
amount of grain increased from lot I. up. The fact that more food 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



17 



was required even where more grain was fed is due to the greater 
weights of lots II. and III. The division was made on a basis 
of quality rather than weight. The aim being to have the steers 
of the different lots as even in quality as possible. 



Preliminary Weights and Effect of Dehorning. 



22 steers, weight Dec. 9th, 1901, 22185 lbs., average 1008. 
22 steers, weight Jan. 2d, 1902, 23170 lbs., average 1053. 

Average gain during period of twenty four days 45 lbs. 

Gain per head per day during period of 24 days, 1.87 lbs. 

Gain per head per day during period of 85 days, 2,2^ lbs. 
The figures relating to weights secured during the preliminary 
period show that dehorning had little effect on the steers. The 
average daily gains are some smaller, which is partly due to the fact 
that less grain was fed than in the next period. These animals fed 
heartily immediately after the operation. 



Test Weights, for 85 Day Period. 



VARIOUS LOTS. 



1 , 

p 


> 


f 


> 




1 


\ 
1 




g 




* 




jE 


f 


^ 1 


s 




% 






i I 


IC 




^ 








i i 



lb8. 



Lor X, 7 Si<!ers . 
Lot II, 7 Steers... 
Lot III, 8 Steers.. 



6850 
7240 
9080 



IbH. 



Jbs. 



Ib8. 



978.5 
1034.3 
"35- 



8240! I [-7 

8590 1227 

10600 ( 1325 



lbs. 


IbH. 


1390 


198. t; 


1350 


192.8 


1520 


190. 



IbH. 

2.33 
2.26 
2.23 



I 



Per ft . 
I 20.2 
I 18.6 
I 16.7 



Food Per Head Per Day per 100 lbs. Live Weight. 



Pen I. Average 1077 lbs. barley per cwt. .46 lbs. clover 1.79 lbs. 
Pen II- Average 1130 lbs. barley per cwt. .59 lbs. clover 1.71 lbs. 
Pen III. Average 1230 lbs. barley per cwt. .72 lbs. clover 1.61 lbs. 



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18 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

The results indicate that where legumes are used as roughag'e, 
not more than one-half pound of meal per lOO lbs. live weight, per 
day, is necessary to produce satisfactory gains and at the smallest 
cost. This is true only, however, of perfectly cured and preserved 
clover and alfalfa, such as are produced in the arid west. 



Solid Food per lb. Increase. 



Lot. I. Food per pound increase, lOu^ lbs. 

Lot. II. Food per pound increase, 11.5 lbs. 

Lot. III. Food per pound increase, 12.9 lbs. 

Attention is called to the fact that these figures include mainten- 
ance during the time each pound was being produced and that owing 
to differences in live weight these figures would be affected accord- 
ingly. 



Cost Per Potmd Increase. 



Pen No. I. Cost per cwt. increase, $4.00 
Pen No. II. Cost per cwt. increase, $4.81 
Pen No. III. Cost per cwt. increase, $5.80 



Financial Statement. 

Jan. 2d, 1902 — By clover, first period, 14,295 lbs. at $5 per ton..$ 35.73 
Jan. 2d, 1902 — By barley, first period, 1141 lbs. at 90c cwt.. . . 10.26 
Mar. 28, 1902 — By clover, test period, 36,600 lbs. at $5 per ton . 91.50 
Mar. 28, 1902 — By barley, test period, 13,040 lbs. at 90c cwt. . . 1 17.35 
Apr. 12, 1902 — By clover, third period, 6435 lbs. at $5 per ton . . r6.o8 
Apr. 12, 1902 — By barley, third period, 2267 l^s. at 90c cwt. . . 20.4^ 

Dec. 9, 1901 — By 20 steers, at $33.00 per head 660.0c 

Dec. 9, 1901 — By 2 steers, at $34.00 per head 68.00 

Apr. 15, 1902 — By net profit on 22 steers 168.68 

$ii88xx> 

Apr. 15, 1902, To 22 steers at $54.00 per head $1 188.00 

Net profit per head $7-66 



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This sum does not represent the complete profit from each animal 
35 the food is charged up at local market prices and is much above 
cost. 

The carload of steers was purchased by Mr. Jno. Kiefer of Boze- 
man, by whom the carcasses shown in the illustrations were prepar- 
ed for photogfraphing. 



Conclusions. 



(i). Because of the quality of Montana grown food products 
and the favorable climatic conditions during the winter feeding 
period, maximum returns can be secured from a minimum amount of 
food. 

(2). That in fattening steers, when alfalfa and clover are used, 
not more than one-half pound of grain to the hundred weight of live 
weight is necessary to produce the most satisfactory results. 

(3). Contrary to local impressions, some grain must be used 
throughout a period not less than one hundred and twenty days in 
order to get a good finish. 



Acknowledgments. 



The report of slaughter test so kindly furnished by the Messrs. 
Swift & Co. of Chicago has been of great service, not only because 
of the information furnished by it, but also from additional data 
which could only be secured through its aid. 

Much of the success of this work is due Mr. (i. M. Fuller inider 
whose supervision the experiments were conducted. 



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Digitized by VjOOQIC 



S(^)0?3S^3S'Y 



BUI.LETIN NO. 36. 



MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 



Experiment Station, 



-OF THE- 



A^rictilttiral College of Montana. 



FORAGE GONDITIofs 

OF CENTRAL MONTANA. 



Bozeman, Montana, June, 1902. 



REPUBLICAN. 

BozeoMui, Montana, 

190a. 



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HARVMIO WllMt llBBW«t 

FROM THE lIBBfcBY OF 

ARiHUR B. BlYtlOUR 

APRIL 2, 1933 

MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 

3XPERIMEINT STATION, 

BOZEMAN, - MONTANA. 



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

3EPH K. Toole, Governor, ) 

i£E8 Donovan, Attorney- General, [ Ex-Officio Helena 

W. Welch, Supt. of Public Instruction, ) 

)/l. Evans Missocu 

D. Leonard Butte. 

W. McCoNNELL Helena. 

F. GoDDARD Billings. 

P. Chisholm Bozeman 

G. McKay Hamilton 

T.Paul ; Dillon. 

B. Holter Helena. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

vlter S. Hart.max. President Bozehan 

M. Robinson Vice President • Bozekan 

PER Koc^- cketary Bozeman 

3EPH K(> « BoZEMAli 

B. Lamma Bozema:^ 



STATION STAFF. 

MUEL FORTIER, Ma, E DIRECTOR AND IRRIGATION EkOINEEB 

W. Traphagen, Ph. D., F. C. S Chemisi 

BT. S. Shaw, B. S. A Agriculturist 

W. Blankinship, Ph. D Botanist 

A. Cooley, B. Sc Entomologis'i 



Postoffice, Express and Freight Station, Bozeman. 



All communications for the Experiment Station should be addressed to th( 
•ector. 

MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Bozeman, Montana. 



NOTICE. — The Bulletins of the Station will be mailed free to any citizen o 
ntana who sends his name and address to the Station for that purpose. 



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-••Wt, . ... 



Montana Experiment Station. 

-LETIN NO. 36. - - - JUNE, 190J. 

FORTIER, 

Director Montana Agricultural Experiment Station. 

LB SlB^ 

The accompanying paper on the "Forage Conditions of Central 
atana" is the result of investigations made for the Station by Mr. 
nk A. Spragg during 1900 and 1901, under the direction of the 
anical department of the Montana College of Agriculture and pre- 
ted as his thesis on graduation from the Agricultural Course. 

The field-work was done in Fergus county and the region immedi- 
y adjacent, during which nearly a thousand specimens were col- 
ed for the Station and many interesting facts regarding existing 
ge conditions in this region have been noted. These studies cover 
)rtion of the state not readily accessible from the railw nnd hence 
e studied by botanists, although one of the most importa^it sections 
Q its stockgrowing interests. 

Already the ranges in many parts of the state are showing signs of 
austion and the number of stock supported upon a given acreage is 
dily diminishing, while the recent tendency of the stockmen to j)ur- 
3e or lease these ranges for private use, tends to make questions as 
beir improvement and rendering them more productive of increasing 
ortance. But before any systematic attempt can be made, it is 
Bssary to determine the results of close-pasturage upon the ranges, 
conditions formerly existing and thosie now found, as well as the 
ous species of grasses, which form the component parts of these 
^es, those found most hardy under pasturage and the 
it drouth resisting in dry seasons with their relative value for hay 

pasturage. It is with these preliminary studies of the region in 
stion that Mr. Spragg deals and his paper appears to be of suffi- 
it importants to warrant its publication as a bulletin of this Station. 

Mr. Spragg has also added a synopsis of all the genera of grasses 
ttd in the state by which beginners in this difficult order will be able 



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Montana experiment station. . 



to work with more certainty in the determination of the different groups 
than with any of the schemes now available. It may be well to state 
that the collections upon which these notes are based have been com- 
pared by Mr. Spragg with specimens in our Station Herbanim, Darned 
by Dr. F. L. Scribner, while the more difficult species have been sent 
to the Division of Agrostology at Washington for determination. 

R. S. Shaw, Agriculturist. 

J. W. BlankiNvShip, Botanist. 

Bozeman, Montana, Jime 14, 1902. 



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•ORAQE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL MONTANA. 



BY FRANK A. SPRAQG. 



Geology and Physiography of the Region. 

The portion of the country lyinjaj between the Missouri, Smith and 
usselshell rivers is traversed by the Little Belt, Big Snowy, Judith, 
d Highwood mountains. It includes a great variety of conditions 
d fosters many industries, of which stock-raising is the principal, 
d large numbers of fat cattle and sheep are yearly shipped to eastern 
arkets. Large quantities of wool are sold in the markets of Billings 
d Great Falls, or shipped east, and lately there has been a good 
mand for horses. The mountains are celebrated for mines of gold, 
ver and sapphires, and at their base are found limestone, gypsum and 
al. Montana also has a belt of artesian water, due to the following 
nditions: running across the country, we have the outcrop of the 
al seam of the Cascade geologic formation ; this line of exposure 
Dsses Sun river near the foot of the Rocky Mountains, and, swinging 
stward, follows near the north edge of the Little Belt mountains, 
veral miles south of Great Falls. At Sand Coulee and at Belt it 
esents vast workable seams of coal; continuing eastward, it follows 
iter creek some fifteen miles, and crosses Arrow creek near its head; 
then crosses Wolf creek four miles above Stanford, and the Judith 
rer at Utica; running thence north of the Snowy mountains, it passes 
K)ve Lewistown and around the west, north and east foot of the 
idith mountains. Along this line of exposure are numerous coal 
ines furnishing the country with its total supply. This outcrop is 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

it the edge of one of many layers lapping against the moantaii] 
)me of these layers are composed of clay and will not allow water 
ss through ; others are so loose and porous that large quantities < 
iter disappear yearly along the foot of the mountains above the co 
am. A remarkable example of this is Dry Wolf creek, southwest) 
anford. Up in the mountains there is a swift stream about a rod i 
dth in a bed of clay and gravel ; at the mouth of the canyon th 
ream reaches the edge of a mass of loose, broken limestone; with: 
o miles the entire stream has disappeared, and from there to i 
outh, except in time of melting snow, the stream bed is but a ma 

loose, dry gravel. Along the Snowies, and particularly around tl 
idith mountains, the larger portion of the water falling as rain ai 
ow sinks in this way. Where does all this water go? Again, whi 
e the Giant springs at Great Falls, and Big and Warm Springs ; 
e east side of the Judith basin, if they do not have artesian sourcei 

is very noticeable, as one examines these springs, that the reel 
ound appear to have been shaken apart. One will notice a dai 
►ening here and there with long strings of vegetation floating eve 
d a short distance iown stream a big roll in the water may 1 
iticed, showing that large quantities of water are flowing out. 

Within a year previous to September 1, 1901, some half doz( 
tesian wells had been bored in the west side of the Judith basin ar 
st below the outcrop of the coal. At Utica the water is spoutir 
out eighteen inches above the opening of a three-inch pip 
lother company was boring a six-inch hole at Mr. B. E. Stack 
[ich on Willow creek Sept. 4; they were then down 165 feet; th( 
•uck about ten barrels an hour at 257 feet, and bored to 317 fee 
good flow is expected at 500 feet, where they expect to finish tl 
Al, It is said that water was struck atUtica at 200 feet, thou^ 
B well is now 800 feet deep, and on Sage creek at 80 feet, thouf 
B well is 393 feet deep. There is no reason why artesian water ecu 
t be found anywhere in the open country below the line of coa 
Bre is but one diflBculty presented. The amount of material pil< 
the top of the coal increases rapidly as one goes away from tl 
)untains; on the Benton stage road atArrow creek, this mass 
Dbably 1,500 feet thick, and at the mouth of the Judith at lea 



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FORAGE CONDITIONS OP CENTRAL MONTANA. 7. 

KX) feet. The greatest depth the machine could bore, which was at 
r. B. E. Stack's Sept 4, was 800 feet. 

The soil in the mountain parks is usually deep, mellow and rich, 
longing to the Cambrian formation. Around the foot of the moun- 
ins, as has been seen, we have a belt of loose limestone. The soil 
stony and useful mainly for pasture. Further out we have stretches 
nearly level bench lands. Portions are covered with gravel, sand, 
d alluvium, and only clay enough to convert the whole into product- 
3 soils. This mass has been left in passing ages by streams as they 
ifted from place to place over this comparatively level country. The 
nches of the northern portion of this district are covered with clay, 
ad, polishe.l pebbles, and some boulders. This gljicial drift was left 
len the northern transcontinental ice sheet melted away. As a rule 
is drift contains less i)lant food than the bench gravels. Along the 
issouri river, we find sharp gorges which have lx,^en cut in recent 
Qes through the bench gravels or glacial drift, exposing the clays 
the Cretaceous below. These steep hillsides, sandy points, and 
•etches of worthless clays make up the badlands. These badband 
Lis are low in plant food, rich in alkali, and next to worthless for cul- 
ration. However, in the larger bottoms along thR Missouri, crops of 
y, grain and vegetal)les are often raised. 

The Natural Plant Formations. 

The grasses of Central Montana may be grouped, depending upon 
il, moisture and situation, into six different, though intergrading, 
ant formations. These are: The Badlands, Alkali Flats, Prairie 
mches, Wet Meadows, Foot-hills and Mountain Parks. 

In the Badlands where the hills are rounded or flat-topped, we 
e apt lo find the regular bench flora; but on the true side hill of this 
gion, we find a scattering flora of salt-grass (distichlis spicata), 
me-grass (Kceleria cristata), feather-grass (Stipa viridula), and 
ire and there a bunch of blue- joint, (Agropyron Occident ale), on 
e better soil. On sandy points, putting down from the main hill, 
B find sand rush-grass (Sporobolus cryptandrus), prairie^ rush-grass 
►PORoBOLUS BREViFOLius), and Indian millet (Ericoma cuspidata) 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Ily. In little bottoms and ridg^ between ik^ mcun hiU aad tl 
below, made up principally of sandy drift from the hillside, o 
rhich most of the alkali has been washed, may be found a ri( 
)f blue grama (Bouteloua oligostachya). The two little pes 
ler fescue (Festuca octoflora), and little barley (Hordeum pu81 
, are often found here in clusters mixed with the blue grama. 

The Alkali Flats, though often occurring in the Badlands, a 
nonly found in the open country. They are places where alb 
r collects and evaporates. Portions of the great sag south of Be 
ire two hundred feet below the surrounding country. It cental 
irge lakes and several small ones; the larger ones are surround 
)are alkali coated flats. White, dry patches are to be foui 
;tle sags quite generally over the country. As we recede from t 
jn patch, we first find salt-grass (Distichlis spicata), and thenl 
3es June grass (Kceleria cristata), and smooth bunch grass (P< 
igata). Depending upon conditions, we may also find roug 
d salt-grass (Sporobolus asperifolius), alkali meadow gra 
ciNELLiA AiRoiDES), and squirrel-tail grass (Hordeum jubatuj 
he non-alkaline soil on the edge of alkali places blue joint a 
grama are apt to be found, but these grasses can withstand I 
1 quantities of alkali. 

The PraiPie Benches stretch from the Badlands and alkali flj 
e foothills of the mountains. They are the drier upland porti 
e country, crossed by creek bottoms and dotted by wet meadow 
grasses of which belong to a distinct flora, and are used prin 
for pasture. The principal grasses of the benches are bl 
la (Bouteloua oLiGosTACHyA), ^nd blue joint (Agropyron oo 
'ale). Prairie June grass (Kceleria cristata), needle gn 
PA COM AT a), bunch wheat grass (Agropyron di\^rgens), and t 
ree meadow grasses (Poas) are also found more or less scatter* 
ind intermittent pond holes are found hair grasses (Agrostis Hj 
s) and squirrel-tail grass, and floating foxtail mixed with two 
? sedges in the bottom. 

It has been mentionetl that the meadow grasses grow very scatt< 
1 these benches to-day, and belong in large part to what was on 



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FORAGE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL MONTANA. 9. 

TENUiFOiiiA. Prof. F. L. Scribner, who saw '^the country, in the 
imer of 1883 says, "Poa tenuifolia may be regarded as the grass of 
country. No species withstands the long summer drought so well, 
it constitutes the chief forage upon the dry bench lands." As 
grass is almost exterminated to-day, it is evident that it cannot 
are over-stocking. A rancher who came to the country shortly 
r 1880, describes the grasses of these benches then as a thick 
s of leaves shatling the ground and growing to a hight of six 
ight inches. He says furthei* that this mass of leaves was inclined 
ird the southeast by the northwest winds. He did not know the 
le of the grass, but his description would lead me to call it blue- 
t. To-day the blue grama (Bouteloua) is the most abundant as a 
s of curly leaves covering the ground but two or three inches at 
best. It is probable that in former times, before the ranges were 
•-stocked, that the meadow grasses (Poas), blue joint and other 
at grasses, and the prairie June grass, formed the greater part of 
forage, and that the blue grama grew much ranker than it does 
'. In those favored times, some old timers say they could ride 
>ss the country with their feet dragging in the grass. The grass 
J fell to the ground each fall, and was in time transformed into a 
ch, which thickened year by year and protected the ground from 
hot sun. Large quantities of moisture thus retained enabled the 
js to grow exceedingly rank. Perhaps none of the above named 
jses have been exterminated for the lack of moisture, but on account 
oo close feeding, and the tramping of stock they have been so 
iced in quantity as to be almost absent in some places. The blue 
na, being the last of the grasses to succumb to the over-stocking 
cess, has taken possession of the soil as the other grasses have 
ippeared. The difference, then, between the over-stocked range of 
iy, and the luxuriant growths of former times is to be found simply 
he relative abundance of the blue grama. 

These prairie benches have proven themselves to be among the 
lest soils of the country. They are similar to those along the north 
e of the mountains, whijh will be considered under the head of 
thills. The principal distinction is a slight difference in moisture 
pending upon the amount of moisture present, the foliage of these 



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MOJfTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

hes today, ranges from a thick mass of blue-joint leaves on doi 
igh all the gradations of the grama sod to where even this val 
grass has succumbed to a " moss " (Selaginella rupestqs, Spring 
lesert conditions prevail. 

The Wet Meadows, though characterized by atmost totally d 
it flora, grades into the surrounding formations. The grasses pn 
^ary somewhat with conditions of soil and moisture, and depei 
ily upon the presence or absence of alkali. When water stan 
he surface, we usually find rushes and sedges, or slough gra 
KMANNiA ERUCAEFORMis,), and reed meadow grass (Paniculab 
aCANA, ), in small quantity. If the soil is wet, but not cover 
water, prairie rush grass (Sporobolus brevifolius), alk 
low grass (Puccirielliti airoides), early bunch grass (Eatoi 
sata), tussock grass (Deschampsia caespitosa), cord grass (Sparti 
suroides), foul meadow grass (Panicularia nervata), and pale bun 
J grow in varying proportions. Or, in addition to the above 
i is absent, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), along t 
s of running streams. If alkali is present in small quantity a 
loil is not very wet. rough-leaved salt-grass (Sporobolus asperif 
and especially prairie rush grass (Sporobolus brevifolius), are i 
)e found in large quantity. If the alkali is very strong all 1 
e named grasses may l)e killed out and only salt-grass remain. 

le region considered as Foothills here is not necessarily a st 
iding out in all directions from the base of the mountai 
are considering the character of a certain group of grasses tl 
be regarded as belonging to the foothill flora. The prairie bei 
ation seems to extend to the foot of the mountains on the soi 
of the smaller mountain ranges of the plains, while on the no 
of the same ranges are semi-circular areas, the flora of wh 
not resemble that of either the prairie-bench or the mounta 

formations. The soil, as has been said, is similar to that of 
3enches but receives more moisture. The strip nortrh of the Lit 

mountains is wide to connect them with the Highwoods ale 
divide between the Arrow Creek and Belt Creek basins. Th( 
are today dotted by thrifty crops and meadows. A few ye 
this foothill country was used only for pasture, as the dr 



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FORAGE CONDITIONS OP CENTRAL MONTANA. 1 

ihes are today. On the upland benches the sheep-fescue (Pestucj 
a,) and red fescue (Pestuca rubra) take the place of the blu( 
la of the prairie. In nooks partly sheltered by the mountaing 
7'graQQ (Festuca campestris) is the principal forage. A large num 
3f grasses are to be found here. The hays are mainly the culti 
i and mountain timothy; Bromus inermis is only just coming int< 
vation. There are several native grasses that no doubt would d( 
under cultivation, among which are the wheat and brome grasses 
►r wet land the reed canary grass. 

Grasses are also coming in on the mountain side where the timbe 
Deen burned olf and the soil is not too stony. The principal of thes 
he western brome (Bromus Pumpellianus), pale bunch grass (Poi 
la) wood meadow grass ( Poa nemoralis), downy or.t-grass (Trisetun 
picatmn) timothy (Phleum pratensis), and four wheat grasse 
•opyron). 

About forty different varieties of grasses are found in th 
I n tain Parks of Central Montana between the altitudes of 500 
7000 feet. The loose deep rich soil is literally fiilled with the root 
ants that probably bloom each and every month during the sum 
The quantity of native forage is usually no greater than in th< 
lills and many of the grasses are similar. The hay grown here i 
ily timothy or oat- hay. Under native conditions the land is oftei 
x)iigh to cut wild hay. It is said that clover and alfalfa will no 
ell. There are some of the native grasses that are certaiidy worth; 
ial and some of these may be found superior to any of the tami 
?ties for cultivation at high altitudes and in mountain parks 
>ng them are mountain timothy (Phleum alpinum), mountain fox 
' Alopecurus occidentalis), mountain rye grass ( Elymus glaucusj 
ler wheat grass (Agropyron tenerum), western brome grass (Bromu 
ipellianus), and snow-grass (Festuca campestris). 

Economic Considerations. 

There are still many problems to be considered that relate eithe 
3tly or indirectly to the forage conditions of this region. Notably 
ng these are the water supply, and its most economic use as well ai 



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2 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

le improvement of the ranges. Large quantities of water go to wi 
ne way and another. A few snowbanks remain in the monntains 
ipply water for irrigation, bnt most of the water runs off during 
pring break-up to deluge the people along the lower Mississii 
i^hy should not a portion of this be saved in reservoirs for irrigal 
ttd to water stock later in the summer? The government has surve 
v^er thirty reservoir sites, mainly in Central Montana. It may 
lat the artesian supply will also become important. The amounl 
ater needed to benefit a given meadow should be more caref 
tudied. Blue joint is universally regarded as the richest hay of 
Duntry, and by carefid irrigation our native uplands will yield ^ 
tands; yet when water stands on the surface this grass disappears 
\ replaced by rushes, sedges and the less valuable grasses of the 
leadow flora It must be borne in mind that our most vain 
rasses do not grow in swamps. Most of them are easily drowned 
tid replaced by others less valuable. "Under the present condit 
tie may frequently see a man injuring his meadows and fields by ui 
K) much water, while those of his neighbor some miles down the 
y are suffering, perhaps totally ruined, for lack of the water.'- 

When the pioneer came west he found the ranges covered ^ 
ast forage resources. The question then was, how can we get si 
aough to use this wealth? Now conditions have changed. Ther 
lore stock on our ranges than they can support. Each rancher "kn 
lat if his stock does not eat the grass, that of somebody else will, 
aturally he thinks he might as well benefit by it as anyone. In 
fort to get his 'share' he cjii tributes to the general destruction insl 
f trying to avert it.'* 

As conditions are drifting now, it is only a matter of time whei 
le public domain will be owned or leased by the ranchers. If the 
an be made reasonable so as not to exterminate tbe smaller owe 
ley will be given an incentive to adopt measures for the bettern 
f their holdings, and knowing that they and not someone else will 
le benefit of their endeavors, they will make the subject a stady 
ear by year their ranges will be enabled to support more and d 
tock. It has been asserted that all the ranges need is rest, but it 
een pointed out, in speaking of the blue grama, that conditions 1 
Dme where the most valuable of our range grasses have been ne 
^terminated. The reseeding of the ranges is a problem that ( 
mcher must study for himself. 



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FORAGE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL MONTANA. 13 



Generic Key to the Grasses and Grass-like Plants of Montana. 

Note. — In the following? scheme the word " glume " signifies the 
outer empty sealed; "pale" denotes the inner scale enclosing the 
flower; and "spike" is used to indicate any dense cylindrical inflores- 
cence. Number before name indicates paragraph. 

Perianth of six glumaceous segments; capsule 3-valyed A. 

Perianth of bristles, minute or none: 

Flowers in the axil of single glumes; stems solid; sheaths closed B. 

Flowers enclosed in a pair of glumes; stems hollow; sheaths split C. 

A. Jtftncace» (RUSH FAMILY). 

Leaf -sheaths open; capsule 1-3 celled, many seeded; placenta parietal or axial. 

Plants never hairy; on moist ground JUNCUS. 

Leaf -sheaths closed; capsule 1 -celled, 3-seeded; placenta basal. Plants usually 

hairy; often on dry ground JUNCOIDES, 

B. Cxperacem (SEDGE FAMILY). 

1. Flowers perfect; spikelets all similar 2 

L Flowers moncBcious or dioecious, usually borne in separate spikelets. . CAREX. 

2. Spikes in single or umbelled terminal heads; spikelets 2-rowed CYPERUS. 

2. Glumes spirally imbricate all around 3 

3w Base of style swollen, persistent as a tubercle on the achene; spikes 

solitary ELEOCHARIS. 

3. Base of style narrow, deciduous 4 

i. Spikes one to many; bristles 1-6 included, rarely none SCIRPUS. 

4. Spikes few; bristles 6-many, soft, very long, slender, and much exserted. 

ERIOPHORUM. 

C. Gramine» (GRASS FAMILY). 

Inflorescence spicate 2 

Inflorescence, a raceme of unilateral spikes; spikelets 2-rowed 20 

Inflorescence, a compound raceme of panicled spikelets 21 

Inflorescence, of paniculate unilateral spikes 19 

Inflorespeace, an open panicle : 23 

2. Spikes equilateral, cylindrical to capitate 3 

2. Spikes unilateral ; 4 

3. A strictly cylindrical spike; spikelets one-flowered, close, and equally dis- 

tributed on axis 5 

3. Spikes short, ovate to capitate 6 

4. Unilateral spikes, paniculate, often loose 19 

1 Unilateral spikes racemose 20 



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i MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Glumes united at base, awnless; pale one, awned 12-13, ALOPECUB 

Glumes distinct, mucronate; pales two, awnless 58, 59, PHLEl 

Spikelets unisexular and dissimilar; staminate and pistillate on the same 

or separate plants *. ^ BULBIl 

Spikelets with one perfect flower and often another imperfect 

Spikelets with two to many perfect flowers 

Three spikelets at each joint of articulate rachis 48-50, HORDEI 

Spikelets not all alike, usually in twos; axis of spikes or racemes hairy; fer- 
tile glumes awned 14, ANDROPOG' 

A large, short spike or a panicle of these; spikelets but one at a place, not 

clustered, awnless 57, PHALAl 

Flowers perfect, single 

Pale awned or sharp pointed 

Pale awnless, shorter and broader than the glumes 

Pale awn terminal or absent; pales firmer than glumes and closely envelop 

ing the grain 

Pale awn dorsal; grain loose or not at all enclosed 

. Tuft of long silky hairs at base of pale 24-29, CALAMAGROS^ 

I. Pale not hairy , 9-11, AGROS' 

. Pale sharp pointed to long slender awned 54, MUHLENBEIRC 

. Pale with long, stout, twisted awn 72-75, 8TI 

;. More or less paniculate, spikelets not sessile 

;. Spikelets sessile on alternate notches of the rachis 

i. Pale obtuse or with short terminal awn 

1. Pale awn dorsal, twisted and bent: 

(a) Spikelets 9-16 mm. long 32-34, DANTHOI 

(b) Spikelets 4-7 mm. long 76, TRISET 

. Pale sharp pointed; spikelets in very short clusters mixed with leaves 

MUNP 

. Pale obtuse or acutish; tirst glume narrowly linear, second glume broadly 

obovate 37, EATOJ 

. Pale and glume both acute and about the same length 52, KCELEI 

. Pale usually awned at tip; flowers distinct 44-47, PESTU 

I. Spikelets solitary at each joint of the rachis 

•. Spikelets two, rarely as high as six, at each joint of rachis 

I. Cultivated gra.sses (wheat and rye); pale sometimes keeled 

i. Native grasses; pale round on back 1-8, AGRGPTR 

. Nerves of pale convergent at tip; glumes 1-nerved SECA 

. Pale nerves parallel; glumes 3-many nerved. (Wheat) TRITIC 

. Rachis not articulate; glumes entire 38-42, ELYM 

. Rachis articulate; glumes two or more parted 67, SLTANI 

>. Spikelets one to two flowered, subsessile on two sides of a subtriangular 

rachis in a long narrow panicle 17, BECKMANI 

L Spikelets many-flowered, much flattened, subsessile, and densely crowded 
in thick one-sided clustered " DACTYl 



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'ORAGE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL MONTANA. 15 

ikelets crowded in two rows on one side of rachis. Prolongation of 

rachiUa triaristate 18, BOUTELOUA. 

ikelets flattened, subsessile and strongly compressed on two sides of a 

triangular rachis 68, SPARTINA. 

Ikelets obtuse, often short-pedicelled, and scattered; first glume usually 

shorter than the second . . PANICUM. 

e perfect sessile flower alternating on two sides of a slender three-sided 

rachis 66, SCHEDONNARDUS. 

o to many perfect-flowered, pedicelled spikelets 22 

imes one to two nerved; pales 3-nerved ERAGROSTIS. 

imes 3-9 nerved; pales 5-many nerved 53, MELICA. 

ikelets with one perfect flower and often another imperfect 24 

ikelets with two to many perfect flowers 31 

ikelets usually in twos, not ail alike; axis of spikes or raceme hairy; 

fertile glumes awned 14, ANDROPOGON. 

ikelets not more than one in a place: 

(a) Containing no abortive flowers 25 

(b) With abortive flowers; first glume shorter, awnless PANICUM. 

le firmer than glume and closely enveloping the grain 26 

ie usually thin, not as firm as glume; grain loose or not at all enclosed . 28 

le entire bearing a terminal three-brancl^ed awn 15, ARISTIDA. 

le awn terminal or between two teeth, simple 27 

le sharp pointed to long slender awned 54, MUHLENBERG I A. 

le tipped with a long, stout, twisted awn 72-75, STIPA. 

►ret globular, clothed with long, silky hairs 43, ERIOCOMA. 

chilla usually bearing a tuft of long silky hairs produced beyond it; 

[)ale membranous 24 29, CALAMAGROSTIS. 

shilla usually bearing a tuft of long silky hairs at base of pale. Tough 

jand-biuding grasses 30, CALAMOVILFA. 

36 of pale naked or thinly barbed 29 

ie sessile in glumes 30 

le stalked in glumes, awned on back CINNA. 

le acute, awnless; glumes two, shorter than pales; spikelets sometimes 

:wo flowered 69-71, SPOROBOLUS. 

e obtuse, often awned on back; glumss two, longer than pales 

9-11, AGROSTIS. 

le obtuse, keel often extending into a. short awn; glumes four, longer 

khan or as long as pales SAVASTANA. 

le-awn dorsal or between two lobes at apex, more or less twisted and 

bent 32 

le awnless or with a terminal straight awn; glumes shorter than pales. . 35 
le-awn between two teeth or lobes, twisted and bent; spikelets 9-16 mm. 

long 32-34, DANTHONIA 

»-awn dorsal or basal 33. 



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16 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

0. Spikelets less than 10 mm. long 

J3. Spikelets more than 10 mm. long 16, AV 

H, Pale obtuse; aWn taper-pointed, not articulate 35, DESCHAMl 

W. Pale 2- toothed; one or two of uppermost florets awned 76, TRISE' 

J5. Tall reed-like grasses; long hairs on rachilla PHRAGM] 

^. Not reed-like; pale naked or with hairs shorter than glumes 

J6. Pale 1-3 nerved 

J6. Pale 3-many nerved; spikelets 2-8 flowered, 5-2) mm. long; first glume 3- 

nerVed, second 5-7 nervied 53, MEI 

56. Pale 5-many nerved 

yj. Glumes nearly equal in length but very unlike, the first narrowly lineai 

the second broadly obovate, obtuse 37, EATO 

YJ, Glumes unequal in length but similar in shape 

J8. Spikelets 2 rarely 3-4 flowered; 2-4 mm. long CATABR 

tS. Spikelets many flowered 2-18 mm. long ERAGROS 

J9. Spik*»lets 6-8 mm. long, densely crowded in thick one-sided clusters. (Cul 

tivated) DACT5 

J9. Rays in whorLs of 1-5 or more; glumes awnless 

10. Lateral nerves of pale nearly parallel, not converging; glumes shorter thai 

pales. Moist meadows usually 

to. Lateral nerves of pale arched and converging above 

H. Glumes nerveless or 3-5 nerved; pales with 3-9 conspicuous nerves; spike 

lets 2 mm. broad, and 3-15 mm. long 55-56, PANICULA 

H. Glumes 1-3 nerved; pale obscurely 5-nerved; spikelets 2 mm. wide and 3-' 

mm. long 65, PUCCINEL 

12. Rachilla fringed with downy, cobweb-like hairs around the pale; pal( 

usually obtuse awnless; spikelets 3-10 mm. long 60-64, 1 

12. Spikelets 5-13 mm. long and not crowded on the naked rachilla; pal< 

round on back, sometimes keeled and often awned 44-47, FESTl 

12. Spikelets 10-40 mm. long; rachilla naked; pale often awned. . 19-21, BROS 



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FORAGE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL MONTANA. 



17 



Lvinotated I^ist of tHe Grasses of Central Montana. 



/. ,^oroj)7j?'()n or('ideniffh% Scribn, Hlue-Joint or Blue Stiui. jFici 1]. 

This irrass, populnrly known as blue-joint, Lcrows on mixed soils 
•lay. sand and ii^ravel and is found widely scnttered from the edges 
leavih alkaline soils tlironi^h the upland i)rairie bencdies and foot- 
hills to the mountain pjsrks. Grow- 
ing alone, it often forms a thick 
rank mass of foliage on rich black 
loam meadows which are overflowed 
by water periodically. Under these 
conditions it forms the very rich- 
est and best hay of the country. 
Where water stands on the surface 
% 11 ^^H^ I / ^^ summer, it kills out easily and 

k \ u ^^ I / ^^ ^^® place come rushes, sedges 

L\ \ vl ^UC f / ^^^ ^^^ grasses of the wet medow 

^A IA\ i« Iff I flora. Where over- irrigated, alkali, 

" '' too, is apt to come in, and grasses, 

like salt grass, which can better 
endure alkali, take the place of the 
blue joint. Its scattered growth 
seldom heads out on the prairie 
benches today. It is easily killed 
out by the close grazing and tramp- 
ing of stock. 
2. Agropyron occidentale molle, 
Scribn. Colorado Blue-stem. 



V 



1. AOROPYBON OCCIDENTALE, ScribD. 

rU. S. Div. of 4groB.) 
3. Agropyron divergens, Nees. Bunch Wheat Grass. 
On the prairie benches this forms bunches often a foot in diameter 
i one to two feet high. Clustered near the edge of steep slopes, 
3y are often, at a distance, mistaken for sheep by strang- 
;. In the foothills it blends with other grasses to form valuable 
land meadows. Growing alone, it often covers south exposures, 
hen cut yearly, it makes good hay for horses and cattle, but is rather 
arse for sheep. 



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IMENT STATION. 



Short-leaved wheat grass. 

> S. False quack grass. 

my of its habits and are popularly 

•ad. Bearded wheat grass. 

ows, in the foothills a iid in moun- 

► inter^rade with Elyinivs glaiicus. 
Slender wheat grass. 

In the prairie portion of the 
country, it is sometimes found in 
ravines and meadows, but often ii 
thickets of rose and buck brush 
It makes as good or better haj 
than timothy, and is sometime* 
found alone or mixed with a fev 
other rank grasses in creek bendi 
of the foothills. 

S, Agropyron idolaceuni, Langi 
MountaiD wheat gra-ss. 

This grass is found high oi 
mountain sides, in mountain parks 
and in the upper edge of the foot 
hills. It seldom grows alone, bn 
adds its value to the general grae 
flora. 
0. Agi ostis alba. L.Red TopJFic 2 

This tame grass is to be foun 
to-day in many parts of the coin 
try. A few years ago large quant 
ties of the seed were shipped i 
and sold out to the ranchers ( 
two or three localities. They wei 
looking for a drought-resistin 
grass, and as this received hig 
commendation by the store-keepe 



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FORAGE CONDITIONS OF^CENTKAL MONTANA. 19 

y sowed it on land where other grasses had failed to give a good 
}. The resulting failure caused 'many people to condemn it; 
it has been foun:l to make rank growth of hay on land that is 
wet for most other grasses — land usually covered by rushes and 
?es. However, the land Jmust not be submerged. If those who 
e drowned out their blue-joint meadows would sow red-top before 
rushes and sedges come in, they may still expect good hay. If the 
les and sedges have taken possession, it may be necessary to plow 
land before the red-top will catch. 

>. Agrostis aspeii folia, Trin. Rough-le«ived bent-grass. 

This grass, though resembling red-top in many ways, grows on 
;h dryer land and to greater altitudes, but will not furnish as large 
lantity of hay. With other grasses, it sometimes forms a large 
tion of the vegetation in certain mountain meadows. 

/. Agrostis hiemulis, B. S. P. Hair grass, or tickle grass. 

Widely scattered from the alkaline flats of the Badlands almost to 
mountain tops, this grass grows around the edge of intermittent 
d holes mixed with what is popularly known as foxtail (Hordeum 
atum). In some respects it resembles red-top and is often found 
ed with it, but is almost worthlessjfor hay. 

2. vilopeciints geniculatus, L. Floating foxtail. 

Mixed with two or three small sedges, this grass covers , the bot- 
of intermittent pond holes and portions of river flood-plains, as 

low bank of the Missouri above Great Falls. It sometimes grows 

, height of a^foot or more, but falls easily. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

3. Alopecurns ocvldentalis, Scribn. Mountain Foxtail. [Fio 3.] 

Though this grass was found by tlie writer only in the upper 
Belt Park under the shade of small clumps of white pine, it is 
"ted at hi^h altitudes throughout the Rocky Mountain region, 
line meadows it often makes a remarkably luxuriant growth, 
r^ntly reaching a height of 
ee or four feet. Its foilage 
>oft, but it is probably one of 
) most promising of the na- 
e grasses for cultivatioH in 
adows at the higher altitudes 
1 in moist partly shadcKi ' 
untain parks. 

4' vindropogoii scoparius, 
Mx. Little Blue Stem. 

Grows in clumps a foot or 
) high on steep gravely side- 
Is and in the bottoms of 
ky ravines of the drier jxDr- 
a of the country. It heads 
; late in August and is tough 
1 woody, not usually eaten by 
ck. 



5. Aristida loiigiseta rohiis- 
ta, Merrill. Dogtown grass. 

is habits are very similar to 
se of Andropogon scoparius. 



i 



Alopecubus occiDKNTAiiis, Scribo. 
(U. S. Div. of A^roe.) 



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FORAGE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL MONT 

W, Avena AmeHoana, Scribo. American oat grass [Fig. 

This is foun^l principally on the upland benches of 
d the dryer portions of the mountain parks, but it is 
)untain canyons and in sheltered ravines of the plait 
)m a few inches to a foot high. Mixed with other grj 
eatlv to the value of the forage, but will never form { 
elf.^ 



17. Beckrnuri 
Grass. [Fi 



o Beckmannia en 
Avena Americana, ScriVm. , U. 8. Div. c 

(U. S.Div. of Agros.) 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



The name slough grass is popularly confused with a coUectioi 
id-leaved sedges, not grasses at all. This grass grows in shal 
er with rushes and sedges. 

H, Bouteloua oligostdchya, Torr. Blue grama [Fig. 6]. 

This is today the most abundant grass of the dry plains re^ 
is undoubtedly the richest. It grows on dry, porous non-alka 

soil usually, and is not found 




6. Bouteloua cliKostachya, Torr. 
(U. S. Div. of Agrros.) 



buffalo wallows or wet piaces a 
stiff clays. On the dry ben< 
the foliage is a mass of curly lei 
covering the ground but tw( 
three inches high at best. In s 
places, where new soil is was 
down from the hillside above 
every heavy rain, the brown fm 
stems of the blue grama are o 
ten inches high and thick eno 
to remiiul one of waves of iR' 
when the wind blows. 
grass improves very rapidly ui 
cultivation. For several year 
hcMS grown luxuriantly in the 
Xx^rimental grounds of the Dei 
ment at Washington. D. C, si 
ing to green out about the mi 
of April and growing from 181 
inches high, varying with 
seasons.*' 



0. Brovius inerniis, L. Smooth broiiie grass. 

This extremely valuable imported grass is slowly but surely r 

its way into the confidence of the people. It is very hardy. 

m once established it is green earliest in the spring and the h 

he fall. When not too dry it yields a stand of rich hay tha 

(Is of stock eat with relish. 



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FORAGE CONDITIONS OF CENTRA 

20. Brojiiiis nutrgiruitua, Nees. [Fig. 7]. 

This native brome grass is widely distribu 
acUands almost to the mountain tops. In th^ 
lainly in the hends of little drfiw.s [mttiiij dovs 

21. B'tDiLi ForU'H, Nash. 

Hhs about the snme distribution ns the 
receding, only in the i^rairie rt*gion it ^rows 
I clumps of small brush, like Agropyron 

ENERUM. 

2^. BroviitH Ptnifj)ellianns, Scribn. West- 
ern brome irn>ss. 

This njitive brome grnss resembles Bro- 
us INERMUS in many of its hnlats. Occurs 
ri mountain eides pri!icii)nl]y and, where th(» 
mber has been killel by fire, it gives prom- 
e of forming goo: I for.iti:e. It v;as ciiitivnte:! 
u the Ottawa experiment static »ii and consid- 
•e<l a very v?du 'ble gr.us. 

JJ. Bvcmnis RichriiflH'ni. Lii.k. 

Found in similar si: nations with B. PoR- 
ERI. 

J^. ('ft Iff lu ftgrcf^fis C<t ntulen sis (u u m in - 
(/ttf, Vasoy. 



In the timber on mountain si les. its hroj 
ay nearly cover the ground and is probahl^ 
embers of this genus. In semi-moist, part 
ountain parks, it often furnishers large (piani 

^/>. Calajnagrosfis hyperhorea ^lnievi((tn(f, 

Found only in mountain parks, it grows s" 
lan the last. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

nudgrostis Injpcrhrea stenodes, Kearn. 

iitutgrostis itwntatiejisis, Scribn. 

1 found in the mountains; those grasses Lcrow on stifl 

pland alkaJine lands, or even on the dry open l)enches 

Dmmonly mixed with prairie June grass (Koeleria crista- 

pularly confused with it. 

nnf/gj'ostis purjnirascejis, R. Br. 

in buncb(*s on the tops of momi tains, on mountain ridges 
broken rocks on rugged mountain sides. 

nm/grostis Suksdorfii, Scribn. 
under about the same conditions and often with C. hyper- 

IRICANA. 

mvovilfa ioiiglfolia, Hack. Big Sand Grass. 

Dugh, broad-leaved grass is valuable to bind loose drifting 
mmonly found in circular patches in dry sandy swales and 
illsides. where it grows almost to the exclusion of all other 
t often covers sandy bends of the Missouri river, and is 
isture and sometimes even for hay. 
evaveae. Sedges, or slough-gras.s. 

broad-leaved plants resemble the true grasses. They grow 
[loist ravines and wet meadows, but one (Carex filifolia, 
so foimd on the dryest benches with the blue grama (Bor- 
^IGOSTACHYA). Several more grow on moimtain sidt*s 
intain parks. 

ws of rushes and sedges an* valued hicjhly by some on 
the fcic't Uiat they furnish lir<x<' quantities of hay yearly 
ntiiuie to do so indcfinitclv. 



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FORAGE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL MONTANA. 



25 



. DantJwnia Califoriiica, Bol. California Oat Grass. 

. Darithonuv intermedia, Vasey. Rocky Mountain Oat Grass. [Fio 8]. 

. Dant?wnia unispicata. Munro. Tumble Grass. 

These three grasses, though quite different, are aJso much alike, 
first two are usually eighteen inches high and grow scattered, 
last is four to eight inches high and found in mats on the edges 
ttle sags. All grow in the foothills, and the first two also in moun- 
tain parks, at times well up on 
mountain sides. In the prairie 
region the first occurs only in nar- 
row strips down the bottom of dry 
ravines. 

S5. Deschampsia cciespitosa, 
Beauv. Tussock grass. 

This grass requires about the 
same conditions as red-top (Agros- 
Tis alba), and is usually found in 
wet meadows and swamps where 
there is plenty of sun. " While 
neither the yiekl nor the quality of 
forage is equal to that obtained 
from timothy or red -top, there can 
be no doubt that this grass fills an 
important place among the native 
meadoY^ and pasture grasses of this 
region.'' In i^laces where many 
b(^tt(»r grasses can not grow, it of- 
ten converts bogs into useful 
meadow lands by means of its 
>e tufts and tough, fibrous roots. Continued mowing and pastur- 
have the effect of reducing its tufts to a fairly even sod. especially 
n a few other grasses act as fillers. 
*. Disticlilis spiratd, Greene. Salt grass. Alkali grass. 
Wherever this grass is found, one can say with fair certainty that 
e is considerable alkali in the soil. (See alkali flats.) 




K Danthonia intermcvlia, Vasey. 
(U.S. Div. of Affros.) 



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FOKAGE CONDITIONS OF CK 

1 bends of creeks, and at times on 
ng, it makes hay of fair quality, but k 
cut annually. 

). Elymus glaiiciis, Buckl. Mountain 

This grass thrives in mountain cany 

sides almost to the tops. It is sekl 

Bars to increase in quantity in the pai 

J certainly a valuable pasture and me^ 

L Elyniiis Ma^coiinii, Vasey. Macouc 

?. Elymus triticoid^, Buckl. Wild ry 

The above are two other rye grasses 
Montana, but it is doubtful whether ( 
as the Canadian or Mountain rye-graf 

y. Eriocnmfi ciispidata, Nutt. Indiar 

In Central Montana this grass is 
iches on sandy soil or hilhilcM in the 
• found more rarely on clayey soil anrl 
3ugh and wiry. 

^. Festuni vaDipestriH, RyJ. Snow p:n 

In portions of the foothills i^artly Rh( 
:ions of mountain parks, this grat s \ 
3es, it is fouufi on mounds siniihir to 
,mp grasses ^row. From the top of t 
all sides. It makes gooJ pasturage, ai 
ff in the spring, but it is extremely dii 
) found scattered in mountain x^arks, 
iinds and forms only a small portion c 
h other grasses may form valuable me 

5. Festitca octoflora, Walt. Slender fei 

This strange little annual is found wi 
tion of the country. Stock leave it, 
iwed to the ground. 



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28 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



46. Festuca ovina, Ij' Sheep Fescue. [Fig 11]. 

47. Festiuta rubra, ^' Red Fescue. 

On the upland benches of the foothills, on mountain ridges a 
the drier portion of mountain parks, these two valuable grasses 
the greater part of the forage and are together know as bunch : 
More or less scattered they are found on down to the edge ( 
meadows. In their habit they resemble the blue grama, which 
most absent here. 




11. F«»?^tuca oviiia. L. 
iV . S. Div. of Atrro-.' 




12. H01?DEIM JIBATUM, L. (U. S. DlV. of 



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FORAGE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL MONTANA. 29 

They grow in little circular bunches two or three inches over and 

ade many varieties. 

*. Hordeum cwspitositni, Scribn. 

K HordeiLhL' jiibaUun,l^' Squirrel Tail Grass. [Fig 12]. 

These two f^rasses, commonly known as "foxtail*' through the 

itry, are apt to be bad weeds on moist semi-alkaline soil. They 

Pound around the edge of intermittent jjond holes mixed with hair- 
grass (Agkostis hiemalis) and in strongly 
alkaline meadows mixed with sn It-grass 

(DiSTICHLIS SPICATA). 

50. Hordeum pusilluvi, Nutt. Little 
barley. 

This little pest grows similar to slen- 
der fescue (Festuca octoflora), crowding 
out the blue grama, and is not eaten by 
stock. It is mainly found in the edge of 
the badlands. 

51. Juncacae. Rushes, or wire jfrass. 

Small plants resembling the grasses 
growing in clumps along the bottom of dry 
ravines, and in moist meadows mixed with 
sedges, Their hay is low in food value, 
but is often cut in large quantity. 

52. Kceleriu cristata, Pers. Prairie June 
Grass. [Fio 13.] 

This early grass rarely grows alone 
but adds greatly to the forage conditions. 
It is found on the top of the dryest hills 
and well down into the wet meadows. On 
alkaline land, if any grass except salt- 
grass will grow, it is apt to be found. 
Found throughout the badlands, prairie 
benches, foothills, mountain parks and is 
. Koeieria cristata, Pere. ^pt to be seen on the mountain sides as 
(U. s. Div. of Afirros.) high as the grass will grow. It is the 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

\t widely distributed grass of the region. It matures early, i 
and furnishes a large quantity of seed. It is one of the firs 
rd pasturage in the spring an I is much relished by stock. 

i. Melica cepaceri, Scribn. 
Slender-Flowered Melic- 
Grass. 

Found in shady portions of 
t park only. 

^. Mulilenhergm 7'ctceuiosa, 
B S, P. Satin Grass. Wild 
Timothy. [Fig 14]. 

Found on gravelly soil 
and the edge of thickets, 
ut a mile above Armington 



14. Muhlenbergia racemoea, B. S. f. 
(U. S. Div. of A^ros.) 



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CENTRAL MONTANA. 81 



icM. Heed Meadow Cvrasn. [Fig 15]. 
». Foul Meadow Grass, 
leed canary grass. [Fig. 16]. 

itream margins and in low ^ound. 

last four feet high. Under fav- 

hay. The last is by far the most 

Itivated to advantage on land that 

)S. It will not endure alkali. 



16. Phalaris arundinaccu, L. 
(U. S. Div. of Akfob.) 



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FORAGE CONDITIONS OF CE 



18 of the vegetation. The writer fou 
othy had crowded out the native gn 
iciilt to believe that it had not been e 

0. Foa laevigata, Scribn. Smooth Bi 

1. Poa luicida, Vasey. Pale Bunch Gr 
These grasses are found widely seal 

. do not fill anywhere near as imp 
idows overflowed by spring runj 
ke fine hay. 

2. Poa nenwralis, L. Wood Meadow ( 
J. Poa J^evadensis, Vasey. Nevada B 
^. Poa rupicola, Nash. 

This was found in a few places on 1 
) mountains. It resembles the other 
I habits of growth. 

5. Pucciriellia airoides, W. & C. All 

T 

as < 
mea 
by 
Itp 

ant 
groi 
can 

tus, 

T 

ruts 
Fall 




PuccineUia airoides. Watts. A Coult. 
(U. S.Div.of A«ro».) 



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:u 



at S 

tail i 
08 



shall 
fora^ 
toug 
stocl 



a). Sp 



09. 



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FORA&E CONDITIONS OF CENTKi^ 

Grows well on strongly alkaline soil and 
han salt-grass (DiSTiCHLis spicata). 

70. Sporoholus hrevifoliiis, Scribn. Prairie R 

Scattered from the edge of the mountain i 
\\v badlands; thrives under all conditions exi 
auds. It grows in patches thick on the groun 
o two feet high, dependin<j: upon the amount 
anges. however, sheep leave it until the blu 
rrass gives promise of great value, as it withsl 
[loist meadows furnishes a surprising amount c 

71. Sporoholus cryptandrus, Gray. Sand 
Rush Grass. 

Grows in scattered bun^-hes in sandy 
Jaces, mainly in the badlands. 

72. Sfipa coniata.F.&R. Needle Grass. 
[Fig 22]. 

This gniss is widely scattered over the 
tenches of the open country and its foilage 
3 rich in food for stock. Its needles, how- 
ver, are very sharp, and getting into wool, 
iften penetrate the skin. 

7eJ. Stipa Rh'hardsonii, Gray. Richardsou's 
Feather Grass. 

Found in the edge of the mountain re- 
gion only. It appears to be inferior to Stipa 
IBIDULA in value. 

74' SHpa spartea, Trin. Porcupine Grass. 
Devil's Needle.s. 



Eesembles Stipa comata, but is taller a 
ri the foothills mainly. Its needles are also s 
er, and are more injurious to stock. 



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36 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



75. Stipa viiddula, Vasey. Feather Bunch-Grass. 

Usually grows in small bunches, but sometimes scattered, 
stiflE plastic clays of the badlands, and in nearly every semi-moist no 

and comer of a hilly country, } 
never in great quantity anywhe 
In the foothills and mounts 
parks, it grows more in the op 
and often adds to the general val 
of the forage; does well under ii 
gation. 

76*. Trisetuin sitbspieut u in , 
Beauv. Downy Oat-Grass. 
[Pig 23]. 



Growing mainly on mountj 
sides and ridges and in mountj 
parks. This grass iSourishes u 
variety of soils, but is most co 
monly found in moist open wo< 
lands or in the edge of thickets 



23. 



Trisetam subspicatum, BeauT. 
(U.S. Div.of A^ros). 



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FORAGE CONDITIOISS OF CENTRAL MONTANA, 



BIBI.IOGRAPHY. 



derson, F. W, Pastoral Resources of Montana. Report of Com, of 

Agri, (1888,) 
d, W. J, Grasses of North America. Vol. I (1886,) Vol. II (1896). 
tton & Brown. Illustrated Flora of Northern States and Canada 

(1896). 
liter, John M. Manual of Rocky Mountain Botany (1885), 
ly, Asa. Manual of the Botany of Northern United States (1889), 
amy. Thos. H. A Revision of the Genus Calamagrostis (1898), 
unedy, P. B, Structure of the Caryopsis of Grasses (1900), 

Co-operative Experiments with Grasses and Forage Plants 
(1900). 
dberg, P. A. Grasses and Forage Plants of the Rocky Mountains 
(1897). 

Catalogue of the Plants of Montana and the Y. N. P. (1896), 
ibner, F. L. American Grasses. Vols. I, II and III (1900), 
Agricultural Grasses of Central Montana*(1883), 
Description of New or Little Knowh Grasses (1898). 
Economic Grasses (1900). 

Native and Introduced Species of Genera Hordeum and Agrop- 
yron (1897). 
ear, C. L. A Revision of the Genus Bromus (1900). 
Field Work in the Division of Agrostolot<y (1901). 
Grasses and Forage Plants of the Rocky Mountain Region 

(1897). 
Information on the Genera Hordeum, Elymus and Sitanion 
(1901). 
nth, J. G. A Synopsis of the Genus Sitanion (1899). 

Native and Introduced Species of the Genera Hordeum and 
Agropyron (1897). 
iUiams, Thos. A. Grasses and Forage Plants of the Eastern Rocky 
Mountain Region (1898). 
Grasses and Forage Plants of the Dakotas (1897). 



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m 



•I 

if; 



.^ift 



.■r 



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FORAGE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL MONTANA. 



39 



I'AGE 

ue, red 28 

sheep 11, 28 

slender 8,27,29 

lica campestrls 11, 27 

OL'toflora 8, 27, 29 

ovina 11, 28 | 

rubra 28 I 

hills II 

ail 29 I 

floatinc: 8,19! 

mountain 11, 20 

^^y -^ /^ I 

el 6, 7 I 

ing and trampinjj 9 i 

grass 8, 19, 29 I 

leum caespitosum 29 

jubatum 8,29,:^ 

pusillum 8, 29 

in millet 7.27 

ation 12 

aceae 13, 29 

us 13 

oides 13 

grass •• 7, 8 

to the grasses 13-16 

eria crLstata 7, 8. 29 

B barley 8, 29 



Pa(;e 

Needle grass 8, 35 

Needles, Devil's 35 

Oat grass, American 21 

Californiau 25 

downy 11, 36 



wild 



lows 


10 


low grasses 


8,9,33 


grass, alkali 


... 7, 8, 25, 29 


" foul 


10.31 


reed 


31 



" wood 11.3.3 

ca cepacea 30 

ntain foxtail 20 

parks 11 

timotny. . 11 



Pale bunch grass 

Panicularia Americana 10, 

nervata 10, 

Parks ■ 

Phalaris arundinacea 10, 

Phleum alpinum 11, 

pratense U, 

Physiography 

Plant formations 7, 

Poa laevigata 8, 

" lucida 11. 

" nemoralis 11, 

'* Nevadensis 

" rupicola 

Porcupine grass 

Prairie benches 

" June grass 8, 9, 

rush gra.ss 10, 

Puccinellia airoides 8, 10, 



10 
31 
31 
11 
31 
.32 
,32 
5-7 
11 
.33 
3J5 
3Ji 

3:^ 
a3 

35 
8 
29 
35 
313 



Quack grass, false 18 



Red top 18, 

Reed canary gra.ss 10, 11, 

meadow grass 10, 

Rough-leaved her.t-grass 

" salt-grass 

Rushes 10, 12, 24, 

Rush-gra.ss, prairie 7, 

sand 

Rye grass, Canadian 

giant 

mountain 11, 

Macoun's 



31 
30 
19 
10 
29 
35 
:i5 
2() 
26 
27 
91 



rye grass 27 i Salt grass 



lenbergia racemosa 30 



7.8,25,29. 

rough- leaved 8, 34 



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[PERIMENT STATION. 



Page 
.. -J-* 
.. 35 
.. 30 
.. 33 
12,24 
.. 33 
21,24 
11,27 
10,34 
10,34 
10,35 
.. 35 
29,34 
8,35 
.. 35 
.. 35 
7,36 



I 

Tickle grdJW. (See hah* grass) 

Timothy 11,25, a 

" tnounUuD 1 

wild 

Triple awn 

Trisetum subspicatum 1 

Tumbling grass 

Tussock grass 1 

Wheat-grass, bearded 

bunch 

short-leaved 

'* slender 1 

mountain 

" western.(See blue-joinl 

Wild rye 

Wire grass 



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6 



L LET IN NO. 57. ^ 



AGRICULTURAL 



EXPERIMENT STATION 



OF TME-- 



AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE OF MONTANA. 



PORK PRODUCTION 

IN MONTANA^ 



BOZEMAN, MONTANA. SEPTEMBER, 190a. 



BOZBMAN CHRONICLE, 
Bozeman, Moataaa, 
190a. 



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^RA;sGFEf?..!:D Fl?OM 
^HbSEY INbriiUriON 



MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 

•XPERIMENT STATION. 



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

Toole, Governor, 1 

)YAN, Attorney-General, > Ex-Officio Hele 

CH, Supt. of Public Instruction, J 

s Missoi] 

ARD Bui 

ONNELL ....Hele] 

<STON Billin 

lOLM Bozemj 

Y Hamilti 

DiU. 

ER Held 



EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

Hartman, President Bozemj 

3BINSON, Vice-President Bozemj 

H, Secretary ; Bozemj 

JNTZ Bozemj 

[E Bozemj 



STATION STAFF. 

Ma. E Director and Irrigation Engine 

>HAGEN, Ph. D., F. C. S ..Chemi 

lAW, B. S. A Agriculturi 

KINSHIP, Ph. D Botani 

EY, B. Sc Entomologi 



Office, Express and Freight Station, Bozeman. 



:oinmunications for the Experiment Station should 
) the Director, 

Montana Experiment Station, 

Bozeman, Mont. 



ICE — The bulletins of the Station will be mailed free 
of Montana who sends his name and address to t 
that purpose. 



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i 



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p. 



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Montana Experiment Station. 



illetin No. 37. - - September, 1902. 

PORK PRODUCTION IN MONTANA. 

BY R. S. Shaw. 

The industry of pork production is in great need of encourage- 
tit throughout the arid west, which supplies but a small per- 
tage of the pork required for home consumption. Western 
vns and cities are in large measure supplied with cured pork 
m the great packing houses of the east, with a product from 

com producing regions. There is a great demand for large . 
intities of cured pork in Montana. The occupations and condi- 
ns surrounding the people are such that large quantities of 
ed n^eat must be used of which pork is the chief. Ranchmen, 
ckmen, railroad and canal builders, miners, prospectors and 
npers living in places remote from the large centers can neither 
tain nor handle fresh meats to good advantage. In many in- 
nces our farmers still continue to purchase cured bacon and 
rn, bearing packing house brands, from local merchants instead 
producing them on the farm. Because of these practices our 
stem farmers are failing to obtain a large revenue which they 
lid so easily secure. Pork cannot be produced more cheaply or 
better quality than in the irrigated regions of the arid west. 
►g raising has been made possible by the opening up of agricul- 
'al lands which are made to produce enormous quantities of 
eals and legumes by means of irrigation. 

SUITABILITY OF CLIMATE. 

The climate of the arid west is characterized by a light, dry air, 
availing sunshine and moderate temperature. No better combi- 
tion of conditions exists for the health\' and rapid development 
the pig. The cultivated regions are in general found between 
t altitudes of 2000 and 5500 feet, where little or no damp, 
mdy weather occurs. These atmospheric conditions combined 
th an almost continued sunshine throughout the winter season 



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THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

^sens,in fact almost entirel3' prevents, the occurrence of the ma 
ig troubles so disastrous in the more humid regio 
throughout these regions extremes of temperature are not pre 
int during long periods of time, and being short lived areeas 
ndured because of the lack of humidity. In general the clima 
onditions are such that the pig can run out of doors throughc 
Imost the entire year, the snow fall being very light. These c 
iitions tend toward vigor and healthfulness and permit of e 
lomic methods of feeding. Everywhere it is possible to prov 
.bundant supplies of clear sparkling water from the mount 
treams. A number of instances have been noticed in which bre 
tig hogs imported from the corn belt have brought hog chol 
tmong our western bred stocks. In one case 60 per cent, of 
mported hogs died while only one mature hog out of twei 
ilontana grown ones succumbed, although all were eflFected. 
his we have strong evidences of the constitutional vigor produ 
)y the climatic and food conditions. 

SUITABILITY OF FOOD PRODUCTS. 

The pork producing foods grown in the arable regions of M 
ana consists of cereals, legumes and root crops, the marvel 
)roductiveness of which has been heretofore described. The cei 
grains include brewing and white and black hulless barley, spr 
lub wheat, rye and oats. One legume, viz. peas, can be univer 
y grown in great profusion. Forage crops, alfalfa, red, als 
md white clovers, peas, winter and spring rye and various gr 
nixtures produce an abundant variety of pasture throughout fi 
light months of the \'ear. Of the root crops best suited, su 
)eets, mangolds and carrots can all be raised. While the gi 
rariety enumerated cannot all be grown in each cultivated secti 
;till, there is no farm territory in Montana where a suitable C( 
)ination of these cannot be grown. It is true that winter rye 
>e universally grown, and no section need be without some om 
nore of the legumes, cereals and root crops. It therefore folk 
:hat excellenth^ balanced rations can be secured generally wl 
mil produce a good quality of pork, rapidly, cheaply and econc 
rally. It may appear to those from the corn belt that the inabi 
:o grow corn in most parts of Montana is a strong argura 
igainst the business. In peas, however, we have an excellent s 
ititute for corn. Bulletins 34 of the Utah Station by Mills, and 



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JLLETIN 37. PORK PRODUCTION. 5 

the South Dakota Station by Chilcott, both report peas super- 
r to corn for fattening swine. Barley is reported by the famous 
inish pork producers to be the best single grain for the produc- 
)n of high grade bacon. Director Henry of the Wisconsin Sta- 
)n gives the following comparison between corn and barley as 
>rk producers, viz.: 

471 pounds of barley meal produced 100 pounds of gain. 

435 pounds of com meal produced 100 pounds of gain. 

Wheat— The results of several stations show wheat and com 

be nearh' equal in pork producing value with a very slight ad- 
ntage in favor of corn. 

Oats— According to Henry *s ** Feeds and Feeding,'* the Massa- 
usetts Station reports that 20 per cent, more oat feed than com 
?al was required to produce 100 pounds of gain. Oats are more 
luable as an adjunct to lighten heavier rations than when used 
one. 

Rye — The results of comparative work shows rye and barley 
have about equal feeding values. These facts tend to prove that 
ir grain foods are exceptionally well adapted to pork making, 
id at the same time the use of these is greatly facilitated by the 
►ssibility of a continuous supply ol nitrogenous forage crops dur- 
g a long growing season, and by root crops in the winter. 

PREPARING FEEDING FOODS. 

The most satisfactory results have been secured from grinding 
e grain feeds and soaking a short time before feeding. Under the 
id conditions the cereal grains become so hard and flinty that 
ey cannot be fed whole with good results. Local facilities are 
)w such that grains can be ground at little expense. Where it he- 
mes a necessity to feed whole grain this can be accomplished by 
attering it on hard dry ground or a feeding floor, it will then be 
eked up little by little and is more likely to be masticated, where- 
, if fed in troughs large quantities are swallowed, passing the di- 
stive tract whole. Prices of labor are so high as to render the 
oking of either grains or roots too expensive. Root crops can 
fed to good advantage raw except where turnips or rutabagas 
e used. 

FORAGE CROPS. 

The climatic conditions and capabilities of crop production are 
ch that pigs, old, young, breeders and fatteners, can forage dur- 



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THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



ng fully two-thirds of the year. The secret of economy in 
production in Montana, consists in keeping the pigs foraj 
3ven though some expert investigations reveal the fact that i 
enclosed in a pen will make a greater gain from a given numt 
3ounds of food than the pig running at large, still, it will paj 
:er because of the cost of labor to let the pig go to the food thi 
)ring the food to the pig. A succession of forage crops mui 
3rovided for, which means that from three to four lots shoul 
enced off near the hog houses. If alfalfa alone is relied on 
should be divided into two parts to permit of recuperation an 
rigation. Forage crops may be relied on for use in the follo' 
:irder, winter rye in April, alfalfa in May, the clovers in June, ^ 
nixtures in July, and peas from August to the setting in of wi 
These are the periods at which each of the crops named come 
use. Of these crops alfalfa is one of the most important bee 
3f its permanency; where it cannot be grown some one ofthecl( 
s sure to answer. Alsike clover is well adapted to moist s 
tions and withstands very severe grazing. White clover will | 
in a still wetter soil. Through the use of a liberal amount oi 
ter not more than four or five acres of forage is necessary to 
vide green food for a herd of from 40 to 50 pigs of all ages, 
the opening up of spring till the pea crop and grain stubbles be 
accessible. Young growing pigs should not be required to ft 
for a living; a one-third grain ration should be supplied in 
bo secure a proper growth and development. Foraging alone 
jnly provide maintenance and a small gain in live weight, 
light grain ration advocated will materially assist in prod 
renumerative gains and prepare the 3'oung pig for fattening 
stubbles or peas in the autumn. 

METHODS OF FEEDING. 

THE BROOD SOW. 

The brood sow can forage the greater part of the year. D 
the later stages of pregnancy a little grain food should be sup 
the amount depending upon her condition of flesh; this, ho\^ 
will not be necessary during the time she is gleaningfrom the 
Selds. The forage in general being leguminous any one of th 
?al grains may be used as supplementary food. While nursin 
litter access should always be given to the forage grounds 
possible, and a liberal grain ration fed, Immediately after fai 



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ULLETiN 37. PORK PRODUCTION. 



g a light ration of sloppy feed consisting of skim milk, shorts, 

-an and oats is most satisfactory; the heavier grain foods can be 

raduall^^ added. During the period of rest or earl3^ pregnancy in 

le winter months the brood sow can be maintained on sugar 

?ets, carrots or mangolds with a one-third grain ration added. 

pring farrowing has hitherto been favored, but the climatic and 

od conditions are such that fall litters can be handled almost 

lually well. 

YOUNQ AND STORE PIQS. 

These should have constant access to forage grounds in the 
immer season, and sheltered yards in the winter. When four 
eeks old they will take a little sweet skim milk to which som^ 
lorts or middlings may be gradually added, and later some 
round wheat. A light grain ration should be supplied the young 
-owing pig in addition to the forage throughout the forage seas- 
1 but may be entirely cut off as soon as the pigs reach the pea or 
rain stubble fields. During the winter season the shotes should 
ive access to stacked alfalfa, clover, or peas, from which they Avill 
cure a large amount of food.. Sugar beets should also be supplied. 

THE FATTENINQ HOQS. 

This process is most economically accomplished by finishing in 
le pea lots or grain stubble. The pigs should be turned on the 
*as as soon as the pods are filled and the peas begin to hard- 
1. If sufficient pigs are used, say 10 per acre, not a pea will be 
asted and even a portion of the vines consumed. One acre of 
jas, producing at the rate of 35 bushels per acre, which is an aver- 
se for Montana, will provide a fattening ration for ten 150 to 
5o pound hogs for from 40 to 45 days. Climatic conditions per- 
il of pea harvesting by pigs even as late as December I. This is 
le of the easiest fattening methods now practiced in Montana. 
he area over which peas can be grown is very large and the time 
f foraging so extended by favorable weather that the product 
eed not all be marketed at one time. In order, however, to make 
le best use of forage conditions, winter litters must be raised. 
igs from spring litters do not reach a large consuming capacity 
)on enough to take advantage of the early forage. Both late fall 
tid early spring litters should be raised in order to get the most 
lit of the foods and the market conditions. 

RESULTS FROM QLEANINQ GRAIN FIELDS. 

Enormous quantities of pork could be made annually from the 
rains wasted on stubble fields, large quantities of which are lost 
y ''shattering'' under the arid conditions. 



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^HE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

a period of 4-2 days extending from Oct. 4 to Nov. 
bllowing test was made with pigs gleaning from gi 
ra which crops of oats, wheat, barle3' and peas had I 
At the beginning of the test the 24 pigs weighed 2' 
close 3608 pounds. Thus in 42 da^'S 24 pigs mad< 
live weight of 874 pounds, which amount valued at 
prevailing price at the time, gave a return of $46 
amount $3.28 is deducted for feed during a few c 
ground was covered with snow, there was thenl( 
t of $42.76. The percentage increase in live weight 
*ent. as compared with 19.2 per cent, from lambs 
nt. from steers under the same conditions. One hun 
e acres of the station farm, consisting of meadow 
the balance of stubble, formed the run for the 24 ] 
and 11 steers. There are enormous areas in Men 
Id be put to a similiar use. 

RESULTS SECURED FROil FEEDING GRAIN 
VS. GRAIN AND SUGAR BEETS. 

spring of 1902, two lots of four pigs each were fed 

)ne on exclusive grain ration, the other receiving 

sugar beets, with the following results. The four 

;rain made an increase of 316 pounds or 79 pounds ( 

n average daily gain of 1.58 pounds. The cost of 

r pound increase with this lot was 4.6 cents. The 

ving grain and sugar beets made an increase of 

82 pounds each, making an average dail3^ gain of 

The cost of production in this case was 3.8 centj 

he former lot received a heav3^ grain ration of 

ch per day. The latter consumed 6.65 pounds of ^ 

pounds of sugar beets per head per day. The fina 

)f this test resulted in a net profit of $14.12 or 31 

le investment in 50 days. Previous tests conducte 

the following results: 

pork pet pound increase from graia only $3J 

pork per pound increase from js^rain and sugar bpet^ 2.1 

quired per pound increase from grain only 5.32 lb 

quired per pound increase from grain and sugar beets, 4.26 lb 

it per head from feeding grain only $1.J 

it per head from feeding grain and sugar beets 2.! 

re can be made to produce from 15 to 20 tons of s 
cost not exceeding $30 per acre. If for any reason 



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LTLLETIN 37. PORK PRODUCTION. 



innot be grown carrots or mangolds can be made to take their 
ace. Some insect pests which prey upon the 3'oung sugar beets 
id mangold plants will not harm the carrots. These roots can 
? fed whole and raw, at least expense, with satisfactory results, 
fie sugar beet is the best keeper of the three. 

THE KIND OF HOGS TO BREED. 

Our conditions are well able to support large framed hogs 
hich will mature moderatel^^ early. Strength of boneis desirable 
It not so necessary as in some other regions. The brood sow 
lould be long bodied and rangy with good length and depth of 
•upling;such a one is more sure to be prolific, a good mother, and 
good nurse, than the chunky, compact, fine boned, strictly lard 
pe. These desirable features are found par excellence in the im- 
oved English Berkshire and good results can be secured from the 
rge, rangy, strong types of Poland Chinas. Many of our breeders 
•e making serious mistakes by breeding immature animals and 
so by inbreeding. Let' the young sow reach ten or twelve 
onths of age before producing her first litter, and then do not de- 
roy her as long as she continues to produce good ones. Inbreed- 
g has arisen because of the difficult^' and<:ost of importing boars; 
judiciously practiced, rapid deterioration of form, constitutional 
gor and feeding qualities is sure to ensue. 

HOG HOUSES. 

Various improvised and inexpensive shelters are being used, 
ora the dugout in the hillside to the pole shelter covered with 
raw and the building made of logs. While any of these may pro 
ide shelter during the milder portion of the year, their use can ir 
3 wise prove satisfactory throughout. They are too apt to be 
ark, damp, filthy and draught3^ The pole structure with a straw 
)vering may be used as a temporar\^ shelter or for sleeping quarters 
►r feeding hogs during the milder season, but for breeding quarters 
leir use cannot be recommended. The log building is in mosi 
jmmon use. Its greatest fault is its inability to retain the chink 
ig. As a result the structure soon becomes open and draughty 

A properly planned and well constructed frame building gives 
iie best results; its. use is almost absolutely necessary where win- 
ir breeding is practiced. The building site should be high and dry 
that surface water will drain away at all times. If possible the 
xration should be in close proximity to the small fields which arc 



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THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

)rodtice the forage crop. If a natural water supply can be 
:ed so as to pass through the yards so much the better. 
It is desirable that the hog house should face the south, 
t each pen should open into a small enclosure fenced off, pre 
i with wire netting. By this means when a number of sows 
fined with young pigs during the winter season they can h 
»ss to protected, sunny yards. 

The size of the building will be determined by the numbe 
od sows and boars to be kept. As regards shape a long i 
' building is preferable, of such proportions, for instance, as : 

In such a istructure a 3^^ foot passage way should run f 
to end along the north side of the building, thus leaving all 
5 on the south side. Pens 8 x 12V^ will furnish room f( 
od sow and litter or several fattening pigs, according to i 

pen of twice the capacity should be constructed to fur 
ping quarters for a larger number of animals, although ar 
shed could be constructed cheaply to protect the animals 
the pasture season. Each pen should be provided with a si 
^ed door on the south, and directly above it a window, 
-e than two windows will be required on the north side, 
ighs should be placed directly under the partition adjoining 
sage way, and this partition so constructed as to swing! 
top. In this way the pigs can be excluded from the trc 
le the feed is being supplied. The swinging partition is hel 
:e by means of a slide in the center which works up and d 
s resting on either side of the trough as desired. Less fo< 
5ted when the flat bottomed troughs are used. Because o 
nter}' nature hemlock makes a durable trough, the pigs 
ng to chew it. 

Concrete overlaid with cement furnishes a good flooring 
IT fault being that it is cold. This may be overcome by ( 
ng a small portion with plank for a bedding place. P 
rs give good satisfaction but should be made water tigh 

much filth will work through and produce unsani 
ditions. 

One or two ventilators should extend from within a few fe 
floor up through the roof; in many cases these do not ex 
)w the ceiling and as a result remove only the upper warm 
ring the foul, heavier air below. If necessary to secure wai 

inside may be lined and the spaces between the studs i 
h sawdust or chaff*. The chief essentials of a good hog h 
warmth, sunlight, dryness and good ventilation without 
ughts. 



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-i e^ /^ B5' 5 ^T'/ 

LETIN NO. ^^.^ 



MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 



Experiment Station 



OF THE 



LGRICULrURAL C0LLE6E OF MONfANA. 



FOOD ADULTERATION. 



^ZEMAN, MONTANA, OCTOBER 1, 1902. 



I003. 

Th« Avant Courier PubllAhlnft Co. 

Bom«in«ii, Montana- 



• J^-."., 


•J 

1 


■ • fr 





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Montana Experiment Station. 

•tin No. 38 • - - • October, 100S 

FOOD ADULTERATION. 

F. W. TRAPHAGEN. 



s a class the Montana Farmers should be more deeply interested 
le subject of the adulteration of food and in the remedies for ex- 
g conditions, than any other group of citizens of our common- 
Ith. The reasons for the existence of this interest are twofold, 
ely, because as producers they suffer greatly by having their 

products come into competition with the cheaper spurious 
iucts which so completely flood the markets today, and because 
onsumers they are constantly buying foods which are not true 
ime, but are either partly or entirely made up by the substitution 
leaper materials. 
>rtunately the stress of the competition of low grade imitations 

our own farm crops has not yet been felt to any great extent. 
t our farmers have this competition to meet in the future unless 
td'ies are enacted for their relief, is shown by the fact that al- 
y, on a very small scale, the manufacture of preserves and jellies 
been undertaken near Missoula, and the sale of these high grade 
is has been seriously affected by the presence of so much of the 
per ^'compounds'* which are so plentiful in all our markets. 

Nature of Food Adulteration. 
3r our purpose it will be sufficient to divide the adulteration of 
s into two groups, first those which affect the pocket-book, and 
nd those which affect the health. 

the first group we would place all cases of the substitution, in 
le or in part, of cheaper, though wholesome, articles for the one 
:h is presumably bought. Examples are the use of glucose for 
le syrup, or for New Orleans molasses, or its substitution for 
more expensive and sweeter sugar which is used in the higher 
le jams, preserves and jellies. Corn meal is frequently used to 
terate wheat flour; cotton seed oil, peanut oil and sesame oil 
(1 masquerade as olive oil, ground spices are composed largely 
jound cocoanut shells, and similar substitutions are made for 
r food materials. 

nder the head of unwholesome adulterations would be placed 
Jtances which cause derangements of the digestive or other func- 



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4 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

tions of the human economy. Examples of these are the grc 

* 1 rock which was sold by the York Manufacturing Co., of Green^ 

N. C, in carload lots for the adulteration of wheat flour. It i 

once apparent that this material can have no nutritive value and 

/ it further must tax thei digestive organs greatly to effect its elim 

t . tion. 

We have been called a ''nation of dyspeptics," that this nair 
justly applied is due to the fact that the use of food preservati 
^ which is prohibited in several foreign countries, is not restricte 

this country except in the few states having effective food laws. 
The case against these food preservatives is not as complete ; 
' might be, but in the .event of a reasonable doubt it is best to b< 

the safe side. The food preservatives in use at the present day 
powerful antiseptics and for that reason have a decided restraii 
ch\\:t i:pon digestion. The question of the physiological effect ol 
extremely small quantities of any of these preservatives that woul 
taken with food when the minimum amount necessary for its j 
ervation is used, is very important. It is probable that in such c 
the vast majority of consumers would not be harmed. On the o 
hand, in the case of children or invalids much harm might n 
even with the smallest amounts of antiseptics. Where the us 
such drugs as these preservatives is contra-indicated, it should t 
least possible to avoid their presence in the foods consumed. 

The arguments against the use of chemical preservatives a; 
with almost equal force to the artificial colors which are used so la 
ly to improve the appearance of inferior goods. The testimon 
' experts on physiological chemistr>' given before the Committer 

Manufactures of the I'nited States Senate in its investigation of 
matter, shows the prevailing opinion of those best qualified to tc! 
: on this subject. 

A portion of this testimony is given in the Seventh Annual Re 
of the Montana lUireau of Agriculture, Labor and Industry, p; 
499 — 507, and our readers are referred to this report. 

The Remedy 
After a futile attempt to secure the passage of a measure by 
'- legislature for the protection of tlie citizens of our commonwe 

we have reached the conclusion *that the best way to secure r 
is through the enactment of a measure by Congress. 
- The reason for this change of base on our part is primarily becj 

! such a measure, as was considered by our legislature, can only 

come effective by holding our own dealers responsible for the cha 
ter of the foods they offer for sale. In the nature of things we 
not successfully legislate against producers or jobbers who re 
- in another state than our own. At the same time there is 1 

I - doubt but that our dealers could protect themselves by exac 

*. guarantees from their supply houses. That the wholesa 

are willing to give such guarantees we have been assured by 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 5 

Tesentatives of many of the firms doing business with Montana 

ailers. 

fet, the plea that the innocent (?) Montana merchant would bear 

burden of prosecution, or persecution, as some of the grocery- 
n lobbyists chose to put it, proved a very effective argument with 

members of the last Montana House. The difficulties of the 
ninistration of such a law as was proposed would have been great 
I there is no doubt that the work can be much better done by the 
reau of Chemistry of the Department of Agriculture at Wash- 
ton than by the individual states. Of course a national law can 
y deal with interstate commerce in such goods, and with viola- 
is in the District of Columbia and in the Territories, hence the 
tes will have to take care of all such violations of food laws as 
ur within their own limits. This phase of the problem need not 
uble us for many years, for so far .as we know, our own food 
ducts thus far have been above suspicion, and we believe will | T !l 

lain so for many years. A national pure food measure which ^ u 

believe to be necessary to supplement the laws already in force ... ! 

5ome states,^ and to afford protection to citizens of states having • • 

laws on this subject, would be a boon to the farmer when he is »< 

sidered either as a producer or as a consumer. The bills before * ' * 

last session of Congress known as the Hansbrough Bill in the ' ^[ 

late, and the Hepburn in the House of Representatives, seem to 

perfectly fair in every respect, and had the endorsement of numer- ^^ 

i organizations which have no private "axes to grind." 

"he text of the Brosius Bill may be found on pages 489 — 492,. ; 1 

enth Annual Report Montana Bureau of Agriculture. This bill 
practically identical with the other bills mentioned. 

'onsidered briefly in their essential details they place the adminis- ! 

:ion of the . law in the hands of the Secretary of Agri- 
ture, with the details of administration given to 

Bureau of Chemistry, which for years under ! ^ 

lead of the Chief Chemist, has been making exhaustive researches ■ 

rag all the lines involved in the successful enforcement of an anti- 
[Iteration law. , i 

'here is no doubt that there is no laboratory nor corps of chemists ' - , 

well fitted for such work as that to be found in the Department 
Agriculture. 

'he bills make no prohibitions, but simply demand that articles be 
1 on their merits for what they are, and that they do not masquer- 

as something better. 

'he correct locality of production must appear, so that a state 
ducing a particularly high grade of flour or superfine butter, may 

be robbed of its honors by the false branding of other flour or 
ter, perhaps pure enough, but still decidedly inferior, and pro- 
ed in some state which has yet to make a rccorU in these lines. 
?se matters are of immediate concern to farmers. 



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6 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

The opponents of these bills offer arguments, or rather an 
ment, which should disgrace any men. They protest that to c( 
them to lable glucose syrup correctly, and prevent them calling i 
pie syrup, is an infringement of personal liberty and an interfe 
with their Constitutional rights. How a man can expose hims 
the supreme contempt of his fellow men by such an argume 
beyond our comprehension. Yet this is precisely what man 
in the public hearing of the supporters and opponents of these 
when they were before the respective committees having th< 
charge. 

For the protection of our agricultural and horticultural intc 
it would be well if the numerous organizations, representing 
industries, would become familiar with these measures now 1 
Congress, and would use their influence to secure the passage of 
suitable bill, such as the ones before mentioned. 

The Conditions in Montana. 

It will not be surprising to learn that, because of the abset 
protective measures of any kind, adulterated food is coi 
in Montana. 

The adulterations are of both kinds, the deleterious and the fr 
lent. Jams, jellies, preserves and catsups are found very gen 
colored with coal tar dyes, and when this is done it is almost a 
an evidence that it is simply done to hide another adulterant, i 
paste, glucose or other cheap substitutes for the real food. 
a preservative such as salicylic acid is used, its presence m 
assumed to indicate the presence of glucose, or some other 
readily fermentable substitute in place of a usual constituent. 

As a matter of fact, the two substances just mentioned wen 
commonly found, and in addition, starch paste and glucose 
their frequent companions. In the case of catsups the preser 
is used mainly, not because of any substit 
but because the catsup is particularly subject to fermentati< 
account of the manner of using this condiment. 

Vinegar was usually found sufficiently sour to pass muster i 
place but its origin was frequently doubtful, and rarely was it 
from apple juice. 

To show how effective a national law may prove, it is only 
sary to mention our experience in seeking oleomargarine i 
Montana markets. While it is known that it is bought in the 
nal packages for sheep camps, and possibly for grading crew 
in a few other cases, we suspected it might be on sale on the 
market as butter. We were assured by the collector of in 
revenue that none was retailed in Montana, but we wished to 
mine for ourselves how true this statement was. With this ( 
view we hired a small boy to buy for us in many stores the < 
est butter offered for sale. To our great surprise, while of cour 
samples were not the highest grade of butter, yet not one of the 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 7 

iras anything but butter. There was no evidence of the presence 
rd or oleomargarine in any one of the samples. 

Jams, Jellies and Preserves. 
obably no class of food materials is more generally adulterated 

the jams, jellies and preserves. It is possible to get samples 
orting to be one of these preserved fruit products which contains 
^it whatever. We have found samples in this state which con- 
id glucose, starch paste, salicylic acid, a coal tar dye and some 
s which are likely the seeds of grass rather than of fruit. This 
[)rised the contents of one of the jars of jam which we examined, 
nother series of jams there was a small amount of fruit in such 
iition as would allow of its easy recognition, but the great mass 
le jam was made up of glucose syrup and starch paste, with a 
iderable amount of salicylic acid added to prevent fermentation, 
e table of analysis on following pages. 
Canned Soups. . 

general, very little adulteration was found to be present in the 
ed soups examined. However, this is true of all the samples, 
a dilution to the extent indicated on the label made an extremely 
1*' soup, and at best the food values so obtained were extremely 
nsive. As a convenient and easily prepared food, these soups 
ish an article that is all that could be desired, but as a part of 
conomical dietary they have no place, 
e table of analysis on following pages. 

Tomato Catsups. 

is doubtful if any article of diet so generally contains preserva- 

as do tomato catsups. The addition of preservatives to this 

. of foods becomes necessary because the article is not entirely 

up as soon as opened, but may be placed upon the table day 

day, and a little used at a time. The preservatives used most 

nonly are salicylic acid and benzoic acid, but others are occa- 

illy used. 

e table of analysis on following pages. 
Cream of Tartar. 
) make use of a form of expression commonly known as the 
I bull, many of the cream of tartars on sale in our state are 
*thing else; that is they contain no cream of tartar whatever, 
is a condition that would be remedied by the operation of such 
V as is comprised in the Brosius bill. 

many instances our merchants know what they are purchasing, 
yet they sell these inferior goods under false names, and for 
ir materials; the price luDwever, is not lower. These so-called 
n of tartars are what are known in the trade as "C. T. S/' That 
ream of tartar substitute, an article made up of burnt alum, 
:id calcium phosphate, or some other cheap acid constituent to 
the place of the higher priced cream of tartar. Usually starch. 

Digitized by 



Google 



- \ 



8 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



gypsum or some other worthless filler is added in addition. 

One of the retailers told me he knew the sample I had just s 
of him was not cream of tartar, yet he did not hestitate to 
under a false name. In many respects some of our retailers < 
more honest than the wholesaler who supplies their goods. 

Baking Powder. 

Four years ago when these investigations were undertak 
the first time, a very considerable number of low-grade 
powders were on the market. This year we have found a c 
improvement, for not only have many of the lower grades dis; 
ed from the state, but in addition there has been a decid 
provement in the better grades. 

The value of baking powder is primarily determined 1 
amount of gas eliminated by it under the conditions associate 
the kneading and baking of bread. There is another coi 
however, which is very important, and that is as to how the r 
from the baking powders exist in the bread, and what the e 
such compounds is upon the human system. In making bre* 
yeast the principal products of the action of the yeast ph 
the gas and the alcohol, the latter of which is entirely dissipated 
the baking. 

Cream of tartar baking powders leave in the bread the 
tartrate of sodium and potassium, which is commonly kn( 
Rochelle salt, so frequently used as a laxative. The ph( 
powders are changed during the bread-making process int( 
phates of calcium and sodium, neither of which may be con 
harmful, and which may even have an important function i 
and tissue formation. 

Of another type of baking powders, and of still another t( 
degree, one cannot be quite so confident of the harmlessness 
residual materials. These are the alum and the alum ph< 
powders. It is true that only small amounts of alum ma] 
a form capable of being dissolved by the digestive fluids, yet, 
other hand, we know of the harmful effects of large quant 
soluble aluminum salts. These salts have the power of inte 
with the processes of digestion, and while there is no certain 
^dgG that the small amounts present in bread and biscuit ma 
alum baking powders will produce harm, yet the preponi 
of opinion of experts is unfavorable to their use. 

See table of analysis on following pages. 

Vinegar. 

It is a fact that most of our citizens pay little attention 
nature of the vinegar they use. Vinegar is usually purchai 
only as a material for rendering other foods sour, but quite a 
for the fine flavor possessed by the better grades. In this < 
preference is generally given to the vinegar made from appl 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Montana experiment station. 9 

it is supposed that such vinegar is what we usually get in stores, 
lighly esteemed is the cider vinegar that it commands a distinctly 
ler price, and vinegars from other sources are made to imitate it 
early as possible. 

ut on inquiry in this state it developed, to our great surprise,, 
to the ordinary consumer vinegar was vinegar, no matter what 
iource, and that there was very rarely a call for a cider vinegar 
nch. As a matter of fact, there is little pure cider vinegar on sale 
bis state, but much imitation cider vinegar is sold in its stead, 
■ar as the strength of the vinegars is concerned, there is little 
Dmplain of, the standard of from 4 to 5 per cent, acid required in 
r states being usually found. 

be practice of one firm of manufacturers is most reprehensible, 
calls for severe condemnation. Sample jugs of apple cider of 
llent quality are sent out by Wallace and Gregory Bros., of 
ucah Kentucky, arid a totally different vinegar is sent in the 
e packages, even though the same quality was promised the 
iler. This was the experience of at least one of our retail grocers,. 
Gary Bros., of Bozeman. 

The Use of Preservatives. 

\\e question of the continued use of the small quantities of anti- 
ics which are present in so many foods is an important one. 
re is no doubt that these antiseptics prevent, to a greater or less 
ee, the digestion of foods, and anything that hinders digestion 
ardly desirable in food. It is entirely likely that a strong 
on may use repeatedly food containing such adulterants, but if 
is because his powers of digestion are sufficiently great to over- 
e their inhibitory effect. With persons of weak digestive power, 
s so preserved can hardly prove other than harmful. On the 
le, it seems only fs^ir that we Should know exactly what we are 
ig, and that we should be in a position to avoid that which is 
iful. In this connection the testimony given before 
Senate Committee on Manufactures is pertinent to the discus- 
This will be found in the report previously referred to. 

Occurrence of Salicylic Acid in Fruits. 

>r the past twelve months or more tests for Salicylic acid in 
1 fruits have been carried on in the laboratory of the Montana 
eriment Station with the result of showing its almost constant 
ence in extremely small quantity. 
} far as we know the only similar work has been done by Portes 

Desmouliere (Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie, t. XIV, p. 

who report its presence to the extent of a milligram to the kilo- 
1 of strawberries, 
esmouliere in his Doctorate Thesis in the Universite de Paris 

reports its presence in raspberries, mulberries and liquorice 
. (Journal de Parmacie et de Chimie, t. 16, p. 86). This so 



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lo MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

far as we know covers all the work done outside this laborato 
fresh fruit. 

It is probable that the acid is present as the methyl salt, > 
is well icnown in the oil of wintergreen, though we have nc 
taken steps to prove this. 

Among the fruits from which we have obtained the salicylic 
reaction are the following: strawberries, raspberries both re< 
black, blackberries, currants, plums, black cherries, apricots, pe 
Concord grapes, crab apples, standard apples, quinces and era 

In a few instances we have made this work quantitative wit 
following results : 

Currants 0.57 mgms. acid per kilo of fruit. 
Cherries 0.46 mgms. acid per kilo of fruit. 
Plums 0.28 mgms. acid per kilo of fruit. 
Crab apples 0.24 mgms. acid per kilo of fruit. 
Grapes 0.32 mgms. acid per kilo of fruit. 

These values, however, are not absolute but only compai 
and represent the amount we have succeeded in extracting in 
case. We distilled the fruit with phosphoric acid, extractec 
distillate with ether, took up with a small amount of watei 
applied the ferric chloride test after the ether had evapoi 
Check analyses were made with known amounts of salicylic aci< 
showed that not nearly all the acid was extracted by this metho 

We have also found the salicylic acid reaction to be give 
tomatoes, cauliflower and string beans. 

It seems to us that the bearing of this work is very impoi 
particularly as regards the investigations of food chemists. \ 
these very small quantities may not react to the tests for sali 
acid as usually applied, especially in view of the small amou 
material generally worked upon, 25 grams, yet a knowledge < 
wide spread distribution may save reporting on occasion mat< 
as adulterated to which salicylic acid has not been added. K 
ing that salicylic acid may occur in many of the substances e 
a quantitative determination will be necessary in each case or i1 
be well to report only on strong reactions. 

We were led to this investigation by the protest of a well-kr 
reputable firm in whose currant jelly we reported salicylic acic 
which was present in apparently no greater quantity than we 
since found it in the fresh currants. A similar experience was 
lately in one of the state laboratories for food control. 

In addition to the above work we are also studying the dist 
tion of benzoic acid in fruit and vegetables and hope to be ab 
publish our results within the year. 

My thanks are especially due to Mr. Edmund Burke, assii 
chemist, upon whom most of the analytical work fell, and als 
Mr. Irvin Cockrill, who, while a post-graduate student, carrie 
the work upon the vinegars and baking powders. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



15 



, ANALYSIS OF TOMATO CATSUPS. 



Hiere Manufactured. 



Preaervatlvei 



anati, O Benzoic acid . 

igo, 111 Salicylic acid. 

BSter, N Y Salicylic acid. 

delphia, Pa Benzoic acid . 

delphia. Pa Salicylic acid. 

w^Bbury, N. J Salicylic Acid.. 

er. Col Salicylic acid. 

igo. 111 Benzoic acid . 

anati, O Acid Sulphite , 

3ui8, Mo Salicylic acid. 

yais. Mo Acid Sulphite 

York, N.Y 

Ung , W. Va 



>uTg, Pa. 



Benzoic acid 

Sulphite 

Sal'c acid and Sulphite. 
Benzoic acid 



Coloring Matter 



Coal Tar Dye 
Coal Tar Dye 
Coal Tar Dye 



Coal Tar Dye. 
Coal Tar Dye 
Coal Tar Dye 
Coal Tar Dye 
Coal Tar Dye 

Coal Tar Dye 



Coal Tar Dye 
Coal Tar Dye 
Coal Tar Dye 



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i6 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



.JAMS, JELLIES, AND PRESERVES, ALL ADULTERATED. 



Name of Brand. 



12(>5[Eagle Jam, Grape Compound 

1266 Eagle Jam, Pineapple Compound. 
1268|Bagle Jam, Raspberry Compound 

1481 Queen Black Raspberry Jam 

1482jQueen Blackberry Jam 

1483Queen Strawberry Jam 

1486|Qneen Red Raspberry .Jam 

1487iQueen Apricot Jam 

1488 Queen Green Gage Jam 

14S9lQu6en Currant Jam 

1490jQueen Cherry Jam 

149llQueen Peach Jam 

1495!Queen Pineapple Jam 

1496|Queen Gooseberry Jam 

1497, Queen Pear Jam 

152 2 1 Extra Grated Pineapple 

1552iPure Fruit Jam. Blackberry 

1553 Genesee Fresh Fruit Jam, Currant 
158 5, Gopher Brand Preserved Straw- 

I berries \ . . . 

161 51 D. & B. Brand, Extra Quality, 

Raspberry Preserves 

1616 ;D. & B. Brand Strawberry Pre- 

iserves 

1617, ♦Red Currant Jelly 

1618'Extra Quality Blackberry Jelly.. 

1619 Extra Quality Currant Jelly 

1620 Favorite Brand Compound Cur- 
' rant Jelly 

162rFavorite Brand Compound Straw- 
' berr>' Jelly Flavor 

2274 Peacock Brand Peach Jam 

2275 Peacock Brand Blackberry Jam. 



Name of Manufacturer. 



Anderson Preserving Co. . . 
Anderson Preserving Co. . . 
Anderson Preserving Co. . . 
Franklin MacVeagh & Co. 
Franklin MacVeagh & Co. . 
Franklin MacVeagh & Co.. 
Franklin MacVeagh & Co. . 
Franklin MacVeagh & Co. . 
Franklin MacVeagh & Co. . 
Franklin MacVeagh & Co. . 
Franklin MacVeagh & Co. . 
Franklin MacVeagh & Co. 
Franklin MacVeagh & Co. . 
Franklin MacVeagh & Co. 
Franklin MacVeagh & Co. . 

Reid, Murdoch & Co 

Reid, Murdoch & Co 

Batavia Preserving Co 



Foley Bros. & Kelly Mer. Co. 
Dodson-Brown Mfg. Co 



Dodson-Brown Mfg. Co 

Gordon & Dilworth 

Philip J. Ritter Conserve Co. 
Philip J. Ritter Conserve Co. 

Philip J. Ritter Conserve Co. 

Philip J. Ritter Conserve Co. 
Franklin MacVeagh & Co. . . . 
Franklin MacVeagh & Co 



227»; Peacock Brand Cherry Jam 1 Franklin MacVeagh & Co. 

2277 Pcaco( V Brand Pineapple Jam. . j Franklin MacVeagh & Co. 

2278 Peacock Brand Quince Jam | Franklin MacVeagh & Co. 

2279 Peacock Brand Black Raspberry ' 

Jam Franklin MacVeagh & Co . 



228(1 Peacock Brand Red Raspberry 

' Jam 

2281 Peacock Brand Apricot Brand.. 






Franklin MacVeagh & Co. 
Franklin MacVeagh & Co. 



♦Contains only a small quantity of Salicylic acid which subsequent ic 
tipations have shown was probably normally present in the fresh 1 
used and which could not be consilered an adulterant. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



17 



JAMS, JELLIES, AND PRBS ERVES, ALL ADULTERATED. 



Where 
tCanufactured. 



Preservative. 



Qden, 
Dden, 
Qden, 
cago, 
cago, 
cago, 
cago, 
cago, 
cago, 
cago, 
cago, 
cago, 
cago, 
cago, 
cago, 
cago, 
cago, 
lesee 



N. 
N. 
N. 
III. 
111. 
111. 
111. 



Salicylic acid 

Salicylic acid. 

Sailoylic px^d. 

Salicylic acid. 

Salicylic acid. 

Salicylic acid. 

Salicylic acid. 



Ill Salicylic acid. 

111... 
111... 
III... 



Salicylic acid. 

Salicylic acid 

Salicylic acid 

111 ! Salicylic acid. 

Ill : Salicylic acid. 



111. 
111. 
111. 
111. 
Co. 



N. 



Salicylic acid. 

. . Salicylic acid. 

. . Salicylic acid 

. . Salicylic acid 

\ Salicylic acid 



Paul, Minn.. Salicylic acid 



Louis, Mo... Salicylic acid 

Louis, Mo... Salicylic acid. 

\- York Salicylic acid. 

ladelphia Salicylic acid. 

ladelphia • Salicylic acid . 



ladelphia. 

ladelphia. 
cago. 111 . . 
cago, 111 . . 



cago, 111. 
cago, 111. 
cago. 111. 

cago, 111. 



cago. 111. 
cage, 111. 



Salicylic acid. 

Salicylic acid. 

Sulphite 

Salicylic acid 
and Sulphite. . 

Sulphite 

Suli)hllte.. .. . 
Sulphite 



Coal Tar Dye. 
Coal Tar Dye. 



Coloring Matter. 



Other Adulterants 



Coal Tar Dye. 
Coal Tar Dye. 
Coal Tar Dye. 



idtarch Paste and Glucose 
■ Starch Paste and Glucose. 
'Starch Paste and Glucose, 

iGlucose 

^Glucose 

Starch Paste and Glucose. 

Starch Paste and Glucose. 

Glucose 

Glucose 

Starch Paste and Glucose. 

Glucose 

Crlucose 

Glucose 

Glucose 

Glucose 



Starch Paste and Glucose. 



Coal Tar Dye. 



Coal Tar Dye. 



Sulphite and.. Coal Tar Dye. 
Salicylic acid. 



Sulphite. 
Sulphite. 



Coal Tar Dye. 



Starch Paste . 

Starch Paste . 

Starch Paste. 

Starch Paste . 

Starch Paste. 

Starch Paste. 



Starch Paste. 
Starch Paste. 



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I 



Per Cent 
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Crude 
Protein 
Per Cent 



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19 



Price 

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Value 

Terms 

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Volume 
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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



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22 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



ANALYSIS OF VINEGARS. 



Manufacturer. 



Place of 
Manufacture, 



PI 



X 


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So 

So 



1623 
1624 
1625 
1626 
1627 
1628 
1629 
1630 
1631 
1632 
1633 
1634 
1635 
1636 
1637 
1638| 
1639' 
1640 
1641 
1642 
1643! 
1644 
1645 
1646 
1647 
1648 
1649 



F. C. Johnson 

F. C. Johnson 

F. C. Johnson 

F. C. Johnson 

H. J. Heinz & Co 

Smith Refining Works. 
Smith Refining Works. 

A. Steinhorst 

Could not obtain 



Kishwaukee, 111. . 
Kishwaukee, 111. . 
Kishwaukee, 111. . 
Kishwaukee, 111. . 
Pittsburg, Pa — 
Council Bluffs, la 
Council Bluffs, la 
Kansas City, Kas 
Did not know 



Sour Cider [Helena. .Mont 



Cross & Blackwell. 
Wallace & Gregory Bros. 
Wallace & Gregory Bros. 
Wallace & Gregory Bros. 
Wallace & Gregory Bros. 
Wallace & Gregory Bros. 
Wallace & Gregory Bros. 
Wallace & Gregory Bros. 
Wallace & Gregory Bros. 
Wallace & Gregory Bros. 
Wallace & Gregory Bros. 
Wallace & Gregory Bros. 
Wallac e & Gregory Bros. 
Wallace & Gregory Bros. 
Wallace & Gregory Bros. 

F. C. Johnson 

Wallace & Gregory Bros. 
(Sample Jugs) 



Vienna and Phila 

Paducah,Ky. . . . 

Paducah,Ky . . . , 

Paducah,Ky . ... 

Paducah,Ky. ... 

Paducah,Ky . ... 

Paducah,Ky . ... 

Paduach,Ky . ... 

Paducah,Ky. ... 

Paducah,Ky. ... 

Paducah,Ky. ... 

Paducah,Ky . ... 

Paducah,Ky . ... 

Paducah,Ky . ... 

Paducah,Ky. ... 

Kishwaukee, 111. 



Paducah,Ky. 



% .50 

.50 
.50 
.•50 
.60 
.40 
.35 
* 

.40 
.40 
1.80 
.60 
.40 
.40 
.80 
.50 
.40 
.35 



None. 
Trace 
None. 
Trace 
Trace 
None. 
None. 
Trace 
None. 
None. 
Trace 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
Trace 
None. 
None. 
Trace 
.SOTrace 



.60 
.40 
.35 



iTrace 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 

Trace 



None. 
None. 
Trace 
None. 
Trace 
None. 
Ncme. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
Trace 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 

None. 



None.... 

None.... 

None.... 

None.... 

None... 

Caram^ 

Caramel. 

Caram^ 

CarameL 

None.... 

Caramd. 

Caram«L 

Cararo^. 

Caramd. 

Caram^ 

Caram^ 

CaramA 

Caram^ 

Caramd. 

CarameL 

CaranMl 

Caramd 

CaramA 

None.... 

None.... 

None.... 

None.... 



•Refused. 



Digitized by CjOOQIC _ -tfi 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



23 



ANALYSIS OF VINEGARS. 



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.258 

.46 

.26 

.44 

.039 

.021 

.052 

.065 

.055 

.46 

.28 

.035 

.038 

.063 

.068 

.075 

.018 

.014 

.23 

.29 

.054 

.029 

.021 

.017 

.027 

.50 

.32 



Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 
AJk. 
Alk. 
Alk. 



Flame. 



Pot 

Pot 

Pot 

Pot 

Pot & Sod. 
Pot. & Sod. 
Pot & Sod. 
Pot & Sod. 
Pot & Sod. 

Pot 

PV>t&Sod 
Pot & Sod 
Pot & Sod, 
Pot & Sod. 
Pot & Sod. 
Pot & Sod. 
Pot & Sod. 
Pot & Sod. 
Pot. & Sod. 
Pot. & Sod. 
Pot & Sod. 
Pot & Sod. 
Pot & Sod. 
Polt.&Sod. 
Pot. & Sod. 
Pot.... 



Sold i 



Alk. Pot. 



Cider Vin.... 
Ap. Cider Vin 

Cider Vin 

Cider Vin 

Pickling Vin., 
Cpmmon Vin 
Weakened Vin 

Cider Vin 

Cider Vin'..... 

Not Sold 

Malt 

Cider Vin 

Cider Vin 

Cider Vin 

Cider Vin 

Cider Vin 

Cider Vin 

Cider Vin 

Cider Vin 

Cider Vin 

Ap. Cider Vini 
Al>. Cider Vini 
Ap. Cider Vini 
White WineV. 
White Wine V. 
Ap. Cider Vini 

Ap. Cider Vini 



• O 3 



Remarks. 



5.55 Is an apple cider vinegar. 
5.15 Is an apple cider vinegar. 
3.20 Is diluted apple cider vinegar. 
5.55 Is an apple cider vinegar. 

5.45ils a malt vinegar 

8.001 Probably an acid vinegar 

4.75|Probably an acid vinegar 

6.50 Probably a malt vinegar 

3.67 1 Probably a malt vinegar 

1.40|An apple cider vinegar 

4.95|Sold in qt. bot. pure malt vin. 
7.88 1 Without doubt a malt vinegar. 
2.35 Without doubt a malt vinegar. 
4.90 i Without doubt a malt vinegar. 
9.00 Without doubt a malt vinegar. 
5.20 Without doubt a malt vinegar. 
7.25 Without doubt a malt vinegar. 
4.47 i Without doubt a malt vinegar. 
4.70|Without doubt a malt vinegar. 
3.82jWithout doubt a malt vinegar. 
4.47 Without doubt a malt vinegar. 
4.65 Without doubt a malt vinegar. 
5.20 Without doubt a malt vinegar. 
8.90! Probably made from glucose. . 
4. 12) Probably made from glucose. . 
5.62 1 An apple cider vinegar 

4.62' An apple cider vinegar. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



24 



MONTANA EXPERIME;NT STATION. 



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HARVArn COLLEGE LIBRARY 

IRAN 3.- l:^.::^ FmOM 

BUSSEY INSTIIUriON 

1936 

TANA AGRICULTURAL 

MEINT STATION 

DZEflAN, - MONTANA. 



E BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

OR, ) 

^-General > Ex-Oppinio 




1 . Hf',"^ 


UBLic Instruction, i 






. Missoir 








Birr 


HKT,*n 


.... RTT.T.TTff( 








. BOZEMA 








Hamilix 








DirTj 


HKT.in 










EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

S8IDENT, 


. Bozem; 


mnENT, , , . , . 






RosnrMi 


BOZEJCJ 


BOZKMi 


BOZEM^ 




ND Irrigation 




STATION STAFF. 

Director a 

F. C. S 


Enginei 

ChE2CI! 






AOR] 


CUXTCRIl 


)., 




. BOTAXI: 






. Ent 


OMOLOGI! 




Bozeman 




, Express and Freight Station, 





for the Experiment Station should be addressed to t 

lNa experiment station, 

Bozeman, Montana. 



1 of the Station will be mailed free to any citizen 
me and address to the Station for that purpose. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Montana Experiment Station. 



BULLETIN NO. 39- - - NOVEflBER, 194 



Feeding^ in Montana 

By R. S. SHA\^. 



The agricultural conditions in Montana have now reached th 
:age of development whereby the state can rival the greatest feedii 
ates of the Union, for within our own borders are to be found tl 
leep, hay, grain, water, climatic conditions, and men of entt 
rise to develop the industry. Montana now leads the states of tl 
^nion in numbers of sheep, the census of 1900 reix)rting 6,170,41 
ithin her borders. Valleys, which ten years ago produced little or i 
ay, except some timothy or wild hay, are to-day funiishing thousam 
pen thousands of tons of legumes, especially suited to the fattenii 
f sheep. The climatic conditions are such as to render the fattenii 
recess rapid and economical. Sufficient grain can be produced 
ive the meat products a good finish. The feasibility of shippir 
lese finished products to the great markets has been sucf^essful 
emonstrated 



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4 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Suitability of Range Types of Sheep for Fattenin 

The range sheep was bred primarily for wool production, 
during later years an attempt has been made to improve their 
qualities. These attempts at improvement along the latter 1: 
no doubt result in the establishment of a dual purpose sheep, p 
through the use of Rambouillet or Delaine rams on the native 
Experience has already taught many of our sheepmen that th( 
mutton breeds, such as the Downs, will not answer on the 
Because, therefore, of the peculiar range conditions our feed 
hav3 to be content with a dual type of sheep rather than a 
mutton type for feeding. Tests have shown that there is little 
ence in the returns secured from the two types. Recent expc 
at this Station showed that where the mutton type lambs prodi 
pounds increase in live weight at a cost of $4.89, requiring 8.74 
of food to produce a pound of gain, those of the dual purpose c 
type produced 100 pounds increase at a cost of $4.62, requir 
pounds of food per pound gain. These figures show the rang 
to be not far behind the special type in mutton production, wh 
excel them in wool production under range conditions. 

Profits from Sheep Feeding. 



In Station tests of 1900, 11,8 pounds of clover were req 
maintain a sheep and produce one pound of gain. At this 
ton of clover produced 169.5 pounds of mutton worth $4.68 ] 
This gave a return of $7.93 per ton of the clover fed, while t 
price was only SoiOO per ton in the stack. In 1900 the net pn 
head from the JStation fed lambs was 81 cents, when clover was v 
$6.00 iDer ton, oats at 90 cents per cwt. and damaged wheat at 40 c 
cwt. In 1901 a carload of Station lambs fed in five divisions o 
ent rations, hence lacking in uniformity, netted a profit of 80 c 
head in Chicago when placed on the extremely poor market of 
1901. In this case clover was valued at $5.00 per ton, grain 85 c 
3wt., and screenings at 55 cents per cwt. In 1902 Station 
sheep gave the following profits on the Chicago market: 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



55 lambs, net profit of $95.15, or $1.78 per head. 

51 one-year wethers, net profit of $71.70, or $1.40 per head. 

52 two-year wethers, net profit of $83.44, or $1.57 per head. 

53 aged ewes, net profit of $1.00, or 1.8 cts. per head. 

Clover was valued at $5.00 per ton and grain at 90 cents per cwl 

Cost of Producing Mutton in Montana. 

Where legumes are used pht>nomeual results have bt»en secured a 
regards amount of food require:! to produce a p^und of mutton an( 
the cost of the same*. In Station tests of 1900, f).88 jjounds of clove 
and 2.8 pounds of wheat produc(\l a ix)un(l of mutton at 3.22 cents 
with clover worth Sfi.OO per ton and damaged wheat 40 cents per cwl 
At the same time 11.8 pounds of clover produced a pound gain, costinj 
3.54 cents, and 6.10 pounds of clover and 2.65 pounds of oats produce 
a pound of gain, costing 4.39 cents, oats being worth 90 cents per cwl 
Station tests of 1901 gave the following results: 

Cost per 100 pounds increase from clover, barley and oats, $4.34 

Cost per 100 pounds increase from clover and screenings, $3.34. 

Cost per 100 pounds increase from clover alone, $3.53. 

In Station tests, 1902, one pountl increase was produced at th 
following cost with sheep of different ages, viz.: Lambs 4.18 cente 
one-year wethers 5.83 cents, two-year wethers 5.90 cents, and aged ewe 
6.78 cents; clover was worth $5.00 per ton and grain 90 cents per cwl 

As the prices charged for foods are far above the cost price, a sec 
ondary profit is secured from all the foods fed. These prices are fa 
in excess of those chfirged for feed in eastern trials, where cht^a] 
grains are secured. 

Shipping vs. Local Markets. 

The individual feeder should never rely on local markets. Thei 
consuming capacity is so small that much difficulty is experienced ii 
disposing of even less than a carload lot. In March, 1900, when lamb 
were worth $6.50 to $7.00 per cwt. in Chicago, a portion of a carload o 
Station lambs had to l)e disposed of at $4.68 per cwt. on a loca 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



6 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

market. The profits of 1901 and 1902 given above were secured, the 
former on the poorest and the latter on the best market for some years. 
The feeder shoidd always select sheep in even carload lots with a view 
of shipping. 

Cost ci Shipping. 

Fat sheep and cattle have both In^en shipped from the GallatiD 
Valley to eastern and western markets, the cost being about the same 
in both cases. 

In 1901 the cost of marketing lambs shipped from Bozeman to 
Chicago, a distance of about 1,400 miles, including all expenses, was 
83 cents per head. 

In 1902 the following expenses were incurred in marketing sheep 
of different ages, viz: lambs 78 cents, one-year wethers $1.07, two- 
year wethers $1.27 and aged ewes 94 cents, the whole lot averaging 
$1.01 per head. In this latter case the cost is a little high owing to a 
prolonged stop-over. 

Shrinkage in Marketing. 

In 1901 the shrinkage of Station lambs between Bozeman and 
Chicago was eight pounds each. Over the same route in 1902 lambs 
shrunk 7.6 pounds, or 8.7 per cent. One-year wethers shrunk 10.4 
pounds, or 8.7 per cent, two-year wethers shrunk 12 pounds, or 8.5 per 
cent, and aged ewes shrunk 12.2 pounds, or 11.3 per cent. In both 
cases the sheep were fed in the morning with access to water and 
weighed between 2 and 3 o'clock p. m. before shipping in the evening. 

Method of Feeding and Equipment. 

The beginner should start with not more than one or two carloads 
until every feature of the business becomes familiar. Except in care- 
ful hands the large enterprise undertaken' suddenly, without proper 
equipment, is likely to result in failure. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Equipment. 

Small yards or enclosures are very essential. Sheep will not 
well when allowed too much liberty to roam at will. The size o] 
ing yards will have to be determined by the extent of the feedin 
^neral the fewer sheep that are run together the better the i 
The average farmer, who probably will not attempt to feed to 
2,000 per year, should figure on dividing these up in three ( 
lots, grading them according to size, condition and strength 
rations can then be so adjusted as to turn out the whole band i 
Form condition of fatness. It is very essential to select high, di 
jrards, through which running water passes near one end if pc 
Some kind of wire netting makes good fencing, with a few stra 
barbed wire encircling the top of the outer enclosure to preve 
iccess of dogs or wild animals. Some form of shelter should I 
dded, though the same may not be used more than a few days th 
out the entire season. On the Station farm a shed 16x64 fe 
found to be suflScient to provide shelter for 220 sheep, givin 
Gibout five square feet of ground space. The shed is eight fee 
on one side and six on the other; it is enclosed with rough ] 
and covered with an under layer of brush and an upper one of 
Such a structure provides suitable protection except in time ( 
in the late spring. 

A suitable form of hay rack is very essential. Those v 
the Station in the past few years have given excellent results, 
are 16 feet long, 3^ feet high and 3 feet wide. The bottom b 
12 inches and the feeding space above is 8 inches in width, 
the feeding space three 1x6 inch boards are used. A rack c 
style will furnish feeding space for thirty lambs. 

Feeding. 

Hay should not be supplied more than twice each day, an 
may be preferable, furnishing only that amoimt which will l 
cleaned up. In case of very coarse folder the rough leavings 
be removed; if forced to consume them the gains of the sheep ^ 
reduced. Feeding on the ground is wasteful and unsatisfactory 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

TRAIN. Only a light grain ration is necessary to produoe a 
with the legumes available; from one-half to three-quart 
nd of grain per head per day, along with alfalfa or clove 
flScient to give the desired finish, if fed throughout a \ 
iing from seventy to ninety days The grain ration shou 
ied throughout the whole feeding period rather than the 
18 has been practiced in some localities. The grain may b 
in troughs fastened to the posts enclosing each feed Id 
li troughs are desirable to prevent sheep from jumping u 
ing in them. I'nground grain will answer well for sheej 
teeth. 

ALT. Shoiill be in constant supply so that the shtn^p can J' 
rill. 

Gleaning Grain Fields. 

'he cheaixist and most rapid ^ains are secured from sheep 
[ig on grain and clover stubble after harvest and before the 
ason begins. In 1901 225 lambs which pastured on 112 ac 
:ation farm for thirty days before going on feed, made an hs 
ise in live weight of 9.78 pounds. The most profitable w 
aged ewes is by running them on clover and grain stubbl 
e entire autumn season. 

Darative Feeding Value of Alfalfa, Red and Alsike CI 

I'A Station Bulletin No. 21. 

he sheep feeding industry of Montana is based on the pr 
f legumes. Almost without exception every valley in the 
jsed of water supplies for irrigation, can be made to grow c 
ji the legumes mentioned, depending upon the peculiarity ( 
nd soil moisture conditions. Some portions of the state, i 
;vstone valley, are pre-eminently suited to the growth of al 
in others, such as the Gallatin, conditions well suited 
leg'inies are found in various sections. Because of the fuel 
three crops are coming into common use a test was made 1 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMEJJT STATION. 

srmine their relative values, with the following result, as i 
ulletin No. 21. 

Composition of the legumes used, furnished from analy 
. W. Traphagen, Station Chemist. 

Alsike Red Clover 

PER CENT. per CENT. 

ater 6.05 5.16 

nideProtein 13 12.37 

ther Extract 3.07 5.29 

. Free Extract 38.71 45.84 

rude Fibre 29.45 22.65 

3h 9.72 7.55 

The comparative data secured were as follows: 

16 lambs receiving alsike gained 405 pounds in 84 days 

16 lambs receiving red clover gained 402 pounds in 84 < 

16 lambs receiving alfalfa gained 377 pounds in 84 days 



Alsike clover consumed per pound increase, 6.32 lbs. 

Red clover consumed per pound increase 6.43 lbs. 

Alfalfa consumed per pound increase 6.58 lbs. 

In this test both grain and root rations were fed alon 
sgumes, in like manner and amount. The results are in ke< 
le protein content of the food stuflFs, alsike being the higl 
f one per cent. In those cases where similar tests have 1 
1 other states alfalfa has been reported about 2 per cent 
rotein contents than the clover. We conclude from this te 
ceding values of the three legumes are little different becfi 
reater yields obtained from the alfalfa, as compared with i 
he percentage of waste resulting from coarse inedible sterna 
•cm the alsike and greatest from the alfalfa. 

Fattening Lambs on Clover with and without G; 

OKTANA Station Bulletin No. 27. 

Three lots of twenty lambs each were fed for ninety da 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 11 

clover and marketable oats and barley, the other on clover and 
»nd mill screenings. The clover was valued at $5.00 per ton, the 
xtore of oata and barley at 85 cents per cwt. and the screenings at 55 
its per cwt. The following residts were secured: 
in i)er head per month from feeding clover, barley and oats, 8.5 lbs 
in" ** " '* " clover and screenings, 9.5 lbs 



od required per pound gain with clover, and grain, clover, 5.5 lbs 

grain, 1.07 lbs* 

Kxl required per pound gain with clover and screenings, 

clover, 5 lbs. 
screenings, .94 lbs. 



«t per 100 pounds increase from feeding clover and grain, $4.34 

«t per 100 pounds increase from feeding clover and screenings, $3.34 

The results from feeding clover and screenings indicate both 
eater gain in live weight and much greater economy in production 
an where grains were used. THis is no doubt due to the variety 
forded by the screenings which ore relished by the fattening sheep. 

Clover Versus Grain Hay for Fattening Lambs. 

«TANA Station Bulletin No. 31. 

Two lots of lambs of 53 each were fed for 60 days, one on clover 
ily, the other on grain hay. The grain hay was made from a mixed 
wing of spring wheat, oats, barley and peas in equal amounts, cut 
bile in the dough stage. Both foods were valued at $5.00 jDer ton. 

The gain per head per month from the clover was 7 pounds. 

The gain per head per month from the grain hny was 5.34 pounds. 



The clover required to produce a pound of gain was 14 pounds. 
The grain hay required to produce a pound of gain was 18 pounds. 



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Pr 

lambs 
>ae-y( 
;wD.yc 
ewes, 

erag€ 

nba, ( 
B-yeai 

o-yeaj 

^d ev 

3 tota 
ir rati 
T she 

B lam 

B one- 

B two 

B ewe 

Bse (li 
i vari< 
itioii 
this 
wetln 

icrea 

tnbs, ! 



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MONT. 

i ewes, average 

Ne consider all 
d they are dres 
Chicago marke 

he percentage < 
t immediately 
Qutton will shr 



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5" c/ /Gt 
JLLKTIN No, 40 , 

MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 

xperiment5ta 



-OF THE- 



Agrictilttiral College of Mon 



WOT CROPS IN MONT 



Bozeman, Montana, November, i 



REPUBLICAN, 

Bozeman, Montana, 

190a. 



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J?" >> 

MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 

Kxperimetit Static 

BOZEilAN, - MONTANA. 



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

Joseph K. Toole. Governor, ) 

James Donovan, Attorney-General, v Ex-Officio 

W. W. Welch, Supt. of Public Instruction, ) 

J. M. Evans M 

C. R. Leonard 

N. W. McCONNELL, 

W. M. Johnston E 

O. P. Chisholm, B< 

J. G. McKay Ej 

G. T. Paul 

N. B. ilOLTER, 



EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

Walter S. Hartman, President, B 

J. M. Robinson, Vice-President, B 

Peter Koch, Secretary, B 

Joseph Kountz, B 

E. B. Lamme, B 



STATION STAFF. 

Samuel. Fortier, Ma. E., Director and Irrigation Ei 

F. W. Traphagen, Ph. D., F. C. Sm ( 

F. B. LiNFiELD, B. S. A, Aoricu; 

J. W. Blankinship, Ph. D B 

R. A. CooLEY, B . Sc Entom 

R. W. Fisher, B. S., Assistant Hortic 

Edmund Burke Assistant ( 



Postoffice, Express and Freight Station, Bozeman. 

All communications for the Experiment Station should be addresse 
Director. 

MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION, 



Notice- The Bulletins of the Station will be mailed free to any c 
Montana who sends his name and address to the Station for that purpwse. 



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Montana Experiment Station. 



LLETIN NO. 40. . - NOVEMBER, I9< 



ROOT CROPS IN MONTANA 



By R. S. SHAW 

While root crops have hitherto been grown in small quantiti 

y in Montana, there is nevertheless a useful place for them. T 

grazing system and the more recent work of production of grai 

rapidly giving way to a diversified farming as the cultivated are 

being extended and tilled in a more progressive manner. Fi( 

its will hereafter play a a important part in the stock feeding operi 

ns of the farmer, for even though it has been clearly demonstrat 

it beets can be successfully produce.^d for sugar making, there are 

nufacturing plants in the state to use them for this purpose^ a 

;h may not be made accessible to the majority of fcirniers in t 

te for some time to come. ()Ur plan, therefore, is to discuss i 

Bstion from the stock-growers* standpoint. 



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4 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

We take the ground that farmers that are so situated should 
small areas of roots each season for winter feeding; for such work 
be conducted on every farm in Montana where grain, legumec 
roots can be grown. The growth of large areas of root crops 
present not recommended and in fact shoidd be discouraged foi 
reasons, that in general we are not prepared to handle, house and 
pose of large crops It is a good plan to start with from one-h^ 
one acre and this area can be enlarged to suit the demand. Air 
some objections have been raised against the growing of roots in ] 
tana, such as, high price of labor and amount of work involved 
lack of storage facilities. . The cost of production and many diffici 
pertaining thereto can be easily overcome by making use of the p: 
methods of culture and harvesting for our conditions; it is thes 
propose discussing more fully. 

Value and Use of Root Qops* 



I , 



I 4.. 



m ■■.' 



1 



■u 



lA: 



\ 



Proof has already been secured which demonstrates clearly 
usefulness of mangolds, carrots, sugar beets, turnips and rutal 
under our farm conditions. There is no class of stock kept oi 
ranch during the winter which can not be made to use some one 
or more of these to good advantage. In most cases it may not be 
to grow all five kinds, as some are better suited for certain purp 
The kind or kinds grown must be governed somewhat by the soi 
climatic conditions and the class of live stock to which they are 
fed. For the horse, carrots are pre-eminently suitable; for the « 
cow, mangolds, carrots and sugar beets; for the beef steer anc 
sheep all are suitable; for the pig, mangolds, carrots and sugar b 
for the chicken, mangolds only. This classification of general u 
is based upon the use of roots in the raw condition. 

The advantages derived from the use of field roots in feeding 
stock is due rather to a secondary action than to the actual amou 
nutriment supplied by them. During the winter season when 
foods only are available they furnish a succulent adjunct which 
as a tonic, stimulating digestion, increasing the flow of milk and < 
ing a great saving in the more expensive grain foods. Station 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

18 well as elsewhere have proved that roots and grain form a 
mical ration for pigs than grain only; that the increase in 
it is relatively greater, the cost of production less and the qi 
) meat of a higher grade. The comparative feeding value 
^cnssed in another publication. 

Conditions in Montana are Suited to Root &ops« 

^hough the soil and climatic conditions are extremely vari 
is scarcely a single cultivated portion of the state under ii 
rhere one or more varieties of field roots cannot be grown, 
west point up to an altitude of several thousand feet. Abur 
of this assertion has been secured by the Experiment Stati< 
i to the sugar beet which has been almost universally prod 
I state with satisfactory results from a sugar making standp 
several classes of roots it is probably the most difficult to 
The mangold cannot be produced with br-st results at 
les where the growing season is short; the greater parte 
h being above ground with a sparse covering of leaves thi* 1 
[ is covered with a thin skin, is easily damageKl by early fi 
)zen the roots do not keep well during the winter, 
four classes are not so readily injured by frost and all gro\^ 
! season. In some sections particularly where the soil is cl 
ere the growth is retarded by lack of moisture, both turnip 
igas are seriously damaged by the green aphis, the ravag 
i are much w^orse some seasons than others. Of the whole i 
irrots have been less liable to the ravages of insect pests, th 
olds and sugar beets are seldom attacked. As yet plant dis( 
ungoid nature are entirely unknown among root crops in ] 

Soils Suitable for Root G*ops. 

Vhile these differ slightly for the several classes and will bt 
rl more specifically later, in general, the h(?avier lo:uns are 
1. Heavy clays are not suitable in any case and humus or i 
are productive of quantity rather than quality. While the 



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6 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



results will be secured from clay and sandy loams containinj 
humus the yields will decrease as the soils become sandy or g 
both through lack of plant food and the inability of these 8 
retain moisture. The land chosen should be so located that wa 
be applied just when needed; it should also be as nearly level t 
sible with just sufficient fall for irrigation. Where the fall 
great with the system of furrow irrigation used, there is much ^ 
of the soil and resulting injury to the crop. 



\ 



Preparation of Soil. 

Ill this there will be some sli^j^bt dififerences according to i 
matic conditions, soil, and the crop to be grown. In all case 
plowinu: must precede the crop and in some cas(»s this must l)e 
spring and in othtTs in the fall. In those portions of the state 
th(» soil is somewhat heavy, when? tliere is a large amount of si 
followed by copiDus spring rains and where as a result the gro 
inipaetivl, then spring plowing will be nc^eessary in certain seasc 
under these conditions light porous soils should be fall plowed, 
dry, impenetrable soils produce prongy roots which are parti 
o])jectionable in the case of the siigar l)eet. Throughout the mc 
sections with scant snowfall and spring rain the ground sho 
plowed deep in the fall and may also be cultiuated some at thai 
In preparing the seed bed sonu* form of cultivator should h 
which will cut deep and leave an even surface, this should Ix* fc 
by a smoothing harrow to level the ground and bring the lumps 
surfac(\ If the ground is too loose or lumpy it should be rolled 
scH'ding. Aft(?r this the ground is ready for marking and s 
Where only a small area is sown it will Ix* better to mark off th( 
in order to have tlunn straight ami a uniform distance apart whi 
only adds to the fippearanc(» but renders cultivation and irri 
mon* easy and less liable to injure the crops. A marker may I 
structed as follows: Cut several wooden runners about eighteen 
long out of one by eight-inch l)oard3 and round them off at one ( 
alx)ut the sauKi shape as a slt*igh runner; this rounded edge 
also be brought to a wedge shape. These runners are then fa 
tog(»ther, side by side, the distance apart which the rows are re 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STAT 

nailing two 1x6 inch strix^ across the tops. A 
ached to the centre of the marker by which it can 
larker of this kind five or six feet in width an acr< 
,rked pflf in an hour or two. The runners can be 
t the requirements as to distance in marking fo 
»p8 or potatoes. This method is suggested for 
ger areas should be marked and planted by a seed 

Seeding. 

Where large areas are to be grown year after y( 
ill should be secureil. In the case of nian^^ol Is o 
»cls of which are large, the sowing may 1k» perfori 
ry ^rain drill by stopping up some tubes to give 
9 til nee apart. But when^ only small areas are plai 
well done with a good hand stnnler of which the V 
ir type. Using one of these a man can sow one ac 
th rows two feet apart, in from three to four hours 
n be adjusted to sow all kinds of field roots and ga 
very farmer who plants a garden should use one. 
iltivation and irrigation required by the various too 
1 these are discussed individually. 

Harvesting! 

The labor required and the cost of this operati 
Tongest arguments urged against the production ( 
le practice of hand pulling is followed much hard 
ire are required. The plan followed at the Expei 
een the following : The first operation in harvest 
loving the top. This can be rapidly and easily ac( 
harp hoe, the work being doiu* nearly as fast as a 
} most easily accomplished in the (!a9f^ of the ru 
rhich is supported on a neck. With practice an 
)roper care all classes of roots can be topped in this- 
ion may be urged in the case of the mangold, as it 
d necessary to twist the tops off in preference to 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

renders tbem more liable to decompose. While this is tn 
1 climates, it does not hold good under our arid conditions, 
ise of sugar beets to be used for manufacture it is desirable 
ion of the crown be removed with the top. 

'he next operation in harvesting consists in plowing the 
The deep rooted crops, such as mangolds, sugar beets anc 
^n not be overturned in many cases, owing to the depth \ 
ow would need to go. In such cases our practice is to p 
Eurrow away from the roots and so close up to the row tha 
are left exposed. They can then be thrown into piles or gatl 
i^agon. In doing this work only one row at a time can 1 
i, or two when working from both sides of the patch. If a nu 
VB were plowed before removing the outer ones these m; 
illy covered when the rows are close together. Both man 
utabagas can be plowed out. The draught should be so arrt 
cause the plow to cut a V shaped furrow directly under the i 
ese two crops grow on the surface so little earth is moved b 
that a whole field can be plowed out at once. If care is 1 
> plow too deep the roots will be left exposed. In all ca 
cutting not wider than ten inches will give the best results. I 
of garden plow will answer well. For large crops a sugar 
ster should be used. 

Storing 

^he most satisfactory and permanent results in storing are 
2d from a root cellar built in an excavation, the object bei: 
3I0W ground for security against frost. Storage houses for 
otatoes are not as satisfactory and are expensive. The 
mding an excavated cellar, where there is little exposure t 
phere and its weathering influences, can be made of con 
is a cheap form of wall, as cobble stones for the structur 
md on nearly every farm and aside from the amount of lim( 
it rec^uired there is little expense except for the labor, whi( 
}ases can be performed by the farmer during seasons when 
it pressing. One of the main objects to be considered in a 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

f this kind is ventilation; the climatic conditions are such that 1 
irotective qualities of a root house are not put to the extreme t 
xcept during a few cold spells of short duration. Throughout i 
alance of fhe time the necessary ventilation should be available 
bat the temperature may be kept as near 32 degrees without freezii 
rhich will give the best results. Owing to the dryness of the aii 
as been found that our root crops will keep much better in stora 
^here some dirt is carried in along with them, such as may adhere 
arvesting. This is particularly true of sugar beets. The earth shoi 
ot, however, be allowed to become packed as might occur undemej 
window or the drop where roots are shoveled in, for in this case th 
'ould heat and rot. In storing root crops high temperatures must 
\roided. 

Pitting may also be resorted to, but is not so satisfactory ai 
ellar. Under such conditions the continuous use of roots for feedi 
; interfered with during the extremely cold spells as some days t 
it would have to remain closed to prevent the access of frost. 
3nstructing a pit, a high, well drained piece of ground should 
bosen. The roots should be piled in long piles, the bottom of i 
ile about four feet wide, with the sides sloping upward, to meet a1 
oint 3^ feet above the center of the pile; the length of the pit can 
Dvemed by the conditions. As soon as roots are piled cover th( 
ith a layer of about three inches of straw, free from chaff; then co^ 
le straw with earth taken up from near the edges of the pit in sucl 
ay as to form a ditch around the same for drainage. Early in t 
^ason not more than an inch or two of earth should be placed on t 
:raw, but later, as cold weather approaches, double the amount 
irth, and prevent freezing in future by coverings of manure, used 
ich quantity as the severity of the weather may require. Where t 
>nditions are extreme, or for potatoes, a double covering may be us 
3 follows: First cover with straw and then with a thin layer of ear 
hich is allowed to freeze, then follow with another layer of straw a 
lore earth. In this method a dead air space is maintained and t 
x)ts or potatoes enclosed are not effected by fluctuations in tempei 
ire from without. In extreme weather a manure covering would 
eeded as in the first case. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Sugar Beets. 

Practical demonstrations prove that beets can be produce 
itana for sugar production quite as successfully as anywhere ii 
Id; this is true both as regards quality and yield. As there ar 
ories for the production of beet sugar in the state at present, 
his publication is being prepared more especially for the stock 

farmer who may be interested in feeding problems, the follow 
I relating to culture will apply more specifically to the produc 
hese roots for feeding purposes. 

NATURE OF GROWTH. 

The sugar beet is particularly characterized as a deep grower, 
ins? a long conical tap root extending on the average from twel^ 
^en inches deep. Wlien properly planted and cultivated, 
^vtli should be almost entirely beneath the surface of the gro 
ause of this and the a/lditional fact that the top consists of spi 
short stemmed leaves, these plants are not injured by the ea 
is. 

SOILS BEST SUITED. 

On suitable soils with i^roper conditions sugar beets can be i?] 
n sea level up to an altitude of 5,000 feet, but a short season 
id vantage. Stitf clay soils should be avoided, and humus and r 
s, while not suitenl to the growth of the best quality of beets 
ar ntaking, can be use.l where stock foo 1 is being proJuc^l. Si 
ns are preferable, but any rich loam will answer. The soil sli 
lei^p, as the presence of hardpan too near the surface causes pr 
:s. Under semi-arid conditions, when paor soils are used, requ 
nyard manure, this shoidd always be applied with the prec^ 

PREPARATION OF SEED BED. 

In general, the plowing ?}houl(l l)e deej) and done in the fall e: 
ler those local conditions where heavy snows or'spring rains sol 

ground, then it sliould be rei^lowed in the spring and thorou 
tivated to reduce it to fin(aiess and render it retentive of mois 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Spring plowing should be done early and followed by cultivate 
intervak till sowing time and preparation completed as heret< 
iescribed. 

;4) PLANTING. 

In this the time will depend on looal conditions, of which we 
m endless variety; but in general the planting should be done as e 
IS the working of the soil and the climatic conditions will pe] 
rhe rows should not be more than two feet apart; a less distanc 
recommended in growing beets for sugar making but for the pur 
^iven two feet will answer well, providing more room for cultiva 
rhe rows should be laid out in such a manner that a fall of not i 
than three-fourths of an inch to tlio roil will be given; if the h 
5reatt?r the tendency will be to wash the soil from between tlie i 
leaving the minute roots ex[)()S(»d and injuring the plants. L 
ireas should be sown with a regular drill but smaller ones with aga 
jeeder. Not less than twelve pounds of seed should be used per 
n order to insure a perfect stand. If the soil is moist plant the 
Lb ree -quarters of an inch deep; if dry, one and one-quarter inch( 
?ven a little more. 

5) CULTIVATION. 

If a heavy loam should bake as the result of a dashin<i: rain 
plants may be prevented from coming through. In extreme ( 
mly, where the crop is thus endangered, a very lii2:ht harro 
nay save it, if done as soon as the ground is dry and before 
plants reach the surface; this should only be attempted ii^ exti 
3ases. For small areas of an acn» or so, cultivation by means 
land whe(4 hoi^ should be i^iven as soon as the plants are all n 
:hrough the ground; adjust the wheel ho(^ with the two-knife att 
nent made to run one on (»ach side and close up against the 
rhis prompt cultivation will prevent evai^oration and save k 
future labor by destroying the young weeds. The remaining 
dons of the spaces betw(?en the rows may be left for horse cul 
tion later. The wheel hoe can be used before such time as a 1 
[lould follow the row and also avoids thcj danger of covering the g 
plants with a horse cultivator. Subsequent cultivation should b( 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

t, deep at first and shallower as the season advances. Thi 
s to eight inches apart in the row when the second pair of 
ir and when about two inches high, without drawing the 
from the plant; later thinning is both more injurious and 
In the thinning the interspaces can be cleared by meani 
and the remaining bunches thinned by hand. When 
s are not too thick the work can all be done by a hoe in the 
expert. The more the hands are used in thinning the m 
aes a necessity. If the beets are properly thinned and the 
moved from the row at the same time subsequent use of th 
)e very little required. Do the work well the first time. 

ATION. 

Preparations for this are made at the same time cultivation 
^iven. By attaching a v-shaped point to the centre of the 
i of the cultivator a small scratch or furrow is left to lea 
, and the smaller this is the better providing it answers the 
without overflowing. Flooding should always be avoided 
The amount of irrigation will depend on the local precipit 
localities requiring one, others two and still others three ap 
The indications of need of water are the turning dark 
i top leaves and the wilting of the lower ones. The waters 
owed to run till the earth between the furrows all turns 
saturation when it should be promptly turned ofif. Cul 
y as soon as ground is dry enough after irrigation to pr 
oration. 

)ugar beets may be irrigated up to within six weeks of ha 
They should not be harvested while frozen. Though hum 
soils and those containing some alkali produce beets of a 

:y for sugar making, this need not deter the farmer procl 

for stock food. 

Mangolds* 

'hese are admirably adapted to all classes of live stock bn 
ially valued for milch cows as they can be freely used wi 
ir of tainting the milk. As a winter food for fowls none 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

replace them when fed raw. Mangolds are of several varieti 
jring in color as red, orange and yellow: and also in shape, as o 
: or globular. The long varieties usually give much larger yiek 

NATURE OP ftROWTH. 

The mangold is particularly characterized by an upward tenden 
rowth so that when mature a large portion of the root is expose 
leaves are more sensitive to frost than the sugar beet and the sai 
so true of the root which is covered by a very thin skin. 

SOILS BEST SUITED. 

These are all deep soils rich in organic matter. Clay loams, stroi 
ly loams, and dark prairie soils are especially adapted, while st 
» and light sands are less suitable. 

PREPARATION OF SEED BED. 

In general the same as for sugar beets. 

PLANTING. 

Those methods described for the sugar beet will apply in genei 
le mangold also. From six to eight pounds of seed is required p 
, but the amount should be governed by suitability of the soil a: 
litions. The distance between the rows and also the plants in t 
will vary with the variety chosen, the conditions of the soil, t 
ness or lateness of sowing and the length of the growing seasc 
larger the variety, the richer the land, the earlier the date of see 
md the longer the season, the wider apart should be botli rows ai 
ts in the row and vice versa. Twenty-seven inches is an avera 
mce for the rows and twelve inches for the plants in the row. 

CULTIVATION AND IRRIGATION. 

In general the same as for sugar beets. 

Carrots. 

This crop can be grown with more certainty throughout the sta 
any other and is less liable to attacks of disease and insect pes 
any other. They are equally useful for all classes of live sto 



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14 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 






I 






and especially for horses at that season of the year when they an 
prived of succulent food, as they are greatly relished by them ii 
raw state. 

(1) NATUKE OF GROWTH. 

It is such that the carrot crop is not injured by the early 1 
of spring or autumn and has great power to resist drouth so 
when started in the early spring a crop can be looked for wit 
most unfailing certainty. Crops can be produced without irrig 
in those sections where there is some sub-irrigation or a fair am 
of rainfall. The carrot is a deep grower, developing entirely w 
the ground. The varieties are classified as long, medium and s 
and also by their color, as red, orange and white. The 
varieties are losing favor owing to the dilBSculty in harve 
them. 

(2) SOILS BEST SUITED 

Almost any soil with a fair amount of plant food will g 
good crop of carrots. The favorite soils are those of a deep 1< 
character, capable of retaining moisture. Some varieties are t 
adapted than others to shallower or heavier soils. 

(3) PBEPABATION OP SEED BED. 

In this the work should be much the same as for sugar 1 
and mangolds but most of the work should be done in the aut 
The preparatory cultivation should be performed with a vie' 
cleaning the ground from weeds. The spring cultivation si 
consist in preparing a fine mellow seed bed. 

(4) PLANTING. 

As there is little danger of injury from frost, plant as ear 
possible. Small areas will produce enormous yields if pro 
handled and these are most satisfactorily sown with a hand se 
Eighteen inches between the rows will suffice for the ?rop. 
twenty-four is more frequently given to facilitate the ease of 1 
cultivation. From two to four pounds of seed are required per 
according to the suitability of the conditions. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



>) CULTIVATION. 

This should begin as soon as the young plants mark the line c 
le row, using the method heretofore described for mangolds and sugc 
eets. Prompt cultivation is more necessary in the case of the carrc 
5 it is slow to germinate and come up, thus giving all weeds a goo 
tart. From a consideration of both quantity and quality the bej 
Bsults will be secured from thinning the plants to four inches apai 
1 the row. This is the tedious and expensive operation of carrc 
alture as the thinning must be done entirely by hand. Where, ov 
ig to adverse conditions or poor seed the stand may be somewht 
din and irregujar, a good crop may result without any thinning. 

)) IBBIGATION. 

This should be performed by the method described and less wate 
rill suffice than for most other root crops. 

The harvesting which has been generally regarded as a laboriou 
nd expensive operation can be quickly and easily performed by th 
lethod heretofore described and need not be done before the aj 
►roach of winter. 

Turnips. 

These are of two varieties, viz., those of fciwedish origin com 
aonly called Swedes or rutabagas; the other class being known a 
I'all Turnips. The Swede turnips have the firmer flesh and are th 
setter keepers; they are known by the purple, green or purplis" 
;reen color of the top of the bulb and by the leaves which are 
larker color than the fall varieties. Fall turnips vary greatly in th 
omparative strength of the tops and in the size, color, shape an 
exture of the bulbs. Turnips form an excellent food for many classc 
►f live st^jck, but win not be satisfactorily fed to swine if raw, or t 
nilch cows without ilanger of tainting the milk. 

1) NATURE OF GROWTH. 

This is such as to especially adapt them to moist, cool climatt'S 
>ut they give remarkable results in Montana wherever thrown uncle 



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ONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

e greater portion of their growth is made with 
autumn months. 

SUITED.- 

free working, loamy nature are best for turnipi 
containing some sand but not sufficient to re 
ich muck soils tend to stimulate too great a gr 

corresponding deficiency in root. Our valley 
ell suited to the growth of the turnip. 

eparation of the land should be somewhat simili 
described as being deep and thorough. 



be delayed to as late as June 10th in those loca 
3 late spring rains to germinate the seeds; in 
l should take place earlier. Twenty-seven inche 
le between rows and from two to four pounds ol 
r acre. The seed may be sown with hand seeder 
1 drill providing the turnip seed is mixed with 
• sawdust or dry earth to give it bulk. 

ION. 

3gin early and be frequently repeated. The j 
led to twelve inches apart as soon as two or three L 
rk can all be preformed by means of a hoe, as the i 
e to injury as sugar beets or mangolds. 

ition should be practiced sufficiently often to kee 
rowing vigorously. This is the most successful m 
g the attack of plant lice. The slow growing plan^ 
stacked and the first to succumb. 

r need not take place till late in autumn owing 
growth and ability of the turnip to withstand 
»p can be topped by means of a hoe and plowe 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Potatoes. 

The culture of potatoes must necessarily be greatly ditfereiit b 
luse of the almost unlimited variety of conditions under which th( 
•e grown throughout the state. The methods considered must ther 
►re be general rather than specific. Potatoes can be successful 
x)wn in Montana, both with and without irrigation; in the latter cas 
3wever, only in such sectioas where the ground is moist from sub-i 
gation or where there is more than the average precipitation. 

ELECTION OF VARIETIES. 

These may be classed as early, medium and late, and such 
hedule may be obtained from the Experiment Station at any time i 
1 new varieties are collected for testing. In most sections above a 
titude of 6000 feet, early varieties only should be grown; mediui 
>rts between 4000 and 6000 feet; and the later kinds below 4000 fee 
he yields per acre are least from the early varieties, increasing as tt 
me for maturity extends. 

uiTABLE Soil. 

The best results, considering both quality and quantity, are to I 
(cured from rich loams containing some sand and much humus; sti 
ays, mucks and light sands are undesirable. 

JLECTING SEED. 

Too often the variety chosen is selected because of a large tot 
eld with too little regard for quality. The value of a variety depenc 
pon the percentage of marketable potatoes produced rather the 
cm the total yield. This is ascertained by deducting the small ar 
mgh potatoes from the product of a given area. Then in addition 
lis the potatoes should possess good shape, viz. : an oval neith< 
inding to flatness nor long points at either end, w^ith the eyes set we 
at on the surface. From a potato possessing this shape there is lei 
>88 in preparing for cooking. 'Much difference of opinion exists r 
arding the selection of tubers for seed. The best practice, howeve 
J to select medium sized, smooth and uniform potatoes, notwithstan 



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M(3NTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

vidence which may be produced to show that equjd n*: 
:ases, have been secured from small sets. 

Treatment for Scab and Preparation for Seed. 

toes selected for seed should always be treaterl for 
cipparently affected or not, as the parasitic spores ma 
even though not visible. The preventative measures 
ihorious or expensive, and a badly infected crop is practi 
table. Either of the two following methods may be used 

>oak the uncut seed from one and a half to two houK 
consisting of one pound or pint of formalin to thirty ga 
or (2) Immerse the tubers for the same length of time 
consisting of corrosive sublimate in the proportion oi 
seven and one-half gallons of water. The former treat 
•ed as it does not present the deadly poison properties o 
r corrode metallic vessels. These methods of tre^itmeut 
Fective in replanting badly infected ground; in such case 
planting should be changed. The conditions seemingly 
the develoi^ment of scab are soils possessing an abundan 
organic matter with an excess of moisture accompanie 
imperature. Pcist exi>erience seems to indicate that h 
I or plowing in green crops accompanied by excess of u 
pious irrigation, tends to increase scabbing. 

cutting process should always follow treatment. Thou 
►f devices have been invented for this work, none answ 
knife in the hands of a skilful operator. When the t\ 
with a moderate number of eyes, cut one eye to a piece i 
leed end. With a variety having many eyes it may be n 
it two to each piece. After cutting, if storm prevents p 
number of days, spread the sets out thin on a board flooi 
vith dry earth or ashes to hasten the callousing of the 
mi decomposition, which wilL soon follow if the sets an 
sacked. Under local conditions where spells of cold, 
xe likely to follow early planting, uncut seed about the 
; egg is safer to plant, being much more resistent to d( 



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MONTANA EXPEEIMENT STATION. IS 

.ttention should also be given to the selection of perfectly matured 
?ed. In some localities early frosts may destroy the vines before ma 
irity. While the immature tubers will j^row quite well they art 
luch longer in starting and making an appearance above ground 
otiitoes also which have been exposed to any possibility of even slighl 
•eezing should not be used for seed. 

REPARATION OF THE SOIL 

Deep plowing and thorough cultivation are essential to render the 
nl loose and mellow. Fall plowed land, which has settled and be 
:>nie hard, should always be replowed shortly before planting time. 

LANTING. 

The labor involved in planting large areas will justify the pur 
liase and use of a potato planter; any one of the several kinds on the 
larket will do excellent work. In general the drills should be fron; 
[lirty-six to forty-two inches apart with the sets twelve inches aparl 
I the row. For small areas drill rows may be opened with a smal 
low and refilled with the same implement after planting. The drilh 
hould not remain open long to allow them to dry out. After covering 
-ith the plow cross harrow to leval the ground; this is particularly 
ecessary where the crop is to be irrigated. A covering of four inches 
rith the heavier and more retentive soils is sufficient, but six inches 
lay be needed in the lighter and drier ones. 

UL.TIVATION. 

Harrow lightly at once as soon as the young plants begin to appeal 
hove ground to destroy weeds and retain moisture. Frequent culti- 
ation should follow according to the conditions; the drier the season 
he more frequent the cultivation. More cultivation and less irriga 
ion will produce crops of better quality. 

BBIGATION. 

In this the time and amount is greatly varied by the local climatic 
ind soil conditions. In general one irrigation can be made to suffice 
f proi)er cultivation is given and the water applied about the time the 



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^ntana Agricultural Experiment Sta 

Bozeman, Montana. 



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

2PH.K. Toole, Governor 1 

ES Donovan, Attorney General >ex-officio 

W. Welch, Supt. of Public Instruction J 

Y. McCONNELL 

M.Johnson I 

^. Chisholm Be 

.McKay Ha 

r. Paul i 

J. HOLTER 

[. Evans Mi 

LS. R. Leonard 



EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

LTER S. Hartman, President Bo 

N M. Robinson, Vice President Bo 

^ER Koch, Secretary Bo 

2PH Kountz. Bo 

J. Lamme Bo 



STATION STAFF. 

UEL FoRTiER, Ma. E Director and Irrigation En 

V. Traphagen^ Ph. D., P. C. S CI 

^ Blankinship, Ph. D Bo 

L. CooLEY, B. Sc : •. Entomc 

\. LiNFiELD, B. S. A Agricu 

V. Fisher, B. S Assistant Horticu 

[UND Burke Assistant CI 

I, Gardiner Manager Poultry Depar 



Post Office, Express and Freight Station, Bozeman. 



All communications for the Experiment Station shot 
ressed to the Director, 

Montana Experiment Station, 
Bozeman, Montar 

Notice.— The Bulletins of the Station will be mailed fi 
citizen of Montana who sends his name and address 
;ion for that purpose. 



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Montana Experiment Station. 



Iletin No. 41 - - - - December, 1002 ^ ' '« 

' ■ f 

SUGAR BEETS. 

The Crop of 1902, *- 



F. W. TRAPHAGEN. 

Except for the fact that very few of the cooperating fanners 
ponded to the request to send to the Station samples of sugar 
Its for analysis, the results of the year's work are very satis- 
tor3^ 

No general conclusions can be drawn from the analysis of 
h a small number of samples for the various localities, though 
se results, so far as they go, support the conclusions of former 
irs. 

The season has been very generally reported as having been 
7 unfavorable to the growth of beets, yet the yields, both in 
antity and quality, have been very good. 

The richest lot of beets that has 3'et come into the laboratory 
s grown by W. M. Wooldridge, Valley county. Six beets raised 

Mr. Wooldridge averaged 22.8 per cent sugar in the beets, 
livalent to 24 per cent sugcir in the juice. 

Results, this year and in past years, show that the manufac- 
•ing campaign might begin as early as the middle of September, 
js making a campaign of great length possible. 

Excellent yields of fine beets have been obtained this year with 
■y little water, in some cases none in fact, reaching the crop 
m planting until harvesting. This would indicate the possibil- 

of its use as a dry land crop, in places where w^ater is not 
ailable. 

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.MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



TABLES OF COMPOSITION, YIELD AND VALO 



. ; I- 






o 



22o0 

2251 

2252 

2255 

2256; 

2257 

22581 

;J259 

2200 

i^2«l| 

22021 

2208 

2204 

2205 

2200 

2207 

2208 

22(i9 

2270 

2274 

2275 

2270 

2277 

22S2 

2 2 88 

2281 

2285| 

2280| 

2287| 

2288 



Co-operating Farmer. 



J. R. Stevens 
F. E. Wedge 
Ebenezer Johnson 
Theo. Koenig 
jj. H. Green 
rf. O. (/. Andi'ews 
|J. J. Quinlan 
Fred Edelnian 
[A. B. Leckenby 
Ij. P. Jones 
(J. Holleiibe<»k 
J. J. Quinlan 
J. R. Stevens 
W. M. Wooldridpe 
Isaac Kddy 
H. R. Ballin^er 
Mrs. B. liauck 
A. L. Halliday 
A. C (JitTord 
C M. Larkin 
W. E. Milnor 
M. M. Fei-ijueon 
Ivewis Krut'iitT 
K.\i>erinnMit Farm 
J. B. Dnguins 
T. S. Proud 
T. 8. Proud 
T. S. Proud 
F. E. Wed^e 
E. U. Elllnger 



Loeality. 



Date Analyze<l 



iBridger, Carbon County 
jColumbia Falls. Flathead County 
IP'ulton, I.,e\vis «S: llarke (.bounty 
JKalispell, Flathead County 

Manhattan, (Jallatin County 
jMcLeod. Swefl (Jraiw County 

Forsyth, Ko.sebu<l County 

Sheridan, Ala^lison ('oujity 
iCnion. I'nion County, Oregon 

Whitehall, Jeffi'i*M)n ^County 

Pit)nt'er. Powell j onnty 
lFf>rsyth, Ro.s«»bud County 

Brl«l«er, Carbon County 
iHiuHilale. Valley County 
'Lothrop. Missoula ( onnty 
j Ued r..O(ige. J arbon County 

'iarrison. Powell County 
.Choteau, Teton County* 
I Fallon, t'nster County* 
i Brid«er. Carbon county 
I Troy, Flathead County 

Bozeinan, fiallatin c otnity 
JBozenian, Callatin County 
jBozenian, Ciallatin County 
jKkalaka, ruster County 
|Kalisi>oll, Flathead County 
.Kalispell, *• " 

Kalispell. 
iColunibia Falls. Flathead Comity 

Melville, Sweet (irass County 



Septeml>er 20 
September 20 
Sept<?niber 20 

|OCtO»M.T 17 

'Oetoljer 17 
l<)ct*>ber 17 
I October 17 
October 20 
|Oetol:>er 20 
.October 20 
October 20 
'October 20 
IOct>jtK'r 20 
'October 27 
[October 27 
'octol>er27 
October 29 
[October 29 
'October 29 
November 5 
November 5 
Novemlwr 5 
November 7 
November 7 
.November 7 
Novemlier 29 
November 29 
NovembiT 29 
November 29 
Novemlwr 29 



I Dip] 
t Villi 

Stfi 

IStn 

Ho. 
jlMp 
tStr 
Vih 
Vlli 
Dip 
iStr 
iVih 
'l»il 
iVil: 
'Vili 
jStr 

I Ml 
Ho 



nir 

iStr 

Ho 

Vii: 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



ILES OP COMPOSITION, YIELD AND VALUE-Continued. 





3 

^ 


1 


:? 
n 


< 


o 


f 


\vera4?e Weight 


It 

1 w 


• 00 


§ 

"d 


o 

3 
X 


5 5 

OD 

• c 






•: 1 

i "^ 


\i 


1 


1 ■ 

9 


ii 


Farmer 
re Ohio 
rd 














lids 1 on Joe 


18.9 


J 7.95 


81.4 


14 


5026 


S 90.72 


uds 3 ounces 


10.4 


15.0 


81.5 


14 


4408 


79.80 


nd 9.5 ounces 


i:j.9 

10.7 


in.2 

15.9 


78.1 
80 








uf\» 11.5 oinices 


iQ.h"" 


0201" ' 


""i'lfJilO 


noes 


15.9 


15.1 


82.8 


20 


0040 


110.00 


nd 10 onnce» 


10 


15.2 


88.8 


27 


8208 


150.12 


nd 1(> ouneea 


20.4 


19.4 


81.2 


17.5 


0790 


121.80 


nd 3 on noes 


17 


10.2 


82.9 


21 


0802 


128.90 


nd 7 ounces 


11.2 


18.5 


80.0 


18.8 


4954 


91.75 


nces 


18.5 


12.8 


75.4 


10 


2500 


47.00 


noes 


IH.8 


18.1 


80.2 


11 


2882 


53.40- 


nd 7 ounces 


14.4 


18.7 


57.0 


17.5 


4790 


88.55 


nd 4 ounces 


18 


17.1 


78.0 


14 


4788 


80.80 


mnces 


24 


22.8 


77.4 


20 


9120 


161.80 


nd 


lo.a 


15.5 


87.2 


17.5 


5125 


90.05 


id 9 ounces 


15.7 


14.9 


85.3 








nd 15 ounces 


14.0 

15 

17 


18.9 

14.25 

10.15 


81.0 
80.2 

87 








nd 








nd 4 ounces 


31.75"" 


'■* 10255" 


""1 80.09 


ees 


18.8 


17.80 


89.1 


12 


4280 


77.40 


uices 


10.9 
10 


10 
15.2 


88.0 
84.2 








nd 1 ounce 


22 


6088" 


""l22.*32 


nces 


18 
17.9 


17.1 
17 


80 
91.3 








jid 








nd 7 ounces 
nd 7 ftunces 


18.0 
17.7 


17.7 
10.8 


80.1 
81.2 








14 


4704 " 


sHi-io 


nd 1 ounce 


19.0 


.18.0 


88 


11 


4092 


73.70 


nd n ounces 


17.0 


10.7 


82.2 


10 


5844 


90.90 


nd 


19 


18 


81.2 


14 


5010 


91.00 


uds 8 ounces 


15.5 


14.7 


72.4 


24.0 


7232 


132.84 



4N| K 



1 

1** 






i' 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



TABLES OF CULTURE NOTES. 



W. 



^ I 



o 

3 












o 
p 


Co-operating Farmer. 


Soil 


Date 
planted 


Date i ^ 
.Harvested 


2250 
22r»l 
22»2 


J. R. Stevens 
F. E. WedKe 
Kbenezer Johnson 


Clay, gumbo 
Sandy loam 
Black loam 


April 14* 
May 24 
May 18 


September 15 16 
St»pt*mber 22 18 
September 23 22 


2255 
2250 


Theo. Koenig 
J. H. (Jreen 


Black sandy loam 
Black garden loam 


May 21 
May 6 


Octobers il8 
October 9 |16 


2257 
225K 
2251) 


H. 0. C. AndrewH 
.T.J. Quinlan 
Fred Etielman 


Black soil 
Sandy loam 
Sandy loam 


Mays 
May 10 
May 12 


Sept4?mber20 '20 
Sept«m»>er2» 21 
October 14 12 


2260 


A.B. Leckenby 


Clay loam 


April 28 


October 15 J20 


2261 
2262 


J. P. Jones^ 
G. HoUeubeck 


Sandy loam 
Black loam 


Mav 20 
May 20 


October 16 20 
October 12 18 


2268 
2264 


J.J. Quinlan 
J. R. .Stevens 


Blm'k soil 
Clay, gumbo 


Mav 5 
April 15 


October 15 16 


2265;w. M. Wooldridge 
226() iHaac Kddy 


Sandy loam 
Black loam 


May 1 
May 6 


Septembei 20 18 
October 21 18 


2267 
2268 
2269 
2270 


H. R. Ballinger 
Mrs. B. Hanck 
A.L. Halladay 
A. C. Gifford 


Sandy 
Sandy loam 
Sandy loam 
Sandy loam 


June 20 
June 29 
May 16 
Nfay 18 


October 24 
October 22 
October 25 
October 25 


28 
24 
24 
20 


2274 
2275 


r. M. T.arkin 
W. E. Mllnor 


Sandy loam 
Sandy loam 


May 12 
May 20 


November 2 
Octol»er31 


16 
24 


2276 
2277 
2282 
2283 
2284 


M. M. Ferguson 
Lewis Kruger 
Exj>erinient Farm 
J. B. Duggins 
T. S. Proud 


Black loam 

Sandy loam 
Sandy loam 
Sandy loam, very deep 


June 2 

May 29 
May 18 


October 28 

November 3 
November 16 


36 

18 
18 


2285 
228(J 
2287 
2288 


T. S. Proud 
T. S. Proud 
F. E. Wedge 
K. H. Ellinger 


Sandy loam, very deep 
Sandy loam, very deep 
Sandy loam 
Sandy loam 


May 18 . 
May 18 
May 24 
May 5 


November 15 
November 10 
Nov-ember 1 7 
November 1 9 


18 
18 
18 
20 



\ i 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



TABLES OF CULTURE NOTES— CONTINUED. 



Irrigation. 



nt and pleutitul. 

II o wat«r from June 28 

y <lr>' 

rery little rain. 

:ime», June 15, July 

niHt 12. 

Jrme lO and July 15. 
:ation and no rain. 
La June and in July 



Cultivation. 



Plowed 10 inches deep, no subttolling. 
Thinned June 28. 
Thinned June 1 1. 



LO days* after July 10. 
iring July. 



Plowed 7 IneheH deep. 
20, Plowed 7 & in. deep, cultivated with 
garden plow; thiiuied June 20. 
Thinnea June 10. 
Thinned June 15. 
Plowecl H IneheH deep, not bu" soiled: 

thinner! June 15. 
Plowed 9 inches, Hul)HoiIe<l 4 inebeH, 

Btand excellent, thinned June 2. 
Thinned July 10. 
Thinned June 80, lioed twice 4 inches 

deep; 8tan<l excellent. 



f in. water to row every 
lyH fr*!!! Jul. 5 to Aug. 25. 
one 20. 

riications and several rain 
b&il storms 
d twice. 



trom well when watering 

ien. 

a Jaly and in August. 

>riizg wet. 

dgost O. 



Thinned July 11. 

Thinned June 20. 

Thinned June 20, plowed 7 Inches, 
Huhsolled 7 in,: frequent cultivation, 
Thinned July 6 to 15. 

Thinned June 20. 

Early In July; plowed about Inches; 

good stand. 
Thinned July 1. 
Plowed 8 inches deep; thinned July 

1 ; stand medium. 
Thliuied July 7, July 28 and Aug. 11 



Thinned in June. 

Thlimed July 12, plowed 8 inches; 

stand excellent. 
Thinned July 10. 
Thinned July 1 1 . 
Thinned June 28. 
Thiinied June 20, plowed in May 10 

Inches deep. 



Remarks. 



Season unfavorable. 
Beason unfavorable, 
beason unfavorable. 



Beason favorable. 

Beason unfavorable. 
Reason very unfavorable. 
Beason favorable. 

Beason favorable. 

•Beason very unfavorable. 
Beason very unfavorable. 



Season favorable. 
Season unfavorable. 

Season cold.v'ry unf'v'ble 

Season unfavoral>Ie. 

Season unfavorable. 

Fair season. 

Frost in June. 

Season very unfavorable. 

Season very unfavorable. 

Beason favorable. 



Season unfavorable. 
Season unfavorable. 

Very cold and backward, 
('old and backward. 
Season unfavorable. 
Season very unfavorable. 



1 did not oome up till July 1, then not more than one-quarter of a stand. 



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8 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



'. b 



Where beets have been allowed to remain in the ground 
they have ripened they have shown a nlarked deterioration, 
is shown in the case of samples 2250 and 2264, grown h 
Steven^; of Bridger, and in 2258 and 2273, grown b] 
Quinlanr, while on the other hand samples 2251 and 2287 
the opposite results, but in the latter case the ground wf 
dry towards the end of the season, and soon after became c 
with snow. 

While occasional frosts are experienced after the crop is 
sugar beet seems to be well adapted to withstand the sevei 
such frosts as occur during the growing season in Montana. 

The Continental Sugar Company, at Fremont, Ohio, 
$4.50 a ton for beets testing 12 per cent sugar and of a pu 
80 degrees. For each per cent of sugar above 12 in the I 
additional 33V& cents is paid. I have calculated, on this baj 
return our Montana farmers would receive from each acreol 
beets planted, provided that the results obtained experim( 
were also obtained on a larger scale. These figures are gi 
the tables. 

Some of the beets have a purity of less than 80 per cei 
the farmer would not receive for these as much as the table i 
I do not know just how much is deducted for low purity, si 
been unable to substract in the cases mentioned. 

No averages are attempted this year because of the 
number of samples analyzed. 



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BULLETIN NO. 42. TpKm»xr.T. (7 



TRANSFIRREO Til 



MONTANA c^^/^ 5 5-3,- ■; 

AGRICULTURAL 

EXPERIMENT STATION 



0F-- 



THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



0F-- 



MONTANA. 



THE CODLING MOTH. 



BOZEMAN, MONTANA, DBCEMBER, 1902. 



BOZEMAN CHRONICLE— 1903 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 

EXPERIMENT STATION. 



STATE BOARD OP EDUCATION. 

I K. Toole, Governor, j 

Donovan, Attorney-General, > Ex-Officio He 

Welch, Supt. of Public Instruction, J 

Evans Miss 

Leonard. B 

McCONNELL He 

Johnston Bill 

Chisholm Boze 

AcKay Hami 

Paul D 

HOLTER He 



EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

2R S. Hartman, President... Boze 

M. Robinson, Vice-President Boze 

Koch, Secretary Boze 

I KouNTZ Boze 

Lamme Boze 



STATION STAFF. 

tTiER, Ma. E Director and Irrigation Engi 

Traphagen, Ph. D., F. C. S Che 

Blankinship, Ph. D : Bott 

CooLEY, B. Sc Entomolc 

LiNFiELD, B. S. A Agriculti 

Fisher, B. S Assistant Horticulti 

ID Burke Assistant Che 



Post Office, Express and Freight Station, Bozeman. 



All communications for the Experiment Station shoul 
sed to the Director, 

Montana Experiment Station, 
Bozeraan, Mont 

NOTICE-'The bulletins of the Station will be mailed fo 
tizen of Montana who sends his name and address tc 
n for that purpose. 



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Montana Experiment Station. 



Bulletin No. 43. - - - - December, 1 



THE CODLING MOTH. 



Carpocapsa pomonella Linn. 

R. A. COOLEY. 

Montana now has not far from 900,000 apple trees grov^ 
within her borders. Only about one-third of these have yet c< 
into bearing and few, if any, have produced a maximum croj 
fruit. Notwithstanding the newness of the industry, the pro< 
tion of fruit is already looked upon as one of our main branchc 
agriculture. There exists complete confidence in its future, and 
development is being pushed forward with enthusiasm. 

The fruit growers have wisely been looking into the future, 
have recognized in the codling moth a serious menace to their 
chards. Other insects also have been recognized as dangerous, 
as a means of protection against all, a State Board ofHorticul 
has been created, the duty of the members of which is to presc 
regulations for inspection and disinfection of fruits and nun 
stock, and otherwise afford protection. 

Montana's problem with this insect is, in some particular 
pecuHar one. It has not yet gained a footing in our commei 
orchards, and is present in destructive numbers in only a very 
places, the most important of which is Missoula which lies at 
lower end of the Bitter Root valley. 

So far as the commercial orchards are concerned, the cod 
moth is not in Montana. The problem, then, is the one of tal 
the greatest possible advantage of the fortunate conditions. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



4 THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

believe that by vigilance we can prevent the insect from getting 
to full possession of the orchards, as it has done in many part 
the country where it is necessary to use every means possibl( 
order to get a remunerative crop of fruit. It is hoped that inst 
of allowing the moth to firmly establish itself and then trying 
repress it, we may be able to prevent it from gaining a foothol 

The present paper aims only to discuss the moth from ^J 
tana's standpoint. We believe that every person interested in 
production of Montana's principal fruit, the apple, should h 
an intimate knowledge of this insect which is the worst pest of 
apple. Many are not familiar enough with the insect to know 1 
serious a pest it is, and what it means to allow it to get into 
orchard. 

It is hoped in a future publication to give a more elaborate 
count of this important pest. 

THE STATUS IN HONTANA. 

The only cases of infestation by the codling moth in Monti 
known to the writer, are here discussed. 

As is now well known in the state, the moth was found tc 
doing considerable damage at Missoula in the summer of li 
The situation was indeed quite serious, but since the season's w 
of the Experiment Station and Board of Horticulture, in co-op 
tion, the cause for alarm has been very largely removed. 
Brandegee and the writer took a buggy drive up the Bitter R 
valley from Missoula to Hamilton and return, for the express ] 
pose of satisfying ourselves as to whether or not the moth is in 
valley. It is very gratifying to report that we were unable to 
a single example of the moth outside of Missoula. 

Mr. H. C. B. Colville, while acting as inspector in the sumi 
of 1899, located the insect at Thompson Falls. The writer is 
informed as to the condition of this colony at the present time. 

Mr. Brandegee reports that the pest is well established in 
home yards in some parts of the city of Helena. It has been tt 
a number of years to his knowledge, and is very destructive, 
states that fully 95 per cent of the fruit in entire orchards in 
residential districts was taken in 1902, but that there was o 
about one-half a full crop. 



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Bulletin 42. THE CODLING MOTH. 

In August, 1900, Mr. Fred Whiteside of Kalispeli se 
wormy apples to the Station asking to be informed whether 
not they were aflfected by this insect. Upon being informed that 
actually had the moth in his orchard, he at once picked and c 
stroyed all the fruit from the single tree known to be infected, ai 
all those near by. Since that time no more moths have been se 
in his orchard. 

During the summer of 1902, Mr. O. C. Estey, of Bigfork, i 
spector for the district, found it in several localities in and ne 
Kalispeli. On August 26th he found about one-hundred worn 
apples in one orchard. In two other orchards he found one ai 
three trees respectively that were affected. We are inclined to I 
lieve the situation at Kalispeli to be serious. Left to itself, t 
moth would sooner or later spead to the surrounding country, 

ARE ANY PARTS OF MONTANA IMMUNE? 

Many individuals have believed that the climatic conditions 
Montana would prevent this insect from ever becoming a serio 
pest. Others have felt that the isolation of their orchards wou 
make them immune. We believe that the moth is capable of 1 
coming more or less destructive in any climate that will pern 
the profitable production of apples. This opinion is amply bor 
out by the experience of other states. Moreover, the fact that t 
moth has maintained itself so well in Missoula and Helena cc 
futes any theory of immunity for places of similar climate. 

It is true that widely isolated orchards may be kept free for 
considerable time, perhaps indefinitely, if precautions are tak 
against bringing fruit boxes or other suspected material to t 
orchard. 

THE POSSIBLE DESTRUCTIVENESS OF THE HOTH. 

It is a well established fact that an insect pest is more abuc 
ant and destructive under climatic conditions favorable to its 1 
and development, than outside of the climatic conditions to whi 
it is adapted. The codling moth is no exception. 

The United States has commonly been divided into five 1 
zones as follows: boreal, transitional, upper sonoran, lower so 
oran, and tropical. These zones are of irregular and broken ot 
line, and extend across the continent from ocean to ocean. Thr 



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G 



THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



ml 



of them cross Montana; the boreal, which includes the mounts 
tops; the transitional, which roughly speaking includes the ag 
cultural valleys of the state, except those in the southeast com 
the latter being included in the upper sonoran; and the upper s( 
oran, which embraces the southeast comer as far north as 1 
valley of the Yellowstone river, and .west to an indefinite line 
the vicinity of Big Timber. 

No apples are grown in the boreal zone in Montana, and i 
moth is not found there. It follows, then, that all the app 
^rown in the state, except in the southern 'part, which at pres< 
are few, are in the transitional zone. 

Without going into the details we may sum up the results ( 
tained by various investigators in other states as follows: Wt 
the insect is able to maintain itself, its injuries vary in diffen 
years, and it is always less destructive than in the next warn 
zone, the upper austral. 

Professor Aldrich in Idaho and Professor Piper in Washii 
ton, after careful and comprehensive investigations, report tl 
the amount of destruction varies from about 5 per cent, up 
about 25 per cent.; on the other hand Professor Gillette of Colora 
reports that at Fort Collins, which is in the same zone, from 
per cent, to 70 per cent, is taken, and Professor Cordley has fotJ 
that in a narrow strip of the transitional zone, near the coasi 
Oregon, the moth is also more injurious. 

Under conditions existing in Montana it has been impossi 
to gather data of much value as bearing on the percentage of 
structionby the moth. In the first place we were unable to go ii 
large orchards and count the affected and clean apples as tl 
were picked from the trees, since the only infested trees were in 1 
home orchards of Missoula and vicinit3\ In the second place, si 
records, even if carefully kept, do not tell the whole story, since 
effect of the first brood of larvae on some winter varieties, and 
course on summer varieties, is to cause the apple to drop. Tl 
wither and disappear before the harvest and are therefore i 
taken into reckoning if the comparison be made alone on 
wormy and clean fruit at the time of harvesting. 

We undertook to keep an accurate record of the wormy a 
clean fruit in the cage at Missoula, (described later in this pap' 
and reached the following results : 



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Bulletin 42. THE CODLING MOTH. 



When the first brood of larvae was coTning out of the fruit w 
counted 323 apples on the tree and on the ground, and of these 5< 
were wormy. It is very probable that a few more were worm 
that did not appear so at that. time. 

On October 5th, we again counted the fruit on the tree and o 
the ground, and found 144 clean and 115 wormy. All the frui 
affected by the first brood of larvae dropped to the ground an 
disappeard. If only 50 were taken by the first brood, 273 wer 
left. There were 259 sound and wormy apples on and under th 
tree on October 5th. This number subtracted from 273 leaves 1 
apples which were either taken by the first brood or dropped on ac 
count of failure to mature. Because of the failure to know what b< 
came of the 14, we are defeated in our attempt to get an accural 
record of the percentage of destruction. It would perhaps have bee 
possible if we could have put in an immense amount of time an 
been in the cage every day. It is obvious that no one could hav 
prepared an accurate statement of the percentage of loss by 
count at the time of harvest alone, as the apples destroyed by th 
first brood had disappeared and only 259 apples were to be foun 
as against 323. If we premise that the 14 apples were sound w 
can figure that 51 percent, was taken by the moth. The leas 
percentage of destruction that we can calculate therefore is 51. 

There are other facts that tend to lessen the value of estimate 
of loss. Unless the best of judgment is used in selecting from a 
orchard, representative trees from which to count the fruit, th 
deductions made from the counts of a few trees are misleading 
The actual number of apples taken by the insects in years of fu! 
crop and in years of short crop, probably does not vary much, ye 
in years of scarcity the loss is felt much more keenly. 

The crop in Missoula this season was probably a full one. 

With some misgivings we venture to state that the loss t- 
whole orchards in the worst infested districts has been not far fron 
45 per cent. This is based on many extended examinations in th 
open as well as on the cage experiment. It must be remembere 
that the insects in the cage were protected against birds, and t 
some extent against insect enemies. 

In response to a request for information of Mr. James O. Rea 
and Mr. C. M. Allen, as to the amount of loss at Missoula in th 



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Ki 



% 



v-.t 



I 



r 



I |fo 



1 



^ 



I '' 



If «m-. ? 



ill 



8 



THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



summer of 1901, we were informed that 60 percent, was destroy! 
but this probably applies to a few of the worst infested < 
•chards. Enough is known to convince us that the situation 
serious. 

We consider birds to be great destroyers of these insects, sit 
we have found very many cocoons from whichvthey have remo\ 
the larvae or pupae. Therefore in the open orchards of the sU 
where birds would be less disturbed, and where, also, there could 
fewer places in which the larvae might construct their cocoons, th 
in the city yards where fences and other material furnish suital 
protection, the loss would be much less, probably seldom, if ev 
above 35 per cent, for whole orchards. 

Along the valley of the Yellowstone river from Big Timber 
the eastern boundary of the state, and south of this line, the mo 
could be very injurious. In the same zone, the upper sonoran, 
the states to the west of Montana, under normal conditions, 
high as 100 per cent of the apples are damaged where no prote 
ive measures are employed. Mr. C. B. Simpson has recorded* hf 
ing found ten holes in a single apple, and the remains of twen1 
three eggs on one apple and seventeen on another from orchar 
with but a little fruit. We may take these statements as indicj 
ing the possibilities of injury in the same zone in our state. 

HOW THE CODLING MOTH SPREADS. * 

Undoubtedly the most common means of spread of the mc 
over long distances is in fruit packages. It is not strange that 1 
insect has extended itself to almost every fruit growing region 
the world, for when we analize horticultural and commerc 
practices, we find a chain of conditions almost perfectly adapt 
to its spread. 

Along with the development of a new agricultural count 
apple growing naturally follows. Young trees are brought 
planted, and cared for until they begin to produce fruit. In 1 
meantime the public demands apples, and the merchant suppl 
them, making use of the surplus crops of other regions. With 1 
imported apples are brought the insects which were in fruit 
larvae when it was picked from the trees. These larvae on rea 

♦Bulletin ?A New Series, Div. of Entomology. U. S, Department of Agriculture, 1902. 



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ULLETiN 42. THE CODLING MOTH. 

ig full growth crawl out of the fruit, and go in quest of a pla 
) their liking in which to spin the cocoons which they occupy di 
ig the helpless pupa stage. The desired place is often found in i 
agle of the box or barrel, or under a cleat or beneath a boa 
lat has sprung in the freight car. From these points they may g 
) the orchard in various ways. The plackages may be stored 
le cellar for the winter, or until they are distributed, and t 
loths developing in the spring fly out of the open windows ai 
oors and seek the fruit trees. Empty fruit packages are oft 
irown out behind back buildings, sometimes close by fruit tre< 
he writer once found an apple box in a back yard in Bozema 
od on picking it up found a number of cocoons of the codli: 
loth in the comers. Within thirty feet was a small orchard 
pple trees. The chances were favorable for the moths to coloni 
I the orchard. 

On leaving the fruit the larva often forms its cocoon in soi 
laterial entirely separate from the fruit package. The writer h 
»und the cocoons by the hundreds in freight cars recently' unloa 
i of fruit. We are informed by Mr. Estey of Bigfork, that t 
eart of the main colony of the moth in Kalispell is within 1< 
ards of the side track of the Great Northern railroad. It is ve 
robable that this colony was started from a car on the trac 
his car might have been unloaded of its fruit in almost any state 
tie country and yet have beenthesource of infection at Kalispell i 
be moths would leave the car wherever it might be when wai 
reather had completed their development, and meantime the c 
lay have been transferred hundreds of miles. In the commissi^ 
ouses of our cities, as well as in the warehouses of our groce 
tores, apple boxes are often stacked up parallel with many ott 
inds of produce such as boxed canned goods, packages of ve| 
ibles, melons, etc. The larvae may, and doubtless do, go to the 
ther packages to pupate. 

The practice of buying empty fruit boxes of the merchants 
3wn and taking them to the orchards to be refilled is a parti< 
irly dangerous one, since the insects if present, are taken direct 
he spot where they are most to be feared. 

The codling moth is not distributed on nursery stock unless 
e through mere accident. 



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Is I 



10 



THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



From the foregoing it naturally follows that the cent 
of population are the first places to contract this pest. Th 
towns then become centers of distribution for the surrou: 
ing country. Being provided with wings the moths can spr< 
by flight, but it is probable that by this means they do not tra 
far. 

One moth of either sex is incapable of starting a colony, 1 
those in one fruit box may be sufficient since a box often c 
tains a score or more cocoons. 

WHAT BESIDES THE APPLE DOES THE HOTH ATTACK? 

It is well known that the apple is the principal fi-uit inju 
by the codHng moth. Pears are affected, but to less extent. Cr; 
apples, quinces, wild haws, stone fruits, rose hips, and the scr 
bean, {Strombocarpa monocca) have also been reported by varic 
authors, but Mr. Simpson in his paper, previously mention 
states that upon investigation it was found that in every case 
reported attack upon stone fruits, the work had been found to 
that of the peach twig borer. Mr. Simpson also examined a lai 
number of quinces and roses without finding a single case 
infestation. Notwithstanding these facts it seems possible tl 
the codling moth might lay its eggs on some other of the ro 
ceous fruits if unable to find any of its favorites and might poi 
bly develop to maturity. The writer hopes to be able to give so 
definite information on this point in a future paper. 

ANOTHER INSECT DOING SIMILAR WORK. 

On August 28th, while on the trip up the valley of the Bit 
Root, in company with Mr. Brandegee, as previously mention 
the writer found a single apple in a poorly kept orchard about i 
mile north of Lo Lo, which upon first examination seemed to 
beyond question, affected by the codling moth. The apple wa 
yellow transparent and showed on its side the characteristic ; 
pearance of the entrance opening of the codling moth. Thoii 
the apple was examined closely when picked, there was not 
slightest doubt in the mind of the writer that the work was tl 
of the ** apple worm.'' On cutting open the apple later, the 
pearance was entirely different from that expected. The larva I 



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Bulletin 42. THE CODLING MOTH. 1 

left but had made a fine caliber burrow which was very long an 
tortuous and did not reach the core. It can be said with almos 
certainty that the work was not that of the codling motb- 

DISCRIPTIONS AND LIFE-HISTORY. 

The larva having completed its growth in the fall of the yeai 
leaves the fruit and goes in search of a place in which to spin 
cocoon about itself. By searching in infested orchards about tt 
trunks of trees that bore fruit the previous season, in the crotche 
and under scales of bark, the cocoons may be found. To some e^ 
tent, they conform to the shape of the crack or crevice in whic 
they are placed, being often much flattened. 

With their mandibles the larvae digs off pieces of bark, thereb 
hollowing out the cavity and using in the cocoon the bits of bar 
together with the threads the3^ spin from the body. Thus the cc 
coon is made to conform in color to its surroundings which i 
doubtless some protection against natural enemies. Many cc 
coons are made in objects entirely foreign to the fruit trees, as i 
fences, old rubbish, or any other material near at hand suii 
able for their purpose. They have been known also to enter th 
soil to pupate. Some of the men employed to scrape the tree 
at Missoula in the spring of 1902, reported that they had foun( 
cocoons on the trunks of poplar trees near the apple trees. Whil 
there is chance for mistaken identity of the insect in this case 
there is no reason why the report may not be true. 

In the cocoon the insect passes the winter as a larva, changiuj 
to a pupa with the warm weather of the following spring. 

THE PUPA. 

The pupa is brownish in color, is five-sixteenths of an incl 
in length and has no appendages. After two or three weeks 
when the insect is ready to emerge as a moth, it wriggles par 
way out of the cocoon and splits on the back. The moth crawl 
out leaving the empty pupa skin still protruding from the cocoon 

THE MOTH. 

The moth is a beautiful little insect with the fore wings marl< 
ed with many gray and brown cross lines. Dark brown spots an( 
streaks of orange or gold occur on the posterior end of the wings 
The hind legs are grayish brown. Many of the moths caught h 



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3RIMENT STATION. 

and do not have the markii 
• species, that, to one tmfamil 
rit. 

herical in general shape but 1 
rained from above or obliqu 
Dears hemispherical only wl 
color. 

YINQ. 

cocoons deposit the eggs wl 
The writer's observations a^ 
jtate that the eggs are laid b< 
roughout the season more q 
t leaves. 

4th, the writer was fortun 
egg on an apple. This occur 
y above the horizon and shin 
*en minutes after seeing the < 
id and read at 68 degrees F. 

close to the outer and lo^ 

a codling moth flying ab 
rposeful manner. An apple \ 

any regard for position on 
bdomen down, bringing the < 
:eps were distinctly seen, but 

and flew away, going one-tl 
lown and secreting herself ii 
minute she started out agj 
purposeful search. She lit u] 
in, flying higher in the tree, { 
apple with the calyx end tur 
lately turned one-quarter \ 
depression around the calyx 
iched the opposite side. She 
y seconds, and flew away to 
inued the search. The wr 
apple and found the freshly 1 



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Bulletin 42. THE CODLING MOTH. 

€gg in precisely' the spot expected. It was about one-fourth of 
inch from the calyx. The apple bearing this egg was brought 
Bozeman, and lay on the writer's desk until the morning of 1 
16th of October, when the egg had hatched and the young lar 
was found crawling over the surface of the apple. 

Many observers have stated that the eggs are laid at nij 
time. We have made no observations on the point except the c 
above recorded. In view of what had been written we were s 
prised to find the moth laying so early in the evening. The sun h 
just left the top branches of the tree. 

One egg or many may be laid on an apple. As we have alrea 
stated Mr. Simpson has found as high as 23 eggs on one fruit. 

DURATION OF EQQ STAGE. 

Direct observations of various writers have brought out 1 
fact that the duration of the egg stage varies with the temperatt 
and is on an average about seven or eight days. They have b< 
known to hatch as quickly as three days. The single egg discuss 
by the writer, hatched in practically eleven days; but the cc 
ditions were not normal since the egg was kept in doors. 

THE LARVA. 

The newly hatched larva is about one-sixteenth of an in 
long, whitish in color, with the head, a shield just behind it anc 
shield at the posterior end of the body, black. Later in its life, 1 
parts that were first black, become brownish. 

The young larva after a short period on the surface of the app 
begins to bore into the flesh. The greater part go in at the cal 
•end, but many enter at the point where two apples touch or wb 
a leaf is in contact with an apple. Others go in at the stem end, 
on the exposed surface. 

Judging from observations in the states to the west of M( 
tana, the larval stage in Montana would be about 24- da3's. 1 
writer has made no complete observations on this point, but c 
state definitely that it is less than four weeks. 

The last published records of Mr. Simpson showed that 
average of 83 per cent, of the first brood go into the fruit from t 
,calyxend. From one counting at Missoula in 1902, the wri 
found 9(J per cent, to enter at this point. 



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:^HE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

arse of the larva in the fruit is more or less iamiliai 
es direct to the core and feeds there on the seeds 
ng an irregular cavity which sometimes extends s( 
)m the core. The filthy frass is cast out of the oper 
ace, and remains there, matted together by the sil 
itil the larva pushes it off in leaving the fruit, 
vae of the first brood, as well as those of the secc 
IS in which to pupate. The cocoons constructed bv 
larvae are said to be thinner and less substantial tl 
lich the larvae pass the winter. The moths prodi 
•st brood larvae deposit the eggs for the second brc 

THE OUT-OF-DOOR CAGE AT MIS50ULA. 

ig that a knowledge of the life-history and habits 
is basic to all rational measures against it, whel 
• preventive, an attempt was made to gather all th( 
possible along these lines. The information gained t 
f considerable value, is in nowise complete. We hop 
le studies as long as results of economic value are \ 

) purpose of affording an opportunity for study of 
lemoth under normal conditions in Missoula acage^ 
sing an entire tree. This cage is twelve feet sqt 

feet high, and is constructed of medium quality 
I wire mosquito netting. Along the square from coi 

wide board was settled into the earth with the 
?d above the surface, to which is fastened the netti 
liuts against packing and is held close by buttons. C 
ye is a thirteen stranded barbed-wire fence whicl 
he top making it fairly proof against boys. The d 
irough the wire fence are kept locked. 
:d comparison of the temperature inside and outside 
to show any constant difference, 
ails of the experiment and the results are mingled \^ 
ons that follow. 

CUSSION ON THE NUMBER OF BROODS, ETC. 

^ 31st, eighteen cocoons and two moths were placec 
Missoula. The cocoons for this purpose were seca 



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ULLETiN 42. THE CODLING MOTH. 1 

om Professor A. B. Cordley, who kindly arranged to have h 
tudents collect them for us. We are aware that there is a posi 
ility that the results might be considered less reliable than if ti 
isects had been secured locally. However, it was planned to co 
nue the experiment for a number of years and we believe that 
tie future the results will be reliable. 

Moreover the closest examination failed to reveal any diflS 
icc in forwardness of development inside and outside the cag 
a all probabilities the insects placed in the cage lay dormant u 
1 those outside began to develop, and developed parallel wi 
beni. • 

Missoula is 222 miles west of Bozeman on the line of t 
orthern Pacific railroad, and on account of the distance, trips 
le cage were not very frequent, but by carefully timing the visi 
nd bj'' use of local assistance much information was obtained. 

On June 18th one egg was found in the cage and a numb 
lore on various trees outside. Many of the moths had come ou 
utnot all. 

On July 10th, the occasion of the third visit, all the moths hi 
merged and three young larvae were found just beneath the ski 
f the apples. Eggs were fairly common. A few very badly rubb 
loths were found, which, though of the correct size for the codlii 
loth, may have been some other species. The insects were al 
)und plentifully outside of the cage, either in the egg stage 
aving been in the fruit a few days. 

On August 8th, 9th, and 10th, the larvae were coming out 
tie fruit. Some had evidently come out a few days earlier ai 
ome of what appeared to be the first brood were still in the a 
les. These ranged all the way from half grown to full sized larvj 

On August 11th many cocoons were found in the open ore 
rds and about one-half of the larvae had pupated. Two emp 
upa cases were found protruding from cocoons, and fresh lookii 
dult moths. A few newly hatched larvae were seen. 

We believe that about August 10th marked the beginning 
he second brood of larvae. 

On August 27th, insects were found in all stages, but it w 
oticeable that there were fewer moths and inhabited cocoo 
han on August 10th. As later developments show there we 



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THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

y larvae in the fruit at this date but there were few outwar 
ations. One might almost have thought that the trees wer 
tically free from moth. 

)n October 5th, the appearance was very different. Man; 
ny apples vacated by the larvae were in evidence. The secon 
•d of larvae had plainly left the fruit, though a few were to h 
d still feeding. 

t was on this date, as previously stated, that the moth wa 
to deposit the egg. Six other eggs were found in the sam 
ard this date without difficulty, and a number of moths wei 
We are inclined to consider these late moths as stragglers c 
tecond brood. 

To summarize, we may say that at Missoula in the summer c 
I there were two brgods of the codling moth and probably n 
i. The first brood began to go into the fruit about the 18t 
;ne, and the second brood about August 10th. 

RECOMMENDATIONS. 

t would be out of place in the present paper to enter a length 
ission of the most approved means of combating the codlin 
b, for the general public is not yet called upon to employ sue 
as. 

5uch protective measures as may be employed to enable us t 
in our present advantage over the moth may well be coi 
•ed. 

t is desirable to continue the work at Missoula in order 1 
at a mininjum the chances of infection of the surroundir 
Ltry and the valleys of the Bitter Root river and Rattlesnal 
I, The situation at Kalispell should also be thoroughly look< 
and as energetic means employed there as at Missoula, 
^e believe that since we know when the different broods beg 
Iter the fruit at Missoula, we can make good use of insed 
I. Much advantage could be gained by again banding tl 
i. Much good was accomplished with bands during the pa 
3n. In this way many of the insects that escaped the poise 
! captured. 

^e recommend the use of Paris green as an insecticide wi 
isual addition of lime. 



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Bulletin 42. THE CODLING MOTH. :l 

On August 23rd, an apple tree was selected from the Expei 
ment Station orchard at Bozeraan, and sprayed with a Bowb 
preparation of arsenate of le^d at the rate of three pounds to fifl 
gallons of water, which is the strength recommended by the Bo\ 
ker Insecticide Company. 

The application was made personally by the writer and ca 
was taken to spray thoroughly and yet not over spray. 

At the time of fall harvesting, the apples were picked and pa 
of them handed over to the Station chemist, Dr. F. W. Traphage 
to be tested for arsenic. Before harvesting considerable rain fe 
Below is the report that Dr. Traphagen made: 

Prof. R. A. Cooley, 

Montana Experiment Station, Bozeman, Mont. 
Dear Sir: Following are the results obtained in the analys 
of the apples you submitted to me some time ago: 

Number of apples 14 

Total weight 41.5 oz. 

Average weight 3.0 oz. (scant) 

Total lead arsenate obtained from apples.. .166 grains 

Equivalent to metallic lead 115 grains 

Equivalent to arsenic oxide 031 grains 

While the amounts of poisonous substances found on these a 
pies is not great, they are probably dangerous, from the fact thi 
lead is a cumulative poison and that the presence in food or wat 
of relatively smaller qualities than that present in these apples, 
looked upon with grave suspicions by those who have given the 
questions careful consideration. 

The arsenic, occurring in smaller quantities, adds also to tl 
element of danger which would be introduced into our daily liv 
by using arsenate of lead for spraying apple trees under the co 
dition of your experiment. 

It seems to me that the amount remaining upon the appl 
could be very greatly reduced by spraying at an earlier perio 
when the apples were small or even when in the bud. 

Experiments on spraying at different periods would seem to 1 
indicated by results obtained in these tests. 

Yours truly, 

F. W. TRAPHAGEN. 



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THE MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



le writer was somewhat surprised to get this report of 
anger from the use of arsenate of lead and we intend to r 
extended investigations. 

le of the advantages of arsenate of lead over Paris gree; 
feticide, is that it forms a film of the poison over the 
lia^e that is not easily removed by rains. It has been 
his would be particularly useful against the codling i 
he eggs hatch and the larvae evter the fruit over such a 
of time. Uniform success has attended its use in son 
3tern states. 

t still feel that early spraying with arsenate of lead wou 
lesirable than with Paris green. 

& are indebted to Professor M. J. Elrod of Missoula and 
Dick of Kalispell for weather records that have been of i 
to us in our work. 



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ULLKTIN No. 43. 



MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 



Experiment Station, 



-OF THE- 



Ag^ricultural College of Montana. 



UTY OF WATER IN MONTANA. 



THIS PUBLICATION IS THE SEa)ND OF A SERIES OF FARMERS' 
BULLETINS ON IRRIGATION TOPICS. 



Bozeman, Montana, January, 1903. 



REPUBLICAN. 

Bozeoian, Montana, 

1903. 



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HARVARD COLLEGE Ll.l.ARY 
TRANof£rii;:j r„...1 
BUSSbY INSTIiUiluh 

1936 



MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 

Experiment Static 



BOZEflAN, - MONTANA. 



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

Joseph K. Toole, Governor, ^ 

James Donovan, Attorney-General, V Elx -Officio 

W, W. Welch, Supt. op Public Instruction, ) 

J. M. Evans, J 

D. R. Leonard, 

N. W. McConnell, 

W. M. Johnston 

3. P. Chisholm ] 

r. G. McKay, i 

3. T. Paul,.. 

y . B. f lOLTER 



EXECUTIVE BOARD. 



Walter S. Hartman, President,. 
J. M. Robinson, Vice-President, . . 

Peter Koch, Secretary, 

Joseph Kountz, 

B. B. Lamme, 



STATION STAFF. 

Samuel. Fortier, Ma. E., Director and Irrigation 1 

F. W. Traphagbn, Ph. D., p. C. S 

). W. Blankinship, Ph. D., 

RL A. COOLEY, B. SOm EXTTO 

P. B. Linfield, B. S. a, Agric 

R. W. Fisher, B. S Aflsistant Horti 

Bdmund Burke Assistant 

B. C. Gardiner Student in Charge o 



Postoffice, Express and Freight Station, Bozeman. 



All communications for the Experiment Station should be address 
Director. 

MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION, 



Notice*— The Bulletins of the Station will be mailed free to any 
iilontana who sends his name and address to the Station for that purpoo 



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Montana Experiment Station. 

ULLETIN NO. 43. - - JANUARY, 1903 

DUTY OF WATER IN MONTANA. 

BY S. FORTIER. 



INTRODUCTION. 



This is the second of a series of farmers' bulletins on irrigatioi 
dpics. 

The results herein summarized, together with additional informa 
ion which will appear in subsequent publications, represent the jcmi 
fforts of the Office of Experiment Stations of the Department o 
Lgricnlture and this Station. The funds required to carry on tb 
70Tk have been obtained from the State of Montana, the Departmen 
I Agriculture and this Experiment Station. 

The general features of all the irrigation investigations conducte< 
>y this Station during the jMist four years have been ably planne( 
knd supervised by Professor Elwood Mead. During the past seasoi 
ilr. Arthur P. Stover, an assistant under Professor Mead, was in direc 
charge of much of the field work. The writer desires also to acknowl 
dge the valuable assistance rendered in both field and office by thi 
senior students in civil engineering of th« Montana Agricultura 
>>llege. 

DUTY OF ViTATKFL. 

The word "duty" is used in a variety of ways. In irrigation i 
(hows the relation between the amount of water used and the area 
and on which it is applied. This relation may be expressed in se\ 
jral ways. The units most frequently used are a miner's inch c 
J^ater and an acre of land. The duty of water may be high or lo\^ 
lepending on the quantity used on a given area. In Southern Call 
fomia, where water is costly, one miner's inch irrigates on an averag 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

e acres of land. This is considered a high duty, and is rei 
•ssible by preventing waste and in skillful use. In certain Si 
Montana rfnd the Rocky Mountain States the duty of water i 
le inch per acre. This large amount of water is frequently re 
r new land with a dry subsoil. When, however, this amount i 
L the same fields for fifteen or twenty seasons in succession, it 
at a large percentage is wasted. 

The duty of water may also be expressed in cubic feet per 
id acres. In 1890 the legislative assembly of Wyoming iix( 
aximum amount of water that could be legally applied in irr 
that state by providing ''That no allotment shall exceed on( 
ot per second for each seventy acres of land." From 1890 t< 
le duty of water under the Bear River Canal system in N( 
tah was one cubic foot per second for each eighty-acre tract, 
jty corresponds to one Montana miner's inch for two uteres. 

In the opinion of the writer, there is a better way to expre 
■ water than by either the miner's inch or the cubic foot per i 
y both of these methods one is left in doubt as to the volume a 
jplied. In both, the flow of the irrigation stream is assumec 
)ntinuou8, and the amount of water used will depend quite sa 
1 the length of the irrigation season as on the size of the i 
ifty miner's inches flowing for eighty days is equivalent in 
► one hundred miner's inches flowing for forty days. It i 
>vious thai the length of the irrigation season must be fixed 
le duty can be ascertained. It seldom happens that water i 
►r the same number of days in any two counties, or even pn 
3nce the difficulty in ascertaining the duty when it is exprei 
jres, per miner's inch or cubic foot. The better way, it seemi 
riter, is to determine the quantity of water applied to a pa 
^Id, farm or district. 

Rainfall is measured in depth over the surface on which i 
id since irrigation is intended to supplement the natural 
lere is no good reason why it should not be measured in a 
anner. Rain and snow are usually measured in inches, 
^pressing duty of water the foot and fractions of a foot a 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



instead. When the quantity of water used is stated, it is express 
either in feet over the surface or in acre-feet. An acre-foot is tl: 
amount of water which will cover an acre to the depth of one io 
In Montana the average rainfall during the crop growing season 
over six inches. We will assume that twenty-four inches is added 
human effort, making a total of thirty inches, or two and one-hj 
acre-feet. This is considerably greater than the natural supply of t 
humid East during the summer season. 

ASCERTAINING THK DUTY OF ViTATER. 

At first thought, it seems easy to ascertain the duty of wat< 
Only tw6 things are necessary— the area of land irrigated and t 
amount of water applied. In actual practice it is not so easy. T 
flow of the irrigation stream, ditch dr canial fluctuates— it is sfeldc 
tl^e same for any two consecutive hours of the day. This necessi tat 
constant observations at the place of measurement or the introducti 
of scientific apparatus which will record every change in volun 
Then again, much depends on where the wfiter. used in irrigation 
measured. If it were conveyed in a tight pipe,, there would be i 
losB^ and the amount entering the intake would correspond with th 
deUyered at the lower end. Usually the water is conveyed, in j 
earthen channel, and for every hundred miner's inches diverted frc 
the nartural stream, only sixty may be delivered, the remaining for 
inches being lost along the route by seepage, evaporation and leaka^ 
In the results herein given, the duty of water under the canals w 
found by measuring the amount of water which passed through t 
headgates. On each of the field tests, the water was measured as 
entered the highest part of the field. The latter averaged abo 
eighteen inches in depth over the surface, while the former averag 
nearly forty-seven inches. 

CONDITIONS AFFECTING DUTY OF ViTATER. 

It is well known that the amount of water used in irrigation d 
fers. One-half of a quarter section of inland may require much mc 
water than the other half. No two irrigated valleys within the borde 



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6 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

of a state have similar physical conditions, and each arid st 
territory, has its own peculiar characteristics as regards wat 
irrigation. In a practical publication of this kind it may not 
of place to outline briefly the chief conditions which affect the < 
water: 

(1) Losses in cjgnveyance. — The quantity of water delive 
the farmers is frequently only one-half that taken from the i 
The various losses due to seepage, evaporation and leakage in tb 
canal and laterals cause this large reduction. The attention 
farmers of Montana is earnestly called to this fact on account 
large financial loss entailed. The writer does not wish to imp! 
all of this loss can be prevented, but he is convinced that a lai 
eentage might be saved at comparatively small cost. 

(2) Climatic oonditions.— Of these, rainfall is perhaps th 
important. The average annual precipitation for Montana is I 
fourteen and fifteen inches. The months of greatest precipital 
April, May and June, the period when moisture is needed to 
crops. In the following tables it will be noticed that the 
varies from 1^ to 9^ inches and averages 5| inches. This 
of moisture in the case of the field tests forms on an average 
cent of the total amount of water applied to the crops. 

In the colder arid states the season is shorter and irrigc 
practiced only a short period in summer; while farther soutl 
example in Arizona, water for irrigation may be used thrc 
three-fourths of the year. Then, too, evaporation is affected 
perature, wind, etc., and in a region of high temperatures, or ] 
winds, or both, the consequent loss of water by evaporation is i 

(3) Diversified parming.— A farmer whose cultivated ci 
confined to Buch cereals as oats, wheat and barley cannot mi 
most of his water supply. Such crops may reqfuire a large an 
water from the time the plants cover the ground until the ( 
well headed out, but this period is limited to from thirty to fif 
The man who raises grain only has no further use for irrigatio 
during that season. When diversified crops, such as alfalfa 
grain, roots and fruit are grown it is possible to increase 1 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 



itbout increasing the amount of water used, and so obtain a highei 
aty. 

(4) Time rotation. — The prevailing custom in several states anc 
jrritones of the arid West is to apportion water by the time methoc 
Lstead of in continuous streams. In the case of small holdings ir 
articular, water can be more economically used in a proper systen 
f time rotation. The work can be better done and at less cost thar 
here a small stream is used continuously. 

(5) Manner of paying fob water. — A canal corporation, whicl 
^nveys water to distribute to farmers for a fixed rental usually sells i 
ater right for a certain tract of land. The purchaser, by the termt 
f his contract is compelled to use his allotted share of water on the 
ract for which a water right has been purchased and not elsewhere 
f the user were granted permission to buy water by volume from the 
ftnal company and to use it wherever he pleased a much greater econ 
my in its use would result. 

(6) Judicial decrees for- excessive amounts. — For the mos 
►art the volumes of water used in irrigation are unknown. As a rul( 
ew ditches or canals are measured until after the owners are threat 
ned with litigation. Then there is great inducement for all partiei 
oncemed to try to magnify both the amount diverted and the exten 
►f the land irrigated. When a witness does not know the capacity of i 
litcb, and it is to his interests to make it appear to be large, his testi 
nony has usually a decided bias in that direction. When no reliabl 
neasarements of ditches have been made, water right cases can onl; 
3e decided on the testimony submitted and this accounts for the man; 

■ecorded cases in which excessive amounts have been decreed. 

« 

(7) Cultivation and grading. — The proper cultivation of the soi 
is necessary, in both humid and arid climates. Cultivated plants requir 
51 finely pulverized soil. In regions deficient in rainfall, thorough cu 
tivation serves to retain the moisture, by lessening the amount of evaj 
oration. Grading is even more important. To irrigate land that h« 
a rough, uneven surface, not leveled to a uniform grade, is frequently th 
cause of much waste of water, extra labor, small crops and eventual] 
damaged land. 



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I MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

(8) Kind of crop. — The proper percentage of moisture 
oil does not difiPer much for the common cultivated plants. 
Tops require more water than others but this difference is due c 
o a longer period of growth or to the time when water is m 
Jarley, for instance will mature in three and one-half months, 
ugar beets require a month longer. Again it is often diflSci 
btfiin suflScient water to irrigate root crops, vegetables and occi 
lly orchards. This does not arise from the fact that a larger s 
3 required but it is due to the time of irrigation, the last irrigatic 
ng usually applied late in the season, when the flow of natural st 
3 low. 

(9) Manner of Irrigating— The duty of water depends to a 
xtent on the skill and attention of the irrigator as well as on th( 
t is distributed over the field. Where flooding is practiced, 
epends on the location and grade of the field laterals as well i 
irection of the seed drills. In Montana a large percentage of the 
onveyed to the irrigated fields is wasted in the midnight hours 
here is no one to look after it. 

(10) Character of the soil and subsoil.— A coarse 8an< 
:ravelly soil requires much more water than a heavy, clay soil. ^ 
he upper layer is porous and the silbsoil impervious, the cond 
re favorable for sub-irrigation in which case a small amount of 
lay irrigate a large area. On the other hand the top layer of soi 
e underlaid hy gravel wash. Such formations require an abui 
apply of water. 

(11) The ground water level. — In some localities the wa 
^ells will rise near the surface during the latter part of the irrig 
3ason. This indicates that the subsoil is completely saturates 
lat the minimum amount of water should be applied in irrigj 
'o over-irrigate such tracts would result in damage to both crop 
)il. 

(12) The configuration of the surface. — An even nn: 
ope, neither too steep nor too flat, is one of the most favorable 
itions for the economic use of water. Tracts that are traverse 
ivines or other irregular formations, are not only difficult to in 
at the waste of water is usually considerable. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 9 

H£ IMPORTANCE OF A KNOViri.£DGK OF THE 
DUTY OF ViTATKR. 

A knowledge of the service or duty of water is necessary in all 
rigated regions. It has always been r^arded as one of the essentials 
irrigation. As rural communities increase in population the extent 
: the cultivated area is also increased, new ditches are excavated and 
le capacities of old channels are enlarged until a time comes 
ben the natural streams are overtaxed and disputes arise as to the 
3;ht8 of each claimant. Such controversies can only be settled on 
e amount of water required to mature crops. 

The farmer knows how much seed to sow for each kind of crop, 
e should also know how much water to apply. Without this know- 
dge farming operations cannot be economically planned or carried on. 
iie farmer who buys 100 miners' inches from a canal company, but is 
norant of how many acres this supply will irrigate is handicapped. 

When farmers unite in co-operative undertakings, the location, 
:tent and character of the laud to be reclaimed are usually familiar to 
l. The puzzling questions to such parties are the amount of water 
quired and the size of the ditch tq convey it. The same problem 
^nfronts the oflScers of the large capitalistic canal. The expenditures 
ay be large and an error in the estimate of the amount of water re- 
lired may entail heavy losses. 

. In the near future the Federal Government will expend in all 
x)bability, several million dollar^ in this ^tateon irrigatipn canab and 
or^ige reservoirs. In such large enterprises the area of la;id which a 
andar3 unit of flowing water will irrigate is one of great importance. 

And finally, without a knowledge of the duty of water, it is im- 
)ssible to determine. equita.bly rights to its usp. "VJ^l^en a court, owing 
• a wrong conception of the quantity of water required, grants to an 
dividual or corporation, three pr four times more than he can use, it 
)t only deprives other settlers of a much needed supply but the appli- 
ition of SQ much water tends to convert good land into bogs and 
arshes. 

AMOUNT OF ViTATf^R USf^D 

In all of the experiments made to ascertain the duty of water, the 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 

Bsults of which are herein briefly recorded, no attempt was 
ontrol or limit the amount used. The proprietor of the field 
r his employe, was free to turn on as much water as he co] 
lecessary. A part of the supply usually flowed oflf the field 
therwise wasted, but no deduction was made for this wasi 
otal amount entering the highest part of the field was meac 
leans of a trapezoidal weir or other devise and the area under 
luding the space occupied by the feed ditches and laterals 
eyed in the ordinary manner. From this information the < 
rater over the surface irrigated was ascertained. This depth 
urface in the 46 field tests varied from a trifle more than fou 
.35 feet) to over seventy-two inches (6.06 feet) and averaged ( 
nches or one and one-half acre-feet per acre irrigated. 

In Table No. 1, the duty is expressed in acres per mine 
he lowest duty was at the rate of one miner's inch per acre 
lighest duty was one miner's inch for 13 acres. The average c 
[& experiments conducted on fields was at the rate of one mine 
or 3.7 acres. In another column of the same table the dn 
)ressed in acres per cubic foot per second. The average ni 
kcres irrigated per cubic foot per second was 142. 

There is much more water used per acre under the cai 
leven canals, the results of which are given in this publica 
lombined area is 41466 acres and the average depth of watei 
»ver this surface was 3.9 feet, or nearly 47 inches: Under 1 
me cubic foot per second would irrigate about 80 acres and o 
ana miner's inch, 2 acres. 

TABI.es and II.I.USTICATIONS. 

Space would not permit a description of each experiment, 
lecessary to state the facts in the briefest possible manni 
jhief results have accordingly been presented in the form of t 
tatements. And since the main purpose of the bulletin is 
he amount of water used in irrigation it was deemed adv 
epresent this quantity by diagram as well as by figures. Ii 
he 46 experiments conducted on fields there is inserted a sm 
ration to the left of the statement. This is drawn on a sea 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 



11 



ich to the foot and shows graphically the quantity of water applied in 
fixation as well as the rainfall. The dark x>ortion represents the 
aount reseived in irrigation, the light portion, the amount receiyed 
rainfall. 
In experiment No. 1, for instance, the reader who glances at the 
Bigram observes that more than two-thirds of the total amount of 
iter received is from irrigation. If he wishes the exact figures, the 
Eitement shows that 1.02 feet, or 12^ inches, was spread over the 
itire surface of a 31-acre clover field and that the amount of rain 
lich fell on the same surface during the period of growth was .44 
3t, or 5J inches. 

The duty of water under the canals for 1902 is illustrated by 
e plates, which are modeled after those in Bulletin No. 86, U. S. 
apartment of Agriculture. The dark portion of the main illustration 
ows when the water began to be used, the daily amount and the end 
the irrigation season. The smaller cut to the right shows the duty 
water for each month as well as the rainfall for the same period. 



"'if' 

m 



mi 






Aii 









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TANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Experiment No. 1. 

Location ! Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Clover. 

Yield per acre 3 tons. 

Nature of soil Clay loam. 

Area 31 acres. 

Date of first irrigation June 17-22. 

Date of second irrigation July 26- Aug. 2. 

Average head of water used 1.54 cu. ft. per s© 

Depth of water applied 1.02 ft. 

Rainfall 44 ft. 

Tbtal depth of water received. . 1.46 ft. 



Experiment No. 2. 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Peas. 

Yield per acre 31.25 bushels. 

Nature of soil * Clay loam. 

Area 4.23 acres. 

Date of first irrigation June 28. 

Date of second irrigation July 11-12. 

Average head of water used 1.28 cu. ft. per si 

Depth of water applied 1.10 ft. 

Rainfall 41 ft. 

Total depth of water received. . 1.51 ft. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



13 



Experiment No. 3. 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Grain. 

Yield per acre 57.89 bushels. 

Nature of soil Loam. 

Area 11.27 acres. 

Date of first irrigation June 23 27. 

Date of second irrigation July 12-14. 

Average head of water used 1.81 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 1.98 ft. 

Rainfall 0.42 ft. 

Total depth of water received . . 2.40 ft. 




Experiment No. 4* 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Barley. 

Yield per acre 73 bushels. 

Nature of soil Loair. 

Area 66..39 acres. 

Date of first irrigation July 5-1.3. 

Average head of water used 4.04 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 0.98 ft. 

Rainfall 0.41ft. 

Total depth of water received. . 1.39 ft. 



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14 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 




Experiment No. 5« 

LocatioD Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Oats. 

Yield per acre 51 bushels. 

Nature of Soil Clay loam. 

Area 23.41 acres. 

Date of first irrigation July 13-18 

Average feed of water used 3.54 cu. ft per sec 

Depth of water applied L53 ft. 

Rainfall .38 ft. 

Total depth of water received. . 1.91 ft 




Experiment No. 6. 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Oats. 

Yield per acre 72.75 bushek. 

Nature of Soil Clay loam. 

Area 7.26 acres. 

Date of first irrigation July 6-7. 

Date of second irrigation July 22-24. 

Average head of water used 1.58 cu. ft per sec 

Depth of water applied 1.34 ft 

Rainfall .36 ft 

Total depth of water received. . 1.70 ft 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



15 






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: \ 



NN 



r , 



f 



Experiment No. 7. 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Oats. 

Yield per acre 72.75 bushels. 

Nature of soil Clay loam. 

Area 2.48 acres. 

Date of first irrigation July 7-8. 

Date of second irrigation July 25. 

Average head of water used 1.96 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 2.16 ft. 

Rainfall 36 ft. 

Total depth of water received.. 2.52 ft. 






ru 



Experiment No. 6. 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Oats. 

Nature of soil Dark loam. 

Area 25.09 acres 

Date of first irrigation July 20-26. 

Average head of water used 3.13 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 1.28 ft. 

Rainfall 44 ft. 

Total depth of water received . . 1.72 ft. 



16 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Experiment No. 9. 

Location! , . . . Oallatin Valley. 

Crop Clover. 

Nature of soil Clay loam. 

Area 66.39 acres. 

Date of first irrigation June 14-22. 

Date of second irrigation July 28- Aug. 17. 

Average head of water used 2.54 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 1.98 ft. 

Rainfall 41ft. 

Total depth of water received . . * 2.42 ft. 




Experiment No. lO. 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Barley. 

Yield per acre 46.5 bushels. 

Nature of soil Dark loam. 

Area 4.14 acres. 

Date of first irrigation June 12-13. 

Date of second irrigation June 29- July 1. 

Average head of water used 1.24 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 1.50 ft. 

Rainfall 28 ft. 

Total depth of water received . . 1.78 ft. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATIC 




Experiment Nc 

Location Ga 

Crop Os 

Nature of soil Cli 

Area 26. 

Date of first irrigation Ju 

Date of second irrigation Ju 

Average head of water used 1.4 

Depth of water applied ........ .6 

Rainfall 31 

Total depth of water received. . l.CK 



Experiment No 

Location Ga 

Crop W 

Yield per acre ^ 38.; 

Nature of soil Ga 

Area 2 a 

Date of first irrigation Jui 

Date of second irrigation Jul 

Average head of water used . . 1.40 

Depth of water applied T 

Rainfall 3( 

Total depth of water received . . 1.0' 



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18 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Z'ft 



"ft, 




Kxperiment No. 13. 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop OatB and Peas. 

Yield per acre 75.58 bu. 0. 1830 lb.P 

Nature of soil Loam. 

Area 2 acres. 

Date of first irrigation June 18. 

Date of second irrigation Jijdy IL 

Average head of water used .... 1.37 cu. ft per sec. 

Depth of water applied 56 ft 

Ramfall .39ft 

Total depth of water received. . .95 ft. 




Kxperiment No. 14* 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Barley. 

Yield per acre 87.29 bushels. 

Nature of soil Loam. 

Area 1 acre. 

Date of first irrigation June 19. 

Date of second irrigation July 12. 

Average head of water used. . 1.38 cu. ft per sec. 

Depth of water applied 1.17 ft 

Ramfall 28 ft. 

Total depth of water received. . 1.45 ft 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



19 




Experiment No. 15* 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Oats, 

Yield per acre 74.67 bushels. 

Nature of soil Loam.- 

Area 8.51 acres. 

Date of first irrigation June 15-17. 

Date of second [irrigation July '^6-7. 

Average head of water used .... 1.86 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 1.39 ft. 

Rainfall 0.40 ft. 

Total depth of water received . . 1.79 ft. 



Experiment No. 16. 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Barley. 

Yield per acre 68.59 bushels. 

Nature of soil Loam. 

Area 4.52 acres. 

Date of first irrigation June 13 14. 

Date of second irricration July 1-2. 

Average head of water used 1.99 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 1.96 ft. 

Rainfall 0.42 ft. 

Total depth of water received. . 2.38 ft. 



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20 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



experiment No* 17* 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Clover. 

Yield per acre 5 tons. 

Nature of soil Clay loam. 

Area 7.26 acres. 

Date of first irrigation June 4-5. 

Date of second irrigation July 3-5. 

Date of third irrigation July 19-21. 

Date of fourth irrigation Aug. 1-4. 

Average head of water used 1.57 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 2.70 ft. 

Rainfall 44 ft. 

Total depth of water received . . 3.14 ft. 



Experiment No* 18* 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Clover. 

Nature of soil Clay loam. 

/ Area 35.9 acres. 

Date of first irrigation June 5-7. 

Date of second irrigation July 13-16. 

Date of third irrigation JulyJ26-28. 

Average head of water used 2.22 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 1.79 'ft. 

Rainfall 44 ft. 

Total depth of water received. . 2.23 ft. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



21 



Tft 




^ 


1 





experiment No. 19. 

Location Yellowstone CJounty. 

Crop Alfalfa. 

Yield per acre 5.17 tons. 

Nature of soil Clay loam. 

Area irrigated 53.4 acres. 

Date of first irrigation July 17-27. 

Average head of water used 3.52 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 1.30 ft. 

Rainfall...:.. 44 ft. 

Total depth of water received . . 1.74 ft. 



Experiment No* 20« 

Location Bitter Root Valley. 

Crop Orchard. 

Nature of .soil Vegetable loam. 

Area 40 acres. 

Date of first irrigation April 28-30. 

Date of second irrigation June 7-13. 

Date of third irrigation July 9-14. 

Date of fourth irrigation Aug. 12-14. 

Average head of water used 2.36 ou. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 1.46 ft. 

Rainfall 13 ft. 

Total depth of water received. . 1.59 ft. 



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TANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Experiment No. 81« 

Location Bitter Boot 

Crop Oats. 

Yield per acre 3^03 bushel 

Nature of soil Oravelly. 

Area 102J2 acres. 

Date of firrt irrigation May 23Jun( 

Date of second irrigation July 19-Aug 

Average head of water used .... 7.05 cu. ft p 

Depth of water applied 6.06 ft 

Rainfall 13ft. 

. Total < depth of water received . . 6. 19 ft 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 




Experiment No. 28* 

Location Bitter Root V 

Crop Oatfl. 

Yield per acre 33^ boshels. 

Nature of soil Vegetable Los 

Area 161.7 acres. 

Date of first irrigation May 22, Jnne 

Date of Second irrigation July 21-30. 

Average head of water used .... 3.75 cu. ft, per 

Depth of water applied 1.30 ft. 

RamfaU 13ft 

Total depth of water received.. 1.43ft. 



-ft 



EXperimeAt No* 83. 

Location Gallatin Valle 

Crop Clover. 

Yield per acre 3.36 tons. 

Nature of soil Loam. 

Area 20.96 acres. 

Date of first irrigation June 5-7. 

Date of second Irrigation July 20-22, Au 

Date of second irrigation Aug. 11-16. 

Average head of water used 1^2 cu. ft. per 

Depth of water applied 92 ft. 

Rainfall 65:ft. 

Total depth of water received. . 1.57 ft. 



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TANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Experiment No. 24* 

Location Gallatin Vi 

Crop Clover. 

Yield per acre 3.36 tons. 

Nature of soil Clay loam. 

Area 5*58 acres 

Date of first irrigation June 8, 

Date of second irrigation July 9-10 

Date of third irrigation July 25-29 

Average head of water used 1.38 cu. ft. 

Depth of water applied 1.81 ft 

Rainfall 67 ft. 

Total depth of water received . . 2.48 ft. 



experiment No. 25* 

Location Gallatin ^ 

Crop Clover. 

Nature of soil Clay loaoo 

Area 7.13 acre^ 

Date of first irrigation June 17-15 

Date"of second irrigation July li-l'^ 

Average head of ► water used. . 1.65 cu. ft 

Depth of water applied 1.24 ft. 

Rainfall ►.62 ft. 

Total depth of water received. . 1.86 ft. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



26 




experiment No. 86. 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Clover. 

Nature of soil Loam. 

Area 6.85 aere:^. 

Date of first irrigation June 18-19. 

Date of second irrigation July 12-13. 

Date of third irrigation July 29- Aug. 6. 

Average head of water used 1.40 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 1.54 ft. 

Rainfall.. 62 ft. 

Total depth of water received . . 2.16 ft. 




experiment No. 27. 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Wheat. 

Yield per acre 43.2 bushels. 

Nature of soil Loam. 

Area 5.24 acres. 

Date of first irrigation June 27-28. 

Date of second irrigation . ., July 13-14. 

Average head of water, used 1.47 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 1.19 ft. 

Rainfall 45 ft. 

Total depth of water received . . 1,64 ft.' . , , ? 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



26 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 





i 





Experiment No* 88. 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Wheat, Barley, Clover. 

Yield per acre 42.9bu61.5bu l^tODS 

Nature of soil Clay loam. 

Area 3 acres 

Date of first irrigation June 2&-29 

Date of second irrigation July 15-16 

Average head of water used 1.23 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 76 ft. 

Rainfall.. 43 ft. 

Total depth of water received. . 1.19 ft. 



-^t 




Kxperiment No« 89. 

Location Gallatin VaUey. 

Crop Sugar BeetB. 

Yield per acre 10 ton, 

Nature of soil Clay loam. 

Area 

Date of first irrigation < 

Date of second irrigation < 

Date of third irrigation i 

Average head of water used.. . see. 

Depth of water applied 

Rainfall 

Total depth of water received. . 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



27 



" 






i i 


1 





Experiment No» 30« 

Location Qallatin Valley 

Crop Oats 

Yield per acre 73 bushels. 

Nature of soil Clay loam 

Area 15.36 acres 

Date of first irrigation June 2&-July 2 

Date of second irrigation July 16-17, tl uly 22-25 

Average head of water used — 1.66 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 1.62 ft. 

Rahifall 43 ft. 

Total depth of water received. . 2.05 ft. 




Experiment No. 31» 

Location Gallatin Valley 

Crop Clover. 

Nature of soil Clay loam. 

Area 27.84 acres 

Date of first irrigation June 21-25 

Average head of water used. . 3.33 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 95 ft. 

Rainfall 62ft. 

Total depth of water received. , 1.57 ft. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



28 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Z-ff- 



/rf^ 




Experiment No* 32. 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Barley^ 

Yield per acre ; 59 bushels. 

Nature of soil Loam. 

Area i 12.5 acres. 

Date of first irrigation July 2^, July 5-6. 

Average head of water used 2. 18 cu, ft, per sec. 

Depth of water applied .> 84 ft. 

Rainfall ; 46 ft,' 

Total depth of water received . . 1.30 ft. 



ft. 



7ft 




Experiment No. 33. 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Peas. 

Yield per acre 37.5 bushels. 

Nature of soil Clay loam. 

Area 8.40 acres^ 

Date of first irrigation July 8-9. 

Average head of water used — 1.67 cu.' ft. per si 

Depth of water applied 35 ft. 

Rainfall 77 ft. 

Total depth of water received . . 1.12 ft. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 




experiment fio, 34* 

Location OallatiD Valley 

Crop Oats 

Nature of soil Loam 

Area 37.3 acres 

Date of tirst irrigation July 9-23 

Average head of water used 1.66 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 1.26 ft. 

Rainfall 45 ft. 

Total depth of water received . . 1.71 f t^ 



Experiment No* 35* 

Location Gallatin Valley 

Crop Orchard. 

Nature of soil Gravelly loam. 

Area 40 acres 

Date of first irrigation April 15-18 

Date of second irrigation June 27-30 

Date of third irrigation Aug. 13-18 

Date of fourth irrigation Sept. 1-2 

Average head of water used. . 2.43 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 1.56 ft. 

Rainfall 49 ft. 

Total depth of water received. . 2.05 ft. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



30 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 




Experiment No. 36* 

Location Bitter Root Valley. 

Crop Clover, 

Yield per acre 1.06 ton& 

Nature of soil Gravelly loam. 

Area irrigated 161.7 acres. 

Date of first irrigation May 11-28. 

Date of second irrigation June 23-July 2. 

Date of third irrigation Aue. 29-Sept 8. 

Average head of water used .... 3^40 cu. ft per sec. 

Depth of water applied 1.60 ft 

Rainfall *9 f t 

Total depth of water received. . 1.99 ft. 



Experiment No. 37. 

Location Bitter Root VaUey. 

Crop Clover. . 

Yield per acre 1 ton. . 

Nature of soil 

Area 

Date of first irrigation 

Date of second irrigation 

Date of third irrigation 

Date of fourth irrigation 

Average head of water used ^ 

Depth of water applied 

Rainfall .' 

Total depth of water received. . 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



3] 



experiment No. 38. 

iKDcation Gallatin, Valley. 

Crop Oats. 

Nature of soil Clay loam. 

Area 6.38 acres. 

Date of tirst irrigation June 24-26. 

Date of second irrigation July 17-18. 

Average head of water used .... 1.30 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 1.27 ft. 

Rainfall 54 ft. 

Total depth of water received. . 1.81 ft. 



-ff. 






rft 


1 





Kxperiment No. 39. 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Wheat. 

Nature of soil Clay loam. 

Area 5.62 acres. 

Date of tirst irrigation June 22-23, 

Date of second irrigation July 25-31. 

Average head of water used .... 2.43 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 2.43 ft. 

RaujfaU 72ft. 

Total depth of water received . . 3.15 ft. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



32 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 




experiment No. ^O. 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Clover. 

Nature of soil Clay loam. 

Area 9.72 acres. 

Date of first irrigation June 3-6. 

Date of second irrigation July 13-17. 

Average head of water used .... 1.79 cu. ft. per aec. 

Depth of water applied 1.65 ft 

Rainfall 78 ft. 

Total depth of water received. . 2.43 ft. 



experiment No* 4'1* 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Oat3. 

Nature of soil Clay loam. 

Area 8.93 

Date of lirst irrigation Jun 

Date of second irrigation Jul; 

Average head of water used .... 1.49 

Depth of water applied 1.76 

Rainfall 54 

Total depth of water received . . 2.30 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



33 




J&xperiment No* 42* 

Location QaDatin Vallev. 

Crop Alfalfa. 

Nature of soil ( lay loam. 

Area 4.02 acres. 

Date of first irrigation June 10-11. 

Date of second irrigation July 17-18. 

Average head of water used 1.56 cu. ft. per sec. 

Depth of water applied 1.01 ft. 

Rainfall 78 ft. 

Total depth of water received. . 1.79 ft. 



Experiment No. 43* 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Barlev. 

Nature of soil Clay loam. 

Area 19.8 acres 

Date of first irrigation June 14- 17. 

Date of second irrigation July 25-30. 

Average head of water used .... 2.17 cu. ft. per sec 

Depth of water applied 97 ft. 

Rainfall 64 ft. 

Total depth of water received . . 1.61 ft. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



M 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Kxperisient No* 4<4* 

Lx.alion Gallatin Valley. 

^ 'rof) Rotation Plats. 

Nit'ireof Hoil Clay loam. 

A rt?a 6 acres. 

Dat^ uf HrKt irrigation June 26-27. 

DmIo of Keiond irrigation July 18-19. 

Average bead of water used 1.92 cu. ft. per sec 

Dopt h of water applied 1.07 ft. 

Rainfall 64 ft. 

Total depth of water received. . 1.71 ft. 

NOTE: Rainfall as given in cut is incorrect 

should be .64 ft. 



^-r/. 




/-^ 



Kxperisient No. 45* 

Location Gallatin Valley. 

Crop Clover. 

Nature of soil Iioain. 

Area; 27.84 acrecs. 

Date of first irrigation June 17-24. 

Depth of water applied 1.00 ft. 

Riiinfall .78 ft. 

Tc^al depth of water received. . 1.78 ft. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 35 



Experiment No* 4^* 

Location GallatiD Valley. 

Crop Clover. 

Nature of soil Loam. 

Area 81.3 acres 

Date of first irrigation June 6-30 

Average head of water used 0.83 cu. ft. per sec« 

Depth of water applied 3.13 ft. 

Rainfall 78 ft. 

Total depth of water received . . 3.91 ft. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



86 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION; 



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Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPEKIMENT STATION. 



37 



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Digitized by VjOOQIC 



38 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



DUTY OF IHTATER UNDKR CANAK.S- 

As has already been stated, the amount of water used under 
oanals is much greater than under laterals, or on individual forms 
or fields. This difference is reculiiy accounted for when one takes into 
consideration the porous character of most channels, the defects in 
construction and the loss due to evaporation. In addition to this, 
there is another loss. Except during the busy part of the irrigatiou 
season, most canals carry a surplus which is allowed to flow throogli. 
or over, waste-gates and return to the natural stream. The stock- 
holder of a canal company prefers to waste a part of his allowance 
rather than wait until an additional supply can be turned in at the 
headgate miles away from his farm. Hence it follows that during the 
first and last part of the irrigation season, or during a rainy spell, con- 
siderably more water is allowed to flow through the canal than is util- 
ized. In determining the duty of water under canals it was not prac- 
ticable to measure losses of this nature. Each canal was measured 
daily at some suitable point near the head and the flow expressed in 
acre-feet. It will be remembered that an acre-foot is the quantity of 
water which will cover an acre one foot deep. When the flow of ft 
canal is given in a<ire-feet it can be readily changed into miners? 
inches by multiplying the former by 20. This method is not quits 
exact but will answer for all practical purposes. In one of the aocom* 
panying tables the flow of the Big Ditch in Yellowstone county ob 
Jul)? 22, 1902, is given as 710 8-10 acre-feet. Multiplying 710 8-10 by. 
20 giyes 1421^ miners' inches. The exact number is 14,336 minert* 
inches. 
DUTY OF WATER UNDER THE BIG DITCH, YELLOWSTONE COUNH 

The canal now known as The Big Ditch is oo&.of tha lar^QsatiD thesUtfr II, 
was begun in 1882 by the Minnesota and Montana Land and Improvemeot On^ 
pany and completed several years later at a total cost of $110,000. The canal. « 
originally built, was to be .30 feet on the bottom over the upper portion, with asih 
slopes of 1 to 1, a water depth of 3 feet and grade of 2}4 f^et per mile. 

The beadgates and diversion dam of this canal are .located on a branch q( 
Yellowstone river, below the Rapids and about 11 miles above Park City. TIC 
lower terminus is near the city of Billings, 39 miles distant. There an^ no div*- 
sions on the upper portion of tho canal and the upper rating flume was in conseqi^ 
ence located at Tilde.fs rauch, about five miles below the head. The duily difr 
c large of the canal at th'is point has been determined for the past three seasons. 
The following table represents the total volumes passing this point expres;^ is 
acre-feet for the year named, the respective areas under irrigation, the depth of 
water applied and the duty of water in acres per miner's inch^ 



TEAR 


ACRE- FEET. 


ACRES. 


DEPFH IN PERT. ^ 


ACRBB 

PER IfllTEB'S 

IlfCH. 


1900 

1901 
1902 


46.995 

46,507 
73,165 


18,144 2.5« 
20,038: \ 3.65 : . 


2.13 
1.90 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXP^IIMENT iSTATION; 



39 



The- total .volumes carried In 1900 and 1901 are about equal. The canal was 
enlarged before the begiimiDg of the past season (1902) and as is shown by the 
foregoing table the volume was much increased. Part of this supply was wasted. 
Notwithstanding the quantities of water wasted the average duty of water over 
■boot 20,000 acres in Yellowstone county for the years 1901 and 1902 was at the 
nte-of one-half a miner^s inch per acre. 

hi order to familiarize the irrigators with the various units used in irrigation 
die daily discbarge of The Big Diteh for 1901 and 1902 is given in the following 
tobies in three ways, viz: in cubic feet per second. Montona miners' inched. and in 
toe-feet: 



riBLE SHOWING DISCHABQE OF THE BIG DITCH AT TILDEN'S RANCH, YBLLOW- 




STONE COUNTY, MONTANA, 


FOB THE SEASO^f OF IWi, 






1 


May. 






June. 




July. 




[ . August 




lCn.ft. 


Miner*8 


Acre 


On. ft. 


Miner*! 


Acre 


Cn. ft. Miner's 


Acre 


Cu. ft. 


Miner's 


Acre 


.persec 


. inches 


feet 


per sec. 


inches 


feet 


per sec. inches 


feet 


per see. 


inches 


feet 


1 .... 






174 


6960 


345.1 


267 10680 


529.6 


246 


9840 


487.9 


2! .... 






174 


6960 


345.1 


256 10240 


507.7 


246 


9840 


487.9 


a .... 






174 


6960 


345.1 


225 9000 


446.2 


246 


9840 


487.9 


i\ .... 






174 


6960 


345.1 


262 10080 


499.8 


246 


9840 


487.9 


5' .... 






174 


6960 


345.1 


277 11080 


549.3 


236 


9440 


468.1 


6 .... 






174 


6960 


345.1 


267 10680 


529.5 


236 


9440 


468.1 


t .... 






174 


6960 


345.1 


277 11080 


549.3 


236 


9440 


468.1 


i> .... 






174 


6960 


346.1 


288 11520 


671.2 


225 


9000 


446.2 


»: .... 






174 


6960 


345.1 


288 11620 


571.2 


225 


9000 


446.2 


10 .... 






174 


6960 


346.1 


288 11520 


571.2 


225 


9000 


446.2 


U' .... 






174 


6960 


345.1 


299 11960 


593.0 


225 


9000 


446.2 


ti ... 






174 


6960 


345.1 


299 11960 


593.0 


216 


8600 


426.4 


l^ .... 






184 


7360 


364.9 


299 11960 


593.0 


215 


8600 


426.4 


Ui 174 


eoeo .i 


;45!i 


184 


7360 


364.9 


299 1196 » 


593.0 


^7 


10280 


509.7 


15! 174 


69eo ^ 


^45.1 


164 


656.) 


325.3 


288 11520 


571.2 


257 


10280 


509.7 


le 174 


6960 a 


(45.1 


164 


6560 


325.3 


267 10680 


529.6 


246 


9840 


487.9 


Hi 174 


09f5O a 


;46.1 


164 


6660 


325.3 


267 10680 


529.5 


246 


9840 


487.9 


18 174 


6960 a 


(46.1 


164 


6560 


325.3 


257 10280 


509.7 


246 


9840 


487.9 


Ift 174 


6960 2 


^.1 


143 


5720 


283.6 


252 101-80 


499.8 


236 


9440 


468.1 


BO 174 


6960 a 


^5.1 


143 


5720 


283.6 


242 9680 


480.0 


236 


9440 


468.1 


S 174 


6960 a 


(45.1 


143 


5720 


2as.6 


232 9290 


460.1 


236 


9440 


468.1 


22, 174 


6960 a 


A6A 


112 


4480 


\m.i 


236 9440 


438.1 


236 


9440 


468.1 


»-174 
£ 174 


6960 3 


45.1 


112 


4480 


222.1 


242 9680 


480.0 
487.9 
487.9 


267 


10680 


529.5 


6960 3 


45.1 


112 


4480 


222.1 


246 9840 


257 


10280 


509.7 


J^174 


696r) a 


45.1 


91 


3640 


180.5 


246 (^840 


2:^6 


9440 


468.1 


» 174 


6960 a 


45.1 


91 


3640 


180.5 


246 9840 


487.9 


236 


9440 


468.1 


T! m 


6960 a 


45.1 


225 


9000 


446. H 


257 10280 


509.7 


; i94 


7760 


384.7 


m 174 

m 174 


6960 3 


45.1 


225 


9000 


446.3 


267 10680 


529.5 


; 184 


7360 


364.9 


6960 fl 


45.1 


246 


9840 


487.9 


267 10C80 


529.5 


1 174 


6960- 


345.1 


» 174 


J8990 3 


45.1 


277 


11080 


549.4 


255 10200 


505.7 


164 


a5eo 


325.3 


aj 174 


6960 a 


45.1 








242 9630 


480.0 


164 


6560 


325.3 


Totals 62 


11.8 






99») 5 


16243.9 




14070 6 



Sunimnry showing the amount of water applied to irrigated lands under The 
Big Ditch for tJio season of 1901: 

Duration of irrijBfation season (May 14 lo Aup. 31) 110 days. 

Area irriifHted 18.144 acres. 

Water diverted 46..^)07 acre feet. 

Average depth of water applied 2.56 feet. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



t I I ' I I I I I I * I I I I 

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Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



41 



nBLB SHOWING DISCHABOB OF THE BIG DITCH AT TILDBN'S RANCH, YELLOW- 
STONB COUNTY, MONTANA, FOB THE SEASON OF 1908. 



Au^rust. 


September. 


i 


9 . 
© 2 




di 




2 


1 




51 




^1 





11756 


582.9 


269.9 


10798 


535.3 


3 


11612 


575.8 


209.9 


10796 


535.3 




11756 


582.9 


258.0 


10820 


511.7 




11468 


568.6 


248.4 


9938 


492.7 




11756 


582.9 


238.4 


9456 


468.9 




11756 


582.9 


234.1 


9964 


464.3 




11468 


568.6 


234.1 


9964 


464.3 




11756 


582.9 


228.9 


9076 


450.0 




11652 


575.8 


222.1 


8884 


540.5 




11756 


582.9 


214.9 


8596 


426.2 




11468 


568.6 


210.1 


8404 


416.7 




11322 


5U.0 


200.6 


8024 


397.8 




11756 


582.9 


197.6 


7904 


991.9 




11756 


582.9 


191.6 


7664 


380.0 




117S6 


582.9 


167.7 


6708 


332.6 




11756 


582.9 


179.6 


7184 


356.2 




11468 


568.6 


167.7 


6708 


332.6 




10892 


540.1 


179.6 


7184 


336.2 




11276 


559.1 


167.7 


6708 


332.6 




10882 


540.1 


176.6 


7064 


350.2 




11296 


539.1 


191.6 


7664 


380.0 




11296 


559.1 


167.7 


6708 


332.6 




11296 


559.1 


164.7 


6588 


326.6 




9076 


451.0 


143.8 


5752 


285.2 




9076 


451.0 


140.8 


5632 


279.2 




11468 


568.6 


131.2 


5248 


260.2 




11468 


568.6 


137.8 


5512 


273.3 




11756 


582.9 


128.2 


5128 


2M.2 




11948 


592.4 


131.2 


5248 


260.2 




11948 


592.4 


128.2 


5128 


254.2 




10968 


&44.8 












17468.9 






11442.9 













D irrigated lands under The 

:. 30) 140 days. 

20,tt38 acres. 

73,165 acre-feet. 

3.65 feet. 

Root Valley. 

^r three vears investigations have been conducted in the Bitter Root Valley 
l»4ietermine the quantity of water used in irrigation and the various losses in its 
OODveyance. The greater part of the work was performed on the Bitter Root stock 
farm, the property of the late Hon. Marcus Daly. The conditions on this farm are 
favorable for .such investigations. Through the co-operation of the Superinten- 
dent, Mr. P. J. Shannon, and the irrigation engineer, Mr. m. D. Kippen, accurate 
data have been secured in regard to the area of land irrigated and the kinds of 
crops raised. The results obtained in 1900 were published in Bulletin No. 29 of 
this station. Bulletin No. 119 of the office of Experiment Stations contains the 
results of the investigations made in 1901 while the following tables give a sum- 
mary of the data obtained in 1902. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



44 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



DUTY OP WATER UNDER THE HEDGE CANAL, 
RAVALLI COUNTY, MONTANA. 

The Hedge canal diverts water from the Bitter Root river a number of miles 
above the Republican canal. This canal is 24 miles long and irrigated duriof; the 
past season 5,420 acres of tirst bench lands immediately above the areas covered 
by the Republican canal. The upper portion skirts the river and consists chiefly 
of flumes and inverted siphons. There are about five miles of flumes and 1,100 
feet of redwood stave pipe. The greatest flow during the season of 1902 was 5,092 
miners' inches, and occurred June 21 and 22. 

Plate III shows by diagrams the quantity of water flowing past the upper 
measuring flume and also the depths of water applied to the irrigated land each 
month. 
DAILY DISCHARGE OF THE HEDGE CANAL, AS MEASURED IMMEDIATELY BELOW 

THE WASTE-GATES, WHICH ARE LOCATED ABOUT 8,000 FEET BELOW THE 
HEAD-GATES. APRIL U TO SEPTEMBER 80, 1902. 



Day 


APRIL 


MAY 


JUNE 


JULY 


AL'OUST 


SEPT. 




Acre-Feet. 


Acre-Feet. 


Acre-Feet. 


Acre-Feet. 


Acre-Feet. 


Acre-Feet. 


1 




151.7 
151.7 


146.3 
146.3 


242.1 
242.1 


211.2 
211.2 


189.8 


2 




189.8 


3 




146.3 
146.3 
151.7 
151.7 
135.7 
189.8 
189.8 
189.8 
189.8 
191.7 
216.4 
211.2 


124.9 
113.8 
124.9 
130.1 
135.4 
155.3 
189.8 
198.4 
198.4 
216.4 
226.7 
237.0 


242.1 
62.8 
211.2 
211.2 
211.2 
211.2 
178.5 
178.5 
178.5 
178.5 
178.5 
198.4 


211.2 
211.2 
211.2 
211.2 
211.2 
211.2 
211.2 
211.2 
211.2 
211.2 
211.2 
211.2 


189.8 


4 




189.8 


5 




189.8 


6 




189.8 


7 




189.8 


8 




189.8 


9 




189.8 


10 




189.8 


11 




178.5 


12 




178.5 


13 




178.5 


14 


46.2 


1W.8 


15 


62.8 


155.3 


242.1 


198.4 


211.2 


180.3 


16 


62.8 


211.2 


242.1 


198.4 


211.2 


ia».8 


17 


62.8 


189.8 


231.8 


198.4 


211.2 


1».8 


18 


81.9 


189.8 


242.1 


178.5 


211.2 


180.8 


10 


81.9 


189.8 


242.1 


178.5 


194.7 


180.8 


20 


81.9 


189 8 


242.1 


178.5 


194.7 


178.5 


21 


92.2 


178.5 


252.5 


146.3 


194.7 


178.5 


22 


103.3 


178.5 


252.5 


146.3 


189 8 


178.5 


23 


103.3 


178.5 


242.1 


178.5 


189.8 


189.8 


24 


ia3.3 


178.5 


2i2.1 


178.5 


183.0 


189.8 


25 


135.1 


178.5 


242.1 


211.2 


189.8 


189.8 


26 


14'».8 


167.8 


242.1 


198.4 


189.8 


189.8 


27 


140.8 


167.8 


247.3 


198.4 


189.8 


189.8 


28 


140.8 


167.8 


247.3 


198.4 


189.8 


189.8 


29 


140.8 


167.8 


247.3 


216.4 


189.8 


189.8 


30 


140.8 


167.8 


242.1 


216.4 


189.8 


189.8 


31 




167.8 




211.2 


189.8 





DUTY OP WATER UNDER THE HEDGE CANAL. 



Area irrigated 

Water used 

Average depth of water applied 

Duty of wat6r in acres per miner's inch . 



.acres 
. acre-feet 
.feet 
.acres 



1901. 

5.260 

20,883 

3.97 

J-64 



1902. 

5,420 

31.274 

6.76 

1.46 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



46 


M0NT4JJA 


EXPERIMENT STATION 




-tj- 


It 


DUTY OP WATER UNDER THE WARD CANAL. 


The Ward canal diTerta water from the Skalkaho creek, a tributiiry o! thft 


Bitter Root river. In 1902 this canal irrigated 3,985 acres of bench l&nd.s located 


above the Hedge canal. It is 7 miles long, has a bottom width of about 8 feet and 


is built on a grade of 5.28 feet per mile. The greatest flow during 1902 was23Q0 


miners' inches and occurred June 23 to July 3. 


Plate IV shows by means of a diagram the daily discharges for 1902 and tte 


average depths of water applied each month of the irrigation season. 


DAILY DISCHARGE OF THE WARD CANAL, AS MEASURED AT THE OLD FLU« 


NEAR THE HEAD ON SKALKAHO CREEK, APRIL 18 TO SEPTEMBER SO, 1£(C 


Day 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Sept. 




Acre-Fe«t. 


Acre-Feet. 


Acre-Feet. 


Acre-Feet. 


Acre Feet, 


Acre-Feet 


1 




17.6 
17.6 
13.2 
13.2 
13.2 
13.2 
22.8 
22.8 
51.7 
69.4 
69.4 
88.2 
88.2 
88.2 
51.7 

107.9 
88.2 

107.9 


118.4 
118.4 
118.4 
97.7 
• 97.7 
107.9 
107.9 
118.4 
118.4 
118.4 
118.4 
118.4 
128.3 
128.3 
128.3 
128.3 
128.3 
128.3 


138.8 

138.8 

138.8 

35.9 

107.9 

107.9 

107.9 

107.9 

88.2 

88.2 

88.2 

97.7 

88.2 

81.6 

88.2 

88.2 

88.2 

88.2 


51.7 
51.7 
51.7 
35.9 
35.9 
35.9 
35.9 
35.9 
22.8 
22.8 
22.8 
22.8 
22.8 
22.8 
22.8 
22.8 
22.8 
22.8 


13.2 
13.2 
13.2 
13.2 
13.2 
13.2 
13.2 
13.2 

6.7 

6.7 

6.7 

6.7 

6.7 

6.7 

6.7 

6.7 , 

6.7 ' 

6.7 


2 




3 




4 




5 




6 




7 




8 




9 




10 




11 




12 




13 




14 




15 




16 




17 




18 


^^^^^-■' 


19 


22.8 


107.9 


128.3 


51.7 


22.8 


6.7 


20 


22.8 


101.9 


128.3 


51.7 . 


22.8 


6.7 


21 


29.1 


97.7 


128.3 


51.7 


22.8 


6.7 


22 


22.8 


97.7 


128.3 


51.7 


22.8 


6.7 


23 


13.2 


97.7 


138.8 


69.4 


22.8 


6.7 


24 


13.2 


107.9 


138.8 


69.4 


17.6 


6.7 


25 


13.2 


128.3 


138.8 


69.4 


17.6 , 6.T 1 


26 


13.2 


128.3 


138.8 


88.2.. 


17.6 


6.7. 


27 


13.2 


118.4 


138.8 


69,4:. 


V 17.6 


€r.3 


28 


13.2 


97.7 


138.8 , 


69.4, .- 


lt.6 


6.7 


29 


. 13.2 


. 88.2 


; 138.8 


51.7 ^ 


17.6 


6.7 


30 


17.6 ' 


88.2 


138.8 


51.7 


17.6 


6.7 


31 


• ••.'•/ •.'.»... 


107.9 


....■.:'.. ^, . ; 


51.7 


6.7 










,. /'oUTtO^ WATEJt UNDER WARD CANAL. 1901, 1901 


Area- Irrigal^ acres 3,587 3JQ8^ 


Water used acre feet 8,626 9S8I 


ATerage depth of vrater applied . .feet 2.41 2J9 ^ 


Duty of water in acres per miner's inch aores 2,81 3JA ^ 










Digitize 


dbyGoOgl 


e 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



4b 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



DUTY OF WATER UNDER SKALKAHO CANAL. 

This canal, which is also supplied from Skolkaho creek is about 7 miles Iodc, 
of which 2^ miles consist of flumes 4 feet 8 inches wide inside, by 2 feet 8 inches 
high, ^he^radeis 5.28 feet per mile throughout. The greatest flow for the sea- 
son of 1902 was 2,796 miners* inches and occurred July 1 and 2. 

The diagram illustrating the flow on Plate V indicates considerable fluctuatioD 
in the flow. 

DAILY DISCHARGK OF SKALKAHO CANAL, AS MEASURED JUST ABOVE THB 
UPPER SIPHON AND AHOUT TWO MILES BELOW THE HEAD, APRILS 
TO SEPTEMBER 20, UtTJ. 



DAY 


APRIt. 


MAY. 1 JUNK. 


JULY. 


AUGUST. 


SEPT. 




Acre-Foot. 


Acre-Feet, i Acre-Feet. 

, 1 


Ac re- Feet. 


.Acre- Feet. 


Aere-Fe«t 


1 




30.1 

:^).i 
:3o.i 

3).l 


73.3 - 
73.3 
73.3 
73.3 


138.6 

13i<.6 

91.2 

22.3 


82.3 
82.3 
82.3 
82.3 


61.2 


2 




61.2 


3 




54.3 


4 


• 


54.3 


5 




39.1 
39.1 
5 1.9 

57.7 


120.0 
120.0 
12).0 
120.0 


13-?. 6 

91.2 

12J.0 

120.0 


82.3 
82.3 
82.3 
82.3 


54.3 


6 




54.3 


7 




54.3 


8 


■"13.2"'" 


54.3 


9 


10. 1 


r4.») 


120.0 


12).0 


120.0 


54,3 


10 


19.2 


73.3 


91.2 


120.0 


82.3 


50.9 


11 


13.2 


73.3 


120.0 


82.3 


120.0 


48.0 


12 


13.2 


73.3 : j2).0 


12).0 


L34.4 


48.0 


13 


13.2 


73.2 12 '.0 


12).n 


82.3 


48.0 


14 


13.2 


73.3 i i::o.o 


12».0 


123.0 


48.0 


15 


13.2 


7:L3 I 12».t) 


1:^.4 


120.0 


48.0 


16 


13.:l 
17.1 


73 i 




130.1 
12 '.0 


12 '.O 
73.3 


48.0 


17 


73.3 


"" 126.6 " 


48.0 


18 


3;).i 


73. i 


120.0 


82.3 


73.3 


48.0 


19 


25.0 


OJ.'t i 12!). 


82.3 


73.3 


48.0 ' 


20 


2-).i) 


61.6 12').') 


' 82.3 


73.3 


50.9 


21 


2->.0 


ri.6 1 120.0 


82.3 


77.7 


50.9 


22 


2'yA) 


fJ.") v-o.o 


V.li.i 


77.7 


50.9 


23 


2r>.o 


7i. : , r. 0. ) 


120.0 


6S.3 


50.9 


24 . 


22. i 


• 1\') ' ?.\i) 


13!. 1 


64.6 


48.0 


25 


22.3 


0'.: : \l\0 


iro.o 


6-?. 8 


64.6 


26 


2^ '^' 


i: ^•I .■ ]::k « 


8.?. 3 


64.6 


61.2 


27 


2-;; 9 


H ' •• ' r>^^, 


82.3 


64.6 


61.2 


2S 


25.9 


s.:^> )-:i.i 


82.3 


64.6 


61.2 


29 


'.-!."». > 


v\ '. . 13 '.1 


12 .0 


61.2 


61.2 


.30 


i:.:) 


• s\ ) '::i.i 


i20.!) 


61.2 


61.2 


31 




1 0.0 


1^0 •> 


57.7 












DUTY OP WATER UNDEI 


I SKALKAHO C 


ANAL. 

1901. 


1901 


Area 


Trriufjited . . . 




acres 


1.600 


1.915 


Wat^ 


r u-('H 




acre fe< 


3t 7,494 


ia423 


Av« I 


AV" .:< V h of 


WMter Jipplicd 


feet 


4.68 


a79 


Dut} 


/ of water in 


itT( s per iiiin 


er's inch 


...... acres 


1.40 


121 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



50 



MONTANA. EXPERIMENT 



STATION". 






DUTY-OF WATER UNDERGtRO -CRbl^li CiiNA^ 

The entire flow of Gird Creek £s "utilized" for irrigation '' purposes during the 
summer months by means of two canals. Of the<^ South Gird canal Is the nigber 
and irrigates lands beyond the end of the Skalkaho, Canal.-- South Gird. canal, or 
ditch, is six feet wid6 on the bottdm. two feet deep'and is built 6n a grade of '5^ 
fe^ per mile. NortU Qird canal is of about the same dimensions and irri- 
gates the lands lying north of Gird Creek and above the Ward canal. Daring the 
pafit season the maxitaum flow of the North canal was 1,128 miners* inches and of 
the South canal 1.660 miners' inches. " "~t 

The following table with the accompanying diagram represents the di5;charge 
of South canal for 19vl2, while the remaining table gives the duty of water under 
the North canal. 



DAY, 


APRIL. 


MAY. 


JUNB, 


JULY. 


AUG. 


RKPT. 




Acre-Feet. 


Acre-Feet. 


Acre-Feet. 


Acre-Feet. 


Acre-Feet. 


Acre-Feet. 


1 




21.62 


- 65.26 


73.79 


. 96.43 


56.43 


2 




21.62 


73.79 


73.79 


65^.26 


56.43 


3 




21.62 


73.79 


73.79 


65.26 


56.43 


4 




21.62 


78.15 




56.43 


56.43 


5 




21.62 


82 32 


78.15 


65,26 


56.43 


6 




30.35 


78.15 


82 32 


53.79 


.43 


7 




30.a'> 


78.15 


78.15 


73.78 


30,36 


8 




30.35 


82.^ 


73.79 


82.32 ' 


30.^ 


9 


'7^79 


30.35. 


78.15 


65.26 


82.32 


30.35 


10 


8.62 


30.35 


73.79 


, 30.35 


73.79 


30.35 


11 


7.79 - 


65.26 


73.79 


30.35 


73.79 


30.35 


12 


7.79 


65.26 


73.79 


39.17 ' 


73.79 


30.K 


13 


7 76 


65.26 


73.79 


47.78 


^.32 


15.51 


U 


4.49 


65.26 


82.32 


47.78 


73.79 


15.51 


15 


4.46 


a-). 26 


82.32 


47.78 


73.79 


30.35 


16 


4 46 


65.26 


82.32 


39.17 


73.79 


30.35 


17 


6.84 


76.27 


73.79 


39.17 


65.26 


30. 3i 


18 


11.70 


76.27 


73.79 


39.17 


65.25 


30.35 


19 


12t)6 


a5.26 


73.79 


39.17 


65.26 


30.35 


20 


15.51 


65.26 


.73.79 


39.17 


65.26 


30.35 


21 


15.51 


65.26 


73.79 


39.17 


65.26 


30.35 


22 


21.62 


73.79 


7.3 79 


, 47.78 ' 


65.28 


30.35 


23 


21.62 


73 79 


73.79 


47.78 


65.26 


30.35 


24 


15.51 


73.79 


82.32 ' 


39.17 


65.26 


30.35 


25 


15.51 


73.79 


82.32 


39.17 


56.43 


39.17 


26 


15.51 


65.26 


73.79 


47,78 


56.43 


39.17 


27 


21.62 


a5.26 


82.32 


47.78 


56.43 


39.17 


28 


21.62 


73.79 


82.32 


47.78 


56.43 


39.17 


29 


21 62 


82.32 


82 32 


5.16 


56.43 


21.62 


30 


21.62 


73.79 


78.15 


5 16 


56.43 


21.62 


31 




73.79 




3.97 


47.78 





DJTY OP W.KTER UNDER THE NORTH GIRD CREEK CANAL. 

1901. 1M2. 

Aren irriffwted acres 1.211 1345 

Water us<'d acre-feet 1.759 4.710 

Avcrapf* Hopth of water applied * feet 1.45 360 

Duty of \vat< r in acn s rer minfr'.s inch acres 2.56 2.04 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



52 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



DUTY OF WATER IN GALLATIN VALLEY. 

During the past four years the quantities of water used on the farms watered 
by the Middle Creek Canal have been measured. In 1902 tHe investigatioos were 
extended to include the West Gallatin Irrigation Company's c&nal and the 
Kughen, Weaver and Stone, and Monforten ditches, the combined flow of which 
irrigates about 7,800 acres. Only the results of the Middle Creek Canal are giren 
in this bulletin. 

DUTY OF WATER UNDER MIDDLE CREEK CANAL. 

This canal taps Middle Crei k at a point about 3 miles below the canyon, ei 
tends in a northeasterly direction for a distance of about 5 raUes and irrigates the 



DAILY DISCHARGE OF MIDDLE CREEK CANAL, AS MEASURED NEAR THE HEAD- 
GATES, FOR THE SEASON OF 1902. 





MAY. 

.§1 %t 
a.2 <•£ 


JUNE. 


JULY. 


ArOCBT. 


Date. 
1 


S.2 <^ 

1508.4 74.8 
1200.0 59.4 
1256.4 62.3 
1684.8 a3.5 
1975.2 97.9 
2' 21.6 100.4 
2287.6 113.4 
2426.2 120.3 
2599.6 128.9 
3170.8 157.2 
3164.0 157 2 
3150.4 156.2 
3260.0 161.6 
2422.4 120.1 
2299.6 114.3 
2159.6 107.1 
1979.6 98.1 
1443.2 71.5 
1306.8 64.7 
1857.2- .63. a 
1357.6 67.3 
1807.6 89.6 
2510.8 124.7 
2663.2 132.0 
2548.4 126.3 
2387.6 118.4 
2167.2 107.4 
1466.4 72.7 
1372.8 68.0 
1420.4 70.4 


II 

1262.4 
1161.2 
804.8 
564.0 
444.0 
388.0 
431.2 
551.2 
734.0 
788.0 
772.2 
867.2 
933.6 
996.0 
1114.0 
1194.4 
1268.0 
1162.4 
972.0 
893.6 
924.4 
936.4 
958.8 
996.8 
1001.2 
936.8 
878.0 
854.8 
844.8 
919.2 
909.2 


li 

62.5 
57.5 
39.9 
27.9 
22.0 
19.2 
21.4 
27.3 
36.4 
38.7 
38.2 
43.0. 
46.2 
49.3 
56.7 
59.2 
62.8 
57.6 
48.2 
44.3 
45.8 
46.4 
47.5 
49.4 
49.6 
46.4 
43.5 
42.3 
41.9 
45.6 
45.0 


II 

886.8 
818.8 
792-0 
801-6 
747.2 
754.8 
751.6 
795.6 
811.2 
764.8 
766.4 
804.4 
834.8 
710.8 
842.0 
833.2 
862.0 
792.0 
645.6 
667.2 
621.6 
619.6 
350.0 


43.9 


^ 




40.6 


3 




39.2 


4 




39.7 


f) 




37.0 


6 




.37.4 


7 




37.2 


8 




39.4 


9 




40.2 


10 
11 
12 
13 





37.9 
38.0 
39.8 
41.4 


14 




35.2 


15 




41.7 


16 




41.3 


17 




42.7 


1R 




39.2 


19 




32.0 


20 




33.0 


21 




30.8 


22 




30.7 


2-3 




17.3 


24 






25 






26 






27 


110.4 5.4 

721.6 25.7 

1307.2 64.8 

1544.0 76.5 

1821.2 90.3 




28 




29 




30 




31 












262.7 


3.094.3 


1,363.0 1 


856-6 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 



53 



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Digitized by VjOOQIC 



54 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

farms south-west of Bozemao, iDcludiDg that of the Experiment Station. In the 
spring of 1899 a rating station was established just below the main headgates and 
the daily discharge has been, determined for four successive seasons. In 1899 the 
area irrigated was obtained by interviewing each stockholder, whose statement 
was taken as. the acreage on his farm watered from this source. The same acreage 
was used in 1900 but in 1901 a new census was taken which showed that the ex- 
tent of land irrigated had decreased. During the past season Assistant ProfiBSsor 
Baker, with the aid of several advanced students in civil engineering, made a com- 
plete plane table survey of Middle Creek and the district irrigated by means of 
ditches from \his source. The acreage under this canal as contained in the fol- 
lowing table may therefore be relied on. In 1899. 1135 acres were summerfallowed 
under this, canal while in 1902 there were only 344 acres. A highly profitable 
clover xn-op being in nearly every case substituted for the unprofitable fallow-land 

PUTY OP WATER UN PER MIDDLE CREEK CANAL. 

Area Irrigated acres 

Water used acre-feet 

Average depth of water applied feet 

Duty of water in acres per miner's 

inch acres 2.19 2.75 2.26 a78 



1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


3,853 

8,074 
2.10 


3,853 

7,324 

1.90 


3,186 

7,454 

234 


4328 

5,577 

105 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 55 



CONTBNT8. 



lotroductioD JJ. 

Duly of water 3. 

Ascertaining the duty of water *. 5. 

Cooditioos affecting the duty of water 5. 

The importance of a knowledge of the duty of water 9. 

Amount of water used ft. 

Tables and i iiustrations 10. 

Experiments 1-46 12-35. 

Tible No. 1, (doty of water) 36-37. 

Duly of water under canals .' 38. 

Big Ditch 3^. 

Duty of water in the Bitter Root Talley 41. 

Republican Canal 42. 

Hedge Canal 44. 

Ward Canal 46. 

Skalkaho Canal 48. 

Gird Canal 50. 

Duty of water in Gallgtin Valley 52. 

Middle Creek Canal 52. 



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; ..b 



y- v« ,, ^ 



JJ 

BULLETIN NO. 44 



MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 



Experiment Station 



OF THE 



AeRICULTURAL C011E6E OF MONTANA 



APPLE GROWING IN MONTANA 



BOZEMAN, nONTANA, FEBRUARY, 1903 



1902 

Tk« Avant Conrl«r PubllAhlnft Co. 

Bos«Bi«n« Montana 



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HARVARD COLLEGE LIBftARH 
TRANSFEft.lED FROM 
3USSEy INSTirUTION 

riontana Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Bozeman, Montana. 



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

Joseph K. Toole, Governor 1 

James Donovan. Attorney General >ex-officio Helena 

W. W. Welch, Supt. of Public Instruction J 

N. W. McCoNNELL Helena 

W. M. Johnson Billings 

O. P. Chisholm Bozeman 

J. G. McKay Missoula 

G.T.Paul Dillon 

N- B. HoLTER Helena 

J. M. Evans Missoula 

Chas. R. Leonard Butte 



EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

Walter S. Hartman, President Bozeman 

John M. Robinson, Vice President Bozeman 

Peter Koch, Secretary Bozeman 

Joseph Kountz Bozeman 

B. B. Lamme Bozeman 



STATION STAFF. 

Samuel Fortier, Ma. E Director and Irrigation Engineer 

F. W. TR4PHAGEPi, Ph. D., F. C. S Chemist 

J. W. Blankinship, Ph. D Botanist 

R. A. CooLEY, B. Sc Entomologirt 

F. B. LiNFiELD, B. S. A Agriculturist 

R. W. Fisher, B. S Assistant Horticultiuist 

Edmund Burke Assistant Chemist 

H. C. Gardiner Manager Poultry Department 



Post Office, Express and Freight Station, Bozeman. 



All communications for the Experiment Station should be 
addressed to the Director, 

Montana Experiment Station, 

Bozeman, Montaxia. 



Notice* — The Bulletins of the Station will be mailed free to 
any citizen of Montana who sends his name and address to tbe 
Station for that purpose. i ^^^i^ 

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Montana Experiment Station. 



ulletln No. 44 - - - - February, 1003 



^PPLE GROWING IN MONTANA. 



R. W. FISHER. 



Introduction. 



The people outside the natural fruit districts are fast realizing the 
let that apples can be successfully grown in the higher altitudes of 
lis state, and in many places where was once a barren waste, or 
attle range, are now to be found young orchards, which are surely 
estined to produce fruit, and become a source of revenue to the 
irm. 

The failures of the past in growing apple trees have been due to 
ne or several of the following reasons : 

1. Tender or worthless varieties . 

2. Uncongenial soils. 

3. Poor planting. 

4. Insufficient or indifferent care after planting, or many causes 
hat result in failure, in even more favored localities than ours. 

However these attempts, although a failure was the immediate 
esult, have been of very great value to the interests of horticulture, 
[1 that they have shown the varieties that can be successfully grown, 
nd the methods best to pursue in the growing of these varieties. 

With the exception of the Bitter Root valley, and possibly the 
'lathead and Yellowstone valleys, the question is, and has been. 



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76 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

ing more numerous, and because of the present tendency of stockmen 
to purchase and fence the ranges for their exclusive use, so that, 
while formerly there was no disposition to do more than avoid the 
"poison localities,*' the increased value of these ranges and private 
ownership now demand methods for the destruction of these injur- 
ious plants, so as to prevent unnecessary losses. 

A glance at the literature of the subject will show that consid- 
erable work has already been done by the various Experiment Sta- 
tions of the Northwest and more recently the work has been taken 
up by the Division of Botany of the Department of Agriculture, 
under the direction of Mr. V. K. Chesnut and several important 
papers have been published. The history of the work at this Sta- 
tion begins in 1895 when Dr. F. W. Traphagen took up the subject 
from the chemical standpoint, being joined the following year by 
Dr. E. V. Wilcox, the Zoologist and Veterinarian of the Station, co- 
operating with Dr. Bird, then State Veterinarian. The work was 
continued by Dr. Wilcox till 1899, when he went to Washington 
and the investigations have since been mainly under direction of the 
Botanist. The results of these studies have been presented in bulle- 
tins 15 and 22 by Dr. Wilcox and in the present issue. 

From the investigation of a large number of cases of stock 
poisoning it appears that some 95 per cent of such losses in this 
state is due to five or six species of plants, or more strictly, group.- 
of related species; namely, the loco, lupine, water hemlock, death 
camas, larkspur and wild parsnip, and that while cases of poisoning 
by other plants may. and, doubtless do occur, these cases are rela- 
tively few and need not here be considered. The not infrequently 
fatal effects of alkali on the eastern ranges have been largely attribut- 
ed to plant poisons and have served to swell the total and complicate 
the symptoms. 

The object of this bulletin is to present a brief summary of our 
present knowledge of these poisonous plants — conclusions reached 
by the field-work of three seasons and from a study of the various 
bulletins and papers already published on the subject, in order that 
these plants may be recognized and the conditions under which the 
poisoning occurs be known, as well as the symptoms of such poison- 
ing and the usual remedies. It must be remembered that as yet the 
exact symptoms of the different poisons in many cases have not been 
clearly determined, nor have efficient remedies been foimd, the sub- 
ject being yet in the experimental stage, while for the successful 
solution of the Tarious problems involved, the co-operation in experi- 
mental work of a veterinarian and a botanist with the aid of a chemist 
or pharmacist is necessary to secure the best results by the experi- 
mental feeding of these suspected plants in their various stages 
directly to the animals themselves, noting the quantity fed. the 
resulting symptoms and effects, as shown by examination after death, 
while later the work of seeking antidotes for these variouspojsons can 

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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 77 

be undertaken. Work of this nature is expensive and can be per- 
formed only in localities where these plants grow, while as yet the 
desired co-operation of men and means has not been secured. 

An attempt has been made to bring together at the end a 
brief synopsis of the symptoms of these poisons and the usual 
conditions when losses occur, in order that the stockman may be able 
to determine the cause of any case of poisoning that may arise. 

There is also added a bibliography of the literature of the 
plants poisonous to stock in America, exclusive of the Fungi, as far 
as our library facilities here permit, and this may be of service to 
other investigators and stockmen who care to pursue the subject 
further. For the more exhaustive treatment of several phases of 
the subject, the stockmen of Montana are referred to the bulletin 
of Chesnut and Wilcox on the **Stock-Poisoning Plants of Mon- 
tana" issued by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, to which we are 
indebted for figures 2, 3 and 6. Fig. i is from Vasey in the Report of 
the U. S. Commissioner of Agriculture for 1884, while the remain- 
ing figures are by students in this institution, figures 3 and 4 by 
Jacob Vogel and 6 by Amy M. Cooke. 

Valuable assistance has also been rendered by Dr. M. E. 
Knowles, State Veterinarian, in the prosecution of this investigation, 
and I wish also to thank the many stockmen in the various parts of 
the state, who have aided me in this work, while without the efficient 
co-operation of the railways of the state, such work could hardly have 
been attempted. 



CONDITIONS OF POISONING. 

The investigations here undertaken seem to show that stock- 
poisoning by plants is more frequent in certain sections of the state, 
in certain seasons of the year and during certain weather conditions 
and a knowledge of these zoiles, seasons and conditions may aid 
in materially reducing the losses from this cause. 

The chief poison zones of the state are nearly confined to the 
foothills of the various mountain ranges east of the Continental 
Divide and to the high bench lands of the plains eastward. There 
has been little complaint from the extreme eastern or western parts of 
the state. These poison zones are characterized by the abundance of 
the larkspurs, lupines, death camas and wild parsnip, which are far 
less frequent or eiltirely absent further east or west. The loco zone 
is a well defined section near the central part of the state, while the 
water hemlock is frequent along streams from the foothills westward, 
being rare or entirely absent in the eastern plains. It is not the pres- 
ence, but the abundance of these various plants, that determines 
these poison zofles. The death camas is found in nearly every part 
of the state, but is abundant only in certain localities; the ^^c^^A^qIp 

igi ize y g 



78 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

occurs throughout the plains region of the United States and Canada, 
but is abundant only in certain parts of this region, where the poison- 
ing mainly occurs. 

The chief period of danger is in early spring from April 15 to 
June 15, more commonly from May i to May 15. It is during this 
period that the death camas, the larkspur the water hemlock and the 
wild parsnip are most apt to be eaten, as their herbage is then young 
and tender and theie is much evidence to indicate that they are far 
more poisonous before they come into bloom ; the first two fruit and 
die earlyin July while the others become coarse and unpalatable. This 
is also during the rainy season, when the ground is soft, and the more 
poisonous roots of these various plants may occasionally be pulled 
up, particularly by cattle. Periods of continous rain cause stock to 
seek shelter, from which they come forth hungry and use less selec- 
tion in their choice of forage, while they are apt to overeat the wet 
rank vegetation and in consequence suffer from bloat and occasional 
poison. Late snows also cover the more edible grasses and force stock 
to eat the taller and often poisonous plants, like the large larkspur, the 
lupine and the water hemlock. Poisoning from loco is also more com- 
mon during this same period when its conspicuous flowers point it out 
to lambs and the *ioco eaters" and its green, fresh condition makes 
it more palatable. The lupine on the contrary, is mpst deadly in July 
and August, as it m.atures its seeds and its green herbage renders it 
conspicuous among the dry vegetation, while it is at this period that 
sheep are apt to be moved to the mountatin and foothill pastures 
where the lupines are abundant. There are also not infrequent cases 
of poisoning in the winter by lupine hay or "slough hay" containing 
much water hemlock, occasionally even by the dry stalks and seeds 
of the lupine found on the range3. 

It mnst also be remembered that stock on their usual pasture* 
and under normal conditions are not apt to be poisoned by these 
plants, even if abundant, but after times of rain or snow they should 
be looked after and stock of any kind driven to a new range or when 
hot and hungry, are apt to eat to excess unpalatable and poisonous 
plants. Hence in changing ranges or in trailing stock from one h>* 
cality to another, it is necessary that more care than usual be exer- 
cised to prevent them from eating these poisonous plants until thcf 
become accustomed to their new conditions. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 79 

LOCO. 

>x]rtropis Lamberti Pursh, or Aragallus spicatus (H6ok.) Rydb. 

The White Loco Weed is a small pea-like plant, six inches to a 
x>t high, with conspicuous white or cream-colored flowers from a 
liick woody persistent root, and is fairly well represented in Fig. i. 
Tie " White Loco'* is distributed over nearly the whole plains 
egion of the United States from Alberta and Assiniboia south into 
lexico, and from Minnesota and Kansas westward to the Rockies. 
Extensive losses of stock attributed to this species are reported in 
few Mexico, Colorado and Montana and to a less extent in most of 
le other states embraced in the region mentioned. In southern Cali- 
)mia and some other states the loco is attributed to other plants 
nd in particular to two species of Astragalus (A. mollissimus Torn 
nd A. Homii Gray) neither of which are native here. In Montana 
iie white loco is found throughout all the eastern plains and is not 
ifrequent in the ''mountain meadows" up to 8000 feet altitude. It 
as not been found west of the Continental Divide, although it occurs 
n this Divide in the vicinity of Feeley some ten miles south of 
►utte. To this species (O. Lamberti) must be attributed all or 
early all the cases of loco in this state, as the poisoning occurs only 
1 sections where it is abundant and the other species suspected are 
X) few or too scattered to do much damage. The white loco weed 
) very unevenly distributed over the section named and appears not 
3 be found in sufficient abundance to be dangerous except in the 
entral "loco zone" extending from Livingston to Billings and from 
tie mountains on the south, northward to the Musselshell, and 
round the Little Belt and Highwood Mountains. Reports of loco 
ave come from a few other localities in the state, but nowhere else 
ave losses from this cause been heavy and constant. Indeed, in 
Dme parts of this "loco zone" the losses sometimes average as high 
5 50 per cent of the lambs produced and in several localities the 
heepmen have been compelled to dispose of their sheep and stock 
p with cattle. Yet it must not be supposed that the loco is equally 
nd abundantly distributed over all this section. It is found mainly 
long dry rocky ridges or gravel plains, but exhibits great capacity 
)r growing in nearly every kind of soil. Over much of this area 
(le traveler will look in vain for a single specimen, while in other 
)calities of similar soil, perhaps immediately adjacent, the plains will 
e white with its conspicuous flowers. This irregularity of distribu- 
lon may be due in part to the difference in soil, but must be mainly 
ttributed to the fact that it is a relatively recent introduction into 
le state and that it is spreading from the infected centers. There 
5" considerable evidence to show that the buffalo were the original 
gfents of its introduction, either through having eaten the mature 
eeds and then scattered them in their offal or from their habit of wal*^ 

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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 81 

)wing in the dust and thus carrying the seeds in their hair for con- 
derable distances through their well known migratory habits. The 
sual presence of the loco weed in the vicinity of the **buffalo wal- 
)ws" and its not infrequently abundant distribution in the higher 
lountain meadows along with abundant signs of the buffalo and in 
ituations, such as the Tobacco Root Range, where sheep or other 
tock are not tansfcrred from a loco section, tend to support this 
leory. 

The evidence also seems to show that the loco is slowly spread- 
ig from the '*loco zone" northward and eastward and that the sheep 
re now the main instruments of its dispersion and more abundant 
rowth, both by spreading the seeds in their offal and in particu- 
ir through their tramping in those seeds where already distributed 
hen the ground is soft in the spring. It will also be observed that 
lis "loco zone" is just that part of the state which has longest been 
iven over to the pasturage of sheep. 

It has been the general experience of the stockmen in this state 
lat sheep are the chief sufferers from this poison, horses frequently 
nd cattle are rarely affected. It is also a matter of common observa- 
on that it is the \oung sheep and colts that are affected, more fre- 
iiently yearlings, while the older sheep and horses, grazing along 
ith the others are rarely known to acquire the loco habit. It is 
Iso asserted by the stockmen that the animals teach the habit to 
ach other and there is nothing improbable in the statement when we 
Dnsider their imitative nature, particularly in the matter of graz- 

The loco is a slow poison and appears to affect primarily the 
ervous system, so that animals addicted to the habit become stupid, 
ander from the herd, step high, their eyes are glassy, their front 
?eth grow long and become loose, their coat becomes shaggy and 
ley seek the loco weed and will eat nothing else if it can be obtained, 
hey not only eat the plant itself, but dig for the roots with their hoofs, 
hey appear to have false ideas of form, size and distance and horses 
1 particular when they get hot or exhausted are apt to become 
'antic, whence the term *ioco" or crazy has been applied to the dis- 
ase. Moreover, the effects are usually lasting and no remedy has 
et been found. Horses are permanently injured, as their "crazy" 
pells disqualifies them for hard \york and but few cases of recovery 
rom the effects of the poison have been noted. Sheep left on the 
anges where the loco is found become worse and worse, their teeth 
ecome black and loose, they eat nothing but loco and they finally 
ie from sheer inability to obtain sufficient food and water to sustain 
ife. Once the habit is fixed, if left on the range they never recover, 
Ithough they may linger along for several years before death, so 
hat many of the stockmen kill all the animals affected on the ap- 
Toach of winter, rather than to attempt to care for such hopeless 
ases. ^ 

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82 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

HOW TO PREVENT STOCK FROM BECOMING LOCOED. 

A careful study of the subject seems to show that it is the lambs 
and yearlings that are chiefly affected — old sheep but rarely and then 
on ranges where the loco is abundant and other forage scant. Also, 
it is usually colts that acquire the loco habit and the adult horses are 
much less apt to become addicted to it. This is due to the fact that 
the loco plant is in full bloom during May and June when the lambs 
and colts are just learning to graze and the conspicuous white 
flowers and their sweetish taste serve to attract them, while the in- 
toxicating effects of the poison are more easily fixed in their system. 
They soon learn to recognize the plant and to seek it for the effects 
produced, until the desire for the intoxicating poison becomes a 
fixed habit, in much the same way that the opium or alcohol habit 
is fixed in man, and the effects are only more rapid because animals 
know no restraint and the supply of the drug is often unlimited. The 
loco poison is a true narcotic in its effects and appears to afford cer- 
tain pleasurable sensations to the animals eating it, so that the desire 
for the drug finally becomes a passion, and once the taste for the 
plant is acquired, they will continue to seek it for the effects produc- 
ed until they are removed from the loco ranges or die from its use. 
Several instances have occurred in this "loco zone" 
where sheepmen have become discouraged on account of the losses 
from loco, and have sold out their ranches to others, who stocked 
them again with sheep and suffered little or no loss from loco. 
In some cases this immunity seems to have been due to the 
fact that only old sheep were grazed on these loco ranges, in others 
liberal salting was claimed to have prevented them from acquiring 
the abnormal taste for the loco weed, but such cases of apparent im- 
munity are exceptional and need more careful study to determine 
the efficient cause in each instance. 

If this theory, that the locohabit is contracted mainly when stock are 
learning to graze, be correct, then the disease may easily be prevent- 
ed by grazing lamb-bands on ranges free from loco, at least till after 
the first of July, when they will have learned their proper forage 
and the loco will be out of bloom except in the mountain pastures, 
where no cases of loco poisoning have been reported, and the same is 
true of the young colts. It is probable that the yearlings affected 
have acquired the habit during the preceding spring, but in less 
degrejK and that it developed mainly during the second season. It 
will hence be necessary to look after the lambs and colts during the 
first two of three months after birth, and future care will not be 
needed. 

Sheep taken in the early stages of the disease and placed on good 
pasturage free from loco, or on alfalfa, frequently take on flesh and 
are shipped East to be finished for the market, as the quality of the 
flesh itself is in no wise injured by the loco diet, but animals in ad- 

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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 83 

'anced stages of the disease will never recover and may as well be 
cilled for their pelts, as it appears to be the general experience of 
sheepmen that locoed sheep never produce offspring. 

CAN LOCO BE EXTERMINATED? 

This question has often been asked and the subject is coming to 
)e of importance, from the fact that many of the stockmen, particu- 
larly in the loco zone, are purchasing large holdings and fencing 
ihem for their exclusive use, while a number of them have been 
induced to sell because of the losses from the loco, or have sold their 
sheep and restocked with cattle, when such changes were entirely 
unnecessary. 

Burning the ranges can do no good, except possibly to destroy 
some of the seed, as the plant has a deep enduring root from which 
new plants will arise next spring. Close pasturage in some cases 
appears to have destroyed the loco in small pastures and on some of 
the more closely grazed ranges, but there is always some risk that 
the animals will thus acquire the habit. 

At least one state has made a serious attempt to aid the stock- 
man to exterminate the loco. The legislature of Colorado passed a 
law in 1881 offering a bounty of $21.00 a ton, dry, for ''any loco or 
poison weed dug up not less than three inches below the surface of 
the ground during the months of May, June and July.'' This law 
was repealed in iSvSs, but cost the state about $40,000 a year during 
the time it was in force, without any benefits at all commensurate 
to the expense, as there was no specification as to just what species 
were included under *'loco or poison-weed" and no system employed 
in eradicating the objectionable plants. Yet, this law seems to have 
fairly well demonstrated, and indeed was based upon the fact, that 
loco can be exterminated by digging during the months specified. 
This seems to be the nearly unanimous opinion of a large number of 
Colorado stockmen, who have been consulted by this Station. 

Now, while it is probably inadvisable for the state to attempt 
the extermination of loco on the public ranges, it is yet possible and 
profitable for the stockmen to eradicate it from his own private en- 
closures and this at relatively sroall expense, as a recent experiment 
in Sweet Grass cormty has demonstrated. 

A practical test of the matter in this state was made by Dr. 
W. A. Tudor of Bozeman on his ranch on the Big Coulee, thirty 
miles northeast of Big Timber. During the season of 1901 Dr. 
Tudor lost from poisoning by loco about 300 out of a herd of 2000 
lambs. Acting on advice from this station, the next spring (1902) 
he employed two men for about a month in May and June to dig 
up the loco plants over an area of about four miles square. The 
plants were cut off just below the crown — the point where the leaves 
arise from the root*, two or three inches below the surface, a narrow I 

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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

hoe being used, and wherever this was properly ( 

never sprouted again, nor have new plants come up 

ason (1903). No further losses from loco have occurr 

rom this it appears that the extermination of the lo 
ropis Lambeiti) is perfectly feasible, even over ( 
and the expense of such extermination will hardly e 
nt of the losses which would otherwise occur during 
Yet it is hardly possible to completely exterminate 
affected district with one year's digging, as some pi 
ivoidably missed, while others may spring from seed p 
red, so that several diggings may be necessary. Loc 
s be dug during May and June when in bloom, as its ( 
)wers serve to point it out and, being dug at this time, 
n setting seed. 



LUPINE. 



here can be no doubt of the poisonous nature of tli 
!gh it is certainly one of the best forage plants in th( 
iten in its dangerous condition. At least four of tl 
s have been found poisonous, Lupinus cyaneus R 
)hyllus Dougl. (Fig. 2), L. sericeus Pursh and L. pse 

Rydb., and it is probable that all are more or less s( 
IS all have blue, pea-like flowers and bean-like pods, w 
"prairie pea/' ''prairie bean/' "blue bean/' etc. The 
lial and often somewhat creeping beneath the ground; 
^o or three feet high with six or eight narrow leafle 

a sinjrlc point on the leaf-stalk. The more danger 

the Upper Yellowstone, (L. cyaneus) grows in dens 
a single thick root, often thickly scattered over cor 

and appears to be spreading rapidly. L. Cyaneus is 
s and along streams and its distribution is almost 
the so-called "loco zone," fruiting about July i. Th 
ore abundant in the foothills east of the Divide, but a 
caused losses in the Deer Lodge valley and in the v 
jn and the species occur throughout the whole r 
section of the state. The principal species r 

I early in June and are in fruit some three weeks late 
le main sufferers although horses appear to be oc( 
ed. 

II the case of the lupine the conditions of poisoning arc 
nost cases of such poisoning seem to be due to trj 

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Fig. 2. LUPINE. Lupinvs leucoj)hylhis Dough 

Vi Natural size. (l'. S. Dept. AgricultBre^|^^ .^ L^OOglC 



86 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



sheep to new and nn familiar ranges where lupine is abund 
turning them into lupine fields when very hot or hungry or 
ing them to fill up on the wet plants after rains. Sheep or 
ranges and under ordinary conditions can graze on the luj 
impunity, but in case of long continued rains or late snows, 
apt to eat the lupine to excess and suffer from bloat or poise 
is a general impression that they become immune to the j 
becoming gradually accustomed to it and there is considei 
dence to support this view. Mr. Burke, of Great Falls, rep 
sheep fed regularly on hay nearly half lupine were unaliVct 
others eating the same hay for the first time died m con 
numbers, and several similar cases have been reported. S( 
stances have occurred of imported sheep being turned in 
pastures with fatal results while the native sheep in the sa 
were not affected. 

Enormous losses, more than a thousand in a number 
have been sustained by unloading sheep from the cars in tr 
on these lupine ranges when the plants were in fruit. S 
often poisoned too by eating lupine hay or hay containing as 
50 per cent lupine, which has been cut while in seed ; yet 
hay fed to cattle has caused no bad effects. There is no 
the poison being derived from the fruit, though the w< 
irequently cause fatal bloat. Most if not all cases of poif 
stock in winter by plants on the ranges are due to lupine. 



^, ♦ 



Stock poisoned by lupine appear to become blind and 
they move off staggering in straight or curved lines and 
with any obstruction will butt against it with spasmodic lea 
thus frequently pile up against fences or banks and lie t 
Til ere is often more or less frothing and the head is sometim 
sideways ; they are apt to fall over on their sides and kick a 
but some drop dead without exhibiting previous symptoms 
is little 1)loat necessarily, although hloat sometimes rest 
eating the plants, particularly when wet, or eaten to excess, 
accompany the poison or may result fatally without any < 
the poiscn being shown. The ''crazy loco" about Ft. Be 
j)ears to be a form of lupine poisoning. 



V 

.1 



In the case of the Lupines, as in most other kinds of plan 
prevention is better than cure and a knowledge of the usu 
tions of poisoning will enable the sheepmen and herders t 
most of the losses due to these species. As a general rule d 
sheep in on lupine when they are not accustomed to it, or 
is wet or when they are very hungry, for if they fill up c 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 87 

lone it i^ apt to prove indigestible and cause fermentation and bloat, 
articularly when wet, just as, indeed, will alfalfa or clover, in like 
ondition, while the seeds or beans of the lupine contain an active 
►oison of which it takes much less to fatally affect shefep unaccustom- 
d to them than those that have been eating the seeds regularly. Also 
1 feeding hay containing lupine, at first mix with other hay free from 
L, afterwards the amount of lupine contained can be gradually in- 
reased without any ill effects, but in any case such hay found 
oisonous to sheep can be fed to cattle without any danger. It is 
robable that nearly all poisoning from hay in this state arises from 
he lupine found in it, but several cases have been noted where the 
^^ater-hemlock was so abundant in hay cut in low ground, as to ser- 
Dusly affect horses fed from it. 

Herders and others charged with the care of sheep 
hould not turn hungry sheep upon a lupine range at any 
ime, especially when it is in fruit, and should keep sheep 
iff such ranges when the lupine is wet and should graze 
hem there with care in times of early snows, while in moving sheep 
rom a range free from lupine to another containing it, they should 
c allowed to graze on the lupine at first but sparingly, but after they 
>ecome accustomed to it no special care will be necessary even after 
t is in seed. Knowing thus the conditions of poisoning, it is quite 
possible to avoid nearly all the losses occasioned by it. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 89 



WATER HEMLOCK OR WATER PARSNIP. 
Cicuta occidentalis Greene. 

This plant is allied to the cultivated parsnip and resembles it to 
some extent. It is often three or four fe^t high and has a smooth^ 
green, ribbed, hollow stem spreading above and each branch termi- 
nating in an umbrella-like expansion of small white flowers (Fig. 
3). It arises from a bunch of thick tuber-like roots which contain 
a yellow gummy secretion and are the chief seat of the poison, al- 
though the seeds have been reported to be more or less poisonous 
as well as the foliage in less degree. This species is frequent 
throughout the Rocky Mountain region, but other and equally pois- 
onous species replace it in other parts of the United States. In Mon- 
tana it is found in wet or swampy places along streams and ditches 
in the mountainous sections of the state, occurring but rarely in the 
plains eastward. It is often found in considerable patches in open 
marshy places, but usually occurs scattered sparingly along streams 
and ditches, by whose waters its seeds are disseminated. The roots 
of this plant have long been known to be a deadly poison and have 
been used by the indians for suicide. The roots and foliage are also 
thought to be more poisonous in early spring than at other seasons 
and the semi-persistent basal leaves then attract stock seeking every- 
thing green and the roots are frequently pulled up or dug up from 
the soft ground and eaten with fatal results. It is said too that 
these roots on being tramped and crushed by sheep and other stock 
seeking water, exude a yellowish gummy liquid, which floats on the 
water and, being drunk with it, may affect stock fatally. The 
mature plant is far less poisonous, particularly when dry, yet a 
number of cases have been reported where stock have been poisoned 
in winter from eating "slough hay" of which this water hemlock 
was one of the chief constituents. Cattle and horses are the most 
frequent sufferers, but sheep also appear to be poisoned occasionally, 
though some authors report them as immune. This root is not in- 
frequently mistaken for that of the edible "squaw root" (Carum 
Gairdneri Gray) w:th often iPatal results to whites and Indians 
alike. 



The poison contained in the root is rapid and deadly, death often 
resulting within a few hours after it is eaten, but where less of the 
root is taken the animal may linger along for several days or even 
eventually recover. The principal symptoms are violent convul- 
sions, frothing at the mouth and nose, excessive urination, shallow 
breathing, cema and death. An examination of the body after death 
will usually show the lungs congested with blood and the lining 
membranes of the stomach and intestines more or less decomposed. , 

It is usually easy to determine this water hemlock p^tetiiiivbjDOglC 




% 



^ 



Fig.:4. DEATH CAM AS. ZygadenuB vew^jtized by GoOqIc 
Hflir natural size. ^ 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 91 

fact that few animals get poisoned at a time and then always in 

wet places, the victim not being apt to get far from the locality 

>oisoning. It is not at all difficult to dig up and remove all the 

its of this species in pastures and enclosed ranges. The roots 

relatively shallow, being rarely over six inches beneath the sur- 

, and can readily be removed with a spade or hoe and then 

.lid be carried away, piled in heaps and burned when dry, as to 

e them scattered along the streams only makes them more 

lable to stock. A few years ago the water hemlock was thus 

up and removed from the Daly ranch in the Bitter Root valley 

since then there seems to have been no trouble from this cause. 

usual remedy employed and the one most available and effec- 

seems to be to drench the animals affecte.d with melted lard or 

)n grease. 

DEATH CAMAS. 
Zygadenus venenosus Wats. 
The Death Camas, also called Wild Onion, Wild Leek (Alber- 
and Crowfoot, is an onion-like plant, arising from a bulb and 
ing narrow leaves and a single stem a foot or so high, with a 
■Qw spike of yellowish white flowers blooming about June i. 
T 4). Xo part of the plant has the smell or taste of the onion 
the plants appear singly scattered over the upland swales or 
ey slopes, where it is often found in the greatest profusion over 
•nsive areas, which are white with' its flowers during the period 
looming. It matures its fruit soon after blooming and early in 
• dies down to the ground again. 

This plant is native from Assiniboia and Nebraska westward to 
Pacific Coast and is found throughout the entire state of Mon- 
L, but is not sufficiently abundant to be dangerous to stock except 
he foothills east of the divide and on the high upland benches 
he plains. West of the Divide it is scattered sparingly through- 
most of the region below 5,000 feet, but I am not aware that it 
caused any trouble in this section. 

The chief period of danger in the case of death camag is in May 
June, when its great abundance over certain '*poison zones'' and 
•ank, dark-green leaves frequently cause it to be eaten to excess 
he bands of sheep grazed in such sections. The bulb is the most 
;onous part of the plant, but the sheep appear to be poisoned 
nly by eating an excess of the stems and leaves, as it is difficult 
ull up the bulbs even when the ground is soft from rain or melt- 
snow and it is usually the case that several hundred get poisoned 
he same time. Sheep after having been grazed several hours 
^rass are often then grazed over these fields of death canias with 
unity. The poisoning usually occurs when the sheep are turned 
gry upon these poison belts and allowed to fill up on the death 
las before reaching grounds where grass is more abundant. ^ .^.^^^^ GoOqIc 





Fi^. o. SMALL LAR] 
Delphinium Menzie^ 

Half natural siz Digitized by GoOglc 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATK 

Apparently sheep alone are apt to be poisonec 
y first become stiff in the legs and have trouble 
ibit difficulty in breathing, stagger, foam at the 
) with a jerking of the head and limbs in inte 
ilting finally in complete muscular paralysis a 
jon seems to affect chiefly the voluntary muscle 
; which finally affects the organs of respiration 
I of the blood in the lungs and death. Lambs are 
Dy milk of a ewe suffering from the poison. Th< 
poisoning by death camas is bleeding in the exi 
mouth or tail and this has often been fou 
early stages of the poison, but later it is diffi 
Dd flow. The philosophy of this treatment has i 
by veterinarians, but the remedy seems to be ii 
th camas and larkspur. 



To prevent poisoning by death camas it is on] 
e be taken by the herder not to graze his sheep i 
s where this plant is abundant, particularly durir 
le. The presence of the plant can easily be detec 
en foliage of the onion-like leaves, which come uj 
1 its identity can be determined by digging to th 
•minent white flowers easily distinguish it aft( 
cm. There is little danger of poisoning by d 

middle of June, as the plant dies down to the g 
e localities on the ranges where the. plants are foi 
)uld be noted and avoided during these two mont 

LARKSPUR. 

Under the name Larkspur, or Aconite several i 
>ignated in Montana. They all have blue or bl 
inded divided leaves and the poison, the same 
inly in the root — in fruit and foliage in less degn 

The Little Larkspur, Delphinium Menziesii E 

bicolor Nutt., is about a foot high and has bri 
wers. It comes up in early spring as soon as th 

und and is found in the foothill uplands in the g 
d along the breaks and hillsides of the plains ea 
)st of the mountainous parts of the state up to 8,oc 
ses it is found in similar situations with the d 
>oms and dies about the same time, while its s 
nilar that it is often difficult to discriminate betwe 
ots of the first species are tuberous clustered and < 
neath the surface, so that cattle appear to pull the 
I twr rainc* when *he ground is soft, or, like ihe si 
a great abandanco of the plants, they appear to e« 



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Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



and suffer from poison or bloat in consequence. Yet it seems probi 
ble that the larkspur frequently suffers for the sins of its companioi 
and that from the similarity of situation and symptoms much of t\ 
poisoning attributed to it may be due to the death camas and t\ 
wild parsnip. 

The Large Larkspur (Delphinium glaucum Wats.) is much lei 
abundant and is distributed over a much narrower range of territoi 
in this state, apparently being found along mountain streams and i 
mountain meadows from 4,500 to 8,000 feet in the region east of tl 
Divide, where in some places it is relatively frequent and its tall juic 
stems and foliage serve to attract stock when driven to these range 
particularly in times of late snows. This is a tall species three ( 
four feet high, growing along streams and in shady hillside thicke 
and has light blue or pearly white flowers (Fig. 6), coming in1 
bloom in June, after which there is not much danger of poison froi 
this source. This appears to frequently cause bloat as well as to I 
a source of poison to cattle, other animals being rarely affected. 

Along with these species of larkspur and usually confused wit 
them is the true Aconite (Aconitum Columbianum Nutt.), which 
rare in Montana, but is found along streams high up (6,500 to 8,0c 
feet) in the mountains on the south and west boundary of the stat 
where stock occasionally get it in passing across the range. Th 
resembles the tall larkspur in size and leaf, but has blue spurlej 
flowers and the foliage is said to be very poisonous. 

Larkspur, particularly the large larkspur, is frequently the cauj 
of bloat, and the animals affected may or may not also exhibit symj 
toms of poison. When the roots are eaten, or even considerable ( 
the stems and foliage, animals exhibit stiffness in their legs and sho' 
difficulty in walking; they lag behind and lie down. There is 
spasmodic twitching of the muscles of the sides and legs wit 
convulsions in the final stages. As in the case of the death cama 
the poison affects mainly the heart and organs of respiration, givin 
reduced pulse and shallow breathing, ending in convulsions an 
death. Cattle are mainly affected, sheep more rarely. The popi 
lar remedies are bleeding at the extremities, in the mouth or tai 
and drenching with melted lard, or when this is not convenient, strip 
of fat bacon are forced down their throat. 



It will usually be found possible to keep stock away from range 
where the small larkspur is so abundant, at least during the earl 
spring when it is dangerous, while in mountain pastures it is feasibl 
to dig up the large larkspur over limited areas, as it nowhere is foun 
in any great abundance like the small species, but stock of all kin(j 
should be looked after during periods of rain or after late snow: 
when they are more apt to get poisoned. 



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Fig. 7. WILD PARSNIP. Pteryxia tJiapsoides Nutt 

Half natural size. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 97 



WILD PARSNIP OR WILD PARSLEY. 

In the spring of the year complaints constantly reach the Station 
of stock being poisoned on the high ridges and dry upland breaks of 
the foothill region east of the mountains and to some extent east- 
ward. Investigation has been made of a number of localities of such 
poisoning and stockmen have been consulted as to the plants sus- 
pected and it appears that at least two species of the parsnip family 
must be held responsible, Leptotaenia multifida Nutt. and Ptei^xia 
thapsoides Nutt., the latter figured in Fig. 7, which may also very 
well represent the early stages of Leptotaenia. These are found 
here on dry, rocky ridges and dry hillsides in loose soil. 
Both species have thick, deeply penetrating roots and 
send up a cluster of finely divided leaves in early spring before the 
other plants have come up, so that cattle in particular, are tempted 
by their green attractive appearance. Yet, it is probable that their 
chief poison lies in the root, which often projects more or less above 
the surface so that it can be bitten off. The Leptotaenia usually be- 
gins blooming when less than six inches high, but is two or three 
feet hig^h when in mature fruit. The Pterixia also begins blooming 
when only a few inches high and grows finally to a foot or more. 
Both have small yellow flowers and can not be distinguished in their 
early stages except by the botanist. The evidence of the poisonous 
nature of these two species, while not conclusive, is so strong that 
care should be taken to prevent stock from access in early spring 
to pastures where these plants are found in abundance. 

The symptoms of this poison are much the same as those of the 
-water hemlock. There is stiffness of the legs in walking, froth at 
the mouth, convulsions followed by death, often accompanied with 
bloat. The exact nature of this poison and accompanying symptoms 
need further study. These plants can be easily dug up in pastures, 
and enclosed ranges. Milk is said to be useful as an antidote. 



POISONING BY ALKALI. 

It is necessary to distinguish this kind of poison from that caus- 
ed by plants, with which it is often confused. There can hardly be 
any doubt as to the fatal effects of concentrated alkali water or of 
alkali salts when taken in excess, particularly by animals coming in 
from ranges where such salts are not abundant. Stockmen are 
practically agreed as to the danger from this source and certain "pois- 
on ponds" in the eastern part of the state seem to have no other 
characteristic except that of being surcharged with alkali, but the 
subject has been but little studied as yet and it is not always possible 
to distinguish between this and the various plant poisons. 

In g'cneral the excess of alkali will result in bloat, often followed 

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98 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

by scours and there is usually a well marked froth and a deposit of 
an alkali-like substance about the mouth and nostrils. Sometimes 
the effect of such alkali water seems to be to hasten the action of 
the poison of the death camas in the stomach and the symptoms arc 
then those of the latter, but are not developed before drinking the 
water and appear to result from it. 

This poisoning by alkali is limited to certain localitites in the 
eastern part of the state, where there is much alkali in the soil and 
water and the" poisoning occurs in the later summer or during winter 
thaws, when the water collects in the alkali flats and may then be 
drunk to excess by stock in need of salt. 

Salting stock regularly is thought to prevent this trouble and 
animals when first turned on alkali ranges, should be kept from the 
more stagnant pools, till they become accustomed to the dilute form 
of the salts. The remedy is simply to keep them away from such 
ponds and give them pure water till they recover, or in case of bloat, 
to treat them for such. 

REMEDIES. 

As yet, practical methods for treating these different plants pois- 
ons have not come into general use and most of the remedies recom- 
mended are in their experimental stage. All that will here be at- 
tempted will be to enumerate the various remedies proposed or found 
effective in the given cases. 

For l)loat in it> more dangerous form "sticking'' is the usual 
remedy for sheep and cattle. This is accomplished by plunging t 
widc-bladed knife directly into the stomach and thus allowing the ac- 
cumulated gas to escape. The point where the incision is made is 
on the left side about half way between the hip bone and the ribs and 
is usually designated by being the point of greatest projection. There 
is little danger of making any serious mistake and animals thus treat- 
ed usually recover without further attention. Horses can not bt 
treated by this^ method. The regular instrument designed for this 
operation of rumenotomy is the trochar and canula which can bc 
ordered by any druggist and will be found useful in the case of cattlCi 
but sheep are frequently affected in such numbers that the knife IS 
the only resource. 

For the various kinds of actual plant poison the remedy gfencrtl* 
ly recommended is permanganate of potassium, which can be pofr 
chased at drugstores in the form of reddish-purple crystals which ait. 
readily soluble in water and should be thus given. A teaspKX>nfdl' 
of the crystals dissolved in water is enough for about 12 sheep or A 
cows. Wilcox recommends giving this with an equal amount tm 
sulphate of aluminum (alum) in order to secure the best resuttSi 

This is put up by Dr. Emil Starz, Helena, Mont., in coa\'efl 

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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



ient lograin tablets under the name of "Ozonine" popularly call 
"Starz' Tablets," which are highly recommended by those who ha 
used them. Some even report giving them dry to she 
for death camas poison w^ith good results. Dr. Starz al 
recommends similar tablets composed of potassium permanga 
ate, ammonium chloride and sodium carbonate, v^rhich wh 
dissolved in the stomach give off ammonia as a cardiac stim 
lant. Some stockmen in Meagher county report having used a ( 
lute (125 to i) form of the sheep-dip **Zenoleum" (Ze 
ner Disinfectant Co., Detroit, Mich.) for bloat and lupine po 
oning with fair success, but neither of the remedies have been tri 
by this Station. 

.Of the more common remedies employed, melted lard, bac 
grease or the bacon itself have been found effective in many cas 
of larkspur, water hemlock and other poisons, and is worthy of tr 
for all such poisons except loco. Milk appears to be sometimes us 
in a similar way. Decoction of tobacco and a solution of ah 
have been used successfully for lupine and Dr. M. E. Knowles recoi 
mends raw linseed oil for lupine and larkspur. Bleeding is practic 
extensively for poisoning by death camas or larkspur, and is higli 
recommended by those that have tried it, but this is of doubtl 
benefit for water hemlock^ wild parsnip or lupine. Just what acti 
the bleeding has, or whether it is of any real benefit, the veterinaria 
appear doubtful, yet it seems possible that where death results frc 
congestion of the blood about any organ, this congestion may pos 
bly be relieved or prevented* from proving fatal by such bleedir 
Certain it is that this remedy is frequently practiced in the cas 
mentioned and with apparently beneficial results. The experimeni 
study of the effects of these plant poisons and their remedies by 
competent veterinarian is now imperitatively demanded by the sto 
interests of the state and, indeed, of the whole West. 

The following provisional scheme is offered to determine t 
plants usually causing any given case of poison. 



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SYNOPSIS OF POISONS. 

CATTLE. 
Poisoned in low ground : 

Convulsions, frothing, excessive urination ; occurring 

mainly in early spring Water Hemlock. 

IMcrt, rcours, alkali froth; occuring in late summer or 

duri.ij^: v/li^' ?r thaws (Alkali.) • 

Poisoned on uplands or along mountain streams: 

liljat or stiffness in legs, twitching of muscles in sides 
and legs, shallow breathing, convulsions; in April, May or 

June, Larkspur. 

Poisoned on dry rocky ledges, on high ridges or on dry hillsides: 
Bloat, stiffness of legs, convulsions, frothing; in April 
end May Wild Parsnip. 

HORSES. 
Poison slow, rendering them stupid, sight affected, crazy 

when tired or hot Loco. . 

Poison rapid in action : 

Blind and frenzied, spa$modic convulsions; July and 

August or from lupine hay in winter Lupine. 

Convulsions, frothing, excessive urination, coma; in 

low ground ; April and May Water Hemlock. 

Bloat, scours, alkali-liice froth; in- late summer or dur- 
ing winter thaws (AlkalL) 

SHEEP. • 
Poison slow, rendering stupid, front teeth long, inclined to 

wander from herd; lambs and yearlings mainly Loco. 

Poison rapid in action: 

Bloat, or blind and frenzied, pile up against obstacles, 
spasmodic convulsions; in July and August or from lupine 

hay in winter, or after snow or rain Lupine. 

Poisoned along streams: 

In early spring, or from "slough hay" in winter; con- 
vulsions, frothing, excessive urination, coma 

Water Hemlock. 
Tn late summer or during winter thaws; bloat, scours, 

alkali-like froth (AlkalL) 

Poisoned in swales, on high benches or in foothill valleys: 
Stiffness in legs, convulsions, final paralysis; many 

affected at once ; May and June Death Camas. 

Poisoned in foothills or along breaks, and mountain streams: 
Twitching of muscles in sides and legs, stiffness of gait, 
occasionally bloat, final convulsions; few poisoned at once; 

in May and June Larkspur. 

Poisoned on high rocky ledges or high dry ridges in early spring. 
Bloat, stiffness of legs, convulsions, frothing ; few pois- 
oned at once Wild Parsnip. 

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MONTANA EXERIMENT STATION. 101 

SUMMARY. 

1. More than 90 per cent of all cases of stock-poisoning by- 
plants in Montana can be traced to some six groups of plants — the 
loco, lupine, water hemlock, death camas, larkspur and wild parsnip, 
and most of the losses resulting may be avoided by a knowledge of 
these plants and of the conditions under which such poisoning 
occurs. 

2. The loco habit is usually acquired by lambs and colts 
in May and June, when the plant is in bloom and they are first learn- 
ing to graze. Old sheep and horses rarely become locoed, unless 
range is. short and the loco abundant. 

3. The loco pkint can be exterminated by digging the plants 
with a hoe while they are in bloom in May and June, cutting the 
main root below the crown and some two or three inches beneath 
the surface. ' 

• 4. Lupine is dangerous if eaten in excess when wet, or when 
sheep are hot and hungry or when they are not accustomed to it, 
and it is particularly poisonous when the seeds are mature, if eaten 
in quantity or by sheep not accustomed to this diet. Cattle appear 
not to be affected and horses but rarely. Under normal conditions 
the lupine is an excellent forage plant. 

5. Water Hemlock poisons horses and cattle chiefly and may 
be easily destroyed by digging it up along the streams and ditches. 
It is most dangerous in early spring. 

6. Death Camas causes extensive losses among sheep in the 
spring in certain "poison zones" in the foothills and on the high 
benches east of the Divide. Herders should keep their bands away 
from localities where the plants are abundant, particularly when they 
are hungry. After July i there is little danger as the plants then 
fruit and die. 

7. The Larkspur is found in much the same situations as the 
death camas and the same rules will apply as for the latter. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Some American works relating to poisonous plants, exclusive 
of the Fungi. 

Anderson, F. W. Poisonous plants and the symptoms they pro- 
duce. Botanical Gazette, 14:180. July, 1889. 

Bessey C. E. Larkspur poisoning of stock. Neb. Exp. Sta. Rep. 
1898, p. XXYHI. 

Blankinship, J. W. Poisonous plants of Montana. Proc. 5th An. 
Sess. Pacific N. \V. Woolgrowers' Assoc, pp. 49-54- 1902. 

Brewer & Watson. Botany of California, 1:155; 0:183. 

Brodie, D. A. A preliminary report of poison parsnip in western 
Washington. Wash. Exp. Sta. Bull. Xo. 45, pp. 5-12. 1901. 

Chesnut, V. K. Some common poisonous plants. VeajJ^.ogI§y(J,(fQQle 



102 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Dept. Agric. 1896, pp. 137-146. 
Chesnut, V. K. Thirty poisonous plants of the United States. U. 

S. Dept. Agric, Farmers* Bull. No 86, pp. 3-32. 1898. 
Chesnut, V. K. Principal poisonous plants of the United States. U. 

S. Dept. Agric, Div. Bot. Bull. No. 20, pp. 1-60. 1898. 
Chesnut, V. K. Pieliminary catalogue of plants poisonous to stock. 

15th An. Rep. Bureau Animal Ind. 1898, pp. 387-420. 
Chesnut, V. K. Some poisonous plants of the northern stock 

ranges. Yearbook U. S. Dept. Agric. 1900, pp. 305-324. 
Chcsnut, V. K. and E. V. Wilcox. The stock-poisoning plants of 

Montana. U. S. Dept. Agric, Div. Bot. Bull. No. 26, pp. 1-150. 

igoi. 
Collier, Peter. (Note on Loco) Rep. U. S. Dept. Agric. 1878, p. 134. 
Cook, W. W. . Pasturing sheep on alfalfa. Col. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. 

52, pp; 3-23. 1899. 
Eastwood, Alice. The loco weeds. Zoe, 111:53-58. 1892. 
Faville, Dr. In Rep. Colo. Agr. College, Veter. Dept. Jan. 1885. 
Halsted, B. D. Poisonous plants of New Jersey. — A preliminary 

report. N. J. Exp. Sta. Rep. 1894, pp. 401-419. 
Halsted, B. D. Notes upon poisonous plants. Garden & Forest, 

8:172. 1895. 
Halsted. B. D. Poisonous plants of New Jersey. N. J. Exp. Sta. 

Rep. 1895, pp. 351-355. 
Halsted, B. D. The poisonous plants of New Jersey. N. J. Exp. 

Sta. Bull. No. 135, pp. 3-28. 1899. 
Hedrick, U. P. A plant that poisons cattle, Cicuta. Ore. Exp. Sta. 

Bull. No. 46, pp. 3-12. 1897. 
Hillman, F. H.. .A dangerous range plant (Zygadenus). Nev. Exp. 

Sta. Newspaper Bull. No. 5. (1893.) No. 21, (1897). 
Irish, P. H. Some investigations on plants poisonous to stock. Ore. 

Exp. Sta. Bull. No 3, pp. 25 and 26. 1889. 
Jones, L. R. In Proc. Soc Prom. Agric. Science, 1901. 
Kennedy, James. Astragalus mollissimus. Druggists Circular and 

Chemical Gazette, Oct. 1888. 
Ladd, S. F. A case of poisoning — water hemlock. N. D. Exp. Sta, 

Hull. No. 35, pp. 307-310. 1899. 
Ladd, S. F. Water hemlock poisoning. Ibid. No. 44, pp. 563-569. 

1900. 
McE^chran, W. The loco disease. Colo. Exp. Sta. Rep. 1889, pp. 

7^79. 

Macoun, John. Report on the **polson-weed" of the Rocky Moun- 
tain foothils. Dept. Agric, N. W. Ten Bull. i. pp. 17, t8. 1898. 

Mayo, N. S. Some observations upon loco. Kans. Exp. Sta. BulL 
>^o. 35, pp. 113-119. 1892. 

Morse, F. W. and C. D. Howard. Poisonous properties of wild 
cherry leaves, N. H. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. 56, pp. 1 12-123. 

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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 103 

Nelson, S. B. Feeding wild plants to sheep. U. S. Dept. Agric, 

Bureau Animal Ind. 15th An. Rep., pp. 421-425. 1898. 

Ibid. Bull. No. 22, pp. 1014. 1898. 
O'Brinc, D. Loco poisoning of colts. Colo. Exp. Sta. Rep. 1891, 

pp. 25.28. 
O'Brinc, D. Progress bulletin on nie loco and larkspur. Colo. Exp. 

Sta. Bull. No. 25, pp. 3-26. 1893. 
O'Brinc, D. Loco studies. Colo. Exp. Sta. Rep. 1900, pp. 26, 27. 
Ott Isaac. In New Remedie"s, Aug. 1882 (p. 226). 
Panimcl, L. H. Poisoning from cowbane (Cicuta maculata, L.) 

Iowa Exp. Sta. Bull. No. 28, pp. 215-228. 1895. 
Pharcs, D. L. Bitter Weed (Helenium autumnale). Miss Exp. 

Sta. Bull. No. 9, pp. 11-14. 1889. 
Power, F. B.. .In Rocky Moimtain Druggist, July 1889, p. 81. 
Power, F. B. & J. Gambler. Chemical examination of some loco 

weeds. Astragalus moUissimus, Torr. and Crotalaria sagittalls, 

L. Rocky Mountain Druggist, Jan. 1891, pp. 5-9, and Pharmaceu- 

tische Rundschau, Jan. 1891, p. 8. 
Rich, F. A. & L. R. Jones. A poisonous plant — the common horse- 
tail (Equisetum arvtnse). \'t. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. 95, p-. 187- 

192. 1902. ' 
Sothrock, J. T. Notes on economic botanv. Wheeler Survev, VI: 

43. 1878. 
Ruedi, CarL Loco weed (Astragalus mollissimus) : a toxico-chemi- 

cal study. Ann. Trans. Colo. State Medical Society, 25th An. 

Convention. (Reprint). 1895. 
Rusby, H. H. The poisonous plants in the vicinity of New York 

city. 
Sayre, L. E. Loco weed. Druggists' Bulletin, May, 1889, p. 145. 

(Reprint). 
Sayre, L. E. Astragalus mollissimus. Druggists' Circular and 

Chemical Gazette, Feb, 1903, pp. 27, 28. 
Slade, H. B. Some conditions of stock poisoning in Idaho. Idaho 

Exp. Sta. Bull. No. 37, pp. 159-190. 1903. 
Vascy, George. Plants poisonous to cattle in California. Rep. U. 

S. Dept. Agric. 1874, pp. 159-irx). 
Vascy, George. Loco weeds. Ibid. 1884, pp. 123, 124. 
Vascy, George. (Notes). Ibid. 1886, p. 75. 
Watson, Miss C. M. In Amer. Jour. Pharmacy, Dec. 1878. 
Wilcox, E. V. Larkspur poisoning of sheep. Mont. Exp. Sta. B ill. 

No. 15, pp. 37-51. 1897. 
Wilcox, E. V. Lupines as plants poisonous to stock, etc. Montana 

Exp. Sta. Bull. No. 22, pp. 37-53. 1899.- 
Williaxns, T. A. some plants injurious to stock. S. Dak. Exp. 

Sta. Bull. No. 33, pp. 21-44. 1893. 
Willins:, T. N. Poisonous plants. Dept. Agric, N. W. Ter. fReg- j 

ina). Bull. No. 2 (1900) and No. 3 (1901), pp. 27, 28. ibyV^OOgl^ 
E. O. Astrae^alus mollissimus, Torr. N. Mex. Exp. Sta. 



104 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



INDEX. 



Aconite, 95: see "Larkspur." 

Aconltum, 95. • 

Alkali poisoning, 97, 98, 100. 

Alum as a remedy, 98, 99. 

Ammonium chloride, 99. 

Aragallus, 79-84. 

Astragalus, 79. 

Bacon as a remedy,95. 

Bibliography, 77, 101-103. 

Bleeding as a remedy, 93, 95,99. 

Bloat, 75, 86, 87, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100. 

Blue bean, 84. 

Buffalo, introduction by, 80, 81. 

Carum, 89. 

Cicuta, 88-91. 

Colorado loco law, 83. 

Conditions of poisoning, 77, 78. 

Crazy loco, 86. 

Crowfoot: see "Death camas." 

Danger period, 78. 

Death camas, 75-78, 91-93, 95, -98, 99, 

100, 101.. (Fig. 4). 
Delphinium, 92-95. 
Extermination of larkspur, 95. 
Extermination of loco. 83, 84, 101. 
Extermination of water hemlock, 91. 
Extermination of wild parsnip, 97. 
Grease as a remedy, 91-99. 
Hay, poisoning by, 78, 86, 87, 89. 
Investigations, 76. 
Lard as a remedy, 91, 95, 99. 
Larkspur, 75-78, 92-95, 99, 100, 101. 

(Figs. 5 and 6). 
Leptotaenia, 97. 
Linseed oil as a remedy, 99. 
Loco, 75, 84, D9, 100, 101. (Fig. 1). 
Loco zone, 77, 79, 81, 82, 84. 
Losses from poisonous plants, 7o. 
Lupine, 75-78, 84-87, 99, 100, 101. (Fig. 2) 



Lupinus: see "Lupine." 

Milk, as a remedy, 97. 

Oxytropis, 79-84. 

Ozonine, 99. 

Permanganate of potassium, 98, 99, 

Poison zones, 76, 77, 91. 

Prairie bean, 84. 

Prevention of loco, 82. 

Pterixia, 96, 97. 

Remedies, 98, 99: see also under ead 

plant. 
Salt as a preventative, 82, 98. 
though hay, 78, 87, 89. 
Sodium carbonate, 99. 
Squaw-root, 89. 

Starz' tablets as a remedy, 99. 
Sticking for bloat, 98. 
Summary, 101. 
Symptoms of alkali poisoning, 97, 91, 

100. 
Symptom of death camas, 93, 100. 
Symptoms of larkspur, 95, 100. 
Symptoms of loco, 81, 100. 
Symptoms of lupine, 85, 100. 
Symptoms of water hemlock, 89, IW^ 
Symptoms of wild parsnip, 97, 100. 
Synopsis of poisons, 100. 
Tobacco as a remedy, 99. 
Water hemlock, 75-78. 88-91, 97. My 

100, 101. (Fig. 3). 
White loco: see "Loco." 
Wild leek: see "Death camas." 
Wild onion: see "Death camas." 
Wild parsley, 76-78, 95, 96. 97, 9| 

100. (Fig. 7). . 
Wild parsnip: see "Wild parsley." 
Winter poisonfng. 78, 86, 100. 
Zenoleum as a remedy, 99. 
Zygadenus, 90-93. 



ERRATA:— p. 

p. 



77, line 18, "3 and 4" shouUrread "4 and 5." 

77, line 19, "6" should be "7." Digitized by i^OOglc . I 



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BULLBXIN No. 46, 



MONTANA AQRICULTI 



Experiment 5 



-OF THE- 



Agricultural College of 



nrWO IINSEGT I 



Bozeman, Montana, June 



REPUBLICAN. 
Bozcman, Montana, 



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MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 

Kxperiment Station, 

BOZEilAN, - MONTANA. 



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

Joseph K. Toole, Qovbbnob, ) 

Jambs Domovak, Attorkey-Qeneral, v Ex-Officio HsLSirA. 

W. W. Welch, Supt. of Public Insteuctiok, ) 

J. M. Evans, Missoula. 

C. R. Leokabd, ; Bens. 

N. W. MCCONITELL, HELSHA. 

W. M. JOHHSTOK BlLLIHOB. 

O. P. Chisholm ; Bosnuif. 

J. Q. MoKat, Haiolioii. 

O. T. Paul, DiLLOfli. 

N. B. HoLTER, *. Hblhta. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

Walter 8. HARTMAif , President, Bocbmav. 

J. M. Robinson. Vice-President, Boeekav. 

Peter Koch, Secretary, Bobbxaii. 

Joseph Eountz, Boeekav. 

E. B. Lamms, Bobbhaii. 

STATION STAFF. 

Samuel. Fortier, Ma. E., Director and Irrigation Enoinbbb. 

P. W. Traphagen, Ph. D., P. C. S., Chbmht. 

J. W. Blankinship, Ph. D.,. BoTAimr. 

R A. CooLET, B. Sa E^ttomolooibt. 

F. B. LiNFiELD, B. S. A, Ageicultubibt. 

R W. Fisher, B. S., Assistant Horticulturist. 

Edmund Burke AssistaDt Cbemiflt. 

H. C. Gardiner Student in Charge of Poultry. 

Postofflce, Express and Freight Station, Booeman. 
All communications for the Experiment Station should be addressed to the 
Director. 

MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION, 

Bozeman, Montana. 



Notice.— The Bulletins of the Station will be mailed free to any citiieo of 
Montana who sends his name and address to the Station for that purpaae. 



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Montana Experiment Station. 



BULLETIN NO. 46. . • JUNE, 1903. 



TWO INSECT PESTS. 



R. A. COOLEY 



THE RO.SCBUD CURCULIO 

Rhynchites bicolor Fab. 



The roeebnd curcnlio occurs very commonly on wild and culti- 
vated roses in Montana. The beetles are rather shy when discovered, 
and though their movements are not quick, they soon disappear undei 
a leaf or stem when a person approaches. In common with man]; 
other insects, they have the habit of drawing in their legs when in 
danger and allowing themselves to drop to the earth, where the^; 
remain motionless for a short time, or until the danger has passed 
This is doubtless an effective means of protection agadnst natural 
enemies. 



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108 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION, 

The colors found on the beetle are red and black. The wing 
covers, which make up the greater part of the upper surface of the 
body, and the thorax (prothorax) are red, while the head, inr.lnding the 
beak or snout, the antennae, the legs, and the entire under surface of 
the body are black. 

Mr. F. H. Chittenden, an Assistant Entomologist in the United 
States Department of Agriculture, reports* that in Colorado specimens 
are found in which the greater part of the h^ad, le^ and antennie are 

red like the upper 'surfacfe of thfe body'. 

« 

The beak or snout is long and slender, as indicated in the accom- 
panying'' iigu re (Fig. 1. a. and d.). The antennae are club-shaped and 
are attached near the middle of the snout, one on each side. The 
mouth parts are situated on the extreme end of the beak, and are 
made up of a number of pieces, the most formidable of which are the 
mandibles, which are-tbothad oii both 'the inner and outer edge. The 
mouth parts viewed from beneath are illustrated in Figure 1, g 
Exclusive of the beak the beetle measures a little less than one-fourth 
of an inch in .length. 

The injuries for which the species is responsible are done by the 
adult or beetle, and so far as is known by the writer, the larva, though 
it feeds in the fruit of the rose, does no harm to the bushes in auy 
way. The principal injury accomplished by the. beetle is done by bor- 
ing small, deep holes into the buds. Many holes are often bored into 
a single bud. Though such a bud may opeu, the resulting rose is of 
no value. Other buds cease to develop when eaten into and soon 
wither and dry up. The beetles also bore holes into the stems of the 
roses at right angles to the axis. Buds affected in this way wilt, and 
hang from the stems, and later dry. 

We have not been able to see any particular significance in the 
boring of holes into the stems, though when we began the studies it 
was thought possible that the buds were caused to wilt and dry for the 
purpose of preparing a suitable food for the young. Though very 

♦ p. 99, Bulletin Division of Entomoloiry. New Series, No. 27, 1901. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



losr 



many such buds have been broken open and examined, we have never 
found a larva feeding in one. 

Complaints of the injuries causeil by this beetle have reached the 
Experiment Station from various parts of the State, particularly from 
Kalispell, Missoula and Bozeman. The injuries are scarcely less 
serious and extensive than those of the rose chafer, ( Mdcrodactylus 






Fig. 1, ROSEBUD CURCULIO— a., adult beetle; b., larva; c, egg; d.. sideview of head of 
beetle; e., bud injured by the beetle; f., mouthparts of the larva; g.. mouth parts of the beetle. 
(Drawings by the writer.) 

sicbspinosus ) in the Eastern States, and a number of cases have come 
under the writer's attention in which persons have given up an attempt 
to grow roses on account of the injuries of this insect. We have 
received no reports of injury by this insect on green-house roses. 

The species is a native one and has been found by the writer on 
wild roses far into the mountains in Montana. Various writers have 



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110 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



reported it as a troublesome pest on roses in widely separated parts of 
the United States. It occurs in the northern tier of States from ocean 
to ocean and as far south as Mexico. 

Mr. Alexander Craw, Quarantine Officer and Entomologist of the 
California State Board of Horticulture, has mentioned this species as 
being frequently found eating into ripe blackberries and raspberries 
which it causes to decay. 

The be»etles appear on the bushes early in June and con- 
tinue until the latter part of August. The eggs are deposited in vari- 
ous places. Most of those found by the writer were in the buds, either 
in the unexpanded petals or in the young fruit. One egg was found 
in the tender extremity of a new cane and one in a Cynipid gall. 
In all cases the eggs were found in the holes made with the beak, and 
were placed well down in the holes, below the surface. The form of 
the eggs id shown at c, Fig. 1. They are semi-transparent and almost 
colorless. 

The eggs hatch in a few days, probably about a week or ten days. 
We have never been able to find larvae except in the rose hip or fruit, 
and this is doubtless the normal pla^e for their development. 

They feed upon the seeds which fill the greater part of the cavity 
of the fruit. The fleshy coating of the fruit is not eaten so far as we 
have observed. Examination of a fruit containing a nearly full 
grown larva shows a part or all of the seeds excavated to mere shells 
and the body of the larva buried in a mass of waste and excrement 
Such a fruit shows a blackened scar on the side whiclj marks the spot 
where the parent beetle bored in to depoeit the egg. 

The larva or grub (Fig. 1, b.) is yellowish white with a rosy tint 
and instead of being straight has the back arched. It has no legs. 
The head and mouth parts viewed from above are shown at Fig. 1, f- 

We have never foimd the larvae in abundance. A large bush 
bearing many hips seldom has more than two infested fruits, though 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

many may have the external mark that would indicate them tc 
infested. 

The grubs finish feeding and disappear early in October, 
have never found the larvae or pupae in winter quarters and are 
informed as to how they pass the winter. We examined many 
Lips that have been occupied by larvae and found exit openings in 
side of the fruit, and the grubs gone. This would seem to indi 
that, when full grown, the larvae eat holes to the surface and g( 
the ground to pupate and pass the winter. 

In the Bitter Root valley and at Bozeman the writer has rep 
edly found the larva of a moth tunnelling in the new canei 
wild roses, and at Missoula and Hamilton we have had compla 
of what appears to be the same insect on cultivated varies 
The larva begins at the tender extremity of the shoot and bores do 
ward in the center of the stem, thereby killing it and seriously in 
fering with the normal development of the bush. This insect sh( 
not be confused with the rosebud curculio. 

REMEDIES. 

In many cases hand picking is all that is necessary to get n 
from the injuries caused by this insect. 

In a previous paragraph we have mentioned the fact that w 
disturbed the beetles drop to the ground. Taking advantage of 
one can catch the beetles by holding a hand, or better, a pan cent 
ing kerosene underneath and causing the beetles to drop. 

Under some conditions hand picking is a futile measure. W 
the cultivated roses to be protected are in the vicinity of wild r 
which breed the beetles year after year, it will probably be usele« 
attempt hand picking. Under some circumstances it may be pi 
able to destroy wild roses that furnish a breeding place. In gen 
however, it should be borne in mind that the beetles fly over a coi 
arable distan;:e and that until fence corners and waste lands of 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 113 



THE POPLAR LEAF=FOLDINQ 
SAWFLY. 



Pontania hozenuini Cooley. 



The various native and introduced poplars easily take first place 
as shade and ornamental trees. for Montana, and they far outnumber 
all other kinds now in use in the State. The leaf -folding sawfly is one 
of the most troublesome and widespread of the many species of insects 
that feed upon these shade trees. For the past few years this insect 
has been steadily increasing in numbers and duriug the summer of 
1902 was very commonly seen. In a few cases trees were found with 
nearly every leaf deformed, and in the residental parts of some of the 
towns and cities of the State it has been so abundant as. to very^eatlji^ 
injure the natural beauty of the trees. 

This insect appears to be native to the State and occurs in natui;fjj 
growth along streams as well as in trees used for shade. . ,- \ . 

A close study of adult spacimens showed then! to belong to an 
undescribed species, and we have therefore proposed the name Pon- 
tania BOZEMANi, after the city in which it first came under our riotice. 
The writer's technical descriptions establishing the species are to Tbe 
found in the current volume of the "Canadian Entomologist!'' V" 

This insect makes its presence conspicuous by the manner in 
which it deforms the leaves. Affected leaves have their lateral edges 
turned under until they lie against the lower surface. See Fig. 2, g. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



almost the exact spot was known the egg pocket could not be foun 
The leaf was marked with a piece of white thread and going back lat 
in the day th'e egg-pocKet and egg were distinctly seen. The exa 
duration of the egg stage was not determined on account of absen 
from the college but was very close to nine days. Long before tl 
eg^ hatched the leaf -fold was completed, thus making it clear that tl 
adult insect was wholly responsible for the folding of the leaf. 

The egg of this insect is long-ovate, about one-twenty-fifth of i 
inch (1.05 mm) in length and whitish in color. The egg (shown 



Fi«. 2, LEAF FOLDING SAWFLY— a., egg showing embryo; b., immature larva; c. < 
eoon; d., female sawfly; e., sideview of extremity of abdomen of female; f., portion of pop] 
leaf showing: the egg pocket under the epidermis; g , leaf with the two edges folded under a 
other parts eaten away. (Author's illustration, first used in the Canadian Entomologist.) 

Fig. 2 a.) had been kept in formalin for a few month and showed tl 
nearly mature embryo as indicated in outline in the drawing. Tl 
yoTing larva is at first very delicate and almost colorless, but later, i 
it grows larger, it becomes stronger and turns to a pale green cole 



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PERIMENT I 

y life the larva 
the leaf that i 
mes more or lei 
nakinj? more fo( 
Is of its home, \ 
m the petiole a 
surface parts, 
it parts become 
dace throughoui 

the larvte nevei 
of the leaf, th< 
[1 citizens of t 
y all come to m 
uld follow. 

that the writer 
nd that contain 
il injury throu| 
have found n< 
proportion of t 
by plant lice ai 



t and partly eat< 



a constructs a o 
} ellipsoidal in 
•ops to the groi 
until the follow; 
•n in the sprin] 



(Fig. 2, d.) is a 
igth and resino 
K)t on the uppe 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 

upper side of the thorax and a tapering stripe on the upp< 
abdomen, are glossy black while the remaining parts are, 
part, resinous yellow. The male insect is slightly smaller 
slender body, and has the entire upper surface of the abd 

The leaf -folding sawfly here discussed is a member oj 
important family of' insects popularly called sawflies and 
knoiprn as the TENTHREDiNiDiE. About 2,000 species of 
known. 

Though we speak of these insects as "flies" or "sawflii 
be understood that they do not belong to the true flies oi 
which order the common house-fly belongs. The sawfliee 
parts for biting and chewing and are provided with two pa 
while the true flies have mouth parts for lapping, or 
sucking, and have only one pair of wings. 

Sawflies take their common name fiom the fact that 
itor of the female is so constructed as to resemble a saw 
in use, the saw, or saws (for there are two of them), are e 
sheath which in turn is situated in a longitudinal groove 
side of the abdomen at the posterior end. The female ii 
positor to cut a slit or pocket in the soft tissues of plants 
deposit the eggs. In the species now under discussion, i 
others, also, the egg is deposited just under the epidermis 
which is very skillfully separated from the underlying 
the ovipositor. 

Most sawfly larvae so closely resemble caterpilla: 
and butterflies as to be easily mistaken for them. They 
tinguiahed, however^ by the larger number of abdominal ] 
larvae have from six to eight pairs while caterpillars usua 
or less. 

The larvae of most of the species of the genus Ponta: 
the poplar leaf -folding sawfly belongs, feed in abnormal g 
galls on the leaves. The only exception outside of the pn 



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32 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION. 



(1) For the lambs, the screenings proved the cheapest and 
most efficient grain ration, followed by mixed grain, wheat, 
barley and oats in the order named. 

(2) The lambs ate 2.05 pounds of clover and .81 pounds of 
grain a day while the wethers ate 3.22 pounds of clover and .806 
pounds of grain. 

(3) The lambs averaged .263 pounds gain in live weight a 
day, or 25 pounds for the full term of the experiment. The 
wethers averaged .238 pounds per day or 22^j pounds for the 
95 days. 

(4) Thelambsate 8.03 pounds of clover and 3.11 pounds of 
grain for each pound of increase in live weight. The wethers ate 
13.49 pounds of clover and 3.38 pounds of grain for each pound 
of increase. 

(5) Each pound of increase in live weight put upon the 
lambs cost 4.49 cents while each pound of increase on the weth- 
ers cost 6.3 cents. 

(6) Lambs kept without food or water for 12 hours shrank 
nearly 2 per cent. Wethers similarly treated shrank 3 per cent 
in weight. 

(7) In shipping to Chicago each lamb shrank 7% pounds or 
7.6 per cent. On the average for three years they shrank 8.3 per 
cent of their shipping weight. The wethers lost 10.4 pounds 
each or 7.1 per cent of their shipping weight, or for two years, 
7.8 per cent of their shipping weight. 

(8) For the past winter it cost on the average 75 cents to 
ship and sell each lamb at Chicago and $1.16 for each wether. 
On the average for three years it cost 78% cents to ship and sell 
one lamb and $1.16Vi to ship and sell one wether. 

(9) The net prices received for the lambs F. O. B. Bozeman 
was $5.57 per 100 pounds live weight and for the wethers $4.78 
per 100 pounds. 

(10) The profit, or return for money invested and pay for the 
labor, on each lamb, by shipping to Chicago was $2.34 and the 
profit on each wether was $2.80. Or taking the results of the 
practical feeder and charge 25 per cent for the labor cost of feed- 
mg, the return on the investment was $2.09 for the lamb and 
$2.55 for the wether. 

(11) In the slaughter test the lambs dressed 54.8 per cent 
and the wethers dressed 51 per cent of the live weight at Chicago. 



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BULLETIN NO. 45. 1/ 



MONTANA 

AGRICULTURAL 

EXPERIMENT STATION 

--0F-- 

THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

--0F-- 

MONTANA. 



STEER FEEDING. 

WINTER OF 190J-1903. 



BOZEHAN, nONTANA, SEPTEMBER, 1903. 



BOZEMAN CHRONICLE--1903. 



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EXPERIMENTS IN STEER FEEDING, 1902-3. 



Hv F. B. LINFIELD. 



CONTENTS. 



Pflg 

Introductiou 15 

The Plan of the Experinit^ut -. 15 

Cost of Feed 15 

Tables I and 11 I5(;-15 

DiscnaBion of Reflnltn 15 

The Gains Made 15 

Food Eaten Per Day and Per One Pound of Gain 15 

Cost of Food Eaten 1(» 

The Financial Resnlts I« 

Table III Hi 

Wheie the Profits Com*? From U\ 

Illustrations 1<» 

Snmmary and Conclusion l(i 

Note — Through an oversight, Bulletin No. 47 was pajfod independently o 
the other series of the year. This Bulletin returns to the consecutive pa^inj 



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STEER FEEDING. 



INTRODUCTION. 



For the past three seasons the Montana Experiment Station 
has conducted experiments in fattening steers, to test the feeding 
value of various kinds of Montana fodders. During the past win- 
ter a carload of steers were fed, the object of the experiment being 
to determine the relative value of different kinds of grain when fed 
with clover in fattening steers. The question is frequently asked 
as to the relative value of oats, wheat, barley, etc., for fattening 
animals and this experiment was planned to throw some light 
on the subject. 

The 24 steers used in the test were a mixed lot of two and 
three year olds, range stock of probably average quality. The 
most of them showed evidences of some little Short Horn blood. 
They arrived on the farm on the 23rd of November. On the 28th, 
one-half of the steers which were not dehorned, were driven to a 
dehorning chute and the horns sawed off. The wounds healed 
rapidly and with no apparent disadvantage to the steers. 



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STEER FEEDING. 155 



PLAN OF EXPERIMENT. 



The 24 steers were divided into four lots, six steers in each lot. 
The division was made as evenly as possible considering qtialit3' 
and weight. The lots were fed as follows: 

Lot 1. Wheat and clover hay. 

Lot 2. Oats and clover hay. 

Lot 3. Barley and clover hay. 

Lot 4. Wheat, oats and barley mixed in equal quantities, by 
weight and clover hay! All the grain was chopped. 

The experiment started on December 1st. For the first ten 
days clover hay was fed. We then started to feed the grain, giving 
three pounds per day to each lot and about one month was taken 
to get the steers onto a full feed of five pounds of grain per steer 
per day. The hay and the grain were fed twice in the day. 

The steers were weighed on December 1st and 3rd, and again 
on the 10th and 12th of December, and thereafter ever3^two weeks 
until the close of the experiment. The average of two days 
weights was taken as the correct weight. 

Water was flowing through the yards, thus the steers had 
access to water at will. Salt was also kept on hand. 



COST OF THE FEED. 



The cost of the grain and fodder fed was as follows: 

Clover hay $5.00 per ton 

Wheat 88c per 100 lbs. 

Oats 85c per 100 lbs. 

Barley 95c per 100 lbs. 

Bran 85c per 100 lbs. 

Mixed Grain 89c per 100 lbs. 

These prices were practically the market prices for the hay and 
grain on the Bozeman market in the fall of 1902. The clover hay 
was of good quality and generally well cured. It was a mixture 
of medium red and alsike. The grain was good marketable grain. 



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STEER FEEDING. 



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158 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



DISCUSSION OF RESULTS. 



Tables 1 and 2 give the facts gleaned during the feeding test. 
The whole time of the feeding test is divided into periods so as to 
note any change in the weight or gain during the time of feeding. 
The first period of 37 days was really p^elinlinar>^ For ten days of 
this time the steers received hay only, and the rest of the peried 
was taken in getting the steers up to a full grain ration. None of 
the steers apparentU', had ever seen grain before and it took a lit- 
tle coaxing to get some of them to eat it. We first started by 
mixing a little salt with bran, and later cut down the hay ration 
for a day or two. Finally all started to eat the grain except one 
steer in lot 3. This animal never ate any grain during the time of 
the test. His ration was eaten by the others. 

The test period proper was for the next 4-9 days, but this is 
also divided into two periods, as it was noted that in the latter 
part of the period the steers seemed to be getting tired of the grain. 
Because of this fact the test proper was concluded after the steers 
were on feed 86 days, but the steers not being ready for markets 
all the lots were fed for 25 days longer, on a mixed grain ration 
with bran. The tables afford opportunity for several comparisons 
during the feeding season. 



THE GAINS MADE. 



For the first period of 37 days, lot 4 gained the most, viz.: 2.7 
lbs. per day per steer, with lot 3 in second place, gaining 2.4 pounds 
per day. Lots 1 and 2 gained nearly 1 pound less per day per 
steer. For the first part of the test period, viz.: 28 days, lot 4 
gained 3.33 pounds per steer per day. This lot averaged 3 pounds 
per day for the 65 days feeding to this date. Lot 1 fed wheat 
jumps to second place with a gain of 2.98 or nearly 3 pounds per 
steer per day. Lot 3 fed barley, is a close third with the lot fed 
oats very much behind. 



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FIG. 1. A POOR TYPE OF FEKDING STEER 



FIG. 2. A COARSE, ROUGH STEER 



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STEER FEEDING. 159 



All of the lots fell oif during the third period, or second part 
of the test period. The lots that made the best average gain dur- 
ing the first 65 days of feeding made the poorest gains for this- 
period. 

Considering the test period proper of 49 da^s; the steers fed 
on the mixed grain ration made the fastest gain, viz. 2.2 pounds 
p>er day per steer. The lot fed wheat is a ver3^ close second, gain- 
ing 2.19 pounds per day per steer, while those fed barley gained 
1.86 pounds per day per steer, and those fed the oat ration only 
1.41 pounds per steer per day, or the poorest returns of any ration. 

Considering next the whole time of feeding of 86 days, the 
mixed grain rationproduced the fastest gain with barle^^ second, fol- 
lowed by wheat, while the oats ration produced the slowest gain. 

For the fourth period of 25 days, after the change of the grain 
ration, the most rapid gains of the test were made. J/Ot 4 gained 
3.5 pounds per steer per day, lot 3 gained 2.7 pounds per steer per 
day, and lots 1 and 2, 2.6 pounds per steer per day. 

For the 111 days of the feeding season, lot 4 gained 2.5 pounds 
per steer per day, a very satisfactor}^ gain considering the length 
of the feeding period, lot 3 gained 2.3 pounds per steer per day, 
lot 1 gained 2-1 pounds and lot 2 gained 1.7 pounds per steer 
per day. 

On the average each steer gained 239 pounds in live weight, 
increasing from 1097 pounds to 1336 pounds each or 2;15 pounds 
per day. 

FOOD EATEN PER DAY AND PER ONE POUND GAIN. 



Table 2 gives the amount of food eaten, the food eaten per 
day, the food eaten for each pound of gain and the cost of the 
food. As with the weights, this table is divided into periods to 
show the results at different stages of the feeding. 

The clover eaten per day for the first, or preliminary period, 
was 24.5 pounds per day per steer. For the first period on full 
feed the amount of clover eaten per day was 22 pounds, for the 
next period about 29 pounds per day. Evidently the slower gai^s 

for this period were not due to any decsease in the hay eaten. Dur- 



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160 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



ing the fourth period 30.3 pounds of clover were eaten per day per 
steer and for the whole feeding test the average was 27.5 pounds 
of clover per day. 

As the total amount of feed eaten by the various lots is practi- 
<:ally the same, the amount of food for each pound of gain is in in- 
verse relation to the gains made throughout all the periods. 

For the test period of 49 days, lot 1 fed on wheat and clover 
and lot 4 fed on mixed grain and clover required practically the 
same amount of food for each pound of gain, viz: 15 06 pounds. 
The lot fed barley required 17.78 pounds of food for one pound of 
gain and the lot fed oats required 23.74 pounds, the least effident 
ration. 

Considering the whole time of the experiment, or 111 days, lot 
4 required the least food for each period of gain, viz:12.5 pounds. 
Lot 3 required 14.13 pounds. Lot 1 required 14.95 pounds and 
lot 2 required 18.72 pounds of food for each pound of gain in live 
w^eight. 

COST OF THE FOOD EATEN. 



Considering next the cost of the rations: For the first period 
the daily cost was about 8c per day. For the test period of 49 
days the cost was between lie and 12c per day. The barW ration 
being the most expensive, followed by mixed grain, oats and wheat 
in the order named. For the whole time of feeding the average 
cost was 10.5c per day. 

In this connection the cost of one pound of gain is the im- 
portant factor. For the preliminary period the cost ranged from 
3 to 5V2 cents for each pound of gain. Fox the test period of 49 
days, the cost of 1 pound of gain ranged from 5c to -8c. Lot 1, 
fed wheat, made the cheapest gain, viz: 5c per pound. Thegainon 
lot 4, fed mixed grain, cost 5.22 cents per pound. For lot 3, fed 
barley, the cost. was 6.32 cents per pound, and for lot 2, fed oats, 
the cost was 8 cents for each pound of gain. 

Considering the whole time of feeding, or 111 days, each 
pound of gain cost on the average, 5.2 cents, The range was from 
4.2 cents for lot 4, to 6.1 cents for lot 2. 



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STEER FEEDING. 



161 



THE FINANCIAL RESULTS. 



The steers were purchased for us by Air. Joseph Kountz of 
Bozeman. Twenty-one of them cost $40.00 each or $840.00 and 
three cost $41.00 each or $123.00, a total for the 24 of $963.00. 
The followang table gives the financial results of the feeding: 

TABLE in.— Financial SUlement. 



R). 



Number of steers 

Weight at beginnlDg 

<a) Cost of steers at 3.652c per 

Coet of food per lot 

Cost of food per steer 

Total cost of steers 

Weight at close of experiment 

Net gain in pounds 

Shrunk weight of steers 

Per cent shrinlc on full weight 
Received for steers @ 4c a pound 

shrunls weight , 

Received per head for each steer 

Profit or loss on feed 

Profit or loss on each steer 




6 

6675 lbs 

\ 243.77 

68.82 

11.47 

312.59 

80761b6 

1400 lbs' 

7800 lbs 

3.4 



6 

6507 lbs 

% 237.64 

69.13 

11.52 

:306.77 

7635 lbs 

1128 lbs 

7370lbs 

3.47 



6 
6470 lbs' 



6 
6702 lbs:! 



24 

26354 lbs 

$ 236.28|8 244.85!$ 963.00 

71.72i 70.00 279.67 

11.95 11.66 11.65 

308.00 314.85 1242.67 

7960 lbs 8387 ft)S 32057 lbs 

1490tt)S 16851bs 5703tt)S 

76851bs 8050 lbs 30907 lbs 

3.45 4.25 3.58 



% 312.00$ 294.80$ 307.40$ 322.00 

50.33 49.131 51.23 53.66 

♦0.57 *11.97 *0.60 t7.15 

*0.10i *i.99| *o lo' tl.l9 



$1236.28 
51.09 
*6.39 

*0.26 



(a) Note : The steers cost as stated above $40 and $11 eucli, but to place oacli lot on an equal 
basis, the lots are fijfured on the calculated price per pound. 
* Ix>ss. 
t Profit. 



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162 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



The steers cost on the average $3.65 per 100 pounds live 
weight. The cost of the food for each lot ranged from $68.82 for 
lot 1 to $71.72 for lot 3. The difference in this item is but slight 
for all the lots. The cost of the food for each steer for 111 days 
ranged from $11.47 to $11.95. Lot 1 cost the least and lot 3 the 
most. The average cost for the 24 head was $11.65 each. ' 

After being kept without food or water for 12 hours, thesteers 
shrank from 3.4 per cent to 4.25 per cent of their full weight. The 
average for the 24 head was 3.58 per cent. This is slightly less 
than the shrink usually estimated in buying, viz: 4 per cent. The 
returns per head for the steers ranged from $49.13 each for the 
steers in lot 2 to $53.66 for the steers in lot 4. 

Lot 4, the steers fed the mixed grain ration, returned a profit 
of $1.19 per steer after pa3'ing for the feed; the only lot that re- 
turned any profit. On lot 2, fed the ration of oats with clover, 
the loss was about $2.00 on each steer, on lots 1 and 3 the loss 
was 10c for each steer. From a financial point of view this looks 
like rather a poor showing, yet the experiment is none the less val- 
uable because of that fact. It will perhaps, better enforce the les- 
son that, as a rule, in finishing steers for market there has to be a 
wider margin of profit between the buying and selling price than 
was the case in this instance with Montana prices for fodders. 
These steers were bought, on a shrunk weight, at about 3.8 cents 
per pound and sold for 4 cents per pound, shrunk live weight. For 
profit the margin between the buying and selling price should be 
from %c to Ic per pound. 

There is yet another compensating point to consider. The re- 
sults came very close to paying market prices for the hay and 
grain fed, and if through his stock the farmer can get market 
prices for his crop on his farm, both the farm and the farmer are 
better off for having them so sold. At market prices he has the 
profits on his summer's harvest, while the manure adds much to 
the fertility of the land. 



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STEER FEEDING. 



163 



WHERE THE PROFITS COME FROM. 



Briefly put, the profit in the fattening of this class of steers is 
in the difference in the buying and selling price of the original 
weight of the steer and not in any profit on the increase in live weight 
made during the feeding period. This is illustrated in the following 
figures, giving the cost of the gains made for the past three 3' ears 
in feeding experiments at this station. 

Cost of 100 Pounds of Gain. 



. 


1901 


1902 1903 


Lot 1 


$4.85 $1.00 
$5.16 , $4 81 
15.31 1 $5.80 


$5 90 


Lot 2 


$6.13 


Lots 


$4.81 


Lot 4 


$4 17 










Average 


$5.11 


$4.87 


$5.20 







These figues are comparable only in a general way, as the 
steers differed in weight and quality. The^' show in every case, 
however, that each 100 pounds of increase in live weight cost close 
to $5.00 on the average, a little above or below that figure. At 
average prices, therefore, there can be no profit on this increase in 
live weight; it must come from the increase in value of the original 
weight of the animal. 



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164 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

ILLUSTRAjrONS. 



Figure 1 represents a type of undesirable steer, long legged, 
slab-sided, wild and restless. Only on the range could there be any 
profit in growing such an animal. * The profit in fattening him 
would depend on the price at which he was purchased. 

Figure 2 shows a coarse rough steer that might gain in live 
weight rapidly enough, but, however well fatted, would never sell 
at, or near, the top of the market. 

Figure 3 represents the best feeding type of steer among the 
car load; a two year old with some width and depth of body, a 
good back and loin and good feeding.quality. 

Figure 4 shows the steers, and the sheds and yards in which 
they were fed. The sheds and yards were kept well bedded and it 
was noticed that the steers sought the shelter of the sheds nearly 
every night. 



SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION. 



(1) No one feeding experiment can definitely rnswer the ques- 
tions it aims to solve. The work must be repeated for some years 
and under a variety of conditions. The results here given are 
tentative and must wait future confirmation. 

(2) According to this test a mixed grain ration proved super- 
ior to any one variety of grain. If the feeding efficiency as to rate 
of gain for mixed grain was placed at 100, then wheat equals 99.5 
oats 84 and barley equals 84.5. 

(3) From the standpoint of the food eaten for 100 pounds of 
gain in live weight, the wheat ration is very slightly better than 
the mixed grain, with oats andbarley the same as on the basis of 
rate of gain. 

(4) For the test period the wheat was also the cheapest ra- 
tion, one pound of gain costing 5 cents on this ration, while the cost 
on the mixed grain ration was 5.2 cents, on the barley ration the 
cost was 6.3 cents and on the oats ration 8 cents per pound of gain. 



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STEER FEEDING. 1(] 



(5) It was noticed that the cattle tired of the wheat after 
ouple of months feeding and a change was necessary to get tl 
attle to continue to eat. grain. This was true of all the grains ft 
mt not to the same extent as. with the wheat. 

(6) After a gradual change of the rations to mixed grain wil 
)ran the cattle ate the mixture with relish and made the moi 
apid gains of the winter. 

(7) The experiments made at the Station for the past thr 
rears seem to show that on the average the profit to l^e made 
attening two to three 3'ear old steers, with Montana prices f< 
eeding stuflfs, must come from an increase in the value of the pu 
based weight of the steer. 

(8) This fact, however, does not make less important tl 
tudy of the relative values of feeding rations. In this test tl 
liflFerence in returns between the best and the poorest ration w^ 
53.52 per steer, by no means an unimportant item in feeding 
)anch of steers. For instance, lot 4 gained in live weight 2^ 
)ounds worth at 4 cents per pound, $11.24, while lot 2 gain< 
inly 188 pounds worth at 4 cents per pound $7.52, or a differen 
if $3.72: but lot 2 cost 20 cents less to feed so that the net diffe 
nee was $3.52. On a hundred steers this would mean $352.00 j 
he difference in returns from feeding the two rations. 



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BTjri^LETTIN No. 49 , \/ ''■' 

MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 

Experirnent Station, 



-OF THE- 



Acfrictiltural Colle^^e o^ Montana. 



Bozeman, Montana, October, 1903. 



BOZEMAN REPUBLICAN-1903 



t 

I 
t 



Contagious Abortion in Montana | 



1 



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HARVARD COUE€E LIERAW 
TRAHSFERBEO FROM 
BUSSEY INSTlTUrii)N 

MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 

Kxperiment Station- 

BOZEilAN, - MONTANA. 
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 



J' 



Joseph K. Toole, Governor, 

Jahes Donovan, Attorney-General, [ Ex -Officio Hklisa. 

W. W. Welch, Supt. of Public Instruction, 

J. M. Evans Missoula. 

C. R. Leonard, .Bdttk. 

N. W. McCONNELL flBLK5A. 

W. M. Johnston Btllugb. 

O. P. ChISHOLM, , BOZEMAK. 

J. G. McKay, Haidlww. 

G. T. Paul, Dillof. 

N. B. HOLTER, Hbleha. 

EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

Walter S. Hartman, President Boeqiax. 

Peter Koch, Secretary, BozxiiAif. 

Joseph Kountz, Bosbmav. 

E. B. Lamme, BosKMAir. 

John Maxey Bozkmab 

STATION STAFF. 

• 
♦Samuel. Fortier, Ma. E., Dirbctor and Irrigation Enoihebb. 

F. B. Linpield, B. S. a, Vice-Director and Aobicultubibx. 

F. W. Traphagen, Ph. D., F. C. S., C?heiii«. 

J. W. Blankinship, Ph. D., Botahibs. 

R A. CooLEY, B. Sc., Entomologibt. 

R W. Fisher, B. S., , Assistant floBnccLrumsT 

Edmund Burke Assistant CHSMiflEX. 

W. J. Elliott Assistant Daibtxas 

♦Absent on leave. 

Postofflce, Express and Freight Station, Bozeman. 



All communications for the Experiment Station should be addressed to the 
Director. 

MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION, 

Bozeman, Montana. 



Notice.— The Bulletins of the Station will be maUed free to any citiseo of 
Montana who sends his name and addi^ss to the Station for that purpaso. 



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Contai^ious Abortion in Montana* 



BY H. C. GARDINER. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Introductibn 168 

DeffnitioD and Kinds of Abortion 170 

BTmptoms 171 i 

Immunity 171 i • 

Means of Transmission 172 '\ 

Treatment 173 1 

So-called Remedies 175 '^ 

I 

Disinfectants 175 (| 

Conclusion 176 



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Montana Experii 

BULLETIN NO. 50. 

Poultry Mar 

p. B. LiNFl 



Introduc 

Poultry and poultry products beca 
dividual producer, and also of the pre 
an insignificant business, yet, because 
mand, is one of the large industries of 
of the product of the American hen ii 
than any other one industry except the 

There is yet much room for the gr 
Montana, according to the statistics g 
during the year of 1891. It would apj 
of poultry and poultry products from c 
in Montana — about $5.00 for each pers 

To those not initiated, and to i 
fowlSf no business seems so simple as i 
few businesses have so many failures t< 
mercial scale. Much more knowledge 
is needed, if success is to be attained, 
must know his flock and with patience 
and by proper methods of care and fed 
best condition of health and vigor. Tc 
man must in a measure be a poultryn 
the business, and the patience that loo 
of the birds, however small it may be. 

My observation would lead me t 
organs concerned with maternity in a 
ducers of concentrated food products. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 181 

production and are capable of greater extention and development than 
any other construction forced in the body of the animal. This is il- 
lustrated in several directions. An old animal will not fatten as eco- 
mically as a young one, but the old animal will grow a foetus as eco- 
nomically. The old animal again, will produce milk as economically 
as the young animal. The young animal retains much of the produc-. 
tive qualities of the maternal organs of the mother, and considering 
its vreight, gains in live weight much faster and more economically 
than later in life. Poultry also illustrate this same general principle. 
In the production of eggs the maternal organs of the animals are con- 
cerned. A six pound hen of the laying strain will produce from 2 to 
4 times her own weight in eggs in a year, and this she will do with 
about sixty pounds of dry matter in feed. A six pound hen on feed 
costing not to exceed 75c to 80c will produce from $2.50 to $3.00 worth 
of eggs at Montana prices — 25c per dozen on the average. 

It is within comparatively recent times that attention has been 
paid to selecting poultry on the basis of egg records, but the result 
has shown that there is just as great room for increased production in 
this line as with milk production in the cow. Poultry, therefore, are 
among our most economic food producing animals. Again the prices 
offered in the state are such as should assure a very profitable market 
for the home producer. 

Those who assay to obtain proficiency in the handling of -poultry, 
however, should be students of poultry books and poultry papers. 
These record the experience of other men, their successes and their 
failxires, experiences which will be of very great value to the beginner 
and not invaluable to the most experienced. 

Success with poultry comes from so handling them as to avoid 
disease, rather than the ability to fight the disease when it appears 
important as this latter may be. It is for this reason that a few brief 
thoughts are added on the general treatment of fowls. Profits come 
from healthy fowls not from sick ones. It is very important, however, 
to recognize the disease when it does come, as come it may in the best 
managed flock, so that the loss may be reduced to a minimum and to 
enable us to treat the birds successfully and thus save a valuable flock 
for future usefulness. 



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182 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

THe Poultry House 

In the Montana climate, probably the first consideration should 



Building on Montana State Farm. 
be a good house. It need not be expensive, but it should be warm. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATIOliT. * 183 

sunny and dry. Cheap lumber and building paper with plenty of 
¥Findow lights will give these requirements. In this connection I 
probably could not do better than describe the construction of the 
house used on the Station farm and also a house of a smaller size 
recommended by the Experiment Station of Utah. 

Pig. 1. illustrates a model form of poultry building, and is with 
the exception of some slight details of the same construction as our 
main building. This house is 14 feet wide, pens 12 feet long with 
walls, roof, floor and windows constructed as previously described by 
the wall double boarded inside and out with tar paper between. The 
floor also double, and on the roof tar paper beneath the shingles. A 
four foot passage way runs throughout the rear. Access to the pens 
is through doors two feet wide, which open inward against a partition 
between the pens. This partition is matched stuff for 2 feet and then 
wire netting up to the ceiling. The arrangements of the roosts (R), 
the drop boards (D. B.), the nest boxes (N. B.) and the feed board are 
very simple, The fowls are fed their soft feed through the slatted 
front of the pen upon the hinged feed door, which when not m use, is 
hooked in a perpendicular position. These slats are three inches 
apart and fourteen inches high. Immediately above uix)n a platform 
20 inches wide, the nest boxes are placed facing the passageway. 
Eggs are gathered from them by opening the hinged door in the pass- 
€igeway which extends in front of the platform. Nests are best made 
of ^ inch lumber, boxes 12x12x14 inches dimension. Alx)ve the nest 
boxes is another platform 22 inches wide which catches the droppings 
from the roosts. This drop board (D. B.) extends about 1\ inches into 
the passageway so that in cleaning the edge a pail may catch under it. 
The roosts are placed 6 Inches above the drop boards and are 2x3^ 
inches with corners rounded off and the flat side up. (V) Ventilator 
is placed in the corner of the pen close to the passageway, and the dam- 
I)er is operated th^efrom. The exit through the floor is surrounded by 
a box as shown. This is to prevent litter from falling through. The front 
wall is inclined inward two feet at the top in order to take greater advan- 
tage of the sunlight, and the building is sealed with matched flooring 
upon the lower side of the collar beam. Where it is intended to keep 
only 40 or 50 birds, a saving of space may be affected by running the 



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184 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION, 

passageway through the center of the building from front to rear, mak 
ins: two pens and arranging nest boxes, etc., on either side of the pass- 
age way, with the door on the north side and the .ventilators on 
either side 

Ventilation. 

Proper ventilation is an important factor in the managemeDt of 
the ix)ultry house, and the object should be to remove the foul air and 
retain the warmer and pur.T air without causing a draft. Oor method 
of securing this result is simple. An ordinary stove-pipe with damper 
extends fropi a hood on the roof to within six inches of the floor. The 
The lighter and warmer air near the roof of the building warms the 
metal pipe which is a good conductor, which in turn warms the air in- 
side causing it to rise slowly. As a result, the air flows into the pipe 
from the opening near the floor, this gradually removes the air in the 
immediate vicinity of the fowl. We have found this method an ad- 
mirable one in our practice, performing the work excellently. 



: i 

i :i I 









H0U8E ON Utah Station Farm 

"I give here a sketch of a poultry house that will answer most 
purposes. It will be suitable for the farm and also for the town lot. 
It can be extended to any length desired, or it may be cut in two 
where only a small number of fowls are to be kept. The dimensions 
given are for a house that will accomodate about fifty of the smaller 
breeds of fowls and about forty of the larger. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 185 

Din^ensions. 

"It is forty feet long and 10 feet wide, divided into two pens, 
each ten by twenty feet, ten feet of the closed part being for the roost- 
ing and' laying apartment and ten feet open scratching shed. It is 
eight feet high at the front and four feet at the back. The outside 
yards should be about 20x100 feet each. There is no hallway, but 
there is a door entering from the open shed into the closed part. The 
partition between the two outside pens may be of wire netting but 
there should be about two feet of boards at the bottom to prevent the 
fowls fighting through the wire. 

Materials 

"The sills should be about 4x6. For framework and rafters use 
2x4 stuff. On outside of studs nail good common lumber close to- 
gether. On top of this tarred paper; then on top of this put on 
toDgued and grooved lumber up and down. For the roof use common 
sheeting laid close together. On top . of this place tarred paper, then 
shingles. Instead of shingles Neponsit Red Rope paper may be used. 
The door opening into the scratching shed should fit tightly and if 
necessary a storm door should be put on in winter to shut out cold and 
draught. The window should open into each of the closed pens. This 
should be about 24x24 inches, and it should be double in winter. It 
should be low enough down so that the sun in winter entering the 
the window will fall on the floor. The end walls of the scratching 
shed need not be double boardel and papered, but should 
be airtight. 

"In the colder portions of the state it may be necessary to use 
another thickness of boards and paper in the closed pens. In that case 
another layer of paper can be put on the studs and tongued and 
grooved boards on top of that. But probably a tetter arrangement 
would be to nail sheeting on the studs and put Neponset Red Rope 
roofing on top of that. That makes a good lining. All lumber in the 
inside of the building should be planed. This makes it easier to keep 
the house free from vermin. Instead of lumber the walls of the closed 
pen may be made of brick with adobe lining. Some claim that this 
will be warmer and drier. 



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186 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Nest Box 

"One of the important things in the poultry house is the nest. 
To prevent egg-eating the box should be dark and shallow. The cut 
shows a good plan. It shows a roosting platform with a row of nests 
underneath. This plan is recommended by the Reliable Poultry Jour- 
nal. If intended for Leghorns, or medium sized hens, nests 12x12 
inches and 7 or 8 inches high will be about right. If for Brahamas or 
Cochins they should be about 15x15 and 10 inches high. Have some 
chaff or other good material in the bottom of the box so that there will 
be less danger of the eggs breaking, as a broken egg in the nest is al- 



The Nest Box 

most a sure way of teaching the hens to eat eggs. The bottom board of 
the nest shown in the illustnition should be hinged to the wall of the 
poultry house so as to open upward. The upright which holds the 
bottom board in position is also on a hinge so. it can be kicked from 
under the board to allow cleaning. The top board or roosting platform 
should be built on an incline and also hinged to the wall so it can be 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 187 

raised to get at the eggs. The roosting pole should be about six 
inches above the platform and may be 1x3 inches, the hens sitting on 
the wide surface. 

Storm Door 

"For stormy weather there should be provided a storm door for 
the open shed. This may be made of oiled-canvass tacked on to a 
light frame and should be hinged at the top so that it can be hooked 
up to the ceiling when not needed." 

Size of House and Pens 

The size of poultry house usually recommended is one that will 
give about 6 to 8 square feet of floor space to each bird. Thus, a pen 
10x12 feet will accomodate 15 to 20 birds. 

The modem practice is not to allow the fowls the run of the farm 
except perhaps for a month or two in the fall after the crop is oflf, but 
to confine them in yards near the house. These yards or runs should 
afford 50 to 100 square feet of space for each bird. Part of the run 
should be planted to clover and grass. In part sunflowers may be 
planted for summer shade and fall feed, and part may be cultivated for 
a succession of green crops during the summer. 

The Stock toiSelect 

For satisfactory results, good birds are needed, and here as with 
other classes of livestock, pure breds and not cross-breds or scrubs are 
to be preferred, particularly on the side of the male. Again, get a 
good strain of the breed selected, a strain noted as large egg producern. 
Poultry men are now gathering such data and breeding for a re::ord. 

The profit with poultry will in a large measure be influenced by 
the time the eggs are produced. During the late fall and winter 
months, fresh eggs command a fancy price. Young stock, the early 
hatched pullet, is the bird that under proper care will produce eggs at 
this season. Not alone is the young bird an early layer, but they also 
produce the largest number of eggs per year. As a rule the first two 
years are the profitable egg-producing years of the fowl's life. These 
birds should not be kept over the third winter except perhaps for the 



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188 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. , 

purpose of producing eggs for hatching, if an extra fowl. This larger 
return from the young fowl many i)eople seem to forget, yet it is a 
very important fact in poultry profits. 

Comfortable Quarters 

In the proper feeding and proper care of fowls is where perhaps 
most people fail. Fowls as a rule will not produce eggs if suhjected 
to the continuous cold weather of winter. They must therefore be 
comfortably housed. There is danger here, however. During the day 
with the sun shining on the building, the house warms up and the 
warm air takes up much moisture. During the night, on the other hand 
the house cools oflf very much and may chill the birds. The cold air, 
moreover, not being able to hold as much moisture as the warm air, 
the moisture may condense in the house, making it damp. These ex- 
tremes in temperature and also the consequent dampness frequently 
give rise to colds and may develop into roi^ of some form. 

These extremes of temperature and the dampness may in a meas- 
ure be avoided by thoroughly ventilating the house during the day, 
being careful, however, to avoid draughts, and then closing up the 
house at nights. If in addition to this a little heat is used in the 
house at night the result will be still better. It will not need much 
heat, just enough to prevent the house getting very coki, thus avoiding 
extremes. 

This of course is artificial treatment but so is the production of 
eggs during the cold winter weather. To get the winter egg we most 
keep the fowls comfortable and healthy. The easiest and safest 
method to attain this may be by a little artificial heat during the 
winter. In a small house a small stove is the only practical method 
of heating and some form of the hot blast stove in which the draught 
can be thoroughly controlled and a small fire kept going for several 
hours. For a large poultry house, some form of small water heater is 
preferable as the heat may be more easily distributed over the build- 
ing and more easily regulated. 

The central thoughts are (1) that to produce eggs in winter a 
comfortable temperature for the fowls must be maintained and too 
great cold avoided; (2) that a fairly uniform temperature must be 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 189 

maintained; (3) dampness must be avoided. There are probably other 
ways than those suggested to attain those objects. 

Feeding Poultry 

The matter of feeding while important is perhaps not as diflB- 
cnlt to properly provide for as the matter of comfort and health. The 
weight of experience seems to show that a proper combination of hard ■ 

feed, soft feed, green feed, meat scraps and grit give most satisfactory 
results. 

In the morning give a warm mash, composed of bran and shorts 
and some ground grain. This shoul^d be mixed with water and sea- 
soned slightly with salt and pepper. This mash may with advantage 
be wet and mixed with warm skim milk instead of water. I'he skim 
milk is valuable as a poultry food and can in a measure take the place 
of meat scraps or other animal food. Do not give a full feed of this 
but after it is eaten up clean, scatter some grain in the litter on the 
floor, for the hens to scratch around and gather up. The grain should 
vary from wheat and oats to peas or com, if available, to give variety. 
About the middle of the afternoon or a little later give a feed of wheat 
also. scattered in the latter on the floor, all that the birds will eat up 
before roosting time. This method of feeding forces the fowls to keep 
busy and gives them exercise which is needed for healthfulness when 
confined in pens. Give cut bones and meat scraps three times a week. 
In the winter keep a little green feed available for the fowls all the 
time, a head of cabbage hung up in the pen and at other times a man- 
gle or sugar beet and again a little lucern or clover leaves will add j 
variety. In the summer if the runs are large, part of them may be i 
seeded to clover or alfalfa, or a little rye may be sown as a variety. 

Fowls need grit to grind their food. Having no teeth the food 
most be ground in a special organ, the gizzard. Again, grit is needed 
to give material for the egg shell. 

Bones provide a certain amount of animal food and also grit for 
shell material. ±5ones and meat scraps are usually inexpensive, but 
take some work and trouble to prepare as they have to be ground. 
Their place may be taken by oyster shells, ground bone and dried blood. 
The first cost of these is greater but they require little or no prepar- 



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190 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

ation before f eedin'g. In the summer when the fowls have the use of 
a large run and especially if part of it is cultivated, less grit and animal 
food have to be provided, and if later in the season, for a month or so^ 
they have the run of the fields they will be able to gather sufficient of 
both. 

Fresh water should also be available for the fowls at all times. 

Cleanliness and freedom from vermin are essential points in poultry 
profits. The poultry house should be whitewashed, using freely slaked 
lime, at least twice a year, the roosts should be frequently cleaned off 
and the litter cleaned out and replaced once a month or oftener. The 
birds will keep their bodies free of vermin if they have ready access to 
a dust bath. The roosts and nests should have an occasional wash of 
coal-oil to keep those pests in check. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 191 

Poultry Diseases Common in 
Montana. 

By H. 0. Gabdineb. 



Introduction 

Diseases in poultry are in general not eflfectively treated in the 
diseased individual, because of the fact that the trouble and time 
necessary for treatment more than equal the value of the individual 
bird. On the other hand an understanding of the different di^ases 
with their predisposing causes is very essential in order to avoid loas 
and keep the flock free from disease. 

In generad it may be said that fowls properly fed, properly housed, 
and intelligently handled will keep in a vigorours healthy condition. 
In our experience at the Station the slight occasional loss of probably 
seven or eight birds in four years has been directly due to some error 
or oversight in care or feeding. 

Diseases may be said in general to result from two conditions, one 
in which imfavorable surroundings, feed, etc., produce the conditions 
and on the other hand direct infection from some infectious or con- 
tagious disease. It is probably wise to point out at this time that the 
second source is most active when the fowls are in low condition as a 
result of improper feed and care. 

R.OUP 

Roup is undoubtedly the cause of more fatalities in the mature 
flocks of the North-western states than any other disease. It is gen- 
erally prevalent in Montana and in certain localities is causing severe 
loss during the winter months. 

During the past four years a thorough investigation of this disease 
has been carried out by the Bacteriological department at the Ontario 



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192 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Agricultural Ck)llege and the results of these investigations published 
in Bulletin 125 of that Station. The following notes on the disease 
are taken from that source. 

The disease is infectious and dne to a bacillus (B. cacosmus). It 
is prevalent in fowls kept in filthy, damp, draughty and poorly venti- 
lated quarters. Vigorous sto^k in good surroundings prove quite re- 
sistant to the disease. Young fowls and those of the more delicate 
breeds are much predisposed to the disease. 

Symptoms 

The earliest symptoms is a putrid catarrh of the nostrils, followed 
by a dumpish condition during the earlier stages; and in the less 
severe forms of the disease the fowl retains its appetite. In some in- 
stances the face becomes swollen, birds manifest loss ojF appetite, be- 
coming emaciated, aiid lie down and die in a few days. During the 
latter stages of this disease, diarrhoea with oflFensive yellow or green 
discharges hasten the fatal termination of this disease. To quote 
Bulletin No. 125, Ontario Agricultural College. **In the first stages 
of roup the binls often cough or sneeze and the breathing is noisy, 
caused by the partial closing of the air-passages which become blocked 
with the discharge from the nostrils. When the air passages become 
entirely closed by the dischai^ed products, the fowl has to open its 
beak in order to breath. Sometimes a yellowifi(h cheese-like mass 
forms in the nostrils, if this mass is removed, an uneven bleeding sur- 
face is left, which form a new cheesy mass in from 24 to 48 honrs." 

These cheesy masses sometimes grow in the eyes and in the dncts 
between the eye and nostril and sometimes form in small tumors under 
the skin of the face. "The secretion from the eyes is similiar to 
that described as coming from the nostrils, i.e., at first a clear 
liquid, then changing to a putrid grey and offensive dischaige. If 
the secretion is retained in the eye socket, it undergoes a change^ 
becoming a yellowish, solid, cheesy mass of the same appearance as 
the nasal tumor. This cheesy mass either forces the eye out of iti 
socket or the inflamation entirely destroys it. 

Combined with the symptoms of roup above described, ther©- 
are often patches of a greyish, yellow exudation firmly adherent to 



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. ai'i i 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 193 

the mouth, throat, etc. These patches are called false membranes. 
At one or several pla3es in the mouth and throat, these yellowish, 
smooth or uneven membranes appear, and either remain small and 
disappear after a few days, or grow thicker, spread, and become 
firmly attached to the mucous membrane, and if they (the false mem- 
branes) are removed, an uneven, bleeding surface is exposed. 

When the throat is blocked by these false membranes, the ani- 
mal's breathing becomes abnormal, and the air passing through the 
throat produces loud noises. Gradually the visible mucous membrane 
and the comb turn blue, and the fowl generally dies from suffocation. 

Treatment 

Care taken to avoid infection as outlined in the causes, which pre- 
dispose toward this disease, isolation of infected birds and disiiifection 
of poultry houses and runs immediately adjacent, with a 3 per cent. 
creolin solution constitute the treatment, under average circumstances. 
If particularly desired to save some valuable individual, immersing the 
head in a 1 to 2 per cent, permanganate of potash solution is a method 
of treatment giving valuable results. "Fowls are treated in the fol- 
lowing manner: The nostrils are pressed together between thumb and 
forefinger in the direction of the beak several times. Pressure should 
also be applied between the nostrils and eyes in an upward direction. 
This massage helps to loosen the discharge in the nostrils and eyes. 
The bird's head is then plunged in a potassium permangnate solution 
for 20 or 30 seconds, in fact the head may be kept under the solution 
as long as the bird can tolerate it. The treatment should be given 
tsvice a day until all symptoms have disappeared." 

In conclusion our authority says: "The most effective preventa- 
tive for roup is to keep fowls in good, sanitary condition in dry, roomy 
yards, and dry, clean, airy houses which are free from draughts and 
can easily be cleaned and disinfected." 

. CatarrH 

Catarrh In poultry closely resembles the common "cold in the 
head" of man. It is accompanied by sneezing, difficult breathing, 



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194 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

watery discharge of nostrils, in later stages becoming thick and 
glutinous. 

The causes producing this disease are lack of ventilation of honses^ 
draughts, dampness, cold winds, exposure, improper care and feeding 
The prevention consists in the removal of such conditions, and when 
birds become affecte.l, Douglas mixture in the drinking water acts as a 
splendid tonic. In addition the following powder may be given in the 
food: Gentian, 1 ounce; ginger, 1 ounce; capsicum, ^ ounce; iron 
sulphate, ^ ounce; hyposulpate of soda, \ ounce; a teaspoonfull to 15 
fowls being about the right proportion. Douglas mixture is a splendid 
tonic to give during the fall, winter and spring months and we have 
found with its occasional use, sickness is a very rare occurrence. 

Douglas mixture consists of: Sulphuric Acid, 1 Ounce; iron sul- 
phate, 8 ounce; water, 2 gallons; a teaspoonful tp a pint of drinking 
water is suflScient. We have matle it a practice to give it once a week 
in the drinking water, and where there were any signs of disease used 
it in drinking water daily. 

Gapes 

The gape worm is causing loss among flocks in some sections of 
Montana and with the growth of poultry raising will give serious 
trouble in the future unless steps are taken to suppress this parasite 

It is a small reddish colored worm which infests the trachea (wind- 
pipe) of young chickens and gets its nourishment by sucking blood 
from the wall of the windpipe, where it causes much irritation, and 
may occasion inflamation and suffocation. The male worm is about 
l-5th of an inch in length and the female ^ inch. They are usually 
found attached in pairs to the windpipe. This infection occurs as a 
result of swallowing embryo worms or eggs in drinking water or in the 
food. A single infection is however all that is necessary as the worms 
reproduce in the body of their host. This practice secures most of its 
victims among the smaller and weaker chickens as they most easily 
become exhausted and suffocated. 

Symptoms 

The disease chiefly affects chicks from 1 to 4 weeks old and may 
be detected by the dumpish condition of the birds, by gaping frequent- 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 195 

ly with the head extended. Later a cough is noticed and a wheezing 
sound accompanies the breath, with gaping at frequent intervals. 
While coughing the chicks frequently dispel the parasites, which may 
be detected in the mucous which accompanies the coughing. As the 
disease advances the chicks become emaciated and week, wings hang 
down, gaping and shaking of head are frequent, and at last death from 
suffocation and exhaustion intervenes. The stronger birds and those 
infested with a few worms, only evidence a slight inconvenience and 
soon shake off the effects of iho disease. 

Treatment 

Individual cases may be relieved by removing the worms from the 
windpipe with the end of a feather or a loop of horse hair, and excell- 
ent results may -be obtained by dropping one or two drops of salicylate 
of soda in the wind pipe. 

General treatment consists in the prevention of the spread of in- 
fection, by isolating the affected birds, frequent disinfection of their 
yards with 5 per cent solution of crube carbolic acid, disinfection of 
drinking and feeding troughs with boiling water, and exerting every 
percaution to prevent the contaminating of their food or drink. The 
bodies of dead birds should be burned and where possible healthy birds 
should be changed to new runs until the old runs were thoroughly 
disinfected. 

Lice 

The large grey louse (Liperiris caponis), the red mite (Dermaceys- 
ses gallinae), the bird flea, and the mite (Sarcoptes muteces) causing 
scaly legs, are the external pests causing the bulk of the trouble aris- 
ing from the insect pests. 

Cleanliness is the starting point of success in combatting these 
pests, and houses and fixtures of simple construction, affording few 
cracl^s aid materially in preventing attacks, as they do not afford the 
protection necessary for the lice. 

In keeping buildings free from lice, kerosene must be used freely 
on roosts, nest boxes and other fixtures, accumulations of filth are to be 
avoided in every direction, and all surfaces on the inside of the build- 
ing should receive a coating of white-wash cont^uning carbolic acid at 



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196 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

least twice a year. The efficiency of this white- wash is gpreatly in- 
creased if applied with spray. Litter on the floor of pens and in the 
nest boxes should be renewed frequently and insect powder sc»ttere«i 
in the nests. Kerosene emulsion is valuable particularly for the flees 
and mites and is best applied with a spray pump and made as follows: 
Kerosene, 1 gallons; water, 1 gallon, soap, ^ pound. Dissolve the soap 
in the water by boiling, and while hot turn in the kerosene and chura 
briskly for 5 minutes. This solution is sufficient for about 15 gallons 
of spray solution. Six ounces of crude carbolic a<dd to the gallon of 
water (hot) also makes a very good solution to use as a wash for roosts, 
nest boxes or floors, when cleaning out. 

The largest number of deaths from these pests occurs from the 
large grey louse whi^h attacks young chicks. These lice are found on 
almost all chicks which have been hatched under hens and annually 
kill thousands of young chicks. It is a good practice to grease lightly 
the back of the head and under the wings on all youn^ chicks 
which are hen hatched, the lice confining themselves ahnost entirely 
to those parts. Common lard serves the purpose but we have used 
carbolated vaseline and find it preferable. 

The red mite is combated more effectually with kerosene applied 
to the hiding places, by the use of insect powder on the fowls and by 
providing opportunities for dusting 

The mite causing scaly leg is a particularly annoying pest and 
very prevalent. It barrows under the scales on the legs and by its 
irritation causes an exudation of which the enlarged scaly portion is 
formed. The heavier breeds of fowl are most aflfected by this pest, the 
Mediterranean classes apparently resisting its attack to a marked 
extent. 

In order to avoid the spread of this disease it is well to isolate 
aflfected birds when treating them in order to prevent the infection of 
the rest of the flock. In order to reach the pareisite it is necessary lo 
soak oflf the scaly crust with warm soapy water and then careiuUy le* 
move to avoid bleeding. The legs should then be moistened daify- 
for three or four days with balsam of Peru or 10 per cent, creo^ 
ointment. 



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^ 



BULLETIN NO. 51. l/ j-^ /..?ic?^7 



f 

nONTANA 



AGRICULTURAL 

EXPERIMENT STATION 

— OF— 

THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEQE OF HONTANA. 



First Annual Report of the 
State Entomolog:ist of Montana. 



BOZEHAN, nONTANA. DECEnBER, 1903. 



a. Moot. 

Th* AvaatCMirter Pybilablnc C*. 
1904. 



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HAKVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 
TRANSFERRED FROM 
BUSSEY INSTHUffON 

1936 

riontana Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Bozeman, Montana. 



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

Joseph K. Toole, Governor 1 

James Donovan. Attorney General >ex-officio Helena 

W. W. Welch, Supt. of Public Instruction J 

N. W. McCoNNELrL Helena 

W. M. Johnson Billings 

O. P. Chisholm Bozeman 

J. G. McKay Missoula 

G. T. Paul Dillon 

N* B. HoLTER Helena 

J. M. Evans Missoula 

Chas. R. Leonard Butte 



EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

Walter S. Hartman, President Bozeman 

John Maxey, Bozeman 

Pbter Koch^ Secretary Bozeman 

Joseph Kountz Bozeman 

E. B. Lamme Bozeman 



STATION STAFF. 

*Samuel Fortier, Ma. E Director and Irrigation Engineer 

F. B. LiNFiELD, B. S. A Vice-Director and Agriculturist 

F. W. Traphagen, Ph. D., F. C. S Chemist 

J. W. Blankinship, Ph. D Botanist 

R. A. CooLEY, B. Sc .....Entomologist 

R. W. Fisher, B. S Assistant Horticulturist 

Edmund Burke Assistant Chemist 

W.J. Elliott Assistant Dairyman 

♦Absent on leave. 

Post Office, Express and Freight Station, Bozeman. 



All communications for the Experiment Station should be 
addressed to the Director, Montana Experiment Station, 

Bozeman, Montana. 

Notice.— The Bulletins of the Station will be mailed free to 
any citizen of Montana who sends his name and address to the 
Station for that purpose. 



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THE COMMON TOAD 

(See Article in this Bulletin) 



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Montana Experiment Station. 



BULLETIN 31. DECEMBER, I003. 



INTRODUCTION. 

This first Report of the State Entomologist of Montana contains 
1 account of a few of the most important insect pests of. Montana 
id in addition, a fairly complete, though condensed, manual of 
tsect pests. This manual is intended to put in easily accessible 
►rni the most important information regarding a large number of 
>ects now in the state br liable. to be introduced. 

Considering the great importance of the codling moth, the 
^ader will perhaps expect to find an account of it in this report. 
ow'ever, such an account is omitted for two reasons, first, a report 
1 this pest wa5 issued from the Experiment Station a few months 
^o, copies of which are still available for distribution, and, second, 
is intended to conduct further investigations on this pest during 
e coming summer (1904) and we shall desire to publish those 
suits one year from now. In view of the fact that the codling 
oth will for years to come be the most important insect pest with 
hich Montana apple growers will have to contend, it is our inten- 
>n to make the next report upon the subject the most complete 
d practical that has yet been issued from this Station. 

In view of the great economic importance of grasshoppers 
d because of the unusual demand for information concerning them, 
t have g'iven them prominence in this report. 

We renew our statement of willingness to answer inquiry re- 

rding" insect pests. Such requests for information should always 

accompanied by specimens of the insects that are doing the 

mag-e and a statement of the facts necessary for our information 

making" recommendations. 

Every vegetable product of the soil is subject to the attack in 
sect life and every crop that is grown by men is more or less in- 



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J 






200 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



jured by insect pests. These injuries may be so conspicuous as to 
force themselves upon our notice or they may be so hidden and m- 
sidious as to escape detection except by the most observant. The 
farmer may suffer heavy financial loss, or because of the higher 
price which comes as a result of a shortness in the crop, he may be 
only slightly affected. In the latter case the general public become 
the suffers, but in all cases, losses through depredations of insects 
come out of the coffers of man, if not out of his daily bread. 

Considering the great agricultural possibilities of this state, 
together with the fact that, incidental to commercial practices, in- 
jurious insects new to this -region are constantly liable to introdnc- 
tion, it is very important that every possible means be imployed to 
prevent, the introduction and spread of pests of all horticultural and 
agricultural plants. 

All rational means of defense against injuries from animals ol 
this class are based on a more or less intimate knowledge of the IHe 
history and habits of the insects. It is apparent, therefore, that as 
a defensive measure the acquiring of a knowledge of life histories d 
the insect destroyers of our crops is of great practical value ani 
must always precede quarantine and medical work. 

Again, in order that investigations may be safeguarded against 
danger of becoming narrow and losing their practical setting, it » 
obviously necessary that they be conducted not only in the entomolth 
gist's office or in one locality, but in the field and throughout tbi 
state. 

Realizing the truth of these statements the Entomological Dfr 
partment of the Experiment Station is centralizing its efforts oo th 
accumulation of information regarding species of insects that art 
now or may become injurious and, obedient to the Act of the EigUi 
Legislative Assembly, whereby the office of State Entomologist i 
created, is making its observations and conducting its experimcBH 
in all parts of the state. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 201 



THE BUD nOTH. 



Tmetocera ocellana Schrif. 

The bud moth was first discovered in this country in 1841 in 
Massachusetts and was at that time doing considerable damage. In 
569 it was pronounced the most injurious enemy of the apple 
ee, next to the canker-worm, in the state of Massachusetts. 
nee that time it has been spreading westward and has at times 
*en very destructive, notably in 1891 throughout Massachusetts, 
ew York and Canada and again in Michigan in 1892. It now 
:curs throughout Northern United States from the Atlantic to the 
acific ocean but is much more thoroughly distributed in the east 
lan in the west. It has been found as far south as Washington, 
. C. 

For fully fifty years previous to the time the insect was first de- 
leted in Massachusetts it was a well known and destructive species 
Europe. There can be little doubt that it was introduced into 
merica from Europe on young trees, intended for planting. 

OCCURRENCE IN MONTANA. 
While engaged in certain investigations concerning the codling 
loth in Missoula in the spring of 1902 the writer's attention was 
illed to trees in the home orchards on Front street, Missoula, the 
>Uage of which showed distinct signs of injury by insects. On 
camination it was found that the injury was caused by the bud 
loth. The vernal form of the larva was doing rather serious 
image on many trees. The buds, both leaf and flowier, were severe- 
injured and a large proportion of the expanding clusters of leaves 
ere tied together, each containing one of more nearly full-grown 
rvae which were feeding voraciously. Beside occurring through- 
it Missoula and in the orchards just outside of the city, the insect 
also gaining a foothold for a considerable distance up the valley 
the Bitter Root river. 

IMPORTANCE OF THE PEST. 
To jast what extent this insect will be destructive in Montana's 
imate, if it becomes generally distributed, cannot be foretold. Ex- 



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202 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



perience of other localities has distinctly shown that its injuries will 
be more severe some years than others. For the present, at least, 
Montana fruitgrowers should look upon it as a pest of first-class 
importance. They should inform themselves concerning the 
habits and appearance of the insect in all its stages and should 
be on the lookout for it in the orchard. 

Spraying does not appear to be effective in killing the lanae 
Should the moth be admitted to the nurseries of the state it would 
be very unfortunate not only for the nursery men but also for the 
persons who purchase trees from them. 

NATURAL HISTORY AND HABITS. 

The larva or so-called worm spends the winter in a temporan* 
cocoon or hibernaculum on the trees. These hibemacula are re- 
markable objects in that they so closely resemble the bark and the 
felty surface of the young twigs as to be very difficult of detection 
even by a trained eye. They are closely secreted in crevices around 
the buds or in the depressed scars that mark the spots where leaves 
were attached. They are about one-sixteenth of an inch across and 
though made principally of the silken secretion that is produced from 
the silk organs of the mouth of the caterpillar, they contain enough 
of the surface parts of the surrounding bark to make them very in- 
conspicuous. ^ 

Besides occurring on the twigs as has been described by variopa 
authors, the writer has found them also under the scales of bark in 
association with the hibernating larvae of the codling moth. 

In the spring of the year at about the time the buds are swelling 
the larvae, which are dark brown with black heads, emerge irom 
their winter quarters and crawl to the buds. Observation is lackmg 
in Montana as to the precise time, compared to the opening of tlH 
buds, that they arrive. It is probable, however, that in this respect IIm 
habits would not vary much between here and other climates, fiKM 
Ihe same conditions of weather revive both insect and 
life. Without much doubt, while a few larvae arrive early ew 
to make it necessary for them to bore into unexpanded buds in 
to get food, the majority of them reach the buds after they 
begun to open. In both cases, alike, the larvae, which at this 



». J 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 203 

are less than a quarter of an inch in length, go at once to the tender, 
inner part of the bud, where they feed on the tender parts and do 
great injury, often destroying the terminal growing portion of the 
twig. If the bud be a fruit bud it likewise is destroyed, thereby 
preventing the possibility of the production of fruit. 

The destruction of the terminal bud prevents the further elonga- 
tion of the twig and at the same time causes some lateral bud to 
grow into a principal stem. While in some cases such an unatural 
growth is not a disadvantage, in many cases the result is a very 
undesirable shape of tree. This is particularly true of young trees 
in the nursery row. 

The larva soon makes use of one of the more advanced leaves 
in the construction of a tubular retreat, which constitutes its home 
and from which it emerges from time to time to feed. In feeding, 
it draws in other leaves and fastens them together into a sort of 
nest which is very characteristic of the species. Some of the 
leaves become detached, but being bound to the other leaves fail to 
drop to the ground, thereby making the nest all the more conspicu- 
ous, because of the brown leaves among the green. A badly infest- 
ed tree therefore has a decidedly unnatural appearance. 

The larvae continue to feed in these nests until they reach full 
growth, when they construct cocoons in which the remarkable 
change from the larva to the pupa and from the pupa to the moth 
is to take place. The full grown larva is a half inch in length, nearly 
naked and of a brown color with glossy black head and shield just 
behind the head. See plate I, (figure 7). 

The cocoon is constructed, in many cases, in the tubular re- 
treat occupied by the larva. The walls are thickened and the ends 
closed up, thereby preventing the entrance of parasites, while the 
moth lies in the defenseless pupa stage. Other cocoons are made 
at any convenient place. Sometimes they occur in a fold of an 
otherwise uninjured leaf. 

In due time, 01 about two weeks from the time the larva 
changed to a pupa, the moth appears. The pupa works its way out 
of the end of the cocoon, aided by the hook on its back, and the 
anterior end splits, thus setting free the moth, which crawls out, 
expands and dries its wings and flies away. In Missoula the moths 



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204 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

appear from about the first to the twenty-fifth of July. 

The moths are most active during the night, remaining qutct 
during the day on the bark of the tree, which they closely mimic 
They are also found to some extent during the day in the foliage 
The cage erected in Missoula in the spring of 1902 for 
the purpose of facilitating the study of the habits of the 
codling moth, has afforded us also an opportunity for the close study 
of the bud moth. The bud moth was very abundant in this cage in 
1903 and destroyed practically all the fruit buds, interfering seriously 
with our investigations of the codling moth. When disturbed or 
frightened the moths often flew directly away from the tree and com- 
ing in contact with wire netting clung quietly to it for a few mo- 
ments. In a few moments, however, they flew back to the tree. It 
is plain that they did not feel safe on the netting and they would not 
have been safe were it not for the fact that no birds could reach them 
on the inside of the cage. In flying at such times the moth pursues 
an irregular zig-zag course and comes immediately at rest on light- 
ing. 

It is worthy of special notice that there is a close resemblance be- 
tween adults of the bud moth and of the codling moth. An experi- 
enced person need have no difficulty in distinguishing between the 
two if he has before him fresh specimens, but when the scales of the 
wings are rubbed off as they often are in specimens captured in the 
orchard, separating the two at sight is not so easily done. When 
once placed on his guard, however, a trained observer is not liable 
to make a mistake. On the other hand there are many less important 
small moths in the orchard which the untrained observer or the per- 
son who has paid little attention to insect life may mistake for both 
of these orchard pests. 

In a few days after emerging the moth begins to deposit eggs. We 
had no difficulty in finding quantities of them in the cage at Missoula 
and they were invariably on the smooth upper surface of the leaves. 
Other writers have stated that the eggs are laid singly or in clusters 
and on page 61 of Prof. Slingerland's bulletin on this insect (No. 107, 
Corn. Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. 1896), is given a figure of a g^up of 
these eggs numbering about six, but our observation shows plainly 
that in Montana the eggs are laid singly. We have never fottfid 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 205 

more than two together. A single tgg is shown at plate I (figure i). 
They are usually oval in outline, some being circular or nearly so, 
and they measure slightly over one mm. in length, including the flat 
outer rim by which they are attached to the leaf. They are trans- 
lucent and almost colorless at first, but as the embryo develops the 
black head and thoracic shield of the larva show through and the 
outline of the curled larva may be distinctly seen. The egg shell 
reflects the prismatic colors, both before and after the larva emerges. 

We have above called attention to the close resemblance between 
the adult of the bud moth and that of the codling moth. It is even 
more difficult to distinguish between the eggs of the two species. In 
size, shape and general appearance, they are very similar. They are 
laid in precisely the same position on the foliage and are deposited at 
the same time. They both reflect light and show irridescence alike, 
and both are translucent. I know of no way to distinguish between 
the two except by the difference in the character of the surface of 
the shell of the egg. 

The hatching of the egg takes place in from six to ten days after 
being laid, and, issuing from the egg, the larva makes a hole 
through the edge of the central portion and crawfs forth. This cater- 
pillar is greenish In color, very small and delicate and it at once sets 
about making a place of retreat and protection. Passing to the un- 
der side of the leaf it constructs a very small silken tube near the 
mid rib and usually towards the base of the leaf. The larva feeds 
from the epidermis and middle layers of cells leaving the opposite 
epidermis unbroken. The castings of the larva are built into the 
tube giving it a black color. The portion of the leaf from which the 
larva feeds is covered with silken threads laid down by the larva 
and whenever possible a near-by leaf is drawn up and fastened to 
the first leaf by the silken threads. Thus one often finds two leaves 
stuck together, and,in pulling them apart, finds the little black tube 
of this insect. The larva will not be seen unless forced to crawl out. 

In selecting a place in which to construct a home the larva 
searches for two leaves that are near enough together to be easily 
brought in contact. 

In the manner here indicated the larvae continues to feed until some 
time in September, when, apparently prompted by instinct they 



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206 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

crawl to the twigs, spin the temporary cocoons which they occupy 
during the winter months, and from which they issue in the spring 
and pass to the buds as previously stated. 

THE KINDS OF TREES THE BUD MOTH ATTACKS. 

While this insect is best known as an apple pest, it feeds also on 
pear, plum, quince, peach and cherry trees and on blackberry bushes* 
in all cases feeding on the buds. 

MEANS OF DISTRIBUTION. 

The manner of hibernation of the insect makes it very easy for it 
to be distributed on nursery stock, and this is doubtless the way in 
which it has become so widely distributed. It may be readily dis- 
tributed on scions. 

The moths are capable of flying and doubtless go from tree to tree 
and from orchard to orchard but they can only spread slowly in this 
way. 

NATURAL ENEMIES. 

It is very probabffe that many of these insects fall a prey to the 
birds that frequent the orchards. In fact it is reported that birds 
sometimes eat the moths. There can be little doubt that the Ore- 
gon chickadee, that is so common in the orchards searching on the 
trees for food, does much good in destroying these insects. Various 
other birds probably eat them in Montana. 

It was very noticeable that the tree which had been inclosed in the 
cage in Missoula for one year was much more seriously affected by 
this insect. Birds had, of course, been excluded. 

A number of parasites have been taken from the bud moth in the 
United States and in Europe but just how much good they do can- 
not be stated. I have reared an undetermined species from speci- 
mens of this pest brought from Missoula to Bozeman for study. 

METHOD OF PREVENTING ITS RAVAGES. 

In the East this insect is said to be a very difficult one to control. 
Just why this is so has never been fully explained, and as yet we 
lack a sufficient knowledge of the habits to enable us 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 207 

to state definitely the cause of the failure of remedial treatment, but 
there is some reason to believe that in Montana a large majority of 
the larvae arrive after the buds have opened enough to allow 
them to crawl into the narrow cracks between the expanding leaves. 
It is instinctive with these larvae to get out of sight as soon as pos- 
sible, and once inside the opening buds with a few leaves tied to- 
g^ether into a nest, sufficient food for the remainder of the larval life 
is protected in such a way as to make it difficult, if not impossible, to 
get the poison in contact with the food. 

If on arriving at the bud, the larvae finds its sufficiently open to 
allow it to crawl in, in all probability very little food is taken from 
the surface parts. If, on the other hand the bud is still closed, more 
or less of the surface is eaten in boring to the center. If the part of 
the bud through which the larvai eats its way is coated with a pois- 
on, a fatal dose may be taken but at this season of the year the buds 
are very rapidly swelling and a bud that is well coated one day may 
two days later, on account of the expansion of the surface parts, be 
so insufficiently covered as to be harmless to the larva that enters it. 
As is well known to all fruit growers, some trees expand their leaves 
earlier than others, and again peach buds open before most apple 
buds. 

Again, after the bud may be said to be fully expanded the inner 
terminal growing shoot continues to put forth new leaves. These 
leaves are the ones that form the food of the larvae and they expand 
within the nest where they are not easily reached with a. spray. 

Considering how admirably the insect is protected by nature and 
its own habits, its control when in its spring nest is at least un- 
certain. 

The problem is less perplexing when only nursery trees or trees 
in a young orchard are concerned. Under such circumstances hand 
picking of the nests should be very satisfactory. In picking the 
nests, however, care should be taken not to allow the larvae to es- 
cape to the ground for they would probably return to the trees. A 
pail, not a basket, shold be used in gathering the nests, which should 
be burned or thoroughly saturated with kereosene oil. If left in a 
pile at the side of the field, the chances are that some of the larvae 
would complete their development to the moth and fly to the trees. 



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208 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

There seems to be some promise of good results from the use of 
summer sprays applied at the time the eggs are hatching. As is 
indicated en a previous page, the very young larva on hatching from 
the egg passes to the under side of some leaf where it spins a delicate 
tube from the end of which it issues for getting its food which it 
takes from the surface parts of the leaf. If this part of the leaf be 
coated with a poison, the treatment should be successful. It wotdd 
be necessary to get the coating on before the larva spins its web on 
the surface. The spray should be directed against the under side of 
the leaves. 

For this purpose we recommend the^use of arsenate of lead in pre- 
ference to Paris gieen on account of the much greater adhesive 
quality .of the former insecticide. Arsenate of lead sticks to the foli- 
age through severe rain storms and when applied in the spring may 
be found still adhering ii» the fall giving a whitish color to the leaves. 
For this reason it has a particular advantage in the treatment of the 
newly hatched larvae of the bud moth. 

In controlling the insect we recommend the following: 

(i). Pick by hand and destroy the nests'on nursery and young 
orchard trees. 

(2). Spray thoroughly with arsenate of lead in the spring of the 
year just as the buds are expanding. 

3). Spray thoroughly with arsenate of lead about June 15.. Give 
particular attention to coating the under surface of the foliage. 

CONCLUSION. • 

This is a serious insect pest and one that the fruit grower would 
do well to become familiar with and suppress before it takes pos- 
session of his orchard. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 209 



THE OYSTER-SHELL BARK-LOUSE. 



Lepidosapbes ulmi (Linn.) 

This widely known injurious species is the only scale insect of im- 
portance to the fruitgrower that, so far as is known to the writer, has 
been recognized in Montana. It appears to be generally distributed 
in the state, particularly west of the main divide, where in some 
cases it has proved to be a serious enemy to apple trees. One orchard 
of 800 trees in the Bitter Root valley is so badly infested as to show 
its sickly condition at a considerable distance. Nearly every smaller 
limb and twig on the greater number of the trees is thickly incrusted. 

There can be little doubt that this scale insect, which was known 
in Europe upward of a century ago, was imported into America on 
nursery stock by the early settlers and later transferred to Mon- 
tana from other parts of the United States in the same way. ' 

FOOD PLANTS. 

The oyster-shell bark-louse has been recorded on a large number 
of food plants, the total number for America being about forty. The 
list included, beside apple atod pear, various other fruits and prac- 
tically all the more important shade trees of northern United States. 

Dr. Howard has suggested that eventually two species instead of 
one may be found in the series in the list of food plants. 

LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS. 

If during the winter one of the female scales be turned over it will 
be found to contain a mass of very minute yellowish-white 
eggs, and in the pointed anterior end of the scale, the shrivelled 
body of the female. Dr. Howard has found the eggs under each 
scale to vary in number from 42 to 86. 

In the New England states these eggs hatch about the first of 
June, varying in different years according to the forwardness of the 
season.. We have had but little opportunity to make observation on 
this point in Montana, and have but one record. On June 5, 1903, 
none of the eggs had hatched at Lo Lo. The young (Fig 3, c.) are 
able to walk immediately after hatching, and working their way out 



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210 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

from under the protecting cover of the parent scale they crawl to 
other parts of the twigs, principally to the young shoots which at 
that time of year are tender and succulent. In rare cases they settle 
on the fruit of the apple and pear. 

After settling down and inserting into the bark the long thread- 
like hairs through which the juices of the plant are extracted, the 



Figure 2.— Oyster-shell Bark-louse- a, female scale from below 
showing eggs; b, same from abov**, greatly enlarged: c, female 
sc^ahs: d, male scales enlarged; e, male scales natural size. 
(Howard, Yearbook, U. S. Dept. of Agr.) 

insect goes through remarkable changes. From pores in the back, 
principally at the hinder part of the body, a glandular secretion ap- 
pears, and from it the scale is formed. The female molts or casts the 
outer skin twice and the male once. The cast skins are incorporated 
in the scales (See Fig. 2, b). After molting both sexes continue to 
grow, the female attaining a much larger size than the male; corn- 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 211 

- _ 

pare b. and d. of Fig. 2 The scales indicate approximately the com- 
parative sizes of the insects under them. The mature male and fe- 
male are very dissimilar in appearance. The male has long anter- 
nae, a pair of eyes, three pairs of legs, one pair of wings and at the 
end of the abdomen a long sharp-pointed organ. The female has no 
antennae, eyes, legs or wings, these parts all being lost in the first 
molt. When mature, the body of the female reaches to the posterior 
end of the scale, but as the eggs are laid the body shrinks and be- 
comes shortened and when the full number of eggs has been laid it 
may be found lifeless, at the anterior end, the cavity under the scale 
now being occupied with the eggs. As previously stated, in this con- 
<iition the insect passes the winter. The adult male and female are 
show^n at Fig. 3. 

In the northern part of the United States there is only one annual 
generation but in the South there are two. 

REMEDY. 

Insects of this character, covered as they are by a scale that fits 
closely to the bark, are not easily killed by contact insecticides. The 
most vulnerable point in their life appears to be just at the time the 
young are hatching and settling on the bark. We have previously 
recommended the use of kerosene emulsion as a remedy for this, 
insect, in the strength of one part to nine of water. Various reports 
to the eflFect that this treatment has not been eflfective in Montana, 
have come to this office, but inquiry has shown that 
in all these cases there is no certainty that the ap- 
plication was made at the correct time. We can do no better 
than to repeat our previous recommendation to watch closely for the 
hatch ifig of the eggs about the first of June and spray with with 
kerosene to the strength above mentioned, after the young have 
hatched. If, after a few days, more living lice are found the treat- 
ment may be repeated. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH LIME, SULPHUR AND SALT WASH 

AS A REMEDY. 

We take this opportunity to present the results of experiments 
conducted at Lo Lo, Montana, in the early spring of 1903, for the 



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212 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

puropse of determining the value or non-value bi the lime, sulphur 
and salt wash, and certain modifications of the wash, as a means of 
destroying the eggs of this scale insect. 

The experiments were conducted in the apple orchard of Mr. 
Delaney. At the time, pear buds were swollen almost to the point 
of expanding their tirst leaves and apple buds were slightly swollen. 



Figure 8. Oyster-shell Bark-louse; a, adult male; b, foot of 
same; c, young larve; d, antenna of same; e, adult female taken 
from scale; a, c, e, greatly enlarged; b. d, moi*t enlarged. 
(Howard, Yearbook, U. S. Dept. of Agr.) 



The trees are large and were badly infested with this insect. Seven 
to nine trees were used in each experiment, each lot being sprayed 
with a different mixture, but the total number of trees used consti- 
luted but a small proportion of the orchard. The spraying was done 
April 21 and 22, 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 213 



One lot was sprayed with the wash as follows : 

Lime i pound. 

Sulphur . . .• I pound. ' 

Salt I pound. 

Water 4 gallons. 

Lot two was. sprayed with the following : 

Lime i pound. 

Sulphur I pound. 

Water 4 gallons. 

Lot three was sprayed with : 

Lime • 3^ pound 

Sulphur I pound 

Water 4 gallons. 

In the fourth lot lime only was used as follows : 

Lime i pound. 

Water 8 gallons. 

Two subsequent visits were made to the orchard, one before the 
hatching of the eggs and one after, but I could not find the least 
evidence of any good having been accomplished by any of the four 
treatments. 



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214 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



APPLE LEAF-APHIS. 



Aphis pomi DeG. 

A few years ago practically all the accounts of plant lice on the 
foliage of apple trees were written of one species, which was known 
under the scientific name, Aphis mali Linn. Dr. John B. Smith, of 
Rutgers College, New Jersey, and others, had rioticed that accounts 
of the insects in other localities did not agree with their own observ- 
ations, but not until Prof. E. Dwight Sanderson* published the results 
of his investigations, was it made clear that, instead of having one 
apple aphis in the United States we have several. 

We have at least two species in Montana, but one of these, the 
Apple Leaf-aphis, is far more common than the other and is respon- 
sible for practically all the injuries. 

CHARACTER AND EXTENT OF INJURY. 

No fruit pest has been more frequently inquired about in the let- 
ters to this Station than has this aphis. These letters, as well as the 
writer's experience in various parts of the state, show conclusively 
that the species are very troublesome and at times a very injurious 
pest. It is universally felt that as a rule young trees are much more 
susceptible to attack than trees in bearing. The writer's field notes re- 
cord one notable exception to this in the case of a large orchard in 
Flathead county, composed of trees which had been in bearing^ for 
many years, which were so badly infested as to have the foliage with- 
ered, and the fruit undersized and poor. 

A prominent characteristic of the work of the aphis is the curling' 
of the leaves. In this respect there is a marked difference between 
the effect on the tree of the work of this species and of "Fitchews 
apple aphis," which, on the whole, is more common in the United 
States. In curling, the deformed leave usually takes a characteristic 
shape. The surface becomes irregularly raised and the whole leaf curis 
bringing the under surface inside and the upper surface exposed. The 
tip of the leaf rests upon its base, not in the middle, but to one side 

*Thirte6ath Auuual Report of the Delaware College Agricultural Experiment Station. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



215 




Figure 4. Wingless viviparous female on left; oviparous female on right— 
greatly enlarged. (Sanderson, 13 Ann. Rept. N. J. Exp. Station). 

or the other of the mid-rib. The lice live inside of the curled leaf, a 
fact which has much to do with the difficulty in controlling them 
with insecticidal spiays. 

There is some reason to believe that the presence of the lice in 
large numbers on a tree has the effect of keeping the sap in the 
tree late in the fall, thereby making it more liable to injury by 
cold weather. It 's certain that badly infested leaves on the ends of 
the new growth often fail to mature and remain on the tree through- 
out the winter. This is often noticeable on trees in the nursery row. 

The general injurious effect of the lice is to check the normal 
growth of the tree. This office has many records of this effect in a 
serious degree. 

We have never found this louse occurring in great numbers on the 
young buds in the spring as is often the case with "Fitchews apple 
aphis.'' As a rule, only a few scattering lice are to be found 
early in the season, and our exeprience has shown that frequently 
only here and there a tree will be found infested in the spring of the 
year, though as the season progresses the lice will gradually spread 
throughout the orchard. 



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216 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



DESCRIPTION AND LIFE HISTORY. 

Like many other plant lice, the apple-aphis passes the winter in 
the egg state. In the spring the eggs hatch, producing very minute, 
dark greenish lice which may be found crawling about over the sur- 
face of the bark or closely nestled on the young buds and expanding 
leaves. 

The spring of 1902 was looked upon as being very cold and back- 
ward in the Gallatin valley, and the writer was much surprised in 
going into the Station orchard on April i6th to find an abundance of 
newly hatched lice. The buds had not started and were no more 
swollen than they were the fall before. There had been a few days 
of hot weather which had caused the lice to hatch, but had not been 
of long enough duration to start the buds. Part of the lice had been 
feeding and had distinctly increased in size. 

On April 19 a cold storm came and on the 20th there were about 
three inches of show. For the next few days the writer was out of 
town, but on May i the trees were examined and the lice were found 
to have been nearly all killed. Only two living ones could be found 
and many dead bodies were still attached to the twigs. Since that 



\ 



^ ( 



^ 



\ - I 



Figure 5. Winged viviparous female greatly enlarged. (Saiidersou, 18th Ann. Rept. N, 
Exp, Station. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 217 



time, we have observed a similar, though less extensive, early hatch- 
ing and killing of the lice. 

If not destroyed by natural enemies or climatic conditions, the 
young lice in due time become mature and begin to produce young. 
Dr. Smith of New Jersey* found that about fifteen days were requir- 
ed for the first genet ation to reach maturity after hatching. The lice 
are known as the **Stem mothers," (See Fig. 4, b). They are wing- 
less and are greenish in color. No males are produced from the eggs 
and the stem mothers are able to produce young without them. 

The young of the second generation (offspring of the stem moth- 
ers) are produced alive — not hatched from eggs — and are able to 
begin feeding almost immediately. They settle down near the moth- 
er and one may often find a stem mother with her large family close 
by her. Our office notes show that the stem mother gives birth to 
young at the rate of from one to fourteen per day, and that she con- 
tinues day after day for fully eighteen days, producing an average 



Figure 6. Male of the oviparous 
generation greatly enlarged. (Sander- 
ton 14th Ann. Rept. N. J. Exp. 
Station. 



•timber of about six or seven. Thus each stem mother produces 
fclly loo young. 
♦Bulletin 143 of the N. J. Experiment Station. 



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218 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Dr. Smith found that the second generation matures in nine or ten 
days and that of chis series about three-fourths are winged ; that the 
third series matures in about two weeks, less than one-half being 
winged and that thereafter no more winged forms appear but that 
seven series of parthenogenetic females in all appear before the end 
of the season. The 8th and last series is made up of males and females. 
Late in October, after the mating of the sexes, the females deposit 
the eggs which remain on the trees during the winter. Figure 4^ 
right hand figure, shows an oviparous female. Figure 6, a male of 
the oviparous generation. 

A part or all of the winged individuals of the early generations fly 
to other trees. A winged parthenogenetic female is shown at Fig. 5, 

The eggs are minute, glossy black objects, oval in shape. They 
may be found on any part of the tree from the base of the trunk to the 
tips of the twigs, and are usually more abundant in the crevices of 
the bark and around the buds than on the exposed, smooth surfaces. 

A very large proportion of the eggs, probably upward of 90 per 
cent, failed to hatch during the three years that we had the 
species under special study. 

NATURAL ENEMIES. 

Of the various ratural enemies that feed upon the plant louse, 
none is of greater value than the Fire-marked Lady-bug (Hjrperas- 
pis 5'Signata) . Next in importance are certain species of syrphus 
flies. Besides these we have observed a Braconid parasite, a small 
fly that has not yet been named and the ** Aphis Lion." 

After two years of close observation of the habits of this lady- 
bug we are prepared to say that it is a very«prominent factor in the 
prevention of the aphis from becoming exceedingly abundant and 
destructive. During the latter part of May and in Junfe the beetles 
^ were found in great numbers iif the Experiment Station orchard, and 
in various other orchards, running rapidly over the limbs and tvrigs 
in search for the young aphids. The number they eat when in coii« 
finements is astonishing. 

In a previous paragraph we have called attention to the fact that 
only a comparatively small number of stem mothers are to be fotind 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 219 



early in the season and that the large numbers to be found later in 
the season is the result of the rapid multiplication. It is apparent, 

a* 
til 



S < : 
•o o 

r» C 






So 



S. 2 *< 
g 8 o 

*^ o ?i 
J « h: 

• S. on 

m 

^ =r ^ 
• ' « * 

o £ » 
«♦ ts - 
2. ? ^ 



therefore, that the comparatively small number of lice that the bee- 
tles eat early in the season must have a great effect in the abundance 
of the lice later in the season. 

Though the larvae of this lady-bug eat large numbers of the lice 
later in the season when they have become very abundant, we look 
upon the work that they do as being of much less value than that of 
the adults. 



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220 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 

The Surphus fly larvae are probably of greater usefulness than the 
larvae of the lady-bug since they are usually more abundant, but like 
the beetle larvae, they do not appear on the scene until the lice have 
become abundant and are multiplying with such rapidity that it 
.would require a large number of destroyers to dispose of the increase 
alone. Figure 8 illustrates a common species of lady-bug of the 
East, while at Figure 2, plate i, is shown an adult of the species here 
discussed. Figures 3 and 4 of the same plate show the eggs of the 
same species and at Figure 5 is shown a full grown larva. 





Figure 8, The Two Spotted Lady Bug; a. larva; b, mouth parts of same: c, claw of mbk 
d, pupa; e, adult; f, antenna — all enlarged. (Marlott Circular 7, Sec. Beries, Division of Ento- 
mology U, S. Dept. Agr.) 

REMEDIES FOR APPLE LEAF-APHIS. 

In spraying for this aphis we would emphasize the importance of 
watching for the individual infested trees here and there in the orch- 
ard and treating them before the lice spread to the other trees. In 
other words, the spraying for the apple leaf-aphis should be done and 
out of the way early in the season, for under ordinary circumstances, 
when vigorously fought early in the summer, though some lice es- 
cape, there will be so few left that the natural enemies will be able 
to keep them from overrunning the orchard. 

The value of prompt treatment is apparent when ; wc 
Realize the enormous power of multiplication with which 
nature has endowed these insects. In a previous para- 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 221 

graph we have shown that the stem mother's maxi- 
mum power of production is upward of lOO young, and i^ 
is probable that later generations can give birth to a similar number. 
Acting on the basis that all of the young of each generation come 
to maturity and produce the full unmber of young, we find that the 
progeny of one stem mother during one summer is something enor- 
mous. 

let generation i aphis. 

2nd generation lOO aphids. 

3rd generation 10,000 aphids. 

4th generation 1,000,000 aphids. 

5th generation 100,000,000 aphids. 

6th generation 10,000,000,000 aphids. 

7th generation 1,000,000,000,000 aphids. 

Thus starting with one aphis in the spring we would have in the 
seventh generation one trillion aphids, a number which the human 
mind cannot appreciate. Under natural conditions, however, the in- 
sects are decreased in number from one cause and another, all thro' 
the season, so that, while they increase very rapidly, they never do 
so to the extent above indicated. At the same time, however, it is 
easily seen that the destruction of a large proportion of the first and 
second generations will very markedly affect the numbers through- 
out the season. There seems to be little doubt that the killing of 
the first generation, by inclement weather in some seasons and the' 
absence of storms in other seasons account for the great variation 
in abundance and destructiveness of this louse in different seasons. 

Because of the great difficulty in controlling the insect after the 
leaves of the trees have become curled, the writer has undertaken 
to learn if it is feasible to destroy it in other ways. An extensive 
seric-s of experiments in fumigation with the deadly hydro- 
cyanic acid gas was conducted. In these experiments w» 
used a large canvas tent, a large paper box and a stnall 
air-tiirht wooden box constructed for such work. We will 
not at this time give the detailed results of these ex- 
periments but will indicate the lessons they taught. Detailed instruc- 
tions for the use of this substance will be found on another page of 
this report. (See index.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



222 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

We found that every aphis could be killed without the least injun- 
to the foliage. Even though the experiments were conducted in 
both cloudy and bright, hot weather, not a leaf was injured in the 
whole series of tests. 

We used the cyanide in strengths varying from o.io grams per 
cubic foot of inclosed space up to 0.30 grams and while o.io gram 
killed practically all the lice, and, on the other hand, 0.30 did not 
ii'jure we decided upon 0.20 gram per cubic foot as being the suit- 
able amount to use in practical work. 

The time of exposure was 20 minutes. 

Considering the fact that by a timely and persistent use of sprays 
and washes the aphis may be brought under control, I very much 
doubt if this treatment should be considered as a suitable remedy 
except in the case of very large owners or in company orchards 
where the expense of providing a complete fumigation outfit would 
be justified. Having the equipment already at hand it would cost 
about 4>4 cents per tree to treat a large orchard. 

Information rgarding fumigation boxes suitable for such work as 
this may be obtained from Professor Johnson's work on fumigation 
published by the Orange Judd Publishing Co., New York. 

We also undertook a series of experiments with the use of the 
lime-sulphur and salt wash as means of destroying the egg during 
the winter. We sprayed a series of trees with this wash and 
modifications of it in the Experiment Station orchard and at Lo 
Lo. .Subsequent examinations of the trees at Bozeman showed 
that while none of the eggs hatched on the trees that were sprayed 
they also failed to hatch on all the other trees in the same part of 
the orchard that had not been sprayed. We therefore felt that the 
experiment had taught us nothing. The Lo Lo experiment also 
failed to be of value for the same reason. 

During the past few days a bulletin from the Idaho Experiment 
Station, written by Proflfessor Aldrich (Buletin No. 40) entitled 
'^Winter Spraying for Aphis Eggs'' has come to my desk. The 
bulletin gives in detail Prof. Aldrich's experience in the use of seven 
diflferent sprays used in the winter treatment of eggs of this aphis. 
The seven sprays are the following: 

I. Pure kerosene. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 223 

2. Kerosene emulsion, one-third kerosene. 

3. Kerosene emulsion, one-fifth kerosene. 

4. Sulphur and lime wash, 1-1-2. (One pound sulphur, one pound 
lime, two gallons water.) 

5. Sulphur and lime, 1-1-4. 

6. Sulphur and lime, 1-1-8. 

7. Crude petroleum emulsion, 10 per cent, strength. 

From the results of his experiments Prof.. Aldrich drew the fol- 
lowing conclusions: 

"Crude petroleum could not be uniformly applied. The emulsion 
was verx unstable, and the oil is much too thick to apply pure. No 
damage resulled ta the trees, but in many cases the eggs of lice 
were not destroyed. 

Pure kerosene striously injured the trees to which it was applied, 
but killed all the eggs. 

Kerosene emulsion of one-third strength injured the foliage to 
some extent, thoufi:h not very seriously ; it did not kill the eggs with 
any uniformity. In one-fifth strength it did not injure the foliage, 
but was not 3t all eflfective in killing the eggs. 

Sulphur and lime did not injure the foliage in the least, however 
strong. In the 1-1-2 and 1-1-4 proportions it killed almost all the 
^iC^'s; it is a question whether the very few that hatched had not 
been missed by the spray. 

Of the seven kinds of spray used, the choice for commercial pur- 
poses would undoubtedly be No. 5, sulphur and lime in the 1-1-4 pro- 
portion, or what is called the "Piper formula." 

1-1-4 proportion is probably a successful winter treatment, it will be 
applicable only on small trees that can be closely examined and thor- 
oughly sprayed. 

In conclusion, we recommend that Montana apple growers make 
careful, conclusive tests of the i:i-4 lime-sulphur wash as a winter 
treatment, and mean while place their main dependence on the use 
of kerosene emulsion and whale-oil soap or quassia-whale oil soap 
solution, spraying trees that are generally infested and dipping the 

He further concluded that while the lime-sulphur wash in the 
extremeties of limbs that are infested only at the ends of 
the branches. 

Formulae for these washes are given on a later page. (See index.) 



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224 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



THE FLAT-HEADED APPLE-TREE BORER. 



Chrysobotbris femorata Fab. 

One of the tru.st troublesome insect pests with which the Mon- 
tana fniit-g^rovver has to contend, is an apple-tree borer, which in the 
larval stage is expanded and flattened near the anterior end, as shown 
in. figure 9, a, an appearance which has led to its being called "the 
flat-headed borer/' Besides attacking the apple, the borer has been 
recorded also on various other deciduous trees, among which are 
pear, peach, oak, maple, mountain ash, box-elder, hickory, chestnut, 
sycamore, horse chestnut, redbud and currant. Mr. F. H. Chittenden 
of the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, from whose circular, (Circ 32, 
Division of Entomolog>') many of the facts in this paper are taken, 
states that cherry, beach and white birch are probably food plants, 
while an unknown authority has stated that elm, tulip, and cotton- 
wood are also host-plants. 

Although not considered to be a pest of first class importance 
this species has been doing a great deal of damage in this state, par- 
ticularly in the Bitter Root valley, and there is an increasing demand 
for information concerning its habits and the means of controlling 
it. It has been particularly destructive on young orchard trees, gird- 
ling the trunk near the ground and killing the trees. The accompany- 
ing photograph (see Plate III, Figure 7) shows the manner in which 
many trees have been affected and killed in Montana. The only ex- 
planation the writer has to offer as to the cause for the rather unus- 
ual numbers of this insect, is that under the climatic conditions in 
Montana trees^eem to be aflFected to a considerable extent with sun- 
scald, an aflFection which leaves the trees in an inviting and favorable 
condition for this insect. It has long been known that this insect 
prefers for a breeding place trees that have been previously weakened 
by some other cause. Observation has shown that trees which 
have been injured on the side exposed to the winter's sun are often 
selected by the adult in depositing their eggs, 
th ^^""^ ^^^^^ ^^^ aflFected principally on the main stem close to 
e ground, but on old trees the borers work on any part of the tree 
except the smaller limbs and branches. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 225 

Like other members of the same family of beetles (Buprestidae) 
the adults are diurnal in habits and are most active during the heat 
of the day. By a close search in an infested orchard during the sea- 
son of the year when the adults are out, one may find them basking in 
the sun on the trunks of the trees and on prostrate logs. 

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE IN MONTANA 

The flat-headed apple-tree borer is a native of North America 
insect. In spite of this fact, however, we believe that it is an in- 
troduced species in Montana. None of its principal food plants, so 
far as known, are native to the state, or if present, occur only spar- 
ing^ly, and moreover, its presence has been detected only in restrict- 
ed localities. We think it much more probable that the insect was 
brought into the state on some of the earliest shipments of trees 
from the older apple growing regions. 

It is a widely distributed pest throughout the United States 
east of the Rocky Mountains, and in southern Canada. 




r 31 c 



Figure 9. Flat-beaded Apple-tree Borer, 
a, larva; b, beetle; c, head of male; d, pupa 
—twice uatural size. (Chittenden, Circular 
82, Sec, Series, Div, of Entomology U. S. 
Dept. of Agr.) 

LIFE HISTORY. 



The eggs, which are pale brown and about one-eighth of an inch 
long, are laid on the trees during the hot summer months. One ob- 
server. Dr. Riley, found them being laid from June to September, 
but our observations in Montana indicate that while a few beetles 
may be found on the trees later in the season the majority are out and 



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226 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

depositing their eggs late in June, and early isx July. In about three 
weeks the eggs hatch and the young larvae bore under the bark, 
where they feed for three years, first just under the bark and later 
in the woody parts of the stem. On young trees they most common- 
ly occur at about the surface of the ground as shown in the photo- 
graph above referred to. The location of the burrow may often be 
detected from the outside by the discoloration or slightly sunken 
condition of the bark. 

At the end of three years from the time the egg was deposited 
the beetle bores out from the pupal chamber which it constructed 
at the end of its larval life. The sexes mate and the eggs are de- 
posited for the new generation. 

NATURAL ENEMIES. 

The downy wood-pecker which is so common in Montana and 
which is so often seen in our orchards, is the fruit-grower's friend. 
Besides picking up miscellaneous pests it locates burrows of this 
borer and extracts them in considerable numbers. In the older 
orchards of Montana scarcely a tree can be found that does not bear 
the marks of wood-peckers, a large proportion of which are made by 
this species. 

METHODS OF CONTROL. ' 
Borers as a class of pests are difficult to control. When once 
in a tree they cannot be reached with an insecticide. They may in 
many cases be removed by means of a sharp knife and a wire but 
their presence is not usually detected until a large part of the dam- 
age has been accomplished, and the injury done to the tree in re- 
moving the larvae may be greater than would be done if they 
were left to do their worst. It has been found, therefore, that clean, 
strong, cultural methods and the use of deterrent application on the 
trees, both of which are preventatives, constitute the best means of 
control. 

In the first place, in planting out a young orchard the trees 
should not be allowed to become weakened and so rendered liable 
to attack. Young trees in an exposed position should be protected 
against the strong rays of the winter's sun. The alternate thawing 
and freezing on the exposed side of the trunk produces the condition 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 227 

known to all as sun-scald, and makes typical conditions for the bor- 
ers. Dead or worthless trees should not be allowed to stand and 
become a menace to the healthy ones. It is a bad practice to have 
a brush pile made up of dead trees and prunings at the side of the 
field. Such piles should be burnt very frequently, for they soon 
become nurseries of pests. 

In a locality known to be infested with this borer it is often de- 
sirable to use deterrent applications on the trunks and larger limbs 
of both weakened and healthy trees. For this purpose, a number of 
substances have been recommended. Some use old newspapers as 
mechanical barriers placed about the base of the tree. 

Mr. Chittenden recommends that these papers be put on the 
trunk for about two feet from the ground up, and that above the pa- 
per a carbolated or akaline wash be applied. Wire netting is some- 
times used. ^ ^ 

The paper and netting not only prevent the deposition of eggs 
but also prevent the escape of the beetles that emerge underneath 
them. 

Among the substances that may be used as washes to make the 
surface of the trees objectionable to the adult beetles and so prevent 
them from depositing their eggs are the following: 

1. A thick solution of whale-oil soap. 

2. Soft soap rendered thick by the addition of caustic soda or 
potash in solution. 

3. Either of the above washes would probably be made more 
effective by the addition of crude carbolic acid at the rate of one 
pint to ten gallons of the wash. 

James Good, 939 and 941 North Front Sstreet, Philadelphia, Pa., 
offers for sale a product known as Caustic Potash Whale-oil Soap, 
which of itself would.be a good substance for this purpose. It 
should be diluted with sufficient water to make a thick fluent mass, 
and applied to the trunk and limbs of the trees to be protected. 
Such washes when not of a quality that makes them injurious to the 
hands, are sometimes applied by a man wearing old mittens or socks 
that are saturated with the wash. 



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228 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



THE PEAR-LEAF BU5TER MITE. 



(Pbytoptus pyri Scheuten.) 

Though probably of European origin the pear-leaf blister-mite 
is now widely disseminated throughout the world, having been dis- 
tributed by the agency of traffic in nursery stock. It is sparingly dis- 
tributed in Montana, but where well established is a troublesome 
pest. 

NATURE OF INJURY. 

As the leaf-buds of affected trees unfold in the spring there may 
be seen red blister-like spots and blotches which in severe cases may 
. involve practically all the surface of the leaf. At first the galls are 
more distinctly seen on the upper surface of the leaves but later in the 
season the spots turn brown, owing to the death of the tissues com- 
prising the blisters, when the affected spots become more apparent 
on the under side of the leaves. The blotches often take the shape 
of elongated patches one on each side of the midrib. 

In each blister, on the under side of the leaf, may be seen one 
or more minute holes that lead to the cavity of the blister and usu- 
ally visible only under a lense or microscope. 

Within these blisters composed of abnormal plant tissues, the 
mites live, feeding on the juices of the plant. Under the shelter of 
these galls they are very well protected, not only from wind and rain 
which might easily sweep them off, but also against insecticidal 
treatment. The tissues on the inside of the galls also furnish better 
facility for the mites to acquire nourishment than would the thicker 
layers of cells on the surface. The freshly formed galls are thick and 
succulent, but as they die and turn brown they shrivel and dry. 
Badly affected trees lose their foliage long' before the normal time 
which must be an injury to the health of the tree. 

THE MITE. 

The mites that produce these galls are very minute, being 
scarcely visible to the naked eye. Under a high power microscope, 
the body is seen to be elongated in form, about four times as long 
as wide, and has the appearance on the surface of being made up of 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 229 



a large number of fine rings. There are four legs, all of which are 
placed at the anterioi end of the body and though small they enable 
the mite to move rapidly. The head is made up chiefly of a conical 
snout within which are two lance-like jaws. To cover a linear inch 
'about 150 mites placed end to end would be required. 

LIFE HISTORY. 

From the eggs which are laid in the galls by the parent mites 
the young hatch, and, crawling out of the hole, go in search of an 
uninjured spot in the leaf. Then, boring through the surface they 
start new galls. The mites remain in the galls until the end of the 
season when they crawl to the buds and seek shelter for the winter 
under the scales. 

Some mites remain on the leaves too long and are borne to the 
ground when the leaves fall. 

MEANS OF DISTRIBUTION. 

Of itself the mite cannot travel far. For distant dissemination 
it is dependent upon outside agencies and has doubtless been spread 
from country to country on nursery stock. From tree to tree in the 
same vicinity they may be carried on the feet of the birds, or blown 
by the wind on the leaves in the fall of the year. 

REMEDIES. 

The only vulnerable point in the life cycle of this mite is when 
it is secreted under the bud scales after the leaves have fallen. Prof. 
M. V. Slingerland found that the mite "can be nearly exterminated 
in a badly infested orchard by a single thorough spraying of the 
trees in winter with kerosene emulsion diluted with five to seven 
parts of water.'' In all cases of treatment with a spray or winter 
wash, we recommend that no twigs or branches that have been 
pruned off be left on the ground. 

We recommend that the leaves from infested trees be gathered 
and burned and not allowed to blow about. 

Having learned from various fruit-growers of the state that they 
had not found the kerosene emulsion treatment to be satisfactory. 



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230 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

the writer undertook a series of tests e^ the lime-sulphur-salt wash 
as a remedy. The experiments were conducted in the orchard of 
Mr. C. M. Allen of Lo Lo. I would here express my gratitude to 
this gentleman for many courtesies extended to me, both in connec- 
tion with these experiments and at other times. 

In the experiments Mr. Allen's entire orchard of 190 trees was 
used and we feel entire confidence in the results we obtained. The 
spraying was done on April 21 and 22, the pear buds being swollen 
almost to the point of opening. 

In the various tests we used the following: 
Spray No. i. 

Lime I pound. 

Sulphur I pound. 

Salt I pound. 

Water 4 gallons. 

Spray No. 2. 

Lime • i pound. 

Sulphur I pound. 

Water 4 gallons. 

Spray No. 3. 

^ Lime , Yz pound. 

Sulphur I pound. 

Water 4 gallons. 

Spray No. 4. 

Lime i pound. 

Water 8 gallons. 

Ten trees were used in experiment No. 4 (lime and water only) 
and ten trees were left unsprayed. The remaining trees were about 
evenly divided in experiments Nos. i, 2, and 3. 

The results of the tests were very satisfactory and seemed con- 
clusive. The mites were practically exterminated on all trees treat- 
ed with sprays i, 2, and 3. The mites on the ten trees sprayed with 
No. 4 were, so far as we could determine, wholly uninjured. These 
trees and the ten left unsprayed were badly affected with the mites 
after the foliage expanded. 

Directly the other side of a barbed wire fence are more pear 
trees badly affected with the mite. The two pear orchards are really 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 231 

but one, since Mr. Allen's orchard was purchased and fenced off 
from the other larger one, the fence, in fact, passing diagonally 
through one row. The trees on the other side of the fence were 
badly infested the following summer, thus giving us greater con- 
fidence in the efficiency of our treatment. 

It appears that all of the first three sprays were equally effective 
Spray No. 3 ^-1-4 contains only enough lime to cause the sul- 
phur to go into solution, thereby making the caustic ingredient of 
the mixture. The spray when ready to apply is tlear and transparent 
instead of milky as is No. 2, which has an excess of lime. In spray 
No. I, the excess of lime goes onto the tree merely as a whitewash. 
We are not prepared to say that there is not some benefit in having 
this excess of lime, and for the present we recommend the use of 
spray No. 2. We dp not feel that the addition of salt in- spray No. i 
renders the wash of any more value. 

In conclusion, we recommend, as a means of holding this mite 
in control, a thorough spraying with lime-sulphur-salt wash in the 
1-1-4 proportion, in the spring of the year before the buds open. 
Directions for the pieparation of this wash will be found on another 
page of this report. (See index.) 



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232 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



GRASSHOPPERS. 



During the past three years a considerable amount of damage 
was done by grasshoppers in eastern Montana. An extensive territory 
was more or less affected, in some localities the grasshoppers being: 
so abundant that there was no vegetation left. From this extreme 
there was every gradation down to no injury. During these three 
years the grasshopptrs steadily increased and the seriously affected 
territory was extended. 

The injuries have been principally confined to the fenced and 
open ranges used by the stockmen in grazing cattle, sheep and horses, 
but some damage was done to grains, cultivated grasses and alfalfa. 
We received reports also of damage to fruit trees and to garden 
crops. 

Coincidental with the appearance of the grasshoppers has been 
a series of years in which the rain and snowfall has been much below 
the average. Aside from any direct or indirect influence which this 
scarcity of moisture may have had on the unusual increase of grass- 
hoppers, it certainly very much shortened the crop of grass. While 
the amount of grass that the grasshoppers ate would have been 
missed even if there had been a full growth, it is certain that what 
they took was more seriously missed on account of the scarcity oi 
grass. 

Roughly speaking, the territory injured through the combined 
effects of dry weathei and grasshoppers may be said to be embraced 
in that part of Montana drained by the Yellowstone river eaust of the 
town of Big Timber. Not only were the valleys of the tributaries 
of the Yellowstone affected but the cross country as well. We also 
received reports of injury in other scattering localities. One report 
came through Townsend from the country northeast of that towtt 
and we were notified of injury on the range in the eastern part of 
Madison county. 

One species, the yellow-winged locust, was very abundant in re- 
stricted localities in and about the Gallatin valley. We also noted 
the big-headed grasshopper to be more abundant than in previona 
years and in two instances the yellow-striped locust was found 
great numbers in the edges of this valley. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 233 

INJURY NOT CAUSED BY THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN 

LOCUST. 

Many persons have supposed the "old-fashioned" or Rocky 
Mountain Migratory Locust to be responsible for the losses in Mon- 
tana. Our investigations of the subject, however, show that no one 
species is alone the cause of the loss and the above species (Melan- 
opius spretus Uhler) if present in the state at all is very rare. Dur- 
ing the five summers that I have been collecting in all parts of Mon- 
tana I have not captured a single example of this interesting species. 
Moreover, I learn by letter from Prof. Gillette of Colorado that he 
has had a similar experience, having been unable to find any speci- 
mens during a longci period in his state. 

In our various trips into the worst affected regions we found 
a fairly uniform state of affairs throughout. On the range two or 
three species, taken together, constitute a large proportion of the 
total number, though in restricted localities one or another species 
besides these was more abundant. The three most common species 
on the range were the Big-headed locust, (Aulocara elliotti), the 
Lesser Migratory locust {Melanoplus atlanis) and the Yellow- 
winged locust {Camnula pellucida). In point of abundance the Big- 
headed grasshopper was the leading species of the three. The Less- 
er Migratory Locust was second in importance. It prefers the dryer 
uplands to the irrigated valleys, but in many cases it was found in 
great abundance in grain fields, particularly on the benches and in 
non-irrigated fields. 

The Yellow-winged Locust is more local in its distribution, 
often occurring in immense numbers in restricted localities and at 
times becoming ver>- injurious to grasses and grains. 

We found the two-striped locusts to be common in practically 
all the cultivated fields that were injured by grasshoppers. This 
species was particularly injurious to alfalfa, the succulent stems and 
leaves of this plant apparently suiting its taste.. 

LIFE HISTORY. 

All our particularly injurious species are alike in the main fea- 
tures of their life history. The winter is passed in the egg stage in 



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234 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

the ground. The eggs are about one-fifth of an inch in length and 
are deposited in compact masses or "pods'' which are arranged ver- 
tically, or slightly inclined, just below the surface of the ground. 

In making the hole in the ground to receive the eggs, the female 
makes use of special organs at the extremety of the abdomen. Plac- 
ing the point of the abdomen against the ground the pointed organs 
work rapidly back and forth and as the hole is made the abdomen 
settles into the earth. When the hole is completed it is filled with 
the mass of eggs and a viscid frothy substance. 

Prof. C. V. Riley's classic illustration of the process of egg- 
laying of the Rocky Mountain Locust, together with his description 
of the process, show that in that species the eggs are laid in four re- 
gularly parallel rows and that the number of eggs varies betw'een 
20 and 35. He also found that two or three such egg-masses were 
deposited by each female insect. 

The two-striped locust lays a larger number of eggs than this 
for we have counted as high as 62, in a mass, and two or three masses 
are deposited. The Big-headed Locust (Aulocara elUotti) probabl/j 
deposits only two masses. 

In general the places most chosen by the females for the pur- 
poses of egg-laying are those at which the soil is fairly free from 
grass-roots, or other roots that would interfere with boring the 
holes. Such places are found on the sides of roads, in abandoned 
roads, among tall weeds, etc. When the mating season comes the 
adults of a species gather into colonies where they stay for the re- 
mainder of their life. As a result, the young are often found in the 
spring of the year in more or less restricted localities. 

In our investigations of the outbreak of grasshoppers in Mon- 
tana in 1903 we fornd that the Big-headed grasshopper paid little 
attention to where the eggs were laid; for miles and miles over the 
denuded ranges the females could be found performing this act. 

In the spring ot the year, in some species earlier than in other?* 
the eggs hatch into very small nymphs which on close examinatice 
are seen to resemble adult grasshoppers, but there are no indicaticms 
of wings. As they increase in size and molt from time to time, rudi- 
mentary wings appear which increase in prominence with each niott; 
until the last when with fully developed wings the insect is matiUff 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 235 



and ready to lay eggs. While a few species of grasshoppers pass 
the winter as adults and a much larger number as nymphs, thereby 
making it possible to find some grasshoppers in the early part of the 
summer, it is a matter of common knowledge that they are much 
more commonly seen in August and September. This is not because 
there are more grasshoppers in the latter part of the season but be- 
cause when winged they are much more conspicuous than in the 
younger stages. 



MONTANA'S MOST COMMON AND DESTRUCTIVE 

SPECIES. 

In the following paragraphs we present a few of the leading facts 
regarding the most common species of grasshoppers that we have 
taken in middle and eastern Montana. They are not arranged in 
the order of their importance except the first five or six. Not all the 
species discussed are of great economic importance but all are com- 
mon and liable to be observed by anyone. Since some of the species 
are not yet known by vernacular names, we have used the scientific 
name of all, but have given also the popular name when one is 
known. 

I am indebted to Prof. Lawrence Bruner of the University of 
Nebraska for valuable information concerning our species and for 
the determination of a large number of species including a part of 
those discussed in this paper. Dr. L. O. Howard of the Division 
of Entomology at Washington has also very kindly identified a num- 
ber of species for me. 

Aulocara elliotti Thomas. THE BIG-HEADED GRASSHOPPER. 

This grasshopper, in point of numbers, stands first in the series 
here discussed. While it has been mentioned as being injurious in 
various parts of the United States, it has never before been consider- 
ed a prime cause of devastation. It occurs throughout western 
United States and is a true grass-eating species. When viewed from 
above or from the side the head is large (see figure) and the tibiae 



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236 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



are bright blue ; the antennae of the male are long. It occurs prin- 
cipally on the range, in Montana, having seldom been found in ir- 
rigated valleys. 

Melanoplus atlanis Riley. THE LESSER MIGRATORY LOCUST 

This species is distributed throughout mOst of the United States 
and Canada and often becomes so abundant as to be injurious. In 
Montana we have found it in cultivated fields where it has occasion- 
ed considerable loss, and on the range where in association with A. 
elliotti it has been injurious. The tibae are usually red. The size and 
general appearance of the species are shown on the accompanying 
plate (Plate IV, figures i and 2). 

Camnula pellucida Scud. THE YELLOW-WINGED LOCUST. 

It may be safely said that not a year passes in which this spe- 
cies does not become injurious in either one part or another of the 
United States, usually in the northwest. It feeds particularly on 
grasses and grain. In Montana it has been found to be local in its 
distribution and has been destructive on the range in only a few re- 
stricted areas. The under wings are yellow, the upper wing^ and 
general surface of the body are variable in color, between yellow and 
brown. 

Melanoplus bivittatus Say. THE TWO-STRIPED LOCUST. 

This is among the larger grasshoppers of Montana. It occurs 
throughout the greater part of the United States. It is especially in- 
jurious in cultivated fields and so far as our experience goes is 
practically the only species that has caused injury to alfalfa. The 
femora have longitudinal stripes and there are two yellowish stripes 
on the back. 

Hippiscus neglectus Thomas. 

We found this grasshopper to be fairly common over the larger 
part of the affected territory. Its appearance is well shown in. the 
accompanying figure. (Plate VI, figure 2.) 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 237 



Spbaragemon aequale Say. 

This grasshopper is. often met with in the heat of the day, is 
a strong flyer and a difficult one to catch. In some places it was so 
common as to be somewhat injurious. 

Arphia tenebrosa Scudder. 

This grasshopper fies with a clattering sound, often poises it- 
self in the air in the heat of the day, remaining in one spot with the 
wings rapidly vibrating. 

Cbortopbaga viridifasciata DeG. THE GOAT-HEADED GRASS- 
HOPPER. 

This exceedingly variable species, found in the early part of the 
season, often assembles in colonies. It varies between bright green 
and dull brown. 

Dissosteira Carolina Linn. THE CAROLINA LOCUST. 

This grasshopper is the species known to most people as the one 
that poises in the air making a peculiar rattling or rustling sound, 
settling to the earth as the sound dies out. It occurs commonly along 
dusty roads and hct,gravelly places as along railroad tracks. The 
writer has often observed it to be abundant in various parts of 
Montana. 

Cordillacris occipitalis Thomas. 

This species occurs on the plains east of the Rocky Mountains. 
We have found it very abundant in eastern Montana. 

Melanoplus dawsoni Scudder. 

This species when mature has rudimentary wings which reach 
only about half-way to the end of the abdomen. The under side is 
yellow, with prominent black bands on the abdomen. It has been 
common in lowlands in the Gallatin valley and in the Yellowstone 
valley. 



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238 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Encoptolophus sordidus Bum. THE CLOUDED GRASSHOPPER 

Often met with in the field and somewhat resembles C. pellucida. 

Acrolophitus hirtipes Say. 

This grasshopper of striking appearance, is uniformly green 
throughout. It occurs in restricted localities, often in considerable 
abundance, where in contrast to other sombre-colored grasshoppers, 
it is quite conspicuous. 

INSECT ENEMIES OF GRASSHOPPERS. 

Grasshoppers have a large number of parasitic enemies and when 
the grasshoppers as hosts become abundant, their parasites, because 
of a plentiful supply of food, become numerous also and soon gain 
the mastery over the hosts. This balancing process is continually 
active. While we cannot say positively what is the cause of the ap- 
pearance in Montana of grasshoppers in unusual numbers it is prob- 
able that parasites as a direct or indirect cause have had a great 
influence. 

Various correspondents have called our attention to the pre- 
sence of minute red spots on the bodies of grasshoppers. These red 
spots are the bodies of a red mite which occurs commonly through- 
out the state, and which doubtless does some good in preventing the 
undue increase of grasshoppers. They have often been mistaken for 
eggs of parasites but there is no reason for confusing the two, since 
the eggs of parasitic flies are white. 

In every part of the grasshopper aflFected sections of the state that 
we visited in the summer of 1903 we found dead bodies of grass- 
hoppers which contained maggots or larvae of a fly. Some of these 
were reared in the laboratory to the adult stage and the flies were 
sent to Dr. L. (3. Howard for determination. He reported the fly 
to be Sarcophaga cimbicis Townsend. We are unable to state 
whether this fly killed the grasshopper or whether the larvae were 
merely feeding as scavengers on the dead bodies of grasshoppers 
that had died from other causes. 

It was noticeable that a blister beetle or Spanish fly whose 
scientific name has not yet been determined was very abundant 
throughout the Yelowstone valley from Columbus eastward. We 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 239 

received a few letters notifying us that these beetles had been in- 
jurious to garden plants and other plants of value. This species and 
various other of the same family (Melodidne) are well known to be 
very beneficial in the larval stage as destroyers of the eggs of lo- 
custs. In brief their life history is the following: In the latter part 
of the summer they deposit their yellowish colored eggs in the 
ground, each female producing four or five hundred eggs. The eggs 
hatch in about ten days into long-legged larvae. These larvae are 
very active and they run about over the ground search- 
ing for eggs of locusts, finding an egg pod they enter 
it and begin devouring the eggs. It is said that if two 
larvae come upon the same egg-pod a deadly combat oc- 
curs, resulting in the death of one or the other, leaving 
the successful contestant sole owner of the store of food. As the 
larva feeds and grows it molts from time to time producing remark- 
able changes, until in place of the long-legged larva there is one 
with short legs and rudiamentary mouth parts. The mature beetle 
appears again the next spring. 

Besides the enemies we have mentioned, which are among the 
most important, are many others which, taken together, doubtless 
do much to reduce the number of grasshoppers. 

REMEDIES. 

The remedies that have been devised in the various parts of the 
country are not adapted to the conditions we find on the grasshop- 
per-ridden ranges of Montana. They apply much better to the agri- 
cultural fields of the middle west states, but some of them may be 
used effectively in the agricultural valleys of this state. We give 
below a few remarks regarding the most important remedies that 
are known, leaving the farmer to select for himself the one most 
suitable for his conditions. 

Ploughing. — Late fall or early spring ploughing is the best of all 
artificial remedies. It is practiced for the purpose of destroying the 
eggs and it follows that the eggs must first be located. In our re- 
marks regarding the habits of grasshoppers we have called atten- 
tion to the fact that in the breeding season the grasshoppers accumu- 
late in more or less restricted areas and that the eggs are laid in 



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240 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

these areas. The observant farmer will locate these patches and 
by ploughing clee])ly will place the eggs so far under the soil that 
when the young hatch they will be unable to reach the surface. Even 
the young hoppers, when very small, may be turned under in the 
same manner. 

Where ploughhig cannot be resorted to, a thorough harrowing, 
especially with a disc harrow, will result in the destruction of a 
large number of the eggs by crushing some and exposing others to 
their numerous enemies and to frosts. 

Burning. — When the grasshoppers are young and travel slowly 
they may be killed on or near the locality where they hatch by 
covering them with a thin layer of straw and then burning it. 

In some sections of the west where crude petroleum can be ob- 
tained at small cost it is sometimes employed in the form of a spray 
as a remedy against young hoppers. This bil kills by contact but 
additional eflfectiveness can be secured by setting fire to the oil 
on the ground. 

Bandages. — Some property owners in Montana have suffered 
injury to their fruit trees by grasshoppers. The young may be pre- 
vented from climbing the trees by bandaging the trimks with cot- 
ton batting, axel giease or sonie other adhecive substance. As the 
grasshoppers acquire wings they may fly into the trees and in such 
cases relief may be secured by the use of poisonous sprays. 

Hopper-dozers. — Hopper-dozers are metallic pans of any con- 
venient dimensions which are partly filled with kerosene oil and 
drawn about over the field for the purpose of catching the partly 
grown grasshoppers. Many of the insects after hopping into the 




Fig; 10 Hopper-dozer, after Riley. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 241 

pans and getting covered with oil jump out again but these are in- 
variably killed. The back of the pan is extended vertically by means 
of a strip of cloth or canvas supported by upright stakes. See Figure 
ID. In large fields several hopper-dozers are sometimes attached in 
series by means of a Jong pole and drawn by two horses, one at each 
end of the pole. I'wo horses attached in this way are much better 
than one in the middle of the pole because they tend to gather in the 
grasshoppers rather than drive them away. 

The Artificial Use of Diseases. — Under such conditions as occur 
on the Montana ranges, where the greater part of the injury by grass- 
hoppers has been done, the artificial use of deadly diseases is an at- 
tractive subject. If we were able to propagate and distribute a 
disease which would be communicated from one insect to another 
and so extended ovei large areas, the solution of the grasshopper 
problem would be reached. Various experimenters in the United 
States have made careful tests *of such diseases but thus far very few 
encouraging results have been secured. 

Realizing that the artificial use of diseases, though oflfering 
small hope of success, constituted the only hope, the Experiment 
Station through this department made a careful test of what has 
been called the South African grasshopper fungus disease. A sin- 
gle tube of this disease from Africa was very kindly given me by 
Prof. C. P. Gillette of Fort Collins, Colorado. Cultures on potato 
were made and distributed to about 300 applicants in the state. We 
also made careful laboratory tests on caged grasshoppers of various 
species, but so far as we are informed not one grasshopper was kill- 
ed either in the field or laboratory test. The various other entomolo- 
gists also failed to get results of decided value. We feel, therefore^ 
that until something entirely new in the form of a disease is known, 
we will still have to wait for Nature to take her course, except where 
it is possible, in restricted areas, to use some of the other remedies. 

CRIDDEL MIXTURE. 

The substance known by this name has lately come into favor 
as a grasshopper remedy in some parts of the United States. It 
was first brought to public attention by Dr. James Fletcher, govern- 
ment entomologist of Canada, who, at the meeting of official entomo- 



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242 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

legists at Washington, D. C, 1903, stated that it had entirely re- 
placed the cumbersome and inadequate hopper-dozer. It is made 
as follows: Take one part of Paris green, two parts of salt and 40 
parts of horse manure by measure. Add sufficient water to make the 
mass soft without being fluid. Distribute through the field to be 
protected in quantity proportioned by the number of hoppers. 

The material may be scattered from a wagon and because of its 
cheapness may be used sparingly over fairly extensive areas. We 
recommend that it be given a very thorough test around the edges 
of grain fields and other crops that may be threatened. We know 
of no remedy to recommend for use on the the ranges. 



THE COMMON TOAD* 

It is the purpose of this paper to call attention to the value of 
the toad to the fruit-grower, the gardener and farmer, to outline its 
habits and life history and to urge that it be protected against de- 
struction by thoughtless boys. 

At first thought an account of the toad may seem out of place 
in a report of insect life. It is entered, however, on account of my 
firm belief in its great economic value as a destroyer of terrestrial 
insects, a large number of which are injurious to the interests of 
man. 

As will be noted, I have freely consulted and often quoted Mr. 
A. H. Kirkland's paper that treats of this animal, published as a 
bulletin of the Maseachusetts Experiment Station. His paper is the 
most valuable that has been published on this subject. 

FALSE IDEAS CONCERNING THE TOAD. 

Since before the beginning of the Christian area students have 
observed toads and written of their habits. Too frequently, however, 
actual facts and superstitions have been confounded, with the re- 
sult that the early literature on this interesting and valuable batrach- 
ian is a queer medley of fact and fiction. 

For the sake of brevity we will pass over this topic very briefly 
and omitting an account of the venomous character and medicinal 

*Bufo boreas 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 243 

virtue, as well as many other equally ludicrous qualities attributed 
by the ancients of Europe to this harmless and humble animal, will 
touch upon certain beliefs that are now current in this country. 

Perhaps the creation of the imagin?tki:i ilnt is given more cred- 
ulity than any other, is, that to touch a toad will cause warts on 
the hand. Other beliefs that have been hold m this ct)untry, (wc 
hesitate to say that any of them are ncAV held) are, that to kill a 
toad will produce bloody milk in cows; that a toad's breath will 
cause convulsions in children ; that a toad in a newly dug well will 
insure a good and unfailing supply :.t wa':er: ynd that a toad in a 
new made cellar will bring prosperity to the household. 

No less absurd than the above are the statements 
that we often see in the papers to the effect that some 
particular section has been visited by toads that fell in 
a recent storm in such numbers as to be very abundant 
in the roads, on the sidewalks and over the entire surface of the 
ground. While it may not be an entire impossibility for a toad 
to be picked up by a tornado or cyclone, no one would accredit such 
an atmospheric condition with the power of selecting toads from 
among the other equally movable objects, or if other objects were 
taken into the upper air along with toads we might rationally predict 
that both classes of objects would be deposited in the same places. 

The explanation of the occurrence of toads in noticeable num- 
bers is usually to be found in the fact that they have either hatched 
and grown to a sufficient size for migration in some nearby swamp 
or pond, or that adult toads are on their way to or from such near- 
by breeding places. It is well known that toads during the sunny 
hours of the day seek protection under stones, boards, bridges, in 
dense vegetation Dr in the soft earth — in other words, moist, cool 
locations. For a short time after a storm, when the air is cool and 
the earth and vegetation are wet, the toads are known to venture 
forth even at midday as they do in the cool twilight hours of the 
evening and morning. 

LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS. 

The toad in common with other batrachians, and like reptiles, 
spends the winter months in hibernation. In the early spring, when 



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244 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

the earth has become warmed, the toad emerges from, its winter 
quarters, and, during the warm hours of the day, makes its way to 
some pool or stagnant water where it meets others of its kind. A 
little later, their shrill cry, the mating call, may be heard. The eggs 
of the toad and those of the frog may both be found in the same pool, 
the former in long slimy strings, the latter in irregular masses. In 
about four weeks the eggs hatch and the tadpoles, which at first 
are very small and very numerous, feed on the vegetable detritus 
and slime which are found on the bottom of the pond and attached 
to weeds, sticks, etc. 

The tadpole has become full grown and has transformed to a 
very small toad by about the first of August, in this climate. The 
young toads leave the pond and scatter in all directions, keeping out 
of sight because of their sensitiveness to heat except after showers 
when the earth is cool and damp. 

Kirkland states that he removed 1279 ^^^ from one average-sized 
female which had already commenced laying. This statement indi- 
cates great powers of multiplication in this animal. We have ob- 
served, however, that a large proportion of the tadpoles never mature 
into toads. 

For hibernating quarters the toad makes use of cavities under 
rocks, in cellars, in rubbish heaps, etc. 

Both in summer and in winter the temperature of the amphi- 
bian and reptilian body is about that of the surrounding air or water. 
When the surrounding medium goes below certain temperatures, 
the animal becomes torpid, stiff and may even, freeze without injur)'. 
If brought into a warm room such an animal soon becomes active 
as in the summer only to return to the same stupor when returned 
to the cold. That the physiological state of hibernation is not de- 
pendent alone on a fall in temperature is shown by the fact that the 
many animals go into hibernation long before the approach of cold 
weather and, further, by the fact that other animals hibernate in 
warm weather during the period that their appropriate food is 
scarce. Some animals, morever, are not aroused from their hiber- 
nating torpor by being brought into a warm atmosphere. 

When roughly handled, the toad sercets from the wart-like pro- 
jections on the back a milky fluid of a most offensive odor. Tha^ 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 245 



this secretion is not objectionable to all animals is shown by the 
fact that hawks, owls, etc., include toads in their fare. 

LENGTH OF LIFE OF THE TOAD. 

European literature gives authentic record of a toad that lived 
36 years and was then killed by accident. Kirkland, in his paper al- 
ready referred to, records the results of his inquiry into this inter- 
esting matter in the following words : 

"Nearly every old New England homestead has one or more 
semi-domesticated toads whose age can only be conjectured. The 
writer has sought different parts of the state (Massachusetts) among 
families who have long resided on the places they now occupy, for 
some accurate information on this subject, and from a mass of state- 
ments, given in many cases with strong corroboratory details, there 
may be taken apparently veracious records of two toads that have 
occupie'd dooryards in two different towns for twelve and twenty- 
three years respectively. The histories of these toads have been 
given. me by people of unqustionable veracity, yet I hesitate to pre- 
sent the records as facts, since from the evidence offered I cannot 
feel positive that the identity of the toad in either case has remain- 
ed unchanged. There can be but little doubt that toads live to a con- 
siderably greater age than is supposed and we may hazard the 
opinion that many of them reach an age of at least ten or fifteen 
years." 

FEEDING HABITS. 

Particularly in the dry climate of Montana, toads are seldom 
seen during the sun-lit hours of the day. That they occur here, 
however, is known to all observing people.. In the spring of the 
year they may be found^in large numbers in ponds and pools. 

The toad takes only living, moving animal life as food. Dead 
food is rejected. Motionless living food is likewise rejected as has 
been observed by the writer and other authors. Insects that "play 
'possum" and remain motionless are not taken by the toad. 

Unlike the tongue of most other vertebrates that possess this 
organ, that of the toad is attached only at the anterior end where 
it is fastened to the floor of the mouth. It is coated with an adhesive 
substance that causes insects to adhere when touched by it. By a 



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246 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

very quick motion the tongue leaves the mouth, touches and picks 
up the food, and returns. So quick is the motion that the eye can 
scarcely follow it. 

! While out on their foraging expeditions these animals show in- 
teresting traits. Mr. Kirkland observed eight good-sized toads 
seated under an arc light engaged in picking up insects, which, de- 
prived of their wings, fell from the lamp above. A physician in 
Maiden, Dr. Charles Burleigh, observed that a colony of some half 
dozen toads made their abode under his piazza, and each summer 
night about eight o'clock went forth down the walk and into the 
street where they stationed themselves under an arc light. Here 
they fed upon the insects that fell from the lamp until the electric 
current was turned off when they returned to their accustomel 
shelter. From his observations, Mr. Kirkland concluded that luicVr 
ordinary conditions toads feed continuously throui>hout the right 
except where food is abundant. He observed thnt in twenty -four 
hours the food consumed was equal to four times the stomach 
capacity. 

It would be interesting to follow in detail the results of Mr. 
Kirkland's examination of the stomach contents of 149 toads but we 
must abbreviate and summarize. 

Various investigators have shown, and it is a matter of common 
observation, that the toad takes pretty much any living animal food 
that crosses its path, provided it is not too large to be swallowed 
whole. It follows til en that in various parts of the country the diet 
of the toad will be determined largely by what are the common in- 
sects found on the ground and low-growing vegetation, where the 
toad can reach them. The following table by Mr. Kirkland shows 
the results of the examination of 149 stomachs contents, in Mas- 
sachusetts. Were such a study to be made in Montana the gener- 
al character of the food would be the same but in detail it would 
be very different. 

Unidentified material 5 per cent. 

Gravel i per cent. 

Vegetable detritus i per cent. 

Worms I per cent. 

Snails i per cent. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 247 

Sow-bugs 2 per cent. 

Myriapods lo per cent. 

Spiders 2 per cent. 

Grasshoppers and crickets 3 per cent. 

Ants 19 per cent. 

Carabids 8 per cent. 

Scarabaeids .- . 6 per cent. 

Click beetles 5 per cent. 

Weevils 5 per cent. 

Chrysomelids i per cent. 

Carrion beetles i per cent. 

Miscellaneous beetles i per cent. 

Total beetles 2^ per cent. 

Cut worms 16 per cent. 

Tent Caterpillars 9 per cent. 

Miscellaneous larvae 3 per cent. 

Total cut worms, caterpillars, etc. 28 per cent. 
The gravel and vegetable detritus were doubtless taken by 
accident in the rapid stroke of the tongue with which the food is 
taken into the mouth. It may, however, be of some value in grind- 
ing up the food, though it is not always foimd in the stomach. Of 
the total food 98 per cent is animal and by far the greater part of 
this is insect life. 

In this brief account we will not discuss each of the items 
^n the above table, but we would call attention to the large pro- 
[>ortion of grasshoppers, ants, scarabaeids, click-beetles, weevils, 
^hn'somelids, cut-worms, tent caterpillars, and miscellaneous lar- 
vae all of which are for the most part injurious. 

THE AMOUNT OF FOOD THE TOAD EATS. 

When in the presence of abundance of food the toad eats a very 
arge amount. Mr. F. H. Mosher of Massachusetts fed between 
hirty and thirty-five full grown celery worms to one toad in three 
lours time. Mr. J. E. Wilcox, an employe of the Gypsy Moth Com- 
nittee of the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture, before that 
ommittee was abolished and its work abandoned, fed to a toad 
»f medium size twenty-four fourth molt gypsy moth larvae, all of 



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248 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



which were swallowed in less than ten minutes. Mr. Kirkland 
found in a single stomach the remains of twenty-seven myriapods, 
in another fifty-five army worms, in another sixty-five gypsy moth 
caterpillars and in another thirty-seven tent caterpillars. 

It is not possible to make even an approximate estimate of the 
financial equivalent of the saving to crops brought about by the 
toad, but the foregoing facts are enough to remove any shadow 
of doubt that this humble animal is of great value to the gardiner, 
florist, fruit-grower and general agriculturist. 

THE TOAD SHOULD BE PROTECTED AND FAVORED 

The wanton destruction of toads by ubiquitous boj's is known 
to all. It is not an uncommon thing for a party of boys to or- 
ganize an expedition to nearby ponds for the express purpose of 
killing toads. Dr. C. F. Dodge, published in the Worcester (Mass.) 
Evening Gazette, March 31, 1897, an account of finding in a sin- 
gle day two hundred dead or wounded toads on the shores of a 
pond on the grounds of Clark University.' 

We should not blame the boys alone for this, the parentsand 
school authorities are in a measure responsible for this worse than 
useless taking oi life. Rightly trained and directed the boy can get 
more real pleasure, and at the same time a pleasure that is infinite- 
ly better for him, by observing the habits of toads and other animals. 

The toad is as deserving of protection by legislation as are in- 
sectivorous birds. The asthetic, to be sure, is lacking, but the as- 
thetic side of the question is not the one that prompts us to enact 
laws that make it a misdemeanor to kill birds. It is the economic, 
and on an economic basis the toad is as deserving as almost any 
bird. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 249 



A MANUAL OF FRUIT PESTS WITH 
REMEDIES. 



In this manual we purpose to present in condensed and easily 
accessible form the most essential information regarding the more 
important insects and fungus diseases that have been recognized in 
the state or which are liable to appear at any time. It is our in- 
tention at an early ciate to prepare another manual similar to this 
hut dealing with farm, garden and lawn pests. 

The reader should freely consult the index in seeking the in- 
formation he desires. All insecticides and fungicides recommended 
are discussed at the end of this section, and formulae for their pre- 
paration are given. 

Unless the fruit-grower is confident that he knows the pest he 
16 dealing with he should sei^d examples to the Experinlent Station 
for identification. 

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE APPLE. 

I, The Red-humped Apple Tree Caterpillar. 

Bright colored caterpillars with a red hump on the back, feeding 
on the foliage of apple. Seldom very abundant. 

Remedy. — Remove by hand or spray with an arsenical poison. 
2, Tent Caterpillars. 

Hairy caterpillars with a bright bluish stripe down the middle 
of the back. Living on wild and cultivated cherry and on apple in 
the spring of the year. They construct tents or nests in the crotches 
of limbs from which they venture and feed during the middle of 
the da}- . 

Remedy, — Remove the tent by hand, taking care to do so when 
the caterpillars are home, l^ider some conditions it is feasible to 
locate and destroy their eggs during the winter. The eggs appear 
as thickened bands on small twigs. Individual eggs are cylindrical 
and in the cluster rre placed on end, side by side. 



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250 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

3, The Bud Moth. 

Brownish caterpillars with black heads, feeding in the opening 
buds of apple, pear, blackberry, raspberry, and other plants in the 
spring of the year. Sometimes very injurious to apple, destroying 
the fruit buds, and by eating out the terminal-growing shoots, caus- 
ing a bushy appearance of the side buds and giving the tree an un- 
natural appearance. 

Remedy. — Keep the buds coated with an arsenical poison in 
the spring of the year. 

4, Canker Worms. 

Not yet found in Montana. Appearing soon after the foliage is 
expanded in the spring. Rapidly devouring the foliage or turning 
it brown. Whole orchards may be seen to be of a brown color at 
a distance, as a result of the attacks of this insect. When an in- 
fested limb is jarred the slender caterpillars, about three-fourths of 
an inch long let themselves down by silken threads. 

Remedy, — Spray promptly and thoroughly with an arsenical 
poison as soon as their presence is first detected. In regions where 
they are suspected to be present it is well to keep the trees banded 
with building paper and smeared with an adhersive substance which 
may be watched in the spring of the year for the purpose of learning 
whether or not the wingless moths are ascending the trees to lay 
their eggs. A large proportion of the damage may be averted by 
the use of such bands. "Bodlime," sold by the Bowker Insecticide 
Co., Boston and Cincinnati, is a good adhesive substance to use for 
this purpose. Tar or printer's in_k may be used but are less sat- 
isfactory. 

5, The Codling Moth. 

The larva is known as the apple worm and infests a number of 
fruits, but is most injurious to apple and pear. It is probably the 
most important pest with which the Montana fruit-grower has to 
deal. 

Remedy. — Spray with Paris green, arsenate of lead or arsenite 
of lime after the petals have fallen, again two weeks later, again 
the first week in August. If it is not yet in your orchard, watch for 
its appearance by searching for wormy fruit among the wind-falls 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 261 

and when harvesting the crop, and if the pest is found, begin spray- 
ing the next season. Do not bring to your orchards second-hand 
boxes from fruit dealers in town ; it is against the laws of the state 
and you are liable to prosecution. Such a practice will almost sure- 
ly result in the establishment of the pest in your orchard. 

6, The Web-worm. 

Colonies of hairy caterpillars living in tents on fruit and shade 
trees in the latter part of the summer and early fall. Affected limbs 
are enclosed in nets and the leaves are brown. 

Remedy. — Remove the caterpillars by hand. — . , 

7, The Flat-Headed Apple-tree Borer. 

Fairly common on apple trees in western Montana. Prefera- 
bly attacks diseased or weakened trees and feeds in the larval stage 
in the trunk and larger branches, excavating irregular cavities 
under the bark and later boring into the deeper parts of the tree. It 
may often be detected by sunken or discolored patches in the bark. 

Remedy. — Not an easy insect to combat. Practice clean culture. 
Dig up and bum worthless trees that are infested. In some cases it 
is advisable to locate the burrow of the borer and dig out the grub 
by means of a sharp knife or wire or other suitable instruments, 
taking care not to injure the tree more than necessary. Use deter- 
rent washes. • 

8, The Round Headed Apple-tree Borer. I 

Large, legless borers in the trunks of apple trees near the 
ground. The anterior end of th body is of about the same diameter 
as the posterior part. 

Remedy. — ^Treat as for flat-headed borer. 
9, Apple Twig-borer. 

Small, cylindrical, mahogany-colored beetles about one-third of 
an inch long, boring holes in twigs of apple, pear, cherry and other 
trees and in grape vines. 

Remedy. — Prune off and burn infested stems. 
10, Leaf-hoppers. 

Small soft-bodied insects with sucking mouth parts, on the 
under side of the foliage of apple and other fruits. Another species 
is known on pear, still another on rose. 



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252 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Remedy. — Spray the under side of the foliage with kerosene 
emulsion early in the season before the insects acquire wings and 
are able to fly. 

II, Buffalo Tree-hopper. 

Greenish or brownish three-cornered insects which make longi- 
tudinal slits in the bark of apple, laying their eggs in the slits. 

Remedy. — Prune off and bum affected twigs, practice clean 
culture, keeping out all weeds and unnecessary vegetation. 

12, Woolly Aphis of the Apple. 

' May be detected by the whitish woolly masses on the water- 
sprouts at the base of the tree and on old scars on the trunk and 
limbs. The colony masses are made up of the bodies of the lice and 
cottony secretion produced by them. The most injurious form of 
the insect feeds on the roots of the trees. 

Remedy. — For the areal form use strong kerosene emulsion 
early in the season. For the root form dig away the earth down to 
the roots and soak with hot water and return what has been removed. 

13, The Apple Leaf-aphis. 

Dark-green lice on the leaves of apple, causing them to curl. 
Common throughout the state. More abundant on young trees. 

Remedy. — When only a few terminal branches are affected, dip 
the affected parts into a pail of kerosene emulsion. One part in nine 
of water, or whale-oil soap solution, one pound in eight gallons of 
♦vater. Early in the season it is well to single out individual affect- 
ed trees ind spray with one of the above solutions. 

14, The San Jose Scale. 

An insect which has caused great destruction in the United 
States but which would probably be much less injurious in Montana. 
Minute circular scales on the bark of practically all our common fruit 
and shade trees. When abundant, giving the trees the appearance 
of being coated with a layer of ashes. 

Remedy. — Spray with lime, sulphur wash when trees are dor- 
mant. 

15, The Oyster-shell Bark-louse. 

Brownish scale insects, one-twelfth of an inch long, elong-ated 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 253 

in form, occurring on various plants but mostly on apple, on which 
it is most abundant at the ends of the twigs. 

Remedy. — Watch for the exceedingly minute whitish larvae 
early in June and when they appear spray with kerosene emulsion, 
one part in nine of water. Repeat in a few days if more larvae are 
seen. 

1 6, Putnam's Scale Insect. 

This insect occurs sparingly in western ^Montana. Resembles 
the San Jose scale, being a degraded form of life that lives under 
a very inconspicuous scale closely adhering to the bark. 

Remedy. — If necessary to treat for this, wash with strong whale 
oil soap solution while the trees are dormant. 

17, The Scurfy Bark-louse. 

A white scale insect on the bark of apple, pear, currant and 
other rosaceous plants. 

Remedy. — Watch for the young to hatch early in* June and 
spray with kerosene emulsion, one part in nine of water. If neces- 
sary spray again ten days later. 

18, Mealy Bug on Apple and Pear.* 

Occurs in the vicinity of Missoula. White cottony or mealy 
masses around the buds in the spring. Found in the winter under 
the scales of bark. Has been reported as injurious to young trees. 

Remedy. — Use whale-oil soap or kerosene emulsion as strong as 
the trees will stand. In the winter search for and destroy the cot- 
tony masses on the trunks of the trees, using whale-oil soap as 
a wash. 

19, Ants as Fruit Pests. 

We have received reports of ants as being injurious to young 
friut trees, building their mounds at the bases of the trees and eating 
off the bark and girdling the trunk. We have also known ants to be 
injurious to apple trees by gnawing the buds in the spring of the 
year. 

Remedy. — Pour bi-sulphide of carbon into the colonial mounds; 
from one to five or six tablespoonfuls should be enough. This sub- 
stance must not be put close to the trunks of apple trees. 
* PhenacoccxLS sp. 



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254 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

20, Grasshoppers. 

Young grasshoppers sometimes crawl up the trunks of trees and 
devour the foliage. Later when they acquire wings they fly into the 
trees. 

Remedy. — Spray the foliage heavily with arsenate of lead. To 
prevent the young from ascending the trees ; tie belts of cotton about 
the trunk or smear printer's ink or some other adhesive material 
-^n a band of paper on the trunk. 

21, The Clover Mite. 

Giving the leaves of apple and other trees a whitish devitalized 
appearance. In the fall of the year and during the winter masses of 
very minute reddish eggs may be found on the trees, particularly 
in the crotches. The mites sometimes become annoying on lawns 
and in dvvellings by crawling through the windows. 

Remedy. — Spray affected trees with the 1-1-4 formula of lime- 
sulphur wash in the fall or early spring, while the trees are bare of 
leaves. Spray with kerosene emulsion to destroy the pest in the vi- 
cinity of the house. 

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE PEAR. 

22, The Pear-leaf Blister-mite. 

Generally distributed in Western Montana. Causing thickened 
reddish spots and blotches on the leaves of pear; later in the season 
the spots die and turn 'brown, sometimes causing the foliage to drop 
prematurely. Serious on individual trees but does not spread ver>' 
rapidly. 

Remedy. — To prevent spreading, gather and burn the fallen 
leaves from invested trees. Spray in the spring before the buds 
open with the 1-1-4 lime-sulphur wash. 

23, The Pear Sliig. 

Injurious to the leaves of pear, plum and cherry. Slimy slugs 
on the upper side of the leaves, eating off the surface parts, leaving 
the under surface and the network of veins, which later turn brown, 
giving the parts of the tree affected a brownish appearance. 

Remedy. — Spray with arsenical poisons or dust or spray with 
hellebore. - A 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 255 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO CHERRIES. 

24, The Cherry Aphis. 

A dark colored aphis on the under side of the leaves of cherry. 
Common in western Montana. Occuring throughout the state. 
Remedy. — Treat as for apple-leaf aphis. 

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE PEACH. 

25, The Peach Tree Borer. 

Primarily a peach pest, but attacking also cherry, prunes and 
plum. Boring in the trunks near the ground, causing characteristic 
gummy masses to exude on peach trees. The injury is most appar- 
ent in the spring. 

Remedy. — A difficult pest to control. Keep the trees well fed 
and in a healthy growing condition. Prof. Slingerland has recom- 
mended the use of gas-tar smeared on the trunks to prevent the 
moths from depositing their eggs, and in combination with this the 
digging out method to destroy such larvae as gain access to the trees. 

26, The Peach Twig Borer. 

Though not yet found in Montana, it may turn up at any time. 
Reddish pink caterpillars boring in the young tender twigs of peach,, 
plum and prune in the early spring, later feeding in the fruit near 
the pit. 

Spray with strong kerosene emulsion in the winter. The oil de- 
stroys the worms by penetrating into the holes. 

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO PLUMS AND PRUNES. 

27, Plum Gouger. 

Small beetles, about a quarter of an inch in length, of a leaden 
gray color with a yellowish head and thorax, eating pinholes in 
growing plums. The larva of grub feeds in the pit, later eating its 
way out through the pit and flesh of the plum just as the fruit ma- 
tures. Attacks only American varieties. 

Remedy. — Jar the trees early in the morning or in the evening 
when the trees are in bloom and the fruit is setting, catching the 
beetles that drop on a sheet spread underneath. A few beetles are 
able to do a great damage. Prof. Gillette found that a single female 



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256 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



lays as many as 450 eggs. Gather and destroy all the stung plums 
before the gnibs escape. Spray heavily with arsenate of lead T:**- 
fore the blossoms are out. 

28, The Plum Curculio. 

The beetles make a crescent-shaped slit on the fruit of the plum. 
The larva feels in the young fruit causing it to drop. Said to be in 
the Bitter Root valley. 

Remedy. — Spray thoroughly with arsenical insecticides before 
the leaves open. Jar the trees in the early morning catching the bee- 
tles on canvas or a sheet and destroying them by burning or cruch- 
ing. Promptly gather and destroy fallen fruit. 

29, Plum Aphis. 

Numerous pale-green lice on tender shoots of plum. Common 
in ^Montana, sometimes injurious. 

Remedy — ^Treat as for apple aphis, but use extra precaution as 
the plum foliage is much more liable to be injured by insecticides. 
30, The Box Elder Plant-bug. 

Sometimes very injurious tb foliage and fruit of plum and 
prunes. Feeds primarily on box elder. Red and black bugs with 
a long, jointed snout 

Remedy. — Spray with kerosene emulsion to kill the young in- 
sects. It is sometimes necessary to remove neighboring box elder 
trees for the sake of doing away with the breeding place of the 
insects. 

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE STRAWBERRY. 

31, The Strawberry Leaf-roller. 

Generally distributed in Montana, and at times a destructive 
species. Feeds on strawberry, blackberry, raspberry and other 
plants. Rolls or crumples the foliage. Larvae small, greenish in 
color. 

Remedy. — After harvesting the crop, mow the vines, leaving 
them to dry. Then burn them. If there are enough vines to bum 
well first put some hay or straw over the field. If preferred vines 
may be sprayed willi arsenate of lead after harvesting the fruit. 
32, The Tarnished Plant-bug. 

Common throughout the state. Native to Montana, feeding on 
many wild plants. About one-fourth of an inch in length, variable 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 257 

in color, but usually marked with yellow, black and brown. Flies 
when disturbed. Most injurious in the spring of the year when they 
attack tender shoots and opening buds. Most commonly known in 
Montana as an enemy to blossoms and young fruit or strawberry 
and to young trees in the nursery row. 

Remedy. — It is not always easy to control this insect. When 
found on young fruit trees, jar them off in the cool of the day into 
some receptacle which contains kerosene oil. 

33, Strawberry Root Weevil.* 

Small hard beetles with an elongated snout which feed on the 
foliage of strawberiies in the early summer The larvae feed on the 
roots and are very injurious. 

Remedy. — Delay the planting of the new crop until the beetles 
have deposited their eggs. Keep the foliage coated with arsenate 
of lead in the early part of the summer. 

34, Strawberry Crown Borer. 

Small yellowish white grubs boring in the crown of plants dur- 
ing the summer. A species which though not yet recognized in Mon- 
tana is liable to be nitroduced at any time on imported plants. 

Remedy. — In a field that is known to be infested do not allow 
the plants to become very old but start a new bed at some distance 
from the old one; burn over the patch as for the strawberry leaf- 
roller. 

INSECT5 INJURIOUS TO CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES. 

35, Native Currant Saw-fly. 

Pale-green larvae which appear in the latter part of June or 
early in July and very rapidly devour the foliage of gooseberry and 
current bushes. The second brood appears about three weeks later. 
Shows preference for gooseberry. 

Remedy. — Dust the bushes with powdered hellebore or spray 
at the rate of one pound to a gallon of water. Be prompt in the 
treatment and do not allow them to defoliate the bushes. 

36, Currant Flies. 

Maggots feeding the fruit of the currant, causing here and there 

*Otiorhynchiis ovatus Linn. 



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258 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

a berry to turn red prematurely; in severe cases causing the entire 
crop to fall to the ground. 

Remedy. — Either gather the fallen fruit frequently and destroy 
it, or, after all of the insects have dropped to the ground, turn with 
a plow a deep furrow of earth against the row, then with a rake or 
shovel smooth the earth down around the bushes so as to cover up 
the hibernating insects so deeply that they cannot escape. This 
should be done in the fall or early spring. 

37, The Currant Stem Borer. 
, Larvae of a clear-winged moth, a near relative of the peach 
borer, which makes burrows in the currant canes, sometimes becom- 
ing very injurious. 

Remedy. — Watch the currant bushes in the early part of the 
summer about the time the fruit is setting and cut out and burn 
affected canes which may be detected by the yellowish color or 
wilted condition of the foliage. 

38, Currant Leaf-hopper. 

^Minute whitish insects on the under side of foliage of currant 
in the early part of the season. Later they acquire wings and have 
pinkish markings. 

Remedy. — Spray the under side of the foliage with kerosene 
emulsion, one part m nine of water in the early part of the season, 
39, The Currant Aphis. 

Green lice on the under side of currant leaves, causing the leaves 
to turn reddish in color and to have an irregular surface. 

Remedy. — Spray with kerosene emulsion or whale-oil soap solu- 
tion. This spray kills only by coming in contact with the lice, there- 
fore direct it against the under side of the leaves. 

40, Currant Thrips. 

Minute reddish insects of elongated form which cluster on 
the tender buds and blight them. 

Remedy. — Pick off and destroy the affected parts. 
41, Currant Cottony Scale. 

Cottony masses on the canes of currant and gooseberry. 

Remedy. — Spray with whale-oil soap solution, i pound in 4 
gallons of water during the winter. In gardens where it is possible 
wash off the cottony masses with a strong stream of water. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 259 



42, The Gooseberry Fruit-worm. 

A near relative of the codling moth which feeds in the goose- 
berry fruit, causing it to prematurely turn color and later to drop 
off. Several berries are often bound together. Common in the 
fruit-growing sections of the state. - 

Remedy. — Carefully go over the bushes and pick off the affected 
berries and destroy them before the worms leave. Do this at least 
twice in the season. 



FUNGUS DISEASES. 



I, Black Spot, or Apple Canker. 

This is peculiarly a northwest disease and attacks only the ap- 
ple. It is said to occur in western Montana. The disease is confined 
to the bark and pioduces characteristic brownish or nearly black 
spots. The spores are distributed during the early fall. 

Remedy. — Under some circumstances relief may be secured by 
cutting out the affected parts. Since the disease spreads from No- 
vember 1st to February ist, it is evident that trees should be coated 
with a fungicide during this period. On account of frequent storm 1 
however, it would be difficult to keep a fungicide on the trees. 

2, Crown Gall. 

Various plants, including apple, almond, apricot, blackberry, 
cherry, chesnut, English walnut, grape, peach, pear, plum, raspberry, 
and poplar are affected with abnormal growths on the roots which 
have been called crown-gall. These galls vary from a size as big 
as a fist or larger down to very small excrescences on the fine roots. 
Whether or not all of these trees are affected with the same organ- 
ism is not clear. A serious trouble on apple in Montana. Irrigation 
seems to favor its development. 

Remedy. — Do not plant affected trees. Examine the roots of 
all new stock and discard any that shows even the slightest sign 
of this disease. 

3, Apple Scab. 

Attacks leaves and fruit and sometimes also the twigs. Circu- 
lar smoky spots on the fruit which interfere with its development. 
Spots begin to appear when the fruit is about half grown. They 



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260 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

may be as large as a dime, but are usually smaller. On the leaves 
the fungus appears as dark olive green spots which do not have a 
distinct border line and occur mostly on the upper side fo the leaf. 
Remedy. — Spray with Bordeaux mixture three times and ammon- 
iacal copper carbonate (cupram) twice. First spraying of Bordeaux 
should be applied just before the blossom open, the second just after 
the petals fall, the third about ten or twelve days later. The two 
sprayings of cupram should follow the Bordeaux at intervals of two 
weeks. Bordeaux is not used in the last two sprayings since it 
causes the fruit to russet. 

4, Pear Scab. 

So similar to apple scab that no separate account is necessary. 
Remedy. — ^Treat as for apple scab. 

5, Pear Blight or Fire Blight. 

Attacking individual limbs of pear, and occasionally apple and 
quince also. Rapidly spreading until the whole tree may be in- 
volved. The foliage turns suddenly brown as if by fire and an ex- 
aminatidh under the bark shows a fermented condition. This dis- 
ease is believed to be distributed by insects that visit the flowers, 
as well as by other means. 

Remedy. — Cut out the disease as soon as it appears and prune 
again whenever necessary. Always cutting below the point where 
the disease is reached. It is usually best to cut at least a foot below 
the point where the disease appears to end. 

6. Gooseberry Mildew. 

This troublesome disease usually appears in the spring upon 
the developing buds and leaves, first showing as a sparse cob-webby 
coating, which later develops into a denser white, powdery coating. 
The young berries are also attacked. A serious disease which very 
much interferes with the growing of choice foreign varieties. 

Remedy. — Spray with potassium sulphite at the rate of one- 
half ounce to one gallon of water, making the first application as 
soon as the leaves begin to unfold, repeating the operation at enter- 
vals of one to three weeks. The ammoniacal solution of copper car- 
bonate would probably be equally effective. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 261 



INSECTICIDES AND FUNGICIDES. 

Arsenate of Lead. 

This valuable insecticide is rapidly coming to the front as a 
safe and reliable arsenical poison. It can be applied to the foliage 
in any desired strength without injury, and when applied remains 
through rain storms. Its white color may be detected on the leaves 
thereby serving as a guide in its application. It is made by the 
union of acetate of lead and arsenate of soda, both being soluble in 
water. It is no longer necessary for the user to make his own arsen- 
ate of lead for it is now being sold at reasonable prices by the Bow- 
ker Insecticide Co , Boston, Mass., and Wm. H. Swift, Boston, Mass. 

Paris Green. 

Paris green is an old, well-known arsenical insecticide. It was 
first brought to prominence in connection with the war that was 
waged against the Colorado potato-beetle in the western states be- 
tween i860 and 1870 

In spraying with this substance a hot day should be avoided if 
possible, especially if it is desired to apply -nearly to the limit of what 
the foliage will stand without injury. The water on the foliage soon 
becomes warmed and when warrti dissolves the Paris g^een more 
rapidly, thereby resulting in injury to the leaves. 

Arsenite of Lime. 

The desire for a reliable and cheaper arsenical insecticide has 
led to the employment of a product resulting from the union of 
freshly slacked lime and commercial white arsenic. The propor- 
tions are : 

Commeicial white arsenic i pound. 

Unslacked lime 2 pounds. 

Water 2 gallons. 

Boil together for twenty minutes to half an hour. As soon as 
the arsenic is dissolved it is precipitated by the lime as insoluble 
arsenite of lime. There is danger however that not all the arsenic 
will be precipitated out as it is difficult to tell when all has been 



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Goog^ 



262 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

dissolved. For this reason the following formula is considered 
much more reliable: 

White arsenic 2 pounds. 

Sal soda 4 pounds. 

Water 2 gallons. 

Boil for about fifteen minutes or until all is dissolved, leaving 
a clear liquid. Add water enough to replace what has boiled away 
to prevent chrystalization of the arsenite of soda. A large quantity 
may be prepared at one time and kept as a stock solution to be used 
when desired. It should be covered to prevent evaporation and 
plainly labeled for it is a deadly poison. One pint of this stock 
is approximately equivalent to four ounces of Paris green. It should 
be used only in a solution in which lime is present for, as seen above, 
it is soluble in water. With lime it forms arsenate of lime which is 
the resulting product of the previous formula. It may also be used 
in connection with Bordeaux mixture, in which case Bordeaux mix- 
ture is used as a diluent in place of water. 

Counting the cost of the preparation of arsenite of lime it is not 
probable it will be found cheaper unless large quantities are to be 
used. In using this substance in preference to Paris green, however, 
one avoids the danger of purchasing adulterated goods. 

Hellebore. 

Hellebore has a narrow range of usefulness and is eflfective 
chiefly against saw-fly larvae. It kills by coming in contact with 
soft-bodied insects or by being eaten. It is usually dusted on the 
foliage either pure or mixed with twice its amount of lime, plaster 
or cheap flour. The foliage should be moist when it is applied in a 
dry form, otherwise it will not adhere. In Montana where the foli- 
age is almost perpetually dry, it would be better to apply it as a 
spray at the rate of one ounce to 2-4 quarts of water. Hellebore is 
not poisonous to man. 

Kerosene Emulsion. 

Pure kerosene is fatal to almost all insects. It is extremely pen- 
etrating and enters the breathing pores of the insects and interfering 
with their breathing causes their death. Pure kerosene, however, 
is more or less injurious to plant life and for this reason has to be 
diluted in some way. Since it will not mix with water it is necessary 
to form an emulsion, and soap is usually used for this purpose. 
A good formula is: 

Ordinary bar soap J/^ pound. 

Soft water i gallon. 

Kerosene 2 gallons. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 263 



The water is placed over a stove to heat and the soap shaved 
into it. When the soap is dissolved and the water has reachedd the 
boiling point the solution is poured into the kerosene and vigouous- 
ly churned for four or five minutes with a force pump the nozzle of 
which is directed back into the vessel. The mixture takes on a 
milky appearance and on cooling becomes jelly-like. This is the 
stock emulsion and if properly prepared will keep for a considerable 
length of time, but should be diluted when used. 

Whale-oil Soap. 

Whale-oil soap, more coirectly known as fish-oil soap, is of 
great value as an insecticide against certain classes of insects par- 
ticularly scale insects. Some species of plant lice which fail to suc- 
cumb to an application of very strong kerosene emulsion are readi- 
ly killed with a solution of whale-oil soap. An example is the louse 
50 commonly attacking spruce trees in Montana causing cone-like 
galls on the twigs. 

Ordinary foliage will not safely stand a stronger solution than 
one pound in four gallons of water. Most plant lice are readily kill- 
ed by I pound in 6 gallons of water. If a good whale-oil soap can- 
not be obtained a substitute may be made by the following formula : 

Concentrated lie y/2 pounds. 

Water 8 gallons. 

Fish-oil I gallon. 

Dissolve the lie in boiling water and add the oil to the solution 
still boiling. Continue to boil for two and a half hours and then 
allow it to cool. The fish-oil can be obtained in eastern markets and 
beyond doubt it w^ould be cheaper for the fruit-grower to make his 
own soap provided he intends to use a considerable quantity. 
Lime-Sulphur-Salt Solution. 

This insecticide is used chiefly as a means of destroying the 
San Jose scale, but is of great value also as a remedy for many other 
pests. Though various formulae have been given for the preparation 
of this wash, the active caustic principle is the same in all. The 
caustic ingredient ie: produced by the union if the sulphur and lime. 
In part two of Bulletin 56 of the Washington Experiment Stitio!. by 
Prof. C. \'. Piper and R. W. Thatcher it is shown by accurate chem- 
ical processes that, practically speaking, one part of lime causes two 
parts of sulphur to go into solution and that the presence of salt in 
the solution does not influence the action of the sulphur and lime 
upon each otiier. It follows then, that if a greater proportion of lime 
is used, the excess goes onto the tr^e merely in the form of a white- 
wash, and if the salt has any value it is purely a mechanical otie, for 
salt in such a sinali proportion is valueless as an insecticide. We 



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564 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

^re not prepared to say that there is not some benefit to be derived 
from the presence of the salt and the excess of lime and for the pre- 
sent we recommend the formulae given below. We sugg'est, how- 
ever, that fruit-growers make more careful tests of the w^ash with 
the salt omitted and with the sulphur and lime in the proportion of 
I to I. It will, of course, be understood that a variation in the 
amount of water used in the formulae will result in making the wash 
more or less concentrated according as more or less water is used 

The ingredients may be used in the following proportion : 

Lime I pound. 

j Sulphur I pound. 

? Salt yi to I pound. 

j Water 4 gallons. 

While we recommend the addition of salt under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, this substance is unnecessary in the treatment of pear- 
leaf blister mite, moreover. Prof. Piper found it to be unnecessary 
in treating for the San Jose scale. 

Slake the lime thoroughly in a vessel, which is to be used in 
boiling the mixture, then add the sulphur; boil at least for one hour 
tising enough water to completely cover the sulphur and lime. Add 
the remainder of the water of the formula. 

Hyhrocyanic Acid Gas. 

This very deadly gas is coming into common use as a means of 
destroying many foims of insect life that cannot be controlled with 
poisons or contact insecticides. 

The gas is a deadly poison to all animal life and in its use g^eat 
care must be taken not to inhale it. It is prepared by the action of 
sulphuric acid and potassium cyanide. The potassium cyanide, 
again, is a deadly poison and a small quantity taken into the stom- 
ach will result in death. Potassium cyanide may be obtained from 
Roesler Hasslacher & Co. of New York City. 

The gas is used in different strengths for different purposes. 
The desired strength being obtained by taking a given quantity of 
the potassium cyanide and adding to it the required amount of sul- 
phuric acid. For fumigation of nursery stock the proprtions used« 
per each cubic foot of space inclosed are: 

Potassium cyanide, 0.25 grams. 

Sulphuric acid, 98 per cent. 

One-half more acid, liquid measure than cyanide. 

Water, one-half more water liquid measure than acid. 

The following is taken from Johnson's Fumigation methot^s: 

**The amount of cyanide necessary for any inclostwe is d«*termin- 
cd in terms of grams per cubic foot of space inclosed To deter- 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 265 

mine the exact amount of cyanide necessary to fi m'.c^Mte a roon, car, 
ship or building of any kind the cubic contents must be accurately 
computed. As an example : a room 20 x 39 x 10 feet contains 6,000 
cubic feet of air space. To estimate the amount of cyanide ncessary 
for this inclosure multiply 6,000 by 0.25 ; thus : 6,000 times 0.25 equals 
1500 grams. To reduce this to ounces divide by 28.35 ^s there are 
28.35 grams in an ounce; thus: 1500 divided by 28.35 equals 53 
ounces, the exact amount necessary for the inclosure. It is now 
easy to determine the amount of acid and water, as a half more acid, 
liquid measure, than cyanide, and a half more water than cyanide 
are used; thus: 53 divided by 2 equals 26.5, which added to 53 
equals 79.5 ounces of acid or practically 5 pounds liquid measure. 
Again 79.5 or practically 80, as we usually discard fractions, equals 
40, which added to 80 makes 120 ounces of water." 

In liberating the acid the gas is first measured and poured into 
an earthenware dish, then the yrater is measured and poured into the 
acid. The potassium cyanide which has been previously weighed is 
then added to the acid and water after every precautionary arange- 
ment has been made. If a room is to be fumigated, a bag contain- 
ing the potassium cyanide should be suspended directly above the 
jar with the string suspending it passing through a pulley. Then 
the operator from the door may release the string and allow the bag 
to settle into the jar. If the space to be fumigated is under a tent 
the cyanide may be dropped in from the hand. Close the door tight- 
ly or drop the tent quickly and leave the desired length of time. The 
room or the tent should be air-tight. The exposure usually employ- 
ed is thirty to forty minutes. 

Some horticulturists fumigate their green-houses a few times a 
year and are able b> this means to keep down all injurious insects 
except the red spider. In fumigating mills, hotels, etc., it is neces- 
sary to have an arrangement for ventilating the rooms from the out- 
side. This may be done by attaching cords to the window sashes. 
After fumigation, such buildings must be allowed to ventilate thor- 
oughly before entering them. In fumigating buildings give an ex- 
posure of I hour to 24 hours. 

Bordeaux Mixture. 
We quote the following from Farmers' Bulletin, No. 38, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, prepared by Dr. Galloway : 

"All things considered, it is believed that the best results will 
be obtained from the use of what is known as the 50-gallon formula 
of this preparation. This contains: 

Water 50 gallons. 

Copper sulphate 6 pounds. 

Unslacked lime 4 pounds. 



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266 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

It has been found that the method of combining the ingredients 
has an important bearing on both the chemical composition and 
the physical structure oi the mixture. The best results have been 
obtained from the use of the Bordeaux mixture made in accordance 
with the following directions: 

In a barrel or other suitable vessel, place 25 gallons of water. 
Weigh out 6 pounds of copper sulphate, then tie the same in a piece 
of coarse gunny-sack and suspend it just beneath the surface of the 
water. By tying the bag to a stick across the top of the barrel no 
further attention will be required. In another vessel slack 4 pounds of 
lime, using care in order to obtain a smooth paste, free from grit 
and small lumps. To accomplish this it is best to place the lime in 
an ordinary waterpail and add only a small quantity of water at 
first, say a quart or a quart and a half. When the lime begins to 
crack and crumble and the water to disappear add another quart or 
more, exercising care that the lime at no time gets too dry. Toward 
the last considerable water will be required, but if added carefully 
and slowly a perfectly smooth paste will be obtained, provided, of 
course, the lime is 01 good quality. When the lime is slacked, add 
sufficient water to the paste to bring the whole up to 25 gallons. 
When the copper sulphate is entirely dissolved and the lime is cool, 
pour the lime milk and copper sulphate solution togethef into a 
barrel holding 50 gallons. The milk of lime should be thoroughly 
stirred before pouring. The method described insures good mixing, 
but to complete this work the barrel of liquid should receive a final 
stirring, for at least three minutes, with a broad wooden paddle. 

It is now necessary to determine whether the mixture is per- 
fect — that is, if it will be safe to apply it to tender foliage. To ac- 
complish this, two simple tests may be used. First insert the blade 
of a pen-knife in the mixture, allowing it to remain there for at least 
one minute. If metallic copper forms on the blade, or, in other 
words, if the polished surface of the steel assumes the color of cop- 
per plate, the mixture is unsafe and more lime must be added. If, 
on the other hand, the blade of the knife remains unchanged, it is 
safe to conclude that the mixture is as safe as it can be made. As 
an additional test, however, some of the mixture may be poured 
into an old plate or saucer, and while held between the eyes and the 
light the breath should be gently blown upon the liquid for at least 
half a minute. If the mixture is properly made, a thin pellicle, look- 
ing like oil on w^ater, will begin to form on the surface of the liquid. 
If no pellicle forms, more lime should be added. 

If spraying is to be done upon a large scale, it will be found 
more convenient and economical in every way to prepare what are 
known as stock solutions of both copper and lime. To prepare a 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 267 

stock solution of copper sulphate, procure a barrel holding fifty gal- 
lons. Weigh out loo pounds of copper sulphate and after tying it 
in a sack suspend it so that it will hang as near the top of the barrel 
as possible. Fill the barrel with water and in two or three days the 
copper will be dissolved. Now remove the sack and add enough 
water to bring the solution up again to the 50-gallon mark, previ- 
ously made on the barrel. It will be understood, of course, that this 
second adding of water is merely to replace the space previously oc- 
cupied by the sack and the crystals of copper sulphate. Each gallon 
of the solution thtis made will contain two pounds of copper sul- 
phate, and, under all ordinary conditions of temperature, there will 
be no material recrystalization, so "that the stock preparation may be 
kept indefinitely. 

Stock lime may be prepared in the same way as the copper sul- 
phate solution. Prepare a barrel holding 50 gallons, making a 
mark to indicate the 50-gallon point. Weigh out 100 pounds of lime, 
place it in a barrel and slack it. When slacked, add sufficient water 
to bring the whole mass up to 50 gallons. Each gallon of this pre- 
paration contains, after thoroughly stirring, two pounds of lime. 

When it is desired to make Bordeaux mixture of the 50-gallon 
formula it is only necessary to measure out three gallons of the 
stock copper solution, and, after thoroughly stirring, 2 gallons of 
stock lime; dilute each to 25 gallons, mix, stir, and test as already 
described. One test will be sufficient in this case. In other words, 
it will not be necessary to test each lot of Bordeaux made from the 
stock preparations, provided the first lot is perfect and no change is 
made in the quantity of the materials used. Special care should be 
taken to see that the lime milk is stirred thoroughly each time be- 
fore applying. As a final precaution it will be well to keep both the 
stock copper sulphate and the stock lime tightly covered." 

For trees in foliage use only 4 pounds of the blue stone to 50 
gallons of water. For tender foliage like plum, cherry, and peach 
use 3 pounds of blue stone to 50 gallons of water (Bui. 75, Oregon 
Exp. Station). 

Ammoniacal Solution of Copper Carbonate. 

We also take this description from Farmers' Bulletin No. 38. 
"This preparation as now generally used, contams: 

Water 45 gallons. 

Strong Aqua ammonia 3 pints. 

Copper carbonate 5 ounces. 

The copper carbonate is first made into a thin paste by adding 
a pint and a half of water. The ammonia water is then slowly add- 
ed, and if of the proper strength, i. e., 26 degrees, a clear, deep-blue 



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268 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

solution is obtained, which does not become cloudy when diluted to 
45 gallons. 

The amnion iacal solution of copper carbonate being a clear li- 
quid its presence on the leaves, fruit, and other parts of the treated 
plant is not so noticeable as where preparations containing lime are 
used. 

In case it is desired to keep the strong solution as a stock pre- 
paration, the bottle or jug in which it is placed should be tightly 
corked." 

Copper Sulphate. 

Copper sulphate (blue vitrol or blue stone) solution is some- 
times used in place of Bordeaux mixture. It is also used as a means 
of destroying the spores of grain smut on seed grain, but for this 
purpose formalin is considered to be better. 

For trees in a dormant state, use copper sulphate, i pound in 25 
gallons of water. For trees in foliage use copper sulphate, i p6und 
in 250 gallons of water. 

Potassium Sulphide. 
This substance, also known as liver of sulphur, may be obtain- 
ed from almost any druggist. It is used in the proportion of one- 
half to one ounce in one gallon of water. A stock solution may be 
made as follows: 

Potash 32 pounds. 

Sulphur 37 pounds. 

Salt 2 pounds. 

Water 50 gallons. 

The potash, sulphur and salt are put into a large, metallic tub 
with a part of the water; the chemical action will make the mixture 
T)oil. Add the remainder of the water and set it away as a stock 
solution, covering it to prevent evaporation. Dilute with 99 parts of 
water before spraying. 

R. A. COOLEY. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 269 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES 

(Photographed from Nature by R. A. Cooley except top figtire 
of plate II, which was loaned by Prof. Slingerland from his bulletin 
on the bud moth, 147, Corn. Univ. Experiment Station.) 

PLATE I. 

Fig. I, Egg of the bud moth, greatly enlarged. . 
** 2, The 5-spotted lady-bug, enlarged. 
" 3, Cluster of eggs of the s-spotted lady-bug. 
" 4, Same. 

" 5, Larva of the s-spotted lady-bug, about four time en- 
larged. 

Fig. 6, Base of apple leaf from below showing work of bud 
moth larva. The web and tubular retreat are indistinctly shown. 

Fig. 7, Full grown larva of the bud moth, about three times 
enlarged. 

PLATE II. 

Fig. at top, Apple twig showing work aone by bud moth larvae 
early in the season. 

Fig. I, Apple-leaf aphis on the under side of a leaf. 
" 2, Terminal apple shoots showing leaves deformed by ap- 
ple leaf-aphis. 

PLATE III. 

Fig. I, Top view of Sarcophaga cimbicis Townsend, about 
twice natural size. 

Fig. 2, Same fiom side. • 

" 3, Larva or maggot of same. 
" '4, Pupa of same. 
" 5, Apple leaf-aphis, enlarged. 

" 6, Eggs of apple leaf-aphis, about twice natural size. 
" 7, Root and base of trunk of young apple tree showing in- 
jury done by Flat-headed apple-tree borer. 



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270 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

PLATE IV. 

Lines indicate the length of the body from front of head to tip 
of wings or abdomen, whichever extends farther. 

Fig. I, Lesser Migratory Locust, Melanoplus atlanis Riley, 
female. 

Fig. 2, Same, male, 
" 3, Big-headed Grasshopper, Aulocara elliotti Thomas, 
female. 

Fig. 4, Same, male. _ 

PLATE V. 

Lines indicate the length of the body from front of head to tip 
of wings or abdomen whichever extends farther. 

Fig. I, Yellow-winged Locust, Camntt/a pe//ucjda Scud, female 

" 2, Same, male. 

*' 3> Two-striped locust, Melanoplus bivittatus Say, female. 

" 4, Same, male. 

PLATE VI. 

Lines indicate the length of the body from front of head to tip 
of wing or abdomen whichever extends farther. 
Fig. I, Melanoplus dawsoni Scudder, female. 
"2, Hippiscus neglectus Thomas, temale. 
" 3, Chortopbaga viridifasciata DeG., female. 
' »* 4, Encoptolopbus sordidus Burm, female. 

PLATE VII. 

Lines indicate the length of the body from front of head to tip 
of wings or abdomen whichever extends farther. 
Fig. I, Spbarag^mon aequale Say, female. 

" 2, Melanoplus spretus Uhler, female. 

" 3, Arphia tenebrosa Scudder, female. 

" 4, Acrolophitus hirtipes Say, female. 

PLATE VIII. 

Lines indicate the length of the body from front of head to tip 
of abdomen or wings whichever extends farther. 
Fig. I Dissosteira Carolina Linn., female. 
" 2, Cordillacris occipitalis Thomas, female. 
" 3, Egg mass of M. bivittatus^ about three and one-half 
times natural size . 

Fig. 4, Same with the surface removed. 



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PLATE I 



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PLATE II 



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PLATE III 





.^Alim.vj. 




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PLATE IV 



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PLATE V 



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PLATE V( 



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PLATE VII 



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PLATE VIII 



f"^^- 




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INDEX. 



PftfiTO 

ACROLOPHITUS HIRTIPBS 238 

AMMONIAC AL SOLUTION OF COPPER CARBONATE 267 

ANTS AS FRUIT PESTS 253 

APHIS, APPLE-LEAF 214-252 

APHIS, CHERRY 265 

APHIS, CURRANT 258 

APHIS LION 218 

APHIS WOOLLY, OF APPLE 252 

APHIS, PLUM 256 

APHIS POMI 214 

APPLE CANKER OR BLACK SPOT 259 

APPLE LEAF-APHIS 214-252 

Character and Extent of Injury 214 

Description and Life History 216 

Natural E^nemies 218 

Remedies 220 

APPLE SCAB 259 

APPLE TWIG-BORER 251 

ARPHIA TENEBROSA 237 

ARSENATE OF LEAD 261 

ARSBNITE OF LIME 261 

ARSBNITE OF SODA 262 

BIG-HEADED GRASSHOPPER 235 

BLACK SPOT, OR APPLE CANKER 259 

Bum STONE 268 

BLUE VITROL 268 

BORDEAUX MIXTURE 262-265 

BOWKER INSECTICIDE COMPANY 261 

BOX-ELDER PLANT BUG 266 

BUD MOTH, THE 6201-260 

Occurrence in Montana 201 

Importance of the Pest 201 

Natural History and Habits 202 

Klnus of Trees the Bud Moths Attacks 206 

Means of Distribution 206 

Natural Enemies 206 

Method of Preventing Its Ravages 206 



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272 INDEX. 



Page. 

BUFFALO TREE-HOPPER 252 

BUFO BOREAS 242 

CAMNULA PEU^LUCIDA 233-236 

CANKER WORMS ' 250 

CAROLINA LOCUST 237 

CHERRY APHIS 255 

CHORTOPHAGA VIRIDIFASCIATA .".. 237 

CHRYSOBOTHRIS FEMORATA 224 

CLOVER MITE 254 

COMMON TOAD. THE 242 

False Ideas Concerning the Toad 242 

Life History and Habits 243 

Length of life of the Toad 245 

Feeding Habits 245 

Amount of Food the Toad E:ats 247 

The Toad Should Be Protected and Favored 248 

CODLING MOTH, THE -. 250 

COPPER CARBONATE, AMMONIACAL SOLUTION OF 267 

COPPER SULPHATE 268 

CORDILLACRIS OCCIPITALIS 237 

CRIDDLE MIXTURE 241 

CROWN GALL 259 

CRUDE PETROLEUM 223 

CURRANT APHIS, THE 258 

CURRANT COTTONY SCALE 258 

CURRANT FLIES 257 

CURRANT LEAF-HOPPER 258 

CURRANT SAW-FLY. NATIVE 257 

CURRANT STEM-BORER, THE 258 

CURRANT THRIPS 258 

DISEASES, ARTIFICIAL USE OF 241 

DISSOSTEIRA CAROLINA 237 

ECCENTRIC SCALE OR PUTNAM'S SCALE 253 

EMULSION, KEROSENE 262, 223 

ENCHOPTOLOPHUS SORDIDUS 238 

FLAT-HEADED APPLE TREE-BORER 224. 251 

Distribution and Occurrence in Montana 225 

Life History , 225 

Natural Enemies 226 

Methods of Control 226 

FUNGICIDES 261 

GOAT-HEADED GRASSHOPPER 287 

GOOSEBERRY FRUIT-WORM 259 



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INDEX. 273 



Page. 

OOOSEBERRY MILDEW 260 

GRASSHOPPER EGGS 234 

GRASSHOPPERS 232, 254 

Injury Not Caused by the Rocky Mountain Locust 233 

Life History 233 

Montana's Most Common and Destructive Species 235 

Insect Enemies of Grain 238 

Remedies 239 

Criddel Mixture 241 

HELLEBORE 262 

HIPPISCUS NEGLECTUS 236 

HYDROCYANIC ACiD GAS 264 

HYPERASPIS 5-SIGNATA *. 218 

INSECTICIDES 261 

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE APPLE 249 

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE CHERRY 255 

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE PEACH 255 

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO PLUMS AND PRUNES 255 

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE STRAWBERRY 256 

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE CURRANT AND GOOSEBERRY 256 

KEROSENE 222 

KEROSENE EMULSION 262 

LEAF-HOPPERS 251 

LEPIDOSAPHES ULMI 209 

LESSER MIGRATORY LOCUST 236 

LIME. SULPHUR, SALT SOLUTION 263, 211, 230 

LIVER OF SULPHUR 268 

MEALY BUG ON APPLE AND PEAR 253 

MELANOPLUS, SPRETUS 233 

MELANOPLUS BIVITTATUS 236 

MEH^ANOPLUS ATLANIS ' ' 233, 236 

MELANOPLUS DAWSONI 337 

MELOIDAE 339 

NATIVE CURRANT SAW-FLY 257 

OYSTER-SHELL BARK-LOUSE, THE 209, 252 

Food Plants 209 

Life History and Habits 209 

Remedy : 211 

Experiment with Lime, Sulphur and Salt Wash, as a Remedy 211 

PARIS GREEN 261 

PEACH TREE BORER, THE 255 

PEACH TWIG-BORER •••••, 255 

PEAR BLIGHT OR FIRE BLIGHT 260 



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274 INDEX. 



Page. 

PEAR-LEAF BUSTBR-MITB, THE 228, 254 

Nature of Injury 228 

Life History 229 

Means of Distribution 229 

Remedies 229 

PEAR SCAB 260 

PEAR SLUG, THE ^ 254 

PHYTOPTUS PYRI m 

PLOWING 239 

PLUM APHIS 256 

PLUM CURCULIO 256 

PLUM GOUGER 255 

POTASSIUM SULPHIDE 268 

PUTNAM'S SCALE INSECT 253 

RED-HUMPED APPLE TREE CATERPILLAR 249 

ROUND-HEADED APPLE TREE-BORER 251 

SAN JOSE SCALE 252 

SARCOPHAGA CIMBICIS 238 

SCURFY BARK LOUSE 253 

SOAP 262 

SPHARAGEMON AEQUALE -287 

STRAWBERRY CROWN-BORER 257 

STRAWBERRY LEAF-ROLLER 256 

STRAWBERRR ROOr WEEVIL 257 

SULPHATE OF COPPER 268 

SULPHIDE OF POTASSIUM 268 

SULPHUR-SALT-LIME SOLUTIONS 263 

SWIFT, WM. H., 261 

TARNISHED PLANT BUG, THE 256 

TENT, CATERPILLAR 249 

TMETOCERA OCELLANA .• 201 

TOAD, THE COMMON 242 

Amount of Food the Toad Eats 247 

False Ideas Concerning 242 

Feeding Habits 245 

Length of Life 245 

Life, History and Habits 2*3 

TWO-SPOTTED LADY BUG 220 

TWO-STRIPED LOCUST 236 

WEB-WORM 251 

WHALE-diL SOAP 263 

WOOLLY APHIS OF THE APPLE 253 

YELLOW-WINGED LOCUST 236 



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BXJLLBTIN No. 5a, \^ 



MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 



Experiment Station, 



-OF THE- 



Affricultural College of Montana. 



SUGAR BEETS 



Bozeman, Montana, April, 1904. 



REPUBLICAN, 

BozeoMii; Montana, 

1903. 



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hAhV.\RD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

TRANSFEHrJED FROM 
BUSSEY INSTIlUJION 

1936 



MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 

Kxperiment Station. 



BOZ En AN, 'MONT AN A. 



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 



..\' 



Joseph K. Toole, Governor, 

James Donovan, Attorney-General, {• Ex-Oppicio Helena 

W. W. Welch, Supt. of Public Instruction, 

J. M. Evans, Missoula. 

C. R. Leonard Butte. 

N. W. MCCONNELL HKUSafA. 

W. M. Johnston Billikob. 

O. P. ChISHOLM BOZKMAB. 

J. G. McKay Hamiltot. 

G. T. Paul Dilloh. 

N. B. HoLTER, Helkka. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD. 

Walter S. Hartman, President Bozemait. 

Peter Koch, Secretary BozBiiAii. 

E. B. LaMME B0IB1IA5. 

John Maxey Bozemah 

John Robinson Bozema5. 



STATION STAFF. 

♦Samuei. Fortier, Ma. E Director and Irrigation Enoi5KBB. 

F. B. Linfield, B. S. a, Vice- Director and Aobicultubisi. 

tF. W. Traphaoen, Ph. D., F. C. S CHKMiBf. 

'*'J. W. Blankinship, Ph. D Botakibt. 

R. A. CooLEY, B. So Entomolooist. 

V. K. Chesnut CHEMisr. 

R. W. Fisher, B. S., Assistant floRTicuLXUBisr 

Edmund Burke Assistant Chemist. 

W. J. Elliott, B. S. A Assistant Dairymah 

♦Absent on leave. 
fResigned, September, 1903. 

Postoffice, Express and Freight Station, Bozeman. 
All communications for the Experiment Station should be addressed to 
THE DIRECTOR, 

MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION, 

Bozeman, Montana. 



Notice.— The Bulletins of the Station will be mailed free to any citizen (rf 
Montana who sends his name and address to the Station for that purpose. 



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Montana Experiment Station. 

BULLETIN NO, 5a. - - APRIL, 1904. 

Sug'ar Beets 



THe Crop of I903 



F. "W. TRAPHAGBN 

In presenting the results of the investigation of the past year, but 
few comments are necessary. 

It has repeatedly been shown that all the conditions for the estab- 
lishment of a successful beet sugar factory could be found in several 
localities in the state; yet for some reason Montana, abundantly able 
to produce all the sugar consumed by her citizens, and much more, 
still obtains her supply from other sources. 

Other states similarly located are increasing the number of their 
factories annually, and all who have embarked in the enterprise, both 
farmers and manufacturers, are greatly pleased with the results. 

In the face of the passage of the Cuban Reciprocity Act, which 
has been the bugbear ol the beet sugar men, the price agreed upon in 
CJolorado for the crop of 1904 is five dollars a ton, a marked advance 
over the price of former years. 

Montana proflucers could count with absolute certainty upon 
yields at least as great as those of other states, and the richness and 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



purity of the product could be maintained above the usual standard 
with no difficidty; while, with intelligent care in culture, these figures 
could be much improved. This is no mere idle 8pe2ulation, but is the 
conclusion forced upon all who study the reports of the experiments 
carried on under the supervision of the Chemical department of the 
Montana Experiment Station during the last half dozen years. 

• Of our neighboring states, Utah has four factories, with a capacity 
for handling 2,300 tons of beets per day; Colorado, nine factories, with 
a capacity of 6,250 tons daily; Washington, one factory, with a capacity 
of 350 tons; and Idaho, one factory, capacity, 600 tons. 

The worid's production of sugar in 1902 amounted in round num- 
bers to 8,500,000 long tons, of which about 5,800,000 tons, approxi- 
mately 60 per cent., was beet sugar. 

The consumption of sugar in the United States amounts to 
approximately 2,250,000 long tons, about 26 per cent, of the world's 
entire production. 

These 2,250,000 long tons of 2,240 pounds are equal to 2,520,000 
tons of 2,000 pounds each, as figured in all American calculations. 

Assuming that the average product of each beet sugar factory 
erected in the United States is 5,000 tons, it would require 500 such 
factories to meet this home demand. Assuming that the present 
established beet sugar factories and the cane mills of the South now 
produce 500,000 tons — too high an estimate — it would still require 400 
more factories to provide for our home consumption. 

The average annual increase of consumption is 6 per cent., or 
151,000 tons. To meet this increase alone there would be required to 
be erected each year 30 factories of this capacity, say 500-600 tons of 
beets per day. 

To PAY FOB THIS SUGAR NOW IMPORTED WE ARE SENDING ABROAD 
ANNUALLY NEARLY $125,000,000. 

The American farmer is to-day raising wheat yielding an average 
gross return of $10 per acre, which is being sent abroad to pay for 
sugar which he consumes, while the same lands on which the wheat is 
grown would produce the sugar and yield from $65 to $100 per acre. 

This is neither economy nor common sense. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



It will be seen, therefore, that, in addition to the 54 beet sugar 
factories which will be producing sugar during the coming season of 
1903-4, nearly 400 new factories of 600 tons capacity are still to be 
constructed before the actual home consumption of sugar and next 
year's increase is supplied from beets grown on American farms, man- 
ufactured by American labor, by the investment of American capital. 

No industry, agricultural or mechanical, yet established or contem- 
plated, confers a tithe of the benefits and prosperity upon the local 
community which has been the invariable accompaniment of the estab- 
lishment of the beet sugar factory. 

None even approach it in character, unless it be the canning or 
creamery plants, consuming the prodncts of local farmers; and these 
are insignificant in comparison. 

Trade associations of booming towns, labor assiduously to secure 
the location of a new manufacturing industry whose sole value to the 
community is the pay roll disbursement of a few thousands per year. 

To accomplish this they pay liberal bonuses and grant exemption 
from taxation. 

In contrast with all such enterprises, the beet sugar factory is 
unique and unequaled as a producer of unexampled prosperity. 

The location, in any community, of a beet sugar factory of a 
capacity of 600 tons — the most approved and economical unit — means 
the purchase of 60,000 tons of beets from the farmers of the immediate 
neighborhood, at an average of $o per ton, and a pay roll disbursement 
of $60,000 per annum— a total of $360,000 paid in cash to such com- 
munity during the fall and winter months. 

The effect of the distribution of this enormous sum, in addition to 
the ordinary disbursements, may easily be conceived. 

This amount distributed among the farmers, flows into every ave- 
nue of trafle, leaving its profits behind, finding its way to the banks to 
be again forwarded on its beneficent mission, enlivening and enriching 
all branches of trade and assisting the establishment of new indus- 
tries. 

Population materially increases; town lots command a double price; 
farming lands are in increased demand at greatly increased prices; 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 



bank deposits are sometimes tripled and quadrupled ; debts and mort- 
gages are paid off, and new carriages, farming implements and pianos 
take their places, and abundant prosperity abounds everywhere, and 
civilization is advanced. 

This is the simple history of the industry wherever it has been 
established in a proper location for the growth of beets. 

There are but few exceptions, and should have been none had not 
the zeal and ambition of the projectors overrun their judgment in the 
establishment of a few plants in locations partially unfit. 

R.e<tt&i3ites for I^ocation 

The following are the essential requirements of location for a suc- 
cessful factory: 

First: BEETS, in sufficient quantity and of the required sugar 
content and purity. It is unprofitable to work beets containing less 
than 12 per cent, of sugar, and they should rather average 14 per cent. 
Anything above this average is so much the better. 

The purity of the beet is of equal, if not greater, importance, and 
should be at least 80 per cent, or better. Beets of a high purity and 
comparatively low sugar content yield more sugar than those of higher 
sugar content and low purity. 

By purity, or the co-eflicient of purity, as it is technically called, 
is meant the ratio of the sugar to the solid contents of the juice. 

If in 100 pounds of juice there are 15 pounds of solid matter, of 
which 12 pounds are sugar, the co-efficient of purity is 80 per cent., or 
the sugar, 12 pounds, divided by the solid matters, 15 pounds. 

These beets are then said to contain 12 per cent, of sugar, with a 
co-efficient of purity of 80 per cent. 

The remaining three pounds contain all the other mineral salts 
taken up from the soil, and are injurious to the extraction of the sugar, 
as they are chiefly molasses-forming, or melassiginic, as it is termed. 
One pound of these salts will prevent the crystallization, or invert, one 
pound of sugar. 

To determine the availability of the location, soil and general 
conditions, extended experimental cultivation should be made, using 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 



the best seed and following the most approved methods, having the 
results carefully analyzed by the State Experiment Station. 

Careful analysis of the varying soils is also an advantage. 

On general principles, the acreage required for a plant of any 
capacity should be ten times the daily tonnage capacity; for a 600-ton 
plant, 6,000 acres. 

A trifle smaller a<Teage iQ irrigated sections might suffice, as the 
tonnage product is apt to be, with the proper care, neariy 50 per cent, 
greater. 

Second: WATER. The water supply shoulrl be at all times ade- 
quate and not subject to fluctuations or failure, and as free as possible 
from mineral matter, for the same reason as above explained in refer- 
ence to the purity of the beets. 

If there be any doubt upon this point, a careful analysis should 
be made. 

At least 3,000,000 gallons daily are required for the operation of a 
600- ton factory; and the source of supply should always be reasonably 
near the factory site, to avoid excessive pumping apparatus and oper- 
ating expenses. 

Third: DRAINAGE. As the above quantity of water must be 
discharged from the factory heavily contaminated with soil washed 
from beets, with the waste lime and impurities removed from the beets 
and juice in the process of refining, it should not be allowed to flow 
into any natural water course used below for domestic purposes. 

It should be impounded, if possible, in some old depression* 
slough, or settling basin, where the water can be allowed to drain off, 
when the solid matter can be used as a fertilizer for which it is espec- 
ially valuable, as it contains, in a concentrate.! form, precisely the 
salts taken from the soil. 

These three requirements assured, there is the most important one 
to mention. 

This is— 

Fourth: MONEY. Without this all the others are valueless so 
far as the establishment of this industry is concerned. To construct 
and properly equip a moilern beet sugar factory, the cost will be 
approximately $1,000 per ton of daily capacity; that is, a 600-ton 
plant will cost about $600,000. 



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8 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

This first cost, however, is variable, being subject to the prevailing 
market rates for material and labor; the freight rates to the selei^ted 
site; the character of the land in respect to drainage, water supply and 
railroad connections, as well as to the quality and proportions of the 
machinery equipment and the size and general character of the build- 
ings provided. 

The above figures will apply to a perfect plant of liberal design 
and ample proportions of both buildings and machinery, in which all 
buildings shall be of the most approved fire-proof construction. 

Upon certain specifications this figure might be low, while upon 
others the price might be too high. 

It is purely a question of what is furnished for the price charged. 

This does not include the cost of railway switches, purchase of 
seed, or agricultural expenses, for which and for a small working cap- 
ital, a further sum should be raised, varying with the conditions. 

This amount of money must be fully assured from some reliable 
source before it is at all safe to enter into any contract for construc- 
. tion. 

Factory Site 

To the above requirements might be added the desirable qualifi- 
cations for a site for the erection of a factory, viz: 

A practically level t'^act, not less than fifteen acres in extent. A 
larger tract would be preferable, to proxide ample space for drainage 
basins, pulp pits, etc. 

The situation should be as near as possible to the center of the 
beet-growing territory, and preferably near some town, to provide res- 
idences for operatives. 

To be on or near a railroatl, preferably two, to assure the delivery 
of coal and limestone at reasonable rates; in such a location that a 
right-of-way for a siding may be obtained. 

There will be required about one mile of track for switches, sid- 
ings, and ^ard service. 

Procedt&re to Sect&re a Factory 

On account of the necessity for locating factories in the midst of 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 9 

the sugar beet fields, usually in farming communities, local capital is 
either lacking or not to be had in suflBcient amount to carry through 
the enterprise. Outside capital must gene^'ally be secured for the 
purpose. 

To interest and obtain such assistance, any community must first 
demonstrate, by indisputable proofs, that the location proposed fully 
answ^ers all therequirements above enumerated; but first and fore- 
most, that it has the necessary acreage contracted for, or that it can 
certainly obtain such contracts when the other preliminaries are 
arranged. 

Having conclusively demonstratec the adaptability of the section 
for the production of beets rich in sugar and of high purity; having 
interested the farmers to a willingness to contract for the necessary 
supply of beets; determined upon an advantageous and suitable site, 
the next business is the procurement of the capital. 

Some considerable local capital must be invested to inspire in 
others confidence in the local interest, management and support. 

Let the most influential men in the community start a preliminary 
subscription to the capital stock of the proposed sugar company. 

In the preparation of this work, take the advice of the best attor- 
ney in the community. 

The capitalization of the company should be suflSciently large to 
cover the cost of the plant and at least $50,000 additional for working, 
capital. 

This may be entirely in capital stock, or part stock and part 
bonds. 

In such communities there is frequently a prejudice against the 
mortgaging of the property as security for a bond issue, which is but 
a representation of such mortgage divided into smaller parts. 

This is a mistaken notion and contrary to the practice of the best 
financiers whenever any enterprise will earn a larger amount in divi- 
dend than is necessary to be paid in interest on money hired. 

The farmer himself recognizes this principle when he hires money 
at 5 or 6 i)er cent, on a mortgage of his original farm in order to 
increase his earning power far above the interest charge. 



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10 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 

To illustrate the difference, let us suppose a sugar company cap- 
italized at $dOO,000 in stock alone, and the net earnings to be 20 per 
cent., making $120,000. 

If, on the contrary, the capital stock were $300,000, and the other 
$300,000 of capital was realized on a bond issue of 5 per cent., the 
interest charge on the bonds would be $15,000, leaving $105,000 of the 
earnings as a dividend on $300,000 of stock, amounting to 35 percent, 
instead of 20 per cent., as in the other case. 

As every merchant, trader, banker, land owner or farmer in the 
community cannot fail to derive direct benefit from the sugar factory 
enterprise, all should assist it by liberal subscription to the stock, 
aside from the handsome dividends to be anticipated from such an 
investment. 

When $100,000 to $150,000 has been assured by local subscription 
or through local influence, the company snould be l^ally incorporated 
and correspondence opened with some reliable construction company 
or builder for further advice or assistance, which most of them are 
able to give. 

Cost of Operation 

The cost of the operation of a beet sugar factory is dependent in 
a great measure upon the character, capacity and arrangement of the 
machinery and apparatus. Compactness and convenience of arrange- 
ment are conducive to a saving of labor. The same feature, with 
straight piping and shortest possible lines curtails friction and saves 
fuel. Ample capacity, in proper proportions, with scientific by-pass 
arrangements, avoids delays and diflSculties. 

Proper arrangement and connections, and proper utilization of 
live and exhaust steam, hot water and wash waters, save labor, fuel, 
sugar and money. 

A well designed and arranged factory can be easily operated by 
175 to 180 men, in day and night shifts of not over 90 men each, 
exclusive of the superintendent. 

For the purpose of a conservative estimate, however, it is set at 
200 men. 

The following may be considered a safely reliable estimate of 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 11 

the cost of operating a factory, and the probable returns, in Michigan 
or in the Eastern rainfall district: 

COST OP OPERATION OF A 600-TON FACTORY, FOR A 100 DAYS' CAMPAIGN, CUTTING 

60,000 TONS OP BEETS. 

Per ton 
Total cost of Beets 

Beets, 60,000 tons (14 per cent), at S5.16 ........ $309,600 $5 . 16 

Coal, 20 per cent of beets, 12,000 tons, at $2.50 . . 30,000 .50 

Limestone, 8 per cent of beets, 4,800 tons, at 

$1.50 7,200 .12 

Coke, 12 per cent of limestone, 536 tons, at $5. . . 2,680 .044 

8349,480 

SUPPLIES 

Sulphur, 20,000 lbs., at .02i^c $450 

Filter cloths, 8,000 yards at 17c 1,360 

Oils, 2,000 gallons, at 25c •. 500 

Chemicals (average of all factories) 2.000 

Miscellaneous 1,000 

5,360 .089 

LABOR 

200 men, average $2.25, 100 days $45,000 

Superintendent 3,6(X) 

Engineer and assistants .' 2,000 

Agriculturj^list 2,400 

Assistants ' 2,000 

Office help 3,000 

General manager 2,500 

60,500 1.008 

PACKING 

44,0X) barrels, at 36c '. $15,840 15,840 .264 

(Note— In the West this item would be 132,- 
000 bags at 8c, $10,560.) 

INCIDENTALS 

Interest. $300,0iX) bonds, at 5 per cent dl5,000 

Insurance 2,.000 

Taxes (?) 2,000 

Repairs 10,0(fO 

Dead season help 5,000 

Miscellaneous 10,000 

44.500 .74 

The ^^enerally nfccptci] average* (extraction of sugar in factories 
without a molasses process is 71 per cent, of tlie sugar content of the 
beets. 



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12 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 

Assuming the Michigan beets to contain an average of 14 per 
cent, of sugar, the returns in such case would be 71 per cent, of 14 per 
cent., or 9.94 per cent., equivalent to 198.8 pounds of sugar, say 200 
pounds. 

RECAPITULATION 

Per too 

Total Be«t£ 

Returns, 13,200,000 pounds, sold at i}4 cents ^95,000 t9.90 

Expenses, as per list above 475,680 7.9iK 

Anticipated profit $118,320 11.975 

It must be understood that these figures are based on the cutting 
of 60,000 tons of beets during the campaign of 100 days. 

A reduction of the supply of beets would cause an increase in the 
proportionate expense of operation. 

These figures might be somewhat varied in either direction, 
according to the varying conditions of quality and quantity of beets 
and by the varying circumstaces of competition in securing acreage by 
factories covering closely adjacent territory. 

In the irrigated sections of the West, the result is much more 
satisfactory. The tonnage per acre being nearly or quite 60 per cent, 
greater, the farmers actually receive more money per -acre on a flat 
price per ton, and by reason of the higher sugar content of the beets, 
the extraction of sugar is practically 2 per cent, greater and the profit 
per ton of beets handled is quite $2.50 greater than in the East, which 
fact will certainly lead to a very large development of the industrjr in 
those sections. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 13 

Beet Culture 



General Directions for Seeding and Ct&ltivating 

There is no agricultural product from which the industrious 
farmer may derive so many advantages as from the sugar beet. Sugar 
beet raising gives the farmer many times the profit that could be 
derived from any other crop, while it does not interfere with other 
crops; but, on the contrary, by improving the condition and capacity 
of the soil, owing to continued and superior cultivation, produces 
better grain crops, besides permitting the growing of other high-cul- 
ture plants and vegetables which could not be grown profitably here- 
tofore. 

MetHod of Grooving Beets 

It is diflBcult to lay down general directions and rules for growing 
sugar beets applicable to all localities and conditions. Often expert 
sugar beet growers, at public meetings and through the agricultural 
press, give minute directions covering all the details of this intricate 
process. 

Others, each well versed in the process of growing sugar beets, 
get into arguments and disputes as to the right method. In such 
cases each may be correct in a measure. The occasion for such dis- 
agreements lies in the fact that each person has in mind the right 
method for a particular locality or set of conditions. A careful study 
of the different sections of the United States where sugar beets are 
grown will lead to the conclusion that there is no single road to suc- 
cess in growing sugar beets. Every locality has settled conditions 
which will materially modify any set of methods that might apply to 
some other one. There are some settled rules, of course, but to a great 
extent the various agricultural districts of this country will have to 
work out each for itself the right method. The person who argues 
that the ground must be plowed in the fall, in order to receive the 
benefit of the winter frost, is not offering any argument to the Pactic 
coast, for instance, where many beets are grown. And he who insists 
that the ground should be rolled in all instances after planting, will 
hazard the crop if his directions are followed in many parts of 
Nebraska and other sections where the soil is sandy and there are 



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14 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 

strong winds. In such cases a smooth surface ofifers an excellent 
opportunity for the wind to carry along the sharp grains of sand, cut- 
ting off the plants and destroying the crop. 

There can be no general fixed rules regarding the kinds and appli- 
cation of fertilizers. General principles are all right when accom- 
panied by the reasons underlying, but must always be modified to 
meet local conditions. 

With the development of the industry in all sections which have 
the necessary conditions, and the acquirement of ample experience 
both by the farmers in the production of beets, and by the manufac- 
turers in the making of sugar, there will come many improvements 
and eventually a cheapening of production, a result of great import- 
ance to all concerned in the success of the industry, because eventually 
the beet-sugar industry of the United States will have to meet a 
pharper competition with foreign producers. 

There are some things settled, however, about growing sugar 
beets. It will be generally conceded that the ground should be plowed 
deep, and in most instances sub-soiled. Before the seed is planted 
the ground must be thoroughly pulverized by harrowing and by roll- 
ing, even if the surface has to be afterwards roughened. Advantage 
must be taken of the general and prevalent rain conditions. The 
ground must be moist enough to germinate the seed, either by rain- 
fall or irrigation. In some localities either is used, according to cir- 
cumstances. Seeds are planted at depths of from one-half to two 
inches, according to the prevailing conditions in the pariicular local- 
ity. The beets must be planted near enough together to produce a 
bee>t of certain size. This si)acing depends again upon the locality 
and the nature and fertility of the soil. The size and quality of the 
beets (le])en(l materially on the right kind of spacing. The beets must 
ho tlioroiifrhly cultivated. IuxhI, and hand weeded, because cultivation 
tc^iids to conserve the moisture of the soil, and clean fields permit fav- 
orable action (;f sun and air. The sooner the beet is harvested after it 
is ri])e tlie Ix^ticu', l)(»cause further raiufall may start a new growth, 
produciiiii: new lateral roots, and new leaves, thus greatly reducing the 
sugar eont(Mit and i)urity t^f the beets. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION lo 

Preparing tHe Seed Bed 

Having selected the land, give it a deep plowing in the fall, if 
possible, and follow by a sub-soiling, and allow it to lay exposed to the 
action of the elements during the winter. 

In the spring, the land should be again plowed about eight inches 
deep, after which it should be thoroughly pulverized by disking, har- 
rowing and rolling or planking. It is not necessary that all these 
methods be used at once, but enough of them must be used to acx^om- 
plish the end in view, which is to thoroughly pulverize the soil. 

Special implements are being constantly devised to accomplish 
this, and all the operations in beet cultivation, harvesting, and top- 
ping. 

Seed 

So far, almost the entire quantity of seed used in this country 
comes from Europe, that from Germany appearing to be best adapted 
to our conditions and to produce the best results. 

There is some choice to be exercised in this regard. The sugar 
companies usually furnish their farmers with seed, taking pay in 
beets. 

Not less than 15 pounds of seed to the acre should be used to 
insure a full, even, and regular stand. Unless the stand be good, 
there will be many bare spaces, greatly reducing the yield. 

A disposition to economize seed or to make the amount furnished 
cover a larger acreage will be found to be false economy and should 
not be attempted. 

Planting 

The seed should be sown with a drill made for the purpose, in 
rows eighteen inches apart, or of sufficient widtli to allow of the pas- 
sage of a horse when cultivating. 

When irrigation is practiced, seed is preferably sown in ridges 
about twenty inches apart to allow for irrigation between the rows so 
as not to bum the leaves. 

The seed should be planted from one-half to one and one-half 
inches deej^, depending upon the moisture in the soil; the shallower 
the planting, the more vigorous will be the plant. The fear that the 



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16 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 

plant may die for lack of moisture is unfounded, as the sprouted seed 
sends down a long root to the depth of several inches, and later even 
to two or more feet, from which the beet derives moisture and suste- 
nance. 

It should always be borne in mind that the sugar in the beet is 
derived entirely from the air and sunshine, consequently the tops 
should have ample space in which to secure all the benefit from these 
sources. The increase in sugar content will more than make good the 
decreased tonnage, although growing and breathing space will not 
necessarily tend to decrease tonnage. 

Planting should not be done until the ground becomes warm with 
a probability of settled weather conditions, say in May in the rainfall 
districts. In the irrigated districts this must depend upon the gen- 
eral conditions; in some places planting may be done from December 
to June. In Montana, in May or early June. 

Germination 

The seed will germinate in about a week after planting if the 
if weather and soil conditions are favorable. 

Care should be taken during this period that the ground does not 
become baked; if this occurs, the farmer should know how to over- 
come the diflBculty with a harrow. 

Bt&ncHin^ and THinning 

When the plant has three or four leaves the bunching must be 
done. 

This is done by passing down the row and, with a stroke of the 
hoe, cutting out a part of the plants the width of the hoe, leaving 
bunches from 6 to 10 inches apart. 

After bunching, or when it is fairly under way, the thinning 
should be begun. 

This, up to this time, has been, and probably always will be, done 
by hand, laborers crawling along the rows and removing from each 
bunch all except the most thrifty plants. These plants should be left 
about six inches apart in good, rich soil, or up to ten or twelve inches 
in poor or thinner soil. 

This is quite the most important operation connected with beet 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 17 

growing, as its proper performance has a great influence upon yield, 
both in tonnage and sugar. The vigor of the plant depends upon its 
being done at the right time, governing the size of the beets, while 
spacing to the proper distances apart has an important influence upon 
the sugar percentage. 

The aim of the farmer should not be to grow large beets, which 
run to fibre and are low in sugar, while small beets are more expensive 
to handle. Beets weighing from one to two pounds are by far the 
best for the farmer and the factory. 

Ct&ltivatintf 

The first cultivation is performed in the bunching and thinning, 
when the laborer presses the dirt firmly around the beet plant and 
removes whatever grass or weeds may be present. 

After this the weeds should be kept down and the ground kept 
loose and pulverized, which can be done by hoeing or horse cultiva- 
tion, using any of the implements made for such purpose. This 
should be done as often as needed, three times generally being suflS- 
cient, or until the plants are large enough to shade the ground, when 
work among them with plow and horse would break off the leaves. 

IrriftAtion 

Where irrigation is practiced the farmer has an opportunity to 
control the growth of the beet and the development of its sugar to a 
much greater degree than is possible in the humid sections. 

In general, the rules of irrigation as applied to other crops, may 
be successfully used with sugar beets. It would be well, however, in 
order to secure a greater downward growth of the beets, to withhold 
the application of water in each case until the leaves begin to turn 
yellow. In this way the disproportion of tops to the rest of the root 
may be reduced and the proportion of sugar correspondingly increased. 
It is also advisable to avoid very late irrigations. 

Harvesting 

When one is accustomed to sugar beet fields, it is easy to deter- 
mine when they are ripe. This point is usually determined, however, 
by analysis to ascertain the sugar content and purity of the beets. 



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IS MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 

After the growth of the top and root and cultivation ceases, the 
beets begin to store up sugar through the leaves, and the sugar and 
the purity increases as they approach maturity. 

When a field of beets is ripe, the leaves tend to droop and the 
whole field takes on a yellow appearance, which cannot be mistaken 
by one accustomed to deciding the period of ripeness. 

There are several kinds of harvesting plows, beet pullers and 
toppers, many of which have lately been patented, from which a satis- 
factory implement may be chosen. 

Having been loosened by either of the ordinary machines, labor- 
ers follow, throwing the beets in piles. 

Topping 

This is done by laborers with a sharp knife, made especially for 
the purpose, striking a quick, sharp blow, cutting oflf the top square 
across as low as the lowest leaf stem. The beets are thrown into large 
piles and the tops plowed under or used for fodder. 

The topping is a very particular and important operation. 

The sloping crown of the beet bearing the leaf -stems contains 
much the larger proportion of the mineral salts in the vegetable, 
which are very objectionable in the manufacture of sugar, every pound 
of such salts preventing a pound of sugar from crystallizing. 

Beets not topped properly are re-topped by the agricultural 
department of the factory and the diflFerence in percentage of weight 
calculated on the samples, is deducted as tare. 

In climates where there is no danger of wet or freezing weather, 
the roots may be left on the ground unharvested for a long time. 

Siloing 

While beets should be haiTested as soon as they are ripe, to avoid 
the deteriorating eff eots of frost or rain, yet not all beets can be deliv- 
ered to the factory at the same time. The beet sheds have not suffi- 
cient capacity. Many companies require that a certain portion of the 
beets shall be siloed in the fields where they are grown. This is 
accomplished by placing them in single piles containing a good load, 
or in long ricks. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 19 

Plows are run up and down alongside of these ricks or piles, and 
the soft dirt is thrown over thie beets to the depth of several inches. 
Then hay, straw and beet leaves are thrown on top of that. Holes are 
left for ventilation. Beets can be kept for some time in this manner. 

Freezing of the beets does them no particular injury, and does 
not appreciably diminish the sugar content, provided they can arrive 
and be worked at the factory before thawing out. 

Thawing after freezing reduces the amount of sugar and the pur- 
ity, and must be guarded against. 

The delivery of beets as well as the specific instructions for grow- 
ing are regulated by the agricultural department of the various fac- 
tories, and the whole progress of the work is usually supervised by 
the skilled members of that department employed by the factory. 

It is decidedly to the farmers' interest as well as to that of the 
factory that such instructions should be graciously received and care- 
fully followed. 

It cannot be too strongly impressed upon the minds of farmers 
that the interests of both farmer and factory are identical and mutual; 
what benefits the one adding to the success of the other, and no spirit 
of antagonism or diflFerences should be permitted to arise. 



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20 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 



General Data Condensed 



The amount of fuel required per ton of beets varies from 15 per 
per cent, to 21 per cent. The latter was the average of Michigan fac- 
tories for the campaign of 1901-2. Proi>er connections, careful atten- 
tion to details and skillful utilization of heat units and the hot water 
supply should keep the amount approximately at the lower figure. 



The quantity of lime rock used is about 8 per cent, of the weight 
of the beets when using the ordinary milk of lime for carbonatation. 
Where the Saccharate of Lime process is used for treating the molas- 
ses, the proportion will be from 16 to 20 per cent. 



The quantity of Coke is about 10 to 12 per cent, of the weight of 
the Lime Rock. ^^^^^^^ 

The amount of Sulphur used is about 200 pounds per day; other 
supplies about $50 per day. 

The number of men employed, outside the office force, in some of 
the factories is 170 to 180. In some others, of the same capacity, 250 
are required. ^^^^^^^ 

The annual disbursement for labor, including office, will be about 
$60,000. 

In raising and harvesting the crop of beets for the Michigan fac- 
tories for the campaign of 1901-2, there were engaged 26,966 men, 
1,844 single horses, and 4,834 double teams employed during the 
season. ^^^^^^^ 

The actual number of contractors raising beets for the same fac- 
tories for that season was 16,848. This represents the same number 
of farmer's families and, on a basis of five members to the family, rep- 
resents 84,240 persons actually interested in the agricultural opera- 
tions of the Beet Sugar Industry of Michigan in that year. Last year 
these figures were presumably 25 per cent, greater. 



Beet seed is purchased by the factories in the month of Decem- 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 21 

ber, distributed to the farmers in the month of April and paid for by 
the farmers from the sale of beets in the fall. 

The Beet Sugar Industry is the agricultural industry in which 
the farmer is able to sell his crop, on a reliable contract, at a fixed 
price, before the seed is planted. 

He is thus independent of the action of the law of supj'ly and 
demand, or of the many contingencies of the market on other crops at 
time of harvesting. He is not subjected to delays in payment nor 
compelled to hold his crop for a better market. 



Sugar beets will withstand a longer drought and also a more 
excessive rainfall than any other known staple crop. The danger of 
loss from bad weather conditions is thus minimized. 

Calculations 

In making the various calculations in the Beet Sugar Industry, 
it will be apparent that they are approximately correct when expressed 
in decimal proportion; that is, the relation of each to the other is 
expressed in some multiple of ten. 

In the Eastern section thfe average tonnage per acre is set at 10 
tons. 

The acreage of beets to be contracted for should be 10 times the 
daily capacity. 

The tonnage of beets worked is practically 10 times the amount 
of sugar which should be extracted. 

The campaign is 100 days. 

The approximate cost of the completed plant is about $1,000 for 
each ton of daily capacity. 

These estimates are sufficiently near for all practical purposes. 

Refineries vs. Home-Groivn Sugar 

Eastern refiners buy brown (raw) sugar, produced from cane in 
the tropics or from beets in Europe. This sugar h£is had expended 
upon its production fully 90 per cent, of all the labor and other cost. 

The cost of refining is from 30 to 40 cents per 100 pounds, of 



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22 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 

which not exceeding 15 cents is for American labor. 

This sugar is melted, reboiled and clarified by passing through 
bone black (animal charcoal) and the refined sugar separated from the 
molasses precisely as in the Beet Sugar process. In fact, the machin- 
ery is identical with that in the sugar end of the beet sugar factories, 
except for the addition of the char-filters for the necessary clarifica- 
tion. 

The present price, April 1, 1903, of raw sugar, 96 degrees Cen- 
trifugal, landed in New York, cost and freight, is 2 1-16 cents, and 
this all goes to the foreign producer. 

The American beet farmer receives for one ton of beets contain- 
ing 14 per cent, of sugar, in Michigan, $5.16. Upon the assumption 
that the factory is able to extract from this 200 pounds, the fanner 
receives 2.58 cents per pound for the sugar still in the beets, in the 
shed, upon which all labor and factory expense must be expended. 

The duty on raw sugar polarising 96 degrees is $1.68^ per 100 
pounds. 

The cost, duty paid, is about 3| cents per pound. 

THe Future 

It is estimated that in 1910, the amount of sugar required for 
consumption in the United States, above that produced from home- 
grown caue, will be 3,000,000 tons. 

Eurojje, with much less available beet area, produced in 1900, 
5,950,000 tons of beet sugar. 

To produce 3,000,000 tons of beet sugar annijally would require 
500 j)lants, each having a daily capacity of 600 tons. 

Tlu»se plants would represent the following investment and 

annual busiiu^ss: 

Invosted in plants 8300,000,000 

Working capital 50,000,000 

Acres of beets 3,000,000 

Valuation of land growing this crop 150,000,000 

Tons of beets 27,000,000 

Tons of su^^ir 3,000.000 

Value of beets 135.000,00) 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 23 

Annual pay roll for labor in factories 42,000.000 

Tons of coal used 5,500,000 

Tons of lime rock 1,890,000 

Tons coke 208,000 

Freight paid railroads 27,000,000 

Annual payments, bags and barrels 6,000,000 

Number of farmers raising beets 750,000 

Men employed in factories 125,000 

Men employed raising beets during season 1,200,000 



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24 



MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 



Statistical 



Present Sources o/ l¥orld*s Sugar Supply 

BEET 

1901 1900 1999 1898 

Germany 2,270,000 1,979,098 1,798,631 1,721,718 

Austria 1,250,000 l,094,0i3 UO8,007 1,051,290 

France 1,200,000 1,170,332 977.850 830032 

Russia 1,050,000 920,000 905,737 776,066 

Belgium 350,000 340,000 .302,865 244,017 

Holland 190,000 178,081 171,029 140,763 

Other European Countries . 400,000 387,440 253,929 209,115 

Total foreign 6,710,000 6,068,994 5,518,048 4,982,101 

United States 150,000 76,859 72,944 32,471 

Total beet 6,860,000 6,145,853 5,590,990 5,590.572 

CANE 

Cuba 875,000 635,856 308.540 345:290 

Java 765.000 710,120 721.993 689,281 

Brazil 215,000 190,000 192,700 154.495 

Mauritius 145,000 175,267 157,025 186,487 

Australia 117,000 111.554 123,289 192,247 

Argentine Republic 115,000 114,252 91,507 72,000 

Peru 105,000 105,000 100381 61,910 

Other Foreign Countries. . . 753,000 731,880 681,219 748,926 

Total Foreign Cane 3,090,000 2,773,929 2,376,654 2,450,606 

United States: 

Louisiana 290,000 275,000 132,000 245,511 

Porto Kico 100,000 80,000 35,000 53,826 

Hawaiian Islands 300,000 321,461 258,520 252,507 

Philippine Islands 70,000 52,000 62,875 93,000 

Total, U. S. and posses- 
sions 760,000 728,461 488,305 644,844 

Total cane 3,850,000 3,502,390 2,864,959 a095,450 

Total Cane and Beet .... 10,710,000 9,648.243 8,455,951 8ai0.022 

To illustrate the comparative growth of the beet sngar industry 

in the United States and Europe, the following table will be interesting: 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 



25 





Beet Sugar 


Production 






United States. 


Europe. 


United States. 


Europe. 




(Tons.) 


(Tons.) 


(Tons.) 


(Tons.) 


1870 


400 


899,600 


1892 12,018 


3,442,198 


1872 


500 


1,018,500 


1893 19.550 


3,889,845 


1878 


200 


1,418,800 


1894 20,092 


4,790,532 


1880 


500 


1,747,500 


1895 29,220 


4,285,429 


1883 


535 


2,146,470 


1896 37,536 


4.916.498 


1884 


953 


2,574.047 


1897 40,399 


4,831,774 


1886 


800 


2,732,200 


1898 32,471 


4,982,101 


1888 


1,010 


2,724,000 


1899 72.944 


5,518,048 


1890 


2,800 


3,707,200 


1900 76,859 


6,068,994 


1891 


5,359 


3,501,920 


1901 150,000 


6,710,000 



Detailed Supply of tKe United States, 1901 

DOMESTIC 

Cane 292,150 tons. 

Beet 124,859 tons. 

Molasses Sugar 17,977 tons. 

Maple 5,000 tons. 



12.4 per cent. 

5.2 per cent. 

. 7 per cent. 

.2 per cent. 



439,986 tons. 18.5 per cent. 



FROM INSULAR POSSESSIONS, CANE 

Hawaii 309,070 tons. 

Porto Rico 64,052 tons. 

Philippine Islands 5,100 tons. 

Total from Insular possessions 380,449 tons. 



Total, Domestic and Insular posses- 
sions 820,435 tons. 

FOREIGN 

Cane 1,292,080 tons. 

Beet 217,286 tons. 

Refined 42,515 tons. 

Total Foreign 1,551,881 tons. 

Grand Total 2,372,316 tons. 



L3.2 per cent. 

2.7 per cent. 

.2 per cent. 

16.1 per cent. 
34 .B per cent. 



54.6 per cent. 

9.6 per cent. 

1.7 p(3r cent. 

65.4 per cent. 



100.0 per cent. 



Average Increase in Total Consumption Per Year for 

Tiventy Years 

France 6.18 per cent. England 3.50 per cent. 

Germany 6.91 per cent. United States 6.94 per cent. 

Austria 4.65 per cent. 



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26 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 

Sugar Consumption, Dominion of Canada, 1900» IVith 
Sources of Supply 



United Kingdom 
and British pos- 
sessions, Tons. 
Raw 11,020 

Refined 1,238 



Imported from 

United States 

Possessions and 

Dependencies, 

Tons. 

2,689 

12,265 


Other 

Cane 

Tons. 

3 

1,684 


Other 

Beet 

Tons. 

112,613 

1,247 


Total 
Toot. 
126325 

16.434 



12,258 14,954 1,687 113,860 142,795 

It will be seen that more than 75 per cent, of the total supply in 
Canada was from sugar beets. 

The customs duties in Canada are 1\\ cents per 100 pounds on 
raw sugar, (96 degrees, Centrifugal) and $1.20 on refineii sugar, against 
$1.68^ and $1.95 respectively in the United States. This duty should 
be materially increased before the production of beet sugar can attain 
any considerable development. 

Having had an opportunity during the last few months to become 
acquainted with the conditions in Colorado, I will give some data 
showing what the establishment of a factory means to a community. 

I^oveland, Colo. 

The Loveland factory is said to employ 400 men and boys during 
the sugar making season, the payroll being about $25,000 per month, 
or for the 120 days, or four months, of the factory campaign, about 
$100,000. 

About 35 of the skilled factory employes, the office force, the 
agricultural superintendent and his corps of assistants, are employed 
the year round, representing a payroll for the eight months during 
which the factory is idle, of about $4,000 per month, or about $32,000, 
making the annual pay roll about $132,000. 

The local beet growing industry, following the erection of the 
Loveland factory, has resulted in the immigration into the district of 
about 1,500 laborers, old and young, who came to Colorado from 
Nebraska, 

The wages paid in the beet fields for ordinary common labor, doing 
hand-work,, range'from $1.50 to $2.50 per day, if reckoned that way, but 
the field laborers g(?nerally contract to do the necessary hand-work, 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 27 

viz., the thinning and hoeing, second and third hoeings, pulling and 
topping, for $20 per acre; father, mother and children working on the 
family contract. 

Around Loveland beets are regarded as not merely a more profit- 
able crop than wheat or other grain, or alfalfa, or potatoes, but as a 
safer crop, as much less liable to serious damage from hailstones. 

The beet pulp produced by this factory is sold to local stock feed- 
ers at 36 cents per ton, being mainly used for sheej^. 

It has necessarily given quite an impetus to local stock feeding. 

The beet tops, left in the fields after the beets are har\'ested, are 
valuable either as feed for cattle and sheep, or as a fertilizer when 
ploughed imder. 

It is difficidt to overestimate the benefit of this factory to the 
Loveland district. It has already materially enhanced the market 
value of all farm lands within its sphere of influence; promoted diver- 
sified farming; rotation of crops and more intensive agriculture. The 
$1,472,000 paid to local growers for beets during the three seasons the 
factory has been in operation, has necessarily gone into'geiieral circu- 
lation and benefitted not merely the Loveland ^district in particular, 
but CJolorado in general, in a variety of ways, insomuch that the con- 
tinued success of the enterprise is, or should be, a matter of interest^to 
every citizen of Colorado. 

StJLgwLT Citx» Colo. 

The beet sugar factory of the National Sugar Manufacturing com- 
pany at Sugar City presents somewhat different circumstances to the 
other beet sugar factories in Colorado. 

Sugar City is situated fifty-six miles east of Pueblo on the line of 
the Missouri Pacific railway, or about 160 miles by railroad from 
Denver. 

In the spring of 1899 the site of the present Sugar City was 
merely "an expanse of plain and sky," a '*round-up" point for the opi^n 
range cattle industry, and tenanted by prairie dogs and occasional coy- 
otes. Sugar City was incor^x^rated in June, 1900, and to-day has a 
population of about 1,500, with hotels, business houses, a bank, a fire 



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28 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 

department, a $10,000 school house and a $20,000 water works plant 
the bonds of which were sold at par. 

All this has followed the erection in 1899 of a beet sngar factory 
at Sugar City by the National Sugar Manufacturing company. 

It naturally took some little time to get the beet growing industry 
started. The first year the factory was erected remarkable progress 
was made, considering the diflBculties which had to be overcome. The 
industry was entirely new to that section. The farmers were unfa- 
miliar with the method of raising the beets, laborers had to be brought 
from distant places and were compelled to live in tents for the greater 
part of that year, and the land was but a vast area of new and unbroken 
prairie. Nevertheless, 12,000tons of beets were raised the first year- 

A l^WLvge Territory 

The area tributary to the factory extends along the line of the 
Missouri Pacific railroad, practically as far as Pueblo, taking in the 
flourishing agricultural communities of Ordway, Olney, Fowler, Baxter, 
Vineland, etc., and representing at least 50,000 acres of irrigable land. 
The main crops of this tributary area, until the advent of the factory, 
were alfalfa, grain, etc. There is not much live stock, except on the 
open ranges north and south. There is little dairying or poultry rais- 
ing, but there are numerous orchards, and honey is shipped out by the 
carload. In the vicinity of Ordway, about six miles west of Sugar City 
and the factory, the farms are of good size, the farmhouses and out- 
buildings substantial and well painted. The farmsteadings are invar- 
iably surroimded by orchards, shade trees, hay and grain ricks, and 
usually also have a cluster of white tents, occupied by the laborers for 
the beet fields. 

The National Sugar Manufacturing company owns 12,000 acres of 
land surroimding Sugar City and the factory, the Missouri Pacific 
railway passing diagonally through the center of the tract. This body 
of land, which lies in compact form, is an excellent alluvial deposit of 
light loam, mixed with fine gravel, yielding readily to the plow and 
easy of cultivation. 

Just north of this area nms the Colorado canal, owned by the 
Twin Lakes Land and Reservoir company, from which the whole of 
the 12,000 acres of the National Sugar Manufacturing company is irri- 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 29 

gable. The Meredith lakes south of the town, have a circumference of 
thirteen miles, the volume of water in which, though varying with the 
seasons, never fails. 

THe l¥ater Supply 

The National Sugar Manufacturing company owns extensive water 
rights, Lake Henry, fed by means of a priority right from the Arkan- 
sas river through the Colorado canal being the base of supply. In 
other words, from Twin Lakes, 2,000 acres in extent, with average 
depth of eighty -five feet, in Lake county, at an altitude of 9,200 feet, 
the water is carried in a natural canal to the Arkansas river, a distance 
of nine miles. Then down the Arkansas river for a distance of 150 
miles to Boone, east of Pueblo, at JBoone taken into the Colorado canal 
and conveyed a distance of thirty-five miles to Lake Henry and from 
there, through a wooden stave pipe to Sugar City and the adjoining 
land of the National Sugar Manufacturing company. When the 
Arkansas river supply becomes short, as it usually does during the 
middle of the summer, the headgate at Twin Lakes is opened and the 
necessary amoimt of water liberated, which in about two days, via the 
Arkansas river, the Colorado canal and Lake Henry, is delivered for 
irrigation use around Sugar City. 

In addition to this, the great storage reservoir of Lake Henry, 
four miles northwest of Sugar City, holds a vast volume of water ready 
for any emergency of threatened drought. 

It is said that the before-mentioned facilities preclude shortage of 
water around Sugar City. 

I^and Under Cultivation 

The company is cidtivating a considerable portion of its 12,000 
acres of land, 4,000 acres Deing devoted to beets. A quantity of the 
company's land is leased to other beet growers and the remainder is 
grown by the company to alfalfa and grain croi)s as a precursor to 
beets. 

The total cost to the company of handling its portion of the 12,- 
000 acres this season will be about $250,000, by far the greater part of 
the expense .being on the 4,000 acres of beets. 

In addition, about 140 beet growers, owning or leasing land along 



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30 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 

the line of the Missouri Pacific railroad, with an average of eleven 
acres of beets each, have contracted to furnish the factory this season 
with the beets from about 1,500 acres. 

Taking the average yield per acre at the low estimate of ten tons, 
the factory should slice from all sources between 40,000 and 50,000 
tons of beets this season. 

For beets which contain 14 per cent, sugar, the company ps^ys $4 
ton, allowing 25 cents extra per ton for each 1 per cent, of sugar. The 
average sugar contents are 17^ per cent, and in some exceptional cases 
the beets test as high as 21 and 22 per cent. The average price the 
growers receive is about $4.87 per ton. Many of the beet growers 
raise an average of twelve tons to the acre, while some raise as high as 
fifteen and twenty tons per acre. 

Some Statistics 

One grower near Ordway received from the company for beets de- 
livered from two and three-quarters acres, $365.39 or $132.84 per acre. 
He did a large part of the work himself, but assuming that the value 
of his own labor and whatever other labor he had to pay for was $32 
per acre, it still left a profit of $100 per acre. 

Another company received from the company about $2,500 for the 
beets from forty acres. 

Another grower, who leased forty acres of the company's land, 
raised an average of sixtt^en tons per acre of high quality and received 
from the factory therefor about $3,000. 

The cost of i^roduction of an acre of beets at Sugar City is conser- 
vatively stated as follows: 

Plowing .... $3.50 

Irrigating, winter (once) - - - .75 

Irrigating, sumnu^r, (tliree times) - 1.00 

Harrowing, (three times) ... - .90 
Seed - - . - -3.00 

Seeding . _ . . .50 

Cultivating (5 times) - - - 2.00 

Bunching and thinning, by contract labor 6.00 

Hoeing, by contract labor - - 6.00 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 31 

Pulling and topping, by contract labor - 6.00 
Plowing up beets - - - 2.00 

Hauling (ten tons) - - - 5.00 



Per acre - . . . $36.65 

It is said that the above figures can be somewhat reduced by less 
cultivating and by the grower doing his bunching and thinning, hoeing, 
pulling and topping by the month. Even on the above showing, a 
production of fifteen tons per acre means over $73 per acre, or a net 
profit of nearly $30 per acre, while at ten tons per acre there is still a 
fair profit to the grower 

Hemvx Pay Roll 

In addition to the amoimt paid this season by the factory to in- 
dei)endent growers for beets, the company has an annual payroll of be- 
tween $150,000 and $200,000, covering the 190 factory employes dur- 
ing the sugar making season of about 120 days, commencing October 
1, the maintenance of the administration crops, about forty in nimiber, 
during the other eight months of the year, and the force required to 
run that part of the company's 12,000 acres of land,^not in beets, oper- 
ated by the company. Further large simis are expended in Colorado 
in the purchase of coal, lime rock, etc., and in railroad freight. 

The factory treats 500 tons of beets per day during the season and 
produces 120,000 pounds or sixty tons per day of pure white granulat- 
ed sugar therefrom. 

Its modus operandi of manufacturing resembles that at other 
CJolorado factories suflffciently to call for no repeated description here. 
As it stands to-day, the factory has cost approximately $500,000. 

During the agricultural season the company employs about 1,000 
persons old and yoimg. on the acreage of beets grown by itself, while 
the independent growers employ outside help to the number of at 
least 500 persons. 

The usual price for hand work is about $18 per acre; man and 
two horse team get $3 per day, and irrigators $1.75 i)er day. One beet 
worker received one check for $900 for his personal contract labor from 
May 1 to November 1. Many others received amounts equal to this 
for similar contracts. 



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32 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 

The bulk of this labor is performed by people commonly known 
as Russians, but really ix?ople of German race and language bora in 
Russia. It is said that these German laborers around Sugar City, 
while coming here from Nebraska, came originally from the provinces 
of Saratov and Samara in the valley of the Volga and are descendants 
of Gennan emigrants who settled in that part of Russia in the middle 
of the Eighteenth century. They are said to speak the German which 
prevailed over a century ago, like the Canadians of Lower Canada 
largely speak the French which i^revailed in Prance at the time when 
their ancestors emigrated from France to Lower Canada. These Ger- 
man-Russian laborers have built a Lutheran church and have their 
own resident pastor. They are phenomenally industrious, father, 
mother, and children working in the fields side by side early and late. 
A nmnber of the men who came first have purchased, with their sav- 
ings, serviceable teams and wagons and do most of the beet team work 
at so much per ton. Some of the older comers have ceased to dwell in 
tents, having acquired small tracts of land and erected their own ^ 
houses. 

Many PKases 

There are also about 100 Mexicans, chiefly engaged in loading or 
unloading beets rather than field work, but they are transients, only 
staying aroimd Sugar City for the sugar making season. 

The residum pulp from the factory has given an impetus to the 
local feeding of cattle and sheep, one packing company of Pueblo 
feeding 3,000 head of steers and 500 sheep at Sugar City this season. 

The National Sugar Manufactory' comjDany has reclaimed and put 
into profitable production a large tract of Colorado land. 

It has annually, for five consecutive years, disbursed large sums 
of money in the employmtait of profitable labor in Colorado and for 
beets produced by indeix»ndent growers. It has added another pros- 
perous commimity to the state. It obviously merits full appreciation 
and supix)rt from the citizens of the state, no matter where resident 
of the state. 

TKe Greeley District. 

The Greeley district was the pioneer in Colorado of agricultiu^ on 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 33 

any considerable scale, by means of irrigation, and its success in the 
'70s gave the impetus which resulted in similar enterprises and re- 
clamation of dry land at many other ix)ints in the state. Had the 
Greeley colonists been less indomitable in the early '70s and allowed 
themselves to fail in their efforts, the development of agriculture, as it 
exists in Colorado to-day, might have been postiX)ned possibly twenty 
years. The whole state, therefore, is infinitely indebted to the Greeley 
colony for its pioneer work of converting semi-arid lands into fertile 
fields by artificial irrigation from the streams fed from the melting 
snows and eternal springs in the moimtains. 

Of the seventy-five square miles of irrigated, cultivated land sur. 
rounding Greeley the respective acreages of various crops for the sea- 
son of 1903 are estimated in the following order: (1) alfalfa, (2) pota- 
toes, (3) wheat, (4) sugar beets, (5^ oats, (6) barley. 

That iK>rtion of the land which has been in continuous cultivation 
since the early '70s is more productive now than ever before for var- 
ious reasons, viz: (1) more intelligent and economic use of water, (2) 
more thorough cultivation, (3) the utilization of alfalfa, plowed under 
as a fertilizer, (4) rotation of croi)s, (5) increased use of barnyard and 
sheep pen manure, (6) improvement in agricultural implements and 
appliances and in grade of farm horses. 

HigK MTKeat Average. 

Years ago the average local wheat crop ranged from twenty- five to 
thirty bushels per acre, while to-day, it is said to range from thirty to 
as high as sixty bushels per acre, the minimum average being forty 
bushels. 

Potatoes formerly used to range from seventy to eighty sacks (of 
100 i)Ounds each) to the acre, while for the season of 1903 they are 
said to average at least 100 sacks i)er acre. 

With the increased average yield of wheat and ix)tatoe8, the cost 
of production per bushel and per sack has decreased. 

The estimated cost of raising wheat around Greeley is said to be 
about $10 per acre. An average yield of forty bushels per acre, at 
present price of 90 cents per bushel, means $36 per acre, or a profit to 
the grower of, say, $25 per acre. 



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34 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

The estimated cost of raising potatoes around Greeley is said to 
be from $30 to $35 jyer acre, including seed. An average yield of 100 
sacks per acre, at present price of 70 cents per sack, means $70 per 
acre, or a profit to the grower of, say, $35 per acre. 

It is estimated that Weld county this season has raised and will 
ship 8,000 cars of potatoes, averaging at least fifteen tons per car, of 
which at least 4,000 cars, or 60,000 tons, were raised in the ten square 
miles immediately surrounding Greeley, where the *'dugout" for potato 
storage is an adjunct on practically every farm. 

These Greeley potatoes, on account of their superior quality, have 
been for years shipped throughout the Southern and Middle states, 
and even as far east as New York and Boston, 2,000 miles by railroad. 

Beet Su^ar Factory 

In 1902 the Greeley Sugar company biult and completed a beet 
sugar factory at Greeley with a daily capacity of 600 tons of beets. 

The officers of the company are: C. S. Morey, president; C. A. 
Granger, vice president; M. D. Thatcher, treasurer, and W. A. Dixon, 
secretary. 

The factory as it stands to-day, including first cost and subsequent 
additions and improvements, represent a cash investment of $750,000. 
The factory premises cover sixty-five acres, and the site is ideal. 

While there is a sufficient resemblance between the various fac- 
tories of the state to render unnecessary a special description of the 
Greeley factory, it may Ix^ said of this factory, that it was evidently 
designed and built by experienced men with a view to maximum eflBc- 
iency at minimum first cost and subsequent cost of operation. The 
factory has a well, through the gravel down to bed rock, from which 
1,000,000 gallons per day of pure water is pumped and used exclusively 
in the manufacture of sugar. 

IVide Territory Covered. 

In 1902, its first season, the factory sliced 40,000 tons of beets, 
paying the farmers $180,000 and making 8,000,000 pounds of sugar. 

For the season of 1^K)3 it is estimated that the factory will slice 
55,000 tons of beets, paying the growers therefore $247,000 and mak- 
ing therefrom 12,000,000 pounds of sugar. 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 35 

In the season of 1903, 4,800 acres of beets were contracted for the 
factory, the territory being far reaching at points along the Union 
Pacific railroad, on the Denver line as far as Fort Lupton, twenty-six 
miles from Greeley, and along the Julesburg line as far as Deuel, forty 
miles from Greeley. The factory has four dumping stations on the 
line of the Union Pacific, viz., at Goodrich, Kersey, LaSalle and Fort 
Lupton. About three-fifths of the factory's supply of beets this sea- 
son came in by railroad from various points along the Union Pacific 
and the remaining two-fifths were delivered by wagon from growers 
within a radius of about five miles from the factory. 

There were 550 individual growers who averaged about nine acres 
each, the average yield being about twelve tons per acre. One man 
with twenty-two acres raised twenty-six tons per acre. Other growers 
with smaller tracts raised as high as thirty and even thirty-two tons 
X)er acre, showing what can be done. 

Cost of Prodt&ction 

The cost of production of the beets is said to range from $30 to 
$40 per acre, depending on what the grower has to hire. It is said 
that a man can rent land, pay for water, hire a foreman and pay for all 
necessary work and still raise beets at a total cost of not to exceed $40 
per acre. 

In 1902 the payroll of the factory during the sugar making season, 
commencing October 10 and finishing January 17, is expected to be 
about $70,000, and during the fiscal year $19,000. 

The beet pulp from this factory amounting to over 20,000 tons 
this season, is giving an impetus to local stock feeding, mostly sheep. 
Ninety per cent, of the pulp will be fed to stock within a mile and a 
half of the factory, and two cars of pulp per day are being shipped 
to points along the Union Pacific, as far as Fort Lui)ton on the 
Denver line, and as far as Masters and Orchard on the Julesburg 
line. 

The price of the beet pulp is 35 cents per ton f . o. b., also 35 cents 
per ton at the silo for local beet growers, and 50 cents at the silo to 
non-beet growers. According to the United States government report 
beet pulp is worth $1.22 per ton for stock feeding purxxjses. 



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36 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION. 

SHeep Indt&stry* 

Near the factory the company has 5,(X)0 Mexican and Southern 
sheep, including many old ewes, being fattened on pulp and hay. 
They were delivered in the factory pens on October 28 and it was esti- 
mated there were 1,0(X> head ready for market. 

It is estimated there will be a net profit of at least $1 per head on 
these 5,000 sheep, besides 1,000 loads af manure, which is sought after 
by farmers at 75 cents per lotid. These pulp fattened sheep, are ship- 
ped to Missouri river points as far as Chicago. 

The Greeley Ix^et sugar factory represents a cash investment of 
$750,000, and in its two seasons' operations has practically ahready 
paid $427,000 for beets and $168,000 in payrolls, or a total local dis- 
bursement in two years of nearly $600,000, to say nothing of cost of 
coal, lime rock, railroad freight, taxes, etc. 

Eaton* Colo. 

Eaton has a population of about 1,000, and has two banks, two 
hotels, two school houses, costing $30,000, a newspaper, a gas plant, 
water works system, sewerage system, telephone system, three churches, 
elevator with a capacity of 110,000 bushels, flouring mill of 400-barrel 
daily capacity, and a beet sugar factory of 600 tons daily capacity. 
There are no saloons. 

The agricultural coimtry tributary to Eaton is about 100 square 
miles in extent, and contains several thousand population. In it there 
are about 150 miles of main irrigating canals, mostly fed from the 
Cache la Poudre, but some from the Larimer river. 

A Oreat Fi^rinin^ Cot&ntry. 

Taking the average 160-acre farm, the various crops are generally 
represented about as follows: alfalfa, forty acres; potatoes, forty 
acres; sugar beets fifteen acres; grain, wheat predominating, sixty-five 
acres. There are comparatively few eighty-acre farms, larger sizes 
prevailing. 

A special feature of the district is large ownerships and the rent- 
ing the land to tenants on shares. For instance, ex-Govenor B. H. 
Eaton owns 15,000 acres of which 12,000 acres are under cultivation, 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 37 

while his two sons aggregate an additional 6,000 acres, not one of the 
three doing any farming himself, but renting his land out to the actual 
cultivators on shares. The owner furnishes the land, irrigating water, 
house and other improvements, receiving as rent one-third of the grain 
and potatoes, one-fourth of the sugar beets, one-half of the alfalfa. 
The tenant furnishes the implements, working animals and the labors 
taking the remainder of each crop as his share. This gives the ten- 
ants a chance, which many of them would not otherwise have. A 
limite<l capital will purchase seed and horses, and hire machinery, with 
the certainty of getting two-thirds of the grain and potatoes, three- 
fourths of the sugar beets, and one-half of the alfalfa raised, while in 
the event of a bad year or poor crop the tenant farmer is not expiicted 
to find a certiiin amount of cash for a fixed rent, whether he has made 
it or not. In fact, it is a partnership which works well for both land 
owner and tenant, is equitable and has enabled many a man to make a 
start which he could not have done in any other way. 

THe ]&aton Su,^9kr Compans^. 

The Eaton district during the past season raised al)out 150,000 
bushels of wheat and about 1,500 cars, or 22,500 tons, of potatoes, net- 
ting the growers, at $210 per car, $315,000, 

In 1802, the Eaton Sugar company built and completed a beet 
sugar factory at Eaton, with a daily capacity of 600 tons of beets. 

The officers of the company are: C. S. Morey, president; W. D. 
Hoover, vice-president; M. D. Thacher, treasurer, and W. A. Dixon, 
secretary. 

The factor}' as it stands to-day^ including first cost and subsequent 
additions and improvements, represents a cash investment of $750,000. 

The factory jiremises comprise sixty acres and the site is advan- 
tageous. In general matters it sufficiently resembles the other factor- 
ies in Colorado as not to call for any detailed description here. 

In 1902, its first season, the factory sliced 35,000 tons of beets, 
paying the farmers therefor at the rate of $5 i)er ton, $175,000. 

For the season of 11K)3 it is estimated the factory will slice 60,000 
tons of beets, paying the farmers therefor, at the rate of $5 per ton, 
$300,000. 



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38 MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 

Ht&ndreds of Groip^ers 

In the season of 1903 there were about 6,000 acres of beets con- 
tracted for the factory, mostly grown within a radius of eight or t«n 
miles from the factory, the company having two dumping stations on 
the Union Pacific railroad, north of Greeley, viz., one at Lucerne, and 
the other at Ault. This factory has also received beets from the dis- 
tricts south of Greeley. About 65 per cent, of the beets come by 
wagon from the farms within three to four miles, and the other 35 per 
cent, come railroad. 

There were about 400 individual growers last year, who averaged 
about fourteen acres each, the average yield being upwards of twelve 
tons per acre. There were instances where growers raised as much as 
thirty-six tons per acre, and in some cases of small tracts, receiving 
special attention, even as high as forty tons per acre. 

The local cost of beet production ranges from $30 to $35 per acre. 

In 1902 the payroll of the factory during the four months' sugar 
making season was about $40,000, and during the eight months while 
the factory was idle, about $25,000. 

In 1903, the payroll of the factory during the sugar making sea- 
son, commencing October 1 and finishing January 10, is expected to 
be $50,000, and during the remainder of the fiscal year $25,000. 

Fortt&nes Paid Ot&t 

The beet pulp residue from this factory, amounting to about 30,- 
000 tons this season, is sold at 30 cents per ton at the silo, and is being 
used, along with hay, etc., for the feeding of 30,000 sheep within moti- 
arate radius of the factory. At the time of the writer's visit, Decem- 
ber 21, there were said to be about 12,000 sheep in feeding pens 
adjoining the factory. 

Having regard to the fact that the Eaton beet sugar factor}' repre- 
sents a cash investment of $750,000, and in its two seasons' operations 
has practically already paid $475,000 for beets and $140,000 in pajTolls, 
or a total local disbursement in two years of about $615,000, to say 
nothing of cost of coal, lime rock, railroad freight, taxes, etc., the 
writer was unprepared for the statement from a prominent Eaton man 
man that there was considerable local prejudice against the beet grow- 



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MONTANA EXPERIMENT STATION 39 

ing, as beets are supposed to impoverish the soil. It is surprising how 
people, who could be expected to know better, jump to unwarranted 
conclusions, without first making some careful investigation. Yet 
here is a local example of beets as compared with potatoes and show- 
ing that beets improve the soil for other crops. 

Some Good R.et«&ms 

Mr. William Stanley of Lucerne, grew for the Eaton sugar factory 
in 1903, on rented ground, belonging to a Greeley merchant, twenty 
acres of beets, which yielded 483 tons, for which he was paid by the 
factory $2,415. 

After deducting $200 paid for bunching, thinning, and hoeing, 
$241.50 for pulling and topping, and $805 (the value of the land 
owner's share of the crop) for rent, he had left a net balance of 
$1,168.50, or $58.42 net per acre. 

During the same season, 1903, he grew on the same farm thirt