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It has appGared desirable to present these extracts here, both as 
an approprinte variety, and as in some tneasurc at least a sample 
of tlie literatnre which flourished under one of the Mongol 
dynasties to which we have ao often occasion to refer. 

The translation is borrowed from the French, chiefly from that 
published by Klaproth in the Journal Asialique for 1833 (ser. ii, 
torn. li, pp. 335-358, and 447-470). This was put forth in oor- 
njction of a previons version by Von Hammer Pnrgstall, with 
which Klaproth found mnch fanlt, especially in the defective de- 
cypherment of proper names, of outlandish cxpi-essions, and some- 
times even of simple Persian words ; but in some of those respects 
he wonld himself also seem occasionally to have misacd the mark. 
Thero is another translation, with considerable omissions and 
K>mo additional matter, by D'Ohsson, in the Appendix to the 
second volume of his history of the Montis, and I have followed 
that wherever it appeared to give better sense than Klaproth 's 
version. An elaborate iotrodaction to a paper of so little pre- 
tension as a translation thus prepared would bo quite out of place, 
and a few paragraphs of explanation as to the author and his 
works are all that need bo given. 

Fazl-cllah RiSHiD, otherwise Rashid-ttd-din, son of 'Imad-nd- 
daalah Abu'l Khair, was bom at Hamadan about a.d. 1247. Hia 
enemies, in the lntt«r part of his hfe, called him a Jew both by 
birth and religion.' The latter part of the assertion is disproved, 
both a« to himself and hia immediate predecessor, hat Quatrem^ 
is inclined to think that ho was possibly of Jewish descent, as he 
shows on accjuaintance with Jewish rites and ctistoms singular 
for a Mahomedan statesman. 

' Ibu Bstnta (ii, 116), who Raw Boshid's son nUending as Wazir on 
Aba SaJd Ehan at Baghdad, aaja tliat " the father Khwnja Eaahid had 
migrant Jeir." Saiduddaiilat, the chief niiniKter and favourite 
of Argun the father of Oljaitu, was a Jew (Mod. Univ. Ilialory in Fr. 


254 CATHAY tmOEB THE Mouaois. 

He was a, pliyaician by profession, and, in tliat capacity appa- 
rently, passed a considerable part of hia life at the oonrt of AbaJia 
Khan and his immediate euccessors. All treated him with dis- 
tinction, but he came into no great prominence before the acces- 
sion of Ghazan Khan in 1295. The Wazir, Sadr-ud-din, was an 
old friend of Eaahid'a, but mischief- making embittered the 
minister against the latter, and evejitually (1298) the Khan 
taking Boshid's part violently, caused Sadr-ud-din to be ejcecntwi, 
Bashid himself was then named Wazir of the Persian empire in 
conjunction with Saad-ud-din. Oijaita, the brother and successor 
of Ghazan, maintained both ministers in office, but they disagreed, 
and a succession of quarrels between them ended in Rashid's de- 
nouncing his coUeagae, and causing him to be put to death. This 
recurring fatality to Rashid's rivals and colleagues tends to raise 
serious doubts as to the high character claimed for him, and to 
abate our pity for his own catastrophe. He did not get on better 
with Saad's successor, one Ali Shah Jabaldn, though selected by 
himself. Bashid kept hia ground till the death of Oijaita, but 
on the succession of Abu Said (1317) his enemy succeeded in 
prejudicing the king against him, and he was displaced. Such 
confusion ensued that the old statesman had soon to be recalled, 
but he speedily fell again. He was now accused of having caused 
the death of Oljaitu by a potion administered by the hands of 
his own son Ibrahim, who had been the Khan's chief bntler. A 
doctor's quarrel (xpreti injuria dicti) aided the conspirators. For 
one of the chief physicians declared that Oljaitu "a death was at^ 
trihntable to a purgative urged upon him by Rnshid strongly 
against the legitimate opinion of the physician. He and his son, 
a noble youth of sixteen, were condemned. Ibrahim was killed 
before his father's eyes, and then the old man was hewn in two. 
Hia head was home through the streets of Tabriz, and proclaimed 
as that of a blaspheming Jew, the property of his family was 
confiscated, and the Rahb' Busliidi, a qnarter which he had built, 
was given up to pillage. This was in 1318. The colleague who 
had brought destruction on Bashid sarvived in power for six years, 
and died in his bed. Abu Said then had to confcHa that affairs had 
never gone well since the removal of Bashid, and ihat he had sorely 
erred in listcniug to the calumniators. As some amends to his 


memory the king raised Ghaiassnddin, the eldest son of Bashid, 
to his fa4ber's former office. He was a man of noble liberal and 
gentle character, bat perished in the troubles which followed the 
death of Aba Said. 

What is told of Rashid's wealth, magnificence, acquirements, 
and labours, reads like a bit of French romance. In addition 
to the sciences connected with his original profession, he had 
studied agriculture, architecture, and metaphysics ; he was an 
adept in Mussulman theology and controyersy ; and was ac- 
quainted with Persian, Arabic, Mongol, Turki, and Hebrew. 
In the space of eleven months, whilst administering a great 
kingdom, he declares himself to have composed three important 
works, besides numerous minor treatises on a variety of intricate 
subjects. The Baba* Rashidi was a magnificent suburb, the build- 
ings of which were laid out with great regularity and elegance ; 
it was built entirely at his expense, as well as supplied with 
water by a canal which he caused to be cut through the rock. 
When Oljaitu founded Soltania, his minister built there also a 
quarter consisting of one thousand houses, with a mosque, a col- 
lege, a hospital, and a monastery, and all these he furnished with 
considerable endowments. In the transcription and binding of 
copies of his own works he is said to have laid out 60,000 dinars, 
equal, according to Quatremdre, to about £36,000. 

Rashid stoutly declares the integrity and justice of his own 
administration, and in this he is corroborated, not merely by 
contemporaries, but also by the authors of the next generation. 

His greatest work was called by the author the JmiiV-ut- 
Tawdnkh, " Collection of Histories*' or Historical Cyclopaedia, 
which in fact it is. It contained histories of the Tai'tar and 
Turkish tribes, of Chingiz and his race, and of the Persian khans 
in particular, including his master Oljaitu ; of various dynasties 
of Western Asia, of Mahomed and his companions, of the pro- 
phets of Israel, the Caesars and other Christian princes ; of China 
and of India. It concluded, or was intended to conclude, with a 
universal geography, but it is doubtful if this was ever written, 
though the existing portions of the work contain many geogra- 
phical notices. 

A general judgment cannot be formed of the worth of these 


copious writinga by the ualeamed, for only portions and &ag- 
mente have been translated. D'OIisBon, who makes much, use 
of Bashid's Hulnnj of the Mongolt, saya that tLoagh in some 
parts he copies from those who had gone before him, his histoiy 
is altogether the roost ooinpiete, aad the moat eminent for orderly 
arrangement and noble simplicity of stylo. Many of his facts are 
to be found in no other history ; it is the only one which gives in- 
formation aa to the ancient nations of Tartary, and the ancestry 
of Chinghiz. He was aided with information by Piilad Ching- 
sang, a great Mongol prince, who was the Great Khan's envoy 
at Tabriz, and who was said to have better knowledge of such 
subjects than any man living. To him, probably, he owed mach 
of the information in the chapters here translated. 

Even from such fragments as this, and those which Sir Heaiy 
Elliot has introduced in his Biographical Index to Hiiloriana of 
Itulia, it may be gathered that Bashid had far more correct ideas 
of geography than any of his contemporaries with whom we have 
to do in this book. This indeed might Iiave been expected from 
a man bo accomplished, and occupying a position which was not 
merely that of first minister of Persia, but that of a st-atesman 
in one great branch of an empire whose relations embraced 
nearly all Asia with a closeness and frequency of intercourse to 
which there has never been an approach in later days. 

In 183G Quatrem^re commenced the publication of a t«xt and 
translation of the Mongol History of Rashid, at the expense of 
the French government, and on a most costly and cumbrous 
scale. It went no further than the first volume, containing a life 
of Ra.shid and an account of his works, the author's own preface, 
and the history of Hulagu. 

The late Mr. Morley was engaged on an English translation 
of the whole of the JiimV-ut-'FaKi'iTikh, as may be seen from his 
letters in vols, vi and vii of the Journal of the Boyjal Aiialic 
Society. But it never was published, and I am not aware what 
progress had been made.^ 

' This eketch has been derived froja Qn&tremire, trom IKOlisaoii'a 
Preface, from Mr. Morley'B letters just mentioned, and from Sir H. 
Elliot's Index. But the loft eoema tu dmw his material from Quatre- 
mfre and Morlef . 




Cathay is a country of vast extent and cultivated in the 
higHest degree. Indeed the most credible authors assert 
that there id no country in the world to compare with it in 
culture and population. A gulf of the ocean^ of no very 
great vridth^ washes its south-eastern shores and extends 
along the coast between Manzi and Koli^^ running into 
Cathay so as to reach within (twenty) -four parasangs of 
Ehanbaligh/ and ships come to that point. The vicinity of 
the sea causes frequent rain. In one part of the country the 
cUmate is a hot one^ whilst in others it is cold. In his time 
Chinghiz Kaan had conquered the greater part of the pro- 
vinces of Cathay^ whilst under the reign of Oktaa Kaan the 
conquest of the whole was completed. Chinghiz Kaan and 
his sons, however, as we have said in relating their history, 
never took up their residence in Cathay ; but after Mangu 
Khan had transmitted the empire to Kublai Kaan, the latter 
thought it not well to remain at such a distance from a 
country so populous, and which was reckoned to surpass all 
other kingdoms and countries in the world. So he fixed 
his residence in Cathay, and established his winter quarters 
in the city of Khanbaligh, which was called in the Cathayan 
tongue Chung-tu.'* 

1 On Manzi, see note supra, p. 103. Eoli is the Chinese Eaoli, i.e., Corea 
and the Gulf is of course the Yellow Sea. 

- The reading is /our both with Ellaproth and D'Ohsson. But as the 
real distance is twenty-four, the former supposes it originally stood so. 

5 Supra, p. 127. 



This city had been the residence of the former kings. It 
waa built in ancient times according to the indications of 
the most learned astrologers, and under the most fortunate 
constellations, which have always continued propitious to it. 
But as it had been destroyed by Chinghiz Kaan, Kublai 
Kaan desired to spread his own fame by restoring it. The . 
city which he built was close to the former capital and was 
called Daidd.^ 

The wall of this city is flanked by seventeen towers, with 
intervals of a parasang between every two. The population 
of Daidu is so great that even outside of the fortifications 
there are great streets and numerous houses. And there 
are extensive gardens, planted with various kinds of fruit 
trees brought together from every quarter. In the middle 
of this city Kublai Kaan established his Ordu, in a palace of 
great extent which they call the Karxt? 

The pavements and columns of this palace are all of 
marble or of the finest cut stone. Four walls enclose and 
defend it, and there is an interval of a bow-shot from one 
wall to the nest. 

The outer court is assigned to the palace-gaards ; the 
next to the nobles, who assemble there every morning ; the 
third is occupied by the great officers of the army ; and the 
fourth by the sovereign's most intimate associates. The 
picture of tho palace which follows is reduced from one 
which was painted for his majesty Ghazan Kaan, 

[Here the oriijlnal MS. seerag to havn hail an- Uh'stratioti.^ 

Two important rivers pass by Khanbaligh and Daidu. 
After coming from the direction of the kaan's summer resi- 
dence in tho north, and Sowing near Jamjfil, they unite to 
form another river. A very large basin, like a lake in fact, 
has been dug near tho city and furnished with a slip for 

1 Supra, p. 127. 

' iToTn is a Uongol word Bl^ifying the hall in whiob the Emperor sita 
on Bt»te oocaaions. (iOapr.) 


launching pleasure boats.^ The river had fonnerly another 
channel^ and discharged itself into the gulf of the ocean^ 
which penetrated within a short distance of Kianbaligh. 
But- in the course of time this channel had become so shal- 
low as not to admit the entrance of shippings so that thej 
had to discharge their cargoes and send them up to Khan- 
baligh on pack-cattle. And the Chinese engineers and men 
of science having reported that the vessels from the pro- 
vinces of Cathay, from the capital of Machin/ and from the 
cities of Khinosai and Zaitun no longer could reach the 
metropolis, the Khan gave them orders to dig a great 
canal, into which the waters of the said river and of several 
others should be introduced. This canal extends for a dis- 
tance of forty days' navigation from Khanbaligh to Khing- 
sai and 2iaitun, the ports frequented by the ships that come 
from India and from the capital of Mdchin.^ The canal is pro- 
vided with many sluices intended to distribute the water over 
the country ; and when vessels arrive at these sluices they 
are hoisted up by means of machinery, whatever be their 
size, and let down on the other side into the water. The 
canal has a width of more than 30 ells. Kublai caused the 
sides of the embankments to be revetted with stone in order 
to prevent the earth giving way.^ Along the side of the 
canal runs the high road to Machin, extending for a space 
of forty days' journey, and this has been paved throughout, 
so that travellers and their animals may get along during 

^ The two rivers are the Sha-ho and Peho, which unite below Peking, 
afterwards bearing the latter name. The lake is that called Thdi-utchi 
or 8i hat-Uu, to the east (west) of the imperial palace. (K.) 

' Here we find the " capital of Machin" distinct froxa Eingss^. It is 
probably Chinkalan or Canton that is meant. See aupr^, p. 105. The 
anthor refers here to the extension of the Great Canal towards Peking by 

' The earthen embankments in this part of the canal were supported by 

retaining walls of coarse grey marble cut into large blocks, and cemented 

together with a kind of mortar. Those walls were about twelve feet in 

thickness, and the large stones on the top were bound together with 

damps of iron." {Staunton, ii, 392.) 




the rainy season without sticking in the mad. The two 
aides of the road are planted with willows and other shady 
trees, and no one ia allowed, whether aoldier or otherwise, 
to break branches of those trees or to let cattlo feed on the 
leaves. Shops, tavema, and villages line the road on both 
sides, so that dwelling succeeds dwelling withoat inter- 
misaion throughout the whole space of forty days' joumey._ 

The ramparts of the city of Daidu are formed of earth. 
The custom of the country in making such ramparts ia first 
to set up planks, and then to fill in moist earth between 
them, ramming it hard with great wooden rammers ; they 
then remove the planks, and the earth remains forming a 
solid wall. The Kaan, in hia latter years, ordered stone to 
be brought in order to face the walls, but death intervened, 
and the execution of his project remains, if God permit, for 
Timur Eaan. 

The Kaan'a intention was to build a palace like that of 
Daj'du at Kaiminpu, which is at a distance of fifty parasangs, 
and to reside there.^ There are three I'oads to that place 
fi^m the winter-residence. The first, reserved for hunting 
matches, ia allowed to be used only by ambassadors.* The 
second road passes by the city of Cbu-CHU,^ following the 
banks of the Sanghin river, where you see great plenty of 
grapes and other kinds of fruit.* Near the city just named 

> Eoimingiu, the Eai'ping^hoftheChiiieseandtheCleineiifd (probalily 
miswrittan for Cbemenb) of M. Polo, is at the place thirty-aix leagues 
beyond the Great Wall, where Kublui. as here related, establlBhod his 
summer residence, changing the nunie of the town to Shangta (mijiro. 
p. 134). 

' Lord Macartney, on his way from Zhehol, found a mad reserved only 
for the emperor. Another, parallel to it, was for the attendants of the 
emperor, and on this the ambaaaador waa oUowed to travel. All other 
trnvellers were eioluded, and had to find a track where they could. 
(Staunton, ii, 279.) 

' Tsocheu ii a town a abort diatonee to the aonlh-wost of Peking, on 
the other ddo of the river named, tlie Oeogui or Qiugiu of Polo. 

The Sanghin river i» that otherwise called Lu-Vou and Tungtiiig, a 


there is another called Se^kau^ most of the inhabitants of 
which are natives of Samarkand^ and have planted a num- 
ber of gardens in the Samarkand style. The third road 
takes the direction of the Pass of Siking,^ and after tra- 
versing this yon find only prairies and plains abounding in 
game until you reach the city of Kaiminfu^ where the sum- 
mer palace is. Formerly the court used to pass the summer 
in the vicinity of the city of Chiichii, but afterwards the 
neighbourhood of Kaiminfu was preferred, and on the east- 
em side of that city a karsi or palace was built called 
Lanoxin, after a plan which the Kaan had seen in a dream, 
and retained in his memory.' 

The philosophers and architects being consulted gave 
their advice as to the building of this other palace. They 
all agreed that the best site for it was a certain lake encom- 
passed with meadows near the city of Kaiminfu, but for this 
it was necessary to provide a dry foundation. Now there is 
a kind of stone found in that country which is used instead 
of fire-wood ; so they collected a great quantity of that stone 
and likewise of wood,^ and filled up the lake and its springs 
with a mass of bricks and Ume well shaken up together, run- 
ning over the whole a quantity of melted tin and lead. The 
platform so formed was as high as a man. The water that 
was thus imprisoned in the bowels of the earth in the 

few miles to the west of Peking, over which stood the bridge which 
Marco Polo describes (i. 34 of Murray). The Venetian calls the river 
Pnlisangan, which looks very like the Persian PuUi-sanghin or Stone 
bridge, as Marsden suggested. But as the naune Sangkan-ho (said to 
mean Biver of Mulberry trees) is also recognized in Chinese books, the 
origin of the latter part of Marco's appellation seems doubtful {Kl, and 

' Siking, Sengling, or Sengking. The hills from which the Sangkan-ho 
emerges are called in Elaproth's map Shy-king-Bh&n. This is perhaps 
the name in the text. 

' D*OhBson has read this passage differently : " Kublai caused a palace 
to be built for him east of Eaipingfu, called Lengten ; but he abandoned 
it in consequence of a dream." 

* I.e., to bum bricks and lime. 


ponrae of time forced outlets in suDdry places, and thns 
fountaiiia were produced. On the foundation formed aa has 
been described a palace in the Chinese taste was erected, 
and enclosed by a marble wall. From this wall starts an 
outer fence of wood which surrounds the park, to prevent 
any one from entering, and to preserve the game. Inside 
the city itself a second palace was built, about a bowshot 
from the first ; but the Kaan generally tabes up his resi- 
dence in the palace outside the town. 

In this empire of Cathay there are many considerable 
cities ; each has its appropriate title marking a particular 
rank in the scale. The relative precedence of governors is 
indicated by that of the cities which they administer, so 
that there is no need to specify their dignities in the diploma 
of appointment, or to enter into curious questions of pre- 
cedence. You know at once [by the rank of the cities to 
which they are attached] which ought to make way for 
another or to bow the knee before him. These ranks or 
titles are as follows; 1 . Khig ; 2. Du ; 3. Fu; 4. Chu ; o. . . . ; 
6. Kiun; 7. IJlmt.; 8. Cliin; 9. Swn.' 

The first of these titles designates a vast tract of country, 
say like Rt'ivi, Persia, or Baghdad. The second is applied 
to a province, which is the seat of an imperial residence. 
The others diminish in importance in like proportion ; thus 
the seventh indicates small cities, the eighth towns, the 

' 1. King, intporial oapital, as in Peking, Nanking ; 2. 7^, court or im- 
perial residence, sa Taitu, Shaugtu; 3. Fu, & city of the first daas, oi 
rather the department of which it is the heeul ; Chea, a city of the second 
clasB, orthedistriot of which it is the head; E. This is blank in Klaproth'B 
original ; Ton Ham. read it Qtir ; perhaps it was Lii, which was a special 
BubdiviHion in China under the Mongols, rendered by Pauthier eircuil : I 
do not understand its relation to the others, but Dahalde says it was some- 
what less than a Fu ; S. Kiiin, a chief military garrison ; 7. Stan, a cit)' 
of the third order, or sub-diatrict, of which it is tlie head ; 8. Chin, a small 
town; 9. Tcun, a village. The custom of naming the lUgaitary by the 
title belonging to the class of district under him still prevails in China ; 
" as if," says Pauthier, " we were to call our Prefects D<i>ar(ni«ftl( and our 
Sub-Prefecta Arrondiatemmh" («. P., p. lovii). 


ninth villagea and hamlets. Ports and landing places are 
called Batu} 

A similar classification of governors according to the rank 
of their cities does not exist anywhere else, but the empire 
of Cathay is quite remarkable for the system with which it 
is orgfanised. 


The great princes who have the rank of Wazfrs among 
those people have the title of Ghingsang ;* commanders in 
chief of the army have that of Thaifu ; and chiefs of ten 
thousand soldiers are called Wanshi.^ 

Those Princes Wazlrs and chief officers of the council who 
are either Tajiks,* native Cathayans, or Ighiirs, have the title 
of Fanchan} Strictly speaking, the council of state is com- 

> Mongol pTonunciation of Matheu, a jetty^ and hence a port. See 
tupra, p. 126. 

' This title Chingsang represents the Chinese Ching-tiang, a minister 
of state. The name of Pulad Chingsang, the Great Khan's ambassador 
to the court of the Persian Khan, occurs frequently in D'Ohsson, who also 
mentions that the title of Chingsang was conferred on Bucai, the minister 
of the Persian Khan Argun, by Kublai (iv, 18). It is also the title which 
Marco Polo applies to Kublai's great general Bayam (or Baian) Cinq- 
«m, though he strangely alleges this to mean Bayam with the Hundred 
Eyes (i. 62). Full particulars regarding the imperial cabinet in the time 
of the Mongols will be found in Pauthier's Mare Pol, p. 829 seq. The 
number of the Chingsiang or chief ministers varied from two to four, 
and on one occasion there was but one. 

' Wangshi, from Wan, ten thousand. The termination is Mongol ac- 
cording to Klaproth. Thai/u looks like a genuine Chinese title, though I 
do not find it in the books on China. It is mentioned by the merchant 
Suleiman (Dai/il) as the title of the governor of a first-rate city (ReUUion 
des Voyages, i, 37). In the late wars against the Taeping I have seen the 
title Fu'tai applied to the Imperial commander. 

* Of Persian race. 

^ This word is read by Klaproth Kdbjdn, and by Von Hammer T&njdn. 
Pauthier says it should be read Minjdn, as the Mongol pronunciation of 


posed of four CMiujuaitg or great officers, and of fonr Fan- 
chdn, taken from the nations of tlio Tajiks, CathayanSj 
Ighiire, and Arkfinn.^ These latter act as inspectors on 
behalf of the council. 

The whole gradation of dignitaries and officers of state is 
as follows : — 

1. The Chingafing or Wazirs. 

2. The great officers of the army, who make their reports 
to the Chings^ng, however exalted thi;ir rank may be. 

3. The FaiK-Mn or associated members of the Council 
of State, taken from the different nations specified. 

4. Yer Jing or first class Jin^. 
6. Ur Jing or second class Jiiuj. 

6. Sam- Jing or third class Jin(j.^ 

7. Semi(?) 

8. Sisan Balji'm. These are book-keepers and of inferior 


In the time of Kublai Xaan the Cliings&ng chosen from 
among the princes were Haitun Noylin, Uchaar, Oljai Tar- 
khan, and Ddshiman. Haituu Noyan is now no more, but 
the others remain in office as the Chingsfing of Timur Kadn, 

the Chinese original Ping-ckang. Bnt this is nrbitrary, and we find in 
D'OhasoQ the real form of the word as used by Kashid, vir.. Fanchdn, 
which differs only bj dote from Klaproth's Kabjan, It is also written 
Panehin by Wa^aaf, and \ij Seanang Setzen the Uongol hiatori&n, not 
Minjin bat Bmgjing. (See ffOftsson, ii, 530, 636-7.) 

According to Fauthier'B statement the normal composition of the 
Cooncil of State wan of two Chingaiang or chief ministers ; four Ping- 
chang. ministers of the second degree ; four minister aasesaors, called 
Tm-ehing and Tio-(hins; and two reporting oounciUora, called Thsang. 
thing, the whole nambor making up the twelve barons of Marco Polo. 

* This is a. word by which the Mongols dcaignnted the Neatorian Chrig- 
tiuis with whom the; had relations. Its origin is very obscure, bnt from 
what Marco Polo says of the term (Argan) aa elacidated in a learned and 
interesting note by Pauthier, it would soam to have meant properly a 

' These three ranks correspond to the. Yeu-ching, Tso-ehing, and 
Thsaug-ching of the Chinese records (Panlhier). 


DNDEK THE M0NlK)L8. 265 

Formerly tlie office of Fanclidii was only bestowed on 
.thayaas, but it is now held also by Mongols, Tiijika, and 

lliB chief Fanchan is called Su Fanch&a, or the Select 
Fanehan. In oar day under tlio reign of Timiir Kalin the 
chief of the whole niunber ie B&y£n Fanch&n,' the son of 
the Sajad Nasiruddin, who was the son of Sayad Ajal, and 
vho bears the same title. Tlio second, Omar Fanch&n, ia 

lo a Mongol. The thii-d, Et«S Fanchfin, is an Ighiir. Before 
the office was filled by Lfijau Fant-hdnj brother of his 
Eicellency the Su Fanchan ; his son is called Karmfinuh, 
The fourth Paighanilsh Fanchdu, whose place was formerly 
occupied by Timur Fanchan, is an Ighfir, 

Ah the £aan generally reBides at the capital he has erected 

place for the sittings of the Great Council, called Sin<j. 
.ccording to established custom a lieutenant is appointed 
%0 the inspection and charge of the do:jrs, and examines all 
Ibe drafts of memorials^ that are presented. 

The name of the first tribunal is Iti, All the proceedings 
are copied ami sent with the memorials to the tribunal called 
Liisah, which is of higher rank than the other. Thence all 
is earned to the tribunal called Khalifun, and thence to the 
fourth, called Kuyrhi. This is the board which has charge 
of all that relates to the posts and despatches. The three 

' The Sftjrod Ajal, a native of Bokhara, was finanpfi miniBter to Kublai, 
and stood high in hia favour. He died in 1270. Hie aoa Nusiruddfn was 
goTemor of Korajang (infra, pp. 269, 373). The grandson here apoken 
of, Abubakr, aamamed Bafan Panchiin, was also ministor of flnaiLce, 
and was called b; liis gcandfather'a title of Sayad Ajal, which was 
bighl; respected by the Mongols (D'Ohtaon, ii, 467, G07-8). At laoet two 
other BaytuiB are notable in the history of Kublai's dynaatj. The name 
Bman already appcare ae that of an Avar chief in the tiine of the Einpeior 

* The original word is here Balargh-ii, which puzzled Klaproth. It is ei- 
plained by Fauthier {Slarc Pol, 331) &am Schmidt's Mongol Dictionary, 
"Erril, Jicmoire peu ntt, avec dei ratura ou phraaa retranofu'ei." He adds 
hat still in China all niemoriivU, etc., for presentation to the emperor or 
bis coixncil, ore liubuilttcd t« particular officers who oortect their stylo. 

L ^ bis coixncil, 



first mentioned tribunals are under the orders of the last ; 
and from it business is transferred to the fifth, which bears 
thenaraeofii"Jt7i/iT/i, and which has everything that concerns 
the army under its charge. Lastly, the business arrives at 
the sixth board, which is called Slughtak.' All ambassadors 
and foreign merchants when arriving and departing have to 
present themselves at this office, which is the one which 
issues orders in council and passports. In our days this 
oSSce is entirely under the management of the Amir D&shi- 

When matters have passed these six boards, they are re- 
mitted to the Council of State, or Shuj, where they are dis- 
cussed, and the decision is issued after being verified by the 
Klint Anyvsht or "fingor-signature" of all who have a right 
to a voice in the council. This "finger-signature" indicates 
that the act, to which it is attached in attestation, has been 
discussed and definitively approved by those whose mark has 
thus been put upon it. 

It is usual in Cathay, when any contract is entered into, 
for the outhne of the fingers of the parties to be traced 
upon the document. For experience shows that no two 
individuals have fingers precisely alike. The hand of the 
contracting party is set upon the back of the paper contain- 
ing the deed, and lines are then traced round his fingers up 
to the knuckles, in order that if ever one of them should 
deny his obligation this tracing may be compared with his 
fingers and he may thus be convicted. 

After the matter has thus passed through all the boards, 
and has been decided on by the supreme authority, it is sent 
back to the tribunal before which it first came. 

The dignitaries mentioned above are expected to attend 

' These ara the six boards of itdoiiniat ration whiuh still eiiat ia Cbina. 
tinder the names of King-Pu, Hins-Pu, etc. The titloe giien b; Rashid 
do not BBen to attempt an; imitatioQ of the Chiaesa names, and ore pro- 
bably those in use ftroong the Mdhomedans. The third board from the 
top, colled rinifjiii bj the Cliinefie, hns still mithoritj over military nifnirB. 


daily at the Sing^ and to make themselves acquainted with 
all that passes there. And as the business to be transact^ed 
is very extensive, the .Chingsang take their part in the 
writing that has to be done as well as the other members of 
the council whose positions we have detailed. Each takes 
his place, according to his degree, with a kind of table and 
writing materials before him. Every great officer has his 
seal and distinctive bearings. It is the duty of certain of 
the clerks to write down the names of all who attend 
daily, in order that a deduction may be made from the 
allowances of those who are absent. If any one is habitu- 
ally absent from the Council without valid excuse, he is dis- 

It is the order of the Kaan that the four Chingsang make 
all reports to him. 

The Sing of Khanbaligh is the most eminent, and the 
building is very large. All the acts and registers and 
records of proceedings of several thousands of years are 
there preserved. The officials employed in it amount to 
some two thousand. 

Sing do not exist in all the cities, but only in the capitals 
of great provinces, which, in fact, form kingdoms ranking 
with Baghdad, Shiraz, Iconium, and Rum. 

In the whole empire of the Kaan there are twelve of these 
Sing ; but that of Khanbaligh is the only one which has 
Chingsang among its members. The others have only dig- 
nitaries bearing the title of Shijangi to preside over them, 
aided by four Fanchan, and other members of council who 
have titles corresponding to their dignities. 

The places where the Twelve Sing are established are, 
according to their respective precedence, the following : 

Ist Smg ; that of Khanbaligh or Daidu. 2nd. That of 
the country of the Churche^ and the Solangka which is 

* The Churche are the Tuch^ or Niuch^ of the Chinese, the ancestors 
of the modem Manchus. Solangka is the Mongol name of the northern 






establislied in the city of Mdnchii, tbe greatest town of 
Solangka conntiy. Ala-uddin, the eon of Huaamuddin of 

Almdiigh, and Hassan Jujak are in anthority there. Zrd. 
That of KoLi' and IlKOLr, a separate kingdom, the chief of 
which has the title of Wang (or king). Kublai gave his 
daughter in marriage to this prince. 4th. Namking. This 
is a great city belonging to the province of Cathay, and 
sitnatcd on the banks of the Earauiuran. It was once 
the residence of the (old) kings of Cathay.* 6th. Sdkchu, 
a city situated on the frontier of Cathay towards tbe Turks,' 
6fh. The city of KaiNOSAi, formerly the capital of the king- 
dom of Manzi. Ala-uddin Fanchan, his son Saifuddin, and 
Taghdjar Noyan Batu Kerkhdhi, are its three chiefs. Omar 
Khwaja son of Sai', and Bik Khwaja Thusi are the Fan- 
chins.* 7th. FrcHu.* This is a city of Manzi. The Sing 
was formerly located at Zaitun, but afterwards established 
here, where it still remains. The chiefs there are Kan, the 
brother of Dishiman, and HhiilA the brother of B&y£n Fan- 
chan. Zaitun is a great shipping-port, and the commandant 
there is Boha-addin Kand&ri. 8//t. LuKranr, a city of Ktanzi, 
on the frontier of Tangkiit.' 9ih. Lijmkalj, called by the 

part of Corea, and the country throogh which flows tbe OhirinHula or 
upper part of the Sungari river. (Klap.) The Solangns are mentioned by 
Bnbruquig, who saw their envoys at the court of Sara Korum. The "city 
of Munchn" ia probably connected with the name of the JTanchu tribes. 

' Kaoli is the Chinese name of Coreo. Koli and Akoli is not explained ; 
it is probably one of tliose doable jingles which Orientals are fond of 
inventing, like Cfiin and MaeKin. 

' Namking w not our modern Nanliing (which is not on the Caramuran 
or Hoang-ho), but Khaifungfu in Honan, which was the Nanghiu of 
Polo, the NaB-JtiBii or " Southern Capital" of the Kin dynasty of Cathay 
or Northern China. {Klap.) 

' Sujtchii, ia Sucheu io Kansu province, towards the Great D^ert. Wa 
find it called Sukchu by Shah Bukh's ambassadors, and Sewchitk by 
Anthony Jenkinson. 

' Of KhingBai (Quinsai, Cansa) we have already heard and shall hear 
more. Note how many of these provincial governors are Mahomedans. 

'• Of Fucbeu and Zwtun we have also heard in Odorio. 

* One expects here the province of Siechnen, which ia on the borders of 
Tangut. But the capital was Ohinjlit/ii (see infra, p. 2TS). 


merchants Chinkalan. This is a city of immense size on 
the sea-coast to the south of Zaitun^ and has a great haven. 
Tukai N&m and Buknaddin Abishdri Fanchan are the chief 
officers there.^ 10th. Kaeajanq. This used to be an inde- 
pendent kingdom^ and the Sing is established at the great 
city of Yachi. All the inhabitants are Mahomedans. The 
chiefs are Noydn Takin and Yakdb Beg, son of Ali Beg the 
Baliich.2 llth. Kenjangpu, one of the cities of Tangkdt. 
Ananda the son of Niimdgh&n, resides in this country, at 
the place called Fanchdn Ndiir, where he has built a palace.* 
I2th. Machd or Kamkhu ? is also a city of Tangkdt, to 
which immense territories are attached. Akhtaki (or Achiki) 

1 On Chinkalan (Canton) also see OdoHe, p. 105. The other name Xum- 
halt is doabtfol as to reading. Von Hammer read it Kunki. 

^ Ear%jang is Yonan. In Marco Polo the modem Yunan is divided 
into two provinces, the capital of one of which is Jaci (Yachi) as here> 
and the capital of the other called by the same name as the province. In 
Murray's edition the former province is called Caraian, and the lafiter 
Karasan, whilst in Pauthier's publication fiK)m old French MSS. both pro- 
vinces are called Caraian, and the name of Earazan does not occur. But 
as we see that Karajang was the real name of the province among the 
Mahomedans^ it is more likely that Caraian was nuswritten for Earazan 
than vice versA. Ellaproth indeed says that Yunan is still called Karaian 
by the people of central Asia, but gives no authority. The connection of 
this name with the Karens of Burma is, I suspect, as unfounded as M. 
Pauthier's derivation of the Talains of Peg^ from Tali-fu. According to 
Pauthier Yachi is Li-Eiangfu in the north-west of Yunan, and the other 
capital (Earaian or Earazan) is TaU-fa. But this makes Marco's ponent 
bear the interpretation of south, that being nearly the direction from one 
city to the other. In another passage of his great work (quoted by 
Quatrem^e, p. xc-xcv) Bashid describes Earajang as a country of vast 
extent, situated between Tibet, Tangut, the Mountains of India, Mon- 
golia, Cathay, and the country of the Zar dand4n or Gilt-Teeth, of whom 
Polo also speaks. " The Chinese called it Dai-liu (Tali ?), the Hindus 
* Kandar, and the Persians Kandahar" 

' This is Kingchao, now Singanfu in Shensi, the Quengian of Polo and 
Eansan of Odoric (supra, p. 148). According to Elaproth it was not 
Numughan, the fourth son of Eublai, but Mangala, his third son, who 
ruled in Eenchangfu, and Ananda was the son of the latter. He suc- 
ceeded his father Mangala in 1280, and was put to death in 1308, having 
claimed the throne on the death of Timur Ehan. Marco himself men- 
tions Mangala as ruling in Eenchangfu as king. This is strictly cor- 
rect, for he had the Chinese title of Wang or king. 





dwella tliere. The Amir Khwaja called Yaaam is chief 

' I suspect the true reading hare sliould bo Karachi, the city of Kan- 
cheu in the proviace of Eausu, which Hbjco describes under the name of 
Canpicion, " chief and capital of the whole province of Taugut." 

Tha corruct division of the empire into the Twelve Sing is tlios given 
by Pauthier and Klaproth from the annals al the Yuen dynaaty : 

I. The Central Province, embracing the modem Shantuug, Shansi, 
Pecheli, Hoiiaii north of the Hoang Ho, and part of Mongolia; capitel, 
Tatti or Peking, ii. Province of the Northern Mountaing; tap., Holin 
or Kabakobuii. ni. Liaotanq. embraoing the modem Liaotnng, and a 
good deal more to the north. Cap. of same name. iv. Eohan, oom- 
priaing theremaJnderof the modem province, with that part of Eiangnnn 
which ia north of the Kiang, and the greater part of Tlukwang north 
of the Riang. Cap., Fionliang, now EnAiruNorn. v. ttHHuai, com- 
priaing the modem province with the greater part of Kanau to the right 
of the Hoong-bo, and part of the Ortu territory. The capital woa King- 
choo, now SiNOAHFn. vi. SzBcsiTEN. embraced olao ports of Hukwailg 
and Kweieheu. Cap., CsiNUTtl. vil. Kanbuk, cap., Kancheu. viii, 
Yunnan, the modem province with part of Kweieheu, and parts of Tibet 
and Bnnnft. Cap., Chungking, hod., Yd-nnanfu. tx. Kiahochh, em- 
bracing Chekiang. KiaDgnon south of the Kiaug, and the eaatera port of 
Kiangsi. Cap., Hanqohkufp. called also KiNaaaK, or Capita], i. 
KiAMOHi, cap. Lunghing, now Nanohanofu. xi. Htjkwano, cap., 
WncHANO (Klaproth aaja Changahafu). xn. Chinq-tcno, which com- 
priaed the kingdom of Corea. A table will better show the discrepanciee 
between Baahid and the Chinese otGcial atatements. 

The j 

i Ydi 

Em- IE 

from Pauthier. From Raahid. 

.. Central Province (Tatu) . 1. Khanhaligh or Daidu 

:. Northern Uountaina (Mongolia) 

I. Liooyang (including MoDCbnria) 2, Churchc and Solanka, i.e. Man- 
4. Nanking [ehuria 

11. Kei^angfu 
8. Lukinfii? 

12. KamcLu 
10. Eamjang 

6, KhingBai 
J 9. Chinkalon (Canton) or Lumkali 
3. Kooli (Corea) 

I. Kiangsi (cap., Lungbing) 

.. Hukwong 

1. Chingtong (Corea) 

Fokien or Fuchu was, previoua to 128C, and again at a later period, a 
whieh accounts for Raahid'a making it one of the 

separata provinoe. 


As all these cities are widely apart from one another^ 
there is in each a prince of the blood or other prince of 
eminent rank^ who commands the troops and governs the 
people^ administers public affairs and maintains the laws 
and regulations. The Sing of each kingdom or province is 
established in the chief city^ and every Sing is like a little 
town in itself^ so numerous are the buildings for the use of 
the various public officers^ and for the multitude of attend- 
ants and slaves attfKshed to the establishment to do petty 
duties under the chiefs of the subordinate offices. It is the 
custom in that country to remove delinquents and criminals 
from their houses^ families and property of every description, 
and to employ them in carrying loads, drawing carts, or 
moving stones for building, according to the sentence passed 
upon each. 

The gentlemen attached to the princes and other persons 
of respectability, receive each the honours which are as- 
signed to their respective ranks, and of the ranks there are 
several degrees. 

As for the history of former emperors since time imme- 
morial we propose to relate it specially in the Appendix to 
this work, for in this place we must be brief.^ 

Towards the south-east everything is subject to the Kaan 
except an isle of the ocean called Chipanqu,^ which is not 
far from the coast of Churche and Kaoli. The people of that 
country are of short stature, with great bellies and heads 
sunk between their shoulders. Straight eastward all is sub- 
ject to him that lies between the sea-coast and the frontier 
of the Kirghiz.* 

Twelve Sing. Eiangsi also oomprised Canton prior to 1293 (at least so 
I understand Elaproth). His making Suohen oxi the desert frontier a 
separate province is perhaps a mistake altogether. 

^ AU that follows is from D'Ohsson only. 

' The Cipangu, Zipangu of Polo, Japan, from the Chinese name JU 
pankwe (" kingdom of the Rising Sun," Pauth.) 

^ There seems to be here some indication of an idea of the coast 


To the HonUi-west of Manzi, on the coast betwoon the 
countiy of Kowelaki and Zaitun, there is a thick forest, 
whore the son of the Emperor of Manzi has taken refuge, 
but he is without resources and lives in indigence,^ 

To the west is the country of Kafchk-kue.^ It is difficult 
of access, and is bounded by Earajang-, by a part of India, 
and by the sea. It lias a sovereign of its own, and includes 
in ita territoiy the two cities of Lujak(?) and Jessam{?). 
Tugan, who commands at Kueliufd and is in occupation of 
Manzi, is also charged to watch the proceedings of these 
hostile people. Ho made an expedition into their country 
and got possession of the cities on the coast, but after his 
rule had lasted a week the forces began to come forth of a 
sudden, as it were from the sea, from the forests, from tho 
mountains, and fell upon tho soldiers of Tugan, who wore 
engaged in plundering. Tugan made his escape, and he 
still resides at Kuelinfu. 

To the north-west is the frontier of Tibet and of the 
or ChiEa and Eastern Asia as ranoing uieit and eatl rather tliaii Dortb 
and south, aad I tbink there aio traces of the same both in Polo and 
Odoric. The latter always goes verms Oricnten till ho reachea Cam- 

' I BUBpect Kowelaln here is the satne name that nas pret-ioasly read 
bamkali aa a synonyme of the Sin-talan or Canton province. The two 
iiut representatives of the Sung- dynasty did take roruge on the shores of 
that province, and there the laat survivor perished in 1279. This seems 
to show tliat Roebid sometimea wrote Irom old information. 

' D'OliBson sng^esta that this should be road Kanchekue, and that it is 
the Cangigu of Marco. But the mention of the sonooast seems fatal to 
this, as Polo says specifically that Cangign was far trata the sea. In- 
deed there can be no qaestion that Kafchekue is Lower Tung-king, Kiao- 
fhi-ktci of the Chinese, D'Ohason's own History contains an account of 
three eipeditions into Tunking by Tugan (a younger son of Koblaij/in 
1285, 12«7 and 1288. The last ended very diwiatrously, the king of 
Tnngkiiij following his reti-cnt into Kvangii and beating hira there. 
Tugan was disgraced and forbidden the coflrt (ii, *15, «9). Euelinfd 
would therefore appear to be the present capital of Kwangsi so-called, 
and is perhaps tho proper reading for the LmtiiiAi of p. S68, though there 
ineorrently placed. 

The two names of cities are road by Quatrom^ro Lichee and Ilninm 
IRathid. p. xov)i he takes them for llaman (readinir Mai?ioTii) and Liiicheu 
in the peninsula nppostte that ishmd. 


Goldbs-Tebth,' Uere there are no enemies excepting on 
point occupied by Katlugh Ehwaja auil hie array. 

"Zar-danddii" (Pem.), the name used lite 
I B tranalation of 

n by Polo tor this pi-oi>lc, 
Kin^hi by wliioh the; were known to the 
Chinese. Polo places them five days ponenJ or weat of the dty of Caruiiui 
(or Comian of Bome eopiee), which Pauthier identifies with Tali-fu. Uu 
•scribes to tbem the eccentric custom, found among varioaa wild races 
ient and modem, which sends the huiband to keep his bod for a season 
the wife has given hirth to a child, and fixes their chief city at 
m (Tung-chan^). Foeaages nearly but not quite identical with one 
anotber wbich Qoatrem&ro has quoted from the history of Denateti and 
from another part of the Jami'-tit-Tavidr(kh of Hiuhid speak of this 
people. "To the south-west of Cathay," they aay in aubstanoe, "lies 
Karajarts, an eitenaive country lying between Tihot, Timgut, the moun- 
tains of India, Mongolia, Cathay, and the Country of the Qald Teeth. 
The Indians call it Kandar, and we (PersianB, etc.) Kandahar, the Chinese 
IX»[iti (Tali ?) The king is called SlaJuira or Great Frinoe ; the capital 
Taehi (Jaei of Polo). Among its people part are block (whence £arn. 
Jang oz Black Jang), part white, called Chugan-Jnng at White Jang"., .It 
is not improbable that the Kam-Jong and Chagan-Jang (compare with 
Karaian of Polo) represent Black Shins and White Sh^ini, and that the 
OoloiuB refer not to complexion but to dress. We always knew the Shana 
at, Amorapura by their coats of bUick otilica. " North-weat of China is the 
frontier of Tibet and of the Oald'Teelh, who lie betwcun Tibet and Kara- 
jong," These people cover their to«th with a gold cose which they take 
off when they cat." There is another passage of Eaehid among Elliot's 
which this people is mentioned, a passage which would bo 
if the names were not so mangled. Speaking of MaiLbar, 
the historian says that two wsys to China diverge thence. The first is 
by 5iiranilt|> (Ceylon), Ldm&ri, the country of Sumatra, and Darband Nvia, 
» dependency of Java, Chanipa and Eaitam (qu. Hainan P), subject to the 
Kaan, and so to Mahachin (Canton), 2ui(un, and Khinid, " With reapect 
to the Other road which leads from Maabar by way of Cathay, it commences 
ftt the dty of Cabal (read Kail), then proceeds to the city of Ooiji and 
Sahj^ dependencies of Cabal, then to Taml\fatan, then Karoramawdr, 
then to Hawardwun, than to Dakli, then to B^aldr, which from of old is 
■ntgetit to Dehli, and at this time one of the consins of the sultan of 
DetJi has conquered it and eatabllshed himself, having revolted against 
tlie saltan. His army conaista of Turks. Beyond that is the country of 
Katbaa, then Vman, then Zabdandan, bo called because the people have 
gold in their teeth. They puncture their hands and colour them with 
indigo. They eradicate their beards so that they have not a sign of 
tuiir on their faces. They oi'e all subject to the Eaan. Thence you 
ftt the borders of Tibet, whore they cat raw meat and worship 
images, imd have no shame reapeuting their wives (bcc Poiu, i, a, W). 

^^B images, ai 




However, the enemy ia shut off from the empire in this 
quarter by high mouDtaina which he cannot penetrate. 
Nevertheless some troops have been posted to watch this 

To the north-north -west a desert of forty days' extent 
divides the states of Kublai from those of Kaidu and Dua.' 
This frontier estonda thirty days from east to west. From 
point to point are posted bodies of troops under the orders 
of princes of the blood or other pcnorala, and they often 
come to blows with the troops of Kaidu. Five of thoso 
corps are oantonod on tho verge of the Desert ; a sixth Jn 
the territory of Tangut, near Chtigiin Naur (White Lake) ; 

The air is ao impure that if thej ate their dinner after noon the; 
would all die. They hoil ten and cat winnowed barley." It ia <ilear 
enougli that the aeoond part of this passage indicates a route to Chitia 
from Coromandel bj Bengtvl and the Indo-Chinese conntries, bnt the 
names have been desperately corrupted. Tamtifatan looks very like a 
misreading of Bimii/nlan, the port of Bimlipalam, on the coaat of tho 
N. Circors; and BijaldT ia certajnlj Bengala, qaasi -independent under 
Naair-uddin, fion of the Emperor Balbaa, and hia family. Eatban may 
juat posaibly have been a mispronanciation of Hubang, i.e. Silhet (see 
Ibn Batuta in/ro) ; whilst Oman is probably the Chinese U-man or Ho 
man, the name applied to one of the wild tribes of the Dpper Irawadi re 
gion. Ou^ju and Sal^u look like Chinoae names, so entirely out oFplac< 
that I suspect interpolation by some one misuuderatanding the route 
the remaining names I have tried in vain to solve in any conaiatent 

Fautbier quotes paesages from the Chinese Annals showing that thi 
olHco of "Direction of Frontier Protection" and tho like for the Gold. 
Teeth territory waa oatabliahcd in Kublai's reign, at or near Tali. But 
it BBoma to me that in his map ho places this people too far to the south, 
and that it ia pretty clear &om all the pasaages just quoted, that they 
are to be placed at leaat as high as lat. 2i° — 25=, corresponding in posi- 
tion generally to the eiiating Singphoi. (Quairenire's Sashid. pp. 
Inivi-icvi; EHioi, p. 46; Pauthier't Polo, pp. 391-2, a97 leq.) 

' See ante, p. 195. For a time at laaat there were two Mongol dynastioa 
in Central Asia, between the frontier of tho Great Khan and the Caapiau. 
Kaidu, great grandson of Chinghiz through hia second son and Buoconaiir 
Okfcodoi, and who Jiaputud the siiKuminty with Kublai through life, re- 
presented one of thuae. whilst that ,if Ijhagiitai waa tho other. Soo a 
not4: oppuniied t.^ Ibn Batutu (iii/ra) '- On the iliatory of Iho Kbaas of 


a seventh in the vicinity of Karakhoja, a city of the Uigurs,^ 
which lies between the two states and maintains neutrality. 
This frontier ends at the mountains of Tibet. The great 
Desert cannot be crossed in summer^ because of the want 
of water ; in winter they have only snow-water to drink. 

^ There are at least two Lakes in Mongolia called by the name of 
Chagan-Nor ; one the Cyagannor or Ciangcmor of Polo where Knblai had 
a palace, not far from Shangta (supra, p. 134) ; the other lying north-east 
of Kamil, aboat lat. 45® 45' and east long. 96®, which appears to be that 
here intended, as the first is fax from Tangat. Karakhoja is still a town 
of Eastern or Chinese Turkestan, the position of which is indicated by 
Timkowski as south of Torfan, and one of the districts of that province 
(i, 386; see also BUier, vii, 432, 485). It seems to have continued to be 
the frontier of the Chinese rule a century later under the Ming ; for 
Shah Bukh's ambassadors, on their arrival at Karakhoja, or a short dis- 
tance east of it, met the first Chinese officials, who took down a list of 
the party (Not. et Exir,, xiv, pt. i, 389). In another passage of Bashfd, 
quoted by Quatrem^re, he says : " When you descend below the Chagan 
Naur, you are near the city of Karakhoja in the Uigur country, where 
they have good wine (16., p. 235). 




• IV. 






The original of the carioas work from which the extracts in the 
following pages are derived, was first published as an appendix 
to an anon jmoas book called *' A TrecUise on the Decima and the 
varUms other burdens imposed on the community of Florence ; also 
on the curreticy and comm>erce of the Florentines up to the Sixteenth 
Century. (In four vols., 4to.) Lisbon and Lncca, 1766-66." 
(Delia Deeimaj etc.). The imprint is fictitious,* as the work was 
really published at Florence, and the author was Gian Francesco 
Pagnini del Ventura of Volterra.^ 

The work of Pegolotti occupies the whole of the third volume. 
It was taken by Pagnini from a MS., apparently unique, in the 
Riecardian Library at Florence, called by the author (Libro di 
Divisamenti di Paesiy etc.) **The Book of the Descriptions of Coun~ 
tries j**^ etc., though Pagnini gave it the more descriptive title of 

1 Canonico Moreni, Bibliografia StorieO'Bagionata della Toscana, ii^ 
p. 144-5. Pagnini was bom at Yolterra in 1715, and studied law at 
Borne. He filled a sacoession of considerable offices connected with 
Finance and Agricolture under the Tuscan Government, and died in 
1789. There is a monument and bust erected by his Mends in the cloister 
of S. Annunziata and S. Pier Magg^ore at Florence. Besides the work 
named above he published in cooperation with Angelo Tavanti (1751) a 
translation of Locke upon Interest and the Value of Money, with a dis- 
sertation of his own on the True Price of Things, on Money, and on the 
commerce of the Bomans. He also published letters on agricultural 
subjects, and was the editor of Applausi Poetici per la gloriosa Esaltazione 
aW Augusta Trono Imperiale di Francesco III, Qranduca di Toscana,** 
Pirenze, 1745. (See Scritt. Class, Itdl. di Economia PoUiica, Pte. Modema, 
tom. II ; and Moreni, u.s.) 

^ I imagine this to be the proper translation of Divisamenti here, as 
Marco Polo's book is in some copies termed " Divisement des DiversiUs,** 
etc. (Pauihier, p. 33). 


^p»,^ma*t Am ■■iiiii'jI—iJi^^g^WI 


htm tnmmrriktii by tte h— J of K^yi ^ SieoUo di Frsco- 
■ the jew 1471, wmA knn tk K& 3441 in 

e of Oe Ca^pBBj- of tbe 

1 ■fifcWBBta aleo he 
nice &iom 1315 
Ifralabij' earlier) to 1317, whes he wbs tz«&$ferred lo 
> Md that he wm e f J uj gd in Cypns fma IUt 1324 
I 1337, far at thoae and inteisie^ato datea he t^ule 
Mmdry ap|£eatioaa to the Kmg oC Cjjwaa far the redaction 
of diittea pBTalife 1>T b>< cowiitrnneii, «bo had prerionalj' 
been liable lo be«T>a- dntks than the Rdaio, and had coo- 
Kquestlv been obiige^i to employ their agency. Baldncci. tndi^ 
Ttant at the coDdnet of the Ptsans, who treated the Floventuea, 
be says, " like Jews or dans of thetrs," made these oooeeasfkl 
efibrts to get lid of thia oU^aliaa.* 

In 133a tbeaathor was BdD at C^ras, or had retoned thither, 
and obtaioed in that year from the King of I«eser Armenia a 
gimnt of priTilegea to the coaqany wlud he serred for ibeir 
trade at Aiarao or Aiaa, the port of that kingdom on the Golf ^ 

1 the Golf (^^ 


' PeftUtti. p. SS7. * P- 71. 

> P. 4a. A^io, «r Aia«, tlw aaeiert Xfte, oppOMU lai m M, 
■everal timM by Maroo Fulo at L^ia*. WUUt Fvna wai 
of the Itottgdia a ereat part tt tke ladiaB tnds iwe h 
Tabriz, uid tlieDce b7 tha loirte delMtod in PccoIottT* 
Aiaaxo tor ahipaKnt. Tbe port wa* in the faaa^ «/ the Ckiiatiaa |»t ^tfi n 
caDed ^e Einga of Little Anocfiia, wboae 4jaaatjr «as ftnmied in the 
nMoataiM of (SUcaa in tlie year lOSa by Bi^en, a *-^— ^n:i of tlw Iwt 
Kins °* Annenta Proper of tlie race of the Bagiatid*^ bpon*! nintfc 
MMwenor, LeoD n. got the title of king from Pope Cetertine in aad the 
Emperor Hearj VI in tbe end of the tweUth oeatmj, and the line etm- 
tinoed tOl IMS. The kingdooi endured thirty-thrae 7<*n Umgm oadBr 



The Bardi' failed in 1339, c*ing to their nnpro6tabIe dealings 
with the King of England (Edward III). They and the Com- 
pany of the Peruzzi were the "king's inercUants," or as we should 
now say, bankers and agents, receii-ing all his renta and incom- 
ings in wool and the like, whilst meeting nil his demands for 
cfi^h and stores. But these last so much exceeded the receipts on 
his accoont that there was a balance duo (rom him of 11^0,000 
marks sterling to the Bardi, and 135, CHX) markn to the Pemzzi, 
each mark being equal to fonr and a half gold florins, so that 
the bad debt amonnted on the whole to 1,3G.5,0'JU florins, "che 
vnleaiio un reame," as the Florentine chronieler says. Much of 
the money advanced consisted of the deposits of citizens and 
foreigners (inclnding English), and the stoppage of payment 
was a great blow to Florentine coramei'ce and to credit generally. 
The Bardi however seem to have got on their legs again sufii- 
ciently U, fail a second time in 13+f , for the sum of 5&0,000 
florins,* Whether they recovered from this second failure I do 
not know, but other circnm stances referred to by the author of 
the Decima fix the date of Pegolotti's book to about 1340. It 
coold not of course have been written earlier than the last year 
of residence in Cyprus to which he makes the reference qQot«d 
above, and it must have been written before the death of King 
Robert of Naples, of tiio house of Anjon, whom he speaks of in 
one passage as still reigning.^ That event occurred in 1343. 

Pegokitti'a Handbook, for it is just such, is purely mercantile 

kings of the house of Liiiignan. tn the time of Haiton or Hethnin I, 
when it was perhaps most Hourisbing, it embraced all Cilicia, with many 
cities of Spia, Cappodocia, and Isauria. The JQHtitiitionig of this ooun- 
txj were b cnriouH compound, uniting an Armenian cbucch and nation- 
olil; with Greek legialatioD, and the feudal inatitutions and social grodo- 
titma of the FronliB. The capital was at 8i>, where there are Btill an 
Armenian population and an Armem*an monaster; and patriarch. (See 
papers b7 Dataurier in Jour. Ai., aer. v, torn, irii and iviii; lb., v, 2^2) 
IfOlMoit, ii, 310; St. Marliii. ifcm. irur VArmenie, vol. i.) 

' Thia honae gave a huabond to Dante's Beatrice ;^ — and a heroine to 

e Elliott in Komola ! 

* Deila Dteima) Oiov. Yillani, Ittoria Fiormtina, bk. li, ch. B7. The 

Igliah gold florin was coined in 1343 to weigh 2 Florentine florins, and 

I tie worth 6i. (See Akermann's Num. Manual, p. 267 ) Hence 4] Fl. 

3 13i. 6(1., or a, little over n mark. Uut 13>. M. repveeented three 

« luiifh silvei' <IH BOW. ■' "tj'icale lie Uhcrlo," p. 186. 




in its benrings, and even in those^arts whicli are not mere Iist« 
or fignired statements is written in the dryest and most inartificial 
style, if stylo it can be called. Devoting successive chapters to 
the various port^ and seata of traffic of his time, and proceedinjf 
from the Asiatic coaats of the Mediterranean weRtvrard, he detailit 
the nntnre of the exports and importB, the duties and esactions, 
the customs of basinosa appropriate to each locality, as well ns 
the value of the moneys weightw and measnrea of each countrj' 
in relation to those of the places with which they chiefly had to 
deal. Rude essays on various practical matters are interspersed 
and appended. 

The book might have slept as undisturbed under the nnat- 
tmctive title of Pagnini's quartos, as it had done for centuries in 
mnnuBcript. on the shelveB of the Florentine libraries, had not the 
Germans Porster and Sprengel got Bcent of it and made it the 
subject of some comment in their geographical works.' 

Their comments refer to the first two chapters of Pegolotti, 
the most interesting of the whole, and which I shall give iin- 
abridged. I shall also give one or two chapters that follow, 
having more or less bearing on our subject, and a few additional 
extracts where the matter seems of sufficient interest. 

The notices of Sprengel seem to have furnished the source 
from which nearly all later writers who have touched on Pego- 
lotti have derived their information, as is shown by their copying 
an error of the press which makes him in Sprengel'a hook 
V'-ijolelli. Even Humboldt, Rerausat, and Ritter do this, and 
the latter assumes besides that Pegolotti hotl himsi'lf made the 
journey to Cathay, which he describes. For this assumption 
there is not the slightest ground.^ It is evident indeed from the 

' See FoTiter, Hiil. da Dicotivartm tt dci Voyagei dam le Hard (Fr. 
Tmna.), Poria, I7aa, p. 342 <i isq.; and Geichichte der Y^ichligsten Ocag. 
EutdeckKngeH, etc.. von Jf. C. Bprengtl {2nd ed.), HftUe, 1792. I BuppoBO 
that Sprengel'a first edition preceded Forster, as the former says (p. 263) 
that no one bad yet made nae of P^^totti in the histury of the Chinese 
tfade. The original of theae two chapters is given in App. til. 

• See ErtHunde, ii, «M, and poathumouB Ltehires an the HUt. of Qto- 
itraphy, Berlin, IBtil, p. 220. Theae erroid arc probably derived from 
Malto Brun (aee D'.Jmmc, p, 423). Even the Bioyraphie Pniro-Mlie apeaka 
pontively of Pegolotti's having visited all the pluoea mentioned by Um 



] of the account tLut the road to Catbay wa§ not nnfre- 
Eqaently travelled by European merchants in his day, &nd &um 
W aome of these Pegolotti had ohtaiued the notes which he com- 
[ nnnicates, as he himself iu one passage distinctly intimates.' 

The fourth volume also of Pagnini's work is occupied by a 

later book of character similar to that of Pegolotti's, written in 

1440 by Giovanni di Antonio da Ijzzano, under the name of 

Jiibro di GaheUi 6 Fatgt e Mlaure di pii't e diuerei Laoijhi, etc. At 

|ti>at date direct intercourse with Kaatem Asia had long been 

Kintermpted, and the book has nothing of interest to extract for 

( collection. It contains, however, among other matt«rs, 

me curioos lists of the duties on a vast variety of wares af the 

|4ifierenl Italian marts, and a treatise containing sailing direc- 

B for the Mediterranean. 

Pegolotti's book begins as followH : 

In the Namb of the Lord, Amen ! 

kTbib book is called the Book of Descriptions of Countries 

Pud of measures employed in business, and of other things 

needful to be known by merchants of different parts of the 

world, and by all who have to do with merchandize and 

exchanges ; showing also what relation the merchandize of 

P (me country or of one city bears to that of others ; and how 

me kind of goods is better than another kind ; and where 

B Tsrious waves come from, and how they may be kept as 

long as possible. 

The book was compiled by Francis Balducci Pegolotti of 
l^oreDce, who was with the Company of the Bardi of 
lorence, and donng the time that he was in the service of 

Ibe route to Cathay, and adds : " Independent of the route vliich he 
ig to ClUna, PL'golotti deBcribes also that of the caravans 
which without doubt he foUowed in returning from the Indies to the 
Heditenraneon." This is griKYous inacuutacy. Pegolotti never waa in 
China, and doachbea no such return route aa is here indicated. The 
twaiest approach to it ia the list of tolls between Aiaxxo and Tabriz in 
his chapter vi. 

Bteondo cht n conta per gl\ mcrcatanli cbe Vhantio Mnalo," is his ei 
with regard to the road in (lueation. 



the said Company, for the good and honour and prosperity 
of the said Company, and for hia own, and for that of who- 
soaver shall read or transcribe the said book. And this copy 
haa been mado from the book of Aguolo di Lotto of Antello, 
and the said book waa transcribed from the original book of 
the said Francesco Balducci. 

This is followed by several pages uf explanations of abbrevia- 
tions and technicalities of different conntriea, which are used in 
the book. Thus : 

Tamumja in Tauria,' and throughout Persia, at Trebizond, 
at Caffa, and throughout all tho cities of the Tartars ; Pima- 
ilune in Armenia;^ J)oaiia,^ in all the cities of the Saracens, 
in Sicily, in Naples, and throughout the kingdom of Apulia; 
Piazza, Fondaco,* Biitdanajo, also throughout all Sicily and 

■ Tunuiia printed in tha Dtnma, Lot lunineHtinDablyit should be Torisi. 
Tamnngha uo donbt atanda for Tamijha, a name which was applied to all 
coatoms sjid transit duties under the Mongul Khana of Persia. (See 
jyOhtion, if, 373, 3H6.) The word meant a seal, and going HtiU farther 
bitck waa tho term applied to the distinguiehitig braJida of ca.ttle among 
the Mongola. ( V. tfammtr. Gold. Borde, 220.) When Sultan Baber was 
engaged in a holy war vith the B^pat Bana Sanga, he made one of his 
great atgurations of wine, and vowed that he woold renounce the Tamgha 
if rictcrioua. Aooordingly he publiahed a firman, aolemnly announoiag 
his repentance, and declaring that in no city or town, on no road or street 
or paaaage should the Tamgha be receiied or luned. The translaton 
render it siamji-iax, but the poseages in D'Ohsson, as well aa Baber'a 
worda, seem to show that it was u transit duty. [Baher, p. 3d6.} 

' Amcmg documenta of the kingdom of Leaser Armenia quoted in 
Dnlaurier'a papers referred to above, we find Pastdutn and Putdoniini, 
with the meaning of Ctulonu, cuatom-house, and Capitaneai Patidonev^ 
d< Ayacio, as the appellation of the chief of the custom-house in that port. 
(J. Am., ser. v, torn, iviii, 326, 337.) PoricJonum is a Latinization of the 
Armenian Pojdin, from pd;, toll or customa, a word still eidsting in that 
hmguftge. (Si. WarttH, in Sotica et EatTaiU, li, IIB, 117.) 

" Doana, or in modern Italian Oojana, is believed to be from the Arabic 
Dewin, "council, council hall, tribunal." Giov. da Uizano spells it Do- 
vana, which seems somewhat to confirm this derivation. (Delia Dee., iv, 

• Some of these aeem to be namea of partiouhir payments, not of 
ituties or caslomi in genoral; puuta, probably a market tai; /oniloco, pay- 
munt for warehousing, whivh he ehuwhiire calls /bnilacnjirin, A[fandega, 
howcvei', is cUBtoio-bimao in Portuguese. 



the kingdom of Apulia ; Comnrcliio in all the citicB of the 
Greeks, and in Cyprus ;• Bresw at Venice; G*i6e//o throngh- 
Tnscany ; Spedicaimmto and Pfidnggio at Genoa ; 
'Clunvena- throughout Provence ; Ldda^ in part of Provence 
•nd in Pmnce; Malatolta,* Pcdagglo, and Bara° throughout 
all France; Toioiwo' throughout Flanders ; Fovea (?) through- 
out Brabant ; (7os/itif)a throughout the Island of England; 
Fodo' at Tunis in Barbary ; Mwnda in Prioli ; Mangona and 
Talaoch in Spain ;« 

Kt/uiipiiiir and i»i 
(olitiini trill be found 
Qracke the woni pesaod 


We also find in the Genoeae vi 

«io», TrUmtnm, Vectigal pro meTcvmo%iit enaliii 
Ducan^. (Qlou. Qritatatii, etc.) From th« 
I the Toi'liB and Arabs, Bee in Freytaj'i Laico» 

n of a treaty with the Tartiua 

of Gazario, a.d. 1380, Comerhn and Comerha for coBtoniB and caHtam- 
hoiue. (Jfot. <1 £21.. xi, 54, 57.) 

' Some of these ace probably slang. Chiaveria, kej-monej ■" 

' Parhaps should be Leuda, which we find mentioned by Giovanni da. 
tJiKsno (p. 162) aa the name of a tax at Barcelona paid by bnycra or 
■ellere not being &eemen uf the city. Leuda, Lada, or Ledda, Recording 
to Oucange, ia any dnty, espedaUy one paid on merchandiKe. 

< Malatolta, according tt> the aama authority, ia an arbitral^ exaction 
forcibly taken under the name of duty or cuatoms. He quotes among 
other eiamples a charter of Philip the Pair to the people of Bordeaux, 
which speaka of " Aitiisium j«u cotiamam qna in idc loco et locii circiun- 
ridnit Malatolta vulgariier nuneupatvr,-" and one alao of Peter of Caatille 
which introdncee the terms in the text preceding and following : " 8inl 
HMnufut ab omni pedogio, leudi, costumfi, malatoltfi, leu aliii ^uibugifam 
imponliosihHa." The original for taxes and customs at p. E40 suprn ia 
Intuatira 't malestatiUet. The term shows joat the same state of feeling 
that led the people in Che North-Wcat Provincea of India to apply to the 
tolls that used to be leTied on the Grand Trunk Bood. the terms Lit 
(plunder) and Zulm (oppression). 

• Tolls were called Barra, especially such aa were levied at the gate« 
and barriert of towns (Ducangt). 

' " Telon, Teloneum, Tolojimim, Toll, Tolnetum, etc., Tribuliim de mer- 
dbns mori«« circa liltui acceptum" (Ducange). Our English word Tall, 

' Arab, "/add, Ees quft aliqjiia rodimitur et liberatnr" (Preytag). In 
a treaty between the Genoese and the Soldan of Babylon (Egypt) in 1290, 
we find the following ; " Item quod Janumuei non compellantiiT nee com- 
pelli d^ieanl ad feda nee aliqvid aliad," etc. (Notirci tt 
Eclraifi, li, 39.) The word may have had a specifio application in the 
cuat«m-houseH vUcb baa escaped tbe leiicographera. 

' On Tulaopfi my friend Mr. Badger saya : " This is probably from the 
Arabic ^1\,\ {Itldij), meaning reUasing. setting &00. It might have been 

^^ ' Thi 


All these names mean diiHes which have to be paid for 
goods and wares, and other things, imported to or exported 
from, or passed throi]^h the countries and places detailed in 
this paragraph. 

Mercato in Tuscan ; and Piazza} in several tongues ; 
Bazarra and Baba in Genoese ;- Fmidaco in several lan- 
guages ; Foda in Cyprus ; Alla^ in Flemish ; Sitgo in Saro- 
cenesque ;' Fiera in Tuscan and several other tonguea ; 
Panichiero in Greek ;* 

All signify tho place where goods are sold in cities, and 
where in towns and villages all manner of victuals and 
necessaries for tho life of man are brought for sale, with com 
and cattle which are brought there continually at certain, 
fixed times of the week, or month, or year. 

These may suffice as specimens. 

Then some doggrel verses to the following purport introduce 
• the body of the work. 

" Honeatj ia alwajs best 

And to look before ye leap -. 
Do ever what thou promieeat ; 

And, liard thougli it may be, etUl beep 
Fair chastity. Let reaHon t«n 
Cheap to buy and dear to aell. 
But have a civil ton^e aa well. 
Frequent the church's ritea, and epare 
To Him who sendn thy gaim a ebare. 
So shalt thon prosper, Btanding by one price, 
And shunning peet-libe usury and dice. 
Take aye aooa heed to govern well thy pen. 
And blunder not in block and white ! Ambn ! 

applied to the stamp or certificate by which goods were declared to be 
free after payment of customa. I am not aware that the word is used in 
that aetue now." Thia au^eation is strengthened by the analogoQB nae 
of Fadtl in the preceding note, and by the fact that Fegolotti in a later 
passage calls it Inialacca, an e:[port duty levied in tho porta of Morooeo. 
By Spain he means the Moorish ports on both aides of the strait, as his 
details show (pp. 278 seqq,). 

' Piiuia is commonly uaod for mertaia in Palermo, where this note is 

' I do not know what Rata ia, unless (like Bmarra) borrowed from the 
Arabic Raha', " a quarter" (ace under Baahidaddiu, siipra, p. 25). 
The French Halle. • Arab. S&ij. 

must be rainrfipuir, which had the meaning of a Mr or market 

Byjiantine Greek (Dvrangr), 


the jcmrney to Catliay, for bhcL as will go bj 
Tftna and come back with gooda. 

K the first place, from Taka to Gintarchan^ may be twenty- 
pTe days with an ox-waggoo, and from ten to twelve daya 
fitli a korse-waggon. On the road you will find plenty of 
Koccoh, that is to aay, of gejie d'armat} And from Gittar- 
1 to Saka may be a day by river, and from Sara to 
lAEACASCO,* also by river, eight days. You can do this 
wither by land or by water ; but by water you will bo at less 
I tiiaige for your merchandize. 

From Saracanco to OndANCi may be twenty days' journey 
1 in camel-waggon. It will bo well for anyone travelling with 

' OiniarcAan, or as lielow leaa incorrectly QMarchan, is Astracan, 
thoagh according to Sprengel the old city destroyed by Timur in 1395 
was fiirther boTo the Caspian than the present one. It is montioned by 
Bubmqiiis in the preceding century as Summerkeur or Siunmeikent, 
nioet probably a. clerical error for SHlarkent, and in this century it waa 
the seat of a Minorite oonvent. The original name was Haj-, or Hajji- 
Torkhan. Ibn Batnta says it was so colled after a devout U^ who esta- 
t>lisli«d himself there, in conaideratioa of which the prince exempted the 
pLtce ttota all duties. Tarihan, he says, signifying a place free f tola duties. 
This ia a mistake, however, for Tarihan among the Mongols denoted a 
jicrion, the member of an order eiyoying high privileges, such as freedom 
from all eiactions, the right to enter the sovereigti's presence unsiim- 
monedi and exemption from punishment for orime till a ninth time oon- 
Tiot«d. D'OhsBon quotes the mention of tliis title by a Greek author as 
d as the time of the Emperor Justin. {Ibn. Batnta, ii, 410, and EJr's. 
te, 458 ; EfOhston, i, 45, etc.) In the Carta Catalans and PortuUno 
Hediceo the place appears as Agilarcham; in Pra Mauro's Map as Aie- 
y fiarbaro and others, up to the middlij of the eiitfi^nth cen- 
f iluy, we find it coUud Citracan. 

* Moccoli ore in another passBge erplained by Pegolotti to be Tartan 
ttKerani, bandits or troopers. The word is, I suppose, simply Mongait, 
or rather as called in Western Asia SJiKjhoU, which will be almost the 
n pronnnciation of Jfoccol. Indeed the word is called by the Ar- 
ts ifue/wl [Neumann-a CKtoji. of Yakram. p. 88). 
' On Sarai see lujirn, p. 231. Saracanco appears to be unquestionably 
SariifAi);. on which, and on Or^n-nd or Urghanj, see pp. 232, 234. 



taerchandizG to go to Organci, for in that city there is a 
ready sale for goods. From Organci to Olteakre' ia thirty- 
five to forty days in camel -waggons. But if when you leave . 
Sftracanco yon go direct to Oltrarre, it is a journey of fifly j 
days only, and if yoa have no merchandize it will be better j 
to go this way than to go by Organci. 

From Oltrarre to Aemalec^ is forty-five days' journey with I 
paclc-assc3, and every day you find Moccols. And from | 
Armalec to Cambsu' ia seventy days with asaeg, and from | 

Cameiu until you come to a river called is forty- i 

five days on horseback ; and then you can go down the river , 
to Cassai,* and there yon can dispose of the 8om»u' of silver 1 

I Oltorre is Otrar, previously called FarAb, a city of TurkeBtan, of whioh. 
it vnB once considered the capital. It stands, or stood (for there seeiuB 
no rur^ent knovleilge of it) on a tributary of tbo Sibun or Jajiartes, uboat 
two leagues from that river, ftbout lat. 44° 30', some distance vroat of the 
town called Turkestan in the maps. Its capture by CliinghiE in 1219 was 
the commenuemBnt of his Western conquests ; and it was at Otrar that 
the great Timur died, 17tb February, 1405. Hajton calls the cjtj Oriorar, 
the greatest city of Turkestan. It stood on the frontier, betvreen the 
Khanates of Kapchok and Z&gatai. 

* Sec p. 336. 

> Camoiu (i.e. Caimchu) is considered by Foster to be Hami or Kamil, 
with the Chinese cAu added. But there can be no doubt that it ia the 
Chineee frontier city Koneftu in Kanau. That city is called by Baahid- 
eddin and by the antbor of Hesal&k al-Absar Kamehu, bo that the West- 
ern Asiatics called it just as Pegolotti doos. Uoruover the latter author 
allows only forty days from Almiilik {Armnlec) to Kiirachu, showing that 
the time named by Fcgolotti is most ample allowance. The aamAil 
author allows forty days from Eamchu to Ebanbalik {Satices ei Eibraiitf I 

* Forster chooses to consider Coasai to be a place called Eissen, on the 
Hoang Ho. It is not worth while to look if there is such a place, for 
CasBai is obviously Qninsai, Cansai, Kingaze, the commercial city of 
China at that time, hod. Hangcheufu. It is called Cassai in the Portu- 
lano Mediceo and Cassa-ij in the " Livre du Qrant Caon" (rujira, p. 344). 

The rirer reached in forty-five days from Kancbeu is moat probably 
the Great CanaL Forater, according to Boldelli fioni (I presume in 
some later edition of bis work tbon that used by me) supplies tlie blank 
with KaTanvren from a MS. that belonged to Sprungel. But this is of no 
autliority, for the blank exists in the original MS. in the Eiccardian 

: of silver is written in the MS. xinitii. and is sn printed by 


that you have with you, for that is a most active place of 
business. After getting to Cassai you cany on with the 
money which you get for the sorami of silver which you sell 
there ; and this money is made of paper, and is called bali^hi. 
And four pieces of this money are worth one sommo of silver 
in the province of Cathay.^ And from Cassai to Gama- 

F&gnini. But it is a mere fashion of writing. Pegolotti writes also chan- 
mino, chanmello, fenmina, bat Pagnini does not print these so. Indeed 
Giovanno da Uzzano (p. 188) writes sommi. The sommo, as explained in 
the next chapter, was a silver ingot weighing eight and a half Genoese 
onnces. Ibn Batata mentions these as current among the Tartars under 
the name of saitm, sing, saumah. He says the weight of each saumah or 
sommo was five ounces, i.e., I suppose, five-twelfths of a rithl (ii, 412, 414). 
Von Hammer says that the sum (as he terms it) was in the form of an 
octahedron, and quotes from the Persian historian Wassaf a passage 
which shows that the term was applied also to ingots of gold (Qeschichte 
der Gold. Horde, pp. 223, 224). 

^ Here Pegolotti speaks of the celebrated paper money of China, once 
deemed a fable of Marco Polo's, though before his time even it had been 
distinctly mentioned by the intelligent friar Eubruquis. 

Its use was of great antiquity, for traces at least of leather repre- 
sentatives of money are found as far back as b.c. 119. In the reign of 
Hiantsung of the Thang dynasty (a.d. 806-821), copper being scarce, notes 
were issued on deposits from the public treasury, and were current for some 
years. These issues were renewed under the Sung (a.d. 960), and some 
sixty years later amounted in nominal value to 2,830,000 ounces of silver. 
These were followed by further issues of real paper money, issued without 
reference to deposits (? so says Elaproth), and payable every three years. 
The business at this time was managed by sixteen chief houses, but these 
becoming bankrupt, the emperor abolished private notes, and established 
a government bank, the issues of which in 1032 amounted to 1,256,340 
ounces. Such banks were established in several parts of the empire, 
the notes of one province not being current in another. 

In 1160, in the reign of Eaotsung, anew paper was issued, the amount 
of which rose in six years to 43,600,000 ounces. There were local notes 
besides, so that the empire was fiooded with paper, rapidly depreciating 
in value. 

When the invaders who formed the kin or Golden dynasty had esta- 
blished themselves in Northern China they also speedily took to paper, 
notwithstanding their name. Their notes had a course of seven years, 
after which new notes were given by government with a deduction of 15 
per cent. 

The Mongols did like their predecessors. Their first notes were issued 
in 1236, but on a small scale compared to the issues of Eublai and his 
successors. Kublai's first issue was in 1260; and consisted of notes of 



lec [Cambalec], which is the capita! city of the country of 
Cathay, is thirty days' jonmcy. 

three cIbbbbb ; yix,, notea of letu, i.e. of 10, SO, SO, and 50 ttini or cash ; 
notes of LuudredB, of 100, 200, and 500 ItUn; and notes of (fringe or 
thouBimda of cash, viz. of 1000 and 2O00. This money, bowever, was worth 
only half its nomimtl value, bo that two notes of 1000 cash went for an 
ounce of pure silver. There were also note* printed on allk, for 1, 2, 3, 
6 and 10 ounoee each, valued at par in silver; but these would not circu- 
late. In 1277 Kubliu mode a new issue of very small notes ; and a com- 
plete new curreoty in 1288. One of theee now notes was as before worth 
half its nominal value in silver, but was to be eicbanged against j!oe of 
cciual nominal value of the old notes 1 

In 1309 a new issue took plaoe with a like valuation ; i.e., one onnce 
note of this issue was to exchange ogoinHt five of Kublai's lost isane, and 
therefore against twenty-five of his older notes ! And it was at the same 
time prescribed that the new notes should exchange at par with metals. 
which of course it was beyond the power of government to enforce, and 
so the notes were abandoned. 

Issues contiauod fKim time to time to the end of the Uongot dynasty, 
but ocoording to the Chinese authors with credit coustantly diminishiag. 
This depreciation might easily escape Odoric, but it is carious that it 
should be BO entirely ignored by Pegolotti, whose informants murt have 
been mercantile men. In fact bo asserts positively that there was no 
depreciation. (See hcloui.) 

The remarks of Matwanlin, a medieval CEunese historian, on this sub- 
ject ore curiously like a bit of modern controversy ; " Paper should nerei 
be monsy ,- it should only be employed as a reprsBentative sign of valtie 
existing in metals or in produce, which can thus be readily eichangad 
for paper, and the coat of its transport avoidml. At flnt this wai the 
mode in which paper currency was actnally nseil among merohuits. The 
govornmont, borrowing the invention from private individuals, wished to 
moke a real nion^ of paper, and thus the original contrivance was per- 

The Ming dynasty for a time carried on the Hystem of their predeees- 
•on, and with like results, till in 1148 the chao, or note, of 1000 cash, was 
worth but 3 1 Darbu« still hoard of the paper money of Cathay from 
tiftvoUen whom be met at Azov about this time, but after 1455 there is 
nld to be no mora mention of it in Chinese history. 

Though tht> government of China has not issued paper money si 
then, thero has been considerable local ubo of such currency among the 
people, even in our own time. In Fucheu some yean ago it had almost 
displaced bullion, and in tliat city the banking honses were counted by 
hundroda. Though the system was under no efficient control, few notes 
ware below par, and failures of any magnitude were rare. The notes were 
chiefly from copper plates (and such notes were engraved in China m 
ewly OS 1 IRH) and ranged in value from 110 ciwb to 1000 dollars. 

Saikhitu Khan of Persia was pernuaded to attempt the introdnction 



Things needful for merchants who desire to make the jonmey to Cathay 

above described. 

In the first place, you must let your beard grow long and 
not shave. And at Tana you should furnish yourself with 
a dragoman. And you must not try to save money in the 
matter of dragomen by taking a bad one instead of a good 
one. For the additional wages of the good one will not cost 
you so much as you will save by having him.' And besides 
the dragoman it will be well to take at least two good men 
servants, who are acquainted with the Cumanian tongue. 
And if the merchant likes to take a woman with him from 
Tana, he can do so ; if he does not like to take one there is 

of a pf^>er currency nnder the Chinese name (cJ^ao) in 1294. After most 
expensive preparations in erecting offices in every province, etc., the 
sdieme utterly failed, the shops and markets of Tabriz were deserted, and 
the ehao had to be given np. Mahomed Tughlak of Dehli fared no better 
in a somewhat similar project some thirty-five years later. In Japan 
bank-notes were introduced about 1319-1327, but in that countiy they 
always represented considerable sums. They continued to exist in the 
last century, and perhaps do still. 

The notes of the Sung, Ein, and Mongol dynasties were all made with 
the bark of the paper mulberry. Those of the first two were only printed 
with characters and sealed ; the last were also ornamented. 

A note of the Ming dynasty is figured in Duhalde, ii, 168. It is for 1000 
cash, and bears the following inscription : " On the request of the Board 
of Treasurers, it is ordered that paper money thus impressed with the 
imperial seal have currency the same as copper money. Forgers shall lose 
their heads, and informers shall receive a reward of 250 ta^ls, with the 
criminal's goods. In such a year and month of the reign of Hong-Yu." 
(Klaproth in Mem. Rel. d VAsie, i, 375-388 ; Biot, in J. A., ser. iii, tom. iv ; 
Parkes, in /. R. A, 8., xiii, 179; I/Ohsson, iv, 53; Elphinstone* s Hist of 
India, ii, 62). Another and probably more exact account of the history of 
paper-money under the Mongols will be found in Pauthier's new Marco 
Polo, but time does not aUow me to benefit by it. 

Begarding the balish, see note to Odoric, p. 115. 

* The Italian here is very obscure and probably defective, but this 
seems the general sense ; or perhaps, " so much as the greed of the other 
will cause yon loss." 



no obligation, only if ho does take one he will be kept 

mnch more comfortably than if he docs not take ono, 
Howbeit, if he- do take one, it will be well that she be ac- 
quainted with the Cumanian tongue as well aa the nion.^ 

And from Tana travelling to Gittarchan you should take 
with you twenty-five days' provisions, that is to say, flour and 
salt fish, for as to meat you will find enough of it at all the 
places along the road. And so also at all the chief stations 
noted in going from one country to another in the route, ac- 
cording to the number of days set down above, you should 
furnish yourself with flour and salt fish ; other things you 
will find in sufficiency, and especially meat. 

The road you travel from Tana to Cathay is perfectly safe, 
whether by day or by night, according to what the merchants 
say who Lave used it. Only if the merchant, in going or 
coming, should die upon the road, everything belonging to 
him will become the perquisite of the lord of the country in 
which he dies, and the officers of the lord will take possession 
of all.^ And in like manner if he die in Cathay. But if his 
brother be with him, or au intimate friend and comrade 
calling himself his brother, then to such an one they will 
surrender the property of the deceased, and so it will be 

And there is another danger : this is when the lord of the 
country dies, and before tho new lord who is to have the 
lordship is proclaimed; during such intervals there have 
sometimes been irregularities practised on the Franks, and 
other foreigners, (They call Frauh/i all the Christians of 
these parts from Romania westward) .^ And neither will the 

I The Cnmuiiali was apparently a Turkish dialect. 

' This oaatom seems to hare prevailed very generally (aeeSfo. Stephana 
In India in the Fijteenth Century, p. 7). It was also the law of Leaser 
ArmoniB unlesfl aaulg'ect of the kingdom waaleit heir {J.Ai., aer. v, torn. 
iTiii, 346). 

' Bomania means Qreeoe, or nearly so. By Oior. da TTzzano the Morea 
anil the iale of Si-ia are both spoken of an belonging to Romania (pp. 89 


roads be safe to travel until the other lord be proclaimed 
who is to reign in room of him who is deceased. 

Cathay is a province which contained a'multitude of cities 
and towns. Among others there is one in particular, that 
is to say the capital city, to which is great resort of mer- 
chants, and in which there is a vast amount of trade ; and 
this city is called Cambalec. And the said city hath a circuit 
of one hundred miles, and is all full of people and houses and 
of dwellers in the said city. 

You may calculate that a merchant with a dragoman, and 
with two men servants, and with goods to the value of 
twenty-five thousand golden florins, should spend on his way 
to Cathay from sixty to eighty sommi of silver, and not more 
if he manage well ; and for all the road back again from 
Cathay to Tana, including the expenses of living and the pay 
of servants, and all other charges, the cost will be about five 
sommi per head of pack animals, or something less. And you 
may reckon the sommo to be worth five golden florins.^ You 
may reckon also that each ox-waggon will require one ox, 
and will carry ten cantars Genoese weight ; and the camel- 
waggon will require three camels, and will carry thirty cantars 
Genoese weight; and the horse-waggon will require one 
horse, and will commonly carry six and half cantars of silk, 
at 250 Genoese pounds to the cantar. And a bale^ of silk 
may be reckoned at between 110 and 115 Genoese pounds. 

and 160). And the expression in the text {tuiii i Christiani delle parti 
di Bifymania innanzi in verso il ponente) seems to include Bomania. Yet 
I do not think the Greeks were or are regarded as Franks. 

1 Taking the gold florin or ducat at 98. 6d., the value of the goods will 
be nearly Jgl23000 and the cost of the merchant's journey &om j£140 to 
JS190 going, and nearly Jgl2 a head on his beasts coming back. 

* Scibetto, I cannot trace this word in any dictionary, but it looks like 
Arabic. The nearest thing I can find is sibt — hides of ox leather (Frey- 
tag). It is possible that the silk may have been packed in such. From 
India and China now it is generally packed in mats. Pegolotti writes it 
in another place in the plural isdhetti, with fardelli as synonymous (p. 131). 
The Genoese pound of twelve ounces was equal to about f of the London 
pound (\^), as we learn from Pegolotti in another part of his book. 


You may reckon also that from Tana to Sara the road is 
leaa safe than on any other part of the journey ; and yet even 
when tliis part of the road is at its worst, if yon are some 
sixty men in the company you will go as safely as if yon were 
in your own house. 

Anyone from Genoa or from Venice, wishing to go to the 
places abovo-named, and to make the journey to Cathay, 
should carry linens^ with him, and if he visit Organci he will 
dispose of these well. In Ovganci he should purchase aomm* 
of silver, and with these he should proceed without making 
any further investment, unless it be some bales of the very 
finest stuffs which go in small bulk, and cost no more for 
carriage than coarser stutfd would do. 

Merchants who travel this road can ride on horseback 
or on asses, or mounted in any way ^at they list to be 

Whatever silver the merchants may carry with thera as fav 
as Cathay the lord of Cathay will take from them and put 
into his treasury. And to merchants who thus bring silver 
they give that paper money of theirs iu exchange. This is 
of yellow paper, stamped with the seal of the lord aforesaid. 
And this money is called halishi ;^ aud with this money you 
can readily buy silk and all other merchandize that you have 
a desire to buy. And all the people of the country are 
bound to receive it. And yet you shaJl not pay a higher 
price for your goods because your money is of paper. And 
of the said paper money there are three kinds, one being 
worth more than another, according to the value which has 
been established for each by that lord.^ 

And you may reckon that you can buy for one sommo of 
silver nineteen or twenty pounds of Cathay silk, when re- 

l Tele. 

' The Riccnrdiaji HS. baa here paliici, aa in tbe previous chapter 
bahiiH. No doubt in both ptocea tbe ori^nal hod baliici. 

' Thia aeems to oltude to three elaiitt of notea, m in Eublai'i iiaue of 
13GU mentianud aburu. 


duced to Genoese weight, and that the sommo should weigh 
eight and a half ounces of Genoa, and should be of the alloy 
of eleven ounces and seventeen deniers to the pound.^ 

You may reckon also that in Cathay you should get three 
or three and a half pieces of damasked silk^ for a sommo ; 
and from three and a half to five pieces of nacchetti^ of silk 
and gold, likewise for a sommo of silver. 

* I.e., 7 pennyweights of alloy to 11 oz. 17 dwts. of pure silver. GioT. 
da IJzzano in the next centuiy speaks of the sommi &t>m Caffa as being 
of both gold and silver, the alloy of the latter being 11 oz. 13 to 15 dwt. 
(p. 188). 

* The word is cammocca. This the dictionaries generally are good 
enough to tell us means " a kind of cloth." Mr. Wright on Mandeville 
says it is " a rich cloth of silk mentioned not unfrequently in medieval 
writers/' but this is still very unprecise. I had arrived at the conclusion 
that it must be damasked silk, and I now find this confirmed by Ducange 
(Oloss. GrcBcitaiU, etc.) : " KCifiouxas, Pannus sericus more damascene con* 
fectus." Moreover the word is almost certainly the Arabic L^ kimkhwd, 

" Yestis scutulata Damascena" (Freytag), I suppose that the kinkhwdb 
of Hindustan, now applied to a gold brocade, is the same word or a deri- 

' In a later chapter describing the trade at Constantinople, our author 
details "silk velvets, cammucca, m^ramati, gold cloth of every kind, 
nacehetti and nacchi of every kind, and likewise all cloths of gold and silk 
except zendadi (gauzes)." The nacchi and nacchetH appear to have been 
cloths of silk and gold. The former (nakh) is so explained by Ibn Batuta, 
who names it several times. It was made, he tells us, at Nisabur in 
Ehorassan, and in describing the dress of the princess of Constantinople 
he says she had on " a mantle of the stuff called nakh, and also nasij" 
These two, however, were apparently not identical, but corresponded pro- 
bably to the nacchi and nacehetti of Pegolotti. For Polo in the Bamusian 
version has " panni d'oro nasiti {nasid ?) fin, e nach, e panni di seta." And 
in the old version printed in Baldelli Boni's first volume this runs "nasicci, 
drappi dorati ;" whilst Eubruquis mentions nctaic as a present given him 
by Mangu Khan. I know not what m^ramati is, unless it should rather 
be maramali for makhmal, velvet. {Ibn Batuta, ii, 309, 388, 422 ; iii, 81 ; 
Polo in Ramus,, pt. i, c. 53; II Milione, i, 57 ; Bub., p. 317.) 

20(5 NOTicics or the land uoute to cathay, etc. 


Catlm7 and of Tana. 

Ibl. DE. 

Genoa weight 6 2 

Comparison of the weiglita and 

The maund' of Sara = i 
„ Organci 

„ Oltrarre 

, „ Annalec 

Camexu „ „ 2 

Tana, on the Blacli Sea. 
At Tana, aa shall next be akown, they use a variety of 
weights and meaauroa, viz. : 

The cantar, which is that of Genoa. 
The greiil pownj* = 20 lbs. Genoese. 
The Tuotolo^ of which 20 = 1 great pound. 
The UtUe pound, which ia the Gteaoese pound. 
The iochetto, of which 12 ^ ] great pound. 
The aaggio, of which 45 =^ 1 sommo. 
Tho picco} 
Wax, ladantmi,' iron, tin, copper, pepper, ginger, all coarser 

' Jf^iui, representing the Arabic man, I suppose from Greek and Lat. 
mino, diffased over all the East with an infinite variety of rallies ftom 
lielow two pounds up to one bnndred poanda. We hare Anglicized it in 
India into mound. The man of Ohazan Khan, Trhich maybe meant here, 
was of 260 drachms. 

■ ' This should be oqual to thirty, not twenty, Genoese pounds, as is 
slioini by passages at pp. 31, 37, of Pegolotti. Is this great pound the 
origin of the Russian pood ? 

' The eanlaro and ruofolo both snrviTe in Southern Italy and Sicily, 
the former derived from the hmtdr and the latter from the rithl of the 
Arabs, thoug'h the first of these n'orda, and perhaps both, must have coma 
to the Arabic from the Latin. 

< The pit is BtUl the common cloth measure in the Levant. It seems 
generally to be about twenty-eight inches. 

* Ladnniun or labdannm (the lodtn of the Arabs), is a gum resin derived 
bani the Cutut creticut, which grows in the Islands of the Levant. It ii 
exported in solid pieces of cylindrical and other forms. A loni; descrip- 
tion of the mode of collecting it, etc., will be found in Toumefort, Voyaga 
du Levant, i, 84, el leq. According to Herodotus iodanum was derived 
"&om a most inodorous place," viz.,the boards of he-goats, which oc 
it from the bushes in browsing (Ron' id win's Herod., bit. iii. 


spices, cotton, madder, and snet, cheese, flax, and oil, honey, 
and the like, sell by the great pound. 

Silk, saffron, amber wrought in rosaries and the like, and 
all small spices sell by the little pound. 

Vair-skins by the 1000 ; and 1020 go to the 1000. 

Ermines by the 1000 ; 1000 to the 1000. 

Foxes, sables, fitches and martens, wolfskins, deerskins, 
and all cloths of silk or gold, by the piece. 

Common stuffs, and canvasses of every kind sell by the 

Tails are sold by the bundle at twenty to the bundle. 

Oxhides by the hundred in tale, giving a hundred and no 

Horse and pony hides by the piece. 

Gold and pearls are sold by the saggio} Wheat and all 
other com and pulse is sold at Tana by a measure which 
they call cascito} Greek wine and all Latin wines are sold 
by the cask as they come. Malmsey and wines of Triglia 
and Candia are sold by the measure. 

Caviar is sold by the fusco, and a fusco is the tail-half of 
the fishes skin, full of fish's roe.' 

1 The sag^o in Italy was ^ of a pounds i. e., ^ of an ounce (Pegol, p. 
31). Here it was a little more, as may be deduced from its relation to 
the sommo opposite. 

' Cascito must have been miswritten for caju^. There is a measure 
called kaf(z in Arabic, and specified as cafizium in some of the treaties 
(Not. et Ext., zi, 30). Hammer-Purgstall mentions kofeiz as a standard 
measure at Tabriz, which is doubtless the same (Oesch. der Oolden Horde, 
etc., p. 225). And Pegolotti himself has cafisso as a Moorish measure. 
Indeed, I need not have sought this word so far away. It is still used in 
Sicily as Cajisu for an oil measure, the fifth part of a Cantaro. It also 
exists in Spanish as CdhtM, and will be found in Ducange in a variety of 
forms, CafHum, Caflcium, Cajisa, CappiHus, etc. 

3 Caviare is now exported in small kegs. Fusco is perhaps just fish. In 
the dialect of the Goths of the Crimea that word was fisct according to 
Busbeck. The sturgeon of the Borysthenes are already mentioned by 
Herodotus as large fish without prickly bones, called antaccei, good for 
pickling, and according to Professor Bawlinson caviare also was known 
to the Greeks as rdptxos \vraHaiov. 


Charges < 

1 mercbandizo which are paid ai 
citj, nothing being paid on g 

Gold, silver, and pearls at Tana pay neither comercJiio nor 
tamnnga, nor any other duties. 

On wine, and ox-hidea, and tails, and horse-bides, the 
Gienoese and Venetians pay four per cent., and all other 
people five per cent. 

Wliat is paid for tlic transit of merchandize ai Tana. 

Silk 15 aBpers per pound. 

All other things, at . . , aspers for 3 cantars. 

At Tana the money current is of soiumi and aspers of 
silver. The sonimo weighs 45 sur/rii of Tana, and ia of the 
alloy of 11 oz. 17 dwt. of fine silver to the pound. And if 
silver be sent to the Tana mint, they coin 202 aspera from 
the Bowino^ but they pay you only 190, retaining the rest 
for the work of the mint and its profit. So a sommo at 
Tana is reckoned to be 190 aspers. And the sommi are 
ingots of silver of the alloy before mentioned, which are 
paid away by weight. But they do not all weigh the same, 
80 the ingots are weighed at the timo of payment, and if the 
weight is less than it ought to be the balance is paid in 
aspers, to make up every sommo to the value of 45 saggi of 
Tana weight. 

And there are also current at Tana copper coins called 
follcri, of which sixteen go to tlie asper. But the folleri 
are not used in mercantile transactions, but only in the pur- 
chase of vegetables and such small matters for town use." 

Chapter v gives details as to the reltLtion of the Tana weights 

I The luper must therefore have oontained iilver to the amonnt of 
about Oi. 2.8d. 

Ftilieio is tlie Bj'iontine Mppor Fallit, nnd perbape Persian puU 


and measTiTes to those of Venice, etc. ; as to the weights and 
measures of Caffa ; and as to those of Tabriz (Torissi di Persia), 
The duties at Tabriz are called Camunoca. 


On the expenses which usually attend the transport of merchandise 
from Ajazzo of Erminia to Torissi^ by land. 

In the first place from Aiazzo as far as Colidara,^ i.e., as 
far as the King of Armenians territory extends, you pay 
altogether 41 taccolini and 3^ deniers (at the rate of 10 
deniers to the taccolino) on every load, whether of camels 
or of other beasts. Now taking the taccolino to be about 
an asper, the amount will be about 41 aspers of Tauris per 
load. And 6 aspers of Tauris are equal to one Tauris bezant. 

At Gandon, where you enter upon the lands of Bonsaet, 

i.e. of the lord of the Tartars,^ on every load . 20 aspers. 

At the same place, for watching, ditto . 3 

At Casena . . . . .7 

At the Caravanserai of the Admiral' . . 3 

At Gadue . ... . . .3 

At the Caravanserai of Casa Jacomi . 3 

At the entrance to Sai^vastro* from Aiazzo . . 1 

Inside the city . . .7 

Leaving the city on the road to Tauris 1 

At DUDRUGA,* . • . .3 

^ Respecting Aiazzo see note, p. 278 aupra. Colidara shoold perhaps be 
Gobidar, the name of an Armenian fortress and barony in Taorus, which 
is mentioned in Joum. As., ser. v, vol. xviii, 314. 

* Bonsaet is Abu Said Bahadar Khan, the last effective sovereign of the 
Mongol dynasty in Persia, who died 1335. He is called Busaid by some 
Arabic writers^ and on some Mongol coins. The Pope in addressing him 
calls him Boyssethan, i.e. Busaid Khan (IfOhsson, iv, 716; Mosheim, 144). 

8 Oavazera del Ammiraglio, I suppose Karwdnsarai-ul-Amir. The same 
word is used at each place rendered caravanserai. 

* Sebaste, now Siwas. 

* The proper reading is probably DuvHaga, viz., Divrik or T^tppiKri, a 
place still existing between Sivas and Erzingan. 



At Gbeboco , 

At Much 1 SAB 

At ditto, as fantauUag^^ for the watch 

At AttziHQA,^ at entrance to the town 

Ditto, inside the citj . 

Ditto, for the watchmen, on leaving 
At the Caravanserai on the Hill 
At LlGOBTI .... 
At ditto, at the bridge, for tantaidlagio 
At the Caravansei'ai outside Abzerohe^ 
At Arzerone, at the Baths' . 

Ditto, inside the city 

Ditto, BM a present to the lord 

Ditto, at the Baths towards Tauris' 


At ditto .... 

At Sebmessacalo' for tantaallagglo . 

At Aor.iA, for the whole journey 

At the middle of the plain of Aggin, for duty 

At ditto for tind. 

At Calacresti," ditto . . . . Oj 

' This wae probably written Tancaallagifio. The Tanga-ult ware guardg 
01' pntroU npoa the roads in Pereiti. An edict of Qhazan Khan, cited by 
D'Obflson, illustTatas these charges. He denounces the Tanganls Tor 
their exactions from travellers, and anthorkes them to take a fee of half 
an atcM and no more, for evety two cjimela or four mnleii loaded. (The 
akeht was, I presume, the same as the aaper, for it Is named &om dk, 
white, as the osper from iariiar, white). At every station of Taiu/a^li 
there waa to be a stone piDor indicating their number, the duties of their 
chief, imd the fees due. (D'Ohiion, iv, 471-2.) Pegolotti, in his ia%&- 
tory glosaary, says Tantaiillo in Tartarestiue is applied " to people who 
act 03 guards of pk,cos and of roads for gentleman and others," p. xiiii. 

' Erzingon of oar maps. 

^ Erinim. 

* In connexion with these baths at the entrance and eiit bom the city 
wo read that Qhazan Khan, in building- New Tabrin, caused to be erected 
at each gate of the eitj a great caravanserai, a market, a set of baths, so 
that the merchants, from whatever quarter they came, found a semi and 
baths adjoining the cnatom -house where tbuir wares were eiamincd 

' I have no doubt that this is the Sarbisacalo of Odoric ; see note at 
p. 47. 

" Probably the pkee called h'amkalUa (the Blaet Church), 


At the Thbee Churches,^ for tant. . 
Under Noah's Ark,' for duty- 
Ditto ditto for tant. 


At LoccHE, ditto 

At the plain of the Falconers, ditto (twice altogether) 

At the said plain, for a ticket or permit from the lord 

At the Cami'zoni, for tant. 

At the Plains of the Red River,^ for taiit. 

At CoNDRO, for tant. 

At Sandoddi, ditto . 

At Taurts, ditto 

0| aspers. 




And you may reckon that the exactions of the Moccols or 
Tartar troopers along the road, will amount to something 
like fifty aspers a load. So that the cost on account of a 
load of merchandize going by land from Aiazzo of Armenia 
to Tauris in Cataria(?)* will be, as appears by the above 
details, 209 aspers a load, and the same back again.^ 

1 I presnme that this route from Erzrum to Tabriz follows the old 
Genoese line between Trebizond and Tabriz^ which passed to the south 
of Ararat. The Three Churches are not therefore those of Echmiazin, but 
the UchkUiH of the maps in the position just mentioned. 

* " Sotto Larcanoe !" Probably at Bayazid. 

' The Bed Biver (Fiume Bossq) is mentioned in this position by the Pala- 
tine version of Odoric also. There is no Bed Biver here, so named, but 
no doubt what is meant is the Araxes, or Ards, called by Edrisi Al Rds, a 
name sure to be Italianized into £0550. 

* Tartaria? 

* It is really 203 aspers (about ^22 : 8 : 0). Apparently he has added in 
the 6 aspers named at the end of the first paragraph. 




Detail Bbowing how all goods are sold and bougbt at Conatantinople and 
in FtinL, imd of tlm eipunseB incurral by trodtira ; but uapcciall; as 
regards Pera, because most of tlie buaiaeas is done there, where the 
raercboDta are more constantly to ba fonnd. For the rest of Con- 
Btantjaople belongs to the OreekB, bat Pera to the Franks, i.e., to 
the Gonoeae. And from Conatantinople to Pera, 'tis five miles by 
land, but half a milu by water. 

This is ono of the longest chapters iu the book, and embracea 
nnmeroaa particulars as to the castoma of trade ; as of tare, 
damage, garbling, samples, etc. We shall give aome extracts. 

Goods are Bold at Constantiiiople in yarions ways. 

The indigo called Baccadeo is (sold in pactages) of a certain 
weight, and the wt'ight you mtiat know should be the cantar. 
And if the buyer chooses to take it from the seller without 
weighing it, bo it more or loss than a cantar, 'tia to the profit 
or loss of the buyer. But they do almost always weigh it, and 
then payment is made according to the exact weight, be ib 
tnure OF less than a cantar. And the skin and wrapper are 
given with it but no tare is deducted ; nor is garbling al- 
lowed ; nor do they allow the indigo to bo examined except 
by a Kttle hole, from which a small sample may be ex- 
tracted. For such is use and wont in those parts. 

The following are sold by the cantar (of 150 Genoese lbs.) 
Wormwood; madder, and the bag goes as madder with- 
out any allowance for tare. Alum of every kind, and even 
if it be Roch-alum, the sack and cord go as alum. 

The following aUo art 

Horse hides 
Ox hides 
, Buffalo hides 

sold by the cantar at Constantinople 
and in Para. 
In purchasing these they are shown to the 
provers up the hill, i.e. in Pera ; and if the 
hides smell damp or wet, then a fit allow- 
ance is made, and this is the system in 


Pera and in Constantinople, and they are not put in the sun 
unless they are exceedingly wet indeed. 

Suet in jars ;* iron of every kind ; tin of ^very kind : lead 
of every kind. Zibihs- or raisins of every kind, and the mats 
go as raisins, with no allowance for tare unless they be 
raisins of Syria. In that case the baskets or hampers are 
allowed for as tare, and remain with the buyer into the 

Soap of Venice, soap of Ancona, and soap of Apulia in 
wooden cases. They make tare of the cases, and then these 
go to the buyer for nothing. But the soap of Cyprus and 
of Rhodes is in sacks, and the sacks go as soap with no 
tare allowance. 

Broken almonds in bags ; the bag goes as almonds ; only 
if there be more than one sack and cord it must be re- 
moved, or deducted, so that the buyer shall not have to 
take more than one sack and cord as almonds, but for any 
beyond that there shall be tare allowed ; and the cord shall 
go to the buyer gratis. 

Honey in kegs or skins ; tare is allowed for the keg or 
skin, but it remains with the buyer gratis. 

Cotton wool '^ and the sack goes as cotton without tare. 
Cotton yam ; and the sack is allowed as tare, and remains 
with the buyer for nothing. 

Rice ; and the bag goes as rice, but if it be tied the cord 
is allowed as tare and remains with the seller. Turkey 
galls of every kind; and if they are in bags you weigh 
bag and all, and do not make tare of the bag. Dried figs 

^ " 8evo in parrocie ;" the latter word is to be foand in no dictionary. 
But in a grant of trading privileges to the Genoese from Leon III, King 
of Armenia, we find " Vinum possit rendere in vegetis vel in parge." And 
on this St. Martin observes, "This is the common Armenian word 
p*hartch, signifying a jar.'* (Notices et Extraits, xi, 114). I have little 
doubt that this is the word represented by parrocie, 

^ Arab. zibCb ; the word is still in Italian use. 

3 " Cotone mapputo" 


of Majorca and Spain in hampers. Orpiment, and the bag 
goes as orpiment. Safflower,' and you make taro of bag 
and cord, and after that they remain with the buyer gratia. 

Henna j* and the bog goes as henna, only a tare of four 
per cent, is allowed by custom of trade. Cummin ; and the 
bag goes as cummin, and if tied with rope the rope is al- 
lowed as tare but remains with tho buyer gratis. 

Piatachios ;* and the bag goes with them with no allow- 
ance for tare, unleaa there be more bags than one, and if 
there be, then the excess is weighed and allowed as tare, 
and the buyer has the one bag gratis. 

Sulphur ; and the bag or barrel in which it is, is allowed as 
tare, and goes to the buyer gratis. Senna; and the bag is 
tare and goes to the buyer. Pitch ; and the mat is allowed 
for as tare, and goes to the buyer. Morda saiigue;* the bag 
goes with it and no tare allowed. 

The following are sold in the same way (but the particulars aa 
to customs of sale, etc, are omitted). 

Saltmeat ; cheese ; flax of Alexandria and of Komania ; 
Camlet wool ; washed wool of Romania ; unwashed ditto ; 
washed or unwaslied wool of Turkey ; chesnuts. 

' Here tlie ivord is A^roh, the identity of which vitb saSower wilt 
perbapa be doubted. But at p. 373, where he makes the word affiore, 
the daacription of the article and the way to judge of qualities appear 
to point to Bafflower. In other paasages he has attifore, aatufi, but 
also taffoU (di Valenia) taffinre, ta^ore (pp. Bi, 295. 211, 113, 134, 

' " Aleatus," the Cypnit of tbe GreekB, the I'hylleria or Mock ■privet of 
Gecftrde, now called Lawonia Inmiiii, used lij Eastom women to tinge 
the nails, b; men in dyeing the beard, etc. 

' FUtuehi. Though I do not find this I'onn in any Italian dictionary, 
jifiiccullach'i Commercial Diet, mentions Fatlvcehi as an Italian form of 
PisfaecW, and I have no doubt thia is the word. For the Arabs call 
piatachioBB Ptwiiii and the Tnika, Piatik. The Persian is Piitah with no 
k, 80 that the word probably waa first introduoed in the Arabic form. I 
find Oerarde calls pistauhiaes Fistick'Nats. 

* This perplexing word moat be the Persian MurdaTi-aaHg, " Litharge." 
Bums however renders Wnoi-itor-suHg (a« he spella it) "sulphate of copper" 
{Travel!, iii, 207). 


c followiiuj ire sold by the himdredwet^ht of 100 Gmwesn 

ji&unds (details omitted). 
Bound pepper; ginger; barkedbrazil-woodjlacjzedoary;* 
mgar, and powdered sugar of all kinds j aloes 
of all kinds; quicksilver; cassia fistnla ; sal ammoniac or 
ligemiho ; cinnabar ; cinnamon ; galbanum ;* ladanum of 
Cyprus ; mastic ; copper ; amber, big, middling, and small, 

Kt wrought ; stript coral ; clean and fine coral, middling 
d small. 
The following are sold by Ihe poumi. 
Haw silk ; saffron ; clove-stalks* and cloves ; cubeba ; 
^-atoes ; rhabarb ; mace ; long pepper ; galangal ;* broken 
mphor ; nutmegs ; spike ;' cardamoms ; scammony ; 
onding pearls ;" manna ; boras ; gum Arabic ; dragon's 

' Ztltoara. Thin is a, drug now almost diaused ; the root of a plant 
which used to be eiported from Mulabar, Cejlon, Cochin China, etc. 

' A ^m-reflin derived firom a. perennial plant {Q. oficinale) growing in 
Syria, Persia, the Cape of Qood Hope, etc. It ifl imported into England 
from the Levant chieSy. (Maccullach.) 

' Fuiti dt Gherofatii. Theae, when good, are said elaewhere by Pego- 
lotti to be worth one-third the price of good clovea. The phrase appears 
often in UKzano'a book, as well as Fiori and Faglia Jt Qkero/ani. Qarzia, 
qnoted by Mattioli on DioaoorideH, aajB the slalki of the clovea are called 
yniH, Bat old Oerarde aaya " That groeae kinde of olovea which bath 
been supposed to be the male, are nothing eUe than fruit of the same 
tree tarrying there untlll it fall down of itaelfe unto the grounde, where 
by roBEon of bis long lying and meeting with some raine in the mean 
season, it loseth the quick taate that tbe others have. Some have called 
thoae Pu*H, whereof we ma^ Engliah them JSiitei." Pegolotti bos also 
(p. 309) f^lurhi di Qhero/ani, but theae seem to have been clove twigs, 
re formerl; imported along with cloves, and which Buda:eus in 
Theophraatua uonstders to have been tbe nnnamomvm of the 
(See a, passage in Ibn Batuta, infra; Gtrarde'a Herbail, 1635; 

JattioH,3b4i Sadaetii on Thenphfoai-ui. 992-3). 

Saiongo, a. root imported from India and China, of aromatic smell 
and hot unpleasant taste. {.Mttecvllueh.) 

' Spigo I the spike lavender Irom whii^h this was mode woacalled liaiian 
Nard. Marsden supposes the spigo of M. Polo to be spikenard. 

PerU da Pettare, mentioned alao by G. da tJzzano ; I suppose for use 
Jn medieine. Hattioli quol«s from Avicenna and "thera that pearls were 

^^^^Jn medieine. 


blood ; camel's hay ;' turbit ;' silk-gauze ; sweetmeats ; gold 
wire ; dressed silk ; wrought amber in beads, etc. 

Sold in half .st^mvA of inn-H. 
Buckrams of Erzingan and Cypnis, 

By the piece. 
Silk velvets; damasks; tnaramafi ; gold clotli of every 
kind; nachetti and nacchi of every kind ; and all ctotts of 
silk and gold except gauzes.^ 

8okl by the hundrnl pika of Gazaria.* 

Common stuffs and canvasses of all kinds, except tbose 

of Champagne; also French and North-country broad cloths. 

Then follow details of the different kinds of cloths, with the 
lenf^h of the pieces. And then a detail of special modes of 
selling certain wares, snch as : 

Undressed vaira, and vair bellies and backs; Slavonian 
squirrels ; martins and fitches ; goat skins and ram skins ; 
dates, filberts, walnuts ; salted sturgeon tails ; salt ; oil of 
Venice ; oil of the March ; oil of Apulia, of Gaeta, etc. ; 
wheat and barley ; wine of Greece, of Turpia in Calabria,* 
of Patti in Sicily, of Patti in Apulia,* of Cutrone in Cala- 
bria,'' of the March, of Ci^ete, of Romania ; country wine. 

good in poJpitationa and water; ejes ; but not aa if the; were used in hia 

> Squinanti, tho uxwrns of the Qreek herboliate, or Jitncua Odorolui. 
The name in the text is that used land pechapa invented) b; Gerarde. 

* The cortical part of the root ol a apecies of convolmluB from Torions 
parts of the East Indies. Like otber dru^ muned here, it ia bnt little 
used in mediaine now-a-days. 

' On tbe words in thie passage see note, p. S95 *upra. 

* Oazariu, the coantry embracing the Sea of Azov and the Crimen, in 
wbicb were the Frank footoriea of Tana, CaSK Soldaia, etc. i ho namud 
from the ancient tribes of the Kboxara or Cha^ara. 

* Tropea, on the west coast of Calabria. 

B Fatti in Sicll; is a ainall CBitbedral town west of MUazzo. The other 
I cannot indicate. 
' Cotrono, tbe ancient Crotona. on the east coast of Calabria. 


Then follow details on the money in nse, on the duties 
levied, — • 

(And don^t forget that if yon treat the custom-house 
officers with respect, and make them something of a present 
in goods or money, as well as their clerks and dragomen, 
they will behave with great civility, and always be ready to 
appraise your wares below their real value.) 

— On the preferential prices given for certain kinds of goods; 
as to the fees paid for weighing, garbling, brokerage, packing, 
warehousing, and the like ; with details of the relation of the 
weights and measures to those of most European countries. 

This may serve as a sample of the average contents of the book. 

Chap, xxix treats of how various kinds of goods are packed, etc. 

Chap, xxx is on shipment and matters connected therewith. 

Chap, xxxv is on assays of gold and silver. 

Chap. Lxn is oh London in England in itself; but it does not 
contain anything of interest for extract. The chief idea con- 
nected with England in Pegolotti's mind appears to have been 

Chap, lxiii gives a detail of the " Houses (Religious) in Scot- 
land, in England,^ that have wool. 

The list is very curious. It embraces : 

Niobottoli,' Mirososso,* Barmunacche,^ Chupero,^ Chilo- 
sola,^ Donfermellino,® Dondamane,' Grenelusso,^^ Balledi- 
rucco(?), Guldingamo,^^ Ghelzo,^^ Norbonucche,^* Sansa- 
8ano(?),^* 6rideghorda(?). 

^ WooUen cloth was one of the staples of Florentine commerce. In 1338 
there were 200 hotteghe, producing doth to the value of 1,200,000 zecehins, 
and supporting 30,000 persons (Delia Decima, ir, p. 24). 

' " Magioni di Scozia di InghilterraJ* 

s Newbattle. * Melrose ? or perhaps " Mary's House." 

^ Pagnini has Barmicdcuiche, but the above is from the MS. Bal- 
merynac or Balmannac is the old name of the Abbey of Balmerino in 

^ Cupar. 7 Eilloss or Eynloss in Moray. ^ Dunfermline. 

' Dundrennan. ^^ Glenlace. " Coldingham. i< Eelso. 

" North Berwick ? 

H This seems like St. Susan's, but I can trace no such Scotch abbey. 

20 « 


Sot he sooQ passes ^m Scotland to England, for the follow- 
ing Houses of ike CiaterciB,n Order certainly belong to the south : 

Olcholtam,' Nieomostriere- in Orto Bellanda, Foruace in 
Orto Bellandaj^ CaWerea in Coppolanda,* Bailee in Cra- 
venna,' Giervalese,* Fontana,' Biolanda,* Bivalse," Mieaa in 
Oldaraese,'" Chirctestallo,^ Laroccia," II Parco di Livia,'" 
Chiriciatede,''' Revesbi,'^ Svinsivede,'* Lavaldeo," RnfForte 
in Estierenda,''' Gierondona.^^ 

The chapter contains many more puzzles of the same kind. Bat 
car extracts have wamlered far ft^m Cathay or the road thither, 
and ninst atop. 

' Holm Cnltram Abbe; in Cumbert&nd. 

- " Newminster," near Morpeth, in " Northumberlftnd." 

" FnmeaB ia Northnmberland," in which it is not. 

" Colder Abbey in Cnmberland" (and this Ehomi that tlie English- 
Q slurred his R'b olread;). 

" Sam[«5 Abbey in Craven." ' Jorvauhc. ' Fonntaina. 

■ Byland, ' Probably ahonld be Bimitse, Bivaulx. 

1" ■■ Meaui Abbey in Holdemesa." " KirkataD. " Eoehe Abbey. 
" Probably Loutb Park, called " de Parco lude." '* Kirkstend. 

' Eeveaby Abbey in Lincolnahire. " Swineahead. 

■' The Abbey of Vavdei/ or " de Valle Dei" in LincolnBhire. 
» Bufford or Eumford Abbey in NottinghamBhire. 
" GsTondon or Qeraldon Abbey in Leioeatershire. For these abbeyB 
(whii-h are all Ciatercian) aeo Tannrr'i Notitia Monaitica. 








These notices of Eastern Travel are fonnd, like unexpected fos- 
sils in a mud-bank, imbedded in a Chronicle of Bohemia, which 
was first printed from an old MS. in the latter half of the last 
century. Of the author there is not very much to be learned, 
except what can be gathered from these reminiscences of his. 
John of Florence, a Minorite, is known to the ecclesiastical bio- 
graphers as the author of sundry theological works, and as Bishop 
of Bisignano. And a John of Florence, a Minorite, is also known, 
through brief notices in the Annals of Raynaldus and Wadding, 
as having gone on a mission to Cathay, Bat till the publication 
of the Bohemian Chronicle the identity of these Johns does not 
seem to have been suspected, and even since the date of that 
publication they have been carefully discriminated by a very 
learned Franciscan.^ 

The two Johns were, however, one. He was a native of 
Florence or its neighbourhood, and came of the Marignolli of 
San Lorenzo, a noble family of the Republic which derived its 
name from a village called Marignolle, in the Valley of the Amo, 
about two miles south-west of the city. The family of the 

1 See Supplementum et Castigatio ad Scriptores Trium Ordinum S. Fran- 
cisci a Waddingo, &c., opus posthumum Ft. Jo. Hyacinthi Sbaralem, Bomse, 
1806, p. 436. Another John of Florence, also connected with the Eastern 
missions of the fourteenth century, is mentioned by Qu^tif ; but he was a 
Dominican, and bishop of Tiflis in Q-eorgia (Script. Ord. Prcedieat., p. 583). 


MarignoUi was, in the middle ages, one of tlie most influential in 
Florence, and its members were generally leaders in the Guelf 
faction. They were expelled from the Eepublic on the defeat of 
that party at Montajierti in 1260,* 

but after a few years effected their return, and long continued to 
give many gonfaloniers and other magistrates to the city. In 
the seventeenth century, however, they were already qoite ex- 
tinct. A street in Florence near the cathedral, now called Via 
de' Cerretani, is siill marked as having formerly home their name 
(Gm de' MariffnotH).^ 

The date of John's birth ia not known. But it maybe guessed 
irom the wandering garrulity of hia recollections, that he was 
an aged man, when, some time about 135-!), he put them on 
paper ; and this is confirmed by a circumstance which will be 
cited below. He waa therefore bom, in all probability, before 

He was a member of the Franciscan monastery of Santa Croce 
in Florence, to which he apparently refers in his story, when he 
tells UB that on his return from the East he deposited a certain 
Indian garment in the sacristy of the Minorites in that city. 

He is known for certain as the anthor of two works in Tuscan : 
one a Hwhr'j of St. Onufrio ; the other a work called The AcU of 
the Apostles, whether a translation of Scripture or a collection of 
legends, I do not know. Both are said to be cited as authorities 
in Italian by the Delia Crnsca vocabulary. But he is also sup- 
posed to have been the John of Florence who wrote a History of 
his Order, and a treatise on the Canonization of St. Francis, 
works which formerly existed in the library of Santa Croce.* 
Sbaralca also regards as probably written by MarignoUi a small 
Italian work on The Fhtvera of St. Francis, which was printed by 

' a. Villani. Uivria Fiortntina, book v, c. 79, 80, 

' The \aal fact is bota personal observation. Others in this paragraph 
are partly from Jlalia Satra of UghelU (Temce. 1717, i, 522), and partJj 
Irom a respectable Tuscan kuthority the reference to which I have 
omitted to not«. 

" BbaraUa. U.S. 


Nicolas Girardengo at Venice in 1480, and often reprinted ; and 
also a Life of St. John Baptist, which is appended to the former 
in the MS. at Bologna. 

Marignolli refers in his recollections to having at one time 
given lectures at Bologna.^ And this is all that I can collect 
abont him previous to his mission to the East. 

John of Monte Corvino, the venerable Archbishop of Cam- ' 
balec, died as we have already seen about 1328, and the suc- 
cessor appointed by Pope John in 1333 seems never to have 
reached his destination.^ 

In 1338 however there arrived at Avignon an embassy from ^ 
the Grreat Khan of Cathay, consisting of Andrew a Frank, and 
fifteen other persons. They brought two letters to the pope: 
one purporting to be from the Grand £[han himself, and the 
other from certain princes of the Christian Alans in his service, i 

It is not stated that Andrew was an ecclesiastic ; but it is pos- 
sible that he may have been our acquaintance the Bishop of 

D'Ohsson^ regards the whole matter as an example of the sham 
embassies which on several occasions were palmed off on the 
European courts as coining from the Mongol princes. But he 
is apparently not aware of MarignoUi's narrative of the return 
mission and its reception. And the Khan's letter looks very 
genuine in its haughty curtness and absence of swelling titles, the 
use of which Chinghiz prohibited to his successors. The pre- 
liminary phrase also seems the same that is found prefixed to the 
Tartar letters in the French archives ; and which Remusat 
states to be a mark of genuine character.^ In any case the 
letter is meritoriously short and to the point, so we may give it 
in fuU.« 

* " Vidi etiam Bononias quando ibi legebam.** (Dohner, p. 112.) 

2 See above, p. 172. * See p. 183 above. 

* HUi. des Mongols, n, 608. 

* Mem. de VAcademie des Inscript (Modem) vii, 367. He rendera it 
"Par la force du del suprSme.** 

" This and the other letters connected with this embassy are given in 
Wadding, vol. vii, pp. 209 and seq. ; also in Mosheim, Append., pp. 166 
and seq. 

^H The Uu 


" In the strength of the Omnipotent God ! 

" The Emperor of Emperors com.mandeth : 

" We Bond our envoy, Andrew the Pi-ank, with fifteen others, 
to the Pope, the Lord of the Chriatians, in Frant-land beyond 
the Seven Sea*^ where the siin goes down, to open a way for the 
ireqnent exchange of messengers between us and the Pope ; and 
to request the Pope himself to send us his blessing, and always 
to remember us in hia holy prayers ; and to commend to him the 
Alans, oar sorranta and his Christian sons. Also we desire that 
our messengers bring baek to ua horses and other rarities from 
the snn-iietting. 

" Written in Cambalec, in the year of the Bat, in the sixth 
month, on the third day of the Moon."' 

The letter of the Alan chiefs, with partial omissions, runs an 
follows: — 

" In the strength of the Omnipotent God, and in tbo honour of 
onr Lord the Emperor ! 

" We, FuTiM Johns, Chaticen Tcnoii, Gemdooa Evenzi, Joanses 
IncHOV (and Kcbeus Pinzahcs),^ with onr heads in the dust salute 

' Meinert (see below) auppoaeg these Beven seas to be the AraJ, Cob- 
pian, Sea of Azov, Blacfc Si^a, Sea, of Harmora, Atchipelngo, and the 
MediterraneBD. It ma; be noted that Edrisi also reckons seven aeau 
beaidos tbe Great Ooean, vix., Bed Sea., Oreen Sea (Fereian Gulf), Sea of 
DaniMOiis (Meditennjieaii), Bea of Venice, Sea of Pontua, and Sea of 
Joipan (Caapian). And the Arabian navigatore of the ninth ceutnry also 
reukon aovcn aeaa between Basra and China. But any such BCiuntifio 
precution is here higbl; improbable. The reference is more Ukely to be to 
the aeren annular seas of tbe BuddhiaC cOEinogon;, and done into vulgar 
Engliah roeanB onlj that the Popo lived at the " Back of Beyond." 

= About July 1336. 

' These at firat sight look like names out of OHlliver't Travels, ancb us 
Quinbua Fleatrin and the like. They are sevei-ol times repuated in the 
copies of different lettera from the Pope that have come down to us, and 
the fomiB vary canaiderably. We have the following : 

Fiitim Joens, Fodim and Fodin Jovens ; 
Cbaticen Tuogii, tJhjansam and Chyausam Tongi ; 
Geniboga Evenei, CherabogBi Venaii or Venae ; 
loannea Jukoy, lochoy, or Yathoy; 
BubeuB Pinzanns or Puizanus. 

The UiBt name occur 
Alans as we have it. 
I cannot venture lo say whEit the 

of the Pope's letters, but not in that of the 
are meant to represent , but 



I <mr Holy Father the Pope. . . . For a long time we received in- 

I straction in the Catholic faith, with wholeHome gnidaace and 

I kbnndant consolation, from yonr Jjeg&te Friar John, a mau of 

I weightj', capable, and holy character. But since his death, eight 

years agfo, we have been wilhont a director, and without spiritual 

consolation. We heard, indeed, that thou hadst sent another 

legate, but he hath never yet appeared. Wherefore ive bcBcech 

yonr Holiness to send na a legate, wise, capable, and virtuous, to 

e for onr souls. And let him come quickly, for we are here a 

['flock without a head, withont instruction, without consolation. 

. And it hafl happened on three or four different occasionB 

I that envoys have come on thy part to the aforesaid Emperor onr 

I Uaster, and have been must gracionaly received by him, and have 

I the following saggDstioiiB may at leiut ahow the sort of expUnationa that 
e pmcticable. I bare a. HuspicioD that tbe first aii words form two 
.mea only instead of three. Assaming this we have for the first, Futim 

I Joena (i.e. Yoens) ChyanBam. To reduce Yoens or Yovens to a rational 
>t be remembered that these names were probably transferred 

I from Persian, or aome analogous charaeter. Tranafer YovttnH back iato 

t bocomes 


i properly into Eoman letters 

I Fenian il 

I II I'linu* or Jonaa, no doubt tbe name of the peraonage in qnestion ; whilst 

I Pulim may repreeent tbo Cbineao title Fittat, and Chyantam that of 

Chingiaiig, tbe deaignation of the ^eat miniatera of state which often 

oiB in the Mongol history, and boa already occurred in the ertrocta 

nKaabid, (D'OAnson, ii, li36; Journ. .4™!.. aer. ii, torn, vi, pp. 352^3 ; ' 

nipra, p. 263.) 

The next name will be Tangii Qmnboga Vaaii. Tvngii looka like the 
Dankji of Shah Bukh'a Emlmssy, in the narrative of which we find it 
applied to the Chincee govemora of tbe frontier provincea, perhaps as a 
corruption of the Chinese Tsiangahi, a general, Oemboga or Charabuoa it 
tbe proper name, a name quite Tartar in character, for scores of Boghai 
m will be fonnd in tbe bistoriea of the Mongols and of Timor (from Turkl 
a army leader). We find Jamnea, nrhioh la perhapa the same 
one of tbe rivala of ChingMz (D'OAtion, i, 70). And Vensil la 
■•■Imoat eertainly Waagthi, a commandant often thouaand. 

Tbe Tukoy, which appeura to be the title of Joannea, tbe next of the 
F^Iana, ia perhaps Yeuliie, whinb according to Visdelou (Sup]>(. to Htrbtlot) 
a rank eqaivatent to colonel, or as Pauthier ealls it, " ck^ de bataillon 
llC\ine Hod., 331). Lastly we hare in tbe title of Rabeua Pimamts, tbe 
WFanehdn or Panchiin of the Persian hiatoriaiis of the Mongol dynasty 
F'^Ofcu»n, vi, 530, 637, etc. ; Ext. Irom Eoshid, tupra, p. 263) represent- 
■ ittg the Chinese title of aa under mlnlater of atate. Rubns ia probably 
I a translation of the original name, Kiiil or the like, moaning Red. 




had honours and preecnte bestowed apou them; and altbongli all 
of thum in turn promised to bring bact thine answer to our Lord 
aforesud, never yet hatb he bad any i^plj from thee or &om the 
Apostolic See. WLerefore let roar Holiness see to it tbat this 
time and henceforward there may be no donbt abont a reply being 
sent, and an envoy also, as is fitting from yonr Holiness. For it 
is cause of great shame to Christians in these parts when their 
fellows are found to tell lic«." (Date as above.) 

The position of these Alans in China suggests a carious and 
perplexing problem. We shall find that Marignolli speats of 
tbtm as " the greatest and noblest nation in the world, the &ireat 
and bravest of men"; as those to whose aid Cbingbiz owed all 
his great victories ; and who in tlie writer's own day were to the 
number of thirty thousand in the service of the Great Khan, and 
filled tlie most important oEBces of stale, whilst all were, at least 
nominally, Cliristians. 

The Alans were known to the Chinese by that name, in the 
ages immediately preceding and following the Christian era, as 
dwelling near the Aral, in which original position they are be- 
lieved to have been closely akin to, if not identical with, the 
famous Massagetffi. Hereaboats also Ptolemy (vi, U) appears 
to place the Alani-Scythaj, and Alaniean Mountains. From about 
40 B.C. the emigrations of the Alans seem to have been directed 
westward to the Lower Don ; here they are placed in the first 
century by Josephns and by the Armenian writers ; and hence 
they are fonnd issniag in the third eentnrj- to ravage the rich 
provinces of Asia Minor. In 37t! the delnge of the Hans on ita 
westward course cam.e upon the Alans and overwhelmed them. 
Great numbers of Alans are found to have joined the conquerors 
on their further progress, and large bodies of Alans afterwards 
swelled the waves of Golhs, Vandals, and Sneves, that rolled 
across the Western Empire. A portion of the Alans, howerer, 
after the Hun invasion retired into the plains adjoining Caucasus, 
and into the lower valleys of that region, where tLcy maintained 
the name and nationality which the others speedily lost. Little is 
heard of these Caucasian Alans for many centuries, except occa- 
sionalljT aa roorccnaiy soldiers of the Byzautiue cmpcrore or the 



Persian kings. In the thirteenth centnry they made a stont re- 
sistance to the Mongol conqnerors, and thongh driven into the 
inountaina they long conlinued their forajE on the tracts snb' 
jected fo the Tartar dynasty that settled on the Wolga, so that 
the Mongols had to maintain pcists with Htrong garrisonB to keep 
them in cheek. They wei-c long redoutahle both as wairiors and 
aa armonrers, bnt by the end of the fourteenth century they seem 
to have coiue thoroughly under the Tartar mlo ; for they fought 
on the side of Toctaniish Khan of Sarai against the great Timur. 

The Chinese hiatorians of the Mongol dynasty now call this 
people Asn, and by that name (Aas and the like) they were also 
known to Ibu Batuta and to the Frank travellers, Carpini, Rubru- 
qnis, and .Toaafat Barbaro. This and other reasons led Klaproth 
to identify thera with the Osseiki, still existing in Cancasos. 
Vivien St. Martin however lias urged strong reasons against 
this identification, though he nonsiders both tribes to have been 
originally members of one great stock of Agl. who by routes and 
at times widely separated, severally found their way from Central 
Aflia to the region of Caucasus. According tc\ the same authority 
the Georgians, who always distinguished between the AlawtlU 
and Osaelhi, still recognize a people of the former branch in the 
interior of the Abaz country where no traveller has penetrated. 

We now come to the difficulty of accounting for the appearance 
of numcrou.s Alans in the armies and administration of the Yuen 
dynasty, a difficulty which perhaps led Klaproth to suggest that 
those were reaUy of a Mongol tribe bearing that name, and had 
nothing in common with the Caucasian people of whom we have 
l>een speaking.' 

This suggestion has not met with acceptance. And there are 

notices to be found which account to some extent for the position 

ascribed to the Alans in China, though the records on the sub- 

to bo imperfect. Chinghiz Khan, in ihe course of his 

irestem conquests, is recorded to have forced many of the inha- 

.tants of the countries which he overran to take service in his 

ies. The historian Rashidnddin, in speaking of the Chris- 

itj of llie Keraits, and especially of the mother and the 

I Klnprolh. Jfn;,«5m AtMiq^e. 1. \>. IW, 


minister of Guyuk-Khan, who were Cliristians of that tribe, naya 
that they emnmoned to the court of Karakorara numerous priesta 
of Syrio, Asia Minor, the Alan country, and Busflia. And Gaubil, 
without apparently being awai'e of the identity with the Alans of 
the Abu (or Aas) who are spoken of iu the text of Ihe ChineHe 
history which he follows, observes in a note that the countrv of 
the Asn, after its ronqaeat, famished many valuable otEeers 
to the Mongols, and that it eonld not have lain far from the 
Caspian. The Bume narrative states that Kublai Kb&n, when 
<leBpatching an army against the Sung dynasty of Southern 
China, desired his general to select the best possible officers, and 
that there were consequently attached to the army many chiefs 
of the Uigurs, Persians, Kincha, Aiu, and others. The anecdote 
ivliich Marco Polo relates of the massacre of a body of Christian 
Alans during this very war, may also be called to mind. 

Still the numbers and very prominent position ascribed by 
Marignolli to the Alans in the Mongol-Chinese empire, are, afler 
all allowance for natural exaggeration of the importance of his 
co-religionist«, rather startling. The history of these later princes 
of the Yuen dynasty does not seem to be accessible in any great 
detail, but it is easily conceivable that as the spirit of the 
Mongols degenerated, their princes, as in so many similar cases, 
came to lean more and more on their foreign auxiliaries, and that 
these may have been often found in occupation of the highest 
posts of the empire. Indeed it was one of the complaints against 
Tocatmur or Shunti, the Emperor reigning at this time, that he 
gave too much authority to "foreigners of ill-regulated morals."' 

Returning to the embassy of 1338, we find that it was gra^ 
ciously received by the Pope, Benedict XII, one mark of his 
favour being to ci-eat-e one of the Tartar envoys sergeant-at-arma 
to himself;** that in duo time his Holiness delivered answers to 

' Sob a iBamed article by Fii";™ St. Slartin, in Ann. dt Voyages for 1848, 
iii, 129 ; also RuhruqaU, pp. U2, 343, 252, 381 j Carpini, pp. 709, 739 ; 
fioniuno, ii, 93 ; St. Martin in Joum. Anat., Ber, ii, torn, v, ITS ; Ktaproth 
in ditto, p. 389i Jae^uet ui ditto, vii, 417-433; SI. ilartin, ilim. tur 
I'ATmhiit. ii, aSOj Ibn. Batuia, ii, 448; Oaubil, Hiit. da Omtehit Can., pp. 
40, 147; Dagnignei, iv, 215, etc. 

> Bohttiw. Viia Pap. Aptnion, i, 212. 

•ICES. 31? 

letters from Cathay ; and that shortly afterwards he sp- 
ited legates to proceed on his own part, to the conrt of Cam- 
with a charge which combined the reciprocation of the 
in'e conrt«Bie8 with the promotion of missionary obiecta. 

letters addressed by the Pope in reply to the Khan and 

Alan Princes are of no interest.^ They were accompanied 

letters also to the Khans of Kipchak and Chap^lai, and to 

Chnstian ministers of the latter sovereign, expressing the 

e's intention speedily to send envoys to those conrts. With 

e letters the eastern enroys departed from Avignon in July 

i, bearing' recommendations also from the Pope to the Doge 

Senate of Venice, and to the Kings of Hungary and Sicily.^ 

jme months later the Pontiff named the le^teK, and addressed ' 

:ter to them nnder date ii Kal. Novcmb., in the foorth year 

his Popedom, i.e., 31st October, 1338. Their names were 

icholas Boneti S. T, P., Nicholas of Molano, John of Flokescb, 

id Gregory of Hungary. 

But for the disinterment of Marignolli's reminiscences in the 

ihemian Chronicle, this is all that we should know of the mia- 

L, escepting what is conveyed by n few brief lines in Wadding's 

Annals of the Order under 1342, as to the arrival nf the party at 

the Conrt of Cambalec, and eleven years later as to the return of 

surviving raembera to the headquarters of the Church at 


It does not appear with what strength or composition the mis- 

m actually started, but probably there were a good many friars 

in addition to the legates. Indeed, a contemporary German 

chronicler says, that fifty Minnrites were sent forth on this occa- 

bnt it is evident that he had no accurate knowledge on the 

ibjectj and, indeed, his notice is accompanied by one of the 

lulons gtatemunts, bo frequent in that age, as to the conversion 

the Grand Khan to Christianity, and by other palpable errors.' 

I The letter to the Ehan from this James Foumtor. Bishop of Boms 
le of Benedict XII, commencoe without any mincing of the 

* Wattding, I. o. 

• Under the jear 1339 : " The King of the Tartars ia reported to haie 
!> converted tbrougU the agency of a certain woman who had Ueon 


Mori^nulli mentions incidentally that the party, dnring their 
stay at Gambalec, consisted of thirty-two persons, bat with no 
further particulars. Nor do we even know what became of his 
collcagutiB in. the legation. Though MarignoUi'e name conies 
only third in the Pope's letters, he apeiika tiironghout his narra- 
tive as if he had been the chief, if not the sole, representative of 
the Pontiff. And it is him alone that Wadding mentions by name 
in hia short notices of the proceedings and return of the mission. 

One of the four indeed, Nicholas Boneti, must have retnmed 
speedily if he ever started for the East at all. For in May 1342 
he is recorded to have been appointed by Clement VI to the 
Bishopric of Malta.' 

Mariguolli's notices of his travels have no proper claim to the 
title of a narrative, and indeed the constrnotion of a narrative 
out of them is a task something like that of raising a geological 
theory out of piecemeal observations of strata and the study of 
scattered o:^nic remains. It is necessary, therefore, to give a 
short sketch of the course of his travels, such as the editor has 
understood it, uulesa readers aie to go through the same amount 
of trouble in putting the pieces together. But in doing so I 
shall anticipate as little as possible the details into which our 
author enters. 

The party left Avignon in December 1338. but had to wait at 
Naples some time for the Tartar envoys, who had probably been 
lionizing in the cities and courts of Italy. Constantinople was 

■brought to the Catholic taitU by tlie Minor Friars dweUirg in that 
(siuiitrj for the purpose of preaching Christ's Gospel. And he sont ani- 
bnssadOTS with a, letter to Pope Benedict, to heg ttiat be would deign to 
Bend teachers, preacbcra, and directors of the orthodox faith to convert 
the people, to baptize the converted, and to confirm the baptized in their 
new faith. And the Pope. jojfuUy BHSenting, arrang*d the despatch of 
fifty Minor Priara (hecause uten of that order had been the instmmenta 
of the king's conversion), all men of good uoderstaading and knowledge 
of life. But as to what progress they have made, or bow ninch people 
they have won to the Lord Jesus Christ, up to this present time of Lent 
in the yew 1343 no news whatever bath reached Saabia." ( Joannii I'itn- 
Jnrani (ofWintecthor) CAron. in Bccard, i., col. 18BS.) 

> Waddiiy), An. 1342, $ iv. This annalist says of Nicholas, as if know- 
ing all about his retam, " qui toman ob graves cuusai at ipia rtvermi m( 


reached on the Ist May, 1339, and there the party halted till 
midsnmmer. They then sailed across the Black Sea to Caffa, 
and travelled thence to the Court of Uzbek, Khan of Kipchak, no 
doubt at Sarai. The winter of 1339 was passed there ; and, sup- 
posing the party to start about May and to take the usual com- 
mercial route by Urghanj, they would get to Armalec (or Alma- 
lig), the capital of the Chagatai dynasty or "Middle Empire*', 
about September. The stay of the mission at Almalig was pro- 
longed. They did not quit it till 1341, and perhaps not till near 
the end of that year. They must also have spent some con- 
siderable time at Kamil,^ so that probably they did not arrive at 
Peking till about May or June 1342. It was, however, almost 
certainly within that year; for both Wadding's notice, and a 
curious entry in the Chinese Annals, agree in naming it.^ ^ 

The time spent by MarignoUi at Cambalec extended to three ^ 
or four years, after which he proceeded through the empire to 
the port of Zayton, where there were houses of his Order. He 
sailed from Zayton for India on the 26th December, either in 
1346 or 1347, probably the latter. Of this voyage unluckily he 
says not one word, except to record his arrival at Columbum 
(Quilon) in Malabar, during the following Easter week. He re- 
mained with the Christians of Columbum upwards of a year, and 
then, during the south-west monsoon of 1348 or 1349, set sail 
for the Coromandel Coast to visit the shrine of Thomas the 
Apostle. After passing only four days there he proceeded to 
visit Saba, a country which he evidently means to be identified 
with the Sheba of Scripture, and which he finds still governed by, 
a queen. 

As this Saba and its queen ofier the most difficult problem in 
all the disjointed story of MarignoUi's wanderings, and as his 
notices of it are widely dispersed, I will bring together the sub- 
stance of all in this place, hoping that some critic may have learn- 
ing and good luck enough to solve a knot which I have given up 
in something like despair. 

^ See MarignoUi's Bocolloctions of Travel, infra, near the end. 
' Wadding f vii, p. 258, and note, infra, on the horses conveyed to the 
Khan by Marignolli. 



This Saba, then, ia the finest island in the world ; the Arctic 
Polo IB there, ae was pointed ont to Marignolli by MaHt«P 
Lemon of Genoa (I auppose after Lis return to Europe), six 
degrees below the horizon, and the Antartic as much above it, 
whilst many other wonderful astronomical phenomena are visi- 
ble ; women alwflja or very generally adminiattr the government ; 
the walla of the palace are ndornod with fine historical pictnrea ; 
chariots and elepLaiita are in use, eBpecially for the women ; 
there ia a mountain of very great height called Gyheit or The 
Blessed, with which legends of Eliae and of the Magi are cou- 
nect«d ; tho qneen treats the traveller with great bononr and 
invest* him with a golden girdle, such as aho was wont to bestow 
upon those whom she created princes ; there are a few Chriatiana 
there ; and finally when MarignolH has ([uitt^d Saba he is over- 
taken by a aeries of gales, which drive his ship (apparently con- 
I teary to intention) into a port of Ceylon, 

Meinert, the first who commented on Marignolli, is clear that 
Java is intended by him ; Kanatmann as clear that he speaks of 
the Maldives. The latter idea also occurred to me before I had 
the pleasure of seeing Professor Kunstmann's papers, bnt I re- 
jected it for reasons which seem insaperable. 

It ia tme and certainly remarkable that both Masnd! in the 
end of the ninth oentnry, and Rdrisi in the eleventh, speak of the 
Dabihat or Bobaihat (which are apparently eiTora of transcrip- 
tion for J}ibajilf, and mean the Maldives) aa more or less nnder 
female goverament ; and when Ibn Batata was in the same islands 
a short time before MarignoUi's retam from China, there actually 
reigned a female sovereign, Kadija by name, tho daughter of tho 
deceased sultan, and who had been set upon the throne in place 
of a brother whom the people had deposed. Her husband exer- 
cised the authority in fact, hat all orders wore issued in her 
name. Edrisi also mentions the queen as going on " state ocoa- 
sions with her women mounted on elephants, with tmmpeta, 
flags, etc., her husbands and vizirs following at an interval.''^ 
This is striking; but it ia impossible to accept the evidence 
about the elephants without strong corroboration. These would 

' Jauherl's Ffnirh Trnn 

I. pp. C.7. 8. 


at all times have been highly inconYenient gaests npon the little 
Maldive Isles, and we gather from Ibn Batuta that in his time 
(and MarignoUi's) there were but one horse and one mare on 
the whole metropolitan island. Nor conld onr anthor with anj 
show of reason call these little clusters, with their produce of 
cowries and coco-nnts, "the finest island in the world." We 
might perhaps get over the statement about the latitude, as wiser 
men than Marignolli made great mistakes in such matters. But. 
where are we to find a " very lofty and almost inaccessible moun- 
tain" in the Maldives ? You might as well seek such a thing on 
the Texel. 

We may remember that Odoric in his quaint idiom terms Java 
"the second best of all islands that exist," whilst the historic 
pictures on the palace walls of Saba rather strikingly recal what 
the same friar tells us about the like in the palace of the Elings 
of Java, and I should be quite content to accept Java with 
Meinert, if we could find there any proof of the frequency of 
female sovereignty. I quote below the only two traces of this 
that I have been enabled to discover.^ Though I do not think it 
so probable, it is just possible that some province of Sumatra 

1 The chronology of Javanese history up to the establishment of Islam 
is very doubtful, and it is difficult to say how far either of the following 
instances of female role might suit the time of MarignoUi's voyage. 

1. An ineffectual attempt having been made by Batu Dewa, a native of 
Kuningan in the province of Cheribon, who had been entrusted with the 
administration of Gala^ to maintain an authority independent of M%ja- 
pahit, he lost his life in the straggle, and his widow Torbita, who persevered 
and wa$for a time euecessjvl, was at length overcome and went over to 

2. Merta W^'aya, fifth prince of M^japahit, left two children, a daughter 


named Eanchana Wungu, and a son, Angka W\jaya, who according to 
some authorities ruled jointly. The princess, however, is heUer knt^wn as 
an independent sovereign, under the title of Prabu Eanya Kanchana 
Wungu (see Raffies,Hist. of Java, ii, 107 and 121). 

This second instance seems the most pertinent, and as the fifth prince of 
Majapahit, according to Walckenaer's correction of the chronology, came 
to the throne in 1322, the tune appears to suit fairly. (See Mem. de VAcad. 
des Inscript., xv (1842), p. 224 seqq). 

The stories of EHas (or Ehidr) would be gathered from the Mahomedan 
settlers here, as those of Adam and Cain were gathered (as we shall see) 
by our traveller in Ceylon. 



may be meant. We know that island to have been called Java 
liy the Mahomedan navigators, as may be seen in Marco Polo, 
Ibn Batnta, and the Catalan Kfap, in which lost the great island 
named Jaua (for Java) eeems certainly to represent Sumatm. 
And, curiously enough, in thia map we find towards tlie north 
end of the island Jieijio Fumhiar^im , with the effigy of a qneen. 
Also Ida Pfeiffer, during hor wanderings in Sumatra, heard that 
there existed round the groat Lake Eier Tan, a powerful people 
under female rule. Valeant qiutniwin '. 

It 18 worth while, however, to note what Nikitin the RuBsian, 
in the Bucceedinp; century, says about a place called Shabat or 
Shabait, which ho huai-d of in India. It was a very large 
place on the Indian seas, two months' voyage from Dabu1, 
one month's voyage from Ceylon, and twenty days from Pegn. 
It produced abundance of silk, sugar, precious stones, sandal 
wood and elephants. The Jews called the people of Shabait 
Jews, bat they were in truth neither Jews, nor Mahomcdans, nor 
Christians, but of a different religion. They did not eat with 
Jews or MahomedanB, and used no meat. Everything wae cheap, 
etc. If we could identify this place, perhaps wo should find the 
Saha of Marignolli. 

Though the latitude assigned to Saba applies correctly to 
Java and not to Sumatra, we must remember that Marco Polo 
there speaks with wonder of the country's lying so far to the 
south that the Pole Star could not be seen. And in a very 
curious contemporary reference to Polo,^ the author says of 
the Magellanic clouds : " In the country of the Zingi there is 
seen a star as big as a sack. I know a man who saw it, and he 
told me that it had a faint light like a piece of clond, and is 

• Petri Aponenni Medici ac PhiloiopM CeJeb/rnmi ConciliatoT. Tunice, 
l62I,fol. 97. TliiB Peter, physician and aatrologer, bom in 1250 at Abano 
near Padua, was prufesaor of medicine at the univaraity in that citry . He 
WBB twice brought up bj the Inquiaition on charges of aoroerj, and the 
seoond time be onlj escaped their handa by death. He was poBthumously 
condemned, but the m^atrates objected to flirthar ptooeedings, and bis 
body waa burnt in efflgy only. 

This curious pnasage waa first pointed out by Zurla (quoted by Bal. 
dello Bono, H Milione, ii. 4«G.) But I do not think be notices the wood- 
cut, which is omitted in some editiona. It has been thooflit worth copy- 
ing here, as an approach at least to an autograph drawing by Marco Polo I 



■Iways in the aonth. I was told of this and atlier matteni 
BrIso by Marco tbe Venetian, the most extonnive traveller and 
I the most diligent inquirer whom I hare ever known. He saw 
ime 8(ar under the Antartic ; he described it an having a 
I great tnil, and drew a figure of it, Ihua. He also told me that be 
mam tbe Antarctic Pole at an 
■altitude above the earth, ap- 
Kparentlf equal to the length 
»of a soldier's lance, whilst the 
V Arctic Pole was as much dc- 
Ipreaaed. 'Tis from that place, 
■ lie said, that they export to 
samphor, lign-aloes, and 

brazil. He Hays the heat there 

is intenBe, and the habitations 

1 certain island at which 
> way of getting at this 

few. And these things he witnessed in 
' he arrived by sea ;., and there was i 

tplace except by sea." There can be uo doubt that this reported 
ftvral relation of Marco referred to Sumatra, and the wording 
if the passage in regard to the Poles, as well as the description 
■of tbe " other wonderful things in regard to the stars," lead me 
lirtrongly to snspect that it was &om this very passage of Peter 
Lcf Abano that Master Lemon of Genoa pointed out those facts 
I to MarignoUi. 

In qnitting Saba our author took ship again, probably to return 
■ to Malabar on his nay towards Europe, and was driven into 
I'Ceylon in the manner mentioned above. Here be fell into the 
P,l»ndB of a Mussulman buccaneer, who had at this time got poa- 
I'Kssion of a considerable part of the island ; and was by him 
Bdetajncd for some four months, and stript of all the EaBtem valu- 
|,kbles and rarities that he was carrying borne. 

Notwithstanding these disagreeable experiences, MarignoUi 

Isppears to recur again and again with fascinaKon to his recoUec- 

f Ceylon, and they occupy altogether a considerable apace 

1 ihese notices. The Terrestrial Paradise, if not identified in 

llBrignolli's mind with a part of tbe island (for his expressions are 

usy and ninbigiions), is at least closely adjacent, and sheda a 

a inflaence over all its atmosphere and productions. This 




idea IB indeed ao prominent that a short explanatory digression 
on the subject will not be inappropriate. 

It was in the west that the aacieutfl dreamed of sacred and 
happy islands, where the golden age had survived the deluge of 
corruption. But it na.s to the opposite quarter that the legends 
of the middle ages pointed, building as thoy did upon that garden 
which was planted " eastward in Eden"; and though it was in 
sailing west that Columbus, thought he had found the skirts of 
Paradise near the raouths of Orinoco, it must be remembered 
that he was only seeking the " far East" by a shorter ronte. 

What has been written on the Terrestrial Paradise would pro- 
bably fill a respectable libraiy. Marignolh's idea of it was evi- 
dently the same as that which seems to have been generally 
entertained in his age, viz., that of a great mountain rising in 
inef&blo tranqaillity and beauty far above all other eai-thly things, 
from which came tumbling down a glorious cataract, dividing at 
the foot into four great rivers, which somehow or other, under- 
ground or over, found their several ways to the channels of Hid- 
defcel and Enphrates, and of such other two streams as might be 
identified with Gihon and Phison. This mountain was frequently 
believed to rise to the sphere of the moon, an opinion said to be 
maintained even by such men as Augustine and Bede.' 

The localities assigned to Paradise have been inSnitely variona. 
Old oriental tradition was satisfied to place it in Ceylon ; but 
western behef more commonly regarded it as in the more estreme 
^ast, where John of Hese professes to have seen it. Cosmos, 

< " Joannes ?ojijri?ifaniui," hawevor, who has diascrtod upon PamUse, 
judiciousl; Btigmatizes tJiia oa b manifest flgmettt. For, quoth he, is not 
the heiglit of the moon according to Ptolemy and Alphroganua, Boven- 
teen times the earth's diameter; and would not such a mauntain there- 
fore require for a hose af iFOKlthenboleHiiperficiesof the terrestrial hemi- 
sphere, and depriTe us of a great part of the sun's light F Joannes 
TostatuB therefore is wore reasonable when he bb3'b that Paradise does 
not quite reach the moon, but rises into the third region of the air, and 
ia higher than al! othtr mountuina of the earth hj twenty cubits! (The 
some John tbinliH Paradise nras or is abmit twelve milea long, and some' 
thirty ail or forty in compass.) Of Lis mind is Ariosto when he apoaks of 

« quoted below, vii, pp. dcii-iiii-xiT.) 


again, considered it to lie with the antediluvian worid beyond 
the ocean which encompassed the oblong plateau of the earth 
that we inhabit. Father Filippo the Carmelite thinks it lay 
probably in the bosom of Ararat, whilst Ariosto seems to identify 
it with Kenia or Kilimanjaro, — 

" n monte ond' esoe 11 gran fiome d' Eg^tto 
• ••••• 

Cb' oltre alle nubi e presso al del si leva; 

Era quel Paradiso che terrestre 

Si dice, ove abit6 gil^ Adamo ed Eva." — (xxxiii, 109, 110.) 

The map of Andrea Bianchi, at Venice, agrees with MarignoUi, 
for it shows Paradiso Terrestre adjoining Cape Comorin, whilst 
the four rivers are exhibited as flowing up the centre of India, — 
one into the north of the Caspian, near Agrica/n (Astracan, viz., 
the Wolga) ; a second into the south of the Caspian, near Jilan 
(Araxes ?) ; a third into the Gulf of Scanderoon (Orontes ?); and 
the fourth, Euphrates. 

Some other old maps and fictitious voyagers, such as John of 
Hese, assign a terrestrial position also to Purgatory. Dante, it 
will be remembered, has combined the sites of Purgatory and of 
the earthly Paradise, making the latter the delightful summit of 
the mountain whose steep sides are girt with the successive 
circles of purification. 

And to conclude this matter in the words of Bishop Huet of 

Avranches : ''Some have placed the terrestrial Paradise 

under the arctic pole ; some in Tartary, on the site occupied now 
by the Caspian ; some at the extreme south, in Terra del Fuego ; 
many in the East, as on the banks of the Ganges, in the island 
of Ceylon, in China, beyond the sun-rising, in a place no longer 
habitable. Others in America, in Africa, in the equinoctial 
orient, under the equator, on the Mountains of the Moon. Most 
have set it in Asia; but of these, some in Armenia Major, some 
in Mesopotamia, in Assyria, in Persia, in Babylonia, in Arabia, 
in Syria, in Palestine. Some even would stand up for our own 
Europe ; and some, passing all bounds of nonsense, have placed 
it at Hesdin in Artois, urging the resemblance to i'rfen."^ 

* P. D. Huetii, Episc. Abrinc. Tract de Situ Paradisi Terrest. in Ugolini, 
Thesaurus Aniiq. Sacr., Venet., 1747, vii, p. dii. Also Cosmas in MonU 
faucon. Coll. Nova Patrum, ii, 131 ; Peregrin, Joannxs Hesei, etc., Antv., 
15G5, etc. 

'628 marignolli'b recollections of easteun travel. 


How, or in what company, Mari^olH quitted Ceylon, he leaves 
untold. We only gather from very slight and incidental notices 
that he mnst have sailed to Hormuz, and afterwards travelled by 
the ruins uf Babylon to Baghdad, MobuI, Edessa, Aleppo, and 
thence to Damaseos, Galilee, and Jerusalem. The sole further 
trace of him on his way to Italy, is that he seems to have tonched 
at Cyprus. 

In 1353, according to Wadding, he arrived at Avignon, bring- 
ing a letter from the Klian to the Pope (now Innocent VI), in 
which the monarch was made to express the greatest esteem for 
the Christian faith, to acknowledge the subjection of his Christian 
liegea to the Pope, and to ask for more missionaries. 

It was probably during the visit of the Emperor Charles IV* 
to Italy in 13.54, to be crowned by the Pope at Rome, that he 
became acquainted with Marignolli, and made him one of his 
domestic chaplains. To this he was perhaps induced by cori- 
oaity to hear at leisure the relations of one who had travelled to 
the world's end ; for, though mean in moi-al chai-acter, Charles 
was a man of intelligence, and an encourager of learning and the 
useful arts - 

In 1354 also the Pope rewarded onr traveller with the bishopric 
of BiBignano ui Calabria.^ The bishop, however, seems to have 
been m no hurry to reside there ; thinking perhaps that a man 
who had spent so many years of his life in travelhng to Cathay 
and back, might well he excused from passing the whole of those 
that remained to him in the wilds of Calabria. He seems to have 
accompanied the Emperor on his return from Italy to his paternal 

' Cbaxles, son of Jolin of Luxemburg, Eini^ of Bohemia, the blind war- 
rior who fell at Crecy, was hora in 131G, and in 1346 was elected emperor 
in place of the eicommunicated Lavia of Bavaria. 

' Dobiier was not able to find the apjiointment of Marignolli among 
the oichiTeB of Charles's court at Pra^^e, though ho found several other 
nominatioos to that dignity, viz., as " cunnliaritu, capellanitt, /aniiliarif 
el eommntiatis domeslinii." 

' 12th May, 1354 (Ughelli, Italia Sacra, as above). The amall epiBCopal 
city of Biaignmio, supposed to have been the sjicient Besidiie, Btaude on 
a hill to the east of the post-rood between CoatroviUftri and Cosecia. It 
gives the title of prince to the Sanseverina family {Mvrray). Wadding- 
liotii<es the appoiDtnieat of a Friar John to this bishopric, but seems not 
to have known that it was the legate whose return from Cathaj he had 


dominions ;^ whilst in 1356 we find him at Avignon, acting as 
envoy to the Pope from the republic of Florence ; and in 1357 
he is traced at Bologna by his grant of indulgence privileges to 
one of the churches in that city.^ 

It was, no doubt, during MarignoUi's visit to Prague that the * 
Emperor desired him to undertake the task of recasting the 
AnnaU of Bohemia, Charles would have shewn a great deal more 
sense if he had directed his chaplain to write a detailed narrative 
of his own eastern experiences. However, let us be thankful for 
what we have. The essential part of the task set him was utterly 
repugnant to the Tuscan churchman. He drew back, as he says 
himself, ^'from the thorny thickets and tangled brakes of the 
Bohemian chronicles"; from " the labyrinthine jungle of strange 
names, the very utterance of which was an impossibility to his 
Florentine tongue." And so he consoled himself under the dis-' 
agreeable duty imposed on him, by interpolating his chronicles, 
apropos de bottes, with the recollections of his Asiatic travels, or , 
with the notions they had given him of Asiatic geography. It 
might have been hard, perhaps, to drag these into a mere 
chronicle of Bohemia ; but in those days every legitimate chronicle 
began from Adam at latest, and it would have been strange if 
this did not afford latitude for the introduction of any of Adam's 

Chronicle and reminiscences alike slept in Prague cloister dust 
for some four centuries. During all that time MarignoUi's name 
as a Bohemian chronicler is only twice alluded to, and that by 
authors strange to nearly all beyond Bohemian boundaries ; one 

1 MarignoUi's most distinct mention of having been at Prague is found 
at p. 136 (of Dobner), in introducing a chapter entitled " 31iraculuin de 
Ineisione digiti ScH Nicolai." He says this finger was sent to the Emperor 
with other reHques by the Pope, " and it will not be irrelevant to state/' 
be proceeds, " a new miracle wbich mine own eyes have seen and mine 
own hands have handled/' etc. ; and then tells his story about blood 
flo¥dng when the Emperor pricked the finger, etc. Now, according to 
Dobner, Hagecius a Bohemian chronicler ascribes this story to 1353. 
This is probably wrong, otherwise the Emperor must have called Mari- 
gnolli to Prague previous to his own visit to Italy. 

^ Sbaralea, as above. In the grant of indulgence he speaks of himself 
as administering for Richard Archbishop of Nazareth, a brother of his 
order. The diocese of Nazai'eth, created in honour of the name, had a 
scattered jurisdiction chiefly in the kingdom of Naples (Ughelli, voL vii). 



of whom, moreover, does not seom to have read him.' It was 
' not till 1 768 that he became accessible to the world in the second 
volame of uapubliahed monumenla of Bohemian history, edited 
by the Reverend OelaBius Dobner, member of an educational 
order.^ Dobner's qiialifications for dealing with Bohemian his- 
torj were probably superior to what be exhibits in commenting 
on Asiatic travels and geography. His notes on the latter aub- 
joctB are often astonishing indeed, and are calculated amply to 
ju.stify the foresight of his godfathers and godmothers in the 
name they gave him. 

But though the account of Marig^olli's joumeys became thus 
accaasihle to the world, it only transferred its sleep from mann- 
script to type ; for no one seems to have discovered these cuinoua 
interpolations in a Bohemian chronicle till 1820, when an inte- 
resting paper on the subject was published by Mr. J. G. Meiuert 
in the Transactions of the Scientific Society of Bohemia," He 
adopted the plan of extracting &om Dobner all tliat bore upon 
Marignoili's travels, and then rearranging the passages in as 
orderly and continuous a form as they admitted of, accompanying 
the whole with an intelligent commentary. 

An essay on Marignoili's travels has also been pubbshed by 
Professor Kunstmann in his scries of papers already alluded to.' 
To both of these articles I have been indebted for occasional sug- 
gestionH, and especially for indications of some of tlie illnstrativc 
BOurces which I have followed up. But my work was far ad- 
vanced before I met with Kunstmann. 

The time when Marignolli digested the clironiclea, and salted 
them with his recollect ions, cannot be precisely determined, AH 
that can be said positively is, that it was after bis nomination as 
bishop (for that dignity is specified in the title and body of tbo 

' These are, aooording to Dobner. Hageciua, and Mnttliiaa Boleslnzky, 
a hirtorian nf the seventeenth centnry. 

' llotiMrnenta Siitorica Bohtmia nvtqvam anUhat edila, etc., Colltfjit, 
etc., P. GelaaiuB Dobner a S. Cfttherina, Clerieii Kejuiariiiui Schoiamm 

inraai, torn, i, Prague, 1764 j tom. ii, id., 1768. 

> Abhandl. der K. Blikm. GtitlUehaft dn- WUifntchafim, vol. vii, 

Johannes von Mari^ola Minder^n Bruders und Fubstliohen Legaten 
B«iae in das Uorgenlaud, etc Aua dem Latein tiborsetzt, geonlnet und 
erlautert foa 3. G, Meinert, etc." 


chronicle, see p. 335), and prevums to the death of Innocent VI, of 
whom he speaks in the last paragraph of his book as still reigning ; 
i.e., between May 1354 and September 1362. But there can be 
little doubt that he wrote the book daring his visit to Prague in 
1354 or 1355. 

It has been already said that Marignolli must have been an old 
man when he wrote these recollections ; and I think readers will 
assent to this, though it has been found impossible in the trans- 
lation to avoid softening his peculiarities. There are ofien vivid 
remembrance and graphic description of what he has seen ; but 
these are combined with the incontinent vanity of something like 
second childhood, and with an incoherent lapse from one subject 
to another, matched by nothing in literature except the conver- 
sation of Mrs. Nickleby. His Latin is of a bad sort of badness. 
The Latin of Jordanus is bad in one sense. When he says '* istvd 
ales quod vocaiur rkiiwcerunta" he utters almost as many blunders 
as words ; but he is nearly always perfectly and vividly intelli- 
gible. The Latin of Marignolli is bad because it is the hazy ex- 
pression of confosed thoughts.^ The supposition that Marignolli 
was at this time advanced in years, and moreover not looked on 
as very wise in his generation, is confirmed by a curious letter 
bearing to be addressed to him by a Bishop of Armagh, which 

^ As an example of Marignolli's incoherence take the original of a pas- 
sage in Dobner, p. 100 (see below, in chapter Concerning Clothing of our 
First Parents), 

** Ideo videtar sine assercione dicendam quod non pelliceaa tunicas est 
legendum sed filiceas. Nam inter folia nargillonim de quibus supra 
dictum est nascuntur fila ad modum tele staminis quasi grossi et rari 
sicci de quibus eciam hodie fiunt apud illos et apud Judeos vestes pro 
pluvia rusticorum qui vocantur Oamalli portantes seu onera et eciam 
homines et mulieres portant super scapulas in lecticis de quibus in Oan- 
ticis : ferculum fecit sibi Salomon de lignis Libani, id est lectulum portati* 
lem sicut portabar ego in Zayton et in India. Unam talem vestem de iilis 
illis camallorum non camelorum portavi ego usque Florenciam et dimisi in 
sacristia Minorum similem vesti lohannis Baptiste. Nam pin camelorum 
sunt delicacior lana que sit in mundo post sericum. Fui enim aliquando 
cum infinitis camelis et puUis camelorum in deserto vastissimo descen- 
dendo de Babilon confusionis versus Egiptum per viam Damasci cum 
Arabibus infinitis. Nee in Seyllano sunt cameli sed elephantes innumeri 
qui licet sint ferocissimi raro tamen nocent homini peregrine. Ego equi- 
tavi super unum Begine Sabe qui yidebatur habere usum racionis si non 
csset contra fidem.*' 



Dobner turned up among the records of the Emperor Charles's 
time in the Metropolian chapter library at Prague. It raay be 
gathered from the letter that some intention had beeu intimated, 
on the part of higher ecclesiastical anthorities, of sending Mari- 
gnolli to Ireland in connexion with queations then in debate with 
tbe writer. The wrath of the latter seema to have been sorely 
stirred at this intimation, and he tnms op the lawn sleeves and 
brandishes the shillelagh in the following style of energetic meta- 
jihor. We can hardly read the letter without a feeling that it 
ought to have been dated from Tnam rather than Armagh. But the 
writer turns oiit to have been one who had high claims to respect,* 

"Reverend Father and very dear Friend ! 

"What those honourable gentlemen — De — , and — De — 
have told of your bohavioor is anything bat fitting in a man of 
your grey hairs and superior pretensions. And tlie message 
which your Reverence sent me by them is a poor sample of your 

"By the help of the Lord and the right that was on my side 

did not I exterminate , the flower of your Order? Have Dot 

I hate him already in fair fight, and am I going to stand in fear of 
any of the rest of ye ? Sure nothing is deficient in tile present 
conjuncture, but that the conquering hero should receive tbe 
prize, and that by the blessing of God the crown of victoiy 
ahoald descend to decorate his troyumphaot brows ! 

"A rich recompense must abide the pen which eradicated the 
briars and thorns from the garden of Holy Church, which sent 
the ugly faction of error to the inght-about, and cleared the street 
for Catholic Truth to walk in ! 

"J am not afraid of your Reverence's coming. 'Tis not likely 
Ihat the prospect of having you for antagonist would frighten me ; 
nic, who tore to rags the sophistries of the Enghshmen, Okkam* 

I Some local oalour has aeomad netossarf to do justice to tbja letter in 
translation, »o I autaoin the latter part as a sample of the original ; — 
" ... Vcniat igitur iaveteratus ills BisanonBia Episcopus, Veniat ! (Qnia 
jUe qui se Apoatolum Orieatis in curift CEeaaris aiiipulloae denomiaat F) 
ut eiperiatur in opera quid aomnia aua prodaaae valeant. Nam si canum 
Intrant ium j a veatuti inteiait vincula nostra provistonia iaduatria, facile 
iliiideu palpitantam scnio moloesuui li^re curabintua, cai jam ncquo 

is claritos, noquo scicntiie babilitas aiifirogantur. 
' William Ockbam or Occam, an Engli ' 


and Bnrley,^ and the like, when they tried to spread a flimsy veil 
over the web of lies that they were weaving; me who had stopped 
their bootless barking with the words of piety and truth ! Let 
him come on then (say we), that old beggar of a Bisignano 
Bishop ! Let him come on ! We'll take the measure of him, 
though he does paycock about the Kaisar's Court and call him- 
self (save the mark) the Aposthle of the East ! We'll let him 
find out what good his doting dreams will do him in a practical 
question. 'Twill be a pity if I, who have muzzled a whole pack 
of yelping hounds, find it a hard matter to put a collar on a poor 
old wheezing tyke, who has scarcely a bark left in him, and never 
had the least repute for brains ! " 

Dobner does not identify the writer of this letter, but there 
can be no doubt that it was Richard Fitz Balph, Archbishop of 
Armagh, a strenuous adversary of the Franciscans and other 
mendicant orders, who however proved too strong for him at last, 
and brought him into trouble which he did not survive.^ 

among the schoolmen. He was provincial of his order in England, and 
as such took a prominent part at a council held at Assisi in 1322 in sap- 
port of the strict obligation to poverty. It was perhaps on this ques- 
tion that he had been at war with the Archbishop of Armagh. Ockham 
took part with Corbarius the Anti-pope, and was excommunicated by 
John XXII. He took refuge with the Emperor Lewis the Bavarian, who 
was under the like ban, and died at an advanced age at the convent of 
Ids order in Munich, in 1347. {Cave, App., p. 28; Biog. Universelle.) 

1 Walter Burley, another eminent English Schoolman, and tutor to 
Edward III, bom at Oxford 1275, died 1357 (some say 1337). 

^ A native of Dundalk; he was held in high esteem by Edward 'III, 
and became successively Professor of Theology at Oxford, Dean of Lich- 
field, Chancellor of the University (1333), and Archbishop of Armagh 
(1347). In his constant war against the friars we are told that " eorum 
vanam et superham paupertatem Oxonii in leciurU theologida saLse veUifi- 
care solebat ; epiacopua vero f actus acriori calamo confixit ;" statements 
which from the style of his letter can be well believed. They also appear 
to disprove the allegation of Wadding that Fitz-Ealph's enmity to the 
friars first arose out of the resistance of the Franciscans of Armagh to a 
piece of ii^justice on the part of the archbishop. 

Some sermons which he preached in London in 1356 against the friars 
and the profession of voluntary poverty gave great offence. They ac- 
cused him of heresy, and had him cited to Avignon where he was long 
detained. The questions perhaps involved very serious consequences to 
those who rashly stirred them, for only four years before, two Francis- 
cans, for holding wrong opinions concerning the principle of poverty 
(though probably in a direction opposite to Fitz Balph's) had been burnt 


This is the last that we can trace of MarignolH. The time of hi» I 
deatti is nnknown ; aar has even the date of his snccesBor'e nomi- 
nation to Bisignano been recovered, so as to lis it approximately.' 

It only remains to say a word about the IfSS. of MarignoUi's | 
chronicle. That from which Dobnor edited the work is described J 
as a paper folio, written partly at the end of the fonrt«eiitb cen- 
tury and partly at the beginning of the fifteentb. It was then in | 
the Library of the Brethren of the Cross, or Passionists, in 
old town of Prague ; but when Meinert wrote his esuay it had ' 
been transferred to the Royal University Library. This MS. 
was supposed to be unique, but in the St. Mark's Library at 
Venice I have seen a partial copy, apparently of the fifteenth 
century, embracing all the most important part of the Asiatic 
notices.* Its differences from Dobner's edition were very trifling, 
and it contained the same error as to the date of the legation's 
departure from Avignon. Bat it has given distinctly the reading . 
of a few names which had probably been misread by Dobner, 
such as Maiici and Matt^i where he read itiugi, Mijmbar where ' 
he read l!lymhar, Tkaim for Ghatia, with a very few other differ 
enoea of more doubtful character, 
to death in tho Pope's own city of Avignon. So the orchbiBhop seeing' 
that the authorities were going ogiiinst him, retired (according to Wad- 
ding) to Belgium, probably on his way to England, and died there 16th 
December, 1353 or 1360 ; (Cave sajs, however, that be died at Avignon, 
15th November, 1360). 

It is pleasant to see that when Luke Wadding tbo Franciscan annalist 
treats of this worthy, the Iriahmaa is fltronger in bira than the niai. 
" Some," be says, " have counted Fitz Ralph a heretic, bnt nndeservedly ; 
he sinned more from exuberant intellect than from perversity of will." 
He was deemed a saint in Ireland. His best title to the respect of poets- 
rity rests on his claim to have translated the Scriptures into Irish ; the 
whole, according to Fox ; the New Teetaroent, according to Bale. He left 
many other works, chiefly controversial, of which some have been printed. 
One discourse which ha delivered at Avignon In defence of his sermons 
against the friars may be seen in tbe Xonarchia Sacri Bom. fmperii of l 
OoldastuB. (Wadding, An. ain.ika. 13^7. ^ i-B ; Cave, Seript. Eeel,, Oioa., 
1743. in Append.) ; Balutii Rl. i'ap. Arenion, i, 323 ; Ooldaati, etc.. ii, 
p. 1392). ■ UghelU.-a.B. 

' Bibl. Marciona, ClftSB. x, Codd. Latt. cUiiviii, ff. 243-263. It ends 
with that chapter of the second book which treats of Boman bistory. The 
volume contains a variety of other tranacripts connected with Papal and 
Bohemian history. 




The autbor begins by announcing bis intention of dividing bis 
work into Three Books, viz., i. Thearchos, or the History of the 
World from the Creation to the Building of Babel ; ii. Monarchos^ 
or tbe History of Kings, from Nimrod down to the Franks and 
(Germans, and so to tbe Kingdom of Bobemia ; iii. lerarchos, or 
tbe Ecclesiastical History, from Melcbizedek to Moses and Aaron, 
to tbe Foundation of Cbristianity, and so to tbe Roman Pontiffs 
and tbe Bisbops of Bobemia in order. 

After speaking of tbe Creation tbe autbor comes to treat of 
Paradise, " Eastward in tbe place called Eden, beyond India," 
and tbis launcbes bim at once on bis reminiscences as follows : 

And now to insert some brief passages of wbat I bave seen 
myself. I, Friar John of Florence, of tbe order of Minors, 
and now unwortby Bisbop of Bisignano, was sent witb cer- 
tain others, in the year of our Lord one thousand three 
hundred and thirty [eight],^ by the holy Pope Benedict the 
Eleventh,^ to carry letters and presents from the apostolic 
see to the Kaan or chief Emperor of all the Tartars, a sove- 

1 In both MSS. this is tricesimo quarto, but beyond qaestion from a 
clerical error, as there is no doubt about the true year. Probably in the 
original MS. yiii was taken for iiii. 

' Undecimo in the Venice MS. ; Dobner has duodecimo. This Pope is 
sometimes XI, sometimes XII ; Benedict XI being in the latter case an 



reign who holdn the sway of nearly half the eastern world, 
and whose power and wealth, with the multitude of cities and 
provinces and languages under him, and the countless num. 
ber, aa I may say, of the nations over which he rules, paei 
all telling. 

We set out from Avignon in the month of December, cama . 
to Naples in the beginning of Lent, and stopped there till 
Easter {which fell at the end of March), waiting for a ship 
of Grenoa, which was coming with the Tartar envoys whom 
the Kaan had sent from his great city of Cambalec to the 
Pope, to request the latter to despatch an embassy to hia 
court, whereby communication might bo established, and a 
treaty of alliance strack between him and the christians ; foi 
he greatly lovea and honours our faith. Moreover the chief 
princes of hia whole empire, more than thirty thousand in 
number, who are called Alans, and govern the whole Orient, 
are Christianseither infact orinname, calling themselves tho 
Pop^a slaves, and ready to die for the Fraiiiii. For so they 
term ua, not indeed from France, but from Frank-land.' 
Their first apostle was Friar John, called De Monto Corvino, 
who seventy-two years previously, after having been soldier, 
judge, and doctor in tho service of the Emperor Frederic, 
had become a Minor Friar, and a most wise and learned 

Howbeit on the first of May ^ 

rived by sea at Con- 

' " Son a Fnmeia $ed a Franquia," 

* " Qui prima mile$ judex et doctor Friderici Intperaioriii ]>ost lixii a 
faetut /rater minor." A perpleiing pasaage, owing to Bome error of tha 
author's. Montecorvino coald bare been but three jeara old irhen 
Frederick tl died in 1350. Dobner and Meincrt a,8sume that Mari^oUi 
mHini John de Piano Carpini, who went on a mission from Pope Inno- 
cent lY to Tartnrj in 1316i but he woe no npostlo of Cathay; nor does 
there aeem reason for belioTing that ho vas ever soldier or jndge. 
doabt one takea a liberty in rendering "post liiil annos" by " seventy -two 
[ years prerionslj ;" bat if it docs not mean that, v:hat does it mean P In 
I 1266i which would be aevecty-two years previons to 1338, John of Monte- 
corvino WBA about twenty years old and might have bMome a, Mar. The 
Teniae MS. has "pli liiii anno*," biit I find no light in that. 

BY JOHN de' marignolli. 337 

stantinople^ and stopped at Pera till the feast of St. John 
Baptist.! We had no idle time of it however, for we were 
engaged in a most weighty controversy with the Patriarch 
of the Greeks and their whole Council in the palace of St. 
Sophia. And there God wrought in us a new miracle, giving 
us a mouth and wisdom which they were not able to resist ; 
for they were constrained to confess that they must needs be 
schismatics, and had no plea to urge against their own con- 
demnation except the intolerable arrogance of the Roman 

Thence we sailed across the Black Sea, and in eight days 
arrived at Caffa, where there are Christians of many sects. 
From that place we went on to the first Emperor of the 
Tartars, Usbec, and laid before him the letters which we 
bore,* with certain pieces of cloth, a great war-horse, some 
strong Uquor,* and the Pope^s presents. And after the 

1 24th June 1339. 

' Five years before this two bishops had come from Bome to argue the 
point with the Patriarch. The latter was in great tronble, for the pnblio 
mind was excited on the matter, and he was himself "unaccostomed to 
public speaking/' whilst he knew most of his bishops to be grossly igno- 
rant and incapable. (Nicephori Qregorics Hist. Byzant., z, 8). No wonder 
that Marignolli carried all before him with antagonists so painted by 
their own friends. 

Mandeville relates liow, to Pope John XXII's invitations to come 
under his authority, the Greeks "sent back divers answers, amongst 
others saying thus : ' We believe well that thy power is great upon thy 
subjects. We may not suffer thy great pride. We are not in purpose to 
frdfil thy great covetousness. The Lord be with thee ; for our Lord is 
with us. Farewell ! And no other answer might he have of them." 
(P. 136.) Many efforts were made to unite the churches from the time of 
Michael Palseologus, whose ambassador at the Council of Lyons in 1274 
acknowledged the Pope's supremacy, to the time of John Palseologus, 
who in 1438 made a like acknowledgment. But these acts were never 
accepted by the Greek Church or people. 

^ The legates had letters from the Pope for Uzbek himself, for his eldest 
son Tanibek, and to a certain Franciscan, Elias the Hungarian, who was 
in favour with the latter. (See Wadding as before; and Append, to 
Mosheim, Nos. 81, 85, 86.) 

* The word in Dobner is Cytiacam, which I can trace nowhere. That 
editor's note is : " Seu »ythiacam, i.e., liquorem causticum, vulgo roaogHo/* 



winter waa over, having been well fed, well clothed, loaJod 
with handsome preaents, and supplied hy the King with 
horsea and travelling expenaea, we proceeded to Armaleo 
[the capital] of the Middle Empire. There we built a church, 
bought a piece of ground, dug wells,' song masses and bap- 
tized several ; preaching freely and openly, notwithstanding 
the fact that only the year before the Bishop and six other 
Minor Friars had there undergone for Christ's sake a glorious 
martyrdom, illustrated by brilliant miracles. The names of 
these martyrs were Friar Richard the Bishop, a Burgundiaa 
by nation. Friar Francis of Alessandria, Friar Paschal of 
Spain (this one was a prophet and saw the heavens open, 
and foretold the martyrdom which should befal him and his 
brethren, and the overthrow of the Tartars of Saray by a 
flood, and the destruction of Armalec in vengeance for their 
martyrdom, and that the Emperorwould be slain on the third 
day after their martyrdom, and many other glorious things) j 
Friar Laurence of Ancona, Friar Peter, an Indian friar who 
acted as their interpreter, and Gillott, a merchant.* 

Towards the end of the third year after our departure from 
the Papal Court, quitting Armalec we came to the Ctoli^s 

etc. But {f^oi means drmk of the beer genun. The Vanicij MS. hoe 
Tyriacam, ptobably for Thtriacam, I imagina however that Dobner ia 
siibatantiully right, and tbat aometMng atrong a,nd sweet is meant. 
Rubniquia, nearly a centui^ before, took with him for Uzbek's ancoators 

I " Uhi fecimMi eccUtia/m, nnimus aream, fecimua fontes, canbiininui 
niutiu," etc. The /ontei are not very intelligible. Frof. KunHtuuuin 
BnggeBtB/o7i(»™m(ItaI./o7«ioco) for fontes, which ia posBiblo, aa that word 
ia blundered in another poaaage of this MS. 

' On these Armalec raartfrs see aula, p. 1S6 legq. The statement of 
MorignoUi that their death took place the year before his arrival, appears 
to fit it to 1339. iaatead of 1340 or later as stated bj eccleaiaatical chroni- 
clera. Dobner goes eminently astray here, confounding these Franciscans, 
martyred in Turkestan in the fourteenth centnry, with those Franciscans 
who were martyred in Japan in the aeTentcenth, and whose formal 
canonization lately made so much noise. Accordingly be thinks it 
probable that Armalec waa one of the lalanda of JapHti, and Saray 
another ! 


BY JOHN dk' mariqnolli. 339 

Eagon, i.e. to the Sand Hills thrown up by the wind. Before 
the days of the Tartars nobody believed that the earth 
was habitable beyond these, nor indeed was it believed that 
there was any country at all beyond. But the Tartars by 
God'a permission, and with wonderful exertion, did cross 
them, and found themselvea in what the philosophers call 
the torrid and impassablo zone.^ Pass it however the Tar- 
tars did; and so did I, and that twice. 'Tis of this that 
David speaketh in the Psalms, 'PusuU ilKsertum,' Ac." After 
laving passed it we came to Cahbalec, the chief seat of the 
Empire of the East. Of its incredible magnitude, population, 
and military array, we will say nothing.* But the Grand 
£aam, when he beheld the great horaea, and the Popo'a 
presents, with his letter, and King Robert's too, with their 
golden seals, and when he saw ua also, rejoiced greatly, 
liGing delighted, yea exceedingly delighted with eveiything. 

■ It ia not quite clear whether he intends that CyoUot Sagon (or Sagtm 
in VBn.MS.)<ijn\fle« SandhiUa. Their posit i(.n is evidently to bo sought 
on the northern yerge of the Gobi, which ia his Torrid Zone, and pro- 
babl; among those to the Dorth-east of Kamil. Hereabouts indeed, in ti 
Cbineee wort on Turkestan, we find repented mention of the Sha-Shan 
or " Sand HountainB," from which flows one source of the Barknl Nnr, 
north of Eumil. (See Julieii in N. Ann. dea Voyagei, 1S16, iii, 37-44.} 
One of the reports translated in The Kasiiang in Central Alia (London, 
1805, p. Ill), speaking of the desert says : " Prom this region (aboat 
Tarkand) it gradually widens as it runs eastward, where it fonng the vast 
Oobi, devoid of all vegetation... where the sand is heaped up in suclt 
loftyridges that the inhahitanta give them the name af'Qag' (moun~ 
tain)." If this be no misprint we have here perhaps one element of the 
name used hy MarignoUi, and in the Turkish and Persian Ckil, a, desert, 
written by Vambery Tchol and Tchi'le, we have perhaps the other. 

"PatuU Descrtum in aUgna" {Ps. ovi, our evii, 35). Probiibly hii 

tjirioe having past the Torrid Zone is eiplained rightly by Meinert's sug. 

wtion that Marignolli regarded the Syrian Desert, which he crossed oa 

ia retom to Europe, Sii only another part of the same belt of desolation. 

bat the Torrid Zone was uninhabitable was maintained, as is well 

Klnown, by Aristotle and many other philosophers. 

• The anthor's expression is, " de cujiu magnitudine incmdibili el poyuio, 
le milituiD sileatur," of which I greatly doubt my having given a, cor- 
Bleot interpretation. 


and treated us with the greatest honour.' And when I en- 
tered the Kaam'a presence it was in full festival vestments, 
with a very fine cross carried before me, and candles and 
incense, whilst Oredo in Unuw, Dciivi was cbaunted, in that 
glorious palace where he dwells. And when the chaunt was 
ended I bestowed a full benediction, which he received with 
all humility. 

And so wo were dismissed to one of the Imperial apart- 
ments which had been most elegantly fitted up for ns ; and 
two princes were appointed to attend to all our wants. And 
this they did in the most liberal manner, not merely as re- 
gards meat and drink, but even down to such things as paper 
for lanterns, whilst all necessary servants also were detached 
from the Court to wait upon us. And so they tended us for 
nearly four years,* never failing to treat us with unbounded 
respect. And I should add that they kept us and all our 
establishment clothed in costly raiment. And considering 
that we were thirty-two persons, what the Kaam expended 
for everything on our account must have amounted, as well 

> It is pleBsing to find that thoagh our legate has no place in the 
Chinese Annals, the " great harsea" (dextraHi), wliick he took with him, 
h«ve. Under onr jear 13*2 it is recorded that there were presentod to 
the emperor borses of the kingdom of Pulang (Farang, Europe), of a race 
till then onknown in China, One of these horses was eleven feet six 
inches in length and six feet eight inches high, and vae black all over, 
except the hind feet, which were white. This present was highly esteemed. 
(He Mailla, ii, 679. and Ga«bil, Biit. dt aentchU Can. etc., p. 279.) Indeed 
Oaubil tells us in another work, " In the Imperial Palsce is preserred 
with care a picture in which Sbunti, the last emperor of tbe Yuen djnasty, 
is represented on a fine horse, of which all the dimonsionB are detailed. 
It is remarked that this hotse was presented to Shunti by a foreigner of 
the kingdom of France" (! No, Fere Oaubil, non a Franda led a Fran- 
quia .') See Tr. de la Chronol. Chin., p. 1K6. This vast animal wa« Bnrely 
the prototype of the Destrier, which Mr. Millais painted under Sir Ysea- 
bifts some years ago. 

' Jnnoiquoij^ualuor, whilst alittle below bespeaks of residing in Own - 
balec an»M qvati tribui. It is possible that the first eipression includea 
tbe whole time up to his embarking fur India, but it cannot be detet* 



as I can calculate, to more than four thousand marks. And ' 
we had many and glorious disputations with the Jews and 
other sectaries ;i and we made also a great harvest of souls 
in that empire. 

The Minor Friars in Cambalec have a cathedral church 
immediately adjoining the palace,* with a proper residence 
for the Archbishop, and other churches in the ciiy besides, 
and they have bells too, and all the clergy have their sub- 
sistence from the Emperor's table in the most honourable 

And when the Emperor saw that nothing would induce 
me to abide there, he gave me leave to return to the Pope, 
carrying presents from him, with an allowance for three 
years' expenses, and with a request that either I or some 
one else should be sent speedily back with the rank of Car- 
dinal, and with full powers, to be Bishop there;* for the 
office of Bishop is highly venerated by aU the Orientals, 
whether they be Christians or no. He should also be of the 
Minorite Order, because these are the only priests that they 
are acquainted with ; and they think that the Pope is always 
of that Order because Pope Girolamo was so who sent them 
that legate whom the Tartars and Alans venerate as a saint, 
viz.. Friar John of Monte Corvino of the Order of Minorites, 
of whom we have already spoken.* 

We abode in Cambalec about three years, and then we 

^ Of the ancient settlement of Jews in China, said to have taken place 
in the third century b.c.« thongh others name a later date, some notice 
wiU he found in the J, B, O, S,, xrvu, 297. See also Silv, de Saey in 
Notices et Extraits, vol. iy^ and Alvaro Semedo, Bel, della Cina, 1643, 
p. 193, etc. 

' See the building of this mentioned^ by Archbishop John in his letter 
at p. 206. 

3 A cardinal never came to China till the early part of the last century 
(Mezzobarba), and his mission did not prosper. 

^ By Pope Girolamo he means Friar Jerome Musci, Bishop of Pales- 
trina, elected Pope as Nicholas IV, and who sent John of Monte Corvino . 
on his distant mission. Dobner, having taken up the notion that Carpini 
is meant, says "legendum Innocentiut ;" but he is quite wrong. The 



took our way through Manzi/ with a magnificent provision 
for onr expenses from the Emperor, besides about two hun- 
dred horses ; and on our way we beheld the gloiy of this 
world in such a multitude of cities, towns, and villages, and 
in other ways displayed, that no tongue can give it fit ex- 

And sailing on the feast of St. Stephen,^ we navigated the 
Indian Sea until Pahn Sunday, and then arrived at a very 
noble city of India called Coldhbdm,^ where the whole world's 

TttrtarB looked on the Pope as the people of India (according to the 
common story) osed to look on John Company, viz., as in ai manner 
immortal. " Qaarebattt ettim dt Magna Pag'-," sajs Bubruquia, " « etiet 
ita leaex ticul auditrunC (p. 2TS). 

' Dobncr's book haa here ojid afterwards Mayiti, but this is probably 
from ignonwce ool;. The Veoiue MS. has Manci and Uanti plainly 

> Here the chronology of the journey calls for remark. The lost pre- 
cise date aiTorded vos St. John's Day, 1339. The succeeding winter is 
poaeed at the court of Uzbek. Supposing the party to quit Sarai in May 
1340. they wonld reach Armalec about September (see Pegolotti, pp. 265-6), 
and they did not quit that city till near the end of the third year from 
their leaving Avignon, tie., late in 1341. The journey from Armaleo to 
Peking would oci'upy four or five months, but probably much more, as they 
appeal (see infra, near the end) to have spent some tine at KamiL 
Hence perhaps they did not lurive at Peking earlier than the latter pozt 
of 1342, but not later than that, as the Chinese record about the horses 
fiies the year. The St. Stephen's day (26th December) on wUioh he Bailed 
from Zayton could not have been earlier than that of 1346, bat might 
have been later. Meioert takes the day for 2nd August (fitapken I, Pope 
and Martyr), but oa Eunetmann justly points out, that would be no 
season for sailing from China. The latter fixes the date to 1347, as Easter 
fell late in 1341^, and more time is thus allowed for the voyage to Mala- 
bar. We will assume it so. 

' Eitter over haatily idenliijea MarignoUi's Columbum with Colombo in 
Ceylon, and deduces that pepper waa then a staple of that island (£rii- 
hande, t. 688). though aa the author says that the " whole world's pepper" 
was produced there, this interpretation would imply that none was pro- 
duced in Malabar, the Pepper Metropolis &om time immemorial. Even 
Dobner ia more judicious here, and oonuludes that Columbo is nol meant, 
as the place is clearly placed by MarignoUi on the continent. But then 
he continuBa, entirely losing this gleam of judgment, that it wasinfnmAur 
(aee note farther on), and so could not be in Ifata^r, " adtoqui in regno 
Indoataa. An/ortaitit urbs Labor sif, judicium pme* ioclorem esio." One 


BY JOHN i>e' mabionolu. 343 

kjieppcr is prodnced. Now this pepper grows on a kind of 
Tfines, which are planted just like in our vineyards. These 
■ .vines produce clusters which at first are like those of the 
Bwild vine, of a green colour, aud afterwards are ahnost like 
ranches of our grapes, and they have a red wine in them 
■which I have squeezed out on my plate as a condiment. 
1 they have ripened, they are left to dry upon the trecj 
■IHid when shriveUed by the excessive heat the dry clusters 
G knocked oif with a stick and caught upon Unen cloths, 
) snd so the harvest is gathered. 

These arc things that I have seen with mine eyes and 
handled with my hand.s during the fourteen months that I 
stayed there.' And there is no roasting of the pepperj as 
authors have falsely asserted, nor does it grow in forests, tut 
in regular gardens ; nor are the Saracens the proprietors but 
the Christiana of St, Thomas, And these latter are the 
masters of the public steel-yard, from which I derived, as a 
perquisite of my office as I'ope's legate, every month a hun- 

»dred gold fan, and a thousand when I left.' 
Hu odIj Bay irith Friar Jordaaus, " Wonderiiil !" For further remarka 
on Colnmbum, see note to Odoric, p. 71. 

Frobubl? tlie name alioiild be rendered Columbui (is in the oul; nonuDa- 
tiTe I can find, vis. in Jortlanna'B letter at p. 227. But I have followed 
the French editor of Jordanua'a Mirabilia in eaJliog it Columbum, and it 
is not north while to alter what may have authority which I have over- 

' Onr author aftorwards calla this time a year and four months. 

- As to the pepper, Fr. Jordanvi, p. 27, and /in liaiula, iv, 77. Mori- 
gnolli'a denial of its growing in foreata is probably a alap at the Beato 
Odorico (aee p. 74 ante); yet up to the preaunt century there waa a 
ttacton the Malabar coaat called "the Pepper Jungle" Bachanan'i Christ. 
Baear., p. 111). Father Vinuenzo Moriu (Rome, 1672) atiU apeaka of 
the Christians of St. Thomaa ae having the pepper chiefly in their 
hands. Dobner, Ueinert, and Kunatmamt oil atrangelf misunderstand 
" qni habmt abiteram ponderii folins tnuncli," aa if it meant something 
abont the Christiana having a right to an aiport tai on the pepper. Tet 
in this very Chronicle (Dobner, p. 1G4-5) they might have found a pasaaga 

which tiatera can mean nothing but a ateelyord. It is in fact used for 
the Italian stadcra. So in a uorreapondence quoted further on, one of the 
Florentine demandH on the Sultan of Egypt iB"c/i«i)<J5«fno tcnere stadere 

^^_ tlie Ital 


There is a cliurcli of St. George there, of the Latin com- I 
munion, at which I dwelt.' And I adorned it with fine 1 
paintings, and taught there the holy Law. And after I had ] 
been there some time I went beyond the glory of Alexander 
the Great, when he set up Hs column (in India). For I I 
erected a stone as my landmark and memorial, iu the corner ( 
of the world over against Paradise, and anointed it with oil I | 
In sooth it was a marble pillar with a stone cross upon it, 
intended to last till the world's end. And it had the Pope's 
arms and my own engraved upon it, with inscriptions both 
in Indian and Latin characters. I consecrated and blessed 
it in the presence of an infinite multitude of people, and I 
was carried on the shoulders of the chiefs in a litter or palau- 
Irin like Solomon's.^ 

nelli loro fondachi," that they may have an authorized Bteeljurd in their 
&ctori«fl. Thevalae of the/amim (MarignoUi'B/an) hasvariedso much that 
it iH difficult to estimate what the legate received in this way. Unrsdeii 
ma^es tbefanam 2^. (Marco Polo, p. 656). In the begiaDing of lastceo- 
toiy, ViBBcherBaysthe/onamof Cochin was about l^d., that of Calient 6d., 
and that of Qailoa 15d. Late in the eame oentury Friai Paolino at&tes 
the Paliacat/unam at 9 >!)«( or 41d., that of Tanjore or Calicut at 6d. or 
7d., and that of Madura at 3id. And IbnBtttuta(iv, 17*) tells as that 100 ' 
/anamj were equal to 6 dinars, which would make the fanam nearly 8d. ' 
This Inst may be token as probably about the value of our autbor's/oa. 
So hia monthly perquisite would be about ^3 : 6, and the present he re- 
ceived at parting £13. If we may judge from the calculations baaed on 
Ibn Batuta'e statement of prieea at Dehli in bis time, the money would 
represent at least ten times aa much wealth as at preeeat. 

' This church "Latinorum" was probably founded by Jordaana, and 
was possibly the same old church fatlo al mado nostra mediocre which tbo 
Portuguese were token to see on their first viait to Colom, though that 
was thea eatitled S. Maria (iiamunc, i, f. 146). Day indeed (Land oflha 
PermaulM, p. 4) mentioas a church dedicated to St. George, within which 
may be seen a painting representing Ood the Father. But this ia at Cur- 
ringhacherry, ten milea from Cochin, and could scarcely have been the 
church of oar author. If Jordanua or any auccessor in the episcopate had 
survived at Colambom surely Marignolli would hava allnded to the fc«t ? 
He says below in quitting the place " vaWaciem /ratrifmt," which perhaps 
implies that there were friars there. 

' The Column or Columns of Alexander formed the subject of some ' 
legend that grew out of the memory of the altars on the Hyphaais, 
Imagination was dissatisfied with Alenander'a turning back from India 


KBo after a year and four montlis I took leave of the 
rethren, and after accomplishiDg many glorious works I 

Bcareel; entered — (does not one still fee) dixappointment eTei7 time tha 
atOTj is read ?) — atid in deSance of hiatorj prolonged hia eipedition to 
the ends of thu u&rth. We have eeen before that tbe cava teinplos of 
Western Indi&were ascribed to him ((int«, p. ET) ; Tennent citwta Persiun 
poem describing hia joomey to Ceylon and Adam's Penh (Ceylon, i, 605) ; 
whilst Friar Maoro's Map attributea to Alexander the chaina that atill 
aid pilgrims in climbing that mountain. Jolin of Hese likewise, in his 
imaginary travels, finda within a mile of the Uountain of Paradise another 
wouataiii, on which Alexander ia anid to have stood when he claimed 
tribute also from Paradino. Earlier than these the veraifying geographers 
in their apparent identification of Eo lit (the idea of which is Cape Comorin, 
though the name may have belonged to a mora eastern promontory) with 
Aomos, seem to indicate that in their notiona Alexander had attained tha 
furthest extremity of India. Thua Dionysiua — 

,."_(Or6. Descrip.. v. 11*8.) 
le author as apeoking of the 
but though othamise uppro- 

ipeaka ; it nma in the para- 

i Tipfiara KuXISbs Siigt 

■H J-)|.o 

>i Tpa<,ii 

rfvK» iir 'nnarby BaBM 


BOim Juo»»flOTUI oJojcu.Bii 

Dobneir indeed refeiB to a paaaage 
columns erected by Alexander on 1 
priat«, it is of Bacchaa that the geographer 
« of Festaa Arienns : 

" Ocean! Eoi pnetenti denique Bacchus 
Littore, et eitreni4 terrarum victor in or4 
Dueit laurigeros post Indica bella triumphoa, 
Brigit et geminoe telluris tine cotumnaa." — (V. 1380.) 
But the most appropriate illustnltion ia in a paaaage of Mandeville quoted 
by Meinert from a German edition, but which 1 do not find In Wrigbt's : 
■■ So he aet up his token there as far as he hod got, like as Hercules did 
on the Spanish Sea towards the sitnset. And the token that Alexander 
aet up towards the siinrising, hard by Paradise, hlght Alexander's Oodes, 
and that other hight Harcules'a Oadea : and thtae be great Pillars of 
Stone, that stand upon lofty mountains, for an eternal Sign and Token 
that no man shall pass beyond those pillars." 

Was this pillar of MarignolU's that which the Dutch chaplain Baldieus 
thus mentions : " Upon the rocks near the sea shore of Coulang stands a 
Stone Pillar, erected there, as the inhabitants report, by St, Thomas ; I 
saw the Pillar in 1662." Three hundred years of tradition might easily 
swamp the dim memory of John the Legate in that of Thomas the 
Apoatle. Mr. Day (tand o/ the PermauU, p. 213) tells ua that this pillar 
still exists, but Mr. Broadloy Howard in a recent book (Chriitiaiu of St. 
Thrnnai. p. 9) aays in reference to the passage of Baldsus jnst quoted : 
"Mr. D'Albedhyll, the Master Attendant at QuQon, told me that he had 
^^^saen the pillar, and th^.-if'ATaa washed away a few years ago." I wiah 
^■fane one would stiU look'for'it '. 


went to Bee the famous Queen of SiBA. By her I waa 
hononrably treated, and after some harvest of souls (for there 
are a few Christians there) I proceeded by sea to Setllan, a. 
glorious mountain opposite to Paradise. And from Seyltan 
to Paradise, according to what the natives say after the tra- 
dition of their fathers, is a distance of forty Itahan miles ; so 
that, 'tis said, tho sonnd of the waters falling from the foon- 
tain of Paradise is heard there.' 


Now Paradise^ is a place that (really) exists upon the earth 
Bnrronnded by the Ocean Sea, in the regions of the Oi-ienb 
on the other side of Columbine India, and over against the 
mountaiu of Seyllan. 'Tis the loftiest spot on the face of 
the earth, reaching, as Johannes Scotus hath proven, to the 
sphere of the moon ; a place remote from all strife, delect- 
able in bairaineaa and brightness of atmosphere, and in the 
midat whereof a fountain springeth from the ground, pouring 
forth its waters to water, according to the season, the Para- 
dise and all the trees therein. And there grow all the trees 
that produce the best of fruits ; Wondrous fair are they to 
look upon, fragrant and dchcious for the food of man.. Now 
that fountain cometh down from the mount and falleth into 
a lake, which is called by the philosophers Epphieattsb. 
Here it passes nuder another water which is turbid, and 
issnes forth on the other side, where it divides into four 
rivers wbich pass through Seyllan ; and these be their 
names :^ 

' A MS. of the fifteentli ceatiu'j in the Genoese Archivea, from wbioh 
extracts are giren by Griiberg de Homso, saya thnt the Four Bivors flow 
down from ParadiBO with auch a noiae that the people who inliabit round 
about those parts are bom deaf! {Anaaii di Oeograjia e di Statittica, a, 
App.) Akin to tbiais the tnfthof the dwelleniiD the extreme east hear- 
ing a tremcDdoi)B noise mode by the son iu rising (Carpini, p. 661). 

- Sea Introductory Notice to Marignolli, p. 3'ili. 

' Coaaiduring how rarely in reality a plurality of rivers Lave 


rarolf tlint in the diacugsiona arising oat of Captun Spelte'a 

great journey, it has even been denied tbftt snch a thing exiatB in nature, 
remarka.ble bow &eqnQnt is the pbenomenon in the traditions of 
I'aul; QutiauB, and there mutit be something in the idea attractive to 
lan's imagination. 

The interpretation of the four rifers of Eden as literally diverging 
ftom one fount baa long been abandoned by Catbolics ob vdl us ProtesC- 
■Bts ; but in tbo middle agea, meeting perhaps that attraction to whicb 
kilnaioD has beun made, it was FeceiTed to the letter, and played a large 
part in tbe geogropby botb of Chrietendoia and Islam; the posHible 
traces of vhicb Temain stamped on the map of Taiu-aa in the names of 
Sihun and Jihun given to the .Sarui and tbe Pyramui. {See Mai'udi, i, 
864, 270,) The moat prominent inatanoo of the tmdition alluded f« ia 
that in both Brahmamc&l ami Buddhist cosmogony which derives four 
great rivers of India, the Indus, the Sutlcg, the Ganges, and the Sardlia 
from one Holy Lake at tbe foot of Kilaa. It is also firmly believed by 
the Hindus that tbo Sone and the Nerbudda rise out of the same pool 
near Amarkantak. Tbe natives were so convinced that there was a com- 
munication between the Jumna and the Soraswati, which flows towards 
the Sutl^, that an utficer of the Kevenue Survey reported it to govitrn- 
a fact, and my then chief (now M. Qeneral W. E. Balser) waa 
o verify it. We found that the alleged communication was sup- 
take place gupii gupli, i. e., in a clandestine manner ! Hiwenth- 
'Iftng relates that from the Dragon Lake on the high lunda of Pamer one 
latream descends to the 0<us, another to the Sita, which Kitter supposea 
of Cashgor, but whicb perhaps is the mystic source of the 
Boang Ho. In a later form of the same tradition, reported by Bumes, the 
.piuB, Jaiartes, and Indus are all believed to rise in the Sirikul on Pamer. 
of Canibodia, of Canton, of Ava. and a fourth (perhaps the Sal- 
i) were regarded by tbe peoplo of Lao9 as all branches of one river ; a 
ionirhioh was probably only a local adaptation of the Indian Buddhist 
ition. A Chinese work mentioned by Klaproth describes the river of 
'Ham OS being a branch of the Hoang Uo. Even in the south of New Zea- 
find that the Maoris have a notion that the three chief i-ivera 
'known to them issue from a common lake. Tiieso legendary notions so 
pOBseaaed travellers and geographers that they seemed to assume that the 
law of rivers was one of dispersion and not of convergence, and that the 
best natural type of a river system was to be found, not in the veins of a 
l«a^ but in the body of a spider. Thus the Catalan map of 1375, in some 
the most remarkable geograjihical production of the Mjddle Ages, 
lents all the great rivers of Cutliay as radiating &om one source to 
The misty notions of tbe great African lakes, early gathered by tbe 
■aguese, condensed themselves into one great sea. that fed the sourues 
not only of the Nile but of the Niger, Congo, Zambesi, and several more. 
The Hindu myths suggested to map makers a great Lake Chimay in 
Tibet, from which dispersed all tbe great rivers of Eastern Asia ; Fordi- 
■and Mendesi Pinto declared, perhaps believed, that he had visited it, and 


Gyon' is that whicli circleth the land of Ethiopia whero 
are now tlie negroes, and which is called the Land of Prester 
John. It is indeed believed to be the Nile, which descends 
into Egypt by a breach made in the place which is called 
AsiSTY. The christians of St. Matthew the Apostle are 
there, and the Soldan pays theni tribute on account of the 
river, because they have it in their power to shut off the 
water, and then Egypt would periah.^ 

every atlas to the beginning of last centutj, if not Uter, repeated the 
Sction. A traTellec of tho aaventceuth century, the general of his order 
And therefore perhaps no vulgar friar, hojh that fce jaw tho Qangea near 
Ooa, where one of itB branches entered the sea. And far more recent and 
distin^aiahed geographers have clung to tho like ideas. Hitter more thiin 
half accepts the Chinese ator; of the Dragon Lake of Famer. Buchanan 
Hamilton, who did so much for the geography both of India and of Indo- 
Cliina, not onl; accepted the atories of the Burmese regarding the radia- 
tion of rivers, but himself suggested like theories, snch as that of an 
anaatomoflia between the Brahinaputm and the Irawadii whilst the old 
fanciesof the African map makers have been revived in our own time. (See 
Stracheij. in J. B. O, S., vol. iiiii, first paper; fiittar, Erdhmde, vii, 496; 
Bnnvea, iii, 180; Jovm. Aslatiqua.Ber. ii, tom. x, 415; In., xi, 4S; Burton, 
in J. E. a. S., nil, 307; Blaea't Alia), Amsterdam, 1GS3, vol. i; Coro- 
.«l(i, Atlanlt Veiitto, 1G31, eic; Fiapji di P. FiUppn, etc., p. 230.) 

I The Septuagint has Ttiay for the Nile in Jeremiah ii, 18, and in Bccle- 
tiaiticvt, uiv, 37 ; from the former passage tho term waa adopted in the 
Elhiopic books. Many Fathers of the Churuh thought Gihon passed 
under ground from PujBdiae to reappear as the Nile, and the other riverB in 
like fashion. Ludolf quntes many examples of what he jastly calls this 
foolish story of Qihou and its subterranean wanderings. But such notions 
were not originated by the church; for Pomponiua Mela supposes the 
Nile to come under the sea from the antichthonic world, and other 
heathen writers believed it to bo a reaurreGtion of the Euphrates. (Ludoy, 
1. c. H, § 10-12, and Comment., pp. 119, ISO; Note by Letronne in i/wn- 
liollft Meamen Critique, etc., iii, 122, 123.) 

' For Abaily in this paragraph tho author probably wrote Abcue^ ; (the 
c and t are constantly confounded), the Abaaci of Foio, from the Arabic 
name of Abyssinia Habah, Here again in the fourteenth century ia 
Freater John in Africa (see ante, p. 1(<2); as the Catalan Map and Sigoli 
also show him. 

This tribute alleged to be paid by the Soldan of Egypt to the King 

of Ethiopia or Abyssinia ia mentioned by Jordanas also {Mirabilia. p. 40), 

and ho names the reported amount as five hundred thousand dncate, 

though ho omits tho ground of payment. It is also a[Kikuii of by Aliuato ; 

"Si dice cho '1 Soldan Ku doU' Eijitlo 




The second river is called PnisoN, and it goes through 
India, circling all the land of Evilacli, and is said to go down 

A qnel B« di tributo e sta sog^eUo, 
Perch' ^ in pater di lui dal cammia dritto 
Lavare il Nilo e dorgli ultro ricetto, 
E per queato lusoiAr stibito afflitto 
Di faiQB il Cairo o tutto quel dJHtretto, 

Seiiapo detto t dai HuddettI Buui ; 

Gli dieiam Presto o Preteiaaai aoi."— Or(. Pur., xiriii, IIG. 

The qaeslion will be foand diaougaed in Ludoy (i., c. viii, 5 76-92, and 
Contment., pp. 130-132) Num Bex Habettinorum JTiluni diverUra pa»i( na 
in JEgyptum filial t He refers to the Suracetuo hifltory of El Macini, 
in which we find it related that in tlio time of Michael, Putriorah 
of the Jacobittia of Alexandria (who was elected in the ;ear 1089, and 
ruled for nine yeara), " the Nile became eioesaively low, wherefore (the 
Saltan) Mostanitir sent him (Michael) up to Ethiopia with ooatly proecntB. 
The king of the country sent out to meet him and received him with 
WTerence, a«]dttg wherefore he had come. And he then act forth how the 
f^reat deficiency of the Nile in E^ypt was threatening deatructioii to that 
land and its people. The Icing upon this ordered the cut that had been 
made to dirert the waters to be closed, so that the water might again 
flow towards Sgypt, seeing that the Patriarch had come so far on that 
acconnt. And the Nile rose three cubits in one night, ho that all the 
fields of Egypt received ample water and could be sown. And the Patri- 
Hch returned with much credit to Egypt, and was loaded with gifts and 
hononra by the Prince Muatansir." {RUlor. Saracen, a Qeorg. Elmacino, 
by £rpmitu. Lug. Bat., 1G2S, B. ui, o. 8.) Thestory is (briefly) noticed in 
Herbelot under the word Nil, and ia told much as by Ehnacinl from the 
History of Egypt by Waasaif Shah, who says the famine had lasted seven 
yean when the report reached Egypt of the Nile's baring been diverted 
(irotieu et Eilrail; viii, p. 47) ; and also in De Caatro's Voyage of Slephen 
ie Oama, He says the thing was much talked of among the Abys- 
■inians, and that it secored that people the privilege of paaaing through 
Egypt without paying tribute. (Atttry't Voyages, i., IH.) Urreto, a 
SpaoiBb Dominican writer, of whom Ludoif spealis with much contempt, 
says that the Pope wrote to Menas King of Ethiopia to turn off the Nile, 
and not to mind about the tribute of three hundred thousand seqnina 
which be got from the Turk to keep it open. A certain Waailebius, 
having been desired by Duke Ernest of Saiony to investigate this mat- 
ter, reported that the Europeans in Egypt looked on the whole story aa 
ma Abyssinian rhodomontade, but afterwards in 1677 he claimed to liave 
fennd a letter from a king of Abyssinia threatening the Sultan with the 
diversion of the Nile. It ia also noticed by Lndolf that Albuquerque is 
Stated by his son to have aerioualy contemplated this diveraion, and to 
have oilen urged King Emauuel to send him miners for the job (Lvdoff, 
OM., and the others quoted above ) . 
The legend ia thus told as a foot also by Simon Sigoli. who tiavelled to 


into CATBAr, where, by a change of name, it iB called Cabo- 
HO&A», Le. Black Water, and there is fonnd bdellinm and the 
onyx stone. I believe it to be the biggest river of fresh 
water in the world, and I have crossed it mvaelf. And it 
has on its banks very great and noble cities, rich above all 
in gold. And on that river excellent craftsmen have their 
dwelling, occupying wooden houses, especially weavers of 
silk and gold brocade, in snch numbers (I can bear witness 
from having seen them), as in my opinion do not exist in 
the whole of Italy. And they have on the shores of the river 
an abundance of sdk, more indeed than all the rest of the 
world put together. And they go about on their floating 
bonses with their whole families just as if they were on shore. 
This I have seen. On the other side of CaSa the river ia 
lost in the sands, but it breaks out again and forms the sea 
which is called Bacuc, beyond Thasa.^ 

Egypt, 8'mal and Palestine with Loonardo Preacobaldi and other Floreu- 
tinas in 1384 : " "Tis true that th'a soldan ia obliged to pay a jeatfy ran- 
Bom or homage to Preeter John. Now this potentate Preater John dwella 
in India, and is a ebristimi, and poasesaes maitj cities both of chriaUana 
uid of infidels. And the reason why the Soldan pays him homage is this, 
that whenever this Prestcr John chooses to open certain river slaices he 
eaa drown Cairn and Alexandria and all that conntrj ; and 'tis said that 
thia river is the Nile itaelf which runs by Cairo. The aoid sluioce stfuid 
bnt littls open, and yet the river ia enormous. And so it is for this 
reason, or rather &om this apprehension, that the Soldan sends him 
ever; year a ball of gold with a cross upon it, worth thr«e thousand gold 
bezants. And the loads of the Soldan do march with those of this Prester 
John." (F. in Terra Santa, etc., Firenze, 1S62, p. 2021. 

' Dohiier baa Chasa (the c for f again), but the Venice HS. has the 
name right, Thana, i.e., Aiov. In the oonfueions of this paragraph MoH- 
gnolli oatdoes himself. He jambles into one riier the Phiaon, Ganges (or 
Indus), Wolga (or Oiua), Hoang-Ho and Tan^e Eiaug. and then turns 
them all topsy turvy. The Eara-Muren, or Bla^k River of the Tartars, 
as he correctly explains it, is well known to be the Yellow River of the 
Chinese. Bnt it is not a river whose shores and waters are crowded with 
the vast population described, and his descriptions here appear to be 
drawn from his reoollections of the Yangtse Eiang. The river lost in the 
sands is perhaps the Oius. which be would probably pass on his way fhm 
Sarai to AlnittUg, but he may mean the Wolga which be saw at Sotai, 
and which has the beet claim to be said to form the Sen of Baku, i.e., the 



r JOira DE' MAItlGNOLLI. 351 

The third river is caUed Tyoeis. It passes over againat 
the land of the Assyrians, and comes down near Ntneve, 
that great city of three days' journey, to which Jonas was 
sent to preach ; and his sepulchre is there, I have been 
there also, and stopped a fortnight in the adjoining towns 
■which were built out of the ruins of tho city. There are 
capital froita there, especially pomegranates of wonderful size 
and sweetness, with all the other fruits that we have in Italy. 
And on the opposite side [of the river] is a city built out of 
the ruins of Nj-neve, which is called MoxsoL.' 

Between that river and the fourth, there is a long tract of 
oonntry bearing these names; viz., Mfsopotamia, i.e. the 
land between the waters ; Afsifria, the land of Abraham and 
Job, where also ia the city of King Abagarus, to whom Christ 
■sent a letter written with his own hand, once a most fair and 
Christian city, but now in the hands of the Saracens. There 
also I abode four days in no small fear. 

Wo come lastly to tho fourth river, by name Etjpheates, 
which separates Syria, Assyria, and Mesopotamia from the 
Holy Land. When we crossed it we were in the Holy Land. 
In this region are some very great cities, especially Alep, in 

CaBpian {BIAiI«o..^/aci™i Bfare Caspium, sajB Koger Bftoon). How he 
Uie Caspioji and tbo Eiuamuren is puzztiog. The Chinese have 
Indeed a notion that the Bourcea of the Houng-Ho were originallj in 
near Koabgor, whence their atreama flowed into the Lop 
HTnr, and thence diving nnder ground, issued forth as the Hoang-Ho. 
There waa olao aji old notion tliat the waters of the country about Haia- 
fromtheSi-HaiorCoapiftn (rimjtou:ity,ii,2Ta); (Fo-koue-ki, 
p. 37 ; Jutien in H. A, dti Voyagei, aa quoted at p. 339). Something of 
these legends Marignolli ma; have heard, without qoit^ digesting. 

On this paeaago.witbiinainuBingsenBeof hisown superior adeaatngeB, 
Dobner observes : " Here Marignola shows himself exccssivel; ignorant of 
gei^raphy ; but we must pardon him, for in bis daj geographical studies 
had by no means reached that pecfeetion which thej have attained now." 
The ruins opposite Mosul ore those called Nabi Yunus and Kouyui\jik, 
veil known from Mr. Layanl's eicarationa and interesting books. A 
jlftetch showing the tomb of Jonah mentioned in the tett, will be foand 
p. 131, vol. i, of Hintvch and Hi Eemaine. Ricold of Monteccoce also 
'mentions the truces and rauiparts of Nineveh, and a spring which waa 
'called the Fount of Jonah, 

Holy Land. 

kin this regit 
Caspian {Elhih 
MmaeetB the Ci 
Indeed a notio 
HTnr, and then 
There waa also 
Bhahr nunn Fro 



whjcli there are many ctmstians wlio dress after tke Latin 
fasliion, and speak a language very near the French j at any 
rate hke French of Cyprus.' Thence you come to Damaacns, 
to Mount LebMion, to Galilee, to Samaria, Nazareth, Jeru- 
salem, and to the Sepulchre of our Lord Jeaua Christ, 

Then followa a, chapter Gowxraing ilw Trees of PanidUe, from 
vrhich I extract a few lines. 

[The trees] are there still in existence, as the Paiith^oii 
says ;* and this is shown, by the fruits and leaves which are 
sometimes cairied forth by those rivers, and are known by 
their medicinal virtue and fragrant odours. Nor is this in- 
credible ; for in the adjoining provinces of India likewise 
there are trees which produce fruit of a marvellous kind 
every month.' 

From the chapter On the Transgression of our First FareiUs by 
Tefnplatiim of th« Serpimt. 

And they took the leaves of the fig-tree or plantain,* and 

< "Loguufltur linguam qutui Qallieam, icilicet quasi de Cij>ro." ^^H 

" And French she spobe both fayie and fetisely, ^^H 

French of the echool of Stratford-atte-Bowe, ^^| 

For French of Paria waa to her untnowe." t^| 

French no doubt was mnch spoken at Cyprns ander the LusignanB, 

' Tha r<mtbton U the UniverBal Chronicle, bo called, by Godfrej of 
Viterbo, an ecclesiaatical vriter who died in 1186. The work Ib to be 
seen in " German. Seriptorum, etc, To«i«( Alter, ex Bibl. JoannU Piitorii 
Sidarii, Honov., 1613." It is ttveryprolii aUair, beginning with DcDinni 
EaienM ante omnem creationem, and is largely interspersed with aomi- 
dc^grel heiameters &nd pentameters. 

* Aooording to Masudi some leaves of Famdiao covered Adam's body 
when caat out. These wore scattered by the winds over India, and gave 
birth t« oil the peri\iroeB of that country. He alao bore with him wheat, 
and thirty branches of the trees of the Qardea, and from those come all 
our good icmU (French TVaiw., i, 61). St. AthanBaius also accounts for 
the aromatica of India by the spicy broexes &oui Paradise adjoining. 
(Opera, Paria, 1698, ii, 279.) 

* "Picun»u mttjarum." That the leaves used for girdles by Adam and 
Eve were plantain leaves, is a Mobomcdan tradition ; and it la probably 
from this that the plantain has been called afis in European languages, 
a name which seems t« hare little ground in any resemblance of the 
fruitu. but whicb mialod Milton perbapa to make the banyan the tree of 
the girdles. 


made themselves girdles to hide their shame. . . . Then God 
pronounced sentence after the confession of their sin, first 
against the serpent that he should go upon his belly creep- 
ing on the earth (but I must say that I have seen many 
serpents, and very big ones too, that went with half the body 
quite erect, like women when they walk in the street, and 
very graceful to look upon, but not to be sure keeping this 
up for any length of time) .... 

And he made them coats of skins : so at least we com- 
monly have it, pelliceas, " of fur," but we should do better 
to read Jiliceas, " of fibre ;" because they were no doubt of 
a certain fibrous substance which grows like net-work be- 
tween the shoots of the coco-palm ;^ I wore one of these 
myself till I got to Florence, where I left it. And God for- 
bade Adam to eat of the Tree of Life. See, said He to the 
Angels, that they take not of the Tree of Life, and so live 
for ever. And straightway the Angel took Adam by the 
arm and set him down beyond the lake on the Mountain 
Seyllan, where I stopped for four months. And by chance 
Adam planted his right foot upon a stone which is there 
still, and straightway by a divine miracle the form of the sole 
of his foot was imprinted on the marble, and there it is to 
this very day. And the size, I mean the length, thereof is 
two and a half of our palms, or about half a Prague ell. And 
I was not the only one to measure it, for so did another 
pilgrim, a Saracen of Spain ; for many go on pilgrimage to 
Adam. And the Angel put out Eve on another mountain, 
some four short days^ journey distant. And as the histories 
of those nations relate (and indeed there is nothing in the 
relation that contradicts Holy Scripture), they abode apart 
from one another and mourning for forty days, after which 
the Angel brought Eve to Adam, who was waxing as it were 
desperate, and so comforted them both.^ 

^ " Nargillorum,** from Pers. Nargil. 

* The usual MuBsulman tradition runs, that on the violent expalsion of 




Now, as our aubject roquircs it, and as I deem it both 
pleasant and for some folks profitable, I propose to insert 
here an account of Seyllaii, provided it please his Imperial 
Majesty ; and if it pleaso him not he has but to score it ont. 

First, then, it must be told how, and in what fashion I got 
there, and after that I will speak of what is to be foond 

First, then, when we got our dismissal from the Kaam that 
mighty Emperor, with splenilid presents and allowances from 
him, and as we proposed to travel by India, because the other 
overland road was shut up by war and thcro was no possi- 
bility of getting a passage that way, it was the Kaam's order 
that we should proceed through Manzi, which was formerly 
known as India Maxima, 

Now Manzi is a country which has countless cities and 
nations included in it, past all belief to one who has not seen 
them, besides great plenty of everything, including fruits 
quite unknown in our Latin countries. Indeed it has 30,000 
great cities, besides towns and boroughs quite beyond connt . 
And among the rest is that most famous city of Cami'SAT, 
the finest, the biggest, the richest, the most populous, and 
altogether the most marvellous city, the city of the greatest, 
wealth and luxury, of the most splendid buildings (especially 
idol temples, in some of which there are 1000 and 2000 
monks dwelling together) that exists now upon the face of 
the earth, or mayhap that ever did exist ! AVhen authors toll 
of its ten thousand noble bridges of stone, adorned with 
sculptures and statues of armed princes, it passes the belief 

our ]»U'eTita and their t«inpt«r trom PunuliBe, Adam full on tbe Hoaatain 
□f Serendib, Ere ut Jidda ne&r Heccu, Eblia near Basrub. and the Ser- 
pent at lapahan. Adam after long solitude and penitence wan led hy 
(labnel to Hacoa and thence to the Mountain of Arafat {ReBognUion), 
where he wuh reunited t<> Eve after a Mparatioii of two hundred g^ 
{D-Herbclof ; WnVi Bib. L'.gaidi.) 

lundred ;«^^ 


of one who has not been there, and yet peradventure these 
authors tell no lie.' 

There is Zayton also, a wondrous fine seaport and a city 
of incredible size, where our Minor Friars have three very fine 
churches, passing rich and elegant ; and they have a bath 
also and &fondaco which serves as a dep&t for all the mer- 
chants.^ They have also some fine bells of the best quality, 
two of which were made to my order, and set up with all due 

> Probably a reference to the accounts of Kingss^ or Hangcheu, by 
Polo and Odoric^ see p. 113. Bat hear what Dobner has to say on Cam- 
say : " In our time Camhay^ the chief city of Gozerat, which on account 
of its size, wealth, and splendour, is often called the Indian Cairo. The 
riyer Indus flows through the kingdom, so that Marignolli was quite right 
in a previous passage when he referred the Columns of Alexander to those 
parts, in imitation of which he put up another himself in the same quar- 
ter" !! (p. 95.) 

^ The original (in Dobner) reads : " habent tres eccleaxtu pulcherrimas 
optimas et ditissinuM balneum fandatum omnium mereatorum deponto- 
rtum." Meinert and Kunstmann translate "ein gesHftetes BaA" but this 
seems somewhat unmeaning, and I have assumed that Jundatwn should 
read Fitndacwm {t for c again) in the sense of the Italian Fondaco, This 
was the word for a mercantile establishment and lodging house in a 
foreign country, nearly what we should call a fisbctory, and we flnd it still 
applied at Venice to the old foreign factories, though the common Italian 
dictionaries ignore this meaning of the word. In Sicily the word still 
means an inn, especially one where the cattle and goods of traders are put 
up. It is borrowed from the Arabic Fanduk, " a public hostel for traders 
where they put up along with their wares," and that again comes from 
the Greek vavSoxcioy. 

Pagnini (Delia Decima, etc., ii, 89) gives a Florentine correspondence 
about a treaty of commerce with the Sultan of Egypt in the year 1422, 
in which the chief items of privilege to be demanded for the Florence 
merchants are under the heads of Fonda4:o,- Church, Bath, Steelyard. 
In the thirteenth century we find the King of Lesser Armenia g^rant 
ing the Venetians at Mamistra " a fondiik to deposit their merchan- 
dise and property in." (Joum, Asiat., ser. v, tom. xviii, 353.) In a treaty 
between Abuabdallah Mahomed, King of Granada, and the Genoese, in 
1278, it is provided that the latter shall have in all the king's cities 
Fundik8 in which to conduct their business, and these shall be allowed to 
have churches, baths, oven, and warehouses (Not. et Extraits, xi, 28 ; see 
also Amari Dipl. Arab., pp. xxx, 88, 101). And in a treaty betweefl Michael 
Palseologus and the Genoese, it is specified that the latter shall have in 
certain ports and islands logiam, palatium, ecclesiam, balneum, fumum et 
jardinum (Ducange, Hist, de Constantinople, App., p. 6). These quotations 

23 2 


form in the very middle of the Saracen community.^ One of 
these we ordered to be tailed Johannina, and the otlier 
Anton ina. 

We quitted Zayton on St. Stephen's day, and on the 
Wednesday of Holy Week we arrived at Columfanm. Wishing 
then to visit the shrine of St, Thomas the Apostle, and to 
sail thence to the Holy Land,^ we embarked on board certain 
jnnks, from Lower India^ which is called Minubar.* We en- 
countered so many storms, commencing from St. George's 
Eve, and were so dashed abpnt by them, that aixty times and 
more we were all but swamped in the depths of the se-a, and 
it was only by divine miracle that wo escaped. And such 
wondrous things we beheld ! The sea as if in flames, and 
fire-spitting dragons flying by,' and as they passed they slew 
persons on board the other junks, whilst ours remained un- 

akow tliat the EccUsia, Balnmim.Fandacam, and Brponlonvm tan naturaUy 
tt^ther. It was also the Mahomedan pructice to attack e. caravanserai 
(i.«. a/ondaco)io convents of Kalandars or Dam esieH (see Ertkinc's Baber, 
p. 215). 

I He haa evident glue in mentioning the setting up of the bella in the 
middle of the Ualioiaediui quarter of Zajton ; the Mahomedans holding 
bella in abomination and not aUowing them under their rule. Ibn 
Batuta's account of hia terror and disma]', when he Qrst heard bells 
jangling on all sides of him at Caffa, is amuaing (ii, 357). 

' Meinert suggestB that Terram Sanctam here ia a clerical error for 
Terram Saiata. This is probahle, for the first is bardlj intelligible. 

■ " Atcendnntes Jiinkos." This is perhaps the oldest item in the Franco- 
Indian vooabulary. It occurs also in Odoric (see ante, p. 73). The 
Catalan Map gives a drawing uid description of these ships called Ituhi 
(probably for /ilchi) with their bamboo sails. Quoth Dobner : " Vocem 
hanc in nulla glossariomm Medii Xvi reperio. Verosimillime navigia 
Bjuncu teiia intellignntur, quorum uaum India UBse plurea aiHnaant," 
etc. {p. 96). It is more singular that the same miatalie should have been 
made by Amerigo Veapncci in hia ourioua letter to one of the Hedioi 
giving an account of the voyage of De Gama, whoae party he hod met at 
Cape Verde on thoii- return from India, (See Baldsllo Boni, II, MUione. 

* This correct reading is from Venice MS., Dobner having SinAar. See 
note on Minibar at p. 74. 

' This is very like Fabian's account of a storm in the same aea, only 
tlie Chinese friar'a is the more sober (Fo-tout-ti. ch. ilj. 


touclied, by God's grace, and by virtue of the body of Christ 
which I carried with me, and through the merits of the glori- 
ous Virgin and St. Clare.^ And having brought all the 
Christians to penitential mourning, even whilst the gale still 
blew we made sail, committing ourselves to the Divine 
guidance, and caring only for the safety of souls. Thus led 
by the Divine mercy, on the morrow of the Invention of the 
Holy Cross^ we found ourselves brought safely into port in a 
harbour of Seyllan, called Pebvilis,' over against Paradise. 
Here a certain tyrant, by name ^oya Jaan,* a eunuch, had 
the mastery in opposition to the lawful king. He was an 
accursed Saracen, who by means of his great treasures had 
gained possession of the greater part of the kingdom. 

At first he put on a pretence of treating us honourably, 
but by and bye, in the politest manner and under the name 
of a loan, he took from us 60,000 marks, in gold, silver, silk, 
cloth of gold, precious stones, pearls, camphor, musk, myrrh, 
and aromatic spices, gifts from the Great Kaam and other 
princes to us, or presents sent from them to the Pope. And 

1 St. Clara was the townswoman, disciple, and feminine reflexion of 
St. Francis. 

« 3rd May. 

3 Meinert and Eonstmann translate Pervilit as if it w^re a Latin ad- 
jective. But the name is perfectly Ceylonese in character ; e.g. PctdavUle 
and Periaville are names found in Tennent*s Map, though not in positions 
suited to this. From the expression " over against Paradise," and the 
after mention of Cotta, we may see that it was somewhere not fax firom 
Columbo. And a passage in Fridham enables me to identify the port as 
Barbeiyn, otherwise called Beruwala, near Bentotte and the mouth of 
the Ealuganga. This is now a large fishing village, with a small bay 
having an anchorage for ships, and a considerable coasting trade. (HittO' 
rical, etc.. View of Ceylon, pp. 619-20.) 

* Coya or Coja Joan represents, I presume, KhwoQa Jahd^. Now this 
was the title of the Wazir of Dehli ; and Ibn Batuta, in reference to a 
time only a year or two before our author's arrival in Ceylon, mentions 
as an instance of the arrogance of Nasiruddin the new Sultan of Maabar, 
that he ordered his Wazir and admiral to take the same title of Khwdja 
Jahdn. Others may have foUowed the fashion, for it seems probable that 
our author's accursed Saracen was that "Wazir and Admiral Jdlasti" 
whom Ibn Batuta found in power at Columbo. (Jbn Batuia, iv, 185 ; 204.) 

Ill, with all politeneas as Itl 


BO we were detained by this i 
Baid, for four montliti. 

On tliat very high mountain [of which we have spokei 
perhaps after Paradise the highest mountain on the face c 
the earth, some indeed think that Paradise itself exists. Bui! 
this is a mistake, for the name shews the contrary. For i^ 
is called by the natives Zindati Balm ; haba meani 
'fathei-' {and mama 'mother') in every language in thi 
world ; whilst Zindan ia the same as 'Hell', so that Zindat 
Baba is as much aa to say ',the hell of our father*, implying^ 
that our first father when placed there on his expulsion from 
Paradise was as it were in hell.^ 

That exceeding high mountain hath a pinnacle of aur-J 
passing height, which, on account of the clouda, can rarely! 
be seen. But God, pitying our tears, lighted it up i 
morning just before the sun rose, so that wc behold it glow-J 
ing with the brightest 6ame. In the way down from thi 
same mountain there ia a fine level spot, still at a gre 
height, and there you find in order, first the mark of Ailam'9 
foot; secondly, a certain statue of a sitting figure with the! 
left hand resting on the knee, and the right hand raised and>l 
extended towards the west; lastly, there is the house (of 1 
Adam) which he made with his own hands. It is of an ob- 
long quadrangular shape like a sepulchre, with a door in the | 
middle, and is formed of great tabular slabs of marble, not! 
cemented, but merely laid one upon auother.- 

' I cannot find any trace of tbis name in the books about Ceylon. 
Zindan (Pera.) signiflua "a dungeon," and seems often applied to build- 
ings of mysterious antiquity. Thus a tower-liiie building of huge blooka 
of mafble, which exiflts among those remains north of Persepolia which 
lae suppoHod to mark the Hito of Pasargadio, is called Zinddn-i-SuleimatL, 
" SolomoD'i Dungeon." And another relic, doscribedby Sir H. Bawlinstw 
in his paper on tho Atropatenian Ecbatana, has the same name. It ia 
very Uliely that the sepuliihre-like building which Marignolli describaa 
below, was called Zinddn-t-Baba by the Poraian visitors. Buba iB correctly 
applied to Adam. Thus Ibn Batuta mentions that of the two rooda to 
tho Peak one woa Tnrtk ISaha (Adiim'a Bond), and the other Tar!k Mama 
(Eve'a Eoad) (i», p. 180). 

clear &am all this that MiuignoUi never uscended tho Peak, 


BY JOHN df/ marignolli. 359 

It is said by the natives, especially by their monks who 
stay at the foot of the mountain, men of very holy life though 
without the faith,^ that the deluge never mounted to that 
point, and thus the house has never been disturbed.* Herein 

Indeed he does not seem to have dreamt of mounting that "caewnen 
snperenUneTu*' as he calls it, but thanks God for a glimpse of it merely. 
The footmark that he saw therefore was not the footmark which has been 
the object of pilgrimage or curiosity for so many ages. Indeed the length 
of half an ell which he ascribes to it (ante, p. 353) does not agree with 
that of the peak footstep. The length of the latter is given by Ibn 
Batuta at eleven spans, by Marshall at five feet six inches, by Tennent 
at about five feet; all in fair accordance. The "planitiee altisnma puU 
chra" on which Marignolli places the footmark, and apparently also a 
lake (see ante, p. 353), seems to correspond with the *' pulcheirrima quadam 
planities" and lake of Odoric. I suspect that the place visited by both 
Franciscans was some Buddhist establishment at one of the stages 
between the coast and Adam's Peak, where there was a model of the 
sacred footstep, such as is common in Buddhist countries, and such as 
Tennent states to be shown at the Alu Wihara at Cotta, at Komegalle, 
and elsewhere in Ceylon. It is true that there was a second " genuine*' 
footstep shown in Fahian's time (end of fourth century), but this was 
"to the north of the royal city," apparently Anur%japura, and out of 
Marignolli's way, even if extant in his time. I see from Pridham and 
Tennent that there appears to be a model of the foot at Palabadulla, one 
of the resting places in ascending from Batnapura, which would be the 
route likely to be foUowed by Marignolli, considering the position of the 
port where he landed. Probably the exact site of which our author speaks 
might still be identified by remains of the ancient building which he calls 
Adam's Dungeon. Knox also calls the footmark " about two foot long," 
so that perhaps he was misled in the same manner as Marignolli (p. 3). 

For the history of the Peak see Sir J. E. Tennent's Ceylon. Perhaps he 
has not noticed that it is represented pictorially in Fra Mauro's Map, 
with the footstep at the top of it. It must also be added that Tennent 
quotes from the Asiatic Journal, that the first Englishman to ascend 
Adam's Peak was Lieut. Malcolm in 1827. If the date is right, the fact 
is wrong. For the late Dr. Henry Marshall and Mr. S. Sawers ascended 
together in 1819, and both published accounts of their ascent. To be 
sure they were both Scotchmen ! 

The statua quwdam sedens, etc., is of course a Buddha. 

^ " Qui stant ad pedes montis »inefide sanctissimw vitcs." I am doubtful 
of the meaning. 

^ Tennent mentions that the Samaritan version of the Pentateuch, and 
also an Arabic Pentateuch in the Bodleian, make the Ark rest on the 
mountains of Serendib or Ceylon (i, 552). Eicold di Montecroce says 
that the Indians denied that Noah's flood had reached to them, but they 
lied, for he had noticed as a fact that all the rivers that descended from 
Ararat flowed towards the Indian Ocean. (Peregrinat, Quatuor, p. 122.) 


they put their dreams in opposition to Holy Scripture and 
the traditions of the saints ; but indeed they have some 
plausible arguments to urge on their side. For they say that 
they are not descended either from Cain or from Seth, but 
from other sons of Adam, who [as they allege] begot other 
sons and daughters. But as this is contrary to Holy Scrip- 
ture I will say no more about it. 

I must remark, however, that these monks never eat flesh, 
because Adam and his successors till the flood did not do so. 
They go naked from the loins upwards, and unquestionably 
they are very well conducted. They have houses of palm- 
leaves, which you can break through with your finger,^ and 
these are scattered up and down in the woods, and full of pro- 
perty, and yet they live without the slightest fear of thieves, 
unless perchance there come vagabonds from foreign parts. 

On the same mountain, in the direction of Paradise, is a 
great fountain,^ the waters of which are clearly visible at a 
distance of good ten Italian miles. And though it breaks 
out there, they say that its water is derived from the Fountain 
of Paradise. And they allege this in proof : that there some- 
times turn up from the bottom leaves of unknown species in 
great quantities, and also lign-aloes, and precious stones, 
such as the carbuncle and sapphire, and also certain fruits with 
healing virtues. They tell also that those gems are formed 
from Adam^s tears, but this seems to be a mere figment.^ 
Many other matters I think it best to pass over at present. 


The garden of Adam in Seyllan contains in the first place 
plantain trees which the natives call figs.* But the plantain 

1 ** Fanaala, 'a dwelling of leaves,* describes the house of a Buddhist 
priest to the present day." {Hardy*8 Eastern Monachism, p. 129.) 

* A cascade, I suppose, perhaps the Seetlagunga torrent noticed below. 
8 See Odoric, p. 9S. The Cliinese also had this story (Tennent, ii, 610). 

* See note tit p. 352. We tind from Pridham that "Adam's Garden" 


has more the character of a garden plant than of a tree. It 
is indeed a tree in thickness^ having a stem as thick as an 
oak^ but so soft that a strong man can punch a hole in it 
with his finger, and from such a hole water will flow. The 
leaves of those plantain trees are most beautiful, immensely 
long and broad, and of a bright emerald green ; in fact, they 
use them for tablecloths, but serving only for a single din- 
ner. Also new-bom children, after being washed and salted, 
are wrapt up with aloes and roses in these leaves, without 
any swathing, and so placed in the sand. The leaves are 
some ten ells in length, more or less, and I do not know to 
what to compare them (in form) unless it be to elecampane. 
The tree produces its fruit only from the crown ; but on one 
stem it will bear a good three hundred. At first they are 
not good to eat, but after they have been kept a while in the 
house they ripen of themselves, and are then of an excellent 
odour, and still better taste ; and they are about the length 
of the longest of one^s fingers. And this is a thing that I 
have seen with mine own eyes, that slice it across where you 
will, you will find on both sides of the cut the figure of a man 
crucified, as if one had graven it with a needle point.^ And 

is the subject of a genuine legend still existing. At the torrent of Seetla- 
gunga on the way to the Peak, he tells us : " From the circumstance that 
various fruits have been occasionally carried down the stream, both the 
Moormen and Singalese believe, the former that Adam, the latter that 
Buddha had a fruit garden here, which still teems with the most splendid 
productions of the East, but that it is now inaccessible, and that its ex- 
plorer would never return." (Hist., Polit. and Stat. Acct. of Ceylon, p. 613.) 
1 Mandeville gives a like account of the cross in the plantain or '* apple 
of Paradise" as he calls it, and so do Frescobaldi and Simon Sigoli in 
their narratives of their pilgrimage in 1384 ; who also like Marignolli 
compare the leaves to elecampane {Firenze, 1862, pp. 32, 160). The cir- 
cumstance is also alluded to by Paludanus in the notes to lAnachoten'a 
Voyages (p. 101). Padre F. Vincenzo Maria says that the appear- 
ance was in India that of a cross merely, but in Phoenicia an express 
image of the crucifix, on which account the Christians of that country 
never cut the fruit but broke it (Viaggio, etc., p. 350). Old Gerarde ob- 
serves on this subject : " The Crosse I might perceive, as the form of a 
Sprcd-Eglc in the root of Feme, but the Man I leave to be sought for by 


it was of these leaves that Adam and Eve made themselves 
girdles to cover their nakednoaa. 

There are also many other trees and wonderfii! fruits there 
which we never see in these pai-ta, such as the Nai'ijil. Now 
the Nargil is the Indian Nut, Its tree has a most delicate 
bark, and very handsome leaves like those of the date-palm. 
Of these they make baskets and corn measures ; they use 
the wood for joists and rafters in roofing houses ; of the 
liusk or rind they make cordage ; of the nutshell cups and 
goblets. They make also from the shell spoons which are 
antidotes to poison. Inside the shell there is a pulp of some 
two fingers thick, which is excellent eating, and tastes al- 
most like almonds. It burns also, and both oil and sugar 
can be made from it. Inside of this there is a liquor which 
bubbles like new milk and turos to an excellent wine.' 

They have also another tree called Aiiihitrnn,- having a 
fruit of excellent fragrance and flavour, somewhat like a 

There is again another wondei-ful tree called Cliakebanihe,^ 
as big as an oak. Its fruit is produced from the trunk and 
not from the branches, and is something marvellous to see, 

tlioae that have better eyes and better judgement than myaelT" (p. 1515). 
And Bhsede: " Tranavarsiin secti in came nota ma^ fiiauil Heu niik, 
velut Bigno crncia interatincti, ac punctulia bine inde nigricontibua con- 
apersi." (iforJiis MatnbarUns, i, 19.) 

' He apporeatly confounds the coconut milk with tlie t«dd^, wbich is 
tbe Bap of the tree drawn and fermented; amiatahe which later trar ell era 
bave made. 

' The Mango (Avi or Amba). I do not know how the word AmfciiraniH 
which he aees is fonned. There ie a tree and fruit in MaJabar with a con- 
siderable rcflemblftnoe to the mango (perbaps a wild Mango) iiolled Jmba- 
i«in {Rheede lloHva Malabar., i, 91). 

■ The Jack ; a good account of it. CioJtc Baruhe ia the Shoki Barti of 
Ibn Batuta ; concerniog wliic-. Eee Jordantig, p. 13. P. Vincenzo Maria 
ulso caUa the beat kind of Jack Oiacha BaTca(Viag,,p,d5&). Banthehov- 
ever uomea nearer to Waracha, wbicb Knoi states to bo one Singalese 
nanio of the Jack (Ed. I69I, p. 14). Saltan Baber compares the Jaok- 
fniit to 11 haggi*. " Yon would say," quoth he, " that tLe tree was hung 
iiU round with haggiaofl 1" (p. 325). 


being as big as a great lamb^ or a child of three years old. 
It has a hard rind like that of oar pine-cones^ so that yon 
have to cut it open with an axe ; inside it has a pulp of sur- 
passing flavour, with the sweetness of honey and of the best 
Italian melon; and this also contains some five hundred 
chesnuts of like flavour, which are capital eating when 

I do not remember to have seen any other fruit trees, such 
as pears, apples, or figs, or vines, unless it were some that 
bore leaves only and no grapes. There is an exception, 
however, at the fine church of St. Thomas the Apostle, at 
the place where he was Bishop. They have there a little 
vinery which I saw, and which supplies a small quantity of 
wine. It is related that when he first went thither he used 
to carry about with him a little wine for masses (as I did 
myself for the space of nearly two years) ; and when that 
was done he went to Paradise, into which he found his way 
by the help of Angels, and carried away with him some of 
the grapes, the stones of which he sowed. From these grew 
the vines which I saw at that place, and from them he made 
the wine of which he stood in need. Elsewhere there are 
vines indeed, but they bear no grapes, as I know by ex- 
perience. The same is the case with melons and cucumbers, 
and indeed I saw no eatable potherbs there, unless it be an 
exception that I saw whole thickets of basil. 

These then are the trees in Adam^s garden. But of what 
tree was the fruit that he ate I cannot tell ; yet might I guess 
it to be of the citron,^ for it is written, 

** Ipse lignum tune notavit 
Dampna ligni ut solveret." 

' " De cedro" This word is ambiguous, but it is evidently the citron 

and not cedar, from what follows. The quotation is from the hymn 

Panqe lingua globiosi, which is sung in the Roman Church at matins 

on Passion Sunday, thus : 

" De parentis protoplasti 
Fraudefactd condolens, 
Qtuindo pomi noanalia 
In necem morau ruU, 


Now there were used, it must be observed, in making the 
cross, palm wood, olive wood, cypress wood, and citron wood, 
and the last is the only one of the four that can be alleged 
to bear a fruit which is good to eat and pleasant to the eyes. 
And these really appear to be the woods of the cross in that 
which belongs to our Lord the Emperor Charles ; whatever 
people may say about the plantain tree (which is called also 
a fig tree) and its exhibiting the image of the crucifix ; at 
the same time 1 don't mean to commit myself to any pre- 
judgment of the matter. But as regards the fruit before 
mentioned, there is a certain Hebrew gloss on that proverb 
of EzekieFs, ^'Patrea comederunt uvam acerbam et denies 
filiarum obstupuerunt/^ which needs notice. Where our 
version has Patres the original Hebrew has Adam. Now 
this word is written sometimes one way and sometimes 
another. For Adam is written one way when it signifies 
■parents, or man and woman, as in Genesis when ^tis said 
'^ Vocavit nomen ear am Adam" in the plural; and it is written 
with other letters when it signifies a man only. Just as we 
say on the one hand hie et hcec Itomo, and on the other hand 
hie vir (though I don't mean to say that we use diacritical 
marks and inherent vowels like the Hebrews). So also Sem 
is written sometimes with a Zade, and sometimes with a 
Samech ; and Abram sometimes with an Aleph and some- 
times with a He, the signification varying accordingly. So 
then ' Adam comederunt uvam acerbam' [has been understood 
of our first father] . But this interpretation is not approved 
by our divines, for there was no vinewood in the cross. The 
same remark may be made regarding the fig tree for which 

Ipse lignum tunc notavit 
Damna ligni ut solveret. 

Hoc opus nostrcB salutis 
Ordo depoposcerat 
Multiformis proditoris 
Ara ut artem pellerct, 
Et medelam ferret inde 
Hostis undc laaserat,** 


the sons of Adam in Seyllan stand ap, and also regarding 
the plantain (though it is highly probable that our parents 
made their aprons of its leaves, seeing that they be so big) . 
As for the olive and the date, though they are 'good for food* 
nobody ever suggested their being the forbidden fruit. Yet 
there wa^ palm wood in the cross, as is clearly seen in the 
reliques belonging to the Emperor ; at least that is my 
opinion. Yet that can hardly be if the story be true that 
Godfrey of Viterbo tells in his Pantheon.^ For he says that 
when Adam was waxing old and infirm, he sent his son Seth 
to Paradise to seek the promised oil of mercy. The angel 
warden of Paradise said : 'The time is not yet; but take 
thou these branches of olive, citron, and cypress, and plant 
them ; and when oil shall be got from them thy father shall 
get up safe and sound.* So Seth returned, and found his 
father dead in Hebron. Wherefore he twisted together 
those three branches, and planted them above the body of 
Adam, and straightway they became one tree. And when 
that tree grew great it was transplanted, first to Mount 
Lebanon, and afterwards to Jerusalem. And at Jerusalem 
to this day exists a monastery of the Greeks on the spot 
where that tree was cut down. The hole whence it was cut 
is under the altar, and the monasteiy is called in Hebrew 
'The Mother of the Cross* from this circumstance. The tree 
was made known to Solomon by means of the Queen of Saba, 
and he caused it to be buried under the deep foundations of 
a tower. But by the earthquake that took place on the 
birth of Christ, the foundations of the tower were rent, and 
the tree discovered. It was from it that the pool called 
Prohatica acquired its virtues. 

* The story here related of Seth is told in some of Godfrey's verses of 
a *' younger son of Noah called Hiontius.*' 



And the Lord made for Adam and hia wife coats of skins 
or fur, aud clothed them therewith. But if it bo asked, 
whence the skins? the aiiawer usually made is, either that 
they were expressly created (which savours not of wisdom!); 
or that an animal was slain for the purpose (and this is not 
satisfactory, seeing that 'tis believed the animals were at 
first created only in pairs, and there had been no time for 
the multiplication of the specien). Now then I say, without 
however meaning to dogmatize, that for coats of fur we 
should read coats of jihre. For among the fronds of the 
Nargil, of which 1 have spoken above, there grows a sort of 
fibrous web forming an open network of coarse dry filaments. 
Now to this day among the people there and the Indians^ it 
is customary to make of those fibres wet weather mantles 
for those matics whom they call co-wi((i/«,^ whose business it is 
to carry burdens, and also to cany men and women on their 
shoulders in palankins, such as aro mentioned in Canticles, 
a portable litter, such as I used to be carried in at Zayton and 
in India. A garment such as I mean, of this camall cloth, 
(and not canu-l cloth) I wore till I got to Florence, and I 
left it in the sacristy of -the Minor Friars there. No doubt 
the raiment of John Baptist was of this kind. For ns regards 
camel'K hair it is, next to silk, the softest stufi' in the world, 
and never could have been meant. By the way (speaking 
of camels), I once found myself in company with an infinite 
multitude of camels and their foals in that immense desert 
by which you go down from Babylon of the Confusion to- 
wards Egyjjt by way of Damascus ; aud of Arabs also there 
was no end ! Not that I mean to say there were any camels 

' Dobner hBa Judeos, which 1 taJte to be an error for Indos. 
' Hhiimal{Ar,), a porter or bearer. Tbc word ia atiU coiiutioiil7 applied 
to paJankin bedrers in Weatem India. 


in Seyllan; but there were innumerable elephants. And 
these though they be most ferocious monsters seldom hurt a 
foreigner. I even rode upon one once, that belonged to the 
Queen of Saba ! That beast really did seem to have the use 
of reason — ^if it were not contrary to the Faith to think so. 


Our first parents, then, lived in Seyllan upon the fruits I 
have mentioned, and for drink had the milk of animals. 
They used no meat till after the deluge, nor to this day do 
those men use it who call themselves the children of Adam. 
Adam, you know, was set down upon the mountain of 
Seyllan, and began there to build him a house with slabs of 
marble, etc., as has been already related. At that place 
dwell certain men under religious vows, and who are of sjjr- 
passing cleanliness in their habits ; yea of such cleanliness 
that none of them will abide in a house where anyone may 
have spit; and to spit themselves (though in good sooth 
they rarely do such a thing) they will retire a long way, as 
well as for other occasions. 

They eat only once a day, and never oftener ; they drink 
nothing but milk or water ; they pray with great propriety 
of manner; they teeich boys to form their letters, first by 
writing with the finger on sand, and afterwards with an iron 
style upon leaves of paper, or rather I should say upon leaves 
of a certain tree. 

In their cloister they have certain trees that difier in 
foliage from all others. These are encircled with crowns of 
gold and jewels, and there are lights placed before them, and 
these trees they worship.^ And they pretend to have received 

I These were doubtless Peepul trees representing the celebrated tree 
of Buddh-Gaya, of which a shoot has been cherished at Anurajapura for 
twenty centuries (see Tennent, i, 343; ii, 614). Such trees are maintained 
in the courtyard of nearly every wihara or temple in Ceylon as objects of 
veneration (Hardy's Eastern Monachism, p. 212; Knox, p. 18). It is diffi- 


thia rite by tradition from Adam, aaying that they adore 
those trees because Adam looked for future salvation to comftfl 
from wood. And this agrees with that verse of David'sJ 
'Dicite in gentibiis ijiiia Damtnus re^nabU m lufiio' thou^l 
for a true rendering it would be better to say curabit t 

These monks, moreover, never keep any food in their hoase'l 
till the morrow. They sleep on the bare ground ; they walk J 
barefoot, carrying a staff; and are contented with a frock 1 
like that of one of our Minor Friars (but without a hood), and 1 
with a mantle cast in folds over the shoulder ad modum-§ 

onlt to account, for the strange tilings that Marignolli puts into 
months of the Biiddbisti. Probably he commaaicBted with them tbrouglt 1 
MahomedajiB, vho put things into their own shape. The Buddha's Foot of I 
the CeyloQese monis was the Adam's Foot of the MubomedmiB, hence by j 
legitimate algebra Buddha^=^Adam, and Adam ma; bo substituted for 1 
Bi^dha. The way iu which Herodotus makes the Pereiaus. or the Pheni- 1 
cians or Egyptians, give their versiona of the atoriea of lo and Buropa and 1 
other Greek legends, affords quite a parallel case, and probably originated I 
in a like oaoBe, vii., the perrersiona of tv.troni. We may be sure that 1 
the Persians knew no more of lo than the SingsJeae Sramanas did <£ | 
AdamftndCaio. (See Herod., i, IS ; ii, S4, 35. etfl). 

' The quotAtion ia from a celebrated reading of Psalm icvi, 10 (in 
Vulgate, xov, 10), respecting which I have to thank my friend Dr. Kay, of J 
Bishop's College, Calcutta, for the following' note : 

" The addition a tigno (which is not in the Vulgate, i.e. Jerome's " Qalli- 
can Psalter") ia from the old Vulgate, which was made in Africa in the 
Sist or second century, and was used by Tertullian, St. Augustine, etc 
It was no doubt through fit. Augustine that the rendering waa handed | 
down to your iriend MarignoUi. 

" Justin Martyr says (and it was not denied by Trypho) that i>i (iKiHt \ 
occurred in the lxx. It is not known I beliere in any MS. now edsting g 
uid the inference drawn ia that' Justin had been misled by certain copiea ' 
in which some pioun marginal annotation had been introduced by later ■■ 
copyiata into the teirt." Dr. Kay adds the following quotation by B«llai>- J 
mine from Fortunatua : 

'■ /mjjjefu lunt giws cecinit 
David Jideli carminf, 
Dieent, De natiunibus 
Regnavit a ligno Deus." 

I may odd sine 
of the I^alm e 
470, 51(i «<?. 

writing tho above that copious remarks on thia reading I 
■e to be found in Notea and Quttieg, 2nd series, yiil. 


AjwstoIorumA They go about in procjession every morning 
begging rice for their day's dinner. The princes and others 
go forth to meet them with the greatest reverence, and 
bestow rice npon them in measure proportioned to their • 
numbers ; and this they partake of steeped in water, with 
coco-nut milk and plantains.^ These things I speak of as 
an eye-witness ; and indeed they made me a festa as if I 
wove one of their own order.* 

There follow Chapters c<niceming the MidttplicaMon of the Human 
RncCy Tlie Offerings of Cain and Abel, etc.^ etc,, to the end of the 
first section of his book, which he terms Tliearchos, These 
chapters do not contain anything to our purpose except a few 
slight notices here and there, which I shall now extract. Thus 
of Cain he says : 

If we suppose that he built his city after the murder of 
Abel there is nothing in this opposed to Scripture, unless so 
far that it seems to be implied that he never did settle down, 
but was always a vagabond and a fugitive. This city of his 
is thought to have been where now is that called Kota in 
Seyllan,* a place where I have been. After he had begotten 
many sons there he fled towards Damascus, where he was 
shot by the arrow of Lamech his descendant in the seventh 
generation ; and there, hard by Damascus, his sepulchre is 
shown to this day.^ 

^ This use of the phrase satisfactorily iUustrates the alia apostolica 
which Varthema so often uses. See Jones and Badger's Vartkema (Hak. 
Soc), pp. 78, 112, etc. 

' " Lixam in aqua comedunt cum lacte nargillorum et musU." 

3 A most accurate account of the Buddhist monks as they may be seen 
today in Burma, and I presume in Ceylon. What Marignolli saw he 
describes very correctly ; his interpreters are, probably, therefore respon- 
sible for the stuff he says he heard. 

* The author curiously overlooks Oen. iv, 17. Kotta, or (fiuddhisto- 
classically) Jayawardanapiira, near Columbo, is first mentioned as a royal 
residence about 1314, but it again became the capital of the island in 
1410, and continued about a century and a half. It appears to be repre- 
sented as such in the great Map of Fra Mauro, under the name of Cotte 

^ This legend of Lamech shooting the aged Cain in a thicket, by mis- 



In the next psSBa^ also he seems to he speftkinjj of Hebron 
from personal knowledfre : 

And tho story goes that Afliim moumetl the death of his 
• son Abel for a hundred yeftrs, and desired not to beget any 
more sons, but dwelt m a certain cave apart from Eve, until 
by command of an angel he rejoined her, and begat Setb. 
Then he separated himself from the generation of evil doers, 
and directed his course towards Damascus, and at last he 
ended his days in Ebron, and thero he was buried, some 
twenty miles from Jerusalem. And the city was called Arha, 
i.e. of the four, because there were buried there Adam the 
chief, then Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, in the double cave that 
is in Ebron. And there the Patriarchs and other holy 
Fathers were afterwards buried, and Joseph also when he 
was brought up out of Rgypt. 

To Seth, lie sayn, 

Succeeded his son Enoch, who began to call upon the 
name of the Lord. This is believed to mean that he first 
instituted the practice of addressing God in audible prayers, 
and that he founded a religious discipline and peculiar rule 
of life, such as is followed to this day (they say) by the 
Bragmans, and by the monks of Seyllan, though these have 
turned aside to idolatry and to the worship of a tree, as we 
have related. . . . 

.... And the sons of Adam in Seyllan adduce many proofs 
that the flood reached not to them. And this is one of the 
chief, that in the eastern part of the country there are a 
number of roaming vagabond people whom I have seen my- 
self, and who call themselves the sons of Cain. Their faces 
are huge, hideous, and frightful enough to terrify anybody. 
They never can stay more than two days in one place, and 

take for an ftniinal, and then killing the youth who had pointed out the 
gamy to liim, Beoms to have been inventad by the HebrewB ae on expla- 
nation of the Haying of Lamecb in Gf neais, iv, 33. It ia the sutg'ect of a 
curioQB fresco in the Compo Santo at Pisa. 



if they did they would stink ao that nobody could endure 
them. They seldom show themselvea, but yet they are given 
I to trade. Their wives and children, aa frightful goblins 
I as themselves, they carry about upon donkeys.' Yet St. 
Augustine and the mass of theologians deem it absurd to 
suppose that any should have escaped the Deluge unless in 
the ark. . . . 

.... And the ark grounded in the seventh month on a 
mountain of Armenia, which is near the Iron Gates in the 
Empire of Uzbek, and is called Ararat in the Lesser 
I Armenia. 

Next we come to the Sseotid Age, and tlic beRinniiig of the 
I Socond Book which is called Mowirchon. 

From the first chapter, which treats Of His DUtribulian of the 
\. Earth amonij lh« Soii^ of Noah, I extract some pasBSges : 

Noah therefore under the command of God delivered in- 
L Btructions to his sons about maint-aining divine service in the 
i worship of the One God by sacrifices, about the multiplication 
I of offspring, and the division of the earth, that they might 
I replenish it, and live in peace after his death. And he de- 
siring a quiet life for his remaining days, reserved for himself 
the Isle of Cethym [Chittim] now called Cyprus," Shem 
the firstborn, as king and priest after his father, obtained 
^lialf of the world, i.e., all Asia the Great, extending from the 
"hite Sea beyond Hungary, whore now are the Wallachians,* 

' Here be apeoka of the Veildaht, or Aboriginea of Cejlou. Compare 
I Vennent'e description : " Miserable objects, active but timid, and athletic 
bUioagb deformed, witli large beads iind miBsliapcn limbs. Their long 
MbcIi bur and beards fell down to the middle in uncombed lumps, thoj 
Btood with their faces bent toir&Fds the ground, and their restless ejes 
tvinliled upwards with an expression of aneasiness and apprebenaion.... 
The children were unsightly ottjecta, entirely naked, with misshapen 
joints, huge heada and protuberant stoinachg ; the women, who were 
reluctant to appear, were the most repulsive specimens of hnmanitj I 
have ever seen in any country" (ii, 450). 

' Where, aajs Marignolli in another passage, " be planted a. vineyard, 
■ wbich belongs at this da;y to the Archbishop of Nicosia. ( Dohner, p. 109.) 
" Olachi" But what White Sea is meant, tha! lies beyond Hangaiy 



iBfiH, nd BtUa|M to tke worifs ^ 

•Tir itliiiliitf' iiiiTiiiiliilliil iiiilt iilliiil iiliiiHii 
Cbm kid Afin {J-'J-g-g Ike HoIt I^d)' I7 rbilhgn j 
aad Tndc* to Ae worifs cad. J^^ te } 
Evope w Imju we btb bow, iImA v to asf. aO «■ Ak Mdo J 
from Hangmrj, nkd iB oa d» aide &ci^ Home,' i 

tenueui. tW Batltie, k»re all <lHHa la the tUe «f Ae WW* Sw. tat 
kMe wa A^, Md w^t w «Na tW WlBla 8m Me^ too i^mU 

-•"'•|"i. iHiFini'C ° ■-•■-■ J iilllii TfiiB h wj. 
MM rtatevcr MHigwdi BMM I9 Uw Mae e 

Hake tluB n 

tbeo yon wiD ne bow one 
half of the bemicpber? la 
divided into Europe uid 
Afrif *, whilft tb« other is Asia, in which " ■ etraight line" mAj be diswn 
from the Wbit« Sea, padRii|( auccessiTely thioogh the empii? of Uibek, 
Cntbaj, the Indies, Ethiopia, and the World's End ! 
' " ifrieam nhi ttt Terra Sanrta." 
' TwmnHm, whiob 1 ventarvi to correct to TuHuiiini. 
■ DobDcr printa it "idlicet ab Cngaiia, Cytis, et Bonu." treating all 
three an proper iiain«« ^iparentlj. 1 eaBp««t it ahonld be " tdlvet ab 
UngariA rifri et BomaniA," meaning perh^M from Hither Hunjaty, vii., 
iiur modem Bangai; aa disUngniihed from the Qreat Hungary of note (3) 

BY JOHN de' marignolli. 373 

Germany, France, Bohemia, Poland and England, and so to 
the world^s end. 

The next chapter is concerning Worship after the Floods a large 
portion of which is worthy of translation : 

Shem was anxious to maintain the worship of the true 
God, and his history we shall now follow. In the second 
year after the flood he begat Arfaxat, who in turn begat 
Elam, from whom the noble race of the Alans in the East is 
said to have sprung. They form at this day the greatest and 
noblest nation in the world, the fairest and bravest of men.^ 
'Tis by their aid that the Tartars have won the empire of the 
east, and without them they have never gained a single im- 
portant victory. For Chinguis Caam, the first king of the 
Tartars, had seventy-two of their princes serving under him 
when he went forth under God^s providence to scourge the 
world. . . . Arfaxat the son of Shem, at the age of thirty-five 
begat Sela or Sale, by whom India was peopled and divided 
into three kingdoms. The first of these is called Manzi, the 
greatest and noblest province in the world, having no paragon 
in beauty, pleasantness, and extent. In it is that noble city 
of Campsay, besides Zayton, Cynkalan, Janci,^ and many 
other cities. Manzi was formerly called Cyn, and it has to 
this day the noble port and city called Cynkalan, i.e. "Great 
India^^ [Great China] , for kalan signifies great. And in the 
Second India, which is called Mynibab there is Cynkali, 
which signifieth '^Little India^' [Little China], for kali is 

* " Major et nobilior natio mundi et homines pulchriores et foriiares" 
Compare with the description by Ammianus Marcellinus of the Alans in 
his time : " Proceri autem Alani poene sunt omnes et pulchri^ crinibas 
mediocriter flavis, oculoram temperate torvitate terribile« et armorum 
levitate veloces" (xxxi, 2). 

^ Janci is doubtless Tangcheu, see note to Odoric, p. 123. 

3 On Cynkalan or Canton and Cynkali or Cranganore, see notes to 
Odoric, pp. 105 and 75. As regards Cranganore it may be added that it 
seems to have been one of the most ancient capitals of Malabar, and in 
some of the ancient copper deeds appears to be called Muyiri-Kodu, 


The second kingdom of India is called Mysibar,' and 'tiS' 
of that country that St. Angustine apeaketh in treating of the 
Canine Philosophers, who had this name of Canine because 
they used to teach people to do as dogs do, e.g. that a man 
should never be ashamed of anything thai was natural to him.* 
They did not, however, succeed in persuading these peopl^. 
even that sons might without shame bathe before thoir 
fathers, or let their nakednessi be seen by them.* 

It is in this country that lies the city of Columbum, where 
the pepper grows, of which we have already spoken. 

The third province of India is called Maabar, and the 
church of St. Thomas which he built with his own hands is 
there, besides another which he built by the agency of work- 
men. These he paid with certain very great stones which I 
have seen there, and with a log cut down on Adam's Mount 
in Seyllan, which he caused to be sawn up, and from its saw- 
dust other trees were sown. Now that log, huge as it was, 
was cut down by two slaves of his and drawn to the sea aide 
by the saint's own girdle. When the log reached the sea 
he said to it, 'Go now aud tarry for us in the haven of the 
city of Mirapolis,'* It arrived there accordingly, whereupon 

which a writer in the Madras Journal indicfttea as perhaps identifying it 
with the uhiBsicaJ lfu>{ru(P). It is nov almoat a deserted place, but tha 
ancient line of its Buju still eiiata {Day, p. 11). In connexion with 
Ultngnolli's interpretation of Cynkoli it is somevhat curious that Abdnr- 
razzah tijls ns the people of the neighbooring city of Calicut were knoim 
by the name of Chini Bachofdn, "Sons of the Chinei>e" or "Chinese Toung 
Ones." There is no Persian word kali, " little." The nearest explanation 
that I con find for Mori^olli's etymology is the Arabic kaln, "little, 
small, moderate" (Richarition). 

' Here and where it occurs just before, Dobnor has Nymbar, but the 
Venice MS. has correctly llynibar. See note at p. 74. 

• See Augustine, De Cinitate Dei, xiv, 20. 

» Here the anthor refera to the remarliable decency of the Hindus in 
such matters, which may well rebuke some who call them " niggera." 
"Among the Lydions," says Herodotus, "and indeed among the bar- 
barians general];, it is reckoned a deep disgrace, even t« a man, to be 
seen naked" (i, 10). 

■ Miiiipulis it) a Qrecizod furm of Moilapilr, Mi'liapiu', or, as the Catalan 



the king of that place with his whole army endeavoured to 
draw it ashore, but ten thousand men were not able to make 
it Btir, Then St. Thomas the Apostle himself came on the 
ground, riding ou an asa, wearing a shirt, a stole, imd a 
mantle of peacock's feathers, and attended by those two 
■laves and by two great lions, just as he is painted, and 
called out 'Touch not the log, for it is mine!' 'How,* quoth 
the king, 'dost thou make it out to be thine?' So the 
Apostle loosing the cord wherewith he was girt, oi-dered his 
slaves to tie it to the log and draw it ashore. And this being 

I .accompli shed with the greatest ease, the king was converted, 
i^nd bestowed upon the saint as much laud as he could ride 
■teund upon his ass. So during the day-time he used to go 
'■Ml building his churches in the city, bat at night he retired 
■to a distance of three Italian miles, where there were num- 
berless peacocks'. . . . and thus being shot in the side with 
an arrow such as is called frlecia,^ {so that his wound was 
like that in the side of Christ into which he had thrust his 
hand), be lay there before his oratory from the hour of com- 
phnes, continuing throughout the night to preach, whilst all 
hia blessed blood was welling from his aide ; and in the 
[Bioming he gave up his soul to God, The priests gathered 
ip the earth with which his blood had mingled, and buried 
with him. By means of this I experienced a distinct 
iTBcle twice over iu my own person, which I shall relate 
Kap bM it, Mirapor, the place eiuce caJled San Thome, near the modem 
Hadiae. Mailaji&ram meatu or maymeaa Pearock-Tatcn, A eiiburb still 
retains the name Hailapiir. It is near the shore, about throe miles and 
a half iouth of Fort St. George, at tho month of the Sydrapetta River, 

' There is an evident biataB here, thouifh not indicated m Buoh in the 
oopiee. Marignolli probably meant to relate, ae Polo does (iii, 22), bow 
the saint being engaged in praj^er in the middle of the peafowl, a native 

IliiiDinK at one of tbem shot him. 
* Meinert has here " mil dnnn PfeiU, inditeh Ttitxiti genannt." But it 
ll no Indiieh, only the Italian Fmcdt^^t'Uche. I do not know why the 
^rord is introduciHl. 
lie does not in this work. 





It ia a fact also that monstrous serpents exist [in the east] , 
and VBTy like that which our lord the Emperor Charles hath 
in his park at Prague. There lire also certain animals with 
countenances almost liko a man's ; more particularly in the 
possession of the Queen of Saba, and in the cloister at 
Campsay in that moat famous monastery where they keep so 
many monstrous animals, which they believe to be thti souls 
of the departed.' [Not that they really are so] for I ascer- 
tained by irrefragable proof that they are irrational animals, 
except, of course, in so far as the devil may make use of 
them as he once did of the serpent's tongue. [Such delu- 
sions] those unbelievers may deserve to bring upon them- 
selves because of their unbelief. But otherwise I must say 
that their rigid attention to prayer and fasting and other re- 
ligious duties, if they but held the true faith, would far sur- 
pass any strictness and self-denial that we practise,* How- 
L'ver [as I was going to say] those animals at Campsay 
usually come to be fed at a given signal, but I observed that 
they never would come when a cross was present, though as 
soon as it was removed they would come. Hence I conclude 

t'ftshion, from FaHian downwards, Bee I'mnmt, i, 502, etc ; and regarding 
the Poliare. see Marhhata'a Travelt in feru and India, p. «H. A like 
faafaion of trade is aaoribed by Pliny (prabablj through aome mtatake) to 
the Seres ; bj Ibn Batata to the dwelleri in the Dafk Lands of the North 
(ii, 400, 401) ; and by CoBmua to the ^Id'Sellera near the Sea of Zingium 
or Zaaabw (Mont/avcon, u, 139). See ako Cadamoito in Ramusio, i, and 
Rerodotiu, iv, 196, -with Banliaaon's note thereon, 

1 Thia is a very curious and unexceptionable corroboration of Odorio's 
quaint story of the content garden at Eingssf (see p. Its). 

' So Eicold of Montecroce, who frequented the Mahome^nn monastic 
institutions to stud; their law with the view of refuting it (he anerwardu 
published a translation of the Koran and an argument agtunst it), ei- 
preeaes hia Bstonishment at finding in Irgt tanlic perfidia opera tanlie per- 
/eeHionii. Who would not bo astonished, he goes on, " l« see the Keal of 
the Sao-aoenH in study, their devoutnesH in prayer, their charity 
poor, their reverence for the name of God, for the prophets and the 
placM, the gravity of their manners, their affability to foreigners, 
loving and peocealile conduct towards each other?" (Feresrin. Quatuoi', 
etc., p. 131.) 

le holy ^t 

s, their ^M 

uatuoi', ^M 



that these monsters are not men, although they may seem 
to have some of the properties of men, but are merely of the 
character of apes ;' (iodeod if wo had never seen apes before 
we should be apt to look upon thrm as men !) ; unlssa for- 
sooth they be monsters such as I have been speaking of 
before, which come of Adam's race indeed, but arc excep- 
tional and unusual bii'ths. 

Nor can wo conceive (and so says St. Augustine likewiae), 
tliat there be any antipodes, i.e. mon having the soles of their 
feet opposite to ours. Certainly not.' For the earth is 
founded upon the waters. And I have learned by sure ex- 
perience that if you suppose the ocean divided by two lines 
forming a cross, two of the quadrants ao formed are navi- 
gable, and the two othei-a not navigable at all. For God 
willed not that men should bo able to sail round the whole 

. I }tave, however, seen an hermaphrodite, but it was not able 
to propagate others hfee itself. Nor indeed does a mule 
propagate. Now let us go back to our subject. 

The neict chapter is one Cimceriiint) the MvltipUcatUm of Uia 
ffuman Eaa:, and the D'wwion of ihn Karth, and the Tower of 
Sahel. I estruct the foltowiug : 

And they came to the plain of tjenaar in the Greater Asia, 
near to the great River Eaphrates. There indeed we find a 
vast level of seemingly boundless extent, in which, as I have 
Been, there is abundance of all kinds of fruits, and especially 

■ Tho argument of tho a 

• Seo De Citritate Dei, x\ 

tipodea with great h 

OBS nould seem to cut the other wa; ! 
i. !l, Coemua also rejeots the aotion of Ad- 
" Scripture says that Ood made of one (blood) 
df ell on the whole faue of the earth, and not 
npon BVBBT face of the earth" (not irl imrrl w^oaiwif. hut hii itiuTat 
vjKKT^aii). But his dincbing argument b, " How could rain at the Anti- 
podes be tuud to/all ? Why it would conte uji instead of falling" (pp, 121, 
167, 101 of Montfaaeon). I remember hearing that the Astronomer Bojal 
fi fiiiing fault with an tmgraver who had prepared the plates for a 
traatise of hi* wrongside upward, was met by the argument, " Why, eir, 
I thought there was no up or down in space !" 


of dateSj but also olives and vines in great plenty ; so ala<]rfl 
of al] field and garden produce, pampkins, melons, andw 


Then of Babel and Nimrod : 

So he began and taught them to bake bricks to servail 
instead of stone, and, aa thcro are many wells of bitumen I 
there, they had bricks for stone, and bitumen for mortar. 
And this bitumen is a kind of pitch, very black and liquid, 
mixt with oil ; and when it is used with bricks in building 
it soliditioB and sets so hard that it is scarcely possible by any ■ 
art to separate the joints, as I have myself seen and felt when | 
I waa on that Tower ; and some of that hardened bitumen I J 
carried away with me. The people of the country are con- 
tinually demolishing the Tower, in order to get hold of tha 
biicts. And the foundations of the city were laid upon the j 
most extensive scale, ao that every side of the square was, 
they say, eight Italian miles ; and from what one sees thia j 
seems highly probable, lliey set the Tower at the extremity I 
of the walls next the river, as if for a citadel, and as they \ 
built up the walls they filled the interior with earth, so that J 
the whole was formed into a round and solid mass. In the j 
rooming when the aun is rising it casts an immensely lonji 
shadow across that wide plain. ^ 

' The ruin here identified b; MarignoUi with the Tower of Babel ap- 
pears to be that called by Rich Mujelibe, and by Layard Sabel. It is about 
hB.lf a mile &om the present channel of the river. Lajard speaks of "alina 
of walla which, leaTing the foot of Babel, stretch inlncd about two milea 
and a half from the present bed of the EupliratsB." It is geDerall; ad- 
mitted however that these c&nnot be the real ramparts of old Babylon, 
though lUch thought they might be the interior enclosure of the polaoea ; 
whilst Kennel] took them to be the walls of some more recent citj. 
LayiLrd mentions that the eicavation of bricks from the remains is still a 
trade, and they are sold as far us Baghdad. A like trade has thriTen for 
years at Agra in India, where bricks are never made, but dug for. 

Tbe eccavations ot the MujeliW or Babel showed that tlie stmctura 
was much as UangnoUi deacribea. viz. an exterior of burnt bricks 
in bitumen enclosing tbe unbumt bricks which form tbe interior m 
So Nebuchadnezinr himself says in the Uira Nimrud inscriptiun as 




Having related that histtiry. ami how the groatoat part of the 

p^'ower was destroyed by lightning, he goes on : 

And they attempted, it seems, to build similar towers 
elsewhere, but were not able. Insomuch that even when 
II certain soldan erected a great building upon the founda- 

Itton of such a tower, it was struck down by lightning, 
md on his several times renewing the attempt it was always 
struck down. So ho took his departure into Egypt, and 
there built the city of Babylon, and ia still called the Soldan 
of Babylon.' 

dored b; Oppert : " Tbe etirtliquake and the IhundL'r had diBponu^I its 
Bun-dried clay ; the bricka of the 4:a£in^ bad been aplit, and the eiirtb 
of the interior had benn scattered in ho»pB... In a fortunate month, 
in an anapiciouB day, I undertook to build porticoee around the crude 
briok masses, and the casing of burnt bricka." {Eiiglish Cyelof., article 
Bah^Xm; fitcA'i Ifemoir on Bah. and PeTHpnlii, 1430; SmilKt Diri. of 
M« Bible quoted in Quarterly Stmtvi, Oct. IH04; Bavilimon' t Htrodotui, 
a clear phin in vol. ii). It Boema impossible, from hii mention of 
iver and FampDjlx. etc., that Uaii^oUi should here speak of the 
Nimrud. (Soe also next note.) In later times Cfflsar Federici, and 
again TuTemier, describe yet another ruin, that called Akkerku/ much 
nearer Baj^bdad, ob the Tower of Babel. 

■ This quunt statement of the supposed reason for the removal of the 
Caliphnte to Egypt refers perhaps to the Birs Nimrud. Ite ligbtning- 
rsnt aspect has struck all who hare seen it, and ii referred to even in tbn 
inscription quoted in the preceding note. 
Babylon of Eg7pt> is close to Old C^ro, and is still known as Babul. 
nio comoa down from dossil; times, being mentioned by several 
from Ctesiad to Ptolemy, and Babylon of Egypt was the head- 
3 of the Roman garrison tn the time of Augustus. Cairo and 
lylon existed together in the middle ages a» two ilistinct cities -, the 
mercliantB and artiBcers chiefly residing at Babylon; the Sultan, Lis amirs 
And men-at-arms in Cairo and the Cairum, which was, I suppose, the 
present citadel. But the city of thu Egyptian Soldan u very commonly 
called in those days simply Babylon. Edrisi mentious that the city of 
Misr (which now means Cairo) was called in Greek Bambltmah. Pogo- 
h>tti uses the term Cairo di Bavibilloiiia. Mondcville, after carefully distin- 
)ruiehing between the two Babylons, puts the Furnace of the Three ChihsJ 
dien at the Egyptian Babylon ; and yet he had served the Soldan v* 
{Smith's Did. n/Gr.and Rom. Geog. ; Marinl Sanaiii Tormi 



^^bigypt. ( 


The second son of Nimrod waa Belus, and had iiia resi- 
dence in Babel after him. . . Now Baijhel, as it is called 
in their language, is different from Babylon. For the latter 
means eonfueion, whilst bay with the letter g means a garden 
or paradise. [^Bagbel therefore means the Garden] of Bol, 
and it is called also Baijdof].^ 

He then relat«B how Belns originated idolatry, and fimahes 
with thia singular passage : 

The Jews however, the Tartars, and the Saracens, con- 
sider us to be the worst of idolaters, and this opinion is not 
confined to Pagans only, but ia held also by some of the 
Christians. For although those Christiana show devotion to 
pictures, they hold in abomination images, cai-ved faces, and 
alarmingly life-like sculptures such as there are in our 
churches ;- as for example on the sepulchre of St. Adalbert 
at Prague. 

Then follow chapters Coiicemiay Nijuae, and Concerning the 
Wife o/N'jnus. 

Semiramis, the wife of Nynus, tho glory of womankind, 
hearing that her husband was slain, and fearing to entrust 
the government to her son, who was yet a child, kept him 
closely concealed. Meanwhile she adopted a di'css mado 
after the Tartar fashion, with large folda in front to disguise 
her bnst, long sleeves to hide her lady's hands, long skirts 
to cover her feet, breeches to maintain her disguise when she 
mounted on horseback, her head well covered up, and so 

Lib. Srcret. Fid., etc., i, c. 6; Edriri,X 302; m MandfvilU. 
p. 144.) 

1 Hnrignolli gets into a maddle in trying to connect Bnbtl and Baghdad, 
building on the Persian Bdgh, a garden. 

' " Abhominaiilur (nniu Jades, el horrendat sctilptvrat sicHt rant in 
tn^letiii." Not only the Oriental ChristianB, bat even Jewish DootOTs, 
diatinguished between paintings and figures in relief, conaidering the 
former to be lawful (Lvdoi/.. Co.nn.enl., p. 37a). 

^H id. 



I gave herself out for the son of Nynus, ruled in his name, 
I and ordered that style of dress to be generally followed. 
Bhe then ordered warlike amtamonts, and invaded India 
and conqnercd it. . . In India ehe clandL'atinely gave birth 
to a daughter, whom she made when grown up Queen of the 
finest island in the world, Saba' by name. In that island 
women always, or for the most part, have held the govern- 
ment in preference to men. And in the palace there I have 
seen historical pictures representing women seated on the 
throne, with men on bended knees adoring before them. 
And so also I saw that actually in that country the women 
sat in the chariots or on the elephant-chairs, whilst the men 
drove the oxen or the elephants. 

The only points worth noticing in his next chapter Ooncennng 
E Ahraiiam, are his derivation, often repeated, of Baracen from 
I Sar"^ ; and the remark regarding the Dead Sea, that it can be 
seen From the dormiioTy of the Minor FrinrB on Mount Zion. 
The following chapter hciided Cfmc,em,ing (he Kingdom of fhe 
I 'ArtjiveK, ends with a diBcnssdon whether tithet are ohUgai.i^ on 
f ChrUiiams, and tfais leada to an anecdote ; 

As long as the Church and its ministers are provided for 

[ in some other way, it may be doubted whether the law of 

I tithe should be imposed ; as it certainly was not by the 

Apostles or by the Fathers for many a day after their time. 

' Buspecting Saba, eec Inti'oductory NoticoB. IiitbiBoddst«i7ofScini- 
nmia OJaA. her daughter tbo Qucon of Saba, wo ma; porbups trace the 
Artib traditions about the birth of Belkia (as the; call her) Queen of 
Shaba or Saba in the tieiie of Solomon. Her mother was said to be a 
duughter of the jinns, called (Jmnru, who falling in love with tbe Wazir of 
Uie tynuit King of Saba, carriti him to the uEand vhtrt tht Uvtd, and 
married him. Within a year's time she bore him Belkis, with whom 
Waiir eventuall; returned to Saba, and the tyrant father being slain fbr J 
his misdeeds, Belkis became the wise nnd ^nrions Qneen who visited 
Solomon (WM'i liibUeal L4gmil>, pp, IPC-I^T* '- '' t--M-!1*-! !f 
■tor; of MarignoUi's asaocjatos SL'mimiiii 
Belkis of the Arabs, ubilat fivin modurn r>. 
.deit; of the Assyrians, appeariag Bometi!ii< 
identifiodwith the ancient BtnrieB of !iHiiiii«mi=- (--■■^'"- 
i, 4S4. 495, ^13). 


And a case occurred in my own experience at Kaitdi,* when 
many Tartars and people of other nations, on their first 
conversion, refused to be baptized unleas we would Bwear 
that after their baptism wo should exact no temporalities 
from them ; nay, on the contrarj', that we should provide for 
their poor out of our own means. This we did, and a multi- 
tude of both sexes in that city did then most gladly receive 
baptism. 'Tis a doubtful question, but with submission to 
the Church's better judgment I would usb no compulsion. 

After Bundry chaptei-s about the Foandalioi^ of Rome and the 
like, we come at last to the ProhyiK or Pr<-}\ic.e (!) viz., to the 
actual Bohemian history. 'Tis a wonderful specimen of rig- 
marole, addressed to the emperor, in which the author shows the 
reluctance of a man entering a shower;bath in January to oom- 
mit himself to the essetilJal patl of his task. The history afibrda 
none of the reminiscences which we seek for extract ; a few 
notices of interest remain however to be gathered from his third 
book, which he calls lerarchicw. 

Thus, in speaking of circnmcision, he says ; 

Talking on this matter with some of the more intelligent 
Jews who were friends of mine (at least as far as Jews can 
be friends with a Christian), they observed to me that the 
general law in question could never bo fulfilled except with 
a very sharp razor, either of ateel or of some noblor metal, 
such as bronae or gold. And they agreed with the dictum 
of Arietotlo in his book of Problems, when he expressly 
asserts that cuts made with a knife of bronze or gold are 
healed more quickly than such as are made with a steel 
instrument. And this accords with the practice of the sur- 
geons of Cathay, as I have seen. 

■ Eomol, Komul, or Kamil, the Hami of tho Chinoso, and the atation 
at wliich tbe routoa eastward &om tbo north and the sonth sidaa of Uie 
Thiflj) Shan converge, and from which tmvellera generally start to cross 
the desert before entering CUna (see Folo, ii,86i and Benedict Goi% ii\fra). 
The people of Kamil were lUl BuddhiHta in Marco Polo's time. In 1410 
Shah Kiikh's envojB fouud there the raosiiiie and BiiddhiBt tomplo side 

From the chapter Conaiming Jehtriada the Pnest. 

At this time God pitying his people caused Eliaa to 

I appear, who had been kept by God, it is not known where. 
That may bo true which the Hebrews allege (as Jerome men- 
tions in his comment on 1 Chronicles, xxi), viz., that he is 
the same as Phineas the son of Eleazar.' But it is asserted 
both by the Hebrews and the SabEeaus, i.e., the people of 
the kingdom of the Queen of Haba, that he had his place of 
abode in a very lofty mountain of that land which is called 
Mount Gybeit, meaning the Blessed Mountain. In this 
mountain also they say that the Magi were praying on the 

( night of Christ's nativity when they saw the Star. It Js in 
a manner inaccessible, for from the middle of the mountain 
upwarda the air is said to be so thin and pure that none, or 
at least veiy few have been able to ascend it, and that only 
by keeping a sponge filled with water over the mouth. They 
say however that Elias by the will of God remained hidden 
there until the period in question. 

The people of Saba say also that he still sometimes shows 



' The Hebrew notions about the identity of Phinead and EUsa h&ve 
been adopted and expanded by the MahomedaoB, wlio also identify in 
Home way with tliem their mysterious prophet Khidhr. Hermita^'es or 
chisels dedicated to Khidhr and Elias appe&r to have been very niunerous 
in Uuflsulmon countries, especially on kUl-topa (see Ibn Batitta pSHSim). 
And the oriental christiajis (uid semi-cbriatians also always associate Elias 
with mountain tupa. There seema lo be scoroely a, prominent peak in the 
Greek ia'chipelugo with which the name of Klios is not uonnectod. 

I do not know what (^beii ie, which he interprets ae Beatut, Kubeit is 
the name of one of the holy mountoina at Mecca of which wonderful 
things are related, but I find no meaning aeaigned to the name. There 
are many mountains in Java (if Java be the Saba of our author) which 
might in vast height and sublimity of aspect answer to the BUggestiona 
of Morignolli's description ; none better perhaps than the T^jerimai, 
rising in iaohited majesty to a height greater than Etna's, in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the coast, and close to Cheribou, the earliest seat o( 
Hahomedanism in the iahind. Little less atnking, and still moi'e lofty, 
though not BO isolated, is the Great S'lamat, a little further eastward, 
and by a siniruhir coincidence its name (&om the Arabic Saldmal, Peace 
Salvation ) might iUirly be tiiinslated Moiu Bealui. 


hiraaelf there. And there ia a spring at the foot of that 
mountain where they say he used to drink, and I have 
drunk from that spring myself. But I was unable to ascend 
that Blessed Mountain, being weighed down with infirmi- 
ties, the result of a very powerful poison that I had swal- 
lowed in Columbum, administered by those who wished to 
plunder my property. Although I was passing pieces of 
flesh from my intestines with a vast amount of blood, and 
suffered from an incurable dysentery of the third species for 
Bometbing hko eleven months, a disease such as they say no 
one ever escaped from with life, yet God had compassion on 
mo and spared me to relate wliat I had seen. For I did 
recover, by the aid of a certain female physician of that 
Queen's, who cured me simply by certain juices of herbs 
and an abstinent diet. 

I frequently saw the Queen, and gave her my solemn 
benediction. I rode also upon her elephant, and was pre- 
sent at a magnificent banquet of hers. And whilst I was 
seated on a chair of state in presence of the whole city she 
Ijonoured me with splendid presents. For she bestowed on 
me a golden girdle, such aa she was accustomed to confer 
upon those who were created princes or chiefs. Tfcis was 
afterwards stolen from mo by those brigands in Seyllan. 
She also bestowed raiment upon me, that is to say one hun- 
dred and fifty whole pieces^ of very delicate and costly stuff. 
Of those I took nine for our lord the Pope, five for myself, 
gave three apiece to each of the chief among my com- 
panions, with two apiece to the subordinates, and all the rest 
I distributed in the Queen's own presence among her ser- 
vants who stood around ; that so they might perceive I was 
not greedy. And this thing was highly commended, and 
spoken of as veiy generous. I trust this little anecdote will 
not displease [His Majesty] . 

' " Pcc'CK inlrsriu." 


This and the following chapters contain a few incidental alln* 
sions to his homeward joamey through the Holj Land. Thas 
he speaks of the entire destruction of the Temple and of the 
existence of a Mosque of the Saracens upon its site ; he ^ves a 
slight description of Bethlehem, with the Fountain of Dayid, 
and the Cave of the Nativity, and alludes to having visited the 
Wilderness of the Temptation. 

In one passage he quotes as the favourable testimony of an 
enemy, how 

Machomet the accursed, in his Alcoran, in the third Zoraj 
speaketh thus : Mary, God hath purified thee and made 
thee holy above all women ! etc. 

The last extract that I shall make is from the same chapter. 

Also all the philosophers and astrologers of Babylon and 
Egypt an^ Chaldea calculated that in the conjunction of 
Mercury with Saturn a girl should be bom, who as a virgin, 
without knowledge of men, should bear a son in the land of 
Israel. And the image of this Virgin is kept in great state 
in a temple in Kampsay, and on the first appearance of the 
moon of the first month^ (that is of February, which is the 

^ " Prima lumina metisis primi ;" perhaps he means np to the full moon 
of the first month ? The Chinese year commences from the new moon 
nearest to the middle point of Aquarius. The sun would enter Aquarius, 
according to the calendar in MarignoUi's time, about the 28th of January, 
80 that the Chinese first month would correspond in a partial way to 
February. The feast to which he alludes is the celebrated Feast of Lan- 
terns, which is kept through the first fifteen days of the moon, but espe- 
cially on the full moon. The image of which he speaks is doubtless that 
of the Buddhist personage whom the Chinese call Kuan/ifin, and to whom 
they give the name of "the Virgin" in conversing with Europeans, whilst 
conversely they apply the name of Kuanyin to the Bomish images of the 
Virgin Mary (see Davis* s Chinese, ii, 177). It does not appear however, 
that the Feast of Lanterns is connected with the worship of Kuanyin. 
Her birtb is celebitited on the 19th day of the second moon, and another 
feast in her honour on the 16th day of the eleventh moon (Chine Mod., ii, 
«i9, 652). 


first month among the Cathayers) that new yearns feast is 
celebrated with great magnificence^ and with illuminations 
kept up all the night. 







Abu-Abdullah Mahomed, called Ibn Batnta,^ The Traveller {par 
excellence) of the Arab nation, as he was hailed bj a saint of his 
religion whom he visited in India, was bom at Tangier on the 
24th February, 1304. 

The duty of performing the Mecca pilgrimage must have deve- 
loped the travelling propensity in many a Mahomedan, whilst 
in those days the power and extension of the vast freemasonry to 
which he belonged would give facilities in the indnlgCQce of this 
propensity such as have never been known under other circum- 
stances to any class of people.^ Ibn Batuta himself tells us how 
in the heart of China he fell in with a certain Al Bushri,* a 
countryman of his own from Ceuta, who had risen to great 
wealth and prosperity in that far country, and how at a later date 
(when after a short visit to his native land the restless man 
had started to explore Central Africa), in passing through Segel- 
messa, on the border of the Sahra, he was the guest of the same 
Al Bushri's brother.* " What an enormous distance lay between 

^ During his travels in the East he bore the name of Shamsaddfn (i, 8). 

^ Bicold Monteoroce is greatly struck with the brotherly feeling among 
Mahomedans of his day, however strange to one another in blood : " Nam 
etiam loquendo ad invioem, maxime ad extraneos didt nnus alteri : 
' O fili matris mese V Ipsi etiam nee oocidont se ad invioem nee expoliant. 
Bed homo Sarracenus securissime transit inter quosconque extraneos et 
barbaroe Sarracenos" (Pereg, Quatuor., p. 134). 

^ iv, 282. Similar references indicate the French edition and version 
by Defremery and Sanguinetti, from which I have translated. 

* iv, 377. 

398 ins BATUTA'a travels is nEXCAr, and china, 

those two !" tho traveller himself eicclairas. On another occa- 
siOD he mentions meeting at Bnissa a certain Shaik Abdallah of 
Misr who bore the surname of Th-e Traveller. This worthy had 
indeed made the tour of the world, as some wonld have it, bnt be 
had never been in China nor in the Island of Serendib, neither 
in Spain nor in Negroland. " I have beaten him," Bays Ibn 
Batnta, " for all these have 1 visited !"' 

He entered on his wanderings at the age of twenty-one (lith 
Jnne, 132l>), and did not close them till be was hard on fifty-one 
(in Jannwy, 1355) : his career thus coinciding in time pretty 
exactly with that of Sir John Mandeville (I322-135f:".), a traveller 
the compasa of whose jonmeya wonld bo deemed to equal ov Bur- 
pnfls tho Moor's, if we coold bul believe them to be as genuine. 

Ibn Batata coramenccd hifl travels by traversing the whole 
longitude of Africa (finding time to marry twice upon the road) 
to Alexandria, the haven of which he extols as enrpaxfiing all 
that he saw in the couree of his peregrinations, except those of 
Kanlam and Calient in India, that held by tho Christians at 
Sudak or Soldaia in the Crimea, and the great port of Zayton in 
China. After gome stay at Cairo, which was then perhaps the 
■greatest city in the world out of China,* he ascended the valley 
of the Nile to Syene, and passed the Desert to Aidhab on tho 
Red Sea, with the view of crossing the latter to Mecca. But 
wars raging on that sea prevented thin, so he retraced his steps 
and proceeded to visit Palestine and the rest of Syria, inclnding 
Aleppo and Damascas. He tfaen performed the pilgrimage lo 
the holy cities of his rehgiou,* and afterwards visited the shrine 

> 11, 321. 

- The travoU«r reporti that tie Plague or Bkok Death of 1348 oanieil 
o7 ^,000 souls in one da; (1) in tbe united cities of Cairo und Misr or 
Fostat (i, 229); wbikt in 1381 tlis pestilence was said to liave carried off 
30,UO0 a, d&y. George Qucoio, who hciLrd thia &t Cairo in 1384, relates aUo 
of tho visitation of 13iS that " a<!cording to whnt tho then Soldan wroU; 
to King Hugo of Cyprus, thoro were aome days when more thftn 100,000 
aoulB died in Cairo !" {Viaggi in Terra Santa, p. 231). 

' Between Medina luid Mecua he mentions uq additlouBJ. iustanoe of 
the pbeDomeQOii spoben of at p. lD6nipra. Near Bedr, be aays, " In front 
of you ia tho Mount of tbe Drunia. (Jibal-al'Thabvl) ; it ia tike a huge 
sand-hill, and the natives aasert that in that place every Thursday night 
ihey hear as it were tte sound of druma" (i, 2<K,). 


I for 

^^^ Flo 

rNTRonucTOBY KonoK, 899 

of AH at Meshed. From this lie went to BftBra,iwid then through 
KhnziBtan and Laristan to Ispahan, thence to Shimz and back 
to Kufa and Baghdad. After ui excursion to Mosnl and Diar- 
bakv, he made the pilgriniBi^B I'or a second time, and on this 
occasion continued tn dwell at Mecca for three jeara. When 
that time had elapsed ho made a voyage down the Bed Sea to 
Yemen, through whieh he travelled to Aden, the eingular position 
of which city he describes correctly, noticing its dependance for 
rater-snpply npon cisterns preserving the scanty rainfall.' Aden 
ras then a place of great trade, and the residence of wealthy 
' merchants ; ships of large burden from Gambay, Tana, and all 
I the ports of Malabar, were in its harbonr.' Prom Aden, Ihn 

' Theae cifitems, narka or a, ooIobbbI magnitude, had in tlie deca; of 
Aden been buried in dabris. During' the last few jeara some of them 
bare been cleared oat and repaired, and they now form one of the most 
I interesting sightB of Aden, 

* Aden, one of thoae places which nature has marked for perpetnal 
revival, is mentioned, both by Marco Polo and lij Murino Sanudo bi« oon- 
temporary, as tlie ^reat entrepot of that port of the Indian commerce 
which came westward by Egypt, but neither apparently had accurate 
■oquaintance with the route. The former says that " Aden is the port to 
which the Indian ships bring all their mercbandiKe. It ia then placed on 
board other small vosaela which attend a river about teven dayi, at the end 
of which it is disembarked, laden on camels, and conveyed thirty days 
farther. It then comes to the river of Alexandria, and is conveyed down 
to that city," Marino, after speaking of the route by the Persian Gulf, 
and the three ports of Hormuz, Eis, and Basra, goes on : " The fourth 
haven is called Alioden, and stands on a certain little island, joining aa it 
were to the main, in the land of the BaraoenB ; the apices and other gooda 
from India ore landed there, loaded on camels, and so carried by a journey 
of nine days to a place on the river Nile called Cbus, where they are put 
into boats and conveyed in Sfteea days to Babylon (Cairo), But in the 
month of October and tbereabouta tie river rises to such an ext«nt that 
the spicea. etc., continue to descend the stream from Babylon, and enter 
a eertain long canal, and so are conveyed over the two hundred miles 
between Babylon and Alexandria." (f olo, iii, c. 39 ; Ifar. San. Liber f ide- 
KumtVa™, pt. 1, c, 1,) 

Here we see that Marco apparently took the Red Sea for a river, misled 
perhaps by the ambiguity of the Persian Daryii. And Marino supposes, 
as his map also shows, Aden to be on the wsat side of the fied Sea, con- 
founding it probably with Sun'ittn, which waa also a port of embarcation 
India via Egypt, as I gather from a MS. ol the fourteenth uuntory at 
Florence on the pilffrimaRe to the tomb of St, Thomim, The CAtu of 


:AVKLS in bengal AND CHINA. 

Batnta continned his voysge down the African coast, visiting 
ZsUa, Makdashan (Magado:io of the Porivgacse), MombdGn, and' 
Qniloa in nearly nine degrees of sontb latitude. Prom this ho' 
Gailed to the coast of Oman, where, like Marco Polo, he remorkB 
the snrprising cTistom of feeding cattle of all sorts upon small fish. 
After visiting the chief cities of Omsn he proceeded to Hormns, 
or Sovf Hormnz as he calls the city on the celebrated Island. 
The rock-salt fonnd here, he observes, was nsed in forming orna- 
mental vases and pedestals for lamps, bat the most remarkable 
thing that ho saw at Hormnz appears to have been a fish's head bo 
largo that men entered by one eye and went out by the other.' 

Ailer visiting Kais or Kishm he crossed the Gulf to Bahrain^ 
AI-Kathif, and Hajr or AI-Hasa (or Al-Ahsa, v. »v/im, p. 216), 
where dates were ho abnndant that there was a proverb abonC 
carrying dates to Hajr, like onra of coals to Newcastle. Thence 
he crossed Central Arabia through what is now the Wahabi 
conntry, bnt withoat giving a single partienlar respecting it, 
and made the Mecca pilgrimage again. He then embarked at 
Jiddah, landed on the opposite coast, and made a jonmey of 
great hardship to Syene, whence he continned along the banlcv 
of the Nile to Cairo. 

After this he revisited Syria, and made an extensive jonmej' 
through the petty Tnrkish snltanates into which Asia Min'tv 
was then divided.' Paring this tonr he tells na how he and his 

JXarino ia Sua, the ancient Cot or Apollinopali! Parva, between Eeneh 
and Luor, described by Ibn Batata (i, 106) as in liis day a lai^ and 
flourishing town, with fine bazaars, mosqees, and colleges, the nsideucfl 
of the iriceroys of the Thebaic]. That travi>Ilar embariied at Sua to 
descend the Nile, after his first visit to U];^eT Egypt. It is aearfy in the 
latitude of Kossetr. The Carta Calalami calla EosBeir CAoi. and notes it 
as the place where the Indian spicer? was landed. 

■ Whales (I believe of the Spermaceti genns) are still not uncommon 
in the Arabian Sea. Abu Zoid mentions that in his time about Siiaf thrir 
Tertebne were used aa chaiis, and that bouses were to be seen on the 
same coast, the rafters of which were formed of whale's ribs. (Amiunid, 
Selations, p. 14C.) I remember wben in parts of Scotland it wt 
unusual to see the gate-posts of a farm-yard formed of the same. 

' There were at least eleven of these priacipalities in Asia Minor, afUtr 
the fall of the kingdom of Iconium in the latter part of the thirteenth 
century (Deguignet, iii. pt. ii, p. 76). 



couinuie oigaged a certain Hajji who coaUi ^peak AnHrAC im 
sernmc and iitterpreter. They found that he chtattjsd th#:m 
frightfaQTy and one day, provoked beyond jmAisar^^ tkubj cmlW 
oat to him, "" Come now, Hajji, how mnch hajit thon ^t/,ien to 
day r** The Hajji simply replied, ^ So mtuth^" r^xmluig th« 
amoont of his plunder. '^ We conld but lao^rfi ao/l r^et ^ybf.^it," 
says onr traveller. 

He then crossed the Black Sea to Ckrfk^ *:^*jS,j ^^jyi^vk^l, «i 
he tells ns, by the Genoese (Jantcitja), and af/{Ar«rtAtiy tJ^t ftmt 
Qiristian city in which he had fonnd himn^rlf, f^jr L^ wa« iu grrmX 
dismay at the bell-ringing. He went on by KtiU ^fff HfAfg^istt) 
and Azov to ^(ajab, a fine city on a fcrntu. rirer ^tlM; Kama;, 
where he was greatly stmck by the cmui^i«rraiti//fii with whi/ii 
women were treated by the Tartan ; an if, in 6i/rt, cTtAtur^ of a 
higher rank than men. From thiii he prrx;^:^Wi t/# tli«; car/ip of 
Snltan Mahomed Uzbek, Khan of KifxrLak, tl^^rn piU:hiA at 
BiSHDAGH, a thermal spring, appar^mtly at tfjii; (f^A *A ^Iwusunnn^} 
He was well received by the Khan, and ohf Jkitn-A frr/m him a 
guide to conduct him to the city of i^jUtUxk, which lie was 
anxious to visit in order to witness with hij» own eyes the short* 
ness of the northern summer night.^ He vksm dt^irtmB also to go 
north from Bolghar to the Imti/1 of Darkn^JtM, of which he had 
heard still more wonderful thirigM; but this he gave up on 
account of the many difficaltie<», and retamed to the sultan's 
camp, wEich he then followed to Haj-tabkhax (Astracan). 

One of the wives of Mahomed Uzl>ek was a Greek princess of 
Constantinople, whom the traveller calls the Khatun or Lduly 
Bejaltin (Thilumeiia ? or lolanthe ? At iii, 10, it is written 

* This place, aocordiiig to Defremery (Joum. Ai., July-Sept. 1850, p. 
159), still exists as Besh Tau, and was visited by Klaproth. 

2 Bolghar, sometimes called Bolar, is in nearly the latitude of Carlisle. 
It stood near the left bank of the Atil or Wolga, about fifty miles above 
the modem Simbirsk and ninety miles south-west of Kasan. It was 
sometimes the residence of the khans of Kipchak. There was still a 
village called Bolgari on the site when Pallas wrote ; and there are a con- 
siderable number of architectural remains. On these Hammer Purg^tall 
refers to Schmidt's ** Arehitektonische UmrUse der Ruinen Bolgars, 1832" 
(Pallas, Ft. Trans., year ii, i, 217; Oe$eh, der Oold, Horde, p. 8 ; Reinaud'9 
Abulfeda, ii, p. 81.) 


402 iBN batdta's 

Beiliin), and ehe was now about to pay a visit to her own people.' 
Ibn Bfttnta was allowed to join the cortege. Their route seema 
to have been singularly devious, leading them by Ukak' ten daj's 
above Sarai, near the " HiUs of the BusBiaua," deawibed as a fair- 
haired, blue-eyed, but ugly and crafty race of Chriatiaus, thence 
to the port of SoLDAiA (perhaps with the intention of going by 
sea) and then by land the whole way to CouRtantinople, where 
they were received in great state, the emperor (AQdronicita the 
Younger) and empreaa coming out to meet their daughter, and 
the whole population crowding to see the show, while the bells 
rang till the beavena shook with the clangour. He tells us bow, 
ixa be passed the city gate in the lady's train, he heard the guards 
muttering to one another Saralcmu ! Sarakinu ! a name, says be, 
by which they called MussulmanH. 

It is curious to find the name Istambul in use a century and 
more before the Turkish conquest.^ Thus he tells ua the part of 

' Tbese marlines appear to bave been tolerably trequent ai the Greek 
emperors went down in the world, though the one in questiou does not 
seem to be mentioned ulsowhore. Tiius Hula^u having demanded in 
marriage a daughter of Michael Palicologua, a natuml daughter of the 
emperor, Mary hj name, was sent in compliance with this demand: 
Hulagu was dead when she arrived in Feruia, but she was married to bis 
aacceaaoT, Abaga Ehon. The Mongols culled heiBespina Khatani^fmrBitv). 
Aq illegitimate sister of the same emperor, called EophroBjne, was be- 
stowed on Nagaifl Khan, founder of a small Tartar dynasty oo the Greek 
frontier ; and another daagbter of the same name in 1265 on Tulabuka, 
who twenty years later became Khan of Kipchak. Androniuus the Eider 
is said to have given a young ladj who paasod for his natural daughter 
to Obazan Khan of Persia, and a few years later his sister Mary to 
Ohazau'e successor, Oljattn, as well as another natural daughter Mar; to 
Tuktnka Khan of Kipchak. Also in the genealogy of the Comneni of 
Trebizond wo find two daughters of the Emperor Basil married to Turk- 
ish or Tartar chioia, and daughters of Alexis III, Alexis IV, and John IV 
making similar niarriagea. [I/Ohtton, iii, 417, and iv, 315, 318 ; DegMii/net, 
i, 289 J Hammer, Oeaeh. lier Rchant ,- Preface to Ibn Baiuta, torn, ii, p. i; 
Art. Comiumi in Smith's Diet, of Or. and Rom. Biog.) 

^ Ukaka or TTkek and Majar have already been mentioned at p. 233, 
lupra. The mins of Majar eiist and have been described by Klaproth 
(De/ritmeTV in J. Ai., 1850, p. 154). 

* But even in the ninth century Masudi says that the Greeks never 
called their city Constantlnia but BoUn (irii;tiv— Town of the Londoner), 
and, when they wished to speak of it as the capital of the empire, Stan- 


the city Constantinia, on the eastern side of the river (the Golden 
Horn), where the emperor and his courtiers reside, is called 
Idainbul, whilst the other side is called Galata, and is specially 
assigned to the dwellings of the Frank Christians, such as 
Genoese, Venetians {Banddikah), people of Rome (AhiURumah), 
and of France {Ahil-Afrdnsah), 

After a short stay at the Greek city, daring which he had an 
interview with the Emperor Andronicus the Elder, whom he 
calls King George (JirjU), and after receiving a handsome pre- 
sent from the princess,^ he went back to Uzbek at Sarai, and 
thence took his way across the desert to Khwarizm and Bokhara, 
whence he went to visit the Khan 'Alauddin Tarmashirin of the 
Chagatai dynasty. His travels then extended through Khorasan 
and Kabul, including a passage of the Hindu Kush. This ap« 
pears to have been by Anderab (which he calls Andar), and so by 
Paschshir (see supra, p. 167) to Parwan and Charekar (Churkh), 
It is remarkable that between Anderab and Parwan Ibn Batuta 
speaks of passing the Mountain of Pashai, probably the Pascia 
of Marco Polo, which Pauthier seems thus justified in identifying 
with a part of the Kafir country of the Hindu Kush (Livre de 

bolin ( §ls rriv wdKiy) ; and he speaks of these as very old appellations. In- 
deed the name applied by the Chinese to the Roman Empire in the time 
of Heraclius (Folin) argues that the former term was then in familiar use. 
In the century following Ibn Batuta, £uy Gonzalez de Clay\jo says that 
the Greeks called their city, not Constantinople, but Escomboli (probably 
misread for Estomboli) ; and his contemporary Schiltberger tells as the 
Greeks called it Istimboli, but the Turks Stambol, 

The Orientals found other etymologies for the name. Thus Sadik Isfa- 
hani declares that Istanbul signifies in the Turkish language, " You will 
find there what you will V And after the capture of the city, some of the 
sultans tried to change the name to Isldnibul, 

There are several other names in modem use which have been formed 
in the same way ; e.g. Isnicmid from tls NiKo/i'^Scmi', Setines from tU A0^ras, 
(Jacquet in Jour, As., ix, 459, etc. ; Markham*8 Clavijo, p. 47 ; Schiltberger, 
p. 136 ; Oeog. Works of Sadik Isfdhani by J. C, 1832, pp. 7, 8, and 
note. ) 

' Part of this consisted of three hundred pieces of gold called Alhar' 
bar ah (Hyperperae), the gold of which was bad, he observes. It was 
indeed very bad, for Pegolotti, if I understand him aright, says these 
** perperi'* contained only 11 carats of gold to 6 of silver and 7 of copper 
(p. ^3). 

20 2 


3f. Pol, p. 123).^ He then proceeded to Sind, reaching the 
Indus, probably somewhere below Larkhana, according to hiii 

own statement, on the 12th September, 1333. Here he termi- 
nates the First Part of hie narrative. 

Proceeding to Siwastan (Sehwan) he there met with a brother 
theologian, 'Ala-nl-Mnlk, mho had been appointed governor of 
the diatrict at the month of the Indus, and after having travelled 
with him to Lahaei, a fine place on the shore of the ocean, he 
then turned northward to Bakah, UjAH,'and Mitltan, where he 
found a£sembled a large party of foreigners all bent on seeking 
their fortunes in India, and waiting at the frontier city for invi- . 
tationa from the liberal sovereign of Hindustan. 

This was Mabomet Tughlak, originally called Jlina Khan, 
whose contradictory qualiticB are paint«d by Ibn Batnta quite in 
accordance with the account of Firishta. The latter describes 
liim* as the most eloqaent and accomplished prince of bia time; 
gallant in the field and inured to war; admired for his composi-' 
tions in prose and verse ; well versed in history, logic, mathe- 
matics, medicine, and metaphysics ; the founder of hospitals for 
the sick and of refuges for widows and orphans ; profuse in his 
liberality, especially to men of learning. But with all this he was 
wholly devoid of mercy and of consideration for his people ; the 
murderer of his father' and of his brother, he was as madly 

' The name appears still mote oiftctly in another passage of Marco 
Polo, where he describes the invasion of India by the Mongol prince 
whom he calla Ni^odar. He " marched by Badaauiun (Bokdakikan) and 
ttiToagb a province called Fabciai, and another colled Cbeaciemur {Kaah- 
mir), losing many of hie people and beaata, because the roada were nafrow 
and very bad" <i, o. 13). Remarks oa the Pftsaea of Hindu Koah will be 
fonnd in the Introduction to Gofa, ivfrn. 

^ Lahari ia HtiU known dh LahoH or " Lorry Bundor," though it has dis- 
appeared Irom our recent maps. It atanda on the western or Pitti branch 
of the Indus delta. Baknr ia Bakkar, the fort in the Indus between 
Sakkar and Eori, where the Indus was bridged for Lord Keane's array by 
M^or Qeorge Thomson in 1S38. VjaK is Uuhh on the Chenab, below 

•■ Briggt' Firithta. i, 411-412 ; aee also Elphinstone, ii, 60. 

' As the atory is told by Ibn Batuta after the relation of an eyewitness, 

Mahomed had prepared, for the reception of his father on his return &om 

K a campaign, a pavilion on the banlca of a stream near Dehli. This pavi- 

^b lion was artfiilly constructed njth the assiAtance i>f Ahmed son of Ayas 


capricious, as cruel, bloodthirsty, and unjust as Nero or Caligula. 
Incensed at anonymous pasquinades against his oppressions, he 
on one occasion ordered the removal of the seat of government, 
and of all the inhabitants of Dehli, ixy Daulatabad in the Dek- 
kan,^ forty days' journey distant ; and after the old city had been 
gradually reoccupied, and he had himself re-established his court 
there for some years, he repeated the same mad caprice a second 
time." " So little did he hesitate to spill the blood of God's 
creatures, that when anything occurred which excited him to 
proceed to that horrid extremity, one might have supposed his 
object was to exterminate the species altogether. No single week 
passed without his having put to death one or more of the learned 
and holy men who surrounded him, or some of the secretaries who 
attended him." Or as Ibn Batuta pithily sums up a part of the 
contradictions of his character, there was no day that the gate of 
his palace failed to witness the elevation of some abject to afflu- 
ence, the torture and murder of some living soul.^ Mahomed 

the Inspector of Buildings, so that when approached on a certain side by 
the weighty bodies of elephants the whole would fall. After the king had 
alighted and was resting in the pavilion with his favourite son Mahmud, 
Mahomed proposed that the whole of the elephants should pass in review 
before the building. When they came over the fatal spot the structure 
came down on the heads of Tughlak Shah and his young son. After in- 
tentional delay the ruins were removed, and the king's body was found 
bending over that of his boy as if to shield him. It was carried to Tug- 
lakabad, and laid in the tomb which he had built for himself. This still 
stands, one of the simplest and grandest monuments of Mahomedan anti- 
quity, rising from the middle of what is now a swamp, but was then a lake. 
It is said that the parricide Mahomed is also buried therein. This strange 
story of the murder of Tughlak Shah is said to have been re-enacted in 
our own day (1841 or 1842), when Nao Nihal Singh, the successor of 
Kanjit, was killed by the fall of a gateway as he entered Lahore. 

Ahmed Bin Ayas, the engineer of the older murder, became the Wazir of 
Mahomed, under the titles of Malik-Zada and Khw^ja Jah&n (Ihn Bat,, 
iii, 213-14). 

^ A description of the prodigious scale on which the new city, which 
was to be called the Capital of Islamf was projected and commenced, is 
given by an eyewitness in the MasdHak-aUAhsdr, translated in Not. et Ex- 
traits, xiii, 172. 

2 Briggs, pp. 420-422 ; Ibn. Bat., iii, 314. Elphinstone says the move 
was made three times (ii, 67). If so, I have overlooked it in Briggs. 

» Briggs, 411, 12 ; Ihn Bat., iii, 216. 


■ uatuta's 


formed groat echcmea of canqaest, and carried ont some of them; .1 
His mikd projects for the invasion of Khorasajt and of Ciiina came ' 
to nothing, or to miserable disaster, but vritliin the bounds of 
India he was more snccessfn), and had at one time subjected 
nearlj the whole of the Peninsula. In the end, however, nearly 
all his oonqneata were wrested from him, either by the n»tivB J 
kiiig or by the revolt of Lis own Kervaofca. Respecting thii 1 
king and the history of his reign, Ibn Batuta's narrative givei 1 
many curiona nnd probably trutLfiil details, such subjects bcin^ ^ 
more congenial to hia tui'n of mind than the coiTect observation | 
of facts in geography or nalnral history, though even as regard* J 
the former his statements are snfliciently perplexed by his c 
tempt for chronological arrangement. 

After a detention of two months at Mnltan, Ibn Batata w 
ftllowod to proceed, in company with the distinguished foreignerB, 
for whom invitations to the court arrived. The ronte lay by 
Abohak in the desei't, where the Indian, as distinguished froBk j 
the Sindian provinces commenced, the castle of Abu Bakhr, Ajir- ] 
DAHAN, Sabsati, Hansi, Mascdabab, and Palam, to Dehli.^ The I 
iity, or group of cities, which then bore the hitler name did not 
occupy the site of the modern capital built by Shah Jahau in the 
■eventeenth century, but stood some ten miles further south, in 
a position of which the celebrated Kutb Miuar njay be taken as 
the chief surviving landmark. 

I cajmot trace Aba Bakhr. Ajtidin or Pdk Paiian (Tbe Pure or H0I7 
Ferry) ia a town on the ri((ht bank of thu Sutlq valley, about half way be- 
tween Bhawalpiir and Firazpiir, the site of a very saored MaliotnedlJl 
sbrine.for the soke of which Timurnn hia devastating march spared the few 
persons found in tbe town. Ahokar 'a a town io tbe desert of BLattiana, 
Bomo sixty miles east of Ajndin. The narrative brings Ibn Batata to 
Abohar/ir<l, and then to Abu Bakhr and Ajodin, and I hare not ventured 
to change the order; but this seeniB to involve a direct retrogression. 
Saraati is the town now culled Sirsa on the verge of the Desert. Hnnti 
letainB its name as tbe chief town of an Engjlidh Zillah. Si<ty years a^ 
it was theoapita.1 of that singular adventurer Geot^e TboroSA, who raised 
himself tram being a sailor before the mast to be tbe ruler of a small 
Indian principality. Maiudabad I do not know ; it must have been in 
the direction of the modern Bah4dar)^rb. Palam still exists, a Few miles 
went of tbe Dehli of those da;s, to one of tbe gates of which 


li it gave it« | 



The king was tlien nbeent at Kananj, bnt on hearing of the 
arrirnl of Ihn Batnia with the rest, he ordered an asBignment 
ill Ilia liehaif of three villages, producing a total rent of 5,000 
eilTer dinars, and on his retwm to the capital received the travel- 
ler kindlj, and gave him a further present of 12,000 dinars, with 
the appointment of Kazi of Dehli, to whieb a Balary of the same 
amount wae attaehed,' 

Ibn Batuta continued for about eight years in the aervice of 
Mahomed Shah, though it seems doubtful Low far he was occupied 
in his jndicial duties. Indeed, he describes Dehh, though one of 
the grandest cities in the Mahomedan world, as newly deserted 
during his residence there. The traveller's good fortune BCems 
only to have fostered his natural extravagance ; for at an early 
period of his stay at the capital he had incurred debtj< to the 
amount of f 5,000 dinars of silver, which, after long importunity, 
ha got the Sultan to pay. Indeed, by hia own account, he seems 
to have hung hko a perfect horse-leech on the king's bounty. 

When Mahomed Tughlak was about to proceed to Maabar to 
put down an inBurroction,^ Ibn Batuta expected to accompany 
him, and prepared an ontiit for the march on his usual free scale 
of expenditure.'' At the last moment, however, he was ordered, 

' Beapecting the rsiue of tbeae dinara, see Nate A at the end of this 
Inttodnction. The three villages aaaigned to tbe traveller liLj at siiteen 
kosa from Dehli, be says, and were called BadU, BataM, and Balarah, 
They lay In the Sudi or Hundred of Hind-fi-but (or the Hindu Idol ; so 
Defr^mery reads it, but the original ae he gives it seems rather to read 
Bindahat, and may repreHent Indrapat, the name of one of the old cities 
of Dehli still eiistiug. Probably the villn^a Ronld be identified on the 
Indian Atlas). Tno weru added later, JoutaJt and Ualikpur. 

* This must have been on the oc«:asion of the revolt of tbe Bharff Jalal- 
nddiit AhBan in Maabar. The French editors, in the careful ohronolo- 
gical table of tbe events of Mahomed's reigu which is ombraced in their 
Freface to the third volume, place this eipedition in 1341-43. The aultan 
fell ill at Warangol, and returned speedily to Daulatabad and Dehli. 

* His account of the outfit required by a gentleman travelling in India 
■hows bow little Buuh things have changed there tn five hundred years, say 
from 1340 to 1840. (Now they are chauging !) He mentions the set of 
tenta and (aiwdna (or canvas cnelosare walls} to be purchased ; men to 
carry the tents on their shoulders (this is never the practice now); the 
grass cutters to supply the horses and cattle with grass ; the bearers 
(kahiiron) to CArrj the kitchen ntensils on tlieir Bhoiildersi, and also ta 



tiotliin^ loth, to remain behind and tnkc charge of the tomb of 
SnltAn Kntbnddin, whose serTant the Sultau had been, and for 
■whose memory ho profeSBcd the greatest veneration.' He renewed 
his personal extravagances, spending large snms which his friends 
had loft in deposit with him, and reviling those who were mean 
enough to expect at least a portion to be repaid ! One who scat- 
tered his own money and that of his friends so freely was not 
likely to bo backward when his hand had found its way into the 
pnbhc purse. The account he gives of the ostabltshment he pro- 
vided for the tomb placed under hia charge is characteristic of hia 
roagnificent ideas. "I established in connexion with it one hun- 
dred and fifty readers of the Koran, eighty students, and eight 
repeaters, a professor, eighty ffvJIs, or monks, an iraam, muezzins, 
i-ecitera selected for their fine intonation, panegyrists, scribes to 
take note of those who were absent, and ushers. All these people 
are recognised in that conntry as ahrbiib, or gentlemen. I also 
made arrangements for the subordinat-e class of attendants called 
alkaehiijak, or menials,' such as footmen, cooks, runners, water- 
carriers, sherbet-men, betel-men, sword-bearers, javelin-men, 
umbrcUa-men, liand-washers, beadles, and officers. The whole 

carry the traveller's palankin ; the /ardihet to pitch hia tents and toad 
hia camola ; the rnnnora to carry torches before him in the dark. More- 
over bo tells ua he hiLd paid all these people nine months' wages before- 
hand, which shows that the " ayatem of advanoes" was in still greater 
rigonr than even now. 

The French translators do cot reeogniKe the word hiharon, patting 
■' gohari f" as a parenthetic query. But it is BtiU the ordinary name of 
the caste uf people (Eakdrs) who boar palankins or carry burdens on a 
yoke over one sbouldei'. aod the name is one of the few real Indian words 
that Ibn Batuta showa any knowledge of. I think the only others are 
ialii for a pony; Jauthri (for Cfutodri) " the Shaikh of the Hindus," bis he 
eiplaiDHit; Sdha, as the appellation of a certain class of merchanta at 
Daiilatabad, a name (Sdkii) still borne eitensively by a mercantile caste ; 
£atrt (KiAatrt) na the name of a noble class of Hindus ; Jogi ; moroh, a 
■tool ; iiihri (for kithari, vidgo kedgeree, well known at Indian break- 
Euta); and some names of fruits and pulses (iii, 413, 427; 207; 3SS; iv. 
49,61; ii, 75i iii, 127-131). 

■ This WHS Kutb-uddfa Mubarak 3hali, son of 'Alauddin, murdered by 
his minister Khosrn in 1320. 

' Rabb, DoniinuB, Possessor, pi. arbdb ; HhiaMytk, era vestia vel alina 
rei, inde domestici, assecla {Frc'ytaf in vv). 


number of people whom I appointed to these employments 
amounted to four hundred and sixty persons. The Sultan had 
ordered me to expend daily in food at the tomb twelve measures 
of meal and an equal weight of meat. That appeared to me too 
scanty an allowance ; whilst, on the other hand, the total revenue 
in grain allowed by the king was considerable. So I expended 
daily thirty-five measures of meal, an equal weight of butcher- 
meat, and quantities in proportion of sugar, sugar-candy, butter, 
and pawn. In this way I used to feed not only the people of the 
establishment, but all comers. There was great famine at the 
time, and this distribution of food was a great alleviation of the 
sufferings of the people, so that the fame of it spread far and 

Towards the end of his residence in India he fell for a time 
into great disfavour, the cause of which he relates in this way : — 

There was at Dehli a certain learned and pious shaikh called 
Shihab-uddin the son of Aljam the Khorasani, whom Sultan 
Mahomed was desirous of employing in his service, but who posi- 
tively refused to enter it. On this the king ordered another 
doctor of theology, who was standing by, to pull out the shaikh's 
beard, and on his declining the oflBce, the ruffian caused the beards 
of both to be plucked out ! Shaikh Shihaabuddin retired from the 
city and established himself in a country place some miles from 
Dehli, where he amused himself by forming a large cave, which he 
fitted up with a bath, supplied by water from the Jumna, and 
with other conveniences. The Sultan several times sent to sum- 
mon him, but he always refused to come, and at length said in 
plain words that he would never serve a tyrant. He was then 
arrested and brought before the tyrant himself, brutally mal- 
treated, and finally put to death. 

Ibn Batuta's curiosity had induced him to visit the shaikh in 
his cavern before this happened, and he thus incurred the dis- 
pleasure and suspicion of the Sultan. Fonr slaves were ordered 
to keep him under constant surveillance, a step which was gene- 
rally followed before long by the death of the suspected indivi- 
dual. Ibn Batuta, in his fear, betook himself to intense devotion 
and multiplied observances, among others to the repetition of a 



certain versa of the Koran 33,000 times in the day ! The snr- 
veill&noe heing apparently relased, he withdrew atto^ther &om 
the pablio eye, gave all that he poseeesed to darveahes and the 
poor (he Bayn nothing about his creditors), and devoted himself 
to an ascetic life under the tuteiape of a certain holy shaikh in 
the neighbonrhood of Dehli, called Kamal-addin Abdallah of the 
Cave, with whom he abode for five monthfl. The king, who was 
then in Sind,' hearing of Ihn Batata's reform, Bent for him to 
camp. He appeared before the Lord of the World (»s Mahomed 
was called) in his hermit's dress, and was well received. Never- 
thelesH, he evidently did not yet consider lua head at all safe, for 
he redoubled his ascetic observ-ancea. After forty days, however, 
the king summoned him again, and announced his intention of 
sending him on an embassy to China. According to Ibn Batuta's 
dates this appears to have been in the spring of 134*2. 

The object of the proposed embassy was to reciprocate one 
which had arrived at court from the Emperor of China. The 
envoys had been the bearers of a present to Saltan Mahomed, 
which consisted of 100 slaves of both sexes, 500 pieces of com- 
muc'-K,'' of which 100 were of the fabric of Zayton and 100 of 
that of KingHse, five maunds of musk, live robes broidered with 
pearls, five (juivers of cloth of gold, and five swords. And the 
professed object of the mission was to get leave to rebuild an 
idol temple (Buddhist, doubtless) on the borders of the mountain 
of Eabachil, at a place called Samhal, whither the Chinese used 
to go on pilgrimage, and which had been destroyed by the 
Sultan's troops." Mahomed's reply was that it was not admissible 

' This must have been on the occasion of the revolt of Slialiii tba 
Afghan at Hultan, who murdered the viceroy of the province and tried to 
Bet biiDBelf up ajt Ving. Though Defr^merj's ohronologrical table does not 
mention th»t Bultan Mahomed faimself nwrebed to the scene of aotjon, 
and Ibn Batuta only aays tliat " the Sultan made preparations for an 
eipedition against him," as tlio revolt is placed in this ver; year 1343, it 
is probable that he hod advanced towards Multon (iii, pp. :iii and 362), 
which aocording to the riev of Ibn Batuta was a city of Sind. 

^ See note. p. 293, lupra. 

' It is interesting to find this indication that perhaps the pilgriniages 
of the Chineso BuddhiBta to the ancient Indian holy places were stiU kept 
up, bat it may have been only the Tibetan subjects of the Groat Khan 



I by the principles of his religion to grant aach a demand, unlesB 
in favonr of perGona paying the poll-tax as snbjecte of hie Govern- 
ment. If the Emperor would go throngh the form of paying this 
he would be allowed to rebuild the temple,' 

The embassy, hetided by Ibn Batnta, whh to convey this reply, 

iand a return present of mnch greater value than that received. 
This was composed of 100 hij^h-bred horses caparisoned, 100 
male slaves, 100 Hindu girls accomplished in song and dance, 
100 pieces of the stnfi' called baira/mi (these were of cotton, hut 
matchless in quality),^ 100 pieces of silk stoff called ji», 100 pieces 

who maintained the practice. Tn our own day I have seen auch at Hard- 
wir, who had croBsed the Himalja, hom Mahachin aa they said, to visit 
the hoi; flame of Jawalamnlihi in the Punjab. £<intcbit is doubtless a, 
oorrnption of the Sanskrit Kvveraehal, a name of Mount Kailia, when 
lies the dty of Envera the Indinn FlutuB, and ia here used for the 
Hironlf a. In another po^sa^ the anthor describes it as a range of vaat 
mountains, three months' jotuTi a; in extent, and distant ten daja from 
Debli, which was invaded by H. Tuj^hlafs army in a, most diaastruus ex- 
pedition (appuejiUf the same which Fiiishta describea as a project for 
the invasion of China, thongh Ibn Bututa does not mention that olyeot). 
He also speaks of it as the source of the river which flowed near Amroha 
(in the modem district of Montdab4d, probably the Ramg^inga -, jii, 326 ; 
ii, 6; ill, 437). The same name is found in the form iTaldrcAal, applied to a 
part of the Himalya by Bashid, or rather perhaps by Al-Biriini, whom 
he appear* to be copying. This author distinguiahes it from Harmakit 
(Hema-Kvta, the Snow Peaka, one form of the nnuie HimaJya), in which 
the Ganges rises, and says that the et^-nol snowa of Eolarchal are Tisible 
from Tdkas (Taiihi ?) and Lahore (EHioO Mah. Hiiiorians. p. 30). Bamhal 
is probably Sanhhal. on ancient Hindu city of Rohilkhand (perhaps the 
Sapolui of Ptolemy ?), also in Zillah Monulabad. From other poaaages 
I gather that the provinrie was called Sainbhal at that time, and indeed 
■o it was up to the timeof Sultan Baber, when it formed the government 
of his eon Humayun. f do not And that Sambhal itself has been recog- 
nized as the aite of Buddhiat remaina, but very important lemoina of that 
character have been eiam-ined by M.-Oen. Cunningham, following the 
tracea of Hwen Thaang, at varions places immediately to the north of 
Bambb^, and one ofthese may have been the site of the temple in question. 
' The lata or "poll-tai...wa8 imposed, during the early con quosta, on 
mil infidels who enbmitted to tUo Mahomed rule, and was the teat by 
which they were distingniah from thoae who remained in a state of hosti- 
lity" (ElpKinttone, ii, 457). Itfl abolition wne one of the beneficent aots 
of AkboT, hut AurangKib imposed it again. 

Probably Ddcca mualina. Beirami is a term for certain white Imlian 

hs which we find used by Vartbema, Barboaa, and others, and in 

MUburn's Oriental Commerce we have the game article under the name 




of stnfF called aalatinjah, 100 pieces of shirmbaf, 100 of shanbaf, 
500 of woollen stuff (probably shawls), of -which 100 were black, 
100 while, 100 red, 100 green, 100 blue; 100 pieces of Greek 
linen, 100 cloth, di-essea, a great state tent and six pavilions, four 
golden candlesticks and sis of silver, ornamented with blue 
enamel ; six silver basins, ten dresses of honour in brocade,^ tfin 
caps, of wliich one was broidored with pearls ; ten quivers of bro- 
cade, one with pearls ; fen swords, one with a scabbard vrrought in 
pearls ; gloves broidored with pearls ; and fifteen eunuchs. 

His coUeagnes in tliis embassy were the Amir Zahiruddin the 
Zinjani, a man of eminent learning, and the Eanuch Eafur 
(Camphor) the Cup-bearer, who had charge of thepresentB. The 
Amir Mahomed of Herat was to escort them to the place of em- 
barcation with 1,000 horse, and the Chinese ambassadors, fifteen 
in nnmber, the chief of whom wae called Torai,' joined the party 
with about 100 servants. 

The king had apparently returned to Dehli before the deapatcli 
of the party, for the latter set out from that city on the 22nd Jnly, 
1342. Their route lay at first down the Doab as far as Kauauj, 
but misfortunes began before they had got far beyond the evening 
shadow of the Kutb Minar. For whilst they were at KoL (Koel. 
or Aligarh, eighty miles from Dchli), having complied with an 
invitation to take part in relieving the neighbouring town of 
Jalam from the attack of a body of Hindus,* thej- lost in the fight 

Byrampattt (i, 268). The Shanbaf in no doubt tte Sinabftffl of Vortliema, 
but more I cannot saj. 

' Mahomed TugUak maintained an enormoaB royal eHtabliahment 
(analogous to tlie Qobelins) of weavers in silk and gold brocade, to pro- 
vide fitufia fur his prueents, and for the ladies of the palace {Not. tt Ei- 
irmti, xui, 1B3). 

* &. statesman called TurM was chief minister in China with great 
power, a few ;eara after this, in 131T-4S (De ilailla, ii, 584). It is, hoW' 
ever, perhaps not probable that this was the some person, as the Indo- 
Chinese nations do not usually employ stateBmen of a high rank on 
foreign embassies. 

' That' work of this kind should bo going on so near the capital shows 
perhaiH that when Flrishta says Mahomed's conquest of the distant pro- 
vinces of Dwara-Samudra, Maabor, and Bengal, etc,, had incorporated 
them with the empire "as completely as the villages in the vicinity of 
Dehli," this may not Lave amounted to vory much after all (Briggi, i, 413), 


twentj-five horsemen and fifty-five foot-men, including Kafar 
the Eunuch. During a halt which ensued, Ibn Batuta, separa- 
ting from his companions, got taken prisoner, and though he 
escaped from the hands of his captors, did not get back to his 
friends for eight days, during which he went through some curi- 
ous adventures. The party were so disheartened by these inaus- 
picious beginnings that they wished to abandon the journey ; but, 
in the meantime, the Sultan had despatched his Master of the 
Robes, the Eunuch Sanbul (Spikenard) to take the place of Kaftir 
defdnct, and with orders for them to proceed. 

From Kanauj they turned southwards to the fortress of 
GwALiOR, which Ibn Batuta had visited previously, and had then 
taken occasion to describe with fair accuracy. At Parwan, a 
place which they passed through on leaving Gwalior, and which 
was much harassed by lions (probably tigers rather), the travel- 
ler heard that certain malignant Jogis were in the habit of as- 
suming the form of those animals by night. This gives him an 
opportunity of speaking of others of the Jogi class who used to 
allow themselves to be buried for months, or even for a twelve- 
month together, and afterwards revived. At Mangalore he after- 
wards made acquaintance with a Mussulman who had acquired 
this art from the Jogis.^ The route continued through Bundel- 
khand and Malwa to the city of Daulatabad, with its celebrated 
fortress of Dwaigir (Deogiri), and thence down the Valley of the 
Tapti to Kinbaiat (Cambay).^ 

1 This art, or the profession of it, is not yet ertinct in India. A very 
curious account of one of its professors will be found in a " Personal Nar- 
rative of a Tour through the States of RoQwara" (Calcutta, 1837, pp. 41-44), 
by my lamented Mend M.-General A. H. E. Boileau, and also in the 
Court and Camp of BanjCt Singh, by Captain Osborne, an officer on Lord 
Auckland's staff, to which I can only refer from memory. 

9 I will here give the places past through by Ibn Batuta on his route 
from DeliU to Cambay, with their identifications as far as practicable. 


Tilbat, 2i'^arasang8 from This is perhaps Tilputa, a village in the Dadri 
the city ^. . Parganah, though this is some 17 miles from 

old DehU. 
All . . . Possibly Aduh, a Pargana town 8 miles west 

of Bulandshahr. 
Hilii ? 


From Cambay tlioy went to Kawe, a plB,oe on a tidal gali be- 
longing to the Pagan Raja Jalansi, and thence to Kandahar, a 

BeUna, " a great pUce," 
with fine marlceta, and 
of which one of the ohiof 

officers of state bail been 

lately goremor. 
K6h, a fine cit; in a plain 

Borrounded b; mango 

(Jalili, the town relieved) 



Hanaul, Wazirpur 
UojUisah . 

City of Maori, Math 

Alipiir, ruled by an Abys- 
Binian or Negro giant who 
could eat a whole ehocp 
atonue. A day's journey 
I'l'om this dwelt Katam the 
Pagan King of Jambil . 

Parwun, Ainwari . 

KajarrS. Here there wna 
a lake about a mile loug 
BiuTouadod by idol tum- 
plea, and with buildings 
n the water ix'cupied by 
loug-baired Jogis 

L beUere no inch name i> nov traceable. 
£iana, weat of A^ra, was a very importaQt 
city and fortresa in tho middle agea, but is 
quite out of place hero, 

Eotl, commonly now known aa Aligarb, from 
the great fort in the vicinity taken by Lord 
Lake. Jaiaii stiU enstB, 10 m. E. of Koel. 

There ia a village Birjpir N.E. of Maiapiiri, 
on the line between Koel and Kanaiy. 

A Persian rendering of the name of Kali- 
Nadt (Black Ri ver), which eaters tbeOanges 
near Kanauj. Sharifdddin gives the same 
name in a TnrkiBh version, Sara Sw (H. da 
Tim-ar Bee, iii, 121). 

Well known. 

Mot traced. The last a very common name. 

Atuat hare been a place of some note aa it 
gave a name to one of the gates of Dehli 
(iii, 149, and note, p. 461). I should sup- 
pose it must have been near the Jumna, 
Eiu'ira perhaps. Or at Batavtar Ferry. 

If the last was Etawa, Maori may be Umri 
near Bhind. 

There is a place, Jaurma AUxpvr, to the 
W.N.W. of Qwalior, where Sir Robert 
Napier gained a brilliant victory over the 
Qwalior insurgeuta in ItibH, but it seems 
too much out of the line. The Pagan Ung 
is perhaps the Itajah of Dholpiir on the 

The first may be Panuiriri in the Uamirpiir 
Zilloh, which would be in the line taken, if 
the neit identification be correct. 

Appears to be mentioned sa Eajrriha by Baahid, 
<|uotod by Elliot (p. 37), who identifies both 
names with Eojrdi, on the banka of the Eeu 
river in Bundelkband, between Chattarpilr 
and Panna. which has ruins of great anti- 
quity and interest. If 80, the route followed 
must havebeen very devious, owing perhaps 
to the interposition of insurgent districts. 


considerable citj on another estuary, and belonging to the same 
prince, who professed loyalty to Dehli, and treated them hospi- 
tably. Here they took ship, three vessels being provided for 
them. After two days they stopped to water at the Isle of Bairam, 
four miles from the main. This island had been formerly peopled^ 
bat it remained abandoned by the natives since its capture by 
the Mahomedans, though one of the king's officers had made an 
attempt to re-settle it, putting in a small garrison and mounting 
mangonels for its defence. Next day they were at Kukah, a 
great city with extensive bazars, anchoring four miles from the 
shore on account of the vast recession of the tide. This city be- 
longed to another pagan king, Dunkul, not too loyal to the 
Saltan. Three days' sail from this brought the party abreast 
of the Island of Sindabur, but they passed on and anchored under 
a smaller island near the mainland, in which there was a temple, a 

Chandori, a great place A well known ancient city and fortress on the 

with splendid bazars . borders of Bondelkhand and Malwa, cap- 
tured by Sir Hagh Rose in 1858. Accord- 
ing to the Ayin Akbari (quoted by Bennell) 
it contained 14,000 stone houses. 
ZiHAR, the capital of Mai- Dhdr, say the French Editor. But appa- 

wa. There were inscribed rently the next station should have come 

milestones all the way first in that case. 

from Dehli to this. 

Ujjain . . . Well known ancient city, N.E. of Dhar. 

(Amjari, where he tells us Amjhera, a few miles S.W. by W. of Dhar ? 

(iii, 137) he witnessed a 


Daulatabad . . Retains its name. It appears in Fra Maura's 

map as Deuletahet, and in the C Catalana 
as Diogil (Deogiri). 
Nadharbar. The people Naderhar of EenneU, or Nandarhdr, on the 

here and of the Daulata- south bank of the Tapti. 

bad territory Marhatahs 

(iv, 48, 51). 
S4ghar, a great town on a Saunghar on the Tapti. 

considerable river. 
KiNBAiAT, a very hand- Cambay. We find the t expressed by several 

some city full of foreign of the old authors, as by Marino Sanudo 

merchants, on an estuary (Cambeth), by Fra Mauro (Combait) ; and 

of the sea in which the much later the Jesuits of Akbar's time 

tide rose and fell in a re- have Canibaietta, 

markable manner. 



d k |uece of nater. Landing here, the traveller had a 
■1 adrentarewith a Jogi, whom he found by the wall of the 
Next day they came to HrsAWAR (or Onore), & city 
1 by a ilahomedan prince with groat power at sea ; ap- 
ptrrally a pirate, like his sncceasors in later tinies, bnt an en- 
ligfat«ned mler, for Tbn Batata fonnd in his city twenty-three 
edioota for boys and thirteen for girls, the latter a thing which he 
had Been nowhere else in his travels.^ 

After visiting several of the northern ports of Malabar, then 
very nomerons and nourishing, they arrived at Caliodt, which 
the traveller describes as one of the finest ports in the world, 
frequented for trade by the people of China, the Archipelago, 
Ceylon, the Maldives, Yemen, and the Persian Golf. Here they 
wore honourably received by the king, who bore the title of 
Samari (the Zamorin of the Portuguese), and made their land- 
ing in great state. But all this was to be followed by speedy 
grief, as the traveller himself observes. 

At Cahout they abode for three months, awaiting the season 
for the voyage to China, viz., the spring. All the communication 
with that country, according to Ibn Batata (the fact itself is 
perhaps questionable) was conducted in Chinese vessels, of which 
there were three clasaea ; the biggest called JmJc, the middle- 
sized Zao, and the third Kakain,^ The greater ships had &om 

' For tbo ic1t<ntificatioii of the places from Combay to Hunawor I must 
refor to Note B at the end of this Introductidu. Asauming, as there 
argued, that Sindabiirwos Goa, the small island was probablj .Inchidiita, 
a favourite ouchorsfteof the earl; Fortugaese. "In the middle of it is a. 
larjfe lake of fresh water, but the ialand la duaerted : it may bo two miles 
fKim the mainland j it was in former times inhabited by the Qentooe, 
but the Moors of Mecca used to take this route to Calicut, and used to 
■lu)i liero to Iftlte in wood and wator, and on that aeconot it bos ever 
■Iniie beon deserted" (Foynje o/ Pedro Alvarea Cabral, Lisbon, 1812, 
p. IIH). 

> lie eayt the Sultim of Hunawar was subject to a Fagaa monarch 
valliid ilariab, of whom he promises to speak again, but does not do bo, 
unluM, oa is probable, he was the same aa BiliU Deo (the B^'a of Kar- 
uatn), of whom he speaka at iv, p. 1B3. 

• 'J'ha French oditora derive these throe words from Chinese terma, 
■aid to bo respootively, CAum, Sim or Seu, and Uoa-hang (M. Pauthier 
oorrocts those two lost to Ttooor Ch^i, and Hoa-chvidti, ' merchant-TCHscl,' 


three to twelve sails, made of strips of bamboo woven like mats. 
Each of them had a crew of 1,000 men, viz., 600 sailors and 400 
soldiers, and had three tenders attached, which were called re- 
spectively the Tlalf^ the Third, and the Quarter, names apparently 
indicating their proportionate size. The vessels for this trade 
were built nowhere except at Zaitun and Sinkalan, the city also 
called SiN-UL-SiN,^ and were all made with triple sides, fastened 
with enormous spikes, three cubits in length. Each ship had 
four decks, and numerous private and public cabins for the 
merchant passengers, with closets and all sorts of conveniences.^ 
The sailors frequently had pot-herbs, ginger, &c., growing on 
board in wooden tubs. The commander of the ship was a very 
^reat personage,"^ and, when he landed, the soldiers belonging to 
his ship marched before him with sword and spear and martial 

M. Polo, p. 656). I may venture at least to suggest- a doubt of this deri- 
vation. Junk is certainly the Malay and Javanese Jong or Ajong, 'a great 
ship* (v. Crawfurd*8 Malay Diet, in vocib.); whilst Zao may just as probably 
be the Dhao or Dao, which is to this day the common term on all the 
shores of the Indian Ocean, I believe from Malabar westward, for the 
queer old-fashioned high-stemed craft of those coasts, the Tava of Atha- 
nasius Nikitin's voyage from Hormuz to Cambay. " Dow" says Burton, 
" is used on the Zanzibar coast for crafb generally** (J. R. O. S., zzix, 239.) 

' We have already seen that Sinkalan is Canton {supra, pp. 105 and 
268), and Ibn Batuta here also teaches us to identify it with the Siniot- 
ul-Sin of Edrisi, which that geographer describes as lying at one extre- 
mity of the Chinese empire, unequalled for its size, edifices and com- 
merce, and crowded with merchants from all the parts of India towards 
China. It was the residence, he says, of a Chinese Prince of the Blood, 
who governed it as a vassal of the Fagfur (the Facfur of Polo, i. e., the 
Sung Emperor of Southern China; see Jauheri^a Edrisi, i, 193). 

" This account of the great Junks may be compared with those given 
by M. Polo (iii, c. 1), and F. Jordanus (p. 54). 

3 Because Ibn Batuta says the skipper "was like a great Amir" 
Lassen assumes that he was an Arab. For this there seems no ground. 
Further on Ibn Batuta caUs Kurtai the Viceroy of Kingsz^, who is ex- 
pressly said to be a Pagan, *' a great Amir.'* All that he means to say 
of the captain might be most accurately expressed in the vulgar term " a 
very great swell." 

Whilst refen-ing to Lassen's remarks upon Ibn Batuta towards the 
end of the fourth volume of his Indian Antiquities, I am constrained to 
say that the carelessness exhibited in this part of that great work makes 
one stand aghast, coming from a man of such learning and reputation. 


"»- - 

:i> ir" 


TTifc — * -/rii"> 'jtzt till eu'A TTii TitLei :^ znnr -sel "n 

IT ZlKiS-Iif ir' L iyZr.n^ '-"tllii iu?-"Kilt*-l*: "Hit IlLr viaii IS 

Tilt '.ulj T'l'TS af Vi.;t.:aj fr^:TjTr-=-i iir Tziiiks "ly "s 
i: TAd^ Til* lC:afc:»UL zr "'♦"".k "Lsei t: rr iiD: "ai* 

»t i:c k.* *"T;h.T "H^iti sji*: :!f lilt T»-irs -r-sr* 5:iiz;i scH :i i 

■•"LT*. fr =^ "rijLi Tilt :""»:z.tzt" ifci 


..*..*^i -c -.!« -fi*;rftf« :f Iz-iLk tbkz. iIttt ^tv -•;▼. i* ti-sre *«j- i:rw4 

V^riwt' r'-^.r.*- '^.zr.'\f/ 


Fandaraina for that; purpose. Thirteen of these ships, of dif- 
ferent sizes, were lying at Calicut when Ibn Batuta's party were 

The Zamorin prepared accommodation on board one of the 
junks for the party from Dehli ; but Ibn Batuta, having ladies 
with him, went to the agent for the vessel, a Mahomedan called 
Suleiman ul-Safadi-ul-Shami, to obtain a private cabin for them, 
having, it would seem, in his usual happy-go-lucky way, deferred 
this to the last moment. The agent told him that the cabins were 
all taken up by the Chinese merchants, who had (apparently) " re- 
turn tickets." There was one, indeed, belonging to his own son- 
in-law, which Ibn Batuta could have, but it was not fitted up; how- 
ever if he took that now, probably he would be able to make some 
better arrangement on the voyage ; (it would seem from this that 
shipping agency in those days was a good deal like what it some- 
times is now). So one Thursday afternoon our traveller's bag- 
gage and slaves, male and female, were put on board, whilst he 
stayed ashore to attend the Friday service before embarking. His 
colleagues, with the presents for China, were already on board. 
But the next morning early, the Eunuch BUlal, Ibn Batuta's ser- 
vant, came to complain that the cabin assigned to them was a 
wretched little hole, and would never do. Appeal was made to 
the captain, but he said it could not be helped ; if, however, they 
liked to go in a haham which was there, they might pick and 
choose. Our traveller consented, and had his goods and his 
women-kind transferred to the kakam before public prayer time. 
In the afternoon the sea rose (it always did in the afternoon, he 
observes), and it was impossible to embark. By this time the 
China ships were all gone except that with the presents, another 
junk which was going to stop over the monsoon at Fandaraina, 
and the kakam, on which all the Moor*s property was embarked. 
When he got up on Saturday morning the junk with his col- 
leagues, and the kakam, had weighed, and got outside the har- 
bour. The junk bound for Fandaraina was wrecked inside. 
There was a young girl on board, much beloved by her 
master, a certain merchant. He offered ten pieces of gold to 
any one who would save her. One- of the sailors from Hormuz 

27 2 

420 res nATtT^'B travkls n« bevi^l asp rmx*. 

did save her, &t the imnunent risk of his life, and then i 
the reward. " I did it for the lore of God," said this good nian. 
The junk with the presents also wbh wrecked on the reefs ontstde, 
and all on board perished. Many bodieswere cast np bythe waves; 
among cithers those of the Envoy Zabir-nddln, with the skull 
frectared, and of Mahk Snsbnl the cnnncb, with a nail throngh 
bis temples. Among the rest of the people who flocked to the 
shore to see what was going on, there came down the Zamorin 
liimself, with nothing on but a scrap of a turban and a white cot- 
ton dlioli, attended by a boy with an umbrella. And, to crown 
all, when the kakam's people saw what had befallen their consort, 
they made all sail to seaward, carrying off with them our travel- 
ler's slaves, his girls and gear, and leaving him there on the 
beach of Calicut gazing after them, with nought remaining to 
him bnt hia prayer-carpet, ten pieces of gold, and an emancipated 
slave, which last absconded forthwith ! 

He was t«]d that the kakam jimtl tonch at Kaulam, so he de- 
tennined to go thither. It waH a ten days' journey, whether by 
land or water, so he sot off by the lagoons with a Mussalman 
whom he had hired to attend on him, bnt who got continually 
dmnk, and only added to the depression of the traveller's spirits. 
On the tenth day be reached Kaulam, the Columbnm of our friars, 
which he describes as one of the finest cities of Malabar, with 
splendid bazaars, and wealthy merchants, there termed Suti,^ 
some of whom weiv Mahomedans. There was also a Mahomedan 
Kazi and Sbabandar (Master Attendant), &c. Kanlam was the 
first port at which the China ships touched on reaching India, 
iind most of the Chinese merchants frequented it. The king was 
an Infidel, called Tirawtiri,- a man "f awful justice, of wliich a 

< Chvlia is u name upplied to the Mubomedaos in MaJabiir. The origin 
of it seems to be unknown to Wilson (Qlonary. in v.). The nunc is also 
applied to a, particular clasB of the " Moors" or KfahomedaaB in Cejlon 
(J. R. A. 8., iii, 336). It fleems probable tbiit tbid was the nord intended 
by the author. 

' ThiB title TiVatrari may perhaps be Tirtifcodi. which Fell Faolino men- 
tions among the soanding titles aaaumed by tbe princes of Malabar 
" which were often mistaken for tbe proper names of families or indivi- 
I dauls." He tranalaten it lua ifueiM, but literally it is probably Tirv, 

1(T»mol) ■' Holy," and Pal< (Sanac.) " Lord." (See V. alU /ndw OrientiUi. M 
Boma, 1796, p. litS.) fl 

A i 


startling instance ia cited by Ibn Batuta. One day when the 
king was riding with his son-in-law, the latter picked np a mango, 
which had fallen over a garden wall. The king's eye was npon 
him ; he was immediately ordered to be ripped open and divided 
asunder, the parts being exposed on each side of the way, and a 
half of the fatal mango beside each ! 

The unfortunate ambassador could hear nothing of his kakam, 
but he fell in with the Chinese envoys who had been wrecked in 
another junk. They were refitted by their countrymen at Kan- 
lam, and got off to China, where Ibn Batuta afterwards encoun- 
tered them. 

He had sore misgivings about returning to tell his tale at 
Dehli, feeling strong suspicion that Sultan Mahomed would be 
only too glad to have such a crow to pluck with him. So he 
decided on going to his Mend the Sultan Jamal-uddin at Huni- 
war, and to stop with him till he could hear some news of the 
missing Kakam. The prince received him, but evidently with 
no hearty welcome. For the traveller tells us that he had no 
servant allowed him, and spent nearly all his time in the mosque 
— always a sign that things were going badly with Ibn Batuta — 
where he read the whole Koran through daily, and by and bye 
twice a day. So he passed his time for three months. 

The King of Hunawur was projecting an expedition against 
the Island of Sindabur. Ibn Batuta thought of joining it, and 
on taking the Sortes KoraniccB he turned up xxii, 41, " Surely 
God will succour those who succour Him;*' which so pleased 
the king that he determined to accompany the expedition also. 
Some three months after the capture of Sindabur the restless 
man started again on his travels, going down the coast to Cali- 
cut. Here he fell in with two of his missing slaves, who told him 
that his favourite girl was dead ; that the King of Java (probably 
Sumatra) had appropriated the other women, and that the rest 
of the party were dispersed, some in Java, some in China, some 
in Bengal. So there was an end of the K^kam. 

Ho went back to Hunawur and Sindabur, where the Mussul- 
man forces were speedily beleaguered by the Hindu prince whom 
they had expelled. Things beginning to look bad, Ibn Batuta, 


described as even then one of the liiieHt cities of the island. It 
was the abode of the " Waair and Admiral Jalasti," who kept 
about him a body of 500 AbyRBinians. This [wraonage is not 
imposaibly the same with the Khwaja Jahan, who so politely 
robbed John Marignolli (aji/s, p. 357). It is not said whose Waaiir 
and Admiral he was. 

At Patlara he took ship again for Maabar, but as he approached 
hia destination he again came (o grief, the ship grounding some sis 
or eight miles from the shore. The crew abandoned the wreck, 
Imt our hero stuck by it, and wns saved by some pagan natives. 

On reaching the land, lie repoited hia arrival to the i/a fndo 
ruler of the countiy. This was the Soltjin Ghaiassuddin of 
Damghiin, recently invested with the government of Maabar, 
a principality originally set up by his father- in -law, the Sherif 
Jalalnddin, The latter bad been appointed by Mahomed Tughlak 
to the niihtary command of the province, bnt about 1338-39 had 
declared himself independent, striking coin in his own name, 
and proclaiming himself under the title of Ahhsan Shah Sultan, 
Ibn Batuta, during his stay at Debli, Lad married one of the 
Sherif a daughters, named Hhumasab, " She was a pious 
woman," says her husband, " who used to spend the night in 
watching and prayer. She could read, but had not learned tu 
write. She bore me a daughter, but what is become of either the 
one or the other ia more than I can tell !" Thus Tbn Batuta 
was brother-in-law to the reigning Sultan, who, on receiving 
the traveller's mcRsage, sent for him to hia camp, two days' 
journey distant. This brother-in-law was a ruffian, whose cruel 
massacres of women and children escited the traveller's disgust 
and tacit remonstrance. However, he busied himself in engaging 
the Sultan in a scheme for the invasion of the Maldives, bnt 
before it came to anything the chief died of a pestilence. His 
nephew and successor, Sultan Naairuddin, was ready to take Up 
the project, but Ibn Batuta got a fever at the capital, Muttra 
(Madura), and hurried off to Fattak,' a large and fine city on the 

' This Fatlan of Maabar is alao mentioned by Rnsbid, in uonjunotion 
with Malifatlan and Kail, in a pasBage fjuotcd at p. 219 myra (soe alio 
p. 231). I am not able to identify it. It may have been Ntgapaiam, but 
I'l-iiiii the vi&y in wliiob our travoller Bpuaka of it, it would soein to liuvc 


sea, with an admirable harbour, where he found ships sailing for 
Yemen, and took his passage in one of them as far as Kaulam. 

Here he stayed for three months, and then went off for the 
fourth time to visit his friend the Sultan of Hunawur. On his 
way, however, off a small island between Fakanur and Hunawur 
(probably the Pigeon Island of modem maps), the vessel was 
attacked by pirates of the wrong kind, and the unlucky adven- 
turer was deposited on the beach stript of everything but his 
drawers ! On this occasion, as he mentions elsewhere incident- 
ally, he lost a number of transcripts of epitaphs of celebrated 
persons wliich he had made at Bokhara, along with other mat- 
ters, not improbably including the notes of his earlier travels.^ 
Returning to Calicut he was clothed by the charity of the Faith- 
ful. Here also he heard news of the Maldives ; the Preacher 
Jamaluddin was dead, and the Queen had married another of the 
Wazirs ; moreover one of the wives whom he had abandoned had 
borne him a soil.' He had some hesitation about returning to 

been the port of the city of Madura, and therefore I should rather look 
for it in the vicinity of Eamnad, as at Devi-patam or Killikarai, which 
have both been ports of some consideration. A place also called Period 
patan, near Ramanancor, is mentioned by the historians of the Jesuit 
missions as much frequented for commerce, and as the chief town of the 
Paravas of the Fishery coast, but I do not find it on any map (Jarrie, i, 
628). Pattan or Fattan was probably the Mabar city of John Monte- 
corvino and Marco Polo (see p. 216), and may be that which Abulfeda 
(probably by some gross mistranscription) calls Biyarddwal, "residence 
of the Prince of Mabar, whither horses are imported from foreign coun- 
tries." There is indeed a place called Ninarkovil, near Kamnad, cele- 
brated for a great temple (J. R. A. 8., iii, 165), which may be worth 
mentioning, because the difference between these two rather peculiar 
names (Biyardawal and Nmarq^wal) would be almost entirely a matter 
of diacritical points; Kail and Malifattan (or Molephatam) are both to be 
sought in the vicinity of Tuticorin (see Fr. Jordanus, p. 40). Malifattan 
is no doubt the Manifattan of Abulfeda, "a city of Mabar on the sea 
shore" (see GildemeisteTf p. 185). 

1 See iii, 28. 

* He says this boy was now two years old. As the child was not bom 
when Ibn Batuta left the Maldives in August 1344, his second visit must 
have been (according to this datum) at least as late as August 1346, and 
perhaps some months later. He goes to C&ina (at the earliest) during 
the succeeding spring, and yet his book tells us that he is back from his 
China expedition and in Arabia by May 1347. There is here involved an 
error one way or the other of at least one year, and of two years if wo 


the Islands, as lie weU might, considering what he had been 
plotting against thetn, but encouraged by a new cast of the 
Sortes he went and was civilly received. His expectations how- 
ever, or his caprices, were disappointed, for he seotas to have 
stayed but five days and then went on to Bengal. 

Ibn Butnta'a account of what be saw in Bengal, and on his 
Kubaeqnent voyage through the Archipelago, will be given in 
extracts or in more detailed abstract, in connexion with the fiill 
text of bis travels in China. We now therefore take np this 
short account of his adventures from the time of bis return &om 
the latter country. 

After coming back from China he proceeded direct from Mala- 
bar to the coast of Arabia, visiting again Dhafar, Maskat, Hor- 
maz, Shiraz, Ispahan, Tnster, Basrah, Mcshid Ali and Baghdad, 
and thence went to Tadmor and Damascus, where lie had lell a 
wife and child twenty years before, bnt both apparenlly were 
now dead. Here also he got his tirst news from borne, and beitrd 
of his father's death fifteen years previously. He then went on 
to Hamath and Aleppo, and on his return to Damascus found the 
Black Death raging to sncli an extent that two thousand four 
hundred died in one day. Proceeding by Jerusalem to Egypt 
he repeated the Mecca pilgrimage for the last time, and finally 
turned his face away from the East. Travelling by land to Tunis 
he embarked in a ship of Catalonia. They touched at Sardinia 
(Jdiirah Sarddmah), where they were threatened with capture, 
and thence proceeded to Tcnes on the Algerine coast, whence he 
reached Fez, the capital of his native country, on the 8th Novem- 
ber 1349, after an absence of tweuty-foar years. 

Here he professes to have rejoiced in the presence of hia own 
Saltan, whom he declares to surpass all the mighty monarcha of 
the East ; in dignity him of Irak, in person him of India, in 
manner him of Yemen, in conrage the king of the Tnrka, in 
long-suffering the Emperor of Constantinople, in devotion him 
of Turkestan, and in knowledge him of Java !' a list of com- 

^anend on Ibn Batuts,'B own details of the time occupied hy bis expedi- 
Chiua, Sl-o u aote on tliia toworxia thecniiorbiB narrative (it^/rnj. 
another priBsagi^ he unraes ii* the sl-vhu iiruutenl and nuist |Miwiirflil 


parisoiis so oddly selected as to suggest the possibility of irony. 
After all that he had seen, he comes, like Friar Jordanns, to the 
conclusion that there is no place like his own WestJ " 'Tis the 
best of all countries. You have fruit in plenty ; good meat and 
water are easily come at, and in fact its blessings are so many 
that the poet has hit the mark when he sings, 

" Of all the Four Quarters of Heaven the best 
(1*11 prove it past question) is surely the West ! 
'Tis the West is the goal of the Sun's daily race ! 
'Tis the West that first shows yon the Moon's silver £eu36 ! 

" The dirhenis of the West are but little ones *tis true, but then 
you get more for them !'* — just as in the good old days of another 
dear Jjand of the West, where, if the pound was but twenty 
pence, the pint at least was two quarts ! 

After a time he went to visit his native city of Tangier, thence to 
Cent a, and then crossed over into Spain (aZ Andalm), going to 
see Gibraltar, which had just then been besieged "by the Latin 
tyrant, Adfunus '* (Alphonso XI.)^ From the Rock he proceeded 

sovereigns in the world, 1. His own master, the Commander of the Faith- 
ful, viz., the King of Fez ; 2. The Sultan of Egypt and Syria ; 3. The 
Sultan of the two Iraks ; 4. The Sultan Mahomed Uzbek of Kipchak ; 
5. The Sultan of Turkestan and Mawarannahr (Chagatai) ; 6. The Sultan 
of India ; 7. The Sultan of China (ii, 382). Von Hammer quotes from 
Ibn Batuta also (though I cannot find the passage) the following as the 
characteristic titles of the seven great kings of the earth. The list differs 
from the preceding. 1. The Takfur of Constantinople ; 2. The Sultdn of 
Egypt ; 3. The King (Malik ?) of the Iraks ; 4. The Khdkdn of Turkestan j 
5. The Maharaja of India; 6. The Fagh/ur of China; 7. The Khan of 
Kipchak {Gesch. der Gold. Horde, p. 300). 

The King of Fez in question, Ibn Batuta' s lord, was Faris Abu Iman, 
of the house of Beni Merin of Fez, who usurped the throne during his 
father's lifetime in 1348, and died miserably, smothered in bed by some 
of his courtiers, November 1358. In a rescript, of his granting certain 
commercial privileges to the Pisans, 9th April, 1358, he is styled King of 
Fez, Mequinez, SaUee, Morocco, Sus, Segelmessa, Teza, Telemsen, Algiers, 
Bugia, Costantina, Bona, Biskra, Zab, Media, Gufsa, Baladt-ul-Jarid, 
Tripoli, Tangier, Ceuta, Gibraltar and Konda, i.e., of the whole of Bar- 
bary from Tripoli to the Atlantic coast facing the Canary Islands. But 
his claim to the eastern part of this territory must have been titular only, 
as his father had just lost them when Abu Iman seized the government. 
(Amari, Diplomi Arabi del R, Arch. Fiorentino, pp. 309, 47(5). 

' Ft. Jord.y p. 55. 

- Th'nihiah-ul'Rnm. Amari romai'ks (op. cit., pp. ix-x) : "The early 

428 IBS B&nrTA'a tutsls n bcx(;al a^d chixa. 

to Ronds and Ihlaga, Telex, AQoou sad Gnnads, uid thence 
rrtnraed, bf Gibraltar, Cmta, Bad Moroecn, to Fez. Bat fa is 
Irarela wtrn not yet wrer- In tlt« be^moiiig of 1^2 tie itet out 
for Onlral Africa, hta first halt bcao^ at SEGELVtsai, wbere the 
dal«a in thu'tr abundance anil excellence rvcaDed bttt snrpaased 
iti'JK! <jf Banra.' Here it was that be lodged with the brother of 
thai Al Duiibri who had treated him so handsotnelj in the heart 

On hiN way sooth he pasitod Taghiza, a place where the houses 
»tid rnotujnoH were bailt of rock-Bait, and roofed with camel- 
hides,' and at length reached, the capital of Sudan.' 
Here he abode eight months, after which he went to Timbuktij, 
and Mulnd down the Niger to KAUKAr, whence he travelled to 
Takai'DA. The Niger he calls the Nile, believing it to flow 
towards Dongola, and so into Egypt, an opinion which was 
maintained in oar own day shortly before Lander's discovery, if 
I runiemUir rightly, by the Quarterlij Becieu: The traveller 
mt'iiUiiiiti the hIpi>o|K)tamus in the river. 

Hu now ruccivud a command from his own sovereign for his 
return to Fez, and loft Tnkitdda for Tawat, by the country of 

Mikhomuilupa uHod to c>Jl lUl tbe ChristianH of Europe Ritm, i.e., Romaiu, 
liut at a lutur date clioaa to diatin^iish betnnen the Greek and Oerman 
ruuuii, tliu mibjoutii of lliu two utupicea, bj appl^'mg the term J^urnni;, i.e., 
Ifmnkii, to thu Weal»rn Chriiitiiinii. and Rlim to tbo Bfsantinoa > whilst 
not well knuwini; what tu make of the Latin race, headleta aa it waa, 
thoy. oallod till) ttaliuiB und Spiuiiiih CbriatianB uonieiiuies Riim and 
•oniotlniiM yaranf." Thu Hnmo niitbor aaje claewlinre that Thdgiah waa 
applied to CliTlxtian princes almnat in the Qreek aenee of Tyrannvj, i.e., 
aa IwpuKuintc tbe legality ratlier tlian the abuse of their power. 

1 Bu|[ulinua«a was iilruady niiued and deiiertiid in tbe time of Leo AfVi- 
oanoa {liamutio, i, 74). According to Reinaud it was in the flame valley 
with the modern TafiUil, if not identical witb it. I think datee &om the 
latlar place (TalUat) aru ethibitad ia the wiadove of Xwudoa fruiterers. 

' Ttgkiaai is HU oasis In the beart of tbe Sahra, on the caravan route 
bom Tatlltilt tu Timbuktu, uear tbo Tropic. On tbe ault-built bouses of 
thu Sahra Oobim hw Htrodoba, iv, IHC, and notes in Rawlinson's edition. 

■ In poaiing the grvwt DiMi>rt beyond Tagluuu he givei ns another in- 
stanoa of thu legends alluded to at p. 157. tvpra. •■ This vast plain is 
liauntvd by a laultitndo of domona ; if tbo luesaen^r is idone they sport 
with hiin and fMoinat-e biiu, so that he straye Iroui bis course and 
purlahes" (iv. ASS). 


Hakkar,* on the 12th September, 1353, reaching Fez, and the 
termination of those at least of his wanderings which are re- 
corded, in the beginning of 1354, after they had lasted for eight 
and twenty years, and had extended over a length of at least 
75,000 English miles.^ 

Soon after this the history of his travels was committed to 
'\^^ating under orders from the Sultan, but not by the traveller's 
own hand. It would appear, indeed, that he had at times kept 
notes of what he saw, for in one passage he speaks of liaving 
been robbed of them. But a certain Mahomed Ibn Juzai, the 
Sultan's Secretary, was employed to reduce the story to writing as 
Ibn Batuta told it, (not however without occasionally embellishing 
it by .quotations and pointless anecdotes of his own), and this work 
was brought to a conclusion on the 13th December, 1355, just 
about the time that John Marignolli was putting his reminiscences 
of Asia into a Bohemian Chronicle. The editor, Ibn Juzai con- 
cludes thus : — 

" Here ends what I have put into shape from the memoranda 
of the Shaikh Abu Abdallah Mahomed Ibn Batuta, whom may 
God honour ! No person of intelligence can fail to see that this 
Shaikh is the Traveller of Our Age ; and he who should call 
him the Traveller of the whole Body of Islam would not go 
beyond the truth." 

Ibn Batuta long survived his amanuensis, and died in 1377-78, 
at the age of seventy-three. 

The first detailed information communicated to Europe regard- 
ing his ti*avels was publis^d in a German periodical, about 1808, 
by Seetzen,^ who had obtained an abridgment of the work in the 

> Melle, south of Timbuktu, Qogo or Oago, on the Niger, south-east of 
the same, Takadda, Hogar, and Tawat, are all I think to be found in Dr. 
Earth's Map in the J. R. 0. 8. for 1860, but I have it not accessible at 
present. It is remarkable that the Catalan Map of 1375 contains most 
of these Central African names, viz., Tagaza, Melli, Tenhuch, Oeugeu, 
The first three are also mentioned by Cadamosto. 

2 This is the result of a rough compass measurement, without any 
allowance for deviations or for the extensive journeys he probably made 
during his eight years* stay in India, etc. 

^ The proper title of the book is, " A Oiftfor the Observing, wherein are 
set forth the Curiosities of Cities and the Wonders of Travel" 

430 iBN batdta's travels in bengal and china. 

East, with other MSS. collected for the Grotha libraiy. In 1818 
Kosegarten published at Jena the text and translation of three 
fragments of the same abridgement. A Mr, Apetz edited a 
fourth, the description of Malabar, in ] 819. In the same year 
Burckhardt's Nubian Travels were published in London, the 
appendix to which contained a note on Ibn Batutai, of whose 
work the Swiss traveller had procured a much fuller abridg- 
ment than that at Gotha. Three MSS. of this abridgment were 
obtained by Cambridge University, after Burckhardt's death, and 
from these Dr. Lee made his well-known version for the Oriental 
Translation Fund (London, 1829). 

It was not, however, until the French conquest of Algiers, and 
capture of Constantina, that manuscripts of the unabridged work 
became accessible. Of these there are now five in the Imperial 
Library of Paris, two only being complete. One of these two, 
however, has been proved to be the autograph of Ibn Juzai, the 
original editor. 

P. Jose de St. Antonio Moura pubHshed at Lisbon, in 1840, 
the first volume of a Portuguese translation of the whole work, 
from a manuscript which he had obtained at Fez in the end of 
the last century. I believe the second volume also has been 
issued within the last few years. 

The part of the Travels which relates to Sudan was translated, 
with notes, by Baron McGuckin de Slane, in the Journal Asiatique 
for March, 1843 ; that relating to the Indian Archipelago, by 
M. Ed. Dulaurier, in 1847 ; that relating to the Crimea and 
Kipchak, by M. Defremery, in 1850 : and the chapter on the 
Mongol Sultans of the Iraks and Khorasan, also by Defremery, 
in 1851, all in the same journal. M. Defremery also published 
the Travels in Persia and Central Asia in the Nouvelles Annahs 
des Voyages for 1848, and the Travels in Asia Minor in the same 
periodical for 1850-51. In it also M. Cherbonneau, Professor of 
Arabic at Constantina, put forth, in 1852, a slightly abridged 
translation of the commencement of the work, as far as the 
traveller's departure for Syria, omitting the preface.* 

' All these bibliographical particulars are derived from the preface of 
the French translators. 


Finally, the whole work was most carefully edited in the 
original, with a translation into French by M. Defr^mery and 
Dr. Sanguinetti, at the expense of the Asiatic Society of Paiis, 
in four volumes, with an admirable index of names and peculiar 
expressions attached (1858-59). From their French the present 
version of Ibn Batuta's voyage to China has been made. The plan 
of the Asiatic Society appears to have precluded a commentary; but 
a few explanatory notes have been inserted by the editors among 
the various readings at the end of each volume, and valuable 
introductions have been prefixed to the first three. In the fourth 
volume, which contains the whole of the traveller's history from 
the time of his leaving Dehli on the ill-fated embassy to China, 
this valuable aid is no longer given ; for what reason I know not. 

There can be no question, I think, as to the interest of this 
remarkable book. As to the character of the traveller, and the 
reliance to be placed on him, opinions have been somewhat 
various. In his own day and country he was looked upon, it 
would seem, as a bit of a Munch ausen,^ but so have others who 
little deserved it. 

His French editors, Defremery and Sanguinetti, are disposed 
to maintain his truthfulness, and quote with approbation M. Dozy 
of Ley den, who calls him "this honest traveller." Dulaurier also 
looks on him very favourably. Reinaud again, and Baron 
M*Guckin de Slane, accuse him either of natural credulity, or 
of an inclination to deal in marvellous stories, especially in some 
of his chapters on the far East; whilst Klaproth quite reviles 
him for the stupidity which induces him to cram his readers 
with rigmaroles about Mahomedan saints and spiritualists, when 

* See in the App. to vol. iii, at p. 466, an extract from the Prolegomena 
of Ibn Khaldi'.n. It mentions how our traveller, having returned from 
his long wanderings, was admitted to the court of his native sovereign. 
The wonderful stories which he related of the wealth and boundless libe- 
rality of Mahomed Tughlak excited incredulity. " Those who heard him 
relate these stories and others of the same kind at the court, whispered 
to one another that they were a parcel of lies and that the narrator was 
an impostor.'* Ibn Khaldun having expressed this view to the Wazir, 
received a caution against over-incredulity, backed by an apopthegm, 
which seems to have led him on reflection to think that he had been 
wrong in disbelieving the traveller. 


m BKNnAt. AN!) CilltJA. 


details of the places be had seen would have been of extreme 
intereat and value. 

Though EHaproth was probably iicquamted ouly with the 
abridgment translated by Lee, and thus had uot the meanB of 
doing justice to the narrative, I must say there is pome foun- 
dation for his reproaches, for, especially when dealing with the 
Saracenic countries, in which Islam had been long established, 
his details of the religious establishments and theologians occupy 
a space which renders this part of the narrative very dull to the 
uninitiated. It seems to me that the Maliomedan man of the 
woi-ld, soldier, jurist, and theologian, is, at least in regard to a. 
large class of subjects, not always either so trnstworthy, or so 
perspicacious as the naiTow-minded Christian friars who were 
his contemporaries, whilst be cannot be compared with the 
Venetian merchant, who shines among all the travellers of the 
middle age like the moon among the lesser lights of heaven. 
There seeiua to be something in the Mahomedau mind that 
indisposes it for appreciating and relating accurately what is 
witnessed in nature aud geography. 

Of the confused state of his geographical ideas, no instance 
can be stronger than that a^brded by bis travels in China, where 
he jumbles into one great rivej', rising near Peking, and entering 
the sea at Canton, after passing Kingsz6 and Zaytou, the whole 
system of Chinese hydrography, partly bound together by the 
Great Canal aud its branches.' These do indeed eictend from 
north to south, but in travelling on their waters he must, once 
at least, and probably twice, have been interrupted by portages 
ovtT nioantftin ranges of great height. So, also, at an earlier 
[wriod in his wanderings, he asserts that the river at Aleppo (the 
Ku'ik, a tributary of Euphrates) is the same as that called Al' Asi, 
or Orontes, which passes by Hamath.^ In another passage he 

' See i, 79. and liereafter in his travels throngh China. 

' See i, 152, and Frenah editura' note, p. 432. tt is a remarkable feature 
in the Nile, according to Ibu Batata, that it flows from south to north, 
contrari/ to all other rivert. This &ict seemB to have impressed the imagi- 
nation of the ancients also, as one of the Nile's myateriea, and Coamsa 
says it flaws alowl;, because, as it were, up hill, the earth according to 
hia notion riaing townrds the north. 



confounds the celebrated trading places of Siraf and Kais, or 
Kish :^ and in his description of the Pyramids, he distinctly as- 
cribes to them a conical form, i.e., with a circular base.^ Various 
other instances of the looseness of his observation, or statements, 
will occur in that part of his travels which we are about to set 
forth in full. Sometimes, again, he seems to have forgotten the 
real name of a place, and to have subrftituted another, as it would 
seem, at random, or perhaps one having some resemblance in 
sound. Thus, in describing the disastrous campaign of the 
Sultan's troops in the Himalya, he speaks of them as, in the 
commencement, capturing Warangal, a city high up in the 
range. Now, Wai-angal was in the Dekkan, the capital of Telin- 
gana, and it seems highly improbable that there could have been 
a city of the name in the Himalya. (See iii, 326). One sus- 
pects something of the same kind when he identifies Kataka 
(Cuttack ?) with the Mahratta country (i6., p. 182), but in this 
I may easily be wrong ; even if I be right, however, the cases 
of this kind are few. 

Of his exaggeration we have a measurable sample in his 
account of the great Kutb Mindr at Dehli, which we have still 
before our eyes, to compare with his description : — " The site of 
this mosque [the Jama Masjid, or Cathedral Mosque of old Dehli] 
was formerly a Budhhdnah, or idol-temple, but after the con- 
quest of the city it was converted into a mosque. In the northern 
court of the mosque stands the minaret, which is without parallel 
in all the countries of Islam. It is built of red stone, in this 
diflfering from the material of the rest of the mosque, which is 
white ; moreover, the stone of the minaret is wrought in sculp- 
ture. It is of surpassing height ; the pinnacle is of milk-white 
marble, and the globes which decorate it of pure gold. The 

^ See ii, 244, and French editors* note, p. 456. 

'^ See 1, p. 81. He gives a curious story about the opening of the gpreat 
pyramid by the Khalif Mdmun, and how he pierced its solid base with 
Hannibal's chemistry, first lighting a great fire in contact with it, then 
sluicing it with vinegar, and battering it with shot from a mangonel. 
Though Ibn Batuta passes the site of Thebes three times, and indeed 
names Luxor as one of his halting places, " where is to be seen the tomb 
of the pious hermit Abu'l Hc^cy Alaksori," he takes no notice of the vast 
remains there or elsewhere on the Nile. 


aperhire of the Haircato ia so tei'de tlmt elephants can ascend, arid a 
jiertmt on whom I eoald rely, told tn£ thut when the miiiaret leaa 
it-bvUding, he saie an flepkant ascend to the very top mith a land tif 
ttones." Also, in speakinjf of the incomplete minaret, which was 
conimenceil by one of the Sultans (I forget which) in rivalry of 
the Kutb Miuar, he tells ns that its staircase was so great that 
three elephants could mount abreast, and though only one-third 
of the altitude was completed, that fraction was already as high 
na the adjoining minaret (the Kutb) 1 These are gross exng- 
gerations, thoagU I am not provided with the actual dimeusiouK 
of either staircase to compare with them.' This test I can offer, 
however, in reference to a third remarkable object in the court 
of the same moHquc, the celebrated Iron TAlh, or column : "In the 
centre of the mosque there is to be seen au enormous pillar, 
made of some unknown metal. One of the learned Hindos told 

' The total diameter of the Kutb Minor at tlie base is 47 feet 3 inches, 
and at the top about fl feet. The doorway ia a Bmall one, not larger at 
moat I thinlc than an ordinar; London street-doar, though I cannot give 
ita dimenaiona. The uncompleted minaret iacertalnl; not half tlie height 
of the Kutb ; in diameter it ia perhaps twice aa groat. Ibn Batutu was 
no doubt trying to comraunicate from memory the impreaaion of vaatneBS 
which these buildings had made upon his mind, aud if he had not been 
BO Bpecifie there would have bean little fault to find. 

Injustice to him we may quote a much more eiaggerated contempo- 
rai7 notice of the Kutb in the interesting book called Maidlak Al Abtir. 
The author mentions on the authority of Shaik Burhan-uddin Borai 
that the minaret of Dehli was 600 oubits high ! {Noticu et Eitraiti, liii, 
p. 180). 

On the other hand, the account pven by Abulfeda ia apparently quite 
accurate. " Attached to the moaque (of Dehli) is a tower which haa no 
equal in the whole world. It ia built of rod atone with about 360 steps. 
It la not square but has a great number of angles, is very massiTe at 
the baae, and very lofty, equalling in height the Pharos ol Alexandria" 
(Gildemciiter, p. 190). I may add that Ibn Batata was certainly mis- 
informed as to the date and buOder of the Kutb, He asirribea it to Sidtan 
Muizzuddin (otherwise called KoiJcobM), grandson of Balban (i.D. 1380- 
laftO). But the real data ia nearly a century oldtr. It was begun by 
^^ Eutb-uddin Eibek when governing for Shahab-nddin of Ohozni (other- 
^^U viae Mahomed Bin Sam, A.n. 1193-l^OG), and completed by Altomah 
^^1 (la]T-l£)6). Ibn Batuta ascribes tbe rival atructure to Kutb-uddin 
^H Kbilji (Mubai-ili Shah, ISIR-lSliU), and in this also I tynb be is vrrong. 
^^^B though I oannot cnrri^ct him. 





I that it was entitled hafi-j<iah., or " the seven TOetwlB," from 

^ being composed of on amaJgam of so many. A portion of the 

shaft has been pnhshed, about a fing'er's ku^th, and the sheen 

of it in quite dazzling. Iron tools can make no impression on 

this pillar. It is Ihirly cuhits in letiglk, aiid wJicrn 1 ht^ted vnj 

btrban-chlh round the ihaft, it took a L'.ikjIIi of eight ciihiU to corn- 

wjfOMs il." The real height of the pillar above ground is twenty- 

I'two feet, and its greatest diameter a little more than sixteen 

As positive fiction we must set down the traveller's aoconnt 
f the historical events which he asserts to have taken place in 
Siina dnring his visit to that country, as will be more precisely 
einted out in the notes which accompany his narrative. I shall 
indicate reasons for doubting whether he ever reached 
^king at all.^ And his account of the country of TawaUsi, 
grhich he visited on his way to China, with all allowance for our 
* ^norance of its exact position, seems open to the charge of con- 
siderable misrepresentation, to say tho least of it. He never 
aeems to have acquired more than avery imperfect knowledge even 
F of Persian, which wa& then, still more than now, the lingua franca 
! Asiatic travel, mnch leas of any more local vernacular ; nor 
eem to have been aware that the Persian phrases which 

, bnt I do nob know if its real compoaition 
I considered by James Prinaep to dnte from 
I ehonid observe that the shatt has been 
I Uiut tiTenly-Hix feet inUi the earth, 
with that dapth. excarated the piJlar 

' Tho pillar looks like iro 

M been determined. It ni 

f the tbird or fourth century. 

1 Mcentl; sacertained to deacei 

I and probably seveial feet mori 

it become loose. But there is no reason to believe that it stood 
higher above ground in Ibn Batnta's time than now, and 1 gather from 
the statement that the diameter below ground does not increase. I am 
indebted for tlie«e laat facts, EUid for the dimensions given above, to my 
friend M.-Qeneral Cunningliam's unpnbhsbed archuological reports, and 
X truat he will excuse this slight use of them, aa no other meaBurementa 
FlreTe accessible to me that could be depended upon. 

■ When the traveller (iv, 2«) tells ua that the people of Cathay or 
['Horthem China used elephants as coauuon beasts of burden in exactly 
e way that they were used by the people of Mul-Jawa on the 
■ ahores of the Gnlf of Siam, he saniowbat strengthens the suspicion that 
r was in Northern Cliina, where I believe the elephant has never 
PlMen other than a foreign importation for use in »ar or i^ourt pomps. 



he quotes did not belong to the vernacular of the countries 
which he la describinf^, a mistake of which we have seen analo- 
gouH instances already in Marignolli's account of Ceylon. Thns, 
in relating the circamstances of a suttee which he witnessed on 
his way from Dehli to the coast, after eight years' residence in 
Hindustan, he makes the victim address her condnctors in Per- 
tian, qnoting the words in that language as aclnally used by her, 
these being no doubt the inlerjirelalinn which was given him by 
a bystander.^ There are many hke instances in the course of the 
work, ae, when he teUs us that an ingot of gold was called, in 
China, harhUak ; that watchmen were there called hasirdndn,, 
and Bo forth, all the terms used being Persian. Generally, 
perhaps, his explanations of foreign terms are inaccurate ; ho 
has got hold of aovte idea connected with the word, but not the 
real one. Thus, in explaining the name of HAj-Tarkhdn (Astracon) 
he tells us that the woi-d Tarkkdn, among the Turks, signified a 
•plae^ exempt from all toxeu, whereas it was the title of certain 
privileged persons, who, aniong other peculiar rights, enjoyed 
exemption from taxes.' Again, he tells us that the pfilace of the 
Khans at Sarai was called AlUin-Tlidslt, or " Golden Head j" but 
it is Bash, not Thi»h, that signifies head in Tnrkiah, and the 
meaning of the name he gives is Golden Sione.^ 

There are somo remarkable chronological difBcnlties in his 
narrative, but for most of these I must refer to the French editors, 

' The story is related on his first entrance 'abo Riaduetan ipropoi of 
another suttee which then oocnrred. But he stHtea the circumBtaneo to 
have happened at a later date when he wae at the town of Amjeri, and I 
suppose this to have been the town of Amjhera. near Dhar, which he 
probably passed through on bis way Irom Dbar to Dautalabad in 1312 
(fil, 137). 

' Tarkhan is supposed to bo the title intended by the T^rirnnfftiM of 
the Byzantine Embaasy of Valentine (see note near end of Ibn Batuld's 
narrative, infr'i). 

■I See romarfc by Tr., 11, 448. Ibn Batuta tells ns that it was the cuatom 
in India for a creditor of a courtier who woidd not pay his debts to 
watch at the palace gate for his debtor, and there assail him with erics of 
" Darvhoi Vi-SvUdn '. O enemy of the Sultan ! thou shaJt not enter till 
thou host paid." But it is probable that the eiclamation really waa that 
still ao well known in India from any individual who considers himself 
injured, " Duhai Maharaj ! Dufioi Company Bahadur I" Justice I Justii'a 1 


to whom I am so largely indebted. Others, more particularly re- 
lating to the Chinese expedition, will be noticed in detail fdiv 
ther on. 

After all that has been said, however, there can be no donbt 
of the genuine nature and general veracity of Ibn Batuta's 
travels, as the many instances in which his notices throw light 
upon passages in other documents of this collection, and on 
Marco Polo's travels (see particularly M. Pauthier's notes), might 
suffice to show. Indeed, apart from cursory inaccuracies and 
occasional loose statements, the two passages already alluded to 
are the only two with regard to which I should be disposed 
positively to impugn his veracity. The very passages which have 
been cited with regard to the great edifices at Dehli are only 
exaggerated when he rashly ventures on positive statements of 
dimension; in other respects they are the brief and happy sketches 
of an eye-witness. His accounts of the Maldive islands, and of the 
Negro countries of Sudan (of which latter his detail is one of the 
earliest that has come down to us) are full of interesting parti- 
culars, and appear to be accurate and unstrained. The majority 
of the names even, which he attaches to the dozen great clusters 
of the Maldives, can still be identified,^ and much, I believe, of 
his Central African narrative is an anticipation of knowledge but 
recently regained. The passage in which he describes at length 
his adventures near Koel in India, when accidently separated 
for many days from his company, is an excellent example of 
fresh and lively narrative. His full and curious statements and 
anecdotes regarding the showy virtues and very solid vices of 
Saltan Mahomed Tughlak are in entire agreement with what is 

1 The names attributed by Ibn Batuta to twelve of the Maldive 
clusters are (1) Palipiir, (2) Kannaliis, (3) Mahal, the Royal Besidenoe, 
(4) Taladlb, (5) Kardidu, (6) Taim, (7) Taladumati, (8) Haladumati, 
(9) Baraidu, (10) Kandakal, (11) Muluk, (12) Suwaid, which last he cor- 
rectly describes as being the most remote. The names corresponding to 
these as given in a map accompanying an article in the /. B. Oeog. 8oc. 
are, (1) Padypolo, (2) Colomandus P (3) Mal^, the Sultan's Residence, 

<4). Tillada, (5) Cardiva, (6) ? (7) Tilladumatis, (8) Milladumadue, 

(9) Palisdus, (10) ? (11) Molucque, (12) Suadiva. M. Defremery had 

already made the comparison with those given in Pyrard's voyage of 


told by the hUtoriami of India, and add many new details. The 
French editors have shown, in a learned and elaborate tabular state- 
ment, how well oor traveller's account of the chief events of that 
monarch's reign (though told with no attention to chronological 
succession) agrees with those of Khondemir and Firi.shta. The 
whole of the second part of his narrative indeed seems to me 
superior in vivacity and interest to the lirst ; which, I suppose 
may be attributed partly to more vivid recollection, and partly 
perhaps to the preservation of his later notes. 

Ibn Batuta hns drawn his own character ia an accumulation of 
slight touches throD(;h the long history of his wanderings, but to 
do justice to the result in a few lines would require the hand 
of Chaucer, and something perhaps of his freedom of speech. 
Not wanting in acuteness nor in humane feeling, full of vital 
energy and enjoyment of life ; infinite in curiosity ; daring, rest- 
less, impulsive, sensual, inconsiderate, and extravagant ; super- 
stitious in his regard for the saints of his religion, and plying 
devout observances, especially when in difficulties ; doubtless an 
agreeable companion, for we always find him welcomed at first, 
but clmging, like one of the Ceylon leeches which he describes, 
when he found a full-blooded subjecf, and hence too apt to dis- 
gust his putronb and to turn to intriguee against them. Such 
are the impressions which one reader, at least, has gathered ii-om 
the surface of his narrative, as rendered by MM. Defrimery and 

' In preparing this paper 1 hove to regret not being able to look over 
Lee'B abridgement, though I have had before me a few notea of a former 
reading of it. If I can tmst my recollection, there are some circumstancea 
in Ii?e which do not appear at all in the French translation of tbe com- 
plete work. This ia curioua. I ma; add that in the port traniilatad bj 
M. Dulaurier I have on one or two oceaaions ventured to follow his 
version where it seemed to give a better aenso, though disuluiming any 
idea of Judging between the two ne to accuiacy. 



NOTK A. (See page 407.) 



TROirau I have not been able to obtain complete light on this perplexed 
question, I will venture a few remarks wliicb ma; facilitate its solution 
by those who have mora knowledj^ and better aids available, and I am 
the more encouraged to do so becaUBe the venerable and sagacious 
Elphinetone. in his remaibs on the sabject, has certainly been led astr^ 
1>y a paeeage in the abridgment of our traveller translated b; Ijee. Be 
observes |H. 0/ India, ii, SOU): "In Ibn Batnta's time a western dfndr 
■waa t« an eastern as four to one, and an euatem dinar seems to bare been 
one-tonth of a tanbha, which, even auppoaing the tankha of that da; to 
be equal to a rupee of Akber, would be only aid (Ibn Bahtta, p. 149)." 

But the fact deducible Irom what Ibn Batuto. really says is, that what 
he calls the silver dlnir of India « the tangah of other authors, cor- 
responding more or less to the coin which has been oalled rupee {Riip{ya) 
since the days of Sher Shah (1540-46), and that this silver coin was equftl 
to one-fonrth of the gold diu&r of the West (Maghrib, i.e. Western Bar- 
faary) j whilst it was one-tenth of the gold coin of India, to which alone 
)i« givea the nune of TangaJi. Thus he says: "The (at is a sura of 100,000 
[Indian silver] dinars, an amount equal to 10,000 Indian gold dinars" (iii, 
10(i), with which we may compare the statement in the contemporary 
Matdiak-al-Abgdr that the fied Lab was equal to 100,000 gold Tangah, and 
the White Lak equal to 100.000 eilver Tangah (Wot. et Ext., xiii, ■111-12). 
We may also refer to hie anecdote about Sultan Mahomed's sending 
40,000 dfndn to Shaikh Burhanuddin of Sighatj at Samarkand, which 
appears also in the m a present of 40,000 Tangahi. But 
the identity of Ibn Batuta's Indian silver dinar and the silver Tangah 
will be seen to be beyond question when this note has been read through. 

The late Mr. Erakine, in his H. 0/ India under Uahtr and HutBayun, 
(i, D44), sajB that the Tangah under the Khiljia (the immediate prede- 
oessora of the Tughlaka on the throne of Xldili) was a tola in weight (i.e. 
the weight of the present rupee), and probably equal in value to Akbar's 
rupee, or about two shillings. And this we should naturally suppose to 
he about the value of the Tangah or silver dinir of Mahomed Tughlak, 
but there are statements which curiously diverge &om this in contnur 

On the one hand, Firishtaha^ the loUowing passage : " Nizamood-deen 
Ahmed Bukhshy, surpiised at the vast sums stated by historians as 
having licen lai-ishoil by this [jrincf (M. Tughliik), l.iok Iht' "troiiblt lo 

" -'^ -'- -- -" ^ IT' ~r7\ 

'-^•' '.-*•. 

'^ ^ ^ t. ^^A^^ ' .^ * adCx 

'^^ -*--^ /■ ;^ 
<»' * — ■**■■** 

jf-4.y»W«V ".>', ;^M(/, VM4C li. ^C/0.j^ ^' '.!»'. V IZT: tff 

'^^/,. M^t.u***'* 1>/ // '^'^^^ '" '•^'- I'-^J^*' Va^V.-bi; J'-oi^* del J 
l-'intf-ttt 1/ -'^4^1 W' /.^vv «i^9«'i4 ii«jit^. t^fb a!^4v<:«r d^niiTC f:>f Indim vere eqoal 
f.// 1 »'/ i^^^^l (i' n«ilf K'/'^^ o-^ojr </^ l^iLri/iir/, *Dr, in </tiurr vofdi, thmt Ibar of 
M^/. Inn4t*t '" '<. «.'|t'Ui t./ ///iij vt tlii; Utt^r, TiUking the Tmloatioii just 
ui0i,h »t. H^itttM Uu^t. U<i: IhiiiiLu Ki\sf.r dlukr or Tiuig»h worth 3m, tJi53d. 

'lUt-tt MM th^Mt\>* tl«^' 'i)Hi«;iiJ. 'I'hii difikr of the Arabs was a perpetna- 
llMii "I M«i' |<'ilil<:'i MiflKliiM of <!<iriHliiiitiiiis which appears to have borne 
Mot HMKtit hI ili.itifiliin III lilt) liiuitiirii \irttvuu:iM, and it preserved for many 
lodoltMl ^iiiMM lliti ivhIhIiI hihI iiiti'iiiMiit viiliiu of the Roman coin, though 
)U (!«»' IniMli.Miillt r.»iiilin> Mm iliiiar of K^ypt and Syria had certainly 
ImII««m lM«ti'V« (ill" I'lt" tlnlutiii luiini vuffiiuly ropresonted the drachma, 
M\ MsWw^i il(t> Mt'itiiiit (liilvur) (liiiiiiriuM, to whloh the former name was ap- 
\M\^\\ lu \\\\^ Hittt>W |iu>N iiioiu* (dtut ('(iJifti/fiuiif, Afunettf Cti^^e, Izi, seqq.) 

'V\k\\ \\\\\m y^M \\\s\\U^s\ iu-ii(iiiHUy iuttt 2i) dirUoma, though at certain 

Vi(m«N ^m( |'Uih«m U lu^uu* (m kio dis idtnl into only 12. 13, or 10. In Egypt, 

iM U'u IUua^'« iiuu*. i^ivouUukS tx> hu \t^i\ ntntomout, it was divided into 

4\\ skultvi«»4 Ut« \saOvtu|^vvAV> , ro^\i\otti. aUo tta^w that 23 to 25 dirtmi 

%V<mV ^v^ t^^' f.s-aitN \>i \i(uu. \\\ Swuk \\\ tlu^ t\»llv>w\u^ oontury we find 

>\^o u^ 4(.^u' il»i4t lUo \ttuu vs.i^ woith thirty dirhoius; and perhaps 

^\ h.%\v t»»v»^ I *»»' v^* lo u^ t's.N I'l i*i ;*u o<»vl'.or ^Ute. >Vr »^*«coba2di 

I wHu »i.* i!t.«\ ilvo i ..» x\ *t o? :S.' \aluo ot* a Ycuivv sjmwso yot* 


icli thore weut twenty-rouT to the Beqoiii}, aad alao ttuit the bisoat 
worth a dticaio di iwefia (or sequin) and a, qaarter ; heDoe there 
Blioitld have been tbirty grotti or dirhemg to the bizont (Amari in Joiim, 
Ariat., Jan. 184«, p. 841, and in Oipfomi' jlroH u.b. ; Ifrn Bat., i, 60 ; Ddis 
i>ecim(i, iii, 68, iv, 113 : Viag. in Terra Saitta di L. Fraeobaldi ed'attri, Fi- 
renze, 1H63, p. 43). Theeatimatea of tbadindraJeo arevanoos. Qn&treni^ 
maiumes the dinar m Irak at the beginning of the foui'teenth centiuy to 
be 15 franca, or 111. lOid. ; De&emery makes 100,000 dirbeins of Egypt 
eqnal to 75,000 francs, which, at Ibn Batuta'a rate of 25 to the dln&r, 
would make the latter equal to 14s. lOd., or at 20 dirhtma ( which ia pro- 
bably the number aaaumed) il>. lOld. Pogolotti aaya the bizant of Egypt 
(or dinar) wsa worth 1^ florin, but makes other atatementa &om which we 
must dedace that it was 1|.> valnations which wonld respeetively moke the 
diniireiiual to lOi. 11.66(1.. and li>.3.H3d. Frescoboldi and his companion 
"Bigoh both Bay that it was worth a aequin (or a florin) and a quarter, i, e., 
111. 9.OG1I. UEiano saya its value varied (in exchange ap- 
itly) from 1 florin Co IJ, or even IJ 1 giving raapeotivuiy valuea of 
it. tiSd., and Vis. lid. But he also tella us that its eicesa in 
the florin waa only H carat (or g\), which would make ite in- 
TBlne only 9i. lid. MacGuckin de Slane aays in a note on Ibn 
UMit thedinAr of his time might bo valued at IS or 13 francs, i.e., 
9*. 6d. to lOi. 3|il. ; and Amari that the dinar of Egypt at the be- 
(jinniDg of the fourteenth century was equal to the latter aum (Qaat, 
JfauJiideddm, p. lii 1 Ibn Bat. i, 95 ; Delia Decima, iii, 58, 77 ; iv, 110 leq. ; 
Viaggi in Terra Santa, pp. 43, 177; Jour. Asiat.. Uarch, 1S43, p. 1S8; 
Diplomi Arabi, p. Uiv). On the whole 1 do not well aea how the dinar of 
Egypt and Syria in our author's time can be aBBUined at a lower value 
than lOi. 6d. 

Taking the dln&r of Egypt and Syria at lOi. 6d., and 25 dirhems to the 
din^ (according to our author's own computation) we have the dirhem 
worth 5.04d., and the Indian dinkr or Tangah, buing worth eight dirbems, 

wiU be 3«. 4.32d (b). 

Or, if neglecting the whole question as to the value of the dinar and 
Dumber of dirhema therein, wo take Proacobaldi'a asaertion that the 
dirhem was worth a Venetian groat aa an accurate statement of its value, 
we ahall have the dirhem equal to ^'^ of a sequin or Of. 4.6Sd., and the 
Tanga worth 3s. 1.44cl. . . . (c). 

But even this last and lowest of theae reaulta ia perpletiaglj high, un- 
leaa we consider bow very different the relation between sUver and gold 
in India in the first half of the fourteenth century ia likely to have been 
from what it is now in Europe ; observing also that all the values we have 
heea assigning have beon deduced from the value of gold coins eatiraaCed 

I For he tells us (p. 77) that 1 uz. Flurenoe weight was equal to 6 
|*'buantB and 16} carats, the bizont being divided into Si carats ; and in 
P mother place (p. 202) that 96 gold florins of Florence were equal to one 
I-Jlorenoe pound. The resulting crfuation will give the bizant almoat 
■ exactly equal to 1 j; florin. 




nt tbe molent EnKliid] mint price, irbich is t« the vnloe of BJlrer w flfb«eii 

und a fraction to ODe. 

The prevalent relation between gold Mid silver in Enrope. for Be*enl 
contaries before the discorery of America took effect on the matter, seems 
to have bean about twelve to one ; Bad it is akaaat certain that in India 
at thia time the ratio must have been conaiderahlj iDwer. Till reoentl; 1 
beliave silver has always home a higher relative value in India tbaa in 
Europe, bnt besides this the vastquantities of gold that hod been brought 
into circulation in the Dehli Empire since the beginning of the century, 
by tbe saccesaive invasions of tbe Deccan and plunder of the accumulated 
troBsores of its templea and cities, must have tended still more to depre- 
ciate gold, and it is very conceivable that the relative value at Debli in 
13:!0-13aO should have been tea to one, or even less.' 

On the hypothesis of its being ten to one we should have to reduce 
the estimates of the dinar (a), (b), (c), by one third in order to get the 
real results in modem value. They would then become respectively 
2: 1.9e1., 2i. 2.9d.. and 2i. O.OGd., and the Tangsh or silver dinir thus 
becomes substantially identified with the modem rupee. 

The fact that the gold Tongah was coined to be worth ten silver ones 
may slightly favour the reality of the supposed ratio between gold and 
silver, ss there seems to have been often a propensity to make the chief 
gold and chief silver coin of the same weight. I think that the modern 
gold mohur struck at the Company's Indian HinU is or was of the same 
weight as tbe rupee. See also (lupra, p. 116) the statement in Waasaf 
that the baliiA of gold was just ten times the balith of silver. 

I do not know whether the eiistence of coins of Mahomed Tughl&k in 
OUT Museums gives the neiuiB of confirming or upsetting the preceding 

In making them tlie twenty &uttc piece has been taken at tlie value of 

' For some accoont of tbe enormous plunder in gold, etc., brought froni 
the south by Malik Kafur in 1310-11 see llriggt' firishta. i, p. 373-4. See 
also rupra, p. S19, for a sample of the spoil in gold appropriated by one of 
the minor Mahomedan buccaneering chiefs in the Peninsula. The trea- 
■nres accumulated by Koleso-Dewar, the B^oh of Maabar, in the end of 
the thirteenth century, arc stated in the Persian History of Wassaf at 
12,000 ccores of gold, a urure being= 10,000,000 ! (see Von Eammer'H 
work qnoted »u|iro, p. 220). Note also tliat there was according to 
Firishta at thia time none but gold coinage in the Comatio, and this in- 
deed continued lo be the prevalent carrency there till the present cen- 
tury (Elphinnlane, ii, 4M|. Wa may observe too that even when the 
emperor assigns to Ibn Batuta a large present estimated in silver dinars, 
" ■* paid in gold Tangtths (iii, 426). I may add a reference to what Polo 
SUB of the frontier provinces between Burma and China, that in one the 
value of gold was only eight times that of silver, in another only sii times, 
and in a third (that of the Zsrdandon or Oold-Teeth — rapra, p. 273) only 
five times that of silverj "by thia eichange," quoth ha. "mcKbants 
make great profit" (pt. i, ch. Hi, 47. 4*i), Difficult of acceaa na those pro- 
vinces were, atioh an exchange must in some degree have ^ected neigh- 
bouring countries. 


I lo*. EdkIisIi. (ui^ therefore the trtam in goli at Ot. 9.6D1I. (Encyl. 
' Brit., ortiule Honey \. The Florentine gold flerin had boen taken at 
1 ft. 11.8782. or Si. 4.H51&I. English, and the Venetian saqnin at/r, 1132, 
9i. 4584d. ( Oi&rario, Pol. £conamia del .Uediu Svo, iii, 228, 24«). 

NOTE B. (See pace 416.) 


I dissent entirely from Dr. Lee and others as to the identiScation of 
the placeti named bj our travoUer between Catnbay and Uunawar. 

Sami or BiiFo in by Lee taken for Gogo. But I have no doubt it is the 
pluce atill bearing the same name, Caitvet in Arroivsmitli'B great map, 
Oongwaj or Conwa of Ritter (ii, &15-6). on the left bank of the Molii'a 
estaarjr over-againat Cambay. It in, or was in Forbes's time, (Orienlal 

I Uemmrt, quoted bj Sitlrr) the seat of a great coinpan; of naked 

I Banjasia. 

SaiulakAr is eridenti j the corruption of some Indian name into a form 
Ibiniliar to Mahomedan cara. It occurs also as the name of a maritimo dtf 
near the Gulf of Cambay in tbe early wars of theilahomedanBof Sind, and 
in tbeAvin.iI:('ari(£niuiuiIin J.^«., 8. ir, torn, t, 186). Starting from the 
point juHt identified, ire ahould look for it on the eotl nde of the Gulf of 
Camba;, and there acuordingly, in Arcowflmith'a map, on a secondary estu- 
ary, thut of the Dhandar or liver of Bacoda between the Mahi and the 
Nerbudda, wefindGuNDAB. Weaholl also find it in old Linschoten's map 
^QanAar), and the pla<:e is described by Edward Barboaa ander the name 
of Ouindan'm or GuandaH, aa a good enough city and sea-port, canying ou 
abnsktrade with Malabar, etc. Deharros also mentions it as Oendar.aport 
between Cambay and Barooh (geefiarboaamid D^darro* in Cam Hito, i ; and 
also the Lisbon Bo-rbaaa, p. 277). The title, Jiilaiin, giren by Ibn Batuta 
to the King of Gandar, probably represents the surnanieof the Eijpiit tribe 
of Jhdliii, which acquired large ^agments of the great Hindu kjngdom of 

IAnhilwara on its fall in the beginning of the century, and whose name is 
atill preserved in that of the district of Gujarat colled Jhdldwdr (see 
Forbef't Rdt-Udld, i, 285-6, and 292 teg.) The form heard by Ibn Batata 
may have been Jhdldbanti or — caiui. The tribe of ETiionja bohrah who 
paid their respects to the envoys here must have been the race or sect 
calling themselres Ismailiah, but well-known as traders and pedlars 
under the name of Bohraht, all over the Bombay presidency. The head- 
quarter of the sect is at Burhunpur in the east of Khandesh, but tbey 
we chiefly found in 3amt and the towns of Gujarat (see Rttler, vi, 5GT.) 
BaiTOm I take to be the small island of Pebiu, near the mouth of the 
Gulf of Cambay. It is, perhaps, the Biiiyw of the Periplus. This island 
was the site of a fortress belonging to Miikheroji Qohil, Bqa of Gogo and 
Perira, nhii-h was destroyed by the MnhomediinB apparently in this very 



444 IBN BATUTA's travels in BENIJAI. ASn CIIIKA, 

reign of M. Tnghlak, and never afterwards reatored fForbei op. eit.) Thin 
quite oj^ees with tbe atatementB of Ibn Uatuta. 

Kitkah ia then tbe still tolerabl;floiin£liiiigportrofGoao ott the western 
side of the ^ulf, whioh bae already be@n indicated aatbe Caga of Ftiai Jot- 
danag (tap., p. 228). Lee identified Kukali with Goa, whilst GildemeiEter, 
more strangol; thongh not without miBgiving, and even De&emet^, iden- 
tify the Kawt of onr author with that city. Tbe traveller'a repeated nJlu- 
BiODa to the tides point distinctly to tbe Gulf of Cambay as tbe poaitioD 
of all tho places hitherto named ; the remarliable rise and fall of tbe tide 
tbere hare been celebrated since the date of the Peripiui. 

The P^an king Xhinkiil or Dnng<5l, of Eukoh, was doubtless one of 
the " Oohili, Lords of Gogo and Fcram, and of tbe aoa-waahed proTiuoa 
which derived from them its name of Oohihodr" (Forhei. p. 158), and 
possibly tbe last syllable represents this very name Gokil, though I can- 
uot explain the preSi. 

SindiUmr or Sandubilr is a greater difBculty, thongh named by a variety 
of geographers, Europeans aa well aa Aiahs. Some needless diScutty had 
been created by Abulfeda's confoimding it more or less with Binddn, 
which was quite a diiferent place. For the latter lay certainly to the north 
of Bombay, Bomowhero near the Oulf of Cambay. Indeed, !BawlinBOQ 
(quoted in Madrat Journal, lii, 19H) says it has been corrupted into the 
iSt. John of modem maps, on the coast of Gi^arat. I presume this muBt 
be the St. John'/ Point of Eennell between Daman and Mobim, which 
would suit the conditions of Sindiin well. 

The data which Abuli'eda himself quotes from travcllerE show that 
Sandabur was three days south of Tana, and reached (as Ihn Batuta also 
tells as) immediately before Bunawar. Raabid also names it as the 
first city reached on the Malabar Coast. The Chintabor of the Catalan 
map, and the Cinfador of the PortiJano Mediceo agree with this fairly. 

1 do not know any European book since tbe Portuguese discoveries 
which speaks of Sandabur, but the name appears in Linschoteu'a map in 
the end of the siiteentb century as Ciniapor on the coast of tbe Konkan 
below Dabul. FoBsibly this was introduced from an older map without 
personal knowledge. It disagrees with nearly all the other data, 

[bn Batuta himself Epeaks of it as tbe liland of Sandabur. containing; 
thirty-sii villages, as being one of the ports from which ships traded to 
Aden, and as being about one day's voyage from Ilunawar. The last 
particular shows that it could not be for from Goa, as Qildemeiater has 
rL-cognised, and I am satisfied that it was Bubstantially identicai with 
the port of Goa. This notion is Bupportod (1) by its being coUad by 
Ibn Batuta, not merely an island, but an island surrounded by an estuary 
in whioh the water was salt at the dood tide hut fresh at the ebb, a 
description applying only to a Delta island Ute Goa ; (2) by bis mention of 
its tbirty-sii villages, for Deborros says that the island of doa was called 
byanative name signifying "Thirty VillageB";and(3) by the way in whioh 
Sandabur is named in the Turkish book of navigation called the Mohith, 
translated by V. Hammer In the Bengal Journal. Here there is a section 
headed "24th Voyagei from Kuieai Sindabur to Aden." But the original 


characters given in a note read Koah (i.e. Gob) Sinddbur, which seems to 
indicate that Sindabur is to be looked for either in Goa Island, or on one of 
the other Delta islands of its estnary. The sailing directions commence : 
" If you start from Goa Sindabur at the end of the season take care not 
to fall on Cape Fal/' etc. If we could identify this Rda^UFdl we might 
make sure of Sandabur. 

The name, whether properly Sundapur or Oh&ndapur, (which last the 
Catalan and Medicean maps suggest) I cannot trace. D'AnviUe iden- 
tifies Sandabur with Sunda, which is the name of a district immediately 
south of Goa territory. But Sunda city lies inland, and he probably 
meant as the port Sedcuheogarh, where we are now tr3ring to reestablish a 
harbour. (D^Anville, Antiq. de VInde, pp. 109-111 ; Elliot, Ind. to Hist, of 
Mah. India, p. 43 ; Jauherfs Edrisi, i, 179 ; Oildemeister (who also refers to 
the following), pp. 46, 184, 188 ; Joum. As. 8oc. Bengal, v, p. 464). 

The only objection to these identifications appears to be the statement 
of our author that he was only three days in sailing from Enkah to 
Sandabur, which seems rather short allowance to give the vessels of those 
days to pass through the six degrees of latitude between Gogo and Goa. 
After all however it is only an average of five knots. 

NOTE C. (See page 417.) 


The errors noticed here are those that I find obvious in those pages 
of the volume that I have had occasion to consult. None of them are 
noticed in the copious Errata at pp. 982 and (App.) 85. 

a. P. 888. " A/a* d6er, which name a. The most cursory reading of Marco 
(with Marco Polo) indicates the Polo shows that, whatever Maabar pro- 
southernmost part of the Mala- perly means, it cannot mean this with 
bar coast." The same is said that author, including as it does with 
before at p. 156. him the tomb of St. Thomas near 

Madras. But see supra, pp. 80 and 219. 
If Maabar ever was understood to in^ 
elude a small part of the S.W. coast, as 
perhaps the expressions of Rashid and 
Jordanus (p. 41) imply, this would 
seem to be merely because the name 
expressed a country, i.e., a superficies, 
and not a coast, i.e., a line. The name 
of Portugal would be most erroneously 
defined as " indicating the south coast 
of the Spanish peninsula," though Por- 
tugal does include a part of that coast. 
I find that the Arabs gave a name 


" The port where Ibn Batata both those translators take for Java 
landed is called in the correct Proper, is called MuUJava, and Jaonah 

reading Sumathrah in Lee's is found dbaolutely nowhere except in 

translation the name is given in- Lassen's page, 
correctly as MuUJdva.** 
h. P. 890. " Passing hence (from h. There is not one voor d in the narra- 
Sumatra) oar traveller visited tive aboat any sach visit, or anything 
some of the MoIucccls ; this is ren- that can be so interpreted. As for the 
dered certain by the fact that accuracy of his description of the spice 
the author of these travels gives plants, look at it ! 
a pretty accurate description of 
the spice plants." 

i. 16. " On his further travels i. The time in the narrative amounts 
Ibn Batata after seven days ar- to seventy-one days from Mul-Java, the 
rived at the kingdom of Twi- last point of departure, to Tawalisi. 
Iv^h. . . There is nothing about seven days, any 

more than there is about the visit to 
the Spice Islands. 
j. Ih, . . " By which name only j. It is easy to settle difficult questions 
Tonkin can be meant. The in- with a "can only/' but there is nothing 
habitants of this kingdom, on to make it clear that Tonkin is meant, 
account of their vicinity, had and strong reasons arise against that 
many relations, both hostile and view. And absolutely nothing is said in 
peaceful, with the Chinese." the narrative about vicinity to the 

Chinese. It is only said that the king 

bad frequent naval wars with the 

Chinese, a fact which rather argues 

an insular position. 

k. lb. " In the Middle Kingdom, k. Sinkilan is indeed Canton, but it is 

next to Zaitun the most import- by sounder reasons than this that it is 

ant place of trade was the Port proved to be so. One does not see why 

of Sin-ossin or Sin-kalan; this foreigners should call Canton by the 

name must indicate Canton, name of its river, if Tshing-Kuang he 

which city stands on the river the name ; neither is there any great 

Tshing-Kuang, the form of which resemblance in the words. But we 

is tolerably echoed in the second have seen that S(n-kaldn is merely the 

reacting of the name." Persian translation of Blahd^hin, and 

has nothing to do with Chinese words. 
Moreover Sin-kalan is not an alter- 
native reading (Lesart) of Sin-ossin 
(Sin-ul-Sin), but an alternative name. 
It may be said that these errors are of trifling moment, and belong to 
a mere appendage of the subject of the book. But noblesse oblige ; a work 
of such reputation as the Indian Archa^ologia is referred to with almost as 
much confidence as the original authorities, and instances of negligence 
BO thickly sown are a sort of breach of trust. Those already quoted are, all 
but one, within two pages. Qoing further we find others as remarkable : 
I. P. 89G. The name of one of the I. The real name in Cosmas (as found 
popper i)ort8 on the coast of in Montfiftucon) is however not Panda- 


w' > 



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that branch of the (FronciBCiui) Kiinikomin. (6) In whatever maimer 

order which ia termed Fralrei the three travelers ma; " eBtabliab 

Minorei or Miixdem Bruiler ,- he the fact" in qaeatiou, it is not by eay- 

WM the comrade of the second, ing anything on the aatijeat in their 

and joined him in Poland on a narrativee. As far as 1 can discover 

journey to Eoiuo nndertaken ia not one of the three contains a Binglo 

1246. He reached in hie com- word directly or indirectly na to ooia- 

pany the court of the founder of mercial intercourse between the Hon' 

the Mon^l empire at Karako- gol provinces and India. 

]i. Turning back ; at p. 403. In p. Ph<BnixFruciiftra 
speaking of the practice of writ- sanje as Fhtenix Daeiyli/era, the date 
ing on the palm-leaves with a tree. If it is colled dwarf-palm in Oer- 
style, Lassen notes, " The leaves many (which I doubt) it ia vet; badlf 
of tho Zwergpatme (i.e. dwarf- named ; but in any case it would puz- 
p«lm) or Pbanix Fraet\f«ra are sle any Dwarf out of LiUiput to writ* 
especially used for that por- upon its leaves. Tho loaf most com- 
pOM." monly used for tho purpose is that of 

the Palmyra (Borasaus FlainMiformU), 
and, ID Ceylon and the peuiUBiUa ad- 
joining, that of the Talipat {Corypha 
UmhracvXifera), a gigantic palm. 
q. P. 511. In bis description of the Chandi Beura or ■' Thousand Temples" 
«t Brambanan in Java, he adopts without question Mr. Crawfurd'a view 
(fbnaed fifty years ago when little was known about BuddhiHin), that 
these essentially Buddhist edifices have been each crownod with a lin- 
gam. Even if the temples were not Buddhist, who ever saw a lingam on 
the top of a temple i But in loot the objects in question are no more 
lingams than the cupolas over St. Paul's lacode are daifobiu. Indeed in 
the latter case the resemblance is much more striking. 

r. P. 548. Here, in dealing with the Malay history as derived partly 
&om the native chronicles cited by Marsden, and partly from the early 
Portuguese writers, Liuaen meets with the name of a chief given by the 
latter as loijuent Darxa. This hero ho aupposes to be the son of a certain 
lakandar or Sikandar Shah mentioned in the Malay legends, and devises 
tor his odd name a Sanscrit original " (^Akanodhara, d. h. Besitzer Kraf- 
tiger Besitiungen;" accordingly he enters this possessor of strong pos- 
oessions as aa oscortained sovereign in tbe dynastic list under the name 
of CSkanadhara. Yet this Xaqntm Darxa {Xaquemdar Xa) is only a cor- 
rupt Portuguese transcript of tho name of Stkandar Shah himself, (see 
Crmo/uTd'i Diet. lad. Islands, p. 242). King IJftkanadhani is therefore 
as purely imaginary aa the Pandyan city ascribed to Cosmos or the 
lalattd of Jaonab for which Ibn Batuta is wrongly made responsible. 


NOTE D. (See Paob 418). 

^^H cot' 
^^B (At 


It seema worth while to introduce here a review of the Ports of H&la- 
bar as the; are dascrib«d to have eiistod from the thirteenth to the 
Biiteonth centnr;. Many of these have now alto^ther disappeared, not 
onlj &om commercul lists but from our mSipB, so that their verj sites 
are aometiinea difficult to identiTj. Nor ate the books (suet bh F. Bucha- 
nan's Journey and others), which might serve to elucidate many points, 
accessible where this is written. But still this attempt to illustrate a 
prominent subject in the Indian geography of those centuries will I trust 
have some intereet. 

We shall take the Ooa Bivcr aa our starting point, thongh Malabar 
strictly speaking was held to commence at Cape Delly. Had we taken 
the whole western coast &om Oi^'arat downwajils the list would have 
baan enlarged by at least a half. 

authorities recurring most frequently will bo indicated thus: — 
for Barboaa (beginning of the sixteenth century) in Bamusio; 
e Lisbon edition of Barbosa ; dbb fbr Debarroa (to whom I have 
only in an Italian version of the two fiist Decades, Venice, 1561, 
and in Gamasio's extracts); ib for Ihn Batuta; s for the anonymous 
Sonwnario det Regni in Eamusio. 

Sandabor, Chiotabor, etc., see note B, tapra. 

Bathecolo, a aouriahiog city on a river, a mile from tho sea ( Far. 
Ikema) ; Beiteul. in the now again well known bay of Sedosheogarh. I 
do not Snd it mentioned by any other of the early travellers, but in the 
aeventeenth oentury it waa the seat of a British factory under the naiue 
of Corwar, the Dame (Carwar Head) still applied t^^ the southern point of 
the bay. 

Anjediva (I'artli.); Akcukdiva, an island a little south of Carwar 
Head, which was a favourite anchorage of the early Portuguese, the 
island affording shelter and good water. 

Cintacola (b), Cintocora (bl), Centacoia (Varthema), Ancola? (deb); 
Aneolah? a forti'ess on a rock over the river AUga, belonging to the 
Sabain of Ooa (a), the residence of many Moorish merchants {I'arth.). 

Mergeo River (b), Mergen (bl and dbb), Mirgeo (b). A great export of 
rice; the river north of Kubtab, on the estuary of which is still a place 
called MiKJAU, the Meeijee or Meerzah of Eennell. Of late years I be- 
lieve the trade has revived at Kumtah, chiefly in the eiport of Dharwar 

Honor (b), Onor (deb and Cesar Federici), Hindwar (ib), Haunaur 
(Abafeda), Manor and Huuawur of Abdurrazzak, probably Nandor of the 
Catalan Map, Hn»iWAR or Onobe (properly ffunilr ?). A fine place with 



ieaa luiil a, Hahomedaa populatioit (Abul. and ib) ; a great 
export of riee and mucli frequented by Bhipping (b), bat long a nost of 

Batlecolu (b), Baticala (bl and deb), Batigata or Fr. Jordantti. Bat- 
KiTL. A gr<mt place with moQ; merchantti, n-here ehipa of Hormuz (uul 
Aden came to load sa^pir and rice, but doatrojed bj the rise of Qoo. (An 
English Factory in the 17th century). 

Mayandur, on a small river (b), Bendor (dbb); perhaps tha port of 
8EL>in7R, which ita^lf lios iBland. 

BrocflJor (bl), Brozzalor (B, and A. Cariali), Bra^elor (dbb), Ba^elor (s), 
AbtiHaTor (ib), Baaoriir [dbul/,) ; Babcelob. A BmoU city on a golf, 
obounding in coco-treea (ib). (A Dutoh Factory in the 17th century). 

BwMUlor (bl, deb, a), Bracanor (b), Fokandr, a large place on an 
estuary, with much augur cane, under n pagan prince called Basodewa 
(IB), Fogniir {Rathid), Jai-fakniir (l-'iriahla), probably the Mogonur of 
^tiJurnuioit, and the Pacamiiria of N. Conti ; Baccahob. There was a 
great export of rice in ships of Hormuz, Aden, Sohar and Malabar from 

■ both Baroolor and B4kccanor (b). 
Carcara and Camate (deb), Camati (P. Vintietua}. 
Haogolor (b, deb, a, Abdurrattali), Manjonir (ib and Abul.), Ujuigallor 
of the Catalan Map, Manoai.obe. Pivbably Mangaruth, one of the pepper- 
' ports of CosmoB, bnt the Mondagora of Ptolemy and the Foriplus moat 

ba»e been much further north. (It ia cnrioua that Ptolemy has alao a 
Hanganor, but it is an inland city), On a great estuary called Al-Dunb, 

■ the greateat on the coast ; hither came moat of the merehanta from Yemen 
and Pars ; pepper and ginger abundant ; under a bing called Bamodewa 
(ib). a great place on a groat river ; here the pepper begina ; the river 
bordered with coco groves; a groat population of Moors and Gentiles; 
many hondBOtne moaques and temples (b). Fifty or sixty ships used to 
load rice here (I'arthema.) Fallen olT sixty years later, when C Pederici 
calls it a little place of small trade, but still exporting a little rice. 

Maiceram (a), Mangeiron (deb), Mangcaairam (lAnsthotcn), Manjbsh- 

IWASAu. Noncaseiam of Bcnnell t 
Cumbala (b. deb), Cumbola (bi.), Cambulla (a), Coloal of Rmnell f Kim- 
BLAH, Exported rice, especially to the Maldives. 
Cougerecoia, on a river of the eame name (des), Chandbaoirt ? 
Cote Conlam (a), Cota Conlom (deb), Cote Colom (bl). 
NUeioram (a), Nilichilam (deb), Ligniceron (P. Fin«nio), probably 
Barbosa's " port on the Miraporaro Eiver," which hedeacribea as the next 
place to Cote Conlam, "a aeaport of Moors and Qentiles, and a great 
place of navigation." Though the name has been excluded by the de- 
fects and caprices of our modern mapa, thia ia the Nilebhwebaii, Nbli- 
ecBAK, or Nelliseek of Bennell and others, which has been identified by 
Bennell with the Nelcynda of the ancienta. There con be little doubt 
that the river on which it stands was that on which was situated the 
kingdom of Ely of Marco Polo, Hili of Sathid and Ibn Batata, Elly of the 
Curia CalaUina (which marka it us a Chriatian city), and Helly or Hellim 
of Conti, who is. as Ear a^ I know, the last author who mentiona a 

I T . rrfc - • ' 

■ 1 I itiM 1* 

■ IB ,1- 1 — fc» 

rf II I - - <»>■ i^^ Ti ii ii»ii»— ina^Mj^ rt iii 

lh» «P« ^ Kmm ff. C^Bt t^kl ^i&cc, b« «qiiSh 

flalfaaMi74a*MtaMMB. ir Tlrfi !■■■ ti Tiii.iaJi 

Tfi Ml riBj ii ■[■itiwiil {^•evM^Mrtkon m MOa 
iMjfciliMl If Iti nil mliMiiM OwAtnteKeH 
Ih* MM Ha. B^, ml Ae b 

i. BKBd ^ fAe fi>H IB 


^i M t^ C tWo0UU7 hacalgr, who hare J-tiLtWwftg«T«Tkt 
ttw* (n.), lI>nU» (on, P. n>aw*V ^e a<nldM«r(B) ^V 
toWUwBMBe [bee, bat tkeaaw! look! oom^t. R ■ pnUUe Oat Un 
Mm (fer BbIm) bdongi to (Im nett omw, aal I^m Ika JI«iaMf b 
> tnce «r Uie lost qw. 

BalMVpatiUD, *1i«ra Ike Kiof of CansBur renlcd and k>4 > lortMM 


(bl), Bolepatam (urb), I'ftfanaui (9, but, if the conjectiira under the Inrt 
head ba correct, BnlfopntuHuiii), Baleap&tha of RcnneD. Fra Paolino 
will have it to be the Balipatnii of Ptolemy, and the Palaepntjua of the 
Feriplue. It would aeero, however, that the ancient port must be sought 
muck fhrtber north. (Ad English Factor; in the I7th century.) 

Cak&mob iB, DHD, s). E>port trode to Cambay, HomiuK, Conlon, Dabnl, 
Cejlon, Maldives, etc. Many nierchants and inlibit; of shipping (b). A 
great and flne eity, of great trade ; every year two hundred akipa of dif- 
ferent countnes toofa cargoea here (Varlhema). Probably the JnrfhttaD 
of Ibn Batata three pamaangB from Manjarur (and therefore the Jarabat- 
tan of EdriHi, though misplaced by bim, and perhapa the Harrypaton, 
for Jaripatan, of Firiihta in Briggi, iv, bS2), the residence of the King 
called Sown, one of the moat powerful in Malabar, wbo poBsessed many 
ehipa trading to Aden, Honnoz, etc. The identification is confirmed by 
the fact that the Bejas of Cananor were really called Kola-liri and their 
kiagdom Kota-nada i,Fra Pooltno, p. 90-91). In the time of C. Federici it 
had become "a little city," but one &om which were exported the whole 
snpply of cardflmomg, with a good deal of popper, ginger, areca, betel, 
coco-nuts, molasses, etc. 

Tarmapatam (b, b), Tramapatam (dkb), Tremopatam (bl), Tromnpatam 
( farth,), DHABHAfATiu ; Darmailun (for Darmafattan) of Bowhindaon'B 
Toi^fut-ul-Mijahidttii (p. 52). A great city of Moors who ore very rich 
merchants and have many great ahipa; many handsome mosquea (bl). 
Probably the Darapattan of Firiabta (n.s.) and the Dehfattan of ib, which 
be reprcBcntH aa a great town with gardens, etc., on on estuary, under 
the same king as Jitrfattan. 

Terivagante (b), Firamuingate (bl), Tirigath (P. Viacmto) ; Tslli- 
cherbi P (Gng. Factory in 17th cent.) across the river Erom the Uat place 
(b), as were also 

Manjium and Chamobai (bl), Mazotre and Chemobai (b). Maim and 
Chomba(DBB), Mnlariam and CBmbott(a), Maine and Somba(/'. Fineemo), 
both places of the Moors, and of much navigation and trade (n), viz., 
Hahk and Chohbe. 

Pudripatam (b), Pedirpatam (bl), Pudipatanam (a), Puripatanam 
(deb), the Peudifetonia and Buffotania of Conti, the Budl^ttan of ib, and 
probably the Pudopatana of Cosmae (aoe preceding note A), In Ibn 
Batuta's time it was under the aame prince as Jurfattan (which we have 
identified with Cananor), was a considerable city on a great BBtnary, and 
one of the finest porta on the coast. The inhabitants were then chiefly 
Brahmina, and there were no Maliomedaoa. In Barbosa's time again it 
IB etill a place of much sea trade, but is become "a place of Moors". 
The notoe is not found in modem mape, but it must have been near the 
Waddakabei of Keith Johuaton's. 

Tircori (b), Tericori (8); Tjkobi ; Com of Eennell ? 

Ponderani (b), Colam Fandarani (a), Pondarane (deb and Varlhatia), 
Pandanace (bl), Fandaraina (Edrisi nnd ie), Fenderena (Fro Manro), 
Fundreeah of llowlandavu (U.S., p. 61), Fundareno of Emanuel K. of Por- 
tugal (in a letter <(iioted in Huinholdfi Etam. CTilique, v, lUI), Fanta- 


454 iBN batuta's travels in bknqal and china. 

laina of the CliineBe under the Mongols (PmUhitr't Polo, p. £32) Bandi- 
nana (for Bandjnma) of Abdulraiiak, Bunderana of BaJtboKar Spinger 
{Iter Indieum, 1507, in Voyage Litlerairt de deu> BenedictioH, 1724, p. 
S64), Flandrina of OJoric {rupra, p. 75). A great and fine place with 
gardens, etc., and many Mahomcdana, where each Ctuneae junks as 
stayed over the monsoon in Malabar were wont to lie (in). A place en- 
tirely of Moors, and having many ship* (b). Bat then in decay, for Var- 
thoma aalls it " a poor enough place, and having no port". Oppoeite. at 
about three leagues distanco, was an uninhabited island. This must 
haTB boon the Sacrifice Eoct of the mapa. The place itself is not men- 
tioaed, to my knowledge, after Barboao's time. 

OVDlete (DKB), CouUodi (P. Finetnio), Coilaudf (Eennell) -. KoiU-Md:. 

Clpii<ar(B), CapocorCa), Capooaite(DGB), Capucato(Bi, and P. Vincemi:), 
O^N>gatto, where there was a fioe palace in the old style (Varthema). It 
has disappeared irom onr maps. 

Calicut (b, b, deb), Cholochut of Fra Maiiro, Ealikiit, one of the great 
ports frequented bj the Chinese junks, and the seat of the Samuri King 
(ib). From Spinger, qaoted above, we learn that the Tenctian mer- 
chants up to 1507 continued to Irequont Calicut for the purchase of spicee 
to be carried by the Bed Sea, though the competition of FortugueBQ and 
Qermani by the Cope waj beginning- to t-ell heavily against them. 

Chiliate (bl), ChoUa or Calia (a), Chale {dub and lAntchoten), Ciali 
(P. Vinwnio), Sholiyat {Abulftda and IB). Ibn Batuta stopped here 
some time and speaks of the stuffs made there which bore the name of 
the plaoe. This stuff was probably ahali, the name still given in India 
to a soft twilled cotton, generally of a dark rod colour. The Portuguesi.' 
had a fort at Shalia. 

Beypijr, now the terminus of the Madras Bailvray, ts not mentioned by 
any of the old travellers that 1 know of, till Hamilton (about 1 700) . Tippu 
Sultan tried to make a great port of it. (see Fra Paolino, p. 87). 

Paremporom (k), Purpurangari (b), Propriamguari (bl), Porangale 
(OSS). Berengari (P. Vineenco); Febepen AtKiAKBT of some mapa. Fer- 
penagardo of RenncU, 

Faravanor (b), Parananor (bl); Parone of Rennell ? 

Ytanor (b), Banor (bl). Tonur (s and dbb), Tahobe or Tanniir. Theeu 
two places bad great trade and were the residence o{ great merchants 
(b). This was an ancient city with many Christian inhabilanta, and the 
seat of an independent Eoja, but in the end of last century had become 
u poor village. 

Fanam^ (b). Panane (a and deb), Ponani. Many rich mercbsuls 
owning many ships i the plnc^ paid the King of Calicut u largo revenue 
from its customs Is). (French and English Factories, 17th cent.). 

Beliamcor (a), Baleancor (oed), Ballianoot of Bennell, and pro. 
bably the Melioncota or Maliancora of Conti, "quod nomen mogujuu 
urbem ijiud eos designat, viii niiUiaribus patens". 

Chatua (BL and deb), Catua (b), Cbetoa {»), Chitwa (Rcniiel!). Cetluvu 

(f. PuoIilHl); CUAITWA, 

pAtra monlioned here by P. Vinccnii and i'. I'ooliiio. 1 d" ul-I know 




if tiuB is Forlir, mentionud by Cluudiua Bucbaniin as the Bit« of tbo 
oldest charcli in Mzdabax ; but it 'le probabl; the Foliuria at Conti, 

A^kotta. ai tbe mouth of the river of Crangouor was pointed out by 
tradition of the native Cliriattans 09 the plnci) where St. Thomas first set 
foot in Indi&. 

CBUinANOB (bl, a, deb), Crangalor (e), said to bo properly Kodan- 
gulor; Carangollor of P. A-lvnrez, wlioro dwelt Chrletians, Moora, Jf>ws 
and CaBra, the Shikali of AbuUeda, Cyngilin of Odorii:, etc. (d. tvpra, p. 
75); according to some accounts one of the eldest royal cities in Malabar, 
one of the greatest centres of trade aod the first place of aettlement suc- 
cessively of Jews, Christians, and Mahomedans on this coa«t. It would 
seem to have been drcady in decay as a port in the time of Bsfbosa, who 
only says that the Ein^ of Cochin drew eome duties Iroiu it. Sixty years 
htter Federici speaks of it aa a small Portngneae fort, a place of Ijttle im- 
portance. In 180G CI. Buchanan says: — "There was formerly a town 
and fort at Crangnaore . , . but both are now in niios," It continued, 
however, to be the soat of a £. C. Archbishop. 

CocmM (b, 8, dhb), Coobim (8t), Guteohin of Spinger, Cocchi of O. Balbi; 
properly Kachhl . It was not a place of any trade previous to the four- 
teenth century.. In the year 1341 an extraordinary land-flood produced 
great alterations in the coast at Cochin, and opened a capacious ostuary, but 
the place seemH to have continued of no great consideration till the arri- 
val of the Portuguese, though now it is the ohief port of Malabar. It is 
the Cocym of Conti, the first author^aa lar as I know, who mentions it. 
The circumstances just stated render it in the highest degree improbable 
that Cochin should have been the Cottiara of the ancients, as has often 
been alleged. 

Porca (b, ded). Porqua (bl) ; Pabbauad. Foimerly the soat of a. small 
principality. Barbosa says the people were fishermen and pirates. Fra 
Paolino in the last century speaks of it as a very populous city full of 
merchants, Mahomodan, Chrlatian, and Hindu. (Dutch Factory in ITth 

Calecoolam (b and sbb), Caicolam (a), Kayan Kdlau. A considerable 
eiport of pepper ; the residence of many Christians of St. Thoiuaa (b). A 
very populous town sending produce t!> Farrakad for shipment (P. 
Pooiino). (Dutch Factory in 17th cent.). 

Coilam (Bt). Conlaa (b), Colam (a), Colom (0. d'EmpoliJ, Colon f Por- 
(JknnaBlid SpinjerJ, Kaulam (Abulfedaand ie), Coilon or Coiluc (Xtfola), 
Coloen (Conti) ; Kaulam-Mali of the merchant Sufeintati (a.d. 851), (see 
p. 71 tupra) ; the Columbus, Columbun), Colombo, Colonbi of Jordanus and 
MarifnolU, Penalotti, Carta Catalan"; fra Mavro, etc. ; the modem QctLOK. 

Polo speaks of the Christians, the brozO-wood and ginger, both called 
Coibtny after the place (compare the gengiovo Coiombino and vertino 
ColomWno of Pegototti and Uzzano), the pepper, and the traffic of ships 
from China and Arabia. Abul/eda defines its position as at the oitreme 
end of the pepper country towards the east ("at tlie eitiemity of the 
pepper-forest towards the south," says Odoric), whence sbipB soiled direct 
to Aden j on a gulf of tho sea, in a sandy plain adorned with many gar- 


ftDOlo^iia to tliat of Ifa'bar (or tbe 
FoHHage) to tbo Barbory const from 
Tunis weetwanl, ithioli nu colled Bar- 
nl-Adwah, Term TratuitiiB, because 
thence they aeed to pass Into Spain 
(Attiari in Jtnim. Aiiai., Jan. 1846, p. 
228). And it is some oorroborrvtion of 
tbe iaea tbat tbe name Va'bur was 
given to the coast near Ramnad aa the 
place of possa^ to Cejlon, tbat a town 
just opposite on the CeylonesB coast 
was called MantofU, because it was the 
Mahatalta, the " Glreat Ferry" or point 
of amval or departure of the Malabara 
reBorting- tothe island (rennenC,!, 504). 
b NothiD)f is said by Ibn Batuta of 
meeting these sbipa on hia voyage t^ 
the Maldives. He describes them at 
Calicut, where they were in port. He 
apeaka of the crew ai 

b. P. 889. " From Kiiblod% or 
Kaliknt, the capital of the Zn 
moriu, be {Ibn Batata) visited 
the Maldives.,.. On this voyage 
he met tbe ships on their voyage 
from Zaitun... On tbeir decks 
were wooden huts for the Lrew 
wbii^ consisted of Jiie nad 

r. " The captains were Ami/i 

d. " Thia tmd of ship was only 
boilt in Zaitvfu." 

e. " From the Mahibar coast Ibn 
Batuta sailed to Ceylon." 

/. •' The neit land that he men- 
tiona ia Bengal. Our traveller 
visited thia country (about 13iG) 
and found that between it and 
the BouthemuioBt part of the 
Dektan a nioif aelivt Irafic had 
sprung tip, and also tcith ChintL.'^ 

g. Pp. 889-^90. "From this (Ben- 
gal) ho directed hia travels to 
Java, as the name of that island 
ia here given according to tbe 
more modern pronunciation ; the 
ialaad of Sumatra he calls Jdc- 
nah, which, we should rather 
have expected to be Jdvonah, aa 
it ia known to be nailed by Uarco 
Polo Jam Jfinftr." (In a iwtr-) : 

c Seo supra, p. 417. 

d. Theao ahips are distinctly atated to 
have been built in Zaitun, and in Sin- 

e. On tbe contrary, he sailed yVom tht 

f. I can tind no ground for this state- 
ment in the narrative, except that Ibn 
Batiitn got a passage somehow from 
the Maldives to Sengul. and afterwards 
in a junk which was going fi-om Bengal 
to Java (Sumatra). At the latter place 
the sultan provided a vessel to carry 
him on to China.. 

g. From this we ehould gather (1) that 
Ibn Batuta calls Java by that na-ma, 
and (3) colls Sumatra Jnonah, whilst 
(S) Lee introducea a name, Mul-Java, 
uninown to the correct narrative, ae 
that of the port of Sumatra. 

The fact is that DefWmery (whom 
Lassen cites) and Lee arc in perfect 
accordance here. Sumatra Island is 
called Jo !■« ; some other country, which 


"The port where Ibn Batuta buth thoaa tranalfttora tiike for Jnva 
' laudud is colled in tho correct Proper, ig caJled Mul-Java, anil Jaonah 

retuling Sumathrah in Lee'a is fonnd abiiilately noichert except in 

traiulaCioa the name is ^ven in- LMsen'a page, 
correctly aa Muf-/J«a." 
k. P. 690. " Passing hence (Itoid h. There la not one wor d in tlie nnrra- 
Sumatra) dor traveller vitiled tive about any such visit, or anything- 
lomt of the Molacftn ; this is ren- tliat con be ho interpreted. Aa for the 
dersd certain by the facb tliat accuracy of his description of the spice 
the author of these trarels gires planta, look at it I 
ft pretty accurate description of 
the spice plants." 

t. The time in the narrative amonnts 
,0 imetity-one dayi boat Ual-Java, the 
last point of departure, to Tawalisi. 
Thoreisnothing about seven days, any 
more than there is about the viaiC to 
the Spice Islands. 
j. It is easy to settle diffioultqaeationa 
with a " can only," but there is nothing 
o make it clear that Tonkin ia meant, 
account of their vicinity, had and strong reasons arise agBJnst that 
many relations, both hostile and view. And absolutely nothing is said ii 

" On his further travels 
Ibn Batata after levtn dagi ar- 
rived at the kingdom of I^ui- 

}. Ih. . . " By which i 
Toniria con be meant. 
habitanta of this kingdom, 

peaoerul, with the Chine 

It. Jb. •■ In the Middle Kingdoa 
o ZaiCun the most import- 

. the 

the narrative about vicinity t 
Chinese. It is only said that the king 
had frequent naval wtm with the 
Chinese, a fact which rather argues 
an inBular position. 
, k. Sinkilan is indeed Canton, but it is 
■ sounder reasons than this that it ia 
ant place of trade waa the Port proved to be so. One does not see why 
of Sin-oiiin or Sinhalan-, this foreigners should call Canton by the 
name mnat indicate Canton, name of its river, if Tshing-Kuang be 
which city stands on the river the name ; neither ia there any great 
Tthing-Kiiang, the form of which resemblance in the words. But we 
U tolerably echoed in the second have seen that S{n-hildn ia merely the 
reading of the name." Ferdan translation of Mahd-chin, and 

has nothing to do with Chinese words. 
Moreover Sin-kalan is not an alter- 
native reading (Leiart) of Sinossin 
(.SiTi-al-Sfn), but an alternative name. 
It may be said that these errors ore of trilling moment, and belong to 
a mere appendage of the aubjectof the book. But aobletie oblige ; a work 
of such reputation as the Indian Archaeologia is referred to with almost aa 
much confidence as the original authoritiea, and inatances of negligence 
so thickly sown are a sort of breach of trust. Those already quoted are, all 
but one, within two pages. Qoing farther we find othera aa remarkable : 
I. P.896. The name of one of the I. The real name inCoemaa (as found 
popper ports on the coast of in Montfaucon) ia however not Panda- 




Malabar ie quoted bom Cosmu paitana but Pudopatana (nunlavclTatv), 

Indieo-pleueteB (with a refereuca which is much more likely to bo " Xcv>- 

to J/o»iyauran,p,337) aa Funda. Hly," from the Taraul Pvda. "New," 

patlana, a, form which is made as in Pudu-chen, couimonl; called 

the boaiH of an etymology (as Pondicheir;. The port eiiated by the 

from the Fandiya Icinga), same name for a thousand yoara after 

Cosmos ; see List of Malabar Porta, 


m. P. 911. Lassen quotes the tn. TheDameatp.SSSof the Bonnedi- 

name applied to the Cbinsse by tion is not Tmgait. but Taitgail (Taii- 

Theophylactna Simocatta (see yaitT). I hare no longer acceaa to the 

the Essay at the beginning of book, and I cannot say whether it is 

this volume) as Tengaat, citing so differently written at p. 288. This 

the Bonn edition, p. 288. change again (if it is such) favours on 

identification. The idcntiGcation may 

probably be right, but would stand 

better on a sound bottom. 

In the Corpus Bi/tant. Bittor. the 
word is written Tairyh, though the 
Latin Tersion of the same has Taugail. 
n. In the appended tract on the n. (I) Sultan Mahomed's name was not 
Chinese and Arab knowledge of Togrul but Taghlak. Neither (2) was be 
India, we have at p. 31 a state- in any sense ot Afghan lineage; nor (3) 
ment that Ibn Batuta acquired did he belong to the dyivuty of Lodi, 
the high favour of the then whieb came a century after hia time, 
reigning Emperor of India, Mu- with the Deluge between in the shape 
hammed Toghnl, of the Afsfum of Timnr's invasion. 
dynasty of Lodi. 
o.P. 84. " I will not omit tore- o.TherearesiiarTors in these few linos. 
mark that WUhthn von Rnbruck, (1) The mission of Bubruquia/ol!ou>«cl 
Jean du Plan Carpiu, and Bent- and did not precede, as is distinctly im- 
iidtta Potaniui establish the plied here, that of John of Piano Car- 
fact that also, during the wide pini. The former toot place in 1253. 
sway of the Mongol Emperor (2) Bubruquis was not sent by the 
Jingis Khan and his successors, Eoman Court, but by St. Lewis. (3) 
a commercial interchange ex- Piano Carpini and Benaet the Pole did 
isted between aoveral of their not visit Eahlai Khan, but ffujufc 
provinces and India. The first Khan, and their travels took place in 
of these pious envoys of the Ho- 124a-l'7, not after 1259 as is here im- 
man court visited the Emperor plied. (4) All the three monks (and 
Manga Bhan, who in 1248 waa all other Franciscans), were Fratret 
recognized as Supreme Ehan of .l/inore>. and notBennetonlyosishere 
the whole empire ; the second iTuplied. (5) Bennet did not join Piano 
visited Eubloi Khan, who from Carpini on a joamty to Rome, bat was 
1259 to 1396 wielded with vigor- picked up at Brealaw as an interpreter 
ons band the sceptre of his fore- by the latter when on his way from 
&tlien ; the third belonged to the Pope at Lyons to the Khan at 



it bnuch of the (Fi 

I order vliich ia termed Fratreii 

I JTinoriu or Mindem Briidcr ; bti 

a the comrade of the flecottd. 

Bud joined liitii is PolB.nd on a 

journey to Boiue nndertakon in 

I IHA. Ho reached 

I panj the conrt of the founder of 

the Mongol empire 

p. Turning bock ; at p. 402. 

BponkiDB of the practice of h 

on the palm-loavee with a 

I Btjle, Lassen notes, " The leaves 

of the Zwergpahae (i.e. dwarf- 

I palm) or Phanix FntcHfera are 

I «Bpeoiallf UBed for that pur- 

KarolcoTum. (6) In vbatever manner 
the three travellera may " eatablisb 
the fact" in qneation, it is not hj say- 
ing anything on the mibject in their 
narratives. Aa tax aa 1 can discover 
not one of the three contains a single 
word directly or indirectly as to (huu- 
merciiLl intercourae between the Mon- 
gol proviocea and India. 

p. Phanix FniCiifera is, I presume, the 
same as Fhanit I>iittyl\/eru, the date 
tree. If it b» called divarf-palni in Ger- 
many (which I doubt) it is very badly 
named ; but in any case it would pux- 
zle oay Dwarf oat of Lilliput to writ« 
upon its leaves. The leaf moat com- 
monly used for the purpoae ia that of 
the Palmyra {Boriutti Flabdli/ormU), 
and, in Ceylon and the peninsuhi ad- 
joining, that of the Talipat (CorypAn 
Umbraoilifefa), a gigantic palm. 
J. P. 611. In hia desoription of the Cftandt Sewti or " Thonsand Templea" 
I Kt Bnmbanan in Java, he adopts withont question Mr. CrawAird'a view 
(fiirmed filty years o^o when little was known abont Bnddhiam), that 
these essentially Buddhist edlftces have been each crowned with a lin- 
gam. Even if the temples were not Buddhist, who ever saw a, lingain on 
the top of a temple ? But in fact the objects in question aro no more 
lingaras than the cupolaa over St. Paul's facade ore dayabas. Indeed in 
the latter case the resemblance is much more atrildng. 

r, P. 546. Here, in dealing with the Malay history oa derived partly 
from the native chronicles cit«d by Marsden, and partly from the early 
Portuguese writers, Laasen meets with the name of a chief given by the 
^ latter as Xaqttem Darxa. This hero he supposes to be the son of a certain 
' Iskandar or Sikondar Shah mentioned in the Malay legends, and devises 
fiir his odd name a Sanacrit original " <|ldbanadhara, d. h. Besitzer Kraf. 
tiger BeaitEungcn ;" accordingly he enters this possessor of strong pos- 
sessions as an ascertained sovereign in the dynaatic list under the name 
of C'likunadhara. Yet this Xaqttem Darta (Saqiienidar Xa) is only a cor- 
rupt Portuguese transcript of the name of Sikandar Shah himself, (see 
Craafard't Diet. Ind. hUmdi, p. 342). King C&kanodbara is therefore 
as purely imaginary as the Fandyon city ascribed to Cosmas or the 
Island of Jaonoh for whioh Ibn Batnta is wrongly made responsible. 


NOTE D, (See Pagb 418). 


It BOsms woiib while to introdnce here a review of the Farts of Hala- 
bftr M thej are deicribed to have existed from the thirttienth to the 
^xteenth oentory. Hany of these have now altogether disappeared, not 
only from oomineTCiHl lists but from our maps, ao that their very sites 
■re Bometini^s difficnlt to identifj. Nor are the books (auch ns F. Bnchar- 
DBu's Journey and others) . which mig-ht serve to elucidate man; points, 
MMwasible where thia is written. But still this attempt to iUiistnite a 
prominent Bulgeot in the Indian geogrophy of those centuries ivill I traat 
hnvo some interest. 

Wo shsll tnko the Goa River us our starting poiut, though Malabar 
■tri'^tlT speaking was held to commence at Capo Delly. Hiid wo taken 
tile whole western coast from Oujarat downwards the list would have 
boen enlai^od by at leaat a half. 

The nutliorities rocurring most frequently will be indicated thus; — 
B stands for Barbosa (beginning of the sixteenth uentury) in Bamusio ; 
tl. for the Lisbon edition of Barbosa ; qeb for Debarros (to whom 1 have 
ftccesa only in an Italian version of the two first Decodes, Venice, 1B61, 
and in Rjunusio's extracts) ; ib for Ibn Batuta; s for the anonymous 
Stmmario il« Regni in Ramusio. 

Handabui, Ohintabor, et«., see note B, tvpra. 

Batheoala, a aouriahiog city on a river, a mile from the sea ( Var- 
llMMa} 1 Bkitkul. in the now again well known bay of Sedaaheogarh. I 
io not find it mentioned by any other of the early travellers, but in the 
MTWtMDth oentury it was the seat of a British factory under the name 
of Carwor, the name (Carwor Head) still applied to the southern point of 

Anjedivn (raHh.); AiicaEDiVA, an island a little south of Carwar 
Head, which wu a favourite anchorage of the early Portuguese, the 
istand allbrding abetter and good water. 

Cintaooln (n). Cintneora (bl), Centacola (Varthema), AncolaP (dbb); 
AxKOLiH ? a forlresB on a rock over tho river Aliga, belonging to tbo 
Nabaio of Uoa (b), the residence of many Moorish merchants (I'arlA.). 

HwfaoBirw (a), Hergen (bl and drb). Hirgeo (s). A great export of 
Hmi tb« river north of Kdutah, on the estuary of which ia still a place 

ISkllod UlMAU, the Meeijee or Meersah of Rennell. Of late years I bc- 
liero the trade has revived at Kumtah. chiefly in the export of Dharwor 
Honor («), Onor (ii«u and Cosar Fedorici). Hiniwar (ib), Hannaur 
(Xl'i^rVilo), Mauorand Kunawur of Abdurnuxak, probably Nandor of the 
CaliUaii MftV- 1U'M*wjia or Onorb (properly Hunilr 1"). A fine place wilb 



pluai&nt gardeni Mxd a Hnhomedua population (Abul. and ib) ; a great 
oiport of rice and much frequented by Bhipping (b), but long a nort of 

BattociJa (b). Batioala (bl and dbb), Batigala of Fr. Jordanas. Bat- 
RDL. A greiit place with many morcliants, where ahipa of Hormm and 
Adao name to load sugar and rice, but doatrojed by the rise of Goa. (An 
EuKlish Factory in tho liUi century). 

Majandur, on a amall river (b). Bender (dbb); perhaps the port of 
Bednub, which itself lie* inland. 

Bracalor (bl), Braiialor (a, and A. Corsali), Bracelor (dsb), Bofolor (a). 
Abiiaaror (ib), Baaanlr (Abulf.); Babcelob. A amall city on a golf. 
Abounding in coco-tceaa ((b). (A Dutch Factory in the 17th oontury), 

Bacanor (bl, dbb, s). Bracanor (b). Fakanilr, a large place on an 
catuary, iiith mnch augar cane, under a pagan prince culled Basodewa 
(IB), Fagnur (Biuhid), Jai-fakniir (Firithta), probably the Magoniir of 
AbdnrroMtak, and the Pacamuria of N, Conti ; Baccanor. There was a 
great eiport of rice in ahips of Hormu*. Aden, Sohnr and Malabar from 
both Barcelor and Baccanor (b). 

Carcaro and Comato (dkb), Cornati (P. FttienuoJ. 

Hangalor (b. dbb, a, Abdunattak), Hanjariir (ib and Abul.), Manganor 

of tho CntalanMap, MANOALofts. Proliably Mangamth, one of the popper- 

porta of Coaraas, but the Mandftgara of Ptolemy and the Periplus must 

have heen mnch fiirther north. (It in curious that Ptolemy haa pJho a 

Honganor, bnt it te on inlaud city). On a great eatuary called Al-Dunb, 

■ Hie greatest on the coaat; hither came moat of thumercbonta from Yemen 

L Hid Fara ; pepper and ginger abundant ; under a king called Bamadewa 

I {ib). a great place on a great river ; here the pepper begins ; the river 

r bordered with coco grovea j a groat population of Moors and Gentiloa ; 

many handsome mosques and temples (b). Fifty or aiity ahipa used to 

load rice here ( I'orlftemo.) Fallen off aiity years later, when C. Federid 

calls it a little place of amall trade, but atill exporting a little rice. 

Maicerom (a), Mongeiron (deb), Mangoaajram (Liiachotm), Uanjebh- 

, wARAii. NancBseram of Bennull P 

I Cnmbala (b, deb), C'umbola (bl), Camhulla (a), Coloal of Eennell T Edh- 
l BI,AH. Exported rice, eapecially to the Maldivea. 

Congerecora, on a river of the same name (deb), Chandkaoibi ? 
Cote Conlam (s), Cola Coulam (deb). Cote Colam (bl). 
JJilexorara (s), Nilichilam (peb), Ligniceron (P. Viacemo), probably 
Barbtwa's " port on the Miraporam Kiver," which he describes aa the next 
place to Cote Coulam, "a seaport of Moors and Oentiles, and a great 
place of navigation." Though the name has been excluded by the de- 
fects and caprices of our modem maps, this is the Nileshwebau, Neli- 
BiTEAif , or NsLLiaEEE of Bcnncll and othere, which has heen identified by 
Bennell with the Nelq/nda of the ancients. There can be little doubt 
that the river on which it standa was that on which waa situated the 
kingdom of Ely of Marco Polo, Mill of Bathid and Ihn Bstuta, Elly of the 
Car(<i CataUtna (which marks it as a Chrifitian city), and Helly or Hellim 
of Conti, who is, oa far as I know, the lost author who mentions a 


my UTTTi'* nuTEU a ttman. utb cvisa. 

(»a I— llllll hilrtiiil I 


t ia Um lonH <irCM« de BE (fVa ■■«*}. HoBte d'DI ' 

ia th« ocKniftkM Heart DtOf, or, m 

£ Li (P. Timtame). mod then 
^ itDik. Tbe D 
of SenB«0.a foit on 
I, bat lower in it 

lag Mar th» aottit mia of tlie monnbutB, niiu j»"H*it to the ooaat Idr Uat 
in Ividra biUm. Tlt«re w ftlao > fort oT Deda mentioned by F. Yinerauo 
and BmumII, Itonwdlatclj' riurOi of KDeohwamu. Bat all tbeae featnm 
iod nUM* hart diN^tiieared bom oar reoent maps, Ouuika, probably, to 
tb* Atka of India, lo which, ifl am not mistalieD, Hoant I>e% eren has 
no {daM. Howover eorreut ma; be the trigonometrical skeleton of tboee 
ahacta of that publication which represent the coast in qasation, I tiiink 
no ODD can ii«e tbmn for tJ^pogTapliiital etiidjea of this kind without sore 
■nUgivingi an to the filling in of details. The mounfatn is mentioned by 
itbu(/<Kla M "a great hill pn^'ecting into the sea, viaible to vojagera a 
long way olT, and known to thorn aa Riis Haiti," but he does not apeak of 
the olty or ootuitry. Barboaa says "Honte D'EIy ntands in the low 
oountry oloBo by tbn shore, a very lofty and round mountain, which servea 
fts a heooon and point of departure for all the ahipa of Moors sjid Oentilei 
lliBit navigate tho Inilinn iieiii. Many Epringa run down from it, which 
survo to wator abippiii);. It has also much wood, inolnding a great deal 
of wild cinnamon" {ni,), Mariip Polo unUB Ely an independent kingdom, 
noo mlluH west of Coiunri (C. Comorin) ; it had no harbour bat such aa its 
river afforded i tho kintr waa rich, but had not many people; the nativea 
praat4ied piracy on such shijis as wore driven in by stress of weather; 
the ships of Unnii (S. China) traded thither, but expedited tbeii lading 
on account of thn insufflcioncy of the ports. Ibn Batuta Bpeaks of Bili 
na a larpj oitj on a Krwit oatuary. froqiicntod by lai^ ships, and as one 
of tho thrve (fbiir) porta of Malabar which the Chine«t? junks viailetl. 
Pauthior obstirvua in hi* Marftt IVlo. " Ely Ml nom^ par Ptol^m^ 'Kk^". 
But tho Aloe of PtolMny ia an inlMid rily, whi>jh muat make the ideutifl- 
oation voiy qu««tioiwbl». If Nitmhwenun In! Kelcynda. then probably 
we have a trace of Ely in the Ku>Ma»v of (ho roriplus. Bnt the paaaage 
seems defeotiv* (•«• !!«■**<>■, 1, 33). 

Mount DcUy is lamlioatfd by svfenl autJixn » in tbeJr time the aoli- 
tary habitat of the tnw nrJhmoat. i'te tttotv N> a omwmmm betwvcn 
the name Uili. Ely. and Iho \«*m* Klact.1. Kk. a»d ID) (tka fcra is 
Gqjai»t and lb* D«««a> acwntiac lo liaN4K4<«1 V *UA llw wdaMon 
is tnown itt India ! 

Maianel. a vbi; oU |**«k iwn-yJei ««* H,x<r«. t,)««t<ooa, aad Jewa. 
speaking the edwUr )nc<a*^ "W fc»t» 4«^ tkcm- ft« a «w«y Ib* 
,), lUmhia (Ma. A r>M*-^i TW Hmbate tt M ^t— " 
U»bethoeanwpiac*.»«rtlfc»aM«»»V'.*»<»««|*. hisfi 
tal« (for lUlea* M«^* *» A* »»»' •*»* ' 

Balaarpatwn. «tM*« tW Catc '* <'»»*»^ * 



(bl), BolepBtam (dbb), Patannm (h, but, if the uoiyectiiri! under thu Inst 
head be correct, 0ut«ipa.tanniu], Balbipatha. of Rcuoell. Fra Poolino 
will have it to be t^e Balipatnn of Ptolemy, and the Falaepatma of the 
pKriptuB. It would Heetn, however, that the ancient port must be Bouglit 
much further north. (Ac English Fuctor; in the 17th centurir.) 

Cahanob (B, DBS, b). Eiport trade to Cambay, Hormuz, Coulon, Dabul, 
Ceylon, Maldives, etc. Man; merchimts and infibity of shipping (b). A. 
great and flns ciij, of great trade ; every juar two hundred aliipe of dif- 
ferent countries took oargoea here (Varthema), Probably the Jarfcttan 
of Ibn Itatuta three parasnngB from Maujarnr (and therefore the Jarabat- 
tan of Edriai, though miaplaced by him, and perhaps the Horrypatan, 
for Jaripatan, of t'iriihta in Bnggt, iv, 632), the residence of the King 
called KificQ, one of the most powerful in Malabar, who poBsefiaed many 
ohipa trading to Aden, Hormiiz, etc. The identification is confirmed by 
the fact that the Se^as of Cananor were really called Kola-tin and their 
kingdom Zoia-noda {Fra Paolino, p. 00-91). In the time of C. Federici it 
had become " a little city," but one from which were exported the whole 
supply of cardamoms, with a good deal of pepper, ginger, areca, betel, 
coco-nuts, molasses, etc 

Tormapatam (B, s), TrUJuapatam(DKB).Tremopfttam (bl), Tromapatam 
(rartli.), DhabmApAtaM ; Darroaftun (for Dannafattan) of Kowlandson's 
Tohfut-ttUMajahideen (p. 52). A great city of Moore who are very rich 
merchants and have many great ships; many handsome mosques (bl). 
Probably the Darapattan of Firishta(D.s.) and the Dohfattan of ib, which 
he represents as a great town with gardens, etc., on an estuary, nnder 
the same king as Jurfattan. 

Terivugante (b), Firamuingate (bl), Tirigath (P. Viticeato); Tilli- 
CHBBBi ? (Eog, Factory in 17th cent.) across the river from the last place 

Manjuim and Chamobai (bl), Mazeire and Chemobai (b). Maim and 
Choroba (deb), Mulariam and Camboa (8), Haino and Somba(P. Finfenta), 
both places of the Moora, and of much navigation and trudo (n), viz., 
Mark and Choube. 

Pudripatam (b), Pedirpatam (bl), Pudipatanam (s), Puripatanam 
(dbb), the Peudifetania and BuiTetania of Conti, the Budfattan of ib. and 
probably the Pudopatana of Cosmaa (see preceding note A). In Iba 
Batuta's time it was under the same prince bb Jurfuttan (which we have 
identified with Cananor), was a considerable city on a great estuary, and 
one of the finest ports on the const. The inhabitants were then chiefly 
Brahmins, and there were no Mahouiedans. In Barbosa's time again it 
is still a place of much sea trade, but is become "a place of Moors". 
The name is not found in modem maps, but it must have been noar the 
Waddacabbe of Keith Johnston's. 

Tircori (b), Tericori (s); Tikodi ; Corri of Rennell ? 

Pandemni (b), Colam Pandarani (s), Fandorane (dkb and Varthema), 
Pandaiuue (bl), Fandaraina {EdriH iind le), Fendercna (Frn Mauro), 
Fundreeah of ttoiclandian (u.s., p. Gl), Fundarene of Emanuel K. of Por- 
tugal (in a lettur •juotud in Htimboldl'i Exam. Critique, v, 101), FantA- 




laina of the CLinese under tbe Mongols (Paulhifr's Polo, p. 632) Balidi- 
nana (far Bandiranii) of Ahdulraicak. BnndcrSina of BaJtbnxar Spinger 
(Iter Indicum, 1507, in Voyage Litterairt da deui Benedictine, 1734, p. 
36*), Flandiina or Odorio {supra, p. 75). A prreat and fine place with 
gardens, etc., and many MahomedaDs, where Bm'b Chinese Junin as 
stayed over the monsooa in Malabar were wont to lie (ib). A place en- 
tirelf of Moors, and having manj ships (b). But then in decay, for Tar- 
thema oalla it "a poor enough place, and baring no port". Opposite, at 
about three leagues distance, was an uninhabited island. This must 
hare been the Sacdfloe Bock of the maps. Tbe place iteelf is not men- 
tioned, to my knowledge, ader Barboaa's time. 

Coulete (deb), Coulandi (P. Vincento), Coilandy (ifntnell) : Eoilandi. 

Capncar (b), CapocaT{B), Capocate (dbb), Capacate (bl and P. ['incoub), 
Capogatto, Tfhere there waa a fine palace in the old style {VartkeToa), It 
has disappeared from our maps. 

Calicut (b, e, deb), Cholocbut of Fra Maitro, K^likiit, one of the gre»t 
ports frequented by tbe CbinQee junke, and the seat of tbe Samiui Ring 
(ib). From Spinger, quoted above, we learn that the Venetian, raer- 
cbants up to 1507 continued to fi^qnent Calient for the purchase of spices 
to be carried by tbe Bed Sea, though the oorapetition of Portuguese and 
Qemumi by the Caps waa beginning to tell heavily against them. 

Chiliate (bl), Challa or Calia (b), Chalc (deb and Linttholen). Ciali 
(P. rincCTUo), Shaliyat (AUtl/iida and ib). Ibn Batuta stopped here 
some time and speaks of the etuffs made there which bore the name of 
the place. This stuff was probably ehali, the name still given in India 
to a soft twilled cotton, generally of a dark red colour. Tbe Portugueso 
had a fort at Sbalia. 

Beypdr, now the terminus of the Madras Railway, is not mentioned by 
any of the old travellers that 1 kno» of, till Hamilton (about 1700). Tippu 
Sultan triad to make a groat port of it. (see t'ra I'aolino, p. 87). 

Paremporam (b), Purpnrangari (b), Propriamgoari (bl), ParttngrJu 
(dbb), Berengari (P. Finmuu); PsBBrsM AnaABiii of some maps, Per- 
penagarde of Rennell. 

Paravanor (b), Parananor (bl) ; Parone of Renntll t 

Ytanor (b), Banor (bl), Tunur (s and deb), Tanobe or Tanniir. These 
two places had great trade and were the residence of great merchants 
(b). This was an ancient city with many Christian inhabitants, and the 
svat of an independent l{^|a, but in tbe end of last century had become 
a poor village. 

Panama (b), Panane (s and deb), Fonahi. Many rich merchants 
owning many ships ; the plat-e paid the King of Calicut a laige rovenuo 
from its customs (b). (French and English Factories, ITtb cent.). 

Beliamcor (s), Baleancor (deb), Ballianoot of Bennell, and pro- 
bably the Meliancota or Molianoora of Conti, "quod nomen maguam 
urbem apud eos deeignat, viii mllliaribua patens". 

Chatua (bl and deb), Catua (b). Chetiia (s), Chitwa {Iteunelf), C>]tluva 
(P. Paolmo) ; Chaitwa, 

Palitb mentioned hore by 1'. Vincenzo and V. Puoliiw, I do oi.>l know 


if tills ia Fanir, mentioned by Claudius BDcbanan as the site of the 
oldest ohnrcli in Malabar ; bnt it is probably the Paliuria of Conli. 

Aylcotta, at the mouth of the rirer of Cranganor was pointed out by 
tradition of the native Chriationa as the place where St. Thomaa 6rst set 
foot in India. 

Cbahoanob (bl, b, deb). Crangalur (b), said to be properly tCodan- 
gulor; Carangollor of P. AJvarei, where dwelt ChriatianB, Moors, Jews 
and Caiirs, the Shikali of Abnlfeda, Cyngilin of Odoric, etc. (v. tupra. p. 
76}i according to some accounts one of the oldest rojai cities in Malabar, 
one of the greatest centres of trade and the first place of settlement suc- 
cesaively of Jews, Chriatiana, and Mahoroedans on this ooast. It wonld 
Beem to have been dread; in decay as a port in the time of Barboea, who 
only Bays that the King of Cochin drew some duties from it. Sixty years 
later Federici speaVs of it as a small PortuguoHe fort. A place of little im- 
portance. In 1806 CI. Buchanan says: — "There was formerly a town 
and fort at Crangsnore . . . but both are now in ruins." It continued, 
however, to be the seat of a R. C. Archbishop. 

CocHis (u, s, dbb), Cochim (bl), Giitaehin of Spinger, Cocchiof O.Balhi; 
properly Kachhi. It was not a place of any trade previous to the four- 
teenth century.. In the year 1341 an extraordinary land-flood produced 
great alterations in the coast at Cochin, and opened a capacions estuary, but 
the place seems to have continued of no great consideration till the arri- 
val of the Portugese, though now it is tbe chief port of Malabar. It is 
the Cocym of Conti, the first author,.as for as I know, who mentions it. 
The circumstancBBJuat stated render it in the highest degree improbable 
that Cochin should have been the Cottiara of the ancients, aa hiia often 
been alleged. 

Porca {b, dxb), Porqua(BL); FiRBiEui. Formerly the seat of a small 
principality. Barbosa says the people were fishermen and pirates. Frn 
Paolino in the last century apeialcs of it aa a very populous city full of 
merchants, Mahomedan, Christian, and Hindu. (Dutch Factory in 17th 

Calecoolam (a and dbb). Caicolam (a), Eat^n Kulau. A considerable 
export of pepper ; the residence of many Christians of St. Thomas (b). A 
very populous town sending produce to Porrokad for ahipmoat {F. 
Paolino). (Dutch Factory in 17tb cent.). 

Coilam (bl), Coulon (b), Colam {s}, Colom (Q. d'Empoli), Colon (Var- 
thema ani Spinger), Kaulam (Abolfeda andm), Coilonor Coilnn (M.Polo), 
Coloen (Conti) ; Kaulam-Mol^ of the merchant Suleiman (a.d. 851), (see 
p. 71 lapra) ; tbe Columbus, Columbum, Colombo, Colonbi of Jordanws and 
MarignoUi, PtgolaUi, Carta Calalana, Fra jfauro, etc. ; the modem Qdilon, 

Polo speaks of tbe Christiana, the braxil-wood and ginger, both called 
Coiiwvy after the place (compare the geagiovo ColomtinD and vtriino 
Colov\lKao of Pogolotti and Uzzauo), the pepper, and the traflic of ships 
from China and Arabia. Abul/eda defines its position as at the extreme 
end of the pepper country towards the eaat ("at the extremity of the 
poppcr-foreat towards the south," says Odoric), whence ships sailed direct 
to Aden ; on n gulf of the sea. in a s.indy plain adorned with many gar- 

456 iBN batuta's travels in bengal and china. 

dens ; the brazil tree grew there, and the Mahomedans had a fine mosque 
and square. Ihn Baiuta also notices the fine mosque, and says the city 
was one of the finest in Malabar, with splendid markets, rich merchants, 
etc It continued to be an important place to the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, when Yarthema speaks of it as a fine port, and Barbosa 
as a "very great city," with a very good haven, with many great mer- 
chants. Moors, and Gentoos, whose ships traded to all the eastern ports as 
far as Bengal, Peg^, and the Archipelago. But after this its decay must 
have been rapid, and in the following century it had sunk into entire 
insignificance. Throughout the middle ages it appears to have been one 
of the chief seats of the St. Thomas Christians. 

There were several ports between Quilon and Cape Comorin, but my in- 
formation about them is too defective to carry the list further. 



Having sailed at last (from the Maldives) we were at sea 
for forty-three days, and then we arrived in Bengal. This 
is a country of great extent, and one in which rice is ex- 
tremely abundant. Indeed I have seen no region of the 
earth in which provisions are so plentiful, but the climate 
is muggy, and people from Khords&n call it Duzakhast bur 
ni'amaty^ which is as much as to say, A Hell full of good 
things I 

He then proceeds to give a number of details as to the cheap- 
ness of various commodities, from which we select a few : — 

Mahomed ul Masmiidf the Moor, a worthy man who died 
in my house at Dehli, had once resided in Bengal. He told 
me that when he was there with his family, consisting of 
himself his wife and a servant, he used to buy a twelve- 
month^s supply of food for the three of them for eight 
dirhems. For he bought rice in the husk at the rate of 
eight dirhems for eighty rothl, Dehli weight ; and when he 
had husked it he still had fifty rothl of rice or ten kantdrs.* 

^ Should be (Pets.) Duxakh ast pur-i ni'amat ! "It ia a Hell full of 
wealth." This is much the way in which Sultan Baber speaks of India, 
concluding with the summary that " the chief excellence of Hindustan is 
that it is a large country, and has abundance of gold and silver" (p. 333), 
and such I fear have been the sentiments of many others &om further west. 

'^ In a passage omitted he explains that an Indian dinar was equal to 


top* amm m milch cow sold in Bengal for three silver 
a. .the cMtde of that coontiy are buSHIoes). As for tat 
^ I hare seen eight sold for a dirhem, whilst small 
■e to be had at fifteen for a dirhem. . . A piece 
flf fas cotton cloth of excellent quality, thirty cubits in 
Ingtb, has been sold in my presence for two dinars (of 
attfw). A beautiful girl of marriageable age I have also 
SMB sold for a dinar of gold, worth two and a half gold 
dinars of Barbaiy. For abont the same money I myself 
bought a yomig slave girl called Ashura, who was endowed 
with the most exquisite beauty. And one of uty comrades 
bought a pretty little slave, called Liilii {Pearl), for two 
gold^i dinars. 

The first dty of Bengal which we entered was called 
S&PKAWAN, a big place on the shore of the Great Sea.' The 
river Gangbs, to which the Hindus go on pilgrimage, and 

tifU diihema of lilTer (see note K prtftding), und that a. rotU of Dehli 
WM equal to twenty rotU of Borbarj. The editors in a note on a pre- 
TioDB passage m; that a roth] and a half of Barbary was equal to a kiJo- 
gTMQme, which (taken exactly) would Joake the Dehli rotbl of that day 
equal to S6.T8 Ibt. avoirdvpoU. In another place (ii, 74) ho applioa the 
more appTopriat^ term maun (or iiMttnd, ae in A.ngIo.India) to the Dehli 
weight, and says it was oqual to twenty-flve rothl of Egypt. The former 
calculation is corroborated with an oiactnesB which miiBt be portly for- 
tuitODB by adoductioD &om a atatemont in the Maidlak'Ul-Abtdr, Accord- 
ding to this work the current weights of Dehli were the sir, and the fiiniin 
of forty tin, precisely the terms and rates now eiurent in Hindustan, 
but with differeDt values. For the sir it is said was equal to aevynty 
milhkdXt. According to Aniari tJie mithltttl is 4.665 grammes, a datum 
wkioh gives the iir=.72 tb., and the niann=28.80 ilii. The modem 
" Indian mftund" is a little over 83 lbs., and nil the local niuunda in the 
B«ng»l Presidency at this day approiiinate to that. We have seen (note 
A, p, 441) that the dinar probably represents the rupee. The quantity 
of nnhuaked rice purchased for the rupee in Ibn Batuta's time would 
themforo be about 2,300 lbs., equal to 28 modem maunds, about nine 
tlmm as much for the money as I can reraeml»?r ever to have heard of 
in our own time. 

' Both Chtttginw (or Chitt^ong) and Satganw (on the Hugh, some 
twoDty-fivs to twenty-eight miles alwve Colcatta) were important havens 
when the Portuguese arrived in India, and the name here might from 
llio i-eu of an Arab represent eithiT of them. liul ChiUof.'onp only iif 


the river Jun* unite in that neighbourhood before falling 
into the sea. The people of Bengal maintain a number of 
vessels on the river, with which they engage in war against 
the inhabitants of Laknaoti.^ The King of Bengal was the 
Sultan Fakhruddin, sumamed Fakhrah, a prince of distinc- 
tion who was fond of foreigners, especially of Fakirs and 

The traveller then recapitulates the hands through which the 
sceptre of Bengal had passed from the time of the Sultan Nasir- 
uddin (the Bakarra Elhan of Elphinstone's History), son of 
Balaban King of Dehli. After it had been held successively by 
two sons of Nasiruddin, the latter of these was attacked and 
killed by Mahomed Tughlak.^ 

Mahomed then named as governor of Bengal a brother- 
in-law of his own, who was murdered by the troops. Upon 
this Ali Shah, who was then at Laknaoti, seized the king- 

the two is near the shore of the ocean, and we know moreover that it was 
in this part of Bengal that Fakhruddin set up his authority. Hence Ibn 
Batata must have landed at Chittagong. 

^ Mn is the name which our traveller applies to the Jumna. But it is 
difficult to suppose that even Ibn Batuta's loose geography could con- 
ceive of the Jumna, whose banks he had frequented for eight years, as 
joining the Ganges near the aea. That now main branch of the Brahma- 
putra which flows into the Qunges near Jafargunge is called the Janai, 
and I have heard it called by natives Jumna, though this I supposed to 
be an accidental blunder. Whatever confosion existed in our traveller's 
mind, I suppose that it was the junction of the Ganges and Brahma- 
putra of which he had heard. 

' Laknaoti is the same as Gaur, long the capital of the Mahomedan 
governors and sultans in Bengal, the remains of which are scattered over 
an extensive site near Malda. Firishta distinguishes the three provinces 
into which Bengal was divided at this time as Laknaoti, Sunarganw, and 
Chatganw (BHggs, i, 423). It would seem that by Bengal Ibn Batuta 
means only the two latter. 

^ The second of these princes, Ghaiassuddin Bahadur Burah, is entirely 
omitted by Firishta, but the fact of his reign has been established by a 
coin and other evidence, in corroboration of Ibn Batuta (De/r. and Sang. 
Preface to vol. iii, p. xxv). Some notes of mine from Stewart's History of 
Bengal appear to show that the reig^ of Bahddur Sh4h is related in that 




dom of Bengal. Wlien Fakliruddin saw that the royal 
Bnthority had thus passed from the family of the Sultan Nasii'- 
uddin, whose descendant he was, he raised a revolt in 
Sadk&w^ and Bengal, and declared himself independent. 
The hostility between him and Ali Shah was very bitter. 
When the winter came, bringing rain and mud, Fakhrnddin 
would make an attack upon the Laknaoti country by the 
river, on which he could muster great strength. But when 
the dry season returned, AJi Shah would come down npon 
Bengal by land, hia force that way being predominant.' 

' These events are thus related b; Stewart fiMm Firishta and other 
Peremn authorities ; — 

Mahomed Tughlak eoon after hia succession appointed Kodir Shan to 
the government of Laknaoti, and confirmed Bairam Khan in that of 
Sunarganw. These two chiefs governed their reipective territories for 
some fourteen years with much eqaity. In 133S Bairom Khan died at 
Sunarganw at the time when Sultan Mahomed was bus; with the transfer 
of his capital to Daulatabad. Fakhruddin, the armour bearer of Boiram 
Khan, took the opportunity not only to aasuine the government, but to 
declare himself independent under the title of Sultan Sikandor. The 
Emperor ordered his expulsion by Kadir Slian, who marched against the 
rebel from Laknaoti, defeated him, and took possession of Sunarganw. 
There was a large aum in the treasury there, which Kadir Khan wna 
preparing to forward to Delhi. Fakhruddin made known to the troops of 
Kadir Khan, that ii they would kill their master and join him, he would 
distribute the treasure among them. They consented; Kodir Khaa was 
alain, and Fakhruddin again took possession of Sunarganw, where he 
fixed his capita], proclaiming himself sovereign of Bengal, coining and 
issuing edicta in his own name. This was in 1340. He then sent an 
army to seire Laknaoti, but it was resisted and defeated by Ah Mubarak, 
one of the officers of the deceased governor, who, on this success, applied 
to the emperor for the government, but afisumed it without waiting a 
reply, under the name of Alauddin, marched against Fakhruddin, took 
him prisoner, and put him to death, alter a reign of only two years and 
five months, in 1342.3. A year and five months later, Ali Mubarak was 
assassinated by his foster brother, lliyaa, who took possession of the 
kingdom under the title of Shamsuddin, and established his capital at 
Faudua (now a station on the railway between Calcutta, and Burdwon, 
where there are some curious ronuuns of the Mahomedan dynasty). See 
Steteart's ifiiiorj/ "/ H't^gal, pp. 80-84. 

We see &om Ibn Batata, that the date assigned to the death of Fakhr- 
iddin by the historians ia much too early. For the traveller'a visit to 
Bougal appears to have occurred in the cold weather of 1346-47, so that 
■udJin wao reigning ut leant four years hitor than SU'warfa author- 


• .• • • > • • 

When I entered Sadkawdn I did not visit the sultan, nor 
did I hold any personal communication with him, because 
he was in revolt against the Emperor of India, and I feared 
the consequences if I acted otherwise. Quitting Sadkawan 
I went to the mountains of Kamru, which are at the dis- 
tance of a month's journey. They form an extensive range, 
bordering on China and also on the country of Tibet, where 
the musk-antelopes are found. The inhabitants of those 
regions resemble the Turks [i.e. the Tartars] and are capital 
people to work, so that as a slave one of them is as good as 
two or three of another race.* 

My object in going to the hill country of Kamru was to 
see a holy personage who lives there, the Shaikh Jalaluddin 
of Tabriz.^ This was one of the most eminent of saints, 
and one of the most singular of men, who had achieved most 
worthy deeds, and wrought miracles of great note. He was 
(when I saw him) a very old man, and told me that he had 
seen the Khalif Mostasim Billah the Abasside at Baghdad, and 
was in that city at the time of his murder.' At a later date 
I heard from the Shaikh's disciples of his death at the age 
of one hundred and fifty years. I was also told that he had 
fasted for some forty years, breaking his fast only at inter- 
vals of ten days, and this only with the milk of a cow that 
he kept. He used also to remain on his legs all night. The 
shaikh was a tall thin man, with little hair on his face. The 
inhabitants of those mountains embraced Islam at his hands, 
and this was his motive for living among them. 

Some of his disciples told me that the day before his 

ities represent. The All Shah of Ibn Batuta is no doubt the All Muba- 
rak of Stewart. 

' A discussion as to the direction of this excursion to Kcmr& will he 
found in Note E at the end of this paper. 

" Further on ho is styled SMrdzi, instead of Tabrizi (iii, 287). 

^ The Khalif Mostasim Billah was put to death by Hula^gpi, alb 
capture of Baghdad in 1258, therefore oighty-^ht years previoiui 


death he called them together, and after pxhoriing them to 
live in the fear of God, went on to say : " I am assared that, 
God willing, I shall leave you to morrow, and as regards 
you (my disciples) God Himself, the One and Only, will be 
my successor." Next day, just as he was finishing the nuon- 
tide prayer, God took his soul during the last prostration. 
At one aide of the cave in which he dwelt they found a 
gi-ave ready dug, and beside it a winding sheet with apices. 
They washed his body, wound it in the sheet, prayed over 
him, and buried him there. 

When I was on my way to visit the shaikh, four of his 
disciples met mo at a distance of two days journey from his 
place of abode. They told mo that the shaikh had said to 
the fakirs who were with him : " The Traveller from the 
west ia coming ; go and meet him," and that they had come 
to meet mo in consequence of this command. Now he knew 
nothing whatever about me, but the thing had been re- 
vealed to him. 

I set out with these people to go and see the shaikh, and 
arrived at the hermitage outside of his cave. There was no 
cultivation near the hermitage, but the people of the coun- 
try, both Mussulman and heathen, used to pay hira visits, 
bringing presents with them, and on these the fakirs and 
the travellers [who came to see the shaikh] were supported. 
As for the shaikh himself he had only his cow, with whoso 
milk he broke his fast every ten days, as I have told you. 
When I went in, he got up, embraced me, and made in- 
quiries about my country and my travels. I told him about 
these, and then ho said, " Thou art indeed the Traveller of 
the Arabs !" His disciples who were present here added, 
"And of the Persians also. Master!" — "Of the Persians 
also," rephed he ; " treat him then with consideration." 
So they led me to the hermitage and entertained me for 
three days. 

The day that I entered the shaikh's presence he was 


wearing an ample mantle of goat's hair which greatly took 
my fancy, ao that I conld not help saying to myself "I wish 
to God that he would give it me !" When I went to take my 
leave of him he got up, went into a comer of his cave, took 
off this mantle and made me put it on, as well as a high cap 
which he took from his head, and then himself put on a coat 
all covered with patches. The fakirs told me that the shaikh 
waa not in the habit of wearing the dreas in question, and 
that he only put it on at the time of my arrival, saying to 
thorn : "The man of the West will ask for this dresa ; a Pagan 
king will take it from him, and give it to our Brother 
Burhdnuddin of Sigharj to whom it belongs, and for whom 
it was made !" When the fakirs told me this, my answer was ; 
" I've got the shaikh's blessing now he has put his mantle 
on me, and I'll take care not to wear it in visiting any king 
whatever, be ho idolater or be ho Islamite." So I quitted 
the shaikh, and a good while afterwards it came to pass that 
when I was travelling in China I got to the city of Khans&.l 
The crowd about us waa so great that my companions got 
separated from me. Now it so happened that I had on this 
very dress of which we are speaking, and that in a certain 
street of the city the wazir waa passing with a great fol- 
lowing, and his eye lighted on me. He called me to him, 
took my hand, asked questions about my journey, and did 
not let me go till we had reached the residence of the sultan.* 
I then wanted to quit him ; however he would not let me go, 
but took me in and introduced lue to the prince, who began 
to ask me questions about the various Mussulman sovereigns. 
Whilst I waa answering his questions, his eyes were fixed 

I with admiration on my mantle. "Take it off," said the 
wazir ; and there was no possibility of disobeying. So the 



i, CtiDsa;, e 

J European traTvUera, see pp. US, SB9, 354, 

' The viceroy, ae appears mure oleatly below. Bnt some of tbe yioe- 
rojB under the Mongols seem to have borne the title of Wan j or King, 
lo that rbn Batuta may not be altogether wronn in calling him Stillan. 




sultan took the dress, and ordered them to give me ten robea 
of honour, a horse saddled and bridled, and a sum of money. 
I was vexed about it ; but then came to my mind the shaikh's 
saying that a Pagan king would take this dress from me, and 
I was greatly astonished at its being thus fulfilled. The year 
following I came to the residence of the King of China at 
KlianbaKk, and betook myself to the Hermitage of the 
Sliaikh Burhanuddin of S&ghaij. I found him engaged in 
reading, and lo ! h§ had on that very dress ! So I began to 
feel the stuff with my hand. "Why dost thou handle it? 
Didst ever see it before ?" " Yes," quoth I, "'tis the mantle 
the Sultan of Khansi took from me." "This mantle," 
replied the shaikh, " was made for me by my brother 
Jalaluddin, and he wrote to me that it would reach me by 
the hands of such an ono." So he showed me Jalatuddiu's 
letter, which I read, marvelling at the shaikh's prophetic 
powers. On my telling Burhanuddin the 6rst part of the 
story, he observed; "My brother Jalaluddin ia above all 
these prodigies now ; he had, indeed, supernatural resources 
at his disposal, but now he hath past to the mercies of God. 
They tell me," he added, "that he used ever^- day to say his 
morning prayers at Mecca, and that every year he used to 
accomplish the pilgrimage. For he always disappeared oq 
the two days of Arafat and the feast of the Sacrifices, and no 
one knew whither.'" 

When I had taken leave of the nhftHrti Jalaladdin I pro- 
ceeded towardii the city of Habahe, which is one of the 
grcatetit and fineiit that is anywhere to be found. It is 
travened by a river which comes down from the mountains 
of Kamru, and which is called the Blue River. By it you 
u»a d««cvnd to iitmf(n\, and to the Laknaoti country-. Along 
th« baaka of thin rivwthcrcarevill^es, gardens, and water- 
Mia to rigtit aud left, just aa one sees on the banks of the 

badjr Oat Oonton aud« Bcqiiauitaiioe in Egrpt wilk a veiy hotj 
Ui, wbu, tbuofli dvaHiDf oa the NDe, vu tMliered Vj the paofk (o 
lbra> y> (l<t*o(l0M dattr at VMca ('inoMd IB Uie TiiMs, Srpt. Ifi. ISSSV 



Nile in Egypt. The people of these villages are idolaters, 
but under the rule of the Musalmans. The latter take from 
them the half of their crops, and other exactions besides. 
We travelled upon this river for fifteen days, always passing 
between villages and garden lands ; it was as if we had been 
going through a market. You pass boats innumerable, and 
every boat is furnished with a drum. When two boats meet, 
the drum on board each is beaten, whilst the boatmen ex- 
change salutations. The Saltan Fnkhruddin bufore-men- 
tioned gave orders that on this river no passage money 
should be taken from fakirs, and that such of them as had 
no provision for their journey should be supplied. So when 
a fakir arrives at a town he gets half a dinar. At the end of 
fifteen days' voyage, as I have said, we arrived at the city of 
SuNCB Kawan'. ... on our arrival there we found a junk 

< SnnB^anw (8<ivanta-gramma, or Ooldon Town) has already been 
mentioned Ha one of fbe medieval capitals of Bengal, Coins Etrack there 
itt 13li3 and 1357 ore deaoribed by Reinaud in Jovr. Atial., iii, ZT3. It 
tny a few miles 8.K. of Deieca ; but 1 believe its exact «ite is not recover- 
able in tUat region of va«t Bhiding rivent. It appears in Pmu Maaro's 
map aa Soaarga/uam, and nitut have continued at least till tlie end of the 
aixteenth century, for it ia named as a district town in the Jytn Akbari. 
and retains its place in Bloeu's (freat Atlas {Amal. 16(32, vol. i) na 

I formerly thought thia Somagam must be the Cebnovb of Conti. But 
the report of a paper on Bengal Coins by Mr, Edward Thomas {Athen., 
Fob. 3. 1866) informa ua that Laknaoti (Qaur) wiu renovated aomo time 
in Uie fourteenth century by the name of Shabb-:-nau (New City). Here 
wu have Cn-noDB, and still more distinctly the Scierho of Fra Mauro. 
Shahr-i-nsn, I find, ia alao mentioned by Abdul-roazak (India in the 

Sunarganw must diapnte with Chittagong the claim to be that "oity 
of Bengala" which baa ao much troubled those interested in Asiatic 
modievd geography, and respecting which Mr. Badger has an able dia- 
quiaition in hia preface to Varthema, That there ever was a town pro- 
ptrly so-called, I decline to believe, any more than that there was a city 
of the Peninaula properly called Ma'bar (i, supra, p. 218), or that Canton 
was properly called Uahoohin (p. lOG) ; but these examplee suffiaiuntly 
show the practice which applied tlic name of a country to its chief port. 
The uumu becomoa a, blunder ouly when found side by aide with tho pi- 
per name ua holongiug to a diatiuct pliice. BtnijuUi tipiieiirs as a of 



which was just going to sail for the country of Java, diatant 
forty days' voyage. 

On this junk ho took his passage, and aft«r fifteea days they 
touched at BabAHKaqak, whero the men had mouths hke dogs, 
whiUt the women were extremely beautiful. Ho describes them 
as in a very uncirihaed state, almost without an apology for 
clothing, but cultivating bananas, betel-nut, and pawn. Some 
Mahomedans from Dengal and Java were settled among them. 
Tlio king of these people came dovrn to boo the foreigners, at- 
tended by some twenty othorK, all mounted on elephants. The 
chief wore a dress of goatskin with the hair on, and coloured silk 
handkerehiefs round his head, carrying a spear.^ 

the cniioiis and half obliterated J'orlulano JTeiiiceo of tJie Lanrentian 
Library (a.u. I3SI), and also in tbe Carta Catalona of 1375. By Fra 
Maoro Berignlta iB ahown in addition to Sonat^aiioju and Salgauam (pro- 
bably Chittagong). Its poaition in man; later maps, including Bloeu's, 
hat been detailed b; Mr. Badger. Bat I maj mention acurioua passage 
in the travela of Y. le Blanc, who eajs bo came "an Bojaiune de Bengale, 
dont la principalo ville eat auasi appell^s Bengale par lea Fortugaia, et 
par lea autrea nationa ; mala ceui du pais I'appeUent Batacouta." Ha 
adda, that ahipa ascend the Ganges to it, a distance of twenty miles by 
water, etc. Sir T. Herbert also speaks of " Bongala, anciently called 
Baramra," etc. (Fr. transl., p. 490). But on these authoritioa 1 must re- 
mark that Le Blaoc ie almost quite worthlesa, tbe greater part of his book 
being a mere concoction, with much pure fiction, whilst Herbert is here 
to be suapected of borrowing from Le Blanc ; and there is reason to be- 
lieve, I am sorry to say, that tbo bulk of Sir Tbonjas's travels eaitu/ard o/ 
Persia is factitious and hashed up trota other books. One of tbe latest 
aliases containing the city of Bengala is that of Coronelli (Venico 1691) ; 
and he adds tbe judicious comiaent, " credvta/avolosa." 

' Lee tokea Barahnagor for tlie Nicobar Islands, Dulaiirier for the 
Andamona. With the people of the latter there does not aeom to have 
been interoourso at any time, but the Nicobara might be fairly identified 
with the place described by our traveller, were it not for the elepbanta 
which are bo prominent in the picture. It is in the highest d^ree im- 
probable that olephanta were ever kept upon thoea islands. Hence, if 
this feature be a genuine one, the scene must be referred to the main- 
land, and probably to some part of the coast of Arakan or Pegu, where 
the aettlementa of the wilder races, such as the Khyens of the Arakan 
Yoma, might have extended down to the sea. Sach a position might 
best be sought in the neighbourhood of the Island NcKrais {Naoabit of 
the Burmose), whore the ettremitj of the Yoma Eange does abut upon 
the sea. And it is worth noting that, the sea off Negraia b called by 
CiEBar Frederic and some other sixteenth century travellerB, " the Sea of 
Bara." The combination of Bara-Nagarit is at least worthy of coosider- 


I In twenty-five days more they reached the island of Java, na 
% calls it, but in fact that which we call Sdhatba.' 

The coloon^d handkerchief on the head axe nnlte a cbaracteriHtio 
people in quealion ; I cannot say aa much for the goat-akiDB. 
"Dnlanrier, however, pointa out that Barah Hagdr may represent tha 
BJalay Bdrai " West," and 1/agdrd " City or Coontry." This is the more 
vorthy of notice as the crew of the junk were probably Malaya, but the 
interpretation would be quite consistent with the poBition that 1 suggeat. 
I take the do^'a mnKjJe to be only a atron^ way of describing the pro- 
trnding lips and coaj^e featnrea of one common type of Indo-Chinese 
face. The story as regards the beautiful women of these dog-headed 
nten is eiactly as Jordanus bad hoard it (Fr. Jord., p. 44; and compare 
Oiorie, p. Q7). This probably alludes to the fact that among soma of 
these races, and the Burmese may be especially instanced, coosiderable 
elegance and refinement of feature is not unfreciuently seen among the 

women ; there is one type of faee almoat Italian, of which I have seen 
repeated instances in Bnrmese/«naZe faces, never amongst tha men. A 
like story existed amongst the Chinese and Tartars, but in it the men 
were do^ and not dog-faced merely ; this story however probably hod a 
similar ori^n (see King Helham't Ifarr. in Journ. As., sor. ii, torn. xii. 
p. 288, and Piano Carpini, p. 657). 1 give an example of the type of male 
face that I suppose to be alluded to ; it represent howevsi tiro hi 
the Sunda peasantry in Java, as I have no BurmeBa hi 

' The terms Jama, Javei, appear to have b 
the islands and productions of the Arobipelago g 
Ind. ttlandt, p. 165), but certainly also at times to 8 
■a by Abalfeda and Maroo Polo (Java Minor). Then 
ever that even in old times of Hindu influence in thi: 
bora the name of Java or rather Tava (see Fritdri'-h 
- IVafuaoNonf, vol. xivi, p. 77, and prectd.). 



It was verdant and beautiful j moat of its trees being coco- 
palma, areca-palms, clove-treeSj Indian aloes, jack-trees,* 
Mangoes, Jamiln,^ sweet orange trees, and camphor- canes. 

The port which they entered waH called Sarha, four miles from 
the city of Sumatra or Sumatra, the capital of the king called 
Malik AJ-Dhahir, a zeiiloas disciple of Islam, who showed the 
traveller much hospitality and attention. 

Ibn Batuta remained at the Court of Sumatra, where he appears 
to have found ofEciala and brethren of the law from all parts of 
the Mahomedau world, for fifteen days, and then asked leave to 
proceed on hia voyage to China, as the right season had arrived. 
The king ordered a junk to be got ready, supplied the traveller 
with alt needful stores, and sent one of his own people to accom- 
pany him and look after his comfort.^ 

After saihng, he saya, for one and twenty days along the coasts 
of the country belonging to Malik-Al-Dhahir, they arrived at 
Mul-Jawa,' a region inhabited by Pagans, which had an extent 
of some two months' journey, and produced excellent aromatica, 

> Shaki and Barki. For details on whicli soa Ft, Jord,, p. 13, and 

* The French editors render tliis Jambv, but the Jdmtin which is meant 
here is quite another thiu^. On two former occasions (ii, 191 ; iii, 128} 
our travellor describes the iriiit as being like an olive; which would be 
as like the Jambu or Rose-apple as a hawk is like a handsaw. The 
Jdtitun, which is common in Upper India and many other parts of the 
eaat, is really very much like aa olive in size, colour and form, whilst the 
Jambu is at least as large as a dnck's egu, in the different varieties exhi- 
biting various shades of briUiant pink and crimBon softening into white. 

Erdkine, in a note to Baber, notices the same confusion by a former oom- 
mentatoT, and the source of it appears to be that the JoEmun is called by 
botanists Eugeaia Jambolana, the Bose-apple Engenia Jambu, from whii.-h 
one mast conclude tbem to be akin, though neither &uite nor trees have 
any aaperliciaJ likeness (Baber'i Memoiri, p. 325), 

' Beapecting Malik-al-Dhahir, son of Malik-al-Salah, first Mahomedsin 
King of Sumatra, see Dulaaner. The port of Sarha ia identified by this 
Bcbohir with Jambu Air, a village of the Batta coast between Paaei and 
Diamond Point. In that case the city of Sumutra or Samadra, which 
has given a name to the great Island, cannot have been so far west ae 
Samarlonga (see svpra, p. 86 i Jourti. Indian Arehip., ii, 610; Joum. Ai., 
ser. iv, torn, ii, p. 124; Id., torn, xi, p. 94). 

' See in note F at the end of the narrative, the editor's reasons for 
supposing Mul-Jana to be a oontinental country on the Oult of Siam. 


illy the aloes-wood of Kakuu' and Ejuuba, places which 
e both in that country. 

B port which they entered was that of Kakala, a fine city 
II a wall of hewn stone wide enough to admit the passage of 
# elephants abreast. There were war junka in the harbour 
b for piratical cmising, and also to enforce the tolls which, 
b exacted from foreign vessels. The traveller saw elephants 
f into the town loaded with aloes-wood, fur the article was 
s to bo popularly used for &el. Elephants were also 
employed for all kinds of purposes, whether for personal use oi' 
for the carriage of goods ; everybody kept them, and everybody 
rode upon them. 

The traveller was presented to the Pagan king, in whose pre- 
sence he witnessed an extraordinary act of self-immolation,* and 
■was entertained at the royal expense for three days, after which 
he proceeded on his voyage. 

Bat in connexion with Mul-Jawa, where there was a market 
for the productions of the Archipelago, he takes ocoasion to state 
" what he knew of these from actual observation, and after Teri- 
fying that which he had heard," and these statements it is well 
to quote at length, as throwing light on some of onr author's 
qualifications as a traveller. 

The incensQ tree is small, and at most does not exceed a 

' Kakiila is mentioned by Edrisi also, aa a, cit; towards China, staad- 

ing upon a, rivec which flowed into the Indian Ocean. Its people, oocord- 

ing to that geographer, raised much aillc, whence the name of Kakali was 

given to a kind of aillc stuif (Jtmberfs Edrisi, i, 1S5). 

Tha position of Kv.mira ur A'omar, tha place from which the Kumari 
aloes came, has been inextricably confased by the Arabian gfeograpliera, 
for whilst soma applications of the name point distinctly to the region of 
Cape Comorin, other authorities as well aa Ibu Batata plaoe it in the 
vicinity of the Archipelago, and others again appear to OOBfanid it with 
JTamru or Assam. Mr. Lane considers Sindbad'a EVMd'fBitlin been 
on one or other shore of the Oulf of Siatu . und this -iniU MfttM with |{ 

view taken by ths editor of thepositV'ii ' i.' . '. - i.. 

Komor to the west of Son/or Chaiuj'ii 
the coutLtrics. If his Sanf, sd isprvi .. 
woold indicate the northern part of tl." 
- iice Fi. Jordahut, p. 3il luiU. 


071 ihc Indian Aloes-wood. 

The Indian aloes is a tree like the oak, excepting that it 
has a thin bark. Its leaves are precisely like those of the 
oak, and it produces no fruit. Its trunk does not grow to 
any great size ; its roots are long, and extend far from the 
tree ; in them resides the fragrance or aromatic principle. 

In the country of the Mahomedana all trees of aloes-wood 
are considered property ; but in the infidel coimtries they are 
generally left uncared for. Among them, however, those 
which grow at Kdkula are cared for, and these give the aloes 
of the best quaUty, Such is the case also with those of 
Eam&ra, the aloes-wood of which is of high quality. These 
are sold to the people of Java (Sumatra) in exchange for 
cloths. There is also a special kind of Kamfiri aloes which 
takes an impression Uke wax. As for that which is called 
'Atliaa, they cut the roots, and put them under ground for 

same thuig. For tbis laat is explained \>j Cesore Fcderici to be " a con- 
gelation in certain canes," and in the wort of Da Uziano (tvpra, p. 283), 
tbere is mention aeveral times of Upodio di Canna. (Tbe Spodjutn of 
Marco Polo is a different Hubatance ; aa be describea it, a metallic slag). 

" The Malay campbor tree Dipterocax'pat Camphora or Dryabalanojia 
CamphoTa of botaQiatB. is a large forest tree, Confined, as fiSJ as ia known, 
to a. lev parte of the ielaiids of Sumatra and Borneo, bat in tbeee abun- 
dant. The oil, both in a fluid nod solid state, is found in the body of the 
tree where the sap should bo" {Craie/vrd'a Diet. o/Iiirf. Isl.), The de- 
Bcription in the tert ia yet more inapplicable to tbe Chinese camphor, 
obtained by diatillation from the Cinnamomum CamphoTn. 

Far nearer the truth is the description of Kaiwioi the Arabian geo- 
grapher. He says the camphor is drawn both in a liquid state and in 
gummy partieleB from the branobes and stem of a tree Ini^e enough to 
shade one hundred men. Ue had beard that a seasOD of thundar «"^ 
earthquakes was faroorablo to the prodnction. Like Marcn 
speaks of the camphor of Fani&r aa tbe beat ; aappoaed to be * 
BdrAs on tbe west aide of Sumatra (Oildnn., pp. 194, 309). 

Tbe word Barddtah, which Ibn Batuta appliea to a 8pe>^ 
does not seem to be known. I suspect be may have m' 
embroilment, and that what be has got hold of ia the 
roaponding to the Hinduatani Uartdl, " orpimont ; n 



After leaving Kakula they sailed for thirty-four days, and 
then arrived at the Calm or Pacific Sea (ul Bakr-ul Kukll), 
which is of a reddish tint, and in apito of its great extant is 
disturbed by neither winds nor waves. The boats were 
bronght into play to tow the ship, and the great sweeps of 
the junk were pulled likewise.^ They were thirty-seven 
days in passing this sea, and it was thought an excellent 
passage, for the time occupied was usually forty or fifty daya 
at least. They now arrived at the countiy of Tawalisi, a 
name derived, according to Ibn Batuta, from that of its king. 

It is very extensive, and the sovereign is the equal of the 
King of China. He possesses numerous junks with which 
he makes war upon the Chinese until they sue for peace, and 
consent to grant him certain concessionH. The people are 
idolaters; their countenances ai-egood, and they bear a strong 
resemblance to the Turks. Thoy are usually of a copper 
complexion, and are very vahant and warlike. The women 
ride, shoot, and throw the javelin well, and fight in fact just 
ta eay DulBuiier aeems to accept the traTeller'a statement of tlie nntmeg 
being the fi-iiit of the clove tree (Journ. Atiat., ser. iv, torn, ii, p. 213; 
Loam, iv, 890). The notion th&t the clove waa the flower of the nut- 
meg appears also to have prevailed in Enrope, for it U coiltrAdict«d in a 
work of the siiteenth conturj (Boda, Comment, in TJieopftrajfimt, p. 99Z). 
Mandeville Bays in this caae dimply and correctly : " Know well that the 
nutmeg bears the macoB, for right aa the hazel liath a husk in which the 
nut is inclosed till it be ripe, bo it ia of the nntmeg and the maces" (p. 233). 

What OUT author says however about the clove imported into the west 
consisting of tbe wood or branches is curious. A marginal note on the 
US. translated by Lee obaerves t " This is perhaps what pbysicianH call 
Kir/al~al-Karar\ful or bark of clove." However that may be, no donbt it 
woA the same aa the Fuili di Okerofani of Pegolotti and Uziano (aee 
note, tvpra, p. 305.) The term fiovicr of clove oit«d In "i" 
used by those writers. 

I may note hara that the Diction, de Trevour, a 
OiroJUe or Noit de iladagatear, deacribes a nut 
Caryophyllacea ; " La seconde Scarce de cet arbre 
en figure 1 la canelle, mais elle a le gout du giro*' 
QiTofife." I have not met with any recent d' 
would appear to be the KiTfat-Ml-Karat^ful juat 

' Polo mentions the practice of towing the U 
row-boate {iii, 1). 


Bultan took the dross, and ordered ttem to give me ten robea 
of honour, a horse saddled and bridled, and a sum of money. 
I was vexed about it ; but then came to my mind the shaikli's 
saying that a Pagan king would take thia dress from mo, and 
I was greatly astonished at its being thus fulfilled. The year 
foliowing I came to the residence of the King of China at 
Khanbalik, and betook myself to the Hermitage of tho 
Shaikh Burhanuddin of Sigharj. I found him engaged in 
reading, and lo 1 h§ had on that very dross 1 So I began to 
feel tho stuff with my hand. "Why dost thou handle it ? 
Didst ever see it before ?" " Yes," quoth I, " 'tis the mantle 
the Saltan of Khans& took from mo," " This mantle," 
replied the shaikh, " was made for me by my brother 
Jalaluddin, and ho wrote to mo that it would reach me by 
tho hands of such an one." So he showed me Jalaluddin's 
letter, which I read, marvotling at the shaikh's prophetic 
powers. On my telling Burhanuddin the first part of tho 
story, he observed: "My brother Jalaluddin h above all 
these prodigies now ; he had, indeed, supernatural resources 
at his disposal, but now ho hatli past to the mercies of God. 
They tell me," he added, "that he used every day to say his 
morning prayers at Mecca, and that every year he used to 
accomplish the pilgrimage. For he always disappeared on 
tho two days of Arafat and the feast of the Sacrifices, and no 
one knew whither."' 

When I had taken leave of the shaikh Jalaluddin I pro- 
ceeded towards the city of Habank, which is one of the 
greatest and finest that is anywhere to be found. It is 
traversed by a river which comos down from the mountains 
of Kamru, and which is called the Blue River. By it you 
can descend to Bengal, and to the Laknaoti country. Along 
the banks of this river there are villages, gardens, and water- 
wheels to right and left, just as one sees on the banks of tho 

I Lady DoS Oordon mudo Hcquaintosoe in £gfpt with a very holy 
Bhaikli, who, though dwelling on tha Nile, wob believed by the people to 
pL'i'form his devotions daily at Uecca (i^uoted in tho Timat, Sept. 16, 1B6G). 


Nile in Egypt. The people of these villages are idolaters, 
but under the rule of the Miisalmans. The latter take from 
them the half of their crops, and other exactions besides. 
We travelled upon this river for 6fteen days, always passing 
between villages iind garden lands ; it was as if we had been 
going through a market. You pass boats innumerable, and 
every boat is furnished with a drum. When two boats meet, 
the drum on board each is beaten, whilst tho boatmen ex- 
change salutations. The Sultan Fakhruddin before-men- 
tioned gave orders that on this river no passage money 
should be taken from fakirs, and that such of them as had 
no provision for their journey should be supplied. So when 
a fakir arrives at a town he gets half a dinar. At the end of 
fifteen days' voyage, as I have said, we arrived at the city of 
SuNUE Kawan'. ... on our arrival there we found a junk 

I Sunarganir (Savama-gramma, or Oolden Town) has olrendj been 
mentioned as one of the medieval cnpitoU of Ben^. Coins struck there 
in 1353 and 1357 ore described b; Beinnud in Jour. Asiat., iii, 272. It 
lay a few miles S.K. of Dacca ; bat I believe its exact site is not recovor- 
tible in that region of vast shifting rivers. It appears in E'ran Manro's 
map as Sanargauam, and must have continued at least till the end of the 
siiteentb century, for it is named as a district toirn in the Ayin Akbari, 
and retains its place in Blaeu's great Atlas (Amtl. 1G62, vol. i) as 

I formerlj thought this Somagan must be the Cbkhove of Conti. But 
tho report of a paper on Bengal Coins by Mr. Edward Thomas (Athvn., 
Fob. 3, 1866) informs na that lAknaoti (Qaur) was renovated some time 
in the fourteenth century by the name of Shahb-i-nau (New City). Hero 
we have Ctntove, and still more distinctly the SiriKBtio of Fra Mauro. 
Sliahr-i-nan, I find, ia also mentioned by Abdul-razzoli ('India in the 

Sunarganw must dispute with Chittagong tho claim to he that "city 
of Bengala" which has so much troubled those interested in Asiatic 
medieval geography, and respecting which Mr. Badger has an able dis- 
iiuiaition in his preface to Vartbema. That there ever was a town pro- 
pcrly so-called, I decline to believe, any more than that there was a city 
of the Peninsula properly colled Ma'bar (v. «upra, p. 218), or that Canton 
was properljf called Mahauhin (p. 106) ; but those examples sufficiently 
show the practice wliich applied thd namo of a country to its chief port. 
Tho name becomua u. blunder only whun found side by side with the pro- 
per namo aa belonging to a distinct pliicc. Be nynl" appears aa a city in 

454 iBN batuta's tbavei^ in bengal anl cuina. 

laina of tlio Cbinesa under the Mongols {Paiilhier's Polo, p. 632) Bandi- 
nanu (for Baadirana) of Abdv,lraiiak, Bunderana of BaJthaww Spinger 
(Iter Indunm, 150T, in Voyage lAUeraire de dem Benedietins, 172*, p. 
36-1), Flandrina of Odoric (supra, p. 7&). A (freat and fine place with 
gardens, etc., and manj Mahomedans, whare auch Cliineae junks as 
stayed over the moneoon in M&labar were wont to lie (ib). A place en- 
tirely of Moora, and having many ehips (b). Bnt then in decay, for Var- 
tbema calls it " a poor enough place, and having no port". Opposite, at 
about throe leagues diatanco, nas an uninhabitml island. This mual 
have beos the Sacrlfico Bock of the maps. The place itself is not men- 
tioned, to my knowledge, after Barbosa'a time. 

Coulete (dkb), Coulandi (P. Fiminuo). Coilandy (Bennei!) i KorLAHDi. 

Capiicar(n), Capocar(B), CttpoDat6(DBB), Capncato(BL and P. Iinceni'.), 
Capogatto, where there wofl a fine palace in the old etyle (rarlhema). It 
has disappeared fh>m our maps. 

Calicut (h, e, deb), Choloehut of Fra Maitro, Kalikut, one of the gTeat 
ports freqnented by the Chinese junks, and the seat of the Samuri King 
(ib). From Spingra, qnoted above, wo learn that the Venetian mer- 
chants up to 1607 continued to trequent Calicut fur the purchase of spices 
to be carried by the Bed Sea, tboagh the competition of Portuguese and 
Germans by the Cape was beginning to tell heavily against them. 

Chiliate (bl), Cbalia or Colia (a), Cbale (deb and Utuckoim), Ciali 
(P. Vincenio), Shallyat (Mu^ffda and ib). Ibn Batuta stopped heru 
soma time and epeaks of the etuffs made there which bore the name of 
the place. This stuff was probably shall, the name still given in India 
to a soft twilled cotton, gencraUy of a dork red colour. The Portuguese 
bad a fort at Sbalin. 

Beypllr, now the tenniuiis of the Madras Bailwoy, is not mentioned by 
any of the old travellers that I know of, till Hamilton (about 1700). Tippn 
Sultan tried to make a great port of it. (seo Fra Paolino, p. 87). 

Pareraporam (s), Purpurongari (b), Propriomguari (bl), Parangalu 
(deb), Berengari (P. Fincemo); Pebepen Ahoabbt of some maps, Pcr- 
penagarde of RenncU. 

Patavanor (a). Paronanor (bl) j Parone of flenxcli ? 

Ytanor (b), Bonor (bl), Tanor (a and deb), Tahore or Tanmir. These 
two places bad great trade and were the residence of great merchants 
(b). This was an ancient city with many Christian inhabitants, and the 
seat of an independent B^ja, bat in the end of last century had become 
a poor village. 

Panam£< (b). Panane (s and deb), Ponani, Many rieli merchants 
owning many ships; the place paid the King of Calicut a largo revenue 
H^im its customs (b). (French and English Factories, 17th cent.). 

Beliamcor (s), Boleoncor (deb), Bai,liamoot of Bennell, and pro- 
bably the Melinneota or Malianoora of Conti, " quod nomen mngnaui 
urbem apndeos designat, viii milliaribos patens". 

Chataa (bl and dbb), Catua (b), Chetua (s), Cbitwa (licnnell), Ci.<ttuva 
{F. raolino); Chaitwa, 

Palcb mentioned liere by I'. Vincenitn and y. Paohuo. I d" unl know 

ncE. 455 

if this is Fanir, mentionod by Claudius Buc:hanaD as the site of tbu 
oldeat cburcU in Malabar ; but it ie probubl; the FaliuriiL of Coiili. 

Aykotta, st tLti mouth of the river of Crangonor was pointed out by 
tradition of the native CIiriBtiaiiB no the phvaa where St. Tfaomfu first set 
fo<ft in India. 

CRANOANoa (bl, h, ded), Crangalor (b), said to bo properly Kodan- 
gulor; Carangollor of P. Alvarez, where dwelt ChristianB, Moors, Jews 
and Cafira, the Shikali of Abulfeda, Cyngilin of Odorio, ela. (d. tapra, p. 
75); according to aoma accounts one of the oldest royal cities is HolubiLr, 
one of the greatest centrea of trade and the first place of settlement suc- 
cesaively of Jews, Christians, and Mobomedans on this coaat. It would 
seem to have been elreadj in decay as a port in the time of Borboaa, who 
only Hays t^at the King of Cocliin drew some duties frato it. Siity years 
Inter Federici speaks of it as a small Fortngnese fort, a place of little im- 
portance. In 1806 CI. Buchanan says: — "There was fornierly a town 
and fort at Cranganore ■ , . but both ore now in ruins." It continued, 
however, to be the seat of a R. C, AroUbiBhop. 

Cochin (b, B, dbb), Coohim (bl), Qutschinof Spinffffr, Coechiof O. Bnlliv,- 
properly Kachhi. It was not a place of any trade previous to the four- 
teenth century.. In the yeor lill an extmordinary land-flood produced 
great alterations in the cosat at Cochin, and oponedacapacioud estuary, but 
the place seema to have continued of no great consideration till the arri- 
val of the Portuguese, though now it is the chief port of Malabar. It is 
the Cocym of Conti, the first author,, as far as I know, who mentions it. 
The cironrastances just stated render it in the highest degree improbable 
that Cochin should have been the Cattiara of the ancients, as has often 
been alleged. 

Porca (8, dbb), Porqua (bl) j Parbaka-D. Formerly the seat of a small 
principality. Barbosa says the people were flahermen and pirates. Fra 
PaoUno in the last century speaks of it as a very populous city full of 
merchants, Mahomedan, Christian, and Hindu. (Dutch Factory in I'tb 

ColecouhuD (b and dkb), Caioolam (s), Katan Eulah. A cunsidcrablo 
e^ort of pepper; the residence of many Christians of St. Thomoa (b). A 
very populous town sending produce to Farrakod for shipment (F. 
PnuUno). (Dutch Factory in I7th cant.). 

Coilam (bl), Conlon (b), Cohim (s), Colom (0. d'EmpoU), Colon f Far- 
thema and Spinger), Euulaiu (Abulfeda and ib), Coikm or Coilun (H, PotoJ, 
Coloen (Conii) ; Eaulom-Mal^ of the merchant Saleitaan (a.d. SSI), (see 
p. TliuproJ; the Columbus, Colurabum, Cobmbo, Colonbi of /irrdoniM and 
Marigaoili, Pegolotti, Carta Catalans, Fra Mauro, etc. ; the modem QtriLON. 

Polo speaks of the Christiana, the brazil-wood and ginger, both called 
Cailnny after the place (compare the genffiavo ColonAino and veriino 
Colombino of Fegolotti and Uzzano), the popper, and the traffic of ships 
from China and Arabia. Abv-l/cda defines its position as at the extreme 
end of the pepper country towards the east ("at the extremity of the 
popper-forest towards the south," says Odoric), whence ships sailed direct 
to Aden ; on B gulf of the sea, in a sondj plain adorned with many gar- 



MIAL AN1> ( 

reign of M. TogUlalt, umi never ufterwacda restored (Fbrbttop.cit.) This 
quite agrees with the atateiaentH of Ibn Batuta. 

Kukah IB then the still tolerably flouriahing port of Qoao on thewsBtem 
aide of the gulf, which hadalread; been indicated aathe Caga of Friax Joi- 
danua («up., p. 238). Lee identified Eukahnith Qoa, whilst Oildemeister, 
more sttangely though not without miagiring, and evea Deirpmery, iden- 
tity the Kawe of OUT author with that city. Tho traveller's repeated hUu- 
sions to the tides point distinctly t« the Gulf of Cambay as the position 
of all tho places hitherto named ; the remarkable rise and fall of the tide 
there have been celebrated since the date of the Ptriplui. 

The Pagan king DuukiU or Dungfil, of Kukah, was doabtless one of 
the " Oohili, Lords of Oogo and Ferum, and of the sea-washed province 
which derived from them its name of Qohiltcdr" (Farhei, p. 15S), and 
possibly the last syllable represents this very name Gohil, though I can- 
not explain the prefix. 

SiiHtifrilr or Sandibiir is a greater difficulty, though named by a variety 
of geographers, Europeans as well as Arabs. Some needless difficulty has 
been created by Abulfeda's oonfounding it more or less with Sinddn, 
which was quite a different place. For the latter lay certainly to the north 
of Bombay, somewhere near the Gulf of Cambay. Indeed, Eawlinson 
(ijuoted in J/udroi Journal, ilv, 198) says it has been corrupted into the 
Bt. John of modem maps, on the coast of Qiyarat. I presume this must 
be the St. John's Point of Eennell between Daman luid Uahini, which 
would suit the conditiouB of Sindsn well, 

Tho data which Abulfeda himself quotes from travellers show that 
Sandabur was throe days south of Tana, and reached (as Ibn Batuta also 
tells as) immediately before Hunawar. Eashid also names it as the 
first city reached on the Malabar Coast. The CkinlahoT of the Catalan 
map, and the Cintabor of the Fortnlano Medieeo agree with this fairly. 

I do not know any European book since the Portuguese discovericB 
which speaks of Sandabur, but the name appears in Licschoten's map in 
the end of the sixteenth century as Cintapor on the coast of the Konkan 
below Dabul. Possibly this was introduced from an older map withoot 
personal knowledge. It disagrees with nearly all the other data. 

Ibn Batata himself speaks of it as the Iiland of Sandabur, containing 
thirty-sii villages, as being one of the ports from which ships traded to 
Aden, and as being about one day's voyage &om Bunawar. The lut 
particular shows that it could not be far i^om Goa, as Oildemeistar has 
recognised, and I am satisfied that it was substantially identical with 
the port of Goa. This notion ia supported (1) by its being called by 
Ibn Batuta, not merely an island, but an island Burrounded by an estuary 
in which tho water was salt at the flood tide but (reah at the ebb, a 
description applying only to a Delta island like Goa i (^) by his mention of 
its thirty-sii viUagee, lor Debarroa says that the island of Goa was colled 
by a native name signifying "Thirty ViDag6a";and(S) by the way in which 
Sandabur is named in the Turkish book of navigation called the Mohilh, 
translated by V. Hammer in the Bengal Jovrnal. Here there is a section 
headed •'ilth Voyage ; from Kiiirai SindabuT to Aden." But the original 


characters given in a note read Koah (i.e, Goa) Sindabur, which seems to 
indicate that Sindabur is to be looked for either in Goa Island, or on one of 
the other Delta islands of its estnary. The sailing^ directions commence : 
" If you start from Goa Sindabur at the end of the season take care not 
to fall on Cape Fal/' etc. If we cotdd identify this Rds-Ml-Fdl we might 
make sore of Sandabur. 

The name, whether properly Snndapur or Ch&ndapiir, (which last the 
Catalan and Medicean maps suggest) I cannot trace. D'Anville iden- 
tifies Sandabur with Sunda, which is the name of a district immediately 
south of Goa territory. But Sunda city lies inland, and he probably 
meant as the port Sedasheogarh, where we are now trying to reestablish a 
harbour. (D*Anville, Antiq. de VInde, pp. 109-111 ; Elliot, Ind. to Hist, of 
Mah. India, p. 43 ; Jauberfs Edrisi, i, 179 ; CHldemeister (who also refers to 
the following), pp. 46, 184, 188 ; Joum, As. 8oe, Bengal, v, p. 464). 

The only objection to these identifications appears to be the statement 
of our author that he was only three days in sailing fi*om Enkah to 
Sandabur, which seems rather short allowance to give the vessels of those 
days to pass through the six degrees of latitude between Gogo and Goa. 
After all however it is only an average of five knots. 

NOTE C. (See page 417.) 


The errors noticed here are those that I find obvious in those pages 
of the volume that I have had occasion to consult. None of them are 
noticed in the copious Errata at pp. 982 and (App.) 85. 


a. P. 888. " 3/a'd6er, which name a. The most cursory reading of Marco 
(with Marco Polo) indicates the Polo shows that, whatever Maabar pro- 
southernmost part of the Mala- perly means, it cannot mean this with 
bar coast." The same is said that author, including as it does with 
before at p. 156. him the tomb of St. Thomas near 

Madras. But see supra, pp. 80 and 219. 
If Maabar ever was understood to ifi- 
clude a small part of the S. W. coast, as 
perhaps the expressions of Rashid and 
Jordanus (p. 41) imply, this would 
seem to be merely because the name 
expressed a country, i.e., a superficies, 
and not a coast, i.e., a line. The name 
of Portugal would be most erroneously 
defined as " indicating the south coast 
of the Spanish peninsula," though Por- 
tugal does include a part of that coast. 
I find that the Arabs gave a name 


the princesa wrote BUmiUah Arrahman Arrahim (In the 
name of God the merciful and compassionate !) saying to me 
""What's thia?" I replied " Tnnzari nam." (Tangri nam), 
which is as much as to say "the name of God ;" whereupon 
she rejoined " Khttshn," or " It is well." She then asked 
from what country I had corae, and I told her that I came 
from India. The princess asked again, "From the Pepper 
country?" I said "Yes." She proceeded to put many ques- 
tions to me about India and its vicissitudes, and these I 
answered. She then went on, " I mast positively go to war 
with that country and get possession of it, for its great wealth 
and great forces attract me." Quoth I, "You had better do 
so." Then the princess made mo a present consisting of 
dresses, two elephant- loads of rice, two she buffaloes, ten 
sheep, four rothls of cordial syrup,^ and four Mnrtaban^s, or 
stout jars,^ filled with ginger, pepper, citron and maugo, all 
prepared with salt as for a sea voyage. 

The skipper toid mo that Urduja had in her army free 
women, slave girls, and female captives, who fought just like 
men ; that she was in the habit of making incursions into 
the territories of her enemies, taking part in battle, and en- 
gaging in combat with warriors of repute. He also told me 

' JaUlb. 

3 The word Martaban is un&miliar to Dnlanrier, who quotea from 
Father Az^ a, Maronito, that it means "a casket or vaee for keeping 
medioines and comfits, etc." But the word U oliviouslj used for the 
great vesaelH of glazed pottery, called Pegu or Martaban jars frooi the 
places where thej were purchased, and which rolaJuod a nidc renoim up 
to the present century, " They make in this plaoo" (Martaban), says 
Barbosa, ■' quantities of great porcelain jars, very big, etrong, and 
handflume; there are some of them that will hold two hogahdads of 
water a piece. They are coated with a black glaie, aro in great esteem 
among the Muora, beaHng a blgb price amung them, and they export 
them from this place with a great deal of benzoin" {Licro de Duarlc 
Barboia, p. 867). Linachoten apeaks to the same effect, adding that thoy 
were used on the Portuguese Indiamcn for storing oil and water. So also 
Jarrio: " Vai flglina qum vulgo Martatania dicuntur per Indiam nota 

snjit Per orientem omnem, quiu ot Lusitaniam horum eat usua" 

{Limch., K. ivii; Jar., iii, pt. ii, p. 3t>9J. 


tbat on one occasion an obstinate battle took place between 
this princess and one of her enemies ; a great number of her 
soldiers had been slain, and her whole force was on the point 
of running away, when Urduja rushed to the front, and 
forcing her way through the ranks of the combatants till she 
got at the kin g himself with whom she was at war, she dealt 
him a mortal wound, so that he died, and his troops fled. 
The princess returned with his head carried on a spear, and 
the king's family paid a vast sum to redeem it. And when 
the princess rejoined her father he gave her this city of 
Kailukari, which her brother had previously governed. I 
heard likewise from the same skipper that various sons of 
kings had sought Urduja's hand, but she always answered, 
"I will marry no one but him who shall fight and conquer 
me I" so they ail avoided the trial, for fear of the shame of 
being beaten by her,' 

We quitted the country of Taw^lisi, and after a voyage of 
seventeen days, during which the wind was always favour- 
able, we arrived in China. 

This is a vast country ; and it abounds in all sorts of good 
things, fruit, corn, gold and silver; no other country in the 
world can rival China in that respect. It is traversed by the 
river which is called Ah-i-Eaiijah, signifying the Water of 
Life. It is also called the river Sard, just Uke the Indian 
river. It source is among the mountains near the city of 
Khanbalik, which are known by the name of Kith-i-Bi'iznah 
or Monkey Mountains, This river runs through the heart of 
China, for a distance of six months' journey, reaching at last 
Stn-ul-Sin.' It is bordered throughout with villages, culti- 

' On Tomdiiri, see Note G at the end of the Narrative. 

' See remarks on Ibn Batata's notion or the great Bivcr of China in 
the introductory notices. Sari is no doubt, as explained bj De&fmery, 
intended for the Mon^l word 5<£rii or 8iri yellon, a translation of the 
Chinese Hwang-Ho, whilst the Indian BiTSr is that of which he has 
ipoken in previous passages of his book (c. ii and iii, 437) aa the ,^ai-ur 
or Sara, viz., the Sarju, Sorja. or Oogra. 

^^^_ Hcnptii 


vated plains, orchards, and markets, just like the Nile in 
Egypt ; but this country ia still more flourishing, and there 
are on tho banks a great number of hydriiuiic wheels. You 
find in China a great deal of sagar as good as that of Egypt, 
better in fact ; you find also grapes and plums. I used to 
think that the plum called Olhmani, whieh you get at 
Damascus, was peerless j but I found how wrong I was when 
I became acquainted with the plum of China. In this 
country there is also an excellent water-melon which is like 
that of Khwfirezm and Ispahan. In short all our fruits have 
their match in China, or rather they are excelled. There is 
also great store of wheat, and I never anywhere saw it finer 
or better. One may say just the same of the peas and 

Porcelain is made in China novrhere except in the cities of 
Zaitus and Sin-Kalan. It is made by means of a certain 
earth got from the mountains of those provinces, which takes 
fire like charcoal as we shall relate hereafter. The potters 
add a cert-ain stone which is found in that country ; they 
burn it for three days, and then pour water on it, so that the 
whole falls to powder, and this they cause to ferment. That 
which has been in fermentation for a whole month, neither 
more nor less, gives the best porcelain ; that which has not 
fermented for more than ten days gives one of inferior 
quality. Porcelain in China is of about the same value as 
earthenware with us, or even less. 'Tis exported to India 
and elsewhere, passing from country to country till it reaches 
us in Morocco. 'Tis certainly tho finest of all pottery -ware .^ 

' Mareo Folo aiso mentionH the porcolnin mEmiifacture in connacoQ 
with hia account of Zajtou, ns being found at Tiniingay (ncoonling to 
Panthior's edition l^ngnf ), a city ia tbe neighbourhood. This Faathier 
aapposes to be Tek-liMa, a town abont aiit; miles north of Thsiuon-chea or 
Zayton, where, according to tho Imperial geography, vases of whit« ehina 
were anciently manofactiired, which ei^joyeda great reputation. {Mare 
Pol, p. 533). 

The china-ware of Fokien and Canton is now of ft * " '*t^ ds- 

Hcription, the manufacture of real porcelain being ty a- 




The cocka and hena of China are very big, bigger in fact 
than our geese. The hen'a egg also there ia bigger than our 
goose eggs j whilst thoir goose on the other hand is a very 
small one. I one day bought a hen which I wunt«d to boil, 
bnt one pot would not hold it, and I was obliged to take 
two ! As for tho cocks in China tliey are as big aa ostriches ! 
Sometimes one sheds his feathers and then the great red 
object is a sight to see I The first time in my life that I saw 
a China cock was in the city of Kaulam. I had at first taken 
it for an ostrich, and I was looking at it with great wonder, 
when the owner said tome, "Pooh I there are cocks in China 
much bigger than that!" and when I got there I found ho 
had said no more than the truth. 

The Chinese are infidels and idolaters, and they bum their 
dead after the manner of Hindus.' Their king is a Tartar of 
the family of Tankis Khau.^ In each of their cities a special 
quarter is assigned to tho Mahomedans, where these latter 
dwell by themselves, and have their mosques for prayer, and 
for Friday and other services. Thejare treated with considera- 
tion and respect. The flesh of swine and dogs is eaten by 
the Chinese pagans, and it is sold publicly in their markets. 
They are generally well-to-do opulent people, but they are 
not sufiiciently particular either in dreas or diet. You will 
see one of their great merchants, the owner of uncountable 
treasure, going about in a dirty cotton frock.* The Chinese 
taste is entirely for the accumulation of gold and silver plate. 

chin in the province of Kiangai. I liavo no account of the manaiiictufe, 
such aa enables me to trace the baeia of anything here related by Ibn 
Batnta, bat it looks like crude gossip i as if be bod beard of the porcelain 
clay of China, and of the Cool of China, and hod, like one of Dickeoa'e 
iltuBtrious cbaractere, "combined the information." 

' This has already been noticed at p. S47. Tboogh no longer the prac- 
tise, WB see by Marco Polo and other authors that it was formerly very 
genera] in some parte of China. 

* So Ibn Batata always oalla Chinghii j I know not why, 

■ " The great ein of the Chinese coatniae is the paucity of white linen 

id ["""""njuently of woahing" {DavU'i Chintie). 

; J 


They all carry a stick with an iron ferule, on which they lean 
in walking, and this they call their third leg. 

Silk is very plentiful in China, for the worms which pro- 
duce it attach themselves to certain frnits on which they feed, 
and require little attention. This is how they come to have 
silk in such abundance that it ia used for clothing even by 
poor monks and beggars. Indeed, but for the demand among 
merchants, silk wuuld there have no value at all. Among the 
Chinese one cotton dreaa is worth two or three of silk. 

They have a custom among them for every merchant to 
cast into ingots all the gold and silver that he possesses, each 
of these ingots weighing a hundredweight, more or less, and 
these he places over the gate of hie house. The man who 
has accumulated five such ingots puts a ring on his finger; he 
who has ten puts two rings ; he who has fifteen is called Sati, 
which amounts to the same thing as Kdmin! in Egypt. An 
ingot is in China called Barhilah.^ 

The people of Chiaa do not use either gold or silver coin 
in their commercial dealings. The whole amount of those 
metals that reaches the country is cast into ingots as I have 
just said. Their buying and selling is carried on by means 
of pieces of paper about as big as the palm of the hand, car- 
rying the mark or seal of the Emperor. Twenty-five of these 
bills are called bali-nld, which is as much as to say with us 

' Feri, Parg41flh, frvatum, tegmentum (Sleninaki). Sati, again, ie prob- 
ably the IndiaE nord Set, or Cheli as it is called b; eoiae old travellera. 
The Earami merchants were a, sort of guild or corporation in Egypt, who 
appear to have been chieS; occupied in tha spice trade. Quatrem^re 
gives many quotations mentioning them, bat without throwing much 
light on the sabject (see Not. et Eilraiti, oi, 639, and liv, 214). It ia a 
common story in India, of rich Hindu bankers and tbe like, that the; 
build gold bricks into the walls of their bouses. 

The Matdlak-al AbMar relates that in some of tho Indian ielondi there 
are men who, when, they have sncceeded in filling one pot with gold, put 
a flag DD their house-top, and another flag for each succeeding potfol. 
SometimeB, it is said, sa many as ten of these flags are seea on ono roof. 
And in Russia, a(^co^dil1g to Ibn FozUn, when a man possessed 10,OOC 
dirhemH, his wife wore one gold chain, two gold chains for 20,000 diihemB, 
and so on (Not. ei Erlraits, liii, p. 219 ; Ibn Fotlan by Frathn. p. 5). 



"a dinar. "^ When anyone finds that notes of this kind in his 
possession are worn or torn he takes them to a certain public 
office analogous to the Mint in our country, and there he gets 
new notes for his old ones. He incurs no expense whatever 
in doing this, for the people who have the making of these 

^ I do not understand the text to mesn that a hdliMht is precisely worth 
a dinar, but that it is the unit in which sums are reckoned by the 
Chinese as the dinar is with the Mahomedans. Paper money has been 
spoken of at pp. 287-89, and at p. 116 some speculations were ventured 
on the origin of the term BcUiiht or B<Uuh. I have since been led to 
believe that it must be a corruption of the Latin /o22w. 

The common meaning of that word is a bellowt ; but it was used also 
by late classical writers for a leather money-bag, and afterwards (in some 
sense) for money itself, "just as to this day the Italians apply the term 
purse to a certain sum of money among the Turks" (Fctcdolati, Lipeiss, 
1839). Further, the term follig was also applied to a certain " pul villus, 
sedentibuB subjectus, qui non tomento aut plumd inferciebatur, sed vento 
inflabatur," or, in short, to an air-cushion. 

Now we have seen (p. 116) that Balish was also applied to a kind of 
cushion, as well as to a sum of money, such as in later days the Turks 
called a purse. This double analogy would be curious enough as a coin- 
cidence, even if we could find no clearer trace of connexion between the 
terms ; but there seems g^und for tracing such a connexion. 

Follis was applied to money in two ways under the Byzantine Emperors. 

In its commoner application (<p6\\iSj ^6\\ii, etc.) it was a copper coin, 
of which 288 went to the gold solidus ; and in this sense probably had 
no connection with the original Latin word. But follis was also used 
as a term for a certain quantity of gold, according to one authority the 
weight of 250 denarii, and was especiaUy applied to a sort of tax im- 
posed on the magnates by Constantine, which varied from two to eight 
pounds of gold, according to rank and income (see Ducange, De In/erioris 
Aevi Numismatibus, in Didot's ed. of the Diet., vii, pp. 194-5.) 

If the denarii mentioned here were gold denarii or solidi, then we have 
the Byzantine Folli8=250 mithkdls, just as the Balish of the Turks and 
Tartars in later days was=500 mithJcdls. The probability that the latter 
word is as directly the representative of the former as JXnar and Dirhem 
are of the (gold) Denarius and Drachma seems very strong, and probably 
would not derive any additional support from the cushions with which 
both words have been connected. 

Follis, again, in the sense of a copx>er coin, appears to be the same 
word as the At. fals, spoken of at pp. 115-116, found also formerly in 
Spain as the name of a small coin folux. And foUis also in this sense, 
tliTough the forms Follaris and Folleralis which are g^ven in Ducange, is 
the origin of the /oll«ri of Pegolotti (supra, p. 296). 



notes are paid by the emperor.' The direction of the said 
public office is entrusted to cue of the firat amirs in China. 
If a person goes to the market to buy anything with a piece 
of silver, or even a piece of gold, they won't take it ; nor 
will they pay any attention to him whatever until he has 
changed hia money for balUht ; and then he can buy what- 
ever he hkes. 

All tho inhabitants of China and Cathay in place of char* 
coal make nae of a kind of earth which haa the consiatence 
and colour of clay in our country. It is transported on 
elephants, and cut into pieces of the ordinary size of lumps 
of charcoal with us, and these they burn. This earth bums 
just like charcoal, and gives even a more powerful heat. 
When it is reduced to cinders tliey knead these up into 
lumps with water, and when dry they sei've to cook with a 
second time. And so they go on till the stuff ia entirely 
consumed. It ia with this earth that the Chinese make their 
porcelain vases, combining a certain stone with it, as I have 
already related.^ 

The people of China of all mankind have the greatest skill 
and taste in the arts. This is a fact generally admitted ; it 
has been remarked in books by many authors, and has been 
much dwelt upon,^ As regards painting, indeed, no nation, 
whether of Christians or others, can come up to the Chinese j 
their talent for this art ia something quite extraordinary. I 
may mention among astonishing illustrations of this talont 
of theirs, what I have witnessed myself, viz., that whenever 
I have happened to visit one of their cities, and to return to 
it after awhile, I have always found my own likeness and 

' Seo a different account ftt p. 246 lupra, and in M. Folo, i, 36. 

' The coal of China is noticed by Marco Polo (i, 31), and by Ba^hid 
(mipra p. 261). According to Paothier. its use was known before the 
Christian era. 

> Already in tho lOth contury, it wbb remarked by on Arab author : 
" The Chiauae may be counted among those of God'a creatiu«s to whom 
He liftth granted, in the higtieat degree, sldll of hand in drawing and 
the arta of manufacture" (Reinaud. HeLatiun, etc., i, 77) 



those of mj compaaiona painted on the walls, or exhibited 
in the bazars. On one occasion that I visited the Emperor's 
own city, in going to tbo imperial palace with my comrades 
I passed through tho bazar of the painters ; we were all 
dressed after the fashion of Ii-ik. In the evening on leaving 
the palace I passed again through the same bazar, and there 
I saw my own portrait and the portraits of my companions 
painted on sheets of paper and exposed on the walls. We 
all stopped to examine the likenesses, and everybody found 
that of his neighbour to be excellent ! 

I was told that the Emperor had ordered the painters to 
take our likenesses, and that they had come to the palace for 
the purpose whilst we were there. They studied us and 
painted us without our knowing anything of the matter. In 
fact it is an established custom among tho Chinese to take 
the portrait of any stranger that visits their country. In- 
deed the thing is carried so far that, if by chance a foreigner 
commits any action that obliges him to fly from China, they 
send his portrait into the outlying provinces to assist the 
search for him, and wherever the original of the portrait is 
discovered they apprehend him." 

Whenever a Chinese jnnk is about to undertake a voyage, 
it is the custom for the admiral of tho port and his secretaries 
to go on board, and to take note of the number of soldiers, 
servants, and sailors who are embarked. The ship is not 
allowed to sail till this form has been comphed with. And 

' A tmvBlling Jew, whom Wood met on hii Oius journey, told him 
that before strangers are permitted to enter Yarkand, " each individuiLl 
ie strictly exsiinined ; their personal appearance is noted down in writing, 
and if any are suapected, an artist ia at hand to take their poctniits" (p. 
281). This is one of the many cases is which the Chinese have antici- 
pated tho devices of modern Europeaji civilisation. Just an this was 
written, 1 read in the Time* of the arrest at New York of the murderer 
Miiiler by the police provided with his photograph dBepatcheJ from 

I here omit a not very relevaat interpolation by Ibn Juiai, the Moor- 
fa editor. 


when the jank returns to China the Bamo officials again visit 
her, and compare the persons found on board with the num- 
bers entered in their register. If jinyono is missing tho 
captain is responsible, and must furnish evidence of the deatli 
or desertion of the missing individual, or otherwise account 
for him. If he cannot, ho is arrested and punished. 

The captain is then obliged to give a detailed report of all 
the items of the junk's cargo, be their value great or small. 
Everybody then goes ashore, and the custom-house officers 
commence an inspection of what everybody has. If they find 
anything that has been kept back from their knowledge, the 
junk and all its cargo is forfeited.' This is a kind of oppres- 
sion that I have seen in no country, infidel or Musulman, 
except in China, There ivas, indeed, something analogous 
to it in India ; for there, if a man was found with anything 
smuggled he was condemned to pay eleven times the amount 
of the duty. The Sultan Mahomed abolished this tyrannical 
Pule when he did away with the duties upon merchandise. 

When a Musulman trader arrives iu a Chinese city, he is 
allowed to choose whether he will take up bis quarters with 
one of the merchants of his own faith settled in the country, 
or will go to an inn.^ If he prefers to lodge with a merchant, 
they count all his mouey and confido it to the merchant of 
his choice j the latter then takes charge of all expenditure 
on account of the stranger's wants, but acts vrith perfect in- 
tegrity. When the guest wishes to depart his money is 
again counted, and the host is obliged to make good any 

If, however, the foreign trader prefers to go to an inn, his 
money is made over in deposit to the landlord, who then 
buys on his account whatever he may require, and if he 
wishes it procures a slave girl for him, He then establishes 
him in au apartment opening on tho court of the inn, and 

a by Odoric. ntprii, p. 74. 


undortalces the prorisioii uf iifcesonrics for both man and 
woman. I may observe lii-n- liy the way that young eUtye 
girig are very cheap in China ; and, indeed, all the Chineae 
will soil their sons as slaves eqaally with their daughters, nor 
Ih it considered any disgrace to do so. Only, those who are 
HO purchased cannot be forced against their will to go abroad 
with the parchftser; neither, however, are they hindered if 
they choose to do so.- And if the foreign trader wishes to 
marry in China he can very easily do so. But as for spend- 
ing his money in profligate courscH that he cannot be allowed 
to do I For the Chinese nay : " We will not have it said in 
the Musnlman countries that their people are stript of their 
property in China, and that ours is a conntrj- full of riotous 
living and harlotry," 

China is the safest as v>'rll ua the pleasantcst of all the 
regions on the earth for u travotlar. Ton may travel the 
whole nino months' journey to which the empire extends 
without the slightest cause for fear, even if you have treasure 
ill your charge. For at overy halting place there ia a 
hostelry superintended by an officer who is posted there with 
ft detachment of horse and foof. Every evening after sunset, 
or rather at nightfall, this officer visits the inn accompanied 
by his clerk ; he takes down the name of every stranger who 
is going to pass thenightthere, seals the list, and then closes 
the inn door njjon them. In the morning he comes again 
with his clerk, calls everybody by name, and marks them off 
one by one. He then desi>fltclios along with the travellersa 
person whoso duty it is to escort them to the next station, 
and to bring back from the officer in charge there a written 
acknowledgment of the arrival ef all ; otherwise this person 
is held answerable. This is the practice at all the stations in 
China from Sin<ul-Stn to Khutb&bk. In the inns tbo 
traveller finds all needfnl supplies, especially fowls and geese. 
iiut mutton is rare. 

To return, however, to the particulars of my voj-age, I 



mast toll you that the first Chinese city that I reached after 
croasiog tbeseawasZAiTiJK.' Although 2m («n signifies oliveg 
in Araliic, there are no olives here any more than elsewhere 
ill ludta and China; only that is the name of the place. It 
is a great city, superb indocd, and in it they make damasks 
of velvet as well as those of satin, which are called from the 
name of the city Zaiivnuih ;* they are superior to the stnlfs 
of Khansd and Khfinbi'ilik, The harbour of Zaituu ia one of 
the greatest in the world, — I am wrong r it is the greatest ! 
I have seen there about one hundred first-class Junks to- 
gether ; as for small ones they were past counting. The 
harbour is formed by a great estuary which mns inland from 
the sea nntil it joins the Great Kiver. 

In this, as in every other city of China, every inhabitant 
has a garden, a field, and his house in the middle of it, 
exactly as we have it in the city of Segelmessa. It is for 

' Were there doubt as \a the identity of Zayton, AbiJfedn's notice 
wnuld aettlo il. For liti tells us etprossly that Zny ton ia othoFwiBe called 
."Jfcctnju (Cbin-chen, tbe name by which Thaiuan-cliea was known to the 
curly Portngnese traders, and by which it etiU appears in many maps). 

' The words translBiled after Defrjmeryos velvet and tatin are kimkhwi. 
and ulaitu. There may be some doubt whether the former word should 
be rendered velcei, as it is the orij^nal of the Europeaji catnntocca and the 
Indian fcintfiwAt, of which the former seems to hare been a damasked silk, 
and the latter it a silk damasked in ({old (aee p, 21)5 lujira). The word 
Atalat seema to correspond eloaely to the Italian rata, aa it signifies both 
a clate-thaven face and a mtin lezture. It has been domeaticated in Ger- 
many as the word for satin (<ltlau), and is uaedalso in old English travela. 
I have a strong suspicion that the term Zatfuniah io the text is the origin 
of our word <atin. The poeaible derivation from leta ia obvious. But 
lunong the teitures of the 16th century named in the book of G. Uizano 
(lujiro p. 881) ne find repeated mention of Zctaia, Zettani veUMlati, Zettani 
htoeeati Ira ora, etc., which looks very like the transition from Zailuni to 
satin, whilst the ordinary word for ailk ia by the aainc author always spelt 
■(la. Tbe analogous derivation of so many other names of textures from 
the places whonoe they were imported may be quoted in support of this, 
e.g., UviUn (Mosul), Damaik (Damascus), Cambric (Cambraj), Arrtu 
lKajieT(d'YpriB), Colico (Calicut) j whilstwe know that Genoese merchants 
traded at Zayton {lupra p. 2)ii). I see that F. Jolmion'i Diet, diatinguishea 
in Persian between " Kamthn., Domaak ailk of one colour''^ and " Kimkhd, 
DBtDRsk lilk of different colours". 


this reason that the cities of the Chinese are so extensivBj' 

The Mahomedana have a city by themselves. 

The day after my arrival at Zaitun I saw there the noble- 1 
man who had been in India as ambassador with the preseato^ 
for the Sultan, who had set out (from Dehli) in company with! 
me, and whose junk had been wrecked. He saluted me, oaA 
gave information about me to the chief of the council, who in 
consequence assigned me quartern in a fine house. I then had 
visits from the Kazi of the Mahomedans, T&juddfn of Ardebil, 
B. virtuous and generous person ; from the Shaikh of Islamj 
Kamaluddin Abdallah of Ispahan, a very pious man; and from 
thechief merchants of the place. Among these I will mention ■ 
only Sharifuddlti of Tabriz, one of the merchants to whom 1 1 
ran in debt from my first arrival in India, and the one of my I 
creditors who acted moat like a gentleman ; he knew the 1 
whole Koran by heart, and was a great reader. As these ■ 
merchants are settled there in a land of unbelievers, of course 
they are greatly delighted whou they see n Muaulman come 
to visit them, and whfn they can say, "Ah, here comes one 
from the lands of Islam !" and they give him alms of all that 
they have, according to the law, so that the traveller becomes 
quite rich like one of themselves. Among the emine^jt 
shaikhs at Zaitun was Burhanoddin of Kazerlin, who had a 
hermitage outside of the town. It was to him that the mer- 
chants used to pay their oflferings for the Shaikh Abu lahak 
of Kazorun.* 

When the chief of the council had learned all particnlars 
about me, he wrote to the K&n, i.e. the Emperor, to inform 
him that I had arrived from the King of India. And I 
bogged the cliief that whilst wo were awaiting the answer 
he would send some one to conduct me to Sin-ul-Sin, which 
these people call Sin-Kalfln, which is also under the Kdn, as 
I was desirous to visit that part of the country. He con- 
in decay, liea in a vallay 


BODted, and sent one of his people to accompany me. 
travelled on the river in a veeael, which was much like the 
war galleys in om* country, excepting that the sailors rowed 
standing and all together amidships, whilst the passengers 
kept forward and aft. For shade they spread an awning 
made of a plant of the country resembling flax, but not flax ; 
it was, however, finer than hemp.' 

We trayelled on the river for twenty-seven days.' Every 
day a little before noou we used to moor at some village, 
where we boQght what was needful, and performed our mid- 
day prayers. 

In the evening we stopped at another village, and so on 
nntil we arrived at Sinkalan, which is the city of Sin-ul-Sin. 
Porcelain is made there, just as at Zaitun, and it is there also 
thatthe river called Jfi-i-ZTitii/"/* {or water-of-life) discharges 
itself into the sea, at a place which they call the confluence 
of the seas. Sin-ul-Sin is one of the greatest of cities, and 
one of those that has the finest of bazars. One of the largest 
of these is the porcelain bazar, and from it china-ware is ex- 
ported to the other cities of China, to India, and to Yemen. 

In the middle of the city you see a superb temple with 
nine gates ; inside of each there is a portico with terraces 
where the inmates of the building seat themselves. Between 
the second and third gates there is a place with rooms for 
occupation by the blind, the infirm or the crippled. These 

' Perhaps grass-clotli. 

^ It 1b very poseible that there may be oontinnotLH inland navigation 
irom Zay ton to Canton, pDnUlel to the const, but I cannot Bauertain moro 
than that there is sui;h from Fuobea, and I preBune &otu Thsiiiun-cheu 
or Zayton to Chang-cheu. If tbia does not extend further, his journey 
"by tha river" mnet have been up the Min river ; then, after oroasingtlio 
mountains into Kiangsi, re-ombarking and following tha Kankiang up to 
tlie Moiling Pass, and so across that t-o the Po-Kiang, leading to Canton; 
the Intter part of the route being that followed by Mnrairtney and 
Amherst on their return joumles, as well as by the authors of many 
other published narratives. 

On Sinbalun or Sin-ul-Sin and ita identity with Canton, see tupra, pp. 
lUa, aSO, 873, and 417. 


receive food and clothing from pious foundations attached to 
the temple. Between the other gates there are similar es- 
tablishments ; there is to be seen (for instance) a hospital 
for the sick, a kitchen for dressing their food, quarters for 
the physicians, and others for the servants. I was assured 
that old folks who had not strength to work for a livelihood 
were maintained and clothed there ; and that a like provision 
was made for destitute widows and orphans. This temple 
was built by a King of China, who bequeathed this city and 
the villages and gardens attached, as a pious endowment for 
this establishment. His portrait is to be seen in the temple, 
and the Chinese go and worship it.^ 

In one of the quarters of this great city is the city of the 
Mahomedans, where they have their cathedral mgsque, con- 
vent, and bazar ; they have also a Kazi and a Shaikh, for in 
each of the cities of China you find always a Shaikh of Islam, 
who decides finally every matter concerning Mahomedans, as 
well as a Kazi to administer justice. I took up my quarters 
with Auhaduddin of Sinjar, one of the worthiest, as he is one 
of the richest, of men. My stay with him lasted fourteen 
days, during which presents from the kazi and the other 
Mahomedans flowed in upon me incessantly. Every day they 
used to have a fresh entertainment, to which they went in 
pretty little boats of some ten cubits in length, with people 
on board to sing. 

Beyond this city of Sin-ul-Sin there are no other cities, 
whether of infidels or Musulmans. Between it and the 

1 Canton has undergone many changes, and no temple now appears to 
correspond precisely with, that described. It was however perhaps that 
called Kwang-heaou-tze (Temple of Glory and Filial Duty), near what is now 
the N. W. corner of the city. It was built about a.d. 250, and has been often 
restored. It possesses about 3,500 acres of land for the support of its 
inmates. There is a retreat for poor aged infirm and blind people called 
Yangtsequen, which stands outside the walls east of the city, but neither 
this nor the other charitable institutions appear to be of old date, nor do 
there seem to be any such now attached to the temples (sec Chinese Re- 
pository, vol. ii, p. 145 seq.). 



Rampart, or Great Wall of Gog and Magog, there ia a space 
of sixty days' journey as I waa told. This territory is occu- 
pied by wandering tribes of heathen, who eat siich people as 
they can catch, and for this reason no one enters their country 
or attempts to travel there. I saw nobody in this city who 
had been to the Great Wall, or who know anybody who had 
been there,' 

Dnring my stay at Sinkalan I heard that there was at that 
city a very aged shaikh, indeed that he had passed his two 
hnndrodth year ;^ that he had neitlier ate nor drank nor had 
anything to say to women, although his vigour was intact; 
and that he dwelt in a cave outside the town, where he gave 
himself up to devotion. So I wont to his grotto, and there 
I aaw him at the door. He was very thin ; of a deep red or 
copper-tint, much marked with the traces of an ascetic life, 
and had no beard. After I had saluted him he took my hand, 

' This is an instance of Ibn Batuta'a looae notions of geography. He 
inquires for the Wall of China IVom hie coreligionists at the wronj; eitro- 
mit; of the empire, as if (on a, smaller scale) a foreigner should ash the 
French Consul at Cork for particulars of the Wall of Antoainim. Hod 
hu inquired at Khanbalik (if he reallj was there) he might have re- 
ceived more information. 

The Kampart of Oog and Mngog (^Yajij and A/^^'uj) was believed to 
have been erected b; Alexander the Great to shut np the fierce nations 
of the north and bar their irruptions into civilised southern lands. It is 
generally referred to Darbond on the Caspian, but naturally came t^ be 
confounded with the Wall of China. Edrisi (ii, 416) gives an account of 
the mission sent by the Khalif Wathek Billah to explore the Eampart of 
Qog and Magog. See the Reduction of tbe Catalan Map, N.E. comer. 

' Supernatural longevity is a common attribute of Mahomedan siunts. 
Ibn Batuta himself introduces us to several others whose age eiceeded 
one bnndred and lifty years, besides a certain Atha Awalla in the Hindu 
Kush who claimed throe hundred and fifty years, but regarding whom 
the traveller had his doubts. Shah Madar, one of the most eminent 
Indian saints, is said to have been bom at Aleppo in 1030-51, and to have 
died at Mokaupur near Ferozabad, Agra, where be was biu4ed, in 1443, 
having had lUS sons, Bpirituat it may be presumed ! (Oarein de Tatey, 
PaTticalariiia de la Bel. Mua. dam Vlndc, p. &5). And John Schiltbergel' 
tells us of a saint at Hore in Horassan (Herat in Ehonuan) whom he 
saw there in the days of Timur, whose name was Phiradom Schyecb, and 
who was throe himdrod and fifty years old (Reiim, p. 101). 


blew on it, and Baid to the interpreter : "Thia man belongs 
to one extremity of the world, as we belong to the other." 
Then he said to me : "Thou hast witnessed & miracle. Dost 
thou call to mind the day of thy visit to the island where 
there was n temple, and the man seated among the idols who 
gave thee ten pieces of gold ?" " Yos, in sooth," answered I. 
He rejoined "I was that man".^ I kissed his hand; the 
shaikh seemed a while tost in thought, then entered his cavo, 
and did not come back to us. One would have said that ho 
regretted the words that he had spoken. We were rash 
enough to enter the grotto in order to surprise him, but we 
did not find him. We saw one of his comrades, however, 
who had in his hand some paper bank-notes, and who said to 
us : " Take this for your entertainment, and begone." We 
answered : " But we wish to wait for the shaikh." He an- 
swered ; " If you were to wait ten years you would not see 
him. For 'tis his way never to let himself be seen by a 
person who has learned one of his secrets." He added : 
" Think not that he is absent ; he is here present with you !" 
Greatly astonished at all this I departed. On telling my 
story to the Kazi, the Shaikh of Islam and (ray host) Au- 
haduddin of Sinjar, they observed : " This ia his way with 
strangers who visit him ; nobody ever knows what religion 
he professes. But the man whom you took for one of his 
comrades was the shaikh himself." They then informed 
me that this personage had quitted the country for about 
fifty years and had returned only a year previously. The 
kitig,^ the generals, and other chiefs went to see him, 
and made him presents in proportion to their rank ; whilst 
every day the fakirs and poor monks went to see him, and 
received from him gifts in proportion to the deserts of each, 

' This Tsfors to a, lajeteiioue incident t^&t occmred to Ibn Batata at a 
■mall island on tlie western coast of India just before lie got to Himawar 
(seo luprn, p. 416). 


althoagh his cave contained absolutely nothing. They told 
me also that this personage eometimes related histories of 
paet times ; he would speak, for example, of the prophet 
(upon whom be peace 1), and would say with i-eferenco to 
him : " If I had but been with him, I would have helped 
him." He would speak also with veneration of the two 
Khalifs, 'Omar son of Alkhattab and 'Ali son of Abu 
T41ib, and would praiso them highly. But, on the other 
hand, he would curse Yazid the son of Mu'&wiyah, and 
would denounce Mu'dwiyah himself.' Many other things 
were told me about this shaikh by the persons named 

Auhaduddin of Sinjar told me the following story about 
him : " I went once (said he) to see the shaikh in his cave. 
He took hold of my hand, and all at once I imagined myself 
to be in a great palace where this shaikh was seated on a 
tlirone. Methought he had a crown on his head ; on each 
side of him were beautiful handmaidens; and there were 
canals about into which fruit was constantly dropping. I 
imagined that I took up an apple to eat it, and sti-aightway 
as I did so I found myself again in the grotto with the 
shaikh before mc, laughing and ridiculing me. I had a bad 
illness which lasted several months ; and I never would go 
again to see that strange being."^ 

The people of the country believe the shaikh to be a 
Musulman, but nobody ever saw him say his prayers. As 
regards abstinence from food, again, he may be said to fast 
perpetually. The kazi told me : " One day I spoke to him 
about prayer, and his answer was : ' Thiakest thou that thou 
knowest, thou ! what J do ? In truth, I trow my pi-ayer is 

' OmsT BJid Ali, tlie aecond and fourth Huccessors of Kfabomed. Yazid 
Bin Mu'Hwiyah, the aecond Khalif of the Ommiades, who cauavd tUii 
death of Ali on tha plain of Kerbela, is alnaye mentioned with a curao 
by the S\uaa (lyHerbclot). 

' A oapital caac of mcanii:rii: inQucnuc in tbu Middle A^es, 


another matter from thine !"' Everything about this man 
was singular.* 

The day after my visit to the shaikh I set out on my 
retnm to the city of Zaitun, and some days after my arrival 
there an order was received from the Kin that I wita to pro- 
ceed to the capital, with arrangements for my honourable 
treatment and for defraying my expenses. He left mo free 
to go by land or by water as I chose j so I preferred going 
by the river. 

They fitted up a very nice boat for me, such as is used 
for the transport of generals ; the Amir sent some of hia 
suite to accompany me, and furnished provisions in abun- 
dance ; quantities also were sent by the kazi and the Ma- 
homedan merchants. We travelled as the guests of the 
sultan, dining at one viltege, and supping at another ; and 
after a passage of ten days we arrived at Kanjanfu. This is 
a largo and beautiful city surrounded by gardens, in an im- 
mense plain. One would say it was the pliiln of Damascus 1' 

On my an-ival the kazi, ihe shaikh of Islam, and the 
merchants came out to receive me, with flags and a band 
of musicians, with drums, trumpets, and horns. They 
brought horses for us, which we mounted, whilst they all 
went on foot before us except the kazi and the shaikh, who 
rode with us. The governor of the city also came out with 
his retinue to meet us, for a guest of the emperor's is highly 
honoured among those people. And so wo entered Kan- 

' The holy man in Egjpt, deaoribed by Lady Duff Gordon (tupra p. 464), 
" never prays, never waabes, ha does not keep Bamodin, and yet be is a 

' This I have little donbt isKiancbangfuinKt&ngsi.ton'hichawateccDm- 
munication conducts all the way from Pucheu, and probably from Zayton, 
excepting for a apaea of 190 !i (some fifty or sixty miles) in the passage of 
the mountains between Thaiuignanghien in Fokicn, and Yanclianbien in 
Kiangai ^KJap. Mem. Bel. A I'Aiie, vol. iii.). Kianuhangfu is doBCribod by 
Martini as a bandaomo and celebrated city, witb a. l&ke inside the walla 
and another outside. It was noted in his time for the eicellimce of it« 


jaofd. This city has four walla. Between the firat and the 
second wall live the slaves of the sultan, those who guard 
the city by day aa well as those who guard it by night. 
These laat are called basimniin. Between the second and 
third wall are the cavalry, and the amir who commands in 
the city. Inside the third wall are the Mahomedans, so it 
waa here that we dismounted at the house of theii* shaikh, 
Zahir-uddin nl Kurlfini. The Chinese lived inside the fourth 
wall, which incloses the biggest of the four towns. The 
distance between one gate and the next in this immense 
city of Kanjanfu is three miles and a quarter. Every inha- 
bitant, as we have described before, has his garden and 
fields about his house, ^ 

One day when I waa in the house of Zahir-uddin ul Kur- 
Idni there arrived a great boat, which was stated to be that 
of one of the most higlily respected doctors of the law 
among the Musulmans of those parts. They asked leave to 
introduce this personage to me, and accordingly he was an- 
nounced as "Our Master Kiw£niuddin the Ceiitan."' I 
waa surprised at the name ; and when he had entered, and 
after exchanging the usual salutations we had begun to 
converse together, it struck me that I know the man. So I 
began to look at him earnestly, and he said, "You look as if 
you knew me." "From what country are you," 1 asked. 
" From Ceuta," " And I am from Tangier ! " So he 
recommenced his salutations, moved to tears at the meeting, 
till I caught the infection myself, I then asked him " Have 
you ever been in India ? " " Yes," he aaid ; " I have been 
at Dehli, the capital." When he said that I recollected 
about him, and said, " Surely you are Ul-Bnshri ? " " Yos, 
I am," He had come to Dehli with his maternal uncle, 
AbiiM K&sim, of Mnrcia, being then quite young and beard- 
leas, but an acomplisbed student, knowing the Mmvalfah 


by heart.' I had told the Sultan of India about htm, and 
he had given him 3,000 dinars, and desired to keep him at 
Dehli. He refused to stay, however, for he waa bent on 
going to China, and in that country he had acquired mnch 
reputation and a great deal of wealth. He told mo that he had 
some fifty male slaves, and aa many female ; and indeed he 
gave me two of each, with many other presents. Some 
years later I met this man's brother in Negroland. What 
an enormous distance lay between those two I' 

I stayed fifteen days at Kanjanfu, and then continued my 
journey. China is a beautiful country, but it afforded me no 
pleasure. On the conti-aiy, my spirit was sorely troubled 
within me wliilst I was there, to see how Paganism had the 
upper hand. I never could leave my quarters without wit- 
nessing many things of a sinful kind ; and that distressed 
mo so much that 1 generally kept within doors, and only 
went out when it was absolutely necessary. And during my 
whole stay in China I always felt in meeting Mnsulraana jnst 
aa if I had fallen in with my own kith and kin. The jurist 
Ul Bushri carried his kindness towards me so far that ho 
escorted me on my journey for four days until my arrival at 
Baiwam Kdtlu.* This was a small city inhabited by Chi- 

' The Utivialtah (the name HignifieB, nococding to Defromery, " Appro- 
priated," bat lyHerbelot tranalatea it " Footstool ") was a, book on the 
tniditiona, held ia great respect bj the Mahomedaas, who called it M-ubii. 
rale, or Bleased. It was coiaposed by the Inilim MiUil Bin Ans, on 
the Tour chiefs of Ortbodoi sects. {D'Herhelal), 

' ThiH meeting in the heart of China of the two Moora from the adji 
iii^ towns of Tangier and Ceuta hiu a parallel in that famons, but I fear 
mj'tliioal ator; of the capture of the Grand Vizier on the Black Sea 
MaishaL Keith, then in the Buaatan aorvice. The venerable Turk's look 
of recognition draw from the Marshal the sanie question that Ul Bualiri 
addressed to thn Batuta, and the answer came forth in broad FifWiliire 
dialect — " Eh man 1 aye, I mind you weel, for my father was the bellman 
of Kirkaldy 1 " 

" The name looks Turkish rather than Chinese, and may be connected 
with that of Baiam, the great general and minist-cr of Kublai. It is pos- 
sible, however, that the Baiwam may represent Poyang, the old name of 
Ymi-dion. oa the Poyang Lake, whicli I aiippose had il3 naiiif h-om lliia 


nese traders and aotdiera. There were but four houaes of 
Musulmona there, and the owners were all disciples of the 
jurist above mentioned. We took up our quarters with one 
of them, and stayed three daja. I then hade adieu to the 
doctor, and proceeded on my journey. 

As usual, I travelled on the river, dining at one village, 
supping at another, till after a voyage of seventeen days we 
arrived at the city of Khansa.' (The name of this city is 
nearly the same as that of Kliansfi, the poetess,' but I don't 
know whether the name be actually Arabic, or has only an ac- 
cidental resemblance to it.) This city ia the greatest I have 
ever seen on the surface of the earth. It is three days' 
journey in length, so that a traveller passing through the 
city has to make his marches and his halts ! According to 
what we have said before of the arrangement followed in the 
cities of China, every one in Khans£ is provided with his 
house and garden." The city is divided into six towus, 
as I shall explain presently. 

When we arrived, there came out to meet us the Kazi of 
Khansiij by name Afkharuddin, the Shaikh of Islam, and the 
descendants of 'OthmSn Bin AflS.n the Egyptian, who are 
the most prominent Mahomedana at KhausJi. They earned 
a white flag, with di-oms, trumpets, and hoi-ns. The com- 
mandant of the city also came out to meet me with his 
escort. And so we entered the city, 
citj (Jfartint in Thmenot, p. 109). The position would be very appro- 

' CaJiBu; of Odoric, &c., Kingsza or Hangcheufiii see pp. 113, £5!l, 
351, etc., tupra. 

3 All I can tell of Ibia liLd; ia from the following extract :— " Al-Chanaa, 
the moat oelelirated Arabic poetoBB, Bbinea exclusively in elegiac jKietr;, 
Her laments over her two murdered brothera, Umnriju and Sachr, are the 
moat pathetic, tender, and paaatonate, ;et no tranatution could convey the 
fulneea of their beanty. To be appreciated they must bo read in the 
m^eatic, soft, aonorous words of the originftl." {Satardatf Bevieu^, June 
17. 1865. p. 740). 

' This agrees but ill with Odoric'a " nan etl ipanw terra iiua non hoM- 
lotur bene." There are aeveral very (jucstionable Btatcmonta in Ibn Ba- 
tuta'a account of the great city. 


It is subdivided into six towns, each of which has a 
I aopanite enclosure, whilst one great wall snrroundB the 
I whole. In the first city was posted the garrison of the 
\ city, with its commandant. I was told by the Kazi and 
others that there were 12,000 soldiers on the rolls. We 
passed the night at the commandant's house. The next 
day we entered the second city by a gate called the Jews' 
Ctato. This town was inhabited by Jews, by Christians, and 
by thoscTurkawho worship the sun; they are very numerous. 
The Amir of this town is a Chinese, and we passed the se- 
cond night in his house. The third day we made our entrance 
into the third city, and this is occupied by the Mahomedans. 
It is a fine town, with the bazaars arranged as in Muaulman 
countries, and with mosques and muezzins. We heard these 
last calling the Faithful to prayer as we entered the city. Here 
we were lodged in the house of the children of OthmAn Bin 
AtFan, the Egj'ptian. This Othman was a merchant of great 
eminence, who took a liking to this town, and estabhshed 
himself in it; indeed it ia named after him Al'Oth'mdniy ah. 
He bequeathed to his posterity in this city the dignity and 
consideration which he had himself enjoyed ; his sons follow 
their father in their beneficen.oe to religious mendicants, and 
in afl'ordiug relief to the poor. They have a convent called 
also Al 'Othmfiniyah, which is a handsome edifice, endowed 
with many -pious bequests, and ia occupied by a fraternity 
of Siifls. It was the same Othmiin who built the J&ma.' 
Masjid (cathedral mosque) in this city, and ho has be- 
queathed to it (as well as to the convent) considei-ablo sums 
to form a foundation for pious uses. 

The Musulmans in this city are very numerous. We re- 
mained with them fifteen days, and every day and every 
night I was present at some new entertainment. The 
splendour of their banquets never flagged, and every dr 
they took me abont the city on horseback for my divers 
One day that they were riding with me we went into 


fourth city, wliero the seat of tbe government ia, and also 
the palace of the great Amir Kurtai. When we had passed 
the gate of the town my companions left me, and I was re- 
ceived by tlie Wu/Ir, who coiidacted me to the palace of the 
great Auiir Kurtai. I have already related how this latter 
took from me the pelisse which had been given mo by the 
Friend of God, Jalaluddin of SUrdz. This fourth lown is 
intended solely for the dwellings of the ompcror'a officers and 
slaves ; it is the finest of all the six towns, and ia traversed 
by three streams of water. One of these is a canal from the 
great river, and by it the supplies of food and of stones for 
burning arc brought in small boats ; there are also pleasure 
boats to be had upon it. The citadel is in the middle of the 
town ; it la of immense extent, and in the centre of it ia the 
palace of the governmeut. The citadel surrounds this on all 
sides, and is provided with covered sheds, where artizana are 
aeen employed in making magnificent dresses, arms, and 
engines of war. The Amir Kurtai told me that there were 
1,600 master workmen, each of whom had under his direc- 
tion three or four apprentices. All are the KAn'a slaves ; 
they arc chained, and live outside the fortress. They aro 
allowed to frecjuent the bazars of the town, but not to go 
beyond the gate. The Arair musters them daily, and if any 
one ia missing their chief is responsible. It is customary 
to remove their fetters after ten years' service, and they have 
then the option of either continuing to sei-ve without fetters 
or of going where they will, provided they do not pass beyond 
the frontier of the Kdn's territory. At tho age of fifty they 
aro excused all further work, and are maintained at the cost 
of tho State. But indeed in any case every one, or nearly 
every one, in China, who has reached that age, may obtain 
his maintenance at tho pubhc expense.^ Ho who has reached 
the age of sixty is regarded by the Chinese as a child, 
and is no longer subject to the penalties of tho law. Old 
■ See above, p. ZiO. and M. Polo, i, 39. 


men are treated with great respect in that country, and are 
always addressed as Athd or " Father.'" 

The Amir Kurtai is the greatest lord in China.' He 
offered U3 hospitality in his palace, and gave an entertain- 
ment such aa those people call Tkuwai ,^ at which the digni- 
taries of the city were present. He had got Mahomedan 
cooks to kill the cattle and cook the dishes for us, and thin 
lord, great as he was, carved the meats and helped us witli 
hia own hands ! We were his guests for three days, and 
one day he sent his son to escort us in a trip on the canal. 
We got into a boat like a fire-ship,* whilst the young lord 
got into another, taking singers and musicians with him. 
The singers sang songs in Chinese, Arabic, and Persian. 
The lord's son was a great admirer of the Persian songs, 
and there was one of these sung by them which he caused to 
be repeated several times, so that I got it by heart from 
their singing. This song had a pretty cadence in it, and 
thus it went : — 

" Td dil ba mihnat dddim, 

Dar bahri-ijikr uftddim, 

Ch&n dar namdi tidtdfoi, 

Kawi bamihrdb ander[m." ' 

' See above, p. 118. 

' I caDnot identify this Prince in the translated ChincBC histories. 
fiTurtot is however b, genuine Tartar name, and is fuund aa the name of 
one nrthe Hangol generola in the preceding century (D'Ohiian, ii, HGO). 

^ Tbni or Tnwi is a word believed to be of Tiirki origin, nsed frequently 
by Eashid and other medieval Fc^raian writers for a feml or /6te (nee 
Quatremdn't Raihtdeddin, pp. 130-40, l&t, 216, 414; see aim a previous 
passage of Iba Valuta, iii, 40). 

• Harrdqah. " Navis iocendiaria aut missilibua pyriis instructa " 
(Frcyiag). I do not undenitand what is meant by the comporiBon. It 
cannot refer to the blaze of light, because this was in the daytime. But 
perliiips Ibn Batuta applies the word only in the sense of some kind of 
state barge, for he uses the airaie title for the boat in which ho saw the II- 
KTiiiTi Abu Said with hta Wozir taking on airing on the Tigris at Baghdad 

L, 116). 

' The " pretty cadence" is preciaely that of— 


r hevoal, china, 


Crowds of people in boats were gathered on the cana!. The 
sails were of all bright colours, the people carried parasols of 
silkj and the boals themselves were gorgeously painted. 
They skiruiished with oue auotlier, aud pelted each other 
with oranges and lemons. In the evening we went 
back to pass the night at the Amir's palace, where the 
musicians came again and sang very fine songs. 

That same night a juggler, who was one of the Kfin's slaves, 
made his appearance, and the Amir said to him, "Come and 
show us some of your marvels." Upon this ho took a 
wooden ball, with several holes in it through which long 
thongs were passed, and (laying hold of one of these) slung 
it into the air. It went so high that we lost sight of it 
altogether. (It was the hottest season of the year, and we 
were outside in the middle of the palace court.) There now 
remained only a little of the end of a thong in the conjuror's 
hand, and he desired one of the boys who assisted him to lay 
hold of it and mount. He did so, climbing by the thong, 
and we lost sight of him also ! The conjuror then called to 
him throe times, but getting no answer he snatched up a 
knife, as if in a great rage, laid hold of the thong, and dis- 
appeared also ! Bye and bye ho threw down one of the 
boy's hands, then a foot, then the other hand and the other 
foot, then the trunk, and last of all the head! Then he 
came down himself, all puffing and panting, and with his 
clothes all bloody, kissed the ground before the Amir, and 
said something to him in Chinese. The Amir gave some 
order in reply, and our friend then took the lad's limbs, laid 
them together in their places, and gave a kick, when, presto I 

Wb wont go home tai 

Till daylight doth appoiu 
■what freely rendered — 

" My hcurt Eiven ap to emotions, 
Woa o'erwhelmed in wnves like the cm 
But botakint; me to my devotions, 
My tronhli*a were gone from me ! " 


there was the boy, who got up and stood before us 1^ All 
this astonished me beyond measure, and I had an attack of 
palpitation like that which overcame me once before in the 
presence of the Sultan of India, when be showed me some- 
thing of the same kind. They gave me a conlial, however, 
which cured the attack.' The Kazi Afkharuddin was next 
to me, and quoth he, " Walldh ! 'tia my opinion there has 
been neither going up nor coming down, neither marring 
nor mending ; 'tia all hocus pocus I " 

The next day we entered the gate of the fifth city, which 
is the biggest of all the six, and is inhabited by the Chinese. 
It has splendid bazars and capital artificers, and it is there 
that they make the textures called khaiiadii'li/ah. Among 
the fino things made here also arc the plates and dishes 
called Daft. They are composed of cane, the fibres of 

' In a, modern Indian veraion of tbis trick, wbich 1 lately beard de- 
scribed by an cye-witneaa, the boy was covered with, a basket and doaired 
to descend into the earth. On hia refusal, tbo conjuror rushed at the 
basket and piertMd it violently in all directions with a spear, whilst blo<)d 
Uowxd&Din under it, and the boy's dying groans were heard. On remov- 
ing tbe basket there was of course nothing to be seen, and presently tlie 
boy made his appeoranee running &om the gate of the cornpouiul in which 
the performance took place. The vanishing Mpmards curtainlj' renders 
Ibn Batuta's story much more wonderful. A like feature is found in 
some extraordinary Indian conjurors' tricks described by the Eoipuror 
Jibonghir in hia memoirs. 

- On the occaaion referred to (iv, 31)), Ibu Batata, when visiting Ma- 
homrf Tughlak, finds two Jogis in the king's opartioentB, one of whom 
whilst sitting crosa-lcgged rises in the air. His comrade then pulls out 
a shoe and raps on the ground with it. The shoe inuuediatoly mounts 
in the air to the neck of the elevated Jogi, and begins tapping him on 
the nape of the neck; aa it taps he gradually Bubaidea to the ground. 
The traveller, uuused to such opei-ations of " levitation" and apirit- 
rapjiing, fainta away in the king's presence. 

Ricold Montecroce afloribus such pmcticea to the Boxitm (Uulrihii or 
Lamas), Quo of them wud said to fly. The fact was, says Bicold, that 
t touching it 

I when he seemed t( 

ig dowi 

ing upoanotliing! (p. 11".) 

A. BnthnuLn at Mkilrw aoiue Airty or fifty years ago exhibited himself 
^ Ikinki iDwiluuuuiil aids ware disoovered. 


wliich are platted together in a wonderful maniier, and then 
covered with a brilliant coat of red lacker. Ten of these 
plates go to a set, one fitting inside tho other, and so fine 
are they that when you aeo them you would take the whole 
Bet for but one plate. A cover then goes over the whole. 
There are also great diahea or trays made with the same 
cane-work. Some of the excellent properties of such 
dishes are these : they don't break when they tumble, and 
you can put hot things into them without spoiling or in tho 
least affecting their colour. These plates and dishes are 
exported from China to India, Khorasan, and other 

We passed a night in the fifth town as the guests of the 
commandant, and the next day wo proceeded to enter the 
sixth by a gate called that of the khiitlwdndu, or boatmen. 
This town is inhabited only by seamen, fishermen, caulkers, 
carpenters (these last they call duJkdrdn), by the aipahie, 
I. e. the archers, and by the plyddaliji, i. e. the foot soldiers.* 
All of them are tho emperoi-'a slaves ; no other class live 
with them, and their numbers are very great. The town of 
which we speak is situated on the banks of the Great River, 
and we stayed the night there, enjoying the hospitahty of 
tho commandant. The Amir Kurtai had caused a boat to be 
fitted up for us, and equipped with everything needful in the 
way of provisions and otherwise. Ho also sent some of his 
people to accompany us, in order that we might be received 
everywhere as tho emperor's guests, and so we quitted this 

' Laokored ware is bUU made in Burma quite in Uie way that tlie 
traveller deaeribes, and bo it is doubtleas in China, Indeed tte cane 
dishea are mentioned by the Archbishop of Soltania (lu/irit, p. 246). 

* Here as usual with Ibn Batuta one nroiild Buppoau that thcxe wonla 
were the veruacular Cbjaese instead of bcin^ Petaiiui. If we could depend 
upon him thocoughl; in such matters, the uae of these words would in- 
dicate that Persian was the language of the Mahomedan coinmunitiiia in 
China. I>udit[iran is for Durudjardti, carpenters. The eiplanationa 
"archora" and "footsoldiers" (ul-rajai) are Ibn Batuta's own, utd Um ^ 
iiEie of the tatter word is jiorbaps imfavoui'ublo to the tiunalution at p,^ 



city, the province under which is the last of those of China, 
and proceeded to enter Cathat.' 

Cathay is the best, cultivated land iu the world ; in the 
whole countrj- you will not find a bit of ground lying fallow. 
The reason is, that if a piece of ground be left uncultivated, 
they Btill oblige the people on it, or if there be none the 
people nearest to it, to pay the land-tax. Gardens, villages, 
and cultivated fields hne the two banks of the river in unin- 
terrupted succession from the city of Khansi to the city of 
KlliKBALiK, n space of sixty-four days' journey- 
In those tracts you find no Musulmans, unless as mere 
passengers, for the localities are not adapted for them to fix 
themselvea in, and you find no regular cities, but only vil- 
lages, and plains covered with corn, fruit trees, and sugar 
cane. I do not know in the whole world a region to be 
compared to this, except that space of four days' march be- 
tween Anbdr and 'Anah. Every evening wo landed at a 
different village, and were hospitably received.' 

And thus at last we aiTived at Kh^nbalik, also called 
KiiANiKU.^ It is the capital of the K4n or great Emperor, who 
rules over China and Cathay. We moored, according to the 
custom of these people, ten miles short of Khanbalik, and 
they sent a report of our arrival to the admirals, who gave 

' Khilhd. Here Ibn Bfttuta makes China (S(h) oorregpond to Mangi, 
or Hie Sung empire, first redaced uiilor the Mongols bj Kublai. In other 
pasBBgea tie appears to aso Sid for the whole oinpite, as (in iii, 17) where 
he Bpeaka of Alm&lik as situated at the eitremitj of Mawanilnahr, near 
the place where China (SCn) begins. 

' Anbar, on the Euphrates abreast of Baghdad; Anah, about 120 miles 
higher up. The alleged absence of citiea on the banks of the canal is so 
contnu'; to fact, that one's doabts arise whether Ibn Batuta could have 
troyelled bejond Hangcheu. 

' Of this name Khaniku 1 can make nothing. Khdnld indeed appears 
in Abulfeda several times as the alternative name of Khans4, bnt ia in 
that cose an evident mistake (one dot too many), for the Khdit/u of Abu 
1 Eeiaaud'a Relationa, the Ounpu of Marco, the Kinphu of the 
•e, whiub was the aeuport of Khansa or Uangcbeu, and stood upon 
■* the Che Kiang, about twelve leagnea from the great city 



oa permiesion to enter the port, and this we did. At 
we landed at the citj", which is one of the greatest in 
world, and differs fj-om all the other cities of China in having 
3 inside the walls ; they are all outside, as in other 
countries. Tho city or quarter in which the emperor resides 
stands in the middle like a dtadol, as we shall tell hereafter, 
I took up my quarters with the shaikh Burhanuddin of 
Sagharj, the indiWdual to whom the Sultan of India sont 
40,1 '00 dinars, with an invitation to go to his dominions. 
He took the money indeed, and paid his debts with it, but 
declined to go the King of Dohli, and diroetod his course 
towards China. The Kan put him at the head of all tho 
Musulmans in his empire, with the title of Sadr-fil-JUidii, 
or Chief of the World.' 

Tho word Kdn {Qdn) among the Chinese is a generic 
term for any one governing the empire ; in fact, for the 
kings of their country, just as the lords of tho Liir conni 
are called Atdbik, The proper name of this sultan is Fdsi 
and there is not among the infidels ou the whole face of 
earth so great an empire as his.' 

■ Aa Ibn Batuta ralates elsewhere (ui, SDS) this oelebratod prencbw 
);av« aa hia reason for rofnaing to Tiait luilia : '■ 1 will not go to the court 
of a. king who makes pbiloaophecB stand in his pccsenae." Curioualy 
enough the story ia bXbo told in the JIaidlak ul Abtdr, of wMcli extracts 
have buen translated by QuatretnAre, According to that work, Burhuuud- 
dia of Saghfuj was Shaikh of Samarkand, and Sultan Mahouicd of Dobll, 
hearing much of his fame, acnt him 40.000 lankahi (we here see corrobo- 
ratioi) that the Indian dinar of Ibn Batuta ia the ToiiIiA of other autbora) 
with an iuTitation to bis coai't. The messenger on bis arrival at Samar- 
kand found the Shaikh had set out for China, so he gave the money to » 
;ouDg slave-girl of hia, desiring ber to let her master know that bis 
presence was vehemently desired by the King of Debli (SoHcti ct 
Kxlraiti, liii, llMi). 

• Alahek was tho title borne by variona powerful Amirs at the court of 
the 8e(jucid», which they retained sfter becoming independent in ditfer- 
ent provinces of Irak, Aearbijan, etc. The title is said to menn '• The 
Prince's Father." It was also held at the Court of Deldi ander the tiaus- 
lated form Khati Baba (Elph. Hiit. n/ India, ii, 21(i). Ibn Batuta hud 
visited one of the At«boks, Afraniab, in Luriaton, on his way from Bii^chitad 
t.i lapiilian. By Ptialtdi, I auupci^t ho only iiiuunsi \hv I'l'iniun I'l'iM 





The palace of the monarch la situated in the middle of the 
fily appropriated to liie residence. It ia almost entirely 
constructed of carved wood, and ia admirably laid out. It 
has Beven gates. At the first gate aits the Kotwdl, who is 
the chief of the porters, whilst elevated platforms right and 
left of the gate are occupied by the pages called Pardadd- 
riijah (curtain-keepers), who are the warders of the palace 
gates. These wore 600 lu number, and I was told that they 
used to bo 1,000. At the second gatu are stationed the 
SipdhU, or archers, to the number of 500 ; aud at the third 
gate are the Nizahdars, or spearmen, also 500 in number. 
At the fourth gate are the Teghddnjjah (sabre-men) men 
with sabre and shield. At the fifth gate are the offices of 
the ministerial departments, and those ai-o furnished with 
numerous platforms.' On the principal one of these sits the 
wazir, mounted on an enormous sofa, and this ia called the 
Mannad. Before the wa»ir is a great writing table of gold. 
Opposite is the platform of the private secretary ; to the 
right of it is that of the secretaries for despatches, and to 
the right of the wazir is that of the clerks of the finances. 

These four platforms have four others facing them. One 
i« called the office of control ; the second is that of the office 
of Mujilal-Iu-aj, or ' Produce of Extortion,' the chief of which 
is one of the principal grandeea. They call vmel'ikhnij the 
balances due by collectors and other officials, and by the 
amirs from the claims upon their fiefs. The third ia the 
office of appeals for redress, where one of the great officers 
of state sits, assisted by secretaries and counsel teamed in 
the law. Any one who has been the victim of injustice ad- 

The rcul name of tlia enipcror »l tliis time waa To^'on Tiinur, surnamud 
Ukhagatu, called by the Chineae Shunti. 

' The word ia Saqlfah, which is defined in the diotionary Locfu dUcahila- 

Hitar lu(<D>-ii BCamni conslruclm anU ada, nnd tRLtiatuUtd in the 

I suppose ib here to represent an open elevated ahed or 

^vilioiD, aiiob an appeani to tw uuoh uiTQcti'din the cuurt« of Chinese and 

o-Chiuesc pa]a<;e9. 



dresses himself to thorn for aid and protection. The fourth 
is the office of the posts, and there the head of the news 
department has his seat.' 

At the sixth gato of the palace ia stationed the king's 
body guard, with its chief commandant. The eunuchs are at 
the seventh gate. They have three platforms, the first of 
which is for the Abyssinians, the second for the Hindus, 
the third for the Chinese. Each of these three classes has 
a chief, who is a Chinese. 

When WD arrived at the capital Khanbalik, we found that 
the Kkn was absent, for he had gone forth to fight Firuz, the 
son of his uncle, who had raised a revolt against him in the 
territory of Kabakoeau and Bishbaligh, in Cathay.' To 
reach those places from the capital there ia a distance to be 
passed of three months' march from the capital through a 
cultivated country. I was informed by the Sadr-u1-Jih4D, 
Burh&nuddin of Bagharj, that when the Kan assembled his 
troops, and colled the array of his forces together, there 
were with him one hundred divisions of horse, each com- 
posed of 10,000 men, the chief of whom was called Atnlr 
Tumdn or lord of ten thousand.' Besides these the imme- 
diate followers of the sultan and his household furnished 
50,000 more cavalry. The infantry consisted of 500,000 
men. When the emperor had marched, most of the amirs 

' In the whole of this description, with its Persian teohnicalitieB, it is 
pretty clear that Ibn Batuta is drawing either on his imagination, or 
(more probablj) on his recollections of the Court of Dehli, and huace we 
have the strongest ground for suspecting that he never entered the palace 
of Peking, if indeed he erer saw that city at all. In iii, 205, he has told 
us of an office at the Court of Dehli which bore the name of Mustakhro}, 
the bueineEB □)' which was to extort unpaid balances b; bastinado and 

* Karalcoram, the chief place succeasivcl; of the Kbana of Kerait, 
and of the Mongol Kilos till Eublai established hia residence in China. 
niahbilik (i.e. " Pentapolia") lay between Karokoram and Almalib) and 
liad anciently been the chief seat of the Digur nation. It is now, ac<Mrd- 
iag to Klaproth, represented by Unimlai. 

' Tuman. Sve lapra, p. 117, 


revolted, and agreed to depose hira, for he had violated the 
laws of the Yasdk, that is to say, of the code established by 
their ancestor Tankiz Khan, who ravaged the lands of 
Islam.* They deserted to the camp of the emperor's cousin 
who was in rebellion, and wrote to the K&n to abdicate and 
bo content to retain the city of Khansi for his apanage. 
The K&n refused, engaged thenj in battle, and was defeated 
and slain.' 

This news was received a few days after our arrival at the 
capital. The city upon this was decked out, and the people 
went about beating drums and blowing trumpets and horns, 
and gave themselves over to games and amusements for a 
whole month. The Kin's body was then brought in with 
those of about a handred more of his cousins, kinsfolk, and 
favourites who had fallen. After digging for the Kan a 
gi'cat Ndmts or crypt,' they spread it with splendid carpets, 
and laid therein the Kan with his anna. They put in also 
the whole of the gold and silver plate belonging to the 
palace, with four of the Kin's young slave giria, and six of 
his chief pages holding in their hands vessels full of drink. 
They then built up the door of the ciypt and piled earth.on the 
top of it till it was like a high hill. After this they brought 

' The Yaia OEOTdinsnces which Cbingliiz laid down for the guidance of 
bis Buccesaon mny beeeenmorearleaainPetiB de la Croix, D'OhBHOn, De- 
guii^es, in Y. Hammer'a Gulden Horde, and in I7nivi!rs Pittoreique(Tttrti^ 
lie, p. 313). The word iasaid to mean any kind of ordinance or reflation. 
Baber tells dh in hia Autobiography : " My forefatheca and family bad 
always sacredly obaerred the Rules of Chenghiz, In their pnrtios, in 
their courts, their festivoJa. lud their eDt«rtainmenta. in their sitting 
down, and in their rising up, they never acted contrary to the Institu- 
tions of Cbeoghiz" (p. 2(12). 

' The Emperor Togontiin'ir or 3hunti, who was on the throne at the 
time of Ihn Batiita'a visit (1347), had succeeded in 1333, und continued 
to reign till bis axpniaion by the Chinese and the fall of his dynasty in 
13G8. Nor can I find in Deguignea or De Mailla the least indication of 
any ciccamBtanoe occurring about this time that could have been made 
the foundation of suuh a story. 

' Delriimery saya (ram thu <ir. •'oJi. Menini^ki gives Ndw&s (or Nii4i). 


(bur horses and made them ran races round the emperor's ao- 
pulchre until they could not stir » foot ; they next aet up close 
to it a great mast, to which thoy suspended those horses 
after driving a wooden stake right through their bodies from 
tail to mouth. The Kirn's kinsfolk also, mentioned above, 
were placed in subterranean cells, each with his arms and 
tho plate belonging to his house. Adjoining the tombs of 
the principal men among them to the number of ten they 
set up empnled horses, three to each, and beside the re- 
maining tombs they impaled one horse a-piece.' 

' This appears to he a very correct account of Tartar faneral cere- 
DioiiieB, though Ibn Batuta certainly did not witoeas those oC a delunot 
emperor. As far biick as the days of Herodotus wo are told that tho 
ScytliiauB mied to bury with their kiog one of hiH concubiuua, bk cup- 
bearer, a cook, groom, lacquey, uieaHuager, several hotseH, etc., and a 
year later further ceremonial toolc pUce, when fifty selected from his 
attendants were strangled, and fifty of his finest horses also sl^n. The 
bowels were taken out and replaced with chaff. A number of posts were 
then erected in eeta of two pairs each, and on every pair the half fetly 
of awheel was set arch-wise; "then strong stakes are run lengthwise 
through the bodies of the horaes irom tail to neck, and they are mounted 
on the fallies so that the felly ia front supports the shoulders of the hoise 
while that behind sustains the belly and quartern, the legs dangling in 
mid air; each horse is furnished with a bit and bridle," etc. Tho fiity 
strangled slaves were then sot astride on tho horses, and so on. 

When one Valentine was sent on a missioD to the Turkish chie& by 
tho Emperor Tiberius II about 580, it is related that he witneased a 
ceremonial at the tomb of a deceased chief when Hun prisonora and 
horses were sacrificed. 

Hue and Gubet assert that like practices are maintained among Tartar 
tribes to the present day, large amounts of gold and ailver, and many 
alaves of both sexes, being buried with the royal body, the slaves being 
killed by being made to swallow mercury till choked, which is believed 
to preserve their colour ! 

Bnt the most exact corroboration of Ibn Batuta'8 account is. to be 
found in tho (almost) contemporary narrative of Ricold of Monte Croue. 
Alter speaking of the general practice of burying food and raiment with 
the dead, he goes on, " Magni etiam baronca omnibus liiia adduat equum 
bonum; Norn onuiger (Jus aacendit u^inum, cum ipsi parant ee ad sepeli- 
endum mortuum, et t^tigat oquum currendo et revolvendo usque ad lossi- 
tndinem, et poatea lavit equo caput cum vino puro et forti, et eqnns cadit. 
et ipse eionterat eum, ot evacoat omnia de ventre cjui, et implet hcrba 
viridi, et jjostou infiyit pahiiu magnum pw imattrioru, ut I'auit pnluui 


It was a great day ! Every eoul waa there, man and 
woman, Masnlman and infidel. All were dressed in mourn- 
ing, that is, the Pagans wore short white dresses, and tho 
Miisulmans long white dresses. The K&n's ladies and 
favourites remained in tents near his tomb for forty days ; 
some remained longer ; some a full year. A bazar had 
been established in the neighbourhood, where all necessary 
provisions, etc., were for sale. I know no other nation in our 
time that keeps up such practices. The pagans of India and 
China bum their dead ; other nations bury them, bat none 
of them thus biuy the living with the dead. However 
honest people in Sud4n have told me that the pagans of that 
country, when their king dies, digagreatpit, intowhich they 
put with him several of his favourites and servants together 
with thirty persona of both sexes, selected from the families 
of the great men of tho state. They take care first to break 
the arms and legs of these victims, and they also put vessels 
full of drink into the pit. 

An eminent person of the tribe of Maslifah, living among 
the Negroes in the country of Ki'iber,' who was much held 
in honour by their king, told me that when the king died 
they wished to put a son of his own into the tomb with some 
other children belonging to the country. "But I said to 
them," continued this eminent person, " how can you do 
-this, seeing the boy is neither of your religion nor of your 
country? And so I was allowed to ransom him with a large 
sum of money." 

exire usque ad os, ct ita dimittit equam impaintum, at suapendit eum, et 
mandat ei ijuod ait pamtua, quandocumque vult dominiu surgere, (it 
tunc couperinnt inortunm in aepultura. Cum vero moritor imperator, 
addnstur pnrdictia omnes lapides preciosi et etiam magiii thesauri. Et 
onsuuvenint etiam aepolire cum domino mortuo usque viginti servoa 
rivos ut eaaeut parati aetrire domino cum voluerit aurgera." Sucli 
proceedingB took place at the burial of Hnlagu. 

(RawHnjon's Herodotu; bk, iv, e, 71-72, and notea ; Deguignta, u, 395-G ; 
Pereffrin. Ouotuor, p, 117; See alao 5/. Polo, ii, 54 i AuAruguM, p. 337] and 
riano Carpini, p. 629.) 
1/ I Buppoae the Oober of Dr. Biu-th'a map, nenr Sakatu. 



Wlien the Kin was dead, aa I have relatod, and Fimz, 

the son of hia uncle, had usurped the supreme power, the 
latter chose for hia capital the city of Kaeakoeam, because it 
was nearer to the territories of his couains, the kings of 
Turkeatan and Mawarulnahr,' Then several of tho amfrs 
who had taken no part in the slaughter of the late Kin re- 
volted against the new prince j they began to cut off the 
communications, and there waa great disorder. 

Revolt having thus broken out, and civil war having been 
kindled, the Shaikh Burhannddiu and others advised me to 
return to (Southern) China before the disturbances should 
have arisen to a greater pitch. They went with me to tho 
lieutenant of tho Emperor Firuz, who sent three of his fol- 
lowers to escort me, and wrote orders that I should bo 
everywhere received as a guest. So we descended the river 
to Khansi, Kanjanfi'i and Zaitun. When we reached tho 
latter place, I found junks on the point of sailing for India, 
and among these waa one belonging to Malik-ul-Zdhir, Sul- 
tan of Java (Sumatra), which had a Mahomedan crew. The 
agent of the ship recognised me, and was pleased to see mo 
again. Wo had a fair wind for ten days, but as we got near 
the land of Taw41isi it changed, the sky became black, and 
heavy rain fell. For ten days we never saw the sun, and 
then wo entered on an unknown sea. The sailors were in 
great alarm, and wanted to return to China, but this was 
not possible. In this way we passed forty-two days, with- 
out knowing in what waters we were. 

On the forty-third morning after daybreak we descried a 
mountain in the sea, some twenty miles off, and tho wind was 
carrying us straight for it. The sailors were surprised and 
said, "Wo are far from the mainland, and in this sea no 
mountain is known. If tho wind drives us on this one we 
are done for." Then every one botook himself to humilia- 

■ Hore two Uongol dfoaatieB reigiimg in Central Mm, seeu to be 
apoken of (aee p. 27i npro, and note at the end of thie). 


tion and repentance, and renewal of good reeolutiona. We 
addrossod ourselves to God m prayer, and sought the medi- 
ation of the prophet {upon whom be peace !). 

The merchants vowed to bestow alms in abundance, and 
I wrote their vows all down in a list with my own hand. 
The wind lulled a little, and when the sun rose wo saw the 
mountain aloft in the air, and the clear sky between it and thu 
sea." We were in astonishment at this, and I observed that 
the sailors were weeping and bidding each other adieu, so I 
called out, "What ia the matter?" They replied, "What 
we took for a mountain is the Bukkh ! If it sees us it will 
send us to destruction." It was then some ten miles from 
the junk. But God Almighty was gracious nnto us, and 
sent ua a fair wind, which turned us from the direction in 
which the Kukkh was ; so we did not see him (well enough) 
to take cognizance of bis real shape. 

Two months from that day we arrived at Java {Island of 
Sumatra), and landed at (the city of} Sumatra. We found 
the Sultan Malik-ul-Zahir had just returned from one of his 
campaigns, and had brought in with him many captives, 
out of whom he sent me two girls and two boys. He put 
me up as usual, and I was present at the marriage of his son 
to the daughter of his brother. 

' Sucb an appearance is a well known eSiict of mirage, or abnormal 
refractioa. Aa to the Rakh see Mr. Moor's Introduction to India in the 
ISIh century, p. mvi, leg., and a learned diacourae in LudolTa Comment, 
on hia own HUtoria Ethiopica, pp. 163-164; also a cut from a Persian 
dmiring in Lan^4 Arabian Kighli, ii, 90. The moat appropriate reference 
here Lowever is perbaps to Pigafetta, who was told (possibly by de- 
scendants of Ibn Batnta's Mala; crew) that in the eea of China totlo 
Oiava maggiore there wad a very gjent tree called <7anipan[ri*n!r'i>, In which 
dwelt the birds colled garttda, which were ao big tiat tiey ccFtild fly away 
with a bnffalo, or even with un elephant. No ship oonld approach the 
place within eeveral leagues, on account of the vortices, etc. [Prima Viag- 
gio intomo del Mondo, p. 174). Oaruda is a term from the Hindu 
mythology for the great bird that carries Vishnu ; its use among the 
Slalays is a relic of their ancient religion, and perhaps indicates the 
origin of the stories of the Rukh. To an ialand of the Indian Sea also 
Kazwini attributes a bird of each enormous size, that, if dead, the half of 
its beab would serve for a ahip (Stldsmniter, p. S20). 



I witueased the ceremony. 1 remarked that tbey had sell- 
up in the middle of the palace yard a great seat of state; 
covered with silk stuffa. Tho bride arrived, coming from 
the inner apartments of the palace on foot, and with her face 
exposed, so that the whole company coaM see her, gentle and ' 
simple alike. However it is not their usnal custom to appear 
in public unveiled in this way ; it is only done in the marriage 
ceremony." The bride proceeded to the seat of state, the min- 
strels male and female going before her, playing and singing. 
Then came the bridegroom on a caparisoned elephant, which 
carried on its back a soi-t of throne, surmounted by a canopy 
like an umbrella. The bridegroom wore a crown ou his 
head ; right and left of him were about a hundred young 
men, of royal and noble blood, clothed in white, mounted on 
caparisoned horses, and wearing on theii' heads caps adorned 
with gold and gems. They were of the same age as the 
bridegroom, and all beardless. 

From the time when the bridegroom enteredj pieces of 
gold and silver were scattered among tho people. The 
sultan was seated aloft where he could see all that passed. 
His son got down from the elephant, went to kiss his father's 
foot, and then mounted on the seat of state beside his bride.- 
They then brought pawn and betel-nut; the bridegroom took 
them in his hand and put them into tho bride's mouth, and 
she did tho same by him. Next he put a pawn-leaf first into 
his own mouth and then into hers, and she did in like man- 
ner.^ They then put a veil over the bride, and removed the 

> I BQBpecttliiBapologetia Bfiaertion is not founded in Tact. TbeMalio- 
mcdan proBclytizers among the Mulaye and ludo-Chmesa nkces bare 
never 'bona able to iotcodtioe the habitual aee of the veil, and the custom 
offemiLle BL-vlDBion. At Aniarapura, in 1855, the Mahomedan soldiers of 
oar Indian escort were greatly sbooked at the absence of these proprieties 
among the Burmese profeaaom of their faith; and at tbe coort of the 
Sultan of Java, in ISCO. 1 hiul the honour of shaking hands with mora 
than half a dozen comely and reilless ladies, tfae wives and daughters of 
Hie M^estj. I was told that at times they oven liononred a ball at the 
Dutch Residency with their presence. 

J This is a genuine Malay uustoni, marking the highest dORree of inli- 


seat of state into the interior of the palace, whilst the yuung 

ioiiple were still upon it ; the company took refreahuienta 

I and separated. Next day the sultan called the people toge- 

I tfaer, and named his sou as his successor on the throne. 

I They took an oath of obedience to him, and the future sove- 

I Toigu distributed numerous presents in money and dresses. 

I spent two months in this island of Java, and then em- 

L barked again on a junk. The sultan presented me with a 

I- quantity of aloes-wood, camphor, cloves, and sandal-wood, 

I and then gave me leave to depart. So I sailed, and after 

forty days I arrived at Kaulam. Here I put myself under 

the protection of Al-Kazwini, the judge of the Mahomedans. 

It was the month of Ramazan, and I was present at the 

festival of breaking the fast in the chief mosque of the city. 

The custom of the people there is to assemble on the eve of 

the feast at the mosque, and to continue reciting the praises 

of God till morning, and indeed till the moment when the 

prayer appropriate to the feast begins. Then this prayer is 

oifered, the preacher pronounces a discourse, and the 

congregation disperses. 

From Kaulam I went to Calicut, where I remained some 
days. I inbended at first to return to Dehli, but on second 
thoughts I had fears as to the consequences of such a stop. 
So I embarked again, and after a passage of 28 days, I ar- 
rived at Zhafar.' This was in the month of Moharram, of 
the year 48 (April or May, 1347).* 1 took up my quarters 
with the city preacher, 'Isa Ibn Th&tha. 

maoy betneen the seiea. Dnlatmsr quotes several examples in Uluetratioa 
&om Mala; poems. 

' Zhnfar or DKo/ar, one of the now decayed porta of Arabia, on the 
□oast of Hsilliramaut. It is spoken of by Marco Polo as b, boantifnl, 
larga, and noble city {iii, 41), but probably &om report only. Ibn Batuta 
seems chiefly struck by the flies and stench in the bazsj- (ii, 196). 

' At p. 425 1 have pointed out generally that this date is inconBlstent 
with previous Btatemeats. Let me sun up the intervals asai^ed to the 
different sections of his expedition to Chinn : 

Those previous statements would make the time of his seaond visit 



to the Motdire lalonds fiUl at least as tat« us Aagust, 1346. Ha is 43 dajs 
on the vofogQ thence to Chitta^ng, and 40 daya on that troni Sonargsiiw 
tn Sumatra. It is not atated how long was the intervening time spont in 
Bengal, hut he waited at Suntatni a fortnight, " till the right aaaaoQ for 
the Toyoge to China had arriTed," and this muBt have been tho termina- 
tion of the N.E, monsoon, about March, 1317; or the commencement of 
the S.W. monsoon, a Little later. Tho voyage to China ocoupiaa time as 
follows : — To Mul-Jawa 21 days, stay there 3 ; to the Calm Sea 34, on that 
Bea to Tawoliai 37, stay there say 3 ; to Zaiton 17, total 115 days, and 
time of arrival about July or August. The interval oocapiod by Mb jour- 
ney in China may be thus estimated ; stay at Z^ton probably not less than 
10 days, voyage to Canton 27, atay there 14, back aay 27, stay again at 
Zoitun aay 4 ; jonmoy to Kanjanfu 10, stay there 15 ; to Baiwam Kotlu 
4, to Ehaosa, 17, stay at Khansa at leaat 20; to Ehaiibaltlc 64, stay 
there not specified, but probably not loss than 60 daya : voyage back to 
Kaitnn say the some as before, omitting stoppages, i.e. 95 days. This 
makes the whole time over which his travels in China extended 967 days, 
nnd would bring the season of his sailing for India again to July or Augnat. 
Hia voyage as fhr as Sumatra then oocupiea 113 daya, he posses about GO 
days there, ia 40 days in sailing to Kaulam, stops a while, say 15 day*, at 
Eaolam and Calicut, and reaohea Zha&T in a voyage of 3H, in all 25S 
daya, which bringa na to March or April, agreeing with the time assigned 
in the tert for hia arrival at Dhaftr, bnt April in 1349, not April in 1347. 
The former date is, however, quite inconsistent with that assigned for his 
arrival in his native country (November, 1349) ; nor would perhaps even 
April 1348 allow tho traveller of those days to accomplish all that Ibn Batuta 
did in the interval, oapecially as ha gives several consiatent intermediate 
dates between his arrivaJ at Uhafar and hia reaching Fez. 

Without going into tedious detaila, I think it probable that his visit to 
Bengal must, in aplte of the data to the contrary, be put one year botsk, 
iris., to the cold weather of 194&-46, and that the time occupied in his 
Chinese travels, including the voyage thither and bock, must be cut down 
by a whole year alao. ThiB may bo considered io connection with the 
donbtfi expressed as to his having really viaited Peking. 


NOTE E. (See page 461.) 




It has, I believe, been generally aaiomed that the countr; of Eamrti 
Tiaitod by Ibn Batuta was Aiiam, and Chat the Blue Bivar by which he 
returned to the Oanges Delta, waa the Brahmaputra. And I gather that 
H. De&fmery (iv, 215) tokcH this view. 

It appeaxed to loe however when I tool: up the subject t!ia.t there waa 
some resBon to believe that the diatriot viaited was Silhrt, and that the 
river in question waa one biaaeb or other of the great Silbat Biver, the 
Bnraitortbe Surma, This was first auggea ted by the statemaat in the text 
that Shaikh Jal41uddin had converted a large number of the inhabitants 
to the UahomedaQ Mtb; for it is a faet that ia Silbet, though bo remote 
from the centres of Mahomedan influence, there is an unusually large 
proportion of the peasantry who profesa that religion. It seemed how- 
ever probable that if Silbet were the site of Jaloluddin's missionary ei- 
ertiona. some trace of bis memory would be preserved there. And of this 
I speedily found indications in two English works, whilst at the same 
time I forwarded through a, valued friend, who had a correspondent at 
Silbet, some brief queries for answer on the spot. 

In the interesting narrative of Bobert Lindsay, who waa one of the 
firat English reaidenta or collectors of Silhet (Lira* n/ tht Litidaaya, iii, 
168), we find that on his first arrival there he was told " that it was oui- 
tomary for the new resident to pay bis respects to the shrine of the 
tutelar saint Shaw Juloll. Pilgrima of the Islam faith flock to the 
shrine from every part of India, and I aft-erwarda found that the fanatics 
attending the tomb were not a little dangeroua", etc. An article on 
Silhet, by C^tain Fisher, in the J.A.S. Bengal for 18iO (tbo exact cita- 
tion I have unluckily lost), alao speaks of Shah Jal&l'a shrine, and of hia 
being traditionally regarded aa the conqueror of the country for the 

KlLmnib, Kiimnln, or K&mni, corrupted f^m the Sanscrit Sdmarijia 
or Kamrup, was vaguely known to the Arab goographera as the name of 
a mountainous country between India and China, noted for its produc- 
tion of a valuable aloes-wood (see Oildemeitter, pp. 70, 191 ; and Reinaud, 
Bel. del Fi^aj«8, etc., p. 41). Though the seat of the ancient Hindu 
Government of Kammp was probably in Aaaam, a central district of 
which still preaervea the name, we are informed by Captain Fisher (with 
no view to anch a question aa the present) that " it Ja known that Kam- 
rup extended to the aouthward as tar aa the confluence of the Uegna 
with the Brahmaputra" (i, e., to the vicinity of Dacca; o. c, p. 829). He 
odds that there are atill in Silhet some Muaalman families who arc the 
descendants of Ba^jas once under the dynaaty of Kamrup. and who were 


51 (J 


Tciroed to conform to Mabomedaniitiii on the cbaDge of masten. Of tkeae, 
B, principal ona is the Baja of Baniachong (a, place between the Biiafc 
and Surma, about fort; inilaj S.Vf. of Silbet). The first iiiTaaua of 
Eamrup by the MaliomedaDR tnolc place in 1S05-6 nnder IfiiliniMNl 
Boklitif ar Khi^i. Governor of Bengal : a second in 1263-57 Dnder imnthrr 
Governor called Toghrol Bet; Malik Tiubek (boo Sfnearff Hittary vf 
fi«n£ial, pp. 46, ae^g.). Both these invaaionB ended in disaster; but, •• 
br as can be understood, both appear Ui have been directed throngli the 
Silhet territory, and then across the passes of the Eaaia or JaintiA Bill* 
iDt<i Auam. In the accouota of both invasions mention is made of « 
great river called Bongnnuiti, on which stood a chief oity which waa cap- 
tured by Bakhtiyar ICMlji. This name ia not novf applied to any rivier in 
that quarter \ but it acema highly probable that it may be connected with 
the fio^nfc (Hobanga) of Ibn Batnta, and that this woa situated at or 
near Silhet, perhaps at the place now oaUed Bamoa, at the bifnrcation 
of the Snrma and Barak, twenty or thirty miles above Silhet. The 
Bangamati is described in the oooouitt of the E[hi^i'e caanpaign as 
" three timea as big lu the Ganges". But this might easily be aoeoiint«d 
for if (as is very possible) the rivers of Silhet then chanced to occupy 
a more concentrated channel than at pruaent. or if (as Captain Fisher 
suggests} the annual inundation had not quite subsided. This iniand»- 
tlon, when at its height, as I have seen it from the Easia Hills, appeaia 
like a vast estuary, covering the whole plain, eighty miles in width, | 
between the Eoeia and the Tipura Hills. 

So far I had written when the answer arrived from my friend's cot 
Bpondant, the Key. W. Pryse of the Silhet mission. My questions I 
related to JnJaluddin and Habonk, and whether any traces of a city 
existed at Baoga. Mr. Pryse states that the name of JainIIudin Ta6rui 
was known to the learned Mahomedons at Silhet only as that of a Fir 
or Saint in Hindustan, but not locally either in Silhet or Cachar. B« i 
then proceeds ; — 

"Shah Jei.all, according to tradition, come to Silhet about the middle ' 
of the fourteenth century (a.d.) accompanied by a hundred and eighty 
Arab Pf/i [Holy Men] from Yemen. There is a Persian MS. called 
" Snhayli- Yemen" still partly in existence at Shah Jelnll's Mu^id here, 
which I have seen, but unfortunately the date and a large portion of the 
MS. ore not legible, from the effect of the climate. Shah Jeloll's tomb 
□nee WHS, but is not now, a place of pilgrimage. 

" Habako is the name of a small Tillah' in the Pergunnah of Dinatpore 
south of Hubbigunge in this Zillah, running along the costeni or left 
bank of the Barak or Koosiora River. In tradition it is noted for its ' 
Plrt, under the name of " Habangia TiUoh", or, as pronounced in tbe 
neighbourhood, "Hapaniya Tillah". . . . 

" Choi Ooola Tilloh, to the south-east of Latoo, some ten or twelve 
miles S.E. of Baoga Bo^or (which still exists just at the separation of 
Soorma and Koosiara Rivers, on the western confines of Cachnr), was for- 




' Tfin is the word commonly applied in Eastern Bengal to low and often 
isolated bills starting np from the plain. At the town of Silhet there are 
several such, on which the houses of the European officials are built. 


merlj noted for its Ffr: An old fellow xtill leaideB thero in tbe midst of 
the jangles on the b&nk uf tlie beaulifUi Sfind Bkeel (Uke), Tlie illite- 
mte MoalemH ajwind have a. tradition that the Piri there mate the tigers 
their playmates and protoctorB, and that boats read; manned start up from 
the lake read; for their use whenever the; wiHh. 

" Danga Biuar is a modem village. The hillocks and juDgles to the 
eastward are the resort of the Firs. 

" I think it probable that all the eastern porCiou of the Zillah of Silhet 
woA uninhabited when Mulllk Yiizbek Srst entered the valley in 1253. 
Hence we find that the Hindus preponderate in the population of the 
western half, and the Moslems in that of the eastern half.'' 

A later note from the sftioe gentleraon adds : " I have found four cele- 
bratud spots in this Zillah at which report saya Shah Telall settled some 
of the Pin who accompanied him, viz., Silhet Latoo, Hapaniya Tillab in 
Toroff, and H&BAJia Tillah on the south^eaatom bank of the Chingra 
Kbal river, about sii mUes Dorth-vrest &om Silhet, and about four miles 
north from the village of Akhalia. At present nothing is to be found in 
any of these places excepting Sdhet, where there is a mosque kept in 
rep[ur by government. I believe the Habang Tillah on the Chengra 
Khal must be the one Col. Y. spoke of." 

These interesting notes appear to me to render it certain that Silhet waa 
the field of our traveller's tour. That Shaikh Jolaluddin's name has got 
shortened by familiar use ia of no importance a^inst this view — SAiiA is 
a title often applied to eminent Mahomedon saints — whilst we laam that 
tradition still regards him as a saint and a leader nf saints ; that the date 
aBsigned to bim corresponds fairly with that derivable from Ibn Batuta, for 
tbe death of Jolaluddin must have occurred close npon the middle of the 
14tb century, shortly after Ibn Batuta's visit, i.e. in 1317 or 1318 (see lupra 
pp.461, 464); and that tbe name of Habank still survives, and has a legen- 
dary fame. If no remains of Ibn Botuta's great city exist, that is small 
wonder. Neither climate nor materials in Bengal are favourable to the 
preservation of such remains, and I know of no medieval remains in 
Bengal Proper eicept at Gaur and Pandua. 

The name of Al-Airak, which our author applies to the river which be 
descends from Habonk, is the same bm that (Bnhr'Ol-AiTak) which we 
translate as the Blue Hile of AbyBsinia. Ibn Batata applies the same 
name to the River Korun in Ehuzistan (ii, 2S). A Persian title of like 
significance (NH-Ab) is applied by Musalmon writers to the Indus, and 
also it would appear to the Jelnm (see Jour. A.S., il,20t ; Sadik I^fahanx, 
p. 51 ; Dale's PiHsAlu, i, 26), and the name here may therefore have been 
given arbitrarily. According to Wilkinson, however, Airai signifies black 
iHther than blue (Sawltiuon's iferod., ii, 25) ; and it is possible that the name 
of the Biver Sv,Tma, BUggesting the black collyrium bo called, may hare 
originated the title used by Ibn Batuta. 

I doubt if water wheels ore at pi'esent nsed for irrigation, as described 
by the traveller, in any part of Bengal Proper, though common in the 
Upper Provinces. 

I should Btrongly dissent fi-om Ht. Pryec'ti idea that Eustem Silhet was 


oninhnbited in the I3tJi century. But I tbitJc lb is M^bty probable ttuit 
the inluibitantB were Qot Hindus, but of Indo-Chineae mce, like those 
occupying the aj^oining hills and part of Cachar. This ia implied in Ibn 
Batuta's account of the people, though in striatnesa ha spenka only of 
the Tiill people. Those, however, in the a^'oining mounloina, have not 
been converted to Mahomedanism. They retain their original charactM', 
and have the Mongolioji type of features in the highest develc^ment. Aa 
regArds tbeir powers of work, of which the traveller apeaka bo highly, I 
may observe that, when I wae in that region, portera of the Kasia nation 
used oiten to carry down from the ooal mines of Cherra Punji to the 
plains, a distance of eleven milea, loada of two maunda or 165 Iba. of coal. 
Their strength and bollt of leg were such ae I have never seen elaewUere. 
On the map at the end of this book I have inserted a sketch from snob 
imperfect materials as are available, to make Ibn Batuta's travels in 
Bengal more intelligible. No decent map of Silhet yet eiiata, but luy 
ft^end Colonel Thiijllier informs me that tho aurvoy is finiahed, so a cor- 
rect representation of that remarkable country may be eipected before 

NOTE F. (See page 468.) 

This Mal-Jana is made by all the commentatora, professed or incidculul 
(see Lee, Dulaurier, Defrumeiy, UilJemeiKter, Wolckenoer, Koinaud, 
Losaen), to be the Island of Java, and by help of Sanscrit the appellation 
is made with more or less of coercion to signify " J'nmiliuc or Original 
Java." Setting aside the gueationablc application of Sanacrlt etymologies 
to explain names which were probably conferred by Arab Bailors, surely it 
is not hard to see that if by Mul-Java, where elephants were kept by every 
petty shopkeeper, and eagle-wood was used to serve the kitohen Gree, the 
traveller did mean Java, then he lied ao egrogiously that it ia not wi 
considering wbat he meant. There are na elephants in Java, except such 
few aa are imported to swell the state of the native princes, — at preaont, 
perhaps, conaidorably fewer than we could muster in England. — and there 
ia no eagle-wood. 

Theae circnmstancea taken alone would lead na to seek for the country 
in question on aome part of the Continent bordering the Oolf of Slam, 
probably in or near Cambodia. There elephants are atill almost as comi 
aa Ibn Batata represents them, and the country ia alao. and has been for 
ages, tbe great source of supply of aloea or eagle-wood. Whenfornierly sug- 
gesting this view (in a note on Jbrdanui, p.33), I applied to a learned Arabic 
scholar to know if there were no term like mui in that language which 
might bear some such sense asTerra-yirnio. Theonawet was unfavourable. 
But I have since lighted on a solution. In vol. iiii of the Jour, of the E.Q.S 
p. SO, Capt. Burton mentions that the Arabs having in lattor times con 
fined the name of Zanjibar to the ishind and city now ao called, Oiey 
generally diatinguiah tbe mainland as i?or-«i-MoLi, or "Continent," 


^^^ Bo 


oppOHition to Siiiwa " laland." And below be adds, " The word JfoH 
coanDonly used in the corrupt Arabic of Zttnjibar, will voinlj be sought 
in the DictioDoriefl." Mvl-Java then ia Java of the Mnin. 

It IB true that in the only other place where I have been able to find 
this name used, b paasa^ quoted bj D'Obseon frcim the Mongol History 
in the Persian language, colled Ta-rikk-i-Waiinf, it ia stated that in 1292 
Kublai Khan conquered " the Island of Mul-Java," which is deecribed aa 
lying in the direction of India, and se having a length of 200 farsangB, 
and a breadth of 100. It is added that the sovereign of this oootltry, Sri 
Rama b; name, died on hie way to pay homage to Kublai, but his son 
arrived, and was well received, obtaining the confirmation of his govern- 
ment on condition of rendering a tribute of gold and pearls (Zi'C"w5on, 
ii, 465). As regards the use of the word uland here, it is to be remem- 
bered that the Araba uaed the wood JoiCrah also for a poninHnla. as 
we have olreadf bad ocoaaion to observe. Thus Abolfeda calls the Spanish 
Peninsula Ja*irat-vl-Aitdalvt, and Ibn Jubair applies the plaral Jaiair 
to what we by a kind of analogy call the Two Sicilies (Reinaud'i Abulftda, 
ii, 23-1 ; Jour. Anat., Jan., 1846, p. 224 ; sec also Oiiilemaiter, p. 59). Lot 
it be remembered also that the terms Jatca, Jawi, with the Arabs were ap- 
plied not merely to the specific islands of Java and Sumatra, bat " to the 
whole Archipelago, its language, and inhabitants " (Cratcfurd't Vici. of I. 
laliinda, p. 166). To what region then would the fall application JatWah 
Mul Jdvia, or " Peninsula of Java of the Main," apply so aptly Hs to what 
wo call the Slatag Pemniula, which, I may observe, Crawford in all his 
works on the Archipelago treats as easentiatly part of that region ? And 
turning to the fragments of hazy history preserved by the Malays, we 
And as one of the early kin^ over the HaUiy or Javanese settlers in the 
penininla, Sai Raua Vikrama. Tbe roign of this king indeed, according 
to Lassen's interpretation of the chronology, is placed 1301-1314, soma 
years too late for the date in Wasaaf, but tbe Malay dates ore very uncer- 
tain (see Lassen, iv, G12; and Craa-Jurd, o. c. 343). I have little doubt, 
then, that the Peninsula was the Mul-Java of the two authors, though 
possibly the extension of the name towards Siam and Cambodia may not 
have been very exactly limited, for we know &om Deborros that the king 
of Siam olaimed sovereignty over the Peninsula even to Singapore, and it 
may still have been in theformerquarter that Ibn Batuta landed. Even if 
this bo not admissible, I may remark that we know little now of the easlem 
coast of the Peninsula or regarding the degree of civilisation to which it 
may have attained in former days. The elephant, however, aboouds in 
its northern forests, and is still commonly domesticated. The aloes- wood 
also is found there, though lower in repute than that of Cambodia (see 
Craw/iird in w. EUphant and Agila). 

At p. 4«9 1 have quoted frwn Abulfeda a slight indication of the posi- 
tion of Enmira, which Ibn Batuta represents to have been a city belong, 
ing to Mul-Jara, as at the northern end of the Malay Peninsula. It may 
however have been on the other side of the Gnlf of Siam, and in that 
possible that the name may be connected with £7iiner, the 
ancient native rnuue of the kingdom of Cambodia (sec Fntlegoix Da. At 
Boyaume Thai ov. Siam, i, 29, and Movhofs Travfli, J, 27R). 

NOTE G. (Seb paqb 477.) 

Thi» Tatcdliti is a great difficulty. The yrench tronalatora aay, ■■ The 
Ule of Celebes, or rather perh^ta Timiiii;" Dulnurier, "The ooaat of 
CbihIku*. Cochin -ChituL. or Tankiii ; " Lasaea, " B; this name no place 
nnn be nieaDt bat Tonkin ; " whilst Walckenaer identifies it with Taiml, 
a gmaU ULuiil adjoining Bachiitn, one of the Malaccas. Thia last aag- 
Ifostiou seems to have been baaed on the naoie only, imd all have beun 
made in oonnectioa with the aaaumption that the Mul-Jawa of our author 
ia Java, which we have seen that it oannot be- 
lt aeems to mo inipo«iible that Tuwalisi sboiUd be Cambodia, Cochin- 
Chinii, or Tunking. for two ooncluaive reasons : (i) that the voyoge from 
Mul-Jawa to Tawalisi occupies seventy-one days, and is considered by 
our traviiller's ahipinatea an unusually good passage; (3) that the luat 
thirty-aevoD days of this time are spent on the pnaai^e of the Bahr-al-EdhU, 
disturbod by neither winds nor waves, a character which in this case we 
sliaiilil have to attach to the China Sea, the very metropolis of 

But I do not find it caay to get beyond a negative. Indeed, considering 
that AMld-Conriistherealnameef a port in South India, and that Urdi^a 
)■ a naiue which our author in a former part of Ms tiavels has assigned tu 
oau uf Ihu QupuDs of Mahomed Uibek Khan on the Wolga, and has ei- 
|iUinad tomiMJi in Turkish 'Bviru in the Camp,' whilst the Lady of Tawalisi 
biinidf ii made lo s]icak not only to the traveller but to her own servants 
n uilxtura uf Turkiah and IVraiui, ■ Aunt suspicion risos tliat Tawalisi is 
iimtly lo bu hmkvd for in that part of the atlas which contains the Marine 
Siirviiy* uf tlin latv Captain Uulliver. 

riitlinK aside Ihia Bitvpjoion. no suggestion seems on the whole more 
pmUUIe thai! that Tawalisi was thu kin{{dom of Soolo or Suliik, NJl. of 
Hoi'uiw, "Owing 1*1 niimn cause or other," says Crawfurd, "there has 
■priiiig up ill SvHiIii H i'ivili»alion and power fitf exceeding those of the 
H<iri-<niTi<lliit[ iHliuiderH. A HUiHuior fertility of the'anil, and better means 
of uiniutiiiiiinit n iiiiiu<'r<>tw and conoeubratod popnlation, has probably 
lHi<n I lix iiiHiii >-niiH<> »f this superiority ; but whatever be the canae, it iuu 
iiuabltHl tliiK (HH^ih' not only to maintain a paramount authority over the 
whiili' AiMhipi'luKu (<, e. the Bo-c«llod Soolo Archipelago), but to extend it 
lu I'aUwan and Iv tho northern coasts of Borneo aod islands a4jacent to 
it." Adopting this view, wo should haw Oi« B«ltr-al-Katiil in the sea be- 
tween Java Uomuo and Celebes, wbor« hurricanos nxv unknown, and 
stormy wenlhor is nuv. And, the tinic mentioned by Ibn Baluta, if we 
BUpposi. it .wnpiixi in tlw voja^i fhuu Ihi- "H*r pari of the Gulf uf 



Siant through the Java Bee. and Straits of UacosBar to Soolo. a. diBtaaca 
of Home 2,200 DuuticaJ miles, over a great part of wbiuh the ship hod to be 
towed, vould seem much l^M improbable than if the oonrse were to 
Coohin-Chinaor Tonkin. The naTal power of Tawaliai ia one of the most 
prominent featnrea in the muratiTe, and the Soolo people hava been 
noted throughout the seaa of the Archipelago for the daring exploits of 
their piratical fleets &oin our earlioHt aoijuaintanco with those regions. 
It would seem also irom Ibn Batata's eipression, " the load of two ele- 
phants in rice," that elephants were used in Tawalisi. Now the elephant 
IB alleged by Dalrymple to exist in Soolo, and though Crawfurd doubts the 
Ihct, there seoniB no sufficient reason for his doobts. It is tnoicn, more- 
over, to exist in the a4i''''^S P*"^ '^^ Borneo, which ma; have belonged. : 
to Soolo then aa it does now, and though not used now it was found i: 
domesticated state at Brunei by Magellan's party in 1521. These are the ' 
only portionB of the Aruhipelago east of Sumatra in which Che elephant is 

Uowover, I by no means put forth this hypotbesis with any great oon- 
fidence. The statement that the Sovereign waa the equal of the King of 
Cbina would certainly bo propoaterous ; but so it would in almost any 
conceivable identification of Tawalisi, unlesa we take it for Japan. To 
this there are objections still more serious. 

I suspect this kingdom of Soolo, or 5iUuit, as the Malays call it, may be 
also the Loltac of Haroo Polo whiuh has ho much troubled commentators 
(iii, 7). This waa an eitcnsive region, lying 500 miles south-esat of Son- 
dur and Condur (Pub Condore), inhabited by pagans, with a language 
of their own, under a king tributary to no one, being in a very inacoossibla 
position, prodncing much brazil-wood and great abundance of gold, hav- 
ing elephants m its forestfi, and supplying all the east with porwloiiu or 
cowiy-sbells for currency. The position answers to that of Soolo with fair 
accuracy ; cowries are aaid to be found in (inantlties there only of all the 
Indian islands ; the elephant, as we have seen, is reported to exist there, 
and certainly does exist in the adjoining territory of Borneo, belonging to 
Soolo 1 its " much gold " is spoken of by Barboaa. Panthier, indeed, in 
his new edition of Polo &om ancient French MS9. reads Soucat instead of 
Luhac. and identifies it with Svkadana, on the S.W. of Borneo. But 
neither elephants nor cowries appear to be found in that part of Borneo ; 
and as the native name of Soolo is Sag, that may have been the name in- 
dicated, if Soucat bo the right reading. J^et me add, however, that Sooto 
is said to have been at one time sabject to Snfaadana, and this circum- 
stance might perhaps help to reconcile Pautbier's suggestion with the 

ConSning ourselves to the indications afforded by the namet as given 
by Ibu Batnto, besides the Tnaal of Watckonaer we bare (aa noticed at 
p. 9U) a place marked as Talyrian, on the east coast of Borneo, and one 
of the chief Soloo islands called Tauri-taici. Aa regards iL'uilujtari, the 
Atlas of HercatoT and Hondiua shows on the west coast of Celebes a place 
called Curi-curi, which may perhaps be the same that wo now tind as 
Kaili, a district carrying on a good deal of trade with Singapore, Java, 
There is also a place called Kulakah, on the nurth-DOiilei'n coast of 


Borneo. The port of TawuliBi ie oaUed Kailika in Lee's veraion. but no 
impartanoe am ba attaobad to thia. (See Cravifurd's Diet. tnd. /(lands, 
ArticloB, SooUi, Elephant, Kaili, Covrry ; ditto Malay Diet. p. 73 ; PauthUr't 
Palo, p. 683). 

We ahoiild not oioit to call attention to a certain reaemblance Iwtwoen 
the Tauidliti of our author and tlie ThaUanatin of Odoric. 


In this passage Ibn Batuta appears to Bpeak of Turkeatan and Mm- 
naralnubr aa aeparate kin^oma Whether he bo intends or not it is 
the case that the Cha^ata.! or Middle Empire of the Montis vas by thia 
time divided; and as I know no book that contains a coherent sketch of 
the conTBO of eventa in that empire. 1 will here put together what I have 
gathered from such scattered aources as are accosaible. 

The tract assigned by Chinghiz, in the distribution of bia provincoB, 
to hU Bon Chagatai, embraced MawonUaahi and part of Ehwariim, the 
Dignr country, Kashgar, BadakbBhaii, Balkh, and the province of Ghazni 
to the banks of the Sindh ;' or in modem geogi'apb;, the kingfdoma of 
Independent Tartary with the eiception of Khiva or the greater part of 
it, the country under the Uzbeks of Kunduz» Afghanistan, and the west- 
em and northern portions of Chinese Turkestan, including Daungoria. 
Bisbhalik, north of the Thianshan, was at first the head quarters of the 
Khans, hut it waa afterwarda IranaferriKl to AlmnTik .' 

' Dcfrimrry'i Eitraots from Khoiidmiir in Journal Atiatique, ser. iv, 
torn. lix, pp. 58 stqg. 

■ As early as thetimeof Chagatai binitelf,howcTer,hi8 summer can^ was 
in the vicinity of Almolik. And when Hulagu was on the march from Kora- 
konim to destroy the Assassins (a.d. 1254) the Princeaa Begent Orgonoh. 
widow of Kara Uulogu grandson and successor of Chagatai, came out 
from Almalik to receive him with due honour. Hence it would appear 
that Ahualik was one at least of the capitals from a very early date. In 
the following century, about 1330-34, we find Ibn Batuta observing that 
it was the proper capital of the kings of Ibis dynasty.and that oneof the 
charges brought against the Khan Tormashirin, which led to ids super- 
soasiou, waa that he always remained in Mawarolnahr, and for four yean 
running had not visited Almalik and the eastern dominions of his fanilj'. 
In the time of the immediate siicceBBors of Tarmasbirin also, when 
Almalik was visited by the Archbishop Nicolas (about 1335-C).Hnd by 
Marignolli (1341), it appears to have been the residence of the sovereigns 
of Chagatai (qnatrcmiTe't Baihid., p. 146 1 Ibn Bat., iii, 41 1 tvpra, np. 
17Z. 838). 

It was during the government of the abovemontioned Organah that 
Eubroquia passed through the country, and probably what he states of 
the region being caJled Orsonnm originated in some uusappreheusion of 
tbU (see Jiufrr., p. 2S1). 


In the BpooQ of about one hundred and twent; years no Ush than thirty 
dosccndanta or kinaiDen of Cha^tai are counted to have occupied his 
throno, and indeed revoiutions, depoeitions, murdara, and nsurpatioiiB 
aeom to have suocoeded each other with a, &equenay unuaual even in 
Asiatic govenunenta.i 

At an early date liowever in the hiatot; of the dynaaty, the claimB of 
Kaidn to the Supreme Kjuumhipi of which Kublai had effective poaaeaaion, 
aeem to have led to a partition of the Chagatai territory. For Eaidu, 
who WB8 of the lineage of Okkodai,- not of Chagatai. whilat claiming in 
the higher character of Supreme Ehakan to eierciae anperiority over the 
apanage of Chogataj and to nomiiiat« ita proper khana, held also under 
his own immediate away a large trai^t, the greater part of which belonged 
apparently to the former apanage as originally constituted. It is not 
very clear what were the limita between Eaidu'a territory and that of th« 
Chogatai Khona, and indeed the two maat have been somewhat inter- 
locked, for Koidu and fiorok Khan of Chagntai at one time eiercised a 
aort of joint aovoreignty in the cities of Bokhara and Siunorkond. But 
it may be gathered that Eaidn's dominiona included Koabgar and Yar- 
kand, and all the cities bordering the south aide of the Thian Shan us fiir 
east aa Karakhoja, aa well oa the valley of the Talaa river, and all the 
coontry north of the Thian Than &om Lake Balkash eastward to the 
Chagan Nur, and in the further north between the Upper Tenieei and 
the Irtish.' Khotan appears to have belonged to the Great Kaon, but 
Borak Eaan got poaaoeaion of it in the beginning of bis reign, and I do 
not know if it was recovered by Eubloi,* or if it passed into the hunda of 

During a great port of Eaidu's struggles he found a staunch aOy in 
Dua the son of Borak, whom be had act upon the throne of Chogatai in 
1272.' After Kaida'a death in 1301, bis aon and aucccasor Sbabor joined 
with Dub in making aubmlBaion to Timur the ancceasor of Kublai ; bat 
before long, the two former princes having quarrelled, Dna seized the 
territory of Sbabor, and thuH substantiaUj reunited the whole of the 
original apanage of Cbagatai, aa it bod been before the schism of Koidu.' 

This state of thinga doea not appear however to hove endured long; for 

' See for eiample at p. 189 tvpra, where some obscure points in the 
chronology of those kings hove already been diacuaaed. 

3 He was son of Kashi, aon of Okkodoi. 

> 8eel>'0/i«on,ii,361.*BO-3,6l6i iii,*27; Sotitei et Eitrailt,iiv,i3ii 
Polo in Pavthier"! ed. and Dotes, pp. 137. IB3, £41, Sb3, 716 tt teqq.. also 
the version of a Chinese sketch of Asia nndertbe Mongols on the Map at 
the end of that work. Khondemir appears to have written the History of 
Koidu. which would I presume throw eiocter light upon the limits of his 
dominions. But this does not seem to have oeen translated (aee De- 
f Turnery, op. cit., p. 207). 

< De/VAnery, op. cit., p. S60. Marco says of Khotan, " lis SOnt an grand 
Kaan" (PoMlhitr, 143). 

' So lyOhnon. Khondemir puts Dua's B<:ceBBion in 1201, but notioei 
that other iicconnts gave a different statement ifi^imtrj/, p. 265). 

" B'Okisrm, ii, 518 jug. 


within a few yoora a new schiBin took place, of which the hiitory u verf 

The people of Ettat^m Turkestan and the other regions in that direotioa 
which had been anlijoct to Kaidu, probably preferred to be under b Bei>arate 
mle from that of Transotiana ; foe we are told by Abulghaii' that the 
people of Eaabgar and Tarkand, the iahabitanta of the Alatagh and the 
tJigoTH, "finding none of the poateritj of Chftgatai(qu.Okkodai?) among 
them to fill the vacant throne," called to be their Khan Imil Khw^a the 
son of Dua Khan.- This prince was succeeded in 1347 by hia son Tughlak 
Timuc. Thua was established a new Eailern branch of the Chagatai 

The kingdom so formed was that which ia known to the Peraian hia- 
torians of Timur and bis; auccesBors aa MogolUtan (not to be confonnded 
with the true Mongolia to the eastward), or the TJl lia of Jatah (or in 
French apelling Djiteh, the Q*te country of Petis de la Croii). Their 
winter capital was perbapa originally at Kashgar or Yarkand, and after- 
wards at Aksn, aud their aummer quarters north of the Thian Shan.* In 
the history of Timnr who took the royal reaidence in 1331) it is called 
Atuui. GnjA.* This Is perhapa the /mil, on the banks of the river bo 
called flowing into Lake Ala-Kul, which was the original oapitaJ of th» 
Khitan refugees who founded the empire of Kara^kitai (nipra, p. 178), 
and which John dc Piano Carpini on his joomey to the court of Kuyuk 
Khan names as Omyl. It ia perhaps represented at the present day, aa 
D'Avexac suggests, by the Chineae frontier town of Chuguchak or Tar- 
bogotai.' It is difficult however to understand such a diaposition of the 
frontier between the two branches of the Chagatai empire aa should have 
permitted the capital of that one which ruled over Kashgar and Ui^nriA 
to be in the site jnat indicated, whilst that of the other branch mUng 
over Mawaralnahr was situated at Almalik. If the site assigned toAymnl 
be correct, probably it was not the head quarters of the eastern branch 



> Cited in the Univeriat Hittory (Fr. Trans.) torn, ivii, 6m aeqq. 
Degaignei, i, 289. 

a As the history ia given by Abul Qhazi, this Imil Khw^'a is IdtrntitaX 
with that son of Dua who succeeded tb the throne of Chagatai under the 
name of Isanbuga Khan in 130G; and the story aa told would seem to 
imply that he gave up reigning in Transoiiana to reign in Eastern Tor- 
kestan. If this be true, the estabhshment of this schism must hava 
occurred some time before 1321, as Oabak or Kapak, the successor of 
Isanbuga on the throne of Chagatai, died in that year, the date of hia 
Bccession not being recorded. According to Khondeniir, however, Isan- 
buga reigned over Chagatai till his death, and Imil Khw^a would seem 
to bo a iSother (see DefTtmery, pp. 27CI and 280). 

' See £usnani in Central Aiia. p. 69. 

' TimVT Bee by Petit dt [a Croix, vol. ti ; also in the Unw. RUU 

UB above, p. S'i'i leqq. 

" I/AvaiK, Not. em lea anciens Toyages en Taxtarie, etc., in Au. d# 
Voyaget, iv, £16. The capital of Kara Khitai when at the height of ita 

EDwer was Bala 8at/un. I cannot ascertain the proper position of this ; 
ut it was, I believe, different from Imil, and lay between Bishbalik and 
Kara Korum. 





till the weetem branch of Chagatai in its rapid decay had lost ite hold on 
the vaUey of the Hi. 

Kazan Kban, slain in 1316 or 1348. waa the tost eSeotiTe Kban of tbe 
main branch of Cbagatai. After Iuh tiino tbe titular Khans were mere 
puppets in the bands of tlie great Amirs, wbo set them up one year and 
probably murdered them tbe next. And so things continued untU one of 
tboee Amirs, tbe famous Tiucb, became predominant. Even bs in tbe 
height of bis oonqueats continued to maintain titular succesaors to tbe 
throne of ChagatAl, and to put their names at the head of State papGrs. 
Sultan Uabomul Khan, tbe last of tbese, died on one of Timur's cam- 
paigns in Anatolia, in 1403.' 

In 1361), and again in 1361-62, whilst Mawaralnahr was in the state of 
anarchy to which we have alluded, Tugblak Timor invaded and subdued 
tbe coDotry, leaving on the second occasion his son Elios Khwaja as his 
representative at Samarkand. Thus the whole empire would seem again 
to bave been united ; but it was only for a brief Bt>ace, For in 1363-64, 
about tbe time of tbe death of Tughlak Timnr, tbe amirs Huaain and 
Timnr revolted and expelled Elias. Ue escaped to bis paternal domiiiions, 
but some time afterwards bis life wsa taken by Kamaruddin Dughlak, of 
a powerful fomiiy which about this time became hereditary rulera of 
Kaehgar. He seized the khanate, and put to death all the other children 
of Tugblak Timnr on whom he could lay bands. 

At a date which is uncertain, but probably about 1383, Khizr Khwaja. 
a son of Tughlak Timur, whose life had been rescued in infancy by the 
eiertioQB of Kbuddidod, son of Eamaruddin's brother Buliyi, tbe Amir of 
Kasbgar, was through the same good offices seated on the throne of 
Uogolistan (or Eastern Chagatai), and he was its sovereign when Timor 
made his crushing campaign against the people of that country in I3S9, 
taking the capital, and driving the Khan out of his dominions. Peace, 
howevw. was made eventually, and Timtu- married a daughter of Khizr 

The latter at bis death was succeeded by his son Uahomed Kban, and 
he by his grandson Wais or Awis Khan.' lliis prince, who throughout 
bis reign was engaged in constant and unsuccessful wars with the Eol- 
moks, bis eastern neighbours, at bis death left two eons, laanbnga and 
Tiinus, each of whom was backed by a party in claiming the succeBsion. 
Those who favoured Yunus took him to Mina Ulugb Beg, tbe grandson of 
Timur (the celebrated astronomer prince), then governing at Samarkand, 
to seek his support ; but be reinsed this, and sent Ynnos oS into Western 

' t7niv. Hill., U.S. ; Diifrtmery, p. £81-2. De^ij^es says it was not till 
after Timur's death that khans ceased to be nonunat«d. 

' Defrimery, p. 3tt3 ; Univ. Hiit. a. a. ; Notices el Eilrail; liv, p. 474, 

' The ertraj:t &om Haft Iklim in the Not. et Eit. juat quoted mentions 
a Shir Mahomed between Mahomed and Awis. Awis Khan is noticed 
apparently as the reigning chief, and at war with a Shir Mahomed Oglan, 
in the narrative of Shah Rukh's embassy to China (NoU. it Etl. liv, ft. i, 
p. 3S8). 

ostabliahing himself.' Durmg his reign a 
entered hia territory. Ynniia, in attempting to reitii 
pletelj defea,te<l, witli the loss of moat of his omira, 
remaiiis of hie annj to the Jaianea. Hero he seems t 
the relics of hia authorit; atToshkiuid, and at the iain< 
t Mahmud, c&Iled by the Mongols Janikah, 


Persia, where he rumained in exile for eighteen jeara. When Mirza Abu- 1 
aaid of the boiieo of Timuc {1451-1-168) hod eatublished himself at E 
maj-kand, laonhuga Khan invadod FerghAoa. Aliusaid in rotaliatioiL \ 
aent for the oxOed Yuniis, conferred on him tJie Khatiate of Mogoliataa, 
and dispatched him with on arm; into that country, where he snooaeded 

army of Kala 
t them, was c 

and fled with 

have eat^hUGEhod 

1 place hia son 
was crotmed. 

would appear that Ynnua left behind another aon, Atuued, in Moguliatan, 
whore he maintained himaelf for a time. Eventually both theae brothet* 
fell into the hauda of Mahomed Khan Shaibani, otheroise called Sbaibek, 
the founder of the Uzbek power in TranaoiiBna, and Mahomed was in the 
end put to death by that chief. I can trace no information regarding 
later Chagatai Khana ; indeed I pceaitme that the Kalmaks about this 
time took possession of the country north of the Thian Sban, and that th« 
line of Khans aurvived no longer as such. A son of Aluned however biio> J 
deeded in foanding a dynasty in Eaahgar, which maintained itself coi .1 
the throne there for more than a, century and a half.' 

Haidai' Bazi, Yunua Khan did not mount the throne till a. k. 873=1168, 
the laflt year of Abu Said (Journ. dta Savani for 1B39, p. 21). 

' See Introduction to the Journey of Ooi?a, infra, Deguignea saya he I 
bad not been able to obtain any distinct information aa to the rise of the \ 
power of the Kalmaks ; nor out I find it in any later book within reach. 















The traveller whom we are now abont to follow over one of the 
most daring journeys in the whole history of discovery, belongs 
to a very different period from those who have preceded him in 
this collection. Since the curtain fell on Ibn Batata's wanderings 
two hundred and fifty years have passed away. After long sus- 
pension of intercourse with Eastern Asia, the rapid series of dis- 
coveries and re-discoveries that followed the successful voyage of 
De Gama have brought India, the Archipelago, China, and Japan 
into immediate communication with Europe by sea ; the Jesuits 
have entered on the arena of the forgotten missions of the Fran- 
ciscans, and have rapidly spread their organisation over the east, 
and to the very heart of each great eastern empire, to the courts of 
Agra, Peking, and Miako. Cathay has not been altogether for- 
gotten in Europe, as many bold English enterprises by sea, and 
some by land, during the sixteenth century, testify ; but to those 
actually engaged in the labours of commerce and religion in the 
Indies it remains probably but as a name connected with the 
fables of Italian poets, or with the tales deemed nearly as fabulous 
of old romancing travellers. The intelligence of the accomplished 
men, indeed, who formed the Jesuit forelom in Northern China, 
soon led them to identify the great empire in which they were 
labouring, with that Cathay of which their countryman Marco had 



INErifT 0OE3, 

told HBch wonders ; hut this conviction had not spread to their ' 
brethren in India, and when the leaders of the Mission at tlie 
Court of Akbar heard from Masulman travellers of a great and 
rich empire called Khita.1, to l>e reached by a long and deviooa 
course through the heart of Inner Asia, the idea seized tlieir 
imaginations tliat here was an ample and j'et untouched field 
awaiting the labours of the Society, if the way could but be found 
open ; and thia way they determined to explore. 

The poreon seloetod for this venturesome exploratioii wa« 
Benedict Goes.' Before ho started on his journey doubts had 
been suggested whether this Cathay were not indeed the very 
China in which Bicci and his companions were already laboarin^ 
with some promise of success ; but these doubte were overruled, 
or at least the leader of the Agra Mission was not convinced by 
them, and he prevailed on his superiors still to sanctioa the ex- 
ploration that bad been proposed. , 

The gallant soldier of the Society, one not unworthy to bear 
the Name on which others of that Company's deeds and modes of 
action have brought such obloquy, carried through his ardooua 
inak ; asceriMined that the mystariona empire he bad sought 
through rare hardships and perils was China indeed ; and 
died just within its borders. " Seeking Cathay he foi 
heaven," as one of his brethren has pronounced his epitaphs 
And thus it ia that we have thought his joarneya fitting close to 
this collection ; for with its termination Cathat may be considered 
finatly to disappear from view, leaving China only in the mouths 
and minds of men. Not but that Cathay will be found for some 
time longer to retain its place as a distinct region in some maps 

' The iDforinntion regarding OoSe, inaddition to what is gathered trant 
the aarrativB of liia journoy, is fiirnished by JarHc, whose work I have ae 
only in the Latin translBtion entitled " It. P. larHH rholojani, Sodetat. 
Jesu, Theiaami Serum Indicarum, etc., a Matthia Martinea a Oaltict 
Zrftfinum lemioHsm trotulotum ; Coloniin Agrippinio, 1615." In the two 
copiefl that I bare seen of tlua book (poasibly therefore in all copies) thera 
lifis been strange uonfasion made in binding the sheetB. It consiati 
four volumea, numbored i, ii, iii, pt. 1; iii, pt. 2; and in each of three 
volumes out of theae four are introduced mimerouH aheeta belonging to 
the other two. The information regarding Gota ia in vol. ii, pp. 530 ««; 
and in vol. iii. pt. 1, pp. 201 teqq. 



and geographical works of pretension, but from that time its ap- 
pearance could only condemn the ignorance of the anthors. 

Benedict Goes was born at Villa Franca, in the island of St. 
Michael {Azores), about l-Dtil. 1 find no particnlara of his rank 
in life or early history, nur any statement of the cironmetanc^s 
nnder which he originally went to India, but in his twenty-aixth 
year we first meet him as a soldier on hoard the Portngnese fleet 
on the coast of Travancore, a high-spirited and pleaRiire-loving 
young man. The dignity and cnlture of his character, as it shows 
in later life, seoma to imply that he had been educated for a 
higher position than that of a common soldier ; and it is probable 
that, like many a wild youth since, he had enlisted for the Indies 
m conaeqnence of some youthful escapade. Happening, we are 
told, to enter a church near Colgcqea,' and kneeling before an 
image of the Madonna and Child, he began to reflect seriously 
on liis past hfe, and was seized with such remorse that he almost 
despaired of salvation. This spiritnal crisis ended in his making 
fnll confession of bis sins to a Jesnit priest, and eventaally in his 
entering the Order aa a lay coadjutor. This poaition he held for 
the rest of his career, always modestly refnsing to take orders, 
though often pressed to do so by his snperiors in the Society. 

In the end of 1594 a detachment of missionaries was sent to 
the Court of Akbar, at the request of the great king himaelf, 
wlioae oacillating convictions appear often to have been strong in 
favour of Christianity.' The head of the mission was Jerome 

I KolBchi, a small port of Travancore, which Fra Faolino will have to be 
the Colchi of the Feriplua. It has dropt out of our modem maps. 

- The inquiries of Akbar about ChriBtianit; dated from the visit of 
Antony Capral, whom he received as envoy firom Qoa in 1678. Hearing 
then of a Christian prieet of eminent virtue in Bengal, he sent for him to 
Futtehpiu- Sikri (which Jarric calls Pate/ula), and made him arpie with 
the Mnllaha. Moved by what this anonjFmona fiither eaid, Uie king 
wrote to 60s, begping that two members of the Jesuit Society might be 
sent to him with Chriatiaa books. This of com-se caused great delight 
and eicitement, and the Provincittl sent off Budolf Aquftviva, a man of 
illuatriouB family (afterwards murdered bj the natives of Salaetto near 
Ooa), and Antony Monserrat. They were moat honourably received by 
Akbar, and great hopes o( Ida conversion ware raiaed. The celebrated 
Abnl Fail and other eminent men of the Court alao showed great 
[ the subject ; but nothing material reaiiltcd. Some years 
^1 - 



Xavier of Navarre, nephew of tbo grenl Francis, iind hie oomradei 
were Goes and the priest Kmanael Pioner, also a PoitngaeM 
They proceeded first to Caudav, where they were well received bj 
Saltan Murad, Akbar's second son, and provided with carriagij 
and money for their jonmey to LahObe, where the Padshah t! 
held his court. Travelling with a Kafila by Ahmedabad andl; 
Pattan, and then across the great Indian Desert, they P 
Lahore on the 5th May, 1505, and were made moat welcome I 
Akbar, who at the same time gladdened their hearts by his d 
play of reverence to images of the Saviour and the Virgin MarjJ 
the gift of a former misaionary at his court. 

Goes appears to have acquired the esteem of the king i 
especial degree, and with Xavier accompanied him on his sninni^ 
jonmey to Kashmir. One Christmas too, we arc told. Goes con* 
atracted a model of the manger and stable of Bethlehem, 
the fashion still kept up in Southern Europe, whilst some ol 
pnpils of the mission acted a Pastoral Eclogno in the Persian; 
tongue on the subject of the Nativity, things that greatly pleasi 
both Mnstdmanti and Hindus, bnt especially the latter. 

WliiJst the Court was still at Lahore (which Akbar quitted fi 
Agra in 1598) the circumstance occurred which turned the atted»^ 
tion of Jerome Xavier to the long-loat Cathay (as he fancied it), 
and excited his imagination in the mnnner already alluded I 
This circnmatanee is tins related by Jarric : — 

" One day as Xavier was at the palace and engaged y 

afterwards, in 1590, Alcbar'a thoughts B^^in turned to ChriBtiunitj, and 
at this time, according to the statemeiit of the Jemiita (I know not how 
far weil founded), he ordered a general dcBtrucbion of mosqueB and miita. 
rets, and forbade eircnmciaion before the fifteenth year. He ^ain 
applied for iiiBtructorH, and in IQOl three brethren wore sent to Lahore, 
but after a vfhile, seeioff no hope of gooi, they returned to Goa. Hence 
on this third occasion the mission vaa despatched without an; great 
alacrity or sanguine eipeotationa. It is probable that Akbar had arrived at 
DO decided convictions in religion, excepting as to the ry'eetion of Mtthome- 
daniam. Ho seems to have projected a now eclectic kind of Theism, in 
which adoration was to be liddresaed to the aun, as an emblem of the 
Creator. At the same time he never seeina to have loat a oertoin 
ering after Chriatianitj, or ceased to display an affectionate 
for the Christian embltina which he had received frota his Jesi 


king, there presented himself a Mahomedan merchant of some 
sixty years of age. After he had made his salntations to the king, 
in niiswer to a qaestiou whenee he was come, he said that he was 
lately arrived from the kingdom of Xetae*. This Xavier sup- 
posed to be the same as the Ciithay spoken of by Marco Polo the 
Venetian la his Travel*, and by Hayton the Armenian in his 
History, and which later writers have determined to be in Tartary, 
or not far from it. And when the king inquired for farther par- 
ticulars abont that empire, and as to the length of the merchant's 
residence there, he replied that he had been thirteen years at the 
metropolis of the country, which he called Earabalo. . . . This be 
said was the residence of the kings, who were most powerfnl 
BovereignB. For, indeed, their empire included one thousand five 
hundred cities ; some of them immensely populous. He had 
often seen the king, and it was his practice never to give any 
reply, favourable or unfavourable, to a request, but through the 
cnniii'hs who stood by him, unless, indeed, he was addressed in 
writing. King Akbar asking how he tiad got admission into the 
empire, he replied that it was under the character of an ambassador 
from the King of C'aygar (KAsUQiit). On arriving at the 
frontier ho was dotaiued by the local governor, who atler 
inspecting the seals* of the letters which he carried, sent off a 
despatch to the king by swift horse-post. The answer giving 
permission for the party to proceed came back within a month. 
In going on to the capital they changed horses at every stage, as 
is practised in Europe, and thus got speedily over the grovmd, 
although the distance is very great; for they accomplished one 
hnndred Italian miles every day. On the wliole journey they met 
with no affront or unfair treatment, for the local judges adminis- 
tj?red jnstice to aU, and thieves were punished with great severity. 
When asked about the aspect of the natives, he said that they 
were the whitest people he had ever seen, whiter even than the 
IJttmig, or Enropeans. Most of the men cherished a long beard, 
. . . The greater number were hiniUen, i.e. Christians (for thus 
Christiansarecalledafter Jeans, just as ifyou were to say Jesnita !) 
When asked if they were all Isauites, ho said, by no means, for 
^fire 9iat^' MvemitHuis (I'.u. Jews, fur Moses in the tongue of 


534 JOCKNKV nr be.vedict aosa. 

those people is called Mug»cm), and there are also some Maho- 
modaDB. But is the king a Mahomedan i' asked Akbar. Sob 
yet, said the merchant., but it is hoped that he will soon bo so. 
The cuUoqny was then interrupted, the sovereign graciously 
naming another day for the reception of the merchant, in order 
to ask further questions about this empire. But Xavier getting 
imjifttient, out of eagerness to learn more, went to see the mer- 
chant in order to get more precise information about the religion 
of the inhabitants. The merchant repeated his statement that 
they wore, for the most part, Christians, and that be had been on 
tciTus of great intimacy with several of them. They had temples, 
some of them of vast size, in which were images both painted 
and sculptured, and among others figures of the crucified Saviour, 
which were held by them in great reverence. A priest was set 
over every temple, who was treated with great respect by the 
people, and received presents from them. . . . He also mentioned 
the continence of those priests, and the schools in which they 
brought up young people for holy orders. . . . The fathers more- 
over wore black (rocks, and caps like Xavier's, only a little bigger. 
In saluting any one hy the way they did not uncover, but joined 
hands across the breast, interlacing the fingers. . . . The king 
often went to the temples, and must, therefore, be a Christian," 
etc., etc. 

Xavier lost no time in communicating this intelligence to the 
Provincial of his Order ; and after arriving with the king at Agra 
sent the results of further inquiry made there from persons who 
had been to Cathay. Some people alleged that there was a way 
to Cathay by Bencial and the kingdom of Gakagrat.^ at the ex- 

' Qhoraghal (" the hoTse-ftirty") ia a town and xt^mindori in the BogT& 
diatrict of Bengal, and is mentioDed oa auch in the Ajin Akbari. But the 
kingdom alluded to must be that of A'llcft BihAr, which in the time of 
Akbar retained independence, and extended Irom the Brahmaputra west- 
ward to Tirhut, iTom the UimaJya south to Qhoraghat. In IGGl it was 
conquered by Mir Jumla (aee ifaniitlan'i Qaiettetr, in n: Gkoraghat and 
Cooch llahar). Euch Bihar still eiiata, with a modified indopenJence, 
and Terymiich restricted limito. It is remarkable that there should have 
been any taik of a route to China this way in the reign of Akbar. It 
probahl; lay through Lasaa. Wo have seen (ante, p. 273) that Badbiditd-, 
din recognised an overland route by Bengal and the bords™ 


tremitjr of the Mogul territories. Bnt mcrchantB, who were sure 

to know the shortest routes, were in the hahit of going from 
Lahore t-o Kashmir, and thence by the kingdom of Rebat,> the 
king of which was in alliance with the Mogul, they went straight 
to Kashgnr, fi'om which it was stud there was a direct and easy 
route to the first meroaotile city of Cathay, a place which the 
merchants asserted to bo inhabited by Christians. Xavier was 
now quite satisfied tliat tbo country in question was iudeed the 
Cathay of Polo, and the Christian king the representative of the 
famous Prester John. He sounded the king on the snhject of an 
exploratory mission, and found him disposed to assist it cordially. 
All this was duly communicated to the ProTincial, and throng 
him it wonld appear to tho higher powers in Earope. 

In ItJOl the eECouragement of those higher powers had been 
received in India, and the Proviiioial tnmed his attention to the 
selection of a tit man for the expedition. Now it happened that 
Xavier and Goi-a had accompanied King Akbar some time pre- 
viously ou his expedition into the Dekkan. Afler the, conquest 
of Kandesh, Akbar on eome pretext sent an embassy to Goa, 
partly it was supposed in order to spy out the land with a view 
to extending his conquests in that quarter. And with this 
embassy he sent Goes in charge of some children of Portnguese 
parentage who had been found in Burhanpnr and other captured 

In Goes the Provincial discerned the very man that he wanted ; 
his judgment, courage, and skill in Persian marking him out as 
especially qnalified for sncli on enterprize. Goi^s readily accepted 
the duty, and in the following year (1602) arrived at Agra to 
make arrangements for bis journey. Akbar praised bis zeal, and 
contributed the value of four hundred pieces of gold to the ex- 
penses of the journey, besides giving the passports mentioned in 
tbo narrative. 

me, the two Jeeuite, Omeber and Dorvillu, 
LaBM nnd Katiuiuulu to Pittna (Eirrh«T, 

And some years after Akbv'fi t 
found their way from China vu 
China IHaslrnln, pp. 6* teqq). 

' I do not know what tbu name Rebat is intended for (proper names in 
Jarrio being oftea sadl; maTigloJ) i perhaps for Tibet, Tho kingdom in- 
tendod miiBt bo either Ladakh or Balti, which wore known in thoau days 
B Great and Little Tibet. 


After ancceBsfully accomplishing bis jonmpy, as has beeu 
already mentioned, Qoes was detained for Home Beventeen months 
at the frontier city of Sncheu, and there died a few days after the 
arrival of the native Christian whom Ricci and hia comrades at 
Peking had sent fo his aid and comfort." The narrative of hia 
journey was put together, apparently by Bicci himself, from soma 
fragment of Benedict's no t«-hook, along with the onil statements 
of hie faithful comrade Isaac the Armenian, and was published 
after the death of Ricci, with other matter that he had compiled 
conneming China and the mission history, in the work of 
Trigaatius (Trigault) entitled De C'liristiaitd Erpedilione apitd 
Siitas. From this our translation ha-t been made, but some addi- 
tional particulars given by Jarric from the Indian reports, and 
from the letters which Goes wits occasionally daring his journey 
able to send back to his superiors at Agra or Goa, loave been 
brought forward in the notes. Altogether it is a miserably 
meagre record of a journey so interesting and important ; and 

■ ilatthew Bicci was bom at Slaceratu, in the Macoli of Ancona, ia 
1S52. He entered the Jesuit Society in 1571. Being sent to India, ha 
reached Goa in 1578, bat apeedilf left it for Macao on being chosen by 
Father TaliguoA, tlie founder of the Jeauit MiBsion in Cliiaa, aa one of 
bia aids. Mot till 15K3. however, were they able to establiBh themselvea 
in the Canton territory. Bicui's great object for a long time was to get 
tfl Peking;, and he did reaJ^h it in 1593, but was obliged, by an B<M:idental 
eiaitement among the Ctuneae, to withdraw to Nanking. In 1600, he 
was enabled to go again, carrying preBents, which had come from Eu- 
rope for the Btuperor. He naa admitted ; and having acquired tha 
Emperor'a favour, he devoted himself to the miaaion at the capital. Soma 
striking conversions were made ; and Bicci's science and literary works 
in Chinese gained him mueh esteem among the most eminent persons at 
Peking. He died 11th May, 1610, leaving Adam SchalJ to aucaeed hint. 
The chief literary men of the city attended his funeral. His name ap- 
pears in the Chinese annals oh Li-mateti. The principles of Bioci as * 
misBionary appear to have been to stretch conciliation as far aa poasihle; 
and to seek the respect of the educated Chinese by the display of superior 
scientific attainments. As regards the former point, he ia accused of 
having led the way in those dubious conceaaiotiB which kindled the dis- 
putes Chat ended in the downiol of the missions. He was the first Euro- 
pean to coinpoae books in Chinese. Hid worlcH of this kind were fifteen 
in number, and one of them ia said to have been included in a collection 
of the best Chinese vrriters ordered by the Emperor Khian-lung (see 
Remvial'i article in Biog. VnivcTMelle), 



had Benedict's diary, which he is stated to have kept in great 
detail, been ejutred, it would probably have been lo this day by 
far Ihe moat valuable geographical record in any European lan- 

gnage on the eubject of the coantriea through which he travelled, 
still so imperfectly known. 

There are some perplexities about the chronology of the journey 
as given in Trigantina, which doabtlens arii^e out of the manner 
in which the narrative was thus compiled. It is in some respects 
inconsistent with itself as well as with the statements in Jarric. 

Thus, according to Jarric, Qot's left Agra Slat October, lfi02, 
whilst Trigautias makes it 6th January, 1603. This is not of 
importance however, as they agree substantially regarding the 
time of his final start fi-om Lahore. 

But again. The narrative in Trigantins professes to give, 
sometimes in precise, sometimes in round numbers, the intervals 
occupied by the various portions of the journey and its todions 
halts. Bnt if these be added together, even without allowance 
for two or three omissions, we find that the sum carries us a 
whole year beyond the time dedacible from Jarric, and in fact 
would throw Benedict's death a year later than the date which 
Trigautius himself (or rather Ricci) fixes.^ This is shown in 

' The following absolute datve are given bj Trigautiua; — Goea left 
Agra Gth January, 1603 ; left Lahore in Lent (wliich in 1603 began on 
ISth Fubniar;) ; reached Tai'kand November 1G03 ; lelt Tarkond No- 
vember 1601 ; reached Sucben in the latter part of 1606 ; liia lett«ra did 
not reach Peking till November 1600; John Fordinand started II th De- 
cember, and reached Sucheu in the end of March IGOT; eleven days 
later Benedict died. 

The following absolute dates ore given b; Jarric : — Ooea left Agra. 31st 
October, 1602; reached Lahore 8th December i left Lahore in middle of 
February 1603; wrote from Yarkond in February and August 160ij set 
oat tram Yarkond 14tb November, 1604] left Cbalia 17tll October, 1605; 
died 11th April, 1607. 

The following ace the delailt of time occupied in the journey, aa given 
by Trigautius (and full of error) : — Left Lahore in Lent [aay flrat day of 
Lent, or IHth FebraaryJ, laS; took to Attok thirty daya, halted there 
fifteen, and actoaa the Indus five ; to Peehawur two motitki, halt there 
twenty days ; go on a time not apeciGed, halt twenty days ; to Ghideli 
twenty-Bve daya ; to Kabul twenty daya. [Thii looulrf bring him in Kabul 
on the and o/ Btplemher, 1603, al ihe earliat.^ Halts at Kabid eight 
m;nlhs [and therefore leara it ah.,ul \st Hay. 1604]. Tu Charuknr not 


detail below, bot here I may explain that the chief inconsisteDcj 
is found in tlie time alleged to have been spent between Lahore 
and Yarkand. According to Ricci's details this period ext«i]da 
from February 1(J03, to November 1(>04, whereas both Jarric'B 
data and Kicci'a own ahsolale statement make the traveller reach 
Yorkand in ffovember 1G03, which unquestionably is the correct 
date. And aa Ricci's deinih allege a positive haltot eu/ht months 
at Kabul, it is evident that there most have been some singnlar 
kind of miflunderBtaudiug either of Benedict's notes, or of Isaac's 
language, or of txith. Isaac, it will be seen, could speak notliisg 
more intelligible tlian Persian, and John Ferdinand, the Chinese 
convert who came to seek the party at Socben, could not com- 
municate with him iit all until he had himself acquired a little 
Persian. This language the missionaries at Peking probablj 
knew nothing of, and it is not therefore wonderfnl if miBiiud^>< 
Btoniling occurred. 

What the nature of this miaunderstandiug must have been, 
HOnio instances at least, can I think be deduced irom one case in 
which the misatat^meut of the time is obvious. The joomey 
&om Attok to Poshawur is said to have occupied two months. 
Now, aa the diatance is about thirty miles, this is absurd. It ie, i 
therefore, not improbable that it may have been entered in GEoes'i 
notes as "ii meiail" {Pera, 'tiian^il, a stage or march), and thafc. 
this was understood by the Italians as "n niense-t." 

The chief obscurities attending the route of Goes, concern that 
section of his journey which lies between Kabul and Yarkand. 
In the Grst part of this section, embracing the passage of the 
Hindu Kosh, the country is to a certain degree known, but there 

■pecillDd ; to I'arwiui ten doj^. Lalt there five ; to Aingbaran twenty ; 1 
to KululiB fifteen i to Jalnlnbiid ten ; to Talikhaii fifteen, bolt there o 
month [which hringi ui at Itatt (o llie lHlh Avgjut, lfi04]. To Cheman. 
and halt thure, not ipecificHi ; Defllos of Bodakahan eight days, halt l«n j 
Charchunar odo da;, halt five duj's ; to Serpanil ten Aaya ; to Sarchil 
twunly, halt twoj to Chochalitb two; to Tanghetar eii, at least; to 
Ynconio flftuea days; to Yarkand five daya [loMcft briixgs him to Furtciml 
thw/^ore on llh Ifovember 1G04 ul tht earlicit, or jtttt a year later thm ~ 
iha (rue daie]. It is not ivortli whiltt to carry tho matter further, and ii 
(luud thu essential error is (:outaiaDd in that ecctiun of the Journey which I 
we huve given beru. 



are several places Tunned prominently by Goes which cannot be 
identified with any certninty. This is &]ho the caao in the second 
portion of this Bection of the journey, embracing the aHcent 
through Badakhshan to the Plateau of Pamer, and the descent 
to Yarkand, where moreover we are in a country still most im- 
perfectly known ; for, since Marco Polo, Goes is the only European 
traveller across it of whose jonrney any narrative has seen the 

■ Tlie following note from a recent work, called The Eutriam in Central 
Ana, oonBiating of viuioUB papers, tnuislated from the BuBsian bj Messrs. 
Michelt, Bho«8 thai valuable nuitter, in illustration of these regions, doti 
exist (I believe in the military archives at St. PetersbnTg) : — -" la a paper 
on the Pamir and the upper course of the Oiuh, road last year before 
the Bnsaiaa Geographical Society hj M . Vemukhof, he says : ' The ehoos 
of our geographical knowledge relating tji the Pamir tableUands and the 
Bolor WBS BO great t^at the celebrated geographor Zimmerman, working 
under the saperintendenoo of Bitter, waa able to produce only a very 
confused and utterly incomprehensible map of this region. The connect- 
ing link wsa wanting; it was necessary that some one should carry out 
the plan conceived by the Busaiaa Qovemment in the beginning of this 
centnry, by visiting and describing the country. Fortunately, such an 
additional source of information has been found. — nay, even two,- — which 
mutually corroborate and amplil'y each other, although tbey have nothing 
further in common between them. I here allude to the ' Travels through 
Upper Asia, &om Kaahgar, TaebbaJyk, Ijolor, Badakhsban, Vakhan, Kokan, 
Turkestan, to the Kirghiz Steppe, and back to Cashmere, through Samar- 
kand and Yarkand,' and to thaChinesu Itinerary, translated by Klaproth in 
1821, leading &oni Ka^hgor to Yarkend, Northern India, Dairim, Tabtuar, 
Bodaklislian, Bolor, Vakbon, and Kokan, as far as the Karatau moun- 
tains. The enulaeration alone of these places must, 1 should imagine, 
excite the irresistible cmiosity of all who have made the geography of 
Asia their study. These frtsh sources of informution are truly of the 
highest importance. As regards the Travels, it is to bo inferred from 
tho preface, and from certain observalions in the narrative, that the au- 
thor was a German, an agent of the East India Compan;, despatched in 
tho beginning of this or the end of the last century, to purchase horses 
for the British army. The original account forms a magnificent manu- 
script work in the German language, accompanied by forty sketches of 
the country traversed. The text, also, has been translated into French 
in a separate manuscript, aud the maps worked into one itinerary in an 
admirable style. The christian name of the traveller, George Ludwig 

von , appeals over the preface, but the surname has been eraaud. 

Klaproth's Itinerary is so far valuable us the physical details are ei- 
Lrumoly circumstantial i almost every mountain is laid down, aud caro 
taken to indicate whether it is woodod or snow-capped ; while efiuaJ caro 



It is not quite clear vhich of the (ttnea wbb followed bf 6 
incrounngtheHiDdnKnsIi. SotneacoMmtofthese nil! be gi' 
in a sapplemeater^ note at the end of the narrative.' Hen 
irQl content myself with observing that as the trsveller is men- 
tioned to have visited Parwan as well a; Charekar, it may seem 
most probable that he croased by the Paaa of Panran, wbioh 
Wood attempted Dnsoocessfoily in 1837. Indeed, if Parwan is 
correctly placed in the only map I bare seen wbii-h sbows it, 
(J. Walker's), it would be out of the way of a party g^nag by 
any other Pass.* From Parwan till be reaches Talikhan oa the 
borders of Badakshan, none of the names given can be positively 
determined ; Calcia and .Talalabad, the most prominent of tbem, g 

U taken to abmr whether the inhabitaots are nomada o 
people. BainB, bridges, and villages are also intelligibly designated ; ao 
that altboagh the same scale is not preserved throDghniit, its value, 
lucidity, and minatencsd, are not thereby deteriorated.' " 

I niaj add to the preceiiing notion thai Proftisaor H. H. Wilson, in his 
rifmarks on Iziet Dllah's TraveU (see J. B. A. 8., vii, 291), mentions a 
UuiBian offioer, Tefremaff, who vaa last centmy captmed by the Kirghia, 
but made hia escape, and travelli^i by Eotand and Eaahgar, aoroBB Til>et 
to Calcatta, and bo home to St. Petersbarg, wbero be arrived in 178S, 
nndpubllBbed bis travels. Heyendorff, aUo, in his t'oyi»ic d'Orenbourg A I 
Uokhara, speaks of the travels of ^phael Danibe^, a, noble Qeorgiaa, j 
which wure translated from liia native langaag« into Rnssian, and printed 1 
in IHie. This gentleman travelled bom KashmiF to Yarkand, Aksn, ] 
Kii^a, and fiemipalatinsk. The same work contains a route &om Semi* | 
jialatinsk to Kashmir, by a T^ik of Bokhara. 

■ 8se note I at the end. 

' The flrBt notice which Jmric gives of Goes, after mentioning his d»- I 
parturs Tram Lahore, is that "aftor going 103 cobb, each equal t 
Italian mile, be wrote to Pinner from the province of Gaiaria that bo \ 
WM BtruggUng with severe cold on the passage over mountaina covered ', 
with ■now." The 102 cohs must have been estimated from Kabul, not 
th)m Lahore, as the piusagu would literally imply, and the a 
talni of Gaiuria mint have been the Hindo Kush oc<Hipied by the Batara J 
trlbM ) (they are called Keiarth by Mujendoi-ff, Voyage n Bokhara, p. 140). 
At pruBcnl the Haxaras, according to Wood (p. 199), do not extend J 
fiirthur ua«t than the Valley of Ohorbund ; bat I^eeeh's Report o 
I'wiiM nhuwB that thoy are found ou the paases immediatcdy abova 1 
I'ltrwan, uid that they formerly extended to the mountains adjoin 
thii Khawak Puas, the moat easterly of all. I hope to add a sketch n 
wiuli IM will make Qoi'a's routi:, and the doubts attunding it, more 


»re named bo far as T know by no other traveUer or geo^apher. 
Some remarks regarding tbem will however be found in the notes 
on the narrative. 

From Talikhan also to the high land of Pamir we have a 

Bimilar difficnlty in identifying names except that deacriptive one 
TangUuBaJakMian ("the Strnits of Badakshan") which Buffi- 
clently indicates the character of the country. But I think there 
can be little doubt that the route of Goes was substantially the same 
as that followed by Captain John Wood of the Indian Navy on his 
famous journey to the source of the Oxus. Badakhsban and the 
adjoining districts of Tokharestan, inhabited by a race of Tajik 
lineage and Persian speech, wonld seem in the middle ages not 
merely to have enjoyed that fame for mineral productions (espe- 
cially rubies and lapis lazuli) of which a shadow still remains, but 
at least in their lojver valleys to have been vastly more populous 
and productive than they now are. The " Oriental Geography" of 
the tenth century translated by Onseley, and Edriai in the twelfth 
century, both speak of these as fruitful and well-peopled regions 
Hourishing with trade and wealth. Marco Polo in the thirteenth 
century speaks of Talikhan and the adjoining districts in similar 
terms. Not long before his lime the chief fortress of Talikhan held 
Cbinghiz and his Tartar host at bay for six months.' The eavage 
conqueror left not a living soul of the garrison, nor one stone 
upon another. And the present town of Talikban, the repre- 
sentative of the place defended by this strong and valiant 
garrison, is a paltry village of some four hundi'ed clay hovels.^ 
Fyzabad, the chief city of Badakhshan, once famons over the 
east, was, when Wood passed through the country, to be traced 
only by the withered trees that had once adorned its gardens, and 
the present capital of the country (Jerm) was hot a cluster of 

' D'Oh$ioa, i, ET3. There was another Talikhan in Khorasan, between 
Balkh and Uerw (eee tables of Ifiu^nxirfm in Hudson, ju, 107). And 
the authors of the Modem Univeraal HiBtorj appear to have taken this 
for the city hesioged bj Cbinghiz (Ft-CTic/i IVaB3., hi, 356). But the nar- 
rative ahawB that it was Talikhan in Tokharestan, on the border of Ba- 
dukhshan, Edrisi deacribea both cities, bat cnriouBly hia French trans- 
lator. M. Janbert, takes both for the Euime (i, 46», 476). 

5 H'ond, p. 2*1. 


hamlets, contfttning altogether some fifteen hundred sonla.* En- 
during decay probably commenced with t.he wara of Chin^hiZr 

for m.any an instance in eaatera history shown the permanent 
effect of such deTivstations. And here ii-ave after wave of war 
passed over a little connti^-, isolated on three sides by wild moiui- 
tains and barbaromi tribei^, destroying the apparatus of culture 
which represented tlie accumulated labour of generations, and 
with it the support of civilisation and the springs of reooveiy. 
Century after century only saw progress In decay. Even to onr 
own time the process of depopulation and deterioration ha^ con- 
tinued. About 17(!0 two of the Khwajaa of Kasbgar, escaping' 
from the dominant Chinese, took refuge in Badakbshan, and 
were treacherously slain by Sultan Shah who then ruled that 
country,* The holy men are aaid in their dying momenta 
to have invoked curses on Bailakshan and prayBd that it might 
be three times depopulated. And, in fact, since then it has been. 
at least three times ravaged ; first, a few years after the outrage 
by Ahmed Shah Dnrani of Kabul, when the treacherous Sultan 
Shah waa put to death ; iu the beginning of this century by 
Kokan Beg of Kunduz ; and again in 1829 by his successor 
Murad Beg, who swept away the bulk of the i 
habitants, and set them down to die in the marshy plains of 

In the time of Goes the country was probably in a middle 
8tat«, not fallen so low as now, but far below what it had been 
days before the Tartar invasion. Akbar had at this time withdrawn 
all attempt at holding territory north of the Indian Caucasus, and 
the Uzbeks, who in the end of the fifteenth century had expelled 
the house of Timur and settled in Bokhara, seem to have been 
in partial occupation. 

Of routes over the Bolor Tagh and high table-land of Pamer 
between Badakhshan and Kasbgar, the only notices accessible 
are those of the Chinese pilgrims of the early centuries,* the 

' Ditto, p. S54. 

' Ruttians in Cenirnl Ana, p. 186, tcq-j. ; Wood, p, 250 ; HiHer, vol. v; 
Burnes, iii, 192. 
'' Of these eitrocta are given in Ritler, vii, 493, lagq. I have no aow 

at present to Hiwen Thiang. 


brief but pregnant sketches of Marco Polo, 80 singularly cor- 
roborated even to minntio) in our own day by Captain Wood, and 
these fragmentary memoranda of Benedict Goes. It eeoms im- 
possible absolotely to determine the route followed by Marco, 
bnt from bis mentioning a twelve days march along the lofty 
plain it seems probable that he followed, as certainly the ancient 
Chinese pilgrims did, a course rnnning north from the head of 
the Onus valley over the plateau to the latitude of Taslibalilc 
before descending into Eastern Turkestan. Goes and his 
caravan, on the other hnnil, following vrhat is probably the nsnal 
route of later days, would seem to have crossed athwart the Pamir, 
in the direction of the sources of the Tarkand river, and passing 
two or more of the ridgea that buttress the Bolor on the east, to 
bave dcHCended on Yanghi-Uissar, a city intermediate between 
Kaabgar and Yarkaud. A modern caravan route, laid down by 
Macartney in the map attached to Elphiastono's " Caubul," seems 
evidently to represent the same line as that taken by our traveller's 
party, and both representations appear to finggeat the view of it* 
general course which has just been indicated. 

The country in which Goes found himself after the passage of 
these mountains has been equally shut up fi'om European access 
since the days of the great Mongol empires, hut has become 
better known from Chinese sources, having been for long intervals 
and from a very early date under the influence of the Ctiinese. 
This region, perhaps best designated as Ea-stcrn Turkestan, but 
named in maps of the last century (I know not why) as " Little 
Bokhara," forms a great depressed valley of some four hundred 
miles in width from north to south, supposed by Humboldt from 
botanic^ inductions not to exceed twelve hundred feet in the 
absolute elevation of its lower portions. It is shut in on three 
sides by mountain ranges of great height, viz. : on the north by 
the Thian Shan or Celestial Mountains of the Chinese, separating 
it from the plains of the Hi, on the south by the Kuen-Lnn 
propping the great plateau of Tibet, and on the west by the 
transverse chain of the Bolor dividing it from Western Turkestan. 
The greater part of the surface of this depression is desert, of 
clayey soil and stony surface towards the foot of Ihe mountain 


rangeB, and of sand in the interior, which eastward i 
into ranges of ahiftisg. sand hills. Though the air is < 
drynesH and rain is rare, the anioimt of water which 
from the snowy monntaina on three sides of this valley tnnst be 
considerable. The rivers carrying this, drain into tie centra] 
channel of the Ergol or Tarym, which is absorbed by Lake Lop 
on the eastern verge of the tract, and has no farther oatlet, 
except in the legends of the Chinese which connect it by sub- 
terranean issnea with the Hoang Ho. The lateral rivers aiTord 
irrigation, and patches of more or Icbb fertile soil border the bases 
of the three ranges, in which citiea have risen, and settled states 
have existed from time immemorial. Similar oases perhaps onca 
existed nearer the centre of the plain, where Marco Palo places 
the city of Lop, and across which a direct road once led from the 
Chinese frontier to Khotan.' From Klintan, as from the western 
cities of Kashgar and Yarkand, the only comronnicatioii with 
China now followed seems to lie thi'ougb the towns that are 
dotted along the base of the Thiaa Shan.* 

Chinese scholars date the influence of the empire in the moroi 
westerly of these states from, the second century r.c. In the 
first century after our era they were thoroughly subjected, and 
the Chinese power extended even beyond the Bolor to the shores 
of the Caspian. The Chinese authority was subject to consider- 
able fluctuations, but under the Thang in the seventh eentnry w© 
find the country east of the mountains again under Chinese goveis- 
nors, (whose seats are indicated as Dishbalik, Kholan, Earashahr, 
and Kashgar,)' till the decay of that dynasty in tlie latter part of 
the ninth century, and those divisions of the empire which followed, 
and endured till the conquest of all its sub-divisions by Chinghis 
and his successors. These latter held supremacy, aotnal or 
nominal, over Easlem Turkestan as part of the early conquests 
of their bouse. Tliey i'ell in China, and their Chinese anccessora 

1 This rond ia said to bavo been abandoned un account of the 
banditti who tmnnted it. It Bi?(!nis to Lave been followed, as an exoi 
tional case, bj Sbah Eulcb's anibasBadors on their return Crom China (l 
Not. et Ettraili. liv, Pt. i, p. 425 ; also p. 476). 

' ChieHy derived from Jiuuiani in CeiUral Atia. 

> PauthicT, Chine Andenne, p. £H6. 



of the Ming djnaatj hod little power beyond the frontiers of 
China Proper, or at most beyond the territoiy of Kamil.' The 
western stat«8 remained subject more or leas nominally to tho 
Khana of the eastern branch of Chagatai, whose history has been 
briefly traced in a previous page of this book. Tho govemmeut 
of Knshgar had always since the days of Chinghiz been conferred 
on a chief officer of the Klian's court. Tnghlak Timnr, on his 
iiccession, bestowed it on the Amir Tnlat, who was succeeded by 
Bulaji, both being brothers of Kamaruddin, who slew Elias the 
son of Taghlak Timur and usarped tho Khanate. Bulaji was 
succeeded by his son Khudaidad, of whom wc have already heard 
(_sayra,p.525). This prince ruled for many years prosperously and 
beneficently, holding quasi-regal power over Knshgar, Khotan, 
Aksu, Bai and Kucha," devoting mnch of his revenue to pious 
objects, especially the redemption of Mnsulman captives carried 
off by the Mongols in their raida on Mawaralnahr. His rule 

' The circuiQBtance cited in a note at p. 375, supra, showB that, in 1419, 
the Chineee power did not ext«nd to Turfan and Earakhoja. In I6<^, 
oa we abal] see presently, it did not even include Eamil. 

' "Mai and Kmh," but I suppose the names in the text are thnse in- 
tended. For K-ucha or Kvchia, see a note on Qoea'a journey further on. 
Bai U a, town at the foot of the Thian Shan, between Aksu and Kucha, 
137 miles N.E. of the former, famons now for its sheep-forming and felt 
manufacture. It is identified b; Hugh Murray with the Prin of Folo ; 
an identification followed by Pnuthier, who howerer q^uotea Murray's 
runiarfe, that it had "defled conjecture" {hitherto), without noticing that 
Murray bad himself made the identification. 

The mention of Bai hero as a province coupled with Eaahgar, Khotan, 
and Akst), odds strongly to the probability that it is really the P<in of 
Marco. There is a difficulty in the fact that the chief circuuiHtance he 
notes about Fein is the production of jasper, i. e. jade, in its river; and I 
can find no notice of this mineral being found in thonort^tr?! affluents of 
the Tarim, though Timkowaki does mention lurotight jade as a staple of 
Aksu. Hence Bitter seeks Fein on the road from Tarkand to tho Ka- 
rakorum Pass, where Izzot TJllah mentions a quarry of jade, near where 
there is a station called Torok.Iak-Payin. The last word, however, I 
believe merely means " Lower," and the position soaitely can answer 
Polo's description. It is possible that the province or district of Bai may 
have extended south of the Tarim Eul bo as to embrace a part of the 
jaspiferolts rivers of Khotnn (Murrnj's Polo, 0, 32 ; Pauthier't, p. 1*5 ; 
Timkoyefki, i, 391 ; Eitter, sii, 382 ; Ban. it Cent. Alia, p. 160). Khatiyan 
and Bahi are mentioned in juitaposition also by the early Arab traveller. 
Itm Mohnlhol, and probably indicate these same two provinces (see notes 
to Preliminary Essay). 


lasted onder the reign of four anccesatve Khans of £nBt«m 
Chagatai. In his old age he made the pilgrimage and died at 
Medina.^ His son Mahomed Shah inherited his honours, but the 
territories of Kashgar and Khotau had been annexed by Timtir, 
and remained for Home time subject to the descendants of that 
conqueror, who were in the habit of confiding those proTinces to 
one of their own chief officers. Whilst it was administered by 
these. Said Ali, the son of Mahomed, made repeated attompts to 
recover his grandfather's dominions, and at length sncceeded. 
It is needless to follow the history of this dynasty in fnrther 
detail. During their time the conntry seems sometimeH to have 
been divided into different states, of which Kaehgar and Ehotan 
were the chief, and aometimes to have been united under the 
prince of Kashgar, The last prince of the dynasty, Abubakr 
Khan, waa also one of the most powerful. He reigned for forty*_ 
eightyears,and made considerable conquests beyond the moQntaklfl 
rang'CH. He it was also who transferred the seat of government . 
■to Tarkand. Bnt about 1515, Abusaid, son of Ahmed, son of 
ynnus Khan of Eastern Chagatai, being a refngec in I'arghana, 
organized an expedition against Kashgar and Yarkand, which he 
succeeded in captunng, adding afterwards to his conaneafM 
parts of Badakhshan, of Tibet, and of Kashmir.' When 0o8a9 
travelled through the conntry, the king, Mahomed Klian, whom ' 
he found npon the throne of Kashgar (of which Yarkand was 
now the capital) appears to have been a descendant of this 
Abusaid.^ His power, we gather from Goes, extended at least 
over the territory of Aksu, and probably in some degree over the 
whole country at the base of the Tliian Shan to the Chinese 
frontier, including Kamil ; for what Goes ealla the kingdom of 
Ciaha or Chalis, embracing Karashahr and Kamil with the inter- 
ntediate towns of Turfan and Pijan, was ruled by a son of the 

' According to Naticei d Extraits (qnotcd below), KhudaJdad ruled fivl 
ninety jeaiB. He is mentioned by S ti ah Rukli's envoys to China, oscomtnf .¥ 
to meet them near the Mon^l frontier {Not. el Eztrails, liv, pt. i, p. 3S8)>.4 

) See Notices tt ExlTails, as ([uoted at p. G18. 

> He was probably the Mahomed Hultan, aiith son of Abdul 1 
Khan, who ia mentioned in QuaLrem^re's extracts (see p. 548) as govera-.l 
ing the city of Kashgar during the reign of his brother Abdulkerinlt J 
towards the end of the aiiteenth century. 


prince who reigned at Yarkand. Khotan appears under a sepa- 
rate BOTereign, siater'a son to the Icmg at Yarkand, and perhaps 
Gnbsidiary to him. 

The rulers of Eastern Turkestan had always been Mafaomedan 
from the time of Tughlak Timur, who was, we are t«ld, the first 
Mahoraedan sorerei^ of Kashgar of the lineage of Chinghiz. 
Budilhisra, indeed, waa found still prevalent in the cities of Tnrfan 
and Kamilat the time of the embassy of Shah Bukhin 1419, and 
probably did not become extinct much before the end of the cen- 
tury. But in tlie western states Islam seems to have been 
universal from an earlier date and maintained with fanatical zeal.' 
Saintly teachers and workers of miracles, claiming descent from 
Mahomed, and known as Khwajas or Hojahs, acquired great in- 
fluence, and the sectaries attached to the chief of these divided the 
people into rival factions, whose mutual hostility eventnally led to 
the snbjngation of the whole country, For lat« in the seventeenth 
century, Hojah Appak, the leader of one of those parties called 
the Wliite Mountain, having been espolled from Kashgar by 
Ismail Khan the chief of that state, who was a zealous sapporter 
of the opposite party or Black Mountain, sought the aid of Galdan 
Khan, sovereign of the Eleuths or Kalmnks of Dzungaria. 
Taking the occasion so afforded, that chief in 1678 invaded the 
states south of the Thian Shan, carried off the Khan of Kashgar 
and hJH family, and established the Hnjahs of the White Moun- 
tain over the conntry in authority subordinate to his own. Great 
discords for many years succeeded, sometimes one faction and 
sometimes another being uppermost, but some supremacy always 
continuing to be exercised by the Khans of Dzungaria. In 1757 
the latter country was conquered by the Chinese, who in the 
following year, making a tool of the White party which was then 
in opposition, succeeded in bringing the states of Turkestan also 
under their rule. So they have continued until the present day, 

' According to tlie M^oca pil^im, whose statemeuts are given in the 
Jour. At. Soe. Bengal, vol. iv (1 borrow trota Ritler, rii, 353), there are now 
many BnddMat priests and temples at the capital of Ehotiin. But the 
preamnption is tliat theea liavG been reestablishnl since the revival of 
Cliinese domination in the la^t century. Islam Beems to have been ex- 
tensively prevalent in thoBS regions for centuries previous to the Mongols' 
rnte, though probably the lisc of the hitter gave a lift to othor religionB, 

wHli the native 
and Chinese 

I thaw _ 

A of Ac Di provinee eetabliehed at 
Ka^ ON the m^ mo 1 1111111. met &r finm tbe ancieot Almolik. 
BoiiiBimi^ buavica, kaira be^ ^^'T frwioent and eerioos daring 
tto iMt nly Jiail. sad a gnat a*ie is now is progress of which 

I an Bo4 in • poatioa to saj* vadi as to the bibliography of 
Gwa'ajaaraej. B tsliaadated or (dated, I beliere, in Pnrchas, 
Ini I hare ao ane— to a copy of tl» PDgrims. An abstract of 
it w gim IB At (Um Utafraia of Ite gamlonE old Jesoit 
fllhaawiiMi Kirdter (pp. 62-6* .rfanfar^w. 1967), and a some- 
wImA ^ndged re rooa , witk noiea, ia Atfte^'t Votiiigef, which I 
Inm finmmlj read, bnt faa«e not now hj me. Rittcr Grst in 
reocBt timea toc^ sone paiaa to trace the roDte of Goes 
eystematicaOyjbj the l^fct of modeni knowledge Kgardiog these . 
re^ons, sncfa as it is. It win be seen by the notes that I I 
on varioos occasions Tentnrsd to differ &om him. 

I Clkfij from tbe Sau. ia Otmt. Jjia. "Bta UatMj of these regiono, 
Era» tlie fitQ of th» Hoigol ilji— Ij ia Chiaa to tiw erentB which led to 
the leviTxl of the Cbiatma power ia tka kat eoata^, Kern* only obaotueljr 
kBown. The chief ^w^i*™; reccrd of the haAor;, op to the middle of 
the niteenth caitmy, is stated b> be the work called lUnlk-BiuJ^idi, 
wHtten bj Xim Mahomed Hudar KariDUi. Wuir of Abdul BBshid Khan 
of &w^«t,vboeame to the thnse, •eecrding to Qnatiemtie, i..b.930^ 
LD. 1M3 (Valikliaiioff mjt ISM), and leignad tor thirty-three jeara. 
Acocrdhig to C^it. Talikhanoff, the Becond part of thii hisb^ describes 
the peraooal adTentnree of the aathor, oommantcating mach Information 
reapectjng the monntaiii langes and coimtries adjoining Kasbgar, and 
•hotdd contain verj interesting matter. The work seetne to hare been 
httle meddled with in Eumpe. There ia a long eitiact, however, by 
Qnatrem^re, in vol. sir of the Sotirti tt Extraiit, pp. 474-489. from the 
Persian geography called Sa/l ItUm (Set-en Climates), bnt which is de- 
rired from the Tsrikh Baahidi, and p&rtl; it woold seem frtm a some- 
what later source, as Abdul Eashid's son. Abdul Eerim, is spobun of as 
then reigning. This extract has fiiraished most of the particulate in the 
preceding paragraphs of the teit. Talikhanoff also speaks of a manu- 
script history of the Hqjahs, down to the capture of Yarkand by the 
Chinese in 1758, called TUukarai Hojaghiaii, wldch he obtained at Kach- 
gar. From this apparently he derives the particnlare which he gives 
regarding those persons and their factions (A. in Cent. Aiia, pp. 69, 167 i 
Mfq.: IteUett el Brtrait»,u,».), 

Ana, pp. 69, 167 m 






TIO/^ AUGUST. VIND., 1615. 


How the Portuguese, Benedict Go^, a member of our Society, is sent 

to find out about Cathay. 

Letters from those members of the Society who were living 
at the Court of the Mogul brought to Western India^ some 
news regarding that famous empire which the Mahomedans 
called Cathay, the name of which was once familiar to 
Europe through the story of Marcus Paulus the Venetian, 
but had in the lapse of ages so fallen out of remembrance 
that people scarcely believed in the existence of such a 
country. The substance of what the Fathers wrote from 
time to time was, that the empire of Cathay lay towards the 
east, somewhat further north than the kingdom of the 
Mogul ; and that they had reason to believe that many pro- 
fessors of the Christian faith were to be found in it, with 
churches, priests, and sacraments. On this Father Nicolas 

> Literally, '' From the letters of the members dwelling at the court 
of Mogor, it was heard in India,** With the missionaries of this age, 
and tho Portuguese, India meant Goa and the Western Coast (just as 
with the Dutch now India moans Java and Sumatra) ; Hindustan Proper 
and the dominions of tho Mogul were collod Mogor. 


Pimento, the Portuguese, who waa Visitor of the Society ia 
the East Indieaj became groiitly taken up with the desire of 
eatabhahing a field of labour for our Society among that 
people ; all the more because it might well be supposed that 
Christians separated from their head by such vast distances 
most have fallen into sundry errors. Hence he thoug-ht it 
well to communicate on the matter both with the Pope and 
with His moat Catholic Majesty.' And by the King^s com- 
maadj accordingly, despatches were sent to the Viceroy, then 
Arias Saldanha, desiring him to support the expedition 
proposed by the Visitor with both money and countenance ; 
an order which he carried out,^nd more, as might iudeed 
liave been expected from the favourable disposition that he 
entertained both towards the propagation of the faith, and 
towards our Order in particular. The Visitor proceeded to 
select for the exploration one of onr Brethren called Benedict 
Goes, a Portuguese by nation, aud an eminently pious and 
sensible man, who from his long residence in the Mognl'a 
territories, had an accurate knowledge of the Persian 
tongue, and a thorough acquaintance with Mahomedan 
customs, two qualifications which appeared to be indispen- 
sable for any one attempting this journey. 

Our brethren had heard indeed, by extracts of Father 
Matthew's letters from the capital of China, that Cathay was 
but another name for the Chinese empire, (a. fact which has 
been established by various arguments in a previous part of 
this book). But as quite an opposite view was taken in tho 
letters of the Fathers at the Mogul's court, the Visitor first < 
wavered and then inclined to the opinions of the latter; 
for whilst ho found it distinctly stated in regard t>rt^Cathay 
that a considerable number of Mahomedans were to be met 
with there, it had come to be considered an established 
fact that the follies of that sect had never found their wav 
to China. Moreover, whilst it was denied that there ever 
' riiiRii JIJ. 


had been a vestige of Christianity in C'liina, the positive 
assertions of the Mahomedan eye-witnesses were held to put 
beyond question its existence in tho country oallod Cathay. 
It was suggested that the name of an onipire conterminous 
with China might have been extended also to the latter ; and 
it was decided that the investigation should be carried out, 
BO as both to remove all shadow of doubt, and to ascertain 
whether a shorter line of communication with China could 
not be established. 

As regards the Christians who were held so positively to 
exist in Cathay (/,e. as we shall see by and by in China), 
either the Mahomedan informants simply lied, as they have 
a way of doing, or tliey were misled by some superficial 
indications. For as they themselves never pay respect to 
images of any kind, when they saw in the Chinese temples 
a number of images not altogether unlike our representations 
of the Mother of God and some of the Saints, they may 
possibly have thought that the religion of the country was 
all one with Christianity. They would also see both lamps 
and wax lights placed upon the altars; thoy would see those 
heathen priests robed in the sacred vestments which our 
books of ritual call Pluviah ; processions of suppliants just 
like ours; chaunting in a stylo almost exactly resemblingthe 
Gregorian chaunts in our churches ; and other parallels of 
the same nature, which have been introduced among them 
by the devil, clumsily imitating holy things and grasping at 
the honours due to God. All these circumstances might 
easily load a parcel of traders, especially if Mahomedans, 
to regard the people as professors of Christianity.' 

' So caailf that the altercBtiTe auppoaition might have bcon spared. 
Tlie like confusion bos oHea occurred, and the Jeauita themselvea have 
here shown why. AoEording to De Ouignes, the Chinese describe the 
sovereign and people of the {Eastern) Roman Empiie as worshippers of 
^D, ur Bnddha, and lu putting liia image on their coins. De Qoma, in his 
i-Dport of tho vuriouB uaHtem kingdoms of which ho heard ut Calicut, de- 
scribes the BuddhiHt uiuntries of Pet^ii, etc., iis Christian, Clav^o sets 


So our Benedict began to prepare for hia journey, and 
asBumed both the dresa and the name of an A_nnei]ian 
Christian merchant, calling himself Abdula, which signifies 
Srri'ont of the Lord, with the addition of Tgdi or tho 
Christian.' And he got from the Mogul king, Akbar by 
name, who waa friendly to the brethren and above all to 
Benedict himself, sundry rescripts addressed to various 
Princes known to be either friends or tribotarioa of hia. So 
he was to pass for an Armenian, for in that character he 
would be allowed to travel freely, whilst if known as u 
Spaniard he was certain t-o be stopped,^ He also carried 
with him a variety of wares, both that ho might maiDtain 
himself by selling them, and to keep up his character as a 
merchant. There was a large supply of these wares both 
from (western) India, and from the Mogul dominions, pro- 
vided at the expense of the Viceroy of India, aided by con- 
tributions also from Akbar himself. Patter Jerome Xavier, 
who had for many years been at the head of the Mogul 
mission, appointed two men acquainted with those countries 
to be the comrades of hia journey. One, for Benedict's 

down the king and people of India as ChriatiaiiH of the Oreek taith, and 
heu^ that the Emperor of Cathay was a Chriatiaji oUo. The Tartars, 
vhom JoBaphat Barbaro met at Tana, asanrud htm that the inhabitants 
of Cathay were Christiana, becftUHe " they had iraagea in their bemplea 
as wo have." Anthony Jenkinaon'a party were told at Bokhara, in 1559, 
that the religion of the people of Cathay was that of tho Chriatione, or 
very nearly bo (see also jujiro, p. 205, a note from QiiatremJre). When 
Dr. !RiohardBon and Capt. Macleod, in their explorations of the h1 
of Burma, fell in with Chinese traders, these generally claimed {hem as 
of their own ceUgion. 

I Janie says the name bestowed on him by Xavior was •• Branda Abedula, 
i. e.. Servant of the Lord." I do not know what the first word it 

- " He adopted the common Armenian EOBtume, viz.. a long firock and 
turban, with a acytnitar, bow, and qniver, this being a dress usually 
worn by merohnnts, bat yet such as marked him for a Christian" (Jorrie), 
He allowed his bixir and board to grow long, as was the practioe of nier- 
chants. Ho was ofl«n, however, on the jonmcy, as his lettere ii 
tioned, token fbr a Baida (SyadJ, or dL-eccndont of Mahomed (lb.). 


comfort, was a priest, by n&me Leo Grimanas, the other a 
merchant called Demetrius.' There were also four servants, 
Mahomedans by birth and former profession, but converted 
to Christianity. All of these servants however ho discharged 
as useless when he got to Lahore (tht; second capital of the 
Mogul), and took in lieu of them a single Armenian, Isaac 
by name, who had a wife and family at Lahore. This Isaac 
proved the moat faithful of all his comrades, and stuck to 
him throughout the whole journey, a regular Jidus Achates, 
So our brother took leave of his superior, and set oat, as 
appears from the letter of instructions, on the sixth of 
January in the third year of this centuiy (1603).' 

Every year a company of merchants is formed in that 
capital to proceed to the capital of another territory with a 
king of its own, called Cascab.^ These all take the road to- 
gether, either for the sake of mutual comfort or for protec- 
tion against robbers. They numbered in the present case 
about five hundred persons, with a great number of mules, 
camels, and carts. So he set out from Lahore in this way 
during Lent of the year just mentioned,* and after a month's 
travelhng thoy came to a town called Athec,^ still within the 
province of Lahore. After (a halt of) about a fortnight they 
crossed a river of a bowshot in width, boats being provided 
at the passage for the accommodation of the merchants. On 
the opposite bank of the river they halted for five days, 

I The former ia probably tlio Bume person who is mentioned by Jarric at 
" the Bubdeacos Leo Qrymonius, a clever and oiperiecced man," a Greek J 
by nation, who was sent by Atbar on a miBaion to Goa about 15S0< ] 
(ii, 629). 

> The jnstructiona were probably eent oEler bim to Lahore, fot we have 
Been that according to another and probably more correct atatement he 
set out on the Slat October, and reached Lahore 6th December, 1602, 
As instructed, he did not put ap at the church at Lahore, then occupied' 
by the Jesuita Bmanuel Pinner and Francis CorHi, but at the houae of 
John Galiaci, a Venetiao (Jarric). 

■• Rashgar. * Easter m 1603 was 30th Mai'ch, N.a. 

-' Attok, on the Indue. 


having received warning that a large body of robbers was 
threatening the road, and then after two months they arrived 
at another city called Passaur ;' and thort" they halted twenty 
days for needful repose. Further on, whilst on their way to 
another small town, they fell in with a certain pilgiim and 
devotee, from whom they learned that at a distance of thirty 
days' journey there was a city called Capperstam, into which 
no Maliomedan was allowed to enter, and if one did g'et in 
lie was punished with death. There was no hindrance 
ottered to the entrance of hoafheii- merchants into the cities 
of those people, only they were not allowed to enter the 
temples. He related also that the inhabitants of that country 
never visited their'temples except in black dresses j and that 
their country was extremely productive, abounding especiiilly 
in grapes. He offered our brother Benedict a cup of the 
produce, and he found it to be wine like our own ; and as 
such a thing is quite unusual among the Mahomedans of 
those regions, a suspicion aro.^e that perhaps the country 
was inhabited by Christians." In the place where they met 

' Peshnwur. Vartviomonllnieadlv<imarche»,Bevp.b38ntpra. Theee 
balta of twenty days, tliirty ilaja, all look suspicious. Si)iiia miBlokon 
intorpretBitioa is probably at the bottom of the diffioulty. 

' The " city c«l]ed Capperatam" represents Eafibistan, the hill coun- 
try occupied by the fair race called by the Mahomedana Kafirt, or in- 
fidels, of whom na atiU know extremely little. Sume of Ihem, at least, 
are called Siynpoift, or blaok-clothed (lite the Scythian ISelanthlieni of 
UerodutuB, ir, 107), b^^m their wearing black gnat-akins. The abun- 
dance of grapea and wine among tham is noticed by ElphinBtone (ii, 875) 
and Wood. Saltan Baber aJao aaya ; "So prevalent a the uae of wine 
among them, that every Kafir has a Khig, or leathern bottle of wine, 
about his neck ; they drink wine inatoad of water" (p. 1-U). Timur, be- 
fore entering Afg-haniatan, on his marcb towards India, sent an eipe- 
dition against the Siyaposh ; and himself led one againat another aection 
of the Kafirs, the members of which, according to his hiBtorion, want 
qnite naked. To reach these he croaaed the snowy mountain Eotaur. 
This is the name of one of the Ka£r tribes iti Elphinstone, and BhaK 
KatavT is a title still aBectedb; the Chief of Chitrol, according tuBnmos. 
Chinghix nlao after hia caunpaign in the region of the Hindu Kuab, is 
stated to hare wintered in the mountoina of Biyya Kittaur. Thence he 

uunue ne ^^m 


with that wanderer they halted for twenty days more, and as 
the road was reported to be infested with brigands thoy j^ot 
an escort of four hundred soldiers from the lord of the place. 
Prom this they travelled in twenty-five days to a place called 
Ghidbli.' In the whole of this journey the baggage and 

attempted to reach Mongolia bj Tibet (probably b; the paaaes of Kara- 
koram), but I'ailed, and had Ui go round by B&miaii. Akbar and Nadir 
Sbah also andertook eipeditiona a^nst the EbGtb, both uiiBuccesafuUy 
(H. de Timur Bee., iii, 14-21; D'Ohiaan.. i, 31!); Elphiiiatojie't Caubvl.H. 
376, BMl ; mtter, vii, 207). 

Kafiriatan hoa lately been visited by two native miBaionariea. employed 
under the agents of the Chnrch UigsionaTy Society at Peshawar, and 
BOme account of their eiperiences has been published, but it doea not 
auioant to uiocb. The chastity aud honesty of the people are lauded. 
Those of the same village entertain a strong feeling of kindred, so that 
neither fighting nor marrying among themaelyes is admissible. Bat the 
different tribes or villages are often aC war with each other, and then to 
kill laen or women of an alien tribe ia the road to honour. They have 
no temples, priests, or books. They believe that there is one God, but 
keep three idols whom they regard as Intercessoia with him. Ona of 
these, called Paliihanu, is roughly carved in wood, with silver eyes ; ha is 
resorted to in eicesa or defect of rain, or in epidemic sickneas. Goats are 
BBorificed, and the blood sprinkled on the idol. Women must not ap- 
proach it. The other two idols are common stones. Goats' flesh ia the 
chief food of the people, and occasionally partiidges and deer; but fowls, 
Fgga. and Gsh are not used. They have no hoi'ses, donkeys, or camels, 
only a few oien and baffoioes, and a few dc^. " They drink wine in 
large quantities, and very nasty it is, if what was brought down to Pesh- 
awar may be taken aa a specimen ;" but none were seen drunk. Their 
drinking-veaaela ware of curiously wrought pottery, and occasionally of 
silver. They live to a great ago, and continue hole till the day of death. 
•' The men are somewhat dark, but the women are said to be as fair aa 
Europeans, and very beantifnl, with red cheeks." The men hardly ever 
wash either their clothes or their persons. In talking they shout with all 
their might. They bury their dead with coffins, in cares among the hills. 
(From CfcriiHan WoTk, September 1865, p. 431). 

Leech, in his Keport on the Passes of Hindu Euah, mentions that tnUtha 
are regarded by the Kafirs as natural bondsmen, and are occasionally 
brought for sale to the Musulman people of the valleys ; also, that the 
oath of peace of the Eafira consists in licking a piece of salt. This Inst 
was also the oath of the Eaeios on the eastern frontier of Bengal, in 
whose country I spent some time many years ago. 

' George Forster was, on the 31st July, at Gandamat ; on the Ist of 
August he rested at pj^ynid-'AU (1 am using a, French version, and do 
not know how Forstor ajiellH itl ; nuxt diiy he 2"t tn KublU. I suspect 



packs were carried along the foot of the liills, wUlst the 
merchants, arms in hand, kept a look out for the robbers 
from the hill-top.' For these latter are in the habit of rolling 
stones down upon travellers, unless these are beforehand 
with them on the heights, and meeting violence by 
violence drive them away. At this place the merchants 
pay a toll, and here the robbers made an onslaught. Many 
of the company were wounded, and life and property were 
aared with difficulty. Ouv Benedict fled with the rest into 
the jungle, but coming back at night they succeeded in 
getting away from the robbers. After twenty days more 
they reached Cabul, a city greatly frequented for trade, and 
still within the territories subject to the Mogul. Here onr 
friends halted altogether for eight months. For some of the 
merchants laid aside the intention of going any further, and 
the rest were afraid to go on in so small a body. 

At this same city the company of merchants was joined 
by the sister of that very King of Cascar, through whose 
territory it was needful to pass on the way to Cathay. The 
king's name is Maffamot Can ; his sister was the mother of 
another king, entitled the Lord of Cotan, and she herself 
was called Age Hanom,* Age is a title with which the 
Saracens decorate those who go on pilgrimage to the im- 

tliat tluH D}ijv,ii-Ali JB the Ohideli of Oo^, and tbat both represent the 
namtn i-nfelix of Jug^alluk (Jour./rom Bengal to Pefcriburi;, Frencli rar- 
aion by tanjUi, ii, 52). The preceding town, where Ooes'a party got an 
eeooit, woB probably Jalalabad. Tbe eiaggerated interpretatioD uf the 
s occupied in the march must be kept in mind, wbateTerbo the caosu 
. According to the text, Golia was forty-five daya -(- -r in ^ttin;; 
from PeBlia,war to Kabul. Forater's account mukca him only BOTendnyB; 
Wood, with Buraes, wua nineteon dnys, but with haJta included. 

' The neglect of this aame practice of " crowning the heighta" caused 
grievoua diaoater in those very poBaes, in the flrat attempt to relieve the 
'• IlluHtrioua Garriaoa" of JalolFibad in 1841. 

' Hiyji-iThoBUm, " The Pilgrim Princeaa," Jarric calls her Ahehaiam, 
i. e., in the Turkish tongue, " Beauiij coming ilown from Mecca." (?) ITio 
king's name is, of coutbg, Mahomed Khan ; his aiater's son, tho Lord of 
Khotan, south-enat of Ki^hgar and Yorkand. 


poster's carcase at Mocha. In fact she was now on her return 
from that immense journey to Mecha, which she had per- 
formed for the Bate of her blasphemous creed ; and having 
run short of money she came to seek assistance from tlie 
merchants, and promised that she would honestly repay 
their advances with ample interest on reaching her territory. 
This seemed to our brother an opportunity not to be lost of 
obtaining the favour of the king of another kingdom, for now 
the efficacy of the Mogul's orders was coming to an end. So 
he made her an advance of about six hundred pieces of gold 
from the sale of his goods, and refused to allow interest to 
be stipulated in the bond. She would not, however, let her- 
self be outdone in liberality, for she afterwards paid him in 
pieces of that kind of marble which is so highly esteemed 
among the Chinese, and which is the most profitable of all 
investments that one can take to Cathay. 

Prom this place the Priest Leo Grymauus went back, 
being unable to stand the fatigues of the journey ; and his 
comrade Demetrius stopped behind in the town on account 
of aomo business. So our brother set out, attended by no 
one but the Armenian, in the caravan with the other mer- 
chants. For some others had now joined them, and it was 
thought that they could proceed with safety, 

The first town that they came to was Ciakakab, a place 
where there is great abundance of iron,' And here Benedict 
was subjected to a great deal of annoyance. For in those 
outskirts of the Mogul's dominions no attention was paid to 
the king's firmaii, which had hitherto given him immunity 
from exactions of every kind. Ten days later they got to a 

' Charekar, at the head of the Koh-Dainan valloy, north of Knbul, 
fumouB in our own day for the gallant defence made therij hy Eldred Pot- 
tinger, and Haughton, during the Kabul outbreak. It is mentioned by 
Ibn BiLtnta aa Charkh. Leech, in hig Report on the Vsmaea, calU it 

It ia to be recollected that the namea in the teit are all spelt b; Eicci 
after the Italian fashion. 

658 JOURNEY oy benedict (lliKS 

little town called Pabuan,' and tliis was the last in the 
Mogul's territories. After five days' repose they proceeded 
to croBS over very lofty mountains by a journey of twenty 
days, to the district called Ajnohaban,- and after fifteen days 

' Pai-iDfin, in a nook of the Hindu Kush. has, trcan its position near tbe 
terminaB of several of the chief passea, oltcti been fatuous in Asiatic his- 
tory. It is evidently the Karmun of Jaubert's Edrisi (a miBtranscriptioa 
for Farutan) — " The town of Farwdii is of no great size, but a, nice enough 
place with agreeable environs, throned bazars, and rich inhabitants. 
The honses are of claj and brick. It is situated on the banks of the 
river Baighir (PanjsAir). Tbla town is one of the principal morketH of 
India" (i, p. 477). At Parw&n the arm; of Chinghiz was checked for th« 
moment in 1221, being defeated b; the Sultan Jaloluddin of Khwarizm. 
And in an action near Parwan in 1840 took plaut^ the ominous misconduct 
of a regiment of liengal cavalry, which caused the day to be lost, with 
the lives of several valuable officers, though Dost Mahomed Khan sur- 
rendered immediately afterwards. 

' Here the great number of days occupied ii 
journey is perpleiing in the detail aa well a 
wo have seen it to be). Oofs and his party are made ti 
days &om Kabul to Tolhan (the identity of which can 
ful), a journey which could scarcely have occupied mc 
twenty at most. 

Wood, in bla unsuccessful attempt to cross one of the Passes of Parwan 
(perhaps that followed by Qoea), on the second day reached the village 
I-Ahohbkam, and Ahlngaran is also mentioned in Leech's Report as a 
village on one of tbe passes from Parwan at twcnty-sii miles from the 
entrance of tbe pass. But this place is on tbe aoulh side of the mountains, 
whilst the Aingharau of Oot^s is on the north. Either it haa been con- 
founded with Andarab, or aa is very possible the name, which I suppose is 
Ahan-ghardn, " The Iron-Minos," recurs. Indeed just before receiving 
the proof of this sheet J buve observed tbe recurrence of the name in 
another locality, suggesting a different view of Oofs's route over the 
luountaina, for which I refer to the note on the PaHsea at the end. 
Vnleiii. (Kalsha, Kalacha, KilosiyaP) is a great difficulty, as it was 
evidently a place of some importance, but no place of the name con 
be traced. Khjdwm however appears to have been in the posaession 
of a family called Khollacb or KiUicb, and it is poasible that that 
town may be meant (see Etphinatone' t Caubul, ii, 190; also SumM, 
iii). I must not, however, omit to mention that on the north aide of the 
Otua in this longitude, oocnpjing port of the bill-oonatry cast of Bok- 
bara, there is a poor but mdependent people of Persian ra«s called Ohot- 
chat. Meyendorff calls them very swarthy, but ValikhanofT saya ei- 
preasly : " The Tajiks have dark compleiions and hair, whilst fair people 
are found among the Ohaloha." This might eiplain the yellow-haired 
people mentioned by Oota, and his uae of tbe expression Caldnuimn 

poi-tiona of the 

in the total (aa 

take seventy-five 

corcely be doubt- 

'o than aixteen to 



more they reached Calcia. There is a people here with 
yellow hair and beard like the people of the Low Countnea, 
who occapy sundry hamlets about the country. After ten 
days more they came to a certain place called Gialalabath. 
Here are bi-ahmana who exact a toll under a gi-ant made to 
them by the King of Bruarata.' lu fifteen days more they 
came to Talhan, where they halted for a month, deterred by 
the civil wars that were going on ; for the roads were said 
to be unsafe on account of the rebellion of the people of 

From this they wont on to C'heman," a place under Ab- 
dulahan King of Kamarkau, Burgavia, Bacharatu,* and other 

Poputoi. But I cannot well see how his Calcia should b« beyond the 
OxuB, nor find any evidence or Oh&lchas south of that river. Oaotoihan 
in the Chinese tubles, which is nearer CaJoiB tiiBU any other name, is 
placed 1° 36' weat of BadakhBhan and 0° ao' north of it. Thia indicntion 
alao points to the north of the Oiuh, about twenty miles due north of 
Hazrat Imam (see a/aymtior/, p. 132; Em*, in Cent, Aaia, p. 65 j Amyot, 
Mstnnirea, torn, i, p. 399}, If Calcia, however, be Khulum, Jalalabad must 
then be sought between Sliulum and ToliUiiui, about Kundoz or Allabad, 
if not identical with one of these. 

' Bruarata is slmoet certainly a miBreoding tbr Bacharata, tha t«rm 
used further on for Bokhara. 

* Talhan is the first terra firma in the narratire since quitting' Porwan. 
11 is doubtless T A.lilrhft.ii , about tittj miles east of Kunduz. and has been 
spoken of in th& Introductory Notice (p. S4I}. It is mentioned by Marco 
Polo under tb? name of Taikan (ii, ch. 22). 

' I cannot say what place this is. Hazrat Imdm on the Oius appears 
too much out of the way. But Wood mentions, at tha junction of the 
Eokcha with the Oxus, due north of Talikhan, a mountain nhich he calls 
I-Khanam (Koh-i-Kkanam ? " Hill of Khanam") : " Immediately below 
I-Kbanam, on its esft side, the ground is raised into low swelling ridges. 
Here, we were informed, stood an ancient city called Harbarrah, and 
there is a considerable extent of mud-walis standing which the T^jika 
think are vestiges of the old city, but which are evidently of a oompara- 
tively modem era." It is possible that this was Kl\anam, and the Cheman 
of Oo^s. 

< Btrgama is probably a misprint for Bargania (as Astley in his version 
has indeed printed it), and intended for Farghana. The prince is then 
Abdulla Khan, King of Samarkand, Bokhars' and Farghana, The reign- 
ing sovereign at this time, according to Deguignes (i, 291-2) was Abdul 
Miunin of the Dzbek house of Shaibek, which had reigned for a centnry 
ill Mun-nmlnahr. 


adjoining kingdoms. It is a small town, and the ^renior 

sent to the merchants to advise them to come within the 
walls, aa outside they would not be very safe from the Calcia 
insurgents. The merchants, however, replied that they were 
willing to pay toll, and would proceed on their journey by 
night. The governor of the town then absolutely forbade 
their proceeding, saying that the rebels of Calcia as yet hod 
no horses, but they would got them if they plundered the 
caravan, and would thus be able to do much more damage to 
the country, and be much more troublesome to the town ; it 
would bo a much safer arrangement if they would join his 
men in beating off the Calcia people. They had barely 
reached the town walls when a report arose that the Calcia 
people were coming ! On hearing this the bragging governor 
and his men took to their heels. The merchants on the spur 
of the moment foi-med akind of intrenchment of their packs, 
and collected a great hoap of stones inside in case their arrows 
should run short. When the Calcia people found this ont, 
they sent a deputation to the merchants to tell them to fear 
nothing, for they would themselves escort and protect the 
caravan. The merchants, however, were not disposed to put 
trust in these insurgents, and after holding counsel together 
flight was determined on. Somebody or other made this 
design known to the rebels, upon which immediately ihey 
made a rush forward, knocked over the packs, and took 
whatever they liked. These robbers then called the mer- 
chants out of the jungle (into which they had fled) and gave 
them leave to retire with the rest of their property within 
the empty city walls. Our Benedict lost nothing but one of 
his horses, and even that ho afterwards got back in exchange 
for some cotton cloths. They remaijied in the to^vn in a 
groat state of fear lest the rebels should make a general 
attack and massacre the whole of them. But just then a 
certain leading chief, by name Olobet Ebadascan, of the 
Buchara country, sent his brother to the rebels, and he by 


threats indiiced tbem to let the inerchantB go free.^ Through- 
out the whole journey, however, robbers were constantly 
making snatches at the tail of the caravan. And once 
it hefel our friend Benedict that he had dropped behind 
the party and was attacked by four brigands who had been 
lying jierdug. The way he got off from thorn was this : he 
snatched off his Persian cap and flung it at the thiovesj and 
whilst thoy were making a football of it our brother bad time 
to spur his horse and get a bowshot clear of them, and so 
safely joined the vest of the company. 

After eight days of the worst possible road, they reached 
the Tenoi Badascias, Twfji signifies a difficult road ; and 
it is indeed fearfully narrow, giving passage to only one at a 
time, and running at a great height above the bed of a river. 
The townspeople here, aided by a band of soldiers, made an 
attack upon the merchants, and our brother lost three 
horses. These, however, also, he was enabled to ransom 
with some small presents. They halted here ten days, and 
then in one day's march reached Ciarciunab, whore thoy 
were detained five days in the open country by rain, and 
suffered not only from the inclemency of the weather, but 
also from another onslaught of robbers. 

From this in ten days they reached Sbrpanil; but tliis 
was a place utterly desolate and without a symptom of 
human occupation ; ■ and then they came to the ascont of the 
steep mountain called Saoeithma. None but the stoutest of 
the horses could face this mountain ; the rest had to pass by 
a roundabout but easier road. Here two of our brother's 

I There oiQ some doubtful points in reading tbla. Is Trigautius tho 
sentence nms : " Mint du« qMiian e tnastimia, nmnine Olobet Ebadaacan, 
Ititcharaiit rejio»« fralrem mum, <jui minua CfllcienjM rAellet adtgil ut 
nigolialoret iibero» ahirt fcrrmilltrent," where Olobet Ebadaacnn ('Ala- Bog 
Ibodat Khan?) is trefttod as one name. Perhapa howevec the original 
ran, " Olobot e Badaacan"— " a chief by name 'Alu-Beg (or Wali-Beg) of 
Dodakshiui, a Dountiy under Bolfhsi^." In thfi latter clause I hare sup- 
posed Tnjnui to be a misprint for mtnu ; ntherwiae it uiaat be " induced 
the Iksb rebellions of the Calcha people," which would bo awkwui-U. 




mules went l&me, and the weary son'aatH wanted to let them 
go, bnt after all they were got to follow the others. And so, 
after a journey of twenty days, they reached the province of 
Saecil, where they found a number of hamlets near together. 
They halted there two days to rest the horses, and then in 
two days more reached the foot of the mountain called 
CiEciALiTff. It was covered deep with snow, and during the 
ascent many were frozen to death, and our brother himself 
bai-ely escaped, for they were altogether six days in the snow 
here. At last they reached Tanohetar, a place belonging 
to the Kingdom of Gascar. Here Isaac the Armenian fell 
off the bank of a great river into the water, and lay as it 
were dead for some eight hours till Benedict's exertions at 
last brought him to. In fifteen days more they reached the 
town of Iakonich, and the roads were so bad that six of our 
brother's horses died of fatigue. After five days more oar 
Benedict going on by himself in advance of the caravan 
reached the capital, which is called Hiahchan, and sent back 
horses to help on his party with necessaries for his comradee. 
And so they also arrived not long after safe at the capital, 
with bag and baggage, in November of the same year 1 603.^ 

' The plac<?e Darned in the preciediog paraffraphfi coDtinae to prescat 
some diiGcnltf, bat in a somewhat less degree Uum those lately «a- 

The Tangi-iDadalhihan, "Straits or DefileB of ItudnlthHhftn," I should 
loolc for along the Oxub in Diirwaz and Shognan, nbere the paths appear, 
from what Wood hoard, to be much inorodiffieiUt and formidable than that 
which he followed, croBsing fh)m the Kokcha at Pyiabod to the Upper 0»U8 
in WakhaD, where ogam the latter riror ituib in a comparativelj open 
valley. The title is well illustrated by Marco Polo's eipresBionB ; "Enoest 
regne (de Balaciao) anuijnt etlroit pas moult mauvoit et aifortqaeil n'ont 
doute de nulloi" (Paulhier't Ed., p. 131). Ciarcivaar is, I suppose, nnqnee- 
tionably the Persian Chab Chikib, " The four plane-trees." Thia (Ch&r- 
obin&r) is octaally the name of an island in the Lake of Kashmir, formerly 
conspiouousforits four great plane-trees (see (■'oj-ifer'* Journey), Strpmul, 
desolate and without haman habitation, I toke to be probably Sib-i- 
Pamib, ■' The head or top of Pamir,'' the celebrated plat-ean from which 
tlie Oiua, Jaiartes, Bivers of Yarkaad and Kaahgar, and the Gilgit 
branch of the Indus derive their headwaters. The anomalous name 




Tbe reinftinder of the Journey to Cathnj, and how it ia aacertained to lio 
all the aame as the CMnese empire. 

HiAKTHAN, the capital of the kingdom of Caacar, is a mart of 
much note, both for the great concourse of merchants, and 

Sacrithina may repreeent a station which appears in Macartney'fl map on 
the monntaina near the head of the Oina aa Sabikbaeb. Wilford makes 
some wild work with this name Sacrithma, quoting Goes, in hia eaaay on 
the"lHloaof theWeafinvol. viiiof thejl». Be«*orchej. The ridge to which 
OopB applies the Dame roust bo that which separatca the Siriknl from the 
beodwatera of the Yarkand River. Sarcil may then be, as Eitter Bur- 
miaed, the district of Sakieul near the said headwaters (see Buis. in 
Cent. Alia, p. 157 ; Ritler, vii. 4S9, 505 ; iii, 635). CUnalUh (i.e. Chechalit) 
is then without donbt that apnr of the Bolor mnnlug out toworda 
Yarkand, which appears on aome recent maps of Asia as the Cbicheck 
Taoh, and in Klaproth's map cited by Ritter as Tchelchettagh, immedi- 
atelj north of Sarikul. The paasage of this great spur ie abown very 
distinctly in a route laid down in Uocartney'B map (in Elphhuloni^i 
Cavbtil), only the author suppoaed it to be the main chain of the Kara 
Eoram. Macartney terms the Col of which Goes gives ao formidable an 
account, the Fais of Chillung, and a station at the northern side of it 
Chueaki,ie, which ia probably the Chechalith of our traToller. 

Tangkelar I had suppoaed to be a mia transcription for Yangheiar, i.e. 
Ingachar or Yahoi-Hisab, an important town forty-seven miles S.B. of 
Kasbgar on the road from that city to Yarkand, an error all the more 
probable as we have Tuscc for Tuaca a little fiirther on. Tungeeiar, 
however, appears in Macartney's map, and immediately beyond he 
represents the road as bifurcating towards Kashgor and Tarkand. It 
must in any cose be neat Yengi-Hisar if not identical with it. Taeonic 
I cannot trace. 

Ritter is led by the slight resemblance of names to identi^ the Cbor- 
chunar of Gof s with Karchu, near the upper waterti of the Yarkand, and 
this mistake, aa it seems to me, deranges all his interpretation of the 
route of Goes between Tallkan and Sarikul. 

Ootia in a letter from Yarkand to Agra spoke of the great diiGcnltlea 
and fatignea encountered in crossing this desert of Famech (Pamik), in 
which he had lost five horses by the cold. So severe was it, ho aaid, that 
animals could scarcely breathe the air, and oilen died in consequenve. As 
an antidote to this (wliich, of course, was the effect of attenuated atmo- 
Bphore rather than of cold) the men used to eat garlic, leeks, and dried 
applej, and the horses' gums were rubbed with gnriic. This desert took 



for tiie variety of warea. At this capital the t 
Cabul merchaQts reaches its temunus ; and a n 
formed for the journey to Cathay. The command of this 
caravan is sold by the king, who invests the chiefs with a 
kind of royal authority over the merchants for the whole 
journey.' A twelvemonth passed away however before the 
new company waa formed, for the way is long and perdona, 
and the caravan is not formed every year, but only when a 
large number arrange to join it, and when it is known that 
they will be allowed to enter Cathay. There is no artiele of 
traffic more valuable, or more generally adopted as an in- 
vestment for this journey, thanlumpsof a certain transparent 
kind of marble which we, fi'om poverty of language, usoallr 
call jasper. They carry these to the Emperor of Cathay, 
attracted by the high prices which he deems it obligatory 
on hia dignity to give; and such pieces as the Emperor does 
not fancy they are free to dispose of to private individuals. 
The profit on these transactions is so great that it is thought 
amply to compensate for all the fatigue and expense of the 
journey. Out of this marble they fashion a variety of articles, 
such aa vases, and brooches for mantles and girdles, which 
when artistically aculptured in flowers and foliage certainly 
have an effect of no small magnificence. These marbles 
(with which the empire is now overflowing) are called by the 
Chinese Inace.^ There are two kinds of it ; the first and 

fi>rty days tocroBB if the inow was extensive (Jarrir). Forty days is the 
time Bsai^ed by Polo also to the passage of this lofly region (ii, 27). 

' Jairic, from the letters which Oocs wrote from Yorkaad in Febmair 
and An^ust. 1601, mentionB that t^e chief whom he eventnaUy accom- 
panied pail) the king two hondrod bags of musk for the nomination. 
Four others were associated with him as envoys ; and one hundred and 
seventy-two meruhants, who porchasod this privilege from the chief at a 
high price, insomuch that he cleared a lai^ amount by the tninsaction. 

* The word as printed in Trigantins is Tusi-t, but this is certainly a 
mist-ake for luacc, i.e. Ttisht or ■' Tu stone," the Chinese name of the 
oriental jnde. the Ta*\m of Western Asiatics (see p. 130 supra). 

fhe description in the Icit of the double ^onnw of supply of jade it 

>f jade u fi«^H 




more valuable is got out of the river of Cotan, not far from 
the capital, alinoat in the same way in which divers fish for 
gems, and this is usually extracted in pieces about as big as 
large flints. The other and inferior kind is excavated from 
the mountains ; the larger masses are split into slabs some 
two ells broad and these are then reduced to a size adapted 
for carriage. That mountain is some twenty days' journey 
from this capital (i.e., Yarkand) and is called Cansanohi 
Cascio, i.e., the Stone Mountain, being very probably the 
mountain which is so termed in some of the geographical 
descriptions of this empire. The extraction of these blocks 
is a work involving inimeaae labour, owing to the hardness 
of the substance as well as to the remote and lonely position 
of the place. They say that the stone is sometimes softened 
by the application of a blazing fire on the surface. The 
right of quarrying here is also sold by the king at a high 
price to some merchant, without whose license no other 
speculators can dig there during the term of the lease. 
When a party of workmen goes thither they take a year's 
provisions along with them, for they do not usually revisit 
tho populated districts at a shorter interval. 

Our brother Benedict went to pay his respects to the king, 
whose name was Mahomed Khan.' The present that he 

fdctl; in accordance with the Chinese authorities, one kind being fished 
up io boulder form by divers, from the rivers on each side of the chief 
city of Khotan, which are caUed respectively Yurung-Kash and Kara^Kaah 
(White Jade andBlack Jade), and tho otherfcind quarried in large manaea 
from the mountain called Mirjai, which ie stated by a Chinese writer to 
bo two hundred and thirty li (about seventy miles) from Yarkand. From 
the mention of a jade quarry by Mir Izzet Ullah, about half-wi^ from the 
Kara Korum Pass to Yarkand it is probable that the Miijai mountain is 
to be sought thereabouts (see Bitter vii, 330-389). Rttter will have the 
Cun-faiiffiii-CfMcio of our tent to be a mistake for Karangai-Tagh, the aanio 
which he finds applied t« the range in which the rivers of Khotan spring, 
(n'obttblj a part of the Knea-Lun. But the words are Poraian, Kdn lang- 
i'Kdtk, "TbeniinBof Kash (or Jade) Stone," ffmh being the Turki word 
for that mineral. 

In Orig. Maliamelhin, for Slakamcthan. A letter which Got-s wrote to 
iur from Yarkand, 2d It'ebmary, KKVt, mentioned that the oicilement 



carried with him secured him a good reception, for it coii- 
sisted of a pocket watch, looking glasses, and other Earopeaa 
curiosities, with which the king was so charmed and 
dehghted that he adopted the giver at once into hia friend- 
ship and patronage. Our friend did not at first disclose his 
desire to go to Cathay, but spoko only of the kingdom of 
Cialis, to the eastward of Cascar, and begged a royal pass- 
port for the journey thither. His request was strongly 
backed by the son of that pilgrim queen to whom he had 
lent six hundred pieces of gold.' And he also came to be 
on intimate terms with divers gentlemen of the court. 

created in the cit; b; tUe luuiounaemeiit of the arriraJ af an Armonion 
fiunti who did not follow the Law of Islam, was bo great that be thought 
it desirable to paj his respecta to the king, and he was well recoived. 
The vizir having beea attracted by a ctoaa and a book of the Ooepols 
(apparently a breviary) which he saw among the baggage, Benedict waa 
deaired to produce these at a second audience. The king reoeived the 
book with much reverence, and dizocted Ooes (to Ms great joy) to read a 
passage and explain its meaning. He turned up at a venture the anthem 
for Aseension Day, I'iri QaliliBi quid statis atpidetitei in CabimT uid 
then, in deep emotion at an opportunity so unbooked for, proceeded to 
declare the glorioua Ascension of the Saviour before those MAhomadaoa ; 
adding also some remarka on the descent of the Spirit at Pentecost, and 
on the Advent of Christ to judgment. Opening the book a second time 
he read the &Oth (our 51st) Psalm, and took occaeion fi-om it to apeak of 
repentance. The bearded doctors of the law regarded one another with 
aatonishment, and the king also expressed hia surprise. The latter then 
requested to see the cross ; and asked "To what quarter did the Chriatitfna 
turn in prayer ?" To all, said Benedict, for Ood is everywhere. Did they 
use any wushings and ceremonial ablutions F None corporeal, sud he, 
like those of the Mahomodans, to wash away the stains of ain, for these 
were of no profit to the soul ; but spiritual washings, by wliich soula ar« 
cleansed from ain'a foulness : an answer which seemed to give aatistaotion. 
Ou another occasiou (for he was often called to the palace) the king 
showed him papers inscribed in a certain round and vermicnlate 
chai'Bcter, and asked what they were. QoC-b when he had read them (in 
what language is not stated) found them to treat of the Trinity, and took 
occasion therefrom to speak of the Divine greatness and Omnipotence, 
etc. So much did they all admire what he said, that in turn they began 
to ask "And are these the men whom we have called Kafirs ? ~ ~ 
they acknowledge God as well as we." And the king aaid " Surely it ia a 
Mullah that is speaking !" (JarricJ. 

Tliis PHnoo of Khotan ha<t come to Yarkand to meet his mother, and 
'lionod BcncdicI much courtesy and j,'mtitiido for the aid rendered her at 



Six months had passed away when behold Demetrius, 
one of the original comrades of his journey, who Iiad stayed 
behind at Cabul, arrived at Hiarchan. Benedict and Isaac 
the Armenian, were greatly dehghted at his arrival ; but 
their joy was of short continuance, for very soon after this 
Demetrius caused our friend a great deal of trouble. At 
that time, with the king's leave, one of the merchants was 
elected mock emperor, whilst all the rest, according to a 
custom of theirs, paid homage to him and offered hira pre- 
sents. Demetrius, to save his pocket, held back ; and as 
the emperor had the power of putting rebels against his 
authority in irons, or even of flogging them, Demetrius had 
great difficulty in escaping both penalties. Our Benedict, 
however, by his good management, airanged the whole 
matter, for his intercession and a small present got pardon 
fur Demetrius. A greater peril also befel the party, when 
thieves broke into the house, and laid hold of the Armenian 
whom they tied up, putting a dagger to bis throat to prevent 
bis giving the alarm. The noise however roused Benedict 
and Demetrius, and the robbers made ofl'. 

On another occasion Benedict had gone away to get hia 
loan repaid by the mother of the Prince of Qdotan,' Her 
capital was ten day^' journey distant, and what with going 
and coming, a month had passed and he was still absent. 
So the Saracens took occasion by this to spread false reports 
of Benedict's being dead, alleging him to have been put to 

Kabul. Ue aloo wbs greailj taJcen with tba reudiugs &om the Scrip- 
taroB (ift.) 

' Khotaii, wfaiah may be coQBidered tlie moat central and inafceBsible 
alute of all Aaia, was a, Bca.t of very ancient civilisation, and vaa already 
in Mundly relatione with China in MO B.C. In the fourth centuiy of 
oar era Bnddhiam woe in high development here. Though much of tho 
Hurfiice appaora to be mgged manntain, it ia intorsperaed with levela 
which ore both li-aitful and populooB. At thiE time, lifca the other atatea 
of £aet«m Turlfeatan, it was onder a UalioiDedan chi«f of Torkish or 
Mongol doacent. Khotan is the salgect of a abort chapter in Marco Polo. 
In modern tiiuca its only Europiiuii visitoi- hiu been Adolpliuit 8ehliL{;int- 
«fit, iiLo never rutiirued fo lull liia Uile. 

(lenth by priests of theirs for refusing to invoke the name ol 
their raise prophet. And now those initiated priests of tbei 
wliom they call Caskishes,' were endeavoaring to lay violei 
hands npon his propertyj as that of one who was dead inte*-^ 
tute and without an heir, This matter caused great distre 
to Demetrius and Isaac, both in their daily sorrow at t 
supposed death of their comrade, and in the danger of tbei 
own position. So their joy was twofold when after a whils V 

' In orig. Caicita. Kaihlih or Kath, from a, Syriaa root si^i^ring 
" Snmil," is the proper Arabic term fur a Chriatiaji presbyter. It ie tbe 
term (Katkdha) applied b; Ibe Syrian ChriBtiane of Malabar to their on 
presbjterg (HufAanan, Chritt. Eaear., pp. 97 «q^.) ; it will be found 
attached to tbe Sjriac names of priests on the sjicient monument of 
Singanfa (see Paitlhier'i work on it, pp. 42 leqq.) ; and it is also applied 
by the Arabs to Catholic priests. Mount Athos, acoording to D'Her- 
belot, is called by tbe Turks Kaihiik Daghi, fh>m its swarms of cLei^. 
" By neither Christians nor Mahoniedans," says my friend Mr. Badger, 
" is the word adopted to designate any minister of Islam." We hare, 
however, many instances uf its miBapplication to Musulman diviDes ^ 
European travellers. And ua I £nd the word given in Vieyra'a Porlvguat* 
Kctionarv (ed. Paria, IMBB) in the form " Cacii — A Moarith Frirtt," ife 
seems probable that this misapplication originated in the Peninsula. In 
I India Fah'r boa come to be applied to the Hindu Jogis 
and other deTotoes, though properly a Mahomodan denomination. In 
t^t. our own application of i>ruul (i.e. presbyter) to ministers of pagan 
worship is in some degree parallel. Only as regards Kaahith it is notable 
that it seems to have been regarded by European Christians as the spo- 
oiflc and teohnical term for a Mahomedan divine, whereas it was in its 
proper oriental application the specific and technical term for a Christian 

It was in general uau bj tbe Catholic missionaries as the term for a 
Mullah J see Jarric's Jesuit history pniiim (Codnii) ; P, Vincenio the 
Carmelite (Cunt a con altro none Schieriji, p. B5), etc. In Mendez Pinto 
also we have " hum Cociz leu Moulana que ellcs linhao par lanfo" (osp. r). 

OonialeK de Clavijo again speaks of " Moorish hermita called Caziuei," 
and in another passage of " a great Conz whom they look npon asaBaant" 
(Markham* Tram., pp. 79, 11*). 

In the description of Khansa in the Mongol History of Waasaf (in 
Persian) it is said : " The city includes seven hundred tomplee resem- 
bling fortresses, each of whiuh is occupied by a number of priests without 
faith and monks without religion (kashishuu be teth tea Bahabin bt din)' 
(see Qyialremere't Rathiit., p. luivii). Here tbe Persian author setnoB b 
apply to Pagans the terms both for presbyter and monk appropriattid to 


he tui-uod up in safety. Htj returned witli his debt paid in 
ample measure with pieces of that valuable atone of which 
we have spoken; and to mark his gratitude to God he made 
a large distribution of alms to the poor, a custom which he 
kept up throughout his whole journey. 

One day when he had sat down with a company of 
Saracens at a dinner to which one of them had invited him, 
some fanatic burst in, sword in hand, and pointing his 
weapon at Benedict's breast dosirod him instantly to invoke 
the name of Mahomet. Our friend replied that no such 
name was wont to be invoked in the law which he professed, 
and that he must absolutely refuse to do so. The bystanders 
then came to his aid, and the madinan was ejected. The 
same threats of death however, unless he would address 
lu-ayer to Mahomet, are said to have been directed to liim 
repeatedly, yet God ever dehvered him until the end of his 
journey. On another day it happened that the King of 
Cascar sent for him, when the priests and theologians of the 
atcursed faith were present at the court, (they call their 
theologians MiilUie.) Being then asked what faith ho would 
profess, whether that of Moses, or of David, or of Mahomet, 
and in what direction he would turn his face in prayer? our 
friend repbcd that the faith ho professed was that of Jdbds, 
whom they called IgcU, and that it mattered not to what 
quarter he turned in prayer, for God was everywhere. This 
last answer of his created a great discussion among them, 
for in prayer they make a point of turning to the west. At 
last thoy came to the conclusion that our law also might have 
some good in it,^ 

' At Yurkand there were one hundred and aiity mosques ; and arery 
Friday OD official went about the bazar reminding the people of tboditUca 
of the da;. AJl«r this twelve men issued from the chieC mosque iLrmed 
with whips of hide, wiiich they laid about thoso whom they found i£ tho 
Btreota, absenting themselves &om public prajei {Jarric). The aama 
i:uatom is mentioned by Ibn Batuts. aa eiistiug at Ebworizm in bis time, 
and hu tried to introdiicc simihu' Blue Laici when judgi; in tho Maldives. 
It slill prevaiU in Bokham {Humes, ii, 2i8 ; I'umhcj-y. p. ISfi). The pious 


Monntimo h curtuin itative named Agiaei> w&s noi 
aliiuf uf tho future caravan of merchants. And 
h(>ar(l that our brother was a man of courage, as well as a 
nioi-cliant of largo dealings, he invited him to a grand enter- 
Uiinrnimt at Iiih houno, at which there was a great concert of 
iniiniu after tho manner of those people, aa well aa a dinner. 
After dinner the chief requested our brother to accompany 
tho caravan all the way to Cathay. He indeed desired 
nothing better, but exporionce had taught him how to deal 
with Kamoons, so ho was glad that the proposal should come 
IVoni tho other sido, and thus that he should seem to be 
gmiiling mtlivr than tKsocpting a favour. So the king him- 
milf wa« prevailed on by tho chief to make the request, and 
dill wtu'iii'dlngly ask Itenecliot to accompany the CantanbasA^ 
iwt tlu>y oiiU tUo chiiif of the company. Benedict agi-eed t«^ 
do Ro un condition thot the king would grant him circnlsH 
lt>tt(ini for ibo whole coursu of the journey. Hia formi(fl 
iHiuirwloa, bolongintr lo thu Cabul caravan, took offence aM 
lliiR, for Ha htM Ih^qu said, it was always necessary on those 
otHMMioUH lo tmvrl in l»i^» numbers. So they counselled 
hilt) MttKiHit )uitttug iu)y Irost in the oati\-es, for these in- 
h'ltdotl lilt' ibiim ijnlj- M • limp by which they might suc- 
tHHul in (li^viiHTtit^ kis fortnue, and bis very life. Our friend 
Ititvni^M* n>)>n<«oul«d that he was acting in aocordauce with 
t\w Kwfi'* «s)uv**it) wishtv$. and had given bis promise to 
lh(t <Awi \4 ttio <,«twvMi, tn-wi which as an honest man he 
kxmKt mA )^> tHM-4i. lu Initb iIk' (<«rs wbidi those ntercbants 
)tn«AMMw( t\> «<«lMtaM w«*v aoi «aAMUided, for many of the 
tMliwsH v^f iku^ t,VA»try •.k^-laivd that thoeo thn« ArmeatiUH 
^Kw «« tW,v •.'<»lkxl *W«. aa Ww^all of om ftith) woaM be 
MHnltxM as MX« a» Umj- art km Mfciiifa the ci^ walfe. 
AwA MX IVtavlnlw K«.'^ I W ghy— i • SMMid tuw drew bat^ 
IWw> )i>iwa»s'i» l ^t *^ joiwwy H mh iw, trym^tltn to p g i s— d c 


our brother to go back. Benedict would not listen to liim, 
saying that he had never yet let himself be deteiTed by fear 
of death from the duty of obedience, much loss would ho do 
so now iu a buaiuesa from which so much glory to God 
might be expected. It would be most mtworthy conductj 
he said, to fi'ustrate the hopes of so many for fear of death ; 
and to throw away all the expense that had been incurred 
by the Archbishop of Goa and the \''iceroy. He hoped 
still to carry through the undortakiug by the help of Him 
who had thus far brought him prosperously, but in any case 
he would rather risk his life in the cause than draw back 
from his purpose. 

So he girded up his loins for the journey, and bought ten 
horses for himself and hia comrade and thoir goods, having 
already one more at hia house. Meanwhile the chief of the 
caravan went off to hia home, which was some five days 
from the capital, to get ready for the journey, and after hia 
ariival sent back a message to our friend to start as soon us 
possible, and to hasten the other merchants by hia example. 
He was glad enough to do ao, and aet out accordingly, in 
the middle of November 1604, proceeding first to a place 
called loLCt, where duties used to be paid and the king's 
passports to be inspected. After this in tweuty-five days, 
paasing successively Hancialix, Alceghet, Haoaeatetb, 
Kgeiae, Mesetklbch, Thalec, Hoema, Thoantac, Mingibda, 


and CiACOE,' they reached Acsu.^ The difiiculties of the 

' I cannot identify one of bheae places iu any routes or maps of Ccnlrul 
Asia except Caiibaaci, wLich appears tn K. Johnston's map of Aaiu as 
KTimhaihi, and is mentioned in the Bussian Keports aa one of the moat 
important settloments of the Aksu district (fiuanani in Central Aam, p. 
160). Of the other namee Hanciatix translated &om Eicci'B Bpolling 
would be probabl; Khan-Chalith ; Bare Ouebedal is probably the same 
name as Saregabedal which oocura further on; Aeonsertte is possibly the 
Saksah of Berghaus's moji ; Ciacor is probably Shakyar, which indeed is 
llio name of a town some i° east of Aksu, but which also appears to bu 
i:ommon to many other phicca in the country, if it is not indeed a local 



road were great, either from the quantities of stones, or 
from thu wiiterles3 tracts of Band which they had to paes. 

AcBU is a town of the kiogdom of Cascar, and the chief 
tliore was a nephew of the king's, and only twelve years of 
aye. lie sent twice for our brother. The hitter carried 
him proBoiits of sweetmeats and the like, snch as would be 
iK't'-optable to a child, and was moat kindly received. A 
ffi-niiil danoo happening to be performed before them, the 
young prince aakod iJcncdict how the people of his country 
used to dunce T and so Benedict, not to be churlish with a 
pntioe about so small a matter, got up and danced him* 
Bolf to show the way of it. He also visited the prince's 

fV>nu of tht) PonlftD Shahr (cit;). This is suggested by the fitct tb&t 
ICaraihaXr Kppuius in aae of the routes in the book jnst quoted as fiTnra- 
thngiar (R, in C. A., p. 6S7). The jouruoy here is said toocciip; tweuty- 
flvo dnys, hut th« stngoa mentioneil rtc aiiteen. The latter ia the nam- 
bor af itAff™ Bocordintt to the Chincae route in the Ru». in Central Aria, 
pji. 031 -S33, though Donoof the names coiTespond. It ia also the number 
o( ■tn^cOK Msigued b.v the Ttvjili itlnerar; &Dm SemipaJatiaak to Esshmir 
whioh ia girvn iu the appendix t« HeyendorTs Bokhara. The Oeorgian 
l{ii]iliaol Danibeg iras thirteen days from Tarkand to Akau. (Utyendor/, 
p|i. au u^. and 123 tqq.) 

< Aktu, a eity of Chinme Tartary, lying to the south of tLe glacier paaa 
uvoT Ihi) Uii»-T«ith (and aooenUog to the tablea in R. in C. A., p. 621) in 
long. TS^ (8'. lat. 4P 9'. Aoeordiog to that authority it contains twelve 
thixwand houam. though Tiinkowski states the number more probably at 
nit theuwutd. It alanda at the ooafluence of the Rivera Akan (whit«- 
iratiir) and Kitkshal : it ia tha contral point of the Chinese tnde, and frnui 
it ilifi'rgt' all the gK*t toiii<« toirarda China, the Hi couutry, and the 
lUllM iHtth itf Kwt«>ni and Vr«it(>ra Tnrkealan. The tract immediatelr 
•uituiindiAK U w OM of aoae hrtilitr, piadm^g a Tariety of &aita ii 
pltnl(nggn)f>«atuklM«taM.b«ndM<eMabMidea(too. Thereis 
<Wtflnn< of Jadw MtiolM.Mt4 efMahnwdend d««nkiB saddlery. . 
)>oan in tka CUiMM Hmah. kCcodKag to Dugntgnes, ai 
M(«ttdoM«lai]r a.c.nntlarUMHuidjrnaatT.aaharingaCr ~ 
DtyidgMa kMd D'AkviUs tUkk it U> be tk* .lane 
at «M tilM lh« M<M«ii<« of Ih* KvB(* of Kaohcu a>d Tar 
Xk«u ttM tilc^ fMK. raJIsd fy lb* CliiMve tks ■• Pkaa td Q 
.^TW thai K^n? r*>T( .^l th» T^iut Staut nBcd t^ 1 
lAtM* t\< KhIK >h<* w*l i4 ttts Vktoew Oe*«*s) (.1ot< 
aM.1 Twkwiaa. ^Km*. ml*. Jl..l<f. Hi. Ili>. 1J9; KadtMnU i, 
rwwitw* I. Mi II. t»tx i BiU" vtt. Ul. ««M. 

mother and showed her the royal rescript, which she looked 
on with great respect. To her he presented some little 
things such as women like, a looking glass, India muslin, 
and so forth. He was also sent for by theboy'a governor 
who conducted the administration. 

In this joumpy one of the pack horses belonging to onr 
merchant fell into a very rapid river. In fact having 
broken the rope with which its feet (I know not why) were 
tied, it made off and crossed to the other side of the river. 
Benedict feeling the toss a serious one invoked the name of 
Jesus ; and the horse of his own accord swam back to join 
the others, and our friend, delivered from the anticipated 
misfortune, returned thanks for the benefit vouchsafed. On 
this part of the journey thoy crossed the desert which is 
called Caracathai, or the Black Land of the Cathayans, 
because 'tis said that the people so called long sojoamed 

At this town (Acsu) they had to wait fifteen days for the 
arrival of the rest of the merchants. At lust they started, 
and tmvelled to Oitoorach Gazo, Casciani, Dbllai, 
Saregabedal, and UoAN, after which they got to Cucia,? 
another small town at which they halted a whole month to 

' Kara-Khitai has alreadj been spoken of and the origin of the name 
indicated in connection with an tixtraot fi-om Bubriquis (mtpra, pp. 176-8), 
and its people are mentioned by Piano Carpini undiir tlie translated name 
of Wigrt Kitai (pp. 750-1), Tbe extent of tie territory to whioli the name 
applied probably varied considerably, but tta nuclouH or axis rather BeemH 
to have been the ran^ of the Thian Shan. Here it ia applied to the 
desert eontb of that chain. The name has isoroe down to modem times, 
foi' we find it applied in ISlUKhara-Kitat) to a portion of the inhabitants 
of the Hi country (Ktapmlh, Mag. Ariatique I, 300). 

' None of these places except the last can be traced either in the 
Chinese rentes given in the BuinnTu in Central Alia, or in the route set 
down by Mir Izzet Ullah, Hoorcroft's explorer. K-ucha itself is a place of 
some importance, containing according to Timkowalci's information about 
one thousand hoasas, and considered by tbe Chinese to be tbe key of this 
part of Turkestan. The Chinese route says " a very large town, composed 
of one hundred thousand (!) boosea, occupied by Mnsolmans ; six hundred 
Chineae aoldiers." 


rest their cattle, for these were nearly done np, What with 
the difficulties of the road, the weight of the marble which 
they carried, and the scarcity of barley. At this place oar 
traveller was nsked by the priests why he did not fast dar- 
ing their appointed time of fasting. This was asked in 
order that he might offer a bribe for exemption, or that 
they might cxtntot a fine from him. And tliey were not far 
from laying violent hands on him, to force him into their 
place of worship. 

Departing hence, after twenty-five days' journey they 
came to the city of Cialib, a small place indeed, bnt 
sti-ongly fortified. This territory was governed by an 
illegitimate son of the King of Cascar, who, when he heard 
that our brother and his party professed a different faith, 
began to utter threats, sajnng that it was too audacious a 
proceeding that a man professing another creed should 
intrude into that country, and that he woald be qaite 
justified iu taking both his life and his property. But when 
ho had read the royal letters which Benedict carried he was 
pacified, and aft«r the latter had made him a present he 
became quite friendly. One night when this prince had 
been long engaged with the priests and doctors of his faith 
in one of their theological discussions, it suddenly came 
into his head lo send for Benedict, so he despatched a horse 
for him and desired him to come to the palace. The strange 
hour at whicli this message came, and the harsh reception 
which they had at first experienced from the Prince, left 
little doubt with Benedict's party that he was sent for to be 
put to death. So having torn himself from his Armenian 
comnide, not without tears, and earnestly begging him to 
do his uttermost, if he at least should escape the present 
danger, to carry the news of his fellow traveller's fate to the 
members of the Society, Benedict went off fuUy prepared to 
meet liis death. On getting to the juilace he was desired 
to engage in a discussion with the I>octors of the Mahomedan 



Law ; and inspired by Him who hag eaid. It shall be givon 
you. in that hour what ye nhall say, he maintain^ the trnth 
of the Christian religion by sut?li apt reasoning that the 
others were quite silenced and defeated. The Prince con- 
stantly fixed his attention on our brother, expressing ap- 
proval of everything that he said, and finally pronounced 
his conclusion that Christians were really Migrrmans, or 
True Believers, adding that his own ancestors had been 
professors of their faith.' After the discussion was over, 
Benedict was entertained at a sumptuous supper and desired 
to spend the night at the palace. And it waa late next day 
before he was allowed to leave, so that Isaac quite despaired 
of his return. Indeed Benedict found him weeping griev- 
onsly, for the long delay had fully convinced him of hia 
master's death. 

In this city^ they halted three whole months, for the chief 

' ThiB ia n curioiia trace of the ancient Chrifltianity of aeveral of tha 
Uoa^lian and Tnrkish tribes. 

' Bitter in one place Buggeets that Ciaiia of G)ofa may be Karaabahr, 
but in another he will liave it to be Futdui, a place lying among tha 
mountains of the Tliian-Sbaii, celebrated for iti beauty, its springa, 
meadows, and fine brecKoa, which was the encamping ground of Tiinur 
after his campaign of extermination against the Jatg. Rittar bad also 
previously identified Yuldns with the Cailac of Enbruquis. 

The notion that Yuldaz waa Cialia sopms to have been originated 
by Petia de la Croix in his translation of Sharifuddin's Li/e of Ttmur. 
D'Anville also has identified Cialis with the Cailac of Rubruqnis; both 
identifications seem to me to be wrong. 

Tulduz lies in the mountains, a long way to tho loft of the great route 
along the foot of the Thian Shan, which the caravan followed. Shah 
Eukh's ambasfiadors indeed pass Yiildui, on their way to Tnrfan and . 
Kamul. But it is clear that from Tashkand they took a route north of 
the Thian Shan, and were pasaing irom the north to the south of the 
mountains wheii they touched at Yulduz. 

The real position of Cialis must be either identical with Earashahr, aa 
D'Anville thought, or cloee to it. The chief places noted in nearly all' 
the routes and maps of this line of country are Akan, Kucha, Earaahahr, 
Turlan, Pijan, and Kamul. All these are mentioned by Goes except 
Karoshahr, and where Karashahr ahould come, he gives us Cialia. D'An- 
viUc, indued, observes that Scialik would mean, in Persian, the same aa 
Kantshnhr, or Black Town (?). But the name seems to be not SiyiilU, or 

•e for pnrptMes of bade frocB tfce 
kii ^iki of C^stmr and otker western regions. There «re 
naiij of tfceae wlko kare entaDgled thefBadres wiA wma 
and fUIdim, m> tint diey are afaBoat legatded as nattres, 
and w31 nerer go back. Tbe7 are nodi in the poaitioii </ 
the Fbrtogveae who are settled at Ajuc&o in the province 
of CaRtcn, bnt with this difference, tfaat the Porto^nese lirs 
ander tl^ir own laws aad have magististes of their own, 
wiMseas tbeae Uahomedaas are nnder the goTentment of 
the Chinese. Indeed ibey aie shnt ap ever; night within 
(he walls of their own quarter of the citj, and in other 
maUers are treated just like the BBtires, and are snbject in 
every thing to the Chinese magistrates. The law is that 
<ine who has sojoomed there for nine fears shall not be 
allowed to retnni to his coontry. 

To this citj aie wont to come those western merchants, 
who, uniier old arraogemenls between geven or eight king- 
doms in that qnarter and the Empire of China, have leave 
of admission every sixth year for two-and-seventy persons, 
who under pretence of being ambassadors go and oSer 
tribute to the Emperor. This tribute consists of that trans- 
lucent marble of which we spoke before, of small diamonds, 
ultramarine, and other sndi matters ; and the so-called 
a m b a ssadors go to the capital and return &om it at the 
poblic expense. The tribute is mer^ nominal, for no one 
pays more for the marble than the Emperor does, consider- 
ing it to be beneath his dignity to accept gifls from forei^ers 
without return. And indeed their entertainment from the 
Emperor is on so handsome a scale, that, taking an average 
uf the whole, there can be no doubt that every man pockets 
a piece of gold daily over and above all his necessary ex- 
penses.' This is the reason why this embassy is such an 

' Martini uid AItu^i Si»id«do *p««k in eamilar tiiiiii i uf llin iiiiiliwiiii. 
or pretended embaaEHw, tliBt (vine paia^ctHj to Peking 6om Centnl 
AsuL.5 71h) Utter mijs that tkeir iveeenl to the Emptor >lv»]n conaiBted 
■>r l.CMO .trrotoi. or 1.33a Ilolian ivud.U, ,.f jadv. .*•" Iwing <■{ lie *e<7 


camvaii and his party^ that it put an end to the friendly 
terms on which Benedict had hitherto stood with them. 

He WHS just preparing for his departure from the town of 
Cialis when the merchants of the preceding caravan arrived 
on their return from Cathay. They had made their way to 
ths capital of Cathay as usual by pretending to be aD 
embassy ; and as they had been quartered in Peking at the 
same hostelry with the members of our Society, they were 
able to give our brother moat authentic information about 
Father Matthew and hia companions, and in this way he 
learned to his astonishment that China was the Cathay that 
ho was in search of. 

These wei-e the same Saracens of whom it has been related 
in a preceding book, that they had dwelt for nearly three 
months under the same roof with oui' brethren. They were 
able to tell therefore how our brethren had made presents 
to the Emperor of sundry clocks, a clavichord, pictures, 
and other such matters from Europe. They related also how 
our brethren were treated with respect by all the dignitaries 
at the capital, and (mixing falsehood with truth) how thoy 
were often admitted to converse with the Emperor. They 
also described accurately enough the countenances of the 
members of the Society whom they had seen, but they 
could not tell their names, it being a Chinese custom to 
change the names of foreigners. They also produced the 
sti-angest corroboration of their story in a piece of paper on 
which something in the Portuguese language had been 
written by one of our brethren, and which the travellers had 
rescued from the sweepings of the rooms and preserved, 
in order that they might show it as a memorial to their 
friends at home, and tell them how the people that used this 
kind of writing had found their way to China. Our travellers 
were greatly refreshed with all this intelligence, and now 
they could no longer doubt that Cathay was but another 
name for the Chinese Empire, and that the capital which the 


; tor esa^kv thm A^ ^ 

o«»tBbBlk! SoheBowratetoFada-ll 

ium alham arm^ His leUa 

Cbiatmm,hut m he dai am haaw the Chan in i 

oar falfceis,Bar the put of tihe d^ i 

mJ- the letter ■»■ iMiiihImI 

bowerer be wrote a ■ o c o od tnie, aad ti 
Iff mane Hsbomedui mha hmi made hk eacape fraa the 
city, for Uwit' mhomredebm m ibongaiagomtor oemoMtginf 
Tnhbfmt thu pertaieetDD of tlie anth miUe a. In th» letter he 
espl&ined the origin Bud object of his ymtaajj and begged 
the bthen to devise seme wwj of reecaiBg him feoaa the 
priiKoa in whidi he foimd himwlf at Sogmb, ^id ef mtorin^ 
him to the deligbt of hddiiig interoomse «idi h» borthrea, 
in place of being peipetaslly in the cotii|MiiT of SeimoMis. 
He meotiotied also his wish to renun to India bv the sea 
route, as asaiiUy followed bjr the P oitugu& a e . 

The father* had long ere this beoi infonned hj the 
Bnperior'ii letten from India of Benedict's faanng started 
ou this expedition, and ererr jear they had I 
out for him, and asking diligently Ibr news of him whf 
one of those companies of menjiants on their pretended 
embassy arrived at court. Bnt tiU now they had nener 
been aUe to learn any news of him, whether from not know- 
ing the name onder which be was ttarelling, or becaose the 
ambassadors of the preceding Beasons really had never heard 
of him. 

The arrival of his letter therefore ga%'e great pleasure to 
the (athen at Peking. It was received laie in the year, in 
the middle of November, and they lost no time in arranging 
to send a member of the Society to gel him away some how 
or other and bring him to the capital. However on re-oon~ 
xiderstion they gave ap that scheme, for the bringing an- 

fortified town. Here they stopped another month to refresh 
thtimselves and their beaats, being glad to do so at a town 
which was atill within the limits of the kingdom of Cialis, 
where they had been ti-eated with so much civility. 

From Camul they came in nine days to the celebrateil 
northern wall oJ' China, reaching it at the place called 
CiTiAiCDON,' and there they had to wait twenty-five days for 
an answer from the Viceroy of the province. When they 
wore at last admitted within the wall, they reached, after 
one more day's travelling, the city of yuciEO, Here they 
heard much about Poking and other names with which they 
were acquainted, and here Benedict parted with his last 
lingering doubt as to the identity in all but name of Cathay 
and China. 

The country between Cialis and the Chinese frontier has 
an evil fame on account of its liability to Tartar raids, and 
therefore this part of the road is traversed by merchants 

who, after orosaing' the tndua, reach Uchh before advancing againat Mnl- 
tan, he notes " Outchak, riUe i I'orient de I'lndna on nord de Maltan," 
be is aimpl; putting forth his own erroaeous deduetioos &oid the t«xt 
Rd a piece of independent knoirliMlge. And when Pauthier quotea ^m 
the same author (Polo, p. 197), a profcaaed extract from the Tata of 
Chinghii as corroborating, nitli eitroocdisary minateneaB, certain state- 
ments of Marco, I suspect it will prove that Petia de la Croii bod merely 
borrowed the said statements &om Polo himself (H. de Timtr Bee, ii, 46). 
Shah Rukh's people reach Kara-Khoja in three days froin Turfiut ; in 
fourteen days more, Ata-Svfi ; and in two daye more, Eamul. 

* Kamil, Kamul, Komul, Hauii of the Chinoae, and formerly CjJled by 
them Igu, an ancient city of the Digur oountrj, has already been spoken 
of (mpra, p. 390). It is the point of departure for croaaing' the desert 
into China, and near it tbe road from China branches, one line ^ing 
north of the Thian Shan, by Barkid, the Untmtsi district, and Eurkara- 
aau to Hi ; the other south of tbe mountains, by whioh QoSx came, 
Kamul is now the seat of the great oommisaariat depflts of the Chinese 
for the garrisona of Turkestan, The climate of Kamul appears to be 
very mild, for oranges are grown there (R. in C. Aria, p. 129). 

I KifO-ya-Koan, or the "Jade Gate," of the Great Wall, the Jaigu- 
ouden of Mir Izxet UUah'a route, Jfoan, in Chineee, is a fort guarding 
a defile (BiMer, ii, 2ia ; ffOftiion, ii, 625 i J. R. As. Sac, vii. 283, leqq.). 
Tbia place ih probably the Karafil of Shah Kukli'i- people. 

M «A» ipnl, >-d HS^ b«-Ar ah^ed hf the 

Aran faw bM kne ml taf then klf dnd. whilst his 
tomtpamoam who wen aD ia ■d « M ce weot on in ignorance 
ofiAatimd ttpptitJ. Ea bc« it was not tiD ihe party 
MTmd at the Iwltii^ place tint Benedict was missed. His 
CDonade l««ac went back to seek him, but the search 
io tlia daric was to no purpose, tmtil at last he heard 
• Toioe ealUng on the same of Jesos. FoUowiDg the sound 
be foand Benedict, who had giren up all hope of being able 
to follow bin c^impanioDB, so that bis first words were, "What 
angul htm bronf^ht thee hither to rescue me from such a 
ptififht ?" Ily help of tlio Armenian be was enabled to reach 
tli(« hultiijff jiliico iitid there to recover from his 



How oiir Brotber Benedict died in the Chineso temtory, after the 
arriral of one of our memborB who had been sent from PdkiD to 

T0WAKD8 the northern extremity of the western frontier of 
China the celebrated wall comeB to an end, and there is a 
space of about two hundred miles through which the Tartara, 
prevented by the wall Irom penetrating the northern frontier, 
used to attempt incursiona into China, and indeed they do 
so still, but with leaa chance of ancceas. For two very 
strongly fortified citiea, garrisoned with select troops, have 
been eatabliahed on purpose to repel their attacks. These 
citiea are under a special Viceroy and other o£B.cials deriving 
their orders direct from the capital. In one of theae two 
citiea of the province of Scensi, which ia called Cancbo, is 
the reaidence of the Viceroy and other chief ofRcera ; the 
other city called Socied,' has a governor of its own, and is 
divided into two parts. In one of theae dwell the Chinese, 
whom the Mahomedana here call Cathayana, in the other the 

I Sucbeu, the Suociiir of Mai'co Polo, the Sutehu of Shah Bukh's oni- 
baBsy, and the Sowchict of Anthony Jenkinson'H reporia. The Peraian 
liQvoyH describe it (1419) as a great eity of a perfectly aquare form, with 
a strong fort. The boiare were fifty cabita in width, kept clean and 
watered. There were foar gates on each eide, and behind (overP) each 
gate WBB a pavilion of two etories with a roof en dot d'flna after the 
Chinese iaahjon. The Hti'eeta were paved with vitiifleJ brick, and there 
were miuiy great templaa. See aleo Hajji Mahomed in Notes to Prelim. 

Cancnt is the still eiiating Kanchet^, the Canpidon of Folo, the Camecu 
of Pegolotti, the HiwncJul or Kaiaji of Raahid and the Ambaasadors (see 
supra, p. 270). The latter say it was nine posts &om Snkchu, and wua 
the seat of the Dankthi or chief governor of the fi^ntier. They describe 
here a great temple, and one of those gigantic recumbent figurea, repre- 
senting Oautama in a atatc of Nirwana, which are atill to be seen iu 
Cojlon, Bnnna, and Siain. This one was fifty paces long, with fignrea of 
other divinities and BakihU ronnd about, oiecuted with great vivacity. 
There was also a singular pagoda of timber, fifteen stories high, which 
tiimed upon a pivot. Hero the envoys bad t<i deposit their baggage, and 
received thereiiltur all BUppliea li'om the Chiuoao gnvernuient. 



who have come for purposes of trade from the 
kingdom of Caacar and oiher western regions. There are 
many of these who have entangled themselves with wives 
and children, so that they are almost regarded as natives, 
and will never go back. They are nauch in the position of 
the Portuguese who are settled at Amacao in the province 
of Canton, but with this difference, that the Portuguese live 
under their own lawa and have magistrates of their own, 
whereas those Mahomedans are under the government of 
the Chinese. Indeed they are shut up every night within 
ihe walls of their own quarter of the city, and in other 
matters are treated just like the natives, and are subject in 
every thing to the Chinese magistrates. The law is that 
one who has sojourned there for nine years shall not be 
allowed to return to his country. 

To this city are wont to come those western merchants, 
who, under old an-angements between seven or eight king- 
doms in that quarter and the Empire of China, have leavo 
of admission every sixth year for two-and- seventy persona, 
who under pretence of being ambassadors go and offer 
tribute to the Emperoi'. This tribute consists of that trans- 
lucent marble of which we spoke before, of small diamonds, 
ultramarine, and other such matters ; and the ao-called 
ambassadors go to the capital and return from it at tho 
public expense. The tribute is merely nominal, for no one 
pays more for the marble than the Emporor does, consider- 
ing it to be beneath his dignity to accept gifts from foreigners 
without return. And indeed their entertainment from the 
Emperor is on so handsome a scale, that, taking an average 
of the whole, there can be no doubt that every man pockets 
a piece of gold daily over and above all bis necessary ex- 
penses.' This is the reason why this embassy is such an 

I Martini and Alvarez Semedo speak in similar terms of the embaasies, 

pretended emboBsieB, that came periodically to Pekitlff from Cential 

'l'hi> latter says that their preaont to tho Emporor always consisted 

arTobaa, or 1,333 Iliiliiin pounds, of jiido, 300 lnjiuy I'f tUd vury 

Til CATUAV. S83 

object of competition, and why the nomination to it is pur- 
chased with great presents from the chief of the csrevan, 
with whom it lies. When the time comes the soi-disant 
ambassadors forge public letters in the names of the kings 
whom they profess to represent, in which the Emperor of 
China is addressed in obsequious terms. The Chinese 
receive embassies of a similar character from various other 
kingdoms, such as Cochin-China, Sian, Leuchieu, Corea, 
and from some of the petty Tartar kings, the whole causing 
incredible charges on the pubhc treasury. The Chinese 
themselves are quite aware of the imposture, bnt they allow 
their Emperor to be befooled in this manner, as if to per- 
suade him that the whole world is tributary to the Chinese 
empire, the fact being rather that China pays tribute to 
those kingdoms. 

Our Benedict arrived at Socien in the end of the year 
1(305, and it shows how Divine Providence watched over 
him, that he came to the end of this enormous journey with 
ample means, and prosperous in every way. He had with 
him thirteen animals, five hired servants, two boys, whom 
he had bought as slaves, and that surpassing piece of jade j 
the total value of his property being reckoned at two thousand 
five hundred pieces of gold. Moreover both he and his com- 
panion Isaac were in perfect health and strength. 

At this city of Socieu he fell in with another party of 
iSaracens just returned from the capital, and these confirmed 
all that he had already been told about our fathers at Pekin, 
adding a good deal moi-e of an incredible and extravagant 

fineat rjiiftlity i 3-10 horaea ; 300 very BmnJl diamonclB ; about 100 poimda 
of fine ultmtnarine ; 600 knives; 600 files. This was the old prescriptive 
detail which nonu iai);ht cbiui^. The eost price of the whole might be 
some 7,000 ctowhh, but the Emperor's return present was worth 50,000 
(p. S7 ; see also narrative from Busbeck in Notee to Essaf at beginning 
of the volume). 

These shani embaaHieB, dia^uising trading eipoditiona, wero of old 
Btanding in Chiii;i. going bock at tuaat to the daya uf Ihe Sung lDmpui\ira. 




nature ; Tor example, that they bad from the Emperor a 
daily allowance of silver, not counted to them, bat measured 
oat in bulk ! So he now wrote to Father Matthew to inform 
him of his arriral. His letter was intrusted to certain 
Chinamen, bat as he did not know the Chinese names of 
our fathers, nor the part of the city in which they lived, 
and as the letter was addressed in European characters, the 
bearers were unable to discover our people. At E^ter 
however he wrote a second time, and this letter was taken 
by some Mtthomedau who had made his escape from the 
city, for they also are debarred from going out or coming in, 
without the permission of the authorities. In this letter be 
explained the origin and object of his journey, and begged 
the fathers to devise some way of rescuing him from the 
prison in which he found himself at Soeiou, and of restoring 
him to the delight of holding intercourse with his brethren, 
in place of being perpetually in the company of Saracens. 
He mentioned also his wish to return to India by the sea 
route, as usually followed by the Portuguese. 

The fathers had long ere this been informed by the 
Superior's letters from India of Benedict's having started 
on this expedition, and every year they had been looking 
out for him, and asking diligently for news of him whenever 
one of those companies of merchants on their pretended 
embassy arrived at court. But till now they had never 
been able to leam any news of him, whether from not know- 
ing the name under which he was travelling, or because the 
ambassadors of the preceding seasons really had never heard 
of him. 

The arrival of his letter therefore gave great pleasure to 
the fathers at Peking, It was received late in the year, in 
the middle of November, and they lost no time in arranging 
to send a member of the Society to get him away some how 
or other and bring him to the capital. However on re-con- 
sideration they gave up that scheme, for the bringing an- 


other foreigner into the business seemed likely to do 
harm rather than good. So they sent one of the pupils who 
had lately been selected to join the Society bnt had not yet 
entered on his noviciate. His name was John Ferdinand, 
he was a young man of singular prudence and virtue, and 
one whom it seemed safe to entrust with a business of this 
nature. One of the converts acquainted with that part of 
the country was sent in company with him. His instruc- 
tions were to use alt possible means to get away Benedict 
and his party to the capital, but if he should find it absolutely 
impossible either to get leave from the officials or to evade 
their vigilance, he was to stop with our brother, and send 
back word to the members of the Society. In that case it 
was hoped that by help of friends at Court, means would be 
found to get him on from the frontier. 

A journey of this nature might seem unseasonable enough 
at a time of the year when winter is at the height of severity 
in those re^ons ; and the town at which Benedict had been 
detained was nearly four months journey from Peking. But 
Father Matthew thought no further delay should be risked, 
lest the great inteiTal that had elapsed should lead Benedict 
to doubtwhetherwereallybadmembers stationed at Peking. 
And he judged well, for if the journey had been delayed but 
a few days longer the messengers would not have foimd 
Benedict among the living. They carried him a letter from 
Fathew Matthew, giving counsel as to the safest manner of 
making the journey, and two other members of the Society 
also wrote to him, giving full details about our affairs in 
that capital, a subject on which he was most eager for in- 

Our Benedict in the meantime, during his detention at 
that city, endured more annoyance from the Mahomedans 
than had befallen him during the whole course of his journey. 
Also, on account of the high price of food in the place, he 
was obliged to dispiisc of his large piece of judo for little 

TO L'ATHAV, ' 0»7 

of Nunc dltniitiB. For now il seemeil to him that indeed his 
commisHion was accompliahed, and his pilgrimage at an end. 
He then read the letters, and all that night kept them near his 
heart. The worda that were spoken, the questions that were 
asked may be more easily conjectured than detailed. John 
Ferdinand did his beat to nurse him, hoping that with re- 
covered strength he might yet be able to undertake the 
journey to Peking. But strength there was none ; as indeed 
physician there was none, nor proper medicines ; nor was 
there anything to do him good in his illness, unless it were 
some European dishes which John Ferdinand cooked for him. 
And thus, eleven days after the latter's arrival, Benedict 
breathed his last ; not without some suspicion of his having 
been poisoned by the Mahomedans. 

These latter had fellows always on the watch, in order to 
pounce upon whatever the dead man might leave. This they 
did in the most brutal manner ; but no part of the loss which 
they caused was so much to be deplored as the destruction 
of the journal of his travels, which he had kept with great 
minuteness. This was a thing the Mahomedans fell on with 
open jawa I I'or the book also contained acknowledgments 
of debt which might have been used to compel many of them 
to repay the suras which they had shamelessly extracted from 
him. They wished to bury the body after their Mahomedan 
ritual, but Ferdinand succeeded in shutting out their impor- 
tunate priests, and buried him in a decent locality where it 
would be practicable to find the body again. And those 
two, the Ai-monian and John Ferdinand, having no service- 
books, devoutly recited the rosary as they followed his bier. 
It seems right to add a few words in comraomoration of a 
L character so worthy. Benedict Goes, a native of Portugal, 
I a man of high spirit and acute intellect, on his first entrance 
into the society was sent as a volunteer to join the mission 
in the Mogul Empire. For many years he gave most active 
aid to that mission, instructing Mahomedans, Hindus, and 


converts as far aa hie own acquirements went, and gaming 
the love of all as he did bo. Yet he was not a priest ; but 
he was held in high esteem Tor his great good sense and 
other valuable (jualities natural and acqnired. Hence also 
he was admitted to the intimate friendship of the Mogul 
Sovereign, and when this prince waa despatching an embassy 
to Goa, along with his own envoy he sent Benedict also in 
the same character. 

This king indeed entertained a project for the conquest of 
(Portuguese) India, and it may be ascribed to Benedict's 
pnidencc that war with so powerful a monart-h waa averted. 

A short time before his death he wrote to warn our mem- 
bers at Peking never to put faith in Mahomedans, aud also in 
deprecation of any future attempts to travel by the route 
which he had followed, as being both dangerous and useless. 
A circumstance is well-known in our Society which manifests 
the holy character of the man. Remarking how many years 
had past without the opportunity of confession and absolu- 
tion, "I am dying," he said, "without this consolation, and 
yet how great is God'a goodness ! For He does not allow 
my conscience to be disturbed with anything of moment in 
the review of my past life !" 

A truly abominable custom prevailed among those mer- 
chants, that the property of anyone dying on the way should 
be divided among the rest of the company. On this account 
they laid hold of Isaac the companion of Benedict, and tied 
him up, threatening him with death onless he would call 
upon the name of Mahomed. Ferdinand, however, sent a 
memorial to the Viceroy at Canceu claiming Isaac's libera- 
tion. The Viceroy passed his orders on the petition, desiring 
the Governor of Socieu to decide according to right and jus- 
tice, and to restore the youth's uncle to him with the pro- 
perty of the deceased. At tirst the governor was favourable 
to Ferdinand, but when some forty of the Saracens joined 
together tn bribe him, hv then rhivateued to Hog Fei-dinand, 

TO I'ATFAY. 58ft 

and kept him three days in prison. The latter did not, how- 
ever, a bit the more desist from his undertaking, but when 
he ran short of money to prosecute his suit, he sold all the 
clothes that he conld do without to raise a small sum. Ho 
was detained for five months about this business, and yet 
had no means of communicating with the Armenian, from 
his ignorance of Persian ; the other being equally unable to 
speak either Portuguese or Latin. When they were called 
before the Court, Ferdinand recited the Lord's Prayer, 
whilst Isaac repeated the name of Benedict Goes with a few 
words of Portuguese j and as nobody understood a word of 
what either of them said, the judge gave it as his opinion 
that they were talking iu the Canton dialect, and understood 
each other perfectly ! Latterly, however, Ferdinand learned 
in about two mouths to talk Persian, and so was able to 
converse with the Armenian. 

Sometimes the Mahoraedans raised objections from the 
extreme discrepancy of their physiognomies, which they 
said evidently betrayed one to be a Saracen and the other a 
Chinaman. But Ferdinand answered that his mother had been 
Chinese, and that he took the character of his features after 
her. Nothing, however, moved the judge so much as what 
occurred one day when Ferdinand declared before the Court 
that Isaac was heartily opposed to the Mahomedan religion, 
and that in any case if he reaUy did belong to that faith he 
would never touch pork ; and taking a piece of pork out of 
his sleeve he offered it to Isaac, and both of them began to 
eat it, to the intense disgust of the Mahomedans and to the 
amusement of the other spectators. Indeed when the 
Saracens saw this they gave up the case as hopeless, and 
went out of court, spitting at Isaac as they went, and saying 
that he had been deluded by that Chinese impostor. For it 
was true that on the whole journey neither Isaac nor Benedict 
had ever eaten pork, in order not to give offence to the 
Mahomedans ; or if they ever did so, at least it was in 


prirHte. These circumstances moved the judge to decide in 
Ferdinand's favour, and to order all tliat Benedict had left 
to be reatored to him. Nothing was found, however, except 
tho pieces of jade which had been buried. From the pro- 
ceeds of these debts were paid, and means furnished for the 
jonmey to Peking. But still there was not enough to cover 
the great expense of all those months of detention, so thejr 
had to borrow twenty pieces of gold on the secnrity of some 
bits of jade which still remained. At last they both got to 
the brethren at Peking, to whom the whole affair had caused 
a good deal of anxiety. They had now cause for both grief 
and joy; Benedict's loss was to be mourned, and the Armenian 
to be congratulated on his escape. Him they received as if 
he had been one of our own body, for Benedict had spoken in 
strong terms of the faithful help which he had rendered 
throughout the journey. 

Ferdinand brought to Peking a cross elegantly painted on 
gilt paper, the only one that Benedict had ventured to carry 
among those Maliomedans, and also the three rescripts of the 
three kings, viz., of Cascar, Quoten, and Cialis, all which are 
now preserved as memorials in our house at Peking. There 
also are preserved the letters patent of Father Jerome Xavier, 
with other letters of his which had arrived during the jour- 
ney, and letters hkewise from Alexius Menezes, archbishop 
of Gob, and from the said Jerome, to the members of the 
society at Peking, in which they expressed themselves as 
feeling satisfied that Cathay could not be a long way from 
Poking, and that probably the two kingdoms had & common 

Isaac the Armenian stopped a month at Peking, and during 
that time he communicated to Father Matthew from his own 
recollection, assisted by some papers of Benedict's, all that 
we have related in these three chapters. He was then 
despatched to Macao by the road which our people are in the 
habit of using, and was there moat kindly received by the 


Society and its friends. Having then sailed on his way back 
to India, the ship was taken by pirates in the Straits of 
SiNCAPURA, and the Armenian was plundered of all his trifling 
possessions and reduced to a wretched state of bondage. He 
was ransomed, however, by the Portuguese of Malacca, and 
went on to (Western) India. Hearing there of his wife^s 
death, he proceeded no further towards the Moguls terri- 
tories, but settled at a certain town of the East Indies 
called CiAUL, where he still survives at the date when this 
is written.^ 

' Jarric's statement about Isaac is somewhat different. According to 
that writer ho was taken by a Dutch ship on his way to Malacca. The 
captain was so struck by his history that ho caused it all to be written 
down, and sent him to Malacca. Thence the fathers of the society sent 
him on to Cochin and Goa, where he fell in with Father Pinner (who had 
been stationed at Lahore when Gods started on his journey). The Pro- 
vincial of India gave Isaac one hundred pardaos, and he went with 
Pinner to Cambay (p. 226). 

Chawul (Ciaul) is a port of the Konkan about thirty-five miles south of 
Bombay, which was an important place of trade in the sixteenth century. 

582 JoiiiiNEV oy bbmjsuh;! uoiie 

Muiiomedans who have come for purposes of trade from the 
kingdom of Caacar and other western regions. There are 
many of these who have entangled themselves with wires 
and children, so that they are almost regarded as natives, 
and will never go back. They are much in the position of 
the Portuguese who are settled at Amacao in the province 
of Canton, but ivith this difference, tliat the Portuguese live 
under their own laws and have magistrates of their own, 
whereas these Mahomedans are under the government of 
the Chinese. Indeed tbey are shut up every night within 
the walls of their own quarter of the city, and in other 
matters are treated just like the natives, and are subject io 
every thing to the Chinese magistrates. The law is that 
one who has sojourned there for nine years shall not be 
allowed to return to his country. 

To this city are wont to come those western merchants, 
who, under old arrangements between seven or eight king- 
doms in that quarter and the Empire of China, have leave 
of admission every sixth year for two -and- seventy persons, 
who under pretence of being ambassadors go and offer 
tribute to the Emperor. This tribute consists of that trans- 
lucent mai'blo of which we spoke before, of small diamonds, 
ultramarine, and other such matters ; and the so-called 
ambassadors go to the capital and return from it at the 
public expense. The tribute is merely nominal, for no one 
pays more for the marble than the Emperor does, consider- 
ing it to be beneath his dignity to accept gifts from foreigners 
without return. And indeed their entertainment from the 
Emperor is on so handsome a scale, that, taking au average 
of the whole, there can be no donht that every man pockets 
a piece of gold daily over and above all his necessary ex- 
penses.' This is the reason why this embassy is such an 

I Hartini and Alvarez Semedo speak in similar termB of the embaasiea, 
or pretended embaasiea, tbat came periodically to Peking from Central 
Asia.f The Inttec says tliat tkeir present to the Emperor alwnya consisted 
■•I' 1.000 nrru'xiM, or 1,333 ItiilJiUi iHiiiuiL'. ^.f jiuli-, ItOO buiiij; i.f tlio vury 

TO CiTHAV. 683 

object of competition, and why the nomination to it is pur- 
chased with great presents from the chief of the caravan, 
with whom it lies. When the time comes the soi-dinant 
ambassadors forge public letters in the names of the kings 
whom they profess to represent, in which the Emperor of 
China i^ addressed in obsequious terms. The Chinese 
receive embassies of a similar character from varions other 
kingdoms, such as Cochin-China, Sian, Leuchien, Corea, 
and from some of the petty Tartar kings, the whole causing 
incredible charges on the public treasury. The Chinese 
themselves are quite aware of the imposture, but they allow 
their Emperor to be befooled in this manner, as if to per- 
suade him that the whole world is tributary to the Chinese 
empire, the fact being rather that China pays tribute to 
those kingdoms. 

Our Benedict airived at Socieu in the end of the year 
] (i05, and it shows how Divine Providence watched over 
him, that he camo to the end of this enormous journey with 
ample means, and prosperous in every way. He had with 
him thirteen animals, five hired servants, two boys, whom 
he had bought as slaves, and that sui-passing piece of jade ; 
the total value ofhis property being reckoned at two thousand 
five hundred pieces of gold. Moreover both he and hia com- 
panion Isaac were in perfect health and strength. 

At this city of Socieu he fell in with another party of 
Saracens just returned from the capital, and these confirmed 
all that he had already been told about our fathers at Pekin, 
adding a good deal more of an incredible and extravagant 

finest quality; 340 horeefl ; 300 very amaU diamondB; about 100 pounds 
ol fine ultrainarine ; tiOO knivas ; 600 iilea. Itiis was the old preBcriptive 
detail which doijo mi^Iit change. The coat price of the whole might be 
80me 7,000 crowng, but tbe Emperor's return present was trortb 50,000 
(p. 27; Bee olxo narrative Irom Bnsbeak in Notes to Easaj' at begianiiig' 
□rtbe volume). 

These aham embasHies, diaguiaing trading eipoditioue, were of old 
Bliuiding in China, going buck ut luaat to the daya of iLc tiling Uuipurors. 


S. PiLS« of Fa&wik, from the town of thoit name, once & place of conae- 
• 'iii^Doe (Bee p. 558), descends upon B^gu beloDging to Andeiab, appa- 
rently to the iteet of Khinjnii. Baber eays tbis pus is a verj- dMoult 
• ine, and that between Parwan and the great eat there are seven minor 
pasBea called the Haft Bacha (Seven jonng ones). 

V. Paaa of Salci^ko (Sir-i-lun^ of Wood). This Htarts from Tutaa 
Dara, eii milee north-woHt of Cbarekai, and desoenda, like the la«t, 
aomewkere not fiu- from Khinjim. 


10. Kdshan, This is the pass which leads close under the great peak 
Hpeciatly knowo as Hindu Kiiak. It starts Crom a point in the Qhorband 
vuUe; about ten milea bom Tutan Dara. Koahan lies some miles up the 
pass. It descends upon Ehinjan like the two last, which it probahl; 
reueives before reaching that place. 

11. OwALiAN, This leaves the valley some twenty milos from Tutan 
Dara. It descends upon Qoian on the Andemh river. 

12. GwAZiAB. This pass leaves the valley near the ruins of the old 
town of Ohorband, some twenty-fiiur and a half miles from Tutan Dora. 
It taods to Eilagai, a small town on the road from Khinjan to Baghlan 
^nd Kunduz. 

13. Chak Dahta. This pass leaves the valley at aboat tweoty-nins 
luilea &om Tutan Dara, and descends upon Ghori, a considerable town. 
It ia poasable for Kafilas of every description. 

From this the road goes on along the valley of Ghorband, throning off 
"lie or two minor paases, and eventually joins the Hojiyak road at the 
ruins of Zohak near Bomian. 

It. The Puss of Hajjivak ur Bauiian. 

15. Shibetu. 

16. AfinaBEB, for which my only authority is the Ayin Akbari as 
already quoted. These two last are beyond the hmita to which the ntuuo 
Hindu Kush is applied. 

Of these Passes Bajjiyak was that oroaaed on hia celebrated journey by 
Bumea, the first European traveller who saw and deaoribed the great rock 
idols of Bamian ; it waa alao that crossed by Wood on hia journey north- 
ward to the Oms. It was probably by thia pass that Chinghii crosEed, 
tor the siege of Bamian waa one of the events of his campaign in these 
regions; and by itHiwen Thsang travelled to India. 

The Pass of Chardarya was crossed by Aumngzib. The Posh of Solutang 
woa attempted by Capt. Wof>d,' but unauocesafnlly, owing to the lateness 


of the season. Timur on bis expedition into India crossed the Hindu 
Kush by the Pass of Tiil, and returned by that of Shibrtu. The Ehawak 
Pass was crossed by Wood and Lord on their return from the Oxus. By 
this pass or one of its branches Ibn Batuta had crossed five hundred years 
before ;^ and we have already seen reason to believe that one of the passes 
into the Panjshir Valley was crossed by Friar Odoric on his return to 
Europe.^ Hiwen Thsang also returned by Pang^hir and Anderab on his 
way to China. 

I have already observed that the mention by Go6s of Parwan as occur- 
ring just before the entrance of their Eafila to the mountains involves 
strong probability that he crossed by the pass taking its name from that 

* See p. 403 ante. Ibn Batuta after passing Eunduz and Baohlan 
(see map) arrived at Andar (Andabab), where he says a city formerly 
existed which had altogether disappeared. Starting for the Hindu Kush 
(the name which he uses) they met with hot springs^ in which he washed, 
and lost the skin of his face in consequence. These were no doubt the hot 
springs of Sibab, near where the Passes of Till and Khawak diverge in 
the Upper Valley of Anderab, and which are mentioned by Wood as 
having temperatures of 108** and 124° Fahr. (Journey, p. 413). The Moor 
next mentions halting in a place called Banjhir (Panjshib) where there 
had been formerly a fine city on a considerable river descending from the 
mountains of Badakshan. All the country had been ruined by Chinghiz 
and had never recovered; He then arrived at the mountain of Pashai 
{stipra, p. 403). The Pashais are mentioned repeatedly by Leech as one 
of the most numerous tribes in the Panjshir valley and adjoining passes. 
These, I gather, are now Mahomedans, but as the name is mentioned also 
by Elphinstone as that of one of the Kafir tribes, no doubt part of them 
in the mountains have retained their heathenism and independence. He 
then reaches Parwan and Charkh (Chabekab, which Leech also calls 
Charhi). It will be seen that these data leave nothing ambiguous in the 
traveller's route excepting the short alternative of the Khawak and Tiil 
routes over the actual ridge of the Hindu Kush (see Ihn Bat., iii, 82-88). 

Edrisi speaks of the people of the towns of Banjhir and Hariana, on the 
Banjhir (Panjshir Eiver) as employed in mining silver, and those of the 
latter as notorious "for the violence and wickedness of their character." 
The position of this town of Panjshir does not seem to be known now, 
(though Mahomedan coins exist struck at that place in the ninth century) 
but the valley has retained its character to this day. " This fair scene," 
says Wood, ** is chiefly peopled by robbers, whose lawless lives and never- 
ending feuds render it an unfit abode for honest men." Hariana is 
perhaps Pabyan, at which there are silver mines marked in Wood's sur- 
vey. Edrisi also speaks of Andarab as a town surrounded by gardens, 
orchards, and vineyards, where they stored the silver from Panjshir and 
Hariana (i, 476, aeq.). 

- Supra, p. 167. 


town. One of the minor difficulties of the narrative, however, is the 
application of the name Aingharan to the district which he reached after 
crossing the mountains. Now I find from Wood's survey, as embodied in 
J. Walker's map, that the name Dara-uAingharan is applied to two of the 
valleys in the vicinity of Bamian. It is a possible explanation, therefore, 
that the Kafila might from Farwan have struck up the Ghorband valley 
and crossed the Hajjiyak Pass. This circuitous route would also be more 
consistent with the great length of time assigned to the journey, and 
with the identification of Khulum as the Calcia of our traveller. None 
of these grounds, however, are stable enough to build upon with much 

> I have had greatly to regret in the preparation of this note the want 
of access to the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, which contains 
a variety of valuable papers bearing on the subject. 





1. !>€ Trapesondd et Armenid Majori} 

Licet alia multa et varia de ritibus et conditionibus hujus mundi 
a multis enarrentur, tamen est sciendum quod ego frater Odoricus de 
Foro Julio,^ Tolens transfretare et ad partes infidelium volens ire ut 
fructus aliquos lucri facerem animarum,' multa magna et mirabilia 
audivi^ atque vidi qu86 possum veraciter enarrare.^ Nam prime* tran- 
siens Mare Majus, me' transtuli Trapesondam, qu89 Pontus antiquitus 
vocabatur. Hsec terra valde est bene situata ; ipsa enim est scala^ 

* These head in gs have been interpolated by the editor as before stated. 
(St»e Biogr. and Introd. Notices.) 

^ Hak. de portii Vahonia ; Jdun. de portu Nahomonis. 

3 Bol. Et hoc de licentia prselatorum meorum qui hoc concedere possnnt 
secundum regulse nostrse instituta. 

^ Bol. a fide digois. 

^ Far. then has : Praesens itaque opusculum in capitula dividens de mnltis 
gestis qnee vidi et audivi in oriente septentrione et meridie, intendo aliqua 
sub brevi compendio enarrare, nee intendo de singulis reddere rationem, 
multa nihilominns primitus mittens qnee apud multos incredibilia viderentur. 
Neque enim ego ilia crederem nisi propriis auribus audivissem aut ba)0 talia 
rt'Hpexissem. Quatuordecim annis cum dimidio in babitu almi confessoris 
Christ! Francisci in hujusmodi partibus sum moratus. Ad petitionem reve- 
reudi fratris Guidoti tunc prsesens provincialis ministri proviuciae sanoti 
Antonii hoc breve opusculum in Padui compilavi. Siquid igitur stndioso 
lectori in hooopusculo visum fuerit divine bonitati et non mese imperitise im- 
pntetur. Siquid autem nimis incredibile vel a veritate devium fuerit visum 
diligentis lectoris caritas, non mordax insultus aut latrans dente oanino, corri- 
gAt et emendet 

^ Far. Primo itaque de Yenetiis cum galeis recedens. 

7 Hak, et Mus, de Pera juxta Gonstantinopolim. 

« Bol, schola(!) 


t PosKTum, Medorum c 

portwa emmn*.- nwe T e cwfci iti in Anneniam Mtjorem, a 

eiritotcH ^«B VMUar Aritintt> : hcv cirilu muUam «nt bona «t mid- 
lastk BttlM UapM* JMt tnawcto. et kdbuc esset nisi fuisaent Tvttd 
•t Eunow, ^vi MM wdnM* dmtniieraot. Nam ipn nialtun 
inoBdat f*m cmw «« aJtii TwMalibos multrs pneterquam' lino ct 
fructibos. bl» «i*ita^ miUtmK «« bwida. De ipsa enim diciini 
g«ntM qtMd allitr «« l«i^ f<M» iMdie babitetur ia nundo.* H»e 
aatem multwn hahM b«iNU»a«U,ciajin ratio est hrec ut Tidetur, Nam 
TCM» kanuB aq^tfua ««iri vidMlvt K s^turire a flumiae Eufrate qitcd 
IMT ttBMB diMut dittaM ab b** cirilato Ubitur iodo. Haw autem 
dvite Mt Tk ■ tJk, MWili navria. De tue recedens ivi &d quemdant 
VMBliH osi voMtar SwraMmU.** Ir Im« contnU eit mens ille" in quo 
MtarehkHMB. In^aoHUhMttruoMMlisMm ci mea sociecaBmepneibi- 
lait *oltiUMt ; vt^MmqlVWUMMteaToluerim Mmen gem iUiui coo- 
tiate dmUt q«M Bvlhu IwqwM potmu ascendere ilium mont«in. 
Kmb hoe tMMkt at tioMr Ow ahiaiBo noo placere. 

ft. tie tifimOm nMrw « Soldenid. 
D« bta coDtcata reMdtn* Ma tnuutuli Thauris, civitatera magnam 
ct regalem qu« Sum*" anltqailiM dic«b)Unr. In isia ut dicitur est Arbor 
Sicca, in una moschela el" in una eccluia Sanaceuonim : hsc ciiitaa 
nobilior est el meiior pro mcrv-imnoiiji quam klia aliqua civitas qnc 
hodie sit in niuodo. Nam non rrp«ritUT hodie aliquid in mundo quod 
sit comestibile" rel quod tit alicujut memmonii, cujus illic magna copia 

I Fm. Vt. qnoddBin vaUe pnlchnmi. 

' Hiiioopied prohablif fnr rent u in most otben. Fen. hoi bominem... 
perdi c«s. . . srqncbui mr, 

• Vrn. Zuirgai [''- Z«iip»: Far. Taxtrtnx: Hal. Zaa«na; Bal. Tegana: 
Ham. Zinga. Th/ Inn irflrfiHiJ dpiihltn$ /^(nuia. 

' yen. la cnim p^i qui Utii »)iul«lnni qood inciinl Quininqns rait sal- 
ran nse uile omnia opiia «$t nl lpn«t ulholicam fidem, etc. 

' r^n. Arziron; Vt. Aeeraa; Far. Ariini; Hak. Ataran ; Jfu. Aroiroaj 
BoJ. Caripon ; ilitat. Acron. 

■ Hak. pro magiii pan«. Far. omiU mnllnm. 

^ Far. primitos intUoA of prMfrquam. 

" Vta. ninn. ' R'' allior riiriias totins nniTFtn. 

w Vfn. Sobissacelo : rt.SollisacQlo: For. Bnbis (>Sabia) ^^achilo; Bak.m 
in Vi^.: Jfiu. ditto; Sol. Sarbi-^arbolo; Ran. SoUifacnlo; Jf an'. Sobinsanallo. 

II BaiK. il moDt* Gortlico. 

o flol.SnorH. Bobl Suci.-.qnal fa •otto il dominindi Assntro Re. SoVtm, 
u i^iin ihouldbe idebl,iu in Km., ITw.and Far. Hai-vtdBol.imii about 



HDD habeatur. In tantum aiitem eat nobilis ciritas ilia, ijuod est qnui 
iDCredibile de hiie qus illic haiieotur, hsc enim multum lieQe est posita 
atijue sita. Nam <)uasi totus mundus pro mercimoniis Uli correepondet 
cirit.ati.' De hac volunt dicere ChrigtiaDl quod ex ista civitaCo plura 
recipit impeniCor ille quam rex Francis) babcat dc toto auo regno. 
Penes banc civitatem est unus mons salinus magnam copium salis loti 
exhibens ciritati. De hoc sale unusquUque accipit tantum quantum 
vult et petit et nicbil alicul solvendo. In hac civitate multi Christiani 
cujuslibet ^nerationis' commorantur, quibus ipei t^arraceni in omni- 
bus dominantur, multa autsm alia sunt in ista civitate quis nimis longum 
foret aliis enarrare. Ab bac civitate Thauiis recedens ivi per decern' 
dietas ad quamdam civitatem que Tocatur Soidouia.' In liac civitate 
tempore eetivo moratur imperator Persanin. In ;cme auCem. vadit ad 

Juamdam contratam> que est super mare quod rocatur mare Bachuc* 
Ixc civitas magna terra est et Trigida, in se habeos bonaa aquas, ad 
quam ciritatetn portnntur multa et magna mercimonia, qute illie Ten- 

3. Be Civitate liagorum; De Slafi Jtwiom, et TerrA Hut. 

De hac civitate recedeos cum caravnnis et' cum quadam societate 
ivi versus Indiam Superiorem, ad quam dum sic irem per multas dietas 
applicui ad unam civilatem triuui magonim que vocatur Cas»an,' civi- 
tateni regalem et magni honoris; Terumptamen Tartar! earn multum 
deslruierunt, hec civitas multum habundat pane et vino et multis aliis 
bonis. Ab hac civitate usque Iherusalem quo magi iverunt nun virtuie 
humana sed virtute divlna et miraculaso cum sic cito iverint, sunt hene 
quinquaginta dietn. Multa autcm alia sunt in hac civitate qua) non 
multum eipedit enarrare.' Inde recedens ivi ad quamdam civitatem 

est valde periculosum et mirabile. In hac civitate Best est copla 
maxima victualium et omnium aliorum bonorum quic jam dici possfut ; 
polisgitne autem ficuum illic capia maxima reperitur ; uvte autem stccee 
et virides ut herba, et multum minutro iliic reperiuntnr uberius el abun- 
dantiua quam in aliqua parte mundi. Uecc est tertia melior" civitas quam 
Pcrsarum imperator possideat in toto suo regno, De hac dicunt t^arrn- 
eeni quod in ea nullus Christiaiius ultra annum vivere umquam valet," 
Muita autem alia illic habentur. Ab hac reecdens et traneiens per 
multas civitates et terras ivi ad quamdam civitatem nomine Conium,'' 

' Hak. and Idui. ituUad of Itu latt Ihrre tpfirdi L-onfluere pDlral. 

■ Far. hBH 11. 

' f(„Hak. Soldania; Far.Solonia; BoI.Soldoiioa; Jl/'.rc, Soldonia. 

' Bot. atom hat qnte vocaiur Axum. 

< I'tn. Bachac; ['I. «tid Ham. Bacnii ; Far. Alaffhuo; Hat. and ilut. 
Bnkiic ; Sol. Abacut, and appllet tht nrxt lenltnct lo thf eilg on that tri ; 
h(ec niftRna estet calirfa; Marc. Buriich. 

" i'ftuuW be id est ss in Ven., who hai hBrsvani'!. Bak. cum quadam 

' Fen. Cassamj Fur. Cisim; BaK.Mai. Casaan; Bal. Casm. 

" Hot, qun eeribere Don oaravi. Hak. multa mirabilia qate psrlranseo. 

'0 Far. tese, perhapi lead : Ven., Hak., JHut. and BoL Gent. 

" BoL de melioribuB limply. 

1 «B.. rmnam; in For. Come- 

■ I iij* ^ Mi^fefci 

s Fa. «m^Bm.w>J^~ ■■&.>>. XaCtevCr: Ksc^kBa 

^iM iFf. ait.*!! 11 - il^lM 

■ CWUa 


culi bomini exeunt coram et descenduiit usque &d dimiiiiu 

Ideo que gens itliua coQtralm si TirereToluuc nilii fauiuat unau 

qua ilia UDgunt. Sam aliter homiuea penitus morercntur, et dum sic 

lutit uncta in quibuiidtim Mcculis ilU ponunC circumcira so cingentes. 

In hac coDtrata homineB utuutur navigio quod vocattir laaae siccum 
lolem spngo.' In unum Utorum oavigiorum ego a^cendi in quo oullum 
ferrum potui in aliquo- leperire. In quod dum sic ascendisscm Id zzviii' 
dietiB me transCuli usque nd Tanam' in qua pro Me CliriBti gloriosum 
niBTtirium p&ssi fueruuc qiialuor uoatri fmtles miuores : biec terra mul- 
tum bene est situata. In ea magna copia panis ct vini el arborum 
reperitur. Hsec terra antiquitua fuiC Talde magu&. Nam ipsa fuiC terra 
regis Fori,' qui cum rege Aleiandro pnolium msximun commiBit :* 
bujustorrffi populua ydolatrat. Namadorant ignam, serpen tern otarbores. 
Hanc terram regiint Sarraceui qui earn csperunt fiolenter, uunc sub- 
Jscentea Daldlii.' In bac reperiuntur diversa genera bestiarum. Id qua 
potissims sunt leones nigri in maxima quautitate. Hunt autem sj^mio: 
et gattima;rmones,' et noclusa" ita magofe sicuC habentur hie columbie. 
Hi etiam mures aunt ita mugDi sicut bic sunt canes scherpi.'° Ideoque 
iUie canes capiuat mures (quia) muriligm aeu katti ad hoc nihil Talent." 
In bac contrala quill bet homo ante domum suam babet unum'pedom 
faxiolorum"ita magnum sicut bicunaeasetcolumpna; hie pes faxiolorum 
minime desiccatur dum modo sibi exhibeatur aqua, et miiltie atiie novi' 
tatoe »uut illic quas multum pulcbrum esseC audire. In hac contrata 
qute Tana nunc upatur, ut jam dictum est, passisuntgtoriosum murtirium 
quatuur fratres minores pro fide Cbrlsti quod par buuc modum habelur, 

6. Martyrium iv. Fratrum in eivitaie Tana. 

Dum predict! fratres essent in Ormes, passi" fuerunt cuni una navi 
ut irent Polumbum ;" in qua dum essent portati fuerunt malo suo Telle," 

' Should be solum sulo spago at in Mia. llak, bai autum spartu ; Ven. 
iiutum solum 8pe>|io; Bol. hai navigia quud TucHtor lusiiHratam. an ubeiaiti 
mitrtailing. Marc, kai vase /or tin name 0/ the ikippirtg. 

' Should bt aliijua parte oi in itui. Bui. hat in quu oullam Frairnm pul.ui 
reperirt, an abmrd miirtadine. 

' Ram. Tint) giomi. 

' Thlt it Caviira in Ifte trantcript mndt /or me, probably a mitreadinn. 
Tea. hat Taasm, ihe othert Tbsuam or Diana, except Bol. which has 
Cliansam; 1/arc. Taos, ituin. T ban a. 

' Sot. hat PoDli vel Parti. 

* dfui. sieut in vil4 ejusdem Alexandri plenius inveoitur. 

' Hak, Am regis DdMilo: all have thh namt nearly the lume, 

' The Italian Marc, hat cooevegjfie, screecti owls, bul batt are meant. 

* Bot, oalhi magni. 

'" Far.oaly hai porei parvi ; Pen. fuuaarpi siTecsDes; Ilak. nieuLHUnl liliic 
NDi^pi : Mm. scaipi id esc canes Lales ; Bol. Hicat iu terras Dostris cai 
di>'iinlur Depi. Marc, alto hai scberpi. 

" Far. omitt quia .... valent, 

>■' Via. plsntam unnm rasiolorum; ilak. faaeUulorum ; Mu>. faxcic 
Far. uiuitH Ihe SEintoni^e eniirelj. 

'" " >' Mm. Pollimbrum, 




: I, 

u^^ua lid Taniim ubi suot xv doiuus Christiaaorum, scilicet Nwtori- 
iioritui, qui sunt Hcismatici et boretici. Et dum sic easent iatic aibt 
inTeneruut hospiciuin, et hoopitali sunt in domo cujusdam illorum. 
I)um auCom sic muiereDt illic, orta. fuit qusdam lis ioler virum iUiua 
doinua et ejus uxorem quan ille aero ipse foctiter verbcraiit. Dum 
Tero aic esaeC Terberata et qutEsCa fuit coiam lo cadi' uuo cpiscopo in 
liugua Bua. Quam muliereni ipse cadi ititerrogavit si probare possoC qu» 
diuabat. Tunc autetn Ipsa reapoudlc dicens te bene probare posae. Nftm 
quatuor RabaD Fraachi sailiueC qualuor viri religiosi Id lingua nostra, 
illiu eraat In domo cum michi hoc fecit: bos iuterrogate, qui vobis diceot 
veritatem. Ipsa autem muliere aic loquente, uuua de Alexaadrla ibi 
prtesena rogavit Cadi ut mitteret pro ela quas dicebat tiomioes maxtme 
scientiie et scripturas bene aciro. Idaoque dicebat bonum esse de fide 
diaputare cum ets. Quod audiana sic ipse Cadi misit pro eis, qui dum 
sic aote eum adducti fuissent isti qualuor fratres, scilicet frater Tbom&s 
de Tolentino de Marchin ADchoniiaua, frater Jacobus de Padua, frater 
Demetrius' qui eraC frater layeus acieus linguaa, et frater Petrus de 
Sauis dami ut res custodiret,' ad ipsuni Cadi perreKerunt. Dum sic 
esseDl coram lo Cadi,' ipse cum ipsis diaputare cojpit de fide nostra. 
Cum autem iiti infideles sic disputareut cum istis, dicebaat Christum 
solum purum hominem et noa Dcuia. Quod cum sic dixiaseiit, ille 
frater Tbomas Cbrislum ease uoum Deum et bamlnem probarit 
ratiouibua, et exempHs in tautum eoa confudit Sarraceuos quod peuitus 
■ ' u diccra aon volebant.' 

Tunc Tidena ille Cadi si 

damare cmpit voce magna diceai 
die la de Machometo ! Nunc av 
ceni, qui si ee verbis defeudere i 
Dum autem eum iuterrogasset 
si tibi probavimue rationibus < 
bominem ease qui legum dedit 

7. ItU,a. 
c esse coufusum ab eis, c 

quIddicisdeMacbometo ) Quid 
m ucam consuetudiuem habent Sarra- 
i poasunt se euslbua tueutur et puguis. 
: Cadi,' respouderTiut fratrea dicentes, 
eiemplia Christum verum Deum et 
terra, et Machometua exinde veuit qui 
isti fuit ; si sapieos es, quid sit de Deo' tu optime scire 

?Di:es. lunc ille cadi et alii Barraceui alta voce dicentes clamabant : 
u quid in lantum' dici« de Machometu i Tunc frater Thomas respondit : 
Voa taQtum dicere poteritis de eo quid dlco, quod Cacere hoc nimium 
verecundabar unum ex quo me vultis respondere vobis.' B«Bpoudeo 
vobia et dico quod Machometua filius perditiouia eat, et eat cum dVabulo 

tintre ejua poaitua in inferno; oon solum ipse sod et omaes qui haua 
egem teaent et observant. Cum ipaa ait pesliCera nequam et falsa 


' Ut, aUo hat Loutdi ; Ihe atlieri Cadi or Kuili, id est ej.isuoiio. Ven. 
i;oiii|U<'iJlB est 04 Ji, Aa. 

a Boll. ZorzBDUB. 

1 Thit ihautd be at it niiud in tlui vtargia, drmisao fralre Pelro domi, etc 
It is tbua io Far., Hak. hh'I J/ui. Ven. Iiai ui rei lasiottirei, a ilip. 

* Better with thene last words omitlwi from ad ipmm aa in Vtn. 
' Ilak. omitt/raiH nnoo auluin. 

" Should bi d» BO, as in ibe other MSS. 
' Ven. and tht otkeri have iterutn. 

* Mtu. hat To insoiiia quid dico de eo videre potes? tamen ex quo Tullis 
quod plane vobis responilvo, dioo, etc. Hak. Vos umnea videro poleatil quod 
dico de eo, etc. The others bavo nearlj' ibe aaiuf bs above. 



Ivpheta I ct tunc cepei 

UOrii inccDsi duram' jjd 

i qui* per spatiuin u 

reretur. Ec turn illic 

ertia uEijue ad Dona 

Hoc auditmtes Sairacsni 

clumare c^sperunt ;' Malum dixerunt de 

mC fratreg el cos in Bole viuKeruat uC virtute 

erentur mortem. Cum illic Cantus BJt calorat 

ius missic pcTseveraret in sole, ipae penitus 

n sole fucrunt UudantCB et glotiGcantea Deum, 

n semper, jlarea eC Bani. Sic hoc videntes 

im LabueruuC et ad fratres veaeruat dicentea : 

II acceadere mugnum et copioaum igocm in quem vos projiciemue ; 

t dicitie' iLa ait vera, ignia V09 non comburet ; ai autem f&lsa eit 

Mia, peuitusvoB comburemiui abigne.' Tunc fratres respODderuDt 

bdiceutes ; Parati aumus iutrare ignem et carcerem, et quidquid nos, 

E facers pro fide nostm, semper inveniea uos paratoa, varum 

a facere debea," quod si ignis uoa comburet, nou hoc credaa 

^ ex fide iioatra procedere, »ed solum ex peccatia ooalris, cum propter 

> pcccBtn QDBtm nos bene cotnburi permitturet ipse Doua, hoc semper 

aftlro, quod fides noatra ita perfects aat et bona aicut in muodo umquain 

' ease posaet. Nam ab bac non est in muado alia fides, nee ease potest qute 

salvum facial aliquoui nisi JalA. 

8. Idem. 

Dum autem s 

: OTdiaacum e 

t quod isti fratres conburi deberent 
vox evolavit et fama corrult per tutam iUam terram.' Itaque tunc 
omnes de dicta terra tarn parvi" quam mAgaj turn hotaiucB quam 
mulieres ad hoc finaliter intuendum petiituB occurrerunt. Ipsi autem 
fratrea ducti fuerunt super medanum," ncilicet super pluteatn civitatis, 
ul)i accensus erst ignis valde copiosus. Qui dum sic acccnaus eaaet, 
frater Thomaa ibat ad projicieudum se in ignem. Et dum vellet se in 
ignem se projicere quidam Sarraconua eum per capucium cepit dicena : 
Mot) vadns tu lUuc cum tls aenei. Nam super tealiquod ex peri men turn'" 
habere possia, propter quod ignis te comburere non posset. Scd alium ire 
permittas. Tunc atatim quatuor Sarraceni fratrem Jacobum de Padua 
Tiolenterceperunt, eum in ignem projicere satagentes, quibus ipse dixit : 
Me permittatis quia libens in hunc ignem projiciam memet ipsuni." 
Ipsi autem ad sua verba non attendeutes alaClm in iguem'^ projecerunt. 
Dura autem sic eum in ignem projecisaentn et ipse sic in iguo permnnereC, 
iguis tarn altus et tarn maguus ipae eral quod nullus eum unquam 
poterat intueri ; ejus tamen vocem audiebant invocautis semper uomeu 
Virginis gloriosai. Tunc igne totnllter consumpto ipse frater Jacobus 
Btabat super prunas Imtus et gaudens, cum mauibus iu modui 

' Dominom. Vm. Deum. 

I Fen. MorJHturl Moriaiur! quod malnm, ets. 

* reit. diram; Km. duriasimam. 

' FfH. Vox el fama per tolam 

■ Ilak. amiu medanum. 
'" Hak. osrmen aliquiil vel experic 
" Mui, pro tide meft libentcr ignei 
1= J/ui. lorpiter. Uak. violeiiiBr. 


cu^Iura levstis, meote iDtegra et puro corde itominum aemper iaudando. 
Et quamquam ignis fulclt ita msgnus et cop'iosus, Dicbil tamen de eo' 
tiEBUiii vel combufltum broviterfuit inTentum, Hoc videtm populus cotpil 
UDaniiniCer exclamare, dicens : Isti sunt saocti, isti budI sancCi i Nephai 
est offeodcre eos. Nam merito vidcmus quod fides sua saneta est et 
bona] Hoc dicto frater ilia Jacobus Tocatus fuit de igue, eC tic uquj 
ezivit et illasus. Tunc lioc videns, lo cadi' voce magoa coepit clamare 
dicens ; Sanctus noD eat, sanctua aoa eat ! sed ideo non comburitur quod 
tunica quam babet ta dorso est tela teme Abrahic. Ideo nudus expo- 
lietur et in ignem sic mittatur. Ut autom finaliter hoc complerctur 
veoerunt pessimi Sarraceoi et in duplo plus quam prius ignem accen- 
deruQt. Et tunc fratrom Jacobum exueruat, cujus corpus insuper 
abluerunt, et ipaum optime oleo pcrunxerutit, et ut igois major e«set et 
fortius ageret et arderet, et a4 hoc ut ipse frater citius comburi posset, 
oleum ia struem liguorum in copiam masimnm dejeceruut, et Ipium 
fmtiemJacobum in ii^aem cum impetu impulerunt. FraterautemTbomaa 
et frAt«T DemeCriua ds foris stabant genibue flexis in onitionibus msgDia 
et devotiouibuB persislcntes, et sic frater Jacobus ignem iterum exivit 
illicaus sicut et prius fecit. 

9. Idtm. 

Doc rideng populua unanimiteT clamabat dicens ; Peccatum e»t, pec- 
catum est offenders eos quoniam sancti sunt ! Et sic in populo rumor 
inaximus babebntur. Hoc acaundum miraculum videns Lomolic, scilicet 
Potestas, ad ae fratrum Jacobum vocavit et eum se suib fecit iudui vesti- 
lacntis. Et dixit : Vadete fratres, ite cum gratia Dei, quia nullum 
malum patiomlni vos a Dobis. Nam beoc videmua voa esse bonos et 
sauctoB, et fidem vestiam ease veram et aanctam et bonam finaliter noi 
videmtis. tjed ut vobia securius conaulamus tos banc terram exite quam 
citiua potestis, quia ipse Cadi pro posse nltitur et laborat vobis auierre 
vitam. Dum hoc bid dicerct, completorium quasi erat, et tunc totus popu- 
lus jdolatrm omnesque alii, atupefacti et exterriti, dicentcs permanebant : 
iTot et tanta magna mirabilia vidimus nos ab istis, quod nescimus quid 
noa tenere debcamus et observare! Dum sic dixissent tunc Lomelic* 
accipi fecit iUos ires fratres quos ipse portari fecit ullraquoddam brachium 
maris per aliquantulum spacium ab ilia terra, ubi burgum uuum erat, 
ad quod ille in cujus jam dome fuerant hospitati illos sociavit,' et sic ia 
domo unius jdolatrK sibi bospicium iDTeneruut. Dum sic autem iUie 
manerent perrexit cadi ad Lomelic dicens ei ; Quid facimus ? lex Mm:- 
hometi destructa eat, nee' aliud liat,QBm isti Kabau Franchi (scilicet viri 
religioai), nunc ibunt prcdicaudo per totam contraCam ieiam, et cum tot 
et taala focerunt ipsi in bac contrata, quFc totus poputus jam vidit, 
omnea converteutur ad eoa, et sic lex Macbomcti aliquld ulteriua noa 
Talcbit. Verumptamen ut i^sa totaliter non ait destructa, tu unum scire 
debes, i]uod Machometus precepit in Alchorau (scilicet in lege sua) quod 
si ttliquia unuin interficeret Christianum tantum meritum ipse haberet 
ut si iret ad Mccbam. (lluum scire vos debetis quod Aluhoran lex 
Sarracenorum est sicut CbristiaQorura est lex evangeliuni. Mecha est 

' Hak. ne<i pannns neo capillus latnua per ignem inTenlns. 

* Thf otkeri kavt not tkt lo. 
9 Hak. Melioh. Hut. Mclik. 

* Tiie immediaU'ly pTvcedinn wnrdit ure waming in Ifiu. 

* Vtn. ni"i ; Far. ni, otie of which it rtgaired. 

bomineB arnutoa ut 
trsQsisseDt qusmdam 
potuerunt i 

locus ubi jacet Machometua, ad quam Mecham vol iocuni sic vnJiiDl 
Satraceni sicut Chiiatinai pcrguaC ad Sepulchium.)' Turn Lomolic 
respoudit Cadi dicens ; Tade et fiiciaa sicut Cu vis. 

10. ItUm. 
Hoc dieto, sMtim ills Cadi iKcepit quati 
irent >d intra^ciendum iBlos fratrea, qui dum 

aquam facta est DOS. Et sic illo eero illos 

Statimque Lometic capi fecit omiies illos ChristiaDOg i)ui eiant la terra, 
et eos citrceii maucipavit. Gum nutem perTeutura esset ad dimidium 
DOctiB, tunc fratras ut dicerent matutiDum surrexeruct, et tuuc homineB 
illi qui misBi fueianC ad eos illos iavenerunt, et illoa extra terram Bub 
arbore quadam adduxenint. Dum autem sic illi adduxiasent ipso* 
eii dicebaot, V09 scire debetia quod maodatum babemuB ab ipao Cadi et 
Lomelic, ut vos interficere debcamua, quod tamcn adiuplemus nos inrite, 
cum aitia vita bona homines et aancli. Sed tamen noa aliter facere noa 
valemus. Nam si sueb non obediremua juasioni, dob cum libaria aostris 
et uxoribua penilua moreremur. Iliis isti fratres responderunt aic 
dicentea : Vos qui buc veoiatis ut per mortem tcmporalem vitam Ecternam 
valeamus adipisci, quud vobis est preceptum facite. Mam pro lide nostra 
et amoTo Domini Doatri Jbsau Chxisti,' qufe nobia adliibotia dob tor- 
meota parati sumus Tiriliter suslinere. Uude sic istis audacter re- 
apoudentibuB et conatantius, Cbristianus ille qui eoa aaaociaverat, et 
ilti quaCuor bomiDes mali, multum ad invicom altercabiiDt ' Nam eis 
rcBpoodebat ChristiaDas et dicebat : Si gladium aliquem ego haberem 
aut quod vultis non fioret aut me cum ipsis ueci liualiter darotis. Tunc 
illi feceruDt fratres expoliari. Statimque frater Thomas juDctis manibua 
simul in modum crucia capitis abscieionuia suacepit. Sed fratrem 
Jacobum unus percuasit in capite et eum uaque ad oculos acidit, 
statimque caput abscidit. Fraler autem Dometriua uno gladio in 
mamilla fortiasime fuit percuasua. Exinde allii caput fuit abaciaum. 

lucidus et ita clarus est effuctus, quod cuncti fortiasime mLrabantur ; 
aimilitei, et luaa maximam oatuudit claritatem et apleDdorem. Statim 
autem post hoc tot et taota tonitrua et fulmloa atque choruacatlones 
evenerunt, quodpcneumncs mori Gnaliter se credebaut. Navisetium ilia 
quie debebat eoa portare Pulumbum et portiiti fueiuDt usijuo ad Caaam* 
contra velle suum, taliter fuit submcraai, quod de ea el omoibus qui 
eract in ilia nicbil unquam brevitcr acitum fuit. 

11. Idem. 
Mane autem facto misit Cadi acceptum 
inventuB fuit frater Petrus de Senie, triuDi ali< 
Quum eum sic repenssent ipsum ceperunt et ei 
quern ipse Cadi et alii Sarraoeni alloquentes sibi 1 
lii fidem auam vellet abnegare et illam Machomcti 
Ipsi autem dum aic libi loquereutur, ipse de 

' The wbolo oF this is eiprtmstid in Jlfiu. in quite 
Tuaed laoguagD ; bul, as lli« meaaing id the samo, 
worth spudlViQg. 

' Bak. et Miu. qui pro oabia <^ru>:iligi i::C mori digni 

' Mui. maltiim audHclsF et u 

' For Tan 

illorum fratrum et tunc 

liorum fratrum aacius. 

eum duxcrunt ad Cadi ; 

xima ^romittebaDt, 

itegraliter conSteri, 

I trufabatur et eoa 

IfGrent and more dif- 

X Al'l-KNIHX 1 



minbiliter deri<lclist. Uo &uteiu sic ip»os deridcnCe, ipsum tormentare 
ewperunt a maae uiM|ue ad meridiem, diversis gencribuE tormentomm. 
Quod quiunquam sic ei inlerreDt semper tamen in fide immoLilii 
|icrm&nebat et coQBtanter, illorum falsiim flBteodoiido ec earn viriliter 
deatruendo. Cum autem vidcntea SurraceDi a sua nou Telle diaced«re 
voIuDlate, ilium super quonidBia arborem suspeoderunt, in quam a nona 
ui^que ad noctem ipse permaastt. Cum autem ad uoccem fuit per- 
vcutum, de arbore ipaum accepcruutflinealiqua Issioue de muudo. Hoc 
illi videnteu' ipsum per medium diriacruDt, et maue facto Dichii de eo 
breviler fuit inrentuni. Verumtaincn uoi persunte fide digDic fuiC 
revelntum quod Deun occultaverat ejus corpus ue'[Ue ad cercum tempus, 
in quo tamen sibi placuerit ipse illud munifesubil. Ut autem Deus 
opem oBtenderet quod eorum animic jam regua celestia obtmebant.' ilia 
die qua bealissimi fratrea gloriosi uiitrtires euut oS'ecCi, ills Lomelic 
dormitioui se dedit ; qui dum sic in lecto dormiiet ecce ailii apparuaniat 
isti martires gloriosi lucidi, ut sol ac siileudidi, siugulos emtes in suia 
mauibus retiueutes, et super Lomelic taliter eoa TibrnuteS ac si dividere 
Tolueruut ipsum totum. Quod videus ipse Lomelic Toce sic alta cepit 
clamare. Quid ad ejus clauiorem toCa ipsius familia occurrit feati- 
nautci petcns &b oo quid ipse baberet atque vellet. Ipsum autem duw 
sic iuterrogasseut ipse lespoudit diceus : Illi Rabau Franchi quos 
interfici feci buc ad me veneruut sujs eDsibus, quos babebant, occidere 
me Tolentos. Ideoque ipse Lomelic misit pro Cadi cul totum, quod sibi 
acciderat enarravic, cous ulcus ipsum quid de hoc esset final iter 
perageudum, cum se ctedereC ab eis penitus interire. Tunc Cadi sibi 
coQsuluit ut pro eis magiiam elemosiaam ezhiberut, si vellet evadere de 
istarum mauibus iuterfectorum. Tunc statim misit pro illis Chmlianu 
quos ipse in carcore detlnebat, qui cum vcnissent ad eum, ipse indul- 
geotiam ab eis de eo quod sibi fieri fecerat bumiliter postulavil, facieo* 
se socium oorum et fratram. Hoc autem facto tunc precepit ut si quii 
uuquam offenderet aliquem Cbristiatium ipse penitus moreretur ; et «e 
omnes illnsos abiro permisit. Post hoc autem ipse Lomelic eis qiutuor 
moschetas, scilicet iiii eclesias fecit edificari, in quorum qualibet ^uo»- 
dam sacerdotes barracenos fecit morari. 

12. Idem. 

Audiens ipseimperator Doldali'istosfratrcs talem subiisse ■eotentiMU, 
misit et ordinaTit ut ipse Lomelic penitus capcretur, et ipsa ad eum 
vinctis mauibuH duceretuT. Qui cum ante eum sic fuissot adductua, 
eum interrogabat quaro mori fecerat tam crudeliter istos fratres. Cum 
autem intcrrogatus sic fuisset, respondit ej : Istos tratres sic mori permiM 
quia ipsi subvertere volebant ie|;em nosttam, et malum etiam diverunt 
de propbeta. Tunc sibi dixit imperator : Tu, crude) issime can is, cum 
ridbti quod Deus bis liberavit eos ab igna, quo mode fuisti sic ausu* ut 
eis laiem mortem infenes. Utee cum dixisset, eum cum tola famiiia sua 
per medium scindi fecit. Et quia talem mortem istos fiatres* iii suum 
meritum fecit susliuere, hoc ipse passus fuit tantum in dctrimentuiu.* 

' ffat. videnlHS ilium Ifulum vivuni et illanun). 

'' llak. osleaderut anlniss auoruui martytuin jam in roilis oonsistere «t 
rougaudere cum Deo et augulis et aliis sancliH ejus. Mm. nearly tkt Mtine. 
Vtn. omiu, 

> r«B.Djdoli; far. Dodili; If u«. Dodili : Ha*. Dodsi; ^are. dol DalL 

* Jfiu. Petro de Senis. Hak. fratri inSiiHrat, 

' far. Cadi autem lioc aailiens de Urm ilia siqiie de iniperatoria dominio 
ilain digit. Huk. alto eliding ut aiu uvBsit. Atui. et evisit. 


In hac autem contrata consuetudo queedam observatur. Nam nunquam 
corpus aliquod sepelitur, sed ipsa corpora solum in campaneis dimit- 
tuntur, et ex nimio calore cito destruuntur et consumuntur. Yerum 
corpora horum fratrum bene quatuordecim diebus illic fuerunt in sole, 
et ita recentia et Integra sunt iuventa sicut erant ilia die qua passi 
fuerunt suum martirium gloriosum. Sic autem videntes qui in ilia 
terra aderant Christiani, sua corpora acceperunt, quae postea sepulturso 

13. Fr, Odoriciis coUigit ossa fratrum ; miracula per ilia operata. 

Tunc ego frater Odoricus de suo sciens martirio glorioso iliac ivi,— et 
sua corpora ego accept quae jam fuerunt tradita sepulturse.' Quia per 
sanctos suos Deus ipse multa et magna mirabilia operatur, per istos 
voiuit potissime operari. Nam ego frater Odoricus cum ossa istorum 
fratrum sic accepissem et pulchris toaleis' alligassem, ipsa in Indiam 
Superiorem ad unum locum nostrorum fratrum cum uno socio et famulo 
deiercbam/ Bum autem ea sic portarem, ibi domo cujusdam habui 
hospitari,^ et ipsa ossa, imo potius reliquisQ sanctao dici debent, supposui 
capiti meo et me dedi dormitioni. £t dum sic dormirem ipsa domus a 
Sarracenis subito fuit accensa, ut me facerent mori.* Alta voce populi 
universi [sic]. Nam hoc est imperatoris preceptum ut cujus domus ac- 
cenditur^ ipse penitus moriatur. Ipsa domo sic accensa socius meus 
cum famulo exivit domum, me in ea cum ossibus remanente, qui dum sic 
essem in domo jam ardente, ossa horum fratrum ego accepi et^ in uno 
angulo ipsius me aptavi.^ Sic autem igne domum comburente, tres 
anguli ipsius domus fuerunt combusti, illo solo in quo eram remanente : 
me autem sic in illo angulo residente, ignis desuper me aderat non me 
lasdens nee ipsius domus angulum comburens ; quamdiu autem in domo 
cum istis ossibus permanebam, ignis nunquam descendebat sed ad 
modum acris^" ipse desuper residebat. Cum autem domum egressus fuis- 
bem, tunc ipsa totaliter fuit combusta, non solum ipsa sed et multn alia 
qusD illi contiguas videbantur, et sic inde illaesus exivi. 

14. Idem, 

Aliud quoque insuper evenit quod michi accidit in eundo. Nam dum 
sic per mare cum istis ossibus ego irem ad unam civitatem quae ?ocatur 
Polumpum,^' ubi piper nascitur habundanter, nobis defecit totaliter 

^ Here Far. alone has ** Passi autem fuerunt hi beati martyres pro fide 
Christ! martyrium gloriosum anno ab incamatiooe Domini nostri Jhesu 
Christi Min " 

^ Boll, et apertis sepulchris suscepi ossa eorum humiliter et devote. 

3 Toalei^, towels. Ven. has manutergiis ; Mus. tuallis. 

* Here Boll, has omnipoteiis quoque Dfus qui per prophetam mirabilis in 
Sanctis suis diciiur, etiam per istos sanctos sua voiuit mirabilia demonstrare. 

^ Boll, et cum cum socio pergerem ad quiescendum. 

6 Mus. tanqnara reus (reum ) illius igois accensi. 

< Mus. ui si quis reus incendii domus esset. These two last variations 
seem to he glosses. 

^ Boll, et invocato Dei auxilio. 

^ Boll. Mira Dei dementia qui se pie clamantibus non elongat I 

1^ Ut. ha^ ad modum crucis extensus, which seems an arbitrary embellish' 
ment of the copyist. 

^^ Should be Polumbum, as in Ven., Far., Mus ; Hak. has Polumbrum ; 
Marc. Polumbo et Polombo. 


ipse' rentus. Qunpropter vencrunt jdolatrn buos deos ndoraatet ul eia 
vfiDtuin proipcrum exbiberont, ^uoia ilHa tamcn dare mmime poCuerunt. 
Daiode venenitit SHrraceai, at ut atiam veatum habcrent mulcum 
lubor&verunt, et turn ilium suis eupplicacionibus Qunquani habere 
potuerunt. Dcmde rnichi et socio meo preceptum fuic ut onttiaoes &d 
Deum Dostrum fundere deberemus ;' qiiatenua nobis fiaaliCer eibibereC. 
Qui ai haberi po&Hst uoliia hoDorcm maxinium exhiborcnt, et ut olti hoc 
iDtoIUgero aon pot%9euC, ille rector naria Aruiorice' [sic] fuit locuttu 
diceoB ; Si ventua huberi noa posset btec ossa qob projiciemua in nuire. 
Tunc ego hiec otsocius audientes oratioDee, fecimus ipsi Deo; quj videatet 
ventum baberi non poaao, ad boaorom Virginis gioriosra multas missaa 
prumisimus celebrare si Tentum poitgemuB noa in aliquo tunc habere. 
Cum autem ventum dob habere miuime puteramua,' tunc accipien* er 
oBsibua iatis unum.ipsum dedifamulo nostro ut iboa ad caput' ubtu ipBum | 
in mare projiceret feetinautor. Tunc ipso oase in man ac projecto, BUtitu 
veutus iCa nobis effectus eat prosper, quod nunquam nobia defeciC donee 
accessimus uos ad portum, ad quem meritis iatorum fratrum dcreuimus 

15. Idem. 

Cumautem illic in Polumbo fuimuanoa ad portum, a) iamnavim nomine 
LoDclum* noB aacendimus ut jam dictum est. In Indium Supenorcui 
DOS venimus ad quamdam civicatem ZaiCon,' in qua sunt duo Iocs 
noatrorum fratrum, ut ibi istaa rsliquiaa aanctas poneremus. Kunc 
autem in lata navi era&t bene septingenti,' inter alios hominca et 
mercatort's." Nunc jdolatrie isti banc coasuetudinem in se habent. 
Nam antequam ipsi appliceut ad portum, per toCam inquirunt navim ut 
TJdeant quid esset Iq ca, maxime si sibi easeot ossa mortuorum, qiige n 
repeiiicnt,"' ilia in marc projicerent jpel statim. et habcutibus ilia mortis 
periculum maximum immineret.'' Cum autem sic requirerent, ted" 
in magna fueHat quantitate, nunquam turn ilia inrenire in aliquo 
potuerunt." Sic autem dante Deo ilia ad locum nostrorum fratrum 
tulimua diligeotor, ubi cum bonore et revcrentia maxima fueruot posita 

> Ball. DaecBiariuB nobia. 

3 Boll. I'Dgthiec milii et aodo meo niandnrnnt i^iincti qui erarit in navi 
dicenteit: Vos aiirgenieB adurate Diiminiim Duun: 
liouibuB saiutem oonseqaajuur buoorcm vobis n 
autem, *ob cum oeaibuB istiB in pelsgo HUbmergemi 

» For ArmeuicB at in Vta. and all the others. 

' Boll, ego oUmari ad Dominum Jeaam Chriatu 
FratrurD dignaretur ooalruin denidehum eiaudire. 

' Far hai apoilium navii. 

' Ven. Zuneum; Vl. Zo<<um : Far. CoRum; Afuf. Concbum ; Hak. baa 
omitted ibe term ; aa alsu Boll., lUarc. Zoofai. 

' Vea.Cayl»m; Ut. Zaylum; Far. Caiiam; ifui. CBjohan; ifafc. Canthftn; 
BolL Saiidon ; flam. Zailo. 

' Hut, abiurdly hai in ilia autem navicala eranl benx lxx Cbristiai 

" Ven. quod si raorlnorum oaaa reperla essent, alatini, etc. 

u Vm. hai dicentea habentibUB...imminfre. Hak. El per hoe bonum por- 
tum Bttingera et mortia periauli evadere credL-reut. 

" Fen. hai Loet. 

» Afuf. <mb<I(t(iMl, licet, ..ilia frequenter tangerent, semper lamen eoium 
oouli sio miraoolose delnai fueruni, quod ilia minimii perpenderuul ; Hak. 
hot ntaTly the lane ; Ball. Domino Duo qui absconderat a ' 
ul>ai!undiLo TaciHi bus, 0'>saeorum aU inGdelibna occultanle. 

coiideceDter.' Et gic mnlta alia opcnitur omDipoteos Deus per letos 
sunctOB fratres, cum aJhuc boc hahcatur spud jdoktraa et Sarraoenoa. 
Nam cum ipsi morbo aliquo detinenlur, Taduat et accipiuut de term 
ilia in qua fuerunt im perfect!,' illara abluootes. Quai cum eit ipsa lota, 
cam bibunt, atatimque ab infirm itati bus auis totalitcT liberantur.' 

16. ^uomorfo habeatvr Piper ; Dtregtio Minibar. 

Ut autem sciamua quomodo habeatur piper, sciendum est quod in 
injperio' quodam ud quod applicui noniiae Mimbar' nascitur ipsum 
piper 1 et aon iu itliqua pHi^ mundi nascitur niai ibi.' Nemua i 

bene in se xviii dietaa. 


e Flandrioa,' altera Tero Zinglin 
Iq istu Flandriaa babitancium aliqui aunt Judni, aliqui vero Cbriatiani. 
Inter hita duas civitates* bellum iateetiuum semper habetur, ita taiuen 
quod Christiaui semper auperant et vincunC Judnos. In hac contrata 
habetur piper per hunc modum. Nam primo nascitur in foliis quasi 
belenee,"' quie folia juxta nagnaa arborcs plantantur aicut hie nontne 
ponuntur rites; hmc folia producunl fructum ut uvarum racemi pro- 
ducuutur. In tanta autem producunt quautitate quod quaat videntur 
frangi. Cum autem ipsum eric maturum viridis esc coloris, Et aic 
vindemiatur ut bic vindemiantur iiTie, poncndo" illud iu solem ut de- 
siccetur, quod cum desiccatum est ipsum in Tasia collocatur." In hoc 
etiam nemore aunt flumina in quibus sunt multte malio cocoldriga:" 
(scilicet multi mail serpentes)." A capita nemoris istius versus meri- 
diem civitas quiedam habeturn o mine Pol umbum'' In qua nascitur melius 
xinzibor quod nascatur in mundo. Tot et tanta sunt mercimonia in iita 
civitate quod muHis incredible videtur. 

i7. De morilut Jiidoram de PUuntho. 

Omnes in bac contrata adorant boTem pro deo suo, ipsum dicentes 

esse quasi sanctum, ouem sex annis faciunt laborare et In septimo positus 

est in communi." Hunc autem ritum in se continent et observant, qui 

est abhominabile." Nam quolibet mane acclpiunt duo bacilia de auro 

' Hak. Ubi in pace reqiiiescunL 

s BoU. pnwitaiile Domino nost 


* Far. hat abnurdli/ id pijiere. 

• Fnt. Uii,ibBri Hat. Do; Fa 

r. Minibarum; jUiu. Mimb 

r; Boll.E?. 

bar : Ram. M uul.ur. 

* rni.NDsqaam alibi; Bak.i 

a nulla parte mundi lanln 

m qunDlnm 

' iiom. Alandrina. 

■ Hak. Uj'ncilini : Far. Ftandriam...CBnRlin: ISai. Zingelyn ; Jfarc. Gin- 
gilin ; Ram. Zioiylin. 

" BetUT Hak. inter quoa. '" Ven. ederm ; Far, oleri. 

" Jlfiu. ei grauB ponuntur ad. " Et aio piper nascitur et etntodilur. 

I' Ven. QiuauiababenliB...DOchodrUlos; Hak. and ^~ar. crocodili; 3/iu. ooco- 

" Mai. Et sant etiam in islo nemore multi alii serpentea quos homines per 
Hlupam et paleos combDrunt,et sic ad colligendam piper seonre aacedant. 
Hak. \iw Ibe like. 

" Hak. et ifut. Polumbrum, and Ihe/ormiT layt nothing of the giyigtr. 

" Hut. ab umni opere ipoum Taciunt quiescero in loco aolempui et cummutii 
ipsiiin punenles et dii^entes Lunc ipsum animal e9^e tiBDctum. So Hak. 

" Ven. limply lalem autem oonauetodineni et modura observnnt. ■ 



vel argento. qun. qiium d 

aliam.' De urina iaraDt 
prima in medio visua In u 
geaarum, et postea ii 
ponunt ; c[UE 

1 aoctpiunt u 


uat sub ■ 
adiciam | 
ponanl ^ 

I ipsum do Btabulo, ponuat 
Q iu altero vero itamundiciani 
i, de altero vero immundicia 
loco ; deinde super kiobabus 
idio pectore ; iCa quod id quatuor loci* ipni 
c fecerunt dicuot se fore sanclificatos.' Et aicut facit 
populuB Eic et rex et rogjaa. Ilii aimiliter aliud ydolum adoiant quod 
est per dinidium homo et per dimidium bos ; hoc ydolum per o» respoodct 
quod multoCiena sao^inem xl' mgiauot petit et requirit huic ydolo; ita 
homiosB el muliereH voreoC suoa Glios* et suas [filias] ante ydolum istud, 
ut sibi eorum sanguis jramolatur.^ Uncie multi moiiuutur isto modo. 
Sic auCem muUa alia facit populus iste" qus ecribere et audire ab- 
homiaatio eaeet quiedam. Id hac etiam insula inulca alia habentur 
et naseuntur qun non cipcdit scribere multuoi. Aliam autsnt iwn- 
HueCudinem peasimam babent ydalatree bujus regni. Nam quando 
bomo aliquis moritur, ipsum comburunt mortuum, et si uxorem habet 
ipaam comburunt virnin, cum dicaut earn ire ad mnnenduoi' cum 
marito buo in alio mundo. Si autem mulier filios habet ex tnariCo 
suo, cum eis mauere potest* si vult. Si autem mulier moriatur, lex 
aliqua noa iuponitur riro, cum possit si vult aliam acciporo in uzarem. 
Alia autem consuetudo illic habetur, nam mulieres vinum bibunt, 
bomiues vero nan ; mulicrea etiam faciunt nibi radi visum et barbam, 
homines vera non;' et sic de multia aliis mirabilibus et beatialibui que 
illie fiuut queo etiam Bcribere nou expedit multum. 

t Apoitali, et de 

Ab hoc regno sunt decern dietie usque ad unum aliud regnum, nomiDe 
Mobar,'" quod eat multum magnum regnum, habens sub se mnltu 
civitatei at terras. In hoc autem re^o poaitum est corpus beati Thomtt 
apostoli, ecclesia cujus plena est ^dulis multis. Penes etiam quam aunt 
forte XV damus Nestnrinorum et Chriatianorum qui nequissimi et peuimi 
sunC horetici." Similiter in regno iato eat jdolum rairabile vnlde quod 
omnes coniratFe India; multum revcrentur. Nam ipsum est magnum 
quantus sanctus Chriatoforus communiter depingitur a pictoribufl, et MI 



virginea; Rak. aliquotieDS pro sUpendio petit Bangni- 

'■ Par. 3. Gi BlisH dure siaut bio alioai religioni, et lie per iHtnm inodini) 
homines inl^rfioinnt fllioB xnns et liliss : Yen. to the nams effect; mXna Far., 
Hak., el Mut. aicnt Christiani aliqai alieui religionl vel sanclo in coalo. So 

' Ram. secondo cfae il proreta dice. 

6 Hak. bostialis. Immo, etc. 

' Hah. in aratura et cultnra enm viro suo in alio mnndo. 

* I'tn. neo eiad verecuodisro impntator; Jfui. sine varecundia et improprio; 
Hak. improperio. Commuiiil^r laniea omnes prEeeligantcombiiticum loarito. 

' Hut. fnoiunt sibi radi eilia nupercilia et liatbim. pt homines non. pt aia 
est de aliis muIHa lititatibns utriusqne sexns. In Hak. it ii cilia ot 
ciliit el barbnm aIiu...ot sic ds multis aliis vilibuscoi 
m : Ham. Mebor. 


> Hak. I 

., mali Cbriali 

mul Cnn 
rt Sobismaiioi. Fr,m Mm 


1 IS f 



totum de auro,' poeitum guper uDam mngiiaia cathedram, quie etikm est 
de auro. Et hsheut ad collum unam cordam de lapidibus' precioeis. 
Quie Butem corda precium niultum el maximum vulct.' Ejus ecclesia 
tata est de auro puro. Nam tectum totum e»t de aura; similiter eC 
pavimentum.' Ad hoc jrdolum omodura occurruDt geotea de longjnqua 
BJc chriBtiani de longe ndunt' ad Sanctum Petrum. Ipsorum autem ad 
ydoluin reuientium alii cum corda ad collum pergunt ;' alii cum 
manibus super unam tabiilam ad collum ligatam ; alii cum cultello ia 
bracbio' fixo et non removent U9i|uc quo perTeuerunt ad jdolum, ila 
quod totum brachium postea habent morcidum." Alii etiam sunt alitor 
facientei. Nam exeutites domum luam faciuat tres paasus ; in quarto 
autem faciuut unam' veniam ita loogam super terram sicut udub 
iilorum etset. Accipiunt iosuper unum thuribuium cum incenao etiam 
igoe adolentea desuper illam lontcitudinom veniEe'" ipaiua. Sic enim 
facicodo uxque ad jdolum ipsi vadiint uode bene magna tempore ali- 
quando differunt ire ad jdolum ipaum cum sic ut dictum est semper 
faciendo radunt. Cum autem sic vadunt, volentes aliquld facere ei^num 
uDum"faciunt illic ubi faciuot boc, ut sciaot quantum proceaserunt. 
Hoc autem sic ip»i continuant donee ad ipsum jdolum devenerunt." 

19, De aliU cotuuttudinHus ydololatrarum. 

Apud autem ecclesiam jdoli hujiis oat unua lacus manu factus" ad 
quern accedentes pcregrini" projiciunt in ipsum aurum vcl argentum rel 
aliquoa lapides precioaoa. Et boc faciunt ipsi in honorem jdoli hujua 
et ecclesie ediflcationcm, unde muitum aurum at argentum lapidesque 
preciosi habentur in isto lacu. Ideoque cum in ecclesia ejus aliquid 
facere fieri volunt," inquirunt per lacum istum et icTeniunt omuia hue 
que in ipso suut projecta. Die autenii' illo quo boc jdolum ganctum" 
fuit, accedunf illi de contrata accipientea ipsum de ecclesia, ot illud 

' Hak. et ISuf. ptiriB^imo et 
' Hiik. et Sltiu. Chardiilam n 
' Hak. cum lapidibiu pr«tii 


is quorum atiquia Tolet plusquan 

' Hak. et Ifui. et Bupnrflciea psHetnm interius et ex'erius. 

' F«n.peregre: Far.hat vBdnni Romam : J>/ui. siout ad Stum. Jscobum 

It Sinm. Petram. 

' Alii enn manibus retro ligatis. 

' Vol tibia, 

' Ven. hai eorruptnm ; Haft, at Hfui. add Ilium repufsni sanctum et bene 

' Vm. unsm unciam veniim, which I do not nndentand : 3fut. ha> unam 
'nam ai've lineam. a mittaken gloii ; Mare, nna invenia ; Ram. una cava, 

1° Ut. hai nBciai(?)\ far. fni>l«ail o/venlm ipsins Aai noniine slbiua wftfcA 
emu nonirnar — 'perbBps minresd fas' m]! copjist: Mut. linpK sive vens ipsinx. 

" F'ir. Aoisignum unum ahbie, jiroAabl^ a miirradinff far illir. 

1- The tchole of tbh panage abmit Iht tpd'ib i» omilled in Hak. though re- 
ined in Mm., and Ihit M, I lldtik, the Jint malerial dij'erenee b«(ir«rn 
f MSS. 

» mk. el manifeM 
* WiK.inli .ri, 

r.lifi cation 


t r<n. fw 

f Man, Gei <'i 

poneDtes super uno pulchro' cumi. Dcinde rex et regioa oiDDesque 
percgrini ad hoc cum populo Coto, bii omoes similiter cougregati ipaum 
educunt de ecoleaia cum cantibus niaKDiB et. omni genere mudcoruD). 
Hoc aiitem jrdoliun cum sit cductus do ecclesia ejus, multie TirginM 
bioffi et [bin»] ipsum' antccedunt ouatea otncndo mirBbJlitor ante ipsum.' 
Deinde acceduut etiam peregrini qui ereueruut nd hoc festum, et pouunt 
Be sub ieCo curru, facientes earn super se traueire cum dicunt se Telle 
mori pro Deo auo. Et sic currua tranaiens auper illos qui eunt sub gc, 
cunctDB illoB fraagit per medium et aciudit, unde atatim moriuntui.' 
Bie autcm facieodo jdoluu ipsum ducuut uaque ad uuum locum depu- 
Utum, ad quem locum cum ipsum adduxerunC ilium ad locum pristiuum 
reducuut cum cautibus maguis eC instiumentis sicut prius, Et sic son 
'u mundo io quo plures quingcntia homiiiibus nou morianCur 
)ruin autem corpora ipsi accipiuut el comburuut,* dicentea 
mm ao mori promiscriut pro dco 8U0.° Aliud quoque fit ab 
iatia, nam venit aliquia diceus, Tolo me iuterficere pro deo meo, unde 
veniunt amici parentes et omnes bjstriones de contrata ad faciendum 
illi featum, qui voluic pro dco auo mori. Unde appendunt ad coUum 
ejus quinque cultelloB acutiBsimos et ipsum' ducunC ante ydolum, tunc 
ille accipit unum ex culullia illia acutiesimis, et alta voce clamal diceos, 
Pro deo lueo micbi incido de came mea. Cum autem inciderit de came 
sua, de loco illo in quo Toluit, earn projicit iu faciem jdoli dioens; Me mori 
pennitto' pro deo meo; et sic ibi tandem so interfieit pro deo sua 
Rtatimque ipso mortuo corpus ejus comburitur cum illud credatur ab 
illis esse Banctum quia pro deo sue ae ipsum pcremit. Sic autem mulM 
alia magna et mirabilia fiunt ab istis quee miuime sunt scribenda. B«x 
autem iusuls vel proviociie' bujuB multum est dives, videlicet auii 
argenCi lapidum preciosorum. Id bac autem insula tot honte perlie in- 
Teniuutur sicut in aliqua parte mundi, et Bic de multis aliis quu in tsta 
insula reperiuntur. Qun etiam nimis longum asset scribere. 

20. Be Contrata Lamor 


n videt IramonlaTiam., ti deSuntaltra. 
i meridiem veni per man 

a bac contrata recedens et iei 
n quinquaginia dietis'" ad u 
iu qua inccpi amittero trTimonUnam cum terra michi accoperit earn. In 
eaautemiMinmeususcEt calor quod omnc9illi[tam]bominesquam muli- 
eiesvadunt nudi,"nullo se cooperientes. nil de me niultum truffabautur," 
qui dicebant Deum Adam feciBse nudum, et ego me malo suo velle 
vestire volebam." Nam in ista contrata omnes muliercs sunt poaiUe in 

* Eak. proceBBionaliter cnmbinate modulanl 

* Eak. et per boc reputant se mori pro deo 
' Bak. et cineres sicut reliquite custodiuctur. 

* Thit about tin burainfffelc, " 

Far. binee et IjIde ; also Hot. 
iBi 3Iui. nearly tbe same. 

» Vtn. ci 


nagnis « 

' Yen. dicena mori promitt 

' Ifuj. illiuB regioniB. 

i» Far. baa Iv dietia. 

' Bak. Laramori : Afiu. ?uti vocatam Sustabor (?) sivi 

' Far. hat onl]/ mulieres.. ..nudee. 

' I'en. et tn vis ultra e.juB velle vestiri. 

' I/at. and Mm. qui vidcules me vtBtiinm deridebsi 

mil et Evam fecisse nudon ; Boll, De tis Adam nuilua 

bulaa contra naturam ? Slalo luo twI[e = Ma1grt liii. 

Itaque nei 
I Ilea, bic eat muritus to 
ipsum vel ipsam dat u 


est qui diccie posset vcraciter bsc est uxor 
us. Cum autem mulier filium vcl filiam parit, 
i illorum cui Tult, cum quibus ipsa jum jacuit 
eumque vocai pacrem euum. Tola terra poslta est in communi, itaque 
nujlus cum ventate dlcere potest bsc vel ilia pars teirtemea est. Domes 
tameu haUent in special!.' Ista gens pesiifera fsi et neqoam ; iata gona 
comedit homines sicut nos boves, nam carucm humauam ita comedunt 
illic aicut bic canies maozinBi' comcduntur, htae tamen dc ac bona terra 
est. Nam magiiam copiam camium bladi et risi [babeut], magnaque copia 
habetur illic de auro,'tle lignis aloe, [de] ganfara,' de multisque alila qun 
ibi nascuntur.' Ad banc insulam accedunt mercatorcs de lonjjinquo por- 
tnntea aecum bomiaea' vendentesque ilios' infidelibus ipsia, quos cum 
emerent eoa interficiunt^ et comedunt, et sic de multis aliia et bonis et 
malia qua noti scribuntut, Id hac eadem iusuU Teraug meridiem 
babetur aliud regnum nomine Sumolchia' in quo eat uua generatio 
gentia singularis siguautia ae ferro calido parvo beue in duodecim locia 
in facie. Et hoc faciunt tarn homines quammulisres. Hii semper geruat 
bellum cum biia qui vaduut audi. lu hac contrata eat magou copia 
rerum. Penes quam est uduu aliud regnum nomine Rotemgo'" rcraus 
meridiem. Multa qunj noa acribo naacuutur in ille regno. 

21. De optima inttda Jaud. 

Penea" boc regnum eat una magna insula nomine Jana," ijuai bene 
tribus millibuB miliarium'* circumdatur. Bex bujua Janas habet bene 
eub ae aeptem reges coronsc. Usee ioaula multum bene habitatur. Et 
est melioT inaula que habeatur." In IpM enim naacuntur" cubebee, 
melegetn," nucesquc muacattc, multeeque alin species pretioses. In tk 
eat copia magna victualium prcterquam tini. Rex i^tjus IdsuIeb unum 
babet palatium valde mirabilo." Ham ipsum est valde magnum," cujus 
icaln multum aunt magoEe altie latatque: boium graduum udus est 

■ Ven. Domoa U 
' Far. Porcinfe. 
' Boll. amiiraFO intltad of the prtctding icordi. 

* iVu., Ganfar. 

* Hero JUiia. imerti Tamen genu pesliferi 
<* Fta. infantes i AaJi. homines pi DRUes. 
' Vtn. more besbarum ; Hak. aod ilia, i 

■ Ven. In macello : Boll, has this muoh al 

* Trm. and itam. Sumollrai Par. Simultani or Simultra; /iat. Sumolcra : 
JIfua. Simoltra sive Sumolara; itoU. Zumplloo {probably miaread); ilarc. 

'" fiR. Bolbonigo: Far.Betonigo; ifut. Boteingo et jiuta illnd alind reft- 
unm de quo nihil scribo nee de hiis quic ibi nancuntur ; Boll. ReBengo; Ham. 
Ilotterigo; Hak. omiU tbla kingdom oC Rotenigo, etc., ■itogetber; Marc. 

" Vtn. Juxta. 

" Ven. Jata; Halt, and Boll. Jbub: Far. and Mia. have Jana; Marc. Java. 

" Fen. Seeunda melior inaalanim: Far. lertia mvlior; Jfaft. melior se- 

cunda; Mm. aecunda melior at didlurj .Sof. estdemeliorihaa Indim una. 

'* Far. tribUH milliariia ; Hak, ciyua ambitua per n 

□ propriaa babent ; Hak. and Mua. speciales. 

ito.. omitted before. 
M Tendimna porcoa. 


" Vtn 

; Far. ganfora ; Hnk. fioi garj-opbjlli 

" Mui. et brevit^T omnes fere preitioti 
" Bad. quod mnltia iinpoisibile viden 
" Hak. and Jfw. et altiuine sial. 


ftureuB alter vero nrgenUug. Pavimcntum autcm ejua nnum Iftlere 
habetda auro, alterum vero de a,Tgeato. Murus vera istiua palatil t 
Mt Iftiaatus inlerius lamis aureis,' ia quibus lami« sculpti sunt «quitef ' 
■olum de auro habenMa circa caput unum magaum circulum aumum 
aiout hie babent uoitri Eaacti ; hic autem circulus totus est plenus lapi- 
dibus preciosia. Iniuper tectum cjua totum est de auro puro ; at nutam 
breiiter et fioaliteT dob loquamur, boc palatium ditius et puiehrtui est 
quod hodie sit iu muudo. Canb' tameu graudia Cathaii multoeibiu 
fuit in bc!lo Id campo cum isto, quom iste Mmper vicit et Bupemrit. 
Bic etiam uiulta alia aunt qus noa acribo. 

£2. De cojtfratd Talamasin et arboriitit ejiufar 

n daniiiu*, i 

Peuea banc coutratam est una alia contrata qun Tocatur Patem' quant 
alii vocant TalamaaiiD.' Ken bujus contratie multaa insulas hali«t lub 
se. Id hac contrata iuveniuutur arbarea fariuam producenteB ; aliqim 
etiam quie mel producunt' aliquodque rencnum, quod cut periculosiui 
Teuenum quod ait in mundo. Nam circa ipsum non jnvenilur sliquod 
remedium nisi unum. Nam ai aliquis da illo veueno aumpaiaset accipiat 
de atercore bominii et ipaum distemperet aqua, quern ot> bibat, propter 
Auod ab illo veneno totaliter libcrabitur,' Arboroa autem iato mods 
tarinam producunt. Nam ipsio aunt magna), non tamen multum altte,' 
etiam eaa una eecuri iocidunt circa pedeui," propter quod quida-m liquor 
ab ipsia exhauritur ad modum collEo'quem liquorem ipai ponunt in sacci* 
^tiB ex foliis, quos dimittunt per xv dies ia sole et ia fine xv dierum 
ez ipso liquore fariua facta est, ijuam poatea ponunt per duos in aqua 
maria; demde lavant eam aqua dulci et aic faciunt paslam boaam" de 
mundo. £c tunc de ipsa faciunt quid voluot, aeu ciboa aeu paaem mul- 
tum bonum, de quo ego frater Odoricua" jam comedi; hicc autem omnia 
propriia oculis ego vidi. Hujuit modi autem pania eiterius puJcher eit, 
interiua autem" nigcr eat. In ripa" hujua contratte veraus meridiem Ml 
mare mortuum, aqua cujus aeniper currit Teraus meridiem. Et ai aliquii 
per juxta iphius rtpam vadit, et cadit in aquam, nunquam ille qui lalii 
invcnitur. la hac etiam contrata aunt canaveriie" aeu arundines lonra 
bene pluribua Ix paasibua, magncc ut arborca. Alioi etiam cannn 

ri quoqae ejua ti 

' Hak. parietes, . ..lamitiiti liminia Riireis 
BFoiiK iBHiinia iiureiH HUnt ventiti. 
' Ven. Chaam ; Oak. GBnin de Kat>7. 
■ Fin. and Hak. Fan ten ; Fur. Panthenft/t. Paten; Boll. Pacen ; Kare. 

, aliquie prod ueen leu vinnm, etc. 

' Vtn. Sunt etiam prndocenioa mel, » 
' Hak. in bona (jaantiiBte. 

' Hak. Btaiim fugat Tenenum raoipna eiire per inreriorea parten ; Mu*. 
fu e_ffect, adding et sin eril aslvalns et s Teaeno toialiler liberatus. 
* Far. hju a birge fitatiu/rma quem et hibst to thii, 
' Hak. magoK el baann: Miu. magnai et multum altK. 
It gumiUE ; Ifuf. sicut gumma coIIb). 

I Hak. el Ma, 


Red etiam pro deleetatioaa pi 

' F«n., >'ar.. Haft.,Jfu(.. i?o(I. aliquantulum niger. 

• Far. riveriii. 

' Ven. CaDoee vatiru (im fteu aruniliaos). J-'ar, hat Cl' 

reperiuntur que rocaotur Caaan.' Haw pet terram aemper diriguntur ut 
qumdam herba queo spud nos appell&tur fcramegDR. Et :□ quolibct 
Dodo ipEtirum radicea producunt quee' bene efficiuntur longEe udo miliari. 
In liiiB auCem canuia inrcniuDtur lapides de quibua aliquis super se biii 
nuu^uam potest incidi a fcrro aljquo ncc offendi. Et ut plurimum 
homineB istiua coatratai de i^tis lapidibua suot supoT ao portaotaa. 
Ideoque propter Tirtutem horum kpidum veniuut hominea et accipiuut 
pueruloa auoa quoa in bracbio per quod modicum ipsi incidant, ubi 
unum de istis lapidibua isti pouunt ne ipso ferro aliquo cadat. Et ut 
ilium parvum vulnuB factum in bracbio alicujua pueri cito aolidettjT, 
de quodam pulvere uniua pis«ia ipei' ponunt, propter quod ruloua illud 
parvum BtatLm aolidatur. Et quia hujus lapidia magnm sunt yiiCutes et 
de iatia illi homiDes sunt portantes,' ex hoc in bello efficiuatur fortes' et 
magni curaorea* in mari. Tcrum quia narigantea pcrmare ab iatis talibua 
offenduntur unum remodium iuveoeruiit. Nam ipsi portant propugnacula 
HU palos acutisaimos de uno fortissimo ligno, portant [que] sagittas cum' 
ferro.' Et quia homines illi male aunt armati, per mare navigantes eoa 
Tulnerant et penetrant istia pilis acutisaimis et tagittia. Sic iato modo' 
iati tales ab iilia se viriliter defendunL De cannia iatis Caaan faciunt 
Tela suis navibus, aestoria,'" domunculas," multaque alia qutc aibi aunt 
utilitatia magna). Multa etiam alia sunt in contrata ista qute scribere 
et audire quasi stupor essot. Quapropter ea scribere ad preseus nou 
multum euro." 

23. Jh rege Campa, haiente mvltoi eUphanUs et mMltoiJUiei JUiatque. 

Ab isto regno per multaa dietaa est distana aliud regnum nomine Cam- 
pa," cujue contrata multum pulchra est. Nam in ipsa est copia magna 
omnium victuatium, et bonorum. Rex contratco illius ut dicebatur 
quaudo ibi fui inter filioa et filias ducentos'* bene habebat ; cum muitas 
habeat uxoros aliasquo muliorea quaa ipse tenet." Hie rex xiiii milia" 
elephantum domesticorum babet. Quos ita lencri facit et obseirari, 

' Far. Caasam ; Mat. Cassati, viilh tht ahnird addition e 
oariia inveniuntnr casaia flstulte. Ram. hat casar. 

' Vm.luu el inilead of nam, vliichU bitter. Fur. ran 
bene, elo. Bait, et Hut. luarly to the tame ejeel—per onu 

' Bak. ot Mm. cnjus nomen ignore. 

* Fen.omiifl IhiH nuperflnoiia senleDoe. 

> Ven. feroces. flat, et Bfut. commnniter trinmpharit ii 
neo posHUDt isti hominea Iccdi per ahqua arma ferrca. 
' Ven, maiimi pirati. 
T Ven,a\>aqae,tckich it required. 

* Far, sice ferro . 

lUiun gentis acientes virtutem lapidnm provident 

B spiculai11orum,etarma venoQBtBdeTeneno,et 

, ou:...,etBiaeonftuidutitaliqDOB et perTorant in- 

Mui, it la the tame t^ect and more diffiaely 

* Bak. hat Qaod advenai 
sibi propugnacuJa ferrea coi 
in manu portant palos ligni 


» Far. omiU Heatoria. 

" Ven. tali etfto ingenio. 

" Afar. Case di Btuoie, 

" Thit icat probably tcritten (j'ampB ; Ven, Zampa ; Far. Canps or Ca 
Bak. Campai Hare. Campa. 

" Bak. 300. 

" Bol. has in lfii> place noo mirabar de boo cum plurea hubuerit u 

" Hal:, decies millesies et qualuoi ; Mut. liii milliu. 

ah illJH bomwibus dc nllU iuia' qui sibi «uat eubjecti sieut hie bom. 
Aliaque mults animalia Unentur ad socedsm. In ista ettdem contrata 
unum mirabile quid reperituT. Num un&quaijue geneiatio piBcium qui 
aiiat in mari, ad haac conlrtttam io tanta veuit quaotitate quod dum n'c 
Teniunt uichil aliud vidclur in mari nisi pitces.* Bii autem cum pnrp« 
ripfcm siat S3 prujiciuot super illam.' Cum sic aulem aunt in ripa 
veniiiDt hnmines «C tot de ipsia babent et accipiunt et quod ipsi toIudL 
Hii autem pisces duobuB vel tribus diebus manent super ripftm- Deiode 
Tenit alia geoeralia piscis faciens hoc idem sicut prima. Sic etinm de 
alils sin^liaq^ue usque ad ultimam ordinate procedunt, quod tantum 
semel faciunt in anno. Cum de isto quceritui ab illis de iat* contmta 
quare sic fiat, ipsi respondent ct dlcu&t : Quod hoc fneiiint isti pbcet 
qui isto modo Teaiuut suum imperatorem revercri. In eadem «claiii 
contrata ridi unam tostitudiuem majorem quam easet rerolutia trulU 
ecclesite sancti Antouii de Padua.' Sic etiam de multis aliis quae forte 
aliquibus incredibilia viderentur nisi ilia viderent, quare ea acribere non 
euro. Cum etiam in contrata stlquis muritUT habena uxorem, ipse luor- 
tuuB comburitur, uior ejua [vera] viva.' Nam dlcunt quod ipsa cum suo 
marito vadit ad alium mundum ut illic moretur cum eo.* 

24. De Iiufi/a -ubi Cynoeephali. 

1 Occeanum \envi 
iin una est qun ti>- 
bcne pel duo milia 
habent. Hii uDtim 

De ista contrata recedens et oavigana per ma 
meridiem reperi multas insulas et contratas. Qut 
catur Sacimeram.* Hnc iofiula magna est, circuic 
miliarium ; in qua hominea et mulieres facies cauii 
borem adoraat pro deo suo, propter quod uuusquiique unum bon_ 
de aura vel argento semper portat in fronle,in signum quod ille bos est 
deua eoruin. Omnea istius cootraluj tam homines quam mulierea nudi 
vaduDt, nihil de mundo portantes nisi unam toaleam' qua suam ten- 
cundiam ipsi leguet. Hii sunt magni corpore et valde fortes ia bello, ad 
quod dum sic nudi pcrgunt solum uuum scutum' portant quod ecM 
cooperit !> capite usque ad pedea. Dum sic autem vadunt sd belluin *t wx 
cantingat capcre sliquem in bello qui pecuuia exigi'° non possit, st*tim 
comedunC ipsum. Si vera pecunia exigi possit eum habita pecunis abire 
permiCtunt. Rex istius contratie bene tres centas" perlaa portst ad 
collum multum magnaa, propter" quod pro diis suis quotidio trecenla> 
orationes ipse facit. Habet etiam unum lapidem preciosum bene^ 
longum et magnum unlk spensli, in manu sua" portat, queta lapidem nc 


fltbi subjectin s 

OS bovea et alia 
dorsa piseiuin. 

< Hah. el Mm, per maKinm spitium marlH nibil videl 

> Hak. et Hiut, super aridam. 
* Sak et Jfua. Ilii etiam aunt te<ttudines ita magni sicnt est un 

> Hak, et !Hui, sicnt snperins de alia contrata dictnm est. 
' Fmi, ut in alio mando simililer uonveraetor cam eo ; Hak. el iltu. aH 

> ibi aliam nxiTem arcipiat. 
' Fen, Nieuueran; Far. Nichovera: //at. Moumoraii; Jlfiu. Moehimonm- 


mpxan, prn 

ably mitriad : Marc. N 


et JH ».. un 

urn lineum. 


hai unum souttim 

e/erro; Mm. 1 




inttiad of 

benp ha 

rubinum; For. 




ta magnam qnan 

na, fiimma ignis ipse vi 

< precinsior lapis qui hodie ait in nuiuno. t eruuiputmeu mSigiiuB iiu- 

' <r Tartarorum Cathnii ilium lapideiu prcciosum nee ri, nee pccunia 

inm ingeoio uQquam b&tiere potuit. Id hac etirtm coutnti ipse 

>rviit. uniio oer totum suum reimutu 

r^eo etinm ingeoio uoquain 
c— «x bene jiistilinir ■---' 
[^uilibet potest ire 
^tiam ego acribere 

e potuit. 
ODservat, ui.>.^ 
Multa etiuni 

Et ut (licituriatee. 

V iptamen magnui 

: pccunia 

_ regDutu 
sunt qu» 

25. Be Inn'iln SiUan et eju* ■mirabilibut 

Alia eat ineula SIIIbd,' circuiens bene plura i^ua 
in qua sunt serpcntes infiniti, multaque alia aniui! 
quantitate' ut potiaainie elepbantes. Id hac conl 
xnons dc quo dicunt geotca quod super illo Adnm pUuxit filiuoa suum 
ceatum' anuis. In medio montiB hujus' est quEedam pulcherrimu 
plaaicies in qua est uaus Incus non multum magnus.' Bed tameu est 
bene in eo aqua magna quam dicunt Rentes esse lacrimas quas Adam et 
Eva etFiiderunt, quod tamen non creditureeae verum,' cum tamen iotus 
tittscatur aqua ilia. Profunditas'hujiiaaquic plena est kpidibus precio;jis. 
Qiite aijua multum est jTundinibuB'" et sanguisugis plena. lies lapides 
sou accipit ille rex, sed pro anima sua semel vel bis in anno sub aquas 
ipsns pauperes ire permittit, et quotquot ex lapidibus istis capere 
jiosauut omnes dimittit eis." Et ut ipsi paupores ire sub aquam possiut 
Bccipiunt liniuncm et quemdam fructum quern bene pistant," et illo 
bene se ungunt et tunc in aquain se mergUDt. Et cum sic stut uncti 
jrundines" et sanKuisugee illos offendere non Talent. Sic isto modo 

Cuperes sub intrant aquam, et exeunt accipientes si possunt de 
,>idibus istis preciosis. Aqita quae descendit per montom exit ab isto 
lacu. Et" ibi fodiuDtur boni robini et boni djamantes reperiuntur et 
multi, sic et multi lapides alii boni ; ibi etiam reperiuntur bonto 

Eerlea, quo aqua ista desceodit ad mare. Unde dicitur quod rex iste 
abet plures lapides preciosos quam aliquis alius rex qui hodie sit id 
niundo. In bac insulil sunt divorsn genera animalium sicut avium et 
multorum animalium quie morantur ibi, Unde dicunt illi de c 

I ['(ii. imtead of quern efise, has qui rede Rainma ignia esa 

ak. ilum babet illiltn videtiir ab aliia qituai una Uamma ignis et it 
idet aihi appropiuquare ; Jlu<. nearly the same. 

* Bak. imXit Wit icnJcnce ahout iht king't jailiee, etc. 

* Vtn. Sillam : Far. SiUm ; Bak. Ceilan (the MS. in B. M. hsx 
UBt tbe onlj dilTereDce rrom Hsklu)!'* primed copy) ; Mum. hai ? 
' Mak. et Mtii. et niai. multii. liiotium ursarum ut umDium a 

* Hak. 600 al 


; Sfui 

I, fioi'e parvus 

■0 dtluii*... 

^ Far. hat omitud Iht o< 
" Bak. et JTiu. sed pr. 

ceribua terrs scaturire. 

' I'ln. Fanduh ; Far. as in text. 

I" Yrnndiiiibns/DrhirudiiiibuB. 

" JKm.ut orent pro anima sua.omiitinplSeM Inil Jhwe wor** 

" V<n. limonibus Optimo friclis optime corpus latum linuut: Ut, 
bavoyrem, id est quetudam fructum quem b - - - •> 

quos bene pislant. 

" Mm. el in transitu qusnda rclrabit ne (oi 

quod htec animalia muHura forensem Induct not 
In hac insula ctiam xuct aves muUum inngDce 
duo capita in se habent.' Hieu etiam iosuk 
vicCualium et multonicn aliorum boDorum qun uoa acnoo. j 

3S. Be Innda Dondin tt ejut eoasaetudiniiia turpiuimi*. ^ 

Da isU insula recedcoa et pergeca versus Tneridiem nd quamilam' 
magnam iusulant mc applicui (juie vocatur Dondin,' qun idem est quod 
immundum.' In insula ista mail homiues commorantur. Ifam ipsi 
eames aridas' comedunt omQemque ulium immundiciam quie jam dici 
posset.' Turpem inter so cooauetudinem iiabent. Nam pater cooiedit 
filium et filim comedit patrem, uxor maritum et mnritus uxorem ; ec 
hoc per istum modum. PonatUT quud pater alicujua illorum infirmetnri 
filiufi tunc ipse ibit ad astrolugum et ad' sacerdotem cui sic dicet; 
Domine, iCe vos ad sciendum a Deo nostro, si pater meuB posfiit ab ilU 
iufinnitate liberati vel ci ips& mori debet. Tunc ipse saciu^os et aliui 
homo cujus pater infirmatur accedunt ad ipaum jdolum quod est de 
auro vel de argeuto eique faciunt orationem et dicunt ; Domine, tu ei 
Deua noster, quern pro Deo nos adoramus, nobis reapondeaa ad ea qua 
tibi nos dicemus. Tallter homo multum in&rmatur ; idea te petimus ri 
mori debeat ex hoc languore vel liberari. Tunc demoa per os jdoli 
respondet et diclt : Pater tuua non morietur, sed de ista liberabitur 
infirmitate; verum tate quid sibl facere debea et sic liberabitur ip«. 
Ita quod ille demon totum ipaum ilium modum [dicit] quern circ& patrem 
luum teuere debet.' Deinde filiua ad patrem nccedit, et sibi diligeoiei 
eervit donee ipse totaliter liberatur.* Si autem demon ille dicat ipsum 
debere mori, sacerdos ad eum accedet et unum paonuro'" super oa suum 
ipse ponct, et sic eum statim sufiocabit et moriatur. Cum autem tic 
interfecit eum ipaum iucidet in frusta et ad ipaum comedendum iQvita- 
buutur amici, parentcs, omnesque byatriones" da contruta, et ipsum 
comedeut cum cantibus et gaudio magno ; ejus tamen ossa accipient, ilia 
pouentos sub terra cum tuagQa soil em pni tate. I'nreutea autem illi qui 
od has Duptiaa nou fuerunt sibi ad verecundinm maximam reputabanL 
Hos tales" multum reprebeiidebam. diceua : Quare sic facitis vos cum hoc 

Juod facitis ait contra omnen rationem. Nam si cauia aliquis occi- 
eretur et ante alium canem ponetetut ipse de illo nuUatenui 
manducaret ; ue dum voa qui homines vidcmini rationales, Ad ho 
mihi respondebaat dicentea, hoc facimua ne vermea comedout ejn 

' Vtn. better nullum forensem ladunt, et Bolummodo illoa qui nati sunt ii 
ipsa ; Far. to tbe same effect, also Bak. 

' Far. abtwdly kai oiille capita. Probably u taken for H. 

' nt. Oandin ; Hak. alone hai UoiiiD, bitt probably a mitprtnt, ai il ji 
Dodin in Ike MS.,v>hieh I take for Baktuyfi oris'tal: Mtu. Dodyn; BolL 
Dod3m ; Mare. Dondin, 

< Far arndas iM in Ven. 

' JUiu. idem est quod mnndua. 

' Hak. quae quasi Bicogilire nun poterit, to mhleh Mui. addi 

' Fen. hot id eat. 

' DolL TuDC dfemon quandaque ex Idolo de convalescentia respondl^ 
jnbens proourstione illiux in floe aliquas Beri ceremunias et oblalionea asl 
doRBoa filium qaomodu uutrial patrem. f 

■■ Mut. Usque ad pleuara convaleseuDliam juxtn doeumentum diaboli poul^ 

uin liiium. " (;'!, jaoulatoreB. 


ArrENDIX I. XSlll 

caroes. Nam ei ejus cames vermes comedereot ipsius snima magnnB 
pateretUT pcenas ; ideoque camem eju9 comcdimua, ut ejus aaima ali- 
qaasDoo patiatur pccntu. Et siceis taDtum dicere potvrain quaatum 
ego Tolelnm quia nimquam aliud credere ipsi volebant ncc ab isto litu 
discedere queu tenebaat. 

27. He Indid et iziv milliiaa Inndanim qu<u hahtl. 

MuitsE atin noiitateg hie hubentiir quaj non Bcribo, nam nisi homo cas 
Tideret, eaa credere non poseet, cum in toto non sint mundo tot et 
tftnta Dilrabilia qute sunt in iato regno. Hkc autem scribt feci <\ii«! 
certuB sum, et in nullo dubito quia aicut refero itaest.' De' hac insula* 
diligenter inquisivi multoa qiii hoc iciunt et omnes uno ore locuotur et 
dicuat, quod hsc India bene ixiiii' milia insulanim continet sub se, in 
qua eCiam sunt bene Ixiiti regCB coronEe. Major pare hujus itiEuls* b^ne 
nb hominibus habilatur. Hie Ipsiua Indite facio finem et nicbil de ea 
dicere toIo aliud. Bed solum iutendo aliquid dicere de India supcriori. 

Venit Fr. Odorieus ad Indiam Superior' 

t Provi 

1 Manzi. 

Ubi sciendum est quod dum uavigarem per mare Occeanum versus 
Orient«m per raultas dietas ad illato nobilem provinciam Mansl* ego 
veni quani ludiam Tocamus BUperiorem.' De ista India quuenivi 
diligenter ChriatianoB, Barracenoa, ydolatros, omcieB officlalea magni 
Cauia" qui omnea uno ore loquuntur et dicunt quod provincia niansi' 
habet bene duo millia magnarum civitatum, quEO in tantum aunt magneo 
illee ciritates quod Treviaium neque Vincentia in ipaarum numc 
ponerentur ;'" unde tanta multitude est in iela contrata quod apud 
esaet incredibile quoddam." In ipsa est maxims copia panis, vini, 
carnium, piecium, omniumque Tictualium, quibus homioes utuntui 
mundo. Omues homines bujus provinciEO sunt 
qui paupertatem quam habeant" dummodo se 
adjuvare nunquam aliquam peterent elemosina: 
sunt corpora pulchri," pallidi lamen, habentes barbam 
longam eicut'' murilegie, id est cattte ; mulieres Tero pulchenimn de 

rtificea" ot m 

luis manibua voleant 

Hii homines satis 

li illnd de qno certos ei 

I Hak. Ego aulem coram Deo nihil hii 
sicQt homo certiHnare poterit. 

' Ven. hat in intlcad of de. 

^ far. Ue hac India Inferiori (no doubt Insula it arong) aunt aliie hac in- 
sula; qute nominavi et inquisivi mnltaa qui hoc sciunt, etc. ; Boll. De magni- 
tudine hujns inferioris InJiffi a multia, etc. 

* Hak. Uau ; Boll. Viginti quataor millia. 

'• Mui. iatiua IndJED ; to alto BoU. Marc, kat qneate isole, ahieh inditaui 
the righl reading- 

' Mui. Maosiffi ; Van. et For. Manzi ; Hak. Manci ; Boll. Mansr> 

^ Hak. qnc India Tocalur a Latiula. 

■ Ven. Cbaam. ° Mm. Uancy. 

10 Far. Tarviainm. 

" BoU. intra raoros ipsarnm cnjuslibet possent slire. 

" Afui. nuUam paupertatem habeot ; Bolt, qui numqnam depaaperantar. 
" Hak. Satia rormobt. 

" Hak. rasas et parvas barbaa habenlea ; Jlfuf. 
loDgaa sicut murilegi. 
" Mui. Pnlflberrimsi et fonnoss;^ Doll, nimium Biut formosie. 

Af'I'ENDIX 1. 

•26. Be CivitaU Veiti-KaUm. 

.s hujuB provincice quam myeai vocatur Cens Bcolsa ;> hiec 
civiCits bene ita magna est pro (ribua Tcnetiia,' distans a man* j>bi 
uuam dielam, pnaita super uniim flumeo, cujua aqua propter* ipsum 
mate ascendit ultra terrain bene xii dietU. TolU9 [K>pulus hujus 
civitatiB totiuacjiio proviiici» Manii Indieeque auperioria jdolatrat.' 
Hebc civitas talitum uavigium hibet et ita magDUio quod quasi aliquibiu 
incredibjie videretur, unde tota Ytalia non habet navigium lU uuij- 
num sicut hssc civitaa sola habet.'' In h&c civitftte haberi poBsunc bene 
trecentx* librtc ainziberis reeeutit minor! uno grosao. In hac «liaiii 
sunt najoreH eC pulchriores nnaercs ac mi^liuB forum' quam hoc sit in 
mundo, unde unus illorutn aoBerum est bene magnua pro duobua 
de Dostria, totua albiie ut lac, babena unum os super ca;jut uiiiiiE on 
qua.ntitate, qui talis coloria est qualis sanguis est. Ec hii anseree 
habeut aub gul& unum pellem per unum semiisem' pendentem ; hii 
ctiam sunt pinguissimi ; unus quorum bene coctua et cooditua minor 
uno proBio haberetur. Et sicut est de auseribus sic etiam de ansitibai 
et gallinis, quae illic sunt ita magaa: quod magaum inirum est. QJc etiam 
majores aunt serpentea qui sunt in mundo ; hii multum capiunturab istia 
a quibuB pOBtea dulciter comeduutur. Uode in tarn aotlenipno ferculum 
babentur ii serpentea, quod faclens fieri convivium unutn' de istis non 
habens serpentibus nil facere diceretur. Bsec etiam ci vitas magnam habet 
habundonliam omnium victualium qute sunt in mundo. 

30. Dt nobili eivilale Zayton et it pattu ydolorvm. 

De iata contrata recedens et icdc trsuriens per inullaa tenu at 
civitatea, veni ad quamdam nobilem teiram nomine Za;ton.'* In qn* 
□OS fratrea minores habemus duo loca; ad que portavi ocsa illonua 
Dostrorum fratrum minorum qui passi fuerunt martiriun) pro Gde Jhent 

humaoiD vitic," Nan trea librae et octo uccxis Kucbxri minori dimidM 
groEso" habentur ibi. Hicc civitas magna eat aicut bis esset" Bononia. 
In bac isulta sunt monaateria rcligloaorum qui jdola univenaUtei 
adorant. In uno autem istorum monastcriorum ego fui in quo bene 
erant tria milia religioionim babeutium" xi millia jdola;" et unum 
illorum ydolorum quod minus aliis esse videbatur etat bene ita mag- 

I Yen. Con^icala; Vt. Cenooula; Far. CpDKcaUm; Hak. Censkalon, al$a 
itta. Boll. Snuatulay {probably mitrcail); Man. OenttscalsD. 

' Vsn. qoffi est in Iriplo major VincBUcia; in ttxt; so also Far,; and 
JUut., though in another plw^e. 

' Far. hai prope ; Bnk, props maio cui conligustnr IT): Mui. cnjna aqua 
propter mare ita cuntiguum bene per xn dielae super ipsam terrom aaoendit. 
BoU. a> in ttxt. 

• floH, oenlnm librffi noo 

ninori grosso Venelo. 

J Vtn. in meliori foro ; Ho*. 

naius rurutn (probably tnii 


• Mui. hat nnnm ad minus (a 


1° Far. Caioham ; Mai. Kayco 

; Hak. Kaium; Boll. S«.\t 


" Ut. minori pretio a 

no groMO. 

" Mui. nl Hrteliter aa^ero. 

" Poll. Bub cart aui 

i« for. oniiti. the millia. 


num esset sicut Sanctus Obristopharus. Ilia autem hori qu& istis 
diis Buis dant wi manducmidum m ad ridcnduiu, Et hi! into modo 
cuinedere sibi duit. Omnia (juee illis ufferunt conicdeada eis calidieaima' 
l^orriguDt, iM quod fumus illorum asceadit ad ^dolu quum ipsi pro 
comesCioDe iBtorum jdolorum esse dicunt, aliud autem totum pro ae 
babeut et majiducanC .' et sic isto modo dicunt se bene pascere deos 
luos.' Verumptnmea hicc terra de melioribua eH <jiib> hodie sint in 
uiuudo ; e( hoc in ih que posaet habere carpus humanum.' Multa 
alia de hac terra dici poBSeat i]uie Don ulterius modo Bcribo. 

31, De eivitaU Fuse « de mirahililnia modit piteandi. 

De hue contntta Toni versus orientem nd unam civitatem qute vocatur 
Fucho,' quEB bane circuit per zkk miliaria, in qua Buot majores galli (]ui 
sunt in muDdo. OallinEe vero' BUnt aibte ut nix, non haheatee pennas aed 
solum lanam ut pecus aunt portantes. One ciTitas multum pulcbra et 
sita super mare de qulL recedena ivi xviii dietis transiens per multaa 
terras et civitatea, aliaque dlversa multa. Dum autem sic irem Teui 
ad unum magnum montem, in uniua cujua latere monlis, omnia 
BDimalia illjc habitancia nigra aunt,' et bominea et mulieres valda 
eatraneum modum Tivendi babent. Ab alia autem latere moutis omnia 
animnlia alba aunt,' hominesque et mulierea ab aliis diveraum modum 
Vivendi habent. Omnca mulieres innuptie unum magnum liarile de 
comu in ca^'ite portant ut cognoscantur quia nuptie aunt, Uinc trans- 
iens per xviii alias dietas et per multas terras et civitates, et vcoiens 
ad UDum magnum flumen, applicui ad unam civitatem quee per trans- 
v^rsum iatud Sumen babet unum poniem, in capite cujus in domo 
eujusdam hoapitia fui, qui michi voiens complacere dixit : Si tu via 
videre bene piscari veni mocum ; et sic me duxit super pontem istum. 
Id quo dum lie essem aapexi atque vidi in iltia auia barchia' mergoa'* 
super perticaa alligatoa, quos poatea ille homo uno Glo ligavit ad gulam 
ne illi ae in aquam aubmergentea 6t piscca capientes illoa comedere 
possent," Unde in harcha una posuit trea magnas cistas unam ab uco 
capite navia, secundam ab alio, tertiam vero posuit in medio. Dum 
autem sic fecisset illos diasolvit merges, qui ae postea in aquam submer- 
tcebant, et sic pisces quam plurimoa capiebant, quoa ipaimet poaCea in 
itlis cialia ponebant, unde in parvil boi& omnea ilJe cistn fuerunt pleuEc. 
Ipse autem dum sic plena: essent a cello eorum filum accipiebat ot eos 
iu aqua Bubmergere pcrmittebat, ut inde piacibus pasccrenlur; cum 
autem paati esaent ad sua loca revertuntur, et eoa ibi ligat sicut prjus 
erant ; ego autem de piacibua illia manducavi." Traneiena inde par 
multaa dietas alium modum piscandl ego vidi. Nam sunt homiuea habenCea 

> Sok. Ft ilai. et fiimJgsDlia. 

' Boll. Am HUmunt et pro tuis nsibua reservant. 

* Mat. Et sia de fumo laotum deos auDii pssanat. 
< Ven. El hoc in necessariia corpori humaoi. 

1 Fen. Fuao; Far. Fuo; R<tk. Fuko; Mat.Yaco; floK. Suotio (iniir«oiIpiij- 
bably) ; JOarc. Fara. 

* UoU. ita mBRnw non sunt, aed. 

' Haft, nt earbo ; Bal. han timply in cujna latere nigra aninialia morsbanlur, 
ex aliu lutem Utere ejusdem monlia animalia sunt alba. 
' Hak. ut nix. 

> Hak. hai brachiis (cUarly an error) and 
'" Far. hat smergOH. 

" Ven. ne cum piaees capiwetit ipsoa dp^jli 
'■ tiak. el (ipLinii miUi videbautur. 

^nm wamm eos ^m£o ioccna vdeU. Bnc 
&«■ bfa« z *d xii tapdlectila" bdaat 

qvatuor SamecsonnB %iti eoaaoata 

> fat. poeebaM ; Jfiu. batatinut. 

' JIak, qniLe oaiu this iieeoDd fiabiiig itdfy* 

■ f««.CuspMr; i'itr.ChMiHiiB;Hsk.ctVa«. 
Mare. Cunuje. 

* itoH. trmni ttU qnun rancpeiL 

■ ^n. PanieiiU; F«r. uoa eal t«TT*; JTm. m 
plMom raeiwm qniii beoe iababitareuir- 

* Hak. hat imo ndi tnnllo* doiDOH h^entca x nl xa miIi 
•lind, lekith it tueugk to coa if ■ ■ the ottOmritf of Uaf ■ 

' i/afc. et Hut. nbotbia. ■ B«I. id ■ 

* ifafc-SiUntio aqDiB qiue femper (lant et DecflDant nee reBmiBt' 
Umea htbeiil propUf (euam unit ci*itu V«Beli>raiD ; Mum. to ramt 

" Bak- decern millia et 2... qnonun multos aamenvi et li«mchi 
sii miUU. 

" Fen. et Far. Sient Femria jmU Fadnm : «n fioU. iU(o. 

■* IfM. Bnc ticnt Ferraria ipaa manet aam langior est qoam iMm. 


* Jfuf. bilMtoriam, 
*• f^r. rnium balU la 

■* Viu. odilt pratuitouily ideal 
" Far. litv ; Halt, ai in t«l. 
" Far. luTiiii : fiat, oi in (c 

tDtaos sri and (tO. 

imbicii ; bnt IhU iAdwU pn>6a&ly h* ImIm i 




bene X milia iguium facit. Reliiguorum veto &lii sunt CbriBtioni, klti 
mercatoreB, alii4ue trajiseuDtes per coDlratam, undo niuUum fui mi- 
ratus quod tot corpora hutnana potetant habitare aimul. In ea est copia 
magna panis, caroium de porco,' et vidi, ac risi ; quod Tinum vigim' 
aliter nominatur, quod etiam potaclo nobilU repuCatur : omnium etiam 
aliurum victuallum illic copia maxima reperitur. 

33. De guodam mirxibUi quod vidit Fr. Odorietu in quodam 
fnomuterio ydololatrarum. 

H»c est civitag regalii in qu& rex Manzi olim morabatur. Bt iu oa 
quatuor nosCri fratres miaores' uaum potentem hominom coDverterunt, 
in domo cujus' hoapitabar, undo mthi aliquando dicebat Acha,^ id est. 
Paler, vis TcoiTs videre terrami £t sibi semel dixi me velle ire, undo 
ascend imus unam barcbam et sic itimus ad unum magnum illurum 
monasterinrum quai ibi erant, ad quod cum ivisBemus UDum illorum 
religiosorum vocavit dicens: Videa hunc Rabao* Francbi (scilicet iatum 
virua religiosum Francb), iste venit inde ubi occidit bo!, et nunc vadit 
Cambalclb,' ut roget^ ritam pro magno Cane. Ideo sibi osteodas aliquid 
quod ipse vidcre pcasit, ai bic eat mirabile,' ut ai rcverterctur ad auas 
coDtratas, dicere possit tale quod novum vidi in Canaai. Tunc iste 
dixit ae Hbenter velle OBteudere aibi aliquid novum, EC tunc ieto duos 
maguos maatelloa'' accepit plenoa biis qure superfuerunt a mentfl." Et 
ipse tunc Btatim" apperuit cujusdam viridaiii pottam per quam iutra- 
vimuB in viridarium illud, nunc autem in eo eat quidam monticuluB" 
plenus arboribus amcBDis; et dum in eo sic esaemuB, ipse Cimbalum" 
unuin accepit, et illud incepit pulsare,'' ad cujus sonilum multa ani- 
loalia varia et diversa de illo monticulo desceoderuot, sicut nunc easent 
sjfmiie, catti, majmones, aimiliter et multa alia animalla" circa ipiium 
se aptaveiunt ad se ioviccm ordlnata. Et cum circa ipsum sic csaeut 
poaita et ordinata, ipse paropsidea" poouit ante ilia ot sicut competebat 
comedere sibi dabat :'" buc autem cum sic comedissent cjmbalum pulaare 
Cffipil, et ad sua loca revertebantur cuncta. Dum autem sic vidcrem 

' Hnft. et eamiom de porco prseoipne. He omitt the hiRini, 
' Thii §hould run at in Vtn. risi et vini, quod vinura bigini aliter nomioa- 
Inr; Far. aho ktu it in an uniiilelligibli ihape,- Mm. Aoi carniuTii porcinoram 
vini et risi qnod bignii aliler numlnalur, de quo nubilis fit potalio inter eoa. 
' BnlL hai erroneotiily preedicli. 

■ £"97. Corttiuue; aUo ilia,; Uak, in oujuu boapitio condnue habitabiun 
dum fui ibi. 

* Vtn. Araba; Far. Arra; Hak. Ara; Ball. Ara. 

■ Ffn.FranBbiimi Boll, hai BaLi. 

' Ven. Cambaleeh. ' Halt, deprecetur. 

' Fen. omilj tlieie/aur vordi, ni do Ut. and Ib^ otheri. 

" Miu. £anaiiii; Hak. CanasiA. " Boll, aportaa. 

" Hak. et duiit me ad unim perclnsam parvam quam aperuit cum clave, ft 
apparolt liridariutn gratiuaum, etc. 

•3 Slui. earn clave. 

" Hak. sisut unum oampanile. 

'^ Fen. rimpanum : far. timbalum; £aU. Tin lion abnlo. 

" Hak. sieut percutitur quaudu monachi intrant rereclorium. 

<T Ven. hat here n»m faciem fasbebant bumanam quie erstit circa tria miliin 
qiiie ciriia,e1c: far. animalia habentia faciem bominis; Mta. abtardl^ bat 
ci;ni millia, probablf miscopied for circa iii millia; Hak. 4000. 

" Vtn. paraasidea. 

'3 Ball, ^ecundam nalurx liUa^ diatribuit illix clbum. 



^taf ItUUuni C(e|il rUlerc,' illcona : Qu&lis mat w^ w 

ni ilul,* Kf auiem ilc mipotidenti, dicc^* ^m 

imt wd kIuhi liutiM at kuinitlia i|iM amit. Hiclii iiHiw 
diecnti V«ruiu non Mt (luoil knc »nimnlU aint, ^ ■ 
Doblllum lUDl Ulw> umlo unii* illoriim siout fuit iM>b«& I 
ftnim* in klli)uM Uiorum aniiuaUtiiu nuliilium ipak intrmt. 
ruitlooruu Id aitiiualk vlli* {ninnt ot haViiUnt. Sic »mi 
dioer« fioteikiu ilhi iniilta iiuw laiueu aliud nunquAm aw 
8i quia aiitem iIImn vX cuarmre hiijua clvitatis inagnitoabfl 
illiitMjuo iMLduii niirahllta iiMMi iiinl in el, unus boousqiuf 
b«o Ulia t*uer« ntvu )>tHHi«i. Varum Uik «Ht uobilior « 
pro mercitaoniU iiuam Mti««l totun uundui.* 

M. OrrtWMM (lOrttAK * - 

M^MiHiiM Talay, tt 


>* Mt aax dirtM vmi m1 uii»m a. 

- MM^lM^ararieiTiutis bene perxl 

!■ iMk WtMi titoiM* Mmt bM>« tKs centi el s} 
Im H i j t**'*"*' * ''' foxk ***'M UbiM «iu>d<u. Id hac cinl 

ft (MM f* te M aM te IwciMm ««%<«« ^wod est mirabil 

■■a v^^i^ ivc^^^H v^ai mm ^^ViflWB MBm fliBfttum quod 

1 ■ ^ «BaftpW w » — w ^BWi* W ftai fc,n i a w iM cIvmm tq 

It ha rani 

I ■ win I '' 1 - r - 1-|- in ■!■ BM^w M 

III - ' I - --^:n.-'^~ - ^^ ImTTm 

gMi--lhM Ifc ^ <i > ■■ ^ •■< ! * * ^L ^ i—^ ^ *^S! 

»^«vA. ;vk»4«KMi 

n&gni ijui ibi aiot filios geDeraot qui plus quam pro dimi^JietSite similei 
Ulis pigmeii sunt qui sunt ita p&rii. Ideoque tot isCorum parvorum 
ibi geuerautur et oagcuntui quod sine numcro quoai aunt.' 

35. De ciBttatiiut latmai et Mtitiu. 
Dum per istud flumeu dal Taki sic irom traoaivi per multaa ciriUiteB 
et veui ad unain que vocuCur Jamzai,' in qua est udub Iqcus ii 
fratrum miDorum. In hoc otiam sunt tres eccloslpe Sei 
scilicet Tirorum religioEoriuu ;' hnic civitas nobilts est et magna, habeas 
bene xlviii* vol Iviii tumau iguium, quorum uuum quisque tuman bene 
sat X milia. In hac cTvilate sunc omnia ilia quibuB Tivunt ChrlatiaDi ut 
sunt in copiH ma|^&.' Undc Dominus istiua civitacis solum de sale 
beue habet de redditu quioquuginta milia* Tumnn bolisi. Balisus 
autem valet uniim flurenum el dimidium, ct ita unum tuman baltsi 
bene coosCituit quindecim milia florenorum. Terumptamsa uaam gratiam 
huic populo fecit Domioui iste. Nam sibi dimittebat cc tutD&n ne' 
caritudiDem* haberenC, Hanc autem consuetudinom habeC civitas ia[a ; 
nam quando udus homo vult facere unum mogQum pastum vel con- 
vivium suia amicia, ad hoc sunt hospiciu deputata ; nam illia hominlbua 
qui hoc hoapicium tenenC dicet ille homo : Tu hospes facias mihi con- 
livium iatud pro quibuadam' amicis mais, et pro illo toIo ezpendere 
tantum -, sic autem convivium mihi fiet bene et ordinate, et michi melius 
Bcrvietur ibi quam in domo mea propria.'" ileec etium rivitoa mnsimum 
□avigium habet, per x miliaria ab iata civitate. In capite istius fluminis 
magni del Talai una alia civitaa est quse vocatur Menzu:" hiec civitas 
majuB navigium et pulchrius habet quam alia civitaa quK forte sit in 
mundo, Umnea illie naves albce sunt ut nix, zesao" depictn. In ipais 
etiam sale'' hospicia multa qun alia ita pulchra habent et ordinata, 
sicut unquam in mundo posaent, unde est quasi quoddam incredibilc 
audire et cidere hujus naiigii magaituJinem. 

36. De Flumine Caramoran, ct de ipiibuidaia civilalibu*. 

Ab ihta civitate recedena et tranaiens per iiii dietas per multaa terras 

et civitates per aquam dulcem, veni ad quamdam civitatem qun vocatur 

' Ven. addi bi pigmiei formosi sunt tam niBres quam feminai per msgni 
ludiriem huam, el [emiiiw nnbunl iii qninto Bono: habenl autem aoimBiii 
lationalem Hicat nos; Ut. hat the la'ine, ipith famosi iititiad o/formosi. 

' Ven. lamiaj; [Tf. Jamzai ; Far. lantu j Hak. lanza; Sfut. Jancas; B'tll. 
Innzi; Jlfart. Jamzai. 

■ Far. omiu this explanilion, which sppeim to be offioioua sud inaccDra'v. 

* Hak. Ifl Thiiiuan limply ; JWu*. xlviii vel I IhumsTn. 

' Hak. omnia victnalia et auimaliain maftoa copia, etc, 

' Bntb Ven. aud Far. have manus, tcltich teeaii a niiitakt .• Hak. kai 'lO 
Thuman, but 300 belnic ,- JHnre. manl di Thnmao balis. 

' Ven. carestiam. * Ven, hai pro tot imiois m»a. 

" Thin is nrong. It should be ai in Ven. ; et meliitK sertitur eis qnam in 
dnmo propria TBCtum emet. Far. hai to Ihii tfftct alio. Hak. hai it ilupiiff^ 
E[ per ilium modum melius coDvivant amici in pluribus bospiiiis quun facereui 
in I1D&. Jft». to elTeet of Ven. 

" Par. Menchu ; Hak. Monlu : Ifui. Menca : Bull. Mensj ; Jlfare. Menzu. 

" Fen. gippso. 

I* Both Yen. pt Far. have tbii sale, liihich I dn not uadtritand. 1/ sal«j/or 
Hiilli, it should sppareDtly have b<en aalaa. JUiiri;. Ant in quelle vi saou le 
hbIp, alberghi e molle nitre coup, eto. 

" t'lR. Tiii; Fur. ooio, and Bothi^oiherif. 


more, e 1 Splinolo gli toI fare (mnde odok, convita e nuns tutti 
Mcerdoti e reli^osi e giucolari e Tici&i e parenti e portuio tl eorpo ■ li 
euopapik con gnu fecl«reccis; e quiTi v apparecchiato un gnu don 
e quuido t' i potto siuo e lacerdoti gli mozzaiio il cspo, e danno il 
figliuoio. E p«i i) tagliaoo tutto a peiii, e '1 figliuolo ctm tutU b 
compagnia canUno e cunndosi quiudi un petto fanno oracioDL Alton 
venftono aeuglie e avoICoi de' monti e ciaseuDo pijclia il suo ptiu 
Allora gridauo e dicono Vedete ehe santo uomo r|u«gt) fu, ehe rengoK 
gU aijgeli per lui, e porlando in paradiso! Poi il figliaolo ae ne p«(li 
Il capo e mangialo cotto poi del teechio fa fare un vaeo e maDgiaiia ( 
bcono COD esso tatti quelli dclla oan con Rraode diTozione. Ku kta 
tone usanse sodo tn quelli pagaui il'oriente 1« tjuali non dico, ^M 

4G. D'u 

popclano di Italia. 

Ifella proTiocia de Alanxi reni ad uno palagio d'un uomo popoMRI 
cui *ila ene in qucsto modo. E liene cinquanta donaelle Tergini, li 
ijuali il EcrroDO. Quaado viene a naogiare ogni Tivanda o 'mtwudigiod 
li portaDO T delle doDielle predette con moUi istoTment) di dinne 
maniere, e rantano e del coDtinuo cantano mentre ehe la rivan^ i 
nanzi. Poi coataro si partono e aUre cinque delle d«tte donielle A 
vengono col' altra TiTanda. e 'mbasti^one e con altri diTerd istonnenti t 
COD direrii canti e per queelo tnodo neoa la eua vita. Quealo ai^non i di 
renditaixi tumani tag^iai'diriso. II tunianoinuiiierodix<>> ; e'l t«inart 
soma d'asino. E 'I cortile del bud palagio gira ben ii migliik e '1 palaantl 
fatto inquesto modo, cbe I'uao mattone o vero pietra i d'oro e Talm 
d'arienlo. Nel cortil dentro ate un monte d'oro e d'argenlo, Bopra il qttali 
ton fatti monacleri e campanili per suo diletto. £ dicesi ehe tra qvoti 
Manx! wno liii" uomini per la modo di cestui. Gli uominj dt qatM 
paeie teoEono p«r nobiltk ad arere luDj-he I'unghia. e la belleim ddli 
femnina d'avere piccjoli picdi. Perd quando casce la femmiDa lentadn 
istringouo loro i pledi, a cid ehe non cteecono loio piu cbe TOgliono^ 

47. Pel Vax/tio deSa Montagna. 

Partendomi delle terre del Preato Giovanni, reneudo Terso ponenta 
Teni a una coutrada ehe ei cbiama Mileser.'bella e abondeTole d'ogni 
bene. Nella quale si dicea cbe Eole istare il Tecchia della montacna 
Egli ayea fatto tra due monti un cercuito di moro, e dentro le piii belk 
fonti del mondo. E dentro eran poste donze' vergini belle le pib del mondo, 
e cavalli belliisimi, e tut le quelle cose cbe potesfonodilettarecorpoumana 
E facea dire ehe questo era paradieo; e quando redea un giovane vaJotMO 
si lo melea in questo luopo; nel quale facea andare vino elatte per coodoUo' 
e quando volcafarc uccidere alcun re o barone, facea dire al Mpr»atantedi 

2uel luogoch'egii facesse venire il piusttoeamoroEoadilcttieneldiaion 
i queato paradiso, e quelli allora dava beveraggi a quel cotale, ehe '1 &e« 
fortemente adormentare ; e cnsi dormendo nel facea (rare. E quelli 
riaentendosi e troTandosi fuori di queeto luogo era in grajide tristina i 
e pregava a quel signore cbe vel facesie ritomare. & allor* d 

fn' til ritnrniirfl, VHDB 6 UCcidi il COlale UOmO pOl ci ntOntO^I 

, n queBlo nsodo facea uccidere chiunqua o^M 

Per la qual cosa era temuto da tutti i re d' orienM, « UMtdl^^l 
tributo. E 'n questo modo facea uccidere tnoUi de' Tutor 
venieno pigliando it mondo. Per la qual coaa vi venono a ' 

dicea, Vo lu 

I For (agar. 

' ProlaU-j Milehfll 



noblliorea pellos sunt qute sint ia mundo. In medio autem paUtio eat 
una QiHgDa piogua' alia pasatbiu pluiibus quam duobus, quie tota eat 
de UDO lapide precioso, nomiQe meidaCaa.' Ipsa etiam tolia eet auro 
ligata at in quoUbet angulo ipfiius est unua eerpens qui veiberat os 
fartissiiuB, Uxc etiam pinona retia habet de perlia magnis qUEe pendent 
ab e&, que retia forte sunt lata una spansa. Per piguam banc defertur 
paCuB per conductua ijui in curiil regia babetur,' Juzta banc etiam 

Eignam maueut multa vasa aurea, cum qiitbua omnea Toientea blbera 
ibunt. In ipso auCem palatio Bunt multi pavonea de auro. Cum aliquia 
Tartarua allquod featum vult facere domino auo, tunc sic aunt per- 
cutientea ad invicem manua suaa ; tuac bii pavonea auns alaa emittunt 
et ipai Cripudiare Tidantur. Hoc autem fit rel arte djabolica tcI inganio 
quodam sub tena fit.' 

38. St evrid Domini Canii. 

Quum ipse dominus auper auam sedem aedet imperialem a siniatro 
latere manet regioa, et uno gradu Jnferiua duoj alia: morantur mulierea 
quas ipse tenet ;' in infimo autem cunctte dominte pareDtelio. Omnes 
illte quEB nuptte sunt unum pedem hominta super caput babent, longum 
bene bracbium cum dimidio ; sublet illo pede sunt penuie gruia in sum- 
mitate, et totua ille pea eat omalua perlis magnia, unde ai perlcB magnie 
in mundo aunt ct pulchrEC hoic ila sunt in omamentum isCacum domi- 
narum.' A latere autem dextro ipsius regis moratur ejus Slius primO' 
genitus, qui post ipsum regnara debet ; inrerius autem ab istis morantur 
omues illi qui sunt de aaDguine rogio. Illic etiam quatuor sunt acripto- 
rea acribentea omnia verba qus dicit ipse rex. Ante cujua conspectum 
atant barones sui multique alii innumerabilcs, nuilus quorum loqui 
auderet uUo modo nisi a msgno domino peteretur, istis etiam hyHtrioai- 
bus ezceplis, qui suum dominum rellent lietificare. Qii tamen hjatriooes 
nil aliud facere audent nisi secundum quod rex ipae legem imposuit eis. 
Ante porlas ipsius palatii stant barones custodieates et videntea no 
aliquid limen" boatii langat, quod ei aliqiiis facieua reperirelur ipai eum 
acriter rerberarent." Cum autem dominua isle magnua aliquid conviTium 
facere fieri Tult, secum habet liiii milia barones'" cum coronia in capite 
aibi in convirio aervientes, et quilibet Testem talem" babet in dorso, 
quod solum petite quae ibi aunt super qualibet Teste vatent plus quam 
XT milia florenorum. Curia ipsiua optime ordiuala est videlicet per 
denarium" centenarium et miilcnarium, undo omnea iot«r ae taliler 
sunt ordiuati et sibi invicem reapondentea, quod de officiia aula, nee de 
aliquo alio nunquam defecCua oliquis inTonitur. Ego frater Odoricus 
ibi fui beue tribua annia in hac aua civitate et multotiens ia istis suis 
festis preaena fui, nam nos fratres miuores in b&c curi& sujl habemus 

' Vcn. pigna. 

' Vol. Merdacaa ; Far. Herdalas ; Hak. Merdochag ; Mare. Merclacaa. 

' Vin^ Far. habentar. 

* Hall, arte magic^ vel aliqnS ci 
' Bttk. et Mia. pro gh quaudo t>< 

• Haft. omiLi this sentpnce. 
T Vtn. bttUr tamen ; Hak. et Mia. exeeptin fstnia et histrionibns. 

' Far. lim item. ' Safc. ixnilt quod verberarent. 

"> Hah. portantea oircnlas el ooronnlaa. 
" Aftw. talari loaM. " Vtn. deDeoariDin. 

" Far. hat only videlieel per C. This MS. (or Ibe transoript furnished) 
would be uiintalligible in man; places iritbont ouUation. 



CAP. I. 


Avixapitnto del via/jgio del G/iatCaio ptr lo chanmino ddla Taim a 
andare t tlornare chan merchatantia.. PrimierameDte dalla Taiu i 
aintarchan sin sxv giomate di cbarro di buoi e ebon corro di chfttkll 
circa da z in zii gioroHte, Per chanmino ai trovano tuoccholi asnu ci< 
ffente d &riii& e da Oitt&rchan la San sia una giomata pier 6aiiiaii 
dacqua et di Sara !□ Saraclmacho eia 8 gioroate per uoa fiumaut dacqg 
e puotesi andare pec terra e peraoiiua ma Tasai peracqua per meao ipa 
della merchatantia. E da Sarachancho in fiao in Orghanci oa i 
giomatc di cbarro di chanmetlo e chi va ebon iniiTchaiitia gli confiei 
che vada in Orghanci parecbe la i epacciativa terra di march»taiitia. 
d' Orgbanct in Oltrarre eia da 30 in 40 giomatB di cbanmello chon ean 
e cbi HI partisae di Sarachaaco e andasso dritto in Oltrarre si ra L gionnt 
e MKli Don avesBO merchatantia gli earebbe migliore via che daudare i 
Orgnanci. E di choltrarre in Armaleccbo sia 45 giomate di somedauii 
e ogni die truovi moccbolt. £ dAnnaleccho infiDo in Chamexu sia i 
Sioroate daeino et di Chaniexu in aino che vieni a, una fiumnna che 

chiama sia iIt giomato dl chavallo e dalla fiumana ee ne pui 

andare in Chassai ella vendcre aonmi dellargento che aTeasi, perocche !■ 
e Bpncciativa terra di merchantia. B di Cbasaai si \a, cholla munel 
cheaai traede sonmi dellargento vend uti ioChaasaicbe^monetn di chart 
cbessappella la detta moncta babisci che gli quattra di <|uel)a mooel 
vagliono un aonmo dariento per le contrado del Gbattaijo. E di ChaMi 
a Obanalecco che b la mastm citt^ del paese del Gbattaijo li *» 3 

CAP. 11. 

Cote bixognevole a Merchatanti eke vogliono/are U topradetto 
del Ghaltaijo. Primieramente chonvicne che li laaci creacere 1ft 
grande et uoa »i tada. G vuoisi foruire alia Tana di Turcinu 
Tuole guardaro a riupiarmo dal cbattlro al buono nonchostft 
gordo chelluomo non ae ue mcgliori vi Ta piu. E oltre « T 





lemenare per lo menoduefiinti buonicheasapii 
CuinaDcsc& e see il merchslADtc Tuole m 
choD aecbo si piiote e use noUa vuole menare non fa forza mnppure se la 
menuee ears tenuto di miglior cbotidixioDe che se nolla raenaase e pero 
sella mena cbonvieoa cbe Bappia la lin^a ChumaneBi^ chome 11 faule. 
E dalln Tnna infino in OiCtarchan si chonvieoe fomire di vitauda 2S dl 
cioe di farina e di puaoi inaalati perocche cbarne Iruova aasai per 
chnnmino in tutti i luoghi. E EsimilmeDte in tiitti i hiogbi cbe Tai da 
UOD psexe a un altro ne\ detto (inggio seeboado le gioniate dette di sopra 
ai cbonvtetiG fonire di farina e di pesci tnaalati chs altre chose truovi ssaai 
e spelialniente cbame. 

II cbaamino dandare dalla Tana al Ohattajo i sicburiagimo e di dl e 
di notte aechoado cbe ssi cbonta pcrgli merchatanli cho Ib&nna uzata 
salvo ae il merchalante cbe va o che visne noriase in chaumino ogiii 
cbosa Eareblie del aiDgnore del paeie ots morisae il merchatante e tutto 
prenderebbono gli uGciali del singuore. E iaimilmeote se morisse al 
Ohattajo verameDtc segli aTeage sue fratello o alretto chompangno cbe 
dicesae che fusae suo fratello si gli aarehbe dato lavere del morto e 
ehooperebbeai in questo roodo latere. E ancora va un altro pericbolo 
cioe cbe qiinndD lo aingnore roorisae insino che Don fueae chjamato laltro 
aingnore che dovesse Binguoreggiare in tjuello meazo alahuna volta va 
stata fatta novitade a Ffranchi e ad altre fltranee ^enti. 1 Franubi ap- 
pellanegliDO tutti i chriatiaoi delle parti di Romania innanzi ia verso il 
nonente. E non cborre iicbiiroil cbatitoitio iofino ebe non b cbiamato 
laltro sioRiiore che dee regnare apprcaso di quelloche i tnorto. 

II Gfaattajo Hi t una Frovincla dove a molte terre e molte chasali in fra 
laltrc si a una cioe la taastra cittade ove riparano taercbatnnti cote si fn 
il forza della merubatantia la quale cictade si chisna Chambaleccho, E 
la delta cittade gira cento miglia ed £ tutta plena di geute e di magione 
o di abiCaoti oella detta cittade. 

Ragionaai che un merchatante chon una Turcimatmo c con due fanti 
e con avere dcDa valuta di xxv miglta di Florin i doro spend erebbe infino 
al Ohattajo da Ix in Ixzi soami dargeoto volcndo fare masserizia e per 
tutto il chanmino ds ttomare dal Qbattajo ala Tana chontando speee di 
boccba e aaalarjo di fanti e tutte apese iotomo a cio sonmi v alia soma o 
meno e puote valere il sonuo da fiorini cinque dor 
catro debbe menare pure uno bue b del cbacro x < 
charro di chaninelli mcna 3 chanmell e del charro 3< 
il carro dc chavalU ibodBi 1° chavallo e del charro ci 
di seta comDiunalmente da Hbrs ^0 genovosche e v 
rsgiona da libro 110 in 115 genovescbe. 

Raggionaai cbe dalla Tana in Sara 6ia meno sicburo il obanmino che 
non e tutto laltro chanmino ma aegli TusBono 60 uomini quando il 
cbanmino e in piggiore chonditione andrebbe bene sichuro come per la 

Cbi volesse muovcio da Qenova o da Vinegla per andare al detto luogo 
e viaggio del Ghattajo portasae tele e andaase in Organci nefarebbebene 
e in Urganci cbonpcraase sonmi e andaase ebon essi avantl sanza investire 
in altra mercbatanlia seggit nonaveaae alquante balle di tele molto 
■DttiliMim* otia tengono piccholo lubuglio o non vogliono piu di spcsa, 
"' " ' 'u groase. 

■ re |ipt lo obaniiiino o chavallo o asino r 

'0 di CBvalcare. 
.iMt&nti porlano e cbe va al Ghattajo i 
„ ,.igliue per »e e mettelo in buo tcmiro i; mer 
» H & lore moneta di pappiero cioo i^i cbani 

, E ragionaai cbel 

mtara di genova el 

cantari di Qenova e 

ra6J genovcacbe 

cibetto di aela aj 


Ajks (Thn Aliaa),3l7,.11N 

Abaka Kbui ot Penia. SM 

Abaoo, Pelwof, lfl7 ; 3^4; bis refer- 
ence lo M. Polo, ib. 

Abasci, 3iS ; nee Aiiyuinia. 

AUssi, (The G. Umit), 119 

AbiisBide KbilifK, UQ 

Abhers of tha Idolaters (BnddbUl), 

in ScMland and Engl-nd, 307 

Abbott, Col. James, clxixv, iSi 

Abbretialions DHed in reference t<\ 
M5S. and editions of OUorir, 41; 
in refereuos to books quoied, 

AbdulJali, Shaikh— tbe TrtTeller. SUt; 

Uai, TravtlUng n^rae 

Gov*, nsa 

Khan, of Bokhara, 069 

Abdul Raahid Khai>, 348 . 
Ahdurraxxsk's Ulsloo'i "I, Uieix, 4SS 
Abdernh. PasH of, eS3 4 
AhgiruBofEdrnsa, 3S1 
Ab-i-Uaifah, Oreal Biver of China. 

Ab.i.aira, [Kali-}iadi),ill 
Abohar, 406 
Abrabam, cant into the Fire, Legaud 

AbuKakr Khan of Kashgar. 616 
Abu Datif, see Ibn Mohalhat. 

I>.hak, Sbrine of Shaikh, at 


Abulfaraj, Mabomed, xovi 
Abul Faz!, D3I 

Abalfeda. Nutices of China, rxt, cxdii 
Abuaaid Khan of Persia, IB, SSS, '241, 
294, 2011, IDS 

son of Ynnns KUhd of 

EsHl^m CliBRHlai, GIO 


in, 87 

Aoiam, 60 

'Adali. ooin so PBlled, ecilviii itqq. 

Adam, burii-d in Hubron, 1)70 

Adam'n Garden in Cejlnn, 360; 
Houite in Cejlon, aOS, 367 ; Peak 
(Odori*), 98. (MariBnolIi), 863. 
(lbnBatu)ai,43a-3i Foolmnrkon, 
asa.lS: First Awent of, 3S9 

Aden, a »eal of Cbina Trade, liiii; 
Ilin Batuta at, 3»e; Water cislerna 

n AbyBHinia, ctxz 

Agiani, 570 

AgilattUe word, 479 j nee Jlott leood. 

Agitarcbam [Aitraean), S9S, 3HT 

AhtnedShah Uiirani, 644 

Ahmedabad, Ii39 
tazxo, Aiaa. -JSU, aSD 

Atdhab, ocxxTiii, 308 

Aingbaran (Jhangharan), 50e, 696 

Ajal, Sayail, 266 

Ajiidtn, 406 

Akbar; Jesuits al Court of, 6311; Lean- 
inga lo Chriatianily and Wavering, 
S31i religioufl eclecticifiDi, 633] in- 
qiiiriea about Cathay, &Si; etpedi- 
'ion to Dekkan and views on Oua, 
635 : aids the mission of Goes, ib. 
and r>53; withdranal from berond 
Hindu Kiish, 649 

itcW (Turk. coiD). 3(10 

': position of, Qciiiii, 

04j. 6^ 

, 671-3 

Alabandinum. c 

Alafa. ihe word, 323 3 

- '.-AhtiD, A|. Hans, or Lnbca ( P. Golf), 

21(1, ain,ino 
Ala Kul. Lake in Tartarf, ciii-iii 

I. :I10; afirr hiBlr>rv, i;aHcd 
uTuI Aa; 317; ideniifled with 
i)>i. but Ihia ia disputed ; 
unnlli's aoeonnt of tl 

illud toite aliquibus incrcdibilc Tideatur tarneD ita potest esse verum, 
sicut dicitui quod in hiberaifti sunt Brboies ATes facientes.' 

4 i. Dt reffioniiui divenii. 

De isto OHtaio Tecedeae' et Teniens tctbus occidentem, l.' dietis 
traDseundo per multati civitateB et terras, Teni versus terram PretoEoaD,* 
de quo non est ceiiteBima para ejus quod quasi pro certo de ipso dicitur. 
Ejus civitaa principalis Chosan* vocatur ['--'] sua civitas priucipali^ 
multas tamen alias civitates sub se babet. Scd setnper pro pacto accjpit 
in uiorem filiam magni Cauis. Deinde veui per miiltaa dietas et dcveni 
in unam proTinciam qua: vacatur Casan/ lata est secunda melior pro- 
TJncia el ntclius babiinta quam aliqua quee sit in mundo ,' ubi autcm est 
minus stricta,* bene tamen est lata 1. dietis, et longa pluiibua Ix, UDda 
ista provincta taliter habitatur quod quando nb una porta alicujua 
civitatis cxitur portie alterius civitatis vidcctur." In bae est nia^* 
copia victualium, maxime autcm caEtaneorum. In b4c autem oontrat& 
vel p ro?i licit nascitur malua barWus,"' cuju» tantacopia habetur illie 
quod unuB asinua minorl sex grossis ponderaretui. Usac autem provincia 
est una de xii parti bus imperii mngni Can is. 

45. Dt regno Ti/bat, ubi ett Pajia ydolalTorvm. 

ad UDUiQ magnum rcgnum nomine 
;. Totum hoc regnum est aubjectum 
opia panis et vini (lUam sit in mundo. 

De h&c provincift recede 
Tjbot" quod ipsi Indiee eel 
magno Cani," et in ipso est 
Ocns isiius contiattc 
uigris. To ta ci vitas sua regalis et principalis est facta ei. muris" albis 
et nigris, omneeque suce «i« sunt optime scelaiai." In b&c eivicate 
con audet aliquis efiundere sangutnem alicujus honiinis Tel animalis; 

' Far. addi Nam id In b^niiA smm arliorcH super nquatn qtiHnitn folia statim 

niati Hibemico slsnl url>oieti htipra ripuni niaiis et porlunt fructum sient 
et^Feut cuc^urbitv, qurt cerlo lenipiire rudtinl iii Bqusm et Hunt aves Tocam 
Bemskles et illuit est vetun. To tthich addt ilvi. ; BocouilibetUibemieam 
lepenli hiBloriam satin pstel. 

■ 3fuf. dietis plnribiis. 

• Ven.,Far.PTexezOBti: Sim. el Hak. I'relegosni : Jlfare. Preteglanni. 

' Boll. Tozsn.quKsoln de melioiibus til in tbtift; f ar. Cosau ; llak.ei 
Mui. KosBD : Uarc. Cbosan. 

' Head ai in Ven. qii& tamen Vicencia melior diceretnr licet ip^a sil ana 
oivitDR principalis. 

7 Vtn. Cbaitan : Ut. Csssan ; Far. Conssn ; Mui. CboHsn : Ilak. KasHU ; 
Boll. Kinasn : 3!an. Casui. 

• Mui. et spissias ut dicitiir civitstilns ornsta. 

• So most MSS. Bui Jlfnrc. vhich hat doV ella i pifi atretta uimi btit. 
So also Sam. II thovld bt maxis slriela. 

I" Hall. Sieve egomat lidi de mullia. 

■I )>n. reububarnm ; Far. aninteil; sUo 3/iu. Mure, reobarbaro. 

I' Ven. Tibot ; Hat. Tjbek ; Hak. Tibek ; BoU. Tibet ; Mare. TiboL 

" Boll. Foniigiium esL " Vcn. Cahaato. 

" Mui. el BuU. magnis, Vie Jailer bat not nigris. 

u Jlfiu. ei lapidibas albis et nigris ut seaccariiim Jispositis et cuHoso eoro- 
pn-itis pnlcherrime est muraia. Hak. to like cfieot. 

■I Ven. Sillexatie; Far. Saliiate ; Ma; et Hall, pavati ; Marc, hai mat- 
tonate in Sralian, 


£t hoc ob reverentiam unius jdoli quod ibi colitur et adoratur. In i8t& 
civitate moratur Lo Abassi,* id est Papa in lingu& su&. Iste est caput 
omnium ydolatrorum,^ quibus dat et distribuit secundum morem suum 
omnia ilia beneficia qusQ ipsi habent. Hoc regnum banc consuetudinem 
habet. Nam mulieres portant plus quam centum tricas seu dresas, 
habentes duos dentes ita longos' sicut habent apri sive porci siWestres. 
llsdc etiam alia consuetude habetur in h&c contratlk. Nam pouatur 
quod pater alicujus moriatur, et tunc filius ipse sic dicet, Yolo honorare 
patrem meum. Unde faciet convocari omnes sacerdotes, religiosos, cm- 
nesque hjstriones de contrat& vicinos, similiter et parentes, qui ad cam- 
paneam* ipsum portant cum gaudio magno, ubi habent paratum unum 
discum magnum super quo ipsi sacerdotes sibi caput amputabunt, quod 
postea filio suo ipsi dabunt. Deinde ejus filius cum sua tota societate 
cantat et pro eo multas orationes facit. Exinde sacerdotes totum 
corpus ejus incidunt in frusta quod cum sic fecerunt tunc sursum se 
reducunt cum societate pro eo orationes facientes. Post hsBC veniunt 
aquilae et Tultures de montibus et sic unusquisque suum frustum 
accipit et asportat. Deinde omnes altik voce clamant dicentes : Audias* 
qualis homo iste fuit quia ipse sanctus est ; nam veniunt angeli Dei et 
ipsum portant ad paradisum! Sic isto modo faciendo filius ejus multum 
reputat se honoratum. Gum pater ejus ab angelis Dei, silicet, ab avibus 
illis ita honorifice sit portatus, tunc statim filius caput patris accipit, 
quod coquit et comedit. De testSl autem* seu osse capitis sibi fieri facit 
unum ciphum cum quo ipse et omnes de domo sua semper cum devotione 
bibunt, et in memoriam patris sui defuncti/ Nam sic faciendo, ut 
dicunt, reyerentiam magnam exhibent patri suo ; unde multa alia in- 
consueta et dissoluta fiunt ab istis." 

46. De Divite qui pascitur a l VirginibvL8, 

Dum autem essem in prozincia Manzi veni per juxta pedem palacii 
cujusdam hominis popularis cujus vita per hunc habetur modum. Ipse 
enim habet l^ domicellas yirgines sibi continue servientes. £t cum 
vadit ad comedendum et in meusa jam sedet omnia fercula quaterna et 
quinterna^^ sibi portantur ab ipsis cum diversis cantibus et multis gene- 
ribus musicorum, et sibi cibum in os ponunt sicut si esset unus pas- 
serinus" et insupcr ante ejus conspectum continue cantatur, donee 
omnia fercula sunt comesta. Deinde alia quinque fercula ab aliis por- 
tantur et rccedentibus istis prim is cum aliis multis cantibus et diversis 
generibus musicorum. Sic isto modo ducit vitam suam dum est in 
mundo,'^ hie xxx tuman tagaris risi de redditu habet, quorum quodlibet 
tuman x milia facit ; unum autem tagar pondus est unius asini magni. 

* Ven. the same ; Ut, lo albafl ; Far., Mas, et Hak, abassi ; BoU. abbassi ; 
Marc, lo abiss. 

^ Mu8. et Hak. sicut nosier papa est caput omnium Ghristianorum. 

^ Ven., Far. et Mas. in ore ; Far, sicut habent porci. 

^ Mas. et Hak, campum. 

^ Videatis. 6 Mm, id est de crep^ (?) 

7 Hak. with a touch of humour has comeHti. 

^ Hak, Et multa vilia et abhominabilia facit gens ilia quae non scribn, quia 
non valent, nee homines crederent nisi viderent. 

^ Far. -kO. w Far, quinterna et quintema. 

*^ Ven. avicnla qneedam ; Hak. pascentes oum sicut avis aviculas, et habet 
semper 5 fercula triplicata, etc, 

'- Ven. donee vixerit vitam suam ; Mas, et sic hoc modo ducit in hoc seculo 
vitam suaiu. 


fa 111 


- • . ■ 
- 4* . 

--_ T-Jt-tti 


' ■ .•"• f .;::i' b.-- ^.-^ut 

ArriiNDix I. xxxix 

id est assaxioare faciebat omnes illos quos volebat. Ideoque omnes 
reges orientis timebant istuin senem sibique tributum magnum exhibe- 
bant. Cum autem Tartar! quasi totum cepissent mundum,i venerunt 
ad istum senem ; cut finaliter dominium acceperunt. Quod cum ei 
sic fuisset acceptum multos de istis hiis sicariis emissit de paradiso per 
quos sicari et interfici faciebat multos Tartarorum. Hoc videntes ipsi 
Tartari ad illam civitatem, in qu& senex iste erat venerunt et eam obse- 
derunt ; cum ab e& non discesserint donee illam et ipsum senem finaliter 
habuerunt. £t cum eum ceperunt yinculis eum yinxerunt et malam 
mortem ilium sustinere fecerunt. 

48. De demonibus afratrihus Minorihus expuUis, 

In h^ autem contratd. Omnipotens Deus fratribus minoribu? banc 
dedit gratiam magnam.^ Nam in magndi Tartaric ita pro nichilo habent 
expeliere demones ab obsessis, sicut de domo expellerent unum canem. 
Unde muiti homines et mulieres a demone sunt obsessi, quos ligatos 
bene de x dietis ipsi ad fratres nostros conducunt. Isti autem de- 
moniaci cum adducti sunt ad fratres, ipsi ex parte et nomine Jhesu 
Christi precipiunt demonibus illis ut exire debeant de illis corporibus 
obsessorum quam citius ipsi possunt. Tunc statim mandate facto exeunt 
ab illis. Deinde qui sunt h, demone liberati se statim faciunt baptizari.' 
Tunc fratres ilia sua ydola de feltro accipientes quae ipsi habent cum 
cruce et aqu^ benedicti ilia portant ad ignem. Deinde omnes de con- 
trata yeniunt yidere comburi deos suorum yicinorum. Tunc fratres ista 
ydola accipientes ilia ponunt in ignem et tunc ilia de igne exeunt -,* 
propter quod fratres postea de aqua accipiunt benedicta quam in ignem 
projiciunt et statim demon fugit ab igne,' et sic fratres in ignem 
jdoium projiciunt ibique conburitur, et tunc demon clamat in aere, 
dicens f Videas ! yideas ! quod de m&X habitatione sum expulsus ! Et sic 
statim per istum modum nostri fratres multos in ilia contrat& baptizant.' 

49. De voile qtiddam in qud terribilia vidit Fr, Odoricus, 

Aliud terribile magnum ego yidi. Nam cum irem per unam yallem 
quse [est] posita super flumen deliciarum, in ea multa et innumerabilia 
corpora mortuorum ego yidi, in qua etiam audiyi diyersa genera musi- 
corum, maxime autem Achara,^ qute ibi mirabiliter pulsabantur. Unde 
tantus erat ibi clamor, quod timer michi maximus incumbebat. Hsbc 
autem yallis forte longa est yii yel yiii miliaribus terr», in qu&, si 
aliquis iniidelium intrat nunquam de ilia exit, sed statim moritur sine 

' Ven. Oriens. 

3 Boll, contra immundos spiritus magnam contulit potestatem. 

3 Hak. et idola sua et pecorum suorum statim dant fratribus, qufiB sunt 
communiter de feltro et de crinibus mulierum. 

* Boll, frequenter agente diabolo prosiliunt extra ignem. 

^ Hak, demones in effigie fumi nigerrimi fogerunt et idola remansemnt et 
combusta sunt. 

^ Boll. Indignatus ergo Sathanas cum suis, quia yasa din possessa amisit, 
in aere vociferat dicens, Videre quaiiter de meo habitaculo cum injuria sum ex- 
pulsus, etc. 

7 Instead of this, Hak. has an unintelligible sentence meant for the follow, 
itig as found in Mus, ...baptizant, qui cito ad ydola et errores sues multotiens 
recederent nisi fratres semper cum illis stent ad illos in fide Christi continue 
confirm andos. 

^ Ven., Far. Nachara; Hak. hai Maxime de cytharis unde raultum timui; 
Mus. the like. 

mora,' Et quRmquam in illft sic omnes moriantur, tamen Tolui intnre 
ut videram finaliter quid hoc easet. Dum sic autem vallom ego ia- 
trassem, ut jam diii, (ot corpora mortua ibi ridi quod aisj aliquis ilia 
vidisset quasi sibi incredibile rideretur. Id hac etiam valle ab uno 
latere ejus in ipso gRXO unam faciem homiuis valde* (errlbilem ego Tidi, 

JuiB in tabtum (erribilia crat quod pnc uiiiiio timor« spiritum me per- 
ere penitus credebam.' Qua propter* tbrboh o»ro F4ctiim bbt con- 
tiaue meo ore proferebaoi. Ad ipaam facieui nunquam fui ausus tata.liter 
appropinquare sed ab ipsa vii vel vii: passibui distans ego fuL Cum 
autem iltic acceJore doq auderem, ad aliud caput Tallii efto iri' et tune 
aaccudi super uuum montem arenoaucn, ia quo uadique circui ^ -'-- 
nicMl videbam preter ilia scbara* quu puluri mirabiliter i 
Cum autem ia capite moatia ego fui illic, argeutum reperl ii 
quantitate, ibi, quasi squamae piiciuni, congregatum de quo posui tu 
gremio meo,' £t quia de ipao non curabam* illud toCaliter ill temm 
projeci. Et sic liuite Deo iudc illaisus exivi. DeJnde omnei SkrtacenL 
cum hoc sciTeruDt reverebautur me multum, diceutes me esse baplixatum 
et sanctum ; lUos autem qui erant mortui in ilia Talle dicebwit ease 
homines demonis iufcmalts," 

50. Vn- 

re/ert de maijiio Cant Ft. Odork 

Unum rcferam do magno Cane quod vidi. Conauetudo est in illis 
partibua quod quaodo prmlictus douiiuus per aliquam coulratam transit, 

' Hak. Kt ideo nmnea de coDtmca decUnanl a Istere. Et t(>ntHtQ9 eram 
intrsre et ildere quid hao (>sBet. and la on, ttlling the lanu itarg, ''«' <<■ word* 
gentraVyguiUdi^ertnt; JUut. agrees as usual iritb ffat., but expresses tbinga 
a little more vocdil^. ' Vtii. Maximum et terribilem. 

' Videbam. ' Ven, Cant Mgno oiucis. 

' Fen. limply Ivi Isndem ad aliud caput vatlia. 

* Ven. nihil videbam nisi quod aadietiam Kaoliera ilia pulsare ; fiat, nihil 
vidi nisi Ofthsru illai, etc ; Miu. hai the lilie. 

' Bak. addi pro mirsbili ostendeudo, sed ductus coDBcieoiii in lemin 

forte mibi denegnre exitus. 

iDt oythnms ut liomines illiciant in- 
■ga t'r. Odorioui hie in- 
las Don orediderint Disi 



s certitudiiiHli 

no tali ill us 

■ Hak. demnoum inferiiBlia 
trare el inlerfiaiant. TSieb de 
scripsi : el molta mirabilia on 

>° Htri occuri one of tin marked dlfferentti in tht eopiei. For at thU^aea 
Ih« eapiei For. aad Bnll. conclude Odorie'i narratUc dRi intndnee hU atln- 
tatioa of veracity. Ego Fritter O don bus, etc, ai btlou. After Chit Vug addon 
appendix, at it icere : Notendum quod ego fruter Marcbe^inas de Bsasaoo do 
ordine Hinaram isia andivi a fratm Odorico predictn, ipso adhuo rifenle, 
nam plurs audiri qnie ipse Don scripsil. Inter alia qan ipse locnlus est boo 
quoque dixit. Nsm dixit quod aemel duu Canis Magnus iret in Cambaleo 
fde] Sandu ipse Trater Odorious erat cum iiiior fratribas miuoribua sub una 
arbore quie plantata orat juxta viam par quam ipNum Caoem iransitum facers 
oportebat. Unus autem istorum fratrum erst episcopus. Gum autem iste 
Canis cisptt appropinquare iste episoopus induii se habitu episoopali, et bc- 
ceptt eruaem et posuit earn in fusto, el tunc isti iiiio' fratrea incrpemnt alll 
toce eantare jmnuni Veni creator stiritus. Et tune Canis Magnni hoe 
audito rumore interrogsvit quid hoc e^set. Turn illi iiii" barooes qui erant 
juxia eum dixerunt quod ersnl iiii"! Raliani Franohi. Tune ipse Canis fedt 
eos ad se accedere. Ille autem episcupus anceplS crace de (iislo Iradidit earn 
DSGUlaodam ipso Magno Can i. Ipse vera Jaaeljat, et stitim vist cmee ereiit 
Be ID sedeDdo, et deposito gilerio de oapile crucem fuit devote et humillime 
osculstus. Iste Butem Dominus unaiu conauetudioom liabet. Nnm nullun 


nes homines ante hospicia* suorum domorum igne accendunt et 

'aromata apponunt ac faciunt fumum, ut domino suo transeunti odorem 

-xnittant. £t multi homines obviam sibi vadunt. Dum autem semeP 

^niret in Cambalec et de adventu suo certitudinaliter diceretur, unus 

oster episcopus et aliqui nostri fratres minores et ego ivimus sibi 

l)yiam bene per duas dietas. Et dum appropinquavimus ad eum posui' 

xucem super lignum, ita quod publico videri poterat. Ego vero 

abebam in manu thuribulum quod mecum detuleram. Et incepimus 

ntare alta Toce, dicentes Yeni Oreatoe Spiuitus, etc. Et dum sic 

csantaremus audivit voces nostras nosque yocari fecit et ad eum accedere 

xios jussit. Cum superius alias dictum sit, nullus audet currui suo 

appropinquare ad jactum lapidis nisi vocatus exceptis custodientibus 

euai. Et dum ivissemus ad eum cruce elevatdi, deposuit statim galerium 

suum sive capcllum inestimabilis quasi valoris, et fecit reverentiam ipsi 

crucL Statimque in thuribulum quod habebam incensum reposui, et 

episcopus noster de manu me& accepit, eumque thurificavit. Accedentes 

ad predictum dominum semper aliquid ad offerendum secum deferunt, 

observantes illam legem antiquam, Non apparebis in conspeotu meg 

VACUUS. Idcirco portavimus nobiscum aliqua poma [et ea] sibi super 

unum incisorium reverenter obtulimus. Et ipse duo accepit de ipsis 

pomis, et de uno aliquantulum comedit. Et deinde predictus episcopus 

noster ei benedictionem suam impendit. Et hoc facto nobis innuit ut 

recederemus ne cqui post ipsum venientes et multitude in aliquo nos 

offenderent. Statim vero ab eo discessimus et divertimus, et ad aliquos 

barones sues per fratres nostri ordinis ad fidem converses ivimus, qui in 

exercitu ejus erant. Et obtulimus eis de predictis pomis. Qui cum 

maximo gaudio ipsa recipientes, ita videbantur IsQtari, ac si iiiis pre- 

buissemus familiariter magnum munus. 

51. Testimonium perhibet Fr. Odoricus, 
Ego frater Odoricus Boemus^ de foro Julii provinciso sancti Antonii de 

audet in conspectu suo vacuus apparere, unde ipse Fr. Odoricus habens 
unum parvurn caUthum plenum poinis ipsi magno Cani feoit exenium. 
Ipse autem Canis accepit duo poma unum quorum medietatem comedit, 
aliud vero in raanibos ipse gestabat et sic inde recessit. Ex quo satis ap- 
paret quod ipse Canis aliquid habuit in fide nostra, propter Fratres Mino. 
res qui continue in sua curia commorantur, cum deposuerit galerium et fe« 
cerit tam devote banc revereutiam ipsi cruoi ; quod galerium secundum 
quod audivi a fratre Odorico plus valet qnam tota Marchia Trevisana, prop- 
ter perlas quae sunt ibi et lapides preciosas. The preceding is given hy the 
Bollandists after H. de Glatz in the name manner with slightly different lan- 
guage. The following is omitted by Boll., hut is added to the above in the 
Farsetti MS., and as far as I have seen, appears in no other: Prflsterea anam 
aliud audivi ab eo. Nam dixit quod semel iu anno Magnus Canis mittit unum 
de Tartaris suis ad Soldanum Babillouifle, quem recepit cum magno timore. 
Et die constitute Suldanus stat super unius parvi rivuli ripam et Tartarus 
Rtat in alia ripa cum arcu in manu teuso et com sagitti fortissimo venenata. 
Stat Soldanus genibus flexis et manibas cancellatis, nihil breviter habens in 
capite uec in dorso preeter interulam. Quem iste Tartarus omdeliter maltam 
alloquens, ter interrogat, dicens : Conflteris tu quod habeas vitam pro HaonA 
Cane, et quod sis servus ejus. Soldanus autem respondet own magno t 
quod sic. Alioquin statim ilium interficeret. Hoc aatem GtDip **^ 
suae potentisB fieri facit: prseterea neo arbitror oblifioni rnand*^' 
1 r«n. hostia (i.e., ostia). ^ Fien. qu&dam vice. ' 

* This addition to Odoric's description of himself oooon Ip 
that I have seen, Latin or Italian. 


xlii APPENDIX 1. 

quMnm terrft quio dieitur Portus Maonis,' de ordinc frui 
teitilicor et teBtimoiiium pcrbibeo Reverendo Patri fratri QuidolU 
miniatrn antedictte provincite wncti Antoaii in Marchia TrevisEina, en 
ab eo fuerim per obedientiam requisitus quod biec omnia quie auperii_ 
seripta sunt, aut propriia oeulis vidi aut ab homiDibus fide di^is audtTi ; 
ooinmuTiis etiam locutio illarum contretarum ilia qun nou Tidi testatur 
esse Tera.' Multa etiam alia ego diinisi quie Ecribi uod feci, cum ipa 
quasi inccedibilia apud aliquos viderentur nisi ilia propriii oculi' 
epexisEeat. Ego autcm dc die in diem me preparo ad illss 
acccdere, in quibus diEpono me mori ut illi placobil. a quo cuucte bou 
procedunt.* Pnedicta auiem fideliter frater Ouillelmus de Sola^a ia 
scriplis redegit sicut przedictus fmtcr Odoriut Boainus ore proprio ex- 
primebat, anna DomiNi M.coc.sxx' menae Maii Paduca in loco BancCi 
Antonii. Nee curaviC de latino difficili et curioso ao omato, ged sicut 
ille nairabat sic iste scribebat, ad boc uc omnee facilius intelligerent qua 
dicUDtur, etc' 

[7"/.^ U Che f»d of the Pariuitin MS., No. 2584. The /oUowin.j 
conclution in from MS. Fab.] 

62. De inorCe fralrit Odorici. 
Ipse Beatus Fratet Odorlcus cum de ultr.Lmatiuis partibuB ad sutn 
pTOTinciam remoasset, marchiam Ecillcet Trerisanam, presenCirtm iiunmi 
Pontificia adire volebaC, ut ab eo licentiam pcCeret per [ut] L fr&tru, 
de quficumque proTinciL easent dummodo ire veltent, aecum duoere 
posset, reeesait de Foro Julll uude ipso iiatu^ est. Bum easet Pisiaeisti 
inGrmitate correptus. cjuamobrcm compulaua eat ad propriam [pro* 
Tinciam] remeare. Quaprupter in utino de Foro Julii civitate, arnut 
ab incamatlone Domini acccxxxi, pridis idua Januarii de hoc mundt 
triumphana perveuic ad glorlam beatorum. Ubi virtutibus etmitaculit 
quam plurimis coruscat. Nam per eum cicci, claudi, muti, aurdi aunt 
Haluti, pormittente Domino, restituci. Deo gratias. Amen. 

' Vtn. eoTTfctly Naonia; Ilak. Vabonia; Mtii. Nahomonis. 

' Ven. QniB eli«m omiieB illaram psrtiuni eumrauniler leBlahantnr. 

^ Hak. ineoTTCctly Uulta o^am alia ego dimisissem niai ilia propriia ocnlh 

* These last words are not in Vtani. nor in Vt. 

» In Ut. I'll! funi at written, by William in the firit perion — Ego Etii 
Gnlie[mna...redegi>.>>>eo cnravi de Latino diflicili et orcBto Btilo, sed sioDt-; 
illH narrabat ego acribeliam cam domeatioo eloyuio pt oommuoi ad boo tM. 
omnes faeilina iiitpUigerent qus bio seribuntar, vel in isto libro diountur. 

' Hak, and Mas. relate the lame at greater length, with addition of viaiana 
etc., and end by quoting the atleitation of the notary Ouelellaii to the detatl^ 
Odorie'i miraclet, vrhieh hai been vunlioned in tlu biographical notiet prt^ 
fixed to hii Itinerary. Boll, hat nibetantiaUy the eonclution that it fN l&f < 
text, adding lo the raentioa of the miraclei : Hoe leetalDa est litteris aois in 
curia Papic Pnlriercba AqiiileieDHis in cnjus diceoexi liec flout. El protestaMf 
Stjria et Carintbia et mulli-de Italia et reijionea qnam ploriniffi circumqnaqtn 
And then: Ego Fr. UenricUB diotus de GlatK. qni prsdiata omnia IianBOripri 
exiatens Avenione in cnrifi D'oi. Pups auDO D'ni. aupradlcto, hi uon intellMCi*- 
sem ibidem de felice Fr. Odurico et aooiia qni setniu fuerant, tot pecfectionea 
et aanotitatJB ejus opera, tix aliqaibua hie per earn deacriptiit credere potiufc 
sem; Sed eoegit me viln sum Veritas dictia ejus fidem credulam adhibera. 
Scripsi autem hnc anno D'ni. treanntisimo qnadrugesimo in PragiL oinw tes- 
tum omnium Saaetorum, et copioaiua ea audieram In ATeoioae, 




1. Viaggio di Treblsonda e dell Erminia Maggiore, 

[In qnesto anno correrUe dd mccoxyiii divotdmenU prego U mio 
Signore Iddio che porga tal lume al mio intdletto eke to possa in tutto o 
in parte rammemorare le maravigliose cose da me viste con questi occhi: 
alle quali perche maravigliose siano, non percio se gli deve aver minor 
fede, poscid che appresso Iddio niuna cosa e impossioile, Voglio dunque, 
a coloro che queste cose che to diro vedute non hanno, muinto meglio 
potro, brevemente scrivendo dimostrarle. E giuro per qudl Iddio che in 
mio aiuto ho chiamato, in qii^sta narratione non aovere io dire ne meno 
ne pill di quel che in varie parti del mondo camminando ho viste.V 

Auno Domini mcccxviii io frate Odorigo* da Friolli de Tordme de' 
frati minori della provincia di Padova [nel mese d^Aprile, con buona 
licenza del mio superiore], partimi de la detta proyincia e [navigando con 
Vajuto di Dio e buon vento^] veni in Gostantinopoli con altri miei com- 
pagni, e di quindi passai il mare Maggiore e veni in Trebisonda nella 
coQtrada detta metropolli di Ponto nella qua! terra giace il corpo del 
beato Atanasio che fece il simbolo. E finj questa terra vidi una mirabil 
cosa^ ch' uno^ che menava piii di dumilia pemici' le quali il seguitavano 
per mirabile modo ; perchS sempre andavano e volavano e stavan con 
lui per pid di, e ubidielo, e parean quasi che parlassono con lui nella 
lingua sua/ E quando andavauo Io 'mperadore prendea delle pernici 
quante volea, e Taltre se ne venieno co lui infino al castello che si chiama 

1 From MiN. Ram. ^ Min. Ram. di Porto Maggiore. 

^ Min. Ram. quale tanto piu osero di dirla, quanto che molti con quali ho 
parlato in Venezia, m' hanno referita d'haver vista simil cosa. 

* Min. Ram. un uomo barbuto e di feroce aspetto. 

^ Min. Ram. a quella guisa che menano i pastori loro armenti. 

^ Min. Ram. Quale perdici volando e andando via le meno a donare all' 
imperadore di ConstantinopoU. 

7 Min. Ram. Zanicco. 


\_Ddcln! maravigliandomi forttmenle udi da eotoro eht taredit «^t fti 
far altre provi piU muTaviffliote ili furtU ; fm fe qualt fu guetta, A 
ungiorao tuendo atalo amaizalo un caro efiddiuimo fatneglio dtif imft 
radafe'' e non tnvandon il mal/attore, tu/u qualo iitrAuto daW impen 
dore mn islansa pregaio, eke eon gtmlcUe vvt to tcopritte. XI ^aaU fiOt 
portare il giovane morto wl tneiK Mia piaaa tiUto intangHinaU, ii 
vntenta di molta geiUt, acongiumndo eon li muii iiifeanttMmi, ffH ■■■ 
%n Aoeca ana crania pieeoUt di Jitr di fariaa. II juate non ti prM 
luibbe in boeea la ertxia, eht ti riao xnpitdi e dUte chi t'haveva avkoaOt 
e perehe caglone : e ctd detto rieaddt t'Aito morla,]' 

Di Trebiaoada aodai a Zangha, cV i cmkuo de 1o 'mpersdoK, i 
quivi si cava rargento* e '1 crislallo, aecondo che si dice. Quiadi >ada 
ia Erminia Maggiore, e pervenni nd ArKelooo, cli' d preaao d'un» gi«T 
Data al Gume del Parudiso (lotto d'Gufrates. In quests terrk utu gtu 
doDOa liiBcid ia teatiimeDto che de' beai suoi si facossoro un muaisicn 
di msretrici al servigio degli uomini in agni carnality, per rAnima ttn 
maladeta.' J>i quindi veni al luonte ov' & I'Arca Noi, e Toleutieri nni 
salito alia ciaa del monte aTegnacbe mai noa ai tn>vav& clii vi po(<Mi 
Kalire, ma percbu noa votle aapettare la caravaDiia non rollt provamene 
II moDte i altissimo e belliBsimo, e quasi Ta la nove lasiao k Ia tVB 
parte dsl monte.' 

2. Ddlt eietade di Tavriiio e di Soldania. 

Poi Tcni' in Persia neila cltade ch' & detta Taiirisio, e 
passni il fiume Rosso, oce Aleesaudro isconfisse il Re d'Asia Uario, _ .. 
quella cittade noi abbiamo due luoghi : h nella cittada (1) mirahili 
moltitudine, e di mercataati molti, ore £ uno monto di sale, del ijuali 
pud prendere chi ve ne vuole.' Di quindi veni io Soldauia at' ' ' 
sedia dello Re di Persia, aella quale i, un luogo do' Frati Predica 
uno de' Frati Minori. 

3. Delia eittade de' tre Magi, e dtl Mare SabitloM. 

Di quiodi Tooui in Saba cittade e terra della quale furono i tn 
Magi. E tutti i Saracini che dtuiorano ivi dicono cbe i Stagi furoni 
di quella terra ch'i cittade grando e bea sicura ; ma ora i moka diserta 
Ed i di luDge da Geruaalente beu sessanta giornate. Di (juiodi per 
veoimo al mare Sabuloao,' doi il marc delta rena, ov' io Uteti qoatro di 
nel porto.' E la carrovatui oati fu ardita d'uatrare nel Sabulo, ch' i nni 
rena secca, che si muove al modo del mare delia tempesta del voDto ; chi 
ae alcuao allora v'entrasse incontiuente earebbe licoperto e affogato 

■ Tht MiN. Kah. Am di Constaatiaopoli.whioli is probablf an ioterpolalioD 
' From MiM. Ilui. ^ Mim. Kau. I'arlaslco. 

* Tbis eiiraordiiiarj star; is given more diHu-ielj in MiN. Hah. It U il 
00 Latin US. that I know of. 

' MiH, Ram. hai — pprcha il monte e aanti^^^iimo e oltre cio inftoros^ibilo pe 
I'altiBainiB neve elm vi all lucto I'anno, e [ii((lia almeno le due parti del monu 

* MtK. Rah. Ana abiardly nHvigimmo e venimmo. 

' MiH. Ram. Juu aaotber igaoraat ialerpalalion, e gia ae n' erano earob 
navi a mandalo dove na era oareatia. 

■ MiN. Rah. Sabbioooso. It ii Sabuoso in the Palatiru ; / have itutrlt 
Ihi I, oi il aneurt btloai. 

' In. E ei Donvpune slarcolla carflvana inporto benqUBllro gioroL „ 
fii niuQO di noi ibo avJi'ise di otilrar in nuesl.i bio 

Itro gioroL J^i 

APPENDIX 11. xlv 

Ov' io vidi monti altissimi di rena i quali in poco tempo si disfanno e 
aliri in poco tempo si rifanno.* Di quindi pervenDi a una cittade 
grande ch' h chiamata Geste, la quale h ultima terra di Persia verso 1* 
India ; nella quale terra ^ grande abondanza di grano e di fichi, e uve 
paserine^ molto buone, e sono verdi come erba e saporitissime. E di 
quindi entrai in Caldea, nella quale contrada vanno gli uomini omati al 
modo delle donne della nostra contrada, e portano in capo cufie ornate 
di pietre e d'oro e di preziose cose ; ma le femine per contrario yanno 
mal vestite con camice corte insino a ginocchio, e scalze, e le maniche si 
larghe che toccano infino in terra,' e portano eziandio le brache lunghe 
insino in terra, e *n capo un poco di panno corto quasi un mezo braccio ; 
e capelli non sono legati. Quivi vidi uno giovane che dovea prender 
moglie. Quando venne il tempo de lo sposare, tutte le fanciulle vergini 
della contrada istavan con lei e piangeano, ma lo isposo istava omato 
con Tcstimenti preziosi,^ il quale cavalcoe sopra un asino, e la moglie gli 
andd dietro a piede, mal Testita e scalza.^ II padre della fanciulla gli 
diede la benedizione, e in quel modo si maritano quivi le fanciulle.* 
Di quindi dopo molte terre yeni a la terra di Giobo. £ ottimamente 
sicura e fertile, e gli uomini de la contrada mi narraro la storia di 
Giobo. Quivi gli uomini filano e non le femmine. 

4. Della Torre di Bahel ; et dtUa cittade Ormes. 

Di quindi yeni a la tore di Babel presso a quattro giomate per selve 
di datteri ove non avemo che mangiare niente altro che datteri ; e Taque 
di quindi son salse e poche ven' avea. £ per questa selva audai ben 
quatordici giomate e volentieri sarei ito a la torre, ma nonne avea com- 
pagnia e perd lasciai di non irvi. Poi venimmo a Ormes ch* ^ comincia- 
mento de V India ed d in capo del mare la quale terra h in un isola ed d 
dilunge a terra ferma ben cinque miglia: in su la quale non nasce 
albore e non v^ha aqua dolce ed h citta molto bella, e ben murata. 
Quivi ae si grande abondanza di datteri che per tre soldi n^arebe altri 
quantunque e ne potesse portare. £d eziandio v' h grande abondanza 
di pane e di pesce e di came ma non ^ terra sana. [£] pericolosa, e 
incredibile di calura. £ gli uomini e le femmine son tutti grandi. £ 
passando io quivi fu morto uno, e venirvi tutti i giulari della con- 
trada, e puosollo nel mezzo della casa nel* letto ; e due femmine 
saltavano intomo al morto, e giulari sonavano cemboli ed altri istor- 
menti. Poi due femmine abbracciavano il morto, e lodavallo, e 1* altre 
femmine si levavano ritte, e ciascuna tenea un canello in boca e zufo- 

' MiN. Bam. E si muta a quella guisa che fa il mare quando h in tempesta, 
per qui por li, e fa nel rouoversi ristesso ondegiai che fa il mare, in guisa tale che 
un iiifinita di persone s'e trovata, cammiDaDdo per viaggio, oppressa e som- 
mersa e coverta da qaeste arene, le qnali dal vento dibattute e trasportate, 
per fanno come monte in un loco, e por in un altro, secondo la forza del vento 
da ciii sono elle agitate. 

^ For passoline. Min. Ram. has d'uva passa grossissiroa, which lait word is 
another interpolation^ as the Persian raisins are very small, a fact noted in 
the he»t Latin MSS. 

3 Min. Ram. after ginocchio has con brachezze e legazze ohe pendono in 
sino al collo del piede. 

^ Mm. Ram. stando il giovane sposo con la testa bassa e leggiadressiraa- 
mente vestito. 

^ Id. toocando Tasino. 

^ Here the Mm. Ram. and the Palat. eeau to run parallel The former 
passes at once to the traveUer'e enn*'^' 

IftTft ; e quuido STCK lufolato, «d elh e! pones a aederc, e cosi fee) 
tuttft 1b notte. E la matina il porCoro al sepolcro. 

5. Paua il Fr. OJortco alia Tana <!" India. 
Di quindi navicammo per lo mare oceano Tenti otto dl ; poi pern 
nitntno in Tana, la quale fu cittade del Re Porro ; la quale Um 
poiM in buoD luogo, ed a graDde abondania di vittutiglia, e ■pcnii 
jnente di burro, di «unuin [aisamo f J, e riao. Quivi Bono tnohi diTcn 
Knimali, leoni neri, e pipislrclH gnsdi coroeanitre, topi gntndi com* eu 
communi, ah non bodo |>resi da gatti ma da oni per la loro grmndeia.' L 
queeta terrasoDoidolattici, ma'IsigDoreadorano i sarocini il bue'edien 
ch' egli V il grande Idio, e non mangiaoo came di bue, e layorano col bs 
sei anni, il settimo anno i lasciano libcro. Prendouo aoche dello ttcn 
del bue, e poogoloai a la faccia, e dicono da iudi inanzi che sono BantiGcH 
Alcuno altri adorano gU albori ed alcuDO allri adorano il fuoco ed ilo 
i peeci ed altri il sole ed altri la luoa. In queata tem. noa pTeodon 
moglie altro cbe del mese di febrato, e questo £ appo loro il primo nm 
de Tanno. Qli uoinini e le fcmnjirie racno lutti ignudi, e '□ cotal mod 
tnenano le mogli. 11 tuarito e la moglie salgono insu uno cavallo ii 
ileme ; & 'I marito di diclro, e tienc la moglie in braccio, e dod huia 
indosso altro ch' una camicia e 'a capo una nijtera gratide pjena i 
fieri.' E '1 marito tiene un collello' graode ingnudo sopra le spftjle d^ 
moglie, e tutte le vergini Taao innHad cantando ordinat«metite, e a 
reslano un poco e poi ranno oltre.* In questa terra goDo Albori A 
fanoo Tino che '1 cbiamano loahif a inebria molto gli uomini. Quii 
eziandio noa EJ gopeliscono i niorli ma portanai con gran feeta • e*ai 
alio bestio e gli ucelli che gli diToraoo. K Eono qui i buoi bellisrimi, ei 
haUDo le corna bene uno mcizo pasao, e sono lEcrignuti a modo d'a 
camello. In quaatu terra vidi il iuogo e gli uomiiti qua sono i qoiti 
frati minori' come si narrH uella Btoria loro. Da questa terra iniino 
Panche" sono xiiii gioraate, e qui h la sedia del Re Poro che fu igeonfil 
da) grande AtcaModro. 

16.' Del Pepe e come »i lii vtiidemiano ; e del re<ino rfi Minabar. 

Poi vcni per lo mare Oceano quannta giomate, e pervenni a lo'iOMti 

di Firabar'" dove oas^e il pepe, E nasca in cotal modo. L' alboi«db 

■ MiH. RAM.Qai viddi un leon grande e negriBBimo alia gnisa d*nn bslUi 
e viddi le noitole o Togliam dico vespeciiglioni coma Bono la analre di nd i 
noi ; e lopi cliiamBli sorici di Faraone, cbe aono grandi come volpi, ele. 

' The leribe hai made a hath of Ihit. It it inlmded to be t>ie fquit<lfnlt 
Mm. Ram.— II paese t di Saraciui; la gtnle i idololaira e adora il bae. J 
probably run, In quests terra bodo Siguuri i Saraciot, ma la geiilf eto. 

■ Mm. Bax. una cnlBa alta, alia guiaa d'una milra, e lavut^u di Am 

* Mm. Kau. sppoDlato alia gola. 

' Id. flno a casa dare lo spo«o e la spona !>i 

soli, e la mattlna! 

> Seem 


' Sic. probably ihoittd be to ihii t^ect: Vidi il loogo, o gli t„„„u, cn» ■■ 
eiaero i qtiattro frati, eio. 

■ Sie. Perhapt il thould be Paroche {Broaib) mentioned by Jordamu 4ai 
letltr in thit evUeclion. 

■ The Noa. O-lb tie omitted in order to niaintaia eorreapondi 
Latin text, "" 

'° Or Piniiitr (for Mi 


fa il pepe e fatto come Telera che nasce su per gli muri. Questo pepe 
sale su per gli albori che gli uomini piantano a modo de I'elera, e sale 
sopra tutti li albori piii alti.^ Questo pepe fa i rami a modo dell* uve; 
e in peruno inproducono tanta quantitk di frutto ch* h incredibile ; 
e maturo si lo vendemiano a modo de Tuve e poi pongono il pepe al sole 
a seccare come uve passe, e nulla altra cosa si fa del pepe. £ del pepe 
ricente fanno composto e io ne mangiai, ed ebbine assai. E ivi cosi 
grande abondanza di pepe come qui in nostra terra di grano. E la selva 
dura per diciotto giornate, e n tutto il mondo non nasce pepe altro che 
qui. Quivi sono due citadi, una che si chiama Filandria e Taltra Sigli. 
Quivi sono molte calcatrici o vero cocolgrilli, e leoni in grande moltitu- 
dinc, e diverse bestie che non sono in Franchia. Quie si arde il verzino 
per legne, e tutti i boschi son pieni di paoni salvatichi. Poi venni a 
Colonbio, ch' h la migliore terra d'India per mercatanti. Quivi d il 
gengiovo in grande copia e del buono del mondo. Quivi vanno tutti 
ignudi, salvo che portano un panno innanzi a la vergogna istremo (?) 
e legalosi di dietro. 

17. Bdle consv£tudini strane delta gente di Minabar. 

Quivi adorano il hue e l*idolo loro h mezzo buoe e mezzo uomo, e 
favella alcun* ora e vuole sangue di xxx uomini e piii, e sangue di 
femmina, e vuole che sieno uccisi dinanzi da lui. E come noi faciamo 
voti di dare a Dio nostri figliuoli o figliuole, cosi costoro a loro idolo 
e *ncontinente che egli il vuole e egli il recano e soenalo dinanzi a lui per 
reverenza. E spesse volte lo 'mperadore per maggior reverenza o '1 re 
fa torre a damigelli una vacca, e tolgono un bacino d'oro, e ricevono 
entrovi Torina di questa vacca, e lo re se ne lava le mani e '1 volto ; poi 
toglie de lo stereo di questa vacca, e ponselo a la faccia e unguesene le 
mascelle e*l petto, e poi dice ch* h santificato. E facendo egli questo, 
tutti fanno il semigliante. In questa terra sono albori che conducono 
[producono ?] mele, ed h del buono del mondo. Sonvi altri albori che 
producono vino ed albori che producono lana di che si fa tutto corde e 
funi, e sonvi albori che producono frutti che di due sarebe carico un 
forte uomo, e quando si vengono a manicare conviene che altri 8*unga 
le mani e la boca, e sono odorifili e molto saporiti e chiamansi frutto 
chabasd. Quivi udi dire che sono albori che producono uomini e fem- 
mine a modo di frutti, e sono di grandezza un gomito, e sono fitti nell' 
albore insino al bellico, e cosi istanno ; e quando trae vento e sono 
freschi, e quando non, pare che si seccano. Questo non vidi io, ma udilo 
dire a persone che Taveano veduto. Sono anche qui piii diverse cose che 
sarebbe lungo a dire e *ncredibile e per6 lascio. 

18. Del reame de Mobar dove giace U corpo di San Tomaso Apostolo. 

Poi pervenni a uno imperio che si dice Mabare, ove fu morto San 
Tomaso apostolo. Quivi h il massimo imperio. Questa Mabor h pro- 
vincia. Qui si truova le perle, le maggiori e le migliori del mondo. 
Qui h uno idolo d*oro puro e massiccio della grandezza che si dipingue 
Santo Oristofano, ed a intomo al collo una corda piena di priete pre- 
ziose, e di perle grandi. Tutta la chlesa di questo idolo d d'oro puro. 
Tutti gl* idolatri del paese vanno in peligrinnaggio a questo idolo come 
i cristiani a Boma, e adorano in questo modo : che prima fanno tre 
pftsaL poi ai stende in terra boccone ; e qui gli fa incenso col turibolo, e 
•^ ^ aHrS tre pasai e fa il simigliante, e questo fanno da certo luogo 

' *^maU, which I have tried to reduce to seme. 



jDEiiio a r idolo, tndtiDiio e leggendo (f) In cot&le peligrinagio nkalll 
poriuio null UtoU in collo, oTTero ineii<a forata, e' tuettono U crapo pa 
lo foro, e cosi la tieDe infino cbe peniene a 1' idolo, e qiiivi la geiau 
dintinEi da lui. Altri miho che •) forano U braccio cou uoo coltellg, i^ 
non te neV tragono da la cafa iDEina a 1' idolo. E io vidi questo e tun 
il braccio era gia fracido. E molte altre diverse peaiteDzie qniii 

19, DdU/aU /Aefanno dd loro Idolo. 
B quando 6 la fceta di queeto idolo, una rolta I' anno, pongono 1' 
e mes&lo in certo luogo. AJtora in prima [viene] 


peradore, e poi il papa e aJtri ncerdoti che u chiamaoo ttiin, e alnickl 
si EODo botati' si Taano sotio il carro, alcuno col capo, alctiDo col eorpo, 
secondo il voto cbe fa, ai cbe le mate pnrando EOpis loro muoioiwe 
ogni BDno impromettono cosi d' esBeme uccisi da cc iofiiio cccc, e cos t 
cosa ocibilisiiina a tedere. Allii si offeriscono iEpontaneamente a 1' idoio, 
e lanDosi un fomimeDto di Goil c gittano a 1' idolo della came sua, It 
ijuale tngliaoo col cottcllo d' ogni laembro, Poi si percuotono col coIteilB 
insiuo al cuore, diceudo ecco cbe io muoio per lo Iddio mio. E exi 
moUi uccidoDO lor medesimi : e cosi si santificauo tra loro, come i maniii 
tra noi. Mo! ti altri fanno voto de' figliuoli tore e menagli dinaoiiib 
([uesto idolo e scannsgli. El al lato di queslo idolo h im luogo nel qnile 
per la divozione gellano oro e argeDto, e in queslo modo quella chietai 
tnirabilmciitc ticbissima e cbiuDasi qu«sto luogo eelai in lor lingua. 

SO. De' Ttami di Java e di Zamori. 
Di Mabara ci partinmo ed entrai Del mare Oceaso, e naTicai per pii 
dli e perreDoi a una nobile iaola appellala de lava; !» quale d taolit 
grande ed k qui abondanza quasi di tutti i betiL NcUti quale isola nu 
dodici Teatai ed in ciascuno reamc a uno imperadore. Qiiivi nascoook 
noci moscade e gherofani. e 'I eubeba, e molte altrc isj>ezie in gtaadi 
quantitik. E qui iDasaiioamenIa abooda i legDO aloe e oro ottijisimo. Pii 
navicai per xl. giornaie e arivai ad uno regno che si chiam» Lamori, 
e 'n questa contrsda comincini a pcrdere la tramontana perd che la tcta 
me la logliea. JSella quale terra gli uoroini e le fetumina senz& nulla db- 
tinzione vaDOO ignudi, non abendo ntente in alcuna parte, se noo cbe at- 
cuna femmina certo tempoquando partoriscona portano dioanzi a laver- 
gogna una foglia d' arbore e legansela con una coreggia d' albore. E 
&ccanai beffe di me, diccndo Iddio fece Adamo ignudo, ed io mi veati a mal 
suo grado. E tulte le femmlne sono in commune in tal modo cbe nulla d' 
£ appropiata a niuno omo, ma ciascuno si pu6 pigliare qual pib gli pjagj, 
pur cbe non facia impedimento a 1' altro. E quando ingravida puotela 
femmina appropiare il Ggliuolo a cuj ella vuole. Eziandio tutta la tern 
i a commune, si cbe or Bulio puA dire quests casa 6 mia ma ci scuo hanno 
in ispeziale.' Quivi eziandio mangiano le cami umani, e Santcioi vi n- 
cano de 1' altre provlncle gli uomini e vendogli loro in mercatanziaj e 
Bono mangiati da coloro e eoho uomini biancbi, cbe do' nert come sone 
eglbo non mangiano. E sono uomini fieri in battaglia e ratmo a In. tmL. 
taglia ignudi, salvo cbe portano in braccio uno iscudo che gli q> 
insino a pied:. E se piendono alcuno nella battaglia 9- ' ' 

' NotinttlliiiibU. Il twin the MS.~-KaeUejio(oT)eitaB 
in probably meant /or. "except thst they hove house* t9 
Latin MSS. 1/ that Ir in, ptrhnpj casa thould rtai it 



21. Dtl Ittame ch' e chimata SutMlra. 

Di quind[ c'\ partimmo e vecimmoftd ud altio regno di questa Isola cb' & 
chiamata Sumetrs, e qui portBiio alcim cosa per vestimento, cio h un 
panne iattetto aoprs la vcreogno. £ sono cuituidio fieri uomini o pigliaoo 
baUglia co' Bopra detCi. E lutti queati uomini e femiae sono aegnati in 
della fronts, cio^ nella faccia, d'au feiro di cavaJlo a noBtro modo. In 
q^uesta coQtrada ft graudo mercato di porci e di gallina a di burro e di 
riso, 6 qui e frutto ottimo cio^ i/tuti. E trovasi quivi oro e atagna a 
in^ude quantity Quivi si pigUano Ic tartugi, eioh testugini, mirabili, 
e Bono di molti colori e paiono quasi dipiuts. Poi reoi a 1' altro regoo 
di questalEola ch' ^ chiamata Bucifali o'l maredi turci(l) queeto regno 
ei cniama il tnar morto. Ed egli o tutto il oontrario, ehe '1 mare pende 
e coiTc Bi forte ch' h iacredibile, e ae marinai ij parioao punto dallito 
vanno disceadeiida, e non tornano mai. E non 6 nlcuoo cbo sapiano 
dove si vadono, e molti sono coe! iti a non seppono mai che ee oe fossono. 
E la Dave nostra tub in giande pericolo, audiindo quindi, se non ae che 
Idio ci aiutoo miracolosamente. 

e de' aghi vdenall che lofiano 

In questa isoU sono albori che pioducono farina e 'I pane che se ne fa 
k asai bianco di fuori, ma dentro h alquanto neio ma in cuciua questa 
farina h molto buono. E non ti maravigUare cbe gli albori facciano 
farina, impercid che '1 mode b queito. Prendono una iscure, e peiquotono 
]' albore in quelta I'albare fa schimma e fa gromma molto grossa. Poi 
preDdo[Do] Tasi oTvero ceste, e tolgono quella gromma e mettolari dentro 
poi per III di per se medesimo ean^a locarla. Divien farina in quelle 
modo. Poi per tre 61 prendono aqua marina e colaoo quella farina in 
quella aqua, poi gettano quella aqua marina, poi per tre dl prendono 
nqua dolce e ntridola cot) quella ; poi no fanno la bella masas, e pare il 
pin belli) pane che Bia al mondo ncl »apore, Onde nel regno ove noi 
sayamo (?) ci venemeno tutti gli altri alimentifuori cbe questa farina en 

Cnde quBDtil& e a buono mercato. E queata contrada tiene insieme 
e quatordici migliaia d' iaole e altri dicono di mono. Alcuno chiama 
questa contrada da Talamosa e alcuni altri Pantbc. En queste isole 
Bono molte cose maravigliose e Etrane. Onde alcuni albori ci sono che 
fnnno farina come detto, ^ alcuni fanno melc, alcuni seta, alcuni lana a 
alcuni cbe fanno Tcleno pessimo. Centre al quale nuUo t' ft rimedio se 
non se lo stereo do I'uomo. E quelli uomini sono quasi tutti corBftli, e 
quando vanno a battaglia portano ciaaeuno una canoa in mano, di lun- 
ghezza d'un braccio o pongono in capo de la canna uno ago di ferro 
atossiato in quel veleno, e soSano nella canna e I'ago vola e percuotolo 
doTo Togliono, e 'ncontlnente quelli ch' ft perco&so muore. M'a egli hnnno 
le tina pit^no di stereo d'uomo o una iscodella di stereo guarisce 1' uomo da 
queste cotali ponture. In questa contrada a canne alte piu di Iz passi, si 
grosao cbe sarebbe Impossibile a credere. Ancbe r'ae un' allragenerazione 
di canne che si istendono per terra e cbiamasai camMe. E'n ogni nodo di 
quelle canne fanno barbe a modo digramigna,e queste cane cresconoe pro- 
lungatui per diritto tramtto per tcra piil d' un uiigUo ma non sono molto 
groBM, ma X modo delle canne di Francbia. In queste canne vi nascono 
— •— '-*-■ -' — •-' ''e tiene di quests prietesopra se, dicono che nullo 


tm pietre. 


iKXll INH 

nesB and reBOorcen, 111 teqq., ^!ii ; 

HO, 3rtl; a^lO, aw, ass : Virgin wor' 
Hbipped diare, 803; see Khanid 

Cantara, aOH 

Cinion. VojHge Trom, to Pernian Qiilf 
ID Tib Huil 8th centuries. Ixxviii ; 
plundered by Arabs, lixi; described 
hj Odoric (Cttueotatt), 1I)D Kg.; 
named b; Rasbid {Ckinlalan) 300, 
b; MorigDolli (Cynltalan), 373: 
deacribed lj;r lbaBtUjUi(Sinlialan), 
4B8 tegf.i aee ihete namea and 

Cap al the Great Khan, Precious, 

Capao, aee Guebelc 
Capital Colzilan, 571 
CspptTittain ( Kafirittan), SGI 
Caput ii'lununii, tlie phrase, lU 
Can Csiay, ITS ; Bee Kara Khitai 
Csraoorum, ITT : Bee £'dra. 
CaTHiaa.SSO, 273; cheapDeBa of ((did 

Cardnmoms, » 
Cam ate, 101 
Carus, Emb. 

CbiDi, liiii 
Carwar, lat 

Casoar, OltS ; see Kaihgar 
Casoiani ^Kalhani),6^^■^ 
Caihiih. Caicii, the word, S6S 
Caspian Mouotaiim (Cauctuiu), lU 
Caspian Sea; regarded as a Gulf, eIv, 

olivii; 00,300: »ee iiutu 
CaHsai, Casiiaj, 2311, •■111, 286; see 

Caaaiui (Kaihaa), SO, SI 
Catian, word intended, 03 
Cast-iron, Chinese, xKi 
CalEGa of Anian, cxvi 
Catalan Map of l^Tft, Notes on, caixiii 
Catanea, aee Culfiaiii 
Calhan, cjt; of I'fgmies, Vil 
(Khitan), applied lo Cathay, 


Cathsni, Andreolo, lOS 

Calha;, the name, iixiii : China 
known as, civ ; why, cxvi : name 
flrst bean) in Europe, ciiiii; passing 
into China, qxxit itqg, \ sea voyages 
in Senreh or. cxlii; land joomey of 
Jenkioson, ib. ; Odoric enters, 
laS-T; Monlecorvino reaohes, lOT ; 
Bashid's Notioea of, SST leqq. ; 
Land Trade to, asT n^q.; Jbn 
Batuta enters, SUS ; Jerome Xavier's 
desire lo inve^^ligsle, b^-i; Mission 

from Emperor, 

of Goes for the piirpose, 53^ Mjf. 
identiHed witli China, &77, et«.; w 
Table of Contents 
Cathea of Sirnbo, cxvi 

Cathnlie Converts in China, eto., Ill 
133 : Bee BaplUnu 

Canigara, exiv, el 

Cauvey, 443 

Caviar*, iBT 

Calii, btiS; sea Caikith 

Cayda, see Kaidu 

Cembalo {Balaktatra), eonfoonM 
with Cambalu, 173 

Censealan, lOS ; sea Contcm ami 
Chinkalan ' 

Cemove, cxxxviii, 46n 

Cciuni, C«ini, CiMeaXt tlie vord. III 

Ceaetia and Corbaiius, SchismWH 

kvii : Tributary lo China, U»m-i>i 
Pliny on, oWi; Ancient ChrisUaailf 
iu, clxLi,oIiivii: CoamaH's AMoau 
of, cIkiti : Adventure of Sopatra 
in.olxiii; Odoriu'a Aceoiinlat.ll»: 
Notioed by Mont<>i>.irTiiio, 111: 
Harignolli fasoinatea by, 325 : soa- 
(Hated with Paradise, 816 - Honnua 
of, Utt, 303, 3S4, sr>8, 1211 ; ba< 
MangnoUi was driven in by slotm, 
357 ; visited by Ibn Batata, in; 
svB Taprobane, Sielediba, Stmafil 

ChagsD Jang, 3711 

Chogan-Nur, 371-0 

Chsgan Tslas, xoviii 

Chagatai, Empire of, ecxli*; Liiiul% 
cxni; Chronology of, isT «,(.■ 
Noie on Kiians of, 532 nqq. ; KhaM 
ot EaBtern Branch. 524, SIS 

Ghaita of Ptolemy, cxvi 

Chaitwa, 404 

C>iakiibaTKht (Jack -fruit). 389 

Chaldiea: supposed co 
with China, ixxv ; 64 

ChBldHjan Oaioa of St. Thomas, 

Chnle, ja.4H 

Cbalish (Cialis, Chialis), ocxvii, M^, 
60(1,674; its poaiti-n tlisoaa>>eil,9lSJ 

Champa, oir, ail, ox, 05 : wlienM tki; 
name ib,, 469; aee Satif 

Chanderi, 410 ^ 

Chanili-Sswn, in Java, -US 

Clinndrngiri, 4S1 

Clianggan, li, orii, clxxsiii ; 

Cbnngliian'B Mission to the W«at,Iitf 
he hearB about India, Ixvi 

Oiank Sheila, olxxviii 

Chansi (Zenkthi'i, Kban of 

APrENDix ri. li 

peradore Becando cbe si dice ue d% dugento figliuoli e figliuole, tutte 
propie e propii. 

Va' altra maraTJgliou cow a '□ quests contrada che ciaacune gene- 
razioni di pesci che sono ia mare vcogono in quests coatrada in bi 
grande qusntil^ che nulU altnt cosa li vede in mare ae non se pesci ; e 
medesimamente si gettano aopra la rirn e cntuna peraana no prcade 
quanti ae vole ; a etaDno ccii in aulia riva per due dl o tre e pni viene un' 
altra gQneraxione di peaci, e faano il simile, e cosi tutto 1' altre gene- 
TBzioni dl pcsci, una roita I'anno. Ed essendo domaadati gli uomini 
della contrada perchi cosi facciano, rispondoDo che Tengono a fare 
revcrenza a lo 'mperadore. In qucsta contrada vidi una testugine 
mnggiorc per tre volte che non i la cblesa di santo Antonio di Padova, 
ed altre maraviglie v' k as^ai. Quandoatcuno muoreinquesta contrada, 
il marito morto ardollo o con bbsd lui la moglle, e dicono che la moglie vs 
a stare col marito nell' altro mondo, e cotali modi tengono. 

35. De/r laala di Nichoverra dove anno gli uomini la tctta a moda 

Partendotni di queata contrada navioai per lo mare Oceano per lo 
merizzo,' e trovai molte isole e contrada, tra Jo quali n' a una che ei chia< 
ma Nipbovera.' E gira beue dumila miglia ; nclla ijuale tutti gli uomini 
anno il capo a modo d'ua caae, o adorauo il bue. £ ciascuno porta in 
della froQto uu bue d'oro o d'argento, e tutti vanao ignudi, Ic femmiue 
e gli uomini, aalvo che la vergogna ai cuoprono con una tovagliuola. So- 
no queste genti grundi del corpo, b fortl in battaglia, e vanno ignudi 
nella liattaglia, aalvo che portano uno iscudo che'l cuopre tutto, e ae 
pigliano alcuno in battaglia che no ai poasa ricomperare pecunia, si lo 
mangiano,' E lo Be loro* porta ccc. gran pietre a collo, e convieno che 
kccia ogni dt ccc. orazioni agli Iddi buoI. £ porta in della mano ritta un 
grande cberubino, e> lungo heno una ispana, pure una fiamma di fuoco ^ 
la quale il Oran Cane »'i molto ingegnalo d' aveila, e no 1' !i potuta avere. 
Questo Re' tiene giustizia, si che ogni uotno pu5 iro libaramente per lo 

Evvi un' altra iaola che si chlama 8illia' che gira anche bene m m 
miglia. ne la ouale Bon scrpcnti e molti altri aDimali aatvaltcbi e leofanti 
e diversi uccclti. 

Eonci uccelli grandi come echo ed anno due capi, e grande quantity 
di vettuaglia. 

erso oriente perveni a una grande Iaola chiamain 
pessimi uomini e m^ngiano U came cruda [ed] 

1 Mm. Ram. Aoj verao il Niriai, whatever that may mean. 

' Uw. lUu, NiooTerra. 

> Mm. Rah. S' rgli msngisno arrosliti. E'Ulmile eTuitoaloro dainemici. 

* Mm. Ram. di ignoste Tcsii?. 

' Mm. Ham. e per lo varo Iddio, thi ofcotionul infroduction o/ which oath 
fj peeutiaT U that eopy. 

' lo, die piirea d'b»er in maao an Garbooe infocato. 

' Id. benahe lia idololatra e ool viao rassembri un cane, tien ragione e 
ginntizii, ed ha gran qunntilik di figlioli.ed e di gran poxsaoza e per tutto, eto. 

' Here ve have Cejlon agaiD, shoirinR ihaL ihe work has linen tampered 
"i(h. » MiN. Ram. Piddi. 

nore, e '1 fifliuolo gli vol fare grmide DDOre, convita e raunft tutti 
■uerdoti e religiosi e giucolari e vicini e parenli e port&oo il corpo « I 
eampagna con gran festereccia ; e quivi <> apparecchiato un gran dead 
e quaiido v' h posto bubo o sacerdoti gli moxzatio il cftpo, e danno i 
figJiuolo. £ poi il taglinno tutto a pezzl, e 'I figliuclo cod tutt* 1 
c«iapagDia caiitaiio e cegEandosi quindi ud p«zzo faniio orazioni. Allot 
TGUgono asUB'ie e avoltoi de' monti e ciascuno piglift il suo pckb 
Alloni gridano e dicono Vedete che eanto uomo queeti fu, che Tengon 
gli angeli per lui, e portanelo in paradieo ! Poi il figlinolo se ne port 
il capo e maogialo cotto poi del teschio fa fare un vaso e manf^ano 
boono i^on esso tutti quelli della casa con grando divoiione. Pitt ftlti 
Eozie uaanze sono tra quelli pagani d'oriente le quftli non dico. 

46. D'ur. 

NeUa provincia de Mam 
Bui vita cue in questo moi 
quali il serroDO. Quando t 

■0 popolnno di Mami. 

snt ad UDO pala^io d'un nomo popoTc 

E tiene cinquanta doDzellv ver^ni. I 
c a mangiare ogni Tivanda o 'mbajidigjot 
3 donzelle prcdette con niolli iitormenti di Aittrt 
ID del continuo cantano mcntre ch« la Tivuida 
nanxi. Poi costoTo ai partono e sitre cinque delle dette donaelle i 
Tengono col' altia Tivanda, e 'laLaetigioDe e con altri diversi iatortneoti 
con diversi canti e per queeto modo mena la sua -rita, Qnesto aifraoT* ft i 
rendita ixx tumani tagiai' di riso. II tunanoiitiutDero di i'^ ; e 'I teRiar 
loma d'aiino. E '1 cortlle del nuo palagio giia ben ii miglia e 'I palaira 
fatto inquesto modo, che I'uuo mattone o teio pietra 6 d'oro e I'altr 
d'ariento. Net coitil dentro ave un monto d'oro o d'argenio, sopra il qoal 
Mm fatti monaeteri e campanili per sue diletto, E dicesi che trs queti 
Hanti sono iiii" uomini per lo modo di coBtui. Gli uomini di quest 
pasM tengono per nobiltii ad avere lu^gbe I'unghia. e la bellesm del] 
femmina d'avere piccioli pledi. Pent quando casce la femmina lenud 
istringono loro i picdi, a cid cbe non crcscono lore piCt cbo voglio&a. 

47. Del Yerehio d^a Moiiiagna. 

Partondomi delle terre del Presto Gio 

, Teneudo verso j 

bene. Netla quale b1 dicea che Eole islare il Tecchio dclla montagni 
Egli avaa fatto tra due monti un ccrcuito di miiro, e dentro le piJi hA 
font! del mondo. E dentro eran poete donxo' Tcrgini belle lepiii del mood 
e caTalli bellissimi, e tutte quelle coee che poteaEono dileCtere corpo tunaii 
E facea dire cbe queato era paradise; e quando vedea uq giovane Taloioi 
Bilometcain questo luogo; ncl quale facea an dare rino elatte percondott 
e quando Tolea fare uccidere alcun re o barone, facea dire al sopraatante i 

Juel luogo ch' egli facesse venire il pi& atto c amorobo a diletti e nel dinoi 
i queito paradiio, e quelli allora dava beveraggi a quel cotale, che *1 lao 
fortemeutc adorneDtaie ; e coe! dormendo nel facea tiare. E qud 
liaentendoai e troTandoei fuori di qucato luogo era in grando triatiu* 
dolore, e pregava a qiiel signoro cbo vel facesae rilomare. E allora j 
dicea, Vo' tu ritornare, vbdb e uccidi il cotale uomo poi ci riton)«iai, 
campi muoi. E 'n questo modo facea uccidere ebiunque e Tolt 
Per la qual coaa era temuto da tutti i re d' oriente, e manda'rif 
Iributo. E 'n questo modo facea uccidere moltl de' Tartar! quani 
Tenieno pigliando il mondo. Per la qual cosa vi Tcnono a oste « pn 

' For tagar. 

- Probahl-j Milehet ori^riMlIy- 

APfBNDIX II. liii 

che tra tutlik Italia uoo a tauto. In queeta terra ao \e maggiori oche del 
mottdo che sono beo per due delle nostrc' e sono biaache come latte. £il 
ano (opra del capo un asso graode come un novo vermiglio come una 
grana, e sotco la gola pende una pelU bono per uno semisso ed assi I'udo 
di quest] cDtali por ua groaso, e coai I'ocbe come I'aiiitTe, e cosi le galtino 
eono si graridi cb' S maiariglioia com a vedere. In queeta cittade s'i per 
ineiio d^in Vinijiianu' ben trecento lib. di gengioTO fresco. In questa coii' 
trada sono maggiori serpenti ch' abbia il mando, e pigliogni e mangialli 
in ogni convita da bene, e no ^ tenuto bello convito io di queato nu a.' 
Qui h abandanza d'ogni Tittuaglia. 

30. Delia nobiU eiild di Zaiton ; e ds' mu-natleri dxgli idoUttri. 

Di quindi mi parti di queeta contrada e vetii per xxxvi' giomate a 
trovai dimolte cittadi e caacelU, poi Toni a una nobile cittade che si cbiama 
ZaCaiton;^ uella quale oostri frati minori aaoo due [luoghij. E 'a questa 
terra portammo I'oisa de' frati cbe furo martirizati per Qesd Crieto. In 
questa terra ae abondariza di tulte le cose necessarie al coipo de I'uomo, 
pitl cbe 'n tera che aia al mouda. Averebbonai bou tre IJbre do zucbcro 
per UQ grosflo. Ed h citado grande per due volte Bologna.' Sonci 
molti munasteri di religiosi di I'idolatri, ae' quali sono beu dumilia 
riligiosi, ed anno bene xi"" d'idoli, K 'I minore' 6 a moJo d'un granJe 
san ChriaCofaDo, ed auDo loro dimolte vivande calJe che vauno iuaioo al 
uaao. Qli altri vivando %i mangiano egliuo.' 

31. Delia eilld di Fazio ; e dd modo clie peanno i pescalori, 

Partendomi di queeta terra e venendo verso oriente ad una citade che 
si cbiatna Fouo' che gira ben trenta miglia. Qui lono i maggiori galH 
del mondo ; e le galliuc bianche come laCte, e non anno peuoe ma Tana 
a modo di pecore. Quindi partendoci andui per xvil 
per moUe cittadi e castella, reai a ua grande monte. 
questo monta tutti gli animali son neri e gli uoi 
a nostra modo di vivero; da quail de I'altro lato del i 
per coutrario tutti gli animali vi sono biauchi.'° Into (?) quelle che aono 
maritate in questo luogo per segno di matrimonio portano un grande 

Partendomi per altre xiiii giornato paasaudo cittadi o caatetla arrirai 
a" un grande fiume ch' ao" un grande ponte a traverso sopra 11 6ume; e 
albvrgai in capo del pouto. E I'oite, volendomi fare a piaccre, mi dUae, 
" Vo tu venire a Tedero peiware, vieni qui." E menomi iu buI ponte ; 

' Mc Rax, mgggiori tre voile delle noatre, 
' Id. per UD dncato viddi dar TOO libre. eto. 

^ Id. Anzi quando vogliono far coDvitu pitl famoso, tanli piil serpenti ap- 
paroccliiBDo, e dan do iu tavola a convitati, 
' Id. 27. 1 Id. Zanton. 

' Id. Hunmini edonne aooo placevoli e belli e coitesi, masaime a forastleii, 
^ Id. b due volte pid grenile d'lin uonio. 
' Id. e loro si moDgiaDO le bevande reri'eddale che sono. 
• Id. Foggia. 
'" Id. Ha I'lina parte e I'altra mi pareva che vivessino e veslisseiio 

" In. poTlano in testa nn oorao di Ugno ooterto di pelle longo pid di due 
HpBnna a meazo la fronts. 
'- Id. ad una citia ebiamala BelsB, che ha uu Anme, etc. 

peuDe D 
)mate paasando 
I da UD lato di 
e le feminine 

liv APfUNDtX II. 

quivi di aatto ersno lurche. B vidi maragoul' in eu pcrtiche ; e Vito' 
gli legA la bocca, ovTcro 1& gols con filo, che non polesiono maDgiue 
peRci. Poi puoae tre gran ccste nclla barca; poi isciolae i mstagoni 

Siuli si gitavano nell' aqua, e prendcano do' pesct, a tneterkgnt ni 
area, e tosto rebliero pietie. Poi iacioleono i maragoni il filo < 
arcano a collo, c manditTaDi) nel fiume a psscerglL E psici 
tornavano a loro luoghi. e passBodo per molie giornate vidi pescM* 
altra modo, Oli uomini della barca erano ignudi, e aveano bucco a cc 
e gitcuodoei nell' bijub pigliaTauo i peaci con mauo e metlcano ael aacc 
TorDaodo geiall neila barcu ei catravano in uno tinello d' ftqtut c&ldi 
poi faceano 11 semigliante. 

32. Delia tmravigliota eUla lU C/iamai. 
Di questo luogo c citisde partcndomi pcrvent ad una gimndt 
maravigliosa citudc chiumkCa Cbaosai, ch' S a dire in nostra ling 
" Cittadc del Cieio." Questa i la magiore cittade del nioiido.' He 
qimie uoD ae iapana di terreno cbe non t' abici. E sodvI case di dice 
dodici famiglie e TDasserizie.' La detta cittade a borghi grandiaaimi, : 
quali abitauo assai plfl genco che nella cittade. La ciiude ae ioi 
porte principal! e a ciascuna porta preso a otto mlgtia bodo ettCi 
ciascuDa maggiore cbe Padova o Vinegia; nelle qaali aQdammo wj 
sette dl per uno di que' borgbi.> Qiieata cittade h in aqua di lagunt 
modo di Vincgia, netla quale ^ piii di xii'°° pouti e 'n ciascima lEtM 
guarilie cho guardano U cittade per lo gran Cane. A lata a que 
cittade corre ua Gums chcposcha,' lo quale & piil largo che lungo. De 
quale dill gen tern eute domandai 1 Cristiani e Saracini e idolatri, e tu 
mi rispuosono per una lingua, Catuno paga per lo lignore una baitii 
ciO cinque carte Lambagiue, cbe sono bene uno fiorino 6 mezzo. B i 
que»ta cagiono eono ben dodici famiglie ad un fuoco. Queati foool 
Bono lixxF lumani ed aiiche iv tuinani di Samclni, si che in tutto « 
Uxxix liinani. Ed 5 i! tumano x'^ fuochi.' Oli altri aono meicau 
e gentu che va e Tiene. MuraTigliomi molto come tanta geute poni 
intiieme abitare, ed avi si grande dovizia di pane e di vino e di pore: 
di riso, c bi(iiiil, cb' ^ un nobile beveraggio, e di tutte altre vittiug 
cb' i marariglia a Toderc. Que&ta i cittade retilo nella quale dimon 
Rb di Mauzi, 

I munutero Jryh 

a la fede im pot 

In questa cittade uoatri frati i 

< Msrangone xi a diner (>ea bird to calltd). In Ihtt ttoiy tht Misl. B 
hai the extraordinary eariation which hai betn noticed in a Halt on Me In 
lalioii. Morigione, apparenll]! intinded for the lame icord, ti there appUa 
a leal. ' Mut, R*m. per un ottavo d'on. 

' Mm. Kak. K si grinde ebe a pena ardisco di ditlo: Ma bo bea tranii< 
Vinelio aii*iai persona che v\ sono sIHle. 

* HiN, RAH.Casayi ne sodo RHRalBsime di otto e di liieci soiari, che io ( 
snlaro haliita una fameglia eon le sue inantiBriQ per la gran careatia di twi 
(the interpolation of tome te.lf-nigici<at tcribe). 

' Id. Noi eniTamo T cbe andasHimo per qiiei borghi. 

' In. again hai per DJo rero e aono di eerlo di piik di dieei migUa> J 

■ For Bilini i itiU/uTthtr corrupted in Mis. liiM. to Bastagne. 

' The MiH. ItAH. has got all wronR here, bai it in ficarcel; wonb qi 

'° Lir. Riu. «a^i, dove e un Inogo dei FraLi minori. 



casa io albergai, e diceami, " Atta," (cioi & dire Padre) 
ti la terra." Esalitiin unabarca.einenocial Touniitero' 
di R&baiii, cio^ reliKiosi, e dissemi [ihould be disse ad] uno di qucBti 
religiosi -^ Tedi uu Rabaui cbe visDe di quelle parti dove il pone il 
sole, e vae a Chanbalu,' a, ci6 che qui priegai per lo gran aignore, e perO 
moBtragli alcuna cosa che possa raconlare nel buo paese. E qticgil 
prese due grandi roaicelle di quelle cli' erano soperchiatc alia mensa, e 
menoci in uno gi&rdino a un monticello ch' eru pleno d'albori. E 
tonando un cembalo venero molti animali Bftlvatichi socio aal< gatti- 
maimoiij, iecimie o moUo altie bestie salvaticbe, tra quail veuoro liea 
tre milia ch' aveano Torma d' uomo,'i quaii e' acconciaro I'uoo alato a 
I'aUro, cd a caCuno puose una iaci>della in mano, e dava toro mangiare. 
Poi sonando uu tamouro, tutti queati animali si tornavano a luogo loro 
ed io veggendo quests dimandai, cbe cid volcva dire. Ed e mi rispuo- 
aono ch' erano anime di carCi nobili uomtui che si Teuiauo a pancere 
quid per I'amore di Dio. Ed io iitogliendogli di questo, e dicendo loro 
che noD eraDO anime ma bestiuoli, nulla ne 'volono credere, e dicono cbe 
come I'uDmo i nobile in queato mondo, cosi quaudo muoiono entrano in 
nobili animali. E del vilano dicono ch' eutra io brutti auimail. Quests 
h la muggiore citt& del mondo e la migliore per mercatanti, ed h molio 
dovisioaa d'ogni bene come detto 6. 

34. Dtlla cittadt ChUemi ; edd granfiume Talay. 

Partotidonii quiodi aodai per sei giornate e perveui a una grande 
cittadc cbe si cbiama Chileusi.' I muri di questa cictade giriLno bene 
3.1 mtglia, Qc' quale aoDO cccli ponti* di pietra de' belli ch' abbia nel 
mondo, Questa cittade fue !a prima aedia del Re do Manzi ed £ cittade 
molto bene abltata, e di grande naviglio maraviglioaa, e [di] copia di 
tutti i bcni del moudo. Di quindi partendomi per tre giornate veni n 
uno grande fiume de maggiori del mondo cbe lii dore gli S piil istretto i 
largo ben vii luiglja.' Questo fiume paasa per ^ae^^o la. ciCt^ Fiomario^ 
la cui contrada ai chiama Chaicho, cb' h delle piil belle cittadi del 
moiido, e delle maggiori. I quali uomini cb' abitano iu questa terra 
Boa grandi tre spaune, e fanno il maggiore laroro di bambagia (cio& di 
cotoue) cbe si vedesse mai. E grandi uomiui che souo tra loro iu- 
gencrano figliuoli e Ggliuole cbe Bono piil cbe la me& di que' piccoli e 

35. D^ cittd. di Januai e di Jfnuu. 

Aadando pei questo fiume del Tolaigi," passando per pid cittadi vcnni 
ad una cittade che si chiama *" nelU quale a un luogo di frnti 

> Mm. Ram. In un muaJBlero ohiamato Tbebe. 

3 MiK. RiM. hot Ed niiD di qaei reltgiosi mi djase, Itabin.,.TB con qnento 
che t det mo ordiDe che >i mostrera qual cosa di nuovo. etc. It it very much 
comptcd and inUrpoUited by one mho miiandtritoad Ihingi. 

' It in in the MS. Ghabatanj bat as it is rigbt eiaewhere I have corrected 

* Not inUUigibJ* in MS. 

' Lit. Rue. Cbilense. • Id. Pone. 

^ UiM. Rut. Ma percbe no vi erano cosa de|i:ne di mernviglia, poco vi dima- 
mmmo, B onvigando trovammo un tiuma largo piil di -iO miglia, di ci ' 
muiD paaso per la terra ubiomBU riemaionni, etc. 

» Or Piomazio. ' Shmtd be del Talay e, 

m MiN. RiU. S»j. 


KwtofiL Q^ 
gn»4e A" a*e InS tonaai di focotari di' encl 
tate qaelle ook ifi ^ 

, Tiolfitfcakas 

1 aftcT^ £|NitMi cioDe, e dice m Twa 

a. ■ BBlfe i Ag &ec^ nulla com 

■*■• ■•ngU >» Kna «0|>U. Pitmt» 

■MP"*— n> ^tn dtoJe, la qoale n cbkM 

36. Dtt frmmjitume OMWawfWM. 

Puteodoroi di qat _ 

dtUdi e micUk « d'aoM dolci, tw ad hm dttada U quale ft'chiaMti 
lADiMj.* Ik •)u>Ie t fon^tk Mpn na iaae dM « duaow ChnfaacraL 
U qiule pun ptr m«ao del CkttM « & STuid« dmnno ami^ ■ 
cotTomp« a modo dd Pi. E ubndo par ^«eUo fiume p—TB tiHrr nolH 
citadi e cutelh reno 1' Mieau pa mMm gHWBMtc, perreiii a uii> gmtlf 
dtode diiuuta SogomcK*,' b qnle dtt*de » nagsiore »bondaiit> di 
*eU di' den dtt>de dM u> al moado, die quando reae U maenon 

»xllih.l«*iiiei«idiTiii.- maggwn 

a di puw e d'ogui bene. 

Puieudomi d«ll> cittade di Soumacho pa«ai per icolte dttadi t 
teire verso orieote, e perreai* k la aobile dttade di Chanbalu.* QnoB 
cittade i molto ancicB ed i nella proilDcia del Catai. Quetta dttade 
preioro i Tattari, e pre^so a queaia citt^ & un meno miglio no fec^ra no* 
altra, che la chiamaoo Tnido. Ed ane lii porti e da runa a I'dln 
■OHO due gnndi migtia, e tra I'uoa citude a I'dtra be& s'abita. Bl 
circDTito di queste due cittadi che boqo insieine gir* bene Ii migUa. In 
questa cittade il giaa Cane aue la sua sedia, e dentro ene il suo palaeis 
che giia qualTo miglu, e contiene in se oicilti palagi e belli, Egli i 
qnadn, ed a tre cerehi di tnura, * in catuno canto d'ogni muro ft on 
B;nuide palajpo, si ehe pur questi eod dodici, e catuno i diputato ■ 
diTCiM ooie. E Del milaogo b qudlo dove itta il Sigaore.' B '1 prinM 

> llat.Kta.'lBT:om»niqfIoeolvi,iaeko/vhkh M 10,000 focbi, aaj Mcfc 
foco 10 or la families! 
' HiH. Rax. Laarepza. 
■ Un. Bak. SaDiomaco, aiul btbnr Straamacho. 

* UiM. Bam. per qd i.oldo E pertheTierainqaestolaeopijkgente ebe 

in niiiD altra che hatesMvisto domBodaado dondecid avenUse mi fu rispoau 
per conto che I'aria s il luogo sono alia g^neraxitme niulto aalalltcii, dinada 
tale ehe poco sono che moiono se coo di tetehiezxa. 

* Id. NiTtgaodo ili qnaitro giomaie. It ii Chaobanaa in Ike JifS. SwU n 
itiijight rUevhtrt,! b- ■ ' " ' 


cercuito delle mura ane tre porti in ognt faccio, e dcntro & questo 
cijcuito ene 11 Monte Verde nel qtial' h edlficato ud molto boUo palaglo 
de' pill belli del moiido. Queata moate gira bene un migUo, nel iiuale 
son piantati albori che d'ogai tempo tengono la verzuro. A lata a 
queato moDte i isUo ud molto belb lago sopra ii quale ane uu gran 
poDte de' piik belli del mondo, ccl quale lago bod oche satvaticbe ed 
auitre b ceceri[e]' anitrocoli, cb' b maraviglia a vedere. Oude qunodo 
Id segnore vole cacciare non gli bisogoa d' uscire di casa, perd cbe 'n 
quBsto cirouito bod molti giardioi di molto bostiuole e di tutte maaiere, 
11 palagio priDcipale nel quale lata U ledia del Oran Cane H quivi. 
(Aue) levata la terra piii ch' altrove due passi; nel qual palagio a deDtro 
xsiv colonne d' oto, e tutti i murt del palazzo sou coperti di pelli rosBe 
le piCi nobili pelle cbe aieao in India. E ne! mezzo del palagio auc una 
grande pigna tutta d'uDa pietra prezioaa che Bt chiama Medacbas,' ed i 
lutta legata d'oro; e nel caoto di questa plgoa a un serpente d'oro, 
cbe la batte coDtiDuameate ; ed una ret« d'oro, e di parle grandi, 
dipende da questa pigna, ed 5 larga foise una ispana. £ questa pigna 
porta per coDdotto il beveragio della corte del segnore. A lato a questa 
pigna istaDno molti vaselll d'oro da bere. In queato jiulagio bodo 
nohi paoni d'oro, e quando alcuno Tartero vol far feata allora battono 
Ic mani e paoni allora battono I'alie, e pare cbo giuocbino,* Queato ai la 
per arte diaiolica, e per altro ingegno cbe aotterra naacono. 

38. Delia eorte e dtUa gloria del Oran Signore Cane. 
Quando il Qran Cane siede in sulla sedia imperiate da lato sinistra 
ista la reioa, e un grade piti gill istanno due altre sue mogli; e poi di 
Botto tutte le doDae del parentado ordinatamenCe. E le maritate portano 
UD pie d' uomo in aul capo, lungo un mezzo braccio, e sotto le piante di 
questo piede portann penne di gril, e '1 dosao del piede tutte ornato di 
grandi perle del mondo. Da lato desCro poi ai pone a sedere il suo 
figliuolo primogenito che del regnare dopo lui, e dl sotta a quelli 
istanno tutti quelli cbe Bono di aangue reule. Foi di sotto a quelli aono 
Iv Bcrittori, che scriTono tutto cifl cbe dice il Signore. Dinanzi da lui 
istanno Buoi baroni assai sanza novero, de' quali nulla 6 ardito di parlare 
ee con t domandato dal Signore maggiore. Foi vi sono i giuucolari che 
vogliono fare allegrezza al Signore, ma no fano mai so non ae le leggi a 
loro imposte.* Dinanzi itlla porta del palagio istanno baroni a guardiu 
cbe noQ sia nullo cbe toccbi la porta del palagio ; cbe bb per alcuno si 
tocasae g duramente battuto." 

e nn palnzzo dove dimoro uno de" quatro si 

palaj^o grande e un altro cirouito ili mura, 

inezzB tirate d'aroo, e tra qaeati muri ti KUaao ; anoi proriHioDBtl con tultd 

le aue famiglie. E nel altro olrcnito abila il Gnin Cane con tutte i suui con- 

giunti, cbe soDO ossalaumi, con Unti figlooli, Kgluole, BeDeri,iie nepoCi, con 

tante mnglie, conaigljeri. secretarii, e famegli, cbe Cutis il palazxo che gira i 

nriglia, viene ad easer habitato. 

■ Thii it probably miant far the cesann.' of the Latin MSS., whether that 
be a genuine nord or a mistiko for eycne. Min. Rm. hai Ersn nell' acqua le 
lentinaia dell' anatre, o de aasuaBimi uccelli cbe vivono di peace, d' ogni eorte, 
cbe quel Ingo product. 

^ MiN. RIlV. Medeeas. 

' In. A lomo ia mensa sua son molli pavoni amaltalJ che paiooo che giiia 
Tivi; etalvolUsi melton o a can tare Rno che 'I Signore mBagin. 

* MiN. Rui. E di quei buSboi ciascuao faa I'liora sua deputsta, qnaudo dee 
fit fir in guard ia e trallenimenlo del SigQor.'. 

' MlH. IUh. Ma nelle porte Bono guatdie grandissime : e ae alcuno vi 



Iviii Ari-ENDix ii. 

Quando U Signore fano alcunn coDvjCo sllara i suoi umo 3uv'^< dt 
bkroni colle corone in capo, che servoDO nel convito; cBtuno de' qu&U 
t,ae tale Testimento in dosso che solo le perle di cUscuuo Teetimento 
viil« xv fior d' oro. La sua carte c oidinata per decime, e ventiue, e 
centinaia e migliaJB, che tra iora ordiuatamente si riB[>oDdoDo, e ne loro 
u6ci HDD i: difetto nullo. Ed io frato Oderigo fui ben tr« anoi in qaestk 
tut, cittade, e uoi frati miDori aviamo nella terra un luogo diputato a 
darli la nostra benedizione.' E domandundo iodillgoatemetitedacriBtiaai 
e saracioi e idolatri e da nastri convertiti, cbe aono grandi baroni 
guaidando aolo a la persona del Signore, e tutti mi diSBono per unK 
bocca che giucolatori souo liii tumanl (il tumaoe i- x<» ) e quelli cho 
guardano e Dudriscono i can! e bciitie e uccelli da cacciagioni goDO 
xTi" di tumani, si cha tra giucolari e coEtoro sodo xxviii"' di tumuii.' 
Bi che moDtano in tuto cclxii mi^liaia d'uontini. I medici che 
guardoDD la persona sodo cccc idolatri, ed otto ciistianl e i saracino.' 
E tutti costoro anno c'lb ch'c! lore Beceasario dalU corte del aigaore. 
L'altni sua famiglia h sanza novero, 

39. Bd modo nd quale cavalea ogni anno il Oran Ccme tii Camial«. 

Lo signore Oian Cane dimora net tempo della istate in una tern che 
si cbiania Sandau, In quale e sotto tramontana, ed i la piCi fredda terra 
ad abitare del mondo e di verno dimora in questa citclt Chanbatu che 
detta 6. Quando il signore cavalea da una terra k un'altra, caralca 
io questo modo. E^lj a iv cacrciti di cavalicri, I'una gli Ta ionanzi 
un dl; I'altra un altro di ; e '1 terzo dopo un altro dl ; e 'I quarto il 
quarto d) ; ed egli sempre vane in mezzo, a modo di croce e gli 
aserciti detti sempre gli vano d'intorno, e catuno gli va di lunge una 
gioraata e andando sempre ano la loro glornata ordinata nella quale 
tniovano tutte qucste cose che sooo toro necesarie a mangiare. La 
gente che ia con questo sifcnore va sempre per Io detto modo, ed egli 
vane sopra un carro sopra due ruote, sopra LI quale u fatta una bella 
sala tutta di legni d' aloe, ch' e tanto odorifero e prczioso, ed anche< 
d'oro i amata, c di perle e di pietre preziosc. E questo carro menano 

V leotanti ' e sopra il carro porta xii girfalchi. In quello seden- 

doai si Tedo alcuni uccelli sigli lascia andare. £ nullo k obo d'ap- 
pressarsi al carro a una gittata di pietre, ae noD se queati dipuCati 
a queatc cose. E cosi va questo signore, e cosi vanno le mogli nello 
grado e '1 suo figliuolo primugecito. Onde b cosa incredibile a immaginare 
la grande gente ch' anc questo signore. Quelii iv eserciti che vanoo 
con lui sono v tumaui, e catuno tumane e 3™ ; e tutta questa gente 
anno dal signore cid ch' c loro neceesario ; e se nullo di costoro [sia] pre- 
sente'drimessoun altro in luogo dicostui ; si cherimane intero il numeio.' 

B'AppresaBFie senzB licpDKB del capitano sarcbbe amorauiento bnttutoi ichieh 
U a miiunderitandinii of tht laatier (sec note on transl. in looo.) 

' MiH, E«u. quindeoi niiU. 

' Id Frati minori che vi baDno il monostero: che dove dalla eorte H 

veniva taota robha, obe sarebbe stala bastante per mille frati. E per lo Dia 
vero e tanta differenea da quesli Signore a qaeali d'lta1i&, Dome dn un uomo 
ticbessimo ad nn cbe sia il pib povero del mondo. 

■ The two last figures, elo., are in tbe MS. ivm end ixriiii)- 

* UiM. SiH. quuli non ai scemaoo ne aumenlano, ma mocli I'lino. in suo 
' ;o si metle I'altro. > DefeL-live and unint^ltiflLbl?. 

• Meaning, if any one U not prttent / Bat btlour 


' Here Mis. Rtn. han a tonj pattaije fecu 

Le be'ili 

di tame 

rt parati oipi:ii per U 

Qnesto signore Onn C»no to bdo imperio u dovisa in lii parti, e e&tua& 
^ chi&ma Siglo.' L'udb di queste parti i il MuiKJ, ch' a*o Botto di ee 
ii» grandi cictadi. Ondc ene a wpere che '1 euo imperio i ai gr&nde chc 
lien vi mesi si pons ad andare per lungo e per traverso sanza 1' isole cbe 
gODO Tm, che non si pongono nel detto ootero.* E ave fatto per tutto il 

* 8U0 imperio fare case e cortili per li trapaianti, le quali case si chiamano 
' uman.' Nelle quali case sono tutto quelle cose cb' a necassaria alia vita 

dell' uono. E quaada nulla novitii liooe ncl buo imperio Id 

* gli mesaggi corrono in su camelli, e ae '1 fatto porta pondo D 
■ aa dromedradi, e 'neon tin ente cbe t' approssaao a questa [jam] Euonano 

iln como e 'nconCineDte unci b'' apparecchia e rane insino a i' altro jam 

* e portale quelli rimano e cosi va I' altro al BimigHanto modo. E per 
" queato modo in ua d) naturale a novtllo di x giomata dalla lunga. 

dnche t' ane un altro modo di quelli cbe corrono. £ le caee di questi 
corrieri ai uhiamano chidebo, e stanDO corrieri per questa case, ed anno 
una cinghia di campanclie. K I'una casa a J'altra ene dilunge tre 
miglia, ma quella de corrieri de' gamelll XI miglia. E quando a' kppreitsa 
a una di queate cue incontinente comincia a sonare quuste campanelle, 
e quel altro cb' i Delia casa s'appareccbia, e conre insino a I'allra casa, 
e cosi I'uno a I'altro, inain che giuogono or' ene il aignore. Ondo nulla 
bi pu6 &re nel buo imperio cbe 'ncontinante nol eapia, come detto ft. 

41, Delia eaetiagiane dd gran Cant. 
Quando il gran Cane vane a cacciare fuori di Chanbalii, a vent! 
giomate ene un gran bosco, cbe gira ben vii aiornatc. G tautu btiatio 
EslTHticbe quivi conTeraono ch' i muraviglia. Intomo al bosco istanno 
guardie che '1 guardano per lo signore. E 'n capo di (re o di quatCro 
anni il aignora vi va colla aua gente, il quale intoraiano tutto quaoto 
queBto bosco. Poi lusciano andare i cani per lerra e gli ucelli in aria. 
Poi si yangono ristriguendo inidemo e conducono tutte queste beatie in 
un piano cb' £ nel mezzo. E leoni e parugiani' e cerbi e molte altie 

Eorti atrane aono ioflDite cbo lui tiena. Yn qnnii erano sei cBValli cbe kaieano 
sei piedi e aei gambi per uoo : e viddi duo grandessimi atruili e dui piocoli 
dietro di loro con dui colli per ciaacuno. e dui tecte dalle quali taBngiavano ; 
Bonza far mentione di altri bnoniini salvatichi ohs stanno nello giardioo di 
detto signore, e donne tutte peloae di un pelo grinds e bigio. quali ban forma 
bumana, e si pasi^ono d\ poma e d' altre bevando cbe gli ordins il Signore cbo 
s0 gli dia. Fra quali erano haomini non pib grandi di dui spaniie, e quesli 
chiamano Qovdti. Nells corte bo rislo huomini di nn occbio nella fronle, 
che si cbiimavano minoccbi. Et a quel tempo furouo appreaentati al Sii^nore 
dui, nn msscbio ed nna remmiua, quali bavevano una apaaoa di bualo. coils 
tpsta groBBa, e lo gambe lungbe e sensa maiii, e a' imboccsvauo con una de' 
piedi. E viddi □□ gigante, graode oirca SO piedi cbe menava dui leoni, I'un 
rosao e 1' allra nero, e t'altro baveva iu guardia leonesHO e leopard!, e con ai 
fatte bestiaandiva il Signore a far eacciaaprenderceni, CBprioli,liipi,cii>giali, 
orsi ed allro bestie aelvatiche. 

I Probably for SiDglo or Sing. 

= Mis, Rak. E vi aono proposti qnatlro che govamano I' imperio di qtwilo 
gran Signore. £ ciaacuna persona cbe facendo viaggio paasa per quei paesi, 
di qilal condition lis, s ordinsto che per dui paati che fa non paghi nulla. 

^ For iim at below ; MiN. Bui. Per tntto il paeee vi lono torn altisdmi 
dove Bono assaissime guardie, etc. * (f) 

AlkMdi(i«tiHb«CA,TDUtUMta, All'.rttutli 

dd pMwiMdo •'■op«Mclii«io dl ovkNi t,j»nchiAn««i ^^-**^ 
«■« roc., Oouli Jl coUl p.rmU.1. .■ .,,,«,„c|j; J, couSTSS 
cenliiuw di CBViilli ! Allo» mdu conl »Pfi«reccl>»ti^rti^E^^ 
i-aTatIi «ijp«fc<M:hi»fl al .iipioro, oh' i inorodiliile <ll t»Mi^^"S 

.ijooro d. p.ri. do«U .Uri l.ronl, K .llo„ ....."Lg?^-'-" 

to > noi .lul f»u ntaoH. K ,,,..1, jiuTOU^SHSi^ 

doll. n«., . 1 „„„ J.. ,o™i , t.liri .lro»™«, .1 , 1. „ ''" ?~ " 
d. »,. onud.. Wl l.,.m» Jl n.0H. ,1,. pon. C^ . ir ''^~ 

».«h' i»«p|>«i^ oh* A. toMHw* fm* dolHda <mm o «i. vLT?^ 

ir.«^ DiNHM qni>« TH-r irmk ■^■m««». i^^mLi 

^v>«» ^ tw fl ^1 Mu « 

■> M> .»hr r«Mi, * * <M)» « « fiMM*. 




alcuno &]tro giucolare dioanzi al signore e cantano molto manvigliou- 
meate, e bIcudo altro meoano cod seco leoni che fauno reverenza a lo 'm- 
peradore a quciti giucolari faoiia Teaire per aria aappi d'oro pivui di buoa 
vino, e coei vuiDO a lo bocche d'o^i uoino che vuol bcre. E queato modo 
fantiD, e molte nitre cose dinanzi al BigDore. A dEie la grandesxa, e le 
gran cose della coits di cosiui sarebbe coaa incredibile Be no lo vedese. 
Niuna si maravigli se fa grandi iapese perO cbe nel suo regno no si 
igpcnde alcra moneta che di carta, cbe no gli costa nulla, e a le sae mani 
viene tut Co tesoro. 

43. Una fnaraviglia del popoiu ekt eoiUitne vnn btUiuoUt. 
Un' altra maraviglia vi dird sua la quale io nou vidi, ma udicla dire a 
persona degna di fedo. Alcuni dicono cbe Cbadli ene un gian regno, e 
qui sono monti cbe si cbiamano monCi Ooipeos, ne' qunH dicono che 
DascoDo poponi grandisaimi, ne' quail poponi quan Jo sono mrtturi a' aprono 
pel loTo istessi, e truovavisi entro una bestiuola grande, e fatta a modo 
d' uno agnello ; si che auo quella carue a ano i! popone. Qucsto pud 
easere altresi bene ai cam' enu ne renne d' Ingbilterra o di Scozia cbe 
dicono che sono albori che fanno ucceltettt,' 

44. Del reame del Presto Giovanni ed altre eontrate. 
Partendomi dal Chataio e venendo verao il ponente clnquanta gioruatc, 
pasaando citladi e caslella veuni nelle terre del Presto Qiovauni, e non 6 
delle cento parti I'lma quollo che si dice di lui. La prcncipalo cittade 
di lui ai chiama Casan, ch' ene yincienza maggiore cittade di quella, e 
molte altre cittadi & sotto di Be, e aempre per patto piglia per moglie la 
figliuola del Qran Cane. Poi andando per molte giomate perreni a una 
provincia che si chintna Cbansi. Questa i In aeconda migllore provincia 
e la meglio abitata cb' abbia il mondo. £ ov' clln S piii aCretta i larga 
ben 1 giomate, e lunga pill di li giornate. Ed h si bene abitata che 
quando s' eace della porta de 1' una cittade si rede le mura dell' altra 
cittade. Nella quale a gmnde copia di vittuaglia e spczialmente di 
castagne. In queaCa provincia naece il mat barbaro, ed a?eue tanto che 
per meno di vi gross! se no carichercbbe un aBinc. Ed i questa pro- 
vincia una delle xii ch' ane il gran Cane. 

4S. Del regtio di Tibet dove ti triKJva il Papa degli IdototrL 
Passando questa provincia grande perveni a un altro gran regno che 
si chiama Tibet, ch' ene ne confini d' India cd e tuttn al gran Cane. 
Quivi e maggior copia di pane o di vino cbe in nulla p&rtc del mondo. 
E la gents di questa conCrada dimora in tende cbe aono fatte di feltri 
neri. La prencipale cittade i fatta tutta di pietre biancbo e nere, e 
tutte le vie lastricate. In questa cittade nullo ardisce a spander eangue 
d'uomo o di femmba, o d' altra bestia. Questo fanno per reverensia 
d'un lore idolo. Jn queata cittade dimora il Atassi,' cbe vicne a dire in 
nostro modo il Papa. Ed i capo di tutti idotatrici. Queati distribuiace 
da tutti i benifici e partegli tra lore secondo la loro legge. Ed ane in 
queato regno questa usanza che le femmine pertano in capo piil di c 
paia di trecce avendo ii denti lunghi'a modo di porco salvatico. Ed i 
ancora cotale usanza in questa contrada che quando il padre d'alcuuo 

' Mi.i. Rah. layt Un di fra gW altri viddi una beatia grande come un agnello 
Btf. And hrri thai reriiaa slopi. 
^ For Abaasi. ' LvngM, I think. 


more, e 'I Gpliuolo i;li tol fare grande ODore, connta e ikdub tntdi 
ucerdoti e reljgioei e giucolari e vicini e pnreiiti e portsno il corpo a k 
canipagna coo gn,n feetereccia ; e quivi c apparecciiiato an gna ima, 
e quaiido v' i posto suao e sacerdoti gli moszAno il c^pn, e d&nng W 
Ggliuolo. E poi il tagliano tutta & pezsi, e 1 figliuolo coti tnlta b 
CDtnpBgtiin cBntano e cessnuiloBi ijuiniJi nu T>ezzo fanco orszionL AUon 
venKonn tfruglie c tvoltoi dc' mocti e ciaacuno pi^lio il sno pr"' 
Allora gridano e dicono Tedcte che santo uono questi ftt. di« >«agiM 
gli KDgeli per lui, e portanelo in paj^diso ! Poi il figliuolo at ne pm 
-' mangialo cotto poi del testhio fa fare ua 

bcono eoQ ei 

) tuUi quelli dclla 

loDO tra quelli pDgaDJ d'oi 

16. fl'u 

ro popolatto di Manti. 

NdU pTOTincia de Manzi veni nd una palagio d'un nomo popob^^l 
cui Tita ene in queeto modo. E tiene cinquanta donEelle TcrpoL k 
quali il SMVono. Quando viene a mangiare ogni vivanda o 'mbandigioei 
Bi portano v delle doDxelle predette con laoUi ietomienti di ditinf 
maniere, e cantano e del continuo cantano mentre che la yiTanda t 
nanzi. Poi costoro ei partona e altre cinque detle dette donEelle a 
veDgono col' altn vivatida, e 'nilastigione e con altri diverEi iftormeelif 
coo diversi cantie per queeto modo mena la suavila. QuesiOBi^orel J< 
renditaxxs tumani tagiai'diTisD, 11 tumano^nuTnero di sm ; e'lUsini 
loma d'asino. E '1 cortile del »uo palagio giia ben ii inig1i» e 'I pklanoi 
fatto inquesto modo, che Tuno mattone o Tero pietra i d'oixi e I'aln 
d'ariento. Nel cortil dentro aveun nionle d'oro e d'areenlo, aoprs il qnab 
son fatti monasteri e canpanili per euo ililetto. E dices! che tra ^oti 
Manni sono iiii<' uomini per lo modo di cDstui. Gli uominl dt qoMo 
paese tengODO per nobiltit ad aTere lungho I'ungbia. e Is belleiza d^ 
femmitia d'svere piccioli piedi. PerA quando nasce la feminina le madh 
iatiingono lore i piedi, a cid che noD crescono loro pid che Togliono. 

47. Del VeccMo ddla ifoiUagna. 

Partendomi dclIe terre del Presto OiotaDni, vencudo verso ponente, 
TEoi a una contrada che ei chiama Mll68er,= hella e abondevole d'ogoi 
bene. Sella quaie ai dieea cbe sole istare il Vecchio dclla uontagDi. 
Egli avea fatto tra due monti un cercuito di nuro, e dentro le p'lb belle 
font! dei mondo. E dentro eran poste donze' Tergini belle le pi^ del moDdo, 
e caTalli bellisBimi, etutte quelle cose cbe poteEfonodtlettarecorpoiimaiia. 
E facea dire che queeto era paradiao: e quando redea un gtoraoe raloriMd 
ii !o metea in queato luogo; nel quale facea andare vino e Utte per condolta: 
e quando Tolca fare uccidere alciin re o baroce, facea dire al loprastantedi 
quel luogo ch' egli faceesc Tenire il pi& atto e amoroso a diletti e nel dimoro 
di queato paradiso, o quelli alioia dava beveraggi a quel cotale, che 'J facn 
fortemente adormentare ; e coei dormendo nel facea trare. K quelli 
risentendosi e trovandoai fuori di quceto luogo era in grande tristixia e 
dolore, e pregava a quel signore che Tel facesne Titornare. E aliora eli 
dicea, Vo' tu titomaTe, vaue e uccidi it cotale uomo poi ci ritoraeni. o 
campi muoi. E 'n queato modo facea uccidere ehiunque e Tote«. 
Per la qual coea era temuto da tutti i re d' oriente. e mandsTaf;li 
tribute. E 'a questo modo facea uccidere molti de' Tartari quando 
venicno pigliando il mondo. Fei U qual cosa vi Tenono a oste « mo- 

- Prababhj Milehel Drigimi 

I, 601-3 
a Pass, 6U 
r, 403, MO, SS7, SSO 
1, Chuks (Cbareku'), iO-3, SST 
B IV, Emperor, laabea Marig- 
s Chiplain, n38 ; maken biiD 
t BDliemian AnoalB, »-J0 
■» of MalBtior Christinua. 37t< 
nngHTB, nee Kathamghara 
• Chaiguiw, JSD, buloee (icl 
CAfllyr.Lhe word, 381 
Chavul, cxoii. 591 
Cbespne-s,iii ChiDDjOU; in lieDgul, 

ocb: 407 xg. 
GbeobBlii, ccxxxvii, 6(13 
ChPgbaDisii, ci^xiiv 

1) iKhanamt), 6&9 


mfu, i; 

8 of Post. 


OTeiland la China, ciU 
CbPsUuls m W. China, 1 
Chiai-Catai (Tea), coxv 
CbiaicaoD, nee Kiayukoa 
Chialia, nee Chiliih 
Chiavtria, the word, 886 
Cbicheck Tagh, 60-1 
Chichin TsIbb, icviii 
Chldcbeo (KiiUfu; hIaIi 

Ohilaw, 193 

ChiteDfa (Nanking), ISO 
Cbilmng, Pass of, 5B3 
Ckimia, Simia and Limia, c«iix 
ObiD, tUe name, ixiiii 

Bud Macbin, c»ix, axli, wev 

China, ihe aDtiqiiity of the Dame 

oriHius suggested, xiliii-iv, 

eM.: see Table of Contenis 
A Nestorian ArohhiBhoprii 

ocilv, 17U 

Goose, cciliii. 106-7 

List of Proviiiena under Ibe 

Mongols, an? leqq. 

See Porcelain 

Cbinapaiam (Madras) baa noaght 

do with China, liiti 
Chiiicheu or Tbeiuanobou, lOB, 41 

and fee Zaylan. 
Chinese, high ' 

neighbouriDg niitioos, ilii 
Proverb us to tomparBtii 

blindness of ol her nntiuna. cxiKi 

inerar; in Baduklishai 
n Turkem 

leqq.; iatttoonqaeBtot Eashgar,617, 
etc., eta.; Bee Table 

Chiiig Df naalf , iiiiT 

Chinghiz Khan, hia birtb and can- 
quests, siiii ; Bubrnquia's ilecouDC 
of, 178; bis relations with Wang 
Khan ( Presler John of Polo), 181; 
bis capture nf Urghanj, 93^, a&l, 
470: siege of Talikan, 641; COD- 
qaest of Turkestan, 614; aaB; OOi 

Cbingkiangfu, 13-1 

Cbiiignang, Title of highest ministers 
under Ibe Great KbBii,l-17,266,'jeil, 


Chingtingfu, cdi 

Chingtufu, exi 

Cbinkalan (Canton, q. t.), 106, 919, 

373 ; see Sinlidlan also 
Olios taken from the Oenoese Zaoaria, 

Chipangu, Jipankoe (Japan), 371 
Chilral, aa-1 

Chiltagong, ccli, 468, 406 
Chuireiaphns, Ammal so-called, cliiv 
ChuUatir, cIit 
Chomba, 163 
Christian, taken for a ustionnl title. 


J Chit 

. Ira, : 

see atiove seolon, ■ 
and Prttler Joh 
3l. Thomas 


l,3U, 313, 

Chriatianitj. Nentoriaa, sea Nestorinn 
and p. lixxviii itqq.; in Si>iM>tra, 
cliXTiL, 188-0; in Cejlon, elni, 
elxiiii ; traces of in Indo-Chinese 
counlrien, ai ; ascribed to Chiiiexc, 
cxoii, fiiiS, 560 icq. ; often canfoiind- 
ed with Bu Jahism, lii. 661-3, 3ua 

Chronology, of Khans of Cbagatai, 187 
*tqq, ; of Marigoolli's Joaraef, 342 ; 
of Ibn BstuU's Voyage to China, 
435,613; of Joonle; of OoeH, 697 

Chrytt, oxliv 

Ghn River, cexiii 

Chn-cha (Tsocbeu), 360 

Chiikaklee, 603 

Chuiigta (Ftking), 197, 937 

Churches. Oatholio, in Callitty, c 

in Canibalec, lUS, 903, 300, QUI ; in 
Tenduc, 109; at Zajlon, 333, 334, 
300; at Aimalik, 9:(H; tn Malabar, 



CAP. I. 

:o del viaggio del GAaUaio ptr to chanmina ddia Tana ad 
•nare chon merckalantia.. Primieramcnte dalla Tana in 
ia XKV giomate di cbsrro di buoi e chon carro di cbavaUo 
xii giornsCe. Per cluLDmino si trovano maccholi lusai cJoe 
a e da Oitt&rch&n in San eift una giomuta per fiuniftna 
dacqua et di Sara, in Saracbancha Bia 8 giomate per una fiumana dacqiui 
o puotesi andare per terra a pera^cqua ma vaasi peracqua per nieao spesa 
della merchatantia, E da Saracbaticho in fino iu Orghanci sia zx 
giornate di cbarro di cbanmello e chi va chon marchantia gli caQvieina 
che rada in OTghanci pareche la £ apacciativa terra di marcbatautia. E 
d' Orgbauci in Oltrarre aia da 3S in 40 gioraato di cbaDmella ebon carro 
e cbi »i pBTtisse di Saracbanco e aodasse dritto in Oltrarre si m L giomate 
e segli non avesse taerchataDtiii gli aarebbe migliore via cbe dandare in 
Orghanci. £ di cboltiarrc in Armaleccho aia 45 giomate di aomedasiuo 
ogni die truovi mocctioli. E dArnialeccbo infioo in Cbamexu sia 70 
gioraate daaino ct di Chamcxu in sino cbe vicni a una fiumana che si 

cbiama aia iIt giornaCe di cbavallo e dalla fiumaaa ae ne puoi 

andare id Cbassat ella Tenderaaonnudellurgeuto cbo aveesi, perocche lae 
e apacciativa terra di merchantia. K di Cbaasai ai va cbolla muneta 
cbesai trae de sonmi dellargeoto Tcodutl in Cbaasai cbe i moneta di ch&rta 
chctsappella la detta moneta babiaci cbe gli quattro di quella moncts 
vaglioDo un sonmo dariento per le coDtrade del Ghattaijo. E di Cbassai 
a Qbamalecco che b la mastra citt^ del paese del Qbattaijo ri va 30 


Com hijcoijnmoh a Merehatanti eke vofflionofare U topradetto viaggio 
del Uhattaijo. Primierum elite cbonvicne cbo ai laaci creecere la barba 
grande et non ai rada. E vuoUi fomire alia Tana di Turcimaimi e noQ u 
vuole guardare a rispianno dal chattivo al buoDO nonoboBta quella din- 
gordo cbelluomo qod Be iie megtiori vi va pin. E oltre a Turciniaiini si 

1 Sici. 



ehoDviene meiinre per la meno due fanti buDui cheesapiaDo bene la ling^u 
Cumanesca e Ese i1 merchatante Tuole menare dalla Tana niitna fenmina 
chon secho fi piiote e ase noUa vuole meuare non fa foria mappure to la 
menasse sara tcDutci di miglior chDudizioDe che ae nolla iceDaase e pero 
■ella menu, uhonvieae che sappia U lingua Chumanesca choraa il faots. 
£ dalla Tana infino in Oitt&rchan si chonviene fornire di vivanda SH dl 
eioe di farioa e di pesi^i insalati peroccbe charuo truova assai per 
cbaDtniuo in tutti i luoghi. E Bsimilmcnta in tutti i luoghi che vai da 
lino papxe a un atcro nel detto viaggio sechondo le giomate dette dj iopra 
si chottviene fomire di farina c di pesci insalati che olCre chose truovi aaaai 
e Bpezialoiente charne. 

II chaDmino dandsre dalla Tana al Qbattajo h sichuriBaimo s di d) e 
di DQtte eechonda che esi chonta pergli nercbatanti che Iban&o uxato 
■kIto Be il mcrcbatante cbs va o che Tiene moriase in chaumino ogni 
ohosa aarebbe del aingnore del paexe dto moriase il nerchatante e tutto 

Srenderebbono gli