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Full text of "Catholicon anglicum : an English-Latin wordbook, dated 1483. Ed., from the ms. no. 168 in the library of Lord Monson, collated with the Additional ms. 15,562, British museum, with introduction and notes, by Sidney J.H. Herrtage ... with a preface by Henry B. Wheatley"



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Catljoliton anglfcum 

MONSON MS. CLXVIII (168). LEAF 221. A.D. 1483. 

GfathflliMn gMtjjIkttnt, 

DATED 1483. 




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Catljolicon ^nijlictum 



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Mr. J. H. Hessels, who is editing a new and revised edition of Du Cange 
for Mr. John Murray, has pointed out a mistake in the reading of the Addit. 
MS. under Defoulle, p. 94, col. 1, 1. 15, viz : corpora. It stands in the MS. ' cor 
A? which should, of course, have been printed as 'correpta A? as in other cases 
throughout the volume. In some cases these notes of the compiler will be found 
to have been omitted when only occurring in the Addit. MS. This is due in a 
great measure to the fact that the Addit. MS. was used mainly for purposes 
of collation and filling up gaps. In some cases, too, Latin words occurring in 
the Addit. MS. have been passed over. This was done sometimes inten- 
tionally, on the ground that the difference in spelling was very slight. 
Occasionally, however, both Mr. Brock and myself have no doubt missed 
some words which occur only in the Addit. MS., and this is accounted for 
by the fact that the Latin equivalents in the two MSS. are not given in 
the same order, so that when many equivalents were given it was an easy 
matter to miss one or more, in spite of all our care. My business lay mainly 
with the English words, the Latin equivalents being of secondary importance, 
though they prove to be of great value to Mr. Hessels for his work. It is to 
be hoped that some Mediaeval Latin Text Society or some German Editor 
will supplement my work by printing the Addit. MS. in full. 

Introduction, pp. xv, xvi : my note as to conquestus is all wrong. The in- 
scription simply means ' in the fifteenth year of the seventh Henry after the 
Conquest.' I was misled by the fact that there had been no Henrys before 
the Conquest. 

List of Authorities. The date of Lajamon is misprinted 1305, instead of 


November, 1881. 




De Quincey said of a certain book that it was ' the deadest 
thing in creation, even deader than a door nail,' but one might 
very naturally expect a mediaeval linguistic Dictionary to be a 
still more dead thing. The object for which it was compiled 
has long ago been fulfilled, and it has been superseded for 
centuries. But, curiously enough, although useless for its 
original purpose, it has become a priceless record of the 
language. Old Dictionaries have long been used by commen- 
tators to illustrate the language of our national classics. Thus 
Douce frequently quotes from Huloet's Abcedarium Anglico- 
Latinum in his Illustrations of Shakespeare, but the late Mr. 
Albert Way was the first scholar to recognize the utility of an 
old Dictionary as a whole, and to devote years of labour to the 
illustration of the words in the oldest English -Latin Dictionary 
extant. His varied learning peculiarly fitted him for the task he 
had undertaken, and the tools with which he worked — a fine collec- 
tion of Dictionaries — he bequeathed to the Society of Antiquaries. 
In 1843 the first part of his edition of the Promptorium Parvidorum 
sire Clerieontm appeared, and twenty-two years afterwards the 
volume of 563 pages was completed. The Promptorium exists in 
several editions in MS. which date from about the year 1440. It 
was printed by Pynson in 1499, by Julian Notary in 1508, and by 
Wynkyn de Worde in 1510, 1512, 1516, and 1528. There is a 
greater variety of Latin-English Dictionaries, but this was ap- 
parently the only available English-Latin Dictionary, and in 
consequence it was frequently reproduced. All honour, there- 
fore, is due to Geoffrey, the Norfolk Grammarian, who shut 
himself in his cell in order to compile a much needed work 
for the use of his countrymen. The difficulty of the undertaking 
must have been very great in those days when the facilities for 
compilation were comparatively few. 


Among the works used by Mr. Way was a MS. belonging to 
Lord Monson, and entitled Catliolicon Anglicum. It may be 
interesting to the reader to know how this work has at last got 
into print. In the Report of the Early English Text Society for 
1865 it was announced that a series of old English Dictionaries 
would be issued, to commence with two of the earliest and most 
important printed ones, namely, Huloet's Abcedarium and Baret's 
Alvearie. When the preface to the Promptorium Parvulorum was 
published in 1865, my attention was drawn to the Catliolicon 
Anglicum therein described. I wrote to Mr. Way respecting the 
MS., but he knew nothing about it since it had been lent to him 
by the late Lord Monson, and he had used it in his notes. I 
then communicated with Lord Monson, but he could not at first 
find the book. Before, however, the issue of a second edition of 
the Report his Lordship's MS. had come to hand, and he most 
kindly lent it to me for the purpose of being copied 1 . This 
was done by Mr. Brock, who afterwards added the additional 
entries from another MS. In 1866 the new edition of Levins's 
Manipulus Vocabulorum appeared, and the Catliolicon Anglicum was 
placed on the list of works to be done by the Early English Text 
Society. It was soon found that Huloet's and Baret's fine old 
volumes contained so much matter that it would be inexpedient 
to print them on account of the great cost. Another MS. of the 
Cat/iolicon was found in the British Museum Library, and this 
was collated with Lord Monson's MS. I had intended to edit 
the work, but various circumstances prevented me from putting 
it in hand. Another editor proposed to relieve me of the labour, 
but he also was forced to relinquish his intention. At length 
Mr. Herrtage came forward and undertook to edit the Dictionary, 
and again Lord Monson most kindly lent us his valuable MS. 
for the purpose of verifying the proofs as the work was being 
printed. Thus this interesting book, which remained for so many 
years on the list of work to be done, is at length placed on the 
more satisfactory list of work accomplished. In a comparatively 
short period, considering the large amount of research required 

1 Mr. Herrtage has alluded in his ' Introduction ' to the obligation we are all 
under to Lord Monson, but I wish specially to express my personal thanks for 
the generous manner in which his Lordship handed the MS. over to me without 
stipulations of any kind. 


for the preparation of the notes, Mr. Herrtage has produced a 
volume worthy to stand by the side of Mr. Way's Promptorium, 
and higher praise than this could scarcely be given to the book. 
It is curious to compare the Catholicon with the Promptorium, 
and to see how thoroughly different the two Dictionaries are. 
The Promptorium is the fuller of the two, and contains, roughly, 
about 12,000 words, while the Catholicon has about 8000 words l . 

The Catholicon is specially valuable as a dated Dictionary. 
At the end of the book we read : l Explicit Catholicon in lingua 
materna. Anno domini 1483 ;' but the fact that there is another 
MS. in the British Museum of a rather earlier date opens up a 
curious question as to the origin of these Dictionaries. Mr. "Way 
suggests that Lord Monson's MS. may be the author's holograph, 
but this opinion is scarcely tenable, more particularly as he him- 
self mentions the older MS. in the British Museum, to which 
Sir Frederic Madden had directed his attention. Although 
these are evidently the same Dictionary, certain differences, as 
indicated by Mr. Herrtage in his Introduction, show that there 
must have been a still earlier original from which both were 
taken, whether directly, or indirectly through intermediate copies 
we cannot now tell. Another point which we are unable to settle 
is this : Were all these MSS. called Catholicon Anglicum, or was 
this a name given specially to Lord Monson's manuscript ? Any 
way, the author is quite unknown. We can hardly doubt but 
that there were other English-Latin Dictionaries besides the 
Promptorium and the Catholicon, which have been lost, and this 
opinion is the more probable, as both these appear to have been 
compiled in the Eastern Counties, and it seems hardly probable 
that other districts were behind their neighbours in the pro- 
duction of these most necessary books. 

It would be a curious inquiry if we were able to learn how 
these Dictionaries were compiled. In the case of Latin-English 
Dictionaries there is no difficulty, as there were many sources 
from which the words could be drawn, but it is different with 
regard to those in which the English is first, as we do not know 
of the existence of any earlier list of English words than that 
found in the Promptorium. 

1 The letter A in Promptorium contains 423 words, the Catholicon only 212 ; 
with the additions from the Addit. MS. there are, however, 314 words. 


The names attached to the old Dictionaries are curious and 
worthy of a passing notice here. They give a distinctive 
character to the several works, which the works would not 
possess if they were called by the general title of Dictionary. 
1 Prompt uarium ' is a more correct form than ' Promptorium,' 
and means a storehouse or repository. Wynkyn de Worde uses 
this word in his edition, but Pynson and one of the manuscripts 
have Promptorius. Johannes de Janua, or Januensis, a native of 
Genoa in the thirteenth century, appears to have been the first 
to use the word Catholicon as the title for a Dictionary. His 
work was very highly esteemed, and it was a very natural pro- 
ceeding for the unknown English lexicographer to appropriate 
so well known a title. A Catholicum Parvum, the first printed 
Latin and French Vocabulary, was published at Geneva in 1487, 
and a few years afterwards appeared a Catholicum Abbreviation at 
Paris, which was reprinted by Jean Lambert at the same place 
in 1506. The Medulla Grammatice or Grammatices is a Latin- 
English Dictionary existing in a large number of manuscripts. 
This is attributed to Geoffrey, the Dominican Friar who compiled 
the Promptorium; and if this really be so, this worthy must 
extort our admiration as the author both of the first Latin- 
English and the first English- Latin Dictionary. The first 
Latin-English Dictionary printed in England is the Ortus 
Vocabulorum, which is largely founded on the Medulla. Another 
interesting old Dictionary is the Vulgaria of William Horman. 
Mr. Herrtage mentions this in his Introduction as a work that 
would well repay reprinting, and I may remark here that the 
late Mr. Toulmin Smith undertook to edit this book for the 
Early English Text Society, and in the Second Annual Report, 
1866, it is announced with his name in the list of future publi- 
cations. The death of this excellent worker in the midst of his 
labour on the volume of English Gilds, however, caused this 
Dictionary to be dropt out of the list in future years. Peter 
Levins adopted the title of Manipulus Vocabulorum for his inter- 
esting old rhyming Dictionary, and John Baret gives his 
reasons for calling his Dictionary An Alvearie. He set his 
scholars to work to extract passages from the classics, and to 
arrange them under heads : ' Thus within a yeare or two they 
had gathered togethir a great volume, which (for the apt simili- 


tude betweene the good scholers and diligent bees in gathering 
their wax and hony into their hive) I called then their Alvearie, 
both for a memoriall by whom it was made, and also by this 
name to incourage other to the like diligence, for that they 
should not see their worthy prayse for the same, unworthily 
drowned in oblivion/ To come down to rather later times, it 
may be mentioned, in conclusion, that Thomas Willis, a school- 
master of Isle worth, named his Dictionary, 1651, Vestibulum. 
Mr. Way has given a most full and careful account of the early 
Dictionaries in the Preface to his edition of the Promplorium, 
and I may, perhaps, be allowed to draw the attention of those 
interested in Lexicographical history to my ' Chronological 
Notices of the Dictionaries of the English Language V 

It is hardly necessary now to enlarge upon the value of these 
old Dictionaries, as that is very generally allowed, but I cannot 
resist giving an instance of how the Promptorium has settled 
satisfactorily the etymology of a difficult name. When Mr. 
Alderman Hanson, F.S.A., was investigating the history of 
various fruits, he was somewhat puzzled by the term ' Jordan 
almonds ' applied to the best kind of sweet almonds, and he 
set to work to look up the authorities. He found a definite 
statement in Phillips's New World of Words (6th ed. by Kersey, 
1706), to the effect that ' the tree grows chiefly in the 
Eastern countries, especially in the Holy Land near the river 
Jordan, whence the best of this fruit are called " Jordan 
almonds." The same statement is made in Bailey's Dictionary 
in 1 757 (the botanical portion of which was edited by no less a 
person than Philip Miller), and in many other books. In J. 
Smith's Bible Plants (1877) we read, 'the best so-called Jordan 
almonds come from Malaga, and none now come from the 
country of the Jordan.' The author might very well have 
added that they never did come from that place. The mer- 
chants of Malaga, who export the almonds, are equally at sea 
as to the derivation. One of them told Mr. Hanson that the 
general opinion was that a certain Frenchman, called Jourdain, 
early in this century, introduced an improved method of culti- 
vation. This suggestion was easily negatived by reference to 

1 Philological Society Transactions, 1865, pp. 218-293. 


the fact that Jordan almonds were mentioned in printed books 
at least as far back as 1607. At last Mr. Hanson found his 
clue in the Promptoriunij where we read, ' lardy ne almaunde, 
amigdalum jardinum. 3 The difficulty was overcome, and the 
Jordan almond stood revealed as nothing more than a garden or 
cultivated kind of almond. 

In contrasting Mr. Herrtage's edition of the Catholicon with 
Mr. Way's edition of the Promptorhtm a very interesting point 
must needs become apparent. Mr. Way annotated and ex- 
plained the difficulties of his text with the most unwearied 
patience, but his authorities were to some extent limited. He 
himself helped to create the taste which has induced so many 
scholars to come forward and rescue the monuments of our lan- 
guage from destruction. Every one of Mr. Herrtage's pages bears 
evidence of the large amount of work which has been done since 
the Camden Society first issued the Promptorium. Publications 
of the Early English Text Society are quoted on every page, and 
Stratmann and Matzner are put under frequent contribution. 
We thus see that the labours of late years have already brought 
forward a rich harvest of illustration, by means of which the 
difficulties of our beloved tongue are gradually being cleared up. 
Many words once in use are doubtless irrecoverably lost, but still 
much has been garnered up. Those who have not attempted to 
register words can hardly realise the difficulties in the way of 
the Dictionary maker. All honour, therefore, to those who 
have overcome the difficulties, and in this band of honest workers 
the anonymous compiler of the Catholicon Anglicum occupies a 
prominent place. The difficulties are truly great, but the 
lexicographer has his compensation, for there is a pleasure in 
the registration and illustration of words which he only knows 
who has set his mind to the work with earnestness and en- 


London, July, 1881. 


Plan of the Work, § i , p. xiii. — Description of the MSS : Lord Monson's, § 2, 
p. xiv ; the Addit. MS. § 3, p. xvi. — Plan of Collation, § 4, p. xvi. — Quotations and 

Notes, § 5, p. xviii Words unexplained, § 6, p. xix. — Dialect of the MSS. § 7, 

p. xx. — The Medulla Grammatice, § 8, p. xxi. — Authorities quoted in the Notes, 
§ 9, p. xxii. — Helpers in the Work, § 10, p. xxiv. — Conclusion, § n, p. xxv. 

So well known is the present work, now for the first time 
printed, from the extensive and admirable use made of it by 
the late Mr. Way in his edition of the f Promptorium Par- 
vulorum,' that it can require little or no introduction to the 
students of our language beyond that given by Mr. Wheatley 
in his Preface. I will, therefore, confine myself to an expla- 
nation of the plan and principles of this edition, with a very 
few remarks on the MSS. and their dialect and peculiarities. 

§1. My intention throughout in preparing this volume was 
to make it a companion to the Promptorium^ and this intention 
I have endeavoured to carry out by marking with an asterisk 
or a dagger respectively such words as were either annotated 
by Mr. Way, and did not therefore so much require any further 
annotation on my part, or such as were peculiar to the Catholicon. 
So far as it has been possible I have besides tried to give quo- 
tations and references, not to be found in Stratmann or any 
such standard work of reference. As a rule I have not given 
quotations from authors later than the sixteenth century, but 
this, of course, I have not been always able to manage. The 
Wills Sf Inventories published by the Surtees Society have been 
a perfect mine of wealth to me ; unfortunately I had not the 
advantage of them at the beginning of my work, and I have 
therefore been obliged to give my quotations from them for the 
earlier letters in the additional notes. With regard to these 
latter, although I perfectly understand and appreciate the in- 


convenience attending the existence of a double set of notes, 
and the risk which exists of additional notes being overlooked, 
I do not know that any apology for their presence is necessary 1 . 
In any work of this class it is absolutely unavoidable that fresh, 
and in many cases better, illustrations of words will crop up 
after the sheets have been printed off. Extended reading has 
brought extended knowledge, and the value of these additions 
— and I believe that much of value will be found in them — 
will be, I think, the best apology for their existence. 

I adopted Lord Monson's MS. as the basis of my text : first, 
because it was the fuller and more correct of the two, besides 
which it was ready copied out for me ; and secondly, because it 
was perfect. The difference in date between the two MSS., if 
there is any difference, can be but a few years, and was not of 
itself of sufficient importance to counterbalance other considera- 
tions. The Addit. MS. has lost one leaf at the beginning and 
two at the end, besides three in the body of the work. It is, 
moreover, so full of palpable and gross errors both in the 
English and Latin, from which Lord Monson's MS. is free, 
that I had no hesitation in relegating it to a second place, to 
be used only for the purposes of collation and of filling up 
gaps. One most curious point about it is that while up to 
S it contains far fewer words than Lord Monson's MS., from 
that letter on it has more than double the entries. Why this 
is so it is, of course, impossible to say : the entries are here 
given in full. 

§ 2. Lord Monson's MS. of the Catholicon is a thick paper 
volume measuring 8| inches by 6. It is perfect, and in almost 
as good condition as when it left the scriptorium. It consists of 

1 I have, at all events, done my best to prevent their being overlooked or 
forgotten, by inserting them before the text. As an example of the liability of 
such additional notes to be overlooked when not placed in some conspicuous part 
of the book, I may mention that on February 14th, 1880, I printed in Notes 
and Queries a short list of errors in Mr. Way's Promptorium, which I had 
come across while using the work for this edition of the Catholicon. To my 
great surprise I was informed by a note from a correspondent in that paper, 
that most of the slips pointed out by me had been discovered by Mr. Way, and 
were mentioned and corrected in a list printed at p. 560 of the Promptorium. 
And there I found them, but I am confident that not one in a hundred of those 
who use the volume is aware of the existence of the list. 


16 quires or 192 leaves 1 , 182 of which contain the text, followed 
by 6 blank. Then on leaf 1 89 comes the list of terms of rela- 
tionship reprinted at the end of our text. This list is in a 
different hand from that in which the main body of the book 
has been written, and appears, to me at least, to be the same 
with that in which the corrections and additions have been 
made in the original scribe's work. These corrections are few 
in number, the copying having been on the whole very care- 
fully done. Mr. Way was of opinion that it was probable that 
this MS. was the author's holograph 2 , but this is very doubtful, 
and is contradicted by the fact that the corrections are in a 
different hand. In addition to this, in the next paragraph Mr. 
Way speaking of the Addit. MS. 15,562, assigns to it the date 
of 1450. But the handwritings are essentially different. Either, 
therefore, the date assigned to the Addit. MS. must be wrong, 
or Lord Monson's MS. can not be the author's holograph. But 
I do not believe that 1450 is the correct date of the Addit. MS. 
More probably it was compiled about 1475, ^ ne date assigned 
to it in the Museum Catalogue. The numberless, and frequently 
most extraordinary, mistakes in the Addit. MS. show clearly 
that it was a copy from an earlier MS., and probably written 
from dictation. 

On the back of the last leaf of Lord Monson's MS. is the 
following : ' Liber Thome Flowre Succentor ecclesie Cathedralis 
beate Marie Lincoln. Anno domini M.ccccc.xx ;' on which Mr. 
Way notes 3 that he could not find the name of Thomas Flower, 
sub-chanter, in the Fasti of Lincoln, but that a John Flower 
occurs among the prebendaries of that church in 157 1. He 
adds that the owner of Lord Monson's MS. may have been of 
Lincoln College, Oxford, since a Thomas Flower was one of the 
proctors of the University in 1519 4 . Immediately above this, 
in faded ink, is the following entry, unmentioned by Mr. Way : 
1 Anno domini millesimo cccc m0 lxxxx m0 ix°, Anno regni regis 
Yienrici 7*, post conquestum quintodecimo/ which is interesting 

1 The quires are marked at the foot of the first page of each : primus qwaternws, 


2 Prompt. Parv. Introil. p. lxv. 

3 Prompt. Parv. Introd. p. lxv. note a. 

4 Le Neve, ed. Hardy, vol. iii. p. 686. 


as an instance of the application of the term ' conquestus ' to the 
accession of Henry VII. 

The principal authorities cited in the work are, as Mr. Way 
says, Virgil, Ysidore, Papias, Brito, Hugutio, the Catholicon, 
the Doctrinale, and the Gloss on the Liber Equivocorum of 
John de Garlandia, but only Hugutio and the Liber Equivocorum 
occur at all frequently. A large number of hexameter verses 
occur, probably, as Mr. Way suggests, from some work of John 
de Garlandia. The meaning of some of them is not at all clear. 

The compiler frequently distinguishes with great acumen 
between the various shades of meaning of the several Latin 
equivalents of some one English word. 

§ 3. The Addit. MS. 15,562, is a small quarto volume on paper 
containing originally probably 145 leaves, of which one has been 
lost at the beginning, as already stated. It is also defective at 
the end, the last word in it being Wrathe, so that probably two 
leaves have been lost at the end. It is written in a small and, at 
times, rather cramped hand. Spaces are frequently left vacant 
in the letters for additions of words. It was purchased by the 
Museum at Newman's sale in 1845. Though not so correct as 
Lord Monson's MS. it has at times helped to an elucidation of 
some difficulties, and the correction of some errors in the latter. 
A considerable difference of opinion appears to have existed as to 
the date of the MS. as stated in § 2. Mr. Way assigned it to 
1450, while Halliwell, who in the second volume of his Archaic 
Dictionary ', frequently quotes from the Addit. MS., refers to it 
sometimes as f MS. Dictionary, dated 1540 V sometimes as 'MS. 
Dictionary, 1540 2 ,' at other times as 'MS. Diet. c. 1500 V and 
again as ' Cathol. Angl. MS. 4 / 

§ 4. A few words will explain the method adopted in printing 
the collations of A. I have not thought it necessary to give 
every variation of spelling ; the omissions, however, are very few 
in number, and only occur where the difference in spelling is 
very trifling. The order in which the words are arranged is 
not the same in the two MSS., nor are the Latin equivalents 

1 See, for instance, under Rare, p. 668 ; Shack-fork, p. 725 ; Ruwet, p, 700. 

2 See Scrap, p. 714. 

3 See Tallow, lafe, p. 849 ; Temples, p. 857 ; Taxage, p. 854, &c. 
* See Timmer, p. 875. 


ffiven in the same succession. In the case of all words which 
are found only in A. and not in Lord Monson's MS. I have 
printed an A in brackets (A.) at the end of the word; as Armyd; 
armatus (A.). And when I have inserted various readings from 
A. in the text I have enclosed them in brackets and appended 
the letter (A.) : thus the entry ' a Cropure (Cruppure A.) ; 
postela (postellum A.)' is intended to show that the reading of 
Lord Monson's MS. is 'a Cropure; postela;' and that of the 
Addit. MS. 'a Cruppure ; postellum.' 

After the first few pages I have, in order to economise space, 
omitted the inflexional endings of the genitive cases of nouns, 
and the feminine and neuter genders of adjectives. But no 
alteration has been made in the text without due notice in the 
notes l . I have expanded the contractions, showing the expan- 
sions as usual by the use of italics : tt and n) I have treated as 
representing We and ne respectively ; but fi I have printed as it 
stands, it being doubtful what is the exact value of the mark of 
contraction. The author has throughout used vbi for ' see ' or 
'refer to/ and participium for our 'adjective.' 

The method adopted in the compiling and arranging the nu- 
merous notes required for the work was as follows: I first went 
carefully through the whole of the MS., comparing each, word 
with its representative in the Promptorium, and in cases where 
no such representative could be found marking the word with 
a dagger (f). Where I found that Mr. Way had already anno- 
tated the word I marked it with an asterisk (*). I am afraid 
instances will be found of words, to which I have attached a 
dagger, really occurring in the Promptorium, under a slightly 
different form, sufficiently different to escape my notice. 

The reading of books for the purpose of getting together 
illustrative quotations was a long and heavy, but far from 

1 I have not even, except in very few cases, corrected the blunders in the scribe's 
latin. To do so throughout the work would completely alter its character, and 
would, in a great measure, destroy the interest which attaches even to this base 
latin. Like Mr. Way (see his Introd. p. vii), I could have made many more 
alterations in this particular, as also in rearranging the words in a perfect alpha- 
betic order, but the objections to so doing, as explained by Mr. Way, appeared 
to me so strong that I have preferred to print the MS. exactly as it is. In the 
case of A. I have, of course, had to break the scribe's order of words, so as to bring 
the corresponding words of the two MSS. together. 


disagreeable task. Most of the books written previously to 
the middle of the 15th century had, of course, been already 
read by Stratmann, Miitzner, and others, but all of a later 
date I had to read through myself, as well as all belonging 
to the earlier period which had been printed by the various 
Societies since the publication of those dictionaries. 

§ 5. I have in every case been careful not to repeat any 
of Mr. Way's quotations or remarks on any word, except for 
some special reason. This will to a great extent account for 
the fact that after the letter P my notes become much more 
frequent and full. It is much to be regretted that Mr. Way 
was unable to annotate the third part of the Promptorium 
(from It to the end) as fully as he had the preceding letters. 
There are many, very many, words in this third part of the 
greatest interest and importance to the student and philologist, 
and well deserving of the same careful and learned treatment 
as was bestowed by the editor on the letters A — R. And not 
a few words, too, are difficult to understand, and perhaps almost 
unintelligible to the ordinary reader without a note. 

It will be readily seen that the annotation of the two works 
has been carried out on very different lines. Mr. Way, from 
his apparently inexhaustible store of archaeological lore, has 
enriched the Promptorium with notes and quotations bearing 
rather on the history of that which is represented by the word, 
than upon the history of the word itself as shown by its use in 
various authors, while my notes are almost entirely devoted to 
the latter object. 

I have endeavoured to be especially careful about the correct- 
ness of the quotations and references, feeling that on this depends 
a great deal of their value. But in a work of this kind, in 
which so many hundreds of quotations are brought together, 
mistakes can not be entirely avoided, and I can only trust that 
their number is comparatively infinitesimal. 

The experience which I have gained as Assistant-Editor of the 
Philological Society's new English Dictionary of the trouble, the 
vexation caused b} r , nay, even the almost absolute worthlessness 
of quotations the references to which are either imperfectly or 
incorrectly given, has taught me the extreme importance of 
correctness and fulness in this particular. Unfortunately my 


experience came too late for me to carry into practice in every 
instance the fulness of reference which I should now wish to 
see. I have tried, therefore, to make up for this, as far as lay 
in my power, by giving as full and complete as possible a list 
of the authorities quoted from, with particulars as to the editions 
used, and the dates of the original works. The dates, although, 
of course, in many cases only approximate, will, as I know from 
experience, be found of great service, and should, in fact, be 
always given in works of this kind. The time which it will 
save to students, none but those who have had the trouble of 
hunting up authorities as to the date of a MS. can appreciate. 

I much regret now that I did not from the beginning arrange 
the quotations according to their chronological order of compo- 
sition. The point did not occur to me until I began to use 
Matzner's Worterbuch, when I at once recognised the mistake 
into which we had both fallen, and the great inconveniences 
arising from it, although these inconveniences, owing to the 
relatively small number of quotations given by me, will not, I 
think, be so much felt as in the case of the fuller work. 

It was also suggested to me that I should re-arrange the 
words in their strict alphabetical order, but I do not see that 
the advantageousness of such an arrangement is so apparent 
as to call for the amount of time and labour involved in its 
preparation. As a rule, the words are in a very close approxi- 
mation to the strict alphabetical order, and I have therefore 
contented myself with altering the position of such few words 
as were by some accident inserted in the MS. a long way from 
their proper position. 

I have followed Mr. Way's lead in endeavouring rather to 
illustrate by contemporary or earlier quotations the words given 
in the Catholicon, than to enter on the difficult and dangerous 
ground of etymologies. 

§ 6. There are a few words of which, notwithstanding all my 
exertions, I have been unable to obtain any satisfactory expla- 
nation. Such are 'to Bacon; disp loci ere ; ' Bebybeke ;' 'a 
Bychdoghter; epialtes ;' 'Blossom, colloquintida ;' f to Blunder; 
Calandior 1 ;' 'to Calle a hawke ; stupare ; f Common slaghter ; 

1 Can this be the same as Blondcre in the A yenbite, p. 6l ' 

b 2 


dalitarla ; ' Fawthistelle ; labrum Veneris;' 'Fox fire; fflos / 'a 
Martinett ; irristiticus / ( to Ouergett ; equiparare ; 'to Pok ; 

sinciare ; ' Severouse •/ ' a Skaunce ;' 'aSmytt; oblectamentum ; 
1 Splete ; rignum ;' ' to Springe ; enervate ; ' Talghe lafe ; «??&- 
giarum ; ' a Welpe ;' and a few others. As to any of these I 
shall be glad to receive suggestions. 

§ 7. It is a difficult matter in the case of a work of this class, 
in which we have only isolated words on which to base an 
opinion, to decide exactly as to the birth-place or dialect of 
the author : and this difficulty is increased by the fact that 
of the copies which have come down to us neither in all proba- 
bility is the autograph of the compiler, but the work of a scribe. 
We can, however, in the present instance assert with considerable 
confidence that the compiler was a native of one of the northern 
counties. Mr. Way was of opinion that the dialectical peculiarities 
of the MS. indicated that it was compiled in the north-eastern 
parts of England, and in this he was most probably correct. 
He pointed out that the names of Norwich, Lincoln, Ybrk, 
Richmond, Ripon, Durham and Carlisle occur in it, but we 
can hardly attribute much importance to this fact, inasmuch 
as we also find London, Salisbury, Bath, Oxford, Winchester, 
and Cambridge — and these are all names of places which 
would be likely to be familiar to a monk, and such I be- 
lieve the compiler to have been, grounding my opinion on 
his intimate knowledge of ecclesiastical terms, as evidenced 
throughout the work, as well as on such slight, but, to my 
mind, significant entries as didimus for vn-Trowabylle. The 
mention of Hekbetts or Heckboats is more to the purpose, as 
these appear to have been peculiar to the river Ouse in 
Yorkshire. So also with Scurffe, which appears to obtain prin- 
cipally on the Tees K So again, we have the curious expression 
Gabrielle rac/ie, which still exists in Yorkshire. Further, the 
author speaks of the Wolds, which he renders by Alpes. On the 
whole it is probable that the work was compiled in the north 
portion of the East Riding of Yorkshire : more exactly than this 
it is now impossible to fix the locality. The reader will notice 
the large number of words occurring in our work, which are 

1 See notes, pp. 181, 326. 


illustrated by quotations from the Wills and Inventories pub- 
lished by the Surtees Society, and from Henry Best's Farming 
and Account Book. Many of these, such as Rekancle, Sjpene, Bery, 
Scurfte, Ley, Staitk, Mosscrop, and others, are peculiar to York- 
shire, or at least to the most northern counties. 

The Addit. MS. appears to have been originally written in 
a purer northern dialect than Lord Monson's MS., but it has 
constantly been altered by the scribe. This is shown by the 
order in which we find the words. Thus Spoyn was no doubt 
originally written Spnne, as is clear from its position. Again 
we have ' Scho ' or * Ho ' in A., where Lord Monsons MS. 
reads ' Sche.' 

The thorn letter J? is found not unfrequently throughout the 
work, but does not occur as the initial letter of a set of words : 
instead of it words beginning with tli are given in the regular 
alphabetical order under T. 

As in the Promptorium, the Scribe has not been consistent in 
his use of the thorn letter : frequently we find instead of it the 
y which not long after entirely superseded it. Occasionally we 
even meet with the two forms in the same line. 

Sch is used for s/i, and scl for si, but not invariably. 

§ 8. The MS. of the Medulla Grammatice, of which, by the 
kindness of the authorities of St. John's College, Cambridge, I 
have been enabled to make such free use, is that referred to by Mr. 
Way at p. liii of his Introduction. It is a 4k) MS. belonging to 
St. John's College, Press Mark C. 22, on paper quires, with vellum 
covers to each quire. Thus the first two leaves are vellum, then 
come five leaves of paper, followed by two leaves of vellum, five of 
paper, and so on. At the end is the date, in the same handwriting 
as the body of the MS., 16th December, 1468. It is a Latin 
Dictionary, the explanation of the words being mainly in Latin *. 
It was presented to the College by Thomas, Earl of Southampton, 
and is stated to have been purchased from William Crashawe, a 
brother of the poet, who was admitted fellow of St. John's in 
1593. I have also at times consulted other MSS. of the Medulla, 
such as MSS. Harl. 1000, 1738, 2257, and 2270, but all the illus- 
trations from the Medulla, which will be found in my notes, have 

1 Not altogether as stated in Mr. Way's Introd. p. liii. 


been, unless it is expressly otherwise stated, taken from the St. 
John's MS. 1 

I would especially draw attention to the very great similarity 
which we find in many words between the Catholicon and the 
Medulla, pointing clearly to the fact of a common origin. 

§ 9. The authorities to which I have had recourse, and from 
which my notes and illustrations have been drawn are set out in 
the list at the end of this volume, but it may not be amiss here to 
refer more fully to such of them as I have found more especially 
useful. Amongst Dictionaries of the older English, Stratmann 
and Matzner have been of the greatest value ; of the latter, un- 
fortunately, I had no opportunity of consulting a copy until after 
C had passed the press. Of the former I have made free use, 
although, at the same time, endeavouring to gather together 
illustrations and quotations not to be found there. 

In Wright's Volume of Vocabularies, although it is far from 
satisfactorily free from faults and mistakes, I have found an 
almost endless source of illustrations of many words and of all 
dates 2 . 

For later English my chief helps have been Huloet's Abce- 
darium, Horman's Vulgaria (two most curious and interesting 
works, which would well repay reprinting), Baret's Alvearie, 
the Ortus Vocabulomm 3 , Levins' Manipulus Vocabulomm, Stan- 
bridge Vocabula, Palsgrave, Cotgrave, and, in a lesser degree, 
Cockeram, AVithals, Gouldman, and Jamieson. 

For the names of plants and instances of botanical terms I 
have principally had recourse to Cockayne's LeccMoms, Lyte's 
translation of Dodoens, Turner's and Gerarde's Kerbals, and the 
several lists of plants in Wright's Volume of Vocabularies, already 
mentioned, besides numerous lists of plants in MSS. 4 The Dic- 
tionary of English Plant-Names, compiled by Messrs. Britten & 

1 See Mr. Way's account of these and other MSS. of the Medulla, Introd. pp. 

2 A new edition, with large additions and corrections, and edited by Prof. 
Wulcker, is now in the press. 

3 See Mr. Way's Introd. p. liv T have used the edition of 1532. 

4 Mr. Way gives a list of several, Introd. p. lxvii, and many more might be men- 
tioned. Why should not one of our Societies print a collection of some, at least, 
of the numerous glossaries still remaining in MS.? The light which they would 
help to throw on our language can riot be over-estimated. 


Holland, would have been of the greatest service to me had it 
appeared earlier. 

The publications of the English Dialect Society have furnished 
me with abundant instances of dialectal forms and words occur- 
ring in the Catholicon, and still in use in our Northern Counties. 
More especially have I been indebted to the Glossaries of Mr. E. 
Peacock (Lincolnshire), Mr. C. C. Robinson (Mid- Yorkshire), Mr. 
Nodal (Lancashire), and Prof. Skeat's editions of Ray, &c. 

Many of my illustrations, as well as hints and helps for many 
others are due to the publications of the late Mr. Riley for the 
Rolls Series. His editions of the Liber Aldus and the Liber 
Custumarum are crammed with bits of archaeological lore, which 
have added vastly to the value of my notes, to which I have 
freely transferred them 1 . 

I have, of course, placed all the publications of the Early 
English Text Society under contribution, many of them, espe- 
cially those most recently issued, I had to read through myself 
for the purpose, as they are not included in Stratmann. Of the 
publications of the Camden Society the most useful to me 
have been the Thornton Romances, the Ancren Riwle, and the 
Bury Wills 8f Inventories, the last containing a large number of 
valuable and interesting words and forms. 

But the most valuable works to me have been the Wills. 8f In- 
ventories, the Testamenta Uboracensia, and other publications of 
the Surtees Society. It is impossible to speak too highly of the 
importance of these works to all students of our language and its 
history. Extending as they do over a period of more than 500 
years, from 1085 to 1600, they afford an almost inexhaustible 
mine of material to the student, and the complete glossary and 
index which we are promised to them and the other issues of 
the Society will be one of the most valuable works in existence. 
Next in importance to the Wills 8f Inventories comes the Farming 
fy Account Books of Henry Best, a Yorkshire farmer, who died in 

1 I deeply, regret that by an oversight I have in two instances omitted accidentally 
to acknowledge the sources of my notes. A great part of those under Baynstikille 
and Baudstrot are from notes of Mr. Kiley, in his Glossaries to the Liber Albus and 
Liber Cuxtumarum. These are, I believe, the only instances in which T have 
omitted to give my authorities and the credit which is due to the original writer. 

xxiv iXTunnrrno.w 

1645. A very slight glance will show to what a great extent 
this work has helped to throw light on many of the dialectal 
terms and forms in the Catholicon. For purposes of quotation, 
indeed, it has been a more satisfactory book than the Wills Sf 
Inventories, as the extracts in most cases help to explain them- 
selves, instead of being a mere list of names. Several other 
publications of the same Society have also furnished a valuable 
and welcome quota of illustrations, more especially the Townley 
Mysteries and the Early English Psalter. Nor should I omit to 
mention the excellent reprints of Prof. Arber, as remarkable for 
their correctness as their cheapness. 

Such have been my main resources for the earlier and dialectal 
illustrations of the words in the Catholicon : for more modern 
uses, Prof. Skeat's and Mr. Wedgwood's Etymological Dic- 
tionaries have been of the greatest service, while for Scotch 
words and forms I have used Jamieson's Dictionary. 

§ 10. And now my task is done, with the exception of one 
pleasant duty, that of returning thanks to those gentlemen who 
have in various ways assisted me during the progress of the work. 
The chief thanks both of the Societies and of myself are of course 
due to Lord Monson for his great kindness in lending this valu- 
able MS. freely and willingly, without any restriction as to time, 
for so jnany years. 

Next our thanks are due to Prof. Mayor and the authorities of 
St. John's College, Cambridge, for the willingly-granted loan of 
their MS. of the Medulla, and to Mr. H. B. Wheatley for his 
very interesting Preface. 

My own thanks are especially due to Mr. H. Hucks Gibbs, 
first, for kindly lending me his set of the publications of the 
Surtees Society, of which I have made so large a use in my 
notes ; and secondly, for assistance in the explanation of several 
words, which had long puzzled others as well as myself. To 
Mr. Furnivall and Mr. J. H. Hessels I am similarly indebted, 
for help in my hunt after the origin and meaning of a large 
number of words ; while from Prof. Skeat I have, as ever, 
always received a ready aid. In especial I am deeply indebted 
to Mr. Wedgwood, who has kindly found time to read over a 
large proportion of the work in proof, and by his suggestions 
and help has contributed not a little to its value. 


§11. In the preceding pages I have endeavoured to explain 
clearly the plan on which I have carried out this work, and the 
sources on which I have drawn for the notes. That the work 
will be found in every way satisfactory is far beyond my 
expectations. That deficiences and short-comings will most 
disagreeably make themselves evident in some places, and 
excess in others is, I fear, unavoidable in a work of this kind ; 
and I can only lay it before the Societies with a confident hope 
that, despite its failings, it will be found of value for the number 
and variety of the illustrations collected together in it. The 
work was originally intended for the members of the Early 
English Text Society only, the Council of the Camden Society 
having some j^ears ago determined not to follow up the joint 
publication of Levins' Manipukis Vocahulorum. When, however, 
about half of the Catholicon had passed the press, the proposal 
to join in its production was made to the Camden Society, and 
it is a source of very great gratification to me that the Council 
of the Society which printed the Tromptoriiim has recognized the 
present volume as a worthy companion to Mr. Way's admirable 
work. It has occupied my leisure now for more than three 
years, and in parting with it I seem to part with an old friend, 
whose welfare and progress have so largely occupied my thoughts 
during that time. It would have been better for the Societies 
had Mr. Wheatley been able to find time in his busy life to write 
a longer introduction to this work, but as it is, I can only com- 
mend the book to the impartial judgment of the members of the 
two Societies, in the words of the original compiler himself: ' Si 
qua in ea reprehensione digna invenerint, aut corrigant, aut oculis 
clausis pertranseant, aut saltern humane ignorancie imputent.' 


Mill Hill, N.W., 

August, 1 88 1. 


Page 17. Badildore. This undoubtedly here means the instrument used by washers 
to beat coarse clothes. In Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 269, we have ' Hoc feratorium, Hoc 
pecten, a batylledore,' and Palsgrave has, 'Batyldore, battover a lesnue* In the Invent, of 
Patio Gower, of Richmond, taken in 1567, are included ' iiij butlc doicres, a maille and a 
maille py'lyone.' Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 197. 

Bafynstylkylle. ' Sir, (said the Foxe) it is Lentren yee see, 
And I can neither fish with huke nor net, 
To take ane Bansticldc, though we both should die.' 

Henryson, Moral Fables, 1571, p. 65. 
This is, no doubt, the same word as beynsteyllys, which occurs in a burlesque poem in 
Beliq. Antiq. i. 86, and seems to have puzzled Mr. Halliwell : 

' Then ther com masfattus in mortros alle soow, 
Borhammys [flounders] and beynstellys, for thei my3t not goo.' „ 

18. Bakke. i Hec vespertilio, a bake.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 220. • More louynge 
derkenes than lyght, lyke vnto a beest called a baclce.' Bp. Fisher, Works, p. 87. See also 
Douglas, jEneados, Bk. xiii. Prol. p. 449. 

Baldestrot. ' Hie leno, -nis, baustrott.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 216. 

19. Balyngar. 'Ther wer lost ij carykkes and two balyngers with marchaundyses 
and other goodes, and alle the peple that were within.' Caxton, Chronicle of England, 
1482, ch. cexxiv. p. 304. In the State Papers, Henry VIII, vol. ii. p. 76, is a complaint 
that 'oon Rychard Pepyr, of Calebs, hath of late robbed and dyspoyled twoo Brytton 
shippis upon the see, and hath brought with hym oon of their bally^er-sl 

' In Bote, in Baling ar and Bargis The twa Armyis on otherris chargis.' 

Lyndesay, Monarche, Bk. ii. 1. 3101. 
See the Ancient Scottish Prophecy, printed by Prof. Lumby in his edition of Bernardus 
De Cura Ret Fam. p. 21, 1. 1 16 — 

' Fra farnelande to the fyrth salbe a fayr sygh 
O barges and ballungerys, and mony brod sayle.' 

Balke. ' It is and ought to bee the care of shepheards .... that, when theire 
sheepe have had theire will on the stubbles three weekes or a moneth, then to have an 
eye to the heades, bailees and divisions that lye betwixt two faughes, for that is usually a 
battle, sweete, moiste and (as wee say) a natural! grasse.' Best, Farming, &-c, Booh, p. 28. 
1 He that wylle stalke, Be brook or bailee.' Coventry Myderies, p. 343. ' My body on bailee 
J>er bod in sweuen ' Allit. Poems, A. 62. The verb occurs in Gower, i. 296 — 

' So well halt no man the plough That he ne balketh other while.' 

Bancour. 'For the array of the hall four bankers' English Gilds, p. 233. 

Bande of a dure. In the Cursor Mundi, 19306, we are told that when the 
angel delivered the Apostles from prison he 

' pe prisun dors left als he land, Noiber he brak ne barr ne band.' 

In the Invent, of Sir J. Birnand, 1565, we find ' iiij bucket grithes, iiij iron bandes for a 
doore, j stancyon of iron and a barre.' Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 178 : and in the Invent, of 
John Colan, of York, 1490, is an item. 'De ij veteribus lez dore bandes, ferri vj d .' Testa- 
menta Ebor. iv. 59. See the curious burlesque poem printed in Reliq. Antiq. i. 86, where 
the writer speaks of ' Dore-bundys stalkyng one stylttus, in ther hondus gret olms.' 

20. Bannock. Turner in his Herbal, pt. ii. If. 33, says of Lentil that 'it hath litle 
coddes somthyng flatt, wherein are conteyned in euery one about iij or iiij granes in 
figure flat lyke a halfpenny, but somthyng rysyng in bignes toward the middes, as a litle 
cake or bannock is which is hastely baked vpon y" harth.' 

Banworte ' Sicige, ban-wyrt.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 68. ' Osmund, osmunde, 
bon-wurt.' Ibid. p. 141. 


20. Bane schawe. Langham in his Garden of Health, 1633, p. 93, recommenda 'For 
the boneahaw and gout, seethe the flowers [of Broome] with wine and oyle oliue, apply 
it.' In a long list of diseases printed in Jamieson from ' Montgomerie, Watson's Coll. iii. 
1 3,' s. v. Cleik are mentioned ' Bock-blood and Benshaw, Spewen sprung in the Spald.' Grose, 
in his Glossary, gives * Boncshave, bony or horny excrescence or tumour growing out of 
horses heels ; perhaps so called from a distant resemblance to the substance of a bone 
spavin : also, the scratches. Exmore.' 

21. Barsepay. In the translation of Vegecius on the Art of War, in Royal MS. 8 A 
xii. If. 103, is an account of a berfry, which may be compared with the description of that 
in Sir Ferumbras given in my note : 'A somer castel or a rollyng tour is a gyn of werre 
moche and large and of grete cost, hit is made squaar as a tour of stoon, of grete bemes 
and plancheres nayled and pynned and framed to-gidre : and for it schole not be li3tliche 
I-brend ne fyred wi}) enemyes, hit is heled wib-oute with rawe hyde and wete hayres and 
feltes. H pese towres after here heythes ]>ei hauen here brede, some ben xxx*', some x\ tl , 
some fifty foote squaar of brede .... he hah many stages, in many manere wise he 
harmeb and assailej). he ha]) in ]>e neither fiore I-heled his mynoures to digge and myne \>e 
wal. he ha}) ]>ere also be gyn hat is cleped J)e Ram wib strokes to stonye pe wal. 11 In ]>e 
mydde stage [he] haj) a foldynge brigge to let falle sodeynliche vpon be top of ]>e walle, 
And so to renne into J)e citee wib men of armes, and take J)e citee at his wille. In J)e 
ouer stage he ha]) schelteres, casteres, slyngeres, and alle manere diffence, be whiche for ])ei 
ben ouer ])e heddes of hem ])at ben on }»e walles wib alle manere egge toole, nameliche wi]) 
grete stones, bei slee]) or bete]) awey fro ])e walles alle J)at stondej) vnder hem/ Compare 
P. Somyr Castell. In the Allit. Poems, B. 1187, we are told that when Nebuchadnezzar 
besieged Jerusalem there was ' at vch brugge a berfray on basteles wyse ;' and so when 
besieging Thebes Alexander 

' and his folk alle, Myd berfreyes, with alle gyn.' 

Faste asailed heore wallis Alisaunder, 2277. 

See also R. de Brunne's Chronicle, ed. Furnivall, p. 36, 1. 1031. 

22. Barnakylle. In the 14th cent, glossary in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 180, 'frenum 
cum chamo ' is glossed by ' brydylle' and ' barnaculle,' and again, on the following page, we 
have ' camus, barnaculle.' Trevisa in his trans, of Higden, i. 353, says of the Irish : ' pey 
dryuej) hir hors wij) a chambre 5erde in \>e ouer ende instede of barnacles and of bridels of 
reest [cami vice].' See also Wyclif, Proverbs xxvi. 3, Psalms xxxi. 9, &c. 'Barnacles or 
Burnacles to putte on a horses nose to make hym to stande. Pastorius.' Huloet. ' Brayes. 
Barnacles for a horses nose.' Cotgrave. 

23. Barras. ' The Cristen men chasede ]>am to be barres, 

And sloughe righto there fele folke and fresche.' Sege off Melayne, 1159. 
See also I. 1279 : 'pe owte barres hew bay dowun.' 

Baslarde. In the Invent, of John de Scardeburgh, taken in 1395, we find men- 
tioned, ' unum baselard ornatum, cum manubrio de murro, pret. vj s . viij d . vend, pro xi s .' 
Test. Ebor. iii. 3. 

24. Bature. See the recipe ' for Freture ' in the Liber Cure Cocorum, p. 39 : 

' With egges and floure in batere bou make, Put berme ber to, I undertake, &c.' 

Beabowteward. I ought to have explained that this means to try, attempt, as 
shown by the latin equivalents Chaucer in the Knight's Tale, 1146, has: 

'Now thou woldest falsly ben aboute To love my lady.' 

Compare the Ancren Riwle, p. 234, '"Lo!"cweS ure Louerd, "Satan is 3eorne abuten 
uorto ridlen be ut of mine corne !" ' and the Sowdone of Babylone, 1. 839 : ' Ferumbras was 
euer a-bowte To fyghte withe Olyvere.' 

* Syr Marrok, hys steward To do hys lady gyle.' 

Was faste abowtewarde Sir Triamour, 65. 

Becalle. In Genesis & Exodus, after the departure of his brothers with the cup 

hidden in Benjamin's sack, 

Josef haue^ hem after sent. And bi- called of harme and scaSe.' 

'Sis fonde hem ouertakeo 1 ra'Se, 1. 2314. 

' Menme, bikalled oftresown, And has me put her in presoun.' Ywaine<& Gawaine, 1. 2133. 

In Allit. Poems, A. 913, the word is used in the simple meaning of call. ' Be calle bam of 

tresoun.' Robert of Brunne, p. 257. 


25. Beddred. ' Paraliticus, bedreda.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 89. John Baret by 
his Will, 1463, bequeathed 'as moche ferthyng white breed as comyth to iiij s . ij d . to be 
delyd .... a part to bedrefolkc and a part to the prisowneres and to the laserys.' Bury 
Wills, &c. p. 28 ; and Johne Coote in 1502 left ' vj s . viij a . to be delte in bedred men or 
women.' Ibid. p. 92. ' Seke 1 was and bedred lay.' Hampole, Pricke of Cons. 6198. See 
also Early English Poems, p. 134, 1. 57 ; and Wyclif, Works, ed. Matthew, pp. 7 and 186. 

Bedstocks. This is of frequent occurrence in I5th-i7th century wills and inven- 
tories. Thus in 1567 Edward Parkinson had amongst his goods, 'one pare of cerved 

bedstokes, with bedding and hangings, iij 1 . vi s . viij d two pare of bedstokes, with 

bedding, xxvi s . viij d .' Wills & Invent, i. 272 ; and in 1541, in the Invent, of Roger Pele, 
are mentioned 'iij parre of beddoks, price xij s .' Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 22 ; see also ibid. 
pp. 91, 133, 201, &c. 

Bedstrey. Tusser, Five Hundred Points, ch. xix. st. 40, uses bedstraw for clean 
straw : ' By thend of October, go gather vp sloes, 

haue thou in a readines plentie of thoes, 
And keepe them in bedstraw, or still on the bow, 
to staie both the fiixe of thyselfe and thy cow.' 

26. Behovefulle. Best, in his Farming, Ac. Book, p. 37 says, 'It is very behoove/ all 
to see that an haywaine bee well raked.' 

'Good let oc "Su hem bi-se, Alswilc als hem bi-hufiik bee.' Genesis & Exodus, 4108. 
See Shakespere, Romeo and Juliet, IV. iii. 8. 

Beke handes. I have no doubt now that my note on this word is wrong, and 
that the true reading is ' to Beke wandes.' I was led astray by the latin equivalent, and 
the Ortus. The meaning is to heat unseasoned wood by the fire for the purpose of 
straightening it. Thus Neckam in his treatise De Utensilibus, in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. 
p. in, says a farmer should have 
' bastuns peuz endurziz idem 

fustes et palos septus in igne probatos vel exploratos ,-' and H. Best fays, 'after that 
we have cutte our wilfes and saughs, and sorted them .... wee sette our foreman and 
another to beakinge of them ; and for this purpose they fetch a bottle of pease-strawe, or 
a bottle of barley-strawe, and then doe they take the stickes and sette them vp an ende 
slanttinge against the hudde, and keepe a good fire under them.' Farming, &c. Book, p. 
122. The verb is still common in the North: in Yivaine & Gawin, 1459, a knight is 
described as lying ' bekeand in his bed ;' and Markham in his Countrey Far me, 161 6, says : 
1 when you bring your grey-hound home at night, you shall bring him to a faire fire, and 
there let him beake and stretch himselfe, and doe you ticke him at the least an houre or 
more before vou put him into his kennell.' In Le Bone Florence, 99, we have : 
' He had more mystyr of a gode fyre To beyke hys boones by.' 

Of bryght brondys brennyng schyre, 
By this we may explain the entries in the Promptorium : ' Beykynge or streykynge 
(strekinge J. N.). Protencio, extencio ;' and ' Streykynge or spredynge owute (or beykynge, 
supra ; strekyng, to strikynge oute P.). Extencio, protencio! The more common form 
(still surviving in the provinces) is to beath, which is used by Tusser, ch. xxiii. st. 9 : 
' Yokes, forks, and such othir, let bailie spie out, 
and gather the same as he walketh about. 
And after at leasure let this be his hier, 

to beath them and trim them at home by the fier ;' 
on which Tusser Redivivus (D. Hilman) notes : ' Bathing at the Fire, as it is commonly 
called, when the wood is yet unseasoned, sets it to what purpose you think fit.' See also 
Douglas, jEneados, Bk. v. p. 131 and Bk. vii. p. 201. 

27. Belle man. John Baret in his Will, 1463, directed that 'the ij bcllemen haue ij 
gownys, and be ij of y° fyve to holde torches, and ij' 1 . and here mete, and y e Sexteyn of y° 
chirche to haue brede and drynkke and xij d . for his rynggyng and his mete.' Bury Wills, 
&c. p. 1 7 ; and again, p. 28, he directs ' that the belle meen haue iiij d . to go yeerly alnwte 
the town at my yeerday for my soule and for my faderis and my modrys.' On the other 
hand John Coote, in 1502, declares he will have ' neyther ryngyn nor belman goynge,' but 
all 'to be don in secrete maner :' ibid. p. 92. The duty of these bellmen was to go round 
a town on the anniversary of the death of any person, calling on all who heard them to 
pray for the soul of the departed. In 1433 John Dene, Canon of Ripon, left in his Will to 


• le ItvhiuiH iiij d .' Test. Ebor. ii. 43. See also the account of the expenses incurred at the 
funeral of Thomas de l)alby in 1400, where we have an item ; ' campanatori pro pracoui- 
zatione obitus per Hvitatem iiij d .' ibid. iii. 19. 

28. Benes spelked. Compare Spelkyd benes, p. 353. In the glossary in MS. Harl. 
3376, of the loth century is given ' Faba fresa, gegrunden bean, s. dicta quia molata est.' 

Benet. See notes to Coniure, p. 74, and Ostils, p. 262. 
decon subdeacon beiiott idem est. 
1 Diaconus, subdiaconus, exorcista, benedictus.' Liber Equus Caballus, in Wright's Vol. of 
Vocab. p. 182. '■Hie exorcista, A ee - a benet.' ibid. p. 263. The author of the Fardle of 
Facions, 1555, identifies the Acolyte with the Benet: 'The Acholite, whiche we calle 
Benet or Cholet, occupieth the romne of Candlebearer.' Pt. II. ch. xii. p. 267. 

29, to Bery. We find this word frequently in North Country wills and inventories of 
the i5th-i 7th centuries. Thus in the Invent, of Jane Lavvson, taken in 1557, we find 
an item, 'In beryed corn in the barne viij d .' Wills & Invents, i. 158; and in 1570 E. 
Parkinson left in ' The By Barne. In rye not b uried xx thraves liij s . iiij d .' ibid. p. 272. 
See also p. 331, and p. 341, where, in the Invent, of Bertram Anderson, in 1570, are 
mentioned, ' otes buried eight lode xx s . — in vnberied whete xiiij thraves xx 9 . — in pease 
vnberied iij quarters, xxxviV See also Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 42. H. Best in his 
Farming, &c. Book, 1641, p. 132, gives the particulars of the wages paid 'for buryinge 
of corne by quarter-taile,' and again, p. 142, he says, 'to our thrashers, that bury by 
quarter-tale, wee have allwayes given heretofore 4 d . a quarter for otes.' Wyclif uses the 
word in the sense of trodden, beaten : ' Bi the beryd [comynli vsid P. tritam V.] weye we 
shulen goon.' Numbers xx. 19 ; and again : 'tho that wenten in bi hem jeden a wey bi 
streyt beryd paththis out of the weye.' Judges v. 6; see also Jeremiah xviii. 15. In the 
Ancren Riiole, p. 188, we have : ' Loke ! douhter, loke ! hu he hit schal abuggen, and per 
je schulen iseon bunsen ham mit tes deofles bettles,' where one MS. reads berien. 

Besande. See Thynne's Animadversions, p. 31. In the quotation from Cotgrave 
in the note for ' worth a double duck at the peece,' read ' worth a double duckat the peece.' 

31. A Bygirdylle. * Jeremyas sigh his brigirdel yroted [lumbare suum putrefactum~\? 
Trevisa's Higden, iii. 85. 

32. Byrelawe. See Jamieson, s. v. and Prof. Skeat, Etymol. Diet. s. v. Bylaw. 

Byrke. 'He bete hur wyth a 3erde of byrke.' Le Bone Florence, 1518. In an 
inventory dated about 1480 are mentioned 'li shaffe [of arrows] birh and hesh of temer 
waire.' Test. Ebor. iii. 253. ' Populus, byre. Betulus, byre. Betulentum, byrc-holt.' Ael- 
fric's Vocab. in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 33. 

Byrle. In La3amon, 24164, Arthur addressing Beduer says : ' pu art min hexte 
birle her,' and again, 24604, ' An oSer half wes Beduer, ]>as kinges hseje birle, J where the 
meaning is cup-bearer, as also in the Ormulum, in the account of the marriage atCana 
where we read : ' Sannte Mar3e 3ede anan, & se33de to pe birrless 
DoJ> J>att tatt he shall biddenn 3uw.' 1. 14023. 
' All for})i wass dsejjess drinnch Till ]>att Johan.' 

Allraeresst brohht & birriedd Ibid. 15225. 

See also Douglas, jEneados, Bk. iii. p. 79, and Bk. viii. p. 247. 

A Birnynge yrne. ' Caracter, grece, stilus, figura, ferrum coloratum, quo note 
pecudibus inuruntur, mearcisern.' Gloss. MS. Harl. 3376. See Best, Farming, &c. Book, 
p. 71. 

33. Blabery. Turner, in his Herbal, pt. ii. If. 61, says that ' many .... haue erred 
.... in takyng the bleberries or hurtel berries in the stede of the myrtle tre.' 

Blabyrlyppyd. In the Bigby Mysteries, p. 90, 1. 927, the King of Marcylle 
addresses his subjects as 'brawlyng breelles, and blabyr-lyppyd byechys.' 

34. to be Blerid. * For all ower besynes, bleryd is ower eye.' Bigby Myst. p. 92, 1. 985. 

to Blessum. In the Early English Psalter (Surtees Soc. ed. Stevenson), Ps. lxxvii. 
70 is thus rendered : 

' He ches Davyd, hyne hisse Of herdes of schepe pat be, 

And up-bare him alle with blisse ; Of a,fter-blismed, him name he;' 

where the Vulgate reads de post foztantes, and the meaning is pregnant. The translator 


evidently read the Vulgate version as de post-feet antes. Purvey mure correctly reads ' for 
bihynde Bcheep with lambren.' Fitzherbert in his Bake of Husbandry, fo. E 2 hack, says 
' that man, that hath the best shepe pasture for wynter, and some spryngynge in the be- 
gynnynge of the yere, he maye suff're his rammes to goo with his ewes all tymes of the 
yere, to blffWomme or ryde whan they wyll.' 

35. to Blyndfeyld. In the account of the conversion of St. Paul in the Cursor Mundi, 
1 96 1 5, the writer says that ' blinfeld he was als he sua lai,' where other MSS. read 
blenfelled, blindfeld, and blyndefolde. In Caxton's Charles the Grete, p. 82, Oliver, after 
his capture by the Saracens, had ' hys eyen blynfelde and hys hondes straytly bounden ;' 
and in Sir Ferumbras, 301 1 : 'Gy of Borgoynge ]?er a fond, y-blyndf ailed, and by-bounde.' 
In the quotation from Palsgrave for Je vende read Je bendc. 

a Bluderyne. In the note for Blodevren read Blodeyren. In the Invent, of 
John Stubbes, of York, barber, taken in 1451, we find the following entry: ' De Mode 
yrcus et launcettes in j case, ij s .' Test. Ebor. iii. 118. 

36. a Bob of grapys. Compare Sir Gawayne, 206, where the Green Knight is de- 
scribed as bearing ' in his on honde .... a holyn bobbe.' 

a Bole of a tre. ' This is the shadowe of the bole of the tree.' Fisher, Works, 

P- 315- 

A Bonet of a saille. Douglas in his JSneados, Bk. v. p. 156, has 
'All mak thaim boun And fessyn bonettis beneth the mane sale doun.' 

' Now me behouith my shippe vnto rest, Sadies, cordes, and bonet put don.' 

Partenay, 1. 6407. 

38. A Bottelle of hay. H. Best, in his Farming Book, p. 61, says: 'If the strawe 
or stubble lye farre from the stackes, then there will bee imployment for two folkes, viz. 
for one to drawe and make bottles, and for the other to carry and serve ;' and at p. 74 he 
says, 'you may bottle it [hay] up, and carry it.' 

' He shall tell a tale by my fey, Although it be not worth a botel hay. 

Chaucer, Manciple's Prol. 1. 14. 

39. Bowrdeworde. In Genesis & Exodus, 2880, Moses tells the Israelites 'Godes 
bode-wurd bringe ic' ' I to dai fourtenniht tald 

Hou sain Jon bodioord broht bald.' Metrical Homilies, p. 44. 
' Bryng bodworde to bot blysse to vus alle.' All it. Poems, B. 473. 
See also Cursor Mundi, 1195, 8556, &c. 

a Brachett. ' Braches bayed j)erfore, & breme noyse maked.' Sir Gawayne, 11 42; 
see also 11. 1563, 1603, &c. 

40. to Bray. See the directions for making 'Furmente' in the Liber Cure Cocorum, 
p. 7, where we are told to take wheat and ' bray hit a lytelle.' Wyclif in his version of 
1 Kings xxv. 18, speaks of 'fyue busshellis of bray id corn.' l Br aye. Brayed, pounded, 
bruised, braked as hempe. Brayer. To bray, poune, bruise.' Cotgrave. 

' The gnmme of fructifying pynes eke, And bray alle aswel as thou canst devyse.' 

Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 199, 1. 347. 

a Brakan. In the verse in text for cftcuntur read die. ' Feugere (a brake, feryn).' 
W. de Biblesworth in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. J 56. 'Hie felix, -cis, A e - braky n.' ibid. 
p. 191. In the Allit. Poems, B. 1675, God condemns Nebuchadnezzar to live as 'a best, 
byte on J)e bent of broken and erbes.' 

a Brake. ' Ilec vibra, An ce - a brake.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 276. ' Br aye. 
Braked as hemp.' Cotgrave. 'j brake ij d .' is included in the Invent, of T. Vicars, 145 r . 
Test. Ebor. iii. 119. 

41. to Brawde. In note for Gardner read Gairdner. ' llec palmaria, a brawdster.' 
Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 216. 

pe Brawne of a mail. See the Song of Poland, 1. 97, where the boar is described 
as tearing a man's arm ' clene from the braun, the fiesche, & the lier.' 

Brawne. In the Sege off Melayne, 1 599, the provisions of the French army are 
said to have been ' brede, brawne and wyne.' See the Babees Book, p. 53. 

42. pe Brede. See the account of the Marriage at Cana, as told in the Ormulum, 
where, at 1. 14040, we are told that the servants at the Lord's bidding 

'3edenn till & dirienn ]>att he se&de 
& fillcdenn upp till he brerd \\\]>]> waturr peftre fettess.' 


In Lajamon, -23322, we read of ' icnne beet' filled 'from breorde to grunde.' In the AIM. 

Poems, B. 147-4, we have the form brunle ; see also 1. 383 : ' brurtlful to pe bonkee egge.' 

4 Hym thought that the fruyt was goode, And gadderd bret-ful hys hoode.' 

Sevyn Sages, ed. Wright, 945. 
Bret-ful also occurs in Pierce the Ploughmans Crede, 223, and in Wright's Polit. Songs, p. 
33 : ' bretful a male off noht ;' and Trevisa in his trans, of Higden, ii. 173, has ' Tantalus 
standejj alway in a water vp anon to pe puer brerde of pe neper lippe.' See also Destruct. 
of Troy, 11. 1256 and 10254. Brerd is the English and bret the Scandinavian form. 

43. a Brese. ' Hie brucus, a breas.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 223. 'Hoc crestrum 
A ce - a brese.' ibid, p. 255. In Palladius On Husbondrie, Bk. i. 1. 654, the author recom 
mends for peahens, * Pluck awey the feet and yeve hem breses [locustas] ;' and again 
for sitting hens, 'bresed whete and breses longe.' 1. 679. In the Early English Psalter. 
Ps. civ. 34 is rendered 

' He saide, and gressop sone come }>are, And brese [brucus V] of whilk na tale na ware, 
where Wyclif reads ' werte werm ' and Purvey bruk. ' The brese upon her, like a cow in 
June.' Shakspere, Ant. & Cleop. III. x. 14. 

a Bretasynge. ' Hoc signaculum, a bretys.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 236. • Hoc 
propinaculum, A ce - & bretayge.' ibid. p. 264. ' Propungnacula,brytegys. , ibid. p. 130. 
' Trwe tulkkes in toures teneled wyth-inne, 

In bigge brutage of borde, bulde on pe walles.' Allit. Poems, B. 1 190. 
Wyclif, Works, ed. Arnold, i. 19T, has ' the hijest part of J)is toure is briteysing of charite.* 
See also Song of Solomon, viii. 9, and Buttress in Skeat's Etymol. Diet. 

44. to Bryme. In Palladius On Husbondrie, Bk. iii. 1. 1051, we are told that in May 
'bores gladly brymmeth ;' and again, 1. 1068 — 

' Thees if me spende, or mynt for them receyve, Forth pigges moo.' 

The sonner wol they brymme ayeine and brynge 

to Bryse. ' Bowe shal he bris and breke wapenes ma.' E. E. Psalter, Ps. xlv. 10. 
See also Ps. xxxvi. 1 7. 

a Broche for gam. In the quotation from Douglas for ' daith mahyng ' read 
' claith makyng.' 

a Brokk. Trevisa says of Beverley that it ' hatte Beverlay, and keep Brook his 
lay, for many brohkes were somtyme i-woned to come Jnfter out of pe hilles.' Higden. vi. 205. 

Brokylle. ' Of brokele kende his that he deithe, 

For hy ne moje naujt dury.' Shoreham, p. 3. 
Turner, in his Herbal, pt. ii. If. 64, says of Frenche Spikenard that it 'hath many rootes 
clengyng together, full, and not brukle or easy to breke.' Huloet has ' Throw out rubbel, 
as mortar, stone, and such lyke brocJcell of olde buyldynges. Erudero. Brickie or easy to 
be broken. Dissipalis. y ' I beseche you what vessell may be more bruckle and frayle than 
is our body that dayly nedeth reparacyon V Fisher, Works, p. 91. In the Cursor Mundi, 
24044, we have the form brixel, and in Chaucer, Parson's Tale, p. 626, 1. 473 (6-Text ed.), 

45. Brostyn. ' Hernia, burstnesse.' Stanbridge, Vocabula. The first quotation is 
from Cooper. For ' broke-ballochyd ' in the quotation from Wright's Vol. of Vocab. read 
' broke-ballockyd/ and for ' p. 1 77 ' read ' p. 1 76/ 

Browes. SeeR. Caeur de Lion, 3077 : ' [he] soupyd off the brouwys a sope. 

46. a Brusket. ' Hoc petusculum, a bruskette.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 222. 

a Bueler plaer. Cp. p e Sworde and Buckler playing. See the burlesque 
stories in Reliq. Antiq. i. 83, ' owt of ther balys come iiij. and xx te . oxon playing at the 
sword and boJcelar. 1 

47. a Bulas. W. de Biblesworth in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 162, has ' Le crelcer 
que crekes (bolaces) porte? ' Hec pepulus, a bolys-tre.' ibid. p. 228. 

a Bulhede. 'Hie capito, a bulhede.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 222. 

a Bultynge cloth. In the Invent, of R. Bishop, taken about 1 500, are mentioned, 
« xxixyerdes off boiotyng cloth xl d .' Test. Ebor.iv. 192. ' Hoc pollitridium, A e - bult-clathe.' 
Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 201 . ' ij bultyng-clothes, mj d .' are included in the Invent, of W. 
Dutheld, 1452. Test. Ebor. iii. 137. See Babees Book, p. 12. 


47. a Burde dermande. In an Invent, printed in Test. Ebor. iv. 291 is an item 'de 
xviij a . pro iij dormondes hordes cum tripote.' In the Invent, of Thomas Morton, 1448, is 
an item ' de ij mensis vocatis dormoundes, cum ij longis formulis pro eisdem v s .' Test. Ebor. 
iii. 108. 

48. a Burdecloth. ' De x d . de ij burdclothis. De iiij d . de j burdcloth et j sanappe.' 
Invent, of H. Grantham, 1410. Test. Ebor. iii. 48. See English Gilds, p. 233, Babees Book, 
pp. 120, 146, &c. ' Hec mappa, A e - borde-clathe.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 198. 

49. a Bur tre. Turner, in his Herbal, pt. ii, If. 59 says: 'The wod [of Tamarisk] is 

very holow lyke vnto cloder or bourtre ;' and again, If. 124, ' Sambucus is called 

in English Elder or Bourtree.' ' Hec sambucus, a bur-tree.' Wright's Vol. of 

Vocab. p. 228. 

a Buyste. 'Hec pixis, A e - boyst.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 193. In the Ancren 
Riicle the author says of the devil ' he haueft so monie busies (boistes other MSS.) ful of his 
letuaries.' See Chaucer, Parson's Tale (6-Text ed.), p. 671, 1. 947. 

a Butewe. In the Ordinances of the Gild of Cordwainers of Exeter, it is ordered 
that search be made for • all wete lethere and drye botez, botwez, schoez, pynconz, galegez, 
&c.' English Gilds, p. 332. The author of the Fardle of Facions mentions amongst a 
bishop's dress, his boatewes, his Amice, an Albe, &c.' Pt. II. ch. xii. p. 269. 

51. a Cake. In the note, for 'Daupline' read 'DauphineV 

Cale. ' My master suppys no coyle bot cold.' Towneley Myst., p. 18. The author 
of the translation of Palladius On Husbondrie, Bk. ii. 1. 223 has 'cool also, Garlic, ulpike 
eke sowe hem now [January] bothe two.' 'Hoc magudere, A e - calstok.' Wright's Vol. 
of Vocab. p. 190. 

52. to Calkylle. The author of the Complaynt of Scotland says : ' Who can calhil the 
degreis of kyn and blude of the barrons of Scotland, thai vil conferme this samyn,' p. 167. 
Chaucer, Astrolabe, p. 3, speaks of 'subtil tables calhuled for a kawse.' 

a Calle trappe. Turner, in his Herbal, pt. ii, If. 157, speaks of * an yron wyth four 
pykes called .... a calltrop, that is also named tribulus, of the lykenes that it hath wyth 
the fruyt of tribulus.^ Neckam, in his Treatise De Utensilibus (Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 
111) mentions amongst the articles necessary to a farmer — 
calketrap idem pedica 

' pedicam sive descipulam, qua lupi capiantur.' 
Dugdale, in his MS. Glossary, Harl. MS. n 29, If. 15, has the following entry : 'Edwardus 
willoughby tenet manerium de wollaton de Rege, et de honore Peverell per duas partes, 
i feodum militare, et j messuagium, et vj bovatas, tres in Carleton vt de manerio de 
Shelford, per servicium vnius Catopulte per annum pro omni servicio. Liber Schedul. de 
term . Michael. 14 Henry IV, Nott. fol. 210/ 

a Canibake. 'Hoc pedum, a cambok.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 202. 'Hec 
cambruca, a cambok.' ibid, p 232. In this latter instance it probably means a crooked 
beam on which to hang carcasses of animals. Stow mentions a game played with sticks 
with crooked ends called cambok: probably the same as our hockey. 'The juys of the 
Cambruok helpith ayenst blerydnesse of the eyen, and heelyth whelkes and pymples of 
the lyppes, and sleeth the chypperynges of the tonge.' Glanvil, De Propr. Rerum, Bk. 
xvii. ch. exxxiii. p. 695. 

Candyl schers. • Emunctoria, candeltwist.' Gloss. MS. Harl. 3376. 

54. a Caralle. 'Oure blisse is ywent into wop, oure Itaroles into zorje.' Ayenbite, p. 
71. 'A caril, canticum^ Manip. Vocab. 

'Knyf pleying and ek syngyng, Carolyng and turneieyng.' 

Robert of Gloucester, p. 53. 
See also Romaunt of the Rose, 753* 759, Gower, ii. 232, &c. 

a Cardiakylle. In the Digby Mysteries, p. 106, 1. 1363, the Virgin is spoken of 
as ' J?e mvske a-3ens J>e hertes of vyolens, 

pe Ientyll Ielopher a 5ens J>e cardyakylles wrech.' 
' Cardiacus dicitur qui patitur laborem cordis, uel morbus cordis, heort-coba, uel ece, 
modseocnes, uel unmiht.' Gloss. MS. Harl. 3376. 

Carsay. See the Invent, of Richard Gurnell, in 1 555, in which we find mentioned : 
'x yards of white carsey, x s . Item, xiiij yards of carsey, xvi s . iiij d . Item, iiij" 1 '. yards of 
white carsey, v s . &c.' Richmond. Wills, ike. p. 86. 


55. a Carte sadille. See the burlesque poem of the 15th cent, in Reliq. A ntiq, i. Si : 
'Ther wer wesels and waspes offeryng cartesaduls ;' see also p. 85. In 1403 vre Hud in 
the Invent, of John de Scarle, ' ij cartsadles, viij d .' Test. Ebor. iii. 24. 'Hoc dorsilollum, 
A e ' cart-saddylle.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 202. 

56. a Cawdille. ' ^eff sche not jow cowdel to potage, 

Whan 3e had don, to comforte 30W brayn.' Coventry Myst. p. 139. 
See the Liber Cure Coco rum, p. 23, where are directions for the preparation of 'Chekyns 
in Cawdel? and again ' For a cawdel? p. 51. In the Forme o/Cury, pp. 24 and 60 are also 
receipts for ' Chykens in Cawdel? and ' Cawdel of Muskels.' 

57. a Chafte. See Douglas, uEneados, Bk. iii. p. 76 : ' with your chaftis to gnaw 3e 
sal be fane.' 

Chaftmonde. In the Sege off Melayne, 1. 1307, a Saracen cut Turpin with his 
sword and 'A schaftcmonde of his flesche he schare.' In Copeland's ed. of Kynge Arthur, 
1557, Bk. vii. ch. 22, we have: 'He smote hym with a foyne through the thycke of y° 
thygh, that the same wounde was a shaftmonbrode, & had cutte atwo many vaynes and 
senewes.' Cotgrave gives 'Palme. A hand-breadth, foure fingers, or three inches in 
measure ; also a shaftment.' 

58. a Chape of a knyfe. See Songs and Poems on Costumes (Percy Soc), p. 50 : 
* My baselard hath a sylver schape? where the meaning is said to be the guard by which 
the baselard was suspended to the girdle. So also in Morte Arthure, 2522 : 

' He bare sessenande in golde thre grayhondes of sable, 

With chapes a cheynes of chalke whytte sylver,' 

'Paid to Herry Cattey for makyng clene of a knyff of my Lordes, and for a chape, vjV 

Howard Household Boohs, p. 220. Here the meaning is probably a sheath. Compare Shak- 

spere, A Ws Well, IV. iii. 163. ' Bouterolle. The chape of a sheath or scabbard.' Cotgrave. 

to Chalange. Wyntoun in his Chronicle IX, xx. 101 gives Henry IVth's words 
as follows : ' I Hendry of Langcastell chalangis Jns Realm, 

And j)e croun, wyth all ]>e membris and apportenans.' 
Compare the Digby Mysteries, p. 105, 1. 1318 : 'He chalyngyd to be Kyng of Jewys.' 

59. Charlewayn. 'Starre called charles wayne. Loke in seuen starres. Seuen 
starres, a signe celestiall, in Englyshe called charles wayne, Hiachs, &c.' Huloet. 

a Chare. This is probably the same word as in Morte Arthure, 1886 : 
' Sir Cad or garte chare theym, and couere theme faire ;' 
and in Sir Gawayne, 850 : ' pe lorde hym charred to a chambre ;' and again, 1. 1143 : 
' Braches bayed J)erfore, & breme noyse maked, 
& Jjay chastysed, & charred, on chasyng J>at went. 
In the note, for ' E. Eng. Homilies ' read ' 0. Eng. Homilies.' 

60. a Chawylle. ' His chaule aforne that shal ete up the whete.' Palladius On 
Husbondrie, p. 159, 1. 34. 

to Chatir. Fisher in his Works, p. 424 used the word of the teeth : 'the coldnesse 
of the snow shal make their teeth for to gnashe, and chytter in theyr heades.' 

62. to Chepe. Caxton, in his Chronicle of England, pt. vii. p. 135 (ed. 1520), says : 
' So we had grete chepe of wyne in Englande that tyme, thanked be God almyghty.' 

Chesse bolle. In Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 184, 1. 134, under September, we 
are told ; ' Chesbolle* nowe beth sowe in hoote and drie Allone or other seede with.' The 
word was evidently used also for an onion: thus in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 191 we 
have ' Hec sepula, A e - chesbolle.' 

a Chesfatt. In the Invent, of Gerrerd Salveyn, taken in 1570, are included 'xxiij 
chesefats iiij s .' Wills & Invents, i. 349. ' Hoc multrum, A e ' chesfat.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. 
p. 202. * Fiscella, a little basket of twigges ; a frayle ; a cheesefate.' Cooper. 'Fiscella, 
a pyesh [?pylsh], basket, or a cheesefat: et est dimin. de fiscina {quce — a. cheesefat or a 
fysshe lepe).' Ortus. 

a Cheslep. 'Hec lactis, -cis, A e - cheslyppe.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 202. In 
the quotation from Wright given in the note for 'Cheslepe, cheese lip' read 'Hec lactis, a 


a Chestan. In Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 216, 1. 253, we have the word used 
for the tree : 'Chasten wol uppe of plauntes that alone upgrowe;' and at 1. 283 are direc- 
tions for sowing the seeds : 

' Pastyne it [the ground] deep a foote and half, or plowe 

It by and By, and wel with dounge it fede, 

And therin do thi chastens forto growe." 
See also 1. 300, where occurs the form chastcynes. In Glanvil, De Propr. Rerum, Bk. xv. 
ch. xx. p. 496. we are told that ' in Asturia in Spayne is scarce of wyne, of whete, and of 
oyle : for the londe is colde : but there is passyng plente of myle and chestens.' ' Hec 
castania, A e - chestan-tre.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 192. Maundevile tells us, p. 307, 
that in the land of Prester John ' ben grete Forestes of Chesteynes.' 

63. to Childe. ' Alsuo ine time b^t ]>e wyfman \y]> a childbedde ober nye uor to childi.' 
Ayenbite, p. 224. Maundevile tells us that when Mary 'had child ed undre a Palme Tree, 
sche had gret schame, that sche hackle a childe ; and sche grette, and seyde, that sche 
wolde that sche hadde ben ded.' p. 133. See also K. Alisaunder, 11. 604,610. 

a Chymney . A very good instance of this word, showing its original meaning, is 
in the Anturs of Arthur, xxxv. 4, where we are told that in the tent was 

'A shimnay of charcole to chaufen be knyjte.' 
George Selbye, in 1568, in his Will bequeathed to his wife, ' Elizabethe Selbe, my two yron 
chimlies, and my best almerye in my hall.' Wills & Invents, i. 292 ; and in 156/ we find in 
the Invent, of Edward Parkinson, ' one chist, one yron chimney, a litle presser with a 

chare, x s ij flanders chists, an yron chymney, a chare & a litle boord, xx s .' ibid. pp. 

271-2. In the 'Kalendar of the Ordinances of Worcester,' 1467, rule 26 is, 'that no 
chimneys of tre, ner thached houses, be suffred w*yn the cyte, but that the owners make 
them of bryke or stone.' English Gilds, p. 372. 

' His fete er like latoun bright Als in a chymne brynnand light.' 

Hampole, Pricke of Cons. 4368. 
The earliest instance of the modern use of the word is in the Sowdone of Babylone, 1. 2351, 
where Mapyne the thief is represented as gaining access to Floripas' chamber ' by a 
chemney.' See note to Sir Ferumbras, 1. 2232. 

64. a Chire. ' The floure of lely hath wythin as it were smalle threde that conteynyth 
the sede, in the mydyll stondyth chyres of saffron.' Glanvil, De Propr. Rerum, Bk. xvii. 
ch. xci. p. 659. 

a Chiterlynge. ' A chyttering, omasum. A chitterling, idem.' Manip. Vocab. 

Choller. Cf. Cleveland Gloss., Atkinson. 'Coul, to scrape or rake together; to 
pull towards one by the aid of a rake (coul-rake), curved stick, or other like instrument.' 

65. Clappe of a mylne. In note, for ' Persones Tale, p. 406 ' read ' 1. 406.' 

pe Cley of a beste. 'Ungula, hof, vel clau.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 87. 
'The faucon hurtyth more his pray wyth reesyng thereon with his breste than wyth his 
bylle other wyth his dees.' Glanvil, De Propr. Rerum, Bk. xii. c. xxi. p. 427. 

QQ. a Clennes. ' For a speciall prerogatife, Because of your virginite & clennesse.' 
Digby Mysteries, p. 191, 1. 589. See also Wyclif, Works, ed. Matthew, p. 276. 

67. a Clewe. ' Glomer, globellum, cleowen.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 59. 

pe Clippys of y° son and moyn. Glanvil, De Propr. Rerum, Bk. xvi. ch. xl. 
p. 566, speaks of a stone 'callyd Eliotropia, that is tornynge awaye of the sonne. for by 
the htone sette bytwene vs and the sonne, this is derked as though he were in clypse and 
derked.' 'Ye wote the clerkes the clyppes it calle.' Towneley Mysteries, p. 256. 

68. a Cloke. ' Armilausa, genus collobii, an ce - a sclauayn.' MS. 0. 5. 4 Trinity Coll. 

to Cloyke. 'Sely Capyll, oure hen, both to and fro, she kakyls, 
Bot begyn she to crok, To groyne or to cloh, 

Wo is hym is of oure cok.' Towneley Myst. p. 99. 
' She nowe beliinde, and nowe she goth before, 
And clocketh hem, but when she fynt a come 
She chicheth hum and leith it hem before.' 

Palladius On J/usbondric, p. 25, 1. 660. 

C 2, 


'The capon fedyth clieken.s that ben not his owne, and ledytli tlieym abowte, and clockyth 
as an henne, and calleth chekens togyder, clock y age wyth an hoars voyce.' Glanvil, De 
Propr. Rerum, Bk. xii. ch. xviii. p. 426. 

to Clotte. See quotations under Melle, p. 233. Best, in his Farming, &c. Booh, p. 
107, says, ' When a floore is decayed, that there are holes worne, they usually leade as 
many coupe loades of redde clay, or else of clottes from the faugh field, as will serve, but 
they must leade their clottes from such places where the chiy is not mixed with sande ;' 
see also ibid. p. 138. Glanvil tells us that 'a clotte ordeyned of gadrynge of powder is a 
clustre. for erthe bounde and clongyd togiders is a clotte, and yf it is broken and departed 
it is powdre.' De Propr. Rerum, Bk. xvi. ch. xlvi. p. 568. Tusser in his 'Januaries 
abstract ' bids the farmer ' in stubbed plot fill hole with clot.' ch. xxxiii. st. 24. 

1 Of spotte3 perle3 ]>ay beren \>e creste, Al-J>a3 oure corses in clotte! clynge.' 

Allit. Poems, A. 857. 
'Ofclai Jjai kest at him pe dote. y Cursor Mundi, 24026. 'Ha! a! a! cleve asundyr je 
cloivdys of clay.' Coventry My st. p. 402. 'Eke diligently clodde it, pyke oute stones.' 
Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 62, 1. 28. 

69. a Clowte of yrne. In the Invent, of the Priory of Durham, in 1446, is included 
' j careeta cum rotis, iiij hopis et viij cnrtecloulez, pret. viiij 8 .' Wills & Invent, i. 95. ' Hoc 
epuscium, An ce - a cart-clowte.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 278. 

Clums3 r d. 'He es outher clomsed, or wode.' Pricke of Cons. 1651. Dr. Morris 
in his Glossary quotes from the Gospel of Nichodemus, in MS. Harl 4196, 'we er clomsed 
gret and smalle.' In the Early Eng. Poems, p. 123, we have 'to kepe hire from clomesyng,' 
and in the Digby Mysteries, p. 157, 1. 522, 'than farewele, consciens, he were clumme? 

70. a Cod. Best, in his Farming, &c. Boole, p. 115, tells us that hired labourers were 
provided with ' a longe codd putte in a longe harden bagge, and a shorter codde done after 
the same manner in stead of a pillowe.' ' One bolster and iij codds, iiij freschine codds ' are 
mentioned in the Inventory of John Wykeclyf, in 1562. Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 161. 
Simon Merflet in his Will, in 1462, bequeaths to his sister 'xl yerds of herden cloth, vj. 
codds, iij par shetes, j bolster, &c.' Test. Ebor. ii. 261. 

a Cogge. 'Hoc striaballum, a cog of a welle.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 233. 
Fitzherbert in his BoJce of Husbandry, fo. xliii b . recommends farmers when thinning their 
plantations to sell 'the small asshes to cowpers for garches [?garthes], and the greate 
asshes to whele wryghtes, and the meane asshes to plough wryghtes, and the crabbe trees 
to my Hers to make cogges and tonges.' ' Scariaballum, Kog.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 1 80. 

71. a Colke. ' Y e coulc of an apple, cor.'' Manip. Vocab. 

72. to Colke. Cf. O. Swed. hylla = to clip hair. Prov. Swedish, kuul = to clip hair or 
wool. In the Cleveland Glossary we have ' Cowl, to clip or cut close.' I think that for 
Colke we should read Colle, 11 and Ik in MSS. are not easily distinguished. Compare 
the Cursor Mundi, 13,1 74 : 

'A sargant sent he to Jaiole, And iohan hefd cornanded to cole.' 

a Collemase. The reference to Lydgate should have been given, Minor Poems, 
202. In the A.S. vocabulary, in MS. Cott. Cleopatra, A. iii. If. 7o b . (printed in Wright's 
Vol. of Vocab. p. 281), we have ' Parra, cum-mase. Parula, col-mase.' Boorde, in his 
Dyetary, ch. xv. p. 270, says that 'All maner of smale Byrdes be good and lyght of 
dygestyon, excepte sparowes, whiche be harde of dygestyon. Tytmoses, colmoses, and 
wrens, the whiche doth eate spyders and poyson, be not commendable.' ' Bardioriolus, 
colmase.' Aelfric's Gloss, in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 30. 

a Collokis. ' A carr, collecke, and two pare of trusse wips ' are mentioned in the 
Invent, of John Rouson in 1568. Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 226. 'j bassyn, a kneadinge 
tube, iij collect, a wynnocke, ij stands, a churne, a flesche collecke, &c.' Invent, of M. 
Dixon, 1563, ibid. p. 169. In 1437 Thomas Dautree bequeathed 'unam peciam coopertam 
vocatam le collok ecclesise mese parochiali, ad inde faciendam unam coupam sive pixidem 
pro corpore Christi,' i. e. a corporas case. Test. Ebor. ii. 61 ; see also ibid. p. 101, where 
John Brompton by his Will, dated 1444, bequeathed * j collok argenteum pond, viij unc. 
ix d .' Test. Ebor. ii. 101. 


a Colrake. 'Hoc jocabulum, An ce - a colrake.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 276. 
1 Hec vertybra, a col-rak.' ibid. p. 233. In the Invent, of Hugh Grantham, in 1410, is an 
item ' de j d . de j colrake de ferro.' Test. Ebor. iii. 49. ' Colrakus and copstolus, one gret 
whyle-barrous.' Reliq. Antiq. i. 86. ' In the hitching one Raking croke, one Iron pot, 
one pele, one iron coulrake, ij 3 . viij'V Invent, of G. Salveyn, 1572, Wills & Invents, i. 349. 

73. Come. ' Offendix, nodus quo liber ligatur, Angl. a knotte or clospe of a boke.' 

74. a Conynge. In note, in the quotation from Sir Degrevant, for ' conyng?is ' read 
1 conyngus.' 

75. a Copbande. Best in his Farming, &c. Book, p. 59 uses this word in a very 
different sense. He says : ' If wee chance to take over much compass for a stacke soe 
that wee finde that wee are like to wante pease wherewith to rigge it up, then are we 
glad sometimes to cutte of one of the endes of the stacke with an hey spade, takeinge 
of as much as wee thinke will serve our turne for toppinge up or rigginge of the same. 
That which is layd in the fillinge overnight to save the stacke from wettinge is called 
boll-roakinge of a stacke, and that which is cutte of the stacke ende is called (for the 
most parte) a coupe-band.' 

76. a Corparax. In the Invent, of Thomas Morton, Canon of York, taken in 1448, 
is the following : * De j corporali lineo, et j corporall cace de panno auii, cum imaginibus 
intextis, iij s . iiij d .' Test. Ebor. iii. 110 ; and in 1506 Dame Catherine Hastings bequeathed 
' to Askton church a corprax case and a kerchow for y e sacrament. To Norton church a 
corprax case, a kerchowe to be halowed for y e corprax, and a kerchowe for y* sacrament.' 
ibid. iv. 257. Trevisa in his Higden, v. II, says that Pope 'Sixtus ordeyned J>at J>e 
corporas schulde noujt be of silk noJ»e sendel.' See additional note to Ccllokis, above. 
In 1522 Agas Herte of Bury bequeathed 'iij fyne elle kerchers to be vsyd for corporas 
clothes in the chyrche of Sevnt James.' Bury Wills, &c. p. 117. 

77. a Coyseyr of hors. ' Foles with hande to touche a corser weyveth.' Palladius 
On Husbondrie, p. 135, 1. 846. 'Courser of horses, courtier de clievaulx? Palsgrave. 

a Coste. Maundevile tells us that ' the Superficialtee of the Erthe is departed in 
7 parties, for the 7 Planetes ; and tho parties ben clept clymates.' p. 1 86. See also 
Chaucer's Astrolabe, p. 59 : ' Sett the point therof in ]>at same cost that the mone maki]> 
flode ;' and p. 48 : ' the longitude of a clymat ys a lyne ymagined fro est to west illike 
distant by-twene them alle.' See also Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 12, 1. 295. 

a Costrelle. In 1454 William Halifax of Nottingham bequeathed in his Will to 
Elizabeth Neteham 'a crosse trestell, a matras, a costerell for ale, a bordeclothe, &c.' Test. 
Ebor. ii. 173. 

78. to Cowche. Chaucer in his Astrolabe, p. 40 has the noun, cowching, and Eisher 
comparing the crucifix to a book says, ' when the booke is opened & spread, the leaues be 
cowched vpon the boardes.' Works, p. 394. Maundevile tells us of the Bedouin Arabs that 
' thei have none Houses, but Tentes, that thei maken of Skynnes of Bestes, as of Camaylles 
and of othere Bestes .... and there benethe thei couchen hem and dwellen.' p. 63. 

79. a Cowschote. 'Hie palumbus, a cowscott.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 221. 
' Palumbus, cuscote, wudu-culfre.' ibid. p. 62. 'So hoot is noo dounge of foule as of the 
douve, a quysht outake.' Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 28, 1. 758. 

80. a Crakan. See quotation from the E. E. Psalter, under Reke, p. 302. 

Crappes. ' lite curalis, A e - crappys.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 201. l Hec 
cruralis, craps.' ibid. 233. L. Lat. crappa. 

a Credilbande. l Hec fascia, A e - credyl-bande.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 203. 
Glanvil, Be Propr. Rerum, Bk. vi. ch. ix. p. 195, says: 'the nouryce bindeth the chylde 
togyders with cradylbondes to kepe and saue the chylde that he be not wyth myscrokyd 

a Credille sange. ' Nouryces vse lullynges and other cradyl songes to pleyse the 
wyttes of the chylde.' Glanvil, De Propr. Rerum, Bk. vi. ch. iv. p. 191. 

81. a Cressett. ' Ordeyn eche man on his party, 

Cressetys, lanternys, and torchys lyth.' Cov. Myst. p. 270. 
See also p. 283. ' One fryin panne, a cresset, one flesh axe, a brandreth, &c.' are mentioned 
in the Invent, of Francis Wandysforde in 1559. Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 134. 


82. a Crysmatory. Glanvil says : ' with Crysma ehyldcrn ben cremyd and enoynted 
of a symple preeste on the molde.' De Propr. Rerum, Bk. ix. ch. xxxi. p. 367. ■ J fee crisma, 
A e - oreme. Hoc crismatorium, A f - crisrnator.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 193. ' Vr crisum 
clath ful son we fille.' Cursor Mundi, 25725. 

83. a Crofte. Sir R. Barton in his Will, dated 1455, bequeathed to ' Jonett Richard- 
son .... terme of hire lyfe, tenement in Whenby w* a garth and a croft next vicarage.' 
Test. Ebor. ii. 216. See also Bury Wills, &c. pp. 47, 48, 49. 

a Croppe. 'This warre beganne noo creature but she, 

ffor she is croppe and rote and euery dele.' Generydes, 1. 4941. 
'Croppe and tail To save in setting hem is thyne ad vail.' 

Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 78, 1. 496. 

84. a Crowde. Lydgate in his Pylgremage of the Soiole, Bk. v. ch. viii. fol. 99 (ed. 
1483) tells us that ' Dauyd ordeyned plente of lusty instrumentes, bothe organs and harpes, 
Symbals and sawtryes, kroudes and tympans, trompettes and tabours and many other.' 

a Crudde. ' Quycke syluer cruddeth not by itself kyndly wy thout brymstone : but 
wyth brymstone, as wyth substance of lead, it is congelyd and fastnyd togyders.' Glanvil, 
De Propr. Rerum, Bk. xvi. ch. vii. p. 555. 

' Alle fresshe the mylk is crodded now to chese 
With crudde of kidde, or lambe, other of calf 
Or fioure of tasil wilde.' Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 154, 1. 141-2. 

87. a Currour. 'Get the a currour whare thou may.' Sege off Melayne, 1378. 

89. Daysardawe. Best, in his Farming, &c. Book, p. 132, says: 'him allsoe wee 
imploy as a seedesman in hauer seede time, when wee come to sowe olde ardure,' where 
the meaning is fallow. Compare Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 106, 1. 68 : 

'Nowecicera the blake is sowe in season, On erthes tweyne or oon sowe hem as peson.' 

90. to Dayse. The verb occurs with an active meaning in the Allit. Poems, B. 1538 : 

' Such a dasande drede dusched to his hert.' 

a Daysyberd. See Chester Plays, ii. 34. 

to Dawe. See the Song of Roland, 1. 389 : 'or it daiven the day ;' and A Hit. 
Poems, B. 1755 : ' da^ed neuer an-o])er day ]>at ilk derk after. 

91. Dawnger. See P. Plowman, B. xvi. 263. 

92. Dede. The quotation should read as follows : 

' To dede I drawe als ye mai se.' Metrical Homilies, p. 30. 

93. to Desden. In the Digby Mysteries, p. 216, 1. 1352 we have the adverb: 'to be 
scornyd most dedenynglye.' 

to Defye. See the Digby Mysteries, p. 1 56, 1. 5 1 1 : ' I it defye ;' and R. de Brunne's 
Meditations, 1. 743 : ' Y haue be skurged, scorned, dyffyed, 

Wounded, angred, and crucyfyed.' 
' slepy night, I the defied Gower, ii. 97. 

94. to Defy. Gower, iii. 25 has: 

' That is of him self so tough My stomack may it nought defied 
* Moche mete and vndefyed febly th the pulse.' Glanvil, De Propr. Rerum, Bk. iii. ch. xxiv. 
p. 74. See also Lydgate, Minor Poems, p. 131. 

a Deye. l Androgia, an ce - a deye. Androchia, an ce - a deye. Androchia qui curam 
gerit de lacticiniis.' MS. O. 5. 4 Trin. Coll. Camb. Glanvil, De Propr. Rerum, Bk. xx. ch. 
lxxiv. p. 904, tells us that ' chese hyghte caseus cadendo. fallynge. for it fallyth and 
passyth away soone, and slydeth oute betwene the fyngres of the Deye wyfe.' 

99. to Dike. Amongst the debts of Francis Wandysforde, at his death in 1559, is an 
item ' to Robert Walker for xij rude of dyke dyked, xviij d .' Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 138. 

100. a Dirsynge knyfe. In the Invent, of W. Coltman, of York, 1481, we find ' j 
stule, j trow et j drissyng -knyfe, ij d .' Test. Ebor. iii. 261. 

a Dische berer. ' Discifer, disc-J>ein.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 93. 

a Dische benke. In the Invent, of R. Bishop, taken about 1500, is an item, ' j 
dyschbenke xij d .' Test. Ebor. iv. 193. 


101. to Desseise. See the Lay-Foils Mass-hook, p. 35, I. 376 : ' Pore, exylde, dysesud 
if J>ai be,' where the word is wrongly explained in the glossary as disquieted, vexed. 

104. a Dorsur. Wyclif, Works, ed. Matthew, p. 424, complains of the 'curiouste' of 
the clergy in ' hallis, holpe in making of J>e housis, in doseris, bancurs, & cu;jshens.' 
' Dorsorium, an ce - a dorsere.' MS. 0. 5. 4 Trin. Coll. Camb. 

105. to Dowe. In the second quotation from Wyclif, p. 1 24, for ' J>as ' read ' J>us.' 

106. Draf. The Invent, of Katherine, Lady Hedworth, taken in 1568, includes ' one 
draffe tub iiij d .' Wills &■ Invents, i. 282, In Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 67, 1. 162, we 
are told that as a compost for vines ' wyndraf is goode comixt with dounge ;' and again, 
p. 22, 1. 580 : 'yf thaire appetite 

with draff of wyne be fedde, anoon bareyne thei beth.' 
' By hote water the fatnesse of oliues is departed the beter fro the drastes : hulles and 
draffe flete aboue the water and ben craftly departed at laste.' Glanvil, JDe Propr. Rcrum, 
Bk. xvii. ch. cxii. p. 675. 

108. Dreggis. ' Amurea .i.fex olci, dersten.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 94. 

Dressoure. In the Invent, of W. Dufneld in 1452 are included 'cultelli pro le 
dressour iiij d .' Test. Ebor. iii. 136. 

110. Drovy. See the Bestiary hxAn Old Eng. Miscell. 1. 523 : 

' Ne mai it wunen fter-inne, So droui is te sees grund ;' 

and Early Eng. Psalter, Ps. ix. 22. The translator of Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 201, 1. 
400, tells how 'A trouble wyne anoon a man may pure ;' and Wyclif has trubli in Joshua 
xiii. 3. In the Cursor Mundi, 24418, we are told that at the crucifixion 

' Ouer al \>e world ne was bot night, Al droned and wex dime.' 
In the quotation from the Allit. Poems for 'i. 1016' read ' B. 1016.' 

a Dublar. 'Item, ij. pudder dublers, x dysches, ij. sausers.' Invent, of John 
Baron De Mappleton in 1435, Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 12. Mathew Witham in 1545 be- 
queathed ' A calderon, a pan, vj. pewder dublers? ibid. p. 57. 

113. Eldfader. John Heworth in 1571 bequeathed 'vnto Edward Stevenson my 
father in lawe my best horse, A whyte russett cott & a read russet cloke, & a wilde lether 
dublett and my best shert. Item I gyve vnto my eldmother his wyffe my wyffes froke, 
and a read petticote and a smoke.' Wills & Invents, i. 352. See the 13th cent, sermon in 
Reliq. Antiq. i. 130: 'nis nower non trewfte, for nis the gist siker of ]>e husebonde, ne 
noSer of nofter; non socer a nuro, ne J>e aldefader of hi oSem.' MS. B. 14. 52, Trin. Coll. 
Camb. See also Cursor Mundi, 5730. In the quotation from Lajamon the important 
word has most unaccountedly been omitted ; read : ' He wes Maerwale's fader, Mildburje 
aldeuader.'' ' Auus, ealde-fasder. A via, ealde-moder.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 51. 

an Ellyrtre. The Invent, of E. Doddinge, in 1562, contains 'In ryvyn bords 
and ellerbarlcs, vj s .' Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 106. 'The Ellern is a tree wyth longe bowes : 
ful sounde and sad wythout : and ful holowe wythin and full of certayn nesshe pyth .... 
and the Ellern tree hath vertue Duretica : to tempre and to nesshe : to dystrybute and to 
drawe and to pourge fiewme.' Glanvil, De Propr. Rerum, Bk. xvii. ch. cxliv. p. 700. 

114. an Elsyn. 'Item j dussan and a halfe helsyn hostes ij d .' Invent, of Pv. Bisshop, 
1500, Test. Ebor. iv. 193. In the curious burlesque poem in Reliq. Antiq. i. 86, we read : 
' Ther com trynkettus and tournyng-stonys, and elson bladys.' The word occurs in Scott's 
Heart of Mid-Lothian, ch. v : ' D'ye think I was born to sit here brogging an elshin 
through bend leather?' 

pe Emygrane. ' Who that hath the heed ache callyd Emigrama felyth in his 
heed as it were betynge of hamers, and may not suffre noyse, nother woys, nother lyghte, 
nother shynynge.' Glanvil, De Propr. Rerum, Bk. vii. ch. iii. p. 223. 

115. Enge. In the Invent, of Dr. G. Nevill, taken in 1567, in included 'in the ynge 
one stacke of hay, xx s .' Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 211. 

Entyrly. ' That his graciose visage I may ons behold, 

I pray yow interlye.' Digby Myst. p. 198, 1. 818. 

116. an Erane. Wyclif, in his version of Psalm xxxviii. 12, has: 'Thou madest to 
flowen awei as an ireyne [yrcyne P.] his soule ;' and again, Isaiah lix. s, : ' The eiren of 
edderes thei to-breeken, and the webbis of an attercop [yrcyn P.] thei wouen.' ' He saide 



that suohe array was like the attercoppe that makithe his nettes to take the flyes or thei 
be ware.' Knight of La Tour Landry, p. 63. ' llec irania, A 6 - erane.' Wright's Vol. of 
Vocab. p. 190. ' Aranea, addurcop.' ibid. p. 177. ' llec arena, a nerane.' ibid. p. 223. 
In the Saxon Leechdoms. i. 92 is a remedy ' wip attorcoppan bite,' accompanied by drawings 
of two attorcops, like two horned locusts. 

117. an Erthe dyn. In the Cursor Mundi, 20985, we are told how St. Paul escaped 
from prison ' thoru a nerth-din J>at J)er was;' see also 1. 20429. 

118. an Essoyn. In Sir Ferumbras, 2827, Guy when brought before the Sowdan 
instead of being terrified by his threats and questions 'answerede wiJ>-oute ensoyngne. 1 

Eve. Compare Wyclif, Genesis ii. 33 (Purvey) : ' And Adam seide, This is now 
a boon of my boonys, and fleisch of my fleisch : this schal be clepid virago, for she is taken 
of man.' 

120. Fasyngis of lokis. In the Cursor Mundi, 3569, amongst the signs of the ap- 
proach of old age to a man we are told that 

'J)e freli fax to fal of him And J)e sight to wax well dim ; 
and again, 1. 7244, when Delilah had cut off Samson's hair he was easily bound 
' for thoru his fax his force was tint.' 

121. a Faldynge. Compare P. Rowclothe, p. 437. ' Amphibulus, vestis equi villosa, 
an ce - a sclauayn or faldyng.' MS. 0. 5. 4, Trin. Coll. Camb. In the Invent, of Henry 
Bowet, Archbishop of York, 1423, we find an item, ' de xij s . receptis pro xij virgis de panno 
vocato whyte falldyng.' Test Ebor. iii. 71. In a Will, dated 1526, pr. in Lancashire Wills 
(Chetham Soc), vol. i. p. 13, the testator bequeaths ' my best typett, my faldyng and my 
bok in the church.' 

122. a Pan. Compare Weddyr coke, below. 

a Fayne of a schipe. ■ Cheruchus, an ce - a fane.' MS. 0. 5. 4, Trin. Coll. Camb. 
Compare a Stremour, below. 

A Funtum. Read A Pantom. 
' This is no fantum, ne no fabulle 3 e wote wele of the Rowun tabulle.' 

Avoivinge of K. Arther, ii. 
'For-J)i for fantoum & fayryse pe folk J>ere hit demed.' Sir Gawayne, 240. 

123. a Famtikylle. ' Cesia, an ce - a pokke or frakene.' MS. 0. 5, 4, Trin. Coll. Camb. 

Fastyngange. Huloet has a rather strange entry: 'Shraftyde or feastyng 
dayes, called also fastegong. Bacchanalia festa, camispriuium.' 

126. a Felisehippe. In the Digby Mysteries, p. 202, 1. 924, Mary Magdalene exclaims : 
'Alese ! felishipe her is noon!' where the meaning is company. In the Song of Roland, 
601, we are told that Poland 

' not for his own sak he soghed often, but for his fellichip J)at he most louyden.' 

a Felle. Amongst other articles in the Invent, of John Casse, in 1576, are 
enumerated, f ix sychells, a pare of woll cards, ij barrells, a ratton/eW, ij s . viij d .' Richmond. 
Wills, &c. p. 260 ; and in that of John Colan, goldsmith, of York, in 1490, occurs : ' j raton 
discipula, Anglice a fell.' Test. Ebor. iv. 59. 

129. a Fettyr. ' Boias, catenas, sweorcopsas, uel handcopsas.' MS. Harl. 3376. 
' Compes vel cippus, fot-cops. Bogia, ioc, oSSe swur-cops. Manice, hand-cops.' Wright's 
Vol. of Vocab. p. 86. 

130. pe Figes. Trevisa, in his trans, of Higden, vi. 357, tells us that ' pe evel J>at 
h&tteficus is a schrewed evel, for it seme]) ]>at his bom is oute ]>at ha]) )>at evel.' 

132. a Fiste. See the curious ' Demaundes Joyous' reprinted from the original copy 
by Wynkyn de Worde in Reliq. Antiq. ii. 73. ' Hec lirida, a fyse.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. 
p. 209. ' Fiesten, or let a fiest. Pedo? Huloet. ' To fyest, pedere.' Manip. Vocab. 

133. a Flawe of fyre. See the Cursor Mundi, 17370, where an angel is described 
as having 4 his clething als J>e suan his suire, 

And his cher lik was flaght [misprinted slaght] fire.' 


a Flaket. In the Invent, of R. Best, taken in 1581. are mentioned, ' in ye meelke 
house 4 honey potts, 2 kits, 2 flakets, 4 mealke bowles, with other implements, 6 s .' Farming, 
&c. Boolt of H. Best, p. 172. ' Yf the wombes ben smyten they sowne as a flackette, other 
a botell.' Glanvil, DePropr. Rerum, Bk. vii. ch. Hi. p. 266. 

134. Flekked. Compare Varmid, below. In Trevisa's Higden, i. 159, we are told 
that 'Camelion is a flekked best, in colour liche to a lupard ; and so is pardus, and pantera 
also, and som dele of ]>e kynde;' and Lydgate speaks of ' whyght flekkyd with the brown.' 
Minor Poems (Percy Soc), p. 199. Compare the Toivneley Myst. p. 311 : 'his stefe must 
beflekyt.' Best, in his Fanning, &e. Book, p. 50, uses the verb flecken = to change colour : 
' Oates when they once beginne to shoote, they will streightway after beginne to 

flecken, and bee ripe on a suddaine.' Fleck — a, spot on the face, is still in use. 

a Fletcher. Harrison, in his Descript. of Eng. i. 342, mentions amongst the trees 
of England, 'the aspe, whereof our fletchers make their arrowes.' See the Destruction of 
Troy, Introd. p. xlvii, where the following line is quoted from Lydgate : 

' Bowers eke, ande fast by fleggerers? 
In the Chester Plays, i. 6 are mentioned : 'ffletchers, boweyers, cowpers, stringers and 
iremongers.' Turner, in his Herbal, p. 67, says that 'fleckers make prykke shaffces of 
byrche, because it is heavier than espe is.' ' Item the flecker that dwellyd in Thurton 
strete owyth hym ffor tymber, ix s . vj d .' Manners and Household Exps. of Eng. 1465, p. 179. 

a Fleke. See Palladius On Husbondrie, Bk. iii. 1. 881 : 

' Do feire stree uppon thaire fleyke hem under ;' 
and 1. 987 : 'In fleykes faire yf that men list hem sprede.' 

135. a Flesche crake. In the Invent, of Thomas de Dalby, Archdeacon of Richmond, 
dated 1400, we find ' pro j my our, j watercanne, iij laddeles, de auricalco, et j flesshecroke, 
j friyngpan, et iiij trowes, simul vendit. iiij s . x d .' Test. Ebor. iii. 14. 'Pro j flesch crok de 
ferro.' Invent, of Archbishop Bowet 1423, ibid. p. 80. 

a Flyke of bacon. We find this word frequently in the old wills and inventories. 
Thus in the Invent, of W. Clowdeslye, in 1545, are included *ij bus. of rye, iiij baken 
flykes, a payre of new shoes, xv s .' Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 54 ; and in that of John Cadeby, 
in 145 1, we have, ' Item ijflickkis de bacon, iij s . iiij* 1 .'' Test. Ebor. iii. 99. But the term was 
not confined, as with us, to a bacon flitch, for we find in the Invent, of Gerard Salveyn, in 
1570, an item of 'iiij beffe flickes and ij oacken flicks, xvj s .' Wills & Invent, i. 348;. and 
again, amongst the goods of John Casse, in 1576, are mentioned 'iij bacon flicks, vj befe 
flicks, xxiiijV Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 260. 

1 36. a Flude3ate. In note, for ' on ' read ' ou.' 

137- to Fodyr. H. Best, in his Farming, &c. Book, p. 72, gives directions ' forfotheringe 

of sheepe yow are allsoe to have a care that yow beginne not to f other in wette 

weather ; for they [sheep] will not fall freshly to theire f other att the first, but treade it 
under foote and waste it.' See also ibid. p. 30. 

a Foyle. ' Pullus, cicen, oftSe brid, o'Sfte fola.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 77. 

a Forbott. In the Sege off Melayne, 406, Roland exclaims : 
* Goddis forbocle & J) e holy Trynytee And lese oure crysten la we V 

})at euer fraunce hethen were for mee 

138. a Forgetyll. In the Early Eng. Psalter, Ps. ix. 19 is rendered : 

' For for-getelnes in ende noght bes of pouer whare he wende ;' 
the A. S. version reading ' fort>on na les in ende ofer-geotulnis brS ftearfena. See also 
Gower, ii. 19. Robert of Brunne uses forget llsckip in the sense of an oversight : 

'Bot for a forgetilsckip Richard & he bo]?e les.' p. 176; 
and Lydgate, Chronicle of Troy, Bk. iv. ch. 3, has : 

' I were foryetell, reckles, To remember the infinite outrages.' 

139. a Forster. We frequently find the form foster, as in Sir Degrevant, 430 : ' 3iffe 
y dey in the pleyne, That my fosteres hath sleyne,' and in Polit., Rel. and Love Poems, p. 
11, 1. 28, ' Mawgre the wache of fosters and parkerrys.' See also Sir Triamour, 1063. 
1 Hie lucarius, A nce - a foster.' Wrights Vol. of Vocab. p. 278. 

141. a Frale. 'A multitude of reysons puld they take 
And into risshy fray els rare hem gete.' 

Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 204, 1. 494. 


143. a Froske. Dame Juliana Barnes, in her Treatise of Fynshynge with, an Angle, p. 
19, gives as one way of taking the ]>ike : 'Take a froseke & put it on your hoke at the 
neeke bytwene the skynne, & the body on y e backe halfe, and put on a dote a 3erde therfro : 
& caste it where the pyke hauntyth and ye shall haue hym.' See the account of the 
plagues of Egypt in the Cursor Mundi, where we are told, 1. 5928, there ' was /rosse )>at 
na tung moglit tell,' where the other MSS. read jroshes, and frogges. ' Hec rana, a frosche.' 
Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 223. 

144. to Frote. ' Frote it wol with larde fatte and decocte.' Palladius On Husband rie, 
p. 16, 1. 433. See also p. 25, 1. 683. In the first quotation, for 'beest' read ' brest.' 

a Frugon. In the Invent, of John Cadeby, ab. 1450, we find, ' item, j colrake et 
j f argon ferri, iiij d .' Test. Ebor. iii. 100; and again, in that of T. Morton, in 1448, ' ij 
jargons aig. pond, j unc. di. quart. v s . ij d . ob.' ibid. p. 113. 

Fruteurs. See W. de Worde's Poke of Keruing, p. 273. 

145. Full but. ' He smote Darel with so goode will 

In middes of the sheld fid butt, 
That Darel fell doun with that putt.' 

Sir Generydes (Eoxb. Club), 4587. 

a Fulemerd. ' J)e fox and J>e fowmerte in als sail be tane.' Ancient Scot. Prophecy, 
in Bernardus De Cura Rei Famul. p. 19, 1. 33. ' \>e fox and pe foulmert J>ai ar botht fals.' 
ibid. 1. 74. See the burlesque poem in Reliq. Antiq. i. 85 : 'A fox and afolmert had .xv. 
fette.' ' Hie fetrunctus, Hie pecoides, a fulmard ' [misprinted sidmard], Wright's Vol. of 
Vocab. p. 251. 

146. a Furre. H. Best, Farming, &c. Book, p. 44, tells us that 'amongst shearers 
[reapers] the one of the furres is called the fore^fuvre, and the other the hinder-furre ; 
sometimes they make the one the for e-furre, and sometimes the other, but the furre on 
your left hande is the best for the fore-furre .... you should allwayes putte the weaker 
and worst shearers into the fore-furre? 

149. a Galte. In the first quotation, for 'grylyche' read ' gryslyche.' 

150. a Garwyndelle. In the Invent, of R. Bishop, taken about 1500, are included 
' j spynyn-weyll, j roke, and j reyll, j garyn-ioyndyll foytt and the blaytters, viij d .' Test. 
Ebor. iv. 193 ; and in that of Bobert Doddinge, in 1562, ' iij wheills, ij pare of game 
wyndills, xviij d .' Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 156. ' Windles or blades to wind yarn on. Ala- 
brum, rhombus.'' Gouldman. 

to Garse. In Copland's trans, of Guydon's Questyonary of Cyrurgyens, 1541, we 
have : ' yf it blede nat wel rub the place with the mouth of the ventose, or gyue it small 
fyllyps with your nayle, and garse it a-newe, that it may blede well.' 'It is good to garse 
the legges byneth that the humours, fumosyte and spyrytes that ben cause of the heed 
ache, may be drawe from the heed dounwarde to the nether partyes.' Glanvil, He Propr. 
Rerum, Bk. vii. ch. iii. p. 224. 

151. to Garsumme. In the Will of 'John Bancks, Laboringe Man,' in 1542, the 
following occurs : ' my lanndes lord Bichard Hodgeson and I is at a co'dic'on for the close 
called ov'kaimer dikes, yt is to say that I or my assigne to haue the sayd close from saynt 
cuthb'te day in lent next after the makynge herof vnto the end and terme of xv th yers next 
ensewinge the wrytinge herof and I or myne executor to paye eu'y yere duringe the said 
terme yerly xx s . sterlinge to ferme and to paye at the entrie herof for a gryssom xiij s . iiij d . 
and he to cause the Indentures therof to be maid, of the whiche gressom I haue paid vnto 
the said Bichard handes vj s . viijd. and the residue to be paid at the making of the said 
Indentures.' Wills & Invents, i. 119. 'The said Prince should haue the Isle of Anglesey 
in Fee-farme of the King, to him, and to the lawfull issue of his body in general taile, for 
fiue thousand Markes ready money, for gressom, or a fine in hand payd, & the yearely rent 
of a thousand Markes.' Speed, Hist. Great Britain, Bk. ix. ch. x. 

a Garthe. See the quotation from the Testamenta Ebor. ii. 216, in the additional 
note to Crofte, above, p. xxiv. 

' Thi garth, in springing tyme to be sowe, The footes depe may nowe pastyned be.' 

Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 184, 1. 141. 
See also p. 29, 11. 783, 791. 


to Garthe wesselle. See quotation from Fitzherbert, in the additional note to 
Cogge, above, p. xxii. 

152. a Gavelle. Compare P. Cornel, and Bury Wills, Sec, p. 22, where, in the "Will 
of J. Baret, 1463, we find a direction, ' the owener of my place to haue my Cornell ho us in 
the Cookrowe. 

a Gaveloke. I am inclined to think that the meaning here is a crow-bar. In 
the Invent, of Thomas Vicars, in 1451, we find, r j lyng-hak, cum j gaveloh ferri vj d . Test. 
Ebor. iii. 119; and in that of Christopher Thomson, in 1544, ' & gaveloke xij d . Item a frienge 
panne, iiij l V Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 53. So also in the Invent, of Richard Lest, in 1581, 
are mentioned ' one recon, one gavelocke, one fier shole, one pare of tanges.' Farming, &c. 
Book of H. Best, p. 172. The connection in which the word occurs in these quotations is 
against the idea of its being a weapon of any sort. ' iij iron wedges, a gavelocke, one axe, 
a pair of cob irons, and a bill, vi s . viij d .' Invent, of R. Butcher, 1579, Richmond. Wills, 
&c, p. 248. 

153. Gerarchy. See Gower, Conf. Amant. iii. 145 : 'Which stant under his gerarchie? 
Caxton, in his Golden Legcnde, fo. 24, speaks of the ' booke of gerarchye of holy angellis ;' 
and Fabyan, Chronicle, pt. I. c. xxvii. p. 19, addresses the Virgin : 

' Most virgynall flour, of al most excelled, Aboue y 9 nombre & glorious company 

Percyng of Angells y° hyest Gerarchy, Of his blessid seyts, w* moste hye dignite ; 

Joye and be glad, for God Omnipotent Next after hym most honoured to be.' 
Hath the lyffc vp, & set moste worthely 

154. a Gesarne. ' The fysrte mete of the fowles is receyuyd and kepte in the croppe 
to the seconde dygestyon, that shall be made in the gisarn or mawe.' Glanvil, De Propr. 
Rerum, Bk. v. ch. xliv. p. 161. 

155. to Gifle stede. Cf. the account in the Cursor Mundi, 1. 2499, of the battle be- 
tween the four kings and the five, where we are told 

' £3 five gaue back to wine away.' 
Compare also Caxton's Charles the Crete, p. 193 : 'they made so grete bruyt, that the 
moost hardyest of the paynyms gaf them waye. 

a Gilefatte. The reference to the quotation from the Test. Ebor. is wrong : it 
should be, 'i. 2.' 'A mashefatt, a brandereth, and a wortston xl d . Item a gyelfatt, vj.' 
Invent, of Thomas Walker, 1542, Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 30. 

157. to Giste. H. Best, in his Farming, &c. Book, p. 119, tells us that 'such beasts 
as are taken into any pasture to bee kept, are (hereaboutes) called geasters, i. e. gesters, 
and theire gates soe many severall jeastes.^ 'Mrs. Salvyn her gates on the Greets are 
allwayes att at a rate, viz. 5 s . 4 d . a cowe-geast. her nowtheards wage is 20 s . in money, the 
milke of a covve, and a cowe-geast.' 

Gladyn. ' Gladiolum, )>at is glsedene.' Earle's Plant-Names, p. 5. * Gladiolum, 
glsedene.' Aelfric's Gloss, in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 30. ' Scilla, glsedene.' Cott. MS. 
Cleop. A. iii. If. 76. 

Glayre. Glanvil says that 'the Grape is compownyd of the hulle of r/l aria and 
ofaxillis. Glaria is the juys and fatte humour of the grape and axilli ben the smalle 
greynes that ben in the grape.' De Propr. Rerum Bk. xvii. c. clxxxi. p. 722. See also 
Palladius, Bk. iv. 1. 497, and Chaucer, Canon's Yeoman's Tale, Pream. 806. 

158. a Glede. In Roland <£• Otuel, the Saracen mocking Naymes bids him stop at 
home 'to kepe pareche walles fro schame, J)at no gledes neghe )>am nere.' 1. 285. 

to Glee. ' Sfrabo, scelg-egede.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 75. A curious proof 
that Halliwell's definition is wrong occurs in Hampole's Prose Treatises, p. 29, where we 
are told that ' Lya was frwtefull, bvt scho was sare eghede.' 

160. Gluterus. See the Epigram on the Degeneracy of the Times in Reliq. Antiq. i. 
58 ; we have ' Play is vileney, and holyday is glotery. 1 

161. a Goke. 'I ga gowlende a-bowte, al so dos a goke.'' Rcliq. Antiq. i. 291. 


a Gome. In 1566 Dame Prieres bequeathed, 'to my commother Crosby one fyne 
kyrchyfFe.' Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 192. 

163. a Grape. In the Invent, of the Priory of Durham, 1446, are mentioned 'ij 
rastra, ij yoke wymbils, j rest wymbyll, ij grapes, j shole, ligat. cum ferro.' Wills & Invent. 
i. 95; ' iiij grapez,, ij sholez, vj harpincoe.' ibid. p. 96; 'one mvck hacke, a yrape & iij 
forkes, viij d .' Invent, of B. Anderson, 1570, ibid* p. 342. 

to Graue. ' Loke pat his licame 

Vndir erpe not be graue 

But taken wilde bestes to haue.' Cursor Mundi (Trin. MS.), 17325. 
'Here now is he gravid, & her lyes hee.' Biyby Myst. p. 200, 1. 853. 
See also Palladius, Bk. vi. 1. 45, and Chaucer, Wife's Tale, 1. 209 : 

' I nolde for al the metal ne for the ore, That under erthe is grave, or lith above ;' 
and the Cook's Tale of Gamely n, 1. 69 : 

' Anon as he was deed and under gras i-grave.' 
'At the leist graife me in sepulture.' G. Douglas, JEneados, Bk. vi. p. 176. 

164. a Greee. 'Steppe or grice. Scamnum.' Huloet. In his Will, dated 1463, John 
Baret desires that ' a deseueraunce be maad of stoon wal ovir the entre, to parte the litil 
botrie vndir the gresys, to longe to the parlour wiche is redy maad.' Bury Wills. &c. p. 20. 
In Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 18, 1. 463, grece is used as a plural : ' thre grece or iiii is 
up therto to goo;' and in the Paston Letters, iii. 286, we have gresyngyes. 

a Gresse. In Roland & Otuel, 993, we have the plural form : 

' to hym comrnes pat lady dere & greses broghte pat fre ;' 

where the meaning is herbs. See Paston Letters, iii. 7. 

' pe dri cald erth pat lauerd kyng, and bad it gress and frut forth bring.' 

Cursor Mundi, I. 384. 

a Gressope. 'Locusta, gsers-stapa.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 78. 

165. to Grinde corn or egelome. Best uses loom in the sense of tool: 'An out- 
ligger cavryeth but onely one loome to the field, and that is a rake.' Farming, &c. Book, p. 
49. The translator of Palladius On Husbondrie uses it in the sense of vessel : ' bette is 
kepte in pitched homes smale.' p. 204, 1. 478. 

a Gripe. The following description of this bird is given in the A.S. Glossary 
printed in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 78 : ' riff us. frSer-fote fugel, leone gelic on wiestme, 
and earne gelic on heafde and on fiSerum : se is swa mycel paet he gewylt hors and men.' 

167. a Grunde. See also Cursor Mundi, 1. 126 : 

'For- pi pat na were may stand Wit-outen yrundwall to be lastand.' 
* Fundamentum, grund-wal.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 92. ' Fundament um, grund-weal.' 
ibid. p. 81. See A Hit. Poems, A. 395. 

168. pe Gulsoghte. In note, the reference to Wright's Vol. of Vocab. should be 
'p. 224.' 

a Gutter. Cf. Destruct. of Troy, 1607 : 

' The water by wisshyng went vnder houses 
Gosshet through Godardys and other grete vautes.' 
See also Allit. Poems, C. 310. Palladius, On Husbondrie, p. 151, 1. 60, says that in May 
is the time, ' Nowe as the treen beth gladde in thaire astate, 

For gutteryng to howe it and to hent.' 

170. an Haire. In the Invent, of W. Knyvett, 1557, we find mentioned, 'one newe 
stepynge fatte and an old, with old kelne hayres, xvj s . viij d .' Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 101. 

an Hak. 'He lened him a-pan his hale,' Cursor Mundi, 1. 1241. 

171. an Haly water clerke. 'Hie aquarius, a haly-water clerke.' Wright's Vol. of 
Vocab. p. 262. I should have mentioned that I am indebted for a great portion of the 
note to correspondents of Notes and Queries. 

an Halle. William Paston, writing in 1492, speaks of 'hors, harnesse, tents, 
halys, gardyryans, cartes, and othyr thynges.' Paston Letters, iii. 376. 


172. an Hallynge. In the Invent, of Thomas Morton, Canon of York, taken in 
1448, amongst the contents of the Hall are mentioned ' j hallynge cum ij costers de viridi 
et rubio say, palyd, cum armis archiepiscopi Ebor. Bovvett, pret. xiij 9 . iiij' 1 . De j hallynge 
veteri de rubio say, cum armis Beati Petri in medio, &c.' Test. Ebor. iii. 107-8; and in 
1479 John Caudell bequeathed 'to Cristian Forman, my servaunt, a hailing of white 
stevend with vij warkes of mercy,' ibid. p. 246. In the Invent, of Thomas Walker, in 
1542, we find, ' Item a banker, v. qwelschyngs, and a hanlyng, ij s .' Richmond. Wills, &c. 
p. 31 ; and in that of R. Butcher, in 1579 : 'a haivlinge, a bynker of wannes, and ij fox 
skynnes.' ibid. p. 248. 

173. an Hank. ' viij hanks of lynning yearne, yj s . viij d .' are included in the Invent, 
of Mrs. Jane Fullthropp, in 1566. Richmond. Wills, Sec. p. 183 ; and in that of J. Wilken- 
son, in 1 5 7 1 , we have 'xxvj hannkes of medle wyer ij 1 . xij s . — vj hannks of great wyer 
xviij s . — vj hannks of small wyer xviij s . Wills & Invent, i. 364. Best tells us that eight 
things are necessary for putting up hurdles, the eighth of which ' is fo\d-hankes or hankinges, 
as they call them, which is as thicke againe as plough-string, being a loose kinde of two 
plettes, which is usually sold for 3 half-pence and sometimes for 2d. a knotte ; there should 
bee in everie knotte 18 fathames ; and yow are to make your hanhes 3 quarters of a yarde 
in length, and to putte to everie severall barre you sende to field a hanlce, and to the four 
corner barres two hanhes a peece, and that because they want stakes.' Farming, &c. Book, 
p. 16. In La3amon, 25872, we have ' ihaneked and golden.' and in the Cursor Mandi, 
16044, ^ ue W0I "d is used in the sense of to bind : 

' iesus J>at in prisoun lei, ful herd ]>ai did hanc' 

an Haras of horse. ' But rathest be thaire bolk and wombes large, 

This crafte in gentil haras is to charge.' 

Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 134, 1. 820. 

175. Hardes. 'Hardin clothe iiij score and vj yerds' and 'lining yarne & hardin at 
the webster xx s .' are mentioned in the Invent, of John Bayles in 1568, Wills & Invent*, i. 
293-4 ; and in that of Roger Pele, in 1541, we find ' one table cloth of harden, price iiij d .' 
Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 22. 'Item vij. score of lyn game, and iiij score of hardijng game 
vij s . viij d .' Invent of Thomas Walker, 1542, ibid. p. 31. Simon Merfiet, in 1462, be- 
queathed to his sister ' xl yerds of lyncloth, xl yerds of herden cloth, vj codds, iij par shetes, 
&c.' Test. Ebor. ii. 261. See Allit Poems, B. 1209 : 

' Hard hattes £ay hent & on hors lepes ;' 
and compare King Alexander, p. 102 : 

' Sum araies thaim in ringes and sum in sow brenys, 
With hard hattes on thaire hedis hied to thaire horsis.' 
' Herdde with pix liquide herto eche.' Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 41, 1. 1122. See the 
Legends of the Holy Rood, p. 81, 1. 681, and Wyclif, Judges xvi. 9. In Palladius, Bk. viii. 
135, hardes is used for the outer skin of squills. 

Harife. In note, in quotation from MS. Harl. 338 S, for ' heyrene ' read 
' heyreue.' 

an Harlott. See the Digby Mysteries, p. 5 9, 1. 1 2 7 : 

' yff ])er be ony harlettes ]>\t a-gens me make replycacyon ;' 
and p. 56. 1. 27. Bee Allit. Poems, B. 39, 860, 1584, and Glossary. 

176. Ham panne. See the Cursor Mundi, 7277, where, when Samson pulled down 
the gates at Gaza, we are told, 'His hern pan he brak wit chance ;' where the other MSS. 
read heme panne, ham panne, and horn panne. See also 1. 21445. 

an Harre of a dore. In the complaint of a monk on the difficulty of learning 
singing, pr. in Reliq. Antiq. i. 292, he declares, 

'I horle at the notes, and heve hem al of herre.'' 
Wj'clif says that 'as J>e pope is wundirful so cardenals ben an herre to pe fendis hous.' 
Works, ed. Matthew, p. 472. ' Hie cardo, -nix, penultima corrupta [read correpta], a har 
of a dore.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 237. A. S. heor, which is used as the gloss to cardo 
in the Corpus Glossary. 

177. Hase. 'The rough voys is hose and sparplyd by smalle and dy\iera brethinge.' 
Glanvil, UePropr. Rerum, Bk, xix. ch. exxxi. p. 942. 


178. Havyr. 'Wee ledde constantly 6 loades of haver with a waine .... Doghill 
Unite had in it (this yeaie) fifteene good loades of haver. 1 Best, Farming, &c. Book, p. 52. 
See also ibid. p. 143. 

179. to Hawnte. Best, in his Farming, &c. Booh, p. 35, speaks of the harm done to 
meadows by 'hennes and such like fowles that hannte a close ;' and again, p. 72, he says, 
' our shepheard lyeth his sheepe .... howsoever beyond the Spellowe, because they shoulde 
not gette haunt of the wheat and rye.' Wyclif frequently uses the word, see his Works, ed. 
Matthew, pp. 23, 73, 146, &c. 

an Hefte. Robert Gray in his Will, dated 1437, bequeathed to his son Richard, 
1 unura gladium cum peltro, unum dagar ballokhefted cum argento ornatum.' Test. Ebor. 
ii. 63. 

180. ]>e Hede warke. ' Cephalia, i. dolor capitis uel cephalargia, heaford-wserc, uel 
ece.' Gloss. MS. Harl. 3376. Compare the remedy given in Beliq. Antiq. i. 51 'for euel 
and werke in bledder.' 

181. an Hekylle. In the Invent, of William Coltman, in 148 1, are included ' ij heJcils 
et uno repplyng karne iij cl .' Test. Ebor. iii. 261. 

183. an Heppe. ' But anus, heope.' Aelfric's Gloss, in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 30. 
* Bubus, heop-brymel.' ibid. p. 33. See Thynne's Animadversions, p. 40, where he says: 
'The "Hyppe" is not "simplye the redde berye one the Bryer," vnlest you adde this 
epitheton and saye " the redde Berrye one the swete Bryer (which is the Eggletyne) to 
distinguyshe yt from the comone Bryer or Bramble, beringe the blacke Berye." ' See 
also Turner's Herbal, pt. ii. If. n8 b : ' Of the Brere bushe or Hep tre or Brere tre;' and 
H9 b , where he tells us that 'the tartes made onlye of Heppes serue well to be eaten of 
them that vomit to much, or haue any flixe, whether it be the bloody flixe or the 
common flixe.' 

Herbe ion. In a MS. recipe ' for a man that sal begyn to travayle,' we are 
recommended to ' tak mugworte, and carry hit with the, and thu sal noght fele na 
werynesse, and whare thou dos it in houses na elves na na evyll thynges may com 
therein, ne qware herbe Ion comes noyther.' Beliq. Antiq. i. 53. 

an Herber. See Digby Mijsteries, p. 76. 

184. Herns. 'Lang and side }>air brues wern 

And hinged all a-bout )>air hern? Cursor Mundi, 8079. 

185. an Hespe. See Allit. Poems, B. 419, where the Ark is described as drifting about 
without ' Kable, o}>er capstan to clyppe to her ankre3, 

Hurrok, oJ)er hand-helme hasped on roJ>er.' 
See also C. 189. 

to make Hevy. ' Which of these soo euer hit be, hit hevyeth me.' Paston Letters, 
iii. 184. 

187. an Holyn. ' Clictoriola, }>at is cneow holen.' Earle, Eng. Plant-Names, p. 4. 
' Sinpatus, cneowhole.' Aelfric's Gloss, in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 30. ' Acrifolius, 
holen.' ibid. p. 33. ' Buscus, cneo-holen, fyres.' ibid. p. 285. ' Hec ussis, A e - olyn-tre.' 
ibid. p. 192. 

an Holleke. ' Daricorium, hol-leac.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 286. 

188. to Hope. ' Quen he right dipe had doluen ]>are 

I hope tuenti fote or mare.' Cursor Mundi, 21532. 

an Hoppyr. H. Best, in his Farminq Booh, p. 11, uses hopper for a common 
basket : he recommends weak lambs to be laid ' in an hopper or baskett upon a little 
sweete hay ;' and again, p. 137, he speaks of the ' hopping tree ' of a ' waine.' The author 
of the trans, of Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 180, 1. 43, recommends the ' hopre-cloth. ' to be 
of 'hienes skynne.' 'iij mawnds and a hopper iiij d .' are mentioned in the Inventory of 
John Wyclif, of Richmond, in 1562. Richmond. Wills, &c p. 163. 


an Horlege. Maundevile tells us that on the 'Grete Chanes' table were 'summe 
ortlof/es of gold, mad fid nobely and richelv wroughte.' p. 234. Pecock, in his Repressor, 
pt. I. ch. xx. p. 1 [8, speaks of 'orologis, schewing the houris of the daie bi schadew maad 
bi the Sunne in a cercle.' See also Chaucer, Nun's Priest's Tale, C. T. 4044. 

190. an Host. Turner, Herbal, pt. ii. If. 33*, tells us that 'Mastick is good to be 
dronken of them that spit blood and for an old host or cough.' 

191. an Hukster. 'Wee buy our molten tallo we att Malton of the hucksters and tripe- 
wives.' H. Best, Farming, &c. Boole, p. 29. 

192. ' Ilic bumbio, a hund-flye.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 223. 
Glanvil, De Propr. Berum, Bk. xii. ch. xiii. p. 423, gives the following description of this 
insect : ' Cynomia, a hound s flye is the werste kynde of flyes wyth gretter body and broder 
wombes than other flyes and lesse flyghte, but they ben full tendre and cleue faste in the 
membres of bestes on the whyche they smyte, in wulle, heere and bristles of beestes, and 
namely in houndes.' 

Hunde fenkylle. In note, for 'Fenelle or Fenhelle' read 'Fenelle or 

193. an Hustylmentt. * Imprimis, a old awmerye, a chayre, a chyst, a table, with 
other wood hustilment in the howsse, v s .' Invent, of W. Clowdeslye, 1545, Richmond. 
Wills, &c. p. 54. 

194. Iawnes. Turner, in his Herbal, pt. i. p. 8t, has an intermediate form Janondics, 
' Hec ictaricia, the jandis.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 224. 

195. Inglamus. In Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 26, 1. 692, we are warned when 
fattening up geese to take care that 

'noon offes white Englayme uppon the rootes of her tonnge.' 

See the Allit. Poems, C. 269 : 'He glydes in by ]>e giles, ]>ur3 glaymande glette ;' and Best, 
Farming Booh, p. 72 : ' Yow are not tobeginne to marke [sheep] soe longe as the markinge 
stuffe is anythinge clamme, or cleaueth and ropeth aboute the burne and botte.' In the 
Play of the Sacrament, 1. 708, we have : 

'I stoppe thys ovyn wythowtyn dowte, w fc Clay I dome yt vppe ryght fast.' 
Glanvil, De Propr. Rerum, Bk. vi. ch. i. p. 186, says that 'the fyrste chyldhode wyth out 
teeth is yet ful tender, and nesshe, and gnawy and claymy ;' and again Bk. v. ch. lxvi. p. 
185, he speaks of ' clemyny of humour.' 

196. to In. See the directions given by Will. Paston, in 1477 • ' Se the fermour in his 
croppe, and after seale doris and distrayne.' Paston Letters, iii. 205. 

In quarte. Best frequently uses the phrases 'in hearte,' or 'out of heart e ' to 
express good or bad condition of ground : thus he says, p. 51 : ' Lande that is well man- 
nured and in hearte will bring corne favre faster fore wards then that which is bare and out 
of hearte.' See also p. 143, where he speaks of barley being hearty. 

198. a Ionkett for fysche. See Caxton's Charles the Grete, p. 200, where the crown 
of thorns is also said to have been made of ' thornes and of Ionques of the see.' 

a Iselle. ' Ysels myxt with litel water.' Palladius On Husbondrie, Bk. ix. I. 185. 

199. an Iven. 'Hec edera, A e - iwyn.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 191. 

200. a Ka. See Roland & Otuel, 286 : ' Coo ne pye that there come none.' 

to Kay ky lie. See the burlesque poem in Reliq. Antiq. i. 86 : 

'The goos gagult ever more, the gam was better to here.' 

to Kele. ' ij Jceling tubbes ' are mentioned in the Invent, of Francys Wandys- 
forde, in 1559. Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 132. 'This drvnke of a trouth comforteth moche 
to slake and kele the hete of vnlawful desyre.' Fisher, Works, p. 158. 

' Devowt Josephe, I se hym here, our cares forto Jccyle.' Digby Myst.j>. 1 74» 1- 7^- 

201. a Kelynge. ' Riht als sturioun etes merling 

And lobbekeling etes spelling.' Metrical Homilies, p. 135. 

202. a Kemster. ' This felowe chattereth lyke a kempster, ce gallant cacquette com me 
vne piegneresse de luyne' Palsgrave. 


a Kidde. In the Invent, of Henry Bowet, Archbishop of York, taken in 1423, 
we find an item, ' tie vij 1 . receptis pro octo m. cle kyddes. Et de xl s . receptis pro duobus 
m 1 . de ascelvvod.' Test Ebor. iii. 81 ; and in that of Thomas Savage, also Archbishop of 
York, 1507, we have 'Item Harry Thomlinson had as many k'uldes, alias fagottes, as 
amounteth to the some of xx". iiij s .' ibid. iv. 315. Fitzherbert recommends farmers when 
thinning plantations 'yf it be smal wod to kydde it and sell it by the hondreds or by the 
thousandes.' Bohe of Husbandry, fo. xliii b . ' Kydders or cariers of corne ' are mentioned 
in the Act 5 Eliz. c. iii. 

203. a Kylpe. This word is of frequent occurrence in 15th and 16th century inven- 
tories. I give a few references : Test. Ebor. iii. 138, 178, 184, 202, &c. ; iv. 57, 193, 291, 
&c. The earliest instance I have found is in the Will of John Brompton, in 1444, in which 
of one ' olla ennea cum kilp smnma? ibid. ii. 103. 

a Kymnelle. Amula is probably for aenola. Best says, ' our kimblinge is a just 
bushell.' Farming, &c. Book, p. 105 ; and in the Invent, of Richard Best, 15 81, we find, 
'In ye bowtinge house one kymling, one bowting tube, &c.' ibid. p. 172. 'j kymlyn iij d .' 
is also mentioned in the Invent, of William Coltman, 1481, Test. Ebor. iii. 261 ; and in 
that of W. Duffield, 1452, ' j kymlyn x a .' ibid. p. 137. See also Richmond. Wills, pp. 179, 
184, Test. Ebor. iv. 289, 292, &c. 

a Kynredynge. ' Duke Naymes was J>aire fere, & Gayryn of kyredyn heghe.' 

Roland & Otuel, 693. 

204. to Kytylle. See H. Best, Farming, &c. Book, p. 80. 

206. a Lace. In the Invent, of Richard Bishop, a tradesman of York, 1500, are in- 
cluded ' a dosan galow lasys vj d . A groys of qwyth lasys, vj d . Item iij groys of threyd 
lasys xx d . &c.' Test. Ebor. iv. 192. 

208. to Lappe. We find this word used as late as 1641 in Best's Farming Book, p 22, 
where he tells us that ' in lappinge up of a fleece, they allwayes putte the inne side of the 
fleece outwardes. 1 See also p. 23, and Paston Letters, iii. 338. 

a Lappe of y e ere. See Reliq. Antiq. i. 84, where one of the signs by which we 
may judge 'yf a seke man sal lyve or dy' is that if 'his ere-lappes waxes lethy .... 
forsothe witte thu well he sal noght leve thre dayes.' 

209. a Lase. 'Fortune in worldes worshepe me doth lace. y Digby Myst. p. 159, 1. 580. 
See also the stage direction, ibid. p. 140, where 'entreth Anima as a mayde in a whight 
cloth of gold .... with a riche chapetelet lasyd behynde.' 

a Latte. ' Item latts and spelks, iij s . iiij d .' Invent, of Edwarde Pykerynge, 1542, 
Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 35 ; see also ibid. p. 93. 

a Lathe. 'Item in whett and rye in the layethe, xxvj s . viiij d . Item warre corne 
in the laythe xxvj s . viij d .' Invent, of Matthew Whitham, 1545, Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 
57. ' Corne in the laythes. In the west laythe bye estimacion xxxij qwarters of rye, xvj 1 .' 
Invent, of W. Knyvett, 1557, ibid. p. 101 ; see also ibid. pp. 57, 88, 93, &c. 

210. Laton. Glanvil, De Propr. Rerum, Bk. xvi. ch. v. p. 554, gives the following: 
1 laton is hard as bras or copre. for by medlyng of copre and of tynn and of auripigment 

and wyth other metall it is brought in to the fire to colour of golde Laton hight 

Auricalcum and hath that name : for though it be bras of Messelyng: yet it shyneth as 
golde wythout.' 

a Lawnder. ' And in certayne she was a lavendere.^ Generydes, 1. 4354. 

211. a Leehe. In the Invent, of T. Mortion, 1449. is an item, ' de ij cultellis, vocatis 
lecheyng-knyves iiij d .' Test. Ebor. iii. 112. 

212. Leg harnes. See G. Douglas, JSneados, Bk. xii. p. 425, 1. 11. 

213. Lepe. See Cursor Mundi, 19719, where we are told how Paul escaped from the 
Jews, because 

' in a lep men lete him dun Vte ouer J>e walles o ]>e tun ' 

and again, 20983 : ' in lepe ouer walles was laten down.' Best says : ' wee provide allsoe 
against this time two leapes .... one of the leapes is to lye the doore upon, there on to 
lye and winde the fleeces ; and the other leape is to putte the worst lockes of wooll into.' 
Farming. &c. Book, p. 23. 'iiij leapes, xij d .' are mentioned in the Invent, of Margaret 
Cotton, in 1564, Wills & Invents, i. 224. 


214. a Leske. John Percy, of Harum, in his Will, 1471, bequeathed ' Johanni Belby 
iij s . iiij d . et j vaccam with a whyte leske.'' Test. Ebor. iii. 188. 

215. A Lybber. See quotation from Bellendene, s. v. Styyrke, p. 365. 

217. a Lyne fynche. ' Carduelis, linetuige.' Corpus Glossary. 

218. a Lyste. ' Lembum, listan.' Corpus Glossary. Margaret Blakburn, in her Will, 
dated T433, bequeathed ' unum tue/lam de twill cum nigris lesty3 . . . . et duas tuellas 
cum plants egges.' Test. Ebor. ii. 49. Compare also the Will of John Brompton, of 
Beverley, in 1444, in which is mentioned 'j coverlet de blodio cum capitibus damarum 
riridibus, cum alio coopertoris rubeo habente in lystyng vol acres et albas ollas? ibid. p. 99. 
See also quotation from Glanvil in additional note to Meteburde. 

Lithwayke. 'Bytwene the tree and his frute is a strynge other a stalke, and 
that stalke is fyrste feble and lethy.' De Propr. llerum, Bk. xvii. ch. ii. p. 604. 

220- a Loppe. In Chaucer's Astrolabe, pp. 4, II, loppe is used in the sense of a 
spider. A. S. loppe. 

a Lopster. ' hwset fehst ]>u on see 
Quid capis in mari 
hserincgas and leaxas and lopystran and fela swylces 

allices et isicios • • . • et polipodes et similia? 

Aelfric's Colloquy in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 6. 
• Polipos, loppestre.' ibid. p. 77. 

221. to Love. See the Digby Mysteries, p. 216, 1. 161 6 : 

' To laude & prayse hym, let vs be abowt ; 
To loue hym & lofe hym & lawly hym lowt.' 

a Lowe of fyre. In the Cursor Mundi, 5739, the burning bush is said to have 
appeared to Moses ' als it wit lou war al vm-laid ' 

223. a Luke cruke. In the Invent, of John Eden, in 1588, are included 'vlucke 
crohes 4 d ., xxiiij waine whele speakes 2 s .' Wills & Invent, ii. 329. ' Runcina, locor.' Gloss. 
MS. Cott. Cleop. A. iii. If. 76, in Wright's Vocab. p. 287. 

to Lulle. ' Nouryces vse lullynges and other cradyl songes to pleyse the wyttes 
of the chylde.' Glanvil, De Propr. Rerum, Bk. vi. ch. iv. p. 191. 

224. a Lurdane. See Digby Mysteries, pp. 83, 1. 741 and 61, 1. 189. 

225. a Madyn. In the Digby Mysteries, p. 191, 1. 589, the Virgin addressing St. John 
says ' He admyttid you frendly for to reste For a speciall prerogatife 

& slepe on his holye godly breste Because of your virginite & clennesse :' 
and see also the Apostrophe to Saint John in the Cursor Mundi, p. 1412, where, at 1. 
24677, we read — 

' ]>nr-til }>e worthiest he madd Quat fanding J>at ]>ai fele. 

Wit mekenes and wit maidenhed, Hee ]>at in maiden-hede es less, 

For-}ri es J>am ful wele, He ledis lijf lik til angels, 

Man or womman, quej>er it be, For uirgins all ar pai.' 
)>at liues in wirginite 

to Mayn. See the quotation from Lydgate in Destruction of Troy, Introd. p. xlvii. 
where are mentioned ' dartes, daggers for to mayne and wounde.' In Wright's Vol. of 
Vocab. p. 203, we have the curious forms ' Mutulare, to mamere. Hec mutulatio, 
A e - mameryng.' 

229. a Masyndewe. In the Will of William Clederhow, in 1554, the testator directs 
•that the Massyndeu at Beverley yats have iij s . iiij '. and ylk a Massyndeu in the towne 
aftyr, xij d .' Test. Ebor. ii. 171. In 1429 Roger Thornton, by his Will, bequeathed ' to ye 

mesondieu of sint kateryne .... for yair eno'ment xx 1 Item to ye reparacion of 

yose tenementes yat I haue gyun to ye foresaid mesondieu and to ye said chauntry, xl 1 .' 
Wills & Invents, i. 78-9. By the Act 39 Eliz. c. v. power is given for the erection of 
« hospitals, measons de dieu, abiding place, or houses of correction.' 

230. Mastil30n. Compare 'JErarius, msestling-smijj.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 88, 
and l Auricalcum, gold-msesline.' ibid. p. 85. ' Auricalcos, grene ar, msestlinc' Gloss. 
MS. Cott. Cleop. A. iii. If. 76. See the quotation from Glanvil in addit. note to Laton. 



232. }>e Mawmoder. Huloet explains Molucrum as ' swellynge of a maydens or 
womans bodye, when she hath bene at a mans labour.' 

Mawnde. 'iij mawnds and a hopper, iiijd.' are included in the Invent, of John 
Wyclif, in 1562, Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 163; and in that of Hugo Grantham, in 1440, 
we find ' le weghbalk et maundes pro Una.' Test. Ebor. iii. 48. 

a Mawndrelle. William Wynter, of York, Founderer, in 1493 bequeathed 'to 
William Richardson the lathe that he tornys in, and all my hukes and my mawndrellis , 
and ij hak hammers.' Test. Ebor. iv. 88. 

Medefiille. See Wyclif, Works, ed. Matthew, pp. 8, 83, and 178. 

Meese. Fitzherbert, in his Bohe of Surveying, &c. fo. v b , tells us that 'Commen 
appendaunt is where a lorde of olde tyme hath graunted to a man a meseplace, and certayne 
landes, medowes, and pastures with their appurtenaunces to holde of hym.' In 1480, 
John Smyth, in his Will, speaks of his ' meese}, londes, and tenementes.' Bury Wills, 
& c - P* 57* ^ ee the complaint of John Paston, in 1484, where he speaks of 'one mese wyth. 
a pece of londe lyenge in a crofFte to the same mese adyoynyng.' Paston Letters, iii. 310. 

233. to Meke. ' ])enke we hou a man wole meke him to a worldly lord for trespasse 
don to hym.' Wyclif, Works, ed. Matthew, p. 338. 

236. Merketbeter. See Wright' Political Poems, i. 330, where in 'The Complaint of 
the Ploughman,' about 1400, the author complains that the priests are 

'Market-beaters, and medlyng make Hoppen and houten with heve and hale.' 
See other instances in Wyclif, Works, pp. 152, 166, 168, and 511. 

237. a Mese. ' No])er durst J>ay drinc ne ete, 

Ne brek }>air brede ne tast J>air mes 

Til he war cummen til J>air des.' Cursor Mundi, 12559. 

a Meselle. In the Cursor Mundi, 8169, we have mesei = n leper: 
' " Jx>ru ])e," he said, " sal ]ris mesele Be sauf and sund of al vn-hele." ' 

238. a Metefourde. In 1485, we find in the Invent, of John Carter, of York, Tailor, 
*j mete-bur -de w* ij par of trystylls.' Test. Ebor. iii. 300 ; and in that of Thomas Walker, in 
1542, 'a counter and a meyt bowrd, iij s . iiij d .' Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 31. Glanvil tells 
us that 'a meete burde is areryd and sette vpon fete, and compassed wyth a lyste abowte.' 
Be Propr. Rerum, Bk. xvii. ch. clxii. p. 709. 

a Mette. In the Invent, of H. Grantham, in 1410, are mentioned 'ij scotells, iiij 
buschels et j met ac j roll.' Test. Ebor. iii. 49; and in that of John Colan, in 1490, 'j lez 
mett of collys, iij d .' ibid. iv. 58; and again, in 1570, in that of C. Hodgkinson, we find 
'one hundreth metts of malt, x 11 .' Richmond. Wills, &c. p. 228. See quotation from G. 
Douglas under to Multe, p. 246. ' In summer wee sende but a mette.' H. Best, Farming, 
&c. Booh, p. 104. 

Medylle erthe. ' Bituix J>e midel erth and >e lift.' Cursor Mundi, 8003. 

239. a Middynge. See the Complaynt of Scotland, p. 12 : 'ane hen that seikis hyr 
meyt in the mydding may scraipe sa lang amang the fyltht, quhil sche scraip furtht sum 
aid knyfe that hes been tynt, the quhilk knyfe cutts hyr throt eftiruart.' See also Palladius 
On Husbondrie, pp. 17, 1. 458, and 28, 1. 765. 

to Mye brede. In the Invent, of Thomas de Dalby, in 1400, we find 'r. pro j 
my our, j watercanne, iij laddeles de auricalco . . . . et iiij trowes simul venditis, iij s . x d .' 
Test. Ebor. iii. 14; and again, ibid. p. 99, in that of John Cadeby, c. 1450, is mentioned 
'j miour, ij d .' 

J)e Mygrane. ' Emigraneus, i. uermis capitis, emigraneum i. dolor timporum, 
Jmnwonga sar.' MS. Harl. 3376. 

240. a Mire drombylle. See Wyclif, Zephaniah ii. 14. 

242. a Mytane. 'Bootes, cocurs, myttens, mot we were.' Palladius On Husbondrie t 
p. 43,1. 1 167. 

a Molwarppe. Palladius advises us, 'ffor moldewarpes cattes to kepe.' p. 109, 
1. 156; see also p. 34, 1. 924. 


243. Mortrws. 'Mylnestons in mortrews have I sene bot fewe.' 

Burlesque Poem, 15th cent, in Reliq. Antiq. i. 81. 
'Ther com masfattus in mortros alle soow.' ibid. p. 86. 

244. Motide of musyk. See the treatise ' Le Venery de Twety,' printed in JReUq. 
Antiq. i. 149 ; at p. 152 we read : ' How shall he blowe whan ye han sen the hert ? I shal 
blowe after one mote, ij motes, and if myn howndes come not hastily to me as y wolde, I 

shall blowe iiij motes Than ye shall begynne to blowe a long mote, and aftirvvard 

.ij. shorte motes in this maner, Trout, trout, and then, trout, tro ro rot. begynnyng with a 
long mote.' 'And whan the hert is take ye shal blowe .iiij. motys.' ibid. p. 153. In the 
Chester Plays, p. 124, we have — 

' Blowe a mote for that While that home now in thy hande is.' 

Scott, in Ivanhoe, ch. 32, has : 'if ye shall chance to be hard bested in any forest between 
Trent and Tees, wind three motes upon the horn thus — Wa-sa-hoa ! ' 

245. a Mughe. This is a rare word in A. S., but it occurs in the Corpus Glossary, 
1 Aceruus, muha,' and in Aelfric's Heptateuch, Exod. xxii. 6. 

a Muldyngborde. In the Invent, of W. Dufneld, taken in 1452, are included 
' ij bultyng-clothes iiij d . et j moled yng-burde xvj d .' Test. Ebor. iii. 137 ; and in another, dated 
1509, we have an item, 'de xiiij d . pro ij mulding burd cum ij tristils.' ibid. iv. 289. 

248. to Nappe. nappyt hyssyt 

' Dam dormitat anus, velud ancer sibulat amis* 

Metrical Vocab. in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 1S0. 

249. a Napron. See the account of expenses incurred at the funeral of Thomas de 
Dalby in 1400, where is an item, ' in iij virgis panni lanei emptis pro napronz, xij d .' Test. 
Ebor. iii. 19. In 1569 Jeanne Lewen bequeathed 'to Alles Barnes a gowne of worsted & 
a napron of worsted.' Wills & Invents, i. 305 ; and in 1570 William Hawkesley bequeathed 
' to thomas hynde y fc was my prentice an apron.' ibid. p. 327. 

250. a Weddyr. ' His creste was of a neddire hede, 

With golde abowte it was by-wevede.' Roland & Otuel, 1201. 
' For to do a man have the fevers, and sone do tham away : tak a neder alle qwik, and 
horned wornrys that men calles the nutres neghen, and seth tham in a new pote with 
water, &c.' Reliq. Antiq. i. 54. ' Hec ibis, Hie coluber, a neddyre.' Wright's Vol. of 
Vocab. p. 223. 

a N"efe. See Cursor Mundi, 15785: 'with maces and wit neues smert,' where 
Fairfax MS. reads knyuis, Gottingen neuis, and Trinity fustes. See also Roland & Otuel, 
1. 149. 

251. a Neghtbure. ' Quen my ne^teburs herd telle that he seke lay 

They come to me.' Sir Amadace, st. xv. 

a Nekherynge. ' Colapsus, i. colafus, pugnus, fyst uel tarastrus? MS. Harl. 3376. 

Nemylle. ' Capax, qui multum capit, andgetul, gripul, numul.' MS. Harl. 3376. 

255. a Wyke. See the Inventory of a York arrowsmith, about 1480, in Test. Ebor. iii. 
253, where are mentioned: 'xij shaffe of dense arros un nyht, price lez shaffe, v d . — v s . 
Item xxxj shaffe of childre ware, clenst and un nylced, price lez shaffe iij d . — vij s . ix d .' 

258. Odyr qwyle. ' In places ther is fodder abondaunce 

The ky may otherwhiles be withdrawe.' 

Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 166, 1. 65. 

259. Ogrufe. See Morte Arthur, 3944, Chaucer, C.T. A. 949, Emare, 656, &c. 
an Okerer. 'jns man he was an olcerer.' Cursor Mundi, 14034. 

260. to Onder sett. ' The ouer parte is vnderset wyth postes and pylars.' Glanvil, De 
Tropr. Rerum, Bk. xiv. ch. Iv. p. 487. See Caxton's Charles the Grete, p. 249. 

263. Ouer caste. In Robert of Gloucester, p. 560, we are told that while the battle 
of Evesham was being fought ' in ]?e nor)) west a clerk weder ]>er aros, 
Sodeinliche suart inou, J?at mani man agros, 
& ouer-cast it J)o3te al J)at lond, ]>at me mijte vnnejje ise ; 
Grisloker weder ]?an it was ne mijte an erj?e be.' 

Oueral. 'Son oueral J>is ti]>and ras.' Cursor Mundi, 14362. 


265. an Oxe bowe. Compare Schakylle, below, p. 332. 

an Oxgange of lande. ' My wyll ys that Jonett, my wyfe, have my chefe maner 
place and iiij or oxgange of land langing therto.' Will of Walter Gower, 1443, Test. Ebor. 
ii. 89. 

a Paddokstole. In Isaak Walton's Complete Angler, p. 151, we are told that 
' the green Frog, which is a smal one, is by Topsell taken to be venemous ; and so is the 
Pad'jch or Frog-Padock, which usually keeps or breeds on the land, and is very large and 
bony, and big, especially the she frog of that kind.' In note, for * vambricus' read 
' lambricus? 

266. Palde as ale. ' Defrutum, i. uinum, medo, geswet uel weall.' MS. Gloss. Harl. 
3376. Holland, in his trans, of Pliny, Bk. xxiii. c. 1, says: 'No liquor giueth a better 
tast to our meats, or quickneth them more than vinegre doth : for which purpose, if it be 
oversharp, there is a means to mitigate the force thereof, with a tost of bread or some wine : 
again if it be too weake and apalled, the way to revive it againe, is with Pepper.' 

a Panne of a howse. See Sir Ferumbras, 1. 5188, where the Saracens scale the 
tower, in which the French knights are confined, 

* And wer come inward at hard & neychs At a pan ]>at was broken.' 

269. a Parke. ' Clatrum, i. pearroc, hegstsef.' Gloss. MS. Harl. 3376. 'Mawgre the 
wache of fosters and parkerrys. J Pol., Melig. & Love Poems, p. 11, 1. 28. 

])e Parlesy. ' He fand a man vn-fere 

In parlesi.' Cursor Mundi, 19752. 

271. a Patyn. ' Patena, husel-disc' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 92. 

a Patrelle. In 1454 William Halifax bequeathed ' to Margrett Jentle my sadyll, 
the peytrell with the brydyi and Saint John hede, &c.' Test. Ebor. ii. 173. 

a Pawfcyner. In the Invent, of Thomas Gryssop, of York, Chapman, taken in 

1446, this word occurs several times: 'De j pruce pautener, iij d De j pautener de 

5halowe ledir, j d De j paivtener de nigro bokasyn, ij d De j dos. et iiij 

Dornyk paivteners x s . viij d .' Test. Ebor, iii. 102-3 ; and in 1471 Henry Holme bequeathed 
to ' William Eland and Edward Eland ij pautner purses/ ibid. p. 194. 

273. a Pele. ' j iron peale, 2 s . 4 d .,' is mentioned in the Invent, of John Eden, in 1588, 
Wills & Invents, ii. 329. 

275. A paire of Pepyr qwherns. The earliest instance of this term that I know of 
is in the Inventory of H. Grantham, in 1410, where is an item, ' de j pair peper quernis.' 
Test. Ebor. iii. 48. In 1471, we find in the Invent, of John Heworth, ' a hailing, ij shelves, 
ij pare of pepper qivemes, a graite ij s .' Wills & Invents, i. 354. 

278. a Pyke of a Scho or of a stafife. See Harrison, Descript. of England, Bk. II. 
c. i. p. 139. ' With pyk-staffe and with scripe to fare.' Henryson, Moral Fables, p. 80. 

280. a Pynfolde. ' Preesorium, pund/ Corpus' Glossary. 

282 a Plage. See Chaucer, Astrolabe, p. 5. 

284. to Plowghe. 'terra est subacta.' Compare Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 214, 
1. 216: ' Nowe plomtnes boon to sowe is two hande deepe In lande subact.' 

286. Popylle. ' G'tfh is laste eke in this moone ysowe.' Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 
184, 1. 155. ' He shal sowe the sed gith, and the comyn sprengen.' Wyclif, Isaiah xxviii. 
25. In Archbishop Aelfric's Vocab. popidus is glossed by ' byre' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. 

P- 33- 

a Popille tree. 'In serve, and peche, in plane, and popule.' Palladius On Hus- 
bondrie, p. 92, 1. 877. 

313. a Runkylle. The translator of Palladius, in giving advice as to the choosing of 
oxen, mentions, amongst other qualifications, 

' Compact a runcle necke, dewlapped syde Unto the knee.' p. 129, 1. 679. 


All words which do not occur in the Promptorium are marked with a dagger (f) ; those 
which are annotated by Mr. Way are marked with an asterisk (*). 

Words and readings to which the letter A has been appended are from MS. Addit. 15, 562. 
References to the Promptorium in the Notes are marked P. 

After Acorne, the hie, hec, hoc that mark the gender in the MS. are left out in the print, 
as are also the genitival inflections of nouns. 



C&pitulum. primum, A. 

AAEYA, SODES, A??iabo, meum 
cor 1 . 

H A ante B. 

To Abate ; mitigare, 6f cetera, vbi 2 

to lessyn. 
t Abbacuk 3 ; proprium nomen viri, 
tAn Abbacy ; hec Abbacia e. 
Abbay ; 7iec Abbaihia e, Monastevi- 

um, Sf cetera ; vbi A Mynstre. 
t Abbayroan ; Mc hec Scenobita 4 e. 
Abbott; hie Abbas tis. 

t Abdias 5 ; nomen viri. 

Abbas; hec Abbatissa e. 

tAbab 6 ; nomen viri. 

t Abcy 7 ; hoc Alphabetura. i, hoc 

Abcedarium ij. 
Abbett 8 ; hie habitus tus. 
to A - byde ; Expectare, prestolari, 

operiri, perseuerare, constare, 

manere, per[manere~\, re[manere], 

tAbidynge 9 ; Improbus a um, h\c 

1 Interjections of frequent occurrence in the Latin Comic Writers. Cooper, Thesaurus, 
1584, gives ' Eia. Eigh, well goe too ! Sodes. In good felowshyp ; I pray thee. Amabo. 
Of felowshippe ; of al loues ; I pray thee; as euer thou wilt doe me good turne.' ( Cor 
meum. My sweetheart. Plautus.' Kiddle's Lat. Dictionary. 

2 vbi = see, refer to. 

3 Habakkuk. See King Solomons Book of Wisdom, p. 89, 1. 245 : ' A man \>ere was 
J?at hi3tte Abacuc' 

4 Read Cenobita : scenobita is a tight-rope dancer. 

5 Obadiah. Thus in the Cursor Mundi, p. 528, 1. 9167, we find the names of 

' Ysaias, Joel, Osee, A bdias, Amos, Jonas, and Micheas.' 

'Abdias, one of the xij. prophetes.' Cooper. 

6 Ahab (?). 

7 ' Abece, an Abcee, the crosse-rowe, an alphabet, or orderly list of all the letters.' 
Cotgrave. 'Abce for children to learne their crosrow, Abecedarium.' Baret's Alvearie, 
1580. In the account of the 119th Psalm given in The Myrroure of Our Lady, p. 139, 
we are told that ' as there is xxii. letters in the Abece of hebrew, so there is xxii. tymes 
eyghte verses in this psalme.' 

8 Used in both senses of our word habit (i.e. custom and dress). (See P. 97, 'Cowle 
or monkes abyte,' and 1 79, ' Frogge or froke, munkys abyte?) 

1 And chanones gode he dede therinne 
Unther the abbyt of seynte Austynne.' 

St. Patrick's Purgatory, ed. Wright, p. 66. 

9 Cooper in his Thesaurus, 1584, under improbus gives the well-known Latin sentence 
' labor omnia vincit improbus,' which he renders ' importunate labour overcommeth all 



hec hoc pcrseuerans tis, hie hec 
hoc pertinax cis, Imjyrobulus a 
um, exj)ectans,prestolans. 

Abylle x ; hie hec A bilis Sf hoc le, 
Aptns a um, conueniens, congruus 
a um, consonus a wm, Idoneus 
a um, hie hec vtensilis Sf hoc le. 

an Abydynge ; expectac\o, prestolacio, 
hec jmjnobitas, hec perseuerancia, 
in bono, hec jyertinacia e, in 

tAbylite ; Abilitas, conueniencia, 

tAbylle to speke ; vbi Spekeable. 

tAbylle to yoke ; vbi to yoke. 

tAblatyve ; Ablatiuus a um. 

t Aborty ve ; A bortiuus a um, Abortus. 

A-bove ; Iper, grece, Super, s^;ra. 

A-bowte ; Circum, circa, circiter, 
Amphi, grece, peri, grece. 

an Absence ; Hec A bsencia e. 

Absentt ; K\c hec hoc Absens tis. 

[to be] Absent; Abesse, Deesse. 

to Absent ; Abdicare, Abducere, 
Absentare, Elongare. 

to Abstene ; A \b\stinere. 

an Abstenyngeor abstyne[n]ce; hec 

Abstinencia e. 
to Abownd ; A bundare, exuberare, 

exundare, superhabundare, inua- 

lere, luxuriare, superare, suppe- 

tere, vberare ; abundat vnda, 

superfiuit omnia humor ; super- 

Abundance ; vbi plenty. Abundynge 

tAbundyngly ; Abundanter,exubere 2 . 

A ante C. 
t Accent ; hie Accentns, ^ec prosodia 

e, hie tenor oris, producto o s . 
t Acceptabylle ; Acceptw.% a um, hie 

hec Acceptabilis Sr hoc le. 
t Accept ; gratns a um, Acceptus a um. 
tvn Acceptabylle ; jn-gmtns a um, 

non Acceptabilis. 
Aecolit 4 ; hie accolitns, grece, cere- 

ferarius, latine. 

Acorde ; vbi to make frende. 


Accorde ; Alludere, consonare, 
concordare, convenire, congruere, 
conpetere, continuare, personare, 

1 Chaucer, Prologue to Cant. Tales, 167, describes the monk as 'A manly man, to ben 
an abbot able.' Cotgrave gives ' Habile. Able, sufficient, fit for, handsome in, apt unto 
any thing he undertakes, or is put unto.' In 'The Lytylle Childrenes Lytil Boke,' pr. in 
the Babees Boke, p. 267, 1. 44, we are told not to 

' spitte ouer the tabylle, 
Ne therupon, for that is no thing dbylle? 
In Lonelich's History of the Holy Grail, xxx. 382, a description is given of Solomon's 
sword, to which, we are told, his wife insisted on attaching hangings 

' so fowl . . . and so spytable, 
That to so Ryal a thing ne weren not able.' 
* Aptus. Habely.' Medulla. ' Tille oure soule be somwhat clensid from gret outewarde 
synnes and abiled to gostely werke.' Hampole, Prose Treatises, p. 20. 

2 MS. erupere. 

3 That is, the o in the oblique cases is long. 

4 See also Serge-berer. The duties of the Accolite are thus defined in the Pontifical 
of Christopher Bainbridge, Archbishop of York, (1508-15 14), edited for Surtees Society 
by Dr. Henderson, 1875, p. 11 : 'Acolythum oportet ceroferarium ferre, et luminaria 
ecclesiae accendere, vinum et aquam ad eucharistiam ministrare.' See also the ordi- 
nation of Acolytes, Maskell, Monumenta Bitualia, iii. 171. Thorpe, Ancient Laws, ii. 
348, gives the following from the Canons of .iElfric : 'xiv. Acolitus is gecweden se])e 
candele oftSe tapor byrft to Godes penungum ]?onne mann god spell reet. o&Se J>onne 
man halgaft i> husl set J>am weofode.' Wyclif speaks of 'Onesimus the acolit.' Prol. 
to Colossians. 

' Be accolitis. 

The ordre fer the accolyt hys 
To bere tapres about wijt rijtte, 

Wanne me schel rede the gospel 

Other offry to oure Dryte.' 
Poems of William de Shoreham, p. 49. 


Aeordynge ; Ajrfus a mid, conformis, 
couueriiens, congrwus a wm, ] )er ~ 
sonans, personus a urn, coxipetens, 
concors, continuus a wm, vnani- 
mis, indifferus a um, vt, vbi igno- 
ranti quem portum petat nullus, 
ventus est secundum &c conueniens. 

An Aeordynge; concordia, conueni- 
encia, consonancia, congruencia e. 

tvn Acordynge ; jnconpetens Sf cetera; 
vbi discordynge. 

tto gedder Accorns ; glanders. 
an Acorne ; hec glans dis, hec 
glandicula, glandiciosus a um. 
Accuse ; Arguere, argutare, ca- 
lumpniari, reprehendere, deffere, 
excipere, Accusars pares vel 
minor es, incusare pociores. 



tan Accuser; Accusator, calumpnia- 

tor, reprehensor, delator. 
an Accusynge ; Accusacio, delacio, 

tan Acetyfe lyfe 1 ; vita actiua, 

Martha, lya, Actiuus, vita con- 

templatiua, Maria, Eachelle. 
A ante D. 
Adam ; nomen £>rq/;riwm viri. 
*An Adamand 2 ; Adamans ; Ada- 

tto Adylle 3 ; commereri, promereri, 

mereri, adipisci, adquirere. 
tan Adyllynge ; meritum, grdcia. 

A ante Ff. 
an Affodylle 4 ; Affodillus, harha est 
to Afferme ; Astruere, affirmare tes- 

timonio, confirmare officio, asseue- 

1 The division of life into the two classes of active life or bodily service of God, and 
contemplative life or spiritual service, is common in mediseval theological writers. It 
occurs frequently in William of Nassyngton's ' Mirror of Life,' and in Hampole's Prose 
Treatises, see Mr. Perry's Preface, p. xi, and p. 19 of text ; at p. 29 we are told that 
' Lya es als mekill at say as trauyliouse, and betakyns actyfe lyfe. Pachelle hyghte of 
begyrmynge, J?at es godd, and betakyns lyfe contemplatyfe.' Langland in P. Plowman, 
B-Text, Passus vi. 251, says : — ' Contemplatyf lyf or actyf lyf cryst wolde men wroujte :' 
see also B. x. 230, A. xi. 80, C. xvi. 194, and Prof. Skeat's notes. In the ' Reply of Frier 
Dan Topias,' pr. in Political Poems, ed. Wright, ii. 63, we find : — 

' Jack, in James pistles comounli ben callid 

al religioun is groundid, Ffulli figurid by Marie 

Ffor there is made mencion and Martha hir sister, 

of two perfit lyves, By Peter and bi Joon, 

That actif and contemplatif by Rachel and by Lya (Leah).' 

The distinction seems to have been founded upon the last verse of the 1st chapter of the 
Epistle of St. James. Wiclif (Works, i. 384) says: — 'This is clepid actif liif, whanne 
men travailen for worldli goodis, and kepen hem in rightwisnesse.' 

2 • Aimant, the Adamant, or Load-stone.' Cotgrave. Cooper says, ' Adamas. A diamonde, 
wherof there be diuers kindes, as in Plin. and other it appereth. It's vertues are, to 
resiste poison, and witch crafte : to put away feare ; to geue victory in contention : to 
healpe them that be lunatike or phrantike : I haue proued that a Diamonde layed by a 
nedell causeth that the loode stone can not draw the needel. No fire can hurte it, no 
violence breake it, onles it be moisted in the warme bludde of a goote.' 

3 Tusser in his Five H undred Points of Good Husbandry, p. 51, stanza 6, says : — 

' Where ivy embraseth the tree very sore, Kill ivy, or tree else will addle no more :' 
and in ' Richard of Dalton Dale ' we read : — ' I addle my ninepence every day.' The 
Manip.Vocab. gives 'to addil, demerere ; to addle, lucrari, mereri.' Icel. 6dlfisk = to win, 
gain. Cleasby's Icel. Diet. See note by Prof. Skeat in E. Dialect. Soc.'s edition of Ray's 
Glossary, p. xxi. 'Hemra addlenn swa ]>e maste wa patt ani3 mann ma33 addlenn? Or- 
mulum, 16102. See also ibid. 6235, and Towneley Myst. p. 218. 

4 We are told in Lyte's Dodoens, p. 649, amongst other virtues of this plant, that 'the 
ashes of the burned roote doo cure and heale scabbes and noughtie sores of the head, and 
doo restore agayne vnto the pilde head the heare fallen away being layde theievnto.' 
• Aphrodille. The Affrodill, or Asfrodill flower.' Cotgrave. Andrew Boorde in his 
Dyetary, ed. Furnivall, p. 102, recommends for a Sawce-flewme face 'Burre rotes and 
Affodyl rotes, of eyther iij. unces,' &c. 

B % 



rare, assentire, asserere, assertire, 
annuere, assensum prebere, Au- 
torizare, concedere, adqmescere, 

an Affermyng<? ; assensns, assencio, 
assencia ; Assentaneus. 

an Affenite ; Affinitas. 

After ; vbi at ; postquam, ut, se- 

t Aftyr bat ; dein, inde, deinde, exinde. 

t Aftyr J>e thyrd day ; post-friduum, 

tTo Affrayn 1 ; Affrenare. 

t Affabyl ; Affabilis. 

A ante G-. 

Agayn 2 ; retro. 

Agayns ; Aduersns, aduersum, erga, 
contra, e contra, e conuerso, Anti 
greee, obuie, obuiam, exopposito, 
obuins ; vnde versus : 
^Aduersus volenti sed contra 
subde loquenti 
Sic exopposito iungito rit[e] 

Agas ; women proprium, agatha vel 

Age ; vbi elde. 

Aghte ; octo, occies, octauns, octaua- 
nus, octoplus. 

t Aghte folde (to make Aght falde 
A.) ; octuplare. 

Aghten ; decemocto, duodeuiginta, 
octodecimus, octodecim, octodecies, 
octodenus, octodenarius. 
t Aghte halpenis ; octussis. 
Aghty ; octoginta ; octogesimus, octo- 

gesies, octogenus, octogenarius. 
Aght hundrith ; octingenti 3 ; octin- 
gentesimns, octingentesies, octin- 
gentenus, octingenten&rins. 
An Agnaylle 4 (A.). 
An Anguice (Aguice A.) 5 ; jndula. 

A ante I. 
t Aimer or Ailmer (Aynar or Ayl- 
jnar A.) ; nomen projirium viri 
tj>e Air ; Aer, aerems, aura, ether, 
ether a, ether eus, Sf cetera ; vbi 
t Aylastynge ; eternns, coeternus, sine 
^rmcipio Sf sine fine vt dens, eter- 
nalis, incessans sempiternus vt 
mundns, perpetuus ut anime, 
perpes, perhennis. 
tA[y]lastyngly ; perpetim ; versus : 
% Eternus dens, $empiteraus 
mundns, parhenn'xs res £ibi 
sunt, anime perpetue : 
Eternum vere sine ^rmcipio, 

sine fine, 
Perpetuum cui pr'mcipium sed 
fine carebit. 

1 Used here apparently in the sense of 'to bridle, restrain,' but in Early English to 
Affrayn was to question ; A. S. offreinen, pt. t. offrcegn. 

2 It is curious that the common meaning of this word (iterum) should not be given. 

3 MS. octo, octogenti. 

4 A sore either on the foot or hand. Palsgrave has ' an agnayle upon one's too,' and 
Baret, ' an agnaile or little corn growing upon the toes, gemursa, pterigium? Minsheu 
describes it as a ' sore betweene the finger and the nail. , Agassin. A corne or agnele 
in the feet or toes. Frouelle. An agnell, pinne, or warnell in the toe.'i6n. Cotgrave. 
'Agnayle : pterygium.' Manip. Vocab. According to Wedgwood ' the real origin is Ital. 
anguinaglia (Latin inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Er. angon- 
ailles. Botches, (pockie) bumps, or sores, Cotgrave.' Halliwell, s. v. quotes from the 
Med. MS. Lincoln, leaf 300, a receipt ' for agnayls one mans fete or womans.' Ly te in 
his edition of Dodoens, 1578, p. 279, speaking of 'Git, or Nigella,' says: — 'The same 
stieped in olde wine, or stale pisse (as Plinie saith) causeth the Cornes and Agnayles to 
fall of from the feete, if they be first scarified and scotched rounde aboute.' ' Gemursa. 
A corn or lyke griefe vnder the little toe.' Cooper. 

5 This word occurs in H. More's Philosoph. Poems, p. 7 : 

' The glory of the court, their fashions 
And brave agguize, with all their princely state.' 
Spenser uses it as a verb : thus, Faery Queen, II. i. 21, we read, ' to do her service well 
aguisd.' See also stanza 31, and vi. 7. Indula is a contracted form of inducula, a little 
garment.' Cooper. 


hoc animal, dicas dicas que 

perhenne ]>er annos, 
Et quodcunque velis sempiter- 

7bum benedic'is. 
Et turn, eternum sempiternum- 
que sinml sunt. 
*Ay ; Semper, # cetera ; vbi alway. 
tAiselle 1 ; acetum, Acetulum diminu- 

fan Aissellc vesselle; acetabidum, 

A ante K. 

an Ake ; qaarcus, quarculus, ilex, 
quarcinus, querceus, quemus ; ili- 
cetum, quercetum, querretum. sunt 
loca vbi crescunt quarcus. 

an Ake apylle 2 ; galla. 

an Akyr of lande ; acra,jugus,juger, 

To Ake 3 ; Noceo, Sf cetera ; vbi to 

hurt (A.). 
tAn Aking ; Nocumentum (A.). 

A ante L. 

an Alablaster (Alabauster A.) 4 ; 

Alas (Allays A.) ; Jieu, jwodolor. 

t Alas (Allays A.) for sorow 5 ; pro- 
dolor, pronej)has. 

tAlas (Allays A.) for schame ; ^>ro- 

Albane; pxopxium womew, Albanus 

Albane 6 ; albania, scocia. 

1 In the XI Pains of Hell, pr. in An Old Eng. Miscellany, p. 219, 1. 280, our Lord is 
represented as saying — ' Of aysel and gal $e 3euen me drenkyn ;' and in the Romaunt 
of the Rose, 1. 217, we read — 

■ That lad her life onely by brede, Kneden with eisell strong and egre.' 

In the Forme of Cury, p. 56, is mentioned ' Ay sell other alegar.' Roquefort gives ' aisil, 
vinegar.' In the Manip. Vocab. the name is spelt ' Azel,' and in the Reg. MS. 17, c. xvii, 
' aysyl.' In Mire's Instructions to Parish Priests, p. 58, 1. 1884 we find, ' Loke J)y wyn be 
not eysel." 1 A. S. eisele, aisil. 

2 Lyte in his edition of Dodoens, 1578, p. 746, says of Oak-Apples : — 'The Oke- Apples 
or greater galles, being broken in sonder, about the time of withering do forshewe the 
sequell of the yeare, as the expert husbandmen of Kent haue observed by the liuing 
thinges that are founde within them : as if they finde an Ante, they iudge plentie of 
grayne : if a white worme lyke a gentill, morreyne of beast : if a spider, they presage 
pestilence, or some other lyke sicknesse to folowe amongst men. Whiche thing also the 
learned haue noted, for Matthiolus vpon Dioscorides saith, that before they be holed 
or pearsed they conteyne eyther a Flye, a Spider, or a Worme : if a Flye be founde it is 
a pronostication of warre to folowe : if a creeping worme, the scarcitie of victual : if a 
running Spider, the Pestilente sicknesse.' 

3 ' Doloir. To grieve, sorrow : to ake, warch, paine, smart.' Cotgrave. Baret points 
out the distinction in the spelling of the verb and noun : ' Ake is the Verbe of this 
substantive Ache, Ch being turned into K.' Cooper in his Thesaurus, 1584, preserves the 
same distinction. Thus he says — ' Dolor capitis, a headache : dolet caput, my head akes.' 
The pt. t. appears as olce in P. Plowman, B. xvii. 194 ; in Lonelich's Hist, of the Holy Grail, 
ed. Furnivall, and in Robert of Gloucester, 68, 18. A. S. acan. 

4 ' A lablastrites. Alabaster, founde especially aboute Thebes in Egipte.' Cooper. 

5 ' Pronephas. Alas ffor velany.' Medulla. 

6 The following account of the origin of the name of Albania is given by Holinshed, 
Chronicles, i. leaf 396, ed. 1577 : — 'The third and last part of the Island he [Brutus] 

allotted vnto Albanacte hys youngest sonne This latter parcel at the first toke 

the name of Albanactus, who called it Albania. But now a small portion onely of the 
Region (beyng vnder the regiment of a Duke) reteyneth the sayd denomination, the 
reast beyng called Scotlande, of certayne Scottes that came ouer from Ireland to inhabite 
in those quarters. It is diuided from Lhoegres also by the Humber, so that Albania, as 
Brute left it, conteyned all the north part of the Island that is to be found beyond the 
aforesayd streame, vnto the point of Cathenesse.' Cooper in his Thesaurus gives, ' Scotia, 
Scotlande : the part of Britannia from the ryuer of Tvveede to Catanes.' 



an Albe * ; alba, ajjhotlinea str[i~\cta, 

an Alblaster (Ablauster A.) 2 ; 

alblista, balea, alblastrum, bale- 

an Alablasterer ; arblastator, bale- 

arius, balistarius, baliator, arcu- 

tAlburne 3 ; viburnum.. 
* Alcanamy 4 ; corinthium. (Elixer 

Alkaxiamyer (A.). 
Aide; pr'iscus qui fuerunt jw'iores ; 

antiquus, qui fuerunt ante nos ; 

annosus, jnveteratus, decrejritus, 

vetulus o. g a multitudine anno- 

rum emeritus, senilis, longeuus, 

2)ristinus, vetustus, senex, veteran- 

us geronceus, gerontecus. 
tto make Aide ; Antiquare, veterare, 

tto be Aide ; Seneo, Senescere. 
tto wex Aide ; jnuetcrare,jnveteras- 

tan Aide maw ; gerion; vbi aide ; 

geronta, silicernus 5 . 
t Aldesynne 6 ; zima vetus, vetus jpec- 

tjn Aide tyme; Antiquitus, aduer- 

tan Aide wyfe ; Anus, Anicula, ve- 

tf>e Aide testament; heptaticus 1 '. 
Ale ; ceruisia, celia, sorbus. 

1 See P. Awbe. Cooper explains Poderis by ' A longe garmente down to the feete, 
without plaite or wrinckle, whiche souldiours vsed in warre.' Aphot is of course the 
Jewish Ephod, of which the same writer says there were 'two sortes, one of white linnen, 
like an albe/ &c. Lydgate tells us that the typical meaning of 

' The large awbe, by record of scripture, 
Ys rightwisnesse perpetualy to endure.' MS. Hatton, 73, leaf 3. 
See Ducange, s. v. Alba. 

2 ' Batista. A crossebowe ; a brake or greate engine, wherewith a stone or arrow is 
shotte. It may be vsed for a gunne.' Cooper. See the Destruction of Troy, 11. 4743, 5707. 
In Barbour's Brace, xvii. 236, Bruce is said to have had with him 'Bot burgess and 
awblasteris? In the Romance of Sir Ferumbras we read how the Saracens 

' Hure engyns ]?anne ])ay arayde, 
& stones }>ar-wi]? J)ay caste. 
And made a ful sterne brayde, 
wi]) bowes & arbelaste'. 
* Balestro. To shotyn with alblast Batista. An alblast ; quoddam tormentum.' Medulla. 

3 'Alburn-tree, the wild vine, viburnum.' Wright's Prov. Diet. In the Harl. MS. 1002 
we find ' Awberne, viburnum? See note in P. s. v. Awbel, p. 17. Cotgrave gives 'Aubourt, 
a kind of tree tearmed in Latine Alburnus, (it beares long yellow blossomes, which no Bee 
will touch),' evidently the Laburnum. 

4 Gower, C. A., ii. 88 has— 

' Thilke elixir which men calle 

Atconomy as is befalle 

To hem that whilom were wise ; ' 
and Langland, P. Plowman, B. x. 212, warns all who desire to Do-wel to beware of 
practising ' Experiments of alkenamye, ]>e poeple to deceyue.' With the meaning of 
latten or white-metal the term is found in Andrew Boorde's ' Introduction of Knowledge,' 
ed. Furnivall, p. 163, where we are told that ' in Denmark their mony is gold and alkemy 

and bras In alkemy and bras they haue Dansk whyten.' Jamieson gives * Alcomye 

s. Latten, a kind of mixed metal, still used for spoons.' ' Ellixir. Matere off alcamyne.' 
Medulla. i 

5 Cooper in his Thesaurm, 1584, gives ' Silicernium. A certayne puddynge eaten onely 
at funeralles. Some take it for a feast made at a funerall. In Terence, an olde creeple 
at the pittes brincke, that is ready to have such a dinner made for him.' Baret too has 
4 an old creple at the pittes brincke, silicernium,' and again, ' verie old, at the pits brinke, 
at death's doore, decrepitus, silicernium.' 

6 ' Zyme. Leauen.' Cooper. The reference evidently is to 1 Corinthians, v. 7, 8.' 

7 Properly only the first seven Books of the Old Testament. 


to Alege ; alhgare. 

fAlgarism (Algram A.) ■ ; algaris- 
mus, abacus. 

*Algatis ; omnimodo (simodo A.). 

t Alice ; nomen proprium, Alicia. 

*an Aly '-' ; deambtdatorium, ambula- 
tor ium. 

An Alye; ajjinis. 

an Alians ; Affinitas. 

an Alyane 3 ; aduena, A lienigena, 
aduenticius, proselitus. 

tto Alyene ; Alienare, priuare, de-, 
subtr&here, remouere. 

tAlienora 4 ; pro^rmm women muli- 
eris (helena A.). 

All£ ; vniuersus, vniuersalis, cunctus, 
singulus quibus quisque vnusquis- 
que, totalis, pan grece, sesqui, 
Totus ad magnitudinem pertinet : 
ut totum corjms, tota terra ; cuncti 
qui vbique sunt ; vniuersi qui in 
loco, omnis qui in diuersis sunt 
locis ; omnis ad multitudinem § 

numerum pertinet, ut omnis homo 
Sf omnes homines, omnis distribuit 
inter partes subiectiuas, ut omnis 
homo currit ergo iste § iste, Sf 
cetera. Se& totus distribuit inter 
2?&rtes integredes, ut totus homo est 
intus, ergo quelibet pars hominis 
est intus; vnde versus : 
11 Totum comprehendit massam 5 
sed diuidit omne (omnis A.) 
Et quoque turn complectitur 
omnia cunctus : 
cunctus comprehendit hoc quod 
omnis, vnde dens cftcitur cunctipo- 
tens omnia potens. 

tAlle abowte ; circumqu&que, vn- 

Allone ; solus, solitarius, solitudina- 

fAllonely 6 ; duntaxat, t&ntum, t&n- 
tummodo, solum, solummodo. 

Alschynande (A.). 

t Allemaner ; omnigrmus, omniraocZus. 

1 ' Algorisme, m. The Art, or Use of Cyphers, or of numbring by Cyphers : Arithmetick, 
or a curious kinde thereof.' Cotgrave. In Richard the Redeles, iv. 53, we read — 

• Than satte summe as siphre doth in awgrym, 
That noteth a place, and no thing availith.' 
Chaucer, describing the chamber of the clerk 'hende Nicholas,' mentions amongst its 
contents — ' His Almageste, and bookes grete and small, 

His Astrelabie longynge for his art, 
His Augrym stones layen faire a-part 

On shelues couched at his beddes head.' Millers Tale, 3208. 
Gower, C. A., iii. 89 says — 

1 Whan that the wise man acompteth 
Aftir the formal proprete 
Of algorismes a be ce.' 
In the Ancren Riwle, p. 214, the covetous man is described as the Devil's ash-gatherer, 
who rakes and pokes about in the ashes, and ' make# j^erinne figures of augrim ase J)eos 
rikenares doS J>at habbeft mochel uorto rikenen.' 

2 ' Ambulatio. A walkinge place; a galery ; an alley.' Cooper. ' Allee, f. An alley, 
gallery, walke, walking place, path or passage.' Cotgrave. 

'With ostes of alynes fulle horrebille to schewe.' 

Morte Arthur e, 461. 
' An alyane, alienus, extraneus.' Manip. Vocab. ' Alieno. To alienate: to put away: to 
aliene or alter possession.' Cooper. 

4 In the Paston Letters, i. 144, are mentioned 'Lord Moleyns, and Alianore, his wyff.' 

5 MS. missam ; corrected from A. 

6 Compare ' Broder by the moder syde onely (alonly by moder P.) ' in P. p. 54. In the 
Gesta Romanorum, p. 49, Agape, the King of France, having asked Cordelia, Lear's 
youngest daughter, in marriage, her father replies that, having divided his kingdom 
between his other two daughters, he has nothing to give her. ' When Agape herde this 
answere, he sente agayne to Leyre, and seide, he asked no thinge with here, but alonly 
here bodie and here clothing.' See also the Lay-Folks Mass-Booh, B. 210. 



*an Almary l ; scrinium, A ula, 8f 

cetera ; vbi arke. 
Almaste ; fere, ]^ne, ferme, paulo- 

an Almetre ; alnus, vlnus, vlmus, 

alnetum 2 , locus vbi crescunt. 
Almyghty ; Astvipotens, cuuctipotens, 

an Almond; Amigdalum. 
an Almond tre ; amigdalus. 
anAlmos 3 ; Agapa vel agapes, ele- 

mosina, roga, 
an Almus doer ; elemosinarius. 
an Almos howse ; elemosinarium. 
Alome 4 ; Alumen. 
tAls it were ; quasi esset (A.). 
tAls longe ; tamdiu (A.). 

fAlsmekylle 5 ; tfantum, t&ntumdem, 
tantisper, tantus. 

tAlso ; jtaque, similiter, eciam, item, 
itemtidem, sic, quoque, ita. 

tAls ofte ; Tociens. 

Alway; Continuus, semjritemus, con- 
tinue, semper, omnino, incessanter, 
indies, imperpetuum, eterncditer, 
eterne, Sf cetera ; vbi aylastynge. 
A an£e M. 

fto Amble (Ambule A.) 6 ; Ambu- 

an Ambler (Ambuler A.) ; gr&darius. 

Ambros ; Ambrosius, nomen £>ro- 

to Amende ; emendare, corrigere, 
deuiciare, corripere. 

1 See Wedgwood, Etymol. Diet. s. v. Aumbry, and Parker's Glossary of Gothic Archi- 
tecture. Dame Eliz. Browne in her Will, Paston Letters, iii. 465, bequeaths 'vij grete 
cofers, v chestis, ij almaryes like a chayer, and a blak cofer bounden with iron.' • An 
Ambry, or like place where any thing is kept. It seemeth to be deriued of this Frenche 
word Aumosniere, which is a little purse, wherein was put single money for the poore, and 
at length was vsed for any hutch or close place to keepe meate left after meales, what 
at the beginning of Christianitie was euer distributed among the poore people, and we 
for shortnesse of speache doe call it an Ambry ; repositorium,, scrinium.' Baret. Cooper 
renders Scrinium by ' A coffer or other lyke place wherein iewels or secreate thynges are 
kept, as euidences, &c. Scriniolum, a basket or forcet : a gardiuiance.' 

2 MS. alnetam ; corrected by A. Alnus is properly an elder-tree, and there is no such 
word as ulnus. Danish olm, an elm. 

3 Hampole, PricJce of Conscience, 3609, amongst the four kinds of help which will 
assist souls in purgatory, mentions 'Almus pat men to the pure gyves.' And again, 
1. 3660, he speaks of the benefit of ' help of prayer and almusdede.' See also the Lay-Folks 
Mass-Book, p. 157. A. S. ailmesse, celmes. 

4 Harrison, in his Description of England, ii. 67, mentions amongst the minerals of 
England, ' the finest alume . ... of no lesse force against fire, if it were used in our 
parietings than that of Lipara, which onlie was in use somtime amongst the Asians & 
Romans, & wherof Sylla had such triall that when he meant to haue burned a tower of 
wood erected by Archelaus the lieutenant of Mithridates he could by no means set it on 
fire in a long time, bicause it was washed ouer with alume, as were also the gates of the 
temple of Jerusalem with like effect, and perceiued when Titus commanded fire to be put 
vnto the same.' 

5 ' Eousque. In alsmekyl.' Medulla. 

6 'An ambling horse, hacquene'e? Palsgrave. Baret says, 'Amble, a word derived of 
ambulo : an ambling horse, tolutarius, gradarius equus : to amble, tolutim incedere.' In 
Pecock's Repressor, Rolls Series, p. 525, we have the form ' Ambuler.' 'An ambling 
horse, gelding, or mare ; Haquenee, Cheval qui va les ambles, ou V amble ; hobin.' Sherwood. 
' Gradarii equi. Aumblyng horses.' Cooper. In the following quotation we have amblere 
meaning a trot : 

' Due Oliver him ride]? out of J)at plas ; 
in a softe amblere, 

Compare also, 

' His steede was al dappel, gray, 
It gooth an ambel in the way 

Ne made he non o]>er pas ; 
til f>ey wern met y-fere.' 
Sir Ferumbras, 1. 


Ful soffcely and rounde 
In londe.' 
Rime of Sir Thopas, 2074. 


tan Amendes ] ; emenda, emeudacio, 

tan Amewder ; corrector, corrector 2 , 

to Amende ; conualere, conucdescere, 

ut de iufirmitate. 
*an Amyce (Amyte A.) 3 ; Amictus, 


A ante N". 

And; et, que,Atque, ac, at, ast, necnon. 
an Ande 4 ; AneKtus. 

to Ande; Afflare, asspirare,Spirare, 

alare, Anelare. 
tAndrowe ; Andreas, nomen pro- 

Ane ; vnus, primus, semel, singulus, 

prxmarius, primatiuus, simplex, 

sivnplus, vnicas, monos, grece. 
Anys ; Semel. 
Anehed; vnitas, conformitas, con- 

tan Anelepe man 5 ; solutus, Aga- 


1 In the Romance of Sir Ferumbras, Charlemagne orders Alorys to go down on his 
knees to Duke Rayner, 'and his arnendes make,' i.e. make an apology to him. Alorys 
accordingly, we are told, 

' pe arnendes a profrede him for to make 
At hej and low what he wold take, 

And so thay acorded ther.' 1. 2112. 
See also P. Plowman, B. iv. 88. 

2 MS. correlator. 

3 ' Upon his heed the amyte first he leith, 

Which is a thing, a token and figure 
Outwardly shewing and grounded in the feith.' 

Lydgate, MS. Hatton 73> leaf 3. 
Ducange gives 'Amictus. Primum ex sex indumentis episcopo et presbyteris communibus 
(sunt autem ilia amictus, alba, cingulum, stola, manipulus, et planeta, ut est apud Innocent 
III. P. P. De Myster. Missas) ; amid.' Cotgrave has 'Amid. An Amict, or Amice ; part 
of a massing priest's habit.' In Old Eng. Homilies, ii. 163, it is called heued-line, i.e. 

4 See P. Onde. In Sir Ferumbras, p. 74, 1. 2237, we find 'So harde leid he ]>ar on is 
onde ;' that is, he blew so hard on the brand ; and in Barbour's Bruce, xi. 615, we are 
told that ' Sic ane stew rais owth thame then 

Of aynding, bath of hors and men.' 
See also 11. iv. 199, x. 610. Ayndless, out of breath, breathless, occurs in x. 609. In the 
Cursor Mundi, p. 38, the author, after telling us that Adam was made of the four elements, 
says, 1. 539 :— 

' pe ouer fir gis man his sight, pis vnder wynd him gis his aand, 

pat ouer air of hering might ; pe erth, J>e tast, to fele and faand.' 

See also p. 212, where, amongst the signs of approaching death, we are told that the teeth 
begin to rot, ' ]>e aand at stinc.' 1. 3574. ' Myn and is short, I want wynde.' Townley Myst. 
p. 154. See also .#. C. de Lion, 4843, Ywaine & Gawain, 3554. 'To Aynd, Ainde, Eand. 
To draw in and throw out the air by the lungs.' Jamieson. Icel. ond, ondi, breath ; cf. 
Lat. anima. ' Aspiro : To ondyn.' Medulla. 

5 In Religious Pieces in Prose and Verse from the Thornton MS., p. 13, 1. 22, we are 
told that fornication is ' a fleschle synne betwene an anelepy man and an anelepy woman ;' 
and in the Cambridge University Library MS. Ff. v. 48, leaf 86, we read — 

'Wele more synne it is Then with an analepe, i-wis.' 

To synne with a weddid wife, 
In Havelol; 1. 2106, we have — 

' He stod, and totede in at a bord, Ner he spak anilepi word,' 

where the word has its original meaning of one, a single ; and also in the following : — 
' A, quod the vox, ich wille the telle, On alpi word ich lie nelle.' Reliq. Antiq. ii. 275. 

A. S. anelepi}, single, sole. 'Hi true in God, fader halmichttende and in Thesu 

Krist, is ane lepi none hure laverd.' Creed, MS. Cott. Cleop. B. vi. Y 20i b . ab. 1250. Reliq. 
Antiq. i. 22. Wyclif has ' an oonlypi sone of his modir.' Luke vii. 12. ' per beo an alpi 
holh £at an mon mei crepan in.' 0. E. Homilies, i. 23. See also La3amon, ii. 92, iii. 264, 
Ayenbite, p. 21, Ancren lliwle, pp. 116, 296, &c. 



+an Anelepy woman ; soluta. 
*an Anfenere 1 ; Antiphonai'ium. 
an Angelic ; Angelus, sjriritus, 

baiakis, celigena, missus, nun- 

fAngelle fude ; manna, 
i Angell setis 2 ; dindima. 
an Anger ; Angor oris, prod [ucitur] 

o, Sf- cetera ; vbi noe. 
tto Anger 3 ; vbi to grewe. 
tAngyrly; vbi bilose 4 . 
Angry ; bilosus 5 

Anguyse ; vbi noe. 

Any ; Aliqnis, vllus. 

Anythynge ; quicquam. 

*Anys; herba est vel semen, Anetum 

vel anisum. 
an Ankylle ; cauilla. 
an Ankyr or a recluse G 

an Ankyr of a schyppe ; 
to Ankyr ; Ancorare. 
tto Anorme (Anowre A.) 

(to make fayre A.). 

anacorita ; 


7 ; vbi fare 

1 See note to Antiphonare. 

2 The following is from Ducange : — ' Dindimum vel potius Dindymum, Mysterium. 
Templum. Vita S. Friderici Episc. Tom. 4, Julij, pag. 461 : Ineptas, fabulas devitans, 
senior es non increpans, minor es non contemnens, hab ens fidei Dindimum in conscientia bona. 
Allusio est ad haec Apostoli verba 1 Timoth. 3. 8 : " Habentes mysterium fidei in consci- 
entia bona." Angelomus Praefat. in Genesim apud Bern. Pez. torn. i. anecdot. col. 46 : 

" Hie Patriarcharum clarissima gesta leguntur, 
Mystica quae nimium gravidis typicisque figuris 
Signantur Christi nostraeque et dona salutis. 
Hie sacra nam sacrae cernuntur Dyndima legis 
Atque evangelica salpinx typica intonat orbi." 
Papias : " Dindyma, mons est Phrygiae, sacra mysteria, pluraliter declinatur." Notus est 
mons Phrygiae Cibelae sacer Dindyma nuncupatus ; unde Virgilius. " vere Phrygiae, 
neque enim Phryges, ite per alta Dindyma." ' See also Sete of Angellis. 

3 The word anger or angre in Early English did not bear the meaning of our anger, but 
rather meant care, pain, or trouble. Thus in P. Plowman, B. xii. 11, we find the warning : 

'Amende ]?e while J)ow hast ben warned ofte, 
With poustees of pestilences, with pouerte and with angres,' 
and in the Pricke of Conscience, 6039, we are told of the apostles, that for the love of 
Christ, ' }>ay ])oled angre and wa.' 0. Icel. angr. 

4 MS. vilose. 5 MS. vilosus. 

6 In Sir Degrevant (Thornton Romances, ed. Halliwell), p. 179, 1. 63, we read, 

'As an anker in a stone He lyved evere trewe.' 

The same expression occurs in the Metrical Life of St. Alexius, p. 39, 1. 420. 'As ancres 
and heremites J)at holden hem in here selles.' P. Plowman, B. Prol. 38. The term is 
applied to a nun in Reliq. Antiq. ii. I. Palsgrave has 'Ancre, a religious man : anchres, 
a religious woman.' A. S. ancor. * Hec anacorita, a ankrys.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. 
p. 216. 

7 'His cote .... ennurned vpon veluet vertuus stonej.' Sir Gawaine, 2026. Wyclif 
has the subst. enournyng in Esther ii. 9 to render the V. mundum ; and again he speaks 
of ' Onychen stoonus and gemmes to anourn ephoth.' Exodus xxv. 7. ' Thanne alle the 
virgynis rysen vp, and anourneden her laumpis.' Matth. xxv. 7. ' Whan a woman is 
anourned with rich apparayle it setteth out her beauty double as much as it is. 1 Palsgrave. 
' I am tormentide with this blew fyre on my hede, for my lecherouse anourement of myne 
heere.' Gesta Roman, p. 384. ' With gude ryghte thay anourene the for thaire fairenes.' 
Lincoln MS. p. 199. In Lonelich's History of the Holy Grail, xxxi. 151, we read 

' 3it was that schipe in other degre 
Anoured with divers Jowellis certeinle ;' 
and Pvauf Coi^ear, when he enters the Hall of Charlemagne, exclaims 
' Heir is Ryaltie .... aneuch for the nanis, 
With all nobilnes anournit, and that is na nay.' 1. 690. 
See also the Lay-Folks Mass-Book, ed. Canon Simmons, Bidding Prayers, p. 65, 1. 4, p. 71, 
1. 20, &c, Allit. Poems, B. 1 290, and Cursor Mandi, 1. 3922. 'Anorne, to adorn.' Jamieson. 
O. Fr. aorner, aourner ; Latin adornare. The form anorme is used by Quarles, Shepherd's 
Eclogues, 3, and enourmyd in the Babees Book, p. 1. 



to Answre ; Resspondere, aggannire, 

an Answre ; ressponcio, 7'esspon- 

tan Answre of goddis ; fatum, diui- 

naculwm, oraculum. 
tAntecryste; il^eckristus. 
an Antiphonare l ; Antiplionarium 

anAntym 2 ; Antiplxona. 

A ante P. 

an Ape ; semia. 

an Apostata 3 ; Apostata; Apostatare 

an Apostem 4 ; Apostema. 
an Apostylle; «^;osto^us, coaposiolus; 

apostolicus, apostolaris. 

tan Apostyllehede ; apostolatus, co- 

to Appele ; AppellarQ. 
an Appele ; appellacxo, appd- 

to Appere ; apparere. 
tan Appetyte ; appetitus. 
*an Appylle of ee 5 ; pupilla. 
an Appylle ; pomum, malum, pomu- 

lum, pomellum. 
an Appylle tre ; pomus, mains, 

2)omulu.B, pomellus. 
tan Appelle garth 6 ; pometum, po- 

an Appylle hurde 7 ; pomari- 

an Appylle keper or seller ; pomilio, 


1 AntipTioner, an anthem-book, so called from the alternate repetitions and responses. 

' He Alma Eedemptoris herde singe, 
As children lerned hir antiphoner '.' 

Chaucer, Prioresses Tale, 1708. 
In the contents of the Chapel of Sir J. Fastolf at Caistor, 1459, are entered ' ij antyfeners.' 
Paston Letters, i. 489. See also Antym, below, and Anfenere. 

2 In the Myrroure of Our Lady, p. 94, Anthem is stated to be equivalent to both ante- 
hymnus and avr'upcuva. ' Ant em ys as moche to say as a sownynge before, for yt ys begonne 

before the Psalmes. yt is as moche to saye as a sownynge ayenste Antempnes 

betoken chante, The Antempne ys begonne before the Psalme, and the psalme ys tuned 
after the antempne : tokenynge that there may no dede be good, but yf yt be begone of 
charite. and rewled by charite in the doynge, &c. 

3 An Apostata was one who quitted his order after he had completed his year of novi- 
ciate. This is very clearly shown by the following statement of a novice : — 

' Out of the ordre thof I be gone. Of twelve monethes me wanted one, 

Apostata ne am I none, And odde dayes nyen or ten.' 

Monumenta Franciscana, p. 606. 
'Apostata, a rebell or renegate ; he that forsaketh his religion.' Cooper. The plural form 
Apostafaas is used by Wyclif (Works, ed. Arnold, iii. 368). See Prof. Skeat's note to 
Piers Plowman, C-Text, Passus ii. 99. 'Julian the Apostata , is mentioned in Harrison's 
Description of England, 1587, p. 25. ' Apostat, an Apostata.' Cotgrave. In the Paston 
Letters, iii. -243, in a letter or memorandum from Will. Paston, we read : 4 In this case 
the prest that troubleth my moder is but a simple felowe, and he is apostata, for he was 
sometyme a White Frere.' See also i. 19, i. 26. From the latter passage it would appear 
that an apostata could not sue in an English Court of Law. 

* ' Apostume, rumentum? Manip. Vocab. ' Aposthume, or brasting out, rumentum* 
Huloet. ' A medicine or salve that maketh an aposteme, or draweth a swelling to matter.' 
Nomenclator, 1585. 

8 ' Prunelle, the balle or apple of the eye.' Cotgrave. ' Als appel of eghe 3heme f>ou 
E. E. Psalter, Ps. xvi. 8. 

' Applegarthe, appleyard, pomarium? Manip. Vocab. A. S. %eard, 0. H. Ger. gart, 
Chaucer, Miller s Tale, says of the Carpenter's wife that — 

'Hir mouth was bragat is or meth, 
Or hoord of apples, layd in hay or heth.' 







fto Appropyre i ; Appropxiare, pro- 

tto Approwe ; Approare, sicut Domini 

sefaciunt de vastis. (X) 
Apprylle ; aprilis, mensis anni. 

A ante R. 

tAraby ; Arabia, arabicus partfici- 

to Aray ; accurare, ornare, Sf cetera ; 

vbi to make fare, 
tto vn Aray ; exornare, 6f cetera ; 

[vbi] to dysaray. 
an Aray ; ap2>aratus, pam£us, accu- 

ratus, ornatus, habitus. 
an Archangelle ; archangelus ; arch- 

angelicus partficipium. 
an Archebyschop ; # rchiepiscopus / 

archiepiscopalis participium. 
an Arche ; A reus, fornix. 
an Arehedekyn ; Archidiaconus. 
fan Archedekynry ; Archidiacon- 

tan Arcystere ; arcista. 

an Archer; Archetineus, arquites, 

Sagittarius, sagittator, arcipoteus. 
tAre ; pxior Sf pviu$ } ^recZmm, 

2)vimitus, pris^mus, ^rivs^uam, 

ante, antequ&m., antiquitus. 
tto make Ayre (Are A.) ; heredare, 

an Ayre ; heres, gafandus, gat/an 

grece, hereditarius. 
t Ayrelomes 2 ; pximagenita. 
an Are ; remus, amplustrum, trudes. 
Arely ; mane, tempestiue, Sf cetera ; 

vbi tymely. 
tto Areson 3 ; couuenire, alloqui y 

compellere, jnterpellare, afferri, 

concionari, obire. 
tAresonerc; Alloquitor vel -trix, con- 

cionator veil -trix. 
*Arghe 4 ; pusillanimis. noto. 
tArghnes ; pusillanimitas. 
tan Arguynge ; argumentacio ; ar- 

guens participium. 
tto Argue ; arguere, argumeutari. 
an Argument ; argumentum ; argu- 

mentosus participium. 

1 Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, 9346, says, that in addition to the general joys of 
heaven each man will have 

'His awen ioyes, les and mare, 
pat til hym-self sal be appropried J>are.' 
' pes ypocritis J>at han rentes & worldly lordischipes & parische chirchis approprid to hem/ 
Wyclif, English Works, ed. Matthew, p. 190 ; see also pp. 42, 125, &c. See also to make 
Awne, below. 

2 See Are-lumes in Glossarium Northymbricum, and Ray's Gloss, of North Country 
Words. ' Primigenia. The title of the ealdest childe in inheritance.' Cooper. 

3 O. Fr. areisnier, aragnier, to interrogate, whence our word arraign. See Kyng 
Alysaundre, 6751 ; Ywaine and Gawayne, 1094; Rom. of the Rose, 6220. ' Arraissoner. 
To reason, confer, talke, discourse, &c.' Cotgrave. Hampole tells us how at the Day of 
Judgment ' Of alle ]rir thynges men sal aresoned be.' P. of Conscience, 5997. And 
again, 1. 2460, that each man shall 

' be aresoned, als right es 
Of alle his mysdedys mare and les.' 

4 This word occurs in the Destruction of Troy, 1. 2540, and the verb arghe = to wax 
timid, to be afraid (from A. S. eargian) at 11. 1976, 31 21, and (with the active meaning) 
5148 ; and Allit. Poems, B. 572 : 

' ]>e anger of his ire ]>at arjecZ monye.' 
See also P. Plowman, C. iv. 237 ; Ayenbite, p. 31 ; 0. E. Miscell., p. 117, &c. 

* Jjenne ar$ed Abraham, & alle his mod chaunged.' Allit. Poems, B. 713. 
' He calde bo]>e arwe men and kene, 
Knithes and sergan3 swi]>e sleie.' Havelok,\. 21 15. 
See also Sir Perceval, 1. 69, where we are told that the death of one knight ' Arghede alle 
that ware thare.' 'Arghhess, reluctance. ToArgh. To hesitate.' Jamieson. A. S. eargh, 
earh ; O. Icel. argr. 



fto Aritte 1 ; Ascribere, dejnitare, 

tan Arke ; archa, techa, cista, Scri- 

nium, capsa, capsula^ capsella, 

achatus grece, aula. 
tan Arkemaker or keper; archarius. 
to Arme ; Armare, accingere. 
tan Armorere ; Armator, Armarius 

an Arme ; brachium, thorus, vlna, 

vlnu\f\a ; vlnalis, vlnarius p&rti- 

an Armehole ; ascella, ala, subhircus. 
Armour ; Armamewturci, armatura, 

armabilis, arma. 
tArmoOT for Armys ; brachialia. 
t Armour for leggis ; tebialia. 
tArmozi/' for theghys ; crurialia. 
tArmyd; Armatus (A.). 

tArnolde ; Arnaldus, women pro- 

an Arrowe ; pilum, liasta, hastula, 
hastile, cathapulta, sagitta, saggi- 
tela, missile, telum, armido, spicu- 
lum, gesa, sarissa, iaculum, fy 
dJicitur omne quod iacituv vt vul- 

tan Arowhede ; barbellum, catella. 

tan Arrerage (Arreage A.) 2 ; erre- 

an Arse ; anus, cwZus. 

t Arsnike 3 ; arscenicum. 

an Arsewyspe 4 ; A niter gium, mempe- 

Arte ; artes, dialetica ; dialeticus. 
A ante S. 

Ascape 5 ; vbi to scape. 

* Asethe 6 ; satis j actio. 

1 'In Chaucer, Knightes Tale, 1871, we have — 

' It nas aretted him no vyleinye, 
Ther may no man clepe it no cowardye.' 
According to Cowell a person is aretted, 'that is covenanted before a judge, and charged 
with a crime.' In an Antiphon given for the 'Twesday Seruyce,' in The Myrroure of Our 
Lady, p. 203, we read : — ' Omnem potestatem. mekest of maydens, we arecte to thy hye 
sonne, al power, and all vertew, whiche settyth vp kynges, &c.' Low Lat. arrationare. 
See Sir Ferumbras, 5174 ; Hampole, Prose Treatises, p. 31, &c. 

2 ' Arrierages is a french woorde, and signifieth money behinde yet vnpayde, reliqua' 
Baret. Arrirages occurs in Liber Albus, p. 427, and frequently in the Paston Letters. 

' I drede many in averages mon falle 

And til perpetuele prison gang.' Hampole, P. of Conscience, 5913. 
1 Arrierage. An arrerage : the rest, or the remainder of a paiment : that which was 
unpaid or behind.' Cotgrave. 'God that wolle the arerages for-3eve.' Shore- 
ham, p. 96. 

3 Compare P. Assenel. 

* In John Russell's ' Boke of Nurture,' pr. in the Babees Booke, ed. Furnivall, p. 65, 
we find amongst the duties of the Chamberlain — 

' Se ]>e privehouse for esement be fayre, soote and clene .... 
Looke J?er be blanket, cotyn, or lynyn, to wipe pe nejmr ende ; ' 
on which Mr. Furnivall remarks, — ' From a passage in William of Malmesbury's Auto- 
graph, De Gestis Pontificum Anglorum, it would seem that water was the earlier cleanser.' 
1 An Arse-wispe, penicillum, anitergiuw.'' Withals. 

5 In the story of the Enchanted Garden, Gesta Romanorum, p. 118, the hero having 
passed safely through all the dangers, the Emperor, we are told, ' when he sawe him, he 
yaf to him his dowter to wyfe, be-cause that he had so wysely ascapid the peril of the 
gardin.' See also P. Plowman, C. iv. 61. 

6 Amongst the kinds of help which may be rendered to souls in purgatory, Hampole 
mentions ' assethe makyng.' P. of Conscience, 3610, and again, 1. 3747, he says — 

4 A man may here with his hande 
Make asethe for another lyfannde.' 
In the Bomaunt of the Rose we find asethe, the original French being assez: other forms 
found are assyth, syth, sithe. Jamieson has ' to assyth, syith, or sithe, to compensate ; 
a&syth, syth, assythment, compensation.' ' Icel. se'Sja, to satiate; Gothic saths, full; 
which accounts for the th. And this th, by Grimm's law, answers to the t in Latin satis, 
and shews that aseth is not derived from satis, but cognate with it. From the Low 



to make Asethe ; satisfacere. 

to Aske ; postulare, exjyoscere suppli- 
citer Sf submisse, petere, aliquid 
^;ro merito, expetere humiliter 
cum precibus vel creditum, appe- 
tere, rogare precibus, con-, eocflagi- 
tare,jmprecarimala,2)recaribona } 
deflagitare, exigere, contari, £>er-, 
jnterogare, querere, jnvestigare, 
exqu^ir'jere, queritari, stipulari, 
con-,flagitare cum clamore <^per- 
tinacia, petere, scitari, scicitari, 
jnterp>ellare, $ cetera ; vbi to 

*to Aske wrangwysly (wrangusly 
A.) ; exigere. 

an Asker ; petitor, questionarius. 

fan Asker wrangwysly ; exactor. 

an Askynge ; peticio, postulacio, peti- 
ciuncula, postulamen, questio, 
questiuncula, stipulacio. 

fan Askynge wrangwysly (wrong- 
iisly A.) ; exaccio. 

*Askes 1 ; ciner vel -nis, cinisculuB 

efominutiuura, cineres defuncto- 

rum, cinis in foco. 
tAsky; cinerulentxxs, cinereus, cine- 

to Assay ; pprobare, temptare. 
to Assayle ; aggredi, arripere, assi- 

lire, grassare, impetere, inuadere, 

jnsultare, jnsurgere, adoriri, ir- 

an Asse ; asinus, onager, asellus ; 

asininus, asinarixxs, asinalis, />ar- 

anAssehird 2 ; agaso. 
tan Asse mengydwitftmans kynde 3 ; 

to Assent ; assentire, con-, quiere, 

quiescere, 6f cetera ; vbi to af- 

tAssentande ; assentaneus, con-, Sf 

cetera ; vbi affermyngc. 
to Assigne ; vbi lymytt. 
tan Assyse 4 ; sessio, assisa. 

German root sath- we get the Mid. Eng. aseth, and from the cognate Latin root sat- we 
have the French assez.' Prof. Skeat, note on P. Plowman, xx. 203. In Dan John 
Gaytryge's Sermon, pr. in Relig. Pieces in Prose and Verse, from the Thornton MS. 
p. 6, 1. 22, we are told that if we break the tenth commandment, 'we may noghte be 
assoylede of J>e trespase bot if we make assethe in J>at J>at we may to J>am J>at we 
harmede ;' and again, leaf 179, 'It was likyng to 30W, Fadire, for to sende me into this 
werlde that I sulde make asethe for mans trespas that he did to us.' See also Gesta 
Romanorum, p. 84. 

1 In HaveloJc, 1. 2840, we read that Godrich — 

' Hwan J?e dom was demd and sayd 
Sket was . . . . on ]>e asse leyd, 
And led vn-til J)at ilke grene, 
And brend til ashen al bidene;' 
and in An Old Eng. Miscell., p. 78, 1. 203, we are told that when the body is laid in the 
earth, worms shall find it and ' to axe heo hyne gryndej).' 

' Thynk man, he says, askes ertow now, 
And into askes agayn turn saltow.' 

MS. Cotton ; Galba, E. ix. leaf 75. 
' Moyses askes vp-nam And warp es vt til heuene-ward.' 

Genesis & Exodus, 3824. 
See also La3amon, 25989 ; Ormulum, 1001 ; Sir Gawayne, 2, &c. Lyte in his edition of 
Dodoens, 1577, p. 271, tells us that Dill 'made into axsen doth restrayne, close vp and 
heale moyste vlcers.' See also P. Plowman, C. iv. 125, 'blewe askes. 1 A. S. asce, asce, 
axe. O. Icel. aska. 

2 ' An asseherd, asinarius* Manip. Vocab. ' Hie asinarius, a nas-herd.' Wright's 
Vol. of Vocab. p. 213. 

3 MS. kynge. ' Onocentaurus, a beaste halfe a man and halfe an asse.' Cooper, 

4 See Glossary to Liber Custumarum, ed. Riley, s. v. Assise. 'Assises or sessions, 
conuentus iuridici ; dayes of assise, or pleadable dayes, in which iudges did sit, as in the 
terme ; fasti dies. 1 Baret. 



to Astony 1 ; attonare, stupifaceve. 
Astonyd ; attonitus, stupefactus. 
tto be Astonyd ; constemari, stupie- 

an Astrolabi (Astroby A.) 2 ; astro- 

Astronomy ; astronomia, astvonomi- 

an Astronomyowr ; astrologus, as- 

tronomus ; astroligws pardcipium. 
Asure ; A sura. 

A ante T. 
t At b e leste ; saltern. 
At b e laste ; tandem, denique, nouis- 

sime, demum. 
an Athe ; jur amentum, jusiurandum. 
tAtynse (Athenis A.) ; athene. 
*Atyre of be hede (The Athye of 

the heyde A.) ; tiara. 
to Atire ; vbi aray or make fare. 

to Attache ; Attachiare. 

t At my wille ; vti, vtinam, osi, qu&- 

tinus, vt si. 

A Si-ate V. 
* Avance s ; auancia (Herba est. A.). 
+to Awawnce 4 ; promouere, prove- 

here, extollere. 
Awawnced ; promotus, provectus. 
August ; Augustus, ?iomen mensis 

vol viri. 
to Awyse 5 ; deliberare, excogitare, 

Awysyd ; deliberates, jwovisus. 
vn Awisyd ; jndeliberatus, jnpro- 

an Awysment ; deliberacio, proui- 

Aumbry (Avmbyr A.) 6 ; ambra. 
an Awowterer 7 ; adulter, adulterator; 

adulterius, adulter atorius. 

1 ' This sodeyn cas this man astonied so, 

That reed he wex, abayst, and al quaking 
He stood.' Chaucer, Clerhes Tale, 316. 

• Estonner. To astonish, amaze, daunt, appall ; make agast ; also to stonnie, benumme, or 
dull the sences of.' Cotgrave. ' Attono. To make astonied, amased, or abashed. Attonitus. 
He that is benummed, or hath loste the sense, and mouyng of his members or limmes.' 
Cooper. Probably connected with the root which is seen in A. S. stunian, to stun. 

2 'His ahnagest, and bookes gret and smale, 

His astrylabe longyng for his arte, 
His augrym stoones, leyen faire apart 

On schelues couched at his beddes heed.' Cant. Tales, 3208. 
See a woodcut of one in Prof. Skeat's ed. of Chaucer's Astrolabe. 

3 MS. avande ; corrected from A. 

4 A word which occurs very frequently in the Gesta Romanorum : thus p. 48, in the 
version of the tale of Lear and his daughters we read that when his eldest daughter 
declared that she loved him, 'more J>an I do my selfe,' "perfore, quod he, }>ou shalt be 
hily avaunsed ;" and he mariede her to a riche and myghti kyng.' So also p. 122, the 
Emperor makes a proclamation that whoever can outstrip his daughter in running ' shulde 
wedde hir, and he hiliche avauncyd? See also Barbour's Bruce, xv. 522. ' Avancer, to 
advance, prefer, promote.' Cotgrave. 

5 A word of frequent occurrence in the old Romances in the sense of ' consider, reflect, 
inform, teach.' Thus in the 'Pilgrymage of the Lyf of the Manhode,' Roxburgh Club, ed. 
Wright, p. 4, we find ' I avisede me,' i. e. I reflected, considered. So in Chaucer, Clerkes 
Tale, 238 : ' Vpon hir chere he wolde him ofte anyse.' See Barbour's Bruce, ii. 297, vi. 271, 
&c. ' Aviser. To marke, heed, see, looke to, attend unto, regard with circumspection, to 
consider, advise of, take advice on ; to thinke, imagine, judge ; also to advise, counsell, 
warne, tell, informe, doe to wit, give to understand.' Cotgrave. 

6 'Ambra. Amber gryse : hotte in the second degree, and drie in the firste.' Cooper. 
' Ambre, m. Amber.' Cotgrave. See Destruction of Troy, 11. 1666 and 6203. Harrison, 
Descript. of England, ed. 1580, p. 43, says that in the Islands off the west of Scotland ' is 
greate plentie of Amber,' which he concludes to be a kind of 'geat' (jet), and 'producted 
by the working of the sea upon those coasts.' 

7 'Adulter. That hath committed auoutrye with one. Adult ero. To committe auoutery. 
Adulterium. Aduouterie.' Cooper. See Gesta Romanorum, pp. 12, 14. &c. 



A wow try j adulterium. 
to do Avoutry; Adulterare (A.), 
to make Autor (Auctorite A.) ; auto- 
rare, autorizare, laudare. 
to putt oute of Autorite ; exautorare. 
an Autor ; autor. 
an Autorite ; autoritas, autenti, grece. 

A ante W. 

to Awe ; debere. 

an Awer ; Debitor (A.). 

*an Awemener ; elemosinarius. 

an Awmenery ; elemosinaria. 

*an Awndyrne ] ; J2)opurgium, an- 

*an Awn of corne 2 ; arista, aristella 

Awne ; jwoprius, peculiarly. 
tan Awnhede ; proprietas. 
tto make Awne ; propriare, ajypvo- 

an Awnte; amita, matertera; versus : 
%sic 2>&tris est Amita soror ut 
vnatertera m&tris. 

t Awntentyke (Awtentike A.) ; au- 
torizabilis, A utenticus. 

*to Awntyr ; jn euentu poneve. 

*an Awnte doghter 3 ; consobrina. 

tan Awnte son ; consobrinus. 

an Awtyr 4 ; ara, mortuisjit ; altar e, 
soli deo Jit ; altariolum, tripos, 
Ariola, mensa domini, focus, 

tan Awtyr cloth ; linthium. 

A ante X. 

an Axe ; ascia, asciola, ascis, ascicu- 
Zus, securis, dolabrum bipennis, 
candex, dextnxlis, securila, sesess- 

tan Axe for a mason ; ascis, asci- 

tan Axyltothe 5 ; molaris, maxil- 

an Axylltre 6 ; Axis. 

t Axes 7 ; vbi fevers. 

A ante Z. 
*Azuere; azura. 

1 In the Will of Margaret Paston, dated 1504, we find, 'Item to the said William 
Lumner, my son, ij grete rosting awndernes, iij shetes, ij brass pots with all the 
brewing vessels.' Paston Letters, iii. 470. 0. Fr. andier. 

2 ' Flaxen wheate hath a yelow eare, and bare without anys, Polard whete hath no 
anis. White whete hath anys. Red wheate hath a flat eare ful of anis. English wheate 
hath few anys or none.' Fitzherbert's Husbandry, leaf 20. 'Arista. The beard of corne ; 
sometimes eare ; sometime wheate.' Cooper. ' Awns, sb. pi. aristae, the beards of wheat ; 
or barley. In Essex they pronounce it ails. See ails in South-Country Words, E. Dial. 
Soc. Gloss. B. 16.' Prof. Skeat in his ed. of Ray's Gloss, of N. Country Words, 1691. Turner 
tells us that ' y 6 barley eare and the darnele eare are not like, for the one is without aunes 
and the other hath longe aunes.' Herbal, pt. ii. If. 17. Best tells us that we 'may knowe 
when barley is ripe, for then the eares will crooke eaven downe, and the awnes stand out 
stiff and wide asunder.' Farming, &c. Book, p. 53. 

3 MS. doxtghter. 

4 See the Lay-Folks Mass-Booh, pp. 165, 168, and B. P. p. 71, 1. 20. 

5 ~Ray in his Gloss, of North Country Words, gives ' Axeltooth, dens molaris ; Icel. jaxl :' 
and in Capt. Harland's Gloss, of Swaledale, E. D.S. is given ' Assle-tuth, a double tooth.' 
Still in use in the North; see Jamieson, s. v. Asil-tooth. Compare also "Wang tothe. 

6 'Axis. An extree. Axis. An axyltre.' Cooper. A. S. eaxe. 

7 In the Paston Letters, iii. 426, we read — ' I was falle seek with an axez. 1 It also 
occurs in The King's Quhair, ed. Chalmers, p. 54 : 

'But tho begun mine axis and torment.' 
with the note — 'Axis is still used by the country people, in Scotland, for the ague.' 
Skelton, Works, i. 25, speaks of 

' Allectuary arrectyd to redres These feverous axys.' 

See Calde of the axes, below. ' Axis, Acksys, aches, pains.' Jamieson. ' I shake of the 
axes. Je tremble des fieures? Palsgrave. ' The dwellers of hit [Ireland] be not vexede 
with the axes excepte the scharpe axes [incolaa nulla febris specie vexantur, excepta acuta, 
et hoc perraro], Trevisa, i. 333. See Allit. Poems, C. 325, 'faeces of anguych,' curiously 
explained in the glossary as blows, from A. S. ]>accian. 




C&pitvJum 2 m B. 

B ante A. 
a b ab ; vbi a chylde. 
*a Babylle * j pigma. 
A Baby ; Infans, & cetera ; vbi 

barne uel chilcle. 
tBabilon ; babilonia, babilonius par- 

a Bacheler 2 ; bacalarius vel bacu- 

a Basyn (Bacen A.) ; timile, peluis. 
Bacon ; lardum, petaso, (perna A.) 
fto Bacon 3 ; disspjlodere. 
fBacond ; dlsplosus. 
*A Backe ; vespertilio, & cetera ; vbi 

bakke. (A.) 
Bacbrede ; vbi bakebrede. (A.) 
*a Badildore 4 (Batildure A.); pecten. 

Bayde 5 ; 

ABayge; Sacculus. (A.) 

a Bagpype ; panduca. 

a Bagpyper ; panducarius. 

Bay 5 ; badius. 

a Bay; bacca, estfructns lauri & oliue. 

tA Bay ; Aque. (A.) 

fa Bafynstylkylle (Baynstikille A) 6 ; 

gamerus, asparagus. 
taBakbone; spondile, spina. (Versus: 

me pungit spina, pars est in 

cor pore spina A.) 
to Bakbyte 7 ; blasfemare, detrahere, 

blatevare, derogare, detractare, 

detrectare, obloqui, susurrare. 
a Bakbyter; bias, bias/emus, detrac- 

tator, detrector, delator, susurro. 

1 Cotgrave s. v. Fol has ' give the foole his bable, or what's a foole without his bable.' 
'A bable or trifle, niquet.' ibid. 'A bable pegma;' Manip. Vocab. 'He schalle 
neuer y-thryve, Jjerfore take to hym a babulle.' John Russell's Boke of Nurture, in the 
Babees Boke, ed. Furnivall, p. I, 1. 12. In the Ancren Riwle, p. 388, when a certain 
king made efforts to gain the love of a lady, he ' sende hir beaubelet boffe ueole and feire,' 
where other MSS. read ' beaivbelez ' and ' beaubelez.' 

2 A Bacheler signified a novice, either in arms or in the church. Thus in P. Plowman, 
Prol. 87, we find ' Bischopes and bachelers? and in Chaucer, Squieres Tale, 24, Cambuscan 
is described as — 

'Yong, fresh, strong, and in armes desirous, 
As any bacheler of al his hous.' 
Brachet, Etymol. Diet., has traced the word from L. Lat. baccalarius, a boy attending 
a baccalaria or dairy-farm, from L. Lat. bacca, Lat. vacca, a cow. See also Wedg- 
wood, &c. ' Bachiler, or one vnmaried, or hauvng no wife. Agamus.' Huloet. 

3 Probably the same as batten, to beat out, flatten : see Halliwell, s.v. 

4 In Northamptonshire a batildore means a thatching instrument. 

5 • Of bay colour, bayarde, badius.' Baret. Compare P. Bayyd, as a horse. 

6 The stickleback. In the Ortus Vocab. we find ' Asperagus (quaedam piscis), a ban- 
stykyll.' Huloet has ' Banstickle, the stickleback;' and Baret gives 'a banstickle, 
trachydra? Cotgrave renders ' espinoche' (identical with the spinaticus or ripillio of 
the middle ages) by 'a sharpling, shaftling, stickling, bankstichle, or stickleback.' In 
Neckam De Utensilibus (Wright's Vol. of Vocab., p. 98) we find ' stanstikel : ' and in the 
Suffolk dialect, the fish is still known as the ' tantickle.' In Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 
189, the word 'stytling' is given as the equivalent of scorpio, a kind of fish, which the 
editor identifies with the 'stickleback' of the present day: and at p. 222, the word 
gamerus is rendered a 'styklynge,' and in the Prompt, the 'stykelynge' is identified 
with the silurus. Jamieson gives ' Bansticke, Bantickle. The three-spined stickle-back, 
Gasterosteus aculeatus. Linn.' Cooper renders Gammariis by 'a creuis of the sea.' 

7 ' Bacbitares,' we read in the Ancren Biwle, p. 86, ' pe bite^S odre men bihinden, 

beo^ of two maneres pe uorme cumeS al openliche, and seiS vuel bi anoSer, and 

speoweS ut his atter Ac ^e latere cumeS for© al on ofter wise, and is wnrse 

ueond pen pe ofSeri auh under vreondes huckel.' In An Old Eng. Miscellany, E. E. Text 
Soc, ed Morris, p. 187, we are told that ' Alle bacbytares heo wendej; to helle.' Chaucer, 
Persone's Tale (Six Text Edition, p. 628) divides backbiters into five classes. 




a Bakbytynge ; blasfemia, delatura, 
derogacio, detractacxo, susurrium. 

fa Bakbrede l ; rotabulum, <So cetera ; 
vbi a muldyngborde. 

to Bake; panificare, pistrire, in/or - 
nare, pinsere. 

a Bakehows ; pistrinum, cerealium, 

a Bakke ; dorsum., dorsiculum, ter- 
gum hominuva, ter^rus animalium, 
spina, (os dor si A.) spondile. 

a Bak of a knyfe ; ebiculum 2 . 

*a Bakke 3 ; blata, vespertilio. 

a Bakster 4 ; artocopus, pistor, cere- 

alius, furnarius, paneta, pani- 
Jlcus, panificia, panifeoc, pistrio, 

Bakwarde ; retrorsum, seorsum. 
a Ballan (Balans A.) ; bdluga, statera, 

eccamen, bilanx, libra, lanx, tru- 

trina, trutinella, librarius p&r- 

Balde ; Audax, 6c cetera ; vbi hardy. 
fa Baldestrot (A Baldystott A.) 5 ; 

1 Mr. Nodal, in his Lancashire Glossary, E. D. Society, says ' Bak-brede, a broad thin 
board, with a handle, used in riddling out the dough of oatcakes before they are put on 
the spittle, and turned down on the bak-stone.' See also Wright's Prov. Diet. s. v. Back- 
board. Jamieson gives ' Bawbrek, Bawbrick, a kneading-trough, or a board used for the 
same purpose in baking bread.' A. S. bacan, to bake, and bred, a board. According to 
Ducange Rotabulum is a baker's peel. 

2 From hebes, blunt ; the blunt side of the knife. ' Blunt man. Hehes? Huloet. 

3 ' Blatta, a litell wourme or flie, of the kynde of mothes, and hurteth bothe cloth and 
bookes.' Cooper. ' Chauvesouris, a batte ; a Flittermouse ; a Reeremouse.' Cotgrave. 
Jamieson gives ' Bak, Backe, Bakie-bird. s. The bat or rearmouse.' Compare Dan. aften- 
bakke, lit. evening-bat. See Wyclif, Levit. xi. 19. In the Poem on the Truce of 1444, 
printed in Wright's Political Poems, ii. 216, we read : 

• No bakke of kynde may looke ageyn the sunne, 
Of ffrowardnesse yit wyl he fleen be nyght, 
And quenche laumpys, though they brenne bright.' 
And again, p. 218 : 

' The owgly bakke wyl gladly fleen be nyght, 
Dirk cressetys and laumpys that been lyght.' 
In the Alliterative 'Alexander & Dindimus,' E. E. Text Society, ed. Skeat, 1. 123, we find : 
' Minerua men worschipen, in ojmr maner alse 
& bringen heere a niht-brid, a bakke or an oule.' 
See also Backe. • Vespertilio. A bakke.' Medulla. See Halliwell, s. v. 

4 Properly & female baker. A. S. bcecistre. In P. Plowman, Prol. 217, we read : 

' I sei3 in this assemble, as 5e shul here after, 
Baxderes and brewsteres, and bocheres manye ; ' 
And again, Passus iii. 79, 

' Brewesteres and bakesteres, bocheres and cokes.' 

5 Pronaba, which in Classical Latin signified a ' bridesmaid,' in Low Latin degenerated 
to the meaning of a ' procuress,' in which sense it occurs several times in the Liber Albus 
(see, for instance, p. 454, ' De poena contra meretrices, pronubas, presbyteros adulter os, &c. 
and, p. 608, a record of a sentence to the pillory of a woman ' quia communis Meretrix et 
Pronuba '). In Wright's Volume of Vocabularies, p. 217, we find it given, as here, as the 
Latin equivalent of ' bawdstrott' (i.e. 'an old woman who runs about on bawds' errands'), 
and again in the French Royal MSS. 521 and 7692 it is translated by * bawdestrot ' and 
* bawdetrot.' In the Pictorial Vocabulary of the 15th Century, printed in the same 
volume, p. 269, this is corrupted, evidently from the scribe's ignorance of the meaning of 
the word, into ' bawstrop ' and in the Medulla into ' bauds strok.' A ' trot ' was a common 
expression of contempt applied to old women in Early English ; thus in De Deguileville's 
Pilgrymage of the Life of the Manhode, MS. of St. John's College, Cambridge, If. 71. the 
Pilgrim addresses Idleness as ' \>ou aide stynkande tratte .... and than the olde tratt 
answerde me,'&c. ; and again, If. 73, 'When this aide tratteh&dde thus spoken.' Cf. 'This 
lere I learned of a beldame trote? Affectionate Shepherd, 1594. See Jamieson, s. v. Trat. 
' Paranympha : pronuba que viro nympham iungit. Paranymphus: dicitur qui nubentibus 
preest, vel eis assistit: vel amicus sponsalis qui eos coniungit: vel nuncius intermedius? 
Ortus Vocab. See Ducange, s. v. Paranymphus. 



pvonubus, pvonuba, jntevdtica, 
paranimpha, paranimphus, (vir 
huius A.) 

*a Baly ; balliuus, villicus ; villicare 
est tale officium. excercere. 

tBalery; Bolina. 

ta Balyngar x ; celo. 

*a Balke of howse ; trabs, tr&bes, 
tr&bis & tra,bus, trabicula. 

*a Balke betwyx (betwise A.) twa 
furris 2 ; cre&[r]o, porca. 

a Balle ; pila, alipatus qui iaculatwv 

ta Balle of b e hand or of fote ; cal- 

fa Balloke stone 3 ; testiculus, testi- 
culars joardcipium. 

ta Ballokecod ; piga, imembrana. 

Balme ; balsamum, colobalsamum, 
Jilobalsamum, opobalsamum. 

a Balme tre ; balsamus. 

*a Bancottr ; bancorium. 

a Bande; ligamen, ligatur a, vinculum. 

fa Bande of a dure ; vertebra 4 . 

ta Bande of luffe ; fedus, pi gnus. 

ta Bande of a howse 5 ; lacunar, 
lacunarium, laquear, laquearium y 

ta Bande of a carte or of a coppe 6 ; 
crusta, crustola. 

1 Harrison in his Description of England, ed. 1587, p. 79a, says, 'From hence [Milford] 
about foure miles is Saluach creeke, otherwise called Sauerach, whither some fresh water 
resorteth ; the mouth also thereof is a good rescue for balingers as it (I meane the register) 
saith.' ' Celox. A brigantine, or barke.' Cooper. Jamieson gives ' Ballingar, Ballingere. 
s. A kind of ship.' In the Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner, i. 84. there is a letter giving an 
account of the capture of certain French ships, amongst which are enumerated ' the grete 
shyp of Brast [Brest], the grete schyp of the Morleys, the grete schyp of Vaung, with 
other viij. scbyppis, bargys, and balyngers, to the number of iij. m 11 men.' The term also 
occurs in the Verse Life of Joseph of Arimathea (ed. Skeat), 1. 425, where the writer 
addresses Joseph as ' Hayle, myghty balynger, charged with plenty.' ' Balingaria. Bellicge 
species navis.' Ducange. ' Baling er or Balangha. A kind of small sloop or barge ; small 
vessels of war formerly without forecastles.' Smyth, Sailors Word-Booh, 1867. See also 
Way's note in Prompt, s. v. Hulke, p. 252. In the version of Vegecius, Reg. MS. 18 A. 
xii. are mentioned 'small and light vessels, as galeies, barges, fluynnes and ballyngers :* 
lib. iv. cap. 39. Walsingham relates that in the engagement between the Duke of Bedford 
and the French, in 1416, the former ' cepit tres caricas, et unam kulkam, et quatuor balin- 
garias. , Camden, 394. See also Lyndesay, Monarche, Bk. ii. 1. 3101. 

2 'Balke, a ridge of land betwene two fuirowes, lyra? 'A balke, or banke of earth 
raysed or standing vp betweene twoo furrowes : a foote stole or step to go vp, scamnum. 1 
' A balke in the cornefielde, grumus : to make balkes imporcare? Baret. ' Porca. A 
ridge, or a lande liynge betweene two furroes wheron the corne groweth : sometime a 
furrow cast to drayne water from corne : also a place in a garden with sundrie beddes.' 
Cooper. ' Assilloner. To baulke, or plow up in baulkes.' Cotgrave. See also Tusser, ed. 
Herrtage, p. 141, stanza 2, and P. Plowman, B. vi. 109. 'The balke, that thai calle unered 
lande.' Palladius on Husbandrie, E. E. Text Soc, ed. Lodge, p. 44,1. 15. 

8 'Hie testiculus, a balok-ston ; hie piga, a balok-kod.' Nominale MS. 15th cent. 
'Couille, a cod, bollock, or testicle.' Cotgrave. It appears from Palsgrave's Acolastus, 
1540, that ballocke-stones was a term of endearment. 

4 MS. vectebra. The hinge. In Mr. Peacock's Glossary of Manley and Cottingham 
(E. Dial. Soc.) is given ' Band ; the iron-work on a door to which the hinges or sockets 
are fastened. Bands; the iron- work of hinges which projects beyond the edge of the 
door ; frequently used for the hinge itself.' Cooper gives ' Vertebra, a joynte in the bodie, 
where the bones so meete that they may turne, as in the backe or chine.' ' Bands of a 
door ; its hinges.' Jamieson. See quotation from Ducange in note s. v. Brandyth. to set 
byggyng on. 'Vertebra. A dorre barre.' Medulla. 'And the 3ates of the palace ware of 
evour, wondir whitt, and the bandes of thame, and the legges of ebene.' Life of Alexander 
the Great, Thornton MS. If. 25. 

5 Florio has ' Bandelle, side corners in a house.' It seems here to be a joist. Cooper 
gives ' laquear, a beame in a house. Compare P. Lace of a Howserofe. Laquearium. 

6 ' Cmsta. Bullions or ornamentes of plate that may be taken off.' Cooper. See 
Copbande and Carteband. 

C % 



*a Bande doge 1 ; molosus. 

a Bane ; os, ossiculum, ossillum ; 

osseus par&cipium. 
fa Banefyre ; ignisossium. 2 . 
tfrom Bane to bane ; ossim. 
a Bane (Bayn A.) of a play 3 ; pre- 

ludium, proludiitm. 
a Baner ; vexillum, signum, tessera. 
a Banerer ; vexillifer, hastifer, hasti- 

ger, dr&conarius, antesignarius, 

primiceriu.B, ferentarius, primi- 

*j> e Bane sohawe (Baynshawe A.) ; 

a Banke ; ripa fluminis est, litus 

maris est, margo fontis est : ver- 

Fontis m&rgo, maris litus, sed 

ripa Jluentis. 

riparia, ripula, crepido est 

concauitas ripe; litoreus, mar- 

ginalis, margineus. 

to Banne 4 ; A nnathematizare, deuo- 

uere, deuotare, derogare, detestari, 

contumeliare, execrari, maledicere, 

impvecari, <fr cetera ; vbi to 

+A Banner ; deuotator, derogator, 

detestator, execr&tor, jmprecator, 

a Bannynge; detestacio, detestamen, 

execr&men, maledictum, maledic- 

fa Bannok 5 ; focacius, panis subci- 

*a Banqwer (Bankewere A.); ban- 

carium, dorsorium. 
fBanworte 6 ; consolidum. 
*b e Baptim; baptismus, baptisma. 
to Baptyse; baptizare. 
a Baptizer; baptista. 
Barane ; effetus, sterilis. 
*a Barbycane 7 ; Antemurale. 
a Barbelle ; barbellus, pisc'is est. 

1 ' Mastive, Bandog, Molossus? Baret. 'The tie-dog or band -dog, so called bicause 
manie of them are tied up in chaines and strong bonds, in the daie time, for dooing 
hurt abroad, which is an huge dog, stubborne, ouglie, eager, burthenous of bodie (and 
therefore but of little swiftnesse), terrible and fearfull to behold, and oftentimes more 

fierce and fell than anie Archadian or Corsican cur They take also their name of the 

word ' mase ' and ' theefe ' (or ' master theefe ' if you will), bicause they often stound and 
put such persons to their shifts in townes and villages, and are the principall causes of 
their apprehension and taking.' — Harrison, Descrip. of England, part i. pp. 44-5. 'We 
han great Bandogs will teare their skins.' — Spenser, Shep. Cal. September. See also 
Tusser's Five Hundred Points, &c, E. Dial. Soc, ed. Herrtage, ch. 10, st. 19. ' Latrator 
molossus. A barkynge bandogge.' Cooper. Wyclif, Eng. Works, ed. Matthew, p. 252, 
speaks of ' tey dogges.' 

2 A very literal translation of the English bonfire. 

3 See the Chester Plays, i. 1, from which it appears that the proclamations of the old 
mysteries were called Banes. ' Ban. A proclamation with voice, or by sound of trumpet.' 
Cotgrave. ' Prasludium. A proheme ; in Musicke a voluntary before the Songe ; a 
flourish ; a preamble or entrance to a mattier, and as ye would say, signes and profers.' 
Cooper. Compare the phrase ' the banns of marriage.' A. S. ban. 

4 ' Him wol i blame and banne, but he my bales amende.' William of Palerne, ed. Skeat, 
476; see also 1. 1644. In the Anturs of Arthur, ed. Robson, VII. xi. we read ' I banne 
J?e birde Jjat me bar.' A. S. bannan, O. Icel. banna. 

5 'Bannock, an oat-cake kneaded with water only, and baked in the embers.' Ray's 
Gloss. ; and see Jamieson, s. v. Gaelic bonnack. 

6 * Brysewort, or bonwort, or daysye, consolida minor, good to breke bocches.' Reg. MS . 
18 A, vi. leaf 72b. ' Inbattill gyres burgionys the banwart wild.' Gawin Douglas, Prologue 
to Book xi. of iEneid, 1. 115. A. S. banivyrt. Kennett's Glossary, Lansdowne MS. 1033 
explains it as the violet. According to Cooper, bellis is ' the whyte daysy, called of some 
the margarite, in the North banwoort? Bosworth says 'perhaps the small knapweed." 
' Daysie is an herbe J)at sum men called nembrisworte o^er bonewort? Gl. Douce, 290. 
Cockayne, Leechdoms &c, vol. ii. 371, and, iii. 313, defines it as the wall-flower. 

7 Cotgrave has ' Barbacane f. a casemate ; or a hole (in a parrapet, or towne wall) to 
shoot out at ; some hold it also to be a Sentrie,Scout-house, or hole ; and thereupon our 
Chaucer useth the word Barbican for a watch-tower, which in the Saxon tongue was 
called, a Bourough-kenning.' 



a Barbur ; barbitonsor, (7-asov, ton- 

sor A.) 
a Bare 1 ; apev, apevculus, aprinus, 
appvugnus ^ardcipium, maialis, 
castratus, verves ; versus : 

Verves testiculos liohet atque 
domi refouetur, 

Est aper in siluis, nefrendis in 
ede tenetur ; 

Idem maicdis castratus vtevque, 
Bare ; vbi nakyd : to bare, vbi to 

nakydim, (nake A.) 
ta Barespere 2 ; excipulum. 

fa Barsepay 3 (Barfray A.) ; fusti- 

fBarfute (Barfotte A.) ; nudipes. 
fBarlege ; incaligatus. (A.) 
a Barelle ; cadus, emicadium. 
Barely (Bayrly A.) ; vbi nakydly. 
a Bargaii ; pactum. (& cetera ; vbi 

conande A), 
to Bargan ; ])acisci, pangvce : versus : 
' Pango, cano,2>ango, iungo,pango, 
Dat pactum., pepigi, cano, panxi, 
iungere, pegi! 
*a Bargham 4 (BarwamA.); epipliium. 

1 ' Nefrens, a weaned pigge : maialis, barrow hogges : verves, a tame bore. ' Cooper. 

2 A spear for boar-hunting. Cooper gives ' Venabulo exclpeve apvum ; to kill a boare 
' Excipulum, i. e. venabulum. A spere 

to slee a bore with.' 

with an hunting staffe 
Ortu3 Vocab. 

3 The Addit. MS. is here undoubtedly correct. The word is the 0. Fr. berfroi, from 
which, through the L. Lat. belfredus, comes our belfry. It was a movable tower, often 
of several stories high, used by besiegers for purposes of attack and defence. The follow- 
ing quotation from Ducange will sufficiently explain the construction of the machine, as 
well as the stages by which the name came to be applied in the modern sense. ' Belfredus. 
Machina bellica lignea in modum excelsioris turris exstructa, variis tabulatis, coenaculis seu 
stationibus constans, rotisque quatuor vecta : tantae proceritatis ut fastigium oppidorum 
et castrorum obsessorum muros aequaret. In coenaculis autem collocabantur milites qui 
in hostes tela continuo vibrabant, aut sagittas emittebant : infra vero viri robore prae- 
stantes magnis impulsibus muris niachinam admovebant. Gallice, beffroi. Belfredi nomen 
a sirnilitudine ejusmodi machinae bellicae postea inditum altioribus turribus quae in urbi- 
bus aut castris eriguntur, in quarum fastigio excubant vigiles qui eminus adventantes 
hostes, pulsata quae in eum finem affensa est campana, cives admonent quo sint ad 
arma parati. Nee in eum tantum finem statutae in belfredi campanae, ut adventantes 
nuntient hostes, sed etiam ad convocandos cives et ad alios usus prout reipublicae curato- 
ribus visum fuerit. Unde campana bannalis dicitur, quod, cum pulsatur, quicunque intra 
bannum seu districtum urbis commorantur ad conventus publicos ire teneantur. Denique 
belfredum appellant ligneam fabricam in campanariis, in quibus pendent campanae. 
Fustibalns. Machinae bellicae species : engin de guerre, espece de fronde? In the Romance 
of Sir Ferumbras, E. E. Text Soc. ed. Herrtage, 1. 3171, when Balan is besieging the 
French knights in the Tower of Aigremont, King Sortybran advises him to make use of 
his 'Castel of tre J>at hijt brysour . . . 

And pote )>er-on vj hundred men, pat kunne bo]>e launce and caste.' 
The tower is accordingly brought up, and is described as follows, 11. 3255-3270. 
' In J>at same tre castel weren maked stages thre : 
pe hezeste hi3t mangurel ; the middle hi3t launcepre ; 
pe ny))emest was callid hagefray ; a quynte J»yng to se . . . 
pan J>e hesest stage of al fulde he with men of armes 
To schelde hem by-ny)>e wel fram stones and othere harmes. . . , 
And on ]>at o)>er stage amidde ordeynt he gunnes grete, 
And ojjer engyns y-hidde, wilde fyr to caste and schete. 
pyder Jeanne he putte y-nowe, and tauste hem hure labour, 
Wilde fyr to schete and J)rowe a3en J>e heje tour, 
In pe nyj>emest stage )>anne schup he him-selue to hove, 
To ordeyne hure fyr J>ar-inne, and send hit to hem above.' 

4 Capt. Harland in his Glossary of Swaledale (E. D. Soc.) gives 'Barfam, or Braffam, 
a horse-collar,' as still in use. It is also used in the forms hambervr, and hamborough, and 
means a protection against the hames. 'lice epicia; Anglice, a berhom.' Wright's Vol. of 



Bares 1 ; barri ; versus : 

Barri barrorum dantur 


a Barke 2 ; cortex, liber, codex. 
to Barke ; frunire, effrunire. 
to Barke as a dog ; latrare, de-, 

a Barkynge ; latmtus, latramen. 
fa Bar[k]howse ; frunitorium., cer- 

a Barkar ; cerdo, frunitor, gallari- 

us, -ij, & gallarius a um, gallita- 

Wus, -ij, & gallitarius a um. 
tBarke duste or wose ; frunium, 

a Barkar dog ; ibercisticus. 
tBarkefatto ; ptipsanarium. 
Barly; ordeum, ordeolum, ordeacius 

Barlycaffe. (A.) 

*A Barme ;! ; gremium, 6s cetera ; vbi 

a skyrtt. 
*a Barmeclathe 4 ; Kmus, limas, 

l>annx\a gremialis, vel corium 

*Barme 5 ; sjmma, & cetera ; vbi 

*a Barnakylle 6 ; camus. 
*a Barnakylle 7 ; Auis est. 
t A Barne 8 ; jnfans, jnfan/tulus, jn- 

tBarnely ; jnfantuose, puerilitex. 
A Barne ; oreum, 6c cetera ; vbi 

lathe. (A.) 
a Baron ; baro, baroniculus, baricu- 

lus, heres, grece, hero. 
a Barones ; baronissa. 
a Baronry (Barony A.) ; baronia. 
*a Barrow 9 ; cenovectorium vel sce- 


Vocab. p. 278. See Wedgwood, s. v. Hanies, and Barkhaam in Brockett's Glossary. 
Jamieson, s. v. Brechame. A. S. beorgan, to protect, and Eng. hames. And see also Hame 
of an horse. 

1 The game of prisoners'-base. In the Metrical Life of Pope Gregory (MS. Cott. 
Cleopatra, D ix. If. 156, bk.), we read — 

' He wende in a day to plawe pe children ournen at J)e bars? 

In the margin of the Metrical Vocab. printed in Wright's Vol. of Vocab., p. 176, is written 
4 Barri, -orum sine sing ulari, sunt ludi, Anglice, bace,' and in Myrc's Instructions for Parish 
Priests, E. E. Text Society, ed. Peacock, p. 11. 1. 336, directions are given that games or 
secular business are not to be permitted in a churchyard : — 
• Bal and bares and suche play, Courte holdynge and suche maner chost, 

Out of chyrche3orde put away ; Out of seyntwary put j>ou most.' 

Cotgrave gives • Barres, the martial sport called Barriers ; also the play at Bace, or Prison 
Bars.' In ' How the Good Wife Taught her Daughter,' printed in the 3rd part of Barbour's 
Bruce, ed. Skeat, p. 528, I.114, children are cautioned not 
1 Oppinly in the rew to syng, 
Na ryn at bares in the way.' 
See 'Base, or Prison-base, or Prison-bars,' in Nares' Glossary. 

2 According to the Medulla, cortex is the outer, liber the middle, and suber the inner- 
most bark of a tree : — ' Pars prior est cortex, liber altera, tercia suber.' 

3 ' Gremium. A barme, or a lappe.' Medulla. 

4 ' Limus. A garment from the nauell downe to the feet.' Cooper. In De Deguileville's 
Pilgrimage of the Lyf of the Manhode, MS. John's Coll. Camb., leaf 121, we read 'The 
skynne of whiche I make my barmclothe es schame and confusioun.' See also K" apron. 
' Limas. A naprone or a barme clothe.' Medulla. 

5 'Barme, or yeaste. Flos vel spuma certcisiae.' Baret. 

6 ' Barnacles, an instrument set on the nose of vnruly horses, pastomis. y Baret. 
' Camus ; a bitte, a snaffle.' Cooper. ' Chamus. A bernag for a hors.' Medulla. The 
Medulla further explains Chamus as ' genus freni, i. capistrum, et pars freni Moleyne. 
' Camus. A byt or a snaffle.' Elyot. See Byrnacle and Molane of a brydelle. 

7 ' Ciconia. A bernag or a botore.' Medulla. ' Barnacle byrdes. Chenalopeces? Huloet. 

8 ' Mercy on's, a Barne ? A very pretty barne ; a boy, or a childe I wonder ? ' 
Shakspere, Winter's Tale, III, iii. 70-1. 'I am beggered, and all my bar nes.' Harrison, 
ed. Furnivall, i. 108. 

9 ' Vecticulus. A barwe. Vecticularius. A barwe maker.' Medulla. 



fa Barroweraaker ; vecticularius, 
(scenouectorarius A.) 

ta Barras 1 ; antemurale, vallum. 

a Barre; clatrus, jwssulum, pessel- 
lum, obex, repagulum, vectis. 

*a Barre warde 2 ; archophilax. 

*a Baskyt ; Aristor, prod[ucitur~\ a, 
cartallum, calathus, sej)hinus, 
(cophinus A.) corbis, qualus,quax- 
illum, sjwrta, sportula. 

a Basenet 3 ; cassis, galea. 

*a Baslarde 4 ; sica. 

a Base (Bays A.) ; basis. 

*a Bastarde ; bastardus, fauomij, 
nothus ex nobili patre, spurius 
ex nobile matre, pelignus, <& di- 
cunt\ur\ spurij quasi extra, puri- 
tatem geniti; tales ^erwmg'ue 
matrem pocius quampatrem mori- 
bus sequu\n\tur. (Manzerinus, 
manzerus, hebreum. pocius quam 
grecum. A.) 

fa Bastardrye ; bastardia. 

a Bataile ; acies, ala, bellum. indici- 
tur pojmlorum, bellulum diminu~ 
tiuum; bellaticus bellicus, bellico- 

sus ^;ar<icipia ; bellax, belligev, 
Auellum est jnter dues dictum, 
quod auelluntur j)opuli in duas 
partes ; certamen. loco virtutis 
2>o[nit]ur : ciuile bellum ex ciui- 
bus constat <k auellum. ut s^;ra; 
conflictus, congressus, domesti- 
cum ex domestic^, duellum ex 
duobus est, jntestinum ex paren- 
tibus ; guerra, rebellio, mars, 
obsidio, pugna jit inter duos & 
inter plures ; vnus contra vnum 
procinctus ti, procinctus tus ; pal- 
las dea belli, ^re/mm geritur, 
preliolum (iiminutiuum, a pre & 
lite vel a j)re d? luendo, proprie 
est primus congressus vel con- 
Jlictus, bellum. i})sa guerra : vnde 
dictum, rornani victi sunt in j>re- 
lio sed numquam in bello, quia, 
sepe in congressibus vincebantur 
vel in jpsis conflictibus sed nun- 
quam in guerra ; vel prelium de 
prope, bellum. de longe. 
a Bate 5 ; simba, facelus, & cetera ; 
vbi a schype. 

1 Halliwell quotes from the Romance of Sir Degrevant, If. 131 : — 

'At the baresse he habade, 
' The folk that assa^eand wer 
At mary 3et, to-hewyn had 

1 Enfachoun ys to ]>e 3eate y-come, 
And hauej) J)at mayl an honde y-nome, 

And bawndonly downe lyghte.' 
The barras, and a fyre had maid 
At the draw-brig, and brynt it doune.' 
Barbour's Bruce, ed. Skeat, xvii. 754. 
And at ]>e baress he hym sette.' 

Sir Ferumbras, ed. Herrtage, 1. 4668. 
1 Barrace, Barras, Barres, Barrowis (1) A barrier, an outwork at the gate of a castle, (2) An 
enclosure made of felled trees for the defence of armed men.' Jamieson. 0. Fr. barres, pi. 
of barre, a stake. ' Valium. A bulwarke or rampyre.' Cooper. 

2 See also Berewarde. For archophilax read arctophylax. The term is generally 
applied to the constellation Bootes, or Charles' Wain. See Charelwayn. 

3 A light helmet worn sometimes with a movable front. See Strutt, ii. 60. It did not 
originally cover any part of the face, but it was afterwards supplied with visors. See 
Meyrick, Antient Armour. 

4 The baselard was of two kinds, straight and curved. By Statute 12 Ric. II, cap. 6, 
it was provided that ' null servant de husbandrie ou laborer, ne servant de artificer, ne de 
vitailler porte desore enavant bastard, dagger, nespee (nor sword) sur forfaiture dicelle.' 
In the Ploughman's Tale, printed in Wright's Polit. Poems, i. 331, we read that even 
priests were in the habit of wearing these arms, though against the law : — 

1 Bucklers brode and sweardes long, Soche toles about her necke they honge 

Baudrike, with baselardes kene, With Antichrist soche priestes bene.' 

In Fairholt's Satirical Songs on Costume, Percy Society, p. 50, is a song of the 1 5th century 
beginning ' Prenegard, prenegard, thus bere I myn baselard.' ' Bazelarde : ensis gladiolus? 
Manip. Vocab. ' Sica. A short swerde.' Medulla. See also Liber Albus, pp. 335, 554, and 
555, and Prof. Skeat's Notes to P. Plowman, iv. 461-7. 'Sica. A short swoorde or 
dagger.' Cooper. 

5 ' Phaselus. A little shippe called a galeon.' Cooper. 



Bathe ; jn plursli numevo, ambo. 
fBathe 1 ; ciuitas; bathonia, bathoni- 

ensis £>ar£icipium. 
tto Bath or bathe ; balneare. 
a Bath ; balneum, balneolum, terme. 
Bature 2 ; batura, sirnilago. 
to Bawme 3 ; (Balniare A.) ; vbi to 

*a Bawson 4 ; vbi A broke. 
Bebybeke 5 ; auis. (A.) B ante E. 
to Be ; conscistere, constare, esse, 

existere, extare, manere, perman- 

ere, sistere, restare. 
to Beabowteward 6 ; Analare, Asspi- 

rare, conari, eniti, niti, perniti, 

inniti, moliri, fatagare. 

fa Bee 7 ; armilla, br&chiale, dex- 
tr&le, dextr&riolum. 

a Bee ; apes, apis, apecula. 

tto Becalle 8 ; pxouocare. 

a Bechetre ; fagus. 

a Bedde (Bede A.) ; Accubitus, cubi- 
culum, cubatorium, cumbalorium, 
dormitorium, gr&batum, ^ro^ra- 
batum, ledus, stratum, thorus, 
tereuma, lectisternium, clinua 
grece ; clinosus, lecticulis, reclin- 

A Bede ; precula. 

a Bedelle ; bedellus, preco. 

ta Bedfelawe 9 ; h\o hec concuba. 

fa Bedfute 10 ; fultrum. 

1 Alexander Neckam in his work De Naturis Rerum, Rolls Series, ed. Wright, p. 457? 
thus speaks of Bath : — ' Balnea Bathoniae ferventia tempore quovis 

aegris festina saepe medentur ope? 

2 'Sirnilago; fyne meale of corne, floure.' Cooper. Still in common use as in 'batter- 

3 This line is repeated in the MS. 

4 ' Grisard. m. A Badger, Boason, Brocke or Gray. Taisson. m. A Gray, Brock, 
Badger, Bauson.' Cotgrave. See also Brokk. 

5 I have not been able to identify this bird, but it has been suggested that the name is 
probably one given in imitation of the noise made by some bird of the curlew kind. 

6 ' Thou art a bototeward, y undurstonde, And wynne my doghtyr shene.' 

To wynne alle Artas of myn honde, Sir Eglamour, 1. 658. 

7 In the fable of the Cat and the Mice, Prologue to P. Plowman, 1. 161, the old rat 
tells his hearers that in London he has seen people walking about wearing ' B{$es ful 
brijte abouten her nekkes.' In Wyclif's version of Genesis xxxviii. 18, we find 'Judas 
seide, What wilt thou that be 5ouen to thee for a wed ? Sche answeride, thi ring and thi 
bye of the aarm, and the staffe whiche thou holdist in thin hond.' The word also 
occurs in Legends of the Holy Pood, pp. 28, 29, 1. 134, and in the Story of Genesis 
and Exodus. (E.E. Text Society, ed. Morris), i. 1390. A.S. beat, beah, O. Icel. baugr, 
a bracelet, a collar. Dame Eliz. Browne in her Will, Paston Letters, iii. 464, bequeaths 
• A bee with a grete pearl. A dyamond, an emerawde .... a nother bee with a grete 
perle, with an emerawde and a saphire, weighing ij unces, iij quarters.' In Sir Degrevant, 
Thornton Romances, ed. Halliwell, p. 200, 1. 556, we find ' broche ne bye.' 

8 In the Anturs of Arthur, Camden Society, ed. Robson, xxxii. 7, the knight addressing 
the king says, 

' Quethir thou be Cayselle or Kyng, here I the be-catte, 
For to fynde me a freke to fe^te on my fille.' 

9 It was not an unusual custom for men, even of the highest rank, to sleep together; 
and the term bed-fellow implied great intimacy. Dr. Forman, in his MS. Autobiography, 
mentions one Gird as having been his bed-fellow. MS. Ashmol. 208. See also Paston 
Letters, iii. 235, where, in a letter from Sir John Paston to John Paston, we read 'Sir 
Robert Chamberleyn hathe entryd the rnaner of Scolton uppon your bedffelawe Converse.' 
It was considered a matter of courtesy to offer your bedfellow his choice of the side of the 
bed. Thus in the Boke of Curtasye, printed in the Babees Boke, ed. Furnivall, p. 185, 
we are told : — 

• In bedde yf ]>ou falle herberet to be pou schalt enquere be curtasye 
With felawe, maystur, or her degre, In what part of pe bedde he wylle lye.' 

10 ' Fultrum lecti. A bedsteade.' Cooper. ' Fultrum est pes lecti : sponda est exterior pars 
lectin Wright's Vol. of Vocab., p. 242. 



a Bedgate J ; conticinium, concu- 

in Bedhede ; cubitale. 
*Bederyn (Bedredyn A.) 2 ; clinicus. 
a Bedstede ; cubatorium, cumbato- 

a Bedstoke 3 ; sponda, fultmtm, lec- 

tica, pluteus. 
+a Bedstrey 4 ; stratum, stratorium, 

fBedtyme 5 ; vbi bedgate. 
fto Befalle ; accidere, eontingere, 

2>ertinere, refer re. 
Befe (Beffe A.) ; bosor, ccmies bouine. 
Before ; Ante sign&t locum, Antea 

sign&t tempus, pre, coram, palaxn. 
to Beg ; mendicare. 
a Begger ; mendicus, mendicidus 

to Begyle 6 ; caluire, caluere, cauil- 

lare, circulare, circumuenire, de- 
priuare, colludere, decipere, elu- 
dere, fallere, refraudare, frus- 
trare, illaqueare, illectare, illi- 
cere, imponere, pellicere, jyriuare, 
seducere, supplantare, seuocare, 
sophismatizare, subducere, temp- 
tare, tergiuersari, calumpniari, 
preuaricari, colludere ; tevgiuer- 
sari est m totum. deserere non. 
inpetreta abolecione, calumjmiari 
est falsum. crimen jntendere, pre- 
uaricari est verum crimen, scien- 
ter (abscondere A.), colludere est 
qx\u\n aliquis desistit ab accusa- 
cione, accepta pecunia : versus — 

Decipitur facto, solet & quis 
fallere verbo, 

Dicto uel facto socium. circwm- 
uenit ille. 

1 Bedgate, bed-time, going to bed : see Introduction to Gest Historiale of the Destruct. 
of Troy (E. E. Text Society, ed. Panton and Donaldson), p. xx, where the mistake in Hal- 
li well's Diet, is corrected. ' Conticinium. Bedde time, or the first parte of the night, 
when men prepare to take rest, and all thinges be in silence. After Erasmus it semeth 
to be the time between the first cockecrowyng after midnight, and the breake of the day. 
Concubium. The stille and diepest parte of the night.' Cooper. See Bedtyme. 

2 ' Beddred, one so sicke he cannot rise, clinicus.' Baret. In the Babees Boke (E E. 
Text Society, ed. Furnivall), p. 37, 1. 19, we are enjoined ' pe poore & J>e beedered loke 
J)ou not \o)>e.' And in the Complaint of Jack Upland, printed in Wright's Political 
Poems, ii. 22, in his attack on the friars, he says : — 

' Why say not je the gospel As ye do in rich mens, 

In nouses of bedred men, That mo we goe to church and heare the gospel.' 

' Clinicus. A bedlawere.' Medulla. See Stow's Survey, ed. Strype, I. bk. ii. p. 23. 

3 'Bedstocks, bedstead.' Whitby Glossary. Still in common use in the North. Mr. Pea- 
cock's Gloss, of Manley, &c, gives ' Bedstockes, the wooden frame of a bed.' 'Three 
bedstoks are mentioned in the Inventory of Robert Abraham, of Earton-in-Lindsey, 15 19.' 
Gent. Mag. 1864, i. 501. ' Sponda. Exterior pars lecti.' Medulla. See Bedfute, above. 

4 A certain quantity of litter (rushes or straw) was always included in the yearly allow- 
ance to the chief officers of an establishment. Thus in the Boke of Curtasye, printed in 
the Babees Book, ed. Furnivall, amongst the duties of the Grooms of the Chamber we find 
they are to 'make litere, 

ix fote on lengthe without diswere ; 

vij fote y-wys hit shalle be brode, 

Wele watered, I- wry then, be craft y-trode, 

Wyspes drawen out at fete and syde, 

Wele wrethyn and turnyd agayne }>at tyde : 

On legh onsonken hit shalle be made, 

To J?o gurdylstode hegh on lengthe and brade, &c.' 
In the Household Book of Edward II (Chaucer Society, ed. Furnivall), p. 14, we are told 
that the King's Confessor is to have ' litere for his bede al the 3ere.' ' Hoc stramentum ; 
lyttere.' Wright's Vocab., p. 260. ' Y schal moiste my bedstre with my teeris.' Wyclif, 
Psalms vii. 7. See also Lyter. 

5 'Bedde tyme, or the fyrste parte of the nyghte. Contismium.' 1552. Huloct. 

c ' Cauillor. To iest : to mocke : to can ill : to reason subtilly and ouerthwartly upon 
woordes. Cauillator, A mocker : abourder: a cauillar, or subtill wrester.' Cooper. 



Begylinge ; decepcxo, decipula, dolus 
fraus pellic'xo, Jrustracio, jmpos- 
tura, tergiuersacio, & cetera ; vbi 
falshede. (A.) 

+Begylows ; vbi false. (A.) 

fa Begyler; deceptor, frustr&tor, 
fraudator, supplantator, iniws- 
tor, seductor, seuocator, illusor, 

fBegylyd; deceptws, frustmtxis,frau- 
datus, supplantatns, seductus, se- 
uocatus, illusus. 

to Begyn ; jniciare, cepio, cepi, inire, 
encenniare, exordiri, incepere, 

a Begynnyngtf ; caput, elementum, 
exordium, origo nature, inicium. 
rei, pr'vmordium, jwincijrium 
operis, incepcio, inchoacio ; in- 
choatiuus, originalis, primordialis 

a Begynner ; exordiarius, jnceptor. 

tBegunne ; exorsus, jnceptus, jnitus. 

to Behalde ; asspicere casu, aspec- 
tare vel ri voluvdate, circumspi- 
cere, conspicari, contemplari, con- 
spicere, considerare, inspicere, 
iudicando intueri, cum. causa 
contueri, intueri, suspicere que 
supm vel retro sunt, respicere que 
retro sunt, despictve jnferius, per- 

spicere, prospicere que longe sunt, 
videre natura, mirari, perspi- 
cari, speculari, iprospectare, spe- 
ctre, spectare. 

a Behaldynge ; asspectws, obtutus. 

*a Beheste ; policitacio, promissum, 
promissio, votum. 

*to Beheste 1 ; destinare, vouere, de- 
uouere, jwomittere, ultropromit- 
tere, repromittere, spondere, de-, 
dis-, pollicitare, polliceri roganti: 
versus : 

vitro promitto quid polliceor- 
qne roganti. 

a Behyve ; Apiarium. 

fa Beehyrd : Apiaster. 

to Behove ; oportet, conuenit. 

tBehovefulle 2 ; oportunus, tempestiu- 
"us, tempestus, vtilis. 

Behowefully ; auspicato, nessessarie, 
oportune, vtiliter. 

tto Beke handes 3 ; explorare. 

to Bekyn 4 ; Annuere, nuere, innuere, 
nutum facere, nutare. 

a Bekenynge; numen, nutns, nutac'xo. 

a Bekyn or a standard 5 ; statela. 

*a Bek 6 ; torrens, riuibis, riuus. 

t A Beke 7 ; Rostrum, & cetera ; vbi 
nebe. (A.) 

Belde (or Balde A.) 8 ; caluws, calu- 
aster, caluillus, glabellas, glaber. 

1 'Polliceor. To behestyn.' Medulla. See P. Hotyn. 

2 • Forasmuche as ... . the king .... hath he stured by summe from his lernyng, and 
spoken to of diverse matters not behove/iill.' Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner, i. 34. See also 
Pecock's Repressor, ed. Babington, p. 47. 'Behoueable. Oportunus.' Huloet. 

3 MS. to Beke wandes. The Ortus Vocab. gives 'explorare: to spye, or to seke, or 
open, or trase, or to becke handes.' 

4 * Annuo. To agree with a becke to will one to doe a thing. Nuto. To becken, or shake 
the heade.' Cooper. ' Becken wyth the finger or heade. Abnuo, Abnuto.' Huloet. 

5 ' A Beacon, specula, specularium, pharus. 1 Baret. See The Destruction of Troy, ed. 
Donaldson and Panton, 1. 6037. ' Bekin, a beacon ; a signal.' Jamieson. A. S. beacn. 

6 In the Cursor Mundi (E. E. Text Society, ed. Morris, G-ottingen MS.), p. 515, 1. 8946, 
we read— ' pai drow it [a tree] J>edir and made a brig, 

Ouer a littel becc to lig ; ' 
and in Harrison's Descript. of England, 1587, p. 50a, the river ' Weie or Waie' is described 
as running towards ' Godalming, and then toward Shawford, but yer it come there it 
crosseth Craulie becke, which riseth somewhere about the edge of Sussex short of Pvidge- 
weie,' &c. ' Hie rivulus, a bek.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab , p. 239. 

7 Harrison, speaking of the fashions of wearing the hair in his time, says : — ' if [a man] 
be wesel becked, then muche heare left on the cheekes will make the owner looke big like 
a bowdled hen, and so grim as a goose,' ed. Furnivall, i. 169. 

8 ' Glaber, smooth without heare ; pilde.' Cooper. ' Beld, adj. bald, without hair on 
the head. Beldness, Belthness, 3. baldness.' Jamieson. 



*a Beldame ; Auia. 

tto make Belde (Bellyde A.) ; de- 

caluere, decapillare, recalluere. 
tBelde (Bellyde A.) be hynde; reca- 

luus, recaluaster, recaluatus. 
a Bel[d]nes ; caluicies, caluicium. 
ta Belhouse ; campanile. 
to Belche (Belke or Bolke A.) 1 ; 

ructare, ructuare, ructari. 
a Bely ; venter, <£ cetera ; vbi a 

a Belle; campana, campanula, cavn- 

panella, -nola, cimbaliim, tintin- 

nabulum, tonabilum. 
a Belle in b e water a ; bulla, tumor 

*a Belle maker ; campanarius. 
ta Belle man 3 ; polector. 
a Bellowe (Belowys or belice A.) ; 

follis, folliculus. 
a Bellsyre 4 ; A uus. 
tA Belstringe. (A.) 
a Belte; balteus, cinctorium, cingu- 

lum, stropheum, zona, zonuba, 

zonella, semyncium. 
ta Belte maker; zonarius. 
ta Belte of lechery 5 ; cestus. (In- 

cestus A.) 
tto Belte; cingere, ac-, circum-, cir- 

ctimscribere, pYecingzxe. 
tto vn Belte ; discingeve, incin- 

tBeltyd; singulatus, zonatus, cinc- 

tus-, Ac-, ^>re-. 
a Berne (Beym A.) of b e son ; 

a Berne of a webster 6 (weffere A) ; 

iugum, liciatorium. 
A Beym of y e plwgh ; Buris, & 

cetera ; vbi plwghe beme. (A.) 
a Bend 7 ; victa, emiculum. 
to Bend ; Arcuare, exteyidere, ten- 

dere, & cetera ; vbi to bowe. 
tto vn Bend ; laxare, relaxare. 
a Bene ; /aba, fabella cfo'minutiu- 


1 See also to Ryfte. 'To bealke, or breake winde vpward, ructo; a bealking, ructus; to 
belke, ructo; a belche, ructus.' Baret. In P. Plowman, B. v. 397, Accidia (Sloth) we are 
told, 'bygan benedicite with a bolke, and his brest knokked, 

And roxed and rored, and rutte atte last ; ' 
and in the Towneley Mysteries, p. 314: — 

• In slewthe then thai syn, Goddes workes thai not wyrke, 
To belke thai begyn, and spew that is irke.' 
' Ructor, to rospyn : ructuus, a jyskyng.' Medulla. 

2 See Burbylle in the water, and P. Burbulle. ' Bulla, a bubble of water when it 
reyneth, or a potte seetheth.' Cooper. ' A bubble of water, bulla.' Baret. ' Bulla. A 
burbyl, tumor laticis : bullio, Bolnyng of watere. Scaleo. To brekyn vp or burbelyn.' 
Medulla. ' Bulla. A bubble rysing in the water when it rayneth.' Withals. 

3 A watchman. Cf. ' the bellman's drowsy charm.' Milton, II Penseroso, 83. 

* In the Satirical Poem on Bishop Boothe, printed in Wright's Political Poems, ii. 229, 
we read ' Bridelle yow bysshoppe and be not to bolde, 

And biddeth youre beawperes se to the same : 
Cast away covetyse now be ye bolde, 
This is alle ernest that ye call game : 
The beelesire ye be the more is youre blame.' 
See also P. Plowman, C. xi. 233, and compare Beldam in P. 

5 Ducange gives ' Ceston. Zona Veneris . . . Latini dixerunt Cestus. Cesta. Vinculum, 
Ligamen . . . Oraece neards muliebre cingulum est, praecipue ilia zona, qua nova nupta 
nuptiarum die praecingcbatur a sponso solvenda.' Cooper renders Cestus by ' a manage 
gyrdle ful of studdes, wherwith the husbande gyrded his wyfe at hir fyrst weddynge.' 
' Cestus. A gyrdyl off lechery.' Medulla. 

6 ' Liciatorium, a weaver's shittell, or a silke woman's tassell, whereon silke or threade 
wounden is cast through the loome.' Cooper. ' Liciatorium. A thrumme or a warpe. 
Medulla. ' Weauers beame, whereon they turne their webbe at hande. Iugum.' Huloet. 

' A fillet or band for the hair. The Medulla renders Amiculum by 'A bende or a 
kerche,' and Withals by ' A neckercher or a partlet.' The Ortus says, 'Amicilium dicitur 
fascia capitis: scilicet peplum, a bende or a fyllet; id est mitra virginalis. Amiculum. 
A bende or a kercher ;' and the same explanation is given by Baret. 



i&S" Benes spelked 1 ; fabefrese. 
a Benet 2 ; exorcista. 

Benet ; propvium, benedictus. 

a Benefys ; beneficium. 

a Benke 3 (or A stole A.); scamnum, 
& cetera; vhi a stole (stuylle A.), 
& bancus regis cZicifcur. 

tBent as a bo we ; exte7isus. 

fBsnt 4 ; harba est. 

fvn Bent ; laxus, relaxus. 

tBerande 5 ; baiulus. 

a Berde ; barba, barbula, genorbo- 
duxu 6 cati est ; barbatus, barba- 
tulus jparricipia. 

tBerdeles 7 ; depubis, jmpubis, in- 
vestis, inverbis. 

tto Berde ; puberare, pubertare. 

tto Bere ; baiulare, de 
de-, vehere, de-, 
ferre, con-, de-, aliena gerere, nos- 
tra gestare, gestitare, asportare, 

■, portare, 
con-, ad-, 

subleuare, sustentare, vectare, vec- 

titare, sufflircinare est latentet 

aliquid sub vestibus ferre vt, ' iste 

suffarcinat libros.' 
Beer 8 ; quid-am p>otus est & c/icitur 

lepiletuvcv secundum quosdctm. 
a Beer; vrsus,vrsa, vrsinus, arch[t]os, 

A Beare 9 ; baccallum, caperidus, 

quod capit corpus gestorium, ges- 

tatoriuva, feretrniw, libitina, lo- 

culus, locellus, sandapula. 
to Bereaway ; assportare, absentare, 

auferre, deportare, remouere, a- 

mouere, avehere 
to Bereagayn ; refferre, reportare. 
tto Bere a dede man; efferre. 
to Bere jn ; importare, inferre, iu- 

tto Bere vp ; excipere, efferre, susci- 


1 ' Fressa faba, Plin. A beane broken or bruysed.' Cooper, 1586. ' Faba fresa. 
Groundyn benys.' Medulla. Pegge gives ' Spelch, to bruise as in a mortar, to split, as 
spelched peas, beans,' &c. ' Beane cake. Fahacia. Beane meale. Lomentum.' 1 Huloet. 

2 From a passage in the Paston Letters, iii. 239, this term would seem to have been in 
common use. William Pykenham writing to Margaret Paston, says, ' Your son Watre 
ys nott tonsewryd, in moire tunge callyd Benett.' 'Exorcista. A benet, conlurator. 
JEJxorcismus. A cowiuration a3ens }>e deuyl.' Medulla. 

3 A. S. bene, O. Icel. bekkr, a bench. 'Benche. Cathedra, Planca, Scamnum.' Huloet. 

4 • Bent, gramen? Wright's Vol. of Vocab., p. 191. Any coarse wiry grass such as grows 
on a bent, a common or other neglected ground. Under this name are included Arundo 
arenaria, agrostis vulgaris, triticum junceum, &c. By 15 and 16 George II. c. 33, plucking 
up or carrying away Starr or Bent within 5 miles of the Lancashire coast 'sand-hills' was 
punishable by fine, imprisonment, and whipping. Ger. bintz, bins, a rush. See Moor's 
Gloss, of Suffolk Words. 

5 ' Band us. A porter or cariar of bourdens.' Cooper. ' Baiulus. A portoure.' Medulla. 
See also a Berer. ' Beare. Baiulo, Fero, Gero.'' Huloet. 

6 ' Genorbodum. A berde.' Medulla. P. reads ' genobardum? and Ortus, ' genobradum.' 

7 ' Impubes. A man childe before the age of xiiij, and a woman before the age of xij 
yeres.' Cooper. ' Puber. A chyld lytyl skoryd. Pubero. To gynne to heeryw. Pubes. 
A chyldjs skore, a chyldys age.' Medulla. The Medulla curiously renders impubes by 
* unjong,' and impubeo by ' vnjyngyn. 'Beardles, or hauing no bear^e. Galbris? Huloet. 

8 Baret says 'Beer or rather Bere; ab Italico Bere, i.e. bibere quod Gallice, Boire 
De la Mere.' See Mr. Fdley's admirable note in Glossary to Liber Custumarum, s. v. 
Cerveise, where he points out the fact that hops (hoppys) are frequently mentioned in the 
Northumberland Household Book, 151 2, as being used for brewing, some ten years before 
the alleged date of their introduction according to Stowe. Cogan, in his Haven of Health, 
161 2, p. 220, tells us that beer was ' inuented by that worthie Prince Garnbrinius ; Anno 
1786. yeares before the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ, as Languette writeth 
in his Chronicle.' On p. 217 he gives a hint how to know where the best ale is to be 
found — ' If you come as a stranger to any Towne, and would faine know where the best Ale 
is, you neede do no more but marke where the greatest noise is of good fellowes, as they 
call them, and the greatest repaire of Beggers.' 

9 ' Libitina. Deeth or the beere whereon dead bodies weare caried.' Cooper. See note 
in P. s. v. Feertyr. ' Beare to cary a dead corps to burial. Capulum* Huloet. 



to Bere wytnes; testari, at-, & 

cetera ; ubi to wyttnes. 
tA Berer of wytnes; testis, <l' cetera; 

vbi a wytnes. 
ta Berer 1 ; baiidns, gendus, porta- 

tor, vector. 
fa Berer of wod ; calignarius, calo. 
Bery ; bacca, cuiuslibet fructus sil- 

to Bery 2 ; triturare, <fc cetera ; vbi 

to thresche. 
tto Bery 3 ; bustare, componere, fune- 

rare, humare, sepelirQ, tumulare. 
*a Berylle stone ; berillus. 
tBeryngc ; ferax, vt, ' istud solum. 

est ferax frugum ; jsta aqua est 

ferax nauium ; ' feracuhxs, gesta- 


tBerynge corne ; frugifer. 

a Berynge ; vectara. 

*a Bereward 4 ; vrsiarius. 

a Besande 5 ; bezancius, aureus, 
dragma, mna, talentum. 

tto Beseke ; supplicarQ, & cetera ; 
vbi to pray. 

Besy ; argumentosus, anxins, assi- 
duus, attentus, procliuus, pro- 
cliuis, diligens, freque\yi\s, in- 
stalls, intentus, jndustris, jugis, 
solllcitws, solicitudinarius 6 , stu- 
diosus, solers, efficax, vigilans, 
ardens, pevseuerans, occupatus, 
officiosus, sedulus 7 , susspensus. 

tto be Besy ; assidere, assiduare, 

tto make Besy; solicitare. 

1 See also Berande. 'Bearer. Lator,Portitor^ 1592. Huloet. Abcedarium. 

2 ' Berry, v. To thresh, i. e. to beat out the berry or grain of the corn. Hence a 
berrier, a thresher ; and the berrying -stead, the threshing-floor.' Ray's Glossary of North 
Country Words,' 1691. See also Jamieson, s. v. Icel berja. 

3 • Busto. To beryn or gravyn.' Medulla. 

4 See also Barrewarde. Harrison, in his Description of England, ed. Furnivall, i. 220, 
classes bearewards amongst the rogues of the time, for he says, ' From among which com- 
panie [roges and idle persons] our beareivards are not excepted, and iust cause : for I have 
read that they haue either voluntarilie, or from want of power to master their sauage 
beasts, beene occasion of the death and deuoration of manie children in sundrie countries. 
And for that cause there is and haue beene manie sharpe lawes made for bear- 
wards in Germanie, wherof you may read in other.' By the Act 39 Eliz. cap. iv, entitled 
' An Act for punishment of Rogues, Vagabonds and Sturdy Beggars,' § II, 'All Fencers, 

Beanvards, Common Player3 of Enterludes and Minstrels wandering abroad ail 

Iuglers, Tinkers, Fecllers, &c shall be adjudged and deemed Rogues, Vagabonds, 

and Sturdy Beggars.' See also Shakspeare, 2 Henry VI, i. 2 and v. 1 ; Much Ado about 
Nothing, ii. I : and 2 Henry IV, i. 2. In the Satirical Poem on the Ministers of Richard 
II, printed in Wright's Political Poems, i. 364, we read : — 

' A bereward [the Earl of Warwick] fond a rag ; 
Of the rag he made a bag ; 
He dude in gode eutent. 
Thorwe the bag the berewarde is taken ; 
Alle his beres han hym forsaken ; 
Thus is the berewarde schent.' 

5 ' A besant was an auncient piece of golden coyne, worth 15 pounds, 13 whereof the 
French kings were accustomed to offer at the Masse of their coronation in Rheims ; to 
which end Henry II caused the same number of them to be made, and called them 
Bysantins, but they were not worth a double duck at the peece.' Cotgrave. See Gloss. 
to Liber Custumarum, s.v. Besantus. ' Bruchez and besauntez, and other bryghte 
stonys.' Morte Arthure, ed. Brock, 3256. In P. Plowman, B. vi. 241, a reference is made 
to the parable of the Slothful Servant, who 

' had a nam [mina] and for he wolde nou3te chaffare, 
He had maugre of his maistre for euermore after,' 
where in the Laud MS. nam is glossed by ' a besaunt,' and in the Vernon MS. by talentum? 
Wyclif's version of the parable has besaunt; Luke xix. 16. See also Ormulum, ed. White, 
ii. 390, and the History of the Holy Grail, E. E. Text Society, ed. Furnivall. xv. 237. In 
the Cursor Mundi, p. 246, 1. 4193, we read that Joseph was sold to the Ishmaelites 'for 
twenti besands tan & tald.' 

6 MS. Sillicitus, silicitudinarius, T MS. Sedudus. 



Besyly; assidue, vsque, curiose, vigi- 
lanter, magnopere, summopere, 
& cetera a nom'mibus. 

1 Besyde ; iuxta, para grece, secus. 

a Besynes * ; assiduitas, cura, dili- 
gencia, anxietas, industria, soler- 
cia, studium, opera, sedulitas, 
conatus, conamen, nisus, instan- 
cia, occupacio, solicitudo. 

Best ; optlmus, primus. 

A Beste ; animal, bestia, bestiola, 
/era, belua marina, jumentum., 
pecus-oris, pecus-dis, versus : 

Est pecus hoc quod erat pecus 
hoc quod now iuga seruat. 
Animalis, bestialis, bestiarius, 
jumentarius, pecorosus, pecorius, 

t A Beste of dyuerse kyndis 2 ; burdo, 

*a Bestynge 3 ; colustrum. 

a Besumme; scopa,verriculum, scoba, 
*Betan 4 ; harba ; betonica. 
A bete of lyne 5 ; linatorium. 
to Bete ; baculare, cedere, flagellars, 
fustigate, gladiare, per cuter e, 

verberare, con-, de-, e-, re-, mul- 

tare, vexare. 
to be Bette ; vapulare. 
tA Beter; verbero, verberator, gladia- 
tor, baculator. 
jt Betides (Betydis or happyns A.); 

accidit, contingit, euenit. 
aBetylle ; porticulus, occa 6 ,feritorium. 
A Betynge ; verber, verberacio, ver- 

beramen, veicberans. 
fBetyn 7 gold ; braccea, bracusea, 

bracceola, (crisea grece A.) 
to Betray ; prodere, tmdere, tr&du- 

ceve, & cetera ; vbi to begyle. 
fa Betraynge 8 ; delatura, pvodicio, 


1 In the Boke of Curtasye, printed in Babees Boke, ed. Furnivall, p. 187, 1. 331, we are 
told 'Whil any man spekes with grete besenes, 

Herken his wordis with-outen distresse,' 
and in the Destruction of Troy, ed. Donaldson and Panton, 1. 10336, we read 
' To pull hym of prese paynit hym fast 
With all besenes aboute and his brest naked ; ' 
and Chaucer says of the Parson that 

' To drawe folk to heven by fairnesse 
By good ensample, this was his busynesse.' C. T., Prologue, 519. 

A. S. biseg, bisg; bisegung, bisgung, occupation, employment; Fr. besoigne. 

2 'Burdo ; a mulette.' Cooper, 1584. 'A mule ingendred betweene a horse and a shee 
asse, hinnus, burdo? Baret. 

3 ' Colustrum. The first milke that commeth in teates after the byrth of yonge, be it in 
woman or beast ; Beestynges.' Cooper. The word is not uncommon. Cotgrave gives 
' Beton. m. Beest ; the first milke a female gives after the birth of her young one. Le 
laid nouveau. Beest or Beestings.' Originally applied to the milk of women, it is now 
in common use in the Northern and Eastern counties for the first milk of a cow or other 
animal. See Peacock's Glossary of Manley, &c. ' Colostrium : primum lac post partum 
vituli? Medulla. 

4 Of Betony Neckam, in his work De Naturis Rerum (Rolls Series, ed. Wright), p. 472, 
gays, ' Betonicae vires summatim tangere dignum 

Duxi, subsidium dat cephalaea tibi. 
Auribus et spleni confert, oculisque medetur, 

Et stomachum laxat, hydropicosque jurat. 
LimpJiatici sanat morsum canis, atque trementi 

Quern male vexat, lux tertia praebat opem.' 

5 A sheaf or bundle of flax as prepared ready for the mill. * To beet lint. To tie up 
flax in sheaves. Beetinband. The strap which binds a bundle of flax.' Jamieson. At the 
top of the page, in a later hand, is written ' A bete as of hempe or lyne ; fastis? 

6 Occa is properly a harrow. In the Medulla it is explained as 'A clery betel' (? cley- 
betel). See to Clotte. ' Betle or malle for calkens. Malleus stuparius.' Huloet. 

7 MS. betynge. Corrected from A. ' Bractea. Gold foyle ; thinne leaues or rayes 
of golde, siluer or other mettall.' Cooper. ' Braccea. A plate.' Medulla. 

8 ' Prodicio. A trayment. Trado. To tray en.' Medulla. 



tto Better ; meliorare. 

tto be "Better ; pristare, preualere. 

Better (Bettyrer A.); melior, excipu- 
us, precipuus, meliusculus dinu- 
nuthmra, potior & pocius, prestan- 
cior & -cms, excellencior do -vs. 

Betwene ; jnter, jnterpositiuas, jn- 
ter scalaris l . 

*Beverage (Berrage A.); bibera, 

A Bewetye 2 ; euprepia. 
B ante I. 

By ; per, tenus. 

to By 3 ; emo. 

tByabylle ; empticius. 

tto By and sellc; auccionari, mer- 
cari, nuwdinare. 

A Bybylle ; biblia, bibliotheca. 

to By Agayn ; redimere, luere. 

tpe Bychdoghter 4 (Bychdowghtcr 
A.) ; epialtis, epialta, noxa. 

A Bych; licista. 

to Bydde ; admonere, monere, perci- 
j>ere, & cetera ; vbi to cammawde. 

to Byde 5 ; expectare, prestolari, &: 
cetera ; vbi to a-byde. 

A Byddyngc; preceptum, manda- 

tum, & cetera; v\A a comraaww- 

tA Bydynge ; expectacio, perseuer- 

ancia, & cetera ; vhi abidyngc. 
to Byde halydayes r> ; jndicere. 
tto Byd to mete; jnvitare. 
to Bye ; emerc, ademere, com/;ar#re, 

luere, redimere, parare, tollere. 
*A Bygirdyllc 7 ; marsupium., re- 

*to Byge 8 ; Fundare, condere, edi- 

Jicare, struere, con-, ex-, statuere, 

tto Bygge agayn ; reedif[ic]are. 
A- Bygyngc; construccio, structura, 

tBygyngc vndcr erthe ; subterra- 

a Byynge ; emaculus, empcio. 
Bihynde ; deorsum, pone, pessum. 
tBi lytylle and lytylle ; sensim, 

a Bille of a byrde ; rostrum. 
a Bille (A Byll or A pycoss A.) 9 ; 

fossorium, ligo. 

1 ' Interscalaris. Betv/yn styles.' Medulla. 

3 In a later hand, at the top of the page. 3 See also to Bye. 

* The nightmare. Epliialtes is the Greek etyaXrrjs, the nightmare (Lat. incubus), lit. 
leaping upon, from kcpakhoficu, to leap. Halliwell gives ' Bitch-daughter. The nightmare. 
Yorkshire,' but I have been unable to find the word in any Glossary. ' Epialtes. The nyth 
mare.' Medulla. Noxa is also given hereafter as the Latin rendering of Jje Falland 
euylle, q.v. Cooper renders Ephialtes by 'the disease called the maare, proceeding of 
grosse and tough fleume in the mouth of the stomache, through continuall surfFetyng and 
cruditie, which casteth vp cold vapours to the head, stoppyng the hinder celles of the 
brayne, when the bodie lieth vpright, and so letteth the passage of the spirit and vertue 
animall to the inferiour partes of the bodie, wherby the party thinketh he hath a great 
weyght vpon him stopping his breath.' See Boorde, E. E. T. Soc. ed. Furnivall, pp. 78-9. 

5 The MS. reads to A-byde, plainly an error. A. reads correctly to Byde. 

6 To announce by proclamation. ' Feriae indicere, Livy. To proclaime an holy day to 
be kept.' Cooper. The MS. reads to Bydde alle days, and has been corrected as above 
in accordance with A. 

7 This word occurs in the A S. version of Matt. x. 9 : ' Naebbe ge gold, ne seolfer, 
ne feoh on eowrum higyrdluvn? have not gold, nor silver, nor money in your purses. 
Compare Chaucer, C. T., Prologue, 358, where we read that the 'gipser (or purse) 
hung at or by the girdle.' See also Ancren Biwle, p. 1 24. The word also occurs in 
P. Plowman, B. viii. 87 : ' pe bagges and J)e bigurdeles, he hath to-broken hem alle.' See 
also Breke Belte. 

8 To bigg = to build, is still in use in the North. A S. byggan ; 0. Icel. bygyja. 

1 The Fawkonn fleyth, & hath no rest, 
Tille he witte where to bigge his nest.' 

Wright's Political Poems, ii. 223. 

9 Our modern pick-axe is a corruption from the 0. Fr. form picois. * Fossorium. A byl 
or a pykeys.' Medulla. ' Picquois, m. A Pickax.' Cotgrave. In the Paston Letters, ed. 



t A Bylle 1 ; hoc Breue, & cetera ; vbi 
letter (A.) 

to Bynde ; alligare, col-, re-, la- 
queare, illaque&re, pexligare, ob- 
nectere, an-, nexare, ancorare, 
anere, cathenare, firmare, vincire, 
de-, re-, nodare, per-, jn-, an-, 
occupare, vt, 'occupat ora loris,' 
i. e. liijat, stringere, as-, con-. 

fBynder ; autor, ligator. 

tByndande; ligans, laqueans, alii- 

A Byrde ; aliger, ales, auis, auicida, 
prepes, volucris, volatile. 

a Byrdyn ; sercina, sercinula, pon- 
dus, clitella, fassis, fassiculus, 
globus, aceruus, moles, pondus, 
onus, onuscidum, ponderisit&s. 

t A Byrelawe 2 ; agraria, phbisci- 

Byrke 3 ; lentiscus, lenticinus par- 

tto Byrle 4 ; propinare, miscere. 

* A Byrnacle 5 ; camus. 

*A Byrnakille ; Auis (A.) 

to Byrne; adolere, ar&ere, ardes- 
cere, ex[ar\desceie, re[ar\des- 
ceve, bustare, cremare, were, 
comburere, perurere, ad-, ex-, in-, 
fiagrare, con-, flammare, -esceve, 
ignire, ignesceve, jncendere. 

fto Birne with yrne ; cauteriare, 

fABirnynge yrne 6 (ByrneyrenA.); 
cara[c]ter, cauterium, cauteriolum 

Gairdner, i. 106, we find mentioned 'long cromes to drawe downe howsis, ladders, pikoys.' 
Robert of Brunne, in Handlyng Synne, ed. Furnivall, 1. 940, says — 

' Mattok is a pykeys 
Or a pyke, as sum men says.' 

1 A Bille generally meant a petition, and to 'put up a bille' was the regular phrase for 
presenting a petition. See P. Plowman, c. v. 45, Paston Letters, i. 151, 153, &c. With 
the meaning of a letter it occurs in Paston Letters, i. 21, 'closed [enclosed] in this bille 
I send yow a copie of un frendly lettre,' &c. ' Byll of complaynte. Postulacio.' Huloet. 

2 Coles' Diet., 1676, gives ' Bvlaw, Burlaw or Byrlaw, laws determined by persons elected 
by common consent of neighbours,' and Burrill says, ' Birlaw, a law made by husbandmen 
respecting rural affairs.' O. Icel. byar-log, Dan. bylove. According to Mr. Robinson 
(Gloss, of Mid. Yorkshire) the term is still used there for a ' Parish-meeting.' Jamieson 
gives ' Burlaw, Byrlaw, Byrlaw court, a court of neighbours, residing in the country, 
which determines as to local concerns.' ' Plebiscitum : statutum populi ; anglice a byre- 
lawe.' Ortus. See instances in the Athenceum, Aug. 1879. 

3 Birlc, still in use in Lancashire for a birch-tree. A. S. birce, Icel. bjork. 

'Than byrhis on aythir syde the way 
That young and thik wes growand her 

He knyt togidder.' Barbour's Bruce, ed. Skeat, xvi. 394. 

' He fande the rede knyght lyggand, Off byrke and of okke. 

Slayne of Percyvelle hande, Ther brent of birJce and of ake 

Besyde a fyre brynnande Gret brandes and blake.' 

Sir Perceval, Thornton Romances, ed. Halliwell, p. 30. 

4 This word is still in use in Lancashire. See Nodal's Glossary (E. Dial. Soc). In the 
account of the marriage at Cana, given in Eng. Metrical Homilies, ed. Small, p. 120, 1. 18, 
we are told that ' Seruans wur at this bridale, 

That birled win in cuppe and schal,' 
and in the Avowynge of King Arthur, Camden Soc, ed. Robson, xlvi. 14, at Arthur's feast, 
' In bollus blrlutte thay the wine.' Manip. Vocab. gives ' to birle, promere, haurire.' The 
word also occurs in the Ancren Riwle, pp. 114 and 226, and in Wyclif, Jeremiah xxv. 
15, 17, and Amos ii. 12. Icel. byda, A. S. byrlian, to give to drink. 

5 ' Camus. A bitte ; a snaffle.' Cooper. See also Bamakylle. 

6 ' Cauterium, a markyng yron ; a searyng yren ; a peinters instrument.' Cooper. 
' Buin-airn. An iron instrument used, red-hot, to impress letters, or other marks, on the 
horns of sheep.' Jamieson. ' Cauterium : ferrum <?uo latro signatur. Quo latro signatur 
die cauterium fere ferrum.' Medulla. ' Burning yron. Cauteria.' Huloet. 



a Birnynge ; incendium, vstura, ar- 

a Byrth ; fetus terre est, natns, par- 
tus homimim, ortus, origo, na- 
tiuitas, natalis, principium, na- 
talicius : versus : — 
1T 'Natalis vel-le cum. guis terris 
Transitus a muwdo natalicium 
I'eputatur 1 .' 

tBirthfulle ; fetosus. 

fA Birtylle 2 (Byrtyltre A.) ; malo- 

fa Birtylle tre ; malomellxis. 

a Bischope ; antestes, episcopus / 
episco\) alis _pardcipium ; presul, 
pontifex, pontificalis. 

fa Byschope sete ; orchestra. 

fA Byschope hede ; an\ti\sticium, 
presulatus, pontijicatus. 

a Bischoperyke ; episcop<z£us. 

t Bischope schoyn ; sandula. 

to be a Bischope ; pontificari. 

to Bite; modere, de-, re-, derltibixs 
scindere vel compriraere, morsare, 

tBiteabylle ; morsatis. 

Bytynge ; rnordens, mordax. 

Bitter ; acer, acerbus, azidus, ama- 
rus, amaricosus, amarulentus, 
fellitas, salebrosus, mirratus. 

tto be made Bitter (to be or make 
Byttir A.); amarere ; pa<siue 
amarescere ; amaricare. 

a Bitternes ; acerbit&s, acritas, ama- 
ritudo, tlwmer. 

a Bittyrswete ; amarimellum. 

Bittyrswetre ; amarimellus. 

Blonde ; vltra, <fc comj^ratur. 
B ante L. 

Bla 3 ; liuidus, & cetera ; vbi pale. 

tto be Bla ; liuire, liuescere. 

ta Blabery 4 . 

to Blabyr 5 ; blaterare. 

tBlabyrlyppyd 6 ; broccus, labrosxxs. 

a Blade ; sindola. 

1 See Ducange, s. v. Natalis. 

2 ' Birtle. A summer apple. Yorkshire.' Halliwell. ' Malomellum. Genus pomi melli- 
flui et dulcis.' Ducange. Cooper also gives ' Melimelum. Akinde of sweete apples ; pome 
paradise.' ' Malomellon : est genus dulcis pomi, anglice, a brytyl. Malomeltus: a brytyl 
tre.' Ortus Vocab. They are mentioned in Pliny. Cotgrave, s. v. Paradis, says, 'Pomme de 
Paradis. An excellent sweet apple that comes of a Pearmayn graffed on the stocke of a 
Quince ; some also call so our Honnymeale, or S. John's apple.' ' Malomellum : genus 
dulcis pomi.'' Medulla. Lat. mel, honey, and mains, apple. ' Malomeltus. The Sweet- 
apple or Sweeting- tree.' Gouldman. 

3 Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, 5260, tells us that our Lord 

' henged on J>e rode tre Alle bla and blody ; ' 

and in the Romance of Sir Isumbras, 1. 311, we are told how the Saracens seized the 
knight, ' And bett hym tille his rybbis braste, And made his flesche fulle blaa? 
The Manip. Vocab. gives ' Bio, blackblew, lividus? and Baret translates ' lividus ' by ' he 
that hath his flesche well beaten and made blacke and blewe.' ' Livor. Blohede.' Me- 
dulla. See Jamieson, s. v. Bla. 0. H. Ger. blao, blato, blue, O. Fris. bla, bid, Icel. blur. 
Palsgrave gives 'Bio, blewe and grene coloured as ones bodie is after a drie stroke. 
jaunastre.' ' Liuor. The colour appearyng after strokes, commonly called blacke and blue, 
a leadie colour. Liveo. To be black and blewe.' Cooper. ' Beaten blacke and bloo, sug- 
gilatus^ Huloet. See Bluo in P. 

4 Probably a bilberry. Still called in the North a blaeherry from the colour. But the 
word here may perhaps be connected with the following verb. 

5 Cotgrave gives • Baboyer. To blabber with the lips ; to famble : to falter,' and the 
Medulla, 'blatero. To stotyn, stulte et sine causa loqui.'' ' Prestis .... blabien out 
matynys and massis.' Wyciif, English Works, E. E. Text Soc, ed. Matthew, p. 168, 1. 6. 
' Blatero, to bable in vayne ; to clatter out of measure ; to make a noyse lyke a cammel. 
Blatero, m. a babler; a iangler ; a pratler.' Cooper. Jamieson gives 'To Blether, 
Blather. To talk indistinctly ; to stammer, &c. 'And so I blaberde on my beodes.' 
P. Plowman, A. v. 8. ' Balhus, qui uult loqui et non potest, wlips ucl swetwerda. Jial- 
biitus. stonier.' M.S. Harl. 3376. 

6 In P. Plowman, B. v. 190, ' Covetyse ' is described as 

'bitelbrowed and baberlipped also, With two blered evghen, as a blynde hagge.' 
See Florio, s. v. Chilonc, and Ducange, g. v. Balbu*. Huloet translates blabber-lipped by 



a Blayne 1 ; pustula, marisca. 

to make Blak ; nigrare, de-, e-, ni- 
g[r]escere, de,- e-, incandere, -des- 

to make Blak ; fuscare, <fc cetera ; 
vbi to blek. 

Blak; Aquileus, Ater, subater, Ab- 
hominabilis coloris est qui cZici- 
tur funereus, fuscus, neque al- 
bum, neque nigrum, sed medij 
coloris est, niger est albo conftra- 
rium, nigellus, teter, pullus, & 
cetera ; vbi myrke. 

A Blame ; crimen, culpa, culpameu, 
increpamen, reprehensio, vitupe- 

to Blame; Accusare, culpare, culpi- 
tare, criminare, increpare, z'ra^ro- 
perari, irihonorare, redarguere, 
repvehendeve, probare, vitupev- 

i Blameles ; jnculpabilis. 

*a Blankyt 2 ; lodix. 

a Blast of wynd ; flabrum, flatus, 

flamen ; f\l\atilis ^articipium. 
tBlawemanger 3 ; peponus. (A.) 
to Blawe ; flare, suf-, cornare est 

comu flare. 
tto Blawe belows ; follere, follescere. 
to Blawe owte ; efflare. 
to Blede ; cruentare, sanguinare. 
a Bleddyr; vesica, vesicula diminu- 

to Blek ; attramentare, cacabare, 

fuliginare, fuscare, ob-, in-, ger- 

sare*, in-, nigrare, de-. 
*Blek; attmmen, attr&mentum, gersa, 

fa Blek potte 5 ; attratnentorium. 
tto Blend ; miscere, con-. 
*to Blere ; (lippire, lippiscere. A.) 
to be Blerid 6 ; lippire, lippescere. 
Blere eede (Blered A.); lippus. 
a Blerednes ; leppitudo, apifora. 
tto Blessum 7 ; Arietare, luere, silire 


Achilles, and Baret has 'blaber-lipped, dimissis labiis homo, labeo? ' No man shulde rebuke 
and scorne a blereyed man or gogleyed or tongetyed ... or fumbler or blaberlypped 
(chilonem) or bounche backed.' Horman. See also P. Plowman, B. xvii. 324. 'Blabber- 
lipped, lippu.' Sherwood. Cooper renders Brochus by one ' that hath the nether iawe 
longer than the other, with teethe blendynge oute ; tutte-mouthed.' ' Labrosus. Babyr- 
lypped.' Medulla. 

1 A. S. blegen, Dsn. blegn. See Wyclif, Exodus ix. 9. ' Pustula. A lytyl bleyne. 
Marisca. A bleyne.' Medulla. ' Blayne or whealke. Papula.' Huloet. 

2 Lodix, according to Cooper, is a sheete. See Glossary to Liber Custumarum, Roll 
Series, s. v. Blacket. ' Blanckettes. Lodices, Plagae.' Huloet. 

3 ' Blamanger is a Capon roast or boile, minced small, planched (sic) almonds beaten to 
paste, cream, eggs, grated bread, sugar and spices boiled to a pap.' Randle Holme. See 
• Blanmanger to Potage,' p. 430, of Household Ordinances ; ' Blawmangere,' p. 455 
Blonc Manger, Liber Cure Cocorum, p. 9, and Blanc Maungere of fysshe, p. 19. See als 
Babees Boke, ed. Furnivall, p. 49. ' Peponus, blowmanger.' Ortus. 

4 ' Gerso : fucare faciemS Medulla. 

5 ' Atramentarium. An inke home.' Cooper. In the Medulla it is explained as ' An 
ynkhorne, or a blekpot.' ' Attramentorium. Blacche-pot. Attramenta. Blacche.' Wright's 
Vol. of Vocab., p. 181. 

^ • Lippio, to be pore-blind, sande-blind, or dimme of sight. Lippitudo, blerednesse of 
the eyes. Lippus, bleare eyed : hauing dropping eies.' Cooper. ' Lippitudo. Blerynes 
off the eye. Lippio. To wateryn with the eye.' Medulla. In the Poem of Richard the 
Redeles (E. E. Text Soc, ed. Skeat), ii. 164, we have blernyed = blear-eyed. To blere 
one's eye is a common expression in early English for to deceive one ; thus Palsgrave 
gives ' I bleare, I begyle by dissimulacyon ; ' and the Manip. Vocab. has ' to blirre, fallere. y 
For instances of this use of the word see Wright's Sevyn Sages, pp. 48, 77, and 100; the 
Romaunt of the Rose, 1. 3912, &c. ; Ly Beaus Disconus (in Weber's Met. Rom., vol. ii.) 
1. 1432 ; Wright's Political Poems, ii. 172 ; Sir Ferumbras, ed. Herrtage, 1. 391, &c. 

7 ' Arieto. To blesmyn.' Medulla. Icel. blwsma, to be maris appetens from blwr, a ram. 
See also Turre, below. ' To blissom or tup, as a ram doth the ewe. Coeo, ineo.' Littleton. 
' To blissome as a ram doth the ewe. Comprimo. To go a blissoming, or to desire the ram. 
Catulio? Gouldman. 



toBlete (BleyteA.); balare,balascere. 

ta Blyndman ; palpo. 

Blynde ; cecus, oi'bus : versus : — 

IT ' Lumine prvuatus violentev 
cfacitur orbus, 
Cecus invtiliter gerit instru- 
menta videndi V 
a Byndnes ; cecitas. 
to make or wax Blynde ; caligare, 

^ro-, cecare, ex-, ob-, obscware, 

obtenebr&re, ceeultare, cecutire, 

obliterare ut jn libris. 
toBlyndfeyld 2 (Blyndfelle A.); velar e. 
ta Blynde worine ; cecula. 
to Blysse ; beare, beatijicare, benedi- 

j Blyssyd ; beatus, be&tijicatus, beatu- 

lus, faustus, fortunatus, felix, 

to make Blyssyd ; beare, beatijicare, 
felicitare, felicere, fortunare, glo- 

tto make vn Blyssyd; jnfelicitare, 

Blyth ; vbi glad. 

ta Blossom 3 ; colloqmntida, quintide. 
Blude ; cruor, sanguis, est mas : 

versus : — 
1T ' Sanguis alit corpus, cruor est 
A (de A.) eorpore fusua.' 
a Blude hunde ; molosus. 
a Bluderyne 4 (Blodeyreii A.) ; fleu- 

botomum, lanciola. 
fa Blude lattynge 5 ; fleubotomiu, 

minucio sanguinis. 
to latt Blude ; Jleubotomare, minu- 

ere sanguinem. 
Bludy ; cruentatus, cruentus, san- 

guinole\ii\tus . 
a Blome ; Jlos. 

to Blume ; florare, Jlorescere. 
tto Blundir 6 ; balandior. (To Blun- 

dyr; Blandior A.) 
to make Blunte ; ebetare, obtundere, 

Blunte ; ebes. 
to be Blunt; Tiebere, hebescere, hebe- 

tare, hebetescere. (A.) 
a Bluntnes ; ebitudo. 
Blew 7 (Blowe A.); blodius. 

1 A different version of the second of these two lines is given by Withals in his Dic- 
tionary, where it runs ' Dicitur orbalus ccecatus, vel viduatus* 

2 In the Ancren Riwle, p. ioo, we read that our Lord ' polede al Jmldeliche J>et me 
hine blindfdlede, hwon his eien weren Jms ine schendlac i-blinfdled, vor to 3iuen ]>e ancre 
brihte sihfte of heouene.' ' Veto. To hyllyn or blyndfellyn.' Medulla. ' Of J>aim that er 
Mynfelde and er as blynde ])ou schalle wit )>at thay er fulisch folke that leues but in per 
kynne .... the folkes makes J>am Myndfelde, &c.' De Deguileville's Pilgrimage, MS. 
John's Coll. Camb., leaf 117. *I blyndefelde one, I cover his syght. Je vende les yeulx.'' 

3 Ducange gives ' Colloquintida. Colocynthis ; coloquinthe? and Cotgrave renders 
4 Coloquinthe'' by 'the wilde and flegme-purging Citrull ColoquintidaS Cooper has ' Colo- 

\cynthis. A kynde of wylde gourdes purgeyng fleume, called ColoquintidaS * Colloquintida : 
\genus herbe amarissime, i. e. cucurbita. Quintecie, Blosmes.' Medulla. 

* ' Phlebotomon. The instrument to let bloud ; a fleume.' Cooper. ' Fleubotomo ; san- 
\guinem minueve. Fleubotomium : instrumentum cum quo sanguis minuitur.'' Medulla. 

5 Omitted in A. : the Latin equivalents being given to Blodeyren. ' VnderstondeS, 
jhwuc was his diete \>et dei, iften ilke ModletungeS Ancren Riwle, pp. 112, 114. See 
also ibid., p. 260. 

6 The Latin equivalent would lead us to consider this word to be the same as ' Blander' 
'in Jamieson, which he explains by 'to babble, to diffuse any report, such especially as 
jtends to injure the character of another.' Halliwell says that ' To blunder water, to stir or 
puddle, to make it thick and muddy,' is given as a Yorkshire word in the Kennett MS. 
Lansdown, 1033, and the word does appear with that meaning in Mr. C. C. Robinson's 
! Whitby Glossary. On the other hand, the word occurs twice in the Man of Lawe'sTale, 
ill. 670 and 1 41 4, with apparently much the same meaning as the modern to blunder. In 
leither case, however, the word is evidently connected with A. S. Men dan, to mix, confuse, 
Mend; blond, bland, mixture, confusion. ' I blonder, je perturbed Palsgrave. 

7 Ducange says ' Blodeus. Color sanguineus, a Saxonico Mod, sanguis ; intelligunt alii 
•colorem cceruleum.' 

D 2 



B ante O. 

ta Bob of grapys ' ; botrus, bubas- 

tus, vua. 
a Bockelere ; pelta, antele, <& cetera : 
versus : — 

IT ' Die pnxmas, clepios, antele 
vel egida, scutum, 
Pelta; rotundata clejpei pars 
umbo vocatur? 

ta Bock[el]erc maker ; peltarius. 

ta Bode 2 ; pola. 

tto Bode ; portendere, pveostendere, 

pronosticare ; pronosticatiuus. 
a Body; corpus, corpusculum, cor- 

poralis, corporeus. 
Bodyly ; corporaliter, corporee. 
a Boke ; carta, cartula, codex, co- 

dicillus, liber, UbellxiB, volumen, 

payina, payella, sceda. 
a Boke bynder or seller ; bibliopola* , 

ta Bole of a tre 4 ; cadea, <k cetera ; 

vbi a stolke. (Stoke A.) 
A Bolle r> ; scafa. 
*to Bolne 6 ; gliscere, in flare, tu- 

mere, ob-, con-, per-, tumescere, 

con-, turgere, con-, de-, ob-. 
a Bolnyngc ; tumor, inflacio. 
Bolnyd ; tumidus, tumedidus. 
a Bolster 7 ; ceruical, cubitale, pulu- 

inar, piduillus. 
a Bolte 8 ; p>etilium. 
ta Bolte hede ; capitellum. 
tto Bolt up ; emevgere. 
Bonde 9 ; natiuus, seruilis. 
A Bonet of a saille 10 ; superus. 

1 ' A bobbe of leaues, froncletum ; A bob of flowers, floretum ;' Manip.Vocab. 'They 
saw also thare vynes growe with wondere grete bobbis of grapes, for a mane myjt unnethe3 

bere ane of thame.' Thornton MS 
p. 1 1 8. See Jamieson, s. v. Bob. 

leaf 42. 'A bob of cheris.' Towneley Mysteries, 
' Botrus. A cluster of grapes.' Cooper. ' Botrus, 
clystra.' MS. Harl. 3376. 

2 Ducange gives 'Pola; pertica, vel alius modus agri.' This is of course our perch 
The word bode is derived by Diez from a radical bod, which is still found in the Eng. 
bound. Diez rejects a derivation from the Celtic, but Webster, s. v. Bound, refers inter 
alia to O.Fr. bonde, bodice, L. Lat. bodina, and says, 'cf. Arm. boun, boundary, limit, and 
bdden, bod, a tuft or cluster of trees by which a boundary could be well marked.' Compare 
also 0. Icel. butr, a limit. Cooper renders Limes by ' a bounde or buttyng in fieldes.' In 
Huloet we find ' Butte of a lande. Jugus, eris ; ' and in the Manip. Vocab. ' Butte of 
land. Jugerum? evidently the same word ; cf. to abut. Compare P., But. 

3 MS. bibliappa, corrected by A. 

4 ' Bole of a tree, corpus, stemma? Manip. Vocab. Hence we have ' a boiling. A tree 
from which the branches have been cut, a pollard.' The compound boleax occurs in the 
Romance of Octaviau, 1039, and bulaxe in Ormulum 9281. 

5 Defined by Halliwell as ' a small boat able to endure a rough sea.' Evidently con- 
nected with the preceding. ' Scapha. A shippe boate : a boate made of an wholle tree.' 
Cooper. 'Scapha. A bolle.' Medulla. Cf. the nursery rhyme — 

' Three wise men of Gotham Went to sea in a bowl,'' &c. 

6 In P. Plowman, B Text, v. 118, Envy says : — 

' pus I lyue lonelees, lyke a luther dogge, 
That al my body bolneth for bitter of my galle.' 
Lord Surry in his Translation of the ^Eneid, ii. 615, speaks of 

' the adder with venimous herbes fed, 
Whom cold winter all bolne hid under ground.' 
'Boulne, tumere, turgescere.' Manip. Vocab. Danish bolne, 0. Icel. bolgna. ' Tumeo. To 
bolnyn.' Medulla. 

7 William Paston in his Will, dated August 18, 1479, bequeaths to Master Robert 
Hollere, ' unum pulvinar vocatum le bolstar.' ' Puluillus. A bolstere.' Medulla. ' Bolster 
of a bedde, Ceruical. Bolsters whyche bearers of burdens, as porters, &c. do weare for 
freatynge. Thomices.'' Huloet. A. S. bolster. 

8 A. inserts ' A betilium' after Bole of a tre. 

9 The status of a bondman (Low Lat. bondemannus) was that of serfdom, but the name 
is not properly rendered by natiuus, which means a serf by birth. 

10 * Bonnet (bonnette, Fr.), an additional part made to fasten with latchings to the foot of 



Borage 1 ; harba, borago : versus: — 
51 ' Dicit borago gaudia semper 

•fBorace ; Borax (A.). 

a Bordylle house 2 ; crepido, crissa- 
torium, ephcbianimale, fornix, 
corns, genetheca, lupanar, presti- 
bulum, prosenta, teges, lustrum, 
stupratorium, teatrum ; tetr&lis, 
teatricus ^ardcipium. 

to Bore 3 ; cabiare, perforare, for are y 
terabrare, con-. 

a Bore ; foramen, & cetera ; vbi 
a hole. 

fa Borer ; f orator, perforator. 

*a Borgh ; fideiussor, vas, pres, S2>on- 
sor, obses. 

*to be Borghe; Fideiubere, Spon- 

Born; natns, ortus, oriundus <k 
construitur cuxn (/enitiuo, vt, 
1 sum oriundas p&rcium tuarum.' 

to be Borne ; nasci, de vtero oriri, 
exoriri, renasci, enasci de terra 
vel aqua, renasci sicutjn baptismo. 

tBorne in wedlayke ; hgittimus. 

Borne be-fore b e tyme ; abortiuus. 

tBorne after hys fader dede 4 ; pos- 
thumus, opiter, -ris vel opitiris in 
genitiuo casu. 

Borne vp ; apportws. 

to Borowe ; mutuari. 

a Borowynge : mutuacio. 

a Bose (Boste A.) of a buclere 5 ; 

a Boste ; ampulla, iactancia, pompa, 
magnificencia ; ampullosus p&rti- 

the sails of small vessels with one mast, in moderate winds. It is exactly similar to the foot 
of the sail it is intended for. They are commonly one-third of the depth of the sails they 
belong to.' Falconer's Marine Diet., ed. Burney. In the Morte Arthure, E. E. Ttxt Soc, 
ed. Brock, I. 3656, the sailors in getting ready for sea ' Bet bonette^ one brede, bettrede 
hatches.' ' Superitas, Superna. A bonet of a seyle or a shete. Supera velox pevituras 
colligit auras? Medulla. ' Bonnetie, f. the bonnet of a sail. Bonnette traineresse, a drabler, 
a piece added unto the bonnet when there is need of more saile.' Cotgrave. In Richard 
the Redeles, E. E. Text Soc, ed. Skeat, iv. 72, we read — 

'And somme were so ffers at J>e ffirst come, 
fat they bents on a bonet, and bare a topte saile.' 
See also Lonelich's History of the Holy Grail, ed. Furnivall, xlii. 119. 'Bonet of a sayle, 
bonette dung tref? Palsgrave. 

1 The Prompt, gives the complete couplet, of which only the last line is found here — 

' Stultis leprosis, scabidis, tumidis, furiosis, 
Dicit borago, gaudia semper ago.' 
' Bourage, herbe, boracAe ; Burrage, herbe, boorache? Palsgrave. ' Baurage or buglosse.' 

2 'Bordel. A brothel.' Jamieson. ' Bordell house, bovrdeav? Palsgrave. ' Hec fornix, 
a bordyl-hows.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab., 235. ' Bordeau, a brothell, or bawdie house ; 
the Stewes. Bordelage, brothelling wenching, whore- hunting. Bordelier, m. a wencher, 
whore-monger, whore-hunter, haunter of baudy-houses.' Cotgrave. It seems most curious 
that crepido should be inserted as the equivalent of bordylle house ; crepido is a brim 
or border ; according to the Medulla, 'the heyte off an Pvoff, or off an hyl, or beggares 
hous : ' whether the compiler of the dictionary Ml into the mistake from the similarity of 
bordylle and border, I do not know, bub it seems so. In Wynkyn de Worde's ed. of the 
Gesta Romanorum (reprinted in my ed. for the E. E. Text Society), Tale No. 37, it is told 
of one of the sons of an emperor that ' agaynst his faders wyll, he had wedded hymselfe, to 
a comune woman of the bordell.' See also Early English Poems, ed. Furnivall, p. 104, 
I.92, and Wyclif, Levit. xix. 29. 

3 ' Cabiare. Cavare, fodere ; creuser, fouiller? Ducange. 

4 Cooper explains ' Opiter ' as ' one whose father died before his graundefather.' A. adds 

' Versus : — Postum us est natus post exequias genitom.' 

5 ' Umbo : medius scuti.' Medulla. ' Umbo. The bosse of a buckler or shielde.' Cooper. 
Chaucer, describing Alison in the Miller's Tale, says — 

'A broch sche bar upon hir loue coleer 
As brod as is the bos of a bocleer.' C. T. 1. 326.5. 



to Boste * ; ampullar^, ascvibere, iac- 

tare, iactitare. 
a Boster ; ampullator, iactarius, 

pompator, iactator. 
a Bosum ; gremimw, sinus. 
Bot ; nisi, sed, qu\n : versus : — 

1 Si nisi now esset perfectus 
quilibet esset.' 
tBot if (Botyffc A.); Sinautem, sed si. 
a Bottelle ; obba, <& cetera ; vhi a 

*a Bottellc of hay 2 . 
a Bothome ; fundus, fundulus. 
*a Bothome of threde :! ; filariuru. 
tBothomles ; £>er£wsus, vt saccusper- 

a Bowe ; archus, arculus diminu- 

+a Bowe of a bryge 4 ; vbi a wawte. 

(Volte A.) 
fa Bowe of a chare ; fultruxu. 
to Bowe ; Jlectere, de-, plectere, Jiu- 

milia?*e, curuare, clinare, de-. 

tBowabylle ; vbi pliabylle. 

to Bowe doune ; Acclinarc, de-, 

Clinare, jn-, cl[in\ere, procum- 

bere. (A.) 
tBowed ; dinatus, deuexus, declina- 

tus, & cetera, 
a BowelL?; intestinum, viscus, & 

cetera ; vbi a tharme. 
tto drawe oute Bowells B ; deuiscer- 

are, euiscerare, exentevarQ. 
a Bower; arcuarius. 
fa Bowge 6 ; gibbus, struma, gibbo- 

sitas, strumositas ; gibbosus, stru- 

mosus participia. 
+Bowynge ; accliuis, accliuus, cliuis, 

clinatus, obstijms, deuexus. 
fa Bowynge; jnclinacio, enclisis. 
aBowkynge 7 ; lixiuarium. 
a Bowkynstoke (Bowkynstole A.) ; 

lixiuatorium, boxinarium. 
*a Bowrde 8 ; iocus. 
*to Bowrde ; iocari. 
*a Bowrder ; mimilarius, mimilogus, 

1 Compare Horace, ' Projicit ampidlas et sesquipedalia verba.' Ars Poet. 97. 

2 'A bottle of hay, manipullus? Manip. Vocab. Fr. botte, a bundle, bunch; dimin. 
hotel, boteau, a wisp, small bundle ; Gael, boiteal, boiteau, a bundle of straw or hay. 
Harrison tells us that Cranmer, from having been a student at a Hall (also called a 
Hostel) at Oxford, was popularly supposed to have been an ostler, ' and therefore in 
despite, diuerse hanged up bottles of haie at his gate/ Descript. of England, ed. Furnivall, 
i. 87. ' Boteler. To botle or bundle up, to make into botles or bundles.' Cotgrave. 
1 Manipulm. A gavel.' Medulla. 

3 * Botom of yarne, glomus.' Manip. Vocab. See also Clewe, below. 

4 'Bow, s. (l) An arch, a gateway. (2) The arch of a bridge. Bow-brig, s. An arched 
bi'idge ; as distinguished from one formed of planks, or of long stones laid across the water.' 
Jamieson. A. S. boga. Compare Brace of a bryge, &c, below. 

5 ' EuAscero. To bowellyn. Exentero. To bowaylyn.' Medulla. 

6 ' Gibbus. A greate bunche or dwelling. Struma. A swellynge in the throte,'the king's 
euill ; a bunche on the backe. Strumosus. That hath the impostume in the throte, or the 
king's euill.' Cooper. Baret has ' A great bunch or swelling, gibbus. He that hathe a 
crooked backe, or a bunch in any place of the bodie ; that hath the rounde figure of 
a thing embosse;!, gibbus* 'Gibber. That hath a bunch on his brest. Gibbosus. Wennely. 
Gibbus. A broke bak. In dorso gibbus, in pectore gibber hahetur. Struma : genus 
pectoris, or bolnyng of the brest.' Medulla. 

7 In Piers Plowman, B-Text, xiv. 19, we read ' Dobet shal beten it and bouJcen it ;' on 
which see Prof. Skeat's note, in which are cited the following : ' I bucke lynen clothes to 
scoure off their fylthe and make them whyte, je hue.' Palsgrave. ' Buandiere, f. a laun- 
dresse or buck-washer.' Cotgrave. In the Unton Inventories, p. 28, is mentioned a 
• Bouclcfatt, or washing tub.' In the St. John's College, Cambridge, MS. of De Deguile- 
ville's Pilgrimage of the Life of the Manhode, leaf 21 back, we find, ' Of thaym I make a 
boivkynge for to putte in and bowke and wasche alle fylthes.' See also Reliq. Antiq. i. 108. 
' Lixivium. Lye made of ashes.' Cooper. See Wedgwood and Jamieson. 

8 ' Bourd, scomma.' Manip. Vocab. ' To bourde, and jest on some bodie, to tell merry 
jests.' Baret. 'Bourde, or sport.' Huloet. l Iocor. To speake in jest or bourde.' Cooper. 

-' Bourde, a ieast, fib : tale of a tub.' Cotgrave. See Prof. Skeat's Etym. Diet. s. v. 



lusor, ioculator, & cetera; vbi a 

*a Bowrdeworde l (Bowdword A.); 

dicerium, dictorium. 
a Bowre 2 (Bowe A.) ; conclaua, 

conclauis, conclaue. 
a Bowestrynge ; cordicula, funiculus. 
a Box 3 ; pixis, lechitus olei est. 
a Box tre ; buxus, buxum ; buxeus 


B ante K. 
fa Bra 4 ; ripa, & cetera ; vhi a 


A Brace B ; defensorium, brachiale. 

ta Brace of a bryge or of a wate G 

(Vawte A.) ; sinus, arcus. 
a Brachett 7 (Brache A.) ; oderensi- 

cus vel oderinsiquus. 
Bracere 8 . 

Brade ; latus, amplius. 
*a Brade arrowe 9 ; catapulta, scorpio. 
a Brade axe; dolabrum. 
tto make Brade; ampliare, ampliji- 

care, & cetera ; vhi to sprede 


1 In Rauf Coiljear, E. E. Text Soc, ed. Murray, I. 905, Magog in warning Rauf of the 
approach of the Saracens, says — 

' We sail spuilje 30W dispittously at the next springis, 
Male 30U biggingis full bair, bodvwrd haue I brocht.' 
In the Cursor Mundi, ed. Morris, p. 634, 1. 11047, Elizabeth, addressing the Virgin Mary, 
says — ' Blisced be J?ou J)at mistrud noght pe hali bodword J)at J>e was broght.' 
See also p. 76, 1. 1192, Ormulum 11. 7 and 11495, Destruction of Troy, 11. 6262, 8315, 
&c. A. S. bod, a message, beoden, to bode, offer ; Icel. bodord, a command, message. 

8 ' Boure, conclave.' Manip.Vocab. ' Concla uis. A pre vy chambyr.' Medulla. 'Bowre, 
salle.' Palsgrave. • Conclave. An inner parlour for chamber; a bankettyng house.' 
Cooper. A. S. bur. 

3 ' Lecythus. A potte of earth that serued only for oyle ; an oyle glasse ; a viole.' 
Cooper. ' Lecithus : ampulla olei.' Medulla. 

4 • Bra, Brae, Bray, s. The side of a hill, an acclivity. The bank of a river.' Jamieson. 

5 ' Brachialium. Propugnaculum ; braie unde fausse-braie.' Ducange. ' Bracats, 
Brasses, or Vambrasses ; armour for the arms.' Cotgrave. See also Brassure. 

6 See Bowe of a bryge, above. 

7 * Odorincus. A spanyel.' Medulla. • CateUus, a very littell hounde, or brache, a 
whelpe.' Elyot. ' Odorencecus, canus venaticus, qui odore feras sequitur : chien de chasseS 
Ducange. See also ibid., s. v. Bracco. * There are in England and Scotland two kinds of 
hunting dogs, and no where else in the world : the first kind is called ane rache (Scotch), 
and this is a foot-scenting creature, both of wild beasts, birds, and fishes also, which lie 
hid among the rocks : the female thereof in England is called a brache. A brach is a 
mannerly name for all hound-bitches.' Gentleman's Recreation, p. 27. A. S. rcece, 
M.H. G. brache. 'There be many maner of dogges or houndes to hawke and hunt, as 
grayhoundes, braches, spanyellis, or suche other, to hunt hert and hynde & other bestes of 
chace and venery &c. and suche be named gentyll houndes.' Laurens Andrewes, The Noble 
Lyfe, chap, xxiiij, ' of the dogge,' quoted in Babees Book, ed. Furnivall, p. 109. Brache 
occurs several times in Shakespeare ; see King Lear, i. 4. 108 and iii. 6. 72 ; 1 Henry IV, 
iii. 1. 240, &c. 'A brache, canicula? Manip.Vocab. Palsgrave gives 'Brache, a kynde 
of hounde, brachet? and Baret has ' A brache or biche, camciila,' while Huloet mentions 
1 a brache or lytle hounde.' ' Bracca, a brache, or a bitch, or a beagle.' Florio. • Brachet, m. 
a kind of little hound. Brague, m. a kind of short-tayled setting dog ; ordinarily spotted, 
or partie-coloured.' Cotgrave. ' Brachett, s. a dog ; properly, one employed to discover 
or pursue game by the scent.' Jamieson. See Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight, ed. 
Morris, 1 142. On the derivation see Prof. Skeats Etym. Diet., and cf. Gabriell rache 

8 See Brassure and Brace. 

8 Judging from the Latin equivalents given for this word the meaning seems to be a 
Catapult or engine of war for shooting stones or arrows. Cooper renders catapulta by ' An 
inginne of warre to shoote dartes and quarels : a kynde of slyng,' and scorpio by ' an 
instrument of warre like a scorpion that shooteth small arrows or quarelles.' ' Catapulta. 
An hokyd harwe. Scorpitie. A venyw arwe.' Medulla. ' Bee catapulta. A brodarw.' 
Wright's Vol. of Vocab., p. 278. 


*Bragott l ; jdromellum. 

*to Bray' 2 ; pilare, cum pila tun- 

dere vel terere, <fc cetera ; vbi 

to stampe. 
a Brayn; cerebrum, cerebellum vel 

*a Brakan 3 ; filix ; Jlliceus parti i- 

pium : versus : — 

1T ' Ardentes filices Jiomines di- 
cuntur esse felices.' 

*a Brakanbuske ; fUicarium, felice- 

a Brake 4 ; pinsella, vibra, rastellum. 
a Brandryth 5 ; tripos. 
ta Brandryth to set begynnyge 

(byggyng A.) on 6 ; loramen- 

a Brande ; fax, facula, ticio, teda, 

*Bran; cantabrum, furfur. 

1 In the Miller's Tale, Chaucer describing Alison says — 

' His mouth was sweete as bragat is or heth, 
Or hoord of apples, layd in hay or nette.' C. T. 3261. 

• Idromellum. Mede.' Medulla. ' A Bragget, drink, promidsis? Manip. Vocab. The fol- 
lowing recipe for making Bragget is given in Cogan's Haven of Health, p. 230 : ' Take 
three or foure gallons of good ale, or more, as you please, two daies or three after it is 
cleansed, and put it in a potte by it selfe, then draw forth a pottel thereof, and put to it a 
quart of good English Hony, and set them ouer the fire in a vessell, and let them boyle 
fair and softly, and alwaies as any froth ariseth, scumme it away and so clarifie it ; and 
when it is well clarified, take it off the fire, and let it coole : and put thereto of Pepper a peny- 
worth, Cloves, Mace, Ginger, Nutmegs, Cinamon, of each two penny worth beaten to 
powder, stir them well together, and set them ouer the fire to boyle againe a while, 
then being Milke-warme, put it to the rest, and stirre all together, & let it stand two 
or three daies, and put barme upon it, and drinke it at your pleasure.' In Lancashire 
Braggat is drunk on Mid-Lent Sunday, which is hence called Braggat Sunday. 

' Spised cakes and wafurs worthily Withe bragot and methe.' 

John Russell's Boke of Nurture, in the Babees Book, eil. Furnivall, p. 55, 1. 816. 
Another recipe for Bragget is as follows : 'Take to x galons of ale, iij potell of fine wort, 
and iij quartis of hony, and putt thereto canell 3, iiij, peper schort or longe 3, iiij, galin- 
gale 3, j, and clowys 3, j, and gingiver 3, ij.' MS. 14th Century. Taylor, in Drink and 
Welcome, 1637, A 3, back, says of Braggot, ' This drinke is of a most hot nature, as being 
compos'd of Spices, and if it once scale the sconce, and enter within the circumclusion of 
the Perricranion, it doth much accelerate nature, by whose forcible attraction and opera- 
tion, the drinker (by way of distribution) is easily enabled to afford blowes to his brother.' 

2 In Trevisas's version of Glanvile, De Propriet. Rerum, lib. xvii, c. 97, Flax, we are 
told, after being steeped and dried, is ' bounde in praty nytches and boundels, and after- 
ward knocked, beaten, and brayed, and carfled, rodded and gnodded, ribbed and hekled, 
and at the laste sponne.' 0. Fr. breier, brehier. 

3 ' Brake or Brachen appears to have been used for many purposes, for Tusser says — 

* Get home with the brake, to brue with and bake, To lie vnder cow, to rot vnder mow, 
To couer the shed drie ouer head, To serue to burne, for many a turne.' 

Five Hundred Points, E. Dial. Society, ed. Herrtage, p. 33, st. 33. 
See also ibid., p. 42, st. 33. ' Filix. A brak.' Medulla. A. S. bracce, pi. braccan. 

* Palsgrave gives 'Brake, an instrument, braye,' and Huloet has * Brake, for to worke 
dowgh or past, mactra.' The Manip. Vocab. and Baret also give 'Brake, frangibulum, 
7nactra.' In Jamieson we find ' Braik, break. An instrument used in dressing hemp or 
flax, for loosening it from the core.' Cf. Dutch braalc, a brake ; vlasbraalc, a flax-dresser's 
brake, and A. S. brecan. 'Brioche. A brake for hempe. Braquer de chamere. To brake 
hempe.' Cotgrave. 

5 In the Inventory of Thomas Robynson of Appleby, 1542, quoted in Mr. Peacock's 
Gloss, of Manley & Coningham, we find ' One brass pott, iij pannes, brandryt, cressyt, iiij s ;' 
and in the Line. Med. MS , leaf 283, is a recipe quoted by Halliwell, in which we are told 
to ' Take grene 3erdis of esche, and laye thame over a brandrethe, and make a fire under 
thame &c.' ' Brandiron, andena.' Manip. Vocab. 'A brandiron or posnet, chytra' 
Baret. In the list of articles taken by the Duke of Suffolk from John Paston in 1465 we 
find ' ij rakks of yron, ij brendelettes, a almary to kepe in mete,' &c. Paston Letters, iii. 
435. See Brandelede in P. 

6 Ducange renders Lorammtum by ' Concatenate lignorum quae solet fieri in fundamentis 



tto Branych * ; crispare, vibrare, 

tBranit (Brante A.) 2 ; abrugatus. 
Brasen ; eneus. 

Brasse ; es ; emis, _par£icipium. 
aBrassepot; aeninn. 
ta Brassure ;! ; bniciale vel brachiale. 
to Brawde 4 ; epigramare. 
ta Brawdestere; epiyY&mator, epi- 


tto Brawnche ; Frondere, -desccre, 

a Brawnche; antes, frons,frondicida, 
pvopago, ramus, surculus ; frond- 
eus,frondosus, ramalis parricipia. 

ta Brawnche gederer; frondator. 

*pe Brawne of a man 5 ; musculus, 
fur a. 

*Brawne 6 ; apx\na,pulpa; aprkus, 

aedificiorum ; assemblage de bois en usage pour maintenir les maUriaux dans les fondement 
d'un edifice.' The description seems to answer to our word piles. Halliwell gives 
' Brandrith. A fence of wattles or boards, &c.' We have already had loramentum as the 
Latin equivalent of a Bande of a howse. The Catholicon explains loramentum to mean 
boarding or frame-work compacted together. 'Loramentum (concatenate lignorum), grunt- 
festunge. gruntuest von holtz geschlayen.' Ditf. Compare Key, or knyttyng of ij wallys 
& Pyle in P. 

1 Apparently an error for Brandych : I know of no instance of the spelling Branych ; 
but the Medulla has ' vibro. To braunchyn, or shakyn.' Cf. also P. Brawndeschyn 
(firawnchyn as man K). 

2 'Brent. High, straight, upright, smooth, not wrinkled.' It most frequently occxirs in 
one peculiar application, in connection with brow, as denoting a high forehead, as distin- 
guished from one that is flat.' Jamieson. In this sense it is used by Burns in 'John 
Anderson, my Jo,' where we find ' Your bonnie brow was brent.' A. S. brant, 0. Icel 
brattr. See Halliwell, s. v. Brant. 

3 Armour for the arms. In Ascham's, Toxophilus (Arber's reprint, pp. 107, 108), we 
find the following passage : ' Phi. Which be instruments [of shotynge] ? Tox. Bracer, 
shotynge-glove, strynge, bowe and shafte .... A bracer serueth for two causes, one to 
saue his arm from the strype of the strynge, and his doublet from wearynge, and the other 
is, that the strynge glydynge sharpelye and quicklye of the bracer may make the sharper 
shoote.' Chaucer, Prologue to Cant. Tales, ill, describing the Yeoman, says — . 

' Upon his arm he bar a gay bracer, 
And by his side a swerd and a bokeler.' 
In the Morte Arthure (E. E. Text Soc, ed. Brock), 1. 1859, in the fight with the king of 
Syria, we are told that ' Brasers burnyste briste3 in sondyre ; ' see also 1. 4247. Baret 
gives ' a bracer, brachiale,' and in the Manip. Vocab. we find ' a bracher, brachiale.' 
' Brachale. A varbras.' Medulla. ' Brasselet, a bracelet, wristband, or bracer.' Cotgrave. 
See also Florio, s. v. Bracciale. ' Brachiale. Torques in brachio, dextrale ; bracelet.' 
Ducange. ' Brachiale. A bracellette ; also a bracer.' Cooper. See also Brace, above, and 
P. Warbrace. 

4 ' Alle his clothes brouded up and down.' Chaucer, Monke's Tale, 3659. In the Inven- 
tory of Sir J. Fastolf's goods, amongst the cloths and dress occurs ' j pece of rede satyne, 
brauden with the f aunt fere' Paston Letters, ed. Gardner, i. 477. ' Browdyn. Embroidered. 
Broudster. An embroiderer.' Jamieson. See also Brothester. In Cotgrave we find 
' Broder. To imbroyder. Brode. Imbroydered.' See also Barbour's Bruce, ed. Skeat, xi. 
464. A. S. bregdan, to braid, pp. brogden, broden. 

5 ' Musculus. A muscle or fleashie parte of the bodie compacte of fleash, veines, sinewes 
and arteries, seruyng especially to the motion of some parte of the bodie by means of the 
sinewes in it. Musculosus. Harde and stiffe with many muscles or brawnes of harde and 
compacte fleash.' Cooper. Chaucer, in the Prologue to the Canterbury Tales, 546, tells 
us that ' The Mellere was a stout carl for the nones, 

Ful big he was of braun, and eek of boones.' 
and in the Legende of Goode Women, Dido, 1. 145, Eneas is described as of 

• a noble visage for the noones, 
And formed wel of bravnies and of boones.' 

6 Cooper gives ' Pulpa. The woodde of all trees that may be seperated or clefte by the 
grayne of it, and is the same in timber that musculus is in a mans bodie. A muscle or 



*Brede ; artocojms, artocria, arto- 
casi\xs, libu\\\, panis, pastellus, 
paniculus, placenta, simila, simi- 
lago, siligo, /Seel hec tria per 

* Br eke * ; bracce, femorale, perizoma, 
saraballa ; br'accatus ^>ar£ici- 

*Breke of women ; feminalia. 

fa Breke belte 2 ; brachiale, braccale, 
braccarium, lumbare, lumbato- 

to Breke; frangere, collidere, con- 
f ringer e, ^n- , per-, ef-,findere, con-, 
dif- f de-, eontundere, frustr&re, 

frustellare, quassare, rumpere, 
cor-, ab-, £>ro-, terere, con-, secure, 
dis-, ruptare, ruptitare. 

to Breke or tryspas ; jnfringere, 
preuaricari, transgredi. 

ta Breker or tryspaser; preuari- 
cator, transgressor. 

fto Breke garth 3 ; desepire. 

fto Breke as a maw brekis his fast; 

a Brekynge ; fraccio, fractura, /rag- 
men, ruptura. 

a Breme 4 ; bremus. 

fbe Brede 5 (Brerde A.) of a wessille; 
labrum, abses, absidia, ripa. 

fleashie parte in the bodie of man or beaste. A peece of fleash.' ' Pulpa. Brawne.' 
Medulla. 0. Fr. braon. 

1 ' Perizoma. A breeche : a codpeece.' Cooper. ' Feminalis, -le. A womanis brech.' 

2 See Bygirdle, above, and Pawneherde, below. In the Romance of Sir Ferumbras, 
ed. Herrtage, 1. 2448, Guy of Burgundy cuts down Maubyn the thief, so that 

' porw is heued, chyn & herd And into ]>e breggurdel him gerd, 

pat swerd adounward fledde, pan ful he adoun and bledde ; ' 

and again, 1. 3008, Roland cleaves King Conyfer, and 

' At ys breggurdle J>at swerd a-stod.' 
Brechgerdel occurs in the Ayenbite of Inwyt, ed. Morris, 205, and Sir J. Maundeville tells 
us in his Voiage and Travaile ' that balsam (bawme) comethe out on smale trees, that ben 
non hyere than a mannes breek-girdille? * Perizonia. A brekegyrdyl. Renale. A breke 
gyrdyl or a paunce. Bracco. To brekyn. Saraballa : crura, bracce. 1 Medulla. See 
Mr. Way's note, s. v. Brygyrdyll. 

3 Compare Tusser, p. 53, st. 36 — 

* Keep safe thy fence, Scare breahhedge thence.' 

See G-arthe, below. 

4 Chaucer, Prologue to Cant. Tales, 352, tells us of the Frankeleyn, that 

' Ful many a fat patrich had he in mewe, 
And many a brem and many a luce in stewe.' 
Neckham, De Naturis Rerum, Rolls Series, ed. Wright, says, p. 148, ' Brenna vero hostis 
declinans insidias, ad loca cenosa fugit aquarum limpiditatem quas a tergo habet perturbans, 
sicque delusa tyranni spe, ad alios pisces se transfert? 

5 In the Ancren Riwle, p. 324, we are told that ' He J)at napped upon helle brerde, he 
toplcS ofte al in er he lest wene.' Compare P. ' Berde, or brynke of a vesselle. Margo.' 
Cotgrave has ' Aile, a wing; also the brimme or brerewoode of a hat.' Carr gives 
Breward as still in use in the same sense. ' The cornys croppis and the beris new brerd. y 
Ga win Douglas, Prol. .ZEneid xi, 1. 77. ' Breird. The surface, the uppermost part, the 
top of anything, as of liquids.' Jamieson. In Chaucer's description of the Pardoner, 
Cant. Tales, Prologue, 687, we are told that — 

* His walet lay byforn him in his lappe, Bret-fid of pardoun come from Rome al hoot ;' 
And in the Knight's Tale, 1305, 'Emetreus, the kyng of Ynde,' is described as having 
1 A mantelet upon his schuldre hangynge, 
Brent-ful of rubies reede, as fir sparkiynge.' 
So also Hous of Fame, 1032, ' Bretful of leseyngs,' and in P. Plowman, C, Passus I, 42, 
we read, ' Hure bagge and hure bely were bretful y-crammyd.' Compare Swed. brdddful, 
brimfull. See also Ormulum, 14529, Seven Sages, ed. Wright, p. 33, 1. 945, and 
Wright's Political Poems, i. 69. A.S. brerd, brim, top. ' Crepido, brerd vel ofer.' Wright's 
Vol. of Vocab., p. 54. 



a Brere i (Breyr A.) ; carduus, tvi- 

bidus, vepres, veprecula. 
fa Brerecruke 2 ; falcastrum. 
*a Brese 3 ; atelabus, brucus vel 

locust a. 
a Breste ; pectus, tor aw, pectuscu- 

lum ; pecto rails. 
a Breste plate ; to rax. 
*a Bretasynge 4 ; propugnaculum. 
a Breth. ; vbi ande. 
to Brethe ; susspirare, sjnrare, .<?/;i- 

ritum troliere, & cetera; vbt toAnde. 
a Brethynge ; spiraculum, spirameu. 
to Brewe ; pandoxor. 
a Brewer ; pandoxator -trioc, brasia- 

tor -trix. 

fa Brewhowse ; pandoxatorium. 
*a Bribur; civcumforanus, lustro, 

a Bridalle 5 ; nupcie. 
a Bride ; sponsa, spo7isus vir eius. 
a Bridylle ; lorum, aurea, aurex, 

aurias, frenum, ora, baiulum, 

lujmtum est frenum Acutissi- 

to Brydelle ; frenare, infrenare. 
fwith owtyw Bridylle ; eff rents, effre- 

nus, jnfrenis, jnfrenus. 
fa Bridylle rene ; habena, habenula, 

a Bryge 6 ; pons, 2>onticulus ; ponti- 

cus ^;ardcipium. 

1 ' Carduus. A brymbyl.' Medulla. A. S. brer. ' Now in the croppe, now doun in the 
breres.' Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 674. 

2 The fdlcastrum was a sickle at the end of a long pole used for cutting brushwood. 
Soldiers armed with weapons resembling it (see Chaucer, Legende of Good Women, 
Cleopatra, 1. 68, 'He rent the sayle with hokes like a sithe'') were called in Old French 
bidaux (Roquefort). Tusser, in his list of tools, &c. necessary for a farmer, mentions a 
' Brush sithe,' which is the same instrument. 

3 ' A Brizze or Gadbee. Tahon, taon, mouche aux &cew/s.' Sherwood. Cotgrave gives 
1 Tahon. m. A brizze, Brimsee, Gadbee, Dunflie, Oxeflie. Tahon marin. The sea brizze ; 
a kind of worm found about some fishes. Tavan de mer. The sea Brizze : resembles a big 
Cheslop, and hath sixteene feet, each whereof is armed with a hook, or crooked naile : 
This vermin lodging himselfe under the finnes of the Dolphin, and Tunny &c. afflicts them 
as much as the land Brizze doth an oxe. Bezer. A cow to runne up and downe holding 
up her taile when the brizze doth sting her. Bezet. Alter a Sainct Bezet. To trot, gad, 
runne, or wander up and downe, like one that hath a brizze in his taile. Oestre lunonique. 
A gad-bee, horse-flie, dunfly, brimsey, brizze.' Halliwell (who has the word misspelt 
Brief e) gives a quotation from Elyot. Cooper has * Bruchus. A grasse worme or locuste 
that hurteth corne, Species est locustce parvum nota.' Asilus, which is given in the 
Prompt, as the Latin equivalent, is rendered by Cooper, ' A greate flie bitynge beastes ; 
an horse-flie or breese.' In the Reply of Friar Daw Topias (Wright's Political Poems, ii. 
54) we read — 

'Whan the first angel blew, Alle thei weren lich horses 

Ther was a pit opend, Araied into bataile, 

Ther rose smotheryng smoke, Thei stongen as scorpioun, 

And brese therinne, And hadden mannis face 

Tothed as a lioun.' 
' Brucus. A short worm or a brese. Locusta. A brese, or a sukkyl.' Medulla. 

* ' Bretesque. A port, or portall of defence, in the rampire, or wall of a towne.' Cotgrave. 

It properly means wooden towers or castles as appears from Ducange, s. v. Bretachios. 

' And ]>e brytasqes on pe tour an heje 

Dulfuly a-doun wer caste.' Sir Ferumbras, ed.Herrtage, 3315. 

5 Originally a bride-ale or wedding feast. An ale is simply a feast of any kind : thus 

we find leet-ales, scot-ales, church-ales, &c. 
ii. 89-99. 

6 ' pai drou it pen and mad a brig 
Ouer a litel burn to lig, — 

AS.brycg. Tons. A brygge.' Medulla. 

See Brand's Popular Antiquities, ed. Hazlitt, 

pe burn of Syloe, and said, 
Quen J>ai bis brig Jxir-ouer laid,' &c. 
Cursor Mundi, ed. Morris, p. 514, 1. 8945. 



ta Bryge of a nese ; jutcifinium. 

Bryght; vbi clere. 

fto Bryme ! ; subare. 

Bryne; salsugo; sulsuginosus ^;ar£i- 

to Brynge jn or to ; aduehere, afferre, 
jnferre, annunciare, adducere ad 
rem. tuiyem, apportare, in-, def- 
ferre, jnmittere, diicere, con-, jn-, 
jntroduceve, re-, ^erd^wcere ad 
studia, adducere ad honor em, il- 
luminare, jngerere, irrogare, in- 
dere, redigere, scribere, subdu- 
cere naues ad terrain, deducere a 

to Bryngfurth ; jyrocfatcere, proferre. 

*Brysille 2 ; fragilis, fisilis, fractici- 
us, fractilis,frangibilis. 

*to Bryse 3 ; quatere, quassare. 

Brysed ; quassatue, quassans. 

to Briste ; crepare, crepere, crejritarQ, 

fto Bryst vp ; erumpere, irrumpere. 
fto Brystylle ; vstillare. 
*a Broche ; veru. 
a Broche for garn* (gerne A.) ; fu- 

to Broche ; verudare. 
fto Brod 5 ; stimulare, stigare, insti- 

a Brod 6 ; arclius (Acus A.), aculeus, 

aporia, stimulus, stiga. 
*a Brokk 7 ; castor, beuer, feber, me- 

lota, taxus ; taxinus, castor eus. 
tBrokylle 8 ; vbi brysille. 
Brokyn ; rujrtuB, ah-, fractus, fresns. 
tBrokyn mete ; fragmentum, fragi- 


1 Still in common use. A sow is said to ' go to brimme,' when she is sent to the boar. 
See Ray's Glossary. Cooper gives ' Subo. To grunte as the sowe dotb, desyring to haue 
the boare to doo their kynde. Subatio. The appetite or steeryng to generation in swyne.' 
'Subo. To brymmyn as a boore.' Medulla. 'A brymmyng as a bore or a sowe doth, en 
rouyr.' Palsgrave. 

2 See note to Brokylle. 

3 Jamieson gives ' To birse, birze, brize. To bruise : to push or drive : to press, to 
squeeze.' ' Briser. To burst, break, bray in pieces ; also to plucke, rend, or teare off, or 
up ; also to crush or bruise extreamly.' Cotgrave. The MS. has quarsare. 

4 ' Fusus. A spindeh 1 .' Cooper. ' Broche. A wooden pin on which the yarn is wound/ 
Jamieson. 4 Fascellus. A lytyl spyndyl.' Medulla. See note to Fire yrene below. 

4 Hir womanly handis nowthir rok of tre, Quhilk in the craft of daith mahyng 
Ne spyndil vsis, nor brochis of Minerve, dois serve.' 

See also ibid., p. 293, Bk. ix. 1. 40. Gawin Douglas, Eneados, vii. 1. 1872. 

5 ' Brod, to prick or poke.' Peacock's Glossary of Manly and Conyngham (E. D. Soc). 
Compare our prod. Florio, p. 68, ed. 161 1, mentions a kind of nail so called, now known 
as brads. See also Jamieson, s. v. Icel. broddr, a spike ; cf. Swed. brodd, a frost-nail. 

'Brod. A goad used to drive oxen forward.' Jamieson. 

7 In P. Plowman, B. vi, 31, Piers complains of the 'Bores and brocJces }>at breketh 
adown mynne hegges.' The name seems to have been also applied to a beaver, as in the 
Medulla we find it rendered by Castor'. Baret gives 'Broche, a grail, a bauson, or badger; 
metis,'' and Huloet 'Broche or badger, or graye beast, taxo.' In the Beliq. Antiq. i. 7» 
taxus is translated brohhe. In the Morte Arthure, ed. Brock, 1. 1095, we find the ex- 
pression B rolcbrestede, having a breast variegated, spotted, or streaked with black and 
white like a badger. Compare Brock-faced in Brockett. ' Taxus. A gray ; a badger ; a 
broche.' Cooper. Icel. brolckr, a badger ; Welsh brecli, brych, brindled, freckled. 

8 In the English Metrical Homilies, ed. Small, on p. 120, 1. 5, and again on p. 154,1. 12, 
we have the word brokel, and in each case the Cambridge MS. reads brysell. The Ancren 
Biwle, p. 164, says, ( pis bruchele uetles, ]>et is wummone vleschs. Of J>isse bruchele uetles 
]>e apostle seift : " Habemus thesaurum in istis vasis fictilibus." . . . . }>is bruchele uetles is 
bruchelure }>ene beo eni gles,' &c. Harrison, in his Description of England (New Shakspere 
Society, ed. Furnivall), i. 340-1, says that 'of all oke growing in England, the parke oke 
is the softest, and far more spalt and brickie than the hedge oke.' Elyot, s. v. Aloe, gives 
l brokle, brittle,' and Huloet has ' Brokell, rubbish. In the Manip. Vocab. we find 
' Brickie, fragilis,' and this form still survives in the north. Te Medulla gives ' Frac- 
ticeus. Brekyl. Fragilis. Freel, or brekyl.' See Jamieson, s. v. Brukyl, Brickie. 



+Brokyn lendf's 1 (Broken lendyde 
A.) ; lumbifractus ; lumbifra- 
gium. est fraccio lumborum. 
Brostyn 2 ; herniosus. 
A Brostynes ; hernia. 
a Broth; broducm, muria est piscium. 
fa Brothester 3 (Broudster A.) ; 

anaglafarins , a naylafa ria. 
a Browe ; cilium, sujiercilium, jn- 
tercilium est spacium jnter cilia. 
*Browes 4 ; Adipatunx ; Adipatus 

Browyn ; fuscus, & cetera ; vhi blake. 
*a Broche ; jirmaculum, monile, pi- 
arium, spinter, sjrinterculum. ; 
rersus : — 

IT ' Pectoris est spinier proprie, 
])&riter que monile, 
Ornatus colli sit torques, <£* 

auris inauris, 
Torques corpus habet, humeros 

armilla, monile 
Colla, perichilides brachia, 
gemma manxxs, 

Anulus in digito splendet, sed 
inauris in aure 5 . 

a Broder ; f rater ex eodem paire sed 
ex diuersis m&tribus ; fratemus, 
germanus ex eadem m&tre, vteri- 
nus, conterinus ex vno vtero. 

a Br oder in law (Br ode?* elawe A.) ; 

a Broder sori ; frat runs. 

+a Broderdoghter ; fratria. 

tto folow Broder in manem ; fra~ 

fa Broderslaer ; fratricida. 

fa Brodir hede ; f rater nitas. 

ta Broder wyfe ; fratrissa, glos, fra- 

to Brue 6 ; pandoxari. 

a Bruer ; pandoxator, pandoxatrix* 

+a Bruhows ; pandoxatorium. 

to Brule 7 ; assare. 

Brume 8 ; genesta, merica, trama- 

to Brunne ; ardere, cremare, ado- 
lere, ardescere, ignire. 

1 ' Lumbrifractus. Brokyn in the [l]endys.' Medulla. See Lende. For fraccio the 
MS. has spacio. 

2 'Herniosus. He that is burste or hath his bowells fallen to his coddes. Hernia. The 
disease called bursting.' Lyte, in his edition of Dodoens, 1578, tells us, p. 87, that 'the 
Decoction of the leaues and roote [of the Common Mouse eare] dronken, doth cure and 
heale all woundes both inward and outward, and also Hernies, Ruptures, or burstings ;' 
and again, p. 707, that 'the barke [of Pomegranate"] is good to be put into the playsters 
that are made against burstinges, that come by the falling downe of the guttes.' ' Hernia. 
Bolnyng of the bo way lies. Herniosus. Brostyn.' Medulla. Cotgrave mentions a plant 
' Boutouner. Rupture-wort, Burst~wort.' ' Hernia, broke -ballochyd.' Wright's Vol. of 
Vocab., p. 177. 

3 Jamieson gives ' Broudster, an embroiderer ; Browdyn, embroidered.' See also 

4 Baret has ' Brewis, bruisse, or soppes ; ossulce adipatoz ; soupe.' See Richard Cceur 
de Lion, 1. 3077, and Havelok, ed. Skeat, 924. Bruys occurs in the Liber Cure Cocorum, 
ed. Morris, p. 19. See also Jamieson, s. v. Brose. 

5 The following explanations of the various ornaments here mentioned are from Cooper : 
' Spinter. A tacke ; a bouckle ; a claspe. Monile. A colar or iewell that women vsed to weare 
about their neckes ; an ouche. Torques. A colar, or chayne, be it of golde or siluer, to weare 
about one's necke. Inauris. A rynge or other lyke thinge hangyng in the eare. Armilla. 
A bracelette. Amdus. A ringe.' The Medulla renders them as follows : ' Spinter. A pyn 
or a broche. Torques. A gylt colere. Inauris. pe Aryng in the ere. Perichelis : orna- 
mentum mulieris circa, brachia et crura.' 

6 ' Suilk as }>ai brue now ha ]?ai dronken.' Cursor Mundi, ed. Morris, p. T70, 1. 2848. 
See also to Brewe, above. 

7 Chaucer, in describing the Cook, says ' He cowde roste, and sethe, and broille, and 
frie.' Prologue, C. T. 383. O. Fr. bruiller. 

8 Lyte, Dodoens, p. 666, tells us that the juice of the broom 'taken in quantitie of a 
ciat or litle glasse ful fasting is good against the Sqinansie [quinsey] a kind of swelling 
with heate and payne in the throte, putting the sicke body in danger of choking ; also it is 
good against the sciatica.' See Wyclif, Jeremiah xvii. 6. A. S. brom. 



a Bru»stone J ; sulfur ; sul/erosus. 
taBrusket 2 ; pectusculum. 
a Brusch for paynterys ; celeps. 
a Brustyllg ; seta, setula c/tmmutiu- 

um; setosus. 

B ante V. 
a Bucher ; carnifex, <£ cetera ; vbi 

a fleschowr (fleschener A). 
fa Buchery 3 ; carnificium. 
a Buclere ; antile, clepius, egida, 

egis, fmrma, pelta, vmbo, 6c cetera; 

vbi a boclere. 
fa Bueler plaer 4 ; gladiator. 
fa Bueler playnge ; gladiatura. 

a Bufet 5 ; Alapa, Aporia, colaplms, 

ictus, iccio, 2)ercus$io. 
to Buffet; Alapare, Alapizare, co- 

a Buffetter ; A lapus, versus : — 

H ' Qui dat qui recipit alapas 
alajms vocitatur.' 
a Buke ; liber t & cetera ; vbi a 

*a Bugylle (Bogyllc A.) 6 ; bubalus, 

Animal est. 
tBugille 7 ; buglossa, lingua bonis, 

lierba est. 
a Buk ; dama, damula. 

at the destruction of Sodom and 
1. 4853. And in the Cursor Mundi 

1 In the Pricke of Conscience we are told that 
Gomorrah ' It rayned fire fra heven and brunstane? 
account, ed. Morris, p. 170, 1. 2841 — 

'Our lauerd raind o J)am o-nan Dun o lift, fire and brinstan? 

Cf. Icel. brenni-stein, sulphur, from brenna, to burn, and steinn, a stone. 

2 ' Brichet. The brisket, or breast-peece.' Cotgrave. ' Brisket, the breast.' Jamieson. 

3 A slaughter-house, shambles. In the Pylgrymage of the Lyf of the Manhode, ed. Aldis 
Wright, p. 1 29, Wrath says, ' neuere mastyf ne bicche in bocherye so gladliche wolde ete 
raw flesh and I ete it.' ' Macellum. A bochery. Maceria. A bochery off [or] fflesshstall.' 
Medulla. ' Boucherie. A butcher's shamble, stall or shop.' Cotgrave. Amongst the officers 
of the Larder in the Household Ordinances of Ed. II. are mentioned 'two valletes de 
mestier, porters for the lardere, who shal receve the flesh in the butchery of the achatour, 
&c.' Chaucer Soc. ed Furnivall, p. 34. ' Bocherye or bochers shambles, where fleshe is 
solde. Carnarium, Macellum.' Huloet. ' Bochery, boucherie? Palsgrave. 

4 ' Gladiator. One plaiynge with a swoorde. Gladiatores. Swoorde players in Pome 
set together in matches to fight before the people in common games thereby to accustom 
them not to be afrayde of killynge in warre.' Cooper. ' Gladiatura. A bokeler pleyng.' 
Medulla. Fencing with the buckler, or buckler-play, is alluded to in the Liber Custu- 
marum, ed. Piley, pp. 282-3. For an account of this play, see Gentleman's Magazine, 
December, 1858, p. 560, and Brand's Pop. Antiq. ed. Hazlitt, ii. 299. 

1 Opon the morn after, if I suth say, 
A mery man, sir Robard out of Morlay, 
A half eb in the Swin soght he the way; 
Thare lered men the Normandes at bidder to play* 
Song on King Edward's Wars, printed in Wright's Political Poems, i. 7°« 
6 Compare Nekherynge, below, and P. Bobet. 

6 ' Bewgle, or bugle, a bull, Hants.' Grose. ' The bugill drawer by his hornis great.' 
The Kinge's Quhair, ed. Chalmers, p. 87. 'Buffe, bugle or wylde oxe, bubalis.' Huloet. 
'A bugle, butalus.' Manip. Vocab. In Dunbar, The Thissil and the Pois, we read 

* And lat no bowgle with his busteous hornis The meik pluck-ox oppress.' St. xvi. 1. 5. 
' Bugles or buffes. Fm.' Withals. O. Fr. bugle, Lat. buculus. See also Jamieson, s. v. 
Bowgle. Andrew Boorde, in his account of Bohemia, says 'In the wods be many wylde 
beastes ; amonges al other beastes there be Bugles, that be as bigge as an oxe : and there 
is a beast called a Bouy, lyke a Bugle, whyche is a vengeable beast.' Introduction of 
Knowledge, ed. Furnivall, pp. 166, 167. In his note on this passage Mr. Furnivall quotes 
a passage from Topesell's History of Four-footed Beasts : ' Of the Vulgar Bugil. A Bugil 
is called in Latine, Bubalus, and Buffalus ; in French, Beufle; in Spanish, Bufano; in 
German, Buffel? &c. See Maundeville, p. 259, and Holinshed, Hist. Scotland, p. 17* 

7 Of this plant Neckham (De Naturis Rerum) says, p. 477 — 

' Lingua bovis purgat choleram rubeamque nigramque t 
Et vix cardiaco gratior herba datur. 
Vim juvat occipitis quotiens sibi tradita differt, 
Solvere cum fidei desinit esse bona.' 
See Oxetonge, below. 



a Buket ; situla, eustrum, haurito- 

rium, sitella. 
a Bukylle ; buceida, fyluscula. 
a Bukylle maker ; ^^sctJus, 2^ uscu ~ 

lator, -trix. 
tto Bokylle ; plusculo ; pluscuXans, 

*A Bulas 1 ; p>epuluY&. 
*a Bulas tre ; pepulus. 
to Bule ; bulire, <£ cetera ; vbi to 

a Bulynge; bullor, bullio. 
fa Bulhede 2 ; bulbus, capito, jriscfa est. 

a Bull*?; taurus; tawmms^ardcipium. 
a Bulle (Bwlle A.) of lede ; bulla. 
ta Bulle (Bwylle A.) of a dore s ; 

to Bulte ; polentriduare. 
ta Bultynge cloth (Bult clothe A.) 4 ; 

polentriduum ; polentridualis. 
a Bune ; pxzearia, postulacio, <& 

cetera ; vbi a askynge. 
a Buntynge ; pratellws,. 
*a Burbylle in y e water 5 ; bulla. 
ta Burde demiande (dormande A.) 6 ; 


1 ■ Bullace, a small black and tartish plum.' Halliwell. They are mentioned in 
Tusser's Five Hundred Points, chap. 34. 4. Bullace plums are in Cambridgeshire called 
cricksies. ' Bolaces and blacke-beries hat on breres growen.' William of Palerne, ed. Skeat, 
1809. See also Romaunt of the Rose, 1377. Irish halo*, a prune ; Breton polos, a bul- 
lace; Gael, b ulaist ear, a sloe. ' Bellocier. A bullace-tree or wilde plum-tree.' Cotgrave. 
1 A bullace, frute. Pruneolum.' Manip. Vocab. 

2 ' Bullhead, the fish, Miller's thumb.' Cotgrave gives ' Asne, m. an asse ; also a little 
fish with a great head, called a Bull-head, or Millers thumbe.' According to Cooper 
Capito is a ' coddefishe.' The term is still in common use in the North for a tad-pole, in 
which sense it also occurs in Cotgrave : ' Cavesot. A Pole-head, or Bull-head ; the little 
vermine, whereof toads and frogs do come.' See also ibid., s. v. Testard. ' Hie mullus, 
A ce -, a bulhyd.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab., p. 253. 

3 Apparently this means either the handle or a stud of a door. In Mr. Nodal' s Glossary 
of Lancashire, E. Dialect Society, is given ' Bule. The handle of a pot, pan, or other 
utensil. At Lancaster the flat wooden handle of an osier market- basket.' Halliwell also 
has 'Bolls. The ornamental knobs on a bedstead. See Howell, sect. 12.' A. S. bolla. 
See note to Burdun of a Buke, below. The Medulla explains ' Grappa'' by 'foramen,' but 
grapa in the present instance appears to be a made-up word, suggested by the knob-like 
or grape-like form of the thing meant. 

4 In the Treatise of Walter de Biblesworth (13th century), Wright's Volume of Vocabu- 
laries, p. 155, is mentioned 'a bolenge' or bulting-clot, the glossary continuing — 

' Per bolenger (btdtingge) est cevere La flur e le furfre (of bren) demoreV 

And in Kennett's Antiquities of Ambrosden, a ' butter-cloth.' The mediaeval Latin name 
for the implement was ' taratantara' (see JElfric's A. S. Glossary), from the peculiar 
noise made by it when at work ; a word borrowed from Ennius, as signifying the sound 
of a trumpet, in Priscian, bk. viii. A portable boulter was called a 'tiffany.' Bultellus 
occurs in the Liber Custumarum, p. 106. ' Bolting Cloth, a cloth used for sifting meal in 
mills. In 1534, the Guild of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Boston possessed 'a bultynge 
pipe covered with a yearde of canvesse,' and also 'ij bultynge clothes.'' Peacock, English 
Church Furniture, p. 189, quoted in Peacock's Glossary of Manley &c, E. L\ Soc. In the 
Unton Inventories, p. 29, occurs, ' in the Boultynge house, one dough trough, ij bolting 
wUiches' (hutches), i.e. vessels into which meal is sifted. 'Boltings, the coarse meal 
separated from the flour.' Peacock's Glossary. See also Paston Letters, iii. 419. The 
word came to be used metaphorically as in the phrase • to boult out the truth,' i. e. to sift 
the matter thoroughly and ascertain the truth. Thus in Tusser, Five Hundred Points of 
Good Husbandrie (E. Dial. Soc, ed. Herrtage, p. 152) — 

'If truth were truely bolted out, As touching thrift, I stand in doubt 

If men were best to wiue.' 
'Boultyng clothe or bulter, blvteav. Boultyng tubbe, husche a bluter.' Palsgrave. ' Pistores 
habent servos qui politruduant farinam grossam cum polentrudio delicato . . . Politrudiant, 
id est buletent, et dicitur a pollem quod est farina et trudo. Pollitrudium Gallice dicitur 
buletel (Jbultel).' Dictionarius of John de Garlande, in Wright's Vol. of Vocab., p. 127. 

5 'Bulla. A burbyl. Scateo. To brekyn vp, or burbelyn.' Medulla. See also Belle 
in the "Water. 

6 In Chaucer's Prologue to the Canterbury Tales, we are told of the Frankelyn that 



a Burde ; Abacus, discus, meusa, 
tabule, thorus; mensalis, commen- 
salis : versus : — 
% l Rex sedet in disco tendeus 
sua brachia disco, 
In disco disco discens mea 
dogmata disco V 
a Burdecloth 2 ; discus, gausipe, 
mappa, mantile, manitevgium, 
mensale, mappula. 
a Burdun of a buke 3 ; clauillus. 
" (Burdens A.) ; ciuitas est, 
bur dig alius. 

ta Burghe ; tyirgus. 

fa Burges ; burgensis, ciuis. 

■\ Burgon ; burgundia. 

*to Burion 4 ; frondere, germinare ; 

frondeus & germinaus. 
a Buryonynge ; gevmen, genimen. 
to Burle clothe B ; extuberare. 
ta Burler ; extuberarius, -tor, -tr\x. 
a Burre 6 ; bardona, glis, lappa, pa- 

ta Burre hylle ; lappetum, est locus 

vbi crescunt lappe. 

'His table dormant in his halle alway Stood redy covered al the longe day.' 1. 355. 
• Kyng Arthour than verament Ordeynd throw hys awne assent, 

The tabull dormounte, withouten lette.' 

The Cokwold's Daunce, 50. 
A dormant was the large beam lying across a room, a joist. The dormant table was per- 
haps the fixed table at the end of a hall. See Tabyl-dormande, below. At the bottom 
of the page in a later hand is 'Hie Asser, -lis. A ce -, a burde, siclie as dores & wywdows 
be made of.' 

1 The Medulla gives the following verses on the same word — 

' Est discus ludus [quoits], lectevnum [couch], mensa [table], parapsis [dish] ; 
Discus et Aurora, sic est discus quoque mappa [table-cloth]. 

2 Dame Eliz. Browne, in her Will, Paston Letters, iii. 465, bequeaths ' a bordecloth of 
fioure de lice werke and crownes of x yerdis and an half long, and iij yardis brode.' 
' Gausape. A carpet to lay on a table : a daggeswayne.' Cooper. ' Gausape. A boord 
cloth.' Medulla. 

3 ' Claui. Varro. Rounde knappes of purple, lyke studdes or nayle heads, wherwith 
Senatores garments or robes were pyrled or powdred. Clauata vestimenta. Lampridius. 
Garments set with studs of golde, of purple, or any other lyke thynge.' Cooper, 1584. 
Here the meaning appears to be studs or embossed ornaments. Thus Elyot renders Bulla 
by 'a bullion sette on the cover of a booke, or other thynge;' and Cooper gives 'Umbi- 
licus. Bullions or bosses, suche as are set on the out sydes of bookes.' But possibly a clasp 
may be meant. Compare Cotgrave, ' Claveau. The Haunse or Lintell of a doore ; also a 
clasp, hook, or buckle.' ' Clauillus, a burden of a buke.' Ortus. 

* Baret gives ' to burgen ; to budde, or bringe foorth flowers.' ' Burgen, gerninare ; * 
Manip. Vocab. ' Burgeon, to grow big about or gross, to bud forth.' Bailey's Diet. 
' Bourgeon, bourjon, the young bud, sprid or putting forth of a vine.' Cotgrave. Harrison, 
Description of England, ed. Furnivall, ii. 91, uses the word in the sense of a root, a 
source : ' Caser the sixt rote of the East Angle race, and Nascad originall burgeant of the 
kings of Essex.' ' Germen. A bergyng. Gramino. To spryngyn or bergyn.' Medulla. 

5 A bureller was a maker of burel or borel, a coarse grey or reddish woollen cloth, for- 
merly extensively manufactured in Normandy, and still known in France as bureau. 
' Borel men,' or ' folk,' as mentioned by Chaucer, Prologue to Monkes Tale, &c, were 
humble laymen, customarily dressed in this cloth. The Burellers also seem to have pie- 
pared yarn for the use of the weavers (see Liber Custumarutn, pp. 420, 423). Henry III 
ordered that ' the men of London should not be molested on account of their burets or 
burelled cloths.' To burl cloth is to clear it of the knots, ends of thread, &c. with little iron 
nippers, which are called burling-irons. ' Bureau, m. A thicke and course cloath, of a 
browne russet, or darke mingled colour. Burail. Silke rash ; or any kind of stuffe thats 
halfe silke and halfe worsted.' Cotgrave. Elyot has ' desquamare vestem, to burle clothe.' 
See also to do Hardes away, and to Noppe, below. 

6 'A Burre, or the hearbe called cloates, that beareth the great burre, personata. The 
sticking burre, tenax lappa? Baret. ' Burre, lappa, glis? Manip. Vocab. Frisian borre, 
burre ; Danish borre. ' Lappa. A burre. Lappetum. A burry place.' Medulla. See 
also Clette. 



•fa Bur tre * ; sambucus, sambuce- 

tum vbi crescunt. 
a Buschelle ; batidus liquidorum est, 

bacus, modius, batillus, modio- 
lus, tessera. 
a Buse for a noxe 2 ; bocetum. 
fa Busserd 3 ; arpia, picus. 
*a Buske 4 ; arbustum, dumus, fru- 

tecc, frutectum, fruticetum, 7-ubus, 

*a Buyste 5 (Bust A.); alabastrum, 

alabastratum, pixis, hostiariuin 

2>vo hostijs. 
*Bustws; rudis, rigidus. 
to be Bustws; rudere. 
a Bute (Buyt A.) of ledir or wan- 

dis 6 ; crejrida, crejndula, diminu- 

tiuum, ocria. 
*Bute (Buyt A.); Auctorium, aug- 

mentum As in cosynge. 
*to Bute (Buytt A.) ; Augmeu- 

to Bute (Buyyt A.) ; ocreare, ocreis 

a Butewe 7 ; ocreola. 
a Buthe ; emptorium, cadurcum, 

tenterium, meritorium, opella, 

Buytinge vbi Buytt (A.), 
a Butler 8 ; acalicus, -meZeclinabife, 

acellarius, pincema, ^romus, pro- 


1 i Bur-tree, or Bore-tree, the elder tree. From the great pith in the younger branches 
which children commonly bore out to make pot-guns (sic) of them.' Ray's Glossary of 
North Country Words. In Lancashire elderberry wine is called Bortree-joan : see 
Nodal's Glossary of Lancashire, E. D. Soc, and Jamieson, s.v. Bourtree. ' Sambuca, 
Sambucus. Hyldyr.' Medulla. Lyte, Dodoens, heads his chapter xliiij, p. 377, 'Of Elder 
or Bourtre.' 'Sambucus. Burtre or hydul tre.' Ortus Vocab. 

2 'Boose, an ox or cow-stall. Ab. A.S. bosih, praesepe, a stall.' Ray's Gloss., ed.Skeat. 
' A boose, stall, bovile.'' Manip. Vocab. See also Booc, and Cribbe, in P. ; and Nodal's 
Glossary of Lancashire, E. D. Soc, s. v. Boose. ' Hoc hotter, a bose.' Wright's Vol. of 
Vocab., p. 235. 'Buse, Buise, Boose. A cow's stall. To Buse. To enclose cattle in a 
stall.' Jamieson. ' Boia. A boce.' Medulla. 

3 ' Picus. A byrde makyng an hole in trees to breede in : of it be three sortes, the first 
a Specht, the seconde an Hicwaw, the thyrde which Aristotle maketh as bigge as an 
henne is not with us. Plinie addeth the fourth, whiche may be our witwaU.' Cooper. 

4 ' Buske, dumetum.' Manip. Vocab. Boscus = woodland, occurs in Liber Custumarum, 
pp. 44, 670. ' Abod vnder a busk.'' Will, of Palerne, ed. Skeat, 1. 3069. 

5 In English Metrical Homilies, p. 148, the devil is described as passing a certain 
hermit's cell, and we are told that 

' Boystes on himsele he bare, And ampolies als leche ware.' 

See also P. Plowman, A. xii. 68, and the History of the Holy Grail, ed. Furnivall, xv. 463, 
479, xvii. 131, 137, &c. 'Buist, Buste, Boist. A box or chest. Meal-buist, chest for con- 
taining meal.' Jamieson. ' Boiste. A box, pix, little casket.' Cotgrave. ' A Booste, boxe, 
pixis.' Manip. Vocab. 

6 I know of no instance of boots made of twigs (wandis), which appears to be the mean- 
ing here, being spoken of, but the Medulla gives ' Carabus. A boot made of wekerys,' and 
renders ocrea by ' a boot or a cokyr.' ' Ocreo. To botyn.' ' Crepido. Calceamenti genus 
cujus tabellae lignese suppedales pluribus clavis compingebantur ; chaussure a semelle de boU 
{Acta Sanctorum)? D'Arnis. 

7 ' Butewe, a kind of large boot, covering the whole leg, and sometimes reaching above 
the knee. See Wardrobe Accounts of Edward IV, p. 1 19 ; Howard Household Books, p. 139. 

8 See his duties &c. described in the Boke of Curtasye, printed in the Babees Boke, 
ed. Furnivall, p. 190, and also at p. 152. The Middle English form was boteler, botler, 
as in Wyclif, Genesis xl. 1, 2. Ducange gives the form buttelarius as occurring in the 
Laws of Malcolm II of Scotland, c. 6, § 5. The word is derived from the Norm. Fr. 
butuiller from L. Lat. bota, or butta, a butt, or large vessel of wine, of which the buticu- 
larius (bouteiller, or butler) of the early French kings had charge. So the botiler of the 
English kings took prisage of the wines imported, one cask from before the mast, and one 
from behind. Butt in later times meant a measure of 126 gallons, but originally it was 
synonymous with dolium or tun. Bouteille is a diminutive from butta ; and the 'buttery' 
is the place where the buttce were kept. 




a Buttok; nates, natica, naticula, 

a Button 1 ; fibula, nodulus, bulla. 

to Button; fibulare, cowfibulare. 

a Butry ; Apotheca, cellarium, pin- 
cernaculum, promj)tua7 , ium, ^>ro- 
pina,peww.s, -i, penus -nus, penus, 
-oris, penuxvi, penu indeclin&bile. 

*a Butte ; meta. 

Buttyr ; butiruva.. 

Buttir marke. (A.) 

fa Buttyr flee ; papilio. 

a Buttyr 2 ; scalprum, scalprus, sca- 
ber, scabrum. 

a Buttir 3 ; vbi myredromyll« ; Aids 


*Buxum ; clemens, pvopicius, flexi- 

bilis,flexuos\is, paciens, obidiens, 

fBuxumly ; clementev, pacienter, 

2>vone, obidienter. 
a Buxuranes; clemencia, cohibencia, 

collibencia, fiexibilitas, ])aciencia, 

tvn Buxuwi; inobidiens, contumax, 

impsiciens, ostinax, pextinax, re- 

bellis, inclemens. 

C&pitulum Tereium C. 

C ante A. 

+a Caban of cuke (coke A.) 4 ; ca- 

a Cabille; rudens, <k cetera; vbi a 

fa Gade 5 ; dome\_s~\tica vel domesti- 

cus, vt ouis vel auis domestica. 

1 Compare Knoppe of a scho. 

3 This appears to mean a pruning-knife. Cotgrave give3 ' Boter, to prune or cut off the 
superfluous branches of a tree.' Scalprum, according to Cooper, is ' a shauynge knife ; a 
knife to cutte vines,' and according to the Medulla ' a penne knyf.' 

3 ' Myrdrumnyl, or a buture.' Ortus. The bittern is still known as a ' Butter-bump,' or 
a 4 mire-drum,' in the north of England. In the Nominale (Wright's Vol. of Vocab. 
p. 220) it is called ' butturre,' other forms of which were bitter, bittor, and bittour. In the 
Liber Custumarum we find, pp. 304-6, the form butor, and on p. 82, butore. Bitter 
occurs in Middleton's "Works, v. 289, and in the Babees Book, p. 37, amongst other birds 
are mentioned the ' bustard, betowre and shovelere,' a form of the name which also occurs 
on p. 49, 1. 696, and p. 27, 1. 421. In the Boke of Keruynge, printed in the same volume, 
p. 162, are given directions for the carving of a 'bytturre.' Five herons and bitors are 
mentioned amongst the poultry consumed at a feast, temp. Richard II, Antiq. Report, i. 
p. 78. 'Bernakes and botures in baterde dysches.' Morte Arthure, ed. Brock, 189. 
' Hearon, Byttour, Shouelar, being yong and fat, be lightlier digested than the crane, and 
J)e bittour sooner then the Hearon.' SirT. Elyot, Castell of Health, leaf 31. ' Galerand, 
the fowle tearmed a bittor. Butor, a bittor.' Cotgrave. The bittern is said to make its 
peculiar noise, which is called bumbling, and from which it derives its second name, by 
thrusting its bill into the mud and blowing. To this Chaucer refers in the Prologue to 
the Wyf of Bathe, 116— 

' As a bytoure bumblith in the myre, 
She layde hir mouthe unto the water doun.' 
See also Mire-drombylle. * Onocrotulus, byttore.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 176. 

4 ' Caupona. A tauerne or victaylyng house.' Cooper. 

5 ' Cade lamb, a pet lamb "reared by hand.'" Peacock's Gloss, of Manley &c. 'Corset 
lamb or colt &c, a cade lamb, a lamb or colt brought up by the hand.' Ray's South 
Country Glossary, E. D. Soc, ed. Skeat. In the Nominale (Wright's Vol. of Vocab., 
p. 219) the word canaria (probably for senaria = a, six-year-old sheep) is explained as 
' Anglice, a cad.' 'A cade lamb. Agnus Domesticus, domi eductus. 1 Littleton. Still in 
use, see Miss Jackson's Shropshire Glossary, 1879. 



Caffe ! ; acus, palea, paleola, folli- 

culus, tlieca. 
+a Caffe hows ; pal tare, paliarium. 
a Cage ; catasta, volucricium. 
a Cake 2 ; torta, tortula, cZnninutiuum. 
Calde ; frigus, frigiditas, tepeditas, 

geliditas, dig or, algeria. 
t Calde of b e axes 3 ; f rigor. 
Calde ; algidus, frigidus, tepidus, 

gelidus, frigorosus, gabidus. 
to be Calde, or make eallde ; Alger e, 

-gescere, frigere, re-, frigesceve, 

re-, frigidare, re-, in-, tepefacere. 
fa Calde plase ; frigidarium. 
Caldrekyn * ; frigorosus, & cetera ; 

vbi calde (A,). 
a Calderon (Caldrone A.) 5 ; cal- 

dria, lebes, eniola, cocutum. 

(coculum A.), enium, enulum 

(eniolum A.), feruorium, (eni- 
ola A.). 
tCale G ; olus, olusculum, dim'mu.- 

tiuum, caulis, olereus. 
fa Cale lefe (Calefe A.) ; caulis. 
fa Cale seller; olitor, -tr\x. 
*a Cale stok 7 ; maguderis. 
fa Cale worme 8 ; eruca, atacus, cur- 

culio, cucurliunculus, vria, vrica. 
a Calfe ; vitulus ; vitulinus, pardci- 

fto Calfe; fetare. 
fwith Calfe ; fetosus. 
be Calfe of b e lege ; crus, crusculum, 

fa Cale garth ; ortns, & cetera ; vhi 

a gardynge. 
Calke 9 ; creta, calx. 
tCalke ; cretosus. 

1 A. S. ceaf, chaff. Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, 3148, says — 

• als fyre )>at caffe son may bryn, 
gold may melt £at es long ])ar-in.' 

Chaucer, Man of Lawe's Tale, 1. 701, has — 

• Me lust not of the caf ne of the stree, 
Maken so longe a tale as of the corn.' 

See Barlycafife, above. 

2 ' Tourte. A great loafe of houshold or browne bread (called so in Lionnois and 
Dauplin^). T.ourteau. A cake (commonly made in haste, and of lesse compasse than the 
gasteau) ; also a little loafe of household or browne bread ; also a Pancake.' Cotgrave. 

3 Palsgrave gives 'Chyueryng as one dothe for colde. In an axes or otherwise, frilleux. 
Ague, axes, fyeure? See also Aixes. Axis or Axes is from Lat. accessum, through Pr. 
accez, and is in no way connected with A. S. cece. Originally meaning an approach or 
coming on of anything, it at an early period came to be specially applied to an approach or 
sudden fit of illness : thus Chaucer has, ' upon him he had an hote accesse.' Black Knight, 
1. 136, and Caxton, 'fyl into a sekenes of feures or accessed Paris & Vienne, p. 25. 

* Very susceptible of cold, or very cold. ' Coldrycke, or full of cold. A Igosus.' Huloet. 
Jamieson gives ' Coldruch adj. used as synonymous with Caldrife. Perhaps of Teut. origin, 
from koude, cold, and rijck, added to many words, as increasing their signification ; blind- 
rijck, rich in blindness, doof-rijck, very deaf, &c.' 

5 ' Lebes. A caudron to boyle in ; a kettle.' Cooper. Enium is of course for aheneum or 
aeneum, a vessel of brass. 

6 'Chou. The herbe Cole, or Coleworts.' Cotgrave. See Jamieson, s. v. Kail. 

' Quils he was )>is cale gaderand, And stanged Jam in \>e hand.' 

A nedder stert vte of J?e sand Cursor Mundi, p. 718, 1. 12526. 

1 Olus. A courte.' Medulla. 

7 ' Magutus. Acolstook.' Medulla. ' Magudaris. A kinde of the hearbe Laserpitium ; 
after other onely the stalke of it ; after some the roote.' Cooper. In Skelton's Why Come 
ye Nat to Court? 350, we read — 

' Nat worth a shyttel-cocke, Nat worth a sowre calstocke^ 

8 'Eruca. A coolwyrm or a carlok.' Medulla. 'Eruca. A cole worm or a carlok.' Ort. 
Vocab. ' Eruca. The worme called a canker, commonly upon the colewourtes.' Cooper. 
' Canker worm which creapeth most comonly on coleworts, some do call them the deuyls 
goldrynge & some the colewort worme. Eruca.' Huloet. 

9 A. S. cealc. 

E 2 



*to Calkylle l ; calcvlare. 

to Calle ; ciere, ex-, Active, Accercire, 
concire, tire, Actiere, adscire, vo- 
care, e-, ad-, nuncupare,nominare, 
propellare, appellare, com-, ac- 
cessire, calare, censere, censire, 
conuenire, vocitare, vociferare. 

to Calle in ; jnvocare, 

to Calle owtte ; euocare. 

to Calle agane ; reuocare. 

tto Calle a hawke 2 ; stupare. 

a Callynge ; vocacio, vociferac'io ; vo- 

*a Calle trappe 3 ; hamus, pedica 
medio correpto. 

a Cambe (Came A.) ; pecten*. 

fa Cambake (Camboke A.) B ; cam- 

fCambrige ; cantibriyia, villa est. 
a Camelle ; camelus, camelio. 
a Camerelle 6 ; camerella. 
Camomelle ; camomillum. 
fa Can; orca, orcula, cfo'minutiuura, 

& cetera ; vhi a potte. 
a Candelle ; candela, scindula. 
*a Candeler ; candelarius. 
fCawdylmes (Candilmesday A.) 7 ; 

jpopanti, mo3eclinabiZe, festum 

purificacioms be&te marie. 
a Candylstyke ; candelabrum, can- 

fa Candyl schers 8 ; emunctorium. 

' Of p&t was calculed of Jje clymat, the contrarye ])ey fyndeth.' P. Plowman, C. xviii. 106. 
' He calclefr [calculat] and acounte]) pe ages of ]>e world by Jiowsendes.' Trevisa's Higden, 
vol. ii. p. 237, Eolls Series. 

That is to call back a hawk from his prey by showing him food. The Ortus Vocab. 
gives ' Stupo : to call a hawke with meat.' It appears to be a word coined to represent 
the English stoop, for the only meaning assigned to stupare in the dictionaries is ' to shut 
up in a bath ;' and so Cotgrave, ' Estouper. To stop, to close ; to shut or make up.' This 
meaning also appears in the Ortus, for it continues, ' vel aliquid stupa obturare.' To stoop 
or stoup was the regular term in falconry for a hawk swooping down on its prey : thus Ben 
Jonson, A Ichemist, v. 3, has, ' Here stands my dove ; stoop at here, if you dare.' See also 
Spenser, Faery Queene, I. xi. 18. 

' Caltroppes used in warre, to pricke horses feete ; they be made so with foure pricks 
of yron, that which way soeuer they be cast, one pike standeth up. Tribuli.' Baret. See 
also Florio, s. v. Tribolo, and Prof. Skeat's exhaustive note on the word in Piers Plowman, 
C. xxi. 296. 'Hamus. An hook, or an hole of a net, or a mayl of an haburion, or a 
caltrappe. Pedica. A fettere, or a snare.' Medulla. 'A forest uol of >yeues an of 
calketreppen? Ayenbite of Inwyt, ed. Morris, p. 131. Caxton, Faytes of Armes, pt. ii. ch. 
xiv. p. 119, mentions amongst the implements of war 'sharp hokes and pynnes of yron 
that men calle ealtrappes.' 4 Caltropes, engines of wai*re sowen abrode to wynde horse & 
man by the legges. Spara.'' Huloet. 'The felde was strowed full of caltroppes. Locus 
pugna; mwricibw erat instratus.' Horman. * MS. penten ; correctly in A. 

5 Cambuca is defined in the Medulla as ' a buschoppys cros or a crokid staf/ which 
is probably the meaning here. In the Ortus Vocab. we find • Cambuca, a crutche,' 
and hereafter will be found ' A Cruche. Cambuca, pedum.' The word is doubtless 
derived from the Celtic cam, crooked, Gaelic camag. The Rest-harrow (short for arrest- 
harrow), also called CammoTce, or Cammock (pnona arvensis) derives its name from the 
same source from its roots being tough and crooked. See P. Plowman, C. xxii. 314. 

6 ' Camerula. Parva camera, cellula ad colloquendum, chambrette, cabinet.' Ducange. 

7 ' Hypapanti. Barbare ex Grraec. virairavrr), festum Purificationis Beatae Mariae ; la fete 
de la Presentation au temple, le 2 fevrier.' Ducange. ' Hoc ipopanti. Candylmesse.' 
Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 229. The Ortus explains ipapanti by ' obuiatio vel occursus 
domini, ab ipa grece, quod latine dicitur vie, et anti, quod est contra : anglice, the feest of 
candelmas, or metynge of candelles.' 

8 ' Candel shears. Snuifers.' Jamieson. l Emunctorium. A snuffynge yron.' Ortus Vocab. 
In the 'Boke of Curtasye' (Sloane MS. 1986) pr. in the Babees Boke, ed. Furnivall, p. 
205, the following description of snuffers is given — 

' f e snof [the Chandeler] dose away pe sesours ben schort & rownde y-close, 

With close sesours as I 30W say ; With plate of irne vp-on bose.' 

* Emunctorium : ferrum cum quo candela emungitur.' Medulla. Wyclif, Exodus xxv. 38, 
renders emunctoria by ' candelquenchers,' and emuncta by 'snoffes' [snottis in Purvey]. 



+a Candylweke; lichinusjichinum. 

ta Candylsnytynge l j licinus, lici- 

+ Caned ; Acidics. 

fCanynge of ale - ; A cor. 

Canylle 3 ; cinamomum, Amomum. 

a Cankyr ; cancer, -is secundum 
antiques, sed moclo est secunde 
dec\ inatiorm, cancer, -cri. 

a Canon ; canon. 

*Canope ; canopeum.) canopeus, jpar- 


a Cantellc 



tCantebery (Cantyrbery A.) ; can- 

tuaria ; cantuariensis. 
a Canvas ; canabus, carentiuillum. 
*a Cape; capa, capula, caracalla, ca- 

racaUum, dalmatica cantoris est. 
*a Capylle 5 ; caballus. 
a Capon 6 ; capo; Altilis, gallinacius. 

1 There appears to be some error here, the scribe having apparently copied the same 
Latin equivalents for Candylsnytynge as for Candylweke, to which lichinus or lichinum 
properly apply. Candylsnytynge is the act of snuffing a candle, or, if we understand the 
word instrument, a pair of snuffers. ' Snite. To snuff, applied to a candle.' Jamieson. 
4 Lichinus. Candell weyke.' Ortus. ' Fumale. The weyke or [of] a candyl. Lichinus. A 
weyke off a candyl. Lichinum. The knast off a candyl.' Medulla. See to Snyte and 

2 Said of vinegar when containing mould, or turned sour. Similarly in the version of 
Beza's Sum of the Christian Faith, by R. Fyll, Lond. 1572, 1. 134, we find — 'It is 
meruaile that they [the Priests] doe not reserue the wine as well as the breade, for the 
one is as precious as the other. It were out of order to saye they feare the wine will eger, 
or waxe palled, for they hold that it is no more wine.' See P. Egyr, ' Acor : canynge of 
ale.' Ortus Vocab. 

3 ' Candle, our moderne Cannell or Cinnamon.' Cotgrave. ' And the Lord spak to 
Moyses, seiynge, Tak to thee swete smellynge thingis .... the half of the canel [cinna- 
momi].' Wyclif, Exodus xxx. 23. 4 1 ha sprengd my ligging place with myrre, and aloes, 
and canell ;' ibid. Proverbs vii. 17. See also Romaunt of the Hose, p. 58, * candle, and 
setewale of prys.' In Trevisa's Higden, i. 99, we are told that 'in Arabia is store mir 
and canel.'' In John Russell's Boke of Nurture (pr. in the Babees Book, ed. Furnivall), 
p. 11, 4 Synamone, Canelle, red wyne hoot & drye in J)eir doynge,' are mentioned amongst 
the ingredients of Ypocras. Is the name derived from its tube-like stalk ? Canel also 
occurs in the Recipe for Chaudon sau3 of Swannes, given in Harl. MS. 1735, 1. 18. See 
note to Chawdewayn. ' Cinomomum. Canel.' Medulla. See also Cinamome. ' Canel, 
spyce, or tre so called. Amomum.' Huloet. ' Canele & gingiuere & licorij.' La3amon, 1. 1 7>744« 

4 Chaucer, in the Knighte's Tale, 1. 2150, says that — 

' Nature hath nat take his bygynnyng 
Of no partye ne cantel of a thing, 
But of a thing that parfyt is and stable.' 
Shakspeare also uses the word — 

' See, how this River comes me cranking in, 
And cuts me from the best of all my land, 
A huge halfe moone, a monstrous cantle out.' 

1st Hen. IV., III. i, 98. 
And also in Ant. & Cleop. III. x, 4. According to Kennett MS. 38, Cantelle means ' any 
indefinite number or dimension :' thus in MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, 1. 123 (quoted by Halliwell) 
we read — 

4 And a cantell of hys schylde Flewe fro hym ynto the fylde.' 

Burguy gives ' Chantel, cantel, coin, quartier, morceau, chanteau.' 4 Minutal. A cantyl of 
bred.' Medulla. Compare P. ' Partyn, cantyn, or delyn, parcior.' 

5 ' Capyl, Capul. s. A horse or mare.' Jamieson. 'Caballus. Ahorse; acaple.' Cooper. 
From a passage in Rauf Coiljear, E. E. Text Society, ed. Murray, a 4 Capylle ' appears to 
be properly applied to a cart-horse, as distinguished from a ' coursour,' a charger or saddle- 
horse. Rauf on his arrival home orders ' twa knaifis ' 

4 The ane of jow my Capill ta. 

The vther his [King Charles'] Coursour alswa.' P. 6, 1. 114. 
See Carte hors below. ' Thanne Conscience vpon his Caple kaireth forth faste.' P. Plowman, 
B. iv. 23. ' Caballus. A stot.' Medulla. 

6 Altilis is rendered by Cooper, ' franked or fedde to be made fatte.' 



*a Cappe l ; pilius, galerus. 

*a Cappe of a flaylle 2 ; cappa. 

tCappyd; cappatus. 

tto Cappe; cappo -as, -aui, -re. 

a Captan; Arcliitenews, capitaneua, 

castellanus, castellarius. 
*a Caralle 3 ; corea, chorus, pecten. 
a Carde 4 ; cardus, carptarium. 
a Carde maker ; carptarius. 
ta Carder; carptrix. 
a Cardiakylle or cardiake 5 ; cardia, 

ta Cardynge; carptorium. 
a Cardinalle; cardinalis; cardinalis 


a Cariage; vectra, cariagium. 

*a Carion ; cadauer, funus, funus- 

tulum., morticimim, corpus ; mor- 

ticinus £>arricipium. 
a Carkas ; carnicucium. 
*a Carle (Caryle A.) 6 ; rusticus, & 

cetera; vbi a churle. 
a Carre; saratum, carrus, carrum. 
tCarsay 7 ; bilix. 

a Carte ; big a, biiuga, carecta, carrus. 
fa Carte band (Carbond A.) 8 ; 

crusta, crustula (fo'minutiuum. 
a Carter; Auriga, veredus, vereda- 

rius, quadrigarius, carectarius. 
ta Carte hows ; carectarea. 

1 ' Galerus. An hatte : a pirwike.' ' Pileus. A cappe or bonet.' Cooper. ' Galerus. A 
coyfe of lether.' Medulla. A. S. caippe, which appears as the gloss to planeta in ^Elfric's 
glossary. ' Galerus, vel pileus, fellen haet.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 22. 

2 'The band of leather or wood through which the middle-band passes loosely. There 
is one cap at the end of the hand-staff, generally made of wood, and another at the end of 
the swingel, made of leather.' Halliwell in v. See Flayle, below. 

3 In the Cursor Mundi, p. 438, 1. 7600, we are told that after David had slain Goliath 

' per caroled wiues bi ]>e way, Of ]?air carol suche was \>e sange, &c.' 
Compare the account of the same event in Wyclif, 1 Kings, xxi. 11. Pecten is used here- 
after as the equivalent for a Wrast. ' Faire is carole of maide gent.' Alisaunder, 1845. 
* ' Gardes or wool combes. Hani vel Hami, pectines.' Baret. ' Cardes. Cards for wooll, 
&c, working cards. Cardier. A card-maker.' Cotgrave. 

5 ' Cardiaque. A consumption, and continuall sweat, by the indisposition of the heart, 
and parts about it.' Cotgrave. ' Cardiacus. That hath the wringyng at the hearte.' Cooper. 
Batman vppon Bartholome, lib. vii. cap. 32, ' Of heart-quaking and the disease cardiacle, 
says, ' heart-quaking or Cardiacle is an euil that is so called because it commeth often of 
default of the heart,' &c. ' Cordiacus, (1) qui patitur morbum cordis ; (2) morbus ipse.' 
Ducange. ' Cardiaca ; qtiidam morbus. A cardyake.' Medulla. See Piers Plowman, C. 
vii. 78 and xxiii. 82. The word also occurs in Chaucer's Pardoner's Prologue, 1. 27, 
and in the Prologue to the Tale of Beryn, ed. Furnivall, 1. 493, where we are told that 
the Pardonere ' cau3t a cardiakill, & a cold sot.' 

6 ' Eusticus. An uplondman.' Wright's Vol. Vocab. p. 182. 'Rusticus. A charle.' Me- 
dulla. ' A carle. Rusticus.' Manip. Vocab. 

7 Cooper renders Bilix by * A brigantine, or coate of fence double plated, or double 
mayled.' Palsgrave gives ' Carsey cloth, cresy,' and Cotgrave ' Carize, creseau, kersie.' 
Harrison in his Description of Eng. ed. Furnivall, i. 172, says that an Englishman was 
contented ' at home with his fine carsie hosen and a meane slop.' ' Carsaj^e. The woollen 
stuff called Kersey.' Jamieson. The Medulla explains bilix as ' a kirtle off cloth off ij 
thredes woundyn.' For the origin of the word see Skeat, Etym. Diet. s. v. Kersey. 

8 A plate of iron. Cotgrave gives ' Happe. f. A claspe, or the hooke of a claspe ; or a 
hooke to claspe with ; also the clowt, or band of iron thats nailed upon the arme, or end 
of an axletree, and keeps it from being worne by the often turning of the nave (of a 
wheele).' This appears from the definition of crusta given by Cooper, 'bullions or orna- 
mentes that may be taken off,' to be the meaning in the present instance, but a cart-band 
also signifies the tire of a wheel. Cotgrave has ' Bande. The streake of a wheele,' and 
Elyot, Diet. 1559, gi yes 'Absis. The strake of a cart whele, wherin the spokes bee sette : 
rictus. A hoope or strake of a carte.' W. de Biblesworth in naming the parts of a cart 
speaks of les bendes de les roes, which is rendered in the gloss ' the carte-bondes.' Wright's 
Vol. of Vocab. p. 167. 'Bande. A welt or gard; the streak of a cart wheel.' Cotgrave, 
See also Clowte of yren, and cf. Copbande. 



ta Carte hors ; veredus, cabcdlus. 

fa Carte spur re a ; orbita. 

ta Cartewright ; carectareus. 

ta Carte sadille 2 ; sella veredaria, 

a Case ; casus. 
ta Case for sponys or o&er thyngis; 

to Caste ; jacere, emittere, effundere, 

torquere, con-, jaculari, balein 

grece, exigere, jactare ; versus — 
^ Si non vis jacere, lapidem 
permitte jacere. 
to Cast agayn ; reicere. 
to Caste away; abicere, proicere, abi- 

cimus voluntate, ])Yoicimus iussu 

to Caste a darte ; jaculari, torquere, 

tto Caste be hinde; deiactare,deicere. 
to Castin ; jnicere, jmmittere. 
to Caste down ; sternere, ab-, con-, 

pro-, diruere, demoliri, subuertere, 

obruere, pessundare. 
Caste down ; stratus, pro-, dirutus, 

to Caste owte ; eicere, eiactare, elimi- 

tto Caste ouer ; traicere. 
ta Castelle; castrum, castellum, cas- 

tellulum, defensio, munimeu, mu- 

nicipium, oppidum, oppidulum, 

opus, (ops, menea A.), 
tto sett in Castelle; jncastrare. 
tCastynge; jaciens, emittens, iactans. 
tCastynge as a bowe ; Jlexibilis, vt, 

-4 reus meus est jlexibilis, an ee ve- 

lecastynge 3 . 
a Castyngdown; prostracio,subuercio. 
a Catte ; cat us, mureligus, musio, 

ta Cattyle (Catalle A.) 4 ; lanugo, 

herba est, 
ta Cature 5 ; escarius. 

1 Cooper gives 'Orbita. Virg. Cic A carte wheele : the track e of a carte-wheele made in 
the grounde.' 'The tracke, or Cart- wheele Rut. Orbita.' Withals. The Medulla has 
'Vadum. A forthe or cart spore. Orbita. A cart spore,' and The Ortus explains orbita as 

' ' vestigium curri vel rote : ab orbe et rota dicta : et dicitur orbita quasi orbis iter vel via.' 
A. S. spor, a track ; which we still retain in the term spoor, applied to the track of deer, 
&c. Compare ' Fosper, Vestigium.' Manip. Vocab. and P. Whele Spore. 

2 'Carsaddle. The small saddle put on the back of a carriage-horse, for supporting the 
trams or shafts of the carriage.' Jamieson. ' The saddle placed on the shaft-horse in a 
cart, carriage, or waggon.' Peacock's Gloss, of Manley, &c. Compare P. Plowman, B. ii. 
179. ' Cartesadel, ]>e comissarie, owre carte shal he leve.' ' Cartsaddle, dorsuale." 1 Huloet. 
Fitzherbert, Boke of Husbandry, If. B 5, speaks of 'a cartsadel,b&kha,ndes and belybandes.' 

3 That is ' well-casting.' 

4 ' Cat-tails. The heads of the great bulrush.' Peacock's Glossary of Manley, &c. 
'Lanugo. The softe heares or mossinesse in fruites and herbes, as in clarie, &c.' Cooper. 
Jamieson says, ' Cats-Tails, s. pi. Hares tail-rush, Eriophorum vaginatum Linn, also called 
Canna-down, Cat-tails.' Lyte, Dodoens, p. 512, says that the ' downe or cotton of this 
plant is so fine, that in some countries they fill quishions and beddes with it.' He adds, 
' Turner calleth it in Englishe, Reed Mace, and Cattes tayle : to the which we may ioyne 
others, as Water Torche, Marche Betill, or Pestill, and Dunche downe, bycause the 
downe of this herbe will cause one to be deafe, if it happen to fall in to the eares. . . . * 

The leaves are called Matte reede, bycause they make mattes therewith Men 

haue also experimented and proued that this cotten is very profitable to heale broken or 
holowe kibes, if it be layde vpon.' See also the quotation from Gerarde in Mr. Way's note 
*. v. Mowle. • Cat's-tail ; typha.' Withals. ' Cattes tayle, herbe, whiche some cal horse- 
taile. Cauda equina.' Huloet. 

5 ' Escarius : a cater.' Ortus Vocab. Baret gives ' a Cater : a steward : a manciple : a 
prouider of cates, opsonator, un despensier ; qui achete les viandes,' and Palsgrave ' Provider 
acater, despencier. Catour of a gentylmans house, despensier.'' Tusser, in his Five Hun- 
dred Points, &c, p. 20, says — 

4 Make wisdome controler, good order thy clarke, Prouision Cater, and skil to be cooke.' 
'Catour, or purueyoure of vitayles. Opsorator '.' Huloet. 'The Cater buyeth very dere 
cates. Obsonator caro foro emit obsonia.' Horman. From a Fr. form acatour from acate t 
a buying, used by Chaucer, Prol. 573. 



*a Cawcion * ; caucio. 

*a Cawdille 2 ; caldarium. 

a Caule 3 ; caula. 

a Cause; causa, erga, declinabitur 

antiquitus, argum, gratia & racio ; 

sed causa multas hdhet species, 

racio pa\u]cissimas, <k causa rem. 

antecedit, racio perficit ; jus, occa- 

sio, res. 
be Cause; causa, pretextu, contem- 

placione, gr&tia, intuitu, obtentu, 


C ante E. 
a Cedir tre ; cedrus, cedra ; ce- 

tCele 4 ; vbi happy (<fc vbi blyssed^ 

Celydon 5 ; celidonia, Jierba est. 
a Cell<?; cella, cellula, conclaue. 
a Celler; cellarium (Apoteca, cella- 

rium, penus, -i, penus,-ris, penum, 
peni, indec\in&bile,penus,-eris, A.), 
& cetera ; vbi a butry. 

a Cellerer ; cellarius, cellcvrarius. 

a Censure; vide in S. littera. 

Centary G ; centauria, fel terre. 

a Cepture ; ceptrum. 

*a Cerkylle ; Ambago, Ambages, 
ambicio, ambitus, circus, cir- 
culus, ciclus 7 , siculxxs, circui- 
ties, girus, lustrum, lustv&cio, 
lustramen, spera, sperula, dimi- 

half a Cerkylle ; semicirculus. 

Certan ; certus, verus. 

tto be Certan ; constare, restare. 

Certanly ; certe, quoque, porro, quin, 
vtique ; versus : 
^Est stultxxs porro qui nescit 
viuere porro. 

1 ' The king suor vpe the boc, and caucion voud god, 

That he al clanliche to the popes loking stod.' 

Robert of Gloucester, ed. Hearne, p. 506. 
So also in King Alisaunder, 1. 281 1, in Weber Metr. Rom. i. no — 

' And they weore proude of that cite ; And ful of everiche iniquyte : 
Kaucyon they nolde geve, ne bidde.' 
The word frequently occurs in this sense of ' hostages, security :' see Holinshed, iii. 1584, 
' hostages that should be given for cautions in that behalfe.' It is still in use in Scotland 
for • bail, security.' 

2 In the Prologue to the Tale of Beryn, Chaucer Soc. ed. Furnivall, p. 14, 1. 431, we 
are told how Kit, the tapster, her Paramour, and the Ostler 

' Sit & ete ]>e cawdell, for the Pardonere ]>at was made 
With sugir & with swete wyne, rijt as hymselffe bade.' 
'A cadle. Potiuncula ouacea ; ouaceum. A caudel. Potio. An ote caudel. Avenaceum. 1 
Manip. Vocab. ' Of sweet Almondes is made by skille of cookes .... cawdles of Almonds, 

both comfortable to the principall parts of the body and procuring sleepe Almond 

cawdels are made with ale strained with almonds blanched and brayed .... then lightly 
boyled and spiced with nutmeg and sugar .... as pleaseth the party.' Cogan, Haven of 
Health, 161 2, pp. 98, 99. See also Rob. of Gloucester, p. 561. 

3 ' Caula. A sheepe house ; a folde.' Cooper. ' Cauloz. munimenta ovium ; barrUres 
pour renfermer les moutons, pare. 1 Ducange. ' Caula. A stabyl, a folde, or a shep cote.' 
Medulla. ' A Caule, pen ; caula.' Manip. Vocab. 

* A. S. sozlig. 'Felix, sely or blisful : Felicio, to make sely.' Medulla Grammatica. 
'There is sely endeles beyng and endeles blys.' 

MS.Addit. 10053. 
6 ' Chelidonia. The hearbe Selandine [Celandine].' Cooper. Of this plant Neckham 
says — 

' Mir a chelidonice, virtus clarissima reddit 
Lumina, docta tibi praibet hirundo fidem.' 

De Naturis Rerum, p. 478 (Rolls Series). 
See also Lyte's Dodoens, p. 31. 

6 'Centaury. A herb of Mars.' Coles' Diet. 1676. 'Fel terror. Centaurium.' Cooper. 
The plant is mentioned in the Promptorium, p. 154, under the name ' Feltryke, herbe,' on 
which see Mr. Way's note. 

7 MS. Clicus. 



+to Certefye ; certificare, cerciorare. 

tto Ceruylle l ; excerebrare. 

ta Ceruyller; excerehrator. 

to Cese; cessare, desinere, descis- 
tere, dimittere, destare, omittere 
est ordinem jnterrumpere, pre- 
mitteve ex toto relinquere, super- 

a Cessynge; cessacio, deficio, jnter- 

like to Cesse ; cessabundus (A.). 
C ante H. 

*Chafir (Chafare A.) 2 ; commercium. 

to Chafir; commercari. 

a Chafirynge; commercium, commu- 

*a Chafte 3 ; maxilla, mala, faux, 

mandubila, mandula, mola) maxil- 

laris, jparticipium. 
A Chafte ; vb[i] Arowe (A.). 
A Chafte ; vbi spere, &c. (A.) 
Chaftmonde 4 . (A.) 
a Chayere ; cathedra, orcestra. 
ta Chare bo we 5 ; fultrum. 
*to Chalange 6 ; vendicare, calump- 

1 ' Excerebro. To beate out the braynesof a thyng/ Cooper. ' Ceruelle, f. The braine.' 

2 'And some chosen chaffare, they cheuen the bettare.' P. Plowman, B Prologue 31. 
'Greet pres at market makith deer chafare.' Chaucer, Wyf of Bathe, Prologue, 1. 523. 
A. S. ceap, chep. 

3 In the Anturs of Arthur (Camden Soc. ed. Robson), xi. 2, we read — 

' Alle the herdus my3tun here, the hyndest of alle, 
Off the sehaft and the shol, shaturt to the skin.' 
Halliwell quotes from MS. Cott. Vespas. A. iii. leaf 7 — 

' With the chafte-han of a ded has Men sais that therwit slan he was.' 

See also E. E. Alliterative Poems, ed. Morris, p. 100, 1. 268. 

' With this chavyl-bon I xal sle the.' Cov. Myst. Cain & Abel, p. 37. 
Gawin Douglas describing the Trojans on their first landing in Italy, tells how they 
' With thare handis brek and chaftis gnaw The crustis, and the coffingis all on raw.' 

Eneados, Bk. vii. 1. 250. 
In the Cursor Mundi, David, when stating how he had killed a lion and a bear, says — 
1 1 had na help bot me allan . . . And scok j>am be be berdes sua 
And I laid hand on )>aim beleue pat I ]>air chaftes raue in tua.' 11. 7505-7510. 
where the Fairfax MS. reads chauelis, and the Gottingen and Trinity MSS. chaulis. 
' He strake the dragon in at the chavyl, That it come out at the navyl.' 

Ywaine & Gawin, 1991. 
See also Chawylle and Cheke-bone. 'Chaftis, Chafts, the chops. Chaft-blade, the jaw- 
bone. Chaft-tooth, a jaw-tooth.' Jamieson. A. S. ceafl. S. Saxon, cheuele. 

* This word does not appear again either under C or S. It was a measure taken from 
the top of the extended thumb to the utmost part of the palm, generally considered as 
half a foot. Ray in his Gloss, of North Country Words gives ' Shafman, Shafmet, Shaft- 
ment, sb. the measure of the fist with the thumb set up ; ab A. S. scceft-mund, i. e. semipes.' 
According to Florio, p. 414, it means 'a certainerate of clothe that is given above measure , 
which drapers call a handfull or shaftman.' In the Morte Arthure, E. E. Text Soc. ed. 
Brock, in the account of the fight between Sir Gawaine, and Sir Priamus, we are told — 

'Bothe schere thorowe schoulders a sckaft-monde longe !' 1. 2456. 
See also 11. 3843 and 4232. In the Anturs of Arthur, Camd. Soc. ed. Robson, xli. 2, we 
read, ' Thro his shild and his shildur, a schaft-mun he share.' ' Not exceeding a foot in 
length nor a shaftman in shortness.' Barnaby Googe, Husbandry, 78a. In the Liber Niger 
Domus, Ed. IV, pr. in Household Ordinances, 1790, p. 49, it is stated that the Dean of the 
Chapel ' hathe all the offerings of wax that is made in the king's chappell on Candylmasse- 
day, with the moderate fees of the beame, in the festes of the yere, when the tapers be 
consumed into a shaftmount.' 5 See also Bowe of a chaire. 

6 MS. Chanlange. This word occurs with the meaning of blame, accuse in the Ancren 
Riwle, p. 54, ' hwarof Icalenges tu me?' and in P. Plowman, B. Text, v. 174, Wrath tells 
how the monks punished him — 

' And do me faste frydayes, to bred and to water, 
And am chalanged in pe chapitelhous, as I a childe were.' 



a Chalange ; calumpnia. 

fa Chalanger ; calumpniator. 

a Chalice : calico, caliculus. 

*aChalon 1 ; Amphitapetum. 

a Cha[m]pion ; Athleta, pugnator, 

*a Chandeler; cerareus. 
a Chanon ; canonicus. 
*a Chape of a knyfe 


2 ; vomel- 

a Chapelle ; capella, capellula, 

a Chapiture ; capitulum. 

a Chaplett. 

*a Chapman 3 ; negotiator, & cetera; 

vhi a merchande. 
a Chapmanry ; negociacio. 
*a Chapmanware ; vendibilis. 
*to Chappe 4 ; mercari, com-, nundi- 

nari, negociari. 
a Charbunkylle 5 ; carbuncidus. 

In the Pricke of Conscience we are told how the devil demanded from St. Bernard 
' By what skille he walde, and bi what ryght 
Chalange ]>e kingdom of heven bright.' 1. 2252. 
The claim of Henry IV. to the crown of England is stated as follows in the Rolls of Par- 
liament, ' In the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, I, Henry of Lancaster, 
challenge the realm of England,' &c. (Annals of Eng. p. 210). In Morte Arthure, Arthur 
in his dream sees two kings climbing to the chair of power, 

'This chaire of charbokle, they said, we chalange here-aftyre.' 1. 3326. 
' Chalonger .... demander, contester, provoquer, attaquer, defendre, refuser, prohiber, 
blamer ; de calumnia, fausse accusation, chicane.' Burguy, s. v. Chalonge. ' Challonger. 
To claime, challenge, make title unto, set in foot for ; also to accuse of, charge with, call 
in question for an offence.' Cotgrave. See also Ducange, s. v. Calengium. ' I calenge 
a thyng of dutye or to be myne owne. je calenge.' Palsgrave. ' To calenge. Vindicare. 1 
Manip. Vocab. ' We ben bro3t in for the monei whiche we baren a3en bifore in our sackis, 
that he putte chalenge into us [ut devolvat in nos calumniarn].' Wyclif, Genesis xliii. 18. 
So also in Job xxxv. 9 : ' For the multitude of challengeres \calumniatoruni) thei shul crie.' 
' I calenge to fyght with the hande to hande. Ex prouocatione tecum dimicabo.' Horman. 
See also Wyclif, Select Works, E. E. Text Soc. ed. Mathew, p. 161, 1. 7. 

1 Cooper gives ' Ampkitapa, idem quod Amphimallum,' which latter he renders by ' A 
cloath or garment frysed on both sydes,' and in MS. Lambeth, 481, it is explained as 
' tapeta ex utraque parte uillosa facta' In the directions for furnishing a room given in 
Neckham's Treatise de Utensilibus, we find — 

del piler chalun idem 

'Altilis, sive epistilis columpne, tapetum sive tapete dependeant.' Wright's Vol, of Vocab. 
p. 100. 

2 In the Inventory of the goods of Sir J. Fastolf, of Caistor, taken in 1459, are mentioned 
* Item, j bollok haftyd dager, harnesyd wyth sylver, and j chape thertoo. Item, j lytyll 
schort armyny dager, withe j gilt schape.' Paston Letters, i. 478. ' Chappe, f. The chape, 
or locket of a scabbard.' Cotgrave. 'Here knyfes were i-chaped nat with bras.' Chaucer, 
C. T. Prol. 366. 

3 Chaucer, C. T. Prologue, 396, in describing the Shipman says — 

' Ful many a draughte of wyn hadde he ydrawe 
From Burdeux-ward, whil that the chapman sleep.' 
'Chapman. A pedler, a hawker, a merchant.' Jamieson. See La3amon, vol. iii. p. 232. 
* 'And who so cheped my chaffare, chiden I wolde, 

But he profred to paye a peny or tweyne 
More )>an it was worth.' P. Plowman, B. xiii. 380. 
A. S. ceapian. ' Cheape the pryce or valewe of a thynge. Licitare? Huloet. 

5 The Carbuncle was supposed to have light-giving powers. Thus in the Gesta 
Romanorum, p. 7, we are told in the account of the Enchanted Chamber that there was 
there 'stonding a charbuncle ston, the whiche 3af li3t ouer all the hous.' Alexander 
Neckham in his work De Naturis Return, Rolls Series, ed. Wright, p. 469, refers to this 
supposed quality as follows — 

' Illustrat tenebras radians Carbunculus auri 
Fulgorem vincit ignea flamma micans? 
The same supposed property of the stone is referred to in The Myroure of Our Lady, E. E. 
Text Society, ed. Blunt, p. 1 75, where we read : — ' There is a precyous stone that is called 



*a Chare l ; ca\r^pentum. 

to Charge 2 ; onustare, sarchiare, 

onerare, gr&uare. 
a Charge ; cur a, onus, gmuamen. 
tto dis-Charge; eooonerare. (to vn- 

charge ; vbi to discharge A.) 
Charged; onustus, oneratus, onus- 

fa Chargere; onerator, sarcinator. 
*A Charyooure ; vbi a chare. 
tCharls; Karolus, nomen pro^riwm. 
tCharelwayn (Charlewayn A.) 3 ; 

arthurus, plaustrum. 
to Charme; incantare,fasci?iare, ccir- 


A Charmer; incantator, -trice, car- 

minator, -trice. 
Charmynge; incantans, carminans, 

a Chare 4 ; vbi to chase. 
A Chartyr; carta, monimen, cirogra.- 

phum, scriptum, sceda. 
tA Chase; fuga. 
tto Chase; fugo, re-, con-, dif-, 

Chaste ; castus corpore, pudicus am- 
mo, nuptus, continens. 

vn Chaste ; inpudicus, jncontinens. 

fto lyf Chaste ; eunuchidare, con- 
tinere, caste viuere. 

a carboncle, whyche shyneth bryghte as fyre, of hys owne kynde, so that no darkenesse 
may blemysshe yt ne no moysture quenche yt. And to thys stone ye lyken oure lorde 
god, when ye saye, Per se lucens. The carboncle shyn^nge by itselfe nedeth none other 

1 See also Carre. ' penne seyde the Emperoure, when the victory of the bataill wer 
come home, he shulde have in the first day iiij. worshipis ; of the whiche this is ]>e first, 
he shalle be sette in a chair, & iiij. white hors shulle drawe hit to the palyse of the Em- 
-perour ; The secounde is, pat all his trespassours & Adugrsarijs shulde folowe his chare 
behynde him, withe bounden hondis & fete.' Gesta Romanorum, ed. Herrtage, p. 1 76. ' And 
[Pharao] putte aboute his [Joseph's] necke a goldun bee3e, and made him stey3 vpon his 
secound chaar.' Wyclif, Genesis xli. 43. 

2 In the Romance of Sir Ferumbras, 1. 3136, the French knights when on a foraging 
expedition discover 

' Two and J»yrty grete somers i Wy p fair flour, y-maked of whete i 

Y -charged alle and some And wyp bred and flechs and wyn.' 

• And therfor, seip M-atth. Jugum enim meum suaue est, et onus meum leue, pis is to seye, 
My yoke, scil. penaunce, is swete, scil. for it turnithe to swetnesse, & my charge or my 
burdyn, scil. commaundement, is list.' Gesta Romanorum, p. 177. 'Charger. To charge, 
burthen, onerate, load ; lye heavy upon, lay on, or lay load on, &c.' Cotgrave. ' Pondus. 
A charge.' Medulla. 

3 The Constellation Ursa Major. Bootes was called either Wagoner to Charles' Wain 
or Keeper to the Great Bear (arctophylax) , according to the name given to the chief 
northern group of fixed stars. (See Barrewarde ante.) Cooper gives ' Plaustrum. Charles 
Wayne, nigh the North Pole.' The word occurs also in Gawin Douglas, and in the 
Medulla we find ' Arcophilaxe (sic) . The carle wensterre. Arturus: quoddam signum celeste : 
anglice, A carwaynesterre.' Withals mentions ' Charles Waine. Vrsa minor, Cynosura,' 
and 'Astarre that folio weth Charles waine. Bootes.'' Jamieson gives 'Charlewan' and 
' Charlewaigne.' Compare Spenser, Faery Queene, I. ii. 1. A. S. carlesw&n. See also 
Cotgrave s. v. Boote. The idea that Charles' Wain is a corruption of Chorles or Churls 
Wain is a complete error. The Charles is not in any way connected with the A. S. ceorl 
or any of its later forms, but refers to the Emperor Charles, the Charlemagne of romance, 
who, as Spenser tells us, in the Teares of the Muses, was placed by Calliope ' amongst the 
starris seaven,' and who was addressed by the priests of Aix-la-Chapelle as 'Bex mundi 
triumphator, Jesu Christi conregnator.' The Woden's Wain of the North became the 
Charles' Wain of the Teutons. Holland, in his trans, of Suetonius, p. 74, speaks of the 
' starres of the celestial beare,' the marginal note being ' Charlemaine his waine,' and in 
Trevisa's trans, of Bartholomseus de Proprietatibus Rerum, viii. 35, we are told that 
' Arcturus is comynly clepid in Englis Charlemaynes wayne* 

* A. S. cerran, cyrran, to turn, drive. In the Coventry Mysteries, p. 325, we find ' Chare 
awey the crowe.' ' Fulst me euer to gode and cher me from sunne.' E. Eng. Homilies, ed. 
Morris, i. 215. See other examples in Stratmann. Compare P. ' Charyn a-way,' p. 70. 



fto Chasty * ; castigare, corripere. 
A Chastyser; castigator, -tvix. 
A Chasty synge; caxtigacio, correccio. 
Chastite ; continencia, proprie vidu- 

arum, castitas corporis scilicet 

proprie virginum pudicicia,mono- 

gamia, integr'Uas, celibatus, casti- 

monia religionis. 
fvn Chastite ; i?icoi\tinencia ; inpu- 

fa Chaterer 2 ; futilis, garulus, ver- 

bosus, loquax, loquatulus, mag- 

niloquus, poliloquus. 

cornicari, cor- 

to Chatir as byrdis 3 

niculari, garrire. 
to Chatir as a man ; garrulari, ver- 

fA Chaterynge; garrulitas, verbosi- 

tas, loqu&citas. 
ta Chaterynge of hyrdis ; garritus. 
tChaterynge as birdis; garrulans, 

tto Chatte 4 ; Garrulare. 
*a Chawylle (Chavylle B ; vbi A chafte). 
Chawdepysse 6 ; stranguria. 
tChawdewayn 7 . 

1 ' Als \>e gude son tholes mekely J>e fader, when he wille hym chasty.' Pricke of 
Conscience, 3549. 'To chanty J>aim and hald j>aim in awe.' Ibid. 5547. 
' Bot luke now for charitee thow chasty thy lyppes.' Morte Arthure, ed. Brock, 1019. 
O.Fr. chastoier, chastier : Lat. castigare. See also Barbour's Bruce, ed. Skeat, i. 122, ix. 
743, &c, and P. Plowman, A. xi. 195. 2 See also Blaberyn. 

3 See also to Chiter as byrdis dose. ' Cornicari. To chatte or cackle like a chough. 
Garrulw aves. Chatteryng byrdes, singyng birdes. Garrio. To babble or chatte; to talke 
many woordes folishlye ; properly to chirpe or chatter as a birde.' Cooper. 

* ' Garrulitas. Chattyng ; janglyng ; babbling ; busie talkyng. Rauca garrulitas pi- 
carum. Ovid. Chattyng of pies.' Cooper. ' Bahillarde, f. A tittle-tattle ; a prating gossip ; 
a babling huswife ; a chatting or chattering minx.' Cotgrave. • Garrulo. To Jangelyn. 
Medulla. 4 Som vse]> straunge wlafferynge chiterynge.' Trevisa's Higden, ii. 159. 

5 See note to Chafte. In Wright's Political Poems (Camden Soc.) p. 240, we find, ' to 
chawle ne to chyde,' i.e. to jaw, find fault. In Sloane MS. 1571, leaf 48 b , is given a 
curious prescription ' for bolnynge vndur J>e chole,' the principal ingredient of which is a fat 
cat. ' Brancus. A gole or a chawle.' Vocabulary, MS. Hail. 1002. In the Master of 
Game, MS. Vespas. B. xii, leaf 34 b , mention is made of the ' iawle-bone' of a wild boar. 
* Bucca, mala inferior. The cheeke, iawe or iowll.' Junius. 

6 Cotgrave gives l Pisse-chaude. AburntPisse; also the Venetian flux; the Gonorrhean, 
or contagious running.' The Ortus curiously explains 'Stranguria : as the colde pysse ; 
difficultas vrine quam guttatim micturiunt.' 'A recipe for the cure of Chawdpys, or strangury, 
is given in MS. Lincoln. Med. fo. 298.' Halliwell. ' Stranguria, otherwise called in Latine 
stUlicidium, & of our old farriers (according to the French name) choivdepis, is when the 
horse is provoked to stale often, & voideth nothing but a few drops — which cometh, as the 
physitians say, either through the sharpness of the urine, or by some exulceration of the 
bladder, or else by means of some apostume in the liver or kidnies.' Topsell, Mist, of Four- 
footed Beasts, ed. Rowland, 1673, p. 304. I know of no other instance of the word except 
in the curious 0. Fr. poem * .Des xxiii Manieres de Vilains,' Paris, 1833, ed. Franc. 
Michel, p. 13, where we read — 

' Si aient plente de grume, Mai ki les faiche rechaner, 

Plenty de frievre et de gaunisse ! Et plaie ki ne puist saner.' 

Et si aient le chade-pisse, 

Jamieson gives ' Chaudpeece : Gonorrhoea,' and refers to Polwart. Fr. chaude-pisse. See 

P. Cawepys. 

7 A recipe for ' Chaudewyne de boyce ' as follows is given in Liber Cure Cocorum, ed. 
Morris, p. 25 — 
' Take smalle notes, schale out kurnele, 

As J)ou dose of almondes, fayre and wele ; 

Frye horn in oyle, |>en sethe hom ry3t 

In almonde mylke )>at is bry3t ; 

pen J)ou schalle do in floure of ryce 
See also ibid. p. 9, for another recipe for l Chaudon; for wylde digges, swannes, and pigges,' 
composed of chopped liver and entrails boiled with blood, bread, wine, vinegar, pepper, cloves 

A nd also oJ>er pouder of spyce ; 
Fry oj^er curneles besyde also, 
Coloure ]>ou hit with safron or bou fer goo, 
To divers J)o mete Jxm schalt hit set, 
With ]>o fryed curnels with outen let.* 



to Chaufife ] ; cale/acere. 

A Chafer 2 ; calefactorium, stutra, co- 

a Chaumbere (Chamer A.) ; camera, 
thalamus, tristegum, zeta, con- 
claue ; versus — 
^Est sponsi thalamus, cameram 

die esse scolaris, 
Ac secreta loca templi penetralia 

a Chaumberlayii 3 ; earner arius, cre- 
ditarius, cubicularius, paxanim- 
phus, eunuphus, talamista. 

Chaumpe 4 ; jntercapedo, jntersti- 

a Chawnse ; casus aduersus est, 
auspicium prosperum est, for- 
tuitus aduersus est vel pros- 
per, euentus, fatum, fors abla,- 
tivo -te, occasio, successus prosper 

a Chawnceler ; cancellarius, secre- 
tariats, apocripharius. 
a Chawncery ; cancellaria. 
to Chawnge ; alter are, alternare, 

variare, Jlecteve, mutare, commw- 

fChawngeabyl; mutabilis, commuta- 

bilis, flexibilis. 
a Chawnginge ; mutac\o,eommutac\o. 
fa Chawnginge clath 5 ; mutatorium. 
*a Chawnter; parophonista, cantor, 

precentor, succentor, fabarius. 
a Chawntry; cantaria. 
a Chawntury; precentura. 
a Cheftane ; Architenens, capitaneus. 
a Cheke ; gena, bucca, buccella, faux, 

mala, maxilla. 
a Chekebone ; vbi a chafte. 
a Chekyn ; pullus, pulliculus dimin- 

fChekyn mete 6 ; ipia. 

and ginger. Another for ' Chaudern for Swannes ' is given in Household Ordinances, p. 441 . 
See also Sloane MS. 1201, leaf 63. MS. Harl. 1735, leaf 18, gives the following recipe — 
' Chaudon sau3 of Swannes. Tak ]>e issu of ]>e swannes, & wasche hem wel, skoure J»e 
guttys with salt, seth3 al to-gidre. Tak of ]>e flesche ; hewe it smal, & J?e guttys with 
alle. Tak bred, gyngere & galingale, Canel, grynd it & tempre it vp with bred ; colour 
it with blood ore with brent bred, seson it vp with a lytyl vinegre : welle it al to-gydere.' 
•Beeff, moton, stewed feysaund, Swan with the Chawdwyn.'' J. Russell's Boke of Nurture 
in Babees Book> ed. Furnivall, p. 48, 1. 688. 

1 'Charcoal to chaufen the knyjte.' Anturs of Arthur, st. 35. 'Hesethede potage and 
is fild; and is chavfid [calefactus est], and seide, Vah, or weel, I am hat.' Wyclif, Isaiah 
xliv. 16. See also Esther i. 10. 

2 A saucepan. Dame Eliz. Browne in her will, Paston Letters, iii. 4661, bequeaths 
'a grete standing chafer of laton with a lyon upon the lydde, ij chafers of brasse, and ij 
litill brasse pottys.' 

3 On the duties of a Chamberlain see Babees Book, ed. Furnivall, pp 59-69 and 168-9. 

4 ' Jntercapedo, Cic. A space or pause : a space of time or place betwene.' Cooper. 
'Chaumpe' is the word always used in the marginal directions for the illuminator of the 
Corpus (Oxford) MS. of the Canterbury Tales, when a small initial is to be made. 'VyneV 
(our ' vignette ') is used for the large letters. An example may be seen at the beginning 
of several of the letters in the present work. The scribe has left a space to be filled in by 
the illuminator with the proper capital letter, which for the guidance of the latter is 
written small. It is not an unusual thing to find these chaumpes in MSS. unfilled in. The 
Ortus explains intercapedo as ' distantia localis vt inter duas parietes. See an example in 
Addit. 22,556 in Mr. Way's Introd. p. xl. 

5 ' Mutatorium. Pars mulierum vestimentorum ; partie du vUement des femmes, sorte de 
pelerine.' (S. Hier.) D'Arnis. 'Mutatorium. A chaungyng cloth.' Medulla. Wyclif, 
Isaiah ii. 22, speaks of 'iemmes in the frount hangend and chaunging clothis.^ The Ortus 
explains mutatorium as ' vestis preciosa pro qua sumenda alia onutatur : anglice, a precyous 
clothynge, a chaungynge clothe, or a holy daye clothe, vt hahetur quarto libro regum, v. 
cap? (2 Kings, v. 22,) in the Vulgate, vestes mutatorias duplices. 

6 ' Ipea : quedam herba : chykwede.' Ortus. In Norfolk, according to Forby, the 
alsine media is called chickens meat. A. S. cicena mete, alsine. Aelfric. The name is also 
applied to chickweed, endive, and dross com. ' Chikne-mete, intiba.' Wright's Vol. of 
Vocab. p. 140. 



Chekery j pamms scaccariatus. 

a Chekyr x ; seaccarium. 

*to Chepe ; taxare (mercari, com- 

mercari y nxmdinari, negociari,A.). 
* Chepe ; precium {& cetera ; vbi 

price A.), 
a Chepynge ; taxaeio. 
a Chere ; vultus. 
a Chery; cerasum. 
a Cherytre ; cerasus. 
a Cherystone ; cerapetra. 
to Cherische or dawnte ( Chery s or 

to daunt A.) 2 ; blanditractare. 
*a Chesabylk 3 ; easula, jnfula, pla- 


*a Chesse bolk (Chesbowlle A.) * ; 

papauer, ciuolus. 
to Chese ; eligere, decerjiere, deligere, 

legere, seligere. 

Chese ; caseus, caseolu*, formella. 

a Chesfatt 5 ; casearium,sinum,sitella. 

a Cheslep 6 ; lactls. 

a Chesynge ; eleecio, dilectus. 

Chesse 7 ; scaccus A. 

a Chestan 8 ) , 7 . 

™ > oalanus, castania. 

a Chestan tre j 

a Cheualry; milicia. 

to Chew; masticare. 

to Chew cud (Chewe he cuyde A.); 


1 ' Thenne the Kyng asket a chekkere, 

And cald a damesel here.' Avowynge of Arthur, ed. Robson, lv. I. 
In the Romance of Sir Ferumbras, p. 74, 1. 2224, Naymes in describing the amusements 
of the French knights says — 

1 po )?at willie]) to leue at hame playe]> to J>e eschekkere,' 
On the History, &c, of the Game of Chess, see note to my edition of the Gesta Romanorum, 
chapter xxi. pp. 459, 460. 

2 In Piers Plowman, ed. Skeat, B. iv. 117, we have 'childryn cherissingS in the sense 
of the pampering or spoiling of children. Cotgrave gives ' Mignoter. To dandle, feddle, 
cocker, cherish, handle gently, entertaine kindly, use tenderly, make a wanton of.' Cf. 
also Dawnte. See Chaucer, Troylus, Bk. iv. st. 220, and Allit. Poems, ed. Morris, B. 128. 

3 Dame Eliz. Browne in her Will, Paston Letters, iii. 464, mentions ' an awbe ; j 
chesyppill, with a stole, and all that belongeth therto.' 

4 Lyte, Dodoens, p. 200, says that the roote of Dogges-tooth is 'long & slender lyke to 
a Chebol.'' ' Pavot, m. Poppie, Cheesbowls. Oliette, f. Poppie, Chessbolls, or Cheese, 
bowles.' Cotgrave. ' Papaver. Popie or Chesboull.' Cooper. See also Halliwell s. v. 
Chesebolle. ' A Cheseboule. Papaver.' Withals. ' Chesbolle, hec papaver. Chesbole, hec 
sepula.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. pp. 190-1. In the Complaynt of Scotland, ed. Murray, 
p. 94, when Sextus Tarquinius sent to enquire from his father what course he should pursue 
in order to betray Gabii, ' Aid Tarquine gef na ansuer to the messanger, bot tuike his 
staf, and syne past throch.t his gardin, and quhar that he gat ony cliasbollis that greu hie, 
he straik the heidis fra them vitht his staf, and did no thyng to the litil chasbollis.'' 

5 ' Cheese-fat, Chesfat. The mould in which cheeses are made.' Peacock's Gloss, of 
Manley, &c. See note to Frale. ' Casearium. A day house where cheese is made.' 
Cooper. ' Esclisse. Any small hurdle or any utensill of watled ozier, or wicker, &c, hence, 
a Cheese-fat, or Cheesfoord thereof. Cagerotte. A Chesford, or Cheesfatt (of wicker).' 
Cotgrave. ' Multrale. A chesfatt or a deyes payle. Fiscella. A leep or a chesfatt.' 
Medulla. ' A cheese-fatte to presse the cheese in. Fiscella v el forma casearia.' Withals. 

6 ' Cheese-lep. A bag used to keep the rennet for making cheese,' according to Ray, 
but Peacock's Gloss, gives ' Cheese-lop, Cheslop, the dried stomach of a calf used for 
curdling milk for cheese,' as a Lincolnshire word, and with this the Ortus agrees : ' lactis 
est mollis et tenera pellicula in qua lac coagulatur in ventre lactentis? Cooper renders 
Lactes by 'the small guttes.' In Wright's Vol. of Vocab. 222, we have 'Cheslepe, cheese lip.' 
The word is compounded of A. S. leap, a basket ; see P. Berynge-lepe and Fysche-leep. 
Cf. ' Cheeselyp worme, otherwyse called Robyn Goodfelowe his lowse. Tylus' Huloet. 

7 See Chekyr above. 

8 ' Balanitas. Akinde of rounde chestens.' Cooper. ' Cornus. A chestony tre. Balanus, 
idem' Medulla. ' Chastaigne. A chesnut. Chastaignier. A chessen or chesnut tree.' 
Cotgrave. Ital. Castagna, from Castanea in Thessaly, its native place. In Aelfric's Gloss, 
is given * Castanea, cystel, vel cyst-beam,' whence Mr. Wright explains chestnut as the nut 
of the cyst- tree. 



to Chyde 1 ; litigare, certare, <£ cetera ; 
vbi to flyte (flytt A.). 

fto \y in Chilbed; decumbere, de- 

*a Chilbed ; puerperium, decubie. 

a Childe ; p&ruulus, pusio, puer, jn- 
fans, infantulwB, pusillus, pueru- 
lus, puellulws, soboles ; puerilis, 
pardcipium ; pignus, proles ; in- 
fantilis, jnfantuosus. 

to be Childeyshe ; puerare, re-, puer- 
ascere, re-. 

*to Childe 2 ; p&rturire, eniti, fetare, 
parere, profundere ; versus — 
^Femina vult parere sed non 
uult ilia parere. 

a Childe berer ; puerpera. 

fto make with Childe ; graui'dare, 

pr<gnare, jnpregnare. 
a Childe hede ; infancia, puericia. 
tChildely; pueriliter. 
a Chymney 3 ; ca?niuus, epicasterium, 

fumeriura, fumerale. 
*a Chinche (Chynshe A.) 4 ; tenax, 

& cetera ; vhi cowatws. 
Chinchery ; tenacitas, & cetera ; vbi 

a Chine ; cathena, cathenida, cateUa, 

cathenella ; cathenalus par^icipi- 

a Chyn ; mentum ; mentatuB partfici- 


1 ' I lyken the to a sowe, for thou arte ever chyding at mete.' Palsgrave, p. 611, col. 2. 
In the Babees Boke, ed. Furnivall, p. 253, 1. 10 1, we are told — 

' Lette ay your chere be lowly, blythe and hale, 
Withoute chidynge as that yee wolde fyhte.' 
Wyclif, in one of his diatribes against the friars, says that they ' chiden & Rotten as woode 
houndis, & sweren herte & bonys.' English Works, ed. Matthew, p. 216. 

2 ' Puerperium, Plin. The time of a woman's trauayle with childe or lying in. Sueton. The 
babe or infant delivered. Parturio. To labour or trauayle with childe.' Cooper. Fr. enf (inter. 
In Wyclif's version of Genesis xix. 27, 28, we read: 'The more doujtir childide a sone, 
and clepide his name Moab .... and the lesse dou3tir childide a sone, and clepide his 
name Amon, that is, the sone of my peple.' See also Luke i. 57 ; Romance of Partenay, 
1 1 57 ; Ormulum, 156 ; Gesta Pomanorum, p. 209, &c. In the Cursor Mundi we read — 

' par dwellid or lauedi wit hir nece, And at hir childing was helpand.' 

Til ion was born, a wel godd pece, Ed. Morris, p. 634, 1. 1 1057. 

* Pario. Tochyldyn. Vir generat mulierque parit sed gignit vterque. Parturio. To ympyn, 
beryn, or chyldyn.' Medulla. Compare 'A woman hade vij childer at oon childenge.' 
Trevisa's Higden, i. 205. 

3 The original meaning of ' chimney' was a ' fireplace,' as in the following — 

1 Damesele, loke ther bo, Fagattus of fyre tre 

A ffayre in the chymene, That fetchyd was 3are.' 

Sir Degrevant, Thornton Rom. p. 234. 
I So also — ' His fete er like latoun bright 

Als in a chymne brynnand light.' Pricke of Conscience, 4368. 

[See also Morte Arthure, ed. Brock, 168, 3041. Jamieson says, * among " moveabill heir- 

schip," we find mentioned, " ane bag to put money in, ane eulcruik, ane chimney, ane 

water-pot." Burrow Lawes, c. 125, § I.' In the Romance of Sir Ferumbras, E. E. Text 

Soc. 1. 2077, we read — 

' pan was J)er on a chymenay A greyt fyr J?at brente red.' 

I And in the Boke of Curtasye (Babees Boke, ed. Furnivall), p. 192, 1. 460, we find amongst 
j the duties of the Groom of the Chamber, that 

' Fuel to chymne hym falle to gete.' 
4 Chemine'e, f. A chimney.' Cotgrave. ' Caminus. A chimney : a furnayse.' Cooper. 
Chimnies, in the modern sense of the word, were not common until the reign of Elizabeth. 
Thus Harrison, in his Descript. of England, ed. Furnivall, i. 338, says, ' Now have we 
manie chimnies ; and yet our tenderlings complaine of rheumes, catarrhs, and poses [colds 
in the head'] ; then had we none but reredosses [open hearths] ; and our heads did never 
ake.' See also ibid. pp. 239-40. 

4 In Havelok (E. E. Text Soc. ed. Skeat), 1. 2941, we are told that he began 

1 His denshe men to feste wel So ]>at he weren alle riche ; 

•With riche landes and catel, For he was large and nouth chinche.' 



a Chippe l ; assula, quisquilie. 

toChippe j dolare, ^cetera; vhitohew. 

a Chire 2 ; genimen. 

a Chyme ; vbi a kyrne. 

a CheselL? ; celtis, celium, scalprum, 

scaljpulum, scalprus. 
to Chiter os hyrdis dose 3 ; garrire, 

*a Chiterlynge * ; hilla. 
Chosyn; electus, selectus, comp&ran- 


fa Choller (Chullere A.) 5 ; questor. 
a Churle 6 ; batiuus, calcitro,rusticus, 

gello & gillo, glebo. 
C ante I. 
tj> e Ciatica ; sciatica. 
a Cimbelle 7 ; simbala, -km. 
Ciment ; cimentuva. 
Cinamome 8 ; cinamomum. 
ta Cipirtre 9 ; cipressus ; cipres- 

sanus ; cenus, pro arbor e & 


Gower also uses the word in the Confessio Amantis, vol. ii. p. 288, and Skelton has 
' Chyncherde.' According to Halliwell the substantive is found in Occleve — 
' And amonge other thingis that $owre wilne, 
Be infecte with no wrecchid chincherie ;' 
and also in Chaucer, Melibeus, p. 162. 'A chinche: parens.' Manip. Vocab. ' Tenax '. 
sparyng, niggish.' Cooper. SeeCotgrave s. v. Chiche, and Sevyn Sages, 1. 1244. 

1 Palsgrave gives 'I chyppe bread, je chappelle du payn .... je descrouste da pain .... 
and je payre du pain : chippings of bread, chapplis.' * Assula. A chip or lathe ; a slise of 
anything.' Cooper. • Chippings and parings of bread, quisquilioz .' Baret. See Babees 
Boke (E.E.Text Soc. ed. Furnivall), p. 84. 

2 A blade of grass, or any plant. ' Chyer of grasse.' Drayton's Harmonie, 1591. 

3 ' Sparuwe is a cheaterinde bird; cheatereft euer ant chirmeS.' Aucren Biwle, p. 152. 
1 As eny swalwe chiteryng on a berne.' Chaucer, Milleres Tale, 72, C. T. 3258. ' They 
may wel chateren as don thise iayes.' Chanonne Yeomanis Tale, 386. ' I chytter, as a 
yonge byrde do the before she can synge her tune. I chytter. I make a charme as a flocke 
of small byrdes do whan they be together. Je iargouneS Palsgrave. In Trevisa's trans- 
lation of Higden's Polychronicon, i. 239, the word is used of the starling : 'With mouth 
than chetereth the stare.' See also ibid. ii. 159. 

' She withall no worde may soune But chitre and as a brid jargoune.' 

Gower, ed. Pauli, ii. 318. 
See also Chaucer, C. Tales, 3218. Wyclif says that a confused noise is 'as 5yf iayes and 
pyes eliateriden^ Works, iii. 479, and in his translation of Deuteronomy, xviii. 10. See 
also P. Plowman, B. xii. 253. ' Garrio. To chyteryn as byrdys. Garritus. A chyteryng.' 
Medulla. See also to Chater. 

4 In the Nomenclator, 1585, we find 'a haggise ; some call it a chitterling, some a hog's 
harslet:' and Baret gives 'a chitterling, omasum; a gut or chitterling hanged in the 
smoke, hilla infumata.'' ' Hilla ; a snialle gutte or chitterlyng salted.' Cooper. See 
Surtees Soc. Trans, ix. 57. ' Friquenelles. Slender and small chitterlings or linkes.' 
Cotgrave. In Neckam's Treatise De Utensilibus in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 104, hylla 
is glossed by ' aundulyes.' See also Cotgrave s.v. Andouille. 

5 A beggar. Lat. quaestor. See Perdonere, below. I know of only one instance of the 
word, viz., in an unpublished tract of Wyclif, in a MS. of Trinity College, Dublin, where 
he speaks of 'freris and chulleris.' Probably from French ' cueilleur. A gatherer, a reaper, 
a picker, chuser, or culler.' Cotgrave. 

6 Gello and Gillo are apparently from the Gaelic gilla, giolla, a boy, a servant, whence 
the Scotch gillie. Glebo, exactly answers to our clod-hopper. ' Gillo : A cherle, Glebo : 
rusticus.' Medulla. Cotgrave gives ' Un gros manovfle. A big lout ; also an ougly lushe 
or clusterfist ; also a riche churle or fat chuffe.' ' I say a cherle hath don a cherles deede.' 
Chaucer, Sompnoures Tale, 2206. ' Churle or carle of the countrey. Petro Rusticanus? 
Huloet. See also Carle. 

7 Compare P. Chymme Belle. 8 See also Canylle, above. 

9 'Cipressus. A cypyr tre.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 192. In Sir Eglamour, ed. 
Halliwell, 1. 235, we read — 

' Cypur treys there growe owte longe, 
Grete hertys there walke them amonge.' See also 1. 277. 



a Pare of cysors 1 ; forpex , forpecula. 

a Cisterne ; cistevna. 

a Cite ; ciuitas, ciuitacula ; ciuilis 

partficipium; vrbs; V7'banus. 
a Citesyii ; ciuis. 

C an^e L. 

Clay 2 ; argilla, argillosus, cenum ; 

cenosus, ylitosws, cenolentus ; glis, 

gliteus, limus, luturn ; luteus, 

lutosus, lutulentus ; versus : 

blunge luto cenum., quibus adde 

volutibra linum, 
Glaria vel gliosis, glis est argilla 
fa Clapitte (Clay pitta A.) 3 ; argil- 

a Clapir 4 . 

A Clappe; vbi buffet (A.). 

to Clappe handzs; complodere, ex-, 

plaudere, con-. 
a Clappe of a mylne 5 ; taratanta- 

to Claryfie 6 ; clarificare. 
Claryfied ; clarificatus. 
+a Claspe 7 ; offendix, signacnbim. 
tto Claspe ; signare. 
a Clathe; pannns, & cetera; vbi 

ta Clathe maker ; lanifex. 
a Clawe 8 ; gariofolus. 
to Clawe ; fricare, scalper e. 
a Clawse ; clausa, clausula diminvi- 

)> e Cley (Cle A.) of a beste 9 ; vngula. 

* Cissers. Forfeculai.' Manip. Vocab. 

1 ' Cysers to cut the heare with, for/ex,' Baret. 
' Forfex. A shere.' Medulla. See P. Cysowre. 

2 ' Glis. Potter's claye, lutosus. Myrie and durtie.' Cooper. The Medulla distinguishes 
between the meanings, genders, &c., of the three Latin words glis as follows : 

' Glis animal, glis terra tenax, glis lappa vocatur; 
Hie animal, hec terra tenax, hec lappa vocatur; 
-Mis animal, -tis terra tenax, -tis lappa vocatur.' 

3 'A claypit, a place where clay is digged ; argilletum? Baret. ' Argil Here, f. A clay- 
pit ; or a plot where-in Potters-clay is gotten.' ' Glaire. A whitish and slimie soyle : 
glaireux. Slimie.' Cotgrave. Compare Glayre, below. 

* Perhaps the same as Clappe of a mylne. 

5 'Amilclacke. Crepitaculum.' Baret. 'Claquetdemoulin. The clapper or clack of a 
mill-hopper.' Cotgrave. ' Taratantara. A seve, or the tre that lyth vnder the seve. 
Taratantizare : tuba clangere, vel farinam colare.' Medulla. See also Milne Clappe. In 
the Ayenbite of Inwyt (E. E. Text Soc. ed. Morris), 58, we find it as ' pe clepper of J)e 
melle.' See Chaucer, Persones Tale, p. 406. 'Clap of a mill. A piece of wood that 
makes a noise in the time of grinding.' Jamieson. L. German, Mapper, klepper. ' Batillum, 
a clakke.' Wright's Vocab. p. 180. 

6 Used here doubtless in the sense of making clear or fining liquids ; cf. Clere as ale 
or wyne, below. The Author of the Catholicon nowhere uses Clarus in the sense of noble, 
glorious, but Wyclif, John xii. 23, has, 'Fadir, clarifie thi name,' and Halliwell quotes 
from MS. Camb. Ff. v. 48, leaf 90— 

'A voice come fro hevene thore I haf clarefid the, he saide.' 

7 ' Offendix. A knot off byndyng of bokys.' Medulla. 

8 ' Garyophilli. The spise called cloues. Garyophillus. The cloue giloeflower.' Cooper, 
1584. See also Clowe of garleke, and Clowe, gariofolus. 

9 ' Vngula. A clee.' Medulla. Withals gives ' the cleyes of a fish, as of Lopsters, or 
such other. Chelce."" ' Les bras d'un Scorpion. The cleyes or clawes of a scorpion.' Cotgrave. 
' Brachia cancre. The clees.' Cooper. Clees is found in Gower, ii. 39 — 

* As a cat wolde ete fischis Withoute wetyng of his clees / 

and in P. Plowman, C. I. 172, 'to his clees clawen us.' See the directions for 'pygges 
farsyd ' in the Liber Cure Cocorum, ed. Morris, p. 36, 

1 po cle of pygge shalle be Festened in pe cheke, so mot bou pe.' 

Wyclif uses the form in Exodus x. 26, where Moses addressing Pharaoh says — ' There 
shal not leeue a clee of the thingis that ben necessarie.' See also Genesis xlix. 17 and 
Judges v. 22. See note to to chewe Cud, and Mandeville's Travels, ed. Halliwell, p. 198. 
The pronunciation Cley is still kept up in East Anglia ; see Nail's Glossary of Yarmouth, 
&c. 'Vngula. A clee.' Medulla. A. S. cla, clea, c/eo, pi. clawe. 




a Clege ! . 

*a Clekett 2 ; clauls. 

tClemewt ; clemens, nomen proprium 

*Clene; jntemeratus, jncorruptus, jn- 
contaminatus, jntactus, 7ionestus, 
illibatus, immaculatus, illimis, in- 
polutus, immolatus, mundus, pu- 
rus, serenus, sincerus 3 . 

vii Clene; jnexpiabilis, inmundus,jn- 

Clene rynynge 4 ; eliquus. 

a Clennes 5 ; honestas, mundicia, pu- 
ritas, sinceritas. 

vn Clennes ; jmmundicia, jmpudi- 
cicia, jmpuritas. 

fClennessabylle ; expiabilis, purga- 

+vn Clenceabylle ; jnexpiabilis, jn- 

to Clense; acerare, prod[uciturj ce, 
p\er~\acerare, colare, despumare, 
dilwere, effecare,ellimare, eliquare, 
illimare, illuere, limare, liquare, 
luere, ab-, lustrare, mundare, e-, 
mungere, de-, e-, palare, parare, 
peracerare, piare, ex-, purificare, 

purare, purgare, ex-, tergere, de-, 


A Clensynge \ colacio, defecacio, de- 
liquacio, deliqu&men, expiacio, 
expiamen, expurgacio, lustr&cio, 
lustr&men, lustrum, piacio,piacu- 
lum, purgacio, purgameu, purifi- 
Clensynge ; colans,defecans,liqua[n\s, 

& cetera. 
Clere ; clarus, pre-, fulgidus 6 , pre-, 
perspicuus 7 ; versus : 
%Bst aqua perspicua 8 , sunt solis 
lumina clara : 
ephebus, faculentus, limpidus, 
liquidus, lucidus, dilucifluus, 
luculentus, nitidus, politus, 
purus, purgatns, radiosus, 
serenus, sincerus, sidus, splen- 
didus, <k cetera ; vbi clene. 
Clere as ale or wyne 9 ; defecatus, 
merns,merax, meraculus, meratus, 
pui*gatus, perspicuus. 
to Clere ; clarere, -rescere, -rare, de-, 
clarijicare, elucidare, illuminare, 
purificare, serenare. 
*a Clerg£ 10 ; clerus, clerimonia. 

1 A cleg is the Northern term for a gad-fly. Baret gives ' A clegge-flie, solipuga,' and 
Cooper has 'Solipunga. Pismiers, that in the sunne stinge most vehemently.' 'A clegge, 
flee. Solipunga.' Manip. Vocab. ' Cleg, gleg. A gadfly, a horse-fly.' Jamieson. Danish, 
Tclaeg, tabanus. ' The unlatit woman .... Mare wily than a fox, pungis as the cleg.' 
Fordun, Scotichronicon, ii. 276, ed. 1759. J. R. in his trans, of Mouffet's Theater of 
Insectes, 1658, p. 936^ says that the fly ' called in Latine Tabanus .... is of the English 
called a Burrel-fly, Stowt, and Breese : and also of sticking and clinging, Cleg and dinger.' 

2 ' Cleck, Click. A small catch, designed to fall into the notch of a wheel ; also a door- 
latch.' Nodal's Glossary of Lane. In a document of the date 141 6, quoted by Ducange, 
s. v. Cliquetus, it is ordered that ' Refectorarius semper teneat hostium refectorii clausum 
cum cliqueto.' See P. Plowman, B. v. 623. ' Clitella. A clyket.' Medulla. 

3 MS. sinceritas. 

4 The MS. seems to read ryuynge, but the third letter is rather blotted. 

5 In Relig. Pieces in Prose and Verse (Thornton MS. ed. Perry), p. 48, 1. 1 2, we read, 
' the Holy G-oste sail sende two maydyns .... the one is callede Rightwysnes and pe 
tother es called Luffe of Clennes.' Chaucer, C. T. Prologue, 505, says — 

' Wei oughte a prest ensample for to 5ive, 
By his clennesse, how that his scheep schulde lyve.' 
l Puritas. Clennes.' Medulla. See also The Myroure of Our Lady, ed. Blunt, p. 10, and 
Lonelich's Holy Grail, ed. Furnivall, xxxvi. 426. See also Sir Gawayne, 1. 653. 

6 MS. fulgudus. 7 MS. prospicuus. 8 MS. prospicua. 
9 ' Vinum meracum. Cicero. Cleere wyne without water mixed.' Cooper. 

10 ' Clergy. A nombre of clerk es.' Palsgrave. Clergie is common in the sense of learning. 
See P. Plowman, A. xi. 104, 286, &c. This meaning we still retain in the phrase 'Benefit 
of clergy.' 



a Clerke ; clericns, clevimonius, cleri- 

a Clerenes 1 ; claredo, claritas, clari- 
tudo, faculencia, fulgor, iubar, 
limpiditas ; lux oritur, lumen 
accenditur ; luculencia, meritas ; 
versus : 
% Lux a natura sed lumen ma- 
teriale : 
serenitas, sinceritas, splendor. 
Clett (Cleyt A.) 2 ; glis, lappa. 
tto Clethe in manhode; humanare. 
Clethe 3 ; jnduere, operire, vestire, 
tegere, & cetera ; versus : 
% Induit ac operit, amicit, vestit, 

tegit atque 
Velat, predictis sensum dedit vsus 

Occulat, obnubit & obumbrat 4 , 
celat & abdit. 
a Clethynge; amictus, vestitus, vestis, 

Clethyngc ; vestiens, amicens, jn- 

duens, & cetera. 
Clettis of qwete 5 . (A.), 
to Cleve to ; herere ; ad-. 
to Cleve ; scindere, Jlndere, con-, dif-. 
a Clever e ; jissor 6 . 
*a Clewe 7 ; globus, glomus, glomera- 

a Cliffe ; cliuus. 
a Clifte ; jissura. 
to Clymbe ; scandere, ascendere, con-, 

trans-, superare ; vt, istc superat 

to Clippe ; tondere, de-, tonsitare. 
[vn] Clippyd ; jntonsus. 
a Clipper ; tonsor, ton\s\tr\x, tonstri- 

*a Clippynge; tonsura, tonsio. 
ta Clippynge howse 8 ; tonsoriuva, 

*]? e Clippys of y e son & moyii 9 ; 

eclyppsis, eclipticus. 

1 In the Gesta Romanorum, p. 12, we read, ' Ouer our hedis ys passage and goyng of 
peple, and }>ere shyneth the sonne in here clerenesse? 

2 Cotgrave gives ' Napolier, m. The Burre docke, clote burre, great burre : Lampourde, 
f. the Cloot or great Burre : Glouteron, m. the Clote, Burre Docke or great Burre : Bardane, 
f. the Clote, burre-dock, or great Burre.' In Vergil, Georgics, i. 153, we read, ' lappceque 
tribulique,' and a note in the Delphin ed. 181 3, says 'Lappa, glouteron, bardane, burdock; 
herba capitula ferens hamis aspera, quae vestibus pnetereuntium adhaerent.' Mr. Cockayne 
in his Glossary to ' Leechdoms,' &c, explains Clate as arctiurn lappa, with numerous 
references. Bay in his Glossary gives ' Cluts, clots, petasites ; rather burdocks.' Halliwell 
suggests that Clote is the yellow water-lily ; but see Prof. Skeat's note on Chaucer, Chanoun 
Yemannes Tale, 577, and Lyte, Dodoens, pp. 15, 16. See Clote, herbe in P. and Burre, 
above. 3 MS. chethe. * MS. obunbrat. 

5 Probably the same as Clods, which Jamieson explains as ' small raised loaves, baked 
of coarse wheaten flour, of which three were sold for five farthings.' He also gives ' Sutors' 
Clods, a kind of coarse brown wheaten bread, used in Selkirk, leavened and surrounded 
with a thick crust, like lumps of earth.' 6 MS. fossor. 

7 In the Legende of Goode Women, Ariadne, I.131, Theseus is given a ' clew ' of thread— 
'That by a clywe of twyne, as he hath goon, 

The same way he may returne anoon, Folwynge alway the threde :' 

And in the tale in the Gesta Romanorum, chap. 31, p. 115, founded on the same legend, the 
Lady of Solace addresses the knight who is about to enter the enchanted garden — ' Take 
of me here a clewe of threde, & what tyme that thowe shalt entre the gardyn of the 
Emperour, bynde at the entering in of the gardyn the begynnynge of the clewe, & holde 
euermore the Remnavnt of the clewe in thin honde, & so go forthe into the gardyn by 
lyne.' ' A clew or bottome of thread. Glomus.' Baret. 'A clewe. Glomus.'' Manip.Vocab. 
A.S. cleow. See also to Wynde Clowes. The MS. reads, hie globus, hoc glomus, hie glomus. 

8 Compare also Raster Howse. 

9 In P. Plowman, B. xviii. 135, we read — • 

'And J)at is cause of J?is clips, J^at closeth now the sonne.' 

I In De DeGuileville's Pilgrimage of the Lyf of the Manhode, MS. John's Coll. Camb. leaf 

1 2 ib, we find ' Adonaye, kynge of rightwysnes, whilke has power in the clipse, the grete 

I Emperour of nature,' &c. ' Also the same seasone there fell a great rayne and a clyps 

F 2 



+to make Clippys ; eciipticare. 

ta Clister ; clistire, clisterium, clistro. 

a Cloke ; A rniilausa. 

a Clokke l ; orologium, horecium. 

a Close; septum, con-, clausura, clau- 

to Close; vallare,sepire,circum-,ob-. 
to vn Close ; dissepire, discludere. 
a Closter 2 ; claustrum, claustellum ; 

claustY'&lis . 
tto Cloyke 3 ; (vtgalinaA.); graculari. 
*to Clotte 4 ; occare. 
*A Clottyng malle 5 ; occat07'ium. 

a Clotte ° ; cespis, occarmm. 
a Clowe of garleke 7 ; costula. 
*a Clowde; nubes, nubecula, nebula, 
nubilosus, nubulus, nubulum ; 
versus : 
11 Nubila sunt proprie nubes nim- 

bis onerate ; 
Nubila dat tellus, nebulas mare, 
sidera nubes. 
a Clowe 7 ; gariofolus, species est. 
*a Clowe of flode^ete (A Clowre or 
fiod3ate A.) 8 ; singlocitorium,gur- 

with a terryble thonder.' Berners' Froissart, ch. xxx. ' Hyt is but the clyppus of the sune.' 
Anturs of Arthur, ed. Robson, viii. 3. 'Clips' for eclipse is still in use in Lincolnshire. 
In the Romaunt of the Rose, 5349, occurs the adjective clipsy, that is, as if eclipsed. See 
also the Complaynt of Scotland, ed. Murray, p. 56. 

1 See P. Orlage. ' Horologium. An orlage.' Medulla. 

2 ' Claustrum. A cloyster or other place where anie liueing thing is enclosed.' Cooper. 

3 MS. cloykrs. A hen when ready to sit is still in many dialects said to be clocking, a 
word derived from the peculiar noise made by the fowl. Baret gives ' to clocke like a 
henne, pipo ; a henne clocking, singultiens gallina.'' In Cott. MS. Faust., B. vi. leaf 91, 
we find — ' Leef henne wen ho leith, Looth wen no clok seith.' 

* Poule gloussante. A Clocking Henne.' Cotgrave. Jamieson gives ' To deck. To hatch. 
Cleckin-time. The time of hatching. Clock. The cry or noise made by hens, when they 
wish to sit on eggs for the purpose of hatching them.' Grose explains a ' Clocking-hen ' 
as one ' desirous of sitting to hatch her eggs.' 'A clucke henne. Gallina singultiens, gallina 
glociens, vel gallina nutrix. Glocito, glocio, singultio, pipio. To clucke as hens doe.' 
Withals. ' A clockynge henne. Singultiens gallina.' Huloet. See also to Kaykylle. 

4 ' Occo. To harrow ; to breake cloddes in the fielde eared.' Cooper. ' To clodde, or 
clotte land. Occo.'' Huloet. See Harrison's Descrip. of Eng. ed. Furnivall, ii. 54. 'Admit 

that the triple tillage of an acre dooth cost thirteen shillings foure pence the 

clodding sixteene pence.' 'Occo. To cloddyn.' Medulla. Latimer in his Sermon on the 
Ploughers says ' the ploughman .... tilleth hys lande and breaketh it in furroughes, and 
sometime ridgeth it vp agayne. And at an other tyme harroweth it, and clotteth it :' ed. 
Arber, p. 19. 

5 ' Clot-mell. A mallet for crushing clods.' Peacock's Glossary. ' Clod-mell. A large 
mallet for breaking the clods of the field especially on clayey ground, before harrowing 
it.' Jamieson. ' Mail. A mall, mallet, or Beetle.' Cotgrave. ' Occa. A clery (? cley) 
betel.' Medulla. ' A cloddynge betyll or malle. Occa. Occatorium.' Huloet. See Melle, post. 

6 In the Ancren Riwle, p. 254, we read, 'per hit lift in one clotte ueste ilimed togederes.' 
See also Harrison, Descrip. of Eng. ed. Furnivall, i. 352, ' congealed into clots of hard stone.' 
Caxton speaking of the hot wells of England says — * The maistresse of thilke welles is the 
grete spirite of Minerua. In her hous the fyre endureth alway that neuer chaungeth in to 
asshes, but there the fyre slaketh hit chaungeth in to stone clottes? Descrlpt. of Britain, 
1480, p. 6. Gouldman has 'to clotter or clutter together. Concresco, conglobo.' 

7 See also Clawe. 

8 ' Clough. A shuttle fixed in the gates or masonry of a lock which is capable of being 
raised to admit or discharge water so as to allow vessels to pass.' Peacock's Glossary of 
Manley, &c, E. Dial. Soc. ' Clouse. A sluice.' Jamieson. See Dugdale's Hist, of In- 
banking, 1662, p. 276. The statute 33 Henry VIII, cap. 33, grants certain duties to be 
levied on imported fish, in order to provide for the repair and maintenance of the walls, 
ditches and banks of Hull, as also to provide ' other clowes, getties, gutters, gooltes and 
other fortresses there ' for the defence of the town. ' Gurgustium ut Gurges. Locus in 
fluvio arctatus, seu ad construendum molendinum, seu ad capiendos pisces.' Ducange. 

* Esclase, Ecluse. A sluice, Floud-gate, or Water-gate ; also a mill-damme, &c.' Cotgrave. 
See also Fludesate, post. 



a Clowte * ; assumentum, repecium. 
*a Clowte of yrne 2 ; crusta, crusta 

ferrea, & cetera ; vbi plate, 
to Clowte 3 ; pictaciari, repeciare, 

a Clowte of tedder ; pictaciuncul((, 

jrictacium, repecium. 
Clowtyd; pictaciatxxs, repeciatus. 
a Clowter; jrictaciator, pictaciarius. 

a Club ; fustis. 

t Clumsy d 4 ; <merwa£us, euiratus. 

a Cluster of nutto's 5 ; complustrum. 

A Clowe ; vt supra (A.). 

*to wyvide Clowys 6 ; glomerare. 

C ante O. 
a Cobyller ; vbi a clowter. 
fa Cobylle nutt 7 ; moracia. 
a Cocatnce 8 ; basiliscus, cocodrillus. 

1 The author of the Ancren Rivvle tells us, p. 256, that 'a lute [small] clut mei lod- 
j lichen swufte a muchel ihol peche ;' and again, on p. 260, our lord is described as ' mid elates 

bivvrabled,' wrapped in clouts or rags. In Havelok, Quin first binds Havelok and then 
gags him with a 'keuel [gag] of elates-' and in Sir Ferumbras, 1. 2747, Guy of Burgundy- 
is blindfolded with a ' clouted A. S. clut. 

2 An iron plate. Amongst the implements, &c, necessary to the farmer, Tusser enume- 
I rates a ' strong exeltred cart, that is clouted and shod ;' and — 

1 Two ploughs and a plough chein, ij culters, iij shares, 
With ground cloutes and side chutes, for soile that so tares.' 

Five Hundred Points, &c. p. 36. 
In the Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner, ii. 125, we have 'clot shon,' i.e. shoes tipped with 
[iron. Cooper renders Crusta by 'bullions or ornamentes of plate that may be taken off.' 
I See also Carte bande and Cop bande. 

3 See William of Palerne, 1. 14, where the cowherd whose dog discovers William is 
j described as sitting 'cloutfand kyndely his schon.' A. S. clutian. Wyclif, Wks. ed. Arnold, 

i. p. 4, says ' Anticristis lawe, cloutid of many, is full of errors;' and he renders Mark i. 
1 19 by 'he say James .... and Joon .... in the boots makynge, either cloutynge nettis.' 

4 In Wyclif 's translation of Isaiah xxxv. 3, this word is used — ' Comfort ye clumsid, ether 
Icomelid hondis, and make ye strong feeble knees,' and again in Jeremiah vi. 24, ' oure 
j hondis ben aclumsid,' [dissolutce sunt manus nostrcei] where apparently it has the meaning 

of numbed, and hence useless, weak. So again in Purvey's version of Zephaniah iii. 16, 

' Jerusalem, nyle thou drede ; Sion thin hondis be not clumsid ' \non dissolvantur manus 

\\tuce :] where other versions read 'aclumsid' and ' acumbled.' Holland in his trans, of 

i Livy, Bk. xxi. c. 56, p. 425, renders torpentes gelu by 'so clumsie & frozen :' and in the 

1 Gospel of Nichodemus, If. 213, we read 'we er clomsed gret and smalle.' See also E. 

Eng. Poems, ed. 1862, p. 123. Ray in his Glossary of North Country Words gives 

'Clumps, clumpst, idle, lazy, unhandy; ineptus* and refers to Skinner, who, in his Ety- 

mologicon says it is a word ' agro Lincolniensi usitatissima.' Clumsome or Classome is 

j still in use about Whitby. In P. Plowman, B. xiv. 50, we read — 

' Whan Jjou clomsest for cold, or clyngest for drye ;' 
Jon which see Prof. Skeat's note. ' Entombi. Stonied, benummed, clumpse, asleep. Havi 
i de froid. Stiff, clumpse, benummed.' Cotgrave. See also ibid. Destombi. 

5 Compare Bob of grapis. 6 See Clewe. 

7 'A cobnutte, or walnutte. Moracia^ Baret. The Medulla explains moracia as "hard 
notys longe kepte.' 

8 In Alexander and Dindimus, E. E. Text Soc. ed. Skeat, 1. 158, we read how Alexander, 
I when he had arrived at the river Pison, was unable to cross it on account of the 

' Addrus & ypotamus & othure ille wormus, 
& careful cocodrillus that the king lette.' 

* Cockatryce, whyche is a Serpente, called the kynge of serpentes, whose nature is to kyll wy th 
1 hyssynge onelye. Basilicus Regulus * Huloet. So Trevisa, in his trans, of Higden i. 159, says 
j ' Basiliscus is kyng of serpentes ])at wij? smyl and sijt slee)) beestes and foules.' 'Hie coca- 
\drillus, A cocadrylle.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 220. The Low Latin cocodrillus, itself a 
I corruption from crocodilus, was still further corrupted into cocatrix, whence our cockatrice. 

The basilisk was supposed to have the property of infecting the air with its venom so that 
I no other creature could live near it, and also of killing men by a mere look. In the Oesta. 
j Roman, chap. 57, is an account of one which in this way destroyed a large number of the 

soldiers of Alexander, and of the means adopted to destroy the monster. See a full 



ta Cod lm 9 ceruical, puluin&r, <& cetera; 

vbi a qvysshyn. 
a Cofyrc ; clitella, cistella, cistula 2 , 

ta Corfyrled (Cofer leyd A.) ; Ar- 

a Cogge s ; scarioballum. 
Coghe 4 ; vhi hoste (A.). 
*a Coyfe 5 ; pillius, pilleolus, apex, 

galerus ; versus : 

51 Pillius est iuuenum, peregrin- 
unique galerus. 
ta Coker ° ; autuvnpnarius. 
a Cok; gallus, galhdus dimivmiiuum 
a Cok cambe (Coke came A.) ; galla. 
tj? e Cok crawe 7 ; gallicantus, galli- 

cinium, gallicanus. 
tCokett 8 ; iffungia (effungia A.), est 

q\i\(L\am\ panis. 
a Cokylle; 2 ) i scis > coclia. 

description in Swan's Speculum Mundi, 1685, chap. ix. p. 486. Alexander Neckham, J)e 
Naturis Rerum, ed. Wright, p. 198, quotes an account of the creature from Solinus, Poly hist. 
cap. xxvii. 50, in which it is said to retain its fatal qualities even after death, and to be 
invulnerable to the attack of any animal except the weasel. Cocodrille occurs in the 
Wyclifite version of Leviticus xi. 29, and Trevisa in his trans, of Higden i. 151, says ' pere 
bee J> cocodrilly and hippotauri [cocodrilli et Jiippotauri.y See also K. Alisaunder, ed. 
Weber, i. 271, ' delfyns and cokedrillS 

1 In the Inventory of Thomas Robynson, of Appleby, 1542, quoted in Mr. Peacock's 
Gloss, of Manley & Corringham, are included, ' iij coodes, one payre of fembyll sheyttes, 
one lynnyn sheyt & a halfe, iiij s .' ' Ceruical, id est puluinar aureale, anglice, a pyllowe, 
or a codde.' Ortus. The Manip. Vocab. gives ' a codde, cushion, pulvinar ;' and Jamieson 
has ' Cod, a pillow ; Cod-Crune, a curtain lecture ; Cod-hule, a pillow-cover or slip.' ' I 
maid ane cod of ane gray stane.' Complaynt of Scotland, ed. Murray, p. 68. In Sir 
Degrevant, Thornton Romances, ed. Halliwell, p. 239, 1. 1493, we find ' Coddys of 
sendall.' See also Towneley Mysteries, p. 84. Icel. hoddi, a pillow. 

2 MS. astula, corrected by A. ; but perhaps we should read arcula. 

3 In the Owle and Nightingale, ed. Stratmann, 86, we find ' Frogge )>at sit at mulne 
under cogge.' It appears to mean a wheel. Cf. Swedish Jcugge, an individual prominence 
in an indented wheel. 

4 Chaucer, Miller's Tale, 3697, tells us how Absolotn when he went to serenade Alison — 

' Softe he cowhith with a semysoun.' 
See also P. Plowman, B. v. 361. ' Tussis. The cowhe.' Medulla. 

5 4 Galerium. An hatte ; a pirwike. Galericulum. An vnder bonet or ridyng cappe ; 
a close cappe much like a night cappe.' Cooper. ' Galerus. A coyfe off lether.' Medulla. 

6 * Autumnus. A hervest.' Medulla. 

' Canstow seruen, he sede, oJ)er syngen in a churche, 

OJ)er coJce for my cokers, o])er to J)e carte picche ?' P. Plowman, C. vi. 12, 13. 
' Coker. A reaper (Warwick). Originally a charcoal maker who comes out at harvest time.' 
Halliwell. It seems rather to mean a harvest labourer, one who puts hay into cocks. (See 
Cok of hay.) Richardson quotes the following : — ' Bee it also prouided that this act, nor 
anything therein contained doe in any wise extende to any cockers or haruest folkes that 
trauaile into anie countrie of this realme for haruest worke, either come haruest or hay 
haruest, if they doe worke and labour accordingly.' Rastall, Statutes, Vagabonds, &c.,p.474. 

7 See Harrison, Descript. of England, ed. Furnivall, ii. 89, for an account of the divi- 
sions of the hours of the night amongst the Ancients. Chaucer, Parlement of Poules, 350, 
speaks of — ' The kok, that orloge is of thorpys lyte.' 

See also Cokerelle. 

8 Panis de Coket is mentioned in a MS. of Jesus Coll. Oxford, I Arch. i. 29, leaf 268, 
as being slightly inferior to wastel bread. ' A cocket was a kind of seal (see Liber Albus, 
p. 45, and Madox, Hist. Excheq. i. p. 783), and as bread in London was sealed with the 
baker's seal, after inspection by the Alderman, it is not improbable that this bread thence 
had its name ; though at some periods certainly, other kinds of bread, distinguished in 

name from Cocket-bread were sealed as well Cocket-bread was most used probably 

by the middle classes ; that of inferior quality being trete or tourte, while simnel and wastel 
were finer in quality and higher in price.' Liber Custumarum, ed. Riley, ii. 793. See 
also Liber Albus, Glossary s. v. Cocket and Bread; Arnold's Chronicle (ed. 181 1), pp. 
49-56 ; and Harrison's Description of England, i. 154. 



*Cokylle 1 ; quedam aborigo, (herba 

A.), zazannia. 
*aCoknay 2 ; ambro, mammotropus, 
delicius; versus : 
H Delictus qui delicijs a matre nu- 
ta Cok of hay or of come 3 ; Arco- 

a Cokerelle; gallinacius. 
tColaf ; colonia, est quedam ciuitas. 
a Cole (Coy lie A.) ; calculus, carbo, 
jpruna est cum igne ; versus : 
(Bum calor est pruna, Carbo 
dum deficit ignis /A.) 

^ Carbo nigrescit ignitaque pruna 

*a Colar ; collarium., Anaboladium. 

*aColar of siluer or golde; murenula. 

a Colar of a hund 4 ; millus, colla- 
rium, copularius. 

a Colar of a hors ; collarium. 

ta Coler of yren ; columber, collars. 

t Coleryke 5 ; colera ; colericus. 

fColiandyr 6 ; colia. 

be Colike 7 ; colica passio, ylios grece, 
ylion, mcZeclinabi/e. 

ta Colke 8 ; erula, {interior pars 
pomi, A.) 

1 The corn-cockle. Agrostemma githago. Gaelic cogall. Tares, husks, the corn-cockle. 
Cockle or Cokyl was used by Wyclif and other old writers in the sense of a weed generally, 
but in later works has been confined to the gith or corn-pink. * Coquiol. A degenerate 
barley or weed commonly growing among barley, and called Haver-grasse.' Cotgrave. 
' Zizannia. Dravke, or darnel, or cokkyl.' Medulla. ' Cockole hath a large smal [sic] leafe 
and wyll beare v or vi floures purple colloure as brode as a grote, and the sede is rounde 
and blacke.' Fitzherbert, Boke of Husbandry. See also Darnelle. 

2 Tusserin his Five Hundred Pointes, &c, 92, 4, says — 

' Some cockneies with cocking are made verie fooles, 
fit neither for prentise, for plough, nor for schooles ;' 
and again 95, 5— 

' Cocking Mams and shifting Dads from schooles, 
Make pregnant wits to prooue vnlearned fooles.' 
' A cockney, a childe tenderly brought up ; a dearling. Cockering, mollis ilia educatio 
quam indulgentiam vocamus. A father to much cockering, Pater nimis indulgens? Baret's 
Alvearie. Cooper gives ' Mammothreptus : after S. Augustine a childe that sucketh longe, 
but Erasmus taketh it for a childe wantonly brought vp. Delicioz : a minion boye ; a 
cockney ; a wanton.' 

3 ' Archonius : acervus manipulorum. Manipulus. A gavel (sheaf of corn).' Medulla. 
'A hay cocke. Meta ferri.' Withals. See also Mughe. 

* 'Milium. A mastiue's colar made of leather with nayles.' Cooper. ' Milus. An houndys 
colere.' Medulla. 

5 Men were divided into four classes, according to their humours. Laurens Andrewe 
says, in his Noble Lyfe, ' And the bodij of man is made of many diuers sortes of lymmes 
as senewes, vaynes, fatte, flesshe & skynne. And also of the foure moistours, as sanguyne, 
fleniatyke, coleryke & melancoly.' (fol. a iv. back. col. 2). Men die, he says, in three 
ways : 1. by one of the four elements of which they are made, overcoming the others; 
2. by humidum radicale, or 'naturall moystour,' forsaking them; 3. by wounds — 'the 
coleryke commeth oftentymes to dethe be accedentall maner through his hastines, for he 
is of nature hot and drye.' So also John Russell in his Boke of Nurture (Babees Boke, 
P» 53)> sa y s — ' The second course colericus by callynge 

Fulle of Fyghtynge blasfemynge, & brallynge, 
Fallynge at veryaunce with felow and fere/ 
And he adds these lines — Colericus. 

Hirsutus, Fallax, irascens, prodigus, satis audax, 
Astutus, gracilis, siccus, croceique coloris. 
See also Dan Michel's Ayenbite of Inwyt, ed. Morris, p. 157. 

6 See also Coriandre. 7 MS. which reads Cokylle, corrected by A. 
8 Hampole in the Pricke of Conscience, 644, 3, tells us that 

' Alle erthe by skille may likned be The whiche in myddes has a colke, 

Tille a rounde appel of a tree, As has an eye [egg] in myddes a yolke :' 

And in the Towneley Mysteries, p. 281, we read — 

' It is fulle roten inwardly At the colke within.' 



to Colke ' ; tondere, detondere. 

*a Coll^mase 2 ; Alcedo. 

+a Collokw 3 ; haustellum, vel hav- 

a Collop 4 ; carbonella, frixa. 
a Colowre and to colour; vbi coloure. 
*a Colrake 5 ; trulla, verriculum. 
a Colte 6 ; ^ullus. 
ta Colte brydylle ; lupatum. 
Columbyne ; columbina. 
a Coliare (Cohere A.) 7 ; carbonarius. 

to Come agayn; reuenire, <& cetera ; 

vbi to turne agayn. 
to Coramaunde ; censere 8 , censire, 

hortari, mandare, iubere, preci- 

pere, impeiwe, edicere, indicere. 
Commawdynge ; imj^eriosus, imper- 

ans, jubens. 
a Commaundmewt ; mandatum, pre- 

ceptum, dido, imperium, edictum, 

jndictum., iussum, iussus, precej)- 

tus, hortamen. 

Coke is still in use in Lancashire with meaning of pith, core. • Erula : Mud quod est in 
medio pomi, ab eruo dicitur : anglice, a core.' Medulla. ' Couk of an apple, cor.' Manip. 
Vocab. Dutch hoik, a pit, hollow : compare Gaelic caoch, empty, hollow. 

1 Jamieson gives ' to Coll, v. a. To cut, to clip. To coll the hair, to poll it. S. Cow. 
To poll the head ; to clip short in general ; to cut, to prune ; to lop off. To be court, to 
be bald. It occurs as signifying shaven ; applied to the Roman tonsure. Cleland. Icel. 
kollr, tonsum caput.' 

2 Spelt Calmewe by Lydgate. * A Icedo : quedam avis. A se-mewe.' Medulla. ' Hec 
alcedo: a colmow.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 252. Caxton, Descr. Brit. 1480, p. 54, 
says, speaking of Ireland, ' In lagenia is a ponde ther be seen colmaus birdes, the byrdes 
ben cleped certelles and come homly to mannes honde.' 

3 ' Collock. A large pail. Cf. Icel. Kolla = a pot or bowl without feet.' Nodal's Glossary. 
In the Will of Thomas Dautree, 1483, pr. in Testamenta Eboracensia, pt. 2, p. 61, Surtees 
Soc. vol. 30, the following item occurs : ' lego unam peciam coopertam, vocatam le collok 
ecclesice meos parochiali, ad inde faciendum unam coupam sive pixidem pro corpore Christi.' 
See also the Richmond shire Wills, &c, published by the same Society, vol. 26, p. 169, where 
are mentioned in an Inventory dated 1563, 4 a kneadinge tube, iij collecks, a wynnocke, ij 
stands, a churne, a fleshe collecke, &c.' 

4 ' Frixa. A colop, or a pece off fiesch.' Medulla. The Ortus explains carbonella as 
1 caro assata super carhones,'' and adds the lines — 

' Est carbonella caro : prunis assata tenella : 
Carbonem faciens : hie carbonarius exstat? 
'Collop. A slice ; a rasher of bacon.' Nodal's Glossary. Wedgwood derives it from 'clop 
or colp, representing the sound of something soft thrown on a fiat surface.' The word 
occurs in old Swedish. Ihre says — 'Kollops, edulii genus, confectum ex carnis fragmentis, 
tudite lignea probe contusis et maceratis.' In Piers Plowman, B. vi. 286, Piers says — 

' I have no salt bacoun Ne no kokeney, bi cryst, coloppes for to maken.' 

' Slices of this kind of meat (salted and dried) are to this day termed collops in the 
north, whereas they are called steaks when cut off from fresh or unsalted flesh.' Brand, 
Pop. Antiq. i. 62. ' Riblette, a collop or slice of bacon. Des osufs A la riblette, Egges and 
collops ; or an omelet or pancake of egges and slices of bacon mingled, and fried together.' 
Cotgrave. 4 The coloppes cleaued faste to the fryenge pannes bottom for lacke of oyle, 
droppynge or butter. Offe fundo sartaginis heserunt olli distillationis desiderio.'' Horman. 
See also Andrew Boorde's Introduction of Knowledge, ed. Furnivall, p. 273, P. Plowman, 
C. Text, xvi. 67, and Harrison, i. 61. ' Colloppe meate, ozuf au lard? Palsgrave. 

5 ' Colerake, or makron. Rutabulum.' Baret. ' Fourgon : a coal-rake or an oven fork.' 
Boyer's Diet. 1652. See also Frugon. Stanihurst, Descr. of Ireland, in Holinshed, vol. 
vi. p. 27, speaks of the 'colerake sweeping of a pufloafe baker.' 'Colerake, ratissover? 
Palsgrave. ' Colerake. Rutabulum.'' Huloet. 

6 * Pullus. The yonge of everything ; a colte; a foale ; a chicken.' Cooper. ' Pululus, 
or Pidltis. Acheken or a Able.' Medulla. 'A chicken, colt, or yoong birde, pidlus.' Baret. 
' Poulaine. A fole or colt.' Cotgrave. See also Foyle. 

1 In William of Palerne, ed. Skeat, 2520, we read — 

' Choliers ]?at cayreden col come J^ere bi-side 

pe kolieres bi-komsed to karpe kenely i-fere.' 
See also the ' Taill of Rauf Coil^ear.' 8 Repeated in MS. 



to Come ; venire, per-, ad-, aduen- 

to Come togedyr ; conuenire, coire, 
conuentare, -ri. 

a Comforth ; solamen, solacium, con- 
solacio, paracHsis 1 , 

to Comforth ; confortare, solari, con-. 

a Comforthther ; confortator, couso- 
lator, p&raclitus. 

+to Come to mynde ; occurrere. 

Comeynge agayn; vbi turnynge 

taCofftmynge to 2 ; accessus,aduentus. 

Cowimynge to ; accedens, adueniens. 

Cowmendabylle ; commeudabilis,lau- 

a Commontye 3 ; vulgus, populus, 
gens, plehs ; vulgaris, plebius, 
gregarius, vulgosus, popular is, 
gentilis ; communitas. 

a Common 4 ; communia. 

to Common ; communicare, commu- 

Co7?zmon ; communis, publicus, vul- 
garis, generalis, vniuersalis, vsi- 
tatus, catholicus, canon 5 grece. 

Co??imonly ; 

commumter, vniuersa- 

fa Co?n.monslaghter 6 ; dalitaria. 
fa Co»imon woman ; Alicaria, ca- 
risia 7 , centrix, lena, ganea, mere- 
trix, scortum, iliays, lupa, capera, 
cimera, chemera, nonaria, trica, 
(meretricula A.), scortulum, scor- 
tonicus /mrricipium, copra ; ver- 
sus : 
%Est meretrix, scortum, thays, 
lupa, copra, chimera. 
a Company ; agmen, cetus (fortuitu 
congregatus) nodus peditum est, 
concilium 8 (conuocata multitudo) 
conuentus,ex diuersis locis populus 
jn vnum congregatus societas, 
consorcium, comitina,falanx, tur- 
ma equitum, turmella, turba, tur- 
bella, caterua, cetus, contubernium, 
legio, cohors, rtianus ala est mili- 
tum, cuneus ; versus : 
^Mille tenet cuneus sed centum 
continet ala ; 
Collegium, cateruarius p&rti- 
a Compas ; circumferencia, girus, 

circus, circuities. 
to Compas 9 ; girare, circinare, 6c 
cetera ; vbi to go a-bowte. 

1 MS. parachisis. Greek napdnXijais. 2 MS. comnynge to. 

3 'Plebs. Kaskaly off ffolk. Vulgus. Kaskaly.' Medulla. In the Libel of English Policy, 
Political Poems, ed. Wright, ii. 186, the writer recommends the close union of England 
and Ireland so 'That none enmye shulde hurte ne offende 

Yrlonde ne us, but as one comonte 
Shulde helpe to kepe welle aboute the see.' 
Trevisa in his trans, of Higden says that ' Julius Cesar his hond was as able to )>e penne 
as to pe swerd ; but no man governede \>e comounte bettre J?an he.' Vol. iv. p. 215. See 
also Wyclif, Exodus xix. 23. 

4 Here the scribe has misplaced a number of words. The mistake is corrected by the 
following note at the top of the page : — 

' Pro istis tribus oongvu, eowgruly, coragruyte ; vide postea in 20 folio sequenle quod 
hie scriptor errauit.' 

5 Apparently for koivos. 

6 I suppose this means ' general slaughter.' Ducange gives ' Daliare, Falcare ; 
faucher, faire la fauchaison : ol. Hailler? ' Faucher, to mow, to sweepe, or cut cleane 
away.' Cotgrave. 

7 ' Carisia. An hore or a ffals servaunt.' Medulla. 8 MS. cencilium. 

9 Thus St. Paul says in the Acts, ' From thence we fetched a compass and came to 
Khegium.' xxviii. 13. In the earlier Wicliffite version, Ezechiel, xli. 7 is thus rendered : 
4 and a street was in round, and stiede upward by a vice, and bar in to J)e soler of the 
temple by compas ;' and in Mark iii. 34, we find, ' Biholdynge hem aboute pat saten in 
pe cumpas of hym, he seip, &c.' See also Matt. ix. 35. ' Gyrus. A circuite or com passe.' 



tCoine (A Conne A.) ' ; offendicu- 

tto broke Conande ; depacisci, diffi- 

tto make Conande ; pacisci, compa- 

cisci, pangere, conuenire. 
fa Conande a ; condicxo, pactum, pac- 

cio, conuencio, condictum, tenor ; 

pactorius partficipium. 
tto Conclude; concludere, circum- 

tCo?icludyd; conclusus. 
ta Co/icubyne ; concubina, & cetera ; 

vhi A lemm&n. 
a Condicion ; conditio, tenor. 
Cottdicionaly J condicionaliter, Ad- 

uerbium . 
tCongru; congruus. 
tCongruly ; congrue, Aduer bium. 
ta Congruyte ; congruitas. 
t[in] Congru; jncongruus. 

t[in] Congruly j iacongnie, adu&r- 

Congure ; piscis est, Conger vel con- 
gruus (A.). 
a Conyng<? 3 ; cuniculus ; cuniculinus 

^ar^icipium, carnes cuniculine. 
*a Connynge ; sciencia, facultas ; 

vn Coraiynge; ignorancia; ignorans, 
qui aliquid scit ; versus : 
^\Inscius & nescius qui omm{qu\s 

cum. A.) noticia caret, 
Ignorans Aliquid scit, qui nescit 

caret omni 
Berum noticia, sic tullius appro- 
bat esse. 
a Connynge-hale (Cunyng nolle A.); 

to Cowiure 4 ; adiuro, con-, exorcizare. 
ta Coniurer ; adiurator, con-, exor- 

1 Halliwell gives ' Con. A clog. North,'' which is evidently the meaning here, but I have 
not been able to find any instance of the word in that sense, nor is it given in any of the 
E. Dialect Society's Glossaries. * Offendiculum : obstaculumS Medulla. 

2 ' He Held thame full weill all his cunnand.' Barbour's Bruce, ed. Skeat, xv. 260. 
See also ibid. i. 561, iii. 759, &c. In Rauf Coi^ear, E. E.Text Society, ed. Murray, Rauf 
having promised to meet Charles at Paris, starts 

1 With ane quhip in his hand To fulfill his cunnand? 

Cantlie on catchand 1. 387. 

' Vp gan knyt thare fordwartis and cunnand Of amyte and perpetual ally.' 

Gawin Douglas, Eneados, x. 1. 385. 

3 A rabbit. ' He went and fett conynges thre 

Alle baken welle in a pasty.' MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, leaf 50. 
Wyclif has coning in Leviticus xi. 5, where the A. V. reads coney. In William of Palerne, 
ed. Skeat, 182, we read, • He com him-self y-charged wi]> conyng & hares.' Stowe men- 
tions a locality (referred to in the Liber Custumarum, p. 229), in the vicinity of the 
Poultry, in the city of London, called Conehop, from a sign of three rabbits over a poulterer's 
stall at the end of the lane. In the Liber Cust. p. 344, is also mentioned a ' Conichepynge,' 
or rabbit-market, in the neighbourhood of St. Pauls. ' Connin, counil. A conny, a rabbet.' 
Cotgrave. ' Cuniculus. A cunnie.' Cooper. See also Liber Albus, pp. 712, 717, and 592. 
This word was employed in various forms in Early English ; ' conyng rosted,' ' copull 
conyng' occur in Purveyance made for King Richard II. Antiq. Pepert. i. 73. In Sir 
Degrevant (Thornton Romances, ed. Halliwell), 1. 1405, we find ' Ffat conyngns and newe.' 

4 ' This abbot, which that was an holy man This yonge childe to coniure he bigan.' 

As monkes been, or elles oughten be, Chaucer, Prioress Tale, 1832. 

'I conioure ])ee bi God, )>at )>ou tourmente me not.' Wyclif, Mark v. 7. In Lonelich's 

History of the Holy Grail, xvi. 306, ed. Furnivall, we read how Joseph drove the devil 

out of the idols — 

' To an ymage there gan he to gon And the devel there anon forth ryht 

That stood in the temple vppon the chief awter Out of the ymage isswed in al here siht.' 
And him anon coniowred there, See also 1. 387. 

' Bxorcista. An adiurour or coniurour.' Cooper. • Conjurer. To conjure ; adjure : . . . . 

to conjure or exorcise (a spirit).' Cotgrave. ' Exorcismus. A coniuryson. Exorcitas. A 

benet ; coniurator. Exorciso : conjurare.' Medulla. See Jamieson. 



fa CoHiurysoii; adiuracio, con-, exor- 

tto Consawe ; concipere, pcrcipere, 

conceptarc, jntelligere. 
a Co>?sciens ; consciencia. 
to Consent; consentire, Assentire, <5s 

cetera ; vbi to Afferme. 
a Consentynge ; Allibencia, <k cetera ; 

vbi Affermynge. 
Co^sentynge ; consenciens. 
to Cottsydyr ; considerate. 
a Consederyngc ; consideracio. 
Cottsyderynge ; considerans. 
to Constrene; vbi to garre (or to 

compelle) 1 . 
to Co>istru ; exponere, construere, 

ta Cowstirrere ; expositor, -trix, con- 
structor, -trix, <k cetera, 
fa Coftstruccion; cons^rwccio, expo- 

Construyngc; construens, exponens. 

ta Contak 2 ; vbi stryfe. 
to Coitinew ; continuare. 
Contyneand ; continuus, continuans. 
a Contyneuynge ; continuacio. 
Contra [r]y ; contrarius loco, aduer- 

sarius, ammo, apostatus, prcpos- 

terus, transuersns. 

uContrarynes ; contra rietas. 

a Contricion; confricio, dolor, com- 

Contrite ; contritus. 
*a Cop 3 ; cirrus, crista est allium, vt 

galli vel alaude. 
a Coppe ; ciphas, condus, guttus, 

cantarus ; versus : 
^{Canterus <$c patera, calices & 

pocula, crater, 
Ciphus, apud veteres comitantur 

cornua, conca, 
Cimbra vel ciatns, carchesia 4 
iungimus jstis. 
ta Copbande 6 ; cru\s]ta, crustula di- 

*a Copburde ; Abacus. 
ta Copberer ; ciphigerulns. 
ta Copmaker; cipharius. 
a Copy ; copia. 
Copir ; cuprtim, Auricalcum. 
Copros (Coprosse A.) 6 ; vitriolum. 
Corde ; corda, <& cetera ; vbi a rope, 
ta Cordeinent 7 ; concordia, concor- 

tCordyngg in sang ; concentus. 
tto Corde ; concordare ; vbi to Ac- 

corde (A.). 
Cordynge ; concordans, conueniens, 


1 In a later hand. 

2 Under the various forms of 'cuntek,' 'contek,' 'conteke,' 'conteck,' and 'contake,' this 
word occurs frequently in early English. In Langtoft's Chronicle, p. 328, we find ' contekour,' 
a quarrelsome person, whence probably our word cantankerous. ' The keneste in conteJc 
that vndir Criste lenges.' Morte Arthure, 2721. 'There was conteke fulle kene, and 
crackynge of chippys.' ibid. 3669. 'Also stryues, contekis & debatis ben vsed in oure 
lond, for lordis stryuen wi]? here tenauntis to brynge hem in thraldom.' Wyclif, Select 
Works, E. E. Text Soc. ed. Mathew, p. -234. 

3 ' Acreste. Crested, copped.' Cotgrave. A.S. cop. Chaucer uses the word simply as 
a top when he says of the Miller that 

4 Upon the cop right of his nose he hade a werte.' C. T. Prologue, 554. 
* • Carchesium ; a standyng cuppe with handles.' Cooper. 

5 In Liber Albus, p. 609, are mentioned Cuppebonde, which Mr. Riley, in his Glossary, 
explains as ' Cup-bonds or Cup-bands ; braces made of metal on which inasers and handled 
cups were strung.' Compare Carte bande, and the definition of crusta and crustula in 
note to Clowte of yren. 

6 The Kennett MS. has ' Coprose, copperas, vitriol ;' and the Manip. Vocab. ' Coperouse, 
chalcanthum.' Baret gives 'Coperas or vitrial, chalcanthum? 

7 See also under A. 

' If men schal telle properly a thing The word mot corde with the thing wcrkyng.' 

Chaucer, Maunciple's Tale, 106. 



*a Cordewayn (Corwen A. ) l ; A lata . 
a Cordwayner ; alatarlus, it' cetera; 

vhi a sowte/-. 
Coriandre 2 ; conundrum. 
Carysy 3 . 

a Cormirande * ; cormiranda. 
Corn ; granum, blaclum, annona, seges, 
& cetera ; versus : 
^Bladum dum viride, dura in 

gr&nario granum, 
Est seges, atque seres sunt fruges 
<fc (ac eciam A.) sata messes ; 
Cum (dum A.) seritur seges est, 

sata cum radicibus herent, 
Fruges cum (dum A.) fruimnv, 
inesses sunt ^uwm metuntur. 

De creando ceres fertxxr cum res 
creat omnes. 
tto Cowferme ; confirmara, cathezi- 

zare, dicare, allegare ; vt, i\\e 

Allegat litzras meas. 
a Corner ; angulus, & cetera ; vhi a 

* a Corparax (Corporas A.) B ; cor- 

fA Corrasoitr (Covrieure A.) of 

ledder ; 6 corresator. 
a Corrupcioii ; corrwpcio. 
tto Corrupe ; corru[mjpere. 
to Corry a hors 7 ; strigilare. 
a Corse ; cadauer, morticinum. 
*Corsy (Corsy man, or woman, or 

best A.) 8 ; corpulentns. 

1 ' Aluta. Softe lether tawed.' Cooper. It was probably similar to the modern morocco 
leather. The duty is stated in the Liber Albus, p. 231, as 'la dozein de cordewayne j 
denier.' See also the ' Ordinationes Alutariorum,' or Ordinances of Tanners, ibid. p. 732. 
The word still survives in ' Cordwainer's Ward,' near St. Paul's, the name of which was 
derived from the Cordwainers or Shoe-makers settled in that district. ' A lata. Cordewane. 
Alutarlus. A cordwanere.' Medulla. In the Libel of English Policy, Wright's Political 
Poems, Rolls Series, ii. 163, amongst the commodities of' Portyngale ' are mentioned 

' Ffygues, reysyns, hony, and cordeweyneJ' 

2 Alexander Neckham, De Naturis Rerum, p. 476, assigns the following virtues to 
Coriander — ' Et triduana febris eget auxilio coriandri, 

Et gemini testes dum tumor ambit eos. 
Lumbricos pellit, tineas delet, sacer ignis, 
Quam pestem metuit Gallia, cedit eV 
See also Coliandyr. _ 

3 This seems to be an error for Carsay or Corsy, which are inserted in their proper 

* Chaucer, Parlement of Foules, 362, speaks of 'the hote cormeraunt of glotenye.' 

5 In Havelok (E. E.Text Soc. ed. Skeat), 1. 188, are mentioned 

' pe cali3 and pe pateyn ok, pe corporaus, J)e messe-gere :' 

and in Guy of Warwick, Met. Romances, ed. Ellis, ii. p. 77, we read — 

* After the relics they send The corporas, and the mass-gear.' 

' Corporail. The corporall : the fine linnen wherein the Sacrament is put.' Cotgrave. In 
the Liber Albus, pp. 125, 126, occurs the phrase — ' corporaliter j urare,' to take an oath 
while touching the corporate or cloth which covered the sacred elements. It also occurs 
in the Act 35 Eliz. c. 1, § 2. Dame Eliz. Browne in her Will, Paston Letters, iii. 465, 
mentions 'ij corporas casys of cloth of gold ; j olde vestment,' &c. 'After }>e passioun of 
Alisaundre J>e pope, Sixtus was pope almost elevene jere : he ordeyned J)at trisagium, J>at 
is, " Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus," shulde be songe at masse, and }>at pe corperas schulde 
noujt be of silk noJ?er sendel, but clene lynnen cloj) noujt i-dyed.' Tre visa's Higden, v. II. 
' Corporas for a chales, corporeav.' Palsgrave. See also Shoreham, p. 50. 

6 ' Courroyeur. A currier of leather. Courroyer. To currey ; tew, or dresse, leather.' 
Cotgrave. In the Liber Albus, 738, is mentioned the ' Ordinatio misterse de Correours,' or 
Guild of Curriers. * Coriarius. A tanner.' Cooper. Wyclif, in Acts ix, 10, speaks of 
'Simon the coriour? the Vulgate reading being coriarius. 'He is a corier of crafte. Pellifex 
est vet coriarius professione? Horman. 

7 * Strigilis. An hors com.' Medulla. 

8 ' Corsu. Grosse, fleshy, corpulent, big-bodied.' Cotgrave. ' Corssy. Big-bodied ; cor- 
pulent.' Jamieson. ' Corsyfe, to full of fatnesse, corpulent, corsu.' Palsgrave. 



a Cortyn T ; cortina, it cetera ; vhi a 

*to Coyse 2 ; altcrare, &' cetera ; vhi 

to chawnffe. 
*a Coyseyr of hors 3 ; mango. 
a Cosyn ; cognatus, cognata eiusdem 

originis est, nepos, 2)i'02~>iuquus 

sanguine vel affinitate, 7iept\s, 

consanguineus, consanguinea. 
a Coste 4 ; vhi a kyndome ; clima vel 

to Coste ; consiare. 
Cost ; surttytus, sun^tuosus, {e^ense 


Coster d B ; querarium. 

Costy ° ; 8umptuos\i&. 

*a Costrellc 7 ; oneferum, & cetera ; 

vhi a flakett. 
+a Cottage; cowtagium, domuncu- 

*a Cotearmow (Coyturmur A.) ; jn- 

a Cote ; tunica, tunicella, tunicula 

*a Cote (Coyt A.); capana, estpr&ua 

dorriVLS, casa, casula (cadurcum. 

Cotun ; bombacinum. 

* On siclike wyse this ilk chiftane Troyane The corsy passand Osiris he has slane.' 

G. Douglas, Eneados xii. p. 426. 
'The king beheld this gathelns, Strong of nature, corsie and corageous.' Stewart, Chroniclis 
of Scotl. 1535, i. 7. ' Corsye or fatte. Pinguis.' Huloet. 

1 One of the duties of the Marshal of the Hall, as given in the Boke of Curtasye, Babees 
Boke, p. 189, was — ' pe dosurs cortines to henge in halle.' 

2 ' To cope or coase, cambire? Baret. ' To coce, cambire? Manip. Vocab. Cotgrave 
has ' Troquer. To truck, chop, swab, scorse, barter, change, &c. Barater. To trucke, 
scourse, barter, exchange.' ' The traist Alethes with him has helmes cosit, and gaif him 
his.' G. Douglas, Eneados ix. p. 286. 

3 'Mango. A baude that paynteth and pampereth vp boyes, women, or servauntes to 
make them seeme the trimmer, therby to sell them the deerer. An horse coarser that 
pampereth and trimmeth his horses for the same purpose.' Cooper. ' Mango. A cursoure 
off hors.' Medulla. See also Wyclif, Select Works, E. E. Text Soc. ed. Matthew, p. 172, 
where he inveighs against the priests for mixing themselves up with trading : ' {?ei ben 
corseris & makers of malt, & bien schep & neet & sellen hem for wynnynge, & beten 
marketis, &c.' ' P. Of whom hadst thou him ? T. Of one, I knowe not whether hee bee 
a horse corser, a hackney man, a horse rider, a horse driuer, a cariour, or a carter.' 
Florio's Second Frutes, p. 43. Sir A. Fitzherbert says, 'A corser is he that byeth all 
rydden horses, and selleth them agayne.' Boke of Husbandry, sign. H. 2. 

4 ' Clima. A clyme or portion of the fiimamente between South and North, varying in 
one day halfe an howres space.' Cooper. Coste meant a region or district, not necessarily 
the sea-board. ' This bethe the wordes of cristeninge 

Bi thyse Englissche costes.' Shoreham, p. 10. 
In Sir Ferumbras, Charles chooses Richard of Normandy to be guide to the messengers sent 
to the Saracen Emir, because he ' knew alle the coste? In the Gesta Bomanorum, p. 187, 
Jonathas, when seated on the magic cloth, ' a-noon thovte, lorde ! yf we wer now in fer 
contrees, wher neuer man come afore this ! And thenne withe the same thovte ]>ej wer 
bothe Reysid vp to-gedir, in to the ferrest coste of the worlde, with the clothe with hem.' 
• Coaste of a countrey. Confineum, fines, ora. Coast or region, ether of the ayre, earth or 
sea, as of the ayre, east west north & south, &c. Regio.'' Huloet. 

5 ' Fruictier. s. A fruiterer, fruitseller, costermonger.' Cotgrave. 'A costard. Pomme 
Appie.' Sherwood. ' Pomarius. A costardemonger, or seller of fruite.' Cooper. 'ACos- 
terdmunger. Pomarius? Baret. ' Costardmongar, fruyctier? Palsgrave. 

6 Wyclif, in his tract on Feigned Contemplative Life (Select Works, ed. Mathew, p. 
194), complains that the clergy of his time wasted all their ' studie & traueile . . . abowte 
Salisbury vse wij> multitude of newe costy portos, antifeners, graielis, &c.' and that rich 
men ' costen so moche in grete schapplis and costy bokis of mannus ordynaunce for fame 
and nobleie of the world.' Again, p. 210, he says, ' pe fend & his techen to make costy 
festis and waste many goodis on lordis and riche men.' See also pp. 21 1, 213, &c. 

7 In the Romance of Sir Ferumbras, E. E.Text Soc, Ferumbras perceiving that Oliver 
is wounded offers him some ointment which, he says, will cure any wound, it being made 



:i Couatyse ; Auaricia, & cetera ; vbi 

*a Couent l ; conuentus, conuenticu- 

to Couere; velarc, ad-, tegere, con-, 
ob-, ojwrire cum opevculo, adoper- 
imus foras ; jnoperimus, cum. 
iacenti aliquid supponimns, co- 
operire, obumbrare, adumbrare, 
linere, nubere, obducere. 

fto vn Couere ; discooperire, detegere, 
& cetera ; vbi to schewe. 

a Couerakylle 2 ; ojyQvculum, opcvi- 
men, operimentum. 

a Couerlyt ; lectistevnium, cooper- 
torium, torale, supellex, ^enitiuo 

fa Couerynge of a buke ; cooper to- 
rium, tegmen, tegumentum, vela- 
men, textus. 

to Couet ; Appetere, optare, ad-, 
A rdere, ex-, Ardescere, ex-, cupere, 
con-, concupiscere, gliscere, Auere, 
captare, & cetera ; vbi to desyrc. 

a Cowche ; cubile, cubatorium, 4c 
cetera ; vbi a bede. 

to Cowche 3 ; cubare. 

a Cowe ; vacca, vaccilla. 

a Cowhird ; vaccarius. 

a Cowerd; vecors, pusillanimis, ex- 
cors, secors. 

a Cowerdnes ; pusillanimitas, secor- 
dta, vecordia. 

*a Cowle ; cuculla, cula, cullula, 
cuculns ; cullatus (cucullatus A.). 

to aske Cownselltf ; considere ; ver- 
sus : 

U Consulo, te rogito ; t'ibi consulo, 
consilium do. 

to Cownselle ; consiliare, consulere, 
suadere, iudicare, & tunc con- 
struitur cum datixxo casu. 

a Cownsellc ; consilium, concilium, 
consultacio, consiliacio ; consili- 

a Cownselowr ; qui petit consilium, 
consultor (qui dat consilium A.), 
consults, consull, anticulariiis, 

of the balm with which our Lord's body was anointed at his burial. He addresses Oliver 
thus — 'Ac by myddel per hongej) her, Hwych ys ful of }>at bame cler, 

A costrel as ])ou mijt se pat precyous ys and fre.' P. 20, 1. 510. 

The word occurs again at p. 32, 1. 742, when Oliver with his sword 

' the costrel J»at was with yre y-bounde, perwith a-two he carf.' 

' Onophorum. A costrel. Ascapa. A costrel.' Medulla. Wyclif also uses the word in 
Ruth ii. 9 ; 'if also thou thrustist, go to the litil costrils, and drynk watris.' 'Costrell to 
carye wyne in. Oenophorum. Custrell or bottell for wyne. Vter.' Huloet. ' Hie cola- 
teralis, a costrille.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 232. 

1 Conventus. A couent.' Medulla. ' They also that rede in the Couente ought so bysely 
to ouerse theyr lesson before.' Myroure of Our Lady, ed. Blunt, p. 67. 

'Sich as ben gaderid In coventis togidere.' Wright's Political Poems, ii. 64. 
See also ibid. i. 225. A 'convent' of monks, with their Superior, properly consisted of 
thirteen, in imitation of our Lord and the twelve Apostles. Thus we read in the Somp- 
noures Tale, 2259 — 
' Bring me twelve freres, wit ye why ? Your noble confessour, her God him blesse ! 
For threttene is a covent as I gesse ; Schal parfourn up the nombre of this coveni? 
On the same point Mr. Wright quotes from Thora, Decern Scriptores, col. 1807 : 'Anno 
Domini m.c.xlvi. iste Hugo reparavit antiquum numerum monachorum istius monasterii, 
et erant lx. monachi prof essi pros ter abbatem, quinque conventus in universo? 

2 In the Inventory of Sir J. Fastolfs property, taken in 1459, we find — ' vj bolles with 

oon coverecle of silver Item, vj bolles with oon coveracle gilt.' Paston Letters, i. 

pp. 468-9. ' Couvercle, A cover or lid.' Cotgrave. 'Torale. A couerlyte.' Medulla. 

3 Wyclif in his tract on The Order of Priesthood (Select Works, ed. Mathew, p. 168), 
says — ' Prestis also sclaundren )>e peple bi ensaumple of ydelnesse and wantounnesse ; for 
comynly ]>ei chouchen (couchen AA.) in softe beddis, whanne oJ»ere men risen to here 
laboure, &c.,' and again, p. 211, he speaks of 'pore men J)at ben beddrede & couchen in 
mukor dust.' ' Kouchid him under a kragge.' Will, of Palerne, 1. 2240. See also Anturs 
of Arthur, st. xii. 1. 9. 



secvetarius, assecretis indeelina- 
hile, conciliator, infaustor mains 

to Cownte ; calculare, connumerare, 
computare, numevare, degerere. 

a Cownte ; raciocinium, compotns. 

a Cownter ! ; compotista, calculator. 

ta Cownty ; comitatns. 

a Cowntynge ; libramen, libr amen- 
tum, libvare, libr&rium. 

a Cowntynge place ; libv&torium. 

a Cownter; Anticopa. 

a Cowntyse ; comissa. (Comitissa 

Cowpe ; cupa. 

a Cowper ; cuparius. 

a Cowrsse ; cursns, decursns aqnsi- 
nim est. 

a Cowrssor 2 ; admissarius, cursa- 

a Cowrte ; curia, curiola, curies vel 
curtis, curialis, curiosus. 

A Cowrthouse. (A.) 

ta Cowrbe (Cowrtby A.) ; renale, 

a Cowrteman, or a cowrtyoure ; 

curio, aidicns, curialis part'i- 

cipium ; palatums de palacio 

tfrom Cowrte to cuwrte ; curiatim. 
ta Cowschote 3 ; palumbus. 
a Cowslope 4 ; ligustrum., vaccinium. 

O ante It. 
a Crab ; piscis est, cancer. 
a Crab; Arbitum vel Arbota. 
fa Crab of b e wod (A wode Crabe 

A.) 5 ; Acroma (Acrama A.) ah 

acr'itudine dictnm. 
a Crab tre; arbitns (Arbuta A.), 

macianns, macianum est fructns 

a Crafte 6 ; Ars liber alis, sciencia, 

articula, articularis ^ar^icipium, 

artificium. manuum. est ; arti- 

ficialis, artijiciosus ^ardcipia ; 


1 'Ther is no countere nor clerke con hem reken alle.' MS. Cott. Calig. A ii. leaf no, 
in Halliwell. See also Political Poems, ed. Wright, i. 328. The Countor was so called 
from his counting counts, or, in other words, arguing pleas. Chaucer, C. T. Prologue, 
1. 359, says of the Frankelyn that 

' A schirreve hadde he ben, and a countour? 
The Countors are in Wright's Pol. Songs (Camden Soc), p. 227, denominated relatores, 
and do not appear to have borne a very high character: — 

' Dicuntur relatores ; 
Caeteris pejores, 
Utraque manu capiunt, 
Et sic eos decipiunt 
Quorum sunt tutores.' 
' Relatores qui querelam ad judices referunt.' Ducange. See also Liber Custumarum, p 280. 

2 'Admissarius. A coursoure.' Medulla. 

' The ane of 30W my Capill ta ; To the stabill swyith 30 ga.' 

The vther his Coursour alswa, Rauf Coil3ear,ed. Murray, 1. 114. 

3 The wood-pigeon is still known in many parts as the Cushat. G-awin Douglas in his 
Prologue to the 12th Bk. of the iEneid, 237, speaks of 'the Jcoivschot' that 'croudis and 
pykkis on the ryse.' ' Coulon, a Queest, Cowshot, Ring-dove, Stock-dove, wood-Culver.' 
Cotgrave. See also s. v. Marnier. ' A ring-dove, a wood culver, or coushot.' Nomenclator. 
A. S. cusceote. ' The turtil began for to greit, quhen the cuschet 3oulit.' Complaynt of 
Scotland, p. 39. See also Palladius on Husbondrie, p. 28, 1. 758. ' Cusceote, palumba.' 
Wright's Vocab. p. 280. 

4 ' Vaccinium. The floure of the hearbe Hyacinthus or Crowtoes. Ligustrum. By the 
judgement of alle men it is priuet, or primprint.' Cooper. ' Ligustrum, a cowsleppe, or 
a prymrose.' Ortus. 

5 A wild crab-apple tree. ' Pomme de hois ou de bosquet. A crab, or wilding.' Cotgrave. 
See also Wodde Crabbe ; and compare Wyclif s expression, • he eet locustus and hony 
of]>etvode.' St. Mark i. 6. « Mala maciana. Woode crabbis.' MS. Harl. 3388. 'Crabbe 
frute, pomme de boys.' Palsgrave. 

6 In the Coke's Tale, 1. 1, we ai-e told of the 'prentice that ' Of a craft of vitaillers was he.' 



+A maw of Crafte ; art'ifex qui suam, 
artem excercet, artificiosus qui 
alienam suo jngenio expremit, 
autor, opifex ; versus : 
*§Artific\s women opifex assumit 
& autor; 
Invenit autor, A git actor, res 
ampliat auctor. 
tvn Crafty; inartijiciosus, jnfaber, 
jneffaber, solers, omnis generis 
Crafty ; Artificiosus, f'aber, affhber, 

a Crag of stone ; vbi a Roche. 
*aCrakafi 1 ; cremium. 
a Crake ; comix, coruus, comicularis. 
A Crakke. (A.) 
to Crakk nuttes; nucliare, enucliare. 

a Crakkyngtf ; nucliac'w, enucli- 

tCram kake 2 ; collirida, laganum. 
p e Crampe ; sjwsmus. 
a Crane ; grus, grucula ; gruinus 

*Crappes 3 ; A cus. 
to Crawe ; cantare. 
a Crawe of a fowle ; vesicula. 
a Crede ; cimbolum. 
a Credylle ; cuna, cune, cunabulum, 

crepedium, crejnmdium, crocea. 
a Credilbande 4 ; fascia, fasciola, 

fa Credille sange 5 ; fascennine. 
a Crekett 6 ; grillus, salamandra. 
ta Cr eke thole ; grillarium, grille turn 

est focus vbi habundant. 

1 ' Cremium. Brush, or drie stickes to kendle fire with.' Cooper. ' Cremium. Cranke 
(? craken).' Medulla. See Crappes below. 

2 Apparently cream-cake, but according to Halliwell the same as Pancake. ' Laganum. 
A thinne cake made with floure, water, fatte brothe, pepper, safron, &c. ; a fritter ; a 
pannecake.' Cooper. * Collyrida : panis species ; sorte de galette.' Ducange. ' Laganum : 
a pancake or a flawne.' Ortus. The following is the only instance of the word which I 
have been able to meet with : — 

Exod. cap. xxix. 
.... tak a cal ffrom the droue, and two 
whetheris with outen wemme, and therf 
looues, and a cake with outen sour dow3, 
the whiche ben thei spreynde with oyle, 
and therf cramcahes wett with oyle : and 
of puyr whete meele thow shalt make alle 

Exod. cap. xxix. 
.... take thou a calf of the droue, and 
twei rammes with out wem, and therf 
looues, and a cake with out sour dow, 
whiche be spreynt to gidere with oile and 
therf paart sodun in watir, bawmed, ether 
fried with oile ; thou schalt make alle 
thingis of whete floure. 

Wyclifite Versions, I. 261 

3 Ray in his Collection of S. & E. Country Words gives ' Crap-darnel. In Worcestershire 
and other counties they call buck-wheat crap.' See Peacock's Glossary s. v. Craps, and 
Crakan, above. 

4 'Fascia. A swathell or swathyng bande, or other lyke thing of linnen.' Cooper. 
' Crepudium. A credyl bonde.' Lnstita. A roket or a credylbonde.' Medulla. ' Cradell 
bande, bende de lierseauv? Palsgrave. 

5 Fescennine means of, or belonging to, the town of Fescennia in Etruria ; from which 
place certain sportive, but coarse songs which, with the Romans, were sung at weddings, 
took their name. Hence the term became an epithet for coarse and rude jests of any kind. 
In the present instance it seems to be equivalent to nursery rhymes. Cf. Lulay, post, 
and P. Lullynge Songe. See Liber Custumarum, p. 6. 'Fescennine. Songs that women 
use when they rock the cradle.' Gouldman. 

6 ' Fissch to lyue in J>e flode, and in J)e fyre \>e cryhat' P. Plowman, B. Text, xiv. 42. 
There was a popular belief that the cricket lived in the fire, arising probably from two 
causes, firstly, its partiality for the hearth ; and secondly, a confusion between it and the 
salamander, the Latin name of the former being gryllus, and of the latter grylio. See 
Philip de Thaun's Bestiary, s. v. Grylio ; Wright's Popular Treatises on Science, p. 97, 
and the Ayenbite of Inwyt, ed. Morris, p. 167. ' Grillus. A worm which liveth in the 
fire, as big as a fly. Salamandra. A beast in shape like a Lizard, full of spots ; being 
in the fire it quencheth it, and is not burnt.' Gouldman. ' Salamandra. A creket.' 





to Crepe; repvce, ir-, ob-, reptare, 
-titare, seiyere, surrijftve. 

a Crepylle 2 ; tantillus. 

a Crepynge; reptilis. 

ta Crepynge beste ; reptile. 

*a Cressent a bowte f> e nek 3 ; tor- 
ques, torquis, luna, lunula. 

Cresse 4 ; narstucium. 

*a Cressett 5 ; batillus, crucibitlum, 

a Creste; co?ius, crista, iuba; cristat- 
us, jubatus, & iubosus participia. 

a Creuesse ; Jlssura, rima, rimula ; 

*a Crib ; presepe indeclinabile, pre- 

to Cry 6 ; clamare, Ac-, con-, re-> 
elamitare, clangere ; canum est 
baulare <k latrare, bourn mugirz, 
ranarum coaxare 7 , coruorum. cro- 
care <£ crocitare, caprarum vehare, 
anatum. vetussare, Accipitrum 8 
pijriare 9 , Anserxmi clingere, apro- 
rum frendere, apum bombizare vel 
bombilare, aquilarum clangere, 

1 In Myrc's Instructions to Parish Priests, E. E. Text Soc. ed. Peacock, 1. 582, amongst 
the directions as to baptism it is ordered that the priest shall 

' Creme and cry sine and alle pynge elles 
Do to pe chylde as pe bok telles.' 
1 Three kinds of oil were used in the Catholic Church — oleum sanctum, oleum chrismatis, 
and oleum infirmorum. With the first, called in the above extract from Myrc, creme, the 
child was anointed on the breast and between the shoulders, before it was plunged in the 
font or sprinkled with water. After the baptism proper it was anointed on the head with 
the sign of a cross with the oleum chrismatis or crism. The oleum infirmorum was that 
used for the purposes of extreme unction. The three oils were kept in separate bottles in 
a box called a chrismatory, which was in shape somewhat like the Noah's arks given to 
children to play with.' ' Crisma. Creein/ Medulla. ' Creame holy oyle, cresme.' Palsgrave.' 
See E. de Brunne's Chronicle, ed. Furnivall, p. 530, 1. 15,268. See also Crysmatory, and 
Crysome. 'The Mownte of Oliuete, the hille of creme (mons chrismatis.)' Higden, i. 113. 

2 The same Latin equivalent is given for a Dwarf (see Dwarghe). 

3 ' Lunula. A hoope, and rynge of golde to put on the finger. Torques. A colar or chayne, 
be it of golde or siluer, to weai'e about ones necke.' Cooper. 

4 l Nasturcium. Watyre cressys.' Medulla. 'Nasturtium. The hearbe called Cresses, 
which amonge the Persians was so much estemed that yonge men goeyng huntynge did 
eate none other meate to relieue their spirites.' Cooper. ' Nasitort. Nose-smart, garden- 
cresse, town Kars, town cresses.' Cotgrave. ' Nausticium, water kyrs.' Wright's Vol. of 
Vocab. p. 190. 'Cresses herbes, cresson? Palsgrave. In P. Plowman, B. x. 17, we have 
' no3t worp a kerse? from whence comes the vulgar ' not worth a curse.' A. S. cresse, cerse. 

5 In the Poem on the Siege of Calais, Wright's Political Poems, ii. 153, the French are 
said to have had ' ix m l cokkes to crow at ny3th, 

And viij m 1 cressetes to brene listh ; Gret wonder to here and se ;' 
and at p. 218 of the same volume we read — 

1 The owgly bakke wyl gladly fleen be nyght 
Dirk cressetys and laumpys that been lyght.' 
* Batillum. A cresaunt, or a senser.' Medulla. ' A light brenning in a cresset.' Gower, 
iii. 217. Sea Crosser. 

6 In the Cursor Mundi, p. 645, 1. 1 1235, we read that when Jesus was born, his mother 

' Suilk clapes as scho had tille hande, 

Wid suilk scho swetheled him and band 

Bituix twa cribbis scho him laid :' 
where the Fairfax and Trinity MSS. read cracches. See also Pricke of Conscience, 5200, 
where he is said to have been laid ' In a cribbe, bytwen an ox and asse.' 

7 Most of the verbs given under this word are onomatopeias, and some are probably 
invented for the occasion. Koax is used by Aristophanes in ■ The Frogs,' 209, to represent 
the croaking of frogs. See also Mr. Way's note s. v. Crowken. ' Crapaud koaille, tadde 
croukep.' Gault. de Bibelesworth, in Chapt. ' de naturele noyse des bestes.' * Coax, i. era, 
uox ranarum uel coruorum.' Gloss. MS. Harl. 3376. 8 MS. Anipitrum. 

9 ' Pip-tare. To piepe lyke a chicke.' Cooper. 'To cryen as a ffawkon.' Medulla. 




Arietum lorectare, asinorum ru- 
dere, catulorxxm glatire, Ceruorum 
nigere, cicadamm firmitare l , ci- 
coniarum. croculare, cuculorum 
cuculare, elephantwm barrire 2 , 
grabarlarxxm 3 fringulare, equo- 
rum hinnire, gallinarum cris- 
piare i ,gallorum cucurrire,gruum 
gruere } hedorumvebare 5 , hircorwm 
mutire, hirundinum mimurrire <$c 
mimerire est omnium minutissi- 
marum 6 Auicularum, leonum ru- 
gire, luporum vlulare, leperorum 
(kpuerorum vagire,lincum aucare 
vel nutare, miluorum pipxre, 
murium pipare vel pipitare, 
mulorum zinziare, mustelarum 
driuorare, noctuarum cubire, ole- 
mm densare, onagrorum mugeri- 
tare, ouium balare, panteramm 
caurire, p&xdorum folire, pas- 
serum tinciare, pauorum pau- 
peilare, jyorcornm grunnire, ser- 
pentum sibilare, soricum 7 disticare, 

Tigridum rachanare, turdorum 
crucilare vel soccitare, verris qui- 
ritare, vrsorum vercare vel seuire, 
vulpium gannire, vulturum pal- 
pare, vespevtilionum blaterare 8 . 

to Cry in b e merketh ; pxeconizare. 

A Crier in the Merkett ; preco, pre- 
conizator (A.). 

a Cryer ; clamator. 

Criynge (A Cry A.) ; clamor, raciona- 
bilium est vt hominum,exclamac\o, 
barritus elephantum est, clangor 
anserxxm vel tubarum, coax rana- 
rum, Cra & crocitatus coruorum, 
gemitns vulpium, rugitus leonum. 

Criynge ; damans, ac-, con-, re-, 
clamitans, clangens, altisona\n\s, 
altisonns, clamosus, rugiens. 

a Criynge owte ; exclamacio ; excla- 
mans juar^icipium. 

to Cry owte ; exclamare. 

a Crysmatory 9 ; crysmale (crisma- 
torium A.). 

Crysome 10 ; (Crismale A.), 

1 Read fritinire. ' Fritlnire dicuntur cicada?.' Cooper. ' Fritinio. To syngyn lijke 
swalowys or byrdys.' Medulla. 

2 * Barrire. To braye.' Cooper. • To cryen as an olyfaunt.' Medulla. 

3 ?read Gaballarum. ' Oaballa, eq\ia,,jument.' Ducange. 

4 Ducange gives ' Crispire de clamore gallinarum dicitur. ' 

5 See above, vehare. 

6 ' Minurio, i. e. minutum cantare, topype as small byrdes.' Ortus. ' Minurio. To cryen 
as small byrdys.' Medulla. 

7 ' Sorex, a ratte ; a field mouse.' Cooper. Huloet has ' Mouse called a ranney, blindmouse, 
or field mouse. Mus areneus, mygala. whose nature is supposed to haue yll fortune, for 
if it runne ouer a beaste, the same beaste shall be lame in the chyne, and if it byte any 
thynge then the thynge bytten shall swell and dye, it is also called sorex.' 

8 The following curious lines on the cries of animals occurs in MS. Harl. 1002, If. 72 : — 

He can crocuw as a froge, 

He can barkun as a dogge, 

He can cheteron as a wrenne, 

He can cakelyn as a hewne, 

He can neye as a stede, 

Suche a byrde were wode to fede ;' 

' At my howse I haue a Jaye, 

He can make mony diuerse leye ; 

He can barkyng as a foxe, 

He can lowe as a noxe, 

He can crecun as a gos, 

He can romy as a nasse in his cracche, 
thus rendered into Latin : — 'Habeo domi graculum cuius lingua nouit multiplicera notulam ; 
gannit vt vulpes, mugescit vt bos, pipiat vt anca, rudit vt asimts in presipio, coaxat vt 
rana, latratvt canis, pipiat vt cestis, gracillat vt gallina, hinnit vt dextoritts; talis pulhts 
est nihil cibo condignws.' 

9 In the Inventory of Sir J. Paston's Plate we find * one potte callid a crismatorie to 
put in holy creme and oyle, of silver and gilt, weying j' 1 *.' Paston Letters, iii. 433. See 
Halliwell s. v. Chrisome; and note to Creme, above. ' Chrismarium. Vas in quo sacrum 
chrisma reponitur. Chrismal. Vas ecclesiasticum in quo chrisma, seu sacrum oleum asser- 
vatur, quod ampulla chrismatis etiam dicitur.' Ducange. 

10 Chrisome, according to Halliwell, signifies properly the white cloth which is set by the 
minister of baptism upon the head of a child newly anointed with chrism after his baptism ; 



*a Cryspyngeyren ' ; Ants, calamis- 

Crystalle; cr'istallus ; cvistallinus ^>ar- 

Criste ; Cristm 2 ; cristianus. (A.) 
*a Crystendam 3 ; baptismus, baptis- 

ma, chvhtianitas, christianismus. 
to Crysten ; baptizare. 
to be Crestefid ; renasci, baptizari. 
a Crystenma^ ; christitmus, cbristt- 

fa Crystynar ; baptisfa. 
A Cryme ; delictum, crimen do cetera; 

vhi trespas or syii. 

to Crowe (CrobeA.); crocitare vel 

crocare, coruo7'\xm est. 
a Crowynge (Crobbynge A.) of ra- 

uens ; era, i?idee\ina,bile, vel cro- 

a Crochet 4 ; simpla. 
fa Crofte 5 ; conjinium, crustum, tof- 

tum, fundus. 
a Crony ky lie ; cronica. 
*a Croppe G ; cima. 
to Croppe 7 ; decimare, pYoduc[itur] 

ci ; versus : 
^Declmo caulis frondes, sed 
decimo 8 garbas 9 ; 

now it is vulgarly taken for the white cloth put about or upon a child newly christened, 
in token of his baptism, wherewith the women use to shroud the child if dying within the 
month. The anointing oil was also called chrisom. Thus in Morte Arthure, 1. 3435, in 
the interpretation of the king's dream we read — 

'And synne be corownde kynge, with hrysome enoynttede.' 
See also 11. 142 and 2447. In the same Romance we find the word used as a verb ; thus 
1. 105 1, we read of ' A cowlefulle cramede of crysmede childyre.' See also 11. 1065 and 3185. 
' Cristnut and crisumte .... Folut in a fontestone.' Anturs of Arthur, xviii. 4. Although 
the same Latin equivalent is given for this word as for the preceding, it is probable that 
in this case the anointing oil is meant. ' Crysome for a yong chylde, cresmeauv.' Palsgrave. 
See Creme, above, and cf. Cud. Crysmechild occurs in An Old Eng. Misc. ed. Morris, p. 90. 

1 ' Calamistrum. A Pinne of woodde or iuory, to trimme and crispe heare.' Cooper. 

2 ' Christus : crismate unctus.' Medulla. 

- 3 In the Romance of Sir Ferumbras, E. E. Text Soc. ed. Herrtage, p. 65, 1. 1916, 
Charlemagne sends a message to the Saracen king, Balan, that he should restore the 
captive knights, &c, ' And crittendom scholdest fonge.' See also Lonelich's Hist, of the 
Holy Grail, ed. Furnivall, xlvii. 10 ; lv. 191, &c. Wyclif, Works iii. 285, speaks of the 
sacrament of ' cristen&om? 

4 ''Crochet. A quaver. In music' Cotgrave. 'Simpla: anglice, a Croche.' Ortus. 'A 
crotchet. Simpla, semiminima.' Gouldman. 'Was no crochett wrong.' TownleyMyst. 116. 

5 In P. Plowman, B. Text, v. 582, Piers, in describing the way to Truth, says — 

' panne shaltow come by a crofte, but come ])ow nou3te J?ere-Inne, 
That crofte hat coueyte-nou3te-mennes-catel-ne-her-wyues — 
The word is not uncommon now. Jamieson gives ' Craft, s. a croft ; a piece of ground 
adjoining a house. Crafter. Crofter, s. One who rents a small piece of land.' A. S. croft. 

6 ' Cima. The toppe of an hearbe.' Cooper. The phrase ' croppe and roote,' which we 
still retain in the inverted order, or as ' root and branch,' occurs frequently : see for 
instance Lonelich's Hist, of the Holy Grail, xvi. 492 ; xviii. 241 ; Wright's Political 
Poems, i, 365, &c. Lyte, Dodoens, p. 270, says that 'the decoctions of the toppes and 

croppes of Dill causeth wemen to haue plentie of milke.' Hampole, Pricke of 

Conscience, 663, compares man to a tree ' of whilk })e crop es turned donward.' See also 
P. Plowman, B. xvi. 69, and Cursor Mundi, ed. Morris, pp. 464, 1. 8638 and 486, 1. 8458. 
Compare also Top of a tree. A. S. crop. 

7 In P. Plowman, B. vi. 33, Piers saj T s — 

' Suche [foules] cometh to my crofte, and croppeth my whete ;' 
and in the Ancren Riwle, p. 86, the author says that a churl 'is ase J>e wifti ]>et 
sprutted ut ]>e bettere \>et me hine ofte cropped.' See also Myrc's Duties of a Parish 
Priest, 1502. 0. Icel. Jcroppa, to pluck. 'Croppe of. Carpo, Exciso? Huloet. 

8 Pay tithes of. 

9 ' Garba. Spicarum manipulus : gerbe. ol. garbe. Garba decimo?, pars decimae.' Ducange. 
' Gerbee. A shocke, halfe-thrave, or heape of sheaves; also a bundle of straw.' Cotgrave. 

G 2 



Decimo Jlores, sed dechno res 
a Cropper ; declinator, decimatvix. 
a Crosse ; crux, crucicula. 
tto Crosse ; cancellare. 
*a Croser ; cvuciferarius, crucifer. 
to do on Crosse l ; ci'ucijigere. 
a Crosser 2 ; crucibulum, lucubrum. 
*a Crowde 3 ; corns sine h litera {sine 

aspiracione A.), corista, qui vol 

que canit in eo. 
*a Crowett (Cruet A.) 4 ; Ampulla, 

bachium, Jiola, vrseus. 

a Crowne ; laurea, crinale, sertum, 

diodema, corona, auriola, apex, 

car alia, coronula. 
to Crowne; Aureolare,coronare,lau- 

a Crowner ; coronator, laureator. 
*a Cruche (Crowche A.) 5 ; cambuca, 

*a Crudde (Cruyde A.) 6 ; bulducta, 

to Crudde (Cruyde A.) ; coagulare. 
tCrudd^s (Crudys A.) 7 ; domus sub- 

ter[ra~\nea, cripta, ipogeum. 

1 * Crucifigo. To crucifien or to ffest to cros.' Medulla. The phrase to * do on the cross ' 
for crucifying, putting to death on the cross, is very common in early English. See for 
instance Myrc's Instructions to Parish Priests, p. 14, 1. 437, where, in a metrical version 
of the Creed, we find — ' Soflrede peyne and passyone, And on pe cros was I-done :' 
and in Lonelich's Hist, of the Holy Grail, ed. Furnivall, xlix. 313 — 

4 Of a virgine to be born with-owten off ens, And sethen on crops i-don.' 

1 pey did him vpon the crosse, and spette on his face, and buffetid him.' Gesta Rom., p. 1 79* 

2 • Lucubrum. Modicum lumen ; petite lumiere. Crucibulum. Lucerna ad noctem : 
■ lampe de nuit, veilleuse, ol. croiset.' 1 Ducange. See also Cressett, above. 

3 In Wiclif's version of the Parable of the Prodigal Son, Luke xv. 25, the elder son 
when returning home ' herde a symfonye and a croude? Crowd is still in use in the sense 
of & fiddle. See Nodal's Glossary of Lancashire. 

1 The pipe, the tabor, and the trembling croud, 
That well agree withouten breach or jar.' Spenser, Epithal 129. 
' A croud (fiddle). Vielle.' Sherwood. In the Harleian MS. trans, of Higden, vol. ii. p. 379, 
we find, 'a instrumente callede chorus, other a chore, was founde in Grece, of fewe cordes 
and strynges, whiche is callede now a crowthe or a crowded Wyclif, Works, ed. Arnold, 
ii. 73, says ' symphonye and croude weren herd whanne apostlis knewen alle wittis.' See 
Wedgwood s. v. 'Hie simbolisator, A ce - crowde. Simbolisare, to crowde or scotnyg. Hie 
corallus, A ce - crowdere. If ec cor alia, A ce - crowde.' MS. Reg. 17, cxvii. If. 43, back. See 
Lybeaus Disc. 1. 137, and Lyric Poetry, ed. Wright, p. 53. It will be seen that Mr. Way 
has misread the present MS. in his note to this word in the Promptorium. 

4 ' Fiola. A cruet. Amula. A Fyol or a cruet.' Medulla. ' A cruet, a holie water stocke, 
Amida? Baret. In the Inventory of Sir John Fastolfs goods at Caistor, 1459, amongst 
the contents of the chapel are mentioned ' j. haly water stop with j. sprenkill, and ij. 
cruettes, weiyng xij. unces.' Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner, i. 470. See also ibid. iii. 270. 

' And Ionathas hadde per a crewette, and fillid hit of that water Aftir this he Rose, 

& yede, and sawe the secounde water ; And he filde a cruet per with.* Gesta 

Romanorum, p. 189. 

5 ' Pedum. A sheepe crooke.' Cooper. ' Cammock. s. A crooked stick.' Jamieson. See 
also note to Cambake, above. 

6 ' Crouds. Curds. Crouds & ream. Curds and cream.' Jamieson. In P. Plowman, B. 
vi. 284, Piers says he has only 

' A fewe cruddes and creem & and an hauer cake.' 
Baret gives ' To Crud or growe together, coagulare ; milke cruddled, gelatum lac' ' To 
crud, curd or curdle. Cailler. Cruds or curds. Caille^Caillat* Sherwood. Lyte, Dodoens, 
p. 246, says that Garden Mint 'is very good to be applied vnto the breastes that are 
stretched foorth and swollen and full of milke, for it slaketh and softeneth the same, and 
keepeth the mylke from quarring and crudding in the brest;' and again, p. 719* he tells 
us that the juice of figs ' turneth milke and causeth it to crudde, and againe it scattereth, 
or dissolueth, or melteth the clustered crudde, or milke that is come to a crudde, as 
vineger doth.' 

7 Cryptopqrticus. Plin. Jun. Porticus subterranea, aut loco depressiore posita, cujus 
modi structura est porticuum in antiqui operis monasteriis, KpbirTrj. A secret walke or 



a Cruke ; ci/ruata, hamus, vncus. 

ta Cruke of a dore ! ; gumphus ; 
versus : 
Obliquo sino curuo simul arcuo 
lino. (A.) 

to Cruke ; curuare, aduncare, arcu- 
are, camerare, diuaricare, fleeter e, 
lacimare, lentare, lunare, obli- 
qu&re, repan-dere, fumare, vncare : 
vnde in libro cinonimomxm 2 . 

Cruked (Crocked A.) ; aduncus, 
camurus, camuratus, curuatus, 
cuyuus, dorcus, foliatus, obliquus, 
obuncus, pandus, re-, perobliquus, 
pertortuosus, recuruus, reflexus, 
sinuus, tortus, tortuosus, varus, 

a Crukynge ; camur grece, curuitas, 
curuatura, jnsinuacio, sinus, va- 

a Crukynge of p e water ; meandir. 

a Crume ; mica. 

to Crume ; vbi to mye. 

a Crovpofl (Cruppon A.) 3 ; clunis 

(inclunis A.), 
a Cropure (Cruppurc A.) 4 ; postela 

(postellum A.), 
a Croste of brede ; crusta, cruticida, 

crustus, crustuxu, crustulum. <fc 

crustellum, frustum, frustulum. 
to make Crustes ; crustare, frustare. 

C ante V. 
a Cubit ; lacertus, cubitus ; cubitalis, 


bicubitus, tricubitus. 
a Cud 6 ; crismale. 
A Cote of aBeste; Ruma, Rumen(A.). 
to chewe Cud ; ruminare. 
a Cuke ; A rchimacher us, archicocus, 

cocus, coculus, culinarius, full- 

narius, fumaxius, macherus, offa- 

rius, popinarius. 
a Cukewalde (Cwcwalde A.) 6 ; cu- 

ruca, ninirus, zelotipus. 

vault under the grounde, as the croivdes or shrowdes of Paules, called St. Faithes Church/ 
Nomenclator. ' Cryptoporticus. A place under the grounde to sitte in the hoate summer : 
a crowdes : also a close place compassed with a walle like the other vnder the grounde.' 
Cooper. Ipogeum is of course the Greek v-rroyeiov. The Parish of St. Faith in Cryptis, i. e. 
in the Crypt under the Choir of St. Paul's, was commonly called 'St. Faith in the Crowds* 
See Liber Albus, ed. Riley, p. 556. Withals renders ' Cryptoporticus ' by * a vault or 
shrouds as under a church, or other place.' In the Pylgrymage of Syr R. Guylforde, 
Camden Soc. p. 24, the Temple of the Holy Sepulchre is described as having ' wonder 
many yles, crowdes, and vautes.' ' Ypogeum, tresory.' Wright's Vocab. p. 175. 

1 Gumpkus (Gr. yofxcpds) is a wooden pin. Halliwell explains ' Crook of a door ' as the 
hinge, but incorrectly. It is properly the iron hook fixed in stone or in a wooden door- 
post, on which the hinge turns. See Jamieson s. v. Crook. ' Croc. A grapple or hook.' 
Cotgrave. The Ortus Vocab. has ' Gamphus: est quilibet claims : a henge of a dore or a nayle.' 

2 That is the 'Synonyma' by John de Garlandia, of which an account is given by Mr. 
Way in his Introduction to the Promptorium, pp. xvii. and lxviii. 

3 ' Clunis. The buttock or hanche.' Cooper. ' Cropion. The rump or crupper. Le mal 
de cropion. The rumpe-evill or crupper-evill ; a disease wherewith small (cage) birds are 
often troubled.' Cotgrave. 

* ' Croupier e de cJieval. A horse crupper.' Cotgrave. ' Postilena. A crupper of a horse.' 
Cooper. 4 Hoc postela. A croper.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. 234. In Sir Gawayne, the 
Green Knight is described as having 

1 J?e pendauntes of his payttrure, ]>e proudo cropure, 
His molaynes, & alle }>e metail anamayld.' 1. 168. 

5 'Cude, Code. s. A Chrisom, or face-cloth for a child at baptism. Welsh cuddio, to 
cover.' Jamieson. See Cry some, above. Jamieson quotes from Sir Gawan and Sir 
Golagros, i. 18, 'you was cristened, and cresomed, with candle and code? and from the 
Catechisme, fol. 132 ; 'last of all the barnethat is baptizit, is cled with anequhite lynning 
claith callit ane cude, quhilk betakins that he is clene weschin fra al his synnis.' 

6 ' Curruca : quedam auis. A sugge. [The hedge-sparrow is still called a hay-suck in 
the West of England.] Zelotopus. A cocold or a Jelous man.' Medulla. ' Curruca est 
quedam, auis que alienos pullos educit vel educat, et hec litiosa se dicitur eadem auis.' MS. 
Harl. 2257, leaf 24. ' A cuckould, vir bonus; a cuckould maker, maichus? Baret's Alvearie. 
'Currucca. The birde that hatcheth the cuckoues egges. Atitlyng.' Cooper. 


CATHOL1CON AMil.ll 1 M. 

tto make Cukewaide (Cwkwalde 

A.) ; curucare, zelotipare. 
*a Culice ! ; morticium. 
A Culme 2 . 
*a Culpon. 

a Culture 3 ; cultrum. 
a Culoure; color, fucusestfalsuscolor. 
to Culoure; colorare, fucare. 
tof diuerse Color ; discolor. 
ta Culywr 4 ; collector. 
fto Cumbyre(Cu wmere A.) ; irritare, 

Cumbyrd (Cummerd A.) ; vbi 

to Cume ; venire, ad-, <k cetera ; vbi 

to come. 

(Cummyn A.) as 

malte 6 ; germinatus. 
Cummyn ; ciminum. 

*a Cumlynge 

a Cundyth 7 ; A qivdductile, & cetera ; 

vbi A gutter, 
fa Cune of y e money ; nummisme. 
to Cuwnc ; scire, & cetera; vbi to con. 
a Cuwnynge ; sciencia, & cetera ; vbi 

a Cunstabyll<? ; constabularius, tvi- 

a Cuntrye ; patria ; patriots p&rtici- 

a Cuntremaw; patriota, compatriota. 
fa Cuppylle of a horse (howse A.) ; 

t A Cwpyllc of hundys ; Copula (A.), 
to Cuppille ; conmn^erc, copulare, 

dicare, maritare ; -tor, -tvix. 
Cwpyllyng ; copulatws, coniunctus 

a Curage. 
Curalle 8 : coral /us. 

1 ' Cullis, a very fine and strong broth, well strained, much used for invalids, especially 
for consumptive persons ' Halliwell. Andrew Boorde, in his Dyetary, (E. E. Text Soc. ed. 
Furnivall), p. 264, speaks of 'Caudeles made with hempe sede, and collesses made of 
shrympes,' which, he says, 'doth comforte blode and nature.' See also ibid. p. 302. 
^Directions for 'a coleise of a cocke for a weake body that is in a consumption,' are given 
by Cogan, Haven of Health, 161 2, p. 131. 'Broth or collyse, pufmentarium.* Huloet. 
4 Coulis, m. A cullis or broth of boiled meat strained, fit for a sicke or weake body.' 

2 Perhaps the same as 'Culme of a smeke. Fuligo.' Prompt. See P. Plowman, B.xiii. 356. 

3 ' Coultre. The Culter, or knife of a Plough.' Cotgrave. 

4 Fr. cueilleur. 

5 Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, 1 384, gives 

' Be noght stille, Loverd, says he. 

For I am a commelyng towarde J>e, 

And pilgrym, als alle my faders was,' 
as the translation of ' Ne sileas quoniam advena ego sum apud te et peregrinus, sicut omnes 
patres mei.' In the Cursor Mundi, p. 392, 1. 6785, we are told — 

' To cumlynges do yee right na suike, 
For quilum war yee seluen slike.' 
See also Wyclif, Isaiah lii. 4, where it is used as a translation of the Vulgate colonus, as 
also in Harrison's D esc ription of England, 1587, p. 6, col. 2, where we read that when the 
Saxons came to England ' within a while these new comlings began to molest the homelings.' 
4 Accola. A comelyng.' Medulla. 

6 Harrison, i. 156, gives a very full account of the process of malting in his time ; the 
barley, he says, after having been steeped three days and three nights is taken out 
and laid ' vpon the cleane floore on a round heape, [where] it resteth so vntill it be 
readie to shoote at the roote ende, which maltsters call comming. When it beginneth 
therefore to shoot in this maner, they saie it is come, and then forthwith they spread 
it abroad, first thicke and afterward thinner and thinner vpon the said floore (as it 
commeth),' &c. 

7 ' A cundite pipe, cancdis.' Baret. 4 With condethes fulle curious alle of clene siluyre.' 
Morte Arthure, 201. ' Aquaducatile : A gotere. Aquaductile. A conthwryte (sic).'' Medulla. 

8 'Corall, which in the sea groweth like a shrub, or brush, and taken out waxeth hard 
as a stone ; while it is in the water, it is of colour greenish and covered with mosse, &c. 




ta Cur dog ; Aggregarius. 

a Cure ; cura. 

ta CurchefF; vhi a kerchiffe. 

*Curfur (Curfewe A.) l j ignitegium. 

t Curious (Curiosse A.); ojyerosus. 

Curlewe 2 ; coturnza, ortix 
est, ortigometa. 

ta Curroi*/* 3 ; calcula, cursor. 

to Curse; Anathemare, Anathemati- 
zare, deuotare 4 , deuouere, detes- 
tare, excommunicare, execrari, 
maledicere, prophanare. 

Cursed; Anathematizatus, execr&bilis, 
detestabilis, execratus, excommuni- 
cato, malidictus, nefandus, />ro- 
2>hanus, deuotus. 

a Cursynge ; Anathema, deuocio, de- 
testac\o, excommunicato, execr&cio, 
malidiccio, maledictum, propha- 

Curtas ; curtails, curiosus, comis, fa- 
cetus, lejridus, vrbanus ; versus : 
%Sit verbis lepidus Aliquisfactis- 
que facetus. 

tvn Curtas; illepidus, jn -vrbanus. 
a Curtasy ; curialitas, facecia, vr- 

a Curtyn; Anabat\r\um, Ansa, cur- 

tina, curtinula, lectuca, velum, 

tto Custome or to make Custome ; 

guadiare, ritare, jnguadiare (A.), 
a Custome ; consuetudo, gaudia, mos, 

ritns ; versus : 
*R Mores, v\rtutes,mos, consuetudo 
Customably (Customabylle A.); rite, 

solito, solite. 
tto breke Custom ; degaudiare 5 . 
ta Cute (Cuytt A.) 6 ;fulica, mergus, 

cuta, merges -tis, medio correpto. 
to Cutt ; Abscindere, Abscidere, Am- 

putare, cedere, concidere, ex-, de-, 

scindere, re-, secare, con-, re-, 

prescindere, dissecare, putare, 

tto Cutt betweii; jntercidere. 
to Cutt down ; succidere. 

Coralium.' Baret. Neckham, De Naturis Rerum, p. 469, gives a similar account-r- 
* Coralius noctis arcet fantasmata, pugnans 
Ejus tutela tutus in arma ruit. 
Herba tenella virens, dum crescit Tethyos undis, 
In lapidem transit sub ditione Jovis? 
Harrison mentions white ' corall ' as being found on the coasts of England • nothing inferiour 
to that which is founde beyond the sea in the albe, neere to the fall of Tangra, or to the 
red and blacke.' Descript, of England, ii. 80. 

1 In the Liber Albus, p. 600, we read of the meat of some foreign butchers being 
forfeited, because they had exposed it for sale after the curfew-bell had struck — post 
ignitegium pidsatum ; and again, p. 641, are given certain orders for the Preservation of 
the Peace, one of which is 'quodnullus eatvagans post ignitegium pidsatum , apud Sanctum 
Martinum Magnum? In Notes and Queries, 5th Ser. v. 160 (February 19th, 1876), it is 
stated that 'The Launceston Town Council have resolved to discontinue this old custom 
[of ringing the Curfew bell], for which two guineas annually used to be paid.' 

2 Both Coturnix and Ortix properly mean a quail, and Cooper renders Ortygometra by 
1 The capitaine or leader amonge quayles, bigger and blacker than the residue.' See the 
directions in Wynkyn de Worde's Boke of Keruyng (Babees Boke, ed. Furnivall, p. 162), 
how to ' vntacke [carve] a curlewe.' ' Ornix. A Fesaunt.' Medulla. 

3 A courier. The word occurs in this form in the ' Pilgrymage of the Lyf of the Man- 
hode,' ed. W. A. Wright, p. 200, where we read — 'Of hire we ben messangeres and specially 
curroures f and in P. Plowman, A. xii. 79, we have — ' A currouroi our hous.' In Caxton's 
Game of the Chesse, the heading of chapt. viij of the third ' traytye' is ' Of messagers, currours, 
RybauLles and players at the dyse.' * MS. deuorare. 

5 'Guadia: debitaconstitucio. Guadio: guadiam constituere, guadiam firmare? Medulla. 

6 The bald-coot, called in Walter de Biblesworth, Wright's Vol. Vocab. p. 165, a ' blarye,' 
or blear-eyed, from the peculiar appearance of the face. A. adds 

Versus : Est merges volucris si mergitis sit genitivus, 
Si sit mergetis tunc garba dicituT ease. 


( \TI10LIC0N ANGLK T.\l. 

tto Cutt yn J>° myddis ; sinco- 

ta Cutter ; scissor, cesor. 
a Cuttynge; Abscisio, amputacio, con- 

cisio, putacio, putamew, resecacio, 

a Cutte * ; sors, sorticula e&minu- 

tto drawe Cutte ; sortiri. 
ta Cutler (Cultelere A.) ; cidtel- 

Cov&tus; Ambiciosus, Auarus, Aui- 

dus, Auidulxxs, cupidus qui A liena 

ciip\t, cupidelus, cupidiosws, emax 

in emendo, jnsaciabilis, tenax, 
jwrcus \ versus : 
*\Est Auidus cu])idus, <fc Auarus, 
& Ambiciosus : 
Diuicias cujidus cupit, Ambi- 
ciosus honores. 
aCuwatis; Ambitus, ambicio honoris 
est, ambicione incho [a J tur crimen 
sed ambitu consummatur, auari- 
cia, cupedia, cupido diuiciarum 
est, emacitas in empcione est, 
parcitas, tenacitas, philargia. 
to Cuwet (Covett A.) ; cuj)ere, & 
cetera ; vbi to clesyre. 

Capituhim. 4 m D. 

D ante A. 
A dA; dama, damula dimmutiuum. 
ta Dactylle fute (fruytt A.); 
dactilis; dactilicus ^ar^icipium. 
*to Dadir 2 ; Frigucio, & cetera ; 
vhi to whake (qwake A.), 
a Daggar ; gestrum 3 , pugio, sjxxurum. 

tDaghe 4 ; pasta. 

a Day ; dies, diecula, diurnus, lux, 

emera grece. 
to Day 5 ; diere, diescere. 
tfrom Day to day ; die in diem, in 

dies, dietim. 
ta Day iornay 6 ; dieta. 

1 See note to Drawe cutte. 

2 Dither is still in use in the Northern Counties with the meaning of ' to shake with 
cold, to tremble :' see Peacock's Gloss, of Manley & Corringham, Nodal's Glossary of 
Lancashire, &c. Dithers is the Line, name for the shaking palsy, paralysis agitans. The 
Manip. Vocab. gives * to dadder, trepidare' Cotgrave has ' Claquer les dents. To gnash 
the teeth, or to chatter, or didder, like an Ape, that's afraid of blowes. Frisson. A 
shivering, quaking, diddering, through cold or feare ; a trembling or horror.' See also 
Friller, Frissoner, and Grelotter. 

' Boyes, gyrles, and luskyth strong knaves, 
Dydderyng and dadderyng leaning on ten staves.' 

The Hye way to the Spyttel Hous, ed. Hazlitt, p. 28. 
The word is met with several times in Three Met. Romances (Camden Soc. ed. Robson), 
as in the Avowynge of Kyng Arthur, xvi. 11 — 

' He began to dotur and dote Os he hade keghet scathe :' 

and in xxv. 7 — 

' 3if Menealfe was the more my$tie 3 e tte dyntus gerut him to dedur.' 

See also Sir Degrevant. 1109; and note to Dayse, below. 

3 Query ' Oesum. A kinde of weapon for the warre ; a swoorde or wood knife.' Cooper. 
The same author gives ' Pugiunculus, A small dagger ; a poyneadow.' 'Pugio vel duna- 
bidum, lytel sweord, vel hype-sex.' Aelfric's Vocab. in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 35. 

4 'Thy bred schal be of whete flour, I-made of dogh that ys not sour.' 

Myrc, Instructions to Parish Priests, 1. 1881. 
* Past um. Dowh. Medulla. A. S. dag. O. Icel. deigr. Gothic, daigs, dough. 'Daw or 
Daughe, ferina fermentata? Manip. Vocab. ' Dowe or paste.' Baret. ' Hec pasta, A 
dagh.' Wright, Vol. of Vocabularies, p. 201. See also Jamieson s. v. Daigh. 

5 ' And in the dayng of day ther dojty were dy3te, 

Herd matyns [&] mas, myldelik on morun.' Anturs of Arther, st. xxxvii. 1. 5. 
See also to Daw, below. 

6 ' Dieta. Iter quod una die confieitur, vel quodvis iter ; etape, route? Ducange. See 
Chaucer, Knightes Tale, 1880, and Mr. Way's note 3. v. Jurney. 



Dayly ; cot idle ; cotidianus partici- 

a Dayntye * ; dilicee, lauticia, lauticie, 

ejpule; delicatus, deliciosus, laulus 

fDaysardawe (A Dayserth A.) 2 ; 

juger, iugerum, jugus. 
fa Daysterne ; hicifer vel phospho* 

ros 3 , vt dicit virgilius capitulo 

vespteva. (?) 
a Daysy ; consolidum. 
A Daylle 4 ; distribucw, roga (A.). 
a Dale ; wallis. 
t A Dalke (or a tache) 5 ; firmaculuva, 

Jirmatorium, monile. 
a Dame ; vbi a huswyfe. 
a Damessell^ ; domicella, dommella, 


a Damysyn tre; damisenus, nixa 

pro arbore & fructu, conqui- 

to Damme ; banibinare (bombinare 

A.), rircumscribere, dampnare, 

Dampned; addictus, circumscripta s, 

dampnatus, condempnatus, iudi- 

a Daranynge ; dampnacio pwblici 

iudicij, condempnacio priuati. 
fa Dan ; dacus, quidam popidus. 
fa Dan ", sicut rnonachi vocantur ; 



audere, presumere, 

tDanmarke 7 
tto Dare ; 


& cetera ; vbi to 

1 The earliest Northern form of this word is daynteth (see Gesta Romanorum, pp. 368, 
373). Prof. Skeat derives it from 0. Fr. daintie, Lat. dignitatem. In heaven we are 
told by Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, 7850 — 

4 pare es plente of dayntes and delices.' 
and again — 'pare es alkyn delyces and eese.' Ibid. 7831. 

• Daintith. A dainty.' Jamieson. ' Dilicatezza. Daintetbnesse, or delicacie.' Thomas, Ital. 
Diet. 1550. ' Swa enteris thair daynteis, on deis dicht dayntelie,' Rauf Coiljear, ed . 
Murray, 191. 

2 A day's work at ploughing : cf. ardagh, fallowing, ploughing — 'on ardagh wise = in 
ploughman fashion.' The Destruction of Troy, E.E. Text Soc. 1. 175, Tusser, in his Five 
Hundred Points, &c, p. 84, says — 

' Sucb land as ye breake up for barlie to sowe 
Two eartkes at the least er ye sowe it bestowe.' 
In Ducange dietarium is explained as ' Opus diei : journee de travail — Jugerum ; jornale ; 
journal de terre? and Cooper renders Jugerum ' As muche grounde as one yoke of oxen 
wil eare in a daye. It conteyneth in length .240. foote, in breadth .120. foote, which 
multiplied riseth to .28800. It may be vsed for our acre which conteyneth more, as in 
breadth fower perches, that is .66. foote, and in length .40. perches that is .660. foote, 
which riseth in the whole to .43560. foote.' See Halliwell s. v. Arders. 

3 MS. sosphoros. 'Hicjubiter. A daysterre.' Wright's Vocab. p. 272. 

* ' Roga. A doole.' Medulla. ' A dole, eleemosynce distribuccio.' Manip. Vocab. The 
word is still in use. See to Dele, below. In Wright's Political Poems, ii. 220, we find 
complaints of how the poor were defrauded of their doles : 

'The awmeneer seyth he cam to late, Of poore men doolys is no sekir date.' 

5 A. S. dale, dole, O. Icel. dalJcr, a thorn ; hence it came to mean as above a ' pin,' or 
' brooch.' ' Fibula. A boton, or broche, prykke, or a pynne, or a lace. Monile : ornament um 
est quod solet ex feminarum pendere collo, quod alio nomine dicitur firmaculum : a broche.' 
Ortus Vocab. See also to Tache. 

6 An abbreviated form of the Latin dominus, which appears also in French dan, Spanish 
don, Portuguese dom. The 0. Fr. form dans, was introduced into English in the fourteenth 
century. See an account of the word in ' Leaves from a Word -hunter's Note-book,' A. S. 
Palmer, p. 130. In the Monk's Prologue the Host asking him his name says — 

1 Whether shall I calle you my lord dan Johan, 
Or daun Thomas, or elles dan Albon?' 

7 Cooper points out the error here committed — ' Dacia. A countrey beyonde Hongary, 
it hath on the north Sarmatia of Europe : on the west the Jazigians of Metanest : on the 
south Mysiam superiorem, & Dunaw : on the east, the lower Mysiam, & Dunaw : they 


Darnelle 1 ; zizannia ; (versus : 

II Est zizannia, sunt zizannia, 
plursili -nie quixque. A.). 
a Darte ; iaculum, ]rilum, spiculum ; 

to Dayse (Dase A.) 2 ; vbl to be callde. 
*a Daysyberd (Dasyberde A.) ' ; 

a Date ; dactulus, dactilicus. 

vbi a arow. * to Daw 4 ; diere, diescere, diet, die- 

to cast a Darte ; jaculari, Spiculari. \ bat, impersonate. 

call it now Transyl uani am : they doe not well, which call Denmarke by this name, whiche 
is Dania? See Andrew Boorde's 'Introduction of Knowledge,' ed. Furnivall, pp. 162-3. 
Dacia and Dad are used for Denmark and the Danes respectively in the Liber Custu- 
marum, Rolls Series, ed. Riley, pp.625, 630, 633, &c. 

1 ' Darnell ; Iuraie or Raie, a verie vicious graine that anno'eth come, it is hot in the 
third degree, and drie in the second ; lolium, zizania' Baret. In the Early Eng. Metrical 
Homilies, ed. Small, p. 145, we have the parable of the man who sowed good seed on his 
land, but ' Quen al folc on slep ware, 

Than com his fa, and seu richt thare 
Darnel, that es an iuel wede ;' 
and again, p. 145, the master orders his men — 

' Gaderes the darnel first in bande And brennes it opon the land.' 

On the derivation of the word see Wedgwood s.v. 'Zizannia. Cockle, or any other 
corrupte and naughtie weede growyng anion ge corne.' Cooper. ' Zizannia. Dravke, or 
darnel, or cokkyl.' Medulla. See also Cokylle, and Drake or Darnylle. ' The name 
appears to have been variously applied, but usually taken to mean Lolium temulentum L. 
It is used in this sense by Turner (Names), who says — " Darnel groweth amonge the crone, 
and the corne goeth out of kynde into darnel :" and also by Fitzherbert (Boke of Hus- 
bandry), who says — " Dernolde groweth up streyghte lyke an hye grasse, and hath long 
sedes on eather syde the sterte." ' Britten, Eng. Plant-Names, E. D. Soc. 1878, p. 143. 

2 Icel. dasdr, faint, tired ; das, a faint, exhaustion. To dase, to feel cold, to shiver, 
occurs in the Townley Mysteries, p. 28 — 

' I w 7 ote never whedir For ferd of ))at taylle.' 

I dase and I dedir 
Compare also — 'And for-jn hat bai, omang other vice, 

Brynned ay here in )>e calde of malice, 
And ay was dased in charite.' Pricke of Conscience, 6645. 
See also G. Douglas, Prologue to ^Eneid, Bk. vii. p. 106 (ed. 1787), and Chaucer, Hous 
of Fame, Bk. ii. 150. Dasednes — coldness, occurs in Pricke of Conscience in 1. 4906 : 
1 Agayn the datednes of charite,' where the Lansdowne MS. 348, has coldnes. It also 
occurs in Cotton MS. Tib. E viii. leaf 24 — 

'Dasednes of hert als clerkes pruve And slawly his luffe in god settes.' 

Es when a man dasedly luves, 
Jamieson says 'To Dase, Daise. (1) To stupify. S. (2) To benumb. The part, is frequently 
used to express the dulness, stupor, or insensibility produced by age. One is said to be 
daised who is superannuated.' 'I stod as stylle as dased quayle.' Allit. Poems, i. 1084. 

3 'Duribuccus. Qui nunquam vult operire os. Isidoro in glossis duri bucci iidem sunt 
qui Barba sterili, steriles barba, quia cutem buccae eorum non potest barba perrumpere.' 
Ducange. ' Hie duribuccus ; a dasyberd.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. 2 1 7. 

' Ther is a dossiberd I woulde dere 
That walkes abrode wilde were.' Chester Plays, Sh Soc. i. 201. 
' Some other sleighte I muste espye 
This doscibeirde for to destroye.' Ibid. i. 204. 

Cf. also ii. 34, ' We must needes this dosebeirde destroye.' In • The Sowdone of 

Babyloine,' Roxburgh Club, 1. 1707, when certain of the French Knights protest against 
being sent as messengers to Balan (Laban), Charles addressing one of them says — 
'Trusse the forth eke, sir Dasaberde, Or I shalle the sone make.' 

' Duribuccus. Hardhede.' Medulla. Probably connected with the Icel. dasi, a lazy fellow : 
see Prof. Skeat's Etym. Diet. s. v. Dastard. 

4 This word occurs several times in Barbour's Bruce, ed. Skeat — thus in xvii. 102 we find 
; Als soyn als it dawil day,' and 1. 634 — ' On the rude-evyn in the dawyng.' 


ta Dawe 1 ; monedida, nodus, nodu- 

*to Dawbe 2 ; lincre. 
a Dawber ; linitor. 

*Dawne (vcl Downe A.) :! ; lanugo. 
a Dawnger 4 ; domigemm, rignum. 
tDawngerosy ; rignosus. 
a Dawnce; chorea, chorus, tripudium. 

See also iv. 377, vii. 315. In Rauf Coiljear, E. E. Text Soc. I. 385, the Collier we are 
told started for Paris — 

' Ovir the Daillis sa derf, be the day was dawin :' 
and Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 818, has — 

' In his bede ther daweth him no day, 

That he nys clad and redy for to ryde 

With honte and horn, and houndes hym by side.' 
The past tense occurs in Sir Degrevant, 1. 1792 — 

4 Tyl the 3orlus castel he spede, By the day dew.e.' 
See also La3amon, ii, 494, Genesis and Exodus, 16, Early Eng. Allit. Poems, ed. Morris, 
p 105, 1. 445, &c. Caxton in his Description of Britain, 1480, p. 3, says that this island 
' for it lyeth vnder the north hede of the worlde hath lyght and bright nyghtes in the 
somer tyme, So that oft tyme at mydnyght men haue questions and doubte wethir it be 
euen tyde or dawyng.' 

1 * Dawe ; a cadesse, monedida. A dawe, or young crowe. cornicula? Baret. ' A dawe, 
comix.'' Manip. Vocab. ' Monedula. A chough ; a daw ; a cadesse.' Cooper. 

2 The term daubours occurs in the Liber Custumarum, p. 99, in the sense of layers 
on, to a framework, of a mixture of straw and mud employed in the construction of 
fences and house-walls. In Cheshire, according to Mr. Riley, the process is termed nogging 
(see Cheshire Glossary by Col. Leigh, p. 142). In France the composition is known as 
torchis, and in Devonshire as cob. The process of daubing is alluded to more than 
once in our Translation of the Old Testament. See for instance Wyclif's version of 
Ezekiel xiii. 10, 11. The word, according to Mr. H. Nicol, is from O. Fr. dauber = to 
plaster, from Latin dealbare = to whiten. Wedgwood derives dawb from dab, 'an 
imitation of the sound made by throwing down a lump of something moist.' • Bauge. 
Dawbing or mortar made of clay and straw.' Cotgrave. In Liber Albus, p. 289, are 
mentioned 'carpenters, masons, plastrers, daubers, tenters' &c, and in p. 338, persons who 
paid ' masons, carpenters, daubers, tielleres,' at higher rates than those settled by the 
Corporation of London, were declared to be guilty of ' maintenance or champetry.' See 
Dauber in Glossary to Liber Albus, p. 309. ' A Dawber. a pargetter, cazmentarius.' Baret. 
' Cementarius, dawber.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 181. ' Plastrier. A plaisterer, a 
dawber.' Cotgrave. See also to Dobe, Dober, &c. 

3 Compare P. Heer fyrste growynge yn mannys berde. Lanugo. ' Lanugine, the ten- 
dernesse or downe of a yonge bearde.' Thomas, Ital. Diet. 1550. 

4 This is the original meaning of the word danger. Thus we read in De Deguileville's 
Pilgrimage of the Lyf of the Manhode, ed. Wright, p. 82, ' Sufficient he was and mihty 
to deliuere them plentivowsliche al that hem needede, withoute beeinge in any ootheres 
daunger? and again pp. 2 and 63. SeeDucange s. v Dangerium. * 3 e polieQ ofte daunger of 
svvuche o6erwhule \>et muhte beon eower J^rel.' Ancren Riwle, p. 356. William Lomner 
writing to Sir J. Paston in 1461, says, 'I am gretly yn your danger and dette for my 
pension.' Paston Letters, ii. 25. Jamieson quotes from Wyntown ' in his dawnger,' 
which he renders 'in his power as a captive.' See also Barbour's Bruce, ed. Skeat, 
xix. 709, ' Quhill we be out of thair danger,' and see also ii. 435, iii. 43. Horman 
says, 'I haue the man in my daunger. Habeo hominem miki obnoxium.' Chaucer, 
Prologue to Cant. Tales, 1. 663, says of the Sompnour, that — 

' In daunger hadde he at his owne gise, The yonge guides of the diocise.' 

O. Fr. dangler, dominion, subjection : from Low Lat. dominiarium, power. Compare 
Shakspeare, Merchant of Venice, iv. 1 — 

4 You stand within his danger, do you not f 
1 Domigerium. Pcriculum : danger, dommage — Sub domigerio alicujus aut manu esse, alicui 
subesse, esse sub illius potestate : elre sous la puissance, sous la dtpendance dc quelquun.' 
D'Amis. See also R. de Brunne's Chronicle, ed. Furnivall, 1. 11824, and the Townley 
Mysteries, p. 60. 



A.) 1 ; 

*to Dawnte (or to cherys 

to Dawnce ; gesticulari, tripudiare. 

D ante E. 

a Debate ; contencio, coutumelia, dis- 
cordia, discouformitas, discrepan- 
cies, distancia, scisma ammorum 
est, & cetera ; vbi a stryfe. 

to make Debate (to Debatt A.) ; 
contendere, discordare, & cetera j 
vbi to stryfe. 

tDebatouse ; contensiosus, coutume- 
liosus, discidiosus. 

fa Debylle 2 ; pastinacum, sub terra- 
tor ium. 

tto Declare ; declarare, delacidare, 
disserare, <fc cetera ; vbi to schew. 

tto Declyne; declinare, fleeter e. 

a Decree ; decretum ; decretista, qui 
legit deer eta, 

tto Decrese (Decresse A.) ; decrescere, 

t A Decretalles 3 ; decretalis. 

Dede 4 ; antropos {Attrapos A.), de- 

cessus, depisicio (deposicio A.), 

exicium, excidium, exitus, exter- 

minum, fatum, funus, intericio, 

interitus, internicio vet internec'w, 

2>er e & non />er i, secundum 

Britonum <fc priscianum, inter- 

necium, letum j)er se venit, mors 

defertur (infertur A.), mortalitas, 

necis, obitus, occasus, />erm'cies, 

necida (intemecium A.), & cetera ; 

vbi de[d]yly; versus: 

^ Funus do excicium, letum, mors, 

excidiumque ; 

Adde necem, vel perniciem, 

simul, &• libitinam, 
Hijs obitum, simul i7iteritum, 

coniungito fatum. 
Quod minime libeat sic est li- 

bitina vocata. 
Hijs exterminium, simul occa- 
sum sociamus. 

1 Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, 1078, says — 

' Alle ]>as men J>at \>e world mast dauntes, Mast bisily J>e world hei-e hauntes.' 

Wyclif, Mark v. 4, speaking of the man possessed with devils, says, 'oft tymes he 
bounden in stockis and chaynes, hadde broken J>e chaynes, and hadde brokun )>e stockis to 
small gobetis, and no man mijte daunte (or make tame) hym.' ' Sum [began] to dant 
beystis.' Complaint of Scotland, ed. Murray, p. 145. Sir T. Elyot also uses this word in 
the fyrste boke of The Gouernour, chap. 1 7 — ' aboue the common course of other men, 
dauntyng a fierce and cruell beaste.' 

'Man ne maie for no daunting Make a sperhauke of a bosarde.' 

Romaunt of the Rose, 4034. 
Cotgrave gives ' Dompter. To tame, reclaime : daunt, &c. Dompture : a taming, reclaiming : 
daunture, breaking, subduing.' See also ibid, s. v. Bonier and cf. Cherisse, above. 
Endaunt occurs with the meaning of charming, bewitching, in the Lay Folk's Mass Book, 
E. E. Text Soc. ed. Canon Simmons, p. 140, 1. 445. In Wyclif's version Isaiah lxvi. 12 is 
thus rendered — 'to the tetes 3ee shul be born, and vp on the knes men shul daunte you,' 
[et super genua blandientur vobis], where some MSS. have ' daunte or cherische,' 'daunte 
or chirishe,' and 'dauncen or chirshe.' In this instance the word appears equivalent to 
dandle. Caxton in his Myrrour of the Worlde, 1481, pt. ii. ch. vi. p. 76, says that 

'Alexander in suche wyse dompted tholyfauntes that they durst doo nomore 

harme vnto the men.' 

2 ' Through cunning with dible, rake, mattock, and spade, 

By line and by leauell, trim garden is made.' 

Tusser, Five Hundred Points, ch. 46, st. 24. 
1 Debylle, or settyng stycke. A dibble to set hearbes in a garden, pastinum.' Baret. See 
also Dibbille below. 

3 ' Decretales. Epistoke Romanorum Pontificum decreta complectentes seu responsa iis, 
qui aliqua de re illos consulunt : decretales. Decretalis monaclius litibus praefectus prose- 
quendis, ut videtur, vel juris canonici professor.' Ducange. ' Decretales. The Decretals ; 
Bookes containing the Decrees of sundry Popes.' Cotgrave. See Pecock's Repressor, ed. 
Babington, pp. 407, 408. 

4 The common form for death in Middle English. 

' To dede I draw als ye may se.' Early English Homilies, p. 30. 



Dede; mortuus, ehitus (defunctus A.), 

& cetera p-zrticipia a verbis ; vbi 

to dye. 
tDedeborne (Deydbome A.) ; abor- 

tiuuB, abortus. 
tto Desden (Dedene A.) 1 ; dedignari, 

detrahere, detr&ctare ; vbi to dis- 

Dedyly (DedlyA.); feralis,funeralis, 

funestus, exicialis,funebris, letalis, 

letifer, mortifer, mor talis. 
fa Dedicacion ; dedicacio, encennia. 
tDedyfye 2 ; dicare, dedica7'e, sancti- 

ficare; vbi to halowe. 
tto Defayle 3 ; deficere, fatiscere. 
a Defaute ; defectus, defeccio, eclipsis 

rtiene grece. 
Defauty ; defectuosus, mendicus. 
*Defe (Deyffe A.) ; surdus, ob-, sur- 

tto be Defe ; surdere, ob-, surdes- 


to Defende ; defendere, clu[d~\ere, 
constipare, contegere, contueri, 
patronizare, remanire, tensare, 
protegere, tutare, tutillare, tutelar e, 
tutari, tueri ; versus : 
^Est tuor jnsjricio, tueor defen- 
dere dico ; 
Dat tutum tueor, tuiium tuor, 
ambo tueri. 

a Defender; defensor, munitor, pro- 
tector, patronus. 

a Defence ; vbi defendynge. 

a Defendynge ; brachium, custodia, 
defensio, defensaculum, munimen, 
obseruancia, patronatus (patroci- 
natm A.), protecc'w, tuicio, tuta- 
men, tutela, vallacio. 

tDefensabylle 4 ; fensilis. 

Defence ; vbi defendynge. 

tto Deferre ; vbi to delay. 

to Defye 5 ; despicere. 

1 ' Desdaigner. To disdaine, despise, contemne, scorne, loath, not to vouchsafe, to make 
vile account of.' Cotgrave. In the Romance of Sir Ferumbras, p. n, 1. 349, we are told 
that the Saracen who was lying on the grass when Oliver rode up to challenge him, 

' Him dcdeygnede to him arise J)er, so ful he was of pride.' 

In the Poem on St. John the Evangelist, pr. in Religious Pieces in Prose and Verse from 

the Thornton MS. (E. E. Text Society, ed. Perry), p. 90, 1. 21, we read — 

' Domycyane, J>at deuyls lymme, dedeyned at ^i dede :' 

and Wyclif, Matt. xxi. 15, has — 'Forsothe the princis of prestis and scribis seeynge the 

marueillouse thingis that he dide dedeyneden ; ' where the later version gives 

' hadden indignacioun.' 

2 ' The which token, whan Dagobert and his bishoppes vpow y* morne after behelde & 
sawe, they beynge greatly ameruaylled laft of any forther busynesse touchyng y e dedyfying 
of y e sayd Churche.' Fab van, Pt. v. c. 132, p. 115. 

3 ' Defaillir. To decay, languish, pine, faint, wax feeble, weare, or wither away ; also 
to wante, lacke, faile ; to be away, or wanting ; to make a default.' Cotgrave. Jamieson 
gives ' To defaill. v. n. To wax feeble.' 

4 In Rauf Coil3ear, 1. 329, we read how Roland and Oliver riding out to search for 
Charles, took 'with tharne ane thousand, and ma, of fensabill men,' and in De Deguile- 
viile's Pilgrimage, MS. John's Coll. Camb. leaf 126, we find — 'Alle er defensable and 
strange forto kepe bath body and saule.' ' v. thousande menne of y e North .... came 
vp euell apparelled and worse harneyssed, in rustie harneys, neyther defensable nor 
scoured to the sole.' Grafton's Continuation of Hardyng's Chron., 1470, p. 516, 1. 14. 
In the Boke of Noblesse 1475, p. 76, instructions are given that the sons of princes are to 
be taught to ' renne withe speer, handle withe ax, sworde, dagger, and alle other defensible 
wepyn.' See also the Complaynt of Scotlande, ed. Murray, p. 163. 

5 In the Gesta Itomanoruin,p. 123, when a poor man challenged the Emperor's daughter 
to a race, we are told that ' \>e damisel loked oute at a wyndow for to se him ; & when 
she had sen him, she defied him in hir herte,' where the Latin edd. read — in corde despexit. 
' Certes, brother, thou demandest that whyche thou oughtest to deffye^ Caxton, Curial. If. 5. 

• Fye on this maner, suche service I defy, I see that in court is uncleane penury.' 

Alex. Barclay's Cytezan & Uplondyshman, Percy Soc. p. 37. 
Shakspere appears to use the word in this sense in 1 Henry IV. Act I, BO. iii. 228. 



Defiyngc ; despecc'w. & cetera ; vhi a 

*to Defy T ; degere, degerere. 

*a Defiynge ; digestio ; digestilis (de- 
gestibills A.) ^;ar£icipium. 

to Defoulle; attaminare, attarere, 
austrinare, coinquinare, calcare, 
maculare, com-, couculcare, con- 
taminare, corrumpeve, decalcare, 
d/torare, depr'wiere, detendeve, de- 
turpare, deuiciare, /edare, illuere, 
inhonestare, inficeve, inquinare, 
Jabi/acere, linere, ob-, polluere, 
prosternere, sordidare, subarare 
{corpora A.), stupY&ri,suppeditare, 

Defowled; Maculatus, pollutus, & cet- 
era joarlicipia de predictis verbis. 

vn Defowled; inmaculatus, &• cetera; 
vhi clene. 

a Defowlynge ; concw/cacio, pollucio, 
& cetera vevbalia de ^recZictis 

fto Degrade ; degradare. 

fDegradid ; degradatus. 

ta Degree ; gradus, status. 

a Deide (Dede A.); Actio, actus, 
/acinus, /actus, /actum., nomen, 
opus, opusculum, patracio. 

ta Dede (Deyde A.) ; carta, & cet- 
era ; vhi a charter <fc vhi a 

*a Deye (Dere, deire A.) 2 ; An- 
drochius, Androchea, genatarius, 
genetharia [genetharia, a dey 
woman. A.). 

1 In P. Plowman, B. xv. 63, we are told that — 

' Hony is yuel to defye, and engleymeth be mawe/ 
and in the Reliq. Antiq. i. 6, we read — ' Digere paulisper vinum quo mades, defye the wyn 
of the whiche thou art dronken, and wexist sobre.' Wyclif, in the earlier version of 1 
Kings xxv. 37, has — ' Forso]>e in be morewtid whanne Nabal had defied be wijn (diges- 
sisset Vulg.) his wijf schewide to hym all bise wordis, and his herte was almest deed 
wij>ynne ;' and again, ' water is drawen in to be vine tree, and by tyme defyed til bat it be 
wyn.' Select Works, i. 88. See also P. Plowman, C. vii. 430, 439. ' It is seyde that yf 
blood is wel sode and defied, berof men makeb wel talow.' (Si sanguis bene fuerit coctus et 
digestus.) Trevisa, Bartholom. de Proprietatibus Eerum, iv. 7. (1398.) 

2 D'Arnis gives ' Genetearius, vide Gynceceum? and under the latter ' Locus seu aedes 
ubi mulieres lanificio operam dabant ; partie du palais des empereurs de Constantinople et 
des rois barbares, oil les femmes de condition servile, et aVautres de condition libre, fa- 
briquaient les etoffes necessaires pour les besoins de la maison. Ces ouvrieres portent dans 
les titres les nom de geniciario3 pensiles, pensiles ancilla? Jamieson has ' Dee, Dey. s. A 
dairy-maid.' ' Casearius. A day house, where cheese is made. Gynceceum. A nourcery or 
place where only women abyde.' Cooper. ' Multrale. A chesfat or a deyes payle.' Medulla. 
'Androchea. A deye.' ibid. See also Wright's Political Songs, Camden Society, p. 327, 
1. 79, where we read — 

' He taketh al that he may, and maketh the churche pore, 

And leveth thare behinde a theef and an hore, 

A serjaunt and a deie that leden a sory lif.' 
In the Early English Sermons, from the MS. Tr in. Coll. Camb. B. 14. 52 (about 1230 
A.D.), printed in Reliq. Antiq. i. 129, the same charge is brought against the clergy — 
' pe lewed man wurSeft his spuse mid clones more ban him selven ; & prest naht his 
chireche, be is his spuse. ac his daie be is his hore, awleneS hire mid clones, more ban him 
selven.' The duties of the deye are thus summed up by Alexander Neckham in his 
Treatise de Utensilibus pr. in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. pp. 101-2 — 

[une bacese] ofs i. pullos faciencia agars curayles 

' Assit etiam androgia, que gallinis ova supponat pullificancia, et anseribus acera 
agraventet ayneus parvos unius anni nutriat 

substernat, que agnellos morbidos, non dico anniculos in sua teneritate lacte foveat alieno ; 

feblement dentez deseverez parroc fenerye 

vitulos autem et subruinos ablactatos inclusos teneat in pargulo juxta fenile. Cujus 

a dames pelyscuns sineroket idem. 
indumenta infestivis diebus sint matronales serapelline, recinium, teristrum. 



*a Derye (Deyry A.) 1 ; Androchi- 

arium, bestiarium, genetheum. 
a Dekyn ; diaconus, diacones, diacon, 

ta Dekenry ; diaconatws. 
tto Delay ; dejjerre, prolong are. 
fa Delay ; delacio, prolongacio. 
1 Deleotabylle ; delectabilis, Aj^v'icus 

vel Aprocus. 
*to Dele 2 ; distribiiere, dispergere, 

*a Delibez-ac^on ; deliberacio. 
Delicate ; delicatus. 
Deliciouse ; deliciosus. 
fa Delite ; apncitas, delectacio, de- 

lectamentum, leuamen, oblecta- 

mentam, solarium. 
to Delite (Delytt A.) ; delectare, & 

-ri,oblectare, & -ri, est, erat,juuat, 
to Delyue?' ; Adimere jussione, cen- 

sere, censire 3 , eripere violenter, 

eruere, liberare, de manu 7nittere, 


Delyuerd; UberatMB, ereptiiB, & cetera 

par^icipia de verbis. 
a Delyuerynge ; liberacio, &• cetera 

*to Delve (Delfe A.) ; vbi to dyke, 
to Deme; Addicere, iudicare, ad-, 
di-, arbitrari, condicere, censere, 
censire, cernere, de-, dis-, videre. 
a Demcr ; Addicator, -trix ; & cetera 

de predictis verbis, 
a Deyne ; decanus. 
ta Deynrye ; decania. 
to Denye ; Aduersari, dedicare, defi- 
teri, diffiteri ; versus : 
^Abdicat e contra, negat, abnuit, 
Obuiat & renuit, hijs vnum. 

significatur ; 
Et contr&dicit ; hijs abnegat 
a Deniynge; Abdicacio, Abdicatiuus, 
Abnegacio, abnegatiuus, negacio, 
negaciuncula, negatiuus. 
tDenyous (Den^ousA.) 4 ; vbiproude. 

androgie porchers mege abovers a vachers 

Hujus autem usus est sub aids colustrum et bubulcis et armentariis, domino autem et suis 
supers sur leyt idem, vel crem in magnis discis duner 

collaleralibus in obsoniis oxigallum sive quactum in cimbiis ministrare, et catulis 
in secreto loco [gras] [o pain] de bren [donner.] 

in abditorio repositis pingue serum cum pane furfureo porrigere.' From Icel. 
deigja, a maid, especially a dairy-maid. See Prof. Skeat's Etymol. Diet. s. v. Dairy. 

1 Andrew Boorde in his Dyetary, when discussing the subject of the situation, plan, 
&c, of a house, recommends that the ' dyery (dery~P.), yf any be kept, shulde be elongated 
the space of a quarter of a myle from the place.' p. 239. ' Deyrie house, meterie.' Palsgrave. 

2 In the Castel off Loue, ed. Weymouth, 139, we are told that God gave Adam 

' Wyttes fyue To delen bat vuel from be good.' 

And in the story of Genesis and Exodus, E. E. Text Soc. ed. Morris, 151, we find ' on four 
doles delen $e ger. So in Barbour's Bruce, ed. Skeat, xv. 516, 

4 The pray soyne emang his men3he Eftir thar meritis delit he.' 

A. S. dcelan, to divide, distribute : ddl, a share, portion. ' Erogo. To Seuyn Almes. Roga. 
A doole.' Medulla. See Daylle, ante. 3 MS. censer*, censere, censtre. 

4 Read ' deynous :' the mistake has probably arisen from the scribe's eye being caught 
by the preceding word 'deniynge,' with which the present word is wholly unconnected, 
being from the French ' dedaigneux. Disdainefull, scornfull, coy, squeamish.' Cotgrave. 
Compare also ' Dain. Dainty, fine, quaint, curious; (an old word)' ibid. The Reeve in 
his Tale tells us that the Miller of Trumpington ' was hoote deynous Symekyn,' being, as 
he had already said, ' as eny pecok prowd and gay.' Cant. Tales, 3941, and at 1. 3964, his 
wife is described as being 'As dygne as watir in a dych.' So too in the Prologue, 517, 
we are told of the Parson that — 

' He was to sinful man nought despitus, Ne of his speche daungerous ne digue.' 

In P. Plowman, C. xi. 81 and xvii. 227, we are told that knowledge 

' Swelleb in a mannes saule, 
And dob hym to be deynous, and deme bat beth nat lerede.' 



a Denne ; Antrum, apageum l , cauea, 
camera (Cauerna A.), cauernula, 
crejnta, cripta 2 , cubiculum, la- 
tebra, lustrum, specus, spelunca, 
& cetera ; vbi a dike. 

*to Departe 3 ; Abrogare, Abicere, 
abigere, exigere, dirimere, disco - 
pula[re], disternere, disci imina re, 
disiungeve, disjyergere, disjyersare, 
dispescere, dissicere, dissociare, 
diuidere, exigere, iduare, jnpertiri, 
2mrtiri, jntercede7'e, priuare, secer- 
nere, segregare, seiugare, sep&rwre, 
spicificare, sp&rgere, uiduare. 

tto Departe merabres ; demembrare. 

tDepa?"ti.abylle ; diuisibilis, diuidu- 
us, diuisiuus. 

tvn Departiabylle 4 ; indiuisibil\i\s, 
indiuiduus, <k cetera. 

tDepartyd (or Abrogate); Abrogates, 
displosus, j)hariseus 5 , scismaticus. 

tto Departe herytage ; heretestere. 

a Depa/*tyngg ; Abic'w, Abrogacio, 
discrimen,discriminosus,discreclo t 
discretiuus, disiunccio, disiunc- 
tiuus, distinccio, diuisio, diuisiuus, 
diuiduus, plxares, thomos 6 , grece, 
gladius, hereses, recessio, scissura, 
scisma, scismaticus, sejmracio, & 
cetera verbalia verborum predic- 

Depe (Deype A.); Altus, profundus, 
gurgitiuus ; versus : 
*^Est Altum sublime bonum, sub- 
tile 2)rqfundum. 

a Depnes ; Abissus, Altitudo, profun- 
dus, profuuditas, prolixitas. 

Dere ; corns, dilectus, gmciosus, 
Amabilis, 6c cetera. 

tto be Dere. 

tto wex Dere. 

tto Deryue ; Deriuare (A.). 

Derke ; vbi myrke (A.). 

a Derth ; caristia. 

to make Derthe ; caristio. 

1 Apparently for ' hypogeum (Greek irrroyeiov), a shroudes or place under the ground.' 
Cooper. See Cruddis, above. 2 ' Cripta. A trove.' Medulla. 

3 In King Solomon's Book of Wisdom, E. E. Text Soc. ed. Furnivall, p. 86, 1. 138, we 
read — ' pe kyngdome [of Israel & Judah] departed [divided] is 3ut to pis daye.' 

In the Knightes Tale, 276, occurs the phrase, • Til that the deeth departe schal us twayne ;' 
which is still retained in the Marriage Service, though now corrupted to ' till death us 
do part? See also to Deuyde, below. Depart occurs with the meaning of separating 
oneself, parting from, in William of Palerne, 3894, 'prestili departeds he pat pres.' 
' It ys vnleful to beleue that the worde, that ys the sonne of godde, was departed from 
the father, and from the holy goste, by takynge of his manhode.' Myroure of Our Lady, 
ed. Blunt, 104. With the meaning of distribute, share, we find it in Wyclif, Luke xv. 11, 
where, in the parable of the Prodigal Son, we read — ' the 3onger seide to the Fadir, Fadir, 
3yue me the porcioun of catel, that fallith to me. And he departide to hem the catel.' 

4 ' Yf eny of them were departable from other The thre persones are vereyly 

vndepartable.' The Myroure of Our Lady, p. 104. 

5 In Early Eng. Metrical Homilies, ed. Small, p. 48, we are told of the messengers who 
were sent to John saying ' Art thou he that should come ? ' &c, that — 

' Thir messagers was Pharisenes, Thai war sundered of comoun lif.' 

That sundered men on Englys menes, 
The same idea is expressed in the Ormulum, 16862 — 

' Farisew, bitacne]?]? uss Shaedinng onn Ennglissh spaeche, 
And forr]>i wass J>att name hemm sett, Forr jmtt te33 waerenn shadde, 
Swa summ hemm )>ubhte, fra J>e folic purrh hali3 lif and lare.' 
St. Augustine in his Sermo ad Populum, clxix. de verbis Apost. Philip. 3, says—' Pharisaei, 
..... dicitur hoc verbum quasi segregationem interpretari, quomodo in Latina lingua 
dicitur egregius, quasi a grege separatus.' 'They would name the Pharises according to 
the Hebrew, S under -halg ens, as holy religiotis men which had sundered and separated them- 
selves from other.' Camden, Bemaines, 1605, p. 18. So also Wyclif, Works, i. 27, 
' Phariseis ben seid as departid from o}>ir puple.' 

6 To^os, from rkpvw, to cut. 



ftb Derr<? ; vsurpcire, presitmeve, <w- 
dere ; versus : 
%hec tria iungas (comungas A.) 
vsurpat, presumit <£• audet. 
tDerf 1 . 

a Desate ; dolus, fraus, fucus (3r 
cetera A.); vbi falshede; versus : 
^Est dolus in lingua male di- 
centis mauifesta, 
Fraus est fallent'is, sub lingua 
blanda loquentis. 
Desatefulle ; vbi false, 
to Desave ; vbi to be-gylle. 
to Desese 2 ; tedere, <k cetera ; vbi to 

a Deses ; vbi noye. 
tDesesy ; nocuus, d' cetera ; vbi 

to Desyre ; admirari, adoptare, af- 
fectare, afficeve, amare, Ambire 
honores, a])petere, ardere, eocar- 
desceve, ex-, auere, captare, cupere, 
diuicias, con-, concupiscere, de- 
jwscere, ferre, gestire, gliscere, 
inhiare, mirari, optare, velle ; 
versus : 
^Affecto, vol amo, cupio, desidero, 
Opto vel admiror, aueo, vel 

gesteo, capto, 
Ambeo quod facit ambicio si- 
mul Ambiciosus. 

a Desyre ; Adopvio, adoptiuiis, ojjec- 
tio, affectum, affecMuus, ambicio, 
ambicioxus, aj>petitus, ardor, cap- 
tacio, coucupicencia, desiderium y 
desideratiuus, intencio, opcio, op- 
tatiuus, velle, votum, votiuus. 
a Deske 3 ; pluteus* 
fto make Desolate ; desolari, dis- 

tDesolate ; desolatus, destitutus. 
tto Despare ; desperare 4 , desperado. 
Dispare ; Disperacio (A.). 
Despysabille ; contemptibilis, despi- 

to Desspice; Abicere,Abnuere,Arepci- 
ari, Aspernere, Aspernari, A uerti, 
depveciari, despectare, despicere, 
despicari, detractare, detrectare, 
fastidere, Jloccifacere, Jlocci pen- 
dere, horrere, horrescere, horri- 
facere, impvoperare, neclegeve, 
pevinpendexe, recusare, refutare, 
renuere, sjyevnari, spernere, temp- 
nere, vilipeudere ; versus : 
%Negligit & spemit, aspernatur- 
que, refutat, 
Contempnit, renuit simul, ab*> 
nuitque {aunuit atque A.), 
r ecus at, 
Sic p&vvipendit & vilipendAt in 

1 Daring, bold. In the Ormulum, 1. 16780, Nicodemus is described as coming to our 
Lord by night — 

' Forr whatt he nass nohht derrf inoh, Al openli3 to sekenn 
pe Laferrd Crist biforr pe folic, To lofenn himm & wurrj>enn.' 
In Barbour's Bruce, E. E. Text Soc. ed. Skeat, xviii. 307, the friar, who is sent by Douglas 
to watch the English, is described as ' derff, stout, and ek hardy.' Icel. djarfi. A. S. dear/. ( ?) 
See also Morte Arthure, ed. Brock, 11. 312, 332, 811, Ormulum, 16195, &c. ' Darfe, 
stubborn, pertinax, obdiiratus.'' Manip. Vocab. 

2 ' Desaise, f. A sickenesse, a being ill at ease. Demise, out of temper, ill at ease.' 
Cotgrave. In the Version of the History of Lear and his daughters given in the Gesta 
Romanorum, p. 50, we are told how the eldest daughter, after keeping her father for less 
than a year, ' was so anoyed and dissesed of hym and of his meanes ' that she reduced the 
number of his attendants ; and in chap. 45 we read of a law that the victor in battle should 
receive on the first day four honours, 'But the second day he shall suffre iiij. diseases, 
that is, he shall be taken as a theef, and shamfully ledde to the prison, and be dispoyled 
of Iubiter clothyng, and as a fole he shall be holden of all men ; and so he shall have, that 
went to the bataile, and had the victorie.' E. E. Text Soc. ed. Herrtage, p. 176. 

3 ' Pluteus. A little holowe deske like a coffer wheron men doe write.' Cooper. See 
also Karalle, or writing burde. 4 MS. repeats this word. 




a Despite ; Auertrio, contemptua, de~ 

dignctcio, despectus, 
to Desplese ; diwpVfMcere, gvauare, 

a Desplesance ; grauamen, aggraua- 

men, disp[l\icencia. 
a Destany ; fatum, p&rce. 
tto Destaii 1 ; fatare. 
to Destroy ; destruere, & cetera ; vbi 

to waste, 
a Destroyeingc or a distruccion; vbi 

a Destroer ; vbi a waster, 
a Dett ; debitum. 
tto pay Dett ; pacare 2 , reddere. 
tto Detennyn ; determinate, diffi- 

nire, distinguere, finire. 
fa Determynacioii ; deter mi nacio, 

ta Dety 3 ; carmen. 
a Dettur ; debitor. 
to Deuyde ; deuidere, & cetera ; vbi 

to depart e (parte A.). 

a Deuylle ; Belial, demon, diabolus, 
ductus, leiuathan, larua, lucifer, 
mamona, nox, sathan, satanas, 
zabulon 4 , zabulus ; zabulinus, de- 
moniacus, diabolicus. 

ta Devylry (Dewylry A.) 5 ; demo- 
nium ; demoniacus. 

fa Devorce ; deuorcium. 

to Devoure ; deuorare, & cetera ; vbi 
to swalowe. 

a Dewe ; ros ; roridus, rondentus. 

to Dewe 6 ; rorare. 

a Dewlappe 7 ; car tilago, paliare, pa- 
liarium, thorus. 

fa Dewry 8 ; dos, parafernum ; sed 
parafemum. est Mud quod datur 
sjwnse ab amicis, postidotem. 
D ante I. 

a Diamant ; diamans. 

fto Dibbe 9 ; jntingere (to Dibe ; 
mingere A.). 

fa Dibbille 10 ; pastinatum, subterra- 

1 In Morte Arthure, ed. Brock, 664, we read — 

' If me be destaynede to dye at Dryghtyns wylle, 
I charge the my sektour,' &c. 
See also 11. 4090, 4153, &c ' Destiner. To destinate, ordaine, appoint unto ; purpose for.' 
Cotgrave. 2 MS. parare : corrected by A. 

3 ' The dittie, or matter of a song, canticum? Baret. ' A dittie of a song, argumentum, 
materia.' Manip. Vocab. ' Carmen. A dete.' Medulla. 

4 'Zabulon: nomen proprium diaboli. Zabulus: idem? Medulla. 'Zabulus. Diabolus. 
Sic autem Dorice aiunt appellari. Dorica quippe lingua (afiaWtiv idem est quod 
SiafiaWeiv ; ut £a.Kopos, idem quod Sia.Kopos,'' &c. Ducange. 

5 ' Devilry, Deevilry, s. Communication with the devil.' Jamieson. It occurs with the 
meaning of ' diabolical agency ' in Barbour's Brace, ed. Skeat, vi. 690. 

6 'To dew, roro.' Withals. ' Roro. To deawe, or droppe downe lyke deawe. Rorat. 
The deawe falleth.' Cooper. Jamieson gives 'To deaw, v.n. To rain gently; to drizzle.' 
A. S. deawian (?). ' Roro. To dewen.' Medulla. Wyclif, Isaiah xlv. 8, has — ' deweth ye 
heuenus fro aboue.' The verb occurs with a transitive meaning in the Ormulum, 1 3848 : 
' To wattrenn & to dawivenn swa }mrrh be35ske & sallte tseress ]>att herrte.' 

7 * The dewlap of a rudder beast, hanging down vnder the necke, palear : the hollow 
part of the throte : a part in the bellie, as Nonius saith, the panch ; rumen.' Baret. ' Hoc 
paliare, a dewlappe.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 231. 

8 ' Parapherna. Graeci parapherna dicunt, quae Galli peculium appellant. All thynges 
that the woman bringeth to hir husband beside hir dowry.' Cooper. Hence our para- 
phernalia. ' Douaire. A dower ; also, her marriage good, or the portions she hath, or 
brings, to her marriage.' Cotgrave. For sponse the MS. reads sponsa. 

9 'To dibbe, or dippe, intingere.' Baret. In the Alliterative Poem on Joseph of 
Arimathea, ed. Skeat, 534, we have — 

' With ]>e de)> in his hals dounward he duppts / 
and in the account of the changing of the water into wine at Cana, given in Early Eng. 
Metrical Homilies, ed Small, p. 121, we read that our Lord 'bad thaim dib thair cuppes 
alle, and ber tille bern best in halle.' See also to Dippe. 
J0 See also Debylle, above. 



a Dice ; taxittus, Alea, aliola, decius, 

talus, numerus, tessera. 
a Dice player ; Aleator, Alio, taxil- 

to Die; mori, obire. cxalare, commori, 
& cetera ; versus : 
%Interit, expirat, moritur, de- 
fungitur aU\ue 
Occumbi\t] vel obit,dissoluitur, 

exanimatque 1 . 
Interit, occambit, mortem sig- 

nant violentam. 
Excidit, exalat (scilicet sp\r\- 

tum), decedit, eis sociatur, 
Ad naturalem concordant cete- 
ra mortem, 
Et potes illud idem comjrfexa 

diceve voce : 
ToUitur e medio mature 2 debita 

soluit 3 ; 
Nature nostre solicit genevale 

tributum ; 
Clausit sujypvemo ^resen^m 
funere vitam ; 
Carcere corporeo resohitus spi- 

ritus exit ; 
Mortuus est muudo victurus 
postea Christo. 
to Dye. 

%vel 2)Tosaice sic* — 2 )Yeseni]B v ^ e 
cursum. felicitev consumma- 
uit'j vel sic: — de corporeo 

.s-ym'itus sese relascauit a/rga- 

tustulo; vel sic : — anima reso- 
luta est ab argastido carnis : 
cum similibus ; mori homini- 
bns et anixwaUbus commune 4 
est, sed obire conuenit tsnatum 
hominibus bonis ; est enira 
obire qu&ci obuiam jre 5 . 
tlike to Die ; moribundus. 
fa Diet G ; dieta. 
+to Diet ; dieta re. 
to Defame ; diffamare, inconteriare, 

infamare, trnducere. 
a Diffamer; diffamator, -tvix. 
a Diffamacion; defamacio. 
tto Differ ; differre, 2 )V olongare, & 

cetera ; vbi to dra on longe, 
tto Digeste 7 ; digerere. 
fa Degestion ; degestio. 
a Dignite ; decus, dignitas (dignia, 
majestas A.), & cetera ; vbi 
to Dike 8 ; fodere, ef-, fossare, ef-. 
a Dike ; forica, lacuna 9 , lacus, fossa, 
specus, d' est scrobs pvopvie scro- 
pharum 10 ; versus : 
*\\Eossa, specus, fouea, spelunca, 
cauevna vel Antrum ; 
Scrobs scrobis est fouea sed 
sco6s u , -bis vnum (1) Jit ilia. 
Traco vel Amfractus, cauus, hie 
addatur abissus, 

I MS. examinat. The words scilicet spir'itum below are written in a later hand as a 
gloss over exalat. 2 MS. natura. 

3 Caxton in his Art and Craft How to Die, 1491, p. 2, has ' It [deth] is the payment of 
the dette of nature,' probably the first instance of this phrase in English. 

4 MS. comrame. 

5 Obviam ire, means to go to meet some one ; hence our author says it can only be used 
of the good, who go from this life to meet God. 

6 Chaucer, Prologue Cant. Tales, 435, says of the ' Doctour of Phisik,' that ' of his diete 
mesurable was he.' See also Ancren Riwle, p. 112. Generally derived from Mid. Lat. 
dieta, from dies, a day : 0. Eng. diet, an appointed day ; but it is more probably from Gr. 
SiaiTa, mode of life, especially with reference to food. 

7 See also to Defy, above. 

8 ' Diken or deiuen, or dyngen vppon sheues.' P. Plowman, B. vi. 143. * For dicliing 
and hegging and delvynge of tounes.' Wyclif, Works, i. 28. A. S. didan. 

9 MS. licuna. 

10 MS. Scorbs proprie scorpharum. ' Scrofa. A sow that hath had pigges more than ones.' 

II • Scrobs : fossa quam scrofe maxime faciunt, Scrofa : porca. Traco : meatus, vel via 
tubterranea.' Medulla. 'Hie scrobs: a swyn-wrotyng.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab., p. 271. 

.1 a 

J 00 


Vnde fluunt ymbres celi deta- 
racta (caiharacta A.) meatus. 
ta Diker; fossor, fossator. 
a Dikynge ; fossatus. 
*to Dindylle J ; condolere (errobare 

tto Dyne 2 ; gentaculari, iantare & 

-ri, iantaculare & -ri. 
a Dyner ; gentaculum, iantaculum. 
tto Dinge 3 ; verbarare, & cetera ; 

vhi to bete. 
tDynys (Dynise A.) ; dionisius, no- 
men proprium . 
tDiones ; dionisia. 
a Dinne (Dyn A.) ; sonus, sonitus, 

tumultus, &• cetera ; vhi sownde. 
to make Dinne (Dyn A.) ; sonare, 

re-, tumidtuari, fremeie, ^ers^re- 


a Diocis ; diocesis. 

to Dippe 4 ; tingeve, intingcve. 

fa Diptonge (A Dypton A.) ; dlp- 

tto Dery ve (Dyryve A.) ; deriuare., 

•tor, -tiix. 
fto Discharge ; exonevare, -tor, -tvix, 

& -cio. 
t Discharged ; exonerates. 
ta Dirsyngg knyfe (Dyrsyng-knyfFe 

A.) 5 ; spata. 
tto Disaray (Disray or disgise A.) ; 

a Dische berer (A Dysbynke or A 

dyschberer A.) ; discoforus. 
ta Dische benke (Dyschbynke A.) fi ; 

a Dische ; discus, scutellarius. 
A Discorde ; vhi to debate (A.). 

1 In Jamieson we find 'To dinle, dynle. (i) To tremble. (2) To make a great noise. 
(3) To thrill; to tingle. ' Dinle. s. (1) Vibration. (2) A slight and temporary sensation 
of pain, similar to that caused by a stroke on the elbow.' Cotgrave gives ' Tintillant. 
Tinging ; ringing ; tingling. Tintoner. To ting or towle often ; to glow, tingle, dingle.' 
' Hir unfortunat husband had no sooner notice given him iipon his returne of these sor- 
rowful 1 newes, than his fingers began to nibble .... his ears to dindle, his head to dozell, 
insomuch as his heart being scared with gelousie .... he became as mad as a March hare.' 
Stanihurst, Descrip. of Ireland in Holinshed's Chronicles (1576), vol. vi. p. 32, §2. 

' The birnand towris doun rollis with ane rusche, 
Quhil all the heuynnys dynlit with the dusche.' 

Gawin Douglas, Eneados, Bk. ix. p. 296, 1. 35. 

2 Ducange renders 'Iantaculum' by ' Cibus quo solvitur jejunium ante prandium ; 
dejeuner.' ' Jentaculum, a breakefaste. lentare. To eate meate afore dinner.' Cooper. 
1 lavtacidum. A dynere.' Medulla. 

3 Hampole tells us that as a smith hammers on an anvil 

' Right swa be devels salle ay dyng On J?e synfulle, with-outen styntyng.' 

Pricke of Conscience, 7015. 
The past tense is found as dang in Iwaine & Gawaine, 3167, as dong in Havelok, 1147, 
and as dung in the Destruction of Troy, in which we also find dongen, dungyn for the past 
participle 0. Icel. dengja. 

4 See also to Dibbe. Trevisa in his version of Higden, i. 117, speaking of the Dead 
Sea, says that ' what quik bing bat it be bat duppep berynne anon it lepej) vp ajen.' In 
Wyclif's version of Leviticus xi. 1 7, amongst unclean fowls are mentioned the * owle and 
the deuedop' [merguluni], in other MSS. dewedoppe. 

5 This appears to mean a ' dressing knife.' To durse in the Northern Dialect means to 
' spread or dress.' See Dryssynge knyffe, below. ' Spatha. An instrument to turne fryed 
meate ; a sklise ; also a like toole that apothecaries use.' Cooper. ' Spata- A broad swerd. 
Spatula. A spaude. Mensiacula. A dressyng knyff.' Medulla. 

6 'Scutellarium. Locus ubi seutellce reponuntur : vauselier, lieu oil Vonserre lavaisselle : 
ol. escueillier? Ducange. Now called a dresser. A. S. bene, 0. Icel. bekler, a bench. 
4 Scutellarium. A dysshborde.' Medulla. ' Fercula, bser-disc. Dlseifer, vel discoforus, 
disc-ben.' Aelfric's Gloss: pr. in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 16. 'Inventarium 12th April 
1576 ... . Item a cubburd. a dishbencJc, viiij s , a maske fat, a gile fat, aworte troughe, a 

jdi^a stand, vj s viii d .' Inventory of John Casse 1576, Bichmondshire Wilis and 
vol. 26). p. 260. See Dressoure, below. 




to Discorde; Absouare, distare, dis- 
sonare, delirare, discordare, dis- 
sentire -W, discrepare, depacisci, 
defidere, diffidere, variare, differre, 
diuersare, diner sijicare. 

a Discordance ; discordancia, deso- 
nancia, discrepancia, variacio. 

Discordande (Dyscordyng A.) ; de- 
lirus, me[dio\ co[rrepto], discors, 
inconuenieris, ineptus, disconueni- 

a Discordynge of voces ; diaphonia. 

fa Discordynge of wyllc ; diastasis. 

Discencion ; discensio. 

a Discrecion ; discreccio, des\c]erti- 
tudo, & cetera ; vhi wysdome. 

Discrett ; discretus, dise7lus ; vhi 

tto Discusse 1 ; discutere. 

tto Disfigure ; decolorare. 

to Disherett (Dyshery A.) 2 ; exhere- 
dare, exhereditare. 

tto Dishonor ; vbi diswyrschippe. 

tto Disspare 3 ; desperare. 

ta Dispare ; desperado. 

to Dispende 4 ; vbi to exspende. 

to Dispence ; disspensare. 

to Disspice ; contempnere, <L cetera ; 

vbi despyse. 
Disspysynge 5 ; spernax, spemens, 

a Dispite, or a disspisynge ; des- 

pecc'w, contemptus. 
to Dispose ; vbi to ordane (A.). 
Dispraysinge ; depr&uacio, vituper- 

acio, 6)' cetera ; vhi blamynge 

tto Disprayse ; dejyraaiare, & cetera ; 

vbi to blame (A.), 
to Dispule ; vbi to robbe (A.). 
a Disputacion j disputacio, alter cacio, 

to Dispute ; disputare, alter cari, dis- 

tDissate ; vbi dessate. 
tDissave ; decipere, 6f cetera ; vbi to 

tDissauabylle ; deceptorius, pliilogis- 

ta Dissauer ; deceptor, & cetera ; vbi 

a begyler. 
tto Desseise 6 ; disseisire. 
ta Disseiser ; disseisitor. 

1 ' Discntlo. To cast or shake of or downe ; to remoue ; to examine or discusse.' Cooper. 
Spencer used the word discuss in its primary sense of shaking off. 

2 ' Hwat ! wenden he to disherite me?' Havelok, ed. Skeat, 2547. 

' There comen into his lond With hors and harneys, as I vndyrstond, 

Forto disherite hym of his good.' Lonelich's Holy Grail, ed. Furnivall, lvi. 117. 
See also the Lay Folks Mass Book, ed. Canon Simmons, p. 278. ' To disherite, exhceredo.' 
Baret. ' Exhereder, to disherit, or disinherit.' Cotgrave. The form dls-heryss occurs in 
Barbour's Bruce, ii. 107. ' Ofte J>er byej) men and wyfmen and children deserited and 
yexiled.' Ayenbite of Inwyt, p. 30. 

3 See also Despere. ' Despero. To myshopyn.' Medulla. 

* 'To dispende, dispendere.' Manip. Vocab. ' Despens. Expense, cost, charge; or ex- 
penses, disbursements, layings out, costs and charges. Despemer, to dispend, spend, 
expend.' Cotgrave. In the Cook's Tale, the ' prentys ' is described as ' free of his dispence. 1 
Cant. Tales, 4387 ; and in the Legende of Goode Women, Phillis, 1. 97, 
' Me lyste nat vouchesafe on hym to swynke, 
Dispenden on hym a penne ful of ynke.' 
See also P. Plowman, B. x. 325. ' Lispensor. To dyspendyn.' Medulla. 

5 MS. a Disspysynge. 

6 In Dan Jon Gay^ryge's Sermon, pr. in Religious Pieces in Prose and Verse from the 
Thornton MS. (E. E. Text Soc. ed. Perry), we are told that it is a violation of the 10th 
Commandment if we have ' wetandly or willfully gerte oure euene cristyne lesse paire 
patremoyne or }>aire heritage, or falsely be dyssessede of lande or of lythe.' Ducange 
gives ' iJissaisiare, possessione deturbare, depouiller quelqu'un d'une chose. Dlssaisitor, 
qui dejicit a possessione, usurpateur :' and Baret says, ' Dissezeine, dejectlo vel ejectio ; 
to disseze, ejicere, detrudere, deturbare possessione.'' See also Robert of Brunne, ed. Hearne, 



a Distance ! ; distancia, & cetera ; 
r\)i debate. 

to Distemper ; (lis tempera re. 

Distincly (Distinctly A.) ; distincte, 
proline, aduerbia. 

tto Distreyn 2 ; vhi to streyne (A.). 

fto Distresse ; vhi to stresse (A.). 

tto Disworschippe ; dehonorare. 

ta Disworschepp ; dehonoracw. 

Diucrce ; diuersus, varius. 

tto Dyuerce; diuersijicare, & cetera ; 
vhi to discorde {clifferre, distare, 
did tat, impersonate, refert, diuer- 
sare, variare A.). 

Dyuersyly ; diuerse, differenter, di- 
uersimodi, discordanter, multi- 
mode, multi for miter, multifarie. 

a Dyuersyte ; diuersitas, distancia, 
lirin grece. 

tto Divine ; auspicari, diuinare, cora- 
mentari, comminisci, vaticinari, 
theologari, theologicare. 

ta Divine ; theologus, theologista. 

ta Dyu[in]ynge ; Auspicium in vo- 
latu auium, Augwrium in sono 
vocis cfficitur, aurispicium vitro 
vouit ; augustxxs, Auspicatxxs, aus- 
picacio, diuinacio, j^^sagium.. 

tA Diuinyng afore ; premaneia (A.). 

ta Dyuyny/igebefyre; piromancia, 

ta Diuinynge be water 3 ; jdroman- 

ta Diuine (Dyuynowr A.) 4 ; aus- 
pex, augur, auspicator, diuinator, 
diuinatorius £>ar£icipium, carmi- 
nator, aruspex, sertilogus, ariolus, 
mathematicus,Jiton, fitonissa, ma- 
gus, extispex {theologus, theologista 
A.) ; & cetera ; vhi a wyche. 

ta Diuision ; diuicio, distinccio, iun- 
di\s, thomos. 

D ante O. 

to Doo ; exigere, agere, per-, facere, 
ejficere, perjicere, operari, palr&re, 
comple?*e, implere, consumere, ex- 
equi, claudere, eoncludere, termi- 
nare, decider e, jinire, perpetr&re, 
deducere in medios, actus commit- 
tere, facescere, factare, gerere, 
faxosis facticare. 

to Do a way ; abolere, delere, ascri- 
bere, desciibere, demere, linere, 
auferre, ademere. 

to Dobe (Doybe A.) 5 ; linere, illinere, 
corripe U. 

p. 250 : ' Our Kyng Sir Edward held him wele payed .... Disseised him of alle, jald it 
to Sir Jon :' and Romaunt of the Rose, 1. 2077, 

' So sore it lustith you to plese, No man therof may you disese' 

Even so late as 1747 Carte, Hist, of England, vol. i. p. 50T, speaks of incumbents being 
'deprived and disseized of their livings.' ' Dejaclo. To dissease, or put oute of possession.' 
Cooper. ' Dcssaisi. Disseised, dispossessed, deprived, bereaved, put out of. Dessaisine. 
A disseisin, dispossession, &c.' Cotgrave. 

1 In the Geda Romanorum, p. 134, we read ' when the Emperour .... saw swiche a 
distaunce amonge the systeres,' &c., and again, p. 168, after their father's death * iij 
childerin made distaunce for a Ring, and that long time.' In the Complaynt of the 
Ploughman, pr. in Wright's Political Poems, i. 339, we find — 

' This commeth in by fendes, For they would that no men were frendes.' 

To bring the christen in distaunce, 
And again, p. 83 — ' Sir David the Bruse When Edward the Baliolfe 

Was at distance, Rade with his lance.' 

2 ' Who feleth double sorwe and hevynesse But Palamon ? that love destrcyndh so.' 

Chaucer, Knighte's Tale, 595. 

3 ' Idromancia. Soth seying in watere.' Medulla. A. adds, gcomancia fit per puluerem 
vel terram. Siromancia [Cheiromancia~\ est per Inspeccionem manuum. 

* * A diuiner, a coniecturer of things to come, mantes ; diuination, or soothsaying, 
mantice? Baret. ' Anone as the night past the noble kyng sent 

For Devinours full duly & of depe wit.' 
See also an Ouerloker. Destruction of Troy (E. E. Text Soc), 13835. 

5 Sec also Dawbe and Dawbor. 



a Dober J liuitor. 

Dobyd ; linitua vel Utua. 

a Dobynge; litura, super duccio. 

tDodir 1 ; cuscuta. 

tto Doffe 2 ; exuere, deponere, depan- 
nare, denudare. 

Doge; canis, caniculus & cula, cani- 
cularis <k re, canicus, caninus 
parricipia, catulus, catellus, catel- 
luhis, catidaster, catula, catellula. 

a iDoghter ; jilia, nata, Jiliola, genita. 

fa Doghter husbande ; gener. 

a Doynge a- way 3 ; delacio, litura. 

fa Doynge welle ; beneficencia, bene- 
fice, benefaciens. 

fa Dokan 4 ; paradilla, emula, fa- 

a redi Dok ; lappacium, Acutum 
(lappacium, Acutum, a rede doke 

*Dollyd 5 ; defrutus. 

Dollyd as wyne or ale ,; ; DefunctxxB, 

vapidus ; vapiditas, vappa, dol- 

lyng (A.). 
Dolour ; dolor, 6c cetera ; vbi sorowe 


A Dome; coma 7 , censura, arbiiii/nn, 
discreccio, decretum, examen, in- 
dicium, sentencia, crisis grece, 
censorinus, creticus, judiciarius, 

a Domesmaw ; arbiter, voluntate, in- 
dex lege Jit, censor, creticus, preses, 
2>retor, prefectus, ^;roconsw£, tri- 
bunus, iudiciarius, pretorius & 
prefectarius />ar£icipia (tribunal, 
tribunate sunt sedes Iudicis, 
eripse Judex A.). 

fa Domesmaw sete ; tribunal & tri- 
bunate vel ipse iudex. 

1 Cotgrave gives ' Podagre de lin. The weed Dodder;' of which Lyte, Dodoens, p. 39S, 
says, ' It is a strange herbe, without leaues, & without roote, lyke vnto a threed, muche 
snarled and wrapped togither, confusely winding itself about hedges and bushes and other 

herbes This herbe is called in Latine Cassytha, in shoppes Cuscuta ; of 

some Podagra lini, and Angina lini? 'There be other wedes not spoken of, as dee, 
nettyles, dodder, and suche other, that doo moche harme.' Sir A. Fitzherbert, Boke of 
Husbandry, 1534, leaf Di b k . Turner, in his Herbal, 1551, says, ' Doder groweth out of 
herbes and small bushes, as raiscelto groweth out of trees, and nother of bothe grow out of 
the grounde :' and again, p. 90, ' Doder is lyke a great red harpe stryng : and it wyndeth 
about herbes .... and hath floures and knoppes, one from another a good space.' 

2 ' To doffe, for do of, exuere.'' Manip. Vocab. • And thou my concelle doo, thow doffe 
of thy clothes.' Morte Arthure, 1023. 

3 MS. a-day. 

4 Baret gives the saying 'in docke, out nettle,' which he renders by ' exeat urtica, pari- 
cella fit intus arnica.' ' A docke, herbe, lapathum.' Manip. Vocab. Ducange defines 
paradella as ' anethi silvestris species, sorte dJanetli sauvage? 

' As like 3e bene as day is to the night, Or dohen to the fresche dayesye.' 
Or sek-cloth is unto fyne cremesye, The King's Quair, Bk. hi. st. 36. 

A. S. docce. ' Docce, lapacium.' Wright's Vocab. p. 67 : ' e^-docca, nimphea,' ibid. p. 31. 

5 ' Of new pressed wine is made the wine called Cute, in Latin Lapa ; and it is by 
boiling the new pressed wine so long as till that there remaine but one of three parts. 
Of new pressed wine is also made another Cute, called of the Latines Dcfrutum, and this 
is by boiling of the new wine onely so long, as till the halfe part be consumed, and the 
rest become of the thicknesse of honey.' Maison Rustique, p. 622. ' Defruto. To boyle 
newe wine.' Cooper. * Defructus. Ded.' Medulla. ' Defrutum vinum, gesoden win vel 
passum 1 Alfric's Vocab. in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 27. See also Palladius on Hus- 
bondrie, p. 204, 1 484, where we are told that three sorts of wine ' He/rut, carene & sape in 
oon manere Of must is made,' the first being made 'of defervyng til [themusteis] thicke.' 

6 ' Vappa. Wine that hath loste the vertue : naughtie dead wine.' Cooper. Compare 
onr expression ' dead ' as applied to ale. In W. de Worde's Boke of Keruynge, pr. in the 
Babees Boke, ed. Furnivall, p. 154, 1. 20, we are warned to 'gyue no persone noo dowled 
drynke for it wyll breke ye scabbe.' ' How Id, or DulVd. Dispirited, abated, dull.' Whitby 
Glossary. See also Palde as Ale, below. 

7 'Coma. A Jugement.' .Medulla. 



Doyn; /actus. 

vn Doyn; jnfeetus. 

*a Donett ' ; donatua. 

fa Donett lern£r(lernyng A,); dona- 
tista . 

to Do on newe 2 ; encenniare. 

to Do parfytly ; per/ y cere. 

fDorame (Dorem A.) 3 ; duticlina, 
dunelinensiB pargicipium. 

a Dore (Dbyre A.) ; hostium, § cete- 
ra ; vhi A }ate. 

a Dormowse ; glis. 

*a Dorsur 4 ; dormrium. 

a Dorture 5 ; dormitorium. 

a Dosari ; duodena. 

to Dote (Doyt A.) 6 ; desipeve, de- 

*a Dottrelle 7 ; desipa. 
tto Do to ; addere, adherere, adhibere, 

adice? 3 e, adiungeve. 
Dowbylle ; duplex^ duplus, binus, 


1 In P. Plowman, B. v. 209, Avarice says — 

' Thanue drowe I me amonge draperes my donet to lerne ;' 
that is, as Prof. Skeat remarks, ' my primer.' Donet is properly a grammar, from Donatus 
the grammarian. ' Donatus. A donet, tt compositor illius libri. Donatistn. A donatrice : 
quedam heresis.* Medulla. 'The Donet into Cristen Beligioun,' and 'The folewer to the 
Donet ' are titles of two works of Pecock, often quoted in his Repressor. In the Intro- 
duction he says — 'As the common donet berith himsilfe towards the full kunnyng of 
Latyn, so this booke for Goddis laws : therefore this booke may be conveniently called 
the Donet, or Key to Cristen Beligioun.' 

2 MS. Do on now : corrected by A. ' Encennia. Newe halowynge off cherchis.' 
Medulla. ' Ehecenia. Penouation ; amonge the Jewes the feaste of dedication.' Cooper. 
Wyclif, Works, ed. Arnold, ii. 105, says ' Encennia is as myche as renewinge in our 
spectre/ The word is still retained at Oxford. Greek ey/caii/ia, from kclivos, new. 

3 The city of Durham. 

4 Amongst the duties of the Marshal of the Hall as given in The Boke of Curtasye 
(Sloane MS. 1986), pr. in Babees Boke, ed. Furnivall, p. 189. we find he is 

' pe dosurs, cortines to henge in halle,' 
and in the description of the house from the Porkington MS. pr. by Mr. Wright for the 
Warton Club, 1855, p. 4, we find, 

• The dosers alle of camaca, The bankers alle of taffaca, 
The quysschyns alle of veluet.' 
See also Hallynge. 

5 In the Abbey of the Holy Ghost, pr. in Relig. Pieces in Prose and Verse (E. E. Text 
Soc. ed. Perry), p. 50, 1. 10, we read — ' Scrifte sail [make] thi chapitir, Predicacione sail 
make thi fratour, Oracione sail make thi chapelle. Contemplacione sail make thi dortour? 
Baret gives 'A Dortour or sleeping place, a bed-chamber, dormitorium.' In Mr. Aldis 
Wright's ed. of De Deguileville's Pilgrimage of the Lyf of the Manhode, p. 160, occurs the 
word Dortowrere, that is the superintendent of a dormitory. See also ibid. p. 193 ; and 
also the Myroure of Our Lady, ed. Blunt, p. 117, and Introduction, p. xxxiii. 

6 ' To dote, delirare ; a dottel, delirus? Manip. Vocab. ' Me punched ]>e aide mon wole 
dotie.' Lasamon, i. 140. In the Pricke of Conscience amongst other signs of a man's 
decaying old age it is said that 

'His mouth slavers, his tethe rotes, His wyttes fayles, and he ofte dotes? 1. 785. 

The word also occurs in P. Plowman, A. i. 129, 

' fou dotest daffe, qua]) heo, dulle are Jri wittes.' 
'A doter or old doting foole, a rauer.' Baret. Scotch doit, to be confused ; Icel. dotta, to 
slumber ; Dutch dot en, dutten, delirare, desipere. ' Desipio. To dote ; to waxe foolish ; to 
play the foole,' Cooper. See Jamieson, s. v. Doit, Doytt. ' Radote. An old dotard, or 
doting fool. Radoter. To dote, rave, play the cokes, erre grossly in vnderstanding.' 
Cotgrave. ' He is an old dotard, or a iocham ; deth hangeth in his nose, or he is at dethes 
dore. Silicernasest? Horman. 'What pe deuel hatj bou don, doted wrech?' Allit. Poems, 
iii. 196; see also ibid, ii 286, iii 125, and Wyclif, Ecclus. xxv. 4. 

7 * Why then .... do you mocke me, ye dotrells, saying like children I will not, I 
will, I will, I will not.' Bernard's Terence, 1629, p. 423. ' penne be doiel on dece drank 
j^at he my3t,' Allit. Poems, ii. 1517. 



to Dowbylle ; duplarc, dupplicare, 

Dowbylk; duplatus, duplicatus, bi- 

fDowbyl tonged J ; bilinguis, 
tto Do welitf ; benefacere. 
A Dowfe; columbus, eolumba, colum- 

buluz, columbida. 
a Dowfe cote 2 ; columbar, colum- 

tto Dowke 3 ; emevgere. 
ta Dowker; emergator. 
ta Dowle of a whele 4 ; stellio. 
Downe ; deorsum, insum. 

tto Dowe 5 ; dotare, tuare (Dotare, 
est dotem dare, d? cetera ; vbi 
Dewry A.). 

a Dowry ; dos, dotalicium. ; do- 

to Dowte ; cunctari, dubiari, -tare, 
herere, hesare, mussare, mussitare, 
Jiorrere, tutibare, vacillare ; ver- 
sus : 
%Ambigit, & dubitat, fajluctuat, 
hesitat, heret. 

a Dowte; Ambiguitas, dubietas, dubi- 
tacio, dubium, dubitancia, cuncta, 
cunctacio, heresis, hesitacio, hesi- 
tacium, hesitacula. 

1 See also Dubylle tonged. 

2 Amongst the ' comodytys off the parsonage .... off the benefyce off Oxned ' we find 
mentioned 'A doffhowse worth a yere xiiij s iiij d .' Paston Letters, iii. 232. And in the 
Will of John Buret, of St. Edmund's Bury, in Bury Wills, &c. (Camden Soc. p. 24), are 
mentioned a ' berne and duffous? a form interesting as showing the pronunciation. 

3 Palsgrave gives ' I douke under the water. Je plonge en leaue. This hounde can 
douke under the water lyke aducke ;' and Sherwood has ' to douke, plonger? 'To douke, 
vrinare? Manip. Vocab. ' Mergo. To drowne in water; to deepe.' Cooper. Jamieson 
has 'Dowkar, s. A diver. S. G. dokare, Belg. duycker.' The participle doukand occurs 
in the Alliterative Romance of Alexander, ed. Stevenson, 4091. 'Hie mergulus, a 
dokare.'' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. 253. 'Mergo. To drynkelyn.' Medulla. Withals 
mentions amongst his list of water-birds * A Dobchic, or Dowker,' our water-hen. W. 
de Biblesworth, in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 165, speaks of l la cercele (a tele) et ly 
plounjoun (a doke, doukere).' 

4 Halliwell gives ' Doule. A nail sharpened at each end : a wooden pin or plug to fasten 
planks with.' In Ducange we find ' Stecco. Vox Italica, spina, festuca, palus : epine, 
paille, pien.' From this the meaning would appear to be ' wooden pins used to fasten the 
parts of the felloe of a wheel together ;' and not, as rendered by Sir F. Madden, 
1 fellies of a wheel.' But in the description of Solomon's Temple we read in Purvey's 
version, 3 Kings vii. 33 : ' Sotheli the wheelis weren siche, whiche maner wheelis ben 
wont to be maad in a chare ; and the extrees, and the naue stockis, and the spokis, and 
dowlis of tho wheelis, alle thingis weren 3otun :' where Wyclif's and the other MSS. read 
1 felijs.' In the Vulgate the verse runs as follows : ' Tales autem rotas erant, quales solent 
in curru fieri : et axes earum, et radii, et canthi, et modioli, omnia fusilia.' Neckham, in 
his description of the several parts of a cart says — 

spokes jauntes feleyes radii dico radiorum 
'in modiolo aptari debeni radii in cantos transmittendi, quorum extremitates 
i. rote orbiculate. 
stelliones dicuntur, videlicet orbited De Utensilibus, in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 108. 
Fitzherbert in his Boke of Husbandry, 1534, fol. B. 4 bk. says that ' wheles .... be made 
of nathes, [naves] spokes, fellyes, and dowles,' and in the Howard Household Books 
(Roxb. Club), p. 211, we find — ' Item for ij hopis to the exiltre, and for ij doivleges to the 
trendell, viij lb . xij a .' 

5 ' Doner. To indue, endow, or give a dowry unto.' Cotgrave. ' Doto. To 3eue dowary.' 
Medulla. In a tract on 'Clerkis Possessionem' (English Works of Wyclif, E. E. Text Soc. 
ed. Mathew, pp. 122-3), Wyclif writes 'for J)es skillis and many mo J>e angel seyd ml so)?e 
whanne ])e chirche was dovnd ]>at J>is day is venym sched into J>e chirche ;' and again, p. 
124, ' prestis J)as dovnd ben so occupied aboute ]>e worlde and newe seruyce and song . . . 
may not studie and preche goddis lawe in contre to cristis peple.' See also p. 191, ' dowid 
with temperal and worldly lordischippis ;' and Exodus xxii, 1 7. 


( VlllOl ICON ANCI.H I M. 

Dowtfulle ; Ambiguus, A nceps, dubi- 
us, amhiguus quod in ambas, 
potent pnxtes, dubium quod in 
quam partem venturum sit ig- 
noramus, hoc estanceps, crep[er~\us, 
didimus, dubitaus, dubitatiuus, 
Jiesitatiuus, hesitabundus, meticu- 
losus, verendus. 

Dowtfully ; Ambigue, cunctatim, du- 
bie, dubitanter. 

Dowtles ; vhi with owte dowte. 
D ante R. 

*Draf l ; segisterium, Acinacium, 

ta Drag 2 ; A rpax, luppus, trades. 

*a Dragie 3 ; dragetum. 

*Dragence or nedder grysse 
(gresse A.) 4 ; dragaucia, basi- 
lisca, herba serpentaria vel ser- 

a Draghte ; haustus. 

a Dragon ; draco, dracona, dmconi- 

ta Dragon hole. 

a Drake. 

a Dramme ; dragma. 

a Draper ; paimarius, trapezata. 

ta Drapyry 5 ; ^awwanwm. 

1 Draffe appears to have been a general term for refuse. Cotgrave gives ' Mangeaille 
pour les pourceaux, swillings, washings, draff, hogswash,' and in the Manip. Vocab. draffe 
is translated by excrementa. In the later version of Wyclif, Numbers vi. 4 is thus ren- 
dered : ' thei shulen not ete what euer thing may be of the vvner, fro a grape dried til 
to the draf,'' where the marginal note is ' In Ebreu it is, fro the rynde til to the litil 
greynes that ben in the myddis of the grape.' Other MSS. read : ' draf, ether casting 
out after the pressing.' See also Ecclus. xxxiii. 16 and Hosea iii. 1 : 'Thei byholden to 
alyen goddis, and louen the darstis [draffis P. vinacia, Vulg.] that leueth in hem aftir 
pressyng.' In P. Plowman, B. x. 9, we read — 

' Noli mittere, man, margerye perlis 
Amanges hogges, J>at han hawes at wille, 
pei don but dryuele J)er-on, draffe were hem leuere.' 
And Skelton in Elinor Rummyng, 1. 171, says 

' Get me a staffe The swyne eate my draffe.'' 

So also in Wright's Political Poems, ii. 84, 

' Lo, Dawe, with thi draffe Thou liest on the gospel.' 

' No more shall swich men and women come to the Ioye of paradise, that louyn more 
draffe and drestes, that is, lustes and lykynges of the flesshe, but they amende hem or 
they deye.' Gesta .Romanorum,ip. 569. Jamieson gives ' Draff, s. Grains. Draffy. Of 
inferior quality. Draff-pock. A sack for carrying grains.' In the Reeve's Tale Johan 
exclaims — ' T lye as a e£ra/-sak in my bed.' C. Tales, 4206. 

O. Dutch draf. The term is still used in Yorkshire for brewer's grains, and also more 
generally for waste matter, from which the food element has been extracted, as pig-draff, 
the scrap-food of pigs. 

2 ' That daye ducheryes he delte, and doubbyde knyghttes, 

Dresses dromowndes and dragges, and drawene vpe stonys.' 

Morte Arthure, ed. Brock, 3614. 
' A drag to draw things out of a well or like place, harpago.' Baret. 'Lupus. An hooke 
to drawe things out of a pitte.' Cooper. 

3 In Liber Albus, p. 588, we find an order — 'Item, qe nul ne vende groserie, ne espicery, 
poudres, dragges, confitures, nautres choses, fors par le livres qi contignent xv. unces.' 
'A dragee of the yolkes of harde eyren.' Ord. and Regul. p. 454. Palsgrave has ' Cara- 
wayes, small confetes, dragee,'' and Cotgrave ' Dragee, f. Any jonkets, comfets or sweet 
meats, served in at the last course (or otherwise) for stomacke-closers. Drageoir. A 

* ' Dracontium. Dragon wort or dragens.' Cooper. Cogan, Haven of Health, 161 2, p. 
72, recommends the use of Dragons as a specific for the plague. Harrison, Descript. of 
England, ii. 34, says that the sting of an adder brings death, ' except the iuice of dragons 
(in Latine called Dracunculus minor) be speedilie ministred and dronke in stronge ale.' 

6 Cooper defines pannarium as a ' pantrie,' but here the meaning appears to be a 
draper's shop. In Sir Ferumbras, 1. 4457, it means simply cloth ; ' Of drapreye we ledej) 
gret fuysoun, And wollej) J)er-wyJ? to Agremoun, to ]> e Amyral of pis land.' 'Hail be je 
marchans wij) 3ur gret packes of draperie.'' Early Eng. Poems, ed. Furnivall, p. 154. 



fa Drawe of nowte (A Draffe of 
Nowte A.) ! ; Armentum, -tari- 
um, -tariohim. 

to Drawe ; traJiere, at-, con-, tractare, 
at-, con-, deduceve, delrahere, ve- 
here, con-, ad-, e-. re-, vectare, cm-. 

to Draw to; illicexe, allectwre, attnx- 
here, attractare, aduehere, addu- 

fto Draw cutte 2 ; sortiri, consortiri. 

tto Draw a schipe 3 ; remidtare (re- 
mulcare A.). 

a Drawe brige ; ponstr'acticns (pons- 
fracticus A.). 

to Drawe on longe or on lenght 4 ; 
cx&stinare, pxo-, longare, differ re, 
pxotelare, pxorogare, pxotrahere, 
pxotendere ; versus : 
^Pxorogo, pxotelo, pxocrastino, 
sunt nota sensns 
Eiusdem : txibus hijs prolongo 

to Draw oute or vp ; educexe, elicere, 
extx&here, euaginare, euellere, ex- 
cerpexe, eximere, vellere, re-, e-, 
con-, vellicare, eradicare, explan- 
tare, extirpare. 

tto Draw vp hares ; expilare, de- 

to Drawe water ; A nclari, ex-, hau- 

rire, ex-. 
a Drawer ; vector. 
a Drawynge ; haustus, hauritorius 

ta Drawynge whele (qweylle A.) 5 ; 

* Drake or darnylle (Drawle or dar- 

nelle A.) 6 ; zizannia. 
A Dreffylle 7 . 
to Drede ; contxemere, expauere, ex- 

pauescexe ; versus : 
^horreo, formido, metuo, timeo 
que txemesco (timesco A.), 
Et tremo, cum paueo, trepido^ 

pauidoque pauesco. 
pauitare, turgere, vereri. 
a Drede ; formido, horror, ?7ietus re- 

ligionis est, pauor dicitur motns 

incertns, timor, tremor. 
Drefuile ; Attonitus, ambiguus, du- 

6ms, formidolosns homini pex- 

tinet, formidinosns pextinet loco, 

formidolus, meticulosus, metuen- 

dus, timoratus, timorosus, tremo- 

1 A team of oxen. Jamieson has 'Drave, s. A drove of cattle.' A. S. drdf, a drove, 
and neat, horned cattle. ' Armentarium. A drove of neet.' Medulla. ' Hoc armentum; 
a dryfte.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 179. Compare Nowthyrde, below. 

2 In the Gesta Romano rum, p. 35, 1. 4, we read, ' perfore, Seris, lat vs drawe cut, and 

drawe out his yen on whom the cut wol falle And ]>ei droive cut ; and it felle 

vpon him J>at 3afe the conseil.' In drawing lots a number of sti*aws were held by some 
one of the company : the others drew one apiece, and the lot was considered to have fallen 
on him who drew the shortest, i. e. the one cut short : cf. Welsh cwtan, to shorten ; cwta, 
short ; cwtics, a lot. The French practice was that the lot should fall on him who drew 
the longest ; hence their phrase, ' tirer la longue paille.'' Prof. Skeat's note to Chaucer, 
Pardoner's Tale, 793. See also Prologue, 835, 838, & 845. 'To draw cuts or lots. Sortior* 
Gouldman. ' Drawe cutte or lottes. Sortio, sorticr? Huloet. 

3 'Remulco, Ablatius est, vnde Submersam nauim remulco reducere, Cassar, &c 

By tyding cables about an whole and sounde ship, to drawe vp a ship that is broken and 
sunke. Remulcus. A little boate or barge seruing to drawe, or to unlade great vessels. 
Remulco. To draw with an other vessell a great shippe that is vnwildie.' Cooper. ' Re- 
multum. Funis, quo navis deligata trahitur vice remi ; unde Remultare, navem trakere, vel 
narem Remulto traliere* Ducange. ' Remulcus, toh-line.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 57. 

4 MS. on lyte : corrected from A. 

5 ' Antlia. A poompe, or lyke thing to draw up water.' Cooper. ' Anclea. A whele off 
a drauth welle.' Medulla. See also Whele of a drawe whele. 

6 See also Cokylle, and Darnelle, above. ' Dawke or Darnell, which causeth giddi- 
nesse in the head, as if one were drunken. LoliumS Withals. In the Supplement to 
Archbishop Aelfric's Gloss, pr. in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 55, zizania is glossed by 
,' laser,' and lolium by 'bofen,' which is generally supposed to be rosemary. 

7 Perhaps the same as ' Drimc. A drizzling rain.' Jamieson. 



SU8, pauiduB qui assidue timet, 
pauens qui ad temjms timet, trepi- 
dus, terribilis, terribulosus, veren- 
dus, stupidus, timidus, toruus. 

fa Dregbaly l ; Aqualiculus, porci est 

Dveggis 2 ; fex, feculencia, calcos, 
grece, muria olei eat. 

a Dreme ; oraculum, sompnium, vi- 

to Dreme ; sompniare. 

a Dremer ; sompniator. 

to Dresse ; i)orrig\er\e, jntendere ; 
vt i\\e jntendit an\im\um suum \ 
jntensare, dirigere, -tor 3 , -trice, & 
cetera verbal ia. 

a Dryssynge knyffe 4 ; spata, f areo- 
lar ium.. 

Dressoure 5 . 

to Dry ; A rifacere, siccare, ex-, hau- 
rire, dis siccare, e-. 

to be or wex Dry; Arere, ex-, aresceve, 

ex-, mercare, e-. 
Dry ; Aridus, siccus, inaquosus, xeron 

vel xeros grece. 
+a Dry erth ; Arida. 
fA Dryfte of snawe. (A.). 
fa Dry feste (Dryfast A.) 6 ; xero- 

a Drynes ; Ariditas, siccitas. 
a Drynke ; pocio, poculum, potus. 
to Drynke ; bibere, con-, potare, con-, 
e-, haurire ; versus : 
*\\Poto, do potum; poto, sumo 
michi 2>otum. 
Calicare ; bibit qui aliquid re- 
linquit, ebibit qui totum bibit. 
bibimus ex necessitate, Pota- 
mus ex voluntate. Sebibere 
est seorsum bibere. 
fto yif a Drynke ; potare, poculare, 
pocionare, im-. 

1 ' Aqualiculus, Ventriculus, sed proprie porcorum pinguedo super umbilicum.' Ducange. 
'Ventriculus. The stomacke. Aqualiculus. A parte of the belly; a paunche.' Cooper. 
Baret also has ' a Panch. Rumen Aqualiculus. A panch, or gorbellie guts, a tunbellie. 
Ventros*is,ventricosus.' l Aqualiculus : ventriculus porci.'' Medulla. Perhaps the meaning 
here is the dish 'haggis.' The Ortus Vocabulorum gives ' Omasus, i.e, tripa vel ventriculus 
qui continet alia viscera. A trype, or a podynge, or a wesaunt, or hagges :' and Cotgrave 
has ' Gogue. A sheepes paunch, and thence a haggas made of good herbes, chopt lard, 
spices, eggs, and cheese, the which incorporated and moistened with the warme blood of 
the (new-killed) beast, are put into her paunch, and sodden with other meat.' Withals 
says ' Ilia porcorum bona sunt, mala reliqnorum. The intrals of Hogges are good (I thinke 
he meaneth that which wee commonly call Hogges-Harslet).' See Hagas, below. 

2 ' Dreggis and draffe ' are mentioned in P. Plowman, B. xix. 397. ' Muria. The ouerest 
drest off oyle. Fex. Drestys. Amurca. Drestys off oyle.' Medulla. ' The dregges or drest 
of wine. Faeces, crastamenta.' Withals. 0. Icel. dregg. 3 MS. tox. 

* ' Hec mensacula, a dressyng-knyfe.' John de Garlande in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. 256. 
' A dressyn-knyf bord. Scamellus :' ibid. p. 200. Sir J. Fastolf 's kitchen, according to 
the Inventory taken in 1459, contained ' j dressyng lenyfe, j fyre schowle, ij treys, j streynour, 
&c.' Paston Letters, i. 490. Again ibid. iii. 466, in Dame Eliz. Browne's Will are men- 
tioned ' iij dressing Jenyfys, ij lechyng knyfys, ij choppyng knyfys.' ' A dressing knife. 
Cutter diversorius vclpopinarius? Withals. Horman gives : ' The dressynge knyfe is dulle. 
Cutter popinarius hebet? See also Dirsynge knyfe. 

5 See Dische benke, above. ' Dressoure or bourde wherupon the cooke setteth forth 
his dishes in order. Abax.' Huloet. ' Dressar where mete is served at.' Palsgrave. 'A 
dressing boorde. Tabula culinaria.' Withals. • At dressour also he shalle stonde.' Book 
of Curtasye, 557^ 

6 The plain diet adopted by men in training. ' Xerophagia, Gr. grjpotyayia, Aridus 
victus, arida comestio. Gloss. Lat. Gall. Sangerm. Xerofagia, seiche commestion. Hec 
cum athletis ad robur corporis, turn Christianis ad vivendi sobrietatem et castimoniam in 
usu fuit. Tertull. de Jejuniis cap. 1 : "Arguunt nosquod .... Xerophagias observemus, 
siccantes cibum ab omni carne, et omni jurulentia, et uvidioribus quibusque pomis." Idem 
cap. ult. : " Saginentur pugiles et pyctse Olympic! : illis ambitio corporis competit, quibus 
et vires necessariae, et tamen illi quoque Xerophagiis invalescunt." ' Ducange. ' Xero- 
phagia. Dry mete.' Medulla. Xerophagus it will be seen is used hereafter for Frute 




A Drynker ; biba.z; bib to, bibo, bibu- 

ta Dryster 1 ; dissiccator & -trix, tt* 

cetera a verbis. 
*to Dryte (Drytt A.) 2 ; cacare, ege- 

to Dry we (Dryffe A.) ; Agere, 

Agitare, ducere, e-, fugare, 

minare, impellere vt ventus in- 

pellit naueiw. 
to Drywe (Dryffe A.) away ; Abi- 

gere, fugare. 
a Drywer ; Agitator, minator, <£ 

cetera a verbis. 
ta Drywer (Dryfer A.) of nawte 3 ; 

Abactor, Armentarius. 
a Dromydary 4 ; dro7ned\xs, drome- 

darins est custos dromedorum <&• 
ponitur 2>vo ipso animali. 

fa Drone B ; A situs, fucus. 

a Drope ; gutta est gr&uioris hu- 
nioris ut mell'is ; guttula est 
c^iminutiuum, guttosus p&rtici- 
pium ; stilla est leuioris ut 
aque : vel dieitur gutta dum 
pendet vel stat, stilla cum. 
i\\a cadit ; stiliicidium, mitos, 

ffrom Drope to drope 6 ; guttatim, 

to Droppe ; stillare, dis-, guttare, 

\>e Dropsye ; idropis ; jdrojricus qui 
patitur infirmitatem. 

1 'Dryster. (i) The person who has the charge of turning and drying the grain in a 
kiln. (2) One whose business it is to dry cloth at a bleach-field.' Jamieson. 

2 ' To dryte, for [or] shyte. Cacare. 1 Manip. Vocab. In Havelok, ed. Skeat. 1. 682, 
Godard addresses Grim as ' fule drit cherl 

Go he]?on ; and be euere-more pral and cherl, als \o\\ er wore.' 

In the Glossary to Havelok, the following instance is given of this word, from an ancient 
metrical invective against Gi*ooms and Pages, written about 13 10, 

'Than he 3eue hem cattes dryt to huere companage, 
3et hym shulde arewen of the arrerage.' MS. Harl. 2253, leaf 125. 
In P. Plowman, A. vii. 178, we read — 

' An hep of Hermytes hentem heom spades, 
And doluen drit and donge, to dutte honger oute.' 
Se.e also Wyclif, Select Works, E. E. Text Soc. ed. Mathews, p. 166, where, inveighing 
against the abuses amongst the priests, he says — ' pei sillen in manere ]>e spiritual lif of 
cristis apostilis and disciplis for a litel drit and wombe ioie ;' a phrase which, slightly 
altered, appears also at the last line of the same page, • sillynge here massis & J?e 
sacrament of cristis body for worldly muk & wombe ioie.' See also ibid. pp. 166 and 182. 
O. Icel. dryt a. 

3 See a Drawe of nowte. 

4 ' A Drumbedarie. Dromedarins, Elephas, Elephantus.' Withals. In the Romance of 
Sir Ferumbras, Balanwhen sending a messenger to Mantrible to warn the Bridge- warden 
of the escape of Richard of Normandy, ' Clepede til hym Malyngras, )>at was ys Messager, 
And saide to hym, " beo wys and snel, And tak be dromodarye J>at go]) wel Andgray]>e 
pe on >y ger." ' 1. 3825. 

1 Quyk was don his counsaile ; Dromedaries, assen, and oxen.' 

And charged olifans and camailes. King Alisaunder, ed. Weber, 3407. 

'Dromedarye, a beast not vnlike a Camel, besides that he hath .ii. bownches on his backe 
and is verye swyfte, and can absteyne from drinckinge thre dayes when he worketh. 
Dromedarius, Dromeda, whereof the one is the male, the other the female.' Huloet. 

5 In Pierce the Ploughman's Crede (ed. Skeat), 1. 726, we read — 

'And right as dranes doth nought But drynketh up the huny.' 

Huloet says ' Drane or dorre, whyche is the vnprofitable bee hauynge no stynge : 
Cephenes, fucus, some take it to be a waspe, or drone bee, or humble bee.' ' Drane or 
humble bee, bourdon.' Palsgrave. 'Drane bee ; fucus.' Manip. Vocab. ' Bourdon. A drone 
or dorre-bee.' Cotgrave. A. S. dran, draen. 

6 Guttatim. Dropelyn.' Medulla. Harrison, ii. 58, uses ' dropmeales,' one of a 
numerous class of adverbs compounded with A. S. mad, a bit, portion, of which piecemeal 
alone survives. 



*Drovy ' ; turbidus, fatrbulentuB, 

to make Drovy ; turbare. 

to Drowne ; mevgere, com-, tie-, e-, 

di-y im-, mersare, mevsitare. 
Dronkyn ; ebrius, ad diem, multum 

bibisse signat ebriosus, et semper 

bibere sigivdt temulentus. 
fto be Dronkyn ; deebriare, madere, 

per-, re-, madescere, madefio, per-, 

fto make Dronkyn ; deebriare, ebri- 

are, inebriare. 
a Dronkynnes ; bibacitas, ebrietas, 


D anfe V. 
Dubylle ; binus, binarius, biplex, du- 
plex, geminus, bifarius. 
to Dubylle ; biniare, binare, duplare, 

duplicare, geminare, con-, in-. 

+a Dubylnes ; biplicitas, duplicitas. 

Dubylle-tonged ; Ambiloquus, bifa- 
rius, bilinguis. 

tDubylle-ijates 2 ; bifores. 

*a Dublar 3 ; dualis, & cetera ; vhi 
a dische. 

a Dublet 4 ; diplois. 

ta Duchery ; ducatns. 

a ; ducissa, ducella dimimi- 

Dughty 5 ; vhi worthy. 

a Duke ; dux ; versus : 

^[Hic dux est miles, hie hee dux 
sit tibi ductor. 

a Dukke ; A nas, anatinus, anatinulis, 
id est pullus anatis ; Anatinus. 

Dulle ; ebes, obtusus. 

to be Dulle; asininare, ebere,ebescere, 

1 In the Pricke of Conscience, 1443, we read in the Lands. MS. 348 — 

' Now is wedir bryght and schinonde Now is dym droubelonde ;' 

and in Psalms iii. 2 — 

* Loverd, how fele-folded are J>ai, pat drove me, to do me wa.' 

1 per faure citees wern set, nov is a see called, 
pat ay is drouy and dym, & dec! in hit kynde.' 

Early Eng. Allit. Poems, ed. Morris, i. 1016. 
Caxton, Descr. of England, 1480, p. 14, speaks of the water of a bath as ' trobly and sourer 
of sauour.' Maundeville, in describing various methods of testing the purity of balm, says, 
' Put a drope in clere watre, in a cuppe of sylver, or in a clere bacyn, and stere it wel with 
the clere watre ; and 3if the bawme be fyn and of his owne kynde, the watre schalle neuere 
trouble ; and 3if the bawme be sophisticate, that is to seyne, coimtrefeted, the water schalle 
become anon trouble? In Lonelich's History of the Holy Grail, E. E. Text Soc. ed. 
Furnivall, xxxix. 332, the ninth descendant of Nasciens is likened in his vision to 
' A flood that in begynneng was Trouble and thikke in every plas.' 

See also 11. 243, 352 and 537, and xviii. 95. Hampole, P. of Conscience, 1318, says— 
' Angres mans lyf clenses, and proves, And welthes his lif trobles and droves :' 
and he also uses the word drovyng, tribulation. Dutch droef, droeve, troubled ; droeven, 
to trouble, disturb. See Skeat's Mceso-Gothic Diet. s.v. Drobjan. ' Turbidus. Trubly or 
therke.' Medulla. ' Tatouiller. To trouble, or make foul, by stirring.' Cotgrave. The 
word still survives in the North. Wyclif, Select Works, ii. 333, says : ' pe wynd of Goddis 
lawe shulde be cleer, for turblenes in ]ns wynde must needis turble mennis lyf :' and again 
i. 14, ' medle wi}> mannis lawe bat is trobly water.' 

2 The Medulla (St. John's MS.) explains bifores by ' a trelis wyndowe,' and MS. Harl. 
2270, by ' duble wyket.' 

3 ' A dysche oj^er a dobler J»at dryBtyn onej serued.' E. Eng. Allit. Poems, ed. Morris, ii. 
1 146. See also ibid. ii. 1279. In P. Plowman, B. Text, xiii. 80, we read — 

' And wisshed witterly with wille ful e_yre, Were molten lead in his maw.' 

pat disshes & dobleres bifor pis ilke doctour, 
Kay gives ' Doubler, a platter {North) ; so called also in the South.'' Tomlinson (in Ray) 
says — ' A Dubler or Doubler, a dish ;' and Lloyd (also in Ray) says — ' Dwbler in Cardi- 
ganshire signifies the same.' The French doublier meant (1) a cloth or napkin; (2) a 
purse or bag ; (3) a platter. See Roquefort. Jamieson has ' Dibler. A large wooden 

* « Dipolis [read Diplois']. A dobelet.' Medulla. 5 A. S. Dohtig. 



to make Dulle ; ehetare, obtundere. 

a Dullnes ; ebitudo, decliuitas. 

Dumme ; mutus, elinguatus sine 
lingua est, elinguis habet linguam 
set eius caret vsu. 

to be Dume ; Mutere, mutesceve, mu~ 
tire, de- ob-. (A.) 

Dumme ; vbi dom. 

tDuwne l ; vbi a duke. 

tto make Dumme ; elinguare. 

Dunge ; ruder, <& cetera ; vbi muk. 

a Dunoke (Dune not A.) 2 ; curuca, 
Auis que duc'xt cuculum, linosa 
idem secundum quosdam. 

a Dure (Duyr A.) ; hostium, & cet- 
era ; vbi a jate. 

tfrom Dure to Dure ; hostiatim. 

a Dusane ; duodena. 
*a Duselle 3 ; clipsedra (A.). 
a Duste ; puluer vel -is ; puluerius, 

D &nte "W. 

a Dwarghe 4 ; tantillus. 

to Dwells; colere, ac-, in-, habitare, 
in-, herere, in-, manere. ^;er-, 
mansare, mansitare, morari, com- 
morari, cornier sari. 

a Dweller ; Accola, jncola. 

a Dwellyngc ; cultus, hahitacio. jnco- 
la tus, 77iausio, mansula, mansi- 
uncula ; mansionarius. 

a Dwellynge place ; vbi a mauer (vbi 
Place A.). 

C&pitulum 5 m E. 

1FE &nte B. 

to e bbe ; rejluere, redundare. 

an Ebbynge 5 ; refluxus, malina. 

<I E ante C. 

t]?e Eclypse (Eclipis A.); edipsis ; 

1 Harrison, Descr. Eng. ii. 13, mentions amongst other waterfowl, the dunbird, which is 
perhaps what is here intended, and may possibly be the Dunlin, Tringa vulgaris, a species of 
sandpiper. The goosander, Mergus merganser, is also known as the Dun -diver, and a North 
American species of duck still retains the name of Dunbird. 

2 Cotgrave gives s.v. Mart, ' Maricocu. An hedge-sparrow, Dike-smowler, Dunnecker : 
called so because she hatches and feeds the cuckoes young ones, esteeming them her own.' 
Cooper explains Currucca as 'the birde that hatcheth the cuckowes egges ; a titlyng.' 
Dannock, from dun, the colour, as ruddock — redbreast, from red. Harrison, Descript. of 
Eng. ii. 1 7, mentions amongst the birds of England the ' dunock or redstart.' Withals gives 
Pinnocke, or Hedge-sparrow, which bringeth up the Cuckoe's birdes in steade of her owne. 
Curruca. 1 ' Hec lonefa, Anglice, donek.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 252. 

3 The faucet of a barrel. In Robert of Gloucester we read, ' Hii caste awei the dodls 
pat win orn abrod.' p. 542. It is also used in the North for ' a plug, a rose at the end of 
a water pipe, or a wisp of straw or hay to stop up an aperture in a barn.' See Mr. F. K. 
Robinson's Whitby Glossary. Thus in version of the Seuyn Sages in MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 
36, leaf 139, quoted by Hallivvell, we have — 

' And when he had made holes so fell And stoppyd every oon of them with a doselle? 
1 Inprimis, a holy water tynnell of silver and gylte, and a dasshel to the same, silver and 
gylte.' Inventory of Plate of Worcester Priory, in Greene's Hist, of Worcester, vol. ii. p. 
v. appendix. ' A dosylle ; hie ducellus.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 198. See also 
Spygott. ' Clepsidra. A tappe or a spy got.' Medulla. 

1 A.S. dtveorg, dweorh. ' Tantillus. A dwerwh.' Medulla. ' Jo vey ester un pety nei/m 
(a dwarw, dweruf).' W. de Biblesworth, in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 167. 'A dwergh 
yode on the tother syde.' Ywaine & Gawin, 2390. 

5 * Malina. Heah-flod.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 57. ' Malina. Oceani incrementum. 
Inde urbi Mechlinensi in Brabantia, quain veteres aliquot scriptores et Galli Malinas 
vocant, nomen inditum quidam arbitrantur : Quasi Maris linearn, eo quod accessus re- 
cessusque maritimi hie statio fit, inquit Corn. Van Gestel in Hist. sacr. et prof, archiep. 
Mechlin, torn. i. p. i.' Carpentier's Supp. to Ducange. 'I ebbe, as the see dothe. Je 
reflotte. It begynneth to ebbe, lette us go hence betyme.' Palsgrave. 



"[ E ante F. 
Efter (Eft or An atyer tyme A.) ; 
Alias, deintegro, itevum, denuo, 
denouo, rursus, rursum, secundo. 

HE ante G. 

an Ege (Egge A.) 1 ; Acies, acumen. 
an Eg (Egge A.) ; ouum, ouiculum, 
ouuhim ; versus : 
^Est vilis ouis que nou valet 
tiibus ouis. 
tan Ege schell^ ; putamen 2 . 
an Eghe s ; oculus, talmus 4 , ocellus, 
pupilla, Acies est visus oculi ; 
(versus : 
%Est Acies belli, cultelli, visus 
ocelli A.), 
tone Eghyd ; monoculus, monotal- 

mus 4 . 
an Eghelyd ; cilium, palpebra, pal- 

an Egylk ; aquila ; aquilinus ; ver- 
sus : 
^Sunt aquile documenta tibi 
preclara, docet te 
Rex auiura qua sis lege regen- 
dus homo. 

Vos alii hie Auis exam in at 

astra volatu, 
Visitat & visu lonyius vna 

Esto tui judex, viuas sublimi- 

ter, esto 
Prouidus & laudes alitis huius 

Victu sublimis, visu subtilis, 

amans ius, 
Exemplis aquile rex eris ipse 
tEgipte (Egypp A.); egip)tus) egip- 

Egrymon ; Agrimonia (A.). 

E ante K. 
tto Eke ; vbi to hepe. 
an Ekname 5 ; Agnomen, cZicitur a 

specie vel accione, agnominac'w. 
tan Eker; Auctor, Augmeutator, -tvix. 
tan Ekynge 6 ; adaugma, augmen- 

tum, auccio, augmentacio. 
tEkynge of a worde. 

E ante L. 
an Elbowe ; lacertus. 
t An Eland 7 ; Mediampnis, medi- 
ampna (A.). 

1 In the Inventory of the goods of Sir J. Fastolfe, 1459, Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner, 
i. 468, we find. ' Item, vj bolles with oon coverecle of silver, the egges gilt ;' and in the 
Prologue to the Tale of Beryn, 587, the Pardoner in the dark runs against a pan when 

' The egge of the panne met with his shyn And karf a-two a veyn, & the nexte syn.' 

2 ' Putamen. A shale ; a parynge.' Cooper. ' Putamen. A shell, paring, the rind, 
cup.' Coles. ' He fondith to creope ageyn in to the ayschelle.' K. Alisaunder, 576. 

3 ' pat sight he sal se with gaestly eghe With payn of dede J)at he moste dreghe.' 
A.S. eage, O. Icel. auga. Pricke of Conscience, 2234. 

4 Representing apparently the Greek 6<p9a\fx.os and fiov6(f)9a\fxos respectively. 

5 ' Agnomino. To calle nekename. Agnomen, an ekename, or a surname.' Medulla. The 
word occurs in the Handling Synne, ed. Furnivall, 1531, ( 3eue^ a man a vyle ekename.' 
See P. Nekename. A. S. eaca, an addition, increase. Icel. auka-nafn, a nickname. 

6 ' Augeo. To moryn. Augmenticm. An ekyng.' Medulla. 

1 5iff J>u takesst twi33es an pu finndesst, butt a wunnderr be, 

And ekesst itt till fowwre, pe fulle tale off sexe.' Ormulum, 11. 16352-5. 

' He ayJced his folk with mikel on an.' Early Eng. Psalter, civ. 24. A.D. 131 5 
' I etche, I increase a thynge. Je augmente. I eke, I increase or augment. My gowne is to 
shorte for me, but I wyll eke it.' Palsgrave. 

7 ' Ealand, an island.' Craven Glossary. 'Mediampnis et Mediampna est insula in 
medio ampnis vel aque dulcis.' Ortus. Leland constantly uses Mediamnis in the sense of 
an island, thus we frequently find such sentences as, ' it standeth as a Mediamnis yn the 
Poole.' Itinerary, ed. Hearne, vii. 25. For the plural he uses the Latin form, as, ' the 
river of Tame maketh two Medkvmnes betwixt Tamworth Towne and Hopwais Bridge.' 
Itinerary, viii. 115. 



tElde * ; senecta, senectws, senium, 
annositas,anliquitas, etas, etacula, 
longeuitas, vetustas, auitas ; ver- 
sus : 
%Euuxn die totum, pars temporis 
^icitu?* etas. 

*an Eldfad^r 2 ; socer (socrus uxor 
eius A.) ; socerinws jpartficipi- 

*an Eldmoder ; socrus. 

an Ele (Eyle A.) ; Anguilla ; Anguil- 

tanElebed; Anguillarium.. 

an Elefaunte s ; eliphas, elephans ; 

eliphantinus, elephantus. 
*an Elfe 4 ; lamia, eumenis , dicta Ab eu, 

quod est bonum, do mene, defectum. 
tElfe lande. 
be Eleme>tte ; elementum; elementa- 

Elles ; Alias, Alioquin. 
Elleuen; vndecim; vndecim\is,vnden- 

us, vndenarius, vndeces. 
fan Elleuen sythes; vndecies. 
*an Ellyrtre 5 ; Alnus; alnicetum. est 

locus vhi cvescunt. 

1 The primary meaning of elde is age simply, as in Lajamon, 25913, 

• Aelde haefde heo na mate Buten fihtene 3ere.' 

Compare 'All be he neuir sa young off did! Barbour's Bruce, xii. 322 ; and again ibid. 
xx. 43, where we read how Robert's son David, who was but five years of age, was betrothed 
to Joan of the Tower * that than of eild had sevin jer.' Cf. Lonelich's Holy Grail, xxii. 
118, ' So fine a child & of so 3ong elde.' But subsequently the word was restricted to the 
sense of old age, as in ' And if I now begyne in to myne eld! Lancelot of the Lait, ed. 
Skeat, 3225, and in the Miller's Tale, C. T. 3229, where we are told 

' Men schulde wedde aftir here astaat, For eeld and youthe ben often at debaat.' 

A . S. eald, old. Compare Eueneldes. 

2 Used in both senses of grandfather and father-in-law : see Jamieson. Ray in his Glossary 
of North Country Words gives ' Elmother, a stepmother, Cumberland.' In Barbour's Bruce, 
ed. Skeat, xiii. 694, we are told that the king married his daughter to Walter Stewart, 

' And thai weill soyne gat of thar bed Callit Robert, and syne was king 

Ane knaiff child, throu our Lordis grace And had the land in gouernyng.' 

That eftir his gude eld-fadir was 

• Eldfather, aims ; eldmoder, avid! Wright's Vol. of Vocab. 205. Lloyd derives it from 

Welsh ail = second. In the Cursor Mundi, ed. Morris, p. 76, 1. 11 89, it is said of Adam 

that he * was born He had his eldmoder maiden-hede, 

Bath his father and moder be-forn ; And at his erthing all lede.' 

Wyclif, Works, i. 181, says, 'a child is ofte lyk to his fadir or to his modir, or ellis to his 
eelde fadir,' and again in the Prol. to Eccles. p. 123, he speaks of ' myn eldefather Jhesus.' 
Lasamon also uses the word for a grandfather: 'He wes Maerwale's fader, Mildburye,' iii. 
246. See also Chaucer, Boethius, p. 40, and E. Eng. Metrical Homilies, ed. Small, p. 122. 
Cf. also G. Douglas, Eneados, Bk. vi, p. 195, 1. 26, ed. 17 10, where it is used to translate 
socer, and at p. 55, 1. 43, he speaks of Hecuba as 'eldmoder to ane hnnder.' ' Avia. An 
eld modere. Socrus. An e[l]de modere.' Medulla. 3 See also Olyfaunte. 

4 ' Lamia. A beaste that hath a woman's face, and feete of an horse.' Cooper. ' Satirus. 
An elfe or a mysshapyn man.' Medulla. In the Man of Lawe's Tale, 754, the forged 
letter is represented as stating that 

' the queen deliuered was The moder was an elf, by auenture 

Of so horrible a feendly creature .... Ycome, by charmes or by sorcerye :' 
and in the Chanoun's Yemannes Tale, 842, Alchemy is termed an ' eluish lore.' Horman 
says : ' The fayre hath chaunged my chylde. Strix, vet lamia pro meo suum paruulum, 
supposuit.' In Aelfric's Glossary, Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 60, we have elf used as 
equivalent to the classical nymph : thus we find ' Oread es, munt-aelfen ; Dryades, wudu- 
elfen ; Hamadryades, wylde-elfen ; Naiades, see-elfen ; Castalides, dun-elfen.' 'Pumilus. 
An elfe or dwarfe.' Stanbridge, Vocabula. 

5 ' Aulne, Aune. An aller, or Alder-tree.' Cotgrave. ' Eller. The alder.' Jamieson. In 
P. Plowman, B. i. 68, we are told that Judas 'on an eller honged hym,' where other readings 
are ' elrene, helderne, elnerene, hiller-tre.' 'Hillortre Sambucus.'' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. 
p. 191. ' Ellurne. Sambucus! ibid. p. 140. In the same vol. p. 171, the gloss on W. de 
Biblesworth renders de aunne by ' allerne.' The translator of Palladius On JIusbondric 
speaks of 'holgh eller sticlies,'' iv. 57, where the meaning is evidently elder. 



anElne 1 ; vlna, vluala ; vlnul'vs, vl- 

an Eloquence ; desertitudo, eloquen- 

Eloquent ; eloquens, desertus. 
*an Elsyn 2 ; Acus, subula (fibula 


E ante M. 

*an Erne ; Avunculus, patruus ; ver- 
sus : 
%Patruus a p&trependet (sit A.). 
Auunculus ex genitrice. 

tan Erne son or doghter 3 ; patru- 
elis, ex parte p&tris, consobrinus 
ex parte m&tris. 

be Emeraudes (Emoraude A.) 4 ; 
emoroide, emorois; emoroissus qui 
patitur talem. infirmitatem. 

be Emygrane 5 ; emigraneus. 

an Emp[er]our ; cesar ; cesareus,ce- 
sarianus, cesariensis, augustus ; 
imperator ; imperialis pardcipi- 
ura ; accionator, induperator. 

tan Eniprice ; imperatiix. 
tan Empyre ; intperium. 
tan Emplaster 6 ; cataplasiiia,emplas- 

E ante N. 

tto Enchete ; fiscare & -ri, con-, in-, 

tan Encheter ; Jiscator, con-, fiscari- 

us, con-, eschatarius, eschaetor. 
to Encrece ; jncrescere. 
an Encresynge; crementum, incre- 

an Ende ; effectus, euentus, exitus, 

finis ; finitiuus ^ardcipium ; meta, 

modus, terminus. 
to Ende ; conficere, per-, complere, 

consummare, finire, de-, dif-, ex- 

ferre, terminare, sopire, finitare, 

determinare <Ss -ri, ad effectual de- 

tEndles ; eternus, co-, perhennis, per- 

2>etuus, 2?erpes, & cetera ; vhi euer- 


1 ' Ulna. An ellyn.' Medulla. ' Elne or elle, ulna.' Huloet. See also Jamieson, s. v. 
Elne. A. S. eln, 0. Icel. din, alin, Lat. ulna. In the Oesta Romanorum, p. 129, we have 
' I shalle jeve to the ij ellene of lynone clothe for to lappe in ]>y body when that thou arte 

2 ' Elsen, an aule, a shoemaker's aule.' Hexham, Netherduytch Diet. 1660. • Subula. An 
awle that cordiners doo use for a bodkin.' Cooper. ' Alesne, an awle ; or shoemaker's 
bodkin.' Cotgrave. The Medulla gives ' Subula. An elsyn. Est instrumentum subula su- 
toris acutum? ' Ballons great and smale, iiij s . A box of combes ij s . vj onces of sanders 
vj d . In elson blayds and packnedles, ix d . In bruntstone, treacle, and comin, xiiij d .' 
Inventory of Thos. Pasmore, in Richmondshire Wills and Inventories, Surtees Soc. vol. 
xxvi. p. 269. 

3 ' Patruelis. Coosens germaines ; the children of two bretheren.' Cooper. 

4 4 Emeroudes or pylles, a sicknesse.' Palsgrave. ' An emorade, emaragdus.' Manip. 
Vocab. ' A wild or vnsauorie figge ; also it is a disease in the fundament called the 
hemoroides or the Piles.' Baret. ' Hemorrhues. Called ordinarily the Enirods or Piles.' 
Cotgrave. See Wyclif, Deuteronomy xxviii. 27. In the Complaynt of Scotlande, ed. 
Murray, p. 67, the author speaks of ' ane erb callit barba aaron, quhilk vas gude remeid 
for emoroyades of the fundament.' In a Poem on Blood-letting pr. in Reliq. Antiq. i. 190, 
it is said, 'A man schal blede ther [in the arm] also, The emeraudis for to undo.' 
See also J)e Figes hereafter. 

5 Cotgrave gives ' Migraine, f. The megrim, or headach. Hemieraine, m. The Meagrum, 
or headache by fits.' ' Emigranea, dolor capitis, megraine. i Ducange. ' Migrym, a sicke- 
nesse, chagrin, maigre.' Palsgrave. ' Migrim, hernecrania.^ Manip. Vocab. ' The m^nm, 
a paine in one side of the head.' Baret. ' Emoroys. Flyx off blode, or the emorowdys.' 
Medulla. 'Migrymme. Hemicranea? Huloet. See P. Mygreyme, and compare Mygrane, 

6 We are told in Lyte's Dodoens, p. 649, that the root of the Affodyll is ' good against 
new swellings and impostemes that do but begin, being layde vpon in maner of an emplayster 
with parched barley meale.' See also ibid. p. 93. In the * Pilgrymage of the Lyf of the 
Manhode,' Roxburgh Club, ed. W.A.Wright, p. 201, Death says to the Pilgrim, * Mawgre 
alle the boxes and emplastres and oynementes and empassionementes sum tyme I entrein.' 



tit is Endit ; Explicit (vt explicit 
iste liber A.), expliciunt. 

to Endite ' ; dictare, in-. 

an Enditer 2 ; dictator, indictator. 

an Enditynge; dictura, dictamen. 

fto Enforse 3 ; vbi to [be] a-bowte- 

tEnge 4 ; vbi a medew. 

an Engine ; aries, ingenium, ma- 

anEnmy; Aduersarius in pugna, 
emulus in studio, inimicus in videa, 
hostis; hos'ilis, inimical'xs. 

tto make Enmy ; inimicari. 

fan Enmy slaer ; hosticida. 

an Enmyte ; Aduersitas, emulacio, 

inimicicia, hostditas. 
Enoghe ; satis, sufficiens. 
1 Entyrly 5 ; intime. 
to Entremett (Entermet A.) 6 ; jn- 

to Entyce ; vbi to jntyce. 
to Enter; inyredi, ingruere, inire, 

intr&re, introire, irruere : versus : 
1I/w<ra[<] homo, bruma sic in- 
gruit, irruit hostis. 
an Entry ; Accessus, Aditus, Ag- 


1 See also Indite. ' I endyte, I make a writyng or a mater, or penne it. Je dictie. He 
writeth no verye fayre hande, out he endyteth as well as any man. Write thou and I 
wyll endyte : tu escripras et je composeray, or je dicteray or je coucheray le langaige.' 

2 'And whan the dyteris and writeris of the kyng weren clepid.' Wyclif, Esther viii. 9. 

3 ' Whate schall J>ou do when J>ou schalle goo thy waye vnarmed, and when thyne enmyes 
schalle assayle the and enforce pam to scle the ?' Pilgrimage of the Life of the Manhode, 
MS. St. John's Coll. Camb. leaf 46 13 . In Wyclif's version of Genesis xxxvii. 21, we are 
told that when Joseph's brethren wished to put him to death Reuben 'enforside to delyuere 
hym of the hondys of hem ;' and in Sir Ferumbras, the Saracen, after his duel with Oliver, 
though sorely wounded, ' en for cede hym per to arise vpon ys fete.' 1. 782. ' I enforce my 
selfe, I gather all my force and my strength to me, to do a thynge, or applye me unto the 
uttermoste I may to do a thyng. Je esuertue. He enforced hym selfe so sore to lyfte this 
great wayght that he dyd burst hym selfe.' Palsgrave. • Naaman enforcid hym pat he 
schuld haue take po giftis.' Wyclif, Select Wks. ed. Matthew, p. 378. See also Maunde- 
ville, p. 137, and Chaucer, Boethius, p. 11. Compare Fande, below. 

4 ' Ings. Low pasture lands.' Whitby Glossary. 'The term is usually applied to land 
by a river-side, and rarely used but in the plural, though the reference be only to one field. 
With some people, however, it is confounded with pasture itself, and is then used in the 
singular. At these times the word accommodates itself with a meaning, being a substitute 
for river-side.'' Mr. C. Robinson's Glossary of Mid. Yorkshire, E. Dial. Soc. ' Ings. Low- 
lying grass lands.' Peacock's Gloss, of Manley, &c. See also Ray's Glossary. A. S. ing ; 
Icel. eng, a meadow. Lye gives ' Ing-wyrt, meadow-wort.' In the Farming and Account 
Books of Henry Best of Elmswell, York, 1641, published by the Surtees Soc. vol. xxxiii. 
p. 32, we read, ' In a moist yeare hardlande-grasse proveth better then carres, or ing- 
growndes, and ridges of lande better then furres, for water standinge longe in the furres 
spoyleth the growth for that yeare.' 

5 In the Gesta Romano rum, p. 171, we read, 'He praythe the enterly, pat pou make for 
him of this litle quantite a shirte.' Cooper renders intimus by ' intierly beloued ; a high 
& especial friende : intime, very inwardly ; from the bottome of the hearte.' In Polit. Rel. 
and Love Poems, ed. Furnivall, p. 41, the word is used as an adjective : ' besechinge you 
euer with myn enterly hert.' 

6 ' S'entremettre de, to meddle, or deal with, to thrust himself into.' Cotgrave. ' Who 
euer schewith him lewid .... he is worthi to be forbode fro entermeting with the Bible 
in eny parte ther-of.' Pecock's Repressor,!. 145. 'Of folys that vnderstonde nat game, 
and can no thynge take in sport, and yet intermyt them with Folys.' Barclay's Ship of 
Fools, ed. Jamieson, ii. 33. See also P. Plowman, C. Text, xiv. 226, and King Alisaunder, 
ed. Weber, 4025. In the Eng. Translation of the Charter of Rich. Ill to the Fishmongers' 
Company, in Herbert's Hist, of Twelve Livery Companies, iv. 22, is an order that ' No foreyn 
shall entermet hym in the forsaid Cite.' Cf. Liber Albus, pp. 77, 397, where the phrase 
' intromit te re se' is used in the same sense. l Prof or. To entermentyn.' Medulla. See 
also to Melle, below. 

I % 



tto Entyrdyte l ; jntevdicere. 

tan Entirdytyng^ ; jntevdictum. 

an Entrelle ; vbi A tharme. 

to Entyrchaunge ; Altemor (A.). 


E ante P. 
tbe Epyphany ; epiphania. 
tan Epistelle ; epistola, litera ; epis- 

E ante Q,. 

tEquivoce ; eqmvocus, omonimus 2 . 
tEquinoccion ; eqmnoccium, equidi- 
um. 3 . 

E ante R. 

*an Erane (a spyder or an Atter- 
copp) 4 ; Aranea, Araniola ; 

an Erande ; negocium. 

*to Ere (Eyr A.) ; v6i to plughe 

(plowghe A.). 
an Ere of corne 5 ; spica, Arista, 

an Ere : Auris hominum est, .4im- 

cula brutorum, Ansa est o^e, 

Ansula cZmiinutiuum ; Auricu- 

laris, Auricus. 
fan Erepyke (Eyrpyke A.) G ; Auri- 

fricium, Aurifodium. 
an Erie ; comes, comicellus. 
an Erie dome ; comitatus. 
tan Erie wyfe (or a countess) ; 

tErls (Erelys A.) 7 ; Arabo, Arm, & 

cetera; vbi hanselle. 

1 'This bissopes .... entreditede al this lond.' Rob. of Gloucester, p. 495. 

' Him & his fautours he cursed euerilkon And enterdited j>is lond.' 

R. de Brunne's Chronicle, p. 209. 

2 MS. ononimus. Compare Evyn of voce, below. 

3 ' jEquidicde. The leuell of the yere.' Cooper. ' JEquidium. Hevynheed off day and 
nyth.' Medulla. 

4 'Ac wat etestu, that thu ne lije, Bute attercoppe an fule vlije?' 

Owl and Nyghtingale, 600. 
' Eir corumpif) a Ip'mg anoon, as it schewij) weel by generacioun of flies and areins, and siche 
othere.' The Book of Quinte Essence, ed. Furnivall, p. 2. 'His cordes er bot erayne thredes.' 
DeDeguileville'sPilgrimage; MS. John's Coll. Camb. leaf 1 1 7 bk . ' In the towne of Schrowys- 
bury setan iii e men togedur, and as they seton talkyng, an atturcoppe com owte of the wowj, 
and bote hem by the nekkus alle }>re.' Lyf of St. Wenefride in Robert de Brunne, 
p. cc. Caxton in his edition of Trevisa, speaking of Ireland, says, 'ther ben attercoppes, 
blodesoukers and eeftes that doon none harme,' p. 48 ; and in the Game of the Chesse, p. 
29, he says that ' the lawes of somme ben like vnto the nettis of spyncoppis.'' See drawings 
of an atter-eoppaof the period in MS. Cotton. Vitell. C. iii., which by no means agree with 
the notion of its being a spider. ' Loppe, fleonde-nteddre vel attor-coppe.' Alfrics Gloss. in 
Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 24. 'Araneus, an adercop, or a spynner.' Stanbridge'sFoca&itia, 
sign, d ii. Jamieson gives 'Attercap, Attir-cop, and Ettercap. A spider.' ' Attercop, a 
venomous spider.' Pegge. ' Arain, a spider, k Lat. aranea. It is used only for the largest 
kind of spiders. Nottinghamshire.' Ray's Glossary. ' Erayne, a spider.' Nominale. 
' Arania. An erany.' Medulla. See also Mire's Instructions for Parish Priests, p. 59, 
1. 1937? and Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 138, 1. 945. A. S. ator, attor, 03tor ; 0. Icel. eitr, 
poison, venom. 5 See also Awne, above. 

6 ' Auriscalpium. An eare picker.' Cooper. In the Inventory of the Jewels, &c. of 
James III. of Scotland, taken in 1488, are mentioned 'twa tuthpikis of gold with acheyne, 
a perle and erepike? Tytler, Hist, of Scotland , ii. 391. 'In this combe cace are your yuorie 
& box combes, your cisors, with your eare pickers, & al your other knacks.' Florio, Second 
Frutes, p. 9. 

7 See also to Handfeste. In Hali Meidenhad, ed. Cockayne, 7, we find ' )>is ure 
laverd 3iveS ham her as on erles.'' See also Morte Arthure, ed. Brock, 2687, and G. 
Douglas, Enead. xi. Prol. 1. 181. Horman says, ' I shall gyue the a peny in ernest or an 
erest peny. Arrabonem dabo.' ' Ades or Earles, an earnest penny.' Ray's Glossary. 
'Aries-penny, earnest money given to servants.' Kersey. 'To arle, to give a piece of 
money to confirm a bargain. Aries, erlis, arlis pennie, arile penny, a piece of money given 
to confirm a bargain.' Jamieson. ' Arra. Arnest or hansale.' Medulla Gaelic earlas, 
from earal, provision, caution. The following curious extract is from MS. Ashmole, 860, 



to Erre ; delirare, deuiare, exorbitare f 

A r rare. 
tto yife Erls (Erlys A.); Arrare, 

in-, sub-. 
tan Errynge; erratus, error ; Arrati- 
cus corpore <& loco, Arraticius 
ammo, erroneus. 
an Erse ; Anus, cuius, posteriora. 
an Erse wyspe 1 ; memperium. 
be Erthe ; terra, humus, Arida tel- 
l\xs ; versus : 

HOps, humus atque solum, rea, 
terra vel arida, tellus : 
terrenus,terreus,terrestris; versus : 
U humor humum reddit, terrain 
terit vsus aratri, 
Estque solum, solidum, sed 
tellus tollit in altum. 

*an Erthe dyii, or an Erth<? qvake 2 ; 

tan Erthe vessels ; Jictilis (A.). 

E anfe S. 

tan Eschete 3 : eschatea. 
tto Eschete ; eschaetare. 
an Esehe 4 ; fraxinus ; fraxinus, 

fraxcineus ; fraxinetum est locus 

vhi crescit. 
an Ese (Eyse A.) ; edia, ocium. 
Esy ; ediosus, secundus, secundatus, 

humilis, leuis & suauis. 
tEsy of gate ; gracilis. 
to make Esy; humiliare, lenire, pros- 

perare, secundare. 
*anEsynge 6 ; domicilium, tectum. 
an Espe 6 ; tremulus. 

leaf 19 : — 'Ex lihro Rotulorum Curice Manerii de Halfield, juxta insula\m~\ de Axholme, in 

Com. Ebor. : — Curia tenia apud Halfield die Mercurii proximo post festum Anno 

xi Edicardi III, Robertus de Roderham qui optulit se versus Johannem de Ithen de eo quod 
non teneat convencionem inter eos factam & wide queritur quod certo die et anno apud 
Thome convenit inter predictum Robertitm & Johannem, quod predictus Johannes vendidit 
predicto Roberto diabolum ligatum in quodam ligamine pro iij ob. et super predictus Robertus 
tradidit predicto Johanni quoddam obolum earles, per quod proprietas dicti diaboli com- 
moratur in persona dicti Roberti ad habendum deliberacionem dicti diaboli, infra quartam 
diem proximam sequentem. Ad quam diem idem Robertus venit ad prefatum Johannem et 
petit deliberacionem dicti diaboli secundum convencionem inter eos factam, idem Johannes 
predictum diabolum, deliberate noluit, nee adhuc vult, &c, ad graue dampnum ipsius Roberti 
Ix solidi, et inde producit sectam, &c. Et predictus Johannes venit, &c. Et non dedicit con- 
vencionem predictam ; et quia vfdetur curice quod tale placitum nonjacet inter Christianos, 
ideo partes predicti adjournatus usque in infernum, ad audiendum. judicium suum, et utraque 
pars in misericordia, &c.' Quoted in Mr. Peacock's Gloss, of Manley, &c. 

1 ' I wolde his eye wer in his ers.' P. Plowman, B. x. 123. See also under A. 

2 ' Terremotus. An erdyn.' Medulla. In the A. -Saxon Chronicles, under the year 1060, 
it is mentioned that, 'On ftisan gere waes micel eor])dyne,' ed. Earle, p. 193. Amongst 
the signs of the day of Judgment Hampole tells us 

'Pestilences and hungers sal be And erthedyns in many contre.' Priche of Conscience, 4035. 
And again — ' pe neghend day, gret erthedyn sal be. 1 Ibid. 4790. 

A. S. eord dyne. ' Bren it Shunder, sane il erftedine.' Genesis & Exodus, ed. Morris, 1108, 
and see also 1. 3196. 

3 Fr. eschoir, to fall ; that is lands fallen or reverting into the hands of the lord or 
original owner, by forfeiture or for want of heirs of the tenant. See Liber Custumarum, 
Glossary, s. v. Escaeta. Thus in Rauf Coib,ear, E. E. Text Soc. ed. Murray, 761, Charles 
promises to give Rauf ' The nixt vacant .... 

That hapnis in France, quhair sa euer it fall, Forfaltour or fre waird.' 

* Fallen in Excheat for lacke of an heir, caduca hcereditas.' Baret. ' I fall, as an offyce, or 
landes, or goodes falleth in to the kynges handes by reason of forfayture. Je eschoys.' 
Palsgrave. * ' Esch. The ash, a tree.' Jamieson. A. S. asc. 

5 In P. Plowman, C. Text, xx. 93, we read of ' Isykeles in euesynges.' Baret gives 
' Eauesing of an house , suggrundatio, and Huloet ' Evesynge or eves settynge or trimmynge. 
Imbricium, Subgrundatio.' Jamieson has ' Easing, and easing-drap, the eaves of a house.' 
In the Ancren Riwle, p. 142, we are told that ' pe niht fuel io'en eucsunge bitocneS recluses, 
}>at wunie]? forJ)i, under chirche euesunge.' ' Evese mi cop, moun top.' Wright's Vocab. 
p. 144. 6 ' Tremble. An ashe or aspen tre.' Cotgrave. 



fan Essoyii of courte ' ; essonium. 
tan Esquier; vbi A squier(Esqwyer; 

vbi Sqwyere A.). 
be Este ; oriens ; eous, orientalis. 
be Estewynde ; eurus. 
Est Northe (A.). 

E &nte T. 

2 ; etliro- 

Ethroglett (Ethroclett A.) 

clisis, diuersiclinhim ; ethroclitus. 

to Ete ; epulari, con-, comedere, co- 
messare, vessi, con-, edere, con-, 
ex-, fagin grece, mandare, man- 
ducare, papare, pr&ndere, pra.n- 
sare, pransitare. 

tEteabyll^; comes sibilis, edilis. 

tan Eter ; comestor. 

an Etynge; commestio, commessacw. 

Etynge ; edax, edaculus, edens. 

an Etyngtf place ; pransorium.. 

Etyn; comme^us, est\i$, esm,rnansu.B, 

thalfe Ettyn. ; Semesus (A.). 

E ante V. 
tan Ev tre (Ewetre A.) 3 ; taxus ', 

tan Ev stok ; taxum. 
tEve 4 ; eua, virago. 
an Evyllg ; vbi seknes. 
Even ; equus, co-, equalis, equ&bilis, 

par, compar, parilis. 
to be Evyn ; equipollere, equiualere. 
tEvyfi agayn ; e contra. 
tto make Evyn 5 ; congire, detube- 

rare, eguare, con-, ex-, parijicare. 
an Evyn-hede ; equ&litas, equanimi- 

tas, eqnipollencia, equalencia, pa- 

tEvyn of voce ; equiuocws,, omoni- 


1 The origin of this word is doubtful. Ducange considers it to have the same root as 
soin, care, from Lat. somninm, implying thoughtfulness, anxiety. Hickes (Dissert. Epist. 
p. 8) derives it from Mceso-Gothic sunia, truth, as meaning a plea based on truth ; see 
Ducange, s. vv. soniare and sunnis. The words assoyne, essoigne in Early Eng. were used 
as signifying an excuse or impediment of any kind ; thus in Cursor Mundi, E. E. Text 
Soc. ed. Morris, p. 139, 1. 2266, 'That shend thing is withouten assoyne.' 

' Essonia, excusatio causaria, ejuratio vadimonii propter impedimentum : empechement de 
se presenter ; excuse donee "par un plaideur qui ne peat comparaitre? Ducange. Jamieson 
gives * Essonyie. An excuse offered for non-appearance in a court of law. Essonyier. One 
who legally offers an excuse for the absence of another.' 0. Fr. essoigne. ' Ther avayleth 
non essoyne ne excusacioun.' Chaucer, Persone's Tale, p. 271. See also Gower, Conf. 
Amantis, i. 102. 

2 This cannot but be a corruption of keteroclitus = krepSKXiros, which exactly corresponds 
in meaning with the Latin diversiclinium. Cf. Sete of Angellis hereafter, which is 
rendered by dindimus, ' nomen etteroglitum* =heteroclitum, on account of its plural being 
dindima. Ducange gives ' Heteroclitum. Diversiclinium: lieu oil plusieurs chemins se 
reunissent. Diversiclinium. Locus ubi diversse vise conjunguntur : carrefour? See also 
Gateschadylle, below. 

3 This word is inserted again in the MS. after Euerlastynge. 

4 This is illustrated by a passage in the Cursor Mundi, ed. Morris, 11. 631, 634, where 
we are told that when Eve was brought to Adam, 

' Virago gaf he hir to nam ; 
par for hight sco virago, Ffor maked o J>e man was sco.' 

And similarly Lyndesay in his Monarche says — 

' And Virago he callit hir than, Quhilk Eua efterwart wes namyt.' 

Quhilk is, Interpreit, maid of man : E. E.T. Soc. ed.Hall, i86e;,Bk.i.l. 773. 

So also in the Chester Plays, p. 25 — 

' Therefore shee shall be called, I wisse Viragoo, nothing amisse, 

For out of man tacken shee is, And to man shee shall draw.' 

Andrew Boorde in his Breuiary of Health, p. 242, says, ' when a woman was made of God 

she was named Virago because she dyd come of a man.' 'Virago. A woman of stout and 

manly carriage.' Cooper. 

5 ' Congio. To waxen evyn.' Medulla. 



*Evyneldes x ; coetaneus, coeuus, co- 

lectaneus, equeuus. 
fEuenly ; Eque, equalitev, equanimi- 

ter (A.), 
tto wax Euen ; vesperare, adues- 

2)erare (A.). 
tEuen sang 2 ; vespere, pulsantur 

vesperi, psalmi qui cantantur 

tthe Euenstern ; vesperus, vesper & 

vespervgo, et idem planeta dicitur 

venus (A.). 
f}> e Euen tyde ; Crepusculum, ves- 

perium, ves2>era, vesper; ves- 

2>ertinus, vesperta dea noctis 

Eu^rlastyngc ; eternus, & cetera; vbi 

Euyrmare ; jnperpetuum, hwternum, 

& cetera; vbi Alway (A.). 
tEvury (Evoure A.) 3 ; ebur ; ebur- 


E ante X. 

an Example ; exemplum, exemplar, 
exemplum est dictum vel factum 
alicuius autentice persone mutaci- 
oue dignum, sed exemplar est ad 
cuius similitudinem ad Jit simile, 
jdea, parabola, paradiogma. 

to yif Exampille; exemplijicare, scan- 

to Examyii ; examinare, cribare, ven- 
tulare 4 , -tor. 

fan Exemplar ; examplar, Exempla- 

rium (A.). 
an Examynaciofi ; examinacio. 
Examynd; examinatus, cribatus, ven- 

an Excusacion. ; excusacio. 
to Excuse; excusare, disculpare. 
Excusyd ; excusatus. 
tan Execucion. ; execucio. 
tto Execute ; exequi. 
an Executor ; executor, -trix. 
to Exile ; relegare, proscxibere, & 

cetera ; vbi to outelawe. 
an Exile ; exilium, acucula. 
tto Expende; dispensare, dispendere, 

dis])onere, ex-, expendere. 
tan Expense ; inpensa, expeusa vel 

tto Expo[w]nde ; commentari, com- 

minisci, aperire, discutere, dis- 

serere, edisserere, edissertare, ex- 

cutere, explanare, exponere, inter- 


Expow[n]dynge ; commentum, 

edicio, exposicio, jjntexpxetacio ; 

inter pretabilis. 

Expownder ; expositor, inter- 

an Extorcion. ; distorcio ex iniuria, 

rapina, seaccio. 
to do Extorcion ; contorquere, de-, 

ex-, exigere. 
an Extorcioner ; exactor, do cetera de 

verbis predictis. 



1 ' Coetaneus. Of evyn age.' Medulla. 

' And swa wass Crist so]) Godess witt 

A33 inn hiss Faderr herrte, 

All w\p]> hiss Faderr efennald 
Inn eche Godcunndnesse.' 

Omulum, 11. 18603-6. 

1 Earst ha wakenede of him J)a 3et J>a he wes in heuene, for neh wi~S him euenhald.' Hali 
Meidenhad, p. 41. Wyclif in his version of Galatians i. 14 has, ' And I profitide in Jurye 
aboue many myn euene eeldis [euene eldris P. cocetaneos, Vulg.] inmykyn,' and in 1 Peter 
v. 1, 'Therfore I, euene eldre, \consenior~] biseche the eldre men that ben in 30W, &c.' 
See also Daniel i. 10. 

2 ' Vespero. To evyn. Vespere est tempus circa horam vonam et lioram pulsandi.'' 
Medulla. In the Myroure of our Lady, E. E. Text Soc. ed. Blunt, p. 12, Vespere, et mane 
et meridie narrabo et annunciabo is rendered ' by the moi'ow, at pryme tyme, & at none, 
and at euensonge tyme, &c.' 

3 In Sir John Fastolfs Bottre, 1459, were 'iij kneyves in a schethe, haftys of euery, 
withe naylys gilt.' Paston Letters, i. 488. 

* MS. dentidare. 



C&pilidum 6 m F. 

F &\\te A. 

a Face j fades, vultus. 

t Fasyng/s of lokis * (A.). 

A Facon - ; falco (A.). 

t Facitt ; faciscia (A.). 

to Fade ; vbi to welowe. 

Fad<?r; genitor. 

a Fader ; ^ater, £>atercwZus, parens, 
genitor, propagator, abba grece, 
abia ; p&ternalis, patrenus, patri- 
us, patruelis, ^>ar£icipia. 

to Fadyr; genitare (A.). 

a Faderles chylde; jr;wpiWus, orplian- 
us, orbus. 

fa Fadirles childe hous ; orphano- 

a Fader slaer ; patricida. 

*to Fage 3 ; Adulari, Assentari, As- 
senciare, Assentiri, blandiri, de-, 
blandificare, delinere, paljmre. 

a Fager ; A didator, blanditor, blan- 
dicellus, blandus, paljyo. 

ta Fagynge ; blandicia, blandicella, 
blandicies, adulacio, adulatns, 
blandimentum, delinic\o, delimen- 
tura (delinimentum A.), oleum., 
vt in psalmo : oleum, autem 

pecc&\oris non inpinguet, dc 

cetera 4 . 
Fagynge ; blandus, blandulus, blan- 

a Fagott ; fasciculus (malliolus A.), 

& cetera ; vbi A byrden. 
Fayne ; vbi mery. 
Fare ; pulcher, decorus, speciosus, 

specicdis, formosus, bellus, venus- 

tus, apricus, delectabilis ; versus : 
*[Ad celi decora nos perdue, ver- 
ga decora. 

Conspicuus, conspicabundus, blan- 
dus, decusatus, eligans, politus, 

ornatus, vultuosus. 
Fayrly 5 ; ornate, venuste, formose, 

6f cetera, 
fto make Fare ; colere, componere, 

ornare, ad-, ex-, comare, venus- 

tare, con-, de-, decusare, redimere, 

decorare, stellare. 
a Fayrnes ; pulcritudo, decusacio, 

decor, euprepia, forma, species, 

Fayre of speche ; effabilis, eloquens, 

facundus, lepidus. 
a Fayer ; nundine, feria. 

1 Halliwell gives ' Fassings. Any hanging fibres of roots of plants, &c.,' and Jamieson 
* Faisins. The stringy parts of cloth, resembling the lint (sc. caddis) applied to a wound. 
Feazings. Roxburgh.' ' Coma, feax.' Gloss. MS. Cott. Cleop. A. iii. If. 76. ' His fax and 
berde was fadit quhare he stude.' Gawin Douglas, Eneados, Bk. ii. p. 48, 1. 13. A. S. feax, 
O. Icel. fax, hair. 2 See Fawcon. 

3 'To fage. Adulari, fingere.' Manip. Vocab. 'po J>at most fagen and plesen ]>ee 
soonest goon awey and deysceuen J?ee.' XII Chapitres of Richard, Heremite de Ham- 
pool, Camb. Univ. Libr. MS. Ff. v. 30, leaf 144. Wyclif has in Judges xiv. 15, 'And 
whanne the seuenthe day was ny3, thei seiden to the wijf of Sampson, Faage to thi man, and 
meue hym, that he shewe to thee what bitokeneth the probleme ;' where Purvey's version 
is, • Glose thin hosebonde.' So again Wyclif saj's ' It is manere of ypocritis and of sophists 
to fage and to speke plesantli to men but for yvel entent.' Wks. ed. Arnold, i. 44. 

* The reference is to Psalms cxli. 5. The word oil in the sense of flattery occurs, so 
far as I know, only in the phrase * to bere up ' or ' hold up oil :' thus in Richard the Redeles, 
iii. 186, we have ' for bra^gynge and for bostynge, and beringe vppon oilles,' and in Gower, 
iii. t 7 2, where the false prophets tell Ahab to go and prosper — 

• Anone they were of his accorde To bere up oile, and alle tho 

Prophetes false mony mo Affermen that, which he hath told.' 

See also ibid. p. 159, and Trevisa's Higden, iii. 447 : ' Alisaundre gan to boste and make 
him self more worj>y J>an his fader, and a greet deel of hem bat were at J>e feste hilde up 
pe kynges oyl,' [magna convivantium parte assentienteJ] Compare the modern phrase ' to 
butter a person up,' and Psalms lv. 21, and Proverbs v. 3. See Notes & Queries, 6th, Ser. 
i. 203. 5 MS. Faryly. 



a Fayre speche ; effabilitas, elo- 

quencia, fecundia, lepos, lepor ; 

versus : 
%Rure fugo lepores, in verbis 
quero lepores ; 
i\ 7 am lepus est animal, lepor est 
facundia fandi. 
fto bere fro Fayers ; denundinare. 
a Faythe ; fides. 
a Faythe breker ; fidefragus. 
Faythfully ; fiducialiter. 
to Falde ; plicare, in-, com-, plectere, 

voluere, con-, rugare. 
To vnfalde ; explicate, extendere, 

deuoluere, $• cetera ; vbi to shewe. 
a Falde ; caul a, ouile. 
A Falde of clothe ; plica (A.). 
*a Faldynge ' ; Amphibalus. 
a Faldynge; plicac'\o,jiecc\o, conwo- 

lucio, Sf cetera de v erbis. 
+an vn Foldynge ; explicio, deuolucio, 

Sf cetera, 
fa Fayle ; defectum, defeccio. 
to Fayle ; deficere, fatiscere. 
Falghe 2 (Falowe A.) ; terra sacion- 

alis, semiualis, nouale, noualis. 
to Falowe (A.). 
a Falle ; fapsus, casus. 
*be Falland Euylle 3 ; epilencia, co- 

rnicing vel comicialis, morbus ca- 
ducus, nocca, gerenoxa, ejnlensis ; 
epilenticus qui patitur Mam in- 

to Falle ; cadere, concidere, oc-, de- y 
mere, cor-, labi, procidere, ruin- 
are ; versus : 
%Occido dum labor, occido dum. 

tto Falle be-twne (to Faylle be- 
tweyne A. ) ; inter cedere corum 

tto Falle in ; incidere, irruere, in- 

tlyke to Falle ; ruinosus, vt, domus 
est ruinosa. 

tFallynge ; caucus, cadabundus, 
cadens, deciduus, occiduus. 

fa Fallynge ; ruina. 

False ; falsus, fallax, mendax, fal- 
sidicus, falsarius, deceptorius, 
dolosus, subdolus.sediciosus, frau- 
dulentus, callidus, versuius, as- 
tutus, versipellis, infidus, per-, 
altriplex, pellax, omnis generjs, 
in verbis est malefidus, vafer, 
pseudolus, pseudo. 

fa False Aecusere ; calumpniator, 

1 Amongst the commodities of Ireland mentioned in the Libel of English Policy, Wright's 
Political Poems, ii. 1 86, we find — 'Irish wollen, lynyn cloth, faldynge? 

Trevisa in his trans, of Higden says of the Irish that they wear ' blak faldynges instede of 
mantels and of clokes [vice palliarum phalangis nigris utitur\." Vol. i. p. 353. 'Also I 
gyff to Alice Legh my doghtor my chamlett kyrtill and my wolsted kyrtill, my best typett, 
my faldyng, &c.' Will of Margaret Starkey, 1526, Chetham Soc. vol. xxxiii. p. 13. Fitz- 
herbert in his Bolce of Husbandry, 1534, has ' washe your shepe there-with, with a sponge 
or a pece of an olde mantell, or of faldyng <e, or suche a softe cloth or woll,' fo. E b . 

2 ' Faugh-land, fallow land.' Kennett, MS. Lans. 1033. See also Thoresby's Letter to 
Ray, E. D. Soc. In Havelok, ed. Skeat, 2509, Godard, when sentenced to death, is bound 
and drawn ' un-to J>e galwes, 

Nouth bi ]>e gate, but ouer ]>e fahves ' 

3 In the account of the death of Herod given in the Cursor Mundi, p. 678, 1. 11831, we 
are told that ' pe falland euel he had,' where the Cotton and Gottingen MSS. read ' ]>e 
falland gute.' ' Fallinde vuel ich cleopie licomes' Ancren Wide, p. 176. ' Apo- 
plexia, the falling evil.' R. Percyuall, Spanish Diet. 1591 . ' Epilencia. The fallyng evyl.' 
Medulla. See Andrew Boorde's ' dyete for them the whiche haue any of the kjmdes of 
the fallyng syckenes,' in his ' Dyetary,' ed. Furnivall, p. 294. The same author says (ibid. 
p. 127) that 'the foule euyll, whyche is the fallyng si/chenes, 1 is the common oath of 
Scotchmen. Harrison, Detcript. of Eng.ii. 13, says that quail ' onelie with man are 
subject to the falling sickenes? 'The falling ill. Comitialis morbus, morbus cadueus, 1 
Withals. ' Epilepsia, vel cadnca, vel larvatio, vel comndlialis, braec-coftu, fylle-seoc' Allric's 
Gloss, pr. in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 19. 



a Falsed (Falshede A.) ; falsitas, 
fraus arte fit, fraudulencia, dolus, 
dolositas, fucxxs, fallacia, decepc\o, 
astus, meander ■, trica,prestigium, 
verbum, pellacia, pellic'w, ver- 

fa False sayer ; falsidicus. 

to do Falsely ; falsificare, falsare, 
f alter e, falsitare. 

Falsely ; fraudulenter, dolose, decep- 
tuose, & cetera. 

fto Fame 1 ; famare. 

a Fame ; fama (nomen A.). 

Fame 2 ; spuma ; spumosus (A.). 

tFamus ; famosus. 

*a Fan :! ; ca2rtsterium,pala,vannu.B, 

fto Fair ; ventulare. 
fto Fande (Faynde A.) 4 ; conari, 

niti, con-, & cetera ; vhi to be 

*a Fayne of a schipe 5 ; cheruchus, 

Sf cetera ; vhi A weder coke. 
*a Fanon 6 ; fanula, manipulus. 
a Fantasy ; fantasia, fantasma, 

fasma, lemur, falmos grece ; 

A Funtum 7 ; fantasma (A.). 

1 • Famo. To ffamyn.' Medulla. The compound verb to defame is now used. ' Fama. 
The noyse or brute of a thynge.' Cooper. In the Complaint of the Ploughman, pr. in 
Wright's Political Poems, i. 313, we are told, that 

' If a man be falsely famed, Than woll the officers be agramed, 

And wol make purgacioun, And assigne him fro toune to toune.' 

•False and fekylle was that wyghte That lady for to fame.' Sir Tryamoure, 20. 

And so also, ' Help me this tyde, Ageyn this pepyl that me doth fame.'' Cov. Myst. p. 139. 
See also Squyr of Lowe Degre, 1. 391. ' Defamo. To mislose.' Medulla. 

2 A. S. fdm, Ger. faum, foam, froth. 

3 • Capisterium. A ffane. Ventilabrum. A wyndyl or a ffan.' Medulla. A. S. fann. 
1 Ventilo. To wyndyn or sperslyn.' Medulla. See also to Wyndowe, below. 

4 Hampole tells us that devils surround a dying man and 

' pai sal fande at his last endyng Hym in-to wanhope for to bryng.' 

A.S.fandian. Pricke of Conscience, 2228. 

5 'Cheruchus. A top off a mast or a Veyne.' Medulla. In the Romance of Sir Eglamour, 
ed. Halliwell, 1192, where a ship forms part of a coat of arms, we read — 

' Hys maste of sylvyr and of golde, And of redd golde was hys fane, 

The chylde was but of oon nyght olde, Hys gabulle and hys ropys everechone 
And evyr in poynte to dye : Was portrayed verely.' 

' Upon his first heed, in his helmet crest, There stode a fane of the silke so fine.' 

Hawes, Passetyme of Pleasure, xxxiii. 8. 
1 Cheruchus. The fane of the mast or of a vayle (? sayle), quia secundum ventum movetur. 1 
Ortus Vocab. ' Pane of a steple, uirsoet, vaniere.' Palsgrave. 

6 '1566. Wintertoune .... one old vestment, one amys, one corporaxe, one faunel 
.... Wrought in the Isle of Axholme .... one amis, one albe s a slote, a belt, a ffaunell, 
a corporax.' Lincolnshire Ch. Goods, pp. 164, 169. ' Manipulus : quedam vestis sacer- 
dotalis. J Medulla. In Myrc's Instructions for Parish Priests, p. 59, 1. 1917. we read — 

' 3 a f \> e wonte stole or fanoun, Passe forth wythowten turne.' 

When ])ou art in ]>e canoun, 
See also the Lay Folks Mass-Book, pp. 167-8, where it is spelt phanon. In the Fardle of 
Facions, 1555, pt. ii. ch. viii. sign. Lii. the author writing of the Indians says, that 'for 
thei sette muche by beautie, thei cary aboute with them phanelles to defende them from 
the sonne,' where the meaning seems to be a ' kerchief.' See Ducange a. v. Fano. Francis 
Morlay in his Will dated 1540, bequeathed 'to the reparacion of and annournenament of 
the qwere of Saynt Katryne in Mellyng churche vj s viij d , with a vestment of blakke 
chamlett, albe, stole, and fannell therto belongyng.' Richmondshire Wills, &c, Suitees 
Soc. vol. xxvi. p. 21. 

7 ' Worlissche riches, how-swa pai come, I hald noght elles but filth and fantomeS 

Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, 1197. 
Wyclif renders Psalms cxviii. 37 by 'turn min eghen J?at ])ai fantome [yanitatem] ne se.' 
' Hit nis but fantum and feiri.' Early Eng. Poems and Lives of Saints, ed. Furnivall, p. 
1 34. In the Wyclifite version of St. Mark vi. 49, the disciples seeing our Lord walking 



a Fardelle 1 ; involucrtcm. 

+a Farntikylle 2 ; lenticula, lentigo, 
neuus, sesia. 

tFarntykylde ; lentiginosus. 

to Farce 3 ; farcire, in-, re-, con-, 
suf-, dif-, constipare, replere, far- 
tare, re-, con-, farcinare, re-, dif- 
fartare, de-. 

a Farsynge; farcimen, farcimentum. 

a Farte ; bumbum, bumba, pedicio, 

to Farte ; pedere, con-, turjpitev son- 
are, oppedere, id est contra pedere. 

to Fare wele ; valere, vale, valete. 

to Faste ; ieiunare, abstinere. 

a Faste ; ieiunium, abstinencia. 

Faste ; firmus, & cetera ; vbi sekyr. 

a Fastnes ; firmitas, securitas, con- 

stancia, stabilitas. 
*Fastyngange (Fastynggayn g A.) 4 ; 

*a Fatte B ; cupa, cupula, cuua, 

fa Fattmaker ; cuparius. 
Fatte ; pinguis, aruinosus, bussus, 

crassus, crassatus, crassulentxxs, 

obesus, saginatus. 
fto make Fatte ; crassare, con-, de-, 

id est valde crassare, inp\i~\ngu- 

are, inpinguere, inescare, lardare, 

fto be Fatte ; crassere, crescere, cres- 

sari, pinguesceve, in-, gliscere, 

jpinguere, in-, pinguifieri. 

on the sea, 'gessiden him for to be afantum.'' 'ForsoJ^e it is but fanteme J)at 3e fore-telle.' 
William of Palerne, 2315. See also Gower, iii. 172. ' Fantasma, a ghost, a hag, a robin 
goodfellow, a hobgoblin, a sprite, a iade, the riding hagge or mare.' Florio. 

1 'A fardell, or packe that a man beareth with him in the way, stuffe or carriage, sarcina. 
A little fagot, or fardell, fasciculus' Baret. 'A fardel. Sarcina.' Manip. Vocab. 'Who 
would fardels bear?' Hamlet iii. I. Low Lat. fardellus. 

2 In the Thornton MS. leaf 285, is a receipt 'to do awaye ferntildlles* Chaucer in 
the Knighte's Tale, 131 1, in describing 'the grete Emetreus, the Kynge of Ynde,' says 
there were ' A fewe frahnes in his face y-sprent, 

Betwixen yelwe and blake somdtd y-ment.' 
* Farnatickles, freckles.' Tour to the Caves, E. Dial. Soc. 0. Icel. frelcna, A. S. frozen. 
' Lentigo, Plin. A specke or pimple, redde or wanne, appearing in the face or other part.' 
Cooper. 'Neuus: macula que nascitur, Anglice, a wrete. Lentiada. A ffrakyn. Lenti- 
ginosus. Ffrakeny or spotty.' Medulla. Turner in his Herbal, 1551, p. 169, says: ' Rocket 

healeth al the fautes in the face layd to with hony, and it taketh away frekles or 

fayrntihles with vinegre.' See also Perntykylle, below. 

3 ' To farce, to stuffe or porre in, differcio.' Baret. 

'Of alle \o thynges J>ou make farsure, And f 'arse \>o skyn, and perboyle hit wele.' 

Liber Cure Cocorum, ed. Morris, p. 26. 

4 The form Fastyngong occurs several times in the Paston Letters, thus — ' As for the 
obligacyon that ye shuld have of the parson of Cressyngham, he seth he cam never at 
Cressyngham syth he spake with you, and that he be-heste it you not till Fastyngong.' i. 
194, ed. Gairdner. See also i. no, 378, ii. 70, 83 and 311. 'Thomas Gremeston wiff . . . 
hath occupied seene ester xix. yere, unto fastyngong, the xx yere of the king.' Howard 
Household Books, 1481-90, p. 117. ' Vpoun the xix day thairof, being fastrinsevin, at 
tua houris efter none, George lord Seytoun come to the castell of Edinburgh.' Diurnal 
of Occurrents, 15 13-1575, Bannatyne Club, 1833, p. 259. 

' And on the Fastryngs-ewyn rycht To the castell thai tuk thair way.' 

In the beginning of the nycht, Barbour's Bruce, Bk. x. 1. 372. 

See also the Ordinances of the 'Gild of St. James, Lenne,' pr. in Mr. Toulmin Smith's 
English Gilds, p. 69, where it is appointed that four general meetings are to be held in 
each year, the third of which is fixed for ' ye Souneday next after Fastyngonge.' Langley 
mentions Fastingham -Tuesday. ' Fastens-een or even, Shrove Tuesday.' Ray's Glossary. 
* Sexagesima. The Sunday before Fastgong. Quinquagesima, The Sunday on Fastyngong. 

5 'A fat or a vat. Orcula.' Manip. Vocab. ' Cupa. A cuppe or a ffat.' Medulla. ' A fat. 
Fas.' Withals. ' Fatte, a vessall, quevue. Fatte, to dye in, cuuier a taindre.' Palsgrave. 
' Whenne thou haste fyllyd up thy lede. bere hitovere into a fatt, and lett hit stand ij. 



a Fattnes ; aruina, aruinula, crassi- 
tas, crassitudo, crass icies, sagina, 
saginula, pinguedo. 

a Fawcon. * ; herodius, falco. 

a Falconer; falconarius. 

to Fauer; favere, Aquiescere, Asjri- 

fa Fauerer ; favtor, duplica?'ius, qui 
fauet vtvique parti. 

tFaucrabyllc, or fauerynge ; fauens, 

a Fauoitr ; fauor, aura, grratia. 

fa Fawne ; hinnulus. 

fa Fawchon. 2 ; rumphea, framea, 
spata, spatula. 

tFawthistelle 3 ; labrura veneris. 
F ante E. 

Febylle ; imbecillus ; vhi wayke. 

to make Febylle (to Febylle A.) ; 
Attenuare, debilitare, injzrmare, 
diluere, effeminate, eneruare, eui- 
ra re, Sr cetera; vhi to make wayke. 

a Febyllnes ; debilitas, inbecUlitas, 

6c cetera ; vhi wayknes. 
Febylly ; debeliter, imbecilliter, Sf 

Fedd ; pastus, cibatus. 
to Fede (Feyde A.) ; cibare, curare, 
'pascere, de- ; versus : 

%hee tvi'a signat euro, medior, 
volo, j)asco. 
a Fedyr ; penna, pluma, plumella. 
fto Fedyr ; pennare, plumare. 
fto vn Fedyr; expennare, explumare. 
fa Fedyr bed ; fultrum, plumale, 

lectus plumalis. 
+Fedyrles or -with owtyn. feders ; 

fto be Fedyrde ; plumere. 
tFedcrid or fulle of fedyrs ; iplumo- 

a Fee 4 ; feodum. 
to Fee (Feeffe A.) 5 ; feoffare. 
a Fefmewt ; feoffamentum. 

days or iij.' Porkington MS. in Wright's Carols and Songs, Percy Soc. p. 87. • Apon that 
rocke ])er was an eghe J>at was alway droppande dropes of water, and be nethe it per was 
a fatte that ressayfed alle the di-oppes.' De Deguileville's Pilgrimage, John's Coll. MS. leaf 
U2bk. ' Quyl I fete sum quat fat, pou be fyr bete.' Allit. Poems, B. 627. 

'I sclial fete you a, fatte 3our fette for to wasche ;' ibid. 802. 
'Hi berep a wel precious tresor ine a wel fyebble uet.'' Ayenbite of Inioyt, p. 231. See 
also St. Marharete, p. 18, St. Juliana, p. 31, &c. 

1 ' Herodius. A gerfalcon.' Medulla. ' Herodius. Ardeola : heron? Ducange. The 
Medulla further describes it as a bird ' que vincit aquilam? 

'Made the ffatccon to fHoter and fflusshe ffor anger.' Wright's Political Poems, i. 389. 
'Thus foulyd this ffauhyn on ffyldis aboujte.' Ibid. i. 388. 

2 ' Falchon, a wood knife or sword.' Baret. * Hec spata, A e fawchon.' Wright's Vocab. 
p. 195. ' Gye hath hym a stroke raghte With hys fatvclion at a draghte.' 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, leaf 157. 

3 According to Lyte, Dodoens, p. 522, this is the ' Card thistel or Teasel ' (Dipsacus 
fullonum), which he says is called ' in Latine Dipsacum and Labrum Veneris? and in 
Englishe Fullers Teasel, Carde Thistell, and Venus bath or Bason.' He adds that the 
root ' boyled in wine and afterwarde pounde untill it come to the substance or thicknesse 
of an oyntment, healeth the chappes, riftes, and fistulas of the fundement. But to preserue 
this oyntment, ye must keepe it in a boxe of copper. The small wormes that are founde 
within the knoppes or heades of Teaselles, do cure and heale the Quartayne ague, to be 
worne or tyed about the necke or arme.' Faiothistelle would be Fdh pistel (coloured 
thistle) in A. Saxon, but the word does not appear in Bosworth. 

* See Ducanoe, s. v. Feudum. 

5 ' Feofment signifies donationem feudi, any gift or grant of any honours, castles, manors, 
messuages, lands, or other corporeal or immoveable things of like nature, to another in fee ; 
that is, to him and his heirs for ever.' Blount's Law Dictionary. 

' Thanne Symonye and Cyuile stonden forth bothe, 
Andvnfoldeth j?e feffement, [>at fals hath ymaked.' P. Plowman, B.ii. 72. 
'Fauel with his fikel speche fejfeth bi this chartre To be prynces in pryde, &c.' Ibid. 1. 78. 
* In caas of this iij° maner ben tho that ben feffid in othere mennys londis.' Pecock's Re- 
pressor, ed. Babington, p. 398. ' Whanne the said feffers and executouris expresseli or 
priueli graunten and consenten as bi couenant, &c.' Ibid. p. 399. 



to Feghte ; pugnare, § cetera ; vbi 
to fyghte. 

fa Feehouse a ; bostar, -ctris, medio 

to Feyne ; commentari, comminisci, 
confingere, Jingere, dif-, dissimi- 
lare est jingere se nescire, simulare 
est cum quis non vult facer e quod 

Feyned ; jictus, Jicticius. 

a Feynere; commentator, Jictor, simu- 

a Feynynge ; faccio, Jiccio, Jigmen- 
tum, Jigmen, commentum. 

Feynynge ; Ficticiosns, facciosns. 

a Felay (Felowe A.) 2 ; cousors in 
premio, comes in via, sodalis in 
mensa, collega in officio, socins 
in labore vel pocins in periculo, 
complex, socius in malo ; ver- 
sus : 
\Est consors, socinsqne, comes, 
collega, sodalis. 
Dat sors consortem, comitem 
via, mensa sodalem, 

Missio collegam, sociunx labor 

efficit idem. 
Est complex 3 , socius-hic bonna, 
ille mains. 
a Felde ; campns, Agellns, Ager, Sf 
cetera ; versus : 
%Gamp\xs, Agellns, Ager, rus, 
ortns Sf ortulus, A ruum. 
Aruum, campus, Ager, rus sic 

diuevsificantur : 
Messibns est Aruum tectum cum. 

Jiore vel lierba, 
Dum seritur sit Ager, § semen 

conditnr Mo ; 
Campns dicatur cum fructibns 

Incultum rus est veluti sunt 
2>ascua silue. 
territorium ; frugifer, Arualis, 
campester, ruralis. 
a Felefare (Feldfare A.) 4 ; ruriscns, 

fto Feele 5 ; A bscondere, Sf cetera ; 

vbi to hyde. 
to Fele 6 ; sentire, pre-, re-. 

1 A. S. feoh, 0. Icel. fe, cattle. ' Bostar. An oxes stall.' Medulla. 'Gaf hym lande 
and aghte and fe. 1 Genesis & Exodus, 783. See also Oxestalle, below. 

2 O. Icel. felagi. ' With patriarkes and prophets in Paradise to be felawes.' P. Plowman, 
B. vii. 12. In the Story of the Three Cocks, Gesta Romanorum, p. 175, we read — ' After 
that, the second cokke songe. the lady said to her maide, "what syngeth this cokke ?" 
u this cokke seith, my felaw for his soth saw, hath lost his lyf, and lieth full lawe." ' 

3 MS. complezus. 

4 William of Palerne, we are told, used to come home 

' Ycharged wi{? conyng & hares, Wib fesauns and feldj 'ares, & o];er foules grete.' 1. 182. 
See also Romaunt of the Rose, 5510, and the Babees Book, ed. Furnivall, p. 160, 1. 3, and 
Harrison, Descript. of England, ii. 17. A. S. feolufur, fealafur. 'Feldfare or thrush, 
turdus.' Baret. Chaucer, Parlement of Foides, 364, mentions ' thethrustil olde, the frosty 
feldefare,' an epithet which he gives to the bird from its only appearing in this country 
in the winter. The true fieldfare, turdus pilaris, is, however, a rare visitant in England, 
the name being commonly given to the Missel-thrush, tardus viscivorus, also known as 
the felt-thrush. 'Go, fare w el feldfare.' Romaunt of the Rose, 553. * Hie campester, 
feldfare.' Wright's Vocab. p. 189. ' Hie ruruscus, a feldfare: hec campester, a feldfare :' 
ibid. p. 221. 

5 The author of the Early Eng. Metrical Homilies, 14th cent., tells us that 

' His [Christ's] godhed in fleis was felid The fend, that telid our fadir Adam.' 
Als hok in bait, quare thorw he telid Ed. Small, p. 12, 1. 26. 

In the account of his dream in Morte Arthure Arthur says — ■ 

•Thurgh that foreste I flede, thare floures were heghe, 
For to/e/eme for ferde of tha foule thynge3.' ed. Brock, 3236. 
' To feal, to hide.' Kersey. ' To feale, velare, abscoudcre.' Manip. Vocab. A. S. feolan, 
O. Icel. fela : cf. Lat. velare. 

6 To feel originally meant to perceive by the senses, not necessarily that of touch. Thus 
Caxtoa says, ' Whan he [the panthere] awaketh, he gyueth oute of his mouth so swete a 



Feylabylle ; sensibilis i.e. qui sentit 
$ quod seutitur (A.). 

a Felischippe 1 ; consortium, socie- 
tas, <§■ cetera ; vhi a company. 

tto Felischippe ; sociare, As-, con-, 

a Felle for myse 2 ; muscipula, de- 

t A Felle 3 ; A mowntane, A hylle, 
Alle is one, Alpis, § cetera; vhi 
Montane (A.). 

to Felle ; incidere, succidere. 

a Fellar ; succissor. 

*Felle 4 ; Acer, Acerbus, asper, atrox, 
austerus, austeris, barbarus, bar- 
baricus, bestius, bestiarius, crudus, 
crudelis, dims, efferus, feralis, 
ferox, furus, inmanis, immids, 
impius, improbus, indo?nitns, in- 
Tiumanus, iniquus, molestus, pro- 

teruus, rigidus, seuus, seuerus, 

trux, truculentus, tir annus, toruus, 

violentus ; vnde versus : 

If Crudus, crudelis, Austerus <$f 

improbus, Atrox, 

Est ferus, a^que ferox, violen- 

tus, ^4cer6us § ylcer: 
Impius, inmitis, seuusque, mo- 
lestus, iniquus : 
Asper, inhumanusque tiran- 

nus, siue proteruus. 
Toruus Sf indomitus, hijs iungi- 

tur atC[UQ seuerus, 
Predict'is dims sociabitur, Sf 
*to be Felle ; barbarizare, crudere, 
crudes cere,effera?-e, insanire, inva- 
lescere,fu?'ere, seuire, con-, dis-, de-. 
to make Felle ; ferare. 
*Felly ; Acriter, At?*ociter, crudeliter. 

savour and smelle, that anon the bestes that fete it seeke hym.' Myrrour of the Worlde, 
pt. ii. ch. vi. p. 75. See also Gesta Romanorum, p. 313. In the Early Eng. Alliterative 
Poems, ed. Morris, B. 107, our lord is represented as saying — 
' Certe3 Jwse ilk renke$ bat me renayed habbe 
& denounced me, no3t now at pis tyme, Schul neuer sitte in my sale my soper to fele* 

'We saie comenly in English that we feel a man's mind when we understand his entent 
or meaning and contrariwise when the same is to us very darke and hard to be perceived 
we do comenly say " I cannot feel his mind," or " I have no maner feeling in the matter." ' 
Udall, Trans, of Apophthegmes of Erasmus, ed. 1878, p. 128. 

1 ' Felaschepe ' occurs frequently in the Paston Letters both in the ordinary meaning 
of company, companionship, and also in the sense of a body of men; thus in vol. i. p. 83, 
we find both meanings in the same paragraph. ' Purry felle in fdaschepe with Willyum 

Hasard at Queries, and told him, &c And Marioth and his felaschep had meche 

grette langage, &c.' Again, p. 180, we read, 'Her was an evyll rewlyd felaivschep yesterday 
at the schere, and ferd ryth fowle with the Undyr Scheryfe, &c.' Chaucer, Tale of 
Melibeus has — ' make no felaschipe with thine olde enemyes.' See also Pricke of Con- 
science, 4400. 'She said, "Ye go ofte sithes in diuerse felishippe ; happely ye myght 
lese the Rynge, and it were grete pite to lese such a precious Iewell. therfure, my good 
sir, take me the Pyng, and I shall kepe it as my lyf." ' Gesta Romanorum, p. 183. 
' An tenor .... fleenge with his feloive schippe [cum suis profugus~\? Higden, Harl. MS. 
trans. Polls Series, vol. i. p. 273. See also Ancren Riivle, p. 160, and Sir Per umbras, 1. 5513. 

2 ' Pacicola i. e. muscipula. A mousfalle. Decipula. A trappe or a pytfalle.' Medulla. 
A. S. mus-fealle. See also Mowsefelle, below. Muscipula is glossed by ' a musse-stocke ' 
by J. de Garlande, in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 132, and by ratnere, that is ratiere, by 

3 In the Anturs of Arthur, ed. Robson (Camden Society), i. 8, we find Arthur described 
as hunting 'by fermesones, by frythys a,xid felles ; ' and in the Morte Arthure, 2489 — 

' Thow salle foonde to the felle, and forraye the mountes.' 
See also Sir Degrevant, ed. Halli well, 1 149. ' Fellish, montanus. , Manip. Vocab. O. 
Icel. fall, A. S. fel. 

* 'Ther nys, I wis, no serpent so cruel, Aswomman is, when sche hath caught an ire.' 
When men trede onhis tail, ne half so fel, Chaucer, Sompnour's Tale, 2001. 

' The felliest folke Been last brought into the church.' 

That ever Anticrist found, Jacke Upland, in Wright's Political Poems, ii. 1 7. 

' Felliche ylau^te, and luggid ffull ylle.' Ibid. i. 389. 



*a Fellmes ; Atrocitas, Acerbitas, 
A speritas, A crilas, Austeritas,bar- 
baritas, crudelitas, cruditas, rigor, 
seuicia, seuicies. 

a Felony ; J'acinus, flayicium. ; fa- 
cinerosus, fiagiciosus pardcipia, 
felonia, scelus, scelestus est sceler- 
um cogitator, sceleratws qui faclt 
scelus, scelerosus qui scelus pati- 
tur ; Sf sic alter cogitat, alter agit, 
Sf alter patitur. 

to Felow lande ; barectare. 

*j> e Felon 1 ; Antrax, carbunculus. 

to Fene ; fingere, § cetera ; vbi to 

*Fenelle or fenkelle 2 ; feniculum, 
maratrum (ems semen A.). 

fa Fenix, -cis (Fenix A.) ; tnedio 

correpto, Aids vnica in Arabia. 
*a Fen ; palus, § cetera ; vbi a maras 

(marres A.), 
tto he Ferde ; obrigere ; (vhi dred- 

fulle A.). 
+vn Ferde ; vbi hardy (A.). 
+a Feret 3 ; furo, furectus. 
fa Fery maw ; tr&nsfretator, remex. 
a Ferme 4 ; fir ma. 
Ferm ; Jirmus, Katus. 
a Fermer ; firmarius qui dat jir- 

ta Fermerer ; jnjirmarius. 
a Fermory 5 ; jwfirmarium, jnfirma- 

torium, misocomium, valitudin- 


J ' Figges sodden (brused) and laid to, driue awaie hardnesse : they soften swellings 
behind the eares, and other angrie swellings called Fellons or Cattes haires.' Earet. 
'Antrax: carbunculus lapis, or a ffelon.' Medulla. ' Kiles, felones, ajad postymes,' MS. 
Ashmol. 41, leaf 37. ' Furunclee, a felon, whitlaw.' Cotgrave. ' Hec antrax, a felun bleyn.' 
Wright's Vocab. p. 267. 'Felon, a sore, entracq.'' Palsgrave. ' Cattes heere, otherwise 
called a felon. Furunculus.'' Huloet. Turner in his Herbal, 1551, If. 64, says: Cresses 

driueth furth angri bytes and other sores such as one is called Cattls hare :' and 

Lyte, Dodoens, p. 747, says that 'the leaves and fruite of misselto . . . , cure the felons 
or noughtie sores which rise about the toppes of toes and fingers.' 

2 Compare Hunde fenkylle. 

3 In the Household and Wardrobe Ordinances of Edward II. (Chaucer Society, ed. 
Furnivall), p. 45, it was directed that there should be attached to the Court 'a ferretter, 
who shal have ij ferretes and a boy to help him to take conies when he shal be so charged 
bi the steward or thresorer. He shal take for his owne wages ij d a day ; for his boy j d 
ob. ; and for the puture [food, &c.] of the ferretes j d ; & one robe yerely in cloth, or a 
marke in mony ; & iiij s viij d by the yere for shoes.' 

* A. S. feorm, what goes to the support of life ; feormian, to supply with food, entertain. 
' The modern sense of farm arose by degrees. In the first place lands were let on condition 
of supplying the lord with so many nights' entertainment for his household. Thus the 
Saxon Chron. a.d 775, mentions land let by the abbot of Peterborough, on condition that 
the tenant should annually pay £50, and ernes nihtes feorme, one night's entertainment. 
This mode of reckoning constantly appears in Domesday Book : — " Reddet firmam trium 
noctium : i. e. 100 libr." The inconvenience of payment in kind early made universal the 
substitution of a money payment, which was called firma alba, or blanche ferme, from being 
paid in silver or white money instead of victuals. Sometimes the rent was called simply 
firma, and the same name was given to the farm, or land from whence the rent accrued. 
From A. S. the word seems to have been adopted in Fr. ferme, a farm, or anything held 
in farm, a lease.' Wedgwood, s. v. Farm. See also Liber Custumarum, Gloss, s. v. Firma. 
In the Paston Letters, hi. 431, in a letter from Margaret Paston to her husband, we have 
the word ferme used in its two meanings of rent paid, and land rented. She writes — 
1 Please you to wet that Will. Jeney and Debham came to Calcote .... and ther they 

spake with Rysyng and John Smythe, and haskyd hem rente and ferme " Sir," 

quod Rysyng, " I toke the ferme of my master," &c.' So in vol. i. p. 181, we find men- 
tioned ' londs at Boyton weche Cheseman had in his ferme for v. mark.' See also Morte 
Arthure, 11. 425, 1005. Caxton, in the Chron. of Englond, p. 281, ch. 242, says: 'iiij 
knyghtes hadden taken englond to ferme of the kynge.' 

5 In William De Deguileville's Pilgrimage of the Lyf of the Manhode, ed. Wright, p. 205, 
we read, ' Heerfore hath Gracedieu maad me enfermererc of this place ;' that is superin- 
tendent of the infirmary. See also 1. 32 of the same page, and p. 193. In the Abbey of 



tFerne (oke Feme A.) ; polipodium, 

fy cetera ; vbi brakaii. 
fa Ferntykylle 1 ; cesia ; cesius par- 

Jicipium; lentigo, lenticula, neuus, 

neuulus cfo'minutiuura. 
tFerntykylde ; le?itiginosus, lenticu- 

losus, ?ieuosus, cesius. 
Ferre ; eminus, procul, longe (lon- 

ginquus, remotus A.), Sf cetera; 

vbi o ferre (oferc A.). 
Ferre a-boute ; multum distans a via 

a Ferthynge 2 ; quadrans. 
*a Fesande 3 ; fasianus, ornix. 
a Fesician 4 ; phisicus, <$* cetera ; vbi 

a fisiciaii. 
a Feste ; conuiuium. 
*a Feste of holy kyrk ; festum, re- 

ligionis est, festulum, festiuitas, 

celebritas, solennitas ; (fesduus, 

festiualis A.), 
to make Feste ; festare, festiuare. 
to Feste ; coxmiuare Sf conuiuari. 
a Fest house ; conuiuarium, conui- 

to Fest 5 ; Alligare, Ancorare, Annec- 

tere, figere, con.-, in-, j)er-, suf-, 

fibulare, con-, firmare, ligare, 

fa Festylle 6 ; firmatorium. 
a Festynge ; firmatara, Jixura, li- 

fFestivallc ; celeher, celebs, festalis, 

festiualis, festu.s,festiuus,solennis. 
fFestyually; festiue, solenniter, $ 

ta Fester ; cicatrix, cicatricula, fis- 

the Holy Ghost, pr. in Relig. Pieces in Prose and Verse, from the Thornton MS. (E. E. 
Text Soc. ed. Perry), p. 50, 1. 19, we read — ' Pewfulnes salle make the fermorye : Devocione 
salle make the cellere,' &c. See also the Myroure of Our Lady, ed. Blunt, p. 30 and 
Introd. p. xxviii. 'Afermarye: valetudinarium? Withals. ' Cum hedir, quod scho, to 
the Ffermery, for Jjow erte nou3t welle here.' De Deguileville's Pilgrimage, MS. John's 
Coll. Camb., leaf 134. 'The monke anone ryghte wente into the fermerye and there dyed 
anone.' Caxton, Chronicles of Englond, ed. 1520, p. 87. 

1 See Farntikille, above. 

2 A. S. feorthing, the fourth part of a coin, not necessarily of a penny. Thus we read, 
'This yere the kynge .... made a newe quyne as the nobylle, half nobylle, and ferthyng- 
nobylle.' Grey Friars' Chronicle, Camden Soc. Caxton in his Chron. of Englond, 1480, p. 
231, ch. 225, mentions 'the floreyne that was callid the noble pris of yj shillynges t)iij pens 
of sterlinges, and the halfe noble of the value of thre shyllynges four pens, and the ferthing 
of value of XX pens.' So also in Liber Albus, p. 574, there is an order of the King that 
'Moneta auri, videlicet Noble, Demi Noble et Ferthing currant.' Chaucer, Prologue, 134, 
uses the word in the sense of a very small portion : — 

' In hire cuppe was no ferthing sene Of greece when sche dronken hadde hire draughte.' 

3 See directions for carving a feysaunte in the Babees Book, p. 27. ' Fawcons and 
fesantes of ferlyche hewes.' Morte Arthure, 925. From a passage in the Liber Custumarum, 
Polls Series, ed. Piley, p. 82, it would seem that the pheasant was common in England so 
early as the beginning of the reign of Edward I. ; a point on which Mr. Way seems to 
imply a doubt in his note. A still earlier reference to pheasants (as eaten in this country 
probably) will be found in the satirical piece, Golyas de quodam Abbate, in Wright's Latin 
Poems of Walter Mapes (Camden Society), Introd. p. xlii. ' The fesaunde, skornere of the 
cok by nyghte.' Chaucer, Parlement of Foides, 357. 

4 In Lonelich's Hist, of the Holy Grail, ed. Furnivall, xxxvi. 3, we are told that 
' Ypocras was the worthiest fecyscian that was evere accompted in ony plas ;' and again, 
1. 72, he is termed ' the worthy est fecyscyan levenge.' See also Ayenbite of Inwyt, p. 172. 

5 In Havelok, 1. 82, we find 'in feteres ful faste festen ;' and again, 1. 144, 

'In harde bondes, nicth and day, He was so faste wit yuel fest.' 

See also Hampole, P. of Conscience, 1907, 1909, and 5295. 

' Al his clathes fia him J?ai kest, And scourges kene ]>ai ordand ))are, 

And tille a peler fast him fest, To bete vpon his body bare.' 

A.S. fcestan. MS. Harl 496, leaf 76. 

6 ' Firmatorium ; illud cum quo aliquid firmatur? Medulla. Compare Dalke, above. 



boia, compes, neruus, 

mamca est manuum 

a Fettyr l 


versus : 
^Comjws sit furis, sed equorum 
dico nomellam, 
Boiaque colla ligat, sed manna 
est manica. 
to Fettyr ; compedire. 
Fettyrd; compeditus. 
be Feveris ; febris, febricula, tipus. 
Feverfew ; febrifuya, harba est. 
tj>e Feverquartayn 2 ; quartana ; 

1 Feverjere 3 ; februarius. 
a Fewler (or Fowler A.) ; auceps, 

Aucupator, Auicularius, Aucu- 

to Fewle ; Aucupari. 
A Fewylle 4 ; vbi byrde (A.), 
a Fewlynge ; Aucupacio, Aucu]xUus. 
Fewe ; paucus, varus. 

tto be Fewe ; rarere. 

tto wex Fewe ; rarescere. 

a Fewnes ; paucitas, paucedo, rari- 


F ante I. 

a Fialle B ; Ampulla, fiola. 

fa Fiche 6 ; orobus, vicia ; ( Versus : 
Hoc vicium crimen, set vicia die 
fore semen A.). 

a Fidylle 7 ; vidula, vidella, viella. 

A Fidiller ; jidulista, vidulista (A.). 

to Fidylle ; vidulare, viellare. 

ta Fidylk stik ; Ar cuius. 

fa dry Fige ; ficus, -i, Jicus, -us,ficu- 
Zus ; ficeturu, jiculneum. eat locus 
vbi crescunl Jiceus ; ficelus p&rti- 
cipium. (A dry Fige ; Carica, 
lampates, A.). 

A Fige tvQ;ficus,ficulnea ; ficulneus, 
Jicosus (A.). 

fA Fige celler ; Jicarius (A.). 

1 ' Numella. A shakyl. Numellus. Shakeyld. Boia: torques damnatorum quasi iugum, 
a hove : cathence, ut in vita Sancti Petri, posuerunt boias circa collum eius? Medulla. 

2 ' Quartana. Ffever qvartayn. Quartanus. He that hath iiij dayes feuer.' Medulla. 

' I salle be foundene in Fraunce, fraiste whene hym lykes, 
The fyrste daye of Feuer^ere in thas faire marches.' 

Morte Arthure, 435. 
' In feuir^er Wallas was to him send.' Wallace, 363. 
The same spelling occurs frequently in the Paston Letters and Robert of Gloucester. 

4 A. S. fugel, a fowl, fugelere, a fowler. 

' Thus foulyd this ffaukyn on ffyldis aboujte.' Wright's Political Poems, i. 388. 
'Fferkez in with the fewle in his faire handez.' Morte Arthure, 2071. 

5 'A violl, a little bottell or flaggon.' Baret. ' Amula i. e. fiola. A ff_yol or A cruet.' 
Medulla. Wyclif in his version of Numbers vii. 13, speaks of 'a silueren fiole [a viol of 
siluere, Purvey,] . . . . ful of tryed floure spreynt with oyle ;' and again, v. 37, he says, 
' Salamyel .... offrede a silueren fyole.' Trevisa in his trans, of Higden has ' a pyler 
}>at bare a viol of gold,' [phialam auream.'] Vol. v. p. 131 ; and in the E. E. Allit. Poems, 
B. 1476, at the feast of Belshazzar there are said to have been l fyoles fretted with flores & 
flee3 of golde.' 

6 ' A fitche, vicia.' Manip. Vocab. Fitches is the common pronunciation of vetches in 
many dialects at the present day. ' A rake for to hale vp the fitchis that lie.' Tusser, 
ed. Herrtage, p. 37. The Medulla renders vicia by 'a ffetche,' and adds the line — 

' Est vicium crimen viciaque dicite semen? 
' He shal sowe the sed gith, and the comyn sprengen, and sette the whete bi order, and 
barly and myle, and ficche in ther coestes.' Wyclif, Isaiah xxviii. 25. 'Fetche, a lytell 
pese; uesse, Untitle, uecheJ' Palsgrave. The author of the trans, of Palladius on Husbondrie 
tells us that 'Whan this Janus xxv daies is olde, For seede, but not for fodder.' 

Is best thi fitches forto sowe, Bk. ii. st. 6. 

7 'Meche she kouthe of menstrelcie Of harpe, of fithele, of sautri.' Guy of Wanvicke, p. 425. 
' A fiddle or rebecke, pandura.' Baret's Alvearie. 

'Her wes fiSelinge and song, Her wes harpinge imong.' La3amon, ii. 530. 

1 I can neither tabre ne trompe, ne telle none gestes, 
Farten ne fythelen at festes ne harpen.' P. Plowman, B. xiii. 230. 
A. S. fibele, a fiddle. 




tpe Figes l ; quidam morbus, Jlcus; 

versus : 
^Hic Jlcus est morbus, hec Jlcus 
fructus 4' arbor (A.), 
to Fyghte ; bellare, pugnare, mili- 

tg?*atyd (Arayd A.) to Fighte ; pre- 

fa Fighte of giandis 2 ; gigantiman- 

a Fighter ; bellator, belliger. 
a Figure ; carctcter, Jlgura, ymago, 

scema, tipus ; tipicus, tropicus^ 

a Filbert 3 ; Jlllium veljillum. 
a Filbert tre ; Jilhis vqIJUUus. 
to File (Fille A.) 4 ; deturpare, depu- 

rare, 6f cetera ; vhi to defoule 

(befowle A.), 
to Fylle A vesselle ; Injundere (A.), 
to File ; limare, -tor, -tvix, <$f cetera ; 

verbalis -ans, -iZus. 
a File ; lima. 

t Filed ; deturpatws, 4' cetera; vhi de- 

vn Fyled ; vbi Gene (A.). 

*a Filett ; corolla. 

fa Felett of J> e bakke 5 ; pala. 

to Fille ; implere, -ad, cibare, coagi- 
tare, corhplere, constipare,debriare, 
deplere, explere, fecu\\dare,Jarcire, 
inebriare, infarcire, opplere, per- 
Jicere, plere, re-, saturare, saciare; 
saturamuv cibo, saciamur ammo ; 
stellar e. 

tFyllabylle ; saciabilis & cetera (A.). 

tvn-Fylabylle ; insaciabilis (A.). 

Filosophi ; philosophia 6 . 

a Filosophur ; philosophus. 

*to Filoure (Philowr A.) 7 ; Affilare. 

*a Filoure; Affilatorium. 

a Filthe ; carta, caries indeclin&bile 
fetor, feditas, Jex, Jeculencia, il- 
luuies, inmundecia, inmundicies, 
liulo, luuio, lues, macula, putredo, 
sordes, pus, indeclm&hile; versus: 

1 See note to Emeraudis. Andrew Boorde in his Breuiary of Health, ed. 1557, chapt. 
159, fol. lvii., speaks of ' a sycknes named Ficus in ano? concerning which he says : • Ficus 
in ano be the latin wordes. In Englyshe it is named a fygge in a mans foundemente, 
for it is a postumacion lyke a fygge, or a lumpe of flesh in the longacion lyke a fygge :' 
the cause * of this impediment ' is, he says, ' a melancoly humour, the whiche doth discende 
too the longacyon or foundement.' As a remedy he recommends, first, ' the confection of 
Hameke, or pyles of Lapidis lazule, or Yera ruffini, than take of the pouder of a dogges 
hed burnt, and mixe it with the iuyce of Pimpernel, & make tentes and put into the 
foundement.* Withal says, 'Ficus, afigge : it soundeth also to a disease in the fundament, 
but then it is ficus, -ci in the masc. gender, the others be of the fern, gender, whereof thus 
of old, viz. : " Hie ficus, morbus : hrec ficus fructus & arbor" ' 

2 See also G-iandes fyghte, below. 

3 Alexander Neckham, De Naturis Rerum, p. 484, calls the filbert, nux Pkillidis. Wedg- 
wood says, 'quasi "fill-beard," a kind of nut which just fills the cup made by the beards 
of the calyx.' But may not the name be derived from the Latin ? Grower in the Confessio 
Amantis, ii. 30, says, * After Phillis philleberd This tree was cleped.' 

'Hec moms, a fylberd tre. Hie full us, a fylberd tre.' Wright's Vocab. pp. 228, 229. 

4 In William of Nassyngton's Poem on the Trinity and Unity (pr. in Relig. Pieces in 
Prose and Verse from the Thornton MS.) p. 60, 1. 180, we read that in our Lord 

* Neuer was fundene gyle Ne nathynge ]?at any saule myght fyle.' 

And in Pricke of Conscience, 1. 12 10: 

* Be swa clene and noght vile, pat J)ou sukl never more me file. 1 

See also ibid. 11. 2348, 2559, & c - A. S. fylan. 

5 In the Morte Arthure, ed. Brock, 1 1 58, we read how Arthur's knights after his conflict 
with the giant find him lying exhausted, and proceed to examine 

' His flawnke and his feletez and his faire sydez :' 
and again, 1. 2 1 74, Sir Cayons engages Arthur, but is sorely wounded by a cowardly knight, 
who smites him ' In thorowe the felettes, and in the flawnke aftyr.' See also 1. 4237. 

6 ' Philosophus. a ffylosofer.' Medulla. 

7 In Sir Oawayne, 2225, mention is made of ' a denej ax nwe dy$t Fyled in a 

fylor, fowre fote large.' 



^Pus pro putredo indeclii labile 
credo ; 
Pus declinatur custodia ^uando 
sordescula,sordecies, squalor, tabes, 
f/enetiuo tabi,datiuo tabo; versus: 
%Tabi dat tabo de quo nou ^>Zus 
to Fynde ; comperire, jnuenire ali- 

ena, reperire que nostra sunt. 
a Fynder ; jnventor, repertor, -trix. 
t Fynde (Finyd A.) ; defecatus, me- 

tto Fyne 1 ; defecare, quod est puvgare 

a fece. 
a Fine 2 ; finis. 

to Fine ; jinire. 

a Fyngyr 3 ; dactuluB, degitus, digi- 

tellus ; versus : 
%Pollex, judex, medium, medicus, 
Auricular is. 
to Finger ; digitare. 
tu Fyngyr stalle (A Fyngylle stalle 

or thymbylle A.) 4 ; digitate. 
a Fynne of aFysche ; pinna, pinnula. 
a Fire ; caminus, focus, foculus, for- 

nax, fornacula, ignis, igniculus, 

lar,pir grece, pira,rogus ; focari- 

us, iyneus, ^artficipia. 
to make Fire ; foculare. 
a Fire yreri 5 ; fugillus, piricudium, 

(fugillaris, percussor ignis A.). 

1 Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, 491 1, says that at the end of the world, 

1 First }>e fire at ]>e bygynnyng, pat be gude men sal J)an clensen and fine, 
Sal cum byfor Cristes commyng, And Ipe wikked men hard punnys and pyne.' 

In the Libel of English Policy (Wright's Political Poems, ii. 187), we read — 
' If we had there pese and gode wylle, As in Londone seyth a juellere, 

To myne and/ywe, and metalle for to pure. Whych brought from thens gold oore to us here, 
In wylde Yrishe myght we fynde the cure. Whereof was fyned metalle gode and dene.' 
O. IceL fina, to polish, cleanse. See Wyclif, Isaiah xxv. 6 ; Maundeville, p. 156, &c. 

2 ' Gladly he chevith what so he begynne, The fyne thereof berith witnessing.' 

Sesyng not tylle he his purpose wynne, Wright's Political Poems, ii. 132. 

'A lie oure trouble to enden and to fyne.' Ibid. ii. 134. 

3 Compare the following account of the fingers in the Cambridge MS. Ff. v. 48, leaf 82 : 

' like a fyngir has a name, als men thaire fyngers calle, 
The lest fyngir hat lityl man, for hit is lest of alle ; 
The next fynger hat leche man, for quen a leche dos ojt, 
With that fynger he tastes all thyng howe that hit is wro3t ; 
Longman hat the mydilmast, for longest fyngir it is ; 
The ferthe men calles totveher, therwith men touches i-wis ; 
The fifte fynger is the thowmbe, and hit has most my3t, 
And fastest haldes of olle the tother, forthi men calles hit rijt.' 
In Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 179, the names are given as follows : — 
Schyny3t thornbe schewyt fore-finger 

' Pollet enim pollex, res visas indicat index ; 
medylle-fyngur leche-fyngur acordyt 
Stat medius medio, medicus jam convenit egro ; 

ere lytil-fyngur.' 

Quas tua fert auris sordes trahit auricularis? 
And in the A.S. Glossary in MS. Cott. Cleop. A iii. leaf 76, we have them as under: — 
'Pollex, Jmma. Index, becnend. Salutanus, halettend midemesta finger. Inpudicus, 
sewiscberend midmesta finger. An ul arts, hringfinger. Auricularis, earclaesnend.' The 
forefinger is hereafter also called Lykpotte. 

4 'Diyitale. A themyl.' Medulla. ' Digitalia. Fynger stall es ; thymbles; fyngers of 
gloues.' Cooper. 'A thimble, or anything covering the fingers, as finger stalles, &c. 
Digitate? Baret. Lyte, Dodoens, p. 175, writing of Foxglove, says that it has 'long round 
hollow floures, fashioned like fiwjer-stalUs.' See also Themelle, below. A. S. steall. 

5 In the Komance of Sir Perceval, ed. Halliwell, 1. 753, we read — 

4 Now he getis hym fiynt, And thenne withowtene any stynt 

His fyre-irene he hent, He kyndlit a glede.' 

See also Gcsia Jiontanorum, p. 328, where we read 'the Emperoure tokean yrcn and smote 

K 2 



f to stryke Fire ; fuyillare. 

fa Fire stryker ; fuyillator, est ^er- 
cussor iynis. 

fa Fire spewer ; iyniuomus. 

p e Firmament ; Jirmamentum, celum, 
■t tier, mundus ; dimundanus, <$f ar- 

a Firre ; Abies. 

Fyrste ; Alpha grece, Ante, Antequam, 
antiquitus, inchoatiuus, inicialis, 
oriyinalis, primus, primarius,2)ri- 
mitus, primitiuus, primor cuius, 
primordius, primulua, jwimeuus, 
vt primeua etas, prothoplastus, 
2)vimordialis, pridem, pristinus, 
prior, priusqu&m. 

f be Firste martyr ; protliomartir. 

f be Firste Frute 1 ; primicie. 

a Fische ; piscis, _piscicw£us dimmu- 

to Fische ; piscari. 

tplenty of Fische ; piscolencia ; ^w's- 
colentus joarticipium. 

a Fischer; piscator,piscarius ; versus: 
%Piscator prendit quod piscari- 
us bene vendit. 
piscatorius £>ar£icipium, ut pisca- 
toria ars. 

a Fischynge ; piscacio, piscatura ; 
piscans ^artficipium. 

fa Fische house ; jnscarium. 

a Fisiciafi 2 ; phisicus, phisoloyus qui 

loquitur de ilia arte. 
f Fisike 3 ; phisica. 
a Fiste 4 ; lirida. 
Five (Fiffe A.); quinque ; quinus, 

quinarius, quintuplus ; penta 

Fyve cornerd; pentayonum (A.). 
Five hundreth; quinyenti; quinyen- 

tesimus, quingentenus. 
fFive sithe ; quinquies. 
fFive tene; quindecim; quindecimus, 

quintus decimus, quindenus, va- 

fFive tene sithe ; quindecies. 
tFyfty; quinquayinta ; quinquayesi- 

raus, quinquayenus, -genarius. 
tFifte sithe ; quinquayesies. 
fFive score ; centum, 8f cetera ; vbi 

fFive ^ere ; quinquennium ; qum- 

f of Five ^ere ; quinquennis. 

F ante L. 

to Flee (to Fla A.) 5 ; decor iare. 
fa Flaghte 6 ; {de terra, yleba, tirfus 
A.) ; vhi a turfe. 

fyre of a stone.' ' Fugillo. Tosmytefyre. Fugillator. A fyre smytar.' Medulla. Compare 
W. de Biblesworth, in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 1 5 7 — 
' De troys services sert fusil ; 
Fil est filee "par fusil, 

E fn de hayloun (flint) fert fusil (a fer-hyren, vir-hirne, Camb. MS.) 
E blee e molu par fusil (a mille-spindele).' 
See also Flint stone. 

1 'Primicie. The flyrste ffrujte.' Medulla. 2 See Fesician, above. 

3 ' Fisica. Ffysyk.' Medulla. 

* ' Fyest with the arse, uesse.' Palsgrave. * I fyest, I stynke. Je vesse. Beware nowe 

thou fysthe nat, for thou shalte smell sower than.' ibid. ' Fise, lirida.' Nominale MS. in 

Halliwell. • Vesse. A fyste. Vesseur. A fyster, a stinking fellow. Vessir. To fyste, t( 

let a fyste.' Cotgrave. 

5 ' In pe kechene wel i knowe, arn crafti men manye, 

pat fast fonden alday toflen wilde bestes.' William of Palerne, 1682. 
Hampole tells us that if any man knew the bliss of heaven, he would, rather than lose it, 
be willing 'Ilk day anes alle qwik to he fiayne.' P. of Conscience, 9520. 
A.S.fiean, 0. Icel. fid. 

6 Jamieson gives to ' Flauchter, v. a. To pare turf from the ground. Flamhter, Flaughter, 
8. A man who casts turf with a Flauchter-spade. Flag. A piece of green sward, cast witl 
a spade.' ' Cespes. A turfe or flagge.' Medulla. The form fla)t occurs in Alliterative Poems, 
i. 57. See P. Flagge of J>e erthe. Icel. fiaga, a slab, turf; flahna, to flake, split. 



fa Flaghte of snawe ] ; Jloccus. 
tA Flawe of fyre 2 ; flamma, 

gleba, § cetera ; vbi sparke 

tto Flay 3 ; coUidere, terrere, de-, 

ex-, efferare, territare, terri- 

Jicare, tevrifaccre, timorem. in- 

tFlayde; territus, de-, ex-, terrifi- 

*a Flayle ; flagellum, tribidus, tribu- 

lura vel tribida, secundum hu- 

g[onem], sed secundum alios dif- 
feruut ; versus : 

%Quo fruges terimus instrumen- 
tum. tribidumjit, 
Est tribida (tribidus A.) vejyres, 

purgat Aras tribida. 
Tres tribidi partes manuten- 
tum, ca2)j)a,Jlagellum, 
Manutentum, ahande staffe, cappa, 
a cape, flagellum, A swewille 4 . 
(Quo fruges iactantur, ^Inglice, 
A schouylle A.), 
a Flanke ; jlium. 
*a Flaket B ; Jlacta, obba, vter, § 

cetera ; vbi A potte. 
*a Flawne 6 ; opacum. 

1 ' Flag. A flake of snow.' Jamieson. ' A flawe of snawe ' occurs in the Alliterative 
Romance of Alexander, ed. Stevenson, 1. 1 756. a flag of snow 

' La bouche me entra la aunf de neyf.' 
Dan. flage. Walter de Bibblesworth, in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 160. 

Halliwell quotes from the Thornton MS. leaf 31, 'Thare begane for to falle grete flawghtes 
of snawe, as thay had bene grete lokkes of wolle.' See also Flyghte of snawe, below. 

2 In the Morte Arthure, 1. 2556, we read that Priamus and Sir Gawayne 

' Feghttene and floresche withe flawmande swerde3 

Tille iheflaives of fyre flawmes one theire helmes.' 

See also 1. 773 5 the word is wrongly explained in the Glossary. ' Telle flaunkes of fyr 

and flakes of soufre.' E. E. Allit. Poems, B. 954. ' Flaught of fire. A flash of lightning.' 

Jamieson. Sir David Lyndesay, in his description of the Day of Judgment, says — 

' As fyre flaucht haistely glansyng, Discend sail pe most heuinly kyng.' 

The Monarch e, Bk. iv. 1. 5556. 
See also Bk. ii. 11. 14] 7, 3663 ; Cursor Mundi, p. 1 10, 1. 1769 ; and Gawin Douglas, Eneados, 
vii. Prol. 1. 54. 

3 In the Pricke of Conscience, 2242, Hampole says — ■ 

' Na vonder es if \>e devels com J>an When pe devel com to Saynt Martyn 

In ]>e ende obout a synful man, In \>e tyme of dede at his last day 

For to flay hy m and tempte and pyn, Hym for to tempte and for to flay! 

In Metrical Homilies, ed. Small, p. 69, we are told of St. Anthony that 

' Swa meke and myld was he, Flayed he fendes fell fra hyme : ' 

That thurght meknes, many tyme 
and again, p. 27, it is said that at the end of the world — 

1 pe erthe J»e achtande day Sal stir and quae and al folc flay! (printed incorrectly slay!) 
See also Alliterative Poems, ii. 960. A. S. flegan, O. Icel. fleyja. 
'Ceis not for to pertrubil all and sum, And with thy fellound reddour thame tofley! 

Gawin Douglas, Eneados, xi. 1. 970. 
'Fen3ies him fleyit or abasit to be.' Ibid. xi. p. 377, 1. 13, ed. 1710. 
'Nime'S nu gode 3eme hu alle pe seouen dea'Sliche sunnen muwen beon a-vleied turuh 
treowe bileaue.' Ancren Riwle, p. 248 ; see also ibid. p. 136. 

4 See Hande-staffe, Cappe of a flayle, and Swevylle. ' The bucket is of fro the 
swepe or flayle. Vrmila ciconie siue teloni excidit! Horman. 

5 ' Hoc onafrum, a flaget. Hec lura, a mowth of a flaget. Wright's Vocab. p. 257. In 
William of Palerne a man who is on his way to Borne • wi j? two flaketes ful of ful fin wynes, ' 
is so frightened at the sight of the werwolf that ' for care and drede, peflagetes he let falle,' 
I. 1893. ' Flacon (as Flascon). A great leartherne bottle.' Cotgrave. ' Bemygius took 
hym aJlaJcet ful of holy wyne.' Trevisa's Higden, v. 293. 

6 ' Flans. Flawnes, Custards, Egge-pies.' Cotgrave. ' Asturco. A fflawne. Astotira. A 
fflawne.' Medulla. 'Fill ouen full of flawnes! Tusser, p. 181. 'A flaune, custard; 
galatyrium! Manip. Vocab. 

' Brede an chese, butere and milk Pastees and flaunes! LTavelok, 643. 

* Flawne or custard.' Baret. A kind of pancake was also so called. Nettleham feast at 



a Fleo ' ; musca, musculo,, musco, 
(cinomia A.), cinifes, indeuYum- 
hile; muscetnm, muscarium, mus- 
cularium, muscdetum, sunt loca 
vbi habundant musce ; muscosus. 

to Flee ; volare, con-, de-, e-, volitare. 

to Flee (or with schewe A.) 2 ; cauere, 
declinare, fwjere, con-, dif-, ef-, 
re-,pvo-, fugitare, vitare, de-, E-. 

fFlekked 3 ; Scutulatus (A.). 

+a Fletcher 4 ; flectarius, plectarius. 

a Flee flape 5 ; Jlahellum, Jlabrum, 

muscarium, rnuscularium. 
a Fleynge ; fuga ; fugitiuxis, pvofu- 

Fleyng of fowlys ; volatus ; volat'dis 

*a Fleke 8 ; crath, craticula. 
a Fley 7 ; pidex, Sf cetera ; vbi A 

tFlende fi ; recutitus, qui retrouersam 

hahet pellem virilis menbri. 

Easter is called the Flown, possibly from flauns having been formerly eaten at that period 
of the year. See Babees Book, p. 1 73, where Flawnes are stated to be ' Cheesecakes made of 
ground cheese beaten up with eggs and sugar, coloured with saffron, and baked in " cofyns " 
or crusts.' 'Hicflato, A 6 , flawne.' Wright's Vocab. p. 200. 

1 ' A flee. Musca.' Manip. Vocab. A. S. fleoge. 

2 ' Thay wende the rede knyghte it ware, And faste gane thay flee. 1 

That wolde thame alle for-fare, Sir Perceval, 874. 

4 Vor \>i fleih sein Johan ]>e feolauschipe of fule men.' Ancren Riicle, p. 160. A. S. fleon. 

3 Spotted ; streaked. In P. Plowman, B. xi. 321, we meet with 

' Wylde wormes in wodes, and wonderful foules, 
With flekJted fetheres, and of fele coloures :' 
and Chaucer, Prologue to Chanon Yemannes Tale, 565, says that 
* The hors eek that this yeman rood vpon Aboute the peytrel stood the foom ful hye, 
So swatte, that vunethe myghte it gon. He was of fome alflekJced as a pye.' 

Trevisa in his translation of Higden, i. 159, says that the ' camelion is a flekked best.' 
O. Friesic, flekka, to spot : cf. Icel. flekka, to stain, flekkr, a spot, stain. German, gefleckt. 
' Scutulatus, color equi,' is quoted in Klotz's Latin Dictionary. The Medulla renders 
Scutulatus 'grey poudered, sicut equus,' while Cooper says, 'Scutulatus color, as I thynke, 
watchet colour ;' and Gouldman, 'scutulatus color, dapple-gray or watchet colour.' 

4 The flecchour was properly the man who made and set the feathers on the arrows : the 
arrows themselves were made by the Arrowsmith. The parliament of James II. [of 
Scotland] which sat in 1457 enacted, 'that there be a bower (a bowmaker) and afledgear 
in ilk head town of the schire.' See the Destruction of Troy, E. E. Text Soc. 1593, and 
Liber Albus, pp. 533, 732. Fr.fle'che, an arrow. 

5 • Esventoir, a fan, flip-flap, flie-flap or flabel.' Cotgrave. ' A flappe to kill flies, musca- 
rium.' Baret's Alvearie. ' Flabellum. A fflappe or a scorge. Muscarius. Awerareoffof 
flyes.' Medulla. 

6 'Flaik, Flake, Flate, s. (1) A hurdle. (2) In plural, temporary folds or pens.' 
Jamieson. See Holinshed, Chronicle of Ireland, p. 178. O. Icel. flaki, fleki. 'Crates. A 
hyrdyl.' Medulla. 'A fleke: cratix? Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 201. Ga wain Douglas 
in his trans, of Virgil, JEneados, xi. p. 362, ed. 1710, has — 

' Sum of Eneas feris besely Flatis to plet thaym preissis b) r and by, 
And of smal wikkeris for to beild vp ane bere :' 
and W. Stewart, Croniclis of Scotland, ii. 146 — 

' This Congallus deuysit at the last, 
That euerie man ane flaik sould mak of tre, .... 
Syne on the nycht, with mony staik and stour, 
Gart mak ane brig quhair tha passit all ouir.' 

So also Bellendene in his version of Boece, i. 117, ed. 1721, has 'This munitioun 

had na out passage bot at ane part, quhilk was maid by thaim with flaikis, scherettis and 
treis.' See also Hooker's Giraldus' Hist, of Ireland, ii. 178. 

7 A. S. flea. 

8 The Medulla renders recutitus by ' he |?at hath a bleryng 3erd,' while the Ortus agrees 
with our text, ' Recutitus ; flenned, id est circumcisus,' as also Huloet, ' Fleyed, or flayne, 
or hauinge the idcynne cutte : Recutitus :' and again, ' Circumcised. Recutitus.' Cooper, 
in his Thesaurus, defines it as ' martial, circumcised, cut shorte, exulcerate.' Evidently it 



Flesche; carnecula, carneus, caro ; 
versus : 
T\Cames carnijices, ccu'nem ven- 
dunt, meretrices. 
creos grece, sarcos grece ; carnalis 
/jarticipium : caro secundum doc- 
tores suauis, fragilis, suauia sua- 
det,concupiscit aduersus splritum, 
pr&uos motus gignit, qw&nto plus 
colitur tanto plus sordet ; versus : 
H Vilior est humana quam pellis 
ouina : 
Si moriatur ouis aliquid valet 

ilia ruina. 
Extr&hitur pellis Sf scribitur 

intus $ extra : 
Si moriatur homo moritur caro 

pellis Sc ossa, 
Quid tana curate nutritur invti- 

UsA te? 
Stercoris Sf Fellis fellis iam 
mortua pellis 

Expallet, liuet, fetet, cadet, at- 

que liquatur ; 
Hijs gradibus corpus vermescit 
$ incineratur. 
a Fleshe cruke l ; creagra, fuscina, 

fuscmula, tridens, Sf cetera, 
fa Fleschowr ; camifex, bubalus, la- 

nista, bouiscida, lanio, macellarius, 

A Fleschewrye 2 ; Carnificium, Car- 

narium, laniatorium (A.), 
fa Flesche schamylle 3 ; macellum.. 
a Flese ; vellus ; vellerosus. 
Flewme 4 ; flegma, fleuma, reuma. 
Flewmatykke 5 ; Jleumaticus, flegma- 

ticus, reumaticus. 
ta Flyghte of snawe 6 ; floccus niue- 

a Flyke of bacon 7 ; pema. 
a Flint stone ; fugillum, silex ; sili- 

cus pir£icipium (fugillare, est ig- 

nem jiercutere A.). 

is derived from A. S. flean, to skin, flay 
Mundi speaking of circumcision says — 
' Abram tok forth his men 
And did als drightin can him ken ; 
Him self and Ismael he scare. 

See Jew, below. The author of the Cursor 

And sij)en all his J)at car-men were. 
O thritti yeir fra he was born 
"Was Ysmael wen he was schorn.' 

11. 2693-3698. 

1 ' Creagra. A fflesshook or an aundyryn. Fuscina. A ffysh hook or a fflessh hook.' 
Medulla. Horman has : ' Fette the fiesshe hoke. Da creagram.' 

2 Fleshewrye, apparently is a place where flesh is cut or hetved. The word fleschheviere, 
a butcher, occurs in Octovian, 750, 'To selle motoun, bakoun, and beef, as flexch-hewere ;' 
and fieschour appears to be a contraction of this. ' Laniatorium. A fflessh stal. Macellum. 
A bochery off [or] a fflessh stal.' Medulla. 

3 In the Liber Albus, p. 400, we find the old site of Newgate Market mentioned under 
the name of ' Saint Nicholas Flessh-shameles ;' and in the Inquisitiones post Mortem Robert 
Langelye is said to have owned four shops in ' Les Flesshambles in Parochia Sancti 
Nicholai.' Andrew Boorde in his Introduction of Knowledge, ed. Furnivall, p. 151, says 
that at Antwerp 'is the fayrest flesh shambles that is in Cristendome.' A. S. scamel, a 
stool or bench. 

4 ' Fleame, flegma.' Huloet. ' Flegme or sniuell, phlegma.' Baret. 

5 * I serue of vine^re and of vergeous and of greynes that ben soure and greene, and give 

hem to hem that ben coleryk rather than to hem that ben flewmatylt.' De Deguileville's 

Pilgrymage of the Lyf of the Manhode, ed. Wright, p. 134. In the Babees Book, ed. 

Furnivall, p. 1 70, the following description is given of a Fleumatick person : — 

, ™ , . \ Hie sompnolentus / piger, in sputamine multus, 

-T leumai/icus \ -1711 • « # . . ~ . , -i. , 

/ Ji<bes hinc sensus / pinguis, facie color albus. 

See also ibid. pp. 220-1. 6 See Flaghte of snawe, above. 

7 t p ernflj a flyk.' Nominale. ' Flick, succidia, lardttm. 1 Manip. Vocab. ' Tak the 

larde of a swyne flyk, and anoynte the mannes fete therwith underneth.' Thornton MS. 

leaf 304. ' Flick, the outer part of the hog cured for bacon, while the rest of the carcase 

is called the bones.' Forby. See P. Plowman, B. ix. 169, where we read of the celebrated 

'flicche of Dunmowe.' Fr. ' fliche, flique de lard, a flitch, or side, of bacon.' Ice\. Jl ikki, 

A.H.JIicce. 'Pema. A flykke.' Medulla. 



Flytyng ; vhi stryffe (A.). 

*to Flytte ' ; altevcari, certare, 


gare, obiurgare, catazizare. 
}}e Flix a ; diaria, discentaria, lien- 

taria, jluxus. 
a Floke of gese (geyse A,) 3 ; polea. 
a Floke of schepe ; grex. 
to Floke ; gregare, ag-, con-. 
to Florische ; Jlorare, con-, ef-, re-, 

Jlorescere, florare. 
a Florischere ; Jlorator. 
a Flote of a pipe 4 ; jdraula. 
a Floure ; Jlos,Jlosculus,Jlosillu.s. 
ta Floure hille ; Jloretum, florari- 

Floure; Ador, indeclin&hile, similago, 

simila, amolum. 
tFlory; Adoreus, Jlorulentus, flor- 

fFluande : Jluens, ef-. 

a Flude (Fluyde A.) ; catJiaclismviS, 

infernalis est, diluuium, Fliwt\iB t 

Jluctulus, Jluentum, Jlumen,Jluor, 

Jluuiws ; Jluuialis, Jluuiosus, di- 

minutiuum / Jluxus. 

a Flude3ate (Fluydgate A.) 5 ; cino- 

tFludy; Ampnicus, Jluuialis, Jluui- 

to Flue (Flwy A.) ; Jluere, ef-, 

con-, de-, e-, jntev-, sub-, su- 

per-, re-, Jluctucvre, Jluctare, 

Jluuiare, sujyQvundare, torrere, 


a Fluyngg; exundac'w, Jluxus, inun- 
dac'w, ledo. 

Fluynge ; dejluus. 

fa Fluke 6 ; pecten, Sf cetera ; vhi A 

a Flure (Flwyr A.) ; Area. 

1 ' Contentiosus, geflitful.' Alfric's Glossary. 

1 Wi^tly a-no}>er werkman, J^at was J^er be-side, 
Gc&nflite wi]) \>nt felj?e, ]?at formest hadde spoke.' William of Palerne, 2545. 
We find the pt. tense in Sir Amadace, ed. Robson, xxxvi.6, 'pus^o^e Sir Amadace.' In 
Bernard's Terence, 79, we have the Latin jurgavit cum eo rendered by 'he did flite or chide 
with him.' ' Litigo. To stryue or flyte.' Ortus. See also the Booh of Curtasye, pr. in 
the Babees Book, ed. Furnivall, p. 178, 1. 54, where we are warned 

' In peese to ete, and euer eschewe To flyte at borde ; J?at may j)e rewe.' 
See also Cursor Mundi, p. 386, 1. 6681. A. S. flitan. In Trevisa's Higden, ii. 97 is 
mentioned l JHttwyte, amendes i-doo for chydynge,' [emenda proveniens pro contentione.~\ 

2 ' By thend of October go gather vp sloes, 

Haue thou in a readines plentie of thoes, 
And keepe them in bedstraw, or still on the bow, 
To staie both the ./fee of thyselfe and thy cow.' Tusser, p. 52. 
' Lienteria. The ffiyxe.' Medulla. 

3 'Polia. Afnokoffbestys.' Medulla. 

4 In Deguileville's Pilgrymage of the Lyf of the Manhode, ed. Wright, p. 1 1 7, we read 
of ' reedes &nd floytes and shalmuses.' See also ibid. p. 123. ' A faucet, or tappe, a flute, 
a whistle, a pipe, as well to conueigh water, as an instruniente of musicke, fistula, tubulus? 
Baret. ' They flouted, and they taberd ; they yellyd, and they cryed, ioyinge in theyr 
maner, as semyd, by theyr semblaunt.' Lydgate, Pylgremage of the Sowle, bk. ii. p. 50, 
ed. 1859. 

5 See also Clowe of flode3ete, above. ' A flode-3ate : sinoglostorium.'' Wright's Vol. 
of Vocab. p. 180. 'Si il soit trove qe ascuns tielx, gorcez, fishgarthez, molyns, mille- 
dammez, estankez de molyns, lokkez, hebbyngwerez, estakez, kideux, hekkez, on flodegates 
sont faitz levez, enhauncez, estreiez, on enlargez encountre mesme lestatuit.' 1472* Stat. 
12 Ed. IV. cap. 7. 

6 ' Flook, fish, pectunculus.'* Manip. Vocab. ' Flook, flounder.' Junius. ' Flookes or 
flounders, pectines.' Baret. Cooper renders pectines by 'scallops.' 'Flowndersor Floukes, 
bee of like nature to a Plaice, though not so good.' Cogan, Haven of Health, 161 2, p. 14T. 
Harrison, Descript. of England, ii. 20, mentions the 'floke or sea flounder.' In Morte 
Arthure, 1088, the Giant, with whom Arthur engages, is described as 

' fflat-mowthede as a fluke, with fleryande lyppys.' 
See also 1. 2779, and Harrison's Descript. of England, ed. Furnivall, ii. 20. The word is 
still in common use. A S. floe 



F an^e O. 

Fodyr ; for ago (farrago A.), pabu- 
lum, pastus (far ris farrago pan- 
norum dicoforago A.). 

to Fodyr 1 ; pabulary. 

tFoge; Reuma, vnemia (A.). 

a Foyle 2 ; pt<£/us. 

a Folke 3 ; gens,2>lebs,popuh\s,turba. 

to Folowe ; Assequi, sequi, con-, ex-, 
sectari, ab-, demulare, Emulari. 
Exequimur mortuum, consequi- 
wur ad fidem, persequimur fugi- 
entem, Sf jyroseqxrimur cum officio 
fungimur, imitamur moribus ; 
succedere (A.). 

a Folower ; imitator, secutor, sequax. 

a Folowynge ; imitacio, sequela, se- 
quacitas, zelus. 

Folowynge; dermdus, emuhis, imi- 
tatorius, sequax, sequaculus. 

tto Folowe y e fader in maners; 

tto Folowe 4 y e moder in maners ; 

tFolowyngly ; consequenter, porro. 

*a Folte 5 ; bias, baburrus, blatus, 
bardus, garro, ineptws, nugator, 

tFonde ; Are2)ticius, Astrosus, babi- 
ger, babilus, babuwus, brutus, de- 
mens, desipiens, exensis, fatuus, 
Eollus, ignarus, ignauus, imperi- 
ous, incircumspectus, indignans, 

ineptus, iudiscretus, infrunitus, 
insensis, insulsus, lunaiicus, nesci- 
us, presumptuosus, simplex, stoli- 
dus, stultus, temerarius; ignorant* 
qui a\i(\uid scit, jnscius qui nihil 
s[c]it, jnsipiens qui now attendit 
2>ericula futura (stultus A.) qui, 
si attendit, now cauet. 

tto be or \ Fonde ; brutere, brutes- 
wax or > cere, dementare, <£ -ri, 
to make ) fatuare, Follere, folles- 
cere, stultizare. 

1a Fondnes ; baburra, demencia, de- 
lirameutum, fatuitas, ignauia, 
inep>cia, inercia, simplicitas, stul- 
ticia, temeritas. 

fFondely ; stulte, inse2)ienter, fatue, 
inepte, ignaue. 

ta Fondespeche ; stu[l]tiloquium ; 
stultiloquns ^>ar£icipium. 

For 6 ; 2 we "> 2 )VO i 2 )ro 2 } t er > <l u ia, si. 

to Forbere ; deferre. 

to Forbed ; Abdicare, abnuere, argu- 
ere, ut : arguo te ne malificos imi- 
teris; jnhebere jmperio, 2)rohibere 
iure, interdicere, vetare, euetare, 

A Forbidder ; prohibitor, abdicator, 
jnhibitor, inter dictor. 

*a Forfett 7 ; forisf actum, forisfac- 

to Forfett ; forisfacere. 

A Forbott 8 . 

1 'With her mantle tucked vp Shee fathered her flocke.' Percy Folio, Loose Songs, 58. 
'Forsothe that woman hadde a foddred calf in the hows.' Wyclif, 1 Kings xxviii. 24. 
O. Icel. fdtSra. 

2 ' A fole, pullus equinus' Baret. c P villus. A cheken or a ffole.' Medulla. See also 
Colte, above. 3 MS. Fokke. 

4 MS. fowlo. ' Matrizo. To folowyn pe moder.' Medulla. 

5 ' Blax. Softe ; delicate ; wanton ; that cannot discerne things ; blunt ; foolish ; he 
that vaynely boasteth him selfe. Morio. A foole.' Cooper. The Medulla gives ' Baburra. 
Folyheed or sothfastnes,' and renders bardus by ' stultus, ebes, ineptus, tardus.' ' Fold. 
A pretty foole, a little fop, a yong coxe, none of the wisest.' Cotgrave. In the Cursor 
Mundi, p. 141, 1. 2303, we read — 

' Fendes crepte bo ymages wib-inne And lad folted men to synne.' 

See also Robert de Brunne's Hist, of England, Bolls Series, ed. Furnivall, 4527 and 7229. 

6 MS. a For. 

7 'Ffande to fette that freke and forfette his landes.' Morte Arthure, 557. 

8 A prohibition or tiling forbidden. Thus in the Cursor Mundi, p. 42, 1. 61 2, we are told 
that God gave to Adam Paradise 

'als in heritage, Bot for to hald it wel vnbroken 

To yeild berfor na mar knaulage, pe forbot bat was betuix )>am spoken.' 



a Foreste ; foresta. 

%Aforestare, est forestam facer e. 
^Deafforestare est forestam de- 
to Forge; vbi to smethe (A.). 
to Forgete ; descire, dediscere, ob- 
i/nisei, obliuioni tr&dere, igno- 
r[ar^e; vnde versus : 
%IIoc ignoramus quod notum 
nou memoramus, 
Illud nescimus quod nunqu&m 

mente subimus, 
Obliuiscemur jwius hoc quod in 
Arte docemur. 
a Forgetter ; inmemor. 
Forgetyll 1 ; letergicus, obliuiosus. 
a Forgettynge ; Annescia, obliuio. 
to ForgifFe j donare, con-, dimittere, 
ignorare, ignoscere, jndidgere, re- 
mittere, veniam dare. 
a Forge [ue]nes (Forgiffnes A.) ; 
jndulgencia, remissio, remedium, 


a Forhede ; frons. 

a Forke ; furca, furcella, furcula, 
tridens cumtribus dentibus(bidens 
cum. duobus dentibus A.). 

Formabylle ; vbi ordinate. 

a Forme ; forma, formula, formella, 
duca, idea. 

to Forme ; formare, informare. 

a Fornas 9 ; caminus, epicaustorium, 

a Forome (A Forme or Astule A.) 3 ; 
sponda, spondula c/?minutiuura 
(fultrum, scamnum A.), <fc cetera; 
vbi A stule. 

J^e Forparte of y° hede ; cinciput. 

to Forsake ; A brenuueiare, cathezi- 
zare, deficere, derelinquere, dese- 
rere, jnvite relinquere, voluntate 
desertare, desinere, desolari, dimit- 
2ere, linquere, renunciare, res- 

Forsakyn (Forsaking A.); desolatus, 

Forsothe ; A men, Autem, cevte, enim, 
enion, eciam, equidem, nempe, ni- 
mirum, profecte, quippe, reuera, 
siquidem, vtiqae, vero, vere, qui- 
dem, quoque, porro,veraciter, quin, 
quineciam. i , quinimmo, quinin, 

*to Forspeke 5 ; fascinare, hugo ; 
versus : 
%Nescioquis tenerosoculus micln 
fascinat Agnos, 
et fascinare, i.e. incantare. 

a Forspekynge ; fascinacio, f acinus, 

The word occurs not infrequently in conjunction with God's ; thus we have in a charm for 
the tooth-ache from Thornton MS. printed in Reliq. Antiq. i. 126 — 

* ix. tymes Goddis forhott, thou wikkyde worme, Thet ever thou make any rystynge.' 

In the Percy Folio MS. ed. Furnivall and Hales, Robin Hood, &c., p. 18, 1. 59, vol. i. we 
read — ' "Now, Marry, gods forbott," said the Sheriffe, "that euer that shold bee." 
In Sir Ferumbras when Alorys proposes to Ganelon to leave Charles to his fate — 

' "Godes for-bode," Gweynes sede, " J^at ich assentede to such a dede." 
The expression also occurs twice in Stafford's Examination of Abuses, 1581, New Shakspere 
Soc. ed. Furnivall, p. 73, where it is spelt ' God sworbote.' 

' " God forbot," he said, "my thank war sic thing 

To him that succourit my lyfe in sa euill ane nicht." ' Rauf Coil^ear, J46. 
A. S. forbod. Compare P. Forbode. 

1 ' Forgetelnesse, nutelnesse, recheles, shamfestnesse, drede, Ortrowe, TrewSeleas, Trust, 
wilfulnesse' and 'Misleue,' are in Early English Homilies, ed. Morris, ii.71-3, said to be 
the ten things opposed to due confession. Forgetel, forgetful, occurs in Gower, ed. Pauli, 
iii. 98 : 'Forgetel, slow, and wery sone of every thing.' A. S. forgytel. 

2 t p orr , a x. A fforneys.' Medulla. ' A Fornace. Fornax? Manip. Vocab. 

3 'A forme, bench, scannum.' Manip. Vocab. ' A fourrne to sit on, a settle, sedile? Baret. 

4 MS. quineeciam. 

5 'Fascinare. To forspeake, or forlooke.' Cooper. 'To forespeake, or beewitch, fascinare, 
incantare, charmer. A forespeaking, fascinatio, charmerie. Unhappie, forespoken, inomi- 
natus, malheioreux.' Baret. • To forespeake : fascinare.' Manip. Vocab. ' Sythen told me 



a Forster ' ; forestarius, lucarius, 

to For s were 2 ; Abiurare, jw-, de- 

ierare, detestari, peierare, 6c 

a For[s]werynge ; Abiurac'w, deier- 

acio, detestacio, peieracio, periur- 

acio, periurium. 
Forswerynge ; abiurans, ^eriwrans, 

6c cetera, 
a Forswerer ; periurus. 
*For y e naynste ; Ab intento. 
*to Forthynke 3 ; penitere, 6c -ri, 

depo[nens~\, compungere. 
*a Forthynkynge ; com^nmccio, con- 

tricio, penitencia. 
an vn Forthynkynge ; jnpeniten- 

Forthynkynge ; penitens. 
vn Forthynkynge; jnpenitens. 

fto Forthirre ' ; preferre, 2 )rero " 

Forthirmer ; vlterius. 

a Fortune ; fortuna, 6k cetera ; v\ri 
a happe. 

to Fortune ; Fortunare, 6c cetera ; 
vhi to happynge. 

fbc Forwarde of a bateylle 5 ; 

Forqwhy ; quia, qxxomum, quum- 

+A Fostalle ; vestigium (A.). 

a Fotestepe ; bitalassum, peda, ves- 

Foule ; Aceratus, deformis in corpore, 
turpis in anima, enormis, fedus, 
fedosus, fetidus, inmundus, inor- 
natus,inpolitus, Jutosus, lutulentus, 
cenosus, maculatus, maculosus, 
obscenus, pollutus, putridus, 

a clerk that he was forspohjn.' Townley Myd. p. 115. Ford also uses the word in his Witch 
of Edmonton, ii. 1 : ' My bad tongue Forespealcs their cattle, doth bewitch their corn.' 

1 ' Hie forestarius ; a foster.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 278. 

' -jit I rede that thou fande An arow for to drawe.' 

Than any forster in this lande MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, leaf 50, in Halliwell. 

In the Gesta Romanorum, p. 206, we read — * I am the Emperours Forster, that dwelle 
here, and have the kepyng of this forest;' and again, p. 207, 'he callid to him the forster? 

2 'As afore God they ben forswore, Of alle our synnys, God, make a delyueraunce.' 

Wright's Political Poems, ii. 241. 
1 Periurus. Forswern. Periurium. Forsweryng.' Medulla. 

3 ' Peniteo. To forthynkyn.' Medulla. 

* That the Lollardis Forthinken ful soore.' Wright's Political Poems, ii. 73. 
In Morte Arthure, 4252, the king says — 

'In faye sore me for-thynlcJces That euer siche a false theefe so faire an end haues ;' 
and in Alisaunder, ed. Skeat, 446, the Spartans and Phocians in the battle 

' forthoughten hem alle pat euer J?ei farde to fight wi]> Philip ]>e keene.' 

1 Ihesus came in to Galilee, prechinge .... and seiynge, For tyme is fulfillid, and J>e kyngdam 
of God shal come nis : for\inke 3ee, (or do 3ee penaunce) and beleue 3efi to pe gospel.' Wyclif, 
St. Mark i. 14, 15. On the constructions and uses of this verb see Prof. Zupitza's note to 
Guy of Warwick, 1. 984. ' I forthynke, I repente me. Je me repens. I have forthought 
me a hundred tymes that I spake so roughly to him. I forthynke, I bye the bargayne, 
or suffer smerte for a thyng.' Palsgrave. 

* ' Should holy church have no hedde ? Who should her rule, who should her redde ? 

Who should be her governaile ? Who should her forthren, who should availe V 

The Complaint of the Ploughman, in Wright's Political Poems, i. 336. 

In the Ancren B.iwle, p. 156, we are told that solitude and contemplative life are the great 

helps to grace: 'swuffest auaunceS ScfurtSre?) hit.' A. S. fyrtirian. 'I forder one, I set 

hym forwarde. Je auance.' Palsgrave. 

5 'The forward or vantgard, primus ordo. J Baret. 
' In the kynges foncarde the prynce did ride With nobill lordis of grett renowne.' 

Wright's Political Poems, ii. 280. 
Harrison tells us that Strabo states that 'the Galles did somtime buy vp all our maistiffes 
to serue in the forewards of their battels, wherein they resembled the Colophonians, &c.' 
Descript. of England, ed. Furnivall, ii. 41. 



sordidxx&y spurcuB, squalidus, vi- 

to make Foule ; vhi to defoule (fyle 

to be Foule ; federe, putrere, sordere, 

-desceve, de-, squalere, turpere, 

-pescere, de-, viler e, de', vilescere, 

a Foulnes ; deformitas, enormitas, 

feditas, inmundicies, macula, 

obscenitas, sa,nies, pollucio, pu- 

tvedo, soditas, spurcicia, squalor, 

tabes, tabi, tabo, turpitudo, vililas. 
ta Foule speche 1 ; eglota {Egloga 

A.), turpiloquium. 
ta Foule speker 2 ; spuridicus, tur- 

a Foule wynnynge ; turpilucrum. 
Fouly ; turpiter, enormiter, viliter, 

deformiter, & cetera. 
Foure; qvMuor ; ^uarius, guaternus, 

qw&ternarius , quadruples, tetras, 

Foure cornarde ; qu&drangulus, qu&- 

dratus, qu&drangulat us. 
tFoure days ; q\ia,triduan\is. 
Foure Falde ; qv&druplex. 

Foure foted (Fowre fute A.) ; ^ua- 

drupes, qu&drupedius. 
Foure hundrethe ; qu&dringenti ; 


tFoure hundrithe sythes ; quadrin- 

Foure schore ; vhi aghty. 
Foure tene ; qu&tuor decern ; quartus 

decimus, qw&ter denus, quater- 

den&rius, tescerecedecades (tessere- 

decades A.) 3 . 
Foure tene sythys ; quaterdecies, 

Forty; qxs&draginta ; quadragesimus, 

qu.&dr&genus, quadragenarius. 
tFoure 3ere; quadriennium; qu&dri- 

ennus, qa&driennis. 
a Fox ; vulpes, vulpecula; vulpinus. 
tFox Fire 4 ; glos, glossis. 
tFox gloue 5 ; apium, branca vul- 


F QXLte R. 

Fra; A, Abs, Ab, de, E, ex. 

Fra a-bowne ; desuper. 

1 ' Eglota. A werd off goote.' Medulla. See G-ayte Speche. Possibly there were some 
indecent eclogues in Latin. Cf. Theocritus. 

2 MS. Fouke speker. ' Spuridicus : Sordida dicens! Medulla. 
s That is TeaaapafcaideKaT7)s, fourteen years old. 

4 This appears to be that phosphoric light which is occasionally seen in rotten trees 
or wood. See Brand's Pop.Antiq. ed. Hazlitt, iii, 345-57, and Wright's Superstitions, &c. 
of the Middle Ages, where he speaks of the fifollets or feux-follets, a sort of ignis fatuus. 
Fox here is probably 0. Fr. fox— f 61 or fols, fatuus, applied to things having a false 
appearance of something else, as avoine folle, barren oats. 

' Glos, glossis ; lignum vetus est de nocte serenum : 
-Ris tibi dat florem, -sis lignum, -tis mulierem.' Ortus. 
' Glos, -ssis, m. Hygen. est lignum putridum. Rotten wood. 
Glos gloris flos est : glos glotis famiina fratris, 
Gloss glossis lignum putre est, de nocte relucens, 
Ris tibi dat florem, sis lignum, tis mulierem! Gouldman. 
' Discite quid sit glos, lignum, vel femina, vel flos. 
Glos, glossis, lignum vetus est de nocte serenum ; 
Glos, glossis, lingua illius Alius glossa ; 
Glos, gloris, flos illis gloria dos est ; 
Glos eciam gloris dicetur femina fratris : 
Hoc glos est lignum, hec glos est femina fratris.' 

Medulla, Harl. MS. 2257. 

5 ' Saliunca, gauntelee, foxes-glove.' MS. Harl. 978, If. 24bk. ' Fion, camglata, foxes- 
glove.' Ibid. Cotgrave gives ' Gantelee. The herbe called Fox-gloves, our Ladies-gloves 
and London buttons.' 



Fra be 3onde ; deultra. 
tFra dore to dore ; hostiatim. 
Fraghte of a schippe (Fraght or 

lastage of A shipe A.) ' ; sa- 

Fra hyne forward 2 ; Amodo, de 

cetero, deinceps, inposteruin. 
Fra hynse ; hinc, jstinc, wide, il- 

*a Frale (Fraelle A.) of fygls 3 ; 


a Fratovre 4 : refectorium. 

A Fray B ; vb\f\ striffe (A.). 

fa Frayturer ; refectorarius. 

Fra thense ; jlluc, jnde. 

tFra ma« to man ; viritim. 

*a Franchernole (Frawnchmulle 

A.) 6 ; lucanica. 
p e Fransy 7 ; frensis ; freneticus qui 

patitur infirmitatem. 
tFra ode/ 1 stede ; Aliunde, de Alio 


1 ' To fraite a shippe, implere navim. Lastage, or balast, wherewith ships are euen 
peised to go upright. Sab arm.' Baret's Alvearie. See Lastage, below. 

2 ' Amodo. Ffro hens fforwarde.' Medulla. 

3 ' And Jeanne shal he testifye of a trinitee, and take his felawe to witnesse. 

What he fonde in a,freyel, after a freres lyuynge.' P. Plowman, B. xiii. 94. 

* Frayle, a basket in which tigs are brought from Spain and other parts.' Kennett's Paroch. 
Antiquities. ' Bere out the duste in this fygge frayle. Asporta cinerem in hoc syrisco.' 
Horman. Frail is still used in Essex to mean a rush-basket. Baret in his Alvearie gives, 
■ A fraile of figges, fiscina ficorum : Caban plein de figues. A little wicker basket, a fraile, 
a cheese fat, fiscella, petit panier d'osier.' ' Three frails of sprats carried from mart to 
mart.' Beaum. & Fletcher, Queen of Corinth, ii. 4. Low Lat. frcelum, a rush-basket or 
mat-basket. 'Frcelum, fiscina; panier de jonc, cabas: O.Fr. fraiaus, fray el.' Ducange. 
1 Cabas. A fraile (for raisins or figs).' Cotgrave. See also Glossary to Liber Albus, s. v. 
Freelle. Lyte, Dodoens, p. 511, in treating of the various kinds of Bush, mentions 'The 
frayle Rushe or panier Rushe,' and adds ' they vse to make figge frayles and paniers ther 

4 In De Deguileville's Pilgrimage, MS. John's Coll. Camb. leaf 127, the Pilgrim tells 
us that in the Castle (of Religion) at which he at last arrived, ' Ther was )>erin dortour 
and cloister, kirke, chapeter, and fraitour ;' and again, 1. 1 28, 'The lady with the gorgere 
was j?e frayturrer J?ereof.' Horman says, ' Monkes shulde sytte in the frayter. Monachi 
comederent in cenaculo non refectorio.' ' Atemperance servede in the fratour, that scho 
to ylkone so lukes that mesure be over alle, that none over mekille nere over lyttille ete 
ne drynke.' MS. Line. A. i. 17, leaf 273, quoted by Halliwell. 

' If a pore man come to a frere for to aske shrifte, 
And ther come a ricchere and bringe him a 3ifte ; 
He shal into the freitur and ben imad ful glad.' 

Wright's Pol. Songs, Camden Soc. p. 331. 

5 Harrison in his Description of Eng. i. 277, tells us that if any 'happen to smite with 
stafFe, dagger, or anie maner of weapon, & the same be sufficientlie found by the verdict 
of twelve men .... he is sure to loose one of his eares, without all hope of release. But 
if he such a one as hath beene twice condemned and executed, whereby he hath now non 
eares, then is he marked with an hot iron vpon the cheeke, and by the letter F, which is 
seared deepe into his flesh ; he is from thenceforth noted as a barratour and fraie maker, 
and therevnto remaineth excommunicate, till by repentance he deserue to be absolued ;' 
and again, p. 225, he mentions ' fraimakers, petie robbers, &c.' ' Guerroyeitr, a warrior, 
a fray-maker.' Hollyband. 

6 ' Lucanica. A puddyng made of porke, a sausage.' Cooper. Junius, s. v. Moil, says, 

* a French moile Chaucero est cibus delicatior, a dish made of marrow and grated bread.' 
In the Liber Cure Cocorum, p. 50, directions are given that tansy-cake shall be served 
' with fraunche mele or o)>er metis with alle.' 

7 'Dawe, I do thee wel to wite frtntike am I not.' Wright's Political Poems, ii. 85. 

* Frenesis. The ffrenesy.' Medulla. ' Phrenitis. An inflammation of the bray ne or skin nes 
about it, rysyng of superfluous bloud or choler wherby some power animall is hurted and 
corrupted.' Cooper. 'He felle in a fransye for fersenesae of herte.' Morte Arthure, 



Prawarde ' ; elienus, aduersus, con- 
trarius, discors, discrepans, dis- 
osus, rebellis, lans, remurmurans, 
scemus, susurrans, tumultuosus, 
& cetera ; vbi proude. 

a Frawardnes ; A duersitas, contra - 
ritas, discordia, & cetera. 

Era whynse (Fra hense A.) ; vnde. 

Fraunce ; francia, gallia. 

A maw of Fraunce (A Franche 
man A.) ; francus, francigena, 
gallus, galla est mulier illius pa- 
trie; gallus. 

+Free ; largus, & cetera ; vbi large. 

Fre ; liber, liberalis. 

a Fredome ; libertas, vind\cta, vt : 
consecutus est plenam vindictam 
i.e. liber tatem. 

to Frese ; gelare, con-, congelascere. 

Frese clothe (to Freyss clothe A.) 2 . 

Frely ; gratis, gr&tuite, sponte, sjwn- 
taneus, vitro, vltroneus, voluntarie, 

*Fremmyd 3 ; extre, externum. 

to make Fremmyd; exterminate. 

aFrenschip ; Atnicicia 4 ,Amicabilitas, 

a Frende ; amicus, nesessarius, jyrox- 
imus, altar ego ; versus : 
% Alter ego nisi sis, nou es mihi 
verus Amicus \ 
JVon eris Alter ego, ni mihi sis 
vt ego. 
tto make Frende; Amicare, Arnicum 
facere, Amicari esse Amicus, fede- 
rare, couciliare, re- ; versus : 
%Si quis Amicatur nobis, sit 
noster Amicus ; 
Cautus Amicat eum. quern, mu- 
nere reddit Amicum. 
+to be Frende ; Amicare Sf -ri. 
Frendly; Amicalis, Amicabilis, hu- 
manus, Amicus, <k eomparatur 
Amicior, Amicissimus. 
Frendly; Amicabiliter, Amicaliter. 
vn Frendly ; inhumanus, inimicus ; 

inhumane, inhuynaniter. 
a Frenge 5 ; fimbria, fy cetera ; vhi a 

a Frere ; f rater ; fratemus pai^icipi- 

1 Hampole. Pricke of Conscience, 87, tells us that the fate of man is 

' if he fraward be to wende Til pyne of helle ]>at has na ende.' 
And also that Vanity 

'Mas his hert ful hawtayne And ful fraward til his souerayne.' Ibid. 256. 

2 ' Friser, to frizzle, curl, crisp.' Cotgrave. Frieze cloth was coarse and narrow, as 
opposed to the broad cloth ; this is clearly shown in the following passage from the Paston 
Letters, ed. Gairdner, i. 83 : — ' I pray 30W that ^e wille do byen sume frese to maken of 
jour child is gwnys .... and that 3e wyld bye a 3erd of brode clothe of blac for an hode 
for me of xliij d or iiij s a 3erd, for ther is nether gode cloth ner god fryse in this twn.' 
Frisers, or makers of frieze cloth, are mentioned in Liber Albus, pp. 723, 735. Baret says, 
' Frize, or rough garment that souldiers vsed, a mantle to cast on a bed, a carpet to laie on 
a table, a dagswaine. Gausape. Garmentes that haue long wooll, or be frized, pexce vestes. 
A winter garment, a frize or furred garment. Cheimastrum.' ' Than Geroner, and a twelue 
other with hym, arrayed them lyke rude vyllayne marchauntes in cotes of fryse.'' Berners, 
Froissart, vol. ii. p. 340. Caxton, in his Trans, of Goeffroi de la Tour l'Andry, sig. e. ij., 
speaks of 'burell or fryse.'* By the Statute 5 & 6 Edw. VI., c. vi. it was enacted that 
' All Welsh Frizes .... shall conteine in length at the water six and thii-ty yards at the 
most, yard and inch of the rule, and in breadth three quarters of a yard, and being so fully 
wrought, shall weigh euery whole peece eight and forty pound at the least.' 

3 Frems is still in use in the Northern Counties for ' a stranger.' A. S. fremede. 

4 1 hafe bene frendely freke and fremmede tille othere.' Morte Arthure, 3343. 
See also ibid. 11. 1250, 2738, &c. The phrase 'fremid and sibbe,' occurs in Wright's Pol. 
Songs, 202, and in Bob. of Gloucester, p. 346, with the meaning of 'not related and kin.' 

4 MS. Amicicla. 

5 'A frenge, fimbriale.' Manip. Vocab. 'A fringe, a hemme, a gard of a garment cut, 
lacinia. A fringe, hemme, skirt, or welte, fimbria.' Baret. 



Fresche ; insulsus, rece?is. 

to Frete 1 ; fricare, con-, Sf cetera ; 

vbi to rubbe. 
a Fre willtf ; libitum, libitus, liberum 

to Fry ; Frigere, frixare, con-. 
j,e Fryday ; dies veneris, feria sexta, 

a Fryy?ig ; frixura, frixatura. 

a Fryyng panne ; fricatorium, frix- 
orium,sertago, patella, frixatoria. 

*to Friste 2 ; induciare. 

tFristelle 3 ; fistula. 

ta Frithed felde (Fyrthefelde A.) 4 ; 

*a Froke 5 ; cucullus. 

*a Froske 6 ; agrecula 7 , rana,ranula, 
ranella, rubeta. 

1 In the Morte Arthure, when Priamus is wounded there is an account of a 'Foyle of 
fyne golde' containing a liquid, the virtues of which were such that 

' Be it frette on his flesche, thare synues are entamede 
The freke schalle be fische halle within fowre howres.' 1. 2708. 
Fr. frotter, to rub ; see Frote. 

2 Halliwell quotes from the Thornton MS. leaf 124 — 

' Thorowe prayere of those gentille mene, 
Twelve wekes he gaffe hym thane, 
No langere wold he f rest.' 
'The thryde branche es to frayst and lene To thaym that nede has and be poure mene.' 

Hail. MS. 2260, leaf 71. 
O. Icel. fresta. Cf . Ban. frist, a truce. 

3 A flute. ' With trompes, pipes and with /mieZe.' Ywaine & Gawin, 1396, in Ritson's 
Met. Rom. i. 59. ' Fistula. A pype, a melody. Fistula ductor aque sic fistula cana sonora. 
Fistulor. To syngyn with pype.' Medulla. 

* Frithed is fenced in or inclosed, as in P. Plowman, B. v. 590 : 'frithed in with 
floreines.' From the O. H. G. fridu, peace, protection, or inclosure, we have the A. S. 
fri\>, used in composition in the sense of inclosed ; see Bosworth, s. v. frVp-geard. In M. 
English frith is frequently used for a wood, but properly only for one inclosed as dis- 
tinguished from the open forest : cf. e fri\> or forest, toun or fild.' Sir Amadas, lxxi ; 
William of Palerne, 2216, 'Out of forest and frizes, and alle faire wodes,' and Polit., Eel. 
<k Love Poems, ed. Furnivall, p. 56, ' both by frith or foreste.' La$amon, iii. 287, tells us 
of Athelstan, ' hu he sette sciren, and makede fri'S of deoren,' where the meaning is 
' deer-parks;' as also in i. 61 — '^e huntiefi i pes kinges frifte ' [later text pare). See also 
Thomas of Erceldoune, 319, where Dr. Murray explains l frythe or felle ' by 'enclosed 
field or open hill.' The word is still preserved in many dialects ; see Pegge's Kenticisms, 
E. Dial. Soc. ed. Skeat, &c. 

5 In the Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner, ii. 270, in the account of expenses at the funeral 
of Sir J. Paston we find — 'For a cope called Skfrogge of worsted for the Prior of Bromholm, 
xxvi 8 viij d .' In the Treatise de Utensilibus of Alexander Neckham, in Wright's Vol. of 
Vocab. p. 101, we have collobium glossed by 'froge' and 'roket.' ' Frocke or cassock, 
sagum? Baret. 'Cucullus: vestis capiciata.' Medulla. See Ducange, s. v. Cucullus. In 
Allit. Poems, ii. 136, in the parable of the man without a wedding garment he is said to 
have been 'A ]>ral . . . unj>ryuandely closed, Ne no festiual frok, but fyled with werrke3.' 

6 In the Description of the Giant in Morte Arthure, 1080, we are told that 

' His frount and his forheuede, alle was it ouer, 
As the felle of a froske, and fraknede it semede.' 
In Deguileville's Pilsjryinage, &c, already quoted, p. 159, we read — 'I am thilke that 
make my subgis dwelle and enhabite in fennes as frosshes.^ See also Caxton's Reynard 
the Fox, ed. Arber, p. 37. ' Ayredula. A lytyl ffrosch. liana. A ffrosch. Banunculus. A 
lytyl ffrosch.' Medulla. See Archteologia, xxx. 373, where it is stated that the herb 
vervain is called frossis because its leaves are ' lyke the frossys fet.' Wyclif uses frosh in 
Psalms lxxvii. 45, and cv. 30, and froskes occurs in the Story of Genesis and Exodus, ed. 
Morris, 2977, where we read — 

' Polheuedes, and froske*, & podes spile Bond horde egipte folc in sile.' 
See P. Crowken. A. S. frox, 0. Icel. froshr. 

7 MS. agreeulu. 



a Froste ; gelu indecMuwhUe, pvuina 

alba est. 
Frosty ; gelidus, pruinosns, pr[u]in- 

to Frote l ; vbi to Rube (A.). 
+a Fronte 2 ; frontispicium, vt fron- 

tispicium enclesia?'um. 
to Frubische 3 ; elimare, eruginare, 

erubiginare, expolire, rubiginare. 
a Frubischer ; eruginator. 
*a Frugon 4 ; vertibulum, pala,furca 

1 Frumyte B ; frumenticiuxn. 

a Frunte ; frons. 

*a Fruwtalle c ; frontale. 

a Frute ; fructus, xiros grece. 

ta Frute eter 7 ; xirofagus, vol xir- 

Frutefulk; fructuosus,fructifer, fru- 

tFruteurs (Frutuys A.) 8 ; collirida. 

F ante V. 

a Fude ; Alcio, Alitus, pastus. 

1 John Russell in bis Boke of Nurture (Babees Book, ed. Furnivall, p. 19), amongst bis 
' symple condicions ' of good behaviour at table says — 

' Your bands frote ne rub, brydelynge with beest vpon craw.' 
See also Lonelich's Holy Grail, ed. Furnivall, xxiii. 502, where we read of ' a precious 
stone of merveillous kynde,' which was naturally so hot, 

' that non man therwith him self dar frot.' 
'If thou entrist in to the corn of thi frend, thou schalt breke eeris of corn, and frote togidere 
with thi hond.' Wyclif, Deut. xxiii. 25. * Frotinye of iren and whetstones ]x>u schalt hire 
[cotis ferri fricamind\? Trevisa's Higden. i. 417. See also Ancren Riwle, p. 284. Com- 
pare Frete. 2 See Gavelle. 

3 ' Expolio. To pulsyn, gravyn, or ffurbyshyn.' Medulla. ' Fourbir. To furbish, polish, 
burnish, make bright.' Cotgrave. ' Hie eruginator : anglice, forbushere.' Wright's Vol. 
of Vocab. p. 195. 

4 ' Vertibulum. A thresshold or a ffurgone.' Medulla. ' Fourgon. An oven-forke 
(termed in Lincolnshire a fruggin) wherewith fuell is both put into an oven, and stirred 
when it is (on fire) in it.' Cotgrave. See also Colrake, above. 

5 ' Flesch fluriste of fermysone with frumentee noble.' Morte Arthure, 180. 

The following recipes for the manufacture of Furmenty are given in Pegge's Forme of 
Cury, pp. 91 and 121: ' I. For to make Furmenty, Nym clene wete, and bray it in a morter 
wel that the bolys gon al of and seyt yt til it breste and nym yt up, and lat it kele and 
nym fayre fresch broth and swete mylk of Almandys or swete mylk of kyne and temper 
yt al, and nym the yolkys of eyryn, boyl y t a lityl and set yt adoun and messe yt forthe 
wyth fast venyson and fresch moton. 2. For to make Formenty on a Fischeday — Tak 
the mylk of the Hasel Notis, boyl the wete wyth the aftermelk til it be dryyd, and tak 
and colour yt wyth Saffroun, and the ferst mylk cast therto and boyle wel and serve yt 
forth.' In Mr. Peacock's Glossary of Manley, &c, we have, ' Frumerty, a preparation of 
creed-wheat with milk, currants, raisins and spices in it.' See also Liber Cure Cocorum, 
ed. Morris, p. 7. 

6 ' Fronta3 r le for a woman's head, some call it a fruntlet, frontale. 1 Huloet. In the 
Paston Letters, i. 489, we find in the Inventory of Sir J. Fastolf s effects, 1459 — ' Item j 
anter clothe, withe a frontell of white damaske, the Trynete in the myddys .... Item 
ij curtaynes of white sylke, withe a frontell of the same, withe fauchouns of golde.' See 
also ibid. iii. 470. 7 Compare Dryfeste, above. 

8 The following recipe for the manufacture of Fritters is given in Liber Cure Cocorum, 

P- 39 :— 
' With eggs and floure in batere t>ou make, Take powder of peper and cast J>er to, 

Put berme \>er to, I undertake : Kerve appuls overtwert and cast ]>erin, 

Coloure hit with safrone or J>ou more do ; Frye horn in grece, no more ne mynne.' 

See also p. 55, where in a 'manerof service on flesshe day,' occur 'ryssheneand pome- 
dorres and frutur in fere.' In Household Ordinances, p. 450, is given the following recipe 
for 'Turtellytes of Fruture. Take fygges, and grind horn small, and do therto pouder of 
clowes, and of pepur, and sugar, and saffron, and close hom in foyles of dogh, and frie horn, 
and flawme hom with honey, and serve hit forthe/ See also p. 449. ' Fritter, or pancake, 
fricta, laganum. A kind of bread for children, as fritters and wafers, colly ra.'' Baret. Ash- 
Wednesday is in Yorkshire known as Fruttace-W ednendny, from fritters being eaten on 
that day. Collirida has already occurred as the latin equivalent for a Cramcake. 


tFuelle ' ; focale. 

Fueller (Feweller A.) ; focarius. 

tFuik<? (Fuyke A.) 2 ; lanigo (lanugo 

Full but (Fulbuyt A.) 3 ; precise. 
a Fule (Fuylle A.) ; stultus (labur- 

rus A.), & cetera ; vbi folte & vbi 

Fulharde 4 ; temerarius. 
toFulfylle; su[])]plere vicem Alter im, 

d- cetera ; vbi to fillc. 
a Fulfilyng ; Additamentum, suppli- 

fertilis, habuudans, irriguus, len- 
tes grece, opimus, jrfenus, saciatus, 
snffisiens, vber, vbertuosus. 

Fully; Affatim, Affluenter, copiose, 
<Sc cetera. 

*a Fulemerd 5 ; fetontrus (fetotrus 

+b e Fulle moyne ; plenilunium. 

a Fullnes ; Affluencia, Abundancia, 
plenitude- corporis vol anime est, 
plenitas cuiuscunque rei,& cetera. 

tFulsomly ° ; fatim. 

meutum. | fFune (Fwne A.) 7 ; paucuv, parus, 

Fulle; Affluens, copiosus, /(cundus, | etcetera; vbi fuwe. 

1 O. Fr. fouaille, from L. Lat. focale. 

2 ' Fukes, locks of hair.' Ray's North Country words. Bailey's Diet, gives 'fax, the 
hair.' A.. S. feax, the hair. In the Morte Arthure, 1078, in the description of the Giant 
with whom Arthur has an encounter, we are told that 

'His fax and his foretoppe was filterede to-geders.' 
In the Cursor Mundi, p. 418, 1. 7244, we have an account of how Dalilah with a ■ schere' 
cut off Sampson's hair — ■ 

1 And till his foos sco him be-kend ; For thoru his fax his force was tint.' 

Al moght J>ai ]:an do quat pai mint 
Cooper defines Lanugo as ' the softe heares or mossinesse in the visages of children or 
women; also in fruites or herbes, as in Clarie, &c. ; the doune feathers in brides, &c.' 
Jamieson gives ' Fug. Moss. Fuggy. Mossy.' 

3 Wyclif in his Tract, ' How Satan & his children turnen werkis of mercy upsodoun, 
&c,' English Works, ed. Mathew, p. 213, uses this word ; he says ' worldly clerkis ful of 
pride, symonye, coueitise, & o}>ere synnys jeuen fulbut conseil ajenst ]>e holy gost, &c.' 
Hornian says, 'I shal hyt themarke/i^ but at the next tyme. Collineabo scopum proximo 
iactu ;' and again, 'It standeth fulbut agynst Caleys. Sessoriacum e regione emitudur? 
In Udall's Apophthegmes of Erasmus, ed. 1877, p. 29, we read, ' Socrates met full but with 
Xenophon in a narrow back lane.' See also E-. de Brunne's Chronicle, ed. Furnivall, 

P- 473, 1. I3637- 

4 'Nis heoto muche cang, o'Ser to f oilier di, f>at halt hireheaued baldeliche uorft vt i]?en 
open kernel, j)eo hwile J»at me mit quarreaus wiftuten asaileft pene castel V Ancren Riwle, 
p. 62. ' Temerarius. Foolhardie, rash, unadvised.' Cooper. Temerarius. Foolhardy. 
Temeritas. Foolhardynes.' Medulla. 

5 ' A fitch or fullmart.' Cotgrave, s. v. Belette. ' A fulmer or polcatte, martes.' Baret. 
' And whan they have broughte forth e theyr byrdes to see that they be well kepte from 
the gleyd, crowes, fully -martes, and other vermyne.' Fitzherbert's Husbandry. See 
Jamieson, s. v. Fowmarte, and Ray's Gloss, s. v. Foumart. 

' Fox and ffullmard, togidre whan they stoode, 
Sange, be still, the cok hath lowe shoon.' 

Wright's Polit. Poems, ii. 220. 
' Peides. A Fulmere.' Medulla. ' Hie fetontrus : afulmard.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 220. 

6 Fulsum, in the sense of plenteous, occurs in the Story of Genesis and Exodus, 2153, 
where the seven 'years of plenty' in Egypt are termed "Se vij. fulsum yeres.' The 
substantive fulsumhed, abundance, plenty, occurs in the same poem, 1. 1548. In William 
of Palerne, 4324, we read — 

1 pann were spacli spices spended al aboute, Falsumli at J>e ful, to eche freke J^er-inne.' 

7 The form fone occurs several times in the Pricke of Conscience ; thus at 1. 762 we read : 

' Now, he says, my f on days sere, Fon men may now fourty yhere pas, 

Sal enden with a short tyme here. And f oner fifty als in somtym was :' 
and again at 1. 2693 — 

' Many spekes and in buke redes Of purgatory, but fon it dredes.' 




Funelle ' ; Infuso7'ium (A.). 

a Funte ; foiis, baptisterium. 

a Furlande 2 ; stadium ; stadialis 

a Furre (Fuyr A.) 3 ; lira, porca, 

sulcus ; (versus : 
% Pollice tango liram, facio cum 
vomere liram A.). 
tto Furre ; sulcare, sulcum facer e. 
a Furre ; furratura t furrura, pen- 


G ante A. 
to Ga arly; manitare. 
to Ga ; Ambalare, per-, pre-, ad-, 
declinare, demigrnre, digr&di, 
incedere, meare, migrare, vi- 
are, ipjpe grece ; versus : 

to Furre ; Furrare, penulare. 

a Furrer ; furrator, penulator. 

fa Forthe 4 ; natatorium. 

Fustian 5 ; fuscotinctum. 

a Fute ; pes ; pedalis ^ardcipium. 

Fute be fute ; peditentim. 

tFuteles; inpes. 

ta Fute balle 6 ; pila pedalis. 

a Fute maw ; pedes, pedester. 

ta Fute of a brige 7 ; pila. 

A Fute stepe ; vbi fotestepe (A .). 


7 m G. 

^Amhulo vel gr&dior, eo 
deambulo, pergo. 
Additur hijs spacior, vel jtin 

ero, vel prqficiscor. 
Predictis iunge tendo cum cur 
ro, mouere. 

1 • Infundibidum, a funnell.' Stanbridge. 

2 This seems to be only an error of the scribe for furlange, and not another form of the 
word. ' The fourtedele a furlange betwene thus he walkes.' Mode Arthure, 946. 
*Stadium. A Furlonge.' Medulla. 

3 ' Sulcus. A Fore. Sulcosus. Fulofforys.' Medulla. Thoresby in his Letter to Ray, 
E. Dialect Soc, gives 'a furre or foor, a furrow.' A. S. furh. 'Ac sone sterte he vp of 
the/or3, And Charlis stede a gerde ])or3, pat was so fair of si3te.' Sir Ferumbras, 5593- 

4 In P. Plowman, B. v. 576, Piers in directing the Pilgrims in the way to Truth, says — 

' And so boweth forth bi a broke, beth-buxum-of-speche, 
Tyl 3e fynden & forth, 30ure-fadres honoureth.' 
Wyclif, Genesis xxxii. 22, has — 'And whanne Jacob hadde arise auysseli, he took hise twei 
wyues, and so many seruauntessis with enleuen sones, and passide the forthe of Jaboth.' 
A. S. ford. * To fynde a for\e, faste con I fonde, 

But wo];e3 mo I-wysse J>er ware.' Allit. Poems, i. 150. 

5 Neckham, ' De Utensilibus ' (Wright's Vol. of Vocab.), identifies fustaine with cloths 
fuscotincti, dyed tawny or brown. Reginald of Durham in his work, De Admir. Beati 
Cuthberti Virtutibus, mentions cloth fuscotinctum, dyed with (young) fustic (which was 
of a yellow colour and the produce of Venetian Sumach, and was employed for dyeing 
before it was almost wholly supplanted by the " old fustic " of America). From this mode 
of dyeing, the original fustian, which Avas sometimes made of silk, may have had its name ; 
or possibly from St. Fuscien, a village near the cloth manufacturing city of Amiens. See 
Liber Albus, p. 674, where it is ordered that foreign merchants are not to sell less than 
' xii fuscotinctos,'' sc. pannos. In an Inventory in the Paston Letters, iii. pp. 407, 409, 
we find — 'Item, a dowblet of fostian, xl d .... Item, a payr of stokes of fustian, viij d .' 
* For v yerdes fustyan for a cote at vii d the yerd, ii s xi d .' Nicolas's Elizabeth of York, 
p. 105. * Coleyne threde, fustiane, and can vase ' are among 'the commodities .... fro 
Pruse ibroughte into Flaundres,' according to the Libelle, pr. in Wright's Pol. Songs, i. 171, 
Andrew Borde, in his Introduction, makes one of the Januayes (Genoese) say — 

' I make good treacle, and also fustian, 
With such thynges I crauft with many a pore man.' 

6 In the Instructions to the Sheriffs of Counties, in reference to the practice of Archery, 
issued 37 Edward III., we find pila bacularis, corresponding probably with our ' hockey,' 
pila manualis, hand-ball, and pila pediva, foot-ball. 

7 ' Pila : pes pontis.' Medulla. See P. ' Pyle of a bryggys fote, or o)>er byggynge. Pila? 
Cooper has ' Pike. Vitruvius. A pile, a heape, or damme made in the water to break 
or stay the course.' We still use the term footings for the first courses of briekwoi'k. 



to Ga a-bowte; Ambire, circuire, 
cingere, ctrcumscvibere, circum- 

dare, civculare, lustrare, col-, 

girare, givouagari, obire, pera- 

grare, perambulare, & cetera. 
*to Gabe * ; Mentiri, & cetera ; vhi 

to lye (A.), 
to Ga away ; Abcedere, discedere, 

re-, secedere. 
tto Ga bakwarde ; retrogradi; retro- 

tto Ga be-twne ; mediare. 
to Ga be-fore; Antecedere, Antegradi, 

2>vecedere, pregredi, pveire, preui- 


Gabrielle; gabriel. 

tGabrielle rache (Gabriel raches 

A.) 2 ; camalion. 
a Gad 3 ; gerusa. 
to Ga downe ; discendere. 
to Ga forthe ; cecedere, egredi, exire, 

procedere, prodire. 
*Gayle (Gaylle A.) 4 ; mirtus ; Mir- 

cetum est locus vhi cvescunt. 
fa Gay horse 5 ; manducus. 
a Gaynge; Aditus, incessus, itus, 

itura, meatus, tv&nsitus. 
a Gaynge away ; abcessus, discessus, 

decessus, re-. 
Gaynge before ; preuius. 

1 In P. Plowman, B. iii. 1 79, Meed addressing Conscience says — 

' Wei ]>ow wost, wernard, but 3if J?ow wolt gabbe, 

pow hast hanged on myne half elleuene tymes.' 

See also xix. 451. Wyclif in 2 Corinthians xi. 31, has ' I gabbe not.' See also Ancren 

Rhcle, p. 200; William of Paler ne, 1994, &c. ' To Gab, lye. Mentiri, comminisci? Manip. 

Vocab. • Gaher. To mocke, flout, ride, &c.' Cotgrave. 

* Gabberys gloson eny whare And gode feyth comys alle byhynde.' 

Wright's Political Poems, ii. 237. 
In the same work, vol. i. p. 269, in a Poem against the Minorite Friars, we read — 
' First thai gabben on God, that alle men may se, 
When thai hangen him on hegh on a grene tre.' 

2 A Rache is a scenting hound, as distinguished from a greyhound. 

'I salle neuer ryvaye, ne racches vn-cowpylle.' Morte Arthure, 3999. 
See Brachett, above ; Ducange, s. v. Bracco ; and P. Ratche. Gabrielle rache thus is 
equivalent to Gabriel Hounds, an expression which is explained from the Kennett MS. 
Lansd. 1033, as follows : — 'At Wednesbury in Staffordshire, the colliers going to their 
pits early in the morning hear the noise of a pack of hounds in the air, to which they give 
the name of GabrieVs Hounds, though the more sober and judicious take them only to be 
wild gee3e, making this noise in their flight.' The expression appears to be still in use in 
Yorkshire ; see Mr. Robinson's Whitby Gloss. E. Dial. Soc. The Medulla defines Camalon 
as ' quoddam quodvivit inaereS See Mr. Way's Introduction, p. lxv, note b. 

3 ' Al engelond was of his adrad, So his |>e beste fro ]>e gad.' Havelok, 279. 
See also ibid. 10 16. 

1 Take a gad, of stele, I wot in dede.' Liber Cure Cocorum, ed. Morris, p. 6. 
' Gadde for oxen — esguillon.' Palsgrave. ' Gadde, gode, or rodde with a pricke at the 
ende to dryve oxen. Stimulum.' Huloet. Compare Brod, above. 

4 The fragrant bog-myrtle, often called sweet-gale. The Medulla gives ' Mirtus : 
quedam arbor, gawle, que in littore maris habundat. Mirtosus, gavly. Mircetum : locus 
ubi crescit.'' Harrison in his Descript. of England, i. 72, says that the 'chiefe want to such 
as studie there [at Cambridge] is wood, wherefore this kind of prouision is brought 
them either from Essex .... or otherwise the necessitie thereof is supplied with gall (a 
bastard kind of Mirtus as I take it) and seacole.' See also ibid. p. 343. Lyte, Dodoens, 
p. 673, says that the Mirtus Brabantica is called 'by the Brabanders gageV In the Saxon 
Leeclidoms, &c. Rolls Series, ed. Cockayne, vol. ii. pp. 316-17, the following recipe is 
given : — 'Wi}> lun3en adl, geniin .... gagollan, wyl on waetre, .... do of |>a wyrte 
drince on mor3enne wearmes scene f ulne. For lung disease ; take .... siceet gale ; boil 
them in water . . . . ; let (the man) drink in the morning of (this) warm a cup full.' 
A. S. gagol. 

5 A buffoon, clown. Cooper renders Manducus by ' Images carried in pageantes with 
great cheekes, wyde mouthes, & makyng a greate noyse with their iawes,' and the Ortus 

L 2 



1 G aynge owte of way ; delirus, 

a Gaynge owt; exitus. 

*to Gayne ! ; ossitare. 

to Ga in; inire, & cetera; vhi to entyr. 

tto Gaynsay 2 ; oblatrare, re-, obire, 
& cetera ; vhi to deny. 

tto Gaynstand 3 ; calcitr&re,re-, resis- 
tive, ob-, oblwtari, obstare, reper- 

cutere, reniti, repugnare,reluctari. 

i Gayte 4 ; caper, capra, capella, ca- 
jjriolus, capviola ; caprinus, ca- 
prilis ymrtficipia ; dor, grece, dor- 
cas egloceron, Sf egloceros, hedus, 
zedulus cfo'minutiuum / hedinus, 
hircus, hirciolus, hircinus, hir- 
cosus ; ibex. 

'a Gayte speche 5 ; egloga. 

by 'a gaye horse, ioculator, ore turpiter manducans, vel ore Mans? with which the Medulla 
agrees. ' Manducus, m. Plaut. A disguised or ugly picture, such as was used in May 
games and shows, seeming terrible, by reason of his broad mouth and the great crashing 
of his teeth, and made to cause the people to give room, a snapdragon ; also a great eater, 
(pdyos, a Mando. Mandurcus, m. Joculator turpiter mandens.' Gouldman. ' Manducus. 
A bugbear or hobgoblin, drest up in a terrible shape, with wide jaws and great teeth 
granching, as if he would eat people, and carried about at plays and public shows.' Littleton. 
See also Harlott, below. 

1 Baret gives ' Gane, vide yaune and gape ;' and in the Manip. Vocab. we find 'gane, 
yane, oscitare.' 1 

1 He began to romy and rowte, And gapes and gone*.' 

Avowynge of Arthur e, Camd. Soc. xii. 4. 

That yaned as he were woode.' 

He ganeth as he had nat slepte ynoughe : 

In Richard Cceur de Lion, 276, we read — 
• Upon his crest a raven stoode, 
1 1 gane, or gape, je oeuure la bouche or je bailie. 
il bailie comme sil neust pas assez dormy.' Palsgrave. A. S. gdnian. See also to Gane. 

2 ' Lampadius reigned in the citee of Rome, that was right mercifull ; wherfore of grete 
mercy he ordeyned a lawe, that who that were a man-sleer, a ravenour, an evell doer, or a 
theef, and were take, and brought before the domesman, yf he myght sey iij. trouthes, so 
truly that no man myght agayn-sey hem, he shuld have his lyf.' Gesta Romanorum, p. 101. 
Palsgrave has, 'I gaynesaye. I contrarye ones sayeng, or I saye contrarye to the thyng 
that I have sayde before. Je redis. Say what shall please the, I wyll never gaynesay the.' 

3 ' " A ! sir, mercy," quod she, " for sothely yf thow wolte brynge me ayene to the citee, 
I shalle yeve to the \>\ Ringe and thi broche, with outen anye ayene-stondynge ; and but 
yf I do in dede pat I seye, I wolle bynde me to the foulest dethe.' Gesta Romanorum, p. 
187. ' To gaynestand or wythstand, obsisto.'' Huloet. ' To gainestand, repugnare? Manip. 
Vocab. ' I gaynestande or am against ones purposes, jaduerse? Palsgrave. 

4 Hampole in describing the Day of Judgment says — 

1 Hys angels Jjan aftir his wille, Als J)e hird J)e shepe dus fra ]>e gayte.' 

Sal first departe J>e gude fra Ipe ille, Pricke of Conscience, 6132. 

Compare Lyndesay's Monarche, 1. 5629 — ' As hird the sheip doith from the gate? 

5 The Medulla renders Eglota by ' a word of geet,' and the Ortus gives ' Egloga est pars 
bucolici carminis.' ' ^Egloga. Caprarum seu rerum pastoralium sermo, quasi aiywv \6yos, 
A pastoral speech, a speech of the goatherd.' Gouldman. Compare Spenser's explanation 
of the word : ' Aeglogue. They were first of the Greekes, the inventours of them, called 
Aeglogai, as it were Aegon, or Aeginomon logi, that is, Goteheardes tales. For although 
in Virgil and others the speakers be more Shepheards then Goatheards, yet Theocritus, in 
whom is more ground of authoritie then in Virgil, This specially from That deriving, as 
from the first heade and wellspring, the whole invention of these Aeglogues, maketh Goate- 
heards the persons and authors of his tales. This being, who seeth not the grossnesse of 
euch as by colour of learning would make us beleeve, that they are more rightly tearmed 
Eclogai, as they would say, extraordinarie discourses of unnecessarie matter? which 
definition albe in substance and meaning it agree with the nature of the thing, yet no 
whit answereth with the analysis and interpretation of the worde. For they be not tearmed 
Eclogues, but Aeglogues; which sentence this Authour verie well observing, upon good 
judgement, though indeede fewe Goatheards have to doe herein, neverthelesse doubteth 
not to call them by the used and best known name.' Shepheards Calender. Generall 
Argument, 106. Compare Foule Speche, above. 



Galde '. 

a Galy ; galea, nauis est. 

Galyle ; galilea. 

*Galynga 2 ; hec galinga. 

fa Gallc j fell. 

■fGalle for ynke ; galla. 

a Galowe ; furca, furcella, furcula, 

fu.rcilles (Calofurca A.). 
a Galte 3 ; nefrendis, nefrendus, mai- 

a Galon ; lagena. 
a Game ; ludicrum, ludus, & cetera ; 

vhi a play. 
tGameson (Gamsome A.) 4 ; ludi- 

bundus, ludicer. 

*to Gane (Gaync A.) 5 ; fatiscere, 

hiare, inhiscere, oscitare. 
*a Ganyngtf ; hiatus, oscitacio, osci- 

fto Gang (Ganne A.) 6 ; ire, Ambu- 

lare, & cetera ; vhi to ga. 
ta Ganger be-twene; mediator, -trix, 

2) res. 
fto Ga owte of mynde ; demeutare. 
fto Ga on mowntayns ; tYnn[s]al- 

to Ga owte of way ; deuiare, exorbi- 

tare, & cetera ; vhi to erre. 
to Gape ; hiare. 
aGapynge; hiatus) fa'<ms/;ar£icipium. 

1 Perhaps the same as P. Gallyd. 

2 Harman (ed. Strother, 1727) notices three varieties, Cyperus rotundus, round galingal ; 
Galanga major, galingal ; Galanga minor, lesser galingal. According to Dr. Percy it is 
'the root of a grassy-leaved plant brought from the East Indies, of an aromatic smell, and 
hot biting bitterish taste, anciently used among other spices, but now almost laid aside.' 
Lewis, Mater. Med. 286. Turner in his Herbal, p. 152, says: 'Althoughe thys comon 
Galangall of ours be a kynde of cypirus yet it answereth not in al poyntes vnto the 
description.' Galingale is also mentioned in the Liber Cure Cocorum, ed. Morris, p. 8 — 

' Forshit with galyngale and gode gyngere.' 
A recipe for the manufacture of galentyne, which was a dish prepared from galingale, is also 
given at p. 30. ' Galendyne is a sauce for any kind of roast Fowl, made of grated Bread, 
beaten Cinnamon & Ginger, Sugar, Claret-wine, and Vinegar, made as thick as Grewell.' 
Randle Holme, Bk. iii. ch. iii. p. 82, col. ii. See also Recipes in Markham's Houswife, 
pp. 70 and 77. ' Gingiver and galingale ' are also mentioned in Guy of Wanvike, p. 
421. Huloet gives ' galyngale, spyce, galanga. 1 The following recipe is given in Warner's 
Antiq. Culin. p. 64. ' To make galantyne. Take crustes of bred, and stepe horn in hotten 
wyn or vynegar, and grinde hit smal, and drawe hit up with vynegur thurgh a streynour, 
and do therto pouder of galyngale, and of can el, and of ginger, and serve hit forth.' See 
Sir Degrevant, Thornton Romances, 1. 1399. Cogan, Haven of Health, 161 2, p. 74, gives 
a very curious remedy for dropsy, one ingredient in which is galingale. 

3 In the Morte Arthure the giant whom Arthur encounters is described as 

' Greesse growene as a galte, fulle grylyche he lukej.' 1. 1101. 
The Manip. Vocab. has 'galte, pig, verres,' and in Huloet is given 'gait, or yonge hogge 
or sow. Porcetra.' Withals gives 'A Bore that is gelt. Nefrendus : 

Cultor aper nemorum tibi sit, verresque domorum ; 

Atquc nefrendus : et hie caret vsu testiculorum.'' 
'Hie frendis; Anglice, gait.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 204. ' Maialis : porcus domes- 
ticus carens testiculis.' Medulla. • Gaits, Gelts, young sows before they have had their first 
fare of pigs : Hickes. In the South they are called Yelts' See Preface to Ray's Gloss. 
p. 4, 1. 18. 0. Icel. galti, a boar. See also Gilte and Hogge. 

4 ' And sche gamesum and glad go|> hem a-3ens.' William of Palerne, 4193. 

* Ludicrus. Gamely. Ludib undus. Gameful.' Medulla. 'Ludicrum. A game or pastyme : 
an interlude.' Cooper. 

5 See to Gayne, above, and compare to Gape, below. ' Fatisco. To 3enyn fullech.' 
Medulla. John Russell amongst his ' Symple Condicions ' of good behaviour says — 'Be 
not gapynge nor ganynge.' Babees Book, ed. Furnivall, p. 19. See P. 3 en y n - 

' Symonye and cyuile shulde on hire fete gauge' P. Plowman, B. ii. 167. 
A. S. gangan. 

4 At the hed of thike stang, They founden a vessel as they gonne gang? 

Lonelich's Holy Grail, ed. Furnivall, xlviii. 326. 



a Gardyn ; ortus, ortulus, gardinum. 
a Gardyne?' ; or tola >ius, orticula, or- 

a Garfra 1 ; profectum. 
a Garison ; municipium. 
a Garlande ; sertum, diadema, co- 
rona, & cetera ; versus : 
^Laurea, crinale, sertum, dia- 
dema, corona ; 
A ddas Anreolum g'uia sic pads 

[sit paucis A.) data dicta 
Et duo gnod demat credo dia- 
dema vocatum. 
Finem cum. medio sicxxt facit 
omne rotundum. 
Alij versus ; brauium 2 
% Virginia est sertum 
corona, poete 
Laurea, rex 3 gestat 
vol Induperator. 
Garleke ; Alleum, A lliata est condi 
mentum ex Alleo factum. 

' versus : 


ta Garleke seller ; Allearius. 
Game (Game siue 3am A.) 4 ; pen' 

tto wynd Game ; jurgillare. 
ha Garnar; Apotheca, gr&narium, 

a Garwyndelle (A Game qweylle or 
A 3^ r ^wyndylle A.) 5 ; deuolu- 
torium, girgillus. 
tto Gar 6 ; compescere, cogere, & cet- 
era ; versus : 
11 Arcet, compescitjnhibet, cohibet- 
que, coarcet ; 
Refrenat, reprimit, Angustiat 

atque coartat ; 
Cogit, constringit, Angariat, 

Artat & Angit ; 
Vrget, comjwllit, hijs sensus 
comienit idem. 
*to Garse 7 ; scarijicare. 
*A Garse ; scara uel scaria 

1 Entrails or garbage. ' Profectum : a gose gyblet.' Ortus. Compare P. Garbage ; 
see also Gebyllott and G-iblott. 2 See Glayfe, below. 3 MS. res. 

4 ' Gain or Gam, woollen yarn or worsted .... Gain-winnles, the old-fashioned machine 
for winding worsted, a circular shaped tissue of laths round which the skein is fixed.' F. 
K. Robinson, Whitby Gloss. E. D. Soc. Ray in his Glossary of North Country Words 
(E. D. Soc.) also gives ' garn-windles, harpedone, rhombus. A. S. gearn-ivindel ; quod a 
gearn, pensa (yarn), et windan, torquere.' ' A par garnwyn, grigillum.' Nominale MS. 
in Halliwell. ' Grigillus. A reele to wind threde.' Cooper. • Grigillus. A cranke.' 
Medulla. A. S. gearn. See P. ^arne. 

5 'Blades or yarne wyndles, an instrumente of huswyfery, Grigillus, Volutorium.' 
Huloet. * Jurgillum : 3arne wyne.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 180. ' Cond actum, gern- 
winde.' MS. Gloss. Cott. Cleop. A. iii. If. 76. Compare W. de Biblesworth, in Wright's 
Vol. of Vocab. p. 157 — 

' A wudres (a yar-wyndel) ore alez : 
E vostrefiloe Id wudez (wynde thi yarn). 
Ke feet ore dame Hude ? 

Un lussel de wudres (a klewe of yarn) wude (windes). 
E dist ore jo voyl. 
Mafilee monstre en travayl (do my yarn on the reel).' 

6 • Make or garre to do, as the Scottish men say.' Florio. 

4 Era dede of synne to life of grace That geres us fie the fendes trace.' 

Early Metrical Homilies, ed. Small, p. 77* 
1 He gert them sit down.' Ibid. p. 90. 

7 ' A garse, or gash, incisura.'' Manip. Vocab. ' A cutte, garse or insition. Ccesura, 
Incisura, &c? Huloet. Halliwell quotes — ' Ther is 00 maner of purgacioun of the body 
that is y-maad in too maners, by medecyn outher by bledynge ; bledynge, I say, either by 
veyne or by garsyng.'' MS. Bodl. 423, leaf 208. In Sir Ferumbras, when King Clarion 
cuts through Richard of Normandy's shield, grazing his side, the latter 

* Gan grope to ]?at gerse, God he J»ankede J>an.' 

And wan he felede hit was no werse, 1. 3693. 

The author of the Ancren Riwle speaks of ' peo ilke reouftfulle garcen (garses in a second 
MS.) of J)e luftere skurgen, nout one on his schonken, auh 5eond al his leofliche licome. 



to Garsiuttnie (Gersome A.) ! ; gres- 

Garselle 2 . 

a Gartere ; ligula, subligare; versus : 
^Subligar est ligula caligas ^ua 
subligat alte. 
to Garter ; subligare. 
a Garte of a hors (Garthe for A 
hors A.) 3 ; singula, ventrale ; 
(versus : 
% Cingula cingit equum, cingula 
sunt A.), 
fa Garthe 4 ; sepes, garre sunt sepes 
ferree circa chores § altaria. 

tto Garthe ; sepire, Sf cetera ; vhi to 

tto Garthe wesselle 5 ; circulare. 
fa Garthe for wesselle ; cinctorium, 

Gascoyn (Gascune A.) 6 ; acpuitania, 

vasconia, nomzn patvie. 
Gate 7 ; gradus est nature gressus 

*a Gatesehadylle (Gatesehetylle 

A.) 8 ; biuium, diuersiclinium, 

to Ga to geder ; coire. 
ta Gawbert 9 ; jpepurgium. 

p. 258. ' Garsshe in wode or in a knyfe, hoche.' Palsgrave. 'A carsare, hie scarificator? 
Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p 195. ' Chigneture. A cutting; a gash, cut, garse; a launcing, 
shredding, slitting.' Cotgrave. 

1 In Peacock's Gloss, of Manley & Corringham is given ' Gressoumys, fines. Lat. gersuma. 
Dufresne, Gloss. Med. Lat., Spelman, Gloss. Archwolog. Cowel Law Diet. A. S. gcersuma, 
a treasure a fine. " The sayd Abbott and Conuent have by theys presents grauntyd .... 
goodes of outlawyd persones, fynys, or gressoumys for landes and tenementes, lettyn or to 
be lettyn." Lease of Scolter Manor, 1537. " Chargeable besides with a certain rent custom 
or gressum, called the knowing rent." Letters Patent, 1640, in Stockdale's Annals of 
Cartmel, 66. Cf. Palmer, Perlust. Yarmouth, iii. 33.' *■ Gar sum, a "garsom," a foregift at 
entring a farm, a Godspenny.' Thoresby's Letter to Ray, 1 703. In the version of the 
Jewish law given in the Cursor Mundi, p. 390, 1. 6753, it is laid down that 

' If theif na gersum has ne gifte He sal be saald.' 

pat he may yeild again his thift, 

2 Garsil, thorns or brushwood for making dead hedges, and for burning with turves in 
hearth fires ; still in use in Yorkshire. See Marshall's Rural Economy, E. Dial. Soc. p. 28. 

3 • Cingula. A gerth off an hors.' Medulla. A. S. gyrd. 

4 Still in use in the North for an enclosure or a yard. * Sepes. An hedge.' Medulla. 
A. S. geard. Compare Appelle garth and to Breke garthe, above, and Hege, hereafter. 
Wyclif, John xviii, has ■ a ^ercl or a gai'din.' * Garth, orchard, pomarium.' 1 Manip. Vocab. 
1 Garree. " Dum levaverunt eum de curru, ponentes super garras atrii, statim auxilio B. 
Amalbergae resumpsit ibidem omnium membrorum sanitatem" (A. SS.). An scamna, an 
repositaria, inquiunt editores eruditi : crediderim esse repagula, et garras dictas fuisse pro 
barras. Non una hsec esset b in g mutatio.' Ducange. 

5 This I suppose to mean 'to put bands round vessels.' Compare Copbande, and 
Gyrthe of a vesselle. Gervase Markham in his Cheape and Good Husbandry, 1623, 
p. 1 70, uses the noun in a somewhat similar meaning : ' taking a Rye sheafe, or Wheate- 
sheafe that is new thrash't, and binding the eares together in one lumpe, put it ouer the 
Hive, and as it were thatch it all over, and fixe it close to the Hiue with an old hoope, 
or garth.' Gard is common with the meaning of a band, or hem on a garment. 

6 • Many a noder ryche vesselle, With wyne of gascoync and rochelle.' 

Life of St. Alexius, E. E. Text Society, ed. Furnivall, p. 28. 

7 In Havelok, 1. 809, we read how he upset 

' wel sixtene lades gode, pat in his gate $eden and stode.' 

' Gressits. A pas.' Medulla. 

8 ' Compitum. A gaderyng off many weyes. Biuium : ubi duo vice concurrunt. Diuersi- 
clinium. per many weyes am : et ethroglitata? Medulla. ' Hoc bivium, a gayt-schadyls.' 
Wright's Vol. of Vocab. 238. Compare Ethroglett, above. 

9 ' Gaiobert. An iron rack for a chimney. Cheshire.' Halliwell. ' Ipopurgium. An 
aundyryn.' Medulla. A later hand has added at the end of the line, Mnglice, A Gawbert.' 
' Andcla, vel Andena, est fcrrum supra quod opponuntur ligna in igne, quod alio nomine 
clicitur hyperpyrgium!' Ducange. 


i \TII0LIC0N AN(il,lu \i. 

*a Gavelle (Gauylle A.) of a howse 1 ; 

fro ntispicium . 
ta Gaveloke (Gavylloke A.) 2 . 
*Gavnselle 8 ; Applauda. 

G ante E. 

a Gebyllott 4 ; pvofectum. 

a Gebett B ; patibulum, Sf cetera; vbi 
a gibette. 

to Gedyr ; Adunare, co-, counare, 
congire, congregare, contrahere, 
autumpnare, congerere, conuen- 
ire, coniungere, ad-, corrogare, 
aire, ciere, concire, conciere,cogere, 
leg eve, colligere, vnire, & cetera ; 
vbi to jrme. 

a Gederynge ; colleccio, congregacio, 
& cetera. 

tto Gedir handfuls (hanfulis A.) 6 ; 

Gederynge ; Adunans, collecliuus. 
"a Geste ; carmen liricum, gestus. 
to Gelde ; castrarc, emasculare, etes- 

a Gelder ; testuator, castrator. 
a Gelder of best/s ; Abestis. 
a Geldynge(AGeldyA.) 7 ; eunuchus; 
versus : 
%Dicimns eunuchos castratos at- 
que spadones ; 
Sique met rum sineret, ementu- 

latus inesset. 
Castratos natwxafacit, violenta 

spadones : 
Efficitjnpvobitas, eunuchos sola 

1 ' Gabulum. Frontispicium, frons sedificii : frontispice, facade, pavement d'un mur.' 
Ducange. Cotgrave gives ' Frontispice. The frontispice, or forefront of a house, &c.' In 
Sir Degrevant, 1461, the Duke's house is described as having ' gaye gablettus and grete.' 
' Greavle (in the Middle dialect gavle). A gable of a building.' Marshall's Rural Economy, 
1788. Milton, Paradise Lost, iii. 506, uses frontispiece for the front of a house — 

' A structure high, The work as of a Kingly Palace Gate : 

At top whereof, but farr more rich appeerd With Frontispice of Diamond and Gold.' 

1 This deponer and Edward Symonis lay in the litill gallery that went direct to south out of 
the Kingis chalmer, havand ane window in the gavei throw the town wall.' Deposition of 
Thos. Nelson, 1568, pr. in Campbell's Love Letters of Mary Queen of Scots to Bothwell, 
p. 42, Appendix. 

2 A spear or javelin. Thus in Arthoure & Merlin, p. 338, 

' Gaveloltes also thicke flowe So gnattes, ichil auowe.' 

See also Ayenbite of Inwyt, 207, and Alisaandre, 1620. The word is still in use in the 
North for a crow-bar, or bar for planting stakes in the ground ; see Ray's Gloss, of North 
Country Words. A.&.gafelac, 0. Icel. gaflok. ' Hastilia, gafelucas.' Alfric's Vocab. in 
Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 35. ' Gavelock, HastileS Littleton. 

3 ' Apludis vel cantalna, hwsete gryttan.' Aelfric's Vocab. in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 
34. ' Applauda : furfur, bren.' Medulla. The following recipe for the manufacture of 
this sauce is given in the Liber Cure Cocorum, ed. Morris, p. 29 — 

Gawnsel for ]>e gose. 
* Take garlek and grynde hit wele forJ>y, Colour hit with safron I wot }?ou schalt ; 

Temper hit with water a lytel, perdy ; Temper hit up with cow-mylke J>o, 

Put rloure J>erto and also salt, And sethe hit and serve hit forthe also.' 

4 See Garfra and Giblott. Webster derives the English 'giblet ' from O.Fr. gibelet. 
Wedgwood considers it a diminutive of Fr. gobeau, a bit, morsel. ' Profectum. A gose 
gyblet.' Ortus. 

5 • Patibulnm. A jebet.' Medulla. 'For the love that hath i-be betwene vs twoo, I 
shalle go with the to the iebet.' Gesta Romanorum,ip. 130. ' Gibet. A gibbet.' Cotgrave. 

6 ' Calamus. A reede ; a wheaten or oten straw ; a little twigge or gresse, Sec' Cooper. 
Hence calamo, to gather small bundles of grass, straw, &c. 

7 'Spado. A geldinge, be it man or beaste.' Cooper. ' Eunuclio. To geeldyn. Spado. 
A gelt man. Abestis. A geldare of bestys.' Medulla. ' And thei wenten doun bothe into 
the watir, Philip and the gelding, and he baptisyde him.' Acts viii. 38. In Trevisa's 
Higden, vol. v. p. 119, we read, ' po meyne of \>e palys he clepyd spadones, that is gilded 
men.' 'Gelded man, or imperfect man. Apocopus ; in the Parsian tongue, Eunuchus.' 



*a Gemow 1 ; vertinella. 
to Gendyr; genesrare, con-, re-, gig- 
nave, stijxirv, con-; versus: 
^vir generat, mulierque parit, 

sed gignit vtcvqne. 
a Genderynge ; gentium (Coitus 

ta Genology ; genologia. 
Gentylle 2 ; ingenuns, illustris, § cet- 
era ; versus : 
UStrenuusjngenuus, illustris vel 
Insignis, presignis <k inciting, 

egregiusque ; 
Istis patricius, preclarus, no- 

bilis Assint. 
Debes ^recZictzs Adhibere que 
^recZitus islis. 

51 Pro cerus, clitu*, liberalis ; ver- 
sus : 
^Est nroeerum wum p drum] 
procerwm corpus habere. 

vn Gentylle ; ignobilis. 

Gentylle men ; pvoceres, medio cor- 

fa Gentyllnes or gent/s (Gentilnes 
or gentryce A.) 3 ; generositcts, 

fa Geometer (Gemitrician A.) ; ge- 

Geometry (Gemitry A.) ; geome- 

George ; georgius, women, proprium. 

fa Gerarchy 4 ; gerarchia, i. sacev 

a Gerfaucon 5 ; heroclius. 

1 ' A Gemow, such as Aegyptians vse to hang at their eares, stalagnium. A little ring 
gemow, annellus. Gimeic or henge of a door.' Baret. In the Morte Arthur e we read — 

' Joynter and gemows, he jogges in sondyre.' 1. 2893 ; 
where the meaning evidently is joints and fastenings. Howell, 1660, speaks of the ' Gim- 
mews or joynts of a spurr.' ' Gimmow or ringe to hange at ones eare as the Egyptians 
haue. Staloginum, Inauris. Gymmow of a dore. Vertebra, Vertibulum.' Huloet. 'Annelet 
qu'on met au dvoigt, a gimmew.' Hollyband. See Halliwell s. vv. Gemel and Gimmace. 

2 Very common in the sense of noble, honourable ; thus Chaucer describes the knight as 
4 a verray perfight gentil knight;' and in the Prologue to the Wyf of Bathe, 257, thus 
defines a gentil man — 

' Lok who that is most vertuous alway, To do the gentil dedes that he can, 

Prive and pert, and most entendith ay Tak him for the grettest gentil man.' 

Cotgrave gives ' Gentil. Gentle ; affable ; courteous ; gallant ; noble ; &c.' 

3 Gent ris is gentleness or nobility of birth or disposition : thus in the Ancren Rhvle, p. 
168, we read — ' Louerd, seiS Seinte Peter .... we wulleft folewen J)e iSe muckele gen- 
terise of J)ine largesse :' and in Sir Degrevant, ed. Halliwell, 1. 481, 

■ Y lette ffor my gentriose To do swych roberyse.' 

See also Robert of Gloucester, p. 66. • Generositas. Gentyllnes.' Medulla. ' Generosus. 
Noble ; corny nge of a noble rase ; a gentilman borne ; excellent ; couragious ; of a gentle 
and goode kynde.' Cooper. In P. Plowman, B. xiv. 181, we find — 

' Conuertimini ad me et salui eritis : 
pus ingenere of his gentrice Ihesu cryst seyde.' 
See also the Destruction of Troy, ed. Donaldson & Panton, 131 — 

' This Jason, for his gentris, was ioyfull till all :' 
and Early English Poems, ed. Furnivall, p. 69, 1. 136, where we read — 
' pe prince hire nom & hire biket : to lete hire go alyue, 
& for hire noble gentise : habbe hire to wyue.' 
Chaucer, Prologue to Wyf of Bathe, 290, uses the form genterye — 

1 Her may ye se wel, how that genterye Is nought annexid to possessioun.' 

* ' Gerarcha : sacer princcps.' Medulla. Evidently gerarcha is for hierarcha, which 
Ducange defines by ' Archiepiscopus ; hierarque, archeveque? W. Dunbar in the 
Thrissil and the Jlois uses the form Cherarchy, which more nearly approaches the 

5 See Pawcon, above. Neckham, De Naturis Jierum, Rolls Series, ed. Wright, p. 77, 
says — ' Secundum Isidorum dicitur falco eo quod curvis digitis sit. Girofalcones a giro dicti 
sunt, eo quod in girum et circuitus multos tempns exjpendunt' 


a Gerinalle ' ; breuiarium, libellus 

ta Gerundyfe 2 ; geruudhim ; gerun- 

*a Gesarne ; gesa. 
Geserne of A gose 8 (A.). 

a Geslynge (Gesseling A.) 4 ; An- 

a Gest ; hospes, hospita, conuiua. 
ta Gestynynge 5 ; hospitalitas. 
*Gete G ; gag ate s. 
to Gett 7 ; vhi to genclyr (A.). 

1 A Journal or Diary. ■ Diurnium : liber continens acta dierum singulorum ; journal.' 
Ducange. ' Diurnum. A booke or regester to note thynges dayly done ; a iournall.' Cooper. 
P. bas ' Jurnalle, lytyl boke. Diurnale? • A Calendar or day-book. Diarium, Ephemeris^ 
Littleton. See also Iurynalle. 

2 ' Gerundiuum. A gerundyff.' Medulla. 

3 The gizzard. Palsgrave gives ' Gyserne of a foule, jevsier,' and Cotgrave ' Jesier. The 
giserne of birds.' ' The Gisard or Gisarne of a bird. Gesier, jesier, jmier, mon. The Giserne 
of a henne. Perier de poule.' Sherwood. Halliwell quotes from the Thornton MS. If. 305 : 
' Tak the gesarne of a hare, and stampe it, and temper it with water, and gyf it to the seke 
man or womane at drynke.' Here the meaning appears to be garbage. 

4 ' Anserulus. A goeslyng.' Cooper. 'A goselyng.' Medulla. 'Hie Ancerulus; a 
geslynge.' Wright's Vocab. p. 220. 'Goslynge. Ancerulus.' Huloet. 

5 • Conuiua. A gestenere. Conuiuium. A gestenyng. Conuiuo. To gestenyn.' Medulla. 
See also Jamieson, s.v. ' Ne makie 3e none gistninges? Ancren Riwle, p. 414. In Rauf 
Coil^ear, ed. Murray, 973 _ 5» we are told how Rauf founded a hospice 

' Euer mare perpetually That all that wantis harbery 

In the name of Sanct July, Suld have gestning? 

And in the Gesta Romanorum, p. 19, we read — 'in Jris weye were iij. knyjtys, for to re- 

fresshe, and ealle to gestenyng or to ostery, all that went by that way.' So in the Cursor 

Mundi, ed. Morris, p. 656, 1. 11456, when the Wise Men of the East came to Bethlehem — 

' Word cum til herod j)e kyng And in ]>at tun gestening had nummun.' 

pat J>ar was suilke kynges cummun, 

4 Hengest com to ]>an kinge, & bad him gistninge.' La3amon, ii. 172. 
See also Alisaunder, 1779 ; and Cursor Mundi, p. 166, 1. 2770, and 674, 1. 11750. A. S. 
go3st, gest, gist, a guest. 

6 In the Ode to Sayne John (pr. in Relig. Pieces, &c, from the Thornton MS. E. E. 
Text Soc. ed. Perry), p. 87, the Saint is addressed as 

' the gete or germandir gente, As iasper, the iewelle of gentille perry ;' 

and in the description of the Duke's house in Sir Degrevant we are told that it had 

' Alle pe wallus of geete, With gaye gablettus and grete.' 1. 1461. 

See Harrison's Descript. of England, ed. Furnivall, ii. 7 7, where he refers to the use of 
powdered jet as a test of virginity, and adds — ' there is some plentie of this commoditie in 
Darbishire and about Barwike whereof rings, salts, small cups, and sundrie trifling toies 
are made.' He derives the name Gagates from ' Gagas a citie and riuer in Silicia, where 
it groweth in plentifull manner. Charles the fourth emperour of that name glased the 
church withall that standeth at the fall of Tangra, but I cannot imagine what light should 
enter therby. The writers also diuide this stone into hue kinds, of which the one is in 
colour like vnto lion tawnie, another straked with white veines, the third with yellow 
lines, the fourth is garled with diuerse colours, among which some like drops of bloud (but 
those come out of Inde) and the fift shining blacke as anie rauen's feather.' See also A. 
Boorde, ed. Eurnivall, p. 80, where, inter alia, he recommends gete stone powdered as a 
specific for stone in the bladder. Halliwell quotes the following curious recipe from the 
Thornton MS. leaf 304 : — ' For to gare a woman say what thou askes hir. Tak a stane 
that is called a gagate, and lay it on hir lefte pape whene scho slepis, that scho wiet not, 
and if the stane be gude, alle that thou askes hir sallo scho say whatever scho has done.' 
A similar one is printed in Reliq. Antiq. i. 53. 'A stone that is callid gagates .... it 

is black as gemmes ben bit brenneth in water & quenchith in oyle, and as to his 

myght, yf the stone be froted and chauffed hit holdelth (read holdeth) what hym neygheth.' 
Caxton, Descript. of Britain, 1480, p. 5. 

7 'Befor pat he was geten and forth broght.' Pricke of Conscience, 443. 
O. Icel. geta, to produce. 



to Gett ; vbi to purchesse (A.). 
G suite I. 

a Giande ; gigans. 

ta Giandes fyghte * ; gigantimaiicia. 

a Gibett 2 ; Acideus, eculeus, patubi- 

a Giblott (Gyblett A.) 3 ; profectum. 

a Gide ; index. 

to Gyde ; indicare 

to Gife; committere, donare, con-, 
ferre, con-, dare, dupulare, duere, 
exhibere, inpendere, inpensare, 
largiri, numerare, re-, prebere, 
reddere, repender%, soluere, delar- 
giri, trad ere, tvibuere. 

to Gife a-gayne ; redonare. 

tto Gife a drynke ; potare. 

tto Giffe abowtte 4 ; circumdare, cir- 

tto Giffe to kepe; comrnendarc, com- 
mittere, deponere, trader e. 

tto Giffe stede 6 ; cedere, locum dare. 

aGiffer; dator, donator, largitor, 

thynge Gyffen to kepe (A Gyffinge 
to kepe A.) ; deposition. 

a Gyfte ; collacio ; collatiuus ^;ard- 
cipium; cordana 6 grece, datum, 
dacio, donum est dantis, munus 
accipientis, munera deo qfferuntur, 
donacio, donarium, gratia, munns, 
munusculum ; datiuus, donatiuw 

ta Gift berer ; doniferus, munifer. 

ta Gilde 7 ; gilda. 

ta Gilder 8 ; laqueus, pedux pedum. 

tto Gilder ; laqueare, illaqueare, ir- 

& Gile ; fraus, & cetera; vhi false- 

ta Gilefatte 9 : Acromellarium. 

1 See also Fighte of Giandes. 2 See also G-ebett, above. 3 See Gebyllott, above. 

4 A literal translation of the Latin circumdare, to surround. 

5 Again a literal translation of locum dare. In the Myroure of Our Lady, ed. Blunt, 
p. 40, we are told that in saying of prayers a priest must not • gyue stcde wylfully without 
nede by herynge or by seynge, or in any other wyse to eny thynge wherby he is distracte 
fro mynde and aduertence of the seruyce that he saith.' 

6 Read corbana : see Mark vii. 1 1 . 

7 A Guild or association of persons either following the same trade or profession, or 
associated for ecclesiastical purposes. See ' English Gilds, their Statutes and Customs,' 
E. E. Text Soc. ed. Toulmin-Smith. ' Guilda : vox Anglica vetus.' Ducange. 

8 In Eng. Met. Homilies, ed. Small, p. 69, we read — 

• He saw how all the erth was sprede, Man's saull, als a fouler 

Wyt pantre bandes, and gylders blake, Tas foules wyt gylder and panter.' 

That Satanas had layd to take 
0. Icel. gildra. Wyclif, Wks. ed. Arnold, ii. 322, says, *pe fend penkip him sure of sinful 
men pat he hap gildrid.' In the Gcsta Romanorum, p. 308, we find ' in laqueum Diaboli ' 
rendered by ' in the gilder of the devel.' The verb occurs in the Cursor Mundi, p. 546, 

' Now es man gildred in iuels all, His aim sin has mad him thrall.' 

' In his gildert night and dai Meke him selven sal he ai/ E. Eng. Psalter, Ps. ix. 31. 
In Mr. Robinson's Whitby Gloss. (E. D. Soc.) is given — ' Gilderts, nooses of horsehair upon 
lines stretched within a hoop, for catching birds on the snow. The bread-bait is attempted 
through the loops, which entangle the birds by the legs when they rise up to fly.' Also 
given in Ray's Collection. ' The gilder of disparacione.' Thornton MS. leaf 21. See also 
to Trapp with a gylder, hereafter. 

9 See P. Gyylde. In the Inventory of Roland Stavely of Gainsburgh, 1551, we find 
' a lead, a mashefatt, a gylfatt with a sooe xv s .' See also Mr. C. Robinson's Glossary of 
Mid-Yorkshire, s. v. Guilevat, and Ray's North Country Words, s. v. Gai/fat. In the 
brewhouse of Sir J. Fastolf at Caistor, according to the inventory taken in 1459, there 
were ' xij ledys, j mesynfate (mash-tub), and j y el fate.' Thomas Harpham of York in 
1 34 1 bequeathed ' unnm plnmbnm, unam curiam, quce vocatur mashefat, ct duas parvas 
cunas qua vocantur gylefatts, duas kymelyns, et duos parvos barellos.' Testament. Ebor. 
i. 3. See also note to Dische bcnke, above. 



ta Gille ' ; vallis. 

a Gille of a fische ; branchia. 

Gillty ; reatus, & cetera ; vbi A tris- 

+a Gillry (Gylery A.) 2 ; ^res^V/mm. 
*a Gilte a ; suella. 
to Gilte ; Aurare, de-, crisare, sube- 

Gilty ; con8cii\s, cviminosus, culpa- 

bilis, increpabilis, reprehensibilis, 

vitujftYabilis, reus. 

a Giltynge ; Apocvisis, deAuracio. 

Gimlott 4 . 

Ginger 5 ; zinziber, zinzebrum. 

to Gingelle 6 . 

fa Ginner of y c fysche 7 ; branchia. 

to Girde ; Accingere, & cetera ; vbi 

to belte. 
a Girdelle ; zona, & cetera ; vhi a 

ta Girdiller ; zonarius, corriyiarius. 
fto Girn 8 ; vbi to mowe. 

Bot his maister, thoru prophecye 
Wist al his dede and his gilrye? 

1 'As he glode thurgh the gille by agate syde.' Destruction of Troy, 13529. 'The 
grattus of Galway, of greuys and of gillus.' Anturs of Arthur, xxxiii. 2. 'Gill, a breach, 
or hollow descent in a hill.' Kennett MS. Lansd. 1033. The word is still in use in Yorkshire 
for a glen or dell, and in Sussex is applied to a rivulet or beck. See Ray's Gloss. ' Gill. 
A small strait glen. Gil. A steep, narrow glen ; a ravine. It is generally applied to a 
gully whose sides have resumed a verdant appearance in consequence of the grass growing.' 
Icel. gil, a ravine, a gully. Gawain Douglas in his Prologue to the 8th book of the JSneid, 
p. 239 bk. 1. 18, has — 

1 As I grunschit at that grume, and glisnyt about, Bot I mycht pike thare my fil, 
I gryppit graithlie the gil, Or penny come out.' 
And every modywart hil ; 

And Stewart, in his trans, of Boece, iii. 98, has — 

' Onto the number of ten thousand men, Dalie he led ouir mony gill and glen.' 

2 In Bartholomew's Description of the World, amongst the other prevalent evils are 
mentioned ' gilry and falshede.' Pricke of Conscience, 1 176. 

' Mony a shrew ther is And proves oft with thaire gilry 

On ny3t and als on day, How thai my3t men betray.' 

MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, leaf 81. 
In Metrical Homilies, ed. Small, p. 131, we are told how Gehazi 
' in his hous hid ful rathe, 
The siluer and the robes bathe. 
1 Prestigio. To tregetyn or gylyn.' Medulla. 

3 A spayed sow. A word still in use. In the Line. Medical MS. leaf 312, is a recipe 
in which we are told — 'Tak unto the mane the galle of the galte, and to the womane 
the galle of the gilt.' 'Hie nefrendis. Anglice, A gylt.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 204. 
A. S. gilte. See also Galte, above. ' Libbers haue for libbinge of pigges, pennies, a peece 
for the giltes, and halfpence a peece for the gowtes or bore pigges.' Henry Best, Farming 
and Account Books, 1641. Surtees Soc. Vol. 33, p. 141. 

bore pygge swyne sow 3elte sow-pig 
' Aper, porcellus, porcus, sus, scropha, suilla.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 177. 

4 The diminutive of Wimble. ' Ginibelet. A gimlet or piercer.' Cotgrave. See Wym- 
bylle, below. 

5 • Ne makeden heo neuer strencfte of gingiuere ne of gedewal, ne of clou de gilofre.' 
Ancren JRhvle, p. 370. Gingerbread is mentioned in the Liber Albus, p. 224, as one of 
the most important imports of England in the 13th century. 

6 To jingle. In his Prologue to the Cant. Tales, Chaucer says of the Monk, 

* And whan he rood, men mighte his bridel heere 
Gynglen in whistlyng as cleere, 
And eke as lowde as doth the chapel belle.' 1. 170. 
' To gingil, tinnire? Manip. Vocab. 

7 See Gille of a fische, above. Jamieson gives ' Gynners. The same with ginnles. 
Ginnles. The gills of a fish.' 

8 • Girn, vide grinne.' Baret. ' To gerne, ring ere? Manip. Vocab. Compare ' And 
gaped like a gulfe when he did gerne? Spenser, Faerie Queene, v. xii, 15. A. S. grennian. 
See Jamieson, s. v. Girn. 

' With sic thrawing and sic thristing, Sic gyrnyng, granyng, and so gret a noyis.' 

Barbour's Bruce, ed. Skeat, xiii. 156. See also ibid. iv. 322. 


tA Gyser ; Gesa, vbi gcserne (A.). 

a Girstelle ! ; car til ay o. 

t A Gyrthe of a vesselle 2 ; Instata 

tto Giste 3 ; Agistare. 
+a Oister 4 ; Ayistator. 

G anfc L. 
Glade ; vbi mery. 

to Glad 5 ; exhilerare, hilar are, leti- 

to be Glade ; exhiterare, <& cetera ; vhi 

to joy. 
*Gladyn 6 ; gladiolus, quedavn harba. 
fa Glayfe 7 ; brauium (braveta qui 

dat, vel qui accipit brauium A.), 
ta Glayfe wynner ; braueta. 
Gladly 8 ; gratis. 
*Glayre 9 ; Albumen, & cetera (A.). 

1 The Medulla gives ' Cartilago. A grystyl, or a crusshed bone.' In the Tale of Beryn, 
Chaucer Soc. ed. Furnivall, 1. 577, the Pardoner hits the Tapster's paramour 'with be 
ladill on the grustell on ]>e nose.' A. S. gristel. See also Gristelle, below. 

2 See Garthe for wesselle, above. Cooper renders instita by ' A purfle ; a garde ; a 

3 To take in cattle to graze. See Cowel, Law Diet. s. v. Agist, and Ducange, Gloss. 
Med. Lett. s. v. Agistare. In the Scotter Manor Records (Line.) we read, under the year 
1558, ' Richard e Hollande hathe taken of straungers vi beas gyest in ye Lordes commene, 
and therefore he is in ye mercie of ye lorde iij s iiij d ; and again in 1598, ' De Thoma 
Easton quia cepit le giste-horses in commune pastura, iij s iiij d .' ' Gist money' or payment 
for pasturage of cattle, is still used in Yorkshire. 

4 MS. to Gister. 

5 Wyclif, John viii. 56, has, ' Abraham sour fadir gladide }>at he schulde se mi dai'; and 
in William of Palerne, 600, we read — 

' Sche was gretly gladed of hire gode be-hest ;' 
and again, 1. 850 — 

• panne was ]>at menskful meliors muchel y -gladed? 
With the active force it occurs in the same volume, 1. 827, where we find — 

' per nas gle vnder god, J>at hire glade mi3t.' 
See also P. Plowman, B. x. 43, and the Book of Quinte Essence, ed. Furnivall, p. 18. 
A. S. gladian. ' I gladde. Je esjouys. It is a good thing of him, for he gladdeth every 
companye that he cometh in.' Palsgrave. 

6 ' Lingida. Gell. The hearbe called segges or gladen! Cooper. ' Glayeul de riviere. 
Sedge, water-flags, sword-grasse, Gladen. Glasen, wild flags ; yellow, bastard, or water, 
Flowerdeluce, Lauers, and Leuers.' Cotgrave. See also Glais. In Sloane MS. 73, leaf 
125, is a prescription for driving away elves from any seized by them: 'take he roote of 
gladen and make poudre J>erof, and seue pe sike boJ>e in his metes and in hise drynkis, and 
he schal be hool wijnnne ix dayes and ix ny3tis, or be deed, for certeyn.' The same virtue 
is attributed to it by Langham, Garden of Health, 1579. See also Lyte, pp. ig^-6, and 
Cockayne, Leechdoms, ii. 388. * S 'cilia, glaedene.' Gloss. MS. Cott. Cleop. A. iii. If. 76. 

Turner in his Herbal, pt. ii. If. 23, says: 'Iris hath leaues like vnto the herbe 

called Gladiolus, that is to saye, the Gladdon or swerdynge.' 

7 A prize. The Medulla renders brauium by ' the pryse [of] a game. Braueta. He 
J?at hath the maystry.' Ducange gives ' Br avium. Victorise praemium, quod in publicis 
ludis dabatur, a Gr. fipafieiv ;' and Jamieson has 'Gle, gle w. (1) Game, sport; (2)metaph. 
the fate of battle.' ' Brauium est premium vel victoria : the pryce of a game : or a glayue.' 
Ortus. A. S. gleoto. See Garlande, above. 

8 MS. glally, corrected by A. 

9 Manip. Vocab. gives ' pe glarye of an eg, albumen? It occurs also in Rel. Antiq. i. 53 ; 
and in Coles' Diet. 1676, is given ' Gleyre of an eye, the white of an egg.' In the recipes 
for 'lymnynge of bokys' from the Porkington MS., pr. in Halli well's Early English 
Miscellanies (Warton Club, 1855), this word frequently occurs ; thus, p. 73, we find — ' To 
tempre rede lede ; medylle hyt wyth gleyre of ane egge, and temper hit in a schelle with 
thy fyngere.' Cotgrave gives ' La glaire d'un ozuf. The white of an egge. Glaire. A 
whitish and slimie soyle : glaireux : slimie.' (Compare Clay, above.) Low Lat. glarea. 
1 Glara, eg-lim.' Alfric's Gloss, in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 47. See also Mirror for 
Magistrates, p. 212, and Alliterative Poems, ed. Morris, i. 1025. 



ta Glasse of ringynge or trum- 

pynge 1 ; classicum. 
fa Glasier ; vitrarius. 
tto Glaysse a knyffe ; polire, Eru- 

bitjinare, $- cetera ; vbi to polyclie 

or clense (A.). 
Glasse ; Malum, sapMms, medio cor- 

repto, vitrum ; vitrens, hialicus 

<$r hiacus per sincopam ; (versus : 
%Solpenitrat vitrum, vestes pur- 
gat bene nitrum A.). 

t A Glede a ; miluus. 

tto Glee 3 ; limare. 

fa Glebe ; gleba. 

*a Gleer; limns (obliqnns A.), strabo; 

tto Glene 4 ; Aristare, conspicare <$f 

~ri, desjncari. 
*a Glene ; Arista, Aristella, conspica. 
a Glener ; Arlstator, conspicator. 
Gent 5 . 
fGlett 6 : viscositas. 

1 This is apparently a corruption of the Latin Classicum. Ducange gives ' Claxum. 
Pulsatio tympanarum pro mortuis ; glas funebre ; ol. clas :' and Cotgrave has ' Clas : see 
Glas. Glas. Noise, crying, howling ; also a knell for the dead/ See Peel. 

2 ' Glede a byrde, escoufle.' Palsgrave. Cotgrave has ' Milan royal. The ordinary kite 
or glead. Escoufle. A kite, puttocke or glead/ Still in common use in the North. A. S. 
glida, O. Icel. glefta. See Thomas of Erceldoune, ed. Murray, 560. ' Miluus. A 
puttock.' Medulla. 

' Gledes and buzzards weren hem by, White moles, and puttockes token her place.' 

The Complaint of the Ploughman, pr. in Wright's Political Poems, i. 344. 
' Lyke as quhen that the gredy glede on hycht 
Skummand vp in the are oft turnis hys flycht.* 

G. Douglas, Eneados, Bk. xiii. p. 455, 1. 43. 
'Miluus, glida.' Gloss. MS. Cott. Cleop. A. iii. If. 76. 'Fitzherbert in his Bohe of Hus- 
bandry, If. 49 b , cautions rearers of fowls ' whan they haue brought forth their byrdes to 
se that they be well kepte from the gleyd, crowes, fully martes & other vermin.' ' Ilec 
Milvus A ce -, glede.' Wright's Vol. ofVocab. p. 188. 'Miluus, glida.' Aelfric's Gloss. 
ibid. p. 29. 

3 ' Gly, glee. To look asquint. Lincoln. Limis seu contortis oculis instar Strabonis 
contueri, &c. Skinner.' Pay's Collection of North Country Words, 1691. Baret in his 
Al vearie has ' to glie or looke askue ouerthwart.' ' To glee or glye, UppireJ Manip. Vocab. 
' Glaye, or loke a skope : transuertere hirqu&s.' Huloet. Jamieson has 'To gley, glye, v. n. 
To squint. Gley, s. A squint. Gleyd, gleid, glyd, pp. Squint-eyed.' ( Limus: obliquus, 
distortus. Strabo. A wronglokere.' Medulla. Stroba is rendered in the Nominale ' a 
woman glyande,' and Strabo by 'a gliere.' See Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 225. In the 
Cursor Mundi, p. 2 28, we are told that Jacob wished to have Rachel for his wife, and 

' pe eildir sister he for-sok, For sco gleied, ala sais the bok.' Cotton MS. 1. 3861 ; 

where the Fairfax MS. reads, 

' pe elder suster he for-soke Gleande ho was for-sop of loke.' 

The word is wrongly explained inHalliwell; see s.v. Glided. Compare to G-lymer, below. 

4 ' Glean, a sheaf of hemp.' Peacock's Gloss, of Manley, &c. ' Arista. An avene of 
corn or a glene. Conspico. To glenyn.' Medulla. Cotgrave gives ' Glane. A gleaning ; 
also the corne thats gleaned or left for the gleaner. Glaner. To gleane ; to picke up eares 
of corne after the reapers.' ' A glen : conspica.' Nominale. Compare Gloy, below. 

5 Probably a slip for glent, a glance or a stroke. See Morte Arthure, 1. 3863: 'For 
glent of gloppynyng glade be they neuer.' Or the word may be for glent, the p.p. of to 
glean, still in use in Lincolnshire. Mr. Peacock, in his Glossary of Manley, &c, also gives 
' To glent. To glimmer.' 

6 In Hampole's Pricke of Conscience, I. 456, we read — 

' par dwellid man in a myrk dungeon, Whar he had na other fode 
And in a foul sted of corupcion, Bot wlatsom glet and loper blode.' 

The Addit. MS. 11305, reads the last line as follows — 

' Bot lothsom glette and filthede of blode/ 
See also Alisaundre, 4491, and Alliterative Poems, ed. Morris, i. 1059, ii. 306^ and iii. 269. 
O. Norse glata, wet. Fr. glette. Scotch glit, pus. 0. Eng. glat, moist, slippery, Wyclif, 
Wks. ed. Arnold, iii. 32, speaks of 'vile glat pat stoppip breepy 


tGietty ; viscosus. 
to Glymer ] ; sublucere, lucubrarc 
tA Glyrnyr a ; luscus, limus, 6? cet- 
era ; vhi to glee (A.), 
a Glymerynge ; lucubra, lucubrum. 
tGloy 3 ; spicameiitum. 
tto Glore 4 . 

to Glorifye ; gloriflcare. 
*to Glosse 5 ; vhi to fage. 
to Glose c ; glosare, glosularc. 
A Gloyse ; glosa, glosula (A.). 
+to Glome 7 ; superciliare. 
Glew ; gluten, glutinum, glutinari- 

1 Amongst the ' seuerall disorders and degrees amongst our idle vagabonds,' Harrison 
enumerates ' Demanders for glimmar or fire.' Descript. of Eng. i. 219. For a full account 
of this class of beggars see Harinan on Vagabondes, ed. Furnivall, pt 61. 'Glymring of 
lygbt, luerr, escler.'' Palsgrave. • Lucubro. To wakyn or glomeryn.' Medulla. 'To glim- 
mer. To blink, to wink. Glim. Blind. Glimmie. The person who is blindfolded in the 
sport of Blindman's Buff.' Jamieson. 

2 ' To (/lime. To look askance or asquint.' Jamieson. The Medulla renders luscus by 
one 'pat hath but on eye, or purblynd.' 'Luscus. Poreblynde.' Cooper. Cf. ' Esblouir les 
yeux ; to glimmer the eies, to dazell.' Hollyband. See to G-lee, and compare to Glome, 

3 ' Gloy. (1) The withered blades stripped off from straw. (2) Oaten straw. To gloy. 
To give grain a rough thrashing.' Jamieson. ' Glu de foarre. A bundle of straw.' Cot- 
grave. Compare Glene, above. ' the chymmys calendar, 

Quhais ruffis laitly ful rouch thekit war 

With stra or gloy [culmo~\ by Romulus the wight.' 

G. Douglas, JEiieados, viii. p. 504, 1. 29. 

* To stare, to leer. Palsgrave, Acolastus, has ' Why glore thyn eyes in thy heade ? 
Why waggest thou thy heed as though thou were very angry V In Morte Artkure, 1074, 
we find — ' Thane glopnede the glotone and glorede vn-fair.' In Allit. Poems, B. 849, the 
word occurs in the sense of looking terrified, staring in fright : ' pe god man glyfte with 
pat glam & gloped for noyse,' and the noun is used in the same sense in the Towneley 
My st. p. 146 : ' O, my hart is rysand in a glope.' Compare also Cursor Mundi, 11611 : 

* Quen iesus sau paim glopend be.' 0. Icel. glapa, to stare. In the Northern Counties 
we still find to glop, or gloppen used for to be amazed. 

5 ' Hys wyfe came to hym yn hye, And began to kysse hym and to glosye.' 

MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, leaf 132. 
' So faire pe cherl glosed, pat pe child com of pe caue, & his criynge stint.' 

William of Palerne, 60. 
1 Adulor. To glosyn.' Medulla. See also note to Fage. 

6 Hampole tells us — 

* Some clerkes says, als pe glose telles, Bot pe host of onticrist.' 

pat Gog and Magog es noght elles PricJce of Conscience, 4473. 

In the Sompnoure's Tale, the Friar says he has just preached a sermon 

* Nought al after the text of holy wryt, Glosyng is a ful glorious thing certayn, 
For it is hard for 30W as I suppose, For letter sleth, so as we clerkes sayn.' 
And therfor wil I teche 30 w ay the glose. 

* Glosa, A glose of a book. Glossulo. To glosyn.' Medulla. 

7 To look gloomy or sourly. Kennett has ' to gloom, to frown, to be angry, to look 
sourly and severely.' Compai-e Glymyr, above. Still in use in Yorkshire ; see Capt. 
Harland's Gloss, of Swaledale, s. v. Glime. ' To gloom, glowm. To look morose or sullen ; 
to frown ; to have a cloud on one's aspect.' Jamieson. In the Romauut of the Rose, 4356, 
we find glombe, and Halliwell quotes from the Thornton MS. ' Glommede als he war wraj)e.' 
1 To gloume, froune, caperare frontem.^ Manip. Vocab. 

4 Sir, I trow thai be dom som tyme were fulle melland, 
Welle ye se how thai ylom? Towneley Mysteries, p. 320. 
' I glome, I loke under the browes or make a louryng countenaunce. Je rechigne. It is a 
sower wyfe, she is ever glomyng : cest vne sure, or amere femme, elle rechigne toujours. 
Glumme a sowerloke, rechigne.' Palsgrave. In Coverdale's Bible, Matth. xvi. 3 is rendered 
as follows : ' In y 6 mornynge ye saye, ' It wil be foule wedder to daye for the sjkye is reed 
and gloometh? Surrey in his Praise of Mean and Constant Estate speaks of ' a den unclean 
whereat disdain may glome. 1 In the form glum the word is still very common. 



to Glew ; glutinare, con-, de-, lin- 

a Glewer ; glutinarius. 

a Glufe 1 ; cirotheca. 

a Glufer ; cirotheca rius. 

fa Glufery ; cirothecarium. 

i'd Glew pott 2 ; glutinarium. 

a Gluton 3 ; Ambro, catilio, copro- 
medo, degnlator, deuorator, dls, 
draco, epulo, epulaticus qui tola 
die epulis intmdit, epulonus, estor, 
-trix, gluto, gulo, gusto, lurco*; 
lurconius jpariicipium ; nebido, 
nepos, parasitaster, parasitus, 

a Glutony; Amplestria,castrimargia, 
commesacio, commessacio, cv&pu- 
lari gida, gidositas, luxus. 

tto do Glutony ; crupulari, ex-, lur- 
care 5 , vorare, de-. 

tGluterus 6 ; Ambroninus, castrimar- 
giosus, commestuosus, edaoc, gulo- 
sus, ingluuiosus. 

Q an/e N. 

*to Gnaste 7 ; fremete est furorem 
mentis vsque ad vocis tumuUum. 
exitare, con-, in-, fremescere, con-, 
jn-, frendere est proprie denies 
concutere, con-, in-, frendescere, 
stridere, dentibus concutere, vel 
compremere, vel collideve. 

tlike to Gnaste ; fremebundus. 

a Gnastynge ; fremor est hominum, 
fremitus bestiarum. 

tGnastynge; fremens, frendens, stri- 

fa Gnatte ; culex, zintala. 

ta Gnatte nett ; canopeum, zintalici- 

to Gnaw; demoliri, exedere, rodere, 
cor-, E-. 

fa Gnawer ; rosor. 

G ante O. 

God ; messias, sotlier, emanuel, sa- 
baoth, adonay, vnigenitus, via, 
uita, manus, omousion 8 , prin- 

' From Swedish dial, glomma, to stare.' Skeat, Etymol. Diet. 'Glumme, or be sowre of 
countenance. Vide in frowne and scowle. Glumminge, or sowre of countenance. Swper- 
ciliosus? Huloet. 'Owre syre syttes .... & gloumbes ful lytel.' Allit. Poems, C. 94. 

1 See Liber Albus, p. 600, where directions are given for burning all ' falste cirotecce ' 
(gloves). At p. 737 of the same work is mentioned a Guild of Glovemakers. In the 
Dictionarius of John de Garlande, pr. in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 1 24, the following 
curious derivation is given ' cirothecarii : dicuntur a cirotheca, et illud a ciros, quod est 
manus, et tecon, quod est tributum, quia attribuitur manui,' the true derivation, of course, 
being from x 6t V> a hand and Orjfcr], a case or covering. ' Hie seroticarius, A ce - glowere. ibid. 

2 At the top of the page in a later hand is written : hoc glutmum, A e . glewe. 

3 ' Catillones. Lickedishes ; gluttons. Lurco. A gulligutte.' Cooper. 
* MS. barco. 

5 ' To lurch, devoure, or eate greedily : ingurgito? Baret. See Tusser, p. 178, stanza 7, 
and Bacon's Essays, xlv. 

6 Perhaps a mistake of the scribe for glutenus. But gluierrnesse occurs in Ormulum 
frequently, and Wyclif has, l )>o sixte synne of ]>ese seven is called glotorye .... Glotorye 
falles Ipen to mon, when he takes mete or drink more Ipen profites to his soule.' Works, ed. 
Arnold, iii. 155. Icel. glutr, extravagance. Wyclif, Levit. xi. 30, speaks of the ' mygal, 
that is a beeste born trecherovvs to bigile, and moost gloterous. 7 

7 In Metrical Homilies, ed. Small, p. 128, we are told that 

* Quen Satenas sal Iowes quenen Sal euer be, with teth gnaisting.' 

In ouer mirkenes, thar sare greting 
See also P. of Conscience, 7338. ' Frendeo. To gnastyn.' Medulla. Wyclif, Isaiah v. 29, 
has ' he shal gnasten ' as the translation oifrendet. ' I gnast with the tethe. I make a noyse 
by reason I thruste one tothe upon another. Je grinse des dens. He gnasted with the tethe 
that a man nryght have herde him a stones caste. Gnastyng of the tethe, stridevr, grince~ 
merit.'' Palsgrave. 

8 Gr. dfxooixnos, from ofxbs, the same, and ovcia, essence, being: opposed to dfioiovffios, or of 
like being or nature, a definition applied to our Lord by certain heretics in the 4th century. 



cijrium, primogenituB, sapiencia, 
virtus, alpha, cajmt, finis, oo 1 , 
fons, origo boni, paraclitus, medi- 
ator, agnus, ouis, vitulus, serpens, 
aries, leo, vermis, os, verbum, 
sjrfewdor, sol, lux, gloria, ymago, 
panis, Jlos, vit'xs, mows, janua, 
lajns, petra,, angelus, sponsus, 
pastor, propheta, sacerdos, athana- 
tos, kyr[i Jos, theos panton, cratony- 
sus, aporus, altissimus, altissonus, 
altissonans, altitvonus, altitonans, 
deus, deificus, diuinus, dominus, 
creator, cunctipotens, eternus, nu- 
men, omnipotens, plasmator, re- 
demptor, saluator, verbigena deus, 
lesus Christus. 

fa Ood of batylle ; mars, Sf cetera ; 
vhi A batylle. 

tto make God ; deificare. 

a God doghter 2 ; Jiliola. 

a God son ; filiolus. 

a God fader ; compater, paternus. 

a God moder ; commater, matricia. 

tGoddes modyr ; mater del, tlieoti- 

J)" Godhede ; deitas, diuitas, numen, 

fa Goffe 3 ; vhi a godefader. 
a Goioun 4 ; gobio. 
fa Goke (A Goke, A Gotoo A.) 5 ; 

cuculus ; curuca est Auis que 

nutrit cuculum. 
Golde ; Aurum, crisis grece, elitr opi- 
um, obrisum. 
of Golde; Aureus, Aurulentus, plen- 

us Auro, emeus, 
a Golde finche ; A credula, carduelis, 

lacina, gemtiuo -e. 
a Golde smythe ; Aurifaber, Aurifer. 
tA Goldemyne (A.). 
Golde wyre ; filuw. Aureum. 
t Golde Fynere (A.), 
fa Golde worme 6 ; noctiluca. 
fa Gome 7 ; vhi A goclmoder. 
a Goshauke 8 ; Ancipiter vel Accipi- 

ter,falco, herodius, gruarius. 
a Gospelle; eu^igelium ; eu8Ln[ge]li- 

cus ^;ar£icipmm. 
fa Gospeller 9 ; ewangelista. 
a G-owne; toga, epitogium; togatus 


1 Representing Greek w. 2 ' Filiola. a goddoutere. Filiolus. A godsone.' Medulla. 

3 ' These thinges being thus, when he liketh hymselfe well, and weneth he jesteth as 
properly as a camel daunseth, in calling it my faith, and the Popes faith, and the diuels 
faith, eueri man I wene that wel marketh the matter, wyll be likely to cal his proper 
scoffe but a very cold conseeit of my goffe, that he found and tooke vp at sottes hoff.' 1532. 
Sir T. More. 'Confutacion of Tyndale.' Works, 1557, fol. 711. col. 1. 

4 ' Goujon. A gudgeon-fish ; also the pin which the truckle of a pully runneth on ; also 
the gudgeon of the spindle of a wheele; any Gudgeon.' Cotgrave. 'A Googen. Gobius, 
Gohio. Principium ccence gobius esse solet. Googeons are wont to be the beginning of 
supper. Inhio. To gape Googoen-like, which is as wide as his chappes will let him.' 
Withals. 'A gogeon-fish, gobio? Manip. Vocab. ' Gobio : a gujun.' Wright's Vol. of 
Yocab. p. 97- 

5 A Gowk is still the common name for the Cuckoo in the North. See Jamieson, s. v. 

'Thare g.dede the goioke one greue3 fulle lowde.' Morte Arthure, 927. 
A. S. jeac, 0. Icel. gaukr. 

6 The glow-worm. Baret gives ' Globerd or gloworme, cicindila, noctiluca? and Huloet 
' globerde or gloworme, lampyrisS ' Noctiluca est vermis lucens per noctem? Medulla. 
• Cicindela, se glisigenda wibba.' Aelfric's Gloss, in Wright's Vocab. p. 23. ' Hec incedula, 
A ce - glyde- worme.' ibid. p. 190. 

7 ' Commere, f. A she-gossip, or godmother ; a gomme.' Cotgrave. In Dean Milles' 
Glossary occur 'Gomman, paterfamilias: gommer, materfamilias? Gammer is not of 
unusual occurrence. ' Gossype a man, compere. Gossype a woman, commere.'' Palsgrave. 

8 Chaucer, Farlement of Foules, 334, thus speaks of the Goshawk — 

' There was the Tirant with his federys doune To byrdys for his outrageous Rauyne.' 

And grey, I mene the goshawk, that doth pyne 

9 • Whan Gabriel cam, the gospeleer seith the same, 

Brouht gladdest tydynges that evir was of pees.' Wright's Political Poems, ii. ail. 
See also Early Metrical Homilies, ed. Small, p. 47. Wyclif, Isaiah xli. 27, &c. 




+a Gowrde ; cucumer vel cucumis. 

J>° Gowte 1 ; gutta, yuttula Jiminu- 
tiuum, ciragra, manuum est, po- 
dagra, pedum est. 

G ante K. 

a Grace ; gratia, carisma manus, 

caris gveee. 
Gracious ; gr&tiosus, grasiositas. 
a Grafte 2 ; surculus. 
to Grafte; inserere, surculare. 
a Graftynge ; insicium. 
+a Graftyngtyme ; insicio. 
a Grahounde (A Grawhond A.) 3 ; 

Gray ; albidus (gelidus A.), giluus, 


Gray hared ; canus. 

tto be Gray hared ; canere, in-, can- 

esceve, in-. 
a Graile (Grayle A.) 4 ; gradale. 
a Graynes of hare ; canicies vel cani- 

fGrayns 5 ; gmnellum,q\icdam species 

Gramary (Gramowr A.); gr&matice ; 

gr&mmaticus Sf gr&maticalis p&v- 

tto leiii Gramere ; grammatizare. 
a Gramarieii ; gmmmaticus. 
to Gran (Grane A.) ° ; suspirare. 
ta Grapas 7 ; foca, piscis est. 
*to Grape 8 ; Attractare, Atirectare, 

con-, palpare, palpitare. 

1 This disease is mentioned by Hampole, who says that in Purgatory — 
'Som sal hafin alle J?air lymmes about, For sleuthe, als J)e potagre and ]>e gout.' 

Pricke of Conscience, 2992. 
In the Cursor Mundi, ed. Morris, p. 678, 1. 11831, epilepsy is called 'the falland gute.' Cf. 
Knotty, below. a See also Grifte and Impe. 

3 A. S. grcegJiund, from Icel. greyhundr. 

' Paynymes, turkes, and suriens, And hare fro grohound as for ther diffence.' 

That as a larke fro a hauke doth fle, Romance of Partenay, ed. Skeat, 1389. 

•Tristre is \>&r me sit mid J»e greahundes forte kepen J)e hearde.' Ancren Riwle, p. 332. 

4 • Graduel. A Masse-booke, or part of the Masse, invented by Pope Celestine in the year 
430/ Cotgrave. See Nares, s.v. 

5 ' Graine de Paradis: Graines of Paradise; or, the spice which we call Graines.' Cotgrave. 
' Graynes, spices ; cardimonium.' Manip. Vocab. 

6 * Crye and bray and grane I myght wele.' De Deguileville's Pilgrimage, MS. John's 
Coll. Camb. leaf 134. ' Here my trowthe or I be tane, 

Many of 3our gestis salle grane.' Thornton MS. leaf 133. 

• He is ofte seke and ay granand.' Pricke of Cons. 799. ' Granen i\>e eche grure of helle.' 
Hali Meidenhad, 47. A.S. granian. 

7 The grampus. In the Pas ton Letters, ed. Gairdner, iii. 347, we find — ' whalle, sales, 
sturgion, porpays or grapeys.' See also the Liber Cure Coco rum, ed. Morris, p. 45, 

' With mynsud onyons and no more, To serve on fysshe day with grappays.' 

* Phoca. Virgil. A sea-calfe ; as some thynke a Seale, whiche is fish and breedeth on 
lande.' Cooper. 

8 4 To grape, palpare. Manip. Vocab. Amongst the pains of Hell, fourteen in number, 
specified by Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, 6566, the sixth is 

' Swa mykel myrknes, pat it may be graped, swa thik it es.' 

See also ibid. 1. 6804, ' se Jncke is ]>rinne J>e J)osternesse J>at me hire mei grapin? 0. E. 
Homilies, i. 251. See also Wyclif, Exodus, x. 21 ; and of. Milton's '■palpable darkness.' 
Par. Lost, xii. 188. 

' pan answerd to him Peter and Jon, pat oure lord Ihesus resin was, 

And said, " parof es wonder none, Untille J)OU saw his blody side, 

Forwhi ]>ou trowed noght, Thomas, And graped within his wondes wide." ' 

MS. Harl. 4196, leaf 173. 
It was also used in the sense of examining into, testing ; thus the Sompnour, Chaucer telli 
us, having picked up a ' fewe termes ' of Latin, made a great show of his learning, 
' But who so couthe in other thing him grope, Thanne hadde he spent al his philosophic' 

Cant. Tales, Prologue, 644. 
In Myrc's Instructions for Parish Priests, 912, the Confessor when with a penitent is to 
' freyne hym pus and grope hys sore, &c.' A.S. grapian. Compare also Ancren Riwle, 



fa Grape ! ; Apiana, botrus, passa, 

racemus, vua,vuula cZmiiimtiuura. 

ta Grape kyrnelle; A emus, Acin- 

um, fecinium. 
tA Grape 2 ; vbi forke ; tridens (A.). 
*A grater :! ; Micatorium. 
a Grave ; bustulum ; versus : 

11 Est mausoleum, ^o/iaweZmm, 
2wni&«, sepidcrum, 
Sarcofagus, bustuin, tumulus 

xel piramis, vrna 
Dans monimenta nec'is, con- 
iungitur hijs monumentuiw. 
%bustum vbi cadauera sunt com- 
busta, monumentum quod 
mentes moneat, tumulus est 
£erre congeries super rtior- 
tuum, Sepulcrum est in quo 
reliquie defunctorum reponi 

*to Graue 4 ; vbi to bery. 

*to Grave ; cespitare, fodere, per-, 
colere, foditare, pastinare. 

to Grave (in materia A.) ° ; celare, 
cudere, scidpere. 

ta Grave maker ; bustarinus. 

fa Graver; cespitator, cultor, fos- 

ta Gravere (Graver of wode or 
metelle A.) ; celator, sculptor. 

a Gravynge ; cultura. 

a Gravynge (Gravinge of wode A.); 
sculptura, celaturra, celamen. 

Gravelle; Arena, Arenula ; Arenosus 
dcArenarius /?ar£icipia ; giongrece, 
glaria, sabulum, sabulosus, sale- 
bra ; salebrosus ^artficipium. 

a Grawnedame 6 ; A uia. 

*a Grawnge (Grangys A.) 


p. 314 — ' unneaSe, ]>uruh. ]?en abbodes gropunge, he hit seide & deide sone }?erefter.' 
Trevisa in his trans, of Barthol. de Propriet. Rerum, iii. 16, says that of our senses 'J>e 
laste and J>e moste boystous of all is gropynge ' \sensus tactus grossior est omnibus] ; and 
again, xvii. 52, he speaks of ebony as 'smoJ>e in gropynge' [habens tactum leuem~\. See 
also Sir Ferumbras, 1388; ' J?an gropede he euery wounde ;' and Chaucer, C. T. G. 1236. 

1 ' Una, winberge. Butros (read botrus), geclystre.' Gloss. MS. Cott. Cleop. A. iii. If. 
76. See Bob of grapys. ' Apiance uvce. Muscadel or muscadine grapes.' Gouldman. 

2 ' Graip, Grape. A dung fork, a three-pronged fork.' Jamieson. In Wills & Inventories 
of the Northern Counties (Surtees Society) vol. ii. p. 171, are enumerated 'two gads of 
yerne viij s , two lang wayne blayds, a howpe, a payr of old whells, thre temes, a skekkil, a 
kowter, a soke, a muk fowe, a graype, 2 yerne forks, 9 ashilltresse, and a plowe, xxv 8 .' 

3 In another hand at the top of the page. 

4 In P. Plowman, B. xi. 67, we read — 

• pere a man were crystened, by kynde he shulde be buryed, 
Or where he were parisshene, ri3t J?ere he shulde be grauen? 
1 There amyddis his bretherin twelve They him be-groven, as he desired him-selve.' 
See also Sir Ferumbras, 1. 512. Lonelich's Holy Grail, ed. Furnivall, li. 121. 

5 ' I grave in stone or in any metall as a workeman dothe. Je graue. He graveth as well 
as any man dothe in all sortes of metall.' Palsgrave. 

6 'A grandam. Avia? Withals. 'Agrandame. Auia. A gransier. Auus.' Manip. 
Vocab. See also G-udame and Gudsyre. 

7 See P. Plowman, B. xvii. 71, and Chaucer, Milleres Tale, 3668, where the Carpenter 
we are told was ' Wont for tymber for to goo 

And dwellen at the Graunge a day or two :' 
on which the editor notes — ' Grange is a French word, meaning properly a barn, and was 
applied to outlying farms belonging to the abbeys. The manual labour on these farms 
was performed by an inferior class of monks, called lay-brothers, who were excused from 
many of the requirements of the monastic rule (see Pleury, Eccles. Hist.), but they were 
superintended by the monks themselves, who were allowed occasionally to spend some 
days at the Grange for that purpose. See Schipmannes Tale.' At the Reformation many 
of the Monasteries were turned into Granges : thus in Skelton's Colin Clout we read — 
' Howe 3e brake thededes wylles, Of an abbaye 3e make a graunge.' 

Turne monasteries into water-mills, 
The same expression occurs in Early Eng. Miscellanies, from the Porlington MS. ed. 
Halliwell, p. 26, 1. 21 — ' Nowe that abbay is torned to a grange.' 
'Forbar he neyther tun, ne gronge, That he ne to-yede with his ware.' Havelok, 764. 

M 2 



a Grawnesire (Gransyr A.) ; 

to Graunte ; concedere, & cetera ; 

vhi to afferme, Sf vhi to gyffe. 
ta Grawnter ; largitor vel -trix. 
Grece 1 ; Auxungia, vel Axungia, vel 

auxunga ; dicta ab Augo ; vhi 

*a Grece 2 ; gradus, gr&dare i. e. 

gradus facere vel progr&dus du- 

fGrece (Greke A.) ; grecia est que- 

dam terra ; greens, greculus. 
Grene ; veridis, smaragdinus §• sma- 

Gredy ; edax, edaculus, auidus, gu- 

a Gredynes ; bolismus, edacitas. 
tGredily ; Auide, gulose. 
to be Grene ; virere, virescere. 
a Grene ; viretum, Jloretum, viridi- 

tto Grese (Greysse A.) ; exungiare, 

c£*, secundum hugonera, Auxungi- 

*to Gresse 3 ; herbere, herbescere. 
a Gresse ; gr&rnen, herba, herbula ; 

a Gressope (A Gresshopper A.) 4 ; 


1 MS. Auxungia, vel Axungia, vel Auxungia, vel auxunga, vel auxunga. 

2 In De Deguileville's Pilgrimage, MS. John's Coll. Camb. leaf 1270k, we read — 'twa 

1 sawe that clambe the grece of the dortour, and the tane of tham had on a iambison, 
and the to^ere bare a staffe. Scho with the iambison was atte the grece and abade me.' 
Harrison, Descript. of England, 1 587, p. 33, has ' ascending by steps and greeces westward.' 
' Goand downe by a grese thurgh the gray thornes.' Destruction of Troy, E. E. Text Soc. 
13643 ; see also ibid. 11. 369, 1664, &c., an ^ Sir Degrevant, 1. 1359. ^ n the Cursor Mundi, 
p. 609, 1. 10584, we are told that the Virgin Mary, when a child, climbed without assist- 
ance the steps of the temple, and that 

1 At J>is temple that I of mene A greese per was of steppes fiftene.' 

' Grises or steps made to go vp to the entrie.' Baret. ' Gradus. A grese.' Medulla. 
* Eschellette, a little ladder, or skale, a small step or greece.' Cotgrave. 'A greece, 
gradus. Stayre greece, gradus, ascensus? Manip. Vocab. 'Greese, grice, steppe or 
stair, gradus.' Huloet. ' Disgradare. To descende from one step or gresse to another.' 
Thomas, Italian Diet. 1550. Gree occurs in Pol. Eel. and Love Poems, p. 114, and Wyclif, 

2 Esdras, viii. 4 : ' Esdra's scribe stood upon a treene gree.' 

3 'Hei'bidus. Gresy. Herbositas. Gresyng. Herba. An erbe or a gres.' Medulla. 
' As greses growen in a mede.' Chaucer, Hous of Fame, ii. 263. 'I had my horsse with 
hym at lyvery, and amonge alle one of them was putte to gresse.' Paston Letters, iii. 
280. See also Sir Perceval, ed. Halliwell, 1. 1192, where the hero 

' Made the Sarajenes hede bones Abowtte one the gres. y 

Hoppe^ als dose hayle stones 
The Medulla defines Gramen as herba que nascitur ex humano sanguine. * I grase, as a 
horse dothe. Je me pays a Iherbe. I grease, as a horse dothe.' Palsgrave. 

4 ' Cicada. A gresse hoppe.' Medulla. ' Locusta, gsershoppe.' MS. Cott. Cleop. A. iii. 
If. 76. ' Cicada, a grysope.' Nominale MS. In Relig. Antiq. ii. 82, it is spelt greshop, 
and the Manip. Vocab. has 'grashop, cicada? A.S. gwrshoppa? In the Ormulum, 
1. 9224, we are told of St. John that 'Hiss clab wass off ollfenntess hser, Hiss mete wass 
gress-hoppe. y 

The Rushworth MS. of the Gospels has grceshoppa in the same passage, Matth. iii. 4. 
' Moyses siSen and aaron, Seiden biforen pharaon, 
"To-morgen sulen gresseoppes cumen, And Sat ail Sa bileaf, sal al ben numen." ' 

Genesis & Exodus, ed. Morris, 1. 3065. 
In the Early Eng. Psalter, Ps. lxxvii. 46, we have — 

' To lefe-worm ]>ar fruit gaf he, And )>ar swynkes to gress-hope to be.' 

Dame Juliana Barnes mentions as baits : — ' The bayte on the hawthorn and the codworme 
togyder & a grubbe that bredyth in a dunghyll : and a grete greshop. In Juyll the greshop 
and the humbylbee in the medow.' Of Fyschynge wyth an Angle, p. 29. ' Grissilloun, a 
greshoppe.' W. de Biblesworth in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 165. • Hec sicada, A ce - grys- 
soppe.' ibid. p. 190. 'Grashopper or greshop. Atheta. Greshops which be small. Tettigonue, 
et Tettrigometria, angl. the mother of greshops.' Huloet. 



fa Gresse spreder ; herbarhis. 

tto be Grete (or worth A.) ; valere, 
vt : ' i\\e est valens homo,' i.e. va- 
lidnsJiomo ; granclere, grandescere, 
grossere, grossesserc. 

tto make Grette ; grossare, magniji- 
care, maiorare. 

Grete ; grandis ad corpus pertinet, 
grandiusculxxs, gnxndiimculus, 
grossus, inmanis ad animam 
2>ertinet, inmensns, ingens, mag- 
nalis, magnanimus, magnificus, 
vehemens, magnus ad anima} per- 
tinet, multiplex. 

t Grete leggyd ; cruratus. 

a Grete man ; magnas, magnatus. 

a Gretnes ; gr&uitas, grossitas, gros- 
situdo, inmanitas, inmeiisitas, 
magnanimitas, magnitudo, mag- 
nificencia, vehemencia. 

Grete with childe * ; grauidus, 
grauis, 2>Yegnans. 

*to Grete (Greyt A.) 2 ; plorave, <k 
cetera ; vbi to wepe. 

t Grete hippyd; depeges (A.). 

a Gretyng wele ; salutacio, & cet- 
era ; vbi a hailsynge. 

to Grete wele ; salntare. 

a Grevance ; moles tia, ojfensa, offen- 
siculum, offenciunculum, offensio. 

to Greve ; Aggrauare, conturbare, 
contristare, displicexe, exacerbare, 
exasperare, gr&uare, aggmuare 
2>Yopria sarcina,jngY&uare aliena, 
irritare, offendere, offensare, mes- 
tificare, molestare, pxouocare ad 

Grevos ; gr&uis, & cetera ; vbi noyus. 

*Grewelle 3 ; 2 )U ls. 

fA Gryfte 4 ; vbi grafte (A.). 

tto Grime ; fuscare, fuliginare, Sf 
cetera ; vbi to blek. 

tGrimed ; fuscatus, fuliginatus. 

Gryme ; vt homo est ; tortuosus 

to Grinde corn or egelome ° ; mol- 
ere (3 e conjugation^) con-, de-. 

a Grinder ; molitor. 

a Grindstone ; mola. 

*a Gripe 6 ; griphes, vultur. 

1 It seems curious to find the Latin equivalent for this term in the masculine gender. 

2 In Havelok, 164, when Athelwold is on his death-bed — 

' He greten and gouleden, and gouen hem ille, And seyde, "pat greting helpeth nought :" ' 

And he bad hem alle ben stille ; 
And in the Cursor Mundi, p. 803, 1. 14007, we are told of Mary Magdalene that 

' Before ihesus feet she felle pat with the teres she weashe his fete.' 

peie she fel in suche a grete, 
1 To grete, weepe, lachrymari.' Manip. Vocab. ' Satan was fallen grouelinge gretyng and 
cryenge with a lothely voys.' Lydgate, Pylgremage of the Sowle, Bk. ii. ch. 43. 

3 ' Grewel, ius.' Manip. Vocab. Randle Holme says, ' Grewel is a kind of Broth made 
only of Water, Grotes brused and Currans ; some add Mace, sweet Herbs, Butter and 
Eggs and Sugar : some call it Pottage Gruel.' See J. Russell's Boke of Nurture in Babeea 
Boke, 1. 519. See also Growelle. 

4 The Medulla gives ' Insero. To plantyn togeder ; to brasyn togeder ; or to gryffyn. 
Jnsitus. Plantyd or gryffed. Insitio. Impying or cuttyng.' 

5 ' Egelome ' is ' edge loom,' edged-tool : see P. ' Loome, or instrument, Utensile, instru- 
mentum? The Manip. Vocab. has ' Edgelome, culter.' 

6 Harrison, Descript. of England, ii. 32, says, ' Neither haue we the pygsergus or gripe, 
wherefore I have no occasion to treat further.' Neckam, De Laud ib us -Divine Sapicntue , 
el. Wright, p. 488, writes — 

' Effodiunt uurum gry plies, ej usque vitore Mulcentur, visum fvlva mctalla j uvantS 

' Ifer ich isah gripes & grisliche fu3eles.' Lajamon, 28063. 
The Author of the Cursor Mundi says that in Paradise before the Fall, 

' Bi ])e deer ]?at now is wilde, pe gripe also biside pe here 

As lomb lay ]>e lyoun mylde ; No beest wolde to opere dere.' p. 40, 1. 689. 

See also Sir Eglamour, ed. Halliwell, 841, 851, 870, Alisaunder, 5667, Havelok, 572, &c. 

' Gripes. A grype.' Medulla.' A gry pe, gry ps.' Manip. Vocab. 'Cryps. A gripe or griffon.' 

Cooper. Trevisa in his trans, of Barthol. tie Prop, lierum gives the following account of 



*a Qrise ' ; povcellus, Sf cetera : vbi 
a Bwyne. 

a Gristelle 2 ; cartilage*. 

+a Grote ; lens, lenticula. 

a Grote of syluer 3 ; octussis, gvos- 

to Growe ; Achieve, coaleve (3 e 
conjugation's), exaleve (3 e con- 
jugation's), coalescere, subolere, 
crescere, ex-, m-, gliscere, pulu- 
lare, vepulu\f\arQ. 

*Growelle 4 : vbi potage. 

*Growte 5 ; idvomellum, agromel- 
lum, Acromellum, granomel- 

*to Gruche (Grocho A.) r ' J dedig- 
navi, in-, fremere, fremescere, 
murmur are, mussare, mussitave, 
mutire, susurrare. 

flike to Gruche ; fremundus. 

+a Grucher (Grochere A.) 7 ; mur- 
murator, susurro. 

a Gruchyng (Grochynge A.) 8 ; 
fremitus, fremor, impaciencia, 
mur?7iur, murmurracio, susurvus, 

*Grufelynge (Growflyng A.) 9 ; su- 
pinus ; versus : 
% Debet habere virum mulier re- 
sujrina supinum. 

this bird : ' The gripe is foure fotid, lycke be egle in heed, and in wynges, and is licke to 
be lyon in be ober del of be body ; and woneb in be hilles bat beb clepid Yperborey, and 
hep most enemy and greueb hors and man ; and lye]) in his neste a stone bat is calde 
" smaragdus," ajjens venimous bestes of pe mounteyne.' ' Grype, vulter? Wright's Vol. of 
Vocab. p. 177. 

1 In the Romance of Sir Ferumbras the convoy of provisions for the Saracens is said to 
have included ' Grys and gees and otpouns ;' 1. 5069 : and in P. Plowman, Prologue, 
B. 226, the London Cooks are described as inviting passengers with cries of 

'Hote pies, hote ; Gode^n's and gees, gowe, dyne, gowe.' 

See also Passus, vi. 283, and Ancren Riwle, p. 204. 

According to Halliwell the word is still in use in Cumberland, &c. See Mr. Robinson's 
Whitby Gloss. E. D. Soc. 'Porcellus. A gryse. Succulus. A lytyl grys.' Medulla. 
O. Icel. griss. ' Hie porcillus. Anglice gryse.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 204. Hence 
our griskin. 

2 See also Gristelle, above. ' Gartilago, gristle.' Gloss. MS. Cott. Cleop. A. iii. If. 476. 

3 See also Agrite halpens. 4 See also Grewelle. 

5 According to Ray growte is wort of the last running, and Pegge adds that this is drunk 
only by poor people, who are on that account called grouters. In Dean Milles' Gloss, the 
following account of grout-ale is given : — ' a kind of ale different from white ale, known 
only to the people about Newton Bussel, who keep the method of preparing it a secret ; 
it is of a brownish colour. However, I am informed by a physician, a native of that place, 
that the preparation is made of malt almost burnt in an iron pot, mixed with some of the 
barm which rises on the first working in the keeve, a small quantity of which invigorates 

the whole mass, and makes it very heady.' 
Vol. of Vocab. p. 200. 

6 0. Fr. grouchier, whence our grudge. 
' Qrucche nou3t ]>er-a-gayn, but godli, i rede, 

'Hoc ydromellum, A ce - growte.' Wright's 

Graunte J)is faire forward fulfillen in haste.' 
William of Palerne, 1450. 
In the Pricke of Conscience, 300, the line 'non crediderunt et murmuraverunt ' is rendered 

' pai trowed noght And groched, and was angred in thoght.' 

' Wi]> grete desire & ioie & likynge, & not wib heuynesse & grucchynge.' Wyclif, Select 
Works, ed. Mathew, p. 199. 

7 MS. murmurracio, sussuro : corrected by A. 

8 MS. grucher : corrected by A. 

9 Baret gives ' I sleepe groueling, or vpon my face, dormio promts.' See also Ogrufe, 
hereafter. In the Cursor Mundi, p. 674, 1. 11 760, we are told that when our Lord entered 
a certain town, where the inhabitants were about to sacrifice to their idols, 

' Al pair idels in a stund, Grouelings fel vnto be grund.' 

Andrew Boorde says in his Dyetary, ed. Furnivall, p. 247, that ' to slepe grouelynge vpon 
the stomacke and belly is not good, oneles the stomacke be slow and tarde of digestion ; 
but better it is to lay your hande, or your bed-felowes hande, ouer your stomacke, than to 



tto make Grufelynge (Growflyng 

A.) ; supinare. 
*Grurnelle (Gromelle A.) ; milium, 

gramen solis. 
*a Grunde (Grownde A.) 1 ; funda- 

mentum, fundus, fund idus, grun- 

darium val grundatorium. 
to take or sett Grunde ; grundare. 
fto Gruntylle as swyne 2 ; grunnire. 
ta Grune ; culpa, 6f cetera ; vhi A 


*a Grune as a swyne 8 . 

*a Grupe 4 ; minsorium. 

*a Grupynge yrefi G ; runcina. 

G an^c V. 

fa Gudame (Gude Dame A.) ; Auia. 

ta Gudsyre ; A uus. 

Gude ; Acceptxis, Acceptabilis, Alius, 
benignus, beneficus, beniuolus, bo- 
nus, deuotus, efficax, frugalis, 

lye grouelyng.' See also Anturs of Arthur, ed. Halliwell, xlvii. 9. 'Grousling [read 
Groufiing], promos? Manip. Vocab. Horman says, 'Sura prayeth to god lyenge on the 
grounde grouelinge : Quidam ad conspectum numinis preces fundunt prostrati.' 
' He slaid and stumraeriton the sliddry ground, And fell at erd grufclingis amid the fen.' 

G. Douglas, jEneid, p. 138. 
See also Bk. viii. Prol. 1. 41. ' Istrabocchenola, fallyng grouelynglie.' Thomas, Ital. 
Diet. 1550. In Udall's Apophthegmes of Erasmus, p. 91, it is narrated of Diogenes that 
on being asked by Xeniades ' howe his desire was to bee buried, " Grouelyng?' 1 quoth he, 
u with my face toward the grounde." ' Turner in his Herbal, pt. ii. If. 75, advises any who 
will sow Dates to ' lay them all grouclynges toward the grounde.' ' Therfor grqflynges thou 
shall be layde.' Toivneley Myst. p. 40. 

1 According to the description of the Tower of Babel given in the Cursor Mundi, p. 
136, 1. 2240, 

' Tua and sexti fathum brad, Was pe grwndwall J)at ]>ai made.' 

Hampole, PricJce of Conscience, 207, says that he who desires to live well must begin by 
learning ' to knaw what hymself es, 

Swa may he tyttest come to mekenes, 
pat as grund of al vertus to last ' See also ibid. 1. 7213. 
'Lokeo 1 J)at te heouenlich lauerd beo grundwal of al J>at 5e wurcheft.' Juliana, p. 72. 
In the Early Eng. Psalter, Ps. lxxxvi. 1. is rendered — ' grounde-walles his in hali hilles,' 
[fmidamenta, Vulg. steaftelas A. S.] 

• Son he wan Berwik, a castelle he Jxraht to reise, 

He cast be groundwalle J>ik, his folk he )?ouht ber eise.' R. de Brunne, p. 210. 
' Hoc fundum. Anglice ground-walle.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 203. ' The ground of a 
building, solum, fundamentum.' Manip. Vocab. ' Grunda. Aground off a hous.' Medulla. 
8 The Whitby Glossary has ' gruntle, to grunt as swine do.' The word appears to be 
still in use in Yorkshire ; see Mr. C. Robinson's Gloss. E. D. Soc. A young pig is known 
in the North as a gruntling. * Gruntill, Gruntle. The snout. To Gruntle. To grunt on a 
lower key, as denoting the sound emitted by pigs.' Jamieson. ' Gruiner. To gruntle or 
grunt like a hog. Faire le groin. To powt, lowre, gruntle, or grow sullen.' Cotgrave. 
In Topsell's Hist, of Four-footed Beasts, p. 522, we are told that 'there is a fish in the 
river Achelous which gruntleth like a hog, whereof Juvenal speaketh, saying : Et quam 
remigibus grunnisse Elpenora porcis. And this voice of Swine is by O&cilius attributed to 
drunken men.' ' To grim*, or gruntle, g ronder, grongner, &c.' Sherwood. 

3 ' The groon of a swyn, probossis.' Manip. Vocab. ' Grystle or gronnye of a swyne, 
proboscis. ' Gronny or snowte of a swyne. Probossis? Huloet. 

* ' Grupe, groop. A hollow behind the stalls of horses or cattle, for receiving their dung 
or urine.' Jamieson. See also ibid. s. v. Grip. See Havelolc, 11. 1924, 2102. The word 
is still in common use in the form grip. 

5 ' Runcio. A wedare or a gropare. Runco. To wedyn or gropyn.' Medulla. Halliwell 
quotes from MS. Ash mole, 61, 

'The groping-iren then spake he, " Compas, who hath grevyd thee ?" ' 

Cooper defines Runcina as 'A whipsaw wherwith tymber is sawed. A bush siethe or bill 
to cut bushes.' ' I growpe (Lydgate), sculpe or suche as coulde grave, groupe, or carve ; 
this worde is nat used in com en spetche.' Palsgrave. 



frugi(om nis generis ) indecli nab i le, 
grstUBf grat'iosus, inprobus, in- 
probulus 1 , inculpabilis, innocens, 
idoneus, innoxius, insons, lauda- 
bilis, optimus, pvestans, pvobus, 
simplex, Sf cetera. 

tGudefryday 2 ; parasceue. 

+a Gude dede ; beneficium, zennium, 
bene quidam ; versus : 
%Do grates vobis propter data 
zennia nobis. 

Gudely; benigne, comiter. 

a Gudenes; benignitas, beneficium, 

bonitas, jnpvobitas, 2)robitas, com- 

moditas, frugalitas, simplicitas, 

vir i.e. />ro bene ; versus : 

^iSi locus affuerit te £>recor esse 


+ Guile 3 ; pallidus, liuidus, Sf cetera ; 
vbi wanne. 

ip° Gulsoghte ' ; aurugo, hictericia, 
hicteris, hictericus, mutacio color is. 

1 Gummes ; gingiua ; gingiuarius 

a Gumme ; electrum, viscum, gummi 

*a Gunne B ; fundibalum, muruscui- 

a Gunner; fundilabarius, fundiba- 

a Guse ; Anser, Anserulns, Ansula, 
A uca ; AnserinniA />ar£icipium. 

a Guse herde ; Aucarius. 

a Gutt ; colus, extum, intestinum, po- 
dex, cetum, zirbus. 

a Gutter 6 ; Alluuio, Alluuies, Alla- 
cium, Allucia, Alluces,Aquagium, 
Aqualitium, Aquaductile, Aque- 
ductus, cataracta, colluuio, col- 
luuies, colluuium, cataduppa, 

1 Read probus, probidus. 

2 ' Parasceve. Sexta sabbati, seu feria sexta ultima? hebdomadis Quadragesima?, sic dicta, 
inquit Isidorus, quia in eo die Christus mysterium crucis explevit, propter quod venerat in 
hunc mundum ; le Vendredi Saint.' Ducange. 

3 Halliwell explains this word as 'gay, fine/ giving the following quotation — 

' The Jewes alle of that gate Wex all f ulle guile and grene.' 

MS. Harl. 4196, leaf 206. 
But the meaning as given above appears to be the correct explanation. Stratmann gives as 
the derivation, O. Icel. gulr, golr, A. S. geolo, yellow. Tusser, in his Five Hundred Points, 
&c. 46. 4, speaking of hop-plants, says, ' the goeler and younger, the better 1 loue.' See 
following note. 

4 The Jaundice. This word answers exactly to the Dutch geelzucht, from geel, yellow 
and zucht, sickness, in the popular language also called galzucht, from gal (Eng. gall) and 
zucht. In German it is gelbsucht, from gelb, yellow, and sucht, sickness. A. S. gealweseoc. 
In the Glossaries pr. by Eckhart in his Commentarii de Rebus Francice Orientalis, 1729, ii. 
992, is given — ' aurugo, color in auro, sicut in pedibus accipitris, i. gelesouch.'' ' Gelisuhtiger, 
ictericus, auruginosus? Graff, vol. vi. col. 142. In Mr. Cockayne's Leechdoms, aurugo is 
defined as 'a tugging or drawing of the sinews.' ' Aurugo. The kynke or the Jaundys.' 
Medulla. ' Hec glaucoma; the gowyl sowght.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 229. The 
following prescription for the jaundice is given in MS. Sloane, 7, leaf 73 ; — ' For the 
$alowsouit, that men callin the jaundys. Take hard Speynich sope and a litille stale 
ale in a coppe, and rubbe the sope a3ens the coppe botum tylle the ale be qwyte, &c* 

' Envus man may lyknyd be Mene may se it in mans eene.' 

To the golsoght, that es a payne, Robert de Brunne, quoted by Halliwell. 

In the Complaynt of Scotlande, ed. Murray, p. 67, we are told that ' sourakkis (sorrel) is 
gude for the bl&o gulset.' 'Gulschoch, Gulsach. The jaundice.' Jamieson. See also Jawnes, 
and compare Swynsoghte, below. A. Boorde, Breuiary of Health, ch. 1 78, p. 63, says, 
' Hictericia is the latin worde .... in Englyshe it is named the jaunes, or the gulsuffe ;' 

and Lyte, Dodoens, p. 546, tells us that ' Orache is good against the Jaundi3e or 

Guelsought ;' and Turner, Herbal, pt. ii. If. 30, says that ' Agarike is good for them that 
haue .... the guelsought or iaundesse.' 

5 * Fundabalum. An engyne of batayl. Fundabalarius, a slyngare.' Medulla. 

6 'Aqualitium. A gotere. Aquaducatile. A gotere. Aquaductile. A conthwyte.' 
Medulla. ' Gouttiere. A gutter ; a channell.' Cotgrave. In the Liber Albus, p. 584, is 
given a regulation that all gutters of houses shall be at least nine feet from the ground. ■ Le 



fistula, guttamen, guttatorium, 
imbricium, imbrex, stillicidium : 
versus : 
paque l tavre. 

Ceqritulum 8 m H. 

a Guuemance ; gubemacio. 

to Guue?*en (Governe A.) ; gubernare, 

a Guuemer ; gubernator, gubcrnio, 


H ante A. 

fan h abett 2 ; habitus. 

*an Haberiorm; lorica; loricatus, 
trilex est lorica ex tvibus 
\liciis\ coufecta ; loricare 
(est A.) loricam induere. 

an Hachet; Ascia, Asciola, Ascis, 

an Haddoke 3 ; morus. 

*an Hagas 4 ; tucetum. 

*an Hagas maker; tucetarius. 

tan Haguday 5 ; vectes. 

* A Hagworme G ; jaculus (A.). 

Hay ; fenum. 

tan Hay howse 7 ; fenerium. 

tA Hage (A.) 8 . 

tA Hacc ; bidens, Sf cetera; vhi liake 

tto Haile ; chere 9 , grece, salue, latine. 
to Hayle ; grandinare. 
Hayle ; grando,zalata ; grande?ieus t 

Sf grandinosus participia. 
fan Hayle stone ; zalata. 
*to Hailse (Haylsse A.) 10 ; salutare. 

Pentis, Gofers, et getez soyent sy hautz, qe gens puissent chivacher dessus, et a meyns ix 
pees haut.' See also the Statute 33 Henry VIII., cap. 33, quoted in note to Clowe of 

flode3ete, above. ' £e ryuer Danubius is i-lete in to dyuerse places of J>e cite 

(Constantinople) by goteres under er)?e [occultis sub terra canalibus].' 1 Trevisa's Higden, 
i. p. 181. ' As gates out of guitars in golanand (?) wedors.' K. Alexander, p. 163. ' Gutter. 
Aqualitium. Gutter betwene two walles. Andron. Gutter of a house. Compluuium? 
Huloet. See Wyolif, Genesis vii. 1 1 ; viii. 2, &c. 

1 MS. cataduppla. 2 See also Abbett. 

3 ' Morus. An hound ffysch.' Medulla. ' A haddocke, fish, ocellus.' Manip. Vocab. 

4 'Tucetum. Apuddyngoran hakeys. Tucetarius. A puddyng makere.' Medulla. 'A 
haggesse, tucetum.' Manip. Vocab. 

5 A latch to a door or gate. A haggaday is frequently put upon a cottage door, on the 
inside, without anything projecting outwards by which it may be lifted. A little slit is 
made in the door, and the latch can only be raised by inserting therein a nail or slip of 
metal. In the Louth (Line.) Church Accounts, 1610, iii. 196. we read : ' To John Flower 
for hespes .... a sneck, a haggaday, a catch & a Ringe for the west gate, ij s vj d .' The word 
is still in use in Lincolnshire. The Medulla renders vectes by ' a barre of jryn or an hengyl.' 
• Hoc manutentum, Au ce - a haginday.' Wright's Vocab. p. 261. 

6 The common viper. A. S. haga, hedge and wyrm, a creeping thing. Not uncommon in 
the North, but becoming obsolete. ' Iacuius : quidam serpens' Medulla. Cooper gives 
' laculus. Aserpente that liethvnder trees, and sodenly spryngyilg out with a meruaylous 
violence, perseth any beast whiche happely passeth by.' 

7 Baret gives ' an haie house, or loft ; an haie mowe, or ricke ; a place where haie lieth, 

8 • Hag in the North means soft broken ground, as in the description of the Castle of 
Love, Cursor Mundi, p. 568, 1. 0,886 — 

'It es hei sett apon J)e crag, Grai and hard, wit-vten hag.' 

9 X«> • 

'He rakit till the kyng all richt, And halsit hym apon his kne.' 

The Bruce, ed. Skeat, xiii. 524. 
In the Cursor Mundi, p. 623, 1. 10848, Mary, we are told, ' was in were,' after Gabriel had 
spoken to her, and 'To-quils sco hir vmbi-thoght Quat was bis hailsing he hir broght.' 
See also P. Plowman, C. x. 309, and B. vii. 160 — 

1 Joseph mette merueillously how pe mone and ]>e soune 
And J»e elleuene sterres ha'dsed hym all.' 
A. S. hahian ; 0. Icel. heiha; Swedish helsa, to salute. It is quite a different word from 
the verb to hahe, embrace; A. S. healsian, from heals, the neck, which see. 



*an Hailsyng^ ; salutacio. 
tan Hay coke l ; Arconhis (Fertile A.). 
*an Haire a ; cilicium ; cilicius Sf cili- 
cinus jparficipia. 

an Hay stake ; fenile. 

fan Hay moghte 2 ;'us. 

fan Hak (Hake A.) 3 ; bidens, fos- 

sorium, ligo, marra. 
an Haknay (Haykenay A.) 4 ; badi- 

us, ?nannus. 
tHaldande ; tenax, tenens. 
to Halde ; tenere, tentare, retinere, 

retentare, reputare. 
to Halde be hynde ; detinere,detentare. 
Hale (Hayle A.) ; Acer, firmus, zn- 

columis, integer, integralis, sanus, 

sosjyes ; versus : 
%Non est injirmum quod con- 
sist tibi sanum, 

Integra, namque datur res que 
non fracta feratur. 
to make Hale; integrare,integrascere, 

Haly (Hally A ) 5 ; integre, firme, 

integraliter, funditus, medullitm, 

redicitus, omnmo, penitus, ])ror- 

sus, totcditer. 
Halesome ; saluber. 
an Halesomnes ; salubritas. 
tto Halfe ; mediare, dimidiare. 
Halfe ; dim\i\dius, hemis, semis (om- 

nis generis) indeclm&bile. 
fHalfe A fute ; semipedalis. 
fHalfe dede ; seminecis. 
t Halfe Fulle ; semiplenus. 
fHalfe a fardyng<? (ferthynge 

A.) 6 ; calcus, calculus, muni- 


1 See also Cok of hay, and Mughe. 'An hey raowe, foeni acervus.' Baret. 

2 'A cloath or garment made of heare, a heare- cloth, a strainer, cilicium.' Baret. 
Harrison in his Description of Eng. i. 156, in giving an account of the manner of brewing 
of beer in his time, states that the malt, after being ' turned so long vpon the flore, they 
do carie to a kill couered with haire cloth ; ' and Tusser, in his Five Hundred Points, 
& c > 57* 5 1 * speaking of the treatment of hops, says that they are to be covered with 
' soutage or haire.' Wyclif , Genesis xxxvii. 34, describing the grief of Jacob at the supposed 
death of Joseph, says : ' And the clothis to -rent, was clothid with an heyr, weilynge his 
sone myche tyme.' Hair cloth is mentioned frequently in the Ancren Riivle : for instance, 
on pp. 126 and 130 we are told that Judith 'ledde swu'Se herd lif, veste [fasted] and werede 
heare ;' and again on p. 10 that St. Sara, Sincletica and many others wore ' herde heren' 

3 Sherwood has 'hach, hachel, hachet;' and the Manip. Vocab. gives, 'an hack, mattock, 
bidens.' ' Agolafre com for]) wij) ys hacked Sir Ferumbras, 1. 4516. 

' For-wroght wit his hah and spad Of himself he wex al sad.' MS. Cott. Vespas. A. iii. If. 8. 
Still in use. 0. Fr. hache, M. H. Ger. hache. A. S. haccian, to hew, hack. ' Fossorium. 
A byl or a pykeys.' Medulla. Trevisa in his translation of Higden, v. 9, says of Ignatius, 
bishop of Antioch, that he was ' i-prowe to wylde bestes .... ]>anne after his deth his 
herte was i-hahked to small gobettes [minutatim divisum est]. 1 See also Hacc. 

* 'An hacknie horse, equus meritorius.' Baret. In the Mo rte Arthur e we read that 
Arthur took with him to France ' Hukes and halcnays and horse3 of amies,' 1. 734 ', see 
also 11. 484 and 2284. In P. Plowman, B. Text, v. 318, we find ' Hikke the hakeneyman,' 
that is one who let out horses on hire. Fr. haquenee, Span, hacanea. In the Paston 
Letters, ii. 97, John Russe writes — ' I schal geve my maister youre sone v marke toward 
an haulceney.' In the Household and Wardrobe Ordinances of Edward II. (Chaucer 
Soc. ed. Furnivall), p. 19, we are told that 'the kinge shall have xxx serjants at armes 
sufficientli armed and mounted, that is to say eache of them one horse for armes, one 
haheny & somter ;' and, on p. 43, — ' In the same [the king's] stable shal be an haclcney 
man, who shal keepe the haltene of the house, & shal fetch every day at the garner the 
liveree of oates for the horses of the stable, & shal carry the houses of the horses that 
travel in the kinges compani for the same hakeney. He shal have j d . ob. a day wages, 
one robe yereli in cloth, or half a mark in mony ; & iiij s viij d for shoes.' Probably we 
should read baiulus, as in P., instead of badius, which only means ' a hors off a bay 
coloure.' Medulla. 

5 'And halely reft the men thair liff.' Barbour's Bruce, ed. Skeat, xv. 224. 

' For at that tyme he thoucht all hale For till destroy so cleyn Scotland.' Ibid. 
xviii. 238. 6 'Calcus: quarta pars oboli.' Medulla. 



tHalfe a cerkylle ; emocirculus. 
tHalfe cursyd * ; semijmganus. 
tHalfe bare ; semimtdus. 
tan Halfe naked 2 ; semipondo, inde- 

clinabi/e, quad raws. 
tan Halfe a vnce ; semivncia. 
tHalfe a man" ; semo, semivir. 
tHalfe a tone ; semitonws. 
tto Halfe tone ; semitonare. 
tHalfe a tonynge ; semitonium. 
tHalfe a wounde ; semiplagum.. 
Haly ; Agyos, Almus, Almificus, cele- 

ber, geraticus, sacer, sacrosanctns, 

sanctus ; versus : 
%Ad corpus sanctus, Ad mentem 
pertinet A Imus : 

vir sacer est Me qui sacra (diuina 

A.) solet selebrare. 
an Halyday ; celebritas, festiuitas, 

festum ; festiuus, festiualis ; sab- 

batuva, solennitas, dies festiuus. 
to hold Halyday; celebrarz, festare, 

festiuare, feriare, sabbatizare, so- 

J> e Halygaste; consolator, p&raclitus. 
an Halynes ; s&nctitas, stmctitudo, 

Haly water; Aqua benedicta, 
an Haly water clerke 3 ; Aquarius, 

*an Halle 4 ; Aula, Atrium., castrum, 

palacium, regia. 

1 ' Semipaganus. Half a rustick or clown.' Grouldman. 

2 ' There is evidently some confusion here : apparently the scribe has repeated half bare 
in another form and omitted the English equivalent for semipondo and quadrans, which 
would be ' half a halpenny :' compare a Halpeny, below, where pondo is given as the 
Latin equivalent. 

3 Dr. Oliver, in his Monasticon Dlcecesis Exonienms, p. 260, says — ' Aquebajuli were 
persons who carried the vessel of the holy water in processions, and benedictions. Scholars 
in the minor orders were always to be preferred for this office {vide Synod. Exoniens. a.d. 
1287, cap. 29). In small parishes the aquebajulus occasionally acted as sacristan and rang 
the bell.' J$y a decree of Archbishop Boniface, the aquebajulus was to be a poor clerk, 
appointed to his office by the curate of the church, and maintained by the alms of the 
parishioners in all parishes in his province within ten miles of a city or castle. His duties 
were to serve the priest at the altar, to read the epistle, sing the gradual and the responses, 
read the lections, carry the holy-water vessel, and assist at the canonical hours and the 
ministration of the sacraments (see Lyndwode, lib. iii. pp. 142-3). He was in fact a poor 
scholar, and the office was given him to assist him in his studies — ' ut ibidem proficeret ut 
aptior et magis idoneus fieret ad majora.' After the Reformation the office merged into 
that of parish clerk. Thus, in 161 3, William Cotton, Bishop of Exeter, licensed John 
Randolph to the ' officium aquebajuli sive clerici parocMalis apud Gtvennap, et docendi 
artem scribendi et legendi.' (Hist. Cornwall, ii. p. 135). From the latter part of this 
extract he would seem to have officiated also as village schoolmaster. 'Aquarius : serviens 
qui portat aquam.' Medulla. ' Hie aquebajulus. A holi water clerke.' Wright's Vol. of 
Vocab. p. 218. Robert of Brunne complains that any 

' Holy watyr clerk of a tounne 
Fat lytyl haj> lernede yn hys lyue 
He ys ordeynede a prest to shryue.' 

Handlyng of Synne, ed. Furnivall, p. 360, 11. 11591-4. 
From this office being usually performed by some poor scholar, the term Holy-water clerk 
eventually came to be applied to such exclusively. Thus in the State Papers, ii. 141, we 
read — ' Anthony Knevet hath obteyned the Bisshoprik of Kildare to a symple Irish preste, 
a vagabounde, without lernyng, maners, or good qualitye, not worthy to be a hally-ivater 
clerc.' The term also occurs in Lydgate. 

4 In Richard the Eedeles, iii. 218, we find hales used in the sense of tents — 

' He wondrid in his wittis, as he wel myjthe, 

pat pe hie housinge, herborowe ne myghte 

Halfdell }>e houshold, but hairs hem helped.' 
' Tabernaculum. A pavilion, tente, or hale.' Elyot. See also Hawle. In a letter from 
Cecily, Marchioness of Dorset, to Thomas Cromwell, pr. in Ellis' Original Letters, Ser. I. 
vol. i. p. 219, she desires him to 'delyver all such tents, pavylyons, and hales as you haue 
of myne on to my soune Lenard,' where the meaning is plainly tents. 



tan Hallynge ! ; Aiileum, Anabatrum 

(cortindj velum A.); versus : 

•D Vela vrf aulea cortine sunt 


Hawlowe (Halowe A.) ; celebrare, 

consecrare, dedicate, dicare, inici- 

are Sf -ri,festare,festiuare, sacrare, 

sabbatizare, sanctire, sanctiflcare, 


an Halowynge j 

cio, s&nctijicacio Sf cetera, 
fan Halowynge of hundis 2 ; boema. 
an Halpeny; As, obulns ; versus : 
^Stips stipis, As, obulus, inde- 
clinabiie pondo. 
an Halse 3 ; gula. 

to Halse 4 ; Amplecti, Amplexari, 

consecracio, dedica- 

an Halsynge; Amplexus. 

*to Halte ; claudicare, claudere, (3° 

conjugation^,) varicare. 
*Halte ; cadax, claudws. 
an Halter; elaudicarius, duplicarius 

qui ex vtnxque ^>arte claudicat. 
*Haltande; claudicans, varicans. 
a Hame; mansio. 
fa Hame of a horse 5 . 
fa Hamelett ; villula. 
Hamely ; domesticus, famula7'is. 
fto make Hamely ; domesticare. 
fan Hamelynes ; familiaritas. 
an Hamme 6 ; poples (poplex A.) 

hominum, suffragines amvaali- 

an Hamere ; malleus, malliolus, wer- 

cus, merculus, mercellus. 

1 Among the cloths of arras and tapestry work belonging to Sir John Fastolfe, at Caistor, 
enumerated in the curious inventories taken about the year 1459, we find — 'Item, j blewe 
hallyng .... Item, j hallyng of blewe worsted, contaynyng in length xiij yerds and in 
bredthe iiij yerds. Item, j hallyng with men drawen in derke grene worsted.' Paston 
Letters, i. 479. See Bury Wills, &c, p. 115, and Peacock, Eng. Qli. Furniture, p. 94. 

' Ouer the hye desse . . . the best hallyng hanged, as reason was, 
Wherein was wrought the ix ord[r]es angelicale.' Life of Si. Werburge, 61. 
' Aulium. A curteyn in an halle.' Medulla. See also Dorsur and Hawlynge. 

2 ' pe hunteres ]>ay haulen by hurstes and by hoes.' Anturs of Arthur, st. v. 1. 5. 
In Sir Degrevant, ed. Halliwell, p. 187, 1. 233, we read — 

• He uncouplede his houndus Bothe the greene and the groundus 

With inne the knyghtus boundus They halowede an hyght ;' 

and in Chaucer, Boke of the Duchesse, 378 — 

' Withynne a while the herte founde ys, T-hallowed and rechased faste.' 

* He clepid to hym the Sompnoure J?at was his own discipill And stoden so holowing. 1 

The yeman & the Reve & eke pe mauncipill ; Tale of Beryn, 1. 41 7. 

See also Richard the Redeles, iii. 228 — 

' He was halowid and y-huntid, and y-hote trusse.' 
' I halowe houndes with a krye. Je hue. Halowe the houndes if you fortune to spye the 
deere.' Palsgrave. ' Holler. To hallow or encourage hounds with hallowing ; also to 
hound or set them at.' Cotgrave. 

3 In P. Plowman, C. i. 185, the rat proposes to the mice that they should buy a bell 
' and honge [it] aboute ]>e cattys hats,' and in the description of the dragon which appeared 
in a dream to Arthur we read — 

' Bothe his hede and hys hals were halely alfe ouer, 
Oundyde of azure, enamelde fulle faire.' Morte Arthure, 764. 

4 ' I halse one, I take hym aboute the neeke. Je accolle. Halse me aboute the necke 
and kysse me.' Palsgrave. ' Amplcxor. To kyssyn or halsyn. Amplexus. Halsyd. In- 
complexus. Vnhalsyd.' Medulla. See also to Hailse. ' Whenne ]>e Emperour hadde 
knowlich of hire, he ran for gladnesse, and halsid hire, and kist hire, and wepte right soore 
as a childe for gladnesse, and saide, " nowe blessid be god, for I haue founde J>at I haue 
hiely desirid !" ' Gesta Romanorum, p. 319. A. S. heals, hals. 

5 Pieces of wood on the collar of the horse to which the traces are attached. See 
Bargheame. ' Attelles, the haumes of a draught horse's collar ; the two flat sticks that 
encompass it.' Cotgrave. ' Hame of a horse, halcium.' Manip. Vocab. ' Les cous de chivaus 
fortunt esteles (hames).' W. de Biblesworth, in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 168. 

6 l Puples, hamma.' Gloss. MS. Cott. Cleop. A. iii. If. 76. 



an Hande ; ciros, grece, manus ; 
manicalis partficipium ; palma, 
pugnus, vola, 2>ugillu.s ; pwjillaris 
participium ; ir l , indeclinahile ; 
versus : 
^\Si pir ponis in ir, perit ir si 
perforet ir pir. 

: fan Hand balk 2 ; pila manualis. 

; tan Hand crafte ; mechania. 

! tto Handefeste 3 ; fedare, subarrare. 

an Handefulle; manipulus. 

to Handylle ; tangere, Sf cetera ; vhi 
to tuche. 

an Handylle of a swerde ; capulus, 

an Handelynge ; tactus ; tangens. 
tHandles ; mancus, mancatus. 
an Handemayden. ; Abra, Ancil- 

tan Hande staffe 4 ; manutentum. 
tan Hange ma» ; lictor, polictor. 
tan Hank B . 
tto Hank. 
*a Hanselle 6 ; Arabo, strena, strenula 

cZiminutiimra / sfrenicus <Sf stren- 

osus, participia. 

1 ' Ir pro Hir, Concavitas manus, idem est et vola, medietas palmse, neutr. indeclin.' 
Ducange. Pir is of course the Greek irvp. ' Vola, vel tener, vel ir, middeweard hand. 
Fugillus, se gripe Jwre hand.' Aelfric's Gloss, in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 43. ' Hande. 
Ir.' Huloet. 

2 In Stowe's Survey of London, ed. 1 720, p. 251, is mentioned a custom of playing at hand- 
ball on Easter-day for a tansy-cake, the winning of which depended chiefly upon swiftne c s 
of foot. Halliwell quotes from the Thornton MS. leaf 7 — • And belyfe he gerte write a 
lettre, and sente it tille Alexander, and therwith he sent hym a handballe and other 
certane jape3 in scorne.' Baret has 'to play at tennys or at the balle, pila ludere.' Bal- 
pleowe, or ball-play, is mentioned in the Ancren Riwle, p. 218. 

3 In the Ormulum we are told of the Virgin that 

' 3ho wass hanndfasst an god mann patt Joscep wass jehatenn ;' 1. 2389. 
• Handfast, desponsatus : to handfast, desponsare.' Manip. Vocab. Caxton, in The Chesse, 
p. 14, speaks of ' A right fayr mayde which was assured and handfast vnto a noble yonge 
gentilman of cartage.' Ihre, Glossar. Saio-Gothicuni, gives ' Handfcestning, promissio qua? 
fit stipulata manu, sive cives fidem suam principi spondeant, sive mutuam inter se, matri- 
monium inituri, a phrasi /resta hand, quae notat dextram dextrae jungere.' The following 
passage occurs in ( The Christian State of Matrimony,' 1543, p. 43 back — 'Every man 
must esteme the parson to whom he is handfasted, none otherwyse than for his owne spouse, 
though as yet it be not done in the Church ner in the streate — After the Handfastynge 
and makyng of the contracte y e churchgoyng and weddyng shuld not be differred to longe, 
lest the wickedde sowe bys ungracious sede in the meane season — At the Handefasting 
ther is made a greate feaste and superfluous Bancket.' See also Brand's Antiquities, ii. 
20, 46-54, Robertson's Historical Essays, 1872, p. 172, and Prof. Ward's note to his edition 
of Greene's Friar Bacon, vi. 140. ' Vne fainsayles [fiancayles~\, an assuryng or hand- 
fastynge, of folks to be maryed.' Palsgrave. ' I handfaste, I trouthe plyght. Je fiance. 
Whan shall they be maryed, they be handfasted all redye.' Ibid. ' Contract or hand-fasting.' 
Withals. ' Accorder une fille, to handfast, affiance, betroth himselfe unto a maiden.' 
Cotgrave. ' Besponso. To weddyw.' Medulla. Subarrare, as will be seen below, is also 
used for to hanselle. See also to 3ife Erls. 

4 See Flayle. 

5 A skein of thread or worsted. To hank, to make up thread, &c, in skeins. Still in 
common use. See Gawin Douglas, Eneados, Bk. ii. p. 46, 1. 5, where in the account of 
the death of Laocoon, the serpent having 

' Twis circulit his myddill round about . . . His hede bendis and garlandis all war blaw 
As he etlis thare hankis to haue rent, Ful of vennum and rank poysoun attanis.' 

And with his handis thaym away haue draw 

6 See Halliwell, s. v. Hansel, and Brand's Popular Antiq. iii. 262. ' Arra. Arnest or 
hansale. Strena. Hansale.' Medulla. See also Erls. ' In the way of good hansel, de 
bon erre.' Palsgrave. 

' Sendith ows to gode hans An c. thousand besans.' Alisaunder, 2935. 

In Sir Ferumbras, p. 59, 1. 1708, we find the phrase 'ther by-gynneth luther haunsel.* 
where the meaning is ' this is a bad beginning.' ' I hansell one, I gyve him money in a 
mornyng for suche wares as he selleth. Je estrene? Palsgrave. 



*to Hansellc; strenare, Aware, in-, 

an Happe ; faustltudo, felicitas, for- 
tuna, fortunium, fortuitus, omen; 
omenosus pudcipium. 

tvn Happe ; infortunium, infelicitas. 

Happy ; beatus, faustus, felix, $ 
cetera ; vhi blissed. 

to mak Happy ; vbi blissed (A.). 

vn Happy; Acharls, infaustus, in- 
felix, in vna re, jnfortunatus, 
miser, in omni re. 

toHappyn; Accidere malarum. re- 
rum, est, contingere bonarum re- 
rum, est, euenire bonarum 6f 
malarum rerum est, fortunare, 
est, erat (fuit A.) verbum jnpev- 
sonale (vt est m\hi i. e. contingit 

*an Haras of horse l ; eqaaricia, 

*an Harbar ; hospicium, diuersori- 

um ; liospitalis. 
*to Harber 2 ; hospitari, hospituare. 
*an Harbiriowr ; hospes, hospita ; 

hospitalis Sf hospitabilis p&vt\- 

*an Harberynge ; hospitalitas. 
Harde ; difficax, deficilis, Grauis vt 

leccio canticus, dirus, durus, fir- 

mus, salebrosus ; versus : 
^Leccio Jit facilis vel difficilis, 
leue jwndus, 
Lapis sit durus tihi sic diuersi- 
to make Harde; durare, con-, in-, 

ob-, demollire, durijlcare. 
tto be Harde 3 ; callere, callescere, 

occallere, -lescere, durere, -rescere ; 

Sf cetera, 
an Hardnes ; dijfficllitas, gnmitas, du- 


1 ' Equicium, a hares.' Nominale MS. In Guy of Warwike, p. 205, we read — 

' Than lopen about hem the Lombars As wicked Coltes out of haras.' 

In Houshold, &c. Ordinances, Edward II , p. 43, it is directed that there shall be • a serjaut, 
who shal be a sufficient niareschal gardein of the yonge horses drawne out of the kinges 
race,' where these last words are in the original ' hors de haraz le Roy.' In the curious 
poem on 'The Land of Cockaygne,' printed in Early Eng. Poems, ed. Furnivall, p. 157, 
we are told that there 

* per n'is schepe, no swine, no gote, No non horw3-la, god it wot, 
Nother harate, nother stode. pe lond is ful of oJ»er gode.' 
* fonder is a hous of haras that stant be the way, Among the bestes herboryd may 3e be.' 

Coventry Myst. p. 147. 
A haras was the technical term for a stud of stallions as appears from Lydgate's Hors, 
Shepe & Ghoos, Roxb. Club, repr. p. 31, where amongst other special phrases are given 
the following: 'A hareys of hors, A stode of mares, A ragg of coltes.' See also Strutt, 
Sports & Pastimes, 1810, p. 19. In a 'Balade' by Chaucer, printed in the Athenosum, 
1 8th Feb., 1871, p. 210, the following lines occur — 

' I wol me venge on loue as dof>e a breese On wylde horsse }>at rennen in lianas.' 
Sir T. Elyot in his Image of Goveniaunce, 1549, p. 127, says : 'Who setteth by a ragged, 
a restie or ill favoured colte, because that the harreise, wherof that kinde is comen, two 
hundred yeres passed wanne the price of rennyng at the game of Olympus ?' ' Equirisia. 
A fflok off hors.' Medulla. 

2 So our Lord says — ' I was heibarweles, and ye herboriden me.' Matthew xxv. 36, 
Wyclif's Version. 

' If Crist seie soth To resten in his owne need 

Him silf ne hadde noon harborow, And steken out the stormes.' 

Wright's Pol. Poems, ii. 97. 
In De Deguileville's Pilgrimage, MS John's Coll. Camb. leaf B6, we read — ' to the ostry 
I wente tirste thynkande to herberwe me ]?ar : thare I sawe Charitee that herberde pilgrimes, 
and ofte wente to the 3ate to fede pouer folke.' 

3 Baret in his Alvearie gives ' to gather a brawne : to waxe hard, as the hands or feete 
do with labour, concalleo.' ' Callus. The hardnes off hand or Foot. Duricie manuum 
callus, callis via stricta.' Medulla. 



an Hardnes of handzs or fete; 

Hardy ; A n imatus, A nimosus, A udax, 

qui periculuni non timet, Ausus, 

cordatus, jnpevteritus, jntrepidus, 

rnagnanimus, temerariiis, qui sine 

consilio agit. 
+to make Hardy; Animare, in-. 
tto be Hardy; Audere, Ausiin, -sis 

-sit, defectinum. 
an Hardynes; Audacia, Ausus, Ani- 

*Hardes (Hardys A.) 1 ; stuppa ; 

qxrid&m dicuwt stu])a. 

+to do Hardes a way 2 ; exstupare. 

an Hare (Hayr A); lepus, lepuscu- 
lus cZiminutiuum, leuipes ; lepere- 
us & leporinns ^ardcipia. 

an Hare; cvinis, cviniculus, Sr cetera ; 
vhi a haire. 

*Harife s ; rybium minor, herba est. 

*an Harlott 4 ; balatro 5 (histrio A.) 
rusticus, gerro, mima (palpo A.) 
ioculator, -trix, pantomima, para- 
sitaster, histrix, nugator, scurvu- 
l\xs ; vnde versus : 
^Histrio vol palpo, mimus vel 

1 Still in use in Lincoln, &c, in the sense of 'coarse flax ; the refuse of flax or hemp.' 
Cotgrave gives ' grettes de lin, the hards or towe of flax,' and Baret has ' Hardes or Her<ies 
of hemp, &c, stupa, estoupe de chanure.' Mr. Robinson in his Whitby Gloss., E. D. Soc, 
also gives ' Harden, a coarsely spun fabric of flax for wrapping purposes.' • Stupa, towe 
or hirdes ; the course parte of flaxe.' Cooper. In the Ancren Riwle, p. 368, amongst 
other ways of mortifying the flesh is recommended ' herd weriunge,' that is wearing of 
garments made of coarse material ; and again, on p. 418, penitents are bidden to wear 
next their flesh 'no linene clo]>, bute jif hit beo of herde, and of greate heorden.'' ' And 
3oure strengthe schal be as a deed sparcle of bonys, ether of herdis of flex, and joure werk 
schal be as a quyk sparcle ; and euer either schal be brent togidere, and noon schal be that 
schal quenche.' Isaiah i. 31, Purvey's Version. A. S. heordan, keordas, cloth made of 
tow. ' Hardyn cotis,' coats made of coarse flax, are mentioned in the Complaynt of Scot- 
land, p. 150. The Medulla gives 'Stupa, Hyrdys off hempe. Stuposus. Ful off hyrdys. 
Stupo. To stoppyn with hyrdys. Stupida. Lytyl hyrdys.' ' Hec stupa, a hardes.' Wright's 
"Vol. of Vocab. p. 217. ' Stupa, hordy.' ibid. p. 180. ' Stuppa, secumbe [oakum].' Aelfric's 
Glossary, ibid. p. 40. 2 See also to Burle clothe and to Shyfe. 

8 In the Thornton MS. leaf 283, we find the following recipe for pain in the ear — ' tak 
wormod, or harofe, or wodebynde, and stampe it, and wryn^e out the jeuse, and do it 
lewke in thyne ere.' See Hairrouf/h. in Mr. Robinson's Whitby Gloss. E. D. Soc. Grains 
of hedgerife (hayreve, or hayreff), A.S. hegerifan com, are prescribed in Cockayne's Leech- 
doms, ii. 345, for * a salve against the elfin race & nocturnal visitors, & for the woman with 
whom the devil hath carnal commerce :' see also p. 79. It was formerly considered good 
for scorbutic diseases, when applied externally, and of late, in France, has been adminis- 
tered internally for epilepsy. ' Madyr, herbe : Sandix, rubia major, et minor diciiur 
hayryf.' P. ' Rubia minor, Hayreff oj>er aron [? Hayrenn] is like to woodruff, and the sed 
tuchid will honge in oneis clo])is.' MS. Sloane, 5, leaf 29. ' Rubia minor, cleuer heyrene.' 
MS. Harl. 3388. In the Babees Book, p. 68, we find it meutioned as one of the herbs to 
be used in preparing a hot bath. 

4 Chaucer says of the Sompnour, Prol. 649 — 
' He was a gentil harlot and a kynde A bettre felaw schulde men nowher fynde.' 
Among some old glosses in the Reliq. Antiq. i. 7, we find ' scurra, a harlotte.' In the 
Coventry Mystery of the Woman taken in Adultery (p. 217), it is the young man who is 
caught with the woman, and not the woman herself, who is stigmatised as a harlot. We 
find in Welsh, herlawd = & youth, and herlodes = a, hoyden (llodes = & girl, lass). In the 
Gesta Romanorum, p. 81, the false Emperor, speaks of Jovinian as ' an harlotte,' and again, 
p. 1 24, the Emperor's daughter while running a race addresses her male competitor — ' What, 
harlot, trowist thou to overcome me?' 'The x. day of Dessember, Satterday, was M. Cowl- 
peppur, and M. Duran, drawn fro the tow 1 ' to Tiburn. Cowlpeppur was heddid, and Duran 
was hanggid and quartarid, both them for playing the harlottes W* with (sic) queen Kataryn 
that then was.' London Chronicle during the reign of Henry VIII., Camden Miscellany, 
iv. 16. See also Knight of La Tour-Landry, p. 81, 1. 6. 6 MS. Yalator. 



Est Epulo, nebulo, fxirasitus, 

scurra, lecator, 
Jlijs pantomimus, comedus (co- 
medo A.) vel ioculator. 
%Ma\\ducxxs 1 , scurrilis,gerronus 
etgerronaceus (inurbanus A .). 
*an Harlottry 2 ; lecacitas,invrbanitas, 
nugacitas, rusticitas, scurrilitas. 
*to do Harlottry ; scurrari. 
an Harme ; damjmum, dawymulum, 
dampnositas, dispendiitm, detri- 
meiitum leue dampnum est. 

Danymum nescientibus <Sf subito 
Jit, iacturam scientes 6c vitro pati- 
mur; dampnosus ^artficipium. 
to Harme ; dampnificare, dampnum. 

Harries 3 ; falera, falere. 
to Harnes; epiphiare, falerare, or- 
nare ; -tor, -trix. 

t Harnessed ; federates. 

p G Harnes 4 ; cerebrum. 

*an Harne panne 5 ; crawmm. 

an Harow ; erpica, tnxha. 

to Harow ; erpicare 6 . 

an Harow or a harow maker (a 

Harower A.) ; erpicarius. 
tan Harow tothe ; paxillus. 
an Harpe ; citliara, Uncus 7 ; versus : 
%Testudo, cithara, chelis Sf lira 
eZicitur vnum. 
to Harpe ; citharizare. 
an Harper ; citharedo, citharista, 

citharedus, Jldecen, fidicina, Jidi- 

cistra,, lericen, liricina, Urista, li- 

tan Harpe strynge; fidis, lira, fi- 

*an Harre of a dore 8 ; cardo, ??iedio 

correpto in obliqyds. 

1 This is also given as the Lat. equivalent of a G-aykorse, q. v. 

2 Trevisa in his trans, of HigJen, vol. v. p. 37, says of the Emperor Commodus, ' pis 
Commodus was unprofitable to al ]?inges, and 3af hym al to leccherie and harlottrie,' the 
original reading being luxuries et obscenitati deditus. 

3 i Epiphia: ornatus equorum ; the wrying off an hors. Fallera. Harneys.' Medulla. The 
word was commonly used in the sense of armour, arms. Thus Palsgrave has ' harnes-man, 
armigere ;' and in William of Palerne, 1. 1582, William is described as coming to court, 
'gayli in clones of gold, & o^er gode harneis? In the Prompt, it is used as synonymous 
with household furniture. ' Harnois, armour, harnesse ; also a teame, carte, or carriage, 
&c.' Cotgrave. ' Harnesse. Arma. To harnesse. Armare.' Manip. Vocab. 

4 When Havelok was attacked by the thieves we are told that with a ' dore tre ' 

' at a dint he slow hem j>re ; Ne lay J>er-ute ageyn J?e sternes.' 

Was non of hem )?at his hemes 1. 1807. 

1 The harne. Cerebrum.'' Manip. Vocab. See also Herns. In the description of the 
cruelties practised in Stephen's reign as given in the A. S. Chronicle, p. 262, one item is 
thus given : • Me dide cnotted strenges abuton here hseued & uurythen to 'Sat it gaede 
to be hcernes? For cerebrum the MS. has celebrum. 

6 Hampole, describing the wounds of Christ, speaks of 
* pe croun of thornes J)at was thrested When j>e thornes hym prikked til he harnpane.' 
On his heved fast, J?at pe blode out rane, Pricke of Conscience, 5 296 ; 

and in Gawain Douglas, p 291, 1. 25, we read — 

' And with a sownd smate Tagus but remede, In the harnepan the schaft he has affixt, 
Throw ather part of templis of his hede ; Quhil blude and brane all togiddir mixt.' 

O. Icel. hiarni, A. S. hcernes. ' Berne-pon* occurs in the Destruction of Troy, 8775 ; see 
also Morte Arthure, L, 2229, and Havelok, 1991. 'Cranium. The heed panne.' Medulla. 
6 MS. erpitare. 7 MS. liritus. 

8 A hinge. Icel. hjarri. It is denned incorrectly in the Nomenclator, 1580, as, 'The 
back upright timber of a door or gate, by which it is hung to its post.' Jamieson defines 
it as ' the pivot on which a door or gate turns.' Douglas uses the phrase ' out of har,' 
that is ' out of order : ' 

* The pyping wynd blaw vp the dure on char, Intill the entre of the caue again.' 

And driue the leuis, and blaw thaym out of har jEneados, p. 83, 1. 11 ; 

and the same expression occurs in Gower, ii. 139 — 

1 So may men knowe, how the fiorein And bringer in of alle werre 

Was moder first of malengin Wherof this world stant out of herre* 



a Harte ; Cor, Cordialis, Corculum 

an Hart ; ceruus, ceruulus, cerua, 

tHartly l ; cordialiter. 
an Harott of harmes 2 ; bellicvepa. 
tan Hartstringe ; precordia. 
fan Hart home 3 ; brunda, grece, 

comic cerui, lat'me. 
tan Hartskyii (A Hartshyne A.) ; 

an Harthe ; focus, foculus cfo'mini- 

tiuum, focarium; focarius p&v- 

ricipium ; ignearium, ticionari- 

Harvest; Autumpnus, messis. 
*Hase (Hayse A.) 4 ; ravcus, ravci- 

dus, ravcidulus. 
to be or make Hase ; raucere. 

Hase; ravcio. 

an Hasenes ; ravcedo, ravcitas. 

to Haste ; Accelerare, celerare, Ar- 
dere, Ardesc&ce, exardere, exar- 
descere, ciere, citare, festinare, 
manicare, maturare, proper are. 

Hasty ; Accelerosus, Accelerans, Ar- 
dens, citatus, citus, con-, festinus, 
impetuosus, pvoperws, pwproper- 
us, pveceps, temerarius, repentin- 
us, jnp>YQuis\\$, S)- cetera ; vhi 
wyght (wy^th A.). 

Hastyly ; Apprime, cwcriculo, euas- 
tigio, cxtemplo, indilate, qu&tocius, 
velocius, inpetuose, pxecipitantex, 
temerarie, accelerantev, exinpro- 
uiso ; versus : 
%Concito, confestim, mox, pro- 
tinus, illico, statim, 

* The endes of this line that is named Axis, be called Cardinales coeli, and be pight in the 
foresaid poles, and are called Cardinales, because they moue about y e hollownesse of the 
Poles, as the sharpe corners of a doore moue in the herre? Batman upon Barthol. de Propr. 
Rerum, If. 123, col. 1. Chaucer, Prologue Cant. Tales, 550, describing the Miller, says — 

' He was schort schuldred, brood, a thikke knarre, 
Ther nas no dore that he nolde heve of harre.' 
See also Reliq. Antiq. i. 292, and Wright's Political Songs, p. 318 : 

' Wer never dogges there Pro coylthe ne cotte :' 

Hurled out of herre 
and Skelton's Magnyfycence, 921 : 'All is out of harre, and out of trace.' 

1 * God preserve hem, we pray hertly, Kepten the peas in trowbel and adversite.' 

And Londoun, for thei ful diligently Wright's Polit. Poems, ii. 255. 

2 Baret has ' HaravXd, vide Herhault ; Herhault seemeth to be compounded of this 
dutch word, herault, Herus, i. e. Master, and of the french word Bault, Altus, i. e. High. 
For the herault of armes was an high officer among the Romanes, and of great authoritie.' 
In the Lansdowne MS. 208, we find — 

1 Ryght sone were thay reddy on every syde, 
For the harrotes betwyxte thame faste dyde ryde.' leaf 20. 

3 ' Brumida : grece. The hertys horn.' Medulla. 

4 Ray in his Gloss, of N. Country Words gives ' Heasy, raucus ; Isl. hcese, raucitas.' 
See Preface to E. D. Society's edit. p. 4, 1. 47, and note in P. s. v. Hoose, p. 248. In P. 
Plowman, B. xvii. 324, occurs the proverb that 'three things there are which drive a man 
out of his house, viz., a bad wife, a leaky roof, and smoke. 

For smoke and smolder smyteth in his eyen. 

Til he be blere-nyed or blynde and hors in }>e throte,' 
where some MSS. read hoos and hos. See also Townley Mysteries, p. 109, and the Owl 
and Nightingale, 504, where we find ' mid stefne hose.' A.S. has, 0. Icel. hass. * Raucus. 
Hoos. Raucedo. Hoosness. Raucedulus. Sumdel hoos. Rauco. To makyn hoos.' Medulla. 
In the Manip. Vocab. we find the form horsy, as well as horse. 

1 Quha can not hald thare pece ar fre to flite, 
Chide quhill thare hedis riffe, and hals worthe hace? 
See also ibid. p. -278, 1. 38. G. Douglas, /Encados, p. 66, 1. 29. 

Trevisa in his trans, of Higden, i. II, says that after preceeding 'noble spekers, |;at 
sownede as trompes ' he feared to put forth his ' bareyn speche, hosnes \lioose in Caxton's 
edition] an snodchynge.' ' Sche was wexyn alle horse? Eylamour, 927. 




Continue, propere, velociter at- 

que repente, 
Cur sim, festine, festinanter, 

proper &nter, 
Accutim, celere, cito, mature, 
an Hastynes ; Assultus, impetus; im- 
petuosus ^artficipium ; impetuosi- 
tas, celeritas, temeritas, festinacio 
summam comprehendit celerita- 
tem, preparac'io repellit inher- 
Hate (Hatt A.); calidus, estuosus, 
feruidns, intensus, ignitus, tor- 
to be Hate (Hatt A.); calere, -lescere, 
con-, ex-, in-, calejieri, estuare, 
ferbere, ef-, feruere, con-, ef-, 
Jiammere, -mescere. 
to Hate ; odire, odi, odisti, simultare. 
Hatfulle ; odiosus, perosns. 
tan Hateredyii 1 ; fauonium, inimi- 
cicia, invidea, mistrum, odium, 

odiolum cZiminutiuum, simul- 

tan Haterelle 2 ; ceruix, ceruicula, 

diminntiunm, vertex. 
to Have ; habere, obtinere, possidere. 
an Havyng in mynde ; commemo- 

racio, recordacio. 
tHave done ; Age, Agite, Aduerbia 

hortandi ; versus ; 
%Pluribus est Agite dicendum, 
die Age soli. 
tan Havyng ; habitus, jwssessio. 
tpride of Havynge ; habitudo. 
Havynge; habens, possidens. 
tan Haver ; possessor, hibitor. 
to Have in mynde ; memorare Sf -ri, 

con- Sf com-, recolere Sf recordare, 

6f cetera ; vbi to thynk. 
an Havyn. ; nauale,port\is,portulus ; 

portuosus j^arlicipiuni ; sinus, sta- 

tan Havyii towne 3 ; baia (laia A.). 
Havyr 4 ; Auena, Auenula. 

1 In Dan John Gaytryge's Sermon, pr. in Religious Pieces in Prose and Verse from the 
Thornton MS., E. E. Text Soc. ed. Perry, in the list of the seven deadly sins, we are told 
that ' Ane is hateredyne to speke, or here oghte be spokene, that may sowne unto gude to 
thaym that thay hate.' p. 12, 1. 3. So in Pricke of Conscience, 3363, we find 'Pride, 
hatreden and envy.' ' Odium es . . . . als mekille atte saye as Hatredene, by whom es 
disioyned the anehede of brebherhede and the trewthe of unitee es sawene in sundir.' De 
Deguileville's Pilgrimage of the Lyf of the Manhode, MS. John's Coll. Camb. leaf 89. 
• Unwraste men wat lacede 3eu an alle mire rice bat 3ie hatrede and widerwardnesse 
a3enes me 3e win saeolde.' Early Eng. Homilies, i. 233. See also R. de Brunne, ed. 
Furnivall, 8992. * Wic hatreden = wicked hatred.' Ps. xxiv. 19. -reden was a common 
termination in Northern literature : luf reden, love ; felawreden, fellowship ; monreden, 
homage, are instances. 

2 Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, 1492, has — 

' Als fra }>e haterel oboven ]>e crown Es sene tyl be sole of be fot doun ;' 

and in the St. John's Coll. MS. of De Deguileville's Pilgrimage of the Lyf of the Manhode, 
leaf 48 b , we are told of Memory that ' hyr eyen ware sette behynde hire hatrelle, and byfore 
sawe I nathynge.' See also Lonelich's Mist, of the Holy Grail, ed. Furnivall, xxiii. 570. 
In the Medulla we find ' haterel ' as the English equivalent of vertex, occiput and imeon ; 
and in the Glossary of Walt, de Bibelesworth, pr. in Wright's Vol. of Vocabularies, we 
have — ' Moun haterel (my nape) ouweJce les temples (ant thonewon ....).' See Hede. In 
Wyclif 's version 2 Chronicles xviii. 33 is thus rendered : ' It felle forsothe, that oon of the 
puple in to uncerteyn kast an arowe, and smote the kyng of Ysrael between the hatred 
and the schulders,' where the Vulgate reads cervicem. See also ibid. 1 Maccabees, i. 63. 
and Partonope of Blois, 3492. Cotgrave gives ' Hatereau, Hastereau. The throat-piece or 
fore-part of the neck.' See P. Haterelle. ' Hie vertex, a natrelle.' Wright's Vocab. 244. 

3 ' Baia. An haven toun.' Medulla. See note on this word in N. & Q. 5th S. ix. 455. 
* In Piers Plowman, Piers says — 

' I haue no peny .... poletes forto bigge, 
Ne neyther gees ne grys but two grene cheses, 
A fewe cruddes and creem and an hauer cake.' B. Text, v. 282. 
Andrew Boorde, in his Introduction of Knowledge, ed. Furnivall, p. 259, says, ' Yf a man 
haue a lust or a sensuall appetyd (sic) to eate and drynke of a grayne bysyde malte or 



an Hawe tre x ; sinus, ramjmus. 

an Hawghe ; cinum. 

an Hawke ; Alietws, as])erucvrius, 

fan Hawker; Alietor. 
tan Hawke bage 2 ; cassidile. 
an Hawkynge ; Aucupatus. 
*an Hawle 3 ; Atrium, Atriolitm, Aula, 

Aulula ; Aularis, Aulatus ^>ar£i- 

cipia : versus : 
%Aula vel Atria, castra, palacia, 
regia regum. 
fan Hawlynge ; Auleum. 
to Hawnte 4 ; exercere, exercitare, 6f 

cetera ; vhi to vse. 

an Hawntynge ; exercitacio, exercici- 
um, fy cetera. 

Hawntynge ; exercens, exercitans. 
If H ante E. 

He ; ille, i])se. iste, is, Sf cetera. 

Hebrewe ; hebreus. 

an Hede ; A qualium est summa ^ars 
capitis, cajmt; capitalis ^;ar£icipi- 
um ; ceplias, grece, graba, latine, 
cincijmt est Anterior />ars cajritis, 
jntercijmt media pars, occiput 2>os- 
terior jmrs, vertex, ceruix. 

to be Hede (to Hede A.) 5 ; decapi- 
tare, decollare, detruncare, ob-. 

an Hefte 6 ; manubrium,ma7iutentum. 

barlye, let hym eate and drynke of it the whiche maye be made of otes ; for hauer-cakes 
in Scotlande is many a good .... lordes dysshe ; and yf it wyll make good hauer -cakes, 
consequently it wyll make goode drynke, &c.' Gerarde states that haver is the common 
name for oats in Lancashire, and adds that it is • their chiefest bread corne for Jannocks, 
Hauer-cakes, Tharffe-cakes, &c.' The festuca italica has, he says, commonly the name of 
' Hauer-grasse.' ' Avena. Ootes.' Medulla. Cotgrave has 'Aveneron, wild oats, haver or oat 
grass ;' aud the Manip. Vocab. ' Haver, avena.' See Ray's Glossary of North Country 
Words, and Otys, hereafter. ' Panis avenacius, A ce - hafyr-bred.' Wright's Vocab. p. 198. 

1 'Alba spina, hag-jjorn.' Aelfric's Vocab. in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 33. 'An 
hawe tre, sentis.' Manip. Vocab. In Piers Plowman Wit says — 

' Noli mittere, man, margerye perlis Amanges hogges, £at han hawes at wille.' 

B. Text, x. 10. 
W. de Biblesworth, in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 162, speaks of the ' Ceneler (awe-tre or 
hawethen) ke la cenele (awes) porte.' l Cinus. An hawe-tre. Cornetum. A place )>er 
hawys growyn.' Medulla. 'Hawes, hepus and hakernes.' William of Palerne, 181 1. 
A. S. haga. ' Hec taxus, A ce - haw-tre, hew-tre.' Wright's Vocab. p. 192. 

2 ' Cassidule : genus rethis, reticule Aucupis. A ffoulare net.' Medulla. 

3 See Halle and Hallynge, above. 

4 In the Cursor Mundi, 1. 15,742, we are told that 

' Judas wel he knew the stude That Ihesus was hauntonde ;' 

and Hampole speaks of ' Swilk degises and suilk maners, 

Als yhong men now hauntes and lers.' P. of Cons. 1524. 
Amongst the charges brought by the King of France against Pope Boniface VIII., one 
was that he ' haunted maumetrie.' Langtoft, Chronicle, p. 320. Caxton, in his Myrrour of 
the World, Pt. I. ch. xiv. p. 47, says 'it is good for to haunte amonge the vertuous men.' 
' Hanter. To haunt, frequent, resort unto ; to be familiar with; to converse or commerce 
with.' Cotgrave. See also Lonelich's Hist, of the Holy Grail, ed. Furnivall, xx. 78, and 
Gesta Romanorum, p. 191. ' Scortor, to haunt whores.' Stan bridge Vocabula. 

5 • Decollo. To hedyn or heuedyn.' Medulla. See Cursor Mundi, p. 19, where the 
author says he will tell ' of Jonis baptizyng, 

And how him hefdid heroud king.' 
In the extract from the London Chronicle, &c, pr. in the note to Harlotte, the past part. 
heddid occurs. ' I hedde a man, I cut of his heed, je decapite. He was heeded at 
Tourehyll.' Palsgrave. ' To heade, decollare. 1 Manip. Vocab. See also Wright's Polit. 
Poems, ii. 85. 'Headed or chopped of. Truncatus. Headynge or choppynge of, or 
clyppynge of any thynge. Truncation Huloet. In a letter to his father, printed in 
the Paston Letters, ii. 1 20, John Paston writes, ' Syr Wylliam Tunstall is tak with the 
garyson of Bamborowth, and is lyke to be hedydJ 

6 'The haft, hilt or handle of any toole or weapon, manubrium.' Baret. 'An heft, 
manubrium.' Manip. Vocab. In the Seven Sages, ed. Weber, 259, we read — 

' Under heft and under hond ;' 

N 2 



to Hefte or to make hefto's ; manu- 

fan Hede lande ; Auiseges, Artiftni- 
um, bifinium. 

*J> e Hede warke 1 ; cephalia, cepha- 

by-Heded (Hedet A.) ; decollatus, de- 
capitatus, detruncatus 2 , ob-. 

an Hege ; vbi a garthe 3 . 

to Hege ; vbi to close. 

an Heghte ; sublimitas, Altitudo, 
Arduitas, Arx, Apex, cacumen, 
celsitudo, caput, culmeu, fastigi- 
um, agalma est sedes alta, iugum, 
summitas ; sujwemus participium ; 
supercilium montis. 

Heghe ; sublimus cum exiguitate,sub- 
leuatus, sublatus, exemius, precel- 
sus, sublimis, celsus Sf alius, pre- 

ruptus, supernus, fastigiosus ; 
versus : 
%Arduus, excelsus, sublimis, eel' 
sus 6c altus, 
Summus St elatus, sublimatus- 
que levatus. 
an Heille 4 ; calcaneus, calx, talus, 

taxillus c/uninutiuum. 
anHeire; pilus, cap[i]llus, crinis, 
cviniculus cfo'minutiuum ; versus : 
^f Est coma, cesaries, crines, jrilus, 
a£que capillus : 
Cesaries, hominum,coma muli- 
erum. Alij versus : 
*&Est coma qu&drupedum, colu- 
bri iuba sine leonis, 
Cesaries hovamis, sed crines die 
mulleris 5 . 
*to Helde 6 : vbi to bowe. 

and in the Poem on the Times of Edward II. (Wright's Pol. Songs, p. 339) we are told 
that * Unnethe is nu eny many that can eny craft, 

That he nis a party los in the haft [of bad principles], 
For falsnesse is so fer forth over al the londe i-sprunge.' 
' Manubrium. An hefte. Manubriare. To heftyn.' Medulla. A. S. hosft, 0. Icel. hepti. 

1 The author of the Complaynt of Scotland says, ' til eschaip the euyl accidentis that 
succedis fra the onnatural dais sleip, as caterris, hede verJcis, and indigestione, i thocht it 
necessair til excerseme vitht sum actyue recreatione :' p. 37 ; and Gawin Douglas in King 
Hart, ed. Small, i. 1 1 7, 1. 11, speaks of • heidwerh, Hoist, and Parlasy.' ' Cephalia. An heed 
werk.' Medulla. ' Cephalia est humor capitis, A nglice, the hedde warke.' Ortus. ' Doleo. 
To sorowyn, to werkyn.' Medulla. Compare ' Tuth-wark, the tooth-ache,' Capt. Harland's 
Glossary of Swaledale. 2 MS. detruccatws. 

3 MS. garghe. A. S. haig. Chaucer uses chirchehay in the sense of churchyard. 

4 A. S. hela, a heel. 

5 The verses run rather differently in A. They are as follow : — 

' Est coma cesaries ennis pilus atqwe capillus, 
Sesaries hommis sed crines die mulieris : 
Hujms et iUius bene dicitur esse Capillus ; 
Est coma quadripedis Colubri juba siue leonis : ' 
part of which it will be seen also occurs under Horse mayne. 

In Mediaeval Latin we frequently find the penultimate of mulier in the oblique cases 
made long. Compare 

' Vento quid levius ? fulgur. Quid fulgure ? flamma. 
Flamma quid ? mulier. Quid muliere ? nihil ;' 
and again — 'Fallere, flere, nere, dedit Deus in muliere.' 

6 ' Aure his sadulle gerut him to held* Avowynge of Arthur, ed. Robson, xxi. 14. 
Amongst the signs of a man's approaching death Hampole tells us that 

' when ]>e ded es nere, And his browes heldes doun wyth-alle.' 

pan bygynnes his frount dounward falle, P. of Cons. 815. 

' Than they heldede to hir heste alle holly at ones.' Morte Arthure, 3368. 

' Alle helded psd samen, omnes declinaverunt sim.ul.' Ps. xiii 3 ; and again 'Helde J»in eere 

to me.' Ps. xvi. 6. ' And with ane swak, as that the schip gan heild, 

Ouer burd him kest amyd the fiowand see.' 

Gawin Douglas, ^Eneados, Bk. v. p. 157. 
So in MS. Harl. 4196, leaf 207 — * pe hevedes halely gan helde, And did him honoure alle.' 
' I hylde, I leane on the one syde as a bote or shyp. Sytte fast, I rede you, for the bote 
begynneth to hylde' Palsgrave. 



*an Heke (Hekke A.) 1 ; Antica. 
tan Hekbett (Hekebeyt A.) 2 ; verri- 

culum, est genus navis. 
*an Hekylle 3 ; mataxa. 
*an Hekyller ; mataxarius, mataxa- 

*to Hekylle ; mataxare. 
*an Hekyller maker (A Hekylle 

makere A.) ; mataxarius. 
*an Hele; columitas, edia,fecunditas, 

2)YOsperitas, sahxs, salutare, salua- 

cio, sanitas, valitudo. 
to Hele ; curare, mederi, medicare Sf 

-ri, vt : medico r illi\is rei vel Mam 

rem ; sanare. 
tan Helde 4 : trama. 

tHelefuille (Helfulle A.) ; saluber, 

salutaris salutifer, prosper. 
Helle ; stix 5 secundum grecissimum 
est /eminini generis, A Iden 6 , 
grece ; versus : 
T\Tarterus, infernus, Acheron, 
stix 5 , orcus, auernus, 
Ilijs herebrum. "' ' ,baratrum con- 
imigas atque gehennam. 
Alumen qu&si sine lumen, cata- 
clismus, cochitus 8 , erinis est furia 
jnferni, flegiton est Jluuius infer- 
nalis, megera est furia inferni; 
jnfernus, jnfemalis, gehennalis, 
orchinew&, tartarews ^ardcipia ; 
pvoseiyina est dea jnferni. 

1 Of horse he gart hym helde? Roland <£• Otuel, 822 ; se3 also ibid. 499, 549. A. S. heldan, 
Jiyldun. We still keep up the word when we speak of a ship having heeled over. 

1 * An heck, hatche, patella' Manip. Vocab. ' Hoc osliolmn ; a hek. Hec antica ; a 
hek.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 236. The word, which is not very common in this sense, 
occurs in the Townley Mysteries, p. 106 — ' Good wyff, open the hele, seys thou not what I 
bryng % ' 

2 ' Vericulum. A net or a boot. Verriculum. A besum : vel genus retiset nauis.' Medulla. 
A heck was an instrument or engine for catching fish, made in the form of lattice- work, or 
a grating. It appears to have been peculiar to or principally used in the river Ouse in 
Yorkshire. So Ducange, ' Heck, Retis genus, quo utuntur piscatores, fluvii Isidis Ebora- 
censis accolse.' These engines appear to have increased to such an extent as to become a 
source of danger and interruption to the traffic on the river. The Mayor and Corporation 
of York accordingly presented a petition on the subject, the result being that by the Stat. 
23 Henry VIII. cap. 18, the Magistrates having jurisdiction over the river Ouse were 
empowered to cause 'as much of the said fishgarthes, piles, stakes, heckes and other engines, 

which then by their discretions shall be thought expedient to be pulled up, that 

the said ships, keyles, cogges, boats and other vessels may have direct, liberall, 

and franke passage.' A heckboat, or hekbett, would therefore appear to be a fishing boat 
using this particular engine for catching fish. In Ad. Smyth's Sailor s Word-Book, 1867, 
a Heckboat is defined as ' the old term for pinks. Latterly a clincher-built boat with 
covered fore-sheets and one mast with a trysail ;' and a Pink in its turn is described as * a 
ship with a very narrow stern, having a small square part above.' 

3 ' An heckle, pecten. To heckle, pectere.' Mnnip. Vocab. ' Brosse. A flax combe or 
hetchell.' Cotgrave. 'Ahatchell or heach for flax. Seran, brosse? Sherwood. ' Metaxa. 
An hekyl. Metaxo. To hekelyn.' Medulla. ' Hec metaxa, a hekylle.' Wright's Vol. of 
Vocab. p. 217. 'And yet the same must be better kembed with hetchel-teeth of iron 
(pectitur ferreis hamis) until it be clensed from all the grosse bark and rind.' Holland's 
Pliny, Bk. xix. c. 4. In an Inventory dated 1499 is mentioned 'j hekyll j d .' See also 
note to to Bray. Walter de Biblesworth, in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 144, has — 

' En la rue juvetz a to up (a top of tre). 
E serencez (hekele) du lyn le toup (atop of flax).' 
* To hatch flax, a gal. hacher, i. e. asciare, to hacke into small peeces. A Hatchell, the 
iron combe wherewith the flax is dressed, T. Hechel ab heckelen, ab eA«e?v, i. e. trahere. 
Trahit linum hoc instrumentum? Minsheu. ' I hekylle the towe, I kave and I keylle.' 
lieliq. Antiq.ii. 197. 'It [flax] shold be sowen, weded, hulled, beten, braked, tawed, 
hekled.' Fitzherbert, Husbandry, fo. xlix. 

* ' Trama. The woufe inweaving.' Cooper. The Medulla explains it as ' filum percurrem 
per telam? 6 MS. fiix. 6 Apparently for "At h-qs. A. reads A den. 

7 Erebrum A. : read Erebum. 8 Cocytus and Pldegcthon, rivers of Hades. 



an Helme ; cassis, galea, correpto e. 
an Helme of a schipp ; clauus, gu- 

tto Helle jn 1 ; jnfundere. 
tto Helle oute ; /under e, eff-. 
tHellynge in ; jnfundens, jnfusio. 
tan Hellynge oute ; fundens, ef-, 

fusio, ef-. 
an Helpe ; Auxilium extraneis datur, 
presidium est a loco vtili jwsitum, 
subsidium est quod superuenit, 
beneficium equalibus ; versus : 
% Auxilium. vel opem, suffragia 
die, 6r Asilum, 
Presidium vel subsidium f qui- 

bus Adde iuvamen ; 
Hijs Adiumentum simul Ad- 

iutoria iungas, 
Hijs Adminiculum simul Ad- 
das opitulamen, 
Et de propicior sit propiciac\o 
Opem jnferioribus damus ; dex- 
tr a, favor, fulcimen, fulcimxevdum, 
miniculum, opera, patrocinium, 
refugium, succursus, releuamen. 2 . 

tvn Helpe; irrefugium, patrocinium. 

to Helpe; Adminiculari, detendere, 

fauere, fulcire ; versus : 

%Cum suffragatur, iuuat, Adiu- 

uat, Auxiliatur, 

Subuenit, Addatur succuxrit, 

propiciatur : 
Si permittatur A metris opitu- 
operari, opem ferre vel prestare, 
suppetere, Allegare, vt : Allegabo 
nessessitatem tuam i. iuuabo ; 
releuare, suppeditare, patrocinari 
Sf cum dat'mo casu construitur. 
an Helper ; A diutor, -trix, heseras. 
Helpynge ; Auxilians, Auxiliaris, 

Auxiliatorius, suffraganeus. 
an Helter 3 ; capistrum, capulum. 
Hem (Hemmes A.) ; fimbria, limbus, 

limbulus, lacinia, ora 4 . 
to Hem ; fmbriare, limbare. 
an Hemmer; limbator Sf -trix. 
Hempe ; canabus, canabum. 
Hen-bane 5 ; Iusquimanus. 
an Henne; gallina,gallinula dimimx- 

1 In Pecock's Repressor, Rolls Series, ii. 323, we are told that ' Whanne greet Con- 
stantyne the Emperour was baptisid of Siluester Pope, and hadde endewid Siluester Pope 
with greet plente of londis of the empire, a voice of an aungel was herd in the eir seiyng 
thus : "In this dai venom is hildid into the chirche of God " (hoclie venerium ecclesiis Dei 
infusum est).' In the Ancren Riwle, p. 428, we read — 'Me schal helden eoli and win 
beo#e ine wunden ;' and again, p. 246 — ' Hwon me asaileS buruhwes o'Ser castles J?eo J)et 
beolS wiftinen heldefS schaldinde water ut.' See also P. Plowman, A. x. 60. O. Icel. 
hella, to pour. ' No man sendi])newe wyn in to oolde botelis, (or wyne vesselis), ellis the 
wyn shal berste ]>e wyn vesselis, and ]>e wyn shal be held out, and ]>e wyne vesselis shulen 
perishe.' Wyclif, Mark ii. 22 ; see also ibid, xiv, 3. 

4 1 toke the bacyn sone onane, And Kelt waper opon the stane.' 

Ywaine, in Ritson, Early Eng. Romances, i. 16. 
Trevisa in his trans, of Higden, ii. 347, says — ' Iosue, or he deide, helte water on pe erpe 
[effudit aquamin terrain] ;' and again 'mysbyleued men vsede to helde oute, and schede 
blood of a sowe J>at is i-slawe in tokene of couenant i-made.' 

2 MS. reuelamen. 

3 Baret has ' an halter, anything that one is snarled or tied withall, a ginne, a snare.' 
' Capistrum. A collare ; a halter ; a morwell ; a bande to tie vines.' Cooper. * Capistrium. 
An haltyre.' Medulla. 'Hie capistrius, A ce - helterer.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 194. 

4 A. adds the verses — Aspirans horam tempus tibi significabit, 

Si now aspires limbutn notat aut regionem. 

5 ' Henbane, herbe, hyoscyamus.' Baret. ' Henbane, apollinarts.'* Manip. Vocab. 
' Iusquiame. The weed Hogsbane or Henbane.' Cotgrave. Iusquimanus should be Ius- 
quiamus from the Greek voonvaixos, lit. hog's bean, but gradually corrupted into henbane, 
which Cotgrave also gives as ' mort aux oisaus. Henbane, also Hemlocke.' Neckham 
recommends the use of Henbane for the gout, influenza, toothache, and swollen tes- 
ticles. See also Lyte, Dodoens, p. 450, Another name was henne belle, from the 



an Hepe (Heype A.) ; Aceruus, 
A ceruidus, Aggestus, cumulus, con- 
geries, strues, Agger, glomus, -i, 
glomus, ris, glomeracio, glomicel- 
lum, glomicellus ; versus : 
(Est glomus atque strues Cumu- 
lus vel Aceruus et Agger. Est 
glomus, hinc glomerus A.). 
11 Congeries lapidum tihi sit, 
glomeracio fili ; 
Lignomm. pr^prie cZicitur £sse 
to Heppe; Accumulare, A ceruere, co-, 
Adders, Adicere, Adiungere, vnire, 
ad-,Aggerare, ex-, Aggregare,Am- 
jMare, Amplificare, Appo7iere, 

Augere, co-, Augesc[er~\e,Auctare, 
Auctitare, Augmentare Sr -ri, 
cogitare, congerere, congestare, 
conglobare, cowgregare, globare, 
glomerare, gregare. 

fan Heppe * ; cornum. 

tan Heppe tre (Hepe tre A.); cor- 
nus, -i, vel -us in genitiuo. 

an Herbe ; herba ; herbidus, herbo- 
sus jt?ar<icipia. 

t Herbe ion 2 ; herba joh&nnis, fuga 

t Herbe Robert 3 ; herba Robevti. 

an Herber 4 ; herbarium. 

Herde ; Auditus. 

vn Herde ; Inauditus (A.). 

bell-shaped capsules, from which it also derived its A.S. name belene, bcolene, i.e. furnished 
with bells. The modern name of henbane is derived from the poisonous properties of the 
plant, as is also henneicol, another name with the same meaning. 

1 A hip or fruit of the dog-rose. ' Cornus. A hepe tre.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 181. 
In the Royal MS. xii.B i. leaf 40, occurs 'cornus, a hepe tre.' See Robin Hood i. 37, and 
Kyng Alisaunder, ed. Weber, 4983. Cotgrave gives ' Senelles. Heps or hawthorn berries. 
Grate-cul. A hep ; the fruit of the wild briar, &c.' Cooper identifies the cornus with the 
cornel, and says it is a ' tree whereof is the male and the female ; the male is not in 
Englande, and may be called longe cherie tree. The female of some is called dogge tree, 
that bouchers makers prickes of. Cornum. The fruit of cornus which is not in England ; 
the french men call it Cornoiles. Corneolus. A little cornoile tree.' The Medulla, on the 
other hand, has ' Cornus. A chestony tre.' Lyte, Dodoens, p. 655, mentions as the seventh 
kind of rose ' the Bryer bushe, the wilde Rose, or Hep-tree? Cockayne, Leechdoms, &c., 
iii. p. 331, gives 'Heope; a Hip, Hep, seedvessel of the rosa canina ; in French English, 
a button. Butunus gallice butun, anglice heuppe, Gloss. Sloane, 146,' and Withals 'A 
bryer tree, or a hippe tree. Rubus canis.' Turner in his Herbal, 1551, p. 131, says — 
' I heare say that ther is a cornel tree at Hampton courte here in Englande.' Nekham 
calls the cornus the hostis apri; p. 482. 

' On cace thare stude ane lityl mote nere by, 
Quhare hepthome bushis on the top grow hie.' 

Gawin Douglas, Eneados, p. 67, 1. 51. 
See also Schowpe tre. 'Hawes, hepus and hakernes' are mentioned in William of 
Palerne, 181 1. ' Eg I enter (brere), qe le piperounges (hepen, hepes) porte.' W. de Bibles- 
worth in Wright's Vocab. p. 163. 

2 Of this plant Andrew Boorde in his Breuiary, chapt. 119, on the Nightmare, says — 
1 1 haue red, as many more hath done, that can tell yf I do wryte true or false, there is an 
herbe named fuga Demonum, or as the Grecians do name it Ipertcon. In Englysshe it [is] 
named saynt Johns worte, the whiche herbe is of that vertue that it doth repell suche 
malyfycyousness or spirites.' ' Hyperion. An hearbe called sainct John's wort.' Cooper. 
The Latin equivalent which in P. is given to this plant (see p. 140), viz. perforata, 
doubtless refers to a peculiarity of the leaves to which Lyte, p. 63, refers : he says 'the 

leaues be long and narrow, or small the whiche if a man do holde betwixt the 

light and him they will shewe as though they were pricked thorough with the poyntes 
of needels.' ' Ypis, herbe Johan, velde-rude.' Wright's Vocab. p. 140. 

3 According to Lyte, p. 48, Herb Robert, Geranium Robertianum, a kind of Crowfoot, 
'doth stanche the bloud of greene woundes, to be brused and layde thereto, as Dioscorides 

* In Thomas of Erceldoune, ed. Murray, p. 10, is a description of a herbere in which 
grew pears, apples, dates, damsons and figs, where the meaning is evidently a garden of 
fruit trees. See Dr. Murray's note on 1. 177. In Sir Fcr umbras the French knights who 



tHerdforth (Herforthe A.) 1 ; her- 

fordia ; herf 'ordensis partficipium. 

to Here; Audire,Acciptxe,Attendere, 

haurire, videre. 
Here ; jstic, hie. 
i Hereabyllc ; Audibilis. 
tvn-Hereabylle ; in Audibilis. 
tHeraway (Hereaway A.) ; hac, 

Heraftyr; inposterum, Amo&o, de- 

cetero, deinceps, infuturo. 
A Heyr ; Crinis, Sf cetera ; vbi 

heyr (A.). 
an Herebande 2 ; trica, crinale, nex- 
us, crinis, (discrimen ; discrimin- 

alis A.), 
tto pullc Herre (Hey re A.) ; depilare, 

correpto -pi. 
tto be Heryd; Crinere, Crinescere 

an Heresy ; heresis. 
an Heretage 3 ; A llodium, hereditas, 

hereditaculum, hereditatus, primo- 

genita ; hereditcdis, hereditarius 
£)ar£icipia ; hereditac'w. 
tto put fro Heritage ; vbi to Deshcry 

< A -)- .. , . 

an Heretyke 4 ; circumtilio, hereticus, 

meriste dicimtur herelici $uia 

seffarant scvipturas. 
an Herynge ; Auditus, Audiencia, 

tHerynge ; videns, Audiens. 
an Herynge 5 ; Allec. 
to Herkyii ; vbi to lysteii. 
*an Hermett 6 j Anachorita, heremita, 

heremicola, (lieremipeta, Jwremiti- 

cus, reclusus A.). 
fan Hermytage ; heremitorium. 
Herns 7 ; vbi brayne (A.). 
tHerode; her odes; herodianus pvxti.- 

tHerode wyffe; herodias. 
tHerode sone; herodiades. 
an Heron; Ardea, Ardeola. 
tan Heron sewe 8 ; Ardiola. 

are sent by Charles to Balan find him ' Sittynge on a grene erber.' ' He sawe syttynge vnder 
an ympe in an herber, a wonder fayre damoysel, of passynge beaute.' Lydgate, Pilgremage 
of the Sowle, p. 63, reprint of 1859. ' Viretum, locus pascualis virens, a gresjerd or an 
herber.' Medulla. ' Herbarium, an herber, ubi crescunt herbe, vel ubi habundant, or a 
gardyn.' Ortus. In the Flower and the Leaf, herber e or herbir is distinctly used in the 
sense of an arbour, a bower of clipped foliage — 

1 And shapin was this herbir, rofe and all As is a pretty parlour.' 

As the arbour would commonly be an adjunct of a herbere, or pleasure-garden, the words 

might easily have got confounded. Italian, l arbor ata, an arbor or bowre of boughs or 

trees.' Florio. O. Fr. 'arboret, arbriere, arbreux, place planted with trees.' Roquefort. 

' Greses broghte pat fre, pat godd sett in his awenn herbere.' Roland & Otuel, 994. 

1 Hereford. 

2 ' Tena. An herbond.' Medulla. 

3 'Allodium. Herytage; quod potest dari et vendi. Dicitur allodium fundus, fundum 
maris ymum. 1 Medulla. 

* ' Merista. An heretyke.' Medulla. Gr. fjLepiffTrjs from fiepbs, a part, portion. 
6 ' A herring, halec vel halex, harang ; a red herring, halex infumata, harang sore.'' Baret. 
A. S. hwring. ' Hering and J>e makerel.' Havelok, 758. 

6 In the Reply of Friar Daw Topias, pr. in Wright's Political Poems, ii. 64, the following 
definition of a hermit is given : — 

' In contemplacion By eerbis, rootes, and fruyte lyven, 

There ben many other For her goddis love ; 

That drawen hem to disert And this manere of folk 

And drye myche peyne ; Men callen heremytes? 

T See also Harnes. ' Sum lay stareand on the sternes, 

And sum lay knoked out thaire hemes' 

Wright's Polit. Poems, i. 64. 

8 The term heronsew is still known in Swaledale, Yorkshire, and in other parts of England 

is found as hernshaw or harnsa. Halliwell has, Hernshaw, a heron,' and quotes ' Ardeola 

an hearneaew,' from Ely ot's Diet. 1559; an ^ a ^ so notes the spelling Herunsew in Reliq. 



an Heselle 1 ; condus. 

tan Heselle buske ; coruletum. 

*an Hespe 2 ; hespa. 

to Hete ; calefacere. 

an Hete (Heyte A.) ; Adustjo, Ardor, 

color, cauma, combustio, bustura, 

estus, jlagrum, ignis, incendium, 

Hett ; calef actus. 
Heuen ; celum, ether, ethera, olimpus, 

polus, p&radisus, vranus. 
Heuenly ; celestis, celicus, celebs, ce- 

leber, olimpicus, jwlicxxs, vranicus. 
Heuy; grstuis, molestus, onerosus, 

to make Hevy 3 ; gr&uare, molestare, 

stipulari, solicitari. 
to be Hevy ; gmuere, gr&uescere, gr&- 

uare, grauidare. 
*Hevyd; vbi grevyd. 
an Hevynes ; Aporia, gr&uitas, gr&- 

uitudo, gmuedo, moles, molestia, 

scrupus, scrupulus, scrupula est 


to Hew; Abscindere, Abscidere, lisci~ 

are, ex-, dolare. 
an Hewynge ; dolatura. 

H an^e I. 

to Hyde; Abdere, Abdicare, Abscon- 
ders, Abstrudere, celare, clancu- 
lare, condere, re-, includere, occu- 

Hidde (Hide A.) ; Absconditus ra- 
cioxiis, A bsconsum. consuetudin- 

an Hydynge place ; latebra, latibu- 

an Hydynge ; Absconsio, Abdicacio, 
celacio, occultacio. 

fHidynge ; occultans, A bscondens, &r 

Hidur ; hue, istuc. 

Hydirwarde ; istrorsum. 

fHydirtoward ( Hydd^rtowarde 
A.) ; Actenus, hucusque, vsque 

Antiq. i. 88. Spenser, Faerie Queene, vi. 7, 9, has hernshato, and Cotgrave gives — ' Hairon, 
a heron, heme, herneshawe.' Chaucer in the Squieres Tale, 67-8, says — 

' I wol nat tellen of her strange sewes, Ne of her swannes, ne of her heronseives.' 1 
The French form herouncel appears in Liber Custumarum, p. 304. 'As lang and lanky as 
a herringsue ' is a Yorkshire proverb. Heronsew is generally thought to be the true read- 
ing in Hamlet, II. ii. 397 : • I knowe a Hawke from a Handsaw.' 

1 In the account of the ' blasynge sterre ' of 14 71 in Wark worth's Chronicle, Camd. Soc. 
p. 22, we are told that 'it kept his course rysinge west in the northe, and so every nyght 
it aperide lasse and lasse tylle it was lytelle as a hesylle styke.' 'Hec corolus, A ce - hesylle- 
tre.' Wright's Vocab. p. 192. 

'Holtis and hare woddes, with heslyne schawes.' Morte Arthure, 2504. 
A. S. hdsl. ' An hasil or hasle or hasle. Corylue. 1 Manip. Vocab. 

2 'An hapse, hasp or catch. Sera.'' Gouldman. In the Destruction of Troy, 11102, we 
read that in the fight between Pyrrhus and Penthesilea, 

* pe haspis of hir helme hurlit in sonder.' 
See also 11. 1270, 5254, 8593. 'An haspe, vertibulum : to haspe, obserare.' Manip. Vocab. 
' Agrapher. To buckle, grapple, hasp, clasp.' Cotgrave. ' "Be not aferde, sone," she saide, 
"for I shalle haspe the dore, and pynne it with a pynne.' " Gesta Romanorum, p. 409. 
See also Occleve, Be Reg. Principum, p. 40 — ' up is broke lok, haspe, barre and pynne :' 
and P. Plowman, B. i. 195 — ' So harde hath auarice yhasped hem togideres.' ' Hec grunda, 
hoc pesulum, a hespe.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 261. ' Pensum. An hespe.' Medulla. 
' And underne])e is an haspe Shet wi]) a stapil and a claspe.' Richard Cozur de Lion, 4083. 

3 In the Ancren Riwle, p. 424, directions are given, ' Inwid ]>e wanes ha muhe werie 
scapeloris hwan mantel ham heuege?).' A. S. hefigian, to oppress, weigh upon. ' Molesto. 
To makyn hevy. Molestia. Hevynes or grevauns.' Medulla. ' I am in grete heuynesse 
& pouerte, for I haue lost all that I had.' Gesta Romanorum, p. 89. ' The Emperourwas 
hevy -with this answere, & seid, "Sith my two doughters haue thus yhevid me, sothely I 
shal preve the thrid." ' Ibid. p. 51. Wyclif uses the word in St. Mark xiv. 33, 'he takij> 
Petre and James and John wip him and bigan for to drede, and to hcuye,' where the A. V. 
retains the expression. 



Hidus (Hydws A.) 1 ; liorridus, 

horrijicus, df cetera ; vbi liog- 

to Hyght; vbi to bebeitt (A.), 
an Hilte ; capulus. 
an Hille 2 ; A Ipes, collis, dindimus 3 , 

mons, monticulus, mmtana, pro- 

montorium, montanus. 
an Hympne ; ympnus, himpnulus 

fan Himpne maker ; Irympnista. 
-fan Hynipsynger or sayer; hymp- 

an Hympner ; hympnare, himpnari- 

tto synge Hympnes ; liimpnizare. 
tan Hyne 4 ; vhi A servande. 
an Hynde ; cerva, cervula dimmu- 

tiuum, bissa. 
to Hynder ; derogare, incommodare, 

Sf cetera ; vhi warre. 
an Hyndcrynge; detrimentum, dero- 

gacio, peioracio. 
to Hynge ; pendere, de-, pendere, de-, 

com.-, pensare, pensitare, fulcel- 

lare, suspendere ; versus : 

^Pendere vult Justus, se& uult 
pendere rnaliynus. 

to Hyng downe ; dependere. 

Hyngynge ; pendulus, susspendens. 

an Hyngynge ; susspendium, suspen- 

tan Hingynge as a hylic ; decliuus, 

an Hippe ; femur. 

an Hirde , Argus, Archimendrita est 
ou[i~\iim 5 , Agaso, bubulcus est 
bourn, mandx&, mercenarius qui 
pro mercede conducitur, mulio 
mulorum est, opilo ouium, pastor, 
pastorculus ; pastorius, pastori- 
cus participia ; pecudiarius. 

an Hyre ; inpendium, mer\c]es, mer- 
cedula cZmiinutiuum, solarium, 

to Hire ; conducive. 

tto let to Hire ; locare. 

an Hired maw ; stipendiarius ; sti- 

tan Hire payer ; mercedarius. 

*an Hyrn 6 ; Angulus; Angidaris pa,r- 
iicipium ; gonus. 

1 Hampole tells us that ' Helle es halden a full hidos stede 

pe whilke es full of endeles dede.' Pricke of Conscience, 1744. 
And again he gives as one of the 1 5 signs before Doomsday, 

' pe mast wondreful fisshes of )>e se pat it sal be hydus til mans heryng.' 

Sal cum to-gyder and mak swilk romyng Ibid. 47 7 1 * 

'Stubbes scharpe and hidous to byholde.' Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 1120. 
And in MS. Harl. 1701, leaf 83, we read — 

' Y wyst myself hydus and blak, And nothyng hath so moche lak.' 

O. Fr. hide, hisde, hidour, hisdour = dread ; hisdouse = dreadful. Hogsum; does not occur 
in its proper place : probably Hugsome is meant. See note to Hyrn, below. 

2 Compare pe Walde. 3 See Angellis sete. 

4 In the Prologue to Piers Plowman, 1. 39, B. Text, Langland says — 

1 Qui turpiloquium loquitur, is luciferes hyne.' 
In ' Sinners Beware,' pr. in An Old Eng. Miscell. ed. Morris, p. 82, 1. 307, we are told that 
our lord will say at the day of Judgment to the wicked — 

. . . . ' Myne For chele hy gunne hwyne, 

Poure vn-hole hyne For hunger hi hedde pyne ; 

To eure dore come, Ye nolden nyme gome.' 

*An hine. Villiciis. An hayne. Verna? Manip. Vocab. 

5 That is ' Archimandrita, Abbas generalis, seu Princeps Monachorum pater 

spiritualium ovium.' Ducange. 

6 'Angulus. An heme or a cornere. Quinquangulus. Off v. hyrnes.' Medulla. In 
William of Palerne, 1. 688, William starting up in his dream that Lady Melior loved him, 

'Loked after ]>at ladi, for lelli he wende, That sche had hed in sum hurne ;' 

and at 1. 3201, he and Melior having taken off their 'hidous hidus .... in a hirne hem 
cast.' See also P. Plowman, B. ii. 233 — 

' Alle flowen for fere, and fledden into hemes' 



to Hisse ; sibilare. 

an Hyssynge ; sibuhis ; versus : 

%Sibulu.$ est hombium, serpen- 
tum sibila clicas. 
to Hitte ; vbi to stryke. 
an Hyve ; Alueare, Aluearium. (A pi- 
are, Apiarium, Apiaria A.). 

H ante O. 

an Hoby ! ; Alaudarius. 
tHoge ; Rogems, nomen proprium. 
an Hogge 2 ; maialis, est enim porcus 
car ens testiculis. 

an Hole; latebra, latibulum, columbar 
est nauis vel columbe ; versus : 
%Cancellus, porus, /orus atque 
fenestra, foramen. 

*to Hole 3 ; cavare, perforare, &c cet- 
era ; vbi to thyrle. 

fan Hole in a mannys $erde ; din- 

tan Hole in y e nek ; frontinella. 

*an Holynge (A Holyn A.) ; hussua 
(Jmssum fructus eius A.). 

*an Holyn bery 4 ; hussum. 

tto Holke 5 ; palare. 

tan Holleke 6 : hinula. 

Trevisa in his trans, of Higden, i. 313, says, 'Laborintus is an hous wonderliche i-buld 
wib halkes and hemes.' Douglas, JEneados, p. 257, 1. 9, renders cavas latebras, by 'hid, 
hirnis.' ' Vsurers wyllen nought be hyghely renomed of they r craft ne cryen it in the 
markett, but pryuely in kernes they spoylen the people by litel and by lytel.' Lydgate, 
Pylgremage of the Sowle, Bk. iii. If. 54. A. S. hyrne. 

1 'A Hobie, a Hobyhauke. Alaudarius [misprinted Alandarius].' Manip. Vocab. 
' Hobyhauke, Alaudarius.' Huloet. The Hobbie is mentioned by Harrison amongst the 
• hawkes and rauenous foules ' of England, ii. 30. 

2 Baret gives ' a barrowe hog, a gilt or gelded hog, maialis.' ' Hog-pigs, castrates or 
barrow pigs.' Mr. Robinson's Whitby Glossary. See also Galte. ' Maialis, bearg.' Gloss. 
MS. Cott. Cleop. A. iii. If. 76. 

3 'Cavo, To holyn or deluyn.' Medulla. In the Ancren Riwle, p. 130, we ' j?e briddes 
pet ure Louerd speke'5 of .... ne holie]> nout aduneward, ese do<$ \>e uoxes.' See also 
Handlyng Synne, 10736, ' To hole, perforare.' Manip. Vocab. 

4 * The park thai tuk, Wallace a place has seyn 

Off gret holyns, that grew bathe heych and greyn.' Wallace xi. 378. 
The gloss on W. de Biblesworth, in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 163, explains hous by 
'holyn,' and houce by 'holin-leves' or 'holin-tre.' In the Ancren Riwle, p. 418, we find 
1 mid holie, ne mid breres, &c,' where one MS. reads holin. A. S. holen. 
' Lyarde es ane olde horse, and may noght well drawe, 

He salle be putt into the parke holyne for to gnawe.' Reliq. Antiq. ii. 280. 
'In his on honde he hade a holyn bobbe.' Sir Gawayne, 206. 

5 ' Palo. To hedge or pale in : to proppe up with stakes.' Cooper. Stratmann connects 
holken with Swedish holka, excavare, which is probably the meaning here. Thus in the 
Anturs of Arthur, Camden Soc. ed. Robson, ix. 12, in the description of the apparition we 
are told — ' Hyr enyn were holket and holle, And gloet as the gledes.' 

A. S. hole, hollow, which occurs in Early Eng. Homilies, ed. Morris, i. 251. In the A.-S. 
version of the Gospels, St. Matthew v. 29 is thus rendered : ' Gyf )rin swi'Sre eage ]>e 
aswikie, aholeke hit at [erne] & awerp hit fram J)e.' 

' His bludy bowellis toring with huge pane, Vnder his coist holhand in weill lawe.' 
Furth renting all his fude to fang full fane, G. Douglas, Eneados, Bk. vi. p. 185, 1. 23. 
See also ibid. p. 26, 1. 21. 

'With gaistly secht behold our heidis thre, Oure hollcit eine, oure peilit powis bair.' 

P. Johnston, The Three deid Powis, sib. 1500. 

6 ' Hollow wort,' fumaria bulbosa, the radix cava of the old herbalists. Runde Hohl- 
wurzel, Germ., Huulroed, Dan., Hallrot, Swed. See English Botany, 1471. In the 
Dictionarius of John de Garlande (Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 136) we find — ' Hinnulus, 
fetus cerve ; inida Gallice dicitur eschaloigne, unde versus — Hinnulus in silvis, inula 
queruntur in hortis.' Turner in his Herbal, 1551. p. 97, says: 'The onyons that we call 
hollekes, ar of this nature, that if one be set alone that their wil a great sorte within a 
shorte space growe of that same roote.' ' Hinnula. Cepula; echalotte (chive, chalot) Vet. 
GL' D'Arnis. Cotgrave gives ' Ciboulet f. a chiboll or hollow Leek.' In Wright's Vol. 



Holle 1 ; cavus natura, concauus arte, 
cauatus vtroque intelligitur, in- 

an Hollnes ; cauitas, con-. 

Honeste ; honesties (A.). 

fto make Honest ; honestare. 

ito make vn Honest; inhonestare. 

Honestly ; honeste. 

Hongry ; jfameUcus Sf cetera ; vhi 

to Hope 2 ; Arbitr&ri, Autimare, cen- 
sere, censere, censire, coniecturare, 
coniicere, coniectare, credere, 
estimare, opinari, qui opini- 
oni sue \el alterius credit, pu- 
tare, re-, reor, reris, sperare, 

an Hope ; spes,Jiducia. 

an Hopynge ; estimacio, Autimiacio, 

*an Hoppyr 3 ; farricapsa est molen- 

dini, saticulum satum, seminari- 

wm (/arris est A.). 
*an Horlege 4 ; horologium, horologi- 

cus, horoscopus. 
*an Horlege loker ; horuspex. 
an Home ; brunda cerui est, ceros 

grece, cornu indeo\m&h\le, classus, 

cornicula, corniculum ; lutuus, 

coreus £>ardcipia. 
tan Home blawer ; cornicen, corni- 

cina cicorum. est, eneator. 
Horned ; cornutus. 
fan Home berer 

*Horner 5 . 

corniger, corm- 

of Vocab. p. 225, we find ' hollek. Ascalonia? which Latin term Cooper renders by 'a little 
oynion or scalion.' A. S. hoi, hollow, leac, an onion. Compare P. Holrysche. ' Dv/ri- 
corium, holleac.' Gloss. MS. Cott. Cleop. A. iii. If. 76. 

1 See quotation from the Anturs of" Arthur under Holke, above. ' Cauus. Holle. 
Cauitas. Hallydhede.' Medulla. A. S. hoi. In De Deguileville's Pilgrimage, MS. John's 
Coll. Camb. If. 84bk. we read — ' Many a willowe is cladde with fayre leves that es hoi 
with -in and fulle of wormys.' See also Douglas, p. 130, 1. 14. ' Caualis. Holle as redys.' 

2 In William of Palerne, ed. Skeat, 1343, the messengers exclaim 

' Se])])e crist deide on \>e croyce mankinde to saue, 
3e ne herde neuer, y hope, of so hard a cunter ;' 
and again, 1. 1 780 — ' pei seie me nou$t, sopli I hope :' 

in each of which instances the meaning of the word hope is expect, believe. So also in the 
Seven Sages, 2812 — 'Som hoped he war the fend of hell ;' 

and in P. Plowman, B. Text, xv. 592, &c. The use of the word in this sense has, says Mr. 
Halliwell, led some modern editors into many strange blunders. See Nares s. v. Hope, 
where the story is cited of the Tanner of Tamworth (from Puttenham's Arte of Poesie, iii. 
cap. 22, ed. Arber, p. 263), who said — 'I hope I shall be hanged tomorrow.' 'It signifies 
the mere expectation of a future event, whether good or evil, as kXirifa in Greek, and 
spero in Latin. So in Shakespere, Ant. & Cleop. II. i. 38.' Tyrwhitt's Note to Chaucer, 
C.T. 4027. 

3 • Vas cum quo seminatores seminant, a sedelepe or a hopere.' MS. Gloss, pr. in lleliq. 
Antiq. i. 7. Hopper of a mill. Infundibulum.' Manip. Vocab. In the Reeve's Tale, 
4039, one of the young clerks as an excuse to prevent being swindled declares, 

' By god, right by the hoper wol I stand e, Yet saw I nevere, by my fader kyn, 

.... and se how that the corn gas in : How J»at the hoper wagges til and fra.' 

* ' As I was in swich plyte and in swich torment I herde the orlage of the couent that 
rang for the matynes as it was wont/ De Deguileville's Pilgrimage, &c. ed. Wright, p. 207, 
1. 4. See also Overlokere. Chaucer, Parlement of Foules, 350, terms the cock ' the orloge 
of thorpis lyte,' and Lydgate in his Pylgremage, Bk. v. ch. xiv. p. 81, of reprint 1853, has, 
'by this tyme the Horolage had fully performed half his nyghtes cours.' See also G. Douglas, 
yEneados, pp. 208, 1. 8, and 404, 1. 8. In Sir Degrevant, 1. 1453, Myldore's chamber is de- 
scribed as having in it ' an orrelegge, to rynge the ours at ny5th.' 

5 Probably one who made or blew horns. Cotgrave gives ' Corneur. A Horner, a winder 
of a Home ;' and Hollyband, ' Corneur, a horner.' In the preamble to the Stat. 1 Rich. 
III. c. xii. amongst the artificers who complained of being injured by the importation of 
foreign wares are mentioned ' Weauers, Homers, Bottle makers, and Coppersmiths.' In 



Horribylle; horridus, horribilis. 
iin Horse ; cabo, cantherus est equus 
castmtus, hippus, jpos, grece ; 
equinus />articipium ; versus : 
%Est sonipes vel equus, ferns, 
equiferusquc, caballus, 
Istis compedes simxd emissari- 

us in- sunt ; 
Est manui nianus dextre dex- 

tv&rius Aptus. 
Rede 1 vectores nos dicimus esse 

Quadrwpedes dictis poteris con- 
iungere (fwtes hijs adjungeve 
A.) si vis. 
an Horse cambe 2 
tan Horse hyrde ; 

an Horse mayne : 
(versus : 
%Sasaries hominis set crines sunt 

; strigilis. 
equiciarius, egua- 

; caleptra, iuba ; 

Est juba quadrupedis colubri 
juba sine leonis A.). 
an Horse man ; eques ; equester. 
tHorselle 3 ; herba, Enula campana 

fan Horse ele (eylle A.) 4 ; sanguis- 
suga, irudo ; (versus : 
H CrescitArundo, capta \l,cantat\ 
jrundo, sugit jrudo A.), 
fan Horse howyse 5 ; sandaUum, su- 

tan Horse lade ; clitella. 
an Horse schowe ; ferrus. 
an Horse stalle (tayle A.) c ; 

tan Horse turde ; donarium. 
*an Hose (Hoyse A.) 7 ; caliga, 
caligula, c^iminutiuum; versus : 
%Suiit ocrie, calige quos tebia 
p)ortat Amictus. 
*to Hose ; calciare, caligare. 
*an Hosyrer ; calciator, caligator. 

the Loseley MSS. p. 53 is an item dated 1552, of the 'Horner for blowinge homes, turner 
for daggers, xlv s . viij d .' But in Cocke Lorell's Bote, p. 10, we find mentioned together : 
'Repers faners and ho?'ners ) i where it seems to refer to farm-labourers of some kind. 
4 Horner a maker of homes, cornettier. Horneresse a woman, cornettiere.' Palsgrave. 

1 Read Rheda or Recla. 

2 ' Strigilis. An horse combe, &c.' Cooper. ' Calamistrum. A horskame.' Nominale. 
' Strigilis. An hors com.' Medulla. 

3 The plant Campanula, elicampane. It is mentioned in the Line. Med. MS. leaf 281. 
Cooper explains Campanula as ' the flower called Canturbury belles.' Lyte, Dodoens, p. 
336, recommends the use of Elecampane for ' inward burstinges,' or ruptures, ' tough fleme ' 
which it makes ' easie to be shet out,' and ' blastinges of the inwarde partes.' 

4 ' An horse-leache, worme, sanguisuga.' Manip. Vocab. ' An horse-leach, or blood- 
sucker worme, Mrudo.'' Baret. ' Sanguissuga. A watere leche.' Medulla. 

6 In the Household & Wardrobe Ordinances of Edward II. (Chaucer Soc. ed. Furnivall), 
p. 43, it is directed that the haknyman (see note s. v. Haknay, p. 1 70), * shal carry the 
houses of the horses that travel in the kinges compani.' ' Sudaria. Stragulum, quo equus 
insternitur, ne ejus sudor equitem inficiat: couverture de clievaV. Ducange. ' Housse. A 
short mantle of corse cloth (and all of a peece) worne in ill weather by countrey women 
about their head and sholders ; also, a foot-cloth for a horse ; also, a coverlet, or counter 
point for a bed (in which sence it is most used among Lepers, or in spittles for Lepers).' 
Cotgrave. In the Treatise de Utensilibus by Alexander Neckham, pr. in Wright's Vol. of 
Vocab. p. 99, amongst other horse furniture we find directions that 

canevaz dos cuvert huce idem panel 

1 carentivillo tergum sit coopertum, postmodum sudario, vel suario, vel panelloJ* 
See also Howse of a horse. 

6 MS. which reads Horse stalle, corrected by A. ( Penis : cauda equina.' Medulla. 

7 ' Caliga. An hose. Caligatus, Hosyd. Caligo. To hosyn.' Medulla. ' Caliga. An 
hoase ; a legge hamesse ; greaue or buskin, that shouldiours (sic) used, full of naylesin the 
botom. Caliga spiculatoria. A stertup.' Cooper. John Paston writing to his mother in 
1465 says — 'Also, modyr, I beseche 30W, that ther may be purveyd some meane that I 
myth have sent me home by the same mesenger ij. peyir hose, j. peyir blak and an othyr 
payir roset, whyche be redy made for me at the hosers with the crokyd bak, next to the 



an Hospital^; cenodochium vel xeno- 
dochium, xenodociolum, Asilum, 
diuersorium, hospitale, hos2)icium, 
gerontoconium, rogatorium, xeno- 
trophium. l . 

+an Hosspituller ; cenodochia ria,cen o - 

*an Host; tussis, tussicula. 

*to Host 2 ; tussire. 

an Hoste 3 ; hostia. 

an Hoste ; hossjies. 

an Hoste of men ; A.cies, examen, 
exercitus, manus. 

an Hosteler ; vbi A osteler. 

Howe; qualiter, quomo&o, qu&m ; 
ut, nescis q\m,m male loquitur iste 
de te ; vel sic, quean bene diligis 
me, cum. similibus. 

tHowe Aide 4 ; quotennis. 

Howe lange ; qu&mdiu, vsquequo. 

Howe many ; quot, mcZeclinabi/e, 

How mekylle ; quantum vel quantus, 
quantu[m]cunque, quaiitis2)er. 

tHowe ofte ; quociens. 
an Howse ; domus, -mi vel -mus, 
domicula cZ^minutiuum est ; ver- 
sus : 
%Tolle -me, -mi, -mus, invnxi- 
ando domns. 
lar, j)enates ; versus : 
%Est domusatquedoma, pvesepe, 
domuncula, tectum, 
Edas, ediculas, haibitacula die 

staciones : 
Hijs pastqforium, magale, tu- 

gurria, iungas, 
A £que majppale, casa sit ypopis, 
mansio iuncta. 
to make an Howse ; domificare, edi- 

jicare, fundare. 
fan Howse breker ; Apercularius. 
an Howse kep^r; editis, edituus. 
t A Howse of A horse 5 ; sandalum, 
sudaria (A.), 
to Howsylle 6 ; commumcare. 
*an Howfe ; tena. 
*an Howselynge ; communicacio. 


Blak Fryers Gate, within Ludgate .... I beseche you that this ger be not forget, for I 
have not an hole hose for to doon ; I trowe they schall cost both payr viij s .' Paston Letters, 
ii. 232-3. ' I hose. Je chause. It costeth me monaye in the yere to hose and shoe my 
servauntes.' Palsgrave. - 1 MS. xeutrophium. 

2 'His ene was how, his voce wes hers hostand. 1 Henrysone, Bannatyne Poems, p. 131, 
in Jamieson, who also quotes from Dunbar, Maitland Poems, p. 75, 

1 And with that wourd he gave ane hoist anone.' 

3 The consecrated wafer in the sacrament. 

4 Quotannis is of course properly an adverb, ' year by year,' or ' yearly ;* but quot annos 
natus was used for ' how old is he V 

5 See also Horse howyse. In this case the MS. reads fandalum, fudaria. 

6 ' Thus I awaked & wrote what I had dremed, 

And di5te me derely & dede me to cherche, 

To here holy J>e masse & to be houseled after.' P. Plowman, B. Text, xix. I. 
Dr. Morris, Old Eng. Homilies, 2nd series, p. ix, notices an odd popular etymology of the 
word, viz. hu sel = how good (it is). See also Nares' Glossary and Peacock's edition of 
Myrc's Duties of a Parish Priest, p. 69. The author of the Ancren Riwle (p. 412) recom- 
mends that the laity should not receive the Holy Communion oftener than 1 5 times a year 
at the most. He mentions as proper occasions, Mid-winter, Candlemas, Twelfth-day, the 
Sunday half-way between that and Easter (or Lady-day, if near the Sunday), Easter day, 
the 3rd Sunday after, Holy Thursday, Whit-sunday, Midsummer-day, St. Mary Magda- 
lene's day, the Assumption, the Nativity of the Virgin, Michaelmas-day, All Saints' day, 
and St. Andrew's day. Chaucer says once a year at least — * and certes ones a yere at the 
leste it is lawful to be houseled, for sothely ones a yere alle thinges in the erthe renouelen.' 
Parson's Tale, at the end of Remedium Luxurice. Kobert of Brunne says the same — 
' Comaundement in the olde lawe was pe newe law ys of more onour, 

Ones yn pe 3ere to shewe \>y trespas ; Ones to receyue by creatoure/ 

Handl. Synne, 11. 10298-10301. 
Conscience in P. Plowman, B. xix. 386, bids men to come 'onys in a moneth.' See also 
Myrc, Instruct, to P. Priests, p. 8. 



H ante V. 

tHuchon ; hugo, women ^ropn'wm 

an Hude 1 ; capicium. 

tan Hude 2 ; repociculum {repofocili- 
um A.). 

an Hufe (Huyfe A.) 3 ; vngula. 

t Hugely; Adeo, Admodum, porro, 
oppido, valde, midtum, piluri- 

to Huge (Hugge A.) 4 ; AbJiominari, 
detestari, dirigere, riyere, riges- 
cere, execr&ri, fastidire, horrere, 
Ab-, horresceve, horrijlcare. 

Hwgsome ; Abhominabilis, detesta- 

bilis. Execrabilis, absurdus, hor- 

rendus visu, horribilis, horridus 

ammo (A.). 
Hugsomejnes] (Hwgsomnes A.) ; 

Abhominacio, detestacio, execr&cio, 

an Huke ; hamus, laqueus. 
tto Huke ; hamare. 
*An Hukster 5 ; Auccionarius, Auc- 

an Humlok 6 ; cicuta, harba bene- 

dicta, intubus. 
an Hunde ; vhi a doge. 

1 'Capitium, a hoode for the heade.' Cooper, 1584. Chaucer, Prologue Cant. Tales, 
195, describes the Monk as wearing a hood, to fasten which under his chin, ' he hadde of 
gold y-wrought a curious pyntie :' and in the Anturs of Arthur, ed. Kobson, ii. 5, Dame 
Gaynour's hud is described as 

' Of a haa hew, ])at hur hede Indus, Of purpure and palle werke, and perre to pay.' 
In Myrc's Instructions for Parish Priests, 1. 883, the priest when about to hear a confession 
is told, ' ouer J)yn yen pulle ]>yn hod.' A. S. hod. 

2 Repofocilium, Retrofocilium vel Retropostficilium, vel Repofocinium, illud quod tegit 
ignem in node, vel quod retro ponitur : quasi cilium foci, super quod a posteriori parte 
foci ligna ponuntur, quod vulgo Lander dicitur, et dicitur a repono et focus, et cilium. 
Gloss. Lat. Gall. Repofocilium, ce qid couvre le feu de nuit, ou ce qui est mis derriere.' 
Ducange. ' Landier. An Andiron.' Cotgrave. See Halliwell s. v. Andiron. ' Repofo- 
cilium, id est quod tegit ignem in node (a hudde or a sterne).' Ortus. See P. Herthe Stok. 

3 'The houfe of a horse, ungula? Manip. Vocab. 

' " pe Dan," he says, "sal J>e nedder be And sal byte the hors by ]>e hufe harde, 
Sitand in \>e way als men may se ; And mak J?e vpstegher fal bakwarde." ' 

A. S. hof. Priche of Conscience, 41^7. 

4 Palsgrave gives ' I hugge, I shrinke me in my bed. It is goode sporte to see this little 
boy hugge in his bed for cold;' and in Manip. Vocab. we have 'to hugge, horrescere.'' 
Jamieson also gives 'to hugger, to shudder.' Skeltonuses the form ' hoivgy, ii. 24. Wyclif 
speaks of a man ' uggynge for drede and wo.' Select Eng. Works, iii. 34. See also to Ug, 
&c, below, and P. Vggone, or haue horrowre. 

5 'Te33 turrndenn Godess hus Inntill huccsteress bo]?e.' Ormulum, 15817. Trevisa in 
his trans, of Higden, ii. 171, says of the English that they are ' in etynge and in drynkynge 
glotouns, in gaderynge of catel hoksters [inqtuestu caupones~\? ' Aucionarius. A howstare 
(sic). y Medulla. In the Liber Albus, p. 690, is an ordinance, ' Qe nul Hukster estoise en 
certein lieu, mais voisent parmy la Ville,' from which it is clear that they were wandering 
merchants, or pedlars. See also the ordinances ' de Brasiatoribus et Huksters cervisiam 
vendcntibus^ at p. 698 of the same volume, amongst which we read that no Hukster was 
to be allowed to sell ale. The oath to be taken by officers of the City of London is also 
given at pp. 526-7 — by which they were forbidden to be ' regratours ne huksters de nulle 
manere vitayle.' ' Maquignon. A hucster, broker, horse -courser.' Cotgrave. ' Hucster 
which selleth by retaile. Houkester. Caupo, propola : cauponor, to sell as they do. 
Houksters crafte, cauponaria! Huloet. 'A huckster, or houckster. a gueld.' Minsheu. 
According to Prof. Skeat the word is properly the feminine form of hawker, and in the 
Liber Albus is generally applied to females, but see Wedgwood, s. vv. Hawker and 
Huckster. 'I hucke as one dothe that wolde bye a thing good cheape. Jeharcclle. I 
love nat to sell my ware to you, you hucke so sore.' Palsgrave. ' Dardanier, an huckster, 
he that kepeth corne till it be deare.' Hollyband. 

6 ' Cicuta. An homelok.' Medulla. In Wright's Songs & Carols from a MS. in the 
Sloane collection, 15th Century, p. 10, we find — 

* Whan brome wyll appelles bere, And humloke honi in feere, Than seek rest in lond.' 
• Humlok, Homelok. Cicuta.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. pp. 265 and 191. ' JItrba benedicta, 



an Hundeflee ' ; cinomia. 

tan Hunde colar ; copularius, col- 

larium, millus. 
tHunde fenkylle 2 ; ferula. 
Hundreth ; centum indec\insihile,cen- 

tenus, centenarius, centes[i]m\is, 

gent os grece. 
an Hundreth sythys ; cencies. 
an Hungyr ; esuries, fames. 
to Hungyr ; esurire, famere, -es- 

Hungry ; famelicns. 
Huny; mel; melleus. 
an Hunycambe; brisca,fav\is,fauil- 

lus, vnica. 
fto make Huny ; mellifacere, melli- 

tan Huny pot or hony wesselle; 

to Hunte; venari. 
an Huntynge ; venacio. 

an Hunter ; venator, venaticus, ven- 

aticum canem 3 ducimus, vena- 

torium ferramentum. 
tan Hunte»' spere ; ve7iabulum. 
an Hurde ; repositum. 
an Hurde howse ; Abdicatorium, re- 

tan Hurdome 4 ; meretricium. 
tto do Hurdome; meretricari. 
an Hure ; vhi a common woman. 
an Huresoii ; Manzer, i. filius scor- 

an Hurre bone (A Hurre A.) 5 ; gi- 

raculum ; versus : 
%Ossa quibus ludunt pueri gi- 
racula dicas. 
Hurte ; collisws, elisus, illisxis ammo, 

to Hurte ; Allidere, col-, elidere, il- 

lidere, ledere, officere, pevlidere, 


herbe beneit, hemeluc. Reliq. Antiq. i. 37. A. S. hemleac. Cooper has ' Intubus. Dios- 
corides maketh of it two kindes, Hortensem and Syluestrem, of that is of the garden he 
maketh also two sortes, one with a broad leafe, which is the common Endiue, an other 
with a narrower leafe. Of that he calleth wilde be also two sortes. One is the common 
succorie, and the other Dent de lyon.' Sw. hund-loka (dog-leek), wild chervil, a plant of 
the same family as biorn-loha (bear-leek), cows-parsley. 

1 ' Cinomia. An hound flye.' Medulla. ' Cinomia, Ricinus, hundes-fleoge.' Alfric's 
Vocab. in Wright's Vol. of Yocab. p. 23. ' Ricinus, hundes-wyrm.' ibid. p. 24. Compare 
P. • Hownde Flye. Cinomia, vel einifex, vel cinifes.' ' And he sente in to them an hound 
fie^e [fleisch flie P. coenomyiam Vulg.], and it eet hem ; and a frogge and it destro3ede 
them.' Wyclif, Psalms lxxvii. 45 ; see also civ. 31. 

2 ' Ferula? according to Cooper, is ' an hearbe lyke bygge fenell, and may be called 
fenell giant, or hearbe sagapene.' Mr. P. K. Robinson, in his Glossary of Whitby, E. D. 
Soc, gives ' Dog-finkil, maithe weed. Anthemis cotula? Lyte, Dodoens, p. 186, identifies 
it with the wild Camomile, ' called in English Mathers, May weede, Dogges Camomill, 
Stincking Camomill, and Dogge Fenell.' For Fenhylle as a form of Fenelle, see Fenelle 
or Fenhelle. ' Hec cimnicia, hund fynkylle.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 226. 

3 MS. canam. 

* Hampole tells us that after the Resurrection, the righteous will understand all 

' WM som er ryche here, and som pore, Er baptized, and has cristendom.' 

And whi som childer geten in hordom, P. of Conscience, 8259. 

And in a treatise on the Commandments, &c, in MS. Harl. 1701, leaf 11, we read — 

' The syxte comaundyth us also That we shul nonne hurdam do.' 

1 And the womman was greuyd to the jonge man, and he refuside the hordom [forsook 
auoutrie P.].' Wyclif, Genesis xxxix. 10. In Levit. xxi. 7 it is used for a prostitute : ' A 
strompet, and foule hordam }e shulen not take to wijf.' 

5 ' Giraculum. Illud cum quo pueri ludunt, quod in summitate cannse vel baculi volvitur, 
et contra ventum cum impetu defertur ; (Fr.) moulines que les en/ants mettent au bout 
d'un baton pour tourner contre le vent.' (Vet. Glos.). D'Arnis. ' Qiracidum : quidam 
Indus puerorum. A spilquerene.' Reliq. Antiq. i. 9. ' Giraculum. A chyldys whyrle.' 
Medulla. ' Giraculum, Anglice a chylde's whyrle, or a hurre, cum quo pueri ludunt.' Ortus. 
Compare P. Spylkok, and Whyrlebone, and see Whorlebone, below. 



an Hurte; collisio, lesio, lesura, liuor ; 

Pan Husband; edituus, iconimus, 
jncola, paterfamilias ; versus : 
IT Rusticus, agrecola, rudis <Sr vil- 
lanus, Agrestis ; 
Et cam. ruricula societur villi- 
cus istis. 
an Husbande ; cowiux, martins, ma- 
ritolxxs, maricelhis, sponsus, vir ; 
maritalis, sponsalis, virilis. 

tan Husbandry; Agricultura, icon- 

tan Husynge of a nutte (nott A.) ; 

folliculus, maci (iiauci A.) inde- 

clinabile, theca. 
*an Hustylmewtt 1 ; supellex, supel- 

lectile, vtensile. 
an Huswyfe ; matrona, materfamili- 

as, sponsa ; vnde versus : 
%Est hera vel domina, mulicr, 
matrona, virago. 

Cdpitulum 9 m I. 

I an^e A. 
I ; Ego, egomet. 
*a Iagge 2 ; fractUlus ; fractillos- 

a lay ; garrulus, graculus {gargulus 

a Iayler; carcerarius. 
*to Iangyll^ ; vbi to chafer. 

1 In the Liber Albus, pp. 667 and 719, is an ordinance, 'que nul Marche des potz, 
paielx, et autres hustilementz ne soit tenuz fors a Cornhulle.' See also the Glossary to 
Liber Custumarum, s. vv. Ustilemenz and Hostel. In the Inventory of John Birnand 
taken in 1565, are mentioned ' j old deske, j litle coffer, j litle bell, and j old chaire vj s , 
j Almon revet [Almain-rivet armour], ij salletts, ij sculles, j paire splints, j shafe of 
arrowes, and other hustlements, xxv s viii d .' Richmondshire Wills, &c, Surtees Soc. vol. 
xxvi. p. 179. John Baret in his Will, 1463, bequeathed to his niece ' certeyne stuffe of 
ostilment.'' Bury Wills, &c, Camden Soc. p. 22. In the Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner, iii. 
418, we read — 'Hec sunt hostilmenta et utensilia domus, bona et catalla, que Willielmus 
Paston, in indentura presentibus annexa nominatus, tradidit et dimisit Willielmo Joye.' 
Wyclif in his version of Exodus xxx. 27 speaks of 'the bord with his vessels, and the 
candelstik, and the necessaryes ' (in some MSS. hustilmentis, utensilia, Vulg.). See also 
xxxix. 32. 

2 In the Vision of Wm. Staunton, 1409 (MS. Reg. 17 B. xliii. leaf 133, quoted in 
Wright's edition of St. Patrick's Purgatory, p. 145) the author describes men and women 
in hell, and observes that he saw some there ' with mo jttyges on here clothis than hole 
cloth ;' and again in a later passage, p. 148, he observes that, instead of curiously cut 
clothes, many are surrounded by twining snakes and reptiles, and ' thilk serpentes, snakes, 
todes, and other wormes ben here jaggis and daggis? See P. Plowman, B. xx. 143 — 
'let dagge his clothes;' Richard the Redeles, ed. Skeat, iii. 193, Chaucer's Parsons Tale, 
&c, &c. Amongst the articles of dress enumerated in the inventories of the goods of Sir 
J. Fastolf, taken in 1459, we ^ n( ^ 'Item, j jagged huke of blakke sengle, and di. of the 
same. Item, j hode of blakke felwet, with a typpet, halfe damask and halfe felwet, y- 
jaggyd. Item, j hode of depe grene felwet, jahgyd uppon the role. Item, a coveryng of 
a bedde of aras, withe hontyng of the bore, a man in blewe, with a jagged hoode, white 
and rede.' Paston Letters, i. 476-480. For a full account of the practice see Fairholt, 
History of Costume, pp. 108, 434. ' Jagge of a garmente. Lacinia. Jagged. Laciniosus? 
Huloet. ' A Jag, garse or cut. Jncisura, Lacinia. To iagge, pounse or cut. Incido. 
Leaues crompeled and lagged in the edges.' Baret. Harrison in his Description of Eng. i. 
272, says — 'Neither was it merrier in England than when an Englishman was known by 

his owne cloth without such cuts and gawrish colours as are worn in these daies, 

and never brought in but by the consent of the French, who thinke themselves the gaiest 
men when they have most diversities of iagges, and change of colours about them.' Turner 
in his Herbal, pt. ii. If. 43, says that ' Lupine hath one long stalke and a lefe, with v. or 
seuen iaggers, which altogether, when as they are growen out, haue the lykenes of a ruel 
of a spor or of a sterr.' See Ryven chate, below. 



*alakke i ; bombicinium(di2)los,idem 
or Dublett A.). 

lames ; jacobus, women pro])Yhim. 

Iangiller ; Jictilis, poliloquus, Sf cet- 
era ; vhi chateryngtf. 

Iangillyng 2 ; loquax, Sf cetera ; vhi 
chate?*yng (A.). 

flanver (Ianuari A.) ; januarius. 

*to Iape ; nugari, con-. 

*Iapanly ; nugaciter. 

Iawnes 3 ; vbi gulsoghte. 

*a Iape ; nuga, nugac'w, nugacitas. 

*a Iaper ; nugalor, nugax, nugato- 

*Iapande 4 ; nugans, nugaculua. 

fa Iavelle 5 ; gaola ; vhi a presone. 

I ante D. 

Idylle ; lentus, ociosus 6 . 

to be Idylle ; ociari. 

an Idiote 7 ; idiota. 

an Idylnes; ocium,ociosilas,ociolum. 

I ante E. 
Ierusalem 8 ; ierus&lem indecYmahile, 
ierosolomis mc/eclinabi/e, ierosoli- 
a Iewe ; judeus, versus ; iudeicm 

fa Iewes maner ; iudaismus. 
% Iudaizare est morum [?] iudeorum 

I ante F. 
If; Si. 
If nott ; sin Autem, Sinon. 

I ante G-. 
tan Ignorance ; ignorancia, vox. 
tlgnorantt ; ignorans. 
I ante L. 
-fllkaday ; cotidie } cotidianus. 
an lie ; jnsula. 
tllkane ; quilibet, quelibet, quodlibet, 

singulus, Sf cetera ; vbi alle. 
fllle ; mains, malignus, 8f cetera ; 
vhi wekyd. 

1 * Tims the devil farith with men and wommen : first he stirith him to pappe and pamp 
her fleische, desyrynge delicious metis and drynkis, and so hoppe on the piler with he: 
homes, lockis, garlondis of gold and of riche perlis, callis, filettis and wymplis, and rydelid 
[?ryuelid] gownes, and rokettis, colers, lacis, jacJces, pattokis [?paltokis], with her long€ 
crakowis, &c.' Sermon on the Temptation in the Desert, Reliq. Antiq. i. 41. In the Paston 
Letters, No. 408, vol. ii. p. 36, John Paston, writing to Margaret Paston, says — ' The last 
eleccion was not peasibill, but the peple was jakkyd and saletted, and riotously disposed.' 

3 ' Som men in kirke slomers and slapes Som tentes to iangillyng and iapes.' 

MS. Harl. 4196, leaf 185. 
* Hit is a foule ])ing for a kyng to iangle moche at J>e feste [dicacem fore].' Tre visa's Higden, 
vi. 469. ' Thou jangelist as a jay.' Wright's Polit. Poems, ii. 104. 

3 Baret gives ' the Iaundis, morbus regius : a birde, which if a man see, being sicke of the 
iaundis, the man shall waxe hole, and the bird shall die, icterus, it is also called galgulus* 
See Pliny, xxx. 28. This bird appears to be the Yellow Thrush. In the Handlyng Synne, 
Harl. MS. 1701, leaf 27, we are told that 

1 Envyus man may lyknyd be That men mow se yn mennys yne ;' 

To the iawnes, the whyche is a pyne 
and amongst the various diseases to which men are subject Hampole enumerates ' fevyr, 
dropsy and Iaunys.' Pricke of Conscience, 700. Brockett gives 'Jaunis, the jaundice.' 
Trevisa in his version of Higden's Polychronicon, ii. 113, speaks of 'a pestilence of ]>e 
jelowe yuel )>at is i-cleped ]>ejaundys [ictericiam]' ' Jaundise sicknes. Arquatus morbus. 
Icteros, morbus arcuatus. Jaundise called the yelow iaundise, morbus regius." Huloet. 
Fr. jaunisse fr. jaune, yellow. See several recipes for the cure of the jaunes in Reliq. Antiq. 
i. 51. ' Aurugo : the Kynke or the Jaundys.' Medulla. 

4 MS. Iapnade. 

5 ' A sargant sent he to Iaiole, And iohan hefd comanded to cole.' Cursor Mundi, 131 74 
' In helle is a deop gayhol, bar-vnder is a ful hot pol.' Old Eng. Miscell. ed. Morris, p. 153, 
I.219. O. Fr. gaole, geole. 

6 MS. odiosus. 

7 See Prof. Skeat's note on P. Plowman, C. x. 118. 

8 MS. Ireusalem. 



tllle ; male, pcmiciose, maligna, 
tto do Ille ; malignari vel -re, male- 
facer e. 
tAn Ille fame ; jnfamia. 
tllle famed ; jnfamatus. 
tllle wylled (Ille wille A.) ; malleo- 
"tllle wyii ; villum *. 

I ante M. 
an Image ; jmago, caracter, effigies, 
figura, sculptile, signum ; vt : 

vidi signum. saucti joh&nnis ; 

similacrum, statua, specumen 

(specimen A.). 
to Imagyn ; excogitare, moliri, de-, 

Imaginari, machinari, Sf cetera, 
an Imaginacion ; jmayinacio. 
an Imaginer; molitor, excogitator. 
Imaginynge ; moliens, maginans, 

an Imbasitoiw (Inbasitur A.) ; Am- 

buiator. A ce , an Imbasytoiw. 
time As A coppe (os a Cup A.) 2 ; 

*an Impe 3 ; vbi A grafte. 
*to Impe ; vbi to grafte. 
*an Impynge ; vbi A graftynge. 
tan Imposteme 4 ; Apostema. 

I ante N. 
tin any place ; vspiam, vsquam, in 

aliquo loco. 
In ; jn. 
tto Incense ; incensare, suffire, suf- 

fumigare, tliurificare, 
tlncense ; jncensum, thumama. 
tlncest ; jncestus ; jncestuosus. 
tto do Incest ; jncestare. 
an Inche ; pallidum. 
tto Inchete ; fiscare, Sf cetera ; vbi 

to enchete. 
tan Incheter ; fiscator, fiscarius, <$f 

cetera ; vbi a enchete?*. 
tlnde ; Inda, ethiopia ; etltiops est 

aliquis de ethiopia (ista patria 

to Indewe ; oppign\or\ are, subar- 

to Indyte 5 ; dictare, jndictare. 
an Indyter ; dictator, indictator. 
an Indyter of lettirs ; dictator. 
to make an Ingyne ; machinari. 
an Ingyne ; fundibalum, machina, 

machinola, machiname\\tum\ ma- 

chinalis, machinosus. 
tlnglamus 6 ; viscosus (viscositas A.). 

1 Villum for vinulvm, dimin. of vinum. 

2 I can make nothing of this. Pannosus is of course ragged, or, as the Medulla renders 
it, ' carens pannis? 

3 In the Treatise on planting and grafting from the Porkington MS. pr. by Mr. Halli- 
well in Early Eng. Miscellanies (for the Warton Club, 1855), we nre told — 'Iff thou wylt 
that thy appyllys he rede, take a graff of an appyltre, and ympe hit opone a stoke of an 
elme or an eldre, and hit schalbe rede appylles.' ' Springe or ympe that commeth out of 
the rote.' Huloet. Baret gives ' Impe, or a yong slip of a tree, surculus.' In Piers Plowman, 
B. v. 137, Wrath says — 

' I was sum tyme a frere, And J>e couentes gardyner for to graffe ympes.' 
' He sawe syttyng vnder an ympe in an herber, a wonder fay re damoysel, of passynge 
beaute, that ful bitterly wept.' Lydgate, Pylgremage of the Sowle, 1483, b k . iv. ch. xxxviii. 
'I shall telle the fro whens this appel tree come and how [who] hit ymped.' ibid. b k . iv. 
ch. ii. The word was also applied to a child or offspring ; thus Cotgrave gives 'peton, the 
slender stalk of a leaf or fruit ; mon peton, my pretty springall, my gentle imp.' ' Impe. 
Surculus. Imped or graffed, insertus.' Huloet. See Ancren Riwle, pp. 360, 378. Cf. Welsh, 
imp, impyn, a shoot, scion : Ger. imp/en, to graft. ' Ase land guod, and a grayhed, and 
worbi .... yzet mid guode ympen? Ayenbite, p. 73. 

'Of feble trees ther cometh feble ympes? Chaucer, Monhes Tale, 15442. 
'Insitio: Impyng or cuttywg.' Medulla. 

4 See Aposteme. 5 See Endyte, &c, above. 

6 'Bacus \>e bollore .... englaymed was in glotenye & glad to be drounke.' Alexander 
dcDindimus, 1. 675. ' Hony is yuel to defye & cnglaymcth the mawe.' P. Plowman, B. xv. 
63. ' Viscus, gleme or lyme.' Ortus. ' Visqueux, clammy, cleaving, bird-lime like.' 
Cotgrave. Compare also in the Promptorium 'Gleymows or lymows, limosus, viscosus t 




to Inhabett ; jrihabilarc, § cetera ; 
vbi to dwelle. 

tto Inheghe ; AUevare, A Uollere, ca- 
cuminare, culminare, efferre, exal- 
tare, extollere, fastigiare,jnaltare, 
magniftcare, sublimare, sustollere. 

to Inherett; hereditare. 

an Inhereditance ; hereditas. 

Inke ; Attrimentum, enchaustum, jn- 
caustum (Attramen A.). 

an Inke home 1 ; Atriimeutarium,cala- 
marium, incausterium. 

to Inioyne (Iune A.) ; iniungere. 

Inioyned ; jniunctus. 

tto Inlawe. 

tin no place ; nusqn&m ; (versus : 
%Ad temjms nwn^uam, sed jwy- 
tinet ad loca misqu&m A.). 

tto In or to In (to Ine as come or 

hay & ober thynge A.) 2 ; jnferra, 

jnportare, jnvehere. 
an Inne ; hossjricium. 
an Innocent ; innocens, innoxius. 
an Innocency (Innocence A.) :i ; inno- 

cencia, jnsoncia. 
tin odyr place ; Alibi, Alio. 
tin quarte 4 ; vbi hale. (In whart ; 

vbi alle A.). 
an Inqwest ; jnquesicio, duodena. 
to Inquire; jnquerere. 
to Inschete 5 ; jnvestigare. to In- 

tlnserehynge ; jnvestigacio, inqui- 

In so mekylle ; Adeo, eatenus, jn- 


glutinosus : gleymyn or yngleymyn, visco, invisco.' In Trevisa's trans, of Bartholomseus 
de Proprietatibus Rerum, 1398, b k . iv. ch. ii. occurs the following: ' Nothinge swetep nor 
comeb oute of flewme for )>e glaymnesse J)erof,' \de flegmate nihil resudat nee descendit 
propter viscositatem ejus], where the editions of 1535 and 1582 read, 'for the clamminesse 
thereof.' A. S. cldm = clay, probably for geldm, from Zam = clay (Skeat). 

1 ' And loo ! the man that was clothid with lynnen, that hadde an enkhorn in his rigge, 
[a pennere in his bac, Purvey,] answerde a worde seiynge, Y haue don, as thou command- 
idist to me.' Wyclif, Ezelciel ix. 11. See Penner and a nynkehorne, hereafter. 'An 
inkehorne or any other thyng that holdeth inke. Atramentarium? Baret. i Attramen- 
tarium. An ynkhorne or a blekpot.' Medulla. 

2 ' There he taryed tyll they had inned all their corne and vyntage.' Berners' Froissart, 
vol. ii. ch. xxii. p. 55. ' Those that are experienced desire that theire rye hange blacke out 
of the eare, and that theire wheate bee indifferent well hardened; for then they say that 
as soone as it is inned, it will grinde on a mill.' Farming & Account Books of H. Best, of 
Elmswelh York, 1641 (Surtees Soc. vol. xxxiii. p. 45). Palsgrave has 'I inne, I put in 
to the berne. Je mets en granche. Have you inned your corne yet ?' In Robert of 
Gloucester, p. 336, the word is used in the sense of providing with an inn or lodging : • po 
})e day was ycome, so muche folc )>er com, ]>at me nuste ware hem inny ; ' and so also in 
William of Paler ne, 1638 : 'Whan ])ese pepul was inned, wel at here hese ;' and "Wyclif, 
1 Kings x. 22. See Shakspere, Coriolanus, Y. vi. 37 and Tusser, Husbandry, p. 64. 

3 MS. Innocenly. 

4 In the York Bidding Prayer iii, pr. in the Lay Folks Mass-Book, ed. Simmons, p. 69, 
is a petition for fellow-parishioners travelling by land or sea ' J)at god almyghty saue |?ame 
fra all maner of parels & bring J)am whar pai walde be inquart and heill both of body and 
of saule :' and again, p. 70, ' for all ]>e see farand bat god allmyghtty saue j?ame fra all maner 
of parels & brynge bame and ]>er gudes in quart whare J?aie walde be.' 

' A, Laverd, sauf make )>ou me ; A, Laverd, in quert to be.' 

Early Eng. Psalter, ed. Stevenson, Ps. cxvii. 25. 
In the Cursor Mundi, ed. Morris, p. 113, 1. 1803, we read — 

' But thou3e that Noe was in quert, He was not al in ese of hert ;' 

and in Laud MS. 416, leaf 76, we are told, • Remembyr thy Grod while thou art quert.' In 
the Destruction of Troy, 1. 6941, we have 'in holl qwert' = in perfect health. See also 
Morte Arthure, 582 and 3810, and Pricke of Conscience, 326; and compare Quarte, 
below. Fr. coeur, queor ; cf. ' hearty,'' ' in good heart? 

5 Probably a mere error of the scribe, intended to be corrected by ' to Inserche ' being 
written in the same hand at the end of the line as above. 



to Inspyre ; jnspirare* 

an Inspyracion ; jnspirac'w. 

an Instrument ; jnstrumentum, Ar- 

fan Instrument of howyse ; vtensile. 
fa place of Instrument ; locus vhi 

reponuntur Arma, Armamentum, 

tan Intente ; Intencio, opera. 
tin p e mene tyme ; jnterim, jntere, 

jnterea, inter um, tantisper. 
to Intyce; jncitare,jnstigare,jnstrin- 

gere, prouocare, jiersuadere, sua- 

dere, suggerere in bono § in malo, 

solicitare, Sf cetera alia. 
tlntysynge ; jncitans.jnstigans, sug- 

tan Intysynge ; jncitacio, jnvestiga- 

c'w, instigacio, jnstinctus, incita- 

mentum, persuasio, suggestio ; 

In vane ; frustra,, incassum, vane, 

invanum ; vanus, superfluus, Sf 

cetera ; vhi vayne. 
an Inwye ; jnvidia, invidencia, liuor, 

to Invye (to haue Invy A.) ; emulari, 

Invyous ; emulus, ibis, liuidus, jn- 

vidiosus qui sinit jnvidiam, jnvi- 

dus qui jnvidet ; versus : 
^Invidus jnvidet, jnvidiam. sinit 
jnvidiosus ; 
Invidiosus ego non jnvidus esse 
Inuitory l ; Invitatorium, Inuentari- 

wm (A.). 
Inwarde ; jnterius, jnterior, jntestin- 

us (A.). 

Inwardly ; medidlitus,jntrinsece,jn- 

I &nte O. 

lob ; nomen profnium. A job. 

Ion (Iohan A.) ; Johannes, id est 
gratia dei. 

Ioy ; Adoria, Amenitas, Ajwecitas, 
Alacrimonia, dlacritas, be&titudo, 
collectacio, delectacio, delectamen, 
doxa, doxula, exultacio membro- 
rum est Sf verborum, felicitas, 
gaudium est mentis, gloria, glo- 
riosa, gloriamen, gaudimonium, 
helammen, helaritas, iocunditas, 
iubilacio, iubilns, iubilamen, iu- 
bilurn, leticia vultus, ouacio, ouale, 
oblectamentum, plausus, risus, so- 
latium, solamen, letacio. 

to Ioy; Applaudere, Arridere, caris- 
tiare, clere, coletari, gestire, exul- 
tare, in membris <$f in verbis vel 
exteritus, gaudere animodevna re, 
grRtulare de alienis, congaudere, 
gratari, gloriari, hilerere, ex-, 
exhillerascere, hillerare, ex-, iubi- 
lare, letari per omnia jnterius § 
de nostris, ouare, plaudere, psal- 
lere, resultare, tripudiare, exilere, 

Ioyfylle ; ouans, Sf cetera ; vhi mery. 

Ioyfully ; gmtulanler, ouanter. 

t A man Iolyce (loyluse A.) 2 ; philo- 
cajytus, zelotipus. 

Ioylitt (IoyliceA.) 3 ; lasciuia, petu- 
lancia,zelotipia est sussjricio adul- 
terij cum cruciatu mentis. 

Ioly ; lasciuus, petulans ; {versus : 
%Est homo lasciuus, sed equum 
die esse ])etulcum 4 A.). 

1 The scribe has evidently mixed up Invitatory and Inventory. 

2 ' Zelotypus, a iealous man; one in a iealousie.' Cooper. * Zelotopus : a cocold or a 
Jelous man.' Medulla. 

3 See Pecock's Repressor, p. 121, where Iolite has the meaning of noisy mirth or dissi- 
pation. It occurs with the meaning of pleasure in the Knight of La Tour-Landry, ed. 

Wright, p. 41 : 'thought more on her iolytees and the worldes delite thanne thei 

dede on the seruice of God.' In Sir Fer umbras, 1. 2259, it appears rather to mean pride or 
folly, being used to translate the French nicete : 

4 J?er-for in his iolyte he cam to make maystrye.' 
The same appears to be the meaning in Chaucer's prologue, 1. 680, where he says of the 
Pardoner that ' hood, for jolitee, ne wercde he noon.' ' Jolitie. Amcenitas, lasciuia.' Huloet. 
1 ' Petulcus. Wanton, lascivious, butting.' Cooper. 



to be Ioly ; lasciuare, lasciuire. 
ta Ionkett for fysche ' ; nassa. 
*a lor dan 2 ; madula,madellum,min- 

satorium, vrinale, vrinaria, vrin- 

Iordari ; jordanus, women 2>Yopvium. 
a Iornay ; jter, iteneris. 
to Iornay; jtenirare. 
*Iowtes; lappates. 

I ante P. 
Ipoeryse ; jpocrisis. 
an Ipocrite ; ijpocrita. 

I ante R. 
Ire ; jra, § cetera ; vbi wrath e. 
tlrefulle ; vbi wrathefulle. 
Irelande ; hibemia; hibernus, hiber- 

Iren ; ferrum ; ferreus. 

tlrengray 3 j glaucun. 

to Irke 4 ; fastidire, tedere, frigere. 

Irkesome ; fastidiosus. 

tan Irregularite ; irregularitas. 

tlrregulere ; irregularis. 

I ante S. 

Isaac ; women pro^rmra. 
Isabella ; Isabella, elizebeth. 
Isacar; women j)ro;)rmm. 
an Ise (isse A.); glades, glaciecula. 
*an Izekelle (ise^ekille A.) 5 ; stiri- 
um, stiricus ; (versus : 
% Tunc bonus est ignis cum. pen- 
dent stiria lignis A.). 
*a Isell<? (isylle A.) 6 ; favilla ; or a 
sperke ; (versus : 
^Ardet sintilla pn'wa^ur ah igne 
fauilla A.). 

1 ' A long wicker basket or weel for catching fish.' Thoresby's Letter to Kay, E. D. Soc. 
ed. Skeat. In Wyclifs version of Exodus ii. 4, we read how the father of Moses ' whanne 
he myjte hide hym no lenger, he tok a ionlcet of resshen, and glewide it withe glewishe 
cley, and with picche, and putte the litil faunt with ynne,' where Ptirvey's version reads 
*a leep of segge.' Wyclif uses the word again in his second prologue to Job, p. 671 : ' If 
forsothe a iunket with resshe I shulcle make, &c.' Maundeville describing the crown of 
thorns, says : ' And 3if alle it be so that men seyn that this Croune is of Thornes, 5ee 
echulle undirstonde that it was of Jonkes of the See, that is to say, Rushes of the See, 
that prykken als scharpely as Thornes.' p. 13. 

2 'I shal iangle to )ris Iurdan' P. Plowman, B. Text, xiii. 83 ; on which see Prof. Skeat's 
note. 'Hecmadula; anglice, jurdan.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 199. See also Pissepot, 
hereafter. ' Pot a pisser. A Jurdan, Chamber-pot, Pissepot.' Cotgrave. 

3 Cooper under Glaucus says, ' It is commonly taken for blewe or gray like the skie 
with speckes as Ccesius is, but I thinke it rather reddie with a brightnesse, as in the eyes 
of a Lion, and of an Owle, or yong wheethie braunches, and so is also Ccesius color. In 
horses it is a baye. Gland oculi. Eyes with firie ruddinesse, or, as some will, graye eyes.' 
This definition is copied word for word by Gouldman. Baret renders glaucus color by 
* Azure colour, or like the water,' though he also gives ' Graie of colour. Ccesius glaucus, 
Leucophants.' 1 The Medulla renders glaucus by 'jelow.' ' Glaucus, graeg.' Aelfric's Gloss. 
' With aborne heyr, crispjng for thicknesse, With eyen glawlte, large, stepe, and great.' 

Lydgate, Chron. of Troy, B k . ii. ch. 15. 

4 ' I yrke, I waxe werye, or displeasaunte of a thyng. Je me ennuys. I yrke me more 
wth his servyce than of anythyng that ever I dyd. I yrke, I waxe werye by occupyeng of 
my mynde aboute a thynge that displeaseth me. II me tenne. It yrketh me to here hym 
boste thus.' Palsgrave. 

5 * Ickles, sfoio?.' Manip. Vocab. ' A drop of Ise, or Ise hanging at the eaues of houses. 
Stiria.' Baret. ' Droppe of yse called an isikle, whych hangeth on a house eaues or pen- 
tisse. Stiria? Huloet. Ice-can'les (ice candles), Lincolnshire, and Ice-shogglings, Whitby, 
are other provincial forms. 

6 ' Heprehendo me et ago penitenciam in fauillo et cinere. Ich haue syneged and gabbe me 
suluen ^eroffe, and pine me seluen on asshen and on iselen.' Old Eng. Homilies, ed. 
Morris, ii. 65. Gawain Douglas in his trans, of Virgil, Eneados, x. 135, has — 

' Troianis has socht tyll Italy, tyll upset Haue sittin styll amang the assis cald, 

New Troyis wallys, to be agane doun bet. And lattir isillis of thare kynd cuntre?' 

Had not bene better thame in thare natyue hald 



Isope ; ysopus ; versus : 

IF Ysopus est herba,ysopus cZicitur 

I ante T. 

Italy; italia, (talis est aliquis de 
Italia ; italieus. 

tlttbefallys ; jnterest, -erat, refert. 

1 Itbehowus (It be-hoves A.) ; opor- 
tet, -tebat, restat, -tebat. 
I ante V. 

tto be a Iewe ; judaizare. 

Iudas ; nomvii pvopvium. 

a Iewe ; iud eus, iudeicus, recuticus 1 ; 
recuticus, verpus. 

fa lews custome ; iudaismus. 

a Iuelle (Iowelle A.) ; iocale. 

*to Iugille 2 ; ioculari. 

*a Iuguler ; gesticulator, § cetera ; 
vbi a harlott. 

*a Iugulynge ; gesticulacio, iocamen. 

+an Iven 3 ; edera. 

tan Iven bery; cornubus. 

tluly (Iule A.) ; julius, quidam men- 
sis ; juliaticus. 

tlune ; Junius, quidam mensis, dios- 

fto lunge (Iune A.) ; Adiungere, Ap- 
ponere, Ascire, Asciscere inchoati- 
uum, alligare, compaginare, com- 
mitteve, confederare,iungere, con-, 
impo?iere,2)agina? , e,com.-,pangere, 
com-, serere, con-, maritare. 

Iune aby lie ; jungibilis. 

Iuned ; coniunctus, Argutus, con- 
cinctus, comj?actus, contiguatus, 
inpactus, iunctus, federatus, con-. 

a Ionour ; junctor, paginator, con- 
federator, Sf cetera. 

a Iunynge (A Iunyng or a Iunte 
A. ) ; comjwges, compago, iunctura, 
scinderisis, confederac'w. 

Iunynge ; coniungens, adiungens, 

a Iunyper ; juniperus, herba est. 

a lurynalle (lurnalle A.) 4 ; breui- 

*Turye 5 ; Iuda, iudaismus est ritus 

See the account of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah in Allii. Poems, B. ioio, where 
we are told — ' Askej vpe in ])e ayre & vsellez J>er flowen, 

As a foines ful of flot J?at vpon fyr boyles.' 
At 1. 747 Abraham while pleading for the two cities says — 

' I am bot erj>3 ful euel & vsel so blake.' 
1 Josephus was ifounde y-hid among useles [favillas].' Trevisa's Higden, iv. 431. O. 
Icel. usli. x See Flende, above. 

2 In the Harleian MS. version of Higden's Polychronicon, ii. 425 is a curious account of 
how certain women of Italy used to give ' chese }>at was bywicched ' to travellers, which 
had the property of turning all who ate it into beasts of burden : ' Whiche women turned 
in a season a ioculer other mynstrelle [quemdam histrionem~\ in to the similitude of a ryalle 
asse, whom thei solde for a grete summe of money.' The same writer says of the English 
that ' thei be as loaders in behauor [in gestu sunt hist nones'] ;' ii. 171. 

3 This form is still in use in the North ; see Peacock's Gloss, of Manley & Corringham ; 
Robinson's Gloss, of Whitby, &c. In the Sevyn Sages, ed. Wright, 1. 181, the 'clerks' 
are represented as placing under the bed of the Emperor's son ' four yven leves togydir 
knyt,' in order to test his wonderful learning. The boy however on waking at once detects 
some alteration in his bed, and declares that • the rofe hys sonkon to nyght, or the flore his 
resyn on hye.' O. Dutch, ieven. 

4 ' Journall, a boke whiche may be easely caried in iourney. Hodceporicum. Itenerary 
booke wherein is wrytten the dystaunce from place to place, or wherin thexpenses in 
iourney be written, or called other wyse a iournall. Hodceporicum, vel sine aspiratione ut 
aliqiti dicunt, sic Odceporicum, Visumque tamen inepte, nam Hodceportium rectius scriben- 
dum.' Huloet. This, it will be noticed, suggests a different derivation for the word 
'journal' to that generally accepted. 

5 ' pis honger was strong in every place of Siria, and in the lewerie moste.' Trevisa's 
Higden, vol. iv. p. 373. 'Nero sende that tyme a noble man to the Iewery, Vespasian by 
name, to make the Iewes subiecte.' ibid. p. 413. Mr. Riley in his edition of the Liber 
Alius, Introd. p. 1., quotes from the Liber Horn an ordinance by which previous to the 



a Iuse ; jus, succus. 

to strcnc Iuse ; exsuccare. 

to Iuste; hastiludere, hastiludari. 

a luster ; hastilusor. 

a Iustynge l ; hastdudium, hastilud* 

a Iustys (lustice A.) ; index, iuslici- 


CsLpittdum 10 m K. 

K ante A. 
*a Ka (Kae A.) 2 ; monedula (no- 

dula A.). 
a Kay ; clavis, clauicula. 
a Kay berer ; clauiger, clauiger- 

idu.s dimumtiuum. 
+a Kay maker ; clauicularius, cla- 

+to Kaykylle (Kakylle A.) 3 ; gracil- 

Kalendis ; kalende. 

a Kalender ; kalendare, kalendari- 

fKarlele (Karlill^ A.); karliola ; 

karliolensis £>ardcipium. 
A Karalle or a wryting burde 4 ; 

pluteus (A.). 
A Karalle; Chorea, Chorus (A.). 

K ante E. 
to Kele 5 ; frigidare, tepifacere, Sf 

cetera; vbi to make calde. 
iKelynge ; frigedans, Sf cetera. 

expulsion of the Jews from England in 1290 it was declared illegal for any landlord to let 
his house to a Jew, unless it were ' within Jewry ' [infra Judaismum]. Wyclif in his 
Prologue to St. Luke, p. 141, says, that 'the Gospels weren writun, by Matheu for- 
sothe in Jewerie, by Mark sothli in Ytalie, &c.' Jewry = Judaism, i.e. the state of a 
disciple of the Jewish faith, occurs in Pecock's Repressor, p. 69. See Liber Custumarum, 
pp. 229 and 230 and Glossary, and also Stow's Survey, ed. Thorns, pp. 104-106. 

1 lusting, at the tilt or randoune, Indus hastlcus.' Baret. ' Justes or iustynges as at the 
randon or tilt. Decursio,JIippomachia. Tomiamen, ludi. Justinge place. Amphitheatrum* 

2 In Wright's Vol. of Yocab. p. 18S, we find * Kaa, monedula.'' The chough or jackdaw 
was called in the eastern counties, a caddow. ' Koo, a byrde.' Palsgrave. ' Nodulus, a 
kaa.' Ortus Voc. 'Monedula, coo.' Harl. MS. 1587. See also P. Cadaw. A. S. ceo, 
cornix : 0. Dutch Tea, Tcae : O. H. Ger. kaka. ' Monedula, a Koo.' Medulla. Gawain 
Douglas in his translation of Virgil, ^Eneid, bk. vii. Prol. 1. 13, has — 

' Sa fast declynnys Cynthia the mone, And kayis keklys on the rufe abone :' 

and Stewart, Croniclis of Scotland (Rolls Series), vol. iii. p. 398, says that according to some 
the ' greit kirk ' of St. Andrew was burnt ' with ane fyre brand ane ha buir till hir nest.' 
This word probably explains cow in Chaucer, C. T. 5814. 

3 'Asa bene that has leyde ane egge cries and caJcils onane, so, &c.' De Deguileville's 
Pilgrimage of the Lif of the Manhode, MS. John's Coll. Cantab, leaf 79. Horman says, 
' When the brode henne hath layed an egge, or wyll sytte, or hath hatched, she cakelth. 
Matrix cum ovum edidit, vel ouis incubatura est, vel exclusit, glocit sine glocitat.' * I kakell, 
as a henne dothe afore she layeth egges. Je caquette. This henne kakylleth fast, I wene 
she wyll laye : ceste geline cacquette fort, je croy quelle veult pondre.' Palsgrave. Harrison, 
Descript. of Eng. ii. 15, uses the form 'gagling.' • ]>e hen hwon heo haueft ileid ne con 
buten kaJcelen.' Ancren Riide, p. 66. In the same page the author speaks of ' kafcelinde 
ancren,' where the meaning is evidently chattering. See also to Cloyke as a hen. 
Douglas uses Iceklit for ' laughed' in iEneid, v. p. 133. 

4 Amongst the various articles necessary for a scribe Neckham in his Treatise de Vten- 
silibus, pr. in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 116, mentions pluteum sive asserem, the former 
being glossed ' carole.' In the first quotation given by Ducange s. v. Carola the meaning 
appears to be as here a desk : * Porro in claustro Carolse vel hujusmodi scriptoria aut cistos 
cum clavibus in dormitorio, nisi de Abbatis licentia nullatenus habeantur. Statuta Orel. 
Praemonstrat. dist. i. cap. 9.' See also Deske, above. 

5 ■ pa fouwer [walmes] weren ideled a twelue. for J>a twelf kunredan sculden J)ar mide 
heore Jmrst Jcelen.'' Old Eng. Homilies, ed. Morris, i. 141. In Wyclif 's version of the 
parable of Dives and Lazarus, the former is described as saying ' Fadir Abraham, have 


+a Keiyng<? 1 ; mortis ; piscis est. 
tKelkys (Kellys A.) of fyschis 2 ; 

*a Kelle 3 ; reticulum, reticimllum. 

*a Kelle knytter ; reticularius, re- 

to Kembe 4 ; comere, jrfectere, de-,pec- 

tinare, pexare, 2^exere, § cetera. 

mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he dippe the leste part of his fyngur in watir, and 
kele my tunge ; for I am turmentid in this flawme.' Luke xvi. 24. ' Bot eftyrwarde when 
it cesses, and the herte Teeth of love of Ihesu, thanne entyrs in vayne glorie.' Thornton 
MS. leaf 221. In the Anturs of Arthur, ed. Robson, iv. 6 we read — ■ 
1 Thay kest of hor cowpullus, in cliffes so cold, 
Cmnfordun hor kenettes, to Jcele horn of care ;' see also xvi. 6. 
In the Morte Arthure, 1. 1838, Sir Cador, after killing the King of Lebe, says — 
' Kele the nowe in the claye, and comforthe thi selfene.' 

1 Quinta essencia is not hoot and drie as tier for hoot J)ingis it keWp, and hoot 

sijknessis it doib awey.' The Book of Quinte essence, ed. Furnivall, p. 2. Akale = cold 
occui-s in the Seven Sages, ed. Weber, 1. 151 2 — 

' That night he sat wel sore ahale And his wif lai warme a-bedde ;' 

See also P. Plowman, B. xviii. 392, and Cursor Mundi, 1. 12541. A. S. acelan, originally 
transitive, acolian being the intransitive form. 0. Fris. kela. 

1 Cotgrave gives ' Merlus, a Mel wall or keeling, a kind of small cod, whereof stockfish 
is made.' The Jcelyng appears in the first course of Archb. Nevil's Feast, 6th Edw. IV. 
See Warner's Antiq. Cul. In Havelok, amongst the fish caught by Grim are mentioned, 

' Keling .... and tumberel Hering, and be makerel.' 1. 757. 

' The kelynge and the thornbake, and the gret whalle.' Reliq. Antiq. i. 85. Randle Holme, 
xxiv. p. 334, col. 1, has, 'He beareth Gules a Cod Fish argent, by the name of Codling. 
Of others termed a Stockfish or an Haberdine ; in the North part of this kingdome it is 
called a Keling. In the Southerne parts a Cod, and in the Western parts a Welwell.' 
Mylleivelle occurs in J. Russell's Boke of Nurture, in Babees Boke, p. 38, 1. 555. See 
Jamieson s. v. Keling. ' Kelyng a fysshe, aunon? Palsgrave. 

2 The roe or milt. In the Liber Cure Cocorum, ed. Morris, p. 19, we have a recipe for 
' Mortrews of fysshe,' which runs as follows — 

1 Take J»o kelkes of fysshe anon, And temper J>o brothe fulle welle ]>ou schalle, 

And ]>o lyver of bo fysshe, sethe horn alon ; And welle hit together and serve hit benne 
pen take brede and peper and ale And set in sale before good mene.' 

Moifet & Bennet in their Health's Improvement, 1655, p. 238, say, 'Cods have a Bladder 

in them full of Eggs or Spawn, which the northern men call the Kelk, and esteem it a very 

dainty meat.' Still in use in the North. 

3 Elyot translates reticulum by ' a coyfe or calle, which men or women used to weare on 
theyr heads.' In Arthur's dream, recorded in the Morte Arthure, we are told, 1. 3258, 
that a duchess descended from the clouds 'with kelle and with corenalle clenliche arrayede :' 
and in Wright's Pol. Songs, p. 158, we read ' uncomely under calle? Baret gives ' a caule 
to couer the heare as maydens doe, reticulum, une coeffe ; a caule for the head, crobylon, 
retz de toye, une coiffe? Honnan says, ' Maydens were sylken callis, with the whiche they 
kepe in ordre theyr heare made 3elowe with lye. Puellos reticulis bomhaclnis utuntur, &c? 
1 Corocalla, kalle.' Neckam, De Utens. in Wright's Vocab. p. 101. 

' The hare was of this damycell Knit with ane buttoun in ane goldyn hell? 

G. Douglas, Eneados, vii. p. 237 b . 1. 41. 
Caxton, Boke for Travellers, says: ' Maulde the huuve or calle maker (huuetier) mayn- 
teneth her wisely ; she selleth dere her calles or huues, she soweth them with two semes.' 
See also Reliq. Antiq. i. 41. By the Statute 19 Henry VII., c. 21, it was forbidden to 
import into England ' any maner silke wrought by it selfe, or with any other stuffe in any 
place out of this Realm in Ribbands, Laces, Girdles, Corses, Calles, Corses of Tissues, or 
Points, vpon pain of forfeiture.' Although the caul or kelle w T as chiefly used with refer- 
ence to the ornamental network worn by ladies over their hair, we find it occasionally used 
for a man's skull-cap. Thus in P. Plowman, B. xv. 223, Charity is described as ' ycalled 
and ycrimiled, and his crowne shaue ;' and in Troilus <£• Cressida, iii. 727 : ' inaken hym a 
howue aboue a calle.' 

4 • Kembe your heer that it may sytte backwarde. Come tibi capellum vt sit rclicius? 



vn Kembyd (Kemmyde A.) ; jm- 

comptus, impexus, nudus. 
Kembyd (Kemmyde A.) ; comjrtus, 

*a Kempe * ; vbi a giande. 
A Kemster 2 ; pectinatrix (A.), 
a Kenelle ; ca?iicularium. 
*a Kenit 3 ; caniculus. 
fKentt ; cancia. 
to Kepe ; custodire, seruare,Jilaxare, 

obseruare, re-, custodimus inclusos 

vel vinctos, seruamus asp>ectu, § 

cetera alia. 
fto yif to Kepe ; commendare, depon- 

tthynge yifen to Kepe (a gifBnge to 

Kepe A.) ; commendatum, de- 

a Keper ; custos, cusloditor, samari- 


a Kepyngfi ; custodia, obseruacio cure 
<$>- doctrine fy artls est, obseruancia 
vere cultus, 2>us ; vnde (homines 
in puri meo i. in custodia vel A.) 
illud, cdijs in pure 2>ositis ego 
solus euasi pure, id est custodia. 

*a Kerchife ; Jlammeum, jlammeol- 
Mm, mansora, vitta. 

to Kerve 4 ; scutyere. 

a Kerver ; sculptor, la2)idum vel lig- 
norum, cirononien ciborum est 
coram, domino suo, 

K ante I. 

a Kychyn ; coquina, cenepalium, cu- 

lina> fulina, focaria, popina. 
*a Kidde 5 ; vhi fagott. 
a Kydde of a gayte ; hedulus. 
ta Kyle 6 ; vlcus ; vlcerosus. 
to Kylle ; vbi to slaa. 

1 ' Seinte Beneit, and Semte Antonie, and te o5re wel 3e wuten hu heo weren itented, 
and ])uruli J»e tentaciuns ipreoued to treowe champiuns : and. so mid rihte ofserueden kempene 
crune.' Ancren Riwle, p. 236 : see also ibid. p. 196, Dan Michel's Ayenbite of Inwyt, pp. 
45, 50, G. Douglas, Eneados, Bk. v. p. 139, William of Palerne, 11. 3746, 4029, &c. 

'He Beduer cleopede, balde his Jcnnpe* La3amon, iii. 37. 
In Havelolc, 1. 1036, we are told that *he was for a Jcempe told.' Compare 

' There is no kynge vndire Criste may Jcempe with hym one.' Morte Arthure, 2633. 

• I slue ten thowsand upon a day Of Jcempes in their best aray.' 

A. S. cempa, Icel. Tcempa. Chester Plays, i. 259. 

2 ' Hec pectrix, Kemster.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 194. 'A scolding of Tcempsters, a 
fighting of beggers.' Lydgate, Hors, Shepe & Gkoos, p. 32. ' Kempster, liniere? Palsgrave. 

3 In Morte Arthure, 1. 122, we are told that the Romans 

1 Cowchide as ke?iete$ before the kynge seluyne ;* 
and in the Sevyn Sages, ed. Wright, 1. 1762, we read — 

' Mi lorde hadde a henet fel That he loved swyth wel.' 

' Kenettes questede to quelle,' Reliq. Antiq. ii. *J. See also Anturs of Arthur, st. iv., &c. 
' Hie caniculus, a kenet.' Wright's Vocab. p. 219. 

4 Palsgrave gives 'I kerve as a kerver dothe an ymage, je taille ;' and the Manip. Vocab. 
'to kerue, graue, seulpere^ 

5 Kyds are mentioned in the Whitby Abbey Rolls, 1396. 'Kydde, a fagotte, faloordc.^ 
Palsgrave. * Fo'uace .... a great kid, Bauen, or faggot of small sticks. Foiiees, f. The 
smallest sort of Bauens, Kids.' Cotgrave. Fitzherbert in his Boke of Husbandry, fo. xliii bk . 
recommends the farmer ' to sell the toppes as they lye a great, or els dresse them and sell 
the great woode by it selfe, and the kydde woode by it selfe;' and G. Markham in his 
Country Contentments, 1649, p. 99, says, ' for as much as this fowle [the Heron] is a great 
destruction unto the young spawne or frie of fish, it shall be good for the preservation 
thereof to stake down into the bottome of your ponds good long kids or faggots of brush- 
wood.' Still in use in the North ; see Mr. Peacock's Glossary of Manley & Corringham, 
and Mr. Robinson's Glossary of Whitby. 

6 In the Pricke of Conscience we are told that amongst the other pains of Purgatory 

' Som, for envy, sal haf in J)air lyms, Als kylles and felouns and apostyms. ' 1. 2994. 

Halliwell quotes a recipe from Line. Med. MS. leaf 283, for the cure of ' kites in the eres.' 
* Mak it righte hate, and bynde it on a clathe, and bynde it to the sare, and it sal do it 
away or garre it togedir to a kite.'' Ibid, leaf 300. ' A kyle, bilis.'' Manip. Vocab. See 
also Reliq. Antiq. i. 53, and Wright's Vol. of Vocab. pp 207, 224. O. Icel. Ictfli. 



a Kyllne ; cerealiiim, vstvina, tor ale,. 

*a Kylpe (Kelpe A.) of a caldron ! ; 

tto Kylte 2 ; subcercinare vel suffer- 
cinare, succingere. 

A Kyninelle 3 ; Amula (A.). 

Kynde ; gratus, gratuitus, S,' cetera ; 
vbi lara'e. 

fvn Kynde ; Adulterinus, jngrntus, 
now naturalis, ignobilis, degener 
correpto -ge-, deg[e\nus. 

tto be vn Kynde, or to go oute 
kynde ; degenerare, degerminare. 

towt of Kynde ; deginev, degenus 

a Kynde ; genus, geneus, fisis gYece 
natura est, species. Sed deffer- 
uut genus Sf species, quia omnia 
animalia sunt eiusdem genevjs, 
sed non eiusdem. speciei, quia 
differuut in specie ; nam alia est 
species hum&na, alia leonina, alia 

+Kyndly ; naturalis ; naturraliter 

to Kyndelle; Accendere,jnjlammare. 

fa Kyndyller; incensor,incendiarius. 

Kyndyllynge ; incendens, jncentiuus 

a Kynge ; basilios grece, basilius, 
lar, magus, rex, regulus diminu- 
tiuum/ regalis, regius ; Christe. 

a Kyngdome ; regio, regnum, fines, 
ora, regionarius ; (versus : 
HiAspirans hoi*am tempus tihi 
Si ?ioii aspiras limen notat ac 
regionem A.). 

fa Kynghouse ; basilica, regia. 

fa Kyngfs crye ; edictum. 

fa Kyngfs crowne. 

a Kyngis purse ; fiscus ; fiscalis p&r- 

a Kynredyngg (Kynderyng A.) 4 ; 
cognacio, consanguenitas, contri- 
bulatas, contribulis, genus, geneo- 
logia, genimen, genesis, generacio, 
indoles, parentela, progenies, />ro- 
sapia, st\i\rp>s, sanguis, soboles, 

1 Ray's Glossary gives ' Kilps, pot-hooks/ and also 'pot-cleps, pot-hooks.' ' One brasse 
pot with kilpes^ is mentioned in the Inventory of John Nevil of Faldingworth, 1 590 ; and 
in Ripon, Fab. Roll, 1425-6, we find ' Item, pro uno kylpe de ferro j d .' A. S. clyppan, to 
clasp, grasp. In the Will of Matt. Witham, 1545, pr. in Eichmondshire Wills, &c, Sur- 
tees Soc. xxvi. p. 56, the testator bequeaths ' to the said hares of Bretanby on challes, 
bukes, and vestyments, and all other ornaments belonging to the chapell, also a mellay 
pott with a kylp, a chaffer, a brewyng leyyd. with all vessell belonging to the same ; and 
my wyffe to have the chaffer during her lyffe.' See also p. 31, where are mentioned ' iij 
rekyngs, ij pare of pot kylpes, and a pare of tanges ;' and p. 249 : ' iron Mlpes, xvi d .' 

2 To tuck up clothes, &c. Danish Kilte, to truss, tuck up. Gawain Douglas gives the 
following rendering of Virgil, iEneid i. 320 — 

' With wind waffing hir haris lowsit of trace, Hir skirt kiltit till hir bare knee,' 
p. 23, ed. 1710, the original Latin being — ' Nuda genu, nodoque sinus collecta flaentes* 

3 The same as P. Kymlyne. A large tub made of upright staves hooped together in the 
manner of a cask. They are used for salting meat in, for brewing, and such like purposes. 
Littleton in his Lat. Diet. 1735, has 'Kimling in Lincolnshire, ora kimnel, as they term 
it in Worcestershire, vas coquendce cerevicice.' ' One mashfatt, tow wort vessells, one longe 
kymmell, one round kymnell, one steepfatt, one clensing sive i 11 ,' occur in Inventory of 
Edmond Waring of Wolverhampton, in Proceed. Soc. Antiq., April 29, 1875 : anc * m the 
Inventory of Richard Allele of Sealthorp, 1551, we find, 'on led and kemnel & a pair of 
mustard werns, vj s viij f1 .' ' Kymnell, quevue, quevuette.' Palsgrave. Holland in his trans. 
of Pliny, Bk. xv. c. 6, speaks of ' pans and panchions of earth, or els vessels or kimnels of 
lead,' and the word also occurs in Beaumont & Fletcher, The Coxcomb, Act iv. s. 8 — 

'She's somewhat simple, Indeed; she knew not what a kimnel was.' 

' A kimnel or kemlin : a poudering Tub.' Ray's North Country Words. The term is still 
in use. 

4 See note to Hatreden, above. 



a Kyrke ; A trium, templum, monas- 
terium, delubrum, fanum, ba- 
silica, eccletia, sacellum,sin,syon; 
versus : 
^Nobis ecclesia datur, hebreis 
synogoga : 
(Mlios caput huic, sin <$- gogos 
caput Mi A.). 
fa Kyrkegarthe * ; cimitorium, poli- 

andrum, Atrium. 
tAKyrne 2 ; Cimba, Jiscina (A.). 
*a Kyrnelle ; enuclea, granum, nucle- 
*to Kyrnelle ; gr&nare, granere, gra,- 

nescere incho&tiuum. 
*a Kyrtelle ; vhi a cote, 
to Kysse ; osculari, basiare. 
a Kyssynge ; basiuni pietatis est quod 
vxori datur, osculum Amicicie, 
suauium. luocurie quod datur 2^0 
scorto ; vnde versus : 
^Basia couiugibus sed oscula 
daiituv amic'is, 
Suauialasciuis miscentur grata 

fa Kyste ; cista, Sc cetera ; vhi A 

+to Kytylle 3 ; titillare. 
fa Kytyllynge ; titillaclo. 
tKytillynge ; titillans. 
*a Kytlynge (A Kittyllyng A.) 4 ; 

catulus, catulaster. 

K ante N. 

ta Knage 5 . 

*a Knafe ; calcula, gar do. 

to Knawe ; Agnoscere, Amplecti, cog~ 
noscere, noscere, di-, per-, discere, 
scire, sciscere, videre. 

tto not Knawe ; ignorare, nescire 
vel quod factum est nou recordari, 
obliuisci, nescire omni noticia 
carere, ignoscere, Sf cetera; vhi 
to forgett (cum versibus A.). 

tKnawynge; scius, sciolus. 

fKnawe before (Knawinge before 
A.) ; presagus, p^escius. 

tKnawynge ille ; conscms. 

a Knawlege ; nota, noticia, presci- 
encia, specimen, experimentum. 

1 ' Hoc semitorium, atrium, a kirkjerd 
Vocab. pp. 231, 273 

Hoc atrium, a kyrkejerde.' Wright's Vol. of 
To bidden forr J>e sawle.' Ormulum, 15254. 

' To birr3enn 3uw i hirrkegcerd, 
In the Life of Beket, 1. 21 17, we find — 

' He nas worthe to beon ibured in churche ne in chu,rch}erd.' 
'In kyrhe^arde men wolde hym nout delve.' Seven Sages, 1. 2482. 
A. S. cyrceiwrd, which occurs in the Chronicles, anno 11 37, ' nouther circe ne circeicerd? 
ed. Earle, p. 262. Cemetery first occurs in Capgrave's Chronicle, p. 67. 

2 ' Hec antlpera, kyrne.' Wright's Vocab. p. 202. ' Hoc valatorium, a scharne. Hoc 
coagidatorium, a scharnestafe.' ibid. p. 268. A. S. ceren, cyrn. 

3 Still in use in the North ; see Mr. Robinson's Gloss, of Whitby, &c. Gawin Douglas 
has — ' Quhen new curage Tcytlys all gentill hartis.' Prologue of xii. Bk. of Eneid, 229 ; see 
also ibid. Bk. v. p. 156. A. S. citelian, Icel. Tcitla. ' She taryed a space of tyme and felt 
hym and Jcetild hym and wolde haue drawen hym to her entente.' Caxton, Golden Legende, 
fo. 265. ' Kitelung, titillatio.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 289. See Halliwell, p. 496. 

4 MS. Kythynge. 'Hie catellus, a cytlyng.' Wright's Vocab. p. 251. '■Hie caiulus, 
catellus, a ky tylyng ;' ibid. The word, as will be seen from the examples below, was applied 
to the young of various animals. In the Early Eng. Psalter, ed. Stevenson, in Ps. lvi. 5, 
occurs ' fra pe Mtelinges of liouns,' and in Ps. xvi. 1 2, ' Als lioun kitelinge ' [catulas leonis]. 
' Thenne saide the sarpent, " I am a beste and I have here in myn hole Jcytlingis that I have 
browt forthe," ' Gesta Romanorum, p. 243. ' For the podagra. Take an oulde fat Goose, pra> 
pare her as if you would roast her : the take a Mtlinne or yong catt, flea it, cast away the 
heade and entralles therof,&contund the flesh therof in a morter.' A. M. TheBoocJcofPhysicJce 
of Doctf- Oswaldus Gabelhour, 1 599, p. 192. ' Kytlyng, chatton.' Palsgrave. Mr. Peacock 
in his Glossary of Manley, &c, gives as still in use, * Kittle, to bring forth young ; said of 
cats :' and ' Kittlin, a kitten.' 

5 Used for a crag, as well as a stud or peg for hanging anything on. Thus in Syr 
Gowghter, 1. 194 — ' He made prestes and clerkes, to lepe on cragges, 

Menkes and freres to hong on Jcnagges ;' 



to Knawlege ; fateri, confiteri, mani- 
festare ; versus : 
^Cowfiteor sjwnte, fateor mea 
facta coactus 1 . 
a Knawlegynge ; confess io, fassio ; 
versus : 
*\Si cor non ori concordet fassio 
a Kne ; genu, genicidum cfo'minutiu- 

to Knede ; jnterere, pindere, pinsere, 

pinsare, pinsitare. 
ta Knedynge trothe (trowe A.) 2 ; 

mag\s, pinsa. 
to Knelle (Knele A.) ; geniculari, 
ad-, in-, re-, genuari, flectere, 
suffraginari, genujlectere. 
a Kneler ; genicularius, in-. 
a Knelynge ; suffraginacio, genuflec- 

c\o, prostracio. 
a Knyffe (Knyfe A.) ; cultellus ; ver- 
sus : 
%Artauos 3 , kinpulos, adiunge 
nouacula, cultros, 

Cultellosque, spalas, rasoria 
iungimus istis. 
fa Knyche 4 ; fasciculus, Sf cetera ; 

vbi a burdyn. 
*a Knyghte ; miles, quiris ; versus : 
^\Miles, eques, tiro, tirunculus 
a^que quirltes, 
At(\ue neoptolomus nouus est 
regnator in jstis. 
militaris />ar£icipium ; milito, co- 
a Knygh[t]ede ; milicia, or A cheve- 

ta Knyghte wyffe ; militissa. 
to Knytte ; nectere, ad-, con-, sub-, 
Alligare, ^cetera; vbi to bynde. 
to Knoke ; pulsare, pulsitare, tun- 

a Knokylle ; condulus; condilomati- 

*a Knoppe of a kne ; jnternodium. 
*a Knoppe of a scho 5 ; bulla. 
*to Knoppe ; bullare. 
*Knoppyd; bullatus. 

and in Le Bone Florence, 1. 1795 — 

1 Take here the golde in a bagg, At the schypp borde ende.' 

1 schall hyt hynge a hnagg, 
Knaged with the meaning of studded occurs in Sir Gawayne, 1. 577 — 'Polayne3 lenaged 
wyth knote3 of golde.' See also Destruction of Troy, 4972. Huloet has ' Knagge, Scopulus. 
Knaggy e, or full of knagges. Scopulosus.' 

1 See P. Be A-knowe a-geyne wylle, or be constreynynge, where the same distinction is 
drawn between fateor and confiteor. 

2 Baret gives ■ a kneading-trough, also a rundle, or rolling pinne, that they vse to knead 
withall, magis, pollux, &c. un may a pestrir pain, c'est aussi vne table rounde, ou vne 
rondeau de pastissier.' 

3 l Artavus. Cultellus acuendis calamis scriptoriis.' Ducange. 'A Barbar's Raser. 
Nouacula.' Baret. 

* 'Fasciculus. A gripe, or handfull bounde together. Librorum fasciculusHor. Afardell 
or little packe of bookes.' Cooper. 

' Bynde}) hem in knucchenus forjn To brenne lyk to licchi.' 

The XI Pains of Helle, printed in An Old Fng. Miscell. ed. Morris, p. 225. 1. 77. 
0. Eng. Jcnicche, knysche (in Wyclif ), knoclie, knucche, cnucche. The A. S. (which would 
probably have been cnysce) does not occur so far as I am aware, though we find other 
words of the same stem. In Middle German it is knucke, knocke ; Mod. Ger. knocke. 
In the Romance of Richard Coer de Lion, pr. in Weber's Metr. Rom. ii. 1. 2985, the 
Saracens, in order to cross a dyke to get at the Christians, 

• Kast in knohches off hay, To make horsmen a redy way.' 
Wyclif, Works, ed. Arnold, i. 97, has, ' Gidere 3e first pes tares togidere and bynde J»em in 

knytchis pes good angels shal bynde Cristes enemyes in knytchis? So too in his 

version of St. Matthew xiii. 30 : ' First gedre 3ee to gedre dernels (or cockilis) and byndeth 
hem togidre in knytchis (or small bundelis,) for to be brent.' 

5 In the Coventry Mysteries, p. 245, * ij doctorys' are represented as wearing' on here 
hedys a furryd cappe, with a gret knop in the crowne,' and in a recipe for 'Custanes,' given 
in the Liber Cure Cocorum, p. 39, is a direction to lay on the top a ■ yolke of egge .... 



A Knotte ; ligamen, nodus, nodulxxs, 
7iexus, oculus ; (versus : 
^\Est oculus nodus, oculus quo 
cernimus omnes : 

Et duplex primo, seel simplex 
scribituv ymo A.). 
Knotty ; condilomaticus \ nodosus, 

Ca,pitulum ll m Ii. 

L ante A. 
to Labor ; vhi to wyrke. 
a Labur ; vhi trawelle. 
a Lace 2 ; balthews, {laqueus, laqueare 

a Ladde ; vhi a knaffe. 
a Layde : ; vhi a burdyli. 
to Layd ; sarcinare. 
a Laddyr ; scala, Sf cetera ; vhi a 

fa Layd sadylle 4 ; gestatorium, ges- 


a Ladylle 5 ; hausorium, 

fa Ladylle for yettynge 6 ; fusorium. 

Lady ; domina, hera, kirea, Sf cetera ; 
versus : 
*&Est hera vel domina, mulier, 
matrona, virago. 

a Lafe ; hie panis, paniculas ; pano- 
ses, paniosus. 

to Laghe 7 ; riders, arridere, corrid- 

Laghande(Lawghande X.);risibilis. 

a Laghynge ; risus ; ridens. 

that hard is so]>un .... As hit were a gyldene hnop.' See also P. Plowman, C. ix. 293, 
Sir Degrevant, 1. 1494, Wyclif, Exodus xxvi. 11, &c. In Pierce the Ploughman's Crede, 1. 
424, the Ploughman is described as wearing ' Jcnopped schon, clouted full bykke.' ' Hoc 
internodium, the knope of the kne.' Wright's Vocab. p. 208. 

1 That is, afflicted with the gout. Ducange gives ' Condilus, Papiae in MS. Bituric. est 
Nodus. Inde Condilogmatica passio, id est, nodositas manuum, & Condilo, as, Pugnis 
cosdo : Condilomata, id est, glandular. Hsec a graeco K6v8v\os, Digiti articulus et junctura.' 
Cooper renders Condylus by ' The roundnesse or knots of the bones in the knee, ancle, 
elbow, knuckles, &c.,' with which Baret agrees. ' Condilomatica passio, i. nodositas, in- 
firmitas. Condilomaticus, a knokkyd. Nodositas, Knottyhede.' Medulla. 

2 Chaucer in the Canon's Yeoman's Prologue, 574, has — 'His hat heng at his bak doun 
by a laas? See also Knighte's Tale, 1093 and 1646. The word was also used for the cord 
which held a mantle. Thus in Ipomydon, 326, the knight is represented as loosening his 
mantle by drawing the cord — 

' He toke the cuppe of the botelere, And drew a lace of sylke full clere, 
Adowne than felle hys mantylle by.' 
In the Romance of Sir Ferumbras, 1. 9163, we read of Gwenelon — 

1 Ys helm on is hed sone he caste, And let him lacye wel and faste.' 
' A lace, fibula.' Manip. Vocab. 0. Fr. las, laz from Lat. laqueus, a noose. From the 
Spanish form of the same word comes our lasso. See Lase. In the Inventory of the 
property of Sir J. Fastolf, already referred to, we find — ' Item, j clothe arras, with a 
gentlewoman holding j lace of silke, and j gentlewoman a hauke.' Paston Letters, i. 479; 
and again, 'j hode of damaske russet, with j typpet fastyd with a lase of silke.' See the 
quotation from Trevisa's Higden, s. v. Lanjer, below. 

3 'A lade, onus.' Manip. Vocab. Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, 3418, has — 

' De minimis granis fit Als of many smale cornes es made 

Maxima summa caballo. Til a hors bak a mykel lade.'' 

A. S. hlad, hladan, to load. O. Icel. hla^Sa, to heap. 

4 A saddle for a horse carrying a load or burthen on its back. 

5 A. S. hlosdel (?), the handle of a windlass for drawing water ; from hladan, to load, 
draw. In the Prologue to the Manciples Tale, Chaucer says, 'Alas! henadde holde him 
by his ladel ;' i. e. why did he not stick to his business ? ' Metorium, ladylle.' Wright's 
Vocab. p. 178. ' Ligula. A scummer or ladell.' Cooper. 6 See 5©tt, below. 

7 In the Pricke of Conscience, 1. 1092, we are told that it is dangerous for a man to love 
the world — ' For \>e world laghes on man and smyles, But at \>e last it him bygyles.' 

For other examples see Stratmann. A. S. hlehhan, Gothic hlahjan. 


fto Layne l ; Abscondere, celare 

(occultare A.), 6f cetera; vhi to 

*to Lakk (Lade A.) 2 ; deprauare, Sf 

cetera ; vhi to blame, 
a Lambe (Lame A.) ; Agnus, Ag- 

nellus, Agna, Agnella ; Agninus. 
fa Lanipe ; lampas, lantyada. 

fa Lampray 3 ; mvrena, mvrenula 

a Lampron ; murenula. 
a Lande ; terra ; terrenus, Sf cetera ; 

vhi erthe. 
ta Lande lepar 4 ; jnquilinus. 
a Langage ; lingua, idiomata {idi- 

oma A.). 

1 In the Morte Arthure, 1. 419, Arthur bids the messenger 

' Gret wele Lucius, thi lorde, and layne noghte thise wordes :' 
and again, 1. 2593, Sir Gawayne asks the strange knight to tell his name, and 'layne 
noghte the sothe.' See also William of Palerne, 11. 906,918, and 1309, &c. The p.p. 
occurs in the Pricke of Conscience, 5999 — ' Whar nathyng sal be hid ne laynd.' 0. Icel. 
leyna. Ray (Gloss, of North Country Words) gives 'Lean, vb. "to lean nothing," to con- 
ceal nothing ;' and 'Laneing, sb. " they will give it no laneing," i. e. they will divulge it.' 
A common expression in the old romances is ' the sothe is not to layne,' i. e. ' the truth is 
not to be hid.' In the Avowynge of Kyng Arthur, st. lxx. appears the proverbial expression, 
'mete laynes mony lakke.' ' Wil i noght leyne mi priuite.' Cursor Mundi, 2738. 

2 Amongst the other signs of approaching death Hampole says that a man 

' Loves men £at in aid time has bene, He lahkes J>a men ]>at now are sene.' 

Pricke of Conscience, 797 ; 
and Robert of Brunne says that 

' Ever behynde a manys bake With ille thai fynde to hym a lake.' 

Dutch laecken, to be wanting, blame, accuse, from la,ck, laecke, want, fault, blame. Swedish 
lak, blame, vice. In the ' Lytylle Children's lytil boke' (Harl. MS. 541) pr. in the Babees 
Boke, ed. Furnivall, p. 269, children are told to 

• Drynk behynde no mannes bakke, For yf f»ou do, thow art to lakke? 

3 In the Liber Cure Cocorum, p. 25, will be found receipts for ' lamprayes in browet,' 
and ' lamprayes in galentine ;' the first of which is as follows — 

• Take lamprayes and scalde hom by kynde, Peper and safrone ; welle hit with alle, 
Sythyn, rost hom on gredyl, and grynde Do \>o lampreyes and serve hit in sale ;' 

and on p. 38 is another receipt for ' lamprayes bakun.' In the Hengrave Household 
Accounts is this entry, ' for presenting a lamprey pye vj d .' ' Item, the xiiij day of Janu- 
ary [1503] to a servant of the Pryour of Lanthony in reward for bryngyng of two bakyn 
laumpreys to the Quene, v s .' Nicholas' Eliz. of York and Glossary. Wyclif in his Prologue 
to Job, p. 671, says : ' Also forsothe al the boc anent the Ebrues is seid derc and slidery, 
and that the cheef spekeris of Grekis clepen defaute of comun maner of speche, whil other 
thing is spoken and other thing is don ;' as if thou woldest an eel or a laumprun holde 
with streite hondis, how myche strengeili thou thristis, so mychethe sunnereit shal gliden 
away.' ■ Lampurne. Gallaria.' Huloet. 'A lampron, murena.' Manip. Vocab. Baret 
gives ' a lampurne, gallaria, lampetra, lamprillon.' Under ' How several sorts of Fish are 
named, according to their Age or Growth,' p. 324-5, Randle Holmes gives — 'A Lamprey, 
first a Lampron Grigg, then a Lampret, then a Lamprell, then a Lamprey. A Lampron, 
first a Barle, then a Barling", then a Lamprell, and then a Lamprey or Lampron' * Ljam- 
prons and Lampreys differ in bigness only and in goodness ; they are both a very sweet 
and nourishing meat .... The little ones called Lamprons are best broil'd, but the great 
ones called Lampreys are best baked.' Muffett, pp. 181, 3. See also Household Ord. p. 
449 and Babees Book, ed. Furnivall, Gloss, s. v. Lampum. ' Hec muprena. A , lamprune. 
Hec lampada, A , lampray. Hec merula. A , lamprone.' Wright's Vocab. p. 189. This 
and the following word are repeated in the MS., see p. 210, below. 

4 ' Landlouper, an adventurer ; one who gains the confidence of the community, and 
then elopes without paying his debts. A vendor of nostrums ; a quack. In a book three 
centuries old, Landleaper signifies a landmeasurer ; but the commoner meaning was a 
vagabond and wanderer.' Robinson's Gloss, of Whitby. The word was also used for a 
pilgrim, as in P. Plowman, B. xv. 208 : ' He ne is nou3te in lolleres, ne in lande-leperes 
hermytes :' see also ibid. C. vii. 329. Cotgrave has 'Villotier, a vagabond, landloper, 
earth-planet, continual gadder from town to town.' Howell in his Instructions for 



Lange; Altus, longus, longiturnus, 
diiUumua, longeuus etate, macros 
grece, fwrseucrans, perseuerabi/is, 
2>rolixus, stilon grece, telon grece, 
diu, aliqwandiu, diutinus, dis- 
2)endiosus, longum Sf invtile. 

tto make Lange ; extender e, longare, 
2>ro-, producer e, celare, ^>ro-. 

to be Lange to (to Lange to A.) ; 
2>ertinere, concernere, est, erat. 

fa Lang fynger ; medius, versus ; 
(versus : 
*\\Qui monstrat verjmm, versus 
now diligit ipsum A.). 

fLange and vn-profitabylle ; dis- 

a Lanterne ; crucibulum, lucerna, la- 

*a Lan}er 1 ; ligula, subligar, 

*to Lanjere ; ligulare. 

*to Lappe 2 ; voluere, con-, (intricare 

*to Lapp jn ; jnlricare, involucre. 

*a Lappynge jn; jnvoluc'w; jnvolueus 

a Lappe of y e ere 3 ; cartilagia, legia. 

a Larde ; lardum. 

a Larderere; lardarius. 

a Lardere ; lard avium, lardum, lar- 

to make La[r]der ; lardare. 

a Lare 4 ; doctrina, documentum. 

to make Large ; vbi to make brode. 

Large ; Anglos, benificus, dajisilis in 
da])ibus, dajricvis, gratis, largus, 
largifluns, largisculus, liber, liber- 
alis, latus, collatiuus, generosus, 
munificus, profusua, spaciosus, 
vastus, Sf cetera. 

fLarge of mete (mett A.) ; dajricus, 

vn Large ; illeberalis. 

Largely ; largiter vel large, Ample 5 

Forraine Travell, 1642, repr. 1869, p. 67, says of the Munchausen-like travellers of his 
time that ' such Travellers as these may bee termed Land-lopers, as the Dutchman saith, 
rather than Travellers? See Jamieson, s. v. Landlouper, and Dr. Morris on the Survival 
of Early Eng. Words in our Present Dialects, E. D. Soc. p. II. Lyte, Dodoens, p. 348, 
speaking of the use of White Hellebore or Nesewurt in medicine, says that it must be 
taken ' with good heede and great aduisement. For such people as be either to yong or to 
old, or feeble, or spit blood, or be greeued in their stomackes, whose breastes are straight 
and narrowe, and their neckes long, suche feeble people may by no meanes deale with it, 
without ieobardie and danger. Wherfore these landleapers, Poges, and ignorant Asses, 
which take vpon them without learning and practise do very euill.' 

1 ' Ligulas, Gallice lasnieres.' Diet. J. de Garlande in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 124. 
Compare pwong, below. ' Lanyer of lether, lasniere.' Palsgrave. Trevisa in his trans, of 
Higden, v. 369, says that the Lombards ' usede large clones and longe, and specialliche 
lynnen clones, as Englisshe Saxons were i-woned to use, i-hijtwith brood laces i-weve with 
dyvers coloures : ]>ey used hije schone unto )>q kne i-slitte to fore, and i-laced wij? j?wonges, 
hire hosen tilled to the hamme, i-teyed wi]> layners al aboute [corrigiati]? 

2 In the Gesta Romanorum, p. 103, we find, ' I am a thef lappid with swiche a synne 
and swiche a cryme;' the Lat. being involutus, and the Addit. MS. 9066 reading 'wrappid.' 
So also ibid. p. 1 29 and Lonelich's Hist, of the Holy Grail, ed. Furnivall, xlv. 690. ' I lappe 
in clothes. Jenueloppe and jaffuble. Lappe this chylde well, for the weather is colde. I 
lappe a garment about me. Je me affable de cest habit. Lappe this hoode aboute your heed.' 
Palsgrave. ' And whanne the bodi was takun, Joseph lappide it in a clene sendel, and 
leide it in his newe biriel.' Wyclif, Matth. xxvii. 59. 'Lappe about. Voluo. Lappe vp. 
Plico. Lapped. Plicatus ; plicatilis, that which may be lapped or folden.' Huloet. 
1 Voluo, to turne or lappyn.' Medulla. 

3 Baret has 'laps of the lites or lunges, fibre pulmonis? 'Lappe of the eare, lobus.* 
Huloet. 'Lap of the ere, legia.' Wright's Vocab. p. 183. 'Lappe of the Ear. Auricula. 
The lug of the Ear. Auris lobus, auricula infima.' Coles. 

4 Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, 6468, declares the pains of hell to be such that no man 

' pat ever was, or }>at lyfes 3hitt, Could noght telle ne shew thurgh larc? 
A. S. Idre. 

5 MS. Ampla. 



a Largenes ; Amplitudo, benificencia, 

(h/psilitas, generositas, gratitudo, 

largitas, liberalitas, munificencia. 
a Larke ; Alauda, cirris, laud a. 
a Lase (Lasse A.) ' ; laqueus. 
to Lase ; laqueare. 
tLased ; laqueatus. 
*a Lastage or fraghte of a schippe 2 ; 

a Laste of a sowter 3 ; formula, for- 

rnella, formipedia, galla, equitibi- 

ale 2>i'o ocreis. 
to Laste ; durare, in-, j^er-, £>ersewer- 

are, subsistere. 
Laste; extremus,extimus, nouissimus, 

suppvemus, summus, § cetera, 
tto make Laste ; extvemare. 
Laste save 4 on ; penultimus. 
to Latt ; dimittere, exeuclare, pati, 

permittere, sinere, con-. 

tto Latt downe ; dimittere. 

to Latt to ferine ; locare, dimittere 

a Latte 5 ; Asser, latha, scindula, 

scindulus, geuetiuo -li. 
Late ; serus, serotinus, tardus, vesper- 

tto make Late ; serotinare. 
tLate ripe ; serotinus, tardus 6 . 
tLater ; posterus, posterior. 
*a Lathe 7 ; Apoiheca, horreum. 
Lathe ; Aduersarius, emulus, exosus, 

odiosus (inuisus A.), 
to Lathe ; vbi to vgge. 
fa Lathynge ; Abhominacio, detestacio, 

fLathynge ; Abhominaus, detestans, 

§ cetera. 
Lathesome ; vbi vgsome. 
Latyn ; latinum, latinus. 

1 'Lo, alle thise folk i-caught were in hire las? Chaucer, Knighte's Tale, 1093. 

' Here after bou schalte wit it wele when bou sehalle be halden in hir laces.' Pilgrimage 
of the Lyf of the Manhode, MS. John's Coll. Camb. leaf 128 bk. See also Lace. ' pat 
man .... enlace]) hym in be cheyne wib vvhiche be may be drawen.' Chaucer, Boelhius, 
p. r 3 ; see also p. 80. Caxton in his Golden Legende, fo. 99, says : ' In thende she had 
counseyl of a Jewe whyche gaaf to hir a rynge wyth a stone, and that she shold bynde 
this rynge with a laas to her baar Sesslie.' ' Lace. Fibula, laqueus. Lace of a cappe or 
hatte. Spira? Huloet. The word is used by Spenser, Muiopotmos, 427, in the original 
sense of snare. 

2 'Ballesse or lastage for shippes, sa& urra. Lastaged or balased, saburratus? Huloet. See 
Fraghte, above, p. 141, and Liber Albus, pp. 130, 659. In Arnold's Chronicle, 1384, p. 17, 
ed. 181 1, the following is given : ' IJ The xi. ar. This also we haue grauntyd that alle the 
citezens of London be quyt off toll and lastage and of all oder custume by alle our landis 
of this half the see and beyonde.' Span, lastre, ballast. 

3 ' A shoemaker's last. Mustricula? Baret. ' Last for shoes. Galla, formula? Huloet. 
4 Laste for a shoo, forrme? Palsgrave. ' Hail be $e sutlers wij) 5our mani testes.'' Early 
Eng. Poems and Lives of Saints, xxxiv. 13. i MS. seve. 

5 This word probably meant something more than we at present understand by a lath ; 
the latin asser meaning a plank. In the Nominale of 15th Cent. (pr. in Wright's Vol. 
of Vocab.) we find 'a latt, asser? According to Wilbrahani's Cheshire Glossary the word 
lat is still used in Lancashire and Cheshire to signify a lath. See also Peacock's Glossary 
of Manley and Corringham. 'Lathe. Asserculi, assiculi? Huloet. A.S. Icetta or latta 
(Aelfric's Glossary in Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 26). Cf. Burde, above. See H. Best's 
Farming, d-c. Book, pp. 16, 148. 6 MS. cordus ; corrected by A. 

7 Chaucer in the Reeve's Tale, 4008, has ' Why ne hadst thou put the capell in the 
lathe f and again, in the IJous of Fame, ii. 1050, 'alle the sheves in the lathe.' 'HoiTcum, 
locus ubi reponitur annona, a barne, a lathe.' Ortus Vocab. Huloet gives ' Lathes berne 
or graunge. Horreum. Lathes without the walles of a citie. Suburbanunt? In the Story 
of Genesis and Exodus, 1. 2134, Joseph addressing Pharaoh says — 

' Ic rede ft'e king, nu her bi-foren, To maken lafies and gaderen coren ;' 

and in the 14th Cent. Metrical Homilies, p. 146, the ' hosband ' orders his servants — 
' Gaderes the darnel first in bande, And brennes it opon the land, 
And scheres sithen the corne rathe, And bringes it unto my lathe? 
H. Best in his Fanning, d-c. Book, 1641, p. 36, uses the form * hay death ;' see also Itich- 
mondshire Wills, d-c. pp. 101, 247, &c. 



a Latyfi ; latinitas. 

tLattely (Lately A.) ; nuper, tarde, 

+to Latt to hyre ; locare, locitare. 
*Laton ! ; Auricalcum. 
tLavage ; prodigus (A.). 
Lavandre ; lauaudria, lauendula. 
+a Lavatory ; lauatorium, sacr&ri- 

uw., limpharium. 
tLatly j nuper, t&rde, sero ; versus : 
*[Sero sit Aduerbium, serus t&r- 
dusque notatur, 
Serius vtilis est, hec seria dici- 

tur Aula, 
Est ordo series, die esse cer- 

Mm^ue liquorem, 
Hec sera ferrum quo claudim- 
us liostia Jirme. 
a Lavyr 2 ; lauacrum, luter, de luo 

tLaurence ; laurencius, women pro- 

Lawe (Lawghe A.) ; imus, ceruulus, 
bassus, inclinatus, de2)ressus, sub- 
missus <$f comparatur i. 

a Lawe ; fas est lex humana, jus est 
lex diuina : versus contr&rius 
quern ponit hugo ; versus : 
%Ius est humana lex, sed fas 
esto diuina. 
conditio, lex. 

+a Law berer ; legifer : oute of 
lawe ; exlex. 

Lawfulle; legalis, licitus. 

Lawfully; licite, legaliter. 

a Lawyowr ; Adagonista, Asecretis, 
indeclmabile, aresponsis, inde- 
clinabife, canonista, causidicus, 
decretista 3 , juridicus 4 , juriscon- 
sultus, jurisperitus, legista, scviba. 

Lawly ; vbi mekely (meke A.). 


A lawmpray 5 ; murena. 

A lawmpron 5 ; murenida. 

a Lance; hastile, <$•• cetera; vb^aspere. 

a Lawnce for A wounde ; lanciola 

*a Lawnde 6 ; sa^us. 

*a Lawnder (lawnderer A ) 7 ; can- 
didaria, lotvix. 

1 Amongst the articles enumerated in the Inventory of the property of Sir J. Fastolf, we 
find • Item, j chafern of laten .... Item, j hangyng candystyk of laton ;' and again, in 
the Bottre, ' xiij candylstykkys of laton.' Paston Letters, i. pp. 486, 488. Shakspere speaks 
of a ' latten bilbo.' Merry Wives, I. i. 

2 ' Laver to washe at, lavoyr.' Palsgrave. 

1 And fulle glad, certys, thou schalt bee, To holde me a lavour and bason to my honde.' 
Yff that y wylle suffur the MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, leaf 144. 

' Hoc lavatorium, A e , laworre.' Wright's Vocab. p. 197. 'A laver or an ewer out of which 
water is poured upon the hands to wash them, guttus, esquiere.' Baret. 'A lauer, lauacrum, 
imbrex.' Manip. Vocab. In John Russell's Boke of Nurture (pr. in the Babees Book, E. 
E. Text Soc. ed. Furnivall), p. 16, 1. 232, instructions are given to provide ' py Ewry borde 
with basons and lauour, water hoot and colde, eche o])er to alay.' See Cotgrave, s. v. 
esquiere, and Reliq. Antiq. i. 7. 3 MS. deorcretista. 

4 MS. piridlcus : correctly in A. 5 In the margin. 

6 An open space in the middle of a wood. In the Morte Arthure, 1. 151 7, we read — 

' O-lawe in the launde thane, by the lythe stande3, 
Sir Lucius lygge-mene loste are fore euer :' 
and in 1. 1 768 occurs 'laundone,' which is explained in the Gloss, as ' field,' with a reference 

to Roquefort — * Landon, petite lande, paturage ; terres remplies de broussailles.' 

Dan Michel in the Ayenbite, p. 216, speaks of ' pe fole wyfmen J)at guo]> mid stondinde 
nhicke ase hert ine launde.' 

' Alle lyst on hir lik ])at am on launde beste.' Allit. Poems, B. 1000. 
' He lokid ouer a lawnd.' Song of Roland, 99. 
In Sir Degrevant (Camden Soc. ed. Halliwell), 1. 239 we have — 

' One a launde by a ley, These lordus dounne lyght.' 

Baret gives ' a lawnd in woodes, saltus nem^orum.' 

7 ' Lauandaia, a launder that wassheth clothes.' Thomas, Ital. Diet. 1550. 'Launder, 
or woman washer. Lotrix.' Huloet. ' Hie candidarim, A , lawnder.' Wright's Vocab. 
p. 194. 



Lariellc ; laurus, ^enitiuo lauri vel 
-us; laurius. 

L ante E. 

a Lee ; mendaciam, comtnentum, fig- 
ment am, mendaciohom. 

To lee ; meutiri, commentari, com- 
minisci, comjyonere, delirare, deui- 
are, fingeve. 

*Lee ; lixiuum, locium. 

fa Ley, or a sythe 1 ; falx, falcicula. 

*a Leche 2 ; Aliptes, empiricij, medi- 
cus, drurgieus. 

*A Leche 3 ; quidam cibus (A.). 

*a Leche house ; laniena giiia infir- 
mi ibi laniantur. 

Lechery 4 ; Adulterium, cortus, for- 
nicac'w, inmundicia, inmundicies, 
inpudicicia, lasciuia, lecacitas, 
lenocinatus, lenocinium, libido, 
luxuria, luxuries, luxus, mechacio, 
mechia, peculancia ; versus : 
% Act u, luxuria sed sit tibi mente 

fto do Lechery; Adulter ari, coire, 
concubare, concumbere, fornicari, 
lasciuari, lasciuire, lenocinari, 

luere, luxurriarc, luxare, mechari, 
meretricari, molere, patrare, scor- 
tari, viciare, violare. 

a Lechour ; Amasio, Amasius, Ama- 
ciunculus, Ambro ; Ambronimus, 
Ambrosiws participia ; .4r[cT]e- 
lio 5 , baratro, ganeo, lecator, leno, 
lurco ; lurconicus ; luxuriator, 
manducus, mechus, scortator, ven- 
eripeta ; scortans parricipium. 

Lecherous; Ambrosius, Ambroninus, 
dissolutus, fomicarius, geneus, 
inpudicus, incestuosus 6 , incon- 
tinens, lasciuus, libidinosus, lur- 
conicus, luxuriosus, luxus, nequ&m 
venerosus, petulans, scortans. 

Lede ; 2^lumbum. 

to Lede; dacere, ad-, con-, in-, se-, e-, 
ductare, ductitare, vadare, Sf 
cetera ; vbi to leyde 7 . 

a Leddyr ; scala; scalaris parfrcipi- 


*a Leddyr staffe 8 ; scalare. 

Ledyr ; birsa, Sf cetera ; vhi a 

*Ledyr 9 ; vbi slawe (A.). 

1 ' Le. A scythe. North E. ley, lea : Dan. lee: Swed. lia.' Cleasby's Icelandic Diet. 

2 ' The spirit of the Lord vp on nie, for that enoyntede me the Lord ; to tellen out to 
debonere men he sente me, that I shulde leche the contrit men in herte.' Wyclif, Isaiah 
lxi. I. 

3 In the Liber Care Cocorum, p. 13, is given a Recipe for ' Leche lardes,' the components 
of which are eggs, new milk, and pork lard, boiled till they become thick, and then baked 
on a 'gredel' or griddle, and served up in small slices or pieces. Handle Holme, p. 83, 
makes 'Leach' to be ' a kind of Jelly made of Cream, Isinglas, Sugar, Almonds, &c.' 
The term is constantly used in old cookery, and means generally those dishes which were 
served up in slices. See Hous. Ord. & Reg. pp. 439, 449 and 472. In Pegge's Forme of 
Cury, p. 36, is given a recipe for ' Leche Lumbard,' as to which see his Glossary. Cotgrave 
renders lesche by 'a long slice, or shive of bread.' 

4 Lechery was one of the deadly sins, each of which is represented in the Ancren Riivle, 
by some animal: thus (1) Pride is represented by a Lion; (2) Envy by an Adder; (3) 
Wrath by an Unicorn ; (4) Lechery by a Scorpion ; (5) Avarice by a Fox ; (6) Gluttony 
by a Sow ; and (7) Sloth by a Bear. See Prof. Skeat's note to P. Plowman, C. vii. 3. 

5 M.S.Arelio: corrected by A. ' Ardelio : leccator, qui ardens est in leccacitate vel 
leccatione. Occurrit apud Martialem et alios ' Ducange. The Catholicon explains A rdelio 
as follows : ' Ab ardeo dicitur hie ardelio, i. leccator, quia ardens in leccacitate ;' and the 
Ortus Vocab. ' Ardelus, inq actus : qui mittit se omnibus negociis, a medler of many matters.' 
• Ardelio, one full of gesture, a busieman, a medler in all matters, a smatterer in all things.' 
Morel. A rdulio occurs in the Prompt, as the Latin equivalent for ' Lowmis man or 

MS. intestaosus. 7 MS. wyde, corrected by A. 8 Compare Stee staffe, below. 

,J Still used in the North in the sense of hizy, idle, slothful. See Hay's Glossary of North 
Country Words. Baret gives * lithernesse, laboris inertia : idlenesse ; lithernesse; lack of 
sprite to do anything, languor* ' Lentus, slowe and febull or lethy, moyste.' Medulla, 

Y 2 



tto Lefe ; Ucenciare, 

a Lefe ; licencia, libencia. 

a Lefe (Leffe A.) ; folium, foliolum, 

to Lefe ; vbi to forsake, 
to Lefe ofe ; omittere. 
to Lefe (Leyfe of A.) ; vbi to cese.^ 1 
tto Lefe oner l ; restare, superesse. 
a Lefthande ; leua, leuus, sinistra, 

sinister, 6f cetera. 
tLeftwarde ; leuorsum 2 , sinistror- 

Lefulle ; licitus, faustus (fastus A.). 
tvn Lefulle ; illicitus, illicebrosus. 
tvn Lefulnes ; illicebra. 
tto do Leffullnes (to doVnlefulnesse 

A.) ; illicebrare. 
tLeft of or oner ; residuus. 
a Lefynge ; omissio, omittens. 
tLefte of; omissus. 
ta Legate ; Ugatus. 

to Lege ; Allegare. 

a Legge ; tibia. 

tLeg harnes 3 ; tibialia. 

tto Legerdemayii (to play leehar- 

* demane A.) 4 ; pancr&ciari. 
tLegibylle ; legibilis. 
a Legion ; legio ; legionarius ^;ard- 

*Ley ; iscalidus, isqualidus. 
*a Leylande 5 ; felio, frisca terra. 
*Lee ; lexiuum, lixiuium (A.). 
toLeyde; ducere, fy cetera; vbi to lede. 
to Leyde in ; jnducere, jntroducere. 
tto Leyde bakwarde ; deducere, ex- 

traducere, re-. 
a Leyder ; dux, ductor, ductrix. 
a Leke ; porrum. 
ta Leke hede ; bulbus. 
ta Leke bed 6 ; porretum, porrarium. 
tLale ; vbi trew. 
*a Lende 7 : lumbus. 

MS. Cant. ' Lentesco, to waxe slowe or lethy i. tardum esse? Ortus Vocab. Cf . P. Lethy. 
Jamieson gives ' to I eath, to loiter.' A.S. lySer, bad, wicked. Mr. Way prints Lyder, 
unnecessarily altering the MS. which reads Leder. G. Douglas in his trans, of Virgil, 
JEneid, xi. p. 391, has — *3 e war n °k wount to be sa liddir ilk ane ;' the latin being segnes. 
'Now wille I hy me and no thyng be leder.' Towneley Myst. p. 27. 'Thou art a ledyr 
hyne ;' ibid. p. 101. 

1 To leave commonly in M. E. meant to remain. See to Leue ouer, below. 

2 MS. leuorosum. 

3 'Legge harneys. Caliga, Tibialia.' Huloet. Trevisa in his trans, of Higden, iv. 363, 
says of Caligula that ' he hadde pe name of a kny3t his leg harneys, J>at hatte Caligula.' 
* Stelyn leg harneis [bootis of bras P.] he hadde in the hipis.' Wyclif, 1 Kings xvii. 6. 

4 'A Juggler, he that deceiveth, or deludeth by Legier de main, prcedigitator, impostor. 
Baret. 'Legerdemayne, pr&stigium.' Manip. Vocab. Huloet gives ' Legier du mane. 
Prasstigia, prcestigium, Vafr amentum, Prcestigios, pancratium ; and Pancratior, anglice to 
play legier du mane. H Circulatores be called suche as do playe legier du mane, but rather 
they be popin players, and tomblers, &c.' See Spenser, F. Queen, V. ix. 13. 

5 In Sir Degrevant, 1. 239, we read — 

'Thus the forest they fray, One a launde by a ley 

Hertus bade at abey ; These lordus dounne lyght.' 

( Notale, a leylonde.' Medulla. See H. Best's Farming, &c. Books, pp. 14, 48. 

6 ' A leekegarth, poretum.' Manip. Vocab. 

7 In the account of the misfortunes which befell Job as given in the Ormulum we are 
told that ' Hiss bodij toe & cnes & fet & shannkess, 

To rotun bufenn eorjje & lende, & lesske, & shulldre, & bacc, 

All samenn, brest & wambe & J?es, & side, & halls, & hsefedd.' 11. 4772-4777 ; 
and again, 1. 3210, John the Baptist is described as wearing a ' girrdell off shepess skinn 
Abutenn hise lendess.' See also 1. 9230. In Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 179, lumbus is 
glossed by 'lyndy.' In the Gesta JRomanorum, p. 126, we have 'gurdithe youre lendys ;' 
and in Morte Arthure, 1. 1047, Arthur finds the Giant lying by a fire, picking the thigh 
of a man — 'His bakke, and his bewschers, and his brode lende}, 

He beke3 by the bale-fyre, and breklesse hyme semede.' 
' Grow, and be thow multiplied, folke of kynde and peplig of naciouns of thee shulen ben, 
kyngis of thi leendes shulen goon oute.' Wyclif, Genesis xxxv. II. See also Matth.iii.4, 



*a Leman 1 ; A masius, A masia, Ama- 
siolus, Amasiola, Amasio, Amasi- 
uncula, concubina, con[cu\biun- 
cula, concuba ; concuhinalis, con- 
cuhinarius ; focaria 2 , pelex, pel- 
ignus, <peligna Jllius vel filia 
eins, multicuba ; muUigamus, 

*a Lemawry ; concubitns, concubin- 

Leyn (Lene A.) ; exilis, debilis, fila- 
cer, macilentns £>ar£icipia. 

tto be Leyn ; macere, macescere. 

to make Leyn ; Austrinare, debili- 
tare, macerare, re-. 

a Leynes (Lennesse A.) ; debilitas, 

to Lene; Accumbere, Adherere, Ap- 
podiare, declinare, imiiti. 

a Lenght ; longitude*. 

to Lenntf ; Accomodare, comodare, 
credere ; comodamns amico ipsam 
rem, ut librum, mutuamus vel 

mutuum damns, vt vinum vel 

argentum ; prestare. 
a Leyner(LennerA.); Accomadator, 

creditor, prestitor. 
fLentyii ; qu&dragesima, qn&dragesi- 

*Lepe 3 ; canistrum, cophinus, cophi- 

nulns, corbis, corbidns, Sf cetera ; 

vbi a baskyt. 
*a Lepe maker ; copJrinarius, cor- 

to Lepe ; salire, Ab-, de-, pro-, re-, 

tto Lepe downe ; desilire, desul- 

*a Lepe for fysche ; jiscella, gurgus- 

a Lepe ; saltns. 
a Leper 4 ; saltator, -trix. 
a Lepynge ; saltacio ; saltans p&r- 

fLepe :$ere ; bisextns ; bisextilis jpar- 


Luke xii. 35, &c. See also P. of Gloucester, p. 377, where William is described as 
• Styf man in harmes, in ssoldren, and in lende.' 

In the translation of Palladius On Husbondrie, p. 129, 1. 683, amongst other directions for 

judging cattle it is said — 'If shuldred wyde is goode, an huge brest, 

No litel wombe, and wel oute raught the side, 
The leendes broode, playne bak and streght, &c.' 

' Lumbrifactus, brokyn in the [l]endys.' Medulla. See Shoreham, ed. Wright, pp. 43, 44. 

1 Wyclif (Select Works, ed. Matthew), p. 73, says : ' Whi may not we haue lemmannus 
si]) pe bischop ha}? so manye V 

1 He said, " mi lemman es sa gent, Sco smelles better pen piment.' " Cursor Mundi, 9355. 
'Alemman, or a married man's concubine, pellex. Arnica and Concubina are more generall 
wordes for Lemmans.' Baret. 

2 This word occurs in a poem of the reign of Henry III. against the abuses amongst the 
clergy — ' Presbitcr quce mortui quo2 dant vivi, guceque 

Befert ad focariam, cui dat sua sequel Wright's Pol. Songs, p. 33. 
It appears to mean, says Mr. Wright, a fire-side woman, one who shared another's fireside, 
from Lat. focus, a hearth, fireside, and is explained in an old gloss by meretrix foco assidens. 
See Ducange. The following article is in the Decreta of Pope Alexander : ' Ne clerici in 
sacris ordinibus constituti focarias habeant ;' and there is also a chapter in the statutes of 
Stephen, Archbishop of Canterbury, MS. Cott. Julius D. ii. leaf 167, * De focariis amovendis* 
Other instances will be found in Mr. Wright's note to the passage quoted above. 'Fo- 
caria, i. coquinaria? Medulla. ' Focaria. A fire panne : a concubine that one keepeth in 
his house as his wife.' Cooper. 

3 ' Moyses thabbot, desirede to comme and iugge a broker culpable, toke a lepe fulle 
[sportam] of gravelle on his backe, seyenge, "These be my synnes folowynge me, and 
considrenge not peym goenge to iugge other peple.'" Trevisa's Higden, vol. v. p. 195. 
' Constantyne toke also a mattoke in his honde firste to repaire the churche of Seynte Petyr, 
and bare x. leepes fulle of erthe to hit on his schulders.' Harl. MS. trans, of Higden, v. 131. 
'And thei eeten and ben fulfild ; and thei token vp that lefte of relyf [or small gobatia], 
seuene lccj>is.' Wyclif, Mark viii. 8. ' Fiscella, a leep or a ches-fat.' Medulla. 

4 The feminine leperesse occurs in Wyclif, Ecclus. ix. 4. 



*a Lepyr l ; lepra, elefaucia, missella, 
lepras; lepiosus, elefantiuua, mi- 
*a Leprus man ; leprosus. 

tto Lerne ; discere, ad-, erudire. 

fa Lernynge ; erudicio, erudiens, &f 
cetera ; vhi techynge. 

a Lesarde ; lacerta, stellio. 

*a Lese 2 ; laxa. 

*a Lesynge ; mendacium, $ cetera ; 
vhi a lee. 

*a Leske 8 ; ipocundeia (ypocondria, 
Apocondria A.). 

Lesse; minor, minusculns. 

a Lesson; leccio. 

to Lessyne; Adminuere, di-, minor- 
are, in-, mutare, mitigare, minu- 

fa Lessynynge ; diminuc'w, minor- 
ado, mitigacio. 

fLessenynge ; minuens, minorans, Sf 

tLese (Lest A.) any tyme ; ne 

Leste ; minimus. 

fLest p[er]awenture ; neforte. 

a Letany ; letania. 

Letuse ; lactuca. 

to Lett ; detinere, retinero, tarda re, 

exoccupare, impedire, intricara, 

prepedire, obstare. 
a Lettynge ; detenc\o, exoccupacio, in- 

pedicio, inpedimevdum, intvicacio, 

pvepedicio, obstacuium. qffendicu- 

lum, peiturbacio, remoramen, tri- 

ca, turbacio. 
fLettynge ; inpediens, prepediens, 

a Lettyr ; Apex, caracter, elementum, 

grama, gr&maton grece, iota inde- 

clinabiife, littera, leterula ; leter- 

alis, leteratorius : versuB : 
^Littera protrdliitur, elementum. 
voce politur. 
fa Letter ; epistola ; epistoralis ; lit- 

Lettyrde ; litteratus. 
fvn Lettyrde ; vhi lewde (lewyd. 

Agn\maticus, ill\teratus, laicus, 

mechanicus A.). 
*a Lettron 4 ; Ambo, djscus, lectvin- 

um, arcistria. 

1 Baret says 'The Leprie proceeding of melancholie, choler, or flegme exceedingly adust, 
and maketh the skinne rough of colour like an Oliphant, with blacke wannish spottes, and 
drie parched scales & scurfe.' In the Liber Albus, p. 273, is a Regulation that no leper 
is to be found in the city, night or day, on pain of imprisonment ; alms were, however, to 
be collected for them on Sundays. Again, on p. 590 are further regulations that Jews, 
lepers and swine are to be driven from the city. See Prof. Skeat's note to P. Plowman, 
C. x. 179 and xix. 273. 

2 'As glad as grehund y-lete of lese Florent was than.' Octouian, 1. 7^7- 
Chaucer says of Creseid that she was ' right yong, and untied in lustie lease.' Troilus, ii. 752. 
Halliwell quotes from MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, if. 121 — 

' Lo ! wher my grayhundes breke ther lesske, My rackes breke their coupuls in thre.' 
' Laisse. A lease of hounds, &c.' Cotgrave. 

'He that the lesche and lyame in sounder draue.' G. Douglas, jEneados, p. 145. 

3 See quotation from the Ormulum, s. v. Lende, above. In the description of the Giant, 
with whom Arthur has the encounter, given in the Movie Arthur e, we are told, 1. 1097, 
that he had 'Lyme and le,<Jces fulle lothyne ;' and again, 1. 3279, the last of the kings on 
the Wheel of Fortune, which appeared to Arthur in his dream 

' Was a litylle man that laide was be-nethe, 
His leskes laye alle lene and latheliche to schewe.' 
According to Halliwell ' the word is in very common use in Lincolnshire, and frequently 
implies also the pudendum, and is perhaps the only term for that part that could be used 
without offence in the presence of ladies.' It does not, however, appear in Mr. Peacock's 
Glossary of Manley and Corringham. 'Runne the edge of the botte downe the neare 
litske.' H. Best, Farming Booh, p. 12. 0. Swed. liuskc, Dan. lysJce, O. Dutch, liesche. 
' The grundyn hede the ilk thraw At his left flank or link perfyt tyte.' 

G. Douglas, jEneados, p. 339. 

4 Gawin Douglas, in the Prologue to the Eneados, Bk. vii. 1. 143, describes how in his 
dream he saw ' Virgill on ane letteron stand,' 'Ambo. Aletrune.' Wright's Vocab. p. 193. 



Lett wary 1 ; electuarium.. 

to Leue ouer 2 ; restare, supevesse. 

to Leyve ; Hcenciare (A.). 

Leve ; libencia, licencia (A.). 

a Levelle 3 ; psrpendiculum. (A plewi- 

*to Levyn, or to smytte with y e 

lewenynge 4 ; casmatisere ful- 

gnre, fulminare. 
*a Levenynge ; casma, fulgur, fid- 
men., fulgetra, fulgetrum, ignis 

ta Levenynge smyttynge ; fulgnx- 

atxxs, fulminatus. 
to wyl or to be Lever ; malo, mauis, 

malui, malle, malens. 

*Lewde 5 ; Agr&matns, illiteratus, 

laicus, mecanicus. 
Lewke 6 ; tepidus. 
to mak Lewke ; tejrifacere. 
made Lewke 7 ; tepifactas. 
to be Lewke; tepere. 

L ante I. 

t A Lybber 8 ; vbi a gelder. 
Lyberalle ; libemlis, Sf cetera ; vbi 

a Lyberalyte ; liberalitas, Sf cetera ; 

vbi largenes. 
a Lyberde (Libert A.) 9 ; leop&r- 

ta Liberty ; vbi fredorae. 

1 ' Also for J>e goute, hoot or cold, J?e pacient schal drynke oure 5. essence wij> a litil 
quantite at oonys of J)e letuarie de succo rosarum.' Book of Quinte Essence, ed. Furnivall, 
p. 19. 'He haueft so monie bustes ful of his letuaries? Ancien Riwle, p. 226. 

2 ' pe quint essencia . . . . 5e schal drawe out by sublymacioun, And J>anne schal ber 
leue in pe ground of ]>e vessel J>e 4 elementis.' The Book of Quinte Essence, p. 4. ' pat ]>at 
leeuep bihynde, putte it to ]>e fier.' ibid. p. 5. ' Two 3eer it ys that hungur began to be in 
the loond, jit fyue 3eers leeuen in the whiche it may not be eerid ne ropun.' Wyclif, Genesis 
xlv. 6. 'Tho that laften flowen to the hil.' ibid. xiv. 10. 

3 ' Leuel or lyne called a plomblyne. Perpendiculum.' Huloet. A plemmett is written 
as a gloss over perpendiculum in the MS. 

4 ' His Ene leuenand with light as a low fyr.' Destruction of Troy, 1. 7723. 
•A leuenyng light as a low fyre.' ibid. 1988. 'Fulgur, levene )>* brennyth.' Medulla. 

5 * Certys also hyt fareth That himself hath beshrewed : 

By a prest that is letved Gode Englysh he speketh 

As by a jay in a cage, But he not never what.' Wright's Pol. Songs, p. 328. 

In the Paston Letters, i. 497, Friar Brackley writes to John Paston that ' A lewde doctor 
of Lurlgate prechid on Soneday fowrtenyte at Powlys, &c.' 

6 The pains of this world, as compared to those of hell, are described in the Pricke of 
Conscience, 1. 7481, only ' Als a leuke bathe nouther hate ne calde.' 

Dunbar has ' luik hartit,' and in the Ayenbite of Inwyt, p. 31, we have Iheue and Iheucliche. 
In La3amon, iii 98, when Beduer was wounded we read that when ' opened wes his breoste, 
J)a blod com forS luke,' and Wyclif in his version of the Apocalypse, iii. 16, has — ' I wolde 
thou were coold or hoot, but for thou art lew and nether coold nether hoot, I shal bigynne 
for to caste thee out of my mouth.' ' Leuke warme or blodde warme, tiede.' Palsgrave. 
• Tepefacio, to make lewk. Tepeo, to lewkyn. Tepidus, lewke. Tepeditas, lewkeness. 
Tepedulus, sumdel lewke.' Medulla. 

' Besyde the altare blude sched, and skalit new, 
Beand lew warme thare ful fast did reik.' G. Douglas, jEneados, Bk. viii. p. 243. 

7 MS. Kewke. 

8 ' Lib, to castrate. Libber, a castrator. "Pro libbyng porcorum io d ." Whitby Abbey 
Rolls, 1396.' Robinson's Gloss, of Whitby. Florio has ' A ccaponare, to capon, to geld, to 
lib, to splaie.' See also Capt. Harland's Swaledale Glossary, and Jamieson, s. vv. Lib and 
Lyhy ; see also note to Gilte, above. ' Ilic castrator, Anglice lybbere.' MS. Reg. 17 c. 
xvii. If. 43 bk. ' That now, who pares his nails or libs his swine, 

But he must first take counsel of the signe.' Hall's Satires, ii. 7. 
'To libbe, gelde, castrare.' Manip. Vocab. 'Welibbed our lambes this 6th of June.' 
Farming, &c, Book of H. Best, 1641, p. 97. 'Libbers have for libbinge of pigges, pennies 
a piece for the giltes, &c.' ibid. p. 141. Cognate with Dutch lubben, to castrate. 

9 Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, 1227, ^ e ^ s us ^ e world is like a wilderness 

' pat ful of wild bestes es sene, Als lyons, libardes and wolwes kene.' 



a Library l ; Archiuum, bibliotheca, 

libr&rium, zabema. 
Lycoresse - ; licoricia, liquirecia. 
a Lycore j liquor, torax. 
Tiycorus 3 ; Ambroninus, lurconicxxs. 
a Lydde ; operculum, Sf cetera ; vhi 

A couerakyll?. 
a Lye ; mendacium, figmentum, com- 

mentum (mendaciolum A.). 
to Lye (Lee A.) ; commentari, $f 

cetera ; vhi to lee. 
a Lier ; commentor, commentarius ; 

commentarius, mendax; mentitor, 

mendaculus, vanns. 
a Lyfe; Animus, sanguis, stacio, vita; 

a Lyfelade ; victus, victulus ; victu- 

alis, victuarius />ardcipia. 
to Lywe ; conuersari, degere, spirare, 

victetare, viuere. 
fLyfly ; festinanter, Sf cetera ; vhi 

to Lyfte or lifte vppe ; leuare, al-, 

col-, E-, re-, sub-, erigere, exaltare, 

suppoi*tare, toller q, ex-. 
Lyftynge vppe ; exaltatus, eleuatus, 

erectus, supportatus. 
to Lygg ; Accumbere, concumbere, 

concubare,iacere, cubare, cumber e. 
tto Lyg in wayte ; jnsidiari, obser- 


tto Lyg be-tweii ; intcrcumbere, in- 

tercubare, jnteriacere. 
tto Lyge -wilder ; succubare, succum- 

tA Lygyngtf in wayte ; jnsidie. 
to Lyghte ; Accendere, fy cetera ; vhi 

to clere. 
Lyghte ; vhi clerenes. 
Lyghte ; Agilis, efficax,facilis, inan- 

is, leuis, pensilis vt plume, tenuis, 

vanns (ty cetera ; vbi with A.). 
Lyghtly ; Agiliter, faciliter, leuitew 
to Lyghtyn ; Alleuiare, or to make 

*a Lyghtenes ; Agilitas, efficacia, fa- 

cilitas, inanitas, leuitas, tenuitas, 

Lyke ; similis. 
to Lykke ; lambere, di-, lingerie], 

vn Lyke ; dissimilis, iusimilis, disp&r 

correpto -a-, separ omnis generis, 

correpto A in obliquis. 
to make Lyke (to Lykyne A.); As- 

similare, conformare. 
ta Lyke sange 4 ; nenia. 
to Lykyfi ; A s similar q Sf -ri, sim\ Hare, 

con-, conformare, comp^rare, com- 

ponere, conuenire. 
tto be Lykend; Assidere, Assimilari, 


In the Queen of Palermo's dream appeared 

'A lyon and a lybard, J)at lederes were of alle.' William of Palerne, 2896. 
See also 11. 2874 and 2935. 'A libard, pardus.^ Baret. ' Libarde. Leopardus, pardas? 

1 In the Coventry Mysteries, p. 88, this word appears to mean a bible or book — 

' We xal lerne 30W the lyberary of oure Lordys lawe lyght. 5 

2 Baret gives ' Liqueres, glycyrrhiza, radix dulcis, rigolisse.' ' Here is pepyr, pyan, 
and swete lycorys.' Coventry Mysteries, p. 22. 

3 ' Lycorouse or daynty mouthed, f riant, friande.'' Palsgrave. 

'FjVJom women light, and lickorous, good fortune still deliver us.' Cotgrave, s. v. Femme. 
* Friolet. A lickorous boy. Friand. Saucie, lickorous, dainty -mouthed, sweet-toothed, &c.' 
Ibid. ' Licourousnesse, Mguritio? Baret. In Holly band's Diet. 1593, we find — 'To 
cocker, to make Hkerish, to pamper.' See also Destruction of Troy, 11. 444 and 2977, and 
P. Plowman, B. Prol. 28— 

* As ancres and heremites that holden hem in here selles, 

And coueiten nought in contre to kairen aboute, 

For no likerous liflode, her lykam to plese.' 

venia ; corrected by A. A funeral dirge. See Way's note in Prompt, s. v. 

. 302. This does not occur in O. Eng. (at least it is not in Stratmann), though 

the word lie is pretty frequent, and we have the forms Merest, lichwalce, &c. In A. S. 

however, the word is not rare. Thus in the glosses published by Boulerwek, 1853. in 

Haupt's Zeitschrift, we find, p. 488, 'tragoedia, miseria, luctus, birisany, Ucsang' and on 

4 MS 
Lyche, p 



a Lyknes ; effigies, similacio, simili- 
tude*, compwracio. 
a Lykpotte (Lykpot fyngyr A.) ; 

index, demonstrarius. 
a Lylly ; lilium, librellum. 
Lyme ; calx, gipsus. 
tto Lyme ; gipsare. 
Lyme for byrdys * ; viscus, viscum. 
a Lyme pott or brusche ; viscarium, 

+to Lymet; Assignare, diffinire, limi- 
tare, prefigere, pretaxare ; versus : 
% Assignare diem, prefigere vel 
dare dicas ; 
Hijs diffinire vel pretaxare 
fa Lymytacion ; limitacio, pretax- 

fa Lymytoier ; limitator. 

a Lymme ; Artus; Artuosus; mem- 

brum ; membr&tm. 
a Lynage ; sterna. 
tLyncoln ; linconia ; linconiensis. 
a Linde tre (A Lyn tre A.) 2 ; 

a Lyne ; grama. 
Lyne 3 ; linum ; linens jparricipium 3 

fa Lyne bete 4 : 
fa Lyne bolle ; 
fa Lyne fynche e 
fa Lyne howse ; 

linodium . 

; linosa. 


|Lynesede; linarium. 

tLynsy wolsye 6 ; linistema vel 

fa Lyne heter ; linifex, linificator 

Sf -trix, qui vel quefacit linum. 
+a Lyne stryke 7 ; linipidus. 

p. 427, ' epitaphion (carmen super tumulura), byriensang marg. licleofi, [lic]sang.' I know 
of no instance where it occurs in a passage. The Dutch lijksang, or lijkzang is common. 
' Nenia : cantus funebris, luctuosus? Medulla. 

1 Palsgrave gives ' I lyme twygges with birde lyme to catche birdes with. Jenglue. I 
have lymed twenty twygges this mornyng, and I had an owle there shulde no lytell byrde 
scape me.' ' Lime twygges. Aucupatorij. Limed with byrdlyme, or taken wyth byrde- 
lime. Viscatus. Lyme fingred, whyche wyll touche and take or carye awaye anye thynge 
they handle. Umax, by circumlocution it is applied to suche as wyll fynde a thynge or it 
be loste.' Huloet. Compare with this the line in the Coventry Mysteries, p. 63 — 

' Yf thin handys lymycl be. Thou art but shent, thi name is lore.' 
See also Chaucer, C. T., 6516. ' I likne it to a lym-$erdc to drawen men to hell.' Pierce 
the Ploughman s Crede, 564. ' Gluten, lim to fugele.' Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 47. 

2 Properly the lime-tree, but often used for trees in general. In P. Plowman, B. i. 154, 
we read — ' Was neuere leef vpon lynde li3ter ]>er-after ;' 

on which see Prof. Skeat's note. 

' The watter lynnys rowtis, and euery lynd Quhislit and brayit of the souchand wynd.' 

G. Douglas, Eneados, Bk. vii. Prol. 1. 73. 
Turner in his Herbal, pt. ii. If. 95, says : ' Sum take y e lynd tre .... for Platano (or Playn 
tre) ;' and again, If. 153 : 'Ther is no cole .... that serueth better to make gun pouder of 
then the coles of the Linde tre.' ' Seno vel tilia, lind.' Aelfric's Gloss, in Wright's Vol. of 
Vocab. p. 32. See also Towneley Myst. p. 80. 

' pe knyjt kachej his caple, & com to }>e lawe, pe rayne.' 

Lijte3 doun luflyly & at a lynde tache3 Sir Gawaync, 2176. 

3 ' I haue sene flax or lynt growyng wilde in Sommerset shyre.' Turner, Herbal, Pt. ii. 
If. 39. 

* See a Bete of lyne, above. 

5 In the Morte Arthure, 1. 2674, are mentioned ' larkes and lynhtchytte^ that lufflyche 
songene.' Jamieson gives ' Lyntquhil, lintichite, a linnet, corrupted into Untie.' A. S. 
Linetwige which is used by Aelfric in his Gloss. (Wright's Vocab. p. 29) to translate the 
latin carduelis. G. Douglas speaks of the ' goldspink and lintquhite fordynnand the lyft.' 
Prol. Bk. xii. p. 403. 'The lyntquhit sang counterpoint quhen the osil 3elpit.' Compl. of 
Scotland, p. 39. 

6 Andrew Boorde in his Dyetary recommends us ' in sommer to were a scarlet petycote 
made of stamele or lynsye-woolsye ;' ed. Furnivall, p. 249. 

7 'Streekof fl.nxejiyiipidus.'' Prompt. Palsgrave has ' Stryke of flaxe, poiqwe de Jilace. 1 
1 Liniculus. A strick of flax.' Littleton. 'Hie linipolux, a stric of lyne.' Wright's Vocab. 
p. 217. See a Stryke of lyne, hereafter. 



tto make Lyne ; linificare, linum fa- 

tLyne warke ; linijlcium. 

ta Lyne soke (Lynstoke A.) l ; lini- 

tA Lyn3elle 2 ; licium (A.). 

a Lyonesse ; lea, leena. 

a Lyon ; leo ; leoninus participi- 

a Lyppe; labium, mulieris, labiolum, 
labrum hominum. 

tLyre of flesche 3 ; pulpa. 

tLyrye ; pulposus. 



Lyspynge 4 ; blesus. 

a Lyste 5 ; for ago, parisma. 

Lyst; Appelexe, libet, jvvat, delectat, 
Sf cetera ; vhi to desyre. 

a Lyste ; Appetitus, feruor, 6f cetera ; 
vhi desyre. 

to Lysteri ; Adquiescere. 

tLystynge ; adquiescens, oiiinis gen- 

*a Lyter 6 ; stratum. 

*Lithwayke (Lythewayke A.) 7 ; 

Litille; minime, minimum, modicum, 
parum,parumpvc,paululum ; de- 
cliuus ad ingenium pertinet, ex- 
His, exiguus, modicus, paiuus, 
p&ruulus, paucxxs, pauper, yax- 
illus, pusillus quantitatis est vt 
stature, paidus mediocritatis tfst, 
paululus, pupus, pusulanimis. 

tLitylle be litille ; diuisim, paula- 
tim, 2)ctrumper, paulis2)er, psxticu- 
latim, sinsim. 

1 Apparently a linen sock. Gouldman so renders linipidium, and Coles gives 
• Linipidium and Imipes, a Linnen sock' ' Linipedium, hose or scho.' Medulla. 
' Linipedium. Lineuni calceamentum. Chaucement de lin.' Ducange. Another form 
was lintepium. Compare Patafi, below. 

2 The thrum i.e. the threads of the old web, to which those of the new piece are fastened. 
' Licium. The woof about the beam, or the threads of the shuttle ; thread which silk 
women weave in lintels or stools.' Littleton. ' Silke thred, which silke women do weaue in 
lintles, or stooles. Licium.' Baret. 

3 In Allit. Poems, B. 1687, in an account of how Nebuchadnezzar became as a beast we 
read — ' He countes hym a kow, pat wat3 a kyng ryche, 

Quyle seuen syj>e3 were ouer-seyed someres I trawe. 
By pat mony lp\k J>y3e pry3t vmbe his lyre.' 
' He cryde : " Boy, ley on witli yre, Strokes as ys woned thy syre ! 
He ne fond neuer boon ne lyre Hys ax withstent.' Octouian, 11 19. 
See also Isumbras, 262, and Townley Mysteries, p. 55. In Charlemagne's dream related in 
the Song of Txoland, 97, the king is attacked by a wild boar which ' tok hym by the right 
arm and hent it of elene from the braun, the flesche, & the Iter. 7 In the Household Ord. 
and Regul. p. 442, we find ' Swynes lire.' * Pulpa, brawne.' Medulla. The word is still 
in use in the neighbourhood of Whitby ; see Mr. Robinson's Glossary, E. D. Soc. and 
Jamieson. A. S. lira. 'Sum into tailzeis schare, Syne brocht fiickerand sum gobbetis of 
lyre.' G-. Douglas, jEneados, Bk. i. p. 19. 

* 'Blesus, wlisp.' Aelfric's Glossary, in Wright's Vol. ofVocab. p. 45. 

5 ' Forigo, a lystynge.' Nom. MS. ' Liste of cloth, fimbria.'' Manip. Vocab. Anything 
edged or bordered was formerly said to be listed : thus in the Destruction of Troy, 1. 10669, 
the outskirts of an army are termed lutes. In the Liber Albus, p. 725, it is ordered that 
' dra/ps de ray soyent de la longeure de xxviij alnes, mesurez par la lyst.' In Sir Ferumbras, 
1900, luste is used in the sense of the end of the ear : 

1 With ys hond a wolde pe 3yue a such on on p° lusfe, 
pat al by breyn scholde clyue al aboute ys fuste.' 
See also Chaucer, Wife's Preamble, 1. 634. ' By god he smot me onys on the lyst.* ' Le mol 
de Voreille. The lug, or list of th'eare.' Cotgrave. A. S. list. 

6 In the Household and Wardrobe Ordinances of Ed. II. (Chaucer Soc. ed. Furnivall), 
p. 14, we are told that the king's confessor and his companion were to have every day 'iij 
candels, one tortis, & liter e for their bedes al the yere.' 

7 A. S. liftuwac. O. H. Ger. lidoiveicher. Cf. Out of lithe, below. In a hymn to the 
Holy Ghost, pr. in Peliq. Antiq. i. 229, the following line occurs — 

• Ther oure body is kothe-wok, 3yf strengths vrom above.' 



fa Litilnes ; decliuitas ingenij est, 

modicitas, paruitas, paucitas. 
fa Litille finger; Auricular is ; Au- 

ricularis, A uricularius. 
*a Littester (Lyster A.) x ; tinctor, 

*to Litte ; color are, inficeve, infor- 

rnare, ting eve, tincture. 
*Littyd ; jnfectu.3. 
*a Littynge ; tinctura. 
*a Lyveray of clothe 2 ; libcrata ; 

liber atalis. 
*a Lyveray of mete (meytt A.) ; cor- 

r odium. 

a Lyver ; epar -ris vel epatis 3 , epaci- 
arius ; ficatum. ; epaticus qui pa- 
tituv irifirmitatem. in cpate, Sf 

a Lyvelade ; victus, vsusfructas. 

L ante O. 

*a Loche 4 ; Alosa, fundulus, piscis 

A Lofe; panis (A.). 
tLoye 5 ; elegius, nomen jyvopvium. 
fLogike ; logica, Zor/?'cuspardcipmm. 
fa Logicion ; logista; logisticus £>ar- 


1 In the Ancren Riwle, p. 268, Anchoresses are warned against one deceit of the devil 
that ' he liteS cruelte mid heowe of rihtwisnesse ;' and again, p. 392, the author says, ' Ine 
schelde beolS )?reo fringes, bet treo, and pet leSer, & )>e litinge.' Lyttesters occurs in the 
York Records, p. 235. Halliwell quotes from the Line. Med. MS. leaf 313: ' Tak the 
greia of the wyne that mene fyndis in the tounnes, that litsters and goldsmythes uses.' In 
Genesis <b Exodus, Joseph's brethren steeped his coat in the blood of a kid, so that ' $0 
was ftor-on an rewli lit! ' Lyttle colours. Vide in Dye, &c. Lyttle of coloures. Tinctor? 
Huloet. In the Destruction of Troy, 1. 3988, Andromache is described as having 

' Ene flamyng fresshe, as any fyne stones, Hir lippes were louely littid with rede :' 
Ryd as pe Roose wikede in hir chekes, 
and at 1. 7374 of the same work the Greeks prepare to take the field, 
1 When the light vp launchit, littid the erthe.' 
G. Douglas also uses the word in his trans, of the ^Eneid, vii. p. 226 — 
' Als sone as was the grete melle begun, The erthe littit with blude and all ouer run.' 
In the Early Metrical Version Ps. lxvii. 24 runs — 

' fat j)i fote be Hied in blode o lim, pe tunge of pi hundes fra faas of him ;' 
and in St. Kutherine, 1. 1432, we read — 

' Ah wrS se swiSe lufsume leores Ha leien, se rudie & se reade i-litet.' 
See also Halliwell, s. v. Lit. ' Hie tinctor, a lytster.' Wright's Vocab. p. 21 2. 0. Icel. lita. 
See the ToionJey Mysteries, Introduct. p. xiii, note. 

2 ' Lyueray he hase of mete of drynke, And settis with hym who so hym thynke.' 

The Boke of Curtasye, in Babees Boke, p. 188, 1. 371. 
In De Deguileville's Pilgrimage of the Lyff of the Manhode, Roxburgh Club, ed. Wright, 
p. 148,1. 21, we read — 'faile me nouht that j haue a gowne of the lyuerey of 3oure abbeye.' 
' Lyveray gyven of a gentylman, liweree! Palsgrave. See also Gloss, to Ed. II., Household 
and Wardrobe Ord. ed. Furnivall, and Thornton Romances, p. 219. ' Liverye or bowge of 
meat and drynke. Spoi'tella.' Huloet. 

3 MS. eptatis. 

* In a burlesque poem from the Porkington MS. printed in Reliq. Antiq. i. 85, are 
mentioned ' borboltus and the stykylbakys, the flondyre and the loche,' and in a ' Servise on 
fysshe day,' pr. in the Liber Care Cocorum, p. 54, occur ' trou3te, sperlynges and menwus, 
And loches to horn sawce versauce shal.' 'Alosa. A fishe that for desire of a vayne, in a 
Tunies iawes killeth him. Of y e Spaniards called Sunalus ; of the Venetians Culpea ; of 
y e Grekes Thrissa.' Cooper. ' Fundi d us. A gudgeon.' Coles. ' Hec alosa, a loch.' 
Wright's Vocab. p. 222. ' Loche. The Loach, a small fish.' Cotgrave. 

5 Chaucer in the Prol. to the C. T. 1. 120, speaking of the Prioress says : ' Hire gretteste 
ooth nas but by seint Loy,' that is, by Saint Eligius, whose name in French became Eloi 
or Eloy, in which form we find it in Lyndesay's Monarcke, 2299 — 

' Sanct Floy he doith straitly stand, Ane new bora schoo in tyll his hand.' 

Saint Eligius, who is said to have constructed a saddle of extraordinary qualities for king 
Dagobert, was the patron saint of farriers : thus in Sir T. Mure's A Dialogue, d-c. bk. II. c. 
x, p. 194 (ed. 1577), we read : 'Saint Loy we make an horseleche, and must let our horse 
rather renne vnshod and marre his hooic, than to shooe him on his daye, which wc must 



fA Lole ! ; pit gnus (A.). 

si Loke of wolle ; Jloccus, Jlocteus. 

a Lok ; clatrus, pessulum, obex, re- 

paguhim, sera, vectls ; versus : 
^\Pessula sunt ohices, sera, sunt- 
que repagula, vectes. 
to Lok ; serare, con-, de-, dis-, in- 

fLokyii sarame (Lokynsome A.) ; 

a Lokyr ; cistella, cislula. 
fto Lokyr ' 2 ; crispare. 
tLokyrde ; crispus. 
ta Lokyrynge of y e hede ; cincin- 

mis ; cincinnosxis, cincinnaculus 

^articipia ; crispitudo. 
Longdebefe ; buglossa, herba est. 

tLondon ; londonia, londonie ; Ion- 

to Lope ; satire, saltare. 

a Lope ; saltus. 

a Loper (Leper A.) ; saltator, sal- 

a Lopynge ; saltacw, saltus ; saltans. 

ILopyrde (Lopyrryde A.) As 
mylke 3 ; concretxis. 

i Lopyrde mylke ; ivnctata. 

fa Loppe 4 ; pulex, fem'miiri generis 
secundum doctxinale, sed secun- 
dum ysid\orum~\ Sf papiara est 
masculini generis. 

|Loppy ; pulicosus. 

ta Loppy place ; pulicetuxa, 

+a Lopster r> ; polipus. 

See also Bk. viii. 

for that point more religiously kepe high and holy than Ester day.' So, too, Chaucer in 
the Freres Tale, 1. 1564, makes the carter pray to 'God and seint Loy' and Lyndesay says 
again, 1. 2367, ' Sum makis off'rande to sanct Eloye, That he thare hors may weill conuoye.' 
Beside the farriers, goldsmiths also looked up to Saint Loy as their patron : thus Barnaby 
Googe (quoted in Brande, Pop. Antiq.) says — 

'And Loye the smith doth looke to horse, and smithes of all degree, 
If they with iron meddle here, or if they goldsmithes bee.' 
The life of this Saint will be found in Butler's Lives of the Saints, under December 1st. 
See the Academy, May 29th, June 12th and 19th, 1880. 

1 Evidently a mistake of the scribe for Lofe = Lufe, which see below. 

2 To entangle, mat or curl. A. S. locc, Icel. lokkr, a lock of hair. 

' The grete Herminius wounder big of cors, . . . 
Quhois hede and schulderis nakit war and bare, 
And on his croun bot lokherand 3allow hare.' 

Gawin Douglas, Eneados, Bk. xi. p. 387, 1. 18. 
p. 247, 1. 1, and Bk. xii. 1. 18, where Turnus is described as 
' Fers as an wyld lioun $ond in Trace .... Fore ire the lokkeris of his neck vpcastis.' 

Quhen the smart straik in his brest al fast is, 
In the Morte Arthur x, 1. 779, a bear is described as 

' Alle with lutterde legges, lokerde vnf aire.' 
1 Cincinnaculus, heryd or lokky.' Medulla. 

3 Hampole says (Pricke of Conscience, 1. 459) that man before he was born — 

' Dwellid in a myrk dungeon Whar he had na other fode 

And in a foul stede of corupcion, But wlatsom glet, and loper blode ;' 

where the Harl. MS. 4196 reads ' lopyrde :* and in G. Douglas, JEnead., Bk. x. p. 328, we 
read — 

' Of his mouth a petuus thing to se The lopprit blude in ded thraw voydis he.' 

Ray in his Glossary gives ' Lopperd milk, such as stands so long till it sours and curdles 
of itself. Hence "a lopperd slut." ' Still in use in the North. See Jamieson, s. v. Lapper. 
Prov. Dan. lubber, anything coagulated. O.Icel. laupa, to run, congeal. 0. H. Ger. leberen, 
to coagulate. ' Lopper'd-milk. Lac exoletum et vetustate coagidatum.' Coles. 

4 Still in use in the North. Loppard is also used in the sense of flea-bitten. ' A lop 
(flea). Pulex.' Coles. Caxton in his Cron. of Englond, p. 60, ch. 75, says: 'after this 
bore shal come a lambe that shal haue feet of lede, an hede of bras, an hert of a loppe, a 
swynes skyn, and an harde.' 'Grete loppys over alle this land thay fly.' Towneley Myst. 
p. 62. 

5 'Alopster, fish, carabus, locusta marina.' Baret. *A lopster, gammarus.' Manip. 
Vocab. Harrison in his Descript. of Eng. ii. 21, says — ' Finallie of the legged kinde we 
have not anie, neither haue I seene anie more of this sort than the Polypus, called in 


a Lorde; Adonay gvece,cen'itor,cena- 
torius, celiarcha, centitrio, (tonii- 
nator, domxnus, dom'ine, decurio, 
hems; herilis, dominions; tribun- 
us ; versus : 
1Ll/7//e tvibunus habet, grecs celi- 
archa * vocatur, 
Centurio centum, bis qninqne 

decurio die, 
Ast quinquaginta jwntacm- 
tarchus hdbebit. 
a Lordschippe ; cenatns, cenatori- 
us, dominions, dominium, fy cet- 
to have Lordschipe ; dommari. 

Lordely ; heriliter. 

a Lorelle tre ; lavrns, tripos. 

fa JjDYyaier 2 ; lorimarius. 

to Lose ; A7)iittere, perdere, dis-, de- 

lere, destruere. 
a Losse or a Lossyngg ; 2 )er ^ cl °} 

fa Losynger 3 ; Assentator. 
*to Love 4 ; vhi to prase. 
*a Lowe of fyre 5 ; jlamma.flammu- 

la liiminutiuum. 
tLowha; ecquis. 
fLowhare; eccubi. 
fto Lowke (or weyde A.) 6 ; rvneare, 


English the lobstar, crafish or creuis, and the crab. Carolus Stephanus in his maison 
rustique, doubted whether these lobstars be fish or not ; and in the end concludeth them 
to grow of the purgation of the water as dooth the frog, and these also not to be eaten, for 
that they be strong and verie hard of digestion.' 'Polypus, loppestre.' Aelfric's Glossary, in 
Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 56. ' Lopstar, a fysshe, chancre.'' Palsgrave. ' Lopster vermy n. 
Lopster of the sea, whiche is a fyshe lyke a creues. Astacus, carabus, &c.' Huloet. 

1 In Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 182, ciliarcha is glossed by • lord of thousond kny3tis.' 

2 A maker of lorimery or metal work for the trappings of horses. The representatives of 
this ancient trade are now called 'Loriners ' or ' Lorimers.' In one MS. of the A ncren liiirlc, 
p. 184, the Anchoress is bidden 'hwose euer mis-seiS pe, ofter mis-de'S pe, nim 3eme and 
understand )>at he is pi file bat lorimers habben.' ' Lorenge, iron ; Fr. lormier, a maker of 
small iron trinkets, as nails, spurs, &c. In the parish of North St. Michaels, in Oxford, was 
an alley or lane, called the " Lormery," it being the place where such sort of iron wares were 
sold for all Oxford.' Hearne's Gloss, to It. de Brunne's Translation of Langtoft's Chronicle, 
p. 613. Palsgrave translates ' Loremar' by 'one that maketh byttes ; and again by 
• maker of bosses of bridelles.' ' Lorale, a lorayne, a brydell.' Ortus. ' Lorimarii quam 
plurimum diliguntur a nobilibus militibus Francie, propter calcaria argentata et aurata, 
et propter pectoralia resonancia et frena bene fabricata. Lorimarii dicuntur a loris (seu 
loralibus) quae faciunt.' Diet, of John de Garlande, Wright's Vol. of Vocab. p. 123. 

3 Of William of Palerne we are told that ' Lieres ne losengeres loued he neuer none, but 
tok to him tidely trewe cunsayl euere.' 1. 5841. The word also occurs in Sir Fer umbras, 
1. 4196, where Charles having at the instigation of traitors given orders for a retreat iuto 
France, ' pan waxe sory pe gode barouns, pat J)ay scholde don op hure pauillouns ; 

By pe conseil of losengers.' 
See also Chaucer, Nonne Prestes Tale, 505, and Allit. Poems, C. 170. • Losengier. A flat- 
terer, cogger, foister, pickthanke, prater, cousener, guller, beguiler, deceiver.' Cotgrave. 

4 ' I love, as a chapman loveth his ware that he wyll sell. Je fais. Come, of howe moche 
love you it at : sus combien le faictez vous ? I love you it nat so dere as it coste me : I 
wolde be gladde to bye some ware of you, but you love all thynges to dere.' ' pe sullere 
loveft his ping dere.' Old Eng. Homilies, ii. 213. A. S. lofian, O. Icel. lofa, to praise. 

' Of mouth of childer and soukand Made J?ou lof in ilka land.' Psalms viii. 3. 
See also Hampole, P. of Cons , 321, Allit. Poems, i. 285, Roland & Otuel, 1. 662, Townley 
Mysteries, p. 177, &c. 

' Swa j/att te33 alle J)renngdenn ut All alls it waere all oferr hemm 

Off all })att miccle temmple, O lo^heund all tofelle.' Ormulum, 16185. 

' So com a lau oute of a loghe, in lede is no3t to layne.' Anturs of Arthur, st. vii. 
e This word is still in use in the North ; see Mr. Robinson's Whitby Glossary. Ray 
gives in his Glossary of North Country Words 'loivJc, to weed corn, to look out weeds, 
so in other countries [i.e. counties] to loolc one's head, i.e. to look out fleas or lice there.' 
4 Hie runcator, Hie circulator, lowker.' Wright's Vocab. p. 218. 'To lowke. Averrunco, 
exlierbo.' Coles. ' 1623, July 20. Pd. for his mowing and his wife lowkinge and hay 
makinge 12 s .' Farming Book of H. Best, p. 156. ' Lookers have 3 d . a day.' ibid. p. 142. 



+a Lowke crouke (Lokeeroke A.) J ; 

falcastrum, runco, sarculum. 
fa Lowker ; rimcator, runco (sanator 

fa Lowpe 2 ; A?nentum, Ansa, cor- 

a Lowse ; pediculus. 
tLowyse (Lowsse A.) 3 ; enodls, pe- 

to Lowse (Lowsse A.) ; diffasciare, 

diffibulare, denodare, enodire, 

exancorare, liberare, de-, soluere, 

Ab-, dis-, ex-, re-. 
a Lowsynge ; denodcicio, soluAo, dis-, 

tLowsyd ; solutus, re-. 
Lowsynge; solaens, re-, dis-. 

L an/e V. 

a Luce 4 ; lucius, lucellus cKminutiu- 
um, piscis est. 

*a Luddok B ; femen, femur, lumbus ; 
versus : 
^Dic femur esse viri, sed die 
femen mulieris. 
fa Lufe of y e hande G ; ir, indecYm- 

ixbile, palma, vola. 
fa Lufe 7 ; Amasio, Amasia, Amasi- 
us, Amasiu?iculus, Amaciaucula, 
Amasiolus, dorcium, Jilorcium. 
to Lufe (Luffe A.) ; Amare voluptatis 
est, Amaseere, Amaturire, Ardere, 
ex-, Ardescere, ex-, colere, diligere 
pietat'is Afftclu, zelare Sf zelari ; 
versus : 
%Diligo more bono, sed Amam- 
us more sinistro ; 
Diligo prudenter, sed Amamus 
tLufabylle (Luffeabille A.) ; Ama- 
bilis, Amatorius, Amarosus, emu- 

1 See also Luke Cruke, below. 

2 ' Amentum. A thonge, or that which is bounden to the middes of a darte to throwe it : 
a stroope or loope.' Cooper. 

3 There are evidently two words here mixed up : lousy and loose. * I lowse a person or 
a garment, I take lyce or vermyn out of it. Je poidlle. Be^gers have a goodly lyfe in the 
sommer tyme to lye and lowse them under the hedge/ Palsgrave. 

4 Handle Holme, under ' How several sorts of Fish are named, according to their Age or 
Growth,' p. 345, gives — ' A Pike, first a Hurling pick, then a Pickerel, then a Pike, then 
a Luce or Lucie.'' Harrison, Descript. of Eng. ii. 18, tells us that 'the pike as he ageth 
receiueth diverse names, as from a pie to a gilthed, from a gilthed to a pod, from a pod to 
a iacke, from a iacke to a pickerell, from a pickerell to a pike, and last of all to a luce.' 
' Luonus, a lewse.' Noin. MS. The Manip. Vocab. gives ' a luce, fish, lupus fluvialis.' 
' Luce a fysshe, lus.' Palsgrave. 'Grete luces y-howe, He gat home wold.' Sir Degrevant, 503 . 

5 See a recipe ' For Sirup ' in the Liber Care Cocorum, p. 43 — 

' Take befe and sklice it fayre and thynne, Of J?o luddock with owte or ellis with in, &c.' 

6 'The flat or palm of the hand; slahs lofin, a buffet, Gospel of St. John, xviii. 22, 
xix. 3 ; lofam slahan, to strike with the palms of the hands, St. Mat. xxvi. 27 ; St. Mark 
xiv. 65.' Skeat's Mceso-Goth. Gloss. See also Ray's Gloss, s. v. Luve. ' I may towch with 
my lufe the ground evyn here.' Towneley Myst. p. 32. O. Icel. loft. 

' Wyth lyjt loue$ vp-lyfte J>ay loued hym swy}?e.' Allit. Poems, B. 987. 
* The licor in his awen loove, the letter in the tothire.' King Alexander, 2569. 
Still in use ; see Mr. Robinson's Whitby Glossary. Turner in his Herbal, pt. ii. If. 10S, 
says ' they [certain pears] be as big as a man can grype in the palm or loofe of his hande.' 
Gawain Douglas in his trans, of the Virgil, jEneados viii. p. 242, describing how .ZEneas 
made his libation and prayer to the nymphs, says — 
4 In the holl luffis of his hand, quhare he stude, Dewly the wattir hynt he fra the flude.' 
*Na laubour list thay hike tyl, thare luffis are bierd lyme.' Ibid. Bk viii. Prol. 1. 81. 
1 Hec palma, hoc ir : the loue [printed lone] of the hande.' Wright's Vocab. p. 207. 

7 In the Gesta Romanorum the author of the Addit. MS. translation mistook the Latin 
term Amasius for a proper name : ' whan the other kny^ht, Amasius, that the lady loved, 
perseived that, he came on a nyght to her house, &c.' p. 174. The same mistake also 
occurs, p. 182, where the Addit. and Cambridge MSS. give the name of the woman as 
' Amasie,' the Latin being amasia. 



a Lufe ; Ajfeccxo, Affectus, Amacio, 
Amamen, Amor in bono § nialo ; 
Amor in singnl&ri ad honestum 
ponitur, ut amor dei, Sed jn 
plurali ad inhonesta ducitur ; 
caritas, dilecclo in bono, estus, 
Jilos grece, gratia, ignis, zelus, § 

Lufande ; A mans, diligens, Ardens, 

aLufer; Amator, -trix, Amaculus, 
Amatorculns, emulator, -tvix, zela- 
tor, -trix, dilector, -trix. 

fLufetale ; vbi lufabyllc. 

a Lufe tenande 1 ; locum tenens. 

a Luge ; magale, onappale, casa, 
pastoforium, tugurrium, vm- 
braculum, 6f cetera ; vhi a 

fa Luge for masons 2 ; lapidicina, 

fa Luke cruke ; sercidum, Sj- cetera ; 

vbi lowke cruke. 
to Luke ; vbi to be-holde. 
tLuke ; lucas, women pvoprium. 
tto Luke in a merow[r]e ; mirari, 

+to Luke vppe ; susjricere. 
to Luke jn ; jnspicere. 
to Lulle 3 ; neniari. 
tLulay (Lulley A.) 4 ; nenia. 
Lumes ; iuga. 
to Lumine ; iVuminare. 
a Luminere of bukes ; miniator, 

miniogr&phus, illuminator. 
a Lumpe ; frustrum, frustulum. 
Lunatyk ; astrosus, lunations. 
Lunges ; pulmo. 

1 The modern pronunciation of Lieutenant is found in the ballad of Chevy Chase, 1. 122 : 

'That dougheti duglas, hjff-tenant of the marches, he lay slean chyviat within ;' 
and again in the BoJce of Noblesse, 1475 (repr. i860, p. 35), we have, ' whiche townes and 
forteresses after was delivered ayen to the king Edwarde by the moyen of Edmonde erle 
of Kent, his h'efetenaunt.' Hey wood in his Foure Prentises, 1615, I. iii., spells the word 
liefetenant, and Purchas in his Pilgrimage, 1613, vol. i. bk. iv. c. ii. has lie/tenant. Caxton, 
I believe, invariably uses the form lieutenaunt. 

2 ' And for theire luf a luge is dijt Fulle hye upon an hille.' MS. Cantab. Ff. v. 48, If. 49. 
' Lapicidinarius : Qui lapides a lapicsedia [locus ubi lapides eruuntur] eruit; Fr. carrieu 
(Vet. Glos.).' D'Arnis. Loge is used frequently in the Destr. of Troy for a tent as in 1. 
813 — 'Enon lurkys to his loge, & laide hym to slepe ;' 

and in 1. 6026 it is applied to temporary shelters of boughs and leaves — 

' For the prise kynges Logges to las men with leuys of wode.' 

Grete tenttes to graide, as J^aire degre askit, 
In De Deguileville's Pilgrimage, MS. John's Coll. Camb. leaf 126, we find — ' pow muste 
entyr thiddyr in and luge the in ane of the castellys,' and Gawain Douglas, in his King 
Hart, ed. Small, p. 109, 1. 16, has: ' Quhat wedder is thairout vnder the lugeV and again 
JEneados, Bk. vii. p. 224 — 

'And at euin tide returne hame the strecht wav, Till his lugeing wele bekend fute hait.' 
See also Allit. Poems, B. 784, 807, &c. and cf. P. Masonys Loge. 

3 In the Dispute between Mary and the Cross, pr. in Legends of the Holy Pood, p. 133, 
the Virgin says — ' Feet and fay re hondes 

pat nou ben croised I custe hem ofte, I lulled hem, I leid hem softe : 

and in Chaucer's Clerk's Tale, 553 — 

• In her barme })is litel childe she leide, And lulled it, and after gan it kisse.' 

Wib ful sadde face and gan J>e childe to blisse, 
' I lulle in myne amies, as a nouryce dothe her chylde to bringe it aslepe. Je berce entre 
mes bras. She can lulle a childe as hansomly aslepe as it were a woman of thurty yere 
olde.' Palsgrave. ' To lull. Delinio, demulceo.' To lull asleep. Sopio. Lullaby. Lullus, 
ncenia soporifera? Coles. ' Perce, lulled.' Wright's Vocab. p. 143. O. Icel. lulla. 

4 A very common burden in nursery songs. See one printed by Mr. Halliwell in his 
edition of the Coventry Mysteries, p. 414, which begins — 

' Lully, lulla, thow litell tine child : By, by, lully, lullay, thow littell tyne child : 

By, by, lully, lullay, &c.' 
' ffayr chylde, lullay, sone must she syng.' ibid. p. 137. 


*a Lurdane 1 ; vbi a thefe. 

to Lurke 2 ; latere, lalescere, latitare, 

delitere, re-, diletesceve, re-. 
fliurkynge ; latens, latitans, § cetera, 
ta Lurkynge place ; latebra, latibu- 


a Luste ; illecebra, libido, voluntas. 
Lusty; illecebrosus, gulosus, libidin- 

osus, voluptuosus. 
A Lwte (A.). 
*a Luvere (Lyuer A.) 3 ; fvmarium, 

fvmerale, lucar, lodium. 

C&pitulum 12 m M. 

M ante A. 
Mace 4 ; macia (piastix A.), 
species est. 
a Mace 5 ; claua, manipulus. 

to be Made 6 ; fieri (A.). 
Made ; Entus, ComjMsitus, /actus, § 

cetera pardcipia verborum sequen- 

cium ; vbi to make (A.). 
Made ; vbi fonde (A.). 
Madyr 7 ; coccus, rubea, sandioc, Ru- 

bium Maiov, herba est, angiice 


1 Gawain Douglas in his pi-ologue to the jEneados, Bk. viii. 1. 9, uses lurdanry — 

' Frendschip flemyt is in France, and fayth has the flicht ; 
Leyis, lurdanry and lust ar oure laid sterne.' 

2 Wyclif in his version of Joshua x. 27 has, 'the whiche doon doun thei threwen hem 
into the spelonk, in the which thei lorkiden' [in qua laluerant] ; and in I. Paralip. xii. 8, 
' of Gaddi ouerflowen to Dauid, whanne he lurkide [cum late ret] in desert, most stronge 
men, and best niters.' See the Destruction of Troy, 1. 1 167, where the Greeks are described 
as having ' lurkyt vnder lefesals loget with vines.' 

In 1. 1 3106 of the same poem it is used with the meaning of departing stealthily, stealing 
away — ' Vlyxes the Lord, that lurkyd by nyght