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Full text of "Child Study; the journal of the Child Study Society"

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ci)iia=$tuap» 

XTbe Journal of the Cbtlb:sStuJ>^ Society. 



VOLUME VI. 
1913. 



EMtor 

H. HOLMAN, M.A. 



'l!^^' 

»*>! 



PUBLISHED BY 



EDWARD ARNOLD 

41 & 43, Maddox Strhrt, Bond Sjtrrkt, London, W. 



Ube Journal of tbe (Ibt«>*StuDs Society, 

The object of the Society is the Scientific Study of the Mental and Physical Condition of 
Children, and also of Educational Methods, with a view to gaining greater insight into Child- 
nature and securing more sympathetic and scientific methods of training the young. 



President. 
SIR JAMES CRICHTON-BROWNE, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Chairman. 
SIR EDWARD W. BRABROOK, C.B., V -PSA. 

Vice-Chairman. 
The HON. SIR JOHN A. COCKBURN. K.C.M.G.. M.D. 

Hon. Secretaries. 
Miss Mary Louch, Colbury House, Totton, Hants. 
W. J. DoRRiE MULFORD, 69, Hosack Road, Upper Tooting Park, S.W. 

Assist. Hon. Secretary. 
Miss Kate G. Cash, B.A., 36, Hunters Buildings, Borough Rd., S.E. 

Treasurer. 
E. WHITE WALLIS, F.S.S. 

Journal Committee, 
E. White Wallis, F.S.S. , Convener. 

Prof. J. M. FoRSTER, B.A., B.Litt. 
H. Holman, M.A., Editor. 
R. Langdon Down, M.A., M.B. 
A. Beresford Kingsford, M.R.C.S., D.P.H. 
Miss M. Louch. 

W. J. DURRIH MULFORD. 
T. G. TiBBEY, B.A. 

Hon. Sec. of Committee. 
Miss E. K. White Wallis, " Rozel," Ruislip Road, Northwood. 



Communications respecting the Journal to be addressed to the Editor, 8, Hornsey Lane, 

London, N. 



The Society is not responsible for tiie facts or opinions given by tbe Authors. 



List of Contents. 



PAGE 

Maria Montessori's Method of Self-Education. By Madame M.L. Pujol- 

Segalas (Paris) 2, 26 

The Montessori Method : Its Principles and Practices. By Robert R. Ruske, 

M.A., B.A., Ph.D 6,31 

The Montessori Method : Colour and Discrimination. By Frank Smith, 

B.A., B.Sc 8 

Parent Educators. By Prof. Bidart. Translated by Miss M. S. Ryan, B.A., 

14, 38, 53, 70, 88, 127 

The Beginnings of Syntactical Speech. By William Boyo, M.A., B.Sc, D.Ph. 21,47 

The Psychology of Mathematics. By William Brown, M.A., D.Sc. ... 24, 42 

Suggestion and its Power on Children in Different Types of Schools. By 

Frank Smith, B.A., B.Sc 61 

Nervous Mechanisms and Writing. By James Kerr, M.A., M.D 58 

Modern Psychology and the New Constructive Movement in Education. By 

W. H. Winch, M.A 

The Development of the Child's Brain. By Albert Wilson, M.D. ... 

The Teaching of Sexual Hygiene. By Norah March, B.Sc 

Parents and the Education of the Sense of Sight. By Professor Jules 

Renault (Belgium). Translated by T. G. Tibbey, B.A 87 

Child Study and Pathology. By Sir James Crichton-Browne, M.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S ^ 96, 117 

The Child of the One-Roomed House. By W. Leslie Mackenzie, M.A., 

M.B., LL.D ' 101, 121 

The Development of Vision in Children. By Edgar Browne, M.Ch. (Liver- 
pool), F.R.C.S. (Edinburgh) 

The Two Hours Play of a Four Years' Old Boy. By J. J. Webber, B.A. 
Binet's Mental Tests : W^hat they are, and what we can do with them. By 

W. H. Winch, M.A 113, 

Tests bearing on the Early Ideas of Number and Quantity. By Dr. Decroly 

and Mlle. Degaud. Translated and abridged by T. G. Tibbey, B.A. ... 125 

Editorial Notes 1,21,41,58,96,112, 

Suggestions for Study and Practice — 
Learning by Touch : An Experiment 
Self-Education through the Senses 



64 

68, 76 
82 



104 
105 



Vocational Schools 

Music and the Feeble Minded 

Handwork and Child Study 

The Father as Educator 

Mental Differences Between the Sexes 



16 
16 
16 
38 
39 
73 
73 



Needlework and Eyesight 

The Value of Handwork 

Physical Measurements and Mental Retardation 

Civics in Schools 

Dr. Montessori and Traditional Methods 

Knowledge and the Soul 

Education in Sex 

Scientific Tests and the Ordinary Teacher 

The Value of Correcting Mistakes 

Classification by the Binet Test ... .•• 

Physical Exercises for Babies 

Home Education by a Mother ... ... 

The Child-Study Society and the Constituent Societies 17, 39 

Notices and News 18,40,56,75, 



PAC.F 

73 

92 

92 

92 

92 

93 

107 

107 

108 

129 

129 

129 



, 54, 74 

93, 110 



, 108, 
, 130, 



Reviews of Books, etc : — 

Froebel's Chief Education Writings. By Dr. S. S. Fletcher and Professor James Welton 

Life and Work of Pestalozzi. By Professor J. A. Green ... 

L'Annee Pidagogique ... 

Hand and Eye Training, or Education through Work. By H. Holman, M.A. 

The Montessori System. By Dr. Theodate Smith 

Experimental Psychology and Pedagogy. By R. Schulze ... 

Concerning Religious Education. Method in Religious Education. The Period of the 
Exodus 

Herself. False Modesty; Confidences; Truth. By Dr. B. E. Lowry ... 

The Diary of a Free Kindergarten. By Lileen Hardy 

Experimental Studies of Mental Defectives. By J. E. Wallace Wallin, Ph.D. ... 

Childhood : Its Nature, Nurture, Physiology and Education in Relation to Social Life. 
By Frederick Davis, B.Sc. 

The Service of the Hand in the School. By Wontrina A. Bone ... 
Marriage and the Sex Problem. By Dr. F. W. Foerster ... 

The Life of Benjamin Waugh. By Rosa Waugh 

Twelve Years with My Boys ... ... ... 

Educational Handwork ... ... ... ... 

Roswitha. By Otto Ernst 

L'Educateur Moderne ... 

Bulletin de I'Education Morale de la Jeunesse ... 

Hygiene for Teachers. By R. Alan Rowlands ... 

The Conservation of the Child. By Arthur Holmes, Ph.D 

Music and Delight. By John Daulby Peake, B.A 

L' Intermidiare des Educateurs 

The American Teacher 

La Rivista di Psichologia 

City of Westminster Health Society 

The Demonstration School Record ... ... ... 

Child Mind. By B. Dumville, M.A., F.C.P 

Certificate Hygiene 

Light Woodwork. By W. G. Alderton and J. T. Baily 

The Posture of School Children. By Jessie H. Bancroft 

Ambidextrie : — ^tude experimentale et critique. By Varia Kipliani 

Le Pcedologium, No. I 

Eug^nique 

School and Life 

The Joyous Book of Singing Games. By John Hornby 

Young Delinquents. By Mary G. Barnett 



19 
19 
19 
19 
20 
20 

20 
20 
20 
.56 

57 

57 

57 

57 

57 

57 

57 

75 

75, 131 

75 

94 

95 

130 

95 

95 

111 

111 

111 

111 

111 

111 

130 

130 

131 

131 

131 

131 



95, 



/. 



CbildStudp* 

tiK Journal of the Cbild-Sfuap Soclelp. 



Vol. VI.— No. 1. 



FEBRUARY. 1913. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 

Seguin's Physiological Method.— The 

discussions on the so-called " Montessori 
Method " continue to be as keen and the 
attendance as overflowing as at first. 
Never was so much enthusiasm shown 
over educational method. As Dr. Kim- 
mins said at one of the meetings, they 
are like first nights at sensational plays. 
This is all to the good, and all true educa- 
tionists rejoice at it. But is it not time 
for us to begin to study Seguin's ideas 
in his own writings? Until we do this, 
and criticise through experiments, as Dr. 
Montessori does, there will be much waste 
of words, and idle beating of the argu- 
mentative air. 



In the controversy the Froebelians (that 
is, the Free Kindergartners) forget that 
they are no longer Froebelians. They will 
make splendidly successful Seguinians, 
when they have studied the physiological 
method. Any one who doubts the former 
of these statements should read Froebel's 
Chief Educational Writings, by Dr. 
Fletcher and Professor Welton, and Edu- 
cational Issues in the Kindergarten, by 
Miss Susan Blow. 



Our readers will get great help towards 
the right understanding of Dr. Montes- 
sori's work from the three articles in this 
issue : the first by a practical worker who 
was a pupil under Dr. Montessori, the 
second by a scientific critic, and the third 
by a scientific experimenter. 



The School Psychologist. — After the 
school doctor comes the school psycholo- 
gist, and both have come very much too 
late and very inadequately. The London 
County Council have appointed Mr, Cyril 
Burt, M.A., as school psychologist. This 
is excellent ; other education authorities 
will please copy. Unfortunately Mr. Burt 
is only to be a half-timer. There is work 
enough for several full-timers. 



We trust the L.C.C. will soon establish 
a special department for psychological in- 
vestigations, and that they will make a 
special point of securing what may be 
called educator-psychologists, i.e. those 
who know both education, as such, and 
psychology, as such. The pre-eminent 
example of such is Mr. VV. H. Winch, 
M.A., who may be said to be the father 
of a " school" of educator-psychologists, 
and whose work is appreciated by the 
leading psychologists in Europe and 
America. 



The Children's Welfare Exhibition. — 

If we accept Ruskin's dictum that it is 
better that people should think wrongly 
than not think at all, we must agree that 
it is still better to make them think to- 
wards the right. The enterprise of the 
Daily News and Leader will undoubtedly 
have made people think, and think to- 
wards the right, about children. Thus 
sweet are (some of) the uses of advertise- 
ment ; and thus difficult is it (sometimes) 
to do good to ourselves without benefiting 



2 



Maria Mantessori's Method of Self-Education. 



our neighbours, especially when the latter 
is also intended. 



Many of the lectures must have proved 
as helpful as interesting ; but it was un- 
fortunate that most of the lecturers were 
what we may call individualistic educators 
with axes to grind : most honourable and 
admirable axes, but axes to grind. They 
represented rather the empirical dis- 
coverers of the most efficient way of 
achieving practical success, than the 
scientific educationist with the latest re- 
sults of experimental investigations. 



One lecturer spoke of " neurones or 
nerve fibres as they are called " ; another 
seemed quite convinced that any system of 
instruction which involved the use of the 
sense of touch was a " psychological 
method " ; and a third suggested that if 
there be such people as educational ex- 
perts, then " the Head Master of Eton 
must be the expert of experts " ! A strik- 
ing instance of irony (was it conscious or 
unconscious?) occurred : A speaker con- 
demned in unmeasured terms the hideous 
ugliness and evil influences of gramo- 
phones and golli-wogs, while both were 
present in the exhibition. But the Daily 
News and Leader deserves our thanks. 



The Joint Educational Conference. — 

This was held in the University of London 
buildings, and was a decided success. It 
may well be the beginning of a British 
Education Association ; and the Teachers' 
Guild may justly feel proud of their 
initiative in suggesting and organising it. 
Its chief, if not only, defect was the plen- 
tiful lack of evidence of a knowledge and 
appreciation of the results of child study. 
Our society has much to do in propagat- 
ing a knowledge of child-study. 



MARIA MONTESSORI'S METHOD OF 
SELFEDUCATION. 

By Madame M. L. Pujol-Segalas. 

1. " Truth is one and simple, it ap- 
pears ever the same to all daring spirits 
who carry courageously into practice 
Descartes's principle, not confining them- 
selves to any preconceived idea, but fol- 
lowing the light of reason, guided by ex- 
perience, wherever it leads." 

This sentence is a quotation, and it was 
written by Baronessa Combrugghe in the 
preface to her French translation of 
Froebel's book on the " Education of 
Man." 

I shall make it more or less the text of 
my talk with you this evening, my wish 
being, first of all, to insist upon the fact 
that there is no need for quarrelling about 
the personal merits of Froebcl and 
Montessori, or any other great teacher of 
the young on this or that side of the 
ocean. To me it seems that Froebel had, 
more than seventy years ago, a true in- 
tuition of what education ought to be ; 
and, seeing that there is nothing more 
important, he set himself to work with 
little children to find the means of carry- 
ing out his conception into immediate 
practice. 

More recently, a few years ago, Maria 
Montessori was studying, as a doctor, the 
case of deficient children ; and, in her 
endeavour to make up for their deficiency 
by more efficient methods of tuition, she 
discovered the principles which must be 
at the base of all training, that is really 
intended to help in the development of the 
faculties. The wonderful results she ob- 
tained made her desirous to experiment 
with normal children. She knew it was 
worth while giving up all other concerns 
to devote her whole life to this grand 
work of education. 

That man and that woman are two fine 
figures, who both inspire me with admira- 
tion and gratitude. By different ways 
they come to similar conclusions, in many 
cases : " Let Nature be our guide," says 
Froebel. And many of you have read the 



Madame M. L. Pujol-Segalas. 



last sentence of Maria Montessori's book : 
" Our pedagogical method is informed in 
Kant's high concept, Perfect art returns 
to Nature." 

It was also Froebel who wrote : " Un- 
conscious man, as a simple product of 
Nature, has no hesitation in claiming 
what is good for himself, and he requires 
it under the shape more suitable to its 
aptitudes, and to the nature and the power 
of the forces expressed through him. 
Whatever objections may be raised 
against that truth and its applications in 
education, it will, none the less, justify 
itself, in all its radiance and beauty, in 
the eyes of the generation whose faith 
and confidence will rise up to it ! " 

Now, Maria Montcssori, faced b\ the 
results obtained in some of her children's 
houses, rejoices to find that each one of 
the little pupils perfects himself, through 
employment of his own powers, and goes 
forward guided by that inner force which 
distinguishes him as an individual. Do 
not those words of the Italian education- 
alist appear as a confirmation of those of 
the great German master? Thev do in- 
deed. Only the position of Froebel is 
rather that of a philosopher, which ren- 
ders subsequent experiments desirable to 
demonstrate the reality of his system to a 
majority of less intuitive modern people. 
Doctor Montessori proceeds as a scientist, 
formulating the law, according to the 
results of carefully conducted and many 
times repeated experiments. I do not 
mean, of course, that Froebel lacked the 
power of observation and induction which 
is the main characteristic of the man of 
science, nor that Montessori does not 
possess to a very high degree the power 
of intuition and deduction. I simply in- 
tend to say that the starting points of 
these two great initiators are different. 
The difference is due, not only to indi- 
vidual mental qualities, but also to cir- 
cumstances in time and to the special 
genius of the race to whom each one 
belongs. 

I do therefore rejoice that there are 
many Froebelians, and that in most Saxon 
countries : in Germany, in England, and 



also in America, Froebel Institutes are 
flourishing and benefiting large numbers 
of children. However, personally I am a 
Montessorian, because it is the nature of 
my mind to progress slowly by means of 
experiments, methodically conducted, 
rather than by great leaps and bounds, 
through sudden revelation, however much 
I may recognise the value of that. As 
far as I am concerned, I find that the 
analytical process, implying more pre- 
cision, brings me finally to a more satis- 
factory and more complete synthetical 
apprehension of any subject. 

I quite sympathise with Frobel's ideal- 
istic view of education, but the more real- 
istic methods of Maria Montessori seem 
to me to contain more assurance for the 
future ; they are safer because they retain 
our attention longer on the individual and 
social aspects of education, so varied and 
essential, and so without our losing sight 
meanwhile of the general truths. At the 
present day, when life has a tendency to 
become dangerously artificial, it is neces- 
sary that the educationalist should make 
an effort to attain, through the study of 
the child, to a truer and more practical 
knowledge of the human needs and 
possibilities. 

II. At the basis of all is the free play, 
the spontaneous work of the child's facul- 
ties or latent powers. I suppose we are 
all agreed on this all-important point, in 
theory at least. Froebel has claimed it, 
and perhaps demonstrated it clearly. 
Since his time the whole teaching world 
has been repeating it with more or less 
conviction, but in practice there are but 
few, I am afraid, who have been able con- 
stantly to inspire from it their whole con- 
duct towards children. Those few must 
have been the really successful teachers. 
In the United States of America, and in 
the North of Europe there has perhaps 
been a more general effort in that direc- 
tion ; experimental methods were intro- 
duced in many schools, and thereby more 
life was infused in all the scholastic trans- 
actions. 

I sometimes read in English and Ameri- 
can magazines interesting accounts of 

B 



Maria Montessori's Method of Self-Education. 



new attempts to remove all artificial bar- 
riers between the child and the thing one 
wishes him to be acquainted with. In the 
special subject of drawing (dessin) much 
has been done (many are aware of it) by 
our good and much honoured friend Mr. 
Cook, of South Hill Park, London. Not 
long ago there was given, also at the 
Child Study Society, amongst other most 
interesting papers, one by Mr. Marshall 
Jackman about the methods he uses to 
prevent arithmetic from becoming, in the 
junior classes, a blocking of the child's 
mind that would tend to make him a 
stranger to the sciences of logic and 
mathematics, as is too often the case for 
many of our young people. 

In the Latin countries less had been 
done until lately, on account perhaps of 
our more conservative temperament, and 
also, I may say, by reason of the much 
exaggerated importance that it still 
granted to examination and diplomas ; 
that, as you know, makes it more or less 
a necessity for the teacher to drag his 
pupils feverishly along a programme, not 
at all adapted to their individual require- 
ments. However, some have dared, even 
in France. Allow me to mention Pro- 
fessor Pujol, who, trusting his intuition, 
has put it to the test of experiment for 
the last ten years, and has thus quietly 
evolved what some consider as the truly 
natural and rational method of teaching 
languages. All that work, and much be- 
sides, of which we may not yet have 
heard, will have to be retained, and all 
such researches will serve their purpose 
even better in the future. At present, like 
experiments, successful though they ap- 
pear to us, do not produce every possible 
result. The reason? Well, the child's 
mind has nearly always been deformed or 
hardened, before it is put to the test by 
these truly scientific methods. 

I was faced by this diflficulty over and 
over again, as the headmistress of a girls' 
college which my husband and myself 
founded, to try to carry into practice our, 
shall I say, not generally accepted con- 
ception of education. The work proved 
satisfactory from many points of view. 



and from the very beginning pupils came 
in as large numloers as the house could 
contain. However we gave it up, on 
acknowledging this necessity : Right 
principles must be applied, before it is too 
late for them to bear the best possible 
fruit, that is even with the small child, 
while his mind is quite fresh, and before 
the usual mode of training has made him 
more or less deficient. For, to a few 
naturally deficient children there are many 
artificially deficient ones. I mean to say 
that hundreds and thousands of such are 
being fabricated in our homes and schools 
all over the world, and this to me is 
appalling ! That such is the case I was 
\\ell aware, and I had dreamt many won- 
derful dreams about "what might be," 
when I first met Maria Montessori. On 
visiting her Children's Houses I was 
struck (probably like Mr. Holmes him- 
self during his journey to Italy), by the 
fact that there was realised, under my 
eyes, what might be everywhere, for the 
greater happiness of the coming genera- 
tion. 

When I entered La Casa dei Bambini 
dello Fia Guisto, about the middle of the 
school year, all the little inmates were in- 
deed working with a will, and looking 
most radiantly happy. Of course this ful- 
ness of joy was the result of the really 
free play of their unfolding faculties, and 
of the untrammelled expansion of the life 
within. Not a few were sitting quite by 
themselves at their little tables, others in 
groups, some busy, some watching their 
friends. As to the mistresses, they seemed 
to be playing no prominent part. At 
most they had made some suggestions at 
the beginning with regard to various 
occupations, but the little mites had made 
their choice, fixing their attention at once 
on whatever interested them at the time. 
The fatigue was none ; because, if there 
happened to be any real diflficulty in the 
work, the child was prepared to make the 
necessary effort to overcome it, for special 
reasons of his own. 

On the contrary, when you take a num- 
ber of children together and tell them to 
do the same thing, in the same way, at 



Madame M. L. PujoUSegalas. 



the very same moment, do you think that 
there is any free play of the faculties ? 
However delightful this particular piece of 
work may seem to you, or to a few of 
your little companions, that does not much 
improve the sad case of the remnant. Of 
course, if the mistress is very clever and 
sympathetic, she will manage to rouse the 
interest of many of the little souls there 
assembled. Can we say of all ? The pro- 
bability is that a few will find the lesson 
or the exercise too easy, and therefore 
tedious. Under those circumstances to 
remain quiet requires on the part of such 
pupils an exertion of the will of which they 
are not always capable, for so long as is 
expected. Thus it turns out that the 
most intelligent pupils often belong to the 
category of those whom we call naughty 
children. 

More often, many will be prevailed 
upon to strive and do some work which 
is too difficult for them, or in too short 
a time for their present ability. So they 
get into the habit of doing things badly 
or indifferently well ; and they will gradu- 
ally lose all confidence in their power of 
achieving anything, or any capacity of 
just appreciation. This goes on day after 
day, because they belong to that majority 
for whom it is easier to obey, even at the 
expense of health and comfort, than to 
resist tyranny. There the poor soul, pent 
up in its prison-house, languishes during 
those years when it was meant to grow 
silently among surroundings of peace and 
love ; and then it shrivels up miserably. 
No wonder, since it lacks the necessary 
instrument to enter into communication 
with the world outside ; since the mind 
that belonged to it is constantly a prey to 
the teacher's or the parent's will, and the 
child himself is given no opportunity 
whatever to gain control over it. 

Who will say how many human beings 
have thus lost their opportunity of "liv- 
ing a life " in the truer and higher sense 
of the expression. Here is the secret of 
so many puzzling cases of children that 
were brilliant at four or five, and who, at 
sixteen, have become utterly incapable of 
thinking their own thoughts. Their minds 



have been transformed into mere reflectors 
of other people's minds, ever since their 
so-called education began. We mean 
well I know, but all the same we have 
made slaves of them intellectually and 
morally. Then we are astonished when 
we find that they are no longer able to 
behave as independent beings. They will 
repeat a professor's lecture, or the text 
of a book, more or less accurately ; and all 
such borrowed knowledge may have been 
even fairly well assimilated, and found 
sufficient where examinations are con- 
cerned. But, if you stop feeding these 
comfortable students, they will starve ; 
you will find their mind refuses to work 
if not actuated from outside. 

From the moral point of view it is even 
worse : they do not possess the least frag- 
ment of that liberty which Epictetus en- 
joyed to the full, in spite of the slavery to 
which his body was submitted. If in them 
a personality ever manifests itself again, 
it will only be when their mind is put into 
motion by lower instincts or coarser de- 
sires. Nowadays we do not believe much 
in the higher spiritual freedom. Of 
course we don't, because so many have 
been deprived of their rights, as human 
beings, when they were young and de- 
fenceless. A small minority were at an 
early age strong enough or wise enough 
to shoot down their own roots straight 
into the soil, despite the surrounding 
thicket of foreign weeds ; they escaped, 
in some measure, deforming influences ; 
but in later years they have often been 
driven well nigh to despair in the struggle 
to protect their inner life, under economic 
pressure, because they are, in some coun- 
tries, such rare exceptions. I have seen 
it less with the English nation than with 
several others I know, therefore I believe 
that you will understand us Montes- 
sorians when we appeal to you for the 
sake of natural and social order for the 
sake of evolving individualities, to insure 
the child during his tender years against 
an oppression of the worst kind, no matter 
whether the motive is blind tyrannical 
affection or easy-going selfishness. [Etc.] 



The Montessori Method : its Principles and Practices. 



THE MONTESSORI METHOD: ITS 
PfilNCIPLES AND PRACTICES. 

By Robert R. Rusk, m.a., b.a., ph.d. 

The Montessori system of early educa- 
tion has three aspects : the social, the 
psychological and the pedagogical. With 
the significance of the House of Child- 
hood, the new form of social institution 
which provided Dr. Montessori with the 
opportunity of putting her principles into 
practice we cannot here deal, but shall 
confine our treatment to the principles and 
practices of the new educational method. 
Principles of Method. The Montessori 
method is primarily intended for children 
under school age, that is, from three to 
seven years of age. Before proceeding to 
characterise the principles underlying the 
new method we should perhaps recall the 
fact that the child under school age has 
usually acquired unaided an education 
which, if somewhat unsystematic in char- 
acter, is nevertheless not inconsiderable 
in amount. We may conclude then that 
with proper guidance such education 
could be vastly improved. 

The method adopted by Dr. Montessori 
for children of the age in question was 
determined by her training and previous 
experience. Dr. Montessori having gradu- 
ated in medicine, was for a time in charge 
of the training of mentally deficient chil- 
dren. Her success with these was re- 
markable ; she taught a number of such 
children to read and to write so success- 
fully that they were able to be presented 
for examination with normal children of 
the same age, and this wonderful result 
she attributed to the fact that her pupils 
had been taught by a different method. 
From her observations she concluded that 
the methods employed with defective chil- 
dren were more rational than the ordinary 
methods, and if applied to the training of 
normal children would yield even better 
results than with defective children. 

To be successful these methods should 
obviously be applied to children at a stage 
of development corresponding to that of 
deficients, that is, with infants, At this 



age the child has not acquired the co- 
ordination of muscular movements neces- 
sary to enable him to perform the ordinary 
acts of life, his sensory powers are not 
fully developed and his emotional and 
volitional life is still unstable. The sig- 
nificance of the pedagogical experiment in 
the Children's Houses lies in this, as Dr. 
Montessori expresses it: "It represents 
the results of a series of trials made in the 
education of young children, with methods 
alreadv used with deficients" [The Mon- 
tessori Method, p. 45). 

It is indeed surprising that earlier ap- 
plication has not been made of the 
methods used in educating certain well 
known physical defectives, for example, 
Laura Bridgman and Helen Keller. These 
cases present us with what, in the ter- 
minology of scientific methodology, are 
called " natural experiments," a type of 
experiment which in other sciences is 
usually fully exploited. 

By discovering then the main character- 
istics of the training of defective children 
we shall have the key to the new Montes- 
sori method. The first principle is to 
train the pupil to be independent of others 
in respect to the ordinary practices of life ; 
it appears also to necessitate approach to 
the child mind at a lower level than can 
be adopted with normal children, an ap- 
peal to the senses rather than to the intel- 
lect. In the case of physically defective 
children it implies training one sense to 
function vicariously for another, for ex- 
ample, with deaf children, teaching words 
not by hearing the sounds but by feeling 
the vibrations of the larynx of the speaker. 
The ultimate reference is to the sense of 
touch, which is regarded as fundamental 
and primordial. 

Dr. Montessori may be said to have 
adopted the tactualist standpoint, and in 
the education of young children applied 
the principle that the sense of touch is 
fundamental. She maintains that it 
undergoes great development during early 
years, and that if neglected at this age 
it loses its susceptibility to training. 

The Psychological Method. S6guin, of 
whom Dr. Montessori claims to be a dis- 



Robert R. Rusk, M.A., B.A., Ph.D. 



ciple, had designated his treatment of the 
feeble-minded as the physiological method. 
Making allowance for the advance which 
Dr. Montessori has made and her adap- 
tation of the training to normal children 
we may characterise her method as the 
psychological method in education. Pes- 
talozzi sought to psychologise education, 
but, as in his day there existed no psycho- 
logy of the school child, he ended by 
mechanising instruction and the methods 
which with him yielded results regarded as 
miraculous are the despair of the present- 
day teacher. 

The psychological method in education 
implies that the educative process is de- 
pendent on the stage of mental develop- 
ment of the child, even in his interests, 
not on the necessities of a curriculum or 
on the teacher's record of work. " By 
education," says Dr. Montessori (p. 104), 
" must be understood the active help 
given to the normal expansion of the life 
of the child." The psychological moment 
in the educative process comes when con- 
sciousness of a need arises in the child 
mind. "It is necessary then," in the 
Montessori method (p. 358), " to offer 
those exercises which correspond to the 
need of development felt by an organism, 
and if the child's age has carried him past 
a certain need, it is never possible to ob- 
tain, in its fulness, a development which 
missed its proper moment." The dura- 
tion of a process is determined, not by 
the exigencies of an authorised time-table, 
but by the time required by the child to 
exhaust his interest in the process. It is 
currently stated in educational works that 
the attention of the young child can only 
be sustained for a very few minutes at a 
time. This, however, applies only to en- 
forced attention ; spontaneous attention, 
exhibited, for example, in the child's play, 
can be sustained for a considerable time, 
and it is the latter which is allowed fr'ee 
scope in the Montessori method. Thus in 
a Montessori school we may find a boy 
working unremittingly at a self-imposed 
task for several days on end (Tozier, 
An Educational Wonder Worker, p. 10). 

From the psychological standpoint 



there is likewise neither rightness nor 
wrongness. Psychology, as all the text- 
books agree, is a positive, not a regula- 
tive science. Consequently in the Montes- 
sori method, which adopts the psycholo- 
gical standpoint, if a child fails to perform 
a task or to appreciate the truth of a 
principle, " the teacher is not to insist by 
repeating the lesson, and not to make the 
child feel that he has made a mistake, or 
that he has not understood " (p. 109). 
She must assume that the task has been 
presented prematurely, and, before again 
presenting the stimulus, await the mani- 
festation of the symptoms which indicate 
that the need exists. 

As there is neither rightness nor wrong- 
ness in a psychological method, there are 
naturally in the Montessori system no 
prizes. The pupil's sense of mastery is 
his highest reward. "His own self- 
development is his true and almost his 
only pleasure " (p. 356). Correction comes 
from the material, not from the teacher. 
" From the 'Children's Houses,' the old- 
time teacher, who wore herself out main- 
taining discipline of immobility, and wast- 
ing her breath in loud and continual dis- 
course, has disappeared, and the didactic 
material which contains within itself the 
control of errors is substituted, making 
auto-education possible to each child " (p. 
371). This is the principle of Rousseau 
and of Spencer, not however confined, as 
by them, to moral misdemeanours, that 
the child should meet with no obstacles 
other than physical. It is an intellectual 
" discipline by consequences." 

The psychological method also implies 
the perfect freedom of the child, the free- 
dom which consists in absolute obedience 
to the laws of the development of his own 
nature. " The method of observation 
[i.e. the psychological method] is estab- 
lished upon one fundamental base : the 
liberty of the pupils in their spontaneous 
manifestations " (p. 80). This liberty 
necessitates independence of action on the 
part of the child : " Whoever visits a 
well-kept school is struck by the disci- 
pline of the children. There are forty 
little beings, from three to seven years 



8 



The Montessori Method and Colour Discrimination. 



old, each one intent on his own work; 
one is going through one of the exercises 
for the senses, one is doing an arith- 
metical exercise, one is handling the 
letters, one is drawing, one is fastening 
and unfastening the pieces of cloth on one 
of the wooden frames, still another is dust- 
ing. Some are seated at the tables, some 
on rugs on the floor " (p. 346). 

It may seem rather a go-as-you-please 
method (cf. p. 92), but this term of re- 
proach may yet become the honoured 
motto of the new education. 

Practices of Method. Passing from a 
consideration of the principles to the prac- 
tices of the method, we find that they fall 
into three classes : (i.) the exercises of 
practical life; (ii.) the exercises in sen- 
sory training; (iii.) the didactic exercises. 

i. Practical Exercises. The main task 
in the training of feeble-minded children 
is to teach them to take care of them- 
selves. This is likewise the first part of 
the training in the House of Childhood. 
It is a training in liberty ; for freedom, 
according to Dr. Montessori, does not 
consist in having others at one's com- 
mand to perform the ordinary services, 
but in being able to do these for oneself, 
in being independent of others. Thus in 
the Houses of Childhood the children 
learn how to wash their hands, using little 
washstands with small pitchers and basins, 
how to clean their nails, brush their teeth, 
and so on. Educational gymnastics are 
likewise arranged to train the child in the 
movements necessary in dressing and un- 
dressing. The apparatus for this purpose 
consists of wooden frames, mounted with 
two pieces of cloth or leather which are 
fastened and unfastened by means of 
buttons and buttonholes, hooks and eyes, 
eyelets and lacings, or automatic fasten- 
ings. After some practice at these exer- 
cises the child finds that he has acquired 
a dexterity which enables him to dress 
and undress himself, and, not content with 
the satisfaction derived from such inde- 
pendence, his consciousness of the posses- 
sion of a new power arouses, in him a 
desire to assist in dressing the whole 
family (Tozier, p. 10). All the furniture 



in the House of Childhood, tables, chairs, 
etc., for there are no fixed desks, are of 
such a size and construction that the 
pupils can handle them easily ; they learn 
to move them without noise and without 
clumsiness, and thus are afforded a train- 
ing in motor adjustment. 

Dr. Montessori has also devised certain 
formal gymnastic exercises to develop in 
the child co-ordinated movements. She 
entirely disapproves of the application to 
the child of the ordinary gymnastic exer- 
cises practised by the adult. " We are 
wrong," she says (pp. 139-140), " if we 
consider little children from their physical 
point of view as little men. They have, 
instead, characteristics and proportions 
that are entirely special to their age." A 
new set of exercises must consequently 
be evolved, and, in accordance with the 
general Montessori principles, this has 
been accomplished by observing the spon- 
taneous movements of the child. The re- 
sult of the new exercises is to give the 
pupils of the House of Childhood a grace- 
fulness of carriage which distinguishes 
them from other children. [Etc.] 



THE MONTESSORI METHOD AND 
COLOUR DISCRIMINATION. 

By Frank Smith, u.a., b.sc. 
The following account describes some 
experiments with only one small part of 
the Montessori apparatus — the colour 
discrimination tests on the children of an 
elementary school. There was a difficulty 
with these children at the outset, in that 
they were so dependent on the teacher's 
directions that they did not give very 
spontaneous expression to their person- 
ality v/hen left with the freedom that the 
dottoressa advocates : they either sat pas- 
sively waiting for orders, as they had been 
taught to do, or they began to play with 
one another. The restraint of English 
school discipline, although it is wonder- 
fully less now than a generation ago, is 
still sufficient to cause Mr. Holmes to 
say, in his pamphlet on the Montessori 
method (p. 6) : "If child study is to be 
profitable, freedom must be given to the 



Frank Smith, B.A., B.Sc. 



child. His sayings and doings are of 
interest to the observer in proportion as 
they are spontaneous and natural." In 
other words, if " experimental peda- 
gogy " is to become possible, the child 
must be allowed to express himself freely 
in as many directions as possible, and the 
restraint to which he is at present sub- 
jected must be reduced to a minimum." 
A quotation from the dottoressa's book 
emphasises the same point : " The school 
must permit the free, natural manifesta- 
tions of the child if in the school scientific 
padagogy is to be born. This is the essen- 
tial reform " (p. 15). As my time was 
limited, however, I was unable to estab- 
lish this ideal state of affairs ; I had to 
hasten the distracted type of scholar, and 
to repress just a little the child who took 
undue advantage of the greater freedom 
of my experimental room. However, I do 
not think that this invalidates my results, 
as it is unlikely that the Mortessori disci- 
pline will be adopted in our English 
schools for some time to come. 

Apparatus. — I chose the colour discri- 
mination tests as my field of experiment, 
and prepared different shades of several 
colours as described by the dottoressa 
(pp. 200-203). But whereas she had eight 
tints, and each tint was present in eight 
gradations of intensity (making sixty-four 
tablets in all), I had seven tints, each in 
five gradations only (making thirty-five 
tablets). I found that the five gradations 
of one tint provided a sufficiently difficult 
exercise for most of my subjects and in 
one or two cases where I began with six 
gradations I discarded one of them after 
a little practice in order to make the series 
symmetrical and to lighten the task a 
little. 

In the chapter of the book called " The 
Education of the Senses " we are told 
with some emphasis that " the didactic 
material controls every error. . . . I#is 
the work of the child, the auto-correction, 
the auto-education, which acts, for the 
teacher must not interfere in the slightest 
way. . . . There remains for the teacher 
nothing hut to observe.''' We may 
assume, I suppose, that these remarks 



apply equally to the colour tablets as to 
the other material described in the book, 
i.e., that the child, in arranging the colour 
tablets in order, will discover those that 
are wrongly placed from the tablets them- 
selves, and not because of the teachers' 
interference, and will correct himself. 
Similarly, if one tablet is accidentally 
overlooked during the arranging, and dis- 
covered at the end of the exercises, the 
child will at once search about until the 
tablet is correctly placed in its own series, 
amongst the other gradations of the same 
colour. The dotoressa describes a series 
of exercises with the colour tablets, 
gradually increasing in difficulty until the 
time arrives when the young child of three 
years of age can put all the sixty-four 
tablets into correct gradation " with an 
abilitv before which we stand amazed." 

Subjects of Experiment. — In order to 
test both the claim of the didactic nature 
of the material, and the influence of age 
upon the performance of the exercise 1 
had about forty subjects under observa- 
tion, varying in age from three to six 
years. It was an ordinary town elemen- 
tary school, attended by children of fairly 
poor parents, though there were consider- 
able differences of home environment 
visible in the varying cleanliness and 
general physical condition of the children. 
.'\s the children of the district are not 
allowed to attend school till the age of 
four, the few subjects that I had under 
that age were not regular scholars, but 
only came for the purpose of my experi- 
ment, and were new to school conditions. 

I began the experiments with the chil- 
dren in groups of four, keeping each group 
for a period of about twenty minutes for 
each lesson. The lessons were taken in a 
separate classroom. As I found four 
children too many for close observation, 
I soon reduced the number to two, and as 
I had two complete sets of colour tablets 
this gave greater freedom to each child, 
since he was able to work independently 
with a complete set of colours. The ex- 
periments covered a period of five weeks, 
with about four lessons a week for each 
child. 



10 



Th« Montessori Method and Colour Discrimination. 



Results. — The most obvious and strik- 
ing fact at the beginning of the experi- 
ments v/as the very unequal development 
of the children, almost irrespective of age. 
The first exercise was to present to the 
child three strong colours, as red, blue and 
yellow, in pairs, all mixed together. One 
colour was picked up and given to the 
child, who was asked to discover its dupli- 
cate in the group. Thus he arranged the 
six in a column, in pairs of the same 
colour. The exercise could be further 
gradually complicated until the eight 
colours, or sixteen tablets, were given at 
once. The lighter tints were treated in 
the same way. 

These preliminary exercises proved to 
be very easy on the whole. A few mis- 
takes were made at the beginning by some 
of the youngest children, who were prob- 
ably distracted by their new surroundings, 
although some of the youngest did their 
tasks without error and quickly. One boy 
of three years and one month, although 
completely baffled by later exercises, was 
able to do this test fairly well. Of the 
twenty-four children over five years of 
age, only one went seriously wrong at 
the first attempt, and on a second trial 
she got them right. Of the twelve children 
between the ages of four and five, no less 
than four made serious mistakes on the 
first day. Of course, imperfect colour dis- 
crimination was not the only cause of 
error. A shyness due to strange condi- 
tions, a limited power of concentration, 
and an imperfect grasp of what was re- 
quired were but a few of the factors tend- 
ing to cause mistakes. 

As daily practice followed, the children 
soon grew accustomed to the task and the 
conditions and became more natural. 
With few exceptions they would talk to 
me of their school and home interests. In 
general my first impressions were con- 
firmed, and striking inequalities of devel- 
opment persisted among children of all 
ages, as shown by these tests, but 
especially between the ages of three and 
five. 

Generally speaking, there were two 
ways in which the exercise was per- 



formed : some children would look at one 
of the tablets carefully, and then move 
their eyes up and down the line till they 
found the mate; others would pick up a 
tablet and carry it about till they came to 
one like it. The former seemed to rely 
more on the immediate memory of the 
colour than did the others, and also to 
make a more active choice amongst the 
group. 

There was no connection between the 
power of discriminating between colours, 
and a knowledge of their names. This 
was very noticeable in one backward boy 
six years of age, who was able to match 
all the pairs quite accurately, but who was 
wholly ignorant of the name of any colour 
and who frequently gave diflerent names 
to the same colour even during one lesson. 
The same fact was proved in many other 
cases, though an accurate knowledge of 
names seemed to give confidence and 
power to those who possessed it. 

A frequent source of error was the 
darkest gradation of each series : dark 
blue and black were often confused, as 
also were dark brown and dark red. As 
I had occasion to refer to the " darkest " 
of a series fairly frequently, some of the 
more backward children, I think, looked 
on the different " darkest " tablets as 
being the same, and failed to notice that 
one was blue, another red, and so on. 

To a few children the chief aim seemed 

to be the actual arranging of the tablets 

•symmetrically and neatly, and this aim 

probably led to inaccuracies of colour 

choice being overlooked. 

The most important point forced on my 
notice during these early exercises was the 
lack of self-correction shown by all the 
children whenever mistakes were made. 
This was evident to the greatest degree, 
of course, in the backward children who 
made many errors, but it was also seen in 
tHU'children who only made mistakes occa- 
sionally. When the task was once com- 
pleted there was no examination of 
results, and no power to discover where 
the error lay, even when the children 
were told they had made mistakes and 
were urged to correct them. It is well 



Frank Smith, B.A., B.Sc. 



11 



known that a child is less analytical than 
an adult, and he probably sees things as 
vague wholes ; hence a small error of 
detail, quite clear to the adult, may be in- 
visible to the child until it is pointed out 
to him. In this respect, it seems to me, 
the colour apparatus of the dottoressa is 
not so valuable as some of the other 
apparatus she has devised. A square piece 
of wood will not fit into a triangular slot, 
and a very young child would soon learn 
the fact if he were playing with such 
apparatus. Material of this kind is didac- 
tic in a very real sense. But the colour 
material is not didactic in the same way : 
a red tablet will go next to a blue tablet 
without any outward difficulty, but it re- 
quires a specially directed act of attention 
and an elementary application of analy- 
tical criticism to perceive and correct the 
mistake. The more backward the child 
the more likely will it be that he will lack 
this power to correct, and until the 
material can be made more didactic, i.e. 
until the material will itself re\eal the 
mistakes of colour discrimination by some 
more obvious sign than at present, I 
should say that many of the claims made 
by the dottoressa regarding the value of 
her sense-training apparatus do not hold 
with this colour material. 

After scholars had succeeded in arrang- 
ing the colours in pairs the next step was 
to present three tints of the same colour 
simultaneously, and show their arrange- 
ment in a series from dark to light. The 
number was then gradually increased (in 
my own experiments there were five dif- 
ferent tints of each colour), until all the 
tints of a series could be put in a line with 
the position determined by the degree of 
saturation. Further complications were 
introduced by presenting two complete 
series of colours simultaneously, then 
three and so on, until at last all the 
tablets (thirty-five in my case) were given 
in a confused heap, and had to be put in 
order. 

This exercise proved to be immeasur- 
ably more difficult than the first, and it 
will be agreed that it is a very complex 
task to give a young child. What I have 



said in a preceding paragraph about the 
lack of analytical attention applies here 
also with greatly increased force. Even 
with children six years of age, who soon 
acquired a fair mastery over the exercise, 
and who were able to arrange the tablets 
with only one or two slight errors, I never 
saw a voluntary act of attention being 
directed to each part of the finished result 
in order to correct possible mistakes. If 
I asked the children whether all the 
tablets were right, 1 got at first a careless 
"Yes." Gradually I began to get an- 
swers a little more cautious, such as " 1 
don't know." There was never any keen 
desire shown to discover the errors. 
Sometimes a child would point to a tablet 
and ask if that were wrong, and the tablet 
pointed out was as often right as it was 
wrong. Not seldom would a child pick 
up a tablet that was in its right place, 
move it to one quite incorrect, and then 
wait with doubtful look for my judgment. 
1 am speaking here, be it noted, of the 
best of my subjects, of those who quickly 
learned to arrange the thirty-five tablets 
with but few errors, yet who showed very 
little power of analysis and of self-correc- 
tion. Of twelve subjects six years of age 
only two showed any tendency to go 
seriously wrong, and both were cases of 
markedly late development. The remain- 
ing ten would make one, two or three 
slight errors only without correcting them 
and this general tendency persisted till 
the end of my experiments. Of course, 
some subjects were more critical than 
others. It is worthy of note that 
when a child is directed towards the error 
he has made, he shows a fair power of 
making the correction. Thus if I said, 
" There is one slight mistake in the 
blue," a child of this group would almost 
always put his hand on the mistake at 
once and correct it. It is as though a 
fairly strong stimulus will start in his 
mind an analytical act of attention : other- 
wise his attention plays vaguely over the 
whole mass of tablets, and errors pass 
unnoticed. 

Among the twelve children who were 
five years of age there were four who soon 



12 



The Montessori Method and Colour Discrimination. 



acquired very fair mastery over the task 
and who belonged, in point of mental 
development as related to this exercise, 
to the group above them. Among the 
remaining eight there was one boy colour 
blind, and no fewer than four mixed up 
the green and heliotrope tablets almost 
every day. They would regularly put two 
green and three heliotrope tablets in one 
series, and the remaining three green and 
two heliotrope in another group. This 
lack of distinction between the two colours 
appeared in some of the cases to be very 
complete, for even a mild suggestion of 
error often failed to have any effect, and 
only a definite instruction availed. This 
same mistake appeared very frequently in 
younger children. Lack of critical 
analysis was almost universal in this 
group ; and two or three of these subjects 
showed no attempt at all to arrange the 
tablets in graded series. It would seem 
that to such subjects the exercise was too 
long to be carried through to the grading 
of each series : the aim was forgotten by 
the time the seven different groups of 
colours had been separated, and the 
grading not attempted without further 
definite distinction and stimulus. Of 
course, mistakes occurred even in the first 
part of the exercise ; a brown would be 
put in the reds, a dark blue in the greys, 
and so on. But the important point is 
that whilst there was an effort to separate 
the groups from one another, there was 
no desire to grade the common members 
of any one group. Yet when I picked up 
the five members of a group and placed 
them alone before the child, asking him to 
pick out the "darkest," then "the next 
darkest. " and so on, I was frequently able 
to get a series correctly graded without 
any other interference. That is, the child 
was able to do the exercise if his attention 
was constantly re-directed to the work, 
and a stimulus frequently given, but of 
himself he did not seem capable of making 
so sustained an effort of attention as the 
whole exercise demanded. 

The next younger group of children 
varied in age from four years and one 
month to four years and eight months, 



and many unequal attainments were ap- 
parent amongst them. One boy of four 
years and four months very quickly 
learned how to do the exercise, and sel- 
dom had more than two or three slight 
mistakes. But he never showed any 
power of correcting, and would sit 
patiently waiting for the next order with- 
out so much as a glance at the tablets. A 
girl of four years and six months had all 
the marks and qualities that go to the 
making of a ringleader amongst children ; 
the power of quick adaptation to new cir- 
cumstances, the ability to give commands 
quickly, a ready tongue, and a very good 
"surface ability." Yet she was amaz- 
ingly weak in correcting her own mis- 
takes. She did her task quickly and with 
confidence, constantly advised and helped 
the child working next to her, but re- 
peatedly ignored her own mistakes at the 
end of the exercise. Daily practice modi- 
fied this deficiency either very little or else 
not at all. 

An interesting result appeared one 
morning. Two boys came into the room 
for their lesson when I was talking to the 
schoolmistress. They had been having 
daily lessons for some time, and knew 
exactly what to do. They sat down at the 
table and waited for orders. I gave none, 
but went on talking, pretending to take 
no notice of them. In a little while they 
grew restless and began to talk. One 
spoke of new clothes which he was going 
to have, and the other attempted to hold 
his own by describing his sister's new 
dress. They mentioned the colour of 
these articles of dress, and pointed to dif- 
ferent tablets. By the time the topic was 
exhausted one of the lads had gathered up 
the thirty-five tablets in one hand and was 
holding them out over the table with great 
delight at the feat. His companion imme- 
diately tried to do the same dif^cult task, 
and expressed great joy when it was done. 
As they threw them down one card got 
caught at both ends and the force thus 
applied caused it to " jump " forward. 
This gave a new game, and for a few 
minutes there was every endeavour made 
to get all the cards "jumping." And 



Frank Smith, B.A., B.Sc. 



13 



so it went on for the whole twenty 
minutes. But in all this there was never 
any attempt to put the colour tablets in 
order ; there was no desire to put the 
thirty-five tablets into seven groups of 
colours, and each group into a graded 
series. Of course in a Montessori school 
the scholar is free to choose his own 
occupation, and is not compelled to do a 
set task at a stated time for the con- 
venience of an investigator like myself. 
But I must confess that I am sceptical 
about a young child under any cunditions 
spontaneously desiring to grade colour 
tablets, or at any rate completeing the 
task even if he begin it. For the exercise 
does not appeal to the utilitarian instincts 
of the child, and if he gets any pleasure 
from the task it is not because of the 
finished result, but because he has per- 
formed with some success a definite task 
of fair difficulty. It is probable that to 
the very young child the exact grading of 
the tablets seems quite an arbirtrary 
arrangement for some time. With prac- 
tice he learns to discover " the darkest " 
of the group more and more quickly, and 
perhaps memory becomes as important a 
factor in the placing of the tablets as the 
power of discrimination. 

The subjects under four years of age 
needed repeated directions if definite re- 
sults were to be obtained. When left to 
themselves they made no progress to- 
wards a definite end ; there were many 
forms of activity, but it was chaotic. Two 
children of three years and five months, 
both from good homes, showed excellent 
promise, but the task was too complex 
for them. They could divide the whole 
heap into groups of colours with fair ease, 
but they never offered to grade them with- 
out further directions from me, and in this 
part of the task the results were quite 
mediocre. When, on the other hand, I 
gave them the members of one colour 
group only and said : "Pick up the darkest 
and place it at the end," I invariably had 
the right one chosen. Then I would ask 
for the "next darkest," and so on, and 
in this way the subject was often able to 
put a whole series in gradation without a 



single mistake. But other subjects in this 
group were wholly unable to do the task. 
Several made very glaring mistakes in 
separating the colours from one another ; 
a few, indeed, never picked out a correct 
tablet except by wild chance. There was 
never any attempt to correct errors, and 
no desire to arrange the tablets correctly. 
For these children the material was not 
didactic in any sense. 

We may summarise these results very 
briefly : — 

1. In an English elementary school the 
exercise is of sufficient difficulty for chil- 
dren between the ages of four and five 
years, and backward children will find ex- 
ceptional difficulty in it until long after 
they are five. 

2. To the youngest children the material 
is not didactic, and does not lead to auto- 
correction in the way that is claimed for it. 
With the most advanced subjects the 
material becomes more didactic. 

3. Individual preferences for certain 
colour arrangements are treated as 
errors, and there is only one " correct " 
result. This allows no place to self- 
expression, and does not encourage any 
aesthetic appreciation of colour combina- 
tions. 

The Value of the Exercise. — These re- 
sults raise the further question of the value 
of the exercise to the child. The dot- 
toressa is very definite in her claims : 
" The education of the senses makes men 
observers, and not only accomplishes the 
general work of adaptation to the present 
epoch of civilisation, but also prepares 
them directly for practical life." The 
statement is vague, but it is very like a 
crude re-statement of the doctrine of for- 
mal training. It may be sufficient to say 
that this doctrine, in the form here stated, 
has now no defenders among psycholo- 
gists. Because a child has learn to ob- 
serve sixty-four shades of colour we have 
no right to say that he will be any better 
an observer of other objects in life than 
if he had learnt to observe sixty-four mud 
pies in the street. All we can say with 
certainty is that he will observe tablets of 
colour more easily as a result of the exer- 



14 



Parent Educators. 



cise, and he may pay more attention to 
the colours about him, though how far 
this is likely is a very open question. 

The dottoressa goes still further. Not 
only does she postulate a faculty of general 
observation, but she claims that her train- 
ing will give the power to turn the general 
faculty to meet specific and specialised 
problems, for we are told that "all the 
forms of adulteration in food stuffs are 
rendered possible by the torpor of the 
senses which exists in the greater number 
of people." Now the detection of adul- 
terated food is, in most cases, a highly 
complex process, different for each kind of 
food, and success depends not only on an 
educated sense, but also on specific prac- 
tice with the food in question. These 
things are not general, but highly special- 
ised activities, and a formal sense train- 
ing will not bestow them on our scholars. 

Again, we are told that " the aesthetic 
harmony of nature is lost upon him who 
has coarse senses. The world to him is 
narrow and barren." Yet there are many 
who experience the glorious exultation of 
spirit that comes from Nature without 
discerning too closely or carefully the dif- 
ferential stimuli of colour and of shape. 
Indeed there is some ground for holding 
that the acute discrimination of the dif- 
ferent elements of a scene prevents the en- 
joyment of it as a whole. 

To sum up, we may emphasise the fact 
that sense training is the beginning of 
education, not the end. The value of it is 
that the ability it begets is not transferred 
to the larger activities of life (else would 
the Red Indian be altogether too wonder- 
ful for us), but that it is the best means of 
giving our percepts a rich and accurate 
content. And it is just here that the dot- 
toressa 's system shows its greatest weak- 
ness : she has emphasised, not the con- 
tent, but the fineness of discrimination. 
Yet fineness of discrimination is a power 
which we need only rarely, and in special- 
ised functions, but a rich content of sense 
experience is the very breath of the young 
child's mental development. To distin- 
guish the green of the grass from the 
green of the fern, to hear the cries of 



birds and see their flight, to discover a few 
fossils, to follow a stream from the hills to 
the plain, to capture a wasp's nest, to see 
cows milked and sheep sheared, to know 
the pageantry of autumn in the woods and 
on the moors, to see the spring's re-birth 
— these and a thousand other glorious 
sense experiences would provide a sense 
training from which full and truthful per- 
cepts would grow, and book education 
would become much more meaningful. 

I have criticised but a small part of the 
dottoressa 's method, and questioned cer- 
tain of her general conclusions. I would 
like to see experiments proceeding on a 
large scale and under diverse conditions, 
so that we might arrive at a reasoned con- 
clusion in our judgments. For we are all 
groping towards the truth, and the road 
thereto is long and difficult. I cannot end 
this paper without acknowledging the 
admirable tone of the dottoressa's book, 
and paying my tribute of respect to her 
patient investigations, and to her devotion 
to the problems of scientific pedagogy. 



PARENT EDUCATORS. 

By Professor Bidart. Translated by 
Miss M. S. Ryan, b.a. 

The End and the Means. Our subject 
is the right education of the child, and we 
have to ask first in what that education 
consists. The work is so great and the 
terms denoting it so vague and indefinite ! 
Our first endeavour shall be to set out as 
clearly as possible the scope of our 
enquiry. 

I once heard this remark made of a 
man : " He is a marvel ! He has every 
good quality and not a single bad one ! " 
This is precisely what we must aim at for 
our child, no vice and all the virtues. 

Then have we two separate pieces of 
work to accomplish? Must we first up- 
root evil tendencies before beginning to 
develop the good? Far be it from me to 
offer that advice. There is one means, 
and only one, whereby we can combat 
evil, and that is by substituting the con- 
trary good. 

But it may be asked, which good quali- 



Professor Bidart. 



15 



ties? They are so many and so manifold. 
If I could classify them, I could easily 
survey my whole field of action. 

When I was a child, my mother used 
often to say to me, " You must learn to 
be a worker. The man who does not earn 
his bread is obliged to steal." 

I was about twenty when a man said 
to me, " You are entrusted with the edu- 
cation of these children ; aim at cultivat- 
ing- in them one good quality, and if you 
succeed in that, you will have done every- 
thing. Make them good.'" Later on, 
another said to me, " I have suffered in 
my time, no one will ever know how 
much. .And I have suffered solely be- 
cause those who have had to do with me 
have not respected my rights, have not 
acted justly towards me. Sir, train men 
to be just.'" 

About the same time I met one day in 
the street a man of middle age ; in fact 
he seemed already well advanced in years. 
This was his advice : "Teach man to sub- 
due his passions. Make him temperate." 

I have often meditated on these four 
remarks. Does not each of them contain 
a part of the truth, and do not the four 
cover the whole of education? In short, 
man must live, hence he labours ; he 
should live without thereby bringing suf- 
fering on his fellow men, hence he must 
be just ; justice which is not stiff-necked 
and proud, must needs be tempered, and, 
so to speak, impregnated with goodness 
of heart ; goodness, justice, love of work, 
may all be rendered fruitless by intemper- 
ance : the human being who possesses 
these three qualities, and also the virtue 
of temperance, is neither to be pitied nor 
despised : he who lacks one of these 
qualities lacks much. 

Such then is the object of a right edu- 
cation. Let us now enquire into the 
manner of attaining it. 

I have seen a young man of twenty 
swayed as easily as a baby. He could 
not take a step without being urged to 
it and supported by his parents. And I 
said to myself : " This is not right. A 
young fellow of that age is no longer in 
swaddling clothes. He ought to walk 



alone ; he should be enlightened by his own 
reason and controlled by his own will." 

On the other hand watch this little boy 
of ten who always does as he likes. He 
suffers no restraint, no restriction ; he is 
absolutely undisciplined, nothing is for- 
bidden him. His father and mother leave 
him full liberty. " Poor child," I said to 
myself, " at that age a child cannot know 
what he ought to do on every occasion. 
He must learn to control himself by the 
help and example of others, by their ex- 
perience and their reason. At first he has 
nothing but his own ignorance and caprice 
to govern him. In other words, he must 
learn to obey." 

The little Paul, two years old, does not 
wish to do what his mother for the first 
time bids him do. " Will you obey me?" 
she says to him. " But, Madam, this 
child of two cannot as yet understand 
what you mean by the word obey. You 
wish him to go to bed without crying. 
You cannot expect him to do to-day, by 
exception and in order to please you, what 
you have never made him do before. But 
he would obey you implicitly, and with- 
out any difficulty, without a single cry, 
if you had only thus put him to bed or 
into his cradle from the beginning, if you 
had accustomed him to it." 

It thus became clear to me, in thinking 
over these three examples, that habit, 
obedience and self-control are the three 
stages of the moral life. The baby must 
be good without knowing it; the child, 
whether he will or no ; the man, because 
he wills it. No education is complete if 
it does not give the desire to do good ; 
but this good will is first developed and 
fostered by obedience ; obedience is ren- 
dered easier by means of the early habits 
unconsciously contracted, and these early 
habits depend solely on the arrangements 
of the first years, nay months, of the 
child's life. 

Both the end and the means now stand 
revealed. Each of the four great quali- 
ties : goodness, justice, love of work, and 
temperance must be acquired by way of 
habit, obedience, and the exercise of the 
will. [Etc.] 



16 



Suggestions for Study and Practice. 



SUGGESTIONS FOR STUDY AND 
PRACTICE. 

Learning by Touch : An Experiment. — 

[I got my wife] "to cut out an Irish 
letter (I know no Irish), and put on my 
desk in a dark room. Then I went into 
the room, passed my finger over it for a 
Httle more than a minute, and coming 
back to her, I drew the letter on a sheet 
of paper with my finger. It was a good 
copy, except that I had apparently taken 
for granted that it was written in an up- 
right hand, while it was really sloping, 
and this led to a most interesting quanti- 
tative experiment. I asked her to cut out 
an angle of so many degrees as measured 
by a protractor, and to make its legs of 
unequal length. This was done, and the 
stencil laid on the desk as before. I went 
into the dark room, felt it for less than a 
minute and a half, and came back and 
drew it with my finger. The original 
angle was cut to forty degrees. The angle 
I drew roughly on the paper was measured 
also as forty degrees. (I send you the 
paper drawing pasted over the stencil. 
Both these were better copied than when 
I drew with the eye, even though I had 
the original before me). Next morning at 
breakfast, I ran my finger up and down 
an envelope once, marked the directions, 
ruled the line my finger traced, and on 
measurement found it 40^ deg. (drawing 
it by eye the preceding evening I had 
made it 37^ deg.). 

" The extraordinary accuracy of this 
result surprised me greatly. It indicates, 
with a force I had never before realised 
so fully, how serious is the mistake we 
make in neglecting to use in education a 
sense which is capable of such extraordin- 
arily accurate memory. (In respect to 
length also, the motor memory had the 
advantage. I estimated the difference in 
length of the two legs more accurately 
with the touch than I did by eye with the 
stencil before me. All this was after less 
than one and a half minutes touching)." 
— Professor Edward P. Culverwell, on 
"The Montessori Method," The Times, 
Educational Supplement, Jan. 7th, 1913. 



Vocational Schools. — " Professor 
Carver, of Harvard University, says, ' In 
the present conservation of movement it 
is highly important that we realize two 
things : first, that our most valuable re- 
sources are our people ; and second, that 
we are wasting people more than we are 
wasting anything else. . . . One will find, 
for example, four characteristic forms of 
waste labour-power, all of them of con- 
siderable magnitude. There are, first, the 
army of the unemployed, or the involun- 
tary idle ; second, the imperfectly em- 
ployed, or the untrained ; third, the im- 
properly employed, or the acquisitively 
rather that productively employed ; and 
fourth, the voluntary idle, commonly 
known as the leisure class.' The ideal 
system of schools for present-day needs 
should include : A system of vocational 
continuation schools. These schools must 
not in any way be regarded as substitutes 
for the present forms of schools. The pre- 
sent system is doing a necessary work, 
and ought not to be disturbed except to 
perfect it. The new type of school is a 
supplement to the old one, an attempt to 
carry further and apply general education 
to the practical problems of life." — 
Edwin G. Cooley, on " The Need for 
Vocational Schools," in Education Re- 
view, U.S.A., December, 1912. 

Self=Education through the Senses. — 
" The Montessori System, based as it is 
upon the aphorism of Seguin that ' the 
physiological education of the senses must 
precede the psychical education of the 
mind,' demonstrates how in the normal 
child the process of physiological educa- 
tion leads naturally to the latter. ' Edu- 
cating the mind through perceptions,' in- 
stead of by the pre-arranged reasoning of 
adults, is indeed the pivot on which the 
systems both of Seguin and of Montessori 
work ; and the more active and better 
regulated brain of the normal child passes 
from sensations to perceptions, and from 
perceptions to ideas in a spontaneous 
fashion.... As Dr. Montessori well puts it, 
' what makes education possible with defi- 
cients provokes auto-education with nor- 
mal children.' "—Dr. G. E. Shuttleworth. 



The Child'Study Society and the Constituent Societies. 



17 



THE CHILD-STUDY SOCIETY AND THE 
CONSTITUENT SOCIETIES. 

A Suggested Investigation. — Dealing with the 
suggestion of an investigation into the value of 
kindergarten work, Professor Earl Barnes, writ- 
ing to Miss Louch, says : — " It seems to me that 
in making a comparative study to prove the value 
of kindergarten work we had better confine the 
investigation strictly to the kindergarten. For 
comparison, of course, we should have to use 
children at home who have not been in the kinder- 
garten. The investigation could best be made at 
the beginning of the first year of the primary 
school. All the children could then be selected 
who have been through the kindergarten, and a 
comparable number from the same general class of 
society who had not been in the kindergarten at 
all. I should think available groups could be 
found. For the test there seems nothing better 
at present than the Binet tests." 

Appointments of Representatives. — Dr. Fletcher 
Beach has been appointed as the Child-Stduy 
Society's representative on " The National Health 
Week Committee," April 6th to 12th ; and Mr. H. 
Holman on the " International Kinematograph 
E.xhibition " (Educational Conference Section), 
March 22nd to 29th, at the request of the pro- 
moters of these events. 

The Dundee Society. — A movement has been set 
on foot to take care of the children of working 
mothers from 4.30 to 6 p.m., and three play- 
centres have been opened under the auspices of the 
Social Union, aided by a number of day school 
teachers, who gave their services and practical 
help freely and willinglj'. The central one of the 
three is held in a hall off Tay Street, and is ably 
and admirably guided by Misses Fraser and Hen- 
derson, assisted by students from the Training 
College, the Principal of which is Mr. James 
Malloch, the Honorary President of the Dundee 
Child-Study Society, who takes a deep interest in 
the newly established play centres, and who finds 
time out of a busy life to pay them an occasional 
visit. At 4.30 from 75 to 100 children are 
admitted to a commodious hall, with convenient 
side rooms, to which the children are allocated 
according to size and individual taste. The chil- 
dren march round the central hall in pairs to the 
music of a piano, and singing the airs played when 
they happen to know them. This has the effect 
of settling them down. They are then seated, and 
each one is supplied with a toothsome bun. In 
the large hall round games and singing games 
and musical drill are engaged in, and the little 
semi-motherless mites are more than delighted 
with these In one of the side rooms the more 
tired ones are happily content to sit at a table and 
look at the pictures in illustrated magazines, 
while at an adjoining table clever little hands are 
busy cutting out pictures and pasting them into 
scrap books. A third group is whole-heartedly 



occupied with plastic clay shaping and making 
as only youthful hands can. Others take great 
interest in mat weaving with rafia, and on canvas 
with thick wool. Threading of beads, dressing of 
dolls, and making of needle books from Christmas 
cards are occupations dear to the hearts of all 
girls. The proceedings are varied occasionally by 
the telling of stories. — Mr. D. Williamson. 

The Cheltenham Society. — Two more lectures 
are in prospect ; the first is on February 20th at 
the Ladies' College, by Miss Lidbelter on The 
Montessori System, and the second is at the end 
of March, by the President, Mr. B. Auden, on 
Pre-Preparatory Training. 

A Committee Meeting was held on November 
7th to discuss the attitude of the Branch with 
regard to local cinematograph shows, in view of 
discussions arising out of Mr. Holman 's lecture 
on October 14th ; but, on the motion of the Presi- 
dent, it was decided to postpone direct action by 
the local Branch. 

The Joint Hon. Sec, Miss F. Baird, has gone 
to Rome for some months to study the Montessori 
System there. All communications should be 
addressed to the Hon. Sec, Mrs. McCraith 
Blakeney, 5, Crescent Terrace, Cheltenham. 

The Exeter Society. — During the winter session 
three meetings were held, and all were well 
attended, so much so in the case of the last two 
that the usual meeting room was abandoned for 
the large lecture room of the College. The pro- 
gramme began in October with a discussion on 
the subject chosen for the Child-Study Society's 
last Conference, which Miss A. J. Walker had 
attended. She therefore opened the meeting by 
giving the main points raised by the speakers in 
London ; and a discussion followed. In Novem- 
ber a most successful and enjoyable meeting was 
held, in which Mrs. Picken, a member of the 
Association of Teachers of Voice Production, 
spoke about Story Telling to Children, and illus- 
trated her subject by teUing, in a charmingly 
simple and dramatic way, stories from Kipling, 
Anderson, La Fontaine and other writers. In 
response to the vote of thanks she sent a well- 
remembered thrill through many of her audience 
by reciting some cautionary stories. The last 
meeting of the term was in December, when Miss 
A. M. Shorto, B.A., gave a clear and most inter- 
esting account of the Montessori Method of 
Teaching ; and afterwards members were able to 
examine for themselves some of the "didactic 
material," which students of the College had made 
under the direction of Mr. R. Toms. There was 
no discussion on the subject at the time ; that is to 
come at the first meeting of the present term — 
Miss A. J. Walker. 

The Halifax Society. — The first meeting of 
the session was held on October 2nd, and Dr. Cecil 
Reddie, of the New School, Abbotsholme, Derby, 
gave, in an exceedingly straightforward manner, a 
general address upon Activity in Education and its 
Influence upon Character. He believed that the 



18 



Notices and News. 



education of the governing classes was sadly lack- 
ing on the practical, the active, side, and stated 
emphatically his opinion that the highest concep- 
tion of real social service would never be formed 
until a radical change in the curriculae of the 
public schools had been initiated. 

Miss Dora Walford, B.Sc, formerly a colleague 
of Professor Findlay at the Manchester Fielden 
School, had some commonsense remarks to make 
on The Place of Literature in Elementary Educa- 
tion on October 17th. Miss Walford, who always 
does her work thoroughly, casually mentioned that 
during the course of one week she had bought up 
all the " penny bloods " she could find in Leeds 
and she had read every one from the psychological 
cover to finis. Although the task was one which 
was calculated to satiate a grown-up, still the 
" dreadfulness " occupied a larger place in the 
mind of the adult than it occupied in the books. 

What Is and What Might Be was ably handled 
by H. H. Quilter, M.A., and the modern view 
that the interests of the child should have a much 
larger share of the time table than they at present 
get provoked in the discussion the remark sarcas- 
tic : " So if a boy wishes to leave his class to spin 
his top of course he ought to." 

Miss Bone, of Sheffield University, gave an 
excellent talk on The Bachfische ; a talk which was 
warmly appreciated by the parents. The budding 
girl's little idiosyncrasies ; likes and dislikes in 
food ; love of dress, of imitation ; were touched 
upon kindly, sympathetically and wisely. Miss 
Bone has intimate knowledge of " The Flapper." 

The session so far has been the best on record. 
Many interested outsiders pay 6d. for admission 
to each lecture, and our Treasurer has formed a 
habit of continually rubbing his hands. — Mr. J. 
Arrowsmith. 

The London Society.— For London. 1912 has 
been a busy and successful year. The members 
continue to attend its meetings in large numbers. 
The lecture by Madame Pujol Segalas, who came 
from Paris especially to give the Montessori Lec- 
ture, charmed all those who heard it ; the attendance 
reached 800, and the following day there were 
500 at the Conference. 

The London membership on the 31st, including 
subscriptions paid for 1913, stood at 484, capita- 
tion fees for the year were paid on 398 subscrip- 
tions received, and 398 copies of Vol. V. of Child- 
Study were sent to members. 

The session for 1913 opens with a Lecture on' 
February 13th, by Dr. James Kerr, on Brain 
Mechanism and Handwriting ; February 27th, 
Development of the Child's Brain, by Dr. A. 
Wilson; March 13th, The Teaching of Sexual 
Hygiene, by Miss N. March, B.Sc— Mr. W. I. 
Durrie Mulford. 

The Tunbridge Wells Society.— The session was 
opened on October 9th, the President, Mrs. E. L. 
Pontifex in the chair. The subject under discus- 
sion was Institutional Equipment and Its Bearing 



on Religious Developmetit, introduced by the Rev. 
Hume Campbell. The lecturer traced the evolu- 
tion of the child as typified by the evolution of 
the race. While allowing some influence to en- 
vironment and circumstances, as in the case of the 
late Professor Skeat, who beginning life as a 
popular and sociable country parson, was changed 
by an accident into a hermit and book lover and 
the foremost philologist of his age, yet each man 
shares with his fellow creatures potentialities 
inherited from the race, the result of the long race 
history stored in each child, developed or not 
according to circumstances, instincts and ten- 
dencies not due to limitation or example. In addi- 
tion to family type a large inheritance is common 
to all the race, and the instincts of a new born 
babe grow with the growth of generations. Their 
growth has its analogue in the progress of man 
from savage life. First the burning desire to 
l^reserve life from the dangers besetting each 
human being, whence arose the fighting instinct, 
and with the desire of self-preser\ation went the 
desire to preserve the tribe, thus begetting re- 
sourcefulness and the appointment of efficient 
leadership, and the practice of making a home and 
implements out of raw materials evolved the sense 
of Creatorship, and therewith the sense of God. 
The child recapitulates the history of the race and 
education is useless unless it follows this growth, 
not pumping in but giving latitude and opportunity 
for self-expression. How few schools do this. 

On November 11th there was a meeting at 
which Mrs. Pontifex gave an epitome of the lec- 
tures read at the Conference held in London — 
Mrs. Janet E. Pontifex. 



NOTICES AND NEWS. 

The Montessori Society announce a lecture on 
" Some Aspects of the Montessori System," by 
E. G. A. Holmes, Esq. (Author of " What Is and 
What Might Be "), at the Caxton Hall, Westmin- 
ster, on Monday, February 24th, at 8 p.m. 
Tickets for non-members, 6d. each, may be got 
from the Secretary of the Montessori Society, 84, 
Eaton Square, S.W. 

The Christian Commonwealth Editor will be 
glad to receive paragraphs on social, educational, 
and religious questions and happenings, and pro- 
posals affecting children. Address : — 133, Salis- 
bury Square, E.C. 

An Enquries and Answers Section may be estab- 
lished in Child-Study if our readers desire this. 
The idea is that any inquiries sent in to the 
Editor should be inserted one month and replies to 
them invited. These replies, and perhaps others 
specially obtained, to be published the following 
month. Will those interested please send in 
criticisms, suggestions, and inquiries, to the 
Editor. 

The Editor's thanhs are given to those who have 
so generously sent him articles for publication, and 



Reviews. 



19 



to the secretaries of the constituent societies who 
have sent reports. He asi^s for their forbearance 
in cases where he has had to use the blue pencil 
or postpone publication owing to the inexorable 
limitations of time and space. A complete article 
by himself has been crowded out. The Editor has 
an exceptionally lively sense of favours to come ! 
Tlie Psychological Institute at Leipsic was 
founded in 1906, through the initiative of Herr 
Schulze, and is supported by a local association of 
elementary school teachers. In it were carried 
out most of the experiments described in the book 
on " Experimental Psychology and Pedagogy " 
(see Reviews). As Dr. Pintner (the translator) 
says : " This should prove a stimulus to British 
Associations to follow on the same lines. Only by 
making education a science can teachers hope to 
raise the status of their profession." Dr. Clapa- 
rede mentions similar efforts in his " Experimental 
Pedagogy " (p. 23). 

The Natural Method in Education is vividly 
exemplified in the letter of an enthusiastic teacher, 
who thus writes : " My kiddies and colleagues 
made a complete Montessori set [of the didactic 
apparatus] . . . We have some real snow around 
us, 5 to 6 feet deep in the school yard (drifts), 
and we've esquimauxed to some pattern this day : 
two large huts holding 15 kiddies each ; oil swim- 
ming and supporting bits of string in flat clay 
vessels ; sledges ; and snow shoes . . . We worked 
in our shirt sleeves ; every garden fork, spade, 
rake, and hoe in use." 

Co-Education. Mr. F. E. Curtis informs us 
that in reply to a circular sent to "50 mi.xed Scotch 
secondary schools," 36 answers were received, and 
that these " seem to show at all events that in the 
opinion of the teachers on the teaching staff co- 
education works well in those schools both from 
an educational point of view and as a training for 
after life." Typed copies of the replies can be 
seen at the British Institute of Social Service, 
4, Tavistock Square, W.C. 

School Hygiene. The fourth International Con- 
gress on School Hygiene will be held at Buffalo, 
U.S.A., August 25th to 30th, under the patronage 
of the President Elect, Dr. Woodrow Wilson. The 
President of the Congress will be Charles W. Eliot, 
President Emeritus of Harvard University. 

The Parent-Educators article (instalment) is 
from a Belgium paper published at Brussels and 
called L'Education Familiale. It is the journal of 
" The National League for the Popularisation of 
Practical, Pedagogical, and Sociological Sciences 
in Families " ; a society akin to our " Parents' 
National Union." The writer is a professor at a 
Training College for Teachers. We hope, by the 
courtesy of the Editor and .Author, to continue it. 

N.B. — Criticisms on the new form, and the 
contents, of Child-Studv, are requested. Hun- 
dreds of such (on postcards will do) are needed 
to secure changes. Silence means approval. Send 
remarks to the Editor. 



REVIEWS. 

Froebel's Chief Educational Writings. By Dr. 
S. S. F. Fleichek and Professor J.amks 
Welto.v. Edward .Arnold. Pp. xx., 246. 
Price 4s. 6d. net. 

This is an excellent piece of work, and its 
appearance most opportune. It gives in polished 
English a translation of all the vital parts of 
P'roebel's writings on his doctrine of education, 
arranged in a connected form. In an able intro- 
duction the authors summarise and criticise 
Frobel's views, and " attempt to show the relation 
of Froebel to the general stream of educational 
thought." In view of the present controversy 
about the so-called Montessori method, all Free- 
Kindergartners, who think themselves Froebelians, 
should study this book, as should all teachers who 
do not yet know Froebel or have more or less for- 
gotten what they knew of him. 
Life and Work of Pestalozzi. By Professor J. A. 
Green. University Tutorial Press. Pp. vi., 
393. Price, 4s. 6d. 
Those who know and value Professor Green's 
Educational Ideas of Pestalozzi will warmly wel- 
come this much enlarged and improved form of it. 
There is far more of Pestalozzi 's own words (in 
translation), and the very valuable addition of the 
whole of " The Prospectus of Miinchenbuchsee," 
and " The Report to Parents." Short of going to 
the original authorities this book provides all that 
is necessary for. the understanding of Pestalozzi, 
and does this in an interesting and authoritative 
manner. 

L'Annee Pedagogique. Edited by L. Cellerier 
and L. Dugas. F61ix Alcan, Paris. Pp. viii., 
487. Price 7 francs 50. 
The aim of this annual is to supply an analytical 
index to the pedagogical literature of the year in 
all countries. A total of 2,502 books, articles, etc., 
on education are enumerated and their contents 
briefly indicated. There is a subject index, an 
author's index, and five introductory articles on 
school and life, ideal and education, sympathy in 
education, psychological study of methods of teach- 
ing, and primary teaching. This is the first year 
of publication, and an admirable beginning has 
been made, on which we heartily congratulate the 
editors. It should become an indispensable stan- 
dard work of reference. 

Hand and Eye Training, or Education through 
Work. By H. Holman, M.A. Sir Isaac Pit- 
man. Pp. 206. Price 3s. 2nd edition, 
revised and enlarged. 
In the preface it is said that " The chief aims of 
thf author are : To set forth the most fundamental 
reasons which necessitate educational handwork. 
... to instruct and inspire the young handwork 
teacher . . . and to guide, not to satisfy, those who 
seek knowledge on the subject." The book it an 
attempt to set forth tiie scientific and practical 
principles of handwork under the following heads : 



20 



Reviews. 



The hand develops the race ; the body develops 
mind ; views of educationists ; scope and function 
of handwork ; teaching methods ; child-study and 
handwork ; some suggestions for teachers. It is 
written from a child-study point of view. 

The Montessori System. By Dr. Theodate 

Smith. Harper & Brothers. Pp. ix., 78. 

Price 75c. 

This book gives a brief but clear re-statement 

of Madame Montessori 's chief ideas and practices, 

and describes how her plans have been applied 

in American schools, and with what results. Miss 

Smith has e.Kceptional qualifications for such a 

piece of work, and she has done it admirably. The 

practical teacher and mothers will find her book a 

most helpful guide. 

Experimental Psychology and Pedagogy. By 
R. ScHULZE. Translated by Professor Rudolf 
PiNTNER, M.A., Ph.D. George Allen & Co. 
Pp. XV., 364. Price 15s. net. 

This appears to us to be in every way an excel- 
lent book for the practical teacher who wishes to 
understand and to use experimental methods in 
scientific pedagogy. It is ably, simply, and clearly 
written and generously illustrated. The matter 
dealt with is that " necessary for teachers, normal 
students, and all those interested in the progress 
of education." After expounding methods of 
measurements, experiments on the following are 
described : Perceptions and ideas ; feelings, the 
will ; consciousness and attention ; assimilation ; 
the memory ; apperceptive combinations ; speech ; 
physical work ; mental work ; and psychical cor- 
relations. 

Concerning Religious Education. Pp. 182. Method 
in Religious Education. Pp. 134. The Period 
of the Exodus. Pp. 174. Teachers and 
Taught Text-Books ; Friends' First-Day 
School Association. Headley Brothers. Price 
Is. net, limp cloth ; Is. 6d. net, cloth boards. 

The first of these small handbooks contains 
articles on the Bible, the Child, and the Lesson, 
by various authors. One of these, on the meaning 
of Biblical criticism, is a model of simple and 
lucid exposition. Most of the articles are too con- 
densed and rhetorical to be of great value. Help- 
ful lists of pictures, models and objects, books and 
maps are given. The second volume is by 
Mildred F. Field, B.A., who writes much that is 
good and helpful ; but the greater part is too sum- 
mary, vaguely general, and hortatory, to be of 
much use to beginners. The third volume, bv 
S. Allen Warner, will practically assist those in 
sympathy with its point of view. 

Herself; False Modesty; Confidences; Truth. By 
Dr. E. B. LovvRY. Forbes & Co., Chicago. 
Pp. 208, 110, 94, 90. Prices: $1, 50c., 50c., 
50c. 

In each of these four books the most important 
subject of Sexual Hygiene is approached from a 



different individual standpoint, viz., from that uf 
the woman, the young girl, the parent, and the 
adolescent boy ; but through each of them there 
runs the same guiding spirit that innocence does 
not depend on ignorance but on the right assimi- 
lation of knowledge. 

The author is an .-Imerican, and with American 
directness and impetuosity she plunges without 
hesitancy or equivocation "in medias res," where 
we in England are content to advance on more 
conservative lines. So"me of us, for instance, may 
not think the time is ripe for giving young girls 
full knowledge of the horrors of the " Black 
Plague," and others may not think it advisable 
to inform little children of the kindergarten age 
" where babies come from, and the dangers of 
self-abuse," but to these lengths and further the 
fetish that ignorance is the source of all evil has 
fead the author of these, in many respects, excel- 
lent books. 

Experiments must be made and sacrifices must 
be made in the pursuit of the knowledge of the 
best way of teaching sexual hygiene ; but it occurs 
to us, as it may occur to others, that Dr. Lowry 
is attempting to advance " per saltum" and not 
by the orthodox slow stages of organic evolution. 
F"or instance, may there not be a danger of jeopar- 
dising the marital relationship, if young girls prior 
to marriage are gravely informed that social 
diseases latent or open in the husband are the 
chief causes of sterility and of diseases peculiar 
to women ; and is there not a serious danger of 
young children becoming morbidly self-conscious, 
when they are admitted to the arcana of sexual 
matters at the early age of six? 

" Herself," however, may prove a useful book 
for the sensible young married woman, or for the 
teacher who has the charge of young girls ; and 
its companion volumes may have distinct merits 
from the point of view of the parents who wish 
to derive inspiration before they attempt to embark 
on the difficult waters of the sexual instruction of 
children. 

The Diary of a Free Kindergarten. By Lileen 
Hardy. 

The price of this book is 2/-, not 3/6 as stated 
in our January issue. 

Publications Received. — The Journal of Edu- 
cation; The Educational Times; The Parents' 
Review; [.'Education Familialr ; Educational 
Review (U.S.A.) ; The Pedagogical Seminary 
(U.S.A. ; Child Life; Journal of Educational 
Psychology {\J.S.k.)\ The Way of Worship, by 
Miss Hetty Lee, M.A. ; The Conservation of the 
Child, by Dr. Arthur Holmes ; Marriage and the 
Sex Problem, by Dr. F. W. Foerster ; Music and 
Delight, by J. D. Peake, B.A. 



^^ 



0.J 



ci)ii(i=$tuap. 



tfre Journal of tDe CDII(!=Stu(lp Socletp. 



Vol. VI —No. 2. 



MARCH. 1913. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 

Investigation. — For our annual confer- 
ence this year we ought to have the re- 
sults of some practical investigations pre- 
sented for discussion ; so that the con- 
sideration of " Child-Study as a Link be- 
tween the Home and the School " may 
have a scientific basis. Professor Earl 
Barnes has given us a hint of how to 
attack the question experimentally, in one 
direction (see our February number). 



Who will take this up? Are there not 
some young teachers fresh from courses 
in the scientific study of experimental 
psychology and pedagogy, in the training 
colleges, who are able and willing to do 
such work? It is quite time that the 
younger generation of teachers should 
give some positive evidence that they have 
soundly profited by the advantages they 
have had in their training. 



A Challenge to the N.U.T. and L.T.A. 

— In the February number of Child- 
Study we mentioned (see " Notices and 
News ") the fact that the Leipsic Psycho- 
logical Institute was founded, and is sup- 
ported and worked by the elementary 
teachers in that town. If a few hundred 
teachers have sufficient enthusiasm, public 
spirit, and self-sacrifice to do such a work, 
what might be expected from the National 
Union of Teachers, with its tens of thou- 
sands of members (probably the largest 
and wealthiest association of teachers in 
the world) took up such a work? 



It would doubtless be easy for it to get 
financial support and practical help from 



other societies. With the practical assist- 
ance of the London Teachers' Association 
it ought to be able to do work in experi- 
mental pedagogy which would be of 
world-wide value. We mention the 
L.T.A, because London has so many ad- 
vantages as the place in which such work 
could be done. 



THE BEGINNINGS OF SYNTAC- 
TICAL SPEECH. 

A Study in Child Linguistics. 

By William Boyd, m.a., b.sc, d.phil. 
It is a common mistake on the part of 
ignorant adults to regard the speech of 
children in the first few years of life as 
parrot language, echoing the utterances 
of older people. As a matter of fact, it 
is only in children of inferior mentality 
that close imitation of others is at all 
common. The striking feature about in- 
fantile speech is not its borrowed element 
but its essential originality and freshness. 
Listening to the chatter of an intelligent 
child of two or three, one cannot but 
notice the amazing ease with which the 
nascent mind makes itself at home in the 
complexities of language, and shapes 
them to its own ends in its strivings after 
self-expression. The discriminations and 
relations, the abstractions and generaliza- 
tions, which characterise all proper speech, 
appear in the child's utterances in crude 
but unmistakeable forms which bear wit- 
ness to the fact that there is an intelli- 
gence in the making behind them. And 
thus at an age when the powers of action 
are still feeble and sensuous accuracy has 
for the most part not been attained, the 



22 



The Beginnings of Syntactical Speech. 



child as speaker begins to show in a 
distinctively human way what manner of 
being he is. 

It is evident from this that the study of 
child linguistics is a necessary part of 
the whole study of childhood. Unfortu- 
nately it is by no means an easy study, 
nor are the results of the work done in 
it always commensurate with the labour 
involved. The collection of children's 
vocabularies, the method which has been 
generally employed, though valuable 
enough as a rough and ready means of 
mental survey, does not really take us 
far on the road to a knowledge of the 
child mind. In such collections, rare 
words and common stand on a level of 
undistinguished equality, and all the sig- 
nificant distinctions of sentence structure 
and idiom have totally disappeared. We 
might as well seek for real insight into 
the genius of a people in the dictionaries 
of its language as hope to get any inti- 
mate view of the first workings of mind 
in the alphabetically arranged list of a 
child's words. 

A more promising method, it seemed 
to me when I began to study the speech 
of my infant daughter, was to take sen- 
tences rather than detached words as the 
materials for analysis. With a view to 
this I recorded with exactness as much 
of her speech as I could in the last week 
of the twentieth month. In my collec- 
tion, I included remarks made under every 
variety of circumstance, both monologue 
and dialogue, from the first waking words 
till the last words at night. The only 
deliberate omissions were the few cases 
in which her sentences were modelled 
directly on those of the people with whom 
she chanced to be speaking, and sentences 
which were merely mechanical repetitions 
of herself. By the end of the week I had 
noted down some 350 sentences. I re- 
peated this note-taking in the last week 
of the 21st, 22nd, 23rd and 24th months, 
and in the end accumulated 1,236 
sentences. 

For purposes of comparison, I made a 
similar collection of 1,200 sentences in the 
last fortnight of the thirty-sixth month. 



The present study, however, refers pri- 
marily to speech at the end of the second 
year, and what is said about speech at 
the end of the third year is only intended 
to bring out more clearly the significant 
facts about the earlier period. 

A. Sentence Structure. — I. Sliort Sen- 
tences. The first fact to be noted about 
the speech of the two-year-old child is the 
extreme brevity of the sentences. The 
average number of words in a sentence is 
3.3, as compared with 6.5 words at three. 
For this brevity, there are several causes : 
the rarity of connecting words and of 
qualifying phrases, the absence of co- 
ordinate and subordinate clauses, the fre- 
quency of elliptical constructions. 

II. Connecting ivords. The style is 
generally telegraphic. Here are two char- 
acteristic sentences. " Ask Daddy (to 
get) sweety (from the) man (for) Isa " 
(20th month). " That (is) money (for the) 
grocer " (21st month). The nursery 
rhymes suffered a similar process of 
abbreviation at this stage. Here, for ex- 
ample, is a version of Old Mother Hub- 
hard in the 23rd month : 

Old Mother Hubbard went 

Get poor dog bone. 
When got there cupboard bare. 
So poor dog got none. 

(In the examples given above, as in sub- 
sequent examples, I have supplied the 
missing words where that seemed neces- 
sary. No attempt has been made to imi- 
tate the infantile pronunciation). It is evi- 
dent that the child has a better command 
of those parts of speech which have a 
concrete reference than of relational 
words. Prepositions and conjunctions are 
usually omitted. In the 4,137 words com- 
prised in the collection of sentences, there 
are only fifty prepositions and seven con- 
junctions. The articles, especially "the," 
are also rare, occurring only 57 times. 
There are 19 auxiliary verbs and the "to" 
of the infinite is used 10 times. 

How deeply this affects the form of the 
child's speech will be evident from the 
fact that the minor parts of speech at two 
only constitute 3.8 per cent, of all the 
words used, whereas at three they account 



WilUam Boyd, M.A., B.Sc, D.Phil. 



23 



for 25 per cent, of them. The signifi- 
cance of this is brought out by a com- 
parison of the percentage of words other 
than articles, auxiliaries, prepositions, 
conjunctions and interjections, used at 
two and at three. 

TWO. THREE. 

Nouns and pronouns 44.7 42.8 

Verbs 28.7 30.1 

Adjectives 12.8 14.7 

Adverbs 13.8 12.4 

The smallness of the difference is sur- 
prising. 

III. Qualifying Phrases. The scarcity 
of prepositions, besides being directly re- 
sponsible for the shortness of sentences, 
has an indirect effect in so far as it makes 
it difficult to qualify nouns and verbs by 
the addition of prepositional phrases. The 
prepositional phrase modifying a predica- 
tion is found in rudiment, e.g. " Get more 
milk (from the) farm," but there is no 
facility in the use of it. A sentence, such 
as, "Why is mother coming with me 
into the woods? " such as is fairly com- 
mon in the 36th month, is not to be found 
at all at the earlier time. Thus while the 
percentage of this kind of adverbial quali- 
fication (calculated on the total number of 
sentences) is 34 at three, it is only 13 at 
two. 

IV. Subordinate Clauses. Even more 
important than the scarcity of preposi- 
tions is the scarcity of conjunctions. In 
the absence of conjunctions there can of 
course be only simple sentences. Rela- 
tions of co-ordination and subordination 
may be implied but they cannot be ex- 
pressed. In point of fact, there are only 
four cases of co-ordination in the report 
of the two-year-old child's speech : the 
connection being made in one case by 
" and," in another by " then," and in 
the other cases being unexpressed. It is 
interesting to note that rudimentary sub- 
ordinate clauses without any explicit con- 
junctions are fairly common : e.g. "Think 
Peter (the cat) want in," " Wait (till the) 
eggs (are) in," " Mother need get gum — 
sort it." Altogether there are three rela- 
tive, 13 noun, and 29 adverbial clauses, 
of this type. 



V. Elliptical constructions. So far we 
have been considering the omission of 
speech forms like prepositions and con- 
junctions, which, though of great import- 
ance in the structure of developed speech, 
are not logically essential in predication. 
When we come to consider the more fun- 
damental elements of the sentence, we 
find in the child the same tendency to 
eliminate all the words that can be left 
implicit. 

Even ignoring the omission of articles, 
auxiliaries, prepositions, conjunctions, 
and interjections, only 30.6 per cent, of all 
the child's sentences are fully expressed 
predications, with subject and predicate 
complete; and that includes 3.G per cent, 
of a curious construction, half-indicative, 
half-imperative e.g. Mother pull off wee 
balls. (The sentence may be punctuated 
either with or without a comma after 
mother according as the imperative or the 
indicative meaning is considered the more 
fundamental. It is worthy of note that 
this construction is most common in the 
20th month and becomes steadily less 
common in the succeeding months). 

To this perhaps should be added 14.3, 
the percentage of imperatives which, 
though elliptical, are normally so in adult 
speech. But it should be pointed out, as 
indicating an important peculiarity of in- 
fant speech, that this percentage is far in 
excess of that of a year later, when im- 
peratives form no more than 6.5 per cent, 
of the whole number of sentences, and 
even then are more common than in the 
adult. 

This leaves 55.1 per cent, of abnormal 
elliptical sentences to be accounted for. 
Of these, 20.2 simple lack the copula : 
e.g. "That (is) hot milk," " Isa (is) 
going to clap wee Peter." 

In 4 per cent, the verb is wanting : 
e.g. " Book (has fallen) down." " (Give 
me) wee balls off." " Nice wee pony, 
man got nice wee pony." Sentences like 
these, which lack the verb, are few and 
tend to become fewer with increasing 
mastery of language. 

Finally, there is the large and important 
group of sentences in which the subject is 

B 



24 



The Psychology of Mathematics. 



the chief word lacking. In 20.8 per cent, 
only the subject is omitted : " (Isa) run 
see mother." In 10 per cent, the copula 
is also omitted : e.g. " (It is) hot." " (Isa 
is) coming down (her) self." It is worthy 
of note that unlike most of the elliptical 
constructions mentioned, the omitted sub- 
ject becomes increasingly frequent over 
the period of observation. 20th month : 
16.6 per cent. 21st month : 19.4 per cent. 
22nd-24th months: 24.9 per cent. The 
reason for this may perhaps be found in 
the fact that in a large proportion of cases 
the speaker herself was the subject, and 
that pending the relief from the constant 
repetition of her own name by the use of 
the personal pronoun in the course of the 
third year, it was found easier and more 
agreeable to omit the subject altogether. 
There is, however, one fact which seems 
to throw doubt on this interpretation. In 
some 20 sentences the predicate comes 
• first without the implicit subject, and fol- 
lowing on this is the complete sentence : 
e.g., " Cold, Isa cold." " No like Peter, 
Isa no like Peter." An idiom of amplifi- 
cation akin to this occurs quite commonly 
in the speech of this age. In 48 cases, 
other than those referred to, an elliptical 
sentence was first given, and then cor- 
rected by the complete form, as though 
the complete form were only reached by 
an effort and with the help of the easier 
elliptical form : e.g., " Door opened, this 
door opened," This might be taken to 
suggest that the personal subject is occa- 
sionally omitted for a similar reason. 
Against that view, however, is the fact 
that the percentage of omissions increased 
as time went on. This difference between 
the two cases favours the former view. 



THE PSYCHOLOGY OF MATHE- 
MATICS. 

By William Brown, m.a., d.sc. 

The psychological problems involved in 
any detailed consideration of the nature of 
mathematical reasoning are numerous and 
complex, and it is impossible in one short 
paper to do adequate justice to all of 
them. The more important of them, those 



which I can alone consider this evening, 
fall naturally under three heads, and my 
paper will therefore consist of the follow- 
ing three sections : 

A. A brief consideration of the nature 
of mathematical ability in its most general 
aspects, its connection or lack of connec- 
tion with other forms of mental ability, 
its hereditary transmission, the conditions 
which favour its exercise, and similar 
problems. 

B. A psychological description of the 
way in which, and the conditions under 
which, ideas of number appear and de- 
velop in the young child. Reference will 
also be made in this section to experi- 
mental investigations that have been 
carried out upon adults with the object of 
determining the conditions which influence 
the process of counting. 

C. A description of one or two recent 
statistical investigations on the inter-rela- 
tions of different forms of mathematical 
ability and elementary mathematical pro- 
cesses among themselves. This will en- 
tail a brief explanation of the meaning of 
the terms "correlation" and "partial 
correlation " as used in their mathemati- 
cal and technical sense ; and the feeling 
may possibly arise in my readers' minds 
that I am giving them a " mathematics 
of psychology " rather than a " psycho- 
logy of mathematics." The description 
may be found to be lacking in interest, 
but in that case the fault will most de- 
cidedly be my own and not due to the 
nature of the problem itself. 

A. [In this section I have derived much 
help from a very interesting chapter, "Die 
Anlage zur Mathematik," contained in 
Dr. W. Betz's monograph entitled 
" Ueber Korrelatlon," Leipzig, 1911.] 
The relation of mathematical ability to 
general intellectual ability is a very diffi- 
cult problem. Some psychologists would 
deny the existence of any such entity as 
general intellectual ability entirely. With- 
out going so far as this, we may well ask 
for a much more complete psychological 
analysis of it than we at present possess 
before committing ourselves to any views 
as to its relation to other forms of abilitv. 



William Brown, M.A., D.Sc. 



25 



The truth is, we are still very far from 
dear as to the exact manner in which the 
process of thinking goes on. We do not 
yet possess any satisfactory psychological 
account of thought. One fact that has 
been definitely placed beyond doubt by re- 
cent experimental investigation is that 
men do not as a rule think syllogistically. 
In this respect therefore the logical sys- 
tems of Aristotle and his modern represen- 
tatives give us little help, and may even 
be misleading. It also seems clear that 
thought may occur without mental imagery 
of any kind. But what exactly are the 
positive psychological characteristics of 
thought we do not know. 

In the view of the " plain man," an in- 
telligent person is one who is able quickly 
to adapt himself to new circumsatnces, 
especially to adjust his ideas in relation 
to new objects, one who possesses in a 
marked degree the power of analysing a 
new and complex situation and discover- 
ing its more important implications. There 
remains the question whether this power 
is a general one, functioning with approxi- 
mately equal facility (ceteris paribus) in 
relation to all kinds of objects and situa- 
tions, or whether it is in its very nature 
specialised and tied down to definite ob- 
jects and situations. The solution of this 
problem will most likely be obtained, if at 
all, through objective methods of enquiry, 
especially those statistical methods now so 
much in vogue among psychologists. In 
any case, we can say that our objective 
knowledge of the nature of intelligence is 
more satisfactory than our subjective 
knowledge. We are more clear as to 
what intelligence does than as to how it 
does it. 

Current opinion is in favour of a close 
relationship between mathematical ability 
and general intellectual ability. In school 
the former is generally considered a reli- 
able test of intellect, and even in after-life 
it is regarded with respect. Nevertheless 
there have been many men of exceptional 
mental ability (quite apart from their 
genius), such as Kant and Goethe, who 
have experienced the greatest difficulty in 
learning mathematics, and converselv 



many eminent mathematicians have been 
markedly deficient in intellectual ability in 
other directions. Again, as Dr. Betz 
points out, great mathematicians seem 
always to have been more numerous than 
great historians, politicians, or philoso- 
phers, so that the ordinary view is pro- 
bably too extreme. 

There is good reason for thinking that 
school-mathematics and higher mathe- 
matics relate to different forms of ability 
and should be clearly distinguished from 
one another in reference to our question. 
The former is probably a better measure 
of general intelligence than the latter. 
Even in the former, the unmathematical 
and mathematical boys of equal general 
intelligence, although perhaps equally suc- 
cessful in mathematical routine work, ap- 
perceive it in different ways. In working 
problems in geometry and algebra, it is 
neither syllogistic argument in the one 
case nor a mere permuting and combin- 
ing of symbols in the other that mark the 
procedure of the genuine mathematician. 
It has even been suggested that " school- 
mathematics would be taught more mathe- 
matically, had Euclid been a better mathe- 
matician and less acute logician." Typi- 
cal mathematical reasoning is better ex- 
emplified in so-called " Higher Mathe- 
matics," involving the Differential and 
Integral Calculus. The well - known 
German mathematician, Prof. Felix Klein, 
of Gottingen, has defined mathematics as 
essentially " funktionales Denken," or 
thinking in terms of functions, which is 
identical with the reasoning of the Calcu- 
lus. One quantity is thought of as vary- 
ing continuously with another or a number 
of others according to a certain rule. I 
am myself inclined to think that this is 
true only of algebraical or analytical 
reasoning, and does not apply to the more 
intuitional methods of geometrical reason- 
ing. That the two forms are distinct has 
been held by many mathematicians, 
especially by the late Henri Poincar^, and 
experimental evidence for it will be ad- 
duced in a later section of this paper. I 
should, however, agree with Dr. Betz in 
the more general view, which he holds, 



26 



Maria Montessori's Method of Self-Education. 



that mathematical talent probably consists 
in an exceptional ease in carrying out cer- 
tain thought-processes, which need not be 
identified with a special and, as it were, 
fundamental ability, though it does not 
exclude such a view. Betz writes : " The 
mental situation shows a certain similarity 
to the case where one seeks in a visual 
memory-image to seize and hold fast cer- 
tain details of which there is at first only 
the slightest trace visible, only in mathe- 
matical thinking it is not a question of 
visual memory-images but of peculiar pre- 
sentations or ideas which are felt rather 
than seen and which in another connection 
[" Vorstellung und Einstellung," Archiv. 
f. d. ges. Psych., 1911] I have called 
minimal ideas. I believe I can show that 
the mathematical type of mind is charac- 
terised by a special clearness of these 
minimal ideas, and by the ability to vary 
them with precision ; whether this also in- 
volves a special logical ability cannot be 
decided, so long as the psychology of in- 
ference remains shrouded in obscurity " 
[Op. cit. p. 74]. 

As a point of some interest, it should be 
noted that many good mathematicians 
have been weak in arithmetical calcula- 
tion. 

An extensive enquiry has been made by 
the German psychologist Mobius [P. J. 
Mobius : Franz Joseph Gall, Leipzig, 
1905] into the relations between mathe- 
matical ability and the shape of the head. 
According to this investigator the relation 
is a definite one, mathematicians showing 
prominences over the outer parts of the 
eyebrows, that on the left side being as a 
rule the more pronounced. Mobius pub- 
lishes portraits of distinguished mathe- 
maticians which show this characteristic 
clearly marked, but it has been reasonably 
objected that his argument could only lay 
claim to cogency had he also given portraits 
of non-mathematicians of high intellectual 
ability and been able to show that the pro- 
minences were absent in these cases. 

Even if the correlation were satisfac- 
torily demonstrated we could not infer 
from it the existence of a " mathematical 
organ " in the brain corresponding to the 



prominence. The known facts of cerebral 
localisation are all against such a view. 
We could only regard the relation as the 
result of correlated variations, accumulat- 
ing in the course of evolution. 

An interesting investigation into the 
method of working, etc., of mathemati- 
cians has recently been carried out by 
Monsieur H. Fehr [H. Fehr : " L'En- 
seignement Mathematique," Paris, 1905, 
1906]. He employed the " questionnaire" 
method, sending out a list of thirty ques- 
tions to about one hundred eminent 
mathematicians. Among the results he 
obtained are the following : 

1. Interest in mathematics generally 
appears before the sixteenth year {84 per 
cent.), although it may develop as late as 
the twenty-sixth year. 

2. In two-thirds of the cases mathe- 
matical ability ran in the family, being 
inherited four times more frequently on 
the father's than on the mother's side. 

3. Preferences for geometrical and 
analytical methods occur with almost 
equal frequency. 

4. " Inspiration " often occurs among 
mathematicians, especially after sleep, but 
is not a universal occurrence. 

5. Mathematicians are as a rule very 
fond of walking, and take a great interest 
in music and in religious questions. 

6. With one single exception (Boltz- 
mann) the mathematicians interrogated 
found alcohol more of a hindrance than a 
help in their work. 

In concluding this section, I may say 
that the balance of evidence seems to be 
in favour of the existence of a special 
capacity or faculty underlying mathemati- 
cal ability, distinct from, and with no 
essentially close connections with, other 
forms of intellectual capacity. [Etc.] 



MARIA MONTESSORI'S METHOD OF 

SELF-EDUCATION. II. 

By Madame M. L. Pujol-Segalas. 

III. How can this be done? How can 
we learn to respect the spiritual freedom 
of the child? It is simple enough if we 
pay attention to it, provided we, the 



Madame M. L. Pujol-Segalas. 



27 



parents and teachers, have practised 
humility, self-control, patience, discrimin- 
ation, and unselfish love, without which 
there is no justice possible. These you 
must have, and you will understand what 
we are trying to do in the children's 
houses. 

Montessori methods of self-education 
are such because they do not admit of any 
pretension on the part of the teacher to 
educate the child ; they rather consist in 
placing the child constantly in the most 
favourable circumstances to educate him- 
self. The Bordeaux group of the " Ligue 
de r Education Morale de la Jeunesse," 
from an account of its July meeting sent 
us by the Secretary, M. G. Persigout, 
divides child's life into four periods, ac- 
cording to its most prominent features in 
manifestation for the majority of cases : 
Up to three years, emotional ; from three 
to seven, spontaneous ; from seven to 
nine, reflective ; from nine to twelve, in- 
tellectual. 

The second stage seems to be the most 
important one. From three to seven, if 
the child is properly treated, there is 
1st a growing tendency to the manifes- 
tation of individualised consciousness, 
that leads up to a more or less perfect 
development of the reflective faculty. At 
the end of that period, the building faculty 
asserts itself, and the sense of responsi- 
bility begins to appear, that is, if the little 
man or woman has been allowed to make 
his own experiments, individual and social. 
And my conviction, founded on experi- 
ence, is that when people change their 
methods, that will happen more constantly 
and at an earlier age. 2nd. Language is 
established at the same time as relations 
between objects, also between object and 
subject. There ought to be a remarkable 
unfolding of intellectual powers, particu- 
larly of the powers of observation and 
classification, which one may call the 
scientific spirit. That is likely to be so, 
if we are satisfied with careful watching, 
without making any attempt to stifle. 

These four years (three to seven) will 
prove very largely decisive ; that has been 
acknowledged long ago, and emphasis 



has been laid upon it by the Jesuits, who 
are good educationalists, in their way, 
according to their conception of life and 
the world as I imagine. 3rd. Physical 
growth is more rapid then, as a rule, than 
at any other period, and therefore the 
discipline of immobility and discomfort 
more prejudicial to the body. This is 
important, and the child must be allowed 
to change his position, sit down, walk or 
lie down, when he feels inclined, for the 
sake of his health. Moreover, these com- 
ings and goings can be taken as an oppor- 
tunity for making him feel the advantage 
of orderly over disorderly movements ; 
and to make him appreciate the whole- 
some pleasure of action and the fatigue 
always resulting from mere agitation. 

Now there is a point on which stress 
must be laid. At this age we have such a 
chance, as will never again present itself, 
of finding out the innate tendencies of the 
child, to get an Insight into the possibili- 
ties and requirements of his particular 
nature, we may already perceive what will 
constitute the lights and shades of his 
character as a man or woman. We can de- 
serve now the privilege of helping him to 
develop all that is best in him, to the 
exclusion of the worst, by being careful 
to entertain his full faith and confidence 
in us, his directors. Be sure he will mani- 
fest himself clearly to a good observer, 
when he is neither frightened into silence 
and immobility, nor coaxed into doing 
what he had no personal wish to do. Take 
care not to make of him a dissembler, 
and while you reflect on the promises and 
dangers of the energies specialised in his 
individuality, bring him gradually to 
realise them also, so that he becomes will- 
ing to control such forces within, which 
he is already becoming aware are not 
himself. 

That it is possible to attain this, I can 
assure you. I have been experimenting 
in that direction for several years with 
my own daughter and nephews, and for 
nearly three years in the Children's 
Houses in Rome and in Paris, and I have 
often registered wonderful transforma- 
tions. Every day I am gathering records 



28 



Maria Montessori's Method of Self-Education. 



that may contribute to show what moral 
education should be at that age, in the 
family and at school. Some of these 1 
may offer to your consideration on some 
future occasion, or presently, in answer to 
precise questions, that any one may like 
to ask. 

In France the moral aspects of educa- 
tion have suffered somewhat, it seems, 
from the old wranglings between religious 
and lay educators. On the other hand 
children of our race are rather well gifted 
with regard to sensorial abilities leading 
to professional efiliciency, and with regard 
to clearness of perception, which is at the 
foundation of the logical faculty and of 
some sorts of intellectual development. 
This is why I feel inclined to lay greater 
stress, as a Frenchwoman, on the ethical 
results that could be achieved in the Chil- 
dren's Houses by means of these methods 
of self-education. Many are getting into 
the habit of calling them " Montessori 
methods," and, I think, rightly, because 
she was the first to apply them scientific- 
ally and with real efficacy to large groups 
of little children. 

IV. 1 am not sure whether you do not 
expect me to describe the didactic material 
that we use. However, I know that this 
has been done before to-night by well- 
informed and enthusiastic lecturers. You 
may even have seen parts of that material, 
or at any rate the pictures illustrating the 
fine volume of pedagogy translated into 
English by Miss George. Besides, to 
enter into useful details concerning it, it 
would take at least a series of about ten 
or twelve lectures such as I gave last year 
in Paris. For these reasons I shall mainly 
endeavour to show you how precious this 
material is to us. I cannot imagine any- 
thing that would permit such savings of 
energy both on the part of the child and 
that of the mistress. 

Whenever we have material to use, in 
most cases, no spoken demonstration is 
necessary, before, during, or after the 
exercises. The material, in its simplicity, 
is self-demonstrating, it makes it easy for 
the child to get clear notions of size and 
dimensions, shapes and geometrical 



hgures, colours and shades, weights and 
numbers ; and all this as much as possible 
before he is acquainted with the words 
that serve to represent all such notions. 
We see to it afterwards, or immediately 
after, that the proper vocabulary is 
applied, but never do we suggest a word 
before making sure that the child wants 
it, because it corresponds to a conception 
already existing in his mind. No tedious 
repetition of meaningless words, there- 
fore, which makes it difficult for one to 
fix one's attentions, and which might 
assist the formation of the absurd, as well 
as dangerous, habit of speaking without 
anything to say. 

Beside saving the breath of the lady- 
friend (we don't care to be called teachers, 
we prefer the title of friend ; at least I 
do, and my little ones in Paris call me 
Mamie), the material has made it suffi- 
ciently easy for the child, better than the 
mistress could have done by any speech of 
hers, to analyse for himself all sensations 
and perceptions that come to him through 
the senses. Thus is he helped in the work 
of classification, which often is hardest to 
him than any, and in consequence often 
remains undone, later than we suspect. 
To the chaotic, bewildering state of his 
mind, succeeds a state of order far more 
agreeable to our baby, more favourable 
also to the acquisition of new knowledge, 
which will not prove cumbersome and con- 
fusing, because it will at once adjust itself 
to previous precise notions of states and 
qualities, and of their relations to one 
another. 

In these conditions there is not so much 
need for us afterwards to direct the child's 
attention constantly on this and that part 
of his surroundings. He does it of his 
own accord, because he enjoys making 
new discoveries ; because comparison has 
become possible for him, from the first, 
through a skilful presentation of similar 
and contrasting objects ; and because he 
has learnt by experience that concentra- 
tion of one's attention on some particular 
object, or group of objects, always brings 
its immediate rev/ard in the sense of an 
enlargement of his consciousness. For 



Madame M. L. Pujol-Segaias. 



29 



that, as a rule, he cares more than for 
anything else, excepting perhaps the sym- 
pathy and comprehension of the elder 
friend and companion, which he is sure 
will never be missing. 

V. Our children also learn reading and 
writing, and there has been much talk 
about it. Some mothers were delighted at 
the idea that their child would accomplish 
the feat of learning to read and write in 
less' than two months; others saying that 
there is no need to hurry so : it would 
involve too much fatigue, and there was 
the danger of turning the little mites into 
book-worms. Well, hurry of any sort is 
always bad, and I don't see why a child 
should learn reading and writing before 
six, unless he can learn more easily and 
better at four or five, and that seems to 
be the case with our system. 

Consider that looking at the sand-paper 
letters, and touching them, is just about 
the same sort of exercise as examining 
and fingering the geometrical insets, and 
it is evidently much to the taste of our 
little ones. Representing sounds by letters 
is, after all, only the result of a very 
simple association of two sensations: 
auditive and visual. The further fact of 
associating a special image or idea with 
a group of such sounds, or graphic signs 
standing for them, has already occurred in 
the acquirement of the spoken language. 
It is nothing new^ to the child ; and besides 
we have no desire to press the child for- 
ward to that or anything. We rather 
insist on this point, that too much or in- 
discriminate stimulation is contrary to the 
harmonious development of humanity. 

It is nearly always the children them- 
selves who express a wish to compose 
words, in order to read them afterwards. 
Even when they can read we do not give 
them books before six or even later ; and 
they do not ask for them unless they have 
been told at home, or by some little friend, 
that it is more dignified to have books, 
and that boys and girls have some in 
" real schools." As to the danger of be- 
coming book-worms, I think it does not 
exist, because a child is capable of read- 
ing, but rather on account of his being 



incapable of taking a deep interest in all 
the life by w-hich he is surrounded. 

A little French girl of my acquaintance 
could read French perfectly well at four ; 
now she is eight, and she reads and writes 
English as well as French, yet she does 
not care much for books ; people and 
things are for her so interesting to watch : 
there is so much to see outside, so much 
to remember and enjoy anew, when one 
happens to be alone. 

Another objection has been made as to 
the difficulty of translating sounds into 
graphic signs, after the manner used in 
the Italian " Case dei Bambini," with 
such spelling as we enjoy in French and 
in English. In spite of all orthographic 
anomalies, I do not see much advantage 
in the synthetic presentation of entire 
words to the child from the very begin- 
ning. Our native tongue still remains 
very largely phonetic, though it is true 
that one sound can often be represented 
in several ways, and two or more letters 
may be required to represent only one 
emission of the voice. My experience 
with our Parisian boys and girls brought 
me to the conclusion that there is a way 
of learning to read which would do away 
with much of the tediousness of lessons in 
orthography, rendering them altogether 
unnecessary. 

I remember all the trouble French spell- 
ing gave me as a girl, but I had not to 
suffer in the same way when I taught my- 
self English some years after in this coun- 
try, the methods used being different. 
However, learning to read English or 
French, if it is done in the right manner, 
so as to prevent orthographic difficulties 
later on, ought to take more time than in 
the case of Italian, as long as those lan- 
guages preserve their actual mode of 
spelling. 

VI. You are probably thinking of 
practical difficulties, and- ivondering what 
number of children might be guided after 
our method, by one or two ynistresses. 
That is a diflficult question to answer, for 
the reply depends on many factors. 
Nationality perhaps is one : I have had 
Italian children in Rome, French, English, 



30 



Maria Moiitessori*s Method of Self-Education. 



Americans in Paris. I find that my little 
compatriots are much more exhausting 
at first. They require a great deal more 
supervision at the beginning, because the 
French are of a very nervous tempera- 
ment, and also, I believe, because they 
are made a great deal too much fuss about 
when they are at home. Lots of scolding 
or caresses is the worst preparation that 
could be devised for self-education. 

Another important factor would be the 
social standing of the children's families. 
Poor children, as a rule, give us much 
less trouble in a way ; they are more in- 
dependent. Those on the contrary, who 
have had too many persons to look after 
them, are often quite helpless and incap- 
able at first of taking an interest in any- 
thing by themselves, unless they happen 
to be very clever children indeed. 

Finally, there is to be considered the 
individuality of the little pupil, and its 
particular stage and line of development. 
In our school of the Champ de Mars, we 
enjoy the finest variety of temperaments 
that you can imagine, many of the con- 
scious wilful type, such as might become 
rebels or anarchists, unless they develop 
into fine, self-sacrificing personalities, de- 
voted chiefs and leaders of the half- 
conscious majorities. These are more 
difficult to deal with but also more 
passionately interesting to observe. With 
them new problems arise every day, and 
indeed it is right to say that they teach 
us more about human nature than we 
can help them to learn of any subject. At 
present we have twenty-five pupils in one 
class, before the end of the coming term 
there is every chance that we shall have 
thirty at least, and 1 am certain that one 
mistress, helped by a maid, will have 
no trouble managing them, especially as 
they were not all new together. To the 
popular classes I should admit forty, and 
I don't think that this number ought to 
be increased, under any system that cared 
for positive results. 

VII. Before concluding, I would men- 
tion that Montessori scientific pedagogy 
is along the same lines as the educational 
conception of my great countryman. 



Dr. Gustave Le Bon. According to him, 
education has for its aim to transfer into 
sub-consciousness, as a permanent faculty, 
any power attained in consciousness, by 
an effort of the will. Indeed, education 
can be nothing else. From this, it is 
easy to derive what will be the true func- 
tion of the educator. 

By dint of repetition, a newly-acquired 
power will become a faculty. The repeti- 
tion may be spontaneous on the part of 
the person educated, or it may be com- 
pulsory, but if the latter case be too fre- 
quent there will certainly ensue a weaken- 
ing of the will and of the creative faculty 
in general. Perhaps you will agree that 
this is a disadvantage which, can hardly 
be compensated by any immediate gain 
on other grounds. Let us not be too 
anxious to manage the child, so that he 
may feel the need early to manage himself ; 
let experience, before its perils be too 
great, lead him to understand the neces- 
sity of practising self-control. 

Our actions then v.ill consist : First, in 
taking care of the surroundings and at- 
mosphere of the place, their influence on 
the child being all the greater in that he 
is unconscious of being exposed to it ; 
and in providing simple, logical, appro- 
priate apparatus which our little ones may 
freely use. Secondly, in observing them 
constantly, but without forcing ourselves 
in their way. A word now and again, a 
look of encouragement or of painful sur- 
prise, or simply an interrogative glance, 
a light motion of finger, will often be 
sufficient to awake or to recall the child- 
ren's attention to inner or outer pheno- 
mena. 

No more is required in ordinary cases, 
provided the children come to us at about 
two or three years. After that age the 
difficulty would be increased ; other 
methods would have been applied, or no 
method at all ; bad habits would have to 
be changed, requiring for a while special 
training not so pleasant or desirable. I 
mean that mental hygiene would no longer 
be suflficient. Something of the nature 
of the medical and even surgical processes 
would have to be adopted for a period of 



Robert R. Rusk, M.A., B.A., Ph.D. 



31 



transition. As psychologists, we tell 
you what physicians have been repeating 
constantly in this century : Don't wait 
until your children are ill, to take care of 
their health. This is true of the mind, 
as well as of the body. 

I shall add just a few words of warning 
to those who may undertake an applica- 
tion of these methods. They must be pre- 
pared to put up with some disorder and 
perhaps a little noise at the beginning, 
which, of course, it would be open to them 
to stop at once. But that would mean 
returning to the old way; it would lead 
to suppression, not education. In order 
to succeed, one must have faith in human 
nature ; one must be capable of waiting 
patiently and with a quiet assurance, for 
if you are impatient to see results, you 
may almost be sure they will never come 
at all. 

I hope I have said some of the things 
you wanted to hear, and none that have 
shocked you too much. I trust we are all 
willing to learn as we all can learn from 
one another, and whenever educators, con- 
scious of their responsibility, meet 
together to talk of their work, each ought 
to impart to the other new courage when 
there is no possibility of imparting new 
light. Therefore I say to you in conclu- 
sion, let us all strive and do our best, 
each applying the method that seems best 
to him, and then the children are sure to 
be greatly benefited. 



THE MONTESSORI METHOD: ITS 
PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES. II. 

By Robert R. Rusk, m.a., b.a., ph.d. 
ii. Sensory Exercises. In the Montessori 
scheme of exercises in sensory training 
we have an illustration of a principle, not 
infrequently exemplified in the history of 
science, that very practical consequences 
may be the outcome of speculations re- 
garded as quite abstract or theoretical. 
The tests which psychologists and experi- 
mental educationists have applied in deter- 
mining sensory acuity and general intel- 
ligence have frequently been condemned 
as having no bearing on school practice ; 



yet it is to these very tests and to the 
apparatus employed in applying them that 
Dr. Montessori has turned for her exer- 
cises in sensory training. 

The standpoints of experimental 
psychology and of sensory education are 
nevertheless different. Experimental 

psychology seeks to determine by a pro- 
cess of measurement the actual condition 
of the sensory powers : it does not attempt 
to improve the powers, whereas Dr. 
Montessori is not interested in measuring 
the powers but in assisting their develop- 
ment. In the application of the tests by 
psychologists, especially when the investi- 
gation extends over a long period, prac- 
tice-effects frequently disclose themselves. 
Such practice-effects are to the psycholo- 
gist disturbing factors which he attempts 
to eliminate, but it is just these practice- 
effects that sensory education seeks to 
secure. 

The psychological methods of determin- 
ing sensory acuity and sensory discrimin- 
ation had been applied by Dr. Montessori 
in training the feeble-minded. In apply- 
ing them to normal children she found 
that they required modification. With 
deficient children the exercises had to be 
confined to those in which the stimuli were 
strongly contrasted ; normal children can, 
however, proceed to finely graded series. 
Normal children manifest great pleasure 
in repeating exercises which they success- 
fully accomplish ; deficient children when 
they succeed once stop and show no in- 
clination to repeat the task. The deficient 
child, when he makes mistakes, has to be 
corrected ; the normal child prefers to cor- 
rect his own mistakes. The differences 
are summed up by Dr. Montessori in the 
statement that the didactic material 
which, used with deficients, makes educa- 
tion possible, used with normal children, 
provokes auto-education (p. 169). 

In sensory training Dr. Montessori be- 
lieves in isolating the senses whenever 
that is possible (p. 179). This procedure, 
it will readily be inferred, is adapted from 
the education of physically deficient chil- 
dren. Blind people, it is popularly as- 
sumed, acquire a very fine perception of 



32 



The Montessori Method : Its Principles and Practices. 



touch. We are not surprised then to find 
that in the training of their tactual sense 
the pupils of the Montessori schools are 
blindfolded, a feature of the training 
which seems to add zest to their efforts. 
The auditory exercises are likewise given 
in an environment not only of silence, 
but even of darkness. 

The material used in the sensory train- 
ing recalls the apparatus of the psycholo- 
gical laboratory. Graded series of 
coloured wools are employed to train the 
colour sense ; a highly polished surface 
and a surface of sand-paper for the sense 
of touch ; tablets of wood of similar size 
but different weight for discrimination in 
weight ; for the temperature sense, little 
metal bowls with covers and with ther- 
mometers attached ; for auditory acuity, 
cylindrical sound boxes containing differ- 
ent substances ; for perception of size, 
series of wooden cylinders varying in 
height only, in diameter only, or in both 
dimensions at once, blocks arranged in a 
regular series and rods of regularly graded 
lengths; for perception of form, geome- 
trical insets in metals, wood and paper. 

The procedure adopted may be illus- 
trated from the method followed in the 
training in colour discrimination. Dr. 
Montessori accepts from Seguin the divi- 
sion of the lesson into three periods or 
steps (pp. 177-8) : 1st period : The asso- 
ciation of the sensory perception with the 
name. For example, we present to the 
child two colours, red and blue. Present- 
ing the red, we say simply, " This is 
red," and presenting the blue, " This is 
blue." Then we lay the spools upon the 
table under the eyes of the child. 2nd 
period : Recognition of the object corres- 
ponding to the name. We say to the 
child, " Give me the red," and then, 
" Give me the blue." 3rd period : The 
remembering of the name corresponding 
to the object. We ask the child, showing 
him the object, " What is this? " and he 
should respond, " Red." 

To these three periods of Seguin, Dr. 
Montessori has added a preparatory series 
of exercises which contains the real sense 
education (p. 178); the acquisition of a 



fineness of differential perception, which 
can be obtained only through auto-educa- 
tion. It consists in matching or grading 
series of colours. For this purpose a 
series comprising sixty-four colours are 
used and the arranging and grading of 
these provide training in sensory dis- 
crimination before the naming method is 
applied. 

This procedure follows the methods 
used and discussed by Preyer and Bald- 
win for testing the colour vision of chil- 
dren ; but, as we have already indicated, 
instead of using the methods for testing 
Dr. Montessori employs them for train- 
ing the sensory activities of her pupils. 

Similar methods are adopted in develop- 
ing in the child tactual acuity, and in 
training the child in discrimination of 
temperatures and of weights. In these 
exercises the child is blindfolded or is en- 
joined to keep his eyes closed during the 
tests ; he is encouraged to do so by being 
told that he will thus be able to feel the 
differences better. 

The exercises which assist in the 
development of perception of form play 
such an important part in the Montessori 
system that the training in knowledge of 
form may be briefly traced here. The first 
exercise is to sort out of a heap bricks 
and cubes. Young children come to 
recognise the forms of these merely by 
grasping them ; they do not require to 
touch the contour. This exercise is per- 
formed with various materials, for ex- 
ample, coints, etc., and so expert do the 
children become that they can discrimin- 
ate between small forms varying very 
slightly, such as corn, wheat and rice 
(p. 190). 

The real training in the perception of 
form begins, however, when the child 
passes to the exercises of placing wooden 
figures in spaces fitted to receive them, 
or in superimposing such figures on out- 
lines of similar form. 

Geometric insets of various designs, the 
initial ones strongly contrasted, the later 
ones merely dissimilar forms of the same 
figure, for example, of the triangle, are 
mixed up and have to be sorted out by 



Robert R. Rusk, M.A., B.A., Ph.D. 



;J3 



the children and fitted into the frames 
made to receive them. The frames fur- 
nish the control necessary to test the 
accuracy of the work. Ordinary solids, 
e.g. cubes, spheres, prisms, are not em- 
ployed as is usually the case in the teach- 
ing of form, but instead insets represent- 
ing solid objects with one of the dimen- 
sions greatly reduced and with the two 
dimensions determining the form of the 
plane surface made most evident (p. 238) ; 
the reason for this being that the choice of 
material is determined purely from the 
pedagogical standpoint, and that the ob- 
jects most commonly met with in practical 
life, table-tops, doors, window frames, 
etc., are of this nature. 

In learning to fit the geometric insets 
into the spaces provided for them the 
child not only uses the visual sense but 
also the tactual and muscular senses ; he is 
taught to run the index finger of the right 
hand round the contour of the form and 
to repeat this with the contour of the 
frame into which the inset fits. It is 
frequently observed that children who can- 
not recognise a figure by looking at it, 
do so by touching it. " The association 
of the muscular-tactile sense with that of 
vision," Dr. Montessori maintains (p. 
199), " aids in a most remarkable way the 
perception of the forms and fixes them in 
memory." In this procedure we have 
Berkeley's theory of vision applied peda- 
gogically. 

From the exercises with the solid insets 
in which the control is absolute, the child 
passes to exercises in the purely visual 
perception of form. The wooden insets 
have to be superimposed on figures cut 
out of blue paper and mounted on cards. 
In a further series of exercises the figures 
are represented by an outline of blue 
paper, which to the child represents the 
path which he has so often followed with 
his index finger. Finally he is required to 
superim.pose the wooden pieces on figures 
whose outlines are represented merely by 
a line. He thus passes from the concrete 
to the abstract, from solid objects to plane 
figures represented merely by lines and 
perceived only visually. 



Through these exercises the character- 
istics of the various figures, circles, 
ellipses, trianges, rectangles, come to be 
known, and when the need for them is 
manifest, the names are given. As no 
analysis of the form is undertaken, no 
mention made of sides and angles, it may 
legitimately be affirmed that the teaching 
of geometry is not being attempted 
(p. 236. For teaching of geometry, see 
p. 243). 

The method adopted in developing the 
perception of form, involving as it does 
the extensive employment of tactual and 
motor imagery, prepares the way for the 
teaching of writing and of other didactic 
processes ; but before considering these it 
may be well to attempt an estimate of the 
value of sensory training in the education 
of the child. 

One cannot deny without actual experi- 
ence and investigation but that young chil- 
dren can be brought to a high degree of 
proficiency in grading colours, etc., but if 
it is thereby implied that the power so 
developed can be transferred to other 
forms of work, the assemption is not sup- 
ported by recent experimental investiga- 
tion in other spheres of mental work. In- 
deed, a high degree of training in some 
one form of mental activity may prejudice 
the training of a closely related function. 
To the practical exercises in Dr. Montes- 
sori 's system this objection does not apply 
for the power acquired by the child 
through these exercises can be utilised 
directly in everyday experiences, nor does 
this objection hold against such exercises 
in sensory training as directly subserve 
the didactic processes of writing, etc., but 
of a specific training of the sensory powers 
for its own sake one may be allowed to 
question the value. 

Dr. Montessori, with that modesty 
which characterises all great and original 
workers, does not claim to have brought 
to perfection the method of sense training 
as applied to young children, but believes 
that her method opens a new field for 
psychological research, promising rich 
and valuable results (p. 215). 

iii. Didactic Exercises. It is to the 



34 



The Montessori Method : Its Principles and Practices. 



results obtained in the didactic processes 
of writing, reading, etc. , that the Montes- 
sori method owes its popular interest, but 
at the inception of the method these pro- 
cesses were not intended to be included, 
and results came, as it were, unsought. 

In the Montessori system the teaching 
of writing precedes the teaching of read- 
ing (p. 296). Dr. Montessori maintains 
(p. 266-7) that in normal children the 
muscular sense is most easily developed in 
infancy, and this makes writing exceed- 
ingly easy for children. It is not so with 
reading, which requires a much longer 
course of instruction, and which calls for 
a superior intellectual development, since 
it treats of the interpretation of signs, and 
of the modulation of accents of the voice, 
in order that the word may be understood. 
And all this is a purely mental task, while 
in writing to dictation the child translates 
sounds into material signs and performs 
certain movements, a thing which is al- 
ways easy and pleasant for him. Writing 
develops in the little child with facility and 
spontaneity, analogous to the development 
of spoken language, which is a motor 
translation. Reading, on the contrary, 
forms part of an intellectual culture, which 
is the interpretation of ideas from graphic 
symbols and is only acquired later on. 

Writing. To her predecessors. Dr. 
Montessori owes little in regard to the 
teaching of writing except by way of 
warning. The apparatus used by S^guin 
with deficient children was found incon- 
venient, and of his method she says : 
" We have S^guin teaching geometry in 
order to teach a child to write " (p. 256). 

In accordance with her general prin- 
ciple, Dr. Montessori adopts in regard to 
writing what we have termed the psycho- 
logical standpoint. " Let us observe an 
individual who is writing and let us seek 
to analyse the acts he performs," she sug- 
gests, and again : " It goes without say- 
ing that we should examine the individual 
who writes not the writing ; the subject, 
not the object." 

The procedure followed in the teaching 
of writing emerged from the experience of 
teaching a feeble-minded girl to sew. Dr. 



Montessori discovered that weaving 
Froebel mats enabled this girl to acquire 
such control over the movements of the 
hand that she could take up sewing which 
she had previously been unable to per- 
form. The general principle which she 
deduced from this was, that " preparatory 
movements could be carried on, and re- 
duced to a mechanism, by means of re- 
peated exercises not in the work itself, but 
in that which prepares for it. Pupils 
could then come to the real work, able to 
perform it without ever having directly set 
their hands to it before " (p. 261). 

Writing, according to Dr. Montessori's 
view, is not a mere copying of head lines, 
but significant writing, writing to dicta- 
tion. In this are involved two diverse 
forms of movement, the movement by 
which the form is reproduced and that by 
which the instrument of writing is manipu- 
lated ; in addition, for writing to dictation 
there is also necessary the analysis of 
spoken speech into its elements. Prepara- 
tory exercises for each of these factors 
must, in accordance with the general prin- 
ciple just stated, be devised and practised 
before writing is actually commenced. 

As the children had already learned to 
know the forms of the geometric insets by 
running their fingers round the contours, 
so to teach the forms of the letters it 
occurred to Dr. Montessori to get the 
pupils to trace with their fingers the out- 
lines of letters cut out in sand-paper and 
pasted on cards, the roughness of the 
sandpaper providing a control for the 
accuracy of the movements (p. 276). 
" The children," indeed, " as soon as they 
have become at all expert in this tracing 
of the letters, take great pleasure in re- 
peating it with closed eyes, letting the 
sandpaper lead them in following the form 
which they do not see." Thus the forms 
of the letters are learned and impressed on 
the minds of the pupils not by mere visual 
analysis and visual imagery, but by 
tactual and motor experiences and tactile- 
motor imagery. 

The phonetic sounds of the letters are 
taught at the same time as the tracing, 
the steps in the lesson following the three 



Robert R. Rusk, M.A., B.A., Ph.D. 



35 



period arrangement already illustrated. 
The audito-motor imagery helps to rein- 
force the grapho-motor and to facilitate 
retention of the forms of the letters. The 
children are also practised in analysing 
the spoken word into its sounds, and in 
reconstructing the word with sandpaper 
letters. The way is thus prepared for 
reading. 

The control of the pen is also attacked 
indirectly. Recourse is had for this train- 
ing to the geometric insets of which fre- 
quent mention has already been made. 
Taking one of the metal frames into which 
the inset fits, the child draws with a 
coloured crayon around the contour of the 
empty frame. On the figure which results 
he places the metal inset, and with a 
crayon of a different colour traces the out- 
line of the inset. Thus are reproduced 
in different colours upon the paper the two 
figures. With a coloured crayon of his 
own selection held as the pen is held in 
writing, the pupil fills in the figure which 
he has outlined. In making the upward 
and downward strikes he is taught not to 
pass outside the contour. Variety is lent 
to the task by the choice of differently 
coloured crayons, and by the use of dif- 
ferent insets, the latter also training him 
to make upward and downward strokes of 
various lengths. Gradually the lines tend 
less and less to go outside the enclosing 
boundary, until at last they are perfectly 
contained within it, and both the centre 
and the frame are filled in with close and 
uniform strokes. The child is now master 
of the pencil ; the muscular mechanism 
necessary to the manipulation of the in- 
strument of writing is established. 

The moment arrives when the partial 
processes are perfected, when the three 
prerequisites to writing are at the pupil's 
command, that is, when he can fill in the 
geometric figures with free and regular up 
and down strokes, when he can reproduce 
the forms of the letters, moving his finger 
in the air, and when the composition of 
words out of spoken sounds has become a 
psychic impulse. At this point the imita- 
tive tendency in the child arouses in him 
the impulse to write, and a pupil who has 



given no previous indication of having 
developed ability in this direction begins 
straightway to write. The spontaneous 
emergency of this writing activity is re- 
corded by the directress much after the 
fashion that the appearance of the first 
snowdrop or primrose would be recorded 
by a naturalist. The children, not being 
able to adjust in their minds the connec- 
tion between the preparation and the act, 
are possessed by the illusion that having 
now grown to the proper size, they know 
how to write (p. 288). 

Dr. Montessori reports (p. 294) that the 
average time that elapses between the 
first trial of the preparatory exercises and 
the first written word is, for children of 
four years, from a month to a month and 
a half. With children of five years the 
period is much shorter, being about a 
month. The pupils are generally experts 
after three months time, and those who 
have written for six months may be com- 
pared to the child in the third elementary. 

Reading. The way to the teaching of 
reading is prepared in the Montessori 
system by the means adopted in the teach- 
ing of writing. In the exercises prepara- 
tory to reading is included world-building 
with sandpaper script characters repre- 
senting the sounds of the spoken word. 
Reading demands the inverse process, 
that is, the reproduction of the sounds 
from the symbols, then the fusion of these 
sounds into the words. There is also 
necessary for the correct enunciation of 
the word the proper accentuation of the 
syllables, and this comes only with recog- 
nition of the meaning. Dr. Montessori 
consequently refuses to give the name 
reading to anything less than this. Just 
as in her system writing is something 
more than mere copying books and head- 
lines, so reading is not a mere babbling 
of sounds or words, but the recognition of 
the meanings represented by the visual 
characters. " What I understand by read- 
ing," she says (p. 296), " is the interpre- 
tation of an idea from the written signs " ; 
and again, " Until the child reads a trans- 
mission of ideas from the written words 
he does not read." 



36 



The Montessori Method : Its Principles and Practices. 



The didactic material for the lessons in 
reading consists of slips of paper or cards 
upon which are written in clear, large 
script words and phrases. 

The lessons begin with the reading of 
names of objects which are known or 
which are present. There is no question 
of beginning with words that are easy or 
difficult, for the child already knows how 
to read the sounds which compose any 
word. The procedure is as follows : The 
child is given a card on which a name is 
written in script ; he translates the writing 
slowly into sounds, and if the interpreta- 
tion is exact, the teacher limits herself to 
saying " Faster." The child reads more 
quickly the second time, but still often 
without understanding. The teacher re- 
peats, " Faster, faster." The pupil reads 
faster each time, repeating the same 
accumulation of sounds, and finally the 
word bursts upon his consciousness. 
When the child has read the word, he 
places the explanatory card under the ob- 
ject whose name it bears, and the exercise 
is finished. It is a lesson which goes very 
rapidly, since it is only presented to a 
child who is already prepared through 
writing. 

Sentences describing actions or contain- 
ing commands are likewise written on 
slips of paper, and the pupils select these 
and carry out the requests contained in 
them. It is to be noted that the child 
does not read the sentences aloud (p. 301). 
The purpose of the reading is to teach 
the child to discover ideas in written sym- 
bols, consequently the reading should be 
mental and not vocal. " Reading aloud," 
according to Dr. Montessori's analysis, 
" implies the exercise of two mechanical 
forms of language, articulate and graphic, 
and is therefore a complex task. The 
child, therefore, who begins to read by 
interpreting thought should read ment- 
ally." "Truly," says Dr. Montessori (p. 
298), " we have buried the tedious and 
stupid ABC primer side by side with the 
useless copybooks ! " 

As to the average time required for 
learning to read, it appears that the period 
intervening between the commencement of 



the writing process and the ability to read 
is about a fortnight. Facility in reading 
is, however, arrived at much more slowly 
than perfection in writing. Almost all 
the normal children trained according to 
the Montessori method begin to write at 
four years of age, and at five know how- 
to read and write, at least as well as 
children who have finished the first 
elementary. 

The Italians start these processes with 
an undoubted advantage, as their lan- 
guage is practically phonetic. The irregu- 
lar system of notation of the English 
language must handicap teachers who at- 
tempt to apply the method in this country 
(Holmes, p. 16; cf. Tozier, p. 47), but 
" individual English children who have 
been taught by the Montessori system 
have learned to read and write as rapidly 
and at as early an age as the Italian 
children in the Montessori schools" (p. 
13). Miss Tozier tells of a Httle boy, 
aged only three and a half, who, without 
realising that he has as yet done anything 
more than play, can read and write both 
in English and in Italian. 

Number. Dr. Montessori's treatment 
of the teaching of number does not dis- 
play the same degree of originality as her 
methods of teaching writing and reading. 
To one acquainted with the present posi- 
tion of the psychology of number this is 
not surprising, for psychologists are still 
undecided as to whether the conception of 
number in the child's mind originates in 
counting or whether the idea can arise 
from the simultaneous presentation of a 
multiplicity of objects. 

The device of which greatest use is 
made in the teaching of number on the 
Montessori method is the " long stair," 
a set of ten rods, the first being one meter 
in length, the last one decimeter, the 
intermediate rods diminishing in length 
by decimeters. The rods are divided into 
decimeter parts, the spaces on the rods 
being painted alternately red and blue. 
When arranged in order they form what 
is called the long stair. They are utilised 
in the sensory exercises, for training the 
pupils in discrimination of length. In 



Robert R. Rusk, M.A., B.A., Ph.D. 



37 



these exercises the rods are mixed up and 
the teacher grades them in order of length, 
calling the child's attention to the fact 
that the stair thus constructed is uniform 
in colour at one end. Then the child is 
permitted to build it for himself. 

After the pupil has had practice in 
arranging the rods in order of length (pp. 
327-8), he is required to count the red 
and the blue divisions, beginning with the 
shortest rod ; thus, one ; one, two ; one, 
two, three ; always going back to one in 
the counting of each rod, and starting 
from the same end. He is then got to 
name the single rods from the shortest to 
the longest, according to the total num- 
ber of divisions each contains, at the same 
time touching the rods on the side on 
which the stair ascends. The rods may 
then be called piece number one, piece 
number two, etc., and finally they may be 
spoken of m the lessons as one, two, 
three. 

The graphic signs for the numbers are 
cut in sandpaper, and by the three-period 
lesson arrangement previously mentioned, 
the pupil is taught to associate the names 
of the numbers with their graphic forms. 

The third stage is the association of the 
graphic sign with the quantity. Addition 
may then be attacked, and is taught by 
requiring the pupils to put the shorter 
rods together in such a way as to form 
tens. One is added to nine, two to eight, 
and so on. Subtraction, multiplication, 
division can likewise be introduced by 
means of the same didactic material, and 
later on the child is allowed to express 
graphically his operations with the rods. 

A careful student of Dr. Montessori's 
methods of, and apparatus for, sensoiy 
training could, we believe, readily devise 
other exercises in number which would, as 
faithfully as the long-stair exercises, ful- 
fil the requirement that the control of the 
processes should come not from the 
teacher but from the material. We should 
indeed not be surprised at further develop- 
ments of the method in this direction. 

Criticism of the Method. As the 
Montessori system is still in process of 
evolution it would be unwise to pass hasty 



criticisms on its incompleteness in certain 
respects. A recent publication on the sub- 
ject (Holmes) informs us that clay 
modelling and dancing have been intro- 
duced, and it will doubtless be more pro- 
fitable to wait until such subjects can be 
evolved in accordance with the spirit of 
the method than to engraft on to it pre- 
maturely current practices in these sub- 
jects which are not in harmony with the 
determining principle of the method. 

The one line which criticism of the 
system is at present taking is that the 
system neglects the cultural aspect of 
education, the teaching of literature or the 
development of the imagination. In de- 
fence of Dr. Montessori, or in explana- 
tion, it may be said that she accepts the 
recapitulation principle in education (p. 
160). " The child follows the natural way 
of development of the human race. In 
short such education makes the evolution 
of the individual harmonise with that of 
humanity." Just as, in the early develop- 
ment of mankind, the practical activities 
must have figured more largely than the 
literary, so in accordance with this prin- 
ciple the early education of the child 
should be more practical than humanistic. 
Dr. Montessori is also in agreement with 
the highest authorities in child psychology 
in regard to her attitude to the imagina- 
tion. The child's imagination, according 
to these authorities, for example, 
Meumann {Vorlcsungeti, 2nd edition, 
p. 534), does not need developing but dis- 
ciplining : the child is, in their estimation, 
too prone to use imagination as a substi- 
tute for thinking, teaching reinforces this 
tendency, whereas what is necessary is to 
train the child to subordinate the imagina- 
tive to the intellectual, Eesthetic, and other 
powers, to make it serve some useful end, 
practical or theoretical, not to give it free 
scope for its own sake ; for only such 
regulated imagination is of value in life. 
Lastly, the origin of the method accounts, 
to some extent, we believe, for its limited 
scope. The conditions under which he 
worked led Pestalozzi to say, " The poor 
ought to be educated for poverty." 
Doubtless the class of pupils for whom 



38 



Parent Educators. 



the House of Childhood was instituted 
was such that literature would not imme- 
diately appeal to them, but with an ex- 
tension of the scope of the Montessori sys- 
tem there may go in the future an exten- 
sion of the curriculum. That the curricu- 
lum is far from finality is evident from 
the fact that Dr. Montessori has marked 
out religious instruction as a subject 
awaiting investigation and reform accord- 
ing to the principles of a scientific 
pedagogy. 



PARENT EDUCATORS. 

By Professor Bidart. Translated by 
Miss M. S. Ryan, b.a. 

I. The First Good Habits.- — " The 
child's first teacher is the nurse." 

Importance of the first good habits : 
they are a second nature. What are these 
good habits? The essential are: good 
physical habits, and, not to scream, to be 
good-tempered, quiet and affectionate. 

The means of making the child acquire 
them are to begin early, to demand the 
same actions regularly, and to make them 
pleasureable. 

I. Importance of the first good habits. 
' Leave him alone ! What can you ex- 
pect of a child only a year old? " " You 
can prevent his forming a bad habit." 

This is the never-ending quarrel 
between father and mother. It is unfortu- 
nately the case in many families that the 
mother gives way and the father feels 
vaguely that all is not well, that some 
control should be exercised, whence arise 
frequent bickerings and sometimes keen 
vexations. 

Is it worth the trouble? Would it not 
be better for father as well as mother to 
let things take their course? If educa- 
tion is to gain nothing by it, it would be 
very stupid to give oneself any further 
trouble. 

Here are two children twenty months 
old. " He is most tiresome," says the one 
mother. "Nothing pleases him; we do 
not know what to do with him." " Baby 
is always good and quiet," says the 
other mother. How comes it that there is 



this fundamental difference? Is it perhaps 
Nature? Certainly we all come into the 
world variously gifted. Why can I not 
give my son a nature after my own heart? 
I should be the greatest of men. What a 
triumph it would be were I able to fashion 
a human being after my own desires ! And 
is there no means to do this? Let us 
consult the mother of the second baby. 
Here is her answer. " He would have 
had his whims and fancies, if I had in- 
dulged him. He used to try to get at 
everything. I trained him only to take 
his own things. He began to scream to 
get his own way ; I would not let him 
go on. He did not want to obey me. I 
made him form the habit of obedience. 
Little by little, he changed. Believe me, 
habit becomes a second nature." 

Thus, even though it is not in my power 
to create a nature according to my own 
! inclinations, at least I can make my child 
adopt the habits which I consider good. 
And is not that, in fine, equivalent to 
being able to give my child the nature I 
would have wished for him? There is 
the key to the mystery ; I guard the secret 
of my power. 

I will use this power to give the young 
child good habits from his birth, he will 
acquire good ones as easily as bad, just 
as the young plant which can be trained 
to bend as easily in one direction as in 
another. 



SUGGESTIONS FOR STUDY AND 
PRACTICE. 

Music and the Feeble=minded. — " The 

well-known fact that feeble-minded chil- 
dren are pleasantly aroused and stimu- 
lated by music, and the fact that they 
are prone to imitate even habits or actions 
which they do not at all understand, can 
be directly applied in the way of practical 
physical training. A noisy, unruly group 
of children can be got to march in line 
and more or less in step for a long time 
to the music of a piano or the beat of a 
drum, showing real interest and pleasure. 
Children will do this who have previously 
shown little idea of precision either of 



The Child-Study Society and the Constituent Societies. 



39 



mind or body. This orderly marching can 
be gradually made more complicated, 
single file, double file, slower, faster, then 
walking on tiptoe, jumping over hurdles, 
etc., all to strongly accented music and 
all in imitation of the teacher or skilful 
leader. These movements call for the 
natural use of tke various parts of the 
body, the doing of common things, etc. 

" In the school exercises and other 
assemblies, children who cannot speak six 
words distinctly, will sing or hum song 
after song in fairly perfect time and tune, 
approximating the correct pronunciation 
of the words as they are able. They un- 
doubtedly acquire the use of many new 
words in this way. We have taken 
advantage of this by arranging a series 
of musical articulation exercises, taking 
many of these same familiar melodies and 
substituting for the usual words of the 
songs, the different vocal sounds of our 
language." — Walter E. Fernald, M.D., 
Superintendent of the Massachusetts 
School for the Feeble-minded. 

Handwork and Child=Study. — " Some 
of the researches in child-study have 
direct bearing on manual work, and all of 
it is necessarily valuable to the manual 
teacher in that it reveals the nature and 
capacities of the child at different stages. 
. . . The pre-eminent function of the 
teacher is to study the child, for though 
children have far more points of resemb- 
lance than difference, and the resemb- 
lances are of the greater importance, in 
the long run, yet the differences are of 
very high value in themselves, and of the 
greatest consequence to the individual." 
— H. Hohnan, M.A., in Hand and Eye 
Training or Education through Work. 



THE CHILD-STUDY SOCIETY AND THE 
CONSTITUENT SOCIETIES. 

The Exeter Society. — The first meeting of the 
year was held in January at the University Col- 
lege, where members and friends came to elect 
their officers, to hear and adopt the reports of 
their Treasurer and Secretary, and finally, to dis- 
cuss the Montessori Method, about which they 
had heard from Miss A. M. Shorts, B.A., in De- 



cember. .After some informal talk over coffee and 
cake, the members adjourned to the lecture room 
and proceeded to their more serious business. The 
reports showed a decreased number of members, 
but an increased interest and activity in spite of 
the fact that no circles had been held ; so that 
on the whole it was felt that the year's work had 
been satisfactory. Then the officers were unani- 
mously re-elected. 

In order to make the discusion on the Montessori 
Method valuable questions had been sent round 
to the members, and these questions the Chairman 
then took in order as follows : — i. Is so much 
formal sense training wise? ii. Is there not an 
unwise lack of appeal to the imaginative and re- 
ceptive powers of the children? iii. Is " free dis- 
cipline " advisable, and is it practicable in school? 
iv. Are the methods of teaching reading and 
writing good? i. The general feeling was that 
sense training purely, if such a thing could be 
possible, would not be of value ; but that syste- 
matic training in recei\ing sense impressions and 
in interpreting them would help to inculcate habits 
of accuracy of observation and expression, and so 
of thought ; provided always that the subject grew 
with the child's growth and never became a mere 
mechanical exercise, ii. It was felt that the Mon- 
tessori System was very largely a matter of sense 
training and therefore had a tendency to be one- 
sided. The child has a power of imagination, 
both receptive and constructive, which, equally 
with his desire to use his senses and his muscular 
activity, needs stimulus and training ; and this 
power, besides leading him to the acquisition of 
many ideas, is at the root of all his original skill, 
iii. Some speakers understood the term " free dis- 
cipline " to mean allowing children to do " pre- 
cisely what they liked, when they liked and how 
they liked," and forgot that there is no discipline 
at all in such a procedure. It was resolved to 
hold another meeting a fortnight later, in order 
to continue the discussion about discipline, and to 
go on with the question of the method of teaching 
reading and writing, which had been left un- 
touched. — Miss A. J. Walker. 

The Halifax Society. — On Wednesday, Febru- 
ary 5th, Professor J. A. Green, M.A., University 
of Sheffield, gave a lecture on " Montessori v. 
Dewey." 

Professor Green said it was impossible to go into 
details as to the principles at the back of their 
respective ideas. Suffice it to say that Mme. Mon- 
tessori, who had spent a considerable amount of 
time in a medical atmosphere, looked at child- 
life from the point of view of the senses, whereas 
Dr. Dewey looked upon the child from a psycho- 
logical standpoint, i.e., the soul within waiting 
for development. He said they both started from 
the same social standpoint,^ but their methods 
differed fundamentally. Mme. Montessori had had 
a great deal to do with the training of defective 
children, and was naturally influenced by her work 
amongst them and to a certain degree looked upon 
; the normal child as a kind of psychological struc- 



40 



Notices and News. 



ture. Dr. Dewey, on ihe other hand, loolied upon 
the child as a living soul. He (the speaker) did 
not agree with Mine. Montessori in her idea of 
making a mind out of tlie senses, but he did agree 
with Dr. Dewey. Mme. Montessori says " Train 
the senses." Dr. Dewey says "Enrich experi- 
ence," which meant that up to the level of its 
needs the sense capacity of a child was adequate. 
Professor Green believed in helping the children 
to further experience. He said it did not matter 
about the senses, as long as the lad was taught 
things that meant something. Mme. Montessori 
worked out her problem in the way a doctor might. 
He had great respect for doctors, but doctors and 
pedagogues did not go together. He agreed with 
Dr. Dewey that when a child is doing things he 
does not understand he is not being educated. 

Professor Green, in concluding, said he had tried 
to put the matter as clearly as possible in the short 
time at his disposal. He said he hoped he had not 
criticised Mme. Montessori too severely, as there 
was much that was good in her book, but she 
was not the psychologist that Dewey was, and 
was rather apt to forget the spiritual side of nature. 

The Tunbridge Wells Society. — On December 
3rd " The Age at which the Different Faculties 
Develop" was discussed. Miss Barker, Principal 
of the Nurses' Training Home, considered the 
hereditary tendencies did not show themselves till 
the age of three. Dr. Burnett related experiments 
in hospital with twenty babies, each one of whom 
at birth tightly clutched his stick and their pre- 
hensile grip was such that they could be hung up 
with it. He strongly favoured teaching the use 
of both hands. There is a brain connection be- 
tween the use of the hand and the speech centre. 
Injuries to the brain, impairing the power of 
speech might not produce that effect vi'ith ambi- 
dexterity. 

Mr. E. T. James said that faculties are first 
practical and later systematic, and are tools 
wherewith to select from the stream of conscious- 
ness. The baby by experiment learns to distin- 
guish things and situations. Imitation, at first 
purely reflex, becomes a matter of volition. Re- 
ceptive play changes gradually into productive 
play. The will at first does not exist as a force 
of control. Hence a sense of authority, without 
which the moral idea is impossible, is lacking, 
and memory is practical and irreflective. The 
parent is engaged with the cultivation of the prac- 
tical faculties and the teacher's task is to en- 
courage the earliest attempts at systematisation. 
We cannot by teaching add a single cell to the 
human brain, but neither would there have been 
a Milton had he lived on a desert island. It is 
for the teacher to decide which cells to develop 
and which to leave atrophied. The authority of 
the parent during the seven or eight years of the 
growth of practical faculties, must be as dogmatic 
as that of the teacher who presides over reason 
and system. If statements are not made ex 
cathedrd they are worthless to a child, which likes 
not uncertainty. The child rebels fast enough 



against dogma when the reason is strong enough to 
stand alone. Meanwhile his soul rejoices in dogma 
and his systematising faculties flourish only under 
authority. In the growth of faculties, beware of 
precocity which is the delight of the parent and 
the despair of the teacher. Precocious memorising 
often hinders its reflective use, and the supreme 
test of ability is the power of co-ordination. The 
task of the teacher is to sj'stematise the practical 
faculties, to teach the mental vision to focus its 
range of perception as physical vision selects and 
rejects its field. From the age of one and a half 
to eight years the child is occupied solely in experi- 
menting with phenomena in an isolated way and 
in the absence of systematisation he remains a 
savage. The sense of authority, with its corol- 
lary, the moral idea begins very early between the 
ages of four and seven. The memory, first prac- 
tical, should be made reflective, before the age 
of twelve ; and reason which is the conscious co- 
ordination of phenomena should be encouraged at 
the same period. — Mrs. Janet Pontifex. 



NOTICES AND NEWS. 

The Congress of the Royal Sanitary Institute is 
to be held at Exeter, July 7th to 12th, this year, 
and there are to be sectional meetings — with 
Dr. Domville (President of the Exeter Child-Study 
Society) as president — on the " Hvgiene of Infancy 
and Child-Study." 

The Guild of Advance " is the latest outcome of 
the New School Movement. It is based on the 
new psychology, and its appeal is made to the 
more serious amongst those engaged in rearing or 
educating children," says its promoters. The 
Hon. Sec. is Miss F. V. Creaton, Penrith New 
School, E. Finchley, London, N. 

The Montessori Controversy has its bad side. A 
very competent critic writes : — " I have been sur- 
prised and disappointed at some of the recent 
hysterical outbursts. One might be led to con- 
clude from an address by that the defects in 

the Insurance Act were the result of the Montes- 
sori Method ! Some of the letters to the educa- 
tional journals on the subject could not have been 
written if the various questions on the Method, 
readily accessible, had been read. I used to think 
that religious heresies received the most intoler- 
ant reception ; the palm must now, I fear be given 
to education, and if the attitude represented by the 
address above referred to becomes habitual, one 
must despair of education ever becoming scien- 
tific." 



REVIEWS. 

We regret that owing to the pressure on our 
space Reviews have had to be held over till 
next month. 



ci)iia=$tu(ip» 

tbe Journal of tbe Chtid^studp Socletp. 



Vol. VI —No. 3. 



APRIL. 1913. 



BMtorial IRotes. 

Knowing and Doing. — We make no 
apology for returning to the subject of 
practical work in Child-Study Societies. 
Of all people we should most clearly 
recognise that true knowing begins in 
doing and returns to doing. Listening 
and talking may easily defeat real child- 
study instead of developing it. Lectures 
and demonstrations are good, but prac- 
tical study and investigations are vital : 
this do or ye shall perish as progressive 
educationists. Our child-study work is 
not getting into our schools as it ought 
because it is not coming out of them as 
it ought. 



There are simple but scientific investi- 
gations which every intelligent teacher 
can carry out, to the advantage of him- 
self and his pupils. Mr, Winch gave us 
an admirable example of such, with most 
helpful guidance and suggestions in a 
recent issue of Child-Study. In this 
number is another example in Mr. Frank 
Smith's article on Suggestion. Mr. 
Smith belongs to that, at present, rare 
order of educator-psychologists, of which 
we spoke in our February notes. We 
look to him for much valuable work on 
these lines. 



Educational Re-action? — Professor H. 
Bompas Smith, who has been appointed 
Professor of Education at the Manchester 
University, took as the subject for his 
inaugural address on January 13th, 1913, 
Education as the Training of Personality. 
While incidentally acknowledging the in- 
terdependence of theory and practice, he 
laid the strongest possible emphasis on 
the idea that the " stock of experience is 
a heritage handed down from one genera- 



tion of teachers to another, and unless a 
master enters into this heritage he will 
never be efficient in his work." He in- 
sists that Professor Thorndike's psycho- 
logical theory, as given in his Principles 
of Teaching, is " totally opposed to those 
which we have found to be consistent with 
our experience," and says : "I believe 
that a knowledge of it [" such a science 
as here described "] would be positively 
harmful to the teacher." Is this a new 
light or old darkness? 



Next we have Miss Geraldine E. 
Hodgson, D.Litt. , Lecturer on Education 
in the University of Bristol, who, in a 
criticism on the Montessori Method, 
which appears to us both violent and un- 
fair, writing thus : " Perhaps it was 
Pestalozzi who conceived the notion of 
making a plan in a vacuum ; in other 
words, of inventing a theory to fit any 
class, which, of course, ended in its fit- 
ting none." Has Dr. Hodgson never 
read about Pestalozzi, or did neither he 
nor his biographers ever speak the truth? 
Again she writes : " This is perhaps the 
gravest of all its defects — the whole trend 
of the Montessori system is towards the 
position that the great business of life is 
getting, getting for one's self, whether it 
be power, or joy, or wealth, or what-not : 
5e//-development. " This, we submit, is 
unfair to Dr. Montessori, and confuses 
self-development with the development of 
selfishness. One form of the developing 
the self is to make it altruistic. 



Educational Progress? — All who con- 
cern themselves with school affairs are 
talking of educational reform since the 
speeches of Lord Haldane and Mr. Pease 
on the Government's education policy. 



42 



The Psychology of Mathematics. 



But modifications of school organisation 
by no means necessarily involves educa- 
tional reform — it may be an obstacle to 
its progress, or a direct injury to its 
present position. Child-Study Societies 
might do some real good by formulating 
their views on the real educational defects 
in our schools, and forwarding a state- 
ment of these to Members of Parliament 
and members of the Ministry. 



XCbe ipspcboloap ot /IDatbemattca. 

II. 

By William Brown, m.a. , d.sc. 

B. The psychology of number [cf. E. 
Meumann : Experimentelle Padagogik, 
Vol. II., Lecture 16, "Das Rechnen."] 
The earliest authority on the psychology 
of number, and still the most important, 
is Pestalozzi. He was the founder of the 
intuitive method in arithmetic and fore- 
shadowed our present-day method of num- 
ber — pictures (Zahlbildermethode). Ac- 
cording to him, " number " is one of the 
three elements in intuition [Anschauung), 
the other two being "word " and "form." 
Its psychological significance is to make 
us acquainted with the numerical relations 
of intuited objects, and therefore training 
in the use of number must from the very 
beginning be intuitional. " Number," 
says Pestalozzi, " is the relation of more 
and less in all intuitions. It is an abstract 
relational concept, and the task of educa- 
tion is to change the intuition of number- 
relations from vagueness or indefiniteness 
to definiteness. The intuition is present 
in the mind at quite an early age, before 
the child goes to school. Instruction de- 
velops it, but cannot produce it. 

Pestalozzi 's method is well known and 
needs no detailed description. He em- 
ployed a table of strokes consisting of 
10 X 10 squares. In each of the ten 
squares of the first row was placed one 
upright stroke, in those of the second 
two, and so on (see figure). The teacher 
used the table as follows : (1) he pointed 
to the strokes in the square ; (2) he pro- 
nounced the corresponding number-name ; 





1 


1 


I 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


If 


II 


u 


II 


II 


II 


1 


II 


II 


w 


1 


III 


III 


III 


III 


\l 


III 


III 


II 


III 


III 


e^ 


















elc 

























































































































(3) he asked the child to count the strokes. 
There are four general criticisms that 
may be brought against Pestalozzi 's 
method : 

(1) The groups towards the end of the 
table are too large. Subordinate group- 
ing should have been employed. 

(2) The elements are not movable. 

(3) The method conflicts with the known 
psychological fact of the narrowness of 
the field of consciousness. Only three to 
four visual impressions can be simultane- 
ously apprehended by the child. 

(4) The method hinders the development 
of abstract calculation. These criticisms 
originate from the supporters of the now 
well-known rival method, the counting 
method {Zdhlmethode), which emphasises 
the temporal element in number as the 
other does the spatial. It is important 
to realise that both elements, the spatial 
and temporal, are present in number, and 
therefore that both methods are justified, 
or rather, some combination of the two 
methods is needed in any form of instruc- 
tion which is to be entirely satisfactory. 
If any preference is to be given to one 
method over the other, it should go to the 
number-picture method. The counting- 
method is merely a supplementation of this 
method. Not only do the grouping of the 
elements and the making them movable 
get over the objections based on the nar- 
rowness of the field of consciousness, etc., 
but experience also clearly shows that the 
spatial element in number is more import- 



William Brown, M.A., D.Sc. 



i3 



ant, or at least more fundamental than the 
temporal element. "It is a fact of ex- 
perience that children become surer in 
their groundwork if their visual presenta- 
tions of number are sharply and clearly 
developed " (Meumann). 

The movement towards abstraction, 
which is certainly favoured by the count- 
ing method as compared with its rival, 
should not be unduly hurried. It is 
natural for the six-year-old child to work 
as much as possible with concrete ideas. 
The training in abstraction may be given 
later by supplementing the intuitional 
method with the counting method. 

Experiments have been carried out with 
the object of determining the most suit- 
able mode of grouping the strokes or 
circles in the intuitional method, and 
Walsemann [H. Walsemann : " Pesta- 
lozzi's Rechenmethode," Hamburg, 1901 ; 
" Anschauungslehre der Rechenkunst auf 
experimenteller Grundlage," Schleswig, 
1907] has found that the following 
arrangement gives .the best results in 
teaching : 







GO 




00 
00 



00 
00 



Many different modes of grouping were 
tested, some of which have been in actual 
use in teaching. The same investigator 
found that circles arranged in two rows 
were sixteen times more effective than the 
single rows of strokes which Pestalozzi 
used. 

Ideas of number arise relatively late in 
the course of the child's development. 
Children first enteirng school, i.e., about 
six years old, are rarely able to count 
above six, with any appreciation of the 
meaning of the number. Number develops 
later than speech, manual dexterities, and 
space perception, and this in spite of the 
strongest inducements early in life to its 
acquisition. The reason seems to be that 
the power of appreciating time relations 
and the power of abstracting or of work- 
ing with abstractions, are both involved 



in the intelligent use of number, and both 
of these capacities are very late in reach- 
ing full development. Meumann [E. 
Meumann : Op. cit. pp. 342, 343] writes 
with regard to this : " It should be noted 
that when the child, in the earliest years 
of its life, sees a number of similar spatial 
objects, e.g., a number of balls, beads, 
etc., it can with difficulty, if at all, appre- 
hend them really simultaneously, owing to 
deficient concentration of the attention and 
weak development of its capacity for a 
synthetic apprehension of objects. It ap- 
prehends a number of objects in space 
successively, by a corresponding number 
of single acts of perception, and their pre- 
sence as a number (or plurality) is for the 
mind of the child at first a repetition of 

similar impressions in time We must 

believe that in this way is developed the 
idea of an indefinite plurality of things or 
occurrences. Out of this arises gradu- 
ally the idea of a definite plurality of 
things or occurrences." 

There is plenty of evidence for the 
existence of such an idea of an indefinite 



00 
00 



00 00 
00 



00 00 
00 00 



0000 00 00 
00 00 00 00 



plurality. Preyer's baby, at the age of 
eleven months, would notice when one of 
its ten bricks was missing. Of course it 
was quite incapable of counting the nine 
bricks, and probably detected the loss by 
noting the diminution of the group. At 
eighteen months the same baby knew 
when one of his ten wooden animals was 
missing. Nevertheless, even as late as the 
twenty-seventh month this child could not 
fully understand the numbers from one to 
five. Meumann compares this case with 
that of Romanes' educated chimpanzee, 
who always gave one, two, three, four, 
and five straws correctly when asked, and 
when six, seven, eight, or nine were asked 
for, put together at least always more 
than five and less than ten straws. This 
monkey evidently had definite ideas of 
the numbers from one to five and 



44 



The Psychology of Mathematics. 



indefinite ideas of the numbers from 
six to ten. 

Preyer's baby first attempted to count 
his bricks at the age of two years and five 
and a half months, doing so in the form 
"one, another, another." Strimpell, on 
the other hand, maintains that he has 
observed a counting of objects with nam- 
ing of the numbers as early as the nine- 
teenth month, but there is some uncer- 
tainty about the exact meaning of his re- 
port. However this may be, we can at 
least state with confidence that an intelli- 
gent appreciation of*number as far as ten 
is not attained earlier than at the end of 
the fourth year in the very great majority 
if not in all cases. 

A considerable number of experimental 
investigations have been carried out upon 
adults in recent years with the object of 
determining to what extent, if at all, a 
plurality of impressions may be accurately 
apprehended without counting. Visual 
and auditory stimuli have been used. In 
the former case, varying numbers of dots, 
circles, or other shapes, arranged in vary- 
ing ways, have been exposed to the sub- 
ject's view for very short intervals of time 
by means of a special apparatus known as 
a tachistoscope. The time of exposure is 
so brief that counting cannot take place, 
and the subject is asked to state what 
number of impressions he has observed. 
The most satisfactory of these experi- 
ments are those carried out by Helene 
Nanu [Helene A. Nanu : "Zur Psychologic 
der Zahlauffassung," Wurzburger Disser- 
tation, 1904]. Bright circles on a dark 
background were exposed for 33/lOOOths 
sec, and the circles were arranged in dif- 
ferent ways in different series of experi- 
ments, in an oblique line, in a cross, 
parallelogram, hexagon and circle. The 
greatest number of points correctly esti- 
mated by all the subejcts under these con- 
ditions (i.e., without counting) ranged 
from five, in the case of the line, to ten, 
in the case of the parallelogram. For the 
cross and circle it was eight. For the 
hexagon it was eight only in seventy-five 
per cent, of the correct cases. Nanu 
found that the subjects of the experiments 



fell into two types as regards their method 
of apprehending the dots, viz., a synthetic 
and an analytic. " The former com- 
pounded the group out of its elements, the 
latter had first the impression of the whole 
and then directed its attention to the 
parts." 

Experiments with auditory stimuli were 
first carried out by Dietze [Dietze : 
"Ueber den Bewusstseinsumfang," Phil. 
Studren, BA 11., 1885], who used a 
metronome beating at the rate of about 
four per second. His method was to get 
the subject to compare two series of beats, 
separated by a short interval, with one 
another and to say which was the longer. 
The subject was forbidden to count the 
beats. Nanu repeated these experiments 
upon four adults and found that in all 
cases up to eleven sound stimuli were cor- 
rectly estimated (without counting), and in 
individual cases as many as forty-nine. In 
every case there was an involuntary ten- 
dency to rhythmicise the impressions, and 
this was a considerable aid to their appre- 
hension. 

Although these experiments definitely 
prove that estimation of a plurality of ele- 
ments without counting is possible, it 
must be noted that the subjects tested had 
already elaborated their ideas of number 
(with the aid of counting). The experi- 
ments do not prove that the estimation of 
number can ever be entirely independent 
of counting. Further light on the matter 
may be hoped for from experiments with 
young children. It is very improbable that 
any idea of number can originate without 
counting. 

C. Statistical Investigations (Correla- 
tion). [For full details of these researches, 
see the following articles of mine : " An 
Objective Study of Mathematical Intelli- 
gence," Biometrika, Vol. VII., 1910; 
" Some Experimental Results in the Cor- 
relation of Mental Abilities," Brit. Journ. 
of Psychology, Vol. III., 1910 (included 
in " Mental Measurement," Cambridge 
University Press, 1911).] In its technical 
sense, correlation may most adequately be 
defined as a tendency towards concomitant 
variation exhibited by two series of 



William Brown, M.A., D.Sc. 



45 



measurements. When the two series tend 
to vary in simple proportionality, either 
direct or inverse, the correlation is said to 
be linear, and is conveniently measured by 
the " correlation coefficient," r. When 
the concomitant variation is not one of 
simple proportion, the correlation is said 
to be non-linear or skew, and in such a 
case r is meaningless, and the only ade- 
quate measure of the correlation is the 
" correlation ratio," ?;. r may range in 
value between 1 and — 1, jj between 1 and 
0. When r = l (or — 1), or ri = l, the 
correlation is said to be complete. Such 
cases occur, with close approximation, in 
physics. Thus the relation between length 
and temperature of a metal rod is a linear 
one, and consequently the correlation co- 
efficient, r, between series of measure- 
ments of the length and corresponding 
measurements of the temperature is =1. 
The relation of the pressure and volume of 
a given mass of gas, for constant tem- 
perature, is non-linear, the curve express- 
ing the relation being not a straight line 
but a rectangular hyperbola. Here r is 
meaningless, but the correlation is satis- 
factorily measured by i], which again =1. 
The cases, however, where the general 
theory of correlation is more useful are 
those where, owing to the number and 
complication of the factors involved, the 
correlation is not complete. Measure- 
ments exhibiting definite and pronounced 
variability, such as those of biology and 
psychology, are those that tax the full 
resources of the theory. Here, owing to 
the variability, the proportionality is not 
complete and r (or jj) measures the tend- 
ency towards concomitance of variation. 
To make this clearer by a special in- 
stance : suppose one hundred boys are 
measured for their ability in geometry and 
also for their ability in algebra, then if 
the boys above the average in one ability 
tend as a group to be above the average 
in the other ability the correlation will be 
positive, somewhere between and 1, but 
if they tend as a group to be below the 
average in the second ability, the correla- 
tion will be negative. This tendency is 
what is measured in correlation. It may 



be continuously and evenly in one direc- 
tion throughout the group, as you pass 
from the worst to the best boys in either 
of the abilities. In this case the correla- 
tion is " linear," and is satisfactorily 
measured by the correlation coefficient, r. 
But it may change in direction, either 
once or any number of times as you pass 
from the worst to the best in either of the 
abilities, i.e., if the boys are classed into 
groups according to their varying excel- 
lence in one ability, and then the average 
excellence of each group in the other 
ability is calculated, these averages will 
be found not to rise (or fall) continuously 
throughout the whole of the main group, 
but after rising may definitely fall (or vice 
versa), and then perhaps rise again. Or 
the rise may be continuous throughout the 
group but not uniform ; it may be more 
rapid in one part of the group than in 
another. Either of these cases would be a 
case of " non-linear " or " skew " corre- 
lation. The correlation would not be satis- 
factorily measured by r, and so the corre- 
lation ratio, »/, would have to be calcu- 
lated. When the correlation is linear, 
i7 = r, within certain limits, so that a good 
way of deciding whether this is the case 
is to calculate both values. In cases of 
non-linear correlation »j is always greater 
than r. [As an instance of skew correla- 
tion, I may mention that between the 
speed and the accuracy of adding figures. 
See " Mental Measurement," pp. 125, 
U5-U7.] 

For methods of calculating r and »;, I 
must refer my readers to my book on 
" Mental Measurement," as the subject is 
too complicated to be treated adequately 
in this short article. I will just quote the 
formulae here and pass on. The correla- 
tion ratio, 1], is the ratio of the standard 
deviation of the means of the sub-groups 
above-mentioned to the standard deviation 
of the entire group, the measurements 
being in both cases of the same ability. 
The correlation coefficient is given by the 
formula : 

r = S_(xy)_ 
N (J, ffo 



46 



The Psychology of Mathematics. 



where x and y are deviations from the 
mean values of the two abihties measured, 
ffi and (T.J are the standard deviations of 
the two abilities measured, and N is the 
number of individuals in the group. 

If ability is represented by order of 
merit, as is frequently the case in school 
subjects, the following two formulae give 
r, viz. : 

f, = 1- 6 8 (d^) /^ X 

N(N*— 1) , and r=2 sin V 6 ^/ 

Here d is the difference between the 
rank of an individual in the one series and 
his rank in the other, and S ( ) is the 
symbol for summation. Correlation be- 
tween two abilities in a group of indi- 
viduals may be regarded as evidence of 
partial identity of the factors involved in 
the two abilities. This may mean partial 
identity of the two abilities themselves, 
but we must constantly bear in mind, 
when interpreting correlation results, that 
the identity may be an identity of external 
factors, an identity of the external condi- 
tions under which the abilities are exer- 
cised, or under which they have been 
evolved in the history of the race. 

Using the method of correlation, I 
attempted some two years ago (see 
Biometrika, 1910) to make a quantitative 
analysis of mathematical intelligence by 
determining the closeness of inter-relation 
of the various forms of such intelligence 
that are logically distinguishable. For 
this purpose I examined 83 boys of a 
public school by papers in geometry, arith- 
metic and algebra, and in marking the 



papers kept the marks separate for the 
following performances : 

Geometry. — A. Memory of definitions 
and general principles [e.g., principle of 
superposition). B. Memory of construc- 
tions. C. Memory of preceding proposi- 
tions and power of applying them. D. 
Recognition of necessity of generality in 
proof, and power of recognizing general 
relations in a particular case. 

Arithmetic. — E. Accuracy. F. General 
memory of rules and power of applying 
them. G. Power of doing sums in per- 
centage and proportion. 

Algebra. — H. Accuracy. I. General 
memory of rules and power of applying 
them. 

Far more detailed distinctions were at 
first made, but they were found to be 
statistically unsatisfactory, owing to the 
small size of the group (83) examined. 
The total marks for geometry, arithmetic 
and algebra were also noted. 

Correlations were calculated between 
these twelve series of measurements. The 
coefficients thus obtained were of course 
crude values and had to be " corrected " 
for irrelevant conditions, such as age, dif- 
ference of form or class, etc., the method 
used for correcting being the method of 
" partial correlation," which will be 
briefly explained later on, in another con- 
nection. For further details, I must refer 
my readers to the Biometrika article. 
From this article I quote the following 
list of finally corrected correlation 
coefficients : 



Alg. Arith. 


.764-. 03 


BD 


.27 + . 07 


FG 


.41 +.06 


Geom. Arith. 


.28 + . 07 


CD 


.69 + . 04 


BG 


.11 + . 08 


Geom. Alg. 


.18 + . 08 


Arith. G. 


.65 + . 04 


DG 


.11+. 08 


AB 


.42 + .06 


Alg. G. 


.45 + . 06 


CF 


.20 + . 07 


AC 


.64 + .05 


Geom. G. 


.39 + .07 


CI 


.05 + .08 


AD 


.31 + . 07 


CG 


.28 + . 07 


EH 


.33 + . 07 


BC 


.57 + . 05 


IG 


.00 + .08 


FI 


.04 + . 08 



Many interesting results may be de- 
duced from these coefficients by using the 
method of " partial correlation," which I 
will now explain in connection with the 



particular case of Geometry, Arithmetic 
and Algebra. These three abilities are all 
correlated with one another, and the ques- 
tion at once suggests itself : how far is 



William Brown, M.A., D.Sc. 



47 



the correlation between any two of them, 
say Geometry and Algebra, due to the 
correlation of each with the third (Arith- 
metic), and how far is it independent of 
such correlation? The answer to the 
second half of this question is given by the 
partial correlation coflficient of Geometry 
and Algebra for a constant value of 
Arithmetic, and is calculated by means of 
the formula : 



13.3 



12 



where r j.^, means the correlation between 
1 and 2 for a constant value of 3. To 
put the matter in a clearer light, and state 
accurately the reasoning at the base of 
this formula : suppose that out of our 83 
boys there are, say, 25 of approximately 
equal ability in Arithmetic. Pick out these 
25 boys and correlate their performances 
in Geometry and Algebra. The result will 
be the partial correlation of Geometry and 
Algebra for a constant value of Arith- 
metic and represents the extent to which 
geometrical and algebraical abilities are 
connected independently of their respective 
connecting with arithmetical ability. In 
our case the formula gives the following 
three partial correlation coefficients : 
Geom. Alg. 0. Geom. Arith. 23 + .07. 

Alg. Arith. .75 + .03. 
Taking the four variables A, B, C, D, 
and applying a similar method, though a 
more complicated formula, I found that 
the partial correlation of C and D {i.e., 
for constant values of A and B) = .93. 

From the first result, I conclude that 
geometrical ability and algebraical ability 
are only connected through their respec- 
tive connections with arithmetical ability, 
from the last that " there is a very close 
relation indeed between memory of pro- 
positions in geometry and the power of 
recognising general relations in a particu- 
lar case in geometry." 

Again, since CG and DG are both 
greater than IG, there is some justifica- 
tion for concluding, at least tentatively, 
that *' the ability to do percentage and 
proportion sums in arithmetic is more 
closely related to essential geometrical 



ability than to essential algebraical 
ability," and therefore that the geometri- 
cal method of teaching proportion is more 
" natural " and more likely to be effective 
than the algebraical or analytical method. 

The slight connection between geomet- 
rical ability and algebraical ability would 
justify the view some mathematicians 
{e.g., Henri Poincare) hold that mathe- 
matical reasoners fall into two distinct 
types, the geometrical or intuitional and 
the analytical or logical types. 

My main object in again describing this 
research in the above more popular form 
than that in which it originally appeared 
is that perchance some of my readers may 
feel tempted to repeat it, in an improved 
form and upon many more groups of 
cases, and so obtain a real insight into 
the inter-connections of the various forms 
of mathematical ability. My own results 
are but fleeting and uncertain glimpses of 
such interconnections. 

One fact at least in the psychology of 
mathematics seems certain. Mere intro- 
spection will never give us the key to its 
secret. This can only be obtained by sup- 
plementing introspection by objective 
methods, and at the present time the ob- 
jective method most appropriate would 
seem to be the statistical method of cor- 
relation. 



Zbc JScQinniwQe of Sgutactical 
Speecb. II. 

A Study in Child Linguistics. 

By William Bovd, m.a., b.sc. ph.d. 

VL Inversion. So far we have spoken 
as though the sentences of the two-year- 
old child were like those of adults but for 
their extreme simplicity and for the omis- 
sion of one or more elements ; and so as 
a matter of fact they are for the most 
part. But occasionally there are depar- 
tures from the common order under the 
impulsion of a psychological rather than a 
logical necessity, and the fact which is 
first in mind appears first in the sentence 
even when that is contrary to the order 
of ordinary speech. Thus, " Rubber, 



48 



The Beginnings of Syntactical Speech. 



Where's?" is evidently the result of the 
mind's pre-occupation with the article 
wanted. " Too heavy, chair " {i.e., the 
chair is too heavy), indicates that the 
heaviness was the outstanding fact and 
not the chair. In a number of cases, the 
object, because of its momentary import- 
ance, stands at the beginning of the sen- 
tence : e.g., " Ribbon, roll it up," "Muff, 
Isa keep." In all there were 36 inver- 
sions. 

VII. Inflections. It is necessary, in 
concluding this account of sentence struc- 
ture, to give some account of the inflec- 
tions of nouns and verbs employed by the 
child of two. Generally speaking, inflected 
forms are rare. There are occasional 
plural and possessive endings, but as a 
rule the uninflected singular form serves 
also to denote both plural and possessive. 
There is clear evidence, however, that the 
process of acquiring the special forms is 
in process. In one case, for example, 
when handling some curtain cords, the 
child remarked, " Bonny, pretty wee 
thing " : then immediately she corrected 
herself and said, " Bonny pretty wee 
things." The effort to acquire and use 
the possessive ending is evident in such a 
phrase as, " You's dress." (" You " at 
this stage was herself). In the same way, 
the simple verb-form (that is, the infini- 
tive) is in common use for the present 
indicative both singular and plural, as well 
as for past and future, and for some modal 
variations. The one inflected form which 
is used surely and constantly is the pre- 
sent participle. The weak form of the 
past tense is rare : in several strong 
verbs, however (such as " find "), the 
proper difference is made between present 
and past tense, probably because they 
represent for the child at this stage dis- 
tinct words. Such forms as the compara- 
tives of adjectives occur now and again, 
but there is no sign of any comprehension 
of the implied comparison such as is to be 
found quite definitely at the end of the 
third year. 

B. The Materials of Speech. — ^The total 
number of words in the 1,2.36 sentences 
collected, as already pointed out, was 



4,137 : the entire vocabulary represented 
by these was 658 words. At three, the 
total number of words used was 7,804, 
and the vocabulary was 965. 

The distribution of parts of speech, ex- 
pressed in percentages, was as follows : 



Parts of Speech. 



Nouns 

Pronouns . , 

Verbs 

Adjectives . . 
Articles 
Adverbs 
Auxiliaries and to 

(infin ) 
Prepositions 
Conjunctions .. 
Interjections 



Total 
Words. 



Two 
36.7 

63 
27.6 
123 

1.4 

13 2 

.7 

1.2 
.2 
.3 



Three 

16.3 

16 

22,6 

11.1 

64 

9.5 

9.5 

5.5 

3.4 

.2 



Vocabulary. 



T>pvo 
49.4 
2.9 
20.8 
13.5 

7.0 
.1 

.2 
1 

.2 



Three 
43.7 
2.9 
20 9 
16.2 

9,8 

1 8 

2 8 
2.1 

.5 



Let us come now to a detailed con- 
sideration of what these figures mean with 
respect to the mental content and atti- 
tudes of the child. 

I. Nouns. A comparison of the whole 
number of nouns used at two and three 
reveals a quite unexpected difference be- 
tween the two ages. At two, there are 
1,518 nouns in a total of 4,137; at three, 
only 1,276 in 7,804. 

A partial explanation is to be found in 
the compensatory disparity of pronouns, 
which at two number 261, and at three 
1,237. It is evident that the inability of 
the child to make proper use of the pro- 
nouns calls for a much greater use of 
nouns on his part. In the absence of 
" I " and " me," which appear only five 
times (as against 526 appearances at 
three), the personal name of the speaker is 
used 231 times; and presumably "he," 
"she," "him," "her," "we," "they," 
which do not appear at all at two, and 
" you," which occurs in a special sense 
ten times, have all their own equivalents 
among the nouns which go to swell the 
total. 

Even, however, when nouns and pro- 
nouns are taken together, the percentage 
of the sum at two is 44, and at three only 
32.3 : from which it is clear that the noun 



William Boyd, M.A., B.Sc, B.D. 



49 



or its equivalent plays a much larger part 
in speech at two than at three. This is 
confirmed by the fact that in the respec- 
tive vocabularies there is a similar, though 
less marked difference in the number of 
nouns. 

It is worthy of note in this connection 
that while proper nouns form much the 
same proportion of the vocabulary (10.5 
and 11.1 respectively), these nouns bulk 
much more largely in the actual speech 
of the two-year-old child. 24.5 per cent, 
of the total number of nouns at two is 
proper, compared with 8.5 at three. 

On deducting the proper nouns, the 
number of common nouns in the two cases 
is almost the same (1,146 and 1,167), but 
as might be expected the facts denoted 
by them differ considerably. If we take 
those groups of nouns which form at least 
five per cent, of the whole of the nouns 
at two or three, we get a simple measure 
of the difference. 

TWO. THREE. 

People 23.7 22.4 

Household 16.0 8.4 

Food 13.3 6.1 

Dress 6.9 6.2 

Animals 6.1 7.5 

Body 6.1 9.1 

Play 3.8 7.6 

Social facts, institu- 
tions, etc 3.2 5.3 

Topography 2.2 5.6 

From these figures it will be seen that 
the interest in people and in dress stands 
much at the same level in both years, 
that the household facts and food seem 
to be of less account, and that in all the 
other groups (especially those concerned 
with the body and with play) there is a 
well marked increase. It should be added 
that in the smaller groups of words not 
included in the table there is an increase 
in the use of words relating to quantities 
and to times. 

II. Pronouns. Attention has already 
been called to the diflficulty which the child 
finds with the pronouns. Excluding "it," 
which is not, properly speaking, a per- 
sonal pronoun, the personal pronouns 
number 29: "self," which generally re- 



fers to the speaker, occurs 11 times, and 
" you," which by a confusion easy to 
understand means " I," occurs 10 times. 
The proper use of " I " is just beginning 
in a tentative way. Here are one or two in- 
teresting sentences from the record of the 
20th month : " Isa wash Isa," corrected 
immediately to, " Self wash Isa." " Isa 
not see train," repeated subsequently as, 
" Isa I not see train." 

The most common pronoun is "it," 
used comprehensively for things, one or 
many : it is used 128 times. A curious use 
of it, which is fairly frequent, is in antici- 
pation of the noun : e.g., " Isa chew it up 
—fish." 

There are no relative pronouns, only one 
interrogative (" what," used five times), 
and a few indefinite pronouns like "some" 
and " both." It is worthy of note, how- 
ever, that the demonstrative pronouns, 
especially " that," occur frequently, there 
being altogether 83 of them. If " here " 
and " there " used demonstratively, as in 
the sentence, " Here (is) Isa('s) fish," are 
added, the total of demonstrative words is 
105, 2.5 per cent, of the total words as 
compared with 1.5 per cent, a year later. 
The demonstratives indicate that the pro- 
cess of recognition and naming, which 
plays a very large part in the beginnings 
of speech, has become articulate. The 
child at ten months says, " dog." A year 
later, he says, "That (is) dog." Subse- 
quently the interest in recognition de- 
clines, and "dog " ceases to be a predi- 
cate and becomes a subject of which new 
attributes are predicated. 

III. Verbs. Seventy-three per cent, of 
the total number of verbs are transitive. 
Of these 7.3 refer to actions having per- 
sons as their direct or indirect object, and 
65.7 to actions with persons or things 
indifferently as objects. A year later, the 
percentage of transitive verbs is much the 
same, but there is an increase in the num- 
ber of them with personal objects. 

Of the 27 per cent, of intransitive verbs, 
more than two-thirds are verbs of action 
{e.g., " cry," " come "), verbs indicat- 
ing a state (including forms of the verb 
" to be," other than auxiliaries), making 



50 



The Beginnings of Syntactical Speech. 



up the remaining third. At the end of the 
third year the proportions are almost 
exactly reversed, owing to the great in- 
crease in the couplative use of the verb 
" to be," which, as already pointed out, 
is often omitted at two. 

Only seven auxiliaries are in use, and 
these occur 19 times. At three there were 
16 auxiliaries, occurring 545 times. 

IV. Adjectives. There is no part of 
speech which indicates the course of 
mental progress with greater precision 
than the attributive adjective. The adjec- 
tive is the index of the power to discrim- 
inate, and every new advance in dis- 
crimination is shown by new adjectives. 
From this point of view, it is worthy of 
note that at two there are 61 attributive 
adjectives (9.2 per cent, of vocabulary), 
as compared vi^ith 100 (12.8 per cent, of 
vocabulary) at three. 

A consideration of the main groups of 
adjectives brings out various points of 
interest. 





TWO. 


THREE 


Sense 


13 


18 


Spatial 


7 


15 


Moral and vEsthetic. 


12 


27 


Human 


. 18 


22 


Miscellaneous 


11 


19 



61 100 

In the adjectives of sensuous reference, 
there is no obvious difference in the words 
relating to colour, temperature, and touch, 
but words relating to taste, which are 
well established by three, are entirely 
lacking at two. The spatial words are 
more numerous at three, but not con- 
spicuously more precise. " Wee," a 
much over-worked word at both ages, 
occurs 154 times at two, as compared with 
101 at three. " Big," on the other hand, 
is used 11 times at two and 43 times at 
three : an increase to be accounted for no 
doubt by the much keener interest there 
is in contrasts of all kinds at three than 
at two. The most notable difference is to 
be seen in the moral words. At two, there 
are only eight, all of considerable general- 
ity {e.g., bad, kind, naughty). At three, 
there are 21, and the additions are for the 



most part more specific words {e.g., 
" careless," " generous," " polite "). 

Pronominal adjectives are found only 
eight times, as compared with 209 at 
three. " My," which is then *the most 
frequent, does not occur at all, and even 
" your," which takes its place, only 
occurs twice. " That," " another," and 
" some," are the most common of the 
other adjectival forms. 

The definite article appears six limes, 
the indefinite 51 times. This is in strik- 
ing contrast with a year later, when the 
one appears 253 times and the other 249. 

V. Adverbs. Very great changes take 
place in the course of the third year in the 
child's use of the adverbs, as a percentage 
comparison of the total number of differ- 
ent kinds of adverbs at two and at three 
shows. 

TWO. THREE. 

Place 56.0 36.7 

Time 6.8 10.0 

Degree 12.2 12.2 

Manner 2.4 4.7 

Why? — 6.6 

Certainty (perhaps) ... — 9.4 

Negative 22.1 20.5 

In both years, adverbs of place have 
premier position. As compared with time 
determinations which are uncommon and 
rather vague, place determinations are 
frequent and precise. There is, however, 
a considerable advance in the range of the 
time adverbs, a-s is indicated by the fact 
that there are 24 different adverbs of time 
at three (almost as many as the adverbs 
of time, though much less used), com- 
pared with eight at two. Adverbs of 
degree (notably "too," "very," "nearly," 
" all "), are used almost as readily at two 
as at three, and so is the negative after 
the 20th month. The form of the nega- 
tive in the 20th month is instructive. Here 
is an example : " Isa('s) egg (is) done : 
no no all done " : i.e., " Isa's egg is not 
done." The affirmation is first made and 
then cancelled by the negative. " Why?" 
and " perhaps," which play a large part 
in the speech of the three-year-old child, 
practically do not occur at two. 

VI. Prepositions, Conjunctions, and 



Frank Smith, B.A., B.Sc. 



61 



Interjections. As already noted, preposi- 
tions and conjunctions are commonly 
omitted in early speech. At two, 16 pre- 
positions, among which " in " is most 
conspicuous, arc used 50 times. At three, 
there are 26 prepositions, occurring 426 
times. 

The conjunctions, implying as they 
generally do, a relation between sentences 
rather than between words, present even 
greater difficulties than the prepositions, 
to the young child. " And " and "then" 
are each used once as a true co-ordinat- 
ing conjunction. " After," " when," and 
" whenever " (the last, curiously enough, 
occurring three times), introduce rudi- 
mentary subordinate clauses, sometimes 
by way of completion of a remark made 
by somebody else. 

Interjections are not very common at 
either age, and become less common as 
time goes on. At two, the interjections 
are mainly of the crude " Oh " type. At 
three, these have in some measure disap- 
peared, and words like " please," which 
are really attenuated forms of other parts 
of speech, are the most important repre- 
sentatives of the interjectional group of 
words. 



Suagestion : 

And its power on Children in different 

types of Schools. 

By Frank Smith, b.a., b.sc. 

M. Binet, in his book on Suggestion, 
was able to show from his very simple 
experiments in Paris schools, how easily 
he could make children accept his word 
against the evidence of their own eyes 
and experience, and Mr. Keatinge, in a 
more recent book, has pointed out the 
important part that Suggestion plays in 
school life. 

Quite recently I carried out some ex- 
periments in three very different types of 
Cambridge schools in order to see whether 
children of different environment and 
training show any well marked distinc- 
tions of behaviour in accepting or refusing 



suggestions which they might disprove by 
careful observation. P'or the purpose I 
selected a grammar school, an elementary 
school in a good residential district, and 
a " slum " school in the poorest quarter 
of the town. For convenience, I will 
refer to the schools as " first," " second " 
and " third " respectively. At each 
school, with the advice of the teachers, I 
chose a group of six normal scholars 
about twelve years of age, and also at 
the two elementary schools I had another 
group of scholars whose ages averaged 
about six years. There were no scholars 
so young as this at the first school. My 
apparatus was a simple device for show- 
ing ordinary lantern slides for brief ex- 
posures of about one-fifth of a second, 
and the subjects were made accustomed 
to the working of it before any of the 
slides were fixed. The image of the pic- 
ture, which was illuminated from behind 
by an incandescent burner, fell on a 
ground glass screen near the subject, and 
was only a very little larger than the 
ordinary lantern slide. 

The pictures themselves were four in 
number. The first, a train, was used only 
as a preparation for the remainder, and 
the suggestions I gave with it were all 
of actual things to be found on it. Thus, 
before I gave the first exposure, I said : 
" I am going to show you a picture of a 
train, and I want you to tell me whether 
there is any smoke or not." The ex- 
posure was then made (after a signal of 
warning), and as a rule the subject saw 
train and smoke quite easily. He was 
carefully told that in a case of doubt he 
must ask for the exposure to be repeated, 
and I took some pains to convince him 
that I would show a picture as many times 
as he liked in order that he might be 
quite sure of his reply. When he had 
convinced himself that there was smoke 
or not, I proceeded : " There is a hedge 
on the left. Tell me what colour it is." 
As the hedge in question was a vivid 
green, and very distinct, its colour was 
generally seen at once. Two further cor- 
rect suggestions were also given with 



52 Suggestion : And its Power on Children in different Types of Schools. 



this first picture, and the general result 
was that the subjects gained complete 
confidence in their power to do what was 
asked, and also in the conditions of the 
experiment. 

The remaining three pictures were 
treated in a similar way, except that all 
the suggestions given were incorrect. 
Thus one was a picture of a dancing bear 
in the middle of a street holding a pole 
in his paws. Before each exposure I 
gave, in order, one of the following sug- 
gestions : — (1) "This is a picture of a 
man crossing a street. Tell me what he 
has in his hands." (2) "There is some 
snow on the picture. Tell me exactly 
where it is." (3) " There is a person on 
the left pavement. Is it a man or a 
woman? " (4) " There is a cart up at the 
top of the street, very small. Is the 
driver in the cart or walking with the 
horse? " 

The wrong suggestion was given in the 
first part of each statement, for there was 
neither man, nor snow, nor person, nor 
cart. Then, in order to turn away the 
subject's attention from the actual ques- 
tion whether these things existed or not, 
I gave him something to describe in the 
object suggested. I think this helped to 
keep suspicions back, for failure to dis- 
cover something was often referred to the 
second part of my statements. Any 
attempt to answer the question I asked 
implied, of course, that the subject had 
no doubt about the existence of the object 
suggested. If he told me the " man " 
carried a brush, or a stick, or even noth- 
ing, it was evident that he saw the bear 
as a man, and did not question my asser- 
tion. 

The third picture was a donkey stand- 
ing in a field. In this case I suggested 
a cow with horns, its hind legs apart, 
and a milk pail close by. The fourth pic- 
ture represented a sweep colliding with 
a well-dressed man who was hurrying 
round a corner, and I described it to the 
subjects as a man and woman fighting, 
with clothes of certain colours, and a 
crowd of people gathering in the distance. 



In all, there were twelve wrong sugges- 
tions given to each child. 

Occasionally, especially in the cases 
where a scholar grew suspicious, I in- 
serted a correct suggestion between the 
second and third wrong ones. The object 
of this was to try and dispel any doubts 
that might have arisen in the subject's 
mind. With the younger children it was 
never necessary to do this. Also, with 
them, I omitted some of the suggestions 
(as distances and colours), because they 
proved to be too difficult. 

Results : — In the second and third 
schools the groups of young scholars, who 
were only six years of age, accepted all 
the suggestions I gave, without a single 
exception. Hence these results do not 
allow us to differentiate between the two 
groups. With older scholars interesting 
differences occurred between the three 
schools. At the first 75 per cent., at the 
second 9.3 per cent., and at the third 97 
per cent, of the suggestions were ac- 
cepted. Thus, at the third school there 
was an almost complete lack of critical 
independence, for the few suggestions 
that were rejected were the most unlikely 
ones. The following answers will serve 
to show the almost incredible complete- 
ness of suggestibility of a subject at this 
school. When I asked him to tell me 
how far apart the " cow's " hind legs 
were (they were really quite close to- 
gether), his first answer was: " About a 
quarter of an inch." I expressed my sur- 
prise at this, and asked him : " Is that 
all? I'll show it again." After the next 
flash he said, " About two inches," and 
after a third flash he said the same. When 
I further asked, " Would you say two, 
or three inches? " he replied with a com- 
promise : " Well, about two inches and a 
half." 

In order to show how these figures 
compare with those obtained from adults 
under the same conditions, I will give 
the result of the same experiments on six 
adult teachers at the second school (four 
females and two males). I omitted the 
last slide in this case, thus making eight 



Professor Bidart. 



53 



suggestions to each subject. Of the total 
forty-eight suggestions , no fewer than 
twenty-seven, or 56 per cent., were 
accepted. The highest individual result 
was an acceptance of 75 per cent. ; the 
lowest 33 per cent. These figures, gained 
from educated adults, serve to show that 
the result obtained at the first school im- 
plies a very wonderful decrease when com- 
pared with those at the other two schools. 

The conclusions to which these figures 
lead us are obvious. The scholars at the 
grammar school, by refusing the largest 
number of wrong suggestions, showed 
themselves better able to assert their in- 
dependence of judgment than the others. 
They needed more evidence than the 
others before they would commit them- 
selves to a definite statement. They fre- 
quently asked for an exposure to be re- 
peated, as they realised they had not seen 
the object suggested. The scholars at the 
two elementary schools showed very little 
independence, though the one in the bet- 
ter class district had a slight advantage 
over the other in this respect. The 
" slum " children were almost completely 
suggestible. 

These results are in agreement with cer- 
tain other observations I have made In the 
same schools. 



parent BDucatore. 

Bv Professor Bidart. Translated bv 
Miss M. S. Ryan, b.a. 

II. Physical habits. But are there any 
habits which may strictly be called good 
at such an early age? The baby can, as 
yet, have formed no habits except those 
which are physical. Here is precisely the 
solution of the problem : order and regu- 
larity in its bodily functions will accustom 
the child to order and regularity in all 
else ; it is especially at this age that the 
mind is reached through the body. That 
is why it is so important to accustom the 
baby to regularity from its birth upwards 
in its sleep, its meals, and its times for 
being held out. 

Sucking a thumb, or a bit of its bib, 



or, later on, biting the nails, etc., are all 
nasty habits, or rather perversions, which 
we must not permit our children to ac- 
quire. Every care should be taken to 
check any tendency to nervous twitching ; 
in fact, I would say that such children 
should not be born. As soon as the 
mother notices the baby begin to indulge 
in a bad habit, she should prevent him 
until, at last, tired of being thwarted, he 
will give up the inclination. This does not 
apply to the isolated act of putting any 
new object into the mouth to find out what 
it is. The young child teaches himself by 
his sense of taste as well as by touch and 
sight. But the exhausting habit of suck- 
ing must be prevented at any cost. The 
earliest offender is the nurse when she 
tries to allay the child's hunger by getting 
him to suck a finger or some other object. 

III. — The Habit of Not Screaming. 
" Is there anything more tiresome than 
the child who cries on every occasion, 
the child who will not be quiet? At the 
age of two his education is already im- 
perilled." 

A child cries because he is in pain or 
because he wants something and will have 
it. In no case must he be allowed to cry 
long, or he will become, by force of habit, 
a persistent screamer, annoying to him- 
self and to other people. 

As soon as the baby cries, we must 
make sure that he is not in pain, hungry 
or thirsty, pricked by a pin, or needing a 
change of linen. If he is in pain, then 
we must try to remove the cause, but 
let us be careful not to exaggerate our 
sympathy or he will think himself more 
unhappy than he is. The baby up to the 
age of five or six months often cries with 
no apparent cause ; that is to say, for no 
pain or real desire. We can tell this by 
his face, which is relatively calm and con- 
tented, in spite of his cries. We may 
watch him open his mouth through an 
instinctive need of taking a deep breath, 
expanding his chest, or making some 
movement. Let him cry in this case, 
nothing is better for developing the lungs. 

When a child is between one and two 
years of age, he may cry sometimes be- 



54 



Child Study Society. 



cause he is restless or tired, or his nerves 
are over-fatigued. If he is tired, let him 
rest and go to sleep ; if he is fidgetty, the 
best thing is to amuse him or send him 
out into the fresh air. Children who make 
a practice of crying often do so 
capriciously ; to get what they want they 
begin to cry with the hope that, sooner 
or later, they will be successful. We 
must accordingly anticipate their wants 
and hinder their tears or conquer the habit 
of crying. [Etc.] 



Ube (IbU& StuDi' Society an& tbe 
Constituent Societies. 

Conference. — The Conference of the com- 
bined Societies will be held at Liverpool, on May 
22nd, 23rd, and 24th, under the Presidency of Sir 
James Crichton Brown, M.D., D.Sc, LL.D., 
F.R.S. The subject for discussion will be Child 
Study as a Link between the Home and the 
School. The programme of the meeting is now 
being completed by a Sub-Committee of the Liver- 
pool Society. The preliminary arrangements to 
date are as follows : — 

May 22nd. — Reception in the University at 
7.45 p.m., when the Presidential Address will 
be delivered by Sir James Crichton Browne, 
M.D., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. The Vice-Chan- 
cellor will preside. 

May 23rd. — 9.30 a.m., Council Meeting. 

11 a.m. — Paper by Professor Campagnac, 

followed by a discussion. 
1.30 p.m. — Luncheon. 

3 p.m. — Reception at Edge Hill Training Col- 
lege (Miss Hale) , Tea. Paper on A Study 
of the Religious Development of the Child 
in Early Childhood, by Mrs. Read Mumford, 
M.A. , Lecturer on Child Training at Prin- 
cess Christian Training College for Nurses, 
Manchester. 
8 p.m. — Paper by Edgar Browne, M.Ch., 
F.R.C.S., on The Development of Vision in 
the Child, in the University. Chairman, 
Professor C. S. Sherrington, M.A., M.D., 
LL.D, F.R.S. 
May 24th. — 10 a.m., Paper by W. Leslie Mac- 
kenzie, M.A., M.D., D.P.H., The Child of 
the One-roomed House, followed by discus- 
cussion. Chairman, Professor E. T. Cam- 
pagnac, M.A. 

It is hoped members of Constituent Societies will 
attend the Conference in large numbers ; they 
should notify their intention of being present to 
the General Secretaries or to the Secretaries of 
the Liverpool Society, Miss Wrenford, Belvedere 



School, Liverpool, and Dr. Murray Bligh, 24 
Rodney Street, Liverpool. 

Arrangements will be made to visit various 
schools and places of interest in Liverpool. 

The Birmingham Society. — The Presidential 
Address delivered by Dr. Walter Jordan at the 
January meeting was, as usual, most interesting 
and especially useful to teachers. He took as his 
subject Diseases of Children, and dealt with it in 
a masterly fashion. 

Mr. W. .\. Brockington, Director of Education 
for the County of Leicester, gave a lecture on 
Common Sense in Educational Methods on Feb- 
ruary 18th. He made a stirring appeal to the 
teaching profession to rise to the larger responsi- 
bilities of modern educational methods. The lec- 
turer rejoiced that the mediaeval view of educa- 
tion, as a disciplinary process, had been sup- 
planted by the policy of training the childish mind 
in actual sympathy with its environment. " In 
no country," continued Mr. Brockington, " did 
the teacher enjoy the same liberty as in England. 
But that was a blessing fraught with great re- 
sponsibilities, and the teacher who was content to 
go on now as under the old codes was in a worse 
state than before. Then he was under some 
restraint, now he was a lunatic at large " ! 

A special Lecture was arranged for March 13th, 
when Mr. E. G. A. Holmes, late H.M. Chief 
Inspector of Schools, spoke on The Montesori 
System of Education. As so many people were 
unable to get tickets it has been decided to repeat 
the Lecture at the University on Tuesday, April 
22nd. — Miss A. J. Dawes. 

The Cheltenham Society. — The winter session 
has been concluded by two interesting Lectures 
given in the Ladies' College, one on February 20th, 
by Miss E. Lidbetter on The Montessori System, 
and the other, on March 13th, by the President, 
Mrs. B. Auden, M.A., on P re-Preparatory Train- 
ing. 

Miss Lidbetter's lecture attracted a good 
audience, who followed it with close attention and 
much interest. She described Mde. Montessori's 
methods, which she is engaged in carrying out in 
a Montessori School near Cromer, and showed the 
various Montessori apparatus and materials used 
by the pupils. The lecture evoked an interesting 
and informing discussion, in which it was sug- 
gested that Montessori methods needed consider- 
able modification before being applicable to 
English children, that they would require, in 
every case, a largely augmented teaching staff, 
as well as a considerable augmentation of the 
average amount of time and patience at the 
teacher's disposal, that they were costly, and that 
discipline mush precede liberty. 

This last line of argument formed the keynote of 
Mr. Auden 's Lecture on " Pre-Preparatory Train- 
ing " chiefly as it affects boys. Taking the edu- 
cational ladder as reaching from infancy to the 
university, he took the " pre-preparatory period " 



Constituent Societies. 



55 



to mean that between infancy and the educational 
period of the small school — a period usually 
watched over by the mother and the governess. 
The lecture was full of useful hints as to food, 
sleep, health, and amusements of young children. 
While criticising the Montessori system, he too 
insisted on the need of training in accuracy which 
that system does so much to establish. He in- 
sisted especially on the need of making a small 
boy an accurate reader before he proceeds to other 
subjects. He considered that the aim of pre- 
preparatory training should be quality, and not 
quantity. 

There will be no more general meetings of the 
Cheltenham Branch until next October, when it 
is hoped that an interesting programme of lec- 
tures, already in contemplation, may be arranged. 
— Mrs. L. M. McCraith-Blakeuey. 

The Exeter Society. — The second meeting of 
the year was held in February at the University 
College, when Miss Norah March, B.Sc, read 
• a paper on the "Teaching of Sexual Hygiene." 
She gave first some reasons for believing that 
sex studies are necessary, and then proceeded to 
show how the subject could be approached simply 
and naturally, without any undue emphasis, 
through a Nature Study course, in which suitable 
and graded types found their place. Dealing 
with moral and spiritual aspects, she laid much 
stress on the fact that here, even more probably 
than elsewhere, personal efficiency and tactful 
treatment are required of the teacher. 

The third meeting was held early in March, 
when Mr. Marshall Jackman gave an address on 
" An Experiment in Teaching .Arithmetic " (see 
Child-Studv, July, 1911). Some discussion fol- 
lowed, and then, votes of thanks having been 
passed to Mr. Jackman for his lecture, and to 
Alderman John Stocker, chairman of the Exeter 
Education Committee, for taking the chair, the 
last meeting of the Spring session was con- 
cluded. — Miss A. J. Walker. 

The Halifax Society.— Dr. P. Sandiford, of the 
Department of Education, addressed the above 
Society on March 5th on " The Inheritance of 
the Child." The lecturer spoke on the recogni- 
tion of the importance of heredity in dealing with 
the education of children, and supported his 
conclusions by many arguments from the 
eugenic standpoint. 

Dr. Sandiford showed the keenness of the 
enthusiast, and when it is stated that he held 
the interest of his audience for an hour, part 
of which was devoted to an explanation of 
Mendelian principles of heredity, some slight idea 
may be formed of the deep study and hard 
thinking which had been brought to bear upon 
his work to enable him to explain so clearly the 
intricacies of such a subject. 

By means of diagrams the " genius will out " 
theory was shown in the Darwin family, " deaf 



mutism will out " in the case of another family, 
and " taint will out " in another case even to 
the third and fourth and fifth generation. 

The mathematical precision of recurrence of 
certain types was almost uncanny, and, given 
the requisite knowledge it seemed to be quite 
easy to forecast the number of blue-eyed people 
which might be expected in a family compared 
with the number of brown-eyed people. 

The lecturer insisted, as his conclusion, on 
the importance of awakening in the minds of all 
educators a craving for such conditions as would 
enable all teachers to study and train the indi- 
vidual child. — Mr. ]. Arrowsmith. 

The Hartlepools Society.— A Hartlepools Child- 
Study Society has been formed. In October last 
a few inquiries were made in various directions, 
with a view to discovering whether a Society 
would be likely to meet with success. The 
results seemed to be satisfactory. Miss Louch 
sent pamphlets and prospectuses, which were cir- 
culated, and at length application was made to 
the General Secretary for a lecturer to come to 
the Hartlepools for the inaugural meeting. Mr. 
H. Holman kindly consented to give the in- 
augural lecture, and an audience of well over two 
hundred met to hear him on Saturday, March 
15th. He gave a delightful address on " The 
Aims and Purposes of a Child-Study Society." 
If is quite safe to say that Child-Study was the 
chief and perhaps only topic in many house- 
holds that week-end. The meeting was presided 
over by Mr. W. R. Owen, J. P., Chairman of 
the Elementary Education Committee, who, with 
other members of the Education Authority, has 
evinced much interest in the movement. 

Mr. Holman forcefully and in a charming way 
showed iiow a Child-Study Society could help the 
niother, the teacher, and the doctor, and how 
the Society could be helped by them. He indi- 
cated the various directions in which a Child- 
Study Society would work and mentioned two 
matters upon which members might make profit- 
able enquiries — the matter of children's literature 
and that of picture shows. 

Questions were asked and answered. A busi- 
ness meeting followed and eighty members were 
enrolled. .An influential and fully representative 
committee was appointed, and it was decided to 
arrange for a lecture late in April. 

So far as can be gathered much enthusiasm 
has resulted from Mr. Holman's visit, and it is 
somewhat confidently anticipated that the mem- 
bership will be much increased shortly. An 
enthusiastic supporter of the movement has ap- 
peared in the person of Miss M. Manley, of St. 
Hilda's College, Durham, who has secured several 
members to the new Society and has suggested 
that it shall not be confined to the Hartlepools 
but that it shall include the neighbouring towns 
and district. — Mr. Arnold T. Prentice. 

The London Society. — Dr. Kerr's address 



56 



Notices and News. 



on Brain Mechanism and Handwriting, delivered 
on February 13th, at which there was a large 
attendance, has been specially written for pub- 
lication with Illustrations in Child Study. It will 
appear next month. 

The lectures for April and May are : — Thursday, 
April 10th, Child-Study and the National Health, 
by H. Holman, M.A., Chairman : Professor H. R. 
Kenwood, M.D., F.R.S.E. ; May 1st, Dis- 
cussion on The Parent and the Adolescent, 
opened by Mrs. Cloudesley Brereton and 
Mr. Cyril Bruyn Andrews, Chairman : The 
Hon. Sir John A. Cockburn, K.C.M.G., M.D.— 
Mr. W. J. Durrie Mulford. 

The Tunbridge Wells Society.— On February 
4th, with Mrs. E. L. Pontefex, the president, in 
the chair, we discussed the question of " Physical 
Education." Mr. L. M. R. Gordon, B.A., said 
that thirty years ago drill in the schools was the 
" Army system," taught by drill sergeants with 
apparatus or dumb-bells, and development of the 
biceps was the one consideration. This form of 
exercise though salutary to public school boys in 
moderation is not suited to children. Small boys 
of eight or nine are strained and tired with 
'■ straight arm balances " on parallel bars. In 
the Swedish system dumb-bells are tabooed and 
apparatus is different in kind. Gradually intro- 
duced, so that all the muscles are strengthened, 
the aim being to expand the chest and make 
them alert and smart. Under Lieut. Grenfell's 
system a class does about fifteen different exercises 
in fifteen minutes, so as to promote constant 
change of movement. In the middle of the les- 
son one or two games are played and a rest of 
about five seconds is given between each exer- 
cise. The " cautionary words " of the instructor 
should be spoken slowly and the words of com- 
mand sharp and smart. The class should consist 
of twenty, and last half-an-hour, preferably in 
the open-air. Breathing should be natural 

throughout. 

Mrs. Leach, as a parent, spoke about our 
responsibilities and the necessity of studying the 
individuality of each child. One must not preach 
the abstract, but show methods by which faults 
such as curvature and incorrect attitudes can be 
corrected. The mind can be trained in alertness 
and concentration at the same time as physical 
and muscular training. 

Mr. Lock, from the medical aspect, said phy- 
sical exercise was a natural instinct and only 
deficient in exceptional cases. Children can 

endure more violent exercise than men. Long dis- 
tance running should be discountenanced. Chil- 
dren must not overdo exercises. He prefers 
walking, running, skipping, dancing and swim- 
ming, bringing every muscle into play. Cricket 
and football are good for boys, lacrosse for girls. 
— Mrs. Janet E. Pontifex. 



Botices an^ IRews. 

Lectures on Defective Children. — Miss Bertha 
Jones and Miss Dixon have arranged for Dr. Shut- 
tle worth to give a course of five lectures on " The 
Principles and Treatment of Training of the 
Defective Child." They will be given on Wed- 
nesdays, May 7th, 21st, June 4th, 18th, and 
July 2nd, at 7.30 p.m., at 75, West Cromwell 
Road, Earl's Court, S.W. Those wishing to 
attend the course are ask'ed to communicate with 
Miss Bertha James, 75, West Cromwell Road, 
S.W., about fees, etc., as soon as possible ; or with 
Miss Dixon, 53, Greyhound Road Mansions, 
S.W. 

Mr. T. G. Tibbcy. B.A., has been appointed head 
master of an L.C.C. school which is used as a 
Practising School for Students in Training. All 
who know Mr. Tibbey and his work in Child- 
Study, will congratulate the school, the students, 
and him. 

Rivista di Psicologia has been sent to us. Will 
someone who knows Italian and psychology be 
good enough to review this review for us? We 
are unable to pay for literary work. 

A Course of Popular Lectures on Hygiene will 
be given at the Royal Sanitary Institute, 90, 
Buckingham Palace Road, on Tuesdays, April 1st 
to May 6th (inclusive). Admission is free. 

The Physiology of the Adolescent Girl. — A 
course of three lectures will be given at the Bat- 
tersea Polytechnic, Battersea Park Road, S.W., 
on Thursdays, May 1st to May 15th, at 5.30-6.30. 
Fee, 5s., to be prepaid. 

Eugenics in Women's Social Work. — A course 
of three lectures at 92, Victoria Street, S.W., on 
Wednesdays, April 9th to April 23rd. Fee for 
course, 3s., single lectures, Is. 6d. 

Professor J. A. Green, our readers will regret to 
hear, is unwell, and will not be able to give his 
promised lecture to the London Society on April 
I7th. All will wish him an early recovery. 

The Parents' National Educational Uriion hold 
their 17th Annual Conference at the Caxton Hall, 
Victoria Street, S.W., on May 6th-8th. Details 
can be obtained from Miss E. A. Parish, 26, Vic- 
toria Street, S.W. 



IReviews. 

Experimental Studies of Mental Defectives. Bv 
J. E. Wallace Wallin, Ph.D. Pp. 155. 
Warwick and York, Baltimore, U.S.A. Price, 
$1.25. 
*' Dr. Wallin has presented the results of a 
systematic study of the Bi net-Simon scale when 
applied to a colony of over three hundred epilep- 
tics... These children resemble more the typical 
laggard of the [elementary] schools than the 
typical feeble-minded child, and they require 
special educational treatment... This monograph 
makes a valuable contribution to the critique of 



Reviews, 



67 



the tests," says Dr. Guy Montrose Whipple in the 
preface. These words and Dr. Wallin's high repu- 
tation are more than sufficient recommendation 
to those interested in the subject. 
Childhood : its Nature, Nurture, Psychology and 
Education in Relation to Social Life. By Fkeu= 

ERicK Davis, B.Sc. Pp. 90. John Bale, 

Sons, and Daniellson, Ltd. 
This is a book very difficult to review. Writ- 
ten as a thesis for lionours in the B.Sc. degree 
at the London University, it has, apparently, been 
turned into an advertising medium. There are 
some interesting and suggestive passages in it ; 
but there are others which defy the reviewer's 
understanding, e.g., " Psychology, as the working 
of mind is productive of thoughts " (p. 90). 

The Service of the Hand in the School. Wou- 
TRiNA A. Bone. Pp. xviii., 212. Longmans, 
Green and Co. Price, 3/- net. 
This is an altogether admirable book, written 
mainly from what Dr. Nunn calls the " instru- 
mental" point of view, i.e., '■ taught for the sake 
of its application to some other subject." But the 
" subject " point of view is not neglected, and 
both technique and progressive skill are kept in 
mind. Best of all is the joyous spirit, and the 
ministry of pleasure, which pervade it. It would 
be ditlficult to find a more stimulating, suggestive 
and helpful book for the practical teacher engaged 
in class work. The "what" and "how" of 
actual lessons are clearly and adequately dealt 
with and generously illustrated, and the great un- 
derlying principles of handwork are revealed. 
The topics treated are : — Values of handwork ; 
schemes of work ; the baby room ; toys ; decora- 
tive work ; social service and group work ; history 
of handwork, etc. It is the best book of its kind 
that we know. 

Marriage and the Sex Problem. By Dr. F. W. 
FOERSTER. Translated by Meyrick Bootli, 
B.Sc, Ph.D. Pp X.X., 228. Wells Gardner, 
Dartner and Co. Price, 5s. net. 
The able and distinguished author, who is 
Special Lecturer in Ethics and Psychology at the 
University of Ziirich, writes from the standpoint 
that " (1) The foundation of all sound education 
in sex must consist in distracting the mind from 
sexual matters, not in directing it towards them. 
(2) The problem of moral preservation in this 
sphere is a question of power far more than of 
iznowledge. Now, it is upon these two funda- 
mental facts that the sexual education of the tra- 
ditional Christian type has been built up." Those 
who accept these premises could hardly wish for 
a better advocate than Dr. Foerster. 

The Life of Benjamin Waugh. By Rosa Waugh. 
1 . Fisher Unwin. Pp. 320. Price 5s. net. 
An interesting account of the life of the devoted 
and triumphant champion of children's rights — the 
" Children's Man " — and of the work of the 
N.S.P.C.C. It shows clearly and convincingly that 
any and every sound effort for the good of the 



child must be based on scientific knowledge and 
understanding. It is truly said of Mr. Waugh 
that he used " scientific methods of investigating 
and dealing with facts bearing on the welfare 
of child-life, facts, which became the fuel of 
his zeal " (p. 58). Mr. Waugh himself said that 
the successes of his work " were a triumph of 
facts, patiently and widely collected... and of a 
painstaking study of them " (p. 285). Two of his 
dicta are well worth the consideration of teachers : 
" Good servants of children are both born and 
made, but they are more made than born... Besides 
listening to what little children say, learn what 
by such sayings little children mean " (p. 225). 

Twelve Years ivith My Boys. Methuen. Pp. 248. 
Price 3s. 6d. net. 
This is an interestingly strange book, by an 
anonymous author about her experiences with a 
Bible Class for adolescents. She appears to have 
trusted to the light of nature and grace to redis- 
cover the principles of education and the facts of 
adolescent nature. The results will easily be 
imagined by those who know psychology and edu- 
cation. For educational guidance the book is 
likely to be dangerous to any reader with less 
originality and ability than the writer, and with- 
out some really scientTfic knowledge of education. 
As a self-revelation, graphic and ingenuous, it is 
excellent material for a psychological study. 

Educational Handwork, the official organ of the 
Educational Handwork Association. Monthly, 
3d., post free 4d. Sir Isaac Pitman and Son, 
Ltd. 

This very useful monthly appears in a new and 
artistic form. It deals with all the usual hand- 
work subjects, nature study, physical education, 
etc., in a capable and helpful manner, and has a 
tutorial column for the Froebel examinations. 
The February number includes the report of an 
address by Professor Adams on " Imitation and 
Initiation." 

Roswitha. By Otto Ernst. Translated by A. C. 

Caton. 'P|). 322. From 22, Mount Carmel 

Chambers, Kensington, W. Price, 5s. net ; 

postage 4d. 

Another charming book, though it lacks the 

delicate finish of the author's shorter works. The 

poetry of child life — not the psychology as some 

foolishly say — is given in roseate hues. Everyone 

should strive to see children as this poet sees 

them, for it is a vital aspect. The translation 

makes one wonder if the original can possibly be 

as good. 

PuuLicATiONs Received. — The Journal of Edu- 
cation; The Educational Times; The Parents' 
Review ; Child Life ; L'Education Familiale ; 
Educational Review ((/.5./1 ); Journal of Educa- 
tional Psychology (IJ.S..^.); Rivista di Psicologia ; 
The Woman Teacher; School Hygiene; The 
Journal of Experimental Pedagogy ; The Training 
School (U.S.A.). 



MR. EDWA RD ARNO LD'S LIST. 

EXPERIMENTAL PEDAGOGY and the PSYCHOLOGY of the CHILD. 

By Dr. Ed. Clapakede, Professor of Experimental Psychology, University of Geneva. 
Translated by Mary Louch and Henry Holman. 5s. net (post free, 5s. 4d). 

HYGIENE FOR TEACHERS. 

By R Alun Rowlands, B.Sc, M R.C.S., L.R.C.P., Demonstrator of Physiology 
at the London Hospital Medical College, xii. + 356 pages, with 133 Illustrations, 
3s. 6d. net (post free. 3s. lOd ) 

AN INTRODUCTION TO CHILD STUDY. 

By W. B. Drummond. M.B., CM., F.R.C.P.E.. Medical Officer and Lecturer on 
Hygiene to the Edinburgh Provincial Committee for the Training of Teachers. 
Cloth, 6s. net (post free, 6s. 4d). 

THE CHILD'S MIND : Its Growth and Training. 

By W. E. Urwick, M.A. Crov/n 8vo., cloth, 4s. 6d. net (post free, 4s. lOd.) 

PSYCHOLOGY FOR TEACHERS. 

By C. Lloyd Morgan, LL.D., F.R.S., Principal of University College, Bristol. 
Third Edition, xii. + 308 pages. Cloth, 4s. 6d. (post free, 4s. lOd.) 

An Entirely New Scries of Educational Classics. 

General Editor : JOHN WILLIAM ADAMSON, Professor of Education in ihe 

University of London. 

The volumes of this series are not books about the great Educators, but the writings of the 
great Educators themselves in an English dress, accompanied by the minimum of 
explanatory matter from the pens of scholars specially conversant with the authors 
whose works they edit. 

The jollowing five volumes are ready. They are well printed, uniformly 
bound, and the price is 4s. 6d. net per volume (postage 46). 

VIYES AND THE RENASCENCE EDUCATION OF WOMEN. 

Edited by Foster Watson, M.A., Professor of Education in the University 
College, Aberystwyth. 

THE EDUCATIONAL WRITINGS OF JOHN LOCKE. 

Edited by J. W. Adamson, Professor of Education in the University of London. 

ROUSSEAU ON EDUCATION. 

Edited by R. L. Archer, M.A., Professor of Education in the University College, 
Bangor. 

PESTALOZZrS EDUCATIONAL WRITINGS. 

Edited by J. A. Green, Professor of Education in the University of Sheffield. 

FROEBEL'S CHIEF WRITINGS ON EDUCATION. 

Edited by S. S. F. FLETCHER, M.A., Ph.D.. Lecturer in Education in the 
University of Cambridge ; and J. Welton, M.A., Professor of Education in the 
University of Leeds. 



A full Prospectus of this Series can be had, post free, on application. 



London: EDWARD ARNOLD, 41 &43, Maddox Street, W. 



h^6 



ci)iia=$tudp. 

tDe Journal of tbe Cl)lia=studp soclerp* 



Vol. VI.— No. 4. 



MAY. 1913. 



JEMtodal Botes. 

The Challenge to the N.U.T.— A plea 
on behalf of the good work done by the 
N.U.T. appears in our " Correspond- 
ence." We fully grant all that is claimed, 
and much more, for it has done splendid 
work for teachers and, therefore, for the 
children. But it has never been primarily 
an educational association, though it has 
very likely done more for education by 
being mainly a trades union than it would 
otherwise have done. At present it is only 
following, and that feebly for so mighty 
a society, where others have been leading. 
Has not the cime come for it to lead? 



A Word to Parents. — We would like to 
suggest to parents that they should care- 
fully study Miss Ryan's translation of 
Professor Bidart's articles on " Parent- 
Educators," and make observations and 
experiments on their own children on the 
lines he suggests. There is little true 
child-study on the part of parents unless 
something of this sort be done; and it is 
likely to prove even more beneficial to 
the parents than the children- It is in 
this way that the real scientific attitude 
of mind is built up, and thereby comes a 
great increase of power in understanding 
the work of abler and more expert inves- 
tigators. We should be glad to publish 
the results of any such efforts. 



IRervous /iDecbani&ms an& 
Mrittna. 

By James Kerr, m.a., m.d. 

Abbreviated from a lecture to the Child-Study 
Association in London, February 13th, 1913. 

Writing is not merely the tool of 

knowledge, but also a tool which has 



made much knowledge possible. It is 
one side of speech symbolism, reading 
being the other. Writing grew out of 
pictures which became conventionalised. 
In the museum at Oxford is the hiero- 
glyphic inscription of one King Sent, 
whose date is assigned 4600-4800 B.C. 
His name signature or cartouche is inter- 




VWVAA/ 



Fig. 1. Cartouche of 
King Sent. 



esting as it contains the crenate picto- 
graph representing water, and a hand 
symbol. These two signs became alpha- 
betic sounds and have descended to us 
through haU'-a-dozen literatures and sixty 
centuries as the letters N and D. No 
doubt the teaching of writing has run 
along as unchanging grooves as the let- 
ters themselves. 

The beginning of writing has some 
educational bearings. It is not an acquire- 
ment from lonof heredity. A child breathes 
or walks naturally, but writing is no 
natural necessity ; it is purely artificial 
and conventional and must be taught. 
The infant understands and speaks before 
graphic symbols have a meaning for it. 
Then it scrawls imitatively and invents 
explanations of meaningless marks. 
Drawing precedes writing in its attempts 
at education, just as pictures and hiero- 
glyphics preceded alphabets. 

With such recent acquirement and 
slight heredity great variations in the 
capacity to deal with reading or writing 
should exist compared with the older 
forms of heard or spoken speech. 



59 



Nerves and Writing. 



The various mental speech functions can 
be represented by diagram 2. 




Fig. 2. Scheme of Speech Centres. 

The first access of speech is through 
the ear to the two centres on the right 
and left sides. These again are repre- 
sented in a higher auditory centre A, 
which is situated at the posterior third 
of the first temporal convolution on the 
left side. There are association centres 
higher than this (I) where apperception 
takes place and the heard speech rises into 
consciousness. In the early stages of 
development these lower centres act 
whilst the higher and intellectual centres 
are but feebly developed, and the infant 
babbles, reproduces words heard (echola- 
tion) or scrawls, conditions which per- 
sisting at a later age generally indicate 
mental feebleness from grave want of 
development or control of the higher 
centres. 

Seen words similarly pass from the eyes 
to the right and left vision centres in 
the occipital lobes, and from there are 
represented in the higher visual (V), word 
■centre in the left angular gyrus. From 
there apperception occurs and if neces- 
sary motor centres for speaking (S) or 
writing (W) are set in action. If this 
centre V is ill-developed or wanting, bad 
spelling or actual word blindness is the 
result. 

Regarding the act of writing alone, 




Fig. 3. Brain Centres for Speech. 

writing comes about through the intellec- 
tual centres (I) stimulated by some means 
from sensory centres, as for instance A 
or V, setting the proper muscular 
mechanisms of hand or otherwise, in 
action to reproduce the forms of letters 
remembered. Whether there is a writing 
or pictorial motor centre has been dis- 
puted, but where motor memories of 
objects are stored is the writing centre 
(W). From muscle memories and from 
visual memories the spatial concept of a 
letter form is built up, in this writing 
centre. 

In the case of written words the centre 
is probably mainly set going through the 
word vision centre (V), but there is some 
separate memory of letters as most word 
blind scholars write letter forms quite 
well, but do not construct correct words, 
and in some cases even transcribe incor- 
rectly like the boy in whose exercise the 
transcription of " Just as he reached the 
open country," was " Gnau acnd he 
whend the opnpar mafethe. " 

Vision itself is not necessary for writ- 
ing. At a medical meeting some dozen 
years ago, where several children with 
these brain defects were demonstrated for 
the first time, an older patient also 
came, whose trouble was, however, only 
recent. He was a business man who had 
had a slight nervous seizure one after- 
noon, with ajittle dragging of the foot 
for a day or two. He recovered com- 
pletely but for one peculiarity. He could 



James Kerr, M.A,, M.D. 



60 



do business, write out his letters and 
cheques to people, date them, cross 
them and sign them correctly, but then, 
although he saw the cheque and the writ- 
ing clearly he could not recognise a word. 
The visual word centre (V) was cut off 
from the visual centres (R and L), and 
where it was cut off could be accurately 
located because the left half of each retina 
was found to be blind. He had had a 
slight haemorrhage which disturbed the 
tract between the left vision centre and 
the eyes, and also cut off the vision 
centres (R and L) from the visual word 
centre (V) without damaging this centre 
itself. He could therefore still use V 
to set the writing centre going, although 
the writing seen was not available for re- 
cognition by V. 

In word-blind children, however, it is 
this word vision centre V itself which is 
undeveloped, and there is no actual blind- 
ness in any part of the eye. 

The only proper purpose of vision in 
writing is for placing the writing well, 
and for spacing the lines. If an attempt 
is made to write with the eyes shut the 
writing is not on a straight line, but 
approximately on a curve with the elbow 
as centre. Writing with a comparatively 
large paper shield on the pen to prevent 
the point being seen does not materially 
affect the writing. For teaching single 
letter forms the muscular sense is the 
most important, and vision should be 
avoided. It was to emphasise this that 
I stated eight years ago that children in 
the infant school should be able to write 
letters as big as their hand on the black- 
board with their eyes shut. Since then 
Dr. Montessori is said to actually blind- 
fold her babies whilst teaching them let- 
ter forms by feeling letters cut out of 
sandpaper. 

A good game for infants who have half 
learned their letters would be to put a 
large square cardboard collar round each 
to prevent them seeing their hands, and 
then let them recognise such sandpaper 
letters by feeling. 

Letter forms are spatial memories, 
stored as all memories of space must be. 



as muscular memories. Later when read- 
ing has become sub-conscious it is doubt- 
less almost entirely visual, but at first it 
is largely muscular through the external 
muscles of the eyeball. 

The retina is not equally sensitive all 
over. At the centre of the retina for a 
small area, hardly more than the fiftieth 
of an inch acrpss, its sensitiveness is 
enormously increased, and over that little 
yellow spot a very sharp image has to 
be thrown ; beyond that region all be- 
comes vague and filmy. When an object 
of any size is looked at only a little bit 
is seen at a time. For instance, no one 
sees the whole face at once of another 
person within twelve feet, and with a 
newspaper a foot off only fifteen to twenty 
letters are clearly seen at once over an 
area which could be covered by a six- 
pence. The eye is rapidly swivelled on 
its axis till the image of each part of the 
object regarded has fallen on the yellow 
spot, then all is mentally pieced together 
and from the muscular movement an es- 
timate of length, breadth and height built 
up. 

A young child does not manage this 
mental synthesis rapidly, if it is asked 
to describe a picture shown it only no- 
tices a single object or part of an object. 
Indeed it is not always easy to get 
through to the intellect at these early 
ages. As regards hearing by the ear the 
younger the hearer the acuter it is, but 
even such a simple test as a watch tick 
is practically useless from the child's men- 
tal reaction failing. We do not get 
through. The vision, also acuter than in 
later life, does not give a true result with 
test type, unless additional reinforce- 
ments, such as sweets, aid intellectual 
concentration on the task. 

One way of getting through is by using 
stronger and more powerful messages. A 
big stimulus to the eye by a brightly 
lighted object, or by a large image stimu- 
lating a greater area of the retina, and 
also requiring larger angular movements 
of the eyeball all combine to give a more 
voluminous impress to the intellect. For 
young children then to get a massive in- 

B 



61 



Nerves and Writing. 



tellectual perception there must be good 
lighting and large objects, and the larger 
and more brilliant the objects, within 
reason, the greater the probable educa- 
tional effect. 

The scholar first admitted to the class- 
room has a comparatively undeveloped 
eye. The axis is relatively shorter than 
it will be when its permanent growth is 
reached. To see a distant object clearly 
the muscular effort of ■ accommodation 
has to be made. Fortunately in early 
years there is great power of accommo- 
dation for a short time, although it easily 
fatigues. When in school especially with 
fine work, relief from fatigue is sought 
by sacrificing sharp images to big fuzzy 
ones. Bringing the eyes closely up to 
the work greater nervous stimulation is 
obtained, and also larger eye-movements, 
another gain from nearness. This near 
eye work habit saves immediate nerve 
effort and fatigue to some extent, but 
leads to congestion and eye-strain being 
accentuated in all continuous or fine work 
where steady focus and convergence has 
to be maintained if the objects are to 
be well seen. This slight congestion and 
strain appears an important factor in the 
production of the so-called school or work 
myopia which chiefly originates and pro- 
gresses in the growing period, especially 
during malnutrition or debility. 

There are a large number of muscular 
adjustments of hand, eye and body in the 
act of writing. The point of the pen has 
to be kept in the plane of the paper, the 
hand to be moved evenly from left to 
right, the hand somewhat pronated in 
writing each word to keep the slope paral- 
lel. The whole body has to be balanced, 
the movement of respiration compen- 
sated, and even the feet are called in to 
preserve adjustment. All these move- 
ments have to be balanced and co- 
ordinated to a fiftieth of an inch and a 
fiftieth of a second. 

The fine hand movements are the last 
of the simpler movements to be gained. 
Simple tapping tests, placing a needle 
in a fine hole, touching a small surface 
with a point, and so on, show that there 



is a steady gain in accuracy and rapidity 
during school life and a steady diminution 
in rapidity of fatigue. The undifferentiated 
brain of the youngster attempting fine 
finger work runs over with effort and 
rapidly tires. Sewing is even worse than 
writing. The overflow shows itself in the 
effort to control the fingers which results 
in an almost spasmodic grasp of the pen 
to maintain the necessary pressure by the 
index finger and thumb. No teacher can 




Fig. 4. Normal Wiuting. 




Fig. 5. Child's Writing. 

get a class of infants to write otherwise 
than with the finger sharply bent up, as 
shown in Fig. 5. Faces are contorted, 
tongues put out, feet turned round the 
seat supports, fatigue comes on and the 
child brings its eyes down within four 
or five inches of its work, and may even 
stand up bent over it. The necessity for 
the avoidance of all fine lines or dots is 
evident. The smallest object conveniently 
seen by a normal eye in good light sub- 
tends an arc of one minute, but the eyes 
of many children are not normal, and in 
most places in the infant school light is 
not good, more probably below one foot 
candle than the 2..! foot candles it should 
be. Comparing a number of copy books 
there is so much ruling and spacing that 
learning to write is made largely an eye 



James Kerr, M.A., M.D. 



62 



task, instead of a muscle-sense training, 
and further injury is likely to be set up 
by the muddling and straining of the eye 
thus produced. The very thing the 
copybooks make much of is the thing 
which ought to be eliminated, eye- work. 
There are many regulations and declara- 
tions about the sizes for print, but 
scarcely any notice is taken of writing. 
The smallest size print suggested for 
school use is 11 point type, and for chil- 
dren under nine 14 point type, but there 
are rulings in dotted lines for copybook 
writing smaller than the print for read- 



ing. 



Legibility of writing, too, has to be 
remembered as a mental habit. Not 
more than one-fifth of the copies were in 
readily legible script. In English writ- 
ing, as contrasted with German, vertical 
or upright writing has no advantage over 
a moderate slope, and the amount of slope 
within a few degrees makes little dif- 
ference provided the spacing of the letters 
and words approximates to the relations 
of print. The letter body should approxi- 
mate to a square or circle with the inter- 
vals between not exceeding one-fifth the 
width of the square. In some copybooks 
the intervals are as great or even exceed 
the letter width. In others the words are 
so crowded as to be almost inseparable. 
Ruled copybooks to guide the forms of 
letters should not be required. If a copy- 
book must be written then only thick 
blue or black levels for the eye such as 
the thick lines in Vere Foster's bold 
writing books, which would be ideal if 
the dotted lines were omitted. Numerous 
dotted lines are straining and conduce to 
spurious result work. 

Turning now to the infant who can 
talk and who has begun to scrawl, he 
conventionalises and idealises at once, two 
strokes at right angles or perhaps parallel 
are explained as a man and his pipe, or 
a badly drawn ellipse and a stroke or two 
may be a bird, or a dog, or a house. 
Soon, however, form emerges, much con- 
ventionalised so that three sides of a house 
may appear at once, and to even a late 
stage a house window looks like a postage 



stamp up in one corner. Much can be 
made of this drawing by a good teacher, 
and the impulse can be worked in school 
to learn alphabetic forms and writing. 
These alphabetic forms being purely 
spatial memories, can be learned by all 
sorts of ways of bringing in muscular 
movements, what in workshops would 
be called dodges. Plasticine, clay, sticks, 
shells suit, most satisfactory of all are 
short lengths of covered electric wires 
which can easily be bent to letter shapes. 
The intellect and will must be brought 
in spontaneously by allowing or encour- 
aging the child to draw representations 
of its work in its own way, and to print 
or write on them. The learner often 
prints the reverse way, but that need not 
be troubled about. It seems to have been 
the original way. The cuneiforms, which 
extend through about five thousand years 
from oldest to most recent, all have the 




Fig. 6. Cunieform 

FOR NlNEVKH. 

thick, deep ends of the strokes to the left, 
as if masons had carved them, with mallets 
in their right hands. 

So too, the early Greeks passed through 
this phase, then wrote ploughwise, alter- 
nating directions, or serpentine way 
around their tablets before they settled into 
the left to right which has descended to 
European culture. This question of direc- 
tion brings up that of righthandedness on 
which it depends. For some reason not 
satisfactorily explained the centres for 
speech and possibly for other complicated 
fine movements are generally on the left 
side of the train. This corresponds 
mainly to the muscles of the right side of 
the body, but there is an intimate relation 
between both sides. In Professor Scrip- 
ture's experiments on fine finger move- 
ments practice \\ith the right hand was 
found to effect improvement in the left 
hand also. Two-handed training, ambi- 



63 



Nerves and Writing. 



dexterity, would not repay the trouble in 
school and will not be discussed, but the 
matter of the left-handed pupil cannot be 
passed over. 

A teacher in Berlin recently found that 
among 17,000 elementary scholars three 
per cent, of the girls and five per cent, of 
the boys were left-handed. Heredity was 
noticeable in sixty per cent. Speech 
defects were three times more numerous 
among left-handers, although possibly 
other variations such as six toes to a foot 
might also have been found excessive. 

The practical and important question is, 
Should the left-hander in school be allowed 
to remain left-handed, or taught as if 
right-handed? When pupils come into 
school they have already gone a long way 
in education ; they have learned a lan- 
guage, and made many brain connections 
for speech and its relations, and there is 
some risk of upsetting these arrangements 
if the right hand is now substituted for the 
left. On the other hand they are still 
plastic and the left-hander whose thumb 
goes first in writing, writes in a different 
bodily symmetry to the right-hander whose 
little finger goes first, so that if a left- 
hander attempts to write with the right 
hand the slope is backwards, and most 
people can write with their left hands if 
they write mirrorwise. 

It is a considerable advantage nowa- 
days to a dweller in cities where arrange- 
ments are for right-handers, where death 
threatens unless he steps off the motor 
'bus left foot first, and where familiar 
tools are for the right-handed, that he 
should have a chance of growing up some- 
what to pattern for the common life. Al- 
though not to be too rigidly insisted on, 
yet it would probably be an advantage that 
in the infant school at least left-handed 
work should only be very exceptionally 
permitted. 

Finally, whatever methods or styles of 
writing are taught there is a great sub- 
conscious readjustment of all arrange- 
ments which takes place at puberty, when 
the hand is formed and the character fixed. 
This is only referred to now as an epoch 
in writing worthy of further study. 



The natural way then to approach the 
teaching of writing is through the early 
pictorial efforts. 

There should be much large scale black- 
board work standing out of the desks. 
Continuous writing lessons are wasteful of 
time, tiresome and fatiguing. Short 
intervals are preferable, for spontaneous 
drawings with printing or writing over 
them, to illustrate lessons even then going 
on. Meanwhile also regular but short 
exercises in the elements of letter forms 
should be done by large shoulder move- 
ments in freearm work on the blackboard. 
No pencils, paper, pens, ink or needles 
should have a place in any infant school. 
The letter elements, oblique straight 
strokes first, then ellipses, circles and 
vertical or horizontal strokes, squares, 
rectangles and curves should all be done 
standing out of the desks at large boards. 

Some symmetrical figures with both 
hands may be permitted in the first few 
months to give larger spatial perceptions. 
The earliest efforts may be slow, but slow 
accuracy must never be asked for, only 
rapidity so long as there is a general 
attainment of what may be termed legi- 
bility. Subconscious adjustments will 
give greater accuracy later. With work of 
this kind graphic expression will soon 
come, and greater accuracy can be got by 
making model letters with plasticine or 
bent wire. The sand tray as a means for 
early writing is exceedingly convenient. 
The only writing media in the infant 
school should be the sand tray and the 
blackboard. The little squares of card- 
board, commonly used and miscalled free- 
arm vv'ork, are makeshifts ; they have some 
advantages over paper, but all kinds of 
disadvantages in the dustiness of the 
blackboard without the advantage of the 
sand tray or the blackboard educationally. 

For formal writing exercises after the 
infant school only paper with the thick 
guiding lines to keep the lines of the script 
straight, but not to help the letter forms, 
and after the lowest classes no lines at all, 
should be necessary. 

The whole idea of this teaching is that 
writing itself is trivial educationally, and 



W. H. Winch, M.A. 



64 



that It must not be treated as eye work, 
but merely as mechanical muscular work 
to be relegated to the subconscious and 
automatic as soon as possible. 

Pictorial speech is, however, a very late 
evolution and a large section of the popu- 
lation are below the capacity of attaining 
subconscious writing action or reading. 
Somewhere about five per cent, will never 
attain writing beyond the symbol of their 
own name, and probably another five per 
cent, will only attain it in such degree that 
it will not be of practical use in later life. 
The present mode of education is costly in 
waste of time and keeping many down to a 
level to which others can never attain. 
Much greater classification of schools is 
required. The idea that reading and 
writing are a necessity in the earliest 
stages of school life will have to be aban- 
doned if the greatest educational effect is 
to be got in the short time at disposal. 

A careful study of educational methods 
by modern laboratory means in experi- 
mental classes would in the course of ten 
years effect economies which would repay 
the cost a hundredfold, in such a centre as 
London. Till bigger rooms and more 
blackboard space are at disposal efforts 
must be concentrated on the idea of 
making educational presentations to the 
budding intellect massive and voluminous 
by having things clear and bright and 
large, and on light rooms, big objects and 
free, large, rapid movements, not in con- 
tinuous but in intermittent lessons in the 
earliest years, so that writing soon be- 
comes subconscious, and the individuality 
finds its own unhampered expression in 
later life without the need of copybooks or 
eyestrain. 



/DoDern ipspcboloa? anb tbc IRew 
Constructive /iDovement in 
BDucation. 

By W. H. Winch, m.a. 

A paper read before the London County Council 

Conference on Handicraft. The lecture form is 

preserved. 

A psychologist who is asked to-day to 
give practical directions to Educational 



Theory and Practice Is apt — unless he 
possesses a confidence quite prophetic — 
to feel embarrassed. Much of his doc- 
trine is based on difhcult experimental 
work, which the layman will scarcely un- 
derstand, and his conclusions are drawn 
by epistemologlcal methods — such as 
evaluation by means of correlation for- 
mulae — which will also seem, except to the 
mathematician, somewhat of a mystery. 

The day for the brilliant sweeping 
guesses which sound so seductive, give 
such comprehensive, albeit vague direc- 
tions, and which still, jaute de mieux, 
constitute the bulk of text-book writing, 
Is, among psychologists themselves, long 
since over. 

And beyond these diflficultles and hesi- 
tations there is the outstanding and de- 
plorable fact that on many of the most 
important questions In Educational Psy- 
chology we are all of us still more or less 
in the dark. 

What, for example, are the relations 
between dexterity, mechanical construc- 
tive power, and what is vaguely known 
as intelligence? First of all, what are 
their relations in young children? 
Secondly, do these relations change as 
the children get older? Are these func- 
tions highly correlated with one another, 
and does improvement in one transfer to 
the others? Quite frankly I tell you that 
there is on these questions no direct 
evidence available anywhere on a scale 
large enough to be conclusive. So I am 
afraid that I shall have to approach the 
question about which you have invited 
me to speak to you to-day In an Indirect 
manner — a frontal attack Is out of the 
question. But It may be found not en- 
tirely without profit for us to consider a 
few of the present-day psychological con- 
clusions which have bearings on the ques- 
tions before us. 

First of all, sensations of movement are 
being very severely, and, I think, suc- 
cessfully, attacked as sources of know- 
ledge. Very careful experimental work 
has been done at Yale by Professor Ray- 
mond Dodge and Professor Charles H. 
Judd on the relation between perception 



65 



Construction in Education. 



and eye-movements. There seems no cor- 
relation whatever. 

In Binet's L'Annee Psychologique for 
1908 a quotation from M. Poincar6 
begins " Chacun suit que cette perception 
de la troisihne dimension se rddtiit to 
sensations of accommodation and convey- 
ance, etc." A footnote says very bluntly 
" Non. Les recherches experimentales de 
B. Bourdon (La perception visuelle de 
I'espace. Schleicher, 1902) ont montre 
que la sensation d' accommodation est a 
peu pres nulle et de nid usage, que la sen- 
sation de convergence ne permet de dis- 
tingue r que tres grossierement les dis- 
tances relatives et seulement pour des 
objects tres rapprochcs." And those of 
you who know anything of the experi- 
mental pedagogy of Germany will prob- 
ably be aware that Professors Meumann 
and Lay have differed so acutely on the 
question of the knowledge derived from 
sensations of movement that the Zeit- 
schrift fUr experimentelle Pddagogik, 
formerly edited by them jointly, is now 
edited by Meumann alone, and that a con- 
troversial tone has developed between 
them which, though not uncommon in 
Germany, is only paralleled here by the 
argumentative methods of politicians. 

You will find references to these things 
in a footnote in Professor Sully's revised 
handbook — an edition just issued — on 
pages 509, 510, in a note on page 109, 
and in a very important note on page 
173 on the function of movement in the 
development of our perceptions of space. 
Professor Sully quite realises that the 
current of experimental psychological 
knowledge is setting against the older 
view. 

Well, all this seems serious, very 
serious to those who swear by " motor " 
things ; and others who swear at them 
will correspondingly rejoice. But both 
the dismay and the joy must be short- 
lived. For all that this means is that 
psychology is tending further and fur- 
ther away from the older sensational view, 
and that sensations, far from being the 
all-important factors of knowledge, are 
merely intermediate factors within a total 



conative process, they neither begin it nor 
end it, they are there for it ; it is not 
merely a complication of them. 

For though mere movement is appar- 
ently of strikingly little value to know- 
ledge, }et I should not be talking to 
you here to-day with the view of further- 
ing the advance of the Constructive Move- 
ment, did I not think that the trend of 
modern psychology was distinctly in 
favour of constructive work in every de- 
partment of educational effort, manual 
among others. One of the writers to 
whom I ha\e referred, who quoted the 
experimental work of Bourdon against 
the knowledge value of eye-movements, 
repeats with approbation the following 
dictum from A. Mannequin : L'esprit ne 
comprend pleinement que ce qu'il pent 
construire. 

Another of the writers to whose work 
I have referred- — Professor C. H. Judd, 
who has done much to destroy the older 
view about the knowledge value of sen- 
sations of movement, says ; " We are 
thus led from our considerations of the 
relation between retinal images and move- 
ment process to recognise the fact that 
after eliminating sensations of movement 
we must recognise the paramount im- 
portance of motor adjustments in an en- 
tirely different sense " (Yale Psycho- 
logical Studies, Vol. I., No. 11, p. 415). 
Roughly, I may put the matter thus : 
Sensations from eye movements do not 
inform us as to the perception of the 
thing; the movements are made so that we 
can see the thing, when we can see as 
much as we want to see, we move our 
eyes no more. We do not, as it were, 
say within ourselves, " I have moved my 
eyes so much, therefore the thing is so 
much from front to back." We say, 
" Now I can see how deep it is, so we 
send no further signals for further adjust- 
ments." 

I have gone into this question at some 
length, and perhaps so as to confuse some 
of you a little. But I can see in the near 
future that a great many arguments will 
be drawn from this debacle of the sensa- 
tions of movement as factors in know- 



W. H. Winch, M.A. 



66 



ledge. They will tend to reinforce an 
intellectualist rather than a conative view 
of mental life — which in my judgment 
would be educationally disadvantageous, 
both theoretically and practically. 

Let us now pass to some psychological 
principles which are more obvious in their 
application to constructive work. First 
of all we must understand that the " law 
of forward movement," as Professor 
James announces it, no longer blocks our 
way. There is no need to think of ner- 
vous currents always running from sen- 
sation to movement. This was really a 
justification of the root error of mediaeval 
pedagogy, viz., that you must know all 
about a thing before you began doing it. 
James, as you know, is a pragmatist, 
which means a philosopher who holds 
that knowledge is only truly knowledge 
because it results or can result in actual 
successful activity. Experimental psycho- 
logy, in one sense, goes further and says, 
if I may speak popularly and crudely, 
that knowledge is obtained by doing. 
It is very curious to see how on this view, 
reproduction and production, which edu- 
cationists sometimes used to call piiUing 
up the plant to see hoiv it was growing, 
are the very essence of the growth itself, 
without which indeed, little growth would 
occur at all. 

All this is true of all educational work, 
not merely of the work we call manual ; 
indeed, if the constructive movement 
in education were merely manual, it would 
for me be shorn of much of its import- 
ance. But it behoves me now to limit 
myself more specifically to manual work. 
I am going to assum.e that all the mem- 
bers of this Committee are in favour of 
handicraft of some kind throughout our 
schools. But disputes and difficulties 
arise when we discuss just what shall be 
done, and how we shall balance the com- 
parative claims of interest in the imme- 
diate practical result, and of accuracy in 
achievement looked at from an adult 
standpoint. 

I was much impressed when visiting 
American schools to note a divergence 
from our own in respect of this balance. 



The children there, speaking generally, 
are set to make things which are probably 
pleasing to themselves and which may 
appear to them to have some sort of 
immediate use. For my part, I believe 
that we in England underwork this prin- 
ciple of the gratification of immediate 
interest ; we do not rest upon it even in 
cases in which we might most legitimately 
do so. For if progress in the desired 
direction can be attained by means wholly 
pleasant and agreeably stimulating, it 
seems sheer fatuity not to adopt those 
means. It is not uncommon amongst un- 
cultivated people to find an abiding con- 
viction that the nastier their medicine is, 
the more good it does them. A similar 
view is still very prevalent in educational 
theory and practice. But I do not wish 
to go too far and drop into what is called 
" soft pedagogy." We may find that 
exercises relatively uninteresting in them- 
selves, which we do not want to do for 
their own sakes, are, notwithstanding, 
necessary to enable us to carry out effi- 
ciently the things we do want to do. 

Children will take much spontaneous in- 
terest in practical arithmetic, they will 
take much spontaneous interest in learn- 
ing their tables ; but, with some excep- 
tions, not so much. What are we to do? 
Are we to let the tables go by default? 
I hardly think so. I suppose rather that 
we should point out and insist upon the 
uselessness of our practical arithmetic 
unless the results are right ; and thus help 
the child to discover the practical utility 
of tables. We need not invent 
drudgeries ; but we shall find some of 
them awaiting us here and there all along 
the educational line. 

Let us now apply this principle to the 
case of manual training. The child likes 
making things — some things, that is. He 
must be accurate enough to make the 
thing ; that is, he must judge his dis- 
tances and his movements so that the 
things will come fairly well up to the 
standard, which, in a vague way, he sets 
before himself. 

Psychologically, we most of us, as 
] children, except in school, proceeded in 



G7 



Construction in Education. 



that way. One thing was equal to 
another when for our practical purposes 
it was just as good. Other things did 
not exist as far as we were concerned. 
By the way, we still say, " That's noth- 
ing," if someone tells us of a thing, say 
a comet, in which we are not interested. 
Such was the beginning of our endeavours 
towards adjustment and accuracy. Can 
we jump this stage in education? Ameri- 
can syllabuses appear to be drawn up by 
persons who do not think so. 

But though I incline to think we cannot 
jump this stage, I do not think that we 
can permit children for ever to remain in 
it. And I take it that it is " right here," 
as an American would say, that our Eng- 
lish methods are superior. An English 
teacher who read my American syllabuses 
for me asked, " Where do these Ameri- 
can models and occupations lead? And 
are not the girls and boys going to do 
different kinds of manual work when they 
grow up? Should there not be, there- 
fore, as soon as may be found education- 
ally profitable, some difference in syllabus 
due to this difference of aim? " 

And I can myself vouch for the English 
boys' superiority in workmanship, which 
may, however, not be due to the differ- 
ences in his education. 

But we should perhaps, all of us, both 
English and American, probably agree in 
some such statement of aim as the follow- 
ing :— 

We want the child to do just those 
things which render him most construc- 
tively disposed, which will make him skil- 
ful in thought and movement, and which 
will make him, as we say, not a mechanic 
of a particular trade, but capable of easy 
graduation into all trades. 

It is very probable that many of these 
interesting postulations are counsels of 
perfection. It is, indeed, very doubtful 
whether there is such a thing as " general 
dexterity " at all. I incline to think there 
may be some transfer of dexterity from 
one set of operations to other sets of a 
different kind, but there is, as far as I 
know, little, if any, experimental evidence 
for it; and we had best suppose, in the 



present state of educational psychology, 
that there is little, if any, transfer of this 
sort. 

The practical consequences are of great 
importance. Firstly, we must aim to 
move towards practical work of several 
trades and several occupations, instead of 
limiting ourselves to one or two. And 
secondly, we must find out by actual ex- 
periment which of our exercises in infant 
schools and in the lower standards of 
senior departments are the best pre- 
liminaries for these various pursuits. 

Your Superintendent of manual work, 
with whom I have had several conversa- 
tions on this subject, tells me that the 
paper cutting and folding which some of 
you used to describe by contemptuous 
epithets, was comparatively useless as a 
preparation to woodwork. If I remember 
him rightly, he thinks highly of the pre- 
paratory value of clay modelling and work 
with plasticine, and I believe, further, 
that he is of opinion that woodwork is 
the best possible propaedeutic— if we must 
be contented with one medium of manual 
work — to all or most trades. Now all 
these and contrary opinions can and ought 
to be tested by means of scientific peda- 
gogical experiment and the results corre- 
lated and summarised by valid statistical 
methods. Until these things are done, 
we are largely in the dark. 

I can hardly hope to take much more of 
your time or to make further demands on 
your attention, and I wish to confine my- 
self strictly to psychological considera- 
tions, to discuss which your Education 
Officer asked me to meet you. But there 
is just one point to which I wish to refer 
before concluding. There is a curious 
opinion prevalent to-day among many 
educationists that if a child begins draw- 
ing from objects at a very early age he 
is somehow being initiated into the prin- 
ciples of the Constructive Movement. Let 
me say just this : that he can make the 
thing and draw parts of it as they are, 
and as they must be, if they are to con- 



that thing. 



long 



before — years 



stitute 

before — he can analyse out the visual sen- 
sation which you are asking for when you 



Albert Wilson, M.D. 



68 



tell him to draw the thing as it looks. I 
ventured to announce this opinion some 
years ago in Mind, in which I criticised 
some of Professor Sully's theories as to 
children's drawings ; and those of you who 
read German Pedagogy will know of 
Kerchensteiner's big research, whose 
results fully corroborate my previously ex- 
pressed opinion. Of course, on the basis 
of the psychology which begins with sen- 
sation it would seem the obvious thing 
to do to catch the visual sensation as 
early as possible, before it becom.es cor- 
rupted by the other experiences of life. It 
would then be pure and undefiled by the 
conventions of the teacher. Alas ! I fear 
it is born corrupt and complicated. At 
any rate it has become so when the 
teacher receives the children. What then 
is the teacher to do? His business is to 
show the child how to analyse out (for 
himself bien entendu) what he sees from 
what he knows. But this power to ana- 
lyse out the visual sensations from a com- 
plex percept is a late growth and wants 
much direction. Meanwhile let us con- 
struct things as they are. To draw them 
as they look is a later business ; and in 
any case, is not likely to help our Con- 
structive Work. 



TLbc development ot tbe Cbtl6' s 
JSraiu. 

By Albert Wilson, m.d. 

The brain is the most distinctive part of 
our anatomy. It is the distinguishing 
feature of our genus. If it does not 
develop up to the human standard then it 
falls back, approaching that of the higher 
anthropoid apes, and such a being is de- 
scribed as mentally deficient, or even 
imbecile. We must remember that 
before birth the human foetus passes right 
along the chain of evolution. That is to 
say, it re-represents the lower animal 
scale; being first after the type of a fish, 
then like a lizard, and, when more de- 
veloped, the human brain is like that of the 
lower mammals, and finally, like the 
anthropoid apes. The human foetus has 



therefore to travel along the whole line of 
evolution which has taken countless ages 
in the past. It is a demonstration of how 
we have evolved from the lower animals. 
We must not lose sight of this fact, as 
it explains some cases of insanity and 
deficiency, where the process of develop- 
ment has been suddenly stopped. 

I have seen a brain which puzzled the 
best of our brain experts. It was only 
eight ounces in weight and its markings 
were somewhat like those of a cat. The 
woman was an idiot. She ate ravenously 
like a beast and when irritated spat like 
a cat. There had been some accident to 
her before birth which had caused a stop- 
page of development along the mysterious 
chain of evolution. 

The risks to a child before birth are 
tremendous. It is the most perilous part 
of life's journey. If it is safely accom- 
plished there is every prospect of a pros- 
perous and happy life afterwards. This 
is indeed where the key of success in life 
obtains. It is therefore the basis of child 
study, which subject is linked with the 
problem of inef^ciency and affords the only 
true explanation. The social question 
will never be dealt with successfully except 
from this standpoint. All efforts, however 
scientific in basis, such as deficient schools, 
the Montessori and other many excellent 
methods are as nothing so long as we do 
not clearly understand the why and where- 
fore of this increasing evil and endeavour 
to stop degenracy at the source. Social 
reformers of to-day are like men pumping 
all day on a leaky ship without any know- 
ledge of how to stop the leak, perhaps 
without proper knowledge of where the 
leak is. It is the duty of societies such as 
this to go for the leak while the enthu- 
siasts are still pumping. 

The subject has a very wide range, in 
fact, it would be difficult to encompass it 
with definite boundaries. The brain is a 
machine. It is the most complex machine 
that the Great Architect ever designed, 
because not onlv does it evolve motion in 
response to external stimuli, but it either 
evolves psychic phenomena or else is the 
medium by which psychic, spiritual 



69 



The Child's Brain. 



phenomena are transmitted from the un- 
known world. If I were giving an account 
to-night of the steam engine, I would 
have to commence with the ideas which 
first occurred to James Watts and then 
refer to the advance made by George 
Stephenson. From thence I should de- 
scribe the very simple models gradually 
evolving into the exceedingly complicated 
mechanisms of to-day. But all along I 
would refer to the usefulness, the capa- 
bilities, the potentilities and the final out- 
put of these machines. I propose, there- 
fore, to give an outline of brain machinery 
and structure and to dwell largely on the 
output. I have to search for causes that 
limit the output and how to combat such 
causes, for if we take a normal brain such 
as the Great Architect designed, it is in 
itself a most perfect machine. 

The brain is made up of millions of 
neurons. A neuron is a technical term for 
a nerve system and a nerve system may be 
likened to a common electric house bell. 
There is a great similarity between electric 
motion and nerve motion, so much so that 
many neurologists used to think that nerve 
force was a sort of electric force. This, 
however, cannot be. Every kind of force 
is separate from every other kind, just as 
light is different from sound or heat. 
Nerve force is stimulated by electricity — 
or more correctly some kinds of nerves, 
the nerves of sensation and motion. 

In the case of an electric bell, we push 
a button and a bell rings. When we push 
a button we cause a stimulus to pass along 
a wire to a battery cell, and this evolves 
an electric current or force which passes 
along another wire to the bell, which then 
rings. If we compare this with the simple 
act of tickling the sole of the foot we 
clearly see the analogy. A sensation 
passes from the skin of the foot to a system 
of nerve cells in the spinal cord, or even 
higher up in the brain, and a message 
is sent down to a group of leg muscles to 
withdraw the foot. The first stiumulus 
is called a sensation, . and passes by a 
sensory nerve ; the second stimulus is 
called motion and is sent down by a motor 
nerve. 



The whole mechanism in its simplest 
form is called reflex action, because it can 
occur in sleep or without gaining any 
attention from the higher conscious state. 
Taking another example, if some dust 
alight in the eye the lids close quicker than 
thought. If consciousness came into play 
the lids would close so slowly that many an 
insect that is shut out just in the nick of 
time would lodge itself inside the lids. 

This simple rule must be remembered, 
that all brain action, even thought, con- 
sists in an external stimulus, an inter- 
change in a cell or group of cells, and a 
message sent out in the way of a move- 
ment of some kind or other. It also 
resembles the telephone. The receiver 
represents the sensory nerve ; there is the 
exchange, which is sometimes simple, at 
other times involving calls at several 
oflfioes, and finally, the third condition, the 
message to the person to whom we wish 
to speak. 

We call these sensory nerves afferent 
nerves, from the Latin prefix ad, meaning 
to ; while the motor nerve is now termed 
the efferent ner\e — e or ex meaning from 
or out of. Thus in the act of reading the 
optic nerve from the eye to the brain is 
an afferent nerve. Nerve motion could 
not possibly travel from the brain to the 
retina. A nerve only works in one direc- 
tion so far as we know. For example, 
when we perform the act of reading, what 
is received by the retina of the eye passes 
through two or three nerve systems (like 
our telephone exchanges) until it reaches 
the back of the brain. Here the objects 
seen are recorded and even stored for 
future use, which explains memory. By 
another complex system, special to the 
human race, the visual objects are analysed 
in process of thought. We call these 
portions of the brain the psychic and the 
association centres. Impulses are sent 
from them to bring about various forms of 
motion. I will explain this more fully by 
what I am now doing. I see the title of 
this lecture written before me. These 
simple words are flashed along from my 
retina to the back of my brain where there 
is a very complex system of records. The 



Professor Bidart. 



70 



message passes to a group of memories, 
visual memories, that is, memories of all 
the work I have done, what I learned as a 
student, and what I have learned since. 
With these records in activity, the muscles 
of speech are called into action. The 
visual records send messages to the word 
centre, so that I can put my thoughts, or 
visual impressions, into words. When the 
brain has sorted out the words it sends 
down messages to the motor cells which 
guide and control the muscles of the lips, 
the tongue and the w'indpipe. This seems 
very simple, but it involves many thou- 
sands of nerve fibres and nerve cells. How 
many would be impossible to say. Quite 
possibly I am now calling on ten million 
colls, perhaps only two millions. Who 
can tell? 

These complex acts are not carried out 
by single fibres and cells laid down in line, 
but by groups of cells. One group re- 
ceives, another group necords ; another 
group analyses; another group calls up the 
word centre, probably en route has to pass 
through the hearing centre, because all 
words and sounds must be recorded in 
both of the centres, that of hearing and 
that of word motion. There have there- 
fore to be innumerable fibres and cells to 
link up all these systems and these we call 
association groups or areas. It is a very 
complex arrangement of systems within 
systems. In fact miany systems in the 
interior of the brain have no direct com- 
munication with the outside world. It is 
this extremely complex arrangement of 
nerve systems which places us above the 
highest apes. 

If we place some food in front of one 
of the lower animals, like a cow or bear, 
it knows that it is for eating, grabs it and 
eats it. A simple message passes from 
the eye to the back of the brain and from 
there to the centres of taste and hand 
motion to seize the food and thence to the 
muscles of mastication to eat it. But the 
more intelligent animals can go a step 
further. Thus the favourite dog knows 
when the dinner bell rings that dinner is 
ready and is probably the first downstairs. 
If dinner is late the dog may be fidgety. 



He is probably thinking of his plate of 
bones and scraps. If the dinner bell rings 
and you don't attend to it, he is almost 
certain to be very demonstrative and to 
insist on your getting up and going to 
dinner. Ihis implies that the dog is not 
a machine of poor quality. He can recall 
several past events in connection with the 
family meals. This is more than memory. 
It implies some power of association ; that 
is the power of combining the memories 
and drawing inferences. He quite under- 
stands the importance of the dinner bell. 
The monkeys and apes have still higher 
association faculties, or else they could not 
be taught their human-like tricks. 

In man these association centres grow 
to a fine state of perfection. They are 
situated at the back and upper part of the 
head. Their development is the measure 
of intellectual growth. We have to bear 
in mind these important facts during the 
training of the child while the brain 
develops. Our unfortunate legislators 
have imagined that the minds of children 
were like so many empty vessels, and all 
that was required was to fill them. W'ith 
this murderous policy they have for forty 
years damaged and in many cases ruined 
the youth of the land. [Etc.] 



parent BOucators. 

By Professor Bidart. 
Translated by Miss M. S. Ryan, b.a. 

(1) Anticipate the Child's Wants. Let 
us provide everything that is necessary for 
health and interest so as to avoid both 
pain and restlessness. And when the 
child evinces a desire, the satisfaction of 
which involves no inconvenience, let us 
grant it to him : it is cruel and mis- 
chievous to refuse the child simply be- 
cause he asks. Only it is necessary to 
show him as early as possible the right 
way of asking for things. Little Ger- 
man children are taught from a year old 
to join their little hands when they want 
anything, and they do so quite naturally 
(Preyer : The Mind of the Child), thus 
showincr how much can be done with 



71 



Parent Educators. 



children by instilling good habits. 
Whether we teach them to join their 
hands, or to make any other particular 
sign, let us teach our children to ask for 
what they want rather than to cry for it. 
(2) Prevent the child's tears. While 
the child is still young, and especially so 
long as he indulges only in passing fits 
of crying, he can be distracted by having 
his attention directed to something else 
which will make him forget that he 
wanted to cry. " Has baby seen the 
black hen? Where is pussy? What did 
Grandma say to baby yesterday? " By 
questions such as these, many parents will 
often attract the attention of their chil- 
dren when they are just about to cry. 
"It is of the highest importance," Ros- 
seau remarks with reason, " that the 
child should not perceive the intention to 
distract him, and that he should be 
amused without realising that anyone is 
thinking especially about him." One may 
also point out that this method is good 
for the present, but not for the future, 
for it does not teach the child to control 
his desires, a lesson he must learn 
gradually as he gets older. 

Tears often recur in the same circum- 
stances, at the same time and in the same 
place ; let us avoid these circumstances 
and these places and try to distract our 
children by fresh sights. 

(3) Conquer the child's habit of crying. 
However, in spite of all these precautions, 
the child will cry, and now comes the 
time when he must be checked. A child 
who is made happy and who, in spite of 
all, fills the air with his shrieks, loses his 
charm and innocence and all that makes 
him lovable. " Their crying is very often 
a striving for mastery and an open 
declaration of their insolence or ob- 
stinacy," says Locke. " What is more 
shocking," adds Rousseu, " more con- 
trary to order than the sight of a self- 
willed and rebellious child issuing his 
commands to everyone round him and im- 
pertinently adopting the tone of a master 
with those who have only to leave him to 
himself to convince him of his impotence. 
Nature has created children to be loved 



and assisted, but not to be obeyed and 
feared?" 

Now there is a way of not putting 
oneself into this intolerable situation. 
Children between the age of one and two, 
some earlier, some later, begin to aban- 
don themselves to fits of crying, which 
they try not to stop until they have got 
the upper hand. The remedy is to make 
them give in and to get the upper hand 
oneself. The child wants something and 
asks for it. Usually you give it at once 
and willingly. But there comes a time 
when you have your reasons for refusing. 
Refuse point blank and let your refusal 
be final. Do this each time the child gives 
way to crying, repeat it three, four, ten, 
twenty times ; in fact, repeat it as often 
as the tears re-appear. A day will at last 
come when the child will reason thus : 
" I get what I want either the first time 
I ask for it or not at all." Now you can 
be easy in your mind : henceforth he will 
not cry, for no one likes to take useless 
trouble, least of all a child. 

In other words, there will inevitably 
come between parents and children a real 
struggle which takes place, as a rule, 
between the ages of one and two. On 
the result of this struggle the future de- 
pends. The period of this struggle is the 
most important in education, for desire 
will issue from it either for ever vic- 
torious or for ever under control. Every 
effort should be made to make this strug- 
gle as short and as salutary as may be, 
and to inflict as many defeats as possible 
on the little disturber of the peace. If 
the child gains a single victory, the dura- 
tion of the struggle is doubled and tripled, 
and after all, he is the one to sufi"er, poor 
darling ! Let us spare him all useless suf- 
fering ; let him cry four or five times 
during his early years so that he may not 
be heard to cry ten times a day during his 
childhood, and suffer all his life as a result 
of his Unbearable temper. 

Again, what practical means can we 
use to silence the refractory child who will 
persist in crying? At first, when the 
tears begin to come, say to him, and say 
it again and again, firmly, " Don't cry; 



Professor Bidart. 



72 



you mustn't cry." Say this, while fixing 
him with a look and with uplifted finger, 
so that he may understand. 

With children of a passive disposition 
gentler means suffice. When they cry, 
as they will sometimes, from mere queru- 
lousness, not from_temper, they must be 
consoled and must be shown the affection 
the loss of which is the cause of their un- 
happiness. 

(4) The habit of being happy. A child 
is naturally happy so long as he is not in 
pain and is interested. It therefore fol- 
lows that, provided we take care always 
to remove the causes of pain, it is only 
necessary to keep the child interested and 
amused. The child is never unhappy 
when he is occupied. 

Occupy the child : therein is the whole 
matter. How can we capture his atten- 
tion ? There are two ways : provide him 
with playthings or amuse him ourselves. 
These two ways must be used alternately. 
If we leave him always alone, we shall 
expose him to weariness. To set out to 
amuse him oneself always, is to do away 
with the possibility of having a moment's 
rest. " We should commence at the third 
month, as soon as the child can distin- 
guish colours and objects we can begin 
to give him the means of amusing him- 
self, and thus we shall keep him longer 
awake in his cradle. For instance, we 
can fix up, well in front of him and not 
above the level of his eyes, some little 
playthings or bits of different coloured 
materials. He will be delighted with 
them and his attention will be at once 
arrested. You will see him beam and 
smile and gurgle with delight. He will, 
voluntarily, often move his cradle a little 
so that his playthings move, too, and this 
adds still more to his pleasure " (Mme. 
Millet-Robinet and Dr. Allix). 

From the age of six months the child, 
lying on the rug, will have around him 
many objects which will fully engage his 
attention, his eyes, and his hands. Here 
the great danger, especially from the time 
he begins to walk, is an excess of objects. 
Nothing tires or frets a child so much as 
to have too many toys. Tired of look- 



ing at them and not knowing which to 
choose, he breaks them up in a fit of 
temper, crying : "What shall I do next?" 
The child who, on the contrary, has few 
toys, likes them all the more and is happy 
because his imagination supplies what is 
lacking. It is also for this reason that 
the simplest toys are the best. If a doll 
is not dressed there is the pleasure of 
niaking its clothes ; a child has sand, he 
can make a thousand different things, and 
so on with the rest. Do not give the child 
too handsome toys ; leave him the pleasure 
of making them pretty. Do not give 
him too many toys all at once, but one 
only at a time. 

The same rule holds good for amuse- 
ment. If a child be kept amused for too 
long at a stretch, or nursed too long or 
danced about or made to laugh or crow 
too much, his nerves become exhausted, 
he is in pain, and he begins to cry. A 
baby once died because it was made to 
laugh too much : was tickled to excess by 
some visitors, who vied with one another 
in their efforts to amuse him ! 

Again, he gets taught to be exacting 
and dissatisfied. The next time he will 
abandon himself to his play with an ex- 
citement which it will be difficult to calm ; 
he will continually ask : " What shall we 
do next? " It is impossible to please 
such a captious child. Let our rule then 
be, to keep the child occupied, but not 
to fatigue him. 

Later on, about the age of a year and 
a half, the child wants to handle every- 
thing and monopolise everything. He is 
forbidden to touch one thing because it 
is dangerous, another because it is break- 
able, another because it belongs to some- 
one else, and so on ; but he is allowed to 
touch some things as he likes. His mind 
does not understand these differences, 
they are too complicated ; he is only aware 
of an arbitrary prohibition. If from the 
beginning he is taught to distinguish 
what is his own from what is not his own, 
if he is often made to understand in re- 
gard to certain things that " thi.s is 
baby's, that is father's, mother's etc.," 
clear ideas will enter his mind : he will 



73 



Suggestions for Study and Practice. 



feel an instinctive respect lor everything 
which does not belong to him, he will have 
no desire to touch such things, he will be 
happy and contented. 

Thus we shall avoid the distressing 
sight of the spoilt child who wants every- 
thing he sees, father's watch, mother's 
brooch, the picture on the wall, etc. ; who 
cries out if he is not quickly attended to, 
worrying both father and mother, who 
have to repress him in the end ; who utters 
noisy shrieks which his parents can only 
stop by yielding to him, giving him what 
he wants, taking him up in their arms, 
and weakly murmuring to him, " Come, 
darling, what is it you are crying for? " 
What a humiliation and a disgrace for 
parents, especially before strangers, to be 
thus vanquished by a little torment, and 
it is our own fault ! Let us then lay 
hold of the rule which will save us from 
this confusion and vexation — Make the 
child happy, hut get the upper hand by 
the time he is ten months old. [Etc.] 



Suoocsttons tor Stubi^ an& 
practice. 

The Father as Educator. " To be pro- 
perly educated to enjoy pleasure is almost 
as high an educational ideal as to be pro- 
perly educated to duty... It is a father's 
duty, one of his chief duties, to sup- 
ply his children with pleasure... The 
father who is really willing to render his 
children's lives as happy as possible will 
not be long before he can form a rough 
euess as to what kinds of amusements 
the children take real pleasure m ; and 
be those pleasures what they may, a little 
patting and pulling here and there will 
foster them and lead them in the right 
direction. To try to force a child to take 
pleasure in pursuits for which he has no 
natural inclination must fail, and may 
doom the child to be an all-life failure." — 
Dunstan Brewer (School Medical Inspec- 
tor) on " The Father's Share in the 
Education of his Children," The Parents' 
Reviezv, April, 1913. 

Mental Differences between the Sexes. 
" As regards the mental characteristics 



which concern the teacher or social worker 
most, namely, the higher or more com- 
posite mental processes, our results har- 
monise with the view expressed by Pro- 
fessor Thorndike : ' Sex is the cause of 
only a small fraction of the differences 
between individuals ; the differences of 
man from man and of woman from 
woman are as great as the differences 
between man and woman... We cannot 
therefore agree with those writers who 
regard the mental differences between the 
sexes as constitutionally inevitable, thence 
incapable of being eradicated or modified 
by social influences, such as selective 
breeding or traditional ideals... We in- 
cline therefore rather to that group of 
writers who, whether emphasising the 
mental differences between the sexes, or 
minimising them in their several theo- 
retical generalisations, agree that in the 
practical issue ' the question of the future 
development of the intellectual life of 
woman is one of social necessitfes and 
ideals, rather than of the inborn psycho- 
logical characteristics of sex.' " — Cyril 
Burt, M.A.. and Robert C. Moore, M.Sc, 
on " The Mental Differences between the 
Sexes," in The Jounial of Experimental 
Pedagogy, December, 1912. 

Needlework and Eyesight. " The chil- 
dren at age 5 apparently start school with 
the boys and girls having much the same 
number of defects, the advantage being 
with the girls, the figure being .93 per 
cent, lower. But when the age 12 group 
is examined there will be found a marked 
difference, the girls having much higher 
defects than the boys, the increase being 
in defects of myopia, myopic astigmatism 
and mixed astigmatism. These children 
are all under the same home conditions, 
and the same conditions at school of light- 
ing, ventilation, etc., with the exception 
of needlework... From the above figures 
it would seem to suggest that sewing 
should not be done in the infant rooms, 
and might well be postponed until the 
child reaches a later age, such as eight. 
Children learn to sew very quickly at this 
age, and by the time they reach the age 



Correspondence. 



74: 



of twelve they most probably would sew 
as well as if they had begun one or two 
years younger." — Agnes A. Parson, 
M.B., B.S., D.P.H., " Report on the 
Possible Effect of Needlework on the Eyes 
of Young Children," in School Hygiene, 
February, 1913. 



Ube Cbilt) Stu&p Society aii^ tbe 
Constituent Societies. 

The Dundee Society met on March 5th. Mr. 
C. W. Valentine, M.A., Lecturer in Experi- 
mental Psychology, Dundee Training College, 
described a series of experiments which he had 
carried out in Dundee schools with a view to 
discovering the comparative value of the Phonic 
and the " Look-and-Say " methods of teaching 
reading. Five classes of children, varying in age 
from six to nine years, were each divided into 
two sections of approximately equal average in- 
telligence. One section of each class was taught 
to read English words written in Greek script, 
by the Phonic method, the other section being 
taught by the Look-and-Say method. Subse- 
quent reading tests showed that, on the whole, 
the Phonic method had proved much superior, 
though among the least intelligent children the 
two methods gave about the same results. — Mr. 
R. Jackson. 

The Hartlepools Society.— The above-named 
Society is in a larval state, and will not emerge 
as a fully-developed society until September next. 
Meanwhile it will be feeding voraciously on the 
best of food. Dr. P. Sandiford has consented to 
give a lecture on Tlie Inheritance of Mental and 
Physical Traits on May 1st, and Miss Marie 
Shedloch will give one of her lectures on Story 
Telling on June 11th. — Mr. Arnold T. Prentice. 

The London Society.— Mr. Frank Roscoe, M.A., 
Secretary Teachers' Registration Council, very 
kindly took Professor Green's place on April 17th, 
and gave the lecture on The Backward Child in 
the Ordinary School. There was a very good 
attendance, and the society is especially indebted 
to Mr. Roscoe for undertaking the lecture at very 
short notice. 

The summer visit will take place on Saturday, 
June 7th. Dr. and Mrs. Kimmins have been good 
enough to invite the members of the Society to 
visit the Heritage Schools of Arts and Crafts, for 
crippled boys and girls, at Chorley, Sussex. Mem- 
bers are asked to keep this date free for the 
excursion. 

The Tunbridge Wells Society.— On April 1st 
three papers were read on Imagination and Day 
Dreaming. Lady Matthews took the parents' 
point of view : how we may use the day dreams 
of childhood. Knowing how the pure imagina- 



tion of childhood springs from a fine sense of the 
great unseen and acknowledges the domination 
of good, we have an immense responsibility to 
train aright and direct these aspirations till they 
become part of the whole life. The day dreams 
of the children should be made to irradiate the 
days when practical matter seems to choke the 
spiritual side. 

Mrs. G. E. Watson showed how imagination 
appears in children. Though it may sometimes 
fill them with dread, the joy and hope it brings 
far outweigh the fears. It is the inspiration of 
their games. It does not take away from a 
child's practical abilities, but rather adds to them. 
It is perhaps one of their greatest blessings. 

Dr. Campbell Smith said that the fanciful 
imaginations of young children arise from the 
fewness of their perceptions. A child has fewer 
previous sensations with which it can compare 
the present sensation, consequently the sight of a 
new object, or any other sensation, causes fewer 
perceptions in a child and the object is less clearly 
perceived. Also the vividness with which percep- 
tion seizes on a child's mind is due to the few- 
ness of other perceptions. Dr. Campbell Smith 
pointed out the difference between the fanciful 
imagination of which Lady Matthews had spoken 
and the pernicious habit of day dreaming, that 
imaginative state that has no outward expres- 
sion and renders the dreamer more and more 
self-involved. Its sensations tend to fritter them- 
selves away in emotional states, the child is 
thrown back on itself, fails to develop its keenness 
of perception and grows self-centred and egotistic. 
The dreamer becomes unfitted to face the dififi- 
culties of life. .Such imagination differs from that 
which shows itself in play. The latter calls forth 
close observation and activity ; day dreaming 
tends to do away with these. It also differs from 
the imagination which shows itself in the love 
of stories. In listening to stories the child is 
taken out of itself. He is not the hero of the 
tale. The passivity of listening to stories may 
become injurious if carried too far. The acting 
out of stories is an excellent thing. By careful 
watching it is possible to find out the nature of 
the child's dreams : if they are egotistical and self- 
glorifying or of a higher nature. The doctor was 
of opinion that no effort should be spared to 
eradicate the pernicious habit of day dreaming. — 
Miss G. Edwards. 



Correspondence. 

Dear Sir, — With reference to the challenge to 
the London Teachers' Association on the front 
page of " Child-Study " for March, may I be per- 
mitted to say this on behalf of that Association? 
While it is true that the L.T.A. has taken no 
steps towards the establishment of a School of 
Psychology, much of the work done by the .Asso- 
ciation has very definite psychological bearings. 
It has, through the mouths of its many lecturers, 



75 



Notices and News. 



including, sir, yourself, and the columns of its 
weekly journal, given its members very seriously 
to think upon the matter, and not to think only. 
There are those who have not stopped at the 
thinking, but have set themselves to do. If, by 
the influences of their' own Association, members 
have been induced thus far, surely the way is 
well prepared for further development. The 
activities of such an Association are many and 
diverse, so that it is not possible to compass such 
an end as the establishment of a School of 
Psychology in a limited space of time. 

The Association's work in this direction can, 
and no doubt will, be extended, and will doubt- 
less assume a more definite shape. Indeed its 
extension has already begun. During the past 
session three courses of lectures in Handwork 
as applied to class-teaching were organised. 
Similar courses have been arranged for the next 
session, as also has a series of lectures in psycho- 
logy. Without any fantastic extension of the 
meaning of words, I would suggest that the Asso- 
ciation's educational lectures, its courses for 
teachers, its conferences and discussions, the 
papers and memoranda published in " The 
London Teacher," constitute a very useful 
advance towards the end you would desire. — 
Yours faithfully, 

F"rances Jokd.\n. 



IRoticcs an& IRewB. 

Some Corrections were omitted in our April 
number, which we regret, and now give them. 
In Dr. Brown's article on The Psychology of 
Mathematics, the formula on page 45 should be : 

S(xy) . 



r ::= 



N 



a I a., 
the formula on page 46 should be 

6 S (d^) 



1- 



and r=2 sin 



N(N^— l) ' 

and that on page 47 should be : 



Ca ^ 



'ia.3 — - 



13 



It 



23 



^/(l-r,^3)(l-r^) 

On page 44, column one, line six, for 
" Strimpell " read Striimpell; and column two, 
line 11, for " Studren B.A." read Studien Bd ; 
and on page 47, column one, line 25, for " con- 
necting " read connection. 

In Dr. Boyd's article on The Beginnings of 
Syntactical Speech on page 50, column two, line 
37, for " time " read place. 



IReviews. 

L'Educateur Moderne. Oct. 12th to April 13th. 
Paulin et Cie, Paris. 
With two articles by Mons. C. Hemon in the 
October and November issues upon some " Re- 
searches into the beginnings of numeration with 



young children," and one in February by M. 
Galanine on the teaching of arithmetic, we hope 
to deal more fully later, in conjunction with some 
work on similar lines done by Mile. Degand ; 
meanwhile they would well repay perusal by those 
interested. To the first two numbers also M. 
Peeters contributed an exposition and warm de- 
fence of Rousseau and his Emile ; in December 
and January appeared two articles by M. Leclerc, 
ujjon the " Education of the Will," where the sub- 
ject is treated with much philosophy and 
thoroughness from early days to the close of 
adolescence, and if the author is indebted to 
others for many of his ideas — he acknowledges 
Binet, Compayre, Claparede and Hall — he has his 
own also, and his own way of formulating them. 
In addition to his " pedagogic reflexions," M. 
Cousinet gave three articles in December, 
February and .\pril on " /Esthetic Education in 
Primary Schools," to which he was moved by 
the apparent lowering of taste both on part of 
general public and of the workers, and its pos- 
sible disastrous social effects. But perhaps from 
the point of view of child-study, the most interest- 
ing article of all is one by M. O. Frappier in the 
April issue upon the testimony of children, a 
careful piece of work that serves to show the kind 
of detail that usually escapes the observation of 
children, and also that reports made without ques- 
tions, whilst containing fewer facts, are much 
more likely to be veracious than those obtained 
in reply to questions, which cannot fail to be 
full of suggestion. 

Bulletin de VEducation morale de la Jcunesse. 

This little publication is indicative of the efforts 
being made in France to improve moral educa- 
tion through parents rather than through schools. 
We find questions upon child control and training 
asked by mothers and answered at length in later 
issues, and of meetings of mothers anxious to 
discuss the right training of their children. 
Naturally also Mdme.Montessori and her methods 
receive much attention, mainly from the moral 
side ; whilst the general characters of children 
from birth to three years and three to seven years, 
moral experience, and the necessity of obedience, 
are all considered. 

Hygiene for Teachers. By R. Ala.n Rowlands, 
B..Sc., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. Pp. x., 356. 
Edward .Vrnold. 4 6 net. 
This book is intended for students in training 

colleges, and is a good example of its kind. 

The Conservation of the Child. By Arthur 
Holmes, Ph.D. Pp. 345. J. B. Lippincott 
Company. 4/6 net. 

An important and valuable book on the 
psychological clinic. It w^ill be further reviewed. 



CDtld'Studp. 

tl)e Journal or the Cblld-studp Soctetp. 



fii 



Vol. VI —No. 5. 



JUNE. 1913. 



xrbe development of tbe CbitO's 
JBrain. n. 

By Albert Wilson, m.d. 

The great art of education is to let 
ideas pass slowly into the developing sen- 
sory centres. Let them take root slowly 
and develop associations. The more 
associations that are stimulated and im- 
pressed the firmer and clearer the 
memory. Let us again take the simple 
word orange. I cannot say exactly what 
the Board of Education thinks of an 
orange to-day, but formerly it was a mere 
fruit. A parrot like memory of where 
the oranges came from is not likely to 
last long. The developing brain requires 
the stimulus of knowledge, and the more 
stimuli the more the intellect develops. 
Tell the developing child all about the 
orange. Stimulate the visual centre with 
the shape and colour of the fruit. Liken 
the shape to the earth's surface and you 
lay the seeds for astonomical knowledge. 
Teach it about the acid taste and con- 
trast it with alkali, sourness with sweet- 
ness. This opens another association 
leading into chemistry. Then as to its 
nature as a plant there is much to learn 
in its botanical structure and growth. 
When we teach the child where it comes 
from we not only construct a picture of 
the country but of the world. We open 
up ideas as to temperature, climate and 
its causation — soil and the earth structure. 
An orange then is capable of innumerable 
associations all bearing on natural 
sciences and all cultivating the faculty of 
observation and associaton of ideas. 
This is education. The former Govern- 
ment method is instruction. 

In youth memory is stocked with con- 
crete terms, as names of people and places 



which are difficult to retain because there 
are so few associations by which to exert 
a multiple hold on them. John Smith as 
a simple name, associated only with some 
acquaintanceship, has but little attach- 
ment to the brain machine as compared 
with the term orange. It therefore is 
more readily forgotten than the broader 
term orange with its many associations. 
John Smith is retained in the brain centre 
devoted to the memory of words. His 
facial appearance is probably more 
securely retained in the centre of sight. 
At least experience demonstrates this. 
Thus after years interval we meet John 
Smith, and our visual centre recalls him 
clearly as one whom we have known ; but 
how to remember his name is a difficulty. 
The visual centre may be unable to call 
up the name in the memory centre. Too 
often there is no response. Word 
memory is a difficult thing in the human 
family, probably because it and the power 
of speech, which two are closely asso- 
ciated, are the highest functions added 
to the hypothetical ape-man to make him 
into superman, or homo sapiens. The 
higher and latest evolved faculties must 
j necessarily be the weakest. It is there- 
fore necessary in children to cultivate 
' memory — not like a parrot but by as many 
t as possible associating ideas. Where 
I concrete terms have to be remembered, 
I the old-fashioned method of introducing 
them into musical rhymes was excellent. 
To forget the term broke up the rhyme, 
which was sufficiently striking to be re- 
tained as a whole. In addition the tune 
was stamped on the hearing centre, while 
both made attachments to the speech 
centre. 

Education commences from early in- 
fancy in very small doses, of course, but 



77 



The Development of the Child's Brain. 



always by showing the child some simple 
object and associating it with something 
else. 

Motion is the very essence of our being, 
so much so that Bergson has to some 
extent translated the idea of the soul into 
constant progressive motion. Of course, 
wherever there is change there is motion. 
The infant enjoys being rocked or jumped 
and the adult of to-day is most happy 
when whirled along in a motor car or an 
aeroplane. All forms of motion should 
be encouraged. There is no more hopeful 
sign than the restless activity which some 
infants show. It is due to the process of 
development in the motor centres of the 
brain, which occupy a larger portion of 
the brain than any other function. These 
centres lie in the middle and forepart of 
the brain and we observe that athletes are 
usually broad-headed. Every child, and 
later boys and young men should be en- 
couraged to all forms of exercise with a 
view to brain development. 

Speech is a form of motion, and it is 
thought that whenever a letter is pro- 
nounced or thought of, that there is a 
stimulus to the motor centre, shaping out 
that letter. Thus the simple letter O 
when mentioned caused a rotation of the 
eye-balls as if outlining the letter, and 
the same probably occurs in the forma- 
tions of other more complex letters. 
Again, if we talk of a square, a triangle, 
a curve or even a straight line the eye 
follows or outlines the shape of that figure 
in response to a call or message from a 
nerve cell in the visual centre. We can 
realise this for simple figures. It shows 
what an important thing motion is in 
education. To restate this, let us suppose 
a circle to be recorded by the eye in the 
sight centre of the brain. Some one 
utters the word circle. The sound centre 
telegraphs a message to the particular 
cell group in the visual centre, which 
sends a message to the motor centre and 
the eyeballs perform the particularly ro- 
tatory motion of that figure. If we are 
supposed to repeat the word, a message 
is sent on to the speech centre. It is 
therefoie most important for teachers to 



realise this interlocking of brain centres 
and always to bring in movements when 
possible. This is, I believe, the basis of 
the Montessori system. Rhyme and 
rhythm indicate the association of the 
hearing centre with the motor centre of 
speech. The hearing centre is important 
to us, but we are essentially seeing 
animals. We have lost smell through 
civilisation, and we are losing the sense 
of touch through the advance of scientific 
measurements. 

When the infant is born it appears to 
have a brain well equipped with active 
brain cells. It, however, contains every- 
where undeveloped nuclei ready to bud 
forth into mature neurons. These cells 
demand favourable environment and pro- 
per nutrition in order to facilitate that 
development. The cells in the deeper 
layers are more perfect than those of the 
outer layers. The reason is that they 
are older in time. On the extreme out- 
side of the grey cell layer there is a band 
of undeveloped nuclei ; there are about 
six to ten layers of such cells. These 
are seen so far as I know in every new- 
born child. We may term this the post- 
natal layer of embryonic nuclei. That is 
the layer for future development during 
childhood. All the beautiful cells already 
developed, prepared for their various 
functions, have been laid down in utero 
and may be said to represent the race — 
the human race. These prenatal cells are 
deeper, and more numerous than we find 
even in a highly developed chinpanzee or 
gorilla. 

This undeveloped layer stands for the 
individual. If this layer develops well 
we have a normal beingr. 

If anything occurs to arrest their 
development we have an individual of 
poor quality, who may be mentally 
deficient, degenerate or even an imbecile. 
This outer thin undeveloped layer stands 
for the higher intelligence, while the lower 
and larger part stands for instincts and 
probably for the lower mentation, such as 
automatic actions, intuitive thought, and 
for those processes which are the more 
necessary for our protection. 



Albert Wilson, M.D. 



78 



This thin layer of nuclei, undeveloped 
at birth, is clearly the portion of the 
brain which we educate in childhood. Its 
development merits the highest considera- 
ion. In old age it is the first part to fall 
out of repair and in fact to disappear. In 
alcoholism and some forms of insanity it 
is the earliest to be attacked. Bearing 
in mind this reserve of undeveloped nerve 
cells, it behoves us to study methods of 
education with great care in order to 
bring the child up to the highest level. 
The work of the Board of Education was 
for more than thirty years of the most 
destructive character. It is responsible 
for a large amount, if not the greater 
portion of the present mental feebleness ; 
not to speak of the crime which has 
resulted from destroying the intelligence 
of the poor. They crammed their brains, 
many of them weak, starved and diseased 
with useless facts. We all know what 
exhaustion follows after a hard day of 
mental work. The same exhaustion over- 
takes these poor children after so many 
hours at school. We who live in favour- 
able surroundings can regain our strength 
more easily than this class of children. 
I am thankful to know that the Board 
of Education is made of better material 
to-day, and that it is largely under the 
control of a medical adviser who by 
reason of his Quaker pedigree and up- 
bringing, stands for sensible reform and 
intelligent methods. I allude to Sir 
George Newman, M.D., who has estab- 
lished a thorough medical inspection of 
all school children. I trust that in the 
near future parents will be compelled to 
have the children cleared of adenoids, en- 
larged tonsils and bad teeth. The medical 
attention so applied should do a great 
deal for brain development. The non- 
aeration of the blood from adenoids, and 
the sepsis and poisonous effects of bad 
teeth and enlarged tonsils are formidable 
factors in arresting the progress of 
development. 

From what has been said it is quite 
evident that the whole success in life 
depends upon the natural development of 
the child's brain. There are two risks. 



First to the child before birth, when the 
racial cells, peculiar to the genus homo, 
are forming. If these are damaged at 
this stage the child is abnormal from the 
first, approaching imbecility. 

Secondly there is the risk after birth 
when these outer nuclei are developing ; 
and the outer portion of the brain repre- 
sents the individual and the family to 
which he belongs... 

So far in treating this subject — the 
Development of the Brain in the Child — 
I have only spoken of environment. En- 
vironment commences at the date of con- 
ception. It is of especial importance 
before birth as well as during at least the 
first five years. Anything in the nature 
of tubercle or syphilis comes under the 
heading of infection in utero, and is there- 
fore environmental. We call this con- 
genital. Till recently many writers were 
confused in this matter and spoke of 
hereditary or inherited tubercle, consump- 
tion or syphilis. 

Heredity is the great factor in the race. 
What it is or where it comes from no 
one knows. We might say of heredity 
what the Master said of the wind — that 
it bloweth where it listeth, but man 
knoweth not whence it cometh or whither 
it goeth. 

Heredtiy is an invisible force which 
cannot be bought — nor yet can it be 
wooed. Heredity is the determining 
factor of the individual, the race and the 
nation. 

It is behind every neuron and every 
microscopic nucleus of our nerve cells. 
Its invisible properties, whether mole- 
cules or wave lengths defies both alchemy 
and physics. And yet there must surely 
be a physical representation of heredity. 
I have already mentioned that a German 
investigator has recently discovered that 
the blood of the female during pregnancy 
contains a ferment which does not exist 
in her blood at any other time. Is it 
then not possible that heredity may be 
associated with some bio-chemical agent ; 
perhaps some type of ferment. Certain 
stable families are able to conserve this 
ferment and thus exhibit ail the higher 

B 



79 



The Development of the Child's Brain. 



physical qualities which go to make up 
what is popularly termed breed. But I 
am anticipating science by perhaps a 
decade or even more. 

As we know heredity, it is a force 
which distinguishes characters, both phy- 
sical, mental and moral, and it runs in 
families. It is not associated with wealth 
nor can it be nurtured by wealth. Where 
it exists it is fostered by marriage on 
normal lines ; that is marriage on the 
same level — the level of breed. 

As no amount of wealth can make 
heredity, no amount of hardship can 
destroy it. Heredity does not coy with 
what we term the aristocracy alone. We 
find good heredity in many thousands of 
families who have never worn a coronet. 
A good heredity seems to be the outcome 
of healthy marriage amongst normal, 
stable individuals. Where this occurs 
low down in the social scale, not far le- 
moved from the poverty zone, we speak 
of such as ** Nature's gentleman." 

The subject has been studied among 
horses, sheep, cows, pigs, poultry, 
pigeons, plants and so on. The law to 
keep up breed is the law of artificial selec- 
tion, which means breeding from animals 
or plants which conform to a certain 
standard in certain points and casting 
out or destroying the bad specimens. 
Once breed from a bad specimen and the 
whole stock is diluted and goes wrong. 
So it is in the human race. Good families 
throw off bad specimens here and there. 
It may be caused by an accident before 
birth, an illness, a taint, or a debauch. 
That branch of the family, which follows 
the bad specimen, degenerates and the 
breed is lost. Hence the great importance 
of selective marriage. 

In Nature Darwin discovered the strand 
prmciple which underlies the whole — the 
principle of Natural selection. By this 
means only the fit survive. The weaker 
succumb to their enemies. There is thus 
in nature a constant warfare to wipe out 
the unfit. Would that such a principle 
could be applied in our large cities to- 
day ! 

Observation tends to show that 



heredity has more to do with the develop- 
ment of the child's brain than environ- 
ment. In the language of some writers : 
Nature plays a greater part than nurture. 
At the same time the value of nurture 
cannot be too strongly emphasised. Un- 
fortunately the greater portion of the ract 
have a poor heredity. This is contrary 
to Nature, because in Nature if a race 
weakens it is wiped out by circumstances, 
perhaps by special enemies. I am afraid 
our profession is doing no service to 
eugenics in fostering the weak. 

The causes of degeneracy are chiefly 
the brain toxins — syphilis and tubercle, 
then follow poverty adding to the effects 
of these two, and finally intermarriage 
and excessive child bearing. The part 
of the organism that suffers most is the 
brain — the brain in childhood ; and it is in 
childhood that we make the ne'er-do-well, 
the criminal and even the murderer. It is 
evident, then, that these people are not 
a kind of variation from the normal, nor 
yet sports, using the term in the botanical 
sense. They are degenerates from the 
normal type and they should not be en- 
couraged to multiply. We may get sports 
among the lower people. That is to say 
in a working class family a child appears 
with wonderful brain development. He 
rises in later life to some exalted position 
in science, or commerce, or politics. We 
usually observe that his children fall bark 
to the level from which he sprang. 
Generally speaking, these people lack 
stability. They lack heredity in support 
of the brain development. The brain 
machine will not run in good working 
order to 70 or 80. However brilliant it 
may be, it usually breaks long before 
sixty, or perhaps the whole organism col- 
lapses or is short lived. 

For example, an employer asked mc 
to see his manager, who had no special 
disease but was literally going to pieces 
about the age of 50. The cause was 
evident. His father was a successful car- 
man, an employer. This individual's 
brain was constructed or tuned to the 
lower kind of occupation. He had not 
the stability to carry him through the 



Albert Wilson, M.D. 



80 



duties of managing a large business. It 
was too complex for his brain cells. He 
did it well for a time but actually died 
under the strain at this early age. 

In our dealing with children and young 
persons we should realise the importance 
of considering what each child can attain 
to. Don't let us force the pace in educa- 
tion for the sake of results and don't let 
us try to place the children too high up 
in the social or business world. 

In another case a board school i)oy 
was selected because of his brilliancy 
and placed in a good business firm. He 
rose to be manager, and the results were 
excellent till he was 40 or 45. Then he 
broke. His brain had not the stability 
of heredity to support it. He first failed 
on the moral plane — business integrity. 
Then in will power — alcoholism. The 
end was a tragedy. 

As we read the obituary notices of suc- 
cessful men who have risen, and die in 
early or middle life, we can clearly see 
the reason. It is a question of durability 
and that is a matter of heredity. 

It is important to remember that what 
is called heredity or breed may occur un- 
expectedly in any family as a sport. 
Were not such men as Benjamin Franklin 
and George Stephenson superior to any 
of their kin? How these come about is 
a little mysterious, but certain molecules 
in the germ plasm, which Weissman calls 
" ids " or determinants, which are 
favourable to each other may meet at un- 
expected times and thus produce a normal 
being. As we can never say for certain 
how a child will turn out, it behoves us 
to do the best for its development. This 
is proved in such institutions as Dr. 
Barnardo's Home, where the percentage 
of successes is very high. Such success 
is a very strong argument in favour of 
environment as opposed to what I am 
urging, the plea for heredity. But there 
is the other side, that in every child, how- 
ever low down, there may be some mole- 
cules or " ids " or determinants of good 
pedigree, which only require fostering in 
order to develop. 

After all, what is heredity or breed? 



Is it a limited dole to what is called the 
aristocracy? Certainly not. It has dis- 
tinctive attributes to be attained by any 
class where careful selective marriage 
occurs. 

It implies longevity and stability, and as 
an adjunct of the latter self-control. 
Self-control implies that higher morale 
and courage which form a superstructure 
on intellect. It also implies the power 
to serve and the power to govern. When 
our population was small, men possessed 
of these qualities asserted themselves 
above the masses. Where careful mar- 
riage has occurred the pedigree is good 
to-day, and vice versa. The Quakers or 
Society of Friends represent a well 
selected group. They were stable in the 
first instance and kept so by selective 
marriage. But too much intermarriage 
tended to weakness and insanity among 
them. On the other hand marriage out- 
side the Society has tended to lower the 
quality. Here, again, we have an object 
lesson in brain development, as for forty 
years they have been absorbing good 
specimens of the working classes, and 
now the children of this poorer class are 
turning out very well, showing some of 
the higher qualities which go to make 
up breed. 

We cannot omit the subject of Pedigree 
or Breed in considering each individual, 
in order to give it every chance of brain 
development and raise it to as high a 
level as possible. 

Let us suppose that the elusive quality 
Breed or Heredity is a physical quantity 
represented by the letter H. If, then, 
there is a person of good heredity he con- 
tains two portions of heredity, one from 
the father which we call FH, and one 
from the mother which we call MH. So 
long as he marries on the same plane all 
the children will contain two portions of 
heredity FH and MH. But suppose a 
son marry a girl who possesses no breed 
or heredity then the children only have 
one portion FH. In this way H may be 
diluted at each fresh generation till the 
offspring are of such poor quality that we 
call them mongrels. But just as we may 



81 



The Development of the Child's Brain. 



dilute or destroy H — the quantity of 
heredity — so by careful marriage among 
normals we may reaccumulate it. Sup- 
posing two persons married who had one- 
eighth each of H, then the children would 
be better than their parents and each have 
one quarter of H. This is in truth what 
we observe daily and what we must en- 
deavour to cultivate for the sake of the 
offspring. 

Let us take another case where a man 
is blessed with two portions of H, one 
from each parent. Supposing he is led 
astray and develops alcoholism or con- 
tracts syphilis, his brain is so poisoned 
that his fine inherited qualities are 
destroyed and it is uncertain whether they 
can be transmitted. Probably he trans- 
mits less and so his children are poorer 
in quality than himself. 

I wish now to place before you a 
curious biological problem— Can a human 
degenerate or even imbecile produce 
normal children? The biologist says Yes. 
The physician says No. Which is the 
case? Observation supports the physician 
in most cases, but I have in mind a 
feeble-minded boy, in fact a degenerate 
but not a wicked youth, who at the age 
of 19 married a very nice girl of the same 
age. At the age of 22 he was the father 
of three children. One appears of very 
good intelligence and the other two are 
certainly on a higher level than the 
father. But listen to the biologist's 
theory. When the fertilised ovum 
develops it divides and subdivides into 
a mass of smaller cells. At a very early 
stage this mass separates into two groups 
which never combine again. 

One group is called the somatic group, 
because they build up the soma or body ; 
while the other group forms the germinal 
cells which carry on the race. The soma- 
tic group, in reality the body, enclose or 
cover over the germinal group which 
form the organs of generation. For in- 
stance, in the case of the hen. The hen 
is a covering for the egg. Beyond that 
the hen has but a little to do with the 
egg. The egg forming organs derive 
nourishment and protection from the hen, 



but nothing that the hen does will in- 
fluence the egg. This fact is used by 
biologists who say that alcohol makes 
no difference to the offspring. But we 
know that alcohol affects the blood which 
flows to the generative organs and starves 
the elements from which the ova spring. 
Syphilis and tubercle act by direct infec- 
tion after conception. 

We see from this that feeble-minded- 
ness is a purely somatic condition and as 
it is quite apart from the germinal cells 
why should these germinal cells be af- 
fected? Why should they transmit what 
is really an acquired condition? It is 
quite possible that the explanation of 
feeble-mindedness consists in some taint, 
which taint causes an impaired brain 
development in succeeding generations. 
Or it may be that this elusive property 
H, or heredity, as it gets more and more 
diluted, results in brain development, for 
after all the finest gift of heredity is a 
healthy brain. 

What I wish to emphasise is that the 
development of the brain is the keynote 
of the present life, and if so we may sup- 
pose of the great hereafter. Brain 
development is not to be measured by 
school learning or intellectual smartness. 
It includes much more, stability of char- 
acter and morale. 

We have to aim at the best output 
possible, and while nourishment and en- 
vironment demand the closest attention 
the main factor is heredity. Heredity im- 
plies stability, in fact stability is one of 
the routes to heredity. To gain that we 
must not only have careful mating but 
we must avoid maternal exhaustion. 

We can only work as individuals, each 
in our own small circle, but though we 
are often discouraged, let us not despair 
but take heart. If we all plod on work- 
ing on the same lines, the world will 
benefit. Every unborn child from an ex- 
hausted mother, who has been saved an 
entre and miserable existence is a cause 
for thankfulness. While every child who 
has been cai'efuUy thought out before its 
entre, and cared for after its arrival must 
give the guardian of that family or child 



Norah March, B.Sc. 



82 



a joy which comes like a ray of light and 
hope as we look over the darkness of our 
present social misery. 

What we want is quality. At present 
the quantity overwhelms us. 



TLbc Ueacblng of Sejual Ibraiene. 

By Norah March, b.sc. 

Assuming that the responsibility of sex 
enlightenment will be left to the school, 
the question arises, " How is it to 
be done?" I will show first of all 
how the school may become the agent for 
sex-instruction, for it is in the school that 
we have opportunity of systematic teach- 
ing; but it must not be thought that par- 
ental effort is depreciated; rather would I 
urge that parents proceed along the same 
lines, looking at the subject from the same 
point of view, and adding to the weight 
thereof the whole bias of good parental 
influence. 

There are certain essential conditions 
which successful teaching should seek to 
fulfil, and keeping these, together with 
the trinity of aspect — moral, physical, and 
spiritual — in view, a scheme may be for- 
mulated. (1) It should give the sex organs 
and functions a normal, unaccentuated 
place in life. (2) In order to do this, the 
customary obscurity in which the child's 
search for knowledge is conducted should 
be illuminated; the subject of sex should 
be dealt with in a dignified way, openly, 
purely, definitely and clearly. (3) Instruc- 
tion in sex hygiene and physiology should 
follow naturally and logically. (4) The 
ethical obligations of the sex life should 
be developed and, reasons for moral con- 
duct in sex being supplied, brought into 
intimate relation with the child's concep- 
tion of personal responsibility. (5) The 
course of instruction should form adequate 
approach to preparation for parenthood. 
(6) Throughout, the spiritual beauty of 
the sex ideal should be inculcated. 

Now, as to the fulfilling of these condi- 
tions and aims. If the child comes to 
school already equipped with pure know- 
ledge of the transmission of human life, 



the task of the school is to supplement 
and re-inforce the knowledge, bringing to 
such performance all the advantages of 
pedagogical methods, and a complete 
course may be suggested which would do 
this, at the same time, would inform those 
who are ignorant and reform the informa- 
tion of those who have gained it from 
impure sources. To this class belong the 
vast majority of children attending the 
elementary schools, many of whom live in 
environment of limitation and degradation 
and whose only hope of uplift lies in the 
hands of the elementary school teacher. 

To achieve this threefold aim it will be 
necessary to begin in the early years of 
the child's hfe, to lay a foundation, and 
by means of a nature study course be- 
ginning in the early years of childhood, 
introduce the child to the processes of 
fertilisation and to some extent to its re- 
sults. It has to be clearly realised that 
the majority of children (as Dr. Stanley 
Hall and his pupils have shown) first ask 
questions evincing their curiosity as to the 
origin of babies, between the ages of three 
years and seven years. The usual custom 
is to evade these questions or answer them 
by myth or fairy tale, which, in a short 
time, if not immediately, the child tacitly 
discards and seeks information elsewhere. 
Now, it must be remembered that when 
a young child asks a question as to where 
it came from (or similar question bear- 
ing on the origin of life) it is not asking 
a question of sexual import. It is merely 
showing the awakening of the innate 
curiosity about birth to which it has the 
right to receive a direct, true reply, given, 
of course, in a measure to its under- 
standing. 

To indicate how nature study may be 
made to serve, it is possible to arrange 
a sequence of types such as shall prepare 
a background for reference by which 
human reproduction may be explained. 
Such types may be dealt with on the best 
lines of teaching, by first-hand observa- 
tion and in simple terms. The study of 
large flowers with the reproductive organs 
clearly shown, reveals to the child where 
the baby plants come from and how they 



83 



The Teaching of Sexual Hygiene. 



are made. And observation of germinat- 
ing seeds shows how the baby plants grow 
up. Simple terms, such as " pollen-box," 
" seed-box," are quite sufficient. " Each 
little egg in the seed-box can only grow 
into a seed if it joins to a little ' pollen- 
grain ' (or sperm)." It is an interesting 
thing to observe that very young chil- 
dren assimilate the fundamentals of the 
reproductive processes in plants very 
easily indeed. 

The idea of sex may be brought out by 
the study of conspicuous unisexual 
flowers, using the terms " father plant " 
and " mother plant," and in this connec- 
tion the terms " male," " female," 
" sperm " and " egg " should be intro- 
duced into the vocabulary of the child. 
They are, after all, simple monosyllabic 
words and present no difficulty. The 
agency of the wind and insects in effecting 
fertilization is coincidently observed. 

The study of animal life reveals the 
evolution of sex, and types may be selected 
showing various grades of elaboration in 
the reproductive processes. It is not de- 
sirable to lay down autocratic lines for the 
making of this selection, which should, 
of course, largely depend upon types 
available in the environment. But types 
may be selected and dealt with in such a 
way that there is a gradual sequence of 
acquaintance culminating in the mammal, 
and what applies to the mammal biologic- 
ally applies to man. 

During such a course, questions on 
human babies may have arisen, and 
should be answered just as naturally as 
asked, without going into the then un- 
necessary details, e.g., in the early years 
it is sufficient to say that all young 
things come from their mothers, and that 
a baby girl or boy grows within its 
mother's body, where she takes care of it 
till it is strong enough to come into the 
world, just as the baby nut grows inside 
of the hazel cup, and is taken care of by 
the mother hazel plant. Then continued 
study of other types is preparing the way 
for the revelation of human reproduction, 
which, after such a sequence of acquaint- 
ance, comes without any hiatus or shock. 



Throughout the nature work, reproduc- 
tion should receive no special emphasis, but 
should merely be regarded as systematically 
as are movement, nutrition, family life : in 
short, all the phases of plant and animal 
life. Tactful and aesthetic treatment of 
subject will bring out the relation of sex 
to beauty, care of offspring, including 
pre-natal life, eggs and their develop- 
ment, home-building, care of reproductive 
organs, provision of food for offspring, 
enlargement of maternal form, principles 
of heredity, etc. Such a scheme infiltrat- 
ing the nature study course of a school 
(which course would give plenty of scope 
for revision by consideration of allied 
types) might attain comprehension of the 
fundamentals of human reproduction by 
the time the pupils are, say, from eight to 
ten years of age. 

Nature study on similar lines, extending 
acquaintance with plant and animal life, 
would continue to receive a place in 
the curriculum and later be augmented by 
or substituted by physiology and hygiene, 
according as time permitted. At the age 
of thirteen or fourteen, girls and boys are 
just realising the fact that education has 
its direct value to after-school life, and 
it is the age at which physiology and 
hygiene are appreciated. 

Physiology and Hygiene. These sub- 
jects already find a place in the curricu- 
lum of many schools, but as usually 
treated, they do not deal with the physio- 
logy and hygiene of sex. Now, I do not 
wish it to be thought that it is advisable 
to give special attention to the reproduc- 
tive organs in physiology and hygiene 
classes. All that is necessary is to dis- 
miss the old policy of ignoring the exist- 
ence of generative organs, and to give 
them due, systematic treatment merely 
according them a measure of attention 
such as is given to the other systems of 
the body. And in special, may it be sug- 
gested that the internal organs receive 
more consideration than the external 
ones. The nervous system and its inter- 
relation with the other body systems, is 
of important issue from our point of view 
(instruction in sexual hygiene), and care 



Norah March, B.Sc. 



84 



should be taken to reveal how dependent 
the health of the individual is upon the 
harmonious working of the body systems, 
and how particularly important is the re- 
action between, e.g., the digestive system 
and the nervous system; the reproductive 
system and the nervous system. 

A word in connection with physiological 
diagrams. Conventionalised drawings 
sketched in black and white, as required 
to illustrate points, will be sufficient to 
elucidate instruction. 

In connection with hygiene, the pre- 
valence of gonococcus infection and of 
syphilis, together with a better under- 
standing of the terrible results of their 
activity, have largely contributed to 
the increase of demand for instruc- 
tion of the young in sex hygiene. 
They are frequently spoken of as the 
" venereal " diseases, the " shameful " 
diseases; yet we know that they may be 
contracted without any sexual irregulari- 
ties, in ways which inflict no stigma upon 
the innocent sufferer. Dr. Helen Putnam 
appeals for the term " social diseases " 
being adopted in the hygiene course, and 
being used to include tuberculosis, typhus, 
syphilis and gonococcus infection : in 
short, all those diseases the spread of 
which depends upon our social practices. 

It is not part of my scheme to suggest 
that an attempt to restrain boys and girls 
should be made by the induction of fear, 
by such enlightenment of the evil results 
and the prevalence of these special 
diseases as shall frighten them into moral 
conduct, for such a way of attaining 
the aim we hope to accomplish would be 
lowering to the aim and to the resultant 
moral factor in character-building. An 
exalted ideal of the sex life will establish 
a firm basis of self-respect, and create a 
definite contributory factor to moral in- 
tegrity in the sex life. 

So that while suggesting the incorpor- 
ation of gonococcus infection and syphilis 
in the list of social diseases for treatment 
in the school course of hygiene, I also 
suggest that they be given that measure 
and method of treatment which shall serve 
to inform pupils of their existence and the 



effect on the race, in the same way as we 
deal with tuberculosis, so that the result 
will be, while not inculcating the restraint 
of fear, to educate opinion along lines 
which shall lead to demand for reform. 
Herein lies the trend of citizenship. 
Nature study and biology may be made 
to form a perfectly adequate approach to 
the study of transmissible and infectious 
disease. 

Ethics. To turn to another aspect of 
the question. Mere biological training is 
insulficient to fulfil the high aim. Instruc- 
tion in hygiene added, still leaves it in- 
complete. Sexual hygiene is not merely 
an affair of the body; it is also an affair 
of the mind : so the ethical, spiritual and 
emotional aspects demand our considera- 
tion. Without a sound moral foundation, 
sex instruction will be inadequate. Yet 
I have dealt with the biological side first, 
because it is essential that a knowledge 
of physical facts must form a basis for 
moral conduct. Moreover, the expanded 
outlook gained by intimate knowledge of 
the processes of nature, has an automatic 
response in character formation ; its con- 
tributory value is great. More than that, 
I venture to think that nature study and 
biology, taught by a tactful, inspired 
teacher, will already have achieved, in- 
directly, a certain amount of moral train- 
ing, and prepares the way by providing 
analogies (the young mind is very recep- 
tive of explanation by analogy) for direct 
reference to the ethical considerations in 
the sex life. 

Dr. Foerster, a recent writer on this 
question, though he apparently discredits 
the equal value of biological with moral 
training, is rightly emphatic upon the 
importance of making clear the difference, 
so far as reproduction is concerned, be- 
tween animals and man (that while animal 
life is governed by the sex-impulse, that 
same impulse is under the responsible con- 
trol of man), and to this end advocates 
the training of the will, inculcation of self- 
denial, self-discipline by self-conquest. 

The spirit of altruism is called into play 
when the claim of the race calls for sacri- 
fice of the desires of the individual; and 



85 



The Teaching of Sexual Hygiene. 



perhaps a word may be mentioned here, 
in connection with the training- of girls. 
The love of power, the desire to fascinate 
may often lead a girl to their gratifica- 
tion at the expense of masculine feelings, 
and often at considerable test to mascu- 
line moral restraint. The inculcation of 
the altruistic spirit will find its justifica- 
tion when girls are led to understand 
something of the nature of the masculine 
side of the question and to realise that a 
woman may do untold harm by apparently 
harmless lines of conduct. An under- 
standing;, too, of the changes through 
which a boy is passing when his voice be- 
gins to break will lead to kindness on the 
part of his sister, rather than the teas- 
ing he so often receives. So also a boy's 
respect for and consideration for girls 
and women may be re-inforced by a sym- 
pathetic understanding of womanhood. 

Throughout our efforts at sex-education 
for girls and boys the dignity and privi- 
lege of motherhood should permeate, de- 
veloping- in its train a high ideal of father- 
hood to guide unconsciously a girl in her 
choice of the father of her children and a i 
boy in his choice of wife. A high con- 
ception of woman's function will neces- 
sarily lead to intense self-respect and sup- 
ply a positive motive for moral integrity 
in the sex life of both boys and girls 
which would far outrun any efforts at 
establishing- restraint through the nega- 
tive method, the " cultivation of the 
sense of shame." 

The scientific side of sex-education is, 
it will be seen, of great importance, essen- 
tially from the point of view of the estab- 
lishment of physical facts. But it must 
not be thought that our efforts will by 
any means find their ultimate expression 
here. The achievement of our aim calls 
for every educational subject to contri- 
bute its share. Such religious training as 
our schools afford ought to be brought to 
bear upon the sex life, to strengthen and 
uplift; every help it can supply should be 
extracted, not ignored, as it has hitherto, 
most generally been. 

The value of literature towards the sex 
life is very considerable. Some German 



teachers, we are told, have a carefully- 
selected course of love stories for boys 
and girls, which are used for the purpose 
of bringing out the highest and most 
chivalrous side of passion at an age when 
the pupil is most susceptible of its ideali- 
sation. Perhaps the compilation of a list 
of books in this way might tend to over- 
emphasis; however, the teacher of litera- 
ture may so utilise and select his subject- 
matter as to explain those aspects which 
the biologist touches upon but little. Pro- 
fessor Earl Barnes points out how import- 
ant it is that, in our work of constructing 
a scheme of sex-education, we should not 
ignore the pleasures of sex. Some guid- 
ance is essential and here the teacher of 
literature can step in and show how 
grievous, how harmful to others, desire 
for pleasure, in its gratification may be. 

The subject of literature in relation to 
sex-education is wide. I must leave it 
to your own research to find the many 
opportunities it affords of placing a high 
ideal before boys and girls, of helping 
them to an understanding of social experi- 
ence, in addition to the benefit they derive 
from intellectual culture and the infusion 
of high ideals such as comes to the adoles- 
cent steeped in the study of our master- 
pieces of literature, both in poetry and 
prose. 

To indicate briefly how other school 
subjects lend a hand. History and geo- 
graphy taught on the broad lines of 
training for citizenship give width of 
horizon; knowledge of social ill-health and 
its evil effects, with this extended survey 
which consideration of civics gives, would 
lead to widespread demand for reform : 
that is the patriotic aspect of parenthood. 
Domestic training, both hygienic and 
practical. In the school curriculum, be- 
sides tending to improve nurtural condi- 
tions, raises the dignity of domestic 
labour, and would in this way be one of 
the factors tending to a revision of the 
status of the wife (which revision more 
especially in the lower classes is so badly 
needed). 

Athletics, gardening, physical culture, 
hobbies, social endeavour, all have their 



Norah March, B.Sc. 



86 



part to play in maintaining- a healthy 
balance, and in distracting- attention from 
the sex-life and its manifestations, for, in 
sex-instruction, the aim is, while g-iving 
definite information, to prevent intensifi- 
cation of the sex-emotions, to distract at- 
tention from the intimate sex experiences 
and so to delay the climax of adolescence. 

Preparation for parenthood should be 
extended further by instruction in mother- 
craft (including child-bearing, which in 
elementary outline should be conveyed to 
both boys and girls before they pass be- 
yond the direct school influence). In ele- 
mentary schools the leaving ag-e is a criti- 
cal age in the sex-life, but it normally re- 
presents the last chance the school has of 
exerting- direct influence, and I might sug-- 
gest that each boy and g-irl, after such a 
course of instruction as has been outlined, 
would be helped in after-school life if, on 
leaving, some suitable literature on the 
subject of youthhood leading up to parent- 
hood were either recommended or pre- 
sented. 

Biology. To indicate briefly the scope 
of the secondary school in relation to sex- 
studies, it may be said that if the prepara- 
tory school has not already achieved the 
introduction on the foregoing- lines, these 
would be followed. Then secondary school 
conditions would allow of more detailed 
biolog-ical study of the evolution of sex 
from the simple amoeboid forms to man. 
The pupil would in this biolog^ical work 
become familiar with the microscopic de- 
tails of fertilization and development; and 
an acquaintance with reproductive pro- 
cesses would be obtained by following- out 
a scheme on an evolutionary basis, i.e., 
from the simplest amoeboid forms through 
hermaphroditism and unisexualism, ex- 
ternal and internal fertilization, oviparous 
and viviparous types, culminating- in the 
highest type of specialisation, the 
mammal. 

In this work systematically including 
reproduction in the general study of type, 
the structure and function of the eg-g-cell 
and the sperm, "the carrying cells," is 
observed in detail; the pupil becomes 
aware of the different varieties and 



degrees of complexity in the reproductive 
and embryological processes; and by ex- 
tension of his rang-e of facts, is impressed 
with the marvellous provision nature 
makes for the perpetuation of life. More- 
over, the way is prepared for a better 
understanding of the working of the laws 
of heredity. 

Now, of course, such lines of work will 
call for somewhat different and amended 
qualifications on the part of teachers. 
Herein lies the work of the training col- 
lege, where courses of work such as 
would fit the students to deal with the 
biological approach to sex studies would 
be necessary. It will be realised, though, 
that the few rather than the many would 
be called upon, or indeed feel capable of 
dealing with the final stages of the sex 
studies. Yet all should have the training, 
not only to enable them to teach if neces- 
sary, but for their own personal benefit, 
to give them the right conception of the 
sexual life. 

The training should, consequently, 
proceed along the lines indicated in the 
school course, the physiology and hygiene 
courses duly incorporating the physiology 
and hygiene of sex, some training in the 
essentials of child-bearing, together with 
such information of the social evil, the 
social diseases, sexual malpractice, and 
the principles of heredity as may lead 
them to understand and to uplift the 
sexual life of the child. The symptoms 
and correction of sexual malpractice 
should be duly regarded, and the student 
should be guided to the understanding of 
temptations to which boys and girls may 
be exposed, so that they may be prepared 
to warn against and to forestall such 
falling into temptation as might be the 
outcome of ignorance. 

Successful teaching will very largely de- 
pend on the teacher who must deal with 
the topic without any feeling of em- 
barrassment, who must weave the subject 
matter so tactfully and cleverly that, 
though the aim of work is not announced, 
it is evident by the time it is achieved. 
When the biological references are skil- 
fully picked up and massed into a whole. 



87 



Parents and the Education oi the Sense of Sight. 



human processes may be taught largely 
by analogy. Skill in the provision of illus- 
tration will largely contribute to success. 
Further, to keep in view the vivid per- 
sonal aspect of sex studies, every attempt 
to accentuate the relation of the other 
subjects of the school curriculum to the 
personal experience and requirements of 
the child should be made. 

I have only attempted to indicate how 
sex-studies may be pursued. It is not ad- 
visable to attempt to lay down rules for 
the carrying out of instruction. One can 
merely recognise that while the funda- 
mentals of sex physiology and hygiene 
and the principles of right living could be 
dealt with in ordinary class, certain as- 
pects of the problem might be more effec- 
tively communicated to boys and girls on 
leaving school, or in continuation classes, 
or to individuals needing special help, 
e.g., though the iniquity of misusing the 
reproductive organs would be emphasised 
from the foregoing nature study reference 
in class, any child known to be a victim 
of the habit would require special counsel. 
In conclusion, let me make quite clear 
that I do not suggest " sex speciaUsts " 
any more than I suggest that " sex 
studies " as such should find a place in the 
school curriculum. But we must recog- 
nise the fact that, though the work covers 
a field of knowledge which every man and 
woman should have, it calls so much for 
personal efficiency and tactful treatment 
that it would be ineffectual, if not injuri- 
ous, in the wrong hands. 

Instruction in sexual hygiene is quite 
a possible introduction into the school and 
college curriculum. I have letters and 
communications from many teachers, 
chiefly in America, who have already dealt 
with the subject, and who speak satisfac- 
torily of the results obtained; and in 
England, too, there are instances of iso- 
lated attempts, which show that it is per- 
fectly possible to deal with this aspect of 
education in school, given, though, on 
the part of the teacher, not only know- 
ledge qualification, but thorough per- 
sonal efficiency. 



parents an^ tbe EMicatton of tbe 
Sense of SiQbt. 

By M. Jules Renault, 
Inspector of Training Colleges, formerly Pro- 
fessor in a Training College, Belgium. 
Translated by T. G. Tibbey, b.a. 
Most of the ideas we have of the exter- 
nal world come to us through the sense 
of sight; hence it is prudent to provide 
for our children some direct education of 
this sense, and to this end it is the 
parents' first duty to see that the organ 
of vision is unimpaired. 

It has been conclusively shown that 
myopia is less common in the country than 
in the town, a fact for which heredity 
offers some explanation, but it is heredity 
compounded with the environment. The 
normal eye is so constituted that it is able 
to see without effort at a mean distance 
of from six to nine yards. In towns we 
are most of the time shut up in places 
too small to call for such vision, and often 
badly lit, and the muscles of the crystal- 
line lens are almost constantly adjusted 
for an artificial degree of accommodation, 
a fact not without its influence upon the 
form of the lens itself. In the country on 
the other hand the view is not so often 
obstructed ; effort is rarer, fatigue is less, 
and it is not astonishing that the sight 
should be better. 

Fortunately it has now become common 
to have the children in the schools 
examined by the school doctor at the be- 
ginning of each year, and among other 
things he tests their vision. The teachers 
also are able to judge by vision test cards 
if the sight of a pupil is normal or not, 
and in the latter case the parents are 
warned, and advised to have the child 
more thoroughly examined. But nothing 
prevents parents from making, by means 
of vision tests, a general examination of 
their childrens' sight, even before they 
have arrived at school age, and there exist 
vision tests adapted to those unable to 

read. 

But in addition to this, parents are also 
able to train their children to look, to see 
and to remember; the normal eye is able 



Professor Bidart. 



88 



to look and see, but it does not follow 
that it knows how best to fulfil this double 
office; the education of the sense of sight 
should by a careful and progressive train- 
ing enable children to see many things 
together, quickly and accurately. 

By accurate vision is meant the power 
to distinguish forms and colours clearly, 
and to judge distances. How many chil- 
dren and adults are not able to differen- 
tiate the most obvious shades of even one 
colour, and how many aesthetic emotions 
are thus lost? They are incapable of per- 
ceiving the variety of colours in a view 
or a picture : the great displays of nature 
have no eloquence for them. The play of 
light, the delicate gradations of shades, 
the many harmonious tints do not exist 
for them, and their spirit is not moved by 
the poetry of colour. 

The eye is like a photographic camera, 
of which the sensitive plate is represented 
by the retina, upon which are imprinted 
the images of all objects within the field 
of vision. The object is to train children 
to look at, to see exactly and quickly many 
things at once, and this can be done by 
means of exercises which parents are able 
easily to set. Thus to train accuracy we 
can ask him to separate different tints in 
variously coloured wools, and more than 
one child we have known has been able 
after some months of such training to dis- 
tinguish the slightest shades of the same 
colour. Or we may reach the same end by 
calling the child's attention to the differ- 
ent colours in a picture, or in a landscape. 

We can also teach him to judge dis- 
tances, to compare lines that have been 
separately presented to him, etc. In order 
to teach him to see quickly we should 
show him for a very short time, two 
seconds for instance, some very simple 
figure such as a square, which he should 
then draw. The design can be compli- 
cated in proportion as he acquires visual 
power; a square open at the top, bottom, 
right or left; a rectangle, lozenge, tri- 
angle, then irregular figures increasing in 
difficulty, and then more complicated 
drawings. The progress made after a 
few such lessons is often astonishing. 



To the same end also a child can be 
shown a picture for two seconds and 
afterwards asked to tell what he has seen. 
The analysis will become more thorough 
in proportion as the child learns to see 
more in the same time. The conjuror 
Houdin put his son through a special 
course of training, which consisted in 
making him walk rapidly by the windows 
of a shop and notice as many objects as 
possible. There is evidently here, as in 
all the other exercises we have mentioned, 
both physical and intellectual education. 
The image imprinted on the retina should 
be brought to consciousness, and the exer- 
cise bears upon the rapidity of the intel- 
lectual act. 

At the end of some months the child 
perceived at one glance so many things 
that his father proclaimed him as being 
endowed with wonderful second sight and 
being able to tell the nature of any object 
presented to him, though his eyes were 
bandaged. That is to say the child, before 
his eyes were closed, had time to see all 
the objects in the room likely to be offered 
to him. 

Our ideal is evidently not the produc- 
tion of such prodigies, but such exercises 
are likely to give to a child a skill and a 
habit which cannot but be profitable to 
him. 



{Parent B^ucators. 

By Professor Bidart. 

Translated by Miss M. S. Ryan, B.A. 

5. The Hahit of Being Calm. Com- 
pare the following cases : Henry's mother 
is a peasant woman, obliged to work in 
the fields. Henry is usually left alone, 
either in his cradle or carefully wrapped 
up and placed under a tree. The child is 
good and quiet, amid quiet surroundings. 
Such a child is likely to develop a con- 
tented mind and a calm spirit. 

Peter, the hope and joy of a well-to- 
do family, is very different. Constantly 
nursed and handed round from mother to 
nurse and from nurse to grandmother, 
he is petted and spoilt and has not a 
moment's peace. He will suffer for it 



89 



Parent Educators. 



later, for a spoilt child easily becomes dis- 
agreeable and the disagreeable child 
grows into the ill-tempered man. The 
young child needs quiet quite as much 
as it needs fresh air and milk. A quiet 
atmosphere is not altogether easy to pro- 
cure for the growing child and yet per- 
haps it is one of the chief aids to the 
growth of the child's moral constitution, 
for it is during a period of repose that 
right feelings and a well-balanced intelli- 
gence are developed. The highest facul- 
ties as well as the noblest moral qualities 
alike owe their perfection to an atmo- 
sphere of serenity. And if ever our 
human nature needs this quality of re- 
pose it is in the bustle and excitement of 
the present moment when society is being 
ravaged by the terrible moral epidemic 
of nerves. Now, how can we procure for 
our child this calmness of temperament? 
Is not this pre-eminently one of Nature's 
gifts? Certainly, like every other good 
gift. But if we keep a young child in a 
constant state of agitation and excitement 
his nerves will soon become over-strained, 
the whole organism will suffer, health, in- 
telligence, temper and nature's hand- 
work will be spoilt by our lack of care. 
This law, then, follows very clearly: 
"Calm of the spirit depends closely upon 
calm in the surroundings. " The child will 
live in an atmosphere of calm, if he be 
brought up not to scream and to be easily 
satisfied and happy. 

The child who is in good health is 
naturally happy. Merely to be alive, to 
breathe, to look about, to move his limbs 
seems to make him happy. A child of 
six months, half awake in his cradle and 
playing with hands or toes is perfectly 
happy ; so, too, is a child of nine or ten 
months, sitting on a rug and amusing 
himself by scattering about various 
objects and gathering them together 
again. While he is thus playing, you 
can go on with your work, a look, some 
sign of interest from time to time, are 
enough to let him know that there is 
someone looking after him and that he 
is quite safe (Mme. de Saussure). 

One day Leo was thus busy playing 



with his toys, and from time to time feel- 
ing his little toes. His nurse suddenly 
swooped down upon him, danced him up 
and down and swung him about. When 
asked why she did this, she replied, " To 
amuse him." " He was better amused 
by himself," said the child's father. 
" Let us be careful not to disturb his 
inner activity ; it is more real and effi- 
cacious than any occupation which we 
impose upon him... Hence, it is better to 
occupy little children with things rather 
than with persons. Things are restful 
and not likely to upset their nerves ; per- 
sons inspire them either with sympathy 
or dislike." 

6. The Habit of being Sympathetic. — 
Hitherto we have only spoken of the cul- 
tivation of habits of direct value to the 
baby himself ; he must, however, begin 
to learn to do something for other people. 
But, it may be asked, can the little baby 
affect others by his acts? Yes, indeed; 
does he not make us suffer by his naugh- 
tiness and rejoice at his smiles? The 
child is naturally all smiles and affection 
where he is well and properly looked 
after. Provided he is kept in good health 
and free from excitement, he will be in- 
sensibly trained in sympathy, and if he 
sees about him only smiling, happy faces 
and hears kind, soft words, he will coo 
and smile. Love begets love. 

Only it is not enough for the child to 
love his mother and his nurse, he must 
be affectionate to all, even to strangers. 
The child should not be always entrusted 
to the same person, it is good to change 
him from one to another, and if he cries 
take no notice. A little girl of six months 
was in the habit of crying when her father 
took her from her mother. The father 
would then take her into the drawing^- 
room and try to distract her attention by 
making her look at something or other. 
A few seconds after, she had forgotten 
her fears, and by the end of a fortnight 
she ceased to resent the change. If at 
the first cry, the father had given her back 
to her mother, and had not persevered in 
this way, the child would never have 
wanted to leave her mother ; now she 



Professor Bidart. 



90 



goes to anyone willingly. Whenever the 
child is given to a stranger, the mother 
or nurse should always make a point of 
treating the person kindly and affec- 
tionately. The child's instinct of imita- 
tion will lead him to smile too, and thus 
he will learn to be loving to all. 

7. How to Form Certain Habits. — In 
brief, from the cradle upwards the child's 
physical well-being must be cared for by 
the laws of hygiene, and in the moral 
order he must be calm and affectionate. 
If we could secure this training for our 
child he would be able to say to us later 
on : "I possess the secret of happiness 
and the reason lies in the habits my 
parents made me contract. While I was 
thus being trained, I never suspected 
that things could be otherwise. I never 
suffered then and now I reap the benefit." 

Thus it is all-important to act in one 
way or another from the cradle, but which 
way? 

If I allow the child his own way at the 
beginning he may form bad habits, which 
he will afterwards find great difficulty in 
eradicating and still more, in replacing 
by good ones. One may bend a twig, 
but not a full-grown tree. A young 
mother says that the child's training 
must be begun during the first six 
years ; if left till later it is doomed to 
failure. 

If, one day, I put baby to sleep in his 
cradle, and another, in my arms ; if I 
sometimes accustom him to one regime 
and sometimes to another, his ideas be- 
come confused and he will not know what 
to expect. A second rule to follow is 
this : Treat your child always in the same 
way. 

Finally, if I want baby to stay in his 
cradle when he is tired of being there or 
to be quiet when he wants to stretch 
himself and move about, he cannot be 
expected to acquire habits altogether con- 
trary to his needs and wishes. I must 
manage so that he finds pleasure in form- 
ing good habits. 

Thus I deduce these three laws, obedi- 
ence to which must secure success : (1) 
Begin your training from the very first 



day ; (2) Have the same acts repeated 
again and again ; (3) Make their acquisi- 
tion easier by making them pleasurable. 
There is one fact I must take care never 
to forget, and that is the insecurity of 
habits at such an early age. " A little 
boy of two and a half," says M. Perez, 
" changed in disposition three or four 
times, according to the different places at 
which he stayed during a two months' 
holiday. At his uncle's he was very 
docile, gentle, loving and cheerful ; very 
disagreeable, sulky, quarrelsome and 
noisy at his aunt's ; and rather reserved 
and silent, amenable and obedient at the 
house of one of his mother's friends." 
Now, if a child's disposition changes ac- 
cording to his surroundings, he will be 
affected in the same kind of way if I 
change in my mariner towards him, for I 
shall be, so to speak, placing him in a 
different atmosphere. I must then be 
unceasingly on my guard and never relax. 

II. Obedience. Obedience is not gained 
by words alone, or by entreaties or by 
force. 

If obedience is to be obtained, we must 
set up the habit from the first year of 
childhood, we must know how to com- 
mand, inspire respect, win the child's 
goodwill and justify commands to him, 
and finally we must know how to stimu- 
late the desire to obey. 

If we are obliged to punish, we should 
avoid rebukes before others, angry words, 
excessive humiliations, terrifying or ab- 
surd threats, solitary confinement, blows, 
deprivation of playtime, or necessary food. 
Slight punishments, given at long inter- 
vals, are always felt very severely, e.g., 
displeasure, reproaches, temporary re- 
moval of esteem or show of affection. 
Above all our action must always be 
according to the individual character. 

All modes of punishment are of no avail 
without a common understanding between 
the father and mother. 

1, Bad ways of trying to get obedience. 
"Jean, you'll fall into the fire! Marie, 
don't get on the chair, you'll hurt your- 
self ! " And while saying this, the poor 
mother runs from one child to the other 



91 



Parent Educators. 



to snatch them by main force from dan- 
gers which they ought to have avoided, 
had they been accustomed to obey, at 
once. Injunctions frequently repeated and 
never Hstened to, make me think of a door 
bloAvn to and fro by the wind, never really 
open or properly shut. Shut it once for 
all and make an end of the matter. 

A little boy went, in spite of his father's 
prohibition, down to the water-side, the 
father brings him back in his arms, say- 
ing, " you must do as you are told, or 
else I shall make you; I am the stronger." 
" I don't care," replies the little rebel, 
struggling with hands and feet. Not a 
bad retort, my little man. You already 
feel that it is not brute force alone which 
rules us. 

" You dare to disobey me ! It won't 
be any good, I am the master ! " Yes, you 
are the master. Act like a master and 
don't talk about it. 

" I'll call the policeman ! I'll put you 
in prison ! I'll send you away to sea." 
This is what some fathers are always re- 
peating, but they are only idle threats 
which are never carried out. At first the 
child is afraid, then his ideas of right and 
might become confused, and he finds out 
that you do not mean what you say. Do 
you think that he can continue to respect 
you? 

" Wait ! I'm coming after you ! " This 
is a stupid threat; the child should feel 
respect for you, whether you are there or 
not. If you must " come," in order to be 
obeyed, do so without talking about it; 
another time, perhaps, you will not need 
to do so. 

" If I put myself into a temper, he is 
frightened." This remark is sometimes 
made even before the child. Sir, do you 
really mean that you put yourself into a 
temper? What an example for your son ! 
He may perhaps be pleased to have made 
you to put yourself into a passion, but is 
that a pleasure you should procure for 
him? You say he trembles before you? 
Truly one might think that you were proud 
of yourself. If your child discovers that 
you take pleasure in his fears — and he will 
discover it, sooner or later — will he not 



be likely to be less frightened in the future 
and possibly even, lose all fear of you in 
the end? 

Too many words, parents, too many 
words and amid them all, you will pro- 
bably give vent to some which you will 
afterwards regret. 

A mother was in a bad temper in the 
morning and had regained her good spirits 
by the afternoon : then she permitted her 
child to do what she had forbidden him 
in the morning. One day some sweet- 
meats were placed in his reach. He said 
to himself, " Not now, I'll have some this 
evening. Mother won't mind then." The 
child who reasons thus is beginning to 
despise his mother; of course he is in the 
wrong, but the fault is the mother's. 

Another little child used to ask for a 
piece of sugar between meals though he 
was not hungry. It was refused and he 
began to cry and scream. " Take it, take 
it," said the poor mother, " now, are you 
satisfied? " Of course, madam, the child 
is satisfied. He has got his sugar and he 
has found out how to make you do what 
he wants. 

Another mother, seeing her big boy of 
nine was too much engrossed in his game 
to go at once and do what she asked, 
said, " Here, take this chocolate and be 
off with you." Is your son, then, a hire- 
ling to be paid for whatever he may do? 

Another tried to bribe her little girl 
thus : " If you don't do what I tell you, 
you shan't have that pretty frock." So 
it is the desire for a useless frock — for if 
it were necessary, you would not threaten 
to deprive her of it — it is vanity that is 
to be the motive of your daughter's 
conduct? 

One parent acts from cowardice, 
another from a misguided idea of force — 
what a wretched household where one 
hears nothing but the child's cries and 
screams. One child stamps his feet in 
passion, the angry mother slaps him, the 
child utters hideous yells; another is doing 
something which he ought not to do at a 
moment when the poor parent's nerves 
are upset, the unfortunate child is cuffed 
soundly, while a third shouts, " Papa, 



Suggestions for Study and Practice. 



92 



Mama, I don't want to go out," and fills 
the air with his shrieks. Everywhere is 
excitement, the children are cross, the 
parents cannot control themselves, and the 
atmosphere is full of irritability : what an 
education, what goodness, what respect 
for rule can you hope to obtain? Take 
care then that there is little noise, few 
commands, few diflficulties. Send the chil- 
dren out so that they may get the neces- 
sary rest and change; once they come in, 
learn how to keep them busy and happy. 
[Etc.] 



SnQQCstione tor Stu^p anD 
practtce. 

The Value of Handwork. " All later 
mental processes concerned with thought 
and the ability to abstract, emerge from 
the background of sense, experience, and 
work in material provides this. Ac- 
tivity about things gives data from which 
to classify later, when the age for classi- 
fication and the more formal ordering of 
knowledge begins. The child who knits 
her stocking, using the third needle to 
enable her to enclose a space, is storing 
up, though perhaps unaware of the princi- 
ple, data from which she will one day be 
able to appreciate the geometric truth that 
two straight lines cannot enclose a 
space... This empirical knowledge is very 
valuable, and much activity about things 
gives, in the earlier stages, a rich store of 
experience over which to work later."— 
Woutrina A. Bone in The Service of the 
Hand in the School. 

Pliysical Measurements and Mental 
Retardation. — From a comparison of the 
heights, weights and vital capacities 
(measured by a wet spirometer) of 105 re- 
tarded boys (in different classes of a 
school), i.e., those below the class to which 
most of their age obtain, with those of 
normal progress, it appears that : " Since 
[their] height and weight vary least from 
the norm, it seems that the demands of 
growth must be satisfied first and then that 
the remaining energy can be turned to 
other work. This is suggested as a pos- 



sible factor in accounting for much of the 
retardation. 

" Without isolating the different factors 
that contribute to the retardation, definite 
conclusions cannot be drawn; yet the 
limited data presented suggests the fol- 
lowing : That the retarded children are as 
a group apt to be below the normal or 
accelerated in each of the measurements. 
That the accelerated tend to stand above 
the norm. That the accelerated and nor- 
mal show a higher vital capacity per pound 
than the retarded. That vital capacity 
varies most from the norm." — D. W. 
De Busk, on " Height, Weight, Vital 
Capacity and Retardation," in The Peda- 
gogical Seminary, March, 1913. 

Civics in Schools. — " In some schools, 
that the children may learn the rights of 
citizenship, elections are held, members 
nominated, and the whole process gone 
through as in the real world. This seems 
to me waste of time. So, too, does the 
frivolous practice of allowing children to 
bring forward pretended Bills and discuss 
them in class, such as ' A Bill for the 
Abolition of Home Work,' and so on. It 
is making childish what must ever be of 
the greatest earnestness and importance, 
and in after years the atmosphere the chil- 
dren brought in school days to the con- 
sideration of elections and Acts of Parlia- 
ment will linger. 

" In conclusion, every lesson, in so far 
as it tends to help the child to self-realisn- 
tion, and so to self-control, is tending to 
produce good citizens : citizens who know 
what they want to do, and will do it well, 
even if it be only sweeping roads; every 
lesson that tends to impart information 
only, and gives a false culture, is tending 
to produce bad citizens, who will not know 
what they want to do because they do not 
know themselves, and will mistake their 
crammed inform.ation for wisdom." — R. 
K. Polkinghorne, B.A., on " Civics in 
Schools," The Journal of Education, 
April, 1913. 

Dr. Montessori and Traditional 
Methods. — "Experiment and not tradition 
for tradition's sake, is the keynote to Dr. 
Montessori 's attitude. When she appears 



93 



Notices and News. 



in revolt against school tradition it is be- 
cause she regards the customary practice 
as detrimental to the development of the 
individual child as a member of a social 
community. In England, perhaps, many 
of the faults of infant teaching which Dr. 
Montessori aimed at suppressing have 
disappeared or are tending to disappear 
under the influence of Froebelian ideas. 
It is not part of my task to compare the 
ideas of Foebel and Dr. Montessori. The 
latter is to my mind fortunately free from 
the symbolism of the former, and I regard 
the abolition of collective teaching for such 
young children, except in so far as they 
form themselves into groups and ask for 
it, as an advantage of the Montessori 
plan." — Dr. Jessie White , on " The Prim- 
rose Path : a Criticism," in The Educa- 
tional Times, April, 1913. 

Knowledge and the Soul. " So far 
from its being a matter of indifference, 
the kind of knowledge supplied to the 
educand is of the first importance in de- 
termining the sort of being into which 
he will develop. . . . Information ac- 
quired without being assimilated is worse 
than useless, since it is not only incapable 
of practical application, but takes up the 
room of better material. Its presence 
weakens the potentiality of the soul. True 
knowledge, on the other hand, is what 
becomes a part of the soul that assimi- 
lates it, and strengthens that soul. It is 
not so much that the truly educated soul 
has certain portions of knowledge as that 
it is those portions : they become of its 
very essence." — Prof. Adams, in his book 
on " The Evolution of Educational 
Theory." 



Botices an^ Bews. 

The Education of Sight. — We are greatly in- 
debted to M. Jules Renault for his courteous per- 
mission to publish this translation of his very in- 
teresting and instructive article for parents. He 
has generously consented to allow us to publish 
translations of other articles contributed by him to 
L' Education Familiale, and we shall gladly make 
use of the opportunity. 

Our Exchange List. Our journal appears to be 
getting more and more widely known. We have 
received invitations to exchange with Euginique, 
a new quarterly to be issued by the French 



Eugenics Society, under the editorship of Monsieur 
Lucien March, Registrar-General of France ; with 
The American Teacher, a monthly (except July and 
August), which is published in New York, U.S.A., 
and has for its motto " Democracy in Education ; 
Education for Democracy" ; with The Magazine 
Bulletin of the American Institute of Child Life 
(Philadelphia, U.S.A.); with a Russian weekly 
Social-Fedagogical Journal entitled " School and 
Life " ; and with L'Intcrmddiare des Educateurs, 
the journal of L'Ecolc des Sciences de I'Education 
(Institut J. J. Rousseau). 

School Diet. — A conference will be held at The 
Guildhall, London, on June 30th and July 1st. The 
opening session will be devoted to a discussion of 
papers, which will be printed and circulated in 
advance, on the working of the English and Scot- 
tish Acts governing the provision of meals for 
necessitous school children. At the second the 
educational aspect of the problem, the meals of 
country school children and the relation of school 
and home will be considered. The morning of 
July 1st will be taken up with a discussion of the 
teaching in public elementary schools of personal 
hygiene, food values, catering and cookery, while 
the concluding session will be devoted to the con- 
sideration of diet, cookery and hygiene in day and 
residential institutions for children and adoles- 
cents, both public and philanthropic, including 
open air and special schools, reformatories, indus- 
trial schools and Poor Law institutions. Full par- 
ticulars will be sent to anyone forwarding a 
stamped addressed envelope to the Secretary, 
National Food Reform Association, 178, St. 
Stephen's House, Westminster. 

Additions to Library. — Since issue of catalogue 
the following books have been added to the Child- 
Study Library : — Introduction to the Study of 
Adolescent Education, pp. 185, 1912, by Cyril 
Bruyn Andrews. Twelve Years with My Boys, 
pp. 248, 1912, by Anon. L'annee Pddagogique, 
pp. 487, 1911, by Cell6rier et Dugas. The Mental 
Effects of a Child's Environment, pp. 17, 1911, by 
T. S. Clouston. Childhood, pp. 90, 1912, by Fred 
Davis. RosTvitha — being leaves from the life of 
my little daughter, pp. 332, 1913, by Otto Ernst. 
Essays on Duty and Discipline, pp. 736, 1911, by 
Otto Ernst. Marriage and the Sex Problem, 
pp. 228, 1912, by F. W. Foerster. Diary of a 
Free Kindergarten, pp. 175, 1912, by Lileen 
Hardy. Plans for the Government and Liberal 
Instruction of Boys in large numbers as practised 
at Hazel-wood School, pp. 348, 1914, by M. D. 
Hill. Sporadic Congenital deafness, pp. 77, by 
Kerr Love. Health of the School Child, pp. 120, 
1906, by W. Leslie Mackenzie. National Confer- 
ence on Prevention of Destitution, pp. 766, 1911 ; 
pp. 590, 1912. Introductioji to Experimental Edu- 
cation, pp. 303. 1912, by Robert R. Rusk. Experi- 
mental Psychology and Pedagogy, pp. 364, 1912, 
by R. Schulze. Mentally Deficient Children — 
their Treatment and Training, pp. 236, 1910, 3rd 
edition, by G. E. Shuttleworth and W. A. Potts. 



Reviews. 



04 



The Monlessori System in Theory and Practice, 
pp. 78, 1912, by Theodate Smith. Experityiental 
Studies of Mental Defectives : a Critique of the 
BinetSimon Tests, pp. 155, 1912, by J. E. Wal- 
lace Wallin. Life of Benjamin Waugh, by Rosa 
Waugh. Causes Leading to Educational Deaf- 
ness, pp. 37, 1912, by Macleod Yearsley. Educa- 
tion of the Deaf, pp. 43. 1911, by Macleod Years- 
ley. Adenoids, pp. 110, 1901, by Macleod 
Yearsley. 

Thanks to Mrs. G. O. H. Jackson, a member of 
the Exeter Child-Study Society, we are able to give 
our readers a review of the Rivista di Psicologia. 
The Editor would be glad to receive such a gener- 
ous response to all his requests. 



■Reviews. 

The Conser-^ation of the Child. By Arthur Holmes, 
Ph.D. Lippincott and Co. Pp. 3^5. Price 
4s. 6d. net. 
This is a manual of clinical psychology present- 
ing the e.xamination and treatment of backward 



than the only English book which is extensively 
quoted. 

There is a well digested historical account 
of the education of defectives, followed by an 
account of the psychological clinic and its methods. 
For teachers as well as doctors the book is full 
of interest and suggestions. "In fact the success 
of an ordinary examination depends not so much 
upon specialized apparatus as it does upon the in- 
ventive genius of the investigator in the manipula- 
tion of the simplest objects at his command . . . . 
Common toys will therefore often surpass expen- 
sive apparatus in utility." The office of director 
and chief examiner in such an institution, he 
thinks, should be held by a psychologist. We would 
be inclined to suggest that neither psychologist nor 
doctor as such, is sufficient, but that the director 
should combine both functions, and should also 
have a working knowledge of the school and the 
teacher's work, all of which means some specialized 
training to this end. 

The classification of the cases is well given, and 
a table from Goddard, of Vlneland, may be quoted, 
from its lucidity in comparing nomenclature, in- 
dustrial classification and the Binet scale. 



Mental 


Age. 


1 


year (uniltr) 


1 


year 




2 


years 




3 


years 




4 


years 




o 


years 




6 


vears 




7 


vears 




8 


years 




9 


years 




10 


years 




11 


vears 





12 years 



Industrial Classification. 



(a) Helpless, (b) can walk, (c) with voluntary 

regard 
Feeds self, eats everything 
Eats discriminatingly 
No work, plays a little 
Tries to help 
Only simplest tasks 
Tasks of short duration. 
Little errands in house. 



Washes disiies 
Dusts 



Errands, light work, makes beds 

Heavier work. Scrubs, mends, lays bricks, cares 
for the bathroom 

Good institution helpers. Routine work 

Fairly complicated work with only occasional 
oversight 

Uses machinery, can care for animals, no super- 
vision, cannot plan 



Nomenclature. 



I ) Low 

Middle 
High 

Low 

Middle 

High 

Low 



Middle 
High 



Idiots 



■ Imbeciles 



Morons 



children, by the Assistant Director of the Psycho- 
logical Clinic in the University of Pennsylvania. 
This clinic has been in existence for sixteen years. 
Such an institution has long been urged as a 
necessity in centres of population such as London, 
Manchester, or Leeds, but with our capacity for 
muddling along, it remains a want. For actual 
advances in knowledge we are content to be para- 
sitic on the work of France, Germany, and 
America. 

Remembering the purpose of the writer, his 
book may be shortly stated as most satisfactory 
and very much better for all practical purposes 



The informing discussion of classifications cannot 
unfortunately be abstracted, but full warnings in 
regard to the application of such tests as the now- 
popular scale of intelligence are quoted. Binet 
himself wrote for those persons who desire to 
employ the method that anyone can use it for his 
own personal satisfaction or to obtain an approxi- 
mate evaluation of a child's intelligence ; but for 
scientific results it is absolutely necessary that the 
observer should have served an apprenticeship in 
a pedagogical laboratory or possess a thorough 
knowledge of psychological experimentation. 

The account of moral deviates is fuller than in 



95 



Reviews. 



any similar work, and whilst quite satisfactory 
shows that the author is still groping for a working 
hypothesis of moral imbecility. 

Although the suggestion is not elaborated, yet 
these psychological tests in the case of the younger 
children should always be checked by physical or 
physiological observation. .\ scale of physiologi- 
cal age is as important as the standard of intel- 
ligence. Both are necessary evidence in forming 
what must ultimately become a legal judgment. 
Mental defect has to be classified in relation to 
society. We are still committed to the mistake 
of thinking that it is economy to attempt to make 
some (Kirtion of the classes described in the table 
quoted above contribute to their own support. I 
Thereby enormous expense indirectly results. They 
are not and never can be self-supporting. For the j 
sake of society they are to be deprived of much, | 
they should have much made up to them, but they ! 
should also be made thoroughly innocuous for the { 
future. Although this book does not discuss these 
solutions, it brings them nearer. The clearness 
with which it sets out classifications will generally 
raise the whole level of knowledge of the subject 
with which it deals, and help common sense to 
replace much sentiment. 

Music and Delight. By John Daulbv Peakk, B.-'V. 
Pp. 52 (music size). The Vincent Music Co. 
Price 3s. net. 
This is a book of twelve lessons to be given by 
a mother to her child, so as to prepare for the 
music teacher, and contains some good sugges- 
tions for learning piano-playing experimentally 
and through song. Mucli more numerous and 
more carefully graded exercises would be needed 
by the mother who cannot discover such for her- 
self. 

L'Ifitermediare des Educateurs. Published by 
L'EcoLE DES Sciences de l'Education (Insti- 
tut J.J. Rousseau), Geneva ; six numbers per 
year. Price : 3 fr. in Switzerland, 3.50 
abroad ; for teachers, 1.50 in Switzerland, 
2 abroad. 

The aim of this journal is " to contribute to the 
building up of Positive Pedagogy, on the one hand 
by initiating those who wish to take part in the 
work into the questions which need solution and 
suitable methods for solving them, and on the 
other by serving as a connecting link between in- 
vestigators, and grouping and co-ordinating their 
investigations and results... By Positive Pedagogy 
is meant a pedagogy founded upon facts, observa- 
tions, and systematic and controlled experiments, 
not upon atfirmations which, so long as they have 
not undergone the test of verification, represent 
only— however excellent they may be in them- 
selves — mere opinions." The first number, Octo- 
ber 12th, 1912, contains a suggestive note on " The 
use of the watch in a reading lesson," and a ques- 
tionnaire to discover " at what age a child feels 
the need of a definition such as the adult would 
formulate." 



The American Teacher. New York, U.S.A. 50 
cents a year. 
Vol. II., No. 3, March, 1913, of this journal 
contains a questionnaire on Corporal Punishment 
in School, addressed to head teachers in New 
York, and three very interesting replies thereto. 
Other replies are to be published. 

La Rivista di Psiclwlogia. Edited by Professor G. 

Cesare Ferrari and Dr. Luigi Baroncini. 

Bologna. Pp. 120. Price, L. 15 for Italy and 

25 abroad, per annum. 
This review is the organ of the Italian Psycho- 
logical Society and liie Institute of Experimental 
Psychology in Rome. The January-February num- 
ber contains an extremely interesting and able 
account by Sig. H. Gemelli of researches and 
experiments made by him on the subject of illu- 
sions in the field of textile sensations. In a short 
prefatory notice the author lays particular stress 
upon the importance of studying closely and e.\- 
haustively all the factors which determine these 
illusions. The aim of his researches and experi- 
ments is two-fold, viz. : — 1st, the bringing to light 
of any of the factors of perception of space by the 
touch ; 2nd, the determining (especially by means of 
comparisons with the illusions that occur in the 
field of vision), whether the laws governing the 
perception of space are the same for both these 
sensory fields. The article is copiously illustrated 
by diagrams, showing the construction of an 
estesiometer, invented by the author for the purpose 
of applying, measuring and registering the various 
stimuli used by him, and their effects. A set of 
twenty two tables shows the exact results obtained 
by Sig. Gemelli 's experiments. 

Sig. M. Ponzo, in an article on " The space im- 
pressions received by the skin and the time elapsing 
between their reception and reaction" gives some 
highly instructive accounts of researches recently 
conducted by him. The review also contains a 
chronicle of events of scientific importance and 
notes on works bearing on psychological studies. 

Publications Received. — The Journal of Edu-- 
cation ; The Educational Times; The Parents' 
Review; ^Education Familiale ; L'Union Morale; 
Archives de Psychologie ; La Revue Psychologique ; 
The American Teacher; Educational Review 
(U.S.A.); The Pedagogical Seminary (U.S.A.); 
Child Life; Journal of Educational Psychology ; 
The Demonstration School Record (Manchester 
University, edited by Prof* J. J. Findlay) ; Holiday 
Resorts and Recommended Addresses, Francis 
Hodgson, pp. 142, price 1/- net. 



cbiia=$tudp. 

ZDi Journal or iDe Cblld-Studp Socletp. 



^^ 



Vol. VI.— No. 6. 



BDitorial IRotes. 

At the beginning of another session of 
work, we would like to urge that it 
should really be a session of — work. 
Speech has its high and essential functions 
in the progress of knowledge, but work 
is the mother of both knowledge and 
speech. Our Child-Study Societies have 
by no means failed in doing useful work, 
but we can hardly claim that practical 
work has been the supreme aim and con- 
cern of our members. If learning, even 
with adults as with children, comes chiefly 
by doing, is it not true that we have been 
content to listen too much, and therefore, 
to learn too little? Let us then be up and 
doing, for our own advantage and 
pleasure, and the great good of the little 
ones. Questionaires, Study Circles, Per- 
sonal Observations and Investigations 
are some of the means to this end. 



An example of the sort of work that is 
suggested is supplied by Mr. Webber's 
very interesting paper on Two Hours' 
Play of a Four Years' Old Boy, in this 
number, which he says " is one of the 
results of an interest aroused by reading 
Child-Study/' Such work is wanted for 
the conference at Edinburgh, next year, 
on Experimental Work in Education, 
which. Miss Louch writes, "it is hoped 
will give an impetus to the research work 
in which our members should be en- 
gaged." 



For teachers, as such, there is a very 
wide scope for work, which, as Dr. 
Claparede has pointed out, only they can 
do, and which is of the very highest value 
to the psychologist and experimental peda- 
gogy. Young teachers who have not long 
left the training colleges, in particular. 



OCTOBER. 1913. 



and all teachers who are true education- 
ists, ought to take up such work. It is. 
the foundation of the highest successes in 
practical teaching, and the corner-stone 
of real educational progress. To take 
just one point as an example : — True 
educational classification only begins to 
be possible when we are able scientifically 
to test and evaluate each child's individual 
capacities and powers. 



Such a scientific educational classifica- 
tion is becoming possible through the 
Binet (and other) mental tests, and every 
teacher should become familiar with, and 
make practical use of, these. Mr. W. H. 
Winch, to whom we are already very 
greatly indebted for valuable original 
articles, has been good enough to promise 
a series of copyright articles for publica- 
tion in Child-Study on Binet' s Mental 
Tests : What they are, and what we can do 
with them. These will begin next month, 
and we ask our readers to make this fact 
widely known, as it is an exceptional 
opportunity for teachers, and all interested 
in Child-Study, to obtain the very best 
guidance in the understanding and appli- 
cation of Binet's theories. 



CbilD*Stu&\7 auD patboloap. 

By Sir James Crichton-Browne, 

M.D., D.SC, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Presidential Address, Liverpool, 
May, igij. 

The Child Study Society begins its 
annual conference this evening in a City, 
enlightened and progressive, in which its 
aims and objects are certain to meet with 
sympathetic consideration. 

Liverpool owes a heavy debt to Child- 
Life, for, in the past it has held a bad 



97 



Child Study and Pathology. 



pre-eminence in infant mortality, and in 
the crippling ailments of early years. 
Occupying an exceptionally salubrious 
situation, on a continuous slope, with a 
dry subsoil and excellent natural drainage, 
and fanned by western sea breezes, it 
ought to have been a stronghold of health, 
but it allowed itself, before it had 
awakened to its higher interests, to be 
converted into a den of disease. The old 
borough lying between the pool, now 
completely obliterated, and the river was a 
conglomeration of narrow alleys, built 
without any regard to sanitary provision 
and was repeatedly visited by plague. 

With the expansion of the town beyond 
its original limits and its spread up the 
slope, a better state of matters began to 
exist, but the demand for cottages which 
arose at the begining of the nineteenth 
century led to the erection on a large scale 
of courts, straightened citl de sacs, close- 
packed, with no through ventilation, 
which became almost impregnable haunts 
of fever, tuberculosis, and the minor 
maladies which invariably follow in their 
train. The death rate of Liverpool rose 
high, and as under such circumstances, 
it is always Child-Life that suffers most, 
the slaughter of the innocents went on at 
a rate which we should now regard as 
appalling. 

But if the sanitary history of Liverpool 
in the past has been faulty, its reforma- 
tion in modern times has been remarkable, 
for there is, I believe, no city in the king- 
dom that has more vigorously or success- 
fully grappled with sanitary problems of 
special difficulty. Enormous sums have 
been expended on the clearing of insani- 
tary areas, and the reconstruction of 
dwellings, on water supply, on drainage, 
on public parks, on municipal cleanliness, 
on the protection of its great water-way 
from the intrusion of epidemic or 
infectious disease, and of unsound food, 
and on many other sanitary precautions, 
and the remunerative nature of this 
expenditure is clearly shown forth in the 
reports of Liverpool's able and accom- 
plished Medical Officer of Health, Dr. 
Hope. 



In the death rate there has been a 
steady decline. It stood at 26.4 per 1,000 
living in 1887, and at 17.7 in 1912, a 
reduction of more than one-third. In 
the rate of infant mortality, there has 
been a still more striking fall. In 1874 
it stood at 234 per 1,000 births, in 1912 
at 125. In 1911, the last year for which 
returns are available, there was a check 
in the fall of infant mortality clearly trace- 
able to the labour disturbances which 
unhappily prevailed in the city in that year. 
Poverty was accentuated, strife and 
disorder distracted the attention of the 
parents from their infants and young 
children ; there was for a time a difficulty 
in obtaining food, and even sanitary 
operations were suspended, and so the 
innocent suffered for the guilty, or shall 
we say for the foolish and misguided, in 
this case, and the infant death-rate went 
up to .154. 

Even in the dark pre-sanitary days 
Liverpool had a care for its child-life. It 
was one of the first towns to establish 
those Sunday Schools, which have had so 
unobtrusive but powerful an influence in 
shaping for good the constantly renewed 
rising generation. The first Sunday 
School sprang from the efforts of Robert 
Raikes in Gloucester in 1780, and in 1784, 
a town's meeting was held in Liverpool, 
to consider the subject, and it resolved on 
founding Sunday Schools for poor child- 
ren, and Sunday Schools provided by the 
various denominations have ever since 
existed in Liverpool. It is the religious 
spirit that has sustained and pervaded 
these schools and supplied to those attend- 
ing them ideals of incalculable value, but 
they have furnished secular teaching, al- 
though not of a high order, placing the 
key of knowledge in the hands of multi- 
tudes who would not otherwise have been 
able to read or write. 

We have the testimony of Adam Smith 
that they effected a visible improvement 
in the manners and morals of the children, 
and it is certain that they must have 
contributed to sanitation and personal 
cleanliness, for Robert Raikes laid it 
down as an inflexible rule that all children 



Sir James Crichton=Browne, M.D., D.Sc, LL,D., F.R.S. 



98 



attending them must come with clean 
hands, clean faces, and combed hair. 
How important has been the part played 
by Sunday Schools in child-culture and 
the preparation for life may be gathered 
from a recent return, showing that they 
are now attended by upwards of six 
million pupils in England and Wales. 

The Sunday Schools in Liverpool were 
soon followed by day schools, the earliest 
being, I believe, the old City School 
in Moorfields, opened in 1789. There 
were, of course, day schools in Liverpool 
before that. There was a Grammar 
School, for instance, endowed in 1515, by 
John Cross, rector of St. Nicholas' Flesh 
Shambles, London, but it was at the date 
mentioned that the movement for popular 
education began, a movement that, with 
fluctuations, has progressed ever since, 
that has in recent times gained momentum 
in an astonishing degree, and that has 
culminated in the well-equipped, flourish- 
ing and growing university in the build- 
ings of which we are assembled. 

Parellel with educational advancement in 
Liverpool there has gone a progression in 
the hygienic care of childhood which also 
has been greatly accelerated of late years, 
and it is to that, that part of the reduction 
in infantile mortality must be ascribed. 
The well-to-do classes have come to take 
a more scientific view of child-culture, and 
have discarded many old prejudices and 
pernicious practices, and the poor are 
being awakened to a higher sense of their 
family responsibilities. Amongst the poor 
in Liverpool, however, that is still wide- 
spread inattention and neglect of children, 
which together with improper food and 
scanty clothing, are reflected in an 
unnecessary sacrifice of life. 

In the poorer districts it is obvious that 
the requisite care is not bestowed on 
infants, especially on those whose custody 
is handed over to irresponsible persons 
while their natural guardians are engaged 
in some occupation, but it is to be hoped 
that an improved state of matters will 
result from the judicious measures which 
the health committee have taken. A large 
staff of female inspectors is employed in 



instructing mothers or persons in charge 
of infants. Cards of directions and advice 
are distributed wherever, under the 
Notification of Births Act, it appears they 
would be useful. Suitable food at a price 
accessible to all is provided for mothers 
who are unable to nurse their infants. 
Day nurseries have been established which 
afford to girls about to leave school valu- 
able opportunities of learning the proper 
management of infants and young child- 
ren. Hospital accommodation has been 
provided for infants suffering from 
measles and whooping cough, which not 
only benefits the sufferer but removes the 
source of infection. 

The infants are being attended to in 
Liverpool, and the children are not over- 
looked, for they are profitting and will 
profit to an incalculable degree, by those 
child-studies on the large scale, included 
in the field of school hygiene and medical 
inspection, which are now happily imposed 
on Local Educational authorities. The 
comprehensive investigation which is now 
going into the physical condition, not 
only of children known or suspected to 
be weakly or diseased, but of all children, 
and the special inquiries which a number 
of school medical oflficers are carrying out, 
are throwing a flood of light on child-life, 
and suggesting the steps that are neces- 
sary, for the adjustment of education to 
the needs and capacities of children of 
different types, for the provision of 
remedial agencies, for physical and mental 
defects, and for the arrest of various 
maladies and degerations at their incipient 
stage. 

Up to the present time medical inspec- 
tion has revealed an unsurmised plentitude 
of physical defects and diseases in school 
children, and as it goes on and becomes 
more thorough and individual, embracing 
a survey of the whole life, conditions and 
circumstances of the child, it must amass 
information of the utmost significance to 
all engaged in child-study. 

In connection with Child-Study hitherto 
psychological observations and inquiries 
have naturally taken the first place, as all 
who, with watchful eyes and discerning 

B 



99 



Child Study and Pathology. 



sense, come into contact with children, 
can participate in them more or less. 
After them have come physiological 
observations, on growth and evolution, 
and functional activities generally, and 
more particularly on those of the brain and 
nervous system. And in the third place 
we have had observations on parentage 
and environment in relation to child-life. 
In all these departments ample scope for 
diligent child-study still remains, but there 
is yet another field, comparatively untrod- 
den, upon which I would invite students 
of Child-Study to enter, and that is the 
pathology of childhood. 

I would be the last to recommend any 
amateur dabbling in medical science, but 
there is a large number of morbid condi- 
tions to which infants and children are 
subject, which not only interfere with 
bodily development, but modify or mar 
mental manifestations with the nature and 
treatment of which all parents and 
teachers should be acquainted. They 
cannot escape them. If they are to do 
their duty to their children they must know 
how to deal with them. 

There was on a memorable occasion a 
difficulty in finding ten righteous men in 
a city-full. There are largely attended 
schools to-day in which it would be im- 
possible to find ten sound children, 
absolutely sound in wind and limb. 
Almost every child shows a blemish of 
some sort, which interferes with its educa- 
bility or blights more or less its prospects 
in life. It may be that it is malnutrition, 
or ringworm or adenoids, or dental decay 
or defective eyesight or hearing, or chorea 
or rickets or intestinal disorder, or tuber- 
culosis, or heart disease — almost every 
child is touched with one or the other of 
these flaws, many by two or three, and 
we look in vain for the child-stuff out of 
which we can hope to build up a Venus 
de Medici or an Apollo Belvedere. 

But all those crippling agenices, under- 
mining childhood are preventible or cur- 
able when taken in time. It is in their 
infancy that diseases and degenerations 
are like infants, easily snuffed out, and 
it is therefore of vital importance that 



those who are in intimate communion with 
children should be quick to note the begin- 
ning of pathological changes. Some of 
the conditions mentioned can only be 
reached by prevention, directed to the 
abolition of predisposing causes, poverty, 
vice and ignorance in its grosser forms, 
but many can be effectually remedied by 
prompt treatment, and in order that 
prompt treatment may be secured, skilled 
observation is necessary, which might 
often be supplied by parents and teachers 
before the medical officer appears on the 
scene. Before he arrives irreparable mis- 
chief has often been done. 

In the matter of dental decay the reports 
of medical inspectors from all parts of the 
country show terrible dilapidation in 
children of that ivory palisade that guards 
the entrance to the alimentary canal. To 
take one of the worst returns in Shrop- 
shire, only 6.5 per cent, of the boys, and 
7.6 per cent, of the girls entering the 
schools were found to have sound teeth, 
2.3.6 per cent, of the boys and 22.5 
per cent, of the girls had somewhat 
defective teeth (that is to say less than 
four teeth carious), while 69 per cent, of 
both sexes had seriously defective teeth 
(that is to say more than four teeth were 
carious). To take the very best return 
indeed a quite exceptionally good one, that 
from Rochdale, 52.2 per cent, of the school 
entrants had sound teeth while 30.3 per 
cent, had somewhat defective and 17.7 
very defective teeth. 

Now the establishment of medical 
inspection and dental clinics and the 
distribution of tooth brushes will do some- 
thing to rectify this state of things, but 
it ought never to have arisen. It is in 
the nursery that the foundations of dental 
integrity should be laid down, and in early 
childhood, before school days, that the 
teeth should be saved from corruption. 
By the supply of proper food, by vigilant 
supervision and systematic cleansing, even 
in these days of delicate enamel and 
bacterial activity, dental decay and oral 
sepsis with all its disastrous consequences 
may be largely avoided. 

Visual defects again throughout the 



Sir James Crichton-Browne, M.D., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 



100 



land exist to an extent well calculated to 
create anxiety, and seem to be increasing. 
Dr. Hope tells us that in Liverpool, of 
4,044 boys and 3,760 girls whose eyesight 
was tested shortly before leaving school 
8.21 per cent, of the boys and 8.09 per 
cent of the girls had defective vision in 
one eye, and 15.45 and 18.32 per cent, 
of the girls had both eyes defective. Such 
visual defects have a serious bearing on 
the child's progress at school, may have 
prejudicial effects on its health, and must 
prejudice its industrial outlook. The 
annual examination, Dr. Hope says, has 
been productive of very beneficial results, 
many of the cases having been quite 
unsuspected by the teacher. But there 
are many defects of vision that should be 
detected and corrected before school-life 
has begun. The causation or aggravation 
of defects of eyesight in schools may, it 
is to be hoped, be in some measure 
restricted by the adoption of a standard 
school-book production in the types recom- 
mened by the Eyesight Committee of the 
British Association in its report, which has 
just been issued. They find a very serious 
amount of visual defect among children 
of school age, 30 per cent, and are of 
opinion that some portion of this is pre- 
ventible by the selection of suitable school 
books. 

The gravest of all the pathological con- 
ditions in childhood ; on account not only 
of its immediate effects, but of its remote 
consequences, is tuberculosis. The death- 
rate from all forms of tuberculosis 
amongst children under 15 years of age 
is greatest during the first five years of 
life, but it is tubercular meningitis, and 
peritonitis, or tabes mesenterica and what 
is known as surgical tuberculosis, that 
is to say tuberculosis of bones and joints, 
that are then most fatal, for the mortalit}- 
from phthisis is at its lowest in that quin- 
quenium. But while the mortality from 
other forms of tuberculosis declines after 
five years of age, that from phthisis in- 
creases and after fifteen it goes up with 
a bound. The general death-rates during 
the school period are low, but phthisis 
causes one death in every twenty-one 



deaths from five to ten years of age, and 
one death in every seven from ten to 
fifteen. 

The death-rate from all forms of tuber- 
culosis amongst school children steadily 
decreases and the findings of the school 
medical officers for 1911 which give a 
percentage .59 of existing tuberculosis in 
the routine cases examined by them, and 
1.68 in the special cases selected by school 
medical officer, or nurse or teacher, also 
show a decrease possibly due to the 
exclusion of tuberculous children from 
schools. An additional and much more 
substantial increase may be confidently 
anticipated, now that we have notification 
of tuberculosis, opening the way to appro- 
priate assistance and treatment to phthisi- 
cal persons and to the adoption of precau- 
tionary measures, sanatorial benefits to 
the tune of a million and a half, tuber- 
culosis dispensaries, where accurate diag- 
nosis can be ensured, and home treatment 
eflficiently conducted, and the Milk and 
Dairies Bill now before Parliament, which 
should, if passed, protect our milk supply 
against tubercular and other contamina- 
tion. 

But notwithstanding its reduced mor- 
tality and prevalence, tuberculosis still 
exists amongst our children to what may 
be called a frightful extent. Professor 
Gratiolet has estimated that 15 per cent, 
of town children are infected with a com- 
mencing form of phthisis. Hamburger 
has declared that 90 per cent, of all child- 
ren up to the completed twelfth year are 
infected with tubercle, and Schlossman 
affirms that tuberculosis is a true child- 
hood disease, and if it is to be rooted out 
must be attacked and treated then. The 
researches of the last ten years have 
undoubtedly brought to light facts that 
point to the conclusion that in a very large 
majority of cases infection that ends in 
phthisis occurs during childhood, and 
indeed in the first year of life. 

Roemer has declared that probably 
every person crosses the threshold of child- 
hood infected with tuberculosis. Such a 
primary infection according to him, 
confers a relative immunity for the remain- 



101 



The Child of the One=Rooined House. 



der of life. This immunity is, however, 
not absolute, but is contingent on the 
dosage of subsequent infections. In a 
tubercle free subject a mild dose of the 
virus produces latent tuberculosis — on an 
immune it has no effect at all. A larger 
dose causes chronic disease in a tubercle 
free subject, and has no effect on immune 
subjects. Only massive doses have a 
limited deleterious effect on immune sub- 
jects, while they produce an accute form of 
the disease in virgin soil. [Etc.] 



Ubc (IbU^ of tbe ®iie*1Roomet) 
Ibousc. 

By W. Leslie Mackenzie, m.a., m.d., 

LL.D., F.R.C.P.E., 

Medical member of the Local Government 
Board for Scotland. 

Usually, houses are classified according 
to the number of people they house. But 
this gives no idea of the house as a home. 
To be a home the house must be the home 
of a family. The family is a composite 
unity, having within itself all the elements 
of the potential city and requiring for its 
functional growth and expansion all the 
institutions that in their total constitute 
the actual city. This fact is too little 
realised. The house is supposed to stop 
outside the door. But lay aside for a 
moment those rigid ideas about stone and 
lime, or bricks and mortar, or wood and 
iron, or stones and peat, or stones and 
sand, or even about caves in the rock. 
All of these types of houses are, in Scot- 
land at least, found to be occupied by 
human beings. Consider the house only 
as the focus of family energies, as a home. 
If you analyse what the family energies 
are, you will find that they must reach 
out in a thousand directions in order that 
the family may, as the growing unit of 
civilisation, subsist at all. If the crude 
idea of a house were true, the most perfect 
house would be the prison cell, where 
everything is brought to the inmate 
without anv trouble to him — or her. 



As a fact, the home is the precise con- 
trary of this. Nothing comes in except 
what the family goes out to seek. Tlie 
house is simply the temporary work-place, 
the nesting place, of the family. Our ideas 
about it are much too crude; for we 
always tend to think of it in terms of dead 
walls and groups of rooms and furniture 
instead of in terms of living minds and 
hearts, and desires, and ambitions, and 
irrepressible growths and activities. If 
the members of a family were all wooden 
blocks, it would be easy to arrange them 
neatly in a cellar. But in the scores of 
cellar dwellings 1 have visited I never 
found a single contented family. The 
blocks happen to be alive, and never stay 
where they are put. The family is a 
raging torrent of hungers and ideals. 
And this is true of every family — rich and 
poor. 

If, therefore, you consider the house not 
a rigid structure but as a focus of energies 
— a fixed focus like a feudal castle, or a 
moving focus like a gypsy-van — you can 
picture more clearly what the housing pro- 
blem means. If, for a family of five people, 
in the middle classes, it is necessary to 
have at least five rooms, and as many more 
rooms, large and small, for service, how 
shall the energies of a family of five 
persons on the lower economic levels be 
adquately spaced in a single room? This 
is the kind of question I should like to 
put before the Conference. 

But it is necessary to be a little more 
specific. Houses can be classified accord- 
ing to the families they accommodate ; but 
they can also be classified according to 
the effects on the child. If the family 
is the growing point of society, the child 
is the growing point of the family. If you 
cannot understand social institutions 
until you realise that they have their roots 
in the needs of the family, neither can you 
understand the functions of the family 
without realising that they have their roots 
in the needs of the child. 

The one-room house need not mean 
literally a house of only one room. 
The same physical conditions may be 
generated in a house of two, or three or 



W. Leslie Mackenzie, M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.P.E. 



102 



more rooms, but what I intend to express 
is the conditions of over-crowding that 
normally occur in the one and two-room 
houses of the poor in the city and in the 
country. Functionally, the two-room 
house may be really a one-room house, 
since the one room is frequently the living 
and sleeping room, and the extra room is 
not used except for ceremonial purposes 
and storage. We need not, therefore, be 
too narrow in our interpretation of the 
one room as one room. It is the condi- 
tions that would normally occur when the 
one room is put to all the rich uses of a 
house that I mean to indicate and to 
argue from. Nor need we be too arbitrary 
in our ideas of what is due to the residents 
of one room. I have seen one-room 
houses that fulfilled perfectly all the 
primary uses of a house ; but I have rarely 
seen this where the family exceeded three 
people, a father, mother and child, or three 
people of one sex. If there is anything 
fundamentally important in the early 
separation of the sexes, and we can hardly 
doubt that there is, then the one-room 
house has a very limited range of good 
work in any community. And conditions 
should not be such that people are forced 
into houses where moral abominations are 
justified by a theory of economic necessity. 
Why do we choose the one-room child 
for the focus of our observation? The 
reason is easily given. It is because he 
is an extreme, but a real case. If you are 
to have a house at all, you cannot have 
much less than one room. This is the 
housing limit for a family. The one-room 
house is a serious factor in our present 
city development. Of the causes that have 
led to the production of the one-room 
house I say nothing, nor of the ideals that 
impel to the continuation and extension 
of it, nor of the many proposals for its 
abolition. At the moment, these points 
do not concern us. Our primary interest 
is the natural history of life in one room. 
And, of course, when I say life I mean the 
life of the family, not merely the life of 
the individual. For a long time or for a 
short time the one-room house is with us. 
The census leaves no doubt on that point. 



It is, I believe, true that in Scotland the 
percentage of one-room houses is greater 
than in England, and it is suggested that 
the reason is : first, that the Englishman 
has a higher conception of personal com- 
fort, and second, that he is not afraid to 
demand what he wants, and third, that he 
gets it. I have no great confidence in 
the adequacy of these national generali- 
ties ; but, whatever be the case in 
England, the one-room house is a very 
serious factor in the life of Scotland. 
Whatever housing reforms the immediate 
future may reveal, the one-room house is 
not going to disappear in a day, but in its 
disappearance the one-room child will play 
an effective part ; for he is demanding 
more room ; he is battering at the walls 
that he may have more space to breathe ; 
he is clearing an area round his slum that 
he may have more light to see by ; he is 
crying and dying in a constant warfare 
that he may compel his parents to provide 
for him more adequate conditions of life. 
This little creature of sensations and a 
future has got hold of the reins and is 
driving the family with all his force. He 
means to go where he can have a room 
of his own. It is difficult to discover 
anything extraordinary in his ambition. 

As I do not much believe in abstrac- 
tions, let us first steady our minds with 
a few concrete cases, not invented or con- 
structed out of averages, but taken from 
an actual research. What I shall read 
is the record of things seen by competent 
people, who knew how to look at the facts 
and how to put the primary matters down 
on paper. They all had some experience 
in this class of observation, and the facts 
recorded are too precise to permit of great 
exaggeration even if there had been any 
natural tendency to exaggerate. The 
medical parts were done by scientific 
specialists, whose every day for years had 
been spent in the practice of exact obser- 
vation. 

(1) A house of one room ; family of seven per- 
sons — one parent ; 3 males, aged 18, 16, 8 ; 
2 females, aged 20 and 13. The number of 
habitual occupants of the house, 5. Size of room 
1,639 cubic feet. Of the 2 school children, 1 suf- 
fered from adenoids and enlarged tonsils, the 



103 



The Child of the One-Roomed House. 



other had swollen neck glands ; one flea-bitten but 
had clean hair. 

The comment of the observer is : "A bad home. 
Woman twice married ; second husband deserted 
her six or seven years ago, and she now keeps a 
bad house, in which much drinking and rioting 
goes on. Daughter on stage sends 10/- a week, 
son is out of work. A son in an institution. All 
as filthy as is the house. The food is irregular. 
Two children have had free dinners from school 
this and last winter ; clothes were also given for 
one each time. The boy attends regularly. The 
woman is a hard drinker, and t<els money in un- 
desirable ways. Evidence from Police, School 
Charity, Headmistress, School Officers and 
Doctors." 

(2) House of one room ; one parent ; one son 
of 25; one daughter of 14; father lives apart. 
The comments of the observer are : " The drink- 
ing capacity of this family cannot be too much 
emphasised. The parents can't agree and live 
apart, the man allowing 7/6 a week when girl is 
with mother, and 5/- when she comes to him. 
She is verminous, and very badly kept. Mother 
can't got charring, as she lives in so bad a neigh- 
bourhood, so means to move ; at present she keeps 
other women's babies at 6d. a day each. Elder 
boy out of work, a tidy lad, reads in Free Library. 
House not so very untidy. Evidence from Police, 
Church, and Ofticer." 

(3) House of one room ; 2 parents ; males aged 
15, 11 and 6 ; female aged 13. In this family 
there were 4 wage earners. One boy and one 
girl sell newspapers. The boy suffers from en- 
larged tonsils and adenoids. Both boy and girl 
were flea-bitten. The comments of the observer 
are : " An intemperate pair. Husband only in 
irregular employment of late ; has been locked up 
for neglect of children (who are regular at school) 
and an improvement in general condition is now 
noted. Free food and boots for three granted. 
Father has since been locked up for three months 
for assault on his wife and step-son. Two of the 
four surviving children (four being dead) add 
something to the weekly income, their respective 
ages being 15 and 13. Evidence from School 
Charity, Headmistress, Chief Constable, S.P.C.C. 
Branch, Factor, Doctors and Police Court." 

(4) House of one room ; both parents ; boy aged 
4 ; girl aged 6. The girl suffered from enlarged 
glands and had a hajmic murmur of the heart. 
The comments of the observer are : " Both hus- 
band and wife are given to drink, and separated 
at times. The two children, though delicate, are 
well kept. Evidence from Church, Club, Head- 
mistress, Police and Doctors." 

(5) House of one room ; both parents ; boy aged 
4, girls aged 8 and 6. One girl suffered from 
chronic ear disease, enlarged tonsils and adenoids, 
enlarged glands, hair with nits, badly bitten. The 
other girl had enlarged glands, hair with nits and 
general pediculosis, badly bitten. The comments 
of the observer are : " P"amilv of three children 



living with parents. Father earns good wage, 
but casually ; mother earns a little. Does not keep 
her children nor house particularly well ; neither 
are her children sent regularly to school. Evidence 
from Church, Employer, Headmistress, Police and 
Doctors." 

But these, you may .say, are somewhat 
crowded houses. Here is one with a 
single child : — 

(6) House of one room. One parent ; 1 girl 
aged 8. Comments of the observer are : " Very 
bad home, all sorts of visitors come and go. 
Woman drinks, and so do her friends. Child 
weakly, ill fed. Illegitimate baby. Very filthy 
house, atmosphere appalling ; clothes hanging to 
drv from ceiling. Food and income and every- 
thing else very erratic. Widow gels a bad police 
report. Evidence from Police." 

(7) House of one room. Both parents ; 3 boys, 
aged 13, 12 and 3 weeks; 3 girls, aged 10, 7 
and 2. Two boys at school, were found dull, 
irregular in th'>ir attendance, unclean, fearfully 
bitten and scratched ; one of them suffering from 
enlarged tonsils and adenoids, with heart disease. 
The girls, also dull and irregular in attendance, 
showed pediculosis of the hair. They were badly 
bitten and scratched ; one had bronchitis and suf- 
fered from seborrhoea on the face and was also 
badly bitten. Comments of the observer are : 
" Both parents drink a good deal, and man twice 
convicted lately. Children attend a lot of church 
meetings, are delicate and irregularly and ill fed. 
Very irregular at school. Two boys earn 5/- and 
7/6 a week. Very early marriage, 20 and 19. 
Used to be insured ; have lost two children. Fairly 
tidy and clean, and children get baths. Evidence 
from Doctors, Schoolmaster, Police, Parish Sister, 
Club, Children's Employment." 

Take two other examples : — 

(8) House of one room ; 2 adults, married ; 
2 step brothers aged 13 and 2. Comments of the 
observer are : " Model young couple living in one 
airy room cleanly kept, high up, taking in wife's 
father and brothers at meal times. Received coals 
and meal from Church. Evidence from Employer, 
Churches, Police and Doctors." 

(9) House of one room ; both parents ; 2 boys, 
aged 13 and 11. One girl, aged 1. The com- 
ments of the observer are : " Living in miserable, 
cold attic. Husband, a slipper maker, locked up 
for six weeks, having neglected his family. (Since 
this visitor's report he has been in prison for 
stealing slipper material). Mother charring, but 
hard put to it. Free dinners, boots for two granted 
by School Committee; boys' clothes granted from 
special fund. Evidence from Employer, School- 
master and Charity." 

These few excerpts from a record of 
facts should be enough to check our 
deductions and keep us from extreme 



Edgar Browne, M.Ch. (Liverpool), F.R.C.S. (Edinburgh). 



104 



views. But here are two other cases of 
another kind from another city : — 

This is a case of pulmonary tuberculosis. 
" Patient, a bo}', aged 5, suffers from rickets in 
severe degree and has never been able to walk. 
He has a bad cough and spit, and so is probably 
a source of danger to the other members of the 
family. The house is of two rooms, and moder- 
ately dirty. The window was about one inch 
open. There are in the house the parents and 
eight children, the oldest 17, the youngest 3 weeks. 
There are three beds ; the bedding is very scanty. 
In addition, there is a cot, in which the patient 
sleeps alone. The father has a fairly regular in- 
come. The rent is £9 a year. The parents have 
applied for the patient's admission to a home, but 
it was refused on the ground that the boy had 
phthisis." 

In another case (a girl, age 3), " the environ- 
ment and the circumstances generally are of the 
worst. The house, of one room, is situated in a 
gaunt and gloomy street, and is reached by an 
extremely filthy stair, upon which children are 
playing. The house itself is indescribably filthy 
and foul-smelling. A baby, male, aged 13 months, 
had died of whooping-cough a few days before my 
first visit. His case had been notified about two 
months before. The present patient, a pallid and 
weary child, has cough, with ' weak back ' and 
' congestion of the lungs.' The mother adds, with 
a strange mixture of apathy and tenderness, ' She 
won't trouble us long.' The occupants of this 
house were the parents, the sick child, and, until 
he died, the baby boy. Four older children are 
said to sleep with an aunt or grandmother ; but, 
as she goes out to work, they spend the day at 
home playing on the stair. The window of the 
room is 3 inches open at the top. In a dark 
recess there is an apology for a bed ; only a mat- 
tress and a few rags, those that were originally 
white and those that were always black being now 
of similar hue. The boy who died slept in a bed- 
chair, they said. Ashes, paper, and rubbish of all 
sorts litter the floor. The father is in regular 
employment; he earns from 22/- to 24/- a week, 
and keeps only 2/- for his own purposes. The 
rent is 9s. 3d. a month." 

This study in the blackening of white 
is typical. Recently, a Recovery School 
child from Edinburg-h screamed with 
terror when she was put into a bed with 
clean sheets. She had probably never seen 
a white sheet except around a dead body. 
It is certain that in the district she came 
from the terrors of death are visualised 
in white sheets. [-Efc] 



XLbc 2)evelopment of li)ision in 
Cbil&ren. 

By Edgar Browne, m.ch. (Liverpool), 
F.R.c.s. (Edinburgh). 

When compulsory education was estab- 
lished, everybody was in a hurry, and 
infant schools were organised as if the}- 
were merely a form of adult instruction, 
diluted but not different. Primary educa- 
tion was supposed to consist of the three 
R's, and everybody was supposed to be 
happy. Nobody seriously enquired if the 
three R's were good for babies. 

But the foundation of the Child-Study 
Society is evidence that public opinion has 
undergone a great change, and the con- 
tinuance of the activity of the Society 
indicates that there exists a healthy condi- 
tion of discontent. Without discontent 
there is no improvement possible. You 
have done one essential thing — vou have 
begun by the study of the child and have 
thereby provided the doom of the old idea 
which was the study (or imitation without 
study) of other systems of education 
already in use. That was an adaptation. 
W^hat was needed and what further study 
will inevitably bring is revolution. We 
shall start from a new scientific founda- 
tion. 

We shall begin by stating that education 
consists of teaching nothing in particular. 
It consists in watching the organs and 
faculties of the body and encouraging 
them in their natural growth, and seeing 
that they are brought to a state of perfec- 
tion according to the capacity of the raw 
material, and sometimes it is raw 
material ! Sometimes it is frightfully 
damaged by disease. Every organ and 
every faculty must be encouraged and 
made the most of, and stimulated. It 
must be coaxed, not driven; the natural 
capacity of the organ in particular must 
be studied. The rate of growth must be 
noted as far as possible in each individual, 
and disuse must be avoided as well as 
over stimulation. An organ that is not 
used may become useless, and an organ 
that is over-stimulated may be irrecover- 
ably damaged. 



105 



Two Hours' Play of a Four Years' Old Boy. 



The eye at birth is hypermetropic. This 
is not disease, but condition of growth. 
Children under favourable conditions may 
possibly attain the normal form at about 
twelve years of age, not before. School 
children over twelve examined in quan- 
tities are found to pass over from normal 
standard to short-sighted. This is cer- 
tainly due to the use of books. During 
adolescence very strong tendency to grow 
worse, in girls more than boys. About 
age of twenty-three tendency to increase 
ceases. In all countries the statistics have 
shown the same results. Of course there 
are racial proclivities, constitutional con- 
ditions, unfavourable environment, but 
the main thing is always the same — 
prolonged work at books, maps, needle- 
work and other civilised occupations. We 
may be said to have established a system 
of training for the production of short 
sight, which is continually increasing. 
Only from Sweden comes any gleam of 
encouragement. There the latest reports, 
for the last twenty years show that the 
percentage of short sight is decreasing, 
and this is attributed to the leaving of 
book learning and great attention to out- 
door development of the body. The 
Swedes are ahead of us generally in 
physical culture. 

We have just increased the stringency 
of the examination of vision in sailors. 
We are keenly anxious to get more men 
for the Navy and Mercantile Marine. 
We desire to rid ourselves of the Lascar 
and the dago. We say to our country- 
men, " Come on board our ships, when 
you have finished your schooling. But 
we insist on your going to school. When 
you have made yourselves short-sighted, 
the Board of Trade will reject you." A 
perfectly logical position. 

A short-sighted person is condemned to 
see badly, or to wear glasses, and, con- 
trary to popular opinion, a short-sighted 
eye is not a strong eye ; it is subject to 
many perilous changes in after life. I 
need not, however, waste time in support- 
ing the proposition that short sight is 
an evil to everybody except the spectacle 
maker. 



I would here direct your attention to a 
few physiological laws : — 

(1) That no attitude or position that can 
be voluntarily assumed by the body will 
effect a permanent change unless it be 
long continued and frequently repeated. 
Very awkward attitudes are often assumed 
for a short time by children and adults 
without ill effects. Note, for instance, in 
the favourite amusement of bicycle riding. 
The man who rides in the evening for 
exercise does not spoil his bearing, but 
the professional or long-distance enthu- 
siast is distinguished by the peculiar 
hunch of his shoulders and a curious 
indescribable change in his walk. 

In this country churchgoers, whose 
kneeling is intermittent, do not suffer from 
their devotional exercises, but domestic 
servants, whose kneeling is more pro- 
longed, are liable to an affection well 
known as housemaid's knee; the cobbler 
who sticks to his last acquires a malforma- 
tion of the chest; and so on through a 
hundred occupations and handicrafts. 

(2) Thai exercise of the muscles pro- 
motes their growth and nourishment ; 
whereas a passive strain results in weak- 
ness and wasting. Everybody knows that 
rowing strengthens the muscles of the 
back and legs, whereas sitting at a desk 
weakens them. 

(3) That in early life the processes of 
growth are perilously nearly allied to 
inflammation, and that the border line may 
be easily passed. 



Zwo Ibours' ipia\? of a four l^earg' 
©lb Bo\?. 

By J- J- \Vebber, b.a. 

" Note first that the boy's explanation 
of his behaviour is given in words which 
partially describe his state of conscious- 
ness, and which enable us to achieve by 
sympathetic understanding, in the light 
of our own experience of similar situa- 
tions, a fuller description of that state 
than his words actually convey." 

" Consciousness may be likened to the 
surface of a spring of water which bubbles 



J. J. Webber, B.A. 



106 



up unceasingly from obscure invisible 
sources. The surface assumes at every 
moment new forms; some change rapidly, 
others slowly, but none persists stably ; 
each detail of the form of the surface is 
constantly giving place to new ones, some 
slowly, others more rapidly." — Psycho- 
logy, the Study of Behaviour, by Wm. 
McDougall, M.B., F.R.S. 

At 10.40 my four-year-old came to me 
and said, " Shall we dig? " I assented, 
and we went forth. Prepared to abandon 
initiative and remain as neutral as 
possible, I had no sooner been armed 
with a trowel than he rushed off to a 
corner of the garden. " Look at those 
pretty flowers " was his cry as he pointed 
to a sage-bush. As he returned he pointed 
out some short sticks forming " a little 
fence," then "a pansy," and mentioned 
casually that the pea-sticks did not poke 
into his eye as he passed (a reference 
to an accident of three weeks ago). 
Digging then commenced, the earth being 
loaded into the toy cart, while I gave a 
minimum of help. Soon he shouted with 
a discoverer's glee, " fir-cone," picked up 
the cone, and apparently being reminded 
of '* comb," tried to part his hair with it, 
and then threw it into his " house " (a 
large wooden packing-case, stood on one 
end) saying, "We'll keep that." By 
10.58 he had filled and tipped the cart 
twice. 

He now took a deep pan and a small 
garden fork, and in answer to enquiry, 
said, " I am going to make pepper, salt 
and mustard, and this is my mixing 
fork. " In order to avoid any jarring note, 
I also began the manufacture of pepper, 
etc., but was reminded that I must not 
attempt it until I had done cart-loading. 
Hastily I filled and tipped the cart once, 
and was hurrying on with the pepper, etc., 
when the boy whose attention was, I 
thought, fully occupied with his task, re- 
marked that two loads ought to be tipped 
first. 

By 11.11, " pepper, salt and mustard " 
had been metamorphosed into "dinner," 
and this was soon considered as cooked, 
but suddenly he started to get " pota- 



toes," picking up rounded stones and 
placing them in the cart. The intermit- 
tent nature of this work, and the different 
objects which he noticed as he searched 
the ground set his tongue going. He had 
been forbidden some days before, to break 
off the small twigs on the pea-sticks, but 
as he was busily occupied 1 unconsciously 
snapped off a twig. He immediately 
glanced up from his " potato " gathering 
and said, " Why do you break off those 
twigs? " 

He chattered about the cool breeze, and 
the leaves on the tree ; noticed a piece 
of glass, which he threw way, and a shell 
which he picked up and exhibited before 
placing in the " house," then having 
gathered 43 " potatoes " he became a 
buyer, and negotiated with an imaginary 
greengrocer. The " potatoes " were 
placed in a box in imitation of the house- 
hold custom, and then it appeared that 
we kept " birds in cages," and this food 
was for the "dickies." I may mention 
that vegetables chopped small, in water, 
was his idea of birds' food; and a cupful 
of this " soup " placed in a disused bird- 
cage, which is hung outside the house, 
is his method of " trying to catch birds." 

At 11.22 more potatoes were collected, 
and having noticed me counting the 
previous number, he invited me to count 
again. A pudding was now to be made, 
but the unsatisfactory nature of pebbles 
seemed to strike him, as they rattled into 
his small pail, and he threw them all out 
and began to pick up lumps of earth. In 
a moment he brought mc a small 
brown withered bulb and said, " Look — - 
a buttercup root ! " It was sure enough 
Ranunculus acris, but before I had time to 
enquire about this alarming botanical 
erudition he ran into the house to show 
the find to his mother. He planted them 
it seems, and the flowers and leaves dis- 
appeared some weeks ago. 

Continuing his search for " potatoes " 
he found little pears and placed them to 
cook on the "dinner." "There's a 
honey-bee," he says, as it flies past, and 
then enters into an explanation, with 
practical illustrations, of why as a rule 



107 



Suggestions for Study and Practice. 



he comes in from the garden with dirty 
knees. 

The lumps of earth are placed on the 
bottom of a box, and he goes to get an 
old knife " to cut up seeds for the dicky." 
11.40 : The material being cut up is soon 
called " parsley," and then " suet "—the 
latter being sprinkled on the overdone 
" dinner," while the unused lumps of 
earth are put into the pail, which is care- 
fully hung up in the " house." 

His attention was now roving. Catch- 
ing sight of his mother he asked for an 
apple or an orange, but hardly waiting 
for an answer, assured me that tail-boards 
of carts had to be made " strong," that 
somebody had to make Tommy (his 
wooden horse), and that Tommy had to 
eat his food " like this " — falling on his 
hands and knees and champing. The shell 
in the " house " now attracted his eye — 
" Could we find one without a hole in it." 

At 11.45 he said, " Shall we dig now? " 
and emptied the " dinner " on to the 
ground, but he made no attempt to dig, 
and soon suggested that we should " live 
in the little house and eat potatoes." 
The pail containing the latter was upset, 
as he was admiring a lady-bird in the 
" house " at 11.51, so he set to work 
with the knife, flattening the small heap 
of spilt earth, and calling it " cement." 

Looking at some small nails he recalled 
the pictures tacked up in his "house" 
a couple of months ago, and then invited 
me to play — the game to be " going down 
the path with the horse and cart — as our 
mother allows us to do this." At 12.8 
after a turn at the aforesaid game, he 
talked of digging, but hearing the voice 
of the little boy in the next garden he 
did nothing. At 12.10 he asked for his 
wooden engine, on which he sat and 
shouted to the little boy. He filled the 
engine tender with earth at 12.14, but 
stopped to watch and talk to the other 
boy till 12.30, when he again suggested 
digging, but did nothing. 

A shower then came on, and he covered 
the horse and cart with sacking, but stood 
the pail containing some earth out in the 
rain " to make mud," and when the rain 



stopped, made an unsuccessful appeal for 
tap-water. 12.34 : We walked the path 
again with Tommy and the engine, but 
this was soon abandoned, and at 12.45 
he began picking leaves and passing them 
through the chinks of his " house " from 
the inside to the outside. While doing 
this he says gravely, without turning his 
head, " Skylark," and 1 then notice one 
singing in the distance. 



Suggestions tov Stubp anD 
Ipractice. 

Education in Sex. " Ideally, the writer 
believes that there should 1^ some differen- 
tiation on the basis of age between those 
under and those over 14. But then arises 
the difficulty of making the younger pupils 
feel that they are being dealt with frankly. 
Few of those below this limit are likely to 
profit by much instruction. At least, we 
shall all agree that there is some inferior 
age or grade limit to be set for sex 
instruction, though there probably should 
be no inferior limit set to the truthful, 
but guarded, answering of honest spon- 
taneous questions from the children. The 
only way to establish our limit intelligent- 
ly is to start at the top of the school 
and work carefully down, surely not the 
reverse." — IV. A. Cook, "The Problem 
of Sex Education, " The Journal of 
Educational Psychology (U.S.A.), May, 
1913. 

Scientific Tests and the Ordinary 
Teacher. " Those who have not used the 
tests themselves . . . [hold] the belief 
that it [" the Binet-Simon Measuring 
Scale of Intelligence "] is only of value 
in the hands of highly-trained experts. 
One must freely admit that the more 
highly-trained is the person who uses the 
scale, the closer are the results and the 
safer the diagnosis. And it is also true 
that only in the hands of a fairly-trained 
person can one rely absolutely upon the 
findings in borderline cases. On the other 
hand, it is equally true that even novices 
iTiay_ use the Binet Scale, provided that 
they use it with ordinary good sense, and 
at the same time recognise their own lack 



Child Study Societies. 



108 



of experience, and do not seek for the 
finest results. Such a person may get 
information that is of exceeding value, 
and in manv cases all that is needed. . . 
For rough estimates which are, neverthe- 
less, of great interest, any person with 
good judgment can give the test and get 
results of immediate use and value." — 
Dr. Henry H. Goddard, " The Binet 
Tests and the Inexperienced Teacher," 
The Training School (U.S.A.), March, 
1913. 

The Value of Correcting Mistakes. "It 
is evident that in the performances tested 
[spelling and arithmetic] a marked im- 
provement is produced by the correction 
of mistakes ; and it is reasonable to assume 
that similar results would be obtained if 
other subjects of the curriculum were 
experimentally investigated in like man- 
ner. Ignorance of erroneous results is 
a barrier to progress ; moreover, the 
effect may even be retrogressiv^e. When- 
ever an error is repeated it is another 
step in the formation of an incorrect habit. 
This principle finds immediate application 
in the correction of homework. Merely 
to assign marks to the work is not 
sufficient ; the erroneous parts should be 
corrected and the correct form made 
intensely prominent. Similarly, examina- 
tion papers should be returned to students 
and the necessary pc^nts discussed, other- 
wise the errors are liable to be repeated." 
—Stanley Watt, M.Sc, " The Correction 
of Errors," Journal of Experimental 
Pedagogy, June, 1913. 



Xlbe CbW^ Stu^i? Society an& tbe 
Constituent Societies. 

The Annual Conference, May 22nd-24th, 1913. 
This is the second time that Liverpool has invited 
students of child-nature to meet in conference 
within her gates ; and in 1901 members of the 
B. C.-S. A. were warmly welcomed, and now 
in 1913 members of the Child-Study Society have 
met with a no less cordial reception. The wealth 
of arrangements made for the edification and 
amusement of those who were able to attend the 
conference exceeded all expectation. We had 
splendid audiences (ranging from 170 to 300 people) 



attracted from the neighbourhood, and the con- 
siderable increase in the membership of the Liver- 
pool Child-Study Society may reasonably be 
e.xpected as one resulf of the interest aroused. 
On our arrival we each found awaiting us a 
booklet of tickets for every meeting, half of each 
ticket was to be retained by the owner, the 
other half to be given up if required. Also at 
the university was an ingeniously devised, and 
we think home-made, system of letter boxes, in 
which each visitor found any letters that might 
be awaiting him. 

Programmes of every entertainment were 
printed, and a detailed list of the institutions 
and places of interest on view drawn up, we 
think, by the Director of Education for Liverpool, 
Mr. Legge, was furnished to every guest. In the 
rase of one exhibition a more or less descriptive 
catalogue had been specially prepared. 

The conference opened with a reception at 
the university by Sir Alfred Dale, the vice- 
chancellor, and Lady Dale. I was too much of 
a stranger to know " who was who," but the 
crowd was dense and the buzz continuous. After 
a short time we adjourned to a crowded lecture- 
room, where we listened to a spirited address 
from our able President, Sir James Crichton 
Browne, whose youthful enthusiasm persists and 
increases. His address was followed by a vote 
of thanks, proposed by Miss Hale, the principal 
of Edge Hill College, one of the friends of Child- 
Study in very early days, and seconded by the 
general secretary. The President's address will 
appear in our journal. His remarks on the 
Monlessori method will have a special interest. 
Refreshments followed, after which came a pro- 
gramme of singing and dancing carried out by 
the jtudents of the Day Training College, under 
the guidance of Principal Gettins himself. The 
songs were most sympathetically rendered, and 
the dancing and some humorous songs by 
" Soldiers Three," such a^ " Look, Neighbours, 
Look," sent us away in cheerful mood. 

At 9.30 next morning the Council began to 
assemble. Sir J. Crichton Browne took the chair, 
and there were representatives from Birmingham, 
Cheltenham, Liverpool, Manchester, Tunbridge 
Wells and the newly-formed Society of the 
Hartlepools, the affiliation of which was one of 
the first items on the agenda. The capitation 
fee for the current year was fixed at 3d. ; and 
the Council accepted with gratitude an invitation 
from Edinburgh for the conference in 1914. The 
subject suggested by the Edinburgh Society and 
adopted by the Council is Experimental Korh 
in Education. 

A lecture from Professor Campagnac on 
" Discipline and Freedom " followed. The pro- 
fessor spoke from notes, so it is feared that this 
address will not be available for our readers. He 
designated discipline as something commonly 
intended for others, freedom for ourselves; Plato 



109 



Child Study Societies. 



insisted thai children should be habituated to 
certain types of conduct before reason is awake, 
and, said th'' lecturer, children and those no 
longer children should be made to do under com- 
pulsion what older, and stronger and possibly 
wiser people command. The mere fact of having 
measured one's power against a stronger and 
been beaten by it was a wholesome discipline ; 
it was well that children should realise that there 
was in the world such a destiny, overmastering 
their personal and petty interests and desires, 
and moulding them to a plan which they had 
not conceived. He concluded with the words, 

Discipline should be forced upon the voung 
by men and women who had themselves lain low 
in the presence of a discipline more than human." 

No discussion followed, but Dr. Mumford 
voiced the apparently general feeling of the 
audience when he thanked the lecturer for the 
high-toned thought and the " inspiration " of 
the address. 

People then hurried away to the Walker Art 
Gallery, to be present at the opening by Sir J. 
Crichton Browne of an exhibition of original 
drawings by children in the elementary schools 
of Liverpool. This exhibition was due to the 
initiative of the Education Committee, and 
especially oif Mr. Legge, and it may be said 
without exaggeration that a belter exhibition, 
from the point of view |of ■self-expression in 
children, has probably never been seen in this 
country. An instructive pamphlet describing the 
exhibition, and explaining its object in relation 
to Child-Study was issued to visitors. 

In the short interval between lectures, there were 
other attractions, special schools to be visited 
(about twenty were thrown open) another exhibi- 
tion of handwork, which we were not able to 
visit personally, the Children's Infirmary, and an 
Atlantic liner. Time and strength were entirely 
inadequate for all the pleasures that ofifered. 

In the afternoon we gathered at Edge Hill 
College, for Mrs. Mumford 's lecture on " The 
Religious Development of the Child in Earlv 
Childhood." It was a study of children by their 
mother. This address also was not written, and 
no idsa of it could be given by short notes. Those 
who listened felt themselves within the sacred 
precincts of a real home, allowed to look on and 
listen to a mother and her children together 
making their way into the Holy of Holies. The 
stages of development through which a child 
passes were indicated : The dawn of the idea of 
God; next, self-expression, God is .spoken to; 
love of God follows ; and the culmination is 
willing service. With regard to the difficulty of 
answering children's questions, Mrs. Mumford 
recommended answering through story and para- 
ble, and said we must ourselves try to get simpler 
and clearer beliefs. 

After Mrs. Mumford 's lecture visitors were 
entertained by the students of Edge Hill College ; 



they were taken first of all to a display of hand- 
work, very varied and beautiful ; then there were 
country dances, interspersed with part-singing 
followed by an impromptu speech from our 
President, in his happiest style. One of the 
students replied, and Miss Hale gracefully 
acknowledged the thanks and appreciation ex- 
pressed. 

In the evening came a lecture on ihe " Develop- 
ment of Vision," by Dr. Edgar Browne, who 
showed how the eye developed from infancy to 
adult life, and the dangers to which il was sub- 
jected by unwise treatment. Unfortunately time 
did not sutVicc for him to get to the constructive 
part of his lecture, when he would have suggested 
remedial treatment. Perhaps we may have the 
part which which was not delivered in some 
future number of the journal. After the conclu- 
sion of his lecture, and a charming speech and 
''xpression of thanks from .Sir James C.'richton 
Browne, came an entertainment by the Everton 
Village Choir, conducted by Mr. Edwards, for 
which we are again indebted to Mr. Legge. The 
children gave us five part-songs and three solos, 
which were much appreciated. After this the 
general secretary thanked the children for their 
pleasant music, and took the opportunity of ex- 
pressing to the promoters of this very enjoyable 
conference the keen appreciation of the delegates 
and visitors for ail that had been done for their 
pleasure. 

The writer of this report was not able to be 
present at Dr. Leslie Mackenzie's lecture on 
Saturday morning. Mr. Legge was in. the chair, 
and proposed a vote of thanks to the lecturer. 
This lecture brought the conference to a conclu- 
sion. There is no lack of child-lovers in Liver- 
pool, and therefore, Child-Study has a hopeful 
future in that great centre of vitality. — Miss Mary 
Louch (Hon. Gen. Sec.) 

The Cheltenham Society.—" In November, Dr. 
Cunningham .\ffleck ga\e a lecture on ' Greek 
and Roman Child-Study.' Having described the 
Greek systems of education at length, he con- 
trasted them with the Roman. The genius of 
the Greek was love of the beautiful, and the 
genius of the Roman was empire. Roman life 
was practical ; Greek life aesthetic. The Roman 
was the harder and less sympathetic parent. The 
lecturer concluded by remarking that the more 
we studied the education of ancient times the 
stronger became the conviction that in many ways 
the Greeks and the Romans must be our patterns 
and models." — C.L.C. Magazine. 

Lecture List for 1913-14 (as far as at present 
known) : — October, 1913, Lady Gomme, Child- 
ren's Singing Games. November, 1913, Miss F. 
M. Baird, The Montessori Method (exact title not 
settled). February 1914, C. H. King, Esq., 
Defence of Present Elementary Education. 
March, 1914, Dr. Walter Jordan— Misi F. M. 
Baird. 

The Halifax Society.— The session just closed 



Notices and News. 



un 



was most satisfactory from every point of view. 
The average attendance was good, the lectures 
were highly appreciated, the enthusiasm of the 
members showed no abatement, and the treasurer 
reported a good balance in hand. A series of 
talks to mothers in conjunction with the Workers' 
Educational Association was organised, and the 
favourable reports have induced the Child Study 
Society to make arrangements to continue the 
experiment next winter. 

Lecture List, 1913-14 : Sept. 26th, Professor 
Findlay, M.A. (Manchester University), New As- 
pects of Educational Reform : An Address to 
Teachers and Citizens. Oct. 1st, T. H. Pears, 
M.A. (the Psychological Laboratory, University 
of Manchester), The Doctrine of Formal Training 
and the Results of Recent Experiments. Oct. 15th, 
A member of Association for the Permanent Care 
of the Feeble Minded : An Address. Nov. 12th, 
Dr. Percy Nunn (London Day Training College). 
Nov. 26th, Jas. Shelley, Esq., M.A., The Philo- 
sophical and Sociological Significance of Hand- 
work in Elementary Education. Dec .11th (Thurs- 
day, Miss Dora Walford, B.Sc. (Leeds Day Train- 
ing College), Craftsmanship and the Social Order. 
Jan. 7th, E. G. A. Holmes, Esq., M.A. (late Chief 
Inspector Board of Education), Some Aspects of 
the Montessori System. Jan. 21st, Rev. P. Gough, 
M.A., Methods of Education in Old Japan. Feb. 
4th, A Member of the Eugenics Society, Eugenics 
as a Factor in Education. — Mr. J. .Arrowsinith. 

The Hartlepools and District Society. — On May 

1st a very interesting lecture was given by Dr. 
now Prof. P. Sandiford, on The Inheritance of 
Physical and Mental Traits. The lecturer suc- 
ceeded in awakening a good deal of interest 
in this subject. Some days after a bookseller in 
the town asked the question, " Has someone been 
lecturing on Heredity? " 

On June 11th Miss Marie Shedlock visited the 
town for the first time, and gave a charming 
lecture on "The Art of Story ^Telling." There 
was a very large audience. Here again tangible 
results followed, for some of Miss Shedlock 's 
suggestions have been adopted with satisfactory 
results. 

A series of lectures is being arranged for alter- 
nate months of the coming winter. During the 
intervening months discussions will take place 
on the previous lecture. 

The President of the Society is Alderman M. H. 
Horsley,' J. P., Councillor W. Edgar is the 
treasurer, and the delegates to the Council are 
Miss L. C. Brew, M.A., Miss E. Manley, L.L.A., 
and Mr. A. T. Prentice. 

Mr. Arnold T. Prentice. 

The London Society. — The London Society 
endeavour each year to arrange for a visit to an 
institution where practical demonstration is given 
of the object of the Society, " The scientific study 
of the mental and physical condition of children 
and of educational methods, etc." On Saturday, 



June 7th, nearly two hundred of the members, at 
the invitation of Dr. and Mrs. Kimmins, visited 
the Heritage Schools of Arts and Crafts for 
Crippled Boys and Girls, at Chorley, Sussex, 
where the education and training of the physically 
defective is carried out under the mo.st favourable 
conditions. The healthy and charming situation 
of the schools, on high moorland overlooking the 
weald of Sussex must be of inestimable benefit 
to these poor little cripples taken from the slums 
of our great cities. 

Lecture List, 1913-1914.— Oct. 9th, Cyril Burt, 
M.A. (Psychologist to L.C.C.), Mental Differences 
Between the Sexes of School Children. Oct. 30th, 
Professor Walter Rippman, M..A., Development of 
Child Speech; Chairman, H. Holman, M..^. 
Nov. 13th, Dr. Marion Hunter Vaughan, The 
Care of Children under School Age. Nov. 27th, 
Joint Meeting with the Frocbel .Society, Discus- 
sion on The Educational and Psychological 
Aspects of the Training of Children before School 
Age. — Mr. J. W. Dtirrie Mulford. 

The Tunbridge Wells Society.— On Monday, 
June 2nd, the Child-Study Societv met in the 
beautiful garden of the " White House," by the 
kind invitation of Mr. and Mrs. Pontifex, to hear 
the report of its delegate, Mr. Punton Smith, who 
had attended the annual conference of the C.-S.S. 
held this year in Lixerpool. — Miss G. Edwards. 



IRotices anD 1Rews. 

The Liverpool Conference. — Some of the lesser 
details, as well as the greater elements, in the 
arrangements at Liverpool, are worthy of note for 
futuie conferences, e.g., the exhibition of 
children's drawings and handwork, and the little 
book of tickets of admission for each of the 
events ; but it is a pity that copies of the pro- 
gramme were not sent out early and to every 
branch. 

We much regret that Mrs. Mumford and Profes- 
sor Campagnac have been unable to write out 
their addresses at the conference for publication 
in our journal. 

.4 Translator of Russian, who will work for 
nothing, is wanted to review a Russian educa- 
tional paper which is sent to us. It has its name 
in four languages on the front page, and the 
English of it is School and Life. Who will 
volunteer? 

More Montessori. — There is a very interesting 
paper on "The Montessori Method," by Miss 
Julian, principal of the L.C.C. Avery Hill Train- 
ing College, in Education for June 13th. This 
should be compared with that by "M or N " (Miss 
E. R. Murray?) in the Journal of Education for 
June. 

A Reviewer for Music Publications is wanted for 
our Journal, and the Editor will be glad to hear at 



Ill 



Reviews. 



once from some oiil' willing to serve, as there is 
work wailing to be done. Terms : — the gratitude 
of our readers. 

Mr. Winch's articles on " Binet's Mental Tests" 
ought to increase the sale of Child-Study, and will 
do so if only our members will take a litlle 
trouble to make known the fact of their appear- 
ance. Will all Hon. Sees, see that the fact is 
publicly announced at the meetings of the Child- 
Study Societies? I.et us nil do what we can. 

Child Study in Cape Town.— At a meeting of 
The Cape Division of the South African Teachers' 
Association, held on August 9lh, the President 
(Mr. E. O. Vaughan, Principal of the East End 
Public School) said : — " One wishes that it were 
possible to secure departmental grants towards 
the purchase of such journals as Stanley Hall's 
' Pedagogical Seminary,' and the journal of the 
English Child-Study Society." The speech is very 
fully reported in the Cape Times, which gives over 
four columns to it ; and the Cape .\rgus devotes 
its principal leader to it, and expresses the hope 
that the association " will devote its annual meet- 
ings to the exposition and discussion of scientific 
investigations conducted by its own members 
during the preceding year." 

Mr. Vauglian has written to the Editor of Cuii.n- 
Studv for information about our Society. 

Our Next .Innual Conference is to bf held at 
Edinburgh, and the subject for discussion is to be 
Experimental Work in Education. 



IReviews. 

City of Westminster Health Society, Eighth 

Annual Report, 1912. Office : St. George's 

Baths, Buckingham Palace Road, London, 

S.W. 

Some valuable information and guidance on 

" Infant Visiting " and " Medical Inspection for 

Children under School Age " is contained in this 

interesting report. 

The Demonstration School Record, No. II. 

Edited by Professor Findlay. Pp. xxxiii., 283. 

University Press, Manchester. Price 5/- net. 
The purpose of this volume is to " display in 
as much detail as space will permit the daily 
programme of the school " (Fielden Demonstration 
School, Manchester University). Contents : " Cor- 
porate life ; work and motives for working ; 
general review of the school pursuits ; humanities ; 
Class III. (age 9-10), syllabus in detail ; an illus- 
tration in history teaching method ; arts and 
crafts ; handwriting ; reading, grammar and 
composition ; English literature ; singing ; modern 
languages ; natural science ; mathematics ; method 
in arithmetic ; elementary plane geometry ; exam- 
ples of scholars' work ; three months' work with 
Montessori material. 



The articles are by various members of th. 
staff, and the whole is a most interesting and 
suggestive contribution to the study and practice 
of school experiments. 

Child Mind. By B. Dumvili.e, M.A., F.C.P. 
Pp. ii., 214. W. B. CuvE. Price, 2/6. 

This book " is intended to be merely an intro- 
duction to the subject of Education Psychology . . . 
for use by students in training colleges, by candi- 
date preparing for professional examinations . . . 
and by young teachers generally." Contents: 
The need of a study of psychology ; the nervous 
system ; sensation, association and perception ; 
perception and observation ; imagination and 
ideation ; instinct and habit ; the development of 
instinct and habii ; stages of child development ; 
fatigue and its treatment ; memory and formal 
training ; treatment of backward and precocious 
children. There are questions at the end of each 
chapter. 

This is a first-rate book for beginners, and is 
based on the most recent writers on educa- 
tional psychology. 

Certificate Hygiene, lulitcd t)V Rev. A. W. Pakkv, 

M.A., B.Sc, Pp. 113. W. B. Clive. 

Price, 1/6. 

" This work is mainly made up of material 

taken from " three other books, and its object 

" is to provide a concise account " of Hygiene 

to cover " the syllabus ... for the Acting Teachers' 

Certificate Examination in 1914 and subsequent 

years." Nothing more need be said of it. 

Light Woodwork. By \V. C. .Ai.i)i;rton and J. T. 
Baily. Pp. 128. ' Edward Arnold. Price, 2/6 
net. 

" The scheme is an attempt to show how Light 
Woodwork may be taught in the classroom, and 
how the practical work may be correlated with 
other subjects, especially with arithmetic, drawing 
and composition." It is especially designed for 
" older scholars ... in rural districts." Contents : 
Introductory models ; correlated lessons ; lessons 
from the house ; notes on tools, sharpening and 
equipment. 

This is a very suggestive, helpful and well- 
illustrated book. 

The Posture of School Children. By Jessie H. 
Bancroft. Pp. xii., 327. The Macmilian 
Co., New York. 

The special purpose of this book is to deal with 
" the correct development and contours of spine, 
chest, shoulders and other main segments, as 
well as their relation to each other in the upright 
position. . . Educators have long recognised that 
provision must be made for counteracting the 
detrimental influence of school furniture and 
sedentary occupations on the postural develop- 
ment of pupils. To aid both home and school in 
these matters is the object of this book." 

A well-illustrated and thorough book on a 
special point in physical training. 



Cl)ild=$tudp, 

tDe Journal of cbe Cbfld=studp societp. 



/'^ 



Vol. VI —No. 7. 



BMtorial IFlotes. 

The L.C.C. and Child = Study by 
Teachers. — There appears to be some 
danger that the L.C.C. may take steps 
which will cause teachers' efforts in the 
direction of child-study to be so "cribbed, 
cabined and confined " as to lead to the 
ending of them altogether. We trust that 
this is very far from their intentions, but 
it seems to us by no means far from the 
consequences of the recommendations of 
their Educational Adviser, if these be put 
into action. 



A head mistress who had carried out 
some tests on mentally defective children 
wished to publish the results, and asked 
for permission to use the name of her 
school in the book. The matter was there- 
upon referred to the Educational Adviser, 
and he made a report to the following 
effect. 



The results of any such experiments 
must be submitted to the Education Com- 
mittee before publication. If they be found 
entirely satisfactory permission to publish 
and to mention the author's official posi- 
tion under the L.C.C. might be granted. 
But it might be necessary that further ex- 
periments should be conducted under the 
supervision of the Council's Psychologist, 
or other officer. In this case (it seems) the 
Council would publish, giving full credit to 
the teacher who initiated the work. In 
some instances it might be found that the 
experiments ought not to have been 
carried out, or that the publication of the 
results is inadvisable. 



The Council's Psychologist also re- 
ported on the matter and said that, in his 
opinion, " psychological investigations 



NOVEMBER. 1913. 



commonly require the use of methods of 
procedure with which the untained investi- 
gator is, as a rule, unfamiliar." Hence 
there is need of expert assistance. Appli- 
cations for such help should be left to come 
from the teachers, who should be told that 
they can have it. In all cases the results 
of teachers' experiments should be 
examined and tested by him (the Psycholo- 
gist) before permission to publish was 
given. 



We hope that the only part of the two 
reports which will be adopted and acted 
upon is that part of the Psychologist's 
which refers to teachers asking for and 
receiving his assistance when they "freely 
and spontaneously " desire it. All else is 
dangerous and destructive. 



The scope and function of experiments 
and investigations by teachers may, and 
generally should, be quite different from 
that of the trained and expert psycholo- 
gist. The former is more purely peda- 
gogical, the latter more purely scientific. 
We cannot go into detail here, but Drs. 
Claparede, Goddard and Thorndike have 
dealt with the matter, and have urged 
teachers to make experiments and investi- 
gations on certain lines. Such educate the 
teacher in his profession, and provide 
materials for the psychologist. 



We suggest that the best thing the 
L.C.C. can do is to get their experts to 
draw up a memorandum setting forth the 
kind of work in child-study which teachers 
can do, and the best methods for doing it. 
All liberty and all encouragement should 
be given to all teachers in work which is 
so valuable and vital to their progress and 
success. 



113 



Binet's Mental Tests. 



36inet'6 /dental TTests ; 

Mbat tbcv are, ant> wbat we can 
Oo witb tbem. i. 

By W. H. Winch, m.a. 
(All rights reserved). 

Their Origin. There is, I suppose, 
no psychologist in the world to-day 
who is not acquainted with them 
(Binet's Tests) ; there are few who 
have not tried them. And not only 
psychologists; for many doctors of medi- 
cine, particularly among those in the ser- 
vice of Educational Authorities, have also 
in actual practice adopted them. And 
lastly — we ought to be ashamed to say 
lastly — educationists, administrators, in- 
spectors, and teachers of method have 
begun seriously to consider their uses and 
importance. How has all this come about ? 

First of all, there is the man of genius, 
for whom I have not the slightest intention 
of trying to account. He was a French- 
man of the Sorbonne — Paris may still 
boast itself foyer des iddes. The Ameri- 
cans, the Germans, and finally, the Eng- 
lish are using the results of Binet's genius 
and directing them to practical issues. 
The French of France are not, generally 
speaking ; though the French-speaking 
Belgians and the French-speaking Swiss 
are doing so. 

I am told that motor-cars showed a 
similar inception, and a similar practical 
development outside their birthplace. 
Mental tests for children, like motor-cars, 
depended for their beginning upon original 
ideas, and France has first place. She had 
the man of capacity ; and he was a univer- 
sity professor with leisure to think, so 
Binet's Mental Tests came into being. So 
much for the man, though that is little 
enough. I do not explain him, nor try to 
explain him. Genius is hard to account for. 
I should agree, for example, with the man 
who said that he could have written 
Shakespeare's plays if he had the mind to, 
and leave it at that. 

Their Value to Doctors. The Tests 
have been themselves tested — a very 



necessary proceeding for all tests — 
and, despite some faults, have very gene- 
rally been accepted by psychologists. 
But how came doctors of medicine to take 
up the Tests? In the terms of the adver- 
tisement agents, the Tests to them sup- 
plied a long-felt want. Medical officers of 
health and education, I believe, have been, 
and at present still are the only persons 
who have statutory authority to consign 
mentally defective children to special 
classes. Obviously, a series of tests which 
claimed to, and, indeed, actually did select 
defectives, on the whole, satisfactorily, 
was indeed a gift from the psychologist to 
the doctor. 

Here was something definite, some- 
thing tangible, something that apparently 
anyone could use for diagnostic purposes, 
something by means of which ignorant 
magistrates might be silenced. It was all 
very well to talk about nerves and brain- 
centres, positively to the vulgar or specula- 
tively among themselves ; the leaders of 
scientific thought knew full well that hypo- 
thetical brain physiology had never given 
any practical direction, because, as 
McDougall pointed out many years ago in 
his little book " Physiological Psycho- 
logy," the psychology was always in front 
of it, and was known better than the 
physiology. 

Indeed, the latter was largely a deriva- 
tive, a series of inferences from the psycho- 
logy towards which, later on, it turned 
round with an air of instruction, and told it 
a thing or two. (Those who care to read a 
long discussion of these issues will find it 
in an article of mine entiled " Physiologi- 
cal or Psychological " in Mind, April, 
1910). Medical men were forced to 
use these and similar tests as a way of 
complying with statutory obligations 
which their own science was not in a posi- 
tion to cope with. 

Their Value to Educationists. Now 
as to the educationists. The expla- 
nation of their interest is a much more dif^- 
cult and a much more complicated matter, 
I know there are people who tell us that 
it is the growth of the scientific spirit 



W. H. Winch, M.A. 



lU 



which accounts for all things of this kind. 
Such an explanation is easy, but it is false 
and misleading. There is — civilization has 
rendered them possible — a sm.all, a very 
small highly educated class in every com- 
munity which has the scientific spirit in 
application to human affairs. That Is 
granted. It is not a new class ; but it is 
larger than it used to be. But to assert in 
face of modern developments, either of 
religion, industry, amusements or of poli- 
tical government, that there is any general 
growth of the scientific spirit is a patent 
absurdity. 

Still, somehow, there is a new depar- 
ture in education, there is a beginning of 
the application of science, there is definite- 
ly a feeble birth of the scientific attitude, 
though, like the baby in "Midshipman 
Easy," it is a very little one. But its 
opponents will not think it less reprehen- 
sible on account of its small size. Let us 
hear what they say about it. Fortunately 
their arguments can easily be summed up, 
though not so easily dismissed. Non 
possumiis they declaim in varying phras- 
ing, but with equal conviction, however 
varied the expression. One cannot be 
scientific about man at all : that is what 
they say. At any rate, they go on, one 
can't be scientific about children. Such is 
the assertion. In one breath they say that 
children are incalculable, and in the next, 
that they, and they alone, know what chil- 
dren can and will do. This may seem an 
exaggeration, but I was asked — not very 
long ago — by a prominent political educa- 
tionist if I could not tell whether children 
were of normal intellect or not, merely by 
inspecting them. He thought less of me 
when I said I could not, and said that he 
knew headmasters who could. I bowed 
and said nothing ; it was a competition 
into which I did not care to enter. 

Now there is, of course, an element of 
truth even in this hetise. There arc 
grades of intelligence, or perhaps I had 
better say, of non-intelligence, which bear 
the stamp of their incapacity upon their 
faces and upon their forms. There are 
other grades of intelligence which are 



associated with an open brow, a meaning 
look, a frame instinct with responsiveness. 
There are no difficulties in the rough 
diagnosis of cases of this kind, and every- 
one of us, every day of our lives, does make 
useful and successful judgments, both of 
men and women, as well as of children, 
which are based upon criteria of this sort. 
So far there is truth in the contention that 
we do not require mental tests, we can 
diagnose by inspection. 

Classification by Tests. But let me 
now put a practical question. Suppose 
we take any considerable group of 
normal children, in how many cases 
could we feel any confidence in a diagnosis 
by inspection, unless, of course, confidence 
were our most striking personal charac- 
teristic? What do teachers do when a 
child, new to their own schools, seeks 
admission? They ask questions and set 
tests with a view to placing the child 
properly. I am assuming, of course, that 
they are not required to put the new- 
comer, say, in room C, because that's the 
only class-room where there is a vacant 
place. 

I repeat, the teachers ask pedagogical 
questions and judge of the child's capacity 
by his failure or success in answering 
them. Now I emphatically wish to guard 
myself against asserting that such tests 
are of no use. They are of considerable 
value ; but they have one extremely serious 
drawback, especially in England to-day, 
for schools have differentiated in curricu- 
lum so much that unless one has a detailed 
knowledge of the curriculum of a particu- 
lar school, one cannot assert that, for cer- 
tain, a child must have had an oppor- 
tunity of securing any particular item of 
knowledge. And if he has not, the peda- 
gogical examination completely fails. 

And quite apart from such cases as these, 
there is, of course, the admission of chil- 
dren, especially in infant-schools, who 
have never been to school before. In 
what classes are they to be placed? Tests 
of pedagogical acquisition are, obviously, 
quite out of the question. What ought to 
be done in such cases as these? First of 

B 



115 



Binet's Mental Tests. 



all, let us ask what is done now. Well, 
there is such a thing as classification by 
age, and age is of course a rough guide, 
a guide by no means so misleading in 
infant-schools as it is later on in school 
life. Still, even in infant-schools, it is by 
no means satisfactory. 

And there is also a classification by size. 
I can almost hear the accents of indignant 
repudiation bursting from some of my 
readers. But I can tell them that there 
are cases (yes, a tolerable number) in 
which boys have been put up or put down 
because they are big or because they are 
small, and therefore will look about right 
in their classes. Yes, I know quite well 
that big dullards cannot for ever be kept 
down amongst the little ones. 

We shall, I hope, have subnormal 
classes for these later on, where whatever 
capacity they have may be developed. But 
Jam not now talking of defectives and sub- 
normals; I am speaking of the grading of 
normal children; and I assert that grading 
by age, or by size, or even by pedagogical 
proficiency has serious drawbacks. I 
advance as a substitute a grading by 
mental age or mental proficiency, as tested 
psychologically. 

BineVs the Best. And Binet's Tests, 
at least those for young children, are 
(subject to certain modifications to ren- 
der them suitable to English children, 
and a few psychological modifications 
of some importance) the best ; indeed, 
they are the only series of tests of 
world-wide usage ; and, on the basis 
of my own researches I can confidently 
recommend them for young children, that 
is to say, for children of from three to 
eight years of age. But some tests have 
to be omitted, others changed in substance 
for English children and others changed in 
place somewhat. 

These tests will enable teachers of 
young children to find out accurately 
just what class the child is fitted to enter 
on the ground of its natural capacity. 

I asked a little while ago. What is done 
now? Well, there is another practice 
fairly common, not altogether a bad one. 



which needs to be mentioned : " Miss A — , 
try this child for a week or two and see if 
he will do for you," says the mistress, in 
an encouraging tone, ;!S one presenting a 
possible treasure. Miss A — , with acqui- 
escence, but without enthusiasm, takes 
him. Does she try him? If he is lucky 
enough to "pick up" where the others 
are, so to speak, he gets through. If 
not, she has usually no dilViculty in proving 
that he won't do for her. 

She may be right; she may be wrong; 
but there is no scientific court of appeal ; 
that is my contention. Ah! the inspector; 
yes, I had forgotten. But the teachers 
alone in any inspectorial district number 
many hundreds — four figures, not three. 
And the children, they are as the sand on 
the sea-shore, a multitude that no man can 
number. There can be no proper grading 
of school children if it is to depend upon 
the already overworked activities of a few 
highly-placed officials. The teachers, 
under guidance, if necessary, must take a 
hand. To enable them to do it hiis been a 
prime motive of my researches and lectures 
of the last eight years. And I am going 
in these articles to point out to them how 
they can take a hand successfully. 

The School ''Standards.'' But first 
I must remove a misapprehension. 
One of my critics, for I am glad to 
say my lectures were attended by some 
who came, not to scoff, but to object, put 
the case to me thus: "Do you think 
teachers will welcome a re-imposition of 
standards? " This is my answer, my con- 
sidered answer : No, I do not think so, 
though ttiey may find, with standards 
gone, and no scientific substitute available, 
that age is left standing alone, so to speak, 
the sole surviving criterion. They may 
find that standards were safeguards to the 
teacher against a classification even worse. 

But I repeat, I do not think so. What 
loere the standards? When one has known 
a thing well, one often forgets what it 
really was. So I do not apologize for 
writing out what they were. They were 
ideals of pedagogical eflFiciency to be 
reached year by year on the assumption 



W. H. Winch, M.A. 



116' 



that all elementary schools contained chil- 
dren of approximately equal capacity. 
And the curious thing was that the enthu- 
siasm and capacity of some teachers in 
"poor" schools produced results which 
(not investigated psychologically but ac- 
cepted pedagogically) went to support and, 
indeed, in some cases more than to sup- 
port, such an assumption. 

In 1905 I began an investigation into the 
differences in capacity between elementary 
school children of different classes, and it 
is now accepted doctrine among psycho- 
logists and others that such differences in 
capacity do, on the average, exist between 
the children of different social classes. My 
investigation was published in outline in 
the "Journal of Experimental Pedagogy," 
Numbers 1 and 2, London, 1910. 

The psychological investigation of the 
problem is a safeguard that the old stan- 
dards will never reappear. Personally, I 
have no quarrel with definite ideals of edu- 
cation; but I want them to be suitable to 
children of varied capacities, and I want, 
above all, to know that the children have 
been graded beforehand upon a basis of 
their real capacity. If a psychological 
examination to enable the teachers to 
grade their children is a reimposition of 
the old standards, then I want them back. 
But, of course, the contention is absurd. 
An examination which helps the teacher, 
and an examination which, irrespective of 
the capacity of the children, coerces the 
teacher, are two very different things. 

The question of pedagogical examina- 
tion is another question altogether ; it is a 
matter of educational administration. 
What I am concerned with now is a 
psychological question. And psychologi- 
cal tests are valuable in so far as they do 
not test the teacher's work ; they are 
framed to test the mental capacity of the 
children; they are not framed to test 
whether Atiss A or Miss B. has taught the 
children to read and write. 

New Methods versus Old. There is 
one further great outstanding issue 
which Mental Tests, properly applied, will 
enable us to solve. Year by year, 



almost day by day in these times, per- 
sons come forward and tell us educa- 
tionists that we are all wrong ; they 
promise us most extraordinary results if 
we will only adopt their methods of discip- 
line and teaching. They tell us — Madam 
Montessori, I think, among the number — 
that children can be taught to read and 
write at a much earlier age than we now 
think desirable. Perhaps they can ; the 
problems are problems of experimental 
pedagogy. I shall not deal with them 
now. 

But they go further and tell us that the 
children by their methods will be made so 
much more intelligent — their general in- 
telligence will be much increased. Now 
this is where our Mental Tests come in. 
If it is true that general intelligence is 
increased by the methods advocated, then, 
age for age, the children taught by them 
should be in advance of others not so 
taught. And by the application of Mental 
Tests the hypothesis can be tested. 

I am not antagonistic to the persons who 
call upon us every day to make a new 
heaven and a new earth in our schools. 
VVe all need their stimulus ; we all need 
their criticism ; we all need their practical 
suggestions. But their methods must be 
tested by sound scientific examination 
before we ask teachers to adopt them. 

There is something rather pathetic in the 
spectacle, so frequently presented to us 
nowadays, of elderly teachers who have 
learnt certain methods and practised them 
all their lives and are now called upon, at 
short notice, to change their whole stock- 
in-trade and work on other lines. They 
can't always do it and the result is often 
less than nothing. / They could achieve 
something in their o| 1 way : they cannot 
handle the new ways at all. Are we, there- 
fore, to say that there shall be no advance, 
no change? By no means. 

But educationists and teachers are en- 
titled, before they are thrust forward into 
what is new, to have good evidence that 
the new is really better than the old. Does 
it do what is claimed for it? Does it really 
produce a better result than the old? We 



117 



Child Study and Pathology. 



cannot tell unless we apply — scientifically 
and systematically apply — a series of 
Mental Tests in order to find out. 

Scope of these Articles. In this 
introductory article I have tried o show 
the value of and need for Mental 
Tests; in succeeding articles I shall show 
what happens when they are applied to 
school-children of different types. Binet's 
Tests will be used for young children, and 
full information will be given as to their 
application. And the modifications needed 
to make them suitable for English children 
will be indicated. 

If teachers will endeavour to use them 
and to understand them, they vvill help 
forward the day when England will really 
come into possession of a real science of 
education. 



(II)ilD*Stu&^ auD patbolOG^. 
II. 

By Sir James Crichton-Browne, 

M.D., D.SC, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Presidential Address, Liverpool, 
May, 1913. 

Founding on these observatigns it has 
been argued that the decline in the death- 
rate from pulmonary tuberculosis has 
been due to the increasing number of 
people who are tubercular, and the infer- 
ence would be that a certain dose of 
tubercle in childhood, say in the glands, 
is a very good thing and a protection 
against phthisis and the more serious 
forms of tuberculosis in after life. I can- 
not subscribe to that theory. It may be 
that a time will come when we shall have 
a tuberculin, sure and certain, the injec- 
tion of which into an infant will confer 
upon it lifelong immunity against all 
forms of tuberculosis, just as adequate 
vaccination confers immunity from small 
pox, but that time is not yet, and in the 
meantime it seems to me in the highest de- 
gree objectionable to make use of the bane 
as an antidote to itself, especially in the 
case of a bane so uncertain in its action 
as that of tubercle. Our policy Is to keep 



our infants and children clear of tubercle. 
They should not be touched by the un- 
clean thing, but should by all possible 
means and at all ages, be protected 
against Infection human or bovine. We 
must keep constantly in view the influence 
of hereditary predisposition, the risk of 
exposure in situations where the seed may 
be sown, and the danger of environ- 
mental conditions favourable to the 
growth and propagation of the seed. 

The Infant starts free from tubercle. It 
was shown in Paris, by Pirgnet's test, 
that in infants of one year old and less a 
positive reaction showing the presence of 
tubercle was given, in only 2 per cent., 
while In the period of from seven to fifteen 
years It reached 82 per cent. Now in the 
children In urban districts from one year 
old and upwards it has been conclusively 
shown by a number of independent inves- 
tigations, notably by the most recent one 
that of Dr. Noel Palon In Glasgow, an 
enormous proportion are Insufiiciently or 
Improperly fed, and it Is these children 
who contract tubercle. Sound nourish- 
ment in early life is, in my judgment, a 
much surer and safer protection against 
tubercle than any tubercular infection, 
natural or artificial. We must strengthen 
the power of resistance of the infant or 
child to the Invasion of the bacillus, and 
in that relation feeding is a question of 
paramount Importance. 

The dietetics of Infancy and childhood 
Is a subject well deserving the attention 
of the Child-Study Society. It has been 
much discussed and written about, but is 
still In need of elucidation. Dr. Hector 
Cameron, in a very instructive paper on 
" The Uses and Abuses 9f Proprietary 
Foods in Infant F"eeding," has just told 
us that amongst the poor in London an 
excess of sugar in the food of infants Is 
by far the most common cause of dyspep- 
sia and its attendant evils amongst them. 
It is quite common, he says, to find that 
a heaped teaspoonful of cane sugar Is 
added to each of ten feeds per diem for 
an Infant whose weight totals eight or 
ten pounds. This amount is equivalent 



Sir James Crichton-Browne, M.D., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 



118 



weight for weight to the consumption by 
an adult weighing ten stone, of about two 
pounds of pure cane sugar in the course 
of the day. 

There is one set of pathological condi- 
tions in the child that has not yet aroused 
the attention it deserves, I mean functional 
derangements and organic diseases of the 
heart. We hear daily of sudden deaths 
from heart-failure, and although that 
phrase, especially in the mouth of a 
Coroner's Jury, no doubt covers a multi- 
tude of shortcomings in many organs, it 
is yet clear that cardiac troubles of one 
kind and another are on the increase 
amongst us in these agitating days, and 
that a considerable proportion of these 
have their origin in early life. 

There has as yet been no systematic in- 
quiry into the incidence, causes, charac- 
ter, degree and prognosis of heart disease 
during childhood, but definite returns by 
Medical Inspectors received from a few 
areas, give an approximate idea of its 
prevalence, and it appears that about one 
per cent, of school children suffer from it. 
There is no I'eturn from Liverpool, but 
I find that at Wallasey 1.2 per cent, of 
the school children, boys and girls, were 
proved by examination to have recognis- 
able heart disease. 

The diagnosis of heart disease in chil- 
dren is not so difficult as that of pulmon- 
ary tuberculosis, but unless the examina- 
tion is made with great care, cases may 
be missed, and it seems probable that 
further investigation will disclose a 
larger proportion of heart disease in chil- 
dren than the figures quoted indicate; a 
much larger proportion if there are in- 
cluded under heart disease cases of dila- 
tation in boys, probably temporary, al- 
though not always so, and induced by 
recent over exertion. 

Congenital heart disease due to imper- 
fect structure of the organ is mostly here- 
ditary. Freidberg mentions three sons of 
one father, two by his first wife, and one 
by his second, who presented its charac- 
teristic symptoms, murmur and cyanosis, 
or livid blueness of complexion, and 



Strehler reports the case of a rachitic 
woman who bore in succession five 
cyanotic children. The victims of this 
heart malformation permitting communi- 
cation between the two sides of the organ 
so that the blue venous blood of the right 
side mingles with red arterial blood of the 
left, which cannot be overlooked, not in- 
frequently live for some years after in- 
fancy, and so find their way into schools, 
and thus we note that in Staffordshire 
there were noted fourteen development de- 
fects among 409 heart cases in school en- 
trants, and in Monmouthshire as many as 
thirteen congenital lesions, among seven- 
ty-two cases. The condition, however, 
frequently has a fatal termination in child- 
hood and is irremediable, and so has only 
a pathetic interest in relation to Child- 
Study. 

Very serious are the Child-Study as- 
pects of acquired organic and functional 
diseases of the heart. These are imme- 
diately fatal in many cases, and when not 
so they are disabling and distressing and 
shorten life. But they may be prevented 
and are amenable to treatment if taken in 
time, and their early detection is therefore 
of the utmost importance. 

Organic heart diseases in children may 
be set up by acute infectious diseases such 
as influenza, diphtheria and scarlet fever, 
but their chief cause is rheumatism, which 
in an insidious form may play havoc before 
its presence is suspected, and it is for 
signs of rheumatism in children that a 
vigilant outlook should be kept. The 
clinical picture presented by organic heart 
disease in children is very different from 
that seen in the adult. In the latter growth 
is completed and cannot be interfered 
with, but in the former it is still going 
on and is liable to be checked. 

Organic heart disease in children is a 
wasting disease. The child suffering from 
it is pale and anaemic, thin and emaciated, 
suffers from headaches and dyspepsia and 
from breathlessness and palpitation on 
exertion, and is brought to the hospital or 
the doctor, to be treated not for cardiac 
disorder, but for marasmus. Where the 



119 



Child Study and Pathology. 



severity of the lesion is not sufficient to 
prevent the completion of adolescence, the 
fully grown patient will sometimes be 
found to be w^ell formed, but of diminutive 
build, 

" Many young women who are of the 
' petite ' type," says Dr. Forsyth, " will 
be found to have had a constriction of the 
mitral valve in early youth." In such 
cases growth is stunted, but the heart is 
able to maintain the circulation through 
the small body. In other cases, growth 
continues in spite of the additional work 
thrown on the already embarassed heart, 
and so the circulation fails, and then we 
have the painful symptoms characteristic 
of heart disease in the adult, breathless- 
ness, palpitation, congested lungs and 
swollen limbs. 

Acquired organic heart disease is very 
rare indeed under three years of age; and 
rare until four or five, and after that it 
increases in frequency as life advances, 
and the important point to bear in mind 
in connection with it is that if the lesion is 
small and well compensated no indication 
of its existence may be given except on 
actual examination of the heart. 

Functional diseases of the heart are 
comparatively frequent in older school 
children, and the most common of these 
is incompetency of the mitral valve, due to 
some dilatation of the heart muscles often 
associated with anaemia and that muscu- 
lar flabbiness that depends on malnutri- 
tion, the tendency to it is increased at the 
time of puberty when the physiological 
strain on the system becomes greater. It 
is frequently induced by over exertion 
mental or bodily, and especially by an ex- 
cessive indulgence in athletic exercises. 

As we all know by practical experience, 
the heart is throughout life very respon- 
sive to our changing sensations, and 
especially to mental conditions that cor- 
respond with deep interest or emotional 
excitement, but in childhood its suscepti- 
bility to influences of that kind is vastly 
greater than in after life. The rate of 
heart-beat is then 100 instead of 76 per 
minute, and the nerves which accelerate 



or retard its action, are more sensitive 
than they afterwards become to reflexes 
associated with conscious states, and with 
states of activity of the visceral organs. 

Very slight changes may therefore en- 
tail marked variations in the speed of the 
heart in children, and irregularities of the 
heart's action which in adults would 
create alarm have often in them no sinis- 
ter meaning. But at the same time the 
boundary of physiological variation is very 
apt to be overstepped, under stress either 
mental or physical, and then we have dila- 
tation or functional disease of the heart 
which, if trifled with, may pass over into 
organic disease. More especially is mus- 
cular fatigue responsible for this state of 
things. The discharge of impulses from 
the brain along the voluntary motor 
paths is propagated to the centre of the 
nerves that speed up the heart, and the 
chemical products of metabolism in the 
active muscles which are given off to the 
circulation are carried to the nerve centres, 
where they affect the cardiac nerves and 
also directly to the heart itself, which they 
stimulate. 

The effects of the products of muscular 
metabolism may be seen in the fact that 
after prolonged or excessive muscular 
exertion the heart beat remains accelerated 
for a considerable period after the cessa- 
tion of the work, especially in the un- 
trained individual. Even in the healthy 
adult or trained adolescent, the strain of 
inordinate muscular effort may damage the 
cardiac machinery, causing dilatation and 
a train of evils, and in weakly and ill- 
nourished children such strain is doubly 
deleterious. Boys and girls too early put 
to laborious occupations not rarely develop 
functional heart disorders, sometimes 
aggravated in the case of the boys by the 
pernicious habit of cigarette smoking. 

But it is, as I have said, rheumatism that 
is the main cause of serious heart troubles 
in childhood. Acute rheumatic fever, with 
its sudden onset and violent symptoms, 
cannot be overlooked, but sub-acute rheu- 
matism may secretly work its way up to 
a fully developed heart lesion, unnoticed 



Sir James Crichton=Browne, M.D., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 



120 



even by a watchful mother. It is often 
the arrival of that lesion which must em- 
bitter and abbreviate life, and involve 
more or less industrial incapacity that 
directs attention to the apparently trifling 
symptoms by which it was ushered in. It 
is, therefore, eminently desirable that all 
parents and teachers should be taught to 
recognise the significance of the premoni- 
tory signs and first symptoms of rheu- 
matism, so that appropriate treatment 
may be timeously adopted. Thus will 
much disability and misery be avoided. 

Growing pains in a child should never 
be pooh-poohed, and when associated with 
a rise of temperature, call for immediate 
medical assistance. Sore throats and 
nose-bleedings must not be neglected. 
Nervous excitability and twitchings,or any 
approach to St. Vitus Dance, are full of 
warning. Erythematous rashes and 
nodules on the skin and pains in the joints 
or stitches in the side are often danger 
signals. 

The Education Authority of Croydon, 
with wise forethought, has directed the 
preparation of a leaflet on rheumatism for 
the instruction of parents, which is to be 
distributed when thought necessary. It 
has also been arranged at Croydon that 
the attendance officers may use their dis- 
cretion in keeping rheumatic children 
from school when they have aches and 
pains, if they are provided with one of 
these warning notices. It is to be hoped 
that the example of Croydon will be widely 
followed, and that either by means of such 
leaflets or by personal interviews school 
doctors and nurses will disseminate a 
knowledge of the harbingers of rheuma- 
tism in children. 

In all the rheumatic affections of chil- 
dren, it is rest, timely rest, complete rest 
that is the first necessity in order that the 
heart may be safeguarded. Bed and 
blankets are the sovereign remedy, by a 
resort to which excellent results are ob- 
tained. Fresh air, warmth, nourishment, 
may in slight cases effect a cure, but medi- 
cal guidance is always desirable, and in 
severe cases special medical treatment af- 



fords the best hope of reco\ery. It is to 
be remembered that even a loud murmur 
in the heart of a child does not mean an 
incurable case. Many serious lesions in 
the heart in such circumstances yield to 
appropriate treatment, but if that cannot 
be secured they end in permanent damage 
and dilatation. Even when that has oc- 
curred something may be done, compen- 
sation may be established, and if the suf- 
ferer can be safely conducted through the 
trying periods of puberty and adolescence 
and engaged in some suitable occupation, 
a fairly long and comfortable life may be 
anticipated. 

Children of the rheumatic diathesis 
must always be closely supervised, so that 
any recurrence of rheumatic manifesta- 
tions may be immediately noted. They 
should be protected against damp weather, 
especially in the autumn months when 
rheumatism is most prevalent, and should 
be liberally nourished. Children in whom 
the heart has been actually injured, and 
in whom compensation has not been fully 
established are not fitted for school life, 
but should be under medical treatment at 
home, but when adequate compensation 
has been attained, and the general health 
is good, education may be carried on in 
the ordinary way, always provided that 
physical exercises are carefully regulated, 
all risk of strain being avoided. 

Rheumatism is responsible for some 
2,600 deaths in England and Wales every 
year; heart disease for some 50,000 : a 
dismal toll which may, I believe, be con- 
siderably reduced when these maladies as 
affecting children are included in Child- 
Study, so that parents and teachers may 
be fully alive to their significance and 
ready to grapple with their beginnings. 

Sir George Newman, who has done a 
great public service in directing attention 
to heart disease in school children, and 
in collecting information on the subject, 
has in connection with it reported a very 
interesting inquiry into the temperatures 
of school children carried out by Dr. May 
Williams (Assistant Medical Officer for 
Worcestershire). In the course of her 



121 



The Child of the One-Roomed House. 



ordinary inspection, Dr. Williams, noted 
the temperature of 1,000 children, in no 
way selected, but examined at routine 
work, together with a few re-examination 
children, aged 12 and 13 as leavers. The 
temperatures were always taken in the 
mouth. 

The result of the examination showed 
that the large majority of children 
examined had temperatures above the 
normal. Dr. Williams states that among 
the entire 1,000 children, the maximum 
percentage is that of children exhibiting a 
temperature of 100° (18 per cent.), and the 
next two highest are those at 99.6° (12.7 
per cent.), and 99.8° (13.1 per cent.). 
Only 13.5 per cent, of the children have 
temperatures below 90°, and 55.5 per 
cent, have temperatures not under 99.6°. 
Of the 1,000 children, 254 were not sus- 
pected of pulmonary tuberculosis, rheu- 
matism or tonsilitis, but the remainder 
were either suspected or considered to be 
suffering from one of these affections. 

Dr. Williams' facts are startling both as 
to the prevalence of tuberculosis, rheu- 
matism, or tonsilitis, and as to the tem- 
peratures of the children not implicated in 
these affections. Assuming the accuracy 
of the instruments used, and that the ob- 
servations were not made during some 
epidemic ailment, they point to a general 
rise of temperature in elementary school 
children. Further observations are ur- 
gently called for. [Etc.] 



TTbe (Ibil& of tbe ®nc*1Roome6 
Ibouse. II. 

By W. Leslie Mackenzie, m.a., m.d., 

LL.D., F.R.C.P.E., 

Medical member of the Local Government 
Board for Scotland. 

Let me here say that the one-room 
house has not everywhere the same sig- 
nificance. In the open country, or 
country village, the one-room is really not 
the only living-place. It is merely a place 
to repair to for meals and sleep, a point 
of outlook on unlimited space. 

Except for a short time of each day. 



the children are not confined to the house, 
not even as much as they are confined to 
a room at school. It is at least possible 
for them to have healthy spaces to play 
in, sometimes trees to climb, fences to go 
through, woods to get lost in, hills to 
tumble down on, streams to fish in and 
wet their clothes in, rabbits to chase, dogs 
to fondle, birds to listen to, bushes to 
burn, stones to throw : in a word unend- 
ing opportunities for activity without 
fear of the police. The quietest country 
boy, if he continued in the town his most 
ordinary behaviour in the country, would 
be up at the Police Court in twenty-four 
hours. 

The one-room house of the country 
leaves a great deal to be desired, but it 
need not be the miserable refuge that the 
one-room of the industrial city so often is. 

There are many classes of the one-room 
population. They are not all of the same 
grade nor of the same origin. In the 
towns there is a class due to the subsid- 
ence of certain elements of the other 
classes, and in the country, too, there are 
several classes. For instance, there are 
the dwellers in the rural single-room cot- 
tages, where the freedom of the surround- 
ings is the equivalent of a larger dwelling, 
where living is easy and clean, and the 
neighbours are not too numerous. There 
one finds as good social results in the one- 
room house as in any other house. The 
manage is small as a rule : two persons, 
or three. 

But come into the mining quarters and 
the one-room house changes its character. 
There is overcrowding in spite of all that 
is said or done. The exactions of labour 
harden the custom of earlier ideals of 
comfort and cheapness acts as a fixer. In 
many places the mining population seems 
not yet entirely to have shaken off the 
moral traditions of serfdom, and seem con- 
tented with conditions of life that do not 
in the least correspond to the same wages 
in the cities. This is a problem by itself. 
But there are signs of change. 

The children frequently do not seem to 
suffer much in nutrition or in vigour. 
They have as a rule plenty of food and 



W. Leslie Mackenzie, M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.P.E. 



122 



on the whole the open country more than 
makes up for the closed room. If you 
doubt this go through a Fifeshire minhig 
village when the schools have broken 
loose, and you will not again raise the 
question. There are, of course, poor 
specimens, but the general truth is what 
I say. Let it be remembered that where 
the labour is active and strenuous, the 
parents must be strong and the children 
have a good biological start. But even 
to this the exceptions are many. 

The theoretical one-room house is not 
the same as the actual one-room house. 
It is easy enough to find in the clean 
country, where life is slow, or in the small 
town, where life is less pressed, specimens 
of the successful one-room house where 
all the decencies of life can be, within 
limits, honoured and where character does 
not seriously suffer from want of room. 
But take the one-room house as it is actu- 
ally used. For instance, take the case 
of a one-room house, with a patient suf- 
fering from advanced tuberculosis of the 
lungs. There are two other adults, 
married; two grown up children, a son 
and a daughter, and three young children. 
They all live and sleep in the one room. 
Can you say that in such a case the one- 
room house is a name for anything but 
human degradation, failure to realise the 
finer issues of daily life, anything but a 
beastlike establishment that ought to be 
wiped out of existence? 

We may deduce certain propositions 
fiom the masses of recorded observations 
of one-room houses in the great cities : 

1. The one-room family cannot feed the 
one-room child properly. Given home cir- 
cumstances like those I have detailed, how 
shall it be possible for a child to have so 
many regular and regulated meals a day? 
And if he has not these, how shall he 
grow? If the mother is not efficient, and 
if the father is out working, how and when 
will the child be fed? 

It is not exactly a question of mere want 
of money. That, in some cases, may be 
a cause of the neglect. But, in many 
cases, it is not, and yet the neglect is 



quite as great as if there were no money 
available. It is bad management. It is 
bad organisation. It is want of interest 
in the child, want of interest in his char- 
acter, in his attainments, in his future, in 
his present. The child is an incident of 
the mother's and father's life, not an ob- 
ject of care and anxious nurture. 

But where the ethical life is so low down, 
the physical life is also low down, and 
you will not readily get a well-fed child 
there if he has had to rely on his home for 
his feeding. Which is cause, which is 
effect, is a matter for speculative analysis. 
But low physical potential and low ethi- 
cal potential go together. Regular feed- 
ing in a civilised family is a late acquisi- 
tion of the race, which no longer relies 
on the casual food to be hunted for by 
individuals in the open world of nature, 
but must rely on organisation, on fore- 
thought, on the correlated energies of tens 
of thousands of men and wom.en if food 
is to be found at all. 

The one-room house lies on the margin 
of possible life in the great city. The city 
is itself an organisation to protect the 
family from extinction. The one room is 
the last refuge of the civilised family 
threatened with extinction. The function 
of ♦:he house is to keep the child alive. But 
the one-room family sometimes fails even 
to keep the child alive, and always fails 
to exploit his powers to the full. But the 
home finds its instruments in the expan- 
sions of the city organisation, which, as it 
grows in specialisation, makes, on every 
economic level, a more and more adequate 
family life possible. 

From this point of view, the city is a 
protective growth produced by the family 
instinct to secure survival, and, as the 
child must be at all costs kept alive, the 
city becomes the protective cradle of the 
new-born infant. 

2. The one-room family cannot clean or 
clothe a one-room child properly. The 
conditions that lead to poor feeding lead 
also to insufficient clothing. Like food, 
clothing is always a function of interest 
in the child. Where the ixiterest sinks to 



123 



The Child of the One=Roomed House. 



zero, the clothing- is allowed to deteriorate 
into rag-s. The child's body is also neg- 
lected. It is never systematically washed. 
Indeed, the one-room child never enjoys 
system at any point of its life history. 

In the one-room family one fundamental 
principle of Froebel is always realised : 
the child is allowed to do as it wishes. But 
the garden for its energies is filled with 
dirty human beings, not with the clean 
things of nature; a hot-bed of foul human 
smells, not a flower-bed of beautiful 
colours and scents. The child is a casual 
from the cradle, and probably the rocking 
of the cradle is the only rhythm it has 
known at the hands of a parent. But in 
many a one-room house there is no space 
for a cradle, and even the earliest sleep is 
often the sleep of a poisoned brain, not 
of natural fatigue. 

3. The one-room family cannot procure 
sleep enough for the one-room child. That 
is certain. Wherever adults and children 
occupy the same room, the children suffer 
necessarily. For the periodicities of the 
adult person are quite different from the 
periodicities of the child. The adult needs 
less sleep; he has more resistance. He 
has g-reater capacity to alter his surround- 
ings and defend himself from injuries of 
every kind, bad air, dirt, noise. The in- 
fant is more susceptible and yet weaker. 
He is more vulnerable, yet he has less 
power to take himself away from bad con- 
ditions. He has to rely on others for 
everything : food, clothes, washing, sleep. 
He sleeps at different hours from his older 
brothers and sisters and they, from the 
father and mother. 

The movements of sleep are never the 
same in any two persons, and, where more 
than one lies in the same bed, there is al- 
ways some nervous unrest. In the sleep- 
ing condition, probably the nervous sys- 
tem is even more susceptible to sug-gestion 
than in the waking state, where the ten- 
sion (the " threshold value ") is higher. 
We may say on general grounds that, 
when several people of different ages 
house all night together in one room, rest 
for the child is a blank impossibility. But 



without rest of the nervous system, the 
whole body suffers. The whole nutrition 
in subtle ways is upset and perverted. 

But the sleep problem is complex. A 
child's small body often needs more 
warmth than the empty bed affords. A 
member of the Edinburg-h Child-Study 
Society, who has done much holiday home 
work, told me, when I read this part to 
her, that on one occasion a boy pro- 
tested against being placed in a bed alone, 
saying, " I canna sleep in this bed ; I'm 
wanting my mother, and Jeannie and my 
tvva aunties." I do not say the child was 
right in his judgment of the correct num- 
ber; but his opinion about his sensations 
was final, and that opinion must be scien- 
tifically interpreted. Education in habits 
of sleep is as important as it is in habits 
of self-discipline, of which, indeed, it 
forms a part. 

4. The one-room family cannot educate 
the one-room child. We may go much 
further than this. No family, whatever 
the number of the rooms in the house, can 
educate any kind of child. This is not a 
fact limited to the poor. It is universally 
true. Among the poor, however, it is so 
obvious that no one can deny it. But if 
you think of it, you will find it equally 
undeniable for the upper wealthy, the 
middle wealthy, and lower wealthy of 
every grade. Why should it be so? 

The question is a matter for a separate 
paper. But briefly, the answer is that 
education, as w-e understand it, in the 
more recent stages of the civilisation of 
the western world, is really the foreshort- 
ening- of the whole period of develop- 
mental adaptation to a very complex life 
and this adaptation has to be accomplished 
within a few years if the child is to sur- 
vive as an approximately fit citizen. 

But the life he must learn is far too 
complex to be learned in the family, how- 
ever efficient. No one father and mother, 
be they never so learned, can give the 
atmosphere or the organisation needed to 
open up the mind of the child to the many 
influences he will have to work among in 
later life. In fact it takes at least a hun- 



W. Leslie Mackenzie, M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.P.E. 



124 



dred thousand people to bring- up one boy. 
You need the care of the city ; you need 
companionship ; you need the subtle 
stimulus of the child's contemporary. This 
no family of physiological father and 
mother can ever provide. 

We need not, therefore, blame the one 
room alone for an inefficiency that is com- 
mon to every house of two parents and a 
child. But in the one-room house the 
conditions are so marked that they are un- 
mistakable. The evil effects are so strong 
that the problem of education becomes in- 
finitely more difficult. Even the little that 
an efiicient family on the higher level can 
do and do well, the one-room family can- 
not do at all or does badly. 

The first impulse of every person that 
enters a one-room overcrowded with 
children is to clear the whole lot 
out into the open air. But the impulse 
usually goes no further. It dies in pity. 
The visitor for a short time utters wild 
revolutionary ideas about the disgrace of 
such places, the thriftlessness of the occu- 
pants, the advisability of drowning the 
mothers, the absolute necessity for 
flogging the fathers, and many things 
equally gratifying to the destructive emo- 
tions and equally futile in their results. 

One thing he always forgets, namely, 
that he has not asked himself the ques- 
tion : What share have I had in produc- 
ing these conditions? As time goes on 
the visitor gets indifferent, or the current 
of pity goes under the surface and there 
generates a set despair that paralyses 
effort and kills the desire of good, leaving, 
perhaps, a trace of satisfaction that he is 
not like " those people." "It is sweet, 
when on the great sea the winds trouble 
its waters, to behold from land another's 
deep distress; not that it is a pleasure and 
delight that any should be afflicted, but 
because it is sweet to see from what evils 
you are yourself exempt." 

Perhaps if we realise steadily that no 
one family of three people is fit to do what 
the child requires if he is to become a citi- 
zen, we shall be less ready to despair of 
the possibilities of social organisation. 
The cool science of the facts will help us 



to develop what is possible whether it be 
the ultimate best or not. It is certain 
that education of any but the worst kind 
is not possible in the ordinary one-room 
house I have described to you. As a child- 
study society (and all society is a child- 
study society), we must look for the 
means of exploiting whatever elements of 
positive good we can find. 

5. The one-room house cannot become a 
home. This is a hard saying, but I think 
it is, on the whole, true. The few excep- 
tions to it are striking enough rather to 
confirm than to contradict the proposition. 
But let us go further. Even the two 
and three-roomed houses are rarely homes 
in the true sense except for moments now 
and again. These are the moments we 
wish to make permanent. 

If the one-room house were always the 
one-room house of the country places or 
small towns, there would be less to say 
against it; for there you will often find 
the one room occupied by clean and clean- 
minded, strong people, who can make the 
houses subserve the uses of life without 
sacrificing character or putting- the moral 
life of their children in danger of degra- 
dation. But even in these towns and vil- 
lages the conditions are accepted by the 
better man and woman simply out of 
necessity. 

In one instance I found a fine type of 
young miner washing himself after com- 
ingf from his shift. The one-room house 
was a very poor one. It had no presses, 
or cupboards, or conveniences of any 
kind ; there was nothing but the bare four 
walls, and of these one was very damp, 
being built against the earth at the back. 
He was a man of fine colour of face and 
vigour of body. He apologised for the 
house, saying that he meant to get a better 
as soon as it was possible. He added, 
" We are just a young married couple," 
and indicated that this would serve until 
better accommodation was available. 
There were as yet no children. 

But these two are beginning life in the 
glory of youth and health and strength. 
He looked a young \'iking, confident of 
success. His blue eyes, his delicate pink 



125 



Tests bearing on the Early Ideas of Number and Quantity. 



and white complexion, his fair hair, his 
good teeth, all spoke of a fine racial in- 
heritance. Such as he aichieve a good life 
almost anywhere; but the day of stress 
and unemployment will come. The ways 
of the house will get too hard for the 
young mother. The necessities of nur- 
ture for one, for two, for three, for five, 
or more children will test father and 
mother to the last recesses of their moral 
powers; but there is something to hope 
from the fact that the one-room house is 
accepted only as the beginning. 

In a Scottish colliery village I went one 
day into a house of one room. The in- 
mates were a widow, her daughter aged 
sixteen, her son a little younger. The 
daughter had been working at the pit 
head since the day after she was fourteen. 
She was a handsome strong girl, and 
equal to the load that fate had placed 
upon her. The one-room house was ad- 
mirably kept. No fault could be found 
with it from the standpoint of the per- 
sonal efficiency of the inmates. 

But the girl communicated to one of us 
that she had advised her mother that they 
should now get a house of two rooms at 
least. The day of her womanhood had in 
this way announced itself, and the light 
of a greater interest than her mother's 
home was dawning in her aspect. It is 
not always that the deeper impulses speak 
in this imperative way to the budding 
woman; but the voice when it is heard 
cannot be mistaken for any other. [Etc.] 



Xtests beartnci on tbe Baii^ 3C)eas 
of IRumber ant) (S>uantit^. 

By Dk. Decrolv and Mlle. Degand. 
Translated and Abridged by 

T. G. TiBBEV, B.A. 

Since it is of interest to know exactly, 
and through many observations, at what 
age the child has different ideas bearing 
upon the numbers one, two, three, four, 
etc., and at what age he is able to answer 
exactly when one asks him "How many?" 
and when he has an exact idea of the terms 



many, few, less, more, etc., we have 
sought out a series of tests to use with 
children of two, three, four and five years. 
But that any useful conclusions may be 
drawn it will be necessary to apply these 
tests to a large number of children ; we 
have already begun to do this, but it is 
necessary that others should bring also 
their contVibution to this task and help thus 
to trace another step in this shadowy 
domain of the psychology of children. 

The following are the general conditions 
of the experiments. 

A. The child should be examined in a 
pleasant and familiar place, by a person 
known to him, so that he may be under 
quite normal conditions. 

B. The experiments should be made as 
far as possible in the morning. 

C. The thoughts expressed during the 
experiments should be carefully noted. 

D. The experimenter should furnish 
himself beforehand with all the necessary 
material. 

Test 1. — Show to the child in turn one 
finger of each hand, then two of right and 
one of left, then two of each, then three of 
right with one, two and three of left, and 
so on until the five fingers of each hand 
are being shown, and each time get the 
child to show the same ; each should be 
repeated two or three times, as though in 
play. But it is useless to insist when the 
first attempts fail. 

Test 2. — Show the child a number of 
objects, one two, three four, etc., in turn •, 
leave them before him and get him to 
show a similar number. 

Each has before him, we will say, a 
heap of twelve nuts. You take one and 
put it before you, and ask the child to do 
the same, not mentioning the number, but 
saying such as " Do like that with the 
nuts." Then do the same with two 
three, four, etc. Beginning from three 
some complication enters, for you are able 
to group the larger numbers either in a 
line or as forming some design. 

We have tried this test upon several 
children and have already noted how the 
group arranged in a symmetrical form is 



T. G. Tibbey, B.A. 



126 



more exactly reproduced than the group 
placed in a line. When the results have 
been obtained with nuts the tests can be 
repeated with other easily counted objects 
as biscuits, beans, etc., noting the time 
the child takes over the action. It is im- 
portant to observe the different reactions 
during this test, to determine exactly from 
what number he no longer reproduces the 
group shown and in what manner he 
expresses it. Thus one child of 3 years 
10 months imitated well groups of one, 
two, three, and also four when arranged 
symmetrically, but failed when they were 
arranged in a straight line. He gave then 
five, six, etc., but always more than three. 

Test 3. — Show one, two, three, etc., 
things and ask the child to show the same 
number of fingers. 

Note the manner in which the child 
adapts himself to this test, whether he 
understands immediately what is required, 
how many times the instructions ha\ e to 
be repeated, and the time he takes to get 
to work. Thus J — (3 years 10 months) 
understood after the second order, and 
could show the same number of fingers up 
to four objects, whilst M — (3 years 8 
months) could not understand what was 
required and always showed one finger. 

Test 4. — Show a number of fingers and 
let the child show the same number of 
things— nuts, beads, etc. 

It appears that this test is easier to 
understand than the preceding ; the num- 
ber of fingers shown should not be succes- 
sive, but mingled, e.g., 2, 1, 4, 3, etc. 

Test 5. — Strike in a regular rhythm 
(two strokes per second) on a table, glass, 
the hands, etc., whilst the child turns 
away. Then ask him to reproduce what 
he heard. 

Show the child the glass and say, " See 
the glass — I am going to strike it whilst 
you turn round, so that you caiuiot see 
me. You will hear what I do and then 
when I have finished you can do iho 
^ame. " 

Test 6. — Make the child repeat a mo\ e- 
ment a certain number of times. 

Tell him you are going to move his arms 



or legs and you want him to do himself 
what you have done for him. Bandage 
his eyes and then bend his lower arm upon 
the upper, raise his arm to the head, lift his 
leg, bend his body, in each case one, two, 
three, four times, etc., and then ask him 
to do the same. 

Test 7. — Touch his face or hand a cer- 
tain number of times whilst his eyes are 
closed ; then ask him to do the same. 

Test 8. — Make the child repeat the 
numbers from one to ten. 

Tell the child you are going to count and 
ask him to listen. Then count 1, 2 ; 1, 2, 3 ; 
1, 2, 3, 4, etc., until the whole series has 
been repeated. Some children have al- 
ready learnt these numbers ; others pro- 
duce some interesting results. Thus A. 
(3-|- years) could repeat numbers up to 4, 
but at 5 she said she did not know the 
name ; for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 she said, 1, 2, 3, 
4, 6; for the next series, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 
after that gave the first four numbers of 
the last one mentioned. Another child of 
3 never repeated anything more than the 
last two figures heard. 

Test 9. — Show the child a group of 2, 

3, 4, etc., things and ask him how many, 
without letting him count. 

Test 10. — Strike a table, glass, box, 
etc., whilst the child turns away and ask 
him how many blows he heard. 

Test 11. — Make the child count things, 
pointing with the finger. 

Put ten nuts, etc., before the child and 
tell him to count them, putting his finger 
on each. 

Test 12. — Make the child take the 
number of things necessary for one, two, 
three, etc., persons, starting with two. 

Place twelve nuts before him, saying, 
"You see those nuts; well, take one for 
yourself and one for me." Note how he 
acts. Then putting the nuts back, say, 
" Now take two for }ourself and two for 
me." Afterwards for 3, or 4, for each of 
two persons, and then do similarly for 3, 

4, etc., persons. 

Test 13. — Make the child divide groups 
of objects into two, three or four parts. 
J — (3 years 8 months) could divide even 



127 



Parent Educators. 



numbers into two equal parts well ; of three 
chocolates he kept two and gave one ; of 
five beans he gave three and kept two, then 
noticing the difference, said it would not 
do and put them together again. 

Test 11. — To test the comprehension ol 
the terms " much " or " many." 

Give to the child a number of, say, 
thirty nuts, or sweets, and then say " I 
should like to have many nuts, etc. Will 
you gi\ e me many? " 

A., aged o^ years, first asked if two 
were desired ; when the request for many 
was repeated, suggested three, and on the 
next repetition offered all. 

Test 15. — To test the comprehension of 
the terms few, more, less. 

Make five heaps of nuts, or sweets, etc., 
two containing about thirty, the others 
about ten. Then talk to the child in this 
fashion: "There we have some heaps of 
nuts, etc. Look at them. Show me a 
heap where there are many ; now another 
where there are many ; now show me one 
where there are few," etc. 

Then take a large and a small heap and 
get the child to compare them. " Here 
are two heaps. Show me the one that has 
more — are you sure? Now show me the 
one that has less." Repeat the test in 
various forms with other things. 

Test 16. — To see if the child can cut a 
piece of paper (preferably coloured, about 
the size of half a sheet of exercise paper), 
a stick of chocolate, or a long biscuit, etc., 
into two, three or four parts. 

J. (3 years 8 months) could cut the paper 
quite well into two or four parts and 
thought this easy, but when told to cut 
it into three he evidently did not under- 
stand, and cut it again into four, and was 
satisfied with the result. 

Test 17. — To see if the child can thread 
beads in a definite orderly manner, such 
as 2 red, 2 blue, etc. ; 3 red, •') blue, etc. ; 
2 red, 2 blue, 2 yellow, etc. ; 3 red, 2 blue, 
etc.; 2 yellow, 3 red, 2 blue, etc., and 
combinations of 4, 4; 3, 4 and 2, etc. 

This is in some measure complicated by 
the factor of colour recognition ; more- 
over it is somewhat long and should not be 



tried on a da\ when the child has had 
other tests. 

It is probable that certain modifications 
will have to be made in these tests, such 
as in the order, in the style of the ques- 
tions, etc., but that can only be determined 
by experiment. Such as they are, we 
have reason to believe that they will fur- 
nish some interesting observations relative 
lo the ideas of quantity possessed by chil- 
dren who have either not at all, or only 
lo some slight degree, come under the 
influence of definite teaching. 

Note. — The above is from " L'Ecolc 
Nationale " (Brussels). The tests are 
such as could be applied by any parent or 
lo\er of children, and would reveal much of 
interest, and of \alue in understanding 
and guiding the child's development. 
The writers are particularly desirous of 
receiving accounts of such experiments ; 
these may be sent lo Dr. Decroly, Rue du 
Wossegot 4, Uccle, Bruxelles, or lo 1". G. 
Tibbey"; 36, Drakefell Road, New Cross, 
S.E. 



Iparent J£^ucator0. 

By Professor Bidart. 
Translated by Miss M. S. Ryan, b.a. 

2. The Means of Habittcating the Child 
io Obedience from his Earliest Years. 
Are there any means of avoiding all these 
scenes and disturbances? Yes : One need 
only have recourse to his own authority 
and habit. Obedience is a habit, and it 
is of the utmost importance that it should 
be established from infancy. In fact, the 
other habits that I have discussed in the 
previous chapters are only of secondary- 
importance, since one and all may be 
broken or acquired by means of obedience. 

To acquire obedience, it is necessary to 
follow the laws which govern the forma- 
tion of all habits. It must be begun early. 
" If the child," says Locke, " has been 
accustomed to have his way in everything 
from the time he is a baby in long clothes, 
can we be surprised that he wants to go 
on doing so still, and will struggle to get 



Professor Bidart. 



128 



his own way, once he is breeched? He 
has done as he liked with his nurse before 
he could walk or talk ; he has ruled his 
parents from the moment he could lisp 
a few words, and now that he has grown 
up, now that he is older and more intelli- 
gent," is it likely that he, a big boy ten 
years old, will give up the privileges that 
he enjoyed in his cradle " Try this treat- 
ment with a dog, a horse or any other 
animal, and you will discover that it is 
no easy matter to cure them of bad habits 
which they adopted when young." This 
is truer still of man : he is more self-willed 
than the lower animals, especially as he 
feels his powers increase from year to 
year : if obedience is not obtained in 
childhood, it is afterwards too late. 

But where are we to begin, for the baby 
does not, as yet, understand the spoken 
word? We must begin by gesture and 
voice. A young child is affected by the 
tone of voice " just as a horse feels the 
stimulus of whip or bridle." A pleasant, 
encouraging tone braces the hearer to 
action, a severe tone, accompanied by a 
commanding gesture, restrains a child 
from doing what he should not do, and 
this power of the voice is one means " of 
developing a child's readiness to obey." 

Repetition alike of gesture and of words 
■are needed at this age. I am holding a 
little girl of nine or ten month old on my 
knees. She wants the knife I have in my 
hand. I say to her "Baby mustn't 
touch/' and move her hand away. She 
makes a second attempt, I repeat my pro- 
hibition and move her hand away again. 
She keeps quiet a moment longer. A third 
time she looks at the shining blade and 
begins to move her hand towards it. 
" Baby tniistn't touch " I repeat, in the 
same tone, and looking steadily at her. 
Then she looks at me almost as an intelli- 
gent human being, who would sav, " You 
really want me not to? " At the same 
time, she does not move her hand further, 
I continue to look at her steadily, and she 
does not touch the forbidden object. Thus 
repetition has made her understand. 

Her mother acts likewise. \\'hen the 
child puts something harmful in her mouth 



her mother says to her, " Give it me, 
baby." Immediately, as if impelled by 
some hidden spring, baby half opens her 
mouth, displaying to view the object on 
the tip of her tongue for her mother to 
take it. She did not invent this little trick 
the first time, but every time she got hold 
of something that she ought not to have, 
her mother said to her, " Give it me," and 
, put her finger to her mouth. The child 
associated the sign and the movement, 
she heard the words and thus learnt to 
obey. Little by little, action explained 
the words ; a day will come when the 
words will explain the action. 

Repetition alone is not enough ; ive 
must exact obedience. Listen to Mme. 
de Saussure : "I will give you a penal 
code for children of two years old which 
may save them from much more severe 
penalties in the future. For disobedience 
due to f or getf nines s , prevent the con- 
tinuance of the act by good-temperedly 
renewing the prohibition. For a more 
"wilful act of disobedience, seriously warn 
the child that, if he does it again, he 
will be absolutely prevented from dis- 
obeying. For a second deliberate act of 
disobedience, carry out your threat by 
silently taking such means as will render 
disobedience impossible." If need be, 
better a smart tap than outcries, threats 
and reproaches later on. 

3. The Right Way to Command. When 
the child can talk and understands what 
is said, a word ought to be sufficient to 
make him obey. It is no longer necessary 
to repeat the same command two or three 
times, or to deprive him of the means of 
disobeying. But in order that this word 
may have the desired effect, it must be 
given as a command to be obeyed, and this 
is what few parents realise. 

We will suppose that three or four 
children have just come home from school. 
The whole day long, they have been under 
restraint, and their minds have been 
actively at work; their brains are tired, 
they need exercise, change and amuse- 
ment. Am I to expect them to remain 
silent and quiet? It would be just as 
unreasonable if 1 were bidden to go 



129 



Suggestions for Study and Practice. 



without food. Children need action and 
noise in their daily life. Commands must 
be only such as are possible. (A wise 
saying of La Pallice, but ignored by most 
people !) 

A child is playing quietly and disturb- 
ing no one. Why should I interfere in 
his play? It would be better for me to 
be silent than to bid him stop play. 
Another time he is busy in some little 
occupation which pleases him. Shall I 
tell him to do something else? The work 
which he gives himself is best for him. 
He is quite happy, why should 1 disturb 
him? Over-management is a bad thing 
for the temper. Never disturb a child 
except in case of absolute necessity. 
Commands must be only such as are 
necessary. 

But, you will tell me, so many 
commands are necessary? At every 
moment of the day, the restless child may 
be breaking something or doing himself 
some mischief. Merely to keep the child 
out of harm's vvay, commands must be 
given over and over again. No, Sir, 
there is no need for so many instructions, 
actual prevention is suflficient and indeed 
is the best, for it is surer, and puts the 
child out of reach of temptation. You 
don't want him to break some precious 
thing? Very well, put it out of his way. 
You want to avoid accidents? Make 
them impossible by whatever precautions 
you can. It is true that by means such as 
these the child will not learn to obey, but 
he will not learn to disobey, v.-hich is 
something gained. 

" Remember these six things well," 
said a mother to her little girl, " you must 
not, etc., etc." And the little girl said 
to herself, " I shall never remember all 
that. Whatever I do, I shall be sure 
to forget something and do something 
wrong, and then I shall be punished." 
Forgetfulness, discouragement, want of 
attention are the consequences of a multi- 
plicity of rules, hence commands must 
be few in number. 



Sugoesttons tor Stut)^ an& 
Ipracttce. 

Classification by tlic Binet Test. "In- 
dividual tests were made of each of the 
201 children [in a \\'est Side School in 
New York City] in the grades above the 
first year [over seven years old]. The 
Binet test was used for the purpose of 
sorting the children into three groups : 
the normal, or those testing within two 
years of their chronological age; the back- 
ward, or those testing between two and 
three years younger than their chronologi- 
cal age; and the feeble-minded, or those 
testing more than three years younger 
than their chronological age... The number 
of children belonging to each group was 
as follows : Normal children 144 (71.64 
per cent.). Backward children 25 (12.44 
per cent.), Feeble-minded children 32 
(15.92 per cent.)" — Elizabeth A. Irwin, 
" A Study of the Feeble-minded in a West 
Side School," The Training School 
(U.S.A.), September, 1913. 

Physical Exercises for Babies. " Dr. 
Montessoi;i recognises the value of jump- 
ing and climbing for children. It seems 
incredible, but it is nevertheless true, that 
a mother asked a friend of mine whether 
she thought a child should be allowed to 
jump. Jumping is, indeed, one of nature's 
best exercises for developing strength in 
the legs and judgment in co-ordinating 
movements. The eye, too, is trained in 
judging distances, and courage gradually 
develops. The child must be guarded at 
first, but if care is exercised, he will begin 
to jump well in his second year from at 
least one low step." — Jennie B. Merrill, 
Ph.D., " Montessori Physical Exercise 
for your Children," Magazine Bulletin 
(U.S.A.), May, 1913. 

Home Education by a Mother. " The 
first thing that every mother must realise 
is that the education of the body comes 
before the education of the mind. The 
outline that I give is based upon the as- 
sumption that your five-year-old is being 
trained in his habits of orderliness and 
regularity, helpfulness and unquestioning 
obedience... The little child should dress 



Notices and News. 



130 



himself, button or lace his shoes, hang up 
his clothing on the proper hooks, turn the 
covers of his bed to air, put away his play- 
things when he is through with them, run 
here and there to save his mother steps 
about the house. Such early training as 
this is the highest kind of discipline." — 
Ella Frances Lynch, " How can I Edu- 
cate my Child at Home? " Magazine Bul- 
letin (U.S.A.), August, 1913. 



Botices an& IRews. 

NoH-salaried Reviewers. — We are glad to say 
that a reviewer for the Russian journal has volun- 
teered. Mrs. May Marsom has been good enough 
to undertake the work, and we are able to include 
first contribution in this number. 

No one has yet offered to review the music 
publications which come to us. It is important 
that a competent musician and educationist should 
do this, as we want our reviews to be on a high 
level. 

Our needs in this direction are constantly ex- 
tending, and a reviewer for Hungarian journals 
is now required. 

Mr. Winch's Articles on the Binet Tests. — The 
other articles will appear bi-monthly from now. 
We again urge our readers to make known the 
fact of their appearance as widely as possible, and 
especially among teachers. 

Froehel Society Meetings. — Our London mem- 
bers may like to know of these. They are held 
in the College of Preceptors, Bloomsbury Square 
(close to the British Museum), and there is a 
charge of 6d. for admission for non-members to 
each lecture, or 3/6 for the course of eight lectures. 
No fees are taken at the doors, and tickets must 
be applied for (a stamped addressed envelope being 
enclosed) from Miss Temple Orme, LL.D., 4, 
Bloomsbury Square, W.C. 

Tuesday, Nov. 4th, The Meaning and Function 
of Play, by Walter Wood, M.A. ; Thursday, Nov. 
27th, Joint Meeting with Child-Study Society, for 
discussion on The Training of Children before 
School Age ; Tuesday, Dec. 2nd, Formal Sense 
Training, by Professor Spearman ; Chairman, Dr. 
Langdon-Down ; Thursday, Jan. 8th (at the Uni- 
versity of London), The Place of Reading and 
Writing in Kindergartens and Infant Schools; 
Tuesday, Jan. 27th, The Importance of Imagina- 
tion in Education, by Dr. Greville Macdonald ; 
Chairman, Mr. .Arthur Burrell, M.A. ; Tuesday, 
Feb. 24th, The Importance of Expression, by Mr. 
Ebenezer Cooke ; Chairman, Mr. H. Holman, 
M.A. ; Tuesday, March 31st, Nature Study for 
Young Children, by Miss Hibbert Ware. 



IReviews. 

Ambidextrie : — etude experimentale et critique. By 
Varia KiPiANi, 36, Rue Neuve, Bruxelles. 104 
pp. and 28 illustrations. Price 3fr. 50c. 
Mile. Kipiani has for some time past been mak- 
ing a careful study of ambidextry under the direc- 
tion of Dr. loteylko of the Facult(§ Internationale 
de P^dologie and this small book is the result. 
The treatment is nothing if not thorough, and 
Mile. Kipiani has certainly written a very strong 
appeal for the greater use of the left hand and one 
which all interested in the subject should see. She 
not only claims that the left hand should be em- 
ployed equally with the right in drawing and 
writing, but also, in order to avoid that well- 
known fatiguing movement of the eye (to which 
Javal first called attention), when it passes from 
the end of one line to the beginning of the next, 
she urges that every alternate line should be writ- 
ten mirror fashion. And she claims that in the 
early stages of writing this can be quite easily 
taught — ^she herself has taught it ; and further, 
that former ambidextral schemes have failed be- 
cause attempts have been made to have similar 
work done by both hands. To remedy this she 
proposes that the right hand page should 
be written by the right hand, alternate lines 
being written from left to right and from 
right to left, whilst similarly the left hand 
would write on the left hand page. Each 
hand would follow its natural slope, from right to 
left with right hand and vice versa with left, whilst 
she urges that the pen or pencil should not be 
tightly held, but should rest easily between the 
index and the middle fingers of each hand. 

It is all very enthusiastic and often suggestive ; 
yet there still lingers in the present writer's mind 
the question as to whether the extra advantages 
quite compensate for the extra work involved. 

L' Inter medlar e des Educateurs. Geneva. 2fr. per 
annum. 
This little monthly of 16 pp. comes from the 
Institut J. J. Rousseau, Geneva, of which it 
serves as the organ. Its further purpose is suffi- 
ciently indicated by its title ; each number contains 
a notice, with portrait, of some well-known Euro- 
pean educator, a short article upon some educa- 
tional problem, and some questions put by con- 
tributors, to be answered in the next issue. 

Le Pcedologium, No. 1. 5frs. per annum. 69, 
Rue de la Culture, Brussels. 
Not the least important outcome of the Interna- 
tional Congress on Child Study at Brussels in 1911 
was the establishment of an International Faculty 
of Paidology there, due to the energy and initia- 
tive of Dr. J. loteyko, one of the most remarkable 
women in European education. " Le Pasdologium" 
is its quarterly bulletin. This first issue contains 
a portrait of its founder, an outline of the work 
proposed to be done, a statement of its need, and 



131 



Reviews. 



a discussion on tlic relation of the psychology of 
the adult and the child. 

liullctin dc I'EJncation Morale dc la Jcutinesse. 
5, Avenue du Ci6n^Tal Tripicr. 16 pp. Novem- 
ber, 1912— July, 1913. L'Union Morale. 
Hachtftte ot Cie' 64 pp. October, 1912— J anu- 
ary, 1913. 3fr. 50c. per annum. 
These two are evidence of the keen interest being 
taken in moral education in France — the " Bul- 
letin," now in its si.xth year, being devoted more 
directly to children, and, as is known to our 
readers, mainly from the parents' point of view. 
" L'Union Morale " is a new and more ambitious 
publication, being the quarterly organ of the newly 
established French League for Moral Kducation, 
itself the outcome of the International Congress 
held at the Hague. The first number is a fanfare 
to the world in general — an account of the opening 
ceremony and the discourses delivered, a list of 
members, and quite a formidable display of rules. 
The second issue contains an announcement of 
prizes offered for a Manual of Moral Education 
and various articles appropriate to the subject, e.g., 
on the moral lesson in the primary school, on the 
teaching of kindness, etc. Notable among these is 
one by F. J. (iould, the well-known lecturer on 
moral education. 

Eugcnique, Nos. 1-5. Bailliere et Fils, Paris. 
Ifr. 50c. 
Here again is the organ of a new society, the 
French Eugenics Society, the formation of which, 
as in the case of L'Union Morale, derives not a 
little of its inspiration from England. The first 
four numbers are bound together as one volume 
(72 pp.) which contains, in addition to the usual 
lengthy list of rules, without which no French 
society is complete, and accounts of the inaugural 
meetings, an interesting article on the relation be- 
tween Eugenics and diet and another with some 
striking statistical diagrams on Depopulation and 
Eugenics. The author of this latter, M. Lucien 
March, contributes a notable article to the next 
issue on Eugenic Education ; he is but one of the 
many notable men, the connection of whom with 
this new organisation points to a very general 
recognition of the dangers of depopulation in 
France. 

School and Life. A Russian weekly educational 
paper. 
The full title of the paper is " School and Life — 
one indivisible whole." It has on the front page 
the likeness of Pirogoff, a Russian educationist. 
The price is 6 roubles or 12s. a year. Elementary 
teachers may pay on the instalment plan. Now 
and then it gives a supplement in booklet form, 
some of which contain a reprint of lectures on 
" School Management," delivered by Professor 
Paulsen at the Berlin University, translated into 
Russian by Engelhardt. 

The contents may be roughly divided into two 
sections : — (1) The greater : Local educational news 
of every kind, vacancies in schools, number of 



applications, government arrangements, new sylla- 
buses of study, reports of school exhibitions, school 
conferences, holiday courses for teachers, and cur- 
rent educational literature. (2) The lesser : edu- 
cational articles dealing with child study or reports 
of educational work in other lands, as for in- 
stance: — "Open Air Schools and Colonies in 
France " ; " Hygiene in Italian Schools " ; "Hand- 
work in History, from the derman " ; " The Value 
of Statistics in School " ; " The Proper Choice of 
a Career"; and "The .\ims of Elementary 
Science." 

A few of the articles are on Child .Study lines, as 
for instance : — Processes of assimilation ; The 
study of physiognomy as an index to a child's 
understanding ; The angle of vision in handwrit- 
ing ; \ plea for co-education ; Discipline in school. 

The Joyous Book of Singing Games. By John 
HoRNBV. Pp. xii., 140. E. J. Arnold & Son. 
Price 2 6 net. 
This book well deserves its title, and all who 
like to teach folk songs to children will be de- 
lighted with it. British, Danish, Dutch, French 
and German songs are included ; the instructions 
for playing the games are well done ; and the 
general get-up is excellent. The " Introduction ' 
and " Hints to Collectors " are both interesting 
and helpful. 

Voting Delinquents. By .M\in Ci. Bakni.tt. Pp. 
xiv.. 222. Messrs. Methuen. Price 3,6 net. 

This book is the outcome of a study of Reforma- 
tory and Industrial Schools, and is intended not for 
the expert but the general public. It deals with 
the following topics : — some causes of juvenile de- 
linquency ; the history of institutional treatment for 
juvenile offenders ; the physical conditions of the 
delinquents and the medical care of the schools ; 
the staff, and elementary and religious instruction 
in such schools; boys', and girls', reformatory and 
industrial schools ; the work of industrial schools ; 
the results of the training and the future of the 
schools ; the report of the Departmental Committee 
of 1911. 

All interested in these Schools will find this a 
very useful book of information. 

Publications Received. — The Journal of Edu- 
cation ; The Educational Times; The Parents' 
Review ; Child Life ; School Hygiene ; Experi-- 
mental Pedagogy; Moral Education League Quar- 
terly; L' Education Familiale ; Types of Schools 
for Young Children, by Miss E. E. Lawrence and 
Miss Rose Solomon, pp. 16, price 2d., The Froebel 
Society ; Problems in Eugenics (Report of Pro- 
ceedings, First International Conference, London, 
1912) ; National Association for The Feeble- 
Minded, I7th Annual Report, to December, 1912 ; 
Magazine Bulletin (U.S.A.) ; Educafoo (Lisbon) ; 
Archives de Psychologic (Geneva). 



n%- 



Cl)ild=$tudp. 

tDe Journal of rhe Cbil(l=smdp Societp* 



Vol. VI —No. 8. 



DECEMBER. 1913. 



(rbilt)*StuC)g anD patbolog^. 

III. 

By Sir James Crichton-Browne, 

M.D., D.SC, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Presidential Address, Liverpool, 
May, igij. 

A study of the pathology of childhood, 
as it exists around us to-day, of the 
abnormalities, defects and diseases which 
afflict so manv of our little ones, to one 
or two of which I have been directing- 
your attention, must, I think, give us 
pause in accepting without demur that 
Montessori system of education which is 
being so enthusiastically pressed upon us 
by a group of educators, and which must 
have secured the notice of all students of 
Child-Study. I am by no means blind to 
the attractive features of that system or 
to the remarkable nature of the work done 
by Dr. Montessori in her Children's 
Homes in Rome. 

xA.nimated by a tender and voluminous 
love of children or ample philo-progeni- 
tiveness, as the phrenologists would have 
called it; possessing in a large degree that 
personal magnetism that is an immeasur- 
able but potent force in education, and 
endowed with medical knowledge, she has 
elaborated a system original perhaps in 
its combination of parts, but not so in 
the conception of any one of the parts of 
which it is composed, and has devised 
methods of teaching and apparatus that 
are novel and ingenious. 

I highly appreciate Dr. Montessori's 
devoted labours in the cause of education, 
labours which will, I believe, have a 
stimulating and vivifying effect wherever 
they become known, but I cannot join 
in the indiscriminate adulation of her 
system that is going on, or believe that 
having regard to climate, racial and social 
conditions it can be beneficially translated 



in its entirety to our English soil. Use- 
ful hints we may derive from it, but in 
its wholeness we cannot accept it. I can- 
not admit that, as the ardent disciples of 
Montessori maintain, our present educa- 
tional system in this country, with all its 
faults, is founded on distrust of the child, 
and is calculated to paralyse activity, 
arrest growth and substitute the move- 
ments of machinery for the subtle, occult, 
self-controlling processes of life. 

Education must always be judged, al- 
though not paid, by results, and we have 
yet to wait for the results of the 
Montessori system as manifested in the 
character and achievements of the men 
and women who have had the benefit of it 
as children. Its immediate effects, when 
carried out under the eye of its inventor, 
on the children are obvious enough, but 
we have as yet no evidence that they are 
enduring. It would be edifying to learn 
whether the Montessori children show 
after a year or two in the schools to which 
they pass on, any marked superiority in 
disposition or talent, to the children not 
so trained. 

A good start in life is no doubt a most 
important step towards future excellence, 
but it has yet to be proved that the 
Montessori start is better than other 
starts that could be named as regards its 
ultimate sustaining power. I could quote 
from our great writers on education, 
English, French and German, passages 
enunciating every principle that Dr. 
Montessori has laid down. I could adduce 
experiments which have been tried on all 
the lines she has adopted. 

Admitting the interest and value of her 
synthesis, I think it is foolish exaggera- 
tion to hail it as a new revelation which 
is to supersede all existing educational 
faiths and provide us with a new heaven 



133 



Child-Study and Pathology. 



and a new earth. It is worse than fooHsh 
exag-geration to declare that under other 
systems the spontaneity of our children 
is repressed till they become " almost like 
dead things." There is not, as is asserted, 
any crude dogmatism amongst us on edu- 
cational subjects. We are, it seems to 
me, peculiarly open to new ideas, but we 
must have time to consider before we ac- 
cept a wholesale revolution. 

In St. Saviour's Child-garden, in the 
Cannongate of Edinburgh, Miss Lileen 
Hardy has anticipated most of what is 
really good and notable in the Montessori 
system and has avoided what I regard as 
its mistakes. With a personality not 
unlike that of Dr. Montessori, with a 
heart as loving and womanly as hers, but 
with material to deal with in Scottish chil- 
dren of the poorest class much harder 
and less receptive than that which Dr. 
Montessori has had to manipulate in her 
Italian schools, Miss Hardy has achieved 
results not inferior to those of which any 
Casa dei Bambini can boast. 

Miss Hardy recognised the deplorable 
waste of vitality that is going on in the 
slums, the unsuitability for child develop- 
ment of the home conditions in the 
crowded areas of our big cities, and the 
evils arising from the ignorance, pre- 
occupation, physical incapacity, and even 
the undisciplined love of the mothers, and 
so she effected a little clearance in the 
densest and dirtiest corner of Edinburgh, 
and converted it into a garden plot in 
which she has reared out of unpromising- 
buds a crop of happy and healthy children. 

Keenly alive to the good instincts of 
the children, and to the lovable traits in 
their nature, she has not shut her eyes 
to the destruction of the highest and 
holiest that is caused by self-indulgence 
and lack of discipline, and so has applied 
herself to the guidance of growth. In 
close co-operation with the home, in inti- 
mate communion with the child, in pursuit 
of noble ideals she has overcome obstacles 
which might have seemed insurmount- 
able, and has set an example which is 
being and which must be followed. 

The School Inspector has blessed her 



undertaking, and the report on the chil- 
dren whom she has sent on to the ele- 
mentary school is that " from the first 
they have shown a keen interest, have 
been most diligent, and have readily 
adapted themselves to the work as con- 
ducted in a large class... All except one 
(who was handicapped by illness) have 
proved themselves quite proficient, more 
so than others, in the different branches 
of the class work. They are most amen- 
able, very mannerly, kindly natured and 
truthful always." 

Miss Hardy's Diary of a Free Kinder- 
garten is a beautiful, delightful and un- 
pretentious bit of child-study which I 
would earnestly recommend to you. 

The bedrock principle in the Montessori 
system, we are told, is that no human 
being can be educated by anyone else. He 
must do it for himself if it is to be done 
at all, and this principle of self-education 
and voluntary effort was laid down clearly 
by Pestalozzi and Froebel long ago. The 
Montessori fundamental principles are, we 
are assured, liberty and sense training. 
Pedagogy, it is affirmed, is still synony- 
mous with slavery. It is emancipation 
that Dr. Montessori has secured. Free 
growth is the ideal, and that free growth 
hitherto, according to Dr. Montessori and 
her adherents, has been arrested and 
marred by education. 

Now thirty years ago, I defined educa- 
tion as " the guidance of growth," and 
to that definition I adhere to-day, but to 
Dr. Montessori education, theoretically, 
at any rate, is the growth without the 
guidance. I say theoretically, for the 
moment she sets practically to work, 
guidance of some kind is abundantly in 
evidence. The child must indisputably do 
the growing for itself, but its growth may 
be fostered and encouraged or stunted and 
distorted by external influences. There 
must be nourishment, support, pruning 
and adjustment to surrounding conditions 
for the growth is not in the open and un- 
confined, but in the midst of other growths 
that limit and muffle it. It is really obedi- 
ence and not freedom that is the essence 
of education. Obedience to those physi- 



Sir James Crichton-Browne, M.D., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 



134 



cal and natural laws, by which the world 
is governed, obedience to those moral and 
social laws that have been evolved by the 
experience and wisdom of mankind. 

Even the animal instincts amongst 
animals do not always educate themselves. 
The animals in which instinct rules come 
into their full powers at once, and have 
little or nothing to learn from training or 
experience. But the higher types of 
animals in which experimental action 
directed by experience stored in the brain 
is the dominating feature, have to be edu- 
cated by experiment and teaching to 
adapt themselves to the varying circum- 
stances in which they exist. And their 
education is not always of a personal or 
spontaneous character. 

Cygnets have to be coaxed or pushed 
into the water by their parents, and 
seem anxious to get out of it, by climb- 
ing either on the bank or the back of the 
adults. Young gulls avoid the water for 
a considerable time, and are eventually 
pushed into it by their parents. Sparrows 
may be seen tempting their young into the 
air by offering them food and flying off 
a little distance before it has been taken. 
The mother stork at the proper time 
pushes the young birds off the edge of 
the nest or chimney stack on which they 
have been resting. Most of the birds of 
prey and many of the perching and sing- 
ing birds push their young off a support 
and then hurriedly fly under them to break 
their fall. 

Young mammals which naturally would 
have their food brought to them by their 
parents seem to have a very small amount 
of instinctive selection or rejection, and 
to be in need of guidance, for when 
brought up by hand they will partake of 
very unsuitable food. Young birds and 
mammals do not spring fully equipped 
into life, but have to be educated 
and learn by trying. They have in- 
stincts, but these carry them a very little 
way. " It is," says Dr. Chalmers 
Mitchell, " with the task of fitting them- 
selves to their world that they occupy their 
youth, and it is for this task that they 
enjoy a prolonged period of youth and a 



degree of freedom from the immediate 
cares of finding their own livelihood, and 
protecting themselves from the dangers 
of the world." 

As we ascend in the scale of life the 
duration of youth extends, and with this 
goes a gradually increasing need of 
parental care and intelligent guidance. In 
the human animal growth is not sufficient 
even in the case of the instincts. They 
must be disciplined and controlled, and 
as regards every other aptitude guidance 
and compulsion are called for. Freedom 
only comes when growth is completed. Of 
what use would freedom be to the new- 
born baby that is growing rapidly? Why, 
if left free it would perish miserably. In 
everything save in the taking of food it 
is subjected to coercion. And from that 
point onwards, until mature life is 
reached, some, but a gradually diminish- 
ing degree of guidance is necessary. It 
is through obedience to wise guidance 
that true freedom is attained. 

Grateful as we must be to Dr. Montes- 
sori for her endeavours to eliminate harsh 
and cruel practices, and austere and 
cramping customs from education, and to 
infuse happiness into the lives of little 
children and promote their healthy 
growth, we cannot subscribe to her doc- 
trine of non-interference. There is much 
growth in children that is not healthy. 
The pathological study of childhood to 
which I have directed your attention 
brings to light an enormous proportion of 
defects, blemishes and disorders in chil- 
dren which must be promptly interfered 
with and cannot be left in freedom to work 
their wicked way. 

The psychological study of childhood 
discloses innumerable intellectual defects 
and moral foibles with no power of self- 
rectification that must be interfered with 
if failure and disaster are to be avoided. 
Even the perfectly normal child cannot be 
safely left to spontaneous growth, but the 
perfectly normal child is a scarce com- 
modity in these days, and the trend of 
education in modern times has been to 
leave less and less to spontaneous growth, 
and to attack more and more actively those 

B 



135 



Child-Study and Pathology. 



degenerative changes that render well- 
balanced growth impossible. In the 
thickets of our modern civilisation mere 
wild growth untended is not likely to yield 
favourable specimens. 

Dr. Montessori moving about in the 
smiling and refreshing oasis she has 
created around her, takes too propitious 
and sanguine a view of human nature. 
She proceeds on the assumption that all 
babies are born good ; she ignores the 
doctrine of original sin; faults and vices 
are, according to her, educational implan- 
tations, just as diseases are due to bac- 
terial invasions, and bacterial diseases 
and faults and vices are all best resisted 
by healthy growth. " Out of every one 
thousand cases of naughtiness among 
little children," says one of Dr. Montes- 
sori's apostles, " nine hundred and ninety- 
nine are due to something else than a bad 
impulse in the child's heart." 

The theory is a pleasing one, leans to 
virtue's side, and is consoling, if some- 
what embarrassing, to those engaged in 
the teaching and training of young chil- 
dren. In all babies there is some, in most 
much, good that can be evoked, and that is 
worth looking for, and in many babies evil 
propensities are engendered by vicious edu- 
cational methods. But, alas ! in the human 
garden there are weeds, briars and thistles, 
as well as lilies and roses, and morbid 
hereditary tendencies as well as patho- 
genic bacteria are at work. Criminal 
statistics negative the all-born-good baby 
hypothesis, and too many parents and 
teachers are alive to faults and vices that 
date from the cradle, and for which no 
educational indiscretions are responsible. 

Dr. Montessori fully admits the per- 
nicious effects of states of ill-health and 
even temporary ailments on the child's 
moral nature. Can she shut her eyes to 
the mental and moral deterioration that 
must result from the inherited diseases and 
physical defects which are now so enor- 
mously prevalent amongst children? Her 
system is largely founded on the avoidance 
of influences that may prejudice the 
growth of the child. Is it not correla- 
tively inevitable that there are influences 



which are conducive to that growth be- 
sides mere letting it alone? It is not mere 
freedom of growth of any kind, but the 
guidance of growth that is wanted so that 
what is good in it may be encouraged, 
and what is bad checked, or if possible 
eradicated. That is in all education the 
object to be held in view. 

In her physiological studies Dr. 
Montessori has not perhaps given suffi- 
cient attention to " inhibition," a nervous 
influence that restrains, controls, and 
counteracts excessive stimulation, and the 
importance of which in all the movements 
of the body has been strikingly illustrated 
by Professor Sherrington, of this Univer- 
sity, in his investigation of the phenomena 
of reciprocal innervation. Inhibitory in- 
fluences not less than free growth are 
needful in education. 

I confess I have been puzzled to under- 
stand how Dr. Montessori has arrived at 
her theory of self-education and spontane- 
ous growth. She tells us that her great 
teacher has been Seguin, and that she has 
drawn her inspiration from his system in 
the training of idiots. But in Seguin's 
system there is no trace of self-education 
and no dependence upon spontaneous 
growth. From first to last it is interfer- 
ence, constant, minute interference and 
guidance. The idiot, if left to himself, 
grows up an idiot, and becomes more and 
more idiotic and degraded as his growth 
increases. It is only by the diligent inter- 
ference of his teachers in steadying and co- 
ordinating his feeble muscles and in fixing 
his wandering eye that he is rescued from 
progressive debasement and that any im- 
provement in his condition can be ob- 
tained. The whole system hinges on en- 
forced exercises. 

Speaking of the idiot, Seguin said : 
" Seated like an inert mass upon his chair 
we must make him move. To that effect 
we employ instruments of passive exer- 
cise. The legs do not bend, we make them 
yield under the elasticity of a baby jumper, 
the feet do not come forward for the walk, 
let them encounter with the regularity of 
a walk a spring board. Kneading the 
muscles, handling the articulations, mov- 



Sir James Crichton-Browne, M.D., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 



136 



ing- with the floor of a treadmill and other 
appliances will ultimately give the pupil 
strength to walk... When the idiot cannot, 
or will not, use his hands, he is put in 
front of an inclined ladder, his feet on one 
round, his hands on another, which 
generally he will grasp. Supposing the 
worst to be the case, the child's equilib- 
rium is soon lost; he falls as low as the 
teacher thinks proper, as he has a good 
hold of him by the ring of his g>Tnnastic 
belt. Then he replaces the child on the 
ladder and allows him again to fall, and so 
on until the child understanding better, 
and feeling where more comfort may be 
found, holds on with his hands. If he pro- 
tracts his resistance too long, a stop may 
be put to it by transfering the child to the 
perpendicular ladder, he being on one side, 
the teacher on the other, and a sufficient 
pressure exerted by the teacher's hands 
upon those of the child to prevent him 
throwing himself down, and to make him 
support his own weight." 

" To penetrate the glassy or tarnished 
eye of our pupil," Seguin goes on, " we 
keep the child seated or standing in front 
or close to us, alone, no noise, no com- 
pany, not much of light, nor of darkness, 
our feet ready to immobilise his feet, our 
knees his knees, our hands his hands. We 
search his eyes with our intense and per- 
severing look; he tries to escape it, throws 
his body and limbs in every direction, 
screams and shuts his eyes. How long 
will it take to succeed? Days, weeks, or 
months, it depends upon the gravity of the 
case, upon the help received from the 
general training-, and from other means of 
fixing the attention of the eye." 

Now what, I would ask, in all this is 
there of self-education and spontaneous 
growth? What is there to remind us of 
the pleasing picture painted for us by 
Mrs. Fisher and Mr. Edmund Holmes, of 
that Italian Utopia or Liberty Hall, the 
Casa dei Bambini in the Franciscan 
Nunnery of the Via Giusti, with its free 
and blissful babies all sprawling on the 
floor, and doing exactly what they like? 
It is all interference and compulsion of the 
most stringent type. 



After Seguin, Dr. Montessori tells us 
that she is indebted to Itard, a medical 
teacher of deaf mutes, for her educational 
enlightenment and new departure, and 
again I am puzzled to understand how 
she can have derived from him any sanc- 
tion for her belief in liberty as the essen- 
tial element in the rearing of the young. 
Itard has really supplied us with a con- 
spicuous example of the destructive effects 
of unrestrained liberty on the young. He 
is the historian of the Savage of the 
Aveyron, a child who had grown up in a 
natural state and in freedom even ampler 
than that of a Casa dei Bambini. Crimin- 
ally abandoned in a forest, where his 
assassins thought they had killed him, this 
child was cured by natural means and sur- 
vived for many years, free and naked in 
the wilderness, until captured by hunters, 
he entered on the civilised life of Paris, 
showing by the scars with which his miser- 
able body was furrowed the stories of his 
struggles with wild beasts and of lacera- 
tions caused by falling from heights. 

Well, what was the state of this child of 
nature : a child, according to Rousseau's 
own heart, who had been exempt from 
that education which is deleterious and 
spoils the man? Did he exhibit that 
higher mentality which, according to Dr. 
Montessori, is encouraged by freedom? 
Not at all. He was an idiot and mute, and 
it was only by depriving- him of liberty 
and imposing on him the restraints and 
renunciations in which compulsory educa- 
tion consists, that Itard succeeded in 
winning- him back in some measure from 
his savage state. 

I do not attach too much credence to 
the ten cases of savage youths and girls 
found herding with animals or wandering 
wild, recounted by Linnaeus. The details 
respecting them are scanty, but it is clear 
that in all of them freedom had resulted 
in profound mental deterioration. We have 
daily experience in this country that free- 
dom in children, freedom from instruction, 
freedom from discipline is anything but 
salutary in its mental effects. 

But the freedom of the Montessori 
Child-homes is by no means equivalent to 



137 



Child-Study and Pathology. 



natural freedom. It is, after all, more 
nominal than real. The sway is there, 
but it is gentle and disguised, and some- 
times indeed sinks into namby-pambyism, 
as when we are told that we must not say 
to a child who has spilt a plateful of 
cookies on the floor, " For mercy's sake, 
do look what you are doing ! " because 
it was our business, as its leaders and 
guides in the world to do that for him. 
There is a wide gulf between true kind- 
ness and silly sentimentality. Laudable 
efforts are made in the Casa dei Bambini 
to enlist and concentrate attention, by in- 
teresting occupation, and so to strengthen 
self-control over aberrant thoughts and 
movements, and there are lessons of 
silence to conduce to self-mastery, al- 
though this seems somewhat inconsistent 
with the warning as to the danger of suf- 
focating a spontaneous action at the time 
when the child is just beginning to be 
active. 

The description of Montessori discipline 
as given by its author is utterly vague and 
unsatisfactory. " Imitation in the prin- 
ciple of collective order," and " the con- 
cept of independence," which are fully 
discussed are all very well in their way, 
but the difficulty is to see how these are 
to regulate the conduct of the young 
child. Behind them there must be com- 
pulsion, although we are afforded little or 
no information as to how that is applied. 
Prizes and external punishments have 
been abolished, because " man disciplined 
through liberty begins to desire the true 
and only prize which will never belittle or 
disappoint him : the birth of human power 
and liberty within that inner life from 
which his activities must spring." 

All very fine, but how are babes and 
sucklings to grasp it? Even in the 
Montessori paradise police measures must 
sometimes be necessary. Montessori chil- 
dren, it is admitted, sometimes " quarrel 
and fight," moments of disorder occur. 
The children are not allowed to do any 
harm. The pupils must subordinate indi- 
vidual caprice to the demands of the 
common good, they are not allowed to 
quarrel or interfere with each other, and 



they have duties to perform at stated 
times. 

But how is all this brought about? 
Complacency, folded hands and benign 
smiles won't do it. Dr. Montessori al- 
most inadvertently, one would think, her- 
I self describes the consequences when the 
I teachers began to allow the children to 
I do as they please. " I saw children," 
she says, " with their feet on the table, or 
with their fingers in their noses, and no 
intervention was made to correct them. I 
saw others push their companions, and I 
saw dawn in the faces of these an expres- 
sion of violence without the slightest 
attention on the part of the teacher. Then 
I had to intervene to show with what ab- 
solute rigour it is necessary to hinder, and 
little by little, suppress all those things 
which we must not do, so that the child 
may come to discern clearly between good 
and evil." 

But since the days of Eden the know- 
ledge of good and evil has not necessarily 
determined the choice between them, and 
it is hard to see how absolute rigour is 
compatible with the radical principle of 
complete liberty. On reading this one 
has to ask : What has beconje of absolute 
freedom, and as regards discipline how 
does the Montessori system differ from 
any other? 

The only specific instance of discipline 
mentioned by Dr. Montessori raises 
curious ethical questions. Children who 
disturbed the others, she said, were at once 
examined by the physician, a practice 
which would entail a somewhat overwhelm- 
ing burden on our School Medical Officers 
in this country. "When the case proved to 
be that of a normal child, we placed one of 
the little tables in a corner of the room, 
and in this way isolated the child, having 
him sit in a comfortable little armchair so 
placed that he might see his companions 
at work, and giving him those games and 
toys to which he was most attracted. This 
isolation almost always succeeded in 
calming the child. From his position he 
could see the entire assembly of his com- 
panions at work. Little by little he would 
come to see the advantage of being one 



Sir James Crichton-Browne, M.D., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 



138 



of the company working so busily before 
his eyes, and he would really wish to be 
back and do as the others did. We have 
in this way led back again to discipline 
all the children, who at first seemed to 
rebel against it. The isolated child was 
always made the object of special care, 
almost as if he were ill. I myself when 
I first entered the room went first of all 
directly to him, caressing him as if he 
were a very little child," 

The corner is an ancient and approved 
item in the penal code of the nursery, but 
when the naughty cornered child is petted 
and cajoled, confused moral notions must 
be engendered in his own mind and in 
those of his companions. Rules there un- 
questionably are in the Montessori School, 
but these we are led to believe are evolved 
out of the children's intercourse with each 
other, and because they discover that they 
cannot live together without rules which 
all can respect and obey. This seems to 
be a somewhat circuitous way of arriving 
at wholesome and necessary rules of social 
existence, but however arrived at the rules 
even if not formulated are there, and their 
observance must somehow be secured. 

The guidance question was nicely 
summed up by a little Italian girl who 
had been to a Casa dei Bambini and had 
been taken away because she didn't like 
it, when she said to her mother, " Isn't 
it queer how they treat you at a Casa dei 
Bambini ! They asked me, ' Now which 
would you like to do, Ida, this or that? 
It makes me feel queer. I want somebody 
to tell me what to do. " That truly reveals 
a deep-rooted craving in the child as ex- 
pressive of a constitutional want as any 
appetite. Tots from three to six are too 
soft and pulpy for absolute independence, 
too trustful for democratic principles. 
Self-reliance and initiative are excellent, 
but the best of us at times, like Ida, feel 
the want of somebody to tell us what to 
do. Aggressive self-assertion is always 
offensive. 

It was not from Seguin or Itard, her 
revered teachers, that Dr. Montessori 
learnt the lesson of lawlessness, or the 
supreme obligation of permitting growth 



uncurbed and unguided. They had no 
such notions, and have become identifled 
with them in Dr. Montessori 's teaching, 
simply because she has derived from them 
those methods of sensory and motor 
training which form the most outstanding 
and admirable part of her system. She 
was for years the Director of the Asylum 
for the feeble-minded in Rome, and while 
faithfully performing her duties there be- 
came acquainted with the writings of 
Seguin, whose physiological methods of 
the education of idiots she put in practice 
with good effect in the relief of mental 
disabihties. 

It soon occurred to her that this method 
was applicable to the education not only 
of idiots, but of normal children, and 
selecting young children, three to six 
years of age, who are mental deficients in 
relation to children of older growth, she 
found in them an encouraging response to 
the use of those physiological means and 
apparatus which Seguin had found effica- 
cious in the development of the dynamic, 
perceptive, reflective and spontaneous 
functions of the weak-minded. 

Dr. Montessori has followed closely in 
Seguin 's footsteps, and at first at any rate 
employed most of the instruments of 
teaching, which he enumerated : pictures, 
photographs, cards, patterns, figures, 
wax, clay, scissors, compasses, pencils, 
collections, books, spades, wheel-barrows, 
the waterijig pot, the wooden horse, the 
hammer, the ball. Fifty years have 
elapsed since Seguin wrote, science has 
advanced, and Dr. Montessori, who has 
had the advantage of a thorough scientific 
training, has been able vastly to improve 
the apparatus used and the mode of its 
employment. 

Much of the material used in the educa- 
tion of the mentally deficient has been 
abandoned in the case of the normal child. 
Elaborate pedagogical experiments have 
been carried out. The esthesiometer and 
pyschometric instruments have been re- 
sorted to. There may be differences of 
opinion as to the proper order and rela- 
tive significance of certain sensory exer- 
cises, some of them may be thought a 



139 



Child=Study and Pathology. 



little superfluous in the case of an ordinary 
wide-awake child, but there can be nothing 
but approval of her general scheme. 

One follows, with interest and with 
appreciation of Dr. Montessori's ingenuity 
and resource, in her training of common 
sensibility of the tactile, thermic, baric, 
stereognostic senses, her education of the 
sense of vision as regards differential 
visual perceptions and chromatic impres- 
sions, of hearing as regards the discrimin- 
ation of sounds and the sense of rhythm 
and of taste and of smell. 

It is claimed for the Montessori methods 
of training the senses and intellect that, by 
them, children secure a rapid and easy 
mastery of the elements of reading, writ- 
ingand arithmetic. That I can well believe, 
but I question whether their employment in 
thiscountry would have equal success. The 
Italian children to whom these Montessori 
methods have been applied are precocious 
when compared with our English children. 
I should say that from three to six years 
of age they are nearly twelve months 
ahead in mental development. I am in- 
clined to think that at seven years of age 
our English children in our elementary 
schools are abreast of the Montessori 
pupils of six in these accomplishments, 
notwithstanding the fact that the Montes- 
sori children are taught in smaller classes, 
limited to twenty-five, I believe, and have 
the advantage of more individual atten- 
tion. 

Viewed apart from the dominating 
figure of its founder and benefactor, the 
Montessori school is a glorified kinder- 
garten, or, having regard to the long 
hours and living provided, a cross between 
a first-class kindergarten and a well-con- 
ducted creche. Strenuous efforts are made 
to distinguish between the kindergarten 
and the Montessori school, but the differ- 
ences are trivial and illusory, while the 
resemblances are substantial. 

In the kindergarten, we are told, the 
emphasis is laid on the fact that the teacher 
teaches ; in the Montessori school, on the 
fact that the child learns; but in both of 
them there is teaching and learning, and 
mere emphasis which must vary from time 



to time cannot be accepted as a specific 
mark. In the kindergarten, we are told, 
the teacher is nervous, smiling, fidgety and 
over-active, in the Montessori school tran- 
quil and unruffled, but surely indi\'idual 
teachers in the two vary from time to time 
in their personal traits, and a mere nervous 
or phlegmatic habit in the teachers can 
scarcely be recognised as an essential fea- 
ture in the institution. In the kinder- 
garten we are told there is coercion, sweet 
and coaxing, but still coercion, in inducing 
a disinclined child to join in the games or 
songs; while in the Montessori school the 
disinclined child is left to his own devices, 
no strongly discriminating contrast after 
all, nor one to my thinking to the credit 
of the Montessori school. 

The kindergarten and the Montessori 
school are both sustained by sentiment, 
generous and gentle sentiment, which was 
of much the same kind in Froebel as it is 
in Dr. Montessori. They deal with chil- 
dren of the same age, and have the same 
aim : the children's happiness and pro- 
gress. They differ somewhat in detail, in 
apparatus and technique, but the principle 
underlying them is the same. The 
Montessori school has introduced some 
improved methods, but it is by no means 
unique or deserving of the fuss made 
about it. 

It has been impossible for me here ade- 
quately to praise Dr. Montessori's work, 
where it is admirable, or fairly to criticise 
it where it is open to comment, but I have 
felt called upon to refer to it, if only cur- 
sorily, because it is essentially a child- 
study subject, and must exercise the minds 
of all who are interested in our Society. 
It is founded on a minute observation of 
childhood, and on an analysis of the child- 
mind. It sometimes, I believe, misinter- 
prets and misapplies the observations 
made, and goes astray in the labyrinths of 
mental embryology, but it is wholly right 
in stimulating scientific curiosity in the 
teacher, and in insisting on the import- 
ance of watching natural phenomena in 
the child, and the effects on it of every 
exercise in which it is engaged. 

The personal charm which has, I 



W. Leslie Mackenzie, M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.P.E. 



140 



believe, so largfely contributed to the suc- 
cess of Dr. Montessori's work in her 
children's homes has apparently capti- 
vated all those who have casually visited 
them. They have become convinced be- 
lievers in her system, and have gone forth 
on a zealous propaganda of her tenets ; 
so fervid has the Montessori cult become 
in some quarters that it is almost danger- 
ous to hint a doubt of it, and of the miracles 
it is alleged to have wrought. I have 
run the risk, and while strongly recom- 
mending Dr. Montessori's writings, 
sympathetically introduced to us by Mr. 
Holmes, and delightful in their highly 
poetic, figurative and suggestive style, to 
all interested in child-study, I would ask 
that they should be well weighed in the 
light of the wisdom of the ancients and of 
modern experience in this country, before 
they are made the basis of costly experi- 
ments. 



XTbe Cbilb of tbe ®ne*1Roome5 
Ibouse. ni. 

By W. Leslie Mackenzie, m.a., m.d., 

LL.D., F.R.C.P.E., 

Medical member of the Local Government 
Board for Scotland. 

The need of solitude. The test of a 
home is do the children love to stay there? 
Home-sickness is a disease; but it is a 
disease rooted in a sound feeling. If the 
truant runs away from home, it is because 
the home fails to provide him with his 
true point of repair for the development of 
his own life. The one-room house never 
can do so. When a boy acquires a soul, 
he must go to be alone with it. He needs 
a room of his own. He flies from the 
obsessions of his family life. He must go 
away from home in the spirit, if not in the 
body. Every boy and girl must go through 
this phase. It is a condition of possible 
ethical manhood and womanhood. They 
must " possess their soul." 

In the one-room house what is so plain 
a.^ often to require the interference of the 
police is equally to be found in the many- 
roomed house, but not in the same form. 
The desire of the boy for an island far 



away is not morbid, it is normal. It is the 
signal that his hour is at hand. He must 
go to be confirmed. He has become con- 
scious of the call of race. He must be 
allowed to have his solitude in the woods 
or in the streets, or among strangers not 
knowing him and not known to him, or 
among his books or his tools. There are 
many ways of going into the desert. But 
solitude he must have or he fails to 
achieve the freedom of a separate and 
efficient personality. 

Which of us has not in some degree 
yielded to the fascination there is in the 
contemplation of gloom and sorrow and 
loneliness and death? The feeling has its 
great expression in the Sorrows of 
Werther, the ironical tragedy of adoles- 
cense and the equal tragedy of Alastor ; 
but there is not a boy, there is not a girl, 
that does not at some transit in life 
awake to the imperative impulse to go 
away, the inextinguishable longing to be 
alone. 

" There was a poet whose untimely tomb 
No human hand with pious reverence reared. 
But the charmed eddies of autumnal winds 
Built o'er his mouldering bones a pyramid 
Of mouldering leaves in the waste wilderness. 
A lovely youth, no mourning maiden decked 
With weeping flowers or votive cypress wreath 
The lone couch of his everlasting sleep ; 
Gentle and brave and generous, no lorn bard 
Breathed o'er his dark fate one melodious sigh ; 
He lived, he died, he sang in solitude. 
Strangers have wept to hear his passionate 

notes ; 
And virgins, as unknown he passed, have pined 
And wasted for fond love of his wild eyes. 
The fire of those soft orbs has ceased to burn, 
And Silence, too enamoured of that voice, 
Locks its mute music in her rugged cell." 

Shelley : Alastor. 
Go among the rescue people and you 
will hear tales to rend the heart. Young 
girls rush from home with no apparent 
reason, with no certain outlook, driven 
none knows how towards an issue un- 
known to themselves, and unguessed by 
others. You will find a study of the im- 
pulse in The Story of an African Farm. 
The psychologist of the police court sug- 
gests the '* penny dreadful " as the incit- 
ing cause, so mistaking the symptom for 



Ul 



The Child of the One- Roomed House. 



the disease. The girls are sentenced and 
sometimes put in prison, or sometimes 
they are handed to some sympathetic 
human friend, who, if she does not always 
fathom the genesis of the go-impulse, at 
least knows how to nurse the scared mind 
and smooth its terrors down. 

To return those too-urgently growing 
souls to the home, is to apply to them a 
discipUne of frightful severity ; but two 
results often follow : the parents for the 
first time, through grief, learn to feel their 
own selfishness and incompetence ; the 
child, through the premature and sudden 
detachment from the home, establishes a 
new and higher relationship to the parent. 
To every parent as to every child this 
higher experience in some measure comes, 
except where the " home " in one room 
has made normal growth either of parent 
or child impossible. The parent turns 
brute and the child runs away. 

In the stone-age the idea of " truancy " 
was probably very simple. When a boy 
or a girl felt the go-impulse in his blood, 
he went. If he escaped alive, he might re- 
turn a man. If he died in the effort to 
escape, he could be no further punished. 
But in the modern world, if the boy 
escapes he is sent to a reformatory. If 
he returns he is punished by the parent. 
In either case, he is punished. The parent 
remains unlearned in the psychology of 
the child and goes on as if he were not 
the chief criminal himself. 

At a certain stage, the normal thing for 
a one-room child to do is to run away. The 
poorer the nest, the earlier the flight. If 
he can put up with the stench, and the 
degradation of the crowded one-room 
house, it is because he vaguely feels that 
some house-room is in the end better than 
none. It is not because the home is a fit 
place for him to live in. 

But the magnetism of mother-love, of 
the child for the mother and the mother 
for the child, can always be counted on, 
and the normal runaway, when the go- 
impulse has spent itself, always " wishes 
he was home." One poor holiday-home 
child said to a newcomer : "It's a fine 
place this. There's a denner here every 



day. It would be a fine place if a body 
jist hed his mither." He had been s^eni 
there; but he would have felt the same if 
he had gone of his own impulse into the 
larger world, as so many go. 

Our reformatories and industrial schools 
must include a big proportion of runaways 
and stowaways. " But I was aye a truant 
bird and thought my home a cage," sang 
the " Dying Soldier." He would to-day 
be in danger of being called " feeble- 
minded " and " segregated " accordingly. 
Segregation is convenient; but is it the 
remedy? Is there not something to be 
said in favour of the runaway from the 
crowded one-room house? I am not think- 
ing of the fatherless and motherless, but 
only of the " crowded-out " child. 

In the one-room family, the children 
ripen early in mind, or at least they take 
on the form of the adult habits with ex- 
ceptional rapidity, because they see little 
else with equal intimacy. No doubt, the 
child, knowing no other nurture, lives 
there ungrudgingly until he tastes the 
freedom of company in the streets, or 
fathoms the delight of the economic inde- 
pendence that comes with his first money. 
Then the failure of the one-room home is 
manifest. 

Recently a whole Act of Parliament was 
devoted to the stopping of street employ- 
ment, and since that discussion died down, 
Parliament has brought nearly all the acts 
for the protection of children into one of 
greater extent and effectiveness. The 
problems that call for this terrible legisla- 
tion have their immediate root in the one- 
room house and all it stands for, or per- 
haps we may more accurately say the one- 
room house is the crossing where all these 
broken currents of social life may most 
easily be studied. 

In the Children Act, there are some 
signs of an effort to adapt the blunt pro- 
cesses of the law to the psychology of the 
child. Some superstitions about the effect 
of gross punishment go by the board. For 
example, no child under fourteen can now 
be sent to prison. But children may still 
be sentenced to whipping, and the right 
of the parent, the teacher, and any 



W. Leslie Mackenzie, M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.P.E. 



U2 



authorised guardian to inflict punishment 
(by whipping or otherwise) is carefully 
reserved. Until a few years ago flogging 
was a legal form of punishment in the 
Navy and Army. Until last year, it was 
legal only for children and young persons. 
To order an incisive pain for a very young 
sinner is no doubt to nourish the sense of 
majesty in the magistrate; to inflict the 
pain is, no doubt, to create a greater sense 
of justice to others in the inflictor, and to 
hurt the child without permanent visible 
damage has from time immemorial been 
the mainstay of "parental responsibility." 

So one begins to wonder why it should 
now be necessary to preserve those ancient 
common law rights by a specific clause in 
a statute. There may, there surely must, 
be some danger that whipping shall 
deteriorate in quantity, or in quality, or in 
both. For my part, much as I should 
wish to see the weak points of the family 
strengthened, I have some doubt whether 
the unspared rod, or the gratifying birch, 
or the sounding strap is an adequate 
remedy for the moral and physical dis- 
orders that flow in a foul stream from the 
one-room house. Hitherto pain in this 
form has been a failure. It would be in- 
teresting to study why, all the same, it is 
universally regarded as a success. 

If there is anything in the speculations 
and arguments of Freud in reference to the 
first two or three years of life, it is this : 
that the animal conditions governing those 
years do determine largely the future of 
the moral life of the child. Mothers do 
not always know this, and fathers have 
not always the time, if they have the 
capacity, to think of it and, in the rush 
of the one-room house, only the rough 
work of keeping the child going counts for 
anything in the day's duties. The child 
grows up anyhow with any kind of rela- 
tionship to its fellows. 

Perhaps the very neglect is sometimes 
an advantage; for the effects of over-nurs- 
ing and over-nurture may be themselves 
more harmful in establishing the animal 
tendencies on too warm a foundation of 
sensation and thus leading in after life to 
biases that are destructive to the character. 



But it seems reasonable to say that the 
bringing up of a child in pure promiscuity 
among adults is much more likely to pre- 
pare the soil for perversions of every kind 
than the bringing of him up in controll- 
able conditions of decency and direction. 
The nervous systems of the ill-nourished 
tend to be unstable from the start, and 
what is prepared in ill-feeding, over- 
stimulation and under-sleeping is reaped 
in after-irritability and moral anarchism. 
" Let me have men about me that are fat," 
said Julius Caesar, " sleek-headed men and 
such as sleep o' night;" but anyhow, give 
us fat children. 

There are many other points that we 
might discuss in the psychology of the one- 
room house ; but time and space forbid. 
But I should like to ofi"er, only for discus- 
sion and as first formulations, a few of 
the many propositions that suggest them- 
selves about the problem of over-crowd- 
ing. Perhaps none of the propositions is 
even a half-truth, and every one of them, 
standing unargued, is open to misunder- 
standing. But to disarm criticism and to 
secure discussion, I shall call them merely 
personal opinions. Before any critic 
passes final condemnation on any of them, 
let him study Dr. James Burn Russell's 
"Life in One Room." (Public Health 
Administration in Glasgow: memorial 
volume, p. 189. Maclehose, Glasgow). 

Some personal opinions about over- 
crowded LIFE IN one-room. (1) Tlie 
mean streets are the drawing-rooms of 
the poor. In the earliest years of life are 
laid the foundations of the " Buried 
Temple." That will be the true shrine 
of worship long after the visible shrines 
have risen over it. If a crowded one-room 
house be the " buried temple," what will 
the worship be? 

The proof that the one-room family is 
not a satisfactory unit of civilisation is 
that we are all trying to justify it, or to 
explain it away. Justification is called, 
' ' emphasising the moral factor. ' ' Is over- 
crowding essential to the genesis of the 
" moral factor "? On the average, is the 
one-room child or the many-room child the 
better citizen? 



143 



The Child of the One-Roomed House. 



(2) The desire for a separate room is a 
sign of incipient self-sufficiency. One 
room, one person when the person needs a 
room is the minimum for a civilised home. 
A man cannot become an efficient person- 
aUty if he is always in company. Solitude 
at will is a condition of efficient person- 
ality. Perpetual company is perpetual 
prison. A boy cannot grow good if eyes 
are always upon him. The spy-system of 
family life breeds criminals. The one- 
room house forbids privacy. You can 
neither live nor die decently in a one-room 
house. (See Russell's lecture, op. cit., 
p. 198). 

(3) The one-room is usually high in rent 
and low in morals. The one-room house 
is never cheap, except in money ; in every- 
thing else, its expense may be incalculable. 

Usually, the one-room house means 
density of two populations; one human, 
the other parasitic. In a crowded room, 
it is difficult to keep the species distinct. 
If the species be fleas, bugs, lice, microbes 
and humans, the microbes are always a 
majority, the humans usually a minority. 
When a child spends his nights among 
populations of parasites, he is known by 
the company he keeps. 

(4) Life in a boxed-in crowd is experi- 
mental Darwinism. Character in a boxed- 
in crowd is a product of unnatural selec- 
tion. The over-crowded child, like the 
over-crowded sapling-, cannot grow to its 
full potentiality. One ethical reward of 
over-crowding is a relatively greater 
intensity of the family sentiments, includ- 
ing hatred as well as love. This is why, 
at the Monday Police Courts, the number 
of black eyes varies directly as the density 
of population and inversely as the number 
of rooms in the house. 

The broad generalities I have tried to 
formulate are not meant as anything more 
than provisional inferences from gross 
facts. Some of the inferences, however, 
it would be possible to base on statistical 
averages ; for instance, the statements as 
to food, sleep, clothing and general nur- 
ture. Thus, in Glasgow, some years ago 
the School Board had weights and heights 
taken of some 73,000 children, roughly 



classified into poorest district schools, 
poor, better class, and higher class. 

In the poor districts, one and two-room 
houses predominate greatly. It was found 
that the average weights of boys aged 
five in the one-room, two-room, three- 
room and four and over room houses 
taken in this order were : — 37.2 lbs. ; 
38.6 lbs. ; 39.5 lbs. ; 40.1 lbs. ; the average 
heights, in inches :— 39.0; 39.9; 40.7, 
41.4. For girls of the same age, the 
average weights in lbs. were: — 36.6; 
37.8; 38.0; 39.2; heights :— 38.9 ; 39.8; 
40.2; 41.0. At age 10, the figures for 
boys were, weights: — 55.5; 57.7; 59.7; 
61; heights:— 48.3; 49.3; 50.1; 50.8. 
For girls (age 10), weights :— 53.5; 55.4; 
57.6; 58.7; heights :— 47.8 ; 48.7; 49.6; 
50.3. At every other age, the same 
o^eneral concomitance was shown : the one 
and two-room houses had the lightest and 
smallest children. 

It would also be easy to produce volumi- 
nous figures about the higher rates of 
infantile mortality, infectious disease, and 
general diseases ; but statistical arguments 
are hardly necessary for matters so out- 
standingly obvious and, in any case, there 
is not now time to offer such arguments. 

If time allowed, it would be interesting 
to follow up other clues and in the end we 
should perceive how, in the organic inter- 
relation of one human being and another, 
the one and two-room houses act as an 
instrument of analysis, showing where 
the stresses of nurture press hardest and 
showing us certain definite results. 

It would be interesting to verify the 
conclusion of Niceforo : that in height, 
weight, number of deformities, disease, 
mentality, endurance, practically in every 
respect, physical and mental, the poorer 
classes (as defined by a given wage in the 
Swiss town where the investigation was 
made) are inferior to the classes that enjoy 
greater comfort. 

This, you will see, lands us in much 
larger questions. To these there is no 
end, and I can only stop now with the 
expression of a hope that the students of 
child-life in the cities will not forget the 
"child of the one-roomed house." 



The Child-Study Society and the Constituent Societies. 



144 



Sugaestions tor StuD^ an& 
{practice. 

Physiological Age and School Entrance. 

" The main conclusions to which the facts 
presented in this thesis point are: — (1) 
That there is a mass of evidence indicating 
a transition in the physical development of 
the child at the period [6 to 7 years]. 

(2) That there is evidence to show that 
girls are on the average more advanced in 
their physical development at this period. 

(3) The requirements for entrance to 
school based on stage of progress in 
physiological development, or physiological 
age, would be far superior to a require- 
ment taking account of chronological age 
only. (4) That in the application of 
physical measurements for the purpose of 
finding degree of progress in physical de- 
velopment, a method indicating the per- 
centage of adult size attained at a given 
age is superior to a method comparing 
absolute data directly. (5) That the 
hygiene and pedagogy of this period are 
of prime importance for the future de- 
velopment and welfare of the individual." 
■ — Arthur K. Beik, Clark University, in 
The Pedagogical Seminary, September, 
1913. 

Food and the Child. "After a year's 
experiment it has become evident that the 
brain power and the general morale of the 
children have vastly improved" (p. 406). 
" The improvement was very obvious in 
some children, who visibly filled out and 
brightened up " (p. 372). " The efi'ect of 
the feeding on the children is a marked 
improvement judged from the general 
appearance of the boys, who are almost 
all brighter. The improvement is par- 
ticularly noticeable in their play... There is 
less fatigue in lessons, and the lads are 
capable of more continuous exertion" 
(p. 32). — Rearing an Imperial Race, 
edited by Charles E. Hecht, M.A. 



XLbc (Ibilt)=*Stut)i2 Society? an& tbe 
CouBtituent Societies. 

Our Next Annual Conference is to be held in 
Edinburgh on June 6th to 8th, 1914. Sir James 
Crichton-Browne will give a presidential address, 
and the following addresses will be given in rela- 
tion to Experimental Work in Education (the sub- 
ject for the Conference) : A Survey of the recent 
investigations and criticisms on the Binet Sivwn 
Tests, by Miss Katharine L. Johnston, M.A. (Prin- 
cipal of the Maria Grey Training College) ; Experi- 
ment in relation to School Subjects and Methods, 
by Mr. Drever, M.A., B.Sc. (Edinburgh Univer- 
sity) ; Mental Tests, by Mr. Cyril Burt, M.A. 
(Psychologist to the L.C.C.) ; and A Plea for the 
Recognition of Instincts in Education, by Dr. 
Macpherson. Hospitality for 100 is offered. 

The Birmingham Society. — The following lec- 
tures will be given at the University at 6 p.m. : — 
December 9th, the Hon. Mrs. Franklin, The Prin^ 
ciples and Methods of the Parents' Union School ; 
January 20th, Dr. Walter Jordan, Presidential 
Address ; February I7th, J. Makepeace Forster, 
B.A., B.Litt., Moral Instruction Before the Age 
of Adolescence ; March I7th, Frank Roscoe, M.A., 
The Teaching of Arithmetic. — Miss A. J. Dawes. 

The Cheltenham Society. — The twentieth 
session of the Cheltenham Society opened with a 
Lecture by Lady Gomme, on the subject cf 
" Children's Traditional Singing Games," given 
by kind permission of Miss Faithfull in the Prin- 
cess Hall of the Ladies' College on October 30th 
at 8 p.m. This interesting subject was illustrated 
at its close by the performance by some of the 
students of two or three of the old games, such 
as " London Bridge," " Oranges and Lemons " 
(illustrative of the primitive contests for territory), 
and " Here we come gathering Nuts in May " (or, 
as Lady Gomme considered to be the original 
words, " Knots of May," i.e., bouquets of haw- 
thorn), which game she believed had reference to 
the primitive customs of marriage by capture. She 
proved in her lecture that e.xpressions in the 
various songs she mentioned showed the games to 
be something more than the random inventions of 
children. She believed them to be the last relics 
of old tribal usages. 

On November 4th the President, Mr. King, will 
give his presidential address on .4 Defence of 
Present Elementary Education. In February Miss 
F. Baird will give her experiences of the Montes- 
sori System, and in March Dr. Walter Jordan has 
promised to address the society. — Mrs. L. M. 
M cCraith' Blakeney . 

The Edinburgh Society. — There were four 
meetings last session, of which two were Lectures 
and two Discussions : — Inaugural Lecture by Dr. 
Clarkson, Head of the Larbert Institute for Defec- 
tive Children, on Mentally Defective Children ; 
Lecture on The Psychology of Writing, by Mr. 
Drever (Ed. Univ.) ; Discussions : The Due Pro- 
portion of the School in the T.ife of the Child, led 



145 



Correspondence. 



by Mrs. Jack, and The Montessori Method, led by 
Miss Borland. 

Dr. Clarkson's Lecture was especially interesting 
in view of the new Mental Deficiency Bill. Mr. 
Drever showed some interesting results of labora- 
tory experiment, and demonstrated that finger 
movement was of prior importance in writing. — 
Miss Maud Morin. 

The Exeter Society. — The first meeting of the 
Winter Session was held on October 20th in the 
University College. Miss A. J. V\'alker, M.A., 
gave an account of A Montessori Class which i> 
being conducted in an English elementary school. 
After having described the room and its arrange- 
ment, and the English adaptation of the Montes- 
sori apparatus, she spoke of a morning's work in 
the class, and said that the chief and very attrac- 
tive points to be noticed were the children's happi- 
ness and self-control, their obedience and complete 
busy-ness. 

The second meeting was on November 11th, 
and Mr. P. A. Dodds, the Headmaster of the 
Royal Institution for the Deaf, Exeter, read a 
paper on After Care Work. He pointed out the 
difficulties of the work and its essentially volun- 
tary character, and expressed the firm conviction 
that this work needs to be helped financially bv 
the State, and aided by further legislation. He 
showed how useful and necessary the work is, not 
as relieving parents of their responsibility, but as 
helping them ; and he gave convincing illustra- 
tions from the after care work which has been 
going on for some years in connexion with the 
School for the Deaf. — Miss A. J. Walker. 

The Halifax Society. — The society is trying to 
extend the scope and influence of its work bv 
appointing delegates to the .following societies 
having allied interests : — The Children's Welfare 
League : Mrs. A. T. Longbotham and Mr. Har- 
wood ; The Yorkshire Association for the Perman- 
ent Cure of the Feeble-minded : Mr. J. Arrow- 
smith ; The Workers' Educational Association : 
Miss F. H. Ellis and Mr. Harwood. — Mr. J. 
Arrowsmith. 

The liartlepools and District Society. — On 
Tuesday, September 30th, Mrs. Read Mumford, 
M.A., gave her lecture on The Religion of Child- 
hood. The chair was occupied by the Rev. W. J. 
Knowlden, M.A. The lecture was impressive and 
was listened to with great interest. Subsequently 
a meeting for the discussion of the subject of the 
lecture was held. Mrs. Mumford kindly sent some 
notes on the Teaching of Religion in Elementary 
Schools. 

On Monday, November 6th, Professor J. A. 
Green, M.A., gave a lecture on The Place of 
Handwork in Education. Mr. H. J. Dean, H.M.I., 
occupied the chair. The lecturer very ably and 
forcefully put before his audience the claims of 
Educational Handwork. The dominant point of 
the lecture was insistence upon purposefulness in 
education. 

Mr. H. Holman, M.A., is to give a lecture on 



Saturday, December 6th, on Educational Hand- 
work and the Class Teacher ; and Mr. E. G. \. 
Holmes, M.A., will lecture on Some Aspects of the 
Montessori Method on Wednesday, January 28th, 
1914. 

A Reading Circle has been formed. The book 
chosen for study is " Educational Essays " by 
John Dewey. It is hoped that the formation of 
other circles will follow. — Mr. A. T. Prentice. 

The London Society. — The last lecture for 1913 
will be given on Thursday, December 4th, at 90, 
Buckingham Palace Road, S.W. Subject : Left- 
Handcdness ; Lecturer: P. B. Ballard, M.A. ; 
Chairman : W. E. Sheppard, Sc.D. — Mr. W. J. 
Durrie Mulford. 

The Tunbridge Weils Society. — The annual meet- 
ing was held on October 20th at the Town Hall. 
The Committee's report gave a satisfactory ac- 
count of the year's proceedings and the financial 
statement showed a good working balance. Several 
rules were revised and passed. Mr. Punton Smith 
was elected as president for the ensuing year and 
Miss Gertrude Edwards was elected to the joint 
offices of hon. secretary and hon. treasurer ; some 
new members were also added to the Committee. 

After the business meeting an interesting 
address was given by the Hon. Sir John 
A. Cockburn, K.C.M.G., M.D., on "Child Pro- 
tection." He maintained that both the Froebel 
and the Montessori S3'stems of education were ex- 
cellent and were now coming into line. Education 
must be joyful. It was the greatest pleasure for 
a human being as well as for the animal creation 
to develop new powers. It was of course, necessary 
sometimes to inflict pain, but pain could never be 
education. One's heart must be in one's work. 
Discipline was essential, but that, too, was not 
education. If education caused a child pain thai 
education was wrong. There must always be joy 
in work properly done. 

True education recognised that mind and body 
always went together. The aim and object of 
national life was not " the greatest good of the 
greatest number," but " What will make for the 
greatest good of those who come after? " 

The maternal instinct was the same in nations 
as in human beings. Hence the care of children 
was naturally the first charge upon the races. He 
emphasized the need for improving the health of 
children as they cannot be expected to work well 
if they are in poor health. — Miss Gertrude 
Edwards. 



Correspondence. 

RECORDS OF PRONUNCIATION AND 
VOCABULARY. 

Dear Sir, — I suggested in a recent lecture that 
it would be very valuable to have some records 
of the pronunciation and vocabulary of the children 
who enter our elementary schools. It would 
enable those concerned with the improvement of 
speech to know exactly what difficulties have to be 



Reviews. 



146 



faced. At present the only records we have refer 
to individual children who have had the advantage 
of learning their speech in a cultured environment. 
If there are any teachers who would like to under- 
take work of the kind suggested, I shall be glad 
to hear from them, and to give them such help 
as I can. — -Yours faithfully, 

Walter Rippmann. 
45, Ladbroke Grove, London, W. 



IRotices an& IRews. 

An Inter=Colonial Conference and Exhibition on 
National Health, organised by the Victoria 
League, will be held in London, from May 18th 
to 21st, 1914. The object of the conference is to 
effect an interchange of knowledge between the 
different countries of the Empire on the important 
questions of (1) Housing and (2) The Care of 
Child Life. Under the second head will be dis- 
cussed : — infancy and health, the school child, and 
the child as a wage-earner. Earl Grey will open 
the conference, and the following have already 
consented to act as chairmen of certain sessions : 
Lord Robert Cecil, M.P., Sir Edward Cook, Prof. 
Michael Sadler, LL.D., C.B., and Mr. Henry 
Vivian. For further particulars apply to Miss 
R. V. Gill, 2, Wood Street, Westminster, London, 
S.W. 

" The Progress of School Hygiene.''^ — A discus- 
sion on this topic will take place at the Royal 
Sanitary Institute, 90, Buckingham Palace Road, 
on Tuesday, December 9th, at 7.30 p.m. Intro- 
ducer : Dr. James Kerr, Medical Research Officer, 
L.C.C. ; Chairman, Sir William J. Collins. All 
interested are invited to attend. 

A Conference of Educational Associations will be 
held at The University of London, January 2nd to 
10th, 1914. Twenty-two societies, of which the 
Child-Study is one, are taking part in it. Sir 
James Crichton-Browne, our president, will, it is 
hoped, address the Child-Study Society on the 
evening of January 9th. 

By applying to the Conference Secretary, Mr. F. 
Falrman, M.A., 74, Gower Street, London, W.C., 
special vouchers can be obtained for cheap railway 
tickets (a) available from 1st to 12th January, or 
(b) cheap day return tickets for distances not more 
than fifty miles from London. Applicants must be 
particularly careful to state which of these they 
desire, and to send a stamped and addressed enve- 
lope for a reply. 

N.B. — Volunteers to act as Official Stewards for 
the Child-Study are required. Names should be 
sent to Mr. J. W. Durrie Mulford, 90, Bucking- 
ham Palace Road, London, S.W. 

Volunteer Reviewers. — We are glad to say that 
Mr. John Hornby, of Leeds, has offered to help 
us with the music reviews. A reviewer for Hun- 
garian journals is still required. 



IReviews, 

Rearing an Imperial Race. Edited by C. E. 
Hecht, M.A. Pp. xlviii., 508. The St. 
Catherine Press. Price 7s. 6d. net. 
The title of this book conceals rather than 
reveals the fact that it is a full report of the papers 
and discussions on Diet, Cookery and Hygiene in 
Public Elementary Schools and Public and Philan- 
thropic Institutions for Children and Adolescents 
at the Conference held at the Guildhall this year. 
The editor has added much besides concerning 
dietaries, the teeth, clothing and footgear, diet of 
country children, a village health centre, school- 
feeding abroad, etc. 

This is a most valuable and opportune collection 
of principles and practices, facts and figures, 
precepts and examples on the feeding of the young, 
and everyone interested in the matter should hasten 
to secure a copy of the book. 

Victoria the Good; Hamlet. The Cinema Books. 

Pp. 62, 64. Stanley Paul and Co. Price Is. 

net. 

Opinions will differ about these books, but the 

present reviewer thinks them wholly mistaken and 

mischievous. Such artificial, often exaggerated, 

and necessarily inaccurate pictures as are used 

in them must inevitably mislead children, and 

finally lead to a rude awakening. The text and the 

highly glazed paper on which it is printed are not 

suitable for schools. 

Montessori Principles and Practices. By Professor 

E. P. CuLVERWELL, M.A. Pp. xvii., 309. G. 

Bell and Sons. Price 3s. 6d. net. 

Probably the ablest presentation and criticism of 

Madame Montessori 's views which has so far 

appeared in book form. Those who wish to be 

helped to understand the biological, psychological, 

and ethical issues involved in what Seguin calls 

the Physiological Method of Education should 

study this book. We hope to give it a much fuller 

notice later. 

Publications Received. — L'Intermediaire des 
Educateurs ; School and Life (Russia) ; Magazine 
Bulletin (U.S.A.) ; L'Educateur Modeme ; Schemes 
of Religious Instruction for Infant Day-Schools 
(Longmans, Is. 6d. net, pp. 136) ; Stories of Jesus, 
Jesus the Hero, The Period of the Conquest and 
Judges (Headley Brothers, Is. net, pp. 135, 136, 
136) ; The Life of Christ, Vol. II., From Baptism 
to Holy Communion, More Characters and Scenes 
from Hebrew Story, Little Children of the Church 
(National Society's Depository, 2s. 6d., 2s., 2s., 2s. 
each net, pp. 384, 290, 264, 245). 



Mr. EDWARD ARNOLD S LIST 

The Child's Mind : Its Growth & Training. 

By W. E. Urwick, M.A. Crown 8vo., cloth, 48.6d.net (post free, is. lOd.) 

NATURE. — "One of the most useful pedagogical treatises of rtcent years. He has given what is much more 
helpful than the best ' psychology for teachers '—a consistent interpretation of the educative process as a whole, 
as it presents itself under the more or less conventional conditions which actually determine it." 

Experimental Pedagogy & the Psychology ol the Child. 

By Dr. Ed Claparede, Professor of Experimental Psychology, University of 

Geneva. Translated by Mary Lodch and H. Holman, M.A. Bb. net (post free, 5s. 4d.). 

THE CHILD.—" This book is one which no serious (tudent of child life, and certainly no teacher of children, 
can afford to neglect." 

An Introduction to Child Study. 

By W. B. Drdmmond, M.B., CM.. PR CPE., Medical Officer and Lecturer on 
Hygiene to the Edinburgh Provincial Committee for the Training of Teachers. Cloth, 
6s. net (post free, 68. 4d.). 

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.— '• Mr. Drummond has succeeded in bringing within the reach of a very 
large circle practically all the important conclusions which have been reached by the best workers in the field 
of child study up to the present time." 

Elementary Physiology. For Teachers and others. 

By W. B. Dkdmmond, M.B., CM., F.R C.P. Edin. 206 pages. 28. 6d. (post free. 
2s. lOd.). 

Psychology for Teachers. 

By C Lloyd Morgan, LL.D., Professor of Psychology in the University of Bristol. 
New Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 4s. 6d. (post free, 4s. lOd ). 

Hygiene for Teachers. 

By R. Aldn Rowlands, B.Sc, M R.C.S., L.R.C.P., Demonstrator of Physiology at 
the London Hospital Medical College, xii. + 356 pages, with 133 Illustrations, 
38. 6d. net (post free, 3s. lOd.). 

SCHOOL GUARDIAN. — "Contains all that a non-medical man need know on the subject of hygiene in its 
various branches." 

Minding the Baby. 

A Manual of Infant Care and Management. By Mrs. Leonard Hill. With a 
Preface by Dr. C Addison, MP. Paper, 3d. net. ; cloth, 6d. net. 
Important New Work by Leading Authorities. 



Diseases of Children. 



1 Vol. 1,200 pages. Fully Illustrated. 30s. net. 
Edited by A. E. GARROD. F. E. BATTEN, and H. THURSFIELD. 

List of Authors : 
H. G. Adamson, Frederick E. Batten, J. W. Carr, Edmond Caotley, H. Morley 
Fletcher, J. S Fowler, Archibald E. Garrod. E. W. Goodall, A. M. Gossage, 
Leonard G. Guthrie, Robert Hutchison, Frederick Langmead, F. J. Poynton, 
H. D. Rolleston, F. A. Rose, George Frhd. Still, G. A. Sutherland, H. Theodore 
Thompson, John Thomson, Hugh Thursfield, A. F. Voelcker and G. E. Waugh. 

L.ANCET. — "We welcome this important volume on the diseases of children. It is a valuable contribution to 
English scientific literature." 

Lectures on Diseases of Children. 

By Robert Hutchison, M.D. Edin , F.R.C.P., Physician to the London Hospital; 
Physician, with charge of Out-Patients, to the Hospital for Sick Children, Great 
Ormond Street, London. Third Edition, Revised and Enlarged, with many New 
Illustrations. About 400 pp. Demy 8vo. lOs. 6d. net. 
BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL.—" A book of high and deserved popularity." 



London : EDWARD ARNOLD. 4 1 & 43. Maddox Street. W. 



CDIId=StU(lp. 

Zhc Journal of tbe CbilbssStu&ie Hssociatfon. 



VOLUME VII. 
1914. 



BWtor 

H. HOLMAN, M.A. 



Ibonoracp Secretary 

H. R. Crisp. 



PUBLISHED BY 

EDWARD ARNOLD 

41 & 43, Maddox Strbht, Bond Street, London, W. 



xrbe journal of tbe CbilO^'Stu^p Hesociatlon. 

The object of the Association is the Scientific Study of the Mental and Physical Condition 
of Children, and also of Educational Methods, with a view to gaining greater insight into 
Child-nature and securing more sympathetic and scientific methods of training the young. 



President. 
SIR JAMES CRICHTON-BROWNE. M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Chairman. 
SIR EDWARD W. BRABROOK, C.B., V.-P.S.A. 
Vice-Chair)nan. 
The HON. SIR JOHN A. COCKBURN, K.C.M.G., M.D. 

Hon. Secreiaries. 

Miss Mary Louch, Colbury House, Totton, Hants. 

W. J. DuRRiE MuLFORD, 69, Hosack Road, Upper Tooting Park, S.W. 

Assist. Hon. Secretary. 
Miss K.\te G. Cash, B.A., 36, Hunters Buildings, Borough Rd., S.E. 

Treasurer. 
E. WHITE WALLIS. F.S.S. 

Journal Committee. 
E. White Wallis, F.S.S. 
H. HoLM.\.\, M.A., Editor. 
R. Langdon Down, M.A., M.B. 
A Beresforu Kingsford, M.R.C.S., D.P.H. 
Miss Cash. 
Miss E. L. Dixon. 
Miss M. Louch. 
W. J. Durrie Mulford. 
T. G. TiBBEY, B.A., Convener. 

Hon. Sec. of Committee. 
H. R. Crisp, Amberley, 45, Corringham Road, Golders Green, N.W. 



Editorial, and Business Communications respecting the Journal, should be addressed to the 
Editor, 8, Hornsey Lane, London, N., and the Honorary Secretary, respectively. 



The Society is not responsible for the facts or opinions given by the Authors. 



List of Contents. 



PAGE 

Binet's Mental Tests. By W. H. Winch, M.A. 1, 19, 39, 55, 87, 98, 116, 138 

'Child's Sense of Number. By Mrs. Alys Lucas 5 

Logical Reasoning of Infants. By J. J. Webber, B.A. ... ... ... 7 

Collecting Singing Games. By John Hornby ... ... ... ... ... 8 

Parent Educators. By Prof. Bidart. Translated by Miss M. S. Ryan, B.A., 

11, 27, 49, 106, 126, 149 

Psychology of Writing. By James Drever, B.A., B.Sc. ... ... 21, 46, 62 

Phases of Self-Reahsation. By J. J. Webber, B.A 26 

The Binet Test and the Training of Teachers. By Samuel C. Kohs, Ph.D. 30 

Definitions in Early Childhood. By Wm. Boyd, M.A., B.Sc, D.Phil. ... 66 

The Nervous Child. By B. Leonard Guthrie, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P. ... 73 
Intensive Child Culture, By Sir James Crichton-Browne, M.D., LL.D., 

D.Sc, F.R.S 93, 113, 133 

An Infant's Knowledge of Number. By J. J. Webber, B.A 104 

Cultivation of the Sentiment of Solidarity in the School. By G. Sapienza 

Castagnola. Translated by Prof. C. R. Chappl£, M.A 122 

Classification of the Deaf Child for Educational Purposes. By Macleod 

Yearsley, F.R.C.S. ... ... t ... 144 

Editorial Notes ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .•• ... 37 

Suggestions for Study and Practice — 

Learning to Spell ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... -■• ..• 13 

Special Schools' Teachers and the Binet Tests ... ... .. ... .. ... ... 13 

Dependence of Mental Development on Muscular Development ... ... ... ... 14 

Grading by Mental Tests 14 

Eyes and Education ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 14 

Education and Intuition ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 14 

Teachers and Method ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ••• 15 

Earliest Development of Speech ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

The Child and the House ... ... ..'. ... ... ... ... •■• ••• .•• 16 

Teachers' Sabbatical Year... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 16 

Co-education ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ••• 33 

Detention as a Punishment ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 34 

Child-Study for Teachers ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 34 

Teaching of English Grammar ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 51 

Bases of a Kindergarten Curriculum ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 51 

Sex Education ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .... ... ... ... 52 

Handwork in Education ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 52 

Is there a General Memory? ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 52 

Froebel and Montessori ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 52 

Experiment in Pedagogy ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 52 

Ancestry of the Montessori Methods ... ... ... ... ... ... 53 

Time Table and a Nursery School ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 70 

Learning Methods and Times 70 

Imagination ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 71 

Teachers and Experimental Psychology ... ... ... ... -.. ••• ... ••• 108 

Three Phases of Education ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 108 

Suggestion in School Hygiene 109 

Conflict of Parent's and Child's Wills 109 

A Psycho-Educational School Clinic ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 109 



PAGE 

Economy of Time in Education 128 

Seguin's Physiological Method of Education 128 

Selection of Mentally Defective Children 129 

General Intelligence and Play Ability 129 

The Child-Study Association and the Constituent Societies 

16, 34, 53, 71, 90, 109, 129, 151 

Notices and News 17, 34, 71, 91. Ill, 129 

Reviews of Books, etc. : — 

Inductive v. Deductive Methods of Teaching. By W. H. Winch, M.A • ... 17 

Purpose of Education. By St. George Lane Fox Pitt 17 

Handwork and its Place in Earlv Education. By Laura L. Plaistcd 18 

Montessori Schools in the Early Summer of 1913. By Jessie White, D.Sc 18 

L'Educateur Moderne ... ... ... ... ... ••• ••• ... •.■ ••• 18 

Mon Filleul au " Jardin d'Enfants." By I'Vlix Klein 18 

Eugenics' Review ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... •■• ••• 18 

Handbook of Information for Helpers, Manchester 35 

Bibliography of Eugenics and Belated Subjects ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 85 

Eugdnique ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ••• ... ... 35 

L'Intennediaire des Educaieiirs ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 35,91 

Reading Made Easy. By Anna Sncll ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..- 35 

Penal Reform League Quarterly Record ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 35 

Expectant Motherhood : Its Supervision and Hygiene. By J. W. Ballantvne, M.D., 

F.R.C.P 36 

Infant Care and Management. By E. L. Maynard ... ... ... ... ... ... 36 

Caring for Baby ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... •■. ... ... 36 

L'Enfance Anormale 36, 91, 131 

Kindergarten Theory and Practice. Three Reports ... ... ... ... ... ... 54 

Locke to Montessori. By Wm. Boyd, M.A., B.Sc, D.Phil. 54 

What Children Study and Why. By C. B. Gilbert 54 

Plant and Animal Children. By Ellen Torelle, M.A 54 

An Imaginative Child. By Agnes Aubrey Hilton ... ... ... ... ... ... 54 

Revue de Pedotechnic, Brussels ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 54 

The Pedagogical Seminary ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 72 

Archives de Psychologie ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 72 

Journal of Education ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 91 

School and Life. Record of Maria Elizabeth Findlay's Life and W'ork ... ... ... 92 

Interpretations and Forecasts. By V'r. Branford, M.-A. ... ... ... ... ... 92 

Problems of School Hygiene. Report of Scottish School Medical Officers 92 

Introduction to Experimental Psvchologv in Relation to Education. By C. W. 

Valentine, M.A .'. ...' 112 

On Dreams. By Prof. D. Sigm. Freud. Translated by M. D. Eder 112 

Biology of Sex for Parents and Teachers. By T. W. Galloway, Ph.D 112 

The Future of Education. By F'. Clement C. Egerton 112 

School Journey Record, 1913 112 

Le Calcul par LTmage. By Georges Rouma ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 112 

Report of the International Congress for the Protection of Childhood. Brussels, 1913... 130 

Seguin and His Physiological Method of Education. By H. Holman, M.A 131 

Mentally Defective Children. Bv Alfred Binet and Th. Simon, M.D. Translated by 

W. B. Drummond, M.B., CM., F.R.C.P 131 

El Monitor de la Educacion Comi'in. Organ of the National Council of Education, 

Buenos Aires 151, 131 

Teaching Sex Hygiene in the Public Schools. By Edith B. Lovvry, M.D. 132 

The British Journal of Psychology 132 

The Educational Times 132 

The Infant: Nutrition and Management. By Eric Pritchard, M.D., M.R.C.P 151 

Montessori Principles and Practice. By E. P. Culverwell, M.A. , 152 



Cl)il(l=$tu(lp» 

CDe 3our5ial of i!)e CMia=$tu(lp societp. 



Vol. VII.— No. 1. 



FEBRUARY. 1914. 



Binet's /Hbental XTests ; 

'CClbat tbe^ are, an& wbat we can 
t>o witb tbem. n. 

By W. H. Winch, m.a. 
{All rights reserved). 

In my last article I promised to describe 
Binet's Tests for young children, to say 
what modifications they needed in order to 
make them suitable for English children, 
and to indicate how we tested the tests 
themselves in London schools. 

I selected three infant schools : one 
Council School in a rather poor neighbour- 
hood, another Council School in a rather 
good neighbourhood, and one Non-pro- 
vided School in a very poor neighbour- 
hood. The schools were in all cases peda- 
gogically good. We tested large samples 
of all the children from three to seven 
years of age, Vv^ith one exception ; for the 
well-situated Council School contained no 
three-year-old children. First of all we 
made a list of all the children of a given 
age. They were, of course, to be found in 
different classes. Then we took from 
twenty to twenty-five of each age in each 
school, taking a proper proportion from 
the various classes, selecting them fairly, 
some bright, some medium, and some 
dull children from each class. 

One further condition was satisfied : 
children were chosen of every age within 
each age group ; thus, of three-year-old 
children, there were children of 3 years 
months up to 3 years 11 months, and the 
average age was 3 years 6 months. One- 
third of the actual number of children were 
tested by me personally, and the remainder 
by the head mistress of the school. Good 
infants* mistresses, after due instruction, 
are the best persons actually to administer 
the tests that can be found where very 



young children are concerned, especially if 
they understand how to set down exactly 
what the children do, and are careful to 
observe the precise conditions of the tests. 

We worked as Binet directs ; though, in 
the course of the research, we found, from 
time to time, a good many modifications 
to be necessary. These modifications, sub- 
stitutions, and alterations will he. described 
as we go along. Solvitur ambulando is 
especially applicable to cases like this ; it 
is the only real substitute for mere guess- 
work in education. What we have especial- 
ly to guard against is the notion prevalent 
among semi-instructed persons that child- 
study can be in any sense a mere series 
of inferences from general psychology. Al- 
ways we appeal to actual fact ; not that we 
despise theory ; on the contrary, without 
theory as summarising and theory as 
speculative and suggestive, we could make 
no advance at all ; but our theories will be 
based upon fact and perpetually come back 
to fact for verification. 

Binet's own work was all carried out 
with children of the classe dite ouvridre, 
what we call the working classes. It is 
unfortunate that he did not differentiate 
further, for in England, certainly, and pro- 
bably in France, the working class is by 
no means a homogeneous stratum ; for 
among its children may be found examples 
of almost every grade of intelligence. I 
say almost, but I had better have left that 
word out ; for genius itself is not unknown 
amongst them, and their talent has been 
abundantly manifested in university and 
other colleges, even though they have had 
to master, in addition, an alien culture and 
alien social habits. Back now to the tests 
themselves. 

Vve shall start with three-ysar-old chil- 
dren. As is fairly well known, I am not 



Binet's Mental Tests. 



in favour of "school" for children of such 
an early age (See the research : — When 
Should a Child Begin School, by W. H. 
Winch, published by Warwick and York, 
Baltimore, United States). But we have 
them in school now and we may as 
well learn how to grade them. More- 
over, the three-year-old tests will, in any 
case, be useful, for we may find some un- 
developed children of riper years who can- 
not do them. 

Binet's Tests for Children of Three. One 
of the clearest signs, says Binet, of the 
awakening of a young child's intelligence 
is the comprehension of spoken language. 
Of course we have to be careful in our 
inferences. The sentimental persons who 
tell you that their dogs, for example, know 
every word they say to them would be 
unsuitable as experimenters. Let any of 
my readers try with their own dogs. Use 
other words than the customary ones, 
keeping the same intonation and flexion of 
the voice, and making the same gestures 
{for movements, conscious or unconscious, 
almost invariably accompany the spoken 
word). Then see whether the dog does 
not react just as well. For a long time, 
children, like dogs, understand our ges- 
tures only and the intonation of our voices ; 
the meaning of words, as words, is ac- 
quired later. The primary step, therefore, 
in the acquisition of verbal language is 
the understanding of spoken words or 
phrases used by others. 

The First Binet Test for Three-year-old 
Children is given to show in the simplest 
way that the child understands our lan- 
guage. We give him some simple verbal 
order, one request at a time. He is in- 
terested in his own body at a very early 
age, so we ask him to touch those parts 
of his face (which is easily accessible), 
which he knows best. We ask him to 
touch his eyes, then to touch his nose, and 
then to touch his mouth. 

We do not, be it noted, ask the child 
to begin to talk to us at once. It is, indeed, 
not always easy to induce a very young 
child to do anything except follow his own 
impulses. Binet notes the case of a little 
boy of four who would not speak to his 



teacher at all until he was permitted one 
day to talk to a cat. Most of our children 
talk to cats quite spontaneously ; their 
language is largely interjectional and ex- 
hortatory, still it is talking, and I have 
not found in English infant schools the 
difficulty Binet mentions, though a little 
delay is sometimes found at first. Patience 
and gentle insistence will always over- 
come it. 

Binet notes that a child, instead of point- 
ing, will often open its mouth or put its 
nose forward. Some English children do 
this too. Instead of touching its features 
the child will frequently shut its eyes and 
open its mouth. This should be noted ; 
but the experimenter, with insistence, can 
usually prevail upon such children to touch 
them afterwards. 

One further indication of primitiveness, 
not noted by Binet, is often shown by 
three-year-old children. They will touch 
with the palm of their hands or with their 
closed fists rather than with their finger. 
But what generally were the results of this 
simple test? All the English children of 
four, five, six and seven years of age 
passed this test quite successfully, as in- 
deed the three-year-old children did also, 
though some of them at first showed the 
primitive characteristics which have been 
referred to above. 

Binet's Second Test for Three-year-old 
Children is the repetition of a sentence of 
six syllables. It is a test of spoken lan- 
guage, easier for the child, Binet says, 
than to take the initiative, and to pass 
from an idea to the word or sentence ex- 
pressing it. Of course, meaning operates, 
for the child can remember and repeat a 
longer sentence of which it knows the 
meaning, than one whose meaning it does 
not know. The meaningful sentence is 
naturally one which is more familiar either 
as a whole or in its parts, and familiarity 
may account for the whole difference. It 
may not, but that is a subtle theoretical 
point into which I cannot enter now. 
Suffice it to say that the sentences should 
be short (six syllables) and their meanings 
should be well known. 

I should personally add a further crite- 



W. H. Winch, M.A. 



rion, namely, that the sentence should bear 
one connected meaning. Binet's sentence 
II fait jroid; j'ai bien faim (six syllables) 
does not fulfil this criterion. But it is, 
of course, not with French sentences that 
our English children were tested. We used 
the following : 

1. May I go out to play? 

2. My mother has a hat. 

3. I want my dinner soon. 

With shy or nervous children we need to 
lead up to these sentences with words or 
short phrases, such as "Boy, ""My dolly." 
Then the sentences are to be said, one by 
one, by the experimenter, slowly and dis- 
tinctly, and the child is to be asked to 
repeat them, one by one. 

In commenting on this test, Binet states 
that faulty pronunciation is not a sign of 
want of intelligence at this age. I am 
more than prepared to admit that no child 
should fail in this test because he cannot 
articulate ; but I cannot admit that faulty 
pronunciation is not a sign of non-intelli- 
gence. On the contrary, I have long 
thought of adding a test for children based 
on articulation alone. 

Every experienced teacher knows that 
errors of articulation persist among dull 
children even up to a late age. Many 
children leave school still unable to arti- 
culate and pronounce certain English 
sounds. German children show similar 
defects, and so do American children. Of 
French children I have no personal know- 
ledge, but it seems unlikely that none of 
their stupid children should show the same 
characteristic. However, we must note 
Binet's opinion and pass on, for his chil- 
dren of three were better than ours in this 
test. 

He says we must not tolerate any kind 
of error, and that children of three can re- 
peat quite successfully sentences of six 
syllables. Well, from the very first we had 
to relax somewhat for our three-year-old 
children. We allowed two (instead of 
three) sentences repeated correctly as a 
" pass." Even then our three-year-old 
children failed. Only fifty-two per cent, 
could do the work successfully; I am quot- 
ing from the figures of the school inter- 



mediate between the best and the worst. 
Every child spoke, but many of the chil- 
dren gave confused sentences, and many 
rendered the last part of the sentence only. 

The test was, therefore, considered too 
difficult for English children of three 
years of age, and in my rearrangement of 
Binet's Tests for English children I have 
placed this test as suitable for boys and 
girls of four years of age. At this age all 
our English children could pass the test 
and repeat all three sentences correctly. 
In this, and, as we shall see later, in other 
linguistic tests also, our English children 
are behind the French. 

Binet's Third Test for Three-year-old 
Children is also a test of memory, or what 
is now often called perseveration. The 
child is asked to repeat two numerals 
after the experimenter. The numerals 
must not be consecutive and the experi- 
menter must allow half a second's interval 
between them. Three sets of two numerals 
are given, and Binet allows one correct 
repetition out of three to "pass." He 
tells us that for French children this is a 
much harder test than the foregoing. It 
is mere brute memory, unaided by con- 
nected meanings, and therefore is more 
difficult. 

Our English experience is quite con- 
trary to that of Binet with French chil- 
dren. Every child of three and over, in 
fact, every English child tested, in every 
school, could do this test, though we re- 
quired two correct answers out of three, 
instead of one. Whereas in the previous 
test our English three-year-old children 
largely failed, whilst the French children 
succeeded, in this test our English chil- 
dren succeeded better than the French, 
though my " pass " standard was higher 
than Binet's. 

This is not due to any difference of 
pedagogical instruction, for none of our 
three-year-old children had had any in- 
struction in number any more than the 
French children had. Perhaps our children 
" lisp in numbers " (in another sense than 
Pope's) at an earlier age than the French 
children : their arithmetic later on is cer- 
tainly superior. 

B 



4 



Binet's Mental Tests. 



Binet's Fourth Test for Three-year-old 
Children involves a description of or the 
enumeration of simple objects in a picture. 
Binet's pictures are, in my judgment, too 
ambitious and too adult for young chil- 
dren. I have found Das Friihstilck (The 
Breakfast Picture) first used by Professor 
Marie Diirr-Borst, and subsequently by 
Professor William Stern, to be quite one 
of the most suitable; but any simple pic- 
ture of domestic life will be found satis- 
factory. 

This is another language test, but differs 
from the preceding linguistic exercise. 
The child, when asked to point out his 
eyes, his nose, his mouth, heard what was 
said and passed from the word to the 
thing. He now has to pass from the pic- 
ture to the word, a much more difficult 
proceeding. If we had to depend upon a 
single test for children this, so far as 
young children are concerned, v.'ould, in 
the hands of a skilled experimenter, be 
one of the best we could use. For it is 
a test both of perception and interest. 
We see what the child notices, and we 
note the complexity of his description or 
the absence of complexity. But Binet 
probably over-estimates the value of the 
test when he says that, by means of it, we 
could tell whether a child is at a three, or 
a seven, or a twelve-year-old mental level. 
Certainly we can tell much ; and I suggest 
to any teacher who wishes to get the full 
value out of my description to take, one 
by one, some children of every age from 
three to seven, and, without prompting 
them, to write down what they say and 
study it afterwards. Show the picture 
and ask the child to point out what it sees 
and say what it sees. 

At three years of age, which is all we 
are concerned with just now, the child 
is in the enumerative stage ; he names 
several things which he sees in the picture. 
This " passes " for a child at the age of 
three ; but I ought to say that, though all 
our English children passed, very few of 
them pointed to or named anything in the 
pictures except people, and even then they 
only enumerated them ; they gave no des- 
cription of them, nor did they say what 
the people were doing. 



At four, five, six and seven years of age, 
every child enumerated objects as well as 
people. Even the four-year-old children 
advanced beyond the three-year-old ones, 
for all of them at that age enumerated 
chairs, flowers, plates, etc., as well as 
people. After this age the children definite- 
ly passed beyond the stage of mere enume- 
ration; for even the five-year-old children 
gave a description of a kind which in- 
volved a good deal more than a mere 
enumeration of persons and things. 

Binet's Fifth Test, and Last, for Three- 
year-old Children is concerned with the 
child's name, not his Christian name, nor 
the '* pet " name by which he may be 
called, but the family name. He tells us to 
say to the child, " What is your name? " 
If the child gives only his first name, for 
example, "John," say "John what?" or 
" What else? " or " What is your other 
name? " Binet says that all three-year- 
old children know their first name, but 
they do not all know their family name. 

Of the English three-year-old children 
who were tested eighty per cent, were able 
to give their surnames. Those who could 
not do so would simply repeat their Chris- 
tian name and say nothing more. At the 
ages of four, five, six and seven years 
every English child knew its surname. 

Binet gives no further tests for three- 
year-old -children. One of his tests, as I 
have already explained, was found too 
difficult for English three-year-old boys 
and girls, and has been placed by me 
among the four-year-old tests. On the 
other hand, some of Binet's tests, to be 
described later, are suitable for our 
younger children. It was interesting to 
see the smiles of confidence and superiority 
with which our older children answered 
these three-year-old tests; and even our 
children of three were usually very 
successful. 

But how does Binet draw the line ^for 
practical guidance? Roughly and for the 
present let me say that if any three-year- 
old child fails in more than one of the tests 
which I have retained, including one more 
Binet test (for four-year-old children) yet 
to be described, which I place as suitable 



Mrs. Alys Lucas. 



6 



tor three-year-old children, there is a prima 
facie case of subnormality, and the child 
should be examined by a psychological 
expert. 

Of course in testing a three-year-old 
child in order to find its proper grading, 
we do not stop with the three-year-old 
tests, but give also those for four and five- 
year-old children. A clever child of three 
will often succeed with them, and this will 
help us to class him properly. 

Binet's four-year-old tests will be dealt 
with in the next article. 



^be Cbil6'3 Sense ot Bumber. 

By Mrs. Alys Lucas. 

The article on Tests bearing on the 
Early Ideas of Number and Quantity, by 
Dr. Decroly and Mile. Degand, in the 
November number of Child-Study, must 
have keenly interested many mothers. Old 
methods of education are being overhauled 
and tested afresh. It is comparatively 
easy to cast aside obsolete forms of teach- 
ing and method, but the work of building 
anew taxes all our knowledge and wisdom. 
One thing we are learning, that all good 
work must have as its base that knowledge 
of a child's mind which is gained only by 
tireless and careful observation. 

The very first unfolding of a child's 
mind is seldom available to the profes- 
sional educationalist or psychologist, who 
must rely on us mothers for intimate 
knowledge of the early steps. Yet we are, 
most of us, utterly unprepared for this 
work ; we have- had no training in scientific 
method, and we have not grasp enough of 
the whole problem to know where light is 
most needed. 

The paper of Dr. Decroly and Mile. 
Degand not only opens up for us a field 
in which little is known and where workers 
are badly needed, but suggests definite 
ways in which we mothers may join forces 
with the trained workers. Before I be- 
came aware of their work I had been try- 
ing to understand something of the sense 
of number in young children, and the pub- 
lication of the tests devised by these Bel- 



gian workers prompts me to attempt a 
short account of the methods which I am 
using. 

The main point in which my tests differ 
from theirs is in the range of faculties 
tested. Even a brief examination will show 
that their tests may involve in their suc- 
cessful performance ideas such as those of 
pattern, of mimicry and of duration, in 
addition to the pure sense of number. 

Anyone who knows children is aware 
how short a time they will concentrate on 
any occupation, how very few observa- 
tions can be made on a child at one time, 
and how seldom the favourable opportu- 
nity for study will recur. Since a great 
mass of observations must be gathered 
on each point before we can be at all sure 
of our ground, it is clear that each worker 
should attempt one question only at a time; 
this is our only hope of success. When 
this point is granted the real difficulty of 
the problem begins. If we are to study 
one faculty alone our tests must be so de- 
vised that they do infallibly give us infor- 
mation on that one point and no other. 

The aim of my own experiments has been 
to study a child's sense of number, while 
avoiding the complications introduced, for 
example, by the association of a definite 
pattern with each number. It is only too 
easy to overlook such possible errors. I 
began by wondering if playing cards could 
be used. Might I show my boy a card 
and ask him to select another one like it? 
It occurred to me at once that the conven- 
tional pattern formed by the pips would 
impress him >first, and he would simply 
look for a card with a similar pattern. 
Perhaps it may be of interest to others to 
hear how I solved my difficulty. 

I bought several dozen specimen boxes, 
round metal boxes, two inches in diameter 
with glass lids, then I bought a box of 
beads. Into three boxes I put one bead 
apiece, into three two and so on up to ten. 
I took one set of boxes containing one to 
ten to one end of the room, leaving a dupli- 
cate set at the other end. Then I said to A. 
(3 years 8 months), " Will you be the 
carrier and take your pony and cart and 
go into the town for me? " (we live in 



The Child's Sense of Number. 



the country, and the carrier figures largely 
in our life). A. brought his horse and cart 
to me for orders, I showed him a box hold- 
ing three beads, and asked him to buy me 
one like it. Off he ran, and I heard him 
say, "Pony, we must fetch blue and yellow 
beads." 

Here was a serious fault ; it was the 
colour of the beads he noticed, not the 
number. Hurriedly I changed them for 
haricot beans and the game went on ; this 
time he understood at once what I wanted. 
I give a sample record chosen at random. 
Number shown. Number brought. 
4 4 

7 7 
9 6 

11 9 

8 8 

While he was counting the beans in the 
boxes which I was showing him he was 
obviously careless with the numbers 7 and 
11. He counted one bean over twice, then 
I simply asked him to count again, and he 
corrected himself. The small list of num- 
bers shown illustrates my point as to how 
slowly we are forced to work in gathering 
information. Five to seven numbers is the 
average for one game. 

Already at this early stage of our en- 
quiry a curious fact appears. My boy uses 
two distinct methods of counting. In deal- 
ing with four or less beans he can recog- 
nise the number by sight, that is to say 
he glances at the box and says at once 
there are three, or four, or he goes off in 
silence to fetch a duplicate box. With 
numbers above four he removes the lids 
and enumerates the beans one by one, 
touching each with his fingers and saying 
one, two, three, etc. This point may be 
very significant, but much more evidence 
must be collected before we know the 
meaning and range of these two methods. 

The whole performance, as gone through 
with my boy, takes a long while. The pony 
must be duly fed and groomed and rested 
before he will go into the town again. 
Luckily now he has invented the plan of 
sending some boxes by "telephone," which 
involves rolling them on their edges across 
the floor to me. 



The length of the proceedings grew tire- 
some at last ; this was seriously added to 
because when he came to the row of boxes 
intent on selecting a box containing four 
or any higher number he would apparently 
form no idea from merely looking at the 
beans through the glass lid of any box, 
whether they were likely to be the right 
number. 

He would take the first box, remove its 
lid, count, and find it held seven beans ; 
the lid must be put on again and the next 
box tested until he happened on a box with 
four beans. So now I have slightly 
altered the game ; instead of duplicate 
boxes there are empty boxes waiting for 
him, a pile of beans and a spoon, and he 
ladles the required number into a box with 
much pleasure. 

Needless to add, I sit pencil in hand 
and record the results on the spot. 

This experiment seems to me, so far, 
to be very satisfactory; I believe it honestly 
tests number and no other power. All 
chance of pattern is avoided as naturally 
loose objects lake up different positions 
each time in the box. Children like the 
game and apparently do not weary of it. 
There is next to no expense involved, pill 
boxes, even match boxes, will serve the 
purpose; if they have no lids the beans 
must be sorted out afresh each time. 

I have tried the experiment with 
another small son of two years seven 
months. The first result, which I have 
copied out, was unexpectedly good, viz. : 
Number shown — Number brought : 1 — 1; 
3—3; 2—2; 4—4; 3— P; 3—3; 4—4; 2—2; 
3 — 3; 4 — 4. (*In this case he put in three 
and turned them out, saying, " No, I will 
just take that one.") 

The numbers of correct answers cannot 
be attributed to chance, and yet I have 
tried six different times since and I cannot 
get him to play the game, the mere joy in 
pouring beans from box to box seems too 
strong. If it were not for this first test I 
should not hesitate to say that he could 
not understand what I asked of him. 

In conclusion may I point out what an 
excellent game this plan of carrier is? We 
play with duplicate colour cards and 



J. J. Webber, B.A. 



match colours in the same way either 
directly or by memory; we do it with 
Montessori insets, carrying the memory of 
the shape of a hexagon across the room 
and selecting one from the confusion of 
circles, ovals, pentagons and octagons. 

With town babies the game would have 
to take a slightly different form, for they 
have no knowledge of the functions of a 
carrier, but any mother could adapt this 
principle to her own children. 

Evidence about other children would be 
most interesting. My boy appears much 
quicker at numbers than the child quoted 
in Dr. Decroly and Mile. Degand's paper. 
I believe mine is nearer the average. He 
had received absolutely no teaching before 
in number, he only knew the names in 
sequence up to ten. Will not other 
mothers try this game and let us have 
some more evidence on the subject? 



XTbe Xooical IReasontng of infants. 

By J- J- Webber, b.a. 

The reasoning powers of young children 
are admittedly weak, but on investigation 
it will often be found that within their 
limited experience and knowledge they 
reason very plausibly. They rationalise 
puzzling and contradictory phenomena to 
their own satisfaction; assume causal re- 
lations between contemporaneous uncon- 
nected events ; and frequently invert cause 
and effect. 

The following instances are selected 
from a record which covers the period 
from two to four years old in the case of 
the boy mentioned in a former article. 
My earliest notes deal with that easy 
generalisation associated with an infant's 
small vocabulary when " gas " is the term 
applied to flame of all kinds, sunflowers, 
the sun and moon, while rain, pools of 
water, and the sea are included under 
" bath "; the lolling tongue of the 
butcher's dog is bacon, and a medal hung 
on a ribbon is a penny on a flag (23rd- 
25th month). It is surprising how limited 
the points of hkeness sometimes are, e.g., 
a friend's child at the age of two called 



hayricks " motor buses," and the shop 
sun-blinds " feeders " (i.e., bibs). 

Sometimes the apparent anomalies of 
language are corrected. Referring to 
events of the previous day, my boy said, 
" I beat — I beat," then he paused ; " I bet 
him with a stick," and a friend tells me 
of a little girl who complained to her 
mother of a tickling in her ear. The 
mother said, " Oh, I expect it's some 
wax." " No, mamma, only one wack," 
replied the little precisian. On arriving at 
Paignton one summer. Jack, aged three, 
in spite of his constantly hearing the cor- 
rect name, persisted in referring to a Mr. 
Sandford as " Mr. Paignton." This was 
very puzzling until we happened by chance 
to hit upon the following explanation. 
We had spent the time immediately pre- 
ceding this at a village called Sampford, 
and it was clear that, as the names Sand- 
ford and Sampford sounded identical to 
him, the boy reasoned that a Sandford 
could, of course, only belong to Sampford. 
Therefore at Paignton it was a mistake to 
call a man Sandford, so his name was cor- 
rected accordingly. 

Misapprehension of the facts or super- 
ficial acquaintance with them often leads 
to curious conclusions. In his 32nd 
month, while passing along a road near 
the railway, he noticed that the telephone 
poles and signals appeared to move on- 
ward as he did. He implored me to stop 
them. " They're all coming home with 
me, and there isn't room for them in the 
garden ! " He made the modest request 
that a motor car should be purchased for 
him (3^ years) and was put off with some 
remark like, " When my ship comes 
home." Not at all discouraged, he pro- 
ceeded to explain how the money could 
be obtained. "Go to some shops, mamma, 
and put down the money to buy some 
things, and the shopman will give you the 
things and a lot of pennies/' 

His experience of shopping was that the 
number of coins returned to the purchaser 
was nearly always greater than the num- 
ber handed to the shopkeeper, therefore, 
ran his relentless logic, " To make money, 
go shopping." 



Collecting Singing Games. 



In spring he was interested in the 
tiny pears which lay on the ground un- 
der the pear trees. To him the rational 
course of events was for a pear to grow 
large and eatable, hence his remark, " I 
suppose these little pears are having a 
rest, and then they will go up into the 
tree and go on growing again (3^ years). 

The use of analogy in the following case 
was not unreasonable. Being warned not 
to play with a knife owing to the danger 
of cutting his finger, he said, " If I did 
cut my finger off, it would grow again." 
" What makes you think that? " said his 
mother. " Because my hair grows again 
when the barber has cut it off " (4 years). 
"I'm going to try and win a scholarship, 
Jack," said an elder boy to him one day. 
" And will you sail it in the brook when 
you've got it? " was his immediate 
inquiry. 

Perhaps the most interesting instances 
are those where a causal connection is in- 
ferred between two unconnected events, or 
effect is mistaken for cause. He is con- 
vinced that the wind is caused by the 
shaking about of the trees, and thinks con- 
sequently that the best place to fly his kite 
is where large trees grow. The lighting 
of the gas being associated with nightfall 
he reasons that the latter is caused by the 
former and has often said, " Don't light 
the gas and make it dark " (28th month). 
On the few occasions when he has been 
playing in the garden at the moment of 
lighting up, he has stopped his play and 
run into the house at once. One of his 
former amusements was that of " blowing 
the dickies off the fence." He blew : they 
vanished. QEF. (30th month). 

During his little games of football he 
always called his opponent " Charlie ! " in 
very vigorous tones. I suspected that he 
did not know it as a Christian name as 
he applied it indiscriminately, and it turned 
out that he had heard a footballer shout 
thus to a fellow player, and assumed that 
It was one of the terms of the game. Basil, 
I found, was his shout when playing 
cricket, and I obtained his own explana- 
tion of it. "I shout it to H when I 

want her to hurry up with the ball." Such 



were his inferences made while watching 
the games in the recreation ground at the 
period 3^-4 years. 

Sometimes a sudden consciousness of 
inconsistency makes him correct himself. 
He had been looking at his reflection in a 
pocket mirror, and having finished this he 
laid the mirror down saying to the reflec- 
tion, " You sit down there little boy by 
yourself: no, by myself" (32nd month). 

So, too, more recently, sitting at the 
table with pencil and paper pretending to 
write a letter to his auntie, he said aloud, 
" Dear auntie, will you come up to see 
me? " Then, after a pause, " She says 
no she can't, mamma," then another 
pause, and, " That's a funny thing, know- 
ing what she said, before she gets the 
letter," and he laughs heartily at having 
discovered the incongruity (4J years). 

In conclusion a personal reminiscence 
may be related. A certain hawker in the 
town where the writer lived as a child had 
introduced a new method of attracting 
attention to his wares, by blowing long, 
solitary, and startling blasts on some kind 
of horn. I v^'as passing along on the pave- 
ment when I heard this rousing sound 
close at hand for the first time. At that 
instant I looked up at a house which stood 
a little way back from the road and 
noticed, what I had never observed before, 
a " dummy " window, i.e., a space painted 
black, with a white border in imitation of 
a window frame. Without a moment's 
hesitation I concluded that this result was 
m.ysteriously caused by the action of the 
sound of that horn on (some) ordinary 
windows, and to my mind, this was con- 
firmed when I noticed other " dummy " 
windows in the town. 



Collecting Sttigino Games. 

By John Hornby. 

" In jugging hare," says an old cookery 
book, " first proceed to catch your hare." 
In studying singing games first catch 
your games. Some years ago the writer 
was present at a gathering where a 
speaker of national reputation as a folk 



John Hornby. 



9 



song collector was urging the importance 
of garnering the old songs before it was 
too late. The way to do this apparently 
was to find some remote village, enter the 
village hostelry, produce large quantities 
of tobacco, dispense copiously of ale and 
bid the yokels sing. Now the collector of 
singing games need have no qualms here. 
His gathering ground will not be among 
aged topers but among young children, 
and experience shows that the games are 
played most freely among the children of 
the common folk. 

The younger the child the more freely 
he sings to you, and the easier is your 
task of collection. The average school 
child by the time he reaches seven 
or eight definitely discovers his neighbour 
as well as himself, and he begins to sur- 
round himself with certain barriers of self- 
possession, self-consciousness, shyness, 
etc. With some children these are more 
marked than with others, and would ap- 
pear to be the effect of the training (con- 
scious or unconscious) in home and school, 
the almost spontaneous response to repres- 
sion, sarcasm, and, it may be, mockery. 

Now these bulwarks have to be broken 
down, suspicion quietened, confidence en- 
couraged, good will cultivated before that 
pleasant atmosphere can be born again in 
which the games are freely and joyously 
played and the real work of collection 
begun. 

The earlier part of the writer's collect- 
ing was done in one district in Leeds. It 
may be that for some reason games have 
persisted and flourished there more than 
in other places. The smoke-laden atmos- 
phere of the grimy parish of St. Jude 
would, however, hardly seem to furnish 
the environment suitable for the survival 
of the old games of the countryside. Yet 
the writer found close on fifty games 
wholly or in part existing there; and what 
has been done in one place may presum- 
ably be done in another. But a friend 
who has been visiting an Oxfordshire vil- 
lage says there are no singing games 
there. The children never sing at their 
play. Now that is a statement that, 
frankly, cannot be accepted without inves- 



tigation. Did our friend quite win the con- 
fidence of the children, was she, in fact, 
really admitted into the Holy Place of the 
child's trust? 

When confidence is won let the children 
know and see that you are interested in the 
old games — -played till recently in back 
streets and by-lanes, but not in school. 
Show by your outward gesture and sign 
that to you they are pleasant things, things 
of beauty, joyous and worthy in them- 
selves. For a moment descend from the 
pedestal of adult self-contentment. Join 
the game. You may make mistakes. Heed 
not the laughter. It is hale and harmless. 
And through this door of self-error you 
may perhaps, by sheer mirth-laden pity, be 
admitted to many things that else were 
barred to you. Anyhow you will have 
made a start. 

In the school porch of the parish named 
above the writer hung a foolscap sheet and 
put thereon two or three names of very 
well-known games, such as " Here we go 
round the mulberry bush," " Push the 
business on." Then he asked for children 
to write any others they knew and sign 
their names to their contributions, and in 
a moment of splendid thriftlessness offered 
the magnificent sum of a halfpenny for 
every real game. This was just before 
playtime. During playtime that school 
porch was a very busy place, and soon a 
laughing girl ran in with, " Please, sir, 
we want another sheet." " What for? " 
" T'other's full, sir!" Two or three 
sheets were filled in this way. 

In working through the list the first 
question asked of the contributor was, 
" What is the tune to this game? " This 
was a necessary precaution, because quite 
a number of the games so nominated were 
not singing games at all, but just ordinary 
games put down in the excitement of the 
occasion. Sometimes the contributor 
would be able to sing the entire game 
words through alone. Sometimes others 
standing by would help, and we should 
have a kind of choral ballad. This gave 
confidence. Sometimes there were little 
friendly altercations as to the exact ren- 
dering. 



10 



Collecting Singing Games. 



Meantime the chronicler is taking down 
the words, and perhaps variant lines, as 
rapidly as may be. By the time that is 
done, he will have a good grip of the game- 
rhythm, and also of the tune. He will 
set out his bars and get the children to 
sing the tune slowly while he gets (in sol-fa 
or Old Notation as seemeth him best) the 
whole melody. This done he will watch 
the game played, and take full notes of the 
precise procedure. Next day, perhaps he 
will take these notes of ritual and read 
them out to another class and see if they 
can translate them into action. This is a 
severe test of his power to see the game 
plan whole, as well as the detail of its 
various movements. 

Sometimes he may only be able to 
secure a mere fragment of a game. This 
is not to be destroyed. It is to be kept. 
Occasionally it is to be mentioned and per- 
haps audibly brooded over. Like enough, 
help will be forthcoming. The little singers 
talk at home or among other girls, and 
help comes from mothers or relations, and 
sometimes even grandmother contributes 
a line, and the game approaches comple- 
tion. Old folk like to talk of their child- 
hood, and a little encouragement has once 
and again been the means of fresh games 
being discovered. 

Yet these rapidly filling sheets were to 
the writer a revelation and a chastisement. 
They revealed to him that he had lived for 
nearly a quarter of a century in a world of 
comedy, of tragedy, of laughter, song and 
tears, and he knew it not. He had studied 
child nature, and in a tentative way had 
written of it. Yet here was the door of a 
temple waiting to be opened, and he had 
not even suspected it, or else had entirely 
forgotten its existence. 

Apart from the value of the games 
as a means for the expression of the 
abounding joy of childhood, apart from 
their educational value in matters of poise 
and balance, apart from archaeological and 
antiquarian value, there is one other thing 
that has to be felt to be realised. Such 
kindly feeling is engendered by this work, 
such doors of interest and sympathy are 
thrown open that one may be forgiven if 



one believes that here sometimes one at- 
tains that place of vision where have stood 
all great child lovers, from Comenius to 
Montessori, when they have seen, as in a 
flash, the beginning and the end — the 
great Unity. 

After all, children are universal and in 
root essentials alike. So that after my 
experiences in the parish of St. Jude's I 
was emboldened, during holiday and other 
times, to try elsewhere. Sometimes with 
children by the sea, sometimes in quiet in- 
land villages, in fact whenever occasion 
served; and by the aid of p^itience and 
sympathy — those great twin brethren — the 
doors opened and the children sang to me 
the old songs even as they had done else- 
where. Often I had to hum one or two 
songs first; sometimes (O guile!) I made 
mistakes in the very last line, was cor- 
rected, and so the position was won. 

Often one heard nothing new, but just 
duplications with slight local variations of 
the games we already had. But one 
listened gladly. It was pleasant to hear 
and pleasant to be of such a goodly com- 
pany. Yes, children are very much alike, 
so my friend of Oxfordshire has not quite 
convinced me, and neither has another, a 
well-known writer of the Gipsy Lore 
Society, who tells me English gipsies have 
no song. So if any of my readers can 
help me to rout the sceptics of Oxford and 
of Romany I shall be truly grateful. 

A cursory examination of the game- 
tunes reveals the fact that they are dia- 
tonic. Accidentals simply do not exist. 
Compare this with some of the chromatic 
perpetrations with which infants and 
juniors are at times regaled. Said a young 
teacher, " I am going to teach this to my 
babies. Isn't it pretty ? It reminds me of the 
' Merry Widow.' " What a recommenda- 
tion ! Further investigation shows that 
nearly half of the oldest tunes lie in the 
octave from dominant to dominant (soh, 
to soh). This is strangely in line with the 
tonal openings, s, 1, d, or s, d, r, of the 
most ancient liturgic music of the Greek 
and Roman Churches, and provokes re- 
flection along developmental lines. 

Oddly enough a thrush opposite my 



Professor Bidart. 



11 



window has been singling something" very 
like this s, d, m, through half the summer. 
Now the oldest religious rites were prac- 
tised in the open air, beneath " the most 
ancient heavens fresh and strong," and the 
children's games are the very children of 
the open air. Is it mere coincidence that 
has thrown the children's games, the old 
liturgic song, and the lay of the mavis into 
the same opening form? 

Another very striking thing is the strong 
rhythm of the game tunes, and rhythm 
makes a universal appeal. Prof. Williams, 
in his book on the " Aristoxenian Theory 
of Greek Rhythms," points out clearly that 
when the early Christian Church banished 
dancing from religious rites they turned 
the stream of ecclesiastical invention in the 
direction of that polyphonic art which cul- 
minated in Bach, and at the same time in a 
large measure shut out that heritage of 
rhythmic joy, which formed such a large 
portion of what was to the Greeks con- 
noted by the term music. 

It is a truism to say that in the matter 
of rhythmic development, in the Greek 
sense, we are far from " advanced," and 
it is not too much to claim for the old 
singing games that they have for genera- 
tions been sounding that noteof eurythmics 
which Dalcroz^ has but now taken up. 

An investigation of the wording of the 
games reveals an essentially concrete con- 
tent of earth and home and sea and sky 
and all the gracious commonplaces of life. 
This is what might be expected of that 
essentially " practical " period of child life 
to which the games make their surest ap- 
peal. In a way they reveal (yet this by 
omission) an apparent paganism, but it is 
still that old paganism wherein the gods 
might appear at any moment. There is 
all through an unuttered faith in the final 
righteousness of things, and a sense of 
that all-pervading Unity on which in the 
last analysis all things rest. 

Should any readers essay an investiga- 
tion in this rich field they will be repaid 
over and over again not only by the sur- 
face " finds," but by hidden and deeper 
things which to the student of child nature 
are of that final wisdom, that pearl of 



great price, which many good mothers 
possess, and many educators have longed 
for, and some have found. 



Ipareut lE&ucators. 

By Professor Bidart. 
Translated by Miss M. S. Ryan, b.a. 

So far we have spoken of the matter of 
the command ; we have now to speak of 
the manner in which it should be given. 

A child understands before he can talk, 
he guesses your thought, he reads your 
expression. If you do not actually desire 
a thing to be done, do not command it, 
he will feel that you are not in earnest 
about it and he will not obey you. For 
instance, suppose at the beginning of your 
meal you say to your little son in a half- 
stern, half-joking way, " Go out of the 
room." The child will be upset, then 
seeing that you are joking, or at least not 
seriously meaning what you have said, he 
will stand still and perhaps hazard an 
impudent little laugh. There you have a 
serious breach of discipline. Never treat 
a command as a matter of fun. 

Again, do not make an entreaty of your 
command. Misguided parents sometimes 
say, "Now do it, just to please me." 
Well, why has authority been given you? 
Why are you parents? You must com- 
mand, not entreat. If you bring up your 
children to hearing themselves asked to do 
things as a favour, they will think them- 
selves always in a position to grant 
favours. They will seem to be conferring 
kindness on us, and we shall be the un- 
grateful ones. Whence it happens that 
they have rarely any gratitude towards 
their parents (Mme. de Saussure) and 
none for those who implore rather than 
command. 

The last and most important point of all 
is that you must not deceive. Suppose 
your children are in the way in the kitchen 
and you want to get rid of them : you say 
to them, " Run in and see Mrs. A., you'll 
find your friends there." They go and 
find no playfellows, while you smile at your 
diplomacy. Do you imagine your child 



12 



Parent Educators. 



has no instinct? What will become of him 
and what will happen to you when he 
ceases to trust his parents? 

A command should be serious. This 
does not mean a gruff, threatening tone of 
voice which will make the poor little mite 
tremble and shake. Firmness does not 
preclude kindness. " A gentle firmness 
succeeds because it inspires confidence and 
respect. An angry tone is only obeyed be- 
cause it inspires fear, and the obedience it 
obtains is as fugitive as its cause. The 
child knows beforehand that the storm will 
disperse, and that as soon as the sky be- 
comes clear again, he will be allowed to 
act as he likes. It is part of a child's 
nature to submit to a will which appears 
to him inevitable, and always the same ; 
if you are firm, the child's obedience can 
be depended upon " (Liebrich). 

A grave tone of voice lends itself to any 
prohibition ; a bright and sympathetic 
voice leads to action. A mother who 
knows how to manage always gets her 
own way by, " Now, baby ! " " Darling, 
what are you thinking of? " " Well done ; 
what a little man ; bravo ! " (B. P^rez). 

"Be as eloquent as you can whenever 
you are talking to your children, or telling 
them a story, but when you give a com- 
mand he short and concise. If you multi- 
ply instructions, you suggest disobedience, 
because you seem to believe in the possibi- 
lity of not being obeyed ; if, on the other 
hand, you give a concise command, you 
impose the necessity of submission by the 
very fact that you seem to imply the im- 
possibility of resistance " (Mme. de Saus- 
sure). 

4. The way to exact obedience. I forbid 
my little boy to eat raw fruit because 
it will make him ill. Thinking that 
a little will not matter, he eats some. 
He has done wrong for obedience which 
is partial is not true obedience. A child 
who does this makes it evident that he will 
obey me only so far as it pleases him. That 
will not suit me. I must have full obe- 
dience. 

Children will often dawdle, even while 
they are intending to do as they are told. 
" The moments that elapse between the 



hearing of an order and its execution 
signify an act of revolt. Give your com- 
mand in a few words and let it be without 
appeal. It is right to show gentleness in 
our system of education, but never forget 
that firmness is necessary too, and nothing 
calls forth consideration towards parents 
as much as the appreciation they show of 
their own rights. This is the mark which 
distinguishes them from all the other well- 
meaning folk who offer advice and warn- 
ings all day long " (Mme. de Saussure). 

If we permit the child to be slow in 
obeying, we arc doing him harm in other 
ways. " A child who does not readily 
obey, is forming a habit of putting aside 
everything which does not please him, of 
putting off till to-morrow the duty of to- 
day, and this is assuredly an unfortunate 
habit for his future " (Liebrich). 

Obedience must be prompt. A child 
will sometimes try slight opposition, and 
it would be difficult to say just where 
the wrong begins. He looks mischie- 
vously at you, out of the corner of his 
eye, to see how you are taking it, and he 
seems to say, " It's all right, so far, 
suppose I go a step further? " This is 
the result of a want of seriousness in the 
command and a weakness in seeine it ful- 
filled. Let there be no hesitation in the 
child's mind, and no delay in his resolu- 
tion. You too must show decision and 
determination. Know what you want done 
and see that it is done. Anything that you 
forbid must be given up at once, and any- 
thing that you command must be done at 
once. Never permit any exception to this 
all-important rule. How often, unfortu- 
nately, does it not happen than an act of 
disobedience is smiled at and passed over ! 
Such a disobedience is really the fault of 
those in authority. 

If the child does not obey you, do not 
say anything for a moment, if you give 
him time to think, perhaps he will be 
ashamed of his ill-will. Then tell him 
what to do again, a little more decidedly 
than the first time, without raising your 
voice, perhaps even lowering it a little : 
you thus make an appeal to his most inti- 
mate feelings, to his conscience. As a 



Suggestions for Study and Practice. 



13 



rule, you will find him eager to repair his 
fault. If not, you must still wait ; let 
whatever it is reinain undone and return to 
the charge until you have "ivon the day, 
always without any anger or ill-humour, 
saying very few words but showing a reso- 
lute determination. 

In time, the little rebel will see that he 
has nothing to gain by resisting, he will 
submit, and another time, knowing you to 
be determined, he will not even attempt a 
hopeless struggle... 

Of a surety, there are moments, acts, 
and memories which mark epochs in our 
lives. I would try to subdue a child's will 
by every means other than bodily chastise- 
ment, but yield he must. 

Often, instead of open resistance, a 
child may have recourse to artful ways. 
He may say, " I want to do this first." 
You see, he seems full of good-will, isn't 
he? So you give way. Another time, he 
is bolder, "I won't," or "I shan't." 
"You are surprised, you repeat your 
command. If the child again refuses, 
you lose your temper and get angry, but 
at the same time and this is what matters 
most for your child, you yield. He sees 
clearly that you shrink from the struggle " 
(Thery). Now on this very weakness of 
yours he will base his dominion. You 
must not shirk the contest. 

Here is another weapon. " Children 
soon discover the weakness of the man 
who lets himself be disarmed by a laugh. 
If it is likely to answer their purpose, you 
will find that, instead of resisting, they 
will appear to be having a little fun. We 
must be on our guard and discourage such 
mischievous naughtiness by our coolness. 
Children, even at that age, can appreciate 
the feebleness of a poor joke " (A. Martin, 
The Training of the Will). 

I must, then, be on my guard against 
mischievous coaxing or teasing ways. 

" But they find out other ways still of 
making us abandon our resolution, the 
constancy of which they fear far more than 
the many acts of authority interspersed 
between periods of indulgence and spoil- 
ing. They will show bad temper, repug- 
nance ; they will pretend to shower on 



others the affection they keep from us, 
finally, they will have recourse to tears 
and all the expressions of heartrending 
despair " (A. Martin, The Training of the 
Will). Then, wounded in our tenderest 
feelings as a parent, we relent, alas ! and 
give way. We ought to have gone on 
quietly with whatever Vv^e were doing, and 
disregarded the tears and temper, and 
everything else. Then the opposition 
would have promptly ceased. So, / must 
not let myself be disarmed by tears, next 
time they will cry less. 

In a word, I shall have to face, in the 
first few years of my child's life, struggles 
stern and few, but decisive, by which my 
authority will be once for all established. 
If not, then war defeat and humiliation will 
be my constant portion. 



SuGaestions tor StuD? anD 
practice. 

Learning to Spell. "With Standards II. 
and IV. children ranging from eight to 
eleven years of age . . . the method 
with pronounced auditory and articulatory 
factors, as well as visual ones, and with 
more direction of attention by the experi- 
menter, showed itself definitely superior to 
a method more purely visual and with less 
direction of attention. . . . We have not 
disproved the feasibility of success by an 
indirect or incidental method. But we 
have shown that when new spellings are 
pronounced articulatory and auditory fars 
to be acquired by children of this age 
and mental type, a method which contri- 
butes pronounced articulatory and audi- 
tory factors, as well as visual ones, is more 
successful than a method which depends 
almost wholly upon the latter." — W. H. 
Winch, " Experimental Researches on 
Learning to SpeW," Journal of Educational 
Psychology, December, 1913. 

Special Schools' Teachers and the Binet 
Tests. " There is, however, one type of 
Binet examiner who may be qualified as 
well as, and sometimes better than, a clini- 
cal psychologist to make these delicate 
differentiations. I allude to that class of 
trained assistants who mav not have had 



14 



Suggestions for Study and Practice. 



technical psychological training through 
formal studies, but whose extended ex- 
perience at institutions for mental defec- 
tives has given them such thorough 
acquaintance with feeble-minded children 
that in giving a Binet test they intuitively 
sense distinctions that would escape the 
more astute examiner of greater know- 
ledge but less experience. Examiners of 
this sort are not to be classed with those 
who have neither technical nor experimen- 
tal knowledge of the proper use of the 
Binet scale, whose information has been 
gleaned from a Binet pamphlet or from 
occasional observations of testings, or 
even from only their own practical use of 
the tests." — E. A. Doll, " Inexpert Binet 
Examiners and their Limitations, "yojirna/ 
o/ Educational Psychology, December, 
1913. 

The Dependence of Mental Develop- 
ment on Muscular Development. "The 
higher type of mental action requires, as 
a precondition of its appearance, long and 
continuous experiences on the lower or 
perceptual plane, and within certain limits 
the efficiency of life, even on the higher 
plane, is dependent on our efficiency on the 
lower plane. On the whole, the people 
whose senses give them the most delicate 
indications of what is passing around 
them, and who are most skilful with their 
limbs, especially their hands, are likely on 
the average to attain a high standard of 
intelligence — to grasp a situation more 
rapidly, to see a point more quickly." — 
Professor E. P. Culverwell, in his book, 
"The Montessori Principles and Practice." 

Grading by Mental Tests. Conclusions : 
1. Analogies, Opposites, and Sentence 
Completion Tests are again found to be 
exceedingly suitable types of tests for 
grading children in the order of their in- 
telligence. 

2. Tests of these types have been de- 
vised and show when standardized that 
the difference between the means of 
successive classes is quite marked and 
generally greater than their average devia- 
tions. They also show a high correlation 
with the subjective estimation of intelli- 
gence. 



3. The tests form a speedy, reliable and 
suitable method by which children may be 
graded according to their general intelli- 
gence. 

4. The more difficult series of tests give 
higher correlations with the Intelligence 
Classifications than do the easier series. 

5. The highest and most reliable corre- 
lation co-officients are obtained by amal- 
gamating the results of the several tests. 

6. The thought process underlying the 
Analogies Test seems to belong to a later 
stage of development than those under- 
lying the Sentence Completion and Oppo- 
sites Tests. — W. Vickers, M.Sc, and 
Stanley Wyatt, M.Sc, "Grading by Men- 
tal Tests," Journal of Experimental 
Pedagogy, December, 1913. 

The Eyes and Education. " This matter 
has occupied for some years the attention 
of those in control of the public schools 
and much has been done to improve con- 
ditions in this respect. Of recent work 
that of Dr. Wm. Martin Richards, in the 
New York public schools, is the most strik- 
ing in its results. Dr. Richards selected 
thirty-eight pupils from the lower grades 
in Schools 4 and 44, Bronx, New York, 
and made careful tests of the eyes, 
prescribed proper glasses, and saw that 
they were worn. Thirty-two pupils were 
"hyperopic, two were myopic, and three had 
mixed defects of both eyes. He found that 
small errors, of the amount usually 
neglected, were one of the causes of failure 
to progress in the school work. From the 
reports of the teachers supervising the 
work of these pupils under observation one 
gathers the most astonishing facts. They 
cannot be given here in detail. It is suffi- 
cient to state that the most marked psychic 
and mental improvement occurred in many 
of the cases, and in some it amounted to 
a complete change in the character of the 
child, formerly dull or unmanageable. M. 
Dresbach, M.D., " Ocular Defects and 
Their Relation to the Student," Educa- 
tional Review (U.S.A.), December, 1913. 

Education and Intuition. " There can 
be no rules for training intuition; it can 
only be left free to grow, and not re- 
pressed and distrusted. If this principle 



i 



Suggestions for Study and Practice. 



15 



is adopted in education, far less rigidity 
must result. Much fewer repressive 
school rules will be made, and text-books 
will greatly alter their character. Class 
lists and prizes will go, for both imply 
that intellectual or memory work is the 
most important affair in school life. 
Science will still keep its authority (it will 
probably be taught more artistically), but 
its limitations will be taught as well, and 
its domain will not extend beyond matter. 
Feeling, attitude, aim will be regarded of 
at least as much value as intellectual 
attainments. Analysing, tabulating, 
formulating will still be practised, but in 
a lesser degree, while imagination and 
sensitiveness to the spirit of a subject will 
claim more time. Intellect tends to settle- 
ment and convention, while intuition tends 
to freedom and spontaneity. It is by en- 
couraging spontaneity and not crushing 
individuality that a more true psychology 
can be learned. At present our ignorance 
of the mind's workings, the inner feel- 
ings, and real motives, especially of young 
people, is lamentable. The admonition 
know thyself is as necessary to-day as in 
classic times, and know thy pupils is an 
indispensable maxim in education that is 
to be of any worth. 

" Connected with the idea of spon- 
taneity is that of creative activity. If a 
child's initiative is not dulled or reproved 
(and it takes but little to blunt or repulse 
the antennae of a young soul), then it will 
evolve into individual creation and art, 
and ' there is no greater joy than that of 
feeling oneself a creator,' and ' wherever 
joy is, creation has been.' This joy in 
creation should have its way in education 
as in all other spheres." — E. M. White, 
" Bergson and Education," The Journal 
of Education, December, 1913. 

Teachers and Method. " As a matter 
of fact the value of method as such in- 
creases with the commonplaceness of the 
persons who use it. The teacher of great 
natural capacity, the sort of person who 
runs the risk of being called a born 
teacher, should be allowed a great deal of 
freedom in manipulating methods, while 
the dull, conscientious, plodding person 



should be called upon to stick somewhat 
closely to the methods that experience has 
shown to be the most satisfactory in all 
ordinary circumstances. It is true that 
even the man of great natural capacity for 
teaching will find it to his advantage to 
adopt and follow a great number of 
general principles of method laid down by 
his predecessors in the profession. The 
study of education has now resulted in a 
body of principles that are of recognised 
validity, and are no longer matters of dis- 
pute. These must be respected even by 
the born teacher. But so long as he ob- 
serves these he ought to be allowed con- 
siderable latitude in modifying the plans 
suggested by masters of method and even 
by successful teachers of great experience. 

" A ' born teacher ' with a bad method 
will no doubt produce better results than 
a commonplace teacher with the best 
methods available : but what about the 
results of the born teacher working with 
the best method? Why not aim at the 
best result possible by harnessing the best 
capacities with the best methods? Is there 
anything wrong with the principle that 
the born teacher should not be allowed to 
handicap himself with a bad method?" — 
Prof. John Adams, " The Born Teacher," 
The Educational Times, January, 1914. 

The Earliest Development of Speech. 
" The child's means of communication are 
very limited. First there are simple cries 
without cerebral co-operation. These cries 
later become differentiated and meaning- 
ful, and still later are the elements of 
language and of vocal laughter. In lan- 
guage development there are three 
stages : First, instinctive cries and calls, 
followed by a second stage of playful and 
imitative language, when the vocal organs 
are the child's most delightful plaything. 
At this time he is concerned with making 
all manner of vocal sounds, original or 
imitative. He is soon able to reproduce 
certain simple sounds and then easy 
words. Thus speech is developed on the 
basis of association, memory, muscular 
control and imitation. 

" The first hundred words and concepts 
are established through direct association 



16 



The Child-Study Society and the Constituent Societies. 



with objects and experiences. At the 
third stage, word learning, which is to- 
ward the end of the second year, the finer 
muscles of speech gradually come under 
control; until then different consonants are 
of unequal dilHculty. Words are now 
learned with surprising rapidity, thirty to 
one hundred words a month being a not 
unusual rate of acquisition. At two years 
vocabularies range from twenty to four 
hundred words. At this time there is a 
predominance of verbs which is double the 
relative amount which occurs in all lan- 
guages, whereas the percentage of nouns 
is about the same as in ordinary language 
(sixty per cent.). Adverbs are now also 
relatively more numerous than adjectives, 
and rnany prepositions and nouns are 
made to serve as verbs." — E. A. Doll 
(Assistant Psychologist at The Training 
School), " Mental and Physical Develop- 
ment of Normal Children," The Training 
School Bulletin, December, 1913. 

The Child and the House. " The out- 
standing fact about the children was not 
their stupidity nor their lack of beauty 
(they were neither stupid nor ugly), it was 
their puny size and damaged health. On 
the whole, the health of those who lived 
upstairs was less bad than that of those 
who lived on the ground floor, and de- 
cidedly less bad than that of those who 
lived in basements. Overcrowding in a 
first floor room did not seem as deadly as 
overcrowding on the floor below. It is 
difficult to separate causes. Whether the 
superior health enjoyed by a first baby is 
due to more food, or to less overcrowd- 
ing, or to less exposure to infection, is 
impossible to determine; perhaps it would 
be safe to say that it is due to all three, 
but whatever the exact causes are which 
produce in each case the sickly children 
so common in these households, the all- 
embracing one is poverty... Those among 
them who were born during the investiga- 
tion were, with one exception, normal, 
cosy, healthy babies, with good appetites, 
who slept and fed in the usual way. They 
did not, however, in spite of special efforts 
made on their behalf, fulfil their first 
promise. At one year of age their en- 



vironment had put its mark upon them. 
Though superior to babies of their class, 
who had not had special nourishment and 
care, they were vastly inferior to children 
of a better class who, though no finer or 
healthier at birth, had enjoyed proper 
conditions, and could therefore develop on 
sound and hygienic lines." — Mrs. Peniher 
Rce^)cs, in her book " Round about a 
Pound a TFeefe." 

A Teacher's Sabbatical Year. "To pro- 
mote the standard of teaching, the 
teachers of Schenectady are allowed a 
sabbatical year for study and travel, with 
one-third payment of salary. The condi- 
tions are as follows : The teacher must 
map out a course of study in some recog- 
nised institution of learning, and have it 
approved by the superintendent of schools 
in advance. In cases of travel, her itiner- 
ary must be approved in the same way. A 
teacher accepting such leave of absence 
agrees to teach in the Schenectady schools 
for at least three years. If she fails to 
return after the leave of absence, she re- 
funds the amount of the salary advanced. 
If she leaves after less than three years' 
service, she refunds a pro-rata amount of 
the salary advanced." — " The American 
Teacher,'' January, 1914. 



Ube <Xbll&*5tut)^ Societi? anb the 
Constituent Societies. 

The London Society. — The following are the 
Lectures to be held from February to May, on 
Thursdays at 7.30 p.m., at 90, Buckingham Palace 
Road, S.W. : February 19th, Speech Defects of 
Children and Their Treatment, by Dr. E. W. 
Scripture, of New York. March" 5th, The Sense of 
Humour in Children, by Miss C. C. Graveson, 
M.A. March 19th, The Dramatic Impulses in 
Children, by Prof. Findlay, M.A., Ph.D. April 
2nd, The Nervous Child, bv Leonard Guthrie, 
M.A., M.D., F.R.C. P.— Mr. /. Durrie Mulford. 

The Halifax Society. — During the Session an 
amalgamation of far-reaching value was formed 
with the Workers' Educational Association, and a 
joint series of four Talks to Mothers was given by 
Nurse Fox in the Guild Room of the Co-operative 
Society. The average attendance at these meet- 
ings was 38, and the expenses were met by the 
Child-Study Society, the Co-operative Society pro- 
viding the room. It is possible that a similar 
arrangement for the spread of knowledge amongst 



Notices and News. 



17 



mothers will be made for next session. — Mr. J. 
Arrowsinith. 

The Child-Study Society took part in the very 
successful Joint Conference of Educational Socie- 
ties, held at London University from January 2nd 
to January 10th, by a meeting held in the Jehangir 
Hall on Friday evening, January 9th. Sir James 
Crichton-Browne, the President, had hoped to 
deliver the lecture, but found himself prevented by 
oflicial engagements, and at very short notice Dr. 
W. G. Sleight, to whom the best thanks of the 
committee are due, took his place. With Sir 
Edward Brabrook in the chair. Dr. Sleight read 
a paper on " The Child and the Curriculum" ; the 
discussion was opened by Mr. B. Dumville, M.A., 
and Miss Kelley, Dr. Jessie White, Dr. E. W. 
Grice, Captain St. John, and Mr. T. G. Tibbey, 
B.A., took part in it. An abstract of the lecture 
and the discussion will appear in the oflficial report 
of the Joint Conferences. 



IRotfces anb Bews. 

The late Mr. Ebenezer Cooke was known to 
many members of the Child-Study Society, and his 
sudden death in December last will be very deeply 
regretted by all who knew his worth. A man of 
great originality and ability, he had the good for- 
tune as a boy to be educated by a Pestalozzian 
teacher and himself became one of the most power- 
ful and capable exponents and propagators of Pes- 
talozzi's ideas and ideals. His life's work as an 
educator was teaching of brush-work to the young 
and to teachers themselves. In this he may fairly 
be said to have been himself a Master. Though 
his life has ceased thus suddenly his work will still 
live and be his own best memorial. 

Sonje Journal Notices. — We have three import- 
ant notices to give concerning the Journal : (1) 
Miss E. K. White-Wallis has had to resign her 
post as Hon. Sec. of the Journal Committee. We 
owe her many thanks for her able services. (2) Mr. 
H. R. Crisp has been good enough to accept the 
post of Hon. Sec. to the Journal Committee. His 
address is 45, Corringham Road, Golders Green, 
London, N.W. All communications regarding the 
business side of the Journal should in future be 
addressed to him. (3) Miss K. G. Cash, B.A., has 
kindly consented to assist the Editor by taking 
charge of the Reports from the Constituent Socie- 
ties and the Periodicals sent for review. All 
matter concerning these should be sent to her at 
36, Hunter's Buildings, Borough Road, S.E. 
Annual Reports should not be sent for publication 
in the Monthly Reports of Societies. 

The Index for 1913. — Owing to an unfortunate 
oversight the contents of the December number 
were not included in the Index. Luckily there 
were not many items in this number, and several 
of these were already included as to the titles. We 
suggest to our leaders that they should write at 
the head of the Index " Contents of December 



Number Omitted," or something to this effect. 
Ve'ry little inconvenience would then be experi- 
enced. The Editor thinks that the readers would 
probably rather do this than lose the four pages 
of matter which would otherwise have to be left 
out of this number so as to publish a corrected 
Index. 

Lectures on Statistical Methods. — Teachers who 
are taking their Child-Study seriously will be 
glad to know, if they do not already know it, that 
a course of Lectures on " Elementary Statistical 
Methods for Teachers " began on Friday, 23rd 
January, at 6. p.m.^ at University College, Gow( r 
Street, London. The course is given by Dr. David 
Heron and will include the use of Elcmcntarv 
Statistical Methods in relation to the intelligence, 
health, general physique, and home conditions of 
school children. Full particulars can be obtained 
from the Secretary of the College. 



IReviews. 

Inductive versus Deductive Methods of Teaching : 
An Experimental Research. By W. H. \\'incii. 
Pp. 142. Warwick and York, Baltimore, 
U.S.A. Price, $1.25. 

This book is an " attempt to decide between the 
conflicting claims of ' inductive' and ' deductive ' 
methods" of teaching. The investigations were 
carried out in five elementary schools in different 
parts of London, and both girls and boys were in- 
cluded in the experiment. 

Not only is the investigation extremely valuable 
in itself, but it is far and away the best example 
of scientific pedagogical research, such as practical 
teachers can perform, which the reviewer has yet 
seen. It is a most helpful piece of original work, 
and a most excellent model for competent begin- 
ners. Every real disciple in Child-Study should 
give some of his days and nights to the study of 
this work (and others by Mr. Winch) as a prepara- 
tion for personal investigation. 

Still more important is it that acting teachers 
should seriously study such a book, for nothing 
could be better suited, and more likely, to en- 
hghten and to stimulate the best and most 
thoughtful among them, or more calculated to 
give them very valuable practical help in their 
actual teaching. 

The Purpose of Education. By St. George Lane 
Fox Pitt. Pp. viii., 83. Cambridge Univer- 
sity Press. Price, 2/6 net. 

The sub-title of this book is " An Examination 
of the Education Problem in the Light of Recent 
Psychological Research." The author declares 
that the object of his book is to urge and inculcate 
the lesson " to rely less upon the seen, the con- 
crete, the physically tangible ; and more upon the 
spiritual side of our natures, unmanifest to the 
flesh, but none the less real and permanent." The 
book is much too small for so big a task. 



18 



Reviews. 



Handwork and Us Place in Early Education. By 
Laura L. Pi.aisted. Pp. iv., 327. The Claren- 
don Press. Price, 4/- net. 

The author writes : " This book is intended 
primarily for young students. ..and for practical 
teachers who work in isolation... The aim has 
been to give copious illustrations of actual work 
done by children in the hope of suggesting ideas 
to the reader." This aim has been admirably 
fulfilled. The book is packed full with theory, 
practice, method, models, illustrations, descrip- 
tions, di-tail<'d practical guidance, lists of books, 
etc. It would be difficult to make a book of its 
size more replete with information and instruc- 
tion : it is a very cnryclopjEdia of handwork for 
little children, and, as such, worthy of high praise. 

The following subjects are dealt with : All kinds 
of paper work ; modelling in paper and card- 
board ; light woodwork ; drawing ; basketry ; 
weaving ; modelling in clay and plastic material ; 
pottery ; and needlework. The correlation of 
these subjects with each other, and the ordinary 
school subjects is fully discussed and illustrated. 

Teachers of infants and juniors will find it an 
extremely helpful book of reference. 

Montessori Schools, as Seen in the Early Summer 
of 1913. By Jessie White, D.Sc. (Lond.). 
Pp. 18.5. Cornish Brothers, Birmingham and 
0.\ford University Press, London. Price, 
1/- net. 

Mrs. White gives us just what every sincere 
critic of Madame Montessori 's book has felt the 
need of : an account, by a scientific observer, of 
what actually happens in real Montessori Schools 
and others. We are enabled to understand more 
clearly what is meant by freedom and liberty (ac- 
cording to Dr. Montessori) in school work, and 
how the theory of sense training is worked out in 
practice. Bui there is more and better than this : 
there are most helpful and enlightening criticisms 
and suggestions. As a practical guide to anyone 
attempting to introduce the Montessori system it 
will be found a great help. It is written in a 
bright and interesting manner. 

Teachers will doubtless feel greatly indebted to 
Dr. White for so good a book at so cheap a price. 
L'Educateur Moderne. Prieur ct Cie, Paris. 10 
issues per year. 11 francs. 

With the December issue M. Roger Cousinet, 
who has long been the editing secretary, and one 
of the ablest contributors, became editor-in-chief ; 
whilst the publishing firm has changed its name. 
In the November issue appears a vigorous article 
on Feminism, .Suffragism and Co-education, and 
a lengthy, appreciative review of Miss Hardy's 

Diary of a Free Kindergarten." In the Decem- 
ber number there is an equally lengthy translation 
from this book together with an account of a 
similar school near London, and also a practical 
plea for the teaching of local geography and an 
interesting notice of Mrs. Fisher's " A Montes- 
sori Mother." 



Mon Filleul au " Jardin d'Enfants." I. Comment 
il s'instruit. Pp. 258 and 8 illustrations. 3rd 
edition. II. Comment il s'cileve. Pp. 252. 
2nd edition. By Felix Klein. Price, fr. 3.50 
each volume. Libraire Armand Colin, Paris. 
The style of these books is delightful, and they 
can claim, far more than most books on educa- 
tion, to be of fascinating interest. Essentially they 
are Child-Study, a careful noting of the progress 
(jf a little lad in a real school which for the pur- 
pose of the work has been somewhat idealised. 
The methods adopted are described, further sug- 
gestions being frequently forthcoming, and any- 
one of these may serve as te.xt for a digression 
on the child's point of view, interests, physical 
needs or mental development, illustrated by many 
instances from observations of children, published 
and unpublished, showing keen insight and warm 
sympathy. Thus the first volume contains, in 
addition to a careful and minute description of the 
actual methods pursued, a discussion of the rela- 
tion between work and play, of the age at which 
reading should begin and of the Froebelian gifts, 
whilst the second considers such questions as 
imagination, the educative value of games, discip- 
line, punishments and rewards, and the relation 
between authority and initiative. 

Eugenics Review. January, 1914. Price, If- net. 

Professor McDougall, of O.xford, in an article 
on Psychology in the Service of Eugenics points 
out that experimental work in connection with the 
mental life of individuals and classes of society is 
likely to yield results of great value to the science 
of Eugenics by : (1) The analysis of complex 
mental powers in individuals and comparison of 
the results. (2) The detection and measuring of 
differences of mental endowment in the various 
classes or strata of population. (3) The study of 
inental heredity through the application of men- 
tal tests to large numbers of near relatives of the 
same and different generations. 

He regards children as especially valuable sub- 
jects of study along these lines because the 
younger we take our subjects, the more will native 
endowment predominate over the influence of 
special training and experience in determining 
degrees of proficiency. And, fortunately school 
children from the age of about 11 or 12 years are 
in other respects excellent and convenient subjects 
for such investigation. 

Publications Received. — The Journal of Edu. 
cation; The Educational Times; The Parents' 
Review ; Journal of Experimental Pedagogy ; 
Moral Education League Quarterly ; The Journal 
of Educational Psychology (U.S.A.); Educational 
Review (U.S.A.); The Training School (U.S.A.); 
The American Teacher (U.S.A.); The Pedagogical 
Seminary (U.S.A.); L'Education Familiale ; La 
Revue Tsychologique ; L' Enfant Jardin. 



ci)ii(i=$tuap, 

CDe Journal of tbe Cblld-studp Socletp. 



/?. 



Vol. VII.— No. 2. 



MARCH. 1914. 



Bincf s jflDcntal Zcets ; 
TKabat tbc^ arc, anb wbat we can 
t)o witb tbem. m. 

By W. H. Winch, m.a. 
{All rights reserved). 

Before commencing my account of 
Binet's Tests for children of four years, 
I wish to answer two questions which have 
been put to me more than once during the 
last month or two. " How," it has been 
asked, ' ' do you manage to do these 
patient and lengthy experimental investi- 
gations during the rush of inspectorial 
work and its multifarious duties? " The 
answer is easy. All the work now being 
described was done when I was able to 
give my whole time and energy to it. 

The second question was one put to me 
by teachers. It ran thus : " I wish to try 
some of my children, how shall I enter and 
keep the results for each child? " I have 
expressly dealt with this in my form for 
testing children, published by Ralph Hol- 
land, of Temple Chambers, E.G. I cannot 
reproduce it here, since the work is copy- 
right ; but a dozen of the forms themselves 
may be obtained for a shilling or two. 
One form is required for each child tested. 
It should be kept, and the child tested in 
subsequent years to measure its progress 
in intelligence. Now to my more imme- 
diate task for this month. 

Binet's First Test for Four-year-old 
Children is concerned with the child's 
knowledge of its own sex. The experi- 
menter is required to say to the child, 
" Are you a little boy or a little girl? " 
If the child does not answer, Binet says it 
is admissible to break up the question and 
say, " Are you a little boy? " When the 
child has answered this, the experimenter 
is to follow with the question, "Are you a 



little girl? " It is well, I think, always to 
ask the three questions, and in this order; 
for by so doing we minimise the likelihood 
of a mere guess. More than 60 per cent, 
of our English children of three answered 
correctly. Those who did not would some- 
times say ," I'm Willie, " or " I'm Annie. ' ' 
When asked, "Are you a little boy?" some 
would say " Yes," and when this question 
was followed by " Are you a little girl? 
they would again say " Yes." They are 
anxious to please, and probably take the 
question suggestively. 

At all ages above three years, all the 
English children tested answered correct- 
ly, often with a smile at the experimenter's 
stupidity in asking them a well-known 
thing like that. The test has been retained 
as suitable for English children of four 
years. 

Binet's Second Test for Four-year-old 
Children is concerned with the perception 
and naming of common objects. Binet is 
of opinion that this test is much more diffi- 
cult than the naming of persons and things 
depicted pictorially. For in a picture the 
child chooses what he pleases to name, and 
picks out the things whose names he 
knows. But in this test we place the thing 
in front of the child and ask him to name 
that thing and no other. French children 
who were unable to name the things which 
Binet presented often succeeded in enume- 
rating things from the pictures. He used 
a key, a closed knife, and a sou (halfpenny) 
and asked the child to say what they were. 
To pass the test on Binet's standard the 
child was required to name all the objects 
correctly. 

In English schools we used a key, a 
table-knife, and a penny. Poor children 
have often never seen a pen-knife, and we 
did not think it profitable to ask for the 



20 



Binet's Mental Tests. 



name of something the child might never 
have seen. For our " pass " standard 
every object had to be correctly named, 
with the exception that "penny," or "half- 
penny," or " farthing," or " money " was 
accepted as the name of the coin. Binet 
also accepted some slight deviations from 
accuracy, and, notwithstanding, found 
this test suitable for four-year-old chil- 
dren, and decidedly too hard for most of 
his three-year-old children. Our experience 
is not the same. Every English child of 
four, five, six and seven years of age could 
name these things, and 96 per cent, of the 
three-year-old children could also name 
them. One three-year-old child who could 
not do so insisted on calling a knife a 
" fork," but mistakes or omissions were 
practically unknown. I have, therefore, 
regarded this test as suitable for three- 
year-old boys and girls, not for four-year- 
old children, as Binet does ; and it is placed 
No. 5 on my form. 

Binet's Third Test for Four-year-old 
Children is a test of memory or persevera- 
tion, more difficult than that which is 
given for children of three. The experi- 
menter now repeats three numerals instead 
of two. The numerals must be non-con- 
secutive, and must be said with half-a- 
second's interval between them. Three 
sets are given. Binet's standard, which 
I have retained, requires two sets out of 
three to be repeated correctly. At three 
years of age, somewhat over 50 per cent, 
of our English children " passed." Some 
repeated the first and last numbers only, 
others put the middle number last, and 
some substituted other numbers for those 
given. At all succeeding ages every child 
could successfully repeat numerals so far 
as required by this test. 

Binet's Fourth Test for Four-year-old 
Children deals with a comparison and 
judgment of length. To carry out this 
experiment two lines must be drawn with 
ink on paper or cardboard. The lines must 
be five and six centimetres in length 
respectively. They must be parallel and 
three centimetres apart, and neither end 
of one line should be exactly under the 
corresponding end of the other. Binet 



asked, "Which is the longer fine? " But, 
as he says himself, the child at this age 
rarely comprehends the meaning of "la 
plus longue," so we, in defiance of gram- 
mar, asked, "Which is the long line?" 
Little children say "long line" and "short 
line,' not "longer line" and "shorter 
line "; long and short are terms of com- 
parison to them, as well as adjectives of 
positive degree. How do the children suc- 
ceed with this exercise? A stupid child 
will put his fingers in the space betiveen 
the lines, or point with much hesitation. 
And there is an additional difficulty with 
the assessment of this test, which Binet 
does not mention. A confident child dashes 
at it, and, by chance, puts his finger on the 
right line. He has made no judgment of 
length at all, but mere " assurance," as 
he well knows, may pull him through. 
How can we avoid this? We turn the 
paper or card on which the lines are drawn 
in different ways, and present the problem 
five times, in each case asking, " Which is 
the long line? " If the child answers 
correctly four times out of the five he is 
regarded as successful. 

English children at three years of age 
are not very proficient with this test, and 
not 50 per cent, could manage it ; but at 
four years of age more than 80 per cent, 
could do so, and every child older than 
four was successful ; so the test has been 
retained by me as suitable for a four-year- 
old test for English children. 

Binet gives no more tests for four-year- 
old children ; but in my rearrangement 
and modifications of his tests there are 
five tests, for a test in counting, which 
he gives later on, is placed by me among 
the four-year-old tests, as in this aspect 
of mental life the children of our schools 
are more proficient than the French. 

In my next article I will deal with the 
Binet tests for five-year-old children. 



James Drever, B.A., B.Sc. 



21 



Ubc iPs^cboloQ^ of limrttino* 

By James Drever, b.a., b.sc. 

{Lecture delivered before the EdiiiburgJi 
Child-Study Society). 

The subject on which I was originally 
asked to address the Child-Study Society 
was the "Psychology of Spelling." In 
working up this subject, however, it was 
gradually forced in upon me that the psy- 
chology of spelling was in the main, and 
contrary, I think, to general opinion, in- 
extricably bound up with the psychology 
of writing, and only to be approached 
through the psychology of v.-riting. I 
therefore decided to ask the secretary if 
she would oblige me by changing the title 
of the lecture, not because I did not wish 
to undertake a discussion of the psycho- 
logy of spelling, but because I felt that 
there were several preliminary points to be 
dealt with in connection with the w-ider 
subject, before the position with regard to 
spelling could be cleared up. And, as you 
will see, the change of title does not in- 
volve an entire change of subject matter. 
Another inducement leading in the same 
direction was the interest at present mani- 
fested in the Montessori Method, one of 
the special features of \\hich is the treat- 
ment of writing. 

As you are aw^are, Madam Montessori 
establishes the mechanical processes in- 
vohed in writing, apart from writing it- 
self, and by utilizing the play interest suc- 
ceeds in getting these mechanical pro- 
cesses established at a very early stage ; 
she further teaches writing before, but in 
close connection with reading, using in 
both cases the language interest, that is 
the relation of the word to a meaning that 
is significant to the child, to secure moti- 
vation. I may say that I am sufificiently 
unorthodox as to believe that in these cases 
her work is entirely on the right lines. I 
am afraid I shall be thought rather hetero- 
dox in other respects also, fori am inclined 
to hold that neither v.riting nor spelling 
can or should be taught except with mean- 
ingful material; that writing copies are of 
very limited value in the teaching of writ- 
ing, and may in some cases hinder rather 



than help ; that the visual image is pro- 
bably of minor significance in spelling, as 
compared with the vocal and manual motor 
complex and as compared with the mean- 
ing, and several other heresies of a similar 
description. 

For most of these beliefs I hope to be 
able to show at least some ground, though 
it is almost needless to say that you must 
not expect a full and adequate discussion 
of writing in the limits of a single lecture. 
All that I can really hope to do is to indi- 
cate the chief problems which arise, and 
the direction in which we must seek their 
solution. Incidentally also, and for the 
benefit of those who feel disposed to dis- 
trust psychology, I hope to be able to show 
that the psychologist can throw very con- 
siderable light on this branch of school 
work, and can afford guidance which 
ought to materially assist the teacher. Only 
it is the teacher, and not the psychologist, 
who, by the help of the methods of the 
newly developed experimental education, 
must work out the practical methods. 

In a lecture like this there are three main 
topics which call for discussion : — In the 
first place the development and psycho- 
logical nature of language in general and 
of graphic language in particular ; in the 
second place, the psychological analysis 
of the processes of learning to write, and 
writing itself ; and in the third place, the 
experimental investigation of writing 
which is more pedagogical than psycho- 
logical, at present being zealously prose- 
cuted on the Continent, in America, and 
in this country. The chief points of edu- 
cational significance will be indicated as 
we go along. 

1. DevclopDioit and Psychological Na- 
ture of Graphic Language. In each of his 
three excellent discussions of language, 
in the Analytic Psychology, the Manual, 
and the Groundwork , Stout has pointed 
out that the essential function of a word 
is to fix the attention upon a meaning. 
Because of this, we can, through lan- 
guage, control our own thinking, and also 
the thinking of others, so that language 
becomes both an instrument for thinking 
with, and at the same time a means of 



The Psychology of Writing. 



communication. In this fact also we have 
a sufficient explanation of the language 
interest of children, for to the child lan- 
guage is from the beginning an instrument 
by means of which he carries on his en- 
grossing occupation of making himself 
intellectually at home in his material 
world, and making himself at one with 
his social world. This implies that it is 
unnecessary to assume any special lan- 
guage or glossic instinct to explain the 
child's interest in language, though there 
may of course be such an instinct, in which 
case the child would have a further in- 
terest impelling him to the acquisition of 
language. 

In his Analytic Psychology Stout goes 
on to point out that language performs this 
characteristic function because of its origin 
in " a simple association by contiguity " 
between a sound and a percept. The sound 
has no integral connection with or depen- 
dence upon the percept, but is merely asso- 
ciated with the percept as a whole, so that 
not only does it tend to be revived on the 
presentation for a second time of the ob- 
ject, but its occurrence is independent of 
the presentation, and therefore it may be 
employed in the absence of the object itself 
to reinstate the image of the object, to 
enable the individual, that is, to think 
about the object. The association by con- 
tiguity is not essential to this process, and 
is only true of a conventional language 
or of the acquiring of such a language. 
The same function can obviously be per- 
formed by the imitative gesture, with 
which language must have originated in 
the race, and which has more than an asso- 
ciation by contiguity with the object. 

Another important point in connection 
with language, which Stout emphasizes, 
more particularly in the Manual, is its re- 
lation to the motor element in experience. 
" Perceptual process," he says, " is pene- 
trated through and through by move- 
ment." Besides the movements which are 
made in the attainment of practical ends, 
there are movements of adjustment of the 
sense organs, movements of exploration 
by sight and touch, and so on. In the ideal 
recall of perceptual experience these move- 



ments, or rather the motor images of them, 
tend also to be reinstated. This fact can- 
not be gainsaid even by those who would 
deny the fundamental position of the 
motor element in all experience. The 
motor element is of peculiar significance 
because of the extent to which we can con- 
trol it. 

In fact our control over imaged move- 
ment is analogous and proportionate to 
our control over actual movement. And, 
since the revival of the motor element 
tends to reinstate in idea the original 
experience, our control over motor imag- 
ery means control over imagery in general. 
Oral speech is but a particular case of this 
motor control, and similarly with graphic 
language or gesture language. In all its 
forms language is a system of expressi^ e 
signs, by means of which we control the 
course of thought in ourselves or in others, 
and our control over it is due to the fact 
that the motor element is fundamental in 
it. From the point of view of education 
this would seem to be of the very first 
importance. 

Another fact Avhich appears to be of first 
rate importance for education is the rela- 
tion of language to meaning. By calling 
language a system of expressive signs, wc 
bring out this relation, for,there are other 
kinds of signs, for example, demonstra- 
tive signs, suggestive signs, and substi- 
tute signs. With the first there is no diffi- 
culty. A demonstrative sign, which 
merely indicates an object, is not as such 
language, but it may easily become lan- 
guage if used in a context to express a 
meaning, when it becomes an expressive 
and not merely a demonstrative sign. 
With regard to the others matters are 
slightly different. A suggestive sign is a 
sign by means of which an object, act, or 
idea is brought to mind, but when the sign 
has suggested its meaning, its entire func- 
tion is performed and we have no further 
need to attend to it. A very good example 
is the tying of a thread round your finger 
or a knot on your handkerchief in order to 
be reminded of something at some special 
time. 

A substitute sign, on the other hand, 



James Drever, B.A., B.Sc. 



23 



is a sign which saves us from think- 
ings about the meaning, which can enter 
into combination with other substitute 
signs, and be manipulated, so as finally to 
bring out some result which is significant. 
Arithmetical and methematical symbols 
rue the best examples of such signs. The 
function of an expressive sign is to enable 
us to think about a meaning, but we al- 
ways think about the meaning through 
and by means of the sign. Further, a 
mere word or series of words apart from 
meaning is not language; is, in fact, 
merely a succession of meaningless sounds. 
The unit of thought is a single definite 
meaning, and the corresponding unit of 
language is a sentence. We may, of 
course, have a sentence in a word, but a 
word that has not a place in a sentence, 
in a context of meaning, is not language, 
and is therefore not even a word. 

The origin of language in the race must 
be looked for in what we may call a 
magma of imitative gestures and sounds, 
and in this magma we have probably also 
the origin of pictorial art. Graphic lan- 
guage must be regarded as the developed 
imitative gesture, oral speech as the ' 
developed imitative sound. In the course 
of the development several striking pheno- : 
mena, which are more or less important r 
for education, have manifested themselves. 

Stout, in his Manual, gi\es an admir- 
able illustration of the kind of situation | 
in which the earliest beginnings of Ian- I 
guage must have arisen. " Suppose," he 
says, " that A and B are co-operating in 
some important work. It is B's turn to 
do something and A's to wait expectantly. 
B either fails to do what is required of j 
him or does it wrongly. Suppose that A 
has no conventional language to express 
himself in, or even that he has not used 
language of any sort until that moment. 
If he is capable of ideally representing 
what he wants B to do, he can scarcely 
fail in his impatient eagerness to make 
movements indicating what is required. 
It may be sufficient to point to some object 
actually present. This does not, strictly 
speaking, involve the use of language. 
But if he uses a truly imitative gesture or 



combination of imitative gestures, then his 
action is the birth of language. He may, 
for instance, point to a rope and imitate 
the act of hauling. The imitation of the 
act of hauling is simply his own idea of 
hauling issuing in actual movement." 

Natural gesture language will always 
tend more or less rapidly to become con- 
ventionalized, chiefly by abbreviation. 
Even in such cases there is always the 
possibility of reverting to the original 
natural gesture in its fulness and detail, 
when the abbreviated gesture is not under- 
stood. This is so because the language 
has at its basis a single formative prin- 
ciple, that of imitation. But a natural 
gesture language is incapable of ever 
becoming purely conventional, because of 
this same formative principle. Precisely 
the same holds of the imitative gesture 
graphically or pictorially represented. 
How then can we account for the fact that 
we have such conventional systems in the 
finger language of deaf mutes, on the one 
hand, and in nearly all written languages 
of the modern world on the other ? The 
explanation we must seek in the relation 
of both to oral speech. 

The imitative sound in the primitive lan- 
guage was capable of a development of 
which the imitative gesture was incapable. 
Sounds have a far wider range, are under 
more perfect control, and are independent 
of several conditions, as, for instance, 
visibility, on which the use of imitative 
gesture must depend. Sounds, therefore, 
tended to become more and more the 
dominant part of primitive language. 
Further, the imitative gesture is distinctly 
restricted in its application to general 
ideas. For instance, it is easy to express, 
say, table or chair by an imitative gesture, 
it is not so easy, but not impossible, to 
express articles of furniture, but to ex- 
press the general concept thing would 
seem quite impossible, and still more such 
a concept as existence. 

Hence as the power of generalized 
thought developed oral speech became 
more and more necessary as the instru- 
ment of thought and expression, and the 
real development of language took place 



24 



The Psychology of Writing. 



along the line of oral speech. Bui the 
imitative gesture was not discarded. In 
the earliest stages of language develop- 
ment it was still necessary to help out the 
meaning of oral speech. In the later 
stages, as graphic language, it \vas 
seen to possess certain advantages which 
oral speech does not possess, as, for 
instance, when one wished to speak to the 
absent or to future generations, and be- 
cause of such advantages it was retained 
and developed as another medium of 
expression. 

As far back as we can go in the history 
of any civilisation we find two language 
systems, oral speech and graphic lan- 
guage. But before the civilisation has 
developed very far, we always find the two 
systems becoming one language by the 
subordinating of the graphic signs to the 
oral speech. This very interesting and 
significant change will be best understood 
by reference to the actual development of 
graphic language. 

The earliest stage of graphic language 
is the pictographic stage, where the ideo- 
graph, like the imitative gesture, repre- 
sents a certain object, act, or idea, by de- 
picting fully or in an abbreviated form that 
object, act, or idea. At this stage graphic 
language is quite independent of oral 
speech. At this early stage of culture, an 
individual may describe in oral speech eked 
out with gesture, let us say, a hunting ex- 
pedition to his fellow tribesmen, or when 
they are absent may leave a record for 
them on stone, or wood, or bark, in the 
form of pictures which relate the essentials 
of the story. These pictures may be com- 
paratively accurate, detailed, and realistic, 
or they may be abbreviated and conven- 
tionalised ideographs ; in either case 
graphic language and oral speech are quite 
independent of one another, the pictures 
not representing the story in the word 
form at all, but simply in the meaning 
form. 

But on this basis the power of expres- 
sion of graphic language in the direction 
of generalisation is, as we have seen, 
limited within a rather narrow range, and 
moreover another limit to development in 



this direction is fixed by the fact thai the 
complexity and obscurity of graphic lan- 
guage will be constantly on the increase, 
as the number of experienced objects 
which must be represented increases. In 
this case development is only possible by 
the graphic sign becoming a phonogram 
instead of an ideograph, which imme- 
diately involves the subordination of the 
system of graphic signs to oral speech. 

W'e can easily see how such a develop- 
ment might take place. Let us say two 
ideas are expressed by the same sound (as 
in our case of " son " and " sun "), but 
they are at first represented by different 
ideographs. They may, however, ob- 
viously be represented by the same graphic 
sign, as by the same sound, provided the 
context can be relied on to keep the mean- 
ings distinct. With a primitive, and per- 
haps monosyllabic, language the context 
in very many cases could not be relied on, 
but even under such circumstances, the 
expedient of attaching a key sign to dis- 
tinguish each of the meanings of the same 
phonogram, might be adopted. The key 
sign would itself be an ideograph of higher 
generality. 

This is the stage of development which 
the Chinese language represents at the 
present day, and it therefore marks the 
transition from an independent graphic 
language to a graphic language which is 
strictly and wholly subordinate to oral 
speech. For the phonogram is no longer 
a graphic sign representing an idea but a 
graphic sign representing a sound, though 
the key ideograph remains as a relic of the 
previous stage. The representation of 
proper names might also be cited as 
another obvious bridge from the indepen- 
dent to the subordinate graphic language. 

The subsequent development of graphic 
language is entirely dependent on the re- 
flective analysis of oral speech. With a 
polysyllabic language (Chinese is mono- 
syllabic) there would be very little need for 
the key ideograph, and there would be a 
tendency to take the further step of repre- 
senting each syllable by a phonogram. 
This the Japanese have done, borrowing 
for the purpose the necessary number of 



James Drever, B.A., B.Sc. 



25 



Chinese characters. The result of this re- 
form is a very great simplification of 
g-raphic lang-uage, for the number of dis- 
tinct syllables which require to be repre- 
sented will be very much fewer than the 
number of distinct words. A still further 
simplification is obtained by representing- 
the phonetic elements of spoken words 
(either the consonantal elements alone, or 
consonantal and vowel elements alike) by 
definite characters. This prog-ress towards 
the simplification of graphic language by 
the more complete phonetic analysis of 
oral speech has received a check in com- 
paratively modern times chiefly as a result 
of the introduction of printing and the 
spread of the ability to write, but this ten- 
dency towards movement in a reverse 
direction, which is really a tendency of a 
different kind, need not concern us here. 

Our attempt to trace the development of 
graphic language yields another point 
which is also of first rate importance for 
education, which we might express briefly 
as the primacy of oral speech. The rela- 
tions of writing have been too often for- 
gotten in the past. As a matter of fact it 
has not even been taught as language, 
but as something independent. Psycho- 
logical considerations, and considerations 
arising from the study of the development 
of graphic language, would seem to be en- 
tirely against such a method of treating 
writing. Writing is first of all a form of 
language, and secondly it is the graphic 
representation of oral speech. When the 
child is learning reading and writing he is 
engaged with the two sides of a single 
process, the mastery of graphic language. 
The two subjects cannot be separated, but 
writing ought logically to come first, and 
in the closest relation with oral speech, 
and, as we have already seen, with mean- 
ing. 

2. Psychological Analysis of Processes 
of Writing and Learning to Write : — Let 
us now, in the second place, spend a little 
time on the consideration of the psycho- 
logical nature of writing itself as a pro- 
cess, in order to get some light on the 
process of learning to write. 

In adult writing we have, first of all, a 



meaning defined in oral speech. The 
inner speech which accompanies writing 
can be examined by anyone, and it will be 
found that this inner speech carrying the 
meaning always goes on ahead of the 
writing, but seldom beyond or much be- 
yond the end of the sentence which is being 
written. The thought itself, though in a 
vague indeterminate way, tends to pass on 
still further ahead. A second inner speech 
which controls the writing movement ac- 
companies the act of writing each word. 
This inner speech is quite definitely in 
motor and auditory imagery ; in my own 
case, and in the case of most others who 
have given me the results of their intro- 
spection, this second inner speech often 
takes the form of spelling some of the 
words, but rarely such words as "the," 
" of," " and," " but," and the like. Final- 
ly the words may or may not be read after 
writing ; where they are read we have a 
third inner speech. Only in this last case 
is the visual element at all prominent in 
adult writing. 

All this has of course a direct bearing 
on spelling as well as on writing, and in 
fact is more important from the point of 
view of spelling than from the point of 
view of the mere mechanical process, the 
motor mechanism, of writing. Such are, 
however, the results of the introspective 
examination of writing. Can we confirm 
them from the objective side, from objec- 
tive data? As far as the mechanical pro- 
cess of writing is concerned, the nature of 
the control can quite easily be investigated 
experimentally. The part which vision 
plays can be determined by writing with 
closed eyes. As far as the mere writing is 
concerned little impairment is visible, but 
the alignment is apt to suffer, and even the 
attempt deliberately to visualize the lines 
fails to keep this right. We infer there- 
fore that the main use of the visual factor 
is to preserve the alignment, and, to some 
extent also, the relative spacing. On the 
other hand, if by writing on a yielding 
surface, or with benumbed or anaesthe- 
tized fingers, we interfere with the tactual 
and motor controls of writing, there is a 
very different story to be told. [Etc.] 



26 



Phases of Self^Reaiisation. 



Debases of Sclf*1Realisatlon. 

By J. J. Webber, B.A. 

" Shall we hold with Calvin that the 
child is naturally a depraved being, and 
that by hook or by crook we must take 
it out of him, or with Rousseau that by 
nature the child is good, and that nature 
wills the child to be a child before he is a 
man, and so 'let children be children' ? . . . 
It does no good to make the child perform 
moral acts when it does not appreciate 
what right and wrong mean, and to 
punish a child for performing acts which 
his very nature compels him to do is doing 
that child positive injury." — Aspects of 
Child Life and Education, by Stanley Hall. 

The question is hardly the simple one 
of a choice between Calvin and Rousseau, 
but the attitude of looking on such pheno- 
mena as those presented below as phases 
of development is the only attitude which 
is fair to the child. At the same time the 
writer is old-fashioned enough to be out 
of sympathy with those who advocate 
complete absence of restraint. 

Self-realisation at the early stage seems 
to involve among other things for the child 
(1) doing his own will ; (2) doing it in his 
own way. Closely connected with these 
will be found certain manifestations of 
egoism or self-assertion, together with 
personal preferences and dislikes. 

The following observations commenced 
when the infant had made some little pro- 
gress with speech. 

In his nineteenth month he would say 
" Bye-bye " to any toy he was tired of, 
and also to his mother if she appeared to 
be about to take him from his play, while 
he deliberately turned away and pointed 
out the gas and other items of interest 
when introduced to a neighbour's infant. 
Finding his " words " insufficient, he 
dragged the bystander to the spot where 
something was to be picked up (20th 
month). Independence of action and oppo- 
sition to " authority " were in strong evi- 
dence during the twenty-first month ; he 
persisted in " Wa-wa " as a substitute for 
" Mamma" and " Dada" which he could 
say clearly, and one day, having left 



Dobbin, his wooden horse, in the garden 
path, he was told he must fetch it : he 
refused to do so, but when this was in- 
sisted on he walked the distance of thirty 
yards backwards, watching me the whole 
time. It was noticed too that when touch- 
ing forbidden things he would say " No " 
to himself, and often a deliberate pause 
would be noticed before he did as he was 
told. 

By the twenty-second month he had dis- 
covered that the pleasant pastime of 
answering in the sense desired by the 
questioner, often committed him to a course 
of action which was contrary to his real 
wish, so such questions as, " Would you 
like to go indoors now? " fell on deaf ears. 
At the age of two years shyness before 
strangers appeared, but such phrases as 
" Oh, mamma, I am a tall boy " (standing 
on hassock) were recorded, and the infant 
himself actually explained his failure to 
say " Good morning " to a visitor by re- 
marking, " I'm a bit shy." 

On being concisely forbidden to meddle 
with the bath-room taps he replied "Fancy 
you talking like that a (to) me mamma " 
(27th month). He would say when told to 
do anything, " No," or " Certainly not," 
but in spite of this, generally began to 
obey without further objection. There 
also appeared in this (28th) month the 
strong objection to new clothes which has 
persisted for over two years. 

Some action of his had called forth the 
remark that he would have to be called a 
rough bov. His retort was, " No, I'm a 
little pet : that what my name." Seeing, 
I suppose, no reason why adults should 
have a monopoly of giving orders in the 
first person, he now began (29th month) to 
order the rest of the household about. I 
was reminded of my little acquaintance 
May, who, having exchanged names with 
her auntie so that Auntie was May and 
May was Auntie, refused at bedtime to 
change back again, to the consternation of 
Auntie. He showed great annoyance and 
refused to play out of doors when the wind 
was gusty, even going out Canute-like to 
tell it to "stop blowing " (29th month). 

Considerable trouble was taken at this 



J. J. Webber, B.A. 



^7 



stage to get him to lend or share his toys, 
and a direct result of this was shown one 
day when, seeing that I had no engine, he 
offered me a tin which he had fitted with 
a piece of string, and even went so far as 
to hand over the engine and take the tin 
himself. But this was a forced growth, 
and the persistence of the natural instinct 
will be seen below. He claimed to be a 
" big boy " in order to be allowed to turn 
over the pages of books (30th month), but 
a few weeks later, trying to avoid the task 
of picking up his " bricks," he said " No, 
mamma, me not a big boy yet." He 
showed great distress when familiar furni- 
ture was moved from its place, and in his 
.32nd month objected to a new cap : threw 
it down and said, " I've got plenty." 

Indignity must not be offered to any- 
thing so intimately personal as the infant's 
name. He knew two horses called Jack 
and Tommy, but when acting as a horse he 
was given the name Jack, he said with 
some indignation, " Not horse-Jack — me 
Tommy." The following incident throws 
light on the same topic. Barbara, a little 
girl aged five, was passing by the Bunyan 
statue at Bedford with her mother, who 
told her some of the incidents of the 
preacher's life. Noticing the little girl's 
preoccupied air, her mother said, " But 
you weren't listening, Barbie." " Oh, yes 
I was, mamma, I understood all you said 
quite well — but I was just thinking I 
wouldn't like to be called Barbara Bunyan 
not for anything ! " 

In his 32nd month he was refused sugar 
one day, and took occasion to say very 
soberly, " 'Sposin' you was a little boy 
and I was your mamma ; when you asked 
for sugar I should give you two sugars." 
From the age of three onward, evidence 
of the acute individualistic phase was 
forthcoming, and this stage may be well 
illustrated by the following. His playmate, 
a little boy of 2| years, began to play very 
peaceably with the wooden engine. "He's 
not to have it," cried the angry owner, 
and rushing up took it away by main force. 
The younger boy submitted and turned his 
attention to the wheelbarrow, only to be 
despoiled of that in the same way. 



In a very short time the use of the foot- 
ball, cricket ball, bat, walking stick, gar- 
den roller, steam roller had been inter- 
dicted, and all were heaped up beside the 
wall. It was pointed out that the little 
boy must have something to play with, 
and then the reluctant owner, selecting 
the steam roller (its funnel was wanting) 
offered that. The other boy, with a lilli- 
putian exhibition of righteous indignation, 
kicked the roller down the step with a 
great clatter, saying, " I won't then, see 
Jack" 

The following examples, belonging to 
the period 4| to i^ years, indicate the 
present trend. "I could 'nt make a Noah's 
ark, could I?" he said, when putting that 
toy away one evening. " No, you're not 
Noah, are you? " was the reply. ** But 
I'm the Noah of this ark you know," said 
he. One day, in making what he called 
a scouts' camp, he included some "ships" 
made from firewood and match-sticks, and 
persisted in calling them scholarships. His 
mother explained to him what a scholar- 
ship was, only to be met with a reply in 
which the essential parts of the explana- 
tion were embodied to prove himself cor- 
rect. " Oh yes, but mine are scholar- 
ships, as I give them to the best scouts ; 
they have to work for them." 

Tacit assertions of independence and 
signs of resisting outside pressure as 
above, constantly appear. He asked me 
to show him how to fix yards to the masts 
of his firewood ships. I showed him, and 
he immediately modified the method, say- 
ing first, " I like to do it this way," and 
then adding, with a smile, " If you want 
a ship your way, you do it your way, and 
if I want it my way I'll do it my way; 
see dada? " 



parent Bbucators. 

By Professor Bidart. 

Translated by Miss M. S. Ryan, B.A. 

5. The one way of making obedience 
easy is to inspire respect. 

(a) If the child is convinced that it is to 
his interest to obey, he will not find it diffi- 
cult to yield. He must therefore obey me 
with confidence. 



28 



Parent Educators. 



How shall I win his confidence? By 
perfect truthfulness. Suppose I tell him 
that, if he eats green apples, he will have 
a pain. He does eat them and he has no 
pain. Now I have made a statement and it 
has proved false : his confidence in me is 
shaken. If, on the other hand, the child, 
by the constant experience of many years, 
finds that, in the end, the obedience I have 
exacted from him has always been to his 
advantage, and that I have been right, 
whatever 1 may have said or done, then he 
will be induced to trust in me. Confidence 
arises out of success. 

(b) But I can only appeal to his confi- 
dence in me when something that is to 
his future advantage is at stake. Most 
often my orders must be carried out at 
once, his own interest in them is scarcely 
concerned and the question of confidence 
does not arise. To what sentiment, then, 
can I appeal for his obedience? To affec- 
tion. A boy loves his father : to please 
him he will do anything that is asked of 
him, at once and without hesitation. A 
little girl, even at the age of three, used 
sometimes to say, " I don't want to vex 
mother," and with this motive she would 
do whatever she was asked to do (see 
the chapter on the means of cultivating 
filial affection). 

Does this mean that the motive of affec- 
tion is alone sufficient at all times and 
with all children ? No, this perpetual and 
exclusive appeal to affection may imperil 
both the child's obedience and his affec- 
tion, " Amid lavish caresses, the child's 
attention is wholly absorbed, and he fre- 
quently loses sight of the deed to be done, 
the means of doing it and the motive for 
action. He makes up his mind unthinking- 
ly and just as the caprice of the moment 
takes him : he knows beforehand that the 
result will give pleasure. The mothers 
who adopt this form of spoiling their chil- 
dren really bestow the rewards of their 
words and smiles on good temper and a 
desire to please and take no account what- 
ever of the merit of the child's own effort 
of will. They command by way of intimat- 
ing, suggesting, when they do not actually 
implore. Commands prompted by feeling 



are certain to end in contradictions. Such 
a mother, when forced to give a command 
repugnant to the child, is most unhappy 
at the opposition she arouses and, because 
she is hurt in her feelings, blames the 
("hild for lack of feeling when his real 
fault is disobedience. These conflicts be- 
tween the child's will and the mother's 
love entail inevitably moments of temper 
and vexation of mind : thus a loss both of 
authority and friendlv understanding " 
(B. Perez). 

(c) This result will not happen if parents 
make a point of inspiring respect as well 
as affection. The child whose sole motive 
is affection will obey whenever he feels 
inclined ; the child whose motive is respect 
will obey always, whether he wants to, or 
not. He will not even think of resisting. 
Respect is the basis of complete obedience. 

But what exactly is this respect of 
which so much has been written, and how 
is it to be inspired? Note first that there 
is no true respect where confidence and 
affection are wanting. There must also 
enter the element of fear, not a shrinking, 
servile fear, but that moral fear which is 
felt in the presence of a superior ; it is 
in this way that respect arises. We shall 
inspire the sentiment of respect first by 
inspiring confidence and love, then by 
showing ourselves really superior to the 
child by always requiring the same things, 
by a steady firmness which will compel his 
will to yield to ours, by harmony between 
father and mother, by being always just 
and truthful so that, in the child's eyes, 
our will stands for justice and truth. 

This last thought leads to another. Must 
my child respect me because I am I or 
because it is his duty to do so? Parents 
of an earlier generation would unhesitat- 
ingly reply that the respect was due to 
them. I take a lower stand but make a 
higher claim. I do not say to the child, 
"You obey me," and nothing further. 
Suppose I die, then is there no one the 
child must respect? No, I want the child 
to see in me something more than myself, 
that is, my position as his father, or in 
other words, his duty to he obedient to 
his parents. So I shall be indeed great in 



Professor Bidart. 



29 



his eyes, he will respect me more, for 
behind me he will dimly perceive the great 
law of duty. He will become aware that 
a command from me is not a matter of 
caprice, but that I myself am subject to a 
higher law. We shall not be simply two, 
the one who commands and the one who 
obeys; there will be a third, namely Duty, 
who is above both, the child obeys his 
parents, his parents obey the law of Duty. 
That is the supreme lesson. If this idea 
forms part of the child's consciousness, 
and it can do so (see the chapter on con- 
science), it will be more effective than all 
the homilies, rewards and punishments 
that can ever be conceived. 

To conclude, we have to acknowledge 
an idea and a feeling, i/ze feeling of respect 
and tlie idea of duty, in these lies the foun- 
dation of obedience. The child will want 
to obey because he knows he must ; this 
is the part of the intelligence. This wish 
to obey will be supported and strength- 
ened by his filial respect; this belongs to 
the domain of the feelings. When the 
heart and the mind are at one on the object 
of desire, there is always sufficient force of 
will to attain it, 

6. The child will be anxious to obey if 
he understands the reason of the com- 
mand. Must I then say, every time I give 
a command, " You must obey me because 
it is your duty." No, I should even de- 
grade the word duty by so frequent and 
unnecessary a use of it. Or again, may not 
this feeling of respect tend to replace the 
child's act of will? If such were the case 
it would be a grievous misfortune. The 
child must (a) do what we require and (b) 
want to do it of his own accord. How are 
these two positions to be reconciled? " A 
child of six fills me with fear, "writes Mgr. 
Dupanloup, " he has a will of his own, 
and this will may be opposed to mine." 
Yes, and if my will is opposed I shall be 
defeated. I can subdue his body, but his 
spirit, in spite of himself, no. With him 
I can do much ; without him very little ; 
against him, nothing. / must gain the 
support of his will. How? This is the 
fundamental problem of education. 

The other dav, I was reading, with my 



elbows on the table. In front of me five 
or six youngsters were looking at some 
pictures, and laughing and talking quite 
at their ease. I smiled at them now and 
then, they were noisy but perfectly happy. 
Suddenly, after going away for a moment, 
I had to say to them, " Don't make so 
much noise." They looked up at me in 
astonishment, as much as to say, " Why 
are you disturbing our fun? " " Mama 
is sleeping," I explained. At once there 
was a chorus of " Oh ! " the very expres- 
sion of their faces signified understanding 
and they were as quiet as mice. This 
lasted for half-an-hour ; it only needed a 
glance, once or twice, to keep them silent. 
What a tribute to the power of intelli- 
gence and mutual understanding ! 

A mother had promised her little girl 
to let her go and skip on the second floor 
landing, when she had completed her task. 
The child finished everything, took her 
skipping-rope, full of eager anticipation. 
" 1 did not think of it," said her mother, 
almost immediately, " our neighbour on 
the first floor has a bad headache, will you 
not give up the skipping? " At once the 
child, who was only nine years old, put 
away the rope and came back, without a 
sign of ill-temper. Again, what a tribute 
to the power of intelligence ! Even a little 
girl of nine has voluntarily made a sacri- 
fice, because she has understood. 

If, in the two previous instances, the 
parent had been content with saying in a 
tone of repression, "Leave off playing; 
speak more quietly," would the little girl 
and the other children have obeyed so 
quickly and so willingly ? Would not their 
reason have made them ask why they were 
deprived of their innocent pleasures? But 
you see, the reasons for the commands 
were given, and an understanding mind 
means a willing spirit. Children are like 
adults, "They love to be treated as rational 
creatures," said the wise philosopher 
Locke. " 'Tis a pride should be cherish 'd 
In them and, as much as can be, made the 
greatest instrument to turn them by." 

Not only is this for their guidance but 
for the training of their reason ; if we give 
simplv and clearlv the reason for our com- 



30 



The Binet Test and the Training of Teachers. 



mands, and especially for our absolute 
commands, the child will gradually recog- 
nise that we do not act without reason and 
that everything has a cause and conse- 
quences, and that our interference in his 
actions is not simply for the pleasure of 
commanding but for his guidance. 

Some educators are not of this opinion. 
The difficulties, however, that they raise, 
disappear when we realise that giving 
reasons for conwiands is not the same as 
discussing them. It is this confusion which 
is at the root of differences of opinion on 
the subject. It is possible to point out, 
in a fev/ words and once only for each 
new command, the reason ; the child may 
neither reply nor argue ; absolute obe- 
dience is to be exacted and on these two 
grounds, first because the command has 
been given, and secondly because it has 
been justified. 

In the same way, all the advantages that 
may be urged on behalf of obedience with- 
out explanations are valueless in the face 
of the following consideration : it is not 
good for the child to do something without 
being aware that he does it. A child, 
brought up in this way, would, when he 
attains to manhood, simply be the toy of 
circumstances. Such a training is indeed 
excellent for producing slaves. 



Ubc JStnet ITest an& tbe TTratning 
ot XLcacbcxs, 

By Samuel C. Kohs, Ph.D. 

(Reprinted from The Training School 
Bulletin for January, 191-1, by kind per- 
mission of the Editor.) 

Those of us who have been using the 
Binet Scale often hear arguments against 
the possibility of training students during 
a six weeks' summer school course to 
apply the tests accurately. The fact is 
emphasised that most such students have 
had no training in experimental psy- 
chology and but little study in psychology 
proper. Binet himself remarks that no 
final judgment as to the backwardness or 



feeble-mindedness of a child ought to be 
made unless the person testing has 
examined previously forty children or 
more. It is claimed that the experimenter 
should be a trained clinical psychologist, 
with a good insight of the workings of the 
child's intellectual processes and that the 
teacher is among the least fit to give a 
psychological test. 

The aim of this article is neither to sup- 
port nor to attack any of these conclu- 
sions, but to make a simple exposition of 
facts. That one lacking experience, train- 
ing and personality, will fail correctly to 
interpret the manifestations of our mental 
life no one will deny. Nevertheless our 
experience this summer makes us feel that 
sweeping generalities in the matter are 
not in order. 

Out of a summer school class number- 
ing sixty-two, the work of only fifty-eight 
will be considered, four of the class not 
having given us data sufficiently compar- 
able to that of the others. Of the fifty- 
eight one is a social worker; all the rest 
are school teachers. 

The Binet work covered a period of five 
weeks. The first week was devoted to a 
theoretical exposition of the tests, Doctor 
Goddard lecturing an hour on each of 
three days. The second week was given 
to exhibition testing, on the principle that 
after learning the theory the class ought 
to see it applied. Besides Doctor God- 
dard there were three research-student 
assistants who tested for the class. Two 
of these had been working in the labora- 
tory for a little over a year, and one had 
been a special class teacher and a member 
of the summer school of 1911. Each one 
of these three assistants had had a good 
deal of experience in testing normal, back- 
ward and feeble-minded children. Every 
member of the class saw four subjects 
tested, one by Doctor Goddard, and one 
each by the three assistants. There were 
two discussion periods of an hour each 
during the week, at which points were 
raised and questions answered. 

Beginning with the third week and con- 
tinuing through the fourth and fifth, the 
students did actual testing. The class 



Samuel C. Kohs, Ph.D. 



31 



was divided into groups of three, each 
student testing one child per week, each 
group testing three children per week. 
Thus each student would test one child 
per week and observe the testing of the 
two others in her group. At the end of 
the three weeks each student had tested 
three children and observed the examina- 
tion of six others. Each group had a 
supervisor who criticised the experimenter 
after she had finished the test. Such 
matters as the method of approach, atti- 



made were corrected. As can readily be 
seen the work was made as thorough as 
possible. At the end of the three weeks 
one hundred and seventy-four children had 
been testedr The records on each child 
were passed in at the end of each test and 
no paper was revised. 

We will now proceed to a critical review 
of the result. The following table is 
arranged according to the number of chil- 
dren who tested at age* and one point, 
two, three, etc., plus or minus. For ex- 



TABLE SHOWING THE WEEKLY RECORDS 

(Arranged according to deviation by points above or below the exact mental age). 



No. of 
Points 
(Binet) 


Total No. 
Tested 
During i 
the 1 

3 weeks 


+ 9 

+ 5 
+ 4 


1 
3 
3 



/o 



No. 
Tested 
1st week 



.575 
1.72 
1.72 



o/ 

/o 



2ndwk 



1.72 
3.45 



1 
2 



/o 



3rd wk 



1.72 
3.45 



ACCURATE 
RECORDS 



+ 3 
+ 2 

+ 1 

— 1 
—2 
—3 



3 

13 
12 
85 
21 
13 
7 



1.72 
7.47 
6.89 
48.9 
12.1 
7.47 
4.02 



1 

4 
4 
23 
10 
6 
3 



1.72 


1 


1.72 


1 


6.90 


5 


8.62 


4 


690 


3 


5.17 


5 


39 7 


31 


534 


31 


17.2 


4 


6.90 


7 


10.3 


4 


690 


3 


5.17 


2 


3.45 


2 



% 



1.72 



1.72 
6.90 
8 60 
534 
12 1 
5.17 
3 45 



—4 

— 5 

—6 

-14 



2.87 
3.45 
.575 
.575 



5 17 
1 72 



3 
1 



5 17 
1 72 

1.72 



2 

2 



3 45 
3.45 



TOTAL 



174 



100.055 



58 



99.95 



58 



99.94 58 



99.96 



TOTAL (ACCURATE 
RECORDS ONLY) 



154 



88 57 



51 



87.89 i 50 



86 16 



53 91.34 



tude to the child, time of the experiment, 
technique, the psychological content of a 
test, method of scoring, element of 
fatigue, etc., were gone over painstak- 
ingly with each one. Sometimes, but sel- 
dom, it was found necessary to halt the 
student in her work to keep her from put- 
ting a question which would hurt the child 
as well as the experiment. 

Twice a week Doctor Goddard spent an 
hour with the class discussing experi- 
mental procedure. At this time the stu- 
dents would ask questions relative to the 
Binet test, and any errors which they had 



ample, G. C tests between 8.1 and 

8.3. The student found that he was 8.2. 
We therefore say he tested at age. 

Another case is that of S. G who 

usually tests between 8.0 and 8.2. The 
student found that he was 8.2; we say he 
tested at age. Still another case is that of 

W. A who usually tests either 10.3 or 

10.4. The student found him 11.1; her re- 
sult was two points plus. D. M tests 

* Tested " at age " signifies that the stu- 
dents' test agreed with the correct test for the 
child, not that the test showed the mental to be 
the same as the physical age. 



3!? 



The Binet Test and the Training of Teachers. 



between 6.2 and 6.4; she was found to be 
5.2; the result is said to be five points 
minus. 

A short survey of this table will clearly 
bring out these facts : — 

(a) Nearly fifty per cent, of all the work 
was as exact as any one of us in the labora- 
tory could make it. 

(b) The results of an additional thirty- 
eight per cent, were within three points of 
being exact. We may safely add these to 
our fifty per cent., because a variation of 
three points or less is not of much im- 
portance. In this we are substantiated by 
Binet himself, who always speaks of " a 
mental level of 6," or '* a mental level of 
9." In no place does he discriminate be- 
tween a child who tests 10 and one who 
tests 10.4. Thev both possess " a mental 
level of 10." 

(c) Consequently nearly ninety per cent, 
of all of the work of our summer students 
may be regarded as accurate. 

(d) Examining the results by separate 
weeks, we notice that whereas only about 
40 per cent, test exactly to age the first 
week, for the second and third the pro- 
portion rises to nearly 54 per cent. 

(e) The acceptable records for the third 
week amount to nearly 92 per cent., a sub- 
stantial increase over the 87 per cent, of 
both previous weeks. 

(/) During the first and second weeks 
there are three cases varying beyond five 
points, but during the third week no test 
varies more than five points, and only 
three vary four and one varies five points. 
All the rest are accurate records. 

(g) The number of cases three points 
minus is greater than the number of cases 
plus. One w^ould be inclined to believe 
that the experimenter failed to carry the 
child far enough ahead. This, however, 
is not borne out by the facts. We have 
always insisted that the record must show 
at least five minuses after the last plus be- 
fore the experiment could be regarded as 
complete. 

{h) The third week's record shows the 
improvement due to training and experi- 
ence. 

The following histogram shows more 



clearly perhaps than the blank table the 
number of those who tested accurately. 

Fearing that perhaps our conclusions 
were based on the results of a special 
group, the following questionnaire was 
distributed : 

1. Before coming to Vineland did you 
ever use the Binet-Simon tests? If so, 
how many children have you tested ? 
Mental ages? Additional remarks. 

2. Before coming to \'ineland were 
you ever given any instructions, verbal 
or written, on how to use the scale? If 
so, how much (explain fully)? 

3. Have you ever had any experi- 
ence in psychological experimentation? 
When ? Where ? How much ? Of what 
character? 

4. Any additional remarks. 
The following were the returns : 
(a) The number of those who never had 

used, never had read or been taught the 
use of the Binet, never had had any train- 
ing whatsoever in experimental or clinical 
psychology was thirty-eight, or nearly 66 
per cent. 

(h) Only one person in the class had 
really had sufficient training in applied 
psychology. 

(c) Those who never had had any train- 
ing in psychological experimentation num- 
bered 54, or 9.3 per cent. 

(d) Only four, or 7 per cent., had had 
sufficient training in the theory of appli- 
cation of the Binet Scale. 

(e) Three, or 5 per cent., had had a little 
such training. 

(/) Five, or 9 per cent., had had pre- 
vious explanation but had never used the 
scale. 

(g) Two had used the scale for some 
time, one with no information on how it 
was to be applied and the other with but 
very little. 

From the students' individual records 
\ we learn that : 

(a) Five, or 9 per cent., tested all of 
I their cases to age. 

(b) Forty-two, or 73 per cent., tested 
within variations of plus 3 and minus 3, 
that is to say, within an unimportant de- 
gree of error, 



Suggestions for Study and Practice. 



33 



(c) Twelve tested only one child three 
points plus. Of these, five tested the other 
two to age, two tested only one to age, 
and five tested the other two to within 
three points. 

Comparing the records with the stu- 
dents' previous training or experience we 
find that no correlation is noticed. There 
were five who tested e\ery one of their 
three cases exactly to age; of these, four 
had never used and had never read or been 
taught the use of the scale and had never 
had any training in experimental psycho- 



Even if we were to grant that some par- 
ticular factor contributed toward raising 
the percentage of accurate tests to 89, and 
that with that factor eliminated our per- 
centage would only be 70, or even 60, or 
even 50, w^ould that invalidate our state- 
ment that a very large proportion of 
teachers may be trained to apply the scale 
correctly ? 

So, in conclusion, we feel safe in stating 
our experience that in a thorough six 
weeks' summer school course we can teach 
people who have had no previous actual 



.1 





fO 


%o 




70 


v^ 


60 


:r.SO 




40 




3^ 


^ 2.0 


-<! 


!0 




m /^ c c y ya.'' c 7{ccc r d. s 



fornts o-f' 



logy; the other one had never had any 
clinical experience which she did possess, 
according to her own report, " little of it 
was really valuable." The one student 
who had received sufficient previous train- 
ing in the theory and application of the 
tests, and also had had the additional ex- 
perience of being an applied psychologist, 
tested the first child a year too high, al- 
though she found the other two exactly at 
age. The record of another lady, which 
reads, first child tested at age; second, 
fourteen points too low; third, four points 
too low, is that she had had sufficient edu- 
cation in the use of the scale and had al- 
ready tested twenty children with mental 
ages between four and ten. 



experience, to use the Binet test with 
accuracy. 



Sua^estions tor S?tub^> an& 
practice. 

Co-education. " It is an open question 
whether or not the separation of the sexes 
during early adolescence does not create 
the very evil we are trying to avoid. Sex 
mystery is a most prolific source of im- 
moral thoughts. The boy or girl who is 
only conscious of sex in relationship with 
the other is in a very dangerous position. 
An all-round relationship in family, social, 
and econom.ic equality is tht surest 
means of minimising sex consciousness." 



34 



Notices and News. 



—T. Homey Lane, " The Little Common- 
wealth," Penal Reform League Quarterly 
Record, January, 1914. 

Detention as a Punishment. " The 
pre\alent practice of keeping-in at rcsess 
has nothing to justify it. If the recess has 
any significance, that significance is its 
effect upon health ; therefore to keep a 
child in at recess is to punish him at the 
expense of his health. A few such punish- 
ments may not injure one individual, but 
a school that practises such a form of disci- 
pline is to that extent an inconsiderate 
and unhealthy school." — IV. H. Heck, 
" Parents' Part in School Hygiene," Edu- 
cational Review (U.S.A.), February, 1914. 

Child=Study for Teachers. " We must 
know what children are, before we can 
devise exercises for making them what 
they ought to be. It is of first importance 
for the teacher to identify herself with the 
instinctive impulses of the child, the true 
basis for all educational development. The 
teachers' function par excellence is the 
utilization, guidance and direction of these 
instinctive impulses into educative chan- 
nels. ... It is only as the teacher interests 
herself in the things that are of interest 
to children, only as she looks at things 
through the eyes of the children instead 
of trying to make the children see through 
her eyes, only as she thinks with minds of 
the children that she can adapt the pro- 
cess of teaching to the learning process 
of the child mind." — Laura Emily Man, 
** Teaching from the Child's Point of 
View," Magazine Btdletin (U.S.A.), Dec, 
1913. 



^be <IbilC>«=5tu&^ Societal an^ tbe 
Constituent Societieg. 

The Tunbridge Wells Society. — At a meeting on 
December 1st " Defective Speech " and " The 
Teacher and the Child" were discussed. Mrs. 
Warrington, who trains stammering children, 
said that each case has its distinctive symptoms 
which need close analysis before treatment. Breath 
control, relaxation and easy production of the voice 
in the larynx, control of the tongue and the posi- 
tions needed for correcting muscular defect, must 
all be taught. Sdf-control is specially incumbent 
where the fear of speech, acting on a nervous 



temperament, causes a prostration of the will and 
loss of normal effort. Dr. Aikin says that defects 
of speech due to malformation are rare compared 
with those due to neglect of errors and to direct 
misinstruction. 

Humouring baby talk is a mistake and contact 
with others having peculiarities of speech is dan- 
gerous, from the natural imitativeness of the 
child. Spasmodic stoppage of the voice is checked 
by a few breathing exercises in fresh air t\vo or 
three times a day for a few minutes only. Re- 
peating the first word of a sentence two or three 
times when excited is a common fault to be 
checked by a reminder that a remark must be 
thought out before utterance begins. 

Children should certainly not be scolded for stam- 
mering. They should be told what to do and not 
what not to do. There should be no exhibition of 
impatience and no reference to his defect in his 
hearing. Tongue exercises are the cure for in- 
ability to pronounce certain soimds. 

In the discussion which followed, attention was 
drawn to the neglect of phonetics in schools and 
the toleration of a slovenly utterance. Mr. Punton 
Smith, President, read a resum6 of Mr. Marsh's 
work on " The Teacher and the Child," showing 
that the teacher's work is to shape the "thought- 
world " in which his scholars live, 
up for all time. 

He also asked teachers to experiment on chil- 
dren and is sending the question " H you could 
change your personality who would you wish to 
become and why?" to all the local schools. It 
is to be written on a blackboard and the pupils 
given ten minutes to write the answer. — Mrs. J. C. 
Pontifex. 

The Dundee Society. — We much regret to have 
to announce " that the Dundee Society has found 
it necessary to suspend operations — crushed out by 
the number of societies of an educational nature." 
We trust that there is still hope of a glorious 
resurrection. 



He is building 



IRotices ant) IHewB. 

Parents' National Educational Union. — The 
Eighteenth Annual Conference is to be held at 
Darlington from March 9th to 12th (inclusive). 

The programme which we have received is an 
attractive one. Perhaps the following subjects 
would be of most interest to child-students : 

^' Authority and Freedom," by Professor Cam- 
pagnac, M.A. " Four Generations of Childhood 
as Portrayed in Children's Books," by Miss Man- 
ners. "Education in Taste," by Mrs. Clement 
Parsons. 

Particulars may be obtained from Miss Parish, 
26, Victoria Street, S.W. 

Sex Education and Hygiene. — Miss Ncrah 
March, B.Sc, is giving a course of lectures on 
this subject on March 20th,' 23rd, 27th and 30th. 
at 5.30 p.m., in the Holborn Estate Girls' School, 



Reviews. 



35 



Houghton Street, Aldwych, W.C. Tickets, 5s. for 
the course, can be had from Miss Gruner, 59, 
Cambridge Street, Hyde Park, W. 

Reviewers. — Reviewers are needed badly for 
Hungarian and Portuguese journals. Who will 
offer to undertake this work? It is of great value 
to those interested in Child-Study to know some- 
thing of the work being done in other countries, 
and to those for whom the Portuguese and Hun- 
garian languages are as closed doors capable re- 
viewers would render considerable service, to say 
nothing of the service they would render indirectly 
to Child-Study. 

Printers' Error in February Xumbcr. — In the 
extract on " Learning to Spell," under the head- 
ing " Suggestions for Study and Practice," the 
line " pronoimced articulatory and auditory fars" 
should be omitted from the sentence beginning 
" but we have shown, etc." 



IRevtews. 

Handbook of Information for the Use of Helpers. 

Manchester City League of Help. Pp. 194. 

Sherratt and Hughes, Manchester. Price 1/-. 
'i"o social workers, philanthropists, and the bene- 
volent, this handbook should prove of great practi- 
cal value. It is a full, clear, and thoroughly well 
compiled list of public and private societies and 
institutions dealing with social and charitable 
work in Manchester. .\ short and lucid analysis 
of the scope and method of work is given in each 
case. The constitution and working of the League 
of Help is fully set forth. 

Section " III. Children" occupies twenty-seven 
pages, and includes a summary of " The Chil- 
dren Act." Much might be done in Child-Study 
in connection with the societies as mentioned in 
this handbook. It would be a good thing if all 
towns had such a handbook. 
A Bibliography of Eugenics and Related Subjects. 

Bulletin No. III. State of New York, State 

Board of Charities. Pp. 130. The Capitol, 

Albany, New York. 
A very useful list of books to those interested in 
Eugenics. Much of it concerns child-study, e.g., 
psychology and diagnosis of abnormal mental 
states, childistudy and education, defectiveness 
(general), feeble-mindedness, sex hygiene. 
Eugenique. January, 1914. Price Ifr. 50c. 

In this issue Dr. Saleeby gives under the title 
" The Progress of Eugenics" a criticism of the 
older methods of investigation. He discusses the 
value of the elaborate statistical method based 
upon the questionnaire agreeing with Bateson that 
the individual analysis of the given is essential. 
He dissociates himself altogether from those so- 
called Eugenists who adopt the laisser faire atti- 
tude towards human life based on a false concep- 
tion of the Darwinian theory, and shows the im- 
portance of what he describes as preventive 



Eugenics, which involves a recognition of the in- 
fluence of environment and consequently means 
much more than the comparatively simple process 
of selection in which individual acquisitions are 
ignored. It is of fundamental importance to the 
progress of Eugenics that a chair of Human 
Genetics be established at some university. 

L'tntermediaire dcs Educatcurs. January, 1914. 
Price 40 cents. 
A suggestive psychological test of the moral 
judgment is described in this number. Six lies of 
relative gravity were recounted to some members 
of a conference on moral education. The mem- 
bers were requested to arrange these lies in the 
order of their gravity. This involved careful com- 
parison of one with the other before the position of 
each was determined. The motives for telling the 
lies were in most cases apparent. They were as 
follows : desire to shield a companion, fear, polite- 
ness, and self-protection at the expense of an in- 
nocent person. In two cases the lies were pro- 
bably due, the one either to childish ignorance or 
imagination, the other either to boastfulness or the 
desire to make the best of things. The results 
obtained showed comparatively little unanimity of 
moral judgment. 

Reading Made Easy. By Anna Snell. New 
PMition. In two parts. G. Philip and Son, 
Ltd. Price, 8d. each. 

At the request of many teachers, this most ex- 
cellent of books for the teaching of clear articu- 
lation, writing, and reading, has been reprinted. 
The author, Miss Anna Snell, one time Principal 
of the Manchester Kind'Tgarten Training College, 
one of the pioneers of the kindergarten in England, 
and a friend of the wife of Froebel — returned 
some years ago to her native town of Jena, but the 
inspiration of her teaching still lives in the work 
of many of her old pupils in England. 

This little book is written in two parts. Ihe 
first part has an introduction explaining th'' 
author's method, " the Normal-word method based 
on the analytic-synthetic principle of teaching to 
read" ; the reading matter for the children con- 
tains only words which are spelt as they are 
sounded ; on each page a new sound is given, and 
there is a picture of an object the name of which 
contains that sound. .A good point is that the text 
is in both the written and the printed letters. 

In the second part we corhe to the words not 
simply spelt according to their phonic content. 
These are arranged in groups which make the 
spelling of them as easy a matter as is possible, 
and each group is followed by a story into which 
the words are introduced. 

The method of teaching is a pleasurable stimu- 
lation to the intelligence, and most helpful in 
dealing with defects of speech. 

The Penal Reform League Quarterly Record. 
January, 1914. 4d. post free from the Secre- 
tary. 68a, Park Hill Road, London, N.W. 

This publication contains several items of in- 



36 



Reviews. 



terest. Amongst others a report of a conference 
on the treatment of women prisoners, and of a 
conference on the Court of Rehabilitation, at 
which latter Mr. Osborne, the Chairman of the 
New York Stale Commission on Prison Re-form, 
gave a very interesting address. There is also a 
report of alleged grievances with regard to the 
Camp Hill Preventive Detention Prison ; but 
perhaps the most interesting feature of all is the 
account given by Mr. Homer Lane, at tiie annual 
meeting of the League, of the development of self- 
government amongst boys and girls at the little 
commonwealth in Dorset. 

'Expectant Motherhood ; Its Supervision and 
Hygiene. By J. W. Bali-anivni:, >LD., 
F.R.C.P. (Edin.). Cassell and Company, Ltd. 
London, New York, Toronto and Melbourne, 
1914. Price, 6/-. Pp. 227. 

From many points of view it is desirable that 
books which deal with the various phases of sexual 
hygiene should maintain a high level of scientific 
and literary dignity. We can safely say that it 
has been well maintained in Dr. Ballantyne's new 
book on " Expectant Motherhood," a work which 
is frankly dedicated to the lay public. 

Social and health reformers have for some years 
past directed much attention to the causes which 
conduce to physical inferiority. Beginning with 
the school child, they were logically compelled to 
seek for more essential causes, and soon turned to 
the infant as a more fruitful field for research. Re- 
cently attention has been concentrated on the infant 
during that critical period which immediately 
follows birth. Eugenists look even further back 
and indefinitely forward, but the work at present 
hardly comes within the sphere of practical politics. 
Dr. Ballantyne has long insisted that the ante- 
natal life of the child is even more important and 
requires more skilled attention than the post-natal 
life, and he has practically created a new science, 
Ante-Natal Hygiene. This Cinderella branch of 
medicine has for the most part remained a hidden 
and an unknown subject even to most medical 
men, but Dr. Ballantyne, by the publication of this 
invaluable little book, has revealed its secrets so 
that they can be easily understood by any person 
of average intelligence. The work of schools for 
mothers must in the immediate future largely con- 
cern itself with the teaching of ante-natal hygiene 
to expectant mothers. Up to the present there 
has been no authoritative book which could afford 
to social and health workers the required in- 
formation. Dr. Ballantyne's little book exactly 
satisfies this long-felt want. We congratulate both 
him and the public on his achievement. 

Infant Care and Management. By E. L. M.'Vynaud. 
Pp. 110. E. J. Arnold and Sons. Price, 1/6. 

The purpose of this text-book is to provide the 
teacher whose business it is to instruct school- 
girls in infant care with practical information in } 
a convenient form. The importance of pre-natal ' 
conditions, the chief causes of infant mortalitv, the j 



conditions essential to a healthy infancy, are all 
discussed, and detailed instructions are given as 
to the management of the daily life of a baby. 

There is a brief bibliography, in our opinion in- 
adequate considering the importance of the subject. 

Caring for Baby. By K. L. Mavn.akd. Pp. G2. 
E. J. Arnold & .Sons. Price, 3d. 
Price 3d. 

This is a little book of good print intended for 
girls who are receiving instruction at school in the 
care of infants. It is written in clear and direct 
fashion, and should be useful to those who believe 
that the question of infant mortality is to be partly 
solved by instructing in the duties of a mother 
children just crossing the borderland between child- 
hood and adolescence. 

We, however, believe that the inclusion of a 
subject in the curriculum of a school for any other 
reason than that it supplies a need of the children 
at the particular stage of development they have 
reached, is unjustifiable from the point of view of 
Child-Study. 

L'Enfance .\norniale. December, 1913. A 
monthly international review published at 23, 
Rue Claudia, Lyon. Price, 1 fr. 

The number for December, 1913, opens with a 
" Causerie " by M. Louis Grandvilliers, the 
principal editor. Then follows a very interesting 
article on experiments in the giving of evidence, 
in which the abnormal do not compare very un- 
favourably with their normal fellows, but the 
numbers of subjects examined are too few to 
make the results of any statistical value. Dr. A. 
Laurent has a paper based on a recent work, "Les 
Arridr^s Scolaires," bj Dr. Nathan and M. Durot, 
in which a just tribute is paid to the late Dr. 
Bourneville, of the Bicetre, who did such great 
work for the education of the mentally defective. 

There is news of progress in France, Switzer- 
land, Germany, Italy, Belgium. Our readers will 
be specially interested in the charming account 
Mme. Lorentz gives of a visit to the Home 
School, Highgate, which she has written for this 
review, because, in the work of the normal chil- 
dren there, she found realised in the happiest 
manner the ideal of what a school for the abnor- 
mal should be : — obser\ation of immediate sur- 
roundings, animals, and things ; well-chosen 
manual occupations ; open-air life. 

Reviews of papers and books are followed by a 
programme of work for special schools drawn up 
by M. Arthur Nyns, an inspector of schools in 
Brussels. 

Publications Reci\"EL'. — Tiie Journal of Educa- 
tion; The Educational Times; Secondary Educa- 
tion ; Parents' Review ; Kindergarten (Berlin) ; 
Child Life; School Hygiene; L'Educatioii 
Familiale ; Educagao (Lisbon^; The Penal Reform 
League Quarterly Review; Educational Review 
(U.S. .A.); A Gvcrm.ck (Budapest); The American 
Teacher (U.S..L). 



ci)iia=$tu(ip» 

tbe Journal of tbe Cbild-Studp Socletp. 



17 



Vol. Vll.—No. 3. 



APRIL. 1914. 



BMtorial Botes. 

Child=Study and Scholastic Papers.— 

The most optimistic advocate of child- 
study can hardly tail to have his ardour 
damped nine times out of ten when read- 
ing an average scholastic periodical. By 
average scholastic periodical is meant 
those monthly, weekly and other papers 
which are read by teachers, school officials 
and members of education authorities. 



While the writers and readers would pro- 
bably very much resent the suggestion 
that they were not really ' ' educational 
but mainly " school news " papers, they 
would also strongly repudiate the idea that 
to be really educational papers they should 
concern themselves most with the best 
work in child-study, i.e., modern child 
psychology and experimental pedagogy. 
Indeed they take occasion, now and again, 
to poke fun at the psychologist who offers 
advice to teachers. 



A good — or should we say bad — example 
of this attitude, showing to how small an 
extent child-study has permeated teachers, 
is to be found in The Schoolmaster for 
March 7th. In a column of snippets of 
news and views, which about represents 
the " educational " level of the paper, 
called "Notes from the 'Special' Schools," 
the writer, after a suggestion that doctors 
are of very little use in deciding whether 
defectives are able to benefit by the ordin- 
ary school curriculum, and a very un- 
i gracious and misleading reference to Mr. 
Winch's forms for testing defectives, re- 
marks as follows : — 

" A four-page list of printed questions 
cannot take the place of familiarity with 
children, experience in dealing with them. 



and a full and generous sympathy with 
them ; and these are the requirements 
necessary in those called upon to test them 
for mental deficiency." 



It will be noticed that there is no limita- 
tion or quahfication in the implication that 
the " practical teacher " (the writer would 
probably say) is really the proper person 
to decide the question as against the doc- 
tor or psychologist. Doubtless the writer 
would claim that a mother is a better 
nurse for her child than a trained nurse, 
and indeed a better judge of its physical 
nature than a doctor, notwithstanding that 
common experience, common sense, and 
scientific knowledge are all to the con- 
trary. This is rule-of-thumb in excelsis, 
and it is no reply to say that what the 
teacher meant is a "trained teacher," since 
none of the special qualifications of a 
trained teacher is claimed as fitness for 
the work. 



A still more significant passage appears 
a few pages later in an article summaris- 
ing the whole of "The ' Montessori ' 
Method " in less than two pages. It reads 
thus : " If ive recognise that education is 
a science in which original research is 
essential if that truth is to he discovered 
which shall form the foundation of the 
teacher's art or craft, then we must admit 
that original research on truly scientific 
lines is almost unknown, and that anyone 
who like Dr. Montessori will conduct 
researches on such lines deserves high 
commendation even though the results 
may be negative." 

Nothing less than printing tne passage 
in italics seems to meet the need of ex- 
pressing the surprise and pain that a 



38 



Editorial Notes. 



student of child-study must feel on reading 
it. The amazing conditional " // we recog- 
nise that education is a science," as 
though Bain had not written his Education 
as a Science (1878) nearly forty years ago ! 
Still more amazing is the admission (for- 
sooth !) " that original research on truly 
scientific lines is almost unknown " ! Has 
the writer never heard of Seguin, Stanley 
Hall, Lloyd Morgan, Thorndike, Binet, 
Claparede, Meumann, Spearman, Brown, 
Winch, and scores of others who have 
been doing such work for the last twenty 
years or so? Why there are probably at 
least a hundred scientists working out, in 
university laboratories, the scientific bases 
of education. 



Perhaps the gem of the passage is the 
exquisitely painful combination of ignor- 
ance and patronage implied in the state- 
ment that " anyone who like Dr. Mon- 
tessori will conduct researches on such 
lines deserves high commendation even 
though the results are negative " (our 
italics). Language fails to express a just 
criticism on this : only profound silence 
can express it. 



Even the " Occasional Notes " writer 
in the admirable Journal of Education 
(March 2nd) permits himself to forget the 
teachings of experience, and the need of 
scientific training and knowledge for 
teachers, in his comments on the Board 
of Education's latest scheme for pupil 
teachers, for such it really is, in second- 
ary schools. The writer argues that "the 
able and more thoughtful of our young 
teachers [should go to a ' staff college, ' 
i.e., a training college] after they have 
had a few years' experience of school 
work and have got some idea both of 
their own weak points and of the weak 
points of the education that their school 
gives. ' ' 



How, we would ask, can those who 
have presumably had no previous train- 
ing whatever in education — even the 
writer only expects " the teacher in train- 
ing will learn the rudimentary technique 



of his craft" — be expected to learn such 
profound truths? Moreover, if they can 
so learn them, what has an ordinary train- 
ing college got to teach them, which would 
be worth, say, two or three years to learn? 
Finally the writer says: "We clearly 
cannot expect training colleges for all ; 
may we not, however, hope for one for the 
best of our men? " If these be the hopes 
of those w ho should be the leaders, what 
can be expected from their followers, and 
from those members of the public who 
control the public purse and nearly always 
discount the claims of teachers by at least 
fifty per cent. ? Besides there are already 
several training colleges or departments 
(including those at Oxford and Cam- 
bridge) which offer training to men who 
intend to teach in secondary schools ! 



Would the writer, or even " the man in 
the street," accept the contention that a 
satisfactory way of training doctors would 
be to let young men begin by working 
under unqualified practitioners, for a year 
or two, and only the very best of them go 
afterwards to a " staff college " (a medical 
school) to be trained — one such college to 
provide for the whole country? Possibly 
this writer also would say that education 
is not a science, and decline to admit that 
tending the mind is comparable with tend- 
ing the body. 



Educational Research Societies. — But 

there are cheering signs that the child- 
study leaven is beginning to leaven at least 
the top of the whole lump of the educa- 
tional world. Members of the London 
Teachers' Association have started a re- 
search society; the Teachers' Guild have 
held a very representative conference to 
consider the forming of a society to deal 
with educational research ; and a meeting 
was held at the London University recent- 
ly, and a committee of inquiry appointed 
to consider what could be done to fur- 
ther educational research. We congratu- 
late the London Teachers, wish them every 
success, and hope they may rival, and even 
outshine, their confreres at Leipsic (see 
Child-Study for March, 1913). 



i/ 



W. H. Winch, M.A. 



39 



Child-Study and the Board of Education. 

— In a circular issued by the Board of 
Education, on the staffing of schools, 
dated March 9th, 1913, it is stated that, 
"after careful consideration," the Board 
intend " to restrict the future recognition 
of new supplementary teachers to infants' 
classes in rural schools or departments, 
and to the lowest class of older scholars in 
such schools, provided that the average 
attendance does not exceed 100." That is 
to say, in cases of the youngest children 
who, because of their ignorances and in- 
abilities, need the highest and best know- 
ledge, skill, power, and experience on the 
part of the teacher — who has to work in 
circumstances which are the most trying 
and exacting, not only because of the 
difficulties due to the great diversities of 
age, acquirements of abilities in a small 
group of children, but because the staffs 
are generally lacking both in quality and 
quantity, and the premises poor if not un- 
suitable — in such cases only will the Board 
sanction the worst type of unqualified 
teachers! Another case of the Board of 
Education versus Education ! 



Child-Study and the London University. 

—-It is interesting to find that the Univer- 
sity of London has conferred a doctorate 
on Mr. P. B. Ballard for a thesis entitled 
"Obliviscence and Forgetfulness,"a child- 
study investigation. But why was it a 
D.Lit. and not a D.Sc? Do the London 
University authorities not know that 
psychology is a science ; or was it that the 
charm and grace of style of the thesis 
made them suppose it was a purely literary 
effort? We are confident the grace and 
charm of style were there, but this does 
not explain the action of the University 
examiners. Anyhow, we offer our con- 
gratulations to Dr. Ballard, and look for- 
wurd to many other child-study in\ estiga- 
tions by him. 



JSinefs Obcntai XLcsts ; 

Mbat tbep aie, anb wbat we can 

t>o wttb tbenu iv. 

By W. H. Winch, m.a. 
{All rights reserved). 
Binet's First Test for Five-ve.ar-old 
Children deals with the Discrimination of 
Weights. For this test Binet used four 
boxes, each having the same appearance 
and the same volume, but of different 
weights. A judgment of comparison is 
required, just as it was with the longer 
and shorter lines; but this is a harder test, 
for, whereas the lines could be judged by 
inspection, the weights cannot; and it is 
a characteristic of dull or undeveloped 
children that they do not ktiow that they 
cannot judge by inspection. Binet's in- 
structions are : Show first two boxes of 
three and twelve grams respectively; place 
them on a table, leaving a space of five or 
six centimetres between them, and then 
ask : " Which is the heavier box? " An 
intelligent child will take up the boxes and 
try their weights, either in the same hand 
successively or in each hand. 

To make sure we are not dealing with 
a mere guess, Binet says we should try 
two other boxes of six and fifteen grams 
respectively, and then try again with the 
boxes of three and twelve grams. In work- 
ing this test with English children two 
ordinary match boxes were used. Iron 
filings were placed in them until the cor- 
rect weights were obtained. The boxes 
were exactly of the same size, shape, and 
appearance, and one was as new as the 
other. They were placed on a table and 
the question was asked, " W^hich is the 
heavy box? " 

To overcome mere guess work, the 
question was asked five times, the rela- 
tive position of the boxes being changed 
each time while the boy or girl was not 
looking. The child was not told to lift the 
boxes, for the presence or absence of the 
idea of doing this is just what we are test- 
ing; as well as the sensibility to the dif- 
ference in the " feeling " of the weights 
when the operation of weighing them is 
undertaken. 



40 



Binet's Mental Tests. 



This is a very interesting- test, and the 
teacher who tries it is asked carefully to 
note exactly what the child does on each 
of the five occasions. Of English three- 
year-old children only eight per cent, were 
able to find out which was the heavier box. 
All those who failed pointed to one of the 
boxes in a quite hap-hazard way, and made 
no attempt to lift the boxes. At four years 
of age twenty per cent, were able to dis- 
criminate between the weights of the 
boxes. Those who could not pointed to 
one box and ignored the other, and nearly 
all of them pointed on each occasion to the 
box which was nearer to their right hands. 
Two of the children lifted one box, ignored 
the other, and said, " This is the heavy 
box." With the exception of these two 
children, every one of the four-year-old 
boys and girls ivho lifted the boxes was 
able to indicate the heavier box success- 
fully. 

At five years of age, the age for which 
Binet considers the test suitable for 
French children, our English children were 
by no means successful. E\en in the 
most favourably situated school rather less 
than fifty per cent, of them passed, though 
rather more were successful in the inter- 
mediate school, and still more in the 
school in the very poor neighbourhood. It 
is possible that in weight discrimination 
the poorer children may be better than 
those who come from " good " homes. In 
any case the five-year-old children were 
weak; children of considerable general in- 
telligence for this age did not think of 
trying the weights of the boxes, and hence 
failed. 

A five-year-old child pointed to one box 
and said, " It's a box of matches " (plain 
boxes would be better, irrelevances like 
this would be avoided), but made no at- 
tempt to lift the boxes. One boy who 
failed lifted one box only on each occasion. 
The experimenter, wishing to find out 
where the difficulty lay, told him to lift the 
other box as well. He then gave the right 
answer five times in succession. One boy 
picked up both boxes and shook them, but 
did not appear to be testing their weights. 
Another child lifted the boxes and poised 



one in each hand, balancing both at the 
same tiine : he gave correct answers. A 
girl lifted one box on each occasion, and 
appeared to think it light, for she pointed 
every time to the box she had not lifted. 
Another girl laid the boxes, one by one, on 
the back of her hand, tested the weights 
and gave correct answers five times. A 
boy picked up both boxes simultaneously, 
one in each hand, his right and left hands 
moving together : he gave correct answers 
each time. A girl lifted each box with the 
right hand and placed it on her left hand 
to weigh it. 

With these exceptions the method (the 
usual method) of testing the boxes was to 
lift one box, try it, replace it on the table, 
and then to lift and try the other box. All 
the children who did this gave satisfactory 
answers; but, as I have said above, nor- 
mally, our five-year-old children could not 
do the test successfully, and I have moved 
the test into the six-year-old group. 

At the age of six a great improvement 
was shown, for not less than ninety per 
cent, were able to select the heavier box; 
twenty per cent, shook the boxes before 
testing their weight; twenty per cent., 
having once lifted both boxes, appeared to 
remember the weight of the heavier one; 
and, happening at the second trial to raise 
the heavier one first, said, " This one." 
One boy lifted each box in succession with 
his right hand and placed it upon the back 
of his left hand to test its weight. He 
repeated this five times. One girl raised 
both boxes with her left hand (she was not 
normally left handed), and answered cor- 
rectly. A girl, who "failed," lifted the two 
boxes at the first trial and gave the right 
answer ; but, at subsequent trials, she only 
pointed to the nearer box and said, "That 
one." 

At the age of seven every child but one 
in every school attacked the problem pro- 
perly, lifted the boxes without hesitation, 
and gave correct answers. 

As I have already said, I have found it 
necessary to place this test in the six-year- 
old group for English children, and I have 
made one further modification. English 
schools do not always find French weights 



W. H. Winch, M.A. 



41 



available, so in subsequent work I used 
boxes of half an ounce and quarter of an 
ounce respectively, and I recommend their 
use for English teachers. The exact 
method of keeping the records for the indi- 
vidual child is shovt^n in my Form for Test- 
ing Backward Children, to which I have 
previously referred. 

Binet's Second Test for Five-year- 
old Children is concerned with Observa- 
tion and Draughtsmanship. His instruc- 
tions to the experimenter are as follows : 
" Draw a square in ink, having sides from 
three to four centimetres in length, and 
ask the child to draw it in ink." He points 
out that this is the first test in which a 
penholder is placed in the child's hand; 
that the use of the pen adds to the diffi- 
culty of the test, and that it ought not to 
be replaced by a pencil. In the Avork of 
English children cited here, Binet's direc- 
tions were strictly followed, but for rea- 
sons subsequently to be stated I finally 
decided to have the drawings done in pen- 
cil, not in ink. Binet's " pass " standard 
is indefinite; he gives a few drawings of 
" good " squares and a few drawings of 
" non-acceptable " ones, and tells the ex- 
perimenter to guide his judgment by 
means of these. 

In none of the schools tested had pens 
previously been used except by the seven- 
year-old children, and I assessed all the 
drawings myself. We found that the chil- 
dren of the Council School in a rather good 
neighbourhood had seventy-five per cent, 
of six-years-old passes, and those of the 
Council School in the rather poor neigh- 
bourhood had seventy-six per cent, of 
passes. In the third school (the one in a 
very poor neighbourhood) a pencil was 
used, not a pen, and the percentage of 
passes rose to somewhat above eighty. 

Why then did I finally decide to have 
the drawings done in pencil, not in ink? 
The children were carefully watched whilst 
drawing. All of them tried to draw with 
the nib, not the holder, but many of them 
did not know which side of the nib ought 
to be uppermost, and when they found 
they could not make a mark, said, "There 
isn't enough ink," or, "I want some 



more ink." No teacher requires to be told 
that they frequently took quite a lot of 
ink, and made some more or less pleasing 
marks, but not squares. A few children, 
finding the pen wouldn't work equally well 
in all directions, turned their papers round 
and round and drew all the lines vertically. 
They ought to have had an additional mark 
for their intelligence, but the system of 
marking does not allow for that. 

It was my conviction, and that of the 
teachers who helped me, that the pen 
bothered the children and interfered with 
the results that we were seeking. We 
wished to see whether the child could ob- 
serve the square and approximately draw 
it; not, I think, whether he could deal with 
a new-fangled and treacherous instrument 
like a pen. I shall give now a few details 
of what our children actually did with a 
pen, quoting from the work of the school 
intermediate in character. 

At three years of age only four per cent, 
of the children could draw a satisfactory 
square. Crude circles and straightish 
single lines, not joined and wrongly 
arranged, were much in evidence, and a 
few drew as many disconnected wavy lines 
as they could get done in the time. I 
thought at first of reproducing these draw- 
ings here; but on second thoughts I think 
it best for the teachers who read these 
articles to get the drawings done for them- 
selves. One word of caution only : don't 
generalize from your results unless you 
have a fair sample of all the three-year- 
old children in your schools, and do not 
be satisfied until you have seen the draw- 
ings from several schools. 

At four years of age there was a great 
advance; not less than forty per cent, of 
the children drew a satisfactory square. 
Even when unsatisfactory, the shape 
tended to be square. The drawings, of 
course, varied much; but of those which 
were not squares, rhomboids and rect- 
angles were the shapes most frequently 
drawn. But the sides were often unevenly 
balanced and overlapped one another. It 
is very interesting to note the order in 
which the lines of the square were drawn. 

As I believe that our teaching of draw- 



42 



Binet's Menta! Tests. 



ing to-day is most unpsychologically 
based, no indication of a child's real attack 
on problems of drawing is without interest 
and value. No less than thirty-six per 
cent, of the children who drew the square 
drew the lines in the order indicated in the 
diagram. ^ 




FIG. 1. 

They began with the line marked 1 and 
drew from left to right, then drew line 2 
downwards, then line 3 downwards, and 
finally line 4 from left to right. Twenty 
per cent, of the four-year-old children 
drew as indicated in Fig. 2. 
> 




FIG. 2. 

These were the abler drawings, and re- 
sembled those of the bulk of the five-year- 
old children. They began with a hori- 
zontal line (teachers will remember how we 
all used to begin with verticals in our 
pedagogy) from left to right, then down- 
wards for line number 2, then from right 
to left for line 3, and upwards for line 4. 
Only sixteen per cent, began with a verti- 
cal line. But, again I say, " Don't take 
these things on trust, try them for your- 
selves." 

At five years of age there was great im- 
provement; this is quite obviously a five- 
year-old test ; but there were no new fea- 
tures to record. Forty-four per cent, of 
those who drew a satisfactory square drew 
the lines in the order indicated in Fig. 2. 
Sixteen per cent, followed the three-year- 
old method indicated in Fig. 1, and six- 
teen per cent, drew thus ; 




FIG. 3. 

There was some increase in the number of 
those who drew one of the vertical lines 
first. 

At six years of age over ninety per cent. 
of the English children drew a satisfactory 
square. There was more variety in the 
attack ; only twenty-eight per cent, of them 
following the same order in line and direc- 
tion. This group followed the method 
shown in Fig. 3. All the squares drawn 
by these children were observed and it was 
found that at this age no less than sixty- 
four per cent, began by drawing one of 
the vertical lines first. 

At seven years of age there was but 
slight advance. These children had been 
taught some drawing. They had not been 
taught to draw a square, but when draw- 
ing objects under guidance they had been 
expected to begin on the left. Twenty- 
four per cent, of them drew the square as 
shown in Fig. 1 (a three-year-old method); 
twenty-four per cent, as shown in Fig. 2 
(a four-year-old method); and twenty-four 
per cent, drew thus : 




FIG. 4. 



In every case these seven-year-old children 
drew the horizontal lines from left to 
right; eighty-eight per cent, drew the ver- 
tical lines from above downwards, and the 
remaining twelve per cent, drew one of the 
vertical lines in that way. Fifty-six per 
cent, began the drawing on a horizontal 
line, and forty-four per cent, on one of the 



W. H. Winch, M.A. 



43 



vertical lines, so that we cannot yet say 
that the tendency to draw verticals first 
is now fully established, if it ever is. 

Although the squares drawn above give 
the direction and order in which the chil- 
dren drew the lines, it must not be sup- 
posed that all the squares drawn were 
approximately as correct as these dia- 
grammatic ones. When shall we count 
the square as " good," or " correct," for 
we need some general criterion? I have 
worked on the following, and suggest its 
general adoption : If the drawing has four 
distinct sides, roughly at right angles, and 
is more like a square than a decided ob- 
long, it should be accepted as satisfactory. 

Binet's Third Test for Five-year-old 
Children is one of the most interesting 
to the experimenter, and one of the most 
difficult of the whole series, at least for 
English children. 

Binet says that this is a game of 
patience with two pieces. He directs the 
experimenter to take a card of rectangu- 
lar shape, and another of the same size 
and shape, but cut into two pieces diagon- 
ally. The whole card is to be laid on the 
table, and the two pieces also in such a 
way that the two hypotenuses are as far 
away from each other as possible. The 
child is then to be asked to put the two 
pieces together so as to make them look 
like the whole card. No explanations may 
be given other than this request. 

Binet began this experiment with a 
dozen pieces of card, but found that if by 
chance a child hit upon two or three pieces 
which gave the " game " a good start, 
the rest followed easily into place; but, if 
this did not happen, the problem was 
found too difficult, even for the most in- 
telligent children. Consequently he finally 
used two pieces of card only. He found 
that French children of four years could 
not do the test, but that at five years of 
age scarcely one in a dozen failed. Our 
experience is by no means the same as 
Binet's. At three and four years of age, 
none of our children could do it. At five 
years of age (I quote the figures for the 
school intermediate in capacity) only 
twelve per cent, were successful ; at six 



years only forty-four per cent., and at 
seven years fifty-tivo per cent. 

Why this enormous discrepancy be- 
tween the results in England and those in 
France? I am aware that the French 
schools give early attention to geometri- 
cal form, which ours do not; but I do not 
think that lessons on geometrical form, 
except in connection with balls, cubes and 
bricks (as in our own schools) begin as 
early as five years of age. The cause of 
the great discrepancy is not, I believe, a 
pedagogical one. It is connected, I think, 
with the method of administering the 
exercise. Binet is indefinite about the 
placing of the pieces of card; his instruc- 
tions are satisfied by two positions, one 
of which is easy and the other hard. 

Let me explain what I mean in further 
detail. This is how we carried out the 
test with English children. The rectangu- 
lar cards measured five by six inches. The 
two pieces of the cut card were placed in 
such a way that the two long perpendicu- 
lar sides were parallel to and near each 
other thus : 





fig. 6. 

This position of the cards places the two 
hypotenuses outside, as required by Binet. 
But the position compels the child to lift 
one of the pieces and turn it over in order 
to build up the rectangle. The child was 
" passed " if he built up the rectangle 
four times out of five trials. As I have 
said, our English children found this very 
hard. Except in the well-placed school, 
they were not successful even at seven 
years of age, though Binet states that 
five-year-old children can do it. 

In endeavouring to account for this dif- 
ference we found that Binet's instructions 
could be satisfied by another and much 
easier position of the two pieces of card. 
Instead of placing the two long sides (ad- 
jacent to the right angles) parallel to each 



44 



Binet's Mental Tests. 



other, as we Iiad done for our English 
children, we placed the pieces so thai one 
long side and one short side were parallel, 
thus : 





FIG. 6. 

The two hypotenuses are still as far away 
from each other as possible, so that Binet's 
directions are still satisfied. But the pro- 
blem is a very different one; for now the 
rectangular card can be built up without 
turning one of the pieces over. Not to 
distinguish these two positions is inevit- 
ably to confound two very different tests, 
one fairly easy, the other very hard. 

The following are the results obtained 
from English children, the pieces of card 
being arranged in the more difficult posi- 
tion : 

At three years of age none of the chil- 
dren succeeded in making the rectangle. 
They put the two hypotenuses together, 
and when asked by the experimenter, 
pointing to the constructed figure and to 
the uncut card, " Is this like that? " said 
" Yes." 

At four years of age no child succeeded 
four times. Several children made the 
rectangular shape once, but they could not 
do it a second time. They were satisfied 
with shapes far removed from that of the 
rectangle. One child knew she had placed 
the two pieces of card wrongly, and tried 
many times to get them right, but could 
not do so. When asked, " Is that right?" 
she answered, " No, it won't come right." 
Every child at this age put the two 
hypotenuses together at one or more of 
the trials; many of them appeared satis- 
fied when they found the two slanting lines 
were of equal length and that the two 
pieces of card fitted to one another. They 
felt they had achieved the desired result, 
though they had by no means constructed 
a rectangle. 

At five years of age (the age for which 



Binet considers the test suitable) only 
twelve per cent, of our English children 
were able to construct the rectangle. 
Those who were wrong in all cases put the 
two hypotenuses together, and most of 
them were perfectly satisfied with the 
shapes they made. One girl put the two 
cards together five times, each time in- 
correctly; and, without being questioned, 
each time shook her head and said, " No, 
it isn't like it. " She was unable to correct 
her errors. A boy who had placed the two 
hypotenuses together, but incorrectly, was 
asked, " Is it hke that? " said " Yes, that 
line is down there," pointing to the junc- 
tion of the two slant sides. I commend 
these observations to the people who tell 
us that little children measure by mass 
and not by lines. A girl who could not 
arrive at the correct form, turned the pat- 
tern card over and examined it carefully 
underneath ; but, of course, found nothing 
to help her. One boy did the test rightly 
twice, then wrongly three times, and al- 
though he knew he had gone wrong, could 
not correct himself. 

All of us can do some things withouf 
knowing " how " or " why " we do them, 
the " how " and the " why " are often 
matters of subsequent reflection. Especial- 
ly is this true of children in arithmetic, 
but I must not diverge from my immediat* 
task. Of those who built up the required 
shape correctly, one child only did it 
properly at every one of the five trials. 

At six years of age forty-four per cent, 
constructed the rectangle at least four 
times out of the five trials ; but even for 
these children the task proved difficult. 
W^th one exception every child tried at first 
to make the required shape by putting the 
two hypotenuses together without turning 
one of the pieces over. The children who 
failed to satisfy the test frequently suc- 
ceeded twice but failed afterwards. They 
recognised that the shapes they made were 
wrong, but could not put them right. 

One boy who could not make the rect- 
angle at all picked up the pattern card and 
placed it over the shape he had made. 
This is the method of superposition in its 
primitive form. Another boy, who tried 



W. H. Winch, M.A. 



46 



vigorously each time, said, alter the fifth 
trial, in a very decided tone, " I can't do 
it." Another boy said, " If it had another 
piece across here it would be like an 
envelope." Several of the children placed 
the shortest side of one of the triangles 
parallel with one of the short sides of the 
pattern card, thus : 





FIG. 7. 

and worked on from that. 

At seven years of age there was a slight 
advance ; but only a slight one, for only 
fifty-two per cent, were able to make the 
required shape. Twenty-eight per cent, of 
the children put the shortest side of one of 
the triangles parallel to the short side of 
the rectangle, and worked from that, as 
some of the six-year-old children had done. 
All the seven-year-old children who failed 
to make the required shape knew that what 
they had made was incorrect, but they 
could not get out of their difficulties. 
They appeared to fail because they did not 
think of turning one of the triangular 
pieces over. One boy volunteered the 
statement that he had formed the shape 
incorrectly, and said, " That line goes 
slanting " (referring to one of the outside 
lines of the figure he had made) " and it 
ought to go straight down." Every child 
who failed put the two hypotenuses 
together at one or more of the trials, but 
without turning over one of the pieces. 

According to our English results, we 
cannot be sure that, normally, children will 
succeed with this test under eight years 
of age. Accordingly I have placed this 
test in the eight-year-old group in my 
" Form for Testing Backward Children." 

Binet's Fourth Test for Five-year- 
old Children is a test in counting. The 
child is required to count four " sous," 
touching them as he counts. 

Binet says that an objection is often 
raised to this test because it shows the 
result of school instruction rather than of 



native intelligence. Binet answers by a 
question, " Where is the normal indivi- 
dual," he asks, *' who has been so deprived 
of the ordinary experiences of life and the 
example of others that he cannot count 
simple numbers?" Binet's instructions 
are as follow : Place four sous on a table, 
touching but not covering each other. 
Then say to the child, "You see these 
sous? Count them. Tell me how many 
there are." 

This last instruction is not a good one, 
for the child need not be asked how many 
there are ; in any case he should not be 
asked before he has counted them. 

In English schools we used pennies, and 
said to the child, " You see these pennies? 
Count them for me; touch each penny as 
you count it." Binet also required the 
coins to be touched correctly as the count- 
ing proceeded. No mistakes were allowed 
on either the French or English standard 
of passing ; but the results were by no 
means the same. French three-year-old 
children could not do the test at all ; at 
four years of age, only half succeeded ; 
whilst at five only the "defectives" 
failed. Our children were much in ad- 
vance. 

At three years of age fifty-six per cent, 
of the children in our intermediate school 
(the three-year-old children in the ' ' very 
poor " school scored less) were quite suc- 
cessful. 

At four years of age ninety-six per cent, 
were successful (eighty per cent, in the 
" very poor " school) and all the children 
in succeeding years. Of those who failed 
at three years, many arrived at the fourth 
penny whilst saying "three." At four 
years of age all who failed did so because 
they did not give the appropriate number 
to the penny they were touching, not be- 
cause they could not count one, two, three, 
four in correct sequence. 

In my arrangement of Binet's tests for 
English children this test has been placed 
in the four-year-old group. 

I shall deal next with Binet's tests for 
six-year-old children. 



46 



The Psychology of Writing. 



Xlbe ipsgcboloas ot Mrtting. 
II. 

By James Drever, b.a., b.sc. 

(Lecture delivered before the Edinburgh 
Child-Study Society). 

The very simple experiment of mirror 
writing yields similar conclusions. If you 
take a pencil in each hand and try to write 
the same word simultaneously with the 
two hands, you will find that the left hand 
tends to give mirror writing. If the main 
control were visual both hands would tend 
to write the word in the ordinary way. 

When we take a full view of writing, 
regarding it as graphic language and not 
as a mere motor mechanism, and there- 
fore, of course, including spelling, the 
problem of determining the nature of the 
control or controls is much more difficult. 
In adult writing the factors involved are : ' 
(1) the meaning to be expressed ; (2) the 
motor imagery representing the spoken 
words, and often the spelling of the words 
phonetically or literally ; (3) auditory 
imagery of the words as heard ; (4) visual 
imagery of the words as seen ; and (5) 
grapho-motor imagery, including tactual 
imagery, of the words as written. Of 
these the fundamental factors appear to be 
(1), (2), and (5), that is, the meaning, 
the articulation-motor imagery, and the 
grapho-motor imagery. We may illus- 
trate by the simple diagram on this page. 
There is considerable doubt as to the 
place which the visual image occupies. 
That it acts as a kind of control can hardly 
be denied. The extent to which our vo- 
cabulary depends upon our reading, and 
the manner in which most of us have 
learned to spell, cause us to employ the 
visual image as a final court of appeal, 
when we are doubtful about the spelling 
of any word. But it is certain that nor- 
mally, and when the word is sufficiently at 
our command to avoid this spelling diffi- 
culty, the visual image only comes upon 
the scene after a word is written to verify 
what we have written, as it were. And it 
is equally certain that under ordinary read- 
ing conditions the visual image is a very 
unreliable control, and that when we are 



reduced to dependence upon it alone, we 
are likely to be almost as often wrong as 
right. This is a point which I propose to 
investigate under experimental conditions 
when I have the opportunity, and any of 
you who may be sufficiently interested can 
perform a very simple experiment, which 
mav throw some light upon the matter. 
(Experiment of allowing children to revise 
dictation, and change the words that look 
wrong). I shall be very much interested 
in any results you may get. 




Relative thickness of lines indicates reUtive 
importance of connection. 
A — Auditory Centre. 
I— Idea Centre or Centres (Meaning). 
V— Visual Centre. 
AM— Articulation-Motor Centre. 
GM— Grapho-Motoi Centre. 

Apart from our introspective study of 
our own writing, almost everything goes 
to prove the comparatively minor signifi- 
cance of the visual image in adult writing 
and spelling. We do not read by letters, 
but, at least to a considerable extent, by 
word wholes, and our visual image of any 
word must consequently be but a poor 
guide to the spelling of the word, unless so 
far as the determining or dominant letters 
are concerned. This is confirmed by 
tachistoscopic experiments where misspelt 
j words are exposed. (Illustrative experi- 
! ment : Exposure of a sentence in succes- 
! sive phrases in which more than half the 
words are misspelt). Further confirma- 
tion is got from the kind of error which 



James Drever, B.A., B.Sc. 



47 



occurs most frequently in the writing of 
the educated adult. These errors may be 
arranged under three categories : — 

1. The " hte " category. 

2. The "their" category. 

3. The " guage " category. 
Errors of the first and third categories 
would not occur if the visual image were 
operative, and errors of the second cate- 
gory are not dependent upon the visual 
image at all. 

These conclusions might be confirmed 
by an appeal to Abnormal Psychology, 
but, owing to the doubt which has been 
cast on arguments drawn from the study 
of aphasia and allied conditions by the 
recent work of Marie, I am loath to use 
evidence of this kind, and shall content 
myself with referring you to the Eleventh 
Lecture in Storring's Mental Pathology 
and Normal Psychology. 

A very interesting sidelight, however, is 
thrown on the relation of writing to 
speech, and the fundamental character of 
the motor element, by the recent investiga- 
tion of the connection between stammer- 
ing and left-handedness, by F. B. Ballard, 
reported in the Journal of Experimental 
Pedagogy, Vol. I., p. 298. Ballard finds 
that among school children generally 2 per 
cent, are stammerers, that pure left-hand- 
edness does not affect speech in any way, 
that among left-handed children who have 
been compelled to use the right hand for 
writing, 17 per cent, are stammerers, and 
if we include those who have only suffered 
temporarily, 25 per cent. ; that comparing 
normal children, including pure left- 
handed children, with dextero-sinistrals, 
we have one stammerer in every 50, as 
against one stammerer in every 4 ; and 
finally, that speech is not affected when 
the left-handed child acquires kinds of 
dexterity other than writing with the right 
hand, but only where the left-handed child 
is compelled to write with the right hand 
or where ambidexterity is aimed at in 
writing. 

What the physiological explanation of 
these facts may be, I know not, but their | 
psychological meaning at least seems suffi- I 
ciently clear. The preferred hand is natur- '. 



ally used to acquire the complex co-ordina- 
tions required In writing. If the other 
hand be employed, more effort and atten- 
tion will be required and the co-ordinations 
themselves are bound to suffer. The 
natural preference for right or left hand, as 
the case may be, is emphasised by the lan- 
guage function of writing. But, just be- 
cause writing is language, the complex 
co-ordinations on the oral speech side are 
closely associated and bound up with the 
manual co-ordinations. Consequently the 
impairment of the latter tends to spread 
to the former. 

There is no reason to suppose that any 
impairment of oral speech would result in 
such cases, if graphic signs were directly 
associated with meaning, independently of 
oral speech. This is evidently not the 
connection then, the explanation being 
that oral speech is already established as 
language, and the development of graphic 
language necessarily involves association 
with this already established oral language. 
Nor would impairment of oral speech 
result, if the connection between graphic 
language and oral speech were through 
the visual image. The impairment is pro- 
duced because, with the acquiring of 
graphic language, the fundamental con- 
nection is made by the establishing of 
what we might call a great articulation- 
manual-motor complex. 

I am quite aware that, as regards spell- 
ing, a good deal of experimental evidence 
might be adduced against the view which 
I have taken. But the truth is that the 
evidence from spelling experiments is very 
conflicting, as anyone may see by examin- 
ing Rusk's chapter on Writing and Ortho- 
graphy. Further, most of the experiments 
have been carried out in Germany, where 
the phonetic difficulties, so pronounced in 
the case of English, are inappreciable, and 
tfie spelling problem is consequently differ- 
ent. And finally, the greater part of the 
experimental work has been done with 
nonsense words, or at all events with 
words, such as Latin words, unintelligible 
to the children who were the subjects, and 
this fact seems to vitiate the results of all 
such work, so far as language is con- 



48 



The Psycholojjy of Writing. 



cerned. By eliminating the important 
factor of meaning we undoubtedly give an 
undue advantage to the visual image of 
the word, but, under such conditions we 
can hardly be said to be investigating 
language. 

The only factor which we have not yet 
considered is the auditory image, and, 
however important it may be in the case of 
a phonetic language, there can be little 
doubt that it is relatively unimportant in 
English, except as an accessory to the 
articulation-motor, or as a general cue 
which, as it were, introduces the grapho- 
motor. I do not believe that it is very 
important even in phonetic languages, 
except at the beginning of learning to 
write, or, in the case of the adult writer, 
where he is not the complete master of any 
particular word, where it is not in his 
graphic vocabulary. 

With this analysis of adult writing 
before us, let us pass to the consideration 
of the process of learning to write. Our 
ordinary practice has always been to begin 
with what is simply the drawing of the 
individual letters, or the elements of the 
individual letters. One defect in our 
method has been pointed out very clearly 
by Madame Montessori. We have forgot- 
ten how complicated the mere process of 
handling the writing instrument is, and we 
demand of the child far too much when we 
expect him to hold the writing instrument 
properly, to manipulate it, and to make 
definite forms, or rather to learn to do all 
these things at one and the same time. 
Madame Montessori's solution of this diffi- 
culty seems an eminently practical one. 
There is one point, however, that might 
be noted. The process of writing with a 
pencil differs in some rather important 
respects from the process of writing with 
a pen. I hope to make this clear present- 
ly. Consequently the manipulation of a 
pencil is not by any means an adequate 
preparation for the manipulation of a pen. 
As far as the pen is concerned, preparatory 
exercises with the brush would serve the 
purpose better. 

But though this is by no means unim- 
portant, I do not think it is the most im- 



portant point in connection with learning 
to write. We begin, I say, with drawing. 
I do not mean that the preparation for 
writing is by drawing, but that the earliest 
writing of the child is drawing, and that 
he continues drawing letters and words not 
merely until he can write them, but long 
after he can write with considerable ease. 
But writing is not drawing, and must not, 
cannot, be taught as drawing. Our view 
of writing as graphic language, and our 
analysis of adult writing, force us to the 
conclusion that the teaching of writing as 
drawing is a mistake. We do not learn 
to write by drawing, any more than we 
learn to speak by reading, or to spell by 
looking, but we learn to write by writing, 
to speak by speaking, to spell by spelling. 

In the first place the function of writing 
as graphic language is to express a mean- 
ing. Hence the grapho-motor mechanism 
must be associated with a meaning, but 
since this meaning tends to express itself 
in oral speech, the grapho-motor mecha- 
nism is associated with the meaning 
tKrough oral speech, and with the estab- 
lishing, as we have seen, of an articula- 
tion-manual-motor complex. 

In the second place, if writing is treated 
as drawing, a new and disturbing factor 
is introduced, by the association of the 
grapho-motor mechanism with a visual 
form, and this at every stage of the process 
of writing, in the writing of the individual 
letter or of the complete word. Obviously 
one result of this must be, in the case of 
the individual letter at all events, the 
sacrificing of the association between the 
manual motor complex and the meaning. 
And another result, whether we deal with 
letters or with words, must be the making 
of the visual image fundamental instead of 
the motor image. As soon as independent 
writing starts this inversion of the true 
order of things must break down, but 
drawing with its tendency to this will 
always remain a disturbing factor, im- 
peding the development of writing itself 
and possibly of spelling. 

In the third place there will be a lack of 
motivation for the writing. There is no- 
thing in the form of the letter or the word 



Professor Bidart. 



49 



to interest the child and to make the child 
desire to draw it. Consequently indirect 
motives of all kinds must be appealed to, 
and in spite of these the average child 
finds the acquiring of writing a wearisome 
business. 

If we make our approach to writing 
through drawing, then writing only begins 
where drawing ends. As a rule we con- 
tinue our drawing far too long, and by so 
doing really impede the development of 
graphic language. The use we have made 
of the writing copy has in the past been 
very unwise. It has bulked far too large- 
ly in our writing practice, and as a matter 
of fact, when the preliminary co-ordina- 
tions have been established, the use of the 
writing copy has seldom been writing 
practice at all. I do not mean to imply 
that the writing copy has no place in the 
school, or that it is not serviceable in cer- 
tain circumstances to practise with a good 
model before one the drawing of letters or 
combinations of letters, but simply that the 
proper place of the writing copy is not the 
place we have assigned to it. 

Again, in this connection, Madame 
Montessori seems to indicate another 
sound principle of method, by placing her 
chief dependence for the acquiring of a 
writing knowledge of the letters, not on 
the visual image as in copybook work, but 
on the tactual and motor imagery estab- 
lished by following with the finger the 
shapes of the letters. By making the 
motor image fundamental from the begin- 
ning we approximate at once to the charac- 
ter of adult writing. That the visual and 
auditory factors are valuable auxiliaries 
no one would deny, but they ought to be 
used merely as auxiliaries from the very 
start. 

It has frequently been suggested that 
the non-phonetic character of the English 
language renders the use of the Montessori 
methods of teaching writing and reading 
to a great extent impracticable, or at all 
events that we cannot expect to get the 
same results in English as she gets in 
Italian. Such a suggestion seems due to 
a greatly exaggerated estimate of the diffi- 
culties which English spelling presents, 



and to some extent also to a failure to 
appreciate the true inwardness of the Mon- 
tessori methods. The phonetic or non- 
phonetic character of a language does not 
affect the essential principle of the Mon- 
tessori methods. In non-phonetic Eng- 
lish the auditory factor becomes of less 
significance, and the visual factor of more 
significance, but that is all. One curious 
result, however, might follow the applica- 
tion of the Montessori methods to English, 
and that is the rehabilitation of the old 
alphabetic method of approach to graphic 
language, that is, to reading and writing. 
There is one other point. Whatever 
method we adopt of preparing for writing, 
when the child begins to write, he must 
write significant and meaningful material. 
We must employ the language motive or 
motives. In order to get the best work 
in both writing and spelling, and I should 
say reading too, were I dealing with read- 
ing, this is absolutely essential. [Etc.] 



parent BDucators. 

By Professor Bidart. 

Translated by Miss M. S. Ryan, B.A. 

5. The rewards of obedience. If it were 
possible for us to remain always unmoved 
and calm, whether our children obeyed us 
or not, they would find it difficult to dis- 
tinguish between right and wrong. We 
have to tell them that a certain thing is 
right and we must be pleased about it, so 
that they may know and be pleased too. 

Of course, this is what we really do. 
But what stupid ways some parents find of 
giving rewards: " You have been an obe- 
dient child, here is a sweetmeat," is often 
said to big children of six to ten years old. 
Or again: "I'll buy you a pretty blue 
ribbon." And so these selfish children 
acquire the habit of obeying only for 
sweets or gewgaws. Shall we be able to 
give them something every time we require 
their obedience? " You are a better child 
than your brother," a father used fre- 
quently to say to his little girl in order to 
humiliate her brother. And so the boy be- 
came jealous and the girl conceited. Thes< 
are both evil tendencies. So I must not, 



50 



Parent Educators. 



under pretence of reward, excite greed, or 
vanity, or jealousy, or indeed any evil 
tendency. 

How shall I manage then? I must not 
give a reward simply for a good memory, 
a quick intelligence or pleasing manners, 
as is often done ; we deserve no special 
credit for our natural gifts, and if the child 
be praised for these, he will not make any 
effort to acquire other qualities in which 
he is deficient. But if the little undiscip- 
lined rascal makes a big effort to be good 
I will give him a kiss for it ; I shall praise 
him for his lesson, even if he has not 
known it very perfectly, if it is the result 
of hard work. My child will appreciate 
both my insight and my justice because 
/ shall only reward merit, i.e., effort. 

Is it then the case that I must give a 
reward every time that any merit is 
shown? At that rate a child would be 
continually deserving of reward, however 
slightly well-behaved he was, and he would 
end by becoming exacting. Just as appe- 
tite comes by eating, so, by receiving too 
many rewards, a person acquires a fever- 
ish greed of honours. The child would 
begin to think himself created solely to 
receive rewards, and I should be the 
machine to dole them out incessantly. Or 
perhaps the opposite result would be pro- 
duced. Everything in time may become 
boring or wearisome. What a dreadful 
thing it would be if I were to hear my child 
say, "All right, bother!" "But when 
rewards are infrequent, they resemble all 
other rare things, they become infinitely 
more valuable. In the intervals the pupil 
has time to long for more " (Thery). 

Then, if rewards are to be rare, must 
they be specially valuable or beautiful? 
" Their value is not in themselves, it exists 
only in our pupils' minds. One child 
\vrvuid not think a necklace sufficient re- 
ward for what she had done, another 
would be more than content with a rib- 
be n " Since the same effect can be pro- 
.r-'<-t ^ with a very small thing, I should 
only use the simplest means : the simpler 
♦he means the more readily are they at 
the disposal of everyone. The same prin- 
ciple holds good in determining the tone 



of voice used. Some mothers bestow their 
praises in noisy bursts of joy and loud 
caresses, often even before strangers. 
Such excitement and display is most un- 
seemly. Let the rewards be simple and 
let them be simply bestowed. 

They must not be excessive. They must 
produce the required effe<-t ; they must 
show that I am pleased and that the re- 
cipient is made happy by their bestowal. 
If they are insignificant and paltry they 
only lead to ridicule ; if I give them with- 
out any marks of pleasure they will not 
produce any satisfaction ; it would have 
been better to say nothing and to do no- 
thing. Ever)thing which appeals to the 
senses makes a strong impression on the 
child. It is not a matter of indifference to 
him, whether I am preoccupied or inter- 
ested in what he is doing, " My counten- 
ance overcast or wreathed in smiles." If 
I really want to influence the child, my 
gestures, tone of voice, in short, my whole 
appearance must be in harmony. When 
the child goes away he must feel happy 
and take his happiness with him. The 
child must be cheered by my reward and 
must feel my contentment at being able 
to give it. 

Finally, the reward must only be given 
for a good act ; it must appeal to the good 
in the child and must produce good as a 
consequence. In other words, it must be 
offered for a moral action, it must be 
moral in principle and moral in results. 
What kinds of rewards best fulfil these 
conditions? 

So long as the child is well-behaved it is 
enough to appear pleased ; my satisfac- 
tion Vv'ill make his happiness. I am not 
angry, he can be at peace, he is good. 
Such ought to be the ordinary state of 
affairs. I shall show more pleasure w-hen 
the child has done more to deserve it. 
" When Louisa has given me a pleasant 
surprise, as, for instance, when she has 
learnt her lesson before the prescribed 
moment, and she dances about the room, 
clapping her hands if I do not show suffi- 
cient signs of pleasure, she says to me in 
a tone of reproach : ' Are you not pleased, 
mama? ' " {Mdme. Guizot). 



Suggestions for Study and Practice. 



51 



For a child a little older, after some good 
deed, voluntarily undertaken, a smile is 
enough. A smile is all-powerful ; its mes- 
sage reaches the heart. The child re- 
warded by a smile of praise feels, as it 
were, warmed and comforted, he smiles to 
himself, happiness has penetrated to his 
innermost being. And this is pure, heart- 
felt happiness like that which results from 
the accomplishment of a duty, it is un- 
mixed with pride or selfishness. He is 
happy because he has made his parents 
happy ; he goes on his way, full of joy and 
ready to begin again. Why do we not 
realise better the magic of this charm 
which is ever at our disposition? 

If the deed is more deserving, then I 
should add a word of praise with my smile, 
not the praise of flattery of qualities al- 
ready possessed, the only result of which 
would be to arouse pride or vanity, but a 
few simple words of praise for the good 
done. I shall not say "What a clever 
child you are !" but " That's right." Thus 
I shall appeal to the sentiment of duty 
while, at the same time, appealing to filial 
love by my smile ; these are the two best 
forces we can use. 

Finally, for an act which has demanded 
a very great effort, and especially an 
effort against natural inclinations, I shall 
give a kiss. A kiss is worth more than a 
smile or a word of praise ; it is all that and 
more ; it is a mark of deep satisfaction at 
an act judged difficult and thereby the 
more meritorious. No words will be 
needed ; my heart will speak to his, we 
shall understand one another, my child 
will know what it is to have done right, 
and this satisfaction, when honestly ex- 
perienced, is the highest and truest reward. 

To conclude, happiness and praise are 
sufficient rewards, praise to illuminate the 
understanding and happiness to strengthen 
the will. Everything else is false and 
harmful. Wherever happiness and praise 
cannot reach the end desired, other re- 
wards will only aggravate the wrong by 
pandering to evil inclinations such as 
greed and vanity. 

I have now stated the principles. In 
their application I shall find myself obliged 



to act according to a multiplicity of vary- 
ing circumstances, such as age, sex, and 
temperaments of different children. There- 
lore I must acquire a knowledge of the 
disposition and capabilities of each of my 
children, and this can only be gained by 
patient and diligent observation. This 
knowledge, however, will scarce avail me 
if I do not make a point of reflecting upon 
the effect produced on any particular 
child, on any given occasion, by a particu- 
lar reward. And, in conclusion, if I want 
to succeed in my mode of action, I must, 
first, be master of myself. My duty then 
is to watch, reflect and control myself. 



Suaaestions for Stu&s an& 
practice. 

The Teaching of English Grammar. — 

" In sum English Grammar is taught in 
order to ease the teaching of English com- 
position ; it does this best through that 
attention to function which is required by 
the analysis of sentences. ' Terms of art ' 
should be sparingly employed, and never 
employed except to mark facts of a lan- 
guage of which a writer must take 
account. It is of consequence to retain 
such terms in English teaching as asso- 
ciate the vernacular with cognate lan- 
guages taught in schools, provided the 
terms have an intelligible application to 
modern English. If terms are grounded 
upon convention only, then there is an 
advantage, and no real loss, on the whole, 
in adopting those conventions which are 
accepted with reference to other lan- 
guages, rather than the conventions which 
are limited to the vernacular." — Prof. J. 
W. Adamson, " English Grammar," The 
Journal of Education, March, 191-4. 

The Bases of a Kindergarten Curricu- 
lum. — " The most fundamental problems 
in the planning of a kinderj; . u;;i ,. rc- 
gram, or course of study, may be stated 
as follows : — 

" I. The selection of the impulses, in- 
stincts, and interests which are developing 
at this period of the child's growth, and 
which make for the highest good of the 
child and society when provided with edu- 
cative stimuli or material. 



52 



Suggestions for Study and Practice. 



"II. The selection of the best subject- 
matter or materials for the creative im- 
pulses of the child to act upon in the 
(self-active process through which he 
comes to appreciate and re-create the 
achievements of civilisation. 

" III. The organization, correlation, or 
arrangement of the subject-matter or 
materials in a unity such as makes for the 
economy and simplification of the whole. 
This unity must be secured without sacri- 
ficing the individual nature or achievement 
of any one of the impulses entering into 
the organization." — Patty Smith Hill, in 
The Kindergarten Theory and Practice. 

Sex Education. — Prof. Thomas M. 
Balliet, of New York University, outlines 
several points of attack in sex education. 
He believes sex instruction can now be 
given to the following groups : (1) To 
parents, by means of lectures ; (2) to en- 
listed men in the Army and Navy, where 
the need for it is urgent ; (3) to college 
students, both men and women; (i) to 
young people in Y.M.C.A.'s and similar 
associations. Dr. Balliet considers sex 
instruction to college students particular- 
ly valuable because it will enable them to 
impart sex knowledge in turn to pupils 
in elementary and secondary schools, as 
soon as the public is prepared for this 
step." — The Training School Bulletin, 
I<'cb., 1914 {From Education Notes of the 
U.S. Department of Education). 

Handwork in Education. — " The sub- 
jects through which the senses can best 
be trained are also those in which mental 
application, or control by the will over 
mental processes, can best be practised. 
Furthermore, through the same subjects 
which best afford training for the senses, 
the information most needed by the child 
and the adult of to-day may best be 
acquired. What are these subjects ? First, 
the sciences, such as chemistry, physics, 
and biology ; secondly the household arts ; 
thirdly, the use of common tools in the 
simple trades ; fourthly, drawing ; and 
fifthly, music, —r^ar/e.'s W. Eliot. " Pre- 
sent Problems of Education," Educational 
Revieiv (U.S.A.), March, 1914. 

Is there a General Memory?—" The 



above results afford additional evidence 
against the existence of a general memory 
faculty ; thus memory for digits is uncorre- 
lated with memory for a narrative or for 
concrete terms; one would expect to find 
a definite correlation in every case if the 
faculty theory is true." — Stanley IVyatt, 
M.Sc, " The Inter-relation of Memory 
Performances," The Journal of Experi- 
mental Pedagogy, March, 1914. 

Froebel and Montessori. — " To sum up 
the most striking differences between the 
Froebelian and the Montessori methods 
we may say : — 

" The first grew out of the study of life 
as an ideal whole. The second grew out 
of a study of backward children. 

" The first rests on concepts. The 
second rests on a base of sense impres- 
sions. 

" The first reaches toward ultimate 
ideals of thought and feeling through .sym- 
bolic types. The second offers a systema- 
tic series of exercises as preparation for 
the more immediate future. 

" The first keeps its exercises related 
to reality through plays, as in the occupa- 
tions. The second draws its materials 
from life ; but teaches them as abstrac- 
tions, as in buttoning and lacing. 

" The first provides amply for the future 
years, but lacks exact discipline for to- 
morrow. The second prepares for to- 
morrow, but lacks a vision of the future 
years." — Earl Barnes, " Comparison of 
Froebelian and Montessori Methods and 
Principles," The Training School Bulletin 
(U.S.A.), Feb., 1914. 

Experiment in Pedagogy. — "Teaching 
method in the school is primarily a read- 
justment of forms of knowledge and 
experience so as more effectively to stimu- 
late and improve the immature responses 
of children. The growing importance of 
method in educational theory marks a 
growth in the teacher's consciousness of 
psychological factors precisely as the ap- 
pearance of the newer aim in teaching has 
marked an increased regard for social 
factors "...The child-study movement 
" focussed attention upon the child as the 
crucial factor in education, the prime con- 



The Child-Study and the Constituent Societies. 



53 



ditioning force in all methods of instruc- 
tion... Now a body of general psychological 
knowledge, rich in its criticism of old 
methods and in its suggestion of new 
means of procedure, gives a scientific basis 
to teaching method. Already where 
special psychological knowledge is needed, 
the educational psychologists seek it 
through investigation. And where the 
counter claims of competing methods defy 
ordinary psychological analysis and inves- 
tigation the comparative student of teach- 
ing methods begins his experimental teach- 
ing under controlled but natural condi- 
tions." — Dr. Suzzalo, in Newer Methods 
in Arithmetic Teaching. 

The Ancestry of the Montessori 
Methods- — " Any effective criticism of 
Montessori and her methods must in the 
long run direct itself to her fundamental 
ideas. For this reason, there is much to 
be gained by making the first approach to 
her system indirectly through a study of 
its ancestry in the world of ideas. She 
herself constantly invites her readers to 
take this way of comprehending her educa- 
tional views by her generously persistent 
acknowledgment of her obligations to 
Itard and Seguin, the two great doctors 
who anticipated her in the yoking together 
of medicine and pedagogy. If, however, 
we are to appreciate fully the significance 
of this obligation of hers, we must go fur- 
ther back in the history of education than 
she has gone. Itard and Seguin were not 
really pioneers in a new conception of edu- 
cational endeavour, as she seems to 
imagine. They were simply developing in 
a special direction the great revolutionary 
ideas about education Avhich were first sug- 
gested by John Locke towards the end of 
the seventeenth century, and afterwards 
enunciated most clearly and convincingly 
by Jean Jacques Rousseau. She herself in 
following their lead was therefore recreat- 
ing for our age some of the master 
thoughts of the recent past as she under- 
stood them herself, and so helping to carry 
forward a stage further the modern re- 
construction of education." — Dr. V/illiam 
Boyd, in his book Froryi Locke to Mon- 
tessori. 



Wot GbtlO-StuDs Socict? an& tbe 
Gongtltuent Socteties. 

Preliminary Programme of the Conference to b« 

held in Edinburgh, June 4th, 5th, 6th, 1914 :— 
June 4th, Thursday afternoon. — Civic reception 
in the City Chambers. Inaugural address 
b) the President, Sir James Crichton 
Browne. 
Thursday evening. — Dr. Macpherson. Sub- 
ject : " A Plea for the Recognition of the 
Instincts in Education." 
June 5th, Friday morning. — 
9 a.m. — Council meeting. 
11 a.m. — Mr. Drever. Subject: "Experiment 
in Relation to School Subjects and Methods." 
Friday afternoon, 4 p.m. — Garden party or 

other entertainment. 
Friday evening. — Miss Johnston. Subject : 
" Survey of the Recent Investigations and 
Criticisms on the Binet Simon Tests." 
Visits to special schools and Free Kinder- 
gartens on Friday, from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. 
Visits to Mr. Drever's Pedagogical Laboratory 
Friday, from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m., and from 
2 to 4 p.m. 

Also on Saturday, from 10 a.m. to 12. 
June 6th, Saturday morning. — Mr. Cyril Burt 

Subject: " Mental Tests." 
The Conference will be held at the Edinburgh 
Provincial Training College (new building), Moray 
House, Canongate. The Pedagogical Laboratory 
is in this College. 

Among the special schools to be visited are "The 
Skin School " in Lanister Place, and " The Men- 
tally Deficient Children's School " in Duncan 
Street. 

Hospitality is offered to visitors from a distance. 

The Tunbridge Wells Society. — At a meeting of 
the Tunbridge Wells branch, held February 2nd, 
the question of " The Place of Punishment in 
Education " was debated. .\ paper was read by 
the Rev. R. A. Bull, Principal of St. Andrew's 
School, Southborough. 

Quoting Locke : " Great severity of punish- 
ment does but very Uttle good, nay, great harm in 
education, and I believe it will be found that 
those children who have been most chastized sel- 
dom make the best men," the lecturer subscribed 
to this dictum, but would not range himself with 
the sentimentalists who would make life and its 
tasks easy, soft, and pleasant. 

The great need in these days is gr-> t -i :t.jL 
dogged determination, fearless courage, a;id sanc- 
tified common-sense. Punishment has a place in 
the education of such characters and is an essential 
ingredient. It is not the duty of the educator to 
bring such a constraining, watchful influence to 
bear on the child that he never merits punishment. 
As Herbert Spencer says : " The consequences of 
conduct must be experienced, so that the burnt 
child dreads the fire." 

Punishment should be inflicted calmly, yet with 



u 



Reviews. 



moral earnestness ; should be brief, must not be 
allowed to dishearten, but should stimulate, and 
tend to produce a self-governing being.— Mrs. /. C. 
Pont if ex. 

•notices ant> IRews. 

The Business side of the Journal is now definitely 
in the hands of Mr. H. R. Crisp, 45, Corringham 
Road, Golders Green, London, N. All inquiries 
about copies of the Journal, advertisements, sub- 
scriptions, etc., should be addressed to him and 
not to the Editor. 



IRevtews. 

The Kindergarten Theory and Practice. Pp. xvi., 
301. Geo. G. Harrap and Co. Price, 3s. 6d. 

net. 
This book consists of " reports of the Committee 
of nineteen on the theory and practice of the 
Kindergarten," and is " authorized by the Inter- 
national Kindergarten Union." There are three 
reports, viz., The Conception of the Gliedganzes, 
by Susan E. Blow (pp. 3 to 230) ; The Principles 
underlying the selection and organization of the 
Subject-matter of the Kindergarten Program, by 
Patty Smith Hill (pp. 233 to 294); and Type of 
Program preferred, by Ellizabeth Harrison (pp. 297 

to 301). 

The book appears to be, in effect, an official 
support, by the International Kindergarten Union, 
of Miss Blow's interpretation of Froebel's writings 
and work. 

From Lochc to Montessori. Bv William Boyd, 
M.A., B.Sc, D.Phil. Pp. 272. George G. 
Harrap. Price, 2s. 6d. net. 
This is a most valuable and interesting book, 
written with that ability, knowledge, and grasp 
which characterises Dr. Boyd's work. Its title is, 
we think, an unfortunate one. It might do for any 
little scrap-book on the history of some of the 
great educationists; but this is a book on the 
history of the development of the theory and prac- 
tice of " Education through the Senses." All who 
wish to get close to the foundations of the general 
movement towards a fuller development of Sense 
Education, which is much greater than the Mon- 
tessori movement, should read this book. 
What Children Study and Why. By Charles B. 
Gilbert. Pp. vi., 331. George G. Harrap and 
Co. Price, 3/6 net. 
The author says : " I have endeavoured to give 
in plain, untechnical terms a few of the practical 
psychological and sociological reasons for teach- 
ing the subjects found in most of our elementary 
school curricula [U.S.A.], and to state what should 
result, from their study, to the benefit of the chil- 
Iren and of society." 

There is very little more in the booK than what 
used to be called School Management, so far as 



class teaching is concerned, except that it covers 
rather more ground, is more up-to-date, and is 
rather more stimulating in matter and style. 
Plant and Animal Children : How they Grow. By 
Ellen Torem.e, M.A. Pp. iv., 230. D. C. 
Heath and Co. Price, 2s. 6d. net. 
" It aims to make clear the ideas of evolution, 
heredity, variation, effect of environment, and the 
evolution of sex, without once inentioning these 
names. ..Morals have their foundation in life 
phenomena and can be taught adrc|uately only with 
reference to these phenomena. A survey of the 
whole range of plant and animal life teaches the 
child inductively that all life, and therefore also 
human life, is governed by fixed laws, and that 
ignorance or transgression of these brings its cer- 
tain penalty." 

In very simple and lucid language the writer 
admirably fulfils her aim, and the book should 
prove extremely helpful to teachers, parents, and 
children. 

An Imaginative Child. By Agnes Aubrey Hilton. 
I'p. 144. H. R. Allenson, Ltd. Price, Is. 6d. 
net. 
The sub-title is " Studies in a Child's View- 
point," and the book is dedicated " To all who, 
working among children, realize the importance of 
trying to see child life, through a child's eyes." 
It is cast in the form of a domestic story centred 
around the nursery and schoolroom, and having 
a religious motif. We cannot recommend it from 
the child-study point of view. 

Revue de Pt^dotechnie. Six times per annum. 
No. 1, November, 1913. H. Lamertin, Rue 
Coudenberg 58, Brussels. Pp. 64. Price, 
7 fr. 50 per annum. 

This is the first number of what promises to 
be a child-study magazine of the highest rank. 
P^dotechnie is defined as " a science of application 
which follows paidology step by step and, guided 
by it, seeks the practical means of aiding the 
normal evolution of the human being. " The term is 
comparatively new, its nearest equivalent being 
pedagogy, which however was definitely rejected 
by the "Belgian Society of P^dotechnie " (founded 
in 1906) as having become restricted in meaning. 
The review, published by the Belgian Society in 
collaboration with the Institute J. J. Rousseau 
of Geneva, takes as its field the whole care of the 
child, pre-natal, through infancy and school and 
home life, in all its manifestations. The names of 
Dr. Decroly (the Editor) and Dr. Clapar6de among 
its contributors are a guarantee of good work. 
Among the topics treated in this number are : — 
the value of school sports ; the Binet-Simon Tests ; 
the child and the cinema ; and the education of the 
senses. 

Publications Received. — Journal of Educa- 
tion; Educational Times; Parents' Review; 
L' Inter me diare des Educateurs ; Kindergarten 
(Berlin) ; Eugenique (Paris) ; Der Sdemann (Ber- 
lin) ; The Journal of Experimental Pedagogy ; Le 
Jardin d'Enfants (Paris). 



Cl)ild=$tudp. 

tDe Journal or tDe CMId-Stuap Sociefp. 



rr 



Vol. VII —No. 4. 



MAY. 1914. 



Sinet'0 /l)cntal TTests ; 

Mbat tbc^ arc, an^ wbat wc can 

Do witb tbcm. v. 

By W. H. Winch, m.a. 

[AM rights reserved). 
Binet's First Test for Six-year-old 
Children deals with a knowledge of 
" Right and Left." The experimenter is 
Instructed to say to the child "Show your 
right hand," and then " Show your left 
ear." Sometimes, Binet says, the chil- 
dren show both hands, or point out one 
hand with the other so indefinitely that 
one cannot tell with which hand the child 
is pointing and which hand the child is 
pointing at. The answers may be graded 
into three classes : 

1. In which the children do not know 
right from left : these children usually 
show the right hand and the right ear. 

2. In which the children have some 
notion of right and left, but are not quite 
sure : they usually show the right hand 
and touch the right ear, but afterwards 
correct themselves, and point to or touch 
the left ear. 

3. In which the children answer at once, 
quite unhesitatingly and correctly. 

The child is considered to have "passed" 
the test if he shows his right hand and left 
ear at once (it is well also to ask for left 
hand and right ear afterwards) ; or if, 
being wrong, he corrects himself without 
being told. At four years of age Binet 
says that no French children point to the 
left ear ; all of them point to the right. At 
five years of age half are wrong ; but at 
six years of age no child, not defective, 
makes a mistake. 

Our English results do not quite agree 
with Binet's. Our young children are 
better, but our elder children are not quite 
so good ; and this is true in ajl three of the 



English schools in which the work was 
done. The figures for the intermediate 
school were : thirty-six per cent, of passes 
at three years of age ; forty per cent, at 
four ; seventy-two per cent, at five ; ninety- 
two per cent, at six ; and even at seven 
years in the school most favourably 
situated one or two children could not pass 
the test. Let me analyse the results in 
more detail. 

At three years of age many of our chil- 
dren held out the right hand and, instead 
of pointing to the left ear, turned the head, 
with the left ear towards the experimenter. 
Those who pointed did so with the right, 
hand. 

At four years of age no child turned the 
ear as the three-year-old children had 
done. Those who failed often showed the 
right hand, which was correct, then the 
left hand instead of the left ear ; and even 
when asked a second time adhered to this 
action. Some reversed the correct answer ; 
they showed the left hand and the right 
ear. Others again showed the right hand 
and the right ear. 

At five years of age one girl used the 
left hand to point to her right hand, but 
when asked to hold up her right hand did 
so. Only one child showed the right hand 
and right ear. All the other five-year-old 
children who could not do the test cor- 
rectly showed the left hand and pointed to 
the right ear. They knew right and left 
in their application to opposite sides of 
their bodies, but they did not know which 
was which. This, of course, is a stage 
through which children often pass in their 
application of names, unless good direct 
pedagogical method prevents it. The 
common experiences of life and the more 
or less confused and misunderstood in- 
struction which results from the compan- 



56 



Binet's Mental Tests. 



ionship of older children doubtless help 
to produce it. In colour-naming, for 
example, it is a common feature. Children 
know that the word blue is a colour-name 
before they can accurately apply it to what 
we call blue. 

At six years of age eighty-three per cent, 
of those who worked the test correctly held 
up the right hand and pointed to the left 
ear with the left hand ; and seventeen per 
cent, held up the right hand and pointed to 
the left ear with the right hand also. One 
boy who was incorrect showed the left 
hand and the left ear. One girl, after 
being marked as unsatisfactory, was given 
four other trials, with the following 
results : at the first trial she showed the 
left hand and right ear ; at the second trial 
she showed the right hand and left ear ; 
at the third trial she showed the left hand 
and right ear ; at the fourth trial she 
showed the left hand and left ear. In the 
second case she is right by chance, and 
might have been passed in error had she 
done this at first. Hence the need for 
repeating and varying the test. 

At seven years of age every child in this 
school worked the exercise correctly, and 
each child held up the right hand, and 
pointed to the left ear with the left hand. 
This is, obviously, the most mentally de- 
veloped method of response. 

My results agree with those of Binet to 
the extent that in both cases, for English 
as well as for French children, the exer- 
cise falls naturally into the six-year-old 
group of tests. 

Binet's Second Test for Six-year-old 
Children is a test of Memory. The 
method of carrying out this test is identical 
with that of his second test for three-year- 
old children ; but now a sentence of sixteen 
syllables is to be repeated. Any error of 
any kind invalidates the answer on Binet's 
standard of passing. He tells us that half 
the French children of five can do it, and 
all the French children at six. A similar, 
though much easier, linguistic test fo: his 
three-year-old children was found too diffi- 
cult for our children, and was seen to be 
suitable for English children of four. Let 
us see if a similar relationship between 



French and English children Is found in 
the results of this test. 

At once I may say that English children 
appear to be less proficient. Of course, the 
length of the sentences is not the only 
factor to be considered, the meaning is a 
factor too. But ours were no harder than 
Binet's in meaning. His example of a 
sixteen syllable is Nous irons a la prome- 
nade. Donnez-moi ce joli chapeau. Our 
sentences were : 

1st. Come with me to see the toy-shop, 
and I will buy you a nice toy. 

2nd. We will go for a walk if you will 
give me that pretty straw hat. 

3rd. When we go to school we like to 
have a nice game in the play-ground. 

It became obvious at an early stage in this 
research that if we adhered to Binet's stan- 
dard we should have scarcely any passes at 
all. And in working with twelve-year-old 
children in a higher grade school and 
using sentences of twenty-six syllables, as 
directed by Binct for twelve-year-old chil- 
dren, I found no single case in which, on 
Binet's "pass" standard, the boys were 
successful. It is probable that, linguisti- 
cally, there is a balance all round in favour 
of the French. Most likely it is a racial 
difference, for the difference is too great to 
be merely a product of pedagogical 
method. However that may be, I had 
necessarily to modify the "pass" stan- 
dard : English children were considered to 
have satisfied the test if two or more of the 
three sentences were repeated correctly. 
Even then, though at five years our chil- 
dren were as good as the French, at six 
they were much inferior ; we had less than 
fifty per cent, of passes, and even at seven 
only some sixty per cent. But I ought to 
say that in the school most favourably 
situated the results for six and seven-year- 
old children were much higher. I will 
analyse in more detail the work of the in- 
termediate school. 

At three years of age twelve per cent, of 
the children passed. Some said nothing ; 
some gave up trying after saying a few 
syllables ; and some gave part of the mean- 
ing of the sentences without rendering the 
exact words. 



W. H. Winch, M.A. 



57 



At four years of age the number of 
"passes" did not increase much; but 
there was considerable improvement, 
nevertheless ; for the majority, even 
though they failed, repeated a portion of 
the sentences quite correctly, and then 
gave a free rendering of the remainder. 
All of them gave something of the meaning 
in their answers. 

At five years of age somewhat less than 
half were successful. But all the rest 
attempted the sentences and got to the end 
somehow. A few children omitted the 
qualifying words ; for example, instead of 
saying " Give me that pretty straw hat," 
they would say, "Give me that hat." 
" Substance memory " still played an im- 
portant role in their answers. 

At six years of age (the age for which 
Binet qonsiders the test suitable) there 
was (except in the well situated school) no 
very considerable improvement. But often 
the qualifying words were the only omis- 
sions. All the children, with one excep- 
tion, made a fair attempt, and gave part 
of the sentences exactly and part in sub- 
stance. 

At seven years of age about sixty per 
cent, could repeat the sentences verbatim. 
As at the previous age, the answers of 
those who failed were partly exact and 
partly in substance, and the qualifying 
words were often omitted or changed. 
Thus, instead of " That pretty straw hat," 
the children would say "That nice straw 
hat." The case of the pronouns and the 
tense of the verb were sometimes altered ; 
instead of " We will go for a walk," the 
child would say " Let us go for a walk." 

This kind of test proved very difficult 
for all our young English children, and 
indeed for English children of other ages 
too. I have, therefore, placed the test in 
the eight-year old groups for our country, 
for only at that age does it seem certain 
that normal children can succeed. For 
schools in "good" neighbourhoods it 
could be used as a seven-year-old "pass" 
test. 

Binet's Third Test for Six-year-oi.d 
Children deals with their aesthetic judg- 
ments. Binet tells us that the young child 



has a sense of beauty, and that there is no 
adult faculty which does not exist in some 
degree in the young child. Such proposi- 
tions raise a number of interesting theo- 
retical questions : I must not be under- 
stood as accepting them because I gladly 
accept Binet's Tests. He used six draw- 
ings of women's heads : three pretty, three 
very ugly. He presented two at a time, 
one pretty and the other ugly, and asked 
the child which was the prettier. He 
placed the pretty face sometimes to the 
right and sometimes to the left to discount 
the automatic repetitive tendency of chil- 
dren, which leads them to keep on point- 
ing to the same side. The drawings used 
(modified somewhat) are given on my 
Form for Testing Backward Children, 
published by Ralph Holland, Temple 
Chambers. For a child to " pass " he was 
required to give three correct answers. 
Binet adds that at five years of age French 
children do this test badly ; half only give 
correct answers ; but at six years of age 
they all discriminate quite clearly between 
the ugly and pretty faces in each pair. 

At three years of age our English chil- 
dren scored only twelve per cent, of 
passes. Some of them regarded the test 
as a problem in identification. One child, 
at least, made no atttempt at discrimina- 
tion, but pointing to one of the ugly faces, 
said " That's a man." 

At four years of age the number who 
could make the correct aesthetic judgments 
advanced to sixty-eight per cent. 

At five years of age ninety-two per cent, 
gave satisfactory answers ; the remainder 
pointed indiscriminately, and when, as a 
further test, the pictures were rearranged 
and the children were asked to point to the 
" ugly " ones they still pointed indiscrim- 
inately. In the very poor school one boy 
of five years persisted that one of the ugly 
ones was pretty because her hair was 
" tied up," the other was "hair all down." 
Another boy of five in the same school said, 
pointing to one of the ugly ones, "The 
lady with a collar on is a man, so he's the 
best." Thus early does the male sex 
believe in its own dominance. 

At six years of age (the age for which 



5"8 



Binet's Mental Tests. 



Binet regards tlie test as suitable) one 
hundred per cent, of the children in our 
intermediate school gave correct dis- 
criminations. One boy hesitated some- 
what when shown the first pair of faces, 
and said, "Neither of them is pretty." 
He immediately corrected himself, how- 
ever, and pointed to one of them. One 
may, perhaps, be permitted to agree with 
the boy's first answer, as we were using 
Binet's drawings and not the amended 
ones given on my " form." 

At seven years of age one hundred per 
cent, again were correct, and there was no 
hesitation on the part of any of the chil- 
dren. 

When the children in the " very poor " 
school were questioned about the draw- 
ings afterwards, the request being "Tell 
me about the pictures," none of the chil- 
dren were ready to suggest by themselves 
the words "pretty" and "ugly." Their 
words were invariably "best," "nice," 
"funny" and "nasty." One boy aged 
seven said, "That's a cook," pointing to 
an ugly one, and " That's a lady," point- 
ing to the pretty one. Children can under- 
stand terms and apply them correctly 
when questioned before they can use them 
correctly. This should be remembered by 
those extremists who claim that educa- 
tion should be entirely a spontaneous 
process. On the other hand, it has been 
suggested to me by a first-rate teacher 
that many ugly people are much liked by 
children ; and that they are using the 
aesthetic expressions without really mak- 
ing aesthetic judgments. Pleasant and un- 
pleasant is what they really mean, not 
"pretty" and "ugly." This problem 
could be tested by using "plain" faces 
with sweet expressions, and comparing 
them with " pretty " ones. However this 
may be, in all the schools tested it was 
quite obvious that our English children 
were ahead of the French in this test ; it 
was placed, in consequence, among the 
five-year-old tests, and not in the six-year- 
old group as Binet places it. 

In the three schools, commencing with 
the " poorest," our figures were eighty- 
five per cent., ninety-two per cent., and 



ninety-five per cent, of " passes" at five 
years of age. 

Binet's Fourth Test for Six-year-old 
Children is concerned with definition. 
Owing to the stupid verbalism of a dis- 
credited system of teaching in which 
definitions were taught and learnt by rote, 
without even the presentation of the 
things defined, all definition has tended to 
fall into discredit, at least, theoretically ; 
for, practically, the teaching of definitions 
proceeds very much now as it used to do ; 
but the wholesale condemnation of defini- 
tion is a serious error, as, I think, the 
course of this research will make quite 
clear. Properly understood, a definition is 
a summary, an analysis and the exhibition 
of a mental attitude towards what we 
know, doubtless, imperfectly. We cannot 
wait till we know everything before we 
define, and if we could it might not help us 
much. For our thought falls into or is 
guided by systems and by definitions of 
the same thing, all different according 
to these systems and our purposes in 
making them. Definition is selective, like 
all our mental activities. 

All of us then should be trained in defini- 
tion. Every educated adult knows how 
unprofitable discussion is unless one par- 
ticipant in it tries to see what the other 
really means by the terms he uses. If the 
disputants cannot (as is mostly the case 
with the expert and the layman), discus- 
sion is disappointing to both parties, nay 
more, it is vastly irritating. How shall we 
be trained? Well, first of all, by defining 
the things we know well. We ourselves 
do not, any more than the children, always 
proceed by genus et differ entiain ; but let 
the answers speak for themselves, and 
show us the methods of natural definition 
among young school-children. 

Binet points out to us that this test, 
though a good linguistic one, is not merely 
a linguistic test, for it indicates to us the 
point of view from which the child regards 
the thing defined. The experimenter is 
to ask the child such questions as " What 
is a fork? " " What is a horse? " "What 
is a table? " " What is a mother?" Some 
children will remain silent or say " It's a 



W. H. Winch, MA. 



59 



fork," or merely point to one, or say 
"That's it," or "That's a fork." Or 
they may define by its use (Binet does not 
distinguish between "use" to us and 
" function " — two very different forms of 
definition) as, for example, " A horse is for 
drawing carriages "-"A horse is to run"- 
"A fork you eat with it"-" A chair is 
used for sitting on"-" A mother is for 
taking care of little children," and so on. 
Or finally, they may give a definition 
superior to one of use, containing, per- 
haps, an element of classification or de- 
scription, as, for example, "A mother is a 
lady"-" A horse has four legs "-" A horse 
it runs, it eats." 

Binet is mistaken in supposing that a 
functional definition of a horse is superior 
to one of usage ; the reverse is the case. 
Children define a horse by its own func- 
tions before they know that it is for us 
his activities are employed. 

Five definitions are asked for from each 
child, and it is considered to have passed 
if it gives three definitions of the types 
either of Class 2 or Class 3, the identifica- 
tion of an example or the repetition of the 
same word, being included within Class 1. 

The following summarises Binet's 
results with French children. At four 
years of age half the children define by a 
single use, at five the number increases a 
little, w-hile at six years we can say that 
all children give definitions, but they are 
not always definitions of use. It is only at 
nine years of age that the definitions 
superior to those of use become the 
majority. 

English children most certainly give 
good definitions of the latter kind before 
the age of nine ; but for the present we are 
testing young children only. Accepting 
definitions of either " use " or "function" 
as satisfactory, we find that at three years 
no child can give "good" definitions, 
which is in agreement with Binet's work. 

At four years of age forty-eight per 
cent, passed; again in precise agreement 
with Binet's results. 

At five years of age there was a great 
improvement; the percentage of passes 



in the three schools averaged about 
seventy per cent. 

At six and seven years only a few very 
backward children failed. On the whole 
the English results are very like those of 
Binet, except that our five-year-old work 
is much better than his. Still, as the 
figures for the five-year-old children of the 
three schools are not in such close agree- 
ment as I should like, I have thought it 
safer to adhere to Binet's classification of 
the test, retaining it in the six-year-old 
group of tests, and not placing it earlier, 
as I thought of doing at first ; though 
further English researches may show that 
it is really a five-year-old test for our chil- 
dren. I now analyse the English results 
in more detail. 

At three years of age every child who 
answered did so by means of a simple 
repetition : " A fork "-" A mother "-"A 
chair "; or by pointing. 

At four years of age nearly fifty per 
cent, gave satisfactory answers. Exam- 
ples follow : — " A mother is to mind you"- 
" A mother is to get your tea"-" A mother 
gives you your food "-" A mother is to 
cuddle you." 

The mother's existence is considered 
only in relation to children up to quite a 
late age in school life. The reference to 
the family is almost as strongly marked 
in the definition of father :" A father's 
to cut your meat "-"A father is to get 
money "-" A father is to go to work." 
Most of the fathers in this district do go 
to work and get money ; though this 
would not be true in all London districts. 
One might be tempted to suppose that 
these purposeful and egocentric definitions 
were limited to those of difficult things 
like mothers and fathers, which are quite 
naturally, in their full relationships, out- 
side the range of the young child's know- 
ledge. But this is not so. For example, 
the four-year-old children tell us that " A 
fork's what you eat your dinner with "- 
" A table's what you have your tea on "- 
"A chair's what you sit on" (a very 
common answer), and "A glass is to drink 
bitter out of." 

In the definitions of animals the furtc- 



60 



Binet's Mental Tests. 



tional refer^ce is marked, the use of the 
animal to us becomes fully dominant later 
on. " A horse runs along " is given, 
corresponding with Binet's " A horse, it 
runs, it eats ' ; then " A horse is to draw 
carts," an intermediate stage which, in 
later years, becomes " A horse draws our 
carts '■ and " A horse pulls our carts for 
us and carries us along," for the use to us 
of some things is only realised later. This 
is strikingly shown when definitions of 
words such as " Soldier " are asked for. 
The point I raise is that definition by use 
or purpose may not in all cases be the 
earliest form of definition, a consideration 
which it appears to me that Binet has 
overlooked. 

At five years of age English children 
show a very considerable advance. Those 
who did not " pass " simply repeated the 
word or pointed as the three-year-old chil- 
dren had done. There was a sprinkling 
of answers here and there which went 
beyond the stage of use and function ; for 
we received definitions by material, by 
description, by adjectival qualification, and 
by synonym. For example : " A table is 
wood "-"A chair is wood "-" A table's 
got four legs "-" A chair's got a seat "- 
" A father is big "-"A father's a dada." 
The remaining definitions were of use or 
purpose, with an occasional noun of classi- 
fication. Examples are: " A table is to 
lean on "-" A table is to put your cups and 
saucers on "-" A chair is to sit on when 
you eat your dinner "-" A fork is to eat 
your dinner with "-" A fork is to eat your 
greens with "-" A fork is to dig into your 
meat " (given by twenty per cent, of the 
children)-" A horse is what goes in a cart"- 
** A horse is an animal what gives you a 
ride on its back "-"A horse is to pull 
'buses along"-" A mother is to mind you"- 
" A mother is what cooks your dinner "- 
" A mother is what makes your tea "- 
" A mother is what you live with "-" A 
mother is to scrub the room out." With 
young children the mother is conceived 
solely in reference to her family utilities ; 
the practice is not very different later, but 
the theoretical conception of her changes. 
The definitions of "father" are equally 



illuminating : " A father is a workman to 
get the money "-" What gives mother the 
money "-"A father is to get up and light 
the fire." All these are good fathers; 
more dubious are the following : "A father 
he comes home to have his tea and then 
goes out again " - " A father is to come 
home and go to sleep "-"A father is to 
smoke pipes." In the "very poor" school 
many children up to and including those 
of five years traced the object in the air; 
but, of course, there were difficulties by 
this method with such a term as 
"mother." One four-year-old boy traced 
his objects, but when he came to 
"mother," stood still with his finger in the 
air, and said, " Eats her dinner with a 
knife"; he was not allowed a knife and 
could not use it. 

At six years of age less than ten per 
cent, failed. The following answers are 
typical : — A Fork: "What you eat with"- 
" What you pick up your meat with "-"A 
thing what you hold the meat still with"- 
" A thing what keeps things still when 
you cut "-" A thing what you dig into 
your meat and then cut it." A Table: 
"What you put anything on "-" What 
you do twice one are two on" (the refer- 
ence is to building up arithmetical tables 
concretely)-" A thing what you put paper 
on and write "-" A thing what you put 
cups and saucers and plates on "-" When 
you want to do your ironing you do it on 
the table "-" Very handy to put things on" 
-" Has eight legs and a piece flat at the 
top "-"A thing you have your food on." 
A Chair: "What you sit on" (given by 
over ninety per cent, of the six-year-old 
children)-" A thing what is made of wood 
and has four legs." 

A Mother: " Your wife what is kind to 
you"-" A woman who gives you your tea, 
dinner, and that "-" What minds you and 
sends you to school, and gives you your 
supper and breakfast and dinner "-" A 
lady who gives you your food and dresses 
you, and makes you neat and clean "- 
" What looks after you and gives you 
food "-" What looks after people and 
babies "-" A lady what does things for 
you "-"Like a servant to look after you"- 



W. H. Winch, MA. 



61 



^' She has two legs, two arms, and two 
eyes." A Father: "A man who gives 
their mothers money "-" A man and he 
makes bread " (this child's father is a 
baker)-" A man who keeps you "-" Goes 
to work and brings money home for you"- 
" Who brings home money and gives it to 
your mother "-"What smokes pipes." A 
Horse: " An animal what draws the carts 
along "-" What draws the carts along and 
carries things "-" What pulls carts along 
and you ride on "-" An animal what runs 
along." 

Many of these definitions represent a 
great advance. There is considerable 
classification, "what" and "thing" in- 
dicating its earlier stages. Then come 
references to a higher genus as "wife," 
"woman," "lady," "man," "animal." 
The differentia we have yet to seek in a 
logical sense ; indeed, very few young 
elementary school children arrive at it at 
all. It is an interesting and important 
pedagogical process to assist children to 
define by genus and differentia : it can be 
done in such a way as to stimulate them to 
enthusiastic co-operation ; but this is not 
the place to indicate the best method ; one 
word only of caution, " Don't teJl the 
children the definitions." 

The social interest attaching to the 
definitions of " mother " and " father " is 
considerable. They are a series of valu- 
able testimonials to the mothers and 
fathers, especially to the mothers. It is a 
little distressing to think of so many 
women wholly sacrificed to their children ; 
but present social arrangements admit of 
nothing else for good mothers. The 
fathers are a good lot, too, except, per- 
haps, the gentleman whose most striking 
activity is to smoke pipes. 

Here and there we find indications of 
description, a later and more developed 
stage than that of definition by use to us ; 
it is, as it were, an ascent into an objec- 
tivity which is the metaphysic of the able 
child and the natural man. There is a 
return to subjectivity later, and, finally, a 
pragmatic union of objectivity and ideal- 
ism ; but I fear these observations are not 
interesting to the student of child-study 



who is not also a philosopher. 

At seven years of age every child in all 
three schools gave satisfactory definitions. 
Whilst the " younger " form of definition 
still persisted in many cases, there were, 
in individual children, indications of great 
advance. The following are some of the 
definitions given: A Fork: "What you 
eat your dinner with " (a very common 
definition ; thirty-two per cent, gave this 
answer)-" What you pick up your food 
with "-" What you pick up your dinner 
with "-" What you dig up your dinner 
with "-" A thing what you pick up your 
dinner with "-" What you hold your meat 
with "-" A thing you pick up your fish 
with "-"What you have your dinner with"- 
" What you pick up your potatoes with "- 
" A thing with three prongs and a black 
handle "-"A table thing, and we eat our 
dinner with it"-" It has a handle, and it 
goes round at the bottom, and it's got 
prongs that stick up, and you dig it into 
the meat "-" It's a thing with three prongs 
and two pieces of flat wood ; and two lines 
down the sides"-" I knew, and I've for- 
gotten. It's for eating with, isn't it? and 
it's got a handle and some long things at 
the end, hasn't it?" 

A Chair: "What you sit on" (sixty- 
eight per cent, of the seven-year-old 
children gave exactly these words)-" A 
thing what we sit on"-" A thing what you 
sit on, and it's got four legs "-"A thing 
what you sit down to the table on "-" A 
thing what you lean against and sit on, 
and it has four legs "-"A chair has four 
legs and a seat and a back "-" We sit on 
it, and it's got a square seat, and it's got 
a back and four legs, and a rod that goes 
across it, and two rods at the sides, and 
one rod that goes in front underneath "- 
" A chair is a chair, isn't it? It's got four 
legs and a seat with holes in it " (the refer- 
ence is to caned chairs). " Some have got 
straight pieces across, and some have got 
round pieces, and some have arms." 

A Mother: " Gives us our food "-" She 
sweeps the room and does the fire-place "- 
" She gets you ready for school, and gives 
you your food "-" She looks after you "- 
" What sees after your dinner " (forty per 



62 



The Psychology of Writing. 



cent, of the seven-year-old children gave 
this answer)-** She minds the baby and 
gets the tea ready "-" She does the 
work "-'* A mamma, who cuts the bread "- 
"What looks after the home "-" A lady 
who works "-" A woman who keeps you 
well "-" A lady who feeds the children "- 
" A lady who looks after you "-"To do 
the work "-" A lady, she's got a white 
blouse on and a black skirt, and she 
works"-'* To give you your dinner "-"A 
lady who gives us things what we want, 
and buys us our dinner "-'* A lady, she's 
got eyes, mouth, nose, fingers, and she 
works "-"A lady who cuts our bread and 
gives us our tea " -" One of our parents ; 
they keep you." 

.1 Father: " Who goes to work "-*' He 
goes to work and earns money "-" He 
goes to work and earns money for us "- 
" He earns all the money " (seventy-six 
per cent, of the seven-year-old children 
gave the foregoing answers)-" A man who 
goes to work "-" A man who goes to work 
to get the money. And Dada goes to the 
market to buy the meat on Saturday "-"A 
man with whiskers, and he goes to work"- 
" A man who goes to work and earns 
money; he works at boilers" (this child's 
father works at boilers)-" A gentleman, he 
goes to work all the week, and stops at 
home on Sundays ''-" A man who gets 
you your living." [Efc] 



Zbc pepcboloas of TKIlrltina* 

HI. 
By James Drever, m.a., b.sc. 
(Lecture delivered before the Edinburgh 
Child-Study Society). 
3. Experimental Investigation of Writ- 
ing. We now come to the third part of 
our subject, and it is necessary to deal 
with it as briefly as possible, I have more 
than once in the lecture indicated the kind 
of experimental work which has been done 
and which may be done in any school in 
connection with writing and spelling. I 
now wish to speak of the laboratory side 
of the investigation of writing, of the kind 
of work that has been done, and can in the 



main only be done, in the pedagogical 
laboratory. 

There are three general lines of investi- 
gation bearing upon the psychology of 
writing ; these w-e may consider briefly in 
turn : 

1. Investigation of the general condi- 
tions or general factors involved in learn- 
ing to write. For example, we may study 
habit formation, the effects of practice, the 
development of muscular control and co- 
ordination, the facility and rapidity of 
movements of different kinds, and like pro- 
cesses and phenomena. The chief investi- 
gations of this class bearing more or less 
directly upon writing have been : — 

(a) Study of the development of muscu- 
lar control and co-ordination. Two ex- 
periments deserve special notice. In the 
first place we may study the rate of tap- 
ping, either with a Morse or reaction key, 
or with tapping-board and style, as figured 
in Whipple's ** Manual of Mental and 
Physical Tests," in both cases registering 
on a smoked surface. The style we employ 
in our laboratory in Edinburgh we owe to 
Meumann's laboratory in Hamburg, and 
it differs somewhat from that figured in 
Whipple. It is shaped precisely like a 
lead pencil, and may be made from any 
lead pencil by replacing the lead with a 
knitting needle, and attaching a light ter- 
minal to the top. Rate of tapping may 
be taken for various ages and under 
various conditions of freedom of move- 
ment at the various joints. 

In the second place the development of 
muscular control may be studied by means 
of the "steadiness tester," also figured in 
Whipple. In this experiment a style is 
held by the subject in a small circular hole 
in a metal plate, without touching the 
edges of the hole. The holes vary in size 
from about 1 cm. to 2mm. in diameter. 
Every touch rings an electric bell and is 
recorded on a smoked surface. 

(b) Rapidity, facility, and accuracy of 
movements approximating to those used 
in writing. This investigation requires a 
tracing board. Essentially a tracing 
board consists of a narrow slit between 
metallic sides and with a smooth surface, 



James Drever, M.A., 6.Sc. 



63 



as of glass, at the bottom. The task set 
the child or subject is to move a style of 
the same general description as that used 
with the tapping board from end to end of 
the slit without touching the metallic 
sides. Every touch rings an electric bell, 
as with the steadiness tester, and is re- 
corded on a smoked surface. In our form 
of tracing board the slit is movable 
through an arc of 180 degrees, so that 
facility and precision of movement in any 
direction may be studied. This experi- 
ment has a very direct bearing on the best 
slope for writing. 

2. Experimental analysis of the act of 
writing. The experiments just described 
might come under this head also. There 
are other experiments, however, which in- 
volve writing itself. The first that de- 
serves mention is the very interesting 
experiment by means of an apparatus 
devised by Judd. This apparatus is de- 
signed to separate finger and hand move- 
ment in writing. It may be very easily 
made by a curved strip of steel or spring, 
carrying on a hinge a short pencil, which 
is attached to the fifth metacarpal bone of 
the writing hand. This traces out the 
hand movement in writing, and by com- 
parison of the trace with the actual writing 
we can isolate the finger work. As a 
general rule the writing of the child shows 
little finger movement, the words written 
being read almost as easily in the trace 
made by the apparatus as in the writi.ig 
itself. Adult pencil writing approximates 
to this type also, but in adult pen writing, 
at least careful pen writing, the apparatus 
traces little more than a slightly uneven 
line, all the finer movements being finger 
movements. 

Another investigation of still greater 
importance coming under this head is the 
investigation of writing pressure. There 
are really two pressures to be studied, grip 
pressure and point pressure. As regards 
the first no work, so far as I know, has yet 
been published. We have, however, an 
apparatus which permits us to register 
grip pressure, and the most interesting 
result we have got so far is the rhythmical 
rise and fall of the grip pressure in adult 



writing. The grip pressure curves, as we 
should expect, considerably resemble the 
point pressure curves, though with less 
irregularity. Both pressures may be re- 
corded on a smoked surface. The point 
pressure curve is obtained either by resting 
the writing surface on an air cushion 
pneumatically connected with a tambour 
and writing lever, or by writing on a plate 
mechanically connected with a writing 
lever, or by using our apparatus, which 
records the pressure on the writing point 
rather than the writing surface, by causing 
the top of pen or pencil to rest on a receiv- 
ing tambour. (For description see "Jour- 
nal of Experimental Pedagogy," vol. 2, 
p. 25). This pressure curve allows us to 
study not merely the degree and variation 
of the pressure, but the nature of the 
writing impulse, as well as the extent to 
which co-ordination is developed. 

There are striking differences between 
the pressure curves for children and those 
for adults, and in the case of children three 
stages in learning to write can be readily 
distinguished by means of the pressure 
curves. At the first stage the curve is long 
drawn out and indefinite, with maxima and 
minima of pressure, showing little rela- 
tion to what is written, so that sometimes 
each letter has its own maximum of pres- 
sure, sometimes even each stroke, some- 
times a group of letters, and sometimes a 
whole word. At the second stage each 
word can be clearly distinguished, the 
words appearing as level plateaus, or as 
gradually rising slopes, occasionally 
broken where the writing has not been 
continuous, but otherwise presenting a 
characteristic smooth outline even in the 
valleys between the words. At the third 
stage the tops of the plateaus or rising 
slopes become very irregular, so that the 
curve again has a quite characteristic ap- 
pearance. These irregularities pass into 
the more or less regular "ripples" of 
adult writing. 

The significance of these changes is not 
very clear, but possibly the last represents 
the passing from drawing to actual writ- 
ing. At first the child draws strokes, or 
letters, ©r groups of letters, or even words, 



6^ 



The Psychology of Writing. 



then he still largely draws whole words, 
and then, when the irregularities, which 
have been noted, begin to appear, he is 
passing to real writing, to graphic lan- 
guage, and this passage seems normally to 
occur at or about the age of eleven. When 
the " ripples " become more or less regu- 
lar or rhythmical, co-ordination is acquired 
so far as to enable the individual to express 
himself in graphic language without think- 
ing about the actual forms he is making. 

Different types of adult writing have 
also been distinguished. In one type each 
word is written with a single maximum of 
pressure, in a second there are several 
maxima in each word ; again one type 
shows heavier pressure with more rapid 
writing, another lighter pressure, and so 
on. In adult writing there are also marked 
differences between pen and pencil writing, 
which are not present to anything like the 
same extent in the writing of children. In 
both cases, however, considerably less 
pressure is shown with pen than with 
pencil, a difference which, as a rule, be- 
comes more and more pronounced up to a 
certain point, as writing is acquired, and 
then again remains fairly constant or 
diminishes. 

3. The third line of investigation is the 
study of writing itself. We may determine 
the rapidity of writing, measure its legi- 
bility, and seek to find how the two are 
related under different conditions. The 
method of study in this case is fairly 
obvious. Again, we may try to solve the 
problem of standardizing writing, that is 
to say, finding a method of measuring the 
quality of writing, which can be generally 
applied to all writing. This leads us on to 
controversial ground, which we have no 
desire in the meantime to traverse, so that 
I may be brief. Facility of production and 
legibility would seem to be the only 
characteristics of writing which can be 
measured in objective terms, and some 
people think these are enough for our 
purpose. A scale for judging the merit 
of writing has, however, been published 
by Thorndike, which claims to take the 
factors of neatness and beauty or pleas- 
ingness into account as well, and yet 



give what is to all intents and purposes 
an objective determination of quality. An- 
other scale has been published by Ayres 
which is simpler and appears to be less de- 
pendent on subjective factors. But the 
whole question is still very open, and there 
is ample room for more work in this de- 
partment as in the other departments of 
the experimental study of writing. 

Conclusion: And now in conclusion I 
must apologise for the dogmatic way in 
which I have been compelled to present 
what is in many cases still only a matter 
of individual opinion after all. My state- 
ments have been far more dogmatic than 
I really feel. It must be granted that a 
great deal of work still remains to be done 
in connection with writing, some of it in 
ordinary schools, some of it in experimen- 
tal schools, and some of it in the peda- 
gogical laboratory, before we can claim to 
have got a valid solution to many of the 
problems. The only points with regard to 
which I am disposed to be dogmatic are, 
first, that we must never lose sight of the 
fact that writing is graphic language on 
its production side, and, second, that the 
motor factor is fundamental in writing as 
in oral speech. If these contentions are 
accepted I do not think we can escape the 
more important of the inferences which I 
have tried to draw. 

Notes on the Illustration. — The illustra- 
tion consists of copies of original grip and 
pomt pressure traces, first taken on trac- 
ing paper and ihen photographed, 

I. Point pressure traces from children 
of six ; all written with pencil. 

(a) The words written are : " The cow- 
gives us milk." 

(b) The words are: "A man can." 
This was the first attempt at script on the 
part of this child. He had only printed 
before. 

(c) The words are : " A man can run." 
They are printed, the child having not yet 
reached the stage of script. The curve is 
a characteristic " drawing " curve. 

II. Point pressure traces from child of 
eight. 

(a) The words are : " Moray House 
School," written twice, the first time 



James Drever, M.A., B.Sc. 



65 



slowly and the second time quickly. Note 
the characteristic level top. Pencil writing. 

(h) Words as before, but written -.vith 
pen. The reproduction hardly does justice 
to the actual irregularity of the curve. 

III. Point pressure trace of pencil writ- 
ing by a child of eleven. 

The words as in the last cases. Note the 



(a) Ordinary slow and careful writing of 
the words " Moray House School" twice. 

(b) Very rapid writing of the same 
words four times. Note the increased pres- 
sure with increased speed. The time record 
will show the comparative rates. It is 
given by a vibrating spring marking fifths 
of seconds. 



f" 



iftt.' 







'M'MJM^MMMM^. 




m. 






p^jvMv^VVir-lf^ 



I- 



A^ 




4.^^...^.^ 



THE PSYCHOLOGY OF WRITING : GRIP AND POINT PRESSURE TRACES. 



change in the top of the curve, approxi- 
mating to adult pressure curves below. 

In all these cases the time record is 
given by a Jacquet chronograph marking 
seconds. So also in VII. 

IV. Point pressure traces of adult pencil 
writing. 



V. Point pressure traces of adult pen 
zvriting. The subject hardly gives a nor- 
mal curve, but one which rather exagger- 
ates the variations of pressure and there- 
fore somewhat magnifies the differences 
between pencil and pen writing. The 
words are as before, "Moray House 



66 



Definitions in Early Childhood. 



School," written first at ordinary rate, and 
then twice at a fairly rapid rate. Time 
record as before in fifths. 

VI. Grip pressure traces of adult writ- 
ing. 

(a) The words " Moray House School " 
written al ordinary careful rate with pencil. 

(6) The words " Moray House School, 
Moray," written at a slightly faster rate 
with pen. Time record in fifths. 

VII. Grip pressure traces of the pencil 
writing of a child of eleven. The words 
" Moray House School " written twice, 
slow writing and fast writing. Time •'ecord 
in seconds. 

VIII. Typical adult point pressure 
traces ; all of pencil writing. 

(a) The words " Moray House " written 
by a lady visitor to the laboratory. 

(b) The same words written by another 
lady visitor. 

(c) The same words written by a gentle- 
man visitor. 

(d) The words " Edinburgh Training 
College " written by a gentleman visitor. 



S)et[nitiond in £arli? Cbt[5boo&. 

By William Bovd, m.a., b.sc, d.phil. 

(All rights reserved). 

A child brought up among educated 
people begins to show interest in the 
meaning of words at a very early age. I 
was surprised to find that among the few 
questions asked by my little girl towards 
the end of the second year, about one in 
five was concerned with meanings. As 
her experience has grown wider, the range 
of interests indicated by her questions has 
greatly increased, and the proportion of 
questions relating to words has diminished. 
But the desire for an explanation of new 
words has continued strong. An un- 
familiar term is an evident challenge to 
her mind, to which she rarely fails to re- 
spond. Sometimes it provokes the direcr 
question, " What does it mean? " At 
other times it appears to pass unheeded, 
but the first convenient opportunity is 
taken to make use of it in a context simi- 



lar to that in which it was heard, and to 
find out its meaning then. Thus, at four 
years and nine months, she remarked to 
her mother, " My cat is looking at me 
with very intelligent eyes." Then, after a 
brief pause : " What does intelligent 
mean? " It is worthy of note, however, 
that questions about meanings seem to 
have reached their maximum about three 
and a half. I find from a record of some 
hundreds of questions at different ages 
that the percentage of questions of this 

kind (in the forms, "What is ?" 

" What does mean? " " Why is it 

called ? ") show an increase up to 

three-and-a-half and a definite decrease 
thereafter: at three. 3 per cent. ; at three- 
and-a-half, 0.1 per cent. ; at four, 2.2 per 
cent. ; at four-and-a-half, 1.6 per cent. 

Examples of the more difficult inverse 
process of answering questions similar to 
those she asks other people have been less 
common. But the ability to explain her 
language has undoubtedly been present 
since her third year, as is evident from two 
cases of answers noted as occurring in the 
course of ordinary conversation in the 
thirty-sixth month. The first of these is 
one of the most remarkable I have noted 
at all. She was speaking one day about 
di\ers, concerning whom she had learned, 
both from a picture and from the song of 
" The Diver." Curious to know what 
kind of ideas she associated with the word, 
I asked what a diver was, and got the 
answer (which I wrote down as she spoke), 
" The diver was the man that took all the 
sponges out of the water " (a pause) "and 
dipped them in the sand to make them 
clean." The conversation which provided 
material for the statement, it should be 
added, took place two or three months 
before this time, and so far as I know, the 
subject was never mentioned by anyone 
thereafter. A week later, she happened to 
refer to the policeman. When asked what 
a policeman was, she replied : " A police- 
man is a man that brings wee girls home 
to their mother." 

As it seemed to me that the interest in 
words revealed in her questions and her 
answers might make it possible to follow 



William Boyd, M.A., B.Sc, D.Phil. 



67 



the development of the child mind in its 
elusive higher reaches, I made out a brief 
list of nouns, adjectives and verbs to serve 
as test words. These I put before her 
some time about her third, fourth and fifth 
birthdays, and noted the answers g-iven to 
my questions as to meaning. The general 
procedure throughout has been much the 
same as that followed by Binet in similar 
experiments. In particular every care has 
been taken to make the conditions of the 
test as uniform as possible. For the nouns 
the general question has been, " What is 
so-and-so? " varied once or twice by, 
" What does so-and-so mean? " when the 
answers tended to assume a stereotyped 
form. The fact that a test was being made 
has always been concealed by pretending 
to play at a school, and introducing the 
questions about words among simple ques- 
tions about numbers, places, etc. The 
tests have only been made in the forenoon, 
and at the least sign of fatigue " school " 
has been dismissed for a few minutes' 
interval. 

In addition to the formal definitions, I 
have jotted down at various times the more 
spontaneous statements made when she 
herself had used some uncommon expres- 
sion and had been called on for an explana- 
tion of it. These, as we shall see, are of 
great value for the help they give in inter- 
preting the results of the tests. 

In the present discussion, I propose to 
consider only the definitions of the nouns. 
Though the definitions of the adjectives 
and the verbs are not without significance, 
they do not throw as much light on the 
course of mental progress at this stage as 
the definitions of the nouns. 

The following were the definitions given 
for the nouns chosen as test words, at the 
beginning of the fourth, fifth and sixth 
years : — 

Three years of age : A fork is a thing 
you eat with; a school is a place where you 
read; a table is a place where you eat; a 
ring is a thing you put napkins through; 
a postman is a man that brings the letters; 
butter is a thing you put on bread. 

Four years of age: A fork is a thing 
with prickly things over it — a big, long 



handle with prickly things; a school is a 
big, big place where a lot of children go; 
a table is a thing where you lay things on; 
a ring is a big round thing like that (she 
pointed to the seat of a chair), only far 
rounder; a postman is a man that gives 
letters; butter is a greasy stuff, and you 
can make butter balls. 

Five years of age : A fork is for helping 
things into a spoon; a school is for teach- 
ing in; a table is for eating on and work- 
ing on; a ring is for putting on your 
finger; a postman is for carrying letters; 
butter is for putting on bread. 

The most striking feature about these 
lists is the complete change that takes 
place in the method of definition at five. 
In the earliest definitions the word defined 
is referred to a wider term, and the wider 
term qualified by the statement of a differ- 
ential characteristic, somewhat after the 
manner of a true logical definition. Com- 
mon articles like the fork and the ring are 
designated things with which something 
special is done; the postman is a man, who 
does something special, etc. The defini- 
tions at four belong to the same type, the 
main difference being that the differeniicB 
in three of the six cases (" fork," "ring," 
" butter ") are distinctive attributes and 
not functions of direct personal interest. 
Then for some reason or other the larger- 
term definitions entirely disappear at five 
and we have instead definitions of what is 
commonly assumed to be the infantile 
type, confined to a statement of what is 
done with or to the object, or what the 
object does, with a vague suggestion that 
this is the purpose for which it exists. 

The common view, propounded in the 
first instance by Binet and supported by 
subsequent investigations, is that the 
child's earliest definitions are mainly of 
this last type, and that the transition to 
larger-term definitions, which normally 
comes about seven or eight, depends on a 
mental capacity not usually found in early 
childhood. (Cf. the Binet-Simon Tests). 
How then does it come that in this particu- 
lar child the order of development seems to 
have been reversed and the definitions that 
are supposed to indicate the higher stage 



68 



Definitions in Early Childhood. 



of mental advancement have preceded 
those indicative of a lower stage? 

What I believe to be the solution of the 
problem came to me when I was conduct- 
ing^ another experiment with my little one 
at four years and nine months. For the 
sake of comparison with the results of 
other workers, I got her to define the 
thirty words used by Binet in his experi- 
ments with his daughters (" Perceptions 
d'Enfant " in the Revue Philosophique, 
1890). With the exception of four, all the 
definitions were in the familiar form : 
" Bread is for eating," " A mother is to 
keep children," " A snail is for killing," 
and so on. This was the first time I had 
heard her defining words in this fashion, 
and it was all the more surprising because 
the casual definitions she gave me about 
the same lime, when not simply synonyms, 
had still mainly reference to the larger 
term. 

To put the matter to more definite proof, 
I made occasions for definition at odd 
times in the course of conversation during 
the next three days, and in this way 
secured a further set of thirty definitions. 
These, as I expected, were quite different 
in character from those given in the formal 
experiment. Here are some examples : — 
An artist is a painter; a studio is a house 
where they paint pictures; ivy is green 
leaves; a secret is a thing that people must 
not know; chums are people that know 
each other very well ; a resolve is a 
promise; a promise is a word that people 
say, and if they don't do it it is not a 
promise; a bear is a beast that will eat 
you if it is wild; a difficulty is something 
you cannot do. Only one of this group of 
definitions took the " infantile form " : "a. 
pipe is for smoking." 

What is the explanation of the differ- 
ence in the two sets of definitions? Partly, 
no doubt, it is to be found in the character 
of the words. In the one case, the objects 
defined are concrete ones of every-day 
occurrence. The child of five is so familiar 
with them that it takes a distinct effort of 
mind for him to analyse them for purposes 
of definition, and when asked what they 
mean he hesitates and halts, and fre- 



quently shirks the question by making 
what are really irrelevant remarks. "What 
is a knife? " one asks. " A knife," says 
the child, then stops as if baffled. " A 
knife is a knife." Another pause: then, 
"A knife is for cutting with." That is 
not all he thinks about a knife, but it is 
what comes most readily to the mind at 
the moment of answering. Again : "What 
is a bird? " The question is so simple 
that it puzzles him, and he goes off at a 
tangent by saying that " the bird flies." 
"But what i.v a bird?" Answer: "A 
bird is for flying." (I take these last two 
examples from my experiment with Binet's 
test words. For further examples, see 
Chamberlain, "Studies of a Child" in 
the l^edagogical Seminary, 1909). In 
lh(; other case, where the words de- 
fined are actually being used when the 
meaning is asked, most of the words 
are at the growing point of the vocabulary 
and some of them are rather strange to 
the little talker. Yet curiously enough 
they seem to cause less difficulty on 
the whole than the more familiar terms. 
Words like " calamity " (" a not very nice 
thing"), though vaguely defined, do not 
embarrass nearly so much as the ordinary 
everyday words like " knife " or "bird "; 
and because the mind is actually grappling 
with their meaning, the definitions come 
forth with the strmip of the generalising 
intelligence on them. 

But the difference is not completely ac- 
counted for in this way. It is instructive 
to note that the concrete terms which are 
crudely defined under test conditions are 
for the most part defined quite differently 
when taken in their context in the child's 
interests. The same child who says a 
knife is "for cutting with," when the word 
occurs in a series of formal questions, 
gives the superior definition that it is " a 
thing that cuts " when asked about a knife 
that he is speaking about himself. This 
plainly shows that the attempt to test the 
child's ability to define by compelling him 
to attend to detached words introduces a 
disturbing factor into the situation and 
changes the character of his thought. In 
presence of the abrupt demand for the 



William Boyd, M.A., B.Sc, D.Phil. 



69 



meaning- of a word with which at the 
moment he is not concerned at all, the 
normal processes of his mind are thrown 
out of gear. He loses hold of the relation 
between the object and other objects which 
leads him, just as much as any adult, to 
refer everything- to some wider group, and 
he puts all the stress on some characteris- 
tic action done by or to the object. The 
result is a definition which is so far charac- 
teristic of early childhood that it reveals 
the predominance of the interest in what 
things do or have done to them, but which 
utterly fails to show the real structure of 
the child mind. 

Let us see now what bearing all this has 
on the fact that the child whose case we 
have been considering began with larg-er- 
term definitions and changed to definitions 
in terms of action. Two questions arise : 
first, as to the significance of larger-term 
definitions in a child of three; second, as 
to the reason for the change of method 
at five. 

With regard to the first point, it may be 
said that the ability of a child of three to 
give definitions which, in form at least, are 
like those of an adult argues precocity, and 
that consequently any conclusions about 
children in general are not warranted. To 
this, it seems to me, the answer is twofold. 
In the first place, the contention assumes 
either that the ordinary child of three can- 
not define his terms at all or that he does 
so in a way quite different from an adult. 
The former proposition may be true, but 
until it is proved to be true it is a mere 
assumption. The latter proposition, so 
far as it has any definiteness, simply re- 
asserts the view that there is a special type 
of definition peculiar to early childhood; 
and that, I hope I have shown, is open to 
grave doubt. In the second place, the fact 
that this particular child's definitions 
under the usual test conditions are those 
generally recognised as normal for one of 
her years makes it difficult to maintain 
that her earlier performances were in any 
proper sense abnormal. It is highly im- 
probable that a child who was precocious 
at three would have ceased to be preco- 
cious at five. 



Does that mean then that the ordinary 
child of three may be expected to define 
objects by reference to some kind of 
genera and to indicate some kind of differ- 
entiating character pertaining to them? 
That indeed I am not prepared to assert. 
Many children of three, perhaps most chil- 
dren of three, are unable to define at all. 
But the reason, I suggest, is not that there 
is any incapacity on their part, but only 
that they lack the training in speech with- 
out which the powers of thought capable 
of development remain undeveloped. I 
firmly believe that any intelligent child, 
trained to know with some precision what 
it speaks about, and to speak with some 
precision about what it knows, will really 
think about the facts of its experience; and 
thought, even within the narrow limits of 
a very immature mind, always implies such 
a subsumption of facts under categories as 
finds articulate expression in larger-term 
definitions. That is not to say that even 
when all the conditions are favourable the 
child will in every case tell what an object 
is by indicating some group of objects to 
which it belongs and referring to some dis- 
tinctive feature of it. As a matter of fact, 
that is not the case. Sometimes he will 
tell what the object means for him by giv- 
ing a synonym, or by specifying the parts 
that interest him most, or by referring to 
its attributes or functions. Sometimes 
his attention will flag, and instead of say- 
ing what the object is he will make a re- 
mark about it which can by no stretch of 
imagination be regarded as a definition at 
all. But given the right training and the 
right test, there will always be implicit, 
and generally explicit, the twofold refer- 
ence to an including group and a differen- 
tial character, which is the essence of true 
definition. 

That brings us to the second question. 
If definition at every age tends to the same 
form, how are we to account for the aber- 
ration which we have noted as occurring 
in the test under consideration, at five 
years of age? The fact that the element 
of artifice involved in asking a young child 
the meaning of detached words provokes 
a special response, while explaining the 



70 



Suggestions for Study and Practice. 



type of definition commonly supposed to 
be characteristic of children of five, ob- 
viously does not explain why a child who 
has g-iven formally good definitions at 
three and four should adopt a seemingly 
inferior method at five. The explanation 
of the change, I am inclined to think, is 
to be found in the greater mental maturity 
of the older child. The divorce of a word 
from its context in personal interest which 
produces a certain confusion in the pro- 
cesses of thought at five has little or no 
effect at three, because experience is then 
less connected and thinking usually goes 
on in the spasmodic way which the test 
requires. Consequently the definitions 
given under the conditions of the experi- 
ment at three tend to take the normal form 
while those given at five tend to depart 
from it. 

The view which has been advanced here 
is in no way inconsistent with the use made 
of definition in the Binet-Simon tests. 
Binet assumed that the older a child grew 
the more likelihood there was of the logi- 
cal type of definition when the question is 
asked : " What is so-and-so? " and I see 
no reason for thinking he was wrong in 
his assumption. What presumably hap- 
pens is that the growth of mind brings 
with it an increasing power of overcoming 
the disturbance caused by the presentation 
of detached words for definition. The re- 
sult is that the child of seven or eight re- 
turns on a higher level of mind to the 
method of definition from which he had 
departed for a year or two at a period of 
instability. 

But though there is nothing in what has 
been said to invalidate the definition test 
as an index of mental development, there 
is good reason for insisting on a different 
interpretation of its results from that 
usually given. As is shown by the vogue 
of the Montessori system, with its crude 
sensationalist psychology, there are many 
people who are inclined to under-rate the 
mentality of the young child and to think 
of him as a sense-bound animal devoid of 
the higher mental activities. This makes 
it all the more necessary that in the matter 
of definitions and of others of a like kind 



in which these higher activities are in- 
volved, we should be on our guard against 
allowing the imperfections of our observa- 
tions and our experiments to obscure the 
substantial identity of the infant and the 
adult mind. It is only by realising that 
the mind at all its stages is fundamentally 
the same in spite of the profound modifica- 
tions due to the progrc'ssi\c organisation 
of experience that we can do justice to the 
capacities of the child. 



SuflGcstiouB tor 5tu&i? an^ 
practice. 

A Time-Table and a Nursery School. — 

" The time-table is a creature of the 
school, it does not belong to the nursery, 
yet there are definite times for certain 
activities in the nursery which must be 
strictly observed. These have to do 
mainly with the physical health of the 
child, and depend on attention to the for- 
mation of good personal habits, to regu- 
lar and satisfactory meals, to adequate 
time and place for rest and sleep. It 
should be possible to allow for these in a 
general plan of the five hours a day, while 
the major portion of the time between 
might be left free for play, music, story 
telling and looking at pictures." — 
ll'outriiia a Bone, "The Nursery School," 
Educational Handwork, March, 1914. 

Learning Methods and Times. — *' In 
the following experiments only two 
[methods] were used. I have designated 
them as (1) the ' continuous method,' and 
(2) the ' once-per-day method.' In the 
former, the subject is allowed to memorize 
"the material en masse, i.e., in one sitting; 
in the latter, the subject memorizes the 
material by reading it once a day (and 
only once) until it is memorized... The 
time taken by the ' once-per-day * method 
varies approximately as the length of the 
material. When, however, we turn to the 
' continuous ' method, we find that this 
relation holds only for the shorter pas- 
sages. As soon as the passage becomes 
too long for the mind to grasp it as a 
whole, the time mounts up rapidly... In 
short it is obvious that the * once-per-day' 



Notices and News. 



71 



method is, to say nothing of giving a far 
superior retention, far more economical 
than the ' continuous ' method." — D. O. 
Lyon, " The Relation of Length of 
Material to Time taken for Learning," 
The Journal of Educational Psychology 
(U.S.A.), February, 19U. 

Imagination. — " Children vary very 
much in imaginative power, but imagina- 
tion is certainly a normal faculty of child- 
hood. It shows itself in various ways; 
among others, in a habit of romancing 
that seems harsh to call lying. I should 
draw a rather strong distinction between 
an untruth told to gain some advantage or 
avert some unpleasantness, and an un- 
truth told from a kind of perverted 
imagination; for things of the mind are 
often very nearly objective realities to 
children. I suppose the human mind 
starts with its imaginative power more 
strongly developed than its perceptive 
power. So the earliest thing that we have 
to learn is the reality of things. The 
dream-world is just as real to the little 
child as the world of so-called realities. 
But gradually the external world asserts 
itself, and as it does so one of two things 
happens : either the faculty of imagination 
is stifled and dulled, or, under the wise 
guidance of skilful teaching it turns to the 
world of external things and finds its true 
place there. In Browning's phrase, we 
mix our souls with the inert stuff, and 
under the shaping spirit of imagination we 
see the world as it truly is, because we see 
it imaginatively." — Canon J. H. B. 
Mastermany " The Cultivation and Use of 
the Imagination," Journal of Education, 
April, 1914. 



trbc Cbtlt)-5tu0i2 Society m\b tbc 
Constituent Societies. 

Council Meeting at Birmingham. — At the Coun- 
cil meeting recently held at Birmingham it was 
resolved : (1) that the name The Child-Study Asso- 
ciation shall in future be the name of the body, 
in place of The Child-Study Society; (2) that the 
Extension Committee become an Advisory Com- 
mittee for the purpose of initiating investigation 
into matters relating to Child-Study, and for sug- 
gesting and arranging for expert advice upon 



methods ; and (3) that Hon. Secretaries of Con- 
stituent Societies be ex-officio members of the 
Extension Committee. 

Tunbridge Wells Society.— This Society has 
realised for some time that it has not been 
carrying out to the full the purpose of its exist- 
ence, viz., to study the child first-hand, in other 
words, to carry out some research work. 

It has been rather looking to the Central Asso- 
ciation to take the lead in this direction, by sending 
to its constituent societies from time to time a 
series of questions or problems to be worked out 
by the members. 

Failing this, the matter has been taken up in a 
small way by the above Society, and the follow- 
ing question was propounded, with a view to ascer- 
taining what were children's ideals, ten minutes 
being allowed for the written answer. The ques- 
tion was : — If you could change your personality, 
who would you desire to be ? Some two thousand 
replies have been received, written by pupils of 
both sexes, ranging in age from six to eighteen, 
and from secondary and elementary schools. The 
girls' papers, as may be expected, show a wide 
choice, varying from royalty to nurse, etc. 

The boys' papers showed quite a different 
choice, viz., of people leading a more active and 
adventurous life. 

Altogether the experiment has been interesting, 
and though nothing of a very original nature has 
been elicited, yet the Society feels that it is in this 
direction the work of the Child-Study Association 
should proceed, and the members await with in- 
terest the suggestions of the Advisory Committee 
that has been appointed. — J.A.P.S. 



floticcs an^ flews. 

Corrections. — The title of Dr. Ballard's paper 
(see " Editorial Notes " for April) should have 
been " Obliviscence and Reminiscence." 

The address of the Hon. Sec. for the Journal is : 
Mr. H. R. Crisp, 45, Corringham Road, Golders 
Green, London, N.W. (not N.). 

Our Library. — The Council of the Child-Study 
Association request local secretaries and others to 
suggest names of books which are specially suit- 
able for our library but not at present in it. Such 
suggestions should be sent to Miss Mary Louch, 
Colbury House, Totton, Hants. 

The Study of Criminals, Paupers, and Defec- 
tives. — Mr. Arthur MacDonald, " The Congres- 
sional," Washington, D.C. (U.S.A.), has circu- 
larised our Home Secretary and public authorities 
in order to interest them in " a general plan for 
the establishment of a laboratory or bureau to 
study the criminal, pauper and defective classes." 
He urges that " A bureau for moral health is as 
needful, and perhaps more so, than a bureau for 
physical health... For a practical beginning, the 
idea is to have a few young m.en with medical, 
psychological and anthropological training first 



72 



Reviews. 



study the inmates (especially the young) of your 
penal and reformatory institutions. One of the 
main objects is to investigate causes of crime, and 
by knowledge thus gained, furnish a more rational 
basis for methods of reform." He has sent a note 
to our Association, saying, " I should be glad if 
your Society could take early action in this mat- 
ter, and your members individually use their influ- 
ence towards establishment of this work." 

Health Conference Exhibition. — The Victoria 
League has arranged for a conference at the Im- 
perial Institute, London, from May 18th to 21st, 
1914. The section on " The Care of Child Life " 
will include discussion on infancy and health, the 
school child, and the child as wage-earner. The 
Secretary to the Conference is Miss R. V. Gill, 
Millbank House, Westminster, S.VV. 



1RCVtCW0. 

Eugenics Review. April, 1914. 

In this issue appears the first part of an article 
by Mr. Cyril Burt, entitled " The Measurement of 
Intelligence by the Binet Tests." Mr. Burt points 
out that so far there has been no systematic dis- 
cussion of the merits and limitations of Binet's 
method. Such a discussion is of importance be- 
cause of the popularity of the tests and the danger 
of these becoming stereotyped. After indicating 
that Binet's aim is the measurement of intelligence 
in terms of its development he proceeds to examine 
the assumptions upon which the method rests, and 
shows that these have not yet been verified. The 
chief assumptions are as follows : — 1. That varia- 
tions in intelligence may be considered as different 
degrees of one and the same unitary function. 
2. That this unitary function is native and inborn. 
3 That differences in the amount of native intelli- 
gence possessed by different persons can be 
measured in terms of age. The provisional char- 
acter of Binet's position due to these assumptions, 
for which he produces only occasional evidence, 
gives a provisional character to the tests. Com- 
parative work is needed upon the psychological or 
diagnostic value of the several tests. 

The part of Binet's work which has received the 
greatest commendation is his attempt to express 
individual differences, and especially sub-normal 
differences, in terms of mental years. 

The assumptions in which analogies between the 
states of defect and states of immaturity are based 
are as follows : — 1. That all differences in intelli- 
gence may be regarded as falling within a single 
dimension and lying along a single scale. This 
involves the assumption that abnormal personali- 
ties are cases of arrested development. 2. That 
annual increments of intelligence may be treated 
as equal in amount. Both these assumptions are 
untenable, and therefore, except for rough-and- 
ready purposes, Binet's intention of measuring in- 
telligence in terms of mental years seems imprac- 
ticable. 



The Pedagogical Seminary. March, 1914. 

In this issue there are two studies on the vocabu- 
lary of individual children, both girls. In one case 
the father collected words used by the child during 
a whole fortnight in each of the years two, three, 
and four. 

So far as could be arranged the circumstances of 
the child's life were much the same in each of 
these fortnights. The words used were then classi- 
fied under various headings, and the classifications 
for each year were compared with each other. By 
this means it was possible to show the develop- 
ment of the child's vocabulary, not merely in the 
total number of words in the vocabulary, but by 
the change in the proportionable number of times 
various parts of speech were used. The relation 
of the development of the vocabulary to the widen- 
ing of experience is also clearly indicated in this 
study. 

The second study, extending over a period of 
six months, is of less interest because it does not 
deal with development, but it is of value as a study 
of the actual vocabulary (consisting of 1,900 words) 
of an intelligent child of three. 

Archives de Psychologie. February, 1914. 

In an article entitled Tests of Development and 
Tests of Aptitude Monsieur Claparede discusses the 
Binet-Simon Tests and their modifications by 
Meumann. Mental tests were originally used to 
determine individual mental types. Binet used 
them to determine the degree of the mental de- 
velopment of an individual. Thus a quantitative 
was substituted for a qualitative problem. From a 
practical and pedagogical point of view these tests 
are of considerable value, but they are less satis- 
factory from a psychological point of view, because 
it is not at all certain at what point a mental func- 
tion expresses a natural aptitude rather than a 
degree of development. 

After giving some examples to indicate this 
difficulty, Claparede draws the conclusion from 
them that the distinction between a test of natural 
aptitude and a test of development depends on the 
variability, which is discovered by means of a given 
test, among individuals of the same age. In other 
words, a test is a test of aptitude when it reveals 
a mental characteristic which differs more, on the 
average, among individuals of the same age, than 
it differs, on the average, among individuals of 
different ages. It is a test of degree of mental 
development when the reverse is the case. 

Another article of considerable interest in this 
number is The Psychology of Religion, which in- 
cludes a comprehensive bibliography on the subject 
by G. Berguer. 

Publications Received. — The Journal of Edu- 
cation ; Educational Times; Secondary Education ; 
Kindergarten (Berlin); Child Life; Le Jardin 
d'Enfants; The American Teacher (U.S.A.); 
Eugenique (Paris) ; Archives de Psychologie 
(Geneva); Parents' Review; Educational Review 
(U.S.A.). 



Cl)lld=$tu(lp, 

tbc Journal of tDe Cblld-stuap Societp. 



y\ 



Vol. VII.— No. 5. 



JUNE. 1914. 



TLbc IRervous CbtlD. 

By Leonard Guthrie, m.a., m.d., f.r.c.p. 

The Nervous Child. A nervous child 
is not merely one that is timid and shy, 
one that trembles, shakes, changes colour 
and stammers when notice is taken of it. 
No doubt these are obvious signs of what 
is called nervousness, but they form but a 
part of the nervous or neurotic tempera- 
ment. What is meant by the neurotic tem- 
perament? Before answering this question 
it is necessary briefly to remind you that 
the nervous system, brain and spinal cord 
as a whole, is made up of countless 
myriads of nervous systems in miniature, 
each of which is called a " neuron." Each 
neuron consists of a centre or cell, which 
receives stimuli or impressions conveyed 
by sensory nerves from all parts of the 
body (through what are called the afferent 
or sensory tracts in the spinal cord and 
brain). Each neuron stores such impres- 
sions in the form of potential energy, 
which is converted from time to time into 
active energy distributed through the effer- 
ent or motor tracts and nerves to the 
various muscles and organs of the body. 

The main functions of the nervous 
system are to receive and store impres- 
sions or stimuli (from the periphery) and 
to give them out in the form of energy or 
action. I make no attempt to define 
" energy." Energy is life, and no man 
knows its nature or origin. But it is cer- 
tain that all growth and development of 
viable structures depends on irritation or 
stimulation. As a concrete example, I 
may mention that a very passable frog 
can be created by stimulating its unferti- 
lised ovum with a sterilised glass rod. 

All nervous tissues are sensitive, in that 
they respond in some way to various kinds 
of stimulation. Vitality, including reflex 



action, consciousness, mental and emo- 
tional capacities, depends on the degree 
of nervous irritability or responsiveness 
to stimulation which prevails in the indivi- 
dual. From the moment of birth, irritant 
stimuli pour incessantly upon our brains 
through the medium of the organs of 
special and common sensation. 

Temperament results from the mode in 
which stimuli are perceived, responded to 
in the form of motor reactions, emotional 
or otherwise, and from the capacity of 
storing experiences of past stimuli, recall- 
ing them to consciousness, comparing 
them, and formulating ideas, judgments 
and conduct based thereon. 

The neurotic temperament consists in a 
peculiar hypersensitiveness in the percep- 
tion of stimuli, an unduly active response 
thereto, together with instability or pecu- 
liarity in regard to storage of impressions, 
and their conversion from potential into 
active energy. In most cases though not 
in all, there is deficiency of control over 
normal primitive reactions to stimuli or 
impressions, and in all cases, without ex- 
ception, there is a strong tendency to 
fatigue and prostration arising from ex- 
penditure of energy. 

It may seem a hard saying that mental 
and intellectual processes are but reactions 
to stimuli, yet on reflection it is clear that 
they are all evolved through stimulation of 
our eyes and ears by light and sound, of 
our olfactory and taste organs, by odour- 
ous and sapid substances, of our organs 
of common sensation by heat, cold, painful 
and pleasurable impressions. 

An infant permanently incapable of per- 
ceiving, registering impressions, and react- 
ing to stimulation of its special sense 
nerves and of nerves of common sensa- 
tions (both superficial and deep), must 



74 



The Nervous Child. 



necessarily be mindless. Fortunately when 
one portal is closed others are open to 
stimuli ; otherwise the deaf-mute, or con- 
genitally blind person would also be an 
idiot. Defective appreciation of stimuli 
through one afferent or ingoing channel 
may be compensated by increased sensi- 
tiveness to stimuli passing through 
another. The origin of consciousness is 
in the simplest sensations, and by them 
all the higher faculties of the mind may be 
developed, presuming that the brain, 
which I for one, regard as the organ of the 
mind, be normal. 

The most striking proof of this is in the 
case of Helen Keller. Rendered deaf and 
blind in infancy, she would have remained 
an idiot throughout her life, but talents 
and intellect of the highest order were cul- 
tivated in her, solely through the medium 
of her sense of touch. 

The primitive instincts of the new-born 
babe are reactions to stimuli of the sim- 
plest nature. It sucks, if anything be 
placed in its mouth, cries and struggles 
if hungry, hurt or uncomfortable. At first 
it reacts only to unpleasant or painful 
stimuli. For the first few weeks of life, 
response to pleasurable sensations is nega- 
tive. It is not as a rule until four or five 
months of age that it delights its parents 
with the tribute of a smile expressive of 
contentment. 

By degrees, more complex emotions than 
those of mere pleasure, and its reverse 
make their appearance. But all are primarily 
reactions or motor responses to stimuli 
which are pleasant or unpleasant to the 
individual. In time, when the ingoing 
paths of sensation and the outgoing motor 
paths become developed by use, and the 
centres in the brain become stored with 
myriads of impressions or perceptions, de- 
rived through the organs of special and 
common sensation, the complex and varied 
emotions which make up conscious per- 
sonality are elaborated. All of us will pro- 
bably agree that the neurotic child or per- 
son is essentially emotional. But what 
are emotions? 

Emotions , like instincts, are involuntary 
motor responses to sensations or stimuli. 



Without the involuntary motor response, 
that is the expression or attitude of an 
emotion, the intensity and even the exist- 
ence of an emotion cannot be gauged or 
surmised by an observer. Some maintain 
that it is the expression or attitude itself 
which gives rise to an emotion, and not 
the emotion which causes the expression 
or attitude. 

Darwin said many years ago : "Most of 
our emotions are so closely connected with 
their expression that they hardly exist if 
the body remains passive." Professors 
James and Lange trace emotions to sensa- 
tions derived from the activity of certain 
muscles (voluntary and involuntary) and 
glands. Under a stimulus, pleasurable or 
otherwise, voluntary muscles are thrown 
into activity and the characteristic atti- 
tudes expressive of emotion are involun- 
tarily assumed. The stimulus also excites 
activity in involuntary muscles, giving rise 
to certain changes in the circulation, such 
as increased or diminished frequency of 
the pulse, flushing, pallor, " goose skin," 
and also to increased or diminished activity 
of the lachrymal, salivary, intestinal and 
sweat glands. 

The various sensations induced by atti- 
tudes, gestures, circulatory, secretory and 
other physical conditions and changes, 
give rise to the different kinds of emo- 
tions ; and the neurotic child or individual 
is unduly emotional because the physical 
changes mentioned in heart, circulation 
and glandular secretion are too readily 
induced in him by insignificant internal or 
external stimuli. Both sensitiveness and 
reaction to such stimuli are exaggerated. 

The mechanism by which the physical 
concomitants of emotion (namely, accelera- 
tion or slowing of the heart, pallor, flush- 
ing, trembling, changes in the character 
of respiration, increase or suppression of 
glandular secretions) are produced, is 
the sympathetic nervous system, which 
governs circulation of the blood and there- 
fore the functions of all organs in the 
body. Hence emotions must be regarded 
as dependent on the sensitiveness and 
activity of the sympathetic nervous system, 
and the emotional or neurotic person is one 



Leonard Guthrie, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P. 



>5 



in whom such sensitiveness and activity 
are unduly heightened. 

It is beside my purpose to dwell upon 
the medical aspects of the neurotic tem- 
perament, but I may say that the great 
majority of the disorders of health with 
which it is associated are due to irritability, 
hypersensitiveness, and abnormal excess 
of reaction to stimuli on the part of the 
sympathetic nervous system. 

It is a curious fact that the physical 
concomitants of emotions become in time 
so readily induced in neurotic individuals 
that they cease to be associated with the 
emotions themselves, but are regarded by 
the patient and his friends as symptoms 
of various fell diseases. 

Feeling tone. I have already mentioned 
that pleasant and unpleasant sensations 
in response to stimuli are the foundation 
of all other emotions. Scientific instru- 
ments of precision have shown that posi- 
tive or pleasant sensations or tone of feel- 
ing, are associated with dilatation of blood 
vessels, acceleration of pulse, increase in 
depth of respiration, whilst negative or 
unpleasant feeling tone is associated with 
the reverse of these conditions. 

It is on the exaggeration of a pleasant, 
though far more frequently an unpleasant, 
" feeling tone " that the ever-changing 
mental moods, phases and fancies, of 
neurotic individuals depend. 

Control of emotions. Although neurotic 
persons are said to be lacking in self- 
control, the emotions are not under direct 
control by the will. We can work up a 
spurious emotion by assuming the attitude 
which characterises it, as every actor 
knows, and we can partly counteract an 
emotion by assuming a contrary attitude. 
For instance, we can control a desire to 
laugh by putting on an air of preter- 
natural solemnity. But although the out- 
ward expression of an emotion may be 
voluntarily suppressed, and the emotion 
itself dulled to some extent by such sup- 
pression, it is impossible to stifle the 
effects of a stimulus or shock to the ner- 
vous mechanism of circulation, respiration 
and secretion. We cannot prevent our 
eyes from filling, our face from flushing 



or becoming pale, our heart from throb- 
bing, our respiratory rhythm from alter- 
ing, our mouth from watering or our flesh 
from creeping at a sight, or sound, or 
thought. 

All these conditions are essential, where- 
as the characteristic attitudes are only 
adjuncts to the expression and experience 
of an emotion. 

Although the neurotic individual is one 
whose emotions are readily excited by 
their physical concomitants, and these 
again are reactions to most insignificant 
stimuli, many whose emotions are most 
readily aroused and deeply felt, display 
them least by outward manifestations, and 
these form an important class of nervous 
or neurotic persons. 

Types of Neurotic Temperament. Al- 
though sub-divisions are endless, there are 
two main types of neurotic temperament : 
(1) The unrestrained ; (2) the restrained or 
receptive type. 

The Unrestrained Type. In persons of 
this type there is supersensitiveness and 
excessive reaction to all forms of stimuli, 
physical and mental. It may be recognised 
in young infants by the abnormal severity 
of the symptoms attending any ordinary 
ailment, and the readiness with which 
digestive functions are impaired. Their 
discrimination in taste is precocious ; any- 
thing which they do not like violently dis- 
agrees with them, and the greatest diflfi- 
culty is experienced in finding a diet which 
suits them. 

Their temperature rises on the slightest 
provocation, and a common cold, especially 
if they happen to be cutting a tooth, makes 
them seriously ill. They are bad sleepers, 
wake screaming at any sound, and cannot 
be soothed to sleep again. Even before 
the age when babies usually begin to "take 
notice," they start and show signs of fear 
at a strange face, or at any novel ex- 
perience. 

In later childhood they are invariably 
thin, almost emaciated, in spite of un- 
limited cod liver oil and attempts to " feed 
them up." They are pale and sallow, and 
therefore supposed to be anaemic and in 
need of patent preparations of iron, which 



76 



the Nervous Child. 



do not improve their complexions or 
powers of digestion. They have dark cir- 
cles round their eyes, dilated, active pupils 
and puffy lower eyelids, which are tremu- 
lous when closed. Their expression is 
animated, their colour changes rapidly, 
they talk fast and volubly, and ask strings 
of questions without waiting for an an- 
swer. They cannot keep still for a minute. 
For days or weeks together they will be full 
of life and energy, and never seem to tire ; 
then they collapse utterly in an attack of 
abdominal pain, headache, vomiting, 
pyrexia, usually attributed to " gastric 
catarrh " or a bilious attack, but in reality 
due to exhaustion of an excitable and un- 
stable nervous system. 

They are peculiarly liable to what arc 
called " tics," or habit spasms, in which 
they blink, pull faces, wriggle and writhe, 
or indulge in various stereotyped gestures, 
tricks and antics at short intervals. Night 
terrors, sleep walking and sleep talking 
are common events. They suffer from 
poorness of circulation, cold extremities, 
dead fingers, sweatings, cardiac palpita- 
tion — often mistaken for evidence of heart 
disease. Their skins are sensitive and 
irritable, and frequently disfigured by 
nettle rash, eczema and other eruptions. 

Their intelligence is normal or so much 
above the average that they are regarded 
as " Wunderkinder.^' They are high 
spirited, but easily discouraged ; timid, 
imaginative and superstitious ; apprehen- 
sive of trouble ; apt to exaggerate all diffi- 
culties, slow in making efforts to meet 
them, and worried by trifling causes. They 
are demonstrative of affection, yet often 
selfish and exacting, passionate at times, 
but more often querulous and depressed. 
They are sometimes immensely vain, and 
burdened by a sense of being unappre- 
ciated, craving for sympathy and thinking 
themselves ill-used if everyone do€s not 
give way to them. They resent all disci- 
pline, and argue instead of obeying. 

They are quick at learning, but forgetful 
of facts, and incapable of any kind of appli- 
cation. They will work with feverish 
energy in fits and starts, but are soon ex- 
hausted. Some may achieve brilliant 



success in art or literature in after life, but 
the majority fail from lack of industry, 
method and common sense and judgment. 
They fall a prey to neurasthenia in all its 
forms, and become the mainstay of " rest 
cure " institutions. Their saving grace 
is sometimes a sense of humour and of the 
ridiculous, which may be cultivated to their 
advantage. 

The restrained etnotional type. In per- 
sons of this type the emotions are very 
strongly felt, but power to control their 
outward display is equally strong. Such 
children arc observant, intelligent, but so 
reticent that they often pass for being dull, 
sullen and obstinate. Their expression and 
their attitude are apathetic, their gait is 
slouching, slow and clumsy. They are 
often extremely sensitive, shy and proud. 
They appear wanting in affection, but 
really yearn for it, and brood over slights, 
imaginary or otherwise, until they become 
morose, gloomy and revengeful. 

They suffer nagging and bullying at 
home and school with apparent stolid in- 
difference, except for occasional outbreaks 
of fury. They are solitary in habits, intro- 
spective, prone to self-analysis, imgina- 
tivc, superstitious, with a morbid love of 
horrors, and equally morbid dread of them. 
They may harbour various kinds of secret 
fears or "Phobias," and sometimes develop 
abnomally conscientious scruples of moral 
and religious nature. They take life 
seriously, and have little or no sense of 
humour. 

This disposition, with its characteristic 
suppression of the outward display of 
emotions is as exhausting as that of the 
unrestrained type in which emotional ex- 
cess is obvious, and it is associated with 
many similar complaints. 

The neurotic temperament is not neces- 
sarily morbid. The keynote to the neurotic 
temperament includes hypersensitiveness 
to the stimuli drawn from the environment 
and readily induced exhaustion of mental 
and physical functions. But I wish to 
emphasise the fact that the neurotic tem- 
perament is not necessarily morbid. 

Everyone who is not a mere cabbage or 
mollusc, so to speak, must be neurotic to 



Leonard Guthrie, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P. 



77 



some extent, and everyone who attains 
any eminence in the imaginative, artistic, 
and literary, and indeed in most other 
lines, is essentially " hypersensitive " to 
impressions. Our main object is to recog- 
nise the neurotic temperament in early 
life, to realise its tendency to become mor- 
bid and to prevent its being so, if we can. 

Etiology of the Neurotic Tempera- 
ment. The neurotic temperament is partly 
inherent and inherited, and partly the 
result of environment. The neurotic child 
is most frequently the only one, or, what 
is practically the same thing, a long inter- 
val of years separates him from brothers 
and sisters. He may be the pet, or the 
ugly duckling of the family, or on account 
of delicacy he is treated differently from 
the rest. 

The parents of the only child are often 
neurotic or neuropathic themselves, and 
the child, having no companions of his 
own age, learns to imitate his parents, to 
share their worries and anxieties about 
himself, his pains and ailments, and the 
household cares in general, and becomes a 
youthful neurasthenic or hypochondriac. 
Environment has more to do with the 
development of the morbid side of neurotic 
temperament and its ailments than heredity. 
Parents are not always to blame; the 
influence of nurses, governesses, teachers, 
and over-bearing brothers and sisters, has 
to be taken into account. 

As regards the exciting cause of nervous 
breaks-down, and the many nervous dis- 
orders to which neurotic children are liable, 
any severe illness may bring them to the 
fore, though frequently they arise in chil- 
dren who are never very ill, but never very 
well. A sudden emotional shock may be 
the exciting cause of hysteria or neuras- 
thenia, but more frequently they are the 
outcome of long periods of fear, worry and 
anxiety, suppressed or not, as the case 
may be, or of educational over-pressure. 

The medical man is always called upon 
to discover the cause of juvenile neuras- 
thenia. If the child blinks, or sniffs, or 
wriggles, his eyes or nose are supposed to 
be at fault ; or he is suspected of harbour- 
ing worms. His aches and pains are 



attributed to rheumatism, his barking 
cough to weak lungs, his attacks of 
stomach-ache and vomiting to threatened 
appendicitis, his changes of colour, pal- 
pitation and occasional faintness, to heart 
disease, his headaches to incipient brain 
trouble. Now, it is of course necessary 
to bear in mind that neurotic children may 
suffer from organic disease of the heart 
and other organs, but the symptoms which 
are often supposed to indicate organic 
disease may be merely those of nervous 
irritation and exhaustion. In all neurotic 
children " great events from little causes 
spring." The supersensitiveness and ready 
response to irritative stimuli of any des- 
cription, which make up the neurotic tem- 
perament, have in all cases to be con- 
sidered. 

The mere suggestion that a child has a 
weak heart or weak lungs is readily 
assimilated by anxious parents, with re- 
sults disastrous to the child's welfare and 
prospects in after life. 

The Fears of Neurotic Children. 
Fear is closely allied to the instinct of self- 
preservation. The physical signs of fear 
are due to a stimulus which produces the 
bodily changes in circulation, secretion, 
and so forth, which become associated 
with the feeling of alarm and desire for 
protection. In neurotic children these 
physical signs are more readily induced, 
and so they are more susceptible to fear 
than others. Excessive and unnatural 
timidity is shown in young infants by 
starts, and screams, and trembling at 
sights and sounds which arc ignored, or 
only excite curiosity or amusement in 
normal children, who are beginning to 
take notice. Everything which is new and 
strange to them begets alarm. Their 
mothers are often unwilling to take them 
out because they become so frightened at 
common objects which they see, and noises 
which they hear. 

The causes of fear in children can hardly 
be enumerated. It is impossible to foretell 
what may suggest a sense of the uncanny 
or supernatural to an imaginative child, 
and therefore alarm it. They may invest 
inanimate objects with the most malignant 



7^ 



The Nervous Child. 



qualities. I have known a child who was 
haunted by fear of a fur foot-warmer, 
which he called a " Bomp. " Another was 
obsessed by fear of a talc ventilator, which 
he referred to as a "flapper. " He resented 
being taken to strange places by day 
unless reassured that no "flappers" would 
be there to upset his peace of mind. 

Fear, whether of the supernatural, or of 
physical ill-usage, or of ridicule, may have 
disastrous effects on mind and health. 
Much of the self-consciousness, introspec- 
tion, hypochondriasis, neurasthenia and 
hysteria which affect adults, may be traced 
to the effects of fear in early life. Fear in 
a child may be the end and not " the 
beginning of wisdom." It should be re- 
membered that neurotic children, especially 
those I have described as of the restrained 
type, are particularly prone to secret dreads 
and apprehensions which they keep to 
themselves. In young children the earliest 
indication of fear should be recognised 
and should meet with sympathy, en- 
couragement, explanation and removal of 
the cause if possible, and never with badin- 
age, or nonchalance, or contempt. 

The quintessence of fear is shown in 
night terrors. Night terrors should not 
be regarded merely as humorous conse- 
quences of over-eating. They always 
indicate ill-health, which may be tem- 
porary and trivial, or serious and lasting. 
The difference between night terrors and 
nightmare is only one of degree, and this 
depends on the temperament of the 
dreamer. A stolid, unimaginative child 
may over-eat himself and awake scream- 
ing at a '' nightmare," but he is easily 
satisfied that it is " only a dream," goes 
to sleep again, and is none the worse next 
day. The neurotic child is, however, ren- 
dered temporarily insane by the vividness 
and horror of his dream-hallucinations, 
he may suffer severely from emotional 
shock at the time, and is sometimes 
haunted night and day by dread of its 
repetition. Children who brood all day 
over the recollection of some frightful 
dream are apt at night, as Charles Lamb 
expressed it, " to wake into sleep and find 
the vision true." Their dread of " witch- 



ridden pillows " (dread which they often 
keep to themselves), may destroy their 
health of mind and body. 

Typical night terrors usually occur in 
children aged between three and eight 
years. The attack almost always occurs 
within the first three or four hours of 
sleep. Piercing screams are heard, and 
the child is found sitting up in bed or 
crouching in a corner of the room, with 
hands outstretched as if to shield himself. 
Sometimes he is trying to get out of 
window or to open the door, and he may 
escape from the room and run screaming 
down the staircase. His face expresses 
wildest alarm, his eyes are widely opened, 
the pupils dilated, and he gazes intently 
in the direction in which he has located 
the apparition which frightened him. 

He may give a clue to its nature by 
shrieking, " Black faces ! " " Horrid 
man I " or some such exclamation. He 
may cling instinctively to anyone within 
reach, but he does not at first look at or 
recognise persons. His attention is fully 
taken up by the imaginary object of his 
fears. After a few minutes he recognises 
his surroundings, but sweats and trembles, 
turns pale and seems exhausted. He will 
beg not to be left alone again, or that his 
hand may be held. He soon dozes, but 
sobs and starts for a time, until sleep be- 
comes sound. 

Next day, there is usually some recollec- 
tion of what has occurred, but in some 
cases, even when the child has answered 
questions more or less rationally, he has 
not been really awake, and seems to re- 
member nothing about it. Older children 
may seem to have forgotten their dreams 
either because they are ashamed to speak 
about them, or because they are too horri- 
bly complex for verbal description. 

Night terrors and dreams of any kind 
are reactions to dimly felt bodily sensa- 
tions or stimuli. The interpretation of the 
sensations which give rise to them are 
peculiar to the individual. Dreams of 
being engulfed by tidal waves or buried 
alive by avalanches, may arise from par- 
tial asphyxia due to close atmosphere, or 
to actual obstruction of respiration from 



Leonard Guthrie, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P. 



79 



any cause. Dreams of being exposed on 
an iceberg in the midst of a vast frozen 
sea may arise from feeling cold. Dreams 
of being tortured may be produced by 
slight discomfort. Dreams of being pur- 
sued, yet unable to stir may be due to 
actual restraint of movements from heavy 
bedclothes or pressure of one leg on the 
other. 

The connection, however, between the 
cause and the content of the dream is not 
always easy to explain. Why, for instance, 
should indigestion produce visions of 
hideous faces, or of a gigantic tooth-brush 
bristling with hostile intentions, instead 
of sensations of abdominal pain or dis- 
comfort? Perhaps the explanation is that 
in the semi-consciousness which obtains m 
dreams a peripheral stimulus of any kind 
acts as a master key, which unlocks the 
store-house of past impressions and sets 
them free. 

The ugly face, or gigantic tooth-brush 
dangling as an advertisement over a shop, 
has excited but passing curiosity by day, 
but by night the awakened mental picture 
of it is disturbed by incongruous associa- 
tion of ideas, and it becomes invested 
with malignant attributes. The peripheral 
stimulus is no doubt unpleasant in charac- 
ter, and the dream becomes so too. Even 
a trivial event or experience may become 
a terror by night. But should the ex- 
perience have excited alarm at the time, 
its after effect will be quadrupled in 
dreams. Hence night terrors are peculiar 
to nervous, timid children. 

Medical treatment is always necessary 
in cases of repeated night terrors, but it 
will not always provide a cure. It is also 
necessary to correct morbid tendencies to 
dwell on horrors seen and unseen ; to pro- 
tect active and sensitive, as well as dull 
brains from educational over-pressure, and 
to shield nervous children as far as possi- 
ble from thoughts, words and deeds which 
are calculated to increase their emotional 
Instability. 

Exhaustion due to Mental and Edu- 
cational Overstrain. In considering 
mental overstrain one must remember that 
emotional excitability may have as much 



to do with it as educational over-pressure. 
Quite apart from the actual amount of 
mental work done, fear of failure may in 
one case produce overstrain ; in another 
ambition to succeed may lead to exhaust- 
ing emotions, such as jealousy, hatred and 
all uncharitableness towards competitors ; 
whilst in a third, disappointment at want 
of success accounts for exhaustion and 
nervous breaks-down. Girls are perhaps 
more apt than boys to break down under 
such conditions, and especially those of 
the "restrained type." 

Educational overstrain may result from 
over-taxing the memory, from enforced 
concentration on uncongenial subjects, and 
from exacting practical industry from 
those who are by nature abnormally con- 
templative, thoughtful, imaginative, or 
volatile and easily distracted. 

Memory is the faculty by which past 
experiences are recalled. Impressions de- 
rived chiefly through visual and auditory 
stimuli, but also to a less extent through 
olfactory, gustatory and cutaneous nerves, 
become " photographically lined on the 
tablets of the mind." 

Memory implies repetition of the stimuli 
through one or other channel. Some react 
most easily to things which they have 
seen, and others to those which they have 
heard. Memory in some is automatic and 
effortless, in others the picture is 
" fogg'cd," and requires a strangely 
laborious process in which association of 
ideas, arbitrary and absurd, or logical (as 
the case may be), in order to develop it. 
Attitudes, or the sensations induced there- 
by, are in some people aids to memory, 
just as they are aids to all in the expres- 
sion of an emotion. We must all know 
instances of individuals who twiddle a 
button or a lock of hair when engaged in 
recalling past impressions. 

Many clever children, early and without 
effort, grasp general ideas and principles, 
i but are slow in committing to memor) 
I solid, dry-as-dust facts, and are quickly 
' forgetful of them. It is the attempt to 
cram them with arbitrary facts, and also 
to force them, to disgorge them periodically 
on demand which causes exhaustion, 



80 



The Nervous Child. 



Fact cramming not only cramps the 
intellect and gives no scope for thought, 
but may reduce the child to Paul Dombey's 
condition of mental chaos, in which, 
" whether twenty Romulses make a 
Remus, or hie, haec, hoc is Troy weight, 
or a verb always agrees with an Ancient 
Briton, or three times four are Taurus, 
a Bull " become open questions. 

To judge from the frequency with which 
one is told that nervous school children 
are " doing sums in their heads all night 
long," simple arithmetic appears to be the 
most exhausting subject in the curriculum. 
Efforts to learn the multiplication table 
have quite as bad effects, and many of us 
sympathise with little Marjorie Fleming 
when she wrote, " The most devilish thing 
is eight time eight, and seven times seven 
is what nature itself can't endure." Leigh 
Hunt said that he never succeeded in 
learning it at all. 

The old-fashioned method of teaching 
history and geography by making children 
learn long lists of dates, and names of 
capitals and counties destroys every ves- 
tige of interest in the subjects, and is 
irksome and exhausting to the pupils. 

Enforced concentration on any special 
subject may lead to brain exhaustion. 
Most intelligent children seek variety and 
resent specialism. It may be true that 
they are taught so many subjects that they 
only derive a confused smattering of all 
as the result of schooling. Yet general 
information can always be turned to 
account, even though its accuracy be 
doubtful and need verification. 

Concentration, even on congenial sub- 
jects, may cause fatigue, and before blam- 
ing a child for laziness one should ascer- 
tain whether he is in fact incapable of 
prolonged mental effort. Even Darv/in 
confessed that his brain was not con- 
structed for much thinking, and he never 
worked for more than an hour or so at a 
time at his special subjects. No school 
lesson should last for more than forty-five 
minutes, and an interval of ten minutes, 
to be spent in fresh air and exercise, not 
drill, should always elapse between each 
lesson. 



A defective memory is often due to 
defective eyesight, and needless t6 say, 
attempts to improve powers of observation 
by insisting upon the child's using its eyes, 
without correcting faulty vision, is a 
common cause of prostrating headache, 
and indirectly may lead to mental over- 
strain. Similarly, dulness and inattention 
may be due to enlarged tonsils and adenoid 
vegetations, and if treated by blame and 
punishment the child's sense of injustice 
and exasperation may lead to mental 
breakdown, as well as other physical ill 
results which arise from neglected adenoid 
vegetations. 

Precocity and pseiido-pyecociiy in neuro- 
tic children. Precocity has been regarded 
as of evil omen in most countries and at 
all times. The equivalent of "So wise, 
so young, they say do not live long," is 
found in many languages. Precocious 
children are generally supposed to be deli- 
cate, and doomed to early death, or deca- 
dence, or insanity. It is true that many 
historical " Wunderkinder " have been 
delicate, and have died young, and a few 
have become insane. But there is no 
evidence that mental precocity itself had 
any share in the causation of these events. 
Delicacy and disease may accompany, but 
are not caused by, precocity. There is 
abundant evidence that all the greatest 
men in the world have been drawn from 
the ranks of the precocious, and that their 
lives have not been below the average 
duration. In other w^ords, genius and high 
intellectual ability are always precocious. 

In regard to the general impression that 
active minds inhabit frail bodies, and that 
great men have always been unhealthy 
throxigh life, Havelock Ellis (Study of 
British Genius) found that of 1,030 cases 
110, or only about 10 per cent., were ex- 
tremely delicate in infancy or childhood. 
Six were seven months' children or pre- 
mature, 14 were very weak at birth and 
not expected to live. 

Isaac Newton was so small at birth that 
" a quart mug would have held him." 
Fortunio Licetus, a sixth month foetus, 
was only as long as the palm of one's hand 
at birth. Voltaire's nurse, for several 



Leonard Guthrie, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P. 



81 



months after he was born, used to come 
daily to tell his mother that he was really 
dying. Goethe, at birth, was not expected 
to live. Gibbon, in infancy, was of feeble 
constitution, and his life was precarious. 
Victor Hugo's mother described him as 
"no longer than a knife" at birth. Demos- 
thenes " was a weakling, and so tender in 
early childhood that his mother would not 
let him go much to school, nor did his 
masters dare to keep him hard at work." 
(Plutarch). Descartes was " a sickly 
young philosopher at eight." Albert von 
Haller, the pioneer of physiology, Welling- 
ton, Bacon, Locke, Swift, Watt, Canova, 
Alexander Hamilton, Schiller, Niebuhr, 
Byron, Johnson, William Pitt, Scott and 
Dickens were all delicate as children. 

On the other hand Tennyson, Long- 
fellow, Edison, Abraham Lincoln, Bis- 
marck, Russell Lowell, Emerson, showed a 
natural and healthy development (Yoder). 
In some cases early delicacy was followed 
by exceptional physical health and vigour. 
Beethoven, Burke, Constable and Hobbes 
are examples (Havelock Ellis). Sometimes 
illness or feebleness of constitution has 
given an impulse to mental activity. 
Charles Dickens, for instance said that his 
ill-health in younger days inclined him to 
reading. Joseph Priestley believed that his 
early sickness was an advantage to him. 

Enforced rest from illness has no doubt 
given the impulse to learning in naturally 
clever children, and hence the notion that 
"abnormal cleverness is a sign of ill- 
health." Galton says: " I do not deny 
that many men of extraordinary mental 
gifts have had weakened constitutions, 
but I deny them to be an essential or even 
usual accompaniment." 

The fact that Cicero, Wagner, Darwin, 
Huxley, Carlyle suffered life-long martyr- 
dom from chronic nervous dyspepsia docs 
not prove that dyspepsia is essential to 
mental vigour. Keats, Schubert, Chopin, 
Mendelssohn, Spinoza, Novalis, Schiller, 
Thoreau, R. L. Stevenson, the Brontes," 
and many others, have died of tuberculo- 
sis, yet we are not justified in assuming 
that tuberculosis and genius or precocity 
are correlated. 



Galton remarks on these points : "There 
is a prevalent belief that men of genius 
are naturally puny beings, all brain and 
no muscle ; weak-sighted and generally of 
poor constitution. I think that most of 
my readers would be surprised at the 
stature and physical frames of the heroes 
of history who fill my pages, if they could 
be assembled together in a hall." He 
concludes, however, that " Among the 
gifted men there is a small percentage who 
have weak, excitable constitutions, who 
are destined to early death, but that the 
remainder consists of men likely to enjoy a 
vigorous old age." Yoder agrees with 
Galton that the idea that great men in 
childhood have been weaker, more sickly 
and inactive physically than other children, 
is erroneous. 

Is precocity an indication of future 
insanity? According to alienists, this is 
so, and they have certainly two historical 
instances to support them in the cases of 
Caspar da Vega and Tasso, both of whom 
were sixteenth century Wunderkinder. Da 
Vega eventually became a victim to reli- 
gious melancholia, and Tasso was insane 
at thirty. 

Some men of genius have become addic- 
ted to alcoholism and drug-taking, like 
Poe, Burns, the Coleridges, De Quincy, 
Morland and Rembrandt, and therefore 
might be regarded as insane. 

If eccentricity, v.-aywardness and uncon- 
ventionality are evidences of madness a 
large number of geniuses, such as Shelley 
and Charles Lamb, have been insane. 
But melancholy, delusions, narcomania 
and eccentricity do not occur exclusively 
in men of genius or of high ability who 
have been precocious. Granting the pre- 
cocity of geniuses who have becom.e in- 
sane, it docs not follow that all precocious 
children are in danger of insanity. The 
alienist's experience is confined to those 
who do become insane. 

Does precocity imply early decadence? 
It is commonly predicted of a precocious 
child that he " will go up like a rocket and 
come down like its stick." He has been 
compared to the " early riser, conceited all 
the forenoon of life, stupid and uninterest- 



82 



The Nervous Child. 



ing all the afternoon and evening." 

But precocity no more implies early de- 
cay than early decease. Jastrow found 
that his specially precocious class reached 
the period of original production much 
more speedily than other great men, but 
that they did not achieve a truly great 
success before others. Furthermore, they 
reach the highest point of their develop- 
ment somewhat later than eminent men 
in general, namely, at the age of forty- 
seven, as against forty-five. In the case of 
Wunderkinder, the average age at pro- 
duction of their greatest work is 42.1. 

Were precocity necessarily attended by 
prematurity, and therefore early deca- 
dence, all precocious children would die 
demented. A Goethe or a Thomas Young 
could not long survive his infancy. But 
although precocity does not imply early 
decay, it cannot be disputed that preco- 
cious children often do not fulfil the pro- 
mise of their youthful days, and there is 
some ground for the popular belief that 
"clever children make dull men." 

What are the causes of failure in the 
apparently precocious? It is impossible 
to say what proportion of precocious chil- 
dren meet with success in after life. A 
genius is known to the world by what he 
does. Unless he achieves something great 
the world does not know him as a genius, 
whereas we are all familiar with persons 
of seemingly transcendant mental gifts 
and abilities who never do anything at all 
but waste their lives. 

Superficially, the intellectual failure and 
the genius have much in common. Each 
has versatility, but the genius finds his 
special bent and clings to it, whereas the 
failure flits from field to field, and may 
never specialise in any. Versatility in the 
one is but volatility in the other. 

Genius may mistake its special bent at 
first, or it may be thwarted by design or 
circumstances. But the genius, if he does 
not find full scope for his powers in one 
direction immediately seeks another, and 
if thwarted or hampered invariably over- 
rides all obstacles. Whereas the intellec- 
tual failure either mistakes his bent yet 
makes obstinate and futile attempts to 



follow it, or gives up the struggle in face 
of any opposition, even in lines in which 
he might excel. 

Egoism, self-consciousness and intro- 
spection, pride and vanity are character- 
istics of certain types of genius, but these 
qualities without genius, are almost bound 
to lead to failure. 

Mistaken bent. Considering the versa- 
tility of genius, it is not surprising that in 
some cases more than one line may be 
taken up before the final choice is made. I 
may give a few instances in point. 

Lucian tells us, in his " X'ision," that 
as a small boy he used to be punished at 
school for stealing the wax from his writ- 
ing tablets in order to mould small figures 
of animals and men and women. His 
parents assumed therefore that he was 
destined to become a sculptor, and appren- 
ticed him to his uncle, who happened to 
be one. The apprenticeship lasted one day. 
At his first attempt he broke a valuable 
plaque with the chisel. His uncle flew 
into a passion and beat the boy, who ran 
home bruised and weeping, declaring that 
his uncle treated him in this manner out 
of envy at his superior skill. That night 
he had a dream in which Culture and 
Statuary appeared and invited him to 
choose between them. Not altogether 
without bias, he favoured Culture, and 
hence we have his immortal Dialogues. 

Galileo (1564-1642) as a youth was an 
excellent artist ; then he thought of devot- 
ing himself to painting, but when he was 
seventeen he studied medicine, and at the 
University of Pisa he fell in love with 
mathematics. Billroth, the surgeon (1829- 
94), as a youth desired to devote himself 
to music for life. He felt himself to be 
"truly a child of music and the stage." 
Surgery was his destination, but he always 
retained his passion for his first love. His 
book, " Wer ist Musikalisch," is an elabo- 
rate study of musical psychology. Ruys- 
dael, although showing remarkable artistic 
ability at fourteen, was a surgeon before 
he became an artist. Keats was an L.S.A., 
and Smollett a medical practitioner. Sir 
Wm. Herschel was educated as a musician. 
j John Locke was not only a metaphysician 



Leonard Guthrie, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P. 



83 



but a capable physician, the friend of 
Sydenham. He diagnosed an hepatic 
abscess in Lord Shaftesbury, when others 
had failed to do so, and saved his life by 
operation. (See Lewes' " Life of John 
Locke and cf. Prof. Osier's " An Alabama 
Student and other Biographical Essays," 
Oxford, 1908). Oliver Goldsmith was a 
conspicuous failure as a doctor. Berlioz 
at first studied medicine. Two of our 
greatest modern etchers, Seymour Haden 
and Propert, were also members of the 
medical profession. Claude Bernard, be- 
fore he was twenty-one, wrote a successful 
comedy and a five-act drama. He was 
dissuaded from literature as a profession 
by Girardin, then he took to medicine. 
Rabelais was first a monk, then physician 
to the Hotel Dieu, at Lyons. It has been 
stated that he began to compose his merry 
tales with a view to relieving his patients' 
monotony whilst enduring Bath cures. 

Thwarted bent. The intellectus univer- 
salis usually meets with prompt apprecia- 
tion in children, and seldom lacks en- 
couragement, but the precocity of genius 
in special lines has often been discouraged 
or unseen. Handel's father sent all musi- 
cal instruments out of the house to keep 
his child from playing. Bach's early 
compositions were destroyed by his elder 
brother in order to discourage him. Robert 
Schumann abandoned law for music 
against his parents' wish. Cellini's father, 
a musician, tried to make Benvenuto a 
flute player. Tycho Brah^ was sent to 
study law at sixteen, but managed to 
condiict his astronomical pursuits after 
office hours. Rubens, who took to paint- 
ing at thirteen, had to put up with the 
distress of his mother, who deemed him 
worthy of a higher calling. 

Sir Joshua Reynold's father wished him 
to become a medical man, and rebuked 
him as a child for neglecting his lessons 
and taking pleasure only in drawing. 
Hogarth was considered very dull at his 
lessons, but embellished all his books with 
illustrations. John Hunter nearly became 
a cabinet maker. J. H. von Klaproth 
(1783-1855) became a distinguished Orien- 
tal scholar and linguist. His father, a 



scientific chemist, educated him to become 
one also, but at his examination, when 
about fifteen, he did so badly that the 
professor said to him, " Sir, you know 
nothing ! " to which he replied, " Excuse 
me, I know Chinese." He had learnt the 
language without any assistance. 

Unrecognised bent. Some instances of 
supposed dulness in the early lives of great 
men may be due to their strongly- 
developed critical faculty which resents 
the manner in which subjects are pre- 
sented to them. 

Precocious critical faculty. Heine re- 
garded Greek as the invention of the devil. 
"God knows what misery I suffered with 
it," he said. He hated French metres, and 
his teacher vowed he had no soul for 
poetry. He was " horribly bored " by the 
" odious, stiff, cut-and-dried tone " of his 
professors, having views of his own on the 
matter. Hegel v.as a poor scholar, and 
was stated to be "of middling industr) 
and knowledge, and extremely deficient 
in philosophy." One cannot doubt that 
he brooded over his own obscure system, 
whilst criticising unfavourably that of 
others. Berlioz left the Paris Conserva- 
toire of Music disgusted at the dry pedan- 
try of his teachers, and struck out a new 
line for himself. Rossini's early dislike 
for music probably was caused by his 
musical parents, who tried to press his 
inclinations. 

Precocity and originality of mind have 
sometimes been unappreciated and baffled 
by uncongenial tasks. Linnseus could not 
learn languages. Leigh Hunt could not be 
taught the multiplication table. Gold- 
smith's teacher thought him the dullest 
boy she had ever tried to instruct. Chatter- 
ton's mother regarded him as "little better 
than an absolute fool " at six-and-a-half. 
Humphrey Davy at school was described 
as "an idle boy with a gift for making 
verses, but with no aptitude for studies 
of a graver sort." Afterwards he consi- 
dered it fortunate that he was left so much 
to himself. Huxley detested writing till 
past twenty, and complained that his 
teachers " cared as much for his intellec- 
tual and moral welfare as if they were 



84 



The Nervous Child. 



baby farmers. " Byron was always bottom 
of his class as a school-boy. Sheridan 
was remarkable for nothing else but idle- 
ness and winning manners. He was not only 
slovenly in contruing, but unusually defec- 
tive in Greek grammar. Darwin was con- 
sidered at school as rather below the com- 
mon standard in intellect. His father 
wounded his gentle nature by saying to 
him, " You care for nothing but shooting, 
dogs, and rat-catching, and you will be a 
disgrace to yourself and all your family." 
Honor^ de Balzac was considered at eight 
years of age as the idlest, most callous boy 
in his division, and was caned and con- 
fined in the school dungeons in conse- 
quence. The Fathers of the Seminary 
knew nothing of his craving for reading ; 
his dreamy mental states were regarded 
as pure laziness. 

In contrast may be mentioned the v/ise 
treatment of Descartes by the Jesuit 
Fathers of La Fl^che. Marking that his 
mind was "naturally disposed to medita- 
tion," they allowed him to be late in bed, 
excused him attendance at lectures, and 
relieved him of much routine work done in 
common with other boys. (cf. Carpio de 
Veg;a). 

Similarly, the poet, Abraham Cowley 
(1618-67), could not be forced by his 
masters to the drudgery of learning gram- 
mar, so they excused him on the ground 
that his natural quickness made it need- 
less. Such leniency in the ancient school 
of Westminster is only explained by the 
fact that Cowley escaped, by a bare year, 
the discipline of Busby. He failed to 
matriculate at Cam.bridge in 1636, but 
gained a scholarship at Trinity next year. 

Instances might be multiplied in which 
eminent men, when children, have quietly 
and steadfastly followed their own line, 
refusing with dogged obstinacy and per- 
severence to conform to any stereotyped 
course of learning. They have often been 
branded as dunces and dullards, yet in 
reality have been more precocious than 
any. 

Sometimes a fastidious hesitancy to 
admit that learning has been mastered 
may pass for stupidity. John Wesley's 



mother declared that she had to repeat a 
thing twenty time to her famous son, but 
after the twentieth time he never forgot. 
Wellington, "my dull boy, Arthur," as 
his mother called him, was similarly slow 
in grasping facts, and equally tenacious 
of them, and the same has been said of 
the late Duke of Devonshire. 

Precocity of Rkticenxe. There is such 
a thing as precocity of reticence which 
may simulate dulness in the eyes of un- 
observant teachers and parents. Silent 
children are often accounted stupid, but 
those vvho talk least often think most, and 
their thoughts may be worth more than 
pennies. Precocious reticence is often, 
especially in imaginative, philosophic and 
scientific minds, associated with dreamy 
mental states, inability to descend to the 
" trivial round and common task," and 
unsociableness. Precocious children of 
the reticent, dreamy type may share the 
fate of Balzac, and not the good fortune 
of Descartes and Cowley. 

The habit of taciturnity and of restrain- 
ing all outward show of emotion is com- 
mon is nervous subjects, and may be taken 
to indicate dulness. Harriet Martlneau 
was considered extremely stupid as a child 
owing to sheer nervousness, and to her 
habit of concealing the fears of imagina- 
tion which haunted her. 

A desire for solitude and unsociableness 
seems to he a common trait. Sometimes, 
desire for solitude proceeds from timidity 
and dread of noise in delicate children. 
Sometimes it is from proneness to indulge 
in reverie and day dreams, and in com- 
munings with nature. Johnson sauntered 
in the fields in childhood, dreaming and 
talking to himself rather than to his com- 
panion. Darwin, in a brown study, stepped 
over the city wall of Shrewsbury and 
nearly broke his neck. Wordsworth 
mused alone in the twilight glens, and 
Byron in the abbey cloisters. Shelley 
communed with the stars and moon. 

George Sand had a secret hiding place 
in the woods, in which she erected an altar 
and performed thereon solemn strange 
rites, setting at liberty butterflies, lizards, 
green frogs and birds in the name of her 



Leonard Guthrie, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P. 



85 



new deity Corambe. Sir Charles Mackin- 
tosh, at eleven, loved solitude, and used 
to dream that he was Emperor of Con- 
stantinople. The elder Coleridge wan- 
dered in the streets imagining himself 
Leander swimming the Hellespont, and as 
his spreading hands touched a passer-by, 
he narrowly escaped arrest as a pick- 
pocket. Hartley Coleridge, his son, was 
intensely sensitive, impatient of control, 
shy and awkward to excess, insignificant 
in personal appearance, and infirm of will. 
At school he never played, but passed his 
spare time reading, writing, dreaming to 
himself, and telling his dreams to others. 

Wagner, in the fits of gloom and depres- 
sion which seized him as a lad, would hide 
himself and cogitate alone for hours to- 
gether. Some of these silent, solitary chil- 
dren have the faculty of conjuring hallucin- 
ations at will before their eyes. Jerome 
Cardan, sixteenth century physician, 
astrologist and mathematician, as a child 
amused himself by watching phantom 
figures of warriors, priests, animals, trees 
and flowers, etc., which seemed to pass 
in endless procession across his bed. 
Henry Morley, who wrote a life of Carden, 
refers to a similar habit of his own, and 
7i modern instance, charmingly related, is 
found in Jules Breton's "Vie d'un ar- 
tiste." 

It is characteristic of such children that 
they always keep their visions to them- 
selves. Aristotle said of the man who seeks 
solitude he is either a God or a beast. Some 
schoolmasters of the present day are in the 
habit of assuming the latter, and suspect 
any boy who is solitary, and muses, and 
will not join in games, of being addicted to 
secret vice. The principle "either play 
or work " saves the schoolmaster a great 
deal of trouble, but it is not applicable to 
all children alike. 

The precocity of reticence, the critical 
instincts, the dreamy, mental states and 
desire for solitude in clever children may 
be mistaken for sloth and indolence, espe- 
cially when interspersed with occasional 
flashes of ability. Some quietly and im- 
perturbably follow their bent, and assert 
themselves, in spite of injudicious treat- 



ment. Tamer spirits give in, or are 
spurred to make superhuman efforts to 
excel in lines which do not suit them, and 
fail. 

Genius is irrepressible. It is unnecessary 
to enlarge on the struggle against ill- 
health, poverty and want of education ; 
the innumerable privations, disappoint- 
ments, affronts, slights and unapprecia- 
tion by the world which many a genius 
has had to meet. 

True genius is irrepressible and triumphs 
over every obstacle. A Handel will always 
find a spinet in a garret ; a VVilkie or a 
Canova his pencil ; a Newton or a Fer- 
guson his tools. A Wagner's life may be 
one long-drawn wail of neurasthenic 
misery; a Darwin may be incapable 
through illness of working more than an 
hour or two at a time, yet their creations 
are bound to see the light, although their 
travail may be one of sorrow and keen 
anguish. For the essence of genius is the 
impulse to create. Without the creative 
instinct many who share the intellect of 
genius are failures. Many again whose 
ability is undoubted and whose instinct to 
create is strong, have no staying power, 
no mastery of detail, no capacity for 
drudgery, even for short periods, and are 
prostrated by bitterness and chagrin when 
critics prove unkind. 

These form the " brilliant wasters " of 
the community, of whom it is often said, 
"they could do anything if they only 
chose." In childhood their precocity is 
usually of the pseudo, or psychasthenic 
variety, which unfortunately is often mis- 
taken for the true precocity which, as I 
have said, always characterises true genius 
and high intellectual endowment. 

Psychasthenic Precocity. To many 
the conception of a precocious child is 
merely a picture of a small, pert and witty 
being, full of whims and fancies, queru- 
lous, exacting and peevish, depressed and 
lethargic by day, restless and excited by 
night. A spoilt, pampered and petted 
creature, whose shrewd sayings are re- 
peated with admiration before his face, 
and whose little tricks of recitation, sing- 
ing, etc., are paraded for the delectation 



86 



The Nervous Child. 



of all and sundry, who regard him secretly 
as an unmitigated nuisance. 

Triiper (" Minor Mental Abnormalities 
in Children," Child-Study Monthly, 1898) 
says (in substance) of them (the nervously 
excitable type of morbid precocity), that 
" there is no lack of apparently precocious 
intelligence ; it is not real, however, but 
due only to a fantastic and excitable 
imagination." Children of this type inter- 
rupt with all sorts of wise questions. They 
are restless as butterflies, peevish and 
stubborn. They are likely to show voli- 
tional defects. Commonly they are well 
gifted in language, and in general inter- 
ested in words rather than things. Their 
weakness only comes to light when they 
are overloaded with subject matter of in- 
struction. 

"The matter," he says, "is complicated 
by the foolish pride of parents. Worst of 
all, the teacher accepts these qualities as 
symptoms of genius in language, philo- 
sophy, etc., and is likely to encourage the 
pupil to continue his interest in book 
knowledge and general instruction rather 
than adopt the far more sane method of 
restoring balance by the study of concrete 
things and by feeding the sense of reality." 

Meyer {Amer. J. of Psychology, Oct., 
1903) speaks of the morbidly precocious 
as being " prematurely and one-sidedly 
conscientious, and often of exalted reli- 
gious and moral standards, and having a 
" furor " for abstract matters. They shun 
companions of their own age, and cling 
to those who are older and can better feed 
their insatiable curiosity. They are irrit- 
able, erotic, whimsical and hyper-sensitive. 
They are egotistical, subject to fantastic 
day-dreaming, and become too good for 
the world. They take more interest in 
words, books, and remote philosophical 
matters than in actual experience. (Quoted 
from Lewis M. Terman, Amer. J. of Psy., 
April, 1905). 

It is obvious that all these characteristics 
may be shared alike by the budding genius 
and by the intellectual ne'er-do-well. The 
problem will always be, how to deal effec- 
tively with each. Galton says: " A youth 
of ability and genius is almost independent 



of ordinary school education. He is 
omnivorous of intellectual work. The best 
care a teacher can take of him is to leave 
him alone, just directing a little here and 
there, and checking desultory tendencies." 

Consideration of the many instances in 
which genius has shown itself intolerant of 
routine will lead us to endorse his views, 
so far as genius of the purely intellectual 
order is concerned. The inlellectus univer- 
salis can rarely be exhausted by its own 
vitality. Genius, with its mainstays, stead- 
fastness of purpose, zeal, self-reliance, 
ambition and impulse to create, may safely 
be left to itself. But the psychasthenic 
emotional type, which is usually not only 
bereft of these qualities but is swayed by 
timidity, self-consciousness, despondency, 
and dislike for any kind of mental or 
physical drudgery, and is often accom- 
panied by egoism, vanity and hypersensi- 
tiveness, needs special consideration. 

Precocious children of the psychasthenic 
type are as a rule unfitted for the ordinary 
routine of school life. They cannot adapt 
themselves to their surroundings. They 
require individual attention, which cannot 
be supplied in public institutions. I do 
not agree with Triiper that their intelli- 
gence is apparent, not real. Their intellec- 
tual powers are often high, and by judi- 
cious management and encouragement 
may be fostered. 

Attempts made to enforce industry in 
uncongenial tasks, to cram the memory 
with elusive facts, to excite ambition by 
blame, and fear by prophecy of failure, 
may result in mental and physical break- 
down. Their education should follow the 
lines for which they show most aptitude. 
Their reading should be guided, not forced. 
General information should be absorbed 
bv degrees, not rubbed in "en masse." 

A good memory is essential to eminence, 
and probably all truly great men possess 
it. Yet memory is of different kinds, 
visual, auditory, and associative. Some 
are extremely receptive of abstract ideas 
and theories, but cannot retain concrete 
facts, others retain the facts but cannot 
reason from them. The obviously clever 
child who yet finds difficulty in assimilat- 



W. M. Winch, M.A. 



6? 



ing arbitrary facts, may be pressed and 
urged to do so until his mind is bankrupt ; 
and then his precocity bears the blame. On 
the other hand, the glib fact reciter may 
be successful in examinations and regarded 
as brilliant, but belies his precocity by 
failing in after life. 

Psychasthenic precocious children should 
be spared all exaggerated and one-sided 
teaching on religious, moral, and social 
questions. Their opinions on all such sub- 
jects are sure to be lacking in breadth of 
view, and are apt to become morbid obses- 
sions. The moral fibre may be strength- 
ened by sympathy and consideration. A 
word of praise and encouragement often 
does more good than torrents of blame. 
Above all they need a simple, healthy, open- 
air life. Freedom from artificial emotional 
stress is essential, but it should not be 
forgotten that boredom and ennui are as 
productive of neurasthenia and morbid 
mental states as a life of constant restless- 
ness and social excitement. 

I shall not indulge in the customary 
Jeremiads on the faults of modern methods 
of education in general. All systems have 
their advocates. The claims of liberal v. 
utilitarian education, formal v. subject 
matter studies; grammar v. no grammar; 
scientific v. literary training have all been 
extolled in turn and hotly contested. They 
are as far from being settled now as they 
were in the Middle Ages, because minds 
differ and no system is adapted for all 
alike, though each may be suitable for 
some. Any system which does not allow 
for individuality of mind, tastes and 
character, may be harmful. 

Clever children who possess strong ner- 
vous endowment can accumulate know- 
ledge with impunity. It is the psychas- 
thenic variety which is most frequently 
brought to naught. Psychasthenics may 
be so innately, they are frequently the 
offspring and descendants of brilliant 
but neurotic parents and ancestors ; they 
may develop neuroses in consequence of 
delicacy and illness, or of emotional strain 
and mismanagement. 

If parents would only learn that bright- 
ness and ability are not unfavourable or 



morbid signs unless associated with 
marked nervous instability and hyper- 
aesthesia ; and if teachers would refrain 
from forcing on bright, clever, but neuro- 
tic children who show easily recognised 
signs of impending mental exhaustion, 
which may be counteracted if taken in 
time, the term precocity would lose much 
of its evil significance. 

The precocious child is not necessarily 
a genius, but by careful management he 
may at least be prevented from becoming 
a failure. The points which I have tried 
to emphasise are : (1) That genius and 
high intellectual endowment are always 
precocious, although signs of precocity 
may not always be recognised ; (2) that 
the neurotic temperament is inseparable 
from precocity, genius, and high intellec- 
tual capacity ; (3) that the neurotic tem- 
perament may either make or mar success 
in accordance with the treatment which it 
receives. 



JStnet'B /Dental TTeets ; 

TlQlbat tbei? are, anb wbat we can 

t)0 wttb tbeni. v. {contd). 

By W. H. Winch, m.a. 
(All rights reserved). 

A Horse : "What pulls the carts along "- 
" To pull carts along "-" What pulls the 
carts along, and does a lot of work "- 
" What you ride on" (forty-eight per cent, 
of the seven-year-old children gave the 
foregoing answers)-" What 'gees up' 
and runs about "-" To run about "-" Who 
carries the men's luggage "-" A mare 
who pulls carts along and goes to the 
coal factory or the market "-" An animal 
with two ears, and two big eyes, and he 
eats chaff "-" An animal. He runs and 
pulls carts along, and has four legs "- 
" What pulls a fire-engine along." 

These definitions of seven-year-old chil- 
dren, whilst in the main following the lines 
of those of younger children, show some 
notable advances towards classification 
and objectivity. In the definition of 
"fork" the word "thing" occurs more 
frequently, its definition as a "table- 



88 



Binet's Mental Tests. 



thing " is extremely good, and the three 
descriptive definitions given towards the 
end of the list are not common until a 
much later age than seven. Precisely 
similar observations may be made with 
reference to the children's definitions of 
"table." 

A mother is now often defined as a 
"lady"; the word "woman," which occurs 
once only, belongs to a later stage, 
as does also the classification "parent." 
Though the great bulk of the children, like 
the six-year-old boys and girls, consider 
their mothers only in relation to them- 
selves, there are a few descriptive defini- 
tions with the personal reference omitted. 

A mother is a " lady " ; but a father is 
a "man"; "gentleman" is a very rare 
classification. It is interesting to note that 
the word " who " occurs for the first time 
as a "relative" term. A horse pulls 
carts ; later on in school life the children 
make it clear that they are our carts, and 
that the horse works for us. There is an 
occasional classification of horse as an 
animal, and one attempt at description. 

Even from these definitions alone the 
lines of definitional development are fairly 
clear ; but I hope some day to present 
the results of work with some thousands 
of school children at later ages, and to 
pursue the matter in more detail. 

Binet's Fifth Test for Six-year-old 
Children deals with the performance of 
three commissions given simultaneously. 
No better education can be given to chil- 
dren than that which enables them, under 
instruction, to take a useful part, accord- 
ing to their powers, in the corporate life of 
the school; but, of course, Binet's test 
commissions are not concerned with the 
school material. Binet's example is given 
as follows : The experimenter is to say to 
the child, "You see this key; put it on 
that chair, then shut the door, then you 
will see a box near the door, the box is 
on a chair : take the box and bring it to 
me." Little children who can quite well 
remember and perform three commissions 
may be confused merely by the multitude 
of words ; so in our English exercises we 
shortened the instruction verbally thus : 



" Put this key on the table, then close the 
door, then bring that box to me." A 
second chair was not introduced ; it might 
give rise to unnecessary confusion, both 
in the directions and their fulfilment. 

One must be careful, Binet says, not to 
ask the child to do anything he would be 
afraid of doing, such as touching the 
experimenter's hat. Our English little 
ones are not usually so easily frightened, 
though they might not care to touch a 
gentleman's hat. Children are often able 
to remember to do two commissions, but 
not the third. Sometimes, says Binet, they 
will go out and shut the door behind them. 
Personally I can conceive that this pro- 
ceeding in some circumstances is a sign 
of intelligence rather than of the reverse ; 
but, doubtless, only with older children. 
Some will stand and think, knowing they 
have forgotten something. To pass the 
test all three commissions must be carried 
out without prompting. 

Binet's results show that at four years 
of age scarcely a child can do the three 
commissions ; at five years half of them 
can do it ; but at six years all, or nearly 
all, succeed. 

Our English children pass this test at 
an earlier age than the French. Even at 
three years of age thirty-two per cent, of 
our children can perform the three com- 
missions one after the other in their 
proper order. At four years of age there 
is a great advance, and at five years prac- 
tically every child succeeded in all three 
schools. I have placed this test, therefore, 
among the five-year-old group of tests, 
and not, as Binet does, in the six-year-old 
group. 

Our three-year-old children who failed 
often did the first and second commissions, 
but forgot the third. Some who failed 
did all three commissions, but in an incor- 
rect order. The others who failed looked 
at the experimenter, but made no move- 
ment whatever. Our four-year-old chil- 
dren who failed made, on the whole, the 
same errors as the three-year-old children, 
but sixteen per cent, of them went outside 
the door, shut it and did not return. The 
five, six and seven-year-old children were 



W. H. Winch, M.A. 



89 



quite successful ; no six or seven-year-old 
child in any of the three schools failed. 

Binet's Sixth Test for Six-year-old 
Children requires them to know their age 
in years. Binet tells us that we are to say 
to the child, " How old are you? " Some 
children will not answer; but those who 
do answer generally give less than their 
age rather than more ; for example, a child 
of six will sometimes say " Two." It is 
only at six years, he says, that the majority 
of French children know their age. This 
is not a question requiring birthdays to be 
given ; these are not asked for ; the child 
" passes " the test if he knows the correct 
year. Once again, our younger English 
children were superior to the French. 

At three years of age sixteen per cent, 
of the English children tested were able to 
state the correct year. One child gave his 
age as "Four years," another said "Four- 
and-a-half years," another " Six years, 
and another "Three months." The re- 
maining children who failed said, "I don't 
know. ' ' 

At four years of age the number of cor- 
rect answers increased to forty-four per 
cent, in the intermediate school, and the 
figures were slightly higher in the " very 
poor " school, and much higher in the 
well-situated school. It is probable that 
that there is a pedagogical factor operat- 
ing, or more probably the " home environ- 
ment " may account for the considerable 
difference in this case. In the intermediate 
school one child, in answer to the ques- 
tion, said, "Three months," another 
"Six years," another "Three-and-a-half 
years," another "Twelve months," and 
another " One month." The remainder of 
those who gave incorrect answers said "I 
don't know." 

At five years of age over seventy per 
cent, knew their correct age. One boy 
who failed, gave his age as "Twenty," 
and, v.'hen further questioned, said 
"Twenty-four"; a girl said her age was 
"One year, six months"; and one boy 
said he was " Four." The remainder who 
failed to pass the test said " I don't 
know. ' ' 

At six years of age there were practi- 



cally no failures; but very few children 
mentioned anything but the year. Three 
or four, however, gave their ages more 
exactly, as, for example, " I am seven in 
April." 

At seven years of age every child knew 
his age. Sixty per cent, gave the year 
only, namely, seven ; twenty-eight per 
cent, said " I shall be eight next birth- 
day." Other answers were: " Getting on 
for eight," " Seven-and-threequarters," 
and "Seven-and-a-half." 

Further researches may show that, for 
English children, this is really a five-year- 
old test ; but for the present, since the 
matter is doubtful, I have retained the test 
in the position indicated by Binet, namely, 
in the six-year-old group. 

Binet's Seventh Test ior Six-year- 
old Children deals with their early no- 
tions of time. Here is an aspect of their 
mental life which is very slow to develop. 
For a long time, he says, the child mixes 
up " yesterday " and " to-morrow." Still 
further, the young child does not know the 
distinction between "morning" and 
"afternoon." He then gives a word or 
two of pedagogical criticism which 
teachers will find interesting. Children 
are much less advanced and much less in- 
telligent about time than is generally be- 
lieved ; he himself, he says, expected to 
find them more capable. Long before the 
age of six he would have supposed the 
child would know morning from after- 
noon, and which was which ; it seems so 
easy. 

Note then, he says, the absurdity of 
teaching historical biography and the prin- 
cipal movements of the sun to children of 
six (official regulations for the les ecoles 
maternelles — infant schools — of Paris). Is 
it not an absurdity, he asks, to speak of 
national history to children who cannot yet 
distinguish morning from afternoon? Of 
course, as teachers well know, stories of the 
lives of national heroes may very well be 
told without requiring that these persons 
shall be correctly placed in order of time. 
Still, we cannot help feeling in very strong 
agreement with Binet's general conten- 
tion, and English educationists may rea- 



90 



The Child- Study Society and the Constituent Societies. 



sonably feel a little jubilant that they do 
not commit this particular error. But we 
must not be too jubilant, for this sort of 
thing arises in all cases from the funda- 
mental defect which prompts everywhere 
to inflated syllabuses, of which England 
(even in its public elementary schools 
during the last two decades) can show 
many excellent examples. She may even 
dispute the palm with America. 

Let us go back to the experiment. Binet 
directs us to ask the child "Is it morning 
or afternoon?" Some children reply by 
chance; others simply say "Yes"; it is 
only at six that the distinction is generally 
known ; but long before six the child 
knows whether he has had, or has not 
had, his " ddjeuner " (his mid-day meal or 
dinner). 

We found this reference to meal-times 
most useful, though there is no indication 
that Binet himself used it in any way. 
Children, like adults on holiday, punctuate 
their day by meal-times. When this ex- 
periment was carried out in our English 
schools the experimenter first asked " Is 
it morning or afternoon?" and then fol- 
lowed up this question with others, such 
as : " What is it when you have had your 
dinner?"; "What is it when you have 
your breakfast?" The child was con- 
sidered to have passed the test when the 
experimenter was satisfied that the child's 
answers were not " chance " ones. 

In this test once more the English chil- 
dren seemed, age for age, somewhat 
ahead of the French. 

At three years of age twenty-four per 
cent, of our English children could dis- 
tinguish "morning" from "afternoon." 
Those who could not do so were silent or 
named a day of the week, and that the 
wrong day. 

At four years of age more than fifty per 
cent, (except in the "very poor" school, 
where the percentage fell to forty) 
answered satisfactorily. At this age no 
child kept silent. " Guess " answers had 
to be carefully eliminated ; and many of 
those who failed named a day of the week, 
mostly incorrectly ; for example, Monday 
would be called Friday. 



At five years of age there was a great 
advance, and I think that for English chil- 
dren this test will be found, on further 
research, to belong to the five-year-old 
group of tests. Still, since the differences 
between the results in the three schools are 
considerable, I have for the present re- 
tained the test in the six-year-old group. 
But the failures, even at this age, hope- 
lessly confused the morning with the after- 
noon, though two-thirds of them gave the 
correct day of the week. 

At six years of age we have only one or 
two failures in the aggregate. There was, 
however, some hesitation among those 
who " passed." 

At seven years of age there were no 
failures, and there was no hesitation. 
Many of the children smiled with a why- 
does-he-ask-silly-things-like-that air when 
asked " Is it morning or afternoon? " But 
they looked more thoughtful when asked, 
" What will it be just after you have had 
your breakfast to-morrow?" and other 
questions of that kind. But there were no 
actual failures. 

As I said above, I have kept the test 
within the six-year-old group, though I 
am quite prepared to find later that, for 
English children, it is really a five-year-old 
test. Probably the solution of this differ- 
ence may be found — as well as that of 
some other apparent differences between 
English and French children as measured 
by Binet's Tests (as indeed some of my 
own tests for older children indicate) — 
in the classification of the tests for differ- 
ent ages according to the " social charac- 
ter " of the school with which we are deal- 
ing. In " poor " schools, for example, this 
test may be a six-year-old "pass" test; 
in schools in fair or good neighbourhoods 
the normal children of five years will 
attempt it successfully. I shall deal next 
with Binet's Tests for Seven-year-old 
Children. 



TTbe Cbilt>*5tut>^ Society nnb tbc 
Constituent Societies. 

The Annual Conference. — This will be held at 
Edinburgh on Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, 
June 4th, 5th, and 6th, of this year. The subject 



Reviews. 



91 



for discussion is Experimental Work in Educa- 
tion. The programme for the meeting is as fol- 
lows : — 

Thursday, June 4th. — At 3.30 p.m., Presidential 
Address, by Sir James Crichton-Browne, in the 
Provincial Training College ; at 5 p.m., A Plea for 
the Recognition of Instincts in Education, by Dr. 
John Macpherson, in the Provincial Training Col- 
lege ; and at 8 p.m., Reception by The Lord 
Provost, Magistrates and Council, in the City 
Chambers. 

Friday, June 5th. — At 9.30 a.m., Council Meet- 
ing (Delegates only), in the Provincial Training 
College ; 12 noon, Experiment in Relation to 
School Subjects and Methods, by James Drever, 
B.A., B.Sc. ; from 9.30 to 12, and 2.15 to 4 p.m., 
Visits to various places and institutions ; from 4 
to 6 p.m., Garden Party in the Zoological Gardens, 
Corstaphine, by invitation of the Ladies' Hospi- 
tality Committee and Lord Salvesen ; at 8 p.m., 
Survey of the Recent Investigations and Criticisms 
on the Binet-Simon Tests, by Miss K. L. Johnston, 
M.A., in the Lantern Room, Provincial Training 
College. 

Saturday, June 6th. — At 10 a.m.. Mental Tests, 
by Cyril Burt, M.A., in the Provincial Training 
College. 

Information. — Members of Constituent Societies 
are entitled to attend the Conference, but must 
present their tickets to gain admission to the meet- 
ings and functions. Non-members will be charged 
2s. 6d. for all lecture