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Full text of "Papers relating to the Treaty of Washington; Geneva arbitration [microform] : containing the report of the agent of the United States; protocols of the conferences; decision and award of the tribunal; opinions of the arbitrators; reply of the Secretary of State, acknowledging the receipt of the report of the agent of the United States, and commenting upon the opinion of the arbitrator appointed by Her Britannic Majesty; report of the counsel of the United States : and opinions of statesmen, magazines, and journals of Great Britain and the continent on the construction of the Treaty"

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! r:LATlX(r TO 



THE TREATY OF WASHINGTON. 

/j^OLiME iv/(;exeva akhitkatiox. 

CONTAINING THE REPORT OF Till': A(JEXT OF THE UMTElJ s'I'ATEH: 

PROTOCOLS OF 'J'ME COXFFRl'.XCKS ; niX'ISlOX AXl) AWAlilt (>F THE 

TRIBUNAL; OPLXIOXS OF THE AinHTl.'ATOl.'S ; REi'LV OF THE 

SECliETARYOF STATE, ACKNOWLEIXilNG THE RECEH'T OF 

THE REPORT OF THE A(iEXT OF TIH', rxm]]) STATES. 

ANJJ COMMEXJTXO FPOX THE OPIXlOX OF JHE 

ARBITRATOR APPOIXTED BY HER BRITANNIC 

MA.IES'l'Y ; REPORT OF TFH: COFXSEL 

OF THE UXITEl) S'lWrES : 



*■ 



OPINIONS OF Sl'ATKSMF.N, MAliAZINK.y AND .IGUHN'ALS ol- lUlLlAT 
P.ltlTAIN AN'I) TUK fuNTINF.NT ON TKF, CON- 

ST1U!CT[()N I IK TIIR TkKATY. ^- ,**«— -:r2!:j:::iv 



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WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMEH^T PRINTING OFFICE 

1872. 




TAWIA'] OV (a)X'I^KXTS. 



I 



I. li<'i)t)rt ot'.r. C. HiiiKToft Davis, a^'Mit of the Unitcil Stat«'s 

Award ami imttocols traiiHinitted 

A(,ti()ii of Joint Hijili Comiiiissioii on tlio indirect claims 

Protocol of May 4, 1H71, and statement of claims 

In liarmony with all nrevions action 

No ex(!ei»tion taken hy Uritish commissioncis 

Definition of "Alabama claims" in the jirotoccd l)indinj; on the a<;i'nt 

l'rei)aration of case 

I'rivate claims classed as indirect 

Emi)loyment of Mr. Ueaman 

His fidelity 

Arraiif^ement of the evidence 

J'reparation of case ; |)rincii)hs adoitted 

The tribunal u judicial body 

Case to be 8tate<l frankly 

Unfriendly conrso of (ireat Jiritaiu and British ministers a want of due 

diligence 

AVhat acts of subordinates a governuuMit not responsible for 

Maintenance! of insurgent bureaus on Ihitish soil a want of due diligence. .. 

British denial of liability 

Submission of this i)art of the case to ]>ublicists 

I'resident Woolsey 

Mr. William Beach Ijawrencc 

Mr. E. li. Hoar 

(ieiuMal Cushing 

The Cabinet 

Last chai)ter not submitted for advice 

No claim made for a particular sum for indirect damages; tribunal ask(Ml 

to estimate 

Delivery of the case at fJeneva 

Language of the case mild 

Comments of the liritish jtrcss 

Action of the liritish government 

.Contemplated re(|uest for withdrawal of the American ca.^e 

'^')pinion of the continental jtress favorable to the United States 

.I'.xchange of the counter case 

1 idustry and zeal of the secretaries 

1 lieiidly view s of the ]iritish agent 

The argument by the counsel regarded as masterly ... 

Uiiited States argument Hied 

Brii ish move for long adjournment 

Conseiiuent negotiations 

Adjudication on the indirect claims 

Friendly feelings on both sides 

Briti.«h argument tiled ; motions for further argument 

Opinions on the Florida 

Supphiiuental arguments ordered and made 

Decisions of the tribunal 

Damages 

Aw aid 

Determination to aw.ird a sum in gross 

Counstd advise at every stage 

Independence and ability of neutral arbitrators 

Due (Ulinrence ; what was claimed by I'nited States 

Positum of Great Britain .' 

Views of Count Sclopis 

Decision of the tribunal 

Unfriendliness of Knglaml ; views of (,'ouut Sclopis 

Views of Viscount dTtajiiba 

Views of Mr. Adams 

His impartiality 



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VI 



TAI5LE or CONTF.NTS. 



I. K'('|)i>il III' .1. ('. liiincrof'l Davis — CoiitiniiiMl. 

J'ln'cct of a (■(iimnission ; position of the I'liitfil Stale-: 

JJritisli iMisif ion 

American rejoinder 

N'icws of N'isconnf (ritajiilia 

l)('(!i.sioii of tlie tiilmiial 

Supplies of coal ; lM)sitioii of IJie lliired Stales 

Decision of tile tiiWunal 

\'i(!\vs of Mr. Adams 

^'ie\vM of Count Sclopis 

A'icws of Mr. Staemjilli 

\'i()\vs of \'isc()unt (I'ltajulia 

^Iunicii)al laws of Knj^land cannot lie set. np in JuHtiliciition 

Tile tribunal jiass upon tlio Suuiter, Nashville, A:c., ii()*\vith.standin;f Brit- 
ish olijectioiis 

Sir A. Cockburn's dissent in;;' o])iijion 

H(! is the. representative of (ireat Uritiiin.. 

His char}j;es against the American counsel 

'I'liey need no vindication 

No o|)])ortnnity offered to consider or object to the cliar]u;es 

JIo charjjes the case with abuse and hostility 

The reasons for those <-liar<i;es 

The Justice of the line of arj^nineiit in the American cast* admittcfl 

Lor(i Kussell Jnstifii's it 

Lord Westbury Justifies it 

Tho results of the tribunal a vindication of the policy of arbitration 

II. Protocols of the conferences of tins arbitrators 

1. Orj^anization, and delivery of cases 

2. Adjourninent to June ]."> 

:{. Delivery of American arjiument ; IJritish motion lor adjournment 

4. Adjournment 

;"). Arbitrators declare indirect claims not a subject for couiputation of dam- 

i>K«^ : 

t). The United States acquiesce in the decision 

7. Decision made official. British argument filed. Sir K. I'almer ni()\es 
for re-ar<iiiment ; motion denied 

H. Sir A. C'ockbiirn moves for re-argument ; motion denied 

1>. < )rdcr of i)roceedin};s 

lU. Same subject. Mr. Staem]»lli's paper ; Sir A. Cockburn's renewed motion 

for argument 

n. The Fhnida 

12. The Florida 

i;{. Sir A. Cockburn's iuoti(ni for argument denit'd : the Alabama 

14. Argument ordered as to due diligence, effect of commissions and .su)i- 

plies of coal : the Alabama 

ir>. IJritish arguments submitted: Sumter, Nashville, and Chickamanga 

1(>. Tallaliasseo and IJetribntion 

17. Oral argument of Mr. Evarts 

15. Arguments of Mi. Evarts and General Cnahing 

11>. lietributimi : argument ofMr. Waite 

20. Sallit*, Jeff. Davis. Music, IJoston, and V. H. Joy 

21. Effect of commission ; new evidence submitted bv (Jreat Britain 

22. The ( Jeorgia ". 

2H. The Shenandoah ; new tables i)resented by the agents 

24. The Shenandoah ; argument ordered on the eft'ect of the entry of the 

Florida into Mobile 

2r>. Lord Tenterden's statement about tables presented by Mr. Davis ; argu- 
nients as to Florida ; decisions as to Sumter, Nashville, Retribution, 
Georgia, Tallahassee, Chickamanga, and Shenandoah 

26. Lord Ttiuterden presents new tables ; decisions as to Florida, Tuscaloosa, 

Clarence, Tacony, and Archer; Mr. Davis replies to Lord Tenterden's 
remarks on the American tables 

27. Claims for expenses for pursuit of cruisers, for prospective profits, and 

for gross freights rejected 

2*^. Argument ordered respecting int(;rest 

29. Mr. Staemptirs statement, and Sir A. Cockburn's memorandum regard- 
ing a sum in gross 

;W. Regarding draught of decision 

;U. Form of decision adopted ; Viscountil'ItaJuba respecting supjdiesof coal.. 

32. Signature of awnrJ and dissolution of tribnmil 



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'lAMLi: or CONTKNTW. 



VII 



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III. I)f(isi(iii anil iiwunl 40 

K.'iitiils 40 

Award ["O 

i>nr (lili};tiicn .">'• 

Kll'fct of a cKiiimisNioii 'mi 

l',xtiTiiti>rialit,v <'!' vcsscIm of war ">(• 

I'jVcct of want ol' notifc ">0 

Sni<iilitjH of coal , . . ">0 

licspoiisiliility tor acts of Alabama T)! 

]vc.s|)onsil>ilif.v for acts of Florida .M 

HcsponsiUIHty fur tlic acts of tin; Slicnandnali aflcr Icavinj^ Mclboniini .. .")2 
licsponsihilitv for tlio acts of tlio Tuscaloosa, Clarence, 'I'acony, and 

Arclicr ..-■- .' -Vi 

\o icsponsibility for the Kctiihution, (icoijfia, Snnitcr, Nashville, Talla- 

liasscc. or C'lii Aanian<;a "'2 

Tiic Sallic, Jctf. Davis, ^lusic, iJostoii, and V. H. Joy not, taken into con- 
sideration ;'>•> 

Claims for cost of imrsnit not allowed "):> 

Sann: as to itrospective earnin<;s T)'.! 

( )nly net freijihts allowed oM 

I'ifteen and a lialf millions awaided for conii>ensation . ,. •"):> 

I\'. r)j)inions of tin? arbitrators .')."> 

()j)ini<nis o\' Count .Scloi»is ").'» 

I )ne dilij^ence r>7 

Hritish unfriendliness <>2 

^'essels wliicli liave received commissions <)0 

Su]>l)lies of coal 74 

Tlui Alabama 7r> 

The Shenandoah f^l 

Th.^Fhnida 0(i 

())iiiuons of \'iscoiint dTta,iul)a Ot! 

l''Jl'ect of a commission Oti 

'i1ie Florida 'M 

The Alalianui 00 

The (ie()rjj;ia, .Sumter, Nashville, K'etribution, Tallahassee, and Chicka- 

mau<j;a 101 

The Sallie, Jott. Davis, Music, IJoston, V. II. Jov 101 

Shena-doah KU 

Opinion.-, of Mr. Sta-mitlii 10:> 

<.)pinions on the (luostions of law as to wliicdi the tribunal of arbitration 

leipiested elucidation 101! 

Kulesof the treaty take precedeiicu 103 

(Questions to )»e d»!Cided 100 

Definition of facts 100 

A'essels whose acts arc to be a<lju<licated upon 107 

The Flori(hi 10^ 

The Alabama 110 

The .Shenandoah 12.'> 

The .Sumter 134 

The lietribution 13s 

Ojiiuions of Mr. Adams 141 

Due diliy;ence 141 

The effect of conimissicnis 140 

.Supplies of provisions and coals 148 

The Florida 150 

The Alabama 17 1 

The Tuscaloosa 18J 

The Geoiffia 187 

The Shenandoah 100 

The Sumter 208 

The Nashville 212 

The Chickamauga 214 

The Tallahassee 21.5 

The Retribution 217 

Oi)inioii8 of Sir Alexander Cockbnrii 2:10 

Causes of cuiuplaiut broujjlit forward by the Uuited .Slates 230 

Kules of the treaty of Washington 230 

Ditticulty arising from the treaty 231 

Elemeiitx of iieiitralitv 2^54 



VIII 



TAMM-: 01' CONTKNTH. 



1\'. Opinions of tlif ailiitnitors — ('(intiiiucil. 

01)ii;juti(inH (if tlh' nt'Utral state •2:i4 

Olilif^a lions of tlic sul •,)('(• ts of a nt'iitial state )i'M 

Lial>ility of tlie statt^ Ibr acts of its siilijects M'M 

Jtijflits (if neutral sulijects in resjieet of trade 'iW^i 

l)ill'crenc(!liet\veeM ii state and its sulijects in it';;ard to trade )i'.\'t 

Kllect of war on neutral trade 2'M\ 

i{loc.kad(i and contraiiand of war 'S.17 

DilleriMit \U-\v 2W 

M.IIautefeuillt! MW.) 

No oliliij;ati(in on lUMitral {roveiiinuMits to iireveiit trade in eonli'a'iand of 

war, or \vitli lihx l<ade(l ports '2X) 

M. Ortolan 'S.V,\ 

Ships (if war and coals •>;!;) 

I'assivo C()ninieic(! of the neutral '^11 

Liiuipredi 'JAl 

A/Auu ilA2 

Massc' t>4-2 

M. Ortolan "iA.i 

ireirtcr i>4:; 

I'rofessor Uluntsclili '^V.i 

Sir U. I'hilliniore '^44 

M. llaulefeuille ^44 

J'ractic(! in former wars !i4ri 

Auu-rican ant liori ties ^4") 

I'urdiase of contraiiand of war liy tlui Gcjvernuient of the I'liited States. "247 

J{(!sult of discussion '^47 

Sale (if slii|>s "247 

I'rofessor Hlunlschli '^47 

Opinion of Dana "^48 

Opinion of M. Ortolan '•24'.» 

Opinion of rrofessor J{lunts(dili ^i.'t 

Opinion of M. llolin .Ja((|Ui'niyus. 'i.'iO 

Opinion of liie Judj^es of Kn;:laud. 'J.')! 

(.'ase, of tli(3 Sanlissinia Tiinidad '-i'll 

.Iud<;uient of Mr. Justice Story '2.') I 

Case of tlie (irau I'ara 'J.'i'^ 

American review 2^\2 

Opinion of Mr. Adams , '2^^^^ 

Question as to iiroliibilion of sale of articles contraiiand of war '2W,\ 

Sliii) (if war sent <iut tor innne(liat(^ service ::jri4 

Arnnnnent and crew sent out in ilitfereut ships 'StA 

Duty of neutral ijjovernnicnt '-i^t't 

Anwrican ar<;nmeut as to cflcct of foreign-iinlistuu'ut act 2^i'y 

Ihitish and American acts 'iri.'i 

As to etlect of act of Ir'/O •i.')7 

l{i<j;lit conferred on belligerent by uiunicipal law '2'fH 

Kli'ect of proidamation JiiVJ 

Iviuipnient of V(^ssels under rules of treaty iitiO 

Construction of rules of treaty 'JfiO 

Du(! diligence, what ? 2(i0 

Opinions of jurists 2(i'<i 

Same i)rinciple jipiilied to government 'J(i4 

Heads of diligence '2i\'i 

Law 2tir> 

Moans at disposal of government '265 

Action of government iiUii 

Errors of j udgnient '2t)7 

Dehiy......... ^Gl 

Seizure of vessels 2(17 

Judicial miscarriage 2()8 

Liability for acts of subordinates 2(58 

Municipal law of Great Britain 27(1 

Foreign-enlistment act 27(» 

I'reventi vo law 271 

Comparison with American acts 271 

Preventive powers of British and American acts 271 

British act of 1H70 275 

Negotiations for amendment of the foreign-enlistment act during the civil 

war 2-" 



TAUI.L OV CONTENTS. 



IX 



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I'ugo. 
IV. 0|)iiiiinis (if tlio nil)itinfMrs— Cnntimiod. 

C'iiiii)'iii!.suii witli forcij^n laws 277 

Law -if A list rill 27 .' 

Law (if l'niH>.ia 27H 

Law (il Swjt/.i rlaml 27 f< 

Law of I'raiicn 27H 

Law of Hfliiiiim 2Ht 

Lawof tlif Nrllu'iiainls 2^0 

La\N of Spain 2H() 

Law of I'.irliiMal ami IJia/il 2H1 

Law of Italy 2rt2 

Law of Dciiinark 2H:$ 

Law of Swfdfii 283 

Law of liiissia Mri'.\ 

Law ah to jiiIn atfciN 2815 

('oiii|)aiisoii lictwffii (iitat Hiitaiii iind UiiittMl iStatcH as to oliscrvaiKM! of 

uciitralitv 28H 

Lc;-islatioiM)f 171(4 2H!t 

Coiniiiaiiits of Spain 2H1> 

CoiiiiilaiiitHof rortn)j;al 2!»r. 

Aiiifri<'aii ai:t of l-<;ir! 2'JH 

Kx) It'll it ion of Lo])t'/, a);ain.st Cnba 21)!) 

WalUcr's t'X|i('(lition a);ainht Mexico and Central America liOl 

Fenian raids 'M)'.\ 

Kxpedition in aitl of the Cuban insurrection IJOfi 

Coni)daints of nii friendliness '.W'J 

Alli'j;ed e\ idence of unfriendly feeliiii; 151 1 

Complaints of unfriendi.\ eonduet IJL5 

AeUnowledj;nient of lielligeicney iUIJ 

VatKl ;u5 

Hantefenille... :nr> 

I'rofessor lUnntscldi ;Ur> 

Mr. Ifan.i lUH 

Tile Saiitissinia Trinidad 15 17 

AVliellier acknowledgment iirismatiire '.iVJ 

l»e((i;^niti<in of lielli<;ei-ency !524 

Course |iursued liy foreiij,n powers J524 

Question ,is to confederate vessels ',\Mi\ 

I)iscnssion with fiovernmeiit of the Netlu^rlands I{2(i 

Correspondence, witli l?razil 'M\ 

Correspondence with S]iain IJlitJ 

Coirespondenct.' with French j;overninent •i'M] 

Correspondence with Hiitisli <roveriimeiit 'SM'> 

li'euulatiousof .lliue 1, Ir^tll ;{:{1) 

L'ejiulations of :!lst January, 1^02 'XM) 

As to Nassau ." :M0 

Aliened jiaitiality as to coaliufj; 1544 

Su]ijilies of arms olitained fi<ini (Iri'at IJritain :i44 

Ships olitained fidm (iicat Uritain !{4() 

Steps taken liy the Hritisli government 1547 

The Hermuda". :{47 

The (ieoifriaua I?48 

Vessels ar (ilasodw :i4<) 

The I'hantom and Southerm'r.l ;!4i) 

The Alexandra I'-.'iO 

The South Caioliua ;5')l 

The CJiliraltar or Sumter 'iM 

Iron-dads at ISirkenhead I?')! 

The Canton or Pampero '.i^yM 

Iron-clad ram at Glasgow 'M>H 

The Kappainmnock '.V)'.i 

The Amiihion 1554 

The Hawk ;5r)4 

Tim Ajax, the Hercules, the Virginia, tlie Louisa Ann Fanny 354 

Anglo-Chinese tleet '. \ ;5r)r> 

General results '.\7yry 

Proceedings of other govern meuts 356 

Brazil 356 

!,,, Portugal 356 

IT — B 



TAHl.K OF CONTKNTM. 



I \ . ( )|>iiiii>iiM ol' till' arltitratoi's — C.'oiiiiiiiii'il. 



1 



Fiiin 

'I'lir StDiicwiill 

(.'i)iii|i|,'iiiils (if lilix'kiiili'-riiiiiiiii;; 
.S\iii|iiilhv ill tlm ciilDiiics 



A|ilili(';ilii>ii 111 |iai'li<'iilar vessels. 
The FIdiidii 



At liivci|)(iii 
At Nassim . . 



Allcjied reeruitiiien) dl' wow 

l''l(iiiila aCler leavin;^ (li'eeii Cay 

(^iiest mil as to ell'ec^t ol" yjoiii;;' into and n'maiiiiii;f at Moldle 

Alter Moliile 

(y'ase (if t lie United States rx. Del^niiiey 

(jMicstitin wliellier tlie Fldiida sluiuld liave lieeii seized (in aj;aiii eDininu. 

ill I II a ISrilisli pdrl, 

l''ill'i'el (if eiiniiiiissioiis on slilps of war . 

iSiiijis of war exierriloiial 

Helfler 

Si-' ]{. IMiilliniore 

Ortolan . 



l!ase of t lie ]';\elianjj(< 

C'oniinissioii of mere lielli^jerent 

KU'ect of a Helped violation of iKMitral teiritory 

llailtefeiiilU^ 

Ortolan 

Duty (if seiziny; for l)r(Ni(di of niiiniei|ial law 

Duty of excliKlin;^ iVoiii neutral ports 

C'as(! of tlie ('assitis 

Stay of lielli^^ei'ent sliips in neutral jiorts ; siiitjilies .if coal tiiere . 

i'ower of neutral sovereijj;!! 

\jA\v as asserteil liyt lie Ignited States 

VV'lietlier coaliiij; niaki^s a purr, a liasc of naval o|tei'ations 

Iiij;lit of as Imn 

Siil>ply of (Mai 

At Nassau 



At Nassau 

At nai'lvidoes 

At, Nassau 

At Hermuda 

At Mrest 

At Martini(]ii(! 

Aiiain at liermnda ...... 

The Alabama 

At liiverpool 

Alter lea vinu; Li ver))ool 

Arniin;>' off 'I'erceira 

At Martini(|ue. 

At .Jamaica 

At tlu! Cape of (lood 1 lope 

In the east(M'ii seas 

At (Mierbonrj? 

TuHc^aloosa 

Ooorfiia 

Shenandoah 

At Me]i)ourn(! 

Supi>ly of coal 

Meli)ourne a base of naval operations. 

After leaving; Melbourne 

Suuiter 

At Trinidad 

At Gibraltar 



At ]jiveri»ool 



Nasi) vi lie 



At Hermuda 

At Soutliami)ton . .. 
Afiain at H(!rnuida. 



Chickaniaiifja 
Tallaliassoi 



Ketribution 



IViU... 



:»:i<t 



:!(>: 
:<ii7 

■Kir. 
1(1.-. 
III.-. 
km; 
tilt; 



4(1- 

•1(11' 

Kill 

11(1 
•11(1 
tio 
411 
41'^ 
41W 

4l!> 

4i:{ 
414 

411; 

41T 
4lt> 
411^ 

4111 

4-24 

4-ir. 

4-27 

4;{(i 

4SA 
4:5:") 
4:»7 
4:nt 
4:{it 

44(i 
447 

4()(l 
4ti2 

4():'. 
4()(> 
4()8 
471 
472 

47:» 

477 
4H4 
4H!l 
4S>7 
4!>^ 

rio.-) 

;')()() 

oi;? 

51H 
519 

r)i!t 

527 
5J7 

5;ui 
5;n 



< 



'*^ SSBtsV" 



•i'Am,i: or cdN tknts. 



\i 



356 

:uir> 
:»;(; 
:«)7 
:<(I7 

4(1.") 
4or. 

4IMi 

t(ii; 

4i»lt 
4(»U 
4111 
410 
410 
411 
41-^ 
41'^ 
41'^ 
4 in 
414 
41(; 
417 
4lf 
41H 
411> 

^•^'^ 

42") 
4-2". 
4'i7 

4:«> 

4-SA 

4:<r) 
4:$7 
4:ut 
4:«i 

440 
447 

4(;() 

4(ii> 
4(>:'. 
4tUi 
4(18 
471 
47'2 
47:> 
477 
4H4 
4H!» 
4!)7 
4'.>r^ 

rio.-) 

;")()() 

r.dc 

51H 
519 

r)i<» 

52-2 

r.27 

5.27 
5;U) 

5:u 



|\'. (>]tiiiic(iiH of till' ,irl)ili;itiiis --('iiiitiimi'il. 

CuscH III \\ hi I'll < ileal Itnliiiii lias Imtm hrlil rt-spdiisihlc 

As to I 111- a waul ol' a smii in yro.ss 

Amoiiiil oT claims 

( 'jail lis lor <'ost ol ]tiir.-*iiil iinil rapliirc 

(Question of <laina;;rs 

( 'laiiiis loi' iirospcrl ivc I'litch 

Claims for i^ros.s fri'i;;lils 

|)oiililc rlaims 

New claims 

I'lopci'lN (Icstl'oycd 

Values of \vlialiiij.;-\ csscls 

\' a I lies of mcl'cliaiil-vcHselM 

Claims for caijjoes 

(Claims for personal etfeotH 

Claim fo' iiifert'Nt 

( 'oiicliisi 

V. Reply of t. secretary of Slate, ackiio\vleil;;in;; llie receijit of llie re|H(rt of 
the !i<;eiil oi .e I'liiteil Stales, ami eommeiilin<r upon tiie o|)ini(>ii of tlic 
iti'liitrator appoiiileil liy Her Miitaiiiiic Majesty 

AckliowledLiill;; tlie receipt ol' tile re|iort 

The I'lesiil Ill's .approval ... 

The action of the arliitrators on tlm indirect claims •• 

Kntry of jndi^nient on the iiulirect claims 

KtVect of the jiidiiiiienl 

The award of the frilinnal 

The di;j;Mity and learnin;f of tiie arhilrators appi'int«ul l»y Italy, Swit/erland. 

and Hra/.il 

Mr. AdaniN itu'civcH Hm thanks of llor '■•ritaiinic- Majesty and of the I'nsi 

dent '....' 

The dissent iiiif opinion of Sir .Mexaniler Cockli ,rn ... 

This opinion not read or made known to his col leagues 

If the contents had been known it shoiihl li ;ve heeii objected to 

Sir A. Cockbiini |)rofi!sses to speak as the re]>resentiilive of (Sreat Mritain.. 
Resume of the |»ositionHhe maintains as the rcpresentati\ tMif (Jreal Mritain. 
Etl'ect of tilt) controversy in detininjj; neutral ri<;hts and ol»li;fations ... ... 

Till! importance of notinj; the views of tiie representative of ihe Mritish 

jjovcrnmnnt 

VI. Report of the (counsel of the United States 

VII. Ai»pendix : Opinions of statesmen, majjaziiuvs, anil Journals of (Jrcat Hritain 
and the oontinenl on the construction of the treaty of W'ashinjiliui 



.'>:((; 
5:mi 
5:c 
r.:{7 
:t:i7 
,^:t7 
'.:(!» 
.-.;«> 

.")4lt 
540 
541 
541 
.541 
54a 
5 l-J 
544 



54.'. 
545 
545 
545 
.54(1 
.54(i 
.54(; 

5»(; 

.'.4(1 
.54(1 
.54(1 
54(1 
547 
547 
54-^ 

.540 

550 

.551 



[ -REPORT OF J. C. BANCROFT DAVIS, AGENT OF THE UNITED 

STATES. 



li E r () ]t T 



Actini. of juail 
hii{h rnininiHHinii on 
tlif iii»iirt'(jt rlditas. 



Mr. Davis to Mr. Fisli. 

Paris, September 21, 1872. (Received October 10, 1872.) 
Sir: I transmit herewith, in a separate inclosuro, the original award 
of the tribunal of arbitration, and, in another separate in- A«,r,i.in,i prou 
closure, the original protocols of the conferences. c.utran.m.tie,i. 

Having now conducted to fi successful termination the interests in- 
trusted to me by the President, 1 respectfully ask permission to make a 
statement respecting thon. 

At the conference of the joint high commissioners at AVashington, in 
vhich the subject of the Alabama claims was first consid- 
ered, the American commissioners, in their oi)euing state- 
ment,detined the demands of the United States against Great 
Britain, growing out of the acts of the Alabama, aiul the other cruisers, 
which were to be the subject of the negotiations, in the following lan- 
guage, viz: 

Extoiisivt' direct Iohhos in the ciiptur'j anil (Ifstrnction of a lari;!' n-iiubiM' of vcs.sel«, 
with tlit'ir (iar^joes, and in the heavy national expenditure in till) itnrsnit „ . , ,„ , 
ot" the ciiiiseivs ; and indirect injury in the transfer of a hir<;e part of the w\. .mj st.u-mcnf' 
American coiuinercial nuirine to the British Ihijjf, in the cnlianeed pay- "' '•''"""• 
nient of insurance, in the prolongation of th(> war, and in tiic addition of a largo sum 
to the cost of the war and the suppression of the rehellion. 

At the same time they indicated the manner in which some of these 
claims could be substantiated, viz: the claims for the loss and destruc- 
tion of private property in the ordinary ma'iner; the cost of the pursuit 
of the cruisers " by certiticates of Government accounting oflicers," and 
what they styled " indirect losses" by estimates. All the subsequent 
negotiations proceeded from this starting point. 

It has been shown, beyond possible question, in the argument of Gen- 
eral Gushing, Mr. Evarts, and Mr. Waite, presented to the ,„ h.m.ony «itu 
tribunal on the 15th of June last, that this definition of our anpr >'™^'"^^'i''- 
claims was in strict accordance with all previous negotiations between 
the two governments, with the action of the Senate of the United States, 
and with the official expressions of the President to Congress. 

The P»ritish members of the joint high commission took no exception 
to the definition when it was made by their American col- Nne„,i>mnMke,. 
leagues. They acquiesced in it. «.m„-r». 

VVlien I had the honor to receive the directions of the President to 
prepare the Case of the United States for submission to tin 



Dpfinitidti of "All!- 



tribunal, I regarded myself as bound by the definition of the p";;;;,!;.!;'',";!,.';^';;" 

words "Alabama Claims" which the American commission- ' """'•, 

ers had given in the opening conference, which they had adhered to 
throughout the negotiations, and which Iiad been placed in the protocol 
IB 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 



Preparntion of <•»!*<' 



Pr'TatP claims rlii 
• ihi'ct HH ttidirt-'ct. 



His lulelilj-. 



by the joint mttot all the commissioners. I looked in vain in the treaty 
for any waiver or remission of those claims. On the contrary, I founll 
an express i)rovision that the United States were to have the judgment 
of the tribunal on ali their claims growing out of the acts of the 
cruisers. 

The question was a practical one : for the claims fc ' " enhanced rates 
of insurance" were among those which had been clas8ifie<l 
as "indirect" in the statement, which had received the ap- 
proval of all the members of the joint high commission. 
Many claims of this character were presented at the Department of 
State, and a circular was issued, under the immediate direction of the 
Secretary of State, informing claimants that all claims growing out of 
the acts of the cruisers would be presented to the tribunal, leaving that 
body to determine on their merits. 

It was impossible for me to prepare the Case and, at the same time, to 
Kmpi.jiMeniorMr. dircct iu pcrsou the details of the arrangement of the evi 
"'•"""■ dence respecting the national and individual claims. Mr. 

Charles C. Eeaman, jr., of New York, was employed to do the latter, 
under general directions from me, and did his work with 
admirable fidelity. Thus the evidence already collected, 
together with imjwrtant new materials from the archives of tlie several 
Departments, and the proof of the losses sufl'ered by individual claim- 
ants, were arranged and stated in the nuumer marked out b^' the Ameri- 
can members of the joint high commission, viz: 

1. The evidence oilered by individual claimants for the loss and de 
struction of property and for enhanced rates of insurance 
was analyzed and tabulated, and a full abstract of each case 

was prepared by the clerks. 

2. The national claims for the pursuit of the cruisers were stated and 
tabulated at the Xavy Department, and were inserted by us exactly as 
received from that Department. 

3. No proof was ofi'ered of the national losses by the transfer of the 
commercial marine, or by the prolongation of the war, but they were 
left to be estimated oy the tribunal of arbitration, should Great Britain 
be found responsible for them. 

The Case, which was reserved for my own work, was constructed on 
the following theories of fact and of law — theories which 
rar,.-p ?'".','",".'! have received the sanction of the eminent counsel of the 
..aopu.i. United States ; which have been adhered to in all the argu- 

ments, and which have, to no small extent, been adopted by the arl)i- 
trators : 

(«) That the tribunal of arbitration was a judicial body, substituted 

Ti.rtnimnaiaju by tlic partlcs to takc the ])lace of force, and empowered 

diiwibmiy. ^^j ^,.y ry^^^\ determine issues which otherwise could be settled 

(if at all) only by war. 

(&.) That the injuries of the Uiiiti'd States should be stated, therefore, 

with the fullness necessarv to a determination in a court of 



Arrnngrnu'iU of tli 
eviUente, 



('asp to hf 
frank I . 



Iav7, and with the same frankness with which they would be 
stated in case of an appeal to fore*'. 1 did not think that the United 
States could obtain full justice at the hands of the arbitrators if any ap- 
jneciable part of their wrongs were left untold. 

(c.) That the government of Great Britain, by its indiscreet haste in 
counselling the Queen's i)roc]amation recognizing the in- 
surgents as belligerents, by its ])reconcerted joint action 
with France resi)ecting the declarations of the congress of 
Paris, by its refusal to take steps for the amendment of its 



Tufiipnclty roMr«;i' 
(d' Grt'iit Bntitiu >uhI 
B r i t i H li nM)ii!«t(>)>. 
Wfinl ot diT djli- 



KEPOKT OF THE AGENT OF THK UNITED STATES. 



the treaty 
y, I found 
judgment 
its of the 

Qced rates; 
I classified 
ed the ap- 
nimission. 
irtment ot 
ion of the 
ing out of 
iving that 

le time, to 
)f the evi 
lims. Mr. 
the hitter, 
work with 
collected, 
he several 
ual claim- 
:he Ameri- 

•ss and de- 
insurance 
i each ease 



tated and 
exactly as 

er of the 
ley were 
it Britain 

ucted on 
ies which 
el of the 
the argu- 
the arbi- 

bstituted 
powered 
)e settled 

herefore, 
court of 
would be 
United 
f any ap- 

haste in 

the in- 

Jt action 

jigress of 

Int of its. 



\\'h:a ;i(iM 111 «ul>- 
i.iriliiritc-* ;i rovitii- 
iDi-tit ni>t rt-^poMAibte 
l..r. 



neutrality laws, by its refraining for so long a time from seizing the 
rams at Liverpool, by its conduct in the affair of the Trent, and by its 
approval of the course of its colonial officers at various times; and that 
the individual members of the government, by their open and frequent 
expressions of sympathj' with the insurgents, and of desires for their 
success, had v?xhibited an ur:friendly feeling, which might att'eet their 
own course, .and could not but aft'ect the action of their subordinates; 
and that all this was a want of the "due diligence" in the observance 
of neutral duties which is required at once by the treaty and by inter- 
national law. 

It seemed to me that such facts, when proved, imbued with the char- 
acter of culpable negligence many acts of subonlinates in 
the British service for which, otherwise, the government 
might not be held responsible; as, for instance, acts of the 
collector of customs at Liveri)ool respecting tha Florida and the Ala- 
bama; acts of the authorities at Nassau respecting the arming of the 
Floridii at Green Bay, and subsequently respecting lier supplies of coal; 
acts of the authorities at Bermuda respecting the Florida; and acts of 
the authorities at ^[elbourne respecting the Shenandoah. There were 
many such acts of subordinates which, taken individually and by them- 
selves, would not form a Just basis for holding culpable a government 
which was honestly and witli vigilance striving to perform its duty as 
a neutral ; but which, taken in connection with each other, and with the 
proofs of animus which we offered, establish culpability in the gov- 
ernment itself. 

{d.) That the insurgents established and maintained, unmolested 
throughout the ilisurrection, administrative bureaus on 
British soil, by means of which the several cruisers werr 
dispatched from British i)orts, or were enabled to make them 
bases of hostile operations against the United States, and 
that the British government was cognizant of it. 

(e.) That Great Britain, from the outset, denied, and to the last per- 
sisted in denying, that the departure of vessels like the „,i,i,|, j„„,, „, 
Alabama and the Florida, under any cinnimstances, could ''''""'* 
be a breach of international duty ; and had refused to exercise diligence 
to prevent such departure. 

(/.) That in point of fact no such diligence had been exercised ; and 
that, while there were i^articular facts as to each vessel, tending to fix 
responsibility upon Great Britain, these general indisputable facts were 
sufiicient to carry responsibility for the acts of all the cruisers. 

The treatment of this line of argument exhausted five chapters of the 
(-ase. Tliese five chapters were printed in a memorandum 
form, and were submitted to several gentlemen, some of \y.n"'T>''"^l"lM' 
whose names I may mention without violating confidence; 
only remarking, in justice to them, that they should not be held respon- 
sible for the views in this part of the Case, by reason of having read 
it in advance. 

1. They were sent to President AVoolsey, who made many 
valuable suggestions, most of which were adopted. 

2. Mr. William Beach Lawrence, the eminent publicist, permitted me 
to consult him, not oidy after these chapters were Vtritten, 
but also during their composition. I did not adopt his well- 
known views respecting the Queen's proclamation and the unfriendli- 
ness of the British cabinet; nor do I suppose that he, knowing my coi. 
victions to be otherwise, had any idea that I would ado[)t them. 1 did, 
however, receive from him valuable hints, which improved the work. 



Maiiitt'nance of in 
rttirniMil ndinini'*tra- 
tivf b u r Hii It H (til 
i'..'tis|i Kuil ii want 
ot ,iiR' dihgi'nre. 



lidi'iit Wonlj-ey 



Mr. 
reiHc, 



ARniTKATlOX AT GENEVA. 



Mr. K. K. li'iM, 



MibmiUeil lor iul\ u ••. 



Nn claiiii iii.iilf (nr 
ii iirirtiriiliir sinii Inr 
nnlirt'rl tl;itM;i«''> - 
tnhunjil :isk'*«i \u 
t'-liin;iti'. 



3. Mr. E. K. Hoar, one of the ineuiber.s of the Joint hi^li commission, 
read these chapters at my request, and expressed his gen- 
eral approval. J think that he made several suggestions, 

and that all were udoi)ted. 

4. The veteran statesman and scholar, (ieneral Cushing, made several 

valuable contri1)utions, all of whicii were embodied in the 

(ii-MliT:iI f'll.-linn. , 

woik. 

5. The different members of the Cabinet were consulted, and, so far 

as they made suggestions, their views were adopted. It is 
within your own knowledge that I received several valuable 
contributions or hints from you. 

It was not until I had thus received and acted on the advice of a wide 
circle of statesmen, jurists, and publicists, competent to criticise the 
work, of whose patriotic desire to have the interests of their country 
represented with dignity at Geneva no one could doubt, that the final 
chai)ter of the work was written. This chapter contained the formal 
statement of the claims submitted for adjudication under 
the treaty. Among them were those which have since be- 
(!ome known as "the indirect (ilaims." To prevent misapprehension it 
should be sai<l that this chai»ter was not sent out for criticism as the 
others had been. The statements were presented in the exact language of 
the protocol made by the two parties jointly for the pur[>ose of defining 
the claims to be submitted to the tribunal. Tliey were accompanied by 
references to the i)roofs respecting the individual claims, and the national 
claims for the ])ursuit of the cruisers; and with a request 
that the tribunal would estimate the natiQual losses in the 
transfer of the commercial marine, and in the prolongation 
of the war. And, in order that the statement might be com- 
plete, some reasons were added whj-, should the tribunal be of opinion 
tiiat (heat IJritain was responsible for the ])rolongation of the war, the 
l)rolongation should be diued irom July, 1803. 
The Case, as thus revised, was reprinted, and was, in accordance Avith 
iviv.ry of ii„ the terms of the treaty, taken to Geneva, and there de- 
'"'*'""'"' livered to the arbitrators and to the British agent in the 
official English, (and also in a French translation, made for the con- 
venience of the arbitrators,) together with seven volumes of accom- 
panying documents, correspondence ^ud evidence. 
Tl»e fa(^ts which were disclosed in the Case were, undoubtedly, such as 
The languiBc „, callcd for tlic rcprobatiou of j ust- thiukiug pcrsous but these 
ti,. c,,.,^ .„,.!. facts were told, so far as I was able to do so, in simple and 
temperate language, without harshness or violence. Nothing couUl 
have been further from my expectations than the outburst whicli 'fol- 
lowed. 
In about a fortnight after we left Geneva, it began to be said in the 
London newspapers that the good faith of the British 
government was called in question in the American Case, 
and soon the whole press, with the exception of the newspaper univer- 
sally recognized as the leading journal, opened an attack upon the 
chapter on unfriendliness. 

The Stand.ard thought we had "sacrificed the consistency and dig- 
nity of our pleadings to satisfy popular prejudice at home." The Tele- 
graph spoke of the " effrontery" with which the American demands 
were set forth, and said that " it must bo borne in mind that General 
Grant seeks re-election." The Saturday Review spoke of the narrative 
as "perverted and spiteful," and "a malignant composition," and said that 
" if the Americans wish to express still more hostile feelings, they must 



CfMnnii'ntr' 
British prrs^ 



Clf lli^ 



KEPOKT OF THE AGENT OF THE UNITED STATES. 



5 



mission, 
his gen- 
fcstions, 

'. several 
I ill the 

1, so far 
il. It is 
valuable 

)f a wide 
icise the 
country 
the final 
a formal 
111 under 
since be- 
nision it 
m as the 
guage of 
defining 
anied by 
national 
, request 
BS in the 
ongation 
t be com- 
opinioii 
war, the 

lice with 
here de- 

in the 
the con- 

accom- 

, sncli fis 
)ut these 
I pie and 
g could 
lich 'fol- 

d in the 
BritisU 

in Case, 
univer- 

pon the 

and dig- 
he Tele- 
leraands 
General 
arrative 
said that 
ey must 



\,Ii..r, .,1 th- liiilut) 

iV.-IIMIll'III. 



discontinue verbal controversy."' The Pall-Mall Gazette, usually fair 
and courteous, though hostile, charged that the claims had been bought 
up by "American legislators and officers of state oven among the higher 
and more influential grade." The Spectator charged us with "sharp 
practice," and " a discreditable forcing of the natural moaning of the 
treaty in order to win popularity at the elections." The Daily News 
<;alled the claims "extravagant demands intended as an electioneering 
card," and com[)laiiied thai the case was a " long and passionate plead- 
ing," in which "chapter after chapter is devoted to the presumed mo- 
tives of our [British] public men." 

In fact, fault was found indiscriminately with nearly everything in 
the Case except the one thing afterward made the main subject of com- 
plaint, namely, the allegation that it contained demainls which were not 
included in the submission in the treaty. That was an objection which 
did not appear in the British jiress until weekii after the exchange of 
the documents at Geneva, and, so far as I am aware, was not taken by 
any person entitled to speak by the authority of the government until 
a still later day. 

Even as late as the middle of Jaiuiary negotiations were going on 
between the respective agents and counsel regarding the 
times and the manner of making sui)plemental arguments 
at Geneva, (should the tribunal call for any,) without an intimation that 
there might be a difference as to the subjects to be argued. It was not 
until the 3d of February that the niiuistiy announced officially that 
they had not anticipated that theclaims which have im])roperly become 
known as the " indirect claims" would be ])resented at (Jeneva. 

Indeed, there is some evidence that the llritish government was occu- 
pied with the parts of the Case wMiich had offeuded the Brit- 
ish press ; for I gather from General Schenck's telegram of 
the liTth of rebruary, reporting to you an interview with Lord Gran- 
ville, that the cabinet had under consideration atone tinM» the i»ropriety 
of asking for the absolute withdrawal of the Aniericau Case, on other 
grounds than its presentation of the " indirect claims."' 

For several weeks, I may say months, the London press continued to 
<liscuss our national claims. This discussion was conducted „|„„;„„. or u,.. 
witii a vehemence, and with insinuations or charges of bad !;:;;;i',i;;uVillI'Lv,,';'i 
faith, which attracted the attention of the Continental ^""'■ 
press. In all the i)rincipal capitals of Europe, the Alabama claims be- 
came ihe subject of comment. The unanimity of the verdict in favor 
of our construction of the treaty was as complete as was the unanimity 
of the English press in favo*r of Great Britain, and it was universally 
conceded that England could not retire from the arbitration without dis- 
honor. I inclose a variety of extracts on this subject. 

During all this time I was occupied in Paris in the prei)arati()n of 
the counter-case, and the other duties of the agency. On |.;„h:.n«H „r tu- 
the loth of April I was able to coini)ly with the recpiire- ■"""■'"*■" 
nients of the treaty and the directions of the tribunal by delivering 
the counter-case Jind accompanying documents to i\Ir, Favrot for the 
British agent and for the arbitrators. The volume of evidence acconi- 



Coiit.-inlil.ilfil I-.- 
u-'^t liir v^ il)i(lt\twjil 
1 t lif AiiH'i i.Mti cast' 



' "Ho [FiOrd Cilraiu'illo] thcMi said to mo that i'l liis noto of tho M lie had Htated tho, 
views of Her Majowty's governnient as to indiroct tiaiiiis ; that thoro woro other por- 
tious of [tho] Aiiioricaii Case they rej^ret, and souio of which appear to introduce niat- 
ters not yerniane toreferenco ; that he has not been abh' to consult eabin('t Iuto, hut ix 
individual I If preparvd to recommaid to tlicm, and he thiiikx with rcanonahle expectation of .«;«<■- 
cess, that they should not presn for u-ithdrawal of American Cane if the (lorcrnmcnt of the 
United Statcx,^^ &.K,, &c. — (Correspondence resiiectins Oeneva Arbiti'ation, pa^e f».) 



6 



ARBITRATIOX AT GKNEVA. 



panying the eoiinter-case was selected and arranged under the directions 
of tlie counsel. At the same time 1 delivered French ti anslati us of 
these documents, and also two volumes containing French translsttions 
of selected ])ieces from the seven volumes of evidence submitted with 
the case in December. 
This, and much of the subsequent work, could Jiot have been eom- 

in,in»try and 7.™i pletcd lu scasou Ih'ul uot the secietaries been willing, when 
„i ih. .,«r.iur,.». ealled upon, to work day and night for the purpose. 

Lord Tenterden met me at Geneva in April with unreserve, and in the 

fv„,„iiv vi ,1 spirit of conciliation. Under instructions from his govorn- 

ii.i lint, h H«. „i. j„ent, he lodged with the secretary of the tribunal a notice 
to the individual arbitrators of the action taken by Her Majesty's gov- 
ernment on the od of February, in order that the act of filing the British 
counter case should not be deemed to be a waiver of that action. IJut ho 
did not conceal his own strong desire to save the treaty, and he left on my 
mind the conviction that the judicial solution which the tribunal sub- 
sequently made of the ])()litical diflleulty raised by the liritish note of 
the .'id of Februa"" would be accepted by the JJritish government. 
The time between the IHth of April and the loth of June was occu- 
pied by the counsel in the prei)aration of their argument. 
thp.'oun"rn«'',',.i'''i This argument has attracted great attention throughout 
a» .m»ter:j. Europc, uud luis rcccivcd universal praise as a masterly vin- 

dication of our rights. 
On the 15th of June the tribunal re-assembled, the agents an«l counsel 

rn.tp,isi„tt-.,su- on both sides being present. The argument of the United 
,mntiii,,i states was duly delivered, (together with the French trans- 

lation made for the convenience of the arbitrators;) but the liritisli 

nnti.i, nmvi. f„r ageu t, lustcad of fiUug tlic Brltislj argument, asked for an ad- 
io,.si.,u.."n„,Rnt. jouiniiient of several months, in order to enable the two 
governments to arrange politically the questions in dispute. 

I had already discussed with General (Wishing the probability of ad- 

(on^qmnt iiHg... .justiMg tlicsc dittcrences by the action of the tribunal. In- 
""■'""• stead of assenting to the proposed adjournment, 1 therefore, 

with the full coiuairrence of the counsel, asked for an adjournment of two 
days, i/i order to give us time to consi(ler the position. P.efore the tri- 
bunal e i>nvened again, steps were taken for removing the difticulty" 
through the action of that body. In the proceedings which followed wo 
acted as a unit on our side. Happily they resulted in a solution by 
the tribunal, which proved to be acceptable to both governments. The 

A,,j, tiononih. arbitrators annouiuied their qjnnion that the claims known 

uuiirmohiims. jj ^^^^, JDdii'oct claims did not constitute, on principles of 
international law api/licable to such cases, good and sufficient founda- 
tion for an awaid of compensation or computation of damages between 
nations. On the side ofCJreat J'.ritain the solution was a practical one; 
no damages were to be awarded for this clars of claims. On our side 
the solution was reached in the mannei' i)ointed out by the treaty, viz, 
by the action of the co.irt. On the suggestion of the other side, this 
unofficial act was then formally enteied as an official judgment, in the 
following language: 

Coimt Sclopis, on behalf of fill tlie arbitrator.s, then (h^chued that rlie .suiil Hovcral 
oLaiiiiH for in»lii<'(t losses nuMitioned in the, statiiiiient made by the aj^ent of the United 
States on the 2'Ah instant, and referred to in the statement jnst made by the asout of 
Her Britannic Majesty, arc, and from luMieeforth will be, wlnilly exelnded from the 
eonsideration of the Tribnnal,and directed the secretary to embody tins declaration in 
the protocol of this day's proceedings. 



REPORT OF THK AGENT OF THE UMTED STATES. 



iiirections 
hit! lis of 
luslations 
ttod with 

•o(M> coni- 
ng, when 

0. 

nd in tlic 
s govorii- 
1 fi notice 
5ty's gov- 
le British 
. But ho 
eft on my 
una! sub- 
li note of 
ent. 

vas occu- 
rgumeut. 
roughout 
terly vin- 

l counsel 
e United 
ch trans- 
3 British 
or an ad- 
the two 

y of ad- 

nal. In- 

lierefore, 

it of two 

the tri • 

iftlculty 

owed w«i 

ution bv 

ts. The 

known 

iples of 

fonnda- 

ictweeii 

cal one 5 

our side 

:ity, viz, 

(le, tliis 

, in the 

I (SO vera I 
o United 
iisout of 
from the 
ration in 



li 



b'>tl) Hid*H. 



i'.ritixh nrsmiM'fi', 
fi1«>d Motion tor I'lii 
V.uT ;irt,'uriiont. 



In all theye proceedings, I found the British agent and 
counsel sharing our sincere and earnest desire to save the 
treaty. 

The British urgunient was next filed, with my consent, and an effort 
was then made on their side to reopen argument and secure 
a new hearing on the whole (piestion. This was success- 
'uUy resisted, and the tribunal took a recess for a fortnight. 

On Monday, the loth of July, it reassembled. The etforts on the 

)wrt of (iicat Britain to .secure re-argument were renewed. The neutral 

arbitrators said that they had examined the whole case, and that they 

wanted ik) re-hearing, It was decided by tlie tribunal to give the 

oi>inioii of tiie arliitratois sei-iatim on each cruiser, beginning with the 

•l-'lorida. 

Sir Alexander Cockburn presented the facts and reasoning atVc'^^ing 
rliis vessel at an extreme length, holding (heat Britain ,„„„„„„ o,, ti, . 
Vee of blame. , The other arbitrators held her responsible, '^'""'''■ 
reserving, however, the question as to the eft'ect of a commission. 

Sir Alexander Cockburn, then, in vigorous language, and with 
great warmtli of manner, urged tlie tribunal to permit an argument 
upon the meaning of the words " due diligence," upon the effect of a 
commission, and upon the law respecting the supplies of coal. The 
tribunal granted the request. I was, myself, in favor of allowing further 
arguments, within some defined scope. 1 thought that we had nothing 
to lose by an argument, in whi(;h we. had the reiily, in the hands of such 
:iiasters of discussion as General (Jushing, Mr. Evarts, and Mr. Waitc. 

The hearings were ordered, and, before the dissolution of the tribu 
lal, arguments had been made (alwavs on the suggestion 

of England) on the following points, the British counsel '"' ..-..i-. ur.i,.,v.i 

'eading and ours following: 1, on the meaning of the words 
"due diligence;" 2, on the effect of a commission on the offending vessel; 
.!. on supplies of coal; 4, on the recruitment of men for the Shenandoah, 
at Melbourne; 5, on the effect of the entry of the Florida into the port 
of Mobile ; (I, on the subject of interest ; 7, on the general subject of the 
statement of claims. These arguments were presented generally both 
hi the English and the French languages. 

The protocols which accompany this dispatcii show the order in which 
tiieso various papers were delivered, and the order in which the arbitra- 
tors considered the various cruisers. It was not until after the argu- 
ments on the first four subjects that the formal votes 
required by the treaty were taken separately upon the 
responsibility of Great Britain as to each cruiser. The tribunal decided 
unanimously that there was responsibility for the a(;ts of the Alabama. 
Count Sclopis, j\[r. Stiimiilli, and Mr. Adams held that there was re- 
sponsibility for the acts of the Shenandoah after leaving jMelbourne, 
but not before. Great JJritain was released from resiKinsibility as to tin- 
other vessels, except the Florida ; 3rr. Adams holding that there was 
responsibility for the acts of the lletribution, and 3lr. Sti'im])lli holding 
ilirit there was responsibility for the acts of that vessel only so far as 
related to the I'mily Fisher. The formal vote on the Florida was taken 
at a subsequent conference, after agument by counsel on the special 
question of the effect of the entry into Mibile. Count Sclopis, Viscount 
d'ltajuba, Mr. Stiimpfli, and Mr. Adams held there was responsibility 
for her acts. 

The deliberations of the tribunal, on the subject of damages, were 
held with closed doors. The arbitrators asked each party 
for comparative tables, which were furnished. On our side. 



t><'risif>nl 



of l\f 



Dair.a«i;> 



8 



AKIJITRATION AT GENEVA. 



A v.iirtl. 



'vnrJ 



^iven, 



■we limited ourselves to tlie recinest of the tiibuiial. On the other side, 
new tables were put in with new and elaborate criticisms upon our list 
of claims. We did not object to this irregular criticism, but claimed 
the right of reply given by the treaty. 

The tril)unal, at length, announcecl that a result had been reached — 
that lifteen and a half millions of dollars would be awarded 
as a gross sum, to be i)aid by (.Ireat Britain to the United 
States. It docs not ai)pear in the luotocols how the arbitrators arrived 
at this amount. T am informed that it wa^ reached by mutual conces- 
sions. 
The nei'.tral arbitrators and Mi. Adams, from the beginning of the 
nHcrminniin,, m procccdings, Avcrc convinced of the i)olicy of awarding a 
sum in gross. Por some weeks before the decision was 
1 felt sure that the arbitrators would uot consent to send the 
<'ase to assessors until they should have exhausted all efforts to agree 
themselves upon the sum to be paid. ^Ve therefore devoted our ener- 
gies toward securing such a sum as should bo practically an indemnity 
ro the sufferers. Whether we have or have not been successful can be 
determined only by the ffnal division of the sum. 

It is due to our counsel to state that in all the proceedings which were 
<oun.H„.ivi,.>i„„ taken since their arrival in Europe no step was made with 
.v,ry aug.. out their advice and consent, and many important ones were 

rakcn on their suggestion and origination. That their labors have been 
incessant any one may imagine wlio sees the mass of able papers which 
came from their pens. 

The oi)inions which the neutral arbitrators presented bear testi- 
mony to the sagacitj', good Judgment, and knov/ledge o! 
:! the principles of law and fact at issue, which they brought to 
bear on the case, and to the untiring labor with which they 
mastered the varied ami dillieult questions submitted by the ])arties for 
liieir decisions. It only remains to say that they exhib'ti'd throughout 
marked ])atience and good tem[)er, and that these admuable (jualities 
were sometimes needed. These opinions will undoubtedly be read with 
interest. 1 take the liberty, in closing, to make a few remarks ui)on the 
main points at is>;iu', as they are treated in the opinions of the different 
arbitrators. 



hidcpendt 
'. '.lay vi' 
ibitrator-. 



1 



1)1 E DILKiENCK. 



J):,l ,;.|.BMi. 



Whnt W!i«! t 1: 
til" United Stilt 



We mai)itaiiied in the Case that the diligence of the neutral should " be 
]troportioned to the magnitude of the subject, and to the 
dignity and strength of the jwwer which is to exercise 
,,y it," (page 158.) and that it should be "gauged by the 
character and magnitude of the matter which it may 
affect, by the relative condition of the ]>arties, by the ability of the party 
incurring theliability to exercise the diligence required by the exigencies 
of the (!ase, and by the extent of the injury Avhich may follow negli- 
gence," (page 152.) We thought, for instance, that it would not be just 
ii» hold IJrazil, with its extended coast, sparse population, and feeble 
means of internal communication, and Great Britain, with its compact 
population, its net-work of railways and telegraphs, and its administrative 
system always under the control of the central govenmient, to an identi 
cal standard of active vigilance. 

j'o .,,no(Greatnrit ,n. Oil tho othci sldc It was sald : 

Her Majost.y's jjovoinmoTit knows cf no distiuction hotwieii more (ligniHod and less 
dignified powers ; it regards all sovereign states .as enjoying equal rights, and equally 



REPORT OF THE A(;E\1" OF THE I'.MrED STATES. 



!i 



other side, 
ion our list 
ut (;1 aimed 



reached — 
)e awarded 
the United 
[)rs arrive*! 
Lial coiiees- 

inj? of the 
warding a 
cision was 
► send the 
ts to agree 
our ener- 
indemnity 
sful can be 

A hieh Avere 
made with 
t ones were 
i have been 
pers which 

bear testi- 
)\vledge o! 
brought to 
rthich they 
l»arties for 
iiroughout 
e (lualities 
read witli 
s upon the 
e ilifferent 



liouhl "be 
and to the 
:o exercise 

ed by the 
ch it may 
f the party 
exigencies 
How negh- 
not be just 
and feeble 
s compact 
inistrativc 

au identi 



tied aud less 
aud equally 



1 



«ubj<'ct to all ordiiiiiiy intt'iiiatioiial olili;r;itio!is : and it is lirinly in'iHuadcd tliiit; then) 
Ih no Htatc' in Europe or AnnTli'a whicli wmilil lie willinj; to ciaiin or accept any iinnm- 
uity iu this respect, on (lie ground of its interioiity to otlicrs in extent, military i'oree, 
or |)opulation. 

Count Sclopis, in his oi)inion, says : v„u. .,, cmmis.u,,,,. 

The words duo dili^cnco necessarily imply tlie idea ol a relation between tliiMluty 
and its olijoct. It is impossible to detine a jiriori and abstiaetly an absolutes duty ol" 
dilijjence. The thin<; to which the dilif;once relates <letermines its d<'^re(\ * • » 
As to the HU'JiHure ol" activity In the ])erformaTiee of the duties of a neutral, I think the 
iollowin;j; rule should be laid down; that it should b(; in a direct ratio to the actual 
ih'.iiger to which the bellij>(a'ent will be exposed throni;li the laxity of the neutral, and in 
an inverse ratio to theilirect means wiiich the bellij;erefit can ccmtrol for averting? the 
dauiier. 



The Tribunal, in its award, says : 



l»t-tiHi'»n oi tlie tri- 
htiniil. 



The due dili<;ence referred to in the lirst ami third of the saiil rules ou};ht to be 
exercised by niuitral ffoverniniuits in exact proportion to the risks to which either 
of tlie bellif^erents maybe ex)>osed from a failure to fullill tlu'oldij-ations of neutrality 
on their part. # # » 'j'i,g circumstances out of which the facts eonsti- 
tutinj>; the subject-unvtter of the juesent controveisy arose Avere> of a natun; to eal'. 
for the exercise, on the part of Her Britannic^ Majesty's ;;()vernnient, of all possible 
solicitude for the observance of the rijj;hts aiul duties involved in the proclamation 
of neutrality issued by Her Majesty, (ui the i:5th of May, IStil. 



2. Toleration of insuhoent operations in Knoland, 
AND English feeling acsainst the United States. 

Count Selopis says, respecting this point : 



I'lilri'MitildT"" 

Kll»hlLL(l. 



.Si'litpi*. 



rouiii 



Tlu! Uritish };overnnuMit was fully in fornu'd that the eonfederaterf had established 
in Eiifjland a branch of their means of attack and defense aj;a'inst tin; Fnited States. 
Commissioners i-epi^esentinj;' th(> <fovernment of JJichmond were domiciled in J^(nnlon, 
and had juit themselves in communication with tin* En}j;lish yovernnu'iit. Lord Rus- 
sell had received these confederate ie)ircsentatives in an unotlicial way. The first 
visit took place on the 11th of May, It'Ol, that is to say three <lays before tlm Queen's 
proclamation of ner.trality, and four days before Mr. Adams arrived in L<nnlon as the 
Jiiiiiistei' of the I jiited States. And fnrthei', the Enj^lish et-vernnu-nt could not but 
know that ;;reat eoiiimereial houses were manajfing tlu' interests of the confederates 
at Liver]iool, a town which, from that time, was very openly prononnc(!(l in favor 
of the South. In I'arlianu'nt itself opinions v,ei-e before loiijf opetdy exjiressed in 
favor of the insur;;«'n(s. Tin* Queen's ministeis themselves di(( not dis;>uis(! that in 
their opinion it would be very difticult for the American I'nion to re-estai>lish itself as 
before. # » * » * *^ jj lesults from this, in my oiiinion, that the 
ICnj^lish ;^overnnu>nt found itself, durin<;' the (irst years of the Avar of secession, iu tin; 
midst of cireunistanees which could not but ha\e an inlluence, if iu)t diieetly upon 
itself, at least upon a part of thej]>opnlation subject to the British Crown. No j;overn- 
uu'Ut is safe aj;ainst certain wav<'s of imblic oi)inior. \vhicli it cannot nnister at its 
will. 1 am far from thinking!: that the iiiiimiifi of tht* Enirlisli ^overnnu^nt Avas hostile; 
to the Federal Government durin^j; the war. Yet there were j^rave danjicrs for the 
United Stiites in Great liritain iiml her colonies which th(;re W(;re no direct means for 
avertiuf^. En}j;land therefore should have fulfdled her duties as a neutral by the 
exercise of a dilijjence equal to the gravity of the danger. # # # It cannot 
be denied that there were moments when its watchfulness seemed to fail and when 
feebleness in certain branches of the public service resulted in great di'trimcnt to the 
United States. 

Viscount d'ltajuba has not phieed on record his opinion on this sub- 
ject, unless it can be gathered from a single passage iu his virwsoi v; «n„i 
rerparks upon the effect of a commission on an offending '■-'"'J "''»• 
cruiser, when he says, "By seizing or detaining the vessel the neutral 
only prevents the belligerent from deriving advantage from the fraud 
committed within its territory by the same belligerent ; while, by not 
proceeding against a guilty vessel it exposes itself to having its good faith 
justly called in question by the other belligerent.^^ 



10 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 



It would sc'ciu from some of Mr. Adiiiiis'.s oxpre.ssioiis that ho did not 
Mr. concur in these view.s of his colleagues. While regretting 
that he did not d»> so, because the views seem to me to be 
in accordance with the facts, and also in accordance with general prin- 
ciples whi(!h al! maritime powers would desire to maintain, F must bo«ar 
testimony to the j)erfect and dignitieil impartiality with 
which, not only in this respect, but throughout the i>roceed- 
ings, Mr. Adams niaintaiiu^d his position as a judge between the two 
contending nations. Of him, at least, it may be said that his love of 
country never controlled his .sense of justice, iiiid that at no time did he 
appear as an advocate. 






.'>. Duty to detain an ()FJ''KNJ)iMf cinisEi: when it comes auain 

WITHIN THE NEUTRAL'S .TrKISDICTION, AND EFFECT Ol' A COMMIS 
SIGN I I'ON SUCH CRl^ISEU. 



EITiTt 111 
iniH^iuii. 



PoHiti(Hl ci! tl 
(iriitfd .still.-. 



Itwasinaintainedin the American (,'asi.'that,by the true construction of 
the second clan.se of the first rule of the treaty, when a vessel 
like the Florida, Alabama, (Jeorgia, or Shenandoah, which hovS 
been esi)eeially adapted within a neutral i)ort for tlie use of a 
belligerent in war, comes again within the neutral's juris- 
diction, it is the duty of the neutral to seize and detain it. This con 
struction was denied by Great Ihitain. It was maintained 
"'""""'"' in the British i)apers submitted to the tribunal, that the 
obligation created by this clause refers only to the duty of preventing 
the original departure of the vessel, and that the fact that the vessel 
was, after the original departure from the neutral port, commissioned as 
a sliip of war protects it against detention. 
To this point we rejoined that a coiumission is no protection against 
seizure in such case, and does not operate to release the 
neutral from the obligation to detain the ott'ender. 
The Viscount d'ltajuba seemed to favor the American 



V'lii'riciiii r.'ii.i 



Viinvsof \i-. 
.l'll:0"l);l. 



construction, llesaiu. 



Accoviliiifj; to tlu; lattor part of tlio fir.^t rule of Article VI of the Treaty of Wasliiiiij;- 
ton, flic iiciural is bountl also to iiso iliu; diligence to prevent the departnro from it.s 
Jurisiliction of any ve.s.sel intended to crnise or carry on war as above, [viz, against a. 
belligerent,] sneh vessel having been .specially adapted, in whole or in part, within 
its jnri.sdiction to warlike nse. » » * If, then, a vessel bnilt on neutral ter- , 
ritory for the Tise of a belligerent, frandnlently .nnil without the knowledge of the neu- 
tral, comes again within the jurisdiction of the f^overeign whose neutrality it ha.s vio- 
lated, it ought to be seized and detained. 

Count Sclopis says, on this point : 

It is on the nature of thos(^ special circumstances that tin; lirst rule laid dow^n iu 
Article VI of the Treaty of Washington spccitically rests. Tlie operation of that rule 
n'ould be illusory, if it could not bo applied to vessels subsoi|ueutly ci>mmis.sioned. 
The object iu view is to jirevent the construction, arming, and eiiuippiug of tho vessel, 
and to prevent her di^parture when there is sulUeient reason to believe that she is iu- 
tended to carry on war on behalf of one of the belligerents ; and when probability has 
become certainty, shall not the rule be .applicable to the direct ami palpable couso- 
quences which it originally was intended to prevent ' 

In the award the Tribunal says that — • 

The effects of a violation of neutrality committed by means of the construction, 
e([uipment and armament of a vessel are not done away with by any 
"■" commission which tho government of tho belligerent power, benefited 
by the violation of neutrality, may afterward have granted to that vessel ; 
and the ultimate step by which the oft'en.se is completed cannot be admissible as a 
ground for the absolution of tho offender, nor can the consummation of his fraud be- 
come the means of establishing his innocence. The privilege of exterritorality, ac- 



ne<'i.-*ioi 
fribuiiiil. 



RKPOKT OF THK ACKNT OF TWK r\ITKl> STATKS. 



11 



he (lid not 
regretting 
;o mo to be 
nenvl prin- 
must boar 
iality with 
10 proceed- 
en the two 
his h)ve of 
iiiii! did ho 



MKS AdAIN 
A COMIVIIS- 



struction of 
Jen a vessel 
ijWhichhavS 
tlio use of a 
tral's juris- 

This con 
maintained 
il, that the 
provouting 

tlio vessel 
issioned as 

ion against 
release the 
r. 
American 



of Wiishiiig- 
tnro from its 
iz, against a 
part, within 
neutral ter- , 
jo of tlioneii- 
y it lias vio- 



aid down in 
of that rule 
ininissioned. 
•f tilt) vessel, 
lat she is in- 
•hability lias 
l)iihle oonse- 



onstruetion, 
ft'ith by any 
er, benefited 
that vessel; 
nissible as a 
lis fraud be- 
torality, ac- 



i 



forded to voshpIs of war, has bei>n admitted into tlie law of nations, not an an al)Nolnt4» 
lifjlit, hut soh'ly as a proccfdiny founded on tin- principles of eonrteHy and mutual 
(iflerence between dill'erent iiati<>ns, and therefore can never l»e appealed to for tlio 
luoteetion ofaets thnie in violation (d" neutrality . 

It will be observed that the Tribunal, instead of adojitiii.u' the recogni- 
tion by the ^'is<;ount d'ltiijubii of a jmsitirr ohlif/t(tii)n on liie i)art of the 
neutral to detain tiie vessel, in the case supposed, limited itself to ox- 
i)ressiiig the opinion that, in such case, the lu'utral wotdd have the riffht 
(> make such detention. 

I. yrri'LlKS (»K CUAL. 

It, WiismaintaiiU'd in the American Case that the proofs showed t liat Iho 
insurgent cruisers were i)ermitted to supply thcmstOves with 
(mkW in Uritish ports in greater (piaiitities and with greater r-'-.'l"i',o„"!,r"!h,, 
.'Vectloin, and with less restrictions than were imposiMl upon 
i the United states; audit was insisted that, iu cousetiiu'uce ot these 
; facts, there was an absence of neutrality, which made those ports bases 
: of hostile operations against th»> United States under the second rule 
^ of the treaty. 
I On this point the award says that — 

I III order to impart to any supplies of coal a elucracter iiieonsi.steiit with the setMiiid 
> itilo, proiiihitiiiy the um! of neutral jiorts or wattns, as a base of luival 

operations for a liellijjereiit, it is necessary that tin- said supplies should (nill'n'iL' '' '' ' 
^ ho connected with sjiecial eireuiustances of time, of jiersoiis, or of jilace, 
I which may combine to give them such character. 

It does not appear by the terms of the award that (Ireat llritain is 
held responsible for the acts of any vessel solely in conse(pieuce of ille- 
; gal supplies of coal. The question is, therefore, a s|)ecidative one, so far 
^ as relates to this controversy. The opinions of the four arbitrators who 
': signed the award furnish, however, the explanation of what they mean 
, when they speak of "special circumstances of time, of persons, or of 
* ]>lace." 

Mr. Adams says : 

I perceive no other way to determiuo the degree of responsibility of a noutial in these 
cases, than by an oxaniination of the eviileiice to show the iiitoit of the 
grant in any gpecific case. Fraud or falsehood in such a (^ase poisons ^.h,.,'!.'' * "' ^'' 
everything it touches. Kveii inditfcrenco may degemnate into willful 
negligence, and that will impose a burden of proof ti> relieve it before re^poM.sil>iI;ty 
< an be relieved. 

Count Sclopis says : . 

I will not say that the simple fact id" liaving allowed a greater amount of i;,)al tl'.iii 
was iiece.-sary to enable a vessel to reach the nearest port of its coun- 
try constitutes in itself a suHicieiit grievance to call for iiti indemnity. s.iJIi.T "' '"'"" 
At, the lord chaneellor of England said on the IvJth of .June, 1S71, in the 
House of Lords, England and the United States ecjually hold the principle that it is no 
violation of the law of nations to furnisli arms to a belligerent. IJiit if an excessive sup- 
ply of coal is connected with other circumstances which show tliatil was used as a ver- 
itable rcn hontilis, then there is an infract ion of tln^ second article of the treaty. » » » 
Thus, for exani])le, v/heii I see the Florida and the Shenandoah choose for their fields 
<d' action, the one the stretch of sea between the Ihihama archipelago and Bermuda, to 
cruise there at its ease, and the other Melbonrue and Ibdison's Bay, for the purpose 
iiuHiediately carried out, of going to the Arctic Seas, there to attack the whaling ves- 
sels, I cannot but regard the supplies id' coal in quantities sullieieiit for such services, 
i'lfractious of the second rule of Article VI. 

Mr. Stiimpfli says of the Sumter : 

. The permission given to the Snrater to remain and to take in coal at Trinidad does 
I not of itself constitute a sufticieut basis for accusing the British authori- 
i ties of having ftiiled in their duties as neutrals, because the fact can- ^Z'^.a'" "^ ""'■ 
[not be eimsidered by itself, since the Sumter both before and after that 



12 



AlilUIKATIoN AT (iKNEVA. 



tjijic VMis iiiliiiiiti'il iii(i> tli< (Kilts ol iiiiinv otlici StatoH wlit'ir it Ntaid aiitl look in utiii] 
' ' si> tluit it tiumot Im'. Ih'IiI tliiit llw |i(irt oi'l'iiiiidiut Hcrvcd um a lia>c 

of (l[lt!Jilt.i<lllK. 

Hut of tilt! Slu'iiaiitloaU lie .says : 

A Hii|»|ily (il'coal was not a iH'ccsHary toiulitiini (il mill ml asvliim. and in Hiiiiidyin;; 
lu'f Willi H(i larjio a (iiiiiiility nrcoal, tin- capacity of tlic HJiip for iiiakiiijf war was iii- 
ciciiHcd Just as iiiiicli as liy the ri'iriiit incut nl' licr crew which fodk place. 

The ViHcoiiiit (ritajiiha, at the thirty-divst ('oiiIcicikh', wliile sicriiiiiM 

v,.«-<iiv...,„n,i tlu' (Iccisioii, rcniarkcd with n'j-anl to tln^ iveltal coiicorn- 

"'""""^ in;;" the .sii|)|>ly of coals, that he is of the opinion that every 

j^oveninieiit is (Vee to rmiiish t«t tin' ItellijLjerents more or less of tha: 

article. 

."». TlIK MI'NICIl'AL LAWS OK I'^NtiLANI). 



V.tiitliirul ciinnot t 
m-t up iti ju-'tilit; 



It was maintained in the Ainern an Case that the liability ot'CJreat Bri 
Mn„M.,.„i law. „i tiiinshonldbemeaHnredbythernh^sofinternationiil law; and 
thiit it <M>iild not be est-aped by r«>ason of any allej^etl deti- 
ciemae.s in any internal lej«isIation enacted tor the purpose 
of enabliiif; the j;overnment to tuKill its internati(»nal ilutics. 

The pleadin<«\s and arjjuments on the part of (Jrcat JJritain Jire fdled 
with denials of this pr(>position in every possible way, from the opening 
Case to the last supplemental ar};iunent of Sir Itoundell Palmer. 

The award says, "the yovernnu'iit of Jler IJritaunic Majesty canno: 
justify itself for a failure in diu> dilij>ence on the insuflieiency of the 
lejjid means of action which it possessed.'" 

»!. The SiMTEii, JHK NAsiivrij.K. i^c. 

It was maintained in the Anu'riean Case tliat, under the terms of the 

treaty of Washinj^lon the parlies had it forced to submit to 

MH,!'' tiie'sJiiMrr" the tlecisiou of the tribunal of arbitration, not only the 

NaHlivillc, III., nut- , . . L I- 1_1 1 !■ il 1 -M • 1 i 1 « 1 1 

».!h«t,imii,itfiini..h claims j^^rowiii^- out ot the acts of tlu^ Morula, the Alabaimi, 
"""" the (ieor;,;ia, and the Slieuaiidoali, which ori<»iiially pro- 
ceeded from ports of (Ireat Hrit.iiii, bin also all claims growing out ol 
the acts of other cruisers, such as tli<^ iNashviile, the Sumter, &c., which 
could in any way be shown to have used Jiritish ports as bases of sup 
plies. The Jbitish Case and Counter Case strtmiu)usly contended that 
the submission was limited to the four vessels lirst above named. Tiie 
tribunal unanimously, incltulinj;- Sir vVlexander Cockburn, took no notice 
of this claim of (ireat Ihitain, ;ind considered all the claim.4 presenteil 
and decided them uiiou their merits. 



r A. <'(iclvhirrti'-' 

entn.y <it>!t:i"v. 



The nissENTiNCJ opinion of Sir A. Cockbuun. 



The 



«tlU:ltlVL' of (tir;it 
BriUin. 



frankness with which Sir Alexander Cockburu confesses in this 

o|)inion that lie sat on the Tribunal, not as a judge, but as, 

" in some .scM.se the repreHentaUve of (ireat Britain,^'' one of the 

parties to the controversy, i)laces before the world the 

knowledge of a fact of which, otherwise, it wouhl have been better to 

take no public nolice. 

The chief justice calls legal propositions made by General Cusbing, INIr. 

Evarts, and Mr. Waite, over their signatures and under the 

ihe Amera'^m'rom,' respousibiU ty of counsel, "strange misrepresentations," ami 

" assertions without the shadow of a foundation." Ho says 

that "their imaginations must have heen lively, while their consciences 

slept." He finds in a portion of their argument "an extraordinary series 

of propositions," and " the most singular confusion of ideas, misrepre- 



ing 



KKrour ov thk acjknt ov hie rMri;i) .siatks. 



l:) 



uiil took ill coii] 



i<l in Miipiilyiii;; 
iij; Will" WU8 ill- 

IT. 

kliih' sif^iiiii^ 
;ital coiu't'iu- 
u that <>vory 
• less of that 



ot'CJivat J3ri 

iiial hiw; niid 
a!h»}?('(l (leti 
the piirposf 

s. 

liii are (iIUmI 
the (>i)ciiiii^ 

iluier. 

jjesty eamiot 

L'iency of the 



I terms of tln' 

to siibinit to 

not only the 

lie Alabaiiiii, 

i{>inally pro- 

owiii};' out ot 

r, &(!., \vhi(th 

jascs of sup 

iten(l(Ml that 

lameil. The 

ook no notici' 

n.4 preseiiteil 



' 



fesses in this 
udge, but as, 
H," one of the 
le world the 
jeu better to 

Cusbing, Mr. 
id under the 
tations," and 
0." He says 
r consciences 
dinary series 
as, misrepre- 



sentations of facts, and i^jnoranee both of law and history, whieh wore, 
periiaps, f^ver «'ro\V(led into the same space." lie t-alls tii(( part of 
their arfjument on \vhi(!h he was eoniinentinj:, "an afVronI oHered to 
this tribunal, by such an attempt to practice on our supposed eredidity 
<»r i<;uoran(!e," and .'-••lys that he " is at a loss to understand how counsel, 
iiiiniliar with I'-nj^lisli law, can take upon themselves to make statements 
of this sort." 

I need not assunu^ in the Iniited States to vindicate the ac(!Uracy of 

slatenn'uts or the souiulness of reasonin^^s which have the ,,,.., , „„. 

jfuaranteeof the names of our distinguished (!ounsel. The '"""■" 
<'harj;('H are sanctioned by the chief justice alone. 1 iiave no liesitation 
in expressinj; my eoiivi(!tion that they would have been in- 
difiiiantly repudiated by each and all of his colleagues had ivr.!! IV,'lXi,r\" • 
th(^ paper in whieh they are made been publicity read, or 
V jiad its contents been made known at the time when the Tribunal orderetl 
t it to be recorded. This voluminous paper was, in fact, not read in the 
Tribunal; its author presented it in bulk without any statement respect- 
infj its character; no one had any reason to imagine its contents; and 
it was not made public until several days after the dissolution of the 
Tribunal and the separation of its meml)ers. As Sir ^Vlexander Cock- 
burn says of the charges of unfriendliiu^ss which were made in the 
I American Case against members of J^ord ralinerstoii's cabinet, "Tlie 
I world must judges between the accusers and accused.*' 
I The Dritish arbitrator also charges that the (,' ise of the United States 
I "l)ours forth the ])ent up venom of national and i)ersonal 
; hate." J le speaks of the "abuse" it "freely bestows," and .■■-<■ *^<h'!&!Z,:'S 
•; complains of th(^ "hostile and insulting tone thus olTensively 
i and unnecessarily adopted toward (ireat Jvit.iin, her statesmen, and her 
institutions." 

Tiiese charges apjx'ar to bo founded ui)on the proof of the desire of 
• iirious members of tlie Dritish government for the success ri,.- r. ,.„, f..r 

if the insurgents in the South, taken from the mouths of " '"*" 

the speakers and presented for the consideration of the Tribunal, and 
upon the legitimate ai>plication whiith was made of that i)roof in the 
issue respecting "due diligence"' which was pending ])efore the tribunal 
at Geneva. 

A complete vindication of the line of argument in the Case (if any 
were needed) could bo drawn from Sir Alexander Cock- Ti,.,uHiHH„r t.^ 
burn's paper. "There can be no doubt," ho says, "that 
these speeches not only expressed the sentiments of the »'*'"'"<^'' 
speakers, but may be taken to bo the exponent of the sentiments geu- 

ality does 

md in 

13 this, 



line of iirf{Min»!iit irt 
til** Ain'-uciiu c *^M 



, spoiiiveis, uufc may ue uikoii lo uo liio expuiioui ui iiie seuLiuieni 
»| orally entertained at that time;" and he adds, "though partiality 
I not necessarily lead to want of diligence, yet it is apt to do so, a 
? case of doubt would turn the scale.'' With such an admission as 
I it is surprising that a man of the robnst sense of the chief justice should 

have reproduced the rash imputations of the British press. 
That 1 charged individual members of Lord Palmerston's cabinet with 

a partiality foi the insurgents, is true; equally true is it that I supported 

the charge by proof from their own lips. 
But I never questioned their right to entertain such partiality, or to 
l^xpress it in any manner that suited them. I never even assumed to 
I criticise its justice before a tribunal created to try other issues. I cou- 
% fined myself strictl, • to the issues before that body, and I argued that 
gthis partiality of int. vidual members of the government would be apt 
Ito lead to wantof dl' gence,and in case of doubt would turn the scale — 
"a line of argument which is uoxr admitted to bo just. 



:tr 



14 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 



Lord Wnjithiiry 
MtMififs it. 



If 1 argued that these acts of individual members of the British gov- 

Lord Ru.v II „. ernment were incousisteiit with the "due diligence" re- 
""•■'" quired by the treaty, I did only what Lord Russell had 

said to Mr. Adams must be the inevitable result of au arbitration. 
" Have *he British government acted with due diligence, or, in other icords, 
icith good faith and honesty P'' was the (|uestiou by which he said the 
liability of England was to bo determined. 

If I urged that, in any instance, the neutrality of Great Britain wais 
not sincere, I did but pursue the line of argument which 
Lord Westbury had defended in advance in the House ot 
Lords, and I did it nearly in his own language. 

I find no fault that Sir Alexander Cockburn does not agree with 
me, and with most of the world outside of England, as to the force 
of the evidence which was presented respecting these points. That is 
a subject on whicli persons may honestly differ. But I must be per- 
mitted to express some surprise that a lawyer of his deservedly grear 
re])utation should have made such a disagreement the cause of totally 
unfounded allegatictns against the Case of the United States and 
its author. 

With the exception of these jtersonal remarks, this long dissenting 
opinion (twice the length of the American case) adds little or nothing 
new to the arguments previously put forth by Great Britain in vindi- 
cation of her course toward the United States. There are several 
material errors in its statements of facts, but I shall not follow its 
example of injustice in attributing them to design. All right-thinkinj; 
persons will heartily echo the wish with which the paper closes, "tha: 
in the time to come no sense of past wrong unredressed will stand ir 
the way of the friendly and harmonious relations which should subsist 
between two great and kindred nations." 

Thus, surrounded by difliculties, which at one tUi;<^, seemed insuperable, 
«omUis,.,n, this great cause has reached its conclusion. Nations have, 

ere now, consented to adjust by arbitration questions of figures and 
Thcre.uiu of the qucstlous of bouudarics ; but the world has had few,if any, 
iVon'rf'h.%oi''y'';',i earlier examples of the voluntary submission to arbitration 
i.rb,tmtm,u jjf .^ question in which a deep-seated conviction of injuries 

and wrongs which no possible award could compensate, animated a 
whole nation. It is out of such sentiments and feelings that wars come. 
The United States elected the path of peace. Confident of receiving 
iustice, they laid the story of their wrongs before an impartial tribunal. 
This story, so grievous in its simple truthfulness, threatened for a time 
to break up the peaceful settlement which the parties had promised 
each other to make. ^Notwithstanding all obstacles, however, the great 
experiment has been carried to a successful end ; and hereafter it can 
not bo denied that questions involving national sentiment may be de 
cided by arbitration, as well as questions of figures. 

The commander who had been permitted, by Providence, to guide 
some of the greatest military events in history, has thus, in civil life, 
assisted in presenting to the nations of the world the most conspicuous 
example of the settlement of international disputes by peaceful arbi 
tration. 

It is within my i>ersonal knowledge that your own counsels have 
also had a large share in shaping this great result. 
I have, iSc^c, 

J. C. BANCKOFT DAVIS. 

Hon. Hamilton Fish, 

Secretary of State. 



% 



I 



British gov- 
ligence" re- 
Russell bad 
arbitration. 
. other words, 
he said the 



II -PROTOCOLS OF TKK CONFERENCES OF THE ARBITRATORS. 



Britain was 
imeut which 
the House of 

; agree witli 
to the force 
its. That is 
iiust be per- 
srvedly grear 
se of totally 
States aiul 

ig disseutinj,^ 
e or nothing 
ain in viudi- 
are several 
ot follow its 
ght-thinking 
closes, " thar 
*vill stand iv. 
louhl subsis: 

insuperable, 
atious have, 

flgures and 
[I few, if any, 
arbitration 
n of injuries 

animated a 
,t wars come, 
of receiving 
tial tribunal. 
d for a time 
[id promised 
er, the great 
after it can 
; may be de 

ce, to guide 
in civil life, 
conspicuous 
i3aceful arbi 

unsels have 



DAVIS. 



PROTOCOL I. 



ition nntl 
y of utirte!*. 



Record of the proceedings of the tribunal of arhitratiou under the provifiionfi 
of the treaty between the United States of America and Her Britannic 
Majesty, concluded on the Sth of May, A. D. 1871, at the first conference 
held at (Jeneva in Su'itzerland, on the fifteenth day of December, in the 
year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-one. 

The conference was convened at the Hotel de Ville at CJeneva, iu 
compliance with notices from ^Ir. J. C. Bancroft Davis, agent of the 
United States, and Lord Tenter<len, agent of Her Britannic 3Iajesty, in 
; the form following : 

TI16 iin(ler,sij>iie(l liavinjjj been a[)iM)iiiten a<;ent of tho Uiiiteil States to atteiul tho 
tribunal of aibitration about to be convened at Geneva nnder the i)rovis-"J . , 

ions of the treaty between the United States and (jreat Britain of the 8th d.i.iely oi 
of May last, has th(.' honor to acfinaint Count Selopis that it is))rojiosedby 
thoGovtirnnient of the United States that the first meeting of the tribunal sliouUl bo held 
at Geneva, if not inconvenient to the arbitrators, «n the ir)th instant. 

.J. C. IIANCROFT DAVIS. 

The arbitrators who were present and ] produced their respective powers, 
which were examined and found to be in good and due form, wore : 
Charles Francis Adams, esquire, the arbitrator named bj^ the Presi- 
dent of the United States of America; the Right Honorable Sir Alexander 
Cockburn, the Lord Chief Justice of England, the arbitrator named by 
Her Britannic Majesty ; his excellency Count Selopis, the arbitrator 
named by His Majesty the King of Italy ; Mr. Jacques Sta^mpfli, the 
arbitrator named by the President of the Swiss Confederation, and his 
excellency the Baron d'ltajubj'i, the arbitrator named by His IVIajesty 
the Emperor of Brazil. 

J. C. Bancroft Davis, ICsquire, attended the conference as the agent ot 
the United States; the Right Honorable Lord Tenterden attended as the 
agent of Her Britannic ]Majesty. 
Mr. Adams proposed that Count Selopis, as being the arbitrator 
I named by the power first mentioned in the treaty after Great Britain 
I and the United States, should ineside over the labors of the tribunal. 
I The ]*roposal was seconded by Sir Alexander Cockburn, and was 
^ unanimously adopted, and Count Selopis, having expressed his acknowl- 
I edgraents, assumed the presidency. 

I On the proposal of Count Selopis the tribunal of arbitration requeste<l 
I the arbitrator named by the President of the Swiss Confederation to 
I reconmiend some suitable person to act as the secretary of the tribunal. 
The Swiss arbitrator named M. Alexandre Eavrot as a suitable per- 
son, and M. Alexandre Eavrot was thereupon ai)pointetl by tho tribunal 
of arbitration to act as its secretarv during the conferences, and entered 
upon the duties of that otlice. 
;- Mr. ,1 . C. Bancroft Davis then presented in duplicate, to each of the arbi- 
trators and to the agent of Great Britain, the printed case of the United' 



Iff" 



m 



16 



ARBITRATION AT GENE\A. 



State.s, iiccompaiiied by the doeiimeuts, otticial conespouilencc, and otber 
evidence on which they njly. 

Lord Tenterden in like manner presented to each of the arbi- 
trators and to the a<i;ent of the United States the printed case of the 
government of Her Britannic Majesty, acconipanied by the documents, 
official correspondence, and other evidence on which it relies. 

The tribunal of arbitration thereupon directed that the respective 
counter cases, additional documents, correspondence, and evidence called 
for or pernntted by the fourth article of the treaty should be delivered 
to the secretary of the tribunal at the hall of the conference in the Hotel 
<le Yille at Geneva, for the arbitrators and for the respective agents on 
or before the loth day of April next. 

The arbitrators further directed tliat either party desiring, under the 
provisions of the fourth article of the treaty, to extend the time for de- 
livering the counter cases, documents, correspondence, and evidence, 
shall make application to them through the secretary, and that the sec- 
retary shall thereupon convene a conference at Geneva at an early day 
to suit the convenience of the respective arbitrators, and that the notice 
thereof shall be given to the agent of the other party. 

The tribunal of arbitration proceeded to direct tliat applications by 
cither party, under tlie provisions of the fourth article of the treaty, for 
copies of reports or documents specified or alluded to, and in the exclu- 
sive possession of the other party, shall be made to the agent of the 
other party with the same force and effect as if made to the tribunal of 
arbitration. 

The tribunal of arbitration further directed that, should either party, 
in accordance with the i)rovisious of the fourth article, call upon the 
other party, through the arbitration, to produce the originals or certi- 
tied copies of any papers adduced as evidence, such application shall be 
made by written notice thereof to the secretary within thirty days after 
the delivery of the cases, and that thereupon the secretary shall transmit 
to the agent of the other party a copy of the request ; and that it shall be 
the duty of the agent of the other party *^ ^ deliver said originals or certified 
copies to th 3 secretary, as soon as ma,, be practicably convenient. 

The arbitrators also agreed that for the ^lurpose of deciding any ques- 
tion arising upon the foregoing rules, the presence of three of their 
number shall be sutticient. 

The conference was adjourned to the following day, IGth of December, 
at 3 o'clock !> m. 

J. C. BANCROFT DAVIS. 

TKNTKRDEN. 

ALEX. FA V ROT, 

Secretary. 



FROTOCOL IL 



Record oj the proceedings cf the arbitration at the second conference held 
at Geneva in /Switzerland on the Wth day of December, A. 1). 1871. 

The conference was held pursuant to adjournment. All the arbitrators 
A<u.mn,„..ni to werc prescut. 

'""" '*• Mr. J. C. Bancroft Davis and Lord Tenterden attended 

the conference as agents of the United States and of Her Britannic Ma- 
jesty, respectively. 

The record of the proceedings of the conference held on the 15th in- 



I'ROTOCOI.S OF THK CONFKllKNOES. 



17 



I 



;^t;infc was iviid and iij)])rovoil, and tlio. secretary was directed to attest 
t. Mv. d. 0. Jiaiu'i'oft Davis and fjoi-d Tenterdei) were retiiiest^'d also 
tt) sifiii this and all subseiiuent r('<u)rds as ayenls oi" their respective 
{foverinnents. 

'I'he tribniial of arl)itrati(»Ti directed that whea an ndj()Mrnnient of the 
conference slionld be entered, it shonld be ent<'red as an iHiJournnieiit 
until the l.Tth day of June iifVKt, .subject to a. prior call by tin; secretary 
;is provided for in the proceedin<;s at tiie first eonference. 

The tribnnal then directed tlie secretary to make np the record of 
ilu' ])roceedin<j;s at the second (ionference as i'ar as completed, which 
was done, and the record wa.^i read a.nd approved. 

The tribnnal of ai'I)itration then adjourned to meet at (ieneva, on tlic 
!">t;]i day of .Inne next, unless sooner convened by the secretary, in the 
aiaiiner provided in the proceedings at the first eonference. 

J. 0. IJANOkOFT DyVVia 

TENTb]IM)KN. 

ALKX. FzVVROT, HccvHaire. 



IMIOTOCOl. 111. 



[irbitrators 



le 15th in- 



Jx'iroi'd of the ])rnci''>ill}U]'i of th", tribunal of arhlirat'mn at the third covfer- 
rncr lichl (it (renera, iu /SivitrZerlKud, on the \iSth duy of June, 1872. 

The coid'erence was held ])nrsuant to ailjeurnment. All the arbitrators 
were present. 

Mr. J. (.'. Uaneroft Davis a,nd Lord Tenterden attended theconreronce 
as a<,fents of tiie United States and iler liritannic Majesty, res[)ectively. 

Mr. J. C. Jlanerot't J)avis then delivered in duj)licate to each of the 
arl>itrators, and to Lord Tenterden, the ag^ent of Her Britan- „,i,„.,y„f a,,,,,. 

>]ic ^Majesty, a printed arjjfument, showin;,'' the points and '<^"' '""" <■■ 

veterrinjj to tiie evidence on whi(!h his Government relies. 

Lord Tenterden then, on behalf of Iler Lritannic Majesty's j?overn- 

nent, i)resented the note, of Avhicli a copy is annexed, re- nnti»i, m.ti..nfir 

•|iiestin,u' an adjournment of tlie tribnnal for tlie reasons »''j""""'" "'■ 

rherein stated, for such a period as iniijht enabU', a supplementary eon- 

<Mition to be concluded and ratified luaweeu tiie United States and Iler 

liritannic .Alajesty. 

Mr. Lancaoft Davis stated that he could not say what would be the 
'i(>\vs of his Government on lliis motion until he sliould i^novv the time 
tor which the adjournnu'ut was asked. 

Lord Tenterden statiMl that Her IJritannic Majesty's jjovernment be- 
•ieved that, in order to afford tinu', for the consideration of a aiii)])le- 
Tnt'ulary convention by the t^enate of the United States in their session 
(•onnn(>nciny in December next, and for its subsequent eonsideratiou by 
cU'v I>ritauni(; Majesty's *iovernment, a,nd for its ratification by the hi<;fh 
<'ontractin<»' parties respectively, it would be reijuisite that the adjourn- 
ment should be for a i)eriod of ei{;'ht nu)nt,hs, but that ])ower might bo 
reserved for the arbitrators to meet at a.t»y earlier date, upon being 
convened for that purpose by the secretary of the tribunal, upon the 
joint recpiest, in writing, o^" the agents of the two governments. 

Mr. IJaneroft Davis said that his instructions did not yet enable him to 
state to tlic arbitrators the views of the Government of tlie United Suites 
on this motion in full. * Ho said that he was in telegraphic commuiiica- 
2h 



18 



AKniTKATlON AT GKNEVA. 



tion with Ills Govi.'ininent, imd he asked an adjouiiuiieiit until Monday, 

the 17th instant. 

; The tribunal (hH;i(hMl that tlie protoco's sliouM be sif;:ned by the ])resi- 

i<' dent and secretary of the tribunal and the agents of the two govern- 

I menta. 

The conference was then adjourned to ^Eonday, the 17th day of June, 

at 2 o'cKx.'lc. 

f r ei) k rick sc lo pis. 
.]. (j. banckoft davis. 
ti:ntekden. 

ALEX. FAVllOT, Secretary. 



ANNEX. 



M 



The undersipicd aj:jent of IlerlJritannic Majesty is instructed by Her 
]\Iajest,y's j^overnnieiit to state to Count iSclopin* the arbitrator named 
by His Mdjcsfy the King of Italy, th;it tiu-y re^^ret to be uiuler the 
necessity of inforniing the arbitrators tliat the (litference between Her 
Majest;\'s government and the (lovernnici't (»f the United States, referred 
to in the note wliielitlie undersigned had the honor to achlress to Count 
JSolopin when presenting the British {iKiiiter case on the 15th of April 
last, has not yet been removed. 

Her ila jesty's goveriunent have, lunvever, been engaged in negotia- 
tions with the (jovernnient of the I. iiitiMl States, which have continued 
down to the ])reKent time, for the suhition of the ditliculty whi<;h has 
thus arisen ; and they do not abandon the hope that, if further time 
wci'e given tor that purpose, such ii >(>lution might be i)ractieable. 

Under these circumstances, the course whicii Her iMaJesty's govern 
ment would resjiectfuily recjuest the tribunal to take is to a<IJourn tiie 
present meeting for such a period as may ( nable a supplementary con- 
vention to be still conchuied and iraiticd between the high contracting 
parties. 

Having lodged the present ai>plicaiion, the undeisigned is instructed 
to withhold tlu^ wiitten or printed argiiment which the undersigned, as 
agent of Her Majesty, is directed to put in luider the 5th article of tlu> 
treaty, although that argument has bcvMi duly pre^tared aiul is in the. 
hands of the undersigned. 

The undersigned is further directed to say that Her Majesty's gov- 
ernnu'nt (while they would consider the tribunal to have lull power to 
proceed at the end of the period of adjournnuMit, if the diflerence bi'- 
tweenthe high (!onlra(;ting parties should then havel>een removed, not- 
withstanding the non-delivery on this day of the ai'gument by the un- 
dersigned) continue, while recpusting this adjournment, to reserve all 
Uer Majesty's rights, in the event of an agreement not being finally 
arrived at, in the same nninner as was expressed in the note addressed 
by the undersigned to Count loclopis on the 15th of Ajiril. 

The undersigned has tlie honor to renew to Count IScIopis the assur 
ance of his highest consideration. 

te:nterden. 

Geneva, June 15, 1872. 



[ing 



' A similtti note was addressed to each of tlie arbitrators. 



I'ROTOCOLS or THE CONFERENCES. 



19 



[oiulay, 

o-overu- 
3t' June, 

etary. 



ritoT()C(u. iv 



Rccoiil of flic proccetlinfis of the trilntnal of <nititnifioii at the fourth von 



t>(l by Her | 
tor inuiHM\ I 
niulcr the ''. 
:wc(Mi Hor 
■s, retVrriHl 
s to Coxmi 
h of April 

\\\ iiesf'tiiv- 
L> continued 
r whieU liiiH 
ut\»er time, 

y's govern 
luljonrn tiie, 
en tar y eon- 
coutractiniJ. 

IS instructed 
ersip;net\, as 
rtiele of the 
lul is in tlK' 

aiesty's gov- 
Lil uower to 
[tifference be 
lenioved, not- 
]t by the un- 
Ito reserve all 
Ibeinf? finally 
l)te addresseil 

)\s the assur 



fereiice 



held at Gcnecii, in iSicit.zcrlaud, on the I'tk dmi ol' June, ISTl*. 



The conference was held pursuant t<> adjonrniueMt. All tlie arbitrators 

were present. m,,,,,,,,,. „i 

Mr. J. C. JJaneroft Davis and Lord Tent<M"den attended 
the conference as agents of the United States and IIi>r lUitannic .Majesty, 
respectively. 

The protocol of the last conference was read and ap])roved, and was 
sij^iMMl by the {(resident and secretary of the triltunal aii<l tlie agents of 
the two governments. 

Mr. JJancroft J>avis stated that he was still withont deliiiite instruc- 
tions from his (rovernuient regarding tlie iv((uest of the Ibitish agent 
for adjouriunent, and suggested a further adjournment of the tribunal 
until Wi'dnesday, the nineteenth instant. 

Lord Tenterden said that he could ma.ke no obje<;ti»in. Theconfere?iee 
was then adjourned to Wednesdav. the Jltlh instant, at 2 o'ch)ck. 

Fi{Ki)i<:iMCK s(;l()P[s. 

J. 0. r.AN(MIOFT 1)A\ iS. 

TKNTl':iil)KN. 

AIJOX. I'AVIJOT, Senrf'ini. 



riioTocoL y. 

Recoiil of the prtn-cedhujx of the trUntnal of arbitration ot the ffth confer- 
ciiee held at (reiieca, in Switzerland , on the VMIt of 'fane, 1872. 

The confcreiu'c was held pursuant to adjournnicnt. All the arbitra- 
tors were present. Ariuntor. df 
.Air. J. (!. liauci'oft Davis ami Lord Tenterden attendi'd h,,' 'ui'T', i,r.^t 

the ({oniercnce as agents ol the '. nited k^tutes and Her i.r , utr.tio.i ui 

liritannic Majesty, resi)ectively. 

The i>rotocol of the last conference was read and ajtproved, and was 
signed by the ])resident and secretary of the tribunal and the agents of 
the two governuieuts. 

Count .Sclopis, as i)resideut of the tribiuial, inrpiii'i'd wh(4h(M' Mr. 
I Bancroft Davis had yet received detinitive instructions iVom hisdovern- 
iment. 

Mr. Bancrofi^ Davis replied that he had not. 

Count tSdopis then, on behalf of all the arbitrators, made the follow- 
ling statement: 

Tlui iippliciitioii of tlu" iiffoiit of Hi^r liritiiiiiiic MaJcsfy'H f^jovcnuiicnt biMiijr now Uc- 
Ifore tltt) arl>itr;itor.H, tlio picsidont tit" tho tribiiniil (Count. Sclopis) proposes fo miiki- the 
|foUo\viiijr conniiunicatioti on the i)art of the arliitrjitors to tlin parties intcrcstoil: 

The arlntrutois wish it to l)o nndorstootl that in the observations whicii they are 
ibout to make tliey have in view sohily tiio application of tho a;fent of Her IJritannic 
"ajosty's govcrninont, which is now before them, for an ailjonrnnient, which nii^rht be 
[jroloiif^ed till tin; month of February in next year; and the motives for that application, 
ri/,, tlie dillercnce of oi»inion wliich existfi between Her Hiitannic Majesty's }j;overii 
lent and the Oovernment of tho United States iis to the. competency of the tribunal, 
indcr the treaty of Washington, to deal with the claims advanced in the case of the 
Jnited States in respect of hmses under tho several heads of — 1st, " Tue lo.sses in the 
Iranster of the American commercial marine to tho British Ha^;" '2il, "The enhanced 
payments of insurance;" aud 3d, "The prolongatiou of tho war, and the addition of.i 



tffjmggm 



20 



ARlMTRATInN AT iiV ,i:\ A. 



l;ir<;o 6i:iii to tlir cost (if tlic war and tin- Mi]t|)ifs.si()ii oC (lit- rciicllion ;"" anil tlu' liopo 
wliToIi Hit Britannic. Majct^ty's jrnvcrnnicnt iIkcs not abandon, that if ^nllicioiit time 
were }riv(;n t'ov tiiat i>ur)ii),se, a wolsition of tlir diltiuult.v « iiicli li;i« tinis arisen, l>y liii'. 
ncf^utiafion of a snpph'nifntary consentioii ln;twi;cii llu- two govfinnRMits, nii^^lit hv. 
found iiraci icaMf. 

Tlio ai'l>itratois do not juojioso to express <)r i' " , any opinion upon tlie point tlin,-* 
in difference lietween tlwlwo governments ' . .o the interpretation or effect of th«' 
treaty; hnt it x-ems to tlieni oli\ionsthat the substantial oliject of the adjournment 
must' 1).'. to oive tile two ^overnnienls an opportunity of deterniininj; \\ !ieth<'r tho 
(hiinis in (nnstion sjiall nv sjiall not he snbmittcil to the ih'cision of tlie arbitrators, 
and that any ditfcrenco Ixtween tlie two novernments on this jioint may make thi' 
adjonrnnient unproductive of any useful elfect, and, iifter a dela.N of uiany uionths, 
dnrin,n wliicli lioth uations ma.\ be l<ept in a stateof painful suspense, may cud in a 
result which, it is to be presumed, both '^overnnu'Uts \\ould e(|Ually dep]or<', tliat of 
niakinjr this aibitrati(Ui wliollv aboiti\<-. This bein;; so, the arbitrators think it ri;;ht 
to state that, aftc-r the most caieful perusal of ah that has been urj^ed on the part of 
the (Jovcinment of the rnited -States in respect of these claims, they have arrived, 
individually and colleeti vely, at the conclusion that those claims do not constitute, 
upon the principles of internatiiuial. law applicable to such cases, j;()i)d foundation for 
anawardof compensation or c()m|)Utation of damaj;es betwcini nations, and should . 
ni)<ni such i>rinciples. lie \Nholl\- excluded from the consideration of the triluinal in 
Jruiliiuj;' its awaril. even if there were no disa;iree!ueut bct\V(<'n the two governments as 
to the ciunpetency of the tril)unal toikcidc thereon. 

With a view to the settlenu'nt of the other claims lo the consideration of which by 
the ti'ibuiml no exception has been taktui on the part of Ilei' JSritannic Majesty's jio\ - 
einnu'nt, the arbitrators have th(uii;ht it desirable to la\- before the parties this cx- 
]>ression ot the views they have tormed upon tin; (|Ucstion of |>ublic law involved, iii 
order that after this declaration by the tiibunal it nuiy be cousidei'cd li>- the (lovern- 
nu'ut of the I'nitcd States whether iiny course can be adoi)te<l respect inj;- the tirst-men- 
Tioiicd claims whicli would ri^Ueve the tribunal from the necessity of deeidin<; upon 
tho present ai>plication of Her lUitaunic JIajosty's goNcrnment. 

Count kSclopis jiddcd that it was the intt'iiticHi of tlic liibiiiial tliat 
tlii.s statciiK'iit s'lciild hcconsitlcved for the pie.sciit to 1m' coufidontial. 

Coiiiit Bclopi'i ti «Mi askt'd wlit'tlicr the aj^ciits or cither of them M'itslied 
to say aii.ythiii'j;' to lehiiiy' tlie dechiratioii Just math'. 

iMr. JJanerolt Davis said that he was necessarily without instructions 
to meet thecontin< ency wliicli had arisen from tht; action thus taken by 
rhe arbitrators, lie therefore left it with the tribunal to say whether, 
in view of thi.s fac't, it on<>ht Jiot of its own motion to make an adjourn- 
jnent sutVicient to aftbrd time for the i)roi>er consideration of the new 
position created by the announcement of the tiibunal. 

Tiie tribunal then ordered this coiderence to adjourn until Wednesday 
the 2()th instant, at 'J o'clock in the alteruooi*. 

FKKDKinCK SCLOriS. 

.1. C. IJANCIiOFT J)AVI8. 

TENTF.KDEN. 

ALi:X. I'AVK'OT, Si'r.rvUrii. 



PliOTOCOL \'f. 



Ereord of rhi' proci't'dinfjfi of the trihtoinl of nrhifrafion tit Hie ni,vfh ro)t- ;'| 
frencc hvid of 'it'twrn, in iSirit.urlaud, on the L'.")/// of June, 1S72. 

The conference was held pursuttnt to a cidl by the president, Coiuit J 
Ti„-'i„,t,,i s.,„, i^t'lopis. All the arbitnitors were present. 
JwliT '"'"'''''" ^''' '^' ^' ^^••"^'roft Davis and Lord Tenteiden attended 
the conference as agents of the United States and Jfer 
Britannic Majesty, respectively. 
Count Sclopis, us president of the tribuind, stated that he ha<l re I 



I'KOTocoi.s OF thj: ( uNFi;f;i:N(M:s. 



21 



iriicionl time, 
iriscii, by tlm 
its, might Ix'. 

ic point tlm.-( 

circct of til'- 

atljomiimi'iii 

wlifllicv tlie 

10 arl>itrati)i>, 
nay makf tln' 
iiaiiy moiilli^, 
may cikI in :' 

•jilon', that i>t' 
think it ii,nht 
III! the iiait i>r 
Ikivc ariivctl, 

l((t ((ilLstitlltr, 

oi\n(hitii>u ('i>\ 
s, aiul fihoiild. 
ic triloiiial in 
KveiiuiH'uts a^ 

11 (»t' which h.v 
>hiji'.sly's jii)V- 
laitifs this r-N- 
\v iiivolviMl. in 
ly the (lov.'iii 
i'thc liisi-iiiiMi- 

(Iccidiuj. upnii 



libiiiiiil that 
)iiti(l«Miliitl. 
theiu wisht'd 



,1. 



ceived I'roni Mr. Uanci'ot't Diivis the iiiloiiniitioii tliat he was lucpaicd 
to ('oinuiimicatiMo tlio trilmnal Mif action UMtlioriztMl by his (iovorn- 
iiuMit respect i II j;' the (h'cl:,*.i(ioii made by tli.' arbitrators at the hist eon- 
I'ereiiee. 

Count Sclopis adih'd that, beinu' d<-.>irons of advantiin^' the work of 
tlie trilninal, lie had, th<'refoi"e, convoked the conference this day, in- 
stead of Wcdnosihiy. the day to wliich the adjournment had been 
ma(h-. 

:\lr. Jiaiicrolt J>avis stated as foUows : 

The dei'laratioii niaiji' hy tlie trihiiaal, imiividiialiy ami colh'i-ti vcly, v(s|M'<tiiii; tlut 
li.'tims |ii('sciitc(l hy tlic I'nitid States lur the award of the tiihniial lor— 1st. " 'J'lie, 
losses ill the Iranst'ci' of tiie Aiilerieaii eomineicial marine to the Ihitish lia;jj;"' '2(1. "The 
cnlianeed payments of insuranee ;" and lid. '' 'IMn; prolon<fation ol' the war and the ad- 
ilition of a hir;;(^ snm to rh(! cost of the war and the suppression oi" tlic rehcllioii,'' is 
areepted hy tiio I'resi(h'nt, of t he I 'nitiMl States as determinative; of tiieir judj^mtiiit 
njion the iiii])oitaiit iiuestlon of jinhlic hiw iiuidved. 

'J'Ih; a^^ent of tile I'nited States is authorized to say tliat, eonseniiently, tlie nliove- 
inentioiii'd claims will not he. further insisted niioii hel'on! tiie trilmnal hy the Uiiite<i 
States, and Jiiay he exclnded i'loui all consideration in any award that may h(! made. 

Lord Tenterdeii then said: 

I will inform my .i;(>vernment of the (hclaration made hy the arhilrators oii tJie litl.li 
in.^tant, and of tlii! statement now made by the asjjent of the Uuited States, and rc<j[neKl 
tlieir instructions. 

Tlic conference was then adjouriuMl to Thtr ay, tlie 27th instaut, at 
}l O'clock in the nutrninj;'. 

FKEDEIUCK SCLOl'IS. 
J. C. r.AKCliOFT DAMS. 

ti<:nti:ki)EN. 

ALEX. J'^AVKOT. SarcUtn/. 



instructions 

lus taken by 

ay whether, 

' an luljourn- 

I of tlie new 

Wednesday 

J)1MS. 
DAY US. 

Scrrci^irfi. 



flu' si.vth '•')(»- 
w, IS7'J. 

lidcnt, Count 

len att<Mide(l 
tes an<l Her 



J'lfOTOCOL y\i. 

Record of the proctctJiiu/s of the trlbiuml of nrbltration <it fin screnth 
(ton/erenee, held at (renera, ia Siri.f::erl(md. on Ihe'Jlik of June. 1872. 

The conference was held pursuant to^idjourument. All the arbitra- 
tors were i)resent. ' " urM.„„.,.^,on.. 

Mr. .L C. Bancroft J)avis and Lord Tenterden attended ;;;;',, m^L'^"';: 
the conference as a<;eiits of tlu^ United States and Her ''.",l';;;;.^r''M;;n'',,' 
Britannic, Miijesty. res[)(.>cti\ely. ' ""' 

The i)r()tocol of the last conference was I'ead and jijtproN cd, and was 
signed by the |)resident .md secretiiry of the tribunal, and the a;.i-eiits 
of the two governments. 

Count Scloi)is, as i)resideiit of the tribunal, impiired whether Lord 
Tenterden had received the instructions irotn his goveinnient Ibi' which 
he had said that he woidd ai)ply at the last conference. 

Lord Tenterden then read the following statement : 

"The undoisifrm'd. ajfcnt of Ilcr Britannic Majesty, is authorized U\ Her Majesty's 
^ovorimie.iit to state that ITcU' Majesty's t^overnment lin<l in the comiunnication on the 
l)art of tlio arbitrators, ree-orded in the protocol of their i>roceedinf>s of the IKth ii»- 
Htaiit, nothiii}.'; to which they cannot assent, coiisislently with the view of the iuter- 
prct.ition and effect of the treaty of Washington hitherto inaiutaine<l hy them; and 
being informed of the statement made on the *2.'jth instant by the agent oi' the United 

particularly mentionei 



1^ he Ii'kI rO '^B ^"ither insisted ujum before the tribunal by the Ignited States, and may be exclndec 



22 



ARBITRATION AT (iKNKVA. 



from nil coii^iilciiit ion in any award that may Iti^ made: and asxnmini; tliat the aihi- 
tratois will, upon .mkIi .statcnn<nt, tliink lit now to dcclaif that the sanl scvi-ral claiinH 
art', ami from In nci't'orl li will hi', wholly t"xclnd»'d I'loni their considfration, and will 
t'mtiody such declaration in their luotmid ot" (his day's proceedinj^s ; tliey have in- 
strneted the nndersijrned, upon this l)ein;f done, to re(|nest leave to withdraw the 
apiili<'Htion made hy him to the trihnnal on the I'ltli instant for smdt an adjournmiMit 
as miu:ht enal)le a sujiplenu-ntary convention to he eomdnded and ratilied Iictween the 
liij;h cimtraciinj; parties; and to re(|uest leave to delixer tlii' printed arnnnn'nt. now 
in the hands of the under>i;;iieil. which has heeu jirepared on t lit^ part ol' ller I hi tannic, 
ilajesty's i;(>veriinnnt under the lil'th article of the treaty with reference to the other 
(dainrs, to the consideration of which hy the trihnnal no exception has ))eou taken on 
the ]iart of Her Majisiv's j^ovci'iunent. 

•■ti:\tp:ri)kn." 

Mv. IJaiicrot't Davis said that lift nuule no objtjction to the oraiiting of 
the i('((ii('st made l)y Lord Tcidfti'deii to lie ixMinitted to withdiaw liis 
ap[>liealioii lor an adjoiiniiiieiit. and to lile the aryiiiiieid of ller lli'i- 
tiinnie Majesty's jio vera men t. 

Connt ^elopis. on hclialfof all the arbitrators, thnt dectlarcd that the 
said several elaiuis for indireel losses mentioned in the statement made 
by the a}.''ent of the UnitiMl States on the L'.")th instant iind referred to 
in the stat(Mnt'nt Just 'made by the a^i-ent of Her Ibitannic AEajesty, are, 
and from heneeforth shall be, wholly <'\eluded from the consideration of 
the tribunal, and directed the se<'retary to endtody this declaration in 
the jirotoeol of this day's pi'oeeedinus. 

lie at the sanu' time informed Lonl Tcnterden that the tribunal as- 
sented to his re(iu<'st for leave to witlnlraw his ajtplication for a pro- 
lonji'ed adjournment, ami also to his re(inest for lea\<' to <leliver the. 
l>rinted arj;iinient which had been pre[>are<l on the [)art of ller Ibitannie 
Majesty's "government. 

Lord TiMiterden then i)resented eoines of the ariiiunient in duplicate 
to each of the arbitrators an<l to tiie aj^'ent of the L^nited States. 

Count Sclo])is stated that the tribunal no longer tlesired the proceed- 
inji's to be considered contidential so far as publication of them by the 
United States and ]>ritish jiovernments is conc<'rmMl, 

He then proceeded to read an address as follow.-,: 

Mi",ssii:i ns : An nu)nn'nt oit le nond .jni nn-naeait d'i'ntra\cv p.»iir ionji'tenips encore. 
I'l'xi'cution (hi trailc dc Washinjiton vient d'etre si iH^ureu-enn-nt tran(die. a I'lieureofi 
nos travanx V(mt prendre un cours lilire et r('<;nlier. pernielte/-nH(i de vous din^ me.s- 
siiiurs et trcs-hoiiores c(dlioii(.><, cumhiiMi J'apprc'cie riionneur de siejjer avec vons dan.s 
CO trilumal irarhilrai;c, sur lequel sont. lixc's anjonrd'hni les re^^ards du uionde civilise. 

I..aisse/-ni<)i ensnite vons exju'lmer tout ce rpie j'i''>'.\>iive de reconnaissance [lonr hi 
maripie Hal tense de contiance (ju'il vons a phi de iii'accorder en in'ajipehint a oecuper 
00 fauteuil. 

.Jo eompi'ends ])arfiitement tout le jirix de cette distincticm si ]»eii nu'ritcc : inais Jt^ 
conipreniis mieux encoie le l)csoin fpie J'anrai tl'etre sontenn i)ai' h' concours de vo.s 
Inniieres, et i)ar I'appni de \otre indnlneiice dans I'exercice des fom-tions que vous 
in'ave/ conliees. ('c sera a \ ons i|Ue je ]k' deviai, si j<' ni' vais pas jvarattre trop an-de.s- 
snns de ma tache. 

Jjii nMinion de ce trihnnal d'arhitra;.;!' sinnale, .'i idle senle. nne nonv(dh' direotiou 
impriinee anx idc'cs i|ni nonvernent la i»olitiipic des nations les pins avanci-es snr hi 
V(Me de la civilisation. 

Nous ,sonimesa''riv*''s a une i-poiineoii. dans les sphi-res les pins ele\<'esde la politique, 
I'esi^rit de nnidt'ration et le sentiment d'c'iiniti- commenetiiit iiartont a i)revaloir sur les 
tendances des vieilles routines d'lin arhitraire insolent on d'une imlilfc'renee eonpahle.. 
Diminner les occasions de fairo hi j;uerre, attenuor les malhenrstiu'cdh! traine a sa suite, 
placer les intciets do rimmanit"'- aii-dessus de eeux do la ])oliti(iue, voila I'tenvro vers 
la(|Uolle se diriment toiites les jjrandes intellijrcnces, tons les co'urs haiit plac('.s. Aiissi 
avec quel honhenr n'a-t-on pas sain-' ' ) vten si nohlement ex])rime par le congri-s de I'aris 
eti IHoli, que les t'-tats entre lesqiiels s'l'leviM'ait un dissontiinent serieiix, avaut d'cii 
iippeler aux amies, enssent reeonrs, eii tant que les ciiconstanccs I'admettraient, aux 
bona otlices des puissances amies ! (^ue de hons etfets ii'avait-oii pas a attendro de la 
ddclaratiou do ce ineme congres concernaut I'abolitiou ilc la course, et lo respect de la. 
propriete privee / En tin uous ne .saurious oul)lier ici cette couventioii de Oeuevc, qui 



I 



PROTOCOLS OF Tlir, (M)NFK1?EN('F,S. 



23 



tluit tlie lubi- 
scvtTiil i;l;iiiii.s 
tinii, iiinl will 
tlicy liiivc iii- 
witliilrii \v tlic 
ii(1.j(>iiniiiu>iit 
I lirrwccii the 
ry,iniii'iil. now 
Hi!i' I!ril.;iniiic 

(' to trill' o1 lllT 

leoii tiikcii on 
sTERDKN." 

itliilraw liis 
of 1I(M- I'.ri 

(Ml tliitt the 

MIH'Ilt !ir,l(l<l 

rct'errt'd to 
;:ij('sry, are, 
iidciation of 
•claratioii in 

tril)uiial as- 
)ii tor a pro- 
deliver the 
Br IJritannie 

^11 (luplieate 
ites. 

proceetl- 
leui Wy the 



I'tinips oDcoio 
:'i riii'iiro ofi 
)iis (lire, ml^,s- 
,'ec voiis (laii.s 
onilc civilised. 
■«;iiicf' i)t)nr la 
lint a occupov 

•itt'c : mais jti 
icon IS (If voH 
i()ns (iM(^ voiis 
tiop an-dt'f)- 

•11c (linMJtion 
anci-cs snr la 

la politique, 
valoir snr les 
no coupat)l«. 
lu' a sa suite, 

r<i'iivre vers 
lacos. Aussi 
if^ri'S (Ic Paris 
c, avaut il'cu 
ttraiciit, aux 
ttendre de la 

respect de ia< 
Geuiive, qui 



jiarvint a placer sous la proti <^tion spi'.i'iali) dii dioit des jjons les I'llans de la cliariK^ sur 
Ifs chaMi]is df liat;iill«. 

On a l)ii-n du rci^ri'ttcr (pn' Ii-h vncs si droitm ct si Hairps dn conjiiii's dc Pa.ri;< n'aient 
pius (Ho proni|ilt'ni)'nt sccondci^s p;n' Ifs ('■MMirnicntH. I ).• cnii'ls dc'ni'-nl is ont *'t<'. donnc'ts 
anx aspirations dcs jiincs d'ditc;' inais I'aiitorih- nimali! drs priiici|)cs [•roclaiiK'iH a 
cctte opoipii' nt; s'cst jioint atV.iililii'. 

(!n\(Mi a rinitiative dcs lioniniiM d't tat (pii jTi'siilcnl anx dcsl im'cs dc rAnK^ritpie et 
dc rAn.ij;lct(^ric, cctlc^ idee oT'in'icnsi! commence a porter scs I'rnits. 

liC irraiid essai de I'applieatiiin des rc^li's aiisleres et cahncs dn droit anx ipu'stions 
ardentt's do la polil,i(|nc va. sii t'airt\ L'histoire ( ontenipDiaino racnilera a la. postorito 
(pu\ nienn- dans la clialenr lies pins vives riMaiiiinat ions, on a, tonjonrs son^ii dcs dcnx 
coti's de rAtlantiipn- a tenir onveites les voles d'\u\ a,ico:iiini)ilciniiil aeeci)lalilo par les 
amis de la |>iiix ct t\n projvri's. 

A traversdes nei^ociationsneepssair-Mnent l(nit;nos,sonHl'action di's eonrants varialdcs 
de ropinH)n pnltliipn', ini'V itaUlcs ehez les ;;oiiverne-n)eiits a hase. popniaire, In Init do 
CCS nia^naninies elforts ne. t'nt. jamais jierda d<! vnc. I'ersonne, ctM-tes, m^ ponvait en 
contestiM- I'ntiiiti' ; mais d'eii venir an point d'aceepter ))ni-emcnt et sini|)leinent )(>, sy- 
steme de I'arliitray;!', de renoneer a ee privilei;i', si cImm' anx ambitions vnlnaires, de ho 
(.lire justice d(> sa main, voila ee qni e\i;;iait nnc. rare Cernn'te de conviution, un 
dcMnn-nient a tonte (■|)renve an\ int<iels de, riuiniiuiili'. An^si Ic prendcr ministro 
d'Anj>letei le at-il en raison de jcirler dn traiti' de \Va^hin;4t.on datis des terines <)ni 
earactf'riseiit a la t'ois la .ur.indeiir et les dil'licnlics de .rcntrcprisi-. "11 sc itent," (lisait- 
il, " (pn( cc soit nin) espr^rancc trop eelalante ponr ctie ri'.ilisi'e tlans c,e, nH)ndo do 
niisercs oh nons vivons; rexpcriniee dn moins est <liLCne de I'etl'ort. On recdMsrche, s'il 
l^^t possilile, de souincttri! ees ecntlits d'()|)iniou eiitre. denx nations an Juj^cnuint d'nn 
tiilinnal ile raisini, an licii de I'ailiitra^e san;;lant des amies. L'liistoire. se, sonvicnidra 
.1 I'l'jiard des Ftats-Unis et dn K'oyaniiic-lini qne, ayant a vidi^r do sernnix ciniflitH, et 
so scntant pen disiioses de ])art et il'aiitre a ci'dcr le terrain, ils se. sont neaninoins i\]>- 
pliipii's a assurer la ])aix. ct irni-scnlonnMit a ri^iflcr Ic.nrs proprc^s eonilits, mais aussi i\ 
<lonner nn excmi»lc qni sera IVeoiid en l)ientaits pour l<'s antrcs nations. ■•' 

On a dit que le triomplie d'nne idi'c nrile. n'est. .i;iinais {(n'mie qnestion dti date. V6- 
lieitons-nons. niessienrs, d'assister a la ii'^iilisation d'nn dessein qni doit etre fecond des 
nieillenrs rt-.^nltats; esjii-rons qn'il ti*'ndradans raveiiir (out ce qn'il pronnH anjour- 
d'hni. 

\ons avons entendn cc cii terrihli; ''In for(!e ])rimc li^ droit:" c'est nn tU'-li i)ort6 h la 
ei\ ilisation. Xons voyons mainreiiant la iiolitiqne s'adriisser a la justice^ ])onr ne |)as 
ahnser de la iorec ; c'ot nn lionimaj;'e (pae la civilisation doit lec.e.vuir a.vc.c, Itonlieur. 

Ne nons plaijinons pas troj> si les cpii-siions ipn' mnis somnics appcliVs a rc'^sondre nous 
ari'iventa la suite <ra;iita.tions pr(dony;ees. iiceonn.iissmis pliitot riniporla.iiee lies do- 
enniinits qni nons out iHe' fonrnis et dcs r.iisoniKMiicnts dont ils ont t'lte ace.oin])ann6s. 

Les l(ni<fncs invest iijations jin'pare'nt Kw nieillcures sjlntions. On navi;.;Mo plus 
snrenicnt snr les rivieres ipii out (de le mieiix soiidi'tes, 

Le droit des jjens a et('^ trop sonveiit rejrarde. eoiiime un sol mobile, snr hsqutd, an 
nniinent oil Ton croit avancer, le picil j;liss(i en arriiire. .Serait-e(» un esp(dr indiscret 
(pie celni de parvcnir ])ar nos (dluits a reiidri^ (!c, sol nn pen micnx ratl'cnni f 

L'ohjet de nos (UdilK-rations deniande (\\'^ ('tndes anssi varices (pie si'n'ieuses. Nous 
anrons ii rexaininer a d(!s ]»oint-i de viie dilViirenls. ("e sera tant('')t avec la lar;i;e p(ir- 
ceptioii dt! riminnni d'i'tat, tanti'it. avec I'd-.H sc.riitatenr d'nn pr(''.sident anx. assises, 
tonjonrs avei; un pndbiid sentiineiit d'liipiittudi avi^e line iinj)a.rtialit(> ahsolne. 

Xons nons proincttons heaucoiip de I'aide einpresstie des aji'cnts des deux ])uissances 
«(iii ont en reeonrs a ee triluiual ; huir Iiauto intelligeiieo et leiir /i'.le celaiio nou.s sout 
e;j;;ilenient eonnns. 

I-aiiin le tribunal «e eonfie dans rassistance d(i9 cnnseils des hautes parties pr<^sonte.«! 
.1. la banc, di'. (les Jnriseonsnltes ('iiiiinents dont le noni vaiit nn (doife. N<)ns nous at- 
t<Midons (pii'ls (^oopereront Cranelienient av(H! nons dans ee ipii doit (^t.re, nou-seuloniont 
nn acto d(! bonne Jnstiee, mais encore nn travail de <^raiide ]iacilieation. 

Pnissions-nons n^pondro coinph'itemeiit. anx lonaldes intentions des puissances qtiL 
eons ont honon^s de bntr ehoix; pnissions-nons ri.'inplir. avee. I'aide. de, Dien, uno mis- 
sion qui m(>tte fin a de lon<;s et piiiiibles dill'erends; (pii, o,n r('.;;lant de j^rav(!s int6r6t.s, 
apaise diulonhnireiises (^motions, et (pii no soit pas sans ipndipu! heureuse inllueucosur 
leuiaintien de la paix du nioiide et les pnj^^re.s de la civilisation. 



"•In the performance of a uudaneholy duty," dit Sir R(d)ert PhiHiinore daua la 
preface a la denzieine (>dition des Vommentaricx upon Internulioiinl Law, 1871, " I am 
«blii;fe(l to close tins chronicle of events by the admission that the siifjjjestion contained 
in till) last protocol to the treaty of Parish 1850, has remained a dead-hitter, except per- 
; haps in the ease of Luxemburfjf. Neither of the bellijuerents in the present horrible war 
would listen to the suf^f^estion of such an arbitration." 

'^ Discours prououc(5 par Monsieur Gladstfme au b.anquet d'installation du nouveau 
lord-inaire, le 9 uovembre 1871. 



rrBB 



RRmOT^nm 



I!' 



24 



AKIilTKATION AT (iKNKVA. 



ill 



Von vd'iix, tli s-lidruiK's colIc^iUcH. s'acfonlcioiit siitiM iloiiti- iivcc 1«'n iiiini^ iioiir (|m»» 
I'oHi^ai qiKi I'oii vii fiiiio serve ii ('CHitcr duiiH I'uviMiir Icn occunioiih <lts liittoh .siiiiy;lim(.eK 
et h lallciriiir l'( miiiic de la jiiiKiii. 

DatiH eel t(^ do I Id' ]ii<^\ i(-ioii, i'ainit' !\ ra|i|i(liT ccs i)ar('l<K dii ln'rns d( )"AiiM'iii|iii-. do, 
Oeor^o VVaHl\iiinti(M : "S'il yu iiiio vYditi'i (orlciiu'iif C'laldir, c'fht ((ii'il y a ici-Nas iii' 
]i<'ii iiidif-soiiildc Mil I'o IcH pim N iiiaxiini'H (I'liiic jiclit i(]iH^ lioiiiute et iiia^iiaiiiiiie ct le.-; 
KclideH i('(;<}iiiii(iifj(\s d»; la [iinsiei Uti I't du lioiiliciii |iiilili<!."' 

Lord Tciilndcii then .stated (liat Sir Ifoiiiidcn Palmer, Wvv I»iitamiit; 
j\I}'J<'st\'.s coiiiiscl, lia<l i)r('iiai(.'(l, lor llio (joiisidcriitidii ol' llic tiibiiiiai, 
a Ktatcnicut of cortaiii jioiiilH oC imijoitaiicc, as to wliitli lie desires to 
liavc an oppoi tiiaily of >-iil»M;il(iii,^ lo (lie (rilmnal I'lutlier ar,i;iinK'iits, 
ill aruswei' tollioso coiitniiied in tlie ariiiinieiit ot llie United States de- 
livered on the inih instant; and that Sir IJonndell I'ahiier wunhl now, 
\vlth the ix'rniission of tins tiihiinal, read such statement, of whiel,, 
uith a. tianshttion which \von!d be piepared without delay, eoities wil.' 
l)c delivered to tlio .s(»veral aihiiratcrs and to the a;j;('nt ot tlu' IJniteei 
States in the conrse ol' the day; ait«l, as the |)re[)aration of any further 
arguments on those, or any other jxiiiits, v* ill ncessarily icMpurt? som<' 
time to he allowtd, li(^ l)e<><;((l respect fully to sui^^cst that 11m^ (MUinse' 
on both sides should b(> inforuu'd of th(^ time which the tribunal will be 
Avillinj:^ to allow, before »' > urin.n" their further attendance for the. ])ur- 
jujse of any ai^nnunts. if the inteival so granted can be extended to 
the lirst of An,i>ust next, it is believed tliat this nill meet tin; views o!' 
the counsel and aucids of both pinlis, and mav pioliably enable the 
<'ounsel, ^vhen ajiain before the tribunal, to (lisciiarjic their duty in a 
sliortei' time than mijiht otherwise be recjuisitt^ 

Sir I\ouud<'ll Palmer tlu'u r(^ad a statement. 

Mr. JIancrolt J)a\ is tiu'U said that upon bein.i;' turnished with u copy 
of the pajier, now ])resented on th(» part of Jler I'.ritannif; Majesty'.s 
counsel, he would lay the same before the counsel of the United States, 
and would present their vii'ws to thetriluinal after ^ru h coiisultation. 

Count Sclopis then stated thatthe tribunal had. at the request of the 
Hj^ent oi' Her IJiitannic! Majesty, granted p(M Miivsion to Sir Koundell 
Palmer to read the statement retiuesting' the tribunal to authorize him 
to furnisli the arbitrators with further arj^uments on the points therein 
spccided, and that, with referemie to this retjuest, Mr. Adams, as one of 
the arbitrators, had suirj^osted a i)relieaiuary (question, viz, whether 
under tlie terms of Article Y of the treaty of Washington it is (!ompe- 
teiit for th(^ agents or counsel to make re(piests of this nature, a.nd thai, 
the tril)unal, alter discussion, and ha\ing in view the precise terms of 
the treaty, liad decided that the arbitrators alone have the right, if 
tiioy desiie furt.hei- elucidation with regard to any ])oint, to recpiire a 
written or printed statement or argument, or oral arguiiient by counse] 
ni)on it, under the terms of the said article. 

The conference was then adjouitied until J^'riday, the I'Stli instant, at 
11 o'clock a. m. 

FliEDKlMCK SULOPlS. 

J. C. P.ANC1{()FT DAVIS. 

TENTEPDKN. 

ALICX. FAVJtOT, Sccretan/. 



'DisconrH proiione*^, lo 'AO avril 1789 daiiH la sdarico dii Ko'nat arui'ricaiii, lors de la 
proclainatiun de VVasbiiifftoii a la prdsuU-iico, ct, do John Adam.-, a la vice-presid«»no-<', 
d«H l?tafa-Uiils. 



F'K(>r(»('(»I.S ol' Tin: CONFKKMNCI'S. 






({•^ jMiiir f|iie 


^B 


s .Hiiii^laiil.fK 


■ 


iiu'rii|Mi'. (l«i 


H 


ii ii'i-bas iir< 


^m 


jmiiin- ct Itw 


1 


nritiiiiiiio 


1 


' tribiinai, 




desires to 




vminu'iits, 




States «](•- 




loiild now, 




of wliicl., 




(•o])ies Nvir 


'.^/ 


Jie lJnit(^»i 


i>. 


iiy fintlier 


:■■ 


piire some 


-i. 


ln^ eoniistv 


,:ii 


mil will he 


■1 


n- the luii' 


i 


xtended to 




e views oI' 




eiiiil)le tli«' 


1 


duty ill a 


1 


\ ith !i eopy 




; Miijesty':'. 




ted States, 




ultatioii. 




H'st of the 




• Jiouiidell 




hoiizc hiii5 




nts therein 




■<, as one of 




A, Nvliether 




t is eoiiipe- 




\ and that 


■ .'jjt- 


;e terms ()■' 


M 


le rij;ht, if 




> re(iuire ;i 




)y eonnsel 


'« 


instant, at 




)iMS. 




)AVIS. 





:iiU((i\ii. 



II, lors de la 
-prcsideuo-t', 



Sir ^, ('(K-kliijtn 

• ivnl frir r»r-.ir);i.- 

• ■•ir : inwtioii 'l*- 



i 



l»K()T(M"()I. Vill. 

licronl of the jnotrfil iiu/s of the fflhiaio! of orhilrdfion of flu fUjhth 
conJi'fC/UT, Ik Id at (linvro, iStciturlaiui, on tlw -SlU of June, 1S7-. 

The eonfereiiee was held pnisnaiit to adjourninent. All the ailiitraturs 
and the ii.irents of I lie two ;;(»\ cniiiients were present. 

The prcitocol of the last eoiiferenco was read and approved, and was 

si^'iu'd by the president and secretary of tlie triluinal I tlie agents of 

tile two ^•overnnienls. 

Sir Alexander (.'oekhnrn, as om^ ot the arbitrators, then proposed to 
the tiionnal to re(pijie a written or ]>riiited statement oi 
ar.yiiiiient l>y the eoniisel of the two ^()\ eriiiiieiits for further 
elueidatiou on tln^ followinj;' points, vi/: 

1, What is the '^ ihw dili^^cnee'' rcipiired fioiu a neutral stale, 
aeeordin;;' to tlie ;^'eneral rides of international law, and aeeordinjj; to 
til*' rules of the sixth ai'tiele of the treaty of Wa shin ••ton ? 

w'. What were the international obli^'atious of neutral stat<>s in 
resjteet to the const riiet ion, sale, and litiinj;' out, within neutral territory, 
of ships intended for warlike use by si bellii^'erent, independently of the, 
niunieipal le/4islatioii of the neutral state, and of the rules laid down by 
the treaty of \Vasiiiii;4tou ? 

;>. What rights an; conferred uim»ii a belli^'-erent power by the innni- 
eipal le.nislatiou of a neutral state tor the maintenance of its niMitrality, 
if such legislation exceeds Mk; limits of the obliy,ations pr<niously im- 
l)osed upon neutral States by international law l! 

i. Is a neutral static under any international oblinatiou to detain in, 
or exclude from, its ]»orts vessels titti^d out in violation of its neutrality, 
after such vessels have been commissioned as ]»ublic shi[>s of war by ii 
iK'lligerent i>ower, whether such ])ower be or be not reeoynized as a 
.soveiei;;n state '.' 

r». Whether Her ."Majesty's iiroelaination of neutrality, recoj>ui7,in.ij the 
hellijjfcreney of tin,' Confederate States, is in any, and what, way material 
to the question of the liability of (!reat Uritaiii for losses sustained by 
tiie United States, in consecjnenee of the acts of the vessels referred to 
iji the treaty of Washington .' 

G. Whether the laws of (}i'(>at Ibiiain. <luriu,<r the civil war, were, (tr 
were not, sullieient, if i»roperly enfoi'ced, for the fullillmeiit of Her Uri- 
taJUiie ^Majesty's neutral oblij^ations? 

7. If tv vessel, whi(!h has been fitted out in violation of the neutrality 
of a neutral state, has escajted from tin; neutral territory, thiouj^h some, 
want of due diligence on the i)art of th(> neutral ,n-overnment, ought 
Hueli neutral state to be held res[»onsible to the otlier belligerent for 
captures made by such vessel I 

If so, to what period does this resi»on,sibility extend? ^fay it be 
modifted or terminated by circumstances afterwanl supervening, (as, 
for instanee, hy assistance afterward lendered to tlu^ vessel by an inde- 
pendent power, without which her capacity for warlike purposes would 
have ceased, or by her entrance into a p«»rt of the belligerent to whom 
she belongs,) or does it necessarily extend to the end of the war ? 

Furthermore, does this responsibility still exist, when the persons 
who made such captures were insurgent citizens of the state against 
Avhich they waged war, to whom, upon the conclusion of the war, such 
illegal acts have been condoned l 

8. If a vessel, which has not been fitted out or armed in violation of 



20 



AltmrKATlnN AT CKNKVA. 



llie iH'Utriility (tl' ii ni'iitriil stiit(>, is jirtcrward pt'iinittiMl to icM^oivi* sup- 
]>1h>.s of ('o:il iiiiil I'cpair.s in a neutral port, tlocs tlin iM'iitr.il state, in 
whose, i)ort sin; receives such supplies and ie|)airs, incur on that account 
a responsil»iiity lor her snbseipuint eaidnres, or any of thein 'i 

Afier ih'liberation a majority of tiie tribunal ihsciilcMl not to reipiiro 
sucli statement or arjiumcnt at present. 

The trii»unal then ileciih'd thai, in the course of their disiMissions and 
delibeiations, tin', a.uents should atteinl tluM'onh'reiH^es, accompanied by 
the counsi'l of their respective j^'overnments, except in (!ases \\\n\n tho 
tribunal should think it advisalile to conduct their discussions ami de- 
libeiations with closed doors. 

The tribunal then det«'rinined to iH'rmit juiblicity to be .ijivon to tli« 
statement made by the a;;('iit of Jler Jbitannic .Maji^sty at the third 
conference, the declaration of the. arbitrators made at the lifth confer- 
ence, tlie subsequent statements of the a^entof the: United States made 
at the sixth conferen(,'e, and of the aj^imt of ller Ilritannic Maji'sty made 
at the seventh confereiu'e, and the address of the president of the tribu- 
nal delivered at the seventh eonferenee. 

The tril>unal then adjourned until Monday, the l.>th proximo, at 2 
o'clock in the afternoon. 

FIk'KDFMCK HCLOriS. 
.1 ', . r.ANCJliOFT J)AV18. 

TKXTi-:i;i)i';x. 

Ald-:X. FA \' HOT, S<u;n'tarij. 



PROTOCOL IX. 



Record n/ fhr proceeiliitf/s of the tribunal of arhUration at the conference 
held at Geneva, in iSiritzerland, on the l."»/// of 'fall/, 1872. 

The eonferenee was ludd pursuant to adjournment. All the arbitrators 
and the agents of the two governments were j)resent. 

The protocol of the last conference was read and ai))>roved, and was 

sif^ned by the president and secretary of the tribunal and the agents of 

the two governments. 

Count Selopis, as president, said that it would be necessary in the 

onier of iHuce.i- t'i"'"^t pUicc to KKMemiiue the method ami order of i)roeeeding 

'"*'■ in the considciaii n of the subjects referred to the tribunal. 

Mr. Stn-mittli stated that he had prepared, and ]>roposed to submit, 

for the adoption of the tiibanal, a written ]>rogranune on this (piestiou. 

After discussion the consideration of this programme was deferred to 

the next conference. 

The tribunal then adjourned until Tuesday, the IGth instant, at 2 
ox'lock in the afternoon. 

FREDERICK SCLOPIS. 

J, C. BANCROFT DAVIS. 

TENTERDEN 

ALEX. FAVROT, Secretary. 



1 ! 



rROTnroi,H ()!■' riu; < onkk.hkncf.s. 



27 



(UMVO sup- 
I HtiltC, ill 

it iic.c.ouilt 

to v(M)nii'o 

ssioiis ami 

|)ii!ii(Ml by 

when t.li« 

lis iuul ile- 

voii to tlici 
the third 

I'tll COIlltM'- 

iitos niiido 
ji'sty mado 
■ tlio tribu- 

\iino, at 3 

)ris. 

DAVIS. 

it'.creidvji. 



I'MOTOCOL \. 



(u»i/erence 
k3. 

arbitrators 

d, and Avas 
I', a,!j:t'nts of 

iiry in tlio 
)roceediiif; 
K tribunal, 
to submit, 
s question, 
letcrred to 

taut, at 2 

)PIS. 
)AV1S. 

Secretary. 



Rtrord of the pnu'triliiijis of the iylhuna! of (ivhitmtUm <it fhi' tnijh. lum- 
f'vmirr lirhl tit UiiuiHi, in tSiritutliind, on tin: WAh of 'hilj/, lHl'2. 




\, — fiiilii (ilioiiii iinurnli s. 

I. t^iit'Ml idli :i (li ridi'i'. 
II. I)iliiiiil;iti<)ii (U-» fails. 
III. riiiiuiius <{<-iii'r;iiix. 

IJ>. — ^ ''■'"''<>» rthilifi iiibniinidcs rn>i>i< ms-- 
nhi, rratii'iii i>i('Hiiiiiiiiiiin, 

I. /.<■ Snmlir: 

<i I'ait.x. 

/) (.%»ii.si(l('raiils. 

(■ .liij^cniciil. 

II. I A- Saxinilh : 

II I'ai '•.. 

/) C'oiisiili'iaiit.'s. 

(' .liii.;t'im'nt. 

III. /..■ Floriih, : 

a Faits. 

h (.'<>nsi(l('rant.s. 

I- .'iiijcini'iit. 

IV. I' Ahthnmii : 

a FaitM. 

l> Coii.'sitlf'r.'iiits. 

<■ .liij;('iiii-iil. 

V. Li' Uilrihiiliini : 

n Faits. 

/> Coii.siili'raiits, 

(■ .hi<j;('iii('iit. 

Sir Alexander (Joekburn, one of the arbitrators, submitted the fol- 
lowing propositions to the consideration of the tribunal: 

I. 'riiat tlic coiiiplaint of flio riovciiinioiit of tlio I^nittid States in of a tliroefokl 
charactfr, and may l>o stati'd tiiidfr tiic. tlircc follnwiiij^ heads, viz • 

1. That, l>y want, of due dilij^enco on tlio imit. of the IJritish .!j;overnnu>nt, vohhoIs of 
AViir were .suffered to be e(|uipi>od in ports of lior Mn,jt!sty, and to depart therefrom, to 
tlic injury of Anierieaii eonnnerco; 

2. Tliat such vessels, havinjj; been afja/m founil in Uritisli ports or waters, wore not 
seized or detained, but were suiVensd to j;o forth agiiiu on the same dostructivo 
service : 

3. That su( li vessels received undue asslstanco. or were permitted to renialu an 
unduly lonjj tinir , in ])ortH within Her Majesty's dominions. 

II. That on each of these heads of eomplaini} the decision of the tribunal must 
depend, not only (ui the facts relating to each ve.s.sel, but also on the priuciplos of 

! international law a})plicable to the particular subject. 

III. That the rational, logical, and moat convenient course to be pursued will be, 
■ before proceeding to de.-vl with each of these heads of compl.aint, to consider and 

determine what are the principles of law applicablo to the subject, and by which the 
decision of the tribunal must ultimately be determined. 



\I. I.I (tioi'jiii : 

(I Faits. 

/) Considc rants. 

(• .Jugeun-nt. 

VII. Le Ta}Jiihn-^Hir, on !■■ Ohi^l^'o: 

a l''aits. 

/) ( 'onsid('rants. 

r Jugenient. 

\ III. //(•' ('hirhamniKjii : 

F.-iits. 

h ('onsidi'raiits. 

<• .lugenient. 

IX. Fa' Shcnandoith : 

a Faits. 

/; Oonsiderants. 

c .Iiigement. 

i',—I>i'lrr)i>iniitio)i 'lu trihinioi il'iiitjiif/fr 
iiiiv iiommf I'll bloc. 

|>, — K.fanwn rfc-t i'1i'mt'»t:< pniir fi.r>T vne 
xommr in hloc. 

C. — I'oiicliixioii ''t adjiidicaliDii drjinWive 
d' Hill' xonniii' <•». him;. 



^^^SI^SSE^S 



28 



AKHITKATION AT UENEVA. 



IV. Thiit, it will 1)1- cdiivoniiMit to tuko tlio tlirce lic'cis <»f coiriidiiiiit srfi.'iiatcly. and 
in tliti okI'M' iicifinlicl'on' Htiilfi!. 

V. Tliat tlwro in iiolliiiij;- in flio Vlltli ;irtich' <>!' tin- treaty wliicli iircvrnts tli«* 
a(loi)ti<>ii (tf tills nuidt! of jn'ocfi'iljnir, tlio only olijcct and ctti't-t of tliat nrticlo Ixiin^ 
to InKUic till' SI!] I, irate consideration of the faetH relatir ■ to eacli ves>;(d, and a sejiarat** 
and (Ml tinet JiidgiiK'nt of tlie t'ilmnal on the ('oni])l:i: us sjieeitiealiy referal)le to eacl! 
in ])artic ular. 

VI. 1'liat tlio C'onsidei'.'Uion of the lirst-nieutioned head of coni]dalnt, reteii'iiee lieinj^ 
had to the \'lth aitiele of tlu! treaty, and tho rnles therein laid down, luifessarily 
involves ttiri'i> (iiiestious of law: the lirst., what, elfeet is to bti ,<;lven to tho term ''due 
dilitfeiiee." with rel'erencti to tin; dilferent iillej^ations of tlio \v;int thereof put forward 
l»y the, 1'iiiled States (Joverninent ; tlie second, whether the jjeiu'ral jninciides of 
international law, referred to in such Vlth article, have relatively to the rights nu<] 
duties of neutrals any and what ell'ect in (h'ti;ruunin<i what eonstitnti's <lne diligence 



or the \vaut ol" it. or in extendinif or liniitiuij; the tialiilitv of 



iitral static wit.l 



veferenc'- to I his head of eoniplaint ; tin', third, whether a i;ovefnnient act iiiij in ufo 



faiti 



dth, ami honest i\ intendinir to fultill lh(> ()l>lii:atious ol' neiilialit v. i- 



to It 



d liable 



1)V reason of mistal 



part of ;\, siiiiordinaie ol'lieer. 



rror in Jud";ment, accidental tlelay, oi even ne^lii;enee on the 



VII. That ir will h 



)nvenient, an'i ii 



deed 



n(>(M,'ssary. to commence onr [(VDceedinj^K 



with the consideration of these, (|Ue>^tions of l;iw, 

VIII. That, looUin<i' to tli(> diHiculty <d' these, (juestions. and tlie coiitlict of opinioi. 

lied jiirist.s on the jireseiit contest, as well as to 



:;li h 



tis arisen aiiioni;' distiiinnis 



their vast imiiortatiee. in. the, decision of tho triluinal on tiie iii.atteis in dispute 
it is the. duty, ;'.s it must lie, presume<l to ho tlu? w.isli of the arhitrators, in the iiiten.'st, 
of Justice, to obtain all the assistance in their ))i;Wer to (^nabh- tliem to arrive at a. just, 
and correct conclusion. Tliat they ouoht, therefore, to call for the assist:ine.e, o) 
the, eminent ciiunsel wlio are in at tendance on tlm tiibuiia! to assi.'Jt. them witli thei-' 
n^asoniiii; iind learuin;,;. so thai avii'uments seattcred ov<'r a mas'^ "fdoeiimeiits may be 
jiresented in a eoiicenlrated ami ap|ireii.il)le Ibrm, and the tribunal may thus have the 
advaiit;.,ne ol' all the lii^ht which can bi' ilirowii on su intricat.' and diflicult a mattcir, 
ami that its i!r<iee(Mliu;is may herealter appear totlu^ world to have been characti'iizod 
by the iiatiem e, the deliberation, and anxious d<'sire foi- information on ail tlie (loints 
involved in its ilecision. wi 
isatisfactorilv done. 



ihout whieii it is inipos.sibli that Justice can lie duly ov 



Aft(M'(li.sfU.s,sioii, Uw ti'ibuiKil (It'cidtMl to iirdcccd with tin' cmxc ()f tlic 
]''loiidii lit the iioxr itaxHiiig, accord iii;^' Id th«^ i'idj;i;iiiiiiic of .Mr. fcjttiMU- 



ptli 



The t)ibim:t! tlicii iidjouiiuMl iiiitl; Wediiesdav. the ITtli iibstant, tit 1 



o'clock in th<* ai'tei'iuuiii. 



I'JIEDKUKK SCLOPIS. 

J. C. llAXvi:(>FT l>A\'JS. 

TKNTEHDhN. 

ALEX. FA V ROT. Sn-rcUtni. 



'1' 



riiOTOCOL XL 



Jit'cord of titc iiroccc(Uii()s of the trlbniial of arhitrutioit at the rlercntk 
coiiftf-vncCj held at (Jancoa, in tSicifzerlaH<l.,ou flu 17/// <>/ -Julji, ISTi'. 

The, coufeieni-e wii.s held ])ursu;uit to adjottniiaeiit. All the arbi- 
tratoris and the i. scuts of the two j^ovenunents were present. 

The])ro{()col of the last eonfere>iee was read iiiid approved, and was 
sif^ned by the, i)resident and secretary of the tiibatial, and fhe aoeut.s 
of the two {iovernmeiits. 

On the proposal of Sir Alexander Coekbiirn it w;is decided thtit the 
written opinions or stiiteinents read by the arbitrtitors to the; tribunal 
should be i)rinted, and distributed to the arbitrators and to the ageuts 
and eoiinsel of the two goverum"utwS. 



PROrOOOLS (W TUV. rc^NFERKNCKS. 






piiralcl,\ . ami 

livevcnts tho. 
iirti(!lc bcin.L; 
ml a si']>!irato 
■I a) lie to eaci 

fcri'iH'i' liciiij^ 
ri, lU'ffSHaiil.v 
he ti'iiii ''<liie 
l>nt fi»i'\vai<: 
iniiicijilcs ()<' 
lie ii;^lits aii(! 
due (lilijj;cMi<- 
;il st;it« will' 
(.•liiiji ill <i;t)0<: 
l.e hel.l liable 
I'iLji'ncc OH the 

ir piiK'tHHrmj^K 

let <i(' oiiinioi 
as well as t,<) 
•s ill <lisl)llle. 
ill the interest, 
I rive at, a.jusi. 

assist.'iiiee <>1 
cm with thei" 
[iiieiitK may he 
thus have the 
(lilt a iiiattiM, 

chariieteii/.ei! 

all the )i()iii(s 
:aii Vie duly <>!■ 

fasc ()f the 
Mr. Stanii- 

i.sliuit, at ! 



xivUifii. 



rlcrcntk 
I;:. ISTl'. 

1 till' itrbi- 

m1, and was 
tlM' a;;(mts 

mI that the 

lu> tribiiniil 

the ageutH 



The trihuiial thtMi procccjU'd with tho ••oiisidoiation of tho. ^.^ ^.^ ^^^^ 

(■•.ise (»t' the J'Moiithi. 
The, eoiireience was itdjoHnied ntiri! V'tithiy, the I'.Hii iit.>iai!t, at I 

(♦Vloek in tlie al'ternoon. 

1'"j;i:i)i:ki('k st^Loris. 
.1. ('. r,Ar:('ii()FT day is. 

TKNTKlfDKN, 

A\A']\. VAVlUrV, Srn-rUmi. 



\niO'YOVA)L XII. 

I'roird of tlir procydUujs of the trihtnial of nrhitrotion at thr ttreW.h eon- 
/'frnifi\ held lit di'iifrii, in Sirit:er!a)iil. (>» the W^fh of liili/. 1^72. 

The eonferenee was liehl piiisiiant to adjoiiniiuent. .\1I the aroi- 
Irators ;md tiie aniMil.s of the two .yovciiuneiits were present. 

Tile i>roto('ol of the last eonferenee was read and ai)proved. and was 
.-igned by the |)resident and secretarv of the tribunal and the agents 
oi tlie two jiovenniU'iits. 

Tlie tiil)unal ctiutinued with tlie eonsideration of tlie case ^, ^., . 

Ill • t'l')riilii. 

of the Florida. 

The. tribunal <U'ci(led that tlu' iiKM'tin,i:s should, for the ju'esent, be 
leld on Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednrsdays. Thurschiys, and l''iidays. 

The <'oi!ferene<' tht'ii adjourned until Monday, the ll-d instant, at 
h-.tlf i)ast IL' o'clock. 

l"l{El)KlM<"lv SfLOriS. 

.1. C. J5AN(;K0KT DAVIS. 

TFNTKKDKN. 

ALFX. FAVKOT. AV.r-7«>//. 



i'lJOTOl OL XIII. 

'•''lord of the pnueedinif-s of the trihiiuiil of arnitration at the thirteenth 
eonfcronve, held ot Geneno, in kSirit:etiand, on the I'ld of ■hih/, 1872. 

The coiif(>rence was lichl pursuant to adjoui iimeiit. All the arbitra- 
orsaud the. agents of the two governuMMits were ]>reseut. 

Tl e i)roetocol of the, last eonferenee was read and approved, and 
was signed by the president and sccictary of tlie tribunal, and the, 
agents of the two governments. 

The tiibun.i.l conlimn-d with tin- consideration of (he ease of the, 
-'lorida. 

Sir Alexander ('(►ckbuiii, as one of the arbitratois, proiii>sed to the 
rrilumal under the tifth article of the treaty of Washingtcui, to call tbf 
,he assistance of eounsil u|H)n the etfect of the t<'rin of <,,, a. e,„i,h„rn'. 
•' due diiiijenee" and as t»» the prim-iples of international law !;;;;,?;.;;! '"'ihVTi'^. 
;:]>plicable to the ca;-.i> under the terms of that auicle. '"'"' 

After dtdiberation, a majority of the tiibunal decided that it does not 

it [u-esent require the assistance <»f the agents and counsel upon the, 

toint proposed l»y Sir Alexander <'oekburn; but that it reserves the 

"ight of recpiiring that assistancii ot any point, if lu'icssary, according 

10 ' Ih( ilfth article of the treaty. 






30 



ARIilTKATlON AT GKNEVA. 



I 



The tribunal also decided to eotisider at the next conference the case 
of the Alabama, and the (iue;--tions of "duo diligence,'- and the ett'ect 
of a coniniissiou in coniu^ctiou with that vesae'. 

The conference was adjourned until Thursday, the 2ijth instant, at 
half past 12 o'clock. 

F It El )E PJC K SC; LOPI S. 

J. (J. HANCKOIT U4V1S. 

TENTEI?1>EN. 

ALEX. FAVKOT, Hxretan. 



rilOTOCOL XIV. 



Jieconl of iltr. proceeiJings of the tribnmd of arhitnit'ion at the fourteenth 
confereme, held at Geiieca, in iSicitzerUinil, on the 2bth of Julii, iSl'J. 

The conf 'ren(;e was held pursuant to adjourninent. All the arbitra- 
ArKumrnt oni.rrd tors aiul tlic agcuts of the two governments weie piesent. 
Ktil"/'."! '^.'Imiu!,- The protocol of the last conference was read and ap- 
Mmm«„d.ui,pi,.>i,i pioved, and was sij^ned by the jiresulent and secretary of 
The Ainb;,r.,... \l^^, trlbuTial and the ajieuts of the two governments. 
On the proposal of Daron d'ltajuLa, as one of the arbitral ^'s, the tri- 
bunal decided to re({uire a written or printed statemeiu ->r . iMueut 
from the counsel of (Jreat I»ritain u[>on the lollowing queiKjU ^ ,.< law: 

1. The (juestion of «lue diligence, generiUy cousitleie*! ; 

2. The special (juestion, as to the etlect of the commissions of confed- 
erate ships of war entering I'litish ports ; 

3. The sjx'cial question, as to supplies of coal ia Ciitish ports to con- 
federate ships ; 

With the right t(» the other party to reply either orally or in writing, 
as the case may be. 

IJaron dMtaJubi'i proposed that Avhen a proposition should be made to 

e tribunal, the d.iseussion of that proi)osiuon should always be put of]' 

the next following c(Uiference; which was agreed to. 

The tribunal tlieii proceeded with the case of the Alabanni. 

Tlu': tribunal also (lecided to consider at the lu^xt conference the casi's 
of the Suintci', Xashville, and Chicka manga, suc(!essively. 

Th(! conl'crence was then adjourned until Monihiy, the2'Jth 
half past 12 o'clock. 



th 
to 



instant. 



FKEDEinCK SCLOPI^'. 

,1. {). IJANCKOFT 1)AVI.N. 

TENTEl{l»EN. 

ALEX. FAN'IiOT. Sceretanj. 



at 






.ill 



rilOTOCOLXV. 

Record oj the peocnd'nujs of the till.dnnl of (trhitrafion at the Jifteeiitit 
conferenee, hdd at (Jeiieea^ in ISa'it.:erland, on the '2\)tk of J ;V. '>:72. 

Tuo conference was held i)ursuant to adjcuirnment. All iL. .c. M'.'ff 

itr.t.»h «rii.ipirni tors aud the agents ot the two governments were pr;.-..:'. 

?Nt.il^ifksiJc'b.a: '^1'^' in'otoeol of the last conference was read and ai' 

.■Mi«.. ' proved, and was signed by the }<;"s dent and secretary ot 

the tribunal and the agents of the two g •• ' rmiie,i;t8. 



r,\a 



ice tlie case 
I the ett'ect 

instant, at 

HMS. 

IJAM.S. 
tSxretanj. 



rROTOCOLS OF THE CONFERENCES. 



31 



ic foartrcnth 
ulji, 187li. 

the arbitra- 
rOie present, 
■cad and ap- 
secretary <.»t' 
nients. 
I >vs, the tri- 
•,r ■iimeut 
i.,i: . ... hiw : 

IS ol confcd- 

)ort.s to coM- 

)r in writing. 

1 be made to 
lys be put otV 

a. 

ice the cases 

th instant. ' 

i.OJ^'. 
r DAVli^. 

, Sivrvtaiy. 



Lord Tenderden, ajjent of ITer Britannic IMajesty, announced that lie 
had already delivered to the secretary a written statement or ar<j;iiment 
from the counsel of Her Biitannic Alajesty upon the three questions of 
law required by the tribunal at the i)rece«lin<^ conference. 

The tribunal tiien proceeded with the cases of the vessels the Sumter, 
the Nashville, and the Chickamaufia, as de(;ided at the last meetinjjf. 

The tribunal also decided to consider at the next conference the cases 
of the Olustee or Tallahassee, the Itetribution, and the Tuscaloosa. 

The conference was then adjourned until Tuesday, the oOth instant, 
at half past lli o'clock. 

FliEDEllICK SCLOl'IS. 

J. 0. r.ANCHIOFT JJAVJS. 

TENTKBDEX. 

ALEX. EAVltOT, Scvretani. 



riiOTOCOL XVI. 

Record of th^i procced't nija of the truninal of arhiiralion at the sixteenth con- 
ference, held at Geneva, in Switzerland, on the oOth of July, 187L*. 

The conference was held pursuant to adjournment. All the arbitrators 
and the aji'cnts of the two j>()vernments were pr(!sent. T:,i:.ih.».»ie .w>.i 

a Tiie pr()to(;ol of tin' last conferences was read and a improved, "'"i""'""- 
land was si;;ned by the president and secretary of the tribunal and the 
f afjfents of tlie two j;()v<'rnnients. 

The trilinnal then proceeded with the cases of ihe vessels the Tusca- 
f h)osii, the Tallahassee, and tlu', Ketribution. 

I The uiliunal also decided to dexote the next « onference to receivin,i>' 
ithe wiitten or oral statetntMit or ar>;iiment of th-j counsel of the LTnited 
[States, in reply to the arjiument i>resenU'dat the last ctinference by the 
|c<umsel of Her Ibitannic iMaJesty. 

Tlie conference was then adjourned until Monday, the .">th of Au^iiust, 
I at half [last lU O'clock. 

FREDEinCK S(!L()IMS. 

.1. (!. i;AN(!i:()ET DAVKS. 

TEXTE1U)EN. 

vVLEX. EAVKOT. Serrctarv. 



I'ROTOCOL XVII. 



t the Jifteenth 

t/ ;y. iC4-. 

11 iL. .<v;>'rn' 
were p; - 
read and ap 
secretary e' 



^lierord of the proc<'>d(nffs of the tribune I of arhitrntion ai ihe nervntcenth 
conference, held at Uenera, in ISicitzerlund, on the ~)lk of AMjnst, 1871,'. 

The con^'erence was held pursiiaiit to adjournment. All the arbitrators 
U'd the ajicnts of the two {governments were present. or»i ,r«mn.,nt «i 

The protocol of the last conference was read and approved, "' ''"'"' 
"%«(! was sifrtied by the president and secretary of tlie tribunal and the 
agt-nts of ilio two governments. 

The tribunal proceeded with the hearin}; of the oral ai ^niment by Mr. 
^Ba arts, counsel of the United States, iu reiily tothe arjjfiunent presented 



M 1^. 



32 



AUIUTKATION AT (;K\KVA. 



by Sir lionndell raluioi-, counsel of Ilcr Uritiinnic INIaJe.st.v, ;it the tif- ';( 
tooiitli conicioiu'c. * 

The tribunal tln'-n iKljoiiriicd until Tiirsday, the tUii instant, at half 
past I- o'clock. 

FKKDKRIClv SCLOriW. 

J. C. IJANCIIOFT J)AVLS. 

TENTIOKDJCN. 

ALEX. FA V ROT, Serretari/. 



i»R()Tt)(:oL xvm. 

Fecord of the procoedin^f^n of flic tribuiuil of urhifnifiim at tlif rujUtcenth 
conference, Ifhl at Genera, in iSu-itzerland, on tlieiUh of .h///(^^■^ 1H72. 

The conference was held [)iirsuaut to adjournment. Ail the arbitrators 
and tin- a.^ents of tlie two ^overnnients were i>r(\sent. 
^ v,rt"Tm'i'V'n r, '• Tlic protocol of the last conference was read and ai)i>roved. 
^ ' ""*' and was si;^ned by the president and secretary of the tribu- 

nal niid the a<;ents of the two j;'oYernnients. 

Mr. : 1^' concludiid the oi'al ari^unient on the i)art oi' tUi} counsel of 
the IJnif ites in rei»ly to the argument on liie ])art of the counsel 

of ller ]>rK lic Majesty. 

Mr. Cushiu|[i," delivered to the tribunal a written arjiument on tlu^ part 
of the counsel of the United States in re[»ly to a portion of tln^ argu- 
ment presentetl by the counsel of ller llritiinnic Majesty. 

The tribunal thi-n ;i,djourn<>d until Thursday, the 8th instant, at half 
past lU (('clock, 

I'KFDEIMCK SCLOIMS. 

.1. (J. ]lAxN('J{OFT J>AVIS. 

TENTEKDKN. 

ALEX. I' AY ROT, S>!Cfetarij. 



TROTOCOL XIX. 



i 
,1 






Record of the proeeeiUHijs of the trihnnal of (irhUration at the. nhwtee.nth 
conference, held at Geneva, in SuHt:::erland, on the )S//t of August, 1872. 

The conference was held pursuant to adjoui uuujnt. All the arbitrators 
H,.tr;i„itioi,; .run. ^"1 fhc a,^(Mi1s of tlu' two lufovcm lucu ts were prestuit. 
tMMMtoi Mr. w;.iu fpi,^. pioto(H)l of the last conference was read and approved, 
and was sijjued by the president and .secretary of the tribunal and the 
ai^ents of the two .governments. 
The tribunal concluded the e.vamiiuition of the case of tlui Retributiou. 
Mr. Waite <leliv<>red to the tribunal a written argument on the part 
of the counsel of the lJnit(Hl States, in re])ly to a portion of the argu- 
ment i>iesented by the <;ounsel of Her !>ritanuic Majesty. 

'. !io tribunal then a«ljourued until Wednesday, the 11th instant, at 
half past 12 o'clock. 

EREDEIilCK SCLOIMS. 

J. C. liANCItOKT DAVIS. 

TENTEUDEN. 

AliEX. FAVROT, Heoretary. 



PROTOCOLS OF THE CONFEKEr' ES. 



33 



;ty, ;it the, lif- 
slant, at liall' 

Loris. 

r DAVIS. 

\ Si'rrntari/. 



the ei()ht('ii»th 

he arbitrators 
])n\sciit. 
iinl approvedj 
V of the tnbu- 

the eoniisel of 
)t' the eouDsel 

it oil th«^ part 
I of the aigu- 

staiit, at half 

Loris. 

T ])AVIS. 



\lu; ninetrenth 
\igu^t^ 187U. 

]e arbitrators 
IrentMit. 
lul approved, 
liiial and the 

lUetributioii. 
I on the part 
[)f the argu 

li instant, at 

loiMS. 
DAVIS. 

\;^e.i'.retary. 



TROTOCOL XX. 

Feconl of the proeeedhu/n of the trihumd of arhitnifioit at the fireiitieth 
conference, held at Genera, in ISwttzerland, on the \Uh of Au(/u.st, ISTi*. 

» 
The eonferenca was held pnrsnant to adjoiirninent. AW the arbitrators 
and the a.nents of the two goverinnents wen^ jiresent. 
MnM.","',;!,'* IT iV. The protocol of the last confereu ce was read and aitproved, 
•'"• and was signed by the president and secretary of the tri- 

bunal and the agents of the two governnients. 

Mr. Bancroft Davis, in reply to an in(xuiry from Count Sclopis on 
behalf of the tribunal, state(^ as follows : 

Till' claims for Iohsch jjrt)wiii>^- out of Mie' acts of the S;illii', tin- Jeff. Davis, tlui Music, 
tlic Uosioii, and the V. II. Joy, arc icspectfiilly subiiiitted for the (letcniiination of the 
ti'ihniial. 

Tlic aji'cnt of the United Stater, has no instructions resiU'dinj; them, excciit what 
appears Ml the list of claims itresentetl on tue l.')th of Decemlier last, and in tlie levised 
list of claims presented on the ir)th of Ajiril last. 

The tribunal directed this stat<Mnent to be recorded, and passed to the 
consideration of the question of "due diligence," generally considered. 
Tiie conference was adjourned until Thursday, tlie 15tli instant, at 
half past 12 o'clock. 

FREDEIUCK SCLOJ^I.-^. 

J. C. JJANCHOFT DAVIS. 

TEXTl^:i{DKX. 

ALEX. FA\'JiOT, ^Secreturij. 



Kll' It i.l , ..liimi''- 
.sif>n.^ : new e\ nl''lic« 
aulinutli'il liy (i. II. 



PROTOCOL XX r. 

Eeeord of tlie proccdinfis of the trilninal of arbitration at the twenti/firHt 
conference, held at Genera, in Siclt;:erland, on the ITith of Auffunt, ISTi*. 

The conference was held luirsuant to adjournment. All the arbi- 

tratiators and the agents of the two governnients were 

present. 
The protocol of the last conference was read and approved, and was 

signed by the president and secretary of the tribunal and tlie agents of 

the two governments. 
^. The tribunal proceeded to consider the effects of the commissions of 
^confederate ships of war entering Jjritish ports, and tlie siip])lies of 
&oal in Jiritish ports to confederate ships. 
;| Lord Tenterden, as agent of Her JJritannic ^Nfa, 
Iffollowing statement : 

•:| As tli'! trihnnal is now approachinjx the consideration of tin; easo of tiie (<Vor,ni:i, I 
^jlitjj; resiu'ctfnlly to submit that in the arfiumeiit of the I'nited States, with respect to 
'%liiit vessel, (pa}j;e8^24,'i'2r),) it is (for the first time) sn{rj;ested that the ISritisii j;overii- 
iiieiit <iui;iit to have intbrmed themselves, by imjuiry, what shijis were beinj; built in 
rebruitry, 18(l;5, for tiie Emperor of Ciiina ; and certain inferences appear t<» in' drawn 
from the (assumed) fact that tln^y onutted to do so. 

Ill coiise(iucnce of tliis unforeseen HUjj^ffestion, documents have become niati rial, 

rliicli did not apjiear ti> be set, when the appendices to the Ihitish case and couiiter- 

ase were prepared, and which were, therefore, not included in those appendices. 'l"o 

hu idate tiiis point, I have now in my possession, and am desirous of deliverinj;' to the 

[arbitrators, coi»it!S of four letters: 

No. 1. From Mr. Haminon<l to Mr. Lay, the agent of the Emperor of China, dated 

?th Feluuary, lHb',{, (in which tht^ in([uiry, which the I'liited States suggest as proper 

have been made, was actually made by Earl Kussell's direction ;) 



ijesty, submitted the 



' Ai ' -mjiiiiiu 



34 



AUHITKATION AT GENEVA. 



No. '2. Viom Mr. Lay to Mr. Hannuond, dated 2d Marcli, IrtfiH, (comninnicatinj^ the 
iiit'oriiiati.ui d<-siri'd;) 

No. :?. I'lMiii Karl Ifnsscll to Mr. Adams, dated ,^)tli Maroli, 18C3, (coininunicatiiig to 
Mr. Adams tlu^ :!!*".irmatioii so oldaiiicd from Mr. Lay;) and 

No. 4. From Mr. Adams to Earl IJnssell, datwl lltli March, 180.3, (acknowledgitijjc 
the reccii)tol' No. !{.) % 

Mr. Bancroft DavLs, ns agent of the United States, stated in reply : 

T have cxaiiiiiii'd th(! htti is wliich liord Teiitcnh'ii wislies to i»res(!nt. Tlioy appear 
to eontain iiothiiiff which \vc re<jard as important, in thcmsi-lves; Imt wo can find no 
:inthority in the treaty authojiziiifj the tribunal cither to call for or to admit imw evi- 
dence from eitiicr parly at this staj-cof the proceediny;s. I must leave the tribnnal to act 
njion the application as in its Jud<;ineiit it may slc tit. 

The tribunal deeided to receive the letters from Lord Tenterden, who 
thereupon presented them. 

The tribunal also decided to consider the case of the Georgia at the 
next meeting. 

The conference was then adjourned until Friday, the 10th instant, at 
12 o'clock. 

FREDlOIiICK SCLOPIS. 

j. c. ba^ck01 t davis. 
tentp:iu)en. 

ALEX. FAVKOT, Secretary. 



PKOTOCOL XX IL 

Record of ihe procecdhuifi of the trihnnal of arbitration at the twenty-sec- 
ond conference, held at Genera, in ISicit.::erland, on the Idth of Auyunt, 
I.S72. 

The conference was held iiursuant to adjournment. AH the arbi- 
trators and the agents of the two governments were prcKseiit. 

The protocol of the last conference was read and approved, and was 
signed by the president and secretary of the tribunal and the agents of 
tiie two governments. 
The(i,,rsin, Tlic tribuual considered the case of the Georgia. 

The tribunal decided to proceed with the consideration of the case of 
the Shenandoah at the next meeting. 

The conference was adjourned until Monday, the 10th instant, at half- 
past 12 o'clock. 

FREDERICK SCLOPIS. 

J. 0. liANCKOFT DAVIS. 

TENTERDEN. 

ALEX. FAVROT, Secretary. 



liff 



PROTOCOL XXIII. 



accord (f the proceedings of the tribunal of arbitration at the twenty- 
third conference, held at Geneva, in Switzerland, on the 19th of August, 

1872. 

The conference was held pur.suant to adjournment. All the arbi- 
trators and the agents of the two governments were present. 

The })rot()col of the last conference was read and approved, and was 
signed by the president and secretary of the tribunal and the agents of 
the two governments. 



PROTOCOLS OF THE CONFEKEXCES. 



35 



eating the 
licating to 
nowlcdgiiiji 

ti reply •. 

'h(!y iippear 
can tin«l no 
lit nt'Av evi- 
Vmnal to act 

rdeu, who 

'cia at the 

instant, at 

)PIS. 
DAVIS. 

Secretary. 



3 twenty -sec- 

of AlKJU^t. 

\\ the arbi- 

!(1, and was 

[e agents of 



the case of 
uit, at half- 

loris. 

DAVIS. 

Secretary. 



the twenty- 
of Augtisi, 

il the arbi- 

fcd, and was 
\e agents of 



The tribunal considered the case of the Shenandoah. si,t..nn.io,i, : n..>v 

Connt Sclopis having expressed some doubts concerning .h.^.m.. 
the chief point of this discussion, requested the tribunal to permit the 
counsel to attbrd further elncid.ition with regard to that point. 

The tribunal decided to hear these explanations at the next con- 
ference. 

In com])liance with a recpiest of the tribunal, ^Ir..T.C.IJaiicroftDr»vis, 
as agent of the United States, and Lord Tenterden, as agent of Her 
Uritannic ]M}iJesty, resi)ectively, presented to the tribunal tables of 
ligures relating to tlie losses for which comi)ensation is claimed by the 
United States, with explanatory statements and ohservations. 

The conference was adjourned until Wednesday, the L'lst instant, at 
half-past 12 o'clock. 

FREDERICK SCU>l'IS. 
J. C. l)AN(M{OFT DA VIS- 
TENTER DEN. 
ALEX. FAVKOT, Sccretanj. 



Sht;nruiili)^4h : n 
eiHiiftit (iidtTMii 11 
.'If.-, I. if t|i,-f,ifrv ■ 
Klotid.1 into Moliitc 



PKOTOOOL XXIV. 

Record of the proceed! nffn of the tribunal of arbitration at the twenty fourth 
conference, held at Geneva, in Switzerland, on the 2hst of August, 1872. 

The conference was held pursuant to adjournment. All the arbitral- 
tors and the agents of the two governments were {tresent. 

Tiie protocol of tlie last conference was read and ap|)roved, 
and was signed by the i)resident and se(!retary of the trihu- 
lial and the agents of the two governments. 

The tribunal continued the considtu'ation of the case of the Shenan- 
doah, by hearing explanations from Sir Koundell Palmer and Mr. C. 
Cashing. 

At the close of his remarks, Mr. C. Gushing requested to be informed 
"by the triltunal whether the (piestions outside «>f that of enlistment, 
on which the elucidation called for specially turned, remain oi)en betoro 
the tribunal. 

After deliberation, a majority of four to one declared the tribuna<l 
Sntliciently enlightened. 

Count Sclopis then concluded the statement of his opinions, which he 
had not completed at the meeting of the 10th instant. 

Sir Alexander Cockburn, as one of the arbitrators, then ])roposed to 
the tribunal to require further elucidation by counsel upon the follow- 
^ig question : 

: The lej^al eftect, if any, of tlie fact that the Florida, after loaviiis the Bahamas, did, 
pfore entering on her employment as a vessel of war and talviiij;' any V(!ssel of the 
pited Slates, go into Mobile, a confederate port, and after a delay ot" fonr months, 

oce(;d from Ihenco on her crnise against the shipping of the United States, under tho 

rcuinstauces appearing in the evidence. 

[The tribunal decided to adopt the proposfil. 

The conference was then adjourned until Friday, the 23d instant, at 
Slfpast 12 o'clock. 

FREDERICK SCLOPIS. 

J. C. BANCROFT DAVIS. 

TENTERDEN. 

ALEX. FAVROT, Secretary. 



3G 



; I 



« 



I :^ 



11 



AKBITKATION AT GENEVA. 
rilOTOCOL XXV. 



I.oril Tcn.l. nl.-nV 
jttilU'UMMlt hImmii t ■ 
Idrs lircJiHiit'*"! I'V 
Mr. |)tivi-> ; II r M 11 

tlll'IltH II ?* to KI'lMil,! 

fiimlry i!'*(i.-«iitfi^. 



Record of the proceefl!nf/s of the iribimal of arhltratUm at the twentjififth 
conference, held at Genera, in tSuJitzerland, on the "S-id of August, 1872. 

The confcrciico was liold l)nrsn{iiit to adjonrnuieiit. All tlic arbitra- 
tors ami tlio ajjicnts of the two jiovt'riiiiu'iit.s were present. 

Tiie i)rotoi'ol of the last coiiierence was read and approved, 
and was signed by the i)resident and secretary of the trib- 
unal and theaj>ents of the two governments. 

Lord Tenterden, as agent of Her J3ritannic Majesty, read the following 
statement: 

Am iip'iit oClltr I!iitaiiiiio Maji'sty, I liiivo tlio honor rosiiectfiiUy to represent to tlio 
tribniiiil tliat tlic tallies of claiiiis wliicli were. i>ro forma presented to tliti arbitrators by 
the aj^ent of the Tiiited States ())i Monday, IDtli instant, but of wliieh I was only fur- 
nishe<l with copies on the nij^ht of the '21st instant, contain new and additional claims 
of th<! follo\\in;i description. 

1. a. Claims for wa^re^ of crews of captured vessels from time of capture. 

b. Claims for loss of personal etl'eets of ollicers and crews. 

There is no evidence as to the number of the crews, nor as to the lon<j and varyiufj pe- 
riods for which their wa<;es are calculated, nor as to any such personal etlccts havinfi; 
been in fact hist. 

In short, tlies(! claims are whtdly conjectural in amount and unsupported by any 
evidence wliatsctver. 

1i. Additional cliiims for shares of vessels not claimed for nptothe present time, c. (7. : 
where an individual clainnint has only claimed for four-fifths of the vahui of a vessel, 
an arbitrary claim is now advanced for the first time on the jiart of tlie United States 
Government for the value of the remaining? fifth. 

It is not allejicd I liat the part owner who had not previously claimed has now given 
any authority for this claim to be advanced. The stronj; i)resumption indeed is that 
he'niay liave already received the value of his share from )-hii;lisl( or other foreign 
insurance companies, with \\ lioni it was insured, and who are not entitled under the 
treaty to advance any claim. 

;$. iLIlaims )ireviously presented have been increased in .amount without any ground 
appearing for such increas«s 

Vhv total amount of tlies<^ three classes of claims, which are now for the first time 
advanced on tin ]iart of flic I'uited States (Joverument, appears, in round numbers, to 
be at )e;ist two millions of dolhws. 

ludeiiendently of the fuel tliat these additioiial claims are uusup|»ortr(l by any evi- 
dence, it is my (iuty lespectfuUy to snbuut to the tribunal that the additioiial statement 
of any new claims whatever, in this stage of the arbitration, for the jinrpost^ of influ- 
encing or afl'cciing the judgment of the tribunal upon any matter within its authority, 
is contrary to the judvisions of the treaty. 

'J'he ti'caty contemplates that tlw statements of facts and evidence, constituting the 
whole case of each party, should be brought before the tribunal within the times and 
in the manner speeilied in Aiti<'les I?, 4 and 5, subject only to such further statements 
or arguments as inider Article ."> the arbitrators may think fit to iciiuire or permit for 
the elucid.'itiini ofany point contained in, or arising out of, the docunu'Uts previously 
put in by either party. 

I Imve also to sulnnit that the introduction of such additional claims is not author- 
ized by the I'dpiest made by the arbitrators. 

Tiiis re(|uest was that comparative statements of the results in figures of the claims 
already nuule, as apjiearing in the papers iirevionsly jiresented, according to the views 
of the respective jtarties, slumld be prepared, with explanatiuy observations, and laid 
beforethe tribunal, and it could not h.'ive been intended to afford the opportunity 
for bringing forward new, or increasing former, claims. 

Under tliesi' eirciimstaiices, I respectfully re(piest the arbitrators to disallow, as 
unauthorized by them, and as contrary to the treaty, the tables containing such addi- 
tioual.claims, presented by the iigeut of the United States, and the memoiandum re- 
hitiijg to them, without ])r(judice to his right to present other tables, accomj)anied by 
any e.\i»lanatoiy observations, wliich shall be limited to the particular claims iilready 
set i'orth in the case and counter-case of the United States, and the appendices thereto. 

The tribunal decided to adjourn the consideration of this matter until 
the next conference. 

Sir Itoundell I'almer, as counsel of Her Britannic Majesty, then read 
the. argument required by the tribunal on Sir Alexander Cockburu's 






'W 



PROTOCOLS OF THE COXrEHEXCES. 



37 



u'cni}ij\ftli 
Hit, 18712. 

10 arbitra- 
prescnt. 
approved, 
»t' the trib- 

e following 

resent to the 
rhitrutora l>y 
kiis only fur- 
tional chiinis 

e. 

(1 varying pe- 
jllects Imving 

ortecl by any 

iMit tunc, e.g. : 
le of ii vessel, 
United States 

liis now given 

indeed is that 

other foreign 

led under tlio 

t any gronnd 

the tirst time 
il numbers, to 

|l liy any evi- 
tiiil statement 

|i|i()se ofinlln- 
itw authority, 

istitnting the 

Ithe times and 

•r statements 

or jiermit for 

Its previously 

lis not author- 

|of the claims 
to the views 

|ons, and laid 
opportunity 

disallow, as 
Jug such addi- 
Inorandum re- 
loiupanied by 
llaims already 
Idieert thereto. 

liatter until 



:, then road 
ICockburu's 



])r()posal, upon tho «piostion of law niontionod in I'rococol XXIV, and 
Mr. I'iVarts, as otmnsol of the United States, replied to it. 

On the projK)sal of Viscount (fitajiiba, one of tlie arbitrators, the 
tribunal decided to adjourn until the next <'onterence tln^ further dis- 
cussion upon the Florida, and to proceed with the delinitivi^ vote on 
each vessel separately. 

Tiu^ tribunal then d«'cided that it had to con.sider only such vessels 
witii rojLjai'd to wiiich claims were presented in the case and coiniter-case 
of the United States; every other (pu'stion \w'u\<^ conse(|uently under- 
stood as dismissed from consideratuui. 

Count Sclopis, as president of the trilmnal, having- read the Article 
Vll of the Treaty of Washington, asked the tribunal whether, as to the 
Sumter, (heat JJritain has, by any act or omission, failed to fulfill any of 
the duties set forth in the three rules mentioned in Article VI of tho 
treaty, or recogiii/ed by the principles of international law, not .incon- 
sistent with such rules. 

Tho tribunal umiinmously replied '' No." 

The .sanu> question was asked as to tho Nashville, and the tribunal 
unanimously replied "Xo." 

The same question was renewed as to the Retribution. 

Mr. Adams answered "Yes, for all the acts of this vessel." 

Mr. Sta'uiptli answered "Yes, as to the loss of the lOmily Fisher." 

Sir Alexander Cockburn, Viscount d'ltajuba, and (Jount Sclopis an- 
swered " No." 

The sanu' question Avas aske<l as to the Georgia, and the tribunal 
unanimously answered " No." 

The same question was repefited as to the Tallahassee and Uhicka- 
Tuauga, separately, and the tribunal unanimously answered "No" for 
each of these vessels. 

The same (piestion having been repeated as to the Alabama, the tri- 
bunal unanimously answered " Yes." 

The sanu^ question was renewed as to the Shenandoah, and Mr. Adams, 
3[r. Sta'mi)Hi, and Count Sclopis answered "Yes; but oidy for the acts 
committed by this vessel after her dei)arture from .Melbourne on the 
l.Sth of February, 1805." Viscount d'ltajuba and Sir Alexander Cock- 
burn answere<l " No." 

The delinitive vote on the Florida was adjourned until the next meet- 
ing. 

The conrerence was then adjourned until ^londay, tho 120th instant, 
at half past J 2 o'clock. 

FREDERICK SCLOPIS. 
J. C. IJANCKOFT DAVIS. 
TENTER DEN. 
ALEX. FAVROT, Secretary. 



PROTOCOL XXVI. 

Eecord of the proceedings of the tribunal of arbitration at the twenty-six 

Geneva in ISwitzerlandj OH 2l)th of Anyust, iS12. 



conference held at 

The conference was held pursuant to adjournment. All the arbitra 
tors and tho agents of the two governments were present. 

The protocol of the last conference was read and approved, 
and was signed by the president and secretary of the tribu- 
nal and the agents of the two governments. 



th 



1. o r d Tenter, e 
prfHcriti* new labltM 
S 11 II d r y di-rifiiuti-'. 
.Mr. I>:iviM rfpli"'-* tn 
Lord Tenterden'.- re- 
mark!' on the Anier- 
ieaii titbtL'H. 



38 



AHHITKATION AT GENEVA. 



, 



Lord Tcntonlcii, ns ii{;t'iit of I Tor IJritaiiiiic Alajosty, delivered to the 
tribuiiiU iiiid the a^cnt of the United States tahh's of fi<;nreH rehitiiif? 
t" tlie elaiiiis contained in the tables presented on the part of the 
United States on the l!>th instant. 

The tribunal eoneliidcid the discussion of the question concerniufjthe 
entraiicu^ of the Florida into Mobile, and her stay at that port, anil pro- 
ceeded to the detinitive vote on this vessel. 

('ouiit Sclopis, as i)resident of the tribunal, havinj>- asked, undei the 
Vll article of the treaty of Washiiif'tou, whether, as to the Florida, 
(rreat IJritain had, by any act or omission, failed to fulfil any of the du- 
ties set foith in the rules mentioned in Article VI of the treaty, or re- 
co};nized by the prim;iples of international law not inconsistent with 
such rules, Mr. Adams, Viscount d'ltajuba, M. StuMupHi, and Count 
Sdopis answered "Yes, " and Sir Alexander Cockburn answered "No." 

As a (pu'stion of i)riiu!iple, the tribunal then unatamously declared 
that (Jreat Jiritain should be considered as responsible for the tenders 
in the same degree as for the vessels to which they were attached. 

The same (piestion as had been put with re<»ard to the Florida, was 
next asked by Count Sclopis as to the Tuscaloosa, a tender to the Ala- 
bama, and the tribunal unanimously answered "Yes." 

The same (pu\stion was asked separately as to the Clarence, the Ta- 
cony, an«l the Archer, as tenders to the Florida, and Mr. Adams, Mr. 
Sta'mpHi, \'iseount d'ltajuba, and Count Sclopis answered " Yes," for 
each of these vessels, and Sir Alexander Cockburn answered "No" for 
each of these vessels. 

The tribunal then proceeded to the consideration of the representa- 
tion made by the agent of Jler Britannic Majesty, at the last confer- 
ence. 

3Ir. J. C. IJaucroft Davis, as agent of the United States, read the fol- 
lowing statement in reply: 

L'lificiit (le sii Majostf^ biitanniiiuo a pr<^sojit(' an tiibmial un moinoraiuluin dcstiiK^ 
k ciiti(iiicr Ic if'siuiK^ dcs iiidoniiiitoH (leiiiaiidocH jiivr Itin l^tafH-Uiii.s, et <laiis le<iiioJ lo 
trildinal i-st pri*" do reniottrc ft; ji'muiiio a I'aj^cnt doH fitats-lliiis coiiiiiK' non avt'im. 

L'afjcut <U'8 fitats-Uiiis souticiiti icspoctiiousiMiiout c|Uo son rcsuiiu^ est parfaitoinoiit 
oil li'grlc vt oil tout conforme aux droits des fitats-Unis aussi bieii qu'i\ la demaude i)ai- 
ticnlif'ic dii tribunal. 

1. l^es objections do I'a^jent do sa Majcsto biitanuique portent snr les points suivants: 

a) Les gages des dquipages des uavires captures par les vaisseaux arnids des confo'- 
dores ; 

h) iA'H pertes dos porsonnes do ces <^qnipages, tant ofTQciors quo niatolots ; 
c) Des partiep indivisi^es d'un navire (jui ne paraisseiit pas expresscment dans les 
a bleaux originaux ; 
rf) Augmentation pretendue du inoutant total des rt^clainations. 

2. E'agent do sa Maji-st*^ britaunique objocte aussi : 
n) En niatiens do tbrnio ; 

b) En luatiire do competence. 

Nous r(^poudrons wriatim h toutes ccs objections: 

I. Quant a la Ibrnie, il est evident que les arbitres, pour fticiliter leurs investigations, 
out desire avoir sous les yenx nn abrcg(?coniparatif do et! (|ue les fitats-Unisroelauient 
et do la critique do ees reclamations par I'Aiigleterro, critique portaut snr les cliiffres 
jinssi bion quo sur les chefs des reclamations. Cos resumes fa'ifs par les deux parties 
ne lient d'aneunc maniero les arbitres: co sunt tout siuqilement des renseigueinents 
]U()i)res a guider lo t; ibunal a travers la masse do cbiflVes et do details renferuit^s dans 
les memoires et les pieces justiiicatives des deux goiivernemeuts. 

L'agont do sa Majesty britannique prt^tond <iue les I^tats-llnis' doivent calquor lour 
resunu^ snr lo modelo du r<^8ume do I'Angleterre, uon-seuleuu'ut cjuant a la forme, nuiis 
aussi (juant an fond. C'est-a-diro que, s'il i»lalt a l'Anglet(Mro d'omettro dans son y6- 
ynmo tjuebiue chef do reclamations, I'Amerique doit aussi I'omettre. Co serait une 
etrango table synoptitjue. 

La raison reqniertl'oxplicationdos dift'drcnces qui existent ontre les chift'resdechatiuo 
chef de reclamations. Mais elle requiert anssil'explication des differences qui existent 
eutre les chefs m^nica des reclamations. Sans cela, I'Angleterre u'aurait qu'a supprimer 



rROTOCOLS OF TFIK COXFKRKXCKS. 



30 



(l(>stin(5 
■quel lo 

•t-mi. 
■mont 

lie pai- 

ivauts: 



lans lc8 



iratioUR, 

jlaitH'ut 
chittrea 

iKiinents 
i\6n dana 

uer l«inr 

no, niais 

aon 16- 

lait uiio 

! cliaqiu) 
exipteut 
ippviiiier 



dans Hoii rf^siuiu'' li> (jliof dcs asHiiranncs, on celiii ilcs (VcfH, 011 rcliii d'nn iiavirt- (iiu'lcoii- 
(|iif, jiDiir soiistraire ce clit-l'a la ('(niiiaissiiiici' divs ail)itrfs. (.'t.« iic si-rait |»as Ic iiii>yt'ii 
di' ifiisfi^jni'r 1(! liilniiiid, mai.i jiliiMt ci'liii dn In troinpcr. lliii^ telle idi'c a Pair d'um' 
liiaisaiitcilo, (it iiiillt'iiit'iit d'uiK! (lUJcctimi si'iiciisc an taldeaii den I^tats-I'iiis. 

lit' tiiliuiial tixaiiiiiifia li s n'siiiacs dcs di-iix fioiivcriieiiiciitH. A la ImiiitTf dc ct^s 
n'.suiiK's, li» tribunal oxaiiiintTa tons Ics docimn'Mts rclatifr* conipris dans Ics moinoires 
et (KHitrc-nn'Miolros d«!s deux ^jouvi'incnicnts. Cent lo droit ct c'ost li'ili'voir dc cliaitut* 
jlouviTnennMit dc soiuncttro an trihniial Ics prcnvcs rcsiicctivcs sans ret nincliuincnt 
d'nn cAtf' ist sans suppression dc I'antrc. Alors lo tiil)nuai.jn;,'era. 

II. l^iumt a la conipetcn(iC : 

«) Le tViihi' comitreinl tdidt'H Ich nrhunatioiiH den lilalx-UniH qui Html (h'^'Kiiu'iH hokh 1c 
uom irnuritiitc (If m:luiniiHonn dc I'.llnlxinia. 

h) Le tribunal, par sou opinion preliniinaire, a liniile la ^jcuoralite rle ces mots, en 
ecartaiit des rc^cdainations certaines i)ertes nationales allc;.tn<'M's par Ics fitats-IJnis. 

Mais, a la suite do cetto o|>ini(Mi. le tribunal reste saisi dc la (|nestiou dc tontes les 
nnlainatlonM t'aites jtar les Elats-l'nis tlans Tinterct des individus li'si's, et comprises 
sons I>' noni g;cnci'i(|ne dc I'eelaniations dt; I'Alabania. 

Les jiertes des otlieicrs, (>t en ;^t''iicral dcs e(|nipa<je.s des iiavin^s (captures, nc sont [las 
inoins viilables ([no c(dles des arnniteurs et des assureurs. Lo douto est impossible a 
eet <'>}jard. 

(■) Des n^fdaniationa pour les pertoa pcrsonuellcs des (^(juipaj^es desnavircs capture's 
soiit tbrniulees do la uianiL'ro la plus cxplieito ilauslo UKhiioiro dcs fltats-ruis, coninio 
suit: 

" Ui'clannitions por.r dommajres on numvais traiteuunts inlli^es aux personnes. et 
f)ui out 6{(- lo r(;Hultat do la destruction des vaisseaux appartouant, aux deux classes 

pn'cc'doiitus. 

it # # fr # # # 

"II est impossible a prc^seut pour les f!tats-ITnis de souniettre au tribunal un (^tat 
d('taill<'' des donima^^ea ou mauvais traitements personncds (jui sont r(''snlt(^ de la de- 
struetion do eha([ue classc dv vaisseaux. Les ot'tieiers (!t rt'(iiiipai;e de cliaiinii vaissean 
avaient droit a la protection du drapeau anidrieain; leura n'olamations doivent ('tro 
ineluscs dans la soinme totale ((ue le tribunal pent alloner. U'ajtrcs lt!s (^b'Mucnts d'ap- 
preciatiou (ini leur sont lonrnis, il no sera ]»as difdcib! aiix arbitres de eonnaifrt^ les 
iKuns et lo touinij^e des biltimonts cbHruits, do (h- terminer le nombre de ces liardis ina- 
rins sans ressources (pii ontt'tt'^ priv(^s ainsi do lours inoyons de subsisteneo et de lixcr 
la soiniue totalo ipii <io ci; cliefdevraite'itre placei^ dans les mains (h^s fitats-Unis. Kilo 
no pent pas (Hre iulVMiiiurei a dcs ciMitaincs do mille dollars et olio pout s'('lcvcr a des 
uiillions. (Traduction tVanvaise, pp. I!??,!???^.) 

rf) Nous prion.s les arbitres de lire ces (!Xtraits attentiv(!niont. lis verrout quo les 
l^tats-Uuis out prdsente Itjs reclamations do cetto elasse do la manlcre la plus claiie et 
la jilus positive, coniuio un cluit' capital (lesindeninitt'sdoniand(''es a laGraudc-Bretajjin;. 

N(uis a.joutoiis ([uo c(s sont d<!s reclamations n'-dlcs et mc-rittics. 

L'ineortitudo du chittVc no unit pas a sa r(u-laniatiou. 

Nous anrous plus tard (piebint^ cbosc, a din; a ce su.jet. 

e) Les portes d'oft'ots, soit d'otUciors, soit do luatelots, sont expressfSment r^citt^es dans 
plusieurs cas. Dana les ...tres, ct!s portos sont estimoos d'aprtis lo chift'ro des pertes 
actnelleniont exprimdes. 

Quant aux S"S''** ^^ '"i cliilVre des (■(inii)a<;;es, nous avons essayed do rassembler tons 
les ronsei<;nemeuts possibles, ot nos (wtiniations sont fondi-es sur les faits dtn'ebqjpf^s 
dans les pi(>cos justilicatives. 

Nous distin^juons entro les f^ages dcs (M[uipaj5es do^' baleiniers et ceux des navires 
marcliauds propremeufc dits. 

Pour les (l(Uix classes do uaviies l(>s f;a<j;es cut etei perdus, ou par Ics armateurs (jui 
les avaient pay(5s, ou pour les I'quipa.i^cs (pii ne les avaient pas re(;.us. 

Pour les baleiniers, la porte(''fait plus siM'icusc, pare:; ([ue dans !•> plupart des cas le 
niontant des f^a^es so iixait, en tout ou (mi partie, sidon Ics btSit^l' • s, "t les familh^s des 
luatelots rec«}vaient do rarmateur mm partio notable de cos gaj^v..; icjiidant K; tt!iui)s du 
voyagti. 

D.ius cos cas, l(^s matelots des baleiuiiu's avaient ^U' vi(;tinios dos I'rais (li;s six ou 
uenfprenuers luois d'uii voyage, on aitiiinlant les bi'at^lices qui devraiout ('tre n>vu8 
dans les trois mois i\ vonir. 

Do deux Glioses rune; pour iudemuisor ces gens, il faut lour alloner, ou des b(^ndfice8 
cu porsi»ective, ou des gages so rapi)ortaut :\ ces iM^ni^tices. 

Pour les uavires inarchands, il pent se fairo ([uo la (luestion des gages des niattdots 
soit compli(iiu!o dt3 hKiuestion dcs frets. Eii supposant tpie les iudomuites domaii(I(5e8 
sous lo chet'de fret soiont, commo nous lo croyons, les pertes actuidles des armateurs 
danscotte relation, il s'ousnifc (juo nous avons droit a ("'tre indoiuuisds pour les gages. 

Pour la plupart des navires, lea Etats-Unis i/sclament sous lo noiii de gages la perto 
(In temps des iuatel()ts,aussi bieu que les frais de Icur transitortdu lieu dc capture aux 
lioux rospectifs de leur residence liabituelle ; ot sous co cUitf nous allouous des gages 



;■•:- ■:>: 






ii il 



\i 



■ 'a 


1:1 


. 1 


.'.j 


liJil 



40 



AKIilTKATloN AT GKN'KVA. 



(liiiiiiil. six iiioin on ilnraiit, m-iir iiinis, si'loii <|iii' In cnptiuc ii i-tr fiiitu iliiiis Ics cuiix do 
1'Atlinilii|iii' oil bicii (Imiih ct'llis dii I'imIIIiimc. 

I'ji clVi't. iKiiiH doiMiDiis <li's ni'W'"* iloiiMi's, ]M'iHliiiit ti'ois iiiois pDiu' Ic iirciiiiiT van (it 
IMMHliiiit (|iiiitrt' iiKiis ft dt'iiii piiiir lt> MccorHl <'iih. (/ii(ii(|iir (■cci im Hoit (iii'iiiii^ tNstiinii- 
tioii, If iv.snllat est iiii-dcssKiis dc lii V(''iilr pliitot (|ii'iiii-d('.s,siif<. 

Ndiih iivdiis cstiiiK' If tdiillVi' df l'('i|iii|i:i;;r dc cliiiiini' iijivii'f coiifDi'iiii'iiiiMit aux 
ddiiiifi's iiu'oii IroMVf dans mis |»iciM!s jiisiilicativcs, i-n ilisfiiictioii dii chitlri' di's Italid- 
uiiTs, i|iii hfcfssitcnt iin plus inland nondirn d'lioniini's ijiir It's navirfs niandiaiitls. 

III. I. IS l^tats-lJnis ic'diinifnt, \)o\\v toiili's Ics paitics iiidivisccs d'liii niivirc, sidt: ((iio 
Ic |ii'(i|ii'ii''lain' d'nm^ )>artii> niini'iint (|iii'Ii;imii|iic iiaiaissc nn non, ])ai'(;(> i[iM li'S r.tats- 
I'lMs aiii'diit i'l n-poiidri- a tniis li's pnipiii'taircs dans lo (^as oil Ir triliiinal ac.coidiu'ait 
en Idoc Miic solium' anx I'^tats-I'nis. Sans ccla, il y auiait injiisticc fvidoiito, L'(d»jt't 
dn traiti' rst, d'indciiiiiisi-r lis rUats-lInisponr tonics Ics pinti's snl>icsi>ar lours citoytsiiM, 
I't non d'iinposoi' nnc particdc ccfti\ imicinnillcatioii anx l^tats-lJnis ciix-nir'iiii's. 

IV. I 'auciit d»! sa -Nlajcstii lii'itaniiii|nc rdijccto ipic nous avons aii^incnto lo moiitaiit 
dcs I'ci-laination.s en ajontant Ics cIiUVk's apiiartcnaiit aux tiois diet's siiivants : 

(iaK»'s S'.KJi), r.!)7 

Klicts , 44 1, (>r)0 

Inti'icts indivisc.s 4'.i, y7;{ 

1,4-J2,0'2() 



II s'aj;it do iiioiiis d'nn million ot domi, ot non dcs deux niillions allf^giids daiiH lo 
incmoramlnni do I'a^icnt ilc sa Majcsti- l)iitannii|nc. 

11 est \ lai do dire qiTil y a tU- pins line addition a la valeiii' do eertains iiavires. C'e.st 
line ineprise dc I'exiieit einjdoyi' dans Ics calcnls relat it's a ccs navires. (Jetto erreiu' est 
expliiliit'c e! coiri^t'c dans line note |ila<'(''c a la suite do ee nieinorandiim. 

Mais, en nicino temps, muis avons mis de cote Ics ri'clamatiomi Ibiidt'cs sur de.s bdud- 
liceH en iicispeetive, i|iii est Ic doiildo «le.s additions faites. 

V. I'liilin, ct ponr lesnnicr ledi'ltat : 

L'Aiicletcrie ji <'oinpo.s(' nn taldean, non dcs i'aits actuols, luais tout d'estiiiiations, 
d'aiijirc'iiaiions ot do moyeniics arliitraircs et siippost-cs. 

Notre talilcan est compost' dc faits actncls et pronvt's, pour la pliinart, aveo uii petit 
iiomhre irappi't'ciatioiis tii's-siniples, et iM'lli*s-ei I'omlt'cs snr dcs [ireuves et dos aualoj^ies 
I'videiites et a])pny(ics par les docnments. 

N'ons avons pleincment Ic tlroit dc nous jilaimlrc dn taUlcan tout (Miti rt'sentti an 
mini dc rAiij;lctcrro: clle ii'a '"i fiiticincniiie iinclipics e lii tiros sci'omhiiro.- •nm ordrc 

a]))iai'tenant an ineinoramiuin dcs I.,tats-rnis>. 

L'a-icnt dc sa Majcsti' jiarait siipposer iine les lUats-Unis out on I'iutention, dans 
tout feci, dc prt'parer notre estiini' di.' manit'i'e a cxcreer nno intlutMiet! taclieuso snr la 
oonscioiicc tics ai'liitrcs. Kst-co lo triliunal (lu'tm soui>t,'onne .' lOst-oo I'airtnit ties f;tats- 
IJiiis .' On ponnait s'y mt''prendrt\ On jioniiait mi-mt' impntcrtlo tols motifs h ra<;t'ut 
do sa. Ma.jestt". Mais co no sciait difjiio ni tie liii, ni do iions, t;n viic dcs rolations coiir- 
toiscs tics a;>ents ot ties otniscils dcs deux f;tniveincnieiits. 

Mais a (pioi lion cottticrititiiic tie part on d'antre .' 

Si les arliilres allonent nut! soinino on Idoi;, cette soiumo sera ntSce.ssairoiuont iiiio ap- 
jin^ciati'ni en partie, sans (|noi le ivsnltat dos travanx des arliitros no surait pas iiiio iii- 
dciiiiiilieation ri'cllo tics r^lats-Unis. 

S'il y a i|ncli|ncs dt't'ants secontlain^s dans les jtrciivcs ties Ktats-Unis, il y a uu manque 

I'stiiic total lie preiivcs di'linios ilo la Dart dc la (irautli-Uretairno. 



pr 



Mais si le triliunal rtmvtiic cos ri'damatioiis a dcs a- 



•Ills, rAujilotorro sora ton no 



jiar les stiimlations du traite tie payor anx Ktats-Unis la soiiinio ailjnj^t^o par los assos- 
scnrs, sans restriction, ni do pn.'uvos atlirinatives, ni do iniMivos iH';iatives. Alors, les 
matelols i|ui ii'ont pas [irt'sontf' lours rt^claniations, ot int'nie les arniatoiirs, assurours on 
aiitrcs, aniont lo droit de rdclaiiior devant les assosseurs. Tel est le sous evident du 
traitf'. 

Ell atttiitiaiit, tout ce (ini so fait, soit do la part do rAint^riqiio, soit de la part do 
l'Ai)};letei re, tcml a essayer d'l'clairer, par Ics moyons tiui soiit A, notre disposition, le 
Jiitjcmont du tribunal. 

Kiitin, nous]iroti'stonsctintrocertainesapprcciationsdn traite do Wasliington, <|ui soiit 
on exprimt'cs on iniplii|udes dans lo mdnitiire de Tageiit do la Graude-Bi;etaj;ue, sans 
nous arreter pour les discuter ici. 



M)TK. 



A. — Les ii'clamationa pour les fiai;es des baleiniers et des peehoiirs dcs na- 
vires detriiits on (ItHenns jiar l'Alaliania,iiar lo riorida. on (lar le Slionan- 
doali apres sa sortie do Melliourno, (la eorroction t'tant faite des orronrs 
iiiitces dans It; iiienioramluin ipii accomi>a}fije iios tableaux,) estiuitk'S 
dapii's les preiives soumisos, s'tHevent a $5b8, 247 CO 



I 



'4 



I'KOTOCOF.S OF TIIK CONri.UKNCKS. 



41 



uds diiiis lo 



ir di'S beiio- 



eHtiiuations, 



('•' inoiitiiiit <l<>i( ("trt? smistiiiit «1(* In nuiiiiiio totiilo diUiH \v Hoinniiiiro 
aiiii<-x('', si !•' tiil)iiii:il iu'cmdr Ic^i ri'djiiiiivtiinis ties lialt'liiicis iniiii' la 
jd'cht' jdMsiifctivc ct pour I'iiitcnuiitioii ilii voyajif. 

II, — Lcs rrclanialitiiiM pmir Itsna^icsdcs olilicici'.st't ilfshomiiicM tli'M iiaviri-n 
niarrlianils aiiisi di-triiitu »»iMli')t»*mis, «'Mtiiiiri's d'apri^s Ics pn.'uvt'.s nou- 

miscs, sVlovfiit a _ 6-lt''^, iCd DO 

t^iifli|ii(^M-uiiH dfs iia\'ii'«>sd<'tiuitM()ii drtt'iiiis^taitMit sur l(»Mt, Kii tons 
(•as pait'ils, nous insistons siir co quo lo trihimal nous acfordo If total di's 
(^a^t'^ i«^i'lanu'"S. I'lnsicnis, on iiir>nit) la plnpart, dcs navin-s <'taifnt 
fharfii's d(! tVet. IJans tons Ics casoii lo triWnnal fst convaincn <|ni' If t'n't 
ivelanio fst fret pnr, il doit ai'cordcr Ics rt'iclaniations ponr ^•a;;cs; mitis 
dans tons k-s cas oh li^ trilinnal est convaincn (pu> la riM'laniation itoni' 
firt ost i)onr fret lirnt, 11 doit refuser d'a(;eorder les reclamations jionr 
jj;a;;cs. Ccci est exposii d'niie niauioro tres-prdctso dans lo inenu)randuni 
qui accoinpajjne nos taldt^anx. 

C— liCS estiiuat ions d<.'s re<dannitioiis ponr les cft'cts personnels dcs olliciers 

ct dcs honnues des navires ainsi dt'^tniits on detenus s'elevcnt a 4"21,0()0 00 

Les r,tats-l,'nis insistent sur co qu'il Icnr soit uccorde la soninu! totalo 
do ees reclamations. 

D.— Lps tableaux ))resent<^s jiar ragcutdes T^tats-Uniscoinprcnaient ton-i 
les navircH dotrnits i>ar 1« Shenaiuloali. Depuis quo ces tableaux out 
^!ti; tcrndni's le tribunal a decide qutj la (jrande-Hretagne n'l.'st pas its- 
spoiisalde des actes dn Sbenandoali avaut sa sortie de Mtdl)ouiiu'. Lc 
niontantdcs rcclannitionsadednirt! par snito dt; cettodf^cisions'elevt) ;\ .. 4r)l{, *^'J0 4t) 

E. — II y a nn(^ erp'ur palpable de la part ilu eomptable dans lo tableau 
intitiib'i "Shenandoah, supplement, classo A." La valour ^^stim^'(! de liuit 
navires di' ten ns (o'est-ti-(iire, jJ-^n.OdiM.'hacnii) fut rettniuc jtarleeomptablo 
par nu'jiarde, et jointe aux cliillVes de la colonne dcs totaux de pertcs. 
Dans la discussion dctaillei^ dcvant It! tiibunal,()n st* scrait apervu tout 
de suite de ct^tte errcur, (|ui tUait demcnr('>ti inapcnv'io dans la bate di;s 
preparatifs ])()nr rcdi^rer les tableaux. On fournit ci-inclns un tableau 
nonvcau sons le nienu! titro. Lo uiontant do cotto orrour, qui so trouve 

corri-ree ici, est dt; 040,000 00 

, F.— L'exposc revise ci-joint ; totaux des n'clan itions compart^es, exhibo 
CCS corrections: c"est-a-dire, qui; les montanl> D et E, (ini s't'devent a 
sl,m):VJlH).l!», sout <l(Mlnits. 
iC'est an tril)nnal a decider si uuo partio quelcouquo doa luontants A et 15 
doit L'tro (h'dnito. 



tm 



TOTAUX DES EFXLAMATIONS COMl'AlJr.ES. 



iloiiliuits r^'i'l.Tiiics MontnntH ncrordt's 

ilaiiH Icj* talik'iuix diiiis le r:ii)lKirt 

uuicrirainsi. ajmitii I'V larjiu- 

iiii'iit biitaiini- 

qui!. 

Alabama Classe A $1 , 314, 'MJ [)9 .*4r.0, 81(3 00 

Classo B i,:«)r.,4:50 Ki (;iM.r,;is (to 

^ Clusse C U,:{0!t,HV() 10 a, (m4,:?7(i 0(» 

un manque ^^ Classe D 41:{,-2H."^ IW l:?li,0.ilOO 

Classes E ot F lt>:{, H07 78 47, h.^)0 00 

r),.^)r)7,()t)0 o:{ 3.-j()7,()7.-i oo 

[Florida, y conipris lo Clarenco Classo A 2vH,«)41 92 Wri,-,m 00 

et lo Tacouy. Classo B » r>:iy, 179 10 U44, 709 00 

'Le eomptable, (|ui a fait I'arraiisenient des navires dans nos tablcatix, a placi'- dans 
lla classo C deux navires qui auraiout d(i etre duns la classo )i, savoir : 

JL'Oneida §471,849 12 

^0 Windward •i2,.")9ri 00 

494,447 12 



Cette errcur corrigt'^e, la flonuno totale de la clasae B (sous le noni du Florida) 
erait do .*1,0:{3,62(5.22, et do la classo C, .§2,844,962.90. Ct)nime les stuumes totales 
Jes reclamations sons le noni du Florida ne seraient aucun6inent ehange'es ])ar la cor- 
rection de cetto erreur, purement foriuelle, j'ui peusd qu'il ne valait pus lu peine do 
JBhangcr les tableaux ddtaillds. 



If 



IS i 



ilii 






42 AKlilTRATION AT GENEVA. 

TOTAUX DES RfX'LAMATIONS COMPARr:ES-Contiiuics. 



Montnnfs rC-rlaiiies 
dans loH talileaux 
niiiLTicaiiiH. 



Flciida, y eonipris lo Claracnco Classo C I;!;?, 339, 410 02 

ct IcTaconv— Contiimde. Classc D i:W, i)2"J17 

ClasHOH E et B' 278, (i 1 8 62 

Classu G 91,225 10 

4, (iltl, 30:{ 93 



Aloutaiits acconlrs 
dans Ic rapport 
ajoiit)'' a laitxu- 
infiit britanni- 

§1,770,375 00 
44,570 00 
(51,350 00 



2,035,573 00 



Slionandoali : Classo A et snpph'^nioiii: 3,203,149 55 1,171,404 00 

Kccai.itnlatiou: Alabama 0,557,090 03 3,207,078 00 

I'lorida 4, 010, 303 93 2, 035, 57:5 00 

Shonaudoah 3, 203, 149 55 1 , 171 , 404 00 

14,437,143 51 7,074,715 00 

Reclamations a-tuoUos dos l^hits-llnis pour les dd- 
j>i'u.sc'.-i caiisees a lenr iiiariiic par suito dca actes 
du Elovida, do I'Alabama ot du Shcuaiuloab 0, 735, 002 49 940, 400 24 

21, 172, 200 00 8, 015, 175 24 

Rt'^clamationsprovoi.auT »le I'lntenuptiou dos voyages 
et des peites jiu" li(-ii.'t;.;''S eu perspective 4,099,302 50 

SOM.MAIKK. 

Totanx des i/tTaijiatior::-!, 'y compris les ri^elamatioiis proveiiaiit do 
I'intorrupt.ou d ui vov vjjcv et des pertes siir bendliccs cii ]»crBpec- 
tivc) 825,281,508 50 

Si k's siisditcs Ti^clajuatioiia soivt comprises, il faut ddduire, (cide A).. 588,247 50 

j 24,093,201 00 

On 

Totanx des rdclamatious, (nou conipris les dites r<:5c]amatious) $21, 272, 206 20 

Dans le casoii uue p!»i"illo('''.imination scrait laitc, il iaiidrait ajouter 
'2't''^ snr la valrnr d.'s ua vires vi di-s ociuiponcuts, (vide le memoran- 
dum qui aecomptiguc les tableaux) , 400, 127 91 

/ •■ 21,072,334 11 

En tons eas il faut njouter riut«?ri't do 7^o par an Jusiin'au jour dii paiement iudi([nd 
l)ar les termes dn. traite. 

After (I'libiiifiiion, the tiibmuil gave its (lecision as follows: 

Tlui tribniirtl ;1<m m not see lit to order tlie witbdrawal of tli(! tables ])resented on the 
part of th* r.iit'.<i Stafi'f. as requested by Lord 'renterdeu ; but it declares that it con- 
siders tli;;Ht! doiiinients only as simi)le elucidations, sncli as were re()uired l>y one of 
the arbitrati»rs, Viscount d'ltajnba, to whicli the tribnnal will j^ive such attention as 
is rij^ht. 

Tlie ti'ilmiuil (letermiued to devote tlie next conference to the consid- 
eration of the questions concerning;' tlie claims for *' expenditure inciirred 
in pursuit of tlu^ cruisers, prospective protits, freights, and interest," and 
decided to deliberate with closed doors. 

Sir Alexander ('ockburn, as one of the arbitrators, declared that he 
objected to this latter de(;ision. 

The conferiMice was then adjourned until Thursday, the 20th instant, 
at half past 1- o'clock. 

FKKDETMCK S( LOPIS. 

J. C. IJANCItOFT DAVIS. 

TENTEHDEN. 

ALEX. FAVliOT, Sccrctanj. 



PKOTOCOLS OF THE CONFERENCES 



43 



: '■ I. 
i f 



PROTOCOL XXVII. 

Jiecordof the procccdiiif/s of the trihuiKtl of arhitrntlon at the twenfy-serenth 
conference held at Geneva, in iSicitzerhind, on the liOf/i of A^iyustj 1872. 

The conference was held with dosed doors, pursuant to adjournment. 
All the arbitrators were present. s„n.iry .h„« .,r 

Tiie luotocol of the last coni'erence was read; the ap- '''■ '•'^•^»'""'- 
proval and signing of the same was deferred until the next meeting. 

Tlie tribunal proceech'd to consider the (|uestions concerning the 
claims for " exi)enditure incurred in pursuit of the cruisers, pr(»spective 
prolits, and freights." 

As to the claims for exi)en«liture incurred in ])ursuit of liie cruisers, 
a majority of the tribunal deci«le«l to rejr'ct them as (comprised in the 
costs of the war; ^[r. ytaemplli and Mr. Adams declared them to be ad- 
7iiissible, as belonging to the direct losses, reserving to appreciate their 
amount according to the bases laid down in the table at page 1L*(> of 
the seventh volume of the appendix to the case of the United States, 

As to the claims for ])r(ispective profits the tribunal unanimously 
decided to reject them, reserviuj;, however, the questioiis as to the 
wages for the whalers aiul the interest for the value of the vessels and 
tlu'ir outfit. 

As to the claiius for freights, the tribunal unanimously decided not to 
a''mit of the gross freight, but only the net freight. 

The tribunal also de(;ided to consider at the next conference theipies- 
tious concerning the valuation of the destroyed vessels aiul the claims 
for interest. 

Lastly the tribunal decided to adjourn this conference until Friday, 
tlie 30Lh instant, at 1- o'clock, and to deliberate again with closed doors. 

FliEDEHICK SCLOPIS. 
ALEX. FAVKOT, Hevvetanj. 



ritOTOCOL XXVIIL 



Record of the proceedings of the trihnntd of arbitration at the twentif-eiffhth 
conference held at ikneva, in Sa-itzcrland, on the 'MUh ofAni/nst, 1.S72. 

The conference was held with closed doors, pursuant to adjournment. 
All the arbitrators were i)resent. \,„,„ , „,,,^,,.,, 

Tlie protocol of the twenty-sixth conference having been '-'■'■' <""'<"^>-'-'^- 
C(»rre(;ted was approved, and tlu- proto<'ol •' *" the last conierence was 
read and approved, and was signed by the picsident and secretary of 
the tribunal. 

On the i)roposal of Sir Alexanikn- Ctickl)urn,as oneof tlu' arl»itrators, 
the tribunal permitted tliat tlie counsel of Her Britannii- Majesty 
should present, on the (pu'stion of interest, a note whicli should bo 
directly communicated by the agent of Her Brittannic Majesty to the 
agent of the United States, in order that the latter may [uepare u reply 
to it, if h(« thinks tit. 

The tribunal <lesired that these two <'ommunications on t'le part of 
the resi)ective ag( nts siiould be i)reseiited at the conference whieh will 
[he held with ch)sed doors on Mondav, the 2d of September, at half past 
ll.' o'clock. 






44 



AKBITRATIOX AT GENEVA. 



Tlie tribunal ])rocco(le{] to the considoriition of tlio niattors submitted 
to tlieni, aiul unanimously declared that the '■'• double claims'''' should be 
dismissed. 

The tribunal havinf; discussed in general the award of a gross sum, 
re(iuested Mr. Stiemi)tli, one ot the arbitrators, to present for the next 
conference copies of a synoptical table which he has prepared on the 
subject. 

The conference was then adjourned until INIonday, the I'd of Septem- 
ber, at half past 1- o'clock, 

fki:deiiick sclopis. 

ALEX. FAVKOT, Secretary. 



rKOTOCOL XXIX. 



('(II kbiun » Mil-Ill 
rinidiiiii r 
sum in KruA:'. 



Record of the proceedings of the tribunal of arbitration at the twenty-ninth 
conference held at Geneva, in ISicitzerland, on the 2d of September, 1872. 

The conference was held with closed doors, pursuant to adjourunient 

«>,.,„ ti,', "'^'^ *''*^ arbitrators were present. 
(it,t^,r„ta',,J'>ir a' The protocol of the last conferen(!e was read and ap- 
■».r!l!'n'«""H proved, and was signed by the president aiul secretary of 
the tribunal. Count Sclopis, as president of the tribunal, 
acknowledged the receipt, by the arbitrators, of the note presented by 
the agent of Ifer liritannic Majesty on the question of interest, and of 
the rei>iy to the same, presented by the agent of the Uniteil States. 

The tribunal tiien proceeded to consider that <pu'stion, and a majority 
of four to one decided that interest siionld be admitted as an element 
in the calculation for the award of a sum in gross. 

INlr. StasmpHi, as one of the arbitrators, presented to the tribunal 
copies of tiie synopti(!al table which he had lU'epared as a proposition 
for the determination of a sum in gross : 



EMimatv of .\fr, Stavnq^/H for the dctvnnination of a sitni in groHn, 



A ft IT tlio 
liiHt Aincri- 
caii tabic. 



liritish 
alluNvuiico, 



Amount of cliiiiiis 114,437,000 I $7,071,000 

E.vi)i'iiilil III'' in pursuit ! (i, 7:15, 000 !H0, OiHI 

( SliurU out as 
NUcli, lull lor 

ProsiM'ctlvc inotits ami iuttrruption of voya^jo . 



4,000,100 o^;:^!:.;„t;;,;; 

tlir values of 
. vossfls 



Moan. 



810,005, 00 
Sti\u',k out. 



588, OOO 
400, OOO 



U,8ita,(iOO 



KoumlHum $ia,000,ilW 



liiUrrsI from tin: Xxt January, 1H()4, to the ir>//t September, 1872. 

1. At 5 iM-rrcnt. iluiiii'.M'inlit .v<'ar» untl oi^'lit and onclialf ni:)ntlM. .H x JtiflO,ono.-:*4,POO,000 

«1 X 50,000 = 4-J5,000 

*5,2'r),noo 



17,'Jv!5.ii(«i 



Kvcntiuillj- ouc jciir's iuU- rest nioro 17,H'J5,ih*i 



PROTOCOLS OF THE COXFEHENCES. 



45 



" At fi pti' cent, (luring eigbt years .and eight and onc-lialf months. .8 ^''JO.OOO-^^ij.TeO.OOO 
" • ■ i'i '. C-0,000-^ 510,1)00 

C.'J70,000 ?IH.270,000 

Kvcntiially one year's interest more 18,;)!lO,000 

3. At 7 per cent, during eiglit years and eiglit and onelialf months .8 x $8-10.000=: 8(i,7v!0,non 

ejx 70,000^^ ,"i!i."i,0(IO 

7,Jir.,ooo 810,315,000 
Eventually one year'.- interest more f -10,000 

20,155.000 

Round sum '.W.OOO.OOO 

Sir Alexander Cockbiirii, as one of the arbitrators, thi^n presented 
tbe following" meniorandiini on Mv, Sta^uiptli's estimate: 

Afimorandinn on Mr. Stnwp^ftVs edhnate. 



The fignros in Mr. Stiu'uplH's papor require somo niiiterial correctioii.s, .".-> t.) which, 
as (soon as they aris pointed out, thcic can Ik; no (hmht. 

The total claim by th« United States of SU.ltJTjOilD will' bo found, on an iuspuction 
of the I 'iiited .States tables, to include the followiiijr amounts: 

a. All the double claims, without exception, notwithstanding the clear expression of 
o]»iiiion on the part of the tribunal that they were to bo struck out These double 
claims amount io.Sl,f '02,2415. 

h. The gross freights of tlui nuMchant-vessels, amounting to $l,((()7,l.")l?. as to which 
tilt! tribunal ha.s d(;cided that at the utmost only half, that is to say !j,'>u:{.r)7(), should be 
allowed. 

c. The new claim of .fil,4.")0.00fl, advanced for tlie first time on the UUh of Augii.stlast, 
as to whi<di claim Mr. Sta-niplli declared he would excluile it from consideration. It 
is important to observe that this new claim comprisiss over ami above the entirely un- 
supported claims for shares of vessels, and for additional personal ell'ects, tlie ciainis 
for wfiges ext(Miding over very long and varying periods. The tribunal has decided 
that one year's wages in respect of the whalers are to bo allowed in lien of prospective 
catch. For this one year's wages, Mr. .Sta'inplli has made a separatt? allowance of .■j>r)^'H,(iClK 
(an allowance whi< ii can be shown to be excessive by at least sH>^,<)t)t», ) and he has 
therefore ineliid'-d in his calculation the claim for wages tvvic(> over. 

It is therefore clear that Mr. St,eiii])lli, wliihi he exclude-- some of the items of claim 
wliivli the tribunal has disallowed, has omitted to strik(! out the other iiems, against 
which the tribunal has prononneed its opinimi ; but it is ciinally clear t hat all the dis- 
allowed items must be excluded before a comiiari in In- fairly or usel'iilly made be- 
tween the United States claim ami the Hiirisji e>; 

It is ueces.sary, tlieref(U'e, in the first iilace, to dedu him the I nitcd States claiiii 
thethree amounts specified in paragraphs a, li, iind c, lespt'itivi'I' which will leave, as 
i>sliown by the annexed table, a pioperly reduced claim of -I '.-oI.:!-J|. asagaill.^t the 
lii'itish estimate of ^7.4()."t,7(!l, if the dilference between paiierand .-"Id iiiiTeiie, be (iiir 
the present purpose disregarded. 

It iiiiist, li(<wevei, be carefully borne in mind that the claim of .^lo,Mi|.:i'i4 inejiidi' 
the following items: 

1. ./ claim (»/ .*(!.'>!),( "21 /<»• .vccdrcr/ <<innii</x, which ought beyond a doubt tn '••• reduced 
by an anioiint e<inivaleiit to the wear and tear of the whalers and their oni ii-. aiiel the 
ciiiisiiiiiption of stores, which must have taken pl:ie<' bet'ore these earning- could be 
seriiicd, and for which a de(liietion should l)e made, inasinnch as the full oi'igiii;il values 
of the Vessels and their outfits have been allowed. 

■J. The clahnH ill resimct of till- mtrrliniil rrsseln. — These are valued in the United S' -es 
tables at more than %i(i<l per ton on the average, although, acctu'ding to the well ' luwii 
titliejal report presented toCongress in l'«7t», tin; cost of a first-cla,ss perfectly n<- .Viner- 
i< an vessel, made leady for sim. did imt average that amount jier ton, anil ,iiiluKigli, 
iuididing to the same report, the aver.ige value of American \essels engaged in the 
fiiieign trade was, in IHiil. only §41, and has been sini'e oiilfi ^ i't pi-r ton. 

It. The cliiimn in rcxpcii of cariiocs, (he intnmmvx, commissions, and profits of tin; Haine, 
wliicii pidlits are .sometimes (daiined at the, rate of twenty, fifty, anil even one hundred 
per cent. The vari<»ns important ctmsideiations mentioned at page i:{ of the British 
leiKiit, and the fact that nnmerons claims fiir cargoes, presented for the first time in 
April last, are iinsu])ported by any vouchers, bills of lading, (»r like dociimeiits, un- 
doubtedly reipiire that ii very considerable reduction should be maile under thi.s lie;id. 

4. irartral large vlaimn not nupiwrkd by any affuiarit or (kcluration on oath. 



wmimmmimmm 



! 



46 



ARRITRATIOX AT GEXEVA. 



Pi 



5. ^iimfroiifi clearli) crfrarafiant claimn specified in tho British reports, such jia tlie 
chiiiii of $7,00U l»y ii hiirpooner for ])(;r.sonal injiirics, tins duiiii, l»y ii ]»jisHtMi}rfr, of 
.*ilO,U()() for loss of ollice as coiihiiI, all tlie iiiuntTous claims l>y tho masters of wlialcrs 
for \va;;i's, sometimes at the rate of $ir),0(J() or .'iii'i(>,(M)(> a year, aii«l which are, of course, 
siiixirseded by Mr. Sta'iiii>tli's allowance of SrjHHjdl Kt, and many other e([nally exorI>i- 
tant claims, moro particnlarly specilied m the British reports. 

From these considerations it is manifest that more than ami>le justice will he done 
to the United States by takinj; a mean hctwi-en the claim of 6l".-i''l,'^'-il, nnd tht( 
British esMniate of >r7,4l)4,7()4, and by adding thereto the allowiince of .'Ji!r)8"i,()(IO in lien 
of )>ros]iective catch. 

Mr. .Sta-mpdi has also added, for some nnknown reason, '25 i)er cent, on the values 
of the whalers, an addition which can be easily shown to be e([uivalcnt to alto- 
yetluiv allowing ov(!r and above the original values of the whalers ami their onttifs 
a percentage! exceeding l((( per cent., anil this although tho (juestion of interest is still 
loft opi'U to the decision of the tribunal. 

Adnutting.^however, this extraordinary addition of 25 per cent., and the excessive 
estinnite of the wages, it is shown l>y the cint^xed ta)>lo that if Mr. Sta»mplli's (igures 
be projterly corrected, the estimate would scarcely exceed §10,U00,dU0, even without 
any allowan(;e being made for the great difference between the values of the paper 
and tilt! gold currency. 

Mr. StaMiiplli's calculations of interest (supposing interest to be allowed) are made 
at the alteruiitive rates of 5, V), and 7 p«'r cent., for the period of eight and one-half years, 
from the lirst of January, Irttil, to the 15th of September, l"<7'i. 

But to this he i)roiK)ses to add anotluir year's interest for the period of dcday in pay- 
ment alter the date of thts award which is allowed by the treaty. 

The tribunal has no power, under the t''eaty, to award jyaynu'iitof <a gross sum with 
interest. The amount awarded is to be i)aid witlnmt interest, and if the tribunal 
werii to add a year's iutertsst to the gross sum which they woui<l othei wise award, in 
resjtect of the yi^ar allowed for i)aynient by the treaty, thej would be doing indirectly 
what they have no authority to do directly, and woiihl (it issubmitttid) be cop. travelling 
the true intent of the treaty, Mid charging interest where it was the intention of the 
tre;ity that interest should not be paid. 

This is the more objectionabh> because it is propos(Ml to charge a whole year's inter- 
est at »'ither 5, (i, or 7 per cent., whereas the British government h.-is the option, under 
the treaty, to pay the sum awarded at any time ivilhin the year allowed for that pir- 
jiose, ami might certainly raise the money, (if that operation were necessary,) at a 
eonsideruble lower rate of interest than 5 per cent. 

I'abh in reference to (he eBtimatc of Mr. Slampjii. 

Totnl Fiiitf'l States claim in tlio lust rovispd tables ^U, 4;)7, 143 

Neccssaiv rcdiiclidiis to be iiiuilc IVom tlie aliove sii]i|ip(iHO<l total : 

1 )<i\il)le clai'ms ?1, li-ii, 2-t:t 

Xi'W clahiis 1, 4."i(). (100 

Uiieliall' f^ross Ircif^lit iUlt, jTii 

:,fjr), Pin 

Making the total leilnced claiiii 10, 801, 324 

As npiiiist thi' lii'itisli estimate, of 7, 4(i4, 7(i4 

The mean of these two sums is i), 133, 044 

Add to this Mi: Sta'iiiptli's allowances in lion of prosjieclivo catch : 

One year's \vaj;es f.V-'S, 000 

Tweiitv-live per eeiit. on the values of vessels 400,000 

9S8,000 

10, l-JI,044 



Record 
confci 
her, ] 

Thee 
AH tlie 

TLe ] 
proved, 
the trib 

The ti 

At thi 
burn kii 
French i 

The et 
half pas 



\Itecor(l 0) 
CO ij'ere 

The CO 

Jl the a 

The pi 

)roved, 

the tribu 

Mr. Ad 

elation of 






The tribiuud also con.sidered tlie question of the award of .a sum in 



gross. 



Aftei- a (U'tailed deliberation, a majority of the tribunal of four to one 
decided, under the Vllth article of the treaty of Washington, to award in 
gross the sum of $lo,500,()U0, to be i)aid in gold by (heat JJritain to the 
United States, in the time and manner provided by the said article of 
the treaty of Washington. 

The conference then adjourned until Fiiday, the 0th instant, at half 
past 12 o'clock, to be held with closed doors. 

FKKDEIMCK SCLOPIS. 

ALEX ANDEU FAVKOT, Secretary. 



PKOTOCOLS OF THE CONFERENCES. 



47 



jia tlio 

u^'Tt of 

wliali'i-.s 

f (ionise, 

oxi)il)i- 

bc iloim 
and tho 
I) in lieu 

B valin'S 
to Jilto- 
r onttits 
St its si ill 

'xcessivo 

H lijiures 

witlioiit 

lie itiipiT 

iro uitulo 
alt" years, 

y in pay- 

^uiii with 
tribunal 
iiwanl, iu 
ndivectly 
tmvtMiinj? 
ou of the 

vr's inter- 
on, under 
that \yn- 
ary,) at a 



?i4, 4;n, 143 



10, 801, 324 
7, 4«4, 7(;4 

"n,liiii,044 

OHB, 000 
10, lil,044 



I sum in 

ir to one 
iwaiil in 
11 to tlu> 
irticle of 

t, at halt' 



TROTOCOL XXX. 

Record of the proceedinfjs of the tribunal of arbitration at the thirtieth 
conference held at Genera, in Switzerland, on the (jth of iSe2)teni- 
her, 1872. 

The conference was hekl with closed doors pursuant to adjournment. 
All the arbitrators were present. 

The protocol of the last conference was read and ap- ..faec'^ui""'"""'" 
proved, and was sifjned by the president and secretary of 
the tribunal. 

The tribunal proceeded to consider a draught of their decision. 

At the : C'uiest of the tribunal, ^Ir. Adams and Sir Alexander Cock- 
burn kindly undertook to provide for the translation into English of the 
French text of this act of decision. 

The conference was then adjourned until Monday, the 9th instant, at 
half past twelve o'clock, to be held with closed doors. 

FKEDEKICK SCLOPIS. 
ALEX. EAVIiOT, Secretary. 



PROTOCOL XX XL 

[j?t'cr)»Y7 of the proceed ings of the tribunal of arbitration at the thirfy-Jirst 
CO ifcrence held at Genera, in Switzerland, on the Jth of September, 1872. 

The conference was held with closed doors pursuant to adjournment, 
ill the arbitrators were present. 

The protocol of the last conference Avas read and ap- ,,ifip"'y 'Sw;?,',';," 
)roved, and was signed by the president and secretary of l',,';;,;;!;',,,';";;';'''''' 
the tribunal. 

Mr. Adani.s and Sir Alexander Cockburn presented the English trans- 
lation of the act of decision, which they had kindly undertaken to pre- 
are. 

The tribunal definitely adoi)ted the act of decision, which was consid- 
ered at the last conference, and decided to Uave it printed. 

Viscount d'ltajuba, as one of the arbitrators, made the following 
Itatement: 

Viseoiiut d'ltajuba, while sijjniiijx the decision, remarks, wi Hi regard to the reeital 
Jiicerning tiie Hiipply of coals, tliat he is of o[)inion that ovt;ry y;overnnient is free to 
iniisli to the hellifferents more or less of that article. 

The tribunal resolved that the decision should be signed at the next 
)nrer<'nce, which was to be held with open doors, juul adjourned until 
Iftturday, the 14th instant, at half past 12 o'clock. 

FREDERICK SCLOPIS. 
ALEX. FAVROT, Secretary. 



If V1 



irciary. 



fW 



48 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 



PKOTOCOL XXXII. 

Record of the proceedings of the tribunal of arbitration at the thirtij-sec- 
and conference held at Ueneva, in iSwitzerland, on the lUh of iSepteni- 
her, 187L>. 

The conference was held with open doors, pursuant to adjournment. 
All the arbitrators aiul the agents of the two governments 



.'•isii.ilurt' of (iward . 

nnd diKKoi.m.... of ^\ow presLMit. 

trihtinal. 



The jnoiocol of the last confereiu'e was read and ap- 
l)roved, and was signed by the president and secretary of the tribunal. 

The president then presented the decision of the tribunal on the ques- 
tion of the "Alabama claims," and directed the secretary to read it ; 
which M'as done, and the «lecision was signed by Mr. Cliarles Francis 
Adams, Cou;;t^^ Frederic Sclopis, i\Ir. Jac(pies Sticniptii, and Viscount 
d'ltajuba, ar^i; ators, in the presence of the agents of the two govern- 
ments. 

A copy of the decision thus signed was delivered to each of the agents 
of the two governments, respectively, and the tribunal decided to liave 
a third copy placed upon record ; they further decided that the decisio.i 
should be i)rinted ami annexed to the present protocol." 

Sir Alexan<ler Cockburn, as one of the arbitrators, having declined 
to assent to the decision, stated the grounds of his own decision, which 
the tribunal ordered to be recorded as an annex to the present protocol.- 

Tlu' tribunal resolved to request the council oi state of Geneva to 
receive the archives of the tribunal and to place them among its own 
archives. 

The president, Count Sclopis, then directed the secretary to make up 
the record of the proceedings of the tribunal at this thirty-second ami 
last conference, as far as completed ; which was doiu', and the record 
having been read and approved, was signed by the president and secrc 
tary of tlie tribunal ami the agents of tlic two governments. 

Thereupon the president declared the labors of the arbitrators to bo 
iiiiished and the tribunal to be dissolved. 

FJiEl>El{ICK SCLOPIS. 
J. C. UANCKOFT DAVIS. 
TENTER I )Fy. 
ALEX. FA\'1{(.)T, .Secrdan/. 



' For a copy of this jiiipor, sor prrat, No. iii. 

-' Tliis i»iiiPt'r was not aniu'XiMl to tlic oHicial ]»i'oto('()l dclivored to tlio afj^cut of tlir 
rnitcd States. A ]»apiT I'lititk'd " Reasons of Sii' Ali-xaniliT CnUliiirn for (lissfiithiL; 
from tile awardof till- li'ilMinal of arliilratioii'' was inililishrd in tin- snpplcnicnt to tlii' 
London (Jazfttc of tin' •JUli of Si-ptiMiilier, lf^7'2, and a copy of tliis niiniIxT of tlir 
(ia/cttc was transmittt'd to the a^^i-nt of tlic I'niti'd States as tin- paper tliat .slionlil 
liavc hi'cn annexed to tlu! inotocol. This paper i.s printed liereafter under the titii' 
" fiir A. L'o(kl»urns Upinions." 



ii! i 



III.-DFX'ISION AND AWARD 

Maile 1 !i the tribunal of ayttitrnlion const if iifctl hi/ rirtKC of the Jir/it article 
of tic treat}/ concluded at W'ashiui/ton the ^ih of Mai/, ISTl, licfirecn the 
t'nited States of America anil Her M((Jesti/ the Queen of the inited Kinij- 
dom of' (ireat Britain and Ireland. 



IIi'cilil ol' |>r<i' 



A|>|H.iulriii-iit <il':ir- 



Tlu' Uiiitod States of Aincricii iuid IFcr Uiitiiiinic MaJcstN liavinj 
agriH'd hy Article 1 of the treaty eoiicladed and signed at 
\Vasliinj;'t()M the Sth of May, LS71, to refer all the elaiiiis 
•'^eiierieally known as the Alabama claims"' to a trihiinal of '"'""""""" 
arbitration to he composed of live arbitrators named: 

One by tlr<^ I'resident of the United JStates, 

One by III.- Jlritannic .Majesty, 

One by His Majesty the Kin^i' (.f Italy, 

One by the I'resident of the SwIns Confederation, 

One by His Majesty the Kmperor «.f IJrazil; 

And the I'resident of the I'nited States, IFei' Uritannic INEaJesty, His 
Majesty the Kin<;df Italy, the President ol' the Swiss i\<u- 
fe«U'ration, and (lis Majesty the EmpeKirof Brazil havinj; 
resjieetively named their arl)itratoJs, t«> \^ it : 

Tlu' President of the United States, (.'hailes .'"'rancis Adams, es(|nire; 

Her iJritannic Majesty, Sir Alexander .lames lOdmnnd CocUhnrn, 
baronet, ii member of Her Majesty's piivy council, lord chief Justice 
of 1-ji^hind ; 

His Majesty the Kin>>- of Italy, His Excellency Count Fi'cderick Sclopis, 
of Salerano, a Unijiht of the Order of the Annunciata, njinistei- of state, 
senator of the Kin;idom of Italy; 

The I'resident of two Swiss Confederation, >[. James Stiimptii ; 

His >[ajesty the ICiuperor of JJrazil, his lOxcellency Marcos Antonio 
d'ArauJo. Viscount d'ltajuba, a j^randee of the I'^mpiie of IJrazil, nu'Ui- 
ber (»f the ciuiucil ot H. .\l. the 10m|)eror of IJrazil, and his envoy extraor- 
dinary and minister plenipotentiary in France. 

And the five arbitrators ajtove naiiu'd haviuj^' assend)led at (leneva (in 
Switzerland) in one of the chambeis of the Hotel de N'ille 
on the l.">th of J)eceml)er, ISTl, in conforndty with the terms 
of tlie sec(uul article of the treaty of \VHshin<;iton, of the 8th of May of 
that year, and havinj'' proci'cded to the inspectii>n an<i veriticitiou of 
their respective powers, which were found tlidy autlienticated, the 
tribunal of arbitration was declared duly orj;anized. 



OruanixatKiii 



The agents nanu'd by ea(!h of the hijj;h coutractin.^' parties, by virtue 
of the same Article H, to wit: 

F(H' the United States of America, .lohu C. IJancroft Davis, es(piire ; 

And for Her Uritanuic Majesty, Charles Stuart Ai'.i>rey, Lord Tent- 
erden, a iieer of the United Kinjidom, companion of the Most Honor- 
able Order of the Jiath, assistant undersecretary of state for loreij^u 
affairs ; 

Whose powers were fouml likewise duly authenticated, then delivered 
to iwch of the arbitrators the printed case prejjared by 



r.elivery orcBBCB 

aceomi 

other evidence Oh which each relied, in cou- 



aided by the dueument8, the 



each of the two paities, 
otlicial correspondence, 
fornnty with the terms of the third article of the said treaty, 
4 B 



•II 



!l 



50 



AKBITRATION AT GKNEVA. 



i 



111 virtue of the decision iiinde It.v tli<' tiibuiial at its Hrst session, tlie 

„,.i,v,,y..i , ,1 eounter-ciisc and additional docniiu'nts, cori'esjiondt'nce, an<l 

"■'■"-■'■ evidenc*^ reierred to in Aitiele IV of tiie said treaty were 

deliveii'd by the res|H'etive ajjcnts of tiie two parties to tiiesiMaetaiy of 
tlie tiiluina! on the ir)th of April, 1872, at the ehand)ei of eonference, 
at tiie Hotel i\v N'ille of (leneva. 

The trihunal, in a(!('ordane(' with the vote of adjomnnient passed at 
ii..i,v,,y„i „rK„ their second session, held on the I(»th of Deccnilicr, 1.S71, 
""'"■ re-asseinbled at (b^neva on the lath of .Inne, l.STL*; and the 

ayeiit of each of tlu^ parties duly delivere«l to each of the arUitiators, 
and to tlie aji'eiit of the other [)arty, the printed argument referred to 
ill Article V of tlni said treaty. 

The tribunal havinji- since fully taken into their consideration the 
n.iii»r„i..n« of treaty, ami also the cases, counter-cases, <locuinents. evi- 

'"' '' deuce, and ar<;uiiients, and lik«'wise all other i'oinmunica- 

tions made to them by the two parties durin;j; the [uoj^ress of their sit- 
tiiiy;s, and liavinj;- impartially and carefully t'xamim'd the same, 

lias arrived at tlie decision euibodied in the present award: 

Aw aril. ' 

Whereas, havinf»' repaid to the V J th and Vllth articrlesof the said treaty, 
the arbitrators are bound under tlu^ terms of the said Vlth arti<'le, " in 
di'ci«linj; the matters submitted to them, to be j;«>verne<l by the three 
rules therein spectitied and by such princii)les of international law, not 
inconsistent therewith, as the arbitrators shall determine to have been 
applicable to the case ;" 

And whereas the ''due «lili}>eiice" referred to in the first and third of 
D.iintim, >,i ,i,„. the said rules ouf^ht to be exercised by neutral j;()vernnients 
"'""«■""• in exact proportion to the risks to which either of the bel- 

lif;erents may be exposed, from a lailure to I'ulfil the obligations of neu- 
trality on their i>art ; 

And whereas the circumstances outof which the facts constitutiiifj the 
subject-matter of the present <'ontroversy arose were of a nature to call 
for the exercise on the partof Her Britanni*; Majesty's government of all 
possibh' solicitmie fortius observance of Iherijihtsand the duties involved 
in the j)roclamatioii of neutrality issued by Her Majesty on the 13th day 
of May, 1S(J1 ; 

Aim! whereas the efU'ects of a violation of neutrality committe<l by 
,, ,,„„. means of the construction, (Mpiipment, and armament of a 
vessel are not done away with by any <'om mission whiidi the 
government of the belligerent jtowt'r, benelited by the violation of neu- 
trality, may afterwards have granted to that vessel ; and the ultimate 
step, by which the offense is c()mi»leted, cannot be admissible as a ground 
for the absolution of the ott'ender, nor can the consummation of his 
fraud be(!ome the means of establishing his innocence; 

And whereas the privih'ge of exterritoriality accorded to vessels of 
Kxt.rntnmiitj of ^^'>''' has becu admitted into the law of nations, not as an 
v,,,.uo( «»r. absolute right, but solely as a i)roceeding founded on the 
prin<;iple of courtesy and mutual deference between ditt'erent nations, 
and therefore can never be appealed to for the protection of acts done 
in violation of neutnality ; 

And whereas the absence of a previous notice cannot be regarde<l as a 
EHrrt I „„„, „f failure in any consideration required by the law of nations, 
"""" in those eases in which a vessel carries with it its own con- 

demnation ; 

And whereas, in order to impart to any supplies of coal a character 
8uppiie. »f coal. iucousisteut with the second rule, prohibiting the use of 



KMh 



DECISIOX AM) AWARD OF THK TRIIU'XAL. 



51 



beeu 



*sels of 
t as an 
on the 
ations, 
8 done 






lle^p in^iliilitv ("nr 
iii'tH <•! tilt' Al I'Kiin I. 



neutral ports or waters, as a base of naval operations for a l)elli<;erent, 
it is nect'ssary that the saiU snppiies shouhl be eoinuMtted with special 
(•in'Minslan«*es of time, of persons, or of phiee, which may eoinl)ine to 
oive tiiem such eliaracter ; 

And whereas, witii respect t(» th«» vessel called the Alabama, it (clearly 
n'sidts from all the facts relative to the construction of the 
ship at lirst d<'si};nat«'d by the number "UlKf in the p(Ut ol 
Liverpool, and its e(piipinent and armament in the vicinity of Ten^eira 
throa^i'h the ayem;y of tlie vessels called the" Ajurippina" and tlie '* lia- 
hama." disjiati'lied trom (treat liritain to that end, tliat the Ibitish {^ov- 
ernment failed to use (huMlilijienct^ in the performance of its neutral 
obligations; and es|>ecially that it omitte«l,notwithstandinj;rlie \v;irninjis 
jindoflicial representations made bytlu' diplomatic agents of the I'liitiMl 
States during the construction of tln^ said number '"LMK»,"to take in due 
(iine any elfective measures of pievention, and that those orilers which 
it did give at last, for thedetenti(Ui of the vessel, were issued so lat(^ that 
their execution was not piacticable; 

And whereas, after the escape of that vessel, the iiu*asun's taken for 
its pui'suit and arrest were so injperfect as to lead to no result, and 
thei'efoi'c cannot be considered siillitient to release (Ireat Britain from 
the resp(tnsll)ility already incurred ; 

And whereas, in despite of the violations of the neutrality of (Ireat 
Hritain coaimitted by the "L'!M>," this siune vessel, later known as the 
confeclciate «;ruiser Alabama, was on several oc(tasions freely admitted 
into the ports of <;olonies of (treat Britain, instead of being juctceeded 
against as it ought to have been in any and (^very port within liritish 
Jurisdiction in which it might have l>een found ; 

And whereas the government of Her l»ritanni(! Majesty cannot justifv 
itself for a failure in due diligeiice on the plea of insidliciency of the 
legal means of action which it i)ossessed : 

i'our of the arbitrators, for the leasons above assigneil, and the fifth 
for reasons separately assigned by him, 

Are of opinion — 

That (Ireat Britain lias in this case failed, by omission, to fulfill the 
duties prescribed in thefirstand the third of the rules estaldished by the 
Vlth article of the treaty of Washingtcui. 

And wheieas, with respe<!tto the vessel (failed the "Florida," it results 
from all the facts relative to the co'istruction of the "()ref<r' 
in the port of Liverpool, and to its issue therefrom, which 
facts failed to induce the authorities iu (rreat Britain t) resi.>rt io meas- 
ures aderpiate to prevent the violation of the neutrality of that nation, 
notwithstanding the warnings an<l repeated representations of the agents 
of the United States, that Iler >[ajesty's goverumunt has failed to use 
due diligence to fulfil the duties of neutrality; 

And whereas it likewise results froai all the facts relative to the stay 
of the "Oreto" at Nassau, to her issue from that port, to her eulistuuMit of 
men, to her supplies, and to her armament, with the co-operation of the 
British vessel "Prince Alfre<l," at Green Cay, that there was negligence 
on the part of the British colonial authorities ; 

And whereas, notwithstanding the violation of the neutrality of Great 
Britain coinniitted by the Oreto, this same vessel, later known as the 
confederate cruiser Florida, was nevertheless on several occasions freely 
admitted into the ports of British colonies; 

And whereas the judicial ac(piittal of the Oreto at Nassau <!annot re- 
lieve Crreat Britain from the responsibility incurred by her under the 
principles of iuteruational law; nor can the fact of the entry of the 



Anil ol till' Fl4.rlc!ii. 






1^ I 



' ■ 






1.' 



52 



A H MIT l{ AT I ON AT OKNKVA. 



And iiltli>'.-li> II. 

tloult Ilil'T If.lV 

Mi^llKiiiriM'. 



Floriilii iMlt» dn' coiifcdiMiito port of ."Mol)!!*', and of its stay tlicic diiriiijf 
four iiumtlis. ('\tiii,i;iiisli tlie n'S|>()iisil)ility pivvi(nisly totlial lime inciir- 
lod by (Irciil IJiitain : 

For these iciisoiis, 

Tlic tiilniii.il, l»y a majority of tour vitices to one, is of opinion — 

Tliat (ileal Initain has in this case t'aih-<l, hy omission to Inllil the 
duties ]tres< lilu'd in tlie first, in the second, an<l in thetliii'd of tlie rules 
estahlislied liy Aiti<'h' \I of tlie treaty of W'ashin^iton. 

And wiieieiis, with resix ;'t to the vessel called the '•Shenandoah," it re- 
sults from all the facts relative to the departure I'loin Lon- 
don of the nierchanlvessel the "'kSea l\in^,"!iMd to tlietrans- 
foriiijitioii ol that ship into a confederate cinisei' nude!' the 
name <»!' the Shenandoah, near the island of ^ladeira, that the j'ovoni- 
iiicnt of I lei r.:ilannic .Maj* sty is not char^eahle with any failure, down 
to that <late, ill the use of due dilijicnce to fnllil the duties ot neiitiality ; 

J)iit whereas it results from all the facts connected with the stay of 
the Sheiiandtiah at Melhoiirne. and especially with the aii,i;iiieiitati(»n 
which llie I'.ritisli jiovernment itself a<liiiits to hav«^ lieeii ( laiidestinely 
(dfected ot her force. I>y the eiilistiiu'nt of men within that port, that 
there was ne.nli,';eiice on the part (d' the, authorities at that place: 

For these reasons, 

Th<> trilauial is unanimously of opinion — 

That (iie;il ill i tain has not !ai!e<l, by any act or omission, "to fulfil any 
of tin' duties prescriiied by the three rules of Article \ \ in the ti'caty of 
AVashin,ut((ii, .or by the principh's of international law not inconsistent 
therewith." in respect to the xcssel called the Shenandoah, dm in<^' the 
period (»l' time anterior to her <'iitiy into the poit of Melbourne ; 

And, by ii majority of three to tW(» \ oices, the trilnmal decid(>s that 
tlreat Britain has failed, by omission, to fultil the duties piesciibe<l by 
the second and third of the rules albresaid, in the case of tiiis same ves- 
sel, from and alter her entry into Hol)S()irs JJay, and is therefore re- 
sponsible ibr all acts committed by that vessel after her dejrarture from 
MeUtourne, on tlu^ ISth day of iM'biiiary, IStJ.l. 

And so lar as relates to tlu' vessels calh'd — 

The Tuscaloosa, (tender to the Alabama,) 



And <i( iIm- 'l"n*ca- ..,. ... 



fitny, iiiid A».-li»T. 



The Taeony, and 
The Archer, (tenders to tlu' Flori<la,) 
The tribunal is unanimously of opinion — 

That siicli tenders or auxiliary vessels, b('inf;])roi)er]y regarded as ac- 
cessories, must necessarily follow the lot of their priiu-ipals, and be sub- 
mitted to the s;iine decision which applies to them resijcctively. 
An»l so far a.s relates to the vessel calletl "Ketiibution," 

The tribunal, by a majority of three to two voices, is of 
opinion — 

That (Ireat Britain has not failed by any act or omission 
to fulfil any of the duties ]»reseribed by tlie three rules of 
Article Vl in the treaty of Washin<>ton, or by the princi[>les of inter- 
national law not inconsistent tlier«nvith. 
And so far as relates to the vessels called — 
Tlie (leorjiia, 
'J he SumU'r, 
The Nashville, 
The Tallahasse, and 
The Chickamauga, respectively, 



No rt'ftMMi'ibi'ity 
for th'- Kelnl.uln.n. 
(ii'orttia. S M 111 1(1, 
Na>hviIN-. Tdhihi*- 
M'f, nr Clin k.inu.uw I- 



DKC'ISION AM) AWAK'l) OF TIIK TI{[|U NAL 



i3 



Tlic <ril>iiii;il is uiiiiiiiinotisly of Mpiiiinii — 

Tliiit (liciil I'ritiiiii lias not liiilcd, l»y any act oi' oinission, to Inllll any 
of till' dill ics |(r«'S('ril»t'<l by tlir tlircc rnlcs of Article \'l ni ilic treaty of 
^VaslliIl^l(tn. or by the principles of inti'inatioiial law not iiiconsisteiit 
tli('r«'\vitli. 

Ami so far as relates to tlie vessels calletl — 

Hie .leliersoii |)avis, >.,»,. mu.m. 

1 he .Music, .i".v I1..I i.k.Mi iiiM 

llie rxistoii. anil 

The \'. II. .loy, respectively, 

The tribnnal is niianiinously of opinion — 

That they oii;;ht to be excliuled ironi consideration for want of evi- 
dence. 

And whereas, so lar as relates to the particulars of the iiidenniity 
claimed by the Tnited States, the costs of pursuit of the con- ,i„„m h.mMt ..* 
fedeiate cruisers are not, in the Judgment of the tribunal, i ■ ■ > "'■< """"••i 
properly distin.yuishalile from the general expenses oi 1 he w.ir eariied 
on by the [ iiite(l Slates : 

The triltiinal is, therefore, of opini(tn, by a niajorily ol' three to two 
voices — 

That there is no ground for awardin.;; to the LTiiited Slates any sum 
by way of indemnity under this head. 

Ami whereas prospectiv*' earnin,i;s cannot i)roi)erly be made the sub- 
ject of compensation, inasmuch as they depend in tiieir na- ^,„| f„r pro.i..ci 
tiire upon future and uncertain eontinjicucies : .vtM.uiniiin. 

The tiibumil is unanimously ol oi)inion — 

That theri^ is no ground for awardinj;' to the United Slates any sum 
by way of indemnity under this head. 

Ami whereas, in oriler to arrive at an equitable i-ompeiisation for the 

damaiics which have been sustained, it is necessary to set v,., |>,,„|„ , 

aside all double cdaims for the same losses, and all claims tor '|''">'- 
" j^ross fn'i<4hts," so far as they exceed "' net freij;hts:" 

And whereas it is just and reasonable to allow interest at a reason- 
able rate ; 

And whereas, in a(;cordance with the spirit and letter of the treaty 
of \Vashiii.uton, it is i)referable to ailopt the forin of adjiuiication of a 
sum in ^^ross, rather than torefer the sni»jec.f of compeiis;ii!on ibi' further 
discussion and deliberation to a boaril of as.sessors, as [>rovided by 
Article X of the said treaty: 

The tribunal, nialvinj>'useof the autliority conferred upon it b.v Article 
A'il of the saiil treaty, by a majority of tour voices to one, .i.,;„kmi,ki ,„,„ 
awards to the Unitei'l States a sum'of .**1.V)0(MHK> in jiold, '"""■»»"■"■''«''• 
as the imleminty to bii i)aid by (Ireat Uritaiii to the Cnited States, for 
the satisfaction of all the claims referred to the consideiation of the 
tribunal, conformably to the i»rovisions (;ontained in Article Vll of the 
albresaid treaty. 

And, in accordance with tlie terms of Article XI of the said treaty, 



Thu piiymeut to be 



the tvibunal declaivs that "all the claims referred to in the 
treaty as snianitted to the tribunal are hereby fully, per- 
fectly, and linally settled." 

Furthermore it declares, that "ea<;h and everyone of the said claims, 
whether the same may or may not have been [iresented to the notice of, 
or made, i»ieferred, or laid before the tribnnal, shall liencelorth be con- 
sidered and treated as tinally settled, barred, and inadmissiide." 

In testimony whereof this present decision and award has been made 



r 



B<i 



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54 



ARIIITRATIOX AT (JKXKVA. 



ill diipliciitc, iiiiil si^iiM'il by tin' iiiliidiitors wlio liuvr jjivt'ii their assent 
tlu'K'to, the wliolc iu'iii;;' in rxiU't ronronnity with the provisions of 
Arlich' \'il of the snid trejity of W'iishiii^'toii. 

Miidc iind coiM'hKh'd at lh<> Hotel lie Ville ol'Cieiieva, in Swit/erhinil, 
the 1 Itii iliiy of the month of Se|ileinlu>r, in the y<':ir of oiir Lord one 
tiioiisiiiid »'i;ihl liiindied iiiid seventy-two. 

i'llAIM.KS KliANCIS ADAMS. 

rh'KDKKICK kSCLOIMS. 

STAMP KM. 

VICOMTE D'rrAJlJlJA. 










I 



Ill 



IV.-OPINKINS (ir THK AIMMTIIATOUS. 



1. OlMNIONS OK COINT FiM:I K.HU'K Sci.opih. 

•,'. OI'IMUNSOI' N'lXDl M dIIA.II l(\. 

:!. (ii-rMiiNs ()!■ Ml!. .)a( (iii-.s Sr i:mi'i I.I. 

I. ( H'IM<»N> Ol Ml!. ('MAIII.I.S I'llWClS A DA M.S. 

."i. Oi'iNiu.Ns Ol Sii! .\i,r,\AM>i;i: ('ockiukn. 



OPINIONS OF COUNT SCLOIMS. 

I. TlIK TIIKKH (,•! KSTIONS OK LAW ON \VIII('|[ TIIH TIMIMNAL OF 
AKIUTUATION, IN ITS SITTINii <»K THK L*."»Tll .lULV, ISTL*, UKtJlKS T- 
i;i) KLICIUATIONS I'ltOM THK COl NSKL Ol' TIlK lIKill I'AKIIKS 

i'im;si;nt at tiih hak. 

Ill its sitting; of tlic L'."»tli .Inly, 1S72, on the i)roposiil of Vi.st-oiint 
(I'ltiijulti'i, oiu' of tlu^ arbitrators, tin* trilmiial dt'culcd to icciiiirc a wiit- 
tcii *n- priiitctl stat<'iiuMit or ar^iinnciit Iroiii tlic counsel of (iicat l»ritaiii 
npoii tlu' following' (jiU'stioiis of law: 

1. Tlic <|ii('stioii of due dilij^i'iicc ;;(*ii('rally coiisidenMl. 

L*. TIk' special (nicstioM as to the elVcct of the comiiiissloiis of t'oiifed- 
erate shi|>s of war eiitcriii;;' Jiritish ports. 

.">. The special (piesti(»ii as to supplies (»f cckiI in Hritish ports to con- 
federate ships, with till' ri^ht to the other party to reply either orally or 
ill wiitiii}^', as the case may he; the whole under the terms of Article V 
of the treaty of Wasliinjitoii. 

The (pieslions refer to Article VI of the treaty of \Vashinf;i'»n. which 
is as lollows : 

Alii km; ^'I. 111 (Iccidini^ the iiiiilti'is .siilimittcd to the iirliitnitor.s tlit'.v sliiill lit- u;(tv- 
cnictl iiy till' rollowiny; tliit'c rules, wliicli iiiti ii;;rff(l ii|iiiii liy th<' lii;;li ciuitrai'tin;; 
liiirties jih nilu.s to be Uikcu its :i[i|ilic:il>lt' to tlit- ciisi-, iiiiil l»y .sucli princiiilt^.s of iiiti-r- 



Opiiiimis till Ciimtc i'lriU'ric Sflojiix mir lis Iroin i/iirilioiis i}f ilroil mir limimllrs U- Irihiiiinl 
(raihilniiji . duns su .srtiiiir ilii '2't jiiillit l-T'J. « dimniidv ilvx I'rln'inisxi mnilx niix coiiMtil" di s 
llllllll'i jillllii:'< l)li'.-«llU'< <l III liiini. 

I>;iiis la st-iiiicc (III 'i."> jiiillct 1^7'J, siir In )ii(i|Misitimi dc M. It* N'icninti^ (I'ltiijiiliii, I'uii 
(Ifs iiiliitrcs, Ic li'iliiiniil lU'cida dc di-iii:iiidrr iiii cniiscil di- lu (iiandf-ilrfi.ijfiif iiix; 
t'xpo^itioii oil iii'^'iiini'iiiiil ion, t'crilt'. on iiii))riiii('M', siir Ics trois i|iicstii)tis d<- droit .siii- 
ViHiti's: 

I. La (|ii(>stioii (Ics dues diliju'ciict's, Iriiitrc d'liuc inanii-n; !><''ni'i-iil(' ; 

■J. La i|ii('st ion sp4'ciali' lie savoir (|ii('l ii vtv W-ti'vt dcs coiiiiiiissioiis posst'-dt'-cs piir 
Ics vaisscaiix do f^iicirc couIVmIi'ics <|ui sunt ciitrt's dans dcs ports lii'itaiiiii(|iics: 

:?. La (picstiiMi sp('cialc dcs iipprovi.^ioiiiiciiiciits dts charlion iiccordt-s iiiix vaissciinx 
(■iiiil'(''d('i(''s dans Ics ports liritannii|nc! 



out en nVscrviiiit a lii piirtie iidvcisc Ic droit dc r(^poiidi-<>, .soit oi'iiI(*iiicut. soit |)iif 



cerit. scion 1(^ las, Ic tout iiiix tcrnics dc r.-iiticlc V dii traitt> dc \Vashini,":'iiii, Ics (|Ues 
tions .sc n'rcicnt a I'iirticlc VI dn traitc dc \Vasliiii<;loii, ainsi eoiivii : 

"Aiii'K'i.K VI. Dans la decision dcs niatieres a cux Honiniscs, Ics arltitrcs scront ;;nid4\ 
par les trois ic;;lcs siii vantt's, doiit Its liaiitcs i>urtii;8 contructantcs convienncnt d*? 
lairc lino application spcciiilc a c.ettc iiiU'Stiun, et piu- Ics principcs dn droit den jfcns 



I' 



^1 



5(» 



AHIJITHATION AT (JKXKVA. 



^t-l. 



:0' 



'V 



s« 



i)iUii>ii;il l.i'.v not iiicKiisi.stiiit tlicri'widi as tlio aibitnitors .shall (lotoriiiiiic In liiivr 'iccti 
ii)i|)li>'alili- !(> till- faso : 

Hfl.KS. 

A iiciitral <;()\('nuiMMit is liniiml 

1. To M-;r (liir (iili;4ciici' to pn'M'iit t In- (ittiinj; out, ariiiiiiy, or ctiiiiiiitiii;;. wil iiiii it> 
jiiiisilii't ion, ol" any vessel uliieli it has reasmiaUle ^rroiirni to l)elieve is iiitetided to 
cruise oi' to cany on will' anainst a power witii wliich it is at jieaite ; an<l aUo to use 
like (iilieeni'e to ]iieven* the (le|iai'tiii'e from its jnrisiliet ion of any vessel intenileii to 
ci'Mise or carry on war as al>o\ c, sneh \ essel havine lieeii specially a<lapteil, in whole oi 
ill part, within such .jnrisiliet ion, to warlike use. 

2. Not to permit or sntfer either ln-lliiferent to ni.al-e nse of its jxM'ts or waters as Ihi- 
Itase of naval opeiat ions .ai^ainst the other, or for the purpose of the renewal or an j;- 
inentalion of military --uitplies or arm-*, or tin- leernilmeiii of men. 

;{. 'I'o exercise line (li'i;^'en('e in its o.vn )iorls am I waters, an<l. as to all persons within 
its jnrisiliet ion, to prevent any vinlat ion of the toreij;oin'.; •il)lieatiiiiis ami dnl ies, 

I III' lirilaiiiiie Majesty ha < commaniled her hii;h cnnimissi -:ier.~. ai'd plenipotentiaries 
ft) declare ilial Her Majesty's ^it\ eiiinieiit cannot assent to the fi re;roin<i rules as . a 
st.-ilemeiit of priiieipli s "f international law which were in force a; the time when flic 
claims In. ill ioiied in Arliide I .arose, hnt that ller.Ma|es'y's ifoverrmeiil, in order to 
<'\ ince ils desire ol' st renu;! l.r iiiiijn' t he iViemliy relations Iteiween the two connlries, ami 
of inakiii",;' sat isfaetory trov'sioii for the fntnre, aiteees that in decidiiisj; the (|iiest ions 
bet ween t he t wo conntiies ari.- inu;onl <>''i hose claims, the nil litra tors sin mid assume that 
llcr Maj( ••'s <;<)verninent li.a«l um'. rtaken f o act npon the principles set forth in these 
rules. .\!id the lii;ih coni rai't iii_, parties a;;ree to ohserve these rules as lietwecn thi'in- 
Hclvcs in fntnre, and to hiine them to the Unowledne of other maritime |»o\i-er.s, and to 

iliviie them to accede to tlleni. 

Sir llomidi'll I'aliiit'r. loiiiit'ilv iitlonicv-iiciicial, on Im-IijiU" ol' Ciicat 
Hi itaiii. ( it'iiciiil ( ". Ctisliiiij:, .Mcs.sis. lOvaits ami NN'aitt', on Itcliali' td 
tlie lIiiitiMl States, iiavc Wct'ii licaid l>y means of tlieii- respective arj>ti- 
menls. 



<pij, .sans {'tri' en desaceord av^'c cos ie;xh's, anront ete r'-eoiiiiHs par Ies arliities cniiiiiie 
ayaiii «'lt- applicahlcs <hiiis respcee ; 



'• i!i:tii.i:s. 



" I 'n piuverncliiilit llellire st leiill — 

'•1. l)e faire ie> dm-s dilii;i'iiees poiii' |ire\'inir rarnieinent en j^neire on leiinipement, 
!a!/s lis limites oii s'exerce sa Jnridiction. de tout \aissean (pTil pent raisonn.ilileinent 
oiipcoiiner et re desi iiie a criMser on faire l.i einric eontie niie piiiss.incc a\ee lai|nclle 
UM'rucinent est n paix: de faire niiMne dili;,jeiiee poiir empi'cher le I'l pa't hors 



dcs limites de sa jiirit iction d'- ton! iiaviie dcsliiii- a croi 



il <'st dil ci-il 



ser on l.iire la j;nerre, conimt' 



essns, ip ,'imi ce iia\ ii'c ;inra etc ■•pieialemeiil ad.ipli . en toni on cii pailie 



(lulls Ies limites lie sa dite jni idict ion, a des nsaycs Itel,. •rants. 

•"J. Dene periiietl re ni sonlViir ijlle I'llll <les licllim'i, lilts (asse llsane de ses ports iii 
de SI'S caiix coniuii- d'nne h.ase d'oic rations n,ival"s conire rantre helliyeranl, ni ponr 
ri'Moiiveler oil ;iii;,;ininler ses mniiiiioiis miliiaiics et NDii ai'iifnieiit , on s'y procurer ses 
re<Tnls. 

'•:>, D'i'Xcrccr tes dues i!ilii;elices dans ees cilllX, et d'empecher ipl'ancline persolilie, 
thins rcnceinttMle sa jnridiction, lie viole le-- oldijj.if ions et Ies devoirs pn'-ci'dents, 

a .Majeste hrilanniipie a chariji' si'^ haiits commissaires et idenipoleiitiaires de 
iiveriieineat de sa .Maji'sti' ni' saiiiait iloniier son asseiitinienl anx 



declarer ;pie Ii 

lee;hvs pieei'dcntes conilrie a. nil » \;pos<' de priiicipes dll droit des j;eii.i en viy;ili'in 
an Mioineiit nil se sunt elevces h's lu'chim iiions inentio.iees a I'article I; niais, jioiu 
diiiiin'r nil leimiiei)a;ie de son desir de to. ilier Ies I'latioMs amicales eiilie Ies denx 
jiays it de |)iendre eji ahi- de ra\enirdes pri'eantioiis .sali^t'ai>iantes, le e; )iiverni'ment 
<le s.i Majesti'' consent a ce ipTcn di'ri.laiit Ies i|nestioiis ipii naiiseiii de ees reidama- 
tionseiitre ies denx pays ies ai hit res tieiineiit pour accorde ipie le };on\ eriicment do 
.sa Majeste a vonlii a;.',ir en ennformile avec Ies principes r>iionces dans (res ree;|es. Les 
halites parties coiil raelantes >'enj;,n;ent. a ohserver ees rcy;leM dans lenrs rajiporlN 
luniindKa I'av eiiir, id a Ies porleia la ciiunai« .'.nee des aidres pnissames inaritiiiK-n, 



en le.«, invitaiit a v ai 



Iii'ii 



<>nt ('t*' eiitendiis, d.itis leiii's )>l,'iiilovers respectifs, Sir iioiindell Calmer, ci-ile\'aiit 
ntloniey-y:eneral. jioiir !a (irand-'-Mretajiiic, .\I.M. le i;«'m'n\l ('. ('nsliine, I'.vai-t.s »'t 
\Vait<'. pour lis litar.s-l'iiis. 



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pics e\ 
Taats-I 

miiivel 

i|iii hii 
piiiii i| 
I'' ^lini 
passa^ 
lioniiil 
lc;;iliii 
I'nis (• 



OPIMONS OF COrXT SCLOPIS. 



7. — J>uc (liliqence. 



57 






\''< 1 


' ' 1 


i 

1 



Dii: im.Kii'Nci:. 



Nous alldiis iibiirtlt'i' Ics (|in'.sti<tiis dc |niii(iiii'<. L;i |irriiiii'r)\ i|ui s'i)llVt^ Ti nos yi-iix, 
ci'lli' (|iii hiiiiN ^rivira ruinnir ilc IidiisshIc nioiali- ilaiis ics iippi't'cialitiiis <|iril nous 
t'aiidia l'aii'1% pai't'oiirant Irs ilirt'i'Tciils cas |)ratii|ii<>s t|Ui attniilfi.t iiotrr ili'ri.siuii. c'l'st 
la M'lilalilr si^iiiiliiMlioii a attiilMH-r aiix mots "iliic tlili;;rMi'i',' i|iii out t'li' cmiilnyr-M 
ilaii> la |ii'i'iiiii'rc (Ifs trois n-^jli-s ('talilics par rarticli- \'l liii traili^ ilii \Vasliiii;itoM. 
I'lii- In i;;iic iiiMU.»>iuii s"c.sl I'lalilii' riilii' Ii'.n ili'iix |nii>,saiii-('s siir Ic i»liis on Ic nioiii.s 
<rrlriiiliic (|iri) fallail iloiiiiiT a la sii;niliralinu il(> cr.s mi>lH. On iic pi'iil pas dire 
assiiiriiiint ((ii'il vail ili'l'aiit (I'l'ilairrisscax Mt> siir iiih- matiirc. l>aiis Ic pifiniiT 
" CaM'" ami'-rifain, Oh nous a domn' toiil iiii Ion;; jiassay,!' dcs paiidi'ili's d'Ayiilir, ilc 
lopiiiisfs citalioii-i dcs uii\ I jii;cs dc Sloivi't dc .loiics, aiiisi tpit' di-s iiidiial ioiir* dc la 
,jnris|ii ail'iii'i' siiiv ic dans la niainTi' par la Conr siipri'mi' dts Miats-l'tiis ft par i''s 



iitnis I cD^saisi's : dc plus, on/.i' s 

I' 



<intpl 



cs ( lat ions 



la -d 



MC 1 



liii 



anlcni> 
■ 'cncc.'" 



>t il 



en <lonnc nnc di'nnition 



l.c pichiicr ••( 'a.> 
1 pa;;c \!1, tcxtr aiijiiais) (pii n'cst point alisolnc. c| ipii s'cn rapporic aux tails liisio- 
iiipifs. liaii.s Ic •• t'onntcr-i'UMc," Ic ;i;onvcrncnicnt lii'ilaniiii|n(> cntrc dans di- pins ain- 
pics explications a cct <'';;anl, ( jkm^c 'JI, IcxIc anj^lais,) ct il s'liccoi'dc avcc cdni dcs 
r.tats-Cnis a i'(Misid('-rcr (pic ics mots, /cv f/oci lUltijciicvx, nc crccnt ancum- oldiy;atioii 
noiivcllc on supplcmcniaii'c. Ms cxiijcnt dn ncntic. duns Taccomplissi'mcnt dcs devoirs 
pM liii soni impom-s. cellc irwsiirc dc soin (et pas d'anlre) (pii est rcijnise en vt 



I'ln di 



prni. ipcs oiilinaiies i 



tela ini 



rndt 



ileiinit ionalc, SOU) dont i'aliscnec eonstiiiilc la 



iic;flj^ciiee et. ponr appnvci' sa doclrine, |e " ( 'onntcr-ease "' aiij^lais prodnit nn lon^j 
pasNa;;e dii livie dc licildie, " K'ecliciclics sur le didit mariliincet internalional." Sir 
lioaiMlell I'almer prend ees mots dans le sensiprnn nciitre doit cmplovef tons les nMiycns 
1< i;iiiHics I'll son poiivoii' en doni.ant a ees mots nnc police rai.siMinaldc. Les T.lals- 
I nis eteiident le caw «l« rcHpousahilite ct lis Moiitieiimmt ijiit' lo hollij^rTant a Ic droit »l») 



58 



ARHITRATIOX AT GKNHVA. 



lUMitral to onfon^o its iiiiini«;ipal laws, and also tlu» proi^lainatioiis of its 
cxt'ciitivc. TIh'.v assert, morctjver, that tlic l)t'ili;4(M(Mit has tiic rij;ht to 
ri'qiiirc tiiat tlic powers with whiitii th(i lUMitial is aj-iiuMl shonUl he aii;;- 
iiH'iittMl by h'j'ishitive mcasuics. 

C'ctpioiis o.\[»hmation.s have Ihm'U InniisluMlon t'itJKM'side by the parties 
in dispnte. 

it seems to nie that the laoist siniph-i method of afrivinj; at a (h'lini- 
tive opinion npon the h'^^al hearing;' of tlie tpu'stion is to keep steadily 
in view the followinu- ideas: 

TUv words (hw ttiliiiciirc necessarily imply the idea oi' a i-ehitioii be- 
tween tlie dnty and its obj<M't : it is impossibh' to deline a priori and 
llbstractly an absolnte (hity of diliu'ence. 'Die thiiin' to wiiieli the (lil- 
ij^enee iclati's determines its dej^ree. Takinj^' tin- scale nt de;;rees ol' de- 
fault ac<*ordii(^" to the Itoman law, deseendin«;' Iroin the <ii>li(s l»yliu' 
eiilitti ItiUi ami '-^/y/a h:ris to the ciiIiki Irris.simd, we find that tlieir ai>!di- 
cabiiity chanjics according' to tlie ol)jccts to wiiich tln'V refer. I pass 
over the respunsil»iliry of the ••nai'dian, of the trnstee, and several otlier 
eases speciticd in the hiw. and will tndy cite as examples cases in which 
responsibility is incnri<'d by {hv. cidpK Irris and excn Icrissima. Such is 
that, for instance, which attaches to [lersons char.ned with the <-arc (»f 
explosive snbstanctis, or with looking; alter the safety of <hups in tinn' 
of innndation, or in whose char^^c aic deposited papers of exceptional 
importance. All these persmis, Ircnn the fact alone of their havini-- ac- 
cepted these fnnctions, ai'c btaind to exercise an amount of ddiucnce 
deterndiu'd by the special object of these sann- functions. 

In treating; of politictal ipiestions, the yn'atest extent which <'ould be 
{fivcn t(» the duties of dili.u'cnce inciunbcnt on a neutral would l)c to 
r»'(|nir<' that he shoidd act with rej;ard to the Ix'lli^^crenl as he would 
act in similar circnmstanc«'s in his own intei-est. 

It is undoubtedly iijL;ht to taki^ into account the lopiirements <d" a 
bt'lli;ierent with rejiaid to a neutral, but these must not be pusiieil to 
such a point as to endtarrass tin- neutral in the normal exercise of his 
ri;;hts, or in the «M'<^ani/ation of his administrative fnnctions. 



ili'iiiiMiilcr :iii Mfiitii' ill- iiii'ttrc a «'X<^i'Utioii xcs lois d'ordrc infi'-riciir iiiiisi i|iii' li- pi'o- 

rlillliatiuns lie siiii |inll\ iorrsri'lllif: '\U Itl'i'li'llili'lit, <!<' pills, i| III' If liclli;;iTlllll a Ic (Iroil 
ill' (Ii'iiiiiikIi'I' <|ii(' It's |ii)ii\'oii^ (Ion) li' iiciilif tmI aiiiii' .siiiriil aii;;iiii'iilrs |tai iiii'siiii! 
it'fi;isliiti\ I'. 

I)i' i;raii(l"s I'Nplii'ations out ('ti'' rniiriiirs <li' part i-l iraiitir par Ics piiissami's «'i) 
(li'sari'iiril. 

II lilt' paiait i|iir la voii- la plus siiiiplr |ii)iir anivrr a IInit li'i^ali'iiii'iit ims iili I's siiv 
la Mialii'ii- est di' sc lixci' siir Irs idi t-s snivaiitrs: 

L)'s units diljiri'iirc diir, I'luilii'iiiii-iit iH'rcssaiiriiii'iit ridrr d'liii rappiii'l dii di'Viiir a la 
oliDsc ; il est iinpiissiliji' ^\^• iliiiiiii' <( priiiri alisl laitciiu'iit iiii di'\ oir alisnlii di- dJli'^iMu'i'. 
('"est la clliisc a lai|ii<lli' iitli' dilijicncc sr iapp<il tf <|ai cli di'tcniiilK' Ic drf{H'. I'li'liiilis 
l'(-i'li('ll(> di's iiiipiiialiiliti''^ si'liiii If driiil hhii.mis, cii pailaiit dii (/«/'/'< pniii' di'^^iriidrc 
par la ('((//)(( f((^( ct la (/(///d /( c/n jiiNi|n';i \;{ fiilini liris^inin. vt iiiMis I roiiv t-riiMs i|iii> lc<< 
applica'iiilili's SI' iiiiidiCiriii d'aprrs li's nlijcis aii\i|iii'ls rlli's si' ii'lrrcut. .Ic pa'>>i' siir 
la ri'spiiiisaliililr dii tiiii'iir, dii di'pnsitairi'. rt siir pliisinirs aiitrr^ ras sprrilit's dans li's 
lois, piiiir 111 citi'iiiiH' I'l'M'iiipU' di's cas nil la icspoiisaliilili' rsi I'lu'iiiiiiii- par la iiilim 
/( I'/'w, (Ml iiH'iiir par la lirixxinnt. Ti'lli- est ( rlli', par rxi'inpli'. ipii I'lappr rrliii i|iii I'si 
cliaifir di' ;;ardir drs mat n ics cxplnsilili's, tm i|iii dnit vi'lllrr a la siiri'tc dis l|jlr^u'^ 
dans Ir li'iiips di's itiondatioiis, ci'liii i|iii ;;ardr nil dipiit di' papiris d'mif iiiipi'ilanri' 
cxcrpliiiiiin'llc. 'i'linti-s ris prrsDiinrs, par It- snil la it ipi'i'llrs nut ai'i'fptf n's t'l phi ■! ions, 
sont ti'iiiicN tl't-xorftT iiiii' ilili<;i'nci' di'-tcriniiK't* par foliji't Npi'-cial df ccs inciiifs 
toni't ions. 

I'in .sr portunt Niir 1*> terrain politii|iii<, la pliiM ji^raiidi' t'tondiir <|iir Ion pnlssi' 
attiilnirr au\ dcvoirK di> dili;;i'iiri' d'nii ni'iitir sera dc liii iniposi'r d'cn ai^ir a I'l';;!!!!! 
tin ht'llioci'iiiit rtnnnif il a^iiaii pour sun propri' inti'ivl ilaiis tit s ras aii.'ilitiinf>. 

II t'st jiistf siins tliMitf ill' tfiiir di's rxini'iiri's irnii Iti'lli'^i'iant a ri'';,;ard d'nn iii'iitrr, 
iiiai.s il iir laiit point Ifs poiissi'r an |ioiiit ilr liriirr Ir nrniri- dans rail ion iii>rinali- ilr 
HL'8 (li'oitH, (liiiiM rurgaiiiNinii du turn luiicliiinH Koiivurnantcs. 




M Ik'ciimsc It iiiids itscU iiivoliiiitanly in a s|U'ciiil |)t)siti()ti witli r<><^.U'il t<i 
M llic lu'lli-icrnit. The nciitr^il iiuiy Im' asked fo put tin' powci's ol' lli^■ 
M ptvi'iiiiiicnt into lull activ ily in (trdcr to iiiaiiitaiii his neutrality ; lie e;iii- 
M not icasoiiiiidy he expected to niodity the or^ani/ation ot hisadininistra 
'M tive inaeliinei'y to sj-ive tlw interests of aiKtlher ptiwer. 
M We must beware of leiideriiij;' the e(Uidilion ol' neiitials too dilliciill 
Jk and ahiiost iinpossihie. The iinpoitanee of eii'cunis<Tihin<; war is a inal 



It 



.railiiicis \ oloutirrs, d'aiitic jiart. <iiii' Ifs dcMiiis du iii'iurc in' iiiii'isciil pjiM t'trr 
ili-liiiiiiin's jiar Ics Idis ijiit' ccltf piiissimn' mi MTait lailcs dans son |iii>|>ir iiitiirl. 
II \ aiiiait la un imtyi'ii tacili' dc sc soiistiairi- a dfs rtspunsaliilili's |)(>>iti\ cs. i|iiit 

I'lijllilr li'i'iiMliait rl (|l|i' Ir dl'oil di'S ;;i'|i>» iiii|)iisi'. l.cs liat ions nut rut ic riles lui droit. 

coiniiMiii. oil, si nil aiiiif iiiiciix tin lien coninniii. roriin'' jiar I'l'iiiiiti' *') sanctiniiiii' pai lit 
ics]n'ci dis inli'irts ir'i'i|inM|ii('S ; <■»• droit conininn sr dt'Vt'lo|>|ic snrtonl i-n s'aiiiilii|iiaiit', 
mix tails i|iii sc passi'iit siir la iiii'i'. la on Ics conlins in- sont point Iraci >, on la lilicito 
doit I'll')- d'antant pins assnii'i- par nn droit ronininii sans l('i|ni-i 11 scrait iin|iossildi- do 
Sc niciirc a ci hi vert dcs pins llaj;iaiilcs injustices par dcs ;;araiil ics posit i\cs. ( 'est cii 
ipii I'aisait dire a cet aneicii. nonrii dans ics lial)il mlcs dn servilisnie : " l/llnipcreiircst 
Ic niaiiie dc la tcirc. inais la loi esl la inaiircsse dc la iiier." .raceorde, ilmic, an 
lielli;;crant d'cxiiii-r (|ni' Ic nenlic ne inctle ])oiiit a coiisert sa i'ci>onsaliillili' sons des 

rej,;lis ipi'il sc scrail lixics dans dcs \ nes de son selll inlelel, ct J'ellire ideilieinelit dailH 
les \ iie.s de I'aiticlc \' I <ln Irailc dc W'asiijiiiitnii, qui ne (ait ipic donncr la prcrcrciici) 
an\ icm], ■■. dc l'e<piit»'' ;;r'iieialc snr Ics disposit ioi;s d'niie Icffislat ion pari ieiiliere <|iiclle 

(in'elle pnJNse ctle. 

II He nic parait pas ecpenilaiit adniissilde i|n'nn lieilif;cra:.t piiissc I'xiyer <ln ncntro 
<|iie, pniir reniplir ses dc\ oit'> dc iicni lalili', il anuuicntc xon pied iiiilitairc, son systcnio 
oidinairededelcnsc. Ilviinrait la niie inlVactiini a riniirpciidaiicc dc cliai|ne eiat, <|ni, 
piMir se trnnvcr involontaii'ciiicn' dans niie position spccialc a Tejiard dn lielli;;ci'aiil, 
'I est pas tciiu d'alidii|ner nnc |kii t ion dc sa s< ni vera i lie ti' male rid Ic. On |tent deniaiidcr 
III) neiitic dc melt re en pleine act, vile Ics ressorls de .•■ Ill ;;oii veiiicnicnt jionr niaiiilcnii' 
sa nenlralitt' ; on ne pent pas iiu> (niiial)leinent altendie d<^ liii ijn'il modi lie roi^ianisii- 
tioii dc sa macliiiic ^oiiveincnici.iale, ponr servir les inleiets d'nnc autre pni-isaiK-c 

II taut liicii se ;;aidir dc rcndre la eondii ion iles neiilres partrop dillleije el prcs(|iio 
.nipossildc. On parl<* IiuiJouih dc rimporlanec de circi>ns(uir»j hi giicrri-, ct si tni acca- 



W m 



i' iff 



' Dix, lii>. i, df \a%' liliodiii. 



no 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 



w 



■.n< 






ter of coiitimial ri'inark, and if neutrals are to be overwlielnied with a 
burden of precautions an<l Ji weijiiit of responsibility wliieh is in excess 
of tlie int»'rest they have to remain neutral, they will be lortu'd to take 
an aetivt^ part in the war; instead of a pro|)er inaction we should have 
an increase of hostilities. There will no lon,i>er be any inrilii between 
combatants; the disasters of war will bt^ multij)lie(l, and the jiart ol 
mediators, which neutrals hav«' often undertaken and bron^^ht to a sue 
cessful (!oncIusion, will forever <lisappear. 

Let us then take a view which will induce neutrals and bellijierents 
mutually t() res])ect one another. J.et us taki' as a basis the two condi 
tions of lu'utrality laid down by Dr. L. (lessner.* 

These are : 

1. To take absolutely no part in the war, and to abstain from all that 
mij;h{ <;ive an advantajie to oiu' of the bcllij;ereut jiarties. 

U. Not to ])ermit on the neutral territory any proximate hostile act ol 
one party ajjainst the other. 

As to the nu'asure of activity in the i>erformauce of the duties of a 
neutral, I thiidc the following- rule should be laid down: 

That It should be in a dii'cct ratio to the actiud dauj^er to which the 
belli,!H(Ment will be exposed throu^ih the laxity of the neutral, and in an 
inverse latio to the dire(!t uu'aus which the belli{;erent can control for 
arrestinji' the danger. 

This rule leads us to a solution of the(pU'stion, so often «liscusstd in the 
d(H'unu'nts |»resented, as to the initiative to be taken by the neutral in 
order to i)reserve his neutrality to the prolit of tlie belli^ieieut. 

Where the ordinary conditions of the country, or jtarticular circum- 
stances which have occurred on he territory of the neutral, constitute 
a special danj>«'r for the bellijicreut, who has no dii-ect nu-aus of protect 
inji' himself fn»n> them, the: neutral is bouml himself to take the initia 
ti\e in order that the state of neutrality nuiy be nuiintained with rej^anl 
to the two belligerents. 






Ml' Ics iiciitiis irim t':M(lr,Mi i\r ])i'<'i':int inns i) (rune ri'^iiionsiihilif i- i|iii ili'passi' I'iiitiMi I 
ijirils Kill ;i ri'stcr (laiis hi iK'Utralilt'. on Irs t'niccia a inciiilii- iiiic pail active a la 
jliicrrc: an lieu (riiiic rDinciialilc iiiacliini, on aura iim' aii;;iii('ii(ati()ii il'lmstilift's. II 
n'y aura pin-, dr ninlii ciil ir Ics citniliat t ants: Ics di'saslrcs dc la jiucrrc sc innll i|ilici'iiiit. 
ci If rule lie iiic'ilialciirs, <iiie les neiures out siMivenl eiilrepris el conilnit a lionne I'm. 
.sera cD'ace a jamais. 

I'lacoMs-iioils ilonc a ee point ile vile ipii piiisse eiin'an'cr les neiil res el les l)elliy;^•l'anl^ 
il so I'esiM'ctei- iiintuellemeiit. I'reiions pmir liase les deiix coiidilioiis de neiitralili' 
ti'lles iprdlcs sunt posi'ivs |iar !c docteiir L. (iessner. c'est-a-dire que — 

l,es coiidilions de la neutralise soiit : 

I. (/iron lie pi'eiine alisidiiiiieni aiiciine pari a la guerre ef (pi'on s'alistienne di> toiii 
CO ipii ponnail pinciirer nn a\ aiilai;e a I'linc des ]iartics ltcllit;eiantes. 

'■i. C/n'on lie tolcre snr le leiritoii'i^ iieiitie anciinc liostilile imiiiediat*- d'mie paitic 
oiHitic l'antr<'. 

(/nant a la nn'snii'de Fact i vile d.ans r;iccoiiii)lissement di's devoirs dii nentrc, Jo crois 
(pi'il seiail a pnipos d'elabiii' la I'onnnle siiivanle: 

(/n'elle doil eiri' ell raisoii dii'cclc dcs ('anjrers I'eels ipie h> liellinerant ]ieiit couiir 
]iar le tail on la lolciaiice dii ncnlre.ct, en rai.soii inverse, dcs inoycnsdirccts i|iie le Ix'l- 
li;.teraiil pent avoir d'l'viter ccs danjjers. 

Cetle I'ormnle miiis conduit a rt'soiidre la ipiestion. si son vent di'lialtne dans les docii- 
nieiils prodnils. de rinitiiitivo il ]iruiidro par le neiitre an profit dii l>clli;;'i''riint pour 
siiuvcf'arder sa neulraliti'. 

La oil les conditions ordiuiires dii jiays, on des ciri-onstanccm p!U'ti(Miri(^res Hiirvciino 
SUP le lerrilolrc ilii ii'iilre, eoustitnent nn <laii;ier spi-cial jioiir le lielli<j;erant tpii iir 
pent avoir des moveiis directs de s'v soiistiiiire, le nentre est teiiii d'einplover son 
iuitif'tivo lUin que IV'tiit do neiitralito so inaiiitioiiiie a rofjiird ties deux belliyerauts. 

* "Tho Law of Neutrality at Sea," Ik'iiin, l>^\-y, p. 22. 



This iintii 
smiie eiiterp 
iipplicatioii 
would const 
would impn 
other. 

It does n( 
•Voiii res]>on 
(ItMice sutlic 
would be to 
tlie jiovernii 
with these i 
of assi.><taiic 
lint al.so by 
aid and prot 
tee their sec 

The oiciit 
of tlu' neuti 
and to pi'evi 
t'lits, 

The niatt« 
event can, o 
ill elieck. «'V 
ticiilar whei 
to secure th 
tlu' neutral i 
loiiLier tie b( 
could not, h 
tiality to be 
(leiniiiid whi 
coniiivauee 

11 IVom all 
lads tor wh 



('(•He iiiitiat 

CKtlcplise de 1 
ilrlliilice llll t'ai 
Ilillili — c"csl-a 
(liTcUe de I'ai 
II lie paraii 

lill' Cll exiiieai 

line luoiednic 
I'liiiiiii iiMi d'liii 
Jills de ees ('In 
n'i'st pas seiilc 
natiiius de se ] 
ilaiicc ct eaiai 

I'liis done il 
plus celnici SI 
all iH'olil de I'l 

I^a cliiisc .se 
I'lliililoi de .sei 
sc plt-sciile SI 
ilsMllci' les nil 
iiciitie. Dam 
ijiii v; :ait sau 
i|i''on vh'le sa 
iilrcsserait <''i 

si lies prim 
U'.siiliels les E 



OPINIONS OF COl'NT SCLOPIS. 



61 



Tills iiiitiiitivp may be taken <'iMier on aceonnt of a flagrant case of 
sonic I'll tcrprise (jf on«^ of the hcllifi'crents ajiainst the otiicr, or on the 
iipplication of tlie beliij;crcnt (lenoiiiiciiif;' a fact or a series of facts which 
would constitute a viohition of neutrality in re<;anl to liin:, /. <., wliich 
would improve the po.sition of one bellij^crent to the detriment of the 
other. 

It does not appear tliat the neutral conld in sncli case release himself 
'Voiii res])<nisibility by re(|niriii<i' tin' bellijicrent to furnish him with evi- 
(jciict' siilliciciit to institute re^iiilar lu'oceedinfi's before the courts. This 
would be to reduce the bellij;erent to the condition of a men' subject of 
tlic ^iovcinnient of the country. The law of nations is not contented 
with these narrow measures of precaiiti(»n ; it re(|uires a lai';4cr measure 
of iissistaiice. This is demanded not only hy tUv ('oviil)(s iiit<r tftntcs, 
Imt iilso by the real necessity wiiich naticuis are under to lend reciprocal 
aid and protection in order to maintain their independence and ^uaian- 
tt'C tlieir security. 

The greater, then, the actual (binjicr to thebe11i<i'crent on the territory 
ot the iieutial, the more is the latti-r bound to watch over his ueiitialitj' 
and to prevent its bein,ii' violated to the profit of either of the bellij;er- 
ciifs. 

The matter apjiears under a somewiiat different liji'ht when the bellij;- 
I'lcnt can, of himself, by the i'luployiiK'nt of his forces, Imld his enemy 
ill clieck. even on the neutral terriicuy. This case ]»reseiits itself in par- 
ticular when the yeoji'raphical position of a state is sulVicient of itself 
to secure the means of prtMujitly repressinji- any enterprise |»i-epared on 
tlic neutral territory. Under such circumstances tlu^ neutral would no 
joii.iicr Im' bound to assume an initiative which would haveiio object. He 
could not, h(»wever, from considerations of self-respect, allow his neii- 
tiiility to be violated, ami he would be Ixuuid to comply with any Just 
(Iciimiid whi<'li inij;ht be addressed to him. in order toaxoid any kind of 
coiiiiivance with one or other of the bellij>'ereiits. 

If from abstract luinciples we passto the consideration of the particular 
facts l(U' which the United States Imld that (Ireat Ibitain is responsible, 

C'l'ttf iuitintivc jxMit ("tic misn cii inonvciui'iit.soit par ini cas tlaj^iiinl df (|ii<'l(|iu! 
i'i;trf|iiisr (if I'uii <lfs li('IIi;;;<'raiits coiilii' I'aiilri', soit siir I'iiistaiirc dii liclli;;t''raiit (|ui 
(li'iiniicf Mil I'ait 1)11 iiiu- si'iic »lc fait.s i|ui \ inlciaifiit a son i';;;!!)! li-s rc;ili's lii- la ncii- 
tra'iilr — c't'st-a-iiirc, i|iii iciiilrait'iit iiii'illfiu)' la posilititi d'lni liclli^i-ranl an tliltiincnt 
(If ccllc <li' I'anliT. 



jiiis (If CCS ('liditi'.s nicsnrcs (Ic prccaiil inns : il Ini Caul phis <lc lai;;cni- d'assistancc. Co 
ii't'st pas scnlcnicnt la roinilnn iiilir iiciilis ipii la ri'chnnc. c'cst ic licsoln red (in'onl Ics 
iialiiins (Ic sc pictcr I'i'cipi'Dipicnicnt aided protection pour inaintcnii' Icin iinU'pcii- 
(laiifc ct •;araiitii' Icnr M('ciii'ilc. 

I'liis done il y anra pour Ic 1iclli;;(''ranl dc da n;;,.|-,H n-els Hiir Ic tcriitniic dn ncntro, 
plus cclnici sera tcnii dc vcillcr snr sa iieiiir.ilitt'-, en cinpciiiaul (prclle iic soil violde 
ail )ii'(ilii dc I'nn on ('ic rantre dcs lielliMiiiiiits. 

I, a cliosc sc pr('seiile nil pi'ii dili( reimiiciit lors(|nc Ic Itcliifxcriint iiciil, a Ini sciil, jiar 
ICiiLploi dc ses loices, teiiir cii cchcc son eiiiicini. nieinc snr Ic tciriloirc iicni ic Cc cii.s 
■^c picseiilc snrtoiit li)rs(|nc la i»osiiion !;e(i^i'aplii(|iic d'nii ('-tat siillil d'clle-nieinc il 
a>,Mirer Ics inovciis dc ('('ptinicr proinplcinenl hnilc cntrcprisc pr(^pai<'-e snr Ic leiritoirt! 






G2 



AKHITKATION AT GKNKVA. 



w(» u\ns{ couimcucc by discii^^siiiy; tlu' coiistniction of sliips, and tlMM-ir 
c-iimstaiicrs uiith'r wliicli such coiistniction took place. Indeed, the tact 
of tlie coii.stivuttion of tli<' vessj'ls, of tlieir arniainent and e(|iii|»ineut, 
and of the expoit of arms, assinnes a dilferent aspect aceordiMn to tlic 
circnnistances of th(^ time, the persons, and tin* localities in which it 
occunccl. If the govern iiuMit on whose territory the acts take place is 
aware <»f a permanent slate of affairs, leading' to a decided prol»al>ility 
that snch constriu'tion, armanxMits, and exports will h(M*tfected with the 
object of assist in;; the «|esi^ns of a belliju'eicnt, the duty of vigilance nti 
the part of the ;;(»verninent becomes more pressin^i", and exists to a ;;reater 
extent. 

Jiritish int/'rit'iuHiiicNs. 






'\iiih 



The Uiilish ^iovernnieiit was fidly informed that the coiitederates Inid 
est a I )li shed in l-]n;:land a liranch of theii' means of at l:ick and 

" defense against tin' I 'nit ed States. ( 'ommissioners re|»resent- 

in^rthe ^ovi'rnment ol bMchmond were domiciled in lionthm, and had pnt 
themseh es in commnnication with the l']n;:lish ;;overnment. Lord b'nssell 
had received these confederate representatives in an nnotlicial way. 'J'hc 
lirst \isit took place on the llth of .May, ISdI.ihat is to say, three days 
beloi'c the (^)inM iTs proclamation of nentrality, and fonr days liefoic Mv, 
Adams arriv<'d :n London as the minister of the ITnited States: and 
fnrtiier. t!ie Knylish u-overnment could not but kintw that.yi'i'at <'ommer- 
cial honses were mana,i;in;;' the interests of the confedeiat«'s at Liver- 
pool, a town which from that tinn* was very openly pi'ononnced in favor 
of the .Sonth. In Parliament itself opiidons were befoic hnii;' openly 
expressed in favor of the insnrycnts. The (^JnciMi's ministers themselves 
did not disguise that, in their opinion, it wonid be very diiHcnlt lor the 
American Lnitni to ie-estal>lish itself as before. Then, stran.uc to say, 
the nM»st inlliUMitial nu'inbeis of the House •" (.'omnM)ns were seen to 
<letach themselves, on this <piesti«)ii, fronj the nnidstiy of which they 
ha«l iteen the powerful supporters. Tin' voice of Mv. Cobden and that 
ol Ml'. l»ii"lit were raised in favor of the I'nited States. Tin* Ameri- 



il»i>'! 



di'vttii--; iralmnl pinlrr (If la const iiii-t ion d.'s iKiviifs .ft ties circonstiinci-M an iiiilit'ii 
(lfs(|iirllrs .('s coiistnictioiis iMii'ciil lii'ii. I^c fait, ell fH'ft, <lr la const iiicl ion tics viiis- 
Kcans. (Ic Icnr arini'Mn-Mt cl (''(|ni|)>'nii'nt, dc rt-xportalion <lcs ariin's lic ;;nrrr(', lucnd 
nn as|ii ( I ilillV-rcnl. sdon Ics ciiconstiinccs dcs temps, ilcs |ifi'sonncs ct tics lirnx oil il 
H'acconuilit. Si ic ;ron vciiicincnl snr Ic tciritoiio <ln(|ncl ic tail ki- passe a connai^sancc 
(fiin I'lat <lc ciioscs permanent, anipiel vienne si> rattaclicr nne.]>i'<ilial)ilili' iiiai'i|nee 
(pie <le seinlilal>les constrnclions, arnu'ments ef ex port at ions se I'asscnt dans Ic Init dc 
.scivir aii\ piojet.s d'lin Itclliui'iant, le dexiiir dc snrvcillancc de la jiart dc cc ;;(»nverne- 
inent (lev icMl pins ('tciidn el plus pi'cssant. 

I.e non\ I'l nement lii'itanni(|ne <''tait pleinement infornn'' (luc les (■(»iif(Ml(^i'f's anii-ri- 
eains (III Slid avaieiit ('talili en .Vnelfteriv comnie mi(> siieciii-siilc dc, leiirs nioy«>iis 
d'alta(|iic el de d(''l'ense vis-avis dcs Mtals-l'iiis. I'll ei>iiiit(^ de rcpri'-scnlaiils dii ^roii- 
verncinent dc It'ieliniDiid a\ait (''ti'etaMi a Londrcs, et :l s'('-tail mis en rapporl avce le 
^(iiivcriicinciit an^ilais. I^oril Russell avail re(;ii les d('l('';iii(''s des coiiriMhTes. mais sans 
caiacleic oDicicl. I, a piciiiierc visile avail en lien le 11 iiiai l-'til— c"est-a-dirc. trois 
jmirs avaiit la proilamation dc neutralin- de la rciiie ct (pii>^ re Jours .ivaiit raniv(M- de 
M. Adams a l.oiidrcs en (pialil(' de iniiiiNtrc dcs l.tals-l'iiis. Ijc ^roiivcnieiiicnt an;;lais 
iit>pon\ait pas i^riionM' lion plus i|iie dc fortes iiiais(Uis de comiiicrcc mii^iiaieiit ll^^ iii- 
(('•lelM d( s coiit(^(J(''res a Liverpool, villi^ tr('s-pronctne('e dcs Ioim en faveiir dc r.\m<'Mi(pic 
du Slid. II lie tarda jias a se pnuioncer en ]dciii I'ai'lcmeiit line opinion loiil a tail 
favoi'alile aiix iiiNiirj;(''s du siid. I.cs miiiistrcN dc sa Ma.j('-Mt(' la Iteinc, ciix-im'-ines, nc 
diMsiiiinlcrciit point i|n(> dans Iciir iiiaiii(>n> dti voir il <>tuit tii^s-dittieilc i|uc ITiiioii 
aiiit'ii" aiiie pill hc n^taldir telle (prellc clait jiiipaiaviiiit. Alius, cliose (^lrany;e. on vit 
d«'s ineiiilncN les |dus intliieiits dc la Cliaiiihrc dcs eoiniiimies se d(>taclier, snr ccttc 
«|iicsiioii. (Ill iniiiislcre. doiit ils avaicnt (''l(' «lc jniissaiits aiixiliaircs. I^ii voix dc M. 
Colideii et eullo di^ M. liright ho tiruiit untuiulro uii favuur duH l^tittH-UnLs. L(^H AiiK^ri- 



OriMONS OF COUNT SCLOI'IS. 



G3 



cans oj' tlie Nortli »'(>iil<l li;iv»' lisid ii(t iidvocntcs more dcvofiMl to tlioir 
cans"', iiinl tlu'v <1m1 nut fiiil to tjikc iulvnntajii' ot tlM'irjiulhoiity. Tlu'so 
i^rcat inovcnicnts ot ]>nl)li(> opinion in contiaiy iliicctions t'oi'iii<'<l as it 
\v<-n> an atniosplicio of a<:'itation wliicli on;;iit to Inivc kept tlir liiitish 
ministry on its •^iiaid. in oiilcr that it nii;;lit siu-ct'ctl in nniintainin;^ per- 
Icctly «Mpial relations with the two lK'lli;;('i('nt parties. 

li«'t ns lunv tnrn from tln'sc icniarks on tin- tacts to the consith'ratioii 
of the sptM-ial hiw of the <pn>stion. in llic lirst of tlic rnlcs laid down 
ill Arlich' \'i of \hv treaty (»f Washin^itoii, iiientioii is made of the dne' 
(iilij;eiiee to prevent the liiiihliny. e<piipment, and ai'ininj; of vessels, 
wliicli a ;;(>verniiient is hound to exercise, when it has ynisontihlv (/roinKl 
to l)eiie\e that this hiiildin^. arniiiiu', and e(pii|)pin<>- are for the purpose 
lit liirnishiny warlike aid to one of tin' lMllij;('rents, 

'ihe same words occur ajiain in the third ride, wiiile they are want- 
iii;i in the second. " Why so.'" asked I^ord Cairns in tin' deliate on the 
•r(iil\ which to(dv place in the lioiise of Lords on the I'Jth .Mine of last 
year. It seems to ine that it minht he answt'ied : l»ecaiis»'. in the case 
of the liist ami third rules there is room for invest i^iatioiis ot pcisons 
mid circnmstances to ascertain tln^ facts denonnccil, whereas the secoiui 
relates to a series of evident facts on which no inquiry need he made as 
re;^ai<ls cre<lil)ility. 

" \\ hat," continned the noble lord, " is the standard hy which yon can 
iiieasiin' (Ine itilijicnce .' Dtic tlilijicm-e, hy itselt, means nothiiiji'. What 
is due diliy<'nce with one man, with one power, is nt)t tine dilijicnce witli 
aiiothei' man, with a ^^reater power." 

I )iie diligence, t hen. is determined, in my oi»inion. as I ha v«' already said, 
hy the relation of the matter to the oldi,j.;'ation imposed hy law. lint what 
is the measure ol"tlie,s(/^//V/c»/ ycason / It will iM'Inrnished by the princi- 
|ilcs(»l the law of nations, and thecharactei'ol' thecin-nmstances. Ami 
liere. not to leave the (piestion in ambi;;nity, I will examine some of tho 
lirop(»sitioiis contained in the ar^^nnient »>f Her I>ritannic Majesty's 
counsel on the lirst of the jtoints mentioned hy the tribunal in its reso- 



J::^: 



ciiiiis (111 nord n<< |iiMi\'aiciif iivitir il'uvocafs ])liis (If'snuf's ;"i Iciir cause, ft ils nc miin- 
>|ii<'i'i'iil |ias ill- sc |)rr'vali)ii' (!■■ Iriir aiitDiili''. ('r.s liiaiuls iiiiMivi-iiiriits ili- l'<i|iiiiiiin 
l'iililii|in' ilaiis (Ics sens djiikisi's I'liii a raiiirr t>>i'iiiaii'iit (•imiiiir line aliiui.^iiliiir il'.inita- 
tiiiii. ijiii ili'vait ti'iiir i''\'i'i)l<> Ir iiiiiiisti'ir lii'ilaiiiiii|iii'. atiii <li' iiitiivoir si- iiiaiiili'iiir 
iliiii^ilfs i'a|)|i()rts iiarl'aili'iiiint rj;.;ti\ avrc Irs ilcnx parliis lii'lli);i'iiiiilfs. 

I'.issiiiiN iiiaiiitriiaiit ilf ci's ii'iiiaKiucs siir Ics tiiits a ilcs cDnsiilciatimis siir cc (liuit 
NpM'ial. !)aiis la prcinii'ic ilcs rc;;lr>» ]misi>cs i\ railiric \'I iln Iraiii' ilc WasliiiiMtnii, il 
rsi |Milc ill' la iliif (til'nidiii a ciiipcclici' Ics cinistnicliims, r'i|iii|)ciiiciits cl ai iiiiiiii'iits 
ill' \ai>scaiix iin'iin ^niivcriicinciit est tciin ilc iIi'iiIdsit i|naiiil il a \\n " nii-^aiKihlr 
ijnmiui" «lc criiirc (|uc ccs cmistriictioiis, arnicniiiits it I'liiiiitcnicnts out iiiuir olijct 
il'iiiilcr, pinir I'lisajjc At- la j;iicrrc. nii ilcs liclli^ir-raiits. 

I.cs iiiciiics nulls sc ictriMivciit ilaiisla tioisicinc ri';;lc ; lis iiiaiii|iiciit ilaiihia sccniiilc. 
" l'iiai'<|ii(ii cda /" ilciiianilait l.oul Cairns ilaiiN la iliscii.s.sioii siir li' traitc mimMi. i|iii cut 
Hill ilaiiH la Cliaiiilirc ilc pairs Ic l*i Jiiiii dc 1 aiiiicc ilciiiicic. II iiic sciiililc i|n'iiii 



Imiirrait rcpoiiilrc : c est pai :-c niic ilaiis Icscasdcia pieiiiieie i 



•t lie la ti 



DIslcme 



lejjU 



il V a lieu il lies iiivcsti<;at ions dc pcrsdiincs el ile clmses )MMir ccrtilier Ics tails 
iTiiiiiiies, an lieu ipic la secoiule sc rapportc i\ niic si'tIc iIc tails cvideiits, siir leM|ucls il 
ii'y a |ias dc rcdicielics i\ tairc en inatiere de ciediliilite. 

"(^ncl est tloiic rctaliiii.' ])(inrsnivait a dire Ic nolde lord, '•d'apres le(|iicl voiis 
iHiiivc/ iiicsnrcr la dii*' itUiijiuw ? line diliyi'iicc, U vWf seulc, ne sif^nilic rien. (,'c ipii 
cnI iliir dilii/ciirf avcc td honiinc ct tel ^ouvci'iiciiicnt iic Test plus avcc tcl autre 
lioniiiic, td autre ^iiuvcrncniciit pins puissant " 



l.a (liii (lilijiiiiif sc dctcrniim' done, a niou avis, ainsi que Jc I'ai <lcj;\ dit, par Ic ran- 
IMirl lies elidscs avcc riihli^atioii iniposcc jiiir 1»' droit. Mais quelle est la incNiiri' dc la 
rdi.siin Miiffiiiaiitcf C'c soiit Ics priiicipt-s dii «lroit dcs j;cns ct la qiialiti' dcs circniistaiiccH 
ijiii nuns la doiincruut. Kt ici, pour iic pas rcstcr daiislc va^iitsj'cxaininerai queli|ucH- 
iiMi's lies proiiositious contcniics dans rarginiicnt du conscil de sa Majesto liritaiiniquu 
.xnr Ic premier di>H puhitH iiidiqiK^H pur Iv tribunal dans mm arrct<6 du '^4 juilict. Ju uo 



HI ' 1 1 



64 



AIMUTUATION AT GKNKVA. 



I .' 






■■V 



< ■ \ 






!i:i 



Intion of tlic L'ltli .Inly. I will lio {•nidc*! by my own views only, while 
ivndt'riiiy' t;.(l Justice to tlir siiitlU'ty of rciisoniii;;, iiiid to tli«' wcultli oi' 
U'iivnin}; <iis|iliiyi>(i by t lie illiistiions iulvocatt^ who has drawn np this 
docnnicnU woithy of hcin;; placed in the same rank with the e(|ually 
nMiiarkahle papers whi<-h havt^ emanated from the [ten of the counsel oi 
the Anu'rican (iovei'nm<>nt. 

I read, at pa<;e 4 of this arj,'nnnMit, that the ease of a vessel whicli 
leaves the neutral country iiuaruu'd is entirely <lill'ei'ent from that of an 
armed vessel, sold to a helli^ierent with'ii neutral territory, which leaves 
that teiritory fully capal)le of olfense and defense, under the control <it 
the Ix'lli^icreut purcliaser; that dej»arturc of the former vessel is no 
op<'ration of war ; that she is y;uilty of no v.<)lation of t«'rritory, of Un 
hostile act. 

It seems to me that, when a v*'ssel has been built and titted out for 
war, there are stronj;' icasons for believing that it has been purchased 
for the service of a bellijicrent, and that it will suddenly yo to se;i. 
There are sli(my" j^iounds foi- supposing' that, at a short disiance from 
the territorial waters, arms and mnniti(»ns will i>e broujuht to that ves 
sel, litlinji's mad<' to measure. It is exactly the case, to use an expres 
sion of iSir lvound(>ll Palmer, as i-eported in his s|»eech in the House oi 
('(unnions on the l.Jth May, l.S(»I. to act niton susiH'cion, or npon monil In 
lic/tinin(ilHi/iin<lNnspi(ion. The fraud is tooeasily |ierpetrate(l not to bf 
l»r<'sumed u|>on its lace. All that is necessary to complete it is that 
arms and en^iines of war (»f every kind sluadtl be shipp«'d on board a 
vessel strictly mercantile, and that this vessel should meet the (ttiier on 
the hiiih seas, or in neutral waters ditlerent from those of the tenitois 
front which she oii^iually staite(l. It is the story of the Prince Alfred, 
the Laurel, th<> Alar, th(> A;>'iippina, and the liahama, of all th(>scconi 
binations. which cannot, in my opinion, in any way diminish the respoii 
sibilit.s incurred by (he Alabama, the Klorida, the Shenandoah, tli( 
<ie(»rjiia, •.Vc. 

These i'vasions by fra.iiinents. this complication of ditft'rent forms of 
action with one identical object, shonhl not mislead the mind of the 



jiK- l;ii>M'iiii jiiiitlci' <iiu' \\tiy iiicm proprcs vucs, lout fii r<-iHliiiit iilcinc ot ciiliiTr justice 
;'l i:i liiifssc do nlisrlA .'it ions rt il la rirlicssc dc l:i doctrilM; <!»' rillllstl'f jlll'iscttiisllllf 
ii'dacli'iir <lc I'cllc iiii'cc (iiyiic (iV'lic iiiisc .siir iiiic iiK'nic li;;iic avcc Ics aiilrcs fjiiilc- 
iiioin i('iiian|iialili'.s sdrtics lU- la |diiiiir dfs citiiscils dii ;'(Mi\<'rin'iii('iit ain<-i'i<'aiii. 

.Jc lis, ;\ la |ia;;i' I di' eel ar^MiiiK'iit, (|ii(' Ir <'a.s d'lni iiavirc qui (jiiittc If pays iiciitic 
Kiiiis aiiiii'iiK-iit <'st toiil a fail dili'init ilu cas d'liii iia\ in- <(iii, ariiif cii ji;iicrr<', vi-ndii a 
nil l'( llifi'iaiil sur Ic tcrritoiir nciilrt' ct cii <''ial d°atla<|ni-i' ct <le s<' d<'lciidn'. (|iii(t<' cc 
IciTiliiiii' suns I'aiitoi'ili' dc rarlicti'iir liclliii<'Tfiil. i]m' sou drpait iTi'st en aiicmic 
I'avoii iKM' op<'i'alioii dc ;;hcitc ; niTil ii'csi coiipaldc d'auciiiic vicdatimi <lu Icrriloirc 
Iiclltic, lii d'allcilli acic liosldc. 

Il iiic paiait (|iic l()i's()irnii vaisscau a cti'- coiisdiiit ct prcjiarc pour la niicrrc, (pril 
y a dc Cortes laisoiis dcM'ioiic i|ii"il est aclicti' poiif le <'oiiiptc il'tm iK'lliiii'i'anl ct i|u'il 
va soiMlain prendre la iiicr. II y a liicii dc.s inolit'sdc siipposcr (pi'a pcii dc ilislaiicc <les 
^'•,ll\^s. Icrritorialcs on apportera a cc vaissean dcs amies ct ilcs nuiiiit ions, dcs vctcniiMits 
a sa laillc. ("est liien li' cas dc sc scrv ir d'nnc plirasc dc Sir Koiiiidcll I'alnicr — '• lo acl 
iipini siiNiiii-i(ni, or iijiiiii iiiiinil in lirj i/oint/ Ihi/oiiii xusiiivioii^' — (lu'oii lit dans son disconrs a 
la C'lianilnc dcs conununcs Ic |:t .\lai I'^ti-t. ba t'rande est trop facile pour ipi't'llit lie 
«loivc pasctre i»i<snin('i', Ilsniliradc cliaij^crsnr iin vaissean, stnetenieiit <le coniniert*', 
<lcs arnn-s ct dcf* cn<;'ins d<' {iueiic dv Unitv .sort«'. ct (pic fc vaissean r«'Joij;ne Ic ]ireini<>r 
<ui liantc nicr, on dans des canx in-ntrcs ditlcrenics dc eelles dii territoire priinilif d'oii 
il est pal li, ponr ipn- Ic tonr soil tail. C'cst I'liiMtoire dn I'rinec Allre<l, dn i^anrd, dc 
I'Af^rippina, ct *ln Paliania— dc tonics ees eoiiiUinaisons qni ne pourraient, a nioii avis, 
diiniiincr en ricn la r<>spoiisaiiilitc <priiiiraioiit utietxiruc I'Alabuuiu, lu Floridu, le 8hv- 
iiandoali, le (M-oi^iia, «.Ve. 

C'es (Evasions par lra;;inciits, ectte <((nipliealion de foriiios d'actioiiditVerentes, daiiHiin 
iiit<^rct idenlii|uc, iii; duivent point lonivoycr ToHprit dii jii^u. IJu vaissean tout pr('- 



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(il'IMi)Ns ol' corNT SCI. oris. 



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I' 



jiidm'. A \('ss('l. t linroiij^llly titled out loi- \v;ii. 1 :i\t's the siioirs ii|miii 
wliicli it li;!s liccii liiiill wiliioiil icccIn in;;- its .iiiuiiincni : ,\ siinidc iiici' 
(•li;irit\('sscl is (•li;ir;.ii'tl willi llic tiaiispoi I ul' its iiriiiiUin'iit : tiic |»l;icf 
of iiuMMiii.u i^ lix<'<l, iliiil tlM'i'c the ;iriiim;i' ol llic m-sscI is coiiiidclcd. 
Tilt' )rifl< is ddiic. r.iit I lie Jiidu;'*' ciniiiot allow liis i'imsoii and coii.-ririiiT 
III l»c led asl i.i\ liy siicli st rataufiiis. On tlic contrary, tlic niaiicuvcr 
will onl\ dcnionsli'iitc nioi't' ciciulx tlic criminality of both vessels. 

1 return, (lien, to what was said i>y Sii' K'oltcrl Peel in a nienioraltle 
speecli delivered in llie i louse of Coiniiions on I he U^l li Apiil, isio. ■• If 
tlie tioops were on hoaitl one vessel iiliil tlieii' ai'iiis in anojher. did thai 
make any dilVereiice ."" and 1 do not liesitate to say thai if llie vessel 
was ill led out for war and read>' t ) receive hep , inn ■nis-ii! . and her arms 
were on hoard .mother vessel, ii made no difference. 

I conless that i do not (|iiite iimlersiaiid liie true nieanin;j ol what I 
rcail at pa^e!!: "• Willi rrsjxrf ti> the tliif i i:li ><" (those laid down hy 
Aiticle VI (d' the treaty of W'ashinu'lon.) '■ // h impovtidit to ohsrrrf Hint 
nil one of tliciii jtrcti mis llml It is tlir ilutii of a iirrtril (i:>rt niiiinif to prcniit, 
inulcr ((II (■(rc((iiist((iic(s irlidtcrcr, tlic ((rt.s <((/(( Inst irhicli tlicfi t(n- diicrtcil." 
If such is not the <luty id' a titivernment, the cases iii which il is neces 
sary to ol)ser\ (' lliem.. and those in which it is not, shonhl lia\e lici n 
specilied. The intention of inakiiii:;' .ueiieral the oi)servance ol' these 
rules seems to me to he explicit. Tlie solemn words, '• k iicKlxd (loiuru- 
limit is hoKiiil," and the linal clause (d' this article, not less solemn, that 
the !iii;h ('(uiti act illy' parties enuan'c not only to observe these rules as 
Itelweeii themseh es, lor I he future, hnt also to hrili,u' lliein toihe kiiowl- 
e(l;i;e of oilier maiitime powers, and to invite lliein lo accede lo them, 
|>ro\ e this inc(mti'o\ ert iiily. 

How. i hen, can we snpp(»se that lliere exist cii ciim->lances. luveseeii 
and adinilled l)y the hiuh contriieliiii:' parlies, in wlii(di these rules aie 
Jiol old i;na lory, unless such <'ircnmsiances are expressly men;ioie <l .' 

ITidon'otedly it is necessary ihat a case for liie aoplicaljoii of these 
rides should be iii;i(h' out re;;iilarl\ , and liascd on snliiciei,l ^roiimls; 



pun' iiKiM 1.1 ^iinirc (|uillr, sans rcccviiir son iiiiiii'iin'iil, Ifs pliijics mu' Icsinicliis 11 a 
I'll' I'oiisiniii: im \ai.-»i-iiii l<iut siinjilt'inrnl (if rtinuni'icr .sf clno'jic dc Iraiisixirtii' 
I'annt'nrnt : if hrn tin niiilf/.-vonx csi lixi . la sc I'oniiilrfc raniii'inrnt en i^niTic (in 
\ai.--s('au. I,r iiiin f.-.i tail. .Mais la raison d la cunscichfr dn Jnur he iicnvml m' laissiT 
liirndn- il res rnst's, ISicii an roinrairr, w niaiii'^^t' nc scrv iia ((iTa inii'nx la ire rcssoil ir 
la I !il|iaUilil(' (lis ilciix vaissranx. 

.I'l'n ii'\ i( IIS (hnic a (■(' (jnc (lisait Sii l.'uhcit I'lil (i'lis nii nniiinralili' liiM'nui.-; |»rii- 
iKinri' ii la ( 'iiaiuliic dc-; (nnmniiii's Ic -J-- a\iil I'-iiH; "Si Ics I mniics ( liiirui snr iin 
\:Ms>i'aii ct Ics iiniics sni' nii ani ir, cclii lais;iil-il iini' diriV't-cncc .'" la ,)i' n'lii'sitc |iiiini 
iiliii'.si li' viii^.-cau i-lait a|i|iar(ill<' iioiii' la ;;ui'nr el pn t li ifcc. i.ir riUiin incni. i! 
lis an lies I'tiiirnt sni nii aiil ic iiii\ ire, crla in' I'aisaji aui'nnc difiri rnii'. 

■I'av line (|ni' Jr iic nu' lends piis liicii cnniiilc ili' hi \<'i iliihlc iiurtic di- cc (iiic jc lis a 
la j'.ii;;'' (i . ■' I'mtr <■< ijni iniicmif rn< imi:. i-iijlir^," ^ci'lli's ( inl)lirs \\,\v I'artiili' \\ K\n 
Iraili' (If W'asliiii^ltni, ) " (/ ci/ 'imi>iir(niil ih ii imiiiii'i r ijii'iiiiinnc it'illi-i /ic y(r<7(i((/ (iii'il mk/ 
(//( ilrroir (t'loi j/oiiiiriK nil III iiiiilri: il'i mfivihi i\ iltiiis luiis lis cum, Im iiilcs nmlir lixijiiih illm 
loiit mliijiJi/<." Si icl ii"csl pas 1(> devoir d'nii fiouvcniciiiciit, on iiiii;iii dii spt'cilicr Icn 
IMS oil il (''tait iiccrssiiirc dc 1(*m (disci'vt^r I't ccnx oil il iic I'l'lait pas. l/inti'iitinn *\v 
;4i'iii'nilis('r rohsiTvaiici^ dc ccs r(';;li's iiic parait ronncllc. Lcs mots sidciiiicls — " « iitii- 
liid ijitviviiiiuiil !■•< Iioiiiiil" — cl la clause liiiaic dc eel artii'lc. mni nioins sidciinclle, (pie 
lis lianies piirlies coiiti'iictantcs s'cnuiinciil, iion-scnlciii 'ill ;i oliscrs cr ecs ic^^lcs eiitic 
I'llcs dans ravcnii', niais encore ii Ics jiorlci' a lii coimiiissanccdes anlns pniw8iuu;i«* inuy- 
tiiiicsct ;i Ics iiuitcra y iicc('(lcr, le proiivent a ri-vidciiee. 

('oimiiciit done pininions-iunis sii|)posei' ipi'il exisl(! dcs eireonstaiiecs ]ir<''vnes ct 
iivoni'cs |iar les liiintes parties cinilractiinies oil (.'cs rc<;les n'olilijieiil pii>, siiiis ((ii'oii 
I'll ait I'ait inentioii expre.'-se ? 

Certcs, il I'liiit ([lie le cas (I'jipplifution do cos rcijlet* suit dotcrmino n-giiliiveinout ot 

5 B 






ik; 



AinUTIJA I'lnN \l (iKNK.V\. 



<i.l ' 



hut wlicii tliis is rstiiMislMMl, tlic nilfs must linvf lull :iiitl iiiifestiiiti i| 

o|icriltinii. 

Tlicsc riih'S, iiccnidiiiy to tlic miiiiiici' In wliicli ilicv iirc hiid down, 
coiisl itiitc nil <il)li<;;it 11)11 liiisfil nil tlic •/ciiciiil hiw ol ii:itiuiis, and n 
would he to cliiiii^'t' their liiitiirc, todi-sirox tln-ir cllcct roinplctt'iy, In 
admit, as is roiitciidcd in the ar.uiimt'iil of i Icr jirilaniiic !MaJcsl v's coiin 
scl, that the iiicasiirc of (III)' dilin»'i!cr |(» lie csficisfd mii>l hi' diiiw n 
from the viile^ and pi iiieiph's of Icuislalioii peculiar to imcIi of the roii 
tractiii;^ parties; that islosav. thai the neiierality and lireadlh of the 
ride ma> he limited l),\ the miiiiieipal law. 

No, assuredly, siieh eoiild not have heeii the intention of the iii.uii 
eoiitraeliiiu' parlies in franiin;.;- llie sixth aitiele. l'jiL;laiid has deelareil. 
il is true, thai she <'ould iiol assent to the tore^oin^ rules as a staleiiieni 
of principles ol' iiiternational law which were in fore*- at I he linie when 
the claims mentioned in Articl'- I ar.tse: this is a simpl.' retiiopeelivf 
tjUestioii of the sense and interpretation of the law. iSut Iroiii thi' 
moment when I'lnyland, w il h the view ol sticiiwtheniny the Crieiidls 
r<'lalii>iis iH'tweeii the two eoiiiiliies. ami of makiiiu' satisfactory pro\ is 
ion for the Iriliire, e(Uisenls that these rules sleiidd he hiiidin;;- for tin- 
past also. >he iiiiisl consider tliein as |)ro\ isioiis of the ^eiieial luw nj 
nations. coii\»'!ilional, if yon ph-ase. luit superior to an> provision oi 
municipal hiw. It is not. in my opinion, in strtiin the natui'e of interna 
tionai law , to rc(|uire that it shoititi he applied without uny admixture 
of political interesls h\ the powers who lia\e acceptc<| it. I ayrce thai 
wccaniioi re«piiie t he exeeiil iim of what is aclmilly iin|ios.sihle. Thiii 
is a ease of <oiii rolling' force: ail iiiijxissihilv ni'itio tnirtiir, Ihit I rj'fusc 
to reco.;iii/e the jxililli-dl //(//;.*.v.s//»//''(/ ap|)ealed to in the ariiUlneiit of 
Her I'liilaiiiHc .Majest\"s c«uinsi'l. Ndtliinii' can he more elastic than 
these woifis: il woiihl ite lo altandoii this vital part of the treaty to the 
ciirieiils ^A' temporary iiileiests, of the accidents of the immieiit. Il 
wdiihl he said: ^'cs. I cimseiited to lay down the rule, hut I ha\e im! 
!he means of carry in;.;' it out ; so much the worse lor I lie rule. 



iii 



•ivi'i- lair i:ii-on ^ullisMnO': iii;iis. cil.i |mi>c. lis ii ^I.'h (l(ii\ciit ii]i(i(r (Ic |»lciii (lidii. 
I'l siin.s jiurnnc ri'sliictioii. 

('is I'culi'S, ill- lil fiiriill ilitlU I'llcs sDiil itahiii'S. ('iiiisl il i|i-nl ilin- ii1ili<;atioll l'oil(l<''(' MM 
If tlioil ilrs Willis ^I'hiTal : <■! ri- sciail rii rlianiifi' la nal me, rn (ifliniri' riiiiii>!i't( iiiriii 
rrllrt (|l!f <l":iillli(I I IT. ilili.si i|nr Ic Mimlr.'lil Wiri/ii infill <lli <(iliM>il (ic s;i .Miijislc hiilaii 
iiii|iit', (|iii' III ini'siiir ili's lints ililiiiiiiris a riii|iiii\ i-r, il I'miu la di'iivrr dcs limit's it 
• Il .■' i)riiii'i|ir> ill' la II i;islal inn inoinc a cliacnui' ili's jiail ii's cDntiai'taMtt's — c'csta-diii- 
unr la LiiMiiialiti' Il la ^iianili iir ili- la ii i;li' pnin i i«nt I'l ir sDniiiisrs n (Irs liiiiitatiDii-- 



(■'laliti' I'l li 
|iar la Im iiinni('i|>ali' 



\(.i 



I. |iiini' ^'lll'. Il 



h'a iMi I'ti'f riMlcntion ilt's liaiiii 



pai'tii's ('(inlrarlaiili's en 



ii-!li;;raMl Tailicli' \'l. l.'Ant;li'trri«' a ili-claii'. il est \ lai, iiii'i'llr n'mti'mlail iioint ail 
nu'llri" ijin- Ifs iculi's pn'ritci's mssnii li- r.-iractrcf i\f priaripi's ({<• (Imit iiUi'rnalioti.il 
I'M vi;;iiciir a ri'iMii|iii' 111! Ii's it'claniiU inns cnDin'i'cs a rarlidi' I dii traiti piiicnt nai« 
sani'c; c'cst la nii-.' simple i|ii)>sti(iii irtrospcclivc (I'intcllijirnci' ct <riiiti'rpii''tat inn 
(Ic droit. .Mais dii iminicul ipw rAiijilctci ic, cii vuo dc raltcrniir Ics rapports d'ainiiii' 



lire lis dciix 



nalions ii 



d.' r 



pourvoir (riinc mann'ic s.'itislaisaiitc anx cxi^i'in 



iivcnir, ciinscni a cc i|nc ccs 



rc'ilcs f 



tssciit aiUonlc, nicnic punr Ic iiassi- 



doit Ics considi'nr coninic di's dispositions dc dntil dcs trcns ;ni nigral, t'onvcntioimcl -i 



on M'Ut. niais siip 



'ricnr a lo.Uc ili' 



)ositi(ni dc droit iiiiniiripal. < 'c n'cst pas, a nin 

ati'j 



a\i«. niiliir la naliiic dn droit dcs ;i;,.||,s ,mc d'cxi^cr ipi'll soil appliiini' sans iiicl 
d'iiilcrct ]iolitiinii' p.ir Ics puissances i|ni font acccpti , ,lc snis d'aci'in'd i|n'oii ai- 
piiissc pas dcinandcr (|n"oa execute i!cs choscs iik/io'iV/i //oii/ iiniiDxsihli s ; c'csl le cas ili' 
la I'orce luajeurc; ml inifionHiiiili 1111,111 liiuhtr. Mais jc nu' refuse a rcionn.-ntrc VirniiK'- 1 
liililr iiiililiiiiit inv(ii|ucc dans Vnriiiiiiii iil dw conscil dc sa Majesir' l)ritannii|ue. Ki' n 
ii"csl pins clasti(|in' i|ne CCS mots; ee serai I li\ rei rcxi'cntion dc cctle parlie viiale dn 
iraite anx conrants des inli-icis leniporairc.s, des aei ideiUs dn nionuMU. Ondir.iii 
li>ui. J'ai consenfi a poser la icule. inais Ins inoyeiis d'y mitisfiiir« mo iiiaii<iuoiit ; lain 
pis pmir la re;;le. 



(H'lMONS (U ( ol \ I X l.oris. 



♦ !< 



I iitid, in cniicliisidii. Hint tlicic is no <:ri>iiii<1 to I'ciii' licit tin* :i|)|)Ii<'ii 
tinii of these lilies eiiii ;;(» so liir j|s tti \ iohile the plilieiph's oil \\iii( d 
iiiitioliill };o\«'rilllH'llts rest. 'I'he iiiiliiie of the eiiyiljieiiielil Woes iiol 
n;icli thiit point. It is \cr,v |Missil)h' Ihiit t iieir ;i|>|ili(;ilioii iiiii\ soiiit 
times eiiihiii Tiiss jl^on ('niiiieiits in Iheir political eoiidiiel : but it wil' 
irioi'c often prevent disoidel s eapalile oi leadilij; to liiisfoilnnes wliieh 
eollld !iot l>e siinieielitiv deplored. 

'i'lie rides of the sixth arti(deof t lie treat v of W'ashiiiyloii are des- 
tined to heeoiiie principles of iiiiiv<'rsal law for the>inaiiitenance (d' lu'u 
lialilv. The \erv text of the treaty sa\s so. and Mr. (lladsiniie and 
Lord (iran\ille liaxc al\va.\s, and with reason, insisted on this prospe* l 
i\e Iteiielil to eivili /a! ion. In order to reali/i- it, the sexcral ,il;'o\ evn- 
incuts 11111.--' take measures to olitain tilting' powers for the e\eeiiti<»ii o' 
the law. As rej^ards the past, there lia\e lieeii ;;real <liscre|)aiicies oii 
this point in the le^^i-datioii of dillereiit nations, ,'1'he rniled States, 
with their district at toiiievs, their marshals, and or;;ani/ed pidice otli- 
rcis, were lietler assisted til ill i'liiulaiid was, with its eiistoins and 
excise ollieers only. I do not doiiht that these \iewswilliie ree<'l\cd, 
il the treaty of WashiiiLilon is to he carried out in earnest, and it woiihl 
ilea ;;reat niislorl line il it were not. 

I do not think it is ai»soliitely necessary tbrour purpose to discuss 
tlic (d»sers alions which ha\e iteeii made respectinu dilVereiit ipiotations 
fioiii the woik of Sir llohert j'hilliniorc. nor to (Iwt'll on the (-(Hiipaia- 
ti\ c study of the legislations of Amci ica ami I'. upland in mat teis (»l iieie 
trality. I'his may he more iisej'iil when franiin>;' reunlatioiis to lie made 
ill iHirsiiance of Article \'l of the treaty. 

It is to lie hopi'd that this process of reetifyin.u' <M' siipplemeiitini; the 
precautions to he taken in order to insure the execution ol the treaty 
111 its full extent will not he delayed. 

We ha\(' witnessed the anxiety oi I'ai.uland to modify her iieiiiialjiy 
laws on the IneakiiijH" out of i he war in IS70 helwc ii l-'iance and (ler 
iiianv. 



.I'MiniUi'. |i(iiir 111 liiiir. i|iril \\'\ a pa^ :i rraiiiih'' i|iic I':i|i|i1ii':itiiiii ilc crs i-cyjrt 
|iiii>sc aniv IT an iMiinl <if \ lolii- Ics ])riiici|ics siir |fsi|iii'ls ic|miscii| Irs ;;iiii\)'riiriii('iiN 
iiaticiiiaiix. I,a iiatiiri' (Ic l'cii;;aniiiii'iit iii' va pas |ii>i|iic la. II est t ics-|iiissil)lc (|Hf 
<'iiti' a|i|ili<'ati<iii i;i'ii(' i|iU'li|iic'rnis Irs •;iiii\ I'l'iiriiiciits ilaiis I I'M I' t'( 111(1 II ill- |ii<iil ii|iii'. ma IS 
'111' iiii]irrlii'ra plus sDiivi III ilrs ilcsiii'ilri's capalilrs di- piiiiiiiirc ili-s iiiallii-iiis i|ir<in nr 
^.iiiiait a.ssc/. ilr|)liiri'r. 

I.rs li'jilrs tlr l';ilti(lr \' I illl Haiti' (Ic W'aslllli^l nil sunt ilcst illi'i'S a llrM'llil <li-s 
{iiiiii'ipi's ill' ill I lit niiiiiiiiiii pi III I la uaiaiil ic ilr la iiriit lalitc l.r li'Xtc iiii'iiii' Ic ilit , ct 
M. ( ilail.stiiiir it l.inii liiaiixillt' mil liiiiiiiiiis, rl aver r:iisiiii. insisti- .siir cctlc pirvi.sinii 
'I'liii liii'iit'ait arijiils a la ri\ iiisai imi. I'lMir ijiic ccla st- icalisi'. 11 laiiiira i|iir li-s 
'lillfii'iits ;;iiii\iiii(iiifiit.s pii'iiiii'iil ill's iiicsiiri's aliii iravoir Ics niovriis cuiiMiiaUlcs 



piiiii- I'M'i'uli r la liii 



rmir li' p 



V aval 



Ills la lii;islal inn ilrs ililli'l'i'llts pcilp 



t lie liiainl 



I'M v.'irii'trs en I'l'llr inaiKif 



Lis Klals-I Ills, avi'i' Inns tlllnincilx t\r iWn- 



iiiii. hills man rliaiis. nllicirrs ilc piilirc mnanisi'i'. ilaii-iii miciix a «sisli's i|nf rAn<ilc 
I'lils riiiplii> I's ill' la iliiiiaiii' rt ill' rai'i'isi'. .Ic nc ilii.'tc pdini i|iii' I'lm 
"'I'xriiilicni iln liaili' ili- \\'asliiii;;tiin <l(iil itir "luist^ sci iciim); 



111 ri', a\ re sfs Si 



1 iiilii' <lan 



s ns \ Ilrs, si 



'I ii'srrait nil jirami inallii'iir ^'il in' I'llail pas 

•II' priisc ipi'll n'rsl point alisulnmi'iit iii'ci'ssairi' pnnr iiotic I'linli ilt; ilisi-iitri Ics oit- 
M r\ aliiMis i|ir«ni a laili's tiincliant (litl'i'ii'iilcs rital inns dii livri' dr Sir linln'il riiilliiiiot'c, 
iii ill' nuns aircliT siir ritinlr ilrs ii-i^islatiiins I'nmpari'i's irAtni''rii|iii' ct <r.-\ii;;li'tiTrc im( 
Ilit ill' iit'iilralili'. Crla ponna miriix si'i'\ir ijii iinl km traxaillcra anx ri'^^lfinciits a 
iiiii' ili'pi'iiiiainiiiciil (Ic rai'lirlc \' I (In Haiti'. 

II I'st a cspcrcr (|nc ccltc icrtilic'ilinii. mi cc siipjiii'ini'iit ilc pri'caiitimi-* a pii-mlrc 
|"iiii aMsni'cr I\'X(''('ntimi dii Iraiti' dans Imilc smi cli'iidnc, nc hc ti'ia pmiit alti'iiilri'. 

NiHis a\i)ii,s Ml l.'i sDlliciliidc di- I'Anjjictci ic a mndilicr scs lois sm la iiciitialitc. a 
I "iiM rturc (Ic la i;ii(iic, (.ii IsTU. eiitic la rrancc i^t rAIl(!iiiaj{ii»'. 



^ 



CS 



AijniTi.'ATioN A 1 (;r.\i:\ \. 



illil 



i- i 



\\ liy siiniiM \v<> not hope Col' (><|iiiil iinxictv now to rouronii to the 1*1 
tci' iiiiii spiiit ol tin- tn'iit.v ol W !i.s|iinyt(»ii t 

I coiiif lo III*' :i|>|ilinilioii of tlir roiisitlt-nit itins I )iii\f |int t'oi'w iml. 
It n-siilis I'loiii (Ills, iicciiKliii^: to iiiv \i«'\\s. ilmt ilif IjiuMnIi yovcii; 
niciit IoiiihI ils»'If. <lniiny the lirst vcjirs of t lie uiir of scrcssion, in ili< 
iiiidst of 4'ii'(;niiiNtiiM<M's wliirli <'(inl(l not Imt li:i\r :in inllncncc, if iini 
dii('(-tl\ npon ilM'lf, ill I*m>i iijiom n |i:ii t ot I Im' |)o|tnl.il ion >ni)iffl to tin 
III it i>li ( 'low n. No jio\ ci Mini'iil is siilc ii^iiiii.Nt rntiiin Wiivfs (>f |inti 
lie o|>iiiion wliicli il ciinnoi nnislrr :il il>\\ill. I iini far IVoin I iiinkiiiL; 
tint 1 lu' iininms ol ilic l-'ji^lisji yo\ crnnKMil \^ as hostilr lo tin- I'rtlcii! 
(io\ fi'iiniciif (liii'iii;>' the wiii'. 

Vft titric were j:i;i\t' <l:inu('is for Ilic I'nitcd Stiitrs in (Jii'iit Uiilaiii 
iinti lirr coloiiirs wliirli tlicrr ut-rc iiodinct nii'an.N lor :i\ rrl in;^. I'-iiu 
land, tlicri'fori'. slionid liav*- lnllill<d In-r ihitirs as a in-ntral I),n tin* t>\ 
t'icisc of a diliuviiic ('<|Mal to the jira\it\ of llir dan.m-r. I imtiI 
oiilv here r<'|Mat a passauc from a ifport of tin- law oflifcrs n! 
Ilcr Uiilaimic Majcstv. yixi'n in uplv to a r»'<|in'st of Loid K'ns 
sell, on the iLMii J >t'('(MilM'r. isil,".. SpcaKinji •>" •'"<' snWjfrl ol tin 
<M'oi\nia. tin- law ollirtis oitM'ix r lliat llif facts n-sidlin.u from tin'di'pn 
sit ions i«'n'i\(Ml Jiiniisli mlilillinnil firnninls to (liosr alrriiili/ t.iisliiiii I'm 
sli inifi iciinni/iliiiiHc to thr coiifcilrrtili i/nn nnin nl on iicnnnil of tlif sj/s 
tnniilii' riol(ili(ni tij' lirilisli in iitnilitii In/ tliiir iijinils in litiH.sli tcrriloi if. 
Jlritisli Appcinlix. \ol. i, p. I to.) 

It raniiot he dt-nii-d that iIu'It were mommts when its \valcliliilncs> 
seemed to fail, and w lien lechleness in certain Uianclies of llie piihiii 
service resulted in i;ieal detriineiit to the riiited States. The con 
setpiences ol such let Idciiess can lie no other than a rep, nation l*rr tin 
damaiics snlfcred. Mail li'iissell writes lo Lord l.voiis. ii a letter of tin 
liTlli .March, is(;s. that "he had said to Mr. .\danis that the cahiiift 
were of opinion that the law wassullicieiil. lint that leyal e\ ideiice coiilil 
liotalwaxs he procured. That the I'.ritish ydverniiiciit had done eveiv 
thili.u in its power to execute the law ; hut that headiiiitlcd that tin 






riiMr<|iiiii III- pas rspt'^rcr <|ii'iiii sera I'lnincss)' aiiiiiiinl'lini a sr ('iiiirni'iniT a la It'llirr' 
a ri's|iiil (Irs sti|iiil:iti(iiis (II- \\'asliiii;;liiii .' 

.i'l'ii viciis a ra|ip!iiat ion <li-s i-iiii^iilti'.'itio-is ipic j'ai lailis. II rcsiillr a nn-s \nr, 
(|iii' II' itiHivi'iiii-iiiriil aii;;lais s'i-s| Imuvi-, piinlaai li--^ pii'iiiii'ics aiiin'i-s ilr la ;;iirin 
ill la M rrNsion, an inilii-M <li- riirniistaiii'i's ipii n'lnil pii ipiaMiir iinr iiilliirin'c. si r< 
n'l st liii'i rl inriil SMI' liii. iln inniiis .snr iim- pai i !■' ili-s pupnlai nnis .-MiiiniiHi-^ a la i'iiiii'i>iiii> 
irAnnlrli'irr. Nnl umiv i-iiii-iiii'iil n'l-sl a TalMi ilf i rilaiin-s si i-unsM-.s ili- r<ipiiiiuii |iii- 
liliipn-. ipi'il n'lsl pa> lihri- ili- mail ri-^i-r a >-i>ii iivr. .Ji- siii> luiii tli- pi-iisi-r inn- Viiinniii- 
(In i;uii\ I rni-ini'iit aiii;lais ail i-lr liostili- piinlaiil irltr <;iii'i ir an (i<Mi vi-rin-ini-i\l li 
tlcral. 

_ ('rpi-nilaiil. il rsi-^lait ilr j;ia\ ■■> ilaii;;i-is m Aii^ilcici i r i-t dans si-s rnlmiirs pinir li- 
I'^.tals-I'iiis. ijiii ii°a\aii>iil aiiriin iiii>\<'ii ilii'i-i'l ili- ics ciiiijiiri'i'. II I'aillail iloiir i|ii> 
r.Vii;;li tn i(- mil. a nanli-i- li-s ilt-vniis ili- l.i in-iit ralili-, iiin' (liliy;i-nri- i-i)Hi'.-.piinilaiilr :i 
la ;;ia\ ill' (li- I'i's ilaii;;i-is. II ini- snilil ili- rapprli-r ici iiii pa*sai;i' irniir cimsnllati-ii: 
(Irs runsrilli-rs ir-;;an\ ill- sa Maji-sli- l)rilaiiiiii|iii>. (-inisr, snr I'iin ilalion di- LkiiI I>u>- 
.s(-ll, II- Iv ili-rrinlirr tsiilt. i'ai'|,-iiit ail siiji-t (III (iriM-jia. ('CM ('iiiis(-ill(-rs ii'isi-rvaii'iil 
(|ni- lis fails I't-siiltani di- (|i-pi>sitii)iis ii-riirs ••/uiniiissnirnl ilrs ruisiniK it tijniilir a irllt'- ijia 
iui!*liiiiiil ill jii fiinir iidnssir ill rin s riiiiniilrioiiix mi iiiniiiriiinniil iniijiiliii', it j)Vi)i>itn ili ''i 
riiilaliiiii Kiitli'iiiiiliiiiii til In mnliiilili' niiiilnisr, inmiiiini' pitr «('« iii/nils mtr /<■ tirrititirc lirilun- 
nil/Ill."' ( ApiK'iidici- lii'itaiiiiii|iii>. \ol. i. p, 141*.) 

<.>ii IK- saniaii iiii-r tniitcCnis ipi'il v ciil di-s iiinmi-iils oil la riirnciir dc snrvcillaiii'i' 
jiaiht faildir. , Dc la di-s ({(-raillaiicrs dans (-i-riaiiics parlii-sdii s(-rvi('(- piihlic, (pii mil 
iiiiirnr- all ^iraiid drsavania;;!- ilis I Jatst'nis. el la coiisiipii-iK-c di- ci-s dcl'aillaiiccs iir 
pent I'-t re autre (|u'imt' n'-paratioii di- (liniiiiia;;(-s sniill'i-rls. Le ('iniit(f Kiissell ('-cril u 
1,111(1 Lyons, dans iiin- li-tlri? dii '21 mars l^flit, (pi'll "avail (lit a .M. .Vdiiiiis (pic h' calii 
in-t ('-lait d'ltpiiiidii iinc hi loi siiHisait. iiiais (pi'dii n'avait pas pii toiijoiirs app(>rt(!r ili'< 
jin-iivcH W-fjalcs; (pic 1(- jfoiivciia-iiiciit dc la tiraiidu-Hicta'iiK^ avail fail tniif, co ipn 
(■lail ell HiHi pDiiviiir pour cxcciilcr la loi; iiiai.s ipril rci-oiiimiNHait ((lie Iv8 cas ili' 



i';is<'S t 



oi'iMoNs oy (((INI SCI. oris. 



)l the .\l:il>iilii:i iilid ()icl() wcic ji siiiinhil. iiiiil 



i\\) 



III .siiiiir (Inirn ii 



'/' 



iirli. In tlic Mlitsli lilW: 



Siili>('(|it('iill,v. ill llic \cr,v tiioiiiciit wlicii \\v iiiiidc the iiiotioti |ir:i.\ ill'*' 
ihc (^Mircii l(» ictiisc to rat ily t lie treat vol" NNashiin'titii. Ilaii l{ii>sfll 
(• iiiditlly adiiiitli'il I liat I lie ^^hiccirs prntlaiiial ioii ol' Mav Ii, iSdI.cii 
jditiiiiL;' iiciilralilv in llic iiiirtntiiiialc civil w.w in Nortli .Xiiiciic: , Inid 
•icviial limes Iteeii |traetieall\ set at iiaii;;lit <>ii I'.iilisli tenitorv 1>.\ llie 
ilcH i>r |t,ilties, 

'riie()i).>^tacles u liieli, at tlie nniineiil w licii llic letlei wiiicli I have jiist 
(|iiut('(l was writ leii, let ler('(| the action ol' the liiitisli i.in\t'riinienl. no 
idii;.;!'!' exist. I lianK>< t(» t lie lilteial |tiinci|iles iiii|iii.se(l l»y Article \ I ot 
llic treaty ol' W asliinulon : itiil tlie cuiisei|iietices of tlie acis w Inch I'.ail 
i;a>seil so ciiinliilly and so eiier^ictically condeniiied. still exist ; and il is 
III I lie reparation of (lie>ie damages in a just niea sure, and Itased alwa.\ s on 
oiillicicnl ;:roiiiids. I lial I he decisions ut t he I rilinnal ol' aihit i at ion slnxild 



li-Mil 



I willdilali- no tniiher on tiiis point. As to the dispusition which 
>!i(uild prevail to iiiakc pro\ isioii I'oi- the I'litiire, I iie<'d only cite the 
llrilidi lore!;;!! ciilisliin'iit act. passed on ihe \)\\\ Aiii;ii>l. is7M. This 
,ict sl|(l\^swhal piojuress has lieen made in tlir means lor prcsciv in;;' 
iiciiirality. 

The three rules laii! down in Arliule \'l of the treaty appeared to the 
Kiiulisli ministry less eiiiharrassjii'j;- lor the '.;o\( rnmeiit than the act i 
have just alluded t(». '" There is iioi one ol' i hcse rules," said Lord (li an 
\il!c III Ihe [louse ol' Lords oil Hie iL'tii .lime. jSTI. *' which is not coiii- 
|il('Ul\ coxcii'd l»y ttiat act. and il cm-ii noes I'inthcr than lliey do." 'i'he 
r(lrus|>ccti\ (' cliai;;ctcr of these rules loinis ihcir especial chaiader. 
wliii'h ;4<>veiiis the whole (piestioii siil»mitte(l to the decision ol the 
arldtiiitors. 



11 we 



II.— \ K.-;si:i.s wiiMii 11 \vi; i;i-.»'r,i\!:i> cMxiMissniNs. 
consult I lie lllo^l esiceincd aiilliois on |Mililic international law 



\l 



|li:ilil;l i-l il 



l'( drill ;l\ .lii'iil i-li' III 



1 <(iiiiii(i 



la), r\ 



II ifii- hiiii III (ii'i nil 1 1 1 



iriiclir :ill\ I'Pis 



.lllUi.ll^l-: 



rills |;ilil, ;lll liiiillli'lll lUi'liH' uii il r;ii-.:ill \:i liinliiiil 



ill 



^iiiiiiiicr 



l:i l.'ciiic (Ir II liisiT l;i 



iiiiruMtiiiii (III ii'iiiti' di' W.'islilii^tDti, II- CiiiMtf I'lissi-ll iiviiii^iir ioviili'iiifiit i|iir la 
iiriii'laiiiatiiiii di- la l>i-'ini' ilii ]'•'> iiitii l^dl, i'ii,iiii<;ii:iiit la iiriil ralitr ilaiis la iiialhi'iirriisi' 
,iii-ri't' civile (If l".\iinTit|iii' tin Nuitl. avait ('li' |>liisiriiis inis |irarii|iii'iii('iil rcdiiili- a 
I'.iMiil Mir Ir Irnitoiii- aiiniaiN ]'.<v Ir Tail Avi jiarl is. 

I.i's nlistai'li's i|iii, an imiiiih::! uii la lil Irr ijiif jc \ iiii> ili- iIIit tut iiiilr. cut ra\ aji'iit 
i :irliciii (III <r<iii\criiiMiii'iit liiit amiii| 111- n'l'si.-ti'iii plus, miii-r aii\ i)riiii'i|»i's liliciaiix 
!iii|inMs par I'aitiilr N'lilii Haiti- d.- \\'a--liinr ti>ii : in. lis lis (•inisi'i|iii'iirc> dr^ tail-*, ijiic 
^' Ciillllr K'lissril li'|>lim\ ail >i li>> alrliidlt i-t si iM|i'lj;ii|ili'llirlit , siilisislciil I'liinii'. rt 
'i^t 1 ii'iiarrr rrs diiiiiiiiaui'-> daiw iiiif jiisti' iiii-inrc. ci Imi jmirs a\ n- rappiii d'niif ijiIxhi 
^iiMi--:m|i'. i|iii' diiivriit ti'iidri' Irs ili»i'isii>ii-< dii triliiinal d'arliitiani'. 

•-piit ill- |»ri'Vi>\aii |iii dnil pn-va- 



ii' II iiai |ia^ 



• Ins I 



mil Mir r.' ii'ir.iiii. <,>iiaiil a 



II' . I ravriiir, il snilii ipic jc citi' \f fon iiiii-iiilistuii nl ml i\f la (iraiiilr-|{irtau:iii'. vntf 



11' '.I aiiiit 1-7(1. Ti-t act 
aiaiiiti'iiir In iiciitc-ilili 



I' mills iiHiiiIri' i(ii('ls piKni'i's una lait i|iiaiit aii\ iimyi'iis di 



■ Ir 



I.cs ti'itis r(';;li's pKsci's a I'mi'I iclf W (In tfaiti' mit pain an iniiiisli'ir aii^lai-; iiiuiiis 
laiili's pi III I' II' uDiiM'i'iii-iih-nt i|ni' raclc i|iii' Jc \ ii-iis di- «'itt'r. ■• II n'v a pas iiiir sciiU' 



I'l'S ri'LJll-: 



disait Lord (iiaiiv illc a la ('liaiiilni- di's lords li- Iv* injii 1-^71. " iiiii lit 



--oil rniiiprisc iluns III acli'. i|ni \a iiii'iiii> ln'aiit'iHip aii-ili 



I. 



iitrnai'l ivili' dr i I's 



•n ruriiii' Ir rarai'lii'f sprrial. i|iii dniiiiiir tniilr la inatirri' siiiimi^i' an in;irnirnt 



arliitii 



II.— \ Aissi VI X i>i;vi;m s \v\ lui'.s i (»\;miss[()nxk.s. 



iKitis cinisiilteiis IcsaiiU'iirs Ics [dns aicn'Mlitcs dc dniit iniUlic iiUiTiiuliiniiil, <* par- 



i- 



w 



7*> 



AKIH i K'A HON AT (iH\K\ A. 



;iii<l «'S(i('ci;ilIy two wiitnsof;^!!'!^ wci^lif, \vlmst> nntliorits will lie (IniictI 

,.„,,,„ „„.. iM'itlu'i Ity AiiH'iifa ii(»f Ity ICii.uliiiui, n;mn'l> . Sloiv ;iii(i 

"""" i'liiliiniiMc. \v«' fiii({ tliiit tlir |»ri\ ilc;^r. nsnjilly iircoi'dcil in 

nllips of Wiir. (>r Itcili::' r(»ii.siti"l»'(l ;is a piHtioli ol'tiif sl;ilc w liosc Ihi^ 
tlH'V ctirry. aitd li«'i!i;>, ilnis cxciiii)! Iiom ail other imisdict ion, was in its 
cii'^iii ii |tiivili'u«' only ;4raiit('(l ])\ <'oiMt('s\.* As tii s |tri\ ilcnc is only 
ti('i;\('(l tVoMi !!ir iisa^^r ot nations, it can Ix' ( aiirclcil ;ii :iii\ inoninit 
villKint caMsc litf olVi-nsr hcin^ jii^cn. 

'!'l)i' opinion of Story, dcliNcrctl in (In- case' ol' the Mxcliaii;;*', ai|<l 
t)iM»lr(l li\ riiilliniiiic. appeal s to nit .decisive: 

■'It, nuiy, lli< rci'iiic," lusav-,, •• Iw Jiisliy Ii''! (diwiiiiS ;i y;cni'l;il iil'iipnsitidli. tll.il 
.•lU pcisoiiK jiimI piuiici i \ wiiiiiii tln' lei ritmi.il imi-^dii-l ion nl' ;i so'Trri;;!! .in' iiiiifiialiii' 
!i) till' jiu'iMlii'iiiiii i)i' liiiiiM'h' III' lii-i roiiii;. : aiiil tliat tlic csciii) inns in iliis nili- aiv 
-iicli only as, 1)\ .(iiiiiiiiiii iisa;;c ami pnli'lc |M»!icy, liavf licfii allnuiil, in ludcr tu pii 
Mi>rvi>(lic jicaci' aii<I liiiiiniiny <i|' natidiis, ami In ic^ii'ialr tiirir inliTiMMirMc in ;i iiiaiiiiri 
i»c>l siiiliil to tlicii ilijiiiity iiiitl ri;ilils. It wmilil. intlccd, lir straii;;i', it' a licciisr, iiii 
lilii'ti liy ].iw IVom tlif yi'iirral prai-tirr nf nrilioiis lor ilii- piirposi's of |i(ai c nIioiiIiI '"■ 
roiislnicil as a I'icciim' to do wroiii, lo tin- iialion jtscll". ami jiislily tln' liii'a<-li ot' nil 

iliKHf oliliiiiiiioiis \\ liifli IX I iaitli and (Vifmlslii)>. Ity tin- same implitatioii. im|iovi 

iHMMi llioM' • . Iio mtK an as\ Inni in onv p'irt.>."' 

'I'akinu' ihcse general piineiples, and alio\c;ili the elcnial iiiles oj' 
ofMid sen>e and the dictates of oo,„| iiiith. ;is out' point oj' depaitiiie, is 
:t possihle t't admit that a \essel, wjilcii has been riamlnleiitly hnill <»i! 
tlie leriitory of a so\ eicion, in oiieii eon Ira vent ion of t lie duties of nen 
ti; lit.\ wh;eh that s<t\ creion is lioiind to liillUI. and with the ohjeet ol 
)t! ivateei int;' on hciialf <if one of t he l»ellio,.i-,iits, can, i»y the simple ae| 
of siicli lK'l!i,;^ereiil , with a view to escape disash-rs. he Iransfei'i-ed 
inio a commissioned xcssd. a.nd tliiis. wiili imi»nnity, de;y that same 



t cnli. ii'ini!!! ili'n\ t-criN ains ifnu uraml nii rile, don! 



a'llonii n<' MTa di>avoiirc, in 



par rAnniii|nr. ni par rAny;li't"i it, tfl-« i|iii Slor\ ci I'hillimoic, n nis inni.inis i|iif \< 
privili'nr, jiii'ncialfim'iit ai'cordi' anx lial iincnls dc ynnn', d"ctri' (•on>idt'Trs coniim' iim 
'.laction di' I'l'lat doiit ijs purli'iit li* pavilion, ct par la rxiinpls d>' loiili' antrc Jiiiidi< - 
;io!>, n'a rl> 111 iuiinaiirmi'iil iiniim" roni'i'«'>ioii laiti pav coiirloisic. Cinnna' ccttf con 
«i'S'iio;i m- diii\f <[iir di" I'lisaiic dcs nation-*, rllf pint rlrr ii'\ (iiiin'i- a i|nrii| 
lint' I'l- suit, sans ijin- I'i'l.a pni-^si' firi' rnti-^idrri' roininr nn 



111- I'OOIIIIi 



ilViiiN 



li'opinioii ill' .siiny, ' noiii' 
nil' pari. It ili'i'i-.i\ i> 



h 



ras ill' 



n; 



■\i li.in. 



I'l i'a|ip'ii III' pal I'liilliini 



■ On ji.ni." dii it. •• lialilir .'ivi r in>i ii'i'. roinnii' pi'iposil ion ffi'iii'iali'. <|ni' lonli' pn 
•uMiiir it loll!" piopi ill!', dan?' l;i |nii:li<'!ion li'iriloiiali' il'nii snnvrrain, .miiiI .soiimi.si'x 
.'(. til Jiiridit'lion ill' I'l- sonvciain on tU' nivs I'liiirs lU- jn.Htici- ; I'l i|n'il n°\ a d'i'Xri'plioii« 
a ri'ttf ii'uli' i|Hi' ridli'.s nni-|nfinrni ijiii sunt aiimi-i"* par I'lisay;!' roinniiia ft par l;i 
jitililiijni' piiiiliipii'. dans If inil ilf inaiiili'iiir la pa'ix ft I'L.ti niotiif fiili'f Ifs nation.^, ii 
• If ffuli'i' li'iirs rappiiils df 1:1 laroii la niiiiis d'ai'ioid avff 1. in dijiiiiti' fl Ifiiis ilioiis. 
1'. M'i'ail. I'll M'lil.'. lull < liaii^ri' i|n'nni' anloi i>.ilioii. ijiii' It dioii a lafitfiiifiit ilfdiiitr 
It I' I.I prat iijiif <i III -I all' di-* iial iosi-. d.in> ilfs \ iifs fa voiahli 



1.1 paix, pill fill' II Ifi 
pi'i'lff I'nuinii' iii.f antoi i'nal ion do I'airf dii mal .t I'i's iiifiiit's niitioiis, ft fiMiinif Jiinlili- 
at ii'.n df rinliart ion iif n-fi i\r\ niis, ipif la I ton in ' I'oi i-t I a ml if. pro\ maul df la iiifim 
onii'f, inipo'-i nl 



ipii I'lifi'i'lifiit iiti a^ilf ll'ln^ iio> poii' 



I'^n pailant tU- l.i ;;i'n.'!aliii' df ffs prim-ipfs, I'l hiiiIoiii iIi'm if uIi"^ df I'l'lfriifl lion 
Hf n.s, f I dfs iiispir.ii inns df l.i I ion i if foi. i >l il poNsililf d'adnn lln- ijii'iiii naviif. qui a 
fill' rraiidnlf nsf ini'iil ''oiisl rnil .siir If li 1 1 iloiif d'lin souviTain. f n )>lf iiif fiinl rav f iilioii 
;<ii\ di'Miie* df iifia ralitf ijiif fi- .'MiiUfiain <l liim df iciiiplii.fi ilaiin Ir Init dr »■ 
livrcra l.i foiirsf dans rintfifl ii'nn dfs hflli^franlH, picusf, par If .'<fnl tail df cf 'n I 
'i;;f I't'inl. fii \ iif df si- sonslrairi' a dfs fliaiiffs in:illif nrf n:,i'N, i'l re lian.sl'orhif fii vaism-aii 
i'omniis^ionn<'. il liiavi-r par la inipiiiifinf nl fitti nifiiif iiinivfraini- If ipi'll iivait a !<ii - 



I hiliiinor' 
dnioii, 1^*71. 



( iiiiiiiii III .11 ii's upon liilfi iial ioiia! Law,'' vol. i. p. :('.(!•, i / .vny. .Sim'i 



.1 



I'ltid. p. im. I.'im|iif Ii 



mil admit liial 



•1 



I III' liitili seas f.'Ui 111 



iv>i:>iilf ifd li> ol liiT li.il ioii.-i 111 III' a liarl id tin- Ifililinv of lllf slalf « lio'^f llaii sin 



cai I'll , 



hf ri 



fioMiii/i's this assnmption of Ifi i iiorialii y onl> in ifspfil to lln- inlirn.il 



iiiaiia);i'mi'iil ol llif ship and tlic ri\ il and poUlii al iflations of lliosf mi lniaid id' li 



R 



ol'IMttS.s •»!•• c.H N (• .se\L(>l'l>. 



71 



soMTcij^iity iiuiiinst wliicli slic liiid iit tlic outset so livjivclv olVriHlctl .' 
AssMi il'\ not; these (■li.ili;;es to lliee_\e, like the sliilt ill;; ol il scene, 
tliese triiiisloniiiilioiis, eHecled with e()ii;il iimhicity iiiid esise, e;iiiiiot In- 
talveii seii(»ilslN . Tlie <'uiit laveiil ion ot' whieli the shi|» Wiis iniiilly ;it the 
ciiltillU'lieeinent of her <Mi('er. wilii l* spert to the so\ cicijUll ol the |il;ire 
whrre she was Iniilt, is not elVaeed \\\ tlie o|»<'iiition ol' an imleceiil 
>l!iita;;<'iii. All the wiiiieii iiiaxiiiis ot' reason if\olt against siieli 
tiic'vei_\ : ilitlnx iiiiiiiiii jtdlrixiiimi drhtt. We must look lo tlie bottom 
ot' the matter, anil mete imr lull Just ice to tin- I'laml : /this roirt iimxl 
ti<iiliir iiii'itii ijiio:! .sliiiidufi' rinicipitiw. The niiill iiiheieiil lo the xfssel 
will not he iniri-cd even when she '.as reeei\cd a eimimissioii, a eom- 
iiiaiider. and a lia;; lidm Hie |)o\\('i' who can oii!>' prolil l»y the I'laiid in 
llii,:;raiit. violation of all I lie rights of iien'.ality. 

Th" weiiihly autlioi'il\ of Story, in the <'ase of lli<' Saiit'>sima 'I'liiii 
(lad, is ncneiall.x <iiii.|im| with re;;ar(l to the (|iieslion ii«>w raised hefoi'e 
IIS. laiid I lia\e myself <|iioted him.) Uiil I oltsei\f Ihal S|,n,\'s doe- 
1 1 inc. on I he icsjieet d lie lo I he com mission ni\ en lo a shiji hy a ,uo\ em 
imiii. is only a ;;em'ial thesis on which evciyliody agrees; il does noi 
(lirccily toMch itn llie (|iieslioii of I'e ori!;iiial ;^iiilt inciiiied 1»\ a \fsscl 
hcloic her (•(niinii.vsioiiiii^'. and which eaninit lie iilolled oiii witlioiit a 
(Ji>lMrl>ance of all the |Minci|»|fs whieli j4<i\eill the duties of iieiilialil\. 

Allcr ail. e\ en if preei'deiils eonhl lie (|no|ed coiit lar;. to I he opinion 
\sliicli I maintain. I should repl> that the teller and spirit of tin tliiee 
Miles laiil down in the sixih article of the treaty ol \\'ashin;^ioii do not 
alltiu lis to lollow the old nilili]i>'. 

Il iiiiist iie st( a(|il\ lioriie in mind that il is a new law, full of .'ipiily 
and foicsiiiht. which wc are now to follow. 

h is inie Ihal. acontliiiu io uciieiallN accepied ideas, a so\ereiiin who 
i-- an 1 1 Ml lie :• w ilium' '•» U'aiil the pri\ ileue of e\tcrriiin'ialit,\ to i he com 
laissioiied sidps of other powers, must pre\ioiis|\ ;ii\e nolici' |«»ihat 
( ilccl . so Ihal Ion i;.;,n iia\ ies. forewarned, iiia\ lake their piccaiil ions in 



11 



liililll si LJiaS f'llll'llt (tll'i'MHi'i- ,' Noll. I'll MTJIr: trs iIlMIIU'llI'llls :'l vile. (•illMlllf s'll 

-":n;is:-<:iil ilcs diiiiis d'nii I IiimI it. res liaiisloriii:)' iiiii> itpinrs mvcc anlanl (l";iiiila<-r 
Mill' <|i' tarililr. Ill- |M>ii\tiil |iiiiiii I'li'i- |iri.s iiii >iiirn\. I.:i (uiitraM'iil inn iliml 1 1' 
iiiiviic .'*"Hait ii'IhIii i'iiii|ml»li' iiii ('iiiiimi'in'iiiii'iil i|r s.i run ini'. ciiv its li- sunvcraiii •In 
iiiii nil il a I'M' r<..i>liiiil. Ill' s'l'llai'i' )iiiiiii |i;ir rilii I il iiiir iiim' iiiilci riili'. Toiili's \i-, 
iiiii\iiiii-s (If la r;ii>iiii I'irilc siIcn cnt iniiiir dr >.iinli:ilili s .sniiciclnaics : ilnlnn iiiiiinii 
)iiitnti i till I i ill III I. II I nil I I'l'^^iinlcr Ir 1 1 nil I tie la i'liiisi> rl liiiii' I mil lie J list Ire ilr la si inn 
l;iliiiii: jilns iiiIiIiiii.hI iiijiliii ijiiiuii iiiihiI siiniiliili iiiiii ijiiliir. I,i' vice inlniciil .in ^iiis 
'X'liii lit' i|is|)Mi.nlia |iiiiiil i|iian<l iiii-inr il ani.i iri'ii iiiii' ii.-iiiiitr, nii i-nnnn;ini|,'iiil ii nn 
{lie nil in I |i> In |MiisHa!iri' i|ni in- inn I ijn':! innlili'i il< f i li ninii'. i-ii luiit rinlii-l imi mix iitr 
I Inns lis limits (In innlijiiili'. 

• •ii liir iirilinniri ini'iil . n |iii>|iiis di- la i|ni'^lii>ii 'jii'ini ;i ^inili'M'i' i|i<\anl innis. 
i'iiii|Hisiini(- aiitmili' dc St.nv (iim- J'ai niiiiini'ini' iiiviii|nti' i d.'iiis li- rus de la 
s;niii>ii'ia Tiiiiidail. Mai.-. |'iil>si-i \ .- ijiir i.i (Inclriin' Ar Stnr\,siir li- ri".|ti'rl dn n l,i 
' iiiiiiiiissinii limit nil ;^iiii\ iMiiiiiiiiil a nvi'tn nn iniviii', ii'rsi (in'ani' tlnsi- ;.',i'iniiili'. siii 
lai|iii-lli' iinil II' iiiiiiid rst d'aii'inii; illi in- Imirln' pas diic'li'iiii'iil a la ijiicsi inn tin 
Mil' iri'ii^ine rDiitr.icl' par nn iiaviic asait i|n'il s'lii riimiiii>^iiniiii- : \ irr d'nriniin^ 
'|iii lit' |ii'Ml .s'l'llai-cr sai.s triiiild' r tnii^ lis jiiinripi's i|iii <;iiii\ riiii-nt li^ liiMiii s ili- la 
III iiliaiili'. 

.\prrs (/ml , i|iiaiiil niriiii' mi imnnalt cilri iji > piici lints iniilraiifs :, I'lipinimi nm- 
ji siMilu-ii«. jo rcpmnlrai i|iit' la It'll ii- fi I'l'-piit dis iiois ii-^jlt's pnsfcs ,'i I'artirli' 
\l ilii f till'- «lc \\'asliiii;;imi iif nulls piniiii'l ti'iil pins dr snivic raiifiiiiin' juris- 
I'l iiili'iii'.i, 

n ('.'111 SI' iiit'llif liicn ilaiis fi'spiil niic r'i'sl nn limil nnnsraii, liint inilni d'fiiniti- el 
'It pvr rii\aiiri', tiiii' nn'is iIi'Mhis snix H' inainti ii.'inl. 

II I'-^l vrai i|in'. srimi Irs idi'i'S tii'iii'rali'iiii'iil h'i.ih's, nn .smisi'iain ijni in m'Ii' pins 
1 'I 'til' r If pi'ivilf i;f d'f \tf ri iliirialiti' aii\ ini\ iifs iinnniissiiiiiiif -. ili-s ani if., piii>.>aint's, 
• 'I' I'll <riiniii'i' prt'alaldfini'iit a\ is. alin tint' Ifs niaiiins f iiaiijif n-s, iivi'iiit s, prftini'iil 

III •siiii'lfs il ('ft f iranl. .Mais cfla iif vent jms dire (pril iie pnisse \ ii\mi- (I'l'xcfplimi 



Hi 



' f 



ilMl 



^l^'*t 



,1 

'iS 



( _ 



AIM'.ni.' A ri(»N AT (iKNKVA, 



lliis fcsjicct. !>iit tliis (lues iiof mcjni tli:it tlnMc Miiiy not he cncciiI ioii> 
;irisiii;i irum ;i cci'tMiii special tiiiiii uf (•iiciimslaiiccs. and iioi tVoiii tlif 
siiiiplf caiiriiM' ot llic sii\ crciiiii and his •^ovcniinciit. Ndw. il is on the 
iialnrcol' ihcsc special eirciimsl aiiees that tlie lirst rale, laid down in 
Ai tii-le \'[ ot till' treat\ of Wasliih.uloii. siiecilic illv resls. The opera t ion 
t»r tiiis rule v.otild 1m" illiisoi'v il it eonid nof l)e applied to \essels sni)se- 
• picntly eounnissione<l. The ohjeet in view is to prevent the construe 
lioi., ai'niini;. and ecpiippiini' of a \<'ssel, and to preveni hei <lej>artui'e 
wlien there is sni'licieni j^i-onnd I'or ixdievin.u' that she is intended to 
carry on \;ar on iiehalT of oim' of i he l)elli!.;-erents; and when pioi»a!)ilit\ 



has 1. 



■coii:c eei'tainfy, shall not I h(> rnle l>e appli('al)le to the direct and 



)Mipal»ie eons(Mn -nces whicn il oriuimilly was intended to ]>n>v( nt .' 
(an this act. in \ indication i»f a li.uht which hns at, the (irst l»een olui 
onsl\ violated. i)e looi<:'d npcHi as a \iolation of- pn!)lic i^'ood faith and 
I'f ihelaw of nation.^ in ii'uard to one of the belligerents'^ 1 can see no 
vi(dali<in ol' pnhlic jioorl failli wlnre there is only ;i HauTani abuse, a 
manilesi e(nitra vent ion .d ihe principles of neutral dn ties sam lioned l)y 
ihe iiii I'l^oini; rnle. 

'I'he hoiioraltle attorney general, in the nnMiunalile speech whi(di lie 
made in the 1 louse of ( '(unnionson the l;>th ()f iMay, l.S(»l. in reply to Mr. 
Itaiiii'4'. foi lually deciaie(i •■ ( hat he had not the least doui>t that Vax'^ 
land had the riijut, if she thouji'ht lit, to exclude from her jiorts any 
part icniar .^liio. or class ot' ships, if >lie considered that they had violate<l 
In-r neutrality, luit that such pttwer is simply discretionary, and should 
lie exercised wii h a dee I'e.u'ard to all the eircnmstances of the case." 
(I'niti'd Stales l>ocnments. \ol. v, |). oS;}.) >\'hy was not. then, thi- 
I'uhr e\t'rciscd at least witii respect to the Vessels which had lla,iirant l.\ 
\ iolated (he d ii m's ol neuiralit\' .' 

I will iKtt follow the aruunicnl of the Cnited States in tlu' .li^l inct! ». 
il seeks to (iraw lietwcen pui»lie ships of reco_iini/,e(i and sovereign iia 
tioiis and tiie shii)s lieloiniiny' to a belligerent power whose soverei^Li'lity 
i•^ not recifjiii/.ed. Tlu' stains ol' l»elli,n('rents ha\iu'4' been acciu'de<l in 



\:tl 



i!<ii\ ;na I I'll 1 1 < i-i i;iiii (in hi' ill' l';!ils 'ipiciaiiN. il iioii ilii siiaplr (■.■ipiii r ilii •.mivfriiiii n 
lie soil ni'i'.'. Il iirincni. <»!, c'r^i MirJM iiiUinr ill' t'i's liilts .spi'i'iiinx i]iii' ill iin-inii'ii- 

1. Lilt- |.i'-..'c :i r;irl|ilr \1 illl Il.lili' (l(.' W il>lllll:ill)ll s'iqipllii' pli c-;-i lU-Mt. I,,l 

<l ispDsiiiiiii ilr ri'tU' i'>';;li- M'liOt piiri'iiin-iiiriit illiisuiii' si 1)11 III- riipplii|<i:iit pas ni\ 
r. IS ill- \ai--siaii\ pu;li'rii'iin'in>'!il luiiiiiiissiDiiiii's. On vi'iit riiiprilicr la i uiislriU'iiini. 
I'iii'ini-iiii'iit I't ri'i|iiip('iiii-iit (I'liii \aissiMii. cm riii|ir>'lii'i' la smi ic i|iianit il y .i raism: 
'iillisaiiif (if iTiiec unc i-f vaisM-aii isi ili'siiin'' a fairc lii ;iiii'ii-i' an prnlit il'iiii if - 
lii'ili;^!! ants; i-l c .,,,i(l leu piiilialiiliiis aiiniiil fall lirii a la < iTiitiulf, la ir;;li' iic s, i 
'iln.-. apjiliialif ilaiis lis riinsi'iincncis iliri-di's el p.dpalili's iiii'i'lji' vuiilail d'a'i.ni 



I'liipi'i'lii'r. < t ai't<' <!•' nvriiilicatiiin it iin i 



liniit. 



(|<ii a etc ('Villi innii'iil violi au 



niniriM'i Mi'iit, |i(iiirrail -il rlrc I'livisayi' I'ltiiiiiU' inn \ i'iial,ii>n ilc la t'ni pMl)lii|iii', ai 



11^ 



i|iii' ilii ilioil ilrs ;{i'ns, I'livi'i's I'lni ill's lirlli;ii'ranl;. .' ,lr lie sanrais vuir viulaliun ili' I;. 
|\<i )iiililiitiir la nil il n',\ a i|n'iui uImis tla;;raiit, iiui rnnti'.nlicl inn .iiaiiii'r.stc aiu 
piiinipi s ili-s ili'\ nil's 'III iiriil re saiiri iniiin s par la ii'/lc incriti'i-. 

l.'liiiiMM'alilr at liirii(',\ -);;i'ni'i'al, ilaiis li- nnniinaMi' lii.si-oiiis i|ii'il a prunniii'i' liai > 
la s/'aiii'i' ill- la Cliaiiiliri- ilcs rnininiUU's It- |:> iiiai iStU, cii irpoiisr a "I'liii ili' M. 
ilaiiirj;, a l'>riiii'ili-iui-ii( ilii'laii' ' n'y asi.ir Ir inniiHhi' doiili' ipii' rAii.!;lrtii r a Ic ilrm: 



•mIiiii' ill 



piirl- 



•lli- I 



I' rrnit riinvriianh', Innl vaisoi-aii nn (Miai rlassi* ilr 



vaissi-aiix. si cllr i rnit i|ni- res \'aissi-an\ niit \ii>li' la nriUialih : niais i|iii' i-i' ili-i,it i-si 

Innl siiiipli'iiii'iu ill -ni I II III na Ml' i-l (lull s'l'Mici-r cii i g.uii a innlcs Irs i iirnnslaiKM-s ilii 

as." ( 1 1, prnniriits pruilinls par li-s P.! a is- I'm is, vnl. v, p. .')•'. 1. ) |*oin'i|niii ilmic n'li-t-it!! 



pas an nniiii.s iisi- lic ir i 



lii'it a f' 



aiil ili's \aisii'aii\ ijci I'l.iirnI ni rnilnivcnf inii 



a^iaiitc iin\ ili-vniis ili> I i mntialitr ! 
.Il' III' siiivi'ai pas II- piaiiloyi'i' ili-s r.l.tls I'liis ilans la ilislinctinii ipi'il piopiei 
•nin- li's iiavircK '.miIiI'i's iK-s nalioiis ii-nniniii'H vi snini-raiiii's iI'.'ivit Ii-s imvirr^ 



ipparli-nint a inn- )Miis.siini'( 



I. 



liiii'ianli' i|ni II i-s| puH iiiit- .-toiiviTaiiii-ti- ri-i;iitniiii'. 



i.'i i:it ill- Ill-ill;.;! laiil ayaiil I'-li' I'i'rininii di-.s iii-n\ roll's ili-s piipnlaliniis iiini-rii'iiiiiri 
III s| pniiii in-i'i-ssiiiri' iriii.siMtrr Hiir ci-lti- i)iii'i>liini ; Je ilirai i^mi' Ii- .jni^c aiin^'iraii 



nl'lMoNS or (olM' S( l.ol'I.' 



73 



Ixttli ))iirti('s ill AiiKMicii. it is not iifcfssury to dwell on tliis »|ii('stion. 

I will s;iy, Willi tlic Aincriciiii .lii<l,',;i' (Ji'icr. "roi'ci^ii nations rt'C(i;;iii/(> 
t!i;il llicrc is war l>_v ;i iMnchniiat ion ol' nciii ralii \ ."' 

Tin' liU't ill at a vessel, at'ler Inivin.n" been eoniiiiissioned, lias l>een re- 
c'ivetl as a sliip ot' war in the |MMis of ilitfcri'iil powers before her en- 
liaiicc into the parts of the power whose iienirality she had (niijiiially 
violated, shoidd not, in my opinion, inlbiein-e the rei-oL;'nition oi' the 
(liai'.ieter ol" such vessel. Where the vessel had no liability to answei' 
tar. it was iiatnral ihat she should beadtnitleil as a >liip ol' war; bnt 
ciiciimstiinees entirely ehaii^e when the \essel enters tlie territorial 
waters of the soxcreiun towards wlnnn she is ;4iHlt.\ . of t he so\erei!^ii 
wlioin she has eoini)roiiii-.e(l as re'^ards the other beili".ereiit. Here her 
;^iiilty eliaraeler cannot lie (n crlooked ; she may lie >ei/ed and eoii- 
ilcnined. 

1 ihink thai it is for the inleie<i of all luarimiie nations that they 
>lieiild hold to the prineiples which have just iteeii proponnded. 'J'lie 
iiiiiiiher (if \ ('-(st'ls frandiileiit ly iuiilt on iieiilral territory, with tlie in- 
li'iilioii of privateerin;^' on behalt' of belligerents, will deert-ase in pio- 
|ii)ition as iiicirased severity is shown towards them, cncii when they 
liresciit themselves under t he jUDteet ion oi' t'alse pretensions |o »vhieli 
ilicy are not entitled. 

Tlie poweis which si;^ned the treaty of Washington expiess. fli tliis 
same Artieie \' I. the desire and hope that the t hree rules which they 
have there laid down will' be adopted by tlu' other maritime powers. 

II iiinst then be inferre ' that the siyniii.u: poweis considered lliesi- rides 
as clear, jneiise. and applicable to the various ci'ses which are therein 
ciiiiteuiplaled. If. on the contrary, it is to lie supposed that the inteii- 
thai of the conliactiiijji' parrn-s at W'ashiiintini was to admit explaiia- 
tiaiis and reser\ ations of thes«* same rules in tlie sens(> "of not largely 
Maiisceiidinn the views of international iiiMritiine law and poli.-s which 
Would be likely to commend thcinsehes |(» i he ;;enerai interests and in- 
|clli;^elice of that p(Ut ion ol mankind." ' t he ad\ antaue o| i he example 

laii'i' : •• I,cs iiatiuii> i| i,iii;iri('s icciinii.o>siiii i|ii'il \ ;i j^iiii ic jiar iiiir iiiiirlaiii;il ion ilc 
iMiuiaiilc." 

I,:i ciicdiistaiiii' iju'iia \:iissiaii. ilisciiii (■(l||||l'i.^^it'Illl^. ail « |i- ri i, a iimaac vaisscaii 
«lc' ^iii-nr (liiiis (li's pints lies (lilti'TcMlr-* |iaissaiifc.s avani (|iir iffiitifr dans di's ports 
ill' la piiissaiici- iluiit it avail d'alxinl viitlc la iiriitraiili', iii< ine p:,rait puiiit il<-M>ii' 
iiilliicr siir la rcciiiniaissaiirt' dii carai'lcrr i!c cc naviir. I.a oii '•(• vaissi-aii ii'avait 
uiriiiic ( (iiiiplaliilili' a ii'!;li'i^ c'etail iiatniil i|n'il lilt adiids coniiiic lialiiiiiiit dc 
'^iii'iii-; mais la rliuM- cliaicj;!' •■•.ilaliaiifin des i|Mi- cr sais>i'aM tinic dans Ics ian\ 
III! itoi iaii's dii <wi\rrain ciimts Ii'ijim'I il >'i'>l irndn I'onpaMi'. dii stia\i'rain i|n'it ii, 

(• sii 



iMiiiiiiinds \is-avis ilc I'aiilic Itflliuiiani . |i 



I" 'f.'.iwv ; il pent cUi- Hai^i i-t con 



l.inon 



III |M nt Ini lairc ii'ini»' d 



.II- pcnsi' i(ii'il cut d»' I'inlcn'l dc inn lis Irx iia lions inai il ini< > dc «<'rn tcnii aii\ pi in 
< i|ifs i|iii> |'(M) s inn d inunrrr, II v ania d'autain ni<dns ilr imeli n< iii>n-< l!aiidnli'n>c: 



''III' an Icri'ltni it' Ileal IT di- iiavirrs di-xi mo n la I'lUU'-r i-ii lax <'Mi lii- It 



t am. I 



pills d 



I' Ml'Vfllll' fllN I'l ■'. I'lll\-Cl. litis llll'llll' llll i 



ii'iiiiiii ■* ;{ai'anli^s, ipi'ils m nn nli'iit pas. 



il-i -.1' pi 



an|x i|i 



lit 



i^i'lilil'ali'hl Mill' ill' pit' 



l.i's puissances si;in.jti»iii's llll trail'' dn \\'asliin;.,ti>n r\priiiii-nl, daii.s cc nifiiic iirti- 
I i" \'l, It' di'><ii' el I'l'spiiir (|iii' li'sdiiis li'Ltli-s iin'i'llrs v mil I'taltlics siticiit ailopd'i'K 
I'M- It's audi'-. piii-.stinri-M inai'ltiiiics. II Cant in cnnilnii' ijiii' li's pnissiinccs ^i^nalai1'l■h 
mil I'm isa>{r i fs r«'>.;|i's cniniiic I'laii'cs, picfists, ri appliralili"> aiiN dini'ii-nls fas ipn y 
■*'ni\ riinti'inpjes. S'il fallail 'iippnsi-r. an laiiitrairi'. i|ne riiitcntmii di". pariiis rnntiac- 
i-aili'^ a WaslniiLttitn t'lait <l\ ilini'llii- dfs I'spliralinns it dcs ii'si-rvt's '»iir ,','s iik'hh-h 
ii;iii's ilan<> If sell'* " td*' lie p'ts di p.t-si-r tie lnaiii'iiii)! If idi'-is dc lei rt piili'iijiH' 
mil i iiiii' inli'inal iiiiuilf i|iii a^ aie'iit If pin-* df iliaiiii'' df <«f laiic ayjircr dfs inti rets 

ill till' riifiif case id'tlif I'iawatti.'i, Hiitisli pii/f, laptintil li\ llif fnilfd Stales at 
1^ ' iiiiimi'iiienii III 111' I lie f i vi I war. 

\r;;iiiiient nl' Her Kniannif Ma,jcst\'s cDiinsel on thf puinls nii'itiiined in llie resn- 
' li'iii of till- ar! < iialois of .Inly '.'a. I-T'J. p. :•». 



;! 



f ' 



m 



n > 



■ipplM' ■!. 



«4 AHiUTKATKlN A I fiKNKVA. 

;;i\«'ii woiiM be cMtiicIy Inst. Tlic mici-rtiiiiiJy of its intcrpn'tiitioii 
would iilwiiNs ciKlaii.uci' tin- stiiUilily (»l llic iiilc. 

III. — SI i'i'i.ii;s Of (■<»Ai,. 

I ciili only trcjit the (|ii('sliuii of tlic siiiiply ;iih1 sliipinciil uf coiil ii> 
coiiliccl) (1 with tlic use ol :i 1i:im' of ii;i\;il opciiltloiis 
(liicclctl ;i,L;;iiiist (tiic ul' tln' l»ri!i<^cr('iits, ur ii^ ;i lliijiiiiiii 
4'ilS(> of colli I ;il):ili(l of \V;ll'. 

I will not s;iy iliiit till' simple fact of Innin.n iilloucd ;i ;;r<':it<'r iiiii(Hiiii 
of r(»;il tliiiii \\;is iiccf-^sary to ciiiiUlc n \ <'ss('l to icacli llic iiransl port 
of its coiiiilrv' const it iitcs in itsdf :i siiriiciciil liiicx aiicc to call foi' an 
iiMlcnmify. As tiic F.md (Miaiiccllor of l-Ji^^laiid said (»n tlic iL'tli itl 
.June. 1^71. ill tlic House of Isolds. Iliinland find the riiited States 
cipially hold tin- piiiii'i|ile that it is no violation of iiiteniat ioiial law to 
fnniisli anus to a liclli;^-ci'cnl. I'tiit if an excessive siipplv of coal i> 
connected with other circiinistanccs which show that it was used as n 
veritahle iis IkihHIIs.^ then there is an inlViiinciiiciit of the scctnid rnli 
of Article \l of the treaty. It is in this sense also that the same i.oid 
rhanccllor. in the speech lieforc ineiititnicd, explained the intcntiini oi 
the latter jiarl of the said rule. 'I'liiis. when 1 .-c, for example, the 
i'loiida and the Shenandoah choose for their Held ol adicm one. tin 
slrelch of sea hetvvcen Hm- IJahania Arcliip('la;^(» and ricriniida. In 
cruise there a) its ease, and the other. .MeII»oiiiiic and llobsou's Ihi.v. 
for the purposes, iinmediati'ly carriecj out. of ^ioin^- to the .\rctie seas, 
there to attach t he wlialin;^- vessels, I cannot hut rc;:ai(i the siipplio 

H<'iirr;iii V I't di' cclli' )iiii'lii> di' I'limiiiinid'," Tii\ ;inlam' ili' I'lAi'iiii'Ir ilimiu' sciaii 
riitii'ii'ini'Jit |iir(lii. l/iiih'i inc'liil lull lloi liiiitc ('iii|ii< iii .ni iiiniiiiii.> .^lu l;i I'l t'liU'ti' ili 
la. vol... 

II. — M'i'i.'ov isii>\m:\ii:m di. < ii m;i;i)V. 



II 



<,*li:int M l:i <|lli'sliii|| ilr l°a|i|il'ii\ i>|ciiini'lllt'Ml rl lill rli;ir<;'i'liii>Ml lie cllill'lion, Ji- III 
>iim :ii-. 1:1 I laHi'i "llic xMi^ If iioiiii ilr \ in- d'nii c.'i'- ciiiiiicm' :i\ cc i'ii-.aL;i' d'niH' liasi 
d'i>|i' ral iniis navalis diiij;iis innlir rim di^ lulliuri aiil>. tui d'niic < a.-- llani.iiil ili 
< mil ii'liandr di- j;iii'iir. 

,)>' III' diiai |i'is i|iir Ic siiiipli- I'ait d'iivnir alliiiic iiii" i|iiaiitili' di' diai lioii plus lini' 

(|i!e ci'llc I Msaiic aiix \ai>'<faii\ pimi ri'o;|M||,.|- li- |iiiildr Inn \>:\\> ii pliix viii.-'iii 

riiiisl it III' a till si'iil nil jti'iirl' .•.nllisaiil |iiiiii' dDiiiii'i' lirii a iinc iiidi iiiiiili'. Aiiisi i|ni' h 
di-ail Ii; cliaiKi'liiT irAiiylfli'iri' li- I'J.imii 1-71. a la <:|iaiiiliiv iIih liuds. rAnnli-lrii' 
il li'N l\lal> I 'ills sp liiMiiii'iil r-jialrinriil aUaili>>aii )iriiiri|ii' |ii'al ii|iii- qti'll n'y a |i.i- 
viiilal imi dii iliuit drs ui'iis I'li ruiiniissaiil di-^ ai'iiii>aii\ rriii^i ranis. Mais >i r> I 
I'Nci daiil ilr |ii i>|iiii I iiiii dans |'a|i|iiii\ i^iiiiiiii'iiH'iil dr rlia I l»'i. v niii sr jiiiiidrr a ir:iiilr< - 
ririi(iislaini> i|iii niari|iiriil i|!i"i»ii s'cii «->i siTvi < >>i'uiir (i'lini' vi'iilaldi' rti hoxlili' 
alms il \ a iiilVacliDii a la diiixiiini- rr;;le di' rarlirlr \'l dn liaili'. ("est dans n 
sens ••iii^-si i|ii<' II' iiiriiir Inid iliaiircliiT i'\|dii|nail dans \v di>-r>.iiri« iiii'iiii- la jimti'i' il' 
la ili'inirir )>artir dr l.i dilr II ;:(<•. Aiiisi. Imsi|iii' Ji' \ i>|s. pai i M'ni|ilr. Il' t'lmida ri 1' 
Sliriiaiidnaii I'liiii il' |iuiir I< iir rliain)i d'ailimi, I'lin, l'i'S|ta<'i> dr ini'i i|iii I'sl I'lilii 
l'arrlii|ii'l ilis Mrs Kaliannis i i Irs liiiutiidi's, iioiir > nois.-r ;i huh uisr; r.-wilrc. Midlimiiiii 
(>t la liaii' ill' liidison. ;ivi'<- !«• dr.ssfiu, I'M-i-iitr iiniiii'ilialfiiifiil !iinrs, i\v sc ii'iidrr d;ii!- 
Ii's iiii'is ,\ii lii|iirH. piiiit y allai|iit'r Irs li:ilfiiiii-i>. jc tn- puis Hriinpi-clivl' dc cnlisiilrli i 

■'lill' Irariii'ii l,an')iii'di, spi'nk !l^ ul' • oiiiialiaiiM of was . -sa* -. : "'!'\vu cmii'iiririi! 
riiriiiii.staiii'i's an- iir('r.s.surv ill i-rm'r that tiirsc iirt iclfK N||«M»jiii tiK'^Mnii' tliu i liarai'di 
(if rmilialiaiid : 

•'!. Tlii'.v iiiiist lia\«' !I<'(huI!v J>^ min' !lir piotHM-tA'-itl »Ik> rrn-ni,, ,m, ;a |i"!s,', 1m' i!i- 
|iii,si'd ill iiiaiiiirr tli'it tlu-y may im« in'roiiic. 

"'2. 'I'lii'V innst lia\f tifi-ii >< iil out id' tlic f'rritwv snKioct to l!ii> iii-nlral nnd paf'li' 
Movcri'lifii. 'I'lii'V tlii'ii Iwruiiii' ri •< IiosHHh ; ilii>\ MS9.>in:i tli*; rliararliT 111' I'liiitraliaM'i 
j{imhIm. iVc." (,(i. M. I, iiii|uiil •• • M till- ('iMiiiitiM'c ••! %'■ I. (ml Nation - in I-hh' ol \\ .ii 



oi'iMoNs OK rnuNT sci.ons. 



<.) 



cii ((Kil 11 «|iiiiiititi('s sunicit'iil lor such piii'iHtscs as inlViii,ii:(('iiionts oftlu^ 
MMiiiiil rule ol' Hie sixtli iirticle. 

IN. — TlIK 'ALAUAMA. 

TIm' vessel wliicli lias had the iin<>u<ial>h' inivMc^ic ul juivin.i; its iiaiiie 
In the mass ot" chiiiiis ailxaiieed l),v the ( Ion (•iiiiiieiit of the 
I'liited States a;^aiiist tlie ^•ovenimeiit of Her Uritaiinie 
Majestv was the ohjeet of aii\i<ais care on Ihe pait of the repieseiila- 
lives of the I iiited States fioiii the time wlicii siie was in eoiuse of etui- 
strnetioii. 

The eoiitraet for her <'onsli'uetion liad Iteeii eoiicliided Itel wet ii ( 'ap- 
lian Mulhiek, a known a^cnt (d' the eonfeiUaates, on tlie one part, and 
Mcssr^;. I.aiid on tlieotiier. Sin* was exidmtl.N a vessel of war. She 
viis (»f al)out '.MM* tons, was 'J'.'A) feet in length. .'IL' in linadlii. and L't» in 
tcptl'; when ]»ro\isioned ami sni>plied with the eoal necessary for a 
crinse she drew \'> feet of water. Her en.L;ines weie of ."KIO horse power: 
>h(' carried ei;;Ii| ;^ii ns, six broadside and t wo on pivots, one I'oiward. 
die other altaft the mainmast. On the l.'ttli of Ma\. l.sfil!. llie vessel 
was iaiiiii'hed under the iiiime of i he '_VM>. her Itiiildiiiu iinmlicr in the 
\;iiii. !''oiii'aI represeiilalioiis were addressed lo l.nid li'us-<eli hy .Ml'. 
Ailaiiis on the 'J.'d of .lime, in uhieii he m.ide an express demand 
lliat the projected expedilioii should lie slopped, or else thai it should 
lie eslahlished thai the piirposi ot tin vessel was not hostile to tln^ 
|M'(iple <i| the Cnited Stales. .Mr. Adams liased his slateiiieiil> on pnlt- 
lie report, on special piesinnpl ions, and on a letter iiiiercepled liy the 
('in\ eriiliieiit of the I liiled Stall's. 

].i\\t\ l»'ii>sell relerrcd tin matter to the |noper deparlmeiil of Her 
llrilaiinic .Majeslv's i^'iveiiimcni. .\ repoit was received from the ens 
mills olliceis in which it was.-iaid that the builders of I lie vessel did not 
iillcinpt to disjii'inse what was. in fad . apparent, namely, llial she was 
iiilciided lor a ship of war. 'rite lliilish ;;o\ einiiieiil proiiii>ed to Ueep 
>|K'ciiil watch upon her. The svstem adopled bv the cnsioms otliciuU 




li- I lliiruiiili'lil". i\f liiiirlMiM ell i|iMiitilc' ;ili:iIi'^Hc' :ill tir,«.(iiii ilc cc-i i-.\|ii (liliiill.i lollllili- 
1" - ipli .11 I iiMis ;i ill (liii\iiiiic ii lilr lie rarlicli' \'!. 



I. M Ml \M \. 

I.r vaj'isi'iin t|iii :i I'll Ir 1 1 i-.li |)i'is ilri;!' ill' (lull Ml T --Dn iiDiii a 'a iii:i-<.si' tie n riainat lulls 
.iiliiSM'i's liar li- (iuiiv cnirini'iil di'.-- f'.talN I'lii-. ati ijKiiM'i'iiriiii'iit dr >.a .Maji'>|i' luitaii- 
Mii|iii', a rfi' riiliji't til' vivfs Millicitiiili'.s ilr la pari iIi'n ii')iii','«i'iitaiil-. ilrs l''.lal>-l \i\» ilr.s 
!i' ti'iii|M nil it i-hiit (Ml riitiHli-iii'liiiii. 

1.1' I'oiitral iiiinr ci'tlf riiiislriictiiiii avail rti' rmiilii par Ir laiiil.iiiii' lliilliiili, af^fiit 
' 'iiiiMi ilrs ciinri'ili'ics, iriiiic jiai't. t'l jiai .MM Laird lii- faiilrr. C'rlaii rv idi'iniiK nt iin 
^.n-.iail ill' y;iii'rri'. 11 il.iil d'rll\ iliili '.HHi iniilii's. avail '2'M> jiirds dr lo",;. :!"J dr lary;('. 
'.'" ilr )iiiil°iitiilMir ; i|iiaiiil il ilail a|i|iri)\ iNiniiiu' d t'tnit |iiiiiivii ilc rliailxui in'ri'sviili'i- 
.1 mil' i'iiii>ji'ir, .sun liraiif dail di' !."■ jiii-ds. Sa iiiailiiiii' I'-lait dc la I'lnrr dc Heo rlii'- 
*.iu.\ : il I'lail ariiii' di- linil raiiniis^six •^iir Irs ri.iis r\ di'ii.x a |ii\ ni |)lari'<., I'liti a I'avanl, 
'•iiilii' a Taiiii II' ill) ;;i'aiiil iiial. I.r l.'i iiiai l-li",'. If vaissraii till laiiri' smis '„• nuiii li' 

'-II'.' I liiifir ih' ruiislni'l lull ail rliaiilii'!. I>rs rri'laiiialiiiiis roriiii-llis I'lmnl |iiirl' ''s 
I i.uiti liiissi'll |i,ir M, .\daiiis li ■,':! jiiiii : il _v ilait exjiri'ssi'iiii'iit lail di'iiiaiidi'i d"i\r- 
I'l'i I'l'Npi diliiiii pri'jrlrr, nil liii h d'l lalilii ijiii Ir vai^si'a'i ii'iivail pas iriiitiiiliiiiiM 
li"> ilrs ciiiiiri' )i' pciipli' (Its r.lals-riiis. M. .\daiiis SI- riiiidait Mil In \ iii\ piildiipii'. Mill' 
li'^ |iiv.,iinipi inns spcclali's, ci sin niir Iri t if iiiii'iri'pii'i' pal If <'ioiiv('rii<'iiii-iit d'-s r.tiu«- 
I lii-.. 

I.i'id liiisMfll ii'init i'allaiir an di'pai'ti'incnl fnni|ii'ti nt du ^fniiMinrnn nt dc sa 
Miiji'.^ti- lii'ilaiin'i|iic. II s'ciisiii\ ii nn rappnrl ilcs nUiciiTv di s dunaiii'^, dans Iciitnd il 
■ ' ilii i|in' !i'H riiii^lrnrti'iiis dn naviii' n'rhsaNaii'iit pas dr ilis>iiniili'r nn fail Ins ('\i- 
'I' ill, >aMiir. ipi'ii II ait di'siinr a drvi'iiii nn \ ais^raii dc yin iir. I'nc siii \ lillaiirc ^pc- 
' 1' till iMi'tni.sf dc lu pai t (III ^niivcincint'iil III iLuiiiiMiiic. Ia .syNtdiic adnptc par Ich 



ill 



TT 



7(i 



AlMii rii'A I loN AT (iKNKNA. 



(Iiiiiii;^*' the wlidlc (•(uirsc of Mr. Afliiiiis's ('oiii|iI;iiiifs was to take un 
i!iiliati\('. iiihI to rciniirr always a rmiiial i('i|iiisiti(iii on the part (d" the 
I'liitrtl Slates, athnisNililc liffoic an Mniilisli ''(MII'I of law. An cMiiiMMii 
Kiiylisli < 'oiiiiscl. Sir \l. r. < 'ollici. roiisnltrd l>y t lie Aiiiciicaii consul 
at !,i\ ('rpool, (lid not licsitatc to dcclair that the vessel in (|i!e>tinii 
iniuiil he sei/ed l»y llie piineipal olli'-ei' of casjonis at that poiM. and iir 
advised llie Slid consid to a|>|ily (o tlie Seei-etaiy ol' State lor l-'inei;.;!! 
.'i 'lairs to lal ily the sei/nre if inade, (U' to direct ihat it shonid Ite made, 
l''i\e allidavils were |)rodneei|. which Mr. (".)Ii!er, in the lirsl instance. 
and the ;l;o\ eminent alteruards. reco^ni/,ed as fmidshin;:; eonciusixc 
e\ ideiice (liat the cliaracter and ijestination of the* vessel were in direct 
coni ra\ eld ion of the foreign cidis; aient act. If the ad is not enforce(l 
(HI this o(77rs/(i;/. added Mr. ('olliei'. // Is lilfh hilfif lliiin <i ilmd tittry. 
The Aniciiean consul al i.i\er|iool topwarded this opinion to tin- iindei 
seta'ctary of sl.ite for toreinn all'airs. and lo tiie secaclary lo ihe l>oai(l 
of ci:>loi;!s. The under secretary of .>»lale took no iinincdiale steps npon 
thi> e<inininnicat ion. and the sciactai'S to the hoard (d' cnstonis had to 

Inch did not reach him 



a\'.ail Iheordeisoi Ihe lords ot thctreasnrv 
nidi I I he L'Si h (tl -Inly ; the same docnmeiit> were also commniiicaled In 
Lord iJiissell. ( )n the same da\ . t he -"^t h, I he lawotlicers ol t he ( 'row n 
iiaNc I heir opinion Ihat the \essel vlioiild It 



•i/ed; orders to that eifect 
were coiiMipienllN jii\('ii mi the L'lilh 1».\ Ihe IJrilisli i^ovcriiineiit. Tie 
cirennistaiice of the illness of the (Jneen's ,id\ocate has heeii adxaiiceil 
to Jll>!ify the leli;4tll of time which elap>i'd helweeii the presentation el 
the do(aiiiients to the minister lor l'oiei;;n alVaifs and the delivery ni 
the opinion to t he law oflicers of t he < 'rowii. It is dillicnll to accept thi> 
e\(aise \ hen we i»ear in mind that there were oilier i-oimsel to replace 
this oflicer. and Ihat aii.\ dela> was perihai-. I'lider these cireniii 
>taiices. the \t'ssel had ample time to escape I will not enter into the 
det.iils of the precaniions taken hythe commander of t he .MahaiiiM 
to elude the Hot over strict vi^iiaiice of t he laishmis oHicers, inn- iiile 
the caieidalions of the distances, longer, or shorter, which had lo he 
traversed, in order to arrive in time to arrest the vessel on her toiudiiii" 



rmii I iiiiiniiiii's il<' I;' <|iiii:iiii' |m'IiiImmI IiiiH iv idiiin iIc |il.'iiiil('-i (If M. Ail.iiiis ihiil <lr W' 

1ir<>ii<lri' luii-Mih' iiiiiial ivc el (I'lsi;;! r tdiijiiiirs iiiic iii.st.'iiiiT rornn-lii' ilr hi )i;m i di > I'IImI^- 
■|ii!« i« Tl Mililr |iiir li's triliiiiianx iiii;'l;ns. I'li tiiiiiii'iil li'^isliiiiiiilai-.. Sir ti. I'. Ci til in. 
ilUriro^i- )iiif'4r I'ciiisiil : •>!i".'<i'jiiii ii hi v rr|iti<i|, ii'lii'sita |Miiiit A <li rliii'i r i|ii<' Ic \ai>s(':ui 
I'lt i|ni'siiiiii imiivail I'ti'i' saisi |i!ii' It- clicr drs olliricrs dr (loiiaiirs an ■.ii-^ilit imri, el i! 
niiiM'iila an lit I r(iii>iil (li- fi'ailiTssiT an niinisiiM'filrs alVaii'i'S(Mr,Mi;;ii'ri's, aliii ijii'il raliliiii 
ci'ttc H.'iisii- ?.i flic I'liiit t'ailf. mi I'urilniiii.it si tlii' uv I'l-lait pas. 

Cill'l illhiliirih ilUtMit inoiliilbt, i|Mi' M. ( 'iillii'l' it'alioiil 4't clisiiili' Ir j;iiii Viinclili'lit 
rrcDiiiiiiiiMil I'oiiiiiic |ii'cii vi-s riiiirliiaiili's siir la i|iialit - ct la ili'il iual ioi> lin v ai>'ti'a>i <'ii 

il (III : ni (•)■ .-.t.it 111 u'cnI pa,^ a|ijilii|iii, f/ri/ei II .7i 



pliiMi' cnnliav Minoii :i\i tnrihin-i n 



lixlli 



(ircinc'I'iiiiu , ajiiiitail M. ('uliii'i-, il :i'(sl (/iiiic (fn 



l( I, 



imirlc. 



h 



(■ <'i>ii-.iil aim ritaiii 



hiv 



4Tpiiiil rt'init crltc I'liiiMilialioii ail -iiiii 
hiii'i' (111 liiirt-aii ilf> iliiiiaMf-4. I.i 



an xci'i'i 



ri'lairc il'i'tat di-s atfairi's r|iaii'j,fri> it 
'iis-si'ci<>fiiiii' il'i lal lie iliiinia pas it" suit'' 
iiiiiiii-iliati' a crilf i'iiiiiiniiiiiraiii<M, ct Ir sri'i'ilairi' ihi Uia'i'aii di's dmiaiirs iliil iilliinln 
li's iirdii"H drs turds ill' la ti't'sitri'iii'. i|iii iii' liii parv iiliful ijiii^ Ic 'J* Jiiillcl ; Icn iiirini- 
(Ini'tiiiutiis rniTht aiissi ('i)iiiiiiiiiiii|ii)''< a l.ird l{n.s>ill. I'c nicitu- Jniir. ','- inillfl, li« 
I'liiisrillrrH li<;>aii\ dc lt» ciiiii'itieii- av aiit liiriiiiili' li-iir avin dc l"i«irc arivirr l^ \aissiMii, 
Ic *.i:(.di's urdifs liirnit diiniii's ilnMH i r >t'lis par )<' I'DiiMTiM-iiiriit lil'ilaliliii|ll<-. I'mii 
jiiHlilici II' liiii^ di'diii i|iii i-i:iil iitli'i'vciiii I'litrc In pi'<>Miitaii<iii dcN diM-iinii'iiis an mi 
iiiMti't'c di's altairi's i-f ranndcs cr Ic iiiuIidiu'c tli- I'sivIm iIcn riMiHcilli'rH |t-i.jii\ dc la on- 
roniic, nil inviii|i'a la cinithsirtiici' dc la iiialadic (\<- I'iivncal dc la ({cine. On a dc li 



pcnii 



.sariciir Mir ci'tlc \cnsc, dii iiii>iiiciit i|ii il --i- Iriniv.-iii d amies 



piMivaiciil rcinplaccr cc lunciioiinairc. ci t)i 



.1 V 



cllll'cr.lllcs, Ic vaisNc;iii cill lillll 



dct 

ilKSI 



IcMtp 



dl 



ivait pen 
liappcr. 



I:i d 



Ic-ist 



ciiii'iirc 
lii 



CS Hill 

.Sill ri'> 



I lie 111 clciidiai pas sin 



111 



Mt'caiUiMnM prises par Ic cnniiiiaiidaiil dc I'Alaliaiiia pmir clnilci la s i;{ilaii 



'/ pi-'i si'Vt !(' «!• s i.iiicicis ills iliinaiics, ni Miir Ic: 



Ills dus iIislaiK'iN, |>liis 



uiiiiiis luiii^iicH. 'in'iiii iiiiniit a tVaiiclilr |ioin' arrivci a icinps dc fiiic I'aitc aricicr Ic iia\ ii' 



uI'lMdNS ()]• ( (H \r SCI.dl'IS. 



< < 



;it ''.caiiiiiaris. .MocllVii liny. ;iiitl INfiiil I.yriiis. TIm'sc dilliciilt ic?^ in tlic 
\\,\\ 1)1' prompt iiclioii ;it llic hist in<»iiiiMit <l(i iio;, it must he iidiiiil tvd, 
utuiic lor tlir want of an active sii|ti'rvision wiiicli li i«l ItciMi piomisiMl, 
iiiit wi'icli, iiiit'ort iinatcly. was not exercised. 

AlloA- MM' Ii('i't> to leproducc a passage iVoin tlic jileadinus ol' (lieat 
r.nlain. in wliicn it is said, with ret'ereiice to the coinphiintstd the Inited 
Slalc> on the siihject of the escape ol' the Ahiltania. '• It is asUini;- that 
;i niiveiniiieul . uilii its \arions depart ineiits. wiili its modes ol iriion 
wliicli are. of iii'cessity. inelliodical and more or h-ss complex, shall act 
at all times with a inechaiii<-il preci>ioii which is not apjiln- ihle I'* the 
jiiactiia! !)usiiirss of life." It seems to me. in liie lirst jdace. thai liie 
ciiraiii^iances in whicli tlie llrilish liitv ernment was phiced .ii iliis 
iiiiiiiieiit were not exaci ly t he ordinary cfuirse of li te. Too many mirrc-ts 
were at .Niake. too,nian\ contendin;; tears and hopes were Inouulil into 
play at 1 he comnieiicciiriit nf I he formidalile i-onte.-t lieiueenihe North 
,iiid liie South of llic American I'nioii. to allow of the matters which 
ri lalcil lo these ;^reat a^ilat ions followiii;:;- t lie oidiiiars course of life. 

'I'lie measures to he taken lor the preser\ at ion ot l'Ji,i;lish iieaiialil\ 
were, luoititv cr. iieiiher \ eiy complicaleil nor o\er arduous, it would 
!ia\(' siilhced thai the customs olliceis should have lieeii iiioie ; lleulixe. 
iimie alert, and. perhaps, less prejudiced In la\orot' a caii^e wliiiii iiad 
hccoiiie popular at Lixeipool. and other llii.ish shij) iMiildiiiu centers.* 
Tliere is ;;idiind l'<U' some siiipiise at liiidiii.u' tlie colleci or of < asloiiis 
I'liii.slitnlilij;' himself ;. jiidL;i' ol' h'nal c\ ideiice. w Ik'H what was reipiii-Ml 
was a piompt recourse to more din et means of i;iiaraiitee;iin the diilicN 
4if iieiilrality. In I he ( 'ouiiier ' 'ase presenled l»y the ■^o\-eruiii.'Ul of llcr 
Ihitaiiiiic MajestN. (pa;n4' SI.) I reail tiiat il is true that, in case-, ot lhi> 
.'laiuie, neutral ;;o\ (■rniiieiits onliiiKfllii expect lo receive iulormaiioii 
iKiai the ministers or consuls of l(elll;;eient powers lesideiii within (heir 
Il riitiuies. I stop at the word o/7///((0'////. and ! inter from ii iiiit ihe 
iailish uo\i iniucnl iiself reco'^iii/e^. and with ureat reason, thai 1 here 




iiiiii'Ji;int !i lti':!iuiiin')-<. a .Moi-lliii Itiiv ri :i I'iimU I.nii.'is. Co iliDii'iillrs <|'ii>;ir |iriiiii|ili' 
III) al a la ilcriiii'ii' liiun' iic cinivii'iit jias. il I'aitl ravmii-i', li- iii:mii|||<' iI'mm" siirvcillaiii'i 
.icii\i , !'.-!lf r;!!"cllf avail rli |ii<iiiii»', iiiaiM|ai nialiwun'ii-ihirnl n'a |ia>. <ic cmmcit. 
(t'li'ij nil' snit |ii'i mis ill- ii'|irii(|inii' iii iiii |ia.->>..i<:r <li< jilaninv ir lii- la (•i'atMli--l>ri-tiii;iti' 
il i'>i ilil .1 |in>|iit,-. ili'M plainli's di-, laal>-l'niN, an ■•iiji'l tie riva.siim ilc rAlaliam 



( I'st ilciiiaiiili'r iiii'mi "imi\ci iii'iiirnl. avi'r m's luaiiilii's \ai 



If'.'.iill^ iloiii 



iMi'lliill rst III i'i'ssail'i'li:rnl i'uiil|ili<|lli'i' I'l jillls nil llliillis lint iiiiilii|ni', liilli't Inline I'll 
toiil ti'iii|is avi-i- iiiii- |in')'i>i<>ii iiii<'aiiii|iir i|iii iirsl \i;ts a|ijilii'alili' an iiain ortiinain- <|i' 

.1 Ur." II llir [laiall iraliiHll ijllf li"« il I iiMl>laliri'N oil sc 1 1 nil V a i I ii- UiMI ViTlli'llllMI t 
'Il il:iiinii|iir. I'll re iiiiillli'lit. li'i'laii'lil |iiiiiil |ii if i-<riiii'iil l<- liaili inillliail'i; ilr la vie 



ini 



'I 
|t iliiiti ids t'laii'iil fii jiii. 1 1 



nil Ilr I 



laiiiii's ii ir(H|>i'rain'i''' •>«• rniMirranaii'!!! iiii 



'illlllli'liri-llli'lll ill' la llllti' I'm lllili.'lltli' I'lllli' II' linKJ I'l ir >tlii ili 



11 



Minn anil rD'ainiv 



ii'iiir i|iii< li's iilVairi's i|iii a\ aiiiif I rail a ''i-< nianilfs a^ilatimis iliis>i'iit '-nix r.' Ir iraiii 
"iliiiaiic ill' la v if. 
I.i-N Micsnri'H a ini'inhr |iniii' saiivc^anii'i la iiriilialili' aii^iai-i' ii'i'tai'iii il'ailli ins ni 

l|ii|i I nlll|i|ii|lli'<>s lii trnp alillli'S. II aillail >lll)i ijllr li'<< nllirli'ls ilr... ilnllaili's I'llssi'lll 
' Il |illls al Miilil--, pill-. .(Ii'lli's, I'l pi'llti'lli' ninilis pi I' VI 'I I Its I'll I a Veil I if line railM' <|lll, 
l.i ripnni i[ ilaiis iriiiilirs rltaiilii'r> iiii^lai'". •'■ a il ili'Viiini' pnpniaiir.t II \ a lieit 



il 1 111' i|iii'lipii' pen •.iiipiis, en I'liii'iiilaiil li' iiii Irtli'iir < 



Ics ill 



nil's s i'ii!;i-r I'h appii'c 



li'iii (Ir pii'iois liMali's, laiiilis ijii'll ainail lallii ircniiiii' )iininpli'iiiriil a ile-. nmv riis 
I'l lis ili I III.., lit- Maraiitir lis i lev mis ilr la in ill oil in-. I >aiis le ■ ( 'miiiii'i-iasf " pri'snitc 
I'll' li' ^>mi\ I'liii'ini'iil tic sa .Majcsli' In ilamiii|iii', ( pani "I, ) Jr hs iin'il isi \ lai i|iii'. • la lis 
il ^ I Is i!i- I (1 1 1' iiatiiir, li's L>mivri iiciiu'iils iiiiii ii's s'al teiiili'iii (t iinliiiiiiiT n n itn nir iles 
Il iiMiyiicini'ins ill's iiiiiiislri s mi <!• s cniisiils (|iii repieseniriii sin li-wis tm litmirs Irs 
iniissatiri's )ii'lli){i raiitt'H. .Ir nrarirtr Niir le unit <riiitliiiuiii uniliiiai ilv > el j <-n ileiliiis 
<l>i(' Ic ^uiivriiii'iiii'iil lii'itaiiiii(|iie ri'i'tiiiiiail iiii-iiirinr, aver j.|;i'iiiiili raisnii. ipfil priil y 

• See Hpri'clns ami Itispalelus nt' l''.ail KiimsiU, \nl. ij, iiaj^rs 'J.'.'.i, •.'liti. 
f Voir " SprcrlirH uiiU iliNitaldirs of Kail Hn.-srll," Mil, li, pp. •j;")!* a •J'iil. 



78 



.\WI»ril{ATl<»N AT (;!.\i:VA. 



iiriiis ill iiiiollicr. (Ih! Ilmt iii;ikt' :iii\ (liircrt'iirc '. Was siicli ;i pit'lciisc 
Im Itc t()lfi;llr(l Its' ('(iiiiiiiuii sciinc '." 

TIm' \t'ssc|. coiiiplclclN aiiiifd. iil»iiii»l<>ii(Ml licr iii'illiiiM-t iciil ilf-ii^iiiit inn 
'•l!!N>" tor tlic iMiiiif III' tlic Aliiitiiiiiii ;iii(l liuiNliil llic ll;i,n ol I lit' foiilt'd 
(Tiilc ]Lj:(t\ «i iiiiu'iil. which liuwcvcr, on ocfusioiis. shr rcpliu'cd Ity tin 
I'.iiiuh ll;i;t ill onlci' the lii'ltcr to (h'c<i\f \rssfls wliich slu- w islicd to 
:itl;i(-k. Sh;' tliiis ('oiiiinciifcil :iimI |iiirsiitMl iici' ;id\ ciil uroiis and dcsas 



avitir ilrs i';is r\Ii:i<ii(lmairfs oil int nciifri' ilnit ajjir miiis atfriiiln des rciisiMLini'iin 



• i'lin I 



I iM'lll;;i 



i:iiil |Miiii t'liii' i<'>|irclcr sa iMiitialil" 



(^iir Ir ras ilit N" '.".HI ni' liil |iiiinl nil t'.'i> <iiiliiianr. rrja nil' |iar:iil iIiiiikiiIh'. |iiii~ 



iiii^tnicliiiii a\ail (Icuiiu' i'i-\i'll a taiil ili 



ilmli 



i,iiiaii<l li'ili'{iail ill' 11' vaisscaii Int I'lniNlaii'. I.iinl jtn.-.vi'll, |n'i'\ uvaiil i|ni' |niilial>li 
iiii'iil il III' |iiiiii'i'ait |ilns t'tiT ani'lc tiaiis Irs laiis imi mi allail |i' ilnii Imt aiiN ii'ili -- '! 
rAiiuli'li'iii', ilit iin'an .--miilns i! iliininiail ili-' i>riln'> iimii I'aiuti r a NaN^air. mi : 
t'lait |>liili.lli'r ijU'oll Ir tl'iillX I'lail. 

<(>iiaii(irAlaliaiii:i i|uilla la liair ilr Miirll'ia. il avail nii i >|.ii|i'i;;r dr ijiialri'-v inu 
liiiiiiiiirs, il >iii\ It |ii'iiilaiil i|iii'li|nr triii|i.>. la itirr il'li'laiiilr. i>iii.- toiirna la rotr iiot'il >! 

rrltr llr rl sr ililiyra sill' 'rrlrriia. rillir ill's Arint's, nil rllr ailivil Ir HI amit. 

I/Alaliaiiia Int irjniiil ilaiis Irs ranx ilr Triiriia par (h-nx \ais.sranx; rA;;i ijiiiina i 

If llaliaina, sdIIIn i'';;alr|nrlll ilrs purls irAll;r|,.trirr. ijlli illi a))p(M trii'lir nil I'i'liliil'I I'lMi 

HiilriaMr llr laiiniis, <|r iiiiiiiit iiiiis rt d'apprm i-<ii)niirini'iil. 



I. 



ar lull riiliilillli r lir vaissrailX pDI'taill rl I'rrrNailt lii > inilhll lull'' 



'I ill 



vi. iiililii'liii'iils I'linst it III' nil fait ruiiipli'M' riiipnl'laiil illir rr>|iiiii--aliiliti' siiliilai 
mix ijni MiiiIrN nairiit ilrs ilmitrs a rrt I'iiaiil, mi pmiriait n piiiiilrr avir Irs pari>ir> il' 



Sir If 



rt I" 



niiiiiMiii'rs (tans la Ni'aiii'r llr la ( 'li.iinln r ilr.s iDiiiinniirs Ir "J- avril 



I";!!!: "I'.taii ri a iliir i|iraMi'iliir rvpnlit inn n'riail iiiir rxpnlilimi iiiililairr a iiiiiiii^ 



till 



Irs t 



iiiiiirs irnissriii II Ill's ai'inrs avri' rlirs siir Ir niriiir \ aissran .' si Irs iroiMii" 



rtairiit siir nn vaissraii rt Irs ariiirs siir iiii antrr. nla I'aisait-il iiiir ilillrrriirr .' I' 
trilr prrlriltiDIl riait-rllr silp|)iii'tal>lr par Ir srlis riniiliinil 



•»' M I 



i.r vaissraii aril miipli'lrinriit ni ;;iiri'rr i|iiitla sun itnliralrni at itlMnrlii|iii 

iinr prriiili'c Ir iimiiirAlaliania, liissa Ir pa\illnii tin y;mivrriiriiiriil dis ridilrilrrrs, i|ii';i 
'iicrasiiiii rrpriidaiit il iriiiplarail par Ir pa\ illmi In itaiiiiiijnr. pmir inirii\ tnnntirr Ir- 



\assraiix ipi il \nnlail allai|iiri'. 



II 



nlrrpril it pmiisiiuil aiii.-.i srs riMirst'savrnlni' 



M's <.'( dr-va«(atrlrrs. I';ilrs painrriit diiritrs avrr dru di't.iils iiiiiinlirnx rt lrriiiiii|i 



tlltiliji "'Il 
ill-tails, ill 

till' I'ol'lll II 

lliai liint' 
l»v tlic Ah 
On nil i\ 

\('SSt'I.S ol 

nulisli si 
with till' n 
Alahaina 



iiiiiN Ik' (•\ti;i(>i'din;ii'v ciiscs in wliicii a nciilral should taUc action n 
cnlorcc respect lor its nciitiality, witlioiit a\viiitii!<; inronnatioii IVoni ; 
l»cllii;cit'iil. 

'Ihat the case of the No. L".Mt was not an ordinary ease seems to nn 
evident, since Ihe const;iielion ot the xcssel had ,i;iveii lise to m» iiinri 
anxiety. 

\\ hen the depaitnie of this xcsscl was ascertained, l<o)d K'lissell. Ion 
seeiii^i- that |trolial»l\ it iniijht not he possihie toairest lier in the walei'v | Kii.uli";'' ^1 
on the coast of I'lni^land. where seafcli was heiie.: inaile for hef. stated 
that he would furl her :;i\(' ordeis to ai lest liei at Nassau, w heie it wa- 
pt'olialile that she iiii.uht he found. 

When thcAlaltania ipiitted Moelfia I'.ay she had a <'re\v ol eii;hi\ 
ineti : she kept lor some t iiiie aloiiL; l he Irish Sea, then lomided the inn Ih 
coast ol that island, and sfeered lor Teieeiia. inie ol tlu- A/.or«'s. when 
sheariixcd on the lOth .\iiuiisl. 

'I'he .\lal' una was joined in the walei s of '["eiceii a l»\ t u o \ csscls. i In 
iV^l'ippina and the llahaina, which had also stalled fiiun lainlish ports, 
and which Inoiij^^ht her a considcraltle supply of cannon, iniinil ions, and 
stores. 

The coinlniied action of \cssels carrsiii;; and reccivin.;.;' miinitioiis ami 
provisiiitis eoiisiitnlcs a complex act eiitailiii;4 a Joint responsil»ilit\, 
Those who ina.N raise aii.N doiihts on I Ids ipiest ion may i>e answered in 
the words of Sir Ifoheit I'eel, pronounced in the Mouse ol ('oinmons eii 
thcL'Sih April, ls.l(»: •• W as it then to he contended Ihat no expedit inn 
was a military expedition except the troops had theirarms on hoaid llir 
same vessels with them .' Il tlie\ weieon hoard one\essel and their 



Hope. 

The col 
was appn 
inipe that 
ivpairs w e 

l>i! her 
Hope, and 
ilie comin: 
Mito this 1» 

Tlic III! 
ihal llie \ 
riaiidesl in 
namely. 1 1 

Ihltlire. 'I 
ilie Alahai 
'hat this II 
jnrisdici io 
Al'Ki hi 
iDiiiied tin 

m| lli.s pic 



d.nis Ir jiinri 
nil iiiivraL-r ( 
nili'tinils i\r 
'i'lal. Ir Hal 

Arrivr a l;i 
iiiiilais. A I 
!i.i'.>r y ii'i'iit 
i'lilis aplrs I 
I >|ii'raiirr. 

I.ii <'<iiiilnii 
'''I'-si'H. i|iii 

ill' Irs li'pai 

Anivr a I: 

! iliiiis li's car 

inrmiiia !r ;;i 

I' jiiiratiiiiiN i 

I.'' lOllslll 

■-ll'-i rt i'll\ II 

II" piiinaii p; 

' I ^l-a-ilirr, 

'V'lis fAlaliii 

.~'ill\ rlllrlllr 

■Mulliisr 111' I 

Ajirrs .>,mi 

f.:"iivriiiciiii. 

'' I'll^i- linos 



n|'l\HiN> HI' (ol \l scl.nlMM. 



79 



i;itiii;t rniiscs. 'riic.v iipiHiirtd. ilcscrilu'd willi Miimitr ;iii<l Iffliiiical 
ilctiiils. ill ilic joiiniiil Ufpl on Itdiiitl l)\ Mr. I'lilhiin. iiiid cMri iindcr 
ilir lui'iii <it rt.iiiaiicf ill :i umiU iiilfiidcd to sMlistV piili it- cmiusiix, ;it 
lllill lillit' "iiu li cxcih'd on lln' snltjcrl. Aliioin; l lie vessels dcsliovcd 
l(V IIk' Al;ll>;ilii;l wiis llic l''cd<'l;il war-jiti.'illlirr I liilti'iiis. 

On 111 ri\ iiiu ;il -Iniiiaii ;i, tlif A l;ilt;iii'i;i loiiiid in llic port tlnrc I'lii^lisli 
vcssi'ls of Wiir. I lisle, id ol' Imim^- arirstcd in i;ii;Ji>ii waters l»\ ilw 
Iji^lisli ships, llieerew iiit't willi the Itcsl reception; slie was supplied 
Willi till' iiicans of rcpairiiiLi' her daniaucs, and se\ eii days allerwai d the 
A tall. I ma steered lor the coast oi I5ra/il. and I hence lo t he ( ape of (lood 
Hope. 

The eoiidiiei ol the l".iii;lisli authorities, under these eircniiislaiic««s, 
was approved 1»> Lord iinsseli. who eonliiied hiiiisell to e\pr<'ssiii;;' n 
iiope I hat t he \ essel w oiihl Ite leipiired to lea\ e as snoii as t he necessary 
lepairs weie liinshed." 

(hi her arri\al at Saldana ilax.iii the coloii.\ ol ihe ('a|eot' Ciood 
llupe. and coiiseipieiiily III the territorial waters ol the liiitish empire. 
ilie coiiiinander of the Alaiiaiiia inrorined the '^oNcnior that he had put 
luio this iiay with Iheolijeei ol' eti'ecl inn' some imlispeiisaltle repairs. 

Tlu' I'niled Stales consul protested, without los> ul time, deiiiiihdiiii: 
ilial the vessel should he seized and sent to lai^land. >.\ hence she had 
riaiidestiiicly escaped, aildiiiu thai the repairs Hiakiiiy lo Ihe vessel, 
namely. Ihiil of repaiiil iii'^ her. could iiol be considercil asolaii iirueiil 
nature, 'i'lie >aiiie consul added that he had, w il li his own eyes, seen 
1 lie Alabama laUe a prize in I hose same waters. 'I'lie govern men t replied 
liat this had taken place at a distance Iroin the shore lo which iiritish 
jiiiisiliclioii did not extend. 

Micr her arrival at the Cipe. the commander ol Ihe .Mabania iii- 
iHiiiiedthe government that he had left outside ol llril ish w aters one 
•ij liis previous prizes, the 'Tiixaloosa. and tlial >he would >hoill.\ ar- 



U I 



i- 



B' ' ' 



'IIC'IIII'MI- 



imiNiiiii 



• i.iiis Ic j(inni;il ti'im :"i lii>r<l \k\v M. {■'nlljiin. rl im'-iiic s<iiih dcs f. inirs ^<)lll.'lM('^<•|lll•^ <iaiiN 

Mil n|i\ iMur <1<'^I ill'' .1 ill ;i:i\ « r l;i cMliiisilc |il|liiii(lli', .I'lil^ sliicvcihc'. I'aillli les (l( N 
iiiiriinii^ lie saisscaiiN ii|m ni's pm I'A Lili;nii:i. il \ riil i illr dii shaiiicr >{<■ j;iirri(' Ii 

• i' i.ii. \r Hall. ra>. 

\iri\i' a la .lania'ii|iii', i'Alaliaina .\ ii'iii'<>nii;i <l:iii-. !i' imrt I i')is vai^iscaiis dr ;iiuirc 
iiiijlai''. .\ii iiiMi tl'i'lrf anvil' ilaiis n^, i-aiix aii^laisrs par di's iia\ ires anglais, i'c<|iii- 
irim' y ri-i,'iil If nirilli'iir arrrn-il : mi liii ilniiiia li"< muyiiis ilc rrpai'iT si-s avaricH, et si-pf 
I'Mis apii-s fAlali.iiiia Ml' (111 i^ra --iir la rnti' ilii Itii'sil it ili- la mts Ic Cap ilr Itnmii- 
I ^lii'iaiirc, 

l.n I'liiiiliiilr lir-i aiiliiiiii's aiiiilai-ii's, ilaiis n's riirmis' aiHi'-', liil appi'iiix n' par I, mil 
ti'i'^'^1'11. i|iii sc limiia a I'spi'in i|nr if s aisscaii an rail rlr rriinisili' pari ii' aiissjidi apirs 
'111' li's ii'paial imis iiiili'-piii-'alili"'* aiiiaii'iil iii- irriniin'i's.t 

Arri\r a la liaii' di- Sa Manila, dans la riilmiii' dii ( ap dr l!minr r.^prraiici'. ii par! a ill 
■I Ills li's I'aiix lirrilmiali's ill la .siiiiviraini'l'' aiinlaisi'. Ir roiiiniaiidaiil dr rAlalianiii 
; liii Ilia !i- ;4iiii\ oriii'ini'iil (|ii il I'lail \iini a ri'ttr liaif dans ]<■ lii.i di' Caiir i|iii'li|iii's 
I' |iniMliiiiis indi-|irn<a1di's. 

1.1' iniisul dr-i raals-l III is lie laida pas a pi iilisi I'r, 1 n driiiaiidaiil i|iii' Ir vaissi'aii liit 

• i!--! rl I'ltviiyi' I'll Aii^jlt'lrrii', d'nii il s'l-iail i rliappi- rlaiidrsiiiicniriil. I'll ajmilanl i|ii'i>ii 

I" |mii\ ail pasriiiisidr'rfi'ciihiiiii' iiiii' irparalimi iir^iriili'dn na\ iir ndlc i|iii' I'dii faisait — 

''I a din-, df It' I'l'pi'iiidiv. la- iiii'-liir coiisiil a.joiilail ipfil asail vii dr scs priipr*-s 

^I'lix i'Alaliaiiia I'M'riilrr di's prises dans ITS inriiirs raiix. II In! Int rrpDiidii par Ir 

i.>>ii\('niriiii'iil i|Mi> ci'la s'l'lail pasKi- a iiin- distanri- dr la <'i>li' a laiinrllc la Jtii idid inn 

iii;laisi' III- pmivail pas s'rli'iidii'. 

\|iii's M)ii arrui'i- a la \illi' dii Cap, h- rniiiiiiaiidaiil >\r rviahaiiia inruniia !•' 

'iiMi iii'iiiiMil i|u'il avail lai'«si' lim's di's rails aiiulaisi's hih' dr sis rapt iiirs pin rdnilrs. 

I ii~i' liiiiisa. rl i|ii'i'lli' an ivirail liirnlnl m i|iialilr dr tiiidn-. i\' naviir iuriv a, m 

* l.rtirr iVmn Mi. Ilainninnd In Sir I'. K'urrrs, l^'rlnMaiy II, It'll:!, 
t laltir dr .M. Ilaiiiiiiniid a .•<ii V. {{opT.M. II frvrk-r IHlJJ. 



il 



so 



ARTtlTTJA I Ion AT (;r.\i;v.\. 



'. 



'!> 



rixc ill llir (';i|»;U'ilv <»r tciidcl'. This \cs;c| ill t'lict ;iili\ III. ;ill(l iici 
«'iiruc (»r wool Wiis iii:i<l(> over !<» a liicicliailt ol (".i|m' Tinvii in lie tilliCii 
to I'iiinipi' :iii(l Mi'il ilii-i'i'. Till' nnuo wiis tlisiiiiliinlvtMl ni n pnin; 
iiiiiiit'il Aiiuiii .l'fi|iii>iiii, iiiitsiilc of liiilislr iiiristljci ion. 

W'licll I III- TiisimIoio;! :i|>|M';iifi| in the pari, llic r.iil>ll H;ii' iidriiii ii|. 
Sii' llnldwiii \\ mII^i r, wioir to liic ;i()V»Tnor to know il' tliis \i">s('l oii:Ji, 
.-•till loin- coiisiiU'r.il ,is :i [ui/.c. nil lion i;li she Imtl nc\ rr lictii coiHlriiitii il 
as such iiv n roiii|M'|i-iit 1 1 ilniiinl. lie pi-rsisiiMl in liis o|iinion, wlmh 
was ill (liii'cl MiriaiHc with the loli-riiiicc ot tin- ;4o\('inor : the lain i 
r«'l'»'nc(l to the ntlorncN •;;('ii('iiil. niid he siil»st'i|n<'nll\ . repjit d on ih, 
iidvicrol this hist olliccr, Init in tcniis which liclniycd u tiiltcriii;:^ cmi 
vij'tion that the vessel nii;;ht he considered as a \es-el of war. 

A eonespoiMlenee ensued bet ween the f;o\ criioi' ol t he < 'ape and I in 
Colonial iiiinislei'. the hiilvc ol Newcastle, as to llie li;^alii v ol the c;iji 
lines. That minister disapproved the I'oiidiici ol' ihe ;^i)\ ei inn- and tin 
appli<-allon oi' the piiin ijiie,-, ot law on wiiieh the attininN general ii.u! 
based liis opinion. 

\\ Idle this was taking place ilie 'I'nsi aloosa had reliiriied lt> the ]>nit. 
and having thus plae<'d hcisell' within the liinils of Ibili-li jnrisdii 
lion she was seized. The llritish jioveiiiinent . w hen iiii.riiiril ol' tlii- 
act. di-.a\owed il. and lUih red ihat the \ esM'l shonid \t\ ii<U)i\'i\ to lln 
eonlrderale lienleiiaMl who eoininaiided her; in > ase inat otiieer ii.iii 
lell the Cape, direclioiis were ;;iv«'ll to wall till llu* Vi'(*««'l eoidd 1m- 
handed o\ er to some pel .son whom the e(nnm.iiider of tin- .VlaWaiiia oi 
I he -^ov eriiiiieiit ol' the t 'onledeiale Slates ini;;lii i;';ii: iaan' ! )i the pin 
pose. The rji;ilish lllillistei, re\ elsili;; ill soliie lit'.ufee his huiiier (lecis 
uni, based llic iii>t lilrl ions as to |he reslitiition ul" liie \cs.<el on iln 
peculiar eiiciini.-.laiices ol' the case.* 

Her 111 II anil ic Majrsl\"s iiiiiiistei declares, in the same dis|)aleii, '• ihr 
.'I ficciiiiiis iniiiiioisiiiii Id ilisiK.ss ivlitllur, mtliir nlnni Id iIh ('(Ijh: IIi' 



Al 



I'll'i't. I I'll a Nil rai;;:ii.-<iiii ilr laliir a iin iii.iiiliaiiil <li' ('a|ii' 'I'owii pi mi la M aiiMiiorli i < 
i'airii|ii', aliii il'.v riff vciiiliic. I,a > .■ir;4;iisuii I'lii ili'lMi'i|iii-f siir iiii p liiii .i]>)ii'ir' .\iiU'.' 
I'fi|iii'iia, fii ili'lior.H lie lajiii iilit'liiiii l>ritaniiii|iii'. 

],i>r^i|iii- II- 'rii.scalixtsa jiai'iil ilaii.-> r< I iiiiliuil. Ir rnnlii'-.iinii.ii aii;ilais, .sir llalil\Mi. 
Wa]l\fr. iM-ris il an yniivfiin'iir iiiiiir -.avoir .si r.' \ai-M'aii ilr\ ail ill" cMi-nri' I'on.siilii' 
I'oiiinii- mil- pii.-.r, liii'ii i|irii ii'i'iil jniiais rii' I'luiilaiien- i-imiiiii>- I >'lli- |i.ir iiii trilnni.i 

r< Mil pri rill, II iiisjsla I la IIS .'.I II I I ipi nil III loill ,1 tail oppuM-i- a la IuIiMMIIi' ■ illl ;;i>IIVrl'llrni . 

ii'liii ri I'll ii'li'ia a I'al liiriirv-;;i'iii lal, rt I'l'piniilii i-iisiiii >, il'a|>i\-.> I'a^ is ilr n- ili 1 niri 
Miais ilaiis (Ir-H ii'iiiiis ipii 1 i'alii^>airiil iiin' I'liiivici imi rliaiiri'laMii'. ipir co iia\ii' 
poiisail sc riiii>i(|i irr ruiiiiiu' \ ai.ssi'aii ili- ]L;iiri rr. 

I 'ill' i-i nil spell 11 la I Ml' s'l'iisiiiv il ml ro Ir ;iiiii\ n iniii ilu ( 'ap d li- iiiini^l ii' ilrn ctilniih ■ 
«lni' ill- Nrwi'aslli', .siir la lr.;alili' ili"i rapluii's. Ci- ininislii' ilrsippr iii\ a l.i I'liinliiii 
(111 Umiv ri iii'Mi rl r.ippiiral iiiii (li"i piiiM'ip's ilr iliiiii siir 'iMpii is !'ai Illl iii',\ j;!-!! I 
.s't'tail I'l'iiili'. 

I'i'iiilaiil ipir ri'la SI' pass.iil. Ir 'I'lisi-aliKisa r-liiil miilri' iIiiiin Ic pml : il .s'l-tuiit aiii'i 
plan- ilatis W- liiiiiti's ill' |;i jiiriilicliiiii aii^laisi-, il I'm Haisi. l.ii< ii'iiiiviM'iii'iiiiiii 
lii'ilaiiiiiiiiii', iiil'iii nil' ill' ri'l ai'ii', Ir ili'savoiia, ci lit ii'inlrr cr vaissi-au an liriili'iiiii': 
i;iiiii'i'ili'ii'. i|ni II' riMiiniaiiilail ; itaiis lo cas oil crt iillirii r I'lil ipiilli- Ir Cap, il aj<'iii • 
ipi'll lallail all''nilir pmu' rriiii'llni It' vaissi-aii a la piT-iKiiiir ipii' li- riiinniaiiilanl <i 
r.M.'iiiania, mi li' ymiv ri iii'iiiriil ilrs clals riinf'i'(|<'i'i'>, aiiiail «lrsi;;nir a ccl cllrl ; i' 

lllilllsl 11' ail-^lais, |'i'\ rliaill rll ipli'li|llf sollr sill' jHi'S plrinii'l'i'S i|i ri>iiilis, llil.sail ill' 

in;«l 1 iirliiiiis nlaliM's a la I'l'si II ni inn (In iiasiir snr hs riiiiiiintiiii<iiixinilioiiiulli''>^'' 
I'air.'iiii'. 

1,1' iniiiisH'i' ill' .'-a Maji'sti' Writ :inniipii« iliilaii' il.iiis la nn nn' (l.'priln' iin'il n't"! |'l■ 
utiU■tll^lH''|^ll(l^l' ii<i "'III I'lliiiii' 'I" ' I'y l< I'lt-ifiiliioxti iDH-ii ( TKi/ tmiJDiui II ('((»'((( i<7'c (i'liiii im- 

" Di^palcti (<r till' Jfiikc III' NcwcaHlli' tn Sir I', WuiIi'Ihhisi', Manli In. tsiil: " I Iw^' 
now til cxplri'.n thai I liis ili'i'i.sinn was not rniiinli'ii mi any j^'iirial piincipln rcspi'i'lin. 
till' trraliniiil nl pri/rs raplnicil l>y the (;nii.s('r» of cilhcr ln'lliyi^ii'iil, Inii mi 'lie i"'"' 
liar i.:ii'(iiiiittlaiu't'.s ol' lln; caae." 



OlMNIONS OF COUNT .SCUH'IS. 



81 



Tiisnilnimn still ftttihinl thv charnrtcr of ti /o'/rc, or iclirlhrr .she fun! lost 
lliot I'lmrortvr oml liml aysiinuil lliuf of on onnnt Ini^lrr to thv Alnhiiimt, 
mill ii'lo llirr tliiit inir rliKtiofrr, if jniipi ilji t shihllslml and ailiiilitnl, icniilil 
hun cittillnl lor to Hit: saiitr itririhyr oj' <t(liiiis.siiui ichich inii/lit he tdcorUcd 
Id her rojitor, the Ahihinnti.'' " -t ** 

III iii.\ tM|);i( ity lis ill i>it latoi'. I (MiiiDtl :i\oi(l ii (lisciissioii, i-vcii tlioii^ii 
it .sliiMild III' wiiiiuiit use to uim> uI tlir iMiiics, hikI I iiiiist ;ii|iiiil tliiii it, 
Ncciiis ti* nil- tli;it till' oliscix ill ions oi'i;;iiiiill> iiiiii|i> wii li <M|iiiil ciiiiilor 
1111(1 ;;<)nil stiisc liv lifiir Adiiiiiiil WiIKit. (iIIIh' liiili.^li iiiivs , slioiild 
^iiiiic llic ii|iiiii<iii 1)1' lilt- iiiliiitiiil ill till- ilcrisiiiji Ml' tlif puiiii wliicli ihc 
lliilisli ;tuv('i iiiiifiit iT^iinlcd iis diiDciilt iiiid doiilitliil. 

Tu rcsiiiiic, I iiiii ol' (i|>iiiiuii lliat tin* iinitiiility id' (insit l>ritiiiti Wiis 
^lilM'lv ctiiiiiiioiiiiscd li\ (111' \ I'sscI iiifiiird t III' AliilMiiiil. < iilisci|in'iil ly 
(iii'iit Uiiliiiii is ii's|ntiisil»li' lor tin- iirls ol' tin' s;iid ve.ssi'I, iis wt'll us 
till tliosi' ol liiT tciidcr till' 'rusciilovts.i. 

V. — Tin: SlIKNANDiiAII '///(/.s SKA KIMi. 

First iiort. 

Till' liist cliiirjic wliicli tlic I'liitrd Stiitcs biiim" iii-iiiiist tin- lliiljsh 
"Iiivcniiiii'iit with ii'Liiiid to this m'sscI, wliicli Uiis iiiiilt mi 
iIh' slioii's of till' Ciydi', 's liiiit sill" wiis sold to liirliiird 
Wiiiilit, of Livi'ipool, ii Ut.lisji siihji'cl, iiiid fiitlicr-iii liiw of .Mr. I'rioliiiii 
of Soiitli ( 'iii'oliiiii : this liittrr liciii;;' tlif liciid |)iirtiii'i' ul' tlir liriii of 
I'liist'i. 'I'rciilioliii «\: ( 'o., notorious lor its iiitiiiiiitc, ichitions wiili tln^ 
ciiiifcdciiiti' ;;ov ('innu'iit. 

Tlic (iiili'd Siitii's iiiiiintiiiii thiit in \ ii'W of (lir iiliovc rrhilioiis, wliirli 
rollid Mot lie lllil\llo\\ii to tlir l'!ii;;li.sh !^o\ rl lltiirli! , lliis liitti-l' oll;;lit to 
liiiVii' UiMi'hril (he t liiiisfi-rs ol t lir cliiss id' vcsst'ls w liirh lloiii thrir liitihl 
lii'liiiycd dcsiuns hostile to tlir I'liitrd St;it('s. Mr. Adiiins, on Ilic 
;:ioiiiid ol t wo drpositioiis of siiilois on ho;ird I ids vcs.sci, dinoiiiu*t.'d lit'i" 
to Ijoi'd Jinssill iis dcstini'd tor tin- coiili'di'ijitr j^ovcnniu'iit. 



.•ili.-irin.' iih. 



'Ill x'il (irail firnlil rr citntitiir noiir pvinttw nliii il'iiil hi'itininil ilv •»< friliitir <iriiii' pour 
rAhthioiiii. il m' rr IIIIH rum niniiliri, ililniiii/ rnnsiiiti il mtinis, hii niiniil ilniinr tlinit iiiij'. 
Ml/ i/K.i y(;(Ci/( I,"" ''''"'""''''"'" '/IIIIH iliiiiiil iiiiiinli.siisiiii niiiuiiii iu\ I' .{liihtoiid. 

hiiiiM ma i|iiiiliir (I'm liitii- Jc iic puis pas iTiirtcr iiin' disciiN.-iiMi, i|iiaiiil iiii'iiic rlli- iic 
sfiiiit ptiiiil mile a I'mif ili's parties, el Jc dtiis a\ niirr 4|iii' IrsiilisriN aliniis lailrs ifaliDid 
iiviT aiilant ilo lnvaiOr i|iir ili' Imii sriis par Ic ciiiii rc-aiiiiral Waiivri , ilr la iiiaiiiii) 
lii'ilaiiiiii|iir, nil- paiaissiMit ilcvnir <liri;;i'r rnpiiiinii ilfs ,in;;cs ilaiis la ili'ii^ioii (ii- n* 
|ii>iii|, i|ih- !r ^iiiivi'i iii'iiifiit liritaiiiiii|iir I'ln isa^rail cimhiik' ililiiiilf <■! ilDiilciix. 

Mil iiK' ii'siiiiianl, Jc siiis il'avis (|ii(' Ir \ai.>>raii tioiiiiin- rAlaliama a ;^ra\ i-iiii'nt 
■ oiiiprniiiiH la III III lalili' lii'ilaniiii|iii-. ( 'iiiis> i|iii'iiiiiii'iit, la rrspniisaliiliti' ilc la I Iraiiili'- 
ilii ta^iu- m' i nun <• rii;;a;^(-o taut pour ics I'aits ilii ilit \aisscaii iiiii' par ci'iix ilc Kim 
liiiili r, Ic TiiscaluKNa. 



I.K SIIi;\.\M>OAlI. \l.l\s S|:.\ KI.NIi. 

I'lriiiiiic inirlk, 

'.I' prt'inicrri'iinxOu' nui', It's l-.tats-I'nis ailri'ssnit an j^oiivi'i'iiriiu'iit an!;;lais A prupoM 
ill' 1 1- vaixsraii III 'r'il -air Irs liorils dr la Clvdr, r'i->l ipril a ili- m-iuIii a l>ii'liard 
Wi i^li I, df l,i\ 'ip'.! ! 'iiji't a II;; la IS, ct lii-aii-piTc df M. I'linlraii. ili' la ( 'aiidiiii' dii Suit ; 
(■(• driiiirr assi. '.'■ I'll i.ipal i\>- la maisdii f'rasrr, Tiriilioliii ct ('", ronmir jiar m's irla- 
liiilis ilitiiiii'S a\ ' • 'i' ,■ illVrl'llt'lilrlll dcs cdiili'dt'l'i'S. 

i-i's i^tatsfii s ,;>iili 'iiiii'iit iiiic, Ml li's rt'lal ions -iiisditi'H, ipii ii<> poiivaii-iit ^tro i>^no- 
I'ls par Ic ^iMi' rrih'iiiciil ;iii)^liiis, it deiiiifr aiirail do snivcillcr Irs luiiisCfrfs di' I'dtn 
riitfy;(irir dc vii is.-'i'aiix, i|iii, jtar Iciir i-oiistnictiini ari'iisaii'iit drs projcts linslilrs aiix 
Kiats-t!iii.s. Nl Adams, appiivi' dr dt'iix tli'p'^iilii'iis di' mati'lids a Imrd di- ri' iiaviic, 
ili'iiDiivait a Lord Kiissull iadi'Mtiiiatioiido lo vaissi-iiii an j;onv<-riii'iiii'iit ilfs ri(iilV'dcn''H. 

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82 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 



TIk', St'ii Kiiiji' look out a ('l«'{U'aiico for Boiiihay, jiiid coal and supplies 
for a ciiiisc of twelve mouths. Ilai'dly had she wei-^licd auclw/r, when 
a tele.niaui sent to Liverpool autioiuiced her de|)art[ii'e to tlie eouredf'rate 
ayciit at that ]»oit, Tiu- same eveuiu.n' a sfrew-steauu'i', ricaily new, 
adniirahly achipled lor e(|uipmeiit as a privateei", iiaiiu'd the Laurel, 
luauued l)y men thorouyldy devoted to the confederate ciinse, wlio Inn! 
served on Itoard the Snmter, .Mahama, ami (!eor_i;ia, wiis laiU'ii with 
arms ami steered for the bay of Fuuchal, in the island of Madeir;i. 
where she awaited the Sea Kiui--, which ariived two days sifter her. 

in a desert coiiier of the bay of ."Madeira, the arms aud ammunitioii 
were transshipjx'd Irom the Laurel to the Sea Kin.i;'. A man named 
Corbett, an faiulishmau, who had recei\('d from ^Vl■i^■ilt a power of ai 
toruey to sell tlic vessel, addressed the (!i('w, announced the sale of the 
vessel, which was about to chanjic her nanu' aud take that of Sheuan- 
tloah, and endeavoi'cd to persuade the nu'U of the crew to follow the 
^•essel in her lU'W career in the confcderale ser\ice. Of eij^hty saih>rs. 
tweidy-three only consented to remaiu in the uew vessel of war. 

The comltict ol' Corbett appeared to be in such evident contra\'ention 
of the f(»rci,ij;n-enlistnH'nt act, that the ibitish consul at l-^nu hal sent 
bin) home in custody to 10uglau<l, Captain Waddell suct-eeded him iit 
comimind. 

Mr. Adams did not fail to inform Lord Russell of all that had taken 
plac(^\\ith it'.uard to these two vessels; lie added that ot the oflicers 
trausfe r<'d to the Shenandoah, the j;reater \r,\vt wert^ Dritish subjects 
who had been saved by Eii,nlish intervention at the mouient when tluy 
Avere ^i'oiu.u' on board tlie >\labama. 

The Slieiiaudoah went from Madeira to ^Melbourne; on the ))assaj;e. 
Avliich lasted ninety days, she destroxed sev(M'al vessels ot the merchant 
navy ot the Cinted States with theii cargoes, and linished by anchor 
inn on the l*~»th flauuary, 180."), at Saudrid^i^'c, a small vill;i.ne two m^lcs 
from Melbourne. 

If we are to believe a letter addressed by ^Ir. I'danchard, United 



lli'^^ 



I.c !^lii'ii;ni(l(iali in'it scs imjiici's do Ixird 'hiiii' l?i)nihi\y. vt du cliarlioii cf dcs ajiiirovi- 
sioiiut'inciits ])(iiir iinc crDisii'ic dc doii/.f, iimis. A iiciiic li' Sen Kiiii.'; avait-il Icvt' raiu'ic 
(lu'iiii t<''I('',uiiiiimii' csiH'dii' It I>iv<'r)ii)nl aminiicait son d<'iiart a I'aLi'ciit coiiti'ihTt' dc cr 
])(>it:. 1 'aiis la iik'HK' soirt'i' uii steamer a hi'lice. ]ii esijue iieiil', adiiiiiablemeiil aiiinopric' 
u nil .niiiieiiieiit di> e(iuis(>, iio'inne le J.amel, nidiitt' ]iar <les hoiiniies tii's-devoiies an 
parti foiit('il('ic, i|ni ii\ nieiit servi a Imrd dii Siiinter, de I'Alaliama et dn (ienrma. eliar^eii 
des amies el se diri^-ea \ers la liaie de I'liiiclial, dans I'lie de ilade:c, oil il atteiidit li' 
iit",\ Kiiijj, qui aniva d<'iix Joms ajjii's liii. 

Dans MM eoiii desert ilt; la liaie de Madere il se tit iin traiishovdeiiieiit d'ariiios ct d'' 
immilious dii Laurel siir 1" .Sea: Kiiijf. l;ii iioiiiiiu; C'oiliett, nil Aii.nlais t\m avait i('(ii 
de A\'ii^iit nii<: procnration ])()nr veiidrc le iiavire, se pi-esenta a )'e(iniiiaLje. aiiiioiii.ii 
lit veiite f'aiti^ dn vaisseati, (|ni ailair cliaii^iiT dt; iioiii et itreiidre eeltii de Siienandoali, ct 
»'n,t;a<;('a les lioninies de r('<]iiinaj;e a snivic ee vaisseati dans fjcs iioiivelles destiiiees iiu 
service des contedi'ii's. Stir (|nalre-viiij;l niatelots, vinj-t-trois setileiiiciil coiiseiitirciit 
a rester stir ce iionvean vaisseati de niierre. 

J, a condnite de Corbett iiantt si evideninieiit. coiitrain' .m forcijiii-niHntmciit art que Ic 
j'oiistil aiijilais a I'niiclial Teiivova prisoniiier on Anf^leterre. Lo caiiittiino Waddell 
Ini sncct'da dans le coiiniiandeinent. 

M. Adams ne m tin qua iiasd'inl'oritier Ijord Russell de font ce ((iii s'etait passe a |)ro])(is 
«!•' ces deiix vaissejtnx: il ltd ajottta <ine |iariiii les olliciers traiisti^it's stir le (Slieiiitii- 
doali, la jtlnjiart elaieiit des siijets anf-liiis, ({iii aviiicnit (■to satives )iar nni! intorvontitm 
any,'liiiso an moment oh ils so icnilaient i\ bord de rAlaliaimi. 

]^e. Slionandoali se ))orta d<' Madeio snr M-lboiirno; dans lo trajct, <itii dnia qiiatic- 
viiiflt-dix jonrs, il dc'trnisit plnsiotirs vaisscaiix do, la niarino niarcdiaiidt* dcs lUa^s-l'iiis. 
ainsi (|tie lenrs careai.>oiis, et liiiit par ,jett»r I'ancre, lo '^5 Janvier Mi^i, a ISandriilj;o, mm 
petit villiti.;e a detix inilles <l(^ Molbotirno. 

Si Toil LU croit une kttre adressce ijur M. liluncbard, consul cles iStatB-UnlBil Mel- 



OPINIONS OF COUNT SCLOriS 



-sn 



states consul at Afcllxninio, to ]\[r. Seward, Sccivtary of State at Wasli- 
iiiL;t«>ii, the mail IVoiri I'^iiropc, \vhic!i liiid arrived some days iK^I'orc, had 
bi'oii.iiiit news that the Sea l\iiij;' had h-l't ICiii^Iaiid with the inteiitioii of 
bt'iiiii' transformed into a vcssc! of war to cruise a<;aiust the commerce 
of the I'uited States. 

The I'nited States consul at ^lelhouiiie informed the governor, with- 
out loss of time, of all the circumstances which lie consideicd as proofs 
that tlie Slienandoah was not a vessel of war of a rec(».iinize<l l)e]lii;erent, 
hut rathi-r a privateer heaiiuji' all the marks of its .yiiilt. 

The IJritish authorities at >rell>ourne are accused of havin<>- been ex- 
('essiv<'ly complaisiint toward the comman(U'r and crew ot the Shenan- 
doah ; it is asserted that tlie .governor had unoflicially re-assured lu'r 
commaiMU'r belbre ofticially .yrantinj; him what he re(|uested. 

Captain Waddell did not hurry himself to state what were the repairs 
and supplies which he nee(h'd, and the ^^overnor, instead of adherin.i!; 
rigorously to the ;n'eneral instructions with which the British jiovern- 
iiiciit had furnislu'd him, referred it ratlu-r to ^Vaddell to determine the 
length of time to be .granted him. While the I'cpairs were slowly u'oiii.n' 
on, Wacidell was makiut;' recruits in the town of iMelbonrne to till up 
the yaps which were left in his crew. 

in the American .Vpi»endix (vol. v, ]»p. (I(>() ct Ncq.) i\n\ inserted tlie 
rc'ixirts of the |)roceediu,u,s of the legislative {issend)ly at Melliourne, 
which show that the opinion of the majority was in iavor of treating' 
the commander of the Shenandoali with h'uii'iu'y, and leaving' the mat- 
ter to the decision of the j^overnment and the colonial authorities.* 

j'ressed by the riMuimstrances ami protests of the I'lnted States con- 
sul, the uovermtr referred the <piestion to the liiW(>tTi(;ers of the colo- 
nial iioverinnent, who rt'idied that there was no evidence of ))irac\ hav- 
ing- been committed by any onc^ on boai'd the vessel, and that she should 
he treated as a ship of war. 




s-/ 



Imurni'. h M. Scwiird. Sccrotairc d't'tut fi Wasliiiiiitoii, la iiiallc d'Europc, ani\('i' (jiicl 
<|iU's jdurs aii|iara\ant, avait ajuiorlt' la Moiivcilc (|iu' U- Sea Kiiij; avait (|iiitf(' fAii.nlc- 
tcri'c a\c(; I'iiili^'iitiiiu dc se traiisl'oniier en vaisscau dc jriiciic jioiir I'roiscr (joiitrf 1(3 
(■(HiiuiiTcc (ii's lltats-l'iii.s. 

1a' consul (li's fitatN-Tiiis dans ('rtti>. villc iic tai'da pas a iiiforint'r Ic lioiivcriicur dn 
tdiitcs los (•ircoiistaiicii.s pal' ltsi(iifllt's il<'r(,yait jinrnvt' qnc Ir Sticiiaiidoali n'l'lait point 
<lu tout nn \aisscau dc jjucnc (I'nn lie Hi ;.;■(' rant ice mnn. niais birn iilnlot un cDi.s.iiii;, 
ayant tontcs Irs niar(|ncs dc sa cnlpaliilnc. 

Oil acciisi^ Ics auldiiti's an;^laiscs dc Mcll>oiunc d'avuir cti' cxccssivciiicnt coinlcsccii- 
iliiiilcs en vers Ic coininainlant ct rt'i|uipai;'c dii SlieiiaiMlnali ; on ]»i(''tend ([lie ee yonvcr- 
iicnr avail lassnii- ollicienscnient Ic conmiandant avant dc Ini accordcr ((I'ticiidicnient 
I'c (jii'il deinandait. 

l.e caiiitainc Waddi'U lu^ sc jircssa point ])onr (aire coiinaitrc (|ncllcs etaient ]i'h 
i'i'|)aralii)n.'-; ct les approvisionncmciUs ipril lui I'allait, ct Ic nonvernciu', an lieu dc s'cu 
tciiir ;i la rio-eiu- dcs instructions <;('n(M'alcs ipw^ Ic jj,dnvcrnciuciit auj;lai.s lui avait 
naiisiniscs, s'cii rapportu pliUot a Waddell snr I'cspacc d( temps a lui accordcr. 
Pendant (inNui pi'itci'ilait Icntcnu'nt aux i('|iarations, Waddell Caisait dcs recaaies dans 
la ville de McUionrnc, ponr roniplir Ics vides (pic laissait son ('(piipajrc. 

Dans rap)>ciHlicc anuMicain (vol. v, paj^cs (idO ct snivantcs) on a ins('T(' dcs rappoits des 
aites (Ic riisscinlil(''c l('';;islativc iW Mcll)(>uruc. (pii nianpuMit (pu' Topinioii dc la niajoritcj 
iiiciinait a ni(''naf;(,'r h^ (H)innnuidant dii Shenandoah ot a s'on rcnitsttre a I'avis du ,i;on- 
virneuu'nt ct dcs ant((rttos colonialcs.t 

I'iess('' ]iar les instances ct les protcstaticuis dn eonsnl dts I^tats-Unis, lo. gouveinciu- 
(lil'i'ia la (piestion aux conseillei's h^jjaiix du ffonvcrueincut colonial, (pii n'-pondircnt 
i|u'il n"y avait ancnnt^ preuvc; dc piratcrie oonnnisc par <pii ((we celftt an bold du uavirc, 
<t (pie Ton (U'vait traitor colui-ci ooinnio uu bAtimont do gaerre. 

* Soc tlip speech of Mr. O'SluinaHsy, p. (itll} of tlie vohime referred to. 
f^oir le discours de M. O'SbaimsHy, p. (jO'J «lu volume cite. 



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84 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 



•'ill 



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Tlie sn.si)icioi]s whidi had beoii eiitcrtaiiuMl of tlie clandostine sliip- 
moiit of soino persons on hoanl Ww. Shciiaiuloa'li coiitimied to increase. 
Till' pcnnission .i>iaiit('<I to tlio (!aptaiii to take in supplies and make re 
]iairs was snspended, and the j>oveniinent published a proclamation for- 
l)iddin<«' IJritish subjects to yive aid or assistance to the Siu-nandoah. 

The assertion of the fact of the clandestine shii)nuMit of certain men 
on board the Sheinindoah was borne out. and the commander ami oHi- 
fci'rs of that vessel had to yive explanations as to the assurance they 
had <>iven that no shipment of this kind had taken place, and as to the 
fact that they had unfortunately not fulhlled this engagement made on 
their word of honor. 

The American case and the British counter case contain details as to 
the facilities which the to])ographical situation of Jlobson's Bay and 
Port Pliilii* afforded for the escai)e of men watched by thejiolice, whose 
insuthcient means di',1 not allow of thvir exercising sut)ervision at eveiy 
point, in order to prevent the departure of the persons enlisted. It 
may also be doubted whether the legal advisers of the colonial gov- 
ernor and his ])oli<;e oflicers were over-anxious to second the energetic 
eliorts of the United States consul. 

I will note two circumstances which appear to me to deserve special 
attention : 

I. The confidential instructions, by which the autlnnities at IMel- 
bonrne had, from the first, said that they must be guided, are published 
at page 125 of the tilth volume of the Ai)pendix to the British Case, 
and the last document contained in them traces exactly the line of 
conduct which was hnallv followed by the government towaid Captain 
AVaddell. 

L*. The postscript of a letter from ]\lr. Adamson to "Sir. Davis, whicli 
is to be found at page (J.'JT of the documents annexed to the American 
counter case, (French translation,) reveals a moral pressure producing 
a i'ynical disavowal. 

Tlie Shenandoah, on leaving the ])ort of ^Melbourne, took with her 
40(> tons of coal, if the American consul is to be believed, with full 



Lcs soupfons qne I'oii avait do rcmharqneniont claiidcstin de (lUflcjues porHoiiiies a 
l)()i(l du Siioiiaiidoah no iirt^iit qii'auffiiKuitor. La pormi.ssion accordot* aii ('a[)itaiiio de 
faiit' dcs ai)pr()vi8ioiiiii!iiii'ntM of dcx ivparation.s t'lit susmoikIiio, ot to f^oiivoinoinciit 
jinblia iino pioi'lamatiou pimi- di'loiidre aiix HUJctH IjritamiKiucs do proter aide et assis- 
taiico an .Stujiiandoali. 

L'a8.s(atioii du fait do I'cmbarqtieiiiPiit cland(!8tin do (luolciuos liommes dn Slioiian- 
doah fut inaintomto, ot lo coiniiiandaiit ot li's olilicicrs do (m; vaissoaii duront doniior dcs 
oxplicatitms siir la parolo (pi'ils avaioiit doiin(''i! (|ii"aiiouu onil)arqiioiiiont do. co ^^'onrc 
ii'a vait on lion, ot .snr lo fait (pi'lls n'aviiient malliouiousenieut pas rdpoudn il cot ciiga^e- 
luoiit do parolo d'honiionr. 

Lo "CaHo" ainorioain ot le "Conntoi'-caso" anj^lai.s coiitionnont dos d<^tails snr la 
faoidto (pio la sitnation t()p()j>rai)lii((no do Hobsoii's Way ot Port Philip piotaifc a i'ova- 
sion d'hoiiunos survoillos par la polico, dnnt Ioh failtlo.s nioycHM no i)ernu^ttaiont point 
d'cxorcer \uio siu'voillanco Hur tons lo8 points, atin d'c^nipoclior oos sortios do gons o,ni- 
lianolios. II est anssi ponnis do dontor (pio los consoillor.s loyanx du {ronvornonr coloniiil 
ot SOS otiioiors do polico fnssont dos luicux disi)osos a seconder I'enipressoiuout (U'S 
dounirdios dn consul dos Jltats-Unis. 

Jo )U)torai deux circonstancos (|ni nic paraissent nKiritor nno attention spocialo: 

I. Los instructions conlidoutiollos d'apros losqnollos los autoritos do Molbonnic 
avaiont dit d'abord otro obli{j;oos do s(! rd<;lor fnront publiees a la page 12'^ dn cincinioine 
volume do Tappoudico an "Case" anjrlais, ot la dernioro pioco iiui s'y rattacho tracii 
exactniont la lij^ne (ini a 6U'' suivie par lo youveruemeut on dernier lieu vis-u-vis du 
capitaino Waddoll. 

'<J. La poxt-seriptum d'unc lottro do M. Adamson a M. Davis, ipii so lit a la page C37 des 
piocos anuexooH an "Conntorcase" amoiicain (traduction frauiraiso) rdvide nne 
prossion morale prodnisant nn cynique ddfeavou, 

Le SLeuaudoah, eu quittaut lcs eunx de Melbourne, etnx)ortait avec lui 400 tonnes de 



OPINIONS OF COUNT SCLOPIS. 



8; 



;) 



special 



»s 



sailinj; rigging, trusting more to her sailing than to her .steaming pow 
ers. This excess of sn[)plies was denounced to the governor, and the 
United States, reckoning up tlie several shipments of coal made by the 
Shenandoah, infer that she was meditating a fresh cruise on her depart- 
ure fioin M(^lbourne, so that that port became a base of naval opera- 
tions for tiie insurgents. 

The cruise of the Shenandoah furnislu's materials for a special de- 
scription, and among the reviews of the facts relating to this vi^ssel is 
(»iie to wliich 1 will here refer — that of Mr. .Montague Bernard, who 
says that sc large a. number of recruits as we may believe to have been 
shipped by her, could not have come on board witlu>ut Captain Wad- 
dell's knowledge, I shall I'eturn to this (piestion of the number of re- 
ciuits, wiiich is evidently exaggerated. 

One cannot resist the belii^f that the tolerance of the authorities at 
Melbourne contributed greatly to enable the vessel to pursue her adven- 
turous career in th(! Arcti(; seas, whither she re[)aired by JJehring's 
Straits. 

The number of whaling-vessels which the Shenandoah destroyed in 
these waters, at a time when the ('.onfederate government had ceased 
lo exist, raises the amount wiiich tlu' United States lay to Inn- charge, 
to a sum little less than that for which the Alabama is held responsiljje. 

It is not pi'oved that the Shenandoah absolutely lost her original 
character of a IJritish vessel nuinned by a Ibitish erew. It is aflinned 
that this vessel shipped at ^lelbonrne .'>(>b tons of (toals, v.hieh liad 
been sent to her iVom Li\erpool. The (iovei'nment of the United 
States adds that the name of the vessel which bi-ought this coal was 
the John Fraser, and this occurrence it seeks to adduce as an iucaini- 
iiiating circumstance. ' 

The JJritish goviu'nment, in its counter ease, (page 110 of tho Fi'eiu-li 
translation,) says that, at the i)resent day, wheu the distance of time 
and place prevents an exact kin)wledge of all the ]»artieular circum- 
stances, it would serve no useful puriiose to follov.- all the details of a 
techiucal discussion founded largely on conjecture. 



cliarltou, si Von en croit Ir consul ioiu'ri iiin, inn! iiiiUun; comitli'tc. s'cn ti'iiaiit jiliis a 
la voile ((iTa la vapi'iii'. Co liix(* d'approvisiomu'iiifiit tut (U'lniiict' an j^oiivei in-nr, ot 
Ics I'Uats-Cnis, en sniipntant Ics divers (•liar^i'nients de eliarlimi I'aits par W Slienandoaii, 
til (h^diiiseiit <iii'il ludjettait niie iioiivelle (Moisieie en soitaiit de Mtdltouriie, dt; sorte 
i|iie ce ]n>r( di'vciiait poni' les insnrjfes line base d'opi'iatioiis navales. 

La (•i(ii>ier(' dn Slienandoaii (oiniiit la niatierc a une description lout'.' partieiiliere, 
ct paniii les appii'cialions des t'aits (pii coiieenient ce vaissean il y en a iini> (pie Je 
lappiirle ici, celled de M. Moiinta^iR' Bernard, (pii ilit (prim iionilire aiissi ^raiid (1(! 
icci'iies (pi'dn i»i'nr (^roire, (pii ait (^t('' enihaiipK' a son hi>rd. n'aiirail ]ni s'y reiidre sans 
(pii' le eaiiitaine W^iddell en cut connaissaiice. .Je vais reveiiir siir ce iKiiiilire de 
iccnii's ('N ideiiiineiit exa'^'i'ic 

< In lie pent se I'etuser a croiic (pie la loji'rance des aiit<irit('s de Mellmiinie a lieaiiiiiiip 
Mi(l(' a iiiettro c(! vaisseaii en ('•tal de poiirsnivre sa cairiere aveiitiirciise dans les iiieis 
Aictiipies, oil il se reudit par le di'troit de HeliriiiL';. 

Les (lestnictions des lialeiniei's (pii' le Slienandoaii opi'-ra dans ces eaiix, dans iin 
temps oil le ;^()ii\ ernenieiit des conlVilt'ii's a\ ait cess(' d'ev ister, I'l rail inontcr la emiipta- 
liili(('. (lout les l';ialsrnis le cliary.i'iil, a nii diillVe de ])tii inl'erieiir a celiii ih.i.t "ii 
I'iiarjic la i'es|)oiisaliilit('' de rAlaltaina. 

II n'est pas 'proiiV(> (pie le Slieiiandiiali ait etVeetiveiiieiit perdu son caiact(''r(^ luiniitit' 
(le \aisseaii et d"(''(piipae(' l)ritanni(pie. II est allii'iiK' (pK^ >•(' vaisseau einltaitpia ii 
Mclliiiimie, '.](){) ((limes de cliai'lion, (pii liii avaii'iit ('ti' ex]i('di('es de Liverpool. \,i' 
(ioiiveriicnient des I'Uats-lTnis ajoiite (pie le. iioni dii vaisscan (pii apporta ce cliarbon 
('■tiiit le John I'laser, et il piu'tend (Mi dcdnire. iin ai'^innent dv. (•nlpal>ilit(^ 

Lc jto'ivciiieuient britiiinil(iiit, dans son contni-inenioiio, (p. 110 dc; IV'ditioii franfai.se,) 
(lit (pi'il ci'tti) heiin?, oii le temps et la distance eiiipeclient de reconnaltre avc<.' exaeti- 
tiide tons les (l<Stail8 aecessoirea, il n'y anrait anciine utilitc'' n^elle a suivre tons les 
diHails d'unc augmentation technique torgee largeinent sur des conjectures. 



86 



AUBITIJATION AT GENEVA. 



IV'l' 



The Anu'iiciin riovcniinciit docs not i«'liii(|iiisli its ooinpliiiiits. T coii- 
sidci' tluit, in order to loiiii a Jiid;;int'iit on the lust pciiod of the. crniso 
of tlic SlK'niindoidi, it is of tlM> .yrcjiti'st inijiorliince to dwell on liic 
swoiii depositions ot the two iniisteis of wliidiiiy-vessels, Mhene/.er Mve 
nnd 'i'iioiuiis Ihitliuwiiy. wliieli are jiiveii iit tin- end of tlie second part 
of (lie selections from the Appendix to the Ciise of the IJniti' States, 
(French translation.) 

Tt» replace the force of a vessel in a projiortion ecpial to that which it 
lind lost, is not, strictly speaUin,ii', sni un<;nientation of force. W'v find 
this maxim laid down in a Jnd<>inent oi' the Wnpreme Conrt ol' the I'lnted 
States, quote<l in the interestinj; memorandum of .Mr. Abbott, (Loid 
Tenter<lcn.) It is ne<;essar\, therefore, to ]>ro\e an extraoidinary ini;^- 
mentation of force ' ,\ order to establisii a solid presnnii)tion ol fresh 
attemjyts ayaiiist tlie dnties of neutrality. It is on these mnch-dis- 
])ntcd I'acts, which are, in my belief, capable ol' further elucidation, that 
I beu' my hom>iable colleaj>ues to assist me with their information. It 
neci ssary 1 will apply to the jtarties theuiselves for tnrther explanations. 

ISccond jmrt. 

In t^e session of the (hiy before yesterihiy, beiny jthieed in the d(>li- 
eate position of haviii,<i to det<'rmiiie, by my castin,i;' \ ote, the decision 
in the important and complicated case of the Shenandoah, 1 appl'cd to 
my honorable collea,!4'nes for elucidations calculated to determine my 
o[)inions, disturbed by doubts. J may be excused this hesitation, caused 
by certain apparent (tontradictions in the facts of the case, and by the 
desire not to allow myself to be led away by a cond)ination of appear- 
ances, which, thou<>h supi)orted by [)lausible reasoning, mi^^ht, never- 
theless, be deceittul. 

1 m)w bej»' you, j^ontlemen, to allow me to state to you my ojnnioii, 
hesitatinj4' the day before yesterihiy, coidirmed to-day by the results of 
the discussion which I havi^ elicited, and whi(;h you have succeeded iii 
iienderinj;' fruitful and decisive bv vour information. 



liO fi'ouvcriicinoiit aiiu^ripiiiii iw so (l('sist<' ])iis dc scs ))ljiiiit('s. ,Tn rrois (pril (>sr 
d'liMc fxtrfiiH! iiii|i(irt;iiH'(', iKiiir t'oriiicr iin Jimciiiciit siir la dcniii'rci jn'riodt^ dc l;i 
croisicii' (III Siii'iiaiidiiah. dc s'arn'lcr siir Ics dt'iiositioiis assrriiifiitiM.s drs deux ]>atrriiis 
dcs iiaviifs tialciiiicis. i^hciic/cr Nye ft 'I'lKiiiias llatliuway. iinc I'oii troiivc vers la liii 
*h' iii dfiixicnic [laitic dii flioix dcs jjii'i/fs jiistilicalivcs ii fapinii dii iixMiioirc dew Etats- 
I'liis. 

Li! rciii))lacciiiciit dc la force d'nii vaisscau dans uiic ])i'()))()rt ion ci^alc a ccllc qii'd 
avait jicrdnc n'cst pas, a parlcr rij;dnrciisciiiciit, niic augmentation dc fojcc. Nous 
tronvons cctte, niaxiinc eonsiniw'c dans nii Jnjicnicnt de la (joiirsupienic dcs lUat.s-lInis, 
eitt' d.ins rintt'icssant mcniorandiini de M. Aiiboti. ( Loid 'J'cnterdcii.) II taut done 
«'tal>lir line an<4Mientation di- ibrce. en sus de l'ordlnair<', pour (|n'il y ait i)icsoini)tiim 
jbiidi't! de noii\'clles cntrcpiiscs eontre les devoirs ile neat lalilc. (''est snr Ics I'aits 
t res-con trovers(''s. ci, a ec i|Ue Jc crois. snscciitililcsd'nnc plus ;;randc ('dMcidation, (pie je 
])iie iiics li(Hioral)lc> collcs;iics dc nraidcr dc Iciiis luniicics. >S'il est iKiuessaire, jc d(!- 
uiandciai encore aiix parties ellcs-nu'iiics dcs liclaircissenicnts. 

DcHxlime parlic. 

Hans la s('ance d'avant-liier, ]dac(' dans la cireonstanct^ tics-d(?licate. do ddterniiiici' 
\y,ii- iMoii vote la majoi'iti' ])oiir la lU^'ision dii cas aiissi j>iavc (pK^ conipli(|U(- dii SluMian- 
doali.Je deinaiidais a ni(s lionoi'al>les collc;riics dcs ('claiicisscnients i)ro)ires a tixcrnies 
idees .;;;it<''es p.i'' le donle. On nie pardonnera ces aj;itations ])i'odiiitcs par (^er<^aiii('s 
contradictions apparentes dcs fait.s de la eaiisis, vt ]»ar le (h^sir dt; no jms nut laissei' 
enliaiiicr par rensemltlc d'ap)»aiences (|iii, bien (pio ruttaeliees a des iiiolif's pluusibles, 
}»oiivaient nt'unnioins ('Aw, ti'oni)tcuses. 

.le voiis deniandc inaintenant, incssicnrs, la jierndssion de vous exi^oser nion opinion, 
cliiiMcclante iivant-liicr, arict(''e aiijourd'lmi i)ar siiifo de la discussion que j'ai Houlevce, 
et <iue vous uvez su leudro fecondc et decisive par vos luniieros. 



OPINIONS OF COUNT SCLOPIS. 



87 



m 



I ou,ubt, in tlio liist ])liU'(', to rcpoiit wliat [ luivo iili'cady siiid, tliaf, 
in uiy ()i)iiii<Mi, it is not iibsoliitcly pioNcd tliat tl't^ fjict of tlic icpiiirs nl 
tlic SliciiaiMloiili at .Mclhoiinic (•■)iistititr('s l»y itself y-ron lids I'or a ciiary'ii 
of violation of iiciUrality. It is proved that these repairs were neces- 
siiiT, and it is not shown that the replaeenieiir of the foi'<'e of this \ esse!, 
1)V means of t''.ese repairs, sni'i»assed the measure of its foiinei' eondi- 
tion. 

It remains to be seen, then, whether the e\eess in the supply of (;oal, 
and al>ove all the elandestiiie recruitment of |)art of tlie crew, effeefed 
nt Melbourne, assume, or' not, the eliaraeter of a base of na\al o])erii- 
tioMs, such as is e()ntemi)lated in the secon<l rule of Article V'l. 

Tie.' SluMiaiidoah, on her de|>aitnre from lOn.uiand, in tin? month of 
October, ISdl, had a crinv, according to the American I'ejjorts, of forty- 
seven men.* 

At tli(^ time wlien slie ])art<'d from tlie Laurel, the Slit iiandoah had 
no more than twenty-three men on l)oard, including oflicei's.t 

It appears that in the voyage fnuii .Madeira to .Melbourne she shipped 
many more men, since the governor at .Melbourne says that on liei' ar- 
rival at Jlobson's l:>ay the crew of the vessel amounted to ninety men. J 
It api)ears, also, that a considerable iiuml)er dispersed themselves i^lter 
that arri\ al, as Captain W'addell de(;lares, since an oflicer in the coali- 
(leiice of the governor, instruiited to make conlideiitial iiKpiiries as to 
the state of the vessel, estimates the number of the crew at no more 
than forty or lilty, all rough and undisciplined meu.4 

It is v(>ry diiliciilt to ascertain exactly the number of men who were, 
oil board the JSheiiaiidoah when she left .Melbourne on her way to the 
Arctic seas. 

According to a rejiort of the !M<'lb()urue ])olice,§ the i:iimb(>r of men 
shipped at Melbourne on board the Shenandoah was said to an; ^uiit to 
sixty or seventy. According to the atli(hivit of William A. Temple, the 



.Tc (li)i.s (Vnlionl rt'ix'tfr ct- i\\u\ J'ni <l<',i;'i ilil, (|n';\ nioit avis il u\'st ])!i.s nbsolmnonfc 
promt' (jiic Ic I'ait (Ics K'liiUMtioiis (111 ,Slii'ii;niil(>;ili a Mcllioiinic const it iic. a liii sciil, iiu 
ai'niuiiciit lit' \inlatioii (If iiciitialiti- II est jo-oiivi' ([Ik; ccs it'iiaiat ions (■laicnt n('(;('s- 
saiii's. ct il n'cst pas (h'nioul it' (jiic Ic icniiiiaccnicut i\v la force dc co vaisscaii, piir siiito 
dc CCS i('|)aratioiis, ait (li'|)as-('- la iiicsurc dc son ('-tat idi'ci'ilcnf. 

11 faiil iUi\ir voir si I'cMihcraiicc dc i',i|)](rov'isii)iinc!iiciit (K; ( liarlxni, (^t siirtoiit lo 
iccMitciiiciit (.'laiidcst ill d'linc ])ai'li(!(lc rt'tiiiipani' (i|M'Tt'' a. Mclliouriic, iircnnciit, ou 
aoii. Ic caractiTc d(; base, d'opi'rat ions navalcs, telle ((u'clle est pn-vuc par la •^""-' I'cj^lo 
del-article VI. 

Le .Slicnaiidoah, a son d('pai't d'Aiijihiterrc, an nutis d'octobro ISfJI, avait iiii 0([iiipaf5<?, 
d'a|)ii's les rapports aiiitMicaiiis, dc tpiaraiite-scpt lioimnes. 

All iiiomciit oil il (|iiitta It; fiaiucl, le .Siu'iiandoah n'avait jiliis quo viiiu;t-trois lioiniiic,'* 
a liord. y coiii|)ris les ol'licicrs. 

II ])aiait (pK! dans le trajet dc Madi'ic a Midhoiirnc il ein))iU(|iia liicii d'aiitrci* 
lioiiiiiics. piiis(|iic le n()iiveriieiir dc Mcllioiiriie dit (pra son ai rivi'^c dans le 1 lolison's l!ay 
rt'i[iiipa;;(' (111 \ai.-si'aii se moiitait atpiatre-viiin't di\-liiiit lioiiiiiics. 11 parait aiissi (pii! 
btiii noiiilirc s'cii di<pcisa apii's ciMIc ani\ it',', an si ipic le dt'tdarc le capitaine Waddtdl, 
)iiiis(pi'iiii til'ticier di^ ciinliancc dii jiouvcrnciir, cliar.iit' tic prendre dcs inl'orniations coii- 
liilcnticUcs siir I'etat dc rcinliarcatioii, ne poitc le nonlbrc d(! rei|iiipaet' (pi'a tpiarantt^ 
(Ml ciii(|iiai'te, tons }j;ciis j^rossici's ct indiscipliiK's. 

II est trt's-dit'licilt! de savoir an Juste le nonilnc ties lioinnics (pii sc troiivaient a bord 
(bi Sliciiaiidoab (piaiid il partit de Melbourne i>iuirs(! reiidrc dans les iiiers Arcti(|iies. 

D'apri's 111! rapp(Mt de la ixdice <h? Mcllxminc, le iiombrt.' (riioinines einbariiiK's a M(d- 
bourne a bord dii .Slieiiandoali (s'(.'li.'verait ;"i soixantc tmsoixaiite-dix. U'apres l'rt_^;r/(f);i( 

* Ainerican Appendix, vol. v, p. .')()0. 
t H)id., p. «)I0. 

t Appendix to British Case, vol. i, j). 5G4. 
$ Ibid., p. 557. 



, ! i 






:,il 



88 



ARCITRATTON AT GENEVA. 



crew of tlio Slionandoali on lior rotiirii to Liverpool amontitod to oiio 
bniulrod and thirty-three, ii iimnber which includes some men wlio bad 
died at .sea. 

In the disposition of Captain Khenezer Nye, it is said that, when he 
came on board the Shenandoah, tlie want of sailors was ninch felt, as 
there were only forty-five, half the nnniber re(|nired. It is said, also, 
that ]Mr. Nye, in conversation with Mi'. Hunt, lieutenant of the Shenan- 
doah, learned from him that I'ovty-two men were en!iste«l at ^Alclhonrne; 
that Cai)tain Waddt'll, had refused the governor the rij^ht to search tlu; 
ship while a nniiiher of recrnit.^ nrrc on hoard. From tlu> allidavit of 
1Vmi)le may be jiiathered certain details as to the men who came on 
board the Shenandoah from several vessels captured in tins Ai'clic seas. 
They seem to have been twenty-six in nnniber, wliicii, adde<l to Mfty, 
the pi'csumed crew of tlie Shenandoah on Icaviiifi' Melbourne, and further 
adding;' the oflicers, lifty-seven in number, would .yivea total of one hun- 
dre«l and thirty-three, corresixmdins' to the number ^^iven by Temple, 
with the deduction of the two men who died at sea. 

This witif'ss has, no doubt, l)eeu mu<;h discredited, but in \\\o letter 
from Mr. Hull to IVIr. Bateson* will be found a formal denial, in Cap- 
tain Waddcll's name, of several of the assertions of Temph', without 
any mention of the list of the crew, which, no doubt, <leseive(l special 
attention, and which, uotwithstam'iiij:;', is not disputed. Lord (Claren- 
don hiniself, in his letter to Mr. Adams, of January 1!>, ]«()(}, whiUs he 
examines the beariii.i!," of some of the remarks in Temple's list, makes no 
obseivation as to the correctness of the hj^ures. 

The law-ofticers oi' the Crown themselves, in their o]»inion of the 2.Stli 
of INIarch, ISdO, while refusin.u' to attach credencci <;'enerally to Temple's 
statement, do not specially discredit the list. They seem to beliisve that 
none of the pei'soiis on board the Shcnaiuloah had been j^uilty of acts 
on which leual i)roceedin,ns could be founded; and they advise tiat the 
matter should be allowed to drop. 



dc William A. Temple. lV'i)uii)!i(j;(' du Sheiiiiiulonli a son retour riLiverjxjol anniit <?tc(le 
cent trente-ti'uis, noniluc ((ui coniin-end <inel(pies lionmies niorts en nier. 

Dims lii (U'|>()>!ition du eapitain 5 Kl)enezei' Nye, il est dit «[ne, lorsipiMl ])a.ssai a bord 
du Slieniuidoali, lciiiaii((ne de niatelolsse faisait vivenieni, sentir, ]>uis(iu'il n'y en avait 
qne qnarantre-cinti, la nioitie dn noinlire vonln. II y est dit anssi (jne M. Nyo, eii 
«'enti'etenant ave(^ M. Uniit. second dii SlitMiandoali, Ini avidt appris (pie (|naiante-deiix 
lionmies f'lticnt eniiile.s a Melhonrnc, (pie le eapitaiiie Wadtlell avait refuse an j^onver- 
nenrh^ dioit de visite tandis (\\\nii iirlaiii iininhvv dc rccyiicx claiciil u hord. De. Vafftilavit 
de, Teiii]>le, il n>su]t(^ eertain di'tail des honunes (pii seiaieiit veiins a hord dn Slienaii- 
doali, sintaiit de }ilnsi('iirs navires eaptiir(\s dans le.s iners Arefiipics. Lenr noinhrc 
Kerait de viin;tsi\. qni. se joinnaiit anx eiminanic t i'ois, ('(|nii)a!i'e piesnnie dn Slienaii- 
doali (|iiittanl McHioni'ne, et en jijontant lesoiiieii is an noniliri^ de eiiuinante-sepf, don- 
iieijiit mi tola! de cent tiHMitc-trois, coirespondaiil au eiiitiVe indinui' par Teniph;, soi's 
la deduction {\o lU'w^ homines morts en mer. 

I.a personne (In temoin a snbi, a la V('rit(', de ti(vs-j;rands reproehes, inais dans la 
leltre (le M. iiiill a M. IJateson, on tionve iii(^ I'ormellenient, an mnn i\n capit.'iiuc 
Waddell. )iliisienis des assertions de Teniide, sans f|n'on y piirle de la liste de r('(|nipaj;i', 
qui nn'ritait. sans donte, nne attention spi'ciale, et c|iii, ee])endant, n'est point contestee, 
J.ord ('liireiidoii, lni-ni(-me, dans sa lettr(! a M. Adams dn 11) Janvier l^'liH, tandis (pi'il 
ex.iiniiie la pord'e de (iUi'!i|nes indications de la liste de Temple, no I'ait aiiciine obser- 
vation (plant a Tcxactitiide des cliilVres. 

l.es ollicieis l('t;;Mi\ de la conronne, eiix-nn~mes, dans Icnr avis dn 28 mars 1H(56, tout 
en ret'nsaiit (rajonter I'oi !;en('ri(in(Miient anx allirmations de Temiile, n'inliriiient jioint 
sp(>cialenient sa liste. lis paraissent eroire (praiuaiini des persoiiiie!' a hord du 
Slieiiandoah lie s'est nMidue eonpaldo d'acdions jioiivaut doniior lieu a des poursuites 
judiciaives, et ils couseillent do laisser toiuber I'affaire. 

* American Appendix, vol. iii, pp. 501, 502. 



OPINIONS OF COUNT SCLOPIS. 



89 



I will smnniarizo the principal Uocuinents relative to the violation of 
neutrality. 

At Mclboiirno, the authorities believed jjenerally that the neutrality 
],.i(l been violated by (Japtain Waddell. The att<n'ney-j>ent'ral of the 
colony, in his report of tiie 14th of February, ISO"),* expressed, as I 
tliink, a very scMisible opinion, in deelarinj;' tiiat the exemption which 
Wa(l(lell clainie<l was inadmissible. 

Tlie j>'overnor had adopted this opinion while awaitinj; instructions 
from London. t The lej^al a<lvisers of tlu^ Ciown, in their o]»inion of 
tlic L'lst of April of the sime year, approved the c;)nda(!t of the j^'ov- 
criior at >leli>ourne. Tiiat iiijih officei" had, in fact, limilly formed a 
correct idea of the whoh^ case, when, writin*;' to tlu' j^'orernors of the 
tlic colonies of Australia and Xew Zealand, in a dispatch of the UTth 
of Fcbrmiry, l.S(ir>,| he declared that there was no doubt, from the in- 
I'oniiation he had collected, tlt((f Ike iicntfulify had been Jiatjm nil \j violated 
hji 1li<! (•(niimandcr of the tSlieiiaiHloah. 

Finally, almost on the same day on which the law-oflicers of the Crown 
rcitortcd that the case of the Slienandoah niijiht be allowed to drop, 
the li'ovcrnor at .Melbonnu', writin,y to .Mr. dai'dwell, repeated to him 
tliat he believed the neutrality had been JlafifitHthj riolaird by ('iii)tain 
AVaddell ; ami that he had read without sni[)rise, thouuh witli deep re- 
j-ict, the list furnished by Mr. Temple, whicli he looked upon as furnish- 
iiiii' evidence in support of his opinion. § 

Lastly, in the ol>servations whi(di Sir Rounchdl PaliiuM", Jfer Ibitan- 
iiic Majesty's counsel, submitted to the tribunal, on the LMst of Auj^ust, 
I read that there is no doubt that a shipment of men was ellectcd dur- 
iiiU' the ni<;ht of the 17th of February, at the moment the Shenandoah 
was leavinf>-. 

In i)resence of so imposing- a nniss of declarations emanatinji- from 
the British authorities at Melbourne, in view of nunuM-icai calculations, 



Jc ivsumo los <locmiieiits principiiux rclatifs i\ la violation »1<^ iicntralitd. 

A Mclboiinie Ics autoritt^s cnircnt ;j,on(''ra](Mnoiit quo In iKMitralitt'' uvait (-{^ viol<^e 
]>iir Ic (Mpitaino Wadtlcli. L'attoriicy-jjitMioral do la colouic dans son avis dn 14 
IV'vritT ist)."), avait cniis un vote fort S(misi', a nion avl.s, on dtjclarant quo I'oxtsniptioii 
(limt Waddi'U prottMKiait.jouii' n'ctait jxiiut adniLssildc. 

Lo f^oiivorneiir .s'c-tait railio a cetto opinion en attendant los instructions do Londres. 
Los coiiseillers K'j^aiix de la eoiironne, jtar lenr avis dn 'il avril de la nieine annoo, 
appioirerent la conduite dn fjfouverneni' de Melbourne. C(! Iniut fonctionnain* s't'-tait 
I'll ctiet a la tin Ibrnie une idee Juste de I'enstMnlile do I'alVaini lors(|n'en .s'adressant 
iiiix y-oiiserneiirs des colonies de I'Australie et de la Xonvelle-Zelande, dans nno 
•li'licclie (111 'il t'l'-vrier lHl!r>, il di'clara n'y avoir point di! doute, d'aprcs l<'s reiiseijjne- 
iiicjits ipril avait reciieillis, (/(«■ la iniilrtilil'' urait t' c notoircmviit violi'c [lur Ic commaiHlant 
dn ShfiKUiddttli. 

Kiiliii, ]»res(|iie an nieine jour oil les coiiseillers l('i>anx de la couroime opiiiaient 
li'Mir (|n"oii lajssiit toiiiher rallaiie dii Siu'iiaiidnali. \i' ^ouv'rii.'iir de Mellxiiuiie, en 
>.Hlrcssaii( a M. Caidweli, lui ri'petait (pi'il eroyait ((lie la iieiiti'alitt^ avait t-le notoirc- 
1:11 lit riohr ]K[V le caiiitaine Waddell, et qiTii avait In sans siu prise, (pioiqiui avec 
liiiiilcur, la liste loiiriiie par iL Teniplt!, qii'il considerait eonuiie mm preiive a Tappiii do 
^iiii opinion. 

l.iiliii, ilans Ics observations quo Sir Ivonndell Palmer, conseil de sa Majeste britan- 
iiiijiie, sodinit an tril)niial dans la seance dii i'l aout, on lit: n'y avoir aiicnii doiito 
Mn'il s'oiK^ra, eniiiaiipieiiKMit d'honinies dans la unit dii 17 fovrior au uioinont oil 
li' Sliciiandoali allait partir. 

Kii iiiesence (rune masse si iiui»osan*o de d(5c.laratioii8 (5inan(>cs des ,antorit<^s 
iuii^laises do ilolbourue, ou viio de calculs nnm(;'ii(iuos ([ui, s'il.s u'attcigiiont pas lo 

* Appendix to the British Case, vol. i, p. 549. 

t Ibid., p. 5.50. 

t British Appendix, vol. i, p. 565. 

$ Ibid., p. 722. 



! ii 



u 

! 15' 



! :■ 






T' 



t . 



,( ! 



li 



!)0 



AHr.I'l'lv'ATIOX AT (JFAKVA. 



wliidi. if (licy do not iittiiin tin* last <l(';;n't' of precision, still leave no 
<l()iil)t lull tiiiil rnptiiin W'nddcll did iictiiidly enlist men iit Melitoiirni', 
and aller\sai'<l ship tlieni on Itoard the Shenandoah, for liis expeditimi 
a;!,aiiist the wlialeis, I no longer hesitat(^ to re('o;i;ni/,e the responsibility 
ui (iie;it ISrilain toward t he (lovernMient of the I7nite«l Shites. 

^\s (o the supply of ('oal in so liii';(! a (pinntity as that, w Inch the vessel 
received from laverpool, in addition to tliat with wiiittli she was already 
furnished, it can only l)e re,i4'ar<led as a pieparation for hostile cxpcdj. 
tioMs a;nainst tiie coi,inu'rce ol' the IJniteil Slates, and this falls [)recisely 
within the scope of tho second rule of Article VI of the treaty. 

\\. — THE TLOKIDA (tlldS OKHTO. 

Availing; myself ol' the libeity which each arbitrator has reserved tn 
himself of yivinj;' to tln^ expression of his opinion on thedc. 
cisioii of the case, sin-h form as may appe;ir to him movt 
convenient, I will abstain IVom follo\vin<;' in detail here all the pliascsoi 
tiu^ career of I lie vessel i'Morida. l''or this, iis a whole, 1 refer to the vd- 
Inndnons docnnienis which have becn.commnnicated to ns, and which 
Jiave Ininisln d mattci' for three sepaiat*^ statements by the ])arties. i 
am not the k'ss oblijicd, however, to my honorable collea^nes who have 
spoken before me, for the statenuMits llu'v havennnle to ns of the series 
of events which have led them to form a jndj;nient, not, indeed, as yet 
iii'evocable, but .still stronj^ly detined as the final r('snltof tiieir investi- 
,i>ations. 

1 will conline myself, then, for my pait,toinformin,<fyon of the i)()intsof 
fact whicii have had most intlnence in (ixin^- my convictions on the snbject- 
xnattei'of the <piestions which we hav<' to <lecide, (Convictions which niiiy 
iu> donbt be niodilied in coiise<pienc(^ of an interchange of oi)inions with 
yon, bnt which, for the moment, seem to nu' to be sni)ported both by 
tacts and i»rin<:iples. 

Jt does not seem to nn^ to he very ni'cessary to dilate nincli on thellrst 
part of the career of the I'lorida, since, dnrinj^ that peiiod, this vessel nei- 
ther nnidi^ any captnres, nor assisted in any way the operations of tlio 



♦leniier (leiiir- (le ineeisioii. lie Inisscnt ooi)Pii(l:int aiieiin (li)iite i\\U' ]o. v;\]V]t;\'m(^ WmV 
flell ;i ili'ecliv eiuelll raciili' ;'l .Mflhollllie (les lioimiles et les ii eu.silitt: emli;ir(|M(''S ;ill 
IkhiI <1u Slieii;.ni<l(i,ih. ])i)iir sim exiu'ditioii coiitre les hali'inieis. Je irii('>itt! jiliis a 
reciiiiiiiijl re (Hie l.'i ies|M)ii.s;ihilit«; (111 ;;'oiivei'iieiiieiit l)riUiiiiii(iiie est eiij^ai^ec! eiivei's Ic 
OoiiveriieDieiil des lltiits-l'iiis. 

(^iiijiit u i"a|iiin>vi.si(iiiiiemeiit <le, (diiirlxin diiii.s une (|iiaMtili'' iiiissi forte (|iio cello 
ijiril leeiit (le Jii\ eipool. en aiiuinentat itm tie I'eliii (loin 11 ehiit dejii tuiirni, on iif 
]teiit ((lie r('ii\isaj;er eoiniiie nil iii(''|iaiiitit' jioiir des exjieilitions hoslilesan coniinei'ii' 
des Mtats-lJnis, cl: cela toinlio pi'i'^ciseiuciit sons la dcnxieiuo ivj^le do I'ai'ticlo VI (hi 
train-. 

I,K FLOIUOA, ALIAS OltKTO. 

Kn nic servant do la liliert(' (^iie eliaciiii des arbitres s'est n'servee de doiinor a I'cx- 
})r(Ssioii de son oiiiiiion siir la di'cision de la cause tell(> fiinne (pii liii jiaraitiait )ilii-^ 
i'oiiveiialil(>, je in"alistieiidiai de snivn! iei eii dc'tuil loutes les phases de lacanii'i'e \ku- 
Conine par le. vaissean \e Florida. .J(i ni'ou rajtportt^ pour reiiseiiilde anx vtthiininciix 
doeuineiits i|ni nous out oti' conininiii(|iii''s, et ((iii out i)ar trois I'ois Ibnrni inatii're aii^ 
dires des ])arti('s. Je lie snis ixnirtant ])as moins ohlij^e aiix lionoraUles colli'jjnes (|IH 
m'oiit j)n''ct'd(^ en ])reiiant la i)aidle des ('xpos(\s (pi'lls nous oiit faits dv la sovU' (lis 
»'V(Mieineiits ((iii les out conduits a asseoir im jnj;('ineiit, certes ])as encore irrc^vocabK', 
iiiais dt'ja tontelois trt^s-foiuh' snr les deriiicrs rt'siilfats (h; Icnr.s iiivesti(>atioiis. 

Je me lioriierai done, ]wnv nia i)art, a vous iaire coniiaUre les jioiiits (mi I'aif. qui out 
on le pins d'iiilliiciice a dtahlir iiies convictions snr le fond des (luestions (pie nous avoiis 
a jiif^or, convict ions (pii pourroiit bitni se moditier par la suite de I't'cliange de vos id('e.'i, 
uiais (pii, ])onr 1(^ inoineiit, iik; i)araisseiit appuyt^es en fait et eii'droit. 

11 ii(^ UH' seinble jtas tout !\ fait ii(^(;(!ssaire de s't'^teiidn^ beaucoup snr la preniit're partio 
de la earriere dii Florida, i)uis(iiie duraut cct esimco do temps ce vaissean u'a ui lait do 



OPINIONS OF rorxT sf'Lorrs. 



01 



cniircdcriitcH. It is snlliciciit to stiih' tliiil tliis xcsscl was built in l-iiij"'- 
liiinl, tiiiil iVoiii the liisl she Wiis tlii' olijcct <»!' rcprcsciitiitioiis adtlicsst'd 
hy tl " I'liiti'd Stiitcs iiiiiiistcr in liondon t() tlic iJiitisli .nuNciiiMiciit. nnd 
tli;il tlic hitler, with the t'xrcption of suiiic in(|iiii'irs which it insliintcd 
lis tu iIk' i'(m1 destination of tin- vessel. niaden(>;^reiit ellort to prevent lier 
(Icpai lure. It is also proved tiiat il tiiissliip was not aetnall.v a vessel of 
war, >ii<' was, at all (^cnts, capable oi' Itei'OMiiny oni^ at any moment, 
1111(1 that she was registered as an I'^n.^iish xcssel, and manned hy aeiesv 
aliiiest entirely composed oi' Ilritish snhjects, 

ll is denied thai the l"'lorida was equipped ti»r war at the tinui she 
Idt the waters of (Ireat Mritain, but it I'esnlts from u repoit of the olli- 
ccrs of the (Ireyhonnd, a xcssel of tln^ royal navy of ller IWitannic 
Miijesty, thai on her arrival at Nassau, the l-'lorida had a complete war- 
like ecpilpMM'Ut, and that all that was wanting' on Itoard ol her were niu- 
iijtioiisdf war. It further appears that the captain of the \-essei, when 
liiniiall\ and solemnly iiitcrrui^ated in the preseiu'c of three ol' ids ofli- 
ccis. and of the oflicers of the (ire.\ hound, whether the vessel was al- 
ready thus lillcfl on lea\iu,i;' Lix-erpool, replied, " Ves, in .ill res[»eet.s; 
and MO alleralion or addition had been nunle whatever.'' 

It is on her ariival at Nassau that the true charact'r of tho ve.s,se\ 
iuid Ihe consecpH'Mces (d' her real destination stand foilh. 

1 must rel'er to another clear and complete declaration of the sanio 
ctiptain coniinandin^' the (ireyhonnd. This docunn'Ut seems to me itu)st 
(■(inclusive as to the moial aspect of the ease. (.'a|»tain llickley doe^'i 
iKit hesitate for a nM>nient to ask the ydvernor of Nassau to sei/.o the 
vessel. 

^VIlen an oflicer of this rank ami experience says that, in tlie present 
condition of the I'Morida, his professio:>al opinion is that, " with hercrew, 
;;inis, arms, and ammunition, .i^oinj;' out with another vesstd alon.>4si(U^ 
of ller, she couhl be e(juipped in twenty-1'oiir hours lor battle,"* all my 
(l()nl)ts disajtpi'ar, anil I become! convinced of the immediate intentions 
of the vessel. 



captiiri's, 111 (Idiiiu! iiiicnn iippui aiix oix'iatioiis dew uoiil'i'ili'irs. II jiicsiii'lil <l('(M)ii,stiif<"i- 
<)»(' vv vjiissfiiii :i (■((' fi)ii!s(riiit en Anulctciic. i\nj' <lc's Ics ]H'('iiii<-is jours il a t'tci l'i))ijft. 
tics iivcrl isst'iiii'iils iidi't'sst's )iar Ic iiiiiii.strn dvs l''.tats-t'iiif< a I.oiidii'.s iiii noiivci'm-iiifiit 
lMitMiinii|Uc, sans (|iu' I'cliii-ci, a jiait (|1H'](|Iii's leiisiioncini'iits iin'il a (Iciiiaiidt's siir In 
vi'iilalilr (1( ,il iiial ion dii iiaviic, sf soit liraiictiiip occiipc d'cii ciiiin'ciicr la sortie. II est 
ciiiili'MU'iit coiisialc' (|iic, si cf vaisscaii ii'a\ait point rachialilo (run batimi'iit (Ici^rucirc, 
il MVMii (III nioin> la capacilr dc dcvcnir tcl a nn nionicnt doniK', ct (pril a t'tt- ('nrc;;isti(;'i 
(■(iiiiiiic lui iiaviif aii,i;lais ft montt^ par nn ('(iiiiiiai;!' pr<'S(iiif I'liticii'intMit roinpos*'* do 
siijrls liiitaiiniiincs. 

On conicstt' rajiparcil dc liiicnc dii I'lorida a i'l'poqiii' oii il sortit dcs caux dt> In 
(iiaiidc-JJiciaunf ; inais il irsiillc d'lin rapjiort dcs oriicicis dn (ircyhound, vaisscau do 
l;i iiiariiic royalf dcs a Majcsic hritannitiiic, niTa son ariivt'c a Is'iissaii Ic t'lovidu avail 
nil cipiiiplct appaicil dc ffiicrrc, ct ipic scnlcincnt il inani|iiail dcs uinnitioiis (l(^ };iicric i'l 
Mill lionl. 11 K'snltc dc plus ipic Ic cajtitainc dc cc iiaviic, lorincllcaicnl ct solcnncUc- 
iiiiMit iiilcridi;c cii picscnci' di- trois dc scs ollicicis cl, dcs olli(^icis dn (Jrcyliound, si cn 
Miiittant Liverpool Ic navirc t'lail dcja dans ccl aiii)arcil, ri-pmidit : ''iV.s, I'y* all itxptitx; 
uitd III) iillcraliiiii or (idiliHoii had bivii iiiudc irludircr.'' 

C'cst a son arriv('(5 a Hassan (pn- Ic caractcrc proprc (to cc vaissciiii ct Ics foiiscipioiR'cs 
(Ic sa V('rital>lc dt stiiiation sc dct-sinciit. 

11 IV.iit (pK' Jc rcvicnnc Hiir iiiu; antrtMl('(!laraiion clairc ct coinplcto do nicnic caj)!- 
tiiiiic, c(iinniaiidant Ic (ircylioiind. (_!(,' docnnu^nt mc scinlih^ Ic plus (M)iivaiiii|nant pour 
lii iiuiialitt' dc la clicsc. Lc (^uiitaiiie llickley ii'lu\'5itc pas uii uiointMit ii dcmandcr nu 
giMivcnicnr dc Nassau la saisi(? dn uavirtj. 

I.iirs(prnn ollicita' dt^ cc. graile ct dc cctto oxpi'ri* ncc (lit (pic, dans la condition uctn- 
cllc (ill I'Morida, son opinion ijrolcssionncllc i!st " (pi'avcc son ("^(luiiia^c, scs canons, scs 
amies ct scs niniiitions, s'il est aceouipaf^nc d'nn antr(! vaisscan, it pent ctrc prct a livrcr 
'lataille dans vin<>t-(piatr() licurcs,"' tons incs doiitcs disparaisseut, et ki certitude so fait 
eu moi des desseins iuuuediats de ce batinieiit. 



n 



''! 



I; 



"■■\ 





|1 ; . 



92 AUMITHATION AT CiKNKVA. 

TIio situation of Nas.siiii, wliich boc^amo n?i asyliini of prottHition for 
the Kloiida, mcrcasrs in my view tlu' rcsponsiltility of l"in;;Ian(l. liorii 
Uiiss«'Il <li«l not hesitate to t«'Il Mr. A(hinis, in a h'tter yiveii at pa^^c 7i» 
of the liist volume of tlie Appendix to tlie Case of tlui United Stales, 
that " Nassan is a position IVoni wliieh, on tii»^ on«^ liand, eonfe(U'i:ilc 
])rivateeis miylit liave {greatly annoyi'd tlu! eomnieree t>f tlu^ United 
States, and wliieli, <ni tlh' other hainl, mi;;lit hav(! been a eonvenieiit 
base of operations fo)' tlie United States Navy.'' 

Under these eireiiinstanees, did it n()t lieeomt^ the imperative dniy ol 
England lo take eai'<' Ihat all the duties of the nn)st sei'Upulons neii- 
tialily were fnllille«l '. 

It is true that, the vieeadniiralty eourt of the I>ahamas, by ilsjndj;- 
ment, whieh is ^iven at pa^^e ."tiM of the (ifth volunu; of tlieAppen(Mx 
to the American Case, ae(|nilted the I'Minida of every charge; lull, while 
respect in;n the aiitJKMity of the, ris JiiilicdtK, 1 ask whether it is possible 
to deduce from this an ar;;ument on wliich to found a nnual conviction 
that the IOn;;lish ji'overnment is released i'rom its responsibility undci 
the rules laid down in Article VI of the treaty of \\'ashin;j;ton .' I ;il»- 
stain Irom ri'peatin^' tht^ considerations into whiidi my honorable cdl- 
leajiiies who have pj'cceded me have entere(l on this subject. 

It is not the (piestion of siieeial le^nal respiuisibility with which we 
liave here to <leal, but rather that of the responsibility which results 
from the principles of international law, and tlu^ nu)ral (M)uviction :it 
Avhich we have arrived in conseipience of the acts i;Mi)Uled to thi' I'Moridii, 

This eouvi(!tion is stren};thened by a consideration of the terms of the 
conclusion of tlu' jud";nu'nt of ihe vice-admiralty court, where it is said. 
•'that all th" circumstances of the ease taken toji'ether sceiu sutlicit.:: 
tojust'.l'y .stion^' suspicion that an attempt was beinj;- ma«lc to infriiij^v 
that neutralityso wisely deteriidn«'d upon by Her Alajesty's <;()\cniuient."' 

The decision of tlu- viee-admiralty court may then be considered as 
conclusive, even if iu)t perfectly correct, as l)etween those who clainicil 
the vessel and the British government, which claimed its coidi.scatiuii 

La situation do NaHsnn, qui flevint I'lisilo protfctcnr fin Florida, nnsmf-nto h nm 
\iMiN la icsiMmsaliiliti- <l(' I'Aiij'ictcrii'. ]>oril Iiiissi'll n'lK'sitait pas a diic a M. Adaiii^, 
dans inic icttrc, citiM! a la pajjje 711 dii prcniiur vcdiinic, do rapitmidiiM^ an " (Jasn " dcs 
lOtats-l'ids, (|iic "Nassau est niui jiosition dc la(|ii('lle d'nii ('uto Uis iMii'saircs (!(>Ml'rd('rv> 
out pu ])(iitci- KM urand ti'ouliI(» dans Ic coninn'rcc dcs Htats-tJins, vt ipii d'nn autre 
cCttr a pu Cdurnir nnc liasi^ d'opi'ration convcnaltlc poor l(.'s forces niaritinics dcs f-tat,'-- 
I'nis. 

("cs ciicoMstunccs donni'cs, n'otait-il pas nn devoir rijifonrcnx pour rAnf^lotcric ib' 
vcillci'a (•(' (|Uc tons Ics dcvciirs (h' la plus scnipidciisc ncntralitc I'nssent rcniplis .' 

II est vrai (pu' la cDur de la vice-amiranti' (le Hali:iiiia par sou juii; ■incul, i|a'iMi lit 
:\ la itajj;!^ .")"JI do t'inll^i(•nl(^ V(dnint' dc I'appciidiec an "Case" anw^icain. •; a<M|nitti'' Ic 
I'Morida dc tiiMtc aeeiisatinn ; inais tout en rcspeetaiit I'aiitoriti^ dc la cln.se ,ini',('e. ji' 
dcmandc si on pcnl induirc dc la nn ari.Muncnt solidc dc conviction morale, <pii tli'-eliariii 
le, j;()nvcrncnient aiinlais dc sa rcspniisahilifc d'aprcs Ics regies <''ral>hcs a I'artielc VI 
dn traitc dc W'ashiiijilon. .)c in'alistiens dc r<'|)crcr Ics di^vcloppcnients ipu; Ics lioiiii- 
rabies c()llc;;iics (pu ni'ont ](r.'!'cd(' nous ont fournis a ci', snjct. 

Co n'cst point dc la rcspousaliilit<' Jnridiiiuc sp(''cialc unc nous iivons iY nous occii- 
per ici ; c'cst liicn pliUol dc la rcsponsahiliti' (pii di'-rivc dcs prin/ipes dn droit (l> 
j^cns: c'cst dc la conviction nioi'alc ipic nons avons accpiisc par la suite des i'aits iniiniti's 
an Florida. 

Cettc c(nivi<'tion s'accroit m\ considcrant les tcrnn's dc la conclusion du.)n,i>cnu;nt ilc 
la cour d(^ vicc-andrautc, oil il est dit'Spn^ rcnscnittl" dcs circonstanccs dc la cause 
est de natnn; a jnstiiicr dc fortes prcsoiuptions (pi'nno tentative d'infraction a, la nen- 
tralitc, si s.ijrciiicnt adniiso eu principo par Ic gouvorueiueut do sa Majostc, dtait eu 
voic d'exdcution." 

La ddcisiou dc la cour de vice-auurautd f)eut done etre consid<5r(^3 comnie con- 
cluaute, si ce n'est coinnie parfaitenient juste, eutre coax qui rdclamaicnt le navireet 
le gouveruemeut britauniquo, qui eu deiuaudait la couliscatiou d'aprcs les clauses du 



OI'INIONS OF COINT Sf'LOPIS. 



[):] 



iiiiilcr tlir cliiiisos of tli*' lorciyii-JMili.stinciit act: but I do iiof tliiiik it is 
<iiiniclciit to l)ar tlu' claim of ilic Ignited State- against (iicat I'.iitaiii. 
riic I'liitcil States were not parties to tiu! suit; eNcr.vlliiiij^' reiatiii;;' to 
it is lor tlieiii rrn iiitrr (dios iivt't. 

As to tlie proceed i II i^s of tlie l-Morida, l<iio\viii.i>ly periiiitted, if not 
I'lvoi'cd l»y tlie IWitisli ^•overiiiiieiit, as represented by the (loveiiiincnt 
of tlie I'liited States, tlie same llrilisli yovenimeiit declares, at paf^c 78 
((f its ('oiiiiler Case, "that it has not the means of veiifyiii;;- or dispiov- 
iii<>' tlie truth of this statement. Assnminj;' it to be tine, t hei'c can bo 
iiodoiibr that ii violation of the Hoverei;;nty and neiiti'd ri;ulits of (lieat 
I'.iitain was comiiiilted l>y the commander of the l-Moiida. lint the fact 
of sacli a violation lia\ iny' occurred does not argue iie^^ligcnce on the. 
|),ii't itf iler Majesty's ;;<)\ t'liiment." 

The conduct of the (toininander and crew of the Fh»rida, after she was 
released, Justifies, and luorc^ than Jnstilies, all the suspicims that had 
lieep entertained as to the true character other voyage. 

As to what i)assed between that: vessel and the schooner Prince Alfred 
tortile purpose of arming the former, tlu^ nnmerous afliilavits given in 
tlies'xth volume of the American A[)[tendix olfer irrefutable e\idencc 
of tlie acts impnt<Ml to the l-'lorida. 

It is thus easily understood why il.c Florida, while ecpiipped for war 
oil her arrival at Nassau, had not, as I liave mentioned, any munitions 
of war on board. Jt was because she, i'xpe(;ted them by the l*rinc«> Al- 
fred, at the spot agreed on before!' iiid f<>r the scenic of her oi»eratioiis. 

Supplies of coal play a conside: ile part in the charges brought against 
the l-'huida. The Ameiican Case says that, during a stay ol' thirty-six 
lioiirs in tlit^ port of Nassau, she toolc iu a siillicient (piantity for three 
iiioiitlis" navigation. I must not, however, omit to observe that the 
.stiiteiiient of the (piantity of coal is derived only from the albdavit of 
-loliii Demeritt, ii laborer who had worked at putting the coal on board, 
and who says that the quantity might be one hundred and eighty tons, 
ail excessive (]iiantity iu the opinion of the United States Government. 



j'i)mqn-iuHntm())t act, iiiais je ne penwc! pas i|ii'i'll(^ .sullise ]w\\v dolioiiter It-s f.tats-T'iiis 
ill' li'iirs iiretfiitions fiivcrH Ic j;()iiV('i-Mciiiciit aii;;laiM. f^i-s Elats-l'iiin n'l-taiciit iioiut 
I'll t-aiisc ; toot ci' <iiii tient a cc pioci-.s est i)()!ir eiix nn inter alion octti. 

(pliant aux tn-reincntis do Florida, toli'-it-s sciiMiiiiieiif, si cc u't'st favr)ii.so.s par lo 
jjimvrrncincnt l)ritaiiiii(|iii', tcls (|ii(' li-s rciiri-sciitii U; (Joiivi'i'iiemcnt dcs fUats-rnis, lo 
iin'inc }|()iivt'i-iit'iiieiit biitanniqiie drclaia, a la pafi<! '"^ dc sou '•Comiter-easc," "(iii'il 
ii'ii pas Ics inoyciis, soil do vi'-iilicr, soit do coiitt'stcr la vi-ritc^ do co ijiiu I'oii avancc. 
lout oil adiiu'ttant ([iieccla soit vrai. it lie iit-iit. •'dit-il,"y avoir dn donte.s (lu'imi! viola- 
. tinii (Ic la sonvcraint'te et dt-s droits dc iiciitralitt- dc la (Jraiidc-Hit-tajfiic a i-ti'- coiiiiiiisi;. 
Mais (111 fait t|iit! I'C'tte violation a t-n lieu, on no ]»('iit pas ai'j!;iior (lu'il y ail t-u do In 
iK'^liKt'iice dc; la part dii jioiivcrneniciit do sa Majcstt'." 

Lii coiiduitt; dii coniiiiandiint ct do I'l-iinipaifo dii Florid.i, apros ([it'll fiit rolaidid, 
jiistitie, ct an-(k'la, tons les H()up(,-oiis (jn'oii avail eoii^-iis sur lo earuc-ti'ro voritablo de 
son t'X|)('dition. 

(Jnaiit a eo qui so passa eiitro co vaissoaii ct la goi-lotte Princo AlfrcMl pour 
riiniifiiu'iit (ill pr(Mnier, les nombronx ajfiddrili ri'lat('s an sixii-ine voliiiiic do rajipoii- 
ilici! aiuf-ricain poiivont sorvir di; prouvo irriiousablo di-s laits iinpiit»'-s an Florida. 

On 8'i'xiili(pio ainsi facileiiient poniciuoi lo Florida, tout en otant on ajtparoil do 
giicire a son arrivoc; a Is'assau, n'avail jias, ainsi ([uo jo I'ai note, des iniinitions do 
giicrre a son bord ; c'est qu'il «!n attendait par lo I'rinco Alfred, a I'eudroit convouii 
(I'vuanco pour devenir le t.b<^i1tre do ses operations. 

Les cliargoments do cbarbon joiiont un r(')lo coiu- dcrable dans les imputations faites 
an Florida. Le "Ca.se" aini^rieain dit que, pendant un .sf'jour do treutcs-six bcnres dans 
It' iiort dc Nassau, 11 on cliarj;ea uiu; qnar titd siiBisanto pour trois niois de navij>ation. 
Jt' ne dots point oiuettre toutefois dc lairo observer (pie rindieation do la (iiiantite do 
cliarbon ne riSsultc que dc YaffulinU de John Demeritt, un ouvrier (jui avait travaillo 
pour le cliargemeut dii ebarbon, ot qui dit (luo la (iuantit(5 pouvait en etrc do 180 
touues, quautit^ exubdraute au jugemeut du Gouveruemeiit des £tats-Uuis. 



'1^1- 



m 






ii 



III 



94 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 



Tliiit Govfti'imionf nsscrts that the pfoveriior of Xsissan. Mho alIo\v('(l 
th('s(» f'iK'ilitics to the l-Moriihi, liad only granted to lh(^ Fcch-ral vi'sscl 
Dakota iK'niiissioii to takiMii a iiiiich siiiaiU'r supply of cuiil. The Kno'. 
]ish iioveniinciit shows tlic iiiilbuii<hMl cliaractor ot tliis i-liiiruc, dcclar- 
iiiji' tliat the <ioveriior of Nassau had no iiistnictions which lorhnde him 
to fiiaiit pei'Miissioii to take iiioi'e coal, and that it was the coaniiaialcr 
of he Dakota who did not chdose to take more. 

Shortly alteiwavd tlu' I'^lorida ayain took on hoard about <>ne hundiod 
tons (»f ('oal in the ]n>r( of IJarbados. The cnniplaints in.i(h>, on tliis 
jKtint by Kcar-Adniiral Wilkes only elicited an evasive answer Ironi liic 
governoi- of the island. 

The United States call npon the Ibitish s'overninent to iirov<' tliaf ir 
is not in fault with regard to the facilities granted to the I'iorida while 
that vessel was in the territorial waters of tiu' I'jnglish colonies. 

Here, then, would be a case for the application of the second rule of 
Article \l of the treaty of Washington, taking all the re>our('es which 
the Florida obtained at Nassau, Bermuda, and Barbados us e(|uivaU'iit 
to the use of a bas(M)f naval opeiations which eiuil)led her to make prize 
of fourteen vessels. Iler devastations did iu)t end there; several ollun' 
Aessels of the mercantile navy of tlui United States becanm her prey, 
until she tei'nnnated her career at J5ahia on the 7th October, fStli. 

it seems to be sniliciently ])rove<l that the facility with which tlic 
Fhnida was allowed to suit|)ly herself with coal, luitwiflistamling that 
the I'higlish government had pi'ohibited the lormation of depots of tliis 
article in those colonies, was not in conformity with the strict neutrality 
Avliich should have been observed in these latitiules. whether in view id' 
the iiatuie of the localities (»r of the sympathy whi(di the population ot 
tin)se same col(»nies showed lor the (;onfederate cause. 

To these ]»recise data are added a class of facts autre dilficnltto .iscoi- 
tain, such as too easy compliance on the part of the English governinoiit 
in allowing the tinu' recpu'sted for repairing ami relitting to be pro- 
longed at the will of the eomnuunU'r ot the vessel, beyond what the iral 




CcnduvcnKMiK'iit prc^tciid ((iic Ic jfoiniTiiciir dc Xiissnii. (|iii iicnnctf.iit ccs larj^cssos 
an florida, iTaAait accorde an vaisx-au I(''(Ii-im1 If Dacofali l.i prrinissioii dc i-iiarncr dii 
t'liariidn «|ii<' dans nnc ]n'i)|)oi'tiun I'ort inri'riciuc. i.c jioiivcrncniciit aiinlais fait 
ii'ssditir If juMi dc soliditr dc cf cliff d'acfiisaliiMi en assnianl ([Ui' If lionvfiiifMi' i!i' 
Nassan n'avaif aufiiiif insti nctiiiii (|ni Ini d(''l'fndil d'acfurdfr la tafiilti' di- infiidiT 
jdus df cliailiiin, ft (|nt! c'cst If coniiiianctant dn I>af'itali iiiii n'fiiu \ii\h vii;ilii 
davautaf;c. 

J'fU (If lfni)is ai>i'fs, If Florida f!iar<rfa cncoic, dans la i'a<lf des ]5arl)adfs, fnvirmi 
cent tonnes (If (diarlKin. I,fs idaintcs S(>nifV('fH a cct (^"'jiard par If fonlic-aniiiai 
Wiilvfs ii'(dit iiircnt dn j;()n\'f rofnif lit dt' I'ilf fin'iiiif i('|ioiisf ('vasivf . 

l.fs Elats-l.'nis dfiiiandfiit (|iif Ic i;(iiivfiiif iMfiit aiifiais iiroiuc (]n'i! n'y a [las c inli' 
sa I'antf dans Ics lafilltt's afcord('fs an I'lorida ixiidanr inic cf xaisscaii ctait dans Ics 
eaiix Ifriitdiialfs des cdldiiifs aiiiilaiscs. 

11 s'a^iiait ddiif d'apidiiiiif r la dcnxii nif ri<j;lf dc ravtiflc VI dn traitc dc AViisIi- 
iii';t()n (Ml fi)iisid('Taiit toulcs Its rfssoiircfs (iiic If Florida troiivait i\ Nassau, anx Mer- 
niiidfs ft aiix I'arliadfs cdiiinif riisa.ue d'niif liasf (I'din'ratioiis iiavalcs uni In! valiiicnt 
(|natdr/.f prises dc vaisscanx. I.fs di'vastatioiis iie se lidiiii'icnt jioiiit la; ))liisicMrs 
aiitres vaisseaiix df la iiiariiu? cdiiiiiifivaiilf des I\tats-t 'iiis (ifviiirfiit sa pioie, jiis(|ira 
CO (pie <M' vaissfan aclieva sa fairi'~'i(^ df crdisfiir a Maliia, It^ 7 oftoliff l."^()4. 

II parait asscz [Mdiivi' ipie la laeilite avcc lailiifllf on laissa le I'Morida s'approvisiiiii- 
iier (le eliarlidii, iiialj;r('' (iii'il .v efit d(''fense de la part dn fioiivc riic iiic nt aiijj;lais dVla- 
Idir des d('p('>ts de f(Mte iiiatii'ic daiiM ecs colonies, ne r(''poii(lait pas a la stricte neiitni- 
lit(^ (pi'il anrait fallii oliscrvfr dans ce.s jiara^^cs, soit en viu! des localit('s, soit u (;aiis« 
des syiii)tatliicH (juo la jio[mlatioii do ces nu''iiies colonies montrait pour la cause di'S 
coijledtMCM. 

A ccH doniK^cH jiivcises vieiinent s'ajoutor des r(^claniatioii8 d'nn ffcnre de faits plim 
dillicile a coiistaler, tids (pie le trop dc condt^sceiidancc dn gonvcriieinent imj^lais i; 
tolorer (pio lo temps deinaiid(5 i»our proccder a des n'-tiarations et a des radoubs se pro- 



Ij ^! 




ii 


JL. 



liU'J^I'S.SCS 

;irnrr (111 

i^-liiis t;iit 

niriir !'■' 

]»r!'nilii' 

lilH Vd^llll 



l)ns ell di' 

(lilllS lis 

(Ic Wnsh- 
;MI\ liil- 
VllllllVIlt 

])liisii'iii> 
ie, jiisiiii'ii 

provisidii- 
hiis tlVla- 
t(' iHMitia- 
it u can so 
canst' <lt'S 

CaitH pliis 

iHli^llUS i! 
bs HC 1110- 



OPINIONS OF COUNT SCLOPIS. 



95 



iippossity of tlu' ciiso rtMiiiircd. It ciiniiot but I)o iickiiowlcdocd, liow- 
(vcr, tliat tlio lichl wliicli the I'Morida li;i<l clioscu for her dcprcchitioiis 
otlVrcd special ••ireiiinstaiices to insure lu'r success. 
As to tlu' stay of the l<Mori(hi in the i»ort of IMobih', and tlu^ conse- 
ces I'esultiu,!^' therefrom. I shall coiiline uivsell'to considerini;' tlieiu 



qiu'n 

ilS 



(lllCS 



I special proof of the d(>cisive chaiacter of the career of the Florida, 
1 I adopt on this subject the answers to the oliject ions raised by (Ireat 

ritiiin, contained in ])ara!4raph 'S> of the ol)servations of our honora- 

(' ('ollea,u'ue, "SI. Sta'niplli. 1 reserve to myself expressly to ti'eat the 
tion relative to the effect which nniy b(> ])rodiU'(Ml l>y the ti'ansfor- 
]ii;ition of a privateer into a vessel of war of a l)elli,ij;'erent, when thai sub- 
ject, winch is to be (!onsi(lered .yciierally, comes bef,)re us for dis<'iission. 

I refrain from attaching' to the Ibitish ^'overnment any very serious 
iliUMC for the oflicial salute i-eturned by the authorities of liernnida to 
the salute of the l^'huida on her entry into that ])ort ; this may have 
lu'cn the ]»ersonal fault at the moment of an offn-ial of sui)ordinate I'aidi. 
but 1 maintain that, in matters of hatutual admini.sfralion, and in what 
ivhites to the execution of special regulations, the resi)onsii)iiity foracts 
(if nil subordinate a.u'ents, in (piestions of controversy Ix'tweeii two ji'ov- 
cnniicnts, must attach to those who are char,i;'ed with tlie su[)reme j^ov- 
cinnient. 

Censiderinii' the tenders as corps detached from a mrps (Vitrwrc, a.iid 
coiisciiuenfly as subject to (he same responsibility as the pi'incii)al ves- 
sel, that resiKiusibility mus! be extended to the cases of the Clarence, 
Tiicony. and Archei', which served successively as tenders to the I'lorid.i. 
I will conclude tlu' series of oi)inions which 1 submit to my honorable 
collcajiues by a ((notation which apjtears to me to inive decisive wei^^ht. 
Lord I'ussell, in a dispatch to Lord Lyons of the L'Tth .Alarch, ISi;.;, r<*- 
liDitinjH' a conversation which he had had with Mr. Adams, expresses 
liiiiiself in these terms: '• I said that the cabinet was of ojjinion that 
the law was suflicient, but that leju'al evidence could not always be ])ro- 



l(iiij;i';\t an j^ro dti (•oimnandaiit dii iiavirc an dcla dc cc qnc Ic, voiitalilt! licsoiii anrait 
ixii;c'. Oil lu' .sun rait t'nitilois iic jias rccomiaitrc (|iio Ic cliainit (iiic Ic I'lniida avait^ 
(hiiisi iiDiir laiic si.'s iava,i;os r('iini>-iail dcs cii'mcuts spc'fiaiiN; [luiir liii asMiri'i' dcs 

^iK•|■^S. 

iitii.iut an S('j()iir <lii I'lmida dans Ic i>i)rt dc Mnlijlc ct anx cDiisi'iiiwiucs qui purcnt 
cii ilrii\i'i', jc lilt' liiinit'iai a li's uoiisidtrcr (^oiiiiiii' iiiic jnciivf s|i('H'ial(' <lii cararttTti 
(Irci^if dc la canii'i'c da I'lorida, I't j'adopic a I'c siiji't Ics iTpoiisi's coiilciiiics smis ](> \" 
'.',■> (lis (iliscrvatioiis di' iiotrc, ImiicnaUli' I'olli'niic, "A. Sia('iii|illi, aiix oiiji'itl imis faiti's \r,\v 
li (■r;iiiilc-i>i('iai;iu!. ,Jc mi' n'-scrvi' i'X|in'ss('iiiciit ilc tiaitcr la (lacsfioii ndatiNca rrllct 
que peiil [n'lidiiire la transt'ormal i(»ii d'liii citrsairc I'li vaisscaii di' niicirc d'liii l)cllij;i^- 
iMiit, Idi,- ijiu! (,'t'tto niatii'i'c, qui doit otrf (•oiisidi'ii'c sons iiii point do viir i^i'iii-ral. cii- 
tiii;i cu discussion paniii nous. 

.It' in'aljsticiidrai d'iiiciil]i('r troji i;ravriiiciii Ic nouNcincnicnt luitamiiijiic dii saint 
iliicicl iciidii par ics aiitoriti's dc iSfrinudc an saint dii I'lmida cimaiit dans Ic port : 
iilii )ii'iit ("'t IC la t'anic pcisonncllc iiioinciitaiK'c d'nii employe'' d'un oidrc inl'i'iicnr. mai.s 
ji' iii.diili.'us (pic dans Ics alVaiii's d'adniiiM-<tiatioii lialiitiicllc ct dans cc qui ticiit a 
1 1'Xiriilii.ii dc rJ'^lcniciits spt'ciaux, la rcspnnsaliiliir' dcs t'aits dc tons Ics a;i<iils siilial- 
tiiiiis, |)isqu"il s'a^ir di' controvcisc, ciitrc d<'ux (Mats, doit, rcniontcr a cciix qui ticn- 
iii'iit Ic /.'omcrnciiicut siipi'i'iciu'. 

Kii considi'i'ant Ics iciulcrx coiniiic dcs coi'|)s dctaclics d'un corps d'arincc, ct cons,'- 
||Ui'iiiiii('iii siijcts a la iiiciiK! i'csi»onsal)ilit(' dn vaisscan inancipal, on dcvra rcti-ndrc, 
iiiix cas iln Clarence, du Tacony t-t do I'Archcr, (iiii out scrvi sncccssivcnu'iit d'allcgcs 
au Kloiida. 

Jc liiiiiui la S('ric d'apprcciations fpu^ji! sonincts a nicsliouorahlcs collf'frucs par nuo 
fifatidii (pii inc. paraUd'un poids di'cisif". J.ord Wiisscll, dans uiic dtqicHdic a Lord LyoiiH 
ilii '-iT niais IHtUt, cu rapportant unc coiivtMHation qii'll avait. imK! avcc M. Adams. ,s'«'x- 
luiiiiiM'ii CCS tcrnics: ".Ic, lui a! dit <pic lc(:al)iucl (Unit, d'opiiiioii (pic la loi siillisait, 
uiais (pi'oii u'avaJt jtas ym tonjoius api)ortcr dca preiivcs Icgaics; *i\Ui Ic yoiivcrucmcnt 



■JIW^ 



';:»:j 



96 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 



cured, tliat the British governnient had done everything in its power to 
execute the hiw ; but 1 admitted tiiat the cases ot the Ahibania and 
Oreto were a scandal, and in some degree a. reproach to our laws." 

We have now, in my opinion, to rei)air the effects i)roduced by tlio 
causes of that scandal and that reproach, no longer taking as our ixjjnt 
of departure the provisions ot a municii»al law, i^ut the principles of in. 
ternational law, an«l the rules laid down in Article VI of the treaty. 
Great liritaiu thereby becomes responsible. 

Having acipiired a complete knowledge of the points of fact and law, 
we shall now proceed to the examiiuition of each head of claims consiij. 
ered separately, and to the comparative analysis of the ligures contaiiiiHl 
in the revised list of claims presented by the Department of State oC 
the United States, and those contained iJi the two reports of the com- 
mittee ajjpointed by the board of -trade which have been presented by 
the British government. 



:i»' 



OPINIONS OF VISCOUNT D'ITAJUBA. 

I. — THE SPECIAL Qin^STIOX AS TO TIIl'^, EFFECT OF THE CO^MMTSSIONj! 
HELD HV THE CONFEDERATE VESSELS OF WAR WHICH ENTERED 
BRITISH POJITS. 



Sitting of tho astli of July. 

The object of the special (piestion submitted for the decision of tlie 
F.iiwtnr,i.»„,mis-^i''hunal of arbitration is, to determine tne extent of the 
''"" eifect which can be attributed to the commission with wliicii 

a vessel of war may be provided; whether that eifect is the same in tlic 
case of a vessel built in conformity with the laws of neutrality, as in tliat 
of a v-4'ssel built in violation of those laws; that is to say, wliether the 
fact of holdii) •' such a commission aives to a vessel built in violation of 



di! la rirande-lJictajino avait fait tout co qui dtait on now pouvoir pour exdcuter la l^i. 
iiiai.s (|ii(' Jf rei'diiuuissais (pio Ics casdt! I'Alabauiaet dc I'Oreto avaiout etc uu acaudak', 
ct t'li (|iii'l<|ii(^ d('};iv. un rcpi'ociio a nos loi^." 

11 a'aj;it maiiitiMiaiit, a niou avi.s, dti ivparer Ics cfli-ts prodnits par les oau.ses dc co 
scaiidalc! ft do cti ruprociu' en uc, paitaiit plii.s <lt!S disitositioiif* d'tiii droit iiiuniciiiiil, 
luais dt'.s i)riiu-ii)((s du droit dcs j^ciis, ct dcs r('<i;]e.s i>os('t;s a Tarticle VI du traitc. L;i 
r('s|M)MHal»ilit('! dc la <jiraudti-15r(?taj>'iRi y <',st eiifranoo. 

iiicii (■ditii'.s Hur lea points do lait ot do droll, nous allons prow'doi' i\ I'cxauioii tie 
chaiino clnd' do roclaniations oonsidoni NO[taronMMit, ot a I'analyso (soniparativo do cliif- 
fros portos siir la listo r(''\is('o dos roolannilions prodnito par lo l)i''i)ai'toniont d'otat ilis 
Etats-Unis, ot do <!onx poito.s snr los doux rapiiort.s do la ooniniission noiumco par le 
cousuil do coiunicrco produits par lo youvonieniont l)rituunl«j[uo. 



.1 


ll i 


li'. 


'1 \ 


i; ■] 

.ill iii 



La nucslioii spccialc dc snrnir qiirl a I'tv Vcffi't den commhuiotiH pam^t'drci par les navlrc><d( 
ijHcrrc coufddi'rcH qui sont viittrn darni !vn poi'(8 bntaiiiiiqite^. 

Stance du 25 jnillot. 

La question s]){^oialo sonniisc i\ la docision du tribunal d'arbitraj^e a pour but Ha 
d(''torniinor I'dtondno cpio Ton pout aocordor il I'ofTot do la coinniiasion dont un uavia' 
do nuorro so trouvo pourvu ; si cot oftot ost lo nu"Mno pour uu naviro construit ou obsii- 
vatioi) dos loia do la noiitralit<^ quo pour uu naviro construit en violation dc cos luis- 
c'cBt-i\-diro, si, i)ar lo fait dc possodor nut! couuiiisHiou, uu naviro, construit en violulimi 
des loia d'un dtat ucutrc, u Ic droit d'oxigor dc cct ^'tat d'etre traitd daus aes ports de in 



OPINIONS OF VISCOUNT D ITA.IUHA. 



97 






the laws of a neutral state the riffht of requiring of such state that it 
should be ti-eated in its ports in tiic: same manner as any other vessel of 
war heUmginj;" to a belligerent state, aad built according' to law. 

The question, put in tliis form, answers its(?lf. 

Ill fact, a neutral wisliiii<>' to prestu've ids neutrality is bound to abstain 
from assistin^tither of the be!l'ji(>rent parties in theii' warlike opeiations; 
he is bound faithfully to j?iiard ajjainst vessels of war, destined for the 
use of one of the belli •••erents, beiii<>' built or ecpiipped within liis t<'rritoi-y ; 
and, accordiii.ij to the latter part of the tirst rule of Arti(!le VI of tlie 
treaty of WasliiiiiU'ton, he is bound •' also to use due dilig-em-e to prevent 
the (lei)arture from his Jurisdiction of any vessel intended to <;ruise or 
carry on war as ai)ove, such vessel haviniuf beiin spei-ially adapted, in 
whole or in i)art, within such juiisdiction, to warlike use." 

Such being- the duties of a neutral, he has per contra the right to re- 
(jiiire the belligerents to respect his territory; and it is the duty of the 
belligerents not to comnut, within the territory of the neutral state, acta 
contrary to that neutrality. It is only by a scrupalous ol)serv;nife of 
tills duty that belligerents acquire the in<lisputable right of exacting from 
the neutral perfect impai'ti mty. 

If, then, a vessel, built on neutral territory for the use of a belligerent, 
fraudulently, and witlnuit the kiH)wledge of the neutral, conws again 
wltliin the jurisdiction of the sovereign whose neutrality it has violated, 
it ought to be seized and detained; for it is impyssible to allow to sucdi 
vessel the same exterritorial rights as are allowed to other belligerent 
vessels of war, built in accordance! with law and without any iiitracticm 
of neutrality. The commission with which such a vessel is provided is 
iusullicient to protect her as against the neutral whose neutrality she 
has violated. 

And how can the belligerent complain of the ai)plicati,>M of this 
l)rincii)le ' By seizing or (letaining the vessel the neutral only i)revents 
the belligerent from deriving advantage tVom the fraud conimittert 
within his territory by the same belligerent; while by iu)t proceeding 



nanrc* (n 



nu'int! iiiiinit'ni (|U(' tout iiutro luivirc, iVi '^wvn: iippartoin'iit h dcs (^tat.s l)(^lIi;i,Trinits 
I't n'jtiiliiTcmciit <M)iistriiit. 

La im.sitioii do la (|U(>.stioii on cos ttTiiu'S porti' sa i'i'imjiiho en idh'-ini'-iiu-r' 

En (lift, Ic iiciitre (iiii vout "^araiitir sa iiciitralito doit s'aUstcnir d'aidor ain'iinc dcs 
imrtii's lM'lli;;('iaMt('s dans h'urs oitoratioiis dc jjui'rrt* ; il est oldin't' do vcilliT lidMi;- 
iiu'iit a (■(! riiic, Hur sou territoire, on no coiistniisi! ui n'ariiu' dcs iiavircs d(^ j^iicnH! doH- 
tiiK'.s h riiuo di's ])arti('s hellisoraiitcs ; ct scion la (Icrnii'i'i' partic do la proiiiioro rofr-lo 
lit' I'iirticlo VI (In traito do \Vasliini;t(m. 11 <!st ohlijio " d'oniployor ojialoinonl, Ics (htes 
diUijvncvx ])onr cnipochcr lo dt'^pavt iini's do sa Jniidicfion (lo tout iiaviro dostino jI 
eniisi'i' on a fain^ la j;nono, eoinnic il ost dit ci-dossus, nn tol naviro ayaiit eto adai)to 
spocialiMnont, on tout on en partio, dans los liniitos do sa Jiiridiction, a nn oniploi 
guiu-ricr." 

Hi tcls soot los dovoii's d'nn noiitro, il a i>ar oontn^ lo droit d'oxii^or dos boliiMoiaiits 
iiu'il.s rospoctoiit son torritoiro; et il ost dii devoir dos lM'Ilii;oraiits do no point coni- 
iiU'ttro, siir lo torritoiro do I'otat nontro, dos aotos oontrairos a cotto nontriilito. Co 
n'cst ([iron (»l)sorvant scrnpnlonsonwiit oo devoir (pio los l)olli;;(;rants a((|nierent le droit 
iiu'oiiti'.'stahlo d'oxi<>(!r du nontro niu! parl'aito inipartialih'. 

Si (lone nn naviro, constrnit j)onr h? ooini»to (hiii l»i llij;(''rant snr lo torrilniic d'nn 
iicntre, par iVando (;t a Tiiisu dii nontro. so jnosonto dans los liniitos do la jni idiot ion dn 
^imvorani dont il a violo la nontralitc', il «loit ("'tro saisi on dt^'tonn, ear il n'osl ]>as possi- 
lilc (raei'ordor a nn tol naviro hm nionn^s <lroits tl'(!Xtorritorialit(3 (pio Ton aoeordo anx 
imtres naviros do guorro l»ollijf<»ranfs, oonstrnits ro}j;nliorein»!nc ot on dehors {U^ tonto 
iiit'nietiou a la nontralito. Lu (jonunission d(nit uu tel navin* est ponrvn no snllit pus 
pour it' couvrir vis-a-vis du neutro dont il a viol^ hi noiUralitd. 

Kt odinnKiiit lo bolligi^rant so phundruit-il do I'applieation do co ]>rinelpo ? En saisis- 
sinit ou (h'tonant le naviro, lo nentre ne fait (jn'onipi'Mjlier lo hollijf^rant do tiror juofii, 
<lf la frando cuiumisu sur sou teiritoiro par co memo bolligdruut, taudia (i^ue, ou uc 
7 B 




WifY^ 



ill 






Hhv 




98 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 



aju^iiinst a jH'iiilty vessel, the neutral justly exposes itself to having its 
jj()o«l I'aitii Justly calle<l in (luestion by the other belli!L;erent. 

This |ninci|)le of seizure, of detention, or at any rate of i)reliininarv 
notice tiiat a vessel, under such circumstances, will not be iec«Mve(l in 
the i)orts ol' the neutral whose neutrality she has violated, is fair and 
salutiiry, inasinu(!h as it is (!alculated to prevent complications between 
neutrals and bellij>e rents, and to contributi^ toward freein.i;' neutnils 
from responsibility by provin<' their j>()()d faith in the case of a fraud 
perpetrated within their territory. 

The converse of this prin(;iple is repugnant ^o the moral sense, for it 
would be allowing the fraudident i>arty to derive benelit from his fraud. 

The rules established l)y the empire of Brazil confirm the principle 
which we have; Just laid down, lor in its regulatiiuis respecting neutrality, 
directions are given — • 

^ 6. Not to iuliiiit into tlio ports of tlic cinpiro a beUijrereiit who Ims oueo violatwl 
tlm lUMiti'iility ; and, 

^S 7. To coni)n'l vessels whidi may att<;iiiiit to violiit(? tlio noiitrality to loavt; tlie 
luaiitiinc. tonitory of tlie ciiii>iic iniiiuMliatcly, wil.ioiit siiijplyiiiy; tlicm with anytliin;; 
Avliiituvcr. 

In fine: the commission with which a vessel of war maybe pro 
vided has not the power to [u-otect her as against the neutral whose 
neutrality she has previously violated. 

II.— THE FLORIDA. 

The undersigned, after a conscientious examination of all the docii 
meats submitted to the tribunal of arbitration by the Gov- 
ernments of the [Jnited States and of Great JUitain, relating 
to the confederate cruiser the Florida, 
Considering, 
That iron all the facts relating to the building of the Oieto* in the 
port of Liverpool, and to the departure of that vessel, and of tlie I5ahaina. 



l)ro(,'o<hnit i)oint coiitrc h' iiavirc ;!(mpiil)l(', \v- nciitre s'expoH(! Justt^inciit ;'t t'C((Uc rautre 
l)ellij;oraiit siispcett! sa bonne, foi. 

Ce priMci)»e (le saisi, (le detention on tout an nioins d'avis prealablc^ ((n'nn naviip. 
dans (le ti'lles couditioMS, no sera Mas re(;n dans les i)orts du neutn^ dont il a vi(ii('l;i 
neutialilf', est ('(piitahle ot salnta ,o, en ee (pril evite. h's coniijlieations entre h\s neutics 
et les liejlim^rauts, et contribn(! a dej;ii.i;'er la i(^sitoiisabilite des n, tres en prouvinit 
lenr l)oniie foi vis-a-vis d'nne fraudo conunise suf lenr teriitoire. 

Le piinci|ii> eontraire froisse la eoMseienei,', (^ar ce serait i)ernu'ttre au fiandeuv dc 
retire r lieneliee de sa fiande. 

Les regies etablies ]iai' r»'ini)ii'e (In Ibi'sil eonsaerent le principe ((ue nous venmi- 
d'(!xposer, ear dans ses iej;ienients snr la neiitralite il est ordonnc' : 

" vM). l)e lie pas admettn! dans les ports de rempirc le belliirerant qui anra lui 
fois vioh'' la neiitralite," et 

" v^ 7. Dt! faire soi(ir iininediateiiient dii territoin* maritime de rein])ire, sin ...i 
foniiiir la iiioindre ciiose, les navires qui tenteraient de violer la neutralite."' 

En resume. La L'omniission dont iin naviri; de ifiiiirre so troiive ponrvn n'a pas [uuii' 
eif'it de Ij emivrir vis-a-vis du ucutre dont il a prectkleuuuent voile la neutralite. 



I. — I.K ILOKIDA. 

Lc aoiiHsiffiio — aprea cxanien conseicneieux de tons les docnnients sonniis au tribiiiii;! 
d'arbitra<;e par les }>(»uvernementH des Etats-lJnis et de la (irande-Hretagne relatil> 
au croiseiir eonfodeii! le Elorida : 

Conaideraut quo de tons les faits relatifs a la construction dc I'Oreto'dansle portdf 
Liverpool,ct a lu surtio de co uavire, ainsi quo du Bahama, chargt} d'anneuicnt pour 

'First name of th(^ Florida, 
t Premier uom du Florida. 



OPINIONS OF VISCOUNT d'iTAJUBA 



1)9 



freis'bted witli arms for tho Oreto, wliicli facts did not indneo the Brit- 
ish autlioiitios to employ any measures (ialeiilated to prevent the viohi- 
tioii of the. neutrality of (ireat llritaiii, notwitlistandin;:;' tlie repeated 
waniiufi's and represcutatiousof tiie diphunatie. and consular anthoiities 
of tlie United States, it is evident that tlic y'overuineut of Iler Hritauuie 
Majesty iu'<:>iect<Ml to use due diligence for tiu} fultillaient of its duties as 
II neutral ; 

Consideriufi', 
That from all the facts relatiu<^' to the stay of the Oreto at Nassau, to 
Iior seizure in that port, to her ac(piittal, to her departure from tliat 
[M»i'f, to the enlistmeut of a crew, to her takiuj;' in supplies, to her araia- 
niciit at (rreeii ('ay, with the assistain'c of the I''ii,ii;lisl. vessel I'riucc 
Allied, it is evideut that there was ne|j;iiyeuce on tiu' part of the lOuj^- 
lisli colonial authorities; 

Considering, 
Tliat in spite of the evident infractions of the neutrality of Great 
Britain committed by the Oreto, this same vessel, then known as a con- 
tWlcniie cruiser, un<ler the nanu' of the Flori«la, was again ()n several 
occasions freely admitted into the ports of the JJritish colonies; 

Consi<lering, 
That the fact of the entrance of the Florida into the confederate port 
of Mobile, and of her stay of four montlis in that i)ort, cannot deter- 
niiiie the responsibility previously incurred by Great Britain; 

Is of oi)inion. 
That (Jreat Britain failed to fidfill the (Indies prescribed in the rules 
laid down in Article VI of (he treaty of Washington, ami that she is 
(■i(iise<iuently responsible for the acts imi)uted to the confederate cruiser 
Florida, as well as for those imputed to her tenders, the Clarence, the 
Tacony, and the Archer. 

III. — TIIIC ALAHAMA. 

The uiulersigned, after a conscientious exami nation of all the docu- 
iiH'uts submitted to the tribunal of arbitration by the Covernments of 



rOicto, lcs(HU'Is taitsii'iiiii('ii('i<'iit (1(^ lii part ilt'.s autoriti's liiitiiiiiii<|ii('sri'iiij)ltii(r:nHMiin's 
iiii'siiics i)i()]iii;s a ciniKM'lici' la violation dc la iiciirialilc' dc la (iraii(lf-lJr<'tai;iu.', 
iiiiilun'' Ics avis ct Ics i('claiiiatioiis ii'iti'ii'f.s tics aiitorih's (li|iloiiiat ii|U('.s el coiisiilaiics 
ilis Kiats-Uiiis, il I't'ssoit (|ii(! It; froiivcriKMiiciit (If sa .Maicsti'' liritaimi(|ii(' a ii(^;;li<ft5 
irciiiployrr le.s dm: tHli(/<iKrx [loiir \o. iiiaiiilicii <lfs dcvoii's dc ,sa iiciUralitf : 

rtmsiih'raiit iiiic, di- tons Ics i'aits rclatilsaii si^jonrdc TOiclo a Nassau, asasaisicdansco 
iMiil, a.xiii ac(|MittiM»icnt, a sa sortie dc ct^ I'ort, a ]'ciii('>lciiicnt d'lin ('(iiiipanc, a son ajiju'o- 
visidiiiiciMi'ut', a soil ariiu^iiicMt avcc I'aidti dii l(at<'aii an;;lais Ic Piincc; Alfred a (irecii 
Cay, ii I'fssoi't <iii'il y a cii ncjj;lii;-cne() dc la i>art. dcs aiitoi'itt's coloiiialcs aii^laiscs ; 

Coiisidcrant (jiic, iiialj;io Ics infractions I'vidcntcs a la ncntialiti' dc; la C«randf-Bre- 
tii^uc, conimiscs par I'Urcto, cc nicnic, iiavirc, alors coniin coninic croiscwr conCciUh'C 
sous Ic noni dc Florida, fiit tMicoro a jdiisiciirs rciniscs lihrcnicnt adniis dans Ics ports 
ilis nilonics Itritanniipics ; 

C(iiisi(l(4ant ((uo Ic fait de l'ciitr(^e dii Florida daus li; port confeddrd dc JI(d)ih', et 
lie soil scjniir dans cc i)ort ptaidaut (jnatn! inois, no suurait dctruirc In rcspoiisabilitd 
uiitcricurciiu'iit enconnic par la Graiuie-Brctagnc — 

Kst(l'avis (jiie la Graiide-Hrctagiic a inan(iud aiix devoirs prcscrits dans les regies 
'talilies par rarticlc VI du traitd do \Vasliinj;t(tii, ct (|iic, par oonsiMiuent, ellc; est 
i(s|i()iisaljle des faits imputes aii crosieur conCddere Ic Florida, aiusi quo do cciix im- 
putes a ses uiivires auxiliaircH lo Clarcuee, Ic Tacoiiy, et rArcIior, 



It 



II, — l'alahama. 

Le soussigiid — aprt^s oxaiueu couscicucicux do tous lay documents souuils au tribunal 



! ;, 



100 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 



the United States iiiid of Great Britain, relatinj? to tlie confederato 
cruiser, tlie Alabaim, 
CoiKsidei'iiif;', 

Tluit from all the ta(!ts relating to the building of the 2!U^ in the port 
of Liverpool, to her etiuipnient and arnianient on the coast of Tercit'lni 
by the aid of the English vessels Agripi)ina and IJahaina, after tlie 
I']nglish vessel Hercules had conveyiul a crcnv on hoard of her, it is 
evident that the government of (ireat IJiitain neglected to use due di! 
igeiuie for the fullilhuent of its duties as a neutral, since, iu)t\vitli 
standing the repeated waiiiings and repres(Mitations of the diplomatic 
and consular authorities of the United States while the 2!)() was in 
course of constru<!tion, no suitable measures were taken, and those 
which were at length adopted for the arrest of the vessel were ordered 
so late chat they could not be executed ; 
Considering, 

Thai, after the escape of the vessel, the measures taken for pursuing 
and arresting her were so incomplete that thi\v led to no result, anil 
cannot be considered as sufticient to free Great lUitaiu from responsi 
bility ; 

Considering, 

That, in spite of the flagrant infractions of the neutrality of Great 
Britain committed by the L'!)0, this sanui vessel, then known as a con- 
federate cruiser under the mime of the Alabanni, was again admitted 
on several oc(;asions into the ports of British colonies, whereas she 
ought to have been proceeded against in the lirst British jiort in wliicli 
she might have been found; 
Is of oi)inion. 

That Great Britain failed to fulfill the duties ])rescribed in the rules 
laid down in Article VI of the treaty of Washuigton, and that she is 
consecjuently responsible for the acts imputed to the confederate cruiser 
Alabama, as well as for those imputed to her teiuler the Tuscaloosa. 



'-'i 








|i 


ii 

;•:.'* 


i 


■ ij 




1^ I ' 










I'-; ;t j 


ii 



d'arbitrage par los <;o»vernements dns l5tats-IJnis ot de la Grande-Bretagne relatifs an 
cr<)is(nir confodrro I'Alabama: 

Consid<^riiiit ([nc, (\v tons Ics faits relatifk a la coiistrnctioii dii "290," dans Ic port ilr 
Liverpool, a son <Miiii))oin('tit. et ariiu^tiuMit sur los cotes do Toreeira par les soiiis (li'> 
bateaux aiij^lais l'A<;riiipina. et le Bahama, ai)res ([lie le navin; anglais le Hercule liii eiit 
aineiie iiii ('()uipaj;(', il ressort clairenuMit que le jfouvernemeiit de la Graud(!-Bretii<i;iii' 
a iie<>li<fe d'euiployer les dnvK «//7/\(/(;'»i«'.s pour le niaintien des devoirs de sa iientraliti-. 
pnis<|ue, inaiijre les avis et rv'elaniations rc^iterees <les autorites diploniatifiues et con- 
sulaires des Etats-Unis pendant li; conra de la construction du "290,'' on utiprit aneuni' 
mesure convtMiablo, et (pie etdles tinalemont prises pour faire arreter le navire fureiit si 
tardivement ordonnees (pi'elles ne, parent etre exeeutt'es; 

Considerant ((a'aprcs la fuite du navin; les inesures prises i)our le poursuivro et lo 
faire arreter f'ureiit si incompletes qu'elles n'auieiierent aiieuii r^snltat, et ue p(;nveiit 
etre eousidereeseoninie suHisaiites pourde;^a;;'erla rt'si)onsaltilit<> delaOraude-Brc^tajjiii': 

Considerant (pie, inalj^rd les infractions llagi-jiutes a la ueutralitc^ de la Graiidi'- 
Ureta<^iie e()niinis(,'s ])ar le "2'.l(t," c<! nu'ine navire, alors coniiu coinme, croiseur enii- 
ftid('r(^ sous le iioie de I'Alabaina, i'ut eneore adinis a jdusieiirs reprises dans I'es ])orts des 
colonies britanni(iues, (piaiid il aurait fallu proceder contre Ini dans le premier port 
britanni(iuo ou il aurait ("to rencoutn^ — 

Est d'avis (pie la Graiule-BretiiRiie a maiKpu^ aiix devoirs preserits dans los ivglos 
<itablies par I'article VI du traite do Washinifton, ot (|ue, par cons<5(iuent, olio est ii's- 
]>onsable des faits impiit(\s au croiseur confodor(i I'Alabama, ainsi que oeux imput(5sii 
sou uavirc auxiliaire le Tuscaloosa. 

* Number by wliicli the Alabama Avas originally designated'. 



OPINIONS OF VISCOINT D ITA.IUBA. 



101 



IV.— THE VESSELS (1) THE (iKOlUirA, (2) THE SUMTER, (.'i) THE NASH- 
VILLE, (4) THE llETUIBUTION, (."») THE TALLAHASSEE Oil OLUSTEE, 
((>) THE CHICKAMAUGA. 

The uiulersi<;ne(l, after ii coiiscieutioii.s oxainiiiation of all the docii- 
meiits submitted to the tribuJial of arl)itration by the ( Jo\ - ,„„„,,. s„.n...r. 
onimeiits of the United States and of (Jreat liritain, rehit- n7,'i;;'''n,ihi;i;t?.; 
iiij;' to tiie confederate cruisers, iimka.nunp. 

The Georgia, 
The Sumter, 
Tiie Nashville, 
Tiie Retribution, 
Tlie Tallahassee or Olustee, 
The Chiekamauga, 
Is of ()i)inion, 

Tliat Great Britain did not fail to fulfill the duties ))rescribed in the 
niles laid down in Article VI of the treaty of Washington, and that 
she is not responsible for the acts imputed to these vessels. 

v.— THE VESSELS SALLIE, .TEFFEKSON UAVIS, MUSIC, BOSTON, V. II. .TOY. 

With regard to the vessels. 

The Sallie, 

Tiie Jetterson Davis, 

Tlie Music, 

The Boston, 

The V. 11. Joy, 
The undersigned is of opinion, 

Tliat they should be excluded iVom discussion by the tribunal for 
wiiiit of evidence. 



Snllii'. .Iili. DiviH, 
Music. llci>l(.i,. V. 
H. .)..v. 



' ' ' c 
i 



VL — THE SHENANDOAH. 

The uiulersigne<l, after a conscientious exainiuation of all the docu- 



III.— Lies x.vviHKs (1) r,i; (iKoma.v, (•i) i.k .si .mi'tkk, (:?) t.K xasiivim.k, (4) lk itKiiti- 

IIUTION, (;')) I.K IAI,I..Ml.VS.Si;i; OL' i.'ol.U.STKi:, (15) LK tlllCK.VM.Vl li.V. 

Le s(iu.sHi<jiid — iipri's oxaiueu coiiscieuciiiiix <lt' toii.s lu.s tlocmiieiits .soiiiiii.s an triliiinal 
ilailiitray;(j i)ar Ics jroiivcriHuiiciits dcs fitats-Uiii.s et dc la (iiaii(lc-Bii;ta;;ii('. i(;latifn 
aux croi.seiirH coiif('dcres 

L(! Guor^^ia, 

Lc Sumter, 

Li'Xa.sIiville, 

Li) Rt'tribiition, 

Lti TallahasHce, on I'Ohistce, 

Lo Clii(d<anian<;a — 

E.st d'avi.s ([iic la Graude-Brctajjiic n'a i»a.s n\am|iii'' mux devoirs prescrits daii.s lt>» 
rt';j;li'St'hiltlic8 ))ar I'artitde VI dii traito de Wa.shingtoii, »'t (luVdle ii'»!st pas respoiisable 
•li'S liiits luipiiteH a ces uavircs. 

IV. — T,K,S XAVIKKS SALI.IK, .IKKKKUSOX DAVIS, Ml SU", MOSTON, V. H. .lOV. ' 

Le smissifruo — quaut aux iiavires 

Li; Sallie, 

Le .leffersou Davis, 

Le Music, 

Le lidston, 

LeV.lL.Ioy— 

Lsl d'avis de les eliiiiiner des deliberations dii trilninal, taiite d'' preiives. 

v.— I.r. .SIIKXANDOAII. 

Le soussigiK; — apres exaiuen coiiscicncieiix do tons Ics docmuents soiiuiis au tribunal 



n 




■■h' 




102 



ARBITRATION AT GKNEVA. 



Mhi-riiiii'lonli. 



jncnts submitted to tlio tiibminl (»f arbitration by tlio (4ovorniiioiits of 
tlui United States andot(}reat JJritain, relatinyto the vaw 
federate cruiser tlie Slienandoali, 
Considering', 

Tliut from all the facts relating' to the dei)artnro from London of tlio 
merchant-vessel Sea Kin};,* to the departure from Liverj)<»ol of tin- 
Laurel, to the meetiu}; of these two vessels near the island of Madeira. 
to tile transfer of the armament ami crew from onc^ of these v«'ssels to 
the other, and to the transformation of the Sea Kin,y into a coiifcdcriitc 
cruiser under the name of thi^ Shenandoaii, it is evident that the j;(iv- 
ernment of Her IJritaiinic Majesty cannot l)e aecus'd of having' ney 
lected to use due dilijifcnce for the fulfillment of its duties as a neutral: 
Considerinjif, 

That while, on the one hand, it is evident from all the facts relating; 
to the stay <»f the Shi-nandoah in tlui port of Melbourne that some I'i'w 
irregularities occurred, such, in particular, as tluj au^iiuMitation of lici 
crew, on the other hand there is no proof that these irre,iiulai'ities can 
be laid to tlu; charj^'c of the yoviM-nuuMit of IL'r I>ritanni<; .Majesty or 
imputed to the nefiii<>('nce of tlu> En.nlish authorities, l)ut that tlicv 
were the consecpu^nce of the violation by (Joinmauder Waddell of his 
word of hoMor, and ol the ex(;e[)tional dilHculties of surveillance which 
the conformation of the port i)resented ; 
Considering, moreover. 

That the <>-ovei'nor of the colony having, after the departure of the 
Shenandoah, betiome aware of tln^ violation of neutrality of which tliis 
vessel had been guilty, resolved thenceforth to refuse hospitality to 
fjientenant Waddell and the other ollicers of the Shenan(h)ah, niiil 
wrote in this sense to the naval and civil authorities of Australia. 
reipiesting th(;m to act in the same way, a fact which contributes toward 
releasing the government of Her Jiritivnnic .Majesty from any respoiisi 
bility ; 

Ls of opinion. 

That Great Britain did not fail to fulfil the duties prcs(!ribed in tlio 

<riultitriijjr iiiir Ifs jfonvcrnt'iinMits des fitats-lJiiis e,t (lis la drraiule-nrotajfiio, rolat it's nil 
croisi'iir coiifedoiv Ic Shcnaiidoali : 

('oiisidi'vaot (|iii', (Ic tons Ics I'aits n-latif's an dt-part dc Londres dii n:ivire iiiai'diiiiil 
Ic Scii Iviiij'', an depart ilc, Ijivcrpool dii I^iiind, a la nsncoiitri! th', ccs dcnx navMrcs \m-^ 
dc riltMlt- MadiTc, an ti'ansliDrdc.nnMi.t dn rarnuinjiMit ct dc rci|ni|)iigi! d(! I'nii dc I'l-^ 
iinviit's snr I'antTc, ct a la traiist'ormation dn >Sca Kinjf t>o croi.scur cDufcilcrc sons li- 
iiom dc .Slu'uandoali, il rcssort (daivcmcnt qncl'on nc saiirait accuser Ic jfonvornciiiciit 
dc fill -Miijcstc l)iitiimii(|uc d'avoir n('^li<;(' d'cmploycr Ums (^fcv d(/iY/(';(C('.v pouf Ic niaiiitii'ii 
dcs (lcv<)iisd<^ sa nciitnilitc ; 

C'Diisidcriiiil <iiic si, (I'lm cute, th' tons Ics t'aits rc.liitifs an scjonr du Sliciiaiidoah daii- 
Ic jiort de Mdhamiic, il n'ssmt <in"il y a en ((ncliiuiis iiTci>;nlaritcs coinuiises, tcllcs sm- 
tont (|n(! l'ani>nicntatii)n d(^ rt'iiuipujrc ; d'nii autre cote, ii n'tist ])as ]>ronvc tpo; (•(■■; 
ii'icii,nliii'itcs pnisscnt ctrc miscs a In c!it!r,ij;c dn {joiivcrncineiit de sa Ml^j^^stc l)ritiinni([m' 
ct iinpntces a lii nci!;li<^encc des antoriri's anjjlaises, niais iin'elli^s out etc lacoii.si'iiini'iici' 
dc la violation de la parole d'lionncur donnee par h^ conioiaiidant Waddell, efc dcs (lilli- 
cnltc's exceptionnclles de sni'vcillaiKie «|ne ])resentait la coiitorniatioo dn port ; 

Cons! lcrant,en (niti'c,<|nc Ic fiDnvcrncnr de la colonic, ayant a])pi'is apvcs le dc'imi't 
du Siienandoali la violation d(^ iicntralite dont cc navire s'l^tait rondu conpable. dei'iilii 
dc rct'nser dorenavaot rhosi)italiti'' an licMitcnant Waddell at auK antres oHicici's dn 
Slu'uandoali, ct ecrivit dans cc sens imx autofities navales ct civilcs de I'Anstralie cii 
Ics j)riaut d'a^ir dc nieinc, ('c ([ui contribuo a dcj^agcr la responsal:ilitc du yonvcrm'- 
nicnt dc sa JNliijestc 1>ritanni(inc — 

Est d'uvis que la Giaude-lJretajrnc u'a pas nuinqnc aux devoirs proscrits dans les 



* First nauic of the Sbeuaudoali. 



OPINIONS OF MR. STyKMITLI. 



103 



rules laid down in Article VI of the treaty ot'Wasliiiiijtou, and tliat s1m» 
is co'istuiuently not responsible lor the a(!ts iniimtod to tlie coiit'edt'rati^ 
cruiser Shenandoah. 



OITNIONS OF Mil. ST.EMPFLI. 

I._Oi»IXIONS ON I'lIE QT'KSTIONS OF LAW AS TO AVIIiril TIIK TUIUI^NAL 
OF AlflJITlJATION, AT ITS SlTTlX(f OF IVLY 2."», 1S7L', IJKvX'HSTKl) 
KH'CIDATIONS FliOM TIIH ("OIXSKL OF THE IIKill PAIITIKS rilESENT 
AT THE BAR. 

M. StaMiipHi states that he sees no j>reat advaiita<;e in wamlerinfj; 
into Ion in descriptions and theoretical interpretatiojis on the (picstions 
of ilue (lilUjenve. the rjf'ccf of couniiisnioninf/, and the xvppl;! of' cmd. lie 
sets forth orally and snccinctly his vi«nvs on these heads, rcscivinj:^ to 
liiinsclf the ri.i;ht ol" j;ivin,u' more pi'ccise reasons for their ajjplication in 
OiKili pariicular case, and confines himself for the ])iesent to layinj^' 
down (he followin;^' i)rinciples oidy, \vhi(;h will serve him for his j^eneral 
f-uidance. 

General Principles of Law. 
(Proj^ramme iiisortod in Protocol X, Avticle A, No. III.) 

Ill its decisions on i)oints of law, the tribnnai should hi' <4tiided by 
the following principles: 

1. In tiie lirst place, by the three rules laid down in Arti(rle VI of the 
treaty, which provides that — i!„.,..,iti„.,,,:,tT 

tilk • |i1.'/.hI.-MI1'. 

Ill deciding; the iiiattcvs siibinittfd to tlio arbitniti rs tlicy shall he ijos'criicd by tlio 
followiiiif tlircc rules, which arc a^jrccd ii]iiim hy the hi};h contrac^tinn- jiartics, as rnit-s 
to betaken as applicable to the case, and by such principles of international law, not 



ri'gles otablii's ]iar I'article VI dii traitt^ de Washington, et (pie, par conseiiuent, ello n'est 
pas rcsponsablc des faits iiuputosau croiseur ont'edere le Shenandoali. 



OpiiiioiiH mir h'n <[iirHlio)is de droit siir h'sqiieUcH Ic '•ibiinal Wdrhitraiji', dniix nd m'ance du 
l2.") jiiiUvt 187'2, (( dfinaiide dvx ikilaircixxcnwiitii aiix coitudln des huntcn [xirlic^ pn'ncnle-i a 
la Ixirrc. 

M. Staeinpfli declare (pi'il ni! tronve ]>as tres-o|)i)in'tnn de, se perdre, ])i)iir les trois 
iliU'stiiiiis des diicn dilitn'iurs de Vt'fl'ct de commixnioiix et di's uppror'ixhuini mciitx de rhurhmi, 
duns de loiij^iies discussions et int(!rpretations theoriipu's. II di'Vidoiiji;- oraleuunit et 
soiiiinairenient ses vu(!s y relativtis, en se reservant de niotiver (h; i>lirs pres h^ur appli- 
cation daus e]ia(|Ue eas special, et se bi>rue jxnir le nii>nu;nt a poser les .seiiis jniiu-iites 
siiivants, (pii lui s(>rviront de direction ^em-raie. 

ri!I.\CIPKS OftNl^ItAUX I>K I11?0IT. 

(Prof^rannue insen^ dans le protocole X, Art. litt. A, No. III.) 

Dans scs considerants jnridiqnes, le tribnnai doit se giiider par li^s principes 
snivauts: 

1". En iironiier lieu, par les trois regies posce8 dans I'article VI dii traite, leiiuol 
porte (pie— 

"Dans la d<^cision des matieres ;\ eux sonniise.s, les arbitres seroiit j^nides ))ar les 
trois regies suivantiis, que les haiites parties eontraetantcs sont convenut^s de regarder 
co'inne des regies k prendre coinnie applicables a la cause, et par tols principles du droit 




isi 



ITfP" 



liii 



iM-\ 



104 



AHUITRATION AT OKXKVA. 



iin'oiisisti'iit (licrcwitli, us llio iirliitiMtorH slmll (Icti'iiiiiiit* 1(» liavti Ih'cm iiiiplii-iibli^ to 
tlu- ciisc : 

IUI.I.S. 

A iK'iilial ;;<ivi'rimi('?if is lioiiiid — 

I'irsl, '1 u use (lili;i(iiic ti> pii'vciit flic liltiii;;; out, jrii'in;;, or f<|iii|ii>iii;;, witliiii ii> 
/liiiiMliclioii, of iiiiy M's.si'l wiiicli it has r('iis(ni!il)lc y;i( m.d to Itclicvi^ is iiiti'inlcil to 
ciiiisc oi' to ciiri'v on Wiir ii^^aiiist n power wlili wliicii it is at |)cai't' ; ami also to um. 
like (lilinciirc Id prrvciil llic (li'i»artiiir iVoni its Jiiiisdic^tioii ol' un.v vissel iiilriKtni tn 
iTiiise or (uiiy on waf as al)ovc. (siicli vessel liaviii;;' iieiMi s]ieeially ndaptetl, in wlmlc 
or in )iart, williin siieli jniisdietion, to warlike use. 

Secondly. Ndt lo pei-niit or snil'er either iMdlij^ercnt to make nso of its ports or watcrii 
as the liase of mis al opci'ations a^jainst the othei , or for the |iui'posc of the renewal or 
aiiKinenlation of military snji plies or ai'nis, oi' the icci'nitnient of men. 

'I'hii'dly. To exercise ilne dilini'iice in its own ports and \Naters, and as to all persons 
within its Jurisdictiou, to prevent any violation ol' tht^ fore^^oiiif;' olili^ations iiiul 
duties. 

Ac'cofdiiij'' to tilt' Irciity, tliose tliico rules tnkv pivcock'ncc of tln' 
principles wliicii iiii,<;Iit be drawn from liistoric iiiteriiiitioiiiil law iiml 
from science. 

2. IIi;i;toriciil iiiternationiil law, or (he i)ractice()f the law of iiiitioiis, 
as well as; science and scituitific antliorities. niijy be considered as siili- 
sidiary liiw, in so-far as the principles lo be ap[»lied are ••enerally rec- 
ognized, iind are not liable tocontrover.sy, nor at variance with the tliiTi' 
rnles(pioted above. If one or other of these conditions fail, it is for the 
tribunal to supply what is wanting by interpreting and api)lying the 
three rules to the best of its i)ower an(l in till conscientiousness. 

o. The laws of a states touching nentrality do not constitute tin 
element of the law of nations in the sense that they can- 
not, at any lime, be altered, modified, or added to witlioiir 
the co-operation or consent of other states, the law of nations itself hi- 
ing ab.soluely indei)endent of these municipal laws ; yet, so long as tlierc 



lii-ljiill l;t\v- 



des n'ens c(ni. s;ins etre en desaceurd avi'c ces reijfles. anroni et(' reeonnns jjur les arhitn 
comnH,' ayant ('■te apidicaliles ilau.^ resjiecH' : 



ISIIffflRi 






IS 




II 


;':;!, 



" ItKiil.KS. 

" I'n ^oMvenuMncnt Tientre est tonii — 

" I l)r faire les dues <Hli(ii'ii<u'n pour jtrevenir l;i inise en etat. I'armenient en jxiienv 
on I'lMinipenient. {Jillini/ out, (iriniii;!, or viiulppiuii.) dans sajnridii-tion, d(! tout vaisstiiii: 
((u'il est raisonnalilenient fundi' a croire destim'' a ci'oiser on ;i fairt!l,i ;;Merre eonire \\\w 
]inissanee avee lafpudle ei; <;<)UV(;rnenient est i'W jtaix ; et de fair<3 anssi nienn' diliijciici' 
)»our emiiecher le dei)art. hors dii sajnridiction de tout navire destine a croiser on ii 
fairo la j;ueiie cuinnie il est; dit ci-de.ssus, ec navire ayant. etc speeialenu'nt ada[>Ie, l" 
tout ou en [lartie, dan.s les limites d«! sa dite Juritliction, a de.s usaye.s belliHt'rants. 

"2 l)e ne peruiettre ni soulfrir (\nv I'nn (les belligerants fasse usage de ses ports on 
de, ses eaux citnime d'line base d'operations navales contre I'aiitre, ni i)our rem)uveki' 
ou aiiji'nienter ses munitions niilitaires on son arnuMuent, ou s'y procurer des reeracs. 

"it D'exeicer les (/»/'•'< f/i/iv''"'"'-'-'* <lanH ses proi)r(^s ports t't eaux, et a I'egard de tonto^ 
ja-rsonnes dans les limites de sa juridictlou, atiii d'enipeclier touto violation des oblij,';!- 
tions et devoirs pieeedents." 

D'apres le traite, ees trois regies jtrevaleut sur ](;s princlpes quo I'on pounait 
•leduire dii droit des gens histori(iiui <^t de la seienei!. 

"Z" Le <lroit des gens liistori(ine, ou bien la ])rati(iue dn droit des gens, ainsl (|nc la 
science et les autoritt's seientiti(iu<\s, peuveut etn! eonsideres coinnie droit; subsidiaii'i'. 
en tant iiueles prineipesa applicpiersont gvndraliMueiit recounus, et ne. sont itointsiiji'ts 
a controNcrse, ni en desaceoi'd avec les trois regies ci-dessus. Si I'nms ou I'autre di; 
ees eomlil ions vienf a nuini|Uer, (s'est an tribunal d'y snppleer en interpnUant et aiipH- 
(plant les trois r('gles de son mieux et en toiit(i conscience. 

:>" Les lois SIM- la neutraliti^ jn-opres a iin ('tat ne constituent i)as nn (^h'tnent du droit 
des gens dans h^ sens (pi'elles ne penv(!ut ('tre, en tout temps, changiM's, niodiliees on 
•;ompl('t('i's s;ins la eooi»('ration ou le eons(Mitement d'autres f'tafs, le dr()it des gens lui- 
nuiuie Ptaut absoluuieut ind(^|)endaufc do ces lois muuicipales; cepeudaut, taut ({ue daus 



OI'IXIONS OF MR. ST/KMI'FIJ. 



105 



exist such laws in a Htatc, and tln'.v liav«^ not betin alnoj-atiMl, bcllij;*'!'- 
cut states liavc^ tlir ii;;lit to rccinirc tlicir loyal «)bs('ivanc(', as «)tlu'i'- 
wise IVauds or ci roi'.s niijiht be <!oniinitttMl, to the dctiinicnt of ono or 
otlicr of tlic bt'llijicrcnts ; as, I'or instiincc, wlicn then* is known to exist 
(altlioiiuli no attention nni.v be paid to it) a deeree tbi-biddini;' a lu'llifj- 
ciTUt vessel of war to renniin in a port for more than twenty lonr hours, 
or to tid<e on board nioic coal than is necessary for lu'r to nsM^h the, 
lu'iirest port o{" her country, or to obtain fresh sujjplies in the same port 
within tliree months. 

This principle, at the sanu^ tinu', implies that the absence of all muni- 
cipal laws, ov the want of sulHeient laws on the subie<^t, does not, in any 
wiiy, detriict from the law of nations, eithei- as reyards inteiimtional 
ohliyations or rij^hts. 

Moreover, the followinj,' priuttiples are admitted, wliicli are cited here 
to avoid a rei)etition of them in the Jud;;nient to be given resix'ctting 
each ot the vessels. 

4. The ''due dilij;ence'' to be exercised implicitly comprises vi,i;ilance 
iiiul initiiitive on' the part of ihv wutral itself, with the object 
of discovering;' an<l ])i«>ventin<;' any violation of its own neii- 
tiiility. A belligerent state is neither bound, nor has it thv rijL;ht, to 
exercise surveillancjc or to perlbrm i)olice duties in a neutral state in 
lieu of the local authorities. 

o. The fact that a vessel, built in contravention of the laws of neu- 
trality, escapes and gets out to sea, does not tree that ves- 
sel fi'om the responsibility she has incurred by her violation 
of iH'utrality ; she nujy, therefore, be i)roceeded against if she returns 
within the Jurisdiction of the injured state. The fact of hei' luiving been 
tnuisfern^d or commissioned in the meanwhile, <loes not annid the 
violation committed, nidess the ti'ansfer or comnussioning, as the ease 
may be, was a boud-Jidc transaction. 

yi. Staemplli, following the programme insert*'*] in Protocol X, takes 
tills opi)()rtunity of (;ausing his propositions relative to Article A, Xos. 
1 and 11 of the said progiamme, to be also printed: 



)Mltltlr4Sllin. 



111! I'tiit il snhsistc' (Ics lois pan'illfs I't (iirdlcs n'oiit ims vU' abro/^i^cs, dcs ('tats ))cllifjj<'- 
iiiiits out l(Mli(»ii- (I'lMi roclaiiu'i' r()l)Sfrvatii>ii loyalc, piiisinu? sans ccla il ]M)iiii-ait so 
(,'i)!iiiiii!lti'i' dcs tVaiidi'S (HI dcs crrciirs an di'triiiu'iit dc, run on dv I'antri! dcs Uidlii^v- 
I'ltiits. coinnic, pal' I'xaniplc, (jnand snlisistc pultli(ini'iiii'nt, bicu (jn'oii iic I'oIjscivc pas, 
l'iiiilonnan(^(' (pii di'-fend a nn navii'(! bidlij^vi'ant dv. s(''ourii('r JjIus de vin<;t-(inatro 
lii'iucs dans nn jioit, on d'oniI)ai(in(U' plus do cliarbon . 1 "*-' ho *•'>' fii'it pour r(';j;a}^nor 
Ic i>()it (l(j son i»ay.s Ic i>lus raiiproclio, ou dc s'approvisionuur dc- nouvciin an oKMno port 
avant t[w, tniis niois stj soient c^coiilds. 

(!(' [irin(ip(' inip]i(|Uo en nir-nic tt'ins (pie lo ununpie de toutos lois municipalos, ou le 
niiuiipu' (It) lois snllisantt's siu' la inatii'rc, no dt'ioyo (,mi ricu an droit d(.'s j^imis, soit aux 
oliljirations et anx droits intfrnationanx. 

Kn ontns t*<>nt udniis encore h.'s principcs snivants, ((uc I'on cito ici alin (r(.'n (ivitor la 
rqx^tition dans It) jnffonuMit ii porter snr cliacun des vaisseanx: 

4" Lcs "dues dili;;(Miees" a exorcer coniprennent inipliciteinent In 7>/v)/*rc vi<j,ilHnco 
ft la propir initiative dans le hut <le deconvrir et (l'emp(''eher tonte violation de la 
lii'iiprc iii'Utralitt^; uu etat l)ellig»^rant n'a ni le devoir ni le droit d'exer(;er la siirvt'il- 
liiiicc, ni de faiie la police dans un otiit ueutre a la [dace des aiitorites dn ])ays. 

ij" Le fait (|u'uu vaisseau, construit contraireiuent aux lois de la neutralit(', s'('chappo 
et <;i>j.',n(! la nier, ne d(^cliary'e pas ce vaisseau de la respousabilite (pi'il a eneourue pour 
avoir viol(^ la neutralit(^; il pent done (")tro poursnivi s'il rentro dans la .juridiction do 
I'l^tiit 1('S('. Que ce navire ait et(> cetU' ou conmiissionne dans I'intervalle, ce I'ait no 
"li'tniit pas la violation eoniniise, a nioins (jue la cession ou le coniinissiouuenient, seloa 
1(' I'as, n'ait en lieu hoiid fide. 

M. StaenipHi, donnant suite uu prouranune inst-re an protocole X, fait a cetto occa- 
Hioii iniprimer aussi ses propositions relatives a I'article litt. A, N"^ I et II, dii dit 
proi,'raiume: 



106 



AUIUTIJATIOV AT OKNKVA. 



I' i 




(A.) Genkral l^'I)I<!ATION,s. 
1. — (^Hi'stlon to he tlcrhled. 

The <|nestion to bo drcidod by tlu' tribunal is laid down in the follow 
,,,„.„i„„, in;-' words in Artich' V'lJ of the treaty : 

Tli(i said trilmmil «lirtll (Irst (Ictcriniiui us to <'iu'li vchscI Mcpiirat^'ly wlii'tliiT (Jum 
Itritiiin litis, Ity any act iif oiiiissioii. ialli'il ti> f'lillill any of tlw^ (Inlics si-l loilli in tlic 
Corcjfoiii;; tliii'c iiilrs, or rcconiiizcd Ity the ininciidcs (if intri'iialional law not iiiron- 
Histnit willi siicli rulrs, and sliall cci'tify such (act us to ca(di ol'tlic said vessels. 

INforcovrr, tlic tiibnnal is authorized, if it think i>ro|)er, to )>roe('('(l 
oventually to award a sum in yross in payment of all claims. 

11. — Pcfin it ion of facts. 

The eases and doeuuients ]m\ in by tlie two powers (lontain a ((uantity 
of facts which should not betaken into consideration in the 

Dd'niitinn III l.i.t". . , i. ^ i i i ii i. • i i -vr . i i 

.|inlj>nient to be pronounced l)y the tril)Uind. >otal)ly : 

1. TIm' recoo'iiition of the insurficnt States as a belli,i;erent power In 
th(^ Uritisii <;'ovcrnment. 

li. ICxprcssions of sympathy or antipathy during' the war, individiiiil 
speeches in or out of rarlianu'ntor other ollicial assend)lies, the attitiuU' 
of the i»ress, »S:c. 

.'>. Tiu^ peiniission {iranted for the trade in arms, and forthe dei)artui(' 
from port of ships intended to run th(> blockade, in so far as there is 
nothiu};' in the toleration of eithei* of these acts which is at variaiKT 
with tlu^ prohibition to arm or ecpiip vessels of war and cruisers. 

4. The liistorical precedents of the violation or uiUMpnil execution (tt 
neutrality laws and of Judicial decrees, in so far as they relate to prin- 
ciples of the law of nations which are now open to controversy. 




(A.) — Indications (ii':Ni';i!.\M;s. 
I. — {>iiciithii a (h'cidcr. 

La (incstion a decider par le trilmiial est prc^cisdi; do la niaiiiero suivaiitc dans 
I'urticle VII du traite: 

"Le (lit triliiinal connncnpcra par d(^torminer, pour chaciiie navlre Hdpar(^im'nt, si la 
GraiidtvUrctajiiio a maiKiiif". par iiiie. action on uiic omission, a reniplir divs (U^voirs 
(^noncf^s dans les tiois jtivcf-denti^s levies, oil njcoiumes ])ar his principcs du droit ili's 
i^etis (|ui ne sont )ias (Mi (U'saccord avee c'(!s r('i>;I(;s, ot il certiliera co fait a I'ejjard (If 
cliacuii des uavircs siisdits." 

En outre, 1(! trilmiial est eliar<>(5 ('ventuelleiiient de ])ro( eder, s'il lo jngo convonable, 
a I'adjudication d'une souiiue en Idoo pour toiites les rodamatioiis. 

II. — Delimitation dc» faitu, 

Les nu'moires et pif'ces jtroduits par les deux jiarties contiiMinont uiie foulo do faits 
qui n'eiitreut jias (ui considt-ration dans lo jiifjeuieiit t\ rendi'o par le tribunal. Ti'ls 
sont iiotauiUKuit : 

1. La niconnaissanco par lo gouvernement britanniiiue des (Stats insurjfds commi" 
puissance liellijf(Srante; 

2. Les expr(!ssious do syinpathio on d'antipathio durant la guorro, los discours iuili- 
viduels ail seiii ou en dehors des parloments ou autres corps otHciels, I'attitude de la 
presse, &c. ; 

3. La permission du commerce des amies ot do la sortie des ports do navlres destim's 
i\ traverser le blocus; en taut qu'il n'y a rien dans la permission do I'un ou de I'aiiln' 
de cos actes qui soit on d(5saccord avoc la defense d'ariuer ou d'(5(i[uiper des vuisseaiix 
de guerni et d(\s croseurs; 

4. Les pr(5c<5dent8 histori([ues do violation on d'in<5gal maintien des lois de la ueit- 
tralittS et les arrets judiciaires, en taut qu'il n'en ddcoulo point des princii>es du droit 
de gens, uon snjets a coutroverse. 



OPINIONS OF Ml{. ST.KMITLI. 



107 



Tilt' liictM to 1)0 taken into c-ousidi'iiitioii by tlio trilnniiil iiic only tlio 
;i(ts iuifl omissions of Grciit nritain with rc/^iU'd to ^',\^•\\ of tin* vessels 
wliicli lorni the snhjeet of ii (ionipliiitit on the part of the Uniteil Slates. 

Vn>]u>H((l of M. ShirinpJIi iindt't' Arth-lr .1. ^'- Pn'liinimtri/ ^leci.sions'" of 
the pttKiramine iusn'frd in Protocol X. 

(V,.)—})V.ClH\i)y WITH UVAiMll) TO KA(!H OI" TIIH CIMISKUS. 

I'rcliin itKO'if (tiriNlons. 

It is adniissiltle that the ITnited Stat-s slionhl extend their claims to 
(itlicr vessels liesiih's th«^ foiir mentioned in th(^ llritisii case, 
viz, tlie Florida, Alabama, (ieor;;ia, and Shenandoaii. More- nr.lXuTiniiii'itV.i 
over, the IJritish connterca.se does not insist on theobJe(!tion """ 
iiiiide on tills hea<!. 

On the other hand, and from the very natnre of thiiii^s, no aceonnt 
ciiii he taken of the claims for indemnity for losses cansed l»y vessels 
iidt mentioned in the pleading's of the IJniteil States, and witli ie;;ard 
to wliicli, ct)iise<|m'iitly, no a(;t oi' omission in violation of iientiality is 
iidvaiiced or proved a<;ainst (Ireat llritain. This has reference lo the 
cniiseis nann'd only in the lists of claims for losses, viz, the Uoston, 
.k'lV. I>a\is, Sallie, V. H. doy, and Mnsi(!. 

According to the rnh's thns laid down, the vessels vemainin.^' for dis- 
cussion are the followin}^': 

1. The Snmter. 0. The Georftia. 

2. The Nashville. 7. The Tallahassee. 
'•\. The Florida and her tenders. 8. The Chickamjin.t'a. 
4. The /.labaimi and her tendt"- 0. The Sheii.Jidoah. 
."). The lletril)ntion. 

In discnssinj*' «!ach of these vessels, the order followed by the 
American case, coinciding witii the above list, will be adhered to. 



Lcs I'aits (|iu! ]{) tribmiiil doit iircndrt^ cii coiisidc^ratioii nti soiit f|ii(', If.s notions (it li^s 
(piuissidiis (le la (iraiKlo-inctayiKi h l'oj;anl dc cliacini dos vaissoaiix <iui I'oruient I'olijot 
(I'mit' plaiiiti^ dt! la jtart dcs fitats-lIiiiM. 

Proponiliuii dc M. StaempjU a Varticlc lilt. A, " (Ucmons pnUimiiiaires,'^ dii pro(jrammv 

iiini'rd an protocole X. 

H. — D!';cisiox in'.r.ATrvK a cuACtrx pks ckoiskurs. 

Ihrmonn prdlimimnvtH. 

II I'st adniiHsil)l(* (iiie lcs fitats-UniM t'>t(indciit Iciiis n-claiuiitioiis rt^Vantrcs vaissoaiix 
([111' lcs (iiiatrc iiit'iitioimo.s dans le indmoire l)iitaiini(|ii(>, a savoir, lo FUiidn. I'Aliihaina, 
li' (ii'()i<;ia (!t 1(! SluMiaiidoali. Lo contrc-iniiinoifo britiinuiiiuc no mail tieiir d'ailhiui'.s 
plus r(ili)ci'tloii laito h cot djj;ard. 

I'.ir coiitro ot dos lo prinoifto, I'oii no prondra point on considoriition lcs douiandos 
il'iiidcuMiitt' ])our ch^striiotions oauseos ])ai' di's vaisscanx qui no sont imiiit nicntionntls 
duns los indnioiros do.s Etats-llnis, ot a I'ojranl doscinols, par coiisdciniMico,. I'on n'avanc-o 
III lie |»ionvo iuicuu acto ni iinonne onussion eoiilrairt's h la ncntralit(s a la oliarjro do 
la (irandt'-Hrotaf^uo. Coci a trait aiix croisonrs rjiii no sont indi'Mios ([U(! dai:.s los 
listcs do loolainationb pour portos — c'ost-a-dire, lo JJoston, lo .Jott'. Davis, lo Sallio, le 
V. 11. .loy, ot le Alusio. 

D'apios cos directions posdes, los iiaviros vostant on discussion sent los snivants : 

1. Lo Suiutor. 6. Le Georgia. 

2. Le Nashville. 7. Lo Tallahassee. 
;{. Le Florida, avec ses tenders. S. Lo Chickaniauga. 
*. L'Alabatna, av(!0 sou tender. 9. Le Shenaiu'.oah, 

. Le lletribution. 

En traitaut d ehacuu des vaisseaux, I'on adopto I'ovdre suivi par le nidnioire anidri- 
caiii coincidant avec colui qui vient d'etre tracd. 



?. 



108 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 



f 



■I 




f i 



K!ori,lii. 



Proposal of M. Htaempjli an to the form of introduction to thejuflf/mcnt. 

The tiibiuial of arbitration on the Alabama question, constitiitiMl by 
virtue of tlie treaty of Washiufjton of May S, 1871, having tal^en 
cognizance of that treaty and of the (!ase.s, counter cases, and argu- 
nieu^ «, us well as of all the apiieudices and documents in evidence i)ro- 
sented by the two governments concerned, has found Jiud determiniMl 
what is recorded in the present judgment. 

II. — THE FLORIDA. 

(A.) — Facts and considerations. 

The facts relative to this vessel are so complicated and so various, 
that, for the sake of clearness and brevity, they cannot l)o 
stated apart from the considerations. 

T. — Construction and equipment of the ship at LirerpooJ, and her dcpartun 

from that port. 

1. Tins vessel was first known under the name of the Oreto; she was 
a screw gun-boat, of 700 tons burden, wiih two funnels and three masts; 
she was ordered from Fawcett, Preston and Co., of Liverpool, by Bill 
lock, military agent of the insurgent States, soon alter his arrival in 
England, in the course of the summer of 18(51. 

2. Kepresentation of the Atiiericaii minister, Adams, to Lord llussell. 
dated Fel)ruary 18, 1802, founded upon a communication made to him 
by DiuUey, the American (consul at Liverpool, and describing the Oroto 
as a " war-steamer," intended to commit hostilities against the Unittnl 
States, naming also the persons who had taken part in the ordering of 
the vessel, declaring that Fraser, Treidiolm cs. Co., of Liverpool, (Hnan- 
cial agents of the insurgent States,) had advanced the funds, and that. 
if necessary, he would produce further evidence. 



Propomtion dc M. Stavinpjli siir lafornmh (V introduction de Vacte da jiigemcnl. 

lit! trilniiial (riirbitrii,!;jo diins la «|Ui!.sti()n dc rAliiltiuriii, iiijstituc en vertii tin liaiti' 
do Wasliiiii-ton du ri iiiai lri7l, apri's avoir i)ri8 coiuiais.saiicc' dv c(; traitt' ft: ilw 
iiu'iiioirf.s, i('i>li(|iii'.s vX [daidoyers, aiii.si qxw dc tons Ics ai»|ii'iidi('i'S(?t(lf.siiit'(.'t'.s arapiiiii. 
I>rosent(^s par lt!s dciix {foiivcriieinuiita iutcrcsses, a truiivd ct arrctc ce ijiii est cousis'in' 
dans Ic presuut acto du jugeiueut. 

Le Flouida. 

(A.) — Fah's kt consiukkants. 

Les i'aits relatifs a co vaisscan sont. tcUiiiuciit coinpliiiuos ot si varies que, par 
raison do olartc et de bricvetc, ils ue penv(Mit so dt'^crirti a part, des cousiddrauts. 

I. — Coimtructioii ef I'quiiwmcnt du navive a Liverpool ct na sortie dn JW)•^ 

1. Co vaisseau fut d'ahord couuu sous le noin de I'Oreto ; c'dtait uue canuoniertMi 
hdliee, Jauj^eaut 70t) touneaux, nniiiie do deux oluMiiiiiees et de trois mats ; il fnt coin- 
uiande clie/ Fawcett, I'restou »'t C'", a Liverpotd, par Uiillock, ajjoiit uiilitaire des 
('tats iusurjres, pcu do teiups apres sou arrivde on Auf^lotcrro, daus le couraut de I'eti' 
I8til. 

2. Rdclaiuatioii du uiiuistro anidricaiu, Adauis. a Lord Russell, on date du IH tevrier 
ISi'vi, s'aiipuyant sur uue eonuuuuicatiou a lui t'aito par Dudley, cousul aiiu'rieaiii ;i 
Liverpool, et desij^uaut I'Oreto oouiuie " steaiuer de .i>;ui,'rre," dostliu^ a coniuiettn' di's 
liostilites couhu; les fitats-Unis, uoiuiuaut aussi les persouiu-s ipii avaii.'Ut i>ris pari a lii 
counuaude, du uavire, deelaraut ipie, Frastu', Treuhoiui et (.'M', a Liverpool. (aj;i'iue 
liuaueien) des etats iusurj^es,) avaitsut I'ait los avaucos do Ibuds, ot que, s'll etait 
uecessaire, il iburuiruit eucore dca preuves. 



OPINIONS OF MR. STvEMPFLI. 



109 



8. The commissioners of customs at Liverpool, in their report of the 
mvl of February, 18(52, founded on the reports of their ajients, state 
that "slie is a sidendid steamer, suitable for a^ dispatch-boat ; she is 
])ien'e(l for 4 j»uns. * * * * It ai)pears that she is intended for the 
iiscofTlionias IJi'ot'.iers, of Palermo. * # # Our collector states that 
lie has every reason to believe that the vessel is for the Italian <j:overn- 
iiieiit." They add that thei/ hare (jiven special instructions to watch the 
n%scl. 

4. On the lifJth February, 1802, Lord llusscU forwards to Mv. Adams 
a copy of the report of the, commissioners of customs; he does not ask 
him for further evi«lence, although it had been ottered to him, Jle con- 
tents himself with directiuji'' the Kn;:>lish embassador at Turin to make 
inquiries as to the destination of the vessel. 

'). On the M of March, 1S02, the vessel was registered in the name of 
"Ilefiry Thomas, of Liverpool ;'' the next day slie cleared for I'alernu) 
and Jamaica; on the 11th of March, Ijullock arrived with -1 otticers, and 
iniiiu'diately went on board the vessel. 

On the 22d of IMarcdi, the Orcto left LlverpuoJ In ballast, with a crew 
oflifty-two nuM), all English, with the excei)tion of three or ibur, among 
whom there was a single Anu'rican. 

At the same tinu) the steamer Uahama left the same port with guns, 
arms, and munitions, brought byi'ail from Hartlepool (on the east coast 
()t'En<;land) to Liverpool, where they were put on board. 

(!. In reply to the inquiries uiade by the English ambassador, the 
Italian minister for t'oreign artairs declared that he had no knowl- 
t'(l}>{M)f the Oreto, but that he would make further impiiries, (March 1 :) 
ho, however, supplied no further intelligence, nor did the lOnglish am- 
hassador recpiest any further information. According to Dudley's re- 
port, tlie Italian consul at Liverpool had no knowledge of the vi'ssel 
lunng inten<led for Italy ; the Eu'-'.ish authorities, however, made no in- 
(luiries of him, or of the Italian minister in London. 



X Lf'H (M)iiiinissairos des doiianos I'l Liverpool, djins lour raiiport ilu 22 fovrior 
1^(')2, sc t'oiidaiit ^slI^ icH rapports dc Iciirs ai^t'iitH, constatenf ([iit! " c'cst iiii iiiaf5iiiti<[i'e 
stciiiiK'V. (|iii coiivitMidrait pour iiii ,si!ivi(!(? d'aviso ; il I'st jn'ret' i>our ({uatro canons. . 

II jiarnit (pril I'st dt'stiiio h I'usaj^t," do Thomas tri-rt's, dt; I'alcrnu! Notre 

('I'lcctt'iir dt'clarc (pi'il a. toiite rais';ii df oi'oiro lo uaviris <lfstii)«^ an f^ouvcrnciuciit 
iuilicu." lis ajoutout r/«'i7.s out (Uiiiiic dis htfitnirtioiis >tpccialc>t pour J'airr .sitnriller !<■ 
nii/iHiitii, 

4. Li' VJi) fovritir liSli'i, Lord Russi'll trausniot a M. Adams copit; <iu I'apport dcs 
('oiniiii.ssairc.s do la douaiic ; il no Ini doiuaiKlii point d'autros jn'ouvos, Idon (|u'on lui 
I'll cut oil'ort. II so contonto do charjjor l'and)assadour d'Aiifflotorro a Turin do 
s'liiloiinor d(! la dostination du naviu;. 

'). Lo :{ mars ISti-i, lo navirt^ fnt onivj-istro an noni do " Ilonri Tlior.ias. ch? Livor- 
1"»>1:" lo londoniain, 11 s'aoiiuitta au liurcau do la douano pour I'aloriuo, ot la 
.liuii:ri(|iio; lo II mars 15ulloi'k arriva avoc ipiatro otlioiors, H so rondit imnu' liatonioiit 
it limd dn vaif'soau. 

Lc'i'J mars, I'Oroto piirlit ih' Liirrpttol mo- lent, avoo nn ('(piipago do oin(|Manto-doMX 
lim nucs, tons Anj;lais, a I'c'xcoption do trois ou ([uatri', parnu losipiols un soul 
Anu'ricain. 

Dans lo nu"'mo tomps, lo vapour Bahama (luittait lo niome \)(nt avoc dos canons, 
ill's aiuios ot dos ninnition.s, amonos on chonun d<' for do llartlopool (crtlo oriontale do 
rAiijlii'toiro) a Ijiviirpool, oh ils fiiront i)ris a liord. 

I). Sur les infornnitiona domand«^oH par rand»assadoiir d'An}j;lotorro, lo ndnistre 
italioii dos aftairos (^tranjforos dc'-clara (pi'il n'avait ancuno connaissanco do I'Oroto, 
mais(|n'il s'infornierait onooro, (1"^^' mars;) il no fournlt tontofois pas d'autro nouvollo, 
t't l'aiid)a8Htideur d'Anj^lotorro no denmiida i»as non jdus d'autres ronsoi<;iu'nu'uts. 
D'apris lo rapport do Dudley, lo consul d'ltalie a liivorpool n'avait .lucuno connaissance 
||iie ce uaviro t'fit destine t\ i'ltalie ; du veste, los autorit<^s unglaises ue prireut point do 
rcuseiguumeuts choz lui iii choz le iiiinistro d'ltalie il LoiidVes. 



ppfippp' 



11^ 






%^' 



mBKm 



110 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 



7. Tlie reports of the p]nglisli olKicials showed tliat the Oreto .Tiisa 
vessel of war. 

A state ot war Inul been ofiieially recoji'iiized as existin<i" between tlie 
IJniteil States and the insurf>ent States, and the neutrality of (ricat 
Britain had been otJieially proclaimed. 

In spite ol" this, and in spite of the complaints of ]Mr. Adams, the En- 
glish authorities took no initiative; they did not insist on its hcin;' 
proved what was the true destination of the vessei, nor who was her 
real owner, who had ordered her, and wiio was to pay for her. Tlioy 
did not insist on thi' true jxjsitionof Fraser, Trenholm»& Co. beinjjf shown 
by lef^al |)roor, did not demand positive information as to tiie crew of 
the vessel, nor as to the arrival of naval olfurers from the Confedenite 
States. 

8. The special instructions given for watching the vessel ai)i)ear not 
to have been carried out or to have been without result. 

The (!ol()nial authorities were not notitied after the departure of tlie 
vessel, ami generally no steps were taken, ju>twitlistanding the rcpix'- 
sentations of Mi', Adams, wlii(!h were repeated and accompanied by do- 
tails furnished by Dudley, under date of the 2(Jth March, 1802. 

II. — What t()ol< place at Nassau up to the time of the aeqiuttal oftJ:e Orcto. 

9. On the 28th April, 18G2, the Oreto arrived at Js^assau — the Kaliiunii 
a few days later. 

I'epresentation made on tlu> 9th May by the American consul. Whit- 
ing, to the governor; the attorney-general replies, "that positive fifts 
are re(piire<l.'' 

The authorities make no inquiries themselves. 

On the -ft h of May a fresh representation, accomi)anied by dei>ositi(Mis 
of witnesses ; the same answer. 

19. .Alclvillof), ca])tain of Her Majesty's ship Bulldog, rei)orts rluit 
"the. Oreto is api)arently fitting and pre^iaring for a vessel of war.'" 



W *1 



7. Les jii|)i)m(:i dcs ol'liuiers iiiifjliiis coiistiitiiiciit. que TOii'to ('tiiiti iiu vaissfim di' 
giu'i'ic. 

Ij'i'liit (Ic li('lli,nvriiiic(! I'lili'c li's lltiits-riiis ct Ics ('t;its iiisiirjn's otiiit (ifiicU'llciiii'iit 
rccoiiim, el lii iK'iitialilr tic hi (Jiiiiidc-lircraniic uviiit oU- (illk'ii'lliMiu'iit iirorlami'i'. 

Mal,i;i<' ccl;), ct iiialjiii' It's r(''claiiiati(iiis di- M. Adams. Ifs autoritt's aiin'iaisrs nc 
])rii('iit poiiil iriidtiiitivf, ; tdk-s ii'iiisisti'rt'iit imiiit jioiir iiuf Ton ctJiistatiU la vt-rit:ililc 
dt'stiiiatitm tin iiavirt-, (pitd t'U t-tair Ic V('Tilablt\ iirttinit'talrt', tpii I'avait- ('Diiiiiianili' il 
(|iii tlfxaif li^ payer; t-IU^s ii'insisitM-tint \nnut siu' la lt'i;itiiiiatii)ii tin la i)()sitiiiii ib 
Fiascc, 'rrciilioliii. ct ('''', 111' tlciiiaitili'iiMit |i!iiiit tl'i'tri! iiDsitiviMiitMit ifiiscioiu't'ii smi 
I't'tliiipaj;!' till iiaviif, iii snr I'ai ri Vff trol'lififis th^ iiiariiif tlfs ctatst'onrt'dt'ii's. 

H. Ijfs iiistriittit>iis spt'finlcs tltmiit'Ts pimr I'aivc siirvcilliir If iiavirt; paiaissiiiit iic p;is 
avidr t'tt' suivii's, on bii'ii t'trt' rt-stiM's sans irsultat. 

lii's anftniti's f()lt)nialfs nt' Inifnt point avisi'cs aprt's It' tlt''part tin navirc; t:i 
}j;t'nt4al. il nt' I'nt pris aiicnnc nifSMrc, nontjlistant It^s rfprt'si^ntatitnis rt'itt'ri't's ilf 
M. Adams, a-jconipagntics tic ik'tiiils tuiirnis par Dinllcy, sims la tlato tin 'M mars l^iW. 



Ki 



II. --Cc qui ,ie i)asK(( d yannaii jiotqii^il I'acqnUtemvnt de V Orcto. 

S). Lt< "28 aviil IHlW, rOii'ttt arrivii a Nassau; Ic Hahania, t<ut)liiucH Jours jdus tanl. 

Kt'flaination laitc, It; i) miii, jiar It* ft)nsnl iini(''rlcain, Whitinj^, an gouvtii'iit'ur: 
l'iittorut!y-<rt>ni'riil rt'-poiitl " qit'il faiii <le>i failn {xmlifn.'' 

Ltw aiitorih'^s nt! font (rt'lltjs-nit'Mni's aucnni! ontiut^tc. 

Lt' 1 mai, iionvi'lle r-f'flaniation, ii<',ct)nipaj5ii(Su de dispositions do tt'mtiins; nii'iiu' 
reponst'. 

10. McKillt)p, capitiiino dii niiviro do la marine royalo le BnUdoj;, rai»portn qiw 
" I'Oreto 80 prtL'parc ct sc dispose, aelou le.s appurcii'ics, cii biltiiuent do jjuerrc.'' 



OPINIONS OF ME. ST.EMPFLI. 



Ill 



In conseciucnce of this report, tlie vi'ssel i.s watchoil by a ship of war. 

On the <Sth June McKilloj) aj^iiin reports, " tliat he hits risifcd and ex- 
umincii the I'cssel, that she is Jilted for icar purposes, that she has Jittiiujsat 
mrlanee irith the character of a merchant- resscl."' 

On the Oth of June the la«lin,s;- of tlie vessel begins; anionj^ other 
tilings, arms antl :niuiitions are placed on btjard her; on the lOth, how- 
I'ver, tlie cargo is discharged, and the vessel clears out in ballast for 
iliivana. 

11. lieport of lli(!kle.v, commander of the Greyhound, signc I by all 
the oilicer.'" and men of liis vessel, the l.'Jth June, ISdi*. 

."The Oreto is in every respect litted out as a inan-of wai, on the 
luinciple of dispatch gun-vessels in the English navy."' 

Nevertiieless the attorney-general states that he does not think that 
the seizure of the vessel would be justifiable. 

12. On the loth June the crew leave the Oreto, because her destina- 
tion is not (!eitain. 

On the 17th June, in the morning, Oonnnander Ilickley seizes the 
vessel, but releases her at once, the attorney-general being of opinion 
that there is not sutllcient evidence. 

The same day, however, the seizure is renewed, with the sanction of 
the govtu'uor. 

L). Tliereupon a judicial inquiry is commenced, from which it appears 
that the vessel is consigned l)y Fraser, Trenholm «S: Co., (linaucial 
agents of the insurgent IStates in England,) to Adderley tS: Co., (com- 
mercial agency of the insurgents,) at Nassau. 

On the 2d of August, 1802, the Oreto was acquitted; still, liowever, 
"as there existed giave suspicions" without costs or intk'inuity being 
ji-ranted. "What took [)lace,'' says the jndgnient, "bel'ore the arrival 
of the Oreto at Xassau, can only be admitted by way of elucidation or 
explanation," a theory which the Uritish case itself adn^Hts to be erro- 
neous. 

U. The course of action of the authorities at Nassau, the proceedings 



i' 



i- i 




A la siiiti- (If (■(• rupitDi'l, on t'uit siitvcilltT cc iiaviic jmi' mi vmIsscmii iIc nin'iro. 

Ia' f- Jmii, McKillo]) rappDrtc (It; iiDiiVfiin "(/ii'il n fail hi rixilf il l'<:i<(\iuii <lii rKixxcaii, 
iin'il (■«/ (linjitixv iiDiir dc.-i ».s(/r/('.v dc (jncrrc, <iu'il ij <i den iituhdltdhniK qui lie ii'iioiidcnt [hih 
III! viiniilrrr d'liii ruixiciiii iniirclianil." 

I-i', II Jiiiii, (111 (.•oiimiciu.'i' ;"i cliiujfi'i' lo iiavirc; (ni y ciubiiriinn ciitr'uiitrrs dcs iiiiiics ct 
(Us iiiiiiiitiiiiis; ccp( iidiiiit, It' 1(1, on «U''cliiii<;o la car^aisoii <-t hs iiaviic s'aciiiiittc hiiv 
ii'st ]iinir la Havaiic. 

U. liappdit (1(1 Ilickley, coniniaiKlaiit <iii (ii:ylioiiii(l. sialic pai' tons Ics ollit'lcivs et 
(•iii|iliiv('s (Ic son vaisscaii U'. ]SJiiin l.~'()'i: 

" L'Oicto est, NOUS tons Ics raiiporis, ai iik- cu hatiiiiciit dc j;ii(_'rn'. (Tapii's \i\ systciue 
lies (.jiiioiuiii'n's-uviso.s dc la marine aii;;lMisi ," 

rmiilaiil rattorncy-ffcneial dt'clarc ([u'il nccroil pas (pU'. Ton pnissc Justiticr la sai^io 
(111 vaisscaii. 

l','. l,c IT) jiiin, r('quipag(! (jnitti.' rOrcto, parcc (pic la destination du navire n'ost pas 
ccrtuiiie. 

Li\ ITjnin, an matin, le coinniaiulant Ilickley saisU, h; vaisscaii. mais le rclaclic aiis- 
sit(il. ratloiiiey-fAcneral otant d'avis (pi'il n'y avail jias de iirenves sntiisantcs. 

TiMitcl'ois, Ic iiu*!Uio jonv, on lonoiivi-Uc la saisie avec la .sanction du ;;(iiivcinem'. 

Hi, l.a-dcssim, (.'ouniicnceinont d'cii(|U('tc jndiciarc, dc hupielle il icsiilte (pie hi vais- 
scan est consifrnti par Friiser, Tn-nliolm ct C''' (aj;cnts liiiaiiciers des iiismgi;s en An- 
nictcri'c) a Adderly et C'-' (a^enco comnicrcialt; des iii.siir^(''s) a N'a-^saa. 

I-c 2 aout lir'OiJ, rOi'oto hit aequitte ; niaiw loutelbis, "comnn! il cxistail dc .s('ii(>ux: 
>'iiiili(,'(iiis,"' .sans adjudication de «li^pcns ni (rindcniiiit(-. 'C(5 (pii sc ]iassa," dit 1« 
jiigciiieiit, "avant I'aiTivro do I'Oi'eto a Nassau ne pent etre adinis ([ii'a litre (r(''clair- 
cis.sciiicnts on (l'oxi)li(.'iitions" — tbiiorie (jiio Ic nionioirc britiinniiiuc ipialilie liii-nuhue 
(ren(»n(':e. 

11. La niuniere d'ugir des autorit<S8 ile Nassau, la procddure ct Ic jugeuicut dans 



Ilil 



w 



\i 



112 



ARBITKATION AT GENEVA. 



and tlie judfj^inent in this matter, exhibit in particuhir the following 
defaults and a(5ts of negligence. 

No initiative was taken to i)rocure evidence; 

No account was taken of tiui reports of the otU(!ers of the fleet; 

No account was taken of the previous 'istory of the Oreto; 

The (ividen(!e heard was imperfect; Maflit, couuminder of the Oretn, 
was not heard at all ; as witnesses on l)ehalf of the (Jrowii, persons be 
longing to tlu^ vessel under trial only were heard; as witness for tlic 
defense, a partner in the interested house of Adderley & Co., and, solar 
as appears in the minutes, none of these dei)ositions were sworn to. 

15. Tiie fact of the omission to transmit instructions in time to tlic 
colonial authorities also operated disadvantageously, in regard to wiiat 
took ])la(;e at Nassau. 

Tlie authorities at Nassau Avere not, from the first, informed of the 
previous history of the Oreto, nor of the views of the governmeut. 

The Judicial acquittal of the Oreto at Nassau took i)lace \vit]u)ut wait- 
ing for the approval of her seizure, and for the instructions wliich had 
been sent from London, and wliich were still on their way. 

10. Tiie objection tiiat tlie Judicial decision at Nassau relieves Great 
Britain of all responsibility cannot be maintained. As regards the in- 
ternal (or municipal) law, the Judgment is valid; but as far as inter 
national law is concerned, it does not alter the position of Great Uritain, 

III. — M'liat tonli place Hulm'queniUi at Ike Bahamas immcdiatch/ after tk 
acquittal. — Armament and equipment. 

17. Eidistment of forty men of the crew at Nassau, (according to 
the British case itself, tlie Oreto cleared on the 7th of August, with 
fifty-two men, for !St. John's, New Brunswick.) 

She is provided with guns, munitions, &c., with the aid of the English 



cL'Ssorv, m 



IV. — Cruise 



i '■ 




•:li 








[| 





cettft atViiirc t(^inoignoiit puiticnlioroiiuMit des actca de iii'^ligeiice et ties dofauts siii- 
vaiits : 

Nulli' initiittivo on vuc do so procurer do.s proiivos; 

Nul coniiito toiiii dos ra])port.s doa otliciora do la llotto ; 

Niil o()ni))to toim dos procddoiits di^ I'Oroto ; 

Iiic(>iii]il(lo audition dt," t«^nioins: Maffit, connnandant di^ I'Oroto, no fut i)oint on- 
t(;ndn ; cdunno, tiMuoius dans I'intt'rot do la conronno, on n'ontondit i\nc. do.s pcMHoniics 
apparlonant an naviro inculpo ; connno tonioin a dooluirffo, nn a.ssooio do la niaison iii- 
toio.ssoo do Addorloy ot C'"^; ot antantcpi'il apport dan.s los aoU's, tontcs cos dispositions 
finont non assorinontoos. 

15. Lo fait quo, do Londi'os, Ton oniifc di' oonnnnnii|nor a tonips d(!.s instructions 
aux antoritt's oolonialos, out un ott'ot o'yaloniont dt'savantaj^oux snr co (jni wo passu a 
Nassau : 

Los autoritt's do Nassau n'otaiont pas, dos I'abord, instruitcs dos prooodents de 
I'Oroto ni do la manioro do, voirdu uiiuistorti; 

L'a<'<|uittonionti Jutliciairo de I'Oroto a Nassau so lit sans qnci Ton ofit attoudu la con- 
tirniatiou do la siiisit! ot los instructions (pio I'on onvoyait do Londros ot (pii so tron- 
vaiont oncoro on olioniin. 

l(j. L'olijoctiou (]U(! I'arrot judioiairt! do Nassau d<'jja<;o la Grande-Brt^tafjfuc de toiite 
respousabilifo u'ost pas soutonablo : vis-a-vis d(>s lois intoriouros, (innnicipalos,) le 
jnn'onu'nt ost valablo ; niais a I'ojfard du droit dos {^ons, il no chanyc pas la position de 
la (Jrando-lJrotagiio. 

III. — Cc qui 8C pama iiUerkitreinent aiix ilrs linhamas, immi'diatcment aj)n)s Vacqaittemcnt,— 

A rm ement, I'qii ipemen t, 

17. EiuoloniMit de (inarantohonnuos 'Vdiiuipaso il Nassau, (d'aproslo ni(^uioire l>rit.in- 
nique lui-nu"'ine, I'Oroto s'aoquitta on douano lo 7 aoftt avec ci.nquanto-doux homines, 
pour St. .Johns, New Brunswick). 

II so pourvoi't de cauons, de luuuitions, &c., avec I'aide du vaissean anglais lo Prince 



OriNIONS OF MR. ST.EMrFLI. 



113 



m 



vessel Princo Alfred, which shipped fit the wharf of A<Iderley & ('o. 
tbe civrfto broii^lit by the Bahaina, while the Oreto, iiii'antiine, took in 
coal aiui ]»rovisioiis at the island of Providence. From tins latter place 
slie towed the Prince Alfred to Green Cay, where the transsiii[)nient of 
the armament took place. 

This havin<;' been done, she left for the coast of Cuba, nnder the name 
of the Florida, and thence runnin*;" the blockade to Mobile, which she 
reached on the 4th of September. 1S02. 

18. Tiie enlistment of the crew and the armament of the Florida at 
tlie Bahamas are to be attributed to the neglect of tlie Uritislr authori- 
ties, and the followiii,i>- ol)je(!tions cannot be considered as valid : 

Tliat the Oreto had Just been acquitted; for the enlistiiuMit and arma- 
ment constituted new acts, and it was the more incumbent upon the 
the authorities to exercise the strictest vijijilance, inasmuijli as, h'avinji; 
all other circnmstaiu;es out of consideration, the judicial sentence itself 
declared the vessel to be uiuler jurave suspicion. 

That Green Cay was distant and little freipiented. This objection 
has the less importance, inasmuch as all that was done at (ireen Cay 
Lad its point of departure at Nassau, and could easily have been per- 
teived from the latter place. 

There were no ])roceedings taken a,i>ainst the Prince Alfred as an ac- 
ci'Ssory, in spite of tin; denunciation and representation of the .\.meri<'an 
iDiisul, to whom it was thought sutUcient to reply that he must- "produce 
evidence." 



-1 



[V.— Cruise of the Florida, and her repeated shipments of coal in British 

ports. 

10. Having left Mobile, the Florida returned, on the 20th of Janmry, 
1<S(I3, to Xassau Jiay. She there shii)ped coal for thret^ luoniiis, takin.i;' 
180 tons, according to the American statement ; according to the iUitish 
statement, she had oidy room for 130 tons ; but the depositions of wit- 



Alfred, qui eiultarqTia au qnai do Addcrley ot C" la catjai.son aiiioii6o par le Bahama, 
pi'iulaiit (iiif, dans rinti'ivalli', TOioto s'atiiirovi.sinniiait dc iliailiun et di^ vivifa a I'ilo 
ik la riovi<l(.'ii(;'c ; do c<i denaiT cndroit il rL'iiit)r(iiKi Ic I'liiico Alfred jiisija'a Given Cay, 
oil eat lieu le. tiaiislioi'denieut tie rariiiemeut. 

Cela fait, 11 i)art ikjui- le.s cotes <le Cul)a, sous le noin de ''le Florida," et do la, en tra- 
vcr.suat le l)l()Ciis, )»()iii' Mobile, oil il aniva li^ 4 scitteiiiliK' IHli'i. 

1;^. L'eiiioleiueiit de riMiuiiia;;;(! et rariueiiicul du I'loiida aux lialianias sout in>i)U- 
tablfs a la iiei;'li,<^ciiee des autoiites britauuique.-i, et I'uu uo peut cou.-iidei'er coniuio 
tuiiilees le.s olijectiou suivaiite.s: 

Que rOieto venait d'etre aetjuitte ; (car renroleiueiit et rarnienent coustituaient de 
iioiiveiuix faitrt, et les autorite.s iivaiirut d'aulaiU i)his le di^voir d'excsreer uiie ri;j;oiireu«o 
aitcntion, (jue, ah.straetiou faile de touti^.s les autrcs eireoustaiicos, I'arret judiciau'o 
tlt'L'laruit lui-uieuu^ le uavire Heiieuseuieiit siisi)t!et ;) 

line Green Cay otait eloiyu*^ et pen frecjueute ; (cette objection est d'autant moius 
iiiiliortante que tout co (pii so lit a Croen Cay i)artit de Is'assau, ot pouvait fort bleu 
sapercevoir ilepuis ee dernier endroit.) 

11 u'y eut point d'enciuete soulevoe contro lo Prince Alfred coniuie coniplico, inalgr<^ 
iadenonciation et la reclamation du cousul amcricain, auquel (u so oouteuta de rcpou- 
tlie (pi'il devait " deposor des prcnvcs.'' 

^y '—CroisUie du Florida et acs approriawnnements rtiten's de charhon dans dea ports 

brltanniquca. 

19, Parti dc Mobile, le Florida revient, lo 26 Janvier 1801V dans la baio de Nassau ; 
, il 5; fait du cbarbou pour trois uiois, on prond 180 toinieaux, d'aprt^a I'exposd atnericain ; 
I il u'aurait eu place que pour 130 touueaux, d'aprcs I'cxpose auglaia j mais des dt^posi- 

8 B 



|i 



I-^I«' 



114 



AKBITKATION AT GENEVA. 



nesscs state that tlioie was coal placed on the deck and everywhere on 
board. 

Accordiiio- to the report of Eiift'lisli experts, she "required 40 tons to 
return to Wiluiin^ton, the nearest i)ort of the iiisur;;ents. 

At the end of tliirty-si\ hours' sta'', (the JJritish case says twentysiv 
Iiours) she sails oft' again on a c ' .e, and destroys a certain uuinber ot 
AnuM'ican vessels. 

20. On the 2 Itli Fobruaiy, 1803, she enters the British port of Uarba- 
does, and then? ships 100 tons of coal. 

21. On tlie 10th Jidy sIkj reaclu^.s St. George, the port of TJerinudM. 
stays there nine days, talcc^s in a complete supi)ly of coal, and sets otl 
again for Brest; during tliis voyage more vessels are destroyed. 

22. On the l.'Jth Ai)ril, ISlil, sh(? again touches at Bernuula, but only, 
it was said, for the [)urpose of landing a sick ollicer; she only reinaiiicfl 
there a few hours, but reappeared on tiie 18th -Inly, 1804, ami recpu'stcd 
to be admitted to ellect some repairs and to ship some coal ; slu; obtained 
])ermission for iive days, but staid nine; fraudident shipment of coal 
to the amount of 150 tons; she cruised for several days in siglit of tin 
island ; tlie oilicers on tin' naval station saw ail this, but took no stops. 

She destroved more American shijis 

23 
Bahia. 

24. The rei)eated supi)lies of coal which we have just mentioned aiv, 
in the lirst place, an infraction of municipal law and of the British ro,i; 
ulations ; especially — 

Of the (,'ircular of the 31st of January, 1802, whi(;h, at the time those 
events took place, had been ibr a long time ])ublislied in all the (ioloiiios, 
and of the ' xplanatory instru(!tions bearing date the Kith .Inly, bS(!!, 
addressed to the governors of the West inclian colonies, and known at 
ileast during ; portion of thcsame time. 

They are, n particular, contrary to the second rule of the treaty 



zo. On the 7th of October, 1804, she closed her career in the port oi 




y'i 




tiou.s de t(^moiin const.iteut (jii'il y aviut dii cliarbou dt'posf^ sm- lo pout ot partoiit ;i 
bold. 

All diro dca oxperts anglais, il liii en anrait fallu 4C toiineaiix pour retouruer ;\ Wil- 
uiiiif;toii, ])ort insuii;(' lo jtliis ])ro(.-lio. 

All bout <!(• trt'iitc-six bcurcs do sojoiir, (I'cxposd anj^lais dit viiijjt-six benrcs.Ul 
ropait jiour croiscr, ot dotniit iiii oortain iioiiibvo do vaisscaiix aiiioriciiiius. 

'ill. Lo "Jl lo\ rior l^^(');5, il outio an port britauiiiijuo do IJarbadc! ot y oiubaniiio lOi' 
toiiiioaux do obarbon. 

'il. Lo 10 Jiiillot, il airivo a St.-(!eorir(>s, port doH HorinudoH. y sc^joiiriic noiif Jmus, y 
fait nil ooni])lct approvisionnoiiiont do obarbon, ot ropart pour liivM ; pondaut co voyiui'. 
iionvollos dostniotioiis do vaisssoaiix. 

22. Lo i:{ avril 1H(1|, il tonoiio do nonvoanx a norimnli', niais nnii[noni(>nt, disait-il. 
dans b> but do niottro' a torro nil otlioior niabido ; il iry rostaiiiio (|ii('b|iios boiiros, iiiiii< 
y rojiarnt lo 18 Jiiin \f^M, tloiiianda d'otro adiiiis [loni- fairo dos roparations ot oiiibiii- 
([lUM' dn obiirbon ; il obtiiit jtcrniissiini ])onr oin(| Joins, nmis en rosta nc/J'; oiiibiiniiu- 
niont tVaiubilonx do obarbon, jnsiin'a I'lO tonnoaiix; il croi.'^a )tlii.si<'nrs jours on viic 
do nio ; Ics ollioior.'s aux stations maritinios voyaieut tout, mais no prirout aiiciuu 
uiosuro. 

II d(^trnisit onooro d(>s naviros aniorioains. 

2;?. Lo 7 ootobro IHdl, il tormina .sa oiirrioro dans le port do Babia. 

24. Los ap]n(i\'isioiinonionts roitoros do obarbon, (pio nous vcinnis do montioiimi. 
sont,on itroniici lieu, uno inl'raution anxlois lunnicipalos etanxroj;loiiionts do laCirainii- 
BrotaH'iK') notainniont : 

A la oiroiilairo dii 151 j.nnvior 1802, qui, a IVpoqno on 00s fails so ]1ass^ront. t^tnii 

do]niis lonfj;toni)is ^iroolanioc (bins toiitos los coloiiios, ot aux instructions oxiilioiilivi> 

adro8S(''os, sous la date dn UJ Jiiillot IHti;!, anx fiouvornoiirs dos oolonios dos ludos Owi- 

doiitalos ot oonnnos an inoiiis jiondant uno partio d<' la nioiiic poriodo; 

lis Hont snrtotit on dosaecord avec la 2"^ roglc du traitc, d'apros huiuelle iin <^tai 



OPINIONS OF »IR. STvEMPFLI. 



115 



a('Cor«lin<? to which a neutral stwto may not allow its ports to sorve as a 
base of operations for carryin;;" on war or cruising'. 

LT). The objections i!i!>'le by (Jreat Jliitain, tliat the cruises of tho 
Florida and the deprechitions counnitted by that vessel took place only 
after she had run the blockade, and tiiat there had been neji'li^ence ou 
the part of the American oilicers charged witli tlui maintenances of tlic 
blockade, are not such as to release (ireat Jlritain from the responsibility 
ot'lierown iu'f;ii;:('nce; this last was the primary and sole cause not only 
other runniufj; the blockade, but also of all the hostilities committed by 
the Florida aj^ainst the United States ; and the assumed ncfilij^ence of 
the oilicers who maintained the blockade is, moreover, not proved any 
more than tlie further assertion that the armament and e<piii»meiit of 
tlie Florida took i)]ace in the port of Mobile. 

20. The further objection, made on the same side, that e(pi'il facilities 
of supjdy were ac^corded to vessels of the Uiiite<l States, amon<4' others 
to the San Jacinto, is erpially immaterial and, besides, ac(!ordiii.i>' to the 
American case, it is not founded on fact, at least as far as the San Jacinto 
is concerned. 

V. — Armament and equipment of trntlers. 

27. In the course of her cruise, the Florida supplied ofiicersand crews 
to the following- tenders: 

On the Gth .May, l.SCJ.'J, the Clarence w; . captured off the liraziliau 
coast, and was supplied with guns and with a crew. She destroyed 
several vessels. 

On the 10th June, the Clarence captured the Tacony; the Clarence 
was destroyed, and the Tacony transformed into a tender ; the latter 
also destroyed several vessels. 

On the 25th June, tiie Tacony captured the Archer, which was trans- 
formed into a tender, and the Tacony was burnt. The Archer destroyed 
tlie Caleb Gushing, a United States coast-giuird vessel. 



iicutio ne doit pas soulitrir qtic scs ports servcnt tie base d'opc^ratioiis ponr fairo la guerre 
oil croiser cii iiier. 

'•i'). r.cs olijcetions faltos par la Graiule-Iirctasiic, <[iie Ics courses du Florida et les 
ilistnictious eouiu\ises par ee uaviro eurcnt lieu seuleuieur apies qu'il eut I'lauchi le 
lildciis, et (jiiMl y eut ii(''<fli<;'ei)('e d(^ lii ])art des ollieiers aiu('rieains eliarj;es de gardei' 
li' l)l()cus. ne sont jias de nature a ])ouvoir dreliai;;er la (iraude-J>retau,uo de la 
ivsjioiisubilite pour ees )>ro[»res nefiligeuees, eelles-ei rtaut la ])reniier(! et seule cause, 
iiiiii-scnleuient de la traversi^e du bloeus, uuiis eiu'ore de foutes les hostilites eoniiuises 
\mv le Florida eoutre les F^tats-l'iiis ; et la pretendue ii('j;li;L;ence des ollieiers eliarnes 
'li' j;;u(ler le l)locus n'est d'ailleurs pas eonstat(''e,i>as ])lus <|iu! I'assertiou ulterieure que 
rariiieiueut et l'e((uipeineut du I-'lorida se soit fait daus le ]iort de Moliili'. 

',*•). L'olijection ulterieure, faite de la nu"-nu' part, (|Ue Ton aecorda les nieiues faclliti'^s 
il'aiiinovisionnenient aux vaisse'aux dt!s fitats-Cuis, (uitr'autres au 8an Jaeiuto, est 
I'.'iaieiiieid sans iiui)ortauce ; ct en outre, d'apres I'expose anu-ricain, elle n'est pas foiidee 
sill' lies I'aits, du moius pour ce qui concerne lo San Jacinto. 

V. — Jrmcmcnt ct i^qiiipcmcnt de navirea aitxUialrcs, (tenders.) 

*^7. Durant le conrs de s.a croisiere, le Florida fournit des ofllciors et des (^(luipajfes 
mix vaisseaux auxiliaires suivants: 

" Le () uiai IHO;}, le Clareneo fut capturr^ sur les cr)te9 du Br<^sil et fut muni de canons 
ft dun (^(|uipag(! ; il detruisit plusieurs vaisseaux ; 

"I-e 10 jnin, le Clareneo captura le Tacony: le Clareneo fut detruit et le Tacony 
tiansl'oriue en tender; ce dernier detruisit egaleiiient plusieurs vaisseaux; 

"Le 2.") juin, le Tacony cai)tura TArclier, ipii I'lit transfonue vn tcndrr, et le 
Taciiny fut hi(\l6, L'Arclier detruisit le Caleb Cushing, vaisseau garde-cotes des 
Ktats-Cuis." 



<' 



m 



u I 



^■1 



Bli 



116 



ARniTKATION AT GENEVA. 



Witli rcjjiird to the question of responsibility, it is needless to say 
that tenders are subject to tlie same rules as the principal vessel. 

(13.) — SUMMAUY. 

{(1.) In rep;ard to the construction, iittin^' out, and equipment of Uw 
Oreto at Liverpool, and to her <leparture lioni that poit, in rej;ard alsn 
to the departure ot the iiahauia, ladi-n with arms tor the Oreto, wliich 
took i)lace shortly afterward, the JWitiili authorities tailed to use ''diif 
<liIi,i;('n<H'"in the tullilhuent ottlKMluties of neutrality, parti(!ularly alsoin 
that they neither communi(;ated with nor sent instructions to the colo- 
nial authorities with respect to these vessels. 

[h.) It is the same witli re,i;ard to the events which took [dace at Nas- 
sau; there was m'^'li<;ence esi)ecially in the absence of all initiativt; to 
ascertain the truth, in the delective natUiC of the Ju<li(;ial pi'oceedin^s, 
and, the Oreto having' been ac(piitted, in the absence of all control, aiiii 
of all watch over her i>roce(!din<^s, which alone rendered it possible for tlii> 
vessel to be armed and e<iuipped in British waters; and, furtherinoiv. 
there was ajuain ne<;li^enco iu that, after communications and instiiK.' 
tion had been received, no proceedinj^s were taken, when the opportii 
iiity ollered, atjainst the in'uilty vessel, on the charge of acts in viola- 
tion of the neutrality of Great IJi'itain. 

(c.) It is the same also with regard to the fact thfit, on several occa- 
sions, the vessel known thenceforth by the mime of the Florida was 
permitted to sup[>ly herself with coal in such quantities that, each tiiue, 
she was enabled to undertake a fresh cruise. 

III. — THE ALABAMA. 

(A.)— Facts. 
1. — What tool' 2)1 ace up to the time ivhen this vessel escaped from Liverpool 
1. She was ordered at Liverpool, the plans were accepted, and the 



Relativtnnout i\ la qnestiou do ri'sponsiil)ilito il va saus ilire que les vaisscaux auxili- 
aires sout siijets aux iiioiues ri'}j;le8 que le vaisseau piiucipal. 

(15.)— ItHSUMfi. 

a) Lor.s dc la construction, do la iMc']»anition ot de IV'ciuipoiuont do I'Oroto h Livit" 
pool, ot lors do sa sortie du port, do iuoiik; que lors de la soi'lio ()ui out lieu jicii di' 
tonips ai)ros du Haiiauia, oliar^o dos armies de rOroto, Ics autorilos hritaiiui(|iiis mi! 
iK'i^lin-i'. d'fuiplo.vor los "duos dili;>oucos '" daus le uiaiution dos devoirs do. la nontr;ilitc. 
iiotnuiiiuMit aussi en ce (]u"oilos n'ont fait aucune couMuuuicatiou ui euvoyd d'itistiMi- 
tions MUX autorit(^H colouiales rolativoniont a cos vaissoaux. 

h) II on est de uii'muo pour »'e qui eoneorne les faits arrives h Nassau ; il y cut surtmit 
no)ili<j;once : dans I'alisence de touto initiative pour etablir la vorite, daus la niiiiiiriv 
dotoctuouse de proooder en justice, ct, raotiuitteuieut de I'Oreto ayant ou lieu, (laii> 
rabsoncc de tout controle et de toute surveillance de la ccuulnite de I'Oreto, (cc iini 
isoul (burnit h ee vaisseau la possiliilite do s'arnuu' ot de 8'o<iuiper dans les eaux britiiii- 
niques,) etalors uiouui il y out eucore nogli^oiu'e en ee (jue, apros avoir re<,ui des coiii- 
muuicatioiis et des instructions, on ne procoda pas, le cas dcheant,contrti le vaissiiiii 
coupable, sous I'iniputatiou d'actes do violation de laneutralite de la Grande-Bretasm'. 

c) 11 on est do nionio encore jtour ce (pii concerne le fait d'avoir tolore a [)lusienis 
reprises que le vaisseau, connu des lors s(uis le noin de " le Florida," s'api»rovisioiiniit 
tie charboa en quantity telle que, chaciue fois, il pouvait; euti*>i)rendro tie nouvelks 
courses. 

L' ALABAMA. 

(A.)— Faits. 

.1. — Ce qui se passa junqiCau moment ou ce vakaeau s'echapim de Lh'erpool. 

1. II fut comiuaiidiS h Liverpool, lea plans en.fureut acceptds et le marchd fut signf 



OPINIONS OF MR. ST.EMPFLI. 



117 



'', 'i 



contract sigfiiod by IJullock, the Otli Octobor, ISHl ; hov onp,iiies were of 

;itl() lioi'sc-powor ; slic was piiTccd I'or six .'iL' pouiidcr bnnul 

side <;iiiis; she was t'ui'tlier providt'd with two pivot-j>iiiis, 

tho one a riHod lOO-poiuuler, the other an 8-in(!li smooth-bore fiuii. 

On tlie ITith 31ay she was hiimehed uikUm' tlie name of tht' " L'lM)." 

L'. On the l*od rlune, liS()2, Mr. Adams's Jirxt reprrsentafion to Lord Ixiis- 
sfU, statiiij;- that she was ii vessel of war, and that her departure must 
l)e stopped ; it was dcchired that this vessel was not intended for 
operations nsainst th<' (iiited States. 

;3. Jnie -">, this remonstninee i.s tninsiuitted, by T;(>rd IJ'.isseil lo the 
secretary to the treasury ; 

To the hiw-otrieers of tlie Crown ; 

The secretary to the treasury forivards it to the commissioners of 
customs ; 

Tliese latter to the collector. 

4. The law-ollicers of the Crown report to Lord Kussell, Juije 30, as 
follows: " If the facts allej^ed by Mr. Adams are in accordance with 
truth, it is a manifest violation of the foreijLjn-enlistment act, * * * hid 
n'idoice ifi urcessitri/. Th(\v further advise liord Ifussell to inform Mr._ 
Adiuns that the (jorornmciit will inri'sthjnte ihev((seP 

5. The collector re[)orts to the commissioners of customs, aiul the 
latter, relyiufj on his statement, report in their turn to the treasury, 
on the 1st July, that — 

She is intended for warlike purposes ; 

Several powder-Canisters an^ on hoard, but no jjnna : 

She is built for a lbreij;ii j^ovcrninent, a faet wliieh is not dcMiied by ^Messrs. Liiird ; 
tmt tlK'.vdo not apjx'ar disjxfsed to re[)ly to any questions I'ospectiny tho future destiua- 
tioii (if the vessel after she leaves Tjiverpool. 

The aj^ents have no other reliable sourei^ of information. 

Tlie consul should conininnieate all the documents in liis possession. 

Thv iiffirialH at J/urrpoal will Icccp a strict icatch on the vessel. 

(>. July 4, 1802, Lord Russell transmits these reports to Mr. Adams, 
and informs him, amono; other thiny,s — 

liar Bullock lo 9 oetobro Ir^dl;. machines de la force <le ;?00 chevaux, ])erc<' de six 
ciiiRiiis, <le :Vi, sur les eotes; arnn'' eu (tutre de deux canons a pivot, (lout Fun raye de 100 
livios et Faut re lisse de H ponces, 

Le 1"> mai, il fut mis a I'eau sous le nom i\o "'i!)0." 

'i. Le 2',^ jiiin l-'ii'i, prcmiirc rirhtrndlUiii (V.trlnnix n Lord russeU, disant que e'etait nn 
vaisseaii (le jrnerre, qu'il fallait en arnjter rexp(nlition ; on constata (^ue ce batiuu'ut 
ii't'lait jias destiut^ a ojit^rer contre les Ktats-l'nis. 

Ii. Le ^5 juin, cette r(5clamiition est transniise par Lord Kussell an secn'taire de hi 
ti'i'sorerie ; 

Aux jurisconsultes d(! la couronne; 

Le sccr('taire de la trcvsorerie hi transmct anx conimissaires de douaues ; 

tViix-ci an collecteur. . 

1. Les ,juriseonsullt>s de la couronne font rapport h Lord Russell lo 30 juin. disant: 
"•Si les i'aits pn'seut(^s ])ar JL Adams s'accordent avee la v('>rit(', e'est un(( violation 
iniiiiifeste (In forcinu-ciiUslmoit act, . . . mitis il faut (les jjretires. lis conseillent 
(railleurs i\ Lord Jiussell do communiquer a M. Adams que le yonrernement va s'enqne'rir 
(kr affaire:' 

5. Le collectonr fait rapport .inx conimissaires dos douaues, et ceux-ci, s'appuyant 
sur sa d(^claration, rapportent ii leur tour, lo 1'' juillet, a hi tr(5sorerio: 

"Est destin(:^ a des usaijes de jfuerro ; 

"I'hisieurs boites a poudro embanpu^es, niais pas de canons. 

"Pour un {jouvernemont (^trauf^er, 00 <iui n'est pas ni<^ jiar MJI. Laird; mais ils ne 
paraisseut pas dis])os(^s a r<^pondro i\ auouno (juestion relative k la destination future 
(lu vaiss(!au, lorsqn'il aur.a quitt«5 le port de Liverpool. 

"Les a<j;ents n'ont point d'autro source do rensei<ruemonts certains. 

" Le consul devrait conimuni(|uor tons les docunuMits qu'il possedo. 

''Les offieiers de Lirerpool exeveeront inie stride surveillance snr le vaissenu." 

6. Le 4 juillet 1862, Lord Kussell tniusmet cos rapports a M. Adams, et entr'uutrea 
les points suivauts : 






wm 



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m-i ! 



118 



AUIUTRATION AT GENKVA. 



•>, ISOli, Consul Dudley to the collector; coninumic.atiou ot 



''Tliiit the yoveriunejjt >vill inquire into the nnitter;" that Consul 
Dudley '' ouyht to (iOMiinuniciite the, do(!Uinent.s to the collector; tluit 
the (tlficiids (It Lirorjxxtl irill ivaU;h the vessel atlentireh/,''^ 

7. IJetween ^Ir. Adams's jcpresentation and Lord Kussell's reply, 
fifteen days elapsed before the result was arrived at that " the evidence 
in iu.siilficicHt.^^ 

S. SccoikI elTort of the Amermm <i(/ents. 

!>. ,Inly 
do(ninients 

— 10. The collector is not satisfied with them; " /<e asJifi for Icfjid 
eviiJeneeP 

July 10, 1S(»2, the insjieetor informs the collector that ho finds tlie 
vessel in the sanu; condition as on the o(!casion of his first visit. 

On the 11th the solicitor writes to the commissioners of customs tliar 
the evidence', rests on he<(rs<ii/ ; that it is inadmissible; that there h 
nothliiji (chich avionnts to proof .sufjivient to justify a seitiire. 

On th(^ loth the commissioners iuform the collector that there is not 
snflicient evideiujc to warrant a seizure. 

10. On the Ulst the (!onsul to the collector, with wituesses and sworn 
depositions, demands the seizure of the vessel. 

"The (;olle('t I to the commissioiu'rs; refpiests instructions by tele- 
graph, ((s the vessel appcdrs to be re<i(bj for sea, and may leave ut any 
moment. 

"Tiie commissioners to the solicitor, for oi)inion." 

On the 22d, the assistant solicitor and the solicitor to tlie commis- 
sioners : 

" We are of oi>inion that there is not sufficient evidence. 

"Tlie commissioners to the collector : , 

" Not sullieient evidence, but the consul may taice proceedings at his om 
risl- and peril.'''' 

The same to the treasury ; communicate documents. Shall the law- 
officers of tlie Crown be consulted i 

Hamilton (commissioner to the treasury) to Layard, under-secretaiy 



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" QiKi Ic yoiivcrnoniont vii .s'ciuiuorir do I'affairo;" quo Ic consul Dudloy "dcvrait 
(■(iiiiiiiiitiii|iici' an colU'c'tciir los dociimcnt.s; que hs fonclwuuulws dc Livcviwol aurcdlk- 
rout atlciilii'ciiuiil Ic raixxatii." 

7. Hiitro la n'clamatioii do M. Adams et la ri^ponso de Lord IJnssoll il so passa qniuzf 
jours |)(tiir arrivcr an n'sultat (iiio '^ Ics prcurcti iiv aoiit pati iiiij)imiites" 

!^. Ihii.Tirmc txudi (It'H (tficiitu ami'ricuhin. 

9. Jit^ ',) Juillot ISIi'J, lo consul Dudley an ccdlcctcnir: Conmuinication dps docunicnts. 
9. — 10. i^c colic. •ti'ur nc Ics trouvc pas snllisauts ; "(7 (Innuiidc dci pniivva li'ijfilcx." 
Lc 10 .jnillct 1^{')'2, rin.spectcur an coUectour: a trouvc lo vaisseau dans lo uicnio t'tiU 

rpic lors d(! sa ))rcuiicrc visitc. 

IjC 11, 1(( sollicitcnr aux conniiissaires dcs douancs: rrjiosc sur dcs o»('-c?irc ; qu'elli' 
est inaduiissilili!; ricii <iiii moiilc ii den prcuvcn xiiffixdiitcn pour jnstificv iiiii; Kdixie. 

Lc 1"), connnissaircs an eoHcctcur: i)as sulilisantcs jioiir Justilicr la saisio. 

10. Lc, 21, consul an collcctcur, avoc tonioius ct depositions assorniontdes : deiniuiik' 
la saisic. 

'■ Collt^ctcnr anx coniniissaircs: dcniaudc dcs instructions jiar tdlegrapbo, atteitdii qia 
le Ddvirc jHtru'il pri't a prendre la in r ct pent partir a tout moment, 

" Lcs comniissaircs an xnliriUir pour j)rcavis." 

Lc iJ'J, rassistiuit dn sollicitcnr et le jJoUicitenr anx commissaires : 

"Somnu's d'aAis (ju'il u'y, a jyai de prcuvcs siiffiHaiites,' 

"Les commissaires an colleeteur; 

" I'as de prcuvcs suf Jisantes, mais le consul pent se charger des poursuitea d, ses rhqiies d 
perlU.'" 

Lcs memos i\ la tresorerie: Commuuication des pidcos. S'il y aurait lieu h. couaulter 
lcs .jurisconsnltes de la conronne ? 

Ilamiltou (commissaire u la tr»5sorerie) it Layard, soiis-secrdtaire dn foreign office: 



OriXIOXS OF MU. ST.EMPFLl. 



Ill) 



of state for foroiftn alliiirs: ^^ As the case may l>c vonsUlvred prcssinf/, \ 
wri^t^ to you nii()t1i(Mally to siivetiiiie; it is sidd that the t'CNsel is eery 
imtrly ready for sea.'" 

11. A<lams to Lord Kussell: Coimminiciitiou from the customs, and 
Dii(11l\v''s evidiMUJi'. 



•Iiilv 



docunuMits rccoiviMl at the forcijiii oflico. 



Foroijjfii oHiec to tlio law olliccrs of the Crown: "To report their 
ojiiiiion to Loi'd Jtusscll as soon as possible. "* 

J)n(lli'y to tiie board <)f enstoms : 

C(nnniuni(!at('s two fresh (U'positions, with an opinion of Mr. h\ P. Collier, 
tliiit there is a tlajiiant viohition of the foreiyiienlistnient aet. 

Tlie board of customs to the assistant solieit«)r for opinion. 

The assistant solicitor to the board: the (hx'.uments do not materially 
strcnythen the vase, hut, in consideration of the hiyh position of Mr. ('oilier, 
the lords comnnssioners of the treasury might have recourse to the law- 
ollicers of the Crown for their opinion. 

hayard connnunicates all these additional documents also, on the same 
(lay, to the law-ollicers, requesting" them to report their opinion to Lord 
Itiissell at the earliest jwssihle moment. 

V2. On the morning of the 2!)th the law-oflicers write to Lord Fvussell : 
Order the arrest of the vessel until the accused shall hare proved her desti- 
ludiim to be innocent. The order for her seizure was immediately sent to 
Liverpool. 

Dudley informs the board of customs on the 2Sth that the vessel is 
to sail on the L'Dth. 

i;j. The vessel sails dvriny the nif/ht of the 2Sth-2dth of July, 1802. 

14. From the l>th to the LMIth, twenty-one days elapsed, and the result 
of this delay was, that the vessel escaped. 

IL — Measures talcen to pursue the Alabama. 

1"). Two days after the escape of the vessel liad become known, the 
oommissioners of customs, on the 31st July, 1802, gave the tirst order to 

"Commr Ic cax pent ftrc Jiifii' prcsHfiuf, jo vons ^cria ofTicicusciiKMit pour dconoinisor ilu 
toiiiiis ; oil (lit que le iiavire ext, pen n'en faiit, prct a prendre Id iiier." 

11. AdiiiiKs h Lord KiisscU : Coimimniciitioii des douaues et preuves dc Dudley. 

Lo '2:!, rociiptiou dos pii-ces iinforeiyii ojjiee. 

Vimiijn offiee anx Jiiriscoiisultt's d(! la courouuo : " Communiqucz votro opiuiou a 
Lord Kiis.scil uiinniU'il (pie roiin le puiirre:.'' 

Dtullry ail conseil dva doiiaucH : 

Coininuiiicatiou de deux iioiivfllos dopositions nvcc coiisiiltiaion dc M. IL P. Collier, 
qiril y a violation lla^ranto ([nforeiiin-eiilixtiiient net. 

Li! coiiseil di's douaiica a Tassistaut solicitor pour pn'avis. 

L'assistaut Kolicitor au coiisuil : ii'apporlciit piiti iiii reiifort easoitiel, main rn la haute po- 
xitioii (le M. Collier, le.s lords do la trosoreriopourraient Jccourir aux luniicres du.s juris- 
consultes do la oourouiu-.. 

Liiyard couiinuniquo aussl toutos cos piocos additiouncdics oo jour r.ionio aux jiiris- 
cniisaltes, avoc rocouiniaudatiou do coniniuuiipier lour avis dans le pliin bref deliii a Lor<l 
Russell. 

I'i. Lo 29, matin, les jnrisconsultcs au Conitt> Rnssoll : reeommaiide: la saiaic dii vais- 
^eaii Jiimpi'd ee t/iie les aceiises aient 2)roiiV(j sa destination innocente ; ordre desaisiepartit ini- 
iih'fliatement dc Liverpool. 

DiuUoy au eonseil des ilouanes, du 28 : avcrtit quo lo vaisseau doit ptirtir lo 21). 

13. Le raisseait sort dans la unit du 28 au 2i) juillet 1802. 

14. Du y au 2y, il s'ccoula viujjt-ot-uu joui's, et le rdsultat de co ddlai fut la fuite du 
raiiiseau. 

II, — Mcsures prises pour jwursuivre VAlahania. 

15. Doux jours apres quola fuite du vaisseau fut conuue, les commissaircs des douanos 
tlouuoreut le premier ordro do lo poursuivre, le 31 juillet 18Gi, d'abord aux coUecteurs 



u 



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120 



AlflUTWATIOX AT (JF.NKVA. 



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])Mr.sii(' lior, to tlKM'olIcctoi's at Liverpool iind Cork in tlio flr.st ])l;i(v, 
dcsiriii;;' tliciii to sci/c licr if siu^ slKtiild toiicli ;il ciiiicr ot \\ur.M\ poits, 

On tlic 1st Aiij^iist the saiini onlor wii.s sent to the eollec'ttirs nt liivu- 
7)i((r!N and iloljilutttl. 

On (he L'd An.ynst tin's order was also sent to tln^ }4(>veinor of tln> l>;i. 
Iianias, lor the ]iort ot Nassau; no eoinninnications or instructions wimv 
sent to any other IJritisli p(utsor «!olonies; no sliii)S were disitatelied in 
pursuit into nei^iliboiinji' hritish waters. 

On the ni;;ht ol' the .'lolh-.'Ust, two days after her osenpe from TJvpr. 
l)ool, th(^ vessel was still in IJritish waters, oil" Moelfia ami Anglesey. 
The pursuit of the -HO in these waters took pUiec too late. 

in. — Tlie llcrvulcs hrhujs her a crew. 

10. The tuft- Hercules, which l»rou;;ht back to Liverjiool the Messrs, 
Laird ami their ladies, who had accompanied the -!M), took on board at 
the latter i>ort a c.ertain nundiei- of sailors iidendcd for thel'lM). The 
collei'tor bcinj;' informed of this fact by a letter from Dudley, dated July 
oO, ISOi*, canscd the ller(!ules to be seandu'd. 

The olticer charj^ed with the exeoition of this order reported, "tlint 
there were on board a certain number of men who admitted that they 
Ibrnu'd jiavt of the erew, and were about to Join the <>un-b(jat." 

In sjiite of this, the collector did not arrest the Hercules. 

Althoujih he had been ordered to seize the 2!M>, he did not even cause 
the Hercules to be followed. 

Jle wrote about her to London by post instead of telef;Tai>hin<>'. 

He did not receive from London any instructions with regard to the 
enlistment ; he was only desired to find out if there were powder ami 
guns on board. 

The cajdain of the Tlerenles himself acknowledj;ed, on the 1st of 
Auj^ust, that he ha<l "taken otV from twenty-tive to thirty men who, a^i 
he believed, were about to form part of the erew of the liUO." 

do Liverpool et do Coilv, leur intiiiiaiit do saisir lo uaviro, s'il veiiait a aboidor h I'uu de 
ci's jiorts. 

Lo 1" aoftt, lo inomo ordrc fur donno anx oolloctt'urs do Hoaiiinaris ot do Tlolylioad. 

Lo 'J aoiit, cot ordro fiit aiissi ouvoyi' an fjjouvoriiour dos lies J>;diamas, pour lo port dr 
Nassau} il ii'y out, point do ooiuiiiuuioatious I'aitos, iii d'instruotioiisonvoyoos a d'aiitris 
))ortH (.'t ooloiiios 1iritaimi(|Uos ; il u'y cut point do vaissoaux onvoyos a la poursuite 
dans los oaux hritannitpU's voisinos. 

Dans la unit da lUi an lil, donx jours ajiros sa fuito do Livori)ool, lo vaisscau <^tait on- 
core dans los oaux britannicjuefi do MooUia ot d'Anylosey. La poursuito du '"^ilO " duii'* 
cos cuux out lieu tro>j i;\rd. 

III. — VUcrciile amine nn i'qii'n)age. 

Ifi. Lo roniorfpiciir I'lTorculo, qui raniona a Liverpool MM. Laird, construotenrs dc 
naviros, ot lours danu;s, (jui avaiont aoo,oini)ai;ii6 le "290," end)ar(iua dans oo doniier 
port un certain nonibro. do uiatolots destines an " '«J00." Lo collocteur, instruit do ce 
fait par luio lottro do Dudley du 30 juillot 180"^, lit oxaniiuer le navire rilorcule. 

L'offlcior charj;<> do I'oxdcutiou de cot ordre rapporta " qu'il y avait a bord uu certain 
nonibro de ])ersouues qui admireut qu'elles faisaiout partie do I'dqnipago et qu'elle* 
allaiont rejoindro la canolmi^ro." 

Malgrd cola, lo coUoctonr n'arrota point I'Hercule. 

Lui; qui avait I'ordro de saisir le "SJUO," no lit pas mtinie snivre I'Hercule. 

II en ^crivit a Londres par la poste, au lieu do telograi»hicr. 

II no ro^ut non jdus de Londres aucun ordro rolatif a I'enrrdonunit ; on lo cliargca 
seuloinent do s'informer s'il y avait h bord de la pondro et des canons. 

Lo patron do I'Herculo nnonnut lui-nu me, lo l" aofit, "avoir oninieiid vingt ciucj i) 
treute bouimes, qui, a ce qu'il croyait, dtvuient fairo partie do l'equii)ago du " 290.'' 



The L^nO left :\Ioe 
on the loth <d" An- 

lY.-^The 

17. The A^^rippii 
on the IMth of Auj 
tioii for the L'OO. 

The r.alianm,the 
fo the J'Morida, nex 
iiioiith, with Semme 
I'lil), and also <;uns 
at the eust(un hous(^ 

The transshipmen 
frniii the UOth to tin 

On Sunday, Auo'ii 
took the nanu' of th 

Ijullock and othei 

y.—cu 

18. She left Tercel 
piiia sni)plied her afi 
some vessels of the 
llatteras. 

On ihe 18tli Janni 
oners, made repairs, 
ivoro in port, but no < 
the arrest of the ves.>' 

She left Jamai(!ii 
haliia she fell in witl 



Lo"2'JO"quittalabaio 
et iuriva le 10 aoQt sur loi 

lV.—L'A(/ripi 

L'Asrippino, oa])itaino > 
alioiil du oliarbon, di^s oa 

Ll" liaiiania, lo niouie v; 
insiiito do Liverpool, lo v.'( 
ilii Sunitor p(Mir lo "21)0, 
i'0);iilioroniont aoiiuittos o 

Lo tiausbordonuiut du ( 
2(1 ail 2;i. 

Dimauolio, le24aofttl8 
I'Aluliaiua. 

Bullock et d'autres revi 



18. II partit do Terceir.i 
liii fonriiit de uouveau di 
seaiix de la niariiio niarclii 

Lc 18 Janvier ISiVA, il a 
tions et oiiiltaniuii, des p 
liK'.scuts; uiais il ue pan 
iiiiviro. 

II quitta la .Taniaiquo h 
1 recoutra le Georgia. De 



OriMON.S OF MIJ. .ST.KMPKIJ. 121 

TIic '-'Of> 1<''< IMocIlVii l*>:iy with a crow of about oij>Iity nuMi, and arrived 
oil the KMli ol" Aiij;iist oil' the coast of Tct'trh'H, 

IV. — The Auriitpina (oul Tiahamu ht'hiff anns rnul coal. 

17. Tlio Auiippina, Captain (^iiinn, arrived nt Torccira, from London, 
on tlic I'^Hi of Anj;u.st, 1S()2, havinj; on hoard (!oal, ;{un.s, and ainiuuni- 
tioii for tiic L'!Ml. 

Tlie Jlaliama, the same vessel which was to have taki'ii her aniianient 
to tlio Floriihi, next arrived from Liverpool on the L'Oth of the saino 
month, witii iSemmes and olliei' olheers of the Siiintei' on lioard for tlio 
L'HO, and also ;>nns and ammnnition, wliich had becMi re^iihirly cleared 
;it tlie cnstom-honse at Lix'ei-pool. 

Tiie transshipment of coal, ^nns, and ammnnition to th<> L".H) took place 
from the L'<)th to tlu^ -*.".d. 

On Sunday, An<;ust 21, tSdi*, the 2{>0 hoisted the insurgent Hay, and 
took tli(^ name of tiie Alahaina. 

iJiiUock and others returned on hoard of the Uahama. 

V. — Cruise and crcntual fate of the Alabama. 

18. She left Tercoira for the West Imlies. At ^rartiniiiue the Ajjrip- 
piiia supplied her afresh with coal. In the (lull' of .Mexieo she destroyed 
some vessels of the United States merchant navy and the war-steamer 
llatteras. 

On ilie 1 8th .Tannary, lSu.'5, she arrived at Jamaica, landed her pris- 
uiici's, made repairs, and shipped stores. Three British men-of-war 
ivcre in port, but no order a;>pears ever to have arrived from London for 
the arrest of the vessel. 

She left Jamaica on the 25th January for the coast of IJrazil ; at 
Ijaliia she fell in with the Geor;^ia. Thence she sailed for the Cape ot 

Lo "2'JO" qiiittii lii l)iii(! (If MoclCiji jivoc nn ('(juiiiagotVeuviroiiqiiatro-viiiyts liommes, 
et aniva lo 10 iiout siii' le.s cott's dc Tcrcfiia. 

IV. — V A(jr\}}inna et Ic Bahama ainhiriit dcs armcs ct dii charhon, 

L'A2;rii>i»ii)o, (•ni)itiiiiio Quiim, .iri'iva, lo 18 jioftt l^^fi-J, dc T-onth'es a Tercoira, ayanfc 
iilioiil dii oliarhoii, dos canons ct 'dcs innnifions iKHir lo " "illll.'' 

Le Hidiania, Ic nicmt^ vaissoau (pii dcvait avoir nicni' rariiUMnoiit nil I'lorida, vint 
insiiitc do Livcrpnol, 1(^ 'J(» dn inonio iiiois, ayant a Itnrd Souiincs ct (rimtrc.s ol'licit.'rs 
'111 Sniiitor pour lo "^'JO," ainsi (|uo dos canons ct dvt^ nuiuitioiis, ((Ui aviii'.ot 6t& 
n-i;nlicroinont actniittos on donano i\ Livfirpool. 

Lo transbordciuout du cliarbon, dcs canons et dcs munitions sur lo " 'JUO " cut lieu dii 
211 an 'i\\. 

Diiiiiinche, lo 24 aoftt 18()2, lo " 290 " arliora lo pavilion des iusurj^os et prit lo uom de 
I'Aliiliania. 

Bidlocii et d'autres reviurent i\ bord du Babauia. , 

V. — Cromh'c et sort final de VAhibama. 

18. 11 p.artit do Torceira pour les Iiides Occidontales. A la Martinique, I'Aorlppine 
liii fournit d(! nouvoau du cliarbon. Dana lo Golfo du Mcxi(|uo, il dctruisit (los vais- 
seanx de la marine marchande dcs fit.ats-Unis ot le vapour do jfucrrc lo llatteras. 

Le 18 Janvier 18615, il arriva a la Janiaique, y d^posa sos i)risonnicrs, tit scs repara- 
tions et cmbanjua. des provisions. Trois vaisaoanx d(! guerre britanni nos (^itaieut 
liK'sents; uuiis il uo parait pas qu'il soit jamais veuu do Loudres Tonlrc d'arreterle 
tiavire. 

II (initta la .Tamaique le 25 Janvier pour se rendre sur les cfltes du Brt^sil ; i\ Bahia 
il recoiitra le Georgia. De lil il tit voile pour lo Cap de Bouue Esperance, ct le 23 juillot 



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122 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 



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(iood Hope, and on the 23(1 of Jnly ontcretl the harbor of TaWe Bay, 
The circniiistaiice which arose on the voyage in connection with the 
Tuscah)o.sa will be mentioned farther on, uii<hu' No. VI. 

She left Table Bay for the East Indies, and, on the 23d Decemhor, 
isd.j, she anchored at Singapore, where she coaled. On the 2()th Marcli. 
1804, she returned to Capetown, win re she also coaled. She left tliis 
l)ort on the 25th March, and anchored at Cherbourg on the 11th June. 
1804. 

It was on leaving this port, on the 10th June, that she w.as sunk by 
the United States man-of-war Kearsarge. 

Part of the otiicers and crew were saved by the English yacht Deer- 
bound, which lun)peued to be in the neighborhood. 







YL — Thc tender Tuscaloosa. 

19. While on her way from the coast of Brazil to the Cape of Goml 
Hope, the Alabama captured the Conrad, a United States merclunit- 
vessel, of riiiladelphia, bound from Buenos xVyres to New York witliu 
cargo of wool. 

This vessel was brought to Capetown under the name of the Tusca- 
loosa, it being announced that she was comniission(Ml.as a cruiser. 

This mere declaration was accepted, and, on the departure of tlie 
principal vessel for the Indian Ocean, Semmes dispatched the Tusca- 
loosa to cruise olf the coast of Brazil. 

On her return to Capetown, the vessel was seized by the governor, aiul 
detained till the end of the war. 

(B.) — Considerations. 

With regard to the Alabama, Great Britain did not fulfdl the oblipi- 
tions inciunbent on her by virtue of the three rules of the treaty of 
Washington. 




iFtnitrii im jxnt <1<' Tiihlc, IJay. Lo ciis ([iii se proseuta eu voyajjo iivec le TuschIooni 
isci'ii (Ici'i'il ]iliis loiii. sous h; N" \'I. ' 

I)(! fct ciidroit il i>:irtit [Kmr Ics Iiidcs Orit!iitiil('s, ct \o. '2'.\ ih'ci'wxhvi} IHi'i;', il jctn I'an 
ci'o a SiniiaiKiic, oii il (it du eliiirhoii. Lo "JO mars l-idil, il I'liviut a la Ville dii Cq-. 
({'ape 'rowii.) nil il sc rcixmrviit t'i;alt'ni(Mit do cliai'bou. Qiiittii co port lo 5i5 mars, it 
jota raucro a Clioiltoiirj;' lo 11 Jiiiii l"'(i4. 

Ccjiif (I HH soriir dv re port, Ir VJjitin, qii^il fat couh' a fond par Ic rai'^Hcaii de giurn ih- 
I'Jtnls-l'iiin Ic Ju((ys(trfic. 

I'lU' paitic dcs ollicicis ct do ri'ipiipaso fiirout sai.vos par lo yacht anglais lo Deer- 
lioiuid, ([iii -SO tioiivait dans ces parages. 

V'l. — Le tender Tiixralootn. 

19. En route depnis los ct'itesdu IW-esil au Cap del$i)nne Esperance, I'Aliili.ania eaiitu" 
le.C'onriid. navire de coinnieree des Ktats-Unis, de riiiladelpiiio, so rendant do liaoiius 
Ayres a ii'ew York avee nne eargaison de laini;. 

On aniena ei' na\ ire a la ^'ille du Cap (Cape Town,) sous le noui do Tuscaloosa, I't f'J 
aunonvant (|u'il t'-lait eonnriissinnue eiiuiuu^ croiseur. 

Cette simple declaration t'ut acccptiM', et au depart du vaisst>au ])rincipal pour rcoi'aii 
Indieii, I^cmincs cn\nya le Tuscaloosa croiser snr les coti.'s du ISiesil. 

A sen retour a la \'ille dn Caj), lo vaissuan I'ut saisi par le gmivernour ot retenuj"^- 
qu'ii la (iu de la yueirt*. 

( B. ) — CONSIIMOHAXTS. 

Pour ce qui coiiccrno I'Alaliania, la Graudo-Bretagne n'a pas rcuipli lo8 obligatioii> 
qui lui incombaiout cu vcrtu dcs trois regies du traito do ^Vaslliugtou. 



OPINIONS OF MR. ST.EMPFLI. 



123 



* : ii!^^ 



I. — With regard to the building and escape of the vessel. 

(a.) It is hoyond doubt tluit the Alabama was fitted out in British 
ports as a vessel of war of the insurgent States. 

(h.) The example of the Oreto made it the duty of the British authori- 
ties to be on llieir guard against aets of this kind. 

(c.) Tliey nevertheless did not in any way take the initiative, on the 
representations of Dudley and xidams, with a viewo^'inrpiiring into the 
ti'iic state of affairs, although they had given au assuranee that the 
autlHuities should take the matter up. 

(d.) Alter sufficient evidence had been furnished, the examination of 
it was so procrastinated, and the measures taken to arrest the vessel 
were so defective, that she was enabled to escape just before the order 
for her seizure was given. 

11. — With regard to the measures talccn for her pursuit. 

(a.) The orders to pursue and arrest the \ essel were not given until 
forty-eight hours afterward, and were oidy sent to a few ports close at 
liaiul. 

[}).) Xo instructions were sent to the other ports of Great Britain or 
to those beyond the seas, excei)t to tluit of Nassau. 

(c.) Xo vessels, even, were sent in pursuit into the neighboring Eng- 
lisli waters. 

III. — With regard to judicial proceedings on account of the enlistment of a 
crew, and of the armament of the vessel. 

{((.) There were no more proceedings instituted agai^ist those ])ersons 
wlio liiid enlisted the crew of the Alabama, or those who had conveyed 
luT armament oir board, than against those who had ordered or those 
who had built her. 



I. — A Vcgard dc la coimtniction ct de lafiiitc da vahscoti. 

(i) II est linrs (1(> (loiifo quo rAliibimiu ii vU' jtK'piuo coii'.mc vaisseau do gnerro dc3 
(•tats insiirjit's daii.s dcs jiDrts hi'ilaiiiii(|iit'.s. 

/*) Fii'S iiK'ci'dciits d(^ rOicto t'aisaii'iit ini duvoir aux autorites biitaiiiiiciiH^s d'etre 
siiiliMirs liardcs \is-a-vi8 do (aits do oo ticnro. 

c) A la Miito dos ili'iioiiciatidiis do Diidloy ot d'Adams. olloa no ])riroiit itonrtaiit pas 
1.1 uioiiidro iiiitiativo on viio do H'<'iiiiiioiir dii vc^i'itaiilo otat dos ohoson. inali^ro (jn'olles 
I iiNM'iit doiiiii' l'assiiraiic(i <|iio li's aiitoiitii's proiidraioiil la ohoso on mains. 

'() Ai>ifs (|ii(' I'oii tut Coiinii dt!s proiivcs siil'tisaiitos, I'l viiinoii i\<' cclli's-i'i fiit tollo- 
iiii'iit ii'taid('ot loi iiiosiiros prisos )i(iur I'aii'o anrtor lo xaisscmi i'moiit si di'l'octuoiisos, 
i|Ui' 1,' na\ iio put s'l'-cliappoi' iiuiaodiatoinoiit avaut nuc l\)ii out doiiiit' I'ordro do lo 
siisii'. 

TI. — .1 I'q/urd dcs mcmnrfi princ^i iwiir Ic fuhr jioiirxiiirfe. 

a) Los ordros do )i()ursiiivro ot d'anvtor It^ vaissoaii aitirs sa fuitc^ no furont douiios 
<|Mi'(iiiai'aiito-luiit liouros plus tard, ot no i'ui'oiit adioss.'s qu'a (|Uol(|Ui's ports rappiDoln's, 

h) II no I'lit ddunt' anouno insdaiotiDii aux aiitros ports ilo la (irando lii-otaniio ni a 
ii'iix d'oiiti'o-nior, oxo(>pto i\ ooux do Nassau. 

t) II n"y ont pas luoiuc do vuissoaux ouvoyos a la p(niisulto dans l(,'s oanx aiiglaisot 
(111 voisiuai;o. 

III.— .1 Viijavd dc 2>onr8iiifvs judiciaiirs i) cniisc de Viiirolemciit d'lin i^qiiipaf/e efdrVai- 

viiinvnt. 

a) II n'y out pas ]»lus d'otnjut^to institin^o oontro ooux (|ui avaionfc onrolo r('!(inij)a,<»o 
<li' TAlaltania ot ooux qui Ini avaionl amonosou anuouioiit, quocuutro ooux qui I'avaioiit 
loumiaiulo ot ccua qui raviiicut couatniit. 



^li 






! !i 




i I, 




124 



ARI5ITRATI0N AT GENEVA. 



(h.) Tlic (li.soii»!iiiary poiialties intliotod oil some soanien of the Ala- 
l)aniJi on tlicii- retui'ii to England caiiuot be looked upon as a serious 
prosecution. 

lY. — ^Vtth regard to the free (((hhisnion to British ports suhsefjunithj 

allowed to this rcssel, 

(a.) The i';\ct that the vessel was armed within English ,jnrisdi(!tion. 
and in (iontravention of neutrality, was estsiMished by the order for hor 
seizure issued by the British autliorilies. 

{b.) Tiie same is true with rej^ard to the illegal and fraudulent depart- 
ure of the vessel from the port of Liveri)ool. 

(c.) The cognizance and complicity of the insurgent governnuMit. 
wliicli had commissioned the vessel, as also of the agents of that gov. 
ernment at Jjiveri)0()l, and of the otiicers who commanded her, had like- 
wise been established. 

{d.) Not only, therefore, had the British axithorities the right, but it 
was also thei'- duty, to seize this vessel, in whate'^'er British port sin 
might be Ibund. 

((',) The British government even admitted this right and this duty 
so far as the port of Nassau is concerned. 

V. — The following ohjections are not raJt!! : 

(a.) That the arming and equip'ping of the vessel Mi-l :■ ^ake i)liioi 
within JUitish jurisdiction, but only in waters lying oevot I that jiuis- 
diction. 

By the first rule, and according to the natural interpretation of tlio 
obligations of the law of nations, evi'u a ])artial equipment ibi' warlikr 
purposes is not allowable. This is, moreover, admitted by the English 
liiw-ol'licers of the Crown in their report of July l".>, 18()2. It is furtlu'i 
established that even the arnuunent and the original e(piii)nuMit of tin 
Alabanni were prepared within British Jurisdiction, aiul shipi)ed IVoiu 

h) On n(M'()nsi(l(~'ro point coninic ('n(|ni'to soriouso les piMncs discipliuairos prouon- 
Ci5c8 fontro -...i^iuds nnitclots do I'Alabiiuia, rovenus eu Anji;letorre. 

IV. — J Vi'iinrd de !a Ubir adinimon dans dcs ports britanniqitcs subscqitcmmciit afcordri'^ 

iHtvirc. 

n) L'anntMnciit: <ln viusaoainlans la Juridiction do I'An]L;1otprre, etcontrairor- 'hi ■ 
iiontralil*' .I'lail cnnstati' par I'anvf dc .saisic r(?iidu jtar Ics aiitoriti's ".>i'itaiiii:n' o^. 

b) II en ctiiit do niriuc dc la hoitio illogalc ot I'lauduluiiHO dii navi... n vmv 
LivcriuKil. 

(■) Ij'on avait anssi constats la connaissane(> ot la cniiiplicitd dn i^duvornonu"). - 
insurii't's, (|ni avait oninniissionno lo vais.soaii, ot rosix'ctivoiiiont dcs ag(!nts dc ' • ■ 
VL'iiioniont a I A > crpodl ot do.s ollioiors (|ui ('(»niniaii(lai<'nt lo navire. 

d) Los antoiitos hritannifpio.s avaioiit «l(mc, non-.sonh'iuont lo d.oit, main onoorelt 
devoir, di' sai.sii' oo vaissoan, dans ([nehiuo port liritaiiniipic (lu'on lo roni'oiitrat. 

e) IjO ^ouvoinoinont lirilanni(jue a nieiuii ri;eonnu co droit et co devoir pour co qui 
coiicerne le port de Xa.stiau. 

y, — !.(•» ohjictions suivaiitcs )ic soul jxts foiidren. 

a) Quo rarnioniont ot roqnipoinont (^i vaissoan n'ont i)as on lien dans la .jniiilic- 
tion l)ritanni(|n<'. nniis Honloni"iit dans dos oanx sitin-os on dolioi's de eottf- jiridii'tion, 

D'apros la io>;lo 1, ot solon nnc^ intorpr('tation natnrollo de.s oblij, \i>-i.. >\:i .)> ,it il " 
(j;onH, nno pr(')iaration. nn"ino partiollo. a dos bnts do ynorre n'ost jtas u, .!!- i;l c : "Vst 
ce tpio, dn rcslo. lis Jnrisconsnltos do la oonronno en Angleteri'e out Ti'i; .;■•..• -^ 
nieiues dans li'or pn^ivis dn 2'J jnillot r-^n^; on ont)i', il est constatii u,u wtW 
I'arrni'inont ol lo ])roniior ociniiionuMit de I'Alabaina funnt p-f'part^s dans la jnridii'- 
tiou britanniipie ot partinsut de ports britauni(in'.;' ; nv.o division dea circoustaiices 



i 






OPINIONS OF MR. ST.EMPFLI. 



1-25 



'' :l 



British ports. A division of the circninstuiicos atteii<liii<>' an olfonse 
(loos not, in itself, do away with the olfcnsc, more es[)e(;iall.v mIkmi the 
siuie cognizance and criminal purpose attach to all the persons cou- 
ceriK'd. 

(/>.) That the vessel havin"' been commissioned for the insurgent 
States, hei' seizure within JJritish jurisdiction was not allowable. This 
objection is refuted by the fourtli general rule of law laid down at the 
bejtiiuiing of this draught. 

(c.) Tiiat Clreat IJritain cannot be held res])onsible for tlu^ negligenee 
of wliii'h subordinate ofhcials may have been guilty in tlie pursuit of 
till' vessel, tor indis(!retions which may have been committed by some 
unknown subordinate with regai'd to her impending seizure. »S:<;. Taken 
by itself, an act of imprudenc'e or negligence on the jiart ol sid)or(iinale 
autborities or ollicials does not, it is true, necessarily entail responsi- 
bibty for the extreme consequences of sucli act: but when a series of 
acts of m'gle(;t lire in question, each of the acts in that case becomes 
of iinportiiiice. 

{(L) That the United States were themselves guilty of negligence — 

ill having furnished incomplete and tardy eviilence through their 
ajiciits. 

Tbis objection is refut<'d by the tilth general rule of law laid down 
above. 

By the inaction of the vessel-of-war Tuscarora,iu the waters of Liver- 
pool. 

Even if this fact were established, it would be no excuse for acts ot 
ucgligence on the part of the British autliorities. 

IV. — THE SlIENANDOAn. 

(A.)— Facts. 

l.— What tool- place from ihe time of her departure to that of her armament 
and equipment in the icaterff of Madeira. 

1. This vessel was originally the Sea King, a merchant-vessel belong- 



ilu (li'lit irinv!ili(l('iit pas co di'lit en liii-inriiu', snrtout l()rsfii''oii rccoiitri', clicz timtcs 
ii > ]n'rs(iiiiu'S inliTcssci's, lii niriiio comijiissaiuc el la iiirmi' iiitt-ntioii ciiiniii:'!!!'. 

/m (^iic '.(■ vaisscaii ayaiit <ii'' ( .miiiiissidiiiii' pour Ics t'tats iiisiii';:;('.s, iiiii' snisit; do 
• ' vaisscui dans hi ,iMii;1ic.ti(iii aiiulaisc ii'ctair plus adniissili'c ; cfttc oUjrcl iiui est 
ii inti'c ) ar la iculc fiiMU'ialc do droit Xo. -1. poM'c au (•oiiiincuccuiLMit dc cc jiroji't, 

( ) i-lnt' la (iraiMK: lin'taniu; nc ])cuf cti'c icspoiisahlt' ]iour di's iii';^lii^(Mi(M!S (pii out 
jiii sc )ir( scutcr (Ic la part d'cniployt's suhalti'iiics dans la ]ioursnit(', du vaisscau, pour 
uiKlisciciiou ([ui a pu sc. coinmrttro ]»av uu sulsaltfruo iiicouuu, coui.Muri.uit la saisio 
iiaiiiincntc, &v.: ]\r'\H isoli'iucut, im actti d"iuipiuil('iii'o on d"> luv'^lin'i ui'c dt! la part 
d'aiitoritt's vt d'ciuployos subaltcrncs nV'Utraiiii) pas iii'ct'ssaii'ciuc^U, 11 est viai. la 
icsimnsahilitc pour les couscmiucuci'S cxtivuM's dc cct ai'tc ; iiiais l()rsi|u"il s'a^it d'uue 
s. lie (1(! U' uliucnci's. cbacuu dos I'aits ])r(U(l ; lors dc, I'iniportancc 

(/) (^uc Ics ritats-l'nis so soiit cux-iiicnics wudus coupal»it!s dc nct^liLji-ucc — 

Kn fouriii^sant" ilt'tcctueuscnicnt ot tro|) tard dcs prcuvcs ))ar Ic luoycn dc Icnrs 
a^i'iits. Ccttc objection est ielu!co par la iv'^ln gciicralts dc droit, No. ;>, i)osco plus 
liaat— 

I'iir la coiidniti> pen active du vaisscau dc {jucrro lo Tnscarora dans Ics canx dc Fa- 
vcipodl. Quaud uicnu' il scrait ctabli, co fait nc scraitpas uno excuse pour Ics actcs do 
ucyligeucc dcsautoritcs britauniipios. 

LE SnENANDOAir. 

(A.)— Faits. 

I— Cc qui se passu dqmis son depart jnsijn'il son armi'meni ct ('qnipcmcnt dans lea caux de 

Madtrc. 

1. Co navire dtait origiiiaiiouiont le Sea King, vaisacau uiarcbaud appartoimnt il uue 




M 



mm^i^ 



,j i. 





m 




126 



ARmnUTION AT GENEVA. 



ing to a firm in Bombay ; she Avas employed in the Enst India trado, 
and was bnilt at Ghusgow, in 18(53. She was a loiij>-, rakish 
vessel of 1,700 tons, with engines ofL'liO horse-jtower, (IJub- 
ertson & Co., who sold her, say only l;"iO horse-power, and not li-O,) mak- 
iv.g ten knots an honr ; she had made three hundred and twenty miles in 
twenty-tour hours; and was built by celebrated ship-builders on tin- 
Clyde. 

li. She left in November, lSG;),for Xew Zealand and for the China soas, 
and returne<l to London with a carfto of tea. Before her voyaif>e to 
New Zealand, ]>.idley saw her at (ilasgow, and pointed her out to his 
sui)eriors as a steamer likely to be intended for a i)rivateer. 

3. Ou the L'Otli Se[)tember, 18()1, she was sold in London to Riehavd 
Wright, of Liverpool, a British subject, and father-in-law to Brioleaii, 
head partner of Fraser, Trenholm «& Co. Tlie sale was registered the 
same day. 

4. On the 7th October, 1804, Wright gave a power of attorney tou 
man named Corbett, a British subject, (who was implicated in mattcis 
connected witli vessels running the blockade,) enabling him to sell tiic 
vessel whenever he could within six months, at a minimum price ot 
£45,000 sterling. 

r. On the 8th October, 1804, she cleared for liombay ; left London 
V , • '-ew of forty-seveu men, having iirsi talvcu in coal and provis- 
i;. .welve months. She had on board two 18-p()un<ler guns on 



lOl 



carria.. s, (12-pounders, according to the liritish Counter Case, p. lOo.i 
The same night tlie soutiu'rn agent at Liverpool was informed of ln'i 
(U'parture, by telegraj)!!. 

0. On the ^th ()(;tol)er, 1804, the very same night, the Laurel, screw- 
steamer, n«'aily lU'W, ami of first-class make, left Liverpool with about 
twenty citizens of the Southorn States on board, and sonu' cases markcil 
" ma(;iiiuery," which contained guns and gun-carriages, such as aie uscil 
on board ships of war. Tlie Laurel ami the Sea King had arranj^ed 
to meet in the bay of Funchal, in tlie island of Madeira. 



ni.'iisnii (Ic Tioiiiliiiy; il c^tiiit omiiloyi' <l!itis lo coniiiu'rco dos IikIoh Oiiciitalcs ct avnii 
oti' coustiiiit ;'i (niisp;ow, cii Ibll^. C'('tiiit im vaisscaii tony. ;i iiiatme iinliiH'c, (fiiin: 
caiJaciti' (Ic I.T'.HI lo.iiicaiix, avui^ iiiaclriiics aiixiliairi'S dc ".i'JO clicvaii::, (linlicirsoii it 
C'"', vt'iidcms, disciit sculcnu'iit 1")0 clun'aiix. ct iioii 'Ju'O,) Caisant dix niriids a riicuic: 
il avail fait I!'' milii's en vin'^t-iiuatn; heurcs; il avait (■te coiisti'uit par do crlMiiv< 
foii.sli'iU'tcMis dcs liord.s dc la Clyde. 

'J. II ])artit, I'll iioviMiihrc IHi!:!, pour la Xoii velo-Zc'laiidc et pour Ics iiusrs dc la C'liiiii' 
ct, rcviiit i\ Tjtmdrcs avcc iinc cargaisoii dc tin'. Avaiit son voyajfc a la Noiivclk-/i- 
laiidc, J)iidli'y lo vit a (!las;;o\v ct le .sif^iiala a scs superieius couimo uu steamer pro- 
bablciiiciit destine a faiic la course. 

;?. L(.' '2i) Hcptenibrti \f^\>\, il I'ut veudu a LoiidroH, i\ liicliard Wiii^lit dc liivcrpodl, 
siijet anglais ct bcaii-pe.c de I'ricdi'aii, ee derider hi principal ussocic do I'raser, Trcii- 
liohn et ('"'. Tja vciite Cut ciU'eu;istr<'o le iiieiu(! Jour. 

•1. Ee 7 octobrti Ir^dl, A\iij;lit donna jirocuralion a nn iioinnii' Corliolt, snjet aiislai>, 
(ini]ili(iU('' dans des I'aits rclatil's a dcs vaisscaux (|ui lurcai<'nt Ic blocns,) de vendrt-lf 
navirc (piand il lo pourrait, daus le ddlai do six uiois uu prix miiiiminn do 45.000 livn- 
sterlinji,'. 

r>. Ee H oetobro ISiM, il s'acciuitta on douaiio pour IJoinbay, paitlt do Eoiidros avcc 
quarante-sept liomnies d'e(iuipa<!;o, apres avoir au|>aravaut onibar(]uo du eharboii I't 
dcs provisions ])onr douzt! niois. II avait a bord deux canons niontos, dc 18 livrcs, (di' I'J 
livres. d'apres lo contre-nicinoiro britanni(|ui', )». 101?.) Eo memo soir, lo depart on nit 
annonce par teli'iri-ipln) a l'arfi;ent da sud a ldv( rpool. 

It. Ijo S oetoliro IstU, le memo soir onooi'c, le Eaiirol, vapour i\ In^lico, jirosipK? iieiil 
et snpt'rieurenicnt construit, jtartit dc liiverpool, omportant nno vinf>;taino do citoycii^ 
lies etiits (111 sud ot dcs Oiiissos, desiifiK'es ooinino " nifichinos," leH(|U(dlcs contcnaieiit 
dcs canons ct tics aH'ilts, tols (pio ooux. iMiiitloyes a bord dcs va'isscaux do {>ucrro. I.i' 
Eaurol ot lo !Soa King s'otaieut doiiue rondoz-voiis dans la baio do Fimchal, ilc di; 
Madoro. 



et avait 


KM', (riiiii' 


xM'tson ft 


1 riicinv: 


fi'lt'bi'c> 



Ol'INIONS OF MR. .ST.EMPFLI. 



127 



7. On the VMh of October the Sea Kins: arrived on Fnnchal ; the Lanrel 
liiul preceded her by two days. Tlie two ships met and eiVectcd the 
tninsshipnient of the cannon, cS:e., (six larfi'e ynns, two small, caniajnos, 
munitions, powder, ninskets, »S:e. ;) for this, thirty-six honrs siiHiced. 
Corbett then came forward, aniionnced the sale of the Si'a Kiiiu', and 
tried to indncc the crew to remain. Ont of elfi'lity sailors, however, 
oi'ly twenty-three reiuained. The olhcers and men retiincd in the Sea 
Kiiiji" )inmbered in all forty-two, and hardly iormed lialf lier i)roper 
coinplcnu'nt, which forced her to nse her enj;ines. 

She took the name of the Shenandoah, and continued on her way 
under the insurgent Hag*. 

: II. — Steps taken by the Eiifflixh consul nt Tenet'lfe, and their result. 

8. On the 12th of Xovend)er, 1804, Lord Ivussell received froin the 
Enj^lisli consul, at Teiierilfe, a detailed rei)ort, dated October .'30, of 
what had taken i>lace i'l the waters of Madeira. 

The consul also sent (Jorbett, c'ptain of the Sea Iving', as a prisoner 
to England. Among otlu'r things the report of the JOnglish consul 
s;iys the Laurel arrived at Teneriffc! on the iMst October lor Ihe i)ur[)ose 
nf coaling; the master, L'anisay, came before tlie consul and expressed 
a desire to land forty-three passengers who wished to return to Ijugland 
hy the lirst oi)portunity ; they werc^ from the IJritish steamer Sea King, 
at'Lomlon, which had been wrecked near the Desertas islands. 

On the 2od October the Laurel proceeiled on her voyage. The master 
i>f the Sea King, however, did not (,'ome forward to uake tlu^ usual 
declarations and to ask for assistance; thein(piiries made by the consid 
l)ioved thiit the Sea King had not been wrecked at all, l»ut that she had 
'^I'on already sold in London, an<l was to bo handed over on the high 



seas 

r 



Tlic consul took the de])ositions on oath of i'our sailors who had been 
lauded. In these depositions it was stated that the Laurel had lefr 
Liveri)ool bou 1(1 for Nassau; that she had taken on board twenty-six 

7. Lc 19 octoln'o, lo Sea Kiiij; aniva dcvaiit Fmiclial ; lo Launl Vy avait ]tivi'(''(lt> do 
deux jdur.s. Lcs deux vais.si'aiix sc it'ioit;' lOUt vt I'llcctiii'iit lc tiaiisliordciiiciit dcs 
laiions (>t <li's aeccssoii'i's, (six j^raiides pii'i: s. d'Mix jx'tilcs, allVits, iiiiiiiitioiis, poiidri-, 
I'usils, A.O. ;) il sul'lit ))(>iir ctda dc trciitc-Hix liciircs. Cnrln'tl; alois .sc ini'sciita, amidiivii 
la vi'iiti! dii Si'a Kiiiu,' ft idirrcha a cnifaj^cr r(Miiii|)a,ni' a rcstcr. J)i' (iuatrc-\ ini;t.s 
iiKitclotK, il n'cii i'<'.sta C'cjtcr.dant. i|1H' vin^f-ti'dis. Lcs orii<'ii'r.s «'t Ics Iiniiiincs (|Ui' lt> 
Si'a KiiifX retiiit coiiiidaiciit cm tout (|iiaraiit<;-di'iix, ct iic loiiiiaiciit ^iiiic (iiic la luoitit' 
lie I'c (pril lui fallait, cc (|iii Toliliifca a sc scrvir dc ses inacliiiics. 

II piit le nom de Slieuaiidoali, ct coiitiiiiia sa route .sous lc i»avillon dcs iiisurgcs. 

11. — Dcmuirhcs dn coitfiiil aixjluh a Ti'ni'riffc, it Iciirii siiUct, 

*. Le 12 novcmltie lS(i4, Lord Kussell r<'<,'nt du consul aiifilais a TiiK'iilVo uii 
laitport d('taillc, datt' du :>(» octohrc, sur cc ([ui s'ctait ]iass(' dans lcs caux dt; Madcro. 

IjO consul cuvoyait cjfalcMucut Corbel t, ca[)itaiuc du ISca Kinii', [uisounicr cii 
Annltitcrrc. \ai rapixirt tin consul anglais dit cntr'auUcs; Lc J^aur(d airiva lc; '21 
I'AiAnv nn port dc 'J'cnf'ritlc ]K)ur i'airo du charlion; lc ]»atniu lianiscy sc jucscnta 
iui consulat et exprinia le <1('sir dc del)ari[Uer (|uarante-trois passatjers (pii dcsiraieut 
I'l'toiuiier en Anyletcrre par l:i preuuert^ oeea.sion; ils veuaient du steauu-r l)ritanui(iue 
If Sen Kinjj, dc Ijondrcs, ipii avait fait uaufraj^fi- auprcs dcs iles Desertas. 

Lt! 'il$ oetolirc, le liaurel s<s ri'uiit on vo_va;;c. Cepeudant le i)atron du Sea Kini; no .so 
pivscntait pas pour I'aire )H'endre les declarations d'usay;t^ et deniander assistaiu'c^ ; lcs 
iiil'oriiiation.s ipio (it prendre it' consul ('tabliront (|ue h' Sea Kiui;' n'avait pas fait 
iiaiilViiy,c du toiU, niaLs qu'il avait di'ja etc vendu a Londres et deviiit etro livre en 
lilciiK! uier. 

Le consul entendit lcs d(^positions faites sous .sennont do (piatro niatolot.s cpio I'oii 
iivait (Icbanpic.s. Cos depositions eonstalaient <iue ie Lanrel c^tait parti de Liverpool 
i'vec la dcstiuutiou dc ^'assuu; (pi'll cniportait vingt-si.v olliciers et soixautc-dctix 




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ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 



o(Tf;:('iK and sixty-two sailors in addition to her proper crow, sixty-fivf 
hIk'iIs, I vo tons of cannoii-i)Owd(>r, and various otlier nuinitions; that 
at ]Mad»-ira she liad taken in .'300 tons of coal ; that the t)anssiii|)nieHt in 
llie Soa Kin^' had been elfeeted at a point oil", tlie Desertas dnriny' ciilm 
weatlier; that tlie sailors were armed with cutlasses and revolvers; 
that the oflieer in coniiinind had taken possession of the ttea King in 
the name of the insui\!4ent States. 

t). On tlie J.^l November, 1801, the law-oflicers of the Crown <iavi> 
their opinion on the report of the consul at TeneriiVe and on tin; sendiii" 
of Corbett as a prisoner to En<«lan<l. Anioiiji'' other thin.:i^s they s;iy. 
" We are not of oi)inion that a vessel outsider of JUitisli waters is suij. 
ject to I'.ritish jurisdiction with regard to what takes place on boiinl 
her." (British ('ase, p. 1 ").•'>.) 

10. Further incpiiries in London; exannnation of sailors who had re- 
turned. 

11. December 1, 1851. Second rei)ort of the law-oflicers; in tliis 
second rejjort the same law-ollicers declare that "on more < lei iberati' 
(ionsideration, if the Sea Kinj;' ought to be deemed to have been still a 
liritish shi]) wluiu Cai)tain Corbett eiuleavored to indu(!C the mow m 
board lier to accept the confederate service, the (piestiou whether Ini 
deck was not then ' a idace belonging or subje(;t to lier Majesty,' is a 
serious cpu'stion which ought also to be raised by the indictment, hi 
our former rei)ort we stated that we did not think a Lritish nu'rchaiit- 
ship at sea was included within Iler Britannic Majesty's d(»minions, in 
the sense of the act ; but, in the second clause, there are also the otliw 
and larger words above noticed, to which we did not then advert, ami 
which might perhaps receive a more extensive couslrnction."' (JJritisli 
Case, p. 155.) 

12. On the 8th December, 1801, Lord Russell communicates to Lord 
Lyons the report of the consul at Teneriile. Jle adds that, on the retuiii 
of the sailors, an incjuiry will be instituted, and that, by the advice of 
the law (iHicers of the Crown, a in'osecution had already been directed 
against Corbett. 



itiarii outre son jiropiv. "^([uipaKP. soixiinte-ciiiq obiis, ciii(| tomioH dci poiidrc h camiii. 
I't (livcrscs aiilrcs iiiiiiiilioiis; (iii'il (>iiiliai([i!a a .Madi-ic :iili) tcmiics dc ( liarhoii ; t[W 1l 
tiaiisliordciiii'iil a bord dii 8t'a Kiiij; is't'tait fait sur iiii i)()iiit dos Di;s(!rta.s par ui:e iiiiT 
caliiu'; que ]cs niariiis liirciit ariiK'.s dc sabres e( de revolvers. 

L'olUcier eoiniiKiiidaiit prit possessioh dii .Sea Iviii>4- an nom des etals iiisiirj;eH. 

i). Lc I"' novembre iMil, les Jiiriseousidtes de la eoiiroiiiic Ijritainiiipie donnerciit 
Iciir ])reavis siir le I'apport du (hhisuI do U'l'iH'rille ot siir Tenvoi w, Corbett coiiMut 
prisonnier eii Anj;let(U'r(S ils y diseiit (!i>tr'aiitres: "Nous ne, soMinies jias d'avis (in'iin 
A'aisseaii liors des eaiix; britauiiiqiies est sounds a la jurisdiction britanui(pic pour te 
<iui se passe sur son tillae." (McMuoire ant^lais, p. lo;!.) 

10. Kiupiete eouiplenii'ntaire a Londres; au(lition de niiirins retonrues. 

11. I.e I'' d('cend)re. IH()4, deuxienie rapport ties jnriseonsnltes !)ans oe denxiiinie 
rapjiort les nienies jurisetnisnltes ddciarent que " apres uno ])lns mfiro dt'liberation, >i 
le !Sea Kinj>' doit etro considere eoinnio ayant tonjours couservt- la natimialiti' 
britanniqne an moment oh lo caititaine Corbett a essayc do d«'cider le.s homines ;"l sou 
bord a accepter le servieo confodere, on pent so demander si bs pont do co navire 
notait p^s alors nn lien dans la snjetion ou an pouvoir do, sa Majesto ; et c'est uiu' 
qnestion seriensc (pie raecnsation dcvra (^^aloment sonbnor. Dans uotro precedent 
rapport, nous avons forninl(^ I'opiuion qn'uu vaissoau do conimorco britai\ni(pie no 
rentrait pas dans les doinainoH de mi Majestd britanniquo, solon lo Hens do I'acte; 
luais la deuxiemo clanso renfermo d'.'intro part des ternies phis larj^os quo nous venouj 
de signaler, (pie nous n'avioiis point .ilors en vne, ot qni seraieiit peiit-etro suaceptibles 
do recevoir niie intorprc^tation phis diondno." (Mdmoire britannitpie, p. 155.) 

I'i. liO H dt^eembro lS(i4, Lord Riis.ioll comtminitpio ii Ijord Lyons lo rapport (In 
consul do Teiidrill'o, et il ajoute (pi'au rotour dos matelots I'on oiitamcra une enqncte; 
quo sur le pidavia des juiiscousuUea do la courouuo I'euquoto ctuit d6ji\ eutam^n 
cuulru Corbett. 



i:i. W(\su]tM 



OPINIONS OF MR. STyEMPFLI. 



12f) 



];{. KesuU of this last procecdiii};-: acquittal of Corbott by tlic jur 
III. — (Utnduet of the Shennndnnlt at Mdhourne. 

14. Oil the L*r)tli January, 1-S(>."», tlic Shciiaiuloah arrived at Port 
I'liilip. ill till' colony of Victoria, and aiiciiorod in llobsoii's l'>ay. 

Toward tlic middle of Xovcnihcr, 1S(!I, the mail Icl't l^uropc and 
rciiclicd .Melbourne about the middle of -Fanuary, biinuinj;' the news re- 
sjM'ctiniH" the Sea Kin^' and her tiansformation into the Shenandoah. 

l."). ()n the -."•th January, bSfi."*, the American eonsnl protested aj>ain.st 
the iidmission of this vessel and doiKdulid licr .seizure o\' the j;'overnor. 
Tlu' law-officers were consuiied ; the yoNcrnor answered, on the 3Uth, 
by a refusal. 

It was decided on the >ame day Wythe council that the cai>tain of the 
.Slii'iiandoah should not be asked for the commission of his jiovernmenl. 

1(1. February 10. The American con.sul to the governor; protest 
im'iiinst enlistments. 

February l."». The law-ollicers lind the evidence sulUcient. 

February I.'). The jiovernor determines to await the report of the 
|i()liee authorities betbrc taUinj^' action. 

February 11. The chief commissioner of police reports: " Waddell re- 
fuses to allow his .ship to be .searched, sayinj^' that he ivill oppose force hif 
I'lirrc,'' 

February 11. Decision of council to >X7/Mr.s'^ Waddell to reconsider his 
R'sohition of forcible ()p|>osition. Susi)ension of permission to make re- 
pairs. IJeply of ('aptain ^Vaddell. The order of suspension is revoked. 

Tile law-ollicers of the Crown, subseiiuently consulted as to the re- 
tiisiil of Captain Waiblell, statecl to Lord Jiussell in their report of the 
Jlst of April, ISt;."*, that "the riyht of forcibly execntinj;' a warrant on 
a l)i'lliji>('rent vessel did not exist, but that an order to leave the port at 
Duce woidd be the conseijuence." 

17. Subseipient steps of the American consul with respect to the en- 
listments. 



I'.V IJf'siiltat (li! ccttf. (lei'iiitTc ('ii(]U(''t<,' : ii(^((uiitL'iiitMit do. Corbett par lo jury. 
IIJ. — Cc (iitcjit /'' ShciKDidoah a .Uclhonntt: 

11. I^c 'ir> juuvicr IHiif), 1(! .SliciiiiiKloiiJi iiniva i"i I'orl l*liilii)iie, colonic Victoria, et 
ift;i Taiicn' dans la l)aic dr llobson. 

Vers III nii-n()V(Mnl)rc 18til, Ic conrricr partit d'Knroiic ct arriva vers la nii-janvici- a 
Mfll)iMiiiit', aiipiii'tant Ics nonvcllc^s conccrnant Ic Sea King ct hh transloruuition en 
SlitMunuloaii. 

1.'). Lc "J.") Janvier l^^fjo, Ic consul anicricain i>r(>t(;sia contro I'atlinission de ce navir*-. 
liaidtmanda In s(ii'<ic an li'onvcrncnr. Lcs conscillcrs lc<;anx lurcnt cntcudns; le 
l^tMivcrucnr rcpondit, Ic :?l(, par nn rcfns. 

Li; conscil dt^cidc Ic menu; Jour (i[n"ii nc sera pas deniandc au ciipitainc du 
^iK'naiKloali la commission de son i^'oiivernement. 

Hi. Fevricr 10. le consnl americain an jfonvcnicur: reclamation contre de,H 
iiiiVilcnients. 

Ft'vritr i:!, lcs conscillcrs le<j;anx trouvent lcs i>reuves sutliHantes. 

IVviier i:{, Ic •^ouvernenr (lecido (IN-ntcndrc lo bureau de police avant de donner 
>iiiti'. 

I'Vvricr 14, h', conimissairo en chef de la police rapporte : Waddcdl refuse de laisacr 
t'aiii' (lcs nv In-rclies snr son vaisscau, disant qiril opiioscrait la force a la force. 

IVvricr 14, decision du consiiil de faire privr Waddell <le revenir sur sa rf^solution de 
Mijiposc-r par la force. 8uspeiision <le la permission de faire lcs reparations, lleponse 
'In liipitainc^ Waddell. L'ordrc de suspension est revo([U^. 

Lis Jurisconsultcs de la couronnt;, consnltes plus tard <(uant au refus du capitainB 
WiuliUUIj declarerent i\ Lord Kussell, dans Icnr prea vis du "il avril IHO."), que " le droit 
'I'cxicuter un nnindat snr un vaisseau des belligi^ranls par la force ii'oxistait pas, mais 
'|iit; la soinmation de quitter le port tout do suite vn resulterait." 

17. D(^marches ulterieures du consul amdricaiu coucernaut les eur61emout8. 

9b 



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180 



ARIUTRATION AT OKXEVA. 



On the I7th Febriiiiiy, tlie consul lir.st f^ocs to the ollici' oi' tin; fliiti 
commissioner of poli(!e, whom he does not tind in ; tlien fioes to tlic 
honses of i)arliiiment to lind the attorney -f^'enenil, who recpiircs ;i 
written <leiH)sition ma(h> on oath. Thenee lie repaiis to the oilie(^ of tin 
detective police, and there receives answer that no action can be takin 
withont a warrant The magistrate dei^lares himself unal)le to tiikc 
upon himself to issne a warrant on the de[)osition of a single witness. 
and refers him to Mr. Call at \V illiamstown, who nught have evidence in 
his possession irom the Mater ])olice. 

It was about 7 o'clock in the eveninj;'. Seeing how little inclined tb' 
authorities were to act, the consid dete' mined himself to take the deposi 
tion. A copy of it was bronght, on the same night, to the attorney 
general, but lu* was no longer at the lionses of parlianunit. 

18. The Shenandoah left on the morning of tlie l<Sth of February. 

19. It was stated, and the governor of .Alelbonrne himself states in ;i 
circular, dated February 27, 1805, that a considerable number of aailmx 
intended to re-enforcc her ereiv, had l)een t-tlen on board the Shenandoah Itc 
fon^ she left the port on the 18th of I'^ebruary. (IJritish Case, ]). KJS.) 

20. Nor is it denied that she took on board 'M){) tons of coal, wliicli. 
added to the 100 sln^ had already on board, made 400 tuns. (See sun 
plementary ((notation in consideration Xo. Ill, letter d, post.) 

The committee of'otlicers appointed to rej»ort as to the repairs of tin- 
vessel only stated that the Shenandoah was not fit to pro('eed to sea ii> 
a steamship. 

I V. — Grnise and final fate of the Shenandoah. 

21. On leaving Melbourne, the Shenandoah went to the I'acific, ami 
thence through JU-hring's Straits to the Arctic; Ocean, where she (Ic 
stroyed the Anu'rican whalers which she nu't. It is asserted tliai 
she burned lifteen vessels after (Japtain Waddell knew of the terniiiiii 
tion of the insurrection. Slu^ remained registered as an Fnglish vessel 
until the 17th of October, 1805. 



L(> 17 iV'vricr, le consul is(! rend d'aboni a'l Imicau dii t'licf dc la iiolicc, (|u"il w 
troiiw pas elicz liii ; j)ui.s va ti'DUvcr ratt()nH'y-<;rii('ial au I'arli'nifiit ; ct]' in 
dcniaiuUs one, di'ijositiou (k-rilc t'aitc .soils scainciit. Do la, il sc iviid au bnrciui dc in 
police sccri'tc : on liii ropond (ni»! Ton ne pent ayir jian.s manclat'. Lfjnj>ti (rinHtniclin!: 
declarani! jtouvoir luonilit! vsnr lui dc; doiiiicr nn niaiidat d'anvt snr les depositimi- 
d'lin fteiil t«hnolii, et lo leuvoic vAuv,', M. Call, a WilliaiaHtown, !e<jiu;l poiniiiit avoir (li> 
tonioiKiingt's do la police dii port. 

II etait environ 7 lienres du soir; voyant lo pen d'oniprcssonient de.s I'onctionnuin^, 
lo consnl so docida a reeovoir lni-nioni(; la dei)osition. Coi)ie on f'nt apportoo lo uk'im' 
soir, a '.► lioiiroH, a I'attornoy-jrenoral, niais 11 no so tronvait i)lii.s a la chauihre. 

Irt. 1^,0 Shenandoah partit h? IH fovrior. diois la niatinot!. 

11). 11 flit constate, ot \v f>-ou\ orneiii' do Mt Ihoiiine lo constato Ini-niouie dansiiin' 
circulairo dn 'Zl i'evrier \f*Ky, tiii'mi uoinhri' caiisiilcialili' dv mariiis dcsthirx i\ rciifoivi 
Vequipaac avaicnt vie rct^iiK « lord du Sheiuitidouh avant ipril no ipiittat lo port, Ic 1" 
fovrier. (Monioiro britanniiino, j). 108.) 

20. II n'est pas eontosto non ])Uis ((u'il prit I500 tonnes de cbarhon, ce qui, ajoiitc mix 
100 (jui so tionvaient dt^.ja a sou hord, faisnit 400 tonnes. ( V^oyez citation coniideinontiiin' 
dans lo consid(^raiit N" III. ////. rf, ci-ai)ros.) 

Les experts {ttHciols dt'-lei^ues j)our los reparations du uaviro constaterent siMdciiniit 
que le Shenandoah n'otait pas cai»al)l(5 d<' prondio la nier coniine iiavire a rapeur. 

IV. — Croimhc el xoit Jiiial du Slunaiido(di. 

21. Au sortir de Melbouriu-, le Sheunudoah se rendit dans I'oeeau I'acifiquo ct li'' 
la, par le ddtroit do Hehru)<t, dans roc(^an Arcti(jue, oil il dotriiisit les balciiiiii* 
ani^rieains (|u'il y reucoutru. On protend <iu'il y brfila encore (piiuzo vaisseanx apii's 
que le eapitaine Waddell eiit on couuaissauce de la fin de I'iusurrectiou. II rest'' 
enregistr*^ coinnie vaisseau aujrlais.jusqu'au 17 octobre 1865. 



Misiauicd. a 



li-CoiKlitilc d{ 



(H'lMONS OF MK. sr.KMI'FJ.I. 



l.",l 



Oil the <tt]i NovfinluT, ISl!,"), Wiiddcll broiijilit tlit» xcsscl biiclc to 
I,iv('r|i<M)I, \v1k*1(> she was lijiii(it'(l over to the, UnitiMl States. \\';wl(U^ll 
ilccliiicd that ln^ learned ot the surrender of Lee on the 2(StIi -Fnne, l)nl 
tliiit lie still knew nothing of the insnr<;ent .yoN'erninent havinj; <'onie to 
all end. oi' which he did not become aware until the_L*d of Au;iiist. 

(B.) — C'ONSlDJORATIOIN.-i. 

\,—('o)i(ii(cf of ihc llritiiih aiifliorHien up to the moment of lite (leparlnrc of 
the Sea Kiny and Laurel on the Stit Oetober, l.sr»4. 

(«.) The previous acts of the Florida, Alabama, and (leoi'/^ia should 
linvc rendered the liritish authorities more active, with ji view to {nv- 
vciitiii.i; the i'ei)etition of similar acts. 

[h.) And yet notliiufj was done either to secure an increase of vij^il- 
:iiu'0, or with the view of originatin.ij more elfective nunisures of dis 
(livery and pursuit, or of supplementing;" the municipal law wheic nec- 
essary. 

(c.) The transfer of the Sea Kin,i;' to the name of Wrij^ht of Liverpool, 
vho was closely connected v.ith one of the principal jtartners of th(> 
iinii (if Fraser, Trenholm »S: Co., (Septendjcr 20, LS<J-i,) coupled with the 
iiiibiirkation of cases containin<;" cannon and arms on board the Lauri^I, 
\v(iiil(l !ia\(' iiiinished sullicieiit grounds foi' intervention, had there b(»e,n 
iuiv disposition to take the initiative. 

((}.) The objection, often repeated, that lOnj^lisli law and I^'nj^lish Iej;al 
|ivoc('i'(linys do not admit of such an initiative beiu}.;" taken, cannot, 1)h 
Mistaiiied. ac(^ordiny to the three rules and the <;eneral ruh^ of Ia.w 
(|iiot('(l above. 

(''.) Xcvertheless, one mijiiit hesitate to consider these first facts, by 
tliciiisclves, assuflicient to establish a violation of neutrality on the part 
Jul (ircat liritain, without at the same time examining;- the subseipumt 
career of the Shenandoah. 



l.f (i iiovcinliid IHfif), Wiiddell raiiU'iKi li' viiissciui a Livci'itool. oil il Cut immiiIh aux 
l.tats-I'iiis. Wiuldcll doclara avoir appris la faiiitiilalioii di- Lee ic tiS jiiiii, iimis 
iiiivdii' (encore riiMi sii dv la eessatlon «lii jfouvtiiiii'inciit dcs insiir»(''s. (|u'il n'appiit: quo 

I II' ',' ilDl'lt. 

(1$.) — ('«).\sii>i'a;.\NTs. 



l\.~-('i>iiiliiitc (Us (dilorlk'n hrifuniihiuoi JKxiiii'uii vtoiiidit (U ht sortie dn .SVx Knifffldu 

Laurel, Ic rt octnlire 1S()4. 



:iit 



(I) Lcs aitcs ]>i'('C'eth'iits ilii Florida, dc rAlabania 
|iliis (Ic vij;iiciir dc la part dcs autoriti-s Itritanuiciiu 
[liactcs (Ic la riK'iiu' iiatiin! ; 

'') Kt ]ioiiitaiit il lie sc lit ii(Mi, iii i)our rciitbrcer h 

|iiiif iiicilli'iirc uiitiativc datis Ic lint dc dc^coiivrir et de 

liii> iiinnicijialcs oil il i)onvait (''trc iK-ocssaivc iiu'elU's 1 

' ) Lii traii.sciiptioii dn Sea King an iioiii dc Wrigh 

I'liiii iiitiiiic avcc nil a.ssoeio principal dc la iiiaison l'"!' 

jiiiiihrc H((-l,) Joiiit-c an chargcincnt dc caisses conti 

''"111 (111 liaiucl, aiiiait f'onrni asscz dc niotil'sd'iiiterv* 

(/) L'olijcctioii Moiivciit. rcpctoc ((lie lcs lois angla 

ll'iiJiiclttiit jias line i)anullo initiative n'c.st pas sontcn 

jr.M-l,. ^oiH'iali! dc droit cit(5c pins liawt. 

'I t't pi'iidant. I'ou ponrrait liositcr a voir dans ccs 
'I'lisaiits df violation dt^ ncntralitcdclapart dc laGrandc-liretagnc, si Ton 
I'l mciMc temps la suite dcs avciitiiros du Shenandoah. 



ct (111 (icorgia dcvaicnl .•<iis(!itcr 
.s, atin d'ciup('Tlicr la it'ptUitioM 

I vi<j;ilaiicc, iii en viw dc lu'ondrc 
ponrsiiivi'c, ni (lour completer lcs 
lo i'lissent. 

t (-'() Liverpool, ([iii c-tait cii rcla- 
ascr, 'rniuliolni ct (''", (Ic'Ji) sop- 
:nant dtJS canons ct dcs aniicH .'> 
'uir, s'i! y avait en de riiiitiative;. 
iscs ct la proc<^dni'c aiiglaisc n« 
able, d'aprcs lostrois r(';;ics et la 

pvciuiers actes seiils des motit's 
"c-liretaiinc, si Ton n't^xainiuait 



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]:V2 



AHhirHATIOX AT (JKNKVA. 



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II. — Coiuiucl of lite Ilt'i/ish authorities Jhnn ihc (Icpniiiin' of the, Si-n A';,„, 
and Ihf Laurel to the erentu u-hich took place al MelhiiKrne. 

{a.) Tliecoinmiinicalioiis sent oil llic li.Mli of NoviMiilicr. l.sdt, li\ ih, 
liritisli consul sit 'rciiciillc to liorti Kusscll. iiiid the di'positinii.v iikkIi'ihi 
oath on tlic 111!) ol'. NovcimIxm', iSHl.Jn- two sailois rctjniicd iVoiii .M;i 
(Icii'ii. coiilaiiMMJ conxiiiciii.u' I'vool' that the Wca Kin.i; ami the liiimvi 
iiad been tin Jiishcd, in I'^nj^iisii ports, with cvci'vlhinu' ni'ccssai'v. in tlit 
way ol' ai mani.Mit. sloit's, and «'(ini|>nn'nl, t(M'naltl( the Sea Kin,n' tu In 
transt'ornit'd, on the hi,!;ii seas or in any waters within tin- juiisdictinii 
(»r a. state, into a ship of war or into a jjrivateer a.uainsi t!ie I'niiiMl 
States. 

(/>.) Tlic Hritish authorities rocooni/ed in tiiis, it is tine, a viohitiiiii 
of their neutrality ; but their only attempt to remedy it was del'ectivi 
in two points: 

(««.) in I'>nf4'land, Judicial proccM'dinj^s were directed to be takin 
af^ainst Corbett oidy, the Ibrnu'i' master of the Sen Kinjn', and that, ayain. 
on tiie score of reciiiitnuMit only; no pi()(!eedin;;s were directed a;.;:!!!!^ 
the luastei' of the Laurel, or those who freijihted that ve.ssel, or a.yaiih 
Wrij^ht. tin' owner, al least in nann*, of tin' Sea Kini;'. It is nnii('ii> 
sary to say tiiat ("<)rbett's aiMpiittal does not nuxlify llie ([uestioii ;• 
intermit ional law. 

(hb.) The IJritish authorities took nu'asures aj^ainst the jx'rpetiatm^ 
only, an«l not ayainst the results of the violation of the law. In paitH 
ular, tJM'y onutted to iidbrni all the colonial anthorities ol the eiiiiiii 
of the illeuality wliicli attached to the ship, ti)enceforwai'd Iciiown as ilii 
Sheiiandoali, and to ju'ovide them with instructions to seize the vcs-rl 
if an opportunity slionld occur. 

III. — Conditei of ihc Uritish aidhorltics at Mclhouriie. 

{a.) It is ('ertaiii that tin; authorities of this colony ref^Mved limi: 
London neither coiuiminieatious nor instriietious euii(;erniii<;' the She:. 







11. — Condnilr (leu aiiliirili'-^ hritdini'K/iivH (Icpiiix la xortic dii S('<i ICniijit du Laurel jusqii'iH" 

fuili^ arrici'x a Melbourne. 

a) l.i's t'oiMiiuniicatiftns ciivoyiV's le VI novfniihro IHfM, ]>ai' It; coiiHiil l)ritaiiiiiiji.' 
lie 'IN'MrMitl't' a l.nnl l{u>.scr, ct Ics (lopositioiis faites sous sfriiiont: Ic It iiovcmlirt! 1"im 
pur <li'ux iiiat<"l()!s icvi'iius dc Ma(l<'ri', coustataicut (I'lmc niaiiifn' coiivaiiicatitc qiii ■ 
Sea Kiiijf ct !o Laurel avaicul «'l(' prrparos dans dos ]K)rts anglais a vcc tout cc (|uiifr' 
U(''ccssairt'. en fait d'aruiciucnt, <l'ai>parcil ct d't'ciuipcuicnt. pour Iburuii' au Sea Km: | 
It's nioyeus (111 SI! trausloruicr. (Ui plcint! uu-r on daus (Ics oaux (luclconnucs sous Jiniili' 
riou il'i'tat, I'll vaisscaii dr ;;ut'rri', on en corsairc contre Ics Hlats-I'nis. 

/)) Lcs antoriti's luitanniiincs rccoiinnrcut i ii ccla, it est viai, unc violatioii '■ 
Icur ncntraliti', niais clU^s uc chui'cliJJrent a y rciiu-dicr (pic d'nin; inaiiicrc di'lbctiiwi- 
a tin donldc jmiut dc viic. 

a «) I'ai Aimlctcirc il n'y t'nt do iioiirsuitc Jndiciairc! onlouiuM' ijiic coutic ('dilni: 
ancicii iiatrou dn .Sea Kiuj;-, ct oncorc no Ic l"nt-cllc (pic sons Ic clicr d'ouiolcmcnt ; !'"' 
omit dc dirif^cr dcs poursiiitcs contre Ic patron dn JjUnrel <'t lcs all'ri'tcurs d<' cc ii.ivin 
ainsi ipic contrt! \Vii<;lit, inoiirictaire, au nioins dc iioiu, dii Sea Kinj;'. 11 va saiisdi!- 
(pic I'acipiittcnient d(! ('orl)ctt lie iiiudifio poin*^ la (jncstiou dn droit des nens. 

h h) Ijcs aiiloriti^s hi'itauni(pics no dirijjcrcnt Icnrs iiiesnrcs (pn; (;ontr(! lcs pi'is"" 
ii<'«. ct nullcmcnt contre les n'snltats do la violation dc la loi. Ellcs oniircnt iiiii:i! 
uieiit d'infornier toiitcs lcs autoritcs coloniales dc rciiipir<! dc rill(''^alit(^ attacliti- 
navirc, connu des lors soils h\ iioui dc Slicuaiuloah, et do lour fournir dcs iustnicti.i 'J 
en viic dc saisir Ic vaissoau, lo cas cchi^ant. 

III. — Conduiie des autontcx hrUanniqucs a Mvlhournc. 

a) Ii est. eon.stnW quo los antoritds do eottc colonic no re,<.Mirent dc la nietropolt 
coiiinainicatious ui instriietious concornant lo Sheuaudoali ; biou que, depuis Fqioiiiif I 



ol'INloNs or mi;. s'I'.kmi'IM.I. 



1 <> •) 



,iiiil();ili; iiltlioiiLrh. IVniii iIh' tiiiii' wlit'ii ilic Mill lioi it ics in liKiidoii I<ih'\v 
111 'tlif (Tiiiiiiiii! ('Ii;ii';i('t('i' ol tin- \ rsscl. ,'iii tin- iiiiildit' oT XovciulxT. 
|S()l,)t(i liic iiioiiicnt ul' lu'rciiirjiiicc into Mt'llti)!irn(',(.);iiiii;ii'y L'.">, IS(m,) 
thcic li ;(1 cl.ipst'd siit'liciciil time tor the t riiiisinissioii of siicli inslnic- 
rjiiiis. Tlic ol)S('rviiti(»n iniidc in tiic llrilisli plciKlinys. that iillouiiiicc 
iiiii^i It;' ui.mIi' for till' ini'xin'i'icncc of tlir iititlioi'ltics at Mcllonrnc, is 
witlmiit force from (his fact. 

(/;.) Tile aiiliiorities af Mellxmrne sliowed t Iiemseh c ;. in several 
ivspi'cls. iii'.nli^^'eiil ill liie inainteiianee ot' I lieif soverei:.;!!! y as a neutral 
(■(tiiiilrv in llie case of the Shennndoidi ; 

((((f.) They waived t!ie i»rodiietioii of tlie eoaimission whieli tiie eap- 
mill liehl iVoiii tile iiisiir.'^cnt States. (IJritisli Case, p. lOl.) 

• hli.) Tiiey suffered a refiis;il of th< ir ri.ulit to seareli tiie vessel for 
till' |)iii'|)ose of dis(M>veiiii;n' British snltjeefs, illejiiilly enlisted, on lioard 
ol lier; ami Iliey suhiniited to tlie liireat used by the captain, that lie 
wiiiild oppose force liy force, without iniinediately takiiii;' serious ineas- 
iiirs ii)j;ainst him. 

The icport of tlie law oflicers of the (Ji'owii, which holds that, a;.i'ainst 
a icl'iisal of this kind, there was no course open Init to compel the \<'s 
>('! to lea\(' the jimt, is not correct, accordin,:;" to international law, for 
use iiii;;ht be made of a similar refusal to carry out and conceal with 
iiiiiaiiiiiy violations of neutrality in neutral jxu'ts. 

[(■(■.) 'I'he only measure tak^'ii in consecpieiiceof this refusal consisted 
III tlie suspension of tlie perinissiim to repair which had been juranted, 
;i iiieasiue which, however, was withdrawn on the mere representatiinis 
i)f Waddeil. 

(//(/.) The manner in which the amount of rejiairs ue(H'ssary tor the 
vissel was ascertained, and in wlii(di their execution was watched, was 
liiit iiiiperfecl. (lieport of ('ai)taiii Payne; ISritisii Case, p. l(»!i.) 

((• ) It is ascertained that the (;row of the vessel was au.iiiiiented before 
licr depart lire from Melbourne by a considerable number of sailors, in 
spile of the constant lenionstrauces and couiplaintw of the ximerican 



■.! 



I ■; 



nil Ifs antoiitt'.H (Ic Ldiulrcs coiiiiiui'iit it^ cariK.'ti'rc criiiiiiu'l <lii Viiisscan (mi-ii(ivi'iul>ii> 
1-iil) jiis(|u'!iii iiioinciU (Ic I't'iitroi^ (111 Viii.s.sciiii ;'i MclltDiiriK'. ("Jf) Janvier jsi;.'),) i| y (n'n 
III siii'lisamiiH'iit ill' ti'injis jiour traiisnicttrt' cos iiistuiutiDiis. L'i>l)S(^rvati(>ii jH'i'sciiti't' 
li;ii' Ics iiii'iiioiri's aiijilais. qiril I'aiit ])aril(iiiii('r (|iu'liiiu! chose a I'iiii'Xpriii'iicc drs 
.lutoi'itr's ill' .Mclln)iii'ii('. rst ]iar Ir faif iiieiiu' sans jinitrr. 

'/) lii's aiitoriti's (Ic Ali'llioiinii' sc luoiitiv.riit, a iilnsiciiis ('jiaiils, in^j;lini'iili's daiis 
li' iiiaiiitirii di' li'ur soiiveiaiiii'ti' coininc ]iays ncitlri', vis-a-\is ilii SliciiamlDali. 

(( '0 Kill's n'lioiii'i'iiit a si- t'airi' I'xhilK'i' l;i ;'<)imiiii<sioii qiii' la lapitaiiic tcnail dt's 
rtiits iiisnri;f''s, (ini'iiioiri' liritaMni<|ii('. j> liil.) 

/) /)) i;ilcs sr laissi-rt'nt rdiisi'i' to dr'/it. do lairc di's ])('Vi|iiisit ions a lund dii iiaviic. 
I'll vuc d'y dri'onvrir dcs sn.ji'ts aii;;"iais ilir'nalriiu'iit rniulrs, vt dh's accciili'ii'iit la 
iiirii;u'i> laitc par li' caiiitaini', dn icpoiis:-,!'!' la lorcc par la Ibri'c. sans jircndi'i- iminr- 
iliiitciiicnl lies nii'siiriss si'iiriiscs ('(intrr Ini. 

I.I' pi'i'avis lies jnrisconsnlti's dc la cunronni', jxirtMi, |\U', coiitri' inn' ri'iiili'iu'c do 
II' lii'iiiv, il n'y avait pas (raiitri! nioycii a employ, r '(ue celni ile I'oiei r le navire a 
i|nitti'i' le port, n'est ]ias .juste, (l'a|ii'<'S le droit di's;.;eiis; jiaice que Ton jionrrait se. 
M'ls ir il'nne pareille rdiiteiu'e coniine d'lin inoyeii de eiiiri[)ir'(i'r et de laclier iinpniie- 
ineiit lies \iolatii)iis de la neiitralite dans des ports iievitres. 

'■(■) I.a seiile niesiu'e qnis Ton pii'. fontre cette reniteiicp coiisisla a siispi'ndri' la 
IH'iiiiission qui avail ('to a('C'Oi'd(''(! de faire des r('pai'ation.s, iiiesmc (jni dii rcste I'nl 
ii'liii'i' sii'i' li's simples representations de Waddeil, 

(' (J) I. a coiistalution des n-parations rei'llein(!iit ni^cessaires an vaisseaii ef la 
^Mr\i'illa:ii'i' dideiir exeriition ne se lireiit ([IKmI'iuu" maniero defectneiise. ( K'apiiorl 
'111 ciiiiilaiiio I'ayiK!; iiKMiioire l>rilaniii(iiie, p. UVJ.) 

'■) II est eonstati'' (pie IVqnipajj;*' dii vaisseau fat reiiforco, avant son dei)arl de 
Mi'llioiirne, iVun noiultio c'onsidi'rable de iimriiiM. malirn' les (UMionciatioiis el le.s 



'W 



Ui- 



^m 



M 




\:\4 



AKlWrKATInN A'l' UKNKVA. 



<'(>tisiil. (( "irciiliir of tlio fiMVcirioi- ol' Mrlboiinic ol' the l!7( Itiicti;, 

IS*;.-,; r.iitish Ciisc, p. Kj;;.) 

((I.) Il ;i|»|>('iir.s ;ilsi> to lie |»iov«'(l thut tlu' vessel was iillowt'd to i;i|<,. 
oil Itoiird .'!0(» Ions of coiil, wliicli, ii(l(l<Ml to tlic KM) tons slic iihcad, 
liiul, iiiii(k' lUO. (So siiys the Anicriciiii Consul llliincluii'd to tlic ;;()\. 
enior; Aniericiin Appendix, vol. vi, p. (I!>S, nnd Anierieiin ('iis<', p. ;117, 
In '^'riie ("inise of the Shen;iinl(»idi," l)y Hunt, it is moreover s;ii(l tli;;, 
llieve were .'!(»() tons taken in, wiiieli, witli the 100 tons siie nlreiidy liad 
on board, ^a\'e a sullieient supply lor the cinise wliieh was eontcm 
pla(vd. (Anieriean Appendix, vol. vi, p. (JDS.) 

Aeeordin.L;' to the lepoit oi' tlie. oiUeial exjierts, (liritish Case, p. Idj, 
tlu! .Shenandoah was not lit to jjfo to sea as a steaaishi]); I'roni whieli it 

"m!I1 

ilisli 



may he inl'erred lliat, as a sailinj;' Ncssel, she was lit to j^'o to se 
pare the i('|>()rl on the repairs of the I-'lorida at liei-ninda : l',r 
< -onnter Case, p, IL'T.) 

The snpitiy of coal was m>t, thereloi'e, a ne(U'ssary condition of rln 
nenlial asylnni. and, in sni>plyin.!L>' her with so larinc a (pnintity of ci.ii, 
the capacity oi' the ship for maKin.n war was increased, just as inncli un 
l>y the I'ecrniliin'nt oi" her crew which totdv phun^ 

(C.) — rllDliMENT. 

in the acis which ha\'e Just been enumerated there exists a violatinii 
<ni tiH' part of (ii'cat liiilain of the obli,i>ations of neutrality laid down 
liy the liiree rules; conseipiently (ireat liritain is responsible U.v tin 
American ships which were destroyed by tlu? vessel in (pn>stion. 



V. — Til]'; si:MTKii. 



(A.) — IsVCTS. 

i. The Sumter was a cruiser of the insurj;ent '"es. (Mjuipjtcd in tlni 
ports; she left the mouth of the M .ppi and comnicncd 

crnisinffon the.'iOth ofrJune. IStJl. 



1:! 



I '? 



rc.cijniiatiiiiis iKni-iiitci ri)iii]Mii's du coiisiil iiiiit'iicaiii. M 'irciilairc <lii nDiivriiniir li^ 
MclliiiiMitc .la '27 tV'Viici' t"-'(jr>; iiK'nioirc l)ritaiiiii(|tic, p. KiH.) 

(/) [1 i),iiiiii aiiHsi ('laltli (lu'il I'lit pi'rini.s an vaiss(!im (I'ciiiUannicr '.'M> loiuifs .!i 
cltarhou, (•(■ «|ui, ajoiitt' aux lei) toimcs (|ii'il avait cticorc, cii taisait IDd. (('"est ci' (pii 



dit 



II' consiii aintTicaiii IJlaiu'liaid an jioiivcriifur ; appi^iKl 



icr amcricani, lom. 



il:!.- 



•f iiKMnoirc aiai'iicain, ]). '.MT.) " La ('roisii'ic dii Sliciiandoali," par Hunt. 



ih! 



lar i-oiiiic (pril y I'lit 'M^ tniinos cniltaiiim'TS, ci' (ini. ajiniti'' aux Idil >\\\\ n'v t roiivniriii 
('iicoM', faisait line provision snl'lisanlc |)oni' ia croisii'i-i' ipic Ton a\aii rinlciitimi 
d"<'nti'cprcndi('. ( Aiipcndicc anioiicain, tonn* vi, i». ti'.t-.) Scion Ir rajipoi't (li'< 
rxpcits ol'liricls. (nii'moiri' l)i'itanni((n<", p. l<>"~i,) It' SJn-nandoali, en tant (piv vaisscini 
a \ap('nr, iTctait pas rapahlc di; inctti'n fii nn'i', d'oii Ton pent conclnrc ipic coiniiii 
\(>iliiT. il ponvail Icnir la incr. ((.ionipavcr It! jn't-aviH snrlcs rt'iiaraVions pour U; Floridii 
a lii'rninilt'. (Contio-int'nitnrf britannitiuf, p. 127.) 

li'ai)in'i)visionii('nn'iit ilf cliarlxni n'l'tail tlom^ pas nni: oblijfatifui tit' I'asiU' ncntrt':!'! 
i'\i Ini t'onrni>.sant' nnt' si I'orto ipnmtitt' i\i' chavlMin. on rcni'oix'ait la t'l'.pariti^ tlu vaiv 
80;in :\ faii'f la f;in!iTc tontaiissi l»ien tjn'cn anj^iuentant son t'linipajfti, tMnnuu' ou I'livnit 
lail,. 

(C.)— .IrtacMKNT. 

t>ans Ics faits iiui vicnncnt tfrtrt) ('unnHU'i'S, il i^xisto nnc, violation, tit' la part ili! h 



(!randt'-Bri'ta;;ni', tics t)b!i<j;ation.s tic- ntintriilitt> (liUcrniiut^eH )>ar Ics frois ri';^lt>s. Kn cnii- 
si'qiuMU'c. la (rranilc-Hrctagni^ est I'csixuisablt) pour ics niivircs aiui'ricains tpii out I'ti' 
di'truits par ]<■ vaissoau tjn i|nestion. 

LK SIJMTKK. 

(A.)— FArrs. 

1. Lc .Sunitci' t'tait uii croi.scnr des ctats insui'fjf^s, oqnipo dans leurs ports; il soirii 
lies passes dn Mississippi et conunciiva sos courses le 30 juiii IHGl. 



OPINIONS ol' Ml{. sT.KMI'I'r-I. 



13') 



J. Afh'i' liiiviii;^' jMiuli' six inizcs, sIm^ first «'iif<M('(l the Spiiiiisli port of 
Ciciil'm'jius, (Ciiliii.) ulicrc she took in ro;il. On tin' I.">tli of .Inly, IStJI. 
she airivcd ill the Dutch jtoit of Saint Antic, in llic isiiiml of Ciiiiiroii, 
ilicrc took ill coal, iitid staid c'yiit days. On the ."lOtli ol' .Inly siic 
iviiclicd the I'.iilisli port ol' Trinidad, al'lcf lia\iii^ iinnlc in all eleven 
|iii/rs since her depailiirc I'loin the \yaters of the Mississippi; she re 
iiiiiiiicd six da>s in this port, and there shipped a coniplel(> supply of 
coal. Ailcr havin;;' lell 'i'linidad, the Siinitci' touched, aiiion^- olhci' 
|ilii('('Si at the port of I'araniariho, (Dutch (liiiana,) where she took in a 
supply of coal, from the !)th to (he .'Jlstof Aiijunst; at I'ort Koyal, in 
Mintini(pie, where she look in coal anil reinained foinleen days, from 
the KHli to the I'.'Wl of Xo\('ml)er; al ('adi/, when^ she staid lil'li'cn 
(lii_\s; ij\n', \ni\ in, on the ISth of .laiinary, iSdU, at (lihraltur, iiftor 
liaviiifi" made six fresh prizes since her «lepartm'e from Trinidad. 

;». 'riie Sumter remained at the |>ort of (libialtar until Decicmber, 
ISii;}, when she was disarmed and sold by public miction. 

The oi1ic«'r.s, anion,!;' whom was Captain Senimcs, \> ho subse(|ueiitly 
loiiiiiianded the .\labama, abandoned the vessel and went to l-iii^Iand. 

I. From l'\'bruary, lS(;ii, there had been riiited States ships of war 
stalioiied in the waters ol' Alu'cciras. to watcdi the Sumter. 

r». The representati\('s of the llnitcil Stales al (libraltar and liOiidon 
|iiotcstcd against llie sale of the Sumter as liclitioiis and inadmissible, 
;ii'c(ii(lin,ii' to international law. 

(!. On the !)tli of February, ISl!,'), the Sumter escaped from (libraltar 
and arrived at Liverpool ; she remained there till the ."Sd of duly, was 
liDiii thence employed as a transport-ship, and left that port under tlie 
iiaiiic of the (libraltar, carrying' a car;;'o of heavy artillery. What be- 
raiiic ol her afterward is not e\ -tly known. It only appears, from the 
evidence, that United States ships still watclu-d her for several months 
iiltcr she Uil't laverpool. (The ( 'onueelicut, from the .'Jd of Auj^ust to 
St'jitcmber, 180;!; United St.ites Appendix, vol. iv, p. iL'O, table.) 



i 



■J. Aprcs jivoir la it six iMiscs, il ciitra d'ahord Jiii port ('s]iiinn<>l tie ( 'iciiCiii'nos, (Ciilia,) 
III il (MM I >a 11 1 11:1 (111 cliarlioii ; Ic 15 Jiiillct ISIH, il arriva an port liollamlaisdo Sti-.-Aiiiic, 
hills I'llc (k- ('iirar:i(), y tMii!)an|ii;i, dii cliarhoii ft y si-Joiinia liiiii jours: h; :{() Jiiillot, 
il atl('iy;iiit lo jyort l)ritaiiui(iii(^ (l>' la Ti'iiiitt'-. apivs avoir fait ni tout oiizt! pri.sivs dcpiiis 
sisiiitii' dcs caiix (111 Missi.ssii>pi ; il rcsta six Joiu.s dans cc port ct y lit uu coiiiplot ap- 
liiovisioiini'iiu!iit dc cliarboii; apri's a^'oir (|iiitt(' la Triiiitr, lo Sumtci toiudia ciicoi't?, 
I'litr'aiiti'i's, aiix ports dc J'araiiiaril)o, ((iiiyaiif hollaiidaisc,) oil il s"api)rovisio!ma dc 
iliiiiliDii, (III [) ail :U aoiit ; dc I'ort l?oyal a la Maitiiii(|iic. oil il ciiihaiiiiia du i-liarl)oii 
't nsta (piator/c jours, (til Id an '2'\ iioxciiilin^ : di? ("adi/, oil il si'joiiriia (piiii/c jours; 
il I'litra, Ic is Janvier lSii->, m (iikraltar, apri-s avoir fait six iiouvclli-s prises dciiiiis sou 
ili'liart dc la Triiiitt'. 

X Li' .Siiiutcr rcsta an ]ioil dc Oibrallar jnsi[ircu di'ccinhrc I^.VtW, ('poniic a laiinidlc 
il tut dcsariiK' ct, V'Midn anx ciiclii'i'cs inildi(|Ucs. 

Lcs olliuiins. pariiii Icsiincls si! troiivait Ic capitainc Scitinics, plus tavd coniinaudaut 
lie i'Aliil)aiiia, ahandouiif'riMit l(i vaissoau ct sc rciidirciit en Aii<rlctcrrc. 

4. Di's Ic uiois de I'l'vricr 18t)"i, il y avait en dcs iiavircs dc jfuerrc des fitats-l'iiiH 
station Ill's dans lcs caiix d'Al^(''sras pour <>ucttcr Ic Snnitin'. 

•'). Li's rcpivsentants dcs fitats-Uiiis a (JiUraltai ct a Londrcs protcstcreut contrc l.i 
veiite (111 Snintcr, (H)ninic li(ttivo ct inadniissibh; d'.ipn-s Ic droit dcs ffisns. 

0. Le 'J IV^vricr IHiliS, Ic Snmtcr s'('cliappa dc (Ulbraltiir et arriva a Liverpool; il y 
iistii jns(]u'au ;] jiiill(!t. fiit do la cinployi^ coimiio vaisscau de transport ct (jnitta ce 
poit sons lo noin dc "le Gibraltar," cinportaut uik; carj^aison d'artillcric do <fros calibre. 
'*ii lie sait ])as an juste cc ((u'll dcviiit dans la suite. 11 ressort seuleinent dcs pii^ces 
Mile (lcs vaisscanx dv gnern! dcs fitats-llnis le fjuettr'i'cut encore )>lusienrs inois aprt's 
Ni sortie de Liverpoid. (Le C(nmeetient, du :5 aout jubfpi'eii Hepteuibre 1863 : appeudice 
iimoricain, tome iv, pag(! ViO, tableau.) 





A 




' 


■ i 


i 

I 



•hi: 



\:ui 



ARm'I'KA'riON A'l" GKNE\A. 



(H.) — t'OXSIDETJATIONS. 



I. — lieNpcctiiif/ irlidt tooli j)U((r up to fitr itiomitil of the iTsael^s entrij inh, 

(iihraltar. 

(n.) With tli<' r\c('i»ti(»ii oI'Ihm' Ntii.\, ;uh1 tlic sup]>ly of coal which tin 
Smiitcr took in at Trinidad, none of tlic acts in (|ncstioii took i)lii(( 
witl'iii Uiitisli JiuisdictioM : consccincutly, (Ircat J>iitain is icsponsiMi 
I'of notiiiii.ii' wiiicli occniicd hcfoic tlic arrival of tiic Siuiitcf at Tiiiiiihul. 

(//.) The pcrniission yivcn lo tiioSnnitcr to remain and to take iiicdul 
at Tiii'.idad. <lo('s not in itself constitute a snllicieiit basis for accasin.; 
the IJrilish anthorities ol" ha\ inj;' failed in the observaiu'c of their dutii^. 
as neutrals; because this fact cannot be considered by itself, sine, 
the Sunder. I)cth befoie and after tliat time, was admitte<l into the poitv 
of many (»tiuM' states, where it staid ami took in coal, and it is provci! 
that th(? last sujjply she obtained to (;ro'ss the Atlantic did not t;iki 
|tla( (' in a ibitish port; s(» that it cannot be heh'i that the port of Triiii 
da-l served as a l»ase of operations for the kSumter. 

II. — h'rsixctlufi titr jXTin'ixsion lo .s7<^<//. <iiul the sale of the Sumter at Oih 

nilfiir. 

(<'f.) The stay of the Sumter, as an aruu'd ship of war of the Confcii 
crate States, at the port ol" (Jilualtar. from the month olMaiiuary to fin 
month of Dccemltei', ISiiii, was less the result of her beinn' in (listrc-^ 
than a i'efii,i;'e from the danji'cr arisiuiii' from the ships of the enemy. 

(/>.) 'J'he ji'rantin;:' of such shelter is contrary to the second rule ol tin 
treaty, acconl in J-' to which a ru-utral port must not serve as a base oi 
operations to bellij^crents. ami. coiise(|uenlly, must not seive them eitlici 
as a refu.n'c trom the enemy, while .uivinj.^' them, at the saau> time, tin 
opl)oitunity of leavinj> it at will. 

{(•.) The objection which is made that the Sumter entered Gibralt;ii 




iji. 
'ill, 

m 



V ' 



(15.) — Co.NSIlHOliAMS. 

[. — ('onirriKiiit ci (jui fr pnnHd Jnntin'oit DKmtrnl dc Fcnlrir (hi vainscaii <) (Vihrallav. 

<i) A l"('xct']itii>M (111 si'joui' ct (!(■ fjipprov isiiimiciiicnl <|ii(' til Ic Sitniti'i- :i l;v Tihiii', 
aiK'iin dcs I'iiits I'll i|iii'.sii()ii n-ciit lieu ihiiis bi jiiiiilictioii iirittuiiii^inc: piir coiisi i{iii'i:! 
lii <;r;ui(lc-15i«'t:i^in' u't'st ri'sponsalilc pour ricii df cc (pii sc passii avaiit rariiMiii 
tSnmtcr a in 'I'liiiitc'. 

h) La j)cniiissioM doiiiK't' an Kiiiiitcr i.tc srjdiii'iicr ct dc lairc dii cliarhDii ;i 1j 
Ti'lniti'' lie constitnc pas a cllc si'iiio iiiic liasc sullisaiilt' )M)nr (|ii'.' Ton piiissc ai'ciiMr 
It's aiU(i!'i(<'S liritaiiiii(|iii's d'avoir ni.iiiipK- a Iciirs devoir.) dc iii'iUraliti'' ; <;ar ci' tiiii 
lU' jK'iit ('tri' coiLsidt'ii' isoli'iiH'iit. piii.s(|ii(', avaiit ct apii's. If .SmntiT avait <''t(' iidin -' 
<laiis Irs ports di' pliisiiMD'H antics otiits, oii 11 sijiiinia ct lit dii chailtoii, ct <pi'il i^t 
coiistati' i|iic Ic dernier a]iprovisioniiciiiciit ipril tit, pour traverser roceMii Atlaiitii|ii' 
n'ciit pas lien <lans nil poll Initaniii'ine : i\i' sortc cine I'mi no saiirait pn-teiidn' «|ii^l' 
poll dc la 'i'riiiite ait ^^c^vi {\v iiasc d"ojn'rations an Siiinler. 

W.^Cituriviinnt la jKriniaxioH tie Krjitiir el lU vintv <hi SiniiUr a (librollor. 

a) Tjc scjoiir du Sumter einmnc vaissean de j^ticirc ariiu' dcs etats-eonfi''(lcr(» ;i 
poll dc (iilnaltar. dcpiiis Ic niois dc Janvier an iiioi^ de dcc( ndiie IHti'^i, I'nl mi'lii^l' 
suite d'liii ctat dc di'Ircsse qii'uii asile eoiitic le dan/^cr ptoveiiaiit de \-aisM';iiiN 
eiiiiemis. 

/)) 1,'iic pareiije eonecssiiui d'asilc est en desaeeord twi'v la 'i' i'cy;le dii tniil' 
d'apres la(|nellc mi jxn't iienlri' iic doit ])as servir de Uase d'o|)crati(Mis aiix Iielli«.;(''\;iiii-: 
par coiiM-iinciit, iic doit jias iioii pins ieni' servir de lieu de refiiffe coiitre I'euiicini, t'"'' 
cii lenr laissant la possiliilili' d'eii lessortir a voloiile. 

(•) li'(d>jeeli(ni (|iii est t'aite tiiie le Snnilei- tdait (^iilre a (iilnaltar a\anl la piil)lii:i 



OPINIONS OK MR. ST.KMPFLI. 



137 



liclinc tiio imhliciitioii of tho oHicial circular oC tliP .'Ust of Jr.iinary, 
isiL', wliicli limits tlic stay of bclli^icrciit vessels in neutral ports, is 
iiiiiiKitcrial; for, 

[il.) I'.vcii witliotit tlic publication of that circular, tlic lirantinji' of 
shelter wliicli look place would have been contrary to the duties hiiu 
ilowii in the second rule, and to the j)rinciples of a real and elfective 
iiciitndity. 

If.) Moreover, to interpret the circular of the .'{1st .lanuary, l.S(L' n the 
sense that it I'clated oidy t( tlic shii>s of belligerents \vhi<'li should in the 
liitiu'c enter Hrilish i)orts, and not to tiiose which wrre already in them, 
is ill opposition, if not with the letter, at least with the seiis(> and si)irit 
ill wliicli the cii'ciilar was ]>idtlislied. 

I /■) Tile disarmament and sale of the Sumter after she had been eleven 
iiKHitiis in the port of (libraltar were the continuatio" and «'onc',usiou 
ottlie coui'se pursued np to that time, and wliicl: consistid in saviii,^' tlu> 
sjiip. lier armament and lu'icrew, Irom tiie enemy ; and these acts were as 
little in conformity with the mainteiiam-e of a real and cirectix f neutrality 
IIS tlie whole of the pi'ocetMliii,<«s from the be.i>innin,i;, and the less so 
iicciuise they were accompanied by the followin;^ ciri'iimstances in 
iiiijiiavation: 

//.) The sale of the ship v>as oidy tictifious, as appears from the 
ilm'iuiients; 

'file proceeds of the sale of the arms, ^Kie., wei'e])aid over to the treasury 
«' tlie iiisrj'.n'cnts; 

Tlie ollicers of the \'essel and the rest of her crew remained at liberty, 
and a certain number of them re-entered tihortly afterwaids the servi(;e 
oi'tlie iiisur,u('nt States. 

(/(.) According' t<? the ])riHciples of neutrality obseived on land, men 
wlio seek r«M'uji«' from rhe enemy are disarmed, and the munitions they 
liriuji' Willi them are sei/,e(l and not restored till the end of the war: the 
authorities of (libraltar oii^lit to have act«'d in like manner, or else they 
'iiiii'lit to have eomiielled the vessel with her armaiiii'iit and crew iolea\e 
;li»' jiort within a stated t'lne, providinu her with a safe (uHuluct as tal- 
is the limits of I'.ritish jurisdiction. 



Hiiii lit' i.'i I'ircniiiirc ininisti'iii'lli' ilu Ifl Jainii r Hl'ri. hi(|ii('llc litiiitr lit iliinc ilit si'joi.i' 
(Ifs MiJ^si'iiiiA Ix'llii^iTjiiits dims l>'s ))iirls iiftUrcs, est suns inirlcc : cur, 

il) Miinc saii.s \n i»iililitiitimi dc ccili' liiciiliiirc In ftmccssiuii (I'lisilc ijiii <!iit li.ii 
iiil ('tr CM «l('-.sfU'('or<l avfc li's di'voiis di'Cdiiliiiit dc la ii;;lc '2 cl dcs iniiicipcs d'ntu; 
iHiitralitc rcclh; h ctVcctncr. 

') Kii oiitrc, intcrprcicr In circulairc du :U J:iii\ icr isd-j dmis Ic sens iin'i-llc iic 
ili'Viiil coiiociiicr (|m! Ich iiinircs dcs l)cllij;fi!niis i|iii ciitrciaicnt a Tavciiii' dans Ics 
|Mrt.«: liiilaiiiii(|iics, ct 111)11 rvwK <|iii s'\ t inn vaici;t di'Ja alors, c'cst sc iiicrtrc cii di'sac- 
iDic!. >iiiiin avcc I'l icttrc, dii imiiiis avcv Icsciisci ropiit dans lcs«|iicls eel Ic ciiciihiiri' 
I'm |iiildi(''c. 

,' ! l.c dcsariiicnicnt ct la vciilc dii SnintiT mi ImjiiI tic on/c inois dc sijunr dans Ic 
iMirt dc (iilirallar I'lircnt la ((iiitiiinatiini ct la t . :icliisiiiii dii itniccdi siiivi jns(|ti'alurs. 
I'l i|ui cDiisistait a saiM'cr lU' rcnnciiii Ic vai>-.can, son annciiiciil ct sun cciuipanc; ct 
'I'Mictcs anssi fiircnt aiissi |icii cunruniics ;r iii.iinlicn il'iiiic iicntraliti' ici lie el clVec- 
'■vi'(|iic toiif If i>r(ieod('', di's Ic coimncncciiicnt, cl cela d'aiitant iiioiiis ijirils ctaiciit 
iriiiMi|ia;;iics dcs cironsiaiiccs aufrravantcs siiivanti's. 

'" I, a vcnlc du vaisscan iic I'lit i|iii' (ictivc, aiiisi iin'il appcrt d'aprcs Ics actcs : 

1.1' inddult dc la vciitc dcs ariiics, Ac I'lit vcisc dans la (.'aisse dcs iiisiir^ics ; 

lit'> (ijlicicrs (In \aisscau cl ic rcstc, dc l'«''(|iii|>a;;i' n stcrcnt cii <''ta( dc liltcrti', ct iin 
'I'l tain nomliic d'cntr"cnx rctitn rent . )>i'ii dc temps a]ii'i's, an service dcs <'tats insni'^cs. 

''I h'aiMcs Ics prinei|ies dc iienlraliti- oltscrvi's siir tcirc, les lioinincs i|iii clicrcliciit 
I'll ic|'iii;c I'liiitrc reiincini hoiii ili saniie-i ct intciin's, Ic inati'i'ici |ii'ils cnipurtcnl est 
Mi>i cl n'cst rcstitiii' ipi'a la tin dc la «jiicrrc : les antorit's dc ( iliraltar aniaicnl dii 
■'Uii' 'I'liiie iiiatiii'rc aii:il(mui'. on liicii cUcs anraiciit dii lorcer Ic iiavlrc, a\ce son ariiic- 
iiiiiit ct sun cimipa};e, a <|nittcr Ic ]»«>rt. dans nn dtdai lixi', saiif a le poiuvoir d"im .saiil- 
I'oiulitit jiiH(|ii'a;<\ liniltes dc la jnridit tioii lit'itaiiiiiqiic 



138 



I 'in 






i 111 



AK'HITKATION A'l (JKNKVA. 



lUIxniKNT. 



1. (hoat Britain has not fiiilodiii her duties, as laid down in tho tluci' 
rules, in r<'sj)ect to the Sumter, up to the t'litranee of thai vessel iut,, 
diliraltai", ami is not, therefore, responsibh^ tor the ships desti'oycd i,v 
the Siniiter. 

L*. On the otiier iiand, (Jreat Uriraiii has violated the second rule in 
affordin.in a protracted shelter to rlie Sumter, and in iiermittin,i;' flir di. 
arntament and pretended saleof that vessel in the port oi" (lihraltai. ami 
is, therefore, I'esjxuisihle Ibi' the sum for which the Snmter her ariii;i 
nmnt an<l e(piii»ment were sold. Cor the expense of wateiiin.u- her l;y the 
ships (»f the I'nited States before the waters of (lihialtar, dnrin:^ the 
whole pei'iod of the stay ot the Snmter m that port, and for the expiiis,. 
of her pnrsitit after her depaiture from that port. 

VI. — 'I'm; iMnKiMiTioN. 

(A.)— I'ACIS. 

1. This vessel was originally a I'nited States screw steamship, tin 
I'ncie I Jen, and was Imilt at Unffah* in ^SMi. 

Shortly hefoi'etlie attack on i-'orl Snmier she had hcin 
sent to t lie south coast of the iMiilci Stales. Stress of weather ol»li;;ni 
her to put into th'- Cape l''ear Kivcr. 'I'liere the insnr;>{'nts took posses 
sion of he)', and tiuiu'd her into a schooner. Shi^ wcht to sea anain mnlci 
the name of the l{ei riliutioii, and cruised in the aei/iiihorhood of the 
i>ahamas. 

'J. In the moidh of necemher, lS(i:j. she captured the Anu'iicaii 
schooner ilanover, and took her jni/.e to I'ortune Island or Lon^' (,';i,v, 
(one of the iJahamas.) 

The ca])tain of the IJetrihntioii. one Locke, alius Parker, went heloif 
the authorities of rlie port with the i)ai>ers of the Hanover, represeiitoil 
himself asthe master oi" that vessel, under the name of Washinjilon ('asc 
and stated that he had been shipwiccked on one ol the neiji'hboriii; 
islands, and that he was in distress; that In- had been bound IVom IJosioii 



(('.) — JltilMI.N 1. 

1. Lii ( ii'.nnli'-l)ii'iiiL;in' Ti'ii )i!is iiiiiiii|M('' a scs devoirs, (lofonliint tlt's triiis rJ'ijflcs, I'll 
(•(' i|iii i-oiicfiiir li' SmiiiIci- Jiis(|u';t fciitiv'i' dc cc vaisscan a (iiln'allar, ct (die ii'rst, pii: 
(■(>iisc(|ii('Mt. ]>»>■ ri'>iiiMi.-'alilc iiiiiir jcs (IcstniclKiiis dc navircs cH'cctin'M's ),ar li' Siiiiiti:. 

•J. I'ar ciiiitri'. la (iraiidc-itrciauiii' a vinli' la ivj^le "2 cm iicroi-daut iiii asilc in'.ilnnp 
ail Siiiritci' ct cii tiilcraiit Ic dc-^ariiicintiil ct la pn'tciwliic vciitc d - cc vaisscaii ilaii>!' 
]i(iir (Ic (Jjlirallar. ct idle csl,|»ai' ci>iisi';|iiciit, rcs|Mi!)sal>tc [iDiir ic prix dcvciili'il: 
Siimtci', dc siiii ai'iiicMiciit ct dc son ('•i|iii|)ciiiciit, pour Ics t'rais dc siii'vcillaiicc piii li^ 
navircs ilcs Klals-l'nis dcvanl Ics canx <lc (Jil)rallar. pcndimt tniUc la tlnn'c dn xiin! 
t,iic lit Ic Snmter dans cc iioit, ct jujur Ics t'rais dc sa ponrniiite apri's son dcpait tW " 
poll . 

i,i: r.i'.riniUTioN. 

(A.)— KAris. 

1. Cc vaisscan ctait diiiis I'ori^inc la \ap<'in' a litdicc I'l'iiclc Hen, dos fltiits-l'iiis. I'l 
avait etc constinit a Mnll'alo. en IS.'di. 

Pen tic temps avaiil rattaiinc dn fori 8iiMiler, ii avait. I'tt' ciivoyc sin' Ics eotcs iiini- 
dionales des filals-riiis. he maiivais fciiips fiddiu-ca a ciifrer dans Ic tlciivc dn (';i|ir 
Kcai'. J-a, Ics insiir<it's s'cn eniparcreiit ct Ic traiisi'ormiTcnt en sidiooncr. I! rcinit !.i 
iiier sons ic iioin dt' iv'ctiilMilion el eioisa dans le V(dsiiia>;c dcs Kaliainas. 

'i. An iiiois dc d<'ccmlirc l^'(>•i, it eaptiira le si liooncr aiiK'-iicain Ic Manovcr. el aimii' 
sa prise a I'tlc I'^orlnnc mi Loiiy; ("ay, (rnnc des Maliaimis.) 

I.c capitainc de la Rctiileition, noiiinu'' liOeUe, kUkh I'ai'kcr, sc pri-seiila aver l''^ 
pnpiers dn navire Ic ilanover aiix aiitorites dn port, sc lit passer pmir ic patron lU-f^ 
imvire sons le iioiii dc Wasliiiifrton Case, ct rapporfa (|ifii avail iait iiaiil'ia<;e a riiniili- 
!ieH voisincs ct (piMl I'tait en ([(Hresst^; qii'll avait ote destini'i de iioston h la llaviun 



OPINIONS OF Mil. .ST.K.MI'FLl. 



i:5!i 



•0 IIii\;i:i!i) with liiicrty to seek iinotlicr iiiiirkot; tlint iiis iiisfiiictions 
iiiitlioiizi'd iiiiu lo dispose of his (".ir^n'o, iiiiil to iniikc iisi- of thi' proceeds 
III takt' in a caryo of salt, and to run the bhjckaih' willi it. 

Tin' ship's pap''is '.vciv ('x:;iiiin('d ;iiid louiid to he in confoiinity with 
Ills (h'rhiratioiis ; they were inch'cd made out in the uaMic ui'lhc mas- 
ter. Washin;;ton Case, antl it was iinihT this name tliat I.oikc \v,is ad- 
mitted into the port with the Hanover, and tliat tiie ship's e,)ri;-o was 
I'xclian.ued for one of salt. 

:). Later, on aei-ount of remonstranees nnuh' by an Anierie;ni ai^cnt, 
Locke was prosecuted at Nassau, on account of this act. The iirst lime 
lie was reU'ased on bail, and siu'ceeih'd in escaping;' tiial by l.dvin;4' \\\<i\\l 
■,m\ forfeiting' his bail, (October. bSti.},) The second time, lia\iu,iji' nmde 
the same voya,u(' atiaiu, iu' was acquitted I>y the c(>Mrt for want of evi- 
liciice to ))ro\(' his identity, (l''ebi nary, ISi).").) 

1. l*re\ious to these judicial pioeeedinjis the Retribution had alsoeap- 
tiacd. in the m'ij^hborhood of Castle Isl.cnd, the Anu'rican briij;' I'hiuly 
Fisher, cai'ryin;.; a (*ar{>"o of su.uar. 'I'lie master of this latter vessel, 
named Sti'ples, relates what happened in the folhrvvin,i;' muuner: 

Tlie prize ];;'.viu'>' been made, the capt(U' made an arran^enu'ut with 
seine wreckers and tln'u stranded tlie vessel. alt"r whiidi the wreidci'rs 
took possession of her; and she was then brou.uht i)a(dj to rjon.-;" Cay. 
iicconipanied by the IN tribution. 

The mastei of th(> I'hnily Fislun* was not allowed to take })ossession 
III his ship a;;ain until he had paid ~t'<) per cent, of the pric(^ of the 
carjio, and ."».'j.\ ])er cent, of the value of the vessel, to the wreckers. 
When he had made this payment he was rei)Iaced in possession by tiie 
nillcetor; the aul horities (lechuvd that the law would not allow the 
iTiiiser to touch the bri,u', but that, even if they wished, they had no 
moans of prevcntinj;' it ; ami, lindiiij:' liinrself under the jiuus of tlie 
I'liiiscr, he had preferred i)ayin^' what was asked of him. 

In the Uritisli counter case it is admitted that this statement may be 
true, that tliere had been a conspiracy bet'.ceu the cai»tain of the iJet- 



■f!! 



ivir ruciiitr <li' clii'i't-jicr uii iiutrc iiiiirclii- ; hhi' srs uislructiinis l':iut(iris:iitiit ;'i (lispuser 
li' la cMtituisoii. ct it (Ml oiiipioyor le prodnii 'lire iiii ciiiiry'i'iiU'iit di' scl v\ u iravcrMer 
ii' liiiiciis avi'c (•(• cliariii'iiiciil . 

Li's iiapicr.s ilii iia\ ire I'lui-iit cxniiiiiit's el, Ihium-- coiilctrmrs aiix (ir'ilaijiti"iis; ils 
'taiciil en ( ll'i'l ail iimu dii patinii Wasliiii^^roii {':{><■. ; I r I'lit muis fc iiom (|ii.- Locko 
lut mliiiis ail jioit avcc If llaiiDVcr ct (|iit' la carjial.siHi iln iiav in- I'lit fliaiii;' i' coiitrc uiif 
ilf.scl. 

:i. I'liis tard. a la suilc <!(- di'iionc-iatiniis laid's par iiii a;;cnl aiiioricuiii, Locki' I'lit 
|iimisiu\i ell justice a Nassau, a cause dc ce fail : la iiitininf lois, it I'lit i. I;V In- sous 
' iiiitio!:, I't iciissit a sc soiist rairc a la prori-dure cii iirciiaul la tiiirc cf ali.iiidttnn int sou 
laiitiiiMiii'iiiciu, (oclohre lsi;:{.) La sccoiidi' tois. a \ aiit rd'ail Ic inciiu' viiNam'. il I'lit 
:i'i|!iilir' par Ir trihiiiial, laiitc dc |)ii'iivcs cmistalanr son idciititc, (J. \ ricr l--lir).) 

I. Aiiti'iii'iirciiiciit ii ci's proci'dcs jiidiciaircs, Ic Kctrilnition avait aiissi captiiir duns 
li' viiisiiiaj;c di- Castle Island Ic l)ii(dv aniericaiii l>iiiil\ I'lslier. portaiit iiin' ciirffalsdii 
ill' siu'ie. Lc patnm ile ee dcniier vaisscaii. iioiiiiiit' Staples, laconte cc ipii s'est passr'' 
ill' la uiaiiiere siiivaiite : 

La inisf laite, le caideiir etii-it entrt' CM relaticui avee (|ii(d(|iies ivr< ■ ' ' i avait cii- 
Miitf I'liif ('•(•litiiier le navirc ; apivs (pioi les irndiirx s'eii etaieiit i;uii....s; unsuitt; il 
•i\ail i't('' raineiit' a f-mi^' (Jay sons la eondnite dn Ixetiiliiitioii, 

Liii, patron dc rilniily t'islier, ii'avait t'li' 'mi <'tat de reprendre possession de son vais- 
^'■aii i|u'il ii'i'iit pase an\ irccc/icc'* ;">(! pour cent dn pi'i\ de la c;irj;aison, et ',V.\\ pon. cent 
li' la \ aliur dn vaissean. liorsipi'il eiii depost- ce paieineiit, il a\ ait I'di' leinis en p<>s- 
^I'ssiiiii p.'ir le collect eiir ; les antofiti's avaieiit diMdare ipie les lois iie peniiel tiaieiit pas 
111 (•l■(li^,l Mir de toiielier all Iti'lcU, niais iine, (jiuiml ineiiie elles le voiidrai lit, elles n'aii- 
I'lii'iit aiieiiii nioytMi d^^ I'ciiipeelier ; el. sn Innivant sous les ciiuous dii croiseiir, il aviiit 
Hiieiix aiiiit' payer ce, (pi'ou liii dcinaiidail. 

IJiUis II' contre-UKMUoiie luitauni(|iie. on recoiiiiait tiue cct expost- jieiit etre vrai, ipi'll 
y iiViiit cu (!()iuplot cutre le capitaiue ilii K'ctriluitiou et les inrrkcrx e» vuo d'cxtoi<pier 




m 











40 



AKIJITKATION AT (iKXKVA. 



vibiitioii iiiul the urcokovs, with a view to extortino- money (Voni tin 
iMi.u'. fi'om wliii'li, as a Diize. lie would otliorwiso have been al)h' to oli 
tain nothinf-;; but tliat no complaint iiad 1)('<mi made a.i:ainst tii( 
authorities of tho colony, and that, since then, nine years had elaitscd, 
."). The I'etiibution tlMMcnpon went to Xassau Uay. was sold thereon 
tiie 10th ol' Ajtril, isd.'!, ther(> chan.u'cd her name to that of the l^ttii, 
and both these transactions were rei^istered by the autiiorities at Nas- 
sau. On her liist \(>ya<i'e to New York as a transjjort she was rcco". 
ni/ed as the I'ormer Jtetributioa, and was seiz<Ml bv the authoiities iiiid 
sold. 

(B.) — CONSIDKIJATIONS. 

(A.) — Wli((t iooJc place rcspectiiitj the Hanover. 

TJje Brilish authoiities are not responsil)!!' in this matter, since tli(\ 
were <lecei\<'d in i(',t!ar<l io the entry and sale of the prize at Lon^' (';iy. 
and since, from tlie manner in which this Irand was co'mmitted, tlicy 
cannot be acct:s< d of culpable neji'liji'ence. 

Nor can any responsibility b(M»ttached to the subse(|uent ac(piitt;il, 
foi' this act. of Captain Locke by the courts at Xassau, inasnuu-h as i; 
is iu)t shown that there were any evident defects in tlu; proceed in,i;,s di 
the Jud<:nient. 

(1).) — W/iaf 1o:)k place rcspectiny the ijii>>lii Fi.slicr. 

it appears to be proved that, in IJritish Jurisdiction, by means of n 
conspiracy between the captain of the (;ruiser and somi^ of the crew ot 
the wi'cckinji' \essels. exactions w<'re i>ractice<l on this vessel after sin 
lia<l been cajttured and brou.uht i'lto the waters and port of Lon;; (lav; 
and that th<' authorities of the port were aware of it. tho, a. fair having, 
so to sjieak, taken phu'c before their eyes; that, notwithstandin;^', tlusi 
authorities did not take an.v stej)s, either with a view of aiVonliii; 
efficient protection, or with a view of instituting judieiai pro(!eediii},'.\ 



lie I'lU'jji'iit iui l)iici<. (lout il n'liuriiit sans ct'lii rieii jm n'tina- conuMi' pris(>; inais (jUi! 
n'y iivail pas en dc plaiiiti; portci' coiitrc ics autoiitcs colonialt's. ct (pu-, dcpiiis Im- 
iiLMiC alls s'('tai('iit i'<nulr..s. 

."). L;'i-(li'h.sus. li' li'i'lrntiUioM sc I'ciidif dans la baio di* Nassau, y fiit vfiidn lo 1" iiviii 
' -ii:;, y i'!iaii;;i'a son noni cii (•clui do "Kttii."' ct I'liii ct fautrc dc cfs actcs f'liri'iit ('iin';;i>- 
tri's jiar li's autdiitis dc Nassau, l.ois dc son jiicniicf soyaf^ca Ni'W Vorli, v.u ipuili! 
dc transport, il y I'nt rt'connn coniinc I'ancMt'n l»ttriliiilio'i. ct I'nt s(''(picsti'c jiarl ■ 
aiitoritcs ct V(;iidii. 

( M.) — CoNSlDKIJANT.-. 

{ .\.) C(! qui sf iKissii iiniirn:«iil Ir nuiivrir. 

Los autoritcs In ilanni(pics n'cn sont pas rcsponsablcs. jjuisiprdlcs I'liirnt froiiii"- 
(plant a I'ciitri'-i* ct a la vmic \\o la jirisc a l>onj; Cay, I't (pic, dc la nianiiTc dont vfVv 
tiDiiipcric tin coniinisc, il iic pent Iciir ('"tri^ rcpioclK' dc iK'n'lincncc coiipaldc. 

II n'y ;i pa-> imn plus dc in oi if dc i(Nii()iisal>ilil(- dans ra((piitlcinciit siil(S('Mpiciit, \m\: 
vv fait, (III captaiiic l.ockc jiar Ics trilmnanx dc Nassau, ]niis(pril n'cst pas ctalili i]"' 
y ait CII (Ics dclanls I'vidcnls dans la iir()C(''iliirc ct ht Jiii;ciiiciit. 

(H.) Ci' qui xc jKinsd (onccriKuil r f''milji Fiilicr. 

II par.'iit cDiistah'' (pic dans l;i jiiridiction hritannicpic, an nioNcii d'lin coniplot tuin' 
ciitrc Ic capitainc dii cioisciir ct (pichpics itoniincs (r('iinipa.'.;(' dc bateaux dc saiivclii'.' 
il I'nt coiiiinis dcs exactions contrc vv. vaisscan, apr(s (pi'il cut (>tt' ('aptnr(' ct aimi' 
dans Ics eaiix ct Ic port dc I.oii); Cay ; ( i (pic Ics aiit(Mit('s dii iioit cii avaicnt coiiniii- 
saiicc, Ics clioscs s'l'-lant, |)oiir ainsi dire, p.-isx'cs siuis leiirs yciij, ; (pic, iKHiobstaiil cl' 
CCS antoriti's n'av aicnt pas fait unc scmIc d(''iiiai'(dic, ni en viic d'aceordcr iJi'oli'ctii'" 
ofI'c(jtivc, ni cii VIIC d'cntainer <les p(Hiisuitcs /pidieiaircs. iii en faisaiit lappoi't iiii\ 



OI'IMONS OF MR. ADAMS. 



141 



or i!.v i'«'Portiii;i- to their siipcrioi'.s what was taUiii-u' place; that, inoie- 
tivci", ami as a st'(|uel to these aets, on tlie lOth ot /vpiil. 1S(»;5, seven 
weeks alter tlie events which liad talceii phice. tiu^ sale and change of 
iiiiuie of the lietribution "took phice, and that Ihese transactions were 
lejiistered by the authorities at Nassau. 

(C.) The objections nnnle by (Jreat IJiitain, that it was not until 
nine ye.irs a'ter these acts took place that a claiai is nlad(^ with respe<'t 
to the I'hnily l-'islier, and tiiat Loni;- ( 'ay isa distant and little fre'pn-ntcd 
|)();t, are iiiiniaterial, Itecanse the nature of the oll'cnsc coininiited at 
Loll;;' ('ay made it the duty of thi' authorities to interfere olliciaily. or 
iurcp(n'tto their superiors; and because, even if at the tinu' of the 
coiiuuission of the olfense, there was not on the spot a force to prevent 
It, it was, lu'vertheless, the duty of the authoiities, ininu'diatcly altcr- 
uiu."., to take every step to repair it, excn that of insisting- that nuMs- 
iin's slnudd be taken a<4ainst the bclli,u'erent I)y whom the cruiser was 
counnissioned. 

.11 iXi.MKNI'. 

(ireaV Hritain <lid uoX fail t(» observe her duties as a neutral with 
icsncct to the facts which concern the Hanoxcr: on the otiier hand, 
ill iv.i:aid to the Kmily Fislicr. she did not lullill lier duties as a neu- 
tral, and is I'esponsible on tiiis iicad. 



OPINIONS O F M U. \ \) A M S . 

1. — 1)1 !•: DILKilONCi;. 

These words, which are found in the lirst and third of the rules 
luescriiied by the treaty of \\'ashin,i>ton, for the .u'overn- 
Mieiit oi' the aibitrat(us in makin,i;' up their judj>inent. have 
^iveu I'ise to much di.scussion in the picparatory aryiiinents of flic 
(i})]i()sin<>- parties. 



;iMt()iit'''s sii|ifri«'nrfs dc cc i|iii hi; passait; que Iticii plus, ct cii siiilt; di- (('s laits. If Itt 
iivrii l^ii;!, .si'iii .St iiiiiiiii'M itpivs Ics <-vi-ii('iiit'ntsi|iii avairnt cii lieu, la vciUi- ct tc cliaii;;!'- 
iiiciit fill iioiii (Ir l'i<'tiil>iUi(iu s'eltt'ctncrtMit ct <|iio ccs aclcs I'lirciit cnrcifi.slrc's jiar to 
uiitoiitcs a Nassau. 

({".) I.f» ohjiiliiniy ijiic jirrxtnhhi iliiniiU-Uri Idijiu — 

(^iic cc n'cst (|u<; lu'uf alls ajiics Ics fails a('c(Hii|ilis (|Mc I'ou irclanic au sujct ilc 
ri'.iiiiiy l'"islu'i' ct <|iic l,(>n;i Cay csf, iiu imit ]n-\\ lVcc|iicntc ct I'-caili'— m'oiU pas (fiui- 
]imtiui(c. jiarcc i|Ut' la iialurc ilu dt'lit cdMiiiiis a I, on;;- Cay fai.sail jiux autoiiti'-s mi de- 
voir irintcrvciiir <rot'(icc ou dc t'aii<; iap|iiirt anx aiit<tritt''s siiptTiciii'cs, ct que quaiid 
inriiic, an UKiiiicnt dc la coinuiisslou dii didit. I'tin n'avait pas siir place la force dc i'oii- 
lii'L'licr, Ics autiti'ifcsavaicnt, cciicudaiit, In dcvuir di^ I'airc iuiinciliatcniciit apii's tmUes 
Ics lit'iiiarclics pour y I'ciiicdier ct niciiic ccliii d'iiisistcr poiirqifil t'lit pris des uu-siiics 
iDiilii' Ic liclliH;( rant, conmicttiint dii cioiscur. 

(('.) — .lr(a;.Mi:M. 

l.a (Jiandc-nrctaKiie ii'a pas manque ii ses oltli^atioiis dc iiciil rat ilc reiati\ emeu t au\ 
I'aits (pii coiicerueiit Ic llauovcr; par coutic. iioiir ce (|ui eouceinc li'.iuily l''islicr, die 
ii'a jms satislait a ses devoirs dc uitulntlili'-, ct cite t!st rcspoiisalde de ce cla't'. 



I ■: 



m:s ''injKs i>n.i(ii;x<i'.s." 

Ccs Miots, (|ui Nc ti'ouvcnt duns lit preniii-rc v.l dans la tioisicnn^ des I'cjrles prcsc: Itcw 
piir ic train'' de \Vasliiny;ti>n, ptuir scivir dc <;uide aiix arl)ilics, pour lornicr Iciirjiif^c- 
iiiciii, (nit doiiuc lieu iV !■ neiiup do diseussious dans Ics exposes prc|»aiat()irca i\v^ pai- 
tif's oppowintcs. 



142 



AUniTK'ATlOX AT (iKNKVA. 



1 the sido of (ii'cat liritain, an ('X|»laiiati(>ii of tlicin is f;iv(Mi in tlic ■ ..iiihcrc " v 



I 




Or 

'.Hli, KHli, and I UIi |)ro|)o.sitions, laid down on the L'k!: and L'.-)tli i»ii 
of tlic case. 

The snl)i('('t is aj;ain consnltMcd in pa.u'('s IM and L'l' of tin- voiiinu. 
railed tiio Coiuilcr Case. 

It is a^ain ii'iciird to in tlio Stli and !)th pages of the \-olnine eallcil 
the Aijjinnient or Snniniaiy. 

Ijastly, il is treated in a nH)re general way in tiie ar.i>nnient presented 
1>.V !Sii' iionndell I'ahner, eonnsel on behalf of Her liritannie Majesty, on 
the L'r)th Jnly last. 

On the side of the I'nited States, an explanation is inesented in pa;;ts 
l."»() to l.")S of the volume called The Case, 

Jt is a.nain referred to in the sixth paj^'e of the Counter Case. 

The sul)jeel is ajiain treated in paj^cs ;>1(> to -'ti'i.' of the Ar^niunenl di 
Si; miliary. 

i a tly, it is discussed in a more s*'n<'i''>l ^\''>.v in tl'<' arj^unu'nt suii 
niitt(d l>y the eouiisi'l on behalf of the Cnited States on the ."»th andiilli 
ol' An^yiist. 

I'he olijeetion which I am constrained to admit as existing' in my niiinl 
t(» the (Iriiish discussion is, that it ai>pears to iiddress itself for flic 
most part to the establishment of limitati<»ns to the meaning of the 
words rather than to the e\|>lanation of the obligations wliieli tlic.v 
imply. 

Tile olijeetion which 1 am constrained to '.'wn to the Ameiican deliiii 
tion is that 1 do not lind the word "due" used in tin' sense aitriijutcil 
to it in any dictionary of I'stablished authority. 

Yet it does not appear to me so dillicult to lind a suitable meaning lor 
these wonls. l'eriiai»s it may have been overlooked fnnn the very fiict 
of its sii!ii»licity. 

1 understand the word diligenee to signify not merely work, bat, to use 
a lamiliar phrase, work with a will. 

T'he force (»f the (jualilyiiig epitiiet "due" can be best obtained by 
tracing it to its origin. All lexicographers derive it from tlu' Liiliii 
verb " debere." which itself i.s a eompound of two woids "Mle" and 



" XI 



Dii coti' (Ir l;i (iraiKlc-liri'ta^iie, ifiiii' fXiilic:i(ii)ii I'll csl (Iipiuh'c (i;uis iiis i)""', !()"" 
1 1'"' i)iu|M)sit ions ]iiis('cs, paurs ril ct ■,'."> till ■■l.'asf." 

I.csiijcl i'.'st <li- III 111 scan (•ttiisidcrt', pa^ic-; "Jl ft '-i'-l. du volimir apju'li' li- '• Cniiiitcr-rasc 

II y rsl ciicdii' fail a!lii>ii>ii, |ia,u;cs > el '.(. ilii voiiiiiir iimiiiui' ■■ Aiifiiiiniit "' mi " Sin 
mary." 

I'iiiliii ilisf trailc (I'liiic niaiiicn' ]iliis ".jcnnalc daiL.-. Ic iilaiilnyiT )irfsi'iiti'' jtai S 



noniiiu 



'aliMiT, ctiiiscillcr (If ,sa .Majrsti- In ilaiiniiiiu 



."i jiiilli't (IciuiiT. 



Diiculi' (Its I'^tats-I 'iiis. mil' cxiiiira' 'Hi ot pii'sciili'c. jia^cs l.Mi a 15^ du voli 



iiii>' 



lloliiiiic Ic •• ('a^ 

II y est t'licdif I'ail alliisioii, pajrc (i tin '•('(Minli-r-iasf.'' 

I.c Niijt't est tic iioiivcaii traitf, jiajifs liKi a '.V>\i tit- '• TAi j^uiiiciit " dm ■• Suniiiiaiy." 

I''.iitiii il ', st ilisciilc irniif iiiaiiici'c jiliis jri'iit-ralf duns Ic plaitloycr pn'sciiti' par li» 
fonscillt IS tics l^tals-l'iiis, Ic.s ;'» cI ti atnit. 

l.'olijcctitiM ipif Jc sills t)ldiy;i> d'ailmcltrc coniiiii' i.'\istiiut dans iiitni esprit a ri'y;iiril 
lies aruiiincnts aiijtiais est. tpi'ils sciiil)lciit s'appliipicr pour la i>liii)art a otaldir tics !;■ 
inilaliinis dii sens dc ccs nitits. pluti'd tpic tic ri)l)lii;al i'lii ipi'ils iinpliipicnr. 

I.'ii'ijcrtiini t|nc Jc snis ol>lit;(' tic fairc a la dclinitiitn anu'ricaiiic est tpic jc nc trniivr 
pas Ic iniit •' line ■' employe ilaiis Ic sens tpii y est at liilitn'-, tiaiis aneun tlit'tioiinain 
il'iinc anloriii' reconiine. 

Cepenilani il ne me seiiil>K< pas si tlilHeili! de tronver iiii sens eoiivfii.ahlo poin ri> 
mills. I'cnI-etrc a-t-il i-cliappi- ]iar le tail, mt'iiie tic sii simplicitt^. 

.lo ctnnpiciids tpie Ic nit)t "tlili^rcnce" siy;iiilie, iitm pas simpleiiieiit a^ir, mnis a^ir<li' 
Iton Clear. 

I.a loiiti tie rc|iitlietn t|iialilifative "iliie" pent etie iiiieiix troinee t'ti reinontaiiMi 
sini ori^iiie. Tous Ics lexicofrraidics la t'oiii iliMiver tin verbe latin (/(fct/r. ipil est Im 



liiire of or J 

Assiiminj 
.U'p. The 
;iliiitlier, til 
•• Dcltere," i 
ivliicli is etp 
thus (leline( 

Kicliardst 
liiis a right 

Wciister: 
iliie iVom m 
!ia' to pay. 

1 liave se; 
tlii'iii. as tin 

Hence it 
;;i'n('e" i, til 
|i;iity may <; 

r.i'it. ir"tlii 
nafiire and < 
llic Jadgmei 
or(lin;iry trai 
tni tlie' iaitl 
|i;iity to win 
il! the sense 
:'. coiitested ( 

If this vie 
lows that, wil 
iiilcs laid dt>\ 
ii'naid to eei 



!iii'iii(' fi)in])osc I 

!■'! tV;nii"iis : an 

Km ailincttaiii 

..I |irciiiicii' ini 

iiii|ilii|Uccii-j||en 

• tlMlWC." J-",ii I 

1-11 .•ili,;;lais, il c.- 

lliiiiiiidsnii : • 

li'Miaiiilcr, tie n 

\Vfli>icr: " 1) 

|||''mii fiiiitrat.J 

I I'l'liiiiii'r coniint 

•l";ii I'liiTcln- II 

I !-'■ tout i|iic rcpi 

I>i' la (111 lien 

^'lii'iix (111 a (|i 

liniit. 

Mais si t-ettc ( 

i'"ti'ii(liic dc CI 

;'i,:;i'iiicai on 1(^ 

''■•' tnnisaclions 

I plisscnu'iit lidt^'t 

1 1 a ('•le eonti 

'liaiict? d'oliteiii 

**! ofllc man 

I^Diivcnieinciit 1 

l"K(^CS(lailS If t 

'■aaiiii's fhosi'iJ 



OI'IMONS OF MW. AiiAMS. 



14:5 



■m 



.•halMTC," wliicli iiifans "(lunsi dc iilio liiiWorc" — tiiat is. in i']ii^lisli, to 
Imreof oy /t''>in (inothir. 

Assiimiiiji' tliis to be tlic pi iiiiiirx inciininu', I now come U\ tlic socoiul 
stcn. The first liiiviiiji" iiiii>li(Ml s()iiu'tliiii,u' ivccivcd hv one pcisoii IVoiu 
aiititlicr, the second iniplics ('(luidly an oblination incmrcd tln'ichy. 
• Dclteic," in Latin, means to owe. In Freneli it hecoiiies •' devoir," 
aIucIi is ecjuivahMit to del»t. to duty, or to ohliiiation. In iMi^lisli it is 
thus (Iclined hv two eminent antliorities : 

KicliaidsoM : '• That wliieii is owed; wliieli any one c.njilit to have, 
li;is ii ii;.;ht to (U-mand. chuni. or ]tossess." 

"\V('l».ster : '"Owed; tiiat oiij;ht to lie paid or (h)ne to anotlu'r ; that is 
line iVoin me to anotiiei', wldeh conti'act, Justice, or propi'iely reipiires 
MM' to pay. ami wliicli lie may Justly chiim as liis ri^^lil." 

! have searclied a ,ureat variety ol" otiier auliioiities, iiut do not cite 
iliciii, as they only repeat the same idea. 

lit'iire it may be inlened that the sense o'' the woi'ds "due dili 
^I'lice" i. that of "earnest lalior owed to some other parly," which that 
|i;irty may claim as its ri.yht. 

r.iit. if this (U'linitioii be com "(led, it must naturally Ibllow that the 

iiiitiut' and extent of this oblij^atioa ciinnot be measiiicd e\clusi\ely i)y 

ilic JiKl.unient or jileasure of the paity subject to it. If it could, in the 

iiidiiiiiiy transactions between individuals, there would belittle security 

Ml tlic faithlul performance of ol.li;iations. If it were nol that the 

i party to whom the obli<;ation has beiMi ^iveii retains a ii,iiht to claim il 

■ ill the sense tliat he undeistajids it, his |)rospect of obfainiiiji Justice in 

;, coMtested case would be but sli;uht. 

If this view of the ineaninji of the words be the correct one, it fol- 
lows tlint, when a neutral .uovernmeni is Ixaind.as in the liist liiid tliini 
rules laid down in tlu^ treaty Ibr our i;uidance, to \\!<(' "iUw diliL'.cnce" in 
ifuanl to certain thinji's. it incurs an oblijiatioii to .--ome exteiaal party. 



• i 



41 1 



!iii'iiic coiiiiios*' (Ic (li'ux mots (If ct liiiliirc. ci' i|iii siiiiiii'K ijiui-ii df itVio hahi re — ri's! w-dirc, 

i"i triiiii;;iis : avoir on liiiir il'iiii aiilrr. 

V.u iiiiiiii'ltiiiit Hill' «'i'ci I'st la lu'i'itiii'ii' sinMiliciitiim,.i'iii'ri\i' i;iaiiitciiant a la scccniilc. 

..I |ii'ciiiicn' iMi|ili(|iiaiit inriiiit' ii'isomu' a n-rii (|iU'li|iic cIiiim- iriin aiilr(\ la srcoiiil" 

liiililiilUfcuaU'iiM'iit (iiruiu'til)li;;iitions"fii est siiivii-. Dilnrc, en latin, sl^iiilir, i-n aii!;iai.s, 

I • toowi'." I'll IVaiivais. il (lev ic lit "tlcvdii," i'('((iii i'i|ui\aut a di^tlt'. ili'Voir on oltli^iation. 

Km .-iiiulais, il est (li'liiii aiiisi jiar dciix aiittniti's (■■niiiii'iiti"^ : 

iIiih:inlsoii :''(.'<■ tini «'st ili'i ; <•(■ (|iii' iiiii'liiu'mi iloit avoir: it (|ii'il a li' droit dc 
'I'Mmiidi'i', dc rt'clamcr on di^ jiosst'dcr." 

Wi'li>ti'r : '■ I In ; ('(' (|iii doit rt re jiayc oil (ait a iiii aiilri' ; cc i|u"(in doii :i uii aul r.' : w 
'1111111 coiitiat.Ja jiistii'c on la pi'oprii'lc cxij;!' iiiic \v ]ia.\i'. el cc i|ii ii ]iiiil jiisli'ii.t'iil 
inliiiiiiT coiimio son droit." 
■i'.ii I'hi'vrln' nil '^laiid moiiiImi' d'autii'sanloiiti's, iiiais jc iic Ics citr pas. pan-c (|n'('llcs 
'• lout (|Mr ri'pt'tcr la niriiii' idi'c. 

He l;'i on jifiit inlV'icr (iiic Ic sriis dc-, mots •• dni- dili;:.i'ii(i' " est cclni d'iintra\ail 
lii'iix (111 a (|in'l(|iic autre pt I'.soiinc. (|iir cciti' pcisoniu' jti'iil rccluincr coinnic .son 
i limit. 

M;iis si (.'cttc di'iinitioii est adniisf, il d(»it natnrcllciiiciil s riisiiix re (|iic l;i iiatiin-ct 
i"ti'ii(liic dc cfltc oliIi;iiUion iif pcuNcnt pas rtrt' ostiiin'i's cxclnsivciiicnt isdon it- 
,!ii,:;tiiii'iir oil Ic plaisir dc la iicisoniic (|iii y csl .soniiiisc. Si cda clail possililr daiis 
II s tiaiisactioiis ordiii.'iircs cntrc individiis, il y aiiiait pen dc M'cnrili' |ioiir I'acco'in- 
j |ili>si'iii('iit lidclc dcs olilijiatioiis. Si cc n'otail •|ii»' la pcisoniic cuvcrs lat|nillc i'ol.lijj;a- 
j I'liii a ('tt' contractcc coiisciVc Ic droit dc la rt'tdainci- dans Ic sens oil cUc TciitiNid. sa. 
'liaiicc d'oUtciiir jnstii'i! dans nn cas coiitcst<'' nc scrait ipic lc:;cic. 

^! ct'ttc nianici'c d'cnvisaj^cr Ic sens dcs mots est cxaetc. il s'l'iisiiit <|ii(' lur.siia'nn 

[;'oiivi'iiM'iiicnt iienlrc est tenii, comiiie dans la inciiiicic »'t dans la lioisicinc ic^lo 

I'H'iOc.s dans Ic ti'aiti' pour nous servir dc "iiidc, d'excifcr "due dili^iciicc" a ;'. >>;iviil dc 

'itiiiiii's chosi's. il eiioonrt enveis hiicIhiic autre paitic nne ol li^ai.ua d"iii u n'. st 



; i 




i • 

' 1 






r, 


]■' 


H'U 



I ;■ 



i,mi 







' I 




(Hi 



144 



AHIUTKATION AT (iKNKVA. 



tli(^ iiiituio iiiul extent of wliicli it is not (MUiipctcnt to it to iiiciisiuc ex 
clnsivcly liv its own will ninl plciisnic 

Vet tin* iissMininion tliiit it is conipctcnt apiu'ius to \\\o. to iiiidcilic lii.. 
whole rxiciit o!' the IJiitisli position in this controvci'sy. 

It niiiv, in(h(Ml, he nllirMicd thiit no sov<'i('i,i;n powci- in the lii;;t rcsoii 
is ii('coniit;il>i(' to iiny olhcr lor the icsnlts oT the excicisf of itsnwn 
Ju(l;ini('nt, iinivcd at in jn'ood laith. 

'I'his proposition may he adniittctl to be trnc in ])oint of fact; iiiii ii 
is olivions that procctMlinj^s nn(U'r it .^ain no sanction nnik'i any law 
hnt that of snpciioiily in i>hysical loicc 

1\> escape this alternative, icsort has lieen had to an atteni))t at deli 
nitioii ol' a s\steni ol' ii,u]its and oblij^ations, to which tiie asscm ni 
civili/ed nations inipaiis anthoiity in the rei^idation of their i('»*ipr(M;il 
dnties. 

I'lnU'i' thai system all the nations rei;o,uni/,in;;' it are jdaced on a pci 
fectly e(|ual footing', no matti'i- what tin» natnre of their relative loicc, 
To hori'ow a sentencr IVom tin' liritish connter c.ise — 

llcr .M.iji's)y"s u;ii\ I'l'iiiu. ill Uiiosvs (if iiu disl iiicl iciii ln'lw.'i-ii more (li;;iiitiMl ;uiil li«. 
(lijiiiiticd |ii)\vris; it rci^iirdM all sdvt-ri'ijrn shitcs as ciijciyiiiii ('i|iial riu'lils, and f'i|u:i!l\ 
siili/n'.'! to all nrdiiiaiy iiilrnial i.'iial olilitiation^ : and il is (ii inly inTsiiadcil liial Mn iv i« 
no Niali' ill lluio|M' or AiiPTica \viii( li would lie \\ iUiiiy; to idaiiii or ai'ci'pt any iiiiiiiiiiiin 
ill tliis r,>s|u'(t on ilic i^ruiiiitl of its inrciiority lo otlirrs in cslriil , military I'oicf. ui 
jioiiiiliition. 

Adinittiii.u' this position in its fullest extent, it nuiy, at the sanu' tiiin-, 
he ailirnied that, if Her Majesty's <i'overnnieiit were to enter into a ('(tii 
tract with these vaiions states, as a neutral powe!,t() use <lne tliliji'ciici 
in certain enu'r,u<'nci('s, not one ev«'M of the smallest of tlieni would fail 
to deny that Iler ."Majesty's ,i;»(verninent was tlu^ exclusive Jndj^'e of lin' 
measure of its (thiioations, contracted under those words. 

What is then the rule by which the actinil i)erforinanee of this duty 

jias comiM'ti'iit iioiir ist iiiicr (■x<diisiv(MiU'iit, d'apii-s sa V(donti' proprt! ct son )>oii jiiiii^ii 
la nalnif ft r(''i('ndiic. 

I'l'ln'iidaiit la sii|i|iosition (in'il est (•oiiiiicicnl nif scniblc srivir dc liaso a toiitc i:i 
position annlaisc dans cilic rontroNcrsc. 

Onjiciii en I'll'i't alliniicr (|iraiiciiiu! |niissaiici' soiivcraim* v.n ilofnicr rcssort 11:1 1 
rcndrc coniptc a iinc autre jioiir li-s n-Miltats dr rcxcicicc ili; isoii |)ropr(? jiij^i-nifiit i;ii: 
lU' lionnc I'oi. 

("I'Kf pro)(o>iti(Hi )>ciit rtii' adinisc roiiiiiii' vrair cii I'ai!. in.iis il est ('crtain tpriiiH 
condiiitc <iiii s'y conloiiiii' iic ;j;a;4n(' aiifiinc sactioii (rainiiuf ioi si ci'. n'l'st, di' ccUf (["11111 
siipi'rioiilf I'll I'oicc physiipif 

sv 



I'oiir ('rliaiip'.'r a ii'tlf aiti'iii;iti\i' on a cii r.-i'oiirs a iini! tciitativc, ])iMir di'diiiir uii 
..sti'iiu' til' droits ct d"iildii;at ions, aiii|iii'l ras->i'iitiiiit'iit tlii.s nations ciAilisrus doiiui 
jiutoi it('' dans h'. ri"j;ltMn('nr di' Iciirs devoirs n'ciproi[iics. 

D'apri's ee sysieiiie, loiites les iialioiis (pii le, i'<'eoiiiiaisseiit sont; plaiM'es siir m 
piod parlaitciiieiit I'^^al, iriiiiiiorte la nature de leiir foi'ee relative. I'oiir t!ini>riintii 
illH' plirasi' (111 •■eounter-case'' aiinlais; 

''lie <;on veriieiuent de sa Majeste . . . lie coiinait aiieiiiie distinction eiitif di^ 
puissances pins 011 nininsidcvci's en di^uiti': il rcnaiitc tons les I'tats soiiveiains I'diiiiii' 
jouissanf dc droits ('naiix. eomine e|^aieiiieiit assujettisa toiites les olilijifations ortli- 
nairesinlcriiatioiialcsMi a la I'criiiecoiivii'tioii tpril n'est pas en I'liwope 011 en Aniericpu. 
nil f:eiil ('tal, ipii veiiillr |ii('tcadre iii aeii'iili^r a ci-t I'lfaid iiiieuiie exeiii|)tioii 111 iliv.. 
snr son intcriorili' relative coiiinie territoire, coinniit piiissunei) iiiilitaire on ccniiiin' 
population." 

En adiiicttant ei'ttc position dans toiite son ctt'iidiie, on i)eiit alliriner en ineine temp' 
«jue, si le iioiivi'riieniciit <le saMaJeste dcvait i'aire nn contrat iivoi; ces tlivers t't.it^ 
eoniiiK^ piiissaiici' miit re pour exereer "due dilijience "' d.'iiis eerlaines eireonstaiiei's. il 
n'est i»as iiii des plus [letits d'cnti''i;iix ([iii 11^111(111.'^ '^'' "'"i" '!"" '" f^oiivcMneinciit iln sii 
Majesti^ tVit its .inj;'.' excliisif do la inc.snre de ecs oUlij^ations coiltract^'-us (l'a}iri''s fi-- 
uiots. 

Qiicllo cHt done la ri»glf tl'apr^s laqiiellc ou peut ostiiuor raticuiuplissoment cil'cctii 



OI'IXIOXS OF MR. ADAMS. 



14;1 



can l>i' cstiiniifcd .' Tt socms to nic tolcviibly i>l:iin. AVIiMtcvcr iiiny he 
tlic rcliitivc |»(»siti(iii ol" nntions, tlic ()hli<;iili(>ii iM'twccn tlicm rests upon 
the hiisis of exact aiid comidete reciprocity. Hence the compact eiii- 
linict'd in the words "due dili^i'eiice" must I»e t'nlliUed accoidin;;- to th<' 
coiistnictioii jdaced iipon the terms by each separate nation, snltjccf to 
rcasonahh? modifications l»y the Jnst representations ol'any otlier nation 
with wliich it is in andty, snlVerin<4' injury from tiie consiMjnenccs of u 
mistake of ne/^ii^ence or intention. These may v«'ry naturally jirow out 
of the j;reat ditl'erences in theii- iidative position, wldch sli(tnl<l propeily 
ill' taken into consideration. In the strnj;';i!e wliich took place in Amer- 
ica, ''due dilif-'cnce, '' in rej;ard to the commercial interests of one of the 
l)clli;;'erents nu'ant a very (lilfcrent thin;;' fi'om the same words applied 
to the other. The oidy safe stainlai'd is that which may he reached liy 
considering" what a nation woiUd consider its ri;;ht to demand of another, 
wore their relative i)ositions precisely reversed. If the due dilijicnce 
actually exercised by one nation toward another does not pro\e to be 
exactly that <iili^en(;e which would be satisfactory if applied to itself 
under i)arallel circiimstanj^es, then the obligation implied by the words 
has not been properly fullilled, and reparation to the party injureil is no 
more than an act of common Justice. 

Such seems to bo tin? precise character of the present controversy. 
Tier Majesty's jjovernment denies tliat the measure of dili.i'csKU' <bn' by 
licr as a neutral to the United States as ji bellij'erent, durin;;' the late 
strun';>le, was so ^reat under the law of nations as it has been, with 
licr consent, made by the terms of the treaty. 15ut, in either case, 
she claims to be the exclusive Jiid^e of liei- fullillment of it, ai»art from 
the establishment of this tril)unal, to which she has consented lo appeal. 
Hut this very act implies the (ionsciousness of the possibility of some 
debt contracted in the process by the use of thest; terms that may Justly 
he claimed by another party. Of the nature and extent of that debt, 
and liow far actually paid, it is the province of this tribunal to »h'ter- 







•f 



tk' en devoir? Kilo iiic Hoinl)lo iisscz cliiirp. Quelle ((lie soit la itositioii relative des 
iiiitiiiiis, r<)l»li<?ati(>M entre elles re}i(»s(^ snr la \y,isv d'exiictc^ et coiiipli'tc' iriipidritt'. 
l)is lers le coiiti'at coiiipris sous ces mot.s "du(^ dili;i;eiR'e" doit etre reinidi d'apri's I'lii- 
tdini'tiitioii (hniiiee des t(!rnie.s par cIukhk! nation prise .sepaieinent, Nujette a des 
iii(i<l:lic;Uioii8 raisoiinal)les de lapait des re[ire.sentatioiis jnstes de t|uel«iue aufit) nation 
avcc liKiuelle elle t!.st en rapport d'aniitie, soutlVant des doinniaf^es ensnite des roiise- 
(luciices de nialentcndn on de nejfli^ence, on d'intention. Celles-ti pinivent iiaturelle- 
iiieut deeonler des j^randes dill'erenees dans lenr jxisition relative, (pii doivent etre 
prises en consideration. Dans le coiillit ciui cut lieu cu Anu'riiine "<ln(! dili;i;enei'" par 
rapport aux interf'ts eoninierciaux do I'un des belli<;eranls avait un tout autre sens (|in! 
les iiieiiies mots appliiiues a I'antre. La senle jtierre de tonche est n-lle que Ton ptut 
tiimver en coiisiderant eo tiu'nno nation eroirait avoir le dioit de n'elaiuer d'une autre, 
si lours positions relatives otaienl pr»'ei!»enient iuvtuses. Si la "due dili<;enee"e(Vcoti\e- 
iiieiit exercee par nne nati(tn envers nne autre ne, se niontri! jias (''tro exaetenient eetfe 
"(lilijfeuc(!" .(pii serait satisfaisante si elle lui ('-tait ai)pli([uef dans <le.s eireonstanecs 
aiiidoifues, alors I'oblijration iiupli(|uee par les mots n'a jtas i'-te hieii remplie, et nno 
reparation envers la partic leseo n'est pins (lu'nn act<! de simple justiee. 

Tel i)aralt »;trc le caractero pr«^eis de la presente controveise. Le jjouveriicnieiit 
'h sa Jlnjeste nie que la mesnro de diligenco due par lui comme neutre an.x 
Ktats-Unis comme bellij^erant, pendant le dernier conllit, ffit anssi Ki'iinde, d'apri-s lo 
•Iroit des gens, (pi'dlc a etd laite a\ec son consentement par les tt^rmes du traite. 
Mais dans les deux ca8 il pretend etre le jnye exelusif de la maniere <lont I'llt; I'a 
aecoiiipli, a Texception do I'etahlissement do eo tril>unal,auiiiud ello a eousenti a eu 
appeler. Mais cot aete lui-menio impliciuo, i»ar I'omploi do ces termos, la eouscienee do 
la possibilitd do qnebiuo dotto contraelce dans raffaire, et qui pout justeuieiir rtro 
yoelaince par une autre partie. Quant il la nature et a rotenduo de eette detH', <'t 
jiisipi'oii ello a 6t6 pay(5c eft'ectivemeut, il appartieiit a ee tribunal d'on deuidor, aproj 

10 b 



'i(i 



II' 



iS 



if 



-Tnnrr- 




'I ''t 



14G 



AUniTRATION AT (JKNKVA. 



liiitjo, after I'lillcoiisidtMation of tlu' evidence snhiiutt»Ml. Such i.stlu'coii 
structioii I liiive pliuted upon tlu' words "diu; dilij^eiico." 

II. — TIIK ErrEf'T OF C(»M:M1SSI()NS. 

This qiU'stion hiis been dis("ussi'd, inoro or loss oxtouslvcly, in the 
m.i ., I, .„„„„.• l»iii»'rs niid iir^^uiiicnts bcfor*' lis, 
•"■'"• On iM'hiiir of (jivjit JJritiiiii it is claiiiu'd that the rule i> 

licrrcctly , .tahlislu'd that a vessel l)eloii;;in;i' to any i)o\ver reeojinizcd 
as soverei;;!!, or as a helli^iereiit, has, in virtue of its cominission. a 
ri;iht to elaiiii a re('ei>tioii, and tlio privile^'e of extraterritoriality, with 
ont reji'ard to its antecedents, in the ])orts of every neutral power. 

The authorities (jiiotiMl t(» sustain this position sustain it as an esiuli 
lishe<l general rule. 1 see no reason to question it. 

Hut the (|iiestion that has been raised in tiie jii-esent controversy is 
an <'\('ei>tional one. which is not touched by these decisions. 

The reception of vessels having' an ori^^in exclusively or even imr 
tially Ameiican, and bearing' on their front no evidence of fraud oi 
violeiit'c, does not seem to have been brou;;ht into <iuestion in this con 
trovcrsy. ►Such vessels were the Sumter, the Nashville, the Tallahassee, 
the Chickamaiisa, «l^c. 

TIm^ case is ditfereut in rej^ard to that class of vessels which dciivi 
their orijiin exclusively from a systematic and franduleiit abuse of tlu' 
amity of a neutral i)ower, setting' at detiance its laws within its (i.vn 
Jurisdiction, and takinj;' advantajio of its Ibrbearance in the hoj)e (if in 
volvin^j; it tlie more with its opi>onent in a responsibility for toleratiii;; 
its own misdeeds. 

It admits of no (luestion, in my miml, that the outfit and erpiipuicnt 
of the Florida, tiie Alabama, the (Jeor^ia, and the Shenandoali were 
each and all made in defiance of the laws of Great JJritain and tlic in 
junction of tho (Queen's proclamation of neutrality. By this coinliut 



iliiiii in com] 




I'll cxiuiicii compU't <lcs priMivt's (ini liii out ('ti' fsmunisos. IVllc ost rinterpretatioii n" 
j'lii (loiiiu'c (los mots '"(Ine diligence." 

i.'kkfet dks co.MMissioxa. 

C'fttc (|U('stioii a ott' (lisciitt'o (I'liiic iiianiiTe plii.s on iiioius (lcvolopi)<>c duns Ics d»a- 
Jiifiits ct ]ilai(li>yi'is dcvant ikiiim. 

1)11 c'ot<'' dt! la (.iiaiidu-Hiotiignu tin lurtend (lup la n glc cut jiarfaiteuH.nt odiMii- 1 
qn'iiii vaisseaii, apiiartciiaiit a iiii jiouvdir qiideoiKiiio rcconnii coiiiiiio soiivi'i'iiin mi 
coimiie liolligt'ianr, a, en vcrtii dc sa eoiiimisssioii, li' droit do rt'clainer uiie iriu'iitiimii | 
Ic piiv ilt'gi) d'l'xtra-ti'iriloiialitt', sans I'jjard a si-s antc'ci'-disiils dans le.** lun'ts de toiitr 
imissaiicf iicutrc. 

Lcs aiitoiitts cit(H!s \w\\v appnyor ccttc; jiosUion hv soutionnent coniinc line iv;;'t 
gt'iii'i'iili! I'talilit'. .)(' lie vols pas do raisoii do In incttro on (|iioslion. 

Mais la <|iii'stioii soulovoo <laiis la jm-soiito oontrovorso est imo <iiicstiuii exceiitioa- 
iiolio, a laqiit.'llo cos dooisions no so rappoitoiit pas. 

I.a H'oopiioii d(! vaissoaux ayaiit uiio origiiio ainoricaine en tout on en partio, et iiM 
luiiiaiit siir lour front aiiouiK! preuve do I'raiido ou do violonoo, ne soiiiblo j»as avoini' 
iniscMMi ([uostioii dans cetto coutrovorso. Tols «^taicnt lo Sunitor, Ic Nashvillo, luTal I 
laliassoo, lo C'liiokainauga, oto. 

Lo oas ost ditloroiit en oo (pii couoernc cetto classo do vaissoiix rpii tirout lour ori;.'!* I 
oxidusivouiont d'nii alius systoinati<)iioet IVaiidiiloux <lu coiuitt'd'uno piiissaiico iieiiir' j 
UR'ltant an doli sos lois dans sa propro juridiction, ot pronant avantage do sa l"i'ii'l 
disposition, dans I'ospoir do roiitraluer encore avec son advorsaire dans nnc respoiia I 
hilitt'- )iour avoir toloro ses propres inofaits. I 

,Io ii'oii doute point, la pr^^par.itioa et roqnipenient du Florida, de l'Ala1ianiii.'l''| 
Georgia ot du Slioiiandoali furent, pour chacun d'oux, fait eu ddfi de» lois de la Ciriii"li-| 
Liotagiie et des iiijonctions de la proclainutiuu de uoutralitc de la lieiue. I'ar ciii»| 



OriNKtXS OF .Ml{. ADAMS. 



1 17 



tli(> pcrpctviitoi's liad iiof only c.U'iuly f'oi fcifcd iill li^ilit toconsidciiitioii. 
liiit liini siil»j«'('t('(l tlu'insclvi's to tlni pciiiiltirs of iiiiilvl'artoi's if tlicy 
ever ivtiiriHMl witliiii tiM' Jurisdiction wliicli ilicy liiul insulted. Tin- 
lijilit t(» cxchuM' vessels IVoMi llritisli ]»oits<»n these j^ionnds, witliont 
h'I^iikI to tlieir eoniniissions, is distinctly idliiined hy Sir ikonndell I'id- 
iiicr, one of tlie lawyers of the Ciown diiiin;;' the whole j»eiiod in (|nes- 
tioii, and seems to he indnhilable. 'J'o deny it would jilace excry 
sdvcrciun i)ow«'r at the mercy of any adventnrous pirate on the ocean 
will) iniuht mana^ic to coNcr himself with tin- threa<il)are nnintle of Ihe 
iiiiimtest hellificrent. 

It is a perfectly well understood principle (»f law that no cili/.en of a 
fiiiciL;!! nation, exceptinjn, jterhaps, in certain cases, a representative 
iliitiuMl with diplomatic privile;;es, is free from the ohlijuation of con- 
toiiiiitin himself to the laws of the country in which he is residing, if 
111' willfully violates them he is suhject to the same penalties which are 
i:ii))ns('il upon mdive citizens. I'jven thou;.;h not a citizen he is snhject 
iiidrcat IJritain to he tried I'ov ijikisI treason. If instead of conspirin;;' 
;i::iiiiist the (^)ueen he enters into comhinations which involve the kinj;- 
(iiiiii in complications with foreign j)owers with which it is at peace, he 
viiicly cannot come forward and plead the possession of a commission 
lioiii the authorities of his own couidry in his jiistiticatitm, Meither is 
the connnamh'r of a ship of a forei;;n power which conms within the 
li;iilM)rof another free from tln^same ficneral oltli^iation. If he violat«'s 
;iiiy t»f the re^'ulations ])rescril)ed for his yovernmenl he is lial)Ie to pay 
llii' penalty by u withdrawal of his privilei^cs or by an immediate order 
ot exclusion from the }»ort. 

For myself, therelore, I cannot see any reason why the existence of a 
coiuiiiissioii should have stood in the way of a clear expression by 
(Iri'iit ilritain of its sense of t\u\ indi^inities heaped upon Jler ."Majesty's 
Ijovcniiuent by the violation of her laws within her various dominions. 
(oiitiiiiKaisly persisted in diirinj;- the existence of tliis belligerent. In 
my {(pinion it would have Jiistilied the seizure and detention of the 
jotil'iicliny vessels wherever iound within the Jurisdiction. JJut if that 

ciMicliiifc. li's fiiiitcnrs iiviiiciit iiiMi-sciilcinont ijcnlii iicttemciit tout droit an rt'.s])('('t. 

iiiius ils (■tiiicnt iissiiji'tlis anx pfiiii's lies niaHaitciirs .s'iis rcvciiaicrit Jamais duns la 

jnridictiiiii ([uMIs avaiiMit iiisidt<M'. Li? droit dV'Xclnrt* di-s vaissi-aiix dcs ports aii<j;iais 

||i'iiu' CCS motifs, sans (''jjard a Icio's ('(ninnissions, est in'ttcnu-nt atlii'nK' par Sir li(Mindcll 

ll'.iiiiicr. nn dcs consi-illcrs dt- la coiwonnc jicndant fontf la prriodc i-n iincstion. i-t scin- 

I'l'' ctrc iiuinl)italdc; If nicr serait mcttrc toiitf, pnissancc sonvciaiin' a la nicrci dt; tont 

[imntc iivcntnriMix snr l'oiM\in fjni i)onirait nWissir a so convrir du niaiiti'au nsi- du pins 

jln'tit liciliMvi'iint. 

I ("est un jniindjie nc loi i)nrraiti'nii'nt hiini coniinis, (in'ancnn citoycn d'nnt' nati<ni 

|<Hiiiij;rii', si VI' n'l'st, pent ftrf, nn rcpivsi-ntant rrvT'tn dc ](rivilc'^cs diploinatiipn's. 

Inyst t'Ncnipt dc l'ol)ll;;ation dc sv conlor mcr anx lois dn pays <lans Icipu-l il dtnncnrf. 

|S'ilJcs violf volontain-nii'iit. il fst assn.jctti anx inrnics ju'lni's (pii sont iniposf'i's anx 

■(il'iyciis nutifs. iir-nic s'd n'cst pas citoycn, il est expose '-n Anj;let(rn' a eti'c ponrsnivi 

ji'iiir lllln^i traliison. Si, an lien dc conspircr eontic la iicine, il entre dans des eondii- 

iiaisiiiiMpii ])rf'cipitent Ic royannic dans dcs complications <'nversdcs puissances sonve- 

laiiii's iivcc Ics(pn'llcs eelni-ci est en paix, il ne jicnt ecrtainement (>as sc jircscntcr c! 

•■'iliiiiiycr pour sa Jnstilication sur la possi'ssion d'nnc comniission di's antiu'iti's de son 

rriiiirc |i;iyH. Le conunandant d'nn vaisscan d'nnc ]»nissancc etrau}-;'!-!! tpii vient dans 

''■|H>i't (I'nnc autre n'cst ])as exempt non plus d<! la nu'ine <)1)li;f«tion <ien(''ralc. S'il 



" I't'i I II Mill- jiiii re- II CSI' |Nl.s CAl'lilf't lliiu [illin iii: in iiieiiie tfiiiip^iil liill ^eiii-i.iie. oi 

jViiili! (|iu'1ipi'un dcs re;iltMiuMils i)rcscrits ))<mr sa condnitc, il est cxposi' a .snldr la 
yiiii' (I'ini deponillonnMit ilc scs }>rivil<^;fcs on d'nn ordre innin'diat d'exclusion dn jiori. 
/^linlt a nn)i, ]»ar const'^iincnt, Jc nc puis voir ancnn nn)tif jioiir le(piel rexistence 
liiiic CDiiiinission anrait ciniK'clic unc maidfestation nettc dc hi part dc la Orande- 
l'iit;ii;iM' (le son sentiment des hidijinitivs aiini.sso.-s sur h? pnivcrnemcnt dc .sa .M;i.jesti 

fi:ir1'i vi,. I. .»:.... .i.. i..:.. .1...... ...... .i:iv.; t.. ^:t.,t »;.....', „,...:..* .'.i..... 



lliiv 



'••^iit 111' nfpii nt-iii iiiii-ii I m%-n I inil^ll 1 1 1-.-, .iiiiii.-irs* i-.-» .-111 I ii: j.;ipii > i-| ii^-iiit-il t tu' .-*.! .*l iijr.">l i 

fl|iii'la vidliition dc scs lois, dans sesditlerentsotats, coiitinnee avee ])er.sistance ]ieMdaiit 
I'NisttMU'c dc CO licllijjt^rant. Dans mon opinion, die aurait Jnstilie la saisic ct I'arret 
Sw vaisseau.v conpablcs, partoiit oh ou les aurait trouvds dans la jnridiction. Mais .si 



T P 



I'M' 



148 



AinJITIJATIOX AT (iKXKVA. 



wore coiisidcnMl incotisistciit M'itli ;i clciU" impurtiality, it ct'i'tiiiulv 
dcnKiiMlcd iiii nitiic cxcliisioii tVoiii Ilcr Miijcsty's ports. The ii;L;lit t" 
decide . such ii point rests exclusively with evt'i'y sovereign power. Hut 
iiii oppoituiiity wiis lost for estiil»lishiii;>' ii sound principle ol intii. 
iiiitioiiid inaritiiiio intercouise which nuiy not soon occur ii<;ain. 

III.— ox THE Sri'lM.V OF ri{OVIS"ON«, AND ESl'Kf'IALLY or CoAl.s, 

This (piestion of coals was little c(»nsidered l»y writers on the law u; 
nations, and by soverei;;n |)owers, until the present ceiitun. 

'""" It has Iteconu' oiu> of the first iuipoitance, now that tin 

motive i)o\v<'r of all vessels is so jureatly enhaiu-ed Wy it. 

The ellect of this application of steam-power has i'lian^ied the clini 
aeter of war on the ocean, and invested with a f^reatly pvepondciiiir 
foH'e j1ios«' nations hImcIi jxissess most lar.i;ely the best material li»r i; 
\vi1hin their own territories and the jurea test number of maritime iilucisl 
over the ^lobe whert^ deitosits may lie conveniently provided lor tlicit I 
use. 

It is iM'i'dless to jxiint out the superiority in this resju'ci; of the posi I 
tion of (Ireaf ISritain. Theie seems no way of discussing? tlie «iiu'stiiiii[ 
other than throu<;h this example. 

.lust in proportion to these. advanta.u'es is the responsibility oftliatj 
countiy when lioldin.^* the situation of a neutral in time of war. 

The safest course in any critical emer;j;ency would be todeny altouvtlnr 
to sn|)ply the vessels of any of the belligerents, except perhaps wiit'iiin 
positive distress. 

r.ut such a ])olicy would not fail to be re'iar(h'd Msseltisli, illiberal. iiinI 
uidvind by all bellij^crents. It would inevitably lend to the accpiisitiniil 
and establishment of similar positions for theuiselves by other maritiiiifl 
powers, to be {guarded with e<pial exclusivetu'ss, and entailing upoiitlniiif 
enormous and continual expenses to provide against lar*! emeryj-iuies, 



«'i's nicsiin's t'taiont i'nvisajj;<^«s eoinmo lu; .s'aci'oi'ilaiit iias avec nin' .strict^ imimrtinliii 
«'llc cxi^i'ait ('(^itaiiii'iin'Ut iiiii! t'xclii.sioii al)siiliu' dcs jMirts do sa Maji^stt'. he ilinitiV 
(locidcr sar mi tt'l point apparticiit cxclasivcnu'iit a fi>nt(' piiiHsanct) sdiivcraini'. M:i' 
I'occasioii fat alors in-niiio (I'tMalilir 111) piincipc juste dew relations iiiarltiiiics iiitiiiiM- 
tioiialiis, la<iiielli! pt-ut no pas so r('pi<^seiil(;r do lon;;toiiips. 

i,i;s sirnsioKs dk puovisions, kt siM';cr.\i,i:Mi:xT dk cnAiiuoN. 

Cetto (iiiostion du cliailH)!i a pou<^t(^ Px.amin<^o par ccnx qui out (^crit snr lo dniitili' 
j;eiis. I't )iar Ics i)iiissaiu't's souvcraiiics. .jiis(|iraii siocloaotiicl. Kilo est dovcniic 
proniit'ic inipoitaiicc, iiiaiiit(Miaiit rpie la puissaiico iiiotrico do tons los vaissciiiix cnKl 
si fort anjinnntf'o. I 

L'ctlet <li' cetto application do la vapour a elian<j(^ Ic caractiVo do la guorrc siir I'ofMLl 
ot donno niio foree tres-prc^poiuleranto aux i>nissances (|ui j>ossedoiit on ]»lns ;,Mai!i!t 
altondaiuM! les nieillenis niatoriaux pour cola dans leurs propres torritoiros, t-t If 
grand noinbio do places niaritiinos snr lo globe oil des tlt'^pots peuvont 6tre (^tiiMijil 
propos jtoar lenr usage. I 

II est, inntilo do faire r(!inar((Uor la grando supt^riorite sous C(i rapport d(>, la jMisiti'l 
do la (Irando-Hrotagne. II n'y a i»a8 nioyen do considi'rer la question autreinciitii'; 
par son (^xoinple. 

La responsabilitc^ do co pays, quand il gardo la position d'un nontro en ti'iiips ii(| 
guorre, «!st tixactonient i)roportioun(^o i\ sos avantajfos. 

La »;oudnito la jiliis sftro, dans uno circonstanee critique, soraitdo refuser absolimiffil 
d'approvisiouner les vaissoaux d'aucun dos belligilrants, si ce u'est pout-otro eiitasJ 
di5tros80. 

Mais uno telle conduito no mauquerait pas d'etre regardt^e conmio c^gtusto, illiWral'l 
ni^^eliante, par tout bellig<<rant. EIIo conduirait in(?vitablemont i\ racquisitionel'l 
IVtablissonicnt do positions somblables jiour elles-niAnios, par toutes les puissaiiMJ 
maritiuicH, pour so gardor avec nil <^gal exclusivisnie; ot elle les entralnorait dans ti»| 
dtpenses (Snorines ot coutinuelles pour subveuir ii des circonstnnces raros. 



oiUNioNs OF mi;, apams. 



140 



It is not llu'l'dorc cillici' Just or in the interest of utiier powers, l»y 
t'\,u'tiii;i' severe respon.siltilities of (Ireiit !>rit;iin in time (»(' wiii', to I'oree 
lii'icitiier to deny nil sniiplies, or, ;is n lij^jiter risk, to en;,^ii;;(' lierselfiii 

war. 

It is in this sense tliiit I ni»pro:i('li the iir;^iwnents that hnve been pre- 
sented in icjunrd to the snpply of eonis ;;i\en hy <lie;it i'lrilain to tln^ 
iiisin';^ent American steamers as forminjj;' a base ol' operations. 

It must be noted that, throii;;hont the war of fonr years, supplies of 
(iial were fnrnished lilierally at first, and nunc scantily afterward, bnt 
>tiil indiscriminately, to both ludli/^'erents. 

Till' difliculty is obvious how to distin;;idsh those eases (d" coals miven 
idcitliei' of the parties as helpini;' them imi»artially to other ports, iVom 
tliiisc furnished as a base of hostile oiM'rati<Mis. 

rii(|iiestionably, C.'omiHodoic Wilkes, in the N'anderbilt, was very mncdi 
iiidcd ill continnin;;' hiscriiiseat sea by the suppliesolitaiin'd frcmi llritish 
sniirccs. Is this to be constiued as ;^t'ftin;i' a base of oi>erati(Uis .' 

It is plain that a line must be drawn somewheic, tu' else no neutral 
jiDWcr will consent to furnish supplies to any belli.u'erent w liate\ cr in 
tiiiic of war. 

Sii lar as 1 am able to lliul my way out of this dilemma, it is in this 
wise: 

Till' supply of coals to a belli;i('rent inxoh'cs no res|»onsibiIity to the 
m'litnil, when it is made in response to a demand presented in ^ood faith, 
with a sin,L;le object of satisfyiii;^- a legitimate puip;)Si' openly assi<;iied. 

On the other liand, the same suj)ply does involve a responsibility if it 
sliiil! in any way be niatle toappi'ar that the concession was made, either 
liicitly or by aj>reement, with a view to pi'omote or comi)lete the execu- 
tion (»f a hostile act. 

Hence I perceive no other way todetermiiii {'•<' dc^rct' of the respnii- 
siiiiiity of a neutral in these cases, than by an examinaliim of I lie e\i- 
Mi'iicc to show the /^/^'//N)f the .yrant in any sj)ecilic case, l-'raiid oi- 
liilseliood in such a case poisons cN'ery tiling' it toiuda's. JOveii indilVer- 



II n'fM, i>;u' <'niisi'i|iiciit, iii juste, iii (lulls rinliTcl des aiitii's iiiii>s;ui('i s, en i'liinisinit 
ilisrcs)ic)iis;iltiliti'S si'vi'ics ;"i l.i ( ;i;illit(-Iirct;i;;iii' cli Iriiips <|i' n iidi ., d,. la t'diciT :. icl'llhcr 
liiiit siiiisiilc; (III. foiMiiic Mil iikiiimIic (l;iii;;ci', ;i s'cii;^M;iir I'lli'-iiii'iiii' dans la i;iii ric 

("rsl dans cet fsiii it i\\\f J'aliiirdi' Ics cxiidsc's ijni out <'ti'' i)r('>i'nt;' ■. i|iiaiit aiix snlisidcs 
lie cliarliiiii doiiiii's pal' la (irandc-Iircta'^iic aiix stcanu'is aiii('-iicaiii> iii.->nr^(s (■dinnii! 
liii'iiiant line Itase d'())(('iat ions. 

II liiiil i'ciiiaii|Ui'r i|iie iii'iidaiil la ;^iieii'e de ipnitre aiis des siilisides de cliarlion rmeiit 
liMiriii.s lilii'raleiiieiit d'almrd, iiioins aliondainnifiit cn-iiiile, iiiais (oiijoiirs indislinele- 
iiii'iit, aiix deiix liellij;i''raiits. 

l.a diliieiilli' est evidelite de savoir conimelit distili;;iler les cas de elniilioil <l(iiine a 
WiiR'Uii (les deux ]iartis ]>iuir leiir aidei* iiiipai'tialrmeiit a se leiidic a d'aiities ports, du 
it'iix oil 11 I'lit I'oiinii pour sei'vir eoiiiiiie. Iiase d'oin'iat ions liosliUs. 

II n'cst pas doiUeiix ipie le eoiiimodore WilUes.dii N'aiidei dlt, n'ait t'le lieaiicoiip aide, 
ji'iiirioiiliiiiiei'sa eiiiisieie en iiier, par les si 1 1 )>i des oh ten us de sources aii;;laises. I"aiil-il 
iiilc'r|iirrer ceei eoiuiiie (orniant iiiie liase d'oiieiat ions .' 

11 1'st elair (|iruiie liyiiie doit etie tiree ((iieliiiie part, oil aiitieiueiit aiieiiiie iiiii>sanf'e 
iii'iitrc lie eoiiseiitiia a luiiiiiir de.s siilisides a aiieiiii helliyi'ianl (iiieleomiiie en teiiiji> do 
U'lii'lie Mil- Toeeail. 

Si Ji' jiiiis .sortir do ce dileiuiue, ce n'est (pie de eette nianii're. 

1-1' siihsidi' (le eliarlioii a iiii l)elli<;('Maiit ii"iiiiprn|Ue aiieiiiie respoiisabilitt' du iieiitre, 
'|ii:iiiil il est (ait eii ri'poiise a nan deiiiandu pri'seiitets de lionie I'ol dans le simple l)iit 
<ti's:iti.slair(f iiii d(;s.seiii l('';;;itiiiu^ oiivertmii! . u indiii'"' 

Il'.iiiti'e part, le iiieiiie siiltside iiiiplii' u- iiiio respoiisahiliti'. si on ])eiit diMiioutrer 
'I'll' 111 iDiieessiou a ('ti'; taite, tacite!" .it on par entente, eii viie d'aidcr on d'aehcver 
I'XiViiiioii d'uu aete hostile. 

Di's lorsje no vols )ias d'aiitre iiianier(.' de di'terininer le dejin'di! la resp()nsal>ilit(' d'uu 
I iK'iitic dans i;cs eas, (|ue d'e-Kaiuiner la ju'intvc piuir i'aire voir rinteiition dii siiliside, 

Ills uliatpiu cas particulier. La tVaudt! uti le luensju^^e dans iin tel cas souilfj tout co 



V 




Nf 



m 




i:)0 



AKIUTK.VTIOX AT GKNKVA. 



(MUUMnaydoijoiUM'atc into willful uc^jiiijfcncc, nud tlisit will i'nposc u liai-. 
.l«Mi of proot" to excuse it before r(>spori.sil)ility e-.iii he relieved. 

This is the I'lile I have eiideavoivti to aitj>ly in ,J!ul;;iiiy theiiatiu 
the cases c()aii>laiiK*il of in the coarse of this arhitiation. 



i> 111 



IV 



Tin-; ruiuiDA. 



On the ISih I'\'l»rnaiy. 1 SdJ, iNIr. Adams a. Mressed a n<»t(^ to Lord !;iiv 

sell, callin;!; his atteiitinn to a letter he h;id reeei\ed fr mi 

Ml'. Hadley, the eonsnl of tln^ United States at Liver 

|>ool, touching" a eei'iain uan l)!)at fit tin.i;' ont at that ptnt, which he li;ii| 

reas(»n to believe was intended for ilie use of the Anieiicau iiisnr.ycuts i;i 

their wai- ajuainsl their (ioverninent. 

On the llMh Mr. Ilaniaioiid, on behalf of Lord I'nssell, re|)lied tut 



note, a|)|»risin,n Mr. Adams tiial he 



w<> id mcve the lords comlnissioii 

ami 



ers to cause ininieiliate in(|nirics to be made r» spectin^j the vessel, 
to take such steps in the matler as nii;;ht Ite li^^ht ami proper." 

On the Ll'^l t he commissioMris of the cusi(nns nnnle a reiiort to the ctVn; 
that ther* was a vessel of the suit desciibed r-alled the Oreto: tluit *; 
had been built by Messrs. Miller A; Sons for Messrs. l-'awcett. I'rcstuiuv 
« "o.. e'.^im'ers. and intended for the use of Messrs 'I'homas lUolln is, n; 
i'alermo. Messis. .Miller vS: S(Uis <'\pressed their belii'f that her ilestiim 
tion was I'idermo. 

'I'Ih' fact is now clear that in tliis statenn-nt there was either etpiivma 
tion oi' positive falsehood sonu'wheic betwetui the parties na'ned. Tin 
testinmny of .Mr. I'riolean, (»f the linn of I'raser, 'rrenholm X' Co., of l.i', 
erpool, auents of the insiii/^icnt <M'.i;ani/.ation in .Vmeri.'a, (than whnm no 
man <m earth was .mire siu'c to know,) tt'stimony, too, extorted from liiiii 
uith j^reat reluctance on his «)atli in a Uritish coiut. establishes bcvomi 
dispute the Ihct that she was Imilt I'u- the oid«'r of ,L I). Ibdloek. aunii 
of the insurgents. 

So with rei;ard lo the siaiement made by Mr, S. Price iOdwards. cul 



(ju'il t<ii!cln'. Nfrinr I'iiiililtV'iriici' ]>i-nt (l(';4i'Mi<'r('r I'll n'';;li:4;<'ii<'<' vuloiit.-iiiT, I't 



liniiuNi ra Ir ( 



lr\ nil lii 



!■ |n>l llnr. ;i\ ml li ol li- (lirliu )■;;(' ih' hi l(-Ni»iiM-i,'ili|llli 



'I'. !!r i'.>l 111 ii';;lc ijHi- ji- nil- hiiis rti'inci' (l'ii|i|)liiiMt'r rii Jii;;<-;iiit \.i iialuir dr 
li.'.si|iirls itn a fiiit tii's n'i'liiiii.iiiii;n tin-* !.• (^mii-s il- cct urbitni;;:'. 



i.i: iioianA. 



1,0 1- Crviicr 1-iiW, \t. Ail.i 



MIS 



ail 



trliliiiii ^111- line letlre iinil ;i\ail ii'eiie lie M. hiitjl 



Ii'ssri ;■'. I.iil'il 1,'iisHfll line note mnir il|)lii'li'r 



I'Miisiil lies I,tiit--I'iiis a l.iMf 



limit, ail siiji'i il'iiiie i-eilaiiie eaiiniiiiiii . , ijiie I'liii a|i|)ar('illa it <laiis it |:iirt, et i|ii>'r"ii 
avail <li"> raisons ill' eiiiiie d'-^tiiii a ^I'l \ii' aiix iii-iii l;is aim rieaiiiH ilaiis la .';iii'i; 

i|ll'i!-< Millti'liaii'lil riiptie lelll' I iiillM'Tni'lllelll . 



M, 



be I'.i <lii iHeiiii- iniiiM. M. ilaMiMiiiiiil r< |i.iiiilil. .ei imiii ile I. mil K'li.seli, i n iiil'm 



iii;:m! 



V.l.iiiis i(ii'il i'H;,;;i',j<Tail |e 



i.U'l 



s e.ilillii|..saires II 



fe^aril lie ee V.iis.seaii et a |iri lull'e les liii'Mires eiin\ iMiaiili-». 



.'• IIMI' l'lli| 



MiiMete .'lilliii lii.i: 



!, 



1. 



I'M e(»iilliii.s>iairi's iles iloiiaiies l:e,»)u>rtiMelit iin'll y a v:ii.' iiii \ Mi>-si>n>i, selii 



iil:iM 



a eeliii ileeril. iii>|iile i'( )ieti»; I'il iiMiit i-|i' i-imstriiit par .^!^t, Miller et liU | i' MM 

I'aweelt, I'ie.>.|iiii et ( ''', iii>;i iiin'rw, et .jii'il etitil ilestiai' :i l'iiHa;;i' ile M.M, Tl 



IllllDI- 



♦ lere 

Paielliie 



I'aleriiie. MM. .Nfille! ;t f,N ('X]iii)iiaiitit leiirernvanee a eetteilestiiiati 



II 



est iiiaiiifelMllt a\ I'lf 



II II \ aval 



t ilaii 



.l.'el, 



liaii'MlS nil mil' ei|lliviliil|e nil : 



r.lll>^hi(e (Mi>itive illl|'lltal>!e ;i uniliin'ime lies ililes pallies. I,e ti'iiii>ij;liafj;.' ile Ml 
lean, lie til iiiiiisiiii I'la'ier, 'l"r '1111111111 et ('"', lie l,i\ erpi»i)l, iiLiriits tie riii;;ani^atiiiii ii'- 
illMllI'm'S aim rie;iilis, lielsimnai;!' ',ill ilevait sa voir liiielix i|ii>' |ie|xi>iille re i|u'il ill ' llli' 
et I'lilll li' |illloij;H!l;4'' ("ill an aejie a\ ec ijlli !i|lie jieilie, sons seriiii'iit iialii iinr cniir "< 
Jiisliei' ai!;>laise, I'tuMit ill! iVanaltleiiieiii leCaii une ei' vaisMeaii I'lif eiMistiiiil ir^iMf* 
les Mlilres (le J, I ». jtilllnel,, a;ielil drs iii-iiil jji'S. 
Aiiisi, ii'.iiuit aiix iille;;alii>iis ile M. S, I'riee IMwaiiU, lecovcur a Liverpool, li.ni'"' 



OI'INIUXS OF MU ADAMS. 



151 



lector of Liverpool, in M:: lottt'r of the LMst, transmittcMl hy tlic coinmis- 
siKiu-n^ to Loiu Uiisscll, that Itc had creri/ reason tit hi'licra that sht' was 
tor tht' Italian jjovt'rmnc'it, it is now made clear that he either told a 
t,ri-"lioo(l or had bet-M 'Ailltii.ly deceived by Mr. Thomas, or others con- 
iicclfd with the transaction. 

Karl linssi-ll directed lliv .Majesty's minister at Tnrin toinipiivf as to 
rli(' fact of this jtroceedinij; on the part of '"le Italian ^(»vernm«'nt, and on 
rlic 1st of March he received an answer that IJiUon I'icasoli had no 
l<!i(iwl('d;L;-e winitever of any sneh ship. 

It is admitted that at the time now in iiuestion Ilei' Majesty's jidvern- 
iiiciit had no reason to snspect any of these statements to be false, ^'\■ 
it'litiii,!,' ihe last. Snbs( (pi'iitly, on the L'."»th of Maich, the tinal infoi'm- 
iitJKii c.ime, com|)letely establisiiin;;" t'iie fact in that «'as('. Ibit even the 
earlier information wonid have been likely, as it wonid seem, at least to 
sluike contiilence in the veracity of (he paity n\akiii;;' the sfateiiuMit. 
And here I trnst I may be permitted a jjciM'ral remark, possjIOy rather 
t'itc. as to the moral i'tVect of falsehood npon the ;,fenei"al <M'edit of men. 
in the private relations established between person>' it" any individual 
ill a matter of importance be one detected in a deliberate falsehood the 
I'oiiscipjence is a habitual distrust of him by his associates fu" the future 
ill aiiy transaction whatever. So ' <loubt not if my respected colleague, 
wliuhas done sc mnch luuior to the bench over which he has lonii pic- 
>iil{'(l, should <liscov(M', in the examination of any irnportaut witness in 
ii case, the fact that hv had delil»eratelv peijnred himself, he w(ni!d at 
<Mi('i' icel it his duty in chai'aiiiji' the Jury to set his evidence aside as 
-vmaally nu<lescrvin;j; of conlideiice. 

Now, upon a calm icview of the volumiinnis transactions recorded in 
tJH' muaerous volumes which have been sul»mitte(l to the judnineiit of 
rliis trilamal, I d(» not hesitate to say that it coiitains a rec(»rd of the 
iiKist continuous, persistent, willful, ami tla.ui'ant falsehood ami perjury 
laniedon in the Iliitish possessions by individuals associate*! in the .\mer- 
iiaii iiisei'ivcnt cause and their Ibitish alliliations. from the date of the 
miidi;!'; of the Oreto, at the beyinnin^, to that of the return of the .Shen- 



iltrc ilii •.'!, tiaiisiiiis.- par 



iMiii.iisMiiics, oil il il(''i larait iiu'il a\:iit tout li.'U d 



ill' >|iii' Ic vaisst'aii I'tait tiiiistiiiit jioiu' ii- ;^nii\ mii. iinMit itiilicii. il est inaiiiti'iiaii! 
MiliMU, oil <|ii"il a ilit iiiH' riiiisscii', oil oiiil ii I'lt' tioiiiiH' ear M. 'IMioinas on aiiiii'S 
iiMiiiiii'h fii^rimiTN (laiis raltaiir. 

I.I' Com tc jiii^scll tit tail''- an iiiiiiistii' ilc sa Maji'sti- In i(aii;ii>|Uc a I'm in <li'-i(li'inaii'!nH 
"iiir savoir iln ;;oiiv(iiiriniiit italicn cc qu'il ni t-tait. i 



t !.■ I' 



•iiais riTiit 1 
li 



ciMnisi- 



M'ait si'iiiinaoli 



'|iii' Ic l)aroii K'icasoli n'aNait am iini' roiinai>.saiit'i' tl'nn \ 
II i>t ailniis (|n"a r«'|niniii' doiit ii est unotion, li- y;ini > c'lneini'iit <lf >a Majc^ti 



l.;it 



iaiili|ni- n'avait aiU'iini' laisoii dc n 



nisid'^i'ir CCS (Icciaialioiis <oiiiinc *'an> 



cx- 



I'l'lt' la ilcinicic. I'ln., taiil. Ic '2'> mars. Ics <lciiiii'r.>* H'n,sci;;iiciiiciit.s rtaltlircnt coin- 
il'ii-iticiii ic fait ilaii.scc cas. Mais nn'inc ics ;)rciiiicrs rcnsci;;ncinciit-s anraimit lin, a ci- 
|ii il sciiililc, I'ltiaiilcr la foi ilaii.s la vciaciii' ili's |iar'ics dont vciiaiciil. Ics dccjarat 1011.4, 
la i( i I'oii nic pen lie lira 11 nc rein <ri|nc ;i<''iicra'c 11 11 pen n.si'c (inaiit anx cli'ets iiiora:i\ 



di.-.eiicf de verai'ite snr 
d< 



lit 
it .1 



ntli 



aii\ 



!>iivi'r, SI I mi a niie iois deeoiutrt dans niie i|iicstioii de i|nc|i|iie iinpoi'tancc t|ii(; 



I >ans ics rappin t.s dc la vii 
ici. 



a \ 10 



1.' I;i 



III'. I: 



I colisei|llelice ell 

rsiiis eoiixaiiicn one 



st 



<ni 



111 



inoii hoiioic 



!Mi li|ii III', de propos dcliiii 

i!i lii' di' liii pom tonjonr.s. C'l'si aiiisi ijiii 

"|li''>;iie, i|iii a taut ilinstii' le Irilmnal dont ii a etc loii'^lcnips I,' pie>ident. dcconv rait 

'li!i> I'l \aincn de i|iiclipic important liinoin, d.iiis iiii [norcs, ipfii s'est, ie saelianr ct 

'•■ veiilaiil, parjiin', il ii'In'-il<'iail pas a coiisiiieier ecnnme di- son dc\()ir en deinani.' ii't 

■111 jiiiy lie incttrc Noii lt''aioi;;iia;;e di' eolt' roiiinie iiidi;;ne de eicance. 

Hi iiiaiiitenaiit. apres mi fvameii I'alnie et i'('ll>'clii des \>dmiiiiieii..es proccdiires rap- 
l''<it< l>^ ilaiiH les noinliri'iix volinnes ipii ont <'|e soimiis an ,jn;^einent de cc 1 rilninal, Je 



1: lio 



itc pa.s dc <Ih'<- ipl'll colli ic II I line lelati 



■i-'^iHiii's a 

■111 



la 



caii.se des iiisiiiL',cs a 



e'S (aiisseti s rt des parjlires dc pcrsolllies 



iiierieailis et de ieiii's alliliations .-.lu' It 



Hone Inilaii- 



|Me, dcptiis lU const ruction {\v \'i )rcto, an coninicncenicnt,,jnsi|ii'an re tour dii Sliemui- 




l*v 



IT) -J 



AKlHTlfATION AT GKNEVA. 



{uiddiili to Tii\('rj)()()l, at the close, that Iiaf< yet been biou^lit to li;;lit in 
history. 

'I'lic earlii'st evidences of the truth ol" this alVirmatioii are foiunl 
tliickly strewn aitioiijj;" th»^ traiisaetioiis relatiii,u- to this vessel. Th.v 
appear most sirikiii;:ly in the rejjorts Mia(h' hy Mr. I)a(Hey, the eoiisiil 
of the United States at Liverpool, both to his own (lovernnient and to 
!Mr. Adams, Ills dnty was, witii sneh imperfect means as he ha<l iiihi. 
l»ossession, to exeici.^e (bn* (lili^^cnee in expositijj;' e\ery trace of an ;it 
tempt to carry on iVo;ii thai ))laee iiostile operations a;;'ainst his dw;; 
country; and, I must add, most faithlidls and ener^jctically (hies he 
seem to me to have j)erformcd it, J5nt just in the pi(»portion to tiir 
elheacy of his exertions was the attention of those en^a^icd in sudi cii. 
terpiises direeteil to the nu'ans of baflliu^" liis nim. 'i'o tliis end it a]t 
]>ears ch'ar that amonji the parties to wiiieh lie was ibiven to I'csuit in; 
the pr.rpoNC of j^atla-rin^' information were not a few of indiffcicii; 
character, and jiiobalily some emi)loyed by his opponents expressly hi 
]inr him on a false seeiit. Ilav iiiii' no power in his hands to I'Xtoii im. 
\viilin;4' tc-stiinony, he w.is compelled to rely entirely (»n liis own Jiid;; 
iiient to piciv out of the mixed mass before him that which inij:ht scciii 
to him most in harnr.my with the probabilities of tlu- ras<'. That In- 
should ha\(' been occasionally misled, and thus have made represisiUi 
tions iiii()U;;h Mr. Adams to Her Majesty's .yoverni.ient which wcic 
]tro\ed on investigation not to Ite accurate, ou^^lit to be neither surpii^ 
in;^' nor matter of Idame to him. In point of fact, hf seems in tiie piescnt 
case to hav»> supplied j)retty much all the coirect inlbrmation wliiih 
ller Majesty's ;i(»\ ernnu'iit actually receiNcd, and whi(di, if they hadful 
lowed it up with t'oriespondinj;' dili;ience, would certainly have eiiibil 
in the (h'tention of the vessel. And her detention at that critical iiii^ 
ment ia these enterprises would probably have had theittV-ct of pultiii: 
a sto[) to tluMu all. as W(dl as U) tlu' necessity of any such tribunal :e 
the one now constituted here. 

Hut this was not to be. Thi' ,i;(>vt'ininent, uhi(di had in its liamb: a', 




'■ 



dciiili ;i l,i\ cijiiiol. a l:i I'm, ii-s plus I'dntiiiiis, iiiriiii'ilitos ft llii;j;i'jiiits qntj riii.stoiic ;ii 

jillllilis t'OllllllN. , 

J^fs jin-iiiifrts (li iiiiiiistiiUiniis (Ir ci'tii- iiriiriiiMlion sr IroiurMt iiunilii'i-uscs |>;niiii !r 
jUdft'iliiio ri'lal lv( s II (■<• viiisM-aii. _ I'.llfs apparaissi'iii Ic plus i-lairciiicni dans li's r;i| 

jiorls <li' M. I)ii(lliy. i-Diisiil lies l',lat.s-l'iii.'> a l,i\fi| 1: ia|>|i<iits nansniis a >ii 

^tiiivtM'iMMiiciit iiiisNi liicii (ju'a M.Ailams. Son dfvnir i lall. avi'c \c m(is,»'iis ir pait'.iii 
i|m'i1 avail ni son ptmvuir, iic tain- r;imiailri' a\cc la dili;;t'iii';' iirccssairr ti>iit iiMlicrd 
li'iital i\ IS I'aitfs pmir diriiii'i' <li's nprial imis li'isiilcs cuiitri! sa patiif: ct Ji' (Idis ajniitr 
Hii'il Mil' s' inhlf ra\i>ir aiciniipli avi'c liraiicoiip ilr ('(Hisciciiii' d irfiu'r;jii'. .M;i! 
jiiNli-iiiciit ell pinporiiun di' I'l I'licai ill- <lc .-•fs rll'urts, I'aitiMitinii (If cimix (pii aviiii!: 
riilicpris (■••s (ipi'ialioiis I'lil diii'^ri' >nr Ics iiioynis dr lc,>> coiil icraiTiT. 

1 1 appaiait rlairfiiiciu i|iii', tlaiis it liiir, pariiii Irs piTsDiiiirs aiipii's rlcs(|iu'lli's il i'(:i 



(iiijiui- di' (licitlii'i' ill's n'Miy;iii'iii<' 



Us. il 



.N< II Intiivail i\r pi'U I'^i iiiialMis, ri ipii i-taiih' 



pinhaldi'iiiiiil cmpliivtcs par si's advi'i'^airi '^ pour Ir di'iiiiilcr. N'ayaiit .iiiciiii puinni! 
ipiiur anai'lirr drs rciiscij;iit>iiii'Mls iin'on in- Mnilail pas liii doiiiirr, il Ciit oldi:^!'' ilf sVn 
ii'iiii'ltri' a .H.iii pi'iipi'i' Jii^'i-iiii'iil piiiir <liiiisir daiiN ci' ipii liii rtait rappurli' fi' ipi'il y 
iivait dc pins vrai.-i'iiildaidi', ^tii'il ait rti- <|iifl(|iii't'itis iniiiip"'. ct ipi'll ait, a i-aiis'il'' 
«i'l;i. fait ail ;;inivi'rin'iiiciit dr sa .Maji'sii" l>ritaiiiiii|iii'. )iar rnitn-iiiisi- df M. Adaiux. il'- 
l-fpri'si'iilal inns ipii, siir ciiniirtc, mit iIi- I roiivi'i's iiun-l'iiiuiri-s, iic pnit rtri' (■toiiiiaiit <■' 
111- pint di'Vciii'' nil siijct dn lilaiii • a son r';j;ard. Ilii I'ait il parait liiin. dans Ir i':i« 
iifl ni'l. a\ oil' lonrni pii's pir tons lis iiMisriyiicnirnts i-xarts ipic If j;(Mi\ci'iii'i!'i'iit il'' 
sa Majrsti' lirilaniii<|n ■ a viainii'iit icfiis; rt ipii, si nil t'li a\ ait friiii niniptr aM'in:: 
sniii <';^al, aiiiairiil rrriaiiii-iiirnt aiiu'in'' la saisii- dii \ aissraii. Crttr saisic a cr iiiiiiih'IiI 
teirait pi'ol)al)!iMnrnt rii p mi' ii suit at dc ini'll ic iiii Iitiiii', in)ii-s"iil('ini'iit a rclti- riili- 
jMis.'. inais a toiilrs Irs aiitri's, ci nous anrait. [lar cdiisi'iiiu lit. «'vili' la conslitiitiii:) i\'' 
n' tnliiinal. 

.Mais 11 III- dtvail pas t-ii I'-tio aiiisi. L;- j-iiiiVL-rui'imnit, ipii avail ton-* li'- iiid.m'' 



niilitrliir Ion- 
MViiir ell nnis 
(!i's I'lniiiclcs 

lioi'llllll'lllS. I| 

MViiin If dfpa 

ilr I'llllf tU-;> 

;'|iipiisc laitf I 

iiidf li s ill' 

line iiliaiif ai 
i|m'iimi' I'aiissi- 
iHilr\ait pas 
ill-* laisons s 
avdiis Mills |f> 
lli:iis I'f Ipii f^ 
nilr-df M. 1 
.M;iji>i.; I. lit a 
li' ill Nil- d'(-i-lii 
"i-> i-liip|o\fs 
iihiir^is aiiif I 
'"iiiviiiifnifii 

IXlilll M'lll ft ( 

iii.iis aiissi f > 
iialjiiii. 

11 a iir.ia r-t 
''lii.i'iiii pif a 
'^lisM-aii Mppi 

"Niiiii ajoi 



OriNIONS OF MK. ADAMS, 



i:)n 



till' means of oxtortiiij;' uiiwilliu;^" ti'slimoiiy, tlirou^ili cniciciit and triist- 
utiitli.v ;i,m'iits, (Iocs not sct'iii lo liiiNc Ihtii, at this iiioinciit at least, 
(■oiiscioiis of tiio (>xist('i)C(' of aiiv oIi!i,!4atioii lo oriniiiatc iiiNcsti^Liiif ions 
;it ill). It may reasonably be <lonbt('<l. from the evidence Itcfore w.^i, 
wlictlici' it believed in it if it was. On the 1st ot '.Alarcli — that is, twenty 
il:ivs iicfoi'c the escape of liie Orcto — an iminiiy made of tlic .novernnient 
(if Italy ivspectin;;' one of the ollicial statements rccci\('d from la\er- 
IKHil had been replied to in terms which, if not alisoliitcly (U-ei.Nive as to 
its lalschood, certainly tended to throw the .i;ii'atest |»ossiblc <loMi)t npon 
itstnith. Ill snch an important transaclioii as the biiildiiii^' of a luiin- 
iiiiat, it would seem to be clear that a j:ra\(' misstntciiicut of its dcsli- 
iiiitidii by icspoiisilde ])artieswas not likely to be made carelessly, or 
witliout ,ui\iii;i' rise to some possilde suspicion of an adeqii.ite motiNc to 
;ic('i)iiiit for it. It d(K's not a]»peai' from anytliiii,i;' conlaiiied in the 
|i;ilii'r> bcl'ore lis that the attention of the parties concciiicd was called 
III this circumstance at all. r>ul it docs appear \'cry clear that, both in 
the Ictteis of .Mr. Adams and .Mr, Dudley, under the eyes of l!er .Majes- 
ty's .^oNcniiiieiit, there was presented an adeipiatc motive to explain it, 
tduit, the wish to elude t!ic \i;nilance of 1 ler .Majesty's no\ernniciit and 
licr olilicers in jireventinu the (Uitlit Ironi one of her ports of a \essel 
Sillily wanted by the iiisur.m'iit .\mericaiis to carrv on war on tiie ocean 
iiuiiiiist their Oovernment. .\11 the external circumstances indicatin.u' 
a state of pea<*e everywhere el>c in the civilized wtnid pointed to that 
liiiarter alone as the proltablc one, not simply to «'xplaiii tlii' (h- -tination 
III the vessel itsell', but likewisi' the false representation which had been 
iiuiilc tor the puipose of concealing' it. iler ."\IaJesty\s ^i'overiiment does 
iiiit seem to liaNC eiitei'cd into any such process of reasoning;-. 

On the I'.'Jd of I'ebnniry it has already lieen 'ibscrNcd that Iler Majes- 
ty's (•(tmiiiissioners of customs had addressed a letter to the treasury 
iiiiiuil, makiii!;' a report in rc<>artl to the condition and destination of 
llif vessel called the Orcto. At the close of that letter are the loUow- 
iii;; Words: 

\\v lir^ I'liilliiT t<i ailil tiial N|M'cial diiictioiiv liavi' ln'cii L;ivi ii \n ihr (illiccrs at IA\- 



li'iiliti'iiir tdiis Ics i'(>iisi'i;;;;i('mc'nts (rfiiijiluvi's lioimi'tf^ ct ili'^iii-s ilc fni. nc siMiililr pas 

.IVnir ell collscicMCC, a cillc ('iMiiillc, dr i"(N i>ti'll(i' (I'lllic til)l i;;al inn (Ir sii pall ill' I'aiif 

lies riii|iii'lfs voloiilairi's di' SUM coti'. < til pi-nl rai.>'>iiiialil(iiii'!it ilniiici'. cii \uvaiit \is 
liiM'iiiiiciils. i|ii'il iTUl iiii'iiif a re ilcMtir. I.c 1"' mars— c'l'st-a-tlirc, viiini-dnis jiiiir.s 
;i\,inl Ic di'iiart i!r l'< ircld — miu' t'iii|iirti'. I'aili' aM|irrs dii ;;niis ciiicmciil italii-ii aii Mi.jct 
ilr riiiii' dt's di'ciaraliiins olilii'iclli's rcriics dr LivfriMi'd, a\ail t-ii |iiiiir ri-sidtal uiid 
;'|iiiiisc lailc dans des iciaiics i|iii. s'its n'l'LiicMl pas alisulmiifiU di'cisiCs ipiaiit a I'cxiicti- 
tiiili'ilf ci'sdi'rla rat inns, tt'iidairnl dii nmins a ji-tcr siir flics Ic pins i;ia:iil don If. Dan.s 
mil' :it)'airf anssi iniportaiitr ipic la ronsiiiiri luii iriiin' laiioniinrc, on ]iiiuirait ciuiii- 
iin'iiiii' lanssi- d(''claralii)h I'ait.' "|Mant a sa dcsliiiatina par dfs ]irrs(inin's irsiMiiisalilrs 
iiiilivail pasi'trc Caitc par in'v^liijciiii' d drvail lain' iiaitrc mi smipi/nn ijii'd y avail 
ili-i riiisoMs siillisiinlrs di' la laiii'. II iii' jtarait )ias. d'apics ji's dnciiincnls ([uc inni.s 
:iviiii> sons ics M'li \, 1 1 III' I'at irnl ioM di- res p.'r.siiiiiii's ail ili- appi'lcc dii hint snr cc lait. 
iiMis (I- 1 1 Ili ('St clair a tors, c'l'st ipn' dans lex i>'i tr>'-- dc .M. .Vdains, an>si liii n ipic dans 
II lies lie .\I. Ihidicy, It'll I'l's piaii't's suns lis vriis drs nii'iiiliiis dii ;;iin\ I'lni'iiii'iil dr sa 
M;ijr>|t' liiiiaiiniipir, di's raisniis liirii salti>anti's di- tc fail rniriil d'lniii cs — c'l'st-ii-diri- 
ii' ill NJr d'lM'iiappi'r a la viniiaiici' <lti ;'iin\rriii'nirnl d<' sa .Maji'stt' l>iilaiiiiii|ni' ct do 
>iN t'liipiiiycs pniir cnipcciicr i'anncincnl dans tin port an;.;lais d'liii vaisscan dont Ics 
iiiMir'.;! s aiin'ricains avaiciil Ic pins ^riand hrsoin, pmir faiic snr iiici' in j;ii 'lie a Iciir 
'iiiiivi nicuiciit. La pais ipii rc;;nait parloiU. aiilcitrs, ilcvait dirl;j;cr faliciiiioii sni' ct; 
piiiiil seal ct di'vail noii-sciilcnicnt onv rir Ics ycnx. <|nant a la dcstinaiii ii dii vaisscan, 
Wilis aiissi c\|iiii|n('r la lanssc di'claratiiiii taili; dans riiUcntiou dc raclici tcttc dcsti- 
liiiiiiiii. 

II a dija I'll- I'ciiiiiriiiic t|nc. Ic v!'J Icvricr, lis conuniKsah'cs dcs dmiancs ilc sa Ma.jcsti^ 
I'liii'iiii pic avaicnt adrcssc a la licsorcric nnraiipoit snr I'dat ct la dcsiinalioii dn 
^.li'-siaii appi'lc I'DrcIo. .V la lln dc ic rapport sc tioinc !a iilirasc v:'i\anlc: 

".NciH ajoiitiins i;iio dcs hisinictioiis spi'i'ialcs tint etc tliiiiii«';'s a ij'Vcrpool pmii- 







m 



154 



AUIilTRATION AT GENEVA. 



m 



erpool to wntrh thr morrmoilx of tin; rrHxcI, and tluit wo will not fail to r('i»ort fortliwith 
any circuiii.stiince.s which iiiav occur worthy of yon i' loi(islii|("s (•oj;niz!iiic('. 

Tiio. 1'. i'I{i:manti,e. 

(iKKNVIIJ,!-: C. L. J!EK'Ki:i.i:v. 

After a diligent scareli, I <lo not sncco(Ml in lindin;^' a trace of any 
r»'|)i)rr, of (licse f^cnth'incn earlier than tlie Itli Apiil. I'robabls tlicy 
dill not re<;ard the circunistances of her ontlit and departure from the 
port as worthy of their h)rdsliip.s' eo;;nizanee, nnh'ss the news wen- 
altsohitely <h'inaniU'd. 

Yet, when 3Ir. A(hinis, on the L'ath of ]\rareli, addressed another ic 
iMonst ranee to I''.a)l l'nss<'ll, it seems to have had tlie ellectt of pr<»iii|it 
iii<; Ills h)rdship, on the L'tUii of ^Fareh, to direct a note to be sent to the 
secretaiT of the treasni-y re(pu'siinfjf tin- eoininissionei's of cnstonis "td 
^ive directions that tiie Oreto may be dilij;ently watched.'' 

This seems to have broii;;:ht forth a h'tti'r from Mr. S. Price luhvanls 
to the foHouirij;' elVect. It is (hited theL'Stii of Marcii: 

To the C(iiinni'<sioiiirs of Vimloms : 

Thc! «('rc\v-vt'Hscl Oreto was rcgistiM't'd at this pdit on thi' :!il instant, as per coiiyn; 
rt'^islry annrxi'd. She clcart'd on the loUowin;;' day, llifltli. tor I'alrrrno and .laiii^iii;i 
in liallast, as \h'v inclosi'd vii'tnalin;;-liili. She saili'd on thc'J'Jd instai.l, llic d.i\ ii|im;i 
wliich flic Anicriran consnTs letter is dated, liavini; a eiew of lil'iy-two men. all llrii- 
isli. save sonH' three or t'onr, om- of whom only was an American. SIii' had iioiliin,' 
wh.'itexcr on hoard save the stores enumerated, .she ii;td neither unnpo vder nor evm 
a sijinal-;;nn, and no colors save Maryatt's (.'ode of .si;;nals and a Mritish oisii^n. With 
reference to till' passeii;iers hr(Miu,ht hy the .\nnie Child, it is <dear that I'.iey wi'i'e imt 
intended to form any pintion of the crew of the Oreto, lor they aie .till in l.i\i'i|ii(iil; 
and as respects the dippin;^ of the ensi;;'n. this, as far as 1 can asi'crtain, was a cdiiipli- 
nient paid to one of the Ciinard steamers and some other vesstd, which sainted lli'' 
Annie Child on her arrival, the mastcr.s heiii;.; parties known to mu! another. 

What became of this h'tter it is difliciilt to cNplain. It .seems clcai 
that Lord lius.sell coiiUl have Icnown nothing;' of it on thc 7th of Apiil. 



siirveiller les moil venii'iits de ce vai-iseaii et ipie iimis ne maminerons pas de von-; i,i:i- 

jHirter inline lial('!ilr:it toilte eireons!a'n-e diLJlle d'etre pinte,' ;i 1,1 conn.ussanee de Viilli 
sei;;lieiirie. 

(Sij-m') ••■fllo. F. I'IM'.KMANI'I.K. 

••(iKr.NVii.LK c. L, iu:k'Ki;i.i;v; 

Mah^rt' line rediercln' tres-active. je ne leiissis pas a troii\<-r nne si'iile trace ile r.iii- 
j)ort fait |»ar ees nn'ssieiirs anti'iieiiretnent an l iivril. I'rolMldeinent ils n'ont |i,i< 
consideie rarnieinent et Ic ih part di' ce vaissean c(minu' <lcs circonstam'cs di;;'nes d'rtiv 
poriees a la coiinaissanee de Icnrs seiifiienries, a moins ipie les inmvclles ne letir lii-t»i'iii 

tlcmaildees expres. 

Et ccpeiid.inl, lors(|iie M. Adams, le \i."> mars, adrcssa nne seconde repii'scntai inn mi 
Cointi" ivnssell. le risllltat. en I'llt. a cc iin'il semlde, (pie sa sei;^nelirie eiiNoya an 
seend.iiie de la troorerie line iiot< . ordoniiaiit an.\ commissaires des donain-. "li'' 
donner des instiii''l ions poiir ipie I'l >reto I in siirveille a vec soin." 

( cci semlde avoir provotpie nne lettre di' .M. S. I'liie l',d wards, dans les liiiin- 
siiivants. \'A\v est dali'e dii •,'•> mars. 

".Iiir iitiiimissturcn ili'< (Idiuuk s : 

" i.e vaissean a Indiee I'l >rcto a I'te enri';iistri' dans ce port le '.\ conranf. d'apies rii|iii 
dii re^islre ei-j(dn(. II s'.icipiil ta le leiidcniaiii, 1. pmii I'iilernie et la .lamaiipn' I'li 
lest, d'apies le iie'iiioire di's \ i vres. eidnclns. II mit a l;i voile le 'J'J coiirant, le Jiuir ilmi; 
la h'ttredn con>.;nl anieiicain est dati'e, ayant iiii <'(piip;i;;e de treiitc-deiix homines. tnM' 
an.ul.'iis. a Perception de trois on ipiatre, don! iin seiil I'tait anii'iieain. II n'.'ivait lii'ii 
aliord.sice n'cst les |)ro\ isions eniiim'-recH. II n'avait ni poiidi'c ni nieme iiii caiinii 
de siiiiianx. et point de conleins, si ci^ ll'c^*^ li- systeme de si^nanx ^\o .Mairviilt et im 
))avilloii an;;lais. <^nant aiix p,issay;ers amenes )iar I'Aiinie Childs, il est (dair ipi'il- 
u'etaieiit p.is dr>.iini's a fcnnier nne portion (|iieleoiicpie de riMpiipa;;e de I'c )reto. car il' 
sont ein'ore a I.i\'erpool; et ipi.inl an saint, dii |iavillon. e'etail. anl:int ipie je |iin'< li' 
<'onsiaier, nil compliment t'ait a I'liii des 'sieaiin'is Ciinani' et a ipndipie aiif' 
vai-tseaii ipii saliia "r.Vnnie Childs' a son arrivi'e, les eapitaiiies se cimnaisMii! 
niiit iiellcmi'iit." 

II est dim. die <rexi)li(pier co ipi'il advint de cette h-ttre. II semlde elair ipie i.iinl 
Jvi!s>»e|l ne poiivait rich lmi savciir le 7 avril, cai' il parait alors avoir domic To dri'i 



OriNIONS OF MR ADAMS. 



155 



lor Iio appears then to liavo diroetcd yiv. iraiiimoiid to writo to llio See- 
ii'tiir.v ot" tlie Treasury "to cause his loidshij) to bv iiitbniuMl wlictlMT 
iiiiv report has been reccivi'd from the coniiiiissioncrsot'cnstonis respect- 
ing' tlic vessel tlie Oreto." 'Tliis was the sixteenth (hiy at*er lliaf vessel 
liiid saih'<l, ;i lact which he api)ears ar that time not to have olUcially 
known, tht)u;;h (hmbfh'ss he liad jiathered it from the newspapers, 

Tlic report hefoi-e alhnh'd to was then prodnced,(hited tiie ttii, Imt not 
ivccived nntil theiStii. It then first jiaxc tlie information tiiat tlie \essel 
hail saiU'd on the L'L'd, havin.y; l>een I'c^^istered in the, name of .loliu 
ih'iny Thon>as, ()f Liver[»()oi, as sole owner, and cleared for ralermo and 
Jamaica in ballast. 

Tiie reports indi(;ative of any observation whatever nnide in watcliin^if 
tilt' niovi'Mients of the Oreto a[>pear not to have been collecte(l until the 
latter part of Auj^iist, and then only at the instance of Lord Russell, for 
aiiotlier jmrpose. 

One more report was made by the <*omiiiissioners of ciistonis on the 
Istdf May. Tlie ollicial declaration of the minister of state of the Italian 
mivcriiiiienttoiCarl i;iissell.<lenyin;iiill knowIe(l;;-e whatevei' of the( >reto, 
iiad been put into their hands. Tliis declaration had been sent to .Mr. 
Mdwanis, tlu; collector of the l)(»rt, wh'j had been the first person to de- 
claie his faith in the lalseliooil, and was now called to make further ob- 
si'i'vatioiis. Iledidnot iliiiik fit to make any expl.ination of the reasons 
111' liis belief nor of its source, but conteiiteil himself with a reference to 
the rcuislry of tin* vess»'l in the name of a native of I'alermo. w liich he, 
|intl»ably knew to have been a fraud, because he went on to admit the, 
fact of its real destination, and to place his absence from action on the, 
;inuii(l that "<'(V/f in that case no act had been <roiiimitted to justify his iii- 
liiCcreiice.'' It does not seem to have occurred to him to asic himself, if 
till' flisjuti'li of th<' steamer was a legitimate act, v, here was the need 
iit'tlic falsehood aliout the Italian ;;(iveriinient, or the further falsehood 
(if the ownership of .Mr. Tliouias. Xei slier does it seem to Iiaxc occurred 
to Her .Majest\*s ;;ovc;nment to consider whether they had been cheated 
liv tlieir own ollicers. 



.^l. I[:iiiiiiii)ii(l (I'i'crirc nil sccri't:tirt> dc la tn'-<i)ri'rii>, " (|ii(' sii scijjinMiric soil iiif.iriiK'o 
»i I'oii :i iciMi i|Ui'li|iic r:i|i|i(iit ilcs cinnmissaircs' drs dunaiit's luiuliaiit Ic vaissi-aii 
I'Oictn." ("(-tait !(• si'i/i'Mir Jiinr apics i|iii' Ic vaissi-aii avail mis a la vnilc fail qiril 
III!' si'iiililc a ccttc i'i|iH|ii(' n'avdir pas roinni «i|)icitllcmi'iit. <iiiiiii|iic sans doiiii' 11 Tciit 
apltiis ]iai' Ifs Joiniiiitix. l.c rainiiirt am|iiil il rst fait alliisioii cj-ilfssns liit alnrn 
;iiiiiiiiil. (laT('' dii t, iiiais iion rri.u avant ji- "*. II diMiiia alurs, jiom la pri'inn'rc I'ois, 
riiit'iiriaatidii <|ii(' Ir xaisscaii avait mis a la voili' Ic v!,', (in'il avait t'ti' fiiri-uistri'- an 
iinin (Ic .IdImi Henry 'I'liomas, dr l.ivi'i'|iniil, ciuiiiiii- scid priipiit'-lairc, I't i(ii'il s'ctait 
iiii|iiittc en li'st pDUi- ralcriiii' ct la .lamaiipif. 

l/'s rappiuts iiiiliipiaiit Ics olis,Tvatiiins I'aiti's cii ,-mvi'illaiit li-s mdnvniiiMits dn 
lOifiii He paiaissciit avuii- ('tf' rasscmlili'-; <\>\r mts la lin dii iimis d'adtit. ct alors 
^'■r.icMicMt ;i !a dcmaiidc dii CiiiiUc K'nsscli. dans lui antic lint. 

I'll lappurl flit en milic c;'it par Ics ciinimi>.>-aii"s ilc-, dunaiics I.' 1' ' iiiai. ( in avait; 
ini-i ciifrc li'iiis mains la iintc nilicicllc dii niiiiislrc d'Tlat dii ;^itii\ cincmcnt italicnau 
t i;ii;c li'iissili, par laipiidlc 11 di'<darait ii'a\i)ir anciiiii' cunnaissanrc (\r \'{ (tcin. Ccttc 
||' I'iaialiiiii avail ('li' ciixdvcc a M. I'.dwaid.--, Ic i-cccvcnr dii pml. qui avait I'ti' le 
jiri'iiiicr a sc <|i'clarcr con vaincii i\r la vcrit.- dcs faiisscs mdicat ions doniii'cs, ct ipii fiit 
•iliiis appcli' a fairc dc pins aiiiplcs olisc!--,atioiis. II nc criil jias devoir doMiicr des 
'■\|ilic.itioirs siir Ics raisoiis de sa foi en ecs indicalions. iii siir rori<rine dc ecite foi, 
iii;iis sc conlenia de s'eii ri'lci'er aiix rc;iislrcs (pii porlaicnt ee vaisseaii an imhii d'nn 
jiiliilaiil de I'aleniie, ce <|iie )trolialdeiiicnt il savait etre ntie fraiidc, parce ipi'll alhi 
,iii«i|ii'a adincttn' Ic fait de sa vraie destinalion et a exenscr son alistcntinn cii disant 
III!', "iiieinc daiiH ce eas. mi ii'avaii eominis anciiii acte p'oiir just i tier line intervcnlioii 
ill' >'i part." II ne iiaialt pasipril liii M>it \ciin a resprit dc se demandci' poiiii|iioi, 
M Ir il('|iart dc la eaiioiinicre I'tait lc;^al. il I'lail iicsoin d'nnc t'aii'-si' dcclaialimi an 
"'ijit (In •;onvcrncinciit italieii, oil dii sccnml ineiisonne an siijct de la pniprntc dii 
Mussi'iiii |.'ir M, Tiioiuiia. 



'lUVI'll ■ I 





ir)(; 



AUniTKATIOX AT (IKXKVA. 



A stciiinor, completely lilted in iill respects jis a iiiim-of-wnr, had siii'. 
(•ceded in cscapiii-^- iVoin liiverpool, and iiolliin;;' was left to laake liei a 
l)o\vei' on tlie ocean l)nl the receii»l of arms and aninmnition. IIow tliat 
])roceedin,!L;" was accomplished we shall sec in the secpu'l. At pres' nt. | 
desire to point oat the extent to wliicli the I'alsehood and I'raud th;it liail 
been resorted to in the comse ol'the transaction, to cover it IVom ol>.scr 
vation, lictray the consciousness of the jiariics concerned in it ol' the 
danger llicy were incnrrin,u, of the indi.unation of ller Majesty's ydNcrn. 
nienl in case tin'y were detected in jtrcparin;^' such a host ih' ciitt r- 
]»risc in a British port. At least they appear to have had no idcii Ilia; 
su<"li an attempt, if really nnch'rstood, was not an act which wonld Jus 
tify the inteiference of the ;;o\ crnment. Hence the studied efforls t) 
misrepresent tiie transaction from the l)»'.i;inninjL;' to the end. ilcnci' 
the laI)or to snl)stitntc a false Urilish owner, ami a false <lestiny lor tlic 
real one. Hence the sindieil repicsentation of I'ah'rmo, in Sicily. :is tln' 
term ol'the \(>ya^'e, cNcn to llie simi»!e seamen <lecoycd l>y tliis nicaib 
inttt an nnwilliii;^- s«'r\ ice. In a word, the alTair iccks with inali.niiant 
fraud from its incejttion toils close. 'J'he parties c(tiicerncd appe;utu 
lni\(' had no conception htnv easy it was to paialyze the action of llci 
J\Iajest.\'s j^oNci iimenl. or they woidd at once have relieved thi'niscl\i'> 
of all he opprohriuin thai attended their pidcecdmj 



l)oul)ll 



tlicv 



wonld not have indnl^^cd in mendacity for llie mer«' love of it. 'riny 
(lid not then conceiNc that the i»rinciple of aciion was not to initiate aii} 
acli\(' measures of thoron;^!! investi.i;ation into the truth of their wmiN 
and the p)od faitii of their acts, hut to wait for the, disclosure of llir 
iH'cessary cxidence hy tin' a.LienIs of the I'l/itcd States, who could n.ii 
in the nature of ihin;.is possess anything;' like their power of exti>rtiii,u 
the truth from nnwi!lin,i:' lips. 

1 ha\(' now reached the mome"f when it seems necessary to ap.-ly 
myself to the (picslion so much di. i[s^>i'd in the ar;;innents laid heloiv 
ii.s by the respective parties to tiie liti,i;ation. What is the dili.!4('ii(i 
i\\\i' Irom oiM' nation to anttther in preventing' the littin^-out of any vcs 
.sel which it has reasonable jiround to believe intended It) criii.se agiiiiLst 



I* 



I 



:ii>si;m iiiiiii- sons Ions Ics raiipoi'l-^ (■oiiiiiic \ ;ii--s(;iii dc liiuric aviiit H'lissi a siirii 



<lU |ilil t (Ir l.l\ (Tliixi 



lie (I 



rs aililcs < 



I <li 



'I il lie III! iiiaii(|iiait plus, pmir I'trc iiiii' [iiii'ssaiii'i! siir rocran 
Xiiii.s \ cnniis (iaii.s la Mii(c (•uiiiiiii'iit on aniva ;i In 



iiiiiin(iiiii> 



t'li I'oiiriiir. I'uiir li- iiiiiiiii'iit Jr ilt'siri' laiii- r('iiian|iu'r imhmImi'II la IVainlo ciiiiil 
]><iiir.caclnT rarinriiiciU <!•■ cc vaisscaii (it'iii>lc, chv/. ci-iix iiiii tri'iiiiiairii! dans ralt'aii' 
la fCi sciciico (Ics (lan;it'rs ([ii'ils ('(inraiciif, si Ic ^■ifiivcinciiifiil di- sa .Majr>ti 
liritaiiiiii|ii(^ avail di'i-uiiviTl Ics iii'rpai'atifs dc ccttr ciitcriirisi! lioslili^ dans iin pnii 
anglais, lis |(aiaissciit an iimius ii'avoir cii aiii'iiiui idt'i; (lu'iinc tt'llf ciiti'iiirisc iri-iaii 
]ias nil ai'li' just iliaiU riiitcix I'litioii dii uoiivi'i'iicniciit. ]>t^l; 



I (JI'S fli'orls ll'illTIS |HM1I 

nil aiilif jiiiir que Ic vrai. J)i' la i-i' lia\ ail dc siilis! iiiicf ii" 

a la vi;i;' 



picsciiicr la (iiit'si ion sine 

i'anx |tiii|)rii lain- an;;la;s ci iiiii' I'aiissc drsiiiialiciii, an innprii'tairc ii'i 



di'st iiiat ii>ii. 1 >(' la (•(•tie <li''claiatii>i 



I (ic 



I'al 



criiii' (•uiiiinc If lull till V()va;!c. di'<lariil 



■\ el 
1. 



laitc iMi'iiii' aii\ SI 



nijiii 



<'s iiiahlui-, ciil raiiH s dc rctli' iiiaiii>i !■ <laiis iiii st r\ ici' (|a i 



voiilaii'iit |>iiiiir. I'.ii nil mill, crllc all'airc est nii t issn di' tVaiidcs dn foiiiiiicncciuiiii i 
la I'm. I.i's iicrsdiiiics inti'icssics nt- ;.riiildint a\uir cii aiifiiiii' idi'f dc la lacilili'' iivri 



lii<|nrll(> tin |iiin\'ail paralvsiM raclinn dit >;aii\' 



It d.' sa M 



(•;i<'s anraiiMil assiiot dcsirt- dc 



ijcsti' lM'iliiniiii|iii'.i 



di-livior di! rdjiiindirt! di' tniilfs It'iU'.s niacliiiialinii 



lis 111- <'i)iii|M'i'naiiMit ]»as alnrs ((iii' li's priiicip;'s d'aulisii ('t.aii'iit. tlo ni> poiiil/ iiri'inli- 
1'iiiilial iv(t (In iiicsiirt's actives vi. (■niiiplctcs ]ii»iir I'ccnnnaiti'c la vi'ritc di' IfHi 
ii!'i';i;ati'ins ct la luniiic I'oi dc Iciu's a^-li's, inaisd'attciidri! Ics r.'Vt'iatiiiiis dcs a;;i'iil.s il ■ 
J^.tats-I'iiis, (iiii lie iiiiiivaicnt (mi aiUMiiic iiianicrc i>i»ssriluf It) [losivoir (l'i^vtori|iii:r 1. 
vt-riti- a dcs ljciis <|iii iic voiilaicnt, |»as la (aire ciinnaitrc. 

.Ic Niiis niainlciiaiit arrive an iiiinncnt nii il iiic scinliU; iieecssairc d'cxiiinincr la i|i>'' 
tiiin, olijcl dc. tant di' disciissimis dc l.i jiart dcs dciix parlies dans <■:', di'-liat. Avi' 
(|nellc ilili;'eiice iiiic natinii dnit-cllc a,'iir pmir enijicclicr rarinenicnt d'nii vaisscaii qi^ 
I'oii a d(.-s raisDiis snllisautes dc cioirc dcstim- a coinbattrc uiio aufrc uulion .' (^ui)ii|n 



iiMiii avis a 
imissc avcf 
siitlir (Ic dir 
l;i (irande-l 
tin tiaih', |i 
v<pis pas, en 
Majeste lull 
I 'ins. et me 
ilniiiccs |iai 
taisaiitc poi 
iviiiiilies. 
'l"iiir lieu (]i 
coiivcrtes, a 
nitiiiii (III n 
lir(iltiii^('>e (I 
fait ^fi'iit'-ral 
tiiiiis ipii s'l 
iiitnt (Ic HOI 
tivi! ct cniiN 
soiiiM.'onncr 
lit' sf il(''clai 
«ec, alors (| 
(I'iiltciidrc, 
iKiin- (aire j 
Bfcdiirs aii.\ 
t'lii'Z 8oi et 



OPIXIOX.S OF MR. ADAMS. 



-[')! 




11 ('(>ui([ (•(tininaiKi ro ivmicr ainnin c every ediiiDiiiaiioii siis|>ecie(i lo tx 
t'lMiiiiii^" witliin its luHilers to render assistiiiiee to tlie iiiaiiemcrs o 
till' inaleontoiits at \un\ui I All these, are parts of a eoinideto whole 
the inaiiiteiiaiiee of order at home and of peace ahroad. 



111011 iivis a vvi t^^jiird soif piirraitt-iiii-nt foniii', Jf sens (|iic cc ii'i-st pas ici Ic lien ofi jn 
imissi- avi'c Ic plus ih' ('(nivciiaiicc cxpiiniiT iiifs raisoiis d'uiit' iiiaiiiiTi- coiiiplrti'. II inn 
sMilir (Ic ilin- (pic, scion mcii, la ililijrciicc cxcict'c \\:w tunics Ics antorilt's inlcicsst' -s do 
la (iiaiidc-lirctaii^jf, dans Ic CHS actinl. ik; nic parait iiiillciiicnt corrcsimiMlr ■ an Icxio 
(III tiait(', ])arcc (pi'dic ii'a iiiillciiiciit ('•t('' spontaiU'c, ('(nniiic cllc dcvait r('trc. .Ic in; 
vols pas, en ctVcl, dans asicnn dcs docnnicnts sons iios yciix, <|nc Ic ^joiivcnicnicnt il(! s;i 
Miijcslt' liiitaniii(|iic ait av,i. si cc n'csl 'siir Ics representations des a;ients des Tltats- 
I'lus. et iiicmc, lors(|n'il aj;it, il s'cii tient cxclnsiv (■incnt anx iiituiiiialidiis (pii liii soiit 
(ImiK'cs par ccs ai;cnts, ct seinldc snppcser (pic, s'il pent rajipoitcr d'line inaniere satis- 
taisimie pour Ini siir ccs iiil'orinations, scs oidi;iati(nis intcniatioiialcs sont plcliicineiit 
ii'iiipiics. II est I'vidcnt (prune telle inaiiiiTc d'a^ir t'oiirnit aux )»ers(iiiiies iiit('rcsst''es, 
'|"'iii' I't'ii (pi'i'llcs aient line ecitaiiie lial)ilet('', tonics Ics tacilites |ionr t'vitcr d'etre di'- 
coiivcrtcs, au iiioycn d'i'(piivo(pics, Ninon dc uieiisonncs. .Ic nc puis doniu'r aneiinc di'li- 
iiitidii (111 mot " dilij;(!n('cs " (pii nc ,si;;nilie pas senieiiicnt iiiic premiere action direet(i 
Iir(>liiii;;(''C dans le luit dc v<''rilicr dcs d(''lits nii a nn, mais aiissi dans Ic Init d^'taltlir li! 
t'liit f^f'iH'ral di^ riiitiMitioii, tcl t\w. cc lait ressmt d'uiic oliservation c(nitiniic des o|i('i'a- 
ticiis (pij s'cxf-cuttMit. Siipposoiis line conspiration destiiit'c a rcnvcrscr Ic ;;duvcrnc- 
iiiiiit (Ic son pays, u'tMitcndrait-oii [>as, par Ics dues diliij;ciiccs, line surveillance attcii- 
tiv(? ct eonstantc (Ic cliaiuino ct d(! toiitcs Ics pcrsonncs ([IK^ Ton a des laisons dt; 
sdiiiKMunicr, ct line atUioii iiiiin<'diat(; pour (■ni|i("'clicr le iiKMivcnient dc sc ]M'(nionecr ct 
(Ic sc (U'clarcr f Cost siirtout en temps dc ^ncirc (lu'iinc i'iu'i};ic scmlilaldi! sciait ex- 
ilic, alors (pK^ hi diinncr d'liiic cooperation ('■traiifitrccst imnilneiit. N'cst-il |iasnatiircl 
•ruttcndre, »Io t«Mito piiiMsaiicc uvcc: Iu(|iicllc on est cii paix. ([n'cllc I'cia tons scs ctloits 
]i(iiii fairc avorter toutc ^Mltcnt^^ iiotoircineiit IbriiK'c Mir son tciritoire pour porter 
sccdiirs aux iiisnrj;(\s f Tout ttici fait partie iriiii tout (•( iiiplct, Ic inai itien dc la jiaix 
I'licz sol ct h IVtrimgcr. 



^ 



ii 



f 



B3;;;i5 



158 



AKIJITRATIOX AT GKNEVA. 



That tlnMc «li<l oxisf in riioat Bi'itaiii a ('(miUiiiatioii of i^tsohs, cnm. 
]>os«'«l paitly (>r AiiKM'icaiis and jiartly of Hritisli siihjccts, lia\ in;;' I'm 
ir.s ohjcci aiul iiitriit {\w liltiiijii: out of vcjsscls to v.ury on war with tin 
rnitc*! States, to tin* <mmI of ovt'ituniiiif;' tin* (lovcinini'iit, is mailc |mi. 
fectiv plain Ity tin' oviiU'in'i' i»lai'<Ml Itclon' us l»y the two paitics. Tlmr 
n«'i' -Majesty's iiovennncnt coiisidcriMl it in) part other duty to ori;;!. 
nate any lu'oceedinjjfs tendin;j to prevention, at the tini'.M)f the oiitlit m 
the Oicto, or to pass at all lieyoinl the lanye of invcsti^iation especially 
l>ointed out l>y the ajients of the Anu'rican ^-overnnnMit to itsaltentimi. 
ap|»ears to nn' certain. At a later stajue of the dillicnlties this jtoljcv 
apitears to ha\t' l)een i)artially (•hanf;'ed. The favoiahh^ i-lVects of it aiv 
claiin<'(i as a nn>rit in a portion <il the |>apers lielore us. an<l i am rciidy. 
at any ami at all iM'o|iei' limes, to t«'stify to my senseof itsclliciencyiiiid 
value wherever it is shown. I'.nt alter close examination 1 fail to see 
any traiM-s of this poliey in the pres«'nt instance. 

It is, then, my opinion at this stajxe of the transacti(Mis that Ihi 
3IaJesty's yovernnnMit did fail to use due dili^-cnce to prevent the littiii;; 
otit, within its Jurisdiction, of the Oreto, which it had reasonable j^rouiul 
to Ix'licNc intemled to cruise ajiainst the Tnited States. 

J now i)i()<*eed to the next stej* in the careei- of this vessel. 

Xksskk. — Oil the lilM of .March, ISIL*, tiie Oreto estrapi'il fr<nn Liver- 
])ool with an intent to carry on war ayainst the United States. Ihi 
^lajesty's yoverniiM'iit had not been tempted to penetrate the deceptidn 
which had lieeii deliberately practiced upon it. 

On the L'Sth of Aiuil she arrived at Nassau, and was reported by the 
•I'oveiiior as a rci-istered Uritish vessel and carry iiiiij the Hritish II, in. 

On the .'{(Mil ('ommander .McKillop, of Her Majesty's siiip Ibilldo;;, 
addressed a letter to the secretary of the admiralty to this etfecrt : 

A very siis]>ici(ni,s stcaiiuT, the divlio. cvidriitly intoiiilrd Cor a j^milmaf, is now in 
till' iipiH'r aiicliorai^t' inidfr tln' lirilisli liay;: l>nt as tlit-n' arc no li'ss than liirci- (•aiiiins 
of anus and aiiniiiiiiitioii iiiiitt'ii lo riiii tlu' lilorkadc. some of tlicsi^ ^iiiis, iVc, wdmIiI 
turn licr info a inivatctT in a few lioiii's. AntMils of tlw. uoat'cdut'atu yovcnini 'lit iiin! 



(.•iTil a fxis(«'' dans la (;iandc-Iirctay;Tic uni'iMitcntc cntrc dcs AniiTifaiiis <'tjli's siijcis 
111 itann;i|iics ayant iioiir lint d'iii'nii'r dcs vaissi'ans' jionr faiiv la y;nrirnaux l'".tats l'iii> 
IKMirn iiviT.Ncr lc(ionvcrncnicnt, <"t'st mic (dmsc iiarfailcnn-nt iimnvoc par li-s tcinoii;!);!- 
j;('s mis di'vant iios u-nx par livs di-nx parties, (^iic, le ;;(»nverneni<Mit ile sa M.ijoti' 
liritaniiii|nc n'a pas ('(insidt'n'' <lt' son drvoir de preinln^ des nifsnri's pn'-vi-ntivrs an iim- 
ment de I'lirnicnient de !'( )rct(). on di' l':iire pcnir son roinple nnr cnqur-te en drliors (lt> 
ienseit;nrnicnts spc'cialt'inciit fonrnis jiar les a;;i'iits dn (ionvi'mi-incnt aiuerieaiii. c'csi 
enfori' nnc ehosiMndiscntalile. 

A nnt' (''ptiipw' posti'-rienre ectte polilii|nesenilile avoir elian^c' en partie ; on en rt'cliuin' 
les lions it'snltats dans nne partie des doennients ipii soiit drvant nons, et jf suis |iiv: 
a tt^nioiuner en fa\cnr di- sa valciir ct de son ellieacitt'-. Mais apri-s nii'ir exainen ji' iir 
lenssis pas a tronver tract's de cette politi(|ne dans li' cas iictncl. 

Mon o]iinion est, jiar eonst'iiiii'nl, (pie, dans ectte pi-riodc de I'alVaire, l(^;joiivcrncmi'iit 
de sa M:ijcst(' l»riiiinnii|nc n"a pas cxcrci' la dilincncc ii»''!'essaii'c pour enipcdier rii|i|i:i- 
reillcincnt d<' rorclodans les liiniics dc sa Jiiridi<!tioii. lorsipi'il avait dcs raisons siilli- 
s.'intes de eruire (pie ee vaisneau etait dcstini' (;i>ntrc les filats-( 'nis. 

Xdns.ui.—,])' pa-^sc inaintenant a l.i sceonde p(Tiodc de la can icrc de <'c valss'aii. 

Le ViJ mars l^ii'J. I'Oreto sortit de la rade de IJverpool avee rintentioii de lain' li 
j;iierr(' anx r/ats-l'iiis. I.c (roiiverneincnt de »ii Ma,ii'st('' n'avait pas ete teiit6 dt! pi'iic- 
trer la I'laudc ipii avait i''t('' eoniniise {\{' propos di'lilii'n'' a son t^;rard. 

Le *•>< ,i\ ril. il arriva a Nassau et liit aiinontM- par le ;;oiiverneur coniino vais-scau 
anglais, porlant Ic drapean an;;lais. 

I.c :!(l. le eoinmandant, McKillop. dii vaissenn (l«i sa Miijeste l)rit;onii(|ue le linlidn,' 
I'xpedie an s('i'i(''taire de rainiranl(> nne Icttrt- a eet etVct : 

'• I'n \ ;iissean t ri's-snspect, I'i )reto. t^vidciiiniciit e(nistriiit pour ('•treniie catiomiicre, m' 
troiive maiiitemint a ranere, sous les einilcurs l>rit,inni(|ncs ; niais. eoimne il n'y a ya- 
nioins de frois ear;;aiMiiiis d'arines ct de miiiiilioiis ii'i ri'iiniivs pour fore»'r le lil(ii'n>. 
•liU'lqiies-uns de ces camins, efe,, poiirraieiit en fairo uii corsairo en peu dMieure.s. l>i'» 



OriNIONS or MR. ADAMS. 



,.|lliirs< "if flifir navy arc luTf on tlif sjtot, and / 'jrc no du 



h<i 



till ir sirncc. 



Such Wiis tlic iiiitiiiiil and just coiK-liisioii of a 
wiitiii;:' iindt'r no bias on on«' side or the otluT, I 

M'll 

mail 



SI' of Justice and fair dealing'. L«'t ns now pi 
ncr in wliicli cvciils contribiili'd (o vt'iifv 







1 

ir)9 


iiihl tlitil thv Onto in 


hit 


iiilvd 


^'idlant Hritisli 


oft 


cer, 


nit niovi'd only 


h\ 


his 


I'occcd to ('onsi< 


lei- 


the 


liis prediction 


to 


the 


f the United St 


at( 


's at 


j; his attention 


to 


the 


rt of Liverpiiol 


i)f 

1 


the 



Ifttcr. 

(hi the !Hh of May. Mr. Whitiiiji-, the coiisnl of 
Nassau, addressed a note to the uovernor, c;dliii 
tlu't of the almost ('iniciiirent arrival fnnii the po 

Mii!iho!it Oreto, and of the tii;^' Fanny Jjcwis, laden with jiiinpowder for 
the iiisiirjient Americans. 

Tliis letter was referred by the ;;'overiior to the eonsi«leratioii of the 
attoriieyji'eneral, with an indorsement on it to the <'lfe<tt that he wishe<l 
tlic a^i'ciits of the Oreto to be informed that, if they put arms on boar<l 
that vessel, he slujiild then enforce the rules laid (lowii in the <^)iieeii's 
|inicliiiiiation. 

The receiver general enters his minute on Mr. \Vhitin;;"s letter, to the 
(■tlt'ct that tlu' J'^anny licwis has an assorted carp) not to be hiiided. 
Ih' is conlideiit that no part of the caiji'o had then been transferred. 

lint on the -(ith of the month his toiM> ehaiiji«'s, and lie is <'oiiviiieed 
that the consi.unees of tin' Oreto intend shipping;' laij^e quantities of 
arms and munitions as c;ir;>'o. 

Two days days later Commander IMcKillop writes to the .uovernor as 
I'oliows: 



Sfvcr.il stfaiiMTs liavini; aticlioicd at f'oclirani 



uicliioa}:!', ] Hi'iif an dfliccr \ cstcr- 



il.iv til \ isit tlnan ami luu^irr llicir en 



and ascertain w iiat tlicv wnc and lii'W t-ni- 



Tlii' olliicr ici>iiit.s tiiat .mr siciiniir, tlic Oreto. is aiiitaieiitly littiiiy; and ]ire\iaiin;i 
jiir II M'.sscl of war; nnder tiiese cirtiinistanees, I would mij;;;i st tlu'.l she slioniii eiinic 
iiiiii tlie liarltor at Nassau, to pii'veiii an.v inisnnderstnudin;; as to Iht ei|iii|)|)in;; in 
ilii> i«iit, e(Hitiur,\ to the loieiyn-enlistnieiit act, u.s a jnivatoer or war-vcswel. 



:i;;riits (In ;r()n vcrneinent conli'drie et des ojlieiers de sti marine se ti(in\eiit ill meme. ct 
\fU';n auclin donte que I'Oreto est destint' a ienr service." 

I'lUe ('tait laJMsieei natiireile eiinehisitni d'nn lirave ollicier anelais, ecrivant sans 
rUv iHcMMin jMMir nil parti on ]ionr I'antre, niais n'e<'ontant qne sa conscience et son 
■-I'litiiiicnt d'ci|nile. 

lAinnimins inaintenant connnent les (•venenient.s sc eharj^erent de vc'rilicr a la lettre 
I'l-s {iiidictions. 

l.f ;i niai. M. Wiiitiii;;, consul des f.tats-t'nis a Nassau, aflress;; mn- note an <iou^('r- 
iii-in' |iiiur ap]»orler son attention sur Ic lait de I'arrivee in-es(|Ue simnltam'e ile la ea • 
iiniiiiieie I'Oreto et du remoriiueur l"ann\ i.ewis, tons deux venant do Liverpool 
iliiM'X's de |iondre pour le.s insnr;ies aim'ricains. 

('ctli< let tre tilt souuiis- par le ;;oiiverneur a rexanicn du ])Micnr(nr ^rirral. avei; 
iiiir iiiiff ('crite jiu dos, oil ij cxpriinait Ic di>ir (|Ue les a'^ents de ]'( liclo In -isrnt intornc's 
"He s'lls iMnl)ari|Uaient des arnics a Imrd dc leiir vaisseaa. il inettiait a cxi'iiition les 
liiivri|it ions ('•iiiett'es dans la proclamation de la K'eine. 

I.r ivccveiir y;('m'ral prend note t\v la Irftre de M. Whitin;;. en ce s( ns, (jue la Fanny 
l.i'wis a une car;iais(ni assortie t|ui ne dtiit pas etre dt'lianini'f. 11 expiimc sacini\ic- 
tmii i|a"ancnnc partie de la (•ar;;aison n'a encore I'te deliariin»- 



ns Ic *J1( it e|ian;;e de ton, et il est <-onvaim'n (|ue les ay;i'nts de I'Oreto out rintcn 



M 
tiiiii d'cndtaniuer coniine car;;aison de ^ramies ttuantiti'-i d'arnu'.s et de ninnit ion 

Miit ; 



nlli 



iMx Jcnus plus tard, le comunindant, Mr. .McKillop, eerit au );oiivernenr ce qui 

I'Insieurs vajuairs etant a raiieri" dans la in<l«^ d« Cochraiu', J'ai envoye Iii<>r un 
licr pour les visitei, rasseuilder leurs ei|nipanes, et lei-onnailre ce (|h'ils ctaieiit -t 
la iiianicre doiu (ni les eniploie. I/ollieier ine rapi)orti' ipie " I'nn des vapenrs, I'Oreto, 
I't, sflou toute npparence, arnn- pour etro un vaisseau de jiuerre. I»ans ecs eireon- 
M:uiris, j(. sn;;;;(^rerais (|u'on le fit eiitier dans la raile de Nassau, aliii d'i\ iti-i tout 
iiial(iii(.||(|n ndativeineiit a son aiineinent dans ee port, L-oninii! vaiswean de j;nerre mi 
'If itiuise, fuiilrairt'iiiL'nt au /oniijn-inlintuanl uvl," 



» i ; ;'i i 

•■ ■ ■ < 

I 



1(50 



AK'IM'IRATIOX AT GKXKVA. 




^s ; 



TIip u'ovcnior rcffncd tlic (iiicstioii to tlic iifforiioyjifojionil, wIki ;;;ivi 
it M>; Iiis (IclilMMMtc npiiiioM that an oidci' lor the removal of lln' Oivti, 
to a |il ICC wlicn^ s]h' was within reach of ohscrvatioii sliouhl imt K, 
made, as siicli onh'P coiihl not lie h';4ally enfoi'ced nnh'ss it was distiiictlv 
shown that such a vioIati(»n of hiw had taken plat-e in respect to jicri, 
wonhl justify her sei/nre. 

Here also it is to lie noted that the attorncy-j^eneral, folIowiiiM' tli,- 
example i^iven in the mother coiintiy, considers it not incnmlieni ii|i(i>i 
the ^(tvernmeid to initiate any measiwes whatever of a prevcntivi 
natnre. in other words, not until a vessel shoidd succeed in an miiiii 
taUin]nof an illejial natnic, which would necessarily imply her csi';i|i,. 
from the jui isdict ion, would the juoper time comi^ for proceeilin;^' wiili 
proof that she ou;^lit to ha\i' been detaineti. 

It was no! mil 11 1 liecanu' familiar with all these tra!isa«'tions tlmt l 
fully comprehended the singular facility of adaptation of the law, as im. 
derstojd and practiced in (ireat IJritain, t(> the delay ami defeat of tin 
eiids of justice. 

it is due to the jjovornor to say that he was not altou'cther satisfihl 
with the passive |>olicy recommended I»y his attorney ;;'eneral ; and he 
ju'occeded to recommend to Commander Mcivilhtp to take active hums- 
ures (»1 jirevention in the e\ cut of ids i>ein;x <'onviuced tiiat the vcssd 
was aUout to be aimed within that Jurisdicti(Ui. 

On the Sth of .liine. Commander McKillop, in a letter to the uovciikh, 
announces that he will seize the Ncssel shouhl she attempt to take ;iiii 
munition on board. 

On the vei'v next day the consignees of the Oreto beijan to htad tlic 
Orcto with arms and aminiinition. i!ut Commander McKillop <liil m 
e.xeciiti' his purpose, On that day lie (putted his command. 

Hut on the \ cry next day his successor, Comnninder llickley of llir 
]\IaJcstv's ship (ireyhoiind, visited the Oreto, and found the consimi('t» 
just as busy discharjiin;;' the arms and ammunition taken in tlicdny 
itcibre. In point of fact, they had received a pi'ivate notice from tln' 
governor and the commander that it would not do; but it was not ;i 







T,i' L;niiv<'rii(Mir icm oya l;i (|ii('sf i<iii iiii piociiii'ur fjoiu'ral. Ccliii-i-i dt'^eliU'ii (|iii'M!i 
opinion, iijiii'-i tni'irc ii'lli'sioii. I'ljiit <|iu' I'oii lie ilcvait point oi'donncr U'. (trpliirriiHii; 
lie I'Oicto ponr Ic coiulniit' cii nn lim od il si-rait iniriix siirvciii/' ; iiu'ini tcl onlrcii" 
MTait point ir'nal, tiint (|n'oM n'anrait jias [U'oiivi- (.'laircnicnt <|iii', la loi avail I'ti' vinln 
(If inaiiit'i'c a jiistilliT sa .saisic. 

IicMianpions cncori' ici ipic li- prociircnr jirm'ral. suivaiit I'fxamplc ilonni' I'li 
An;;'lt't('i ii'. in- ronsidcrc pas ipi'il soil (in devoir dii ;foiivt'fnrmi'iit dc prendre aiii'iiii'' 
lucsnif preventive. \]\\ d'aiures t<'rnie.s, ee n'ent <pie loiscpi'itn vainseaii atira tiii<>! 
dans line entrejirise ilir';;ale — e'est-a dire, lorsciii'll sf sera soiistrait a la.jiiridiction— i|iif 
Ton ponrra prendre des niesiires |ioiir nrriver a la jireiive qiroii devait le dt'-teiiir. 

Ce lie flit ((ii'apivs nretre laiiiiliarise avei- toiites ces atVaires, ipie J'ai eoiii|iri-'l:i 
siimiiliire laeilil'' avee la<|Melle on pent adapter la loi. telle (prello est pratiipU'e daii' 
la (irandi'-lirelaniie, an didai et eiiliii a raiiniilatioii de la justice. 

("est line Justice a reiidre ail ^joiiveriieiir que de recoiinaltre, (|ii'il ne fiit jms cimi- 
l>li''leiiient salist'ait de la |)olitii|iie passive recoiiiiiiaii(Ii'e par le prociireiir ;jeiii-riil. I't il 
eiijoionit an ('oiiiinodore MeKillop de prendre d'aetives niesure.s preventives. d:iii'' I'' 
(•as oil il strait convaincii ([n'oii ('tait siir le point d'armcr hi vaissoau dans eclti' 
Jniidiel ion. 

he "^ .jilin, le eoininandant, Mi-Killop, dans nne Icftre adn^ssi'^e an gonvcnu'iir. 
aniioiice ((ii'il saisira le vaissean. si Ton tenle d'cmlianpier dcs mnnitioiiH. 

Le joiir sniv.int, les a;;ents dt^ TOreto eoiiinicnceiit i\ 1(^ cliarycr d'arincs (^t do iini- 
nitions. Mais leconiiiiandanl, MeKillop, no met pas :\ ex<^ciitiuii sa nieiiaee ; il ava't 
(piitti' ses lonelioMs le inr-iiie .jonr. 

r.e lendeinain, son Miiccessenr, le eonimaiidant, Hickloy, (In vaissoau de sa iiinji'!>tc 
lnitamiii|iie (Jicylionnd visita I'Oreto. i;t tron va les a)j;ents en train de d('cliarji('r le vais- 
sean des arnies et des ninnitions enil»ar(pu'es la veille. En ettot, ils avaieiit ret.ii uii uvi« 
partiinlier dii yDiiveriienr et dn commandant, (lu'il uo puuvuit uu C'tre aiusi, iiiaiai'< 



OPINIONS OF MR. ADAMS, 



ICI 



iiKMiiiciii,!; iiititiiiitioii iis to iibsoliitc acticMi. 'I'licy were nmniii;,^ ciioiiiih 
to tiiUc tlic liiiit. and cliiiii;;')' the line of tlicii' opcriitions. 

Tlit'vnowdccliircil tiiciriiitciitioii tttflfiirtlicC )i'('tuiii hallast t'or Havana, 
This assiiraiicr i|iiii-t«><l tlir apiticlM'iisions of tlir liritisli coniinaiitli'i'. 
lliit liinliii^' that the vessel still remained, on the l.'tth of .hiiie he a;;aiu 
visited liei", in e(tni|tany with eij;ht ul' his olilieiMs, The <.'re\v had n-- 
I'lisi'il to ;;('t the anchor ii|> nntil tiie.v eonld he made certain as to w heic 
the ship was yoin;;'. The ( >reto was a suspicions vessel. Alter clo>e 
(iliscrvation, Captain llickley and hisei;;lit olVieers all si;4ned a report, 
;i(l(lrcssed to the jiovernoi, to the ell'eet that she is in cNcrv respect 
tittctl as a man-oi" war. Siie had left l,i\t'ipool tilted in all lespeeis as 
tlicy saw her. No addition or alteration had Ih'cii made at Nassau. 

This pa|)er was submitted to the attornes -general lor his opinion, and 
111 ;,Mve it to the elVect that nothinj;' contained in it would jMstil\ the 
detent ion of the vessel. 

Milt Commander llickley saw the thin;i' in a dilTerent lijiht fiom the 
;itt(tnii'y, and on the l."»th addressed a new letter to the ;;overnor, I'e- 
|iiirtiii^' the result of his conversations with the portion of the crew that 
liiid come to see him, lie was now so convinced of tin' intent of the 
|i;irties c(»nU'ollinjH' tin; Oreto, that he was stron;ily inclined to take the 
ivs|M(iisibility of her seizure and removal t<» another station at which 
was placed the eoiumodoie oi' commander-intthief. And he actually put 
(Hie of his oflicers tempoiarily in char^i'e. 

Oil the Kith of .Inne the .liovernor wrote, in reply, dei)recatinu all 
irtiiiii of the kind ( ontemplated, and throwing;' the responsibility wholly 
ii|i(iii him, if he slnudd take it. 

On the same day the attorney-^^'eneral nives an opinion that no ease 
liii> vet bet a made out for sei/,ure. lie d»tes not appear to ha\ e I hoiii^ht 
it iiis duty to initiate any ineasui'es to ascertain what was the e\ idene*' 
iilKHi which < 'ommandei' llickley was impelled to his convictions. It 
was the passive policy, the example of wliich had l»een set at home. 
Tilt' evidence must t'omu to the ;'(»veiniiieiii. It was not lor the -iov- 



n'llait |iiiH 1111 avis nn'iiiiriuit trimc jictinn dc la pai t ilii t^iuivciin iiicnt, ft ils riiifiit 
;i^<iv. tins jHHir ni (ciiir (■(nii|»t<' <'l |iinir cliaii^rr Iciii lium- clc (•(iiulnilf. 

IImIi (lariTciit aliii-.-> i|iril> a\ aiciil rinli'iil ii>ii df s'ar(|iiit ti'i' jHnir l'( )rct() fii Ir-^l iciur 
1.1 ll:ivaiii'. Ci'Uf ili'claratiiiii ra-^siiia )ii)Mr ciiii'li|iii' ri'm|>-* li' i'ii:iiiiiainlant lintaii- 
ii.i|Ui'. .Mais Ic Hi jiiiii, voyaiit i'Drcto ttiii.jniirs a raiic-rr, il alia lr visiti-r. aic(iiii|ta,iiiii'' 
ill' liiiitoriicicrs. l/(''i|iii|iani' a\ail rcl'iisi' dr li'\ it raiirrc taut tiu'im iii' Ini aiirail jias 
iiitniiiiiailrc laili'stiiiatiniiilii vaisscati. l/On-tix'laii mi vaisscaii siis|ii'i'l. Ajiri's mu'ini- 
iinlii'iisi' iiispcciinn, lr <-a|iitaiiii- liirkli-y ct scs liiiit nllii'ifrs si;;ii)'nt iiii ra|)|>i>rl ailrt'-^i- 
iM L;iaivcriit'iir. (it'claiaiil i|iii' !'( »i'flii est, suns tons Irs ra|i]n>rts. aiiiir ruiiiuir nil \ais- 
vaii (Ic i;iirrrr. II iivait i|iiitti'' i^ivripiiiil tri iin'ils lr vnyairiit alms; on iir Ini avait 
l.ii! iii i'liaii;friiiriit ni ailditiini a Nassau. 

Tr ildcimiriit I'nt sMiiiiiis an iiniriirrnr yi-iit'ral. rt il ilrrlai'a i|n'il nr nnitmaii rim dr 
lapaiilf ajnslilirr la di'triitimi dii vaissraii. 

.Mais lr coininanilanl liirklry nr vnil i»as Irs clio-rs suns lr nirnir junr, rt, lr l.'i, il 
iiilivssc mir- iimivrllr Irtlrran linnvrrnrnr |ii>ni' Ini I'aiir ronnaitrr lr ri'snltal d'linr 
iiinvcrsaiiiMi avr(^ nnr jiartir i\{- rri|nii>aLjr dr I'Oirtn. ijiii I'lait vrnn lr Iruiivn-. Ilrsf, 
>i iiiiivaiiirn di> <'i)imaUrr Irs viTitaldrs inlrntiinis lU-!^ ajfrnts d<' !'( )i-rt(>, <|iril est tout 
ilisposr a iirriidrr siir lui la rrsi»i>iisjiliilit<'' ^\^' lr .saisir, rt dr lr nnidiiin' an innniliajii* 
"II SI' tioiivr l(! (oniiiiandanl rn chrf. II va iiiriur Jiusiiii'u coimiirtlrr trniiKnairnnriit 
1111 ill' srs otlicirrs a sa j;ardr. 

'■I' lii jiiiii.lr LCnuvrnirnr n''it((iMl I'w IdAiiiant; toiitr lueHiiro (lo cr /jtMU'c, ct lr irnd n- 
I Kpiiiisalilr dr cr (in'il |ionirait iairr a rrt I'-jrard. 

Li' iiiriitr Jinir lr )>riirnrrnr f^i'mrral dt'-rlari! ipri! n'v a riii'on) aiirmi inntit'dr siisjr Id 

v;ibsrini. II nr scinldr |ias avuir rvn tpril I'tait dr smi drvdir dr. |trrndri) di's inrsnrrs 

l«iiir ivcininaitrc siir (|ii(ii Id conimaiidant liirklry rinidair sa ronvirtinii. ("itait \»n- 

Ijiiiirs (cttr tiolitiijiir passivrdont on lui avait doiiin' rrxainplr rn An<;lrt<'nr ; la prmvi? 

[•ii'vait aiiivrr au gouveriirmeiit, ct CO ii'rtail pas an ;;oiivrint'iiiciit a reclirnlirr rrlle 

11 B 



t 



i-> 



pflT'^;' 



II! *; 
III'. 





1(52 



AlMlIT|{ATIO\ AT (JKNF.VA. 



iMiimciit fo yo to llio ovidonco. Of'conrso it iiiitiir.'illy lifip]>«'iHMl tliit 
this woikcd cntiit'ly lor IIm' licin'tit of \hv niMldii'ttors, iiiiil to the i . 
Jury of tlu' piiity that oii;;ht t(» liaxr Ix'cii protccU-d. On the saiiic (l;i . 
< oniiiiaiidrr llii-kl<-y wrote a rrply iiiaiiitairijii;>' liis <'oiivi<'tioii, hiit ilv 
cliiiiiin' to assiiiiM' the rrspoiisibility of actiiiji' in tiic face ol' the attniii,) 
^icncial'sopjnion. lie, tlu'n'l'oir withdrew the olHccr whom li(> lind phicnl 
in <'liai';;e ot" the ship. 

lint tin' ;;o\('i'n(»r is not satisfied with the aeticui of eitlu'r |>arty, iiinl 
is afraid to euniniit himself entirely a;iaiiist the clear conviction of rlic 
<i)inman<ler, so he (h'cides in lavor of a sei/.nr«' of the vessel, with a \ ii ■, 
to a snl»missioii of the (piestiou to the local (;ourt of vice ndmlraltx iit 
Hassan. 

This was on tln^ 17th of Jnne. The information of the act of Captiiiii 
llickley was transmitted to the jiovernment at liondoii, ami rec'iviij 
iIm' approliatioii of Marl 1'nssell. Indeed, there is a de;;r<-e of heinti 
iiess in the terms he uses to expiess it, and in his anxiety to see ihc 
otlieer jnoperly s<'cnred from any hazard to himself by reason of his 
conrse, that <'learly shows the eariu'stness ol" his satisfactimi. I hope! 
may not lie e.\ceedin<;" my jnst limits if I seize this occasion to do a sim 
])1e act of Jnstice to that eminent statesman. .Mnch as 1 nni^v sec caihf 
In differ with him in his limited eonstriurtion of his own duty, or in tlir 
\ lews which appi'ar in these papers to have been taken by him of the 
]»olicy jirojier to be jMirsiied by ller Majesty's government, 1 am far Irnm 
drawin,u' any infei'cnces from them to tlie effect that he was actuated in 
any way by motives of ill-will to the I'nited States, or. indeed, iiy wn- 
worthy motives of any kind. Jf I were ]termilted to .iiid<i(' from aciiln 
<'oiiiparison (»f the relative wei;;lit of his various opinidiis with his action 
ill diiieiciit (MMitin.u'eiicies, I should be led ratln'r to infer a biiliiiur 
of <i()(ul-will than of hostility to the I'nited States. 

The law ollicersof tlieCrown were likew ise coiisnlted. and they junvrMii 
opinion favorable to the action of (io\ernor llayley, but stroiijily iiiuiir: 
that evidence of what occurred at Liverpool of buildinjjf and fittiiii; out 



l>rt'iivi'. Ci'ttr iii.'uiirri' il'Mj^ir dcviiit in^ct'ssairt'iiu'iit tonriicr an profit (lt'.sr()ii]);ilili's it 
ill! iii('jM(lirc (if cciiN (|iii (It'Viiiciit rti'' |iroli'';;r'.s. 

Iji' iiiriiK^ .jour li' t'oiiiiiciiiilaiit llickley ii']iiiih1 (|II(' s:i conviclidii (Iciikmu'c (iiliiii'. 
iiiais (|i\'il irciiti'iid ji.is a^siniii;!' la i('s|innsaliilit(> il'ay;ir fontrairt'iiiciit, a rupiiiiini ilii 
jirin'iiicnr };tMir'ial. l]n coMsi'micnci' il rdiit' rollicii-r <|u'il avail (•(niniiis a la itaidiMli! 
vaisscaii. 

I A' i^diivi'i'iicnr. jicii saliHlalf tlos dcnx oitiiiioii.s opposrcs, on craiiiiiant do so ciiiniUH- 
incttii- fii so (li'ilaiaiit ciiiilii' la coiivictioii •ilisuliie ilii cniimiaiKlaiit, sc (h'cidc I'l tiiiiv 
sai'<ii' Ir vaisscaii, el a |i(>iti'i' la (|iicsrion dcvaiit la coui' dc la vicc-ainiraiitt' a Nmsmiii. 

' 'cci sc jiassai' Ic IT Jniii. On lit cniiiiailrc an j;(mi\ (Miiciiicnl a Ijinidrcs cc (|ii";n.i;r 
Tail Ic cajiilaiiic 1 1 icidiy. ct Ic ( 'ointc l.'iissclj y diimia son apinohat imi. II yaciir;:! 
un Ion dc coidialili' dans Ics terms ijn'il cnijiloic ]tonr rc\|Minicr. ct dans son anxiil' n' 
Aoir t'oi'iicicr liicn -aianl ; contrc loni liasard a cansc dc «a condnitc, >\\n nnmtrc cIiiip- 
nicnt Ic sciicnx (ic sa satislaclion. J'cspcit* nc pas dcpassri' nics Jnslcs liinilcs. >i !•• 
saisis cctic occasion d'acconiplir nn sinijdc actc dc Jnslicc cnvt'iw cct hoinnic d'lliit 
eminent.. Aniani Jc ]inis voir tU^ nn)til's dc dilleier d'avcc Ini (|nant a sa nninicrc lii- 
eonscrlte d'en\isa;;'er son pi'opi'e devoir on dans les viies (|ni, par ces doeninenls. sciii- 
lilcnt avoir <■(<• adoptt'cs par Ini (pnint a la condnito a siiivii! par 1(^ ji;onveiin'iuciii (!'• 
sa Jtajcstt'-. antant jc snis loin d'en tirer ancnnc conclnsion ipTil ait vtv inn, enaiiiiiiii' 
inaniei<', par dcs nn)til's dc nninvaisc volonic t^nvers les lltats-irni.s, on nieine par ili" 
iinttil's indl;;in's d'ainnnc espcee. S'il in'«''tait iterniisde,inj;er, en <;(>nipaiaiit avcc <iilii!' 
la \alenr relative i\{' ses opinions diverses, a sa condnitc en diHt'Tentcs conJoin-lMri's.ji' 
hciais plnli'it portt' a conilnre en I'avcnr d(? la lioimo. voloiite (pu! do I'ho.stilite a ri'i^ai'i 
«lcs Hlals-l'nis. 

I.es aToi'ats dc la coiironne. cji;aleineiit consnltes, doinn'>i'ent luns opinion lavuralil'' 
iinx mesn res prises i)ar le j;onvein<'nr IJayley, inais n^coinniaiiderent fortenwnt tl'<'i' 
voyi 1- le i('cit de cu ipii sVtait pas.se a Liverpool, uu sujotdo lu coiKStructiou ct de runuf 



OPINIONS OK MI{. ADAMH. 



ir,3 



slinnlil lu' at" oiioc sont forwiiril, in onlor to coinplt^to tlio proof of her 
hitstilt' •Ii'stiiiiition to tlif liiiitol Stiitcs. 

And lit'i't" I tiiist I may \n\ pciiiiittt'd to cxpn'ss my sense of yratilicn- 
tioii on iciidiii.u' the repni'ts iiml ohserviii;;' the aclioii tif the t\V(» ;;iilliinl 
naval nl'liccrs. Tlieirelcai' ;;uo(l sense iin<l r;ipitl Jinl;^Mient liml led tliem 
strin;:lif t'orwanl to tlie penetinlion «»r tlie motiv«'s of the antliors of the 
wrctclied «M|nivoe:itions and falsehoods l»y wliieli tliey were sni rounded, 
as well as to the adoptiiui of the most elteetive measures to Inin;^' their 
iiiacliiiiMtions to naii;;ht. Neither (h>es this course appear to lia\«' lieen 
in any way prompted l»y a nn-re spiiit of j;((od-\vil! to the I'liited Stales, 
which were to !>(' proteelecl l»y their aeiion. It seems to ha\«' sprunj;" 
troni that natural impulse oi" a conscieiiee void of (dVense, whieh per- 
ceived an aet of injustice and fraud to he in conteuiplal ion, iiud deter- 
niiiifd at once to resoit to the hest measures to present it. 

Had such an ein'r;^<'tic spirit ainmated the whole action of Her Majes- 
ty's j;o\crnnu'nt at all tinu's and in all conjnnctui'cs, there would have 
liicii nocpH'stiou about the exercise of due dili^jcncc in this muiativ*'. 

The opinion of the law ollicers in Fiomlon was received l»y \vm\ Uus- 
sill en the iL'th of Au;;ust. Ti-u days hefore that date he had addressed 
a letter to .Mr. Stuart, the llritish secretary at \\ iisliin;;lon, icquestin;; 
liini, in vi«'W of this ]>roceedinji", to dissuade the American (lo\ernment 
lioni procccdinu' in the nu'asure then c(mteniplated of issuing letters of 
iiianine. lie little thought of what had heen laid up in store for him by 
till' learned JudjiC of the com t of Nassau. 

Oh that very sanu' day he Icid ])i'onounccd his Judunient that then 
was IK* sutlicient e\idence to prove any act commilted at Nassau to 
iastily (he seizure. I>nt, consi(leiiiij;' the very suspicious nature of the 
I'ircnnistance.s, he slutuhl I'cleasc his own ;;ovcrnment I'rom the paynn-nt 
ot costs. 

It is the .nenei'al rule of courtesy bi'twcen nations to reco>ini/.e th(^ 
action of their I'espective <'ourts without scekiiii;' to analyze tin' piim-i- 
]ilcs upon which tlie decisions are made. And it is a wise rule, as <'on- 
duciveto tho general nmintenaniio of law ami order in the perlbrnmnco 



lit (111 viiisscaii, iifiii do coiii|tl(n('r in lUfinr dc l:i lU'stiiinlioii lio^iili- dc INircto 



n.'imt lies fltiits-l'nis. Kt i 



<Mlisr;ir(ii)li <Ml lisailt n-s lllililnil 



,1 t'S|iiTc (|ll'il lllf srl;i |iiTllliN d'r\ lifilllcl' IIMMI Sent illlfll t 
■t ell ri'iii;iri|ii;iiit l:i cKiiililiti'di' ccs dciix hravcs 



It di- 



"liii ii is df iii;iriiic ; li'iir Imhi sens Iiiridc ci Ifnr jii;;ciiii'iit i;i|iidi? Irs coiidiiisiii'ii 

III iiiiMiii a pructrci' Irs iiKit it's dfs an ten is di's niisii aides im|i is n(|iirs ct dcs iiii'iis(iii;r('s 



iiifii till a 



iliHlt lis clauilt ('IlVc|n|i]ifS, ai 

lui'ltii' a iii'aiit [('Ills iiiacliinaliniis. Ccit 



di>]i|i 



iT li's iiifsin'i-s Ics plus iriicaccs puiir 



(■ coiidiiitc III- si'iniili' pas iinii plus avmr cti 
]iMiviii|iii'i' ell aiii'iiiiiMiiaiiii'ri' par nil simple esprit de hoii Ndnloir a re;;aid des I'.lats- 

1 llis, qui de\ aii'lU etre pl(ite;;es par ielirs lilesllles. l^lle seliihle a\ oiv jailU de Tiia- 

I'IiImipii iialiirelle ifiiiic f(mscu'nc(( iiette do toiite taiile, ipii \(Ui se jniparer iiii ai'te 
j ililijllsliee el d(! i'lailde, et ipli se detenililie Cll lileliie t elllps a prendre les liH Sllles les 
I'llls (lecisiveis ptilir l'elill)e(lier. 

Si Ic liieliio espl'lt I'lieljiiipK' avalt iinillle tollte la en diiite dil ;ii>liveriieiiieilt ili^ sil 
Miiji'ste, t nil jours et daiis toil ten les coiijidiel ores, il n'eiit pas ('ti' <|iiesli(Hi ile la pratiipK.' 
ills "(hies dilii^eiices" dans ee iiu'iiKni'e. 

('cite opinion flit re(;iie )iac le ("onile Ifiissell !(> 1'J aoiit : six joins aniiaiavaiit il asait 

inhi'ssi' II III' let Iff a M. St naif. secK'tairede la l(vuatioii a \\'asliiii;;;toii, pour Ini deniander, 

III ciiiisideiatioii deeette d('eisioii, de dissnader le (loiiv crneiiieiit aiiK'rieaiii de niettre i"i 

ixi'cinioii la n.esnre. doiit il I'tail (|iiestiini alois, de dt'iivier des lettres de iiiar(|iies. 11 

ijii'iVdyait lien ee (pie liii n''servait le lres-(''niiiieiit Jn^rede laeoiirde Nassau. I.e iik'Iik* 

.I'liir, ce jin;c avait indiioiiei' smi jiie;eineiit ; il d(''(daraii (pi'il n'y avait pas de preiives 

i-Mllisiiiiti-s ipi'il i-iit ('vt(' e(Miiiiiis a Nassau iin iiete Jiistiliaiit la saisie. .Mais {•()iisi(l('iaiit 

la iiiitiii'e MiHpeeti> des eiieinistaiices, il liln'rait son j^onverneiiieiit dii paiciiieiit des tVais. 

("est inu- ri-jrlo };-'iu''ralf de eointoisie eiitre les nations de riTonnaitre les a;;isseiiients 

<"■ Iciiis tours d)« Justice ri'speetives sans elierclier a analvscr les ])rineipcs sur les(|n(dH 

iBc liiisciit leiirs di'cisions. ("est la mm iej;le siik"'. iiiissi utile ](oiir le resiieet le la ioi 

J'l'n^^ liuin If niainticu dcs droits reeipioimes do pioti'yor It-s intents do I'luio ot do I'autiu. 






li'A 



AHIUri.'AriMN Al' (ilAKVA. 



(»(■ their let iiii'MCii' (liitics itf tudd'cliini !o iii<li\ iiliiiil interests, i; ,t [ 
ant n«ii nil u^e! lice mht w lietlier ilijs rule v In mid be held ti> extend >,: i,,i 
Jis to hind liie liieliii)ers (it' this tlilnMiid In :ih.s(»lute sil.iice in I hi - mmm 



similar instiuices thai emne iielMre us. 



W 



lilsl most aiixions on wW 



( iiNions to presei\«' the deeoi iim a|i|ii oitiiale to a stiition of sneli tini 
neiiee, 1 am at the same lime o|i)ire>sfd I-" llie eoii\ic|i(»il that III iiu 
piii'tiun of the IdstopN of ihi> iiroiecdiiijn' is t lii> responsihilityof lln 
Majol't's ^o\ CI liiiieiil for llie siil»si'(|Uent eai<'ei" of this \esse| iiui;,. 
deepi;, iatplicaled than In the aelioii ot' this \ iee admiialt \ jiidui . iii 
let I in;; this ve.ssel l;o ii|miii llie leasoiiiny' whieh he presents in his jiisii. 
tie;ilinii. Il Would he easv lor •••e. if it ueie Iieeessaiy, ti» j^'o liiti> ;iii 
aiial,\ - I.N of llie various points ill wiiieh he appears to ha\e riileil .'h., 
IH'oiisIv hotli in le^iard to 'he !;i\v :ind to the evidenee. It is made ccr 
tain '»_\ the papers that, ia the ioiiiier, he was not siistaim-d by tiie hiw 
ollieers of the ('rown at home. And as to the latter, i eaiiiiot Imt as«<iiiiii. 
the preseliee of some slloii;;' I'Meliial bias whieh shonid have iiidnciM 
him to iiive <'redil !-,. eertain persons on the mere scon- of pei>tili;il 
charaeter, w here |es| imony proves them soeleail>, in iii_\ e\es. to Ii;ivi 
been arrant cheats, and to diseiedit the seamen, ehielly on aeeoimt n' 
•iheir low condilioii. w ho are as elearl,\ manit'ested toh;;\e told llie>iiii 
stunlial ti mil. My mod*' of explanation of this Ihiyrant perversimi ni 
the l;iw is. that ihe ,iiid;;e p.irto'.k so largely ol' the i^eiinal syiii|i;illi\ 
admitted lis the ;;(i\ernor t<» li.i\e ie'd --uav o\er the entire popniiitioii 
of I he iKlaiid. as to leiidei hiiii alis(»hilrl\ iiieapalde. in this (^e^e. oT i 
peieepiioii ol iiistice. ll is lutl proli,iitl\ witlioitl a strong coiix ietidi: i,| 
t Ills 1 1 111 ll • li;ii I he plain .scii-m- and eicar appreei;ii loii of laels pronijiioi 
( '('.niiiaiidi !• 1 1 ieUe\ to ;id\ isi- t he reiiio\ ;il <if t Im \ cssrl eiil irely uiit ni 
I ! IS jiii ivdiei ion, for t he hoiair of ( ireal lhil;iin, whirli mn>l be liciil 
res|»«i|isible I lu'tMl;;!! ii^ a!.;en! s \\\r \ his ll.i'^iMiil w rolin dmie lot lir iniMiiM 
jiailN. it Iiad ben peilmp- well il (he desire of llie;;allaiil olliccr iin; 
Lm ell eoMiplied W itll. 



.Mi 



in\ siriet (ires ha\ e Iil,ew Ise been III ;.de upon t he ,iel ioii'o'' I he ;illi. 



liey ;;eneral. Mr. .\.!;dei>oii. ihroanhoiil i liese proeeediii/^s, of so li.ii^l 



1 .1 



I 
I 



i^A 




''i\\ 



Wilis \f i-.c siii-" pas si'\f ►.! cctlc ri".il(' iloii s'i»iijiiii|ii'T 



lilJiilll'cllHrllli'llI, jll'"!" ■' " 



liliu-r 



IcH iiii'iiiliti'N lif If irilniii;il a itii vilcinc ali'. ilii, ti.iii-i rr I'.i- rt dans il'aiil ir-. scirilililii 

Ulli IHMIs Mini Mtimiis. (^tltliii|l|(- tl>>-i|i sili'liv ill timlr ni'raSKHI if' Ir^lnclrr Ic (h-i Hill 



ill! 11 Mllf |MIS|lillll si >'lllil|l'llll', Jl' SIlis I'll'.-M 



\>;iv \. 



I riiliv'iclioli i|llr Itllllr |)!ll'l illlll 



I'liiirH i<i' I'i'iii' iiiiiiii)', 1)1 ri-s|iiitisaliiliii' i!<i ^hmvimiiciiii-iiI lii'ii:niiiM|iii' iiii snjci ilf < 
liatiiiii.a n'rst <ti'M'iiiir Hti-isi uramli' i|iif imi -iiitr <li' ii- jiiuiMiicia ili- la vin- .(iiiinm''- 
I') lies iii'^iiiiii'iitK tui'-Ht'iiirs I II III I sa iiisiiiii-atiiin. || nii' -.crail I'acili', s'll I'-lail h'-i'i'>s;iiri'. 
il'aiuilvM'i il". ilitfiTi'iitH |iiiiiils ml il >'i'i( liiimiii'. soil ..ihi-. Ir im|i|hiiI ill la liii, snil ifiin 
ll- ra|i|iiirl ilii tlrnjl. Miii >iiiet Ir ia|i|iiirl ilr la (iirinr. l.'-r* ilniiimi'iiis |ii'iiiim>iiI -nii- 



lliMlit:'ll|i 



'!( <|ii", i|U.iiit an |iri-iiniM', ll n a |t:i-> rti- a|)|iii\i- |i:ii 



r iiM a\ lira 



IM if. 1 



I I'lii' 
riililii' •■11 Ali^li'leni'. <,>iiaill l la vi-c-nialr. ji- nr )M||.>, i|l|i' rliiili' a l'i'xi«iti'll('«' il'il'i' 
^raiiili !' ialn.' i|iii I'a ■ciiiiliiii a ilnmirr i iranii- an li'niui'.;iia>ii' ili' irilai'irs |ii'i»i'iiiii>. 
MKilM I 111 I ■•\li •*•• Iriii' ii)inlaliiiii |ii r>iiiiiiflli'. aim » i|iii' ci' lriiiiii;iiiai;i' mi- |ii<iiivr ifim- 
nil III qti'ils I taii'iil ili'-> i'uiii'lii's, ll a lU' pas afiiiti r I'nl an li iniii;{iiai;>' ilfv iiiai°iii>. |>r':i- 
(•i|ialiiiiiiu a lansc dr li'in laiij; itifii inn , i|iir I'mi a |.iiinvr a\ nir till la mtIIi' siilist;!!'- 
tlilli', .i'iv|ilii|in' ci'tli' lla);raiil'- iiiinsiiiT pai !•• fail i|iir If jnyi' pa,' ticl|iail 'H ""' 
^laiiiir nii'snir a l.i s\ nipalliir ;;r'tii'rali- i-pnmM'r par la pupnlaliiMi pi-ii iiiiinl<ri'ii'*<' 'I'' 
I'llr, h,\ nipalliii' ailini.si' ilii ii-Hir par li' ^iinvi'..i"iir, I't i|ni li- ri'inlait imapalilr il'nii jni!'- 
inrlll i'npallial. II rst priiliali|>' ipir rr tilt pai'i'i- ipl'll I'lail ronvailicil ili* ri< I lit 'j'" 
to rKiiiiiiaiiilanl liirkli'x ciiiisi'illa ili- riniilnii'i' le \ iiiH>(raii Inns ili- I'i'iic inriilii limi. ''"' ' 
ri'diiiii'iir if.' la (iiaiuli'. |tri'tau[ni-, ipil iluii I'lri- li'iinr rrspinisalilr ili's ai'limis if "< 
a;{i'iitt. piiiii ri- il'Miiin liji- I viilfiil raiisr a la paiiii- li'S"i', it nil iciil-i'Iri' en' li.''ii '!'■' 
I'dii •.!• Int irnilii an <l. Mr <li' I'l- liia\i' nltli i« r. 

Uii'ii ili"< ll il I'pK's lilt rtr ry:ali'iiiriit failis i\v |a rinnlniir ill l'ai|nnify-i;,<'iii r;i!. ^' 
AikIi'I'siiii ilaii:i Ii' ciiui'i ill' ( itii' piiici'tini'i', il'iiiii' nat'ii'>' si (;ta\i' ipfil a i-li' fiii;.!,.;' ' 



OPINIONS or mi;, adams. 



1 



D.) 



I'Cltlllll H 



iiiitiiro ;is lo li;i\<' ciillrfl i'lmu liiiii :i luriiiiil |);i|mt in Iiis jiistilifiitioii, 
.iiiili li:is Ikm'II plactMl mimoIi;; tli*' llu('llll|(•|lt^ Itcrnit' lis. 

.MtiT :i cait'l'iil cxaiiiiliMtioil of tli<' <|iii>sl ioii, I iiiii I<m| |i> tin- In'licf 
ihat il i"! iiossililc to nii'ivi' :it ;i clciir (•oiii|>i('lif!i--iM;i ol' I lu- iir.it i\r-< 
vliicli iK'tiiMlfil liiiii, wiiliuii! the necessity of iiiii»iitiii,t;" ;iii.v |nii|iiis(' 
,l,ritI.V iilVeetill^' his iiMemily. 

l! ;i|)pi';irs liiiit il'. (Ml the iiiir hniiii. hi' \v;i , slow in his ilispDsit inn to 
ivai'li ;hi\ etVecti\ e ;iet ioli loMetiMt t lie enterpi'ise of tlie<h'elo ill iSdl.', 
oil th<' other, lie :i|»|»e,irs in |)ro|ioi'tioii (jiiite us swill in tlie proeess of 
s,i/iiiL; the vessel known ;is ihe AleMindiii. ;iinl siiliseipieiil ly tiie Mary, 
,iiiil pie>siii.u' for her eoii<|enii.,it ion, when she inaile her appearanee nt 
Nii»aii ill ihe winter of l>ol. niith-i iiiiieh less <liihion> eireiiinstaiiees. 

The reason is plain. .Mr. Amler. ,111 viitiiali\ ailinits in his s|;itciiient 
I hat. ill tin' earlier staji'es of the st iii^^le in Aiiieiiea, lie eoiisiijereii t he 
I, lie III the I 11 i let I States as set t led, anil he <li*l Hot I'vuret il. I*>l!l, ill I he 
la>t iiioiiilis of the war, lilt a shadow of iloiiUt eoiild lia\ i' remained in 
Ills iiiiinl as to Its periiiaiieliee. lie then elieerfllll\ aeeeptetla lelailier 
nil tlieir side, TIh- traiisilioii from one stale i>f !'eeliii;> to tln' olliei- can 
lie In. cause of surprise to a.,> one oiismvaiit of the lehii imis of 1 he. 
>iiiall popiilatioii of Nassau to ihe riiited States. Neilheris ii dillienlt 
!ii |M'ri'ei\ t' ainoini' Ihe doeiimeiils the Iraees of a similar revolin ion of 
^nliiiieiii and action .uoiiil; on simnllaiieoiisly in other portions id' lier 
Majesty's (loin in ions far i'eiiio\ cd from t hat relat i\ el\ iiisi^nilicant island. 

ISc tiiis iis il iiia\ . the elVect ('t' t he d(>eisi(ni of t he admiralt \ conrt in 



l>'iL' was not only lo liln rate Ihe sliiji. 



)>nt 



lo pill an end to all se rions 



proiiiiitoi H atlciiipts to prevent the full accomplishment of the nefarious purpose td' 
111! (lu iicrs. ( )ii or alioiil t he 7t h of An.mist. 1 he ( )re|o sailed from Nas- 
^;ni. < )n the !tth of the same imuit h the schooner Priu'-e Alfred also hd'f 
,111' place. Tliey met at a spitt a;^ree(l upon, ahniit sixty miles distant, 
iall(d (J.-eeii ("ay; and there the Oreto i('cei\ed her armament and 
.iiiiiiiiiiiil ion, as well as hei' I nie otlieers and crew . 'The eoinmander was 
iilic\ed i'nmi the terror of a new airesi v liicli he had felt in the e\cnt 



' 1110 pfiiir Mil institli'tition nn ini'inMirc rcinncl i{Mi ;i rii' \\\M-r |i:irnii Ics (1()('ni"i'iit.'< o\- 
jcuM's iii.\ aul null-.. 

.Vpirs nil r\aiiii n ^.l■l ii|iiili ii\ dc la i|insi icm. Jc -.ni-. .nni'iir a crciiir iin'il est |ii)>sili|ii 
il iiiivrr a niii- |M'iri|iiinii tlaiii' <lis niolil's i|iii li- dii i;;i':iiriil, sans iin'il soil iii'i'i'-...;iim 

'iii ini|>iili'i' aiiriiii i|i'>^i'iii alliTlanl -nn iiili';>ri!i' an linnl. 

II ■•I iiiliii- i|iic. si (fun rule it a cii' lent (Ian- ^a ili>.|uisii ion a :iclii|iit'r aiii'iiiii' iiiisnii- 
'iluiici' |iiiiii t'in|ii'ilii'i' l'i'nlrc|iii-.i' lie Tl (nto nn t -ii".', di- faiUrc. il jiarait i-ii |nu|Hiri iini 
:iii^<ii axiiif u )M)iiiscii\ ic Icvaisvcan iioihiim' I' AliAamlia, ct jiliis laol la .^l.l^>,.lll ;i. 
I'li'ssci Hii ciniilaniii.it inn, Imsini'il lit smi M|i|iaril inn a Na'-saii, I'liiv it lii- l-iil, ilaii.siirs 
'ai'iiiislancc.s lii'aiii'i'ii|> innins iliinO'iisrs. 

l,.i laisiiii v*\ ('■viiti'iitr. M. .\iiilir>oii adnict virtni'ltt'iin-nt (Imiih sun nii'Mitiiii' iiiic, 
ii.iiis ii's |iriiU)ii-l'cM jilia.si's till I'linlhl m .Vin< rii|ni', II ciiiisiili'rail Ic soit <Ii-h I'.lalM-t His 
iiiiiiiiii' tiiMiiiii', ct il in- le ii'j;trllail pa--. Mais, dans Ics diTiiii-rs iiiiiis dc la kiiimit. il 
II' |"Mi\ail |ias ii'sliT ilaiis sun rs|n it I'iiiiiIiH' d'nn dnnli- siir Inir iiiTniaiii'iic i'. II an;it. 
iili>i!> Nnlniiticis |iiinr>'n\, I. a tran-itinn dn I'liiir di* rrs lai'mis dc >. nlif a I'antii' in- 
I'liii I'tii- mil' raiisi' di siii'lM ill- |Miiir aiiciiii nlisi'ivatinr dis if la 1 inns ilr la I let ill' |»i|ni- 
l.ainii ilr NasMc; aver )>■> I'.tat -'-I'liis, || n'r-l |ia<' nun pins dillirjli' dc di'rniis lii |i,iriiii 
"s iliirminiils Irs iiaci's d'lini' ! i'\ niiil ii>n siinliiald:'. a |iiiiiiiis dr la nianiiTi' di- sriit ir I't 
'^■t'iii. Miiiiill.'iiii'inint'ilans liii'ii d'aiitii"' pai liis drs 1 lats dn sa Maji sir, t H's-c|id;;iitrT, 
iti ii'Kc \\,. iTlatixriiit'iit iiisiuniliiinli-. 

•^iii'i ipi'il i-ii suit, la i'iMiM'i|iirn('i' (In in;;i'iiii'nt ilr la nun i-n l-'i'ii liil, ininsciilciiii'nt 
['"' liliiii'i' Ic li:itinii'iit, Dials I'lirorc dc iiK'ttii nil ti'iani' a (iMile li'iitaiivi' si-rirnso 
!"'atiiipi rlirr rai'ciMnplissi'iiu'iil den proji'ts criiniiici!* dc scs propriiiaiics. Vits In 7 
"".riMilii |iiilta NiiN^an. !<<■ t* dii niciiii' innis, In .silHiininr i'liiiri' .VH'iml i|iiittii 
"•""•i If port. lUiHc rciirmidi runt u iiii nndntil imivnaii, a iinn disiancn dn !»(i niillis, 
»|i|M'li' (iicrii Cay, I't la, rOiTtti rnrnt sns annns nl vn.t innnilinns, unssi liinn i|ni' scs 

' >l)* iittlt'ii'r.s I'l sou <'vnipii);c. I,n I'lniiniandant n'avait plus ii (laiiidii- mm nniivrllo 



100 



AUnii l.'ATIO.N AT (Jl'.NKVA. 



ofliis coiitimiMiK'o jit Nmssmii loi- aiinilu'r (l;iy. TImto was no ra use lor 
this apprt licnsioii. Mis \ icinry was cninplt'tc. On llif iiioriiiii;; nl' the 
I nil Aii;^iist. ill a place callcil lllossoiii Cliaiiiifl, liclifvtMl to Iti' witlnn 
tlic r.iilisli jiiiisiiiclioii, (lie lt)i^lio<»k round in his ncssi-I shows the Imiun. 
ariiiiii to have hfcii coiiiph'hMl. The ant liority o!' Ilcr .Majt'sly's ycAcin 
rrniiicnl ha:l Itccn snccessrnllN dcru'ii, aiul the (h'cision ol her a<iiiiiiiilu 
com t provcti a mockery and a sliow. 

Hence it appears to nie that ( Ireat I'liilaiii liad eh'arl\ I'aih-d in eiilniv. 
iiii;' the second rule presci'ihcd in the tieaty ol' Washin.uton, as well ;i, 
the lirst ; and if Ihesc two ndes were tint eiilorced as tliev shuiihl h;i\i' 



leeii, a 



lihiie in rei^ard to lh<> third appears to result as a in, ill 



fi'iii 



lu- 



ll:! 



course. 

The next steji in the career of the i'lurida. material tti the preseiii i|i 
cnssidh. is the lacl ut' hereiitiy into Muhile, a purl held I»y the ni- 
,iL;cnls, aillioniih al llie lime blockaded li\ the vessels of (he I'liih 
Sialis. Here she remained t«ir more than I'onr iii(»nllis. On the 1 
of .lannaiN . !>(!.'!. she auain succeeded in runiiia^ the Itlnckade ontwiii 
and on tin j.'dh her captain had the cunl iiixdeiu'c to ;;i> al once in il 
\ <•!•> place <ir I he i>land ol' Nassau riniu w liich he had Jiisl escaped ainl 
teriui s w liich Iteluii.u nuly toa malcraclnr. It is piupcr to atld tli;il 
the iuier\al lie liavl shipped an addi*i<uial inotle^N torce ol' lil'ty lour 
at M«»ltile. 

The i|iieslion In-re naturally arises whelher 1(\ (his prdcess (he \e-iM! 
had sn lar cliaii;:ed her pie\ i<ius cliaraclci as to l»e di\ ested ol' aii,\ lr;iiT 
ol hei i!ritish ori;;in and I'lauilnient etpiipineiit. and eiditied (o chiiin ;i 
new depart nre as a le.uK imate oll'spriiic ni ;i recduid/.cd liclli^ereut powi'i, 



ii'ii 



lii.> 



<p lest lull, appertainiliu exclusively to (he case nl this \ o.x 



I ai 



11(11, ,■ 



Il Ihiisc siilimitled Id our cdiisideralion. and loiicliiti;;' ll" release dl 



Her liiitaimic .Mnjcst v' 



;d\erumt lit Iriuii any Curt her r«'S| 



■ ilirv !i.; 



the I lint d( her di I'lm. appears (o me one ol the md>t iiilere iin;^ ;ii 



HI 



diniciill dt all that we aie called to dccidi 



>ul III di'der Id cdiii|)it'l< 



t he ie\ icw dC t he career ol' lilt- \ cssel, sd tar as it relates Id the aclinii 



tiri'i'stiitiiiii. crainli- i|M'il am;iit I'liniiivrc i'l Niissaii, s'll v t'tiiil irsli' iiii jinir ili- pi 

!l ir 



I avail |iiiMilaiil aiii'iiiu' raiMiii lii- ciainiiri-; s.i viiliiiii' ctaM I'oiintlrli 



I.I- i: 



llolil. 



ill! matin. <laii> IIII ciiilroit iiniiiiiii'' ltl(i'i><i)iii ('liaiiiirl. ilaiiH Ics liiiiitcs <lo la .jiiriilirn> : 
lii'itaiiiiii|iii', Ir livM' (III liiir ratlcsti', la transact ii>ii tut tKln'V))-. l/aiiliiiii< <l> 
l^iuiv tTiiriiiriil til ..a .Ma.ji'.Htt- avail ffi- liiaxrc avrc niiiti's, ct la ilrcisioii dc la i-mir n' 



V 



iiiiiiaiili' M> iiiiiiitra iiiiiiinc iiiii- ilii ismii rl iiiii' iikiiiihi mv 



II 



ihlr I 



(•:*>ii|liri 



hi qiir la I ii'aiiili'-|tii'ta;;iii avail I'l-lniiii' a I'aiir ii .s|ii'i'ii'r la s >iiili' ii ir|,. i|'i tiaili 



\\ 



I>iillii4ti>li 1III.SSI lih'li tjilc la |itrlillrl'i', 



Kl 



M ii'.-» (lrll\ n^jcs rial" :i; Vl<ilir«, ll 



t riii>-it 



iiif (Icv.'iil rrliT iii'i'CM.airi'iiiciil. 



I.r |la■^^ui V ant ilaiiH )a call ii'ir ilii I'iai ilia, nlalila la iliM'iiN^iiiii |iri mi'IiIc, est Ir 



Mill mill I' a 



Moll 



ill', |ii<!t iirrll|M' )>a|' Irs llislll ui V, (|i|i)|i|||<', a < rl ti i'|)iii|lli' 



l>l< 



.•11! 



Irt vai-M'aiiN (li'H r.tals I 'ills. II V iisia )»liis ili- i|iialii' iiuiis. I.r j.'i jaiiv in \-< 
niissil lie iiiiiivcaii a Imi'i r Ir Muriix, it Ir ra|iilaiiie. If '2'' dii niriiir iiinl^, 
rin>i>lciii'i- (ll* Ml' ri-iiilrc ilc Miiti- an iiiiiiii' riiiliiiii ilr I'llc tic .Nassau, il'iiu il mV'HI 
I'l liajijH' suns li's ti'i'i'i'iMs i|ui n'a|i|iai'lii'iiii('nt ifiTa uii iii.'ill'ailriii. 11 nuiviiiii 
• rajniiliT i|tii> dans rinlrrvallr il ivvail ciiikIi' rini|iiaiiti'-i|iiatir Iiuiiiiiich dr |i|ih<l'' 

llMlli' fsprrr, a Mlilijlf, 

Iri .s'.livr ii;iliiH'lliMi(nl la i|Urs|iiiu ill- sjiVKii si pin n- prmici. Ir V .•li.-.sraii avail 
iisHi'/ rliaii;^r sou cat ai'li'ii piiiiiitil' |iiiui' I't I'l' lii'piiiiilli dc liiiili' iiai'i' dc mui mi'^jiiii' 
III itannii|iii' rt di- mui i'i|Uipciiiciti I'laiidulcus, d |iiiiii' ci ic aiiliii i>i' a prclciidr)- p^iii^r 
ill' null V can iniiiiui' iin pindiiii ii '^itinu' d'litn' puiNHaiicc licllif^i raiilc I'i'ciiiinuc. <'iii'' 
i{Uc.sliiiii. appai'lciiaiil cNcIusivciiiciil jiu cas dc cc vaisscaii, cntrc tunics ccIIch i|iii 

(111 ^OIINcI'llclllcIlt ill' -i 



Miiiit siinniiscs a iiiilic c\aiucn, d cinliiassanl la dccli 

.M;ijcsli' lii'ilanniijnc dc tiiiilc i'cm)>iiusiiIii|iic iiiii liciirc an siijcl dc la laclic lU' m'' 
(iri^;iiic, iiic scnihic ntii' dcs plus inli rcssantcs ci tics plus dillicilcs dc (uiilcs cclli s i|H'' 
iiiiiiH .siiiiiiucs llppclc^ a di'cidci'. .Mais aliii dc I'linipli h r la icviicdc la can icrc ciili'" 
(lu C'U vuihscail,cii tail I i|U die HI- tii|ip(iit(! II la cimiiIiiuc dc la (■iiiiidc-lhitaguc, ijii.iiil>> 



MS Visiles a 
liiMlu'ii la Iin 
l^iii'ls ipic 
aiiiiin a .Nasi 

•>llri'rs, c( IIII 
li-nililill cnlll 
Mnil avail V 
jn'riiiissiiin :i 
l">u\.iil liicii 

I'IkIoIIIICC MJ 
'lilllH ll'tll- \ 

jiiiiirHiiiii dc 
"ll a a^iic la 
j'lir lis aiil 
liuiiti'iiii'iit n 
iii'iiili'i' liii I 
li'iiila, a CI 

llll'll'lll ||«Ml-/ 

'' ^iiiii^iiaj^c I 
I'll*, ijiii ill" 

ll"* filllc I'SShll 
''"lllllllT ipii 

'•iiclal ill- I'll 



Ol'INlOXS OF MU. AI)A>fS. 



107 



(iiriit r.i'iliiin iiiion the occiisiMii »»1 lire visits at any ports witliin lli.it 
jiuisilictioii, 1 (Ict'tu it <'Xi>('(li»'iit to postponr the ol)Sfr\atioiis 1 pri>po>o 
ti) iiiiiKr it|M)M it until tilt' cihI. 

\Vlial('\<'r iiia,\ he llic doubts clscwlicic rxpicsscd about this point, 
none wliatcvtT were adinittt'd at Nassau, the \('i\ spot uImic the tia- 
^raiit iVaud had hccu most sut'ccssl'ully pcipoi rated and ll»'i' .Majest\'.s 
dignity insulted and detied. She was ininietliately iceoj^ni/ed as a 
!i:;itiMiate l»'lli.u('rent, the (»id\ ohjeetiou made to lier pieseiu'e lieiiiji !i 
\iiil;itiiin ol' a minor reu'idation rif the poit. whieli leipiired a pi'e\ ions 
iplilication lor permission itelore «'oniini;' to aiM'hor. I'or this minor 
dili'iise the captain niuld allord to apolo;;i/.e. when the \astly ^iiealer 
oiii' li;iil hccii so readily eondoned. 'I'lie ((lijeet he now had in \ iew was 
ihc pidciiriii;;" a ;ntiod supply of eoals tor tiie piosceiiiion of his cruise. 
I'lrmissioii seems to have heeii j^iveii without stint. Some (piestioii ha>» 
liiiii raised al)oiit the precise (piaiitil\ : but it tliere was no limit pre- 
-, iihfd by the auihoritil's. it may reastniably be inlerred, Irom the ;;i'ii- 
iiaj sMupalhy strongly manifested by the population, that all would be 
siipplied the captain wiuild lie read\ to take. So. likewise, with pro- 
\i^iolls. A persmi on Itoard of the l-'loi ida at the time seems to hasc 
!iM(ir(lc(l his imi>ression that eiionuh had been supplied to last several 
iiiiiiitlis. This is doubtless e.\ay';4('rated. So with the test iinon.N ol two 
jMiMMis, taken several years attei ward, of their lecol lection of the facts, 
wjiicli would natnrallv be subject tt> serious reduction. N ei, alter inak- 
iii;: every possiide allowance tor these circumstances, it appears reason- 
alilf to ine to conclude that Captain Ma'lit succeeded in ;^(ltini; all that 
ill' (lesjii-d to put h'lii ilia condition to commence, and c(mtiiinc l*ir 
>oii!e time, a predatory cruise. Ii is also alleged that the captain 
•.iiiiipcil here eieven men, vvliicli i> nut unlikely to be true also, if he 
liri'ilcd them. 

<'a|.tain Mallit, thus c(»mpleiely tit'ed out from Nassau as a basis, pro- 
r.ciji'd (>ii his cniisf, which lasied loi' alioiit a month, and in which he 
;i!lt';;t's llial he cxiterieiiced very r(Mij;h wi-alher. This is the n-asoii 



M -i visile-, 11 ^•l•^laill^ I PI His >i(ii> cctli' iiiridiitiiiii, jr ( iirjx |i|iis cuiin I'lialilc tir icinti I ri> 
{iM|ii':i 1:1 liii Ii'>t oliHciA at lolls i|iii' ji* mo )iri>|Misi' lie faiii' la-ili'SNiis, 

(jiicls ijiif |iii.ssfiit cirr Irs (lollies t'lilrrtciiiis ailli'iir- a i-r siijct, on n'cii aiiimitait 
aiiriiii ;i Nassau, rfiuiroil oil la I'lainli' lla^iiaiilc avail >\f coiniiiisf' avt'c Ic |>lii> yiMmt 
<iiiiis. I'l 1)11 la (li|riiiii- tir Si .Maji>l«' a\ ail ili- Ic iilii-> oiiliau' ''. II I'ul iiiiiiiiiliMti'iiiciil: 
I'liiiinii coiiiiiii' lii'lliu;! rani liniimic. la s-iili- iilijn-i ion faiic a -.a imsi'Mci' a\ ant vii> 
<|ii'il avail ^ ioli' nil |ii'l il ic ^li'inmi dii ]ioit,i|iii < xi^iait i|n'oii ilrinaml^il ifalionl la 
)Mritiis.-.ioii avani il<' iiirtlic a ramiT, ruiir nltf If^^cii' fantc, l'' caiiilaini' Mallitt 
ji'iiisaii liii'ii taiicniM' a|iolo;',ii' i|iianil rcllr (|iii itail lii'an<'on|i pins Miaii<l>' avail <'<•' 
|>iin|iiinii'i' si |ii'oni|)li'iiii'ni . Mainunaiil lr Init n'*'' ''' •'apitaini' MaHitl sr |iiii|>o>air 
<biis ri-ttr \i«iri' ciait. ill' SI' ponrvoir irniir lioniic |ii'o\i>ion ili' rliailion jmnr la 
ltiiin>«iiiii ill' Klin ciitrr|iiisc. I, a pi'tniissjun scnililr avoir rtr »loiiiii-i' sans iroiTvi", 
"ii a as^iii' la i|Hi'slion lie lii|nanlili' pni'isi'. inais s'il n'v avail )ias ilr liinilr picTi iti- 
par li't jiiitonli-s, on pcni raisonnalili-iiii'Mt I'oiirlnir ili- la s,\ nipiitliii- ;;i'ni'i'ali', 
I'liili'iiii'iit inanil'i'sli'i' par la population, itnc tmit ii- i|ii<> ic rapilaiin- i-ni ili- put a 
pii'iiilii' liti ci'M I'tr iloiiai'. 1*' nii'ini' jtour It's pi-ov isjons. I'm' prisonm' a lionl lin 
lli'iiila, a I'i'tli' r'poi|i;i>, si'inlili' avoir mis pai mil son iinpri'ssion ipi'on cii avait 
^Ki'iiili as»<'/ piiiii pln>i(>nrs iiiois, ('i-ci f>i sans ilonti' cxajii ic |)i' imini' ipiant an 
I' iiiiMKiia^i' ill' ili'iix jii I siinni's, I'litpninti'' pliisinirs aniirrs apirv, a Inir n-i'iiiil ili-. 
Ii:l»,(|iii ilcvraii rlri' sonniis a niir rriliirlion siricnsi'. Mais apif-i avoir fail luiiirs 
II'. ((iiiri'ssioii-. pos-iilili's a I'l'^anl ili' n-s i ii'i'onstanri'S, it inr smilili- raisonnalili' ilc 

'I'liiliiri' ipii' li ■ apitai'ii' NtalUtt rriissit a olitmiir tout jiTil ilisirail ponr sr ini'ltri' 

iiiiial ili> I'lMiinii'ni'rr il il' rnutiniii'r p -ii'laiil i|n. Iipii' ti'inji-. iini' roiU'.i' ili' pillii;^!'. 
"'I iili. ;;in. aiissj i|iii* li cajiitaini' y I'lir.ila on/i' liomnirs ; I'ait iloni la vrrit<- n'i'st pas 
iii'I'niliiilil,., n'II en avail lii'ioin. hi- rapilaiin' Mallit I, aiiisi loinpf'H'iiii'nt pnnrvn a 
^■''>ini plai'i' pri-'' pnir ku liasi', coninii'nva sa conrsr, ipi; ilnra env iron nn iiioi», 
"Villain liniii'l il ilii, iivnir « proiivi' do IH's-iihU-m iiiiips. An moins, l'i.'bI la luisiiii 




ICS 



AlvMilTIJATION AT (;i:.N'i:VA. 






a^isin'ind for liis visit to lljiihudocs, wlicri' lie aiiplifd for more coal ainl 
soiiM' Imnhrr. He siippicsscii the Tact of his Ial<' supply, ami I'cpnitnl 
liiiiisrir as last tVoiii Mol)i'('. lie siicccrdctl in ohiaiiiiii,;; '."• toils. ;i!iil 
tliiis i»ros<'ciilt'(l liis iMcdatoiy \(iya;;<' on liis irnrwi-d stock. 

Miicli ilaina/Ltc as tiicsc pciinissions innpicstionalily entailed upon tlir 
I hitcd States couinicrc)-, it is pid|)er lo add tiiat tiny imd not Imi-i! 
;^i\( II so niiicli fVotii any willl'n! disposition on the part oT the ojliccisdi 
ller Majesty's jioveiiiuient, l»nt lather lVt>in their indill'ei'cnei^ to all 
nM'asiires of early prevention. So soon as inroiination of these evcnu 
had been received at the colonial oili<'e in London, this lilieralils wav 
checked, ,iiid ordeis were issind to i»e more cautions in the future. 

.\fler a \i.Nil of four days to j'eiiianilnico. ilie ne\i liritish ]i(ii; 
entered by <';ipt:iin Mallit was liermmla, on the l."»tli ot .Inly. His a]i 
lilication for ^oM-rnmeiit coal was here, lor the lir.^l time, rel'iised. ||i 
.snccceded. ho\ve\er. ill oi>tainiii.n' plenty from other sources, iiiiil im 
trans;ii-essin';' the limit pre>eriited Ibr his stay for repairs withoiii ci!, 
sure, which enabled him to cross the ocean ami reach l»rcst, in l"'raii(c. 
on the L'.id »>f .\nun>t. 

It shnuld be noted that this loiiy <'niise, (i(»in the L'r)tli of .Taiiiiarv to 
the :.'.'>d ol ,\ii;;iis.'. of ueiirly seven months, was made with siipplicsoi 
coal recci\»'d exclusively from I'oitish sources. 

It seems to 1m uiiiiec"'ss:iry to eiitei' into further particulars nt I.,! 
career alter »lie left Ibest. She seems to have touched at some Ihili-l! 
|Mirts in t he W Cst Indies and obtained assist a nc'-, und . she liaa My put iii'n 
liahia, which pro\<Ml to l»e the termination ot' liei' I'ccord, in OcIoIm:, 
The leu;:tli of her term on the ocean had been about eiuhteen iiioii;l:> 
— loiifi enou;:h to perpetrate much too larjic an amoiuit of mischirf. 

It now" remains to me only to recur to the tpiesii(»ii. already propuM i 
in the course of this opinion, repaid in;;' any chaiiue ot Original charailii 
that may i»e coiisidere<l to have taken place in this vessel by the lac! "I 



ilxiiiiri' )i:ii' 111! |iiini' 1:t \ i>il<> ijiril 111 IrMI fi'viici' h la niU'liiiili', jiniir pi-ciiilrf fin"!. 
|ilii> ill' I'liiuliiiii it ilii liiils |iiinr !r.H ii'|i;ii','ii iitim, II mi|i|<i iina Ir Tail ilr .-mi iliii! ' 
Mili>iili', "I il ilirlara i|ii'il \riiait ni lii'iiiiri' lini <lr Muliili', II ii u>>i( a iil<>iii: 

ijllal li--\ iliyl -ili\ I nil Ill's, I't rnlll illlia alllsj si Hi \ii\a^;r llr Jiilla'^i'. 

<,ii!rli)iH' uraiiil i|iir suit II' iliiiiiiiia;ii- iaii'>i, saii'' aiii'iiii ilniiii par itm iii'riiii>i>iiiiis, ;, 
fill lliirlri' I Irs 1 .1 at -I liis, il i iill\ iilll irajiilllfr nn'i'lli s ii'iuit |ia> la ill i Ir linllliii 1 ;i\i 

iii.il V i-illaiii'i' ill- la pail ili- I'liliii'li'i ilii ;,iiiiv itiu'IihmiI ilr sa Maji'sti' i|u'a caii-'i li' 
nili' iiiililfi'rriii'r ipii llr pii-\u\ail jamais la inri's^ili' dr pii'iiilcr ilrs iip'c'aiilii'i." 
iliivaliri-. Allssjiiil i|lli' la limivi'lli ili- ri's I'M'tii'lllrlils clll rlr li'rlli- a I'linii'i- cuIhIimiI 
ill I.miilrts, I'cllr lilii'i'itlilr I'lit npiiiiii'i' ri ili-s ll^ll^l•^« riiniil dmiiii's (rrlrr jihi' 
fiii'mispi'i'l a riiMiiir. 

Apirs mil' \ isiti- ill' i|iuitri' jmii- a Pn iiaiiilimii . If pirinirr pi>i t an);lais nii i iilii 1 
rapilaiiir Mallil I'lil Iti'i iiiiiila, Ir l.'i iuillil. !<a ilriiiaiiili' iliilitiiiir ilii I'liai'liini 'l^' 

;ii>il\l'rnrlli-lll till iri M'ri|<<i'r pmir la plrlllirl'l' fii|», llli'llssil iipi'llilalll a I'M iililHu 

til aliniiilaiiri' irailli'iii >>. t I a ill |ia>>i'i sans criiNiui' Us liniilrs pii'MiiIrs I'l miw >«■]•■■'■ 

Iimir npaialiiHiH. tt i|iii liil iluinia Irs iiioytui* ilf tra\i-r-i'i' I'lii'iaii rl irallriiiili'' 
tO'sl. I'll I lain I . Il' '.*:! aiiiil. 

il I'aiit ii'tiiai>|iii'r iiiir .illi- lunmn' iimisr, iln *,';' Jaii\ in- an ',':! amit. ilr piis ili' !"i'' 
liini'', IliI ralli'a\i< ill's NiiliMili-. ill' I'liarliiili H'vlls i \rlll>ivi'l'ii'lit lir sninrrs liiiwii'- 
nii|llrH, 

li III' nil' siinhlf pas iKi'issaui' iri-iitrri vlaiis il».»> ii'lails iiPi'i iciiis snr !a rarin ii' 'i' 
CI \aiMsi'iiu api.'s H.<t ilrpurt tli- Itrt'st. I) st-iuM^' avoir tmirln'' a ijiii lieirs pnH* 
tin^lais, tliiiiN IfN IniW^ iirri«lrrtal>'M, <'t avoir «*l<4«*iiii <Ii'h Ni>i'mii'>< : I't riillii ilriili'i.i 
I'laliia. <■!' i|iii mil Im » miit liis|iii:i', « ii oi>rtl»pr. I. a ili'.ni- dr su i arriiTi' sur rt«i'.i;i 
a\ait rlr (I'lMlV il«»M li i.^ alls rl liiMiit. Sii i-i •«•>•. <s •titilc lirl|i|;rl'a!.l a\ ait illll'r tin in '■ 
ili\ liiiit niois ' a— 'iv. loii^ti iiips poi.i I'oiith'' I irr ■..»«• Mtiiiini' ili iloiniiiaiirH litaiiin'ii' 
liiip ;;iiiii(ii-. 

II iir mr rvHtv pins ipi'a ri'Vi'itii- h In «fiw'»t»i»M *W;\» |>rii|iiisi'i' ilaiis li- rmirs ili- ri't ii\''. 
a I'r^aril iln r|iiiii;;rniriii ilr raia'li'iv iKuiioiiai, tiu'on pmiiiait ri'ii'-iilrii'r i uiiinir auini 



OI'INTOXS OF yUl. Ar>AM><. 



1(^0 



liir linviiif;' su('P(mm1<'(1 in rciicliinj; a port of tlie Ix'llincn'iif ]>o\vt'r to 
\\liitli slu' chiiiiHMl to licloii;;. 

1 hiivf ciidriivorcd to <ii\»' to this point the most (Mn-t'iii iind «lili;;«'iit 
>liiil\ of wliicli I iilii «':i|);ilil('. Till-., n-siilt is, tliiit 1 ruiiliot :ini\i'ilt 
liny niMcliision satist;n'tory to invsclf wliicli fvt'ii implies a iu>f<'ssity to 
,i<M'lit to llu' l»ldpositioll tliat ;-;iircr.ss \(iii(lllir.s/nni(l. All law rcro^iiiizcd 
liv lilt' consciriicf ol' ('i\ ili/.rd nations lias liii' its onl,v solid Imsis a (•«mi- 
vii'tion tliat it is liascti upon clear jainciplt's ol' ri;4lit. in some 
liiiiuiiancs the word nscd to express tlirsr ideas is ideal ieal. At I lie siinui 
lime. I am not unaware tliat, in the pro.i;ress ol internalional relalitais, 
ilitic may happen iVoin tiiiH' to time occasions when a necessity w ill 
iiiisc to reco^ni/e a simple I'act without reference to its nalnre. lint 
I Ills II nisi happen Milder ci renin stances w I lie 1 1 imply neither pai I icip:il iuii 
mil 'approval. lfou;;ht not to he itennitled to happen when these cir- 
iMiiislaiiccs are clearly within control. :iiid the moti\c to act should he, 
iiii|ii'iali\e as iipholdiiiii' the majesty of law. 

Ill the case lu'lore ns, it seems to me conclnsi^ »'ly eslaltlished l»y 
(vidiiice that, fr»an the moment of incepiioii to that of complete execii- 
liiiii. I he hiiildiiifi', etpiippiii;.'. and dispalchiii;^ of the \ essrl were eq mil ly 
r.irricd on l»y a res(.rt to every species of tiilseliood mid liainl, in orch-r 
111 liallle and defciil the le;^ii iinate jtiirposc of Her Majesl \"s ^o\ » ■rumen t 
til iijilMtld 'lie sanctity of hei laws and iimUe !4<>tid her olili^.ii iuiis to a 
jiin-iuii nation with which sli' was ai peace. Down lo iht- inomeiii of 
arrival at Mobile, 1 fail lo per<'ei\ean\ .^ood icasdii for siippnyin;; ihat 
I lie clia racier (he \ esse I lonU at the outset had not siil»s|aiiliall,\ adhered 
III II to the end. 

It has always lieeii t(» me a cause ol" profound regret that Her 
MiijcsIn's yo\»'rnmeiit had not seen lit to mark hei seii^e of the imlin- 
iiilics lieaped upon lier hy the lla,i:rant siolalioii of herla\\.>i!i these 
tascs at least liy exclndinjn' the vi'ssels from her polls. 'I'liiis she woiihl 
have rescued her own honor and esiapcd the e\ il coiiscipieiices which 
have ever since attended her opposite decision. Such a c(Uirse had not 



lie iih ■■ ■ 

nil llrll ' 

l-i>ii>li~. ;■ 
llli'i ^ ;i\' 

• Mil-' I 
■IMIIli' ■ - 

'iIH' I',-- 

II I lltM 

:1 lillll 'U 
II iilllrl,.; 

Ill M-jii;:i 
rnllriiiiit'- 

•^ llUi.r. 
;ill li !'■ 'i' 

|P|r> |M'll- 

rliti I 
.lir i'ii(.M:i 
r i-ll\ili''l 
III aili'iilir 

,. ,rt llV!'. 
inn- .i\;i"' 



III lirii iliiiiM <■!' vniNsi'iiii par li' fait clr sa ii'iissili- a alii'iiiilir iin jmhI iji' l.i |iiiissaiiro 
ixliii:! laiitc a lai|iM'll<< ii a\ait la |iii tnit ion il'a|i|iaiiriiii . 

.Ii' lllf .>llis rl)(ir<r llr riilisaci i r a ri- |i()ilit I'iIikIi' la plus MiijIIHIlM" el la plUH 
:illi'iiti\<' (liitil ji- silis rapalilr. h''ii'Miltat I'll est <|iii- ji' lit' \)\\\> airiv ri' a aiii iiiiO 
iniii'lii^iiiii Milislaisaiitf pmir iimi iiiiiiii' ipii iiiipiiijiial la iint ssiti' dc ilniniri iiinti 
:i>«i III JiiH'iit a la !iia\jiiir i|iii' U- siii'ii'n saiirlilir la IVamli'. 'I'imiIi' loi rrriiiiiiiii' ear lu 
iiiiiM'ii'iH'f ili'H iiat inns i-i\ ilisr-i-M a, ]Miiir lia-c sullii.' iiiiii|iir, la ri>ii\ ii'timi ijn'iili' est 
I' mil I' >iir<lrH priiii'ipi's iiiiiiaii\ cir liioil . I >aii> iiiii'li|iU"' laii^m s Ir iiiol riiiplii\ r pmir 

i\|ililllf| res idri'H rsl iililil iijIM'. I! II lllillH' ti liipi Ji- iri^imif pas i,lli', tiails \r pru;;|iH 

iW lolls IcM rappints iiiicriialiunanx, ii iniil, sr piisriilrr ilr tiipps cii tfiiip- iti.s 
I'liaviniis nil iiiit' In•l■l•^>il^• aiiixf (Ir I rfiiiiiiain r III! siiiipli' Tail sans (••^anl a >a ii.uuic. 
Mais il laiit, puiir cfla, i|iir rilMi-i i >«i> pn .smtc ilaiis il< -s cin'oiistaiircs ipii ii'iiiiplit|ii< nt 
iii |iailii'ip:iliiiii nj appmlial inn. 0\\ ni- ilrviait pa.s prnnrlln- i|m'iI tiiiivat, i|nanil ^va 
iiiriiiistanri's Mint I'viili'iiiinriil stiiiH (-tiiit ii'ilr <'l <|iii' Ic iiinl it' il'av il' '^'lail iMipi'i'ii'UX, 
I'oiiniii' appiiv am la nia.jrsti' ilr la jni. !)aus Ir las ipic nniis av(ii.> <lr\ aiil n>iiis. il niii 
■"'iiililr iiii'iihlr.stalili'iiii III >t,ilili par la |iii'MM' i|Iii', tlrpnis Ir iiiiuiM'ni iln < nninii-ni'i-- 
imiii JiiMpra irliii (If I'l'Nc I iiiioii rnnipli'li. la roiistrn linn. I'l i|nipriiii-iii I I'lApiili- 
'iiiiiilu \ ais.sran tint <li' i-;;alrnir!a riiiHliiils an nnivrii ilf loiitr ispiir <1 iiiiiis(inf;cH 
' '^ ill' I'laiiiU's riiinliini's |iuiir ilijniii'i' I't pmir annnli-r li's ilcssrins |i'};ilinii'^ ilii 
,.<'ii\< nil mini il*' sa Majrsli . dr niainliiiir la smiv i raim |i' ilf srs lois ct lU- n niplir srs 
'■'iliuniiniis ciiMis iiiir naliiHi flranm'ii- a\rr l.ii|nrllr il ilait m pai\. .liiMpi'an 
- "iiiihi ill' ','arri\ir a Mnliilr, Jr llr )iiiis ti'nnvcr aiiinnc luiniir laisnn ilr Mippnsri' i|in' 
!• .iiarlric • Il i> pjir II' \ ai-'srau an i iiniiiu'iicrini iil lu 'in ait pa-^ < Ir allaclii' o'^ni* 
'iillriiii III jiiMpi'a la Iin. 

.I'ai iiiiijiiiii> icj^rclti' pi'iiriinili'iiiriit ([iii' ic ti;mivrrnrn\«'i»t tic nii MajrHli' n'riit pan 
MiKi- iiiiiM'iialtii' lie niotiti'i'i' Hdii Hrnliiiiciil a I'ihiikI ilf.s indi^niti's ai'inniMlri'-- siir liii 
|i:ii' III \iiilatiiiii ilajjiaiiti' di- s*>h luis, dans ct-s ciis :iii iiininK, on cxclinint Irs vaissraiix 
''••so jiiiiiH. II aniait ain^i sanvr sun lioniitiir ct i rliappt'' an\ riinHiM|iirnrt's tVirln-iiM-H 

II iMii iiiiijiiairH i't<' atliu'lircs a su <lr( i-ion coiitiain'. [ u< t>\U' «li inar> lir n'u\ait pas 



170 



ARniTRATION AT CJKXEVA. 



»Vf 






lu'cii witliont its ndvocatt's juiionj; Jiiiisis of ('miiiciico in rlio kiiii;(Ii»iii. 
at least one of wlioiu had rc('i)i'(!(Ml liis opiMJoii. A si<;'iiili('aiit f\;iiii|i|,. 
may ln' loiiml in tli«' jtapcrs bcfoic us. Such a comsc coiihl not li;iv, 
iailcd to maintain itself in the end by tlio simple force of its innate li.ii- 
jnony witii Justice and with ri^iit. 

To suppose that tlie nuual stain attached to a transaction (»f tlii>i 
cliaraeter can be wiped out by the mere im-iih-nt of visitiii;;' oiu' phui. 
or anotlu'r, without a.iy material alteration of the constituent bo(|y ii:. 
spirin;; its action, seems to nu' to 1h' attachiuj;' to a!i aceidi'Ut the \ iiiiii. 
which api»ertains solely to an «'\ercise of the will. I cannot, therefore. 
concede to this notion any slnnh' of weight. The vessel called ili, 
I'lorida, in my view, carried the same indt'lil»le stamp of dishonor t'ldm 
its <'ra<lle to its j4ra\e; ami in this opinion I have been liai>i>y to (!i> 
cover that 1 am completely sustained by the authority of one of the 
most eminent of the Jurists of my own country who excr sat in \\w 
]ii;;hest seat other most elevated tribunal. I find it reccu'ded in niicni 
the vohuiu's submitted to our consideration by the aji'cut of lie 
]\lajesty*s ;;()\('rnment, '.Vom which I pray for lea\e to introduce the lul 
lowin<4' extract, as nudvin^' an apjuopriate close: 

" It' lliis were to 111- iiiliiiitti'd,"' siiys Cliicf .lustier Maisliiill, " {]<<' laws for tlic ]iirsii- 
vat ion oC oiii- iicuti'aiity would lir coiiiiilfti-ly i-hnlcd. N'cssrls coniidi'tclv lit lid in cmr 
]ioi'ts for inilitiuy cxiirditioiis iircd only sail to a licIli.Lji'rcnt port, and tlicri', iirin (V 
tainiiii; a conniiissioii, )X'> llndn;;Ii llu' ci rciiiony of disdiarniiii; and rc-cnlisliiii; tli'ir 
(•rt'W. to iicconic pii lici ly Ic^iliniati' ci niseis, jinrilied from every taiiit eontiaeiril i; 
tile plaee \\ lieie all llieir retil forei-and eapaeily for annoyance was aei|iiiie(l. I'ii.s 
\V(Hiii|, indeed, lie iVainliilent nentiality, disj^raLefiil to t air own (.ioveininent am' uf 
wliieli no nation wonid Ite (lie <lnMi'." 

l''or the reasons herein spccilied, 1 have come to the conclusion in ilh.' 
case now presented of the I'-loiid.!, thai (Ireal Uiitaia, by reason of licr 
omission to use diU' dili.ueuce to prevent the litt iiio' (»iit. ariiiin^. aihi 
eipiippiiiL;- within its Jiirixlictioii, <d' thai \essel, and lurther of her oiniv 
sion to lorbid tiie crew of that \essel Iroin making- use of its ports ui 



I ti I 



)naMi(n>'' d'axoeats parnii les jnristes lis pins distin^iies dn royaiiinc, doiit nn an iii'ni-- 
h doniie son avis, i in )ient en tionvef nn exeniple si^iiilieatif dans les doeniiient^ "H 
Hont tie \ ant nous, t 'm- lelle « ondnite n"eiit p.is main pie de se soiiteiiir a la loiij' le w: 
la simple fmee de son liailiionie iiiliee avee la jiisliee ,1 |c droit. 

SiippoM r (pie 111 laelie inoi;ile im|iiiniee a line 1 1 ans.ict ion de eette mitnie piii" 
^1 re ( It.iei'e par le sini))le ineideiil irmie visile a nil lien 1.11 a 1111 autre, sans aiiiii:. 
rliiiiii^eineiil nialeiirl dii eoi|>s enlist il n.iiit (pii inspire sa eoiidiiite, me seinlde altmlii;' 
i\ nil ai'eideiil la veitil ipii n'appartii'iit ipi'a iin exereice de la \idoiiti'. .Fe tie piii-.. I'l' 
oolisi (|Melil, aceorditr a eette idee aileiine espcce de valelir. I.evaisseail liolillll' i 
I'lorida, a iiion point <le viic, iioila le ineiiit' eaeliet indi'leliile de drslioniienr de >"'i 
hereeaii .insijira su lomlic. Kl .j'al eti- iieiirenx de lioiiNcr ipie je snis eiitiereiiniit 
mipiiye liaiis eette opinion )>ar I'aiiloiiti' d'lin des jnristes les plus t'miiients de iiin:! 
])ay."s <!iii iiil .jamais oeeii|ii' le sii'-ge !<• plus iiaiil de son tiilninal le plus I'li^ve, .le li 
Inmve lapjioii.e dans nn ties volniiieM soiiinis a iiotm e.xaiiieii |>ar r;iitent i!ii 
^Oll Ve; nemeiit di- sa Majeste. doni je \olls ]irie de me permettle de pii'seliter I'lXtl.i" 
Hiiivant eomme fai.s.'int iiiie tin liieii appropriee a cet avis: 

"Si Ton ailmetiai! eeei. ulil liCliief .1 list iee .Marsliall. I les loi.-, jioiir le maiiilii' i '1'' 
noire mntral'ie seiaieiit completement i linlees. l>i- \ai>seaii\ entieienieiit eipui"" 
duns iios pulls pour des opt ■rations mil it aires n'on; «pi"a faiiM \ mlr jiisipra nn port lui- 
lineranl, it la. apris avoir ohleuii nm- eommissn.n. .-i fane la eiieinoiiii' de lic'iiiii r'i 
<le n'eiiioloi lein ('-ipiipai;!', |.oiir tleviiiirdi - • loiseiirs parfaitement li;;iiiiiies. piiritii< 
de toille t;lelie eo,,tiiieti-e diuis le liell on tonte lelir foree i ' l.iir )iiiii\ oir de nilile "'' 
•He aet|iiis. t'e nei-uit eii vi'-rili' iine iii iitraliti' tVandiilen.-., dislionoraiile pour iinn^ 
jtfople }j;oilvcnie!>M'iit, et dollt aileiine liatioti nc seiait 1,1 dupe." 

I'onr les raisi n,-, .spcciiii'cs eiilcssiis, je siiiH arrivf a !a nnieliisioii. dans le eas iniiiii- 
tenant pr. ^'iite du I'loiida. <pie le (iraiide-liii'iari'ie — en omettaiit de faire iisaii'' il'"* 
" dues <; ■ , 4.-nees " poiii' emiH'clKM' rari'iiii;i<'iiieiit, rannemeiit et reipiipeinent, d:itis •.! 
jiiiisdi. I i.m, de ee vaiss.'an: et di' plus, en oiiiettanl de <lifiiidre a I'eipiipai^e ile n' 
Vtiitsuiiu di^ so bervir de .sc.i port.s ou de se.s .^aiix tominc base il'uperaliuii.s cuhIil'W 



oriMONS OF yni. a dams. 



171 



wiitt'i's ;i^< <li(' basfi oroporiitioiis iiy;niMst tlic I'liilcd States, lias I'ailrd 
tii liillill tlKMlntics set loitli in cafli and I'vciy one of the tlircc iiilcs 
prcsciilKMl to tlu' arldtrators as llu-ii- <;iii(l(' undiT tin.' terms of tin; 
tri'iit.v ol' Washin;;t(»ii. 

Y. — I III; A I. A I JAM A. 

Oil til. L'Uli of.luiu', 1S(»L*, ."Mr. Adams addressed a note to ICaii iJiis- 
sell, iciiiindin;;" liim of the represciilalion lie had made some 
li. Ill' before toiwliin;; the «M|iii|)ment of t!u' On-to, and allnd- 
iiiji: to tilt' verilu-ation of liis apint'lieiisioii of its true: destination. 

Ill point of fact, Lord Itiisscll had had in his hands for a tortni;;'lit 
ii coii.v u{' a letter of ("ommamh'r MeKillop to the seia-etaiy to the adini- 
iiiity, whieh has already been (|note<l in the memoir on the i'lorida, as 
iltiirly iiidii!atin,i;' the eharaeter of that ncsscI and its destination. 

Her -Majesty's ;;dveriiment had then had no reason to doiilM as to the 
iiitine of the vi;^ilanee which had liecn promised on the part of her olli- 
nisiit liiverpool, or of tl;e manner in which it had been di'cei\ed. 

Mr. Adams then proceeded to call his jorilship's attention to another 
iiiid more remarkal»le case of a vessel in process of e(»nstrnct ion at 
Livi'ipool, in the yard of one of the most noted Itiiildinn linns of that 
place, intended for t lie same purpose as d«'si;^nated in tl.'e case of the 
Onto, and <'ontrolle(| virtually Ity the same parties. 

.Mr. Adams at the same i. me transmitted to his lordship a letter from 
.Mr. Dudley, the consul of the I'liiled .States at liivcrpool, addressed to 
liiiiisclf, ;4i\ in;;' all the information touehiiii;' the maiter he had heeii 
alilt' to collect. 

On tile next day 3lr. ilammoiid. on hehalf of his lordship, addressed 
('lie Ictier to the secretary to the tiea>ni\ , reipc-^i in;:' immediaie iie, li- 
lies to he made respcctin;; this vessel, vS:c.. in the eiistomary form. 

At the same time he addr»'ssed amitlier to the law-ollicers of the 
Crown, liaiismiltiiij;' th;' note of .Mr. .\d;iais and t he letter df .Mr. hud- 
ley fertheir eonsidei'ation, and askiiii; lor .>ueh o1».m'I\ ai ions as they 
iiii;,^lit have to make on the subject. 



F.tals-t'iiis — ii'a pas rein pi i, daiis'T cas, Icsdrv .lirMcNpKsi'^daiiN Ics trois ri'f^lcs pirsiritcH 

■M\ lllliincs ('iiiiiliii' ;^lli(l(■^ il'ilpli'> Ifs Id iiic ■, illl tl.iili- (le \S'ar*llill^t(ill. 

l.'.VI.Ml \M A. 

I.i' ','1 juiii l-i;-,'. .M. Atlains adirssa iiiie iniic mi ('imiic i.'usscll, tin rap]Hlant la ri'pii'^- 
M'!itali(iii iin'il i'\ail I'aitr i|iii'l<|iii- tcinp.sanpai'av.-iiit Imirliaiit I'cijiiipi-iiii'iil ilc I'l M'l-to, 
<l lai^aiit alliisioii u la vi lilir.il ion il<' .-"Ui ap|tri'lii'ii~-:iiii >iii la\rai<' ilr^titialinii <li- 

n ini-ci. 

I'll elVi't, LiU'il h'li'^si'll a\ ail ni rii Mialii-<. )ii'iiilaiif iiih' i|iii!i/aiiir <!(' jnins, nut' rnpii' ilo 
1' litlif lilt (•(Mimiaiidanl. McKillup. ati ■.'•ciilaiii- dc rainiraiit •. ijiii a ili'ja I'li- citv-t) 
'!.iii> If liii'iiKiii'i' Mir li' I'Iniida cnaiiiii iiMlh|iiaiil (•!aii<iiii'iil ]<■ earachri' dt- cr vais- 
waii ct fa dcsiiiialiuii. 

I.v );ipii\ci iiciiH'iil di' sa Majcr,lt' ii'a\aii ilonc I'li aiiciiiH' r.-iisoii puiir doiHiT di' l:i 
"I MIC (If la vi;;ilancc <|iii a\ ait ili' pnniii^i' dc la pail At- sex oliicii'i's a l,i\ crponl, ni 
'1' 1 1 iiiuiiicir dmil 11 avail I'lf tmiiipi'. 

M. Ailains allira eiisiiilc ratlciitiiiii ilc sa si'Ihiumm ir ^ur iiii aiitrr ca.s. jdus rniiarijiia- 
''''•il'iui vaisseaii i-ii ritiislriielion a Ijivi-rpnid, ilaiis '■• riiaiitiiT d'nii i\r< pins lanii'iix 
""iMiiiciiairs dc cctlc \ illl', dcstini' an iiii'-iiii' lint ipi. ci'lni ijiii a •'•n- inditiiif dans lo 
la^ di' |'( )i(.tii I't riHil iiili' circclivi'iin'iit par It's nn-nirs pari irs. 

M. Adams li-aiisniit m iiii'ini' I mips a sa s('ly,iH'iiiii' nin' li'tiie de M. I •in'li-y. li- rdiisul 
"^ l.lats-1 jijs a I.ivi rpdol. adrcssi'i' a Ini-nn'ini', diiinianl tons li-s rfiisri'^iii'miiits 
'"ii'liaiil I'^tli- all'aiiv ijn'il avail pn rassemldrr. 

'•'' liiiili'inain, .M. llaiiiiii-.iiiii, an nin\i di- sa sii;;iii-iiiii', adrcssa niir lrttr«' an siTn-- 
1. 1 lie lie la ur'siiii ill', d.ins la Imiiir ordiiiaiif. di-niandat'l i|m"i)Ii lit iiiiincdiali'iiniii iiiii) 
iiii.|ii(i|. ,., i',-.^f;,i.,| ,1,. ,.,, vaissi'.in. 

l-iHiii nil' temps il adri'ssa iiiu' li'Mre an\ .-ivoeat s dr la ('(inrni.iii', en traiisini'ttaiit 

iiHiii'iJi' M, .Vdam.s I't la lit I if de .M. I)iidli\, pniir c|ii'illis I'lissrni prises m rdiisidii- 
I latum, It eu dt'iuiuuluiit k'sobsorvalion.s ipiiLs pouvaieiit avnii a laire hiir va Hiijiit. 





172 



AIUUTRATION AT GKXKVA. 



It is ])rpstiin(Ml tliiil this Inst incnsurc \v;is n pri'dMition ii(Mitioii;iI |„ 
juivtliin;;' tliiit liad Itrcii doiic in f iir cmsc of tlic < Mfto. 

I"'ivi' (l;ivs liitcr ;i i('|K»rt \v;is niiidc l»y tlic liiw ollicci's, in n'|ily lo ilns 
a]i)>li(':itiiMi, ill snltst.iiict' to tliis ctlri-t : 

if till' ri'iniMiiliiliiiii iii.'iilc liv Mf. Adams i^ in aiTdnliiiicr witli flic faft«, tlic IniiM. 
iii;^ ami ci|Mi|iiiiciit ol' ihc stcainci' is a iiiaiiiri'>t \i(ilalii)ti ol' llic l'iirci;^ii-ciilis|iii>';t 
act, ami steps t>ii;i;lit ti> Itc taken to |>iit tlial act in •'one, ami {<< iniitnt //n (■(.■.«i7 /c,,,,, 

iJOilllJ lit Hilt. 

'I'liis Wiis ii nTCiit step ill iidviiiici' of iiiiyfliiiiy tlint liad tiikni iilaccin 
tli«' loiinricasc. It In My ici'dniii/cd the duty ut' iircvnitidii, and sli'iiii;;iv 
rrcoiiiim'iidt'd liiat |trn|icr steps lie takcii l>y llic aiitlH)iiti('>; at lavci 
]i()()l tu asrcrlain tlir liiitli, and it' siil)ii-it>iit rvidmcc could lie oltlaiiml 
tojiistily pi(>c«'('diii;;s under the act. to take siicji proceedings ;is simui 
as possilde. 

N'Mihin^i' eoiild lie more satislMctoiy than tliis dire<'tion. If il ii;ul 
been eanie(l out in its s])irit Itv tlie parties wlio liad it in eliar.uc, tlnii^ 
is little reason to doubt that the jrojicy pointed out would lia\e Immi 
ell'ected. 

i'.nt. it appears more than douUlfnl whetlier tliis injiinetion produ.vil 
tlie smallest elVeet upon tlie parties conceiiie(| ; tor it could 'lard'iy 
liave readied its destination hetoie tlie time at wliicli tlie report of iln' 
(•ominissioneis of the eiistoins was made up. That repojt was deaih 
made in answer to the earlier letter of Mr. Ilaminond <»f the 'J.")tli; tm 
the reports of Mr. S. I'rice l-'alwai ds, the collector, and ol' !•'. Muil^hii. 
.surveyor at Liverpool, dated the L'Sth instant, iiichtsed therein, piiidl. 
l)y two <la>s the opinioti of the law olliceis. No allusion ap]»(ars tti \»- 
uiade to it in this reply. The siilistaiice of it is the admission of tic 
i'act that the vessel is intendc'l for a ship of war. lint no e\ ideiHc Ii.in 
been produced of its dest innl ion siiflicietil to inslily pioceediiius, aini 
unless the consul. Mr. I Midlcy, should be able |(» stilniiit such e\i<|cii.i 
to the collector ol the port, any attempt t(» seize tliexcssel wmilil i n.l 
only in entailing' iij)on the parties com-erned very serious conseipiriiic. 




On |iciil prisiinicninc crttcilcrnicrt' mi'surc I'tail luictirf-caiitinn en pins dc tniu iti|':: 
aviiit cic tail dans !c cas dc I'Orciu. 

('im| jcniis plus tard, nn cNp(i>c tni la it ]iar ccs ■•ni'iicicrs," en ri'piinsc a cettc deiiiaii'i. . 
cinilenanl en siilisiaiiec ee ijiii siiii : 

•' .si hi I ipiesenlal inn I'aitc par M. Adams est d'aeenrd a\ ee les tails, la enlist i iiri' < 
«'t I'l'ipiipi'inenl dii s|,aniei- sunt line \ ielal inn manifcstc dn /""/'nV" '"'''•'"""''"'■ '' 

lies niesllles dniselil et re prises iiniir laiie i\. illler <el act et \nmv inifnihn' U vai^'<^ 
ill jHnlir." 

C'eiait nil ci'iiud prncres siir tniii cc i|iii avail eii lien dans le eas pnei'ileiit. ( >' 
cxpnse ieei)nnai>-sait iileineineiit le devoir dc /))•('(•( );(■)'. ct rceninniaiidait t'oi leiaeiit 'p 
ties incstircs citiiveiiiildcs Inssent prises par les antoritt's <lc lavcrjinid imiir eniistatri !i 
v"iiti', ct si I'tin (iiiiivait nldenir des iirciivcs siillisanles pniir Jiisiiiier des iiouisiiii'> 
eniit'nrineincnt a raetc, pnnr |n'endrc res nu'snres aiissiii'it i|nc pnssildc. 

Ii'ieii He pniivail elie pliis sat isfaisaiit (pic ei's direetinns. Si elles avaieiil etc siliM-' 
dans eet esprit par les partii'sipii en etaient eliar^fi'cs, il y a pen dc nintils dc doiiirf 
ipic la eniidnilc indii|iiee anraii etc ctli'acc. 

Mills il parall jdiis i{ne dniitcns (pie eet le injinnt inn pmdiiisU Ic ninindrc cllil -if 
cciix (pi'ellc eniieiiiiait. (arelle aiiiiit a peine i>n alt(in(!>'c ha dest inalioii a>a!it 
rcpnipic on t'nt eeiil le rapport des eninniissaires des dmiancs. Cc rapp(Ml I'lit I'viilcin- 
ineiil tail en n pniisc a la pree< ileiiie lettre dc M. llaninimid, dii -.">, ear les lapi'mi-'l 
M.S. I'riee I'.dw aids, le receveiir. et dc .M. I). MiMj^aii. '<iMT( i/iw dc l,i\ crpnol, (laii^ 'i'l 
ti"', ((iii y elaieiil renl'eiines, pi'i>cc(1">it dc d<".;v jniirs I'avis ties "ollicieis dc la Ini. 'i 
ii'y est tail aneniie allnsinii dans ecttc ri'ponsc, I, a siilistanec en est radinis>iiiM <l: 
fait (pic li< vaisseaii est dcstiiK' a ("'frc nn \aisscaii dc j;ncrrc ; inais i|iraiiciinc pi'iivc!' 
sa desiinatioii u'a ('le (n'odnite (|iii siillise a Jiistilier (les poni'snites, et, (jiTa nmiii-- m'" 
le consul, M. |tn(lle\ , nc jiiif prodiiire line t die preii\ c an rceeveiir dn port, toiiie i' 'i 
tativc dc s.iisir Ic vais-icaii n'alinntirait (pra attircr sur les poiirsiiix ants des cHU-i- 
(iUemcs Ircs-seiii'iisi.'S. 



Ol'IMONS OF Ml{. AMAM8. 



17:5 



Tlic ifpori of the coimiiissioiier.s teniiinatt'S in the t'U.stoiiiar;\ lonii, 

til « il : 

\Vi' lir;;: ti) v.tlil Hint llif (tlVncrH at Livcriniol will Uccp a stiirt \v;tl<li o'l tlir vcssi-l, 
;i!ii| lliMi ;!iiy riii'llicr iiil'iiniiation tlial may he- iilitaiiiol ciiiirrriiiii;;' lirr will lie rurili- 

Wllll MlMll hi|. 

Oil II lirst cxiiiniiialion this ])arayia|»!i woiiltl scciii by its tciius to 
imply a jirdiiiisc in tlir iialnic (»!' a |»lcil,i;i' of rnnsinnl vinilancc ; Init 
ii|iiiii ('i)Mi|KU'injL;' tin* iiliiascs wiili tlit- almost idcniicai otirs nsr*l in tlic 
|iric('(lin,u i'asc ol'llic Oicto, an<l ohscrvin;^ the n-snlts wliicli liappcncil 
HI hiitlMMsi's. it ninsi he inlriKMl tliat it was rcuaidt'd l»y tlic pailu's 
i.;ily Its one of the est a I (11 shed loiiiis oj' rndin;; a dispatfli. 

A copy of tliis jcpoit was. (»n the liii ol -Inly, transmit IimI to Mr. 
Aihiiis. with a ictpicsl tliat tin' I'liitcil States cdnsnl at I,i\ fiponl. Mr. 
Pmllry, sill Mill I he in si rne tell to si 1 1 tin it to t lie e(»llee|or of tiie eiistonis 
N,i('li cvideliee as lie iiii;;lil possess teinlin;;' lo show tinil liis siisjticioiis 
aslotlie th'Slinal ion of tile vessel were well loninhMl. 

Tilt' name of tiiis eolleelor was S. I'liee IMwanls. and I liave already 
hail oceasioii to point oiil in my examination ol° ilie destination ol' the 
Ori'fo tlie very peculiar sil nation in which he was jdaced Ity ilie repre- 
Mutations on that subject made l>y liim at that time to Her Alajesiy'.s 
;'ovi'rniiieiit. 

Mr. hiidh'V, ill accordance with Air. .\dams*s inslriictioiis. aecordinj;ly 
;iii(ln'sse(l to .Mr. Ilduards. on the IMh duly, a letter !' I'liisliiii;;' a loll^• 
;iiiay of details as to the nature anil soiin'it of the information he had 
iilitaiiicd. and pro\ idin;;', as it would appear, almndaiit means of prose- 
iiiliii;; fiirllier impiiries if tlieie were any inclination so to do. 

To this letter Mr. S. Price l-Mwards replied l»y proniisini;' that lu« 
wiiiilil suhinit it to tlii> coiisiilcral ion of the lioarti of customs, lie did 
ii<il tail, however, to add an expression of opinion that the statements 
iiiaiic ii.v him must, lirst of all, l>e snltstantiated by evidence tnrnished 
iiy liiiiiself. 

iJiil this Mr. S. I'rice lOdwards happened to have received from tlie- 



\.i' i.iii|Mirt (Ic's t<iiiniii.-.>air('s sr icniiiiir ilaiis la rniiiii' onliiiaiii'. I'l'slaMliri- ; 

".Villi". |iriiiiis il'a jiiMlcr i|iir l'"< iil'lirii'is di- l,i\ i r|iii.il ••xi'iriMiiMl iiiii- •*iirvrillanri> 
MMifsur li' sai>-i'aii d (pn' tmil ri'iisi'iniiiMiiciit iilii-riciir i|iii iiiniiiaii i-iic (ililiiiii In 
r''iii riiiaiit sera lapiiiirti' sur Ic <'liaiii|i. " 

\ nil |Mi'iiiiiT cxaiiii'ii, cr |iitra^ia|ilir si'iiilili'iait |iar Irs trniir.-. iiii|ilii|iit'r iiiic |ii'ii- 
iiirssr (laiislc jiiMiri' il'iiii riiy:a;iriiii'iil (I'mic vigilance (•unsiaiih' ; mais ni i-iiiii|iaraiit ci'H 
|iiiiasrs, a ci'llcs. |ii'i'si|iriili'iii ii|iirs, i|iii sunt tiiniliiM'i's ilaiis Ir c.as |ii'i'i'i-ilrnt ilo 
I'lMi'in, fi i!i n'ihaii|iiaiil Ics ii'siilia' s ani\i-. dans Ics ilniv cas, mi |ii'iil rii ciiiii'liiri) 
iiii'il ii'i lait roiisidi'ic |iar Irs piirlirs i|Ui' ciiiiiiiii- iiiii' drs I'imiui-.s rialilit'< |)(>iii' trriniin'i' 
mil' ili|H I'iii-. I lu' coiiir di- rr ia|ipi)rl In! I r.nisinisi', Ic t jiiilli't, a M. .Vdaiiis, a\ fc iino 
iliiniiiidc ipi,' Ic ccinsiil dfs r.l.ais-i iiis a l,i\ ciikhiI I'lii rliar;;i' dr sKiinii'ltrc an rm'\ciir 
i!''Mliiiia!ii's Idles pi'i-nvi's (pril pmiirail |tii>si'd('r Iciidaiil a munlrrr i|iii' scs siiiipriiiis 
'I ri';;aid dr la drsl iiiat inn dn vaisseau itaicnt )iii-ii rnndi-s. 

1,1' 1111:11 df rr iiTix ('111 riail S. I'rii'o l",d\v aids, d j'ai di'ja ni riMcaNinii d'iniliipii'r, 
il:iii> innii (•\aiiii'ii di' la di'stiiialion t\r roiclo. la siinatinn tics-parl iciilii-ii' dans 
l:ii|iirlli' il iiait plai'y, par Ifs irprrsi-ntal niiis (pTil lii a n' snjri, a crili' I'pnipir, ail 
K'lii^ii'iMiiifnt dc sa .Majcsti'-. 

.^l. iMidlfV, sidoii Us iiisti iictionsdi' M. Adanis.adn'ss 1 ni niiisi'i|iii'ni r a M. I'.dward.s, 
li' '•'.jiiilli'l, line |(in;^iii' Ictli't", t'lMU'iiissant iiiif si-rii' dc iTiisi'i;xniMiii'iits siii- |a iialiin' rt 
ii's ?iiiiii-cfs dt's inloiiiiatiiins cpi'll a\ail idilciiiics, ct doiiiiaiit. a cr ipril scnildait, dcs 
iiiiiyciis aliiiiidaiits vie pnnrsiiivrc dcs ciKpiflis nltciiciiics s'il y avail ipiidi|nc disposi- 
tiiiii a ell I'airc, 

A rctic Iclirc M. S. I'lici- ICdwiirds rcpoiidit iii prnnifllant ipi"il la sumncttiait ;i 
l<'>.aiiii'ii di's coiiiiiiissaii'i'.s di's dniiancs. II in inampiail pas ccpcndanl d'ajoiih-r iino 
I'Xliri'ssion i\r Kiiii (ipiiiiiin i|iii- Ics allirniatiniis dc .M. Itinllcy dcvaiciil ciic avanl tout 
vi'iiliiis par divs prciivi's loimiifs jiai Ini-nicnic 

Miii.s CO .M. .S. i'licu Kdw(inl.H 8« Irouvuit avoir ri'vu, »lii aiciiif consul, oiiviioii troiu 



174 



ARniTKATIOX AT (!K\KVA. 




I! ^ 



H.'uiK' consul, 'S\y, Dndlry, nciirly tlircc \v(M'ks lu'lorc, ii IrHcr ;;i\iii;; 
liiiiiiy (Icliiils sfioiijily poiiiliii;:' lo tlit' dcstiiiiilioii of this Ncssrl. wlii,!," 
.so I'iir ;is npiu'iiis IVoiii tlu'si' |»ii|)«'rs, must liiivc Ix-cii ciitiifly siipimsMi!. 
It liiis Ik'cii jMihlislicd in one ttf tlit^ lati'st volnnics of tlic p:i|ii'is hi,. 
pendrd to I lie Anicriciiii ciisr. IrMiionly ;Mconnt lor this oniissimi ii|i,,| 
i lie supposition 1 liiil,iis Ml'. 1 >ii(llt'.\'s Ii'ilcr Jiddrt'sscd to Mr. A d inns on ih,. 
lollouin;^' diiy liinl lonnd its \v;iy to Inni soon iilirr. he inlrircd tluit , 
not it'i' of till' I;itl<'r won Id do lor Ixttli. 'V\\v \\w\ re 'idly is. Iiowcvit. tlmr 
tlic i'\ idcncc is of a dilVci'cnl kind, >ind, tlion;;li not drcisiNc in itsii^. 
Wiis cidcnhdrd to opt'ii ii way to further invest i.i;jilion if siirh wncl, 
siii'tl. 

The h'tlcrof Ihc'.Mh .Inly was rcli'rrnl to t lie solicit or of the cnstoins, Mr. 
llanicl, who replied in the cnstonniry manner — •• insidlicient e\ idciuc." 

On the i.">lli of .Inly tin- commissioners of customs wrote toil., 
('((Ihetor of Li\eipool jo the same cIVect, and on the ITtli copii- , i 
papers were sent to the ticasiiry Ibi' the inltamation )»f the loidsciiin 
niis.sioners. 

'i'lius it apjM'ars that three wteks liad passed since the iiijunctinii lui,! 
niioii the authorities ol tln> customs at Liverpool to ascertain the iimli. 
ami not a syllalde had liecn r( turnc.! to them e.Nceptin.u of a ne;Lr:ili'>> 
chariicler. No snllicient evidence of intenlion oll'cred to t hem. ami im 
dispo.vition to search lor an.v ; that was the sum of Ihe whole matttr. 

'I'iifd of vvailin;.; for the action of Her Majesty's ;;overnnH'i;;. \\\. 
Adams. (Ill tlie iTih .Jiilv. wrote instructions to Mr. Dudley to eiii|il(i\ .i 
solicitor, and ^ct up allida v its to hiv Itelure I he cod eel or. 'I'iiat n Ulcer liail 
had almndant rea.sou to know, in the ca>e of the Oreto, how tlifticiih i: 
v.as, in ;i city swanaiii^ with s\ iiipal hi/.rrs in the siici-css of t licsr ml 
Ventures, fur him to lind iiciskiis w iio, Iiowcv cr clcai ly they ini.uht Kimw 
V hat was L;oin,u' on, were not al all disposed to siiltji-ct themselves to tlir 
odium allcudiii;;' a imltlic declar.ition of thetrulh. He did, Iiowi'Mi. 
by the L'lst, siic<'eed ill procuring si.\ persons ready to take liiciidi 
positions Itefore the collector. The process was completed, and thrcul 



Sfiiiiuiirs aiiparavaiil, niic pii'iiiii re li'tlir ii'iilVriiiant tuicr ilrtails, iloiiiiitnt a fiitriiihi 
(jiril .>'ani,s>ait (if la ilfsl iiialiiiii ilii vaisvi-aii. ijiu, aiUaiit ijii'il rrssorl dc ccs tlmiiiiiiiiiv 
iloivi'iU aMiir v\r cnl iiTitiiicnt siipiiiiiiii's, lis nal I'li' |)iililii s ilaiin Ics tli'rniri.s \mIiiiii<< 
(IfN (liK'iiiiitMU.s amii'S<''.-< a I'fXjtiiNf aiiii'i icaiii. .Ii' iic )iiiis i'\|ilii|iici' cfi {r niiiissiiiii i|iii' 
par la .sii|ii>(isiiiiMi i|H(', ciiiiiiiH' la Ifilir ailif^.Ni ,• a M. Atlauis U\ It'inli-iiiaiii liii iiiit 
paivcmif liifiUul apri's. il m roiirlnl (|iriiiM' inrnlimi <lf la ilciiiiiic \alail pniir fiiiii>N 
Wx dfiix. Lc fait rii iraliti' I'.-^l (cprihiaiif ijiic la |irrnvi' f.si (I'mik' f-.ji,.ci- diHi rnilr. .! 
(|iiiiiipic iiiiii il((i>ivc fii clli'-iai'iiir, rill' t lait calciilti' pom (iiiviii la \ nir a ilrs ncliri- 
(Ik^ iilh 1 ii'iiit s, si on \onlail 'i-.s lain-. 

i.a It III!' (Ill '.t jiiilli I lilt <ii\o\cr an solliriiciir ilcs doiiaiii's, M. Ilaiiii'l, '|iii i'i']iMiii!ii 
dc la iiiaiiiirf nidliiairc, "piciixcs iii>iii)i>aiilrs." 

I.f l.'i jiiillii, lis col 111 II issa ills dcsiloiiaiics I ii i\ uciit an rcccvciir dc Liverpool ihiii- If 
inciiic liiii, ct. Ic 17, dcs c\ciiiplaircs dcs dociiinciits rnrcnl cnvoyi-s a la trcson'iir imiir 
I'inroi'iiial ion dcs loids coinniissaiicH, 

Aiiisi il paiail >|iicliois scinaincs s'ciaicnl pa.sscs dcjiiiis <|iic' riiijoiiclion avjiit •!• 
I'aitc aii\ aiiltii'ilcs dcs diniancs dc liivcrpool dc .s'assincr ties tails, c| pas iinc sylli^i' 
n'as'ail cic rcmiiM'c, si cc \\\'s\ d'liii caractcrc ni'jjatil*. " Point dc prciivc.s .siiOi^iiiii''^ 
d'iiitciiiioii ■' lie leiir t't.iiciit I'oMinics, »•(, point ilc di.spiisidon a cii t'liciclier iMis-iiii'iiii^ 
N'oila Ic n siiinr- dc Ionic falVaire. 

Lasse dill tciidre raclion dii ;.;oiivcriicinent dc sa Majcsli', M. AdaiiiH ccrix it. li- 1' 
Jnillct.ilcs iiisiniit ions a M. Dudley aliii d'ciiiploycr iin "a\ (iiii''' cl dc faac iMiii' il.- 
«li''claial ions ecriicN el aninm cs par scrnicnt a porter dcvaiit Ic reccvenr. Cctnlti'i'i 
avail en dcs raismis iioinlnciiscs iionr ap|nciidic a coiiiiait ic. dans Ic cas dc roivi". 
coiiiliicii il liii ctail dilticilc, dans iiiic villi- t'oniniillant dc ;tcns .synipatliiijiics aii siin'" 
dc CCS avcni nrcs. dc \roiivcrdcs pcrsoniics ipii ipioii|n'cllcs pnssciil sat oir claiii'iiiin' 
v.v ijiii sc passait, I'lisscnt Ic iiioins dii nioiidc disposi'cs a s'cxposer a rodiciiN ipii '''H' 
atladie a line dirlaral ion piililii|nc dc la veiilc. II M'lis.sil ccpciidaiit, Ic "Jl, :i sc pi"- 
curur SIX pcranuucs prcles a dcioscr tlevaiit le recovcur. L'all'airo I'lit tcrmiin'e et li' 



OPINIONS (»!' MR. A HAMS. 



(.) 



|,rtor tiMiisiiiiltcd tliciii oil tlic L'lM (u IIii' romniissioiKMs of nistoiiH, 
wild liiiii*l*-tl tliciii to the solicitor, who |irniii|)tly i'«'tiii'iiril liis ciistoiiisiry 
,i.|ilv— -no siillifitiit cv idciin'/' lint tlic liiilcd Stiitrs iiiithoiit v iiii;;lit 

_ . *.. . t.tit fill* «-iiwCitl 'if tlliilli JhVV-ll IMcl- 



IV to >io|» tlu' M'.s.sci iit their own risl 



Il\ [0 Mop I n* \ t'.'iM'i ill iiM'irowii I iniv. 

lliit thfic Wi'iT two iiilhU'iKM's iiowcoiiV('f;;in;;: Iroiii (litVcrciit (|i!iii1t'iH 

wllji'il Ut'li' (h'stincd to thrciltt'li thf slli;;;;ish ollircis of the cll^tniiis 

Willi n-spoiisihililii's niiich ^rt-ntcr tliiiii tiMar solicitor li:iil l;il>oi'i>i| to 

• 1....II' Ill llli> l*llill>ll ^^l'.ltlX 



liiKW iipDii the I'liilcd States 



IhlitW upon Hie y iiiieii oi.iies. 

Till' line proceeded iVoin the rniled St.ifes ai;eiils, who had ii^stiiiied 
:lii' i-iitire lahor ot' pioeiii in;;' eii^ht depositions to prove what slionid 
liivc hceii estahlisheil iiy the ener;4y of Her .Majest_\*s ;;dverninenl it- 
.,.!i_tlie inti-nt and desl ination of the ynidioal. iJiit the\ seem seaicely 
lilv.'lv to have had an.\ chance of Wii;:iht if supported e\cliisi\ dy l»> the 
aiilJioiitN of their Jiid;;nieiit alone. 'I'he lirst ssniptuin now appeai'ed of 
till' |iiissihilit> of a doiilit of tin* policy which had heeii iiiaiked out l)V 
till riisloins solicitors. The papers had heeii siilnnitled to the coiisider- 
itiiiii of an einiiient uciitleiiian ol the law, a C^>iiecii's coiiiisedor. Mr. It. 
I r. Ciillier, wiio, in reply, ;;a\e the follow inj;' as his tlelilierate opiiuoii : 

Mi:H<' jx'i >i-<i-<l till' iiliiiv I' iilli l;i\ lis, anil I niii nC ii|iiiiii>ii tiiat tin ruili'i'inr u|' cus- 

l<Mii« wiiiilil lie jiisl ilii'il ill ili'lainini; ill)' M'>^rl. iuili nl. I -IikmIiI lliiiikil i'-liisi|iiiy 

'Hill I III II lirr. anil Ilia I il', al'lrr llir a|i|>li('.il inii w liirh \\;{^ Itci'ii inaili' In liiiii. '^ii|i|iiii'ti'i| 

I '.\ llir cv iilriici' \\ Ii'h'Ii lias lici'ii hiiil lifl'iiri' mi', III' alluv, ^ ilif vosi'! IoIi'mm- I.i\ ii|iiiii|, 

' L' »ili iiiiiir a lna\y ir>|Miiisiliilily,iir w liiili tlir Imanl uT cii-linn*, iimlir w Iimnc diiiM;- 

I "ii> ill' aiipcais 111 III' acliii'^. iiiiist take tin if ^liarr. 

Tlic last sent' "ice was the most si^iiiilicant of all. It was this: 

it \mH ili'SrlM'S ('(ill>i(li r.lliiill W ili'llicr. if IIh' vrssrl 111' .iljiiuril III i'>i'a|ii'. llic I'lilc- 

I ,! iliiMi iiini'iil wiiiilil mil liaxi' siiiniis ^rniiiiils nf n'iiiiiii-.| I anil'. 
I Tlic idea that, iiislead of a respoiisiliilily for stoppiii;;- the \r.->scl 
I'udwii ii|)on the I'liitcd Slates, there was to lie a respon.siliility to l>e 
iiii|iits('(l upon the customs authorities and llieir superiors in ollice, aje 
I'i'.iis never to ha\ c entered into their conception. It w as like a I hiinder- 

l.i. : 1. .... ..I. .. 



i"il! ill a clear skv. 



ruivriir trmisiiiit <i's ilt'iinsithms. Ic '2*», aiix cunimissairrH di'-* iliiii.iiics, i|ii! Ics mniri'iif 
jar, Miljiiiiiiir. i)iii iii\i'\a iimiii|ili iiniil sa iipiiiiM' indiiiain : " iiuini dr jnciivrs sniii. 
I Millie; iiiai.s ijiic Irs l!lals-l iii ^ |iiiii\ a iiiil essay <'r d'a' Tclir !i' \ aisscaii a liiii s risinus 
1 1' |iiiil>." 

MaiN il y av ill iliiis iiillni'iii'i'K iuMvn;;i','iiif ainis ili' iliiii iriils |iiiiiils, ijiii I'lairiit 
IdiMiin IS a niriiarrr li's |iai(s^iM\ (iriicin-. ilrs iliiiiants iriiiu' ns|iiiii>.aliijili- Ih.-iik niii* 
|l'li'> :;i;iiiili' i|iii' I'i'lli' i|iii' li'iir siillicilriir a\ail clii'ii'ln' a icJi'Iit siii' it's lllals-l'iii.s. 

i.'iiiii- |iiiiii il.iii (li's a',;i'iils (l( > i;ials-liii.s i|ui avaiciil assiiiii'' Imili' la cliaijir ilii 
|]'!"iiiiri- liiiil ilriiiisiiiiiiis |iiiiir |ir(iu\ t'l' ('(• i|iii aiiiail ilii rlri' I'laliji par I'l iii'iuif du 
L'<ii\i'niriiii'iii dr .sa Maji'sti' iiii-iiir'iiir, Ir lint el la ili-sl Jiiatiiiti <li- la laiKMiiiii-ri-, 
jM.iii ii M'lnlilc jiiMi jii'iilialili' (lu'cllts amaiiiil cii aiiciiiii' vali'iir si cllr.s avaifitt I'ti'- 
|ii;tii.\i'is I'NcIiisiM'iiiciii )iar I'aiiluritc ilc li'iir iirmnc Jii;^t'iiii'iil sriil. Alms paint Id 
|j'i<i:iii'i' >i;;n<> dc la piissiliiiiti' d'nn iliiiili' siir la ciiiiilnili' i|ni avail I'li- indii|iit'i' par 
ll's Milliiilinifi ill's dniiaiii's. l,is diicnnii'iils avaii'iil itf suiiiiiis :i rtsanii'ii il'mi 
[('M.iiii'iil {iiriM'iiiiMiIti' ill' la I'riiK', M. II. I'. Cullii'i', ipii m ripmisi' diniiia cc qiii .suit 
|t'i;iiiiii' Mill avis ri'if'i'lii : 

•I'lii I'tiidir U's olliihiiih I i-dcssns, tt ji' siiis d',i\is i|ii(' li' irci'Vcnr ill's iliiuaiics 
ji' i;iii liii'U dc I'ctrnir w \aisscan. I'ln ilVct, jr pi'iisnais iinc r'l'sl son dcvnir ilo In 
JMiMii', rt i|Ui', si ii)in'H la drinaiiili' ipii Ini a I'li' failr, appnyrc par Irs iiii'inrs (|iii unt 
1] ' )" ^l-, (levant mm, il iieriiiel an xaissean de i|nirei' LiNcipniil. il em oiiria nm- 
) '<pmisaliilil>'. dmit le ' Imaiil nt' ensimns,' smis les diieclimis (lni|ni'l il seinlile 
|iii '.. 11.,, prenile sa part." 

'"' ili'i xcre phrase etait la pins .si;inilic.itive ile Imiles. I,;i vniei : •• II rmi\ ienl liien 
I' " . -!<!■ fiT hi, dans le cas oii on laisserait ei'liaiip^-r le vaissean, le (iimvcrneinent 
I'' ' ^ 'I'.iirail pas de sei'ieiix nidlil'sdi' leinmiliaiues." 

• 111. 1- ipi'.-in lii'ii d'nne lespmisaliilile pmir la saisie dn vaissean rejetre siw lis fllats- 
|< iii^ il (liv.'iit y aviiir line lespmisalnlite a iinpii'«iM' .'in\ antmites des dnnanes et u 
'11'' Mi|iiiienr.s, Mi'inlile alms lire eiiliee piiiir la [iri'miere lois dans kia i.'ipril. L'e I'ut 
It'iiiiiia' nil coup (k' toiiuern' dans iiii cii;l siirciii. 




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176 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 



P' 






The assistant solicitor of customs iuimcdiatoly sought to put hiinsolf 
luuler the protection of thi^ law-olticers of the Crown. INIeanwhilo tlic 
same i^ajiers had been transmitted by ]\[r. Adams to Lord liussell, and 
by him likewise referred to the hiw-olMcers of the Crown. 

These papers reached their destination at different dates ; thoso sent 
from the customs on the 2,"m1 July, in the eveniufj, while those from Mr, 
Adams got to tliem three days later, though his note appears to iiave 
been dated on the 24th. It is obvious that this difference could have no 
elfect in delaying their decision. l>ut one additional deiwsition was 
added, which could scarcely have done more than con firm tlie result. 

Five whole days passed before a decision was returned. ]\[eaii\vliile 
the vessel was rapidly getting ready to depart. On the 28th, Mr. Dml. 
ley's solicitor sent a communication to the board of customs, to theoti'cct 
that they had every reason to believe tlie vessel would go on tlic L'Otli, 

This letter did not reaeli them until the 20th. Tlie vessel sailed on 
the 2i)th. That intelligence liivcwise was obtained from the same stnmv, 
IMeanwhile what becomes of the profession, made on the 1st of .hilyln 
tlie commissioners of customs, that "a strict watch should be keiitoii 
the ves.sel,and that any further information that nught be obtained eon 
eerning her would be fortliwifh reported." 

To be sure, on the 1st of xVugust, ^Ir. S. Price Edwards addresses a 
letter to the comnnssioners of customs, in which appears the followin;; 
siginlicant linc^, "The board will see that the vesel has left the port," 
J low they (;ould have seen through the spectacles i)resented by tliatoili- 
cer renuuns to be explained. Tlie surveyor, however, is more comimuii- 
cative. On the day before he gravely states that he had followed tlif 
collector's directions to keep a strict watch on the vessel. He is eoiiii- 
dent she had no ammunition on board. He had visited the tii;i>' llii- 
cules, where he found a considerabh^ portion of the crew, some ol wlidiii 
Avere on their way in that ves.sel to join the gunboat. Mv. Dudley liad 
given the same information to tlu^ collector. Even then the vessel emild 
have been traced and stopi»ed by an energetic interposition of govern 



L'aide-soUiciveur <les douaue.s chercha iiuuu-diatcnioiit a so uiettre sous la ptotuctiou 
des oriicici'.s tic la conviiniic. 

I'ciKlaut I'c tcinps Ics iii(''iii('s dociinu'nts avaiciit t^t(' transnns par M. Adams a Lml 
Russell, (;t ])ai' liii o<;a]ciiu'iit .soiiiiiis h rfxaincii des (il'licicrs <lt! la conronnc. lis 
doL'iiiiu'uts alt('ij;iiir('iit Iciir (li'stiiiation a des dates dil'lerentcs. t'eiix (Miv()y('s iiailcj 
douaiies. le '2\\ Jiiillet au soir, tandis (|iie eeiix de M. Adams It'iir i)ai'viureiit tiois jdiii'^ 
])liis tard, (|iu»ii|ue sa nott! seiidde a\<iir <•(•'■ datee dii *J1. II est elair (|ii(' iTiir 
ditlerenet^ lie peat iivoir nullemeiit relar(l(^ leor (U'eision. Une di'|><)sitit)ii athlitidiiinHf 
tut ajoutt'e plus tai'd (pii pounait avoii' a jieiue, atieelo uiaterielleiueut le i'i'siilt;ii. 
C"iu(i JDurs eutiers se passereiit avaut (|u'uiio (h'eisioii Tut auuoueoe. Pendaut ei; t(iii|i^ 
le vaisseau se pn'iiaralt au d('|»ai't tres-rapidemeiit. Le '28 Ic stdlieiteur de M. Diiilliv 
ouvoya uiu; eouimuuioatiou aux couiinissaires des douaiu's a I'etfet : quMls aieut tmiti' 
rai.sou dc criiire ([ue le vaisseau partirait le 2d. Cette lottre ue leur parvint ([Ue lei': 
le vai.sseau ,s(Utit le uieiiie jour. Cettc imuvelle fut t'^f^aleuieut ohteuue de la inriiif 
soiii'ee. Teudaut ee teiups, (|U0 devieiit la deelaratiuu, faitc lo 1''' juillet par li'siuiii- 
inissalies des douaiu's, (pruut; surveillauee striotc serait exereee siu" lo vaisseau ot i|ii« 
tuute intormatiou ultoiieuro (pii poiu'rait etrc obteuue le coueeniaut scait vappoiW 
»»)■ h' vhumpt 

Sails doiite, le 1''' .avril, M. S. P. Edwards adresse uue Icttro aux comniissaires 
des douaues, dans lai(iielie se troiive la lijfiic sigiiili(;ativ(! suivauto : " Le /»»(n'(/ vein 
(|ue le vai.sseau a ((iiitte le ]>()rt."' Comuieut lis auraieut pu voir a travors les liiiiette 
]U'eseutees par cet (illieier. e'est ce (pril reste a expliijuer. L siirrenoy cepeiuliiiit i'<I 
plus couiuiuiiieatil'; la veille, il expose frriveuieiit (jii'il avait suivi Ics di net ions dii 
receveur, d'exereer uiu; striete siirveillaiico sur le vaisseau. II est ))ersua(lt'' (|ii'il 
n'avait i»<>iut de munitions a bord. II avait visite le roinoniueur, I'Hereule, <■'. il aviiit 
trouve, daiis cc vais.seaii, uue partio considerable de IViiuipajje, dont (pudciiies liomims j 
{"•taieiit en route pour joiudre la canonuiere. M. Dudley avait doune le nieiiie leu- 
Heijfiieuient au reeeveiir. Meine alors, ce vaiss(,'aii aurait pu f'tre suivi et arietc pat 
mio interveutiou ouergi<£ue de I'autorite du gouv'erneiueut. Les coiumissaiicb in 



OriNIOXS OF MR, ADAMS. 



177 



)ut liiinsfif 
nwliilotlif 
nsscll, iiiiil 

tlioso sent 
i(^ from Mr, 
irs to liiivf 
lid have no 
[)sitioii was 
result. 
^Icainvliili' 
1, Mr. Dud. 
to the clU'ct 
)ii the 2!ltli, 
_'l sailed m 
aino s(Mii'ci', 
of .Filly by 
be kefit on 
)taiiied con- 
add rosses a 
le followiii:; 
't the port." 
bv tliatotli- 
'o coinimiui- 
ollowed tlic 
lie i.s eoiili- 
e tu'^ Hei- 
ne ol' whom 
Dudley liiid 
ve.ssel ('(mid 
of goveiii- 



lucut authority. The couiniissiouer.s of customs preferred to send hanu- 
les.s telegraphic orders to Liv^erpool and Cork, to lieauuiaris and Holy- 
li'iul, which looked like dispatch, but could by no reasonable probability 
iiave been of any avail. And the collector could promise that, ^^ should 
flpporUmity offer, the vessel should be seized in accordance with the 
(liiectious given." It is presumed this must have meant if the vessel 
should voluntarily present itself, and not otherwise. On a calm exam- 
ination of the evidence presented to us respecting the measures taken 
by the authorities charged with the duty oC prevention, it really looks 
as if they had chosen to look any way for it rather than the right way. 

LTpon a careful comi)arison of the language and the action of Mr. Ed- 
wards, the collector, as it has been heretofore explained in my observa- 
tions upon the case-of the Florida, with the course taken by him in this 
case, it is very difficult in uiy mind to resist the suspicion that he Avas 
more or less in direct sympathy with the designs of the insurgents, and 
not unwilling to accord to them all the indirect aid which could be 
supplied by a purely passive policy on his part. Very surely, if he had 
wished actively to promote their ends, he could scarcely have hit upon 
more effective means than those to which he resorted. 

It i.s alleged that the escape of this vessel was effected earlier than 
orijiiually contemplated, by reason of the reception, by the managers, of 
intelligence from Loudon of the intent of the government to detain her. 
This statement appears in the deposition of one of the persons who served 
as an oflicer on board from the start and during the whole of her first 
crui.se. Certainly a delay of five whole days in announcing a decision 
luijtht furnish ample opportunity for active sympathisers, of whom there 
was notoriously an abundance in that capital, to watch and report every 
.symptom of change that might be gathered from sources of authority. 
Even the fact of the long delay itself might be construed as ominous. 
Of tiie causes of that delay no absolute knowledge has ever yet been 
completely obtained. Xeither is it deemed expedient here to enter into 
any examination of it. It is sufficient to the present purpose to say that 



i la ])rotL'ctioa 

Adiiiiis i\ I/iiil 
mroiiiu'. CV> 
voyi's lull' li- 
lt trois jllll^ 
ir i|ii(' ccitf 
Khliriomiclli' 
t U'. n-siiltal. 
ant ci! tcii:|i> 
e M. Diiilloy 
.s aiciit tiiiitr 
lit i|ue li' '-".': 

(Ic lil llll'llli' 

par Icsciiiii- 
isseaii ot qiii' 
lit rappoitrt 



coimuissiures 
hoavd vcm 
rs Ics luiu'tU'i 
■t'pt'ndiiiif I'st 
(lin'i'ti'insi)i' 
ior.>ina(l(' i|ii'il 
lie, ct il avail 
ijiio.s liomnu'S 
o nit"' I lie I* 
}t unt'tc par I 
iiiissiiireh des I 



(Innancs piv fori Tent oiivoyor (riniioceiits onlrcH ii'l('grai)lii(Hies i\ Liverpool et a Cork, 
h Bi'uuiiKiris et a Holyhead, qui avaieiit Fair tic depi-ciics, iii-ii.s qui, scion toiito 
prnliiiliilitd, lie pureut otre d'aucuno utilite. Et le recevenr put promcttro que, "si 
i'ucrasion b'eu preseiitait, le vaissoaii serait saisit conforim''in(',iit aux directioa.s dou- 
uoe.-*.'' On doit croiro (pi'il voulait dire, si le vai.s.seau se prcMcntait volontairement, et 
mm aiitronient. A un exanien calnie de la preuve <|ui nous est sonnii.so touchant les 
mcsiires prises par les autorites cliarj;t'^es du d(<voir d(} prevention, il semble rcellemeut 
iiu't'llt's avaient eboisi de re;j;arder partout ailleurs ([u'au bon tnulroit. 
Ell coinparant soif^nensenient le langa^e et la condnito de M. Edwards, le recevenr, 

I coiniiie jo I'ai expli<iu('' aui)aravantdans nies observations sur la cas du Florida, avee la 
coiiduito teuiie par lui dans ce cas, il ni'est tres-ditUcilo de resister au soni)vou qn'il 

I <'tait plus ou nioins eii syinpathie ilirecto avee les projets des iusnrgos, et <iu'il ii'etait 
pus tVu'he do lour aceorder tons les .sccours iiulirects <iui pouvaieut etre fournis par nne 
Cdiiiliiito jmrcmtMit passive «lo sa part. Tres-ciirtainciuent ,s'il avait di^sire activement 
li's a]iiniy(ir, il n'aurait f;uero pu trouver des uioyens plus elUcaces quo ceux .iux(iuels 
il ciir ri'cours. 

On alle>;ue ([ue I'dvasiou do co vaisscan s'oxdcuta plus tAt qu'on n'en avait en d'abord 
niitiiitimi, en raison do la reception par les propru'taires do nouvelles do Loiulres de 
I'iutiiitiou du {Touverueinent de I'arreter. Cetto alleiration apparalt dans la dt'^posUion 
d'uiic (los personnes <iui remp'it les fouctions d'oflicier i\ bord des le depart et pendant 
toiiti' la (lurdo de sSl premiere course. Triis-ccrtaiuenient uu delai de cinq jours enticrs 
'lulls raiiuonce d'uno di5ci8iou pouvait fournir ample occasion aux partisans actils, dont 
il y avait line abondanco notoiro dans cotte ville, d'dpier et de rapi)orter tout 8yinpt«">mo 
•li3 eliaiijfeuicnt qui pouvait etre recueilli des sources d'autorite. Memo lo fait du lonj^ 
''elui lui-iueiuo pouvait etro iuterprotd commo monavant. Quant aux causes do ce delai , 
iiucuiie connaissauce absolue u'a pu eucoro en fitro completement obtenuc. II ne parait 
Pisuoii plus opportuu d'oa abordcr ici I'exau „u. II sutlit pour Ic but actuel de diro 

12 b 



[■y-n 



■ a 






178 



AKBITRATIOX AT GENEVA. 



tlic omission to act in season was due to canses wholly within the pro. 
vince of Her jMajcsty's <;'overnnuMit to control, and that the lailnre isom- 
which must entail the responsibility for the j^reat injnries that ensued 
not upon the innocent i)arties whom it was the admitted duty of tjiin 
government to have protected, bnt upon those throngh whom the inju. 
ries became possible. 

One portion of this transaction having been, by the means already in. 
dicated, with diflicnlty accomplished, tlie other portion remaininj;' to 
complete it met with no resistance whatevei'. The British steamer 
Bahama, laden with the arnmment i)repared for the vessel by Fawcett. 
Preston & Co., and having for i)assengers the insurgent Americans aiul 
others destined to comimuid the cruiser, cleared on the 13tli of August. 
on the pretense of going to Nassau. The English barcpie Agrippinii 
almost simultaneously left London, ostensibly for Demerara, laden Mitli 
coals and munitions of war. 

Somewhere about the third Aveek in August the three steamers met at 
Angra Bay in the Azores, and uiuler the sanction of the British Ha;; 
this great fraud reached the point of its full accomplishment. The bo>>- 
pitality so freely extended to strangers of all nations in that kingdom, 
at once so enlightened and so energetic, had been basely abuse<l, almost 
with an intent, not merely to gain an uiulne advantage on the ocean, 
but to sow the seeds of dissension between it and a kindred nation with 
which it was under the nH)st solenni obligations to keep the peace. 

Thus it was that the vessel which then first received the mime of the 
Alabama commenced her reckless career of de^itructioa on the ocean. 
Everything on board of her was of British oiigin, excepting a few of 
the directing si)irits bent on nmk'ing use of the means thus placed in 
their hands to do an injury to their fellow-('ountrymen in America which 
they could have compassed in no other i)ossible maimer. 

I pass over the minor details of the mode in which supplies of coal 
were subsequen'ly obtained exclusively from British sources as matters 
of relatively little con.sequence, and come to what appears to me the 
next essential point in the narrative. 



quo lii iioj;li}i('iici' Ti agir an nuniifiit converablo fut ditc :\ de.s ciui.ses qn'il <^tait en 
titTenieiit tin rcvsort. du yonveriit'iiuMit do sii Miijcstt^ <le i-oiitrolor, et (jiio la fiuitoesi 
de nature a iuipo.ser la rcsponsaliilito dcs jjrandH doiuiua<><'.s (lui H'cnsiiivirent, noii jias 
aux parties innocente.s, <iue le devoir reeoiiuu de ce i;ouvi)nnieiueut etait do protrgti. 
niais a cenx par qui le.s donnnages dcviureut possibles. 

Uiie partio de eette affaire ayant t5td accoinplie avec difliculte par lea moyens di'jii 
iudi(iue,s, I'autre jtartio (jiii resstait a acconiplir ue rencoutra uullo part de re.si.staiice. 
Le steamer au<>lais Bahama, cbar<;o de rariuement jireparc pour le vaisscau par Fawcett. 
Preston (it C'', et ayaut pour passayers les insuryes amorieains et d'autres de8tiii(:^s;i 
connnander le eroiseur, s'aeqnitta le K? aoftt, sons pr«*texte d'aller a Nassiin. La baniiu' 
anglaise A};rippiua cpiitta Londres i)resqne simultanomeut, en apparence pour ie 
Daneniark, cliar{j;(:^e de eliarbou et de uumitions de f^nerre. 

Ver,s la troisienie seniaino d'aoilt, les trois steamers se rencontrerent a. Angra Buy. 
aux Agores, vt, sous la sanction dn pavilion britanui(|ne, cettt; fi;i'''"do fraude atti'lfjnit 
le point de son eutier atcomplissement. On avait houteusenient abustS de I'hospitaliti'. 
si liboralemeut etendue anx e'trangers de toute nation, dans ce royaumo a la foissi 
eclaird et si <5ncr}ji(iue, jirescin'avec rintention, non-Henlement d'obtenir itn avaiitap' 
illcgitimo sur I'ocean, niais de sinner des f^ermes do dissensions entre lui et nne nation 
parente, avec la((uelle il otait dans I'obligation la plus solennelle de garder la pai.x. 
Ce tut ainsi que le vaissean, <iui, alors jxtur la premier<! fois, re^'ut lo noni de I'Alabaiua, 
coninienva sa earriere etVn^iiee de destrnction sur rocoan. Tout il s')u bord etait (I'mi- 
f^iue angl ii,sc, excejite (incbpies-uns des esprits dirij^eants, resolns a fairo nsa;j;e(!i's 
moyens ainsi mis entre leuis mains pour fiiire i\ lenrs compatriotes en Ameri(iuo uu 
douunnge (lu'ils n'auiaient i)U acconiplir en ancune autre mani(":'rc. 

Je passe sur les jn-tits details dn mode jiar lequel d(* subsides de eliarbou fnivntcii- 
suite obtenus cxclnsivement de sources britanni(jnes, eoniine ohjet de pen d'niportancc 
relativement, et j'en vieiis a ce qui me paralt etro lo point suivant essentiel dausce 
rdcit. 



mi 



OPINIONS OF MR. ADAMS. 



171) 



On tlie lltli of Jiinnary, Captain Semines, whilst oil his cruise otl' the 
I'Oiist of the tTiiited States, met tlie United States gun-boat Ilatteras, 
and, after a short enft-agenient, sent lier to the bottom. lie was com- 
pelled to take the prisoners on board, and having received six large 
shotjlioles at the water-line, t( navigate the ocean not without peril, in 
qne.st of a i)ort of some sovereign ])o\\er o" other in which he could not 
only land his excess of numbei's but likewise obtain tlie necessary means 
wherewith to renew his capacity of cruising ac all. The captain seems 
to have reflected upon the matter carefully, and to have made up his 
mind that, although at a vny considerable distance from his actual 
position, his best cliance of a favorable reception would be in a port of 
the kingdom whose laws had been so dexterously dehed. lie accordingly 
maue liis way, not without great dilliculty, to Port Koyal, in Her Majesty's 
island of Jamaica. In his own statement of this transaction will be 
most clearly discovered the state of his feelings on approaching this 
crucial experiment: 

This was the fir,st English port I hiul ontored since the Alahani.-i had been coniniis- 
sioncd, and no (juestiou whatever as to tlie antecedents of my ship was raised. I liad, 
ill fact, hronj^ht in pretty snhstantial crerh^ntials that I was a ship of war, I'M of the 
(ifticers and men of one of the enemy's sunken shiits. (!reat Hritaiii had the }!;ood sens(^ 
not to listen to the frantic a]>peals either of Mr. Se.ward or Minisnfr Adams, both of 
wiioiu claimed, as the reader has seen, that it was her duty to stnltify herself and 
ifiuore the connnission of my Hhi(). Nor <iid Commodore Dunlop say anything to me 
(if aiy destruction of British property, &c. 

From this passage it appears very clearly that the possibility of such 
an obstacle had not been entirely out of the line of his ai)prehension. 
If the objection had been made, it is altogether ])robal)le that the career 
of this vessel would have been terminated in a manner very different 
from that which subsequently happened. But it was not raised. Gov- 
ernor E.yre, who was then the ruling authority, appears to have acted 
with some hesitation, ami to have been mainly determined by the ob- 
vious necessity of lauding the great number of prisoners as a pure act 



Le U Janvier, le capitaine Semmes, pendant ((ii'il croisait le long do la cote dos fltats- 
Uiiis, rencoiitra la eanonnierci des htats-lJnis le Ilatteras, et, apres un court engage- 
int'iit, la coula a fond. II fiit oblige de i)r<;iidro les ])ris()nniers a bord, et, le vaisseau 
ayant six grand trous de bonlets a tieiir d'ean, il dut naviguer sur Toct^an, non sans 
jioril, en ([Uete /Van port d'line puissance sonveraiue (pu'lcon(iue, dans le(iuel i! pftt, 
nnn-Heuleineut mettre a terre le surcroit de ces personnes, nuiis anssi obtenir les moyens 
iK'censaires jioiir jse remettre en ^tat de croiser, ce (pi'il ne pouvait pas faire saus cela. 
Ll' capitaine paralt avoir rcllechi soigneusement sur ce snjer., et avoir decide que, qnoi- 
qiie a une distance tres-consid(5rable de sa position actuelle, la meilleure chance pour 
liii d'niie recejjtion favorable serait dans uu port dii royauiuo doiit l(>s lois avaient <^te 
fii liuhilcnient bravc^ea. En coust^ciuence, il se dirigea, non saus grande difficulte, vera 
Port Royal, dans I'ile de la JamanpKi, ai»part(Miant a sa Majeste. Dans son propre ex- 
jiosd de cette atVaire, on decouvrira tres-uetteuieiit Tt^tat de ses sentiments a I'approche 
(le ct'tte (^preuve supreme : 

"Ce fut le premier port anglais dans lequel j'entrais depuis ({ue I'Alabama avait etc 
coiiimissionue, et ancune ((uestion sur les antecedents de mon navire ne fut soulev<^e. 
.I'avais aiiporto en etVet des lettres de creance asse/ substautielles, pronvant (pie j'ctais 
mi viiisseau dn guerre; cent trente oHicicrs et s(ddats de I'un des vaisseaux eiineinis 
coiilf' a fond. La Grande-Bretagne avait eu le bon sens de ne preter I'oreille ni aux 
apjii'ls fr(^nt''ti(|ucs de M. Seward ni a ceux du niiuistre Adams, ipii tons d(!ux soute- 
nait'iit,comme lelecteur I'a v'u, ijiie cV'tait son devoir de se renierclle-UK'nu! etd'ignorer 
la coiiiinission dc; mon navire. Le commodore Dunlop no me dit rieu non plus au sujet 
•le la destruction jiar moi de propric^'tc's anglaises," etc. 

11 icKsort trJ's-clairement (le ci! passage (pie la possibilit<^ d'un tel (jbstade n'avait 
pas etC' entieremcnt ('trangf're a ses ai>pr(^hensi()ns. Si I'objection avait (^te faite, il 
est tivH-probable (pie la cariii'ie de cis vaisseau anrait 6t6 termim^e d'uno manii're bien 
(litlt'itnte de celle ipii cut lieu dans la snit(!, Mais elle ne fut pas 8()ulev(^e. L(^ gou- 
viriieur Eyre, (pii <^tait alors raiitoritt'- n-gnante, senible avoir agi avec (luelque hesi- 
tation et avoir ('td surtout diHcirmiuc par la U(5ce8sit(5 clairc de mettro a terre le grand 



'P 



180 



ARniTRATION AT GENEVA. 






of Iminaiiity. Tlie oidor sanctioning the repairs does not appear to 
liave been expressed Ity him in terms, and he immediately addressed a 
letter to the Duke of Newcastle, the colonial secretary at houjc, snbinit 
ting the facts, and soliciting his approbation. 

On the 14th of February, by a letter from Mr. Uammond, on bohalt 
of Earl Ivussell, that approbation appears to have been granted, though 
not without reluctance, for it is followed by an injunction to get rid of 
the vessel as soon as i)ossibIe. 

Nevertheless the evil was done. xViid by this proceeding Her Majos- 
ty's government apj^ear, at least to my eyes, practically to have given 
their formal assent to the principle in international law that success 
SANCTIFIES A FRAUD. In the memoir Avhich I have heretofore prepared 
on the snbject of the Florida, I ha' .-. gone so much into the examination 
of that question that there is no necessity for my dwelling upon it tin 
ther. 1 have always regretted that on this occasion Her Majesty's gov- 
ernment failed to use the occasion for establishing a law on the ocean 
most consistent with the i)rinciplea of equity whicli should prevail upon 
men, and not unlikely, in the distant future, to inure to the benetit of 
her own marine <|uite as largely as to thatvf any other nation 

The next step in the order of events essential to the purposes of tlic 
narrative was the arrival of Captain Semmes at Cape Town. liut I tl» 
not, at this time, propose to i>ursue the matter further, partly because 
the consideration of it is likely to be renewed in examining the case of 
the Tuscaloosa, and partly because the facts material to a judgnuMit in 
the case seem to me to have been already collected. 

It thus appears that this vessel was built and fitted up with the intent 
to carry on war with the United States, in the kingdom of Great Britain. 
in violation of her laws, and that, notwithstanding the evidence of the 
fact was established so far in the opinion of Her INIajesty's law-oilioors 
as to justify detention, by reason of the absence of due vigilance, not 
without suspicion of connivance on the part of some of Her Majesty's 
officers, and of an extraordinary delay in issuing the necessary orders at the 

nomliro do prisouiiiers coimne nil ])ur acto (rhuinaiiito. L'onlrc sanctionuivut Ii's n - 
l)ar.ati()iis no panilt pas avoir <5tc cxpiiiiio par lui foriiu'lleiiitMit, ct il adrt.'s.sa iiiinuMli- 
atemotit nno Icttro au due do Newcastlo, s(.'crotairo des colouies en Anglcterrc, lui 
sonniettant Ics laits et soUicitaiit son ai)iii'obati()ii. 

Lo 14 Idvricr, par nno lettre do M. Hammond, snr I'ordro dn Comto Russell, iitH' 
approLation parait avoir 6t6 accordoe, quoiquc nonsaiis repuffnauco, car olio est suivii' 
d'nno injonction do fairo partir lo vaisscan le plus vito possible. 

Nf^anmoius lo mal <5tait fait, et par eotte conduito lo gouvernement do sa Majcstr 
scmble, an moins a nies yeux, avt)ir doniKi pratiquemeiit sou assentiment formel ;m 
prineipo do loi iuternationale quo lo " sneces sanctilio uue t'raude." Dans le mcnujiiv i|ue 
j'ai prepar<? dt'^jA, au sn.jet du Florida, jo suis entrd si louffuenient dans I'examou do cctte 
question (jn'il u'y a nnllo m^cessite do m'cteudro davantago la-dessus. J'ai tonj(mi« 
regrctte »iu'i\ cette occasion lo gouvernemeut do sa Majesto ait iuanqu<> do saisir I'di- 
easion d'dtalilir une loi maritime tout il fait en rapport avec les princii)es d't^quite (|iu 
dcvraieut prevaloir parmi les liommos, et qui vraisemblaldemeut a I'avenir coutri- 
bnera ii I'avautago de sa propro mariao aussi largemeut qu'u cclui do toute au'.re in- 
tion. 

Lo pas snivant dans i'ordro des dvdnenienta essentiels an but do co r<^eit fut I'arrivir 
du capitaino Senuiies il Capo Town. Mais jo no mo ))ropose ])as maintenant do pour- 
suivro CO sujet plus lougtemps, en partio parco quo I'examen doit en etro renonvelo en 
t'xaniinant le cas du Tuscaloosa, et en partio parco quo les faits qui doiveut fouruir lii 
niatiere d'un jngemcnt dans co cas mo somblent avoir 6t6. deja nlunis. 

II somble air.si: 1° quo co vaisseau a dt«S constrnit et dquiptS, avoc I'intontion do faiie 
la guerre aux Etats-Unis, dans lo royaiime do la Orande-Brotagno, en violation de st^ 
lois ; 2" quo, quoiquo la preuve du fait ait dtd dtablie dans I'opinion des otliciers de la 
loi do sa Miijestd assez pour justilier uuo saisie, on I'aison do I'absenco "des due> 
diligences," non sans eoupvon de connivence de la part de quelqnes ofliciers do si 
Majestd et d'uu ddlai extraordinaire a douner les ordres udcessaires au moment le plus 



OPINIONS OF MR. ADAMS. 



181 



most criti(!iil nioment, the vessel Wiis suffered to escape out of the juris- 
diction. That lier Jiriiuiment, lier supplies, and her crew were all ])ro- 
vidod and transported from lier JNEajesty's kingdom without the smallest 
effort to investigate their nature or their purjjoses. That thou<^li orders 
were freely ftiveii for the detenfioti of the vessel at any of the colonial 
[lorts at which she mijifht arrive, the first time that she did actually ap- 
pear she was received and recognized with all the honors due to the 
marine of a recognized belligerent power, without the smallest mani- 
festation of dissatisfaction with the gross violation of laws that had 
entailed uj)on Her Majesty's government a grave responsibility to a power 
with which she was at peuce. 

Tluis it appears to me beyoml a doubt that in the case of the Ala- 
haiiia, Great Britain, by her omission to exercise due diligence in pre- 
venting the fitting out of tills vessel, which it had reason to believe in- 
reniU'd to cruise against a [Mjwer with wliich it is at peace, has failed to 
fultill the duties set forth in the first article prescribed to the arbitrators 
lis their guide under the terms of the treaty of Washington. 



Tuscaloosa. 



VI. — THE TUSCALOOSA. 

In the series of papers which it has been my duty to prepare upon 
the vessels successively brought to the attention of the tri- 
Imnal, I have proceeded so far as to deduce from the evi- 
dence submitted one general rule, which I believe to be sound. This is, 
that the assumption of a belligerency on the ocean, founded exclusively 
upon violence and fraud, can at no later period have any issue difi'erent 
in its nature from that of its origin. 

This rule must receive another illustration from the case of the Tus- 
caloosa now before us. This was a merchant-shii) belonging to the United 
States, originally having the name of the Coiu'ad, which was captured 
by the Alabama on the 2 1st of June, 1803, on the coast of Brazil. Of the 
ease of that vessel, of its fraudulent origin, and of the unfortunate re- 
cognition afterwards made of its character as a legitimate vessel on 



(I'itiqiio, oil permit aii vaisseau d'ecbappor a sa Jiiridiction ; :?" (pio son aroienicnt, scs 
-^iibsiik's it son <>(]nipa<fe furciit tons foiirni.s et traiiHportc^.s <lu royauiiie de sa Majcstc 
saii.s It; plus petit ett'ort pour icchurcher linir naturo on lours prqjuts ; 4" (lue, quoitiuo 
lies ordres ai(!nt 6t6 librcnuMit doiinds pour la saisio da vaisseau dans ([uehpie port des 
colonics (jivil pftt arriver, la premiere ibis <iu'il y apparut reellemont, il fiit rc<;ii et 
ivconiiu avec tons les bonneurs dfts i\ la marine d'line puissance belligtiraiito reconiuio, 
sails 111 ])liis i>etite inar(|ue de mecontenteineiit an sujct <le la violation tji'<J*^siere do ses 
Inis, ([iii avait uttird uuo grave responsabilitc envers iine puissance avec laquello ello 
I'tait en ^laix. 

Aiiisi il me paratt bors de doute que, dans le cas de rAlabania, la Grande-Breta<^ne, 
(11 iii;iii(|ullnt d'exercer les "dues diliifenccs" jiour empecber I'dciuipement de ce vaisseau, 
i|uV]l(' avait des motifs raisonnaliles de uroire dispose a eroiser contrii nne puissance 
avi'C liupielle elle etait en paix, a manque a I'accoinplisseineiit <b!s devoirs stipules 
dans la premiere reijle presentee aiix arbitres comine guide d'apres le texte du traito 
de Wasbingtou, 

LE TUSCALOOSA. 

Dans la sdrie de documents qn'il a 6t6 do raou devoir do pi'oparer sur bsa vaisseaux 
luisfiite.s successivemeut a "exameu de ce triltnnal, ,je shIh arriviS t\ doduire, des 
I'l 111 vet- qui nous out ct<? siuimises, nne r^gle gendrale ([Ue jo crois Atro juste. Cetto 
iii;le est que, si I'on prend lo titro do belligdrant sur roccan, en se fondant exclnsive- 
iiit-iit sur la violence et sur la fraude, on ne pent finir aiitiement que comme on a eom- 
iiiciieo. Cetto regie revolt une autre illustration du cas du Tuscaloosa, qui est mainte- 
iiaiit (levant nous. C'«>taitun vaisseau marcband appartenant aux fitats-Uniset ayant 
d'atiiiid le noni du Conrad, (pii fnt pris par rAlal)ama, le 21 juin 18(i:i, sur la eoto du 
Bivsil. Quant an cas de ee vaisseau, k s<ni origine frauduleuse et k la reconnaissance 
luallieureuse faite plus tard de son caractere couimo vaisseau legitime sur l'oc(^an par 






182 



AKIUTIJATION AT (;i;XKVA. 





tlie oiicau by tlic .H'ovormiiont of the iiiitioii whose hiws it had so iiii|iii 
(Ic'iitly set at (U'liaiico, I have already siibiiiitted my jiidf'iiieiit in a 
preeediiifjf ])ai)er, Tiiat fiovei'iimeiit was now destined to '^o tiiioii;;!! 
another crucial experiinent, the necessary and h jiitiniate conseciuenci'oi 
its [>riinal error. 

It should here he observed thai, in tlie order of events naturally I'ol- 
lowinj;' what has ever st^eined to nie the .ureal orij;inal mistake of the 
recognition of this false nniritime bellijicrent, si)ran,i;' up a necessity of 
immediately considerinji' the question of the I'ecoynitiou of any prizi's 
which it miftht take and send in under the establislied law of nations to 
any of the ports of Her Majesty's kin<4(lom, there to await a lejiiilnr 
condemnation in the courts at home. Unless some ac^tioji were at oikt 
taken to prevent it, the practical result would clearly be that the whole 
commerce of the United States would be in ihins'er of sacritice to one 
belliji'erent in British ports without a single chance of correspondiii;' 
advantage to the other. For the fact that the insurgents had no com- 
merce of their own whatever had become (piite notorious. 

In order to guard against this danger Her jNIaJesty's govern iiicnt 
promptly resorted to a precautionary measure entirely within its imwir 
to take, under the law^ of nations, the prohibition of the use of its ports 
to either party for the admission of i)riv;es. The same policy haviiij: 
been adopted by all other naval powers, it became evident to the liilse 
belligerent that nothing positive was to be gained to itself from its as- 
sumption of a place on the ocean. The only motive left for trying to 
keep it was the possibility of injuring its opi)oiuMit. Hence, a resort to 
the barbarous practice of destroying the property it could not convoit 
ir.to plunder. 

But this practice seems at times to have become unpleasant aiKJ 
wearisome to its peri)etrators. Hence, it was natural that their attei.- 
tiou should be drawn to some manner of evading it. The commaiuUi 
of the Alabama having made it the occupation of some of his leisure 
hours to study the best known treatises on the law of nations, seems to 
have hit upon a passage which he considered exactly to lit his purpose. 



lo jj;""vci'ncm(;nt (Ic la nation dont Ics loi.s avaioiit <5tc si iinpndemnient bravo<'S,j'iii 
d<^ji\ souinis nion jii<;eniout dans un piccodent niemoirc. Co j^ouveineiuent <^tiiit dr-^ 
lors destine h passer par une antie dpieuve decisive, consequence uecessaire i;t legitime 
do sa premiere erreur. 

11 faut reuiarquer ici qne dans I'ordre des (1v(5nenients qui suivirent naturellonieiit 
ce qui ni'a sembld toujonrs la grande erreur ori};inelle de la reconnaissance de ce faux 
bell if" tyrant, s'oleva la necessite de considt^rer inunediatenient la question de la recoii- 
jiaissance de toute prise qu'il aurait pu faire et envoyer dans (juelqu'un des ports dii 
royaunio de sa Majeste d'apres le droit des ji;eu8, pour y attendre un jnjjeuient regulirt' 
devant les cours dn royannie. Anioins de quelque mesure prise imuiediateiiient pom 
I'enipeelier, le resultat pratique aurait <^te clairenient que tout le connnerce des f.tats- 
Unis se serait trouv6 exi)os6 i\ jitre sacriti(5 a I'un des bellij>(^rents dans des ports anglais, 
sans une seule chance d'avautage correspoudant pour I'autre. Car, le I'ait (]nc It's iii- 
8urg<^s n'avaieiit en propre aucnn commerce du tout devait etre parfaitement notoiii'. 

AHn do se garder de ce danger, le gouveriiement de sa Majeste recourut pronipteuieiil 
i\ une uiesure de precaution qu'il dtait entierement en son pouvoir de prendre d'apii* 
lo droit des gens, la d«5fense anx deux j)arties de so servir de ses ports pour l'adniis.si(m 
des prises. La memo coujluite ayant ctd adopt<5e par tontes les puissances maritinies, 
il devint dvideut pour le faux belligdrant qu'il n'avait rieu a gagner en s'arrogeaiit If 
litre de puissance uavale sur I'ocdan. Le seal motif qui restAt \)o\\v tilcber de le ganlii 
etait la possibilitc de uuire a son adversaire. De lil, le recours a la pratique barbaie 
do dctruire la propridtd dont il ne pouvait i>as faire du 1)utin. 

Mais cetto pratique semble paifois etre devenue ddsagrdablo et onnuyeuse pour ceux 
qui s'y livraient. II dtait d(^s-l< rs naturel que leur attention se portitt sur quelniio 
moyen de I'dviter. Lo commandant de 1' Alabama, en ayant fait I'occupatiou (L' 
(luehpies-uns de ses moments de loisir pour etudier les ouvrages les i)lu8 conmis tin 
droit des geus, semble etre tombd sur uu piissage qu'il considdrait comme tout a fait 



OriNlONS OF .All.'. ADAMS. 



183 



This was an oxtract from Wlioaton's wellkiiowii work, to t'le cll'tH't that 
ii l('j;itiniato authority inij'iit convert a captnri'd nuMchantvcsscl, with- 
oiit (M)ii(h'ninatioii, into a shi[) of war, to sni.'h an extent at h'ast as to 
secure tlie reeoj-nition of it by nentral nations. 

It was i)robal)ly from tliis sonrci! tiiat Captain Seinmes contrived his 
du'Uie of tnrninj4' the United States merchantman Conrad, laiU-n with 
iicaryo of wool from a distant market, into the ('onfedin'ate States shi]) 
Tiis(!ah)osa, temh-r to the Ahibama, havinj;- two li'-ponnd ritle f^'uns, and 
ten men; and brin<;in;;' her into Her ]\IaJesty's port of Simon's Jiay, 
Cape of (lood lIoi)e, to test tlie disposition of the h)cal authorities to 
ivcofjiiize the proceedinji'. 

As usually hai)pened in the course of these transactions, tho naval 
otlicer in commaml in the harbor at once penetrated the fraud. Kear- 
Adiniral Sir ]>. Walker, on the 8th Auf^ust, addressed a letter to Sir l*. 
Wodehouse, in whiish he used this language : 

Tlie ailiiiissiou of this veHHi;! into port will, I fear, open tho door for iminbers of vos- 
M'ls ciiiitiired uiidt'r sliiiihir (iircuiiiHtaiices, hciiij; dttiioniiiiatod teiuhirs, with a view to 
iivoid the ])rohil>itioii contained in the Queen's instrnctions ; and I would oliserve, that 
lliB vessel Sea Jiridt!, (iaptnred l)y the Alahaina oil' TaVde May a few days since, or all 
(itlier prizes, mij;ht i»e in like manner styled tenders, niakinj; the prohiljitit)n entirely 
mill and void. 

I ajipridieiid that to hrinji ^ captured vessel under tho donomination of a vosstd of 
war she must he litted for warlike i»uritoses, and not merely have a few men and two 
tiiiall <;uiis put on hoard her (in fact, nothing hut a prize crew) in order to dis<;uisc. 
liiT real character as a prize. 

Now, this vessel has her original cargo of wool still on hoard, which cannot bo re- 
(|iiiied for wailike pnrpo.sos; and her armament, and tho number of her crew, are quite 
iiisullicieiit for any services other than those of slight defense. 

But this sound judgment of the gallant raval olhcer met with little 
response from the higher authorities of the Cape. 

As usual, the governor had consulted his attoriu\v-gcneral, and, as 
usual, the attorney-ger .M>a1 gave an opinion, giving live reasons why 



'! i 



'! 



convenahle a sou dessein. C'etait nn extrait du volume bien conuu do Wheaton, dout 
le sens etait (pi'une autorite h^gitime ponvait convertir uu vaisseau marchand capture, 
saus jugement, eu vaisseau do guerre, as8ez,du moins, pour assurer sa reeonnaissanco 
imrdes nations neutres. 

Ce fut prol>ablement a cause do cela quo le capitaine Semnies coufut son projet do 
changer le vaisseau marchand des Ctats-Unis, lo Conrad, charge d'uno cargaison de laino 
(I'lin uiarche eloigne, eu vaisseau des ctats-confederes, le Tuscaloosa, iciider do I'Ala- 
bama, ayaiit deux canons rayes do (h)uze, et dix homines, et do leconduire dans le i>ort 
(1« sa Majesty <lc Simon's Bay, Cap ile IJoune-Espdrance, pour 6prouver la disposition 
des iiutorites locales a recounaitro la fraiulo. 

Coiiuue il arrivait d'ordiuairo dans le coiirs de cos transactions, I'oflicier do marine 
iini coinmambiit dans le port penetra imnuldiatemeut la fraude. Rear-Adnural Sir B. 
Walker adressa, le 8 aoflt, uuo lettro a Sir P. Wodehouso, dans laiinello il tenait co 
iiingage : 

"L'admission de co vaisseau dans le port ouvrira, jo le crains, la porte i\ uombri! de 
vaisseaux captures dans des circonstances semhlables et quo I'on uommera tenders, eu 
vue d'echapper h la defense conteuue dans les instructions de la Reiue; et je ferai re- 
niarquer que le vaisseau Sea Bride, capture par 1' Alabama pr(\s do Table Bay, il y a pen 
<le jours, on toute autre prise, pourrait, do la memo mani^re, ctre uommd tender, rendasit 
aiusi la d(^tense enti^rement nulle et uou avenue. 

"Jo crois que, pour placer uu vaisseau capturt5 sous la d^'uomiuation do vaisseau do 
guerre, il faiit qu'il soit propre A. des projets de guerre et qn'il n'ait pas senlenient 
iliiekpies homnies et deux petits canons it son bord (en fait, pas autre chose qii'uu 
equipage de prise) afin de ddguiser son vrai caractcro de prise. 

"Midntenant ce vaisseau a encore i\ bord sa cargaison primitive do laiue, ce qui est 
assez inutile pour des projets do guerre; etson armament et le uombre de son eijuipage 
8ont tout i\ fait insuflflsauts pour aucun service autre (lue celui d'uue legfiro d6fenst^'' 

Mais ce jugement sain de ce brave offlcier de marine trouva pen d'echo chez les auto- 
rit<i8 supdrieures du Cap. 

Comme de coutume, le gouverueur avait consults son attorney-general et corame de 
coutunie I'atioruey-geueral douua uu avis renfermaut ciuq raisous pour lesquollea ce 



¥. 



184 



AUIUTUATION AT GENEVA. 




W/ 



m ' 



what was a ('ai)tinT(l iiiorcliantinan to tlio eye of everybody else slioiiM 
be i'e<;ar(le(l by the f-overnnient as a le<;itiiiiate ship of war of a rcco;'- 
iii/.ed bellij^ereiit. lie also relied on tlie extract from the work of W']^. 
ton, havinj;' reference to a very dillerent state of things. This was on 
the 7th Ansust, 1S0;J. 

The governor sent these papers in the regidar channel to the antlioii- 
tii's at home, and in dno conrse of time tliey fonnd their way to Kml 
IJnssell. Jle ai)pears to have been so little satisfied with the siiifiuhir 
result that had l>een reached at Cape Town as to desire a reconsidciii. 
tion of the question by the law-otlieers of tlie Crown. This was diitiil 
on the 3()th September. 

The consequence was an opinion, not delivered until nineteen davs 
aiterward and bearing marks of careful consideration, signed by all 
three of the legal otiicers, the purport of Avhich was a disavowal of tin- 
fiction of law based upon a misconception of the doctrine of Wheatoii: 
and a distinct expression of a proposition so important in conuoctioii 
with all the events submitted to our consideration that 1 deem it necis- 
sary to quote the very language : 

"We tliinlc it rijjlit to observe tlmt tfic third reason alfof^etl l»y tlie coloiiinl attoriifv- 
•riiicral for liis opinion assniiies (tlioujj;li tlie fact liad not ^K-en made the snhjcet of any 
in(|iiiry) that " no means existe<l for determininji- whetlier the ship had or had not l)ciii 
JiHlieially condemned in a court competent of jniisdietion ; and the proposition that, 
iuliiiittinfj her to have beencaptnred l)y ashijtof war of the Confederate States, slie was 
entitled to refer Her Majesty's j;overnment, in case of dispute, to the conrt of her Statis 
in order to satisfy it as to lier real character," appears to us to be at variance with Hii 
Majesty's undoubted rijiht to determine, within her own territory, whether her orders, 
made in vindication of Jier own neiitralitj', have been violated or not. 

The opinion then went on to declare what the proper course should 
have been. The allegations of the United States consul should at once 
have been brought to the knowledge of Captain Semmes, while the Tus- 
caloosa was there ; and he should have been obliged to admit or tleuy 
their truth. If the result were, in that case, the proof that the Tusca- 



m '''"'^- ' i 


|i"- 


MMm 



<[\\\ etait iin vaisseau marehand capture, i)our tout lo mjinde ailleurs, devait ("tn? 
re;iai'de par le jfonveruement eonime un vaisseau loj>itim(» do ffiierre d'un bellijjdrant 
retoimn. If s'ajipuyait aussi sur I'extrait de Touvrai^e de Wheaton, se rapportaut a une 
(luestion toutc dillerente. Ceci se passait lo 7 aoftt 1803. 

Le {:rouverneur eiivoya ces documents, par lo canal ordinaire, aux autoritf^s du 
royaume, et avec le temps ils parvinrent au Comte Russell. II senible avoir etd si pen 
satisfait du singulier rdsultat obteiin il Cape Town qn'il dosira nn nouvel exauieu de 
la ([iiestion par les "law-oilieers" de la couronno. 

Ceei <^tait dat<; du 'M septenibre. 

l^e rdsultat fut un avis, (lui ne fut livrc que dix-neuf jonrs jdus tard, rcnrermaiit de< 
marques d'un examen sernpulenx, signc par les trois otliciers lej^aux, dont le resume 
etait nil desaveude la iiction do loi,basd sur nn malenteiidu de la doctrine de Wheaton. 
et nne expression claire d'nne proposition si iini>ortante a Tejiiard do tons les eveiie- 
meiits souuiis a notrc exanieu que jo crois in5ces8aire d'eu trauscrire les jn'opres 
termes : 

" Nous crnyons qu'il est bon de faire remarquer que hi troisienie raison alld<fu(^c par 
I'attorney -general de la colonic pour son avis aftirnie (quoique ce fait n'ait uullenieiit 
etc soumis a aucune enquete)" qu'il n'existait aucun inoyen de determiner si le vaisseau 
avait et(5 on non jugd formellement par nne cour compctente de jnridiction; et la pro- 
l>osition qu'en admettant (pi'il a ^td pris par uu vaisseau de guerre des (^tats-confcdeies, 
il ('•tait ivutorisd j\ renvoyer le gouvernement de sa Majestd, en cas de dispute, a la cour 
de ses etats, afin de douner satisfaction i\ celui-cl sur son vrai caract^re, nous parait eii 
dosaccord avec le droit indubitable de sa Majesty de ddtermiuer, dans les liiiiitesde 
son territoire, si ses ordres, donncs pour le maintieu de sa neutralite, ont eto violesou 
uon. 

"L'avis en vient i\ d(^clarer quelle anrait dft etre la conduite convenable. Les alle- 
gations du consul des l^tats-Uuis auraieut dft etre port(5s imniddiatemeut il la connais- 
sance du capitaine Semmes pendant (pie le Tuscaloosa etait la. P]t il anrait <5t6 obligi5 
d'eu adm(!ttre ou d'en nier la vdrit<5. Si co resultat dtait, dans ce cas, la preuve que le 



Ol'INIONS OF MU. ADAMS. 



185 



se slioiiM 
r a IVCO;;'. 
of ^\\m■ 

lis AVUSOll 

e autliori- 
ly to Kiirl 
L^ -siiiKuIiir 
[!onsi(l('in- 
ras (latfd 

toon (lays 
10(1 by nil 
ival of till' 
^Vlieatoii : 

lonnoctiuii 
11 it iioccs- 



ill attoriifv- 
bjcct of any 
liul not Ix'i'ii 
osition that, 
itoH, siic was 
)f her States 
ic(! with Hit 
r her orders, 

se should 
lid at onoe 
e tho Tns- 
it or deny 
he Tiisca- 



l(uisa was an unc^ondoninod jirize bion<;ht intoUritisli waters in violation 
(if ilei' Majesty's ordc's for maintain}; her neutrality, it would deserve 
Miions consideration whether tne most proper eourse consistent with 
IffiMajesty's dignity would not be to tala^froni the cajitors, at once, all 
tiirtlier control over tho Tuscaloosa, and retain it until properly reclaimed 
liylior original owners. 

Tliif^ opip.ioii, so far as I have had occasion to observe, contains the 
very first indication of a disposition nianifosted on tho part of Her ^la- 
jostv's advisers to resent the frauds and insults which had been so con- 
limially practiced ui>on her from the outset of this stru}:fsle bv these 
iiisarft'ent agents. Had it boon duly manifested from tho l)eoini in};, it 
can hardly be doubted that she would have been materially relieved 
ironi the responsibility subso(piontly incurred. 

Oil the 4th of November tho Duke of Newcastle addressed a note to 
the };'overnor of Capo Town, communicatiu}; the decision ot the law ofli- 
KMs as to what ou};ht to have been done. 

On the lOth of December the governor addressed a note to the Duke 
(if Newcastle, defending' himself in regard to the action which had boon 
disapproved, and praying for further directions what to do. The Tus- 
irtloosa had meantime left Simon's IJay on a cruise, from which she did 
not return until the 2Gtli Do^jember, when she put in for supjdios. But 
(111 the oth of January Hoar- Admiral Sir li. "Walker addressed a note to 
the secretary of the admiralty, announcing that, by the request of tho 
jiovcriior, he had taken tho necesj?ary stei)s to ascertain from the insur- 
jiciit otlicer then in command the fact that she was an uncondemncd 
I prize captured by the Alabama, and thereupon ho had taken possession 
of her for violation of Her Majesty's orders, to be hel ^ until reclaimed 
liy her proper owners. 

It was in vain that the insurgent entered a i>rotost against this de- 
I cideil proceeding. The governor contented himself with a brief answer 
to the effect that he was {\cting by orders. 



(Icvait ("tve 

belli<;<irant 

irtiuit a uui' 

iitorit(''S (In 

|r otd si ptMi 

■xauK-'U de 



M'inaiit (li's 

1« r(}suiiie 

|e Wheatoii. 

les ovt'iie- 
les proprcs 

|l(^ifn<^o par 
1 uulleineiit 
lie vaisseau 
g, Ht la pro- 
KoiilcJt-'rcs, 
|), a la com- 
parait en 
liniitosde 
i6 violcs oil 

Les all<!- 

la counais- 

1 dt<S oblis:^ 

ive (iiie le 



Tuscaloosa otait uiio priHO, iioii ,jn<j;oo, ainenoo dans les oaiix anjjlaises en violation des 

luiiliesdc .sa Majosto ponr lo mainticii do sa nciitralito, il faiidrait examinor scrionse- 

liinit si la conciuite la plus convenahlo i\ I'tjj^ard do la dij^nito do sa Majostd n;; scrait 

|li;is(le priver I'auteur do la prise do tout controlo ultorieiir sur lo Tuscaloosa et do lo 

I'tciiir jusqu'a ce (lu'il fi"it proiireniont roelainc jtar sos propriotairea pviniitifs." 

Cutte opinion, pour autant (pie j'ai eu I'oecasion de lo roinarqiier, contient la tonto 
Ijiniiiiiie indication d'nned"spositionnianitest(Hi de la part desconseillers de saMajesti^ 
uivtnger les fraudes et les insultes qui avaient cto si continuelhiinont conunist^s onvers 
I tile, (lepuis le coiuinenceinent de ce eonlUt par ces a<;ents insnrjii^. Si cetto disposition 
Jayait eto sonvent nianifestee des le coinmenctMuent, on iient dithcileinent donter qn'ello 
jiHiitoti? iiiatoriellement decharjrdo d'une j^rando partie de la responsabilito qui lui fut 
jiuilHisoe dans la suite. 

Le 4 noveiubre, le duo do Newcastle tidrcissa nne note an ffouvcrnonr do Capo 
|Ti>\vn, lui comuiuniquant la dcScisiou des " law-ollicyrs " a r(5^ard do co qui aurait dil 
litre fait. 

I' Ul docombre, lo gouvernour adrossa nne note an due do Newcastle, se defendant 
111 li jjfiinl do la conduito qui avait dto ddsapprouvco et demandant des directions 
|iilti rieuros sur ce (ju'll y sivait a fairo. Le Tuscaloosa avait pendant co temps qnitt*^ 
jSiiiKm's Bay pour nne cause dont il no revint lo 2(5 ddcembre.lorsqu'il entra dans le 
|l'"rt pour prendre des subsides. Mais le 5 Janvier, Kear-Adiniral Sir B. Walker adrossa 
liiiie note au secrdtairo de I'aniirautd annongant qu'a la requite du gouverueur il avait 
jl'iis les mesures ndcessaires pour s'assnrer, anpres de I'officier insured qui commandait 
luliirs. du fait que c'dtait une prise nou jugde, capturdo par I'Alabama, et qu'eu consd- 
I'lUeiice il eutivait pris possession pour violation des ordrc do sa Majostd, et pour fitro 
Ittteiiiie jns(pi'i\ ce qu'elle fftt rdclamdo par ses propridtaires. 

(efut en vain que I'insnrgd protesta contre cette mesi're f(!rme, Le gouvernemont 
|f' miiteiita d'une courte reponse, disaut qn'il agissait par ordre. 



180 



AltinTli'A.'IOV AT OnXKVA. 



w 




Tlu'ic were at tlie inoiiiont no MyciitH tor tlic i»n>|)i'r owiici's to wlium 
llui v<;.ss('l (ronhl l)(^ tniiislcrri'd, so tliiit it iciiiiiiiKMl in tlio iiands of the 
liritisli antlioi'ities, nntil a new h'tli'i- was rt'(!('i\tMl from the Dnkcii 
^Jinvcastlc, dated tlio JOtli ."March, icsciiidinj; tlic- instructions j;iv<'ii ia 
the iirccodin^^onc, ami <lii'c(^tinj; th(^ vessel to l)e han(h'd over once inoiv 
to some person liavin^' anthority from ('aptain Semmes, of tiie Alal)iuiia, 
or from the government of tiie Conledeiate States. 

Thns it appears to niu that Her JMa.jesty's ^■overnment, from an over 
sensibility to tiie pecnliar cir(!un!stan«'es of tlu' ri'tnrn of the vessel attn 
once h'aviiif? her port, htst all tlu^ advantages to which it had eiititlcil 
itself for niaintainin'^ the dignity of the Crown against an uiiwoitliy 
experiment npon lier i)atience. The fact was that it was only niuliiii;; 
th(! port of Simon's l>ay u base of oi»erations, an additional insnlt. 

The time had gone by, however, when this \essel could bis nindc ui 
any further use by the insurftent comman<ler of the Alabama. Ih^ liml 
.succeeded in executing a fraudulent sale of the cargo (►f that as well ih 
of another pri7-e, the Sea liride, and was bound on another cruise, which 
proved to be his last on the ocean. 

Taking into consideration all the circumstances attending this mffi 
lar narrative, I have arrived at the conclusion that as a prize (•ai)tim'.l 
by the Alabama, and turned into a tender, she comes tlistinctly witliiii 
the scope of damages awarded by the judgment passed upon the coiiisi' 
of Her Majesty's government respecting that vessel. And if in her own 
brief career it should ai)pear that she has herself committed any iiijiin 
to the i)eople of the United States, 1 am clearly of opinion that Ilir 
Majesty's governmont ha", made itself distinctly responsible for the iic;' 
lect to i)revent it under the rules. It is alleged in the argument on be 
half of the United States that she had captured and released one vessel 
ou a ransom bond, before reaching Cape Town; and on the LUlmt 
September, after her visit, she captured and destroyed one more. Biii 
I have failed to discover the presence of any distinct (;laim in damagis, 
Should such be made visible, I hold the claim to bo valid. 

Alois la question ctait claire : c'citait uuo prise aiiieudo dans nil port do sa MtijiJi' 
contrc la loi. 

Mais il n'y avait ancnn a<;cnt des ))ropiiotaiios antinel le vaisseau jtftt ("tie it'iiiis, ea 
sorte (lu'il resta anx mains des uutoiitds an<;laises jnsqu'a ranivco d'nne iioiiviHe 
lettre dn dnc de Newcastle, datde du 10 mars, idvoquaut les instruetions doniides ilaii< 
la prdcddento, et ordonnant qno le vaisseau fftt livre de noiiveaii a (inohiu'uu iiyaiii 
antoritd de la part du capitaine Semmes, do I'Alabama, ou du youveruemeut dc ctatj- 
confdddrds. 

Ainsi il mo seinblo que le gouvornemeut de sa Majestd, i\ I'ombre dea circonstancps 
particulieres do ce cas, i>ei'dit tout l'avanta<?e qii'il s'dtait ac(iui8 eu mainteuautla 
di{?»it<S de la couronue contre la perpetration d'uno fraude indif];ne. 

(Jei)endant le temps s'etait passe lorsque le vaisseau put de nouveau fitro eniiiloyoi 
quelque service par le commandant insurj^d de I'Alabama. II avait rdnssi a opcienine 
veute fraudulouse do la cargaison do co vaisseau aussi bion que d'une autre prise, le 
Sea Bride, et il faisait une autre course, qui fut h'i deruii^ro sur I'ocdan. 

Prenant en consideration toutes Ics circonstancos ([ui so rapportenfc h co singnliw 
r<Scit, je suis arrivd ii la conclusion que, couinio prise capturce par I'Alabama, il toiube 
distinctement dans le domaiue des donimases accordds par lejiigeraent portdsiirla 
conduite du gouvernoment do sa Majostd ii I'dgard do co vaisseau. Et si, dans sa coiirti' 
carricre, il paraissait qu'il a cominis lui-m6me quelque dominage envers le peuple te 
Etats-Uuis, je suis nettement d'avis que le gouverneiuent do sa Majer*^^6 s'est remto 
clairenient responsable pour sa ndgligonce il I'empecher, selon les regies. On allog"* 
dans l'ex])osd des fitats-Unis (ju'll avait captui-d et relacbd nn vaisseau sous piouiessi 
■de raiifon avant d'atteindre Capo Town, et que, to 13 septembre, apn>s sa visite, ilf» 
captura et ddtruisit encore un. Mais je n'ai pu decouvrir la iirdsence d'aucnne demanil* 
•distincte en douiiuages. Si Ton en luoutrait une, j'envisagerais la reclamation couiiii< | 
valide. 



Ol'lNlnNS OF Ml{, .\I».\MS. 



18- 



VII. — TIIK (iKoliOlA. 

This vcsst'l wiis Itiiill iit l)iiuil)iirt()ii on tlic Clydt' diuiii;;- tlic winter 
iif ISliL*-'(»."». Sill' WIIS ('(Mistnictod in a niiinnci' lo cxcito vt'vy 
little siispirion of the purpose for wliicli slic Wiis intcniU'd. 
Iiiilccd, her friinic proved no wrnk alltT n few njontlis' trial as to render 
lit'iiMisafe with an arnianient, and she was laid aside. 

Wlicn she was launched, on the lOtii of .lanuary, a person known to 
1m' ill the insurjicnt service, by the name of North, was reported in the 
|iiil»li(' journals to have been present with hisdauj-hter, and she- was sain 
toliiive f;iven to tiie vessel the niune of the N'irjuinia. 

it was, liowevei', known, by the means of an intercepted letter received 
!iv Mr. Adams from his ^ovtM-nment, that this oflicer had incurred the 
I (viisine of his employers at Jvichmond to sucii an extent as to promi)t 
lijsn'call. The nan c thus j;iven was not adhered to. 

On tlu! 17th of .January, that is, the day alter her launch, she was re- 
poitcd by the measurinj;' surveyor as the steanu>r .lapan, and intended 
Itdiceiinnercial i)urposes, her framework and plating- beiny of the ordi- 
nary sizes for vessels of her class. 

(ill the -0th of ]\[ar(!h she was re{>istcred in the nni>ie ot Thomas IJold, 
II liiitish subject resident in Liverpool, as the owner. 

OiitlioliTth of March she left for Greenock without exciting' observa- 
Itidiis, and without <;learancp. 

On the .'{(Ith of March a larp^o number of men 'v lo had been shipped 
lit Liver[)ool by Jones andCompany, a firm of wiiich 3Ir. l>old was ,i 
I iiicinber, for a \ oyage to Sinyiq)oro and IIon<;-Kon<?, and after arrival 
tlicrc to be employed in tradinj;' to and from ports in the China an<l In- 
dian -as, the voyaj^e to be completed within two years by arrival at 
some port of discbarfje in the United Kingdom, left Liverpool to get on 
Ibonnl the vessel at Greenock. 

Oil the 3d of x\i)ril she left the Britisli waters. 

Oil the (ith, the collector of customs at Xewhaven addressed a letter to 
|tli(> commissioners of customs in the following terms : 



I-E GKOKGIA. 

IV Vfiissoiiii flit constniit a DniuVtiirton, siu' la Clyde, pniidaiit I'liivor de lf?()'^-'(i;i. II 
ll'ut coiiHtniit do niiiiiiore a oxciter t.n's-])tMi do soiipvoiis a I'efjard dii but aui|iu'l il I'tait 
(k'stinn. ■ En etlt!t, ses couples so nioiitrorent si failihis, apros (^uelques moi.'j il'essai, <in'il 
[(leviiit (laiifjercux avec son ariueiiient, et il fiit mis do eoto. 

Qnaiid il t'lit laiico, le 1(5 jauvior, les jouniaux ivpportt'rent qu'iine ixM-soinie dii nom 
Idi'Xoitii, coiiimo ponr otre an service dos iiiHurfj;i^s, se trouvti pieseiite avcc sa iillc, et 
[qui! wile- ci donna an vaissean le nom de Virjiinia. 

On Hiivait cependant, par uuo lettre interceptoe, rcviit! par M. Adams de son Gonverne- 
limiit, qut; cetotticier avait refu la censure de ses siipt^rieiirs a Kiclimuud au iioint do 
uiotivtTson rappel. Le nom ainsi donnc no fnt ]>as conserve^. 

J Le 17 Janvier — c'est-a-dire, le lendomain do son lanccment — lo nioHureur fit nn rai)port 
I dans k'unel il I'iudiqnait comme steamer le Japan et destind X des entreprisos conimer- 
IcialcH, HI'S couples et ses pliKpies extant des dimensions ordinaires pour des vaisseaux do 
1 6a ehiHse. 

l-<"»*0 mars, il fnt enregistrd au nom de Thonms Bold, sujet anjrlais, rcsidaut i\ Liver- 
|ponl, conune propHetaire. 

U- tJ7 mars, il partit pour Greenock, sans provoquer d'observations et sans papiers. 

Ij« ;iO mars, un grand nombre d'liommes quitterent Liverpool pour s*^ reudre a bord 
jilu vaisst'-au a Greenock. lis avaiont «^t<J enr61es tl liiverpoot par Jones et C'", maisoii 
jdecoimiierce dont M. Bold faisait partie, j>our un voyage a Singapore et i\ Hong-Kong, 
jet ai)r(>8 leur arrivo'e li\-ba8 pour 6tre employes au commerce d. is les jiorts des niers de 
jla Chine et des Indes; le voyage devait se faire en deux ans, et le retoiir avoir lieu 
j«an8 un port de d^barqnement du Royaume-Uui. 
[ Le !} avril il qnitta les eaux auglaises. 

Le 6, le collectenr des douanes au port de New Haven adressa une lettre aiix com- 
jmissaires des douanes, coufuo dans les termes suivauts: 



^ I 



'■ :■ 



mm^ 



188 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 



U^Mi 



The steniiisliip Alar, of London, 85 tons, owned by II. P. Maples, sailed on Sundav 
niorninK, otli instant, at 2 a. in., bonnd, according to the ship's papers, for Aldcrricy anil 
St. Malo. On Satnrday, at midnight, thirty men, twenty of whom appeared to 1.. 
Ihitish sailors, ten mechanics, arrived by train. Three {gentlemen accompanied tlnn. 
Mr. Lewis, of Alderney, Mr. Ward, and Mr. Jones. The men appeared to he igiiDriini 
of their precise destination ; some said they Avere to get 20/. each for their trij). A inun, 
rather lame, snperintended tliem. Shortly after raidnij^ht, a man arrived trdni 
])rijj;liton, on horse'iaek, with a tcle{j;ram, which, for purposes of secrecy, had been mv. 
tiiere and not to l".<nvhaven, it is snspected. Mr. Staniforth, tlie ajjent, rejilied toiiiv 
impiiries this nmrninff, that tlio Alar had munitions of war on board, and flmt Hkv 

were consigned by to ii Mr. Lewis, of Alderney. His answer wjis liriif 

and with reserve, leaving no doubt on my mind nor on tlu; minds of any here tliat tli' i 
thirty men and munitions of war are destined for transfer at sea to some second Ala- 
bama. The telegram to Ihighton intimated, very probiibly, hiiving been rtservtd inr 
the last honr, where that vessel would be found. Whether the shipment of tlit; men, who | 
all appeared to be Ihitish subjects, can, if it should be hereafter found that tlieyliav.- 
been transferred to a Federal or confederate vessel, be li(>ld an infringement df tlif | 
foreign-enlistnu'ut act, and Avhether the clearance of t\w Alar, if hereafter found tol- 
untrue, can render the mast(>r amenable under the customs-consolidation aet, i.sl'w 



your consideration respectfully submitted. 



R. .7. DOLAX, Cnlh 



Oil coiitrastin.£? the sub.stance of this letter with any or all of tlmst 
comrauiiicated from a similar source at Liverpool, iu the cases of tlie 
Oreto or the Alabama, the difference cannot fail to be apparent to the 
most ordinary api>rehension. There is no equivocation or reservation j 
to be snspected here. The officer seems to me to have faithfully per 
formed his duty, and completely relieved himself from responsibility. 

This letter appears to have been received by the commissioners ofciis 
toms on the 7th April, and they on that same day made a report to tlie | 
home office in the following terms : 

I am desired to transmit, for the information of the lords connnissioners of liet | 
Majesty's treasury, and for any directions their lordshi^js nuiy see tit to give thercoii, 



*■ i-c 



"Lc vapeur Alar, de Londres, jaugeant 85 tonneanx, (propridtaire, H. P. Maples.) a | 
fait voile dimanehe, le 5, a deux lieures dn matin, destin^, du moins selon les i)aiiiir> 
de bord, ci-apres, i)our Alderney et St.-Malo. II est arrivd samedi a minnit, piir le I 
chemin de fer, trente liommes, dont viugt paraissaient etre des m.arins anglais et ilis | 
mecaniciens. Trois messieurs les accomi)agnaient, Monsieur Lewis, d'Alderiiey, Mr, 
Ward et I\Ir. Jones. Les hommes semblaient ne pas savoir au juste le lieu de leunkv I 
tination. Quehines-uns d'entre enx disaient qu'ils devaient avoir £20 par tete poiirle 
voyage. Un hommo qui boitait un pen avait la direction de la troupe. Pen aiiris 
minnit, un cavalier est arriv(5 do Brighton, porteur d'un t^-legrannne (lue I'on iioiip- 
Vonne avoir 6t6 envoy<^ dans cette ville au lieu de New Haven pour n'en pas laissereeliap- 1 
per le secret. luterrogd par moi, le courtier, M. StanifortJi, m'a rt^poudu, co matin, 
(jue I'Alar avait, a bord des nuinitions de guerre eonsigndes par . . .a M. Lewi!, 
d'Alderiiey. Ses rf^jtonses (5taient breves et r(^serv<'es ; elles \ut nous ont laisne anciiii I 
doute dans I'esjirit, ni a moi ni it pensonne d'entre nous, que les trente homiiie.s et Id | 
munitions de jjuerre ne fussent destines a etre transbordt^.s en mer sur un secoud .\l;i- 
baiiia. Le telegramme priv(^, exiiedie i\ Brighton il la derniere heure, indiqiiait triJ- 
juobablement le lieu de leunion. L'embarquement des homines, qui tons paraissaii'iit 
etre des snjets anglais, peutil etre cousidc^re comme une infraction au foreifin-eM- 
mint flt7, dans lo cas on it sera it prouvd plus tard qu'ils out dt<? tran8i)ord(^,s sur un 
vaisseaii federal ou coufederef Les ])apiers de I'Alar, s'ils sent reconnus faux dans la 
suite, ]>euveiit-ils exposer lo patron h dtvs poursnites en vertu du cuHloms-connolhldm 
(let '! Ce sont la des questions (^ue j'oso vous aouinettre respectueusement. 

"K. J. DOLAN, Co»(r/(Hf," 

En compar.ant la substance de cette lettre avec toiites cclles cointnuui(iaeesd'iiiie 
source semblable a Liverpool, dans les cas do I'Oreto ou do 1' Alabama, la dirtereiiceiic 
pent manquor de sauter aiix yenx de I'intelligenee la plus ordinaire. On no jieiit soup- 
vonner ici ni dquivoque ni reserve. L'oflicitsr me seinblo avoir rcinpli fideleuieiit son | 
devoir et s'etre ddchargd de toute reapousabilitd. 

Cette lettre iiarait avoir dtd refue par les coiumissaires des donaues le 7 avril,etle 
meme jour ils firent rapport au /(oiiie oQicc dans les ternies suivaiits : 

" Ou me requiert do trausmettre, pour riuformation des lords-commisbaires de li 
trdsorerie de sa Majestd, et pour les directions que leiirs soigueuries poiirrout juiJf' 



OPINIONS OF MK. ADAMS. 



181) 



Itniiv of a report of the collector of tills ro venue at Nowhaveu, rcLntive to the clear- 
laute of the vessel Alar, haviii;^ on hoard a nnniher of sailors and numitions of war, 
Icsteiisibly for Ahlen.ey and Saint Malo, hut sns])ccted hy the collector to he intendeil 
■for transfer to some other vessel hclonfjinjr to one of the hellif;ereiit8 in America : and 
11 am to state that the hoanl haviiif^ conferred with their solicitor on the subject, that. 
Ictiiier is of opinion that there is no evidence to call for any interference on the part 
Iciltiif Crown. 

It thus appears very clearly that whatever may have been the oi)iii- 
lionsof the law expressed in this letter, the fact is certain that at that 
Uiite none of the otlicers of the government had received any informa- 
Lu of the direction to which it could truly look for the destination of 
jtliese vessels. The wliole operation had been conducted, it must be 
lailinitted, with great skill and address. Nobody had ever guessed at 
jtk' n'snlt down to the time in which it was in process of execution within 
jthe .jurisdiction of another power. 

jicanwhile, let ns now turn onr attention to the position in which the 
trepreseiitatives and agents of the United States, the party the most 
Wei'ply iuterested in preventing this nndertakiug if possible, were occu- 
nyiiij;. 
This may most readily be gathered from the testimony of the most 
feilaut officer they had in that kingdom, a man who spared no pains 
pluo expense to secure all the information that could be had, not 
jiuipiy within his own district, bul everywhere in the kingdom where 
ca-going vessels w^ere in process of construction outside of the capital. 
On the 3d of April Mr. Dudley writes the following letter to 3Ir. 
Reward at Washington : 

Mr. Underwood, our consul at Glasgow, has no donht informed you ahout the steamer 
hnw tailed the Jajian, fornn-rly the Virj;inia, wliicli is ahout to clear from that i)ort to 
llie Kiist Indies. Some seventy or eif^hty men, twice the number that would bo re- 
Biiired for any legitimate voyaj^e, were shipped at Liverpool for this vessel, and sent 
wiirccnock on Monday evening. Thoy are shii)pe.d for a voyage of three years. My 
kliit' is tliat she belongs to the confederates, and is to bo convojted into a privateer ; 
Biiitu likely to cruise in the East Indies, as Mr. Young, the paymaster of the Alabanta 

oiiv'Miublo de donner a ce sujet, copie d'uu rapport du collecteur dos douaucs i\ New 
lavi'n ri'liitif aux papiera du vaisseau Alar, ayant a bonl une (juantite de matelots et 
ft munitions de guerre, ostensiblement pour Aldorney ('t St.-Malo, mais soupvtMincs 
M If eollecteur connne devant etro transbordes sur (piehjue autre vaisseau appar- 
«imnf ii I'lm des belligdrants en Amcri([ue; et je dois dire ([uo lo board ayant confere 
Ivec liMU' solliciteur sur co aujet, cet ollieier est d'avis (piMl n'y a pas do preuves ijui 
Kij;t.'nt nue iuterventiou do la part do la couronue." 

Ilpariut ainsi trcs-clairement ([ue, (luelles ipr'aieut pu etro les opiuious de la lol ex- 
ffimiii's dans cetto lettre, lo fait est certain (pfa cette date aucuu des otUeiers du gou- 
trueuicnt n'avait re^'U do reseiguements sur la direction ofi il devait regarder pour 
piiver cti.s vaisseaux. Touto I'operatiou avait ete conduiti^, il faut railmettre, avee 
rumle babilitd et adres.se. I'ersonne n'avait memo (hn'iue lo n^sultat, jusnu'aii mo- 
^tut oil il etait en voie d'executiou dans lajuridiction d'uue autre puissance. 
-Maiutunaiit, tournons notre attention vers la position (lu'oecupaient les reprosentants 
t lis ai,'L'Uts des fitats-Unis, la partie la plus interesst^o a en<pecher cette entrepx'ise, si 
ossibic 

•'n pi'uts'en faire une idde plusfacilement jiar le tdmoignago de rotliccr Ic plus vigilant 
Iji ils tMiHSfcnt dans CO royaui.:e, homme (jui n'(5p!irgnait ni peine ni argent pour se pro- 
picrtous les renseignements que I'ou ponvait avoir, nou-s(Miloment dans sou propre 
f strict, niais partout dans h- royaume ou des vaisseaux destines a la haute mer ^talent 
pvoju (Ic construction, hors aelsx capitalo. 

j J^i' li <avril, M. Dudley dcrit la lettve suivanto i\ M. Seward, i\ Washington : 
I" M. Underwood, notre consul a jtlasgo\v,vou8 a sans douto I'-crit au sujet du steamer 
tl"'le niaintenant lo Japan, auparavant le Virginia, ijui est sur lo point de s'acciuitter 
fc«' poite pour les Indes orientales. Environ soixante-dix ou rpiatro-vingts hommes, 
fciix tills le nombro neeessairo pour un voyage Ic^gi time, out iHd enrOlds tl Liverpool 
*iir ct) vaisseau et euvoyds a Greenock lundi soir. lis sont engages pour uu voyage de 
•"Wans. Ma con^'iction est (ju'il appartieut aux confederes, et (lu'il doit etro convert! 
'lorsaire, tr^s-probablement pour croisor dans les Indes orientales, comme M. Youug, 



if 



190 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 




tells me it has always licoii a favorite idea of Mr. Mallory, the secretary of tlio odiiiViI. 
erate navy, to send a privateer in these waters. I soiit a man from luu-e to Gliis;^o\vto| 
accomiiauy thi.'se men, to endeavor to find ont the destination of the vesstd, itc [[,. 
lias not been snecessfnl as yet in his er.'orts. He has biieii on board, anil writes tliat 
she has no armament, and he is still there watching her, »fcc. 

At the date of this letter the Japan was actually goiie to sea ; and tin. 
vigilant consul had not even then obtained any testimony w'hatevcr i 
upon which to establish the truth of his very just conclusion as to tlitl 
purpo.se, though not Just as to the destination of the vessel. 

Let nie now observe what the case was with Mr. Adams, the niinister | 
of the United States at London. It appears, by a letter of his ad 
dressed to Mr. Seward on the Dili of April, that "he had been long in I 
the possession of information about the construction an<l ontfit of this 
vessel on the Clyde;" and upon this part of the paragraph of his letter, 
singularly enough, 1 perceive in the counter case presented to us on the I 
part of Her ^lajesty's governnient, an attempt made to throw upon him 
the responsibility for tiie escape of the vessel. The language is this: 

" If reconrse had been had to the navy, it is probable," the arbitrators are told, 
" that the complaints of the lJnit(Ml States mij;ht not have been necessary. They 
might not have been necessary if Mr. Adams had communicated in good time sncli in- 1 
formation as he possessed, instead of kee))ing it undisclosed until six days after the 
sailing of the G<'orgia, and more than three »lays after the departure of the Alar, mi \ 
if that inforniatiou had intended to form un actual or contemplated violation of the 
law." 

Xow, it should be observed that this passage begins by assuming th 
the information to whicii Mr. Adams alludes in his letter of the'Jthot'i 
April, a-s" having long been in his possession, was the same whicli lie | 
communicated to Earl IJussell in his note addressed to him on the Sth, 
If such had really been the case, the insinuation might have appearei'l 
Avith some shadow of justice. But if the context of the passage qiioteil 
had been given entire, it would show that at the period to which he re 
ferred, "nothing had ever been furnished him of a nature to base pro- 
ceedings upon;" whereas, on the reception of what appeared more I 



8 i. f-"A 



; ri 



le niaitre payeur de I'Alabama me dit que va atoujonrs etd uue idee favorite de M, M.il- 
lory, le secretaire de la marine confedi^roe, d'envoyer nn corsaire dans ces eaux. J'lii I 
envoye un homnie d'ici a Glasgow pour les accompagner, pour essayer de decouvrir la | 
destination de ce vaisseau. Jus(|u'ici il n'a pas n^nssi dans ses etforts. I! a etc a borJ, 
et jl ecrit (lue le vaisseau n'a point d'armement, et qu'il lo surveille toujoars," etr. 

A la date de cette lettre, le Japan avait pris la mer, et le vigilant cou.sul ii'iivait. 
meme alors, obtenu ancun renseignement <iuelcon(iue sur lequel (^c.iblir la v^ritediM | 
conclusion tres-juste cpiant au but, (pioique erronnde ([uant il la destination, du vaisseai 

Permettez-moi do faire observer maintenant la position de M. Adams, niinistre ile* I 
Etat.s-Unis il Londres. II semble par line lettre qu'il iidressa h M. Seward le 9 avril. 
" ([u'il avait 616 longtemps en pos.session de reuseignements ear la construction ctsiir 1 
les prdparatifs de co vaisseau dans la Clyde," et (luant h cette partie du i)aragi'!iphe 
de sa lette, je remarque assez singulierement, dans le " Counter-case," qui uon'* f^' 
prt58entd de la part du gouvernement de sa iliijest(1, line tentative faite pour rejeter 
sur lui la responsabilitd de I'cviision du vaisseau. Voici les ternies : 

" Si on avait eu recours !\ la marine, il est probable," c'est ce qu'on assure aux arW 
trca, "que les I^tats-lJnis n'auraient piis eu de plaintes i\ adresser relativeirieiit :i n 
vaisseau. lis n'en auraient pas en, si M. Adams avait communi(iu(5 en temps iitikle* 
reuseignements qu'il pouvait i)osseder, an lieu des les garder pour lui, jus<pi'ii sixjmir* I 
apres le ddpart du Georgia, plus de trois Jours ajues celui de I'Alar, et si ces reiiw'i|;iir- 
nients eussent «^tP de nature ii prouver une violation iictutdle ou pro,jet<^o de la li»i-' 

Maintemint, il fViut reniarqner que ce psissage commence par poser (|uo les reiisi'i|;ii'^ 
nicnts, aiix([uels M. Adams lait allusion dans sa lettre du 9 .avril comme ayiuit it< 
longtemps en po, .cssion, •''taient les memes qu'il avait eonnnuni(iu<^s au Comte RiismU 
dans la note qu'il lui aviiit adre.ssde le 8. Si tel avait 6t6 r<^ellement le ciis, rinHiuiwtii'ii 
afirait pu avoir ciuelque ombre dt? justice, niiiis si le contexte du passiige triuiscrit wait 1 
^Jto doniK^ entiennient. on verniit (iii'iiu moment auquel il renvoie, " iln'avait re\'iH* 
core lien qui flit de nature i\ se; vir de l)ase ii des poursuites,"tandis(iu'i\ la reception I'lii- 
tard de ee «iui lui parut uue preuve plus uette de faits <iui se pasHaieut justeuieut iil"f* 



OriNION8 OF MK. ADAMS. 



191 



distinct evidence of facts just then taking ])lace, lie lost not a moment in 
I submitting them to the consideration of Iler ]\[ajesty's government, in 
1 1)1^ note to Earl Jlnssell of ihe Sth of April. For the rest, it is i)robable 
!,Mr. Adams had had too long an experience of the result attending the 
transmission of iiisuflicient evidence to be particularly desirous of draw- 
iu^upon himself the customary vei)lies. If JFer 3Iajesty's government 
is to be justified at all in the course of the transactions now under con- 
sideration, it must be done by assuming the entire responsibility for her 
action, or failure to act, rather than by attempting to share it with other 
parties, in whom it could not possibly suspect any motive foi' indilfer- 
I (uee or neglect. 

It thus ai)pear8 that it was not until the eighth of April, that is, si.v 
(lays after the escape of tlie Japan, and three days a'ter the evasion of the 
Alar, that Mr. Adams api)ears to have had within his control the recpii- 
site means for making a remonstrance. lie then addressed to Earl lius- 
sell the following note: 

From iiiforniation received at tliis le;iiitioii, whieli appears entitled to oredit, I 
mil i(mi])elled to the paiufiil coiichiNion tliut a steain-vessi!! has Just departed from the 
Clyde with the intent to depredate on the commerce of the people of the United States. 
She passed tliere under the name of the Japan, hut is since believed to have assumed 
tbe name of the Virginia. l[(!r inunediatedestination is the island of Alderney, where it 
is.«ni>posed she may yet he at this moment. 

A small steamer called the Alar, belonging to Newhaven, and commanded l»y Henry 
P. Maples, has been loaded with a supply of guns, shells, shot, powder, &.v., intended 
fur the ef|nipnient of the Virgniia, and is either on the way or has arrived there. It is 
luither alleged that a considerable number of British subjects have been enlisted at 
Liverpool and sent to serve on board this cruiser. 

Should it yet be in the power of Her Majesty's government to institute some inriniry 
into the nature of these proceedings in season to establish their character if innocent, 
nr to put a stop to them if criminal, I feel sure that it would be removing a heavy 
Ijuiileii of anxiety from the minds of my countrymen in the United States. 

The ditticulty of the situation in writing so long after the ex- 
I icution of the chief portions of the operation objected to is here frankly 



*5 



il lie perdit pas un moment pour les sonniettre a I'examen du gouvernement de sa 
Majestd, dans sa note au Comte Kussell le « avril. An reste il est probable cpie M. 
Adams avait eu une trop longue exp<^rienco du resultat <pii atteiulait la comnninication 
depreuves insiittisantes, pour ("-tro particulierement desireux de s'attirer les n^ponses 
(iidinaires. Si entin le gouvernement de sa Majes'te doit etro justiti<^. dans le coiirs des 
traii8a(ti(»ns cpii sont maintenant soumises i\ notre examen, il taut (pie ce soit eu assu- 
iiiaut la responsabilitc^ entiere de sa eonduite on de sa negligence a agir, plutot <iu'eu 
Msayant de la partager avec d'autres parties chez lescjuelles on ue pent suspecter 

j iiiicuu motif d'indiltdrence on de n<5gligence. 

llsemhle ainsi cpie ce ne fut ([ue le 8 avril — c'est-a-dire, six Jours apres I'dvasion du 

I Japau,et trois Jours aprv's celle (lo I'Alar — que M. Adams parait avoir eu a sa disposition 
lis moyeiis n<^cessaires pour faire uue remontrance. 11 adressa alors au Comte KuijseU 
lanotesuivante : 
"D'apresdes renseiguemeuts rc^us ilia l<^gation qui semblent nuhitertouto croyanco, 

I je suis ainen6 i\ la conclusion pr^niblo qu'un steamer vient de sortir de la (Jly<le avec 
lintpiitiou do commettre des dei)redations contre hi commerce des Clats-Unis. II por- 
tait ici le noni du Japan, mais on croit, des lors, qu'il apris lo uom de Virginia. Sa«le- 
stiiiation iimuddiate est I'ilo d'Alderuey, oil Ton suppose qu'il pout etro encore dans co 

lUoilU'llt. 

"I'll petit steamer uomnif^ I'Alar, do New Haven, et commaud(^ par HiMiryP. Maples, 
'i^tecluugd d'une grando provision de canons, d'obus, do boulets, de poudre, etc., . 
I destines i\ l'(5(|uipement du Virginia, et il est en route pour s'y reudre on il y est arriv^. 
•Jn alK'giie en outre qu'un nombre considerable de sujets anglais out C't6 eurules a Li- 
verpool et euvoyes pour servir il bord do co croiseur. 

" *iH <^tait encore au pouvoir du gouvernomont do sa Majestd do fairn uuo enquete sur 
la nature de ces transactions, si temps pour etablirleur caracterosiellessout innocentes, 
[ «» pour losenqieeher si elles sont criininelles, je suis certain quo co serait 6ter uu pesaut 
tardean d'anxietd de I'esprit de nies compatriotes aux fitats-Unis." • 

On rt'connalt franehement combien il est dilticile d'ecriro si h)ngtemps aprf-s I'exc^cn- 
itiou des fails priucipaux de I'opdratioa dont il s'agit. Kieu do co qui itiit counu 



]f 



Wm 



192 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 



rw 



conceded. Everytbiug kiiowu thus far gave no clear indication towaiM 
the unknown, and the only important atiirmatiou of fact made in tho 
letter turned out not to be correct. 

On the same day tLis letter was written and sent, Earl Russell made 
his reply. After repeating the substance of the complaint, it proceeds 
as follows : 

I have to state to you that copies of your letter were sent without loss of tiiiio to tli • 
homo clopartmeut and to the board of treasury, with arcMiuest that an iminediato iinitiiiv 
might he made into tile circumstances stated in it, and that if the result shonhl ]iri)vi; 
your suspicions to bo well founded, the most effectual measures might Lt taken wiiioh 
the law admits of for defeating any such attempts to lit out a belligereu,^ vessel t'loui 
British ports. 

It is due to the government of Her Majesty to add that all it conkl do 
under the peculiar circumstances it tried to do. Mr. Adams had pointed 
out the island of Alderney as the destination for the meeting of tlie 
Japan and the Altar. This had been to a certain extent confirmed by 
the report of the collector of customs at Newhaven, the only correct in- 
twraation which seems to have been at first obtained. Alderney ami iSt, 
Malo was; the destination specified in the ship's papers. 

Misled by this information. Lord Russell took a step extraordinary. 
and thus far exceptional, in the prosecution of preventive measnres, 
He caused a ship of war to be ordered from Guernsey to Alderney witli 
{I view to prevent any attempt that might be made to execute the pro- 
ject of armament within that British jurisdiction. Unfortunately the 
l)ractical consequence of having been put on this false scent was to fur- 
nish the time lost there as a means of more completely carrying into 
effect the projected scheme elsewhere. Even had Iler Majesty's gov- 
ernment attempted to go further, it could have been no use. The object 
had been completely gained within the jurisdiction of another sov- 
ereignty — the empire of France. 

In the case presented on the part of the United States it is mged 
that Her Majesty's government might have gone so far as to seize the 
vessel within the French jurisdiction, and the case of the Terceira expe 

jusqu'alors no fournissait uue indication claire i\ I'egard do I'inconuu. Et la seule 
athrmation iniportaute faitedans cette lettro setrouvait n'etro pas exacto. 

Le mrnne jour ou cette lettre fut ecrite et euvoy<^,e lo Comto Russell rtSpondit. Apri^ 
avoir rcp6t6 la substance de la plainte, il contiuui :omme suit : 

" J'jii il vous exposer <iuo de/s copies de votre lettro out 6t6 envoydes sans perdrc de 
temps au departement do l'iut«5rieur et au couseil de la trdsororie, avoc priero qn'tiue 
enq note immediate fftt faite dans les circonstanccs qui y sont indiqudes, et (luo, si lo 
resultat prouvait que vos soup^ous sont bieu fondds, les mesures les plus effieiices i|"'' 
la loi autorise fussent prises pour emjiecher toute tentative d'dquiper iiu vais^joau kl- 
ligdrant pour sortir des i)orts anglais." 

D couvieut d'ajouter eu favour du gouverncment do sa Majestd que tout ce qii'il 
pouvait fairo dans cos circonstancos particul lores, il a essayd de le faire. M. Ailauis 
avait indi([ud I'lle d' Alderney comme le lieu oii le Japan et I'Alar devaient so ren^nitrtr. 
Ceci avait dtd contirmd, jusqu'i\ un certain point, par lo rapport du collectour lU^ 
douanes de New Haven, le seul reuseignement exact qui semblo avoir <5td obteiiii 
d'abord. Alderney et Bt.-Malo dtaient la destination spdcifide dans les papiers du vais- 
seau. 

Induit eu erreur par ce reuseignement, Lord Russell fit uno demarche oxtraonlinain', 
et jusqu'ici exceptionnelle, dans la poursnite des mesures prdveutivos. II lit qii'im 
vaisseau fftt envoyd de Guernesy h Alderney, en vue d'erap«;cher touto tentative iiin 
aurait pu fitre faite d'exdcuter le projet d'armement dans la juridictiou anglaise. Mai- 
heureusement la consequence pratique d'avoir dtd mis sur cette fausse piste fut do dounet 
le temps qui y avait dtd perdu pour eftectuer plus conqildtement ailleurs le plau pro- 
jotd. M6mo si le gonveruement do sa Majestd avait essayd d'allor plus loin, cola u'auiait 
servi ;\ rien. LS but avait dtd entieremeut atteiutdans la juridictiou d'uno autre puis- 
sance souveraine, I'empire des Fran^ais. 

Dans I'exposd prdsentd de la part des fitats-Unis, on avance que le gouverncment ilf 
sa Majestd aurait pu aller jusqu'a saisir les vaisseaux daua la juridictiou frau^aiiie, ct Ix 



oriMONs OF mi. adams. 



193 



liition is cited as a procedoiit. But it socnisto me that the (jovornmont 
of the United States would scarcely be ready to concede the right of a 
forei^'n power to settle qnestionsof justice within its Jurisdiction with- 
out: its kno\vledjj;'e or consent. 

It may be urfjed that the o})inions of the ollicers of customs that no 
violation of law had been comniitted in the expi'dition of the Alar, was 
fijuivalent to a ne;^lect of due dili"?ence. 

Upon whicii it may be remarked, that ^\h',^t]ler riii'ht or wron<? at the 
(late it was given, and with the iuforniatiou then in possession of tiio 
j;overniuent, there is no reasonable probability that tlie Alar coidd 
iiave been seized excepting i)erhaps in the waters of France. 

On the 15th of April, JMr. Adams addressed a note to Earl llussell 
covering certain i)apers wliich went to i)rove tlie manner in which men 
liad been enlisted in violation of the laws of the kingdom by parties iu 
Liverpool in co-operation with the insurgent agents. 

Iu consequence of these and other i)apers which followed them, Her 
3[ajesty's government were enabled to take the re(iuisite steps to l)ring 
the chief offender at Liverpool into the courts of Justice. Tlie reports 
of tbe trials carried on in the court over which our distinguished col- 
league presides, are among the pai)ors before us, aiul they satisfy my 
mind entirely in regard to the justice and impartiality with which the 
proceedings were conducted. The i)arties were all convicted, and 
rhoiigli the penalties intlicted were much too light, they appear to have 
been thought suflicient to establish tlie elliciency of the law. 

It was in connection with such proceedings as these that Mr. Dudley, 
ill one of his letters to Mr. Seward, wrote that " the ])rosecution of these 
parties, if conducted vigorously witii tiie view of convicting them, will 
do more to break np these expeditions and littingout of vessels in this 
country than anything else." 

Upon a careful review of these facts as tliey ai)i)ear 1 <fore me, I can- 
not iiorceive that Her Majesty's government has nnide it'^elf in any way 



a'; (le I't'xpi^ilition do T(^rc(Mi'(^ ost c\\6 cotiinio iiii iiri'ciMlciit. M;iis il mo somblo que lo 
lidiivi'iiciiKiiit (le,s lOtiits-Unis iit> .si'ruit j;iicr<' disijosr. ii i'c<'()iin;iilr() li- droit d'luu! piiLs- 
^;iiice<'trMiij;fTO a roller dcs (jui'stiDiis de jiisticis d;i!is s;i Juridiclio:! sans sa conuaiH- 
>aric(; iii son conscnttMiicnt. 

On pent, .'ivanccr ([IK? I'avis dcs onii'icrs dos douim's, ipi'll Ti'y ivvait on ani'iino. vio- 
iatiim (le la loi dans l'cxi)iMlitioii de I'Alar, f'qnivalait: a nni' iit'^lig.'nco "d 's duos dil- 

A ([iKii on ])out, fairo roninniuer. (lu'a tort f)U ;"i droit, a la date oil il fnf donn(^. (it avoc 
il"* i''nsi'iirni'mi'nts (jni <'tai(Mit alors t!u pn.ssrs.sion du lioiivcrnrmcnt, il n'y a imlle 
iir(iliiiliilit6 raisouiialilc (pio I'Alar cilt i)n I'tn' saisi, si va' n'l-st pi-ut-rtrc, dans lo.s oaux 
lie 1" Franco. 

Le Ifi avi'il, M. Adams adrr-s.sa an Conito Ivusscll uiio not<' I'l'nfiM'mant certains docu- 
iiii'iitH (pii tcndaiont a iironvcr comment <les liommi's avaient i-ti'i (iuiAli^s en violation 
ili's lois du royaume par des piM'sonncs de Liverpool (mi cooperation avec les agentH 
iiisnrj;.' , 

Ell lonseiiueiice de ces documents et d'autres (pii les snivirent, le f^ouverne.mout do 
"il M.ijeste etait mis a menie de prendre des mesures necessaires ]iour livrer les |U'iuoi- 
paux coup ihles de, Liverpool a la justice. I^es comi)ti!s-roiidus des ]»roces Juj^i^.s devant 
■a conr (|ue preside notre colle.iriu' distinjiue so tionvent parmi les documents i)lac(^s 
'li'vant nous, ct ils satislbnt eutiereiiKiut mon esprit sous le rajtport de la Justice et do 
liinpartinlit^ avee leMjuelles ces atlaires fiirent conduites. Les parties fureiit toutos 
('iMiilainnees, *it (juoique les peines iiillisf^es fusseiit beaucou]) trop lei^ereSjClles somhlont 
•iviiir f.to jujf(^es siifflsautes pour »'tal)lir I'etilicacitc^. de la loi. Cost a i)ro|K)s do proc6d6s 
ti'ls (|ii(> enux-ci (]ue M. Dudley, dans uno de ses lettres a M. Seward, t'crivait cos mots: 
"IjH lioursuitu de cos porsounes, si elle est iiionric vijj;oureusemeut en vuo do los oon- 
ilaiiiiicr, fera plus que toute autre chose pour faire avorter (ses expeditions et I'oquipe- 
'Dtfiit (le vaiB8eaux dans c« pays." 

Piins une revuo soij^uouse do ces faits, tels qii'lla apparaisHont devant nioi, je ne puis 
wouverque le gouvorriemeut de sa Maj(38t^ 8e soit rendu rosponsable titi aucune tnani^re 

13 b 




h 



: ( 



w 

iC.' 



Iff 



194 



ARIilTKATION AT GENEVA. 




I'r 






liable for the failure to use diligjence iu this case, under the first rule 
proscribed in the treaty of Washiuffton. 

The Jiipan had now chanj^ed lier name and become the Georgin. The 
fraud had been most successfully perpetrated. An insur<?ent olliccr, by 
the name of IManry, liad taken the command of iier, and the next tlijn;- 
we learn is of her (U^predations on the connnerco of the United Stiitos, 

It is not essential to the ])resent purpose to go into any details ot'lici 
cruise outside of the possible liiuitsof liability on the part of Her M:i;. 
esty's goverrunent. 

In a rejwrt made by llear-Admiral Sir Ualdwin Walker to the socrc- 
tary of the admiralty, dated KHh August, 18(J.'), appears the tbUowin; 
paragraph : 

On tlu) 1(!tli i)ist;iiit, 111'' (iiiift'dciato Statos stcaiiior fJoornia, (.'oiriniaiulcr .M;ni;\, 
anchored in tliis (8iniou'>) l)ay. Slic, ri'([uir('S coals, priivisioiis, ;iii(l calking. 

In a letter addressed by the governor at (Jape Town to the dukooi 
Newcastle, beaiiiig the same date, is the following piiragra[)li : 

On llic Kith at ik)())i, tlii' (i<-oi';j;i.'i, anntlicr conrcdevato v.'av-stcuiiHT. aiiird;.; 
Si!iu)ii"s li:;y in iic'il of re jiairs, and is still tlnTc. 

It may jx-rliaps be itiy fault, but alter a careful seai'<;h I have bom 
unable to discover any olUcial report other than these as to the aniviil. 
the time of stay, and the treatment of the (leorgiai during this visit, 
Inasmuch as this event was <'Otemi)oran(.'ons with the arrival, of tli. 
Alabama and her tender the Tuscaloosa, both of which were ciiuross 
ing the attention of the authorities of the jdace, it is possible that tin' 
customary detailed report in regard to her may have been omitted. 

The fact is at' any rate; certain that, notwithstanding her fraudulcn: 
escape in deliance of the laws of Great Britain, this vessel was duly 
recognized at Capetovrn as a legitiiuate vessel belonging to a reeogiiizn! 
belligerent. 

In the cases of tlie Florida and of tbe Alabama 1 have already ex- 
pressed my deep regret that this mode of proceeding should have bi'(:i 



Wi I 



de nonjlifvoiKio :\ ox(irc(n' (lilig(Mico, dans I'c cas, selou la pretnii-io ivglc proscriti; pnrli' 
trait<! *le Wasliinjfton. 

Lo Japan avait (dianj^i' do nom ct dtait d(>v('nn Ic Gt'orftia. La frando avait I'ti' ac- 
coniplic avi'c 1<< i)liis <frand niK'ces. IJn ollicicr insnr;;'(s dn noni d<5 Manry, en avnir 
priH lo conniKindcMiciit, of la ^H-cniioro chose (ino nous en ai^irenons, co sont scs dt'pi'- 
dations Hiir lo conuui'ico dcs Ktats-lJnis. 

11 ii'cst pas e.sscntiel ponr le but jirc'seiit d'ontrer dans l(i.s d<^tails do sa oroisii'iiMi'. 
dohors des liniites possibles do la responsabiliU- do la part dn gouverneincnt ilc si 
Majesto. 

Dans nn rapjtort fait par le vico-amiral, Sir Baldwin Walker, an socrotaii'c d(j r.ii'i'- 
rauto, date du 11) aofit ISlio, so tronvc bs ])arajiiapho .snivant : 

"Lo U) courant, le steamer des <^-tats-coMfe(leres, lo Georjiia, eoniinandant Maiu y, :'. 
jet6 I'anero dans cetto bale, (Simon's Bay.) 11 denumdo du chaibon, des provisions it 
do ponvoir etro call'ate." 

Dans niio lettro adresseo par lo ffonverueur do Capo To .yuan due de Xcwcastli'. 
portant la nu'smi^ date, so tronve. lo para;^ra])li(! snivant: 

"Lo U), il midi, lo (ieor<;'ia, autre vais.seau do jriK^rro confedt^re, est arrive a Simoir-i 
Bay, ayant besoin do i«'paiations, et il est cncoro iei." 

G'est pent-otre ma t'ante. mais apres uno recherche Hoisnense je n'ai i)n dei'oiivri; 
aucun autre rapjiort orliciel britannl(ine qnc conx-ci snr I'arrivde, lo temps de sc'loiu'it 
lo traitonuMit dn Georiria jiendant cetto visito. En taut que co fait so passait en ini'iiie 
tonips (jno rarriveo de I'Alabama ot do sou Umdcr, lo Tuscaloosa, qui tons deux ;\hm- 
l)6rent I'attontion des antoritds do I'ondroit, il est possible que le rapport detailli' 
accoutnnu'^ ait pn otn; omis -X son Offard. 

Lo I'ait est on tout cas certain (]ne maljjre son <)vasion fraudulouso, en depit deslnis 
de laUrande-Bretagno. co vaisseau tnt dftuient reconuu a Capo Town conwne viiisseaii 
Idgitlnieapparteinint i\ nu belli}; rant reconnn. 

Dans les cas <lu Florida ot (lo I'Alabannr, j'ai d<^ji\ exprimd mon profond reoret ip'f 
ette ligue de oonduite eftt dte adoptee a I'egard de vaisseanx (pii s'dtaient rwulu' 




OPINIO^JS OF MF. ADAMP. 



lOf) 



adopted in regard to vessels wlilcli liad been guilty oi" a llagraiit viola- 
tion of the laws of the kingdom. The right to exclude them is dis- 
tinctly recognized by Sir Iloundell Palmer in a speecli made by him in 
the lionse of Commons on the 13th of ]May, 1S(!1,' while he assigned as 
ai'liiof reason for not exercising it the danger that such a decisi(ui 
iiii;flit have an effect of appearing to favor too strongly one side in the 
oontost. Tlie fear of doing a thing demanded by wiiat appears to be a 
paramount <luty of upholding the mnjesty of their laws because it 
miirlit possibly ajipear to lean too much against one paity iind in favor 
(if tlic other, seems to have been the guiding motive to the j)oli('y actu- 
ally iulopted. r>ut the (pu'Stion imnu'diiitely arises wlietlier that ])arty 
liiiil, ill its extraordinary course of couduct within Jler .Miijesty's do- 
iiiinioiis, earned any riglit to such consideration. 

Be this as it may, Her Majesty's government decided otluM wise, and 
iiduiittcd the Georgia into th(^ port of Simon's I5;iy, where siie ap[)ears 
to liiive rcmaiiH'd ii tortnight, repairing her decks and receiving sup- 
plies and provisions on the footing of a recognized belligerent. It has 
been iU'uued that in tlius deciding, Her .^l!lJesty"s government made 
itself liable under tlie sc(;ond rule, as permitting o:u' of its jiorts to be 
made a base of oj^erations against the I'nited States by a vessel which 
had issued i'roin th(» kingdom in deliaiice of its laws as a hostile cruiser. 

1 have given to this view of the matter the most careful considera- 
tion; but J regret that I cannot biiu"; niyself to concur in it. The ves- 
sel es('ai)ed from tlu^ kingdom under circuuistiinces which have already 
been detailed in this paper, involving no neglect or failure of duty on 
behalf of the government. U\ on arriving at an l^nglisli jxu't furnished 
^vitl' a regular commission as a vessel of a recognized belligerent, Her 
Majesty's government determines to recognize her in that character, 
however nnudi L nmy regret it, I cannot call in question her riglit to do 
so 01 her n?sponsibility as a sovereign po^'cr. This is a right I should 
not eousent to have drawn into question in any case so decided by 



cimpablos (rniic violation (la^riiiitii dcs lois tin royannir. Le droit, do Ics oxclnro <\st 
iicttciiu'iit nic(Miini par Sir Konndcll I'alincr dans iin discoiirs qu'il lit a la Chainbro 
(Ics ccmnnuiu's le, ll{ mat IHtil, tandis (|ii'il indi([iiait: connuc nn motif principal pour no 
pas ri'Xiiri'or Ic danijcr qu'uno dtieiisioii .si'mblablo put avoir ])onr ellbt dt* puraitrt* 
iiworiscr trop tbrtemcnt niio dt-.s parties en liUte. La ])(Mir do fair(< nno chose exigee 
par IV. qui semlde etre lo supiemo devoir do mainteuir la nuijesto lU^ ses lois, parco 
c|trelle pouvait piiraitro iucliiicr trop cmitre uiie ties ))artie:, ot en favour de I'autrt!, 
»i'iiil)l(uivtiir i'tt'i lo nu)l)ilo diri<]jeant dti sa coiidnite etlectivcmciit atltiptt'e. ^lais la 
i|iu'sti(iii s't'lt'vo immtitliateinent do savoir si ee jjarti avait par sa ligno do coiuluito 
t'xtraonlinairo dans les litats do sa Majestt; nu'ritt^ aucuu droit a une semblaldo con- 
"idi'iation. Quoi tpi'll en st)it, lo i>'t)uvernemeut tie sa Majestc- dt'iMda autrement ot 
aiiinit 1(5 (Georgia dans lo port tlo Simt)n's iiay, on il .s(Mnl)le t^'tro restt; uius tiuinzaine, 
reparaiit ses pouts et recevant dcs subsitlo.s et des provisions sur lo pied d'uu bellige- 
raiit ift'omui. 

Oil a avauct" qu'eu prenaut cetto dt'cisitm le gouvornemeut tie sa Majosti' s't'tait rendu 
vcsiionsable, d'apres la secoiulo regie, en j)erm(!ttant qu'un tlo ses ports fflt tMiiplt>yf'* 
coiuiiie biiso d'opi^rations ct)utro lea fUats-Unis par uu vaissi.'un t^ui ctait sorti du 
royaiiiiit! on bravant ses lois ctmimo croiseur euuenii. 

J'lii cou8acrt5 1'examen le plus soigneux a cetto nianierc tVonvisager la question, mais 
je reiriette do no pouvoir ni'y rattacher. Lo vaisseau s't^cbappa du rt)yauuio dans des 
circonstauces tiui out 6t6 dejil dt^velttppf^es dans co m^nioire, no renfernuiut ui n<5- 
KliKt'iice ui omission de devoir do la part du giuivernement. Si, a son arrivt^e dans uu 
port anglais, pourvii d'une, coninussion n^guliero cotnine vais, eau d'uu belligthant 
rfcoiiiiu, lo gt)nvcrnement do sa Majestti decida de lui recouunltre ce caractere, quels 
•liie pdissont t'^trc uies regrets, je no puis niettre en question son drt)it d'en Jigir ainsi 
MiiiHsa responsabiliKj conitue i>uissaiico sonvcraine. Ceci est un droit tjue jo no oon- 
W-'utirais pas a laisser uiettro en question dans aucun des cas ou les l^tats-Uuis auraient 

'American Ajipendlx, \ o) T) p. 563. 



(iF.; 



m 



^r 



19G 



ARniTKATION AT GRNEVA. 



f1 -i^.. 



i-f 



tlio ITiiitod Statos. , It ai»i)onrs to mo on the same footinj;- witli tlie 
orijiiiial loooi^iiitioii of b('lli}>c'nMi('y, tlio iniiiial cause of all tlu'sc, un- 
plcaisaiit qiiostious — a st('i)wlii(;h lalwayH rcyrcttod to have bcon tiikcii. 
but wliicli 1 iiovcr doubted tlie right of iler i\laj(\st.v'« governinciit to 
take whenever it should think pioper. 

The (Jeorgia, after leavino- Simon's JJay, had but a short career. cSlio 
proved utterly unsuitable to the servient into which she had been forced. 
and fiindly retuined to liiveijiool, where she was sold, and turiu'd nito 
a nH'r(;hant-ship. A question has been raised as to tlie (!ourse ot Uoi 
Majesty's government in juMinitting this to be done within her hiu'rnis. 
1 cannot myself ])erceive the importance ot the (pu'stion, i)rovi(hMl hat 
she recognized the right of the belligerent to dispute the validit;,- of 
such oi)erations. That she did so is certain; for the (Jeorgia, after lii-r 
transfer into ])rivate hands, was taken on the high seas by tlie United 
States steamer Niagara, and sent to America as a i»rize, to be disposed 
of in regular course of law. A redanuition aVtemptetl by the owner, in 
a note addressed to l'2arl Kussell, was jiu't by a reply decisive of the 
merits of the <'ase. 

Jn view of all the facts attending this case, and of the considerations 
attending them, 1 am brought to tlie conclusion that it <loes not show 
any su(di course on the part of ]Ier ^Majesty's government as will suf 
tice to impose any responsibility for damages under the terms of the 
three rules prescribed by the treaty of Washington. 

Vlll. — THE SIIENA^^DOAII. 

We have now reaidied the last vessel, in the order of events, which is 
Hnn,„„i,.i,i,. presented to this tribunal for its consideration. 

It ai)pears clearly, from tlu* i)apers before us, that the steadily grow- 
ing energy manifeste<l by Her Majesty's government in preventing the 
departiue of vess(?ls obviously intemled to carry on w'ar had ;!')t l)eeii 
Avitliout its effect upon the parties engaged in procuring them. The sei/- 



«l(^ciilf' do im'mo. II mo piirnlt qu'il on ost flo memo do la promiore rcconiiaissancfi de 
l)olli;!;oraiico, la eausc priniiiiro d(^ toiitcs cos (idostioiis iiiallRMiroiisos, dtMuarcluMiiii' 
j'ai tonjonr.s rcjiictti' quo, Ton out i)iiso, iiiais (pio lo ;:;()Mvoriiouu'iil: do sa Majo.st6 iivait 
lo droit do prondro, Jc u'on ai jamais douto, (|naMd it lo Ji\j;;oait oonvtMiahlo.. 

Ijo (>o(trgia, aiiivs avoii' (|Mitt(' Siuiuu'.s l>ay n'oul qu'uuo couito carriore. II se 
nioutra tout a fait iniproiiro au sorvioo ((u'll avait <'l>i forcio do fairo, ot roviut oiiiin a 
Livovpoid, oh il t'at \oii(l\i ot t ransforuu'^ ou \ai.'>si>au inaroliaiid. On a houIovo uiie 
quostiou a foj-ard do hi oouduito du <>()uvoriioiiiout do ,sa Majo.sto, eu periiiottaiit (|ue 
oooi f'fit i'ait daiis hos jioitM. Jo no puis ootiiproudio riniportauco do la question. 
l)ourvu qu'il rt!oonni')t lo droit du l)olli<>;orant do contosttu" la validitd d'opoiatious 
wMiildahlos. II ost ('oriain qu'il lo (it, car lo (Jeor^ia, apros hou transtbrt on mains par- 
ticulioros, fut pris on hauto inor par lo .stoamor tlo.n Etats-Uuis lo Niagara, ot on voyo 
on Amoridjuo comnio priso pour tni disposer siiivant la loi. Uiio /oclainatiou tiMiteo par 
lo propi-iotairo dans uuo note adressoo au Comto Itusisoll rof ut uno rcpouso qui tnuicba 
la question. 

En considorant tons; les faif-s (pii so vapportont i\ co oas et tout co qui s'y rattaclie, jc 
suis ameno a la oonolnsion qu'il no tonu)igno ])as do la part du gouvernonioiit de sa 
Majest*^ il'uuo oouduito qui sutliso pour iuiposor anouiio ros|)()nsabilit<5 on donunages 
d'apros los tormo.s dos troi.s regies prosurites par lo traito do Washiiigtou. 

LE SHENANDOAH. 

Nous aommes maiutonant arrives an dernier vaisseaii, dans I'orclre des <5v(^nonieiits, 
pr6.sont6 a I'oxamon de co tribunal. 

II ressort clairemeut dos documents plac(?s devant nons qne r<5nergio toiijonre 
croissanto raauifostt^o par le gouvornoineut do sa Majostd, pour einpecber le ddpai'tde 
vaisseaux dvidomment destinies i\ faire la guerre, u'avait pas 6t6 eaus effot sur lesper- 
Huuues (\\n s'<5taieut ongagdes '^ les fournir. La saisio dcs bdliors k vapour bliud^ 



OPINIONS OF MK. ADAMS. 



197 



iireot'tlMi iron clad stoiiin riuns,l>uilt by Messis, Ijiiinl. seems to have tlis- 
[K'llcd all fiirtkcr idea of attempt iiij*' open operations of that (U'scriptiiMi. 

Ktforts were now directed to t\n' prosecution of s(tiiemes that woidd 
elude observation. In tho execution of this policy, swift vessels, con- 
structed for commercial purposes, were looked up. And when foun«l 
reasonably adapted for conversion into privateers, measures were taken 
to procure tiie control of thcin so suddenly as to effect their escape from 
the Ih'itish Jurisdiction before any means of preventicui could be put 
into operation. 

A skillful combination of the means of supplying; an armament and a 
ciew at some pre-arran<jfed point on the hijth seas far beyond the Mrit- 
jsli jurisdiction, in a vessel so (piickly and secretly pushed out of a 
British port as to baflle pursuit, completed the adventure. 

This i)lan had been attend(Ml with (!oini)lete success in the (;ase of the 
(ieorfjia. It was now resorted to with a few variations in the case of 
the kSlienandoah. 

The Ibiti.sh steamer Hea-King had been built for a merchant-vessel 
and enii)loyed in the ('hina trade, durinj;- which period she had f>ained 
much rei)utation for her speed and her sailiu<^ qualities. In the year 
18('4 she appears to have attracted the attention of the insurj^ent aj>ents 
i» Eiifiland, and they proceeded through their customary British aflilia 
tions to get her into their hands. On the L'Oth of September the 
purchase atid transfer were etfe(!ted in the port of London. A ])er- 
sou by the name of Wiight, a British subject, appeared as the owner. 
Outhe 8th of October this vessel cleared from that port in the usual 
way for Bombay, without exciting observation. The crew had been 
hired for that voyage. 

Simultaneously with this movement, a screw-steamer, called the Laurel, 
issued from the port of Liverpool, having a considerable number of 
passengers on board, and a cargo composed of an armament and ammu- 
nition suitable for a vessel of war. ller nominal destination was Mata- 
moras, via Nassau. 



iv<^iionient9, 



con8triiits par MM. Laird semble avoir lUit i-vaiiouir tmite iddu ult^ri. nre do uouvoUo 
tentative d'oporatioiiH de cotte nature. 

Di'3 loiH, oil sVtt'orva do ponrsnivrodes plans ([ui pormiHSont d't-cliapper atix obsorva- 
tious. iJaiiH la roali-sation do co dossoiii, on clusr(ilia dos vaisscanx rapidt's constniits 
pour ties entroprises coiiniiorcialos. Et cpiand on Ics trouvait asscz l>iou a<laptos pour 
iitrecoiivertis en eor.saircs, on ])ronait dt!s inoHurcs ponr Ics obtciiir asse/, HninttMuent 
pour eti'ectuer lour evasion do la juridictioii britauuinue avaut (lu'aueuno niosuro 
preventive pfttetro tniso a execution. 

Une habile c()ud)iuaison des nioyons ilc pourvoii- a I'ariiuMnent et a rr'(iiiii)enienfc, sur 
quelqiio point lixe <ravaiu'e on liauto nier, bien loin de la jiiridiction aiij;lais(>, jiar uu 
vaisseau mis bors d'un j»ort an'^lais assez rapidiMut'iit et secri-tenu'Ut pour dejouer 
toute poursuite, (M)inpb''tait I'aventure. 

Ceplan avait, reussi ooiuplotouuMit dans lo cas du (icorj^ia. On y cut recours, avcc 
qiieltpics variations, dans lo cas du Sbonandoab. 

Lo stcaiiier an<rlais Si^a Kinj^ avait etc constrnit pour etre nil vaisseau luarcband, ot 
employe au counuerco do la Cliine, epocpio ofi il avait accpiis uuo ^rande reputation 
ponr sii vitosso ot pour ses (pialites cotunio voilicr. Dans Tanin'o Ir*t>4, il parait avoir 
attire I'atteutiou des ay;onts insnr<;es on An<^let<!rre, et ils clierclierent, par lours adilia- 
ti()U8 anglaises ordinairoK, a I'acquerir. Lo 20 sopt»u\bro, Taeliat et b* transfert furcnt 
ett'ectues dans lo port de Londros. Uno personuo du noin do Wriglit, sujet anglais, 
iippanilt couune le i)ropri«Haire. Lo 8 octobro, co vaisseau s'aetinitta do co port en la 
maiiiOre ordinaire pour Bombay, saus piovoijuer d'observations. L'eciuipage avait cttS 
enRasjd ponr ce voyage. 

Sinniltaiidmont avec co mouveraent, un steamer h belice, nomme lo Laurel, sortit du 
portde Liverpool, ayaiit un nombro considerable de passagers a bord ot une cargaison 
comiK)s«^e d'un armement et de munitions propros a un vaisseau de guerre. Sa desti- 
nation etait Matamoras, via Nassau. 






"I|!*;|l|,|*l I" II" 



Hi' 




198 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 



The tnio (l('stiiiiitii)U of both .ships \vas the vi(Miiit,v of tht> i^l;iIl(l(,t' 
Mjulcira. Tliore thoy ncti'iilly iiuU, on or iilfout the L'lst of OcIoIkt; 
and there the ])i'ocess of Liausfer of the ai'inameiit and the inoii was 
effected on the hi^h nea. 

This oi»eration had been <'ondueted with a (h»;4ree of success exceed 
in;;' that of the (leoigia. I'^ven the vij;ilance oi' the consul of the I'liitfil 
States at Liverpool had resulted only in the formation of conjcctiuvs. 
reasonable in themselves, aid partially well founded in fact, but uiisus 
tained by any ]>ositive evidence. That was not obtained until t'lo 
return of many of tlie crew of the SeaKiiift", who had refnst'(l to tiiki' 
the new dei)arture, wlieu it was discl()se<l to them by the true com 
maiider of the vessel, iu)W called the Shenandoah. 

Thus iar I have only to reju-at the observations I nuide in the cascot 
the (ieori;ia. Placiajj;' myself in the i)osition of any neutral jiowci'iios 
se.ssin.!4' an e\a'nsive comnu'rcial marine and a lar;;e number of parts, 
it seems to nu^ that no ordinary decree of <lili;;-ence could be likely to 
avail to i)revent the execution of such skill fidly-contrived enterprises, 

Iler 3IaJesty's consul at the jiort of Tenerilfe api)ears to have done ;ill 
that it was in his i)ower to do in the i)rennses. On the ari'ival of tlic 
Laurel at that place, and learning the state of the fads as ^iveu toiiim 
by the parties on board, he i)repared a careful rei)ort of the saiiu", iiml 
addressed it to ICarl llussell. Jle also assunu'd the responsibility ol 
seizin;:'' the master of the Sea- King', P. .J.Corbett, and sendinj;- him Iidiho 
for trial as having", even though at sea, violated the provisions of tln' 
foreignenlistment a(;t. 

On the 20th of January, ISO."), ComnuHKhu- King, of Her ^lajcsty's 
ship J>oml)ay, writes to Counnodore Sir AV. Wiseman. 

1 copy the essential parts of his letter : 

1. 1 conceive it to be my duty to rej)ort to you that a vessel of war 
of the Confederate States of America arrived and anchored in nobsoii's 
Uay yesterday, the L*5th instant. 

li. Her name is the Shenandoah, a screw-vessel, «5cc. 




La vriii(> (l(!stiiiation des donx iinvires (^tattles parages do I'ili! do Madrrc. Ussy 
roiicoiitioi'tMit cH'octivt'iiKnit vorslo '21 oftol)io, ot its prooodoront an transfcrt di' I'aniit- 
luoiit ot dos lioiiiiiios on liauto nior. 

Cottoopi'iation avait oto condiiito avec nn dofrjo do siuh'os qui doi)asHait nioinc elm 
dii Goor^ia. Moiiio la vijfilanco dii consul dos I'icats-Unis a Livorpool u'aviiit ;ilj(nui 
qu'a dos conjoctnres, raisonualdos on ollos-uionios, ot on ]»artio bion fondoes on fiiit. 
inais non ajipuy^^os d'aucnne prouvo positive, lino ]»rouvo do cotte iiaturo no I'm 
obtouno, qn'aii rotour do plusionrs dos lionmios do I'eqnipage du Soa Kin<ir, qui avaii'iit 
rel'usC^ do signor lo nonvol ongag(^nnMit quaud oelni-oi lour avait oto n^volo iiar le vra: 
coniinanilant du vaissoau nonini<^ dos lois lo yiionaudoali. 

Jusqu'ici, ,jo n'ai (pi'il roi)<!tor los obsorvatious quo j'ai faites dans lo oas dii Georgia. 
En nu) ]>laoant dans la position d'uno pnissanoo uoutro, ])ossodunt uuo niaiiiie cuni- 
mercialo otonduo ot un grand nonil)ro do ))orts, il mo soniblo <iu'ancane diligoiuo on'.i- 
iiairo n'auiait probablouiout suHi iiour oninoclior rexc-cntiou d'ontroprisos si liabilemciit 
conduitoH. 

Le consul do sa Majost(^ du port do Ton('^rifl\\ somblo avoir fait tout ce qu'il otaitoii 
sou pbnvoir do iairo d.ins cos ciroonstancos, A I'arrivoo du Laund dans co lion, etfn 
appronant I'otat dos fails, conimo los Ini diront los personnes a bord, non-soulenieiiti! 
eu i)n'i)ara un rai>pi.rt soigin^ux adress6 au Conite Russoll ; 11 ussunia aussi la rospou- 
sabilitc do saisir lo capitaino dii Soa King, 1'. I. Corbott, ot do I'onvoyor on Anglstcrre 
pour y otro ,jng6 coninio ayaut violo, quoiqne cu ploiuo nior, lofoiriifii-vnlistmciit act. 

Le 2t! Janvier 18(55,10 couiniandant King, du vaissoau cle sa Majesto le Honibay, s 
llobson's Bay, (Sent au comuiandaut Hir W. Wisouiaa. Jo copio los parties esseii- 
tielJes do sa lettro: 

" 1. Je crois qn'il est de mon devoir do vous rapporter qu'un vaissoau de guerrodes 
dtats-conftlddriSs d'Anidri(|ue arriv^a ot jeta I'ancre a Hobson's Bay bier, lo 25 courant. 

" 3. Sou nom est le Shenandoah, vaisseau a b«^lice, etc. 



OPiyiONS OF MR. ADAMS. 



199 



t. H(>r iiririainout consists of oij^ltt ftuus, vi/,, four 8-incl>, (Euj^lish,) 
two ;52 poumltn'H, (NVhitwoi'th,) and two lli-pouiulors, intondod more 
I'Siieciiiliy for l)oat service. 

'). Tiic crew Jit i>rcsont consists only of seventy men, thou<xh her 
in'opcr i'onipkMncnt is oiu' liun<lrcd and forty; tlie men jilinost entirely 
iire stated to be either l']u;^lish or liisli. 

S. Tii«^ ship appears to be in jH'ood order, her oflieors a soiitlemanly 
si'tof men, in a uniform of s^ray and j;'old; but, from tin; ]»aucity of lior 
(lew at ])rcsent, she cannot be very (itlicient for fi;»htin^ purposes. 

!». Leave had been asked by the commander lor pi>rmissiou to coal 
and ri'pair machinery, iki:. 

It is to be noted here that, from the statements inaih' l)y this oflicjer, 
'X appears he had an opinion clearly formed that, in the condition 
;lii.s vessel was in at the time she arrived in port, and with such a limited 
(lew, she could iu)t be ellicient as a li,uhtin<;' ship. 

Tlu' application mad" by the master of the Shenandoah to tUc gov- 
ii'iior of the colony, Sir C. 11. Darling, was in these words: 

1 huvo tlic lioiiDT ti) iiiUHmiii'd to yimr oxci^llfiicy thi" nrri val of tin' CDiifiMlcriito Slivtoa 
utiaiiur !Sli('iiaii(liiiili, under my ciniiiiiiiiid, in I'oit riiilip tldn lU't.crnooii, ami also to 
tiiimiiunkate tliat tlio st,('a"'fi'a uiuLhiiiory roiiiiires ripiiirs, and that 1 aai in want of 
itials. 

Idcsiri! yonr fxccllem-y In j!,rant permission tliat I may inakL' llu; nccosHary repairs 
lUiil sii]i|ily of foals, to (fnahlc mu to j^et to .sua as ([uickly as possible. 

It is to be noted that the object here mentioned was to get to sea, 
witliout the specification of any i)ort of destination. 

On the -()th of January, Mr, Francis, commissioner of trade and cus- 
toms, by direction of the governor, Sir Charles Darling, addressed a letter 
lotlie comnuindei', Waddell, of which the essential part is as follows: 

III loply, I have nsceivod tlic instructions of Sir Charlies l)arlin;i to stato that ho ia 
ffiliiii<^ to allow till? lu^Ci'ssary rcjiairs to tho .SluMian(h):ili, and tlu! coaling of tlio V08 



'• 1. S'.)u armomont consists en linit canons, savoir, iiuatrc dc liuit i)oucc,s anglais 
ilmix dc trcntc-dcnx Whitworth, ct deux do don/c, dcsUuds i>Iu.s spcuialouiont au sor- 
vic'i' lies cniliarcations. 

"5. L'f'(iuipa;;e u'cst niaintcnant quo do soixanto-dix liomiuos, quoi(i[uo son total 
(luive ("tro dc cent quarautc ; Ics lutiuinos sont prcsquc tons, dit-on, auglaia ou 
irlaiidais. 

"i Lo vaissoau hon jiarait en etrc etat; his oflicicrs sont un corps do lucssiours 
cniiimcil taut, en nniformc }>ris ct or ; niais a cause du petit n()nit)re dc ses liommos 
(lV(|uii)ajfo cu c(i nuimcut, il ne pent pas ctre bicn cai)ablc do so battre. 

''D. Permission a etc dcnuin(h''o par lo comuuiudant do faire du char: ■ ct dc r^paror 
.-■a machine," etc. 

II taut roniar<|iicr ici que, d'aprcs les rcnseiKUPments dontuSs par cot otlicier, il paralt; 
que son opinion dtait nettcnucnt foruu'e ((uc, daui- I'etat ou etait ce vaissoau i\ IVipoquo 
I'll il arriva dans lo port, ct avec uu equipage si pen nonil)r(Uix, il u'ctait i>as capable 
(If joiuT lo role d'uu vaissoau do combat. 

La (h'luande faito par le capitaine du Shenandoah au gouvorucur do la colonic, Sir 
C. H, Darling, dtait convu*" dans cos tcrnies : 

'' J'ai I'honiKiur d'annoucer a votrc excellence Varri vee du steamer dos <>tats-coiif6d6r6a 
leSbenaudoali, sous luon commandcmcut, a I'ort I'hilip, cettc apres-niidi, ct aussi de 
coniiuuni(picr (juc sa machine cxigc de.s ix'parations ct que j'ai hcsoin do charbon. 

"Jo desire (pio votro cxcclloiuio m'accorde la permission dc faire los reparations 
iii'cessaircs et les provisions dc charbou pour quo jo puisso prendre la mer le plus tflt 
l)ossi!)le." 

II faut remarriucr que lo but ici raentionnd <5tait do prendre la mer, sans iudiqaer 
auciiu port de destination. 

Le2() Janvier M. Francis, commissaire du commerce et dcs douanes, snr I'ordre du 
Souverueur, Sir Charles Darling, adressa une lettre au commandant WaddoU, doutla 
partio essentielle est comme il suit : 

"Eu rdpouse, j'ai re^u pour instructions, do Sir Charles Darling, de vous dire qu'il 
est dispos6 a accordor les r«5paratious ndcossaires au Shouandoah, et I'approvisionne- 



', , 1- 





\ 


1 






t 


8 •■ ' 




i 



WW 



200 



ARBITKATION AT GKNHVA. 








Bill Immii^ at otirn [)i'(ii'0('(I<!(l witli. mill tliiit flm imccHKiiry (liroctioii'i liavo lircn ;riv,,, 
8C('.(ir(liii;i;ly. 

At tiic siiiiKi tiiiM' Mr. Frimcis «'omtiiuni«'iit«'«l to this olliccr a copv m 
the ^jnicral orders of tlie Diikc of N»'\v<riistl(', in n'j;ai'«l to what is ciilliii 
tU« t\v<'iity-foiir hoius niU', and lilccwisc. thosii t'liihraci'd iti a letter 
of I'jarl Itiisscll to tlu- Duke, of NcwcMsth', of tin^ .">lst, .laiiiiar.v, Lst;.'. 
covoviii;;' iTji'idations applicalde to all <|iu'stioiis ordinarily arising' out ot 
tlui arrival ol" similar vi-sscls. 

Oil tUo lilJth, the liTth, and 2.Stli of January, Mv. lllaiichard, tliti coiisiil 
of the United States at McilWoiinie, addressed to Sir (!harles Dailiii;' 
throe siieeessive hitters, protestin;:; a^-aiiist the re(M);,'iiitioii of this vcsmI 
aa beloii^in;;' to a helli^icieiit, on tlu^ ground of her origin, her cuiivc;- 
sion at sea, and her a(;tiial eondilion. 

Oil the .'»l)th of ilanuary, his excellency states to the (HUineil of tin 
colony : 

Tliat ho liiwl roplicil to tlm lliiitod States cdhmmI to tlic, iMl'cet that, liaviiii;- nivm mi 
atteiitivt) coiihiileratioii to liis It'ttcr, and lia\'iiiu; ronsiillt'd willi tlii^ law-ol'licrr.s iil'tiii 
Crown, he liad <'oiii(' to thi' decision;! hat the ^jovciiinifiit of this eniony wdi; lioiiinl !,i 
treat the Siu^naii<h)aii as a s1m|) <d' war hehmfiini^ to a hcllijrert'iit power. 

His cxetdUincy then coiisiilts tlie eoiiiiidi on the only poiid. upon whicii he ili(iii;;iii 
any (h)iiht coidd aiise, viz, wiiether it would be ex]tedieut to eall upon the lieutenant 
ooiiuiiiindin^j; the Sheinunloah to show his eoniinission lVi)ni the irovernintint of the ('mi. 
federate Slates, aiitiiori/in;.; him to take, eoniinand of that vessel for warlike* pni|Misf(. 

After a brief consultation, a> majority of his advi.sers tiMider their o[»inion tliiit it 
would not be e.\)»edient to do so. 

I do not find, on the ])art oC Her JNIaJesty's government, any notice (»; 
this decision among. the papiu's bi'fore us. Thus, it appears tiiat 
once more it had been determined to sunetion a proceeding knowa to 
liave been executed in d(!tiance of the hiws of (rreat liritain, and of the 
pledges of the government to maintain a strict neutrality in tin; (!oiite.st, 
The principle that success sanctions a fraud had again be»ui ratilicil 
uader circumstances which could not fail, and did not fail, to entail n\tm 
its supporters the heaviest kind of responsibilities. 



ment d« charbon du vaisscan, auqncd on pout iiiocdder de suite, ot (lue IcH ordres iieeii- 
saircB out (',t6 (h)unes en eousefiuence." 

En memo teini)s, M. Francis eonnnuni((iuiit a eet odieior un exeniplairc des orilrrs 
g6n6raux du due do Newcastle .sur co ((u'on apjU'lh^ la re;fh( des vinjj;t-(inatre heures, ct 
aussi ccux contonns «Ians une hittre du Conite linsstdl au due tie Newcastle, du ;il jaii- 
vier 18{)2, reuferinant thss relics applieables a toutes le.s questions <iuo soulcvait <>rtli- 
naircnient I'arrivee de vaisseanx seuddables. 

Le 2(i, le 27 et Ic 28 Janvier, M. IJlanchard, consul des l'!tatH-lJnis A, MelhiMirin', 
adrcssa i\ Sir Charles Darliu};' trois lettrijs sueccssives, protestaut eontro la recoiiiiaiv 
Bauco do CO vaiss(!au connne api)artenaut a un belligeiant, a cause de son origine. ih"!! 
transformation en nier et de sa condition actuclle. 

Le ;?0 Janvier, son excellence expose au eouseil de la colonie: 

"Qu'il avait nqiondu au consul des t'Uats-lJnis en substance, (prayant donm' iiih' 
attention sc-rieuso a ees hittres, et ayant consnlte h's ' law-ollicers' do la couroiiiu', il 
avait d<!cidii (jue le {{ouveruenicnt de cette coloniis etait obli;ie de trailer le Shenaiuloali 
comnio vaisseau de jfuerre api)artenant a un ponvoir belli}i;<^i'ant. 

"Son excellence considto alors le eonseil sur le seul point sur letpud il pensait iin'n" 
douto pftt s'clever, h savoir, s'il .serait conveuable d'iuvitor lo lieutenant commandant 
le Shenandoah a n\ontrer sa commission du gouveruisnient des etats-confederes I'aii- 
torisant h prendre le commandemeut de sou vaisseau pour des i)rojets guerriers. 

"Apros une breve deliberation, uno niajoritd de son eonseil donna sou avis qu'il ne 
serait pas h, propos do le faire." 

II ne so trouvo de la part du gouvernement do sa Majeste ancuuo trace do cett« 
decision dans les documents qui sontdovant nous. Alnsi il paralt qu'une fois de pins on 
d<Scida de sanctionner nn acto connu pour avoir dte exdcutd en ddti des lois do la Graude- 
Bretagne, et des promesses du gouvernement do maintenir une stricte neutralite dans le 
conflit. Le principo quo le succfts sauctionno une fraudo avait etd de nouveau ralitid, da"* 
des circonstances qui ne pouvaient pas nian<juer et qui no niauqutsrent pas d'attirer 
Bur ses partisans la reHponsabilitd. la plus lourde. 



of'iMONs OF mi;. ai»ams. 



201 



For, ill tlin scries of (•o!is<»(iiumi(H's tliat liiipiu'iicd at McllKHinu', it 
ffiis lu) iiion* tliuii niitiu'iil to expect tliiit the piu-tics jLjnilt.v of the llrst 
otl'ciisc should he likely to resort to others of tlie saiiu^ nature whciievci 
there shoiihl appeiii' that any a<lvantaj;'es were to l>e ;;aiiie(l by it. The 
authorities at Mellioiinie seem at llrst to hav»» acted as if the baptism 
of the vessel into a lU'W name had, in their eyes, washed it white of all 
its piist sins. They Were destined to learn a dilferent lesson, but nobody 
swMiis to have repented, with the exception, perhaps, of the governor 
Iiiiiiscir, whose lati'st sijjjniticant d»M;laration on that siiltjcct I sliall have 
(K'ciisioii to iiotiire hereafter.' 

The application of the insurju'eiit officer \\'add«'ll for leave to make 
repairs and ^^I't supplies was nuide on the L'.'ith of January. Five 
(lays passed, and he liad just discovei'cd, from an examination mad(^ by 
iiiiiver, that repairs were ne(!essary under tlu^ water-line, which would 
require that the v<'ssel should be jilacetl on tlu^ yoveinment slip, there 
to continue not inon^ than ten days. Meanwhih^ he had not yet be- 
thought himself to jiive to the authorities, who had recpu'sted it, any 
report as to the (puintity and the nature of tlu^ supplies which he 
desired. 

Thus delays were interposed, for one reason or other, until tlie 18tli of 
February, when the vessel sailed. 

The commatuU'r had in this way manai^cd to secure a period of twenty 
three days, dnrin;;" which time he could set in oj)erat ion the means of 
atiirtin;;' on his i)rojected expedition in an elfeetive manner. 

It should here be observed that, in all his movements, he was much 
favored by the ahnost universal sympathy of the residi'iits at M(!lbourne 
and the etdony. Whatever he could ask thet was permissible they 
would enthusiastically furnish. Whatever he v ured to do that was not, 
they were indisposed to i)erceive or to disclose. 

Under these circumstances, there cannot bo ii doubt that, durinj^ all 



irdres lu^t'cs- 



Cur, (liius la sdrio (los crt'cts qui so produisaiciit a M<Ub()iuiio, il nVtait quo natiirol 
(I'atteiidro (|iu) Ics ix'r.soiincs c<>iii>al)lt!s do cotto oll'i'iiso \i I'orif^iiio locoiinaioiit prDbablo- 
ment a d'autrcs iiioytMis do la iiioiiio iiatiiro toiitcs los I'ois <|u'il paraitrait (iii'iiii but 
utile jiourrait oti'o aUoiut do cot to iiiaiiioro. Los aiitoritos do Molboiirno soinblout 
(I'iilionl avoir a<ii ooiiuno si lo baptonio dt)o(! vaisaoau d'lin nouvt^au iioiii I'avait jtiirilio 
tic tons 80S poolu'S ])assi's a Iciii's yoiix. I^o dostiii avait iiiio aiitiii lo(;()u a IcMir ajiprcn- 
(Iro, niiiis ])ors(>niio no sciiildo s'otro roponti, a I'oxot^iitioii [loiit-otro ilii fjouvoruoiir lui- 
iiUMiio, dout j'auiai occasion do uieiitioiuior ci-apris la doniioro declaration siynili- 
cativo. 

Liidomando do I'oHioior insiiry;o, Wa(ldoll,qii'il lui Cut ]it'iinis d(! fairo dos roparations 
etd'obtoidr dos provisions, I'nt faito lo "J.") jativicr. Ciiiqjoni.s so pasworont, ot il vonait 
(It! rtecouvrir, par nn oxanion fait jiar '10 plonnciir, (|uo dcs rt'parations tUaii^nt iidcos- 
saires sons la liJrlu^ do tlottaison, co ((oi cxif^orait (pio lo vaissoaii iVitplaco snr lo berdii 
{jouvtirneuient i»i)ur n'y roster ^\\u-. dix joins. Kn attendant, il n'avait jia.s (Micoro son^*) 
lidoimeranx antoritt's, (pii favaiont dcniaiido, nil rai>port snr la ([uaiititii ct la nature 
des subsides qii'il dcsirait. 

Aiiisi dcs dolais inter vinront, pour uno raison on pour niie autre, ju.stju'aii 18 lovri; r, 
oiile vaisseau part it. 

Lo comniandant avait niaim^nvro do c( tto fa(,'oii ])onr s'assurer niic perioibi do vii.ul- 
trois jours, pendant hupiello il put inottri! il ox(''CUtioii les uioyens do partir pour sojI 
t'xp(<(lition projetdo d'uiio inanit-ro ett'octive. 

II t'iuit remarquor ici (pio dans tons cea niouvemonts il fut oxtremeiuent favovisd par 
lasynipathio prosquo universcllo dos babitants do JLdbouruo et do la colonic. Quoi 
qu'il deniandilt de choses poruiises, lis voulaientbieii Ics lui fouruir avec onthousiasme. 
(iuoi qu'il osiXt faire d'injusto, il i n'dtaient pas disposes a lo voir ni i\ le docouvrir. 

Dans cea circonstances, on uo nit doubter que, peudaut tout cet iutervalle dc temps, 

' Bri' .^h Appendix, vol. i, p. 722. 




202 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 



this interval ot time, he was constantly busy in secretly obtaining addi. 
tions to his crew. This was indispensable to his ulterior operations. 

Had the matter depended on the enerj?y of the authorities and popu. 
latiou of Melbourne alone to i)revent this, ho would have had all l^. 
wanted without a word of notice. Unluckily for him, he loiiiid the 
consul of the Unit'^d States, jMr. Ulanchard, on the watch to check ami 
expose his proceedings by all the means in his power. On tiie lOtli of 
February, that ofUcer addressed a letter to tlie governor inclosing the 
deposition of John AVillianis. In it, this witness alllrmed that, on the 
Monday previous, there had been lifteen or twenty men concealed in 
ditlereut i)arts of the ship, who had gone on board siiu-e her aiTival 
.sixteen days before. 

This statement it is material to connect with a part oi the rei)i>rt iiiiuK' 
by Captain I'ayne ;:o the authorities on that same day. He liad been 
instructed to make a careful examination of the vessel, la his ivport 
he has this i)assage : 

Tliori! aiii)oai\s to l)c u mystery <il)ont lier forcliold, tor tlio foi'uiiiaii of tlie itaiciit >li|i, 
^vheii asslvL-d to j;o ilowu to tliat .sjtot to iiieasiu'o her for the cradle, was iiifoniUMl hi' 
could not ;j;ct to tin- skin at tliat ])lac('. Tlii^ hatclii's were always lvi-i)t on, aad tlir 
foreman states tliat he was informed tliey had all tlioir sliilf there.' 

Another witness, obtaiiuMl by ISlr. IJlanchard, named \\'alter J. ^ilad- 
den, testified that, wlien he left the vessel on the 7th of Februaiy, 
•'there were men hid in the forecastle of the ship aiul two workinjjin 
the galley, all of whom came on board of said vessel since her arrival 
in that i)ort ; that the oflicers pretend they do not know that said men 
are so hid." 

On tlie 14th of February Mr. IJlanchard sent another deposition, of a 
man named Herman AVicke, specitically uaming one person as having 
come on boiird. These are his words : 

The rations in llolison's Hay arc sent out l)y tlu; iin\.stt:r-at-arms, who '.nvos tlieiiitu 
fiMiarterinaster Mckings, and this hitter liriugs them to the galley to be "ooked, by 



iL< . 



il no fftt eonstauimont a I'o'uvre pour ohtenirsecretenicnt nn»^ augmentation consiili^ra- 
hie de son r'([uii)age. feci ^tait iudisjiensable pour ses operations nlterienrcs. 

S'il cut di'^pendii de I'eiiergio des autorites et de la ])oiiulation do Melbourne souk', 
intjnt de l'emi>eeher, il aurait eu tout ce dont il avait besoiu sans nn mot d(> eritii|ue- 
^lalheureiisement jxiur lui, il trouva le consul des ICtats-Unis, M. IJlanchard, aiis 
agnets, ])our rcprimer et i)()ur dthoiler. par tons les nioyeus en son pouvoir, ses i)rn- 
ft^dds illegaux. Le 10 fdvrier, il adressa une lettre au gouverneur, renfer iiaiit la 
disposition de John \Villianis. Dans celle-ei, ce tt-moiu atlirmait que. le lundi prccf- 
dent il y avait eu (|uinze on vingt hommes cacht's dans ditferentes parties du vaisseaii. 
qui etaicnt alloes a bord depuis son arrivt^e, seize Jours an))aravant. 

II est essentiel de rajiproeher cette aHirmation <l'un ])aragrai)he d'un rapport faitw 
nieme jour par le capitaine I'aynt^ aux autorites. II avait rei.'u I'ordre d'examincr 
.soigneus(;ment le vaissean. Dans son rai)port se tronve ce passage : * 

'• II sendile qu'il y a un mystere a I'egard de sa cale d'avant, car le contre-mnilrodii 
bcr patente, lors(|n'on lui (h-inaiida d'y deseendre i)0ur le mesurer en viie de h^ iiicttn" 
sur le berceau, fnt informe rpi'il no pouvait pas arriverjusipfa la cocjuo en cet endrnit. 
Lcs panueaux de roeoutillo ctaient toujinirs fermes, et lo contre-maitre depose (HU'U 
lui a dit rpi'ils y avai<Mit tontes leurs affaires."' 

Un autre tenn)in, trouvd par M. Blanchanl, nomme Walter 0. Madden, dt'^posa qne 
loraciu'il (piitta le vaissean, le 7 fevrier, il y avait des honunos cachets da?is le gailliinl 
d'avant du vaissean, et deux (pii travaillaient dans la cuisine ; tons ils dtaient veiiusa 
bord dn dit vaissean depuis sou arrivee dans ce port; quo les oflieiers prdtendentne 
pas savoir (pio cos dits honunes soient uinsi caches. 

Lo 14 fevrier, M. lilanchardenvoyauno autre d6position d'uu hommo nommd Herman 
Wicko, indiquaut, parson nom Hjtdcialemeut, uue porsoauo comuio dtant vouue ii bord. 
Void 8C8 paroles : 

" Les ratiouH h llobson's Bay sont sorvics par lo capitaine d'armes qui les donueaB 
<|Uartior-multi'e Vicking, et co dernier les portetl la cuisine pour y 6trc cuites parim 

' British Appendix, vol. 1, p. 557. 



OriNIONS OF MR. ADAMS. 



203 



cook known l>y the nanio of Charley ; that said cook Cliarlcy was not onboard tho 
.Sheiiandoali on hi;r arrival in the l)ay ; ho went on board since her arrival, and ho 
told me he would join the ship as cook ; that he dared not to do it in port, but that he 
would do it wlujn ])roceedinii outwards; that I also saw said cook tak(! rations to a 
immber of men concealed in the forecastle, who went on board since her arrival iu 
Hobsou's Bay. 

This testimony was laid before tlie law-ollicers, who deemed tlie ttrst 
deposition by itself sutticienr evidence to lay informations aj^^ainst the 
mau enlisted, and this a])pears to have prompted the conned, not to 
take any proceedings ajiainst tbe commander, but to direct an inquiry 
to 1)0 made when he would be ready to jjjo away.^ 

It was the tempted on whi(!h indignation was to be expended. The 
true cause of the violation of law was to go his way iu peace. 

On the heels of this infoi-ination came a report from tho police depart- 
ment that twenty men had been <lischarged from the vessel since her 
arrival in port. 

If this rei>ort was correct, then her <M'ew, according to the report of 
Captain Payne, must have been reduced to lifty nuMi. 

On such a basis she could scarcely ha^'e ventured on any hostile 
cruise. It seems tolerably plain that the object of supplying this dcft- 
eiciicy Avas kept in view from the hrst. 

The detective proceeded to state that the captain intended to sliip 
forty hands, to be taken on during the night, and to sign articles wlten 
outside the Heads. He wanted foreign seamen only; but, if English 
were to be taken, they must assume a foreign name. 

Further information from other sources given on the same day raised 
the number of men actually engaged to sixty. 

It thus appears that the autliorities at Melbourne were, as early as 
the I'Jth, fully apprised of what was tho mo\ ement of the commander, 
and in a situation to adopt energetic measures of i)reventi()n, if they 
should think proper. 



ciiisinior connn sous le noni de ' Charley' ; le dit cuisinier 'Charley' n'etait pas h 
bor'i du Shenaiuh)ah a son arrivee dans la bale ; il vint a bord d(>i)nis son arrivi-.c et mo 
(lit(|iril Aoulait prendre du service sur le vaisseau conune cuisinier ; <|u'il n'osait i)a3 lo 
t'liirc! dans lo port, nuiis qu'il h^ ferait li)rs(]ue le vaissi'au sortiraJt. .I'ai vu aussi lo dit 
luisiiiier porter des rations a d(>s homines caches dans le gaillard d'avant, <iui viureut 
a bord de]Miis son arrivi5e a Hobson's liay." 

Co tonioiji;na;j,'o fill sounds dux "law-othcers," ijei Jurjerent la ])reniierc di^positiou 
pri'iivo snlHsante par elle-nifine jiour <le(U'rner un luandat d'arret coutre les hoinmes 
oiiiolos, et ceci parait avoir <-iifj;a;;e leconseil, noii ])as a ])rendre aucuue niosure coutro 
li' commandant, mais a ordon«.r (ju'une empiete fut laite ])our savoir (juand il sorait 
l)i('t a partir. 

Ce fut sur ceux (|ui avaient I'te seduifs i]ne rindii^nation devait se deverser ; le v6ri- 
tiiblo iuitciir de la violation dc la loi devail s'en alli'r en \rdix. 

Iiiunediatemeut ai'res ce maiidat d'arret, vint un rapitort du di'partenuMit de police, 
iiuo, viii<i;t homnies avaient (juitte Ic vaisseau de])uis son arrivee dans le port. 

Si ce rapport titait exact, son ('^()uii>a,!^e alors, d'ajires le rapport du capitaine Payne, 
doit avoir etc rednit a citujuantc lionmies. 

Sur une telle base, il ])ouvait a peine s'aventurer dans aucune croisiero hostile. 

L'ageiit de police dit ensiute que le capitaine so proposa de recruter cpiarante 
lioiinues, (jui devaient monter a bordile nuit et si;;fner les enjuageuionts (piand ils serai- 
tnt liorsdes " Heads." II no voulait que des niarins ^tranjjers, mais, s'ii fallait prendre 
lies Anjrlais, ceux-ci devaient adopter un nom ctran^er. 

Des ren8ei<fnements ulterieurs, d'autres sources, donnds le inenie jour, 61ovaiout lo 
iiombre des liommes offectivement en^ast^s a soixante. 

II parait ainsi que les autoritds de Melbourne dtaient, des lo 1:1, ploinoinont informdos 
<le ce (pie faisait lo comnuiudant, et eu i^tat d'adopter des mosuros do prevention, si olles 
Ipjngeaieut convenable. 

' British Appeddix, vol. 1, p. 521. 




S : 




204 



ARBITRATION AT GENEVA. 






Tho only ino.isure which appears actually to have been taken was to 
issue a warrant against the man Charley. 

The oflicer charged with the warrant proceeded to the steainor in 
which the man was sui>posed to be. The commander was not on boiml, 
The oflicer next in charge at once refused to give him any assistanco, 
and forbid his going over the ship. 

The next day he returned, and aj)plied to the commander himssclf, 
That oflicer is reported to have used these words : " I pledge you „' , 
word of honor, as an othcer and a gentleman, that I have not any one 
on board, nor have 1 engaged any one, nor will 1 while 1 am here." 

How is this evidence to be recou(!iled to all the previous testimony, 
and the suspicious circumstance mentioned by Captain Payne J 

The rest of the evidence of the boarding-otlicer is quite important, 
though not essential to transfer to this paper. The whole is acces.siltle 
in the first volume of the Appendix to the JJritish Case. The issue of 
the application was, that the commander absolutely refused to let the 
oflicer look over the ship for himself. On a second demand of a more 
pressing kind, he again refused, and added that " he would fight his 
ship rather than allow it" — a threat as absurd in his then situation as 
it was oft'ensive to the authorities of the colony. 

The governor in council, on receiving the news of this open defiance of 
all recognized authority, at once took notice of it by i.ssuing a problbi 
tion to all the subjects of the colony of gi'ing further aid or assistance 
to the vessel then on the slip, which practically exemplified in an instant 
the folly of the insurgent oflicer's proceeding. 

Had the authorities persevered in this course, it is altogether likely 
that the commander, Waddell, would have ultimately been compelled to 
abandon all his schemes of illegal outfit, and with it perhaps the enter- 
prise he was meditating. 

Unfortunately, they listened to weaker counsels. Tlu;y appealed 
to the oflicer to reconsider his determination. The letter containing 
this appeal was delivered to him on the evening of the 14th. Ilean- 



La sonle mosurc (jni seinble avoir oto priso effectiveinout fiit do docerner vn niaiitlat 
d'arrrt coiitn^ "C'harloy." 

L'olificior char<;<> dii mandiit sc. rcntlit an sttuiiiior ofi I'hoiimic ctait si'ipposo i'tn-. Le 
coinniatidaiit iiVtait pas a lionl. L'olliciicr en charf;n aii-dessoiis do lui n-l'iisa de suite 
do lui uidor en ancuue nianiiTi', ot Ini dofondit do nionter Mnr lo vaissean. 

Lo loiidi-niain, il icvint ct s'adrcHsa an couiinaihlant Ini-mAuio. On rapi>ort(' (|iit' wt 
oflQcior dit ces mots : "Jo vons donni^ I'la jtaroli^ (TIionniMir d'olHcior ot dn j^tMitilhonimt 
quo jc n'ai personnc a bord, <[nii je n'ai en^agi' personne ct <ine jo n'enga;;tM-ai persouiie 
pendant qne jo serai ii;!."' 

Conmient ai'c'order e<'tte prcnvc jivoc tontle ti'nwiiijfna,;;'*' prrct'dent, et avee les cireou- 
Ktances suspectes nientioinnM's par 1<» (!a.i»itaii.(' I'ayins { ' 

Lo reslo dn tonu»i;;na^o do I'ollicier (|ni alia a bord est trc-s-iniportant ipinicpi'll nc soit 
pas essentiel do I'introdniro iei. On pent tron vcr lo tont dans lo premier volnnie de lap- 
pendico dn "IJritisli ease." Le resnltat do la deniando l"nt, (pie le eonnnandant ivfima 
abHolniU(Mit do pernicttre a I'aj^-ent do ehereiier snr le valNseau jiar lui-nietne. A nm" 
Hccondo deinande, d'nno nature pins instante, il refiisa do nouve.iu et ajontii: "Qu'il 
livrerait bataillo plutot (pu' do b* jternietti'o ;"' menace missi absnrdc, dans sa sitiiutiun, 
qu'cflcnsanto onvcrs les antorites tie. la e>>lonie. 

Le ji;ouvornenr, ( ii eonseil, en reeovaiit la nonvello do ce deli ouvort do toute antorito 
reconnue, en prit nolo do snito, on enuHtant nne <letenso a tons b^s snjets do la colonio 
de donuer anenno aide ou assistaneo nlterieuro an vai,sseau. alors snr lo ber, co qui 
moutrad'nno nniniore praticpui, en un instant, latoliodolaeonduite dol'oflieier insiirgo. 

Si les autorit(>s avaient pcrsovoro dans e«^tto inani«)ro d'ajfir, il est prolmblo que le 
•conuiKvndaut Waddoll aurait et»^ enlin foroe <rabandonnor tous sos plans d'dquipeiuent 
illegal, ot aveo cola, pent etre, I'entrepriso qn'il moditnit. 

Malhoureusement, ils preterent I'oroillo a dos eonseils plus faiblos. lis en appeU'rent 
h I'oflleier pour (pi'il rdll<^cliH, snr sa d<!terniination. La lettro conteuant cotte iuvitii- 
tiou lui I'ut remise lo soir dn 14. II y repoudit en protestant contre los obstacks mii' 



OPINIONS or MR. ADAMS. 



205 



swererl it, protesting ajrainst tlio ol)struetiou thus jMit in his way. The 
first vseiitence is all that is material in this connection, it is in these 

words : 

•I liavt' to inform liis oxcolleiioy the <?overnor that the oxcrntion of Iho waiTiiTit was 
not refused, as no mucIi person ii:j the one therein specified was on hoard." 

There were two falsehoods in this sentence. The reason assif^ned 
(OiiUl not explain the fact of the refusal. Scarcely was the letter 
pliiced in the hanils of the messenger, wiien the attention of the water- 
police was attracted to the fact that four men were leaving the Shenan- 
(loiili in a boat puUeil by two watermen. They v.ere headed oil" and 
iiripstcd. And then it was discovered that the man Charley, so'posi- 
tivi'ly alleged not to have been on board, Avas one of the four. 

Yet, strange as it may seem, the fact of this discovery of a clear vio- 
liitioii of the foreign-enlistment act was communicated to the perpe- 
trator in a letter wliich, by way of <M»mpensation, announced to him that 
the injunction upon IJritish subjects to withhold all aid to his vessel was 
tbeiiceforth taken ott'. 

Tiie reason assigned for this change of policy was that, in the situation 
nfthe vessel on the slip, a sudden storm might endanger its safety, and 
ill that event the authorities would be made responsible for the conse- 
iliieuces of their order. 

It was a suggestion skillfully made to attain its i)urpose, and it 
alarmed the governor enough to induce himto withdrjiw his])rohibitiou. 

The reply of the commander is at oiu'e fawning, insolent, and untruth 
fill. He thanks the governor for his observance of the rights of bellig- 
erents, to which lie had done everthing to forfeit a claim, lie disavows 
a knowledge of the fact that the uumj were there, though it is clearly to 
my mind the true reason accounting for his absurd threat to tight 
latiier than to show the int<'rior of the shi[) ; and, lastly, he vapors about 
the disrespectful and insulting tone used towards him, wliicli he shonld 
take an early oj)i»ortunity of bringing to the notice of the ]\ichmond 
soverninent. 




;[ 



^r i>n iiiandat 



_'(! los uircou- 



liiisi sur son ch(Mnin. Le preuiior paragrapho est tout <(■ (pii esi utile sdus ec rapport. 
li t\<t convn en ees ti>rn»es : 

"J'lii a informer son cxcellonce lo <;onvernonr (pio IVxi'cntion du niandat tVarret n'B 
pas Otis refusoe, jiarce <iu'iiueune personue senddabh- ;'i ceih' iini y ('taiL specilioe u'»jtait 
.1 lionl." 

II y aviiit deux mensonges dans cntto pliraso. La raisou indiqu(^o no ponvait pas 
fxtiliqiu'r le fait du refns. A pi'ine la lettrt^ otait-elle remise en mains dii m(issay;er que 
iattoiition d(^ la ))olice des eaiix 6tait attireo snr le fait (ine (]natre liommes (inittaionfc 
'e.Slu'uandoah dans uu havean conduit i)ar deux hateliers. lis fnrent de,vanc6.i ot 
nil ti's, ]iuis on deconvrit <iue " Charley," si positiveuu'ut declare n'avoir pas 6t6 a herd, 
H.iit uu lies quatre. 

Mais, fpif'kju'etranKc quo (uda puisso paraitre, le fait de cotto deeouvorto d'uno viola- 
tion nuinifestc du /oct'i,7«-t'H/i.s<mt'/U art tut commuui((u(> au eoupable dans uno lettro 
'l"i, rouune compensation, lui annon^^a quo rinjoneiiou faite aux siijets anj^lais do 
i-abstonir do donner aide i1 son vaisseau otait desormais retiri^e. La raison in(li(]ui5e 
pniirct! chan^ement de politique 6tait <]ne, dans la situation du vaisseau sur lo bor- 
"f"U, uu oranesnhit ponrrait le niettrcen danjjer. Kt dans ce cas, los antorit6s soraiont 
iindiics rcsponsables des consi^quoneos do lour ordro. 

CVUiiit nne snuj^estiou habileniont iirosonteo pour atteiudre son bat, ct olio alarma 
Ic siouvenieur assez pour I'onifa^jei h retiror sa dtSfenso. 

La roiKtnso du coniiiiandant ust i\ la fois basse, insolento et mcnsousoro. II rcmorcio 
iPftoHverneur do sou observation des droits des belligerants, apres avoir tout fait pour 
ptrdro le droit d'y protcndrc. II ddsavoiio toulo counaissaneo uu fait quo los iiouunos 
y fiisHunt, quoiqu'il soit clair pour nioi quo c'cst la vraio raison qui pout oxpliquor soa 
alisiirrtii nienaco do livror bataillo i»lut6t quo do montror l'int<?rienr du vaisseau, ot on- 
"u il fait lo fanfaroii sur le tou irrospMtueux et insultant employ^ j\ sou ^jjard, qu'il 
siwira la promit^ro occasion de porter k la counaissaneo du gouvernemi ut de Uinhu'.ond 









206 



ARBITRATION AT GP:NEVA. 



'<"n 



Wi 



rh^i 



Simnltaneonsly with tiie 'lispatch of this letter, this oilieer addresses 
to the attorney-general of tbe colony the following inquiry : 

" Ho jdcascd to iiifoini mo if the Crown cliiiins tlio sou to be Ikitish waters tlirocmilcii 
froin the I'ort riiilip Heiul-lights, or from a .struight Une lU'iiwu from Poiut Lousdal,. 
and Schaucli." 

The audacity of this application to that particular officer is its most 
marked characteristic. The i)ur[)ose of it could scarcely fail to liavt 
been itenetrated. It could only have had reference to the possibility ot 
taking on board of his ship at the nearest point outside of.British Wiitws 
such men as he had already engaged to enlist with him. Yet the attw 
ney-general seems not to have t)cen stimulated by it to take any new 
precautious. lie contented himself with sending an evasive aiiswii 
t'jat yet clearly betrays his own sense of the nature of the inquiry. 

At this moment the captain of the Shenandoah had ibrfeited all pos- 
sible right to respect from the authorities, whether as an oHiccr or as;i 
man. They were fully inronned of the fraud which had entered iiitu 
the origin of his undertaking. They were enlightened in regard to his 
continuous eJlbrts to violate Her 31ajesi,v's laws in their port, and tlicy 
were warned that detection in one instance had not availed to (letci 
him from meditating more. Yet, so far as the papers before us arc con 
cerned, these considerations do not seem to have produced any other 
effect than a desire to get rid of him as soon as possible by su])i)lyiiii; 
him with all he asked. 

The consefjuences were no other than could have naturally been t'.\ 
pected. Xo vijiilauce had been exercised in ]ireventingthe conunandoi's 
operations, and the boats wliicli took out the ])eo[)!e who had lu'di 
enlisted Uelbrehand had it all their own way. There is not a nMsonalilr 
doubt that he carried away from JMelbourjie at least twenty-eij^lu ii 
these men. 

An attempt has been made to draw ai)arallel between thisenlisrmen; 
and that stipposed to have been nnidc by the connnander of the Koiii 
sarge at Cork. JUit it ji[»P'ears to fail in many respects, the most iniiior 



SimiiltanonicTifc iiv<'(" rcxpt'ditioii do cottc lottrn, cot otticier adrcsso a rattnrnn- 
general do, la colonic I.'i iincstion snivante: 

"A,ye/, la liontt' do nrinfoniicr si la coiironiic ei!visa.<z;e ([uo la nicr soit eanx aiij;lai«i's 
i\ trois niilles dn jiliarc dc Port I'hilip Head, on d'nnc liync droito tin'o do Poiiit 1.um>- 
dale et dc Scliaiu.li." 

L'andace de ci'tto deniaiido, a cet oilicicr en particnlicr, est son trait caractcristiqin' 
lo pins niar(iiic. I.o lint ponvait a \w\M'. nianipu'r d'cn etro conipris. Ello ne pouvaii 
Ko rai |i(iitcr (in"a la jidssiliilite do prendre, a bord de son vaissean, an point le plus 
proclie, liois den eaux an};laiscs, antant d'lioninies ([n'il en avait engajj;«i a s'enrok'ravec 
Ini, VA cependant, rattorncy-j;cneral no .soluble pas avoir etc ponsso par cola a pren- 
dre ancnno nonvelle precaution. II sc c(Mitcnta d'onvoyer nno reiionso evasive qui 
trnliit iiinirtant clairenient son jiropro sontinient siir la nature do la doniaude. 

A CO nioiiient, le capitaiiio du iSlieiiaiidoah avait ]>erdii tout droit possible an rrspod 
de8 anloriiOs, soit coninio otlicler, soit eoninio honinio. Ellos otaient plciiR'iiii'ni 
infornii'es do bi I'rando <ini sYtait introdnite dans rori<i;ine dc son ontreprise. Ellc* 
<^taient <'c]air<^es snr ses t tlorts continns jioiir violer Ics lois de sa Miijesto dans It'iir 
port, et elloH etaicnt aveitics <|ne, snijjris nno ibis, il ne s'dtait pas absteiiu dVu 
ni^-diter davantiif^e. Mais, antant ipic les documents i)lacos dcvant nous s'y rapporteiit, 
cts tonsido'ratioiis no seniblent pas avoir produit d'autro ettbt qu'nii desir dVtri' 
ddbarrasi-^ de Ini lo plus tot possible, en lui fonrnissant tout co qu'il doniandait. Ln 
coiifcYqueiices ne lurent pas autres que cellos (juo I'on aurait p>i natrrellenientatteutlre. 
Aucune vigilance u'avait <5te exerci^o pour enipeclier les opdratious du comniautlaiit, il 
les bateaux qui enimenereiit les bonimeseurAlesanpnravant eurent le cheniin iilue. 11 
n'y a pas de doute raisounablc qn'ils eninieuerent de Melbourne au nioins vingt-buif 
de ces boninies. 

On a eBsaj-6 de titer nn pnrallMe entre cet enrftlemcnt et cehii que I'on suppose avoir 
6t6 fuit par le couiniandant du Keursarge il Cork. Mais il senible pdcber aur plusieiii* 



OPINIONS OF MR. ADAMS. 



207 



wnt of which is this, that Captain Wiiislow, aftor he jj:ot out of British 
waters, discovered the men, and took the trouble to brinj? them back 
to Cork. The other never thought of reparation for his offense. 

His vessel was one of the swiftest in sailinj^ known in the records of 
soiiMianship, and therefore stood in little need of coal. The supply she 
had brouftiit unexhausted to the port was larfije. Yet she obtaiued as 
mnch more as she could carry. Xo questions seem to have been asked 
as to the nearest port of destination. So far as 1 can pjather from the 
evidence, it appears that this vessel was com])letely suj)plied at ]Mel- 
bniinio with all she wanted for a cruise of depredation continued for 
niiliiy months. And, worst of all, she obtained at this port a coniple- 
iiioiit of her crew, Avitliout which she could have done nothing'. 

An nttenipt has boon made to weaken the force of the testimony jj^iveu 
bvToinple on this matter. It does not seem to have materially shaken 
the belief in it of Sir C. IF. Darling', the g'overnor, whose oidy fault, so 
farasi have been able to observe, was tliat of listening' too inuch to 
tlipweak counsels of parties symiiathizing' more than was bo<'oming' 
with tlie cause of these malefactors. AVlien the deposition was sub- 
mitted by Her ]MaJesty's government to his consideration in ISOO, lie 
explained some of tlie incidents referred to, without contesting' the truth 
of any. Ibit his most sig'uilicant comment was the last, which is in 
these words : 

''Haviiir; expi'rssod fo yon in my tlispatchcM. fo wliicti you rofcr. my hrlicC lliat C.'i])- 
taiiiW.KliIcll bad, notwiilistaiidinjj; Iiis lionoralilo iJiotcstatioiis, lla^rantly violated tlic 
neutrality iu' wiis liduud to ohsfivc iu vcsiKct ti) tiie shipmcnl of IJrilish rili/iuis to 
M'lvo on hoard Ijis vessel, I have read witlioiit snipiise, tiio!!n'li with dee|) icjiret, tlie 
iwiUlisrof names fu!-ni.-.iied by Mr. Temple, wliieh eo!ii]ilet( ly pfoves that this l)eliet 
was justly i'onnded." 

The dispatches referred to in this extract I have not been able to 
(lisc'ovor amoiig' the papei's presented to us on the part of (Jreat Britain. 
They are not necessary, however, to prove how utterly Irnitless were 
the attempts, steadily persevered in to the last, to bolster up the 



pnints, (lont lo pins important est qno lo capitairm Winslow, apres etro sorti dos oanx 
aii);laisrs, dc-couvrit les lionimes et prit Ja, ]>ciiie de Ics recouduiro a Corlc. L'autrc no 
peiisd jamais ;\ fairi' reparation ponr son od'enso. 

Soil vaissoan (^tait nn de's plus rapides voilier.s connns dans lea animlos do la marine, 
ft par ('()iise(in<!nt n'avait besoin (jno do jien dc eharlion. T-a provisit, \ (pi'll avait 
apportir, iiiepniseo dans lo port ctait t^rande, et cejuMnlant ii on ol)tint antant (jiiMI 
poiivait en ])orter. Nnllo ([uestion no, seinblo lui avoir etii faito snr lo pins prochaiu 
piirt ill' destination. Antant qn<>. jo j)nis en Juj^er par les i)renves, il paralt (pio ec vais- 
seaii tilt completeineiit ai»provisionne :\ Melhonrno do tout ec dont il avait bcsoiii ponr 
iiiK! croisiere do deprotlations continneo jjendant plusioius niois. Et, lo pire dc; tout, il 

; obtint do ee port nn eomiiloinLMit do son 0(iiiii)a<^e, sans lecpiel il n'aiii'ait ricn jni *airo. 
Oil a fait nno tentative ponr afl'ail)lir la I'orco de, co temoi;ina;fe. EUe ne paratt pas 
avoir licaacoup ebranle la confianc ■ qn'y ajcnitait Sir Charles II. Darling, le <?(»nvernenr, 
tlntit 111 senle fanto, antant ([ll(^ J'ai (•te a meine do lo roinaniner, fiit do preter trop 
I'orcil'c aiix faibles conscMls do persoiines symjiathisant pins qn'il n'otait convcnablo 
avec l;i causo do ces nialfaitenrs. Lorsqne la deposition do Temple fnt soiunise a son 
oxaineii,t'n IfiM], il ex])li<ina (jnehines-uns des incidents qui s'y rapportaient, s.ans con- 
tt'ster la verito d'ancnn d'enx. Mais sa reniarquo la jjIus siguiiicutivo Itit la deruiere, 
'I'li est coiivue en cea tonnes : 

"Vous ayant exprinu^, dans les depeclies anxqnelles vons faitos allnsion, ma convic- 
tion quo le capitaiuo Waddell avaif, nial<;re ses lionorables protestations, viold d'uno 
niaiiii'io (lafj;i'ante la nentralitc qu'il t^tait tenu <l'observcr, par ronrolomcnt de eitoyens 
aii(jlais ponr servir a liorA do son vaissean.J'ai In sans surprise, niais avee nn profond 
rpgret, la longne liste de iioms fonrnie par M. Temple, qui prouvo pleinemeut fiue cetle 
conviction ctait bien fondee." 

Je n'lvi pas pu ddeouvrir, parnii les docnments qui nous aont pre.scnti^s do la part de 
» Gratule-Bretajtno, les d<^ptV!he,s aiixquolles il est fait allnsion dans co pasaajje. Elles 

; nc 8out cependaut pas uecessaires pour prouver couibieu lea teutativos faitos avec uuo 




k ttissl 



h^ 






i:r'i . 



208 



ARIUTRATION AT GENEVA. 



eliarnc'tor of tlio insiir;;oiit (;(iMiniin(l('r for venicity. On the otlicr hand, 
till', ollort WHS iL^roiit, iiiiil successful at tlie tiino, to destroy tlie crodit 
of Teini>le's deposition. V<'t, on a calm conjparison of the evidence of 
the two, with testimony received from without, 1 am convinced tiiat 
Temi)U^ was far tiie most worthy of belief. 

In trutli, Iler Majesty's .yovernment iiad en' d upon a \vron.i«' path 
at the outset, in reco,iini/,in;j; the original fr..iu, and tlieir adhereiuu! to 
it only compli(;aled tlu! ()l)stacles to extrication. For the dei»reilatii)ih 
on the hardy aiid innocent seamen earninj;' an honest livinj;- in the 
most hazardous of all enterprises on the ocean cDULinned lon^' after tlu' 
last spark of l)elli^(>rent i)retensions had been extinguished in Anieiici, 

rt seems to me that Her Majesty's f,'overnment and their autliorilifs 
of Melbourne are clearly to be held responsible. No such cruise could 
liavc been made without tlu^ assistancui derived from JNIelbourne as a 
base of operations. Instead of att(Mni)tin^ to <;ouiitei'act the stron.2; cur 
rent of poi)ular .symi)athy i)revailiny in all <!lasses in that settleiiiont. 
the authorities either weakly yielded to it, or thc'mselves cooperated 
with it, at least so far as <!Ould be done by slu;jf;j;ish indillerence. 

Hence, it is my conclusion that, fron> the time of the departure oftlic 
Shenandoah from IMelbourne, the jiovernment of (Jreat ]>ritain. having' 
failed to fullill the obli^^ations of the second rule si)eeilied for tiio ^'ov- 
veriiment of the arbitrattn-s under the provisions of the VI th article of the 
treaty of A\^ashin,Liton, has rendeivd itself liable lor all the damaj^esto 
the United States subsequently incurred thereby. 

IX. — THE «UMTEi;. 

In the second part of the volume called the Case, submitted to us on 
the i)art of Her Majesty's uovernment, on the seventh pajje 
1 lind a para^rai)h in the following words: 

" In and soon after tlic uiontli of May, ISul, a inuuber ol" anncd wliips, mostly of .small 



pors(5v<5rancc coni,inn(;lli^ jnsqn'a la (In, d'appnyor Ic earactiTn dn cnnnnandanf; insurjo 
qnant a la Y(M-aci(('', ^'^taicnt tont a I'ait sans snciM!s. De I'aiitro eot<1, rcli'ort pour 
di^trniro lo rr(5dit. do la deposition do Toniplo i'nt jurand, ct rcnssifc ponr lo nKinii'iit. 
Ccpcndant nno coniparaisoii calnio dcs prcnvcs fonrnii's ]):ir cos dotix lioiniucs avi'c la 
ti'inoiyniijxo re(.'u dn di'liors ine oonvainc (j^ne Temple etait di; Iteaneonp le. ])lu.-j digue dc 
foi. 

En v^rlt^, lo p;onvornoinent do sa Majest<^ avait i)ris Tin nianvais oli(^inin a foriftine 
on roeonnaissant la IVando ])roniiero, ot I'adh^^sion (|n'il y donii:. n" lit (jno coni|>lii|ner 
I08 ol)Htacle.s (jn'il reneontra ponr o.n sortir. i'oui' les depredations coininises a l'ei;;iril 
des liardis ot innocents niariiis, ,i;a;fnant Iionneteinent leiir vie dans la jilns hasardi'iise 
do tontes le.s onti'ejji'ises Knr roeean,et eontinnees loni,tenii>s apres qne la (lei'iiiiTe 
(^tincelle dn droit di> Ixdlij^erant avait oto otidnte on Anieriijae, il mo senible qmsli' 
gouverncment dc^sa Majestc et sos antorites de Midbonrno did vent etro tenns nettciiirat 
responsables. Nnllo conrso sen.blable n'eflt pii otre I'aite sans le soconrs tire de Mi'l- 
bourne coinmo base d'op('>rations. An lien d'e.ssayor do rea,i;ir eontre le fort eoniantile 
sympatliie popnlairo dominant dans tontes los (dasse.s de cette colonie, le.s antorites, on 
Ition y c^-ilerent faiblonuMit, on ))ien y coopororeut, an inoins antant qn'on poavait le 
fairo, par nno niollo indilterence, 

Des lor.s, ma conohision est (jno, dopnis lYpoquo dn dispart dn Shenandnali de Mel- 
bonrne, le gonvornement de la (irande-Breta^ne, ayant no;^lif^6 <le remplir I'obli^ation 
do la secondo ro^le spdeiliee ponr la condnlto de.s arl>itre.s selon I'artiele 6 dn ti'aito'de 
Washington, s'ost rendu ro.sponsal)lo de ton.s les dommages euconrus Hnb.S(5queinmi!iitu 
cause do cctto ndgligence par lo commerce des fituts-Unis. , 

liB SUMTER. 

Dans la aecondo partie dn volarao appol6 lo "Case," qui nous est soumis de la part 
du gouvernement do sa Majest(5, a la page 7, je trouve uu paragra^)! e confu dans 1m 
termes suivants : ' 

" Pendaut et pau de tomns apr&s le raoia de raai 1881, plusiours b&timouts araic«, 



Mmml 



' OI'IXIONS OF .Mi;. ADA.MS. 



200 



i,iiiii;ijji'. well'. litLetl out ill aiid sciit to si;a iVoiii poit.-s in tlic Coiili'dfralf States, anil a 
iiiiisidc'iaiili! iiiiiubfi' of (;ai>tiin'.s wi'H! iiiatlc liy tlu'iii. Souk? ot" tliosd woro ('i)niiiii.~>- 
-ioiii'il ii'^ i»ul)li(' ships of war of tlie C'onfi.'dcratc Statt'«, and coimnandod by otlii'cis in tlm 
iiiiviil si'ivicc of tho confudfiacy ; others as pr'. ..in sliips of war or piivatcers. Ainonj; 
lilt' urmcd vessels which wen' so littcd out and made ]iri/,('s weri! the «Jalhoun, a steamer 
„l' 1,(1(10 tons, sent to sea in ^lay, L"<iil, the Jet)'. Davis, Savannah, Saint Niciiolas, Wins- 
;ii\Y, mid Vork. ^lort; than twenty prizes wen? made, liy these vessels. I'he Suuitei' 
lowiiii'li lefeieneo will he made liereafter) went to sea in .(line, Iritil ; the Sallie and 
Niisliville in (.)ut(d»er, lH(il ; tin? Keho in If^li'i : the Retiihiition and IJoston in \f*iY.\; thi; 
rliiciiiiniau^ia, Olnstee, and 'Tallahassee in l?^()l. These vessels are stated to ha\e 
iiiiicn from sixty to seventy ]ni/es." 

Ifby this f^ravc voi»(>rt it, was iiitt'iideil to cstablisli that the insurgent 
Americaiis were in 18(51 entitled in any way to be considered as a bel- 
ii;fercMit on the ocean, the niotive can oniy he exphiined by ])resnininj;- 
citlior an absence of all a(M|uaintance with the actual condition of the 
iiisurj;ent States at that time or deliberate misrepresentation. 1 pre- 
ilrto adopt the earlier construction. 

In point of fact, it, is clearly shown in these pa[»ei's. as well as 
iVoiu the i)ast condition of that region of coast ever since the time 
(ifitslirst settlement, that it has never possessed any commerceor navi- 
gation of its own. AViiatever might have been the list presented, it 
(oiiltl contain only such vessels as might accidentally have been found 
111 its ports at the moment of the insurrection, belonging to owners 
(iiitside of the jurisdiction. That all such vessels were at once seized, 
and made for a short ptaiod to play a part for which they "ere utterly 
mititted, is strictly true. Yet, so far from presenting an, just ground 
lor recognizing these peoi)le as a maritime belligerent, all the facts tend 
ilio more toconvin(!(^ me that to all intents and purposes Her Majesty's 
;;uvi'rninent nnght, with (juitt^ as much. justice, recognize in any similar 
emergency these cantons of Switzerland as such. JJe this as it may, 1 
am ready to adnut there was for a short time a slight apj»earance of a 
naval force that might deei'ive strangers. Out ()f the number of vessels 



i^iml. 



limit la plnpart etaient de faihle tonna,ne. fiirent ('(inipes et mis hors des ports sitni's 
ihiiis It's <'-tats-eonfederes ; ils lirent iin nombre eoiisideral)le ile eaptnres. l)e. ces bati- 
iiieiitK, les nns, eommandt's \mv des ollieiers an service- naval de la eonfcMleration. 
ivriireiit la commission de vaisseanx de ;;nerre des I'tats-eonfedi'i-es, les antros eelle de 
vaissi'iiiix de jj;u(?rre prives on (h' eorsaires. An nombre des vaisseanx aiines en jrnerre 
'liii fincnte(inipes de la sorte et <|ni lirent di.-s pri^^es, se tronvaient le Calhoun, steamer 
juiiijeuiit i»lu8 de nuUo tonneanx, (|ui prit la mer au niois de niai ISlil, le .lellersoi; 
Davis, it! Savannah, le Saint Nicholas, le Winsiow et le V(uk. I'liis de viu;;t prises 
'clmrent a ces navires. JiC Sumter (dont il sera t'.iit mention plus loin) prit la nn.r en 
jiiiii It^tii; le Sallie et le Xasliville, en oelobre isiil ; rKcho. en Irfli-J; la Ketribiitum et 
.iliost()ii,f;n lS(i4; le C'hiekainau};:i, roinstee et le Tallahassee, en l-'lH. Ces vaisseanx 
auiaieiit fait, dit-on, de soixante ii soixante-<lix luises." 
i^i jiar ee rapi)ort jiravc on avait riuteiition d'etablir i\\w. les insiirnes auK^ricaiiis 
ivaiiMit droit en IHbl, en ancune luaniere, a etre eonsideic'-s e(i;uiu;! bidli;;(''rants sur 
iiiteaii, la raison n'eii i)eut etre expliqni'e (lu'eii suppo.sant it'cUe iiue abseiiet? de t )Ute 
I 'Minaissaiice de la condition actiieili? des elitts iiisui'nes a eette eiio(|ne, soit un faux 
liipport lelh'chi. .le pretere adopter la iiremii-re iiileipri'tatiou. Ku ell'et. il est claire- 
iiK'iit (le'iiontii' dans ces doeiiineiits, aiissi l)ien «in(? jiar la comlitiini anterieure de eette 
I'jjiiiii maritime, qn'elle n'a .jamais ]i()ss('d(''. depuis rei.oiine de sa premii're eolonisation. 
•iiKMii coimnerce ni ancune navigation propre. (iind (ju'ait pii etre le n'de des navire.- 
invsciite.s. il lie ])ouvait contenir ipie des vaisseanx (pie I'tui pouvait avoir trouv<''s aeei- 
ilt'iitfllciuent <lans h;s ports an momi'iit de rinsiirrection, appartenaiit a des proprn- 
'aiii'.s en dehors do sa Juridietioii. (^iie tons ces vaisseanx fiii'ent saisis en meme 
I'liiiLset Mi'oii leiir lit pendant nue eonrti' jxTiode jouer nn role pour le(|uelils etaient 
'"iit-a-l'ai, impropres, est un fait stiietemeiit vrai. Mais loin (In fonrnir ancuu niotii' 
laisKiiiialile jionr rec<Mimritre ces ;fens eonime belli;;ei'auts nniritiuies, ces faits tendeiit 
"iiitiiiit 11 me eouvaincn! tprii toiLs (■j;aids le <;(niveriiemeiit tie s.i Ma.jesK' aurait pii. 
'^t'f tiMit autaiit de, justice, recMiniiaiIre ciniime tels, dans <les circonstaneiis aualo;;ue>. 
^^ I'aiitdiis de la Suisse, (/uoi i|u'il en suit, je siiis pret a admettre (pril y cut 
l"'iiiiaiit (iiiel(|Ue temps line I'-yi-re appaience «rnne force? navaie (jni ponvait troiuiiei 
'!'■-> itiaiurers mal infiirmr-s. Au nnmiHe di s vai.sseaix indi(|ue.s dans le passive (|nr 

14 11 





.; 1 




V 




' ;>■' : 








^ ■ ■ i;r' 




hXr-- ' 






















tMUi. 



210 



AKBITKATIOX AT fJF.XKVA. 



arrayed in the pns.sajie I have (|Uote(l is the steainei" Smntor, a ease now 
presented to onr eonsideration as fonndinj"; a ehiini for danin^fjcs tiom 
Her Miijesty's government by that of ti ?, United States. 

This was a steamer built in no sense for a war-vessel. She had hei'ii 
employed as a packet between Xew Orleans and the Havana, and thou^'li 
most likely to have belonfjed to j)rivato proprietors in Xew York, may 
])ossibly have had some in New Orleans. I am Avillin^' to concede tb 
i)enelit of the donbt. At all events, she was s«'i/ed by the iiisuijicnt 
{•overnment, fitted nj* in haste Avith the few }»nns that she could Iumi. 
an<l i)usiied throiij>'h the blockade, at the month of the ^Mississippi to tlic 
hifi'h sea. This was on the oOth of dnne, 18(il. Alter niakiiij;' sonic 
jiri/.es, and tonchinjj; at various ))orts belonji'inj;' to other i)owers, she at 
last luade her a]>i)earaiice in a liarbor of Her ^lajesty's island ol' Tiin 
idad. Tills was on the .'lOth of .luiy. Here she was recojiiiized in dn, 
form, was sn}»i)lied with a new main-yard, j)rovisions, and eim'iity toih 
of coal. SIm' next ajjpeared at Pa.amaribo, in Dutch (iuiana, iiiiK'tccii 
days after saiiingfrom Trinidad, and there reccive<lan additional siipiijy 
of coals. From thence she proceeded to various ])()rts of otlicr sov 
ereiji'u ]>owers, until at last she found her way to Her ^lajesty's ixutni 
(Jibraltar. 

This e.\])erience had C()m]»letely established the fact that in licr tlni, 
condition she was utterly unlitted for her undertaking;'. The ctlnits t. 
.uet her relittcd had failed ; and altiiou^h there was a lonji' delay jici 
niitted at (Jibraltar — much lon<;er. indeed, tliau seems altoji'etlier jiisi: 
liable — the end of it was that slie was disarmed, dismantied, sent h< 
Liveri)ool, and never afterward tried as a cruiser. The tintii ])rol»iili!y 
was timtit was found cheaper to build etlicient vessels in (Ireat Ihitaiii. 
which this one never could have been. 

It a])pears that eleven of her prizes were made before reachiiiii; Triii 
idad, where she coaled. Xoiie were made between Trinidad and Piini 
maribo, and oidy live afterward. 

Jf Her Majesty's government had been called to exercise due vijiiliiin" 



j'ai traiisciit, le steamer Sniutor est iiii cas jneseiitt' actiiellcniciit a notii' cxmii':; 
coiiinie, servant (li^ base h niio reclamation en doiuniages anpres <la fjouvernt'iut'iit ik 
sa Majestt'r i>ar eelui (l«'s fitats-I'nis. 

Le Sninter n't'tait en auenn sens un steiuni'r eonstrnit i)(>nr etro vaissean de kihtp. 
II avait 6t6 employe eonime jiaqnebotentre la Nonvelle-( )rl('-!i:is et la 1 la vane, et qiuiii|ii':' 
alt apparteiui tres-vraisemblableincnt a des pniprietaires privt's a New York, il est im- 
sible (jn'il en ait eu a la Nonvelle-OrJeans. .hi suis disposi- a aeeorder h' lniii'tin'il; 
donte. Qnoi (|u'il (Ml soit, il fiit saisi par le soi-disant <;()uvernement insurfji', oiiuiin:: 
la bate du pen dts eanons (pi'il i)oiivait ])orter et I'oi^'a le bloens a remljoiicliiiredi: 
Mississippi jionr se rendro en bante mer. C'etait le ;ii( Juin 18(il. Apres avoir f;r; j 
quel([nes piises et tonelie divers ports appartenant a d'autres ])nissanees, il lit eiitinsi'i: 
apparition dans nn port do Tile de sa Majeste la Trinite. C'etait le ;!() jnillef. II yfiK | 
reconnn ei' dfie forme, i'nt pourvn d'lme nonvelle yrando vergiie, de provisions it il' 
qnatre-vinf;ts toinies de ebarboii. It api)arnt ensnite a Paramaribo, dans la (iiiyaii' 
bollandaise, dix-nenf jonrs apres avoir (|nitte la Trinite, et la il revnt nn nouvcaii siii 
side de charbon. D'ici il so rendit a dill'erents jKtrts d'autres piiissanees si)iivcr;iiiii' 
jns(|n'i\ ec iin'entin il arriva a Gibraltar, jMirt de sa Majeste. 

Cette experience avait conipletement etabli W fait que dans sa condition (VnliU;* ^ 
<^tait entierenu'nt improj)re a son entrei»rise. l-es edorts i)onr le radonber avaieii; 
I'ehone, et qnoique nn lon<f delai Ini eftt ete acconb^ a Gibraltar, beaneon|) iilns lo":: j 
en elfeli (pi'il ne sumblat neeessaire, il fat onlin de'sarnie, doniantele, eiivoye a Liverpool. 
«t lie flit pas emi)loje jiliis tard eomi' ■' eroisenr. La verite ^^tait probableinont qiif 
I'on troiiva ineilleiir marebe de constrniro des vaisseanx plus ettieaees en Anjileterre, 

11 semble (iiie onze de ses prises fnrent faites avant d'atteindre la Trinite, oil il titiin 
charbon. II n'en lit auenne entre la Trinite et l*aramarib<», et senlement einq P'i''| 
tard. 

Si le gouveruement de sa Maj«!ste avait et«' appele a exeicei' due vigilance piuiifii- 



OPINIONS OV MR. ADAMS. 



211 



II case now 
iias'cs from 

I) had liei'ii 
uhI thou^'li 
York, may 
;oiu'0(k' till' 
s insiir<;eiit 
could hear. 
iippi to tile 
akin,;;' sonic 
rcrs, she at 
ud of Trill 
i/cd ill (liic 
L'i<i,iity ton- 
a, iiiiH'tfcii 
oiial supiilv 
f other SDv- 
^ty's i)(irt III 

in her tlii'i, 
iic cl'lhrts t'. 
<X (h'lay pi'i- 
fcflicr jiisr. 
icd, scut III 
fh ]>rol)iili!\ 
eat r»rit;i!ii. 

ichiii.u' Trill 
I and Tiir:! 

U' viiiilillKT 



otri' cxaiii':: 
ifriionieut lit 

111 do JJIKW. ] 

cct i|iuiii|r 

)rl<, il est I'll- 

liciK'tici'il': 

ui'ot', oiiiiilii'' 

Ijducluireiln 

irf's avoir t'rt | 

1 lit vul\n>'' 

Met. Ilytii: 

jvisiiiiis ft il'' 

us l;i (iii,v;iii> 

IIOIIVI'IUI sill- 
S SOllYt'l'llillv I 



timi (Viiliirs r 
libel' avait'ii: 

oiil) iiliis loii:: 
; ji LiverpoC" 
ablcinont qw 
Anjil.'terri'. 
r.oiiilfitd" 

LMit I'iii'i r'"' 



nice \mn 



cm- 



to i»r(!vciit the fittiiift-out, .inning, or (Minipping tliis vcss(d, it might 
iitM'liiips have been liiil)h', but it is clear it had no oi>i»oitunity. Such 
as it was, the fact is well established that the entire work was done at 
Xcw Orleans. 

Neither was it in a way to i>erinit this vessel to make use of its porta 
(ir waters as the base of naval operations, for the plain reason, if there 
were no other, that its career so soon terminated in the second of the 
only two ports she visited. 

Tiieonly resemblance to sucli a thin- was the supply of coals received 
at Trinidad. Hut that 'vas exhausted, without an oi)portunity of doing 
ijainaj;'!', Ixd'ore reaching the])ort of another sovereign, and nothingwas 
ever received from Ijritish sources afterwanls All the supplies ob- 
taiiieil with that exception ciune from ports belonging to otluu' imwers. 

[fail, therefore, to si'e wherein ller.^iaJesty's government has omitted 
to fiillill any duty ju'esented in this case, for I cannot discover what duty 
■;lie was called to I'ulfdl. 

It is veiy triu'- that, at the moment, this proceeding of the recogni- 
lioii of the Sumter at Trinidad was regarded by the (Jovei'ument of the 
I'liitcd States as an unfriendly act, and muidi remonstrance was made 
a;;ainst it. Whether this was made with or without Just Ibundation, it 
(Iocs not seem necessary here to consider. The question now is solely 
of damages incurred by failure to fulfdl certain specified duties. I can 
discover no damages, and very trifling duty. 

lint there is one more (piestion in connection with tin; history of this 
vessel that demands consideration. It is alleged that she was suffered 
toreinain an undue length of time in the port of Gilu'altar, and that a 
fnnidnlent sale was recognized which enabled the insurgents to trans- 
lor tlie vessel to Liverpool, and use iuu' again, niuler a l>ritish register, as 
a transport for their cause. 

The answer to this is, that her detention at Gibraltar, however it may 
he considered, was certainly productive of no damage, while her pres- 
ence on the ocean might have been. And as to the fraudulent sale, 



linlicr farraiif^eincnt, I'armeiiient on I'oiiuiponiont de cu vaisseau, if ))onrraif, i)cut-("tr<i 
;i\nii'('to ivsponsablf, iiiais il (^st (!]air ([ifil ii'en eat pas Toccasioii. Tel fpril t'lit, il est 
liiiMi (■tal)li ([ijo l'((iiviaj;'e eiitier fat lait i"i la Noiivelle-Oileaiis. 

II ut; t'ut pas uoii phis en i)ositii)ii dc! periiiettre a ce vaisseau de faire usaj^e do sos 
|iiirtsoiide ses eanx eoinnu' base d'operations iiiivafes, i)ar la raisou evidently, s'il n'y 
111 I'lit pas d'luUres, (jiie sa carriiie se toruuna si tot dans le second des deiix seals ports 
iin'il visita. 

Losi'iilfait (|iu ressenible i\ une seniblable poriiiission fat le subside do charbon 
rii.'ii il la Tiinite. JIais celiii-ei fut ('puisi; sans (pi'll ait eii une oecasion dt* nuire avant 
irattciiidre le pint d'lin autre soiiverain, et eiisiiit<! il ne rec^'iit plus Jamais rion de 
soiiiiL's an;:;laises. Tons les iiutres subsides ([u'il obtint, a Texception de celiii-lu, i)ro- 
vinaiiMit de ports appartenant h d'autres puissances. 

■Il' III' puis done voir en (inoilegouverneinentdesaMajestea ne<jlijj;i' de reiai»liraucuu 
ili'Vdii'picscrit dans co cas, car jo ne ])uis decoiivrir <(a('l devoir il etait apiiele a renii)lir. 

II t'-it liien \ rai ((u'au moment nieme ce i)ro('(^de de la reconuaissanco du Sumter a la 
liiiiitc flit ve>;anl(' par le Gouviirnement (les J^tats-Unis comme un a'te jieii amical, et 
itiiils y tirent beaucou)) de reinontrances. Si ceci a etti fait avec de justcs raisons ou 
mill, il lie inc senilile pas n<^ees8aire de rcxaininer ici. La (piestion actnelle est unicpie- 
iiiciit (le dmiimajfes encoiirns jiar la n(><i;li}rence h reniplir certains devoirs 8p(3cili(5.s. Jo 
iii'imis ilt'couvrir auciiu dommaf^e et ipi'im tres-lt'^jfer devoir. 

Mais il y a une autre (juestion en rapport uvec I'liistoire de ce vaisseau, qui demaude 
iK'trecxainini^e. On alK'guo (lu'on Ini permit do doineurer dans le p(Ht de Gibraltar 
ail (lelii (111 tem)»s l('<;al et (iii'une veute fr.auduleuse fat reconuue (jui permit aux in- 
siii^os de tvrinsferer le vaisseau a Liverpool et de I'employer de nouveau sous rcgistro 
iiiij;lais comme transport pour la cause des i«surp;(?s. • 

l.a ivponso a ceci est (juo son s('.jour h Gibraltar, de quelque fa^on que Ton puisso lo 

I'liiisidcR'r, lie fut certain(^nient la cause d'aucun doinmage, tandis (pie sa prt>sence sur 

imaii aiuait pu I'tHro. Et quant t\ la ventfi frauduleuse, le vaisseau (itait expo8(5 ii 



: f 







AlMSn'h'ATION AT CKNKNA. 



mi 



'!> ' i 



the vosiscl was opi'ii'to (japtiirc in licr (lofi'iiccloss stale, and it was con 
(jlhUmI tliat no reclamation couhl have been made tor it. Ho likcwisi 
she was «)pon to capture in her latest capacity as a transport. Ii 
neither case does Her ^[ajesty's {government appear to me to have in 
curred any l•(^sl•()nsil)ility under tin; three rules (»f the treaty wliicli ciin 
he estimated in damages. 

or. just such a chara(!ter as this one are other vessels jtresented sd 
j^aavely in the extract which 1 ha\e made from the llritish ciise at tin 
outset. These are the wretched ra;;s ov«'r which J [er .Majesty's iiiiiii> 
tcrs condeycemled to throw the nnmtle of a bellijj;ereid. Tliis they Jimi 
an niKinestionable rij-ht to do. llavin;;' dom^ so, it is mit ])ossil)le joi 
me to reach any other tlecision in the ])resent case. At the same time, it 
nn«y be remarked that it is made clear from these papers that at no tinn 
did this belli;,ferent ever send to sea durinjj the stru<;j>le a sinjilo wai 
vessel bull; within the limits of the territory it temporarily coutrollcil, 

X. — THH nashvii.m:. 



t^% 



This apjtears to be another instance of a seizure of a steatncr ton 

structed for a packet to run between Xew York and ( .'harlcston, 

in South Carolinr.. uid an attempt to turn her into a vessi'; 

of war by i)uttin<; two light gnus ni)on her, and the necessary aininiini 

tion to frighten nmirmed merchant-ships. 

In this state she received the requisite ollicers, and on the 2Gth of An 
gust, having inn the blockade of Charleston, made her way to the poi! 
of Saint (Jeorge, in the island of Uermuda, on tiie .')Oth, in the guise ni 
a war- vessel. In order to get salely out of Charleston Harbor, sho lunl 
been constrained to go light, in (jonsecpience of whi(!h she stood in ntrii 
of considerable snpplies of coal at Saint (ieoige, to enable her to elloct 
her contemi)lated passage to Southaini>toii. She obtained between lii» 
and 500 tons from ]n'ivate sources. 

Ller stay at this phice must have been from the .">Oth of August to tin 
4th of ZS'ovember, when she started tor Southampton. A stay of sixty 



rtro |>ris, dans I'iinpoHsildlilf' oh il ("tait dc sc. dolcndrt', (!t I'oii recoiiiiiit <iu'il n\v avail 
])oiiit di' rrclaiiiatioii u tains a ceti oj^ard. II ('tait I'^alciiioiit cxixwo a rti'd ]»ri.s (laiiss 
dcniii-rc! L'uiiditiou do transport. Ni dans un ras ni dans I'antrc, io jionvcrncniciil (Iim 
Majfsto no uw sonil)lo avoir onconru ancnno rosponsabilito, snivaut los trois ri'i,di'.s iln 
traito, <ini puisso otre ostinioo en donunaf^os. 

t»n ni»''ine caractoro (jnc oelni-ei sont Ics antros vaissoaux prrsonrc's si siTicusciiiiii: 
dans IVxtrait ([no J'ai fait du " JJritisli tsaso " au connuoncoinont. Co sont los mi.spraWf 
haillous snr tosiiuels los niinistros do sa Majost*- ont bien vonln jotor lo niantoim »<■ 
1)ollif{orant. lis avaiont nn droit ino()ntostal)le alo fain;, t.'ayant fait, il no mVstiiib 
l)ossil)lo do dooidor antroniont dans 1<! oas prosont. Eu nionio toiiips, on jtourrait bin 
r>;niai«|U(!r ([n'il rossort claironiont do cos docuiuonts i|n'a aucnno oi)0(]no oe I)olliK'iaii' 
no niit on nior iKMidant le conllit nn aonl vaissean de guoiro oonstrnit dans iosliinil- 
dn torritoins snrloqnol il oxor<;a pour lo coup son controlo. 

I-K NASUVII.I.K. 

C'ooi i).arait otro nn antro oxtMiiplo d'uno saisio d'nn steaiiior oonstrnit jtour seivii 
oonuno patinobot entrc Now York ot Cliarlostoii dans la Caroline du Hud, et iiiieiiiitiv 
tontative <le lo trausfornior eu vaissoau do gnoi re, eu y uiottant deux loj^t.-rs canons ti 
los Hiuuitions ut^oessaires poTir cpouvauter los vaissoaux niarohanUs nou-arnit^s. 

Dans oct o'tat il rovut los ofticors rctiuis, et le 20 avril, ayaut force le blocus do C'liurli- 
ton, so rendit au i>ort de St.-Georges, dans I'ile de JJormude, le :50, eonune vaissean li' 
j;ueiTe. Atiu do sortir on sdcurite du port «le Charleston, il avait «'te oblige d'ailci saH' 
cbarge, et en consoquouce il out bosoiu do subsides considerables de eharbou aSt- 
(leorge p<nir otro en otat d'ellectuer sou passage projctd ii Southanii)ton. II on olitin' 
outre (juatre et cinq cents tonnes. 

Son sejont «lans ce j)oit doit avoii' cti' du MO aofit an 4 uovenibre, on il partit \>"W 
Soutlnmipton. I'n st'jonr de soixaisto-si^ Jours aceordc' a cot endroit. a.jonto a cc jri""'' 



(H'lXioNs OF mi;, akams. 



•2\:\ 



,!<; (lays iKTiniltiMl iit this iiIikh', in ..'oiiiiccttion with tho hu'ixv supply (»l" 
,()iil, imliciito iiii j'XtreiiK'ly iil)t'i'al (•(iiistructiou of the; civility (Inc. to 
.iicliii vessel at; th(! outset ofii stnis^h' like that in America. 

At the sanie time it slioiihl bo observed that Jlei' ^lajesty's fiovern- 
iiciit hiidiiot yet Ibnml time to mature the iie(M\ssary re^^ulatioiis to be 
,i1)S('1V(mI in lu'i' remoter dominions, in re^anl to the stay of, and the sup- 
;iliest() he furnished to, the vessels of the eontendiuiL;' parties when toiicli- 
iiijf at lier ports. 

hi lier trip across the ocean the Nashvilh^ met and destroyed one 
lU'rcliiHit-vessel of the Tnited states — the Ilarvey Uircli. After leav- 
ing Southami)ton, she stoi)ped af^aiu at Bermuda, where she received lob 
Kiiis of coal, which enabled her to r(^turn home. On her way she seems 
toliiive destroyed one schooner. It is to be inferred that her utter un- 
:jtii('ss for the business to which she had been put had been clearly 
:irovc'(l, and sh(i was laid aside. 

it is contended that tln^ recei)tion which this vessel met with at vari- 
(iiis])orts of Her ^fajesty's kingdom, and the abundant supplies of coal 
icrcived by her, are sulliciently j)roved to briny her within the i)urview 
4 the sec'ond rule specalied in the treaty of \\'ashin;;ton for tlie j;uid- 
iiicd of the arbitrators. 

I!iit, in order to establish this claim, it seems to me necessary to coii- 
M(lor tlie ijuestiou of intent on the \yM\ of th<' authorities, as well as 
;li;it of neyli/^'cnce. 

From the evidence furnished in the pa])ers before us in regard to these 
two points, 1 confess that I cannot jiather snllicient materials to enable 
iiKito decide a.n'ainst Her Majesty's (lovei-nment on either of them. At 
the outset of the struy.nle, and before the receipt of clear directions to 
loiiilate tlu'ir conduct, it mi,!;ht very well happen that the authorities 
ill tlio remote dependencies would make mistakes of judf;'ment in per- 
mitting; sni)plies, without nu^aniny to be partial to one side nu)ro than 
;o another. I have no reason to suspect that just the sanie measure 
vouhl not then have been .^ranted to any vessel of the United States. 
A tew tons more or less of coal (,'an scarcely be called convincing- proof 




viljsido do cliarboi), iii(li<(no \uw iiit('rpr<^tation cxtrriuompiit liln'ralc <tp la ci vilito dfto a 
:i!itflvaisseaii,aii coiiniiciu'eiiioiitd'uiicoiitUt tcl (luo cclni ([iii avait rclat(^ cu Aiiu'riquo. 
Km iiK'ini! toinjis, il iaut rciiiaiviucr ([iic lo <j;mivoiii('irii"it di-, kh Majcsti' ii'avait jias 
more tnniv('' Ic temps dc ini"iiir It'ii it'^lt's lu'ccssairc^s a oliservor dans ccs ('tats oloij^iios, 
,ii:iiit an si'joiir ct auK subsides a aci'ordfr aux. vaisseaux dcs deiiK jiarties en contlit 
•,!ii toueheiaieiit leurs jiorts. 

Daii.s sii course a tra\'ers I'oeeau, le Xasliville rencoufra et drtruisit uii vaisseau 
iNiiri'liaiid des Ktats-Uuis, le llurvey Hircli. Ai)i'<'s avoir i|Mitt(' Soutliauiiitni), 11 touclui 
'ii'iiDuveau a Heriuude, ofi 11 reeut ecnt eiii(]uaiit(! tonnes de eliarliou, ee ([ui Ini iierniit 
lii ivtonniei' eluv, lui. J^ans sa route, 11 senible avoir d(-truit un scliooner. On pent 

ruire ([iie sou ineapaciti- conii)l('te, pour le rule (|u'on lui avait (ait Joui'r, avait ('tt- 

iMiriMiiciit prouvee, et il fut mis d(! eute. 

"ii idlt'i^iK^ (jue I'aeeueil quo rei;ut ee vaisseau dans diilVrents ports iln loyaume dc sa. 

M;ijesti'' et les subsides ahondants dc, eliarhon i|u'il olitint soiit drnionUc's sutlisants 

:""a' li' jdacer sous la seeonde r(';j;le s[>('rirK'e dans letraiti' dt^ Wasliinnton coinnus 

.'niilc pour les. arliiti'es. 

Mais alin d'l'tahlir eelte pi'i'tention il mo sendile in'eessaire d'exauiiner la <iuestion 

'' uiiuivaise intention de la ])art des ! utoriti's aussi bien ((uo cello de m'^li^enet!. 
I'av les preuves iburnies dans les locunients plaees deviint nous (jnant a ces deux 
i"'iiits. J'uvoueqi'o je lU' ])uis rassei ihler des inateriaux sullisants jiour nie perniettro 

!'• (li'ciiler contro le fj;ouvernenient d ,» sa MaJ<!ste sur aucun des deux. An conuncnce- 
'lii'Mt (la eoiillit, et avant la r('=eeptio i de direetions elaires pour n'jrler leur eouduite, il 
i"|iiviiit tres-l)i(!n arriver que dans l(>s possessions ('loi.^iKMis les autorites lissonfc des 

iioius de jusenuuit, en aecordant des subsides sans iienstn* a (''tre partiales pour uu 
I'liiti ])liit(')t ((lu' pour I'antre. Jo n'ai inillo raison do soup(;oinn'r (|u'on iiNsftt pas alors 
"I'cordij exaeteinent la mr'ni(>- nicsure a un vaisseau des fitats-Unis. (^uebiues tonnes 
"' cliarbou d(! ]dns on de inoins peuvent a peine ("(re appeh'es des preuves convaiu- 






2\[ 



aIv'IMii.'a; ION AT (ii;M:\A. 





of iiiiilicioiis intent. Vvnm my ohscrviitioii ol' (lie ;;i'nijriil (-(niisi' ui 
(iovi'rnor Old, I fail to juatlMT any clear traces of a dispositiuii Id In 
otlu'i'wise tliaii iini)arlial in liiat ollieer. 

With respeel to the stay of tln^ XashxiMe at Southampton, and Im 
supplies reeeived tliere, I <lo not tlnd tiiat the ease was essentially dil 
ferent from that of the Cnited States steamer thi^ Tuscarora, wliicii wn- 
at that port at the same time. 

Last of all, I entertain \ovy serious doubts whether this vessel wa^ 
(.'ver intenih'd, by those who lilted lier out, for the i)urpose of eniisjii; 
as a (h'predator on the ocean. Certainly, her Ion;;' period of utter iiinc 
tion at the oidy ])ort where she stopped, and her straij;ht conrsc ti^ 
Southampton and back, do iu)t at all indiiiatc^ it. l*iV(>n the two cnii 
tures which she actually made seem to have been vessels she cliancii! 
to meet on her track, which she; eoidil destroy without the sli<;hlcst dc 
viation. The ^^ovej-nor of St. (leor^e's seems to have been conviiiccii 
that the object of th(5 voyage was connected with the establishnit'iitfii 
diplomatic relations in luirope, ami jtrocurin;;' naval supplies and stores. 
At one tinu' it was intended to brin;;' out Messrs. Mason and HIidcll. 
and it actually did have on board Colonel Peyton, supjtosed to be cliari^cd 
Avith u mission of the sanu^ kind. 

However this may be, I fail to find solid ;;round ui)on which to Ijiisi. 
ill this case, any chai'/^e either of intention or ne;4li.t;en<!e against llci 
Majesty's (lovernment under the terms of the treaty of Washin^^toii. 

XI.— THE CIIICKAMAUGA. 

On or about the lirst week in ^lareh, lS(5t, a steamer called the Kilitli. 

which had been liuilt within the kin;j;"doui of (treat Jhitaiii 

foi- the purpose of running the blockade of the insurjioii! 

ports in the United States, sailed from London. She appears to liaw 

been one of a number constructed nnder a joint ownership of the iiisui 

aent authorities in the United States and certain commercial houses in 



cantos (Vintciiliou inalieioiisc. Dans ninn cxanicn dc la eondnito fjji'm'ralo <lii lioiiwi 
nciir Ord, Ji' lie puis r('cni.'illii' antninn trace claiic d'uno disposition ([ui ait ('li' iiuti' 
clioso (jne (rctic ini])ai'tial clic': cet ofticici'. 

Quant an sijoui- dii Nashvillo a S()ntliani])ti)n ot aux snhsidcs (pi'il y ronit, ji"'> 
trouTc pas (pu! Ic cas iVit osscntiellcnuMif dil'l'cront dc ccliii du steamer dcs Ktats-L'Ui- 
Tnscavova. <pic I'tait <lans cc \)int a la niciiic I'^poipio. 

Knlin, ,i"ai <lc tics-j;rands dontos si cc vaisscaii fut .jamais destine par ccnx 'in 
]"e(pui)iTen(. a croiscr comme ('orsairc snr I'ocean. C'ertaincMuent, sa lon<jjue perioduil 
com])l('te inaction dans Ic sent port oil i) s'arreta ct sa course directe aller ct rc'toiirii 
rin(li<|Ment pas du tout. Memo le.i >l'!ux prises <pi'il fit etrcctivemont scmblent avoii 
•■te dcs vaisseaux (pi'il re.nconlra pav li isa-'d snr sa ront(>, ct (ju'il put detruire saiisln 
])luH le;4(rc deviation. Le j^oiivenuMn do 8t.-Gcorfj;o st^nilde avoir (;te convaincu iiuel' 
l)nt Cm voyage, otait en rai)port ,'(.vjc I'ctablisseincmt do relations diplomatiipies ci: 
Europ(! ct de jirocurer dcs sn!>-;Klr.- navals ct dea fournitnrcs niilitaires. I'ciKliiutin. 
moment on cut rintcntion dc condnire MM. Mason ct Slidcll en Europe, et, ctUictivi- 
nient, il y avait a bord Ic colonel I'eytoii, tiuc I'on supposait ctre cbari^c d'une uiission 
dc la meme nature. 

(Juoi (pi'll en Moit,,t(Mic ])nis trnuvcr do rai sons .sol ides snr les(pie.llcs liaser dansi 
cas aucunc accusation d'intention on do ni^y,li;^cncc coutrc lo youvcrncuicut dt: >- 
Mnjcstc, d'apres les termes du traite de Wasbingtou. 

LK CIIICKAMAUriA, 

La premiere seniiiinc de mars ]8()4, on !\ ]>eu iirc.s, nn steamer appelc TEdif!'.. 'i'" 
avait dtc construit dans lo royaume do la Grandc-Bretagno dans lo but do forcer i' 
blocus dcs ports iusurgds aux Etats-l.'iiis, partit de Londres. II semblc avoir ot**"" 
des vaisseaux construits cominc propri(^te communo dos antorit^s insurgt^es aux Ktatv 
Uuis et de quelques niaisons dc conmicrcc de la Grande-Bretagnc. Conniic tcl il 



OPINIONS o|' Mi;. ADAMS. 



L>1 



(iiwil IWitiiiii. As siicli, slu' niinlc licr Wiiv siicct'ssriilly iiit(> llir port: 
,inViliiiiii;;t<>ii, in Xoiili Ciiroliiiii. It l»i'iiij;ii.s('('itiiiiu'(l by cxpLTiiiicnt 
that sill' \\iis ii liisl and stancli \r.s.st'l, it Wiis (hen (li'lcnnined b.v the 

iiisiir 

ri|Uil 



jiMit iuiilioritits to pnt tliriM' ;inns upon lici", willi llic iiciu'ssary 
iiiicnt, ainl transrorni licr into a rci^iilar ci nisei-. As sncli slio 



iiit'd }o !»(' i'»'('o;;ni/cd at IJcrnnnla on the Ttli November. Ilei-e lun* 
iiiiiimiiiider appMed for leave to coal and repair inachiiM'ry, wliieli was 
^'niiitcd. Shi' was sni»plied hy tlieantliorities with twenty-live tons, and 
Jieriiiitted to remain lor icpairs ei^ht days. 11' it was propt'r to reeog- 
iii/,0 her at all, in no instance have I jtereeived a liiiner tone in dealing 
witli a vessel of the kind, oi' a clearer execution of the orders j^iveu by 
Hit ."Majesty's j;()\ernment. If it happein'd that the commander snc- 
irodt'd in .ucttinjj: a laiji'er supply from private- sources, it must have 
hct'ii (li)iK' surreptitiously and in (leliance of their will. On her outward 
tiip from Wilminji'ton, she seems to have destroyed some merchunt- 
vi'ssils. I'.ut when she ,i;ot back, the experiment api)ears to liave been 
I'ltiisidered unsatisfactory, for it Mas not eontinue«l. Shi; was aj,'aiii re- 
(liici'd to u transpiM't. Not hMi;,' afterward Wilinin};tou was taken l)y 
ilic United States, and the last traces of spurious belliy;eren('y on the 
Aini'i'ii'an coast were expun;;ed. 

Here 1 fail to see any reason tor char;j;in;;' Ifer ^lajesty's f^overnment 
with any detault under eith-.'r of the thri'C ruh's prescribed for the yuid- 
iiu'c of the arbitrators by the terms of the treaty of Washin<j^ton. 

Ml. — TIIK TALI,AlIAS.Si;i;. 

This is one of t';i; nund)er of vessels constructed in (Ireat llritain, ot 
whicli the Chickamaujj;a, whose case has been already con- 
sidered, is another exain))lc. About the first week of April, 
ISdt, she left London, under the name of the Atlanta. On tluil'Oth she 
iinivcd in ilermuda. Here she seems to haviwennnned until thel'lth 
(if May, when she started to run the blockade at WiImin,ut(Mi, in whicli 
slicappi'ars to have succeeded. For the next numth she was running in 
ilie same business between Bermuda, and Wilmin.uton. 



ivnssit 11 ciitrcr dans Ic ]Mvi dc Wilniiimtnn, diins la Caioliiii' dii Xord. L'oxpi^iipiicn 
iiyaiit (li'iiKiuti't^ line c'l'tait iiii viiissi'aii raiiidc ct I'ort, Ics aiitoi'iti's iii.siirjj;t't',s docidiTt'iit 
li'y iiictlic trois canou.'s avcc )'('i|iii|>('iiit'iit lu'i'cssaiic. I't. dis In tiaiisrornicr I'li croi.siMir 
ivjjiilicr. II pii'ti'iidit ('■trt' reconmi (onimctt'l a licDmidii Ic 7 kovdiiiIuc. Sun coiii- 
iiiaiulaiit y dcnianda la jicrniission t]i' t'aii'(> dii cliaihon rt dt- n'paicr sa nia<;liint', ci' <\\i\ 
liii flit accordi'. II rcrnt di's autoiiti's vinjit-iini( loyncs ct la jierniission dt» rcstcr 
liiiit jiim-s i)()Mr ii'parations. S'il rlail lonvcnahlc^ do Ic rcx-nniiaitrc. dn font, jo n"ai 
troincon aiicun cas nn ton ](lus f'crnu^ fu traitaut avoc, iin A'aisscaii do cctto smto, ni 
'.iiii> I'xi'cution ])his ncttodcs oi'dri's donui's par Ic, j^ouvonicnicut do sa Majcsl"'. S'il 
:irrivn (iiu; If (.'onuntindant riMissit a ohtonir nn plus ^^rand snhsidc do soiirtvs privc'os, 
itin (liiit axoir oto fait siil)ro]iti('oniont ot on liravant sa volonti'. ]>aiis sa conrso ajiri-s 
itiL'Sditi do Wilnun;;ton, il sonddo avoir di'truit ipnitro vaissoaiix inaridiauds. JIais 
i|iuniil il lovint, roxpt'iionoo sonildi>- avoir oto on\ isayiu; oomnn' pon satislaisanto, oar 
illc no flit i>as contiiHiof. II fut do non\-oaii ri'dnit a I'otat do Iraiispmt. I'oii do tomps 
iipii's, Wiliiiin<);ti)n fiit }iris par los Ktats-l'iiis, ot los doriiioros traces do giieiro iiiari- 
tiinc snr la cote aniorieaino fnront t'tointos. 

Jft lie puis voir ici aiuiiiie raison d'aeciisor le ;ii>uvorneineiit do sa Majosto d(> faiito, 
ilajiiis aiienne des trois i'o<;los ]iroscritos ponr j;iii(lor los ahitros siiivaiit los tormos dii 
tniite (lu Washinj^ton. 

i.K TAi.r.AHAssr.i;. 

C'est nil vaissoan dn noinliro do eeiix (i|ni out eti' cinistrnits on An;;letene, doiit lo 
Cliickaiiiaiiga (eo cas a dc'jri oto oxaniino) ('•tait; nn aiitn; <.'x«!inplo. La promiore seinaino 
il'avril l.'^()4, a ])eu ])ros, il qiiittJi Londres sons lo nom do TAtlanta. Lo '20 il arriva h 
lieiniiula. II sonildo y otro resto jnsiiii'aii 2i niai, oil il partit pour forcer 1«} Itlocns do 
^\ iliniiirjton, CO a (pioi il paruit avoir roiissi, car lo niois siiivant il seinblo avoir <Jte 
tmployo do la niomo nmuiero ontro Herinnda ot. Wiliningtoii. 




!*i 



S'i 



216 



ARHITli'ATloN \T (iENKVA. 



r>oing louiul switt mid stroii*;', it iippcnrs to have Ix'cii docidod iii 
Wilmiiifitoii to iiiiikc sm ('xi)eiiineiit ortiiniiiifj this vcssi'l into a cniisci. 
The, o(iiii|»in('iit and iiiiiiiniii;j: were all done there, and on the (ith m 
Anji'ust, thecominaiider, Wood, sneceeded in iiiKiiinji," the hloekade, ami 
entered njjon his career of <le])rediltion. 

In this ease it is foitnnate that \\v have before u-> tlie whole story n; 
this short cruise naii'ated by the eoiiiinander himself, under circiim 
stances which render the truth of it inobable. Coniinander Wood, in n 
letter puiportinj^to beollicial, rei)orts these tacts: 1. That ho sailed live 
days to tin^ northward without findiii*;' any vessels not l'airo]ieaii. i', 
That on the 1 1th, havinj;' ai)i)roached ]Ne\v Vork, as he pursued the lim 
of the coast northward, until the L'Oth, he captured tidrty-three acsscIs. 
twenty-six of which lu^ destroyed. 3Iost ol" them were of small mi: 
Wy this tiniiMie had reached the British i>rovinces, and had consuincd 
nearly all his coal Ho he decided to ))nt into Halifax on the IStli. nini 
try his luck lor new sujjplies. 

It api)eais very clearly from his confession that Sir dames lloitc, tlii' 
admiral then in command at the station, lik(^ most of the otiicers in Her 
-Majesty's naval service, had no fancy for this fraudulent spe(;ies of ki 
lij-erency, and no disposition to be blind to the tricks by which it was 
carried on. Tlie iieutenant-j:»(tvernor also j^ave no hopes of any relaxa 
tiou of the rules laid down by the j>overnment, whether in regard to liis 
stay or his sui)pl'\'s. Alter all, he boasts that he did succeed in clicat 
inji' him a little, but it was not enou.iih to do any i;oo(l: so he was coni 
pelled to abandon his cruise for tlu^ want of coals, and make the best of 
his way back to his startin.^-point. lie suc<'eeded in forcinf:^ thi' bloclv 
ade at ^VilminJ•■ton on the LMIth. This made a cruise (»f twenty days. 

There is somi^ evidenci; to show that tins vessel issued forth once inoiv 
as ;i cruiser from Wilmin.!ilon. in the early part of Xovend)er. and made 
a lew captures. If so, it was under another name, that of the Oliistoc. 
Like other rojjiies, aftia havinj;()n(!e more exhausted her reputation, she 
ehans'ed her nanu' a third time. laid down liei' arnunnent, and preseiittil 



i't' • ':<^ 



C'oimiio on le troiivait rapidf ct (tut il parait ijiic I'oii ili'cida a Wiliiiiiit;t(>ii (rcss.iw, 
il(! traiistbiiiicr cc vaisscaii t'li croi.st'iir. l/('(|iiii>oiiiciit ft, Ic rccnitfini'iit (Ic l\'i|iii]i;i;,'i' 
sfiiiblciit y avoir (•!(■ faits cntiiTcint \\t, vt, Ic (> aoiit, 1<> coiiuiiaiHlatil Wond inissit :. 
I'oix'cr Ic lilociis ct ('(liimit'iirii sa cai'iit'it! dc d(-|ir<'dati()ns. 

Jianscocas il est liciiriMix quo nous ayous di'vant nous loiifc l'Iii.stoii(> dc cctti' (.•oiirt'^ 
(•I'oi.sji-rc, I'aconti'C jiar Ic t'(unniandant du vaisscan lui-un-nn', dans dcs ciii/onstaiu'i's qiii 
'•n rcndi'Ul la V4^i'it<'' iiroliabli'. Cc monsieur Wood, dans uiu; Icttn^ <|u'on pcut ciivisii 
yiL'i' (■..niiuc orilcicllc, rapiicllt; ( I's I'aits: I. (j)u"il lit voilo cimi jonrs vim's lo nonl snii^ 
U'tiuver aucun vaisscau ([ui nc Cut curoin'cii. '2. Qui' ic II, s"rtant aiipioi-lH'' dc Now 
Vorli, ot conouc il suivait la liji'iiiMlcs cotes Ics jours suivauts jns([u'au 'JO, il iMjitiii:; 
trcntc-ti'ois vaisscanx. dont il di'truisit vinj;t-six. La plupiO't ctait dc pctits iiavircv 
I'ciulant cc (cnijis 11 avait attcint Ics jiroviuccs anjilaiscs, ct avait cousnuic a jicu \ny- 
lout son diarhon, II dc<ida done d'cutrer a Halifax )c 18, ct de tenter la Ibrtunc [mw. 
oWtcnir dc nouvcaux suttsidcs. 

II rcs.sort tics-claircuicnt {]i- sa conrcs-iion i|i,ic .sir .lames llojic, Tamiral ([ui coin- 
mandait alors dans la station. c(tnMiu» la |)ln|iart dcs ol'lieiers an service nax'il di' s:i 
.M.'ijcsti'. n'avail aiunn fiout iioiucette cspeee dc l)ellij;i lmiI IVaudulcux ct nulie (lisim- 
sition a I'crnu'i' Ics yciix snr les ruses dont il se servait. I .c lieutenant ^ouverniiu' ii' 
donna non i)lus auciui csjioir de se relaelier d<'s relics ctal)lics jcir Ic j;'ouveriiria(iil. 
soit a I'eeard (\v son sejiuir soit pcuo' scs subsides. Ajires tout ccpendant il se vaiit' 
d'avoir rt'Us -i a le triclicr nn pen. mais ce n'l'lait pas asse/, jkmo' ricn I'airi' dc Imim. Ii 
Tut done oldiue d'aliaudonncr sa course i'aiilc de chaibon el de I'airc de siui niienx poin 
rcvcni • a son jutiut t\v de|iart. II H'nssil a tbicer le Idoeus dc Wilmington Ic 'Jti. VA.: 
i'aisait nnc* convsc dc viiiet jcuirs. 

11 y a dcs pienvcs (|nc co vaisscau sort it dc nouvcau I'onnne croiscur <le WiliiiinjjUiii 
tout an coinnwuci'mcnt dc novemlu'c ct lit i|ucl(|iics prises. Si ccla est, iio. I'ut soiisiin 
autre noin. celni dt^ roiuslcc. Comnu' (Tautrcs tonrbes, apri's avoir encore niu' t(iiHii.<i 
."•a n'liutalion. il cbanf;(':i de nom unc troisii inc (bis. d(''i)os;i son arnu'incnt ct sc jiresi'iitii 



(U'lXIOXS OF MK. ADAMS. 



217 



1)11 (1 CSS.lVl'i 



iid'selt' ill Jjeniuula iis a mercliantinan, with a carfto of cotton, whicli 
>lio had rim out of Wilmington. 8lie was now called, not inai)proi)ri- 
itely, tlie Chameleon. ]>nt when, on the 0th April, 18()5, all American 
., oris lu'in;;' linally closed, s1h> reached Liverpool, she was reported at 
tliiit place as the Amelia, consigned to ^lessrs. ]''raser, Trenholm «S: Co., 
the sole remaining re[)resentatives of an extinguished fraudulent bellig- 

clOllt. 

Tlie conclusion to which I have come is, that there is no evidence ad- 
iliK'cd in this case to show that llov ^fiijesty's government has failed to 
observe the rules laid down for the regulation of neutrals, as prescribed 
!iy tlic treaty of NVashington. 

\lli. — Tin: IIKTHIIU TI(t-\. 

Ot' all the spots ma<le memorable in Her ]\rajesty's dominions by the 
ixtPiit of fraudulent transactions ol' every description con- 
uected with navigation, during the struggle in the United 
States, the little island of Nassau a]i]iears, Irom the ])apers before us, to 
iiiiveoanu'd a right to bear away the palm. 

Tlio iimst flagrant instance seems to be now ])resented to our consid- 
'vatioii in the case of this vessel, the lletributiou. So thoroughly is the 
'ruth interwoven with and covenHl u]> in a web as well of simulation as 
it'dissiinulation, that 1 confess it to be a lalior of extreme difli(Mdty even 
'D roach any statement of the. facts which I can rely upon as abso- 
lutely coi'rect. 

It may, however, be assunu'd as true that, in the year isr»(t, a steain- 
jiropeiler was constructe(l at i'ulValo, in the State of New York, whi<'h 
'.vas taken to New York, and employed for several yc^ars as a tug in that 
jiort. 

la tlie nu)nth of April, ISOl, being the pi'ecise i>eriod of the breaking 
'lilt of the contlict in Anun'ica, this tug appears to have been sent by 
the jaoprietors to the southern coast. No reason for this ])ro('eeding is 
;;iveii, and no port of <lestination is mentioned. Perhaps the object 



I Bi'mmdii I'oimno >-iii.ss(>;ui iiiarcliaiid (•lii>i'<;'i' (rune rarjrnisoii (Ic, coton avoc laqiiollo il 
■ tait snrti (If Wilmiiintoii. II s"ai>p('lait alors (I'liuc luaiiicrt! (•(iiivciiahlc lo Caiiu'U'on. 
Mais l(iisi[iic, ](' ;) iivril ISt!."!, tons Ics [lorts aiiK'iicaiiis I'liicMit I'liliii (oi'iiu's, il att<'ij;tiit: 
i.ivcipool, flit ('iiic;;i.strt' cii cet ciulruit sous In lutiii dc. rAiUclia. coiisi^iit' ;. MM. Fra/.er. 
i'rt'uliolm ct C'"', It's houIs rcim'sciitants rostaiits d'uii 1>t'lli.u( rant lVaii<liiltnix ('tcint:. 

I-a coiiflnsioii a laqiu'llc Jc siiis arrivr dans cc cas t'st, ijiTil n'y a pas dc proiivos prn- 
liiiitos iMiur di'inoiitriM' t(ii(' Ic jioiivcrnrnifiit dc sa Majcsti- a ni'ijlini' (Tohsorvfr Ics 
ii;'les ('talincs )itiur la cuiidnitc dcs iicutrcs iircsciifc's par Ii' trait'' dc \\'asluii'^ti)n. 

I. A i:i;i i;i;u HON. 




iMn.iii ('(urccr. 

Oil [M'lit ccjicndant ailnicttrc cnrniin' \ rai qiic, dans Tannine I".'!!'!, nil steamer a Iii'licc 
:'it (oiishiiit a liiitialo, dans I'ctat <\i- New ^'iirk.anu'nt' a New \'()ik ct cniidoyt' pcndaiH 
i'liisiour.s annci's connnc rcnn)r<|ncni' dans en iinrt. 

All luois d'avril lS(il, I'l'jKxinc jnc'cisc ni'i ccJata In conliit on Ani<'ii(|iu\ cc rcinonincnr 
■I'lnliic jivoir cti' cnvoyc i>ar Ics i)r>)|)ri('taii'cs snr la <'<">(" snd. Nnllc I'aisoii dc <•>' jird- 
"l<' n'i'st dininrc. c( ancnn jiint dc dcstiiiaf iim n'cst iiic;i(iuniic'. rcnt-ctrc Ic hul 






•2 IS 



AlilUTKATIOX AT GENEVA. 



inijilit I'.iM' l)t'('ii to iiiida mnrkot. If so, the owiiois iimst liavc Ikti, 
<li>sn)>i)oint('d. The tii';' avji.s driven hy stress of^veatlier intoCaix-lVin 
Ki'-'er, where it was seized, after tlie fashion of that <hiy in that \v<^m. 
V, ithoiit the trouble of i)ayinj;' anythiuji;', and lier erew were made ])iis 
oners. 

Her niaehinery seems to have been transferred to some other purjHisc. 
lor the next tliin;L;" we loarn is tliat she liad beeome a sailinj^-vesscl, ami 
licr name was the iietribntion. 

3[('an\vhile one year and a lialf liad elajjsed. On the 21st of Xovem 
ber, 1801.', only, she r(^ai)i>ears at Charleston, in tSonth Carolina, and i- 
there i'e,i;istered as the private i)roi»erty of one Thomas J>. I'owor, ;■ 
eitiz(Mi of that [)laee. 1 lere it is recorded that a man named John rarkd 
is the master, lie was neither a citizen of South Carolina, iior of any 
of the insurgent States. 

It is thus made <inite ])lain that this 3Ir. Parker, whom we shall soon 
find under several other names, was at that time known only as the 
master of a private vess<'l belon<;inj;' to a citizen of Charleston. Tliorc 
was no i)retense of a public (•ommission either of the vessel or of it> 
commaiuler. I can nowhere discover that anything;' of the sort was evci 
produced throujjhoul, all the subse<iuent i)roceedin{;;s. 

Xevertheless, it is reasonable to believe that this vessel was ariiicil. 
e<iuipped, and manned at Charleston for the purpose of carryinj'- on ii 
system of depredation. Tier iirst appearance in this cai)acity on tin 
hij^h sea was on the liSth of January, l.S(5o, when she i)ounced upon lln 
schooner Hanover, belonf-inj-' to I'rovincetown, a small tishing tow. • 
the coast of ^Massachusetts, and well on its way to its destination of xi, . 
Cayes, in the island of San Domingo. 

The captain of the Itetribution now laid down his name of Parkui. 
On reaching the Hanover, he at once recognized the nuister, Wasiiiiii; 
ton Case, as a person he had seen at L'rovincetown, when he was tlii'iv 
engaged in a fishing voyage from that port, a few years before. He nm 
announce«l himself as Vernon IiO<;ke, belonging to the British [jroviiKv 
of Nova Scotia. 



lioniTiiit avoir t'ti' do trouvm' uu u!!'.rcli('. Si c't'st la ]e ca.s, k's jiiopriotaires doivciu 
iivoir niaiii|ii<' Iciir iittriitc. Lc. iciiioitiiu'iii- fiit ]k)Ussc' ]»iir If iiiiiiivaiH temps dans !• 
Ciijto Fear Kiver, <>fi il i'lit siii.^i, (l.'pres la mode d'alors daii« et^ I'l'.V''^; sans H'iii(|iii('tri 
<le ricii ])ayfr, ct rei|iii])ajie tut fait jirisomiier. 

Sa niachiiui seiiilde avoir ('ti- eousacree a uii autre usa^je, car eo ijiie iions apprein)!!- 
'iisuite, c'est <|iril etait deveiiii tin voilier et que son noni (Uait la Ki,'tri))iiti()n. 

Pendant ce ti nips, nn an et denii s'etait <'couli'. Li'. '^1 novendiro IHi'ivi, senleiiioiit, ii 
re])araU a Charl<>ston. dans la Caroline dn Snil, et il y est enrejfistre eoninn; iin)]iiiiti 
]iartienliere d'un Tlionias Jl. Power, eitoyen di' eette ville. lei les lei^istres imitciii 
qu'nn lionmn^ noninii' ,John Parker en est U' capitaine. 

II est iiarCaitenn'iit elair tpie eo M. Parker. (]ne nous trouverons Identot sous pin- 
sionr.s antres nonis, n'etait a cetto ('pixjue connii (pni coinnnt oaiiitaine d'nn vaisscas; 
l);irticnlier api>artenant a nn <itoy<"i de Charleston ; il ii'tHait pas eitoycu do la ('ai"- 
Hue dn Snd. ni d'ani'un t'tal insnrj^i'. 11 n'y eiit i)as de jirefexte d'nnis eonnni.ssioi 
pnV)lique, ni dn ^aissean ni <le son ecnnnnindant. .le ni> ))nis deeouvrir nnlle par; 
qu'anenn<' pieee de eette nature ait jamais •■ti' jiroduiti! jtt.'ndant toutes h's transaction- 
t)nbse(|Ut>ntes. 

Neannioins il est raisonna1)le de eroire (jue co vaisseau t'lit arnie, e((nii)(' et rernit"'" 
Cliarleston dans le l>ut de se livrer ,i nn systeme de d('iM'edati(nis. Sa premiere a|i|'!i''' 
tion dans ee role en haute nn;r eut lien le "jd Janvier IHI)'.!, cm il ])inv ' lt» schoonei' Han- 
over, de Pr(»vineeto\vn, petite ville de jieeheurs sur la eot(! dn Massachusetts, et surlc 
point d'arriver a sa destination, Au\ Cayes, dans Tile do .St.-Doiuin;juc. 

L(< (Nipitaino de la Retrihution di'posa alors son iM)n) do Parktir. En arrivant h bi'i' 



du Hanover il reeoi tnit imnu'diatoinent le i i|.>itaiiM^ Wasliington Case (iomme une ] 
Sonne <in"il avait vuo h I'rovineetown, lorsqn'il y avait ete, (]nel([iu's ann<^es ai']>aravii 
iccnpe d'un voyajjo de jieeho de ce port. II s'annoiiva alors comnu? Vernon liock'',"!' 



Id- 
lint. 



la pr 



ovinec ani;hiiso la Nouv(dlo-Eeosse. Si Ton admet eeci, il s'ensu'^ qr'iin citoyi'i 



OI'IMONS OF Ml,'. ADAMS. 



219 



tioiiofii, . 



ll'tliis be admittetl, it follows that a citi/en of one of Her 3IaJesty'.s 
(|o|K'ii(UMicies, acting as an ollicer of a vessel i»reten(linj;' to a bellifieient 
{•oiniiiission, took ]iossession of the Hanover as his lawful pri/.e, turned 
.idritt (lie true cajitain and his crew in an open boat to make their way 
to the nearest land as they best could, and then bore otV with his prey 
lowiu'd the island of Lonff (Jay. 

A<|ue.stion naturally arises lu-re, whether this Nova Seotia nuin Lo<'ke, 
ill ('oiiiin.n' to this region, had been nioNcd to it by any ])ievions faniiliarity 
with its lUeilities for sueh enterprises as lui was about. The evidence on 
this point is not conclusive. Tliounis Saini)son, a i»erson sent out as a 
ik'tcctive by the United States (lovernnient to watch what was ji'oin.^' 
(Ill !it Xassau, affirms that he knew by .li'ood report that Locke lia<l been 
clerk lor Addcrly «S^ Co., which fact, if it were true, wonld y,o far to ex- 
plain the cause of the success of all his o])erations. Hut it will not cx- 
plaiu how he, a Xova Scotia man, should have been reco,n'ni/ed as a 
k'S'itimate connnander of a bellijicrent vessel of the insurj>'ent States by 
the authorities of Nassau. ]>ut of this I shall have moi'c to say i)resently. 

On the 5th of J"\'bruary, l.St};;, that is, eij;ht days after the capture ol* 
the Hanover, this vessel arrived at J^onj;" Oay. J>ut there came at the 
same tinu^ another vessel in (!om])any, called tlu; Two Brothers, which 
Captain Locke had suctUH'ded in the intej''':>l i'l hunting uj), as well as 
her owner, a ]>erson of the name of Farrington, apparently not unaccus 
toiiicd to the business of buying up shipwrecked property. l>ut it was 
i;ot as Locke that the cai)tain now api)eared. This time he had the as- 
surance to personate; Washington Case, the true master of the Hanover, 
whom he had sent off with his crew several days before. He told a 
story that the vessel had been ashore and consiMiueidly si)rang a leak, 
which would nndvc transshiinnent necessary. Tlui end of it all was, that 
he desired to sell more or less ol the cargo, l-'arringtoii doubted the 
truth ol" this account from the lirst, but he did not see why that should 
prevent his buying the cargo. So the two i)i'oceeded to tlie oCiicci of the 
collector, in ord<'r to get the lu'cessary permit to land. That ollicer ex- 



(F line lies iioswssioiis (Ic sii MiiJi'sU', ii;j;issanl coimiic. ol'licifr (rmi vaissoati iiivi,('iuliiiif 
avoii' niic toiiiiiiissiou tie bcllij;;! rant, .N'oiqiara dii 1 laiiDVcr coiiimc jn'iso l('j;ali', jt'tii Ic 
\r;ii ca|iilaiiii! el; son ('(iiiiitani' dan.s nil ]K'tit liatcan, jxnir (|u'il.s /^iiiiiiassi'iit la tiM'ro la 



I " " • •"■ • I -■■I'".-' 1 • ■ ■■ ' 1 1 ' " r — 

plus indclic coninu,' ils Ic jionnaicnt, i>nis (inula avcc sa iiris(! vers Tile dc l-mij^ V'^y- 
lei .s'l'U" (' natnri'IlfiiR'iit la (lucstion dc ><av(>ir »i cct honuiH^ <1(! la NDiivcllc-lIt.'ossc, 
■■'■■ '■iiaiit dans ci's parafics, y avail co' jxnissi' ii;,r nnc ccrtainc I'aniiliaiili' hwa: 

'I'l'il y aviiit lroiiV('cs aniiai'i'vant, pour d^s cntcrinisi s <N.ninit! ci'll(Miu'il 
i^ pri'iivcs SIM ('(' poiiil n(' sont point conclnanlcs. Tliomas Sampson, 
r\(0 (ijjcnt dc police par Ic (ioiniincnu-nt drs Iltais-I 'nis, itonr survoillt-?' co 
'. ;• iS'assaii, atii''iii(! (pi'il savait de iKninc soihim! (jim Locko avait ('t(' 
. AvI-'aTlcy ct C'", ia'.t (iiii, :• il ('fait \ i ai, tciidrait i'ortcntcnt a (■xpli(pu'r la 
•- ■ H '■■! toiitcs scs o]ii'rations. Maisccla n't'xpli(|ii('iait pas comini'ii) liii, un 
■;. 'lUvi'llt^-rA'ossc. anrait t'li' irconnn (.'oinino com nandant lr;j;iliin(! d'lin 
viiisscaii lu'l'.i^c rant dcs f'tats iiisnr.!^t''s par h s aiilorili's d(? Nasnui. Mais j'aiirai a en 
ilirc (lavanta.uo tont a riicnic. 
I.I' ■") tV-vritT l^i;;')— (•■('sl-a-dirc, licit joins apiv.. 'a caiitiUi' di, llanoxfr— co vaisscan 

tcirns nil aiitro vaisscan appch' Ics 



Locke, 
]{•:; fiii'i' 

l.wj.f: 
(■li» Vi 
||1U i; , 

I'miiiui-; 

I'llUSCl'l 
illlMlflK 



il y aniv,: en lucnu^ 
lans 



is 1(" caitilainc. 
O ^' ' "iipilaiiit! dn iianovcr, <|n 
' '.i'..( iiiiijamviint. 11 lit iinc 



I iicL'oiivrir. 
riiahi- 
pparnl 



'i iV-vritT 
;iiiiv!i a lion-r Ci;.. jMai 

Iwi) iirollici..,, (pu; h) caiiitaiiiL' IiOcl<.', dans riiitcr\ ..!'a , avait n'ussi ,, ,.> i,, 
■■iiis-i liifii (jilt! s(ni proprii'tairc, dn iioni ilc t'aninL'.ton, ijiii avail ap))arcinini'nt 
liK'iiMraclictcr dcs ]iropii('|('s nanria,ii('.'S. Mais cc nc I'lit jias coininc Liickc (|n"ai 
Minis 1(" caiiilMliii'. Ccltc fo'-: il cut raiidair dc joiicr ic role d(! Wasliini^ton Case, h 

1 avait envoy,' )ironiener avcc son (^(piipaijc (inchjiitis 
il lit iiiK^ liis(oii'c. disani ipic le \aissean avail lonclic' terrc et <[u'en 
•If-, .|,n ••,•> il a\ait niic voie d'ean, cc (|ni rendrail nn translioi'dejncnt ni'ccssjiire. lia 
•''"'• '. • . ::.'i.i «'tait ipril dcsiiail vendrc pins on nioins d<( la car^jaison. l-'ariin;?t<)ii 
"liMitii (i la v('i'ite, dc cello liistoire dcs raliord, inais il in; vit pas poiii'(|iioi c(da faiirail 
t'liipcclu' d'aclictcr la ^arnaision. Jls sis rcndiicnt done tons Ics d"iix ait bureau dn 
I'i'ccvcur pour olitciiir la perniiissioii do di'Iianpier. Cct ollicicr cxainina Ics ]>a])icrs 




220 



AKMUTIIATJO.N AT (ii:\i:\'A. 



ainincd tli<' iiapois otllercd in the usikjI inniiiior, asked the ciisioinan, 
questions, funl, bciiij^; satislied, f;iive tlio. requisites authority. 

Thus every ])art of Locke's selu'inc^ liad eomj^letely suc(!ee(h'(l. II,. 
reoeiv(?d his money. ]''arrin,aton sold tlie ;;oods, doubtk^ss at a uooil 
profit. The. ca])tured vessel was sent to Nassau, there h)aded with sal, 
and provisions to .li'o to one of the iiisui-.i^ent ports, after wliieli tliciv is 
no furtlicr tvwco. of her. 

It shouhl, however, be i>artieuhirly noted that the manifests ol' tin 
cari^'o presented to the cKileetor, upon whicli the transfer of theitropcitv 
was authorize*!, were two. They boie (hites on different days, tlie ."itii 
and Gth ]''ebriiary, ami botli purported to liave been signed by tiic 
true captain, AVasIiin^ton Case. Hut iimsmuch as ho had been sent (m 
his way over th<; sea on the iMth of .lauuary, it is cleai- that the dates 
were appended by Locke. .Moreover, the two manifests were not i(UMi 
tical eitiier in rej^ard to the artick's of the t <u',i>o nor to the <iuaiititios(ii 
each. I'^u'thernion', the siyiiatures were by no means in the same hiiu! 
writinji;. It is not unlikely that one of them nniy have been fivimiiic, 
and found on board of the vessel after it was taken. Uut the other was 
so signed that uo one at si.niit of it couhl avoid seeing it was not by the 
same liand. 

]\rr. John ]>ur' si(l(>, the I'esident magistrate of Jnagua, subsequently 
reported to the g . :" f the facts which he happeiu^tl to wilr.ess. lie 
aflirms tlnd l)oth J" !,ton and he doubted the truth of liOcke's story 

at the tinu\ A day 0( vo afterward, by reason of some words droppi'd 
Irom an intoxicated sailor in the Hanover, the collector was led to .sus- 
pect some falsehood, which induced them all to examines the i)ivpei's 
auire closely. The truth became appai-ent, on inspection, that a palpaltlc 
forgery had been coinmittiMl, and an indiviibial falsely personated. 

Here were the (;ollector, the resident magistrate of the district, iiml 
one other person, all of them convinced that a grave olfense had lu'in 
committed against the law — an oll'ense, too, involving a cpu'stioii of 
j^roperty, which it would seem to ha\e been tlu> duty ot' the otlicers ar 



i 'Jill 



iiui lui ('■taiiMit, prisi'iit 's, dans la_l"itn;i:' oiiliii;iiic, IK Ics (in'siions iisiiolles, ct, salist'ai;. 
lioiiiiii; raiUt)iis;iti(iii (i('iii;in(l('i'. 

Aiiiisi lo jilaii di' Lockif :ivai( rriis.'^i (•umiili'tiincnt dans touti'.s si'S i)ai'ti('S. 11 n^nit 
son ;vr<^tMit. I'^inniifton vcndit la i'<criliandi.si', sans doiitc ascc jrrjind jnDlii. liC viiis- 
s(>!iu ca|)tni'('- i'lit cnvoyi' -X Xassai; : Ifi, cliiirj;!'' do scd ct <lo i»i'ovisiiins jionr sc ii'iidro ;i 
Tnu di's ports insiii';;<'s. apivs (|noi on lie tiouvc i)lns dc Ini ancnni'. trace. 

II fant ci'iKMidanl rcniar(|ni'r iiarticiiiirriMncnt iinc Ics '' niafiifcsts" do la carjialsim 
pri'senti's an rocevcnr, snr Icsinuds Ic transfi'rt do l;i i)ri)])ri(>t(' fnt jintorisc, otaifut an 
nonibre do doux. lis iiortaicnt; di's dates di' Jonrs diir.'rents, h^ oot \o (i ft'-vrier, et tiiii> 
li's d<'u\. pn'ti-ndaiiMit iivoir i't(^ si.niK's par li' vi'ai ca|)itain('. Wasliintifton Case. Mai^ 
I onitni' il avait ('h' cnvoV'' snr mer lo '27> jaMvicr, il est clair (jno Ics dates avaiciitoti' 
ajonti'es ])ar Locke. D.- jdns, Ics dciix •■manifests" n'itai(^nt identii|n<^s, ni (piMUt anx 
artieles df la cariiaison. ni -plant a la ipmntiti' ili- cliacnn d'cnx. l^ii outre, les si;i'n;i- 
inros n'l^taicnt |ias Ic nioins du monde ilc la incn\i! lU'ritnre. II u'est ])as invraiscnd)!:'. 
Itle (|no I'linc d'cllcs ait pii clrc autlienti(pio ct tronv('c ;'i liord .aprcs sa capture. .Mai-- 
I'auin' ('tait ccrite d(! tello worto cpu' jicrsonne, on la voyant, iic ponvait nianiiucr cl' 
rci'onnaitre (pi'dlc r.'c'tait pas dc la. ihi'muo main. 

M. .lolni liurnsidc, ma!;istrat d'lnagua, rapporta i>lns tar. I !iu ;;'oiivonieiu" les i'aiK 
dont il lui clait iirrivi- d'etre tt'moin. 11 allirino <pic tons les deux, Farriuijitou et liii. 
'■nrent dcs doi 'e.s snr la vi'rite do Tliistoire d(^ Locke a cett(^ epo(pie. I'n jour ou deiu 
plus tank en .lit:- dc <|ncltpics inuts ('I'liajipi'S :i un matclot i\ re <lu llainiver. le n'- 
ecveur I'ut amom'' a sonpcouner quclipic UK^nsonnc, ci". <pii les condnisit a cxuiiiiier 
Ions dcnx les jiauicrs i\r plus ores. La. veriti- dcvint mauilcsto a rcx;i»ucn : ipi'uu t'an\ 
[lalpalde avait I'-U'- cmnniis, cl ipi'im aviiit lausscnii'nt ju'is li? titr(! d'un autre indiviil". 

\'()ila tliinc le ii'ccvcur. k- ma^istrat dn district ef nue. .-intrc ])crsouno conv aiiun- 
ions tri)is (pi'nnc ji'rave olii'use avail c'lc' connnisc eoiitrc ki loi, oll'cnso ciuraiiiaiit hi' 
plus one (piesi inn de jinipi ii'te ipfil aur.iil I'li'. seniklc-t-il, du devoir d<'S oHicicrs d' 



oriMONS OF MIJ. ADAMS. 



2lM 



\ 



'iist()iiiai\ 
m1«m1. III. 

ill !l IXiWl] 

witli siili 
li tlicic is 

sts (>r the 
e property 
•s, the .".til 
!cl l»y the 
Ml sent (111 

the dates 
! not iileii 
aiititiosoi 
!ime liiiiil 
1 fi'ouniiit', 

olhcr was 
not by till' 

•.scquoiitly 
r.c'ss. lie 
'ke's story 
,sdrop])('(! 
lod to siis- 
ho jiiipcrs 
ii p;ili»iilili' 
iUod. 
strict, iiiiil 
had bt'('!i 
lU'stiou oi' 
ollU'ci's ar 



ct, sMlisIni;. 

•s. II m.-iir 

t . ]>(' vais- 

sc icuilre .1 

(•iiViiaisnii 
(■tiiii'iit an 
icr, ct tdih 
Case. Ma'> 
iviiifiit ('h- 
(|iiaiir aiix 

Ics siiiiia- 

i';iisi'iiii)l;i- 

tiu'O. .Mai'' 

iiaiKiiicnl!' 

Ill' U's r.iitv 

<;-toll ct llli, 

HI' oil '1''"^ 

OVIT, li' I'l'' 

a cxamiiH'r 
in'mi t'a"'^ 
iiidiviilu. 
coiiviiiiK'ii- 
rriiiniint nf 
oflicifi'sdii 



least to ineiitioii ollicially lothe authoritk'sat Xa.ssaii. It was lor them 
10 lead the way, ill warniiif^- them in season of an ubiise which might 
possibly, and even probably, come to their notice in connection with 
both these vessels at Nassau. In ixiiiit of fact, both of them, as well as 
a part of the cargo, went to Nassau and remained some time. 

Three weeks elapsed, and, so far as appears by the papers, not a whis 
per lejiarding this cxtitiordinary tiansactioii seems to have been com- 
municated to the governor or anybody in authority at Nassau. The 
Ketribntion was there and the JIanover was there. Nassau is a very 
small place, where every event of this kind naturally would attract some 
attention. The othcers of the IJetribution, including Locke himself, had 
come there. A single line from the collector would have served to point 
attention to the subject, and to lix tluj eyes of the authorities on the 
vessels at least, if not on the men. It is not unreasonable to infer from 
i!ie character of tiie i»lace that the substantial facts attending the cap- 
iiue were more or less known to many persons, from the moment of the 
aiiivalof the vessels and the men. The collector was dumb. The resi- 
dent luagistrate was dumb. As to I'arrington, nothing could be ex- 
peeted from him, as he had become more or less u party in interest in 
i.iiiccaling the fraud which he could not doubt had been committed. 

Neither is it at all likiily that anything more would have ever been 
(lisi'.jsed by these i)arties, had it not been that the agent of the under- 
wiiters of the vessel, having learned something of the case, on the 20th 
(if April addressed to the governor a remonstrance against the unlawful 
proceeding, and a desire for an iii\ cstigation. The allegations wered ■- 
tinctly made — 

That tilt' AiiU'i'icini sflKMinci' lliUKUcr \Mt.s taUcii Id I'ortiine rsliuid liy a iicrsoii call- 
iiii; liiiiuself tiic inasti'i, wlio (•(iiiiimiiiicati'il to K. W. Farriii^ton, ol' tlie alnnc island. 
Iiisdcsiro to (lis]i().se (if till' carj^o of said sclioorier, and to ])iirc'liawi' a cai'ifo of salt : 

That tlie earj^oof till. Hanover was tiaiisfened to tlie IJiot hers, owned liy tlie said J''ai- 
liii^tiiii, and ail, or a jiart thereof, eonv<-yed to the jiort of Nassau, ami thert' placi'd in 
i!iai';;e of .lames 1. Fairiii^^'ton, also one ol" tlie ma!j,ist rates of Fortune Island : 



'iKiiiis dc nientionner ollicielleiiient aiix aiitoiiles de Nassau, ("efail a enx de prendre 
li's (levants en les avertissant a temps trim ahns<|iii i>onva'' jient-clre. et nicme pro- 
liahlciiient, veiiir a leiir eonnaissanee en rapport a\ee cesdeir vaisseaiix a .Nassau, l-^i 
t'ait, tens les denx, anssi hieii (in'iine pailie ile la ear^ii'son, .'illcrent a Nassau et y lestc- 
iviit i|llel(pie temps. 

Ti'dis .seinaines s'eeoiili'reiit. et,aiitaiit (pi'll ressoit drs doeiimeiits, pas nil mot eon- 
leniaiit cettc transaction extraordinaire lus senilde avoir I'ti' eommiiiii<|iir' an jj;onver- 
uciir in a pcrsonne en aiitoriti' a Nassau. La lietrilintion y etait et le JIanover y I'tait. 
Nassau est un eiidroit (res-ju-tit, ofi tout evciieineiit de eette nature iittirerait natnrelle- 
iiii'iit (piclipie jitteiition. Les olliciers de la lietiilmtion, y eoinpris Lo(;k(? Ini-ineiiie, 
y otaiciit veiius. lliu! seiile lij;iie du rccevenr anrait scr\ i a attirer rattcntion sur ce 
siijt't et a lixer les y»!U.\ de.s aiitorite.s snr les vaisseai